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A case study in attitudes towards enemy aliens in British Columbia 1914-1919 Raynolds, Tracy 1973

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A CASE STUDY IN ATTITUDES TOWARDS ENEMY ALIENS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA 1914-1919 by TRACY RAYNOLDS B.A., University of Wisconsin, Madison, 1968 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of Hi story We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standard TH$ UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1973 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d b y t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a i i ABSTRACT During World War I changes i n at t i t u d e s towards German and Austro-Hungarian immigrants developed i n B r i t i s h Columbia. This t h e s i s examines i n which ways economic, s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l condi-tions influenced such changes. The immigrant of German o r i g i n exper-ienced such a rapid change i n h i s status that German businessmen who had previously been praised and accepted as progressive contributors to the economicsand c u l t u r a l development of the province, had t h e i r properties l i q u i d a t e d , t h e i r associations banned and t h e i r freedom r e s t r i c t e d . When Canada entered the war with Great B r i t a i n , Germans and Austro-Hungarians became enemy a l i e n s . M o b i l i z a t i o n , fear of attack or of sabotage created an atmosphere i n which the r o l e of the enemy a l i e n i n Canadian l i f e was reevaluated. Government administrators, p o l i t i c i a n s , workers and various associations r a i s e d the issue whether the enemy a l i e n could be allowed to continue to work and l i v e f r e e l y without r e s t r i c t i o n s . Were a l l people of German o r i g i n , i n c l u d i n g n a t u r a l i z e d c i t i z e n s , a threat to Canada's security? The federal gov-ernment i n the f i r s t months of the war answered these questions by formulating a moderate p o l i c y . The issue of the enemy a l i e n ' s status entered a second stage when high unemployment, an i n t o l e r a b l e welfare burden and anxiety over the progress of the war heightened resentment against the enemy a l i e n . During the spring of 1915 a growing unanimity of f e e l i n g among the various segments of p r o v i n c i a l society led to pre-ssure f o r s t r i c t e r measures. The internment of enemy a l i e n s , the i i i establishment of prisoner of war labour camps and the extraction of loyalty oaths from a l l German-Canadians were demanded. A third stage in the transformation of attitudes unfolded in 1918 and 1919 when veterans of the war poured into the province. For the regeneration and reconstruction of post-war Canada, the returned soldiers demanded the exclusion from Canada of immigrants from enemy countries. The war, and the problems i t created conditioned the thoughts and feelings of British Columbians. The psychological impact of the war on many of the individuals who suffered personal losses led them to demand harsher measures than the federal government approved. Be-cause of international laws and practical considerations the govern-ment hesitated to embark on st r i c t e r regulations. Internment of a l l enemy aliens or conscription of their labour might result in r e t a l i a -tion or unjust treatment of Br i t i s h and Canadian nationals in enemy countries. In 1916 the improvement in the economy created a demand for more labour. At the same time m i l i t i a authorities were attempting to recruit larger numbers of men for overseas service. Enemy aliens, the federal government argued, were essential to war production and they would perform more effectively in private industry than in labour camps. Practical considerations, then outweighed the increasingly emo-tional demands of labour, business, community and returned soldiers organizations for the internment, registration and deportation of enemy aliens. However, in the post-war period economic considerations influenced the government to alter i t s policy. With the cut back in war production i v and the return of veterans seeking employment the pressure to remove enemy aliens from active participation in Canadian l i f e was r e v i v i -fied. In response to demands from various segments of the British Columbian and Canadian population new immigration and naturalization laws were enacted to prevent former enemy aliens from participating in the new, post-war era in Canada. V Table of Contents Page Chapter 1 - Germans and Austro-Hungarians in Pre-War British Columbia 1 Chapter 2 - The Depression and Declaration of War: A Moderate Policy to Regulate Enemy Aliens 30 Chapter 3 - Economic Imperatives and the War: Alien Enemy Policy Transformed • ....57 Chapter 4 - Internment in British Columbia: 1914-1918 86 Chapter 5 - The Returned Soldier and the Enemy Alien ..114 Bibliography 152 v i Preface When Canada entered the war in August 1914 many Canadians expected a short-lived conflict that would have l i t t l e impact on Canadian social, economic and p o l i t i c a l l i f e . The prolongation of the war, however, led to increasing government controls in a l l aspects of Canadian society, i n -cluding the social relationships between enemy aliens and Canadians. As the war molded the consciousness of Canadians the enemy alien became a social anomaly and concern over his presence emerged as a Dominion-wide problem. Various segments of the population i n s a l l pro-vinces were pre-occupied with the status of the enemy alien. In Ontario the employment of German professors at the University of Toronto be-came an issue in the spring of 1915. Patriots in Calgary forced the closing of a Lutheran church in the summer of 1915 and Regina agitators stormed the printing offices of a German newspaper In 1918. Agitation continued after the signing of the Armistice and Winnipeg*s aliens suffered attacks from returned soldiers in February 1919. The chief focus of this case study i s the changes in attitudes and feelings of Br i t i s h Columbians towards Germans and Austro-Hungarians after the outbreak of war. The war imbued the predominantly Br i t i s h and Canadian population with patriotism and a strong sense of Imperial unity. Fearing attack from German sympathizers in the State of Washing-ton and from cruisers of the German Pacific Fleet, B r i t i s h Columbians became concerned about the internal danger which might arise from the presence of enemy aliens/ Because the enemy aliens in B r i t i s h Colum-bia was less easily identified than was his counterpart in the prairies, v i i who usually lived in an ethnic enclave, suspicion and fear of a lurking, hidden menace developed. To relieve this anxiety, the German and Austro-Hungarian population was put under surveillance and eventually many of the aliens were placed in internment camps. The signing of the Armistice did not relieve the wartime fears arising from the presence of the enemy alien. Returned soldiers kept alive the agitation against enemy aliens, and the veterans joined in a national movement to obtain the exclusion of enemy aliens from p a r t i c i -pation in post-war Canadian society. When the veterans failed to achieve their goals at a national meeting with the cabinet in Ottawa in March 1918, they fomented agitation in Br i t i s h Columbia by pressuring private organizations,municipalities and the provincial government to support resolutions to deport, debar and exclude former enemy aliens from im-migrating to Canada. This agitation had an impact on provincial social and p o l i t i c a l l i f e . The war had moved Bri t i s h Columbians and Canadians from their pre-war position of accepting Germans and Austro-Hungarians as p a r t i c i -pants in their society towards the desire to reject their participation in the community. What was demanded was retribution for the sacrifices made by the Anglo-Canadian population in the province as the price of victory. Chapter I Germans and Austro-Hungarians in Pre-War British Columbia Germans and Austro-Hungarians in Pre-War Bri t i s h Columbia The German and Austro-Hungarians who settled in British Columbia before the Great War were a diverse and heterogeneous population. They came from many regions in Europe, the United States, and eastern Canada. Their religious backgrounds, social classes, and professions were as diverse as their origins, and they had l i t t l e in common with one another except language, and the hope of making a success in Br i t i s h Columbia. By 1914 many people of German origin had been successful. Their accom-plishments in the businesses and professions permitted them to enter into the social and cultural l i f e of the province and they acquired the acceptance of many Bri t i s h Columbians and received their praise. The f i r s t permanent settlers of German origin came to British Columbia primarily from the United States where they had been lured by the California gold rush. The discovery of gold on the Fraser in 1858 awakened worn out hopes of weary miners who pushed on with the mining advance into British Columbia. Although many returned to the United States after 1870, those who had established successful businesses serving the mining communities stayed to take an active part in the commercial and social l i f e of the province. By 1870 the leading f i g -ures among the German settlers had settled in Victoria. The most prominent among the early German immigrants were Joseph Loewen, Louis Emil Erb, Henry Frederick Heisterman and David Oppen-heimer. Joseph Loewen had emigrated from Prussia to the United States in 1850. Following six years of odd jobs in New York City, Loewen set out for the California f i e l d s , where he engaged as a miner for two years. When word of the Fraser River discovery reached 2 San Francisco, he joined the rush and landed in Victoria in July, 1858.1 He tried mining for a few years, but the work rendered l i t -t l e compensation, and he f i n a l l y settled in Victoria, where he formed a partnership with Louis Emll Erb, to establish the Victoria Brewing Company. Erb, who had come to British Columbia to mine in 1866 had managed breweries in Germany before immigrating to the United States in 1863. After working in a New York City brewery for one year, Erb gambled on making a fortune in the California gold fields. His experiences in the turbulent and thirsty mining towns persuaded him that his prospects were probably better in the brewing business than in mining. On arriving in British Columbia, he set out for Seymour City at the head of Shuswap Lake. There he set up his f i r s t brewery. When the mines played out at Seymour City, Erb moved on to Barkerville, and after the boom subsided he shifted his operations to Mosquito 2 Creek. His success as a migrant brewer enabled him to invest In a more permanent business in Victoria. By 1890 the Victoria Brewing Company was the largest producer in the province. Both Loewen and Erb were acknowledged to be prom-inent figures in Victoria's business and social l i f e . Louis Erb's wife entertained for as many as two hundred guests at their fash-ionable roccoco residence. Among the guests were Loewen*s four daugh-ters who later married such well known British Columbians as Francis 3 Stillman Barnard and H.M. Robertson. Another immigrant of German origin who stayed in British Col-umbia after the gold rushes was Henry Frederick Heisterman. Heis-terman had been raised in Bremen, where he studied commerce. He 3. emigrated to Liverpool in 1853, establishing a commission business. He l e f t Liverpool in 1862 to join the rush to Cariboo. His boat cap-sized on i t s way from Victoria to Fort Hope and Heisterman returned to Victoria penniless. Nevertheless he managed to open a private reading room in Victoria which attracted a large membership. With-in six months he sold out his interest in the reading room and opened a wholesale paint and glass shop. In 1864 he entered the real-estate business in Victoria; i t became one of the largest agencies in the province.** While in England Heisterman had become a naturalized Br i t i s h subject. His familiarity with Br i t i s h Institutions encouraged him to found a Chamber of Commerce in Victoria. He also held o f f i c i a l positions on the council of the Victoria Board of Trade and served on the Board of School Trustees for seven years. As grand secretary of the provincial Masonic Lodge Heisterman symbolized the immigrant of German origin who had become an integral part of the economic and social l i f e of V i c t o r i a . 5 Victoria was not the only city to attract German settlers. As business activity began to shift to the Vancouver area in the 1880's and 1890's a surge of settlement followed. One of the early pioneers of the city was David Oppenheimer, a German Jew who had had businesses in New Orleans and San Francisco before opening a grocery and dry goods store in Victoria. He located branch storesfflrst:at Yale and then at Vancouver in 1887,e He played a leading role in the development of Vancouver and became i t s mayor in 1888. He also served as president of the Vancouver Board of Trade. He promoted the interests of Vancouver in the United States and publicized reports 4 about the resources of British Columbia i n European newspapers* The province's wealth also attracted a few settlers of German origin from eastern Canada* They were second generation sons and daughters of German families who had immigrated to Ontario in the 1850's* Having been educated in Ontario schools and being familiar with Canadian institutions, these immigrants moved easily into the booming communities of Bri t i s h Columbia*^ The pattern of migration and settlement in the interior was similar to the coastal regions where German immigrants settled in the two major centers, Vancouver and Victoria. In the small, inter-ior boom towns Germans entered r e t a i l businesses, operated small ho-g tels, or established breweries* In Nanaimo, John Mahrer operated a restaurant and a bakery before turning to brewing and soap-making* He served on the city council and participated in a variety of lodges. In Fernie Germans owned the Hotel Northern and the local brewery which was a branch of Albert Mutz's Fort Steele Brewing Company. Mutz em-ployed eleven men at the Fernie brewery, several of whom were Ger-man. The editor of the Fernie Ledger praised Mutz as a progressive citiz e n , "one of the best known men along the Crow" and "one of our most energetic and enterprising c i t i z e n s . " 1 0 In Vernon, Henry Gustav Muller opened the Coldstream Hotel in 1901. He later served a term as mayor and belonged to the local lodges. 1 1 By 1911 almost half the total German population lived in towns of one thousand inhab-i t t 1 2 itants. These early German settlers encountered few d i f f i c u l t i e s in adjusting to provincial l i f e . The majority came to the province 5 after having spent several years in the United States where they had learned the language and adapted to the social conditions which char-acterized l i f e in the Pacific Northwest. Some had l e f t Germany in 1848-1849 when the failure of p o l i t i c a l reforms compelled them to 13 leave. Most, however, had l e f t in searchcfrabonanza in the Ameri-can West or in the British Columbian gold fields* Quickly accepted into B r i t i s h Columbia's early communities, the German immigrants be-came completely absorbed into the social and economic l i f e of the province. Their sons and daughters married into Canadian families. Apart from the Singvereinmddaisaloon in Victoria, these immigrants did not establish autonomous ethnic organizations or endeavor to form a distinct colony segregated from the receiving culture. After 1903 a different type of German speaking immigrant entered the province. The economic expansion from 1903 to 1911 attracted a larger number of European immigrants, though Bri t i s h Columbia's dis-tance from the eastern ports and the federal government policies for settling the prairies directed immigrants primarily to the western plain. A lack of information about British Columbia, especially on the continent, restricted the entry of European immigrants. After the completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway the boom in natural resource industries in real-estate and in public works created a demand for more labor. In 1907-1908 40,000 immigrants entered the province; in 191.1 and 1912 the largest increase in immigration in the history of the province was registered. These 106,455 immigrants 1'4 represented nearly one third of the total population but the over-whelming majority came from the United Kingdom and the United States. 6. In a five year period ending in 1912 more than 1,200 Germans came directly from Germany to British Columbia. A large number of Germans who lived in the United States but who had not been natura-lized augmented the number of settlers. The 1911 census recorded 15 11,880 people of German origin. Most of the new arrivals moved into Vancouver and i t s environs. By 1911 nearly one third of the German population in the city had been born in Germany, and this bond with Germany had a marked effect on the original German com-munity which had severed ties to the homeland. The new immigrants contrasted significantly with the earlier immigrants who had come during the gold rushes, and they differed also from the Germans settling on the prairies. Prairie settlement often involved large group movements. Col-onization societies organized these movements and assisted them in reaching the western prairies. Frequently religious and familial ties bound these groups together. Often they came from a particu-lar region in Europe where they had known one another for years. Many of the German settlers had lived in western Russia, in the Ukraine, or in the Donau regions which were under the control of 16 the Austro-Hungarlan Empire. They had come to farm and the sparse settlement on the prairies permitted them to maintain dis-tinct and separate colonies. They transplanted their religious and social institutions to Canada. In their closed, autonomous settle-ments they maintained a separate and distinct culture and communal s p i r i t . The checkered pattern of ethnic settlements which dotted 7. the prairies symbolized their autonomy. These ethnic enclaves shielded the immigrants from contact with Canadians and provided a security 17 which minimized the stress and strain of adapting to a new land. Bri t i s h Columbia's geography and economy attracted a di f f e r -ent type of settler and placed greater demands on his adjustment. German immigrants who came to Brit i s h Columbia included two main groups: a large number of ski l l e d workers and small merchants and 1"8 an important group of upper-middle class entrepreneurs. Both groups participated in the boom in the provincial economy which pre-vailed from 1907 to 1911. German mechanics, carpenters, and t i n -smiths immigrated to take advantage of the high wages paid for their rqr> s k i l l s . Tailors, bakers, butchers and accountants worked i n the expanding r e t a i l businesses. The upper-middle class Germans who came to speculate in real-estate, or to represent German investments in the resource industries of the province, were well educated and possessed substantial finan-c i a l backing and business experience. These adventurous German capi-t a l i s t s , a few of whom were of aristocratic lineage or were reserve officers in the German army, attracted attention in business and f i n -on ancial c i r c l e s . They brought with them a vigorous belief in Ger-man "Kultur" that made a mark on the social l i f e of Vancouver. They became especially important in the establishment of German clubs and organizations. By 1911 there were 5,285 people of German origin in Vancouver and New Westminster, about one quarter of whom had recently 21 arrived from Germany. The combination of new arrivals and an 8. already well established business e l i t e stimulated the development of German social and cultural organizations. Apart from occasional programmes offered by the Salvation Army, charitable organizations and the Young Men's Christian Association, there was l i t t l e assistance given to new immigrants when they ar-rived in Vancouver. Though the skilled workers could secure jobs quickly, they had to make their own social adjustment to their new setting. To satisfy the need for social contact among the immigrants, H.A. Mueller and R. Schaeffer organized in 1908 the f i r s t German asso-ciation in Vancouver, the Deutscher Verein. When the Verein moved into the Elk's Hall at Robson and Granville i t changed the name to 22 German!a Hall. Here new arrivals received assistance and made the companionship of co-nationals. The German immigrants could also iden-t i f y with the German Lutheran Church. However, a small congregation, frequent changes in location, and a turnover in the pastors prevented the church from becoming a center for German a c t i v i t i e s . Until 1912 the Verein and the church were the only organizations available to help the German immigrants. The need for communication between Ger-man speaking settlers prompted the founding of a German press which in turn gave birth to numerous associations. Before the development of a local German press, immigrants de-pended on newspapers and journals from the prairie provinces and the United States. Apart from a monthly periodical published in Richmond, no local press appeared until 1909, when F.R. Blockberger established his West11che Canadlsche Post. The newspaper had a small circulation, 9. but i t continued to publish u n t i l 1914 even though i t competed with a second newspaper, the Vancouver German Press. Dr. Karl Weiss, the aggressive editor of the Press tried to buy out Blockberger in 1911; when Blockberger refused to s e l l out. Weiss established his own news-paper. As a journalist for a number of European publications. Weiss had written extensively on p o l i t i c a l , economic, and immigration i s -sues. After emigrating to New York City he represented the Austro-Hungarian Colonization Society. When he visited Vancouver in 1911, prominent Germans encouraged him to take up residence in the ci t y . Weiss' connections i n Europe and his journalistic capabilities ap-pealed to the German businessmen, who wished to promote British Col-25 umbia in Europe. The Vancouver German Press was a weekly newspaper, printed in 25 English and German. Weiss's editorial policy encouraged immigrants to become naturalized Canadians and adopt Canada as their new home-land. He believed, however, that Germans should maintain their cul-tural ties with the fatherland and preserve their heritage in family relationships so that their children might experience a German upbring-ing. His newspaper reported a c t i v i t i e s in the German associations and advocated more German immigration into the province. In 1912 he incor-porated the Agricultural Settlement Association, Ltd., a venture to bring two thousand settlers a year to Canada. By 1913 the Vancouver German Press reached more than eight thousand readers in Canada and the United States. Weiss claimed a circulation of six hundred copies in Europe. 10. Although Weiss supported German organizations, i t was another individual who actually founded and financed German societies. Alvo von Alvensleben, the most prominent German financier in the province, played a major role in promoting German organizations* Alvensleben came to the province in 1904. He worked in a variety of occupations before establishing a real-estate firm in Vancouver which became very successful. He married Edith Mary Estcott, a daughter of a Vancouver pioneer* Through membership in a number of golf clubs, the Royal Van-couver Yacht Club and the Union Club in Victoria he obtained useful business connections* Alvensleben's flamboyant success in the real-estate business dazzled investors* By 1911 his company paid substantial dividends and he had attracted a steady flow of German capital into the prov-2ST ince which he invested in a variety of companies. Alvensleben's intimate relationship to the German Consul, Johann Wulfsohn, assured him control over German investments in the province which by 1911 28 were estimated to be over five million dollars* German capital represented the largest foreign investment from Europe and the i n -vestments were spread in the coal industries, forests, and lands* Alvensleben became so successful in provincial financial circles that "his name on a prospectus had come to be recognized as a guarantee of 30 a genuine proposition." The British Columbia Magazine, a business-man's publication, lauded himas promoter of good w i l l between Germany 32 and Canada. His business success coincided with a greater involve-ment In German organizations. In 1911 he promoted the establishment of »«a foMfeachT Klub. a businessman's club, where Bri t i s h Columbians and German businessmen made deals and discussed investments* In addition to the Klub, a secret society, the Hermannsoehne was formed among businessmen of German origin. German women in Van-couver also organized their own club, the Wanderverein. They were i n -terested in tours and hiking and they held their weekly meetings at German!a H a l l . ^ The most important social event which brought the new German community and British Columbians together was the Deutscher Verein's annual celebration of the Kaiser's birthday in January. P o l i t i c a l and business leaders attended this popular event. Guest speakers such as Premier Richard McBride and the German Consul. Carl Lowen-berg lauded the good relations between British Columbians and German immigrants. Songs and speeches praised both the Kaiser and the Uni-ted Kingdom. At the 1914 celebration, Carl Lowenberg, well known and long a resident of Victoria, underlined his view that German settlers would integrate into provincial l i f e . Although he urged Germans to maintain their cultural heritage, he emphasized that their children 3§ could not be expected to carry on traditions of the homeland* By 1915 there were four German associations and two German newspapers in the province. Although the German newspapers circu-lated throughout the province, none of the Vancouver German clubs attempted to branch out into the interior where the small and scat-tered German population lacked their own associations. There were, then, two German communities in B r i t i s h Columbia before the war. The early German settlers had accommodated to the 1 2 . conditions during the gold rush years and they became f u l l y absorbed into the economic and social l i f e of the early small communities. In response to an expanding economy which offered new opportunities for skilled workers, small merchants and adventurous investors, a new type of German immigrant entered the province at the turn of the cen-tury. Many of these immigrants came directly from Germany. Although they found work readily, their social adjustment to conditions in Can-ada was more d i f f i c u l t because they had no prior experience either in the United States or in Eastern Canada. They formed associations to 35 assist their adjustment to new conditions. These organizations were not established to create a separate cultural enclave, but as they came under the control of businessmen who desired to maintain close ties to the homeland, the associations acquired a distinctive tone. Bri t i s h Columbians accepted these associations and expressed 36* respect for German immigrants.' One author contrasted the German settler to the Austro-Hungarian, whom he considered to be a problem in race assimilation/ The German settler soon takes his part in the l i f e of his locality , soon sees that churches and schools are erected and soon adopts to Anglo-Saxon conditions. Like the Scandanavian the German,.is a good settler and a good citizen. However, as imperial r i v a l r i e s between Great Britain and Germany be-came an issue in Canadian p o l i t i c s and the German community in B r i t i s h Columbia became more involved in the promotion of "Kultur", relations between some Germans and Br i t i s h Columbians became strained. Premier McBride remarked in his address to the guests at the Deutscher Verein's 13. celebration in 1914 of the Kaiser's birthday that the Kaiser "keeps em a l l guessing" as to his real intentions in international p o l i t i c s . McBride had been a firm supporter of a Canadian contribution to the Imperial navy, an issue which played a part in the conservative party victory in the federal election in 1911. Increasing concern over Ger many's warlike intentions gradually influenced the feelings of many British Columbians towards Germans. Another segment of the immigrant population,the Austro-Hungarians, were also affected by international and domestic events. The year 1898 marked the entry of the f i r s t significant numbers of Austro-Hungarians into B r i t i s h Columbia. They entered with the com-pletion of the Canadian Pacific Railway's branch line, the Crow's Nest Pass Railway, in 1898. The line ran from Mcleod, Alberta, to Fernie, at the center of the immense coal fields in the Crow's Nest Pass. The Canadian Pacific Railway developed the coal fields to offset the plans of American capitalists to drain the coal off to 39 the "Inland Empire*, the region surrounding Spokane, Washington. The Crow's Nest Pass Company exported much of i t s coal to the United States but i t also used coal for i t s locomotives and supplied the boundary smelters. 4 0 In 1899 operations were expanded from the orig-inal shaft at Coal Creek to Michel and Morrissey. These expansions increased the demand for labor. The 'gandy dancers' who had worked on the railway gangs now turned to the mines for employment. When coal production soared from 9,334 tons in 1898 to 379,355 tons in 1910 there were more than 1,200 Austro-Hungarians in the mining 14. communities the largest concentration of these immigrants in the province. In the v i c i n i t y of Revelstoke another large number of Austro-Hungarians worked in mines, timber camps, or for the Canadian Pac-i f i c Railway which had established Revelstoke as i t s depot and re-42 pair center for the eastern division of the Rockies. At Prince Rupert more than two hundred Austro-Hungarians worked on the con-struction of the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway terminus, and in the Vancouver region more than 2,000 were employed as unskilled labour 43 in the building industry. Although immigration o f f i c i a l s had o r i -ginally planned for the Austro-Hungarians to settle on the prairies many had become migrant laborers who escaped from the transient r a i l -way and timber gangs to the turbulent mining towns. Immigration o f f i -c ials foiled their own plans for settling these immigrants on the prairies when they formed a policy whereby Austro-Hungarians would be encouraged to work on the railways. Immigration o f f i c i a l s believed that the construction of branch lines such as the Crow's Nest Pass Railway, and the continental Grand Trunk Pacific Railway and Canadian Northern Railway would provide the means of moving intending settlers to the West. E.S. Robertson, the Assistant Superintendent of Immigration, outlined the plan in the 4 brochure, "Work, Wages, and Landj The Railway Route to a Free Farm." Wages earned on the railway gangs would enable prospective settlers to purchase implements and stock to begin farming, as well as provide the means for seeing the country and finding a suitable location to 15. farm. Homesteaders already settled on the land could work on the r a i l -ways un t i l they received adequate returns from their cultivated f i e l d s . Whatever the success of the plan to funnel immigrants into western farms may have had on the prairies, i t s limitations in Br i t i s h Colum-bia became immediately apparent. The nature of the economy in the province and the limited extent of land available for pre-emption prevented the implementation of such a plan and pre-determined the occupations of Austro-Hungarians. The secretary of the provincial Bureau of Information and Immigration indicated doubts about the efficacy of the plan when he reported: Owing to the peculiar conditions of the Province in respect to available lands and the character of the country generally, the question of taking advantage of the great Western movement, which has set i n , i s per-haps one of the most serious problems now confronting British Columbia. It is now not a matter of attracting settlers to the Province but of satisfactorily disposing of them upon a r r i v a l . ^ Fortunately the entry of Austro-Hungarians coincided with the rapid expansion of railways, timber production and mining development. The construction of the Crow's Nest Pass Railway in 1897 had drawn many Austro-Hungarians into the Kootenays. When the line was completed they moved onto other r a i l crews. The demand for labour increased from 1903 to 1911. The general manager of the Br i t i s h Col-umbia Electric Railway underlined the growing need in 1907 for a l a -bour force in writing to the immigration department that "my company has experienced a serious shortage of labourers this year and i t would have employed another 500 or more men steadily i f they had been available." W. Wilson, manager for the Crow's Nest Pass Coal Com-pany, reiterated this view in reporting to his company directors that the expansion of the c o l l i e r i e s at Michel and Morrissey would entail more workers. The Austro-Hungarians supplied a portion of the .province's Labour requirements, but the nature of the economy prevented the absorption of these immigrants into the economic and social l i f e of the prov-ince. The economy demanded workers who were mobile and single. R a i l -way construction drew workers into isolated bush country where they became completely dependent on the contractors for food, clothing and 48 other supplies. The intermittent character of their employment compelled workers to move frequently and they usually received such short notice of dismissal that their livelihood was uncertain, i f not actually threatened. One traveller in Br i t i s h Columbia summed up the nature of the economy, "Ten days and the job i s done, and one must hustle again—this country means going from one job to another ...." The migratory character of the Austro-Hungarian's employ-ment led inevitably to a sense of isolation and disorientation in a new land. Unlike the skilled German workers who usually lived and worked in a permanent location, the Austro-Hungarian drifted from one job to another without the benefit of a trade, knowledge of English, or assistance from employers. Under such conditions he became a mar-ginal member of society. Conditions in the railway camps contributed to the d i f f i c u l t i e s experienced by the Austro-Hungarians. Workers on the Crow's Nest Pass 17. Railway, which forged i t s way westward from McLeod, suffered incredi-ble hardship in the winter of 1897. Receiving only $1.50 a day, they paid board at the rate of $4.00 per week. Since their pay was fre-quently delayed from five to six weeks, they incurred debts to the con-tractors for high priced supplies.^ 0 Housed in unsanitary tents, with-out adequate heat and medical attention, they became i l l . Many re-fused to continue work under such conditions. On the 15 January 1898 the House of Commons appointed the Crow's Nest Pass Railway Commission to investigate conditions in the camps and report their findings to the Commons. Through extensive interviews with workers in the camps and the inspection of board and lodgings in Alberta, the commission decided the allegations made ag-ainst the contractors by workers were true. They found that after deductions for transportation from Winnipeg to the railhead and for food, supplies, lodging and medical insurance, the earnings of a work-51 er amounted to $5.10 at the end of the year. Housing, food, cloth-ing, and supplies provided for the workers were a l l found to be inade-quate. In summarizing the intolerable situation of the employee the commissioners stated, "Under such conditions he f e l t like a prisoner 52 in a strange land..." The commission made several recommendations. It recommended the enactment of legislation for providing government inspections of a l l conditions relating to the construction of railways, particularly 5& of the quality and price of food, of housing, and of other supplies. In addition, i t declared that contractors should be required to provide 10. adequate medical attention by employing attendants to work and live in the camps and provide accurate information on the terms of employment and wages. These recommendations became law when the government on 11 August 1899 enacted a b i l l for the Preservation of Health on Public Works. As a result of this act conditions improved dramatically. But though adverse conditions were ameliorated, the immigrant was s t i l l without the social institutions which would have assisted him to dev-elop a self-awareness as a new Canadian. One organization that did attempt to assist the new immigrant to become a Canadian was the Reading Camp Association, or Frontier College. Alfred Fitzpatrick, the founder of the organization, estab-lished the association at the turn of the century. His views on the social integration of the diverse nationalities were based on the be-l i e f that lumbering and railway camps, regardless of improvements made in them, did not provide the stable conditions necessary for the as-slmilation of Immigrants. Fitzpatrick believed that society must provide institutions to "reform" the immigrants in order to "bring 55 them into intelligent harmony with our Canadian and B r i t i s h Ideals." Lacking the restraint and the influence of permanent homes, schools, and the church, immigrants would remain uprooted and set apart from Canadian aspirations and ideals. To Fitzpatrick the railway camps seemed to obstruct the gmol;di;ng; of the "diverse elements into a har-monious whole." Yet he recognized that the camps were necessary " e v i l s " in a developing frontier economy. In order to bridge the gulf between the transient work camps and permanent institutions in stable communities he created the Reading Camp Association. Fitzpatrick recruited from the schools and colleges of east-ern Canada instructors who volunteered to work for one year in the work camps in return for a small stipend to meet the costs of their 56' personal needs and the supplies required for their work. He envisioned the young instructors as missionaries who would prepare the way for the establishment of Canadian institutions. The key to the association's work was personal contact between the instructors and the immigrants as co-workers. Through this close contact the instructors were to demonstrate "what i t really means to be a Can-adian." 5 7 The instructors set up tents in the camps, where they used a blackboard, basic English texts, magazines, and newspapers for Eng-l i s h lessons. The foreigners had to learn English before being i n -58 structed in c i v i c s , the most important subject in their "curriculum." The instructors pursued their work with energetic faith in their mis-sion though their correspondence reveals the strain under which they' worked and their resentment at lack of financial assistance from t, large industries. One teacher working at Oklo Holls, where the Pac-i f i c Coast Logging Company operated the 'Higgins Camp', conveyed his feelings when he wrote, "I firmly believe that the government w i l l 59 not be doing i t s duty u n t i l i t takes charge of just such work." Without government support and interest on the part of the employers, the instructors thought the task of assisting immigrants to integrate i n -to provincial l i f e would f a i l . They could not reconcile the lack of 20. government support with the policy of bringing in thousands of immi-grants who were l e f t to find their own way in a new land. In 1913 the Association had twelve camps in B r i t i s h Columbia, four on Vancouver Island and eight on the mainland. In the 1914 cam-paign for raising funds from businesses and the government, R.C. Dearie, the director for the province, reported a lack of interest in the endeavor in the interior communities. The churches supported the campaign but the merchants and the businessmen failed to donate much money.60 By 1914 the depression in the interior had bankrupted many businesses and people could not afford to contribute to the association. Though the provincial government donated $600, the sum 61 seemed very l i t t l e . ' As the depression worsened work camps began to close down. The Austro-Hungarians drifted into the coastal c i t i e s or mining towns where many of their compatriots had long ago settled. When the Crow's Nest Pass Railway was completed in 1898 many of the Austro-Hungarians chose to work in the mines where a perman-ent labor force was required. Conditions in the mining communities offered some social amenities when contrasted with the isolation and the hardships of the work camps. At Coal Creek, Michel and Morrissey people spoke their own language. Fernie had a brewery, eleven hotels and several bars which provided entertainment for the miners. The vast majority of the miners were single, and when they had the oppor-tunity to escape the drab company towns nestling in the narrow coal mining valleys in the Kootenay d i s t r i c t , they hopped the company train 62 to enjoy the companionship of Fernie*s madams. Another compensation 21. for living in the mining towns was the presence of the trade union which provided the f i r s t occupational organization with which Austro-Hungarians might identify. The relationship between the new immigrants and the English-speaking miners however proved a delicate one, for i t was fraught with the tensions of job competition, prejudice, and nation-al r i v a l r i e s . In 1898 the Western Federation of Miners organized the f i r s t 63 local at Coal Creek. However, the miners gradually went over to the more militant United Mine Workers after the W.F.M. failed to negotiate a wage contract with coal company o f f i c i a l s . By 1904 the U.M.W. had organized the Kootenay d i s t r i c t into d i s t r i c t number eighteen. < The United Miner Workers had a successful record of organiz-ing foreigners who were frequently used as strikebreakers and of uniting workers who lived in "an environment disrupted by cultural, geo-economic, and ethnic forces which made a collective response d i f f i c u l t . " The U.M.W. at f i r s t had worked in the Pennsylvania coalfields for restrictive immigration policies. When this effort failed i t accommodated Itself to the reality of the presence of for-eign labourers by permitting the formation of separate locals in which the language of the immigrant was spoken. This experience was transported to Br i t i s h Columbia on Vancouver Island when coal company o f f i c i a l s brought in Italian workers to scab in the coal strikes; the U.M.W. used an Italian speaking organizer to prevent the Italians from going into the mines.^ It proved unnecessary 22. to organize workers along ethnic lines in d i s t r i c t eighteen and Austro-Hungarians were permitted to join the union. Even so, tensions between various nationalities existed and the union was able only to soften the edge of national r i v a l r i e s between immigrant groups. Canadian and British workers resented the competition of aliens for insecure jobs in the mines, lumber camps or on the railway crews. The Canadian Trades and Labor Congress, which had lobbied against im-migration and the importation of contract labor, had succeeded in getting passage of the Alien Labor Act in 1897 which was amended in 1898 and 1901. The United States ttad; similariiegislktion! War:*i bar-ring the importation of unskilled contract labor. The Canadian act applied primarily to American labour but also prevented companies from bringing in large numbers of unskilled laborers. Advertise-ments for skilled workers were permitted only i f such workers were 68 unavailable in Canada. Although the act permitted individuals to bring isui'.td "i'3 in provincial courts against companies violating i t s pro-visions, usually the expense and time involved in such proceedings prevented convictions against the companies. Foreigners from the United States continued to pour into the resource industries of the province. The English speaking miners blamed the unskilled foreigners for the high accident rates in the mines. The disaster at Coal Creek on the 22 May 1902 was considered to have been caused by foreigners who could not read the safety regulations and the i n -structions. Miners demanded that foreigners be excluded from 23. the mining shafts unless they had certificates which they could only obtain i f they knew English. However such regulations were not en-forced because company o f f i c i a l s argued there were not enough miners available to meet the needs of production. As a result the tensions continued between the ethnic groups and when a union leader expressed the opinion that "an inferior class of immigrants are arriving from continental Europe and they do not assimilate", he was actually des-cribing the feelings of many miners in Fernie.'''0 Unlike the German immigrants who had been accepted into the economic and social l i f e of the province, the Austro-Hungarians stood outside the mainstream of provincial l i f e . They entered the province during a boom period when the industrial expansion of the resource industries demanded large numbers of unskilled and skilled workers. They competed directly with Canadian and Br i t i s h workers who resented their employment. Without a secure job, constantly on the move, and prevented from making permanent contacts with social institutions, the opportunities for the Austro-Hungarians to become an integral part of provincial l i f e were very restricted. Even with-in the ranks of the working class their inadequate knowledge of Eng-l i s h and the h o s t i l i t y on the part of Canadian and B r i t i s h workers prevented equal participation in unions or advancement on the job. The early German immigrants, however, had entered Br i t i s h Col-umbia before industrial development had begun. These early adven-turers had been attracted by gold and the few who remained after the rushes settled primarily in Victoria, where they established themselves i n real-estate, r e t a i l stores and brewing. This group of settlers formed the nucleus of a business class whose sons and daughters be-came fu l l y integrated into provincial society. The second wave of German immigrants came to the province from 1901 to 1911. Because their predecessors had been effectively absorbed by the receiving culture, the new immigrants moved easily into the l i f e of the province. Their economic absorption into the provincial economy was relatively easy because they possessed special trades. As brewers, sk i l l e d workers, or white collar workers these immigrants usually did not compete directly with Canadians or with Bri t i s h immi-grants. A number of the new arrivals were also businessmen or pro-fessionals. They acquired prominence, particularly in real-estate. However, the successful economic integration of this group into the economy did not mean they had cast aside their German heritage. They formed German associations, newspapers and clubs for the promotion of German culture. Although this development aroused some tensions be-tween the immigrants and B r i t i s h Columbians shortly before the war, their cultural a c t i v i t i e s did not prevent their equal participation in the community. Differences in the roles played by Germans and Austro-Hungarians in the province depended on the period in which the immigrant arrived and on social class and s k i l l s individuals could offer a developing economy. The status of these groups would undergo changes as the province passed through a severe recession from 1912 to 1915. Can-ada's entry into the European war would lead to a redefinition of their status in British Columbia. Footnotes *J .B. Kerr, Biographical Dictionary of Well-Known British Columbians, Vancouver, Kerr and Begg, 1890, p. 161. 2Ibid., p. 222. 3 Harry Gregson, A History of Victoria 1842-1970. Victoria, Observer Publishing Company, pp. 117-118. 4 E.O.S. Scholefield and F.W. Howay, British Columbia: From the Earliest  Times to the Present. Vancouver, Clarke Publishing Company, Vancouver, 1914, vol. 3, p. 715. 5Ibid., p. 716. ^Kerr, Biographical Dictionary, pp. 266-267. 7Howay and Scholefield, British Columbia, vol. 3, pp. 109-110; pp. 804-805. o Ibid., see also, The Fernie Ledger. 26 April 1905, p. 1. 9 Kerr, Biographical Dictionary, p. 224. 1 0The Fernie Ledger. 26 April 1905, p. 1. UHoway and Scholefield, British Columbia, vol. 3, pp. 1029-1033. 12 Canada, F i f t h Census of Canada, Ottawa, 1912, vol. 3, p. 340. 13 " Julius Frobel, Die Deutsche Auswanderung und Ihre Kulturistorische  Bedentung, Eeipzig, 1858, pp. 52-54. Froebel points out that most of the German immigrants settled in the United States and B r a z i l . He ar-gues that settlement in independent states as opposed to colonial states i s preferable. 1 4Ashley G. Brown and J. Boam, British Columbia: Its History, People,  Commerce, Industries and Resources, London, 1912, p. 266. The Super-intendent of Immigration, W.D. Scott, gives stat i s t i c s for the increase in immigration. 1907 13,650 1908 30,768 1909 21,862 1910 30,721 1911 54,626 1912 51,829 In the two years ending March, 1912 35,929 immigrants came from the United Kingdom and 51,016 from the United States. Most of the pro-vincial information to attract immigrants was aimed at encouraging set-tlers from Great Britain. See, British Columbia, Sessional Papers. "Report of Bureau of Information and Immigration," 1903, p. J31. 1 5Canada, F i f t h Census, p. 340. See also, p. 100 Heinz Lehman, Das  Deutschtum in Westkanada, Berlin, 1939. 1 6 I b i d . . p. 39. *^C.A. Dawson and Eva R. Younge, Pioneering in the Prairie Provinces:  The Social Side of the Settlement Process, Toronto, Macmillan, 1940, pp. 36-37. 18 Lehman, Das Deutschtum in Westkanada, p. 88. This trend was already established in the early period of German immigration. See, Canada, Sessional Papers, "Report on Immigration," 1891, vol. 6, p. 137. 19 Lehman, Das Deutschtum in Westkanada, p. 39. 20 John Norris and Others, ed., Strangers Entertained: A History of  Ethnic Groups in British Columbia. Vancouver, British Columbia Centennial *71 Committee, I'SLft&^upsrlOO. 2 1Canada, F i f t h Census, 1911, vol. 2, pp. 332; pp. 378-379. 22 Henderson's Vancouver, New Westminster and Fraser Valley Directory. Vancouver, 1908, p. 242. 2 3 I b i d . , 1913, p. 352. 24Howay and Scholefield, British Columbia, vol. 3, pp. 428-31. 25 Alexander Malycky and Others, ed., Canadian Ethnic Studies, Calgary, 1969, vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 18-19; p. 25. 26 Howay and Scholefield, British Columbia, vol. 3, p. 431. Norris, Strangers Entertained, p. 101. 2g ....... Martin Nordegg, The Possibilities of Canada Are Truly Great. Toronto, Macmillan, 1971, p. 118. See also, Fred W. Field, Capital Investment  In Canada. The Monetary Times of Canada, Montreal, 1911, p. 38. 29 Field, Capital Investment in Canada, p. 30; p. 41. 30 "A Canadian Who Has Brought Canada And Germany Into Closer Relations," British Columbia Magazine. Vancouver, May 1914, p. 248. Boam and Brown in British Columbia describe the editors of the British Columbia Maga-zine. Dr. Frank B. Vrooman and F.O. Penberthy, as following a strong imperial policy, p. 461. 3 1 I b i d . 32 Norris, Strangers Entertained, p. 101. 33 Henderson's Directory, 1913, p. 252. 3 4Canada, F i f t h Census, 1911, vol. 2, p. 379. 35 Lloyd G. Reynolds, The British Immigrant: His Social and Economic  Adjustment. Toronto, Oxford University Press, 1935. Norris, Strangers Entertained, p. 99. See also, British Columbia  Magazine. May, 1914. 37 Frank Yeigh, Through the Heart of Canada, Toronto, 1907, p. 188. 38 Victoria Daily Colonist. 28 January 1914, p. 15. At a banquet given by the Vancouver German Club McBride paid tribute to the character of German settlers and citizenship in June, 1913. See, Castell Hopkins, Canadian Annual Review, 1913, p. 664. 3 9 John Fahey, Inland Empire: D.C. Corbln and Spokane, Seattle, Universi-ty of Washington Press, 1965, p. 63. 4°Charles Brian Williams, Canadian-American Trade Union Relations: A  Study of the Development of Blnational Unionism, unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, Cornell University, 1964, p. 154. 42 Brown and Boam, British Columbia, p. 366. 43 Canada, F i f t h Census. 1911, vol. 2, p. 332. The total population of Austro-Hungarians was 7,015 in 1911. 44 Public Archives of Canada, Department of the Interior, Immigration  Branch Fi l e s , (hereafter cited as Immigration F i l e s ) , Box 226, F i l e no. 571672, "Work, Wages and Land, the Railroad Route to A Free Farm," See also, Dawson and Younge, Pioneering in the Prairie Provinces, p. 16. 45 British Columbia, Sessional Papers, "Annual Report of Bureau of In-formation and Immigration," 1903, p. J31. 4 6Immlgratlon F i l e s . E.S. Robertson to W.D. Scott, 20 October 1907, Box 226, F i l e no. 571672. 47 Minutes of the Directors' Meetings, Crow's Nest Pass Coal Company, 1916, p. 76. ^8Canada, Department of Labors Labor Gazette (hereafter cited as Labor  Gazette), vol. 2, 1903-04, p. 540. A O J.B. Thornhill, B r i t i s h Columbia in the Making, London, 1913, p. 152. A successful German farmer told Thornhill he"wished he'd packed a wo-man with him." p. 85. The need for both the companionship and work that women could do was an important desire in a predominately single male population. ^Canada, House of Commons, Sessional Papers (hereafter cited as Can. S.P.), "Report of the Commissioners Appointed to Inquire Into Complaints Respecting Treatment of Labourers on the Crow's Nest Pass Railway," vol. 13, 1898, No. 90A, p. 14. 5 1 I b i d . , p. 17. 52 Ibid., p. 19. See also, Allerdale Grainger, Woodsmen of the West. Toronto, McClelland, 1964, p. 43. 5 3 I b i d . , p. 21. Public Archives of Canada, Frontier College Papers, General Corresp-ondence, F i l e : Camp Conditions, vol. 165, unsigned correspondence to Alfred Fitzpatrick, Director, p. 132. 55 PAC, Frontier College Papers, vol. 165, p. 1, "Annual Report 1915." 5 6 I b i d . , vol. 132, Annual Report, 1914, p. 2. 5 7 I b l d . 5 8 I b i d . 59 PAC, Frontier College Papers, vol. 165, p. 158. 6 0 I b i d . . R.C. Dearie to Alfred Fitzpatrick, 12 August 1914, p. 180.° 61 United States, Department of Trade and Commerce, U.S. Consular Re- ports. 1914, vol. 3, p. 1133. 62 James H. Gray, Red Lights on the Prairies. Toronto. Macmillan, 1971, p. 178. 63 Williams, Canadian-American Trade Union Relations, p. 167. 6 4 I b i d . , p. 168} p. 186. 6 5Harold W. Aurand, "Introduction," From the Molly Maguires to the  United Mine Workers, Philadelphia, Temple University Press, 1971, p. 141. 6^Paul P h i l l i p s , No Power Greater. Vancouver, B.C. Federation of Labor, 1967, p. 52. 6 7Harold A. Logan, The History of Trade Union Organization in Canada, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1928, p. 399. 68 Ibid., p. 377. See also, M.F. Timlin, 'Canada's Immigration Policy," Canadian Journal of Economics and P o l i t i c a l Science, vol. 26, No. 4, November 1960, p. 519. ^ B r i t i s h Columbia, Legislative Assembly Sessional Papers, "Report of the Special Commission Appointed to Inquire into Causes of Explo-sion in Coal Mines," 1903, p. J15. 7°H. Logan, The History of Trade Union Organizations in Canada, Univer-sity of Chicago Press, p. 432. Chapter II The Depression and Declaration of War: A Moderate P o l i c y to Regulate Enemy A l i e n s In British Columbia the year 1912 marked a downturn in the econo-mic development and prosperity which the province had experienced since the turn of the century. In response to unstable world monetary con-ditions and a lessening demand for natural resources on the world markets, decreases in coal, mineral and timber production weakened the provincial economy.*" Conflicts in the Balkan states of Europe and increasingly tense relations between Great Britain and Germany discouraged foreign 2 investors, who began hoarding their capital in case of war. In his annual report to the United States department of commerce, R.E. Mansfield, the American consul in Vancouver, cautioned American businessmen against making further investments because the depression was affecting a l l 3 trades and businesses in the province. Because of declining revenues and foreign investments, the provincial government was compelled to dis-continue many public works. By the summer of 1914 social unrest had grown amidst the increas-ing unemployment and rumours of imminent war. Communities in the inter-ior reported unsettled conditions in both the mining and logging camps as companies began shutting down. In the Crow's Nest Pass miners laid off at Michel and Coal Creek expressed bitterness over their dismissals,and over the provincial government's use of military force against the coal miners on Vancouver Island by refusing to contribute to or assist with 4 r e l i e f programmes initiated by church groups and businessmen. Although there were fewer dismissals at the mines and smelters in Grand Foriks, Rossland and T r a i l than in Crow's Nest large numbers of unemployed men and some extremely destitute foreigners appeared in Nelson. 5 A drought in the Okanagan Valley which ruined crops forced farm labourers to join the f i r s t soup lines ever reported in the interior.^ In Prince Rupert, where work had been plentiful since 1905 when the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway announced plans for the construction of a line, over three hundred men were unemployed. Though city o f f i c i a l s at Prince Rupert attempted to extend work on the docks and power plant by intro-ducing a s p l i t shift whereby men worked one week and then took the next off, the number of unemployed continued to r i s e . 7 Towns in the interior, which lacked large businesses capable of organizing and financing charities, were unable to maintain r e l i e f pro-grammes. As many small businesses failed the traditional source of donations dried up r e l i e f efforts. Idle workers began to d r i f t towards g Vancouver where the cost of living was lower and the climate milder. During the boom years Vancouver had employed many skilled and unskilled workers on a variety of construction projects. The season-ally unemployed — loggers, fishermen, or cannery workers — who ar-rived in Vancouver in early winter found work in the lumber mills or with the large building projects such as the Hotel Vancouver, the Cana-dian Pacific Terminal or with city street crews. But the recession a l -tered this pattern of winter work. At the beginning of August 1914 more than 2,000 men who arrived in Vancouver from the interior were un-Q able to find work. Construction projects had practically ceased and the lumber mills were dismissing hundreds of men. By September the Canadian Western Lumber Company and Fraser Mills had released over 1,400 men and reduced the wages of their remaining employees. 1 0 As 32. large numbers of non-resident workers congregated in Vancouver, city of-f i c i a l s anticipated conflicts between Canadian-British workers and for-eigners. The tendency of Vancouver o f f i c i a l s to foresee conflicts between national groups developed from their experiences in previous years. In 1912 organizers of the International Workers of the World had arrived in Vancouver from the State of Washington where they had been thrown out of work camps and "towns because of their efforts to organize workers. Im-mediately on their arrival in Vancouver they began organizing the un-employed. They held numerous street meetings and eventually aroused a large enough following to threaten a march on 8 February 1912 to city h a l l . * * City o f f i c i a l s feared that the march might lead to violence similar to the Chinatown Riots in 1907 when a mob led by agitators from the United States had demolished several shops in the Chinese and Japan-ese d i s t r i c t . The Chief of Police, Chamberlain, increased the size of the force with volunteers and prepared for the worst, issuing a city or-12 der to ban a l l street meetings and processions. At the same time Malcolm J . Reid, director for the Immigration branch in Vancouver, issued instructions to border guards to inspect closely aliens entering from 13 the United States. In view of the economic situation of 1913 and the ac t i v i t i e s of radical labour agitators, the Dominion Government issued an order-in-council in the spring of that year prohibiting the landing of a l l nati-on-14 a l i t i e s "to relieve the congested labor market in British Columbia." Although the order effectively prevented immigration from the United 33. States, i t did not relieve unemployment because migrants arrived from the prairie provinces. An incident in July, 1914 aroused h o s t i l i t y towards aliens. In an effort to test a Canadian regulation barring Sikh immigrants from en-tering British Columbia a Punjabi agitator chartered the Komagata Maru which arrived with more than 300 East Indians in the summer of 1914. 1 5 When immigration authorities refused permission for the passengers to land, the vessel remained in False Creek u n t i l escorted out of the har-bour by the H.M.C.S. Rainbow on 23 July. The incident drew attention to the Sikhs who were employed in the lumber mills and many unemployed men demanded that companies employing East Indians dismiss them. One corporation fired 120 Sikhs. By the end of July nearly 500 were unem-, 16 ployed. In order to provide more jobs for preferred settlers, the Vancou-ver ci t y council passed a resolution in April 1914 stating that only British subjects and ratepayers would be employed on public works. 1 7 Maurice Ginzberger, the Swiss consul, objected to the city*s discrim-ination against foreigners already in the province. Since many foreign labourers depended on employment on public works, especially in the con-struction trades and on street crews, Ginzberger argued that these per-18 sons would be left in d i f f i c u l t circumstances. With a l l industries cutting back employment more men would be competing for fewer jobs on the public works and the foreigners would face only the alternative of either leaving the province, or at least Vancouver, or seeking work elsewhere. 34. In spite of Ginzberger's complaints, the British Columbia Royal Commission on Labour reaffirmed in 1914 the city council's position when i t recommended that only British subjects should be employed on public works and that provincial legislation should exclude both unskilled and skilled alien labour from projects "in which the government can exercise , ..19 any control." The war which broke out in August focused attention on the Germans and Austro-Hungarians in the province. But the responsibility for estab-lishing regulations controlling the enemy aliens rested with the federal government, which outlined i t s policy at the special war session of par-liament. Sir Robert Borden, when announcing his government's policy on Aug-ust 19, emphasized that Canada had a constitutional and a moral respon-s i b i l i t y to protect the rights of enemy aliens. Borden introduced the government's policy by stating that he firmly believed the German and Austro-Hungarian immigrants would be loyal to their newly adopted home-land. "Therefore we have declared by Order-in-Council", he stated, that those people who were born in Germany or in Austria-Hungary and have come to Canada as adopted citizens of this country, whether they have be-come naturalized or not, are entitled to the protection of the law of Canada... that they shall not be molested or interfered with, unless any among them should desire to aid or abet the enemy or leave this country for the purpose of 2 Q fighting against Great Britain and her a l l i e s . The government's position was embodied in an official.«proclamation which had been issued on 15 August 1914 before the meeting of parliament. The 35. proclamation outlined the policy and assured enemy aliens that so long as they peacefully pursued their occupations they would not be inter-fered with unless there was evidence they were assisting the enemy. M i l i -tary reservists, or anyone attempting to flee the country, would be ar-rested and detained. However anyone detained under the regulations might be released i f he proved his r e l i a b i l i t y to the authorities and signed 21 an undertaking pledging loyalty and obedience to the Crown. Borden emphasized that the government's policy would be f a i r l y and judiciously enforced and urged Canadians to accept his moderate approach. The Prime Minister understood that feelings aroused by war might jeopardize his aim to maintain normal relations between enemy aliens and Canadians. Seeking to prevent personal vindictiveness he stated, "We have absolutely 22 no quarrel with the German people." He stressed that the entire world owed much to Germany's contribution to c i v i l i z a t i o n , and that Canada was waging a war against "military autocracy", and not against individuals of German origin who had settled in Canada. Revealing a sensitive understanding for the dilemma in which many enemy aliens found themselves, Sir Wi If rid'JLaurier, the leader of the opposition, shared the prime minister's views. He maintained that German speaking immigrants had made good settlers and that they would stand 23 true to British institutions. A natural affection for their homeland, particularly among the more recent immigrants, placed them in a painful 24 situation where the "mind and heart are driven in opposite directions." Lack of constitutional freedom in Germany had permitted the "personal imperialism" of one man to launch a world war, Laurier declared, and 36. Germans in Canada would have to share responsibility during the war 25 against such despotism. The special war session of parliament had convened not only to ap-prove emergency measures already taken by the government but also to con-sider the War Measures B i l l to ensure to the government legal authority to order any special measures i t considered necessary. Indluded in the broad powers incorporated into the b i l l was an article authorizing the Minister of Justice to regulate a l l legal proceedings relating to enemy aliens. Although the courts might proceed in cases involving enemy a l -iens, any disposition relating to b a i l , discharge, or t r i a l required the 26 consent of the Minister of Justice. Meanwhile the government in British Columbia had responded quickly to the declaration of war. Premier Sir Richard McBride was already di r -ecting his f u l l attention to the defence of his province. McBride, who had founded the British Empire League in British Columbia, had long advo-27 cated a Canadian contribution to the Imperial Navy. On August 30, 1914 he summarized his views in a letter to the editor of Sunset, a popular j ournal: No one who realizes the situation can f a i l to be impressed with the necessity for adequate means of defence both by land and sea, and in the attitude I have taken consistent-ly, I have always advocated this view. Imperial authori-ties made large expenditures -- the need for strengthening and adding to their work must be evident not only from a Canadian but an Imperial point of view.28 The only warship assigned for permanent duty to the Pacific Coast in 1914 was the H.M.C.S. Rainbow, a second class cruiser. The ship was inadequate for the defence of the province. Early in August McBride 37. took immediate action to augment the naval forces. On August 4 he secretly negotiated the purchase of two submarines from a Seattle ship-ping company. When his action was announced, i t boosted the confidence of the people of Victoria who f e l t especially exposed to the threat of 29 naval attack. On August 7 the federal government took over the sub-marines and McBride continued to urge more protection when he cabled to Ottawa recommending that the ocean liner Empress of Russia be manned 30 and equipped for coastal defence. The premier also considered the m i l i t i a and provincial police force to be inadequate. The permanent m i l i t i a in British Columbia i n -cluded a staff of 125 officers at Esquimalt, and an active contingent at Vernon and other interior communities. The total strength of the 31 m i l i t i a was just over three thousand men. On 31 July, 1914 the premier telegraphed to Borden urging the immediate c a l l for 100,000 volunteers. Three days later he proposed that a British Columbia re-giment be recruited for the defence of Victoria, Prince Rupert, Vancou-32 ver and other communities. McBride had support for his contention that the land forces of the province were inadequate. On^July 10 the Associated Boards of the Western Mainland forwarded a resolution to the provincial govern-ment requesting the re-organization and expansion of the provincial police force along the line of the Royal Northwest Mounted Police so 33 that "thorough protection might be afforded a l l communities." In order to maintain the provincial police at f u l l strength, McBride issued orders on August 22 prohibiting the enlistment of constables 38. in the Canadian Expeditionary Force. On August 10 the federal immi-gration authorities, who had only nine supervisors and sixty border guards in the province, requested the co-operation and assistance of the m i l i t i a 35 and provincial police in keeping surveillance of enemy aliens. If the provincial government and federal o f f i c i a l s were concerned about the forces to safeguard the province, there was no question about popular sentiment favoring mobilization for war. Individuals, organiza-tions and municipalities flooded provincial offices with telegrammes sup-3 6 porting the war effort, offering contributions and volunteering services. Men throughout the province rushed to join companies of volunteers. The Di s t r i c t of Cowichan telegraphed McBride that two companies had already 37 been formed by August 5 and over 300 additional men wanted to en l i s t . In the Okanagan Valley the rush to enlist gave communities a distinct mar-3 8 t i a l atmosphere. Home guards formed overnight in Prince Rupert and other coastal c i t i e s . Victoria's British Campaigners Association estab-39 lished the Victoria Volunteer Guard. Church leaders expressed f u l l sup-port for the war effort and played an important part in recruitment 40 drives. In the martial atmosphere generated by the enthusiastic mobiliza-tion for war, citizens and government o f f i c i a l s turned their attention increasingly to the internal security of the province. People became increasingly concerned over the presence of enemy aliens and as their concern found expression, Germans and Austro-Hungarians began to leave the province in the f i r s t week of August. Malcolm J . Reid, Director of Immigration in British Columbia, reported to VJ.D. Scott the Super-intendent of Immigration, that 300 enemy aliens fled to the United 39. States i n the f i r s t week of the war. Numerous Germans and Austro-Hungarians applied f o r entry into the state of Washington. American border guards i n August informed Canadian agents that they were r e c e i v -ing an average of f i f t y immigrants a day. This trend continued u n t i l September.^ 2 In order to achieve control of the exodus, Canadian o f f i c i a l s re-quired the co-operation of the United States border guards and of the American Consul i n Vancouver, R.E. Mansfield. American agents a s s i s t e d the Canadians by providing the names of enemy a l i e n s who made a p p l i c a -43 t i o n to enter the United States. With t h i s information Canadian agents apprehended several enemy a l i e n s before they reached the border. Mans-f i e l d had also begun to issue an oath to be taken by enemy a l i e n s ap-plyi n g f o r entry into the United States. Unless applicants swore that they desired to enter the United States only for employment or residence "as i t i s now impossible f o r me to obtain employment i n B r i t i s h Columbia and i t i s not my i n t e n t i o n to j o i n any m i l i t a r y organization", they were 44 not permitted to enter the United States. Malcolm J . Reid questioned the value of t h i s document and ordered Canadian border guards to be guided by "your own judgment, ignoring, i f you deem advisable, any representation 45 made by acting consuls of h o s t i l e nations acting i n that capacity." The main objective of Canadian agents was to prevent German r e s e r v i s t s from r e -turning to t h e i r b a t t a l i o n s i n Europe. Among the f i r s t people to f l e e were many reserve o f f i c e r s , who 46 owned property and operated businesses i n Vancouver. M i l i t i a and im-migration o f f i c i a l s considered these men r i s k s to the s e c u r i t y of the 40. province. They feared that they might attempt to organize sabotage or provide information about military installations. General Sir Wil-liam D. Otter, who became the Director for Internment Operations, described the threat: The great danger in regard to the Germans and Austrians i s not be anticipated from the working classes so much as from those in business. Most of the Austrians are working men, and though they might cause trouble i f not kept under observation, i t is the German commercial agents, and men in sim-i l a r position who are most likely to prove dangerous. They do not mix with the work-ingmen — they are educated, pushful and i n -telligent, and many of them have seen service in the German fo r c e s . ^ The educated German became the major concern of police, particularly after control on the border became more effective and enemy aliens sought other means of escaping through underground smuggling routes which were directed by German residents. At the time of the declaration of war Dominion police had received information from Reid that the German Consul, in Vancouver, G. Wulfsohn, was providing transportation and money to anyone willing to leave the 48 province to join the German forces. After the German and Austro-Hungarian consulates were o f f i c i a l l y closed, Wulfsohn remained in Van-couver. Canadian immigrations agents, suspecting that he was organiz---ing a smuggling route with the assistance of the Austro-Hungarian con-sul in Seattle, on 18 September intercepted a letter from the Austro-Hungarian consul outlining plans for giving aid to a l l reservists re-turning to Europe. His plan made provision for financial assistance 49 to families who might be lef t behind. Immigration agents foiled the 41. smuggling plans when on :/29 cSfpfcejnberntf&y captured several enemy aliens on a launch headed for Puget Sound.^ The agents later arrested Carl von Mackensen, charging him with assisting the enemy by directing the 51 smuggling route from his Port Kells poultry farm. The disclosure of these activities heightened popular sentiment against the moderate pol-icy being pursued by the federal government. For many British Columbians the departure of many well known Germans from Vancouver proved that the Germans were disloyal and untrustworthy. In Victoria, city o f f i c i a l s ordered enemy aliens to register with the city police even though the federal government did not require the 52 registration of enemy aliens. In Victoria there was fear of German attack on the Esquimalt naval base. Rumours circulated freely about 53 the presence of German spies. In Prince Rupert police requested per-mission from immigration authorities to register a l l Germans and Austro-Hungarians but the Immigration Branch deferred the request because i t 54 had no legal authority to require enemy aliens to register. Enemy aliens in both Victoria and Prince Rupert failed to report to police and this failure created further anxiety concerning their loyalty to Canada. In the contagious atmosphere of suspicion prevalent in a society mobilizing for war, rumours spread rapidly. They were not entirely un-founded. Reliable sources reported that spies planned to i n f i l t r a t e the province to sabotage military installations. A. Carnegie Ross, the British Consul in San Francisco, wired Government House in Victoria on 28iAugust that fourteen German chemists were bound for Vancouver 42. to establish signal lights for German cruisers. In spite of Ross's admission that he could not verify his information, Reid appointed spec-i a l agents to watch for the saboteurs. On 7 September Ross sent a con-firmed report that another group of saboteurs, led by John Galitz, alias "Black Jack", had departed for Vancouver Island to sabotage the coal 56 mines at Nanaimo. There was also real concern over the possibility of German sympathizers in the State of Washington joining with Irish Sinn Fein elements to invade the province. The State of Washington had a population of 87,000 Germans and 19,000 Austro-Hungarians. Reid directed his agents in Seattle to "take every precaution in rejecting aliens with whom England i s at war."''7 Provincial police and border inspectors searched a l l immi-grants into British Columbia for concealed weapons. Agents assigned to keep watch on the German-American Alliance reported that at a se-cret meeting of the Alliance a plan had been formulated for an attack on Canada with the cooperation of Germans and Austro-Hungarians a l -58 ready in the country. Nothing, however, came of this plan. After the f i r s t weeks the war scare subsided, and i t appeared that the rumours had been exaggerated. The Dominion Chief of Police, A.P. Sherwood, had placed agents throughout the United States to ob-serve the activities of Germans and organizations sympathetic to Ger-many. The reports made by his agents showed that there was no attempt 59 on the West Coast to invade British Columbia. Borden and other fed-eral ministers had also been informed that there did not appear to be "any likelihood of Austrians or Germans in organized bodies attacking 43. public and private property anywhere." Reid, however, continued to receive alarming reports from Ross i n San Francisco. He took every pre-caution against any p o t e n t i a l threat to the province. In the c r i s i s of the war emergency, Canadians generally desired assurance that they were re c e i v i n g protection and considered the moder-ate regulations embodied i n the proclamation of August 15 to be inade-quate. As public opinion urged a firmer p o l i c y towards enemy a l i e n s t h i s issue occupied federal cabinet ministers i n the autumn of 1914. The government had received proposals f o r the internment and r e g i s t r a t i o n of enemy a l i e n s as e a r l y as August. S i r Thomas G. Shaugh-nessey had written a lengthy l e t t e r to Martin B u r r e l l , the Minister of A g r i c u l t u r e , on 14 August recommending that the government int e r n Austro-Hungarians i n B r i t i s h Columbia because so many were unemployed. If they were allowed to become d e s t i t u t e , Shaughnessey f e l t they would turn to crime i n a desperate e f f o r t to survive. Enemy a l i e n s applying f o r r e -l i e f , he wrote, should be detained and held " u n t i l the war i s over, or 61 employment o f f e r s . " A l l cabinet members received copies of Shaugh-nessey* s l e t t e r . But there were objections from some members, and Arthur Meighen, the S o l i c i t o r General, opposed the plan because he 62 thought such camps would become "a lazy man's haven." He proposed instead a plan whereby Austro-Hungarians would receive forty-acre a l -lotments which they would farm. With government assistance Meighen believed enemy a l i e n s would "jump at the chance to acquire a small 63 piece of land." Borden disapproved both plans. Instead of deciding to intern 44. destitute enemy aliens, he was willing to provide funds by order-in-council to various lo c a l i t i e s to be distributed by American consuls who represented German and Austro-Hungarian interests in Canada. These grants soon proved to be inadequate. In Victoria, where over 300 Austro-Hungarians were absolutely destitute, the city council was obliged to provide work for some of them on the city rock pile. Funds were unavail-64 able for employing the others. In small communities such as Grand Fords, where many Austro-Hungarians had lost their jobs during the f i r s t week of the war, local residents complained that there were no f a c i l -i t i e s for maintaining or detaining the aliens. They requested infor-mation as to what measures should be taken to safeguard the community, since "they are not allowed to enter the U.S.A. in search of employ-6 5 ment, i t may make them restive further along in the season." As more complaints came in from communities a l l across Canada, Borden's government recognized that some changes would be necessary. Borden considered the internment of enemy aliens en masse an im-possibility because of the expense and the number of personnel required to undertake such a hugfe programme. Some measures were necessary, how-ever, and before making a decision Borden consulted the Colonial Office on what course he should pursue. On 22 October Borden wrote to London saying the Canadian government did not believe mass internment was feas-ible or just because "the fact that these foreigners have come to Can-ada practically by invitation makes i t especially d i f f i c u l t to deal with." 6 6 Sir Edward Grey replied on 26 October that Canada should de-tain a l l enemy aliens; this policy was the only way of assuring that 45. no Germans or Austro-Hungarians would " d r i f t back to the enemy's f i r -ing l i n e . " The Prime Minis t e r hesitated to accept Grey's recommendation. Apart from the expense of such a p o l i c y , Borden had moral objections to wholesale internment. He recognized that the fate of many i n d i v i -duals had been determined by the circumstances of war. He revealed h i s understanding f o r the dilemma confronting enemy al i e n s when he wrote to an immigration o f f i c e r i n Winnipeg regarding the detention of Stephen Schwarz, a chemical engineer who had emigrated from Austro-Hungary i n 1913 to take a job i n the c i t y : I t i s not possible to lay down a general r u l e . Public opinion has i n many instances brought about great hardship by fo r c i n g employers to discharge quiet, peaceful c i t i z e n s , who have no sympathy with the enemies' cause and no desire except to attend to t h e i r ordinary a v o c a t i o n s . ^ Even though he was facing c r i t i c i s m from many sources to enact s t r i c t measures against the enemy a l i e n s , wholesale internment, Borden feared, would compromise Canada's i n t e g r i t y . In an e f f o r t to preserve Canada's commitment to immigrants the government issued an order-in-counci1 on 28 October 1914 which made sev-e r a l moderate provisions f o r the control of enemy a l i e n s . It provided f o r the appointment of "Registrars of Enemy A l i e n s " i n communities that requested r e g i s t r a r s . R e g i s t r a t i o n i n i t i a l l y applied only to those enemy al i e n s r e s i d i n g i n the community or "within twenty miles there-ftr\ of." Registrars had the authority to issue exeats to a l i e n enemies i f they were assured such a l i e n s would "not mate r i a l l y a s s i s t , by 46. active service, information or otherwise, the forces of the enemy." This clause allowed f o r those enemy a l i e n s who were unemployed and who desired to leave the country to do so l e g a l l y , so long as l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s thought they would not return to t h e i r homeland to j o i n the enemy*s forces. However, r e g i s t r a r s also had the power to detain and i n t e r n any i n d i v i d u a l who could not be s a f e l y l e f t at l a r g e . 7 0 A check on'this power was included i n the order whereby an enemy a l i e n could sign an undertaking pledging l o y a l t y to Canada and the United Kingdom and obtain release so long as he abided by the terms of the o r d e r . 7 1 This clause was intended to prevent the abuse of such auth-o r i t y and i t provided a degree of assurance to the enemy a l i e n that he would not s u f f e r internment because of the personal f e e l i n g s of r e g i s -t r a r s . The order-in-counci1 was a departure from the government's p o l -i c y outlined i n the proclamation of August 15, when enemy a l i e n s were exempt from any r e s t r i c t i o n s so long as they worked peacefully and r e f r a i n e d from expressing pro-German sympathies. In view of the large numbers of enemy a l i e n s who were attempting to leave Canada and the fears awakened by rumours, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n B r i t i s h Columbia, the order-in-counci1 was a reasonable precaution against the prospect of h o s t i l e a c t i v i t i e s by enemy a l i e n s . In V i c t o r i a , Mayor Alex. Stewart a f t e r consulting with naval and m i l i t i a o f f i c e r s , requested Ottawa to designate the c i t y as a r e -g i s t r a t i o n center. Stewart stated t h i s was "an urgent matter due to 72 the a c t i v i t i e s of a l i e n s . " Although no charges or evidence had been 47. l a i d against enemy a l i e n s , V i c t o r i a ' s c i t i z e n s f e l t p a r t i c u l a r l y v u l -nerable to attack because of t h e i r exposure to the P a c i f i c and the pre-sence of the Esquimalt base. In fac t the m i l i t i a commander had already set up a department of a l i e n r e s e r v i s t s within the m i l i t i a organiza-t i o n . Major Ridgeway Wilson had directed t h i s department and when Ottawa agreed to appoint a r e g i s t r a r of enemy a l i e n s , Wilson received the appointment Ion MI^fMdvembW/'l>yl?4. M fHtns^^pbtKtment^had <Wi£&lMtf§ -ef-f e c t on the population i n V i c t o r i a . Although the October 28 order-in-counci1 represented a new p o l i c y , l i m i t a t i o n s on the r i g h t s of enemy al i e n s had also occurred i n other aspects. When war was declared many enemy a l i e n s who hoped to protect t h e i r legal r i g h t s applied f o r n a t u r a l i z a t i o n papers. Auth-o r i t y f o r granting n a t u r a l i z a t i o n rested with the courts. A v a r i e t y of court decisions l e f t the question as to whether the enemy a l i e n could receive c i t i z e n s h i p i n doubt, but judges i n B r i t i s h Columbia tended to decide against enemy a l i e n a p p l i c a t i o n s . G.H. Thompson, a county court judge i n the Kootenay d i s t r i c t held i n one case that "No enemy a l i e n has a r i g h t to apply to the c i v i l courts during war. His 74 c i v i l r i g h t s are suspended." In the case of an a p p l i c a t i o n f o r natur-a l i z a t i o n i n V i c t o r i a , P.S. Lampman held a s i m i l a r p o s i t i o n when he stated i n the i n t e r e s t of public safety enemy a l i e n s could not be na-75 t u r a l i z e d . On the other hand, the B r i t i s h Columbia Supreme Court decided that enemy al i e n s might receive c i t i z e n s h i p . The issue r e -mained unresolved; but generally enemy alie n s applying f o r c i t i z e n s h i p f a i l e d to receive t h e i r papers. As a means of expressing h i s l o y a l t y 48. or of protecting h i s private i n t e r e s t s , n a t u r a l i z a t i o n of the enemy a l i e n s was not an avenue to maintaining h i s status i n a society at war. While l i m i t a t i o n s on n a t u r a l i z a t i o n were preventing enemy a l i e n s from becoming c i t i z e n s , people were clamoring for the removal of natur-a l i z e d German-Canadians from c i v i l service or p o l i t i c a l p o s i t i o n s . In B r i t i s h Columbia, members of the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly requested F.W. Behnsen to explain h i s German background. Behnsen had been a r e s i -dent of V i c t o r i a for more than t h i r t y - f o u r years, he was n a t u r a l i z e d and he had represented V i c t o r i a i n the Assembly since 1907. However, he was compelled to r e i t e r a t e h i s allegiance to the crown before the meeting of the Assembly i n February, 1915. 7 6 Another leading member of V i c t o r i a ' s German community, Carl Lowenberg, experienced personal embarrassment and pain when he was forced to leave h i s adopted land because of h i s p o s i t i o n as German Consul. For many years Lowenberg had been resident i n V i c t o r i a and had established himself i n several l i n e s of business ranging from r e a l - e s t a t e , insurance and c l o t h i n g . When ordered to leave the c i t y he was unable to bear the loss of h i s home, business and personal r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n V i c t o r i a . 7 7 Other residents of the province who had come from Germany more recently made i n d i v i d u a l decisions as to whether to remain. Many prominent property owners and businessmen f l e d to the United States leaving behind t h e i r substantial i n t e r e s t s . Dr. Karl Weiss, the pub-l i s h e r of the Vancouver German Press, had issued a statement to the Vancouver News-Advertizer that Germans i n Vancouver would be l o y a l to 49. Canada. Weiss spoke out against the war but he was unable to con-79 tinue publishing h i s newspaper, and i n September he l e f t f o r S e a t t l e . Another leading f i g u r e , Alvo von Alvensleben, had been i n Germany when war was declared. As he was returning to B r i t i s h Columbia, he was r e -ported to have expected no problems i n re-entering thetprovince. "My f r i e n d s " , he s a i d , "know that while lianaa good German and that my object i n coming back i s s t r i c t l y to attend to my business, I am not coming 80 back as an enemy to the people I have l i v e d among so many years." Immigration o f f i c i a l s , however, prevented Alvensleben from entering B r i t i s h Columbia. The l i m i t a t i o n s imposed by the order-in-counci1, by the court decisions and by the r e s t r i c t i o n s on the re-entry of resident enemy al i e n s extended also to the enlistment i n the armed forces, a r o l e i n which the n a t u r a l i z e d German-Canadians might have been able to prove t h e i r l o y a l t y . In Vancouver many a l i e n s , among them a few n a t u r a l i z e d Germans and Austro-Hungarians, had requested the government to permit them to form a company. The a l i e n s wanted a foreign legion so that they might express t h e i r l o y a l t y to the B r i t i s h Empire. German-Cana-dians who s u c c e s s f u l l y e n l i s t e d discovered that once they were i n Eng-land they were taken out of the Canadian contingents and sent back to Canada. Canadian m i l i t i a a u t h o r i t i e s considered the enlistment of 81 persons of foreign b i r t h or n a t i o n a l i t y inadvisable. Even i f they were na t u r a l i z e d B r i t i s h subjects t h e i r "German sounding names" made them suspect i n the eyes of m i l i t a r y o f f i c i a l s . One s o l d i e r , F.A. Werner, who had been naturalized i n Vancouver i n 1906, had e n l i s t e d 50. because he "thought i f he did not enlist that he would look sheepish 83 after the war." However, he was sent back from England because he had been born in Austro-Hungary. The opportunities available to the enemy aliens to prove his loyalty, then, were severely limited. The only way in which they might actively express their loyalty was through contributions to fund raising campaigns. Otherwise they were relegated to a passive role, one in which they were to work peacefully, avoid conflicts with Canadians, and report regularly to registration officers. Prior to the war, the recession had already focused attention on the presence of aliens in the community. When war broke out the mobilization of citizens for defence at home and service abroad created unrest and drew attention to the enemy aliens. Federal authorities attempted to preserve the legal rights of enemy aliens so long as they were peaceful. But the large numbers of reservists fleeing the coun-try, rumours of sabotage and fears of attack led the public to demand stricter regulations. In response to such demands the government passed orders-in-counci1 requiring registration and in some instances internment. The original intentions of the government to protect enemy aliens from oppressive measures was gradually ending, although as yet the government's policies appeared a reasonable precaution during war-time. 51. Footnotes Brian Ray Douglas Smith, Sir Richard McBride; A Study in the Con- servative Party of British Columbia 1903-1916, unpublished M.A. Thesis, Queens University, 1959, p. 185. 2 Canada, Parliament, House of Commons, O f f i c i a l Report of Debates, 2 March 1915, p. 602,(Hereafter cited as Can. House of Commons, O f f i c i a l Report of Debates). 3 United States, Department of Commerce, Bureau of Foreign and Domes- ti c Commerce, U.S. Daily Consular and Trade Reports 1914, (Hereafter cited as U.S. Consular Reports), vol. 3, p. 536. 4 Presbyterian Church of Canada, Acts and Proceedings, Fortieth General  Assembly, Toronto, 1914, pp. 43-44. Kootenay miners followed develop-ments closely in the Vancouver Island coal strikes since the U.M.W.A. was leading the effort to organize the mines. ^Provincial Archives of British Columbia (Hereafter cited as P.A.B.C.) Sir Richard McBride Papers, Outward Correspondence, McBride to W.J. Bowser, 8 December 1914, p. 1002. Presbyterian Church of Canada, Acts and Proceedings 1914, pp. 47-48. ^Public Archives of Canada, (Hereafter cited as PAC) Department of the Interior, Immigration Branch, Correspondence Concerning Unemployment in Vancouver,(Hereafter cited as Immigration Branch, Correspondence) Box 257, F i l e 75 2149, unsigned letter to F.A. Acland, 22 September 1914, n.pp. 8Ibid. Q Ibid.,F.F. Quinn, Dominion Inspector of Employment Agencies for B r i t -ish Columbia to Malcolm R.J. Reid, Dominion Immigration Agent and In-spector for British Columbia, 31 August 1914. 1 0 I b i d . , Quinn reported that 10,000 people were unemployed in Vancouver, i t s environs and Victoria. Unemployment was not limited to unskilled labour; i t included large numbers of tradesmen, c l e r i c a l workers and accountants. Quinn proposed that vacant city lots could be used for planting truck gardens with the government supplying seed and imple-ments. He also recommended that enemy aliens s t i l l employed should be replaced by Canadian workers. ^Immigration Branch, Correspondence, Box 257, F i l e 752149, Quinn to Reid, 12 February 1912, p. 1. 52. 12..., Ibid. 13 Ibid., p. 8. 14 U.S. Consular Reports. 1914, vol. 3, p. 536. 1 5Margaret A. Ormsby, British Columbia: A History. Macmillans, Van-couver, 1958, p. 369. ^Immigration Branch, Correspondence, Box 257, F i l e 752149, Reid to W.D. Scott, Superintendent of Immigration, 29 July 1914. 17r... Ibid. 1 8 I b i d . . 21 April 1914. 19 British Columbia, Legislative Assembly, Sessional Papers, (Hereafter cited as B.C.S.P.), "Royal Commission on Labour", 1914, p. 25M. 20 Canada, Parliament, Houseof Commons, (Hereafter cited as Can. S.P.) O f f i c i a l Report of Debates Special War Session, 19 August 1914, pp. 14-15. 21 The Canada Gazette, vol 47, no. 7, 15 August 1914, p. 530. The clause reads "Such persons so long as they quietly pursue their ordinary avoca-tions shall not be arrested, detained or interfered with...." 22 Can. S.P., Special War Session, p. 14. 2 3 I b i d . , 19 August 1914, p. 10. 24.,,. Ibid. 25..., Ibid. Ibid. 2 7Smith, McBride, p. 237. 28 P.A.B.C., McBride Papers, Outward Correspondence, 30 July 1914, p. 932. 53. 29 Gilbert Norman Tucker, "Canada's Fir s t Submarines: CC1 and CC2. An Episode of the Naval War in the Pacific, 1914-1918," British Columbia  Historical Quarterly, vol. 7, no. 3,(July 1943), p. 156. 30 McBride Papers, Outward Correspondence, McBride to Borden, 3 August 1914, p. 907. 3 1 Brown and Boam, British Columbia,pp. 156-157. 32 McBride Papers, Outward Correspondence, McBride to Borden, 31 July 1914, p. 929. 33Tt_. Ibid., McBride to Bowser, 10 July 1914, p. 754. 34 Ibid., McBride to Conservative Association of Fernie, 22 August 1914, p. 942. 3 5 Immigration Branch, Correspondence, Reid to Scott, 10 August 1914. McBride Papers, Inward Correspondence, Imperial Order, Daughters of the Empire of McBride, 4 August 1914, p. 924; Royal Mounted Police Veterans Association to McBride, 6 August 1914, p. 928. 3 7 I b i d . , Cowichan Dis t r i c t Council to McBride, 5 August 1914, p. 931. 38R.H. Roy, Sinews of Steel: The History of the British Columbia Dra- gons, Kelowna, 1965, p. 42. 3 9P.A.B.C, Minutes of the British Campaigners Association, passim, see also, Roy Sinews of Steel, p. 37. 4 0John Fairfax, "Canadian Churches and the Last War," Canadian Forum, v. 16 (November 1934), p. 12, passim. 4 1Immigration Branch, Correspondence, Reid to Scott, 10 August 1914, Box 320, F i l e 881866, Registration of Enemy Aliens. 4 2 I b i d . , 3 September 1914. See also, Bellingham Herald, 3 September 1914, p. 3. 4 3 I b i d . , 20 August 1914. 54. 44 Ibid . I b i d . 46 Ib i d . , Reid to Scott, 4 September 1914. 47 J . C a s t e l l Hopkins, Canadian Annual Review of Public A f f a i r s . 1914, p. 278. 48 Immigration Branch, Correspondence, Box 320, F i l e 881866, Reid to Scott, 5 August 1914. 49 Ibid. 5 <\he Vancouver Province, 29 September 1914, p. 1. 5*The B r i t i s h Columbian, 16 January 1915, p. 1. 52 Immigration Branch, Correspondence, Box 257, F i l e 752149, Chrow to Reid, 29 October 1914. 53 Interview with Mr. Ainsley Helmcken, C i t y A r c h i v i s t , V i c t o r i a . 5 Z ,P.A.C, Robert L a i r d Borden Papers, v o l . 191-192, F i l e 674(1) War  A l i e n s , C i t y Council of Prince Rupert to Commissioner of Customs, 2 September 1914, p. 105980. 5 5Immigration Branch, Correspondence, Box 320, F i l e 881866, A.Carnegie Ross to L t . Governor F. Barward, V i c t o r i a , 28 August 1914. c/: Ibid., 7 September 1914. 5 7 I b i d . , Reid to Scott, 15 August 1914. 5 8P.A.C, Borden Papers, v o l . 191, F i l e 674(1) War A l i e n s , A.P. Sherwood to L.C. C h r i s t i e , 4 September 1914, p. 10595. See also, P.A.C, Depart-ment of Secretary of State, World War I F i l e s , v o l . 52, F i l e no. 203-1. 5 9 I b i d . , Sherwood to Borden, 4 September 1914, p. 106069; pp. 106064-106065; passim. 60..., Ibid . 53. 6 1P.A.C, Borden Papers, S i r Thomas G. Shaughnessey to Hon. Martin B u r r e l l , Minister of A g r i c u l t u r e , v o l . 191(1), F i l e War A l i e n s . 26 August 1914, p. 105935. 6 2 I b i d . , 28 August 1914, p. 105952. 63..., Ibid . 64 Immigration Branch, Correspondence, Box 320, F i l e 881866, "Memoran-dum on Germans and Austro-Hungarians i n V i c t o r i a , " Reid to Scott, 29 October 1914. Ibid., P.T. Callum to Scott, 21 August 1914. 6 6P.A.C, Borden Papers, G.H. Perley to F.R. Acland, 22 October 1914, v o l . 191, F i l e 674(2) War A l i e n s , p. 106260. 6 7 I b i d . , Borden to T. Walker, Immigration Agent, Winnipeg, 28 November 1914, p. 106373. Canada, Department of the Secretary of State, War Documents, p. 575. 69 Ibid., p. 175. 7 0P.A.C, Borden Papers, Alex Stewart to Borden, v o l . 171, F i l e 674(2), 9 November 1914, p. 106299. Ibid. Ibid. 73 Canada, War Documents, p. 175. 7 4Hopkins, C.A.R., 1915, p. 283. 7 5 I b i d . , p. 284. 7 6 B r i t i s h Columbian, 3 February 1915, p. 1. Ainsley Helmcken, C i t y A r c h i v i s t , V i c t o r i a , 17 October 1970. 56. Vancouver News Advertiser, 2 September 1914, p. 1. 79 Vancouver Sun. 26 September 1914, p. 1. 80 Vancouver Province. 20 August 1914, p. 1. 81 P.A.C., Department of Militian Defence Papers, vol. 857, Fi l e 16, "Enlistment of Galician and Austrian Parentage in C.E.F.", Adj. Gen. Canadian M i l i t i a to D.O.L.. No. IV, 5 August 1914. 82 Ibid.. Adj. Gen. Canadian M i l i t i a to DC: 2nd Division, Toronto, 24 February 1915. 83 Ibid., F i l e IIIII, "Copy of draft addressed to Governor General of Canada respecting soldier of alien origin in Canadian Training Divis-ion, Brawshott, 6 November 1916. Chapter III Economic Imperatives and the War: Alien Enemy Policy Transformed 57. In contrast to their spirited enthusiasm for the war effort dur-ing the f i r s t weeks, British Columbians exhibited a quiet and calm mood in January 1915. On the European front Canadian forces had not yet been engaged in a major battle and as recruits d r i l l e d on the training grounds at Vernon and Victoria, the war s t i l l seemed more in preparation than in actual conflict. As the i n i t i a l fear of invasion failed to materialize and the activities of enemy aliens came under stricter control, there was a less agitated atmosphere. Major Ridgeway Wilson, Registrar of Alien Enemies in B.C., announced that adequate measures had been taken for the registration and internment of alien enemies. On the 5 January 1915 he requested the Minister of Justice to close the Registrar's Of-1 f ice. The active involvement of fathers and sons, who had rushed to join the expeditionary force on the home guards, demonstrated the i n -tense desire to defend the province and the Empire. In some instances enlisted men had a compelling urge to escape the mundane problems of the depression and unemployment. Premier McBride, whose government had faced increasing criticism as the depression deepened, had as-sumed a dynamic leadership when war was declared. He linked any criticism of his government's policies to disloyalty towards Great Britain. In November 1914 McBride, however, had departed for England leaving his Attorney-General J.W. Bowser to confront mounting opposi-tion to his government from municipalities where welfare costs were rising with the growing numbers of unemployed. 58. Vancouver City Council had appointed the Rev. George D. Ireland as City Relief Officer in October. During November and December the city expended $6,464 on r e l i e f . Of this amount $4,312 was for single 3 men. This expenditure excluded amounts paid to more than 3,690 men who were working on half-day shifts on a variety of public works. In the f i r s t three months of 1915 r e l i e f costs soared as hundreds of unemployed men drifted into Vancouver. In January 1915 the city spent $19,000 on r e l i e f . Ireland predicted the re l i e f bureau would be un-able to handle the influx of unemployed who numbered nearly twenty thousand by the end of March. From 1 November 1914 to 31 March 1915 Vancouver spent for food, beds, board, fuel, rent and transportation $72,424 for direct r e l i e f . An additional $75,000 was expended on re-l i e f work for married men.5 F.F. Quinn reported to the Immigration Branch that sixty-five per cent of the men on direct assistance were Russians and that the remainder represented a mixture of foreigners, including a few Austro-Hungarians.^ Despite fear that bread riots might ensue i f the city cut r e l i e f , the city discontinued the d i s t r i -bution of bread and soup tickets to more than 2,000 men on 8 A p r i l . 7 The depletion of municipal funds compelled the Vancouver City Council to seek assistance from the provincial government. But Vic-toria, although i t provided assistance to communities, expected in -corporated municipalities to look after their own residents. In March, however, Bowser as Acting Premier extended a loan of $10,000 to Vancouver and intimated that future assistance might be made avail-able to other municipalities particularly with regard to the non-8 resident unemployed. 59. The Vancouver aldermen had hoped that the provincial government would assume the responsibility when i t voted to cut off assistance to foreigners. Bowser intended, however, to shift this responsibility to the federal authorities. He argued that the provincial govern-ment could scarcely be held responsible for maintaining unemployed aliens since alienscame under the jurisdiction of the Immigration Branch. On 9 April he announced that the provincial government had opened negotiations with Ottawa for the deportation of unemployed 9 foreigners, or for the internment of enemy aliens. In an interview with Vancouver journalists he stated: I have again urged Sir Robert that some action should be taken with the city of Vancouver to-wards deporting certain classes and also intern-ing others, and I am pressing upon him that the same practice should be followed in Fort George, for we now, within the last few days, have had thrown on our hands there a large number of alien enemies as well as Russians and other inhabitants of Southern Europe whom we today are feeding.^ In order to ensure a satisfactory solution to the unemployment prob-lem Bowser continued to pursue the issue with the Federal government. On 12 April he informed the press that his representations had been successful. 1 1 He requested Major Ridgway Wilson to confer with Mayor L.D. Taylor of Vancouver and Colonel Duff-Stewart, the commander of the m i l i t i a in Vancouver, to make plans for the deportation of enemy aliens and to discuss with the United States Consul the entry of 12 these foreigners into Washington. On 23 April Borden instructed the military authorities that unemployed alien enemies in the prov-ince might be interned. On the following day an order-in-counci1 60. authorized enemy aliens to depart to the United States. Borden's decision to permit the internment of unemployed aliens represented a clear change in policy from that which he had advocated in the f i r s t months of the war. According to the order-in-counci1 of 28 April 1914, alien enemies, so long as they were registered, reported regularly, and refrained from any hostile acts, were to be allowed to remain at large. Under pressure from the provincial government, which was anxious to relieve the acute unemployment problem, the Prime Min-ister adopted a new policy. Bowser, who initiated the effort to get an internment policy accepted by the federal government, had the assistance of H.H. Stevens, M.P. from Vancouver. Since February Stevens had been urging the con-tinuation of public works, specifically, post offices and the Grand-view d r i l l h a l l . He also insisted on a larger share of war contracts 14 for the province. He accused eastern administrators on the War Purchasing Commission "of deliberately blocking business coming to the Coast."* 5 To him the fact that the Commission had not estab-lished an office on the West Coast was evidence of intentional neg-16 lect on the part of the federal government. Stevens also suggested that unemployed British subjects, especially mechanics who were needed in Great Britain for war production, might be assisted to return to England. Together, Bowser and Stevens, exerted enough pressure on Borden for him to compromise his original position on the internment of enemy aliens. Curiously Borden did not legally formulate his new policy by order-in-counci1. The order-in-counci1 of 24 April 1915 permitted 61. the deportation of unemployed alien enemies but did not include a clause relating to the internment of unemployed enemy aliens. Stevens informed the press that he had received a telegram from Borden stat-ing that orders had been given to intern aliens enemies. The Vancou-ver military authorities, however, aside from making preparations to deport alien enemies, did not intern any a l i e n s . 1 7 However, the new policy permitting internment of enemy aliens i f they were unemployed altered the status of the enemy aliens. Any enemy alien could be interned i f he was unemployed. Some municipalities proceeded with internment. Victoria sent fourteen Austro-Hungarians, who had been employed on the city rock 18 pile, to Vernon. And military authorities directed Grand Forks to 19 send i t s unemployed aliens to Vernon. As the number of internees increased, i t became necessary to establish a larger and more perman-ent internment f a c i l i t y . In the early months of the war alien enemies had been incarcerated in local prisons until they could be sent to Nanaimo. In the interior, Vernon was the most convenient location for detaining prisoners. On the 7 May 1915 Vernon was designated as the o f f i c i a l internment camp for the province and the f a c i l i t i e s 20 there were expanded. As the provincial government moved to relieve the unemployment situation by interning or deporting the foreigners, public attention focused on the activities of the Germans and Austro-Hungarians. Coin-ciding with this renewed concern was the launching at the Front of the f i r s t major battle in which Canadian forces were involved. 62. On the 22 April 1915 Canadian troops launched an assault on a strategic patch of forest near St. Julien. British Columbia news-papers headlined the valiant and heroic efforts of the Canadians in the Battle of Ypres and printed long l i s t s of casual!ties. The loss 21 of six hundred Canadian men in twelve hours awed readers. By the 4 May over 6,000 men of thes Canadian contingent were k i l l e d , wounded or 22 missing. The 2nd Canadian Mounted Rifles, a contingent from the province, had undertaken some of the severest fighting in the Ypres area and news of their great sacrifice deeply moved British Columbians. To maintain the strength of the Rifles the 2nd contingent departed from Victoria on 4 June. Knowledge of the events on the front was heightened through personal letters received from men in the trenches 24 or in prisoner of war camps in Germany. Such letters exposed many people to the horrors of the conflict experienced by their loved ones. Newspaper accounts describing the use of new weapons such as poison 25 gas awakened people to the frightfulness of modern warfare. The suffering imposed by the loss of relatives in the trenches prompted an emotional distress among British Columbians that tended to find 26 i t s outlet in retribution on alien enemies at hand. When in the last week of April the German forces counter-attacked at Ypres, British success in the battle appeared uncertain. British Columbians reacted angrily to indications that the resident German community lacked f u l l sympathy with the British aims. When Paul Kopp invited some prominent Germans to an evening party at his Point Grey residence on the 28 April his timing for a celebration 63. was particularly bad. Point Grey residents associated the party with a German victory celebration. Neighbors were incensed by the holding of a party and threatened to evict the Germans forcibly, unless the 27 police arrested them. Public feeling was so high 'that the police 28 arrested guests and detained them until they could be sent to Vernon. Following this incident, in which the authorities f e l t they had barely averted violence, a f i r e on the Granville St. bridge and dam-age to the Connaught bridge awakened rumours that alien enemy incen-diaries were active in Vancouver, even though no arrests or evidence 29 substantiated these rumours. These incidents contributed to the unrest that had begun with the unemployment issue over the continuing presence of alien enemies. It was an external event that f i n a l l y ignited the feelings of British Columbians and made them resort to direct action against enemy aliens. On Friday, 7 May 1915, the Lusitania was torpedoed off the Eng-l i s h coast. The sinking of the ship horrified the world and brought personal tragedy to some prominent British Columbians. Fourteen of the province's citizens went down with the ship, among them Lt. James Dunsmuir, sone of the Hon. James Dunsmuir, a former Lieutenant Governor, who was on his way to the front with the Canadian Mounted Rifles which 30 trained at Victoria. The people of Victoria had maintained a very active involvement in the war effort through the record enlistment of 31 practically a l l their able-bodied men. This small, intimate commun-ity with a predominately British population had an ©specially strong 64. sense of patriotism. When news of the Lusitania arrived some c i t i -zens took immediate action to redress their personal grievances against the Germans. The sinking of the Lusitania precipitated a r i o t . Against the backdrop of social conditions -- the high unemployment, conflicts be-tween British Columbians and alien enemies, a growing awareness of the sacrifices in Europe, and the patriotic citizenry whose patrio-tism was re-enforced by the presence of military headquarters -- the 33 causes of the riot with Victoria became clear. When Walter Roberts, a sailor working in the engine room of a submarine arriving in Esquimalt Harbour, heard the news of the Lusi-tania on Saturday evening, the 8 May, he joined some crewmates. They i 34 set out for the German Club at 909% Government Street and Courtenay. In the sailors' minds the club symbolized the German community in Vic-toria, a meeting place where moustached 'cultists' of the Kaiser cele-brated German victories. In fact the club had been closed since the 35 declaration of war and the gas and light meters had been removed. These men, who had been joined by others from the Blanshard Hotel, formerly the Kaiserhof, proceeded to demolish the premises of the club, grasping souvenirs before heading for the Phoenix Brewery, which had formerly been owned by Germans and which, according to one of the rioters, had supplied free beer for the club's victory cele-36 brations. As the rioters moved from the German Club to the brew-ery they were joined by more men who had come fromthe^Blanshard Hotel, and the group was diverted back to the hotel where they demolished the bar and broke windows. At this point a large crowd of well-dressed onlookers was estimated to have reached nearly 500. A cross-section of 37 c i t i z e n s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the r i o t s . They moved on to Carl Loewenberg' business and real-e s t a t e o f f i c e s where they wrecked the i n t e r i o r and broke out the windows. Although the p o l i c e had been a l e r t e d , they were unable to prevent the crowd from moving on to the L e i s e r B u i l d i n g , where Lenz and L e i s e r , r e t a i l dry goods and grocery merchants, had t h e i r o f f i c e s . In addition to breaking windows, the r i o t e r s p i l -38 fered the store while some policemen and troops stood by. Many of 39 the troops permitted the crowd to continue l o o t i n g . As the r i o t i n g died out, more troops were ordered into the c i t y from the Willows Training Camp and the violence ceased, in spite of e f f o r t by some men to renew r i o t i n g the next evening. The tense at-mosphere i n the c i t y continued as rumours c i r c u l a t e d that German and Austrian employees at Government House were celebrating the Kaiser's b i r t h d a y . ^ Although Government House issued a formal d e n i a l , the threatening attit u d e of some c i t i z e n s led m i l i t a r y a u t h o r i t i e s to place a r i g h t guard around the residence. Lt. Governor Francis Stillman Barnard was a well known businessman and native of the prov-ince who had married the daughter of Joseph Loewen, the owner of the Victoria-Phoenix Brewery. Martha Loewen had been born and raised i n V i c t o r i a and she had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the s o c i a l l i f e of the c i t y . ^ 1 Malicious rumours c i r c u l a t e d , however, that she was pro-German. Municipal o f f i c i a l s , fearing the rumours of more violence to come, decided to issue a temporary curfew u n t i l the atmosphere of 66. the city calmed. On Monday, 10 May Mayor Alex Stewart read the Riot Act in front of the municipal hall imposing a curfew until "popular 42 excitement had abated." A rowdy audience forced him back to his offices before he completed reading the act. In the following days he received threats from a few individuals in retaliation for his an-43 nouncement that rioters would be prosecuted. The editor of the Victoria Colonist urged the citizens to "Stop the gossip of unpatrio-t i c neighbors and let a l l the gossip as to the nationality of indiv-44 iduals cease." The sinking of the Lusitania and the Victoria riot initiated a series of events which influenced the attitudes of communities throughout the province towards alien enemies. In an effort to prove their loyalty and protect their businesses, businessmen in Victoria advertised they did not employ Germans and in some cases they dis-missed German employees.4^ To assuage the popular resentment towards Germans in Vancouver, a firm in that city announced i t was f i r i n g Germans or Austro-Hungar-46 ians "in view of the prevailing sentiment in this community." The editor of the Vancouver Sun published a strident editorial ( i t f o l -lowed the lead editorial entitled "A Nation of Murderers") recommend-ing a boycott of a l l German stores and the immediate internment of a l l alien enemies. 4 7 Claiming to be a spokesman for the people of a l l Vancouver the Sun stated, "Most are in favor of ostracising a l l 48 Germans who have not been naturalized." In advocating the boy-cott of a l l stores owned by Germans, the editor cited as a glaring 67. example of the leniency of municipal o f f i c i a l s a city contract with the Dominion Bakery, whose owners were purportedly German because of their German-sounding names, Kruck and Schmid. When the owners pre-sented their naturalization papers the editor was forced to apolo-gize but grudgingly retracted accusations and cautioned the paper's readers that: Every German who can not prove beyond a doubt that he i s German only in name must remain an object of suspicion.49 The newspaper implied that when British Columbians were at war the formation of attitudes towards people of German descent could be legitimately based on suspicion. The editor of the Vancouver Province expressed a less biased view towards the Germans, but at the same time advocated that the German community, ... might meet together and pass resolutions condemning anarchy and slavery under which their poor coun-trymen have been reduced by the wor-ship of a new God.^O So long as the German community did not declare i t s loyalty and condemn the fatherland i t s own security was jeopardized, the news-paper argued. Although the editor deprecated the violence of the Victoria r i o t , he wrote there was "... more excuse for i t than the anti-Japanese and Chinese riots in Vancouver."5* In a similar vein the British Columbian in New Westminster observed that Germans should not be surprised at the natural re-sentment shown by Canadians when confronted with such crimes as 68. t h e s i n k i n g o f t he L u s i t a n i a ; n o n e t h e l e s s , C a n a d i a n s s h o u l d n o t have succumbed t o t h e t a c t i c s o f t h e Germans s i n c e t h e s e m igh t l e a d t o r e p r i s a l s a g a i n s t C a n a d i a n p r i s o n e r s o f war and compromise t h e C a n a d i a n g o v e r n m e n t ' s p l e d g e t o p r o t e c t c i t i z e n s o r c i v i l i a n s o f German d e s c e n t . ^ 3 H a v i n g s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e r i o t s were i n p a r t e x c u s a b l e , w h i l e a t t h e same t i m e d e p l o r a b l e , t h e n e w s p a p e r s i n d u c e d an a t t i t u d e t h a t paved t h e way f o r more p u n i t i v e s a n c t i o n s a g a i n s t t h e a l i e n e n e m i e s . On 15 May t h e C o l o n i s t j o i n e d t h e Sun i n a r g u i n g t h a t a l l a l i e n e n e m i e s s h o u l d be i n t e r n e d b e c a u s e t h e peace o f t h e commun-54 i t y was t h r e a t e n e d . A s t h e i s s u e o f i n t e r n m e n t became p r o m i n e n t i n t h e p r e s s , a v a r i e t y o f m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and a s s o c i a t i o n s began e x p r e s s i n g t h e i r v i e w s . On 26 May t h e N o r t h V a n c o u v e r c o u n c i l p a s s e d an unan imous r e s o l u t i o n f a v o r i n g i n t e r n m e n t o f a l l a l i e n e n e m i e s . I n t e r n m e n t w o u l d p r e v e n t r e p r i s a l s a g a i n s t t h e a l i e n s , t h e c o u n c i l a r g u e d , and t h u s i t was f o r t h e c i t i z e n s ' p r o t e c t i o n and s a f e t y . The m o r a l p r e s t i g e o f t h e D o m i n i o n m i g h t a l s o be p r e s e r v e d , i f t h e i n t e r n m e n t w o u l d p r e v e n t v i o l e n c e . 5 5 V a n c o u v e r C i t y C o u n c i l e n -d o r s e d t h e same r e s o l u t i o n . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s b u s i n e s s m e n c o n c u r r e d w i t h t h e p o s i t i o n s t a k e n by t h e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . J o h n D u n c a n , who r e p r e s e n t e d New W e s t m i n s t e r a t t h e a n n u a l m e e t i n g o f t he B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n Manu -f a c t u r e r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n , s u b m i t t e d a p r o p o s a l t o t h a t body on 28 May r e s o l v i n g : 69. That whereas the Imperial German Government has a system of espionage which i s a menace to the British Empire and is believed to be in existence here; and Whereas there are aliens in our midst, who, consistent with the dig-nity of our Empire, should be protected both in a material and physical sense, be i t there-fore resolved, as a protection to such aliens and a public indication of the indignity we feel at the piratical methods of our enemies, and as an expression of our constant loyalty for those who are fighting for us, that His Majesty's government as represented in the Dominion of Canada be petitioned to take im-mediate steps regarding the internment of alien enemies.56 The framers of the resolution walked a tightrope between a discom-forting desire to take punitive measures against the enemy aliens while at the same time preserving the dignity of the Empire. The resolution, which was passed unanimously, indicated the association's desire to take a more active part in the war effort. Ironically internment was to serve both as an expression of "the indignity we feel at the pirat i c a l methods of our enemies" and as a recognition of the good-will of the Dominion by protecting the physical and material needs of alien enemies. To sanction more pun-iti v e measures, the association intimated the existence of a close link between German espionage and the presence of alien enemies in the province. Aside from the early underground smuggling route, there was no clear evidence to prove such a link. The association also j u s t i f i e d i t s actions on humanitarian grounds -- i t was protecting the alien from physical threats by some members of society while at the same time providing subsist-ence for destitute men. Rather than permit enemy aliens to leave 70. the province, the association desired to make the enemy alien pay a penalty for the 'war crimes' committed by the militarists of his homeland. The wholesale internment of many alien enemies who had no designs for assisting the enemy was rationalized. Thus while the social relationships between "British" British Columbians and alien enemies were undergoing change, the whole quest-ion of the rights of enemy aliens was being pushed aside. The more threatening the war became, the more rigi d the attitudes grew to-wards alien enemies. The war demanded a conformity on the part of a l l residents to the Canadian war effort and when doubts about the loyalty of the Germans and Austro-Hungarians developed, these per-sons became the victims of misapprehensions and fears created by the conditions of war. Premier Bowser had already begun to round up alien enemies employed in the mining camps on Vancouver Island. With the assist-ance of the military authorities from Victoria, the provincial pol-ice on 25 May arrested the f i r s t group of internees at Nanaimo, one hundred and fifteen men, and transferred them by train to Victoria where they were held in the Saanich j a i l . 5 7 It was Bowser who re-ported to a responsive press that approval had been received for the internment of single alien enemies from the Minister of Just-58 ice and the M i l i t i a Department. Actually i t was Bowser who had taken the i n i t i a t i v e in proposing that the federal government as-sume the responsibility for the aliens. His reasons were explained clearly to the press: 71. The a u t h o r i t i e s frankly admit that i n tak-ing t h i s action they are at the same time t r y i n g to solve d i f f i c u l t i e s i n the l o c a l labor s i t u a t i o n by providing vacancies for bona f i d e B r i t i s h subjects...59 Bowser proposed that internees should be employedd on p r o v i n c i a l work projects i n the i n t e r i o r , where many communities were w i l l i n g to 6 0 accept t h e i r labour. Certain communities looked forward to obtain-ing a l i e n labor for the construction of roads and telegraph l i n e s . In order to stimulate the moribund economy, delegates from F i r e V a l l e y , Edgewood and Nelson appeared at a Vernon c i t y council meeting with a p e t i t i t i o n signed by one thousand people urging the construction 61 of a road and telegraph l i n e from Vernon to Edgewood. In the i n t e r i o r mining towns the response of miners to the gov-ernment's p o l i c y dramatized t h e i r p atriotism and t h e i r firm support for the internment of enemy a l i e n s . Unemployment remained high i n the coal mines during the spring of 1915. In the Crow's Nest Pass, mines were operating on reduced s h i f t s . At Corbin, the mines had been shut down e n t i r e l y . According to the D i s t r i c t Ledger, the Uni-ted Mine Workers newspaper, Michel had acquired the appearance of a ghost town as houses stood empty and men l i v e d a "hand to mouth ex-istence. At Fernie and Coal Creek, idleness at the mines forced many men to move to the p r a i r i e s or the United States where they 63 hoped prospects were better. Increasingly angry complaints over the continued employment of a l i e n enemies was heard among the miners. On 8 June 1915 a group of miners from Coal Creek formed a dele-gation to request the superintendent of the coal company, L.T. Cau-f i e l d to f i r e a l l a l i e n enemies working i n the mines. Because t h i s 72. was an ad hoc committee which had been formed without the approval of the UMW executive, Caufield refused to confer. Undaunted, the miners persisted in agitating among their co-workers. On the 11 June they 64 went out on a wildcat strike. At a mass meeting of nearly 600 men a resolution was passed in spite of the opposition of the union exe-cutive and company o f f i c i a l s . The miners resolved: We, as Britishers and other than aliens are willing and w i l l work, but not under present conditions, that is to say with alien enemies.^5 When he attempted to dissuade the miners from taking action that would compromise the obligations of the union to fellow workers, David Rees, the international UMW representative, was shouted down and forced to 66 leave the meeting. The spontaneous action of the miners had over-turned the leadership of the union. The miners* resolution calling for the internment of a l l alien enemy workers was forwarded to both the provincial and federal governments. Provincial authorities, who had already taken similar action in the Vancouver Island mines, responded immediately to the workers' demands. Lt. Col. J. Mackay, the commanding officer at Fernie, swore in thirty deputies and proceeded to intern a l l single and unnaturalized Germans and Austro-Hungarians. 6 7 Overnight the court house grounds, where aliens had been ordered to report, acquired the appearance of an immigration station as aliens arrived with bun-68 dies of clothing, blankets and personal belongings. Because the internment camps at Lethbridge and Vernon were f u l l , m i l i t i a o f f i -cers held the aliens at the skating rink. One observer described 73. the mood at the skating rink as light-hearted and without enmity on either side. The internees included a mixture of long-term residents, some of whom had been employed by the coal company for over fifteen years, and a group of younger miners who were second generation immigrants, 69 some of them graduates of Fernie's schools. Many of the 344 enemy aliens who were interned either through ignorance or thoughtlessness had simply neglected to take out naturalization papers. During the early months of the war courts in the Kootenays had refused to ac-cept naturalization of alien enemies.7^ The internment of the aliens created a deep r i f t between the union leadership and the rank and f i l e within the United Mine Workers. The president of the local, W.J. Phil l i p s , agreed with David Rees that the rights of the aliens had to be protected. 7 1 P h i l l i p s had proposed that the alien enemies might be segregated in a separate 72 shaft from the other miners until national h o s t i l i t i e s had subsided. The proposal was rejected by the miners who resented the compromising 73 alternative suggested by the leadership. Rees, who had stressed the international character of the union, failed to gain a hearing when he argued that the unity of the union would be destroyed by national r i v a l r i e s . Such measures as internment, he feared, would lead to a 74 further erosion of the rights of alien enemy workers. Editorially the Ledger, the o f f i c i a l voice of the union, op-posed the internment. The newspaper blamed the action on the war: at this juncture the fervor of the public mind is such that dispassionate discussion and calm analysis upon any subject relative to the war is decidedly problematical.75 74. At a meeting of the District 18 officers on 2 July, the union lead-ership re-emphasized that "working class solidarity" was essential to the goals of the union which was collective bargaining. 7 6 The o f f i c i a l s admitted that some members had fallen victim to war senti-ments and others had succumbed to the dictum "hungry souls have l i t -t l e conscience", but argued that loyalty to the working class goals should come before loyalty to the state. The efforts of the executive to create a new unity among the miners failed. They could not conceal the fact that more than 600 men had gone on strike and that the sympathies of the more than 800 miners from Britain lay with the Empire rather than with union sol-idarity. With the union unable to maintain membership, the Ledger admitted on 25 July that, Candor compels us to admit that whil'st financial stringency has been ascribed as the cause of defection, apathy, indifference and i l l o g i c a l opposition werea more potent factors than finan-77 c i a l stringency. The union and i t s newspaper folded on the 25 July. The war, as i t had done in Europe among the socialists, had driven a wedge between the internationalists and the " i l l o g i c a l op-position" which had opted for "war sentiments" rather than working class solidarity. The conflict at Fernie opened the way for simi-lar actions in which miners, smelter workers, and other labourers would undergo the loss of their jobs and suffer internment. The Crow's Nest Pass Coal company o f f i c i a l s had opposed the strike. The voice of the Canadian mining industry, the Canadian 75. Mining Journal, also objected to the internment of alien enemies and argued that in the strike "personal interests had become more import-7 8 ant than f a i r treatment of peaceful and useful workers." It con-sidered the financial burden of internment to be a waste as well as having a debilitating effect upon interntees.'imen who had come in good faith to settle in Canada. The Journal stated: i t i s better to have them employed than to entail a b i l l of expense upon the country and turn men who are now peace-ful and law-abiding citizens into sullen and dissatisfied enemies who would take ^ the f i r s t opportunity of obtaining revenge. Clearly, industry spokesmen considered i t bad policy to intern peace-ful alien enemies who would contribute to war production. Bowser sought a specific order-in-counci1 that would legalize without question his policy for creating jobs by interning enemy aliens. During the Fernie strike, two aliens, M. Bobrovski and Stefan Jansten, refused to report for internment when ordered to do so by the chief constable, G. Welsby. Both men acquired legal representation from T.T. Mercedy and f i l e d suit against Bowser and Welsby for " i l l e g a l 80 detention and arrest without due process of law." Their counsel argued that they had not failed to comply with the proclamation of 81 15 August 1914 and therefore they could not be interned. As a result Bowser, who had already ordered an investigation of the num-ber of alien enemies employed at Anyox, where the Canadian Mining and Smelting Company purportedly employed large numbers of Austro-Hungarians, put pressure on the Borden government for an order-in-counci 1 to permit the internment of a l l enemy aliens in the province. 76. There was, however, some opposition in the federal cabinet to a mass internment policy. Although the cabinet had approved the internment or deportation of destitute enemy aliens to relieve the provincial r e l i e f burden, i t had not anticipated Bowser's demand for an extension of the policy to include employed enemy aliens. Bowser had sent two federal Members of Parliament, R.F. Green of Kootenay d i s t r i c t , and G.H. Barnard of Vic-toria, to present the provincial government's case requesting "co-operation between Dominion and provincial authorities in the matter of internment of alien enemies who have been employed in the mining 81 sections." This request that the Minister of Justice obtain an order-in-counci1 giving legal formulation to the internment policy was opposed by A.P. Sherwood, the Dominion Chief of Police. Sher-wood wrote to C.S. Doherty, the Minister of Justice, that the Austro-Hungarians had generally been law-abiding people who long before the war had taken jobs on the railways and in the mines "when i t was im-82 possible to get Canadians to this class of work." In spite of the fact that the recession had thrown many men out of work, Sherwood thought the internment of alien enemies "would be manifestly unfair and contrary altogether to the s p i r i t of the Proclamation issued by 83 the Government." Sherwood misjudged the intense resentment among miners in British Columbia. The Fernie strike, which expressed the sentiments of the miners, supported Bowser's claim that the mere con-tact of aliens with British subjects on the job involved an inherent risk to the peace of the community. 77. Bowser's p o s i t i o n prevailed. On 28 June 1915 the fe d e r a l gov-ernment issued an order-in-counci1 authorizing the Minister of J u s t i c e to d i r e c t "the apprehension and internment of a l i e n s of enemy nation-a l i t y who may be found employed or seeking employment or competing 84 for employment i n any community...." The order was viewed as an expedient and temporary measure to calm h o s t i l i t i e s i n the province. It permitted only the Minister of J u s t i c e to issue internment orders and i t allowed him to release prisoners "whenever i t appears that they may be permitted to be discharged with due regard to the pub-8 5 l i e safety." In e f f e c t the measure acknowledged the strength of popular sentiment to control the s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between nation-a l i t i e s i n Canada. It also indicated the pressure war conditions had on the legal processes of the nation. The government was forced to make a new order to f i t an emergency s i t u a t i o n which a c t u a l l y de-prived a group of immigrants of due process. Before the order was passed, people had already been interned without having been con-v i c t e d of any crime according to regulations then i n force. During the f i r s t year of the war the r i g h t s of a l i e n enemies, as embodied i n the Proclamation of 15 August 1915 had passed through three stages. F i r s t , the depression had undermined the economic ro l e of thes-sraajortty of Austro-Hungarians and some Germans, which had been to f i l l the u n s k i l l e d and s k i l l e d labour demands of a r a p i d l y 86 expanding economy. As soon as these a l i e n s began to compete with or displace Canadians or B r i t i s h immigrants, the a l i e n s became the target of resentment. The r e s u l t was that various combinations of associations and organizations under the three l e v e l s of governments 78. to pass regulations restricting the employment of aliens. In the early months of war, as real or imagined fears of invasion and sab-otage were linked together with the presence of alien enemies within the province, the social interrelationships between the aliens enem-ies and British Columbians entered a second stage. Uneasiness con-cerning the activities of alien enemies, particularly as reports of smuggling routes and instances of espionage spread, overwhelmed B r i t -ish Columbians and they then sought preventive measures to control Germans and Austro-Hungarians. Through registration, reporting pro-cedures, and i f necessary, internment, the government hoped to re-store a calm atmosphere to the province. The year 1915 saw the growth of widespread unemployment and a renewal of uneasiness, particularly in Vancouver and Victoria, where large numbers of unemployed British subjects and alien enemies con-gregated. The concentration of the aliens in the two largest c i t i e s focused attention once again on the Germans and Austro-Hungarians. Men without work of a l l classes -- clerks, skilled workers, unskilled 87 labourers "mingled into one general body of unemployed" -- f e l t insecure and threatened both in status and livelihood. Such men were willing to accept radical changes in the legal rights of those they perceived to be a threat to society. At this juncture the Battle of Ypres and the sinking of the Lusitania sparked a popular movement to define more narrowly the role alien enemies would be permitted to play in the receiving culture. Proposals to intern a l l alien enemies, regardless of the personal convictions of those persons, were accepted by the population and eventually enacted 79. into law by the provincial and federal authorities. Once the cycle of abrogating the rights of alien enemies was underway, the aliens became social anomalies in both the law and the thoughts of Canadians and Bri t i s h Columbians. As the number of internment camps in the province increased, internment symbolized the consequences of a com-munity imbued with the thoughts and emotions of a society at war. 80. F o o t n o t e s C a n a d a , Depa r tmen t o f t h e S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e , War D o c u m e n t s , p . 586 . A s o f t h e 9 J a n u a r y 1915 t h e r e was s t i l l no o f f i c i a l i n t e r n m e n t camp f o r t h e e n t i r e p r o v i n c e . Men were d e t a i n e d i n N a n a i m o , V i c t o r i a o r V e r n o n . By F e b r u a r y 1 0 , 1 9 1 5 , 1 ,310 a l i e n e n e m i e s were r e g i s t e r e d . See House o f Commons D e b a t e s , 1 9 1 5 , 10 F e b . , p . 4 8 . 2 S . W . J a c k m a n , P o r t r a i t s o f t h e P r e m i e r s ; An I n f o r m a l H i s t o r y o f  B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , S i d n e y , 1970 , p . 1 8 1 . 3 ~ C a n a d a , D e p a r t m e n t o f L a b o u r , C o r r e s p o n d e n c e , J . D . M c N i v e n .to-?. G . H . B r o w n , 2 F e b r u a r y 1 9 1 5 , v o l . 4 , F i l e : Unemp loyment , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , R e p o r t s . 4 I b i d . The men worked on t r u n k s e w e r s , s t r e e t s , u n d e r - b r u s h i n g at S t a n l e y P a r k and o t h e r s i m i l a r p r o j e c t s . O n l y B r i t i s h s u b j e c t s were emp loyed i n t h i s w o r k . ^ C a n a d a , Depa r tmen t o f L a b o u r , C o r r e s p o n d e n c e , v o l . 4 , M c N i v e n t o B r o w n , 5 F e b r u a r y 1.91.5.... See a l s o Q u i n n t o R e i d , 30 March 1 9 1 5 , Im-m i g r a t i o n B r a n c h , C o r r e s p o n d e n c e , Box 2 5 7 , F i l e n o . 7521419 , Unem-p l o y m e n t , V a n c o u v e r . I m m i g r a t i o n B r a n c h , C o r r e s p o n d e n c e , F . F . Q u i n n t o M . J . R e i d , 3 M a r c h 1 9 1 5 , Box 2 5 7 , F i l e n o . 7521419 . 7 I b i d . , Q u i n n t o R e i d , 8 A p r i l 1 9 1 5 . C a n a d a , Depa r tmen t o f L a b o u r , C o r r e s p o n d e n c e , M c N i v e n t o B r o w n , 5 F e b r u a r y 1 9 1 5 , v o l . 4 , F i l e : VniMpXpyM4t...SMc6u^f.i Q The B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n , 9 A p r i l 1 9 1 5 , p . 4 . 1 0 T h e V a n c o u v e r S u n , 24 A p r i l 1 9 1 5 , p . 2 . 1 B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n , 12 A p r i l 1 9 1 5 , p . 1. I b i d . 1 3 B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n , 23 A p r i l 1 9 1 5 , p.. 1. 1 4 I b i d . 81. Public Archives of Canada,. (Hereafter cited as PAC), A.E. Kemp Papers, War Purchasing Commission; British Columbia, Stevens to Kemp, 15 September 1915. Stevens urged Kemp to give a greater share of the war contracts to the province. Stevens argued the commission "deliberately blocked business coming to the West." 16T,., Ibid. 1 7The Vancouver Sun, 24 April 1915, p. 2. 18 Victoria Colonist. 4 May 1915, p. 1. 19 Immigration Branch, Correspondence, Callum to Scott, 21 August 1915. 20 British Columbian. 7 May 1915, p. 1. 21 Ralph Allan, Ordeal by Fire; Canada 1910-1945, Toronto, 1961, pp. 78-79; 81. 22 Ibid., p. 83. 23 Reginald Roy, Sinews of Steel; The History of the British Columbia  Dragoons, Toronto, 1965, pp. 57-58. 24 Peter McArthur, "Public Opinion and P o l i t i c a l L i f e , " (ed.), J.0. Miller, The New Era in Canada, London, 1917, p. 334. McArthur argues that mail from Europe was the most important factor influencing the "plain people" of Canada and i t enhanced their "Canadianism". For personal letters dealing with the war and an internment camp in Ger-many (Ruhleben) see Deborah Florence Glassford, Letters, Envelope II, Items 35, 60, 72; Envelope III, Items 29, 32, and Envelope IV, items 100, 101. 25 British Columbian, 24 June 1915, p. 4. O A P.A. Sorokin, Man and Society in Calamity, New York, Dutton, 1942, p. 125. See particularly Chapter II, VHow Calamities Affect Our Cog-nitive Processes, Desires, and Volitions," pp. 27-47. 2 7PAC, R.L. Borden Papers, Reid to Sherwood, 28 April 1915, vol. 192, Fi l e 674, (3) War Aliens, p. 106486. Those arrested were Dr. Otto Grunnert and a man named Luttwizand and Frederick Stridsel, a former valet of Alvensleben. Two women servants were also arrested. They were later interned at Vernon. 82. 2 8 T , . , I b i d . 29 J . C . H o p k i n s , C a n a d i a n A n n u a l R e v i e w , 1 9 1 5 , p . 3 6 4 . 30 R o y , S i n e w s o f S t e e l , p p . 4 8 - 4 9 . See a l s o V a n c o u v e r P r o v i n c e , 11 May 1 9 1 5 , p . 1. 31 H a r r y G r e g s o n , A H i s t o r y o f V i c t o r i a 1 8 4 2 - 1 9 7 0 , V i c t o r i a , 1 9 7 0 , p . 8 5 . 32 I b i d . , p . 8 2 ; a l s o p . 88 . 33 R a l p h W. C o n e t and M o l l y A . L e v i n , P r o b l e m s i n R e s e a r c h on Commun- i t y V i o l e n c e , P r a e g e r , New Y o r k , 1969 . T h i s s t u d y p o i n t s o u t many o f t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s i n s t u d y i n g communi ty v i o l e n c e and e m p h a s i z e s t h a t t h e documen ta ry a p p r o a c h b e c a u s e i t depends on f r a g m e n t a r y s o u r c e s must be p a r t i c u l a r l y c a r e f u l t o a v o i d d i s t o r t i o n . F o r t h i s r e a s o n m u l t i p l e s o u r c e s a r e r e q u i r e d : n e w s p a p e r s , d i a r i e s , p e r s o n a l a c c o u n t s , o f f i c i a l r e p o r t s and p o l i c e o r government r e -c o r d s . A p p a r e n t l y t h e r e a r e no o f f i c i a l r e p o r t s on t h e r i o t , b u t I have u s e d t h e V i c t o r i a p o l i c e r e c o r d s , s p e c i f i c a l l y t h e C h a r g e  Books w h i c h r e v e a l v e r y l i t t l e . C o u r t p r o c e e d i n g s were u n a v a i l -a b l e . The e m p h a s i s h e r e i s on t h e d i f f u s i o n o f b e l i e f s and i d e a s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e r i o t as i t u n f o l d e d , and n o t t h e v i o l e n c e i t -s e l f . My a c c o u n t i s b a s e d on n e w s p a p e r s , p h o t o g r a p h s , an i n t e r -v i e w w i t h M r . H e l m e c k e n , t h e V i c t o r i a C i t y A r c h i v i s t , and a l e t -t e r t o B o r d e n d i s c u s s i n g t h e mood o f t h e m i l i t a r y and g e n e r a l com-m u n i t y s e n t i m e n t i n V i c t o r i a . See a l s o , C . H u m p h r i e s , B . C . H i s t o r i - c a l News, v o l . 5 , n o . 1 , 1 9 7 1 , p p . 1 5 - 2 3 . 34 P . A . B . C . , V e r t i c a l F i l e , R i o t s 1 9 1 5 , W a l t e r R o b e r t s , A N i g h t A t  The C l u b , u n d a t e d l e t t e r t o t he e d i t o r , V i c t o r i a C o l o n i s t . S e e , V i c t o r i a T i m e s , 19 J a n u a r y 1 9 1 6 , p . 1 1 . 35 I b i d . R o b e r t ' s s t e r e o t y p e d d e s c r i p t i o n w h i c h he a t t r i b u t e s t o a l l Germans r e v e a l s t he image t h a t some p e o p l e had o f t h e a l i e n s . He p o i n t e d t o t h e " m o u s t a c h e c u l t " among t he Ge rmans . I b i d . See a l s o C . C . Pember ton C o l l e c t i o n , V e r t i c a l F i l e , R i o t s  1 9 1 5 . E n c l o s e d i n t h e e n v e l o p e i s a t i c k e t f r o m a German C l u b f u n c -t i o n . I n s c r i b e d on t h e e n v e l o p e i s " d u r i n g t h e r i o t s on t he o c c a s i o n o f t he s i n k i n g o f t h e L u s i t a n i a . " 37 P A B C , P h o t o g r a p h i c C o l l e c t i o n , L u s i t a n i a R i o t s . P h o t o g r a p h s o f t h e r i o t r e v e a l e x t e n s i v e damage t o a l l t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w h i c h t h e rioters attacked. Photographs also reveal that the rioters were not only unemployed men, or military personnel. Most of the crowd were dressed in suits and ties. Mr. Helmcken confirmed that at Leiser's store diverse elements were involved in the looting of the store. Various estimates of damage ranged from $20,000 to $60,000. 3 8 PABC, Photograph Collection, Lusitania Riot. Newspaper accounts mentioned the soldiers did not prevent the rioters from looting the store. 39 Borden Papers, vol. 192 674(3) War Aliens, James Gadden to Borden, 13 May 1915, pp. 106491-92. A l l the victims of the riot (business-men who had had their property damaged) were British or naturalized British subjects. 4 0 I b i d . , p. 106530, 11 May 1915. 41 Gregson, History of Victoria, pp. 112-118. 4 2 V i c t o r i a Colonist, 10 May 1915, p. 1. 4 3 I b i d . , 12 May 1915, p. 4. 44 Ibid., 11 May 1915, p. 3. Ibid. Vancouver Sun, 12 May 1915, p. 4. Ibid. 4 8 V i c t o r i a Colonist, lir.May 1915, p. 3. 49 Vancouver Sun, 12 May 1915, p. 1. 5°Vancouver Province, 11 May 1915, p. 6. Ibid. British Columbian, 11 May 1915, p. 4. Ibid. 84. 54 Victoria Colonist, 15 May 1915, p. 1. 5 5 B r i t i s h Columbian. 26 May 1915, p. 3. 5 6 I b i d . , 28 May 1915, p. 1. "^Vancouver Province, 25 May 1915, p. 1. 58T... Ibid. 59..., Ibid. 60 Vernon News, 14 May 1915, p. 9. 6 1 I b i d . , 6 May 1915, p. 1. 62 Distr i c t Ledger, 1 May 1915, p. 1. Ibid. 64 Ibid., 12 June 1915, p. 1. Ibid. 66 Vancouver Province, 9 June 1915, p. 3. 67 Ibid., see also, Ledger, 12 June 1915, p. 1. 6 8Vancouver Province, 9 June 1915, p. 3. 69 Distr i c t Ledger, 19 June 1915, p. 1. 7°Hopkins, Canadian Annual Review, 1915, p. 283. 7 1Ledger, 12 June 1915, p. 1. Ibid. 73 Vancouver Province, 9 June 1915, p. 3. 85. 74 Ledger. 12 June 1915, p. 2. 7 5 I b i d . . 19 June 1915, p. 2. 7 6 I b i d . , 10 July 1915, p. 1. 7 7 I b i d . , 25 July 1915, p. 1. 78 Canadian Mining Journal, vol. 36, December 1915, Mines Publishing Company, p. 329. Ibid. 80 Ledger, 19 June 1915, p. 1. Ibid. 82 British Columbian, 18 June 1915, p. 4. PAC, Borden Papers, vol. 192, Fil e 674(3) War Aliens, A.P. Sherwood to C.J. Doherty, 14 June 1915, p. 106544. 84 Canada, Department of the Secretary of State, War Documents, pp. 624-625. 8 5 I b i d . 8 6 J . J . Spengler, "Effects Produced by Pre-1939 Immigration," Brinley Thomas, ed., Economics of International Migrations, London, 1958, p. 22. Canada, Department of Labour, Correspondence, vol. 4, F i l e ; Unem-ployment Vancouver, J.W. Willinson to T.W. Crothers, 14 November 1915. Chapter 4 Internment i n B r i t i s h Columbia! 1914-1918 86. At the beginning of the war few Canadians foresaw the estab-lishment of numerous internment camps throughout the Dominion. But in less than one year after the commencement of h o s t i l i t i e s the legal foundation for an internment policy was laid, an administrative sys-tem was organized, and twenty internment camps were put into opera-tion in Canada. The Minister of Justice and the Privy Council deter-mined the legal regulations regarding the alien enemies; but the ad-ministration, supervision and organization of the camps was delegated by an order-in-counci1 of 6 November 1914 to Major-General Sir William D. Otter. In spite of Otter's attempt to set up a uniform system for the operation of the camps in Canada, variations in the social and economic conditions influenced the administration and organization of the camps in the various provinces. In British Columbia p o l i t i c a l , business and labour groups clashed with federal policy makers over the types of camps that should be operating in the province, over the parole of prisoners for work in the c i v i l i a n labour force and over the personnel ap-pointed by Otter to run the camps. When Major-General Sir William D. Otter came out of ret i r e -ment to accept the appointment on 6 November 1914 as Director of Internment Operations he had a long career behind him. During the Northwest Rebellion he had commanded a battalion of troops. Otter served as an adjutant of the O.R. during the Fenian raid of 1866. In 1874 he commanded a regiment and in 1885 he served in the permanent m i l i t i a during the Northwest Rebellion. HeaCommanded 87. the f i r s t contingent of troops sent to South Africa in 1899, and from 1908-1910 he was head of the general staff in Ottawa.1 Otter's duties as Director of Internment Operations included the establish-ment of rules and regulations for the operation of the camps, the care of the prisoners and the troops and the formulation of a work 2 routine for the prisoners. Before Otter had accepted his appointment the m i l i t i a in B r i t -ish Columbia in August 1914 had already taken precautions against the ac t i v i t i e s of alien enemies by forming a Department of Alien Reservists — the only one of i t s kind in Canada — which was headed by Lt. Col. W. Ridgway Wilson. Otter inherited both the services of Wilson, who came under his command, and the f a c i l i t i e s provided by the provincial government at Vernon and Nanaimo for the deten-3 tion of enemy aliens. When, as Director of Internment Operations, Otter, assumed control of the administration of the camps he initiated a set of rules and regulations based on the Hague Convention, s etting out the basic requirements for the provision and care of prison-ers of war. According to the Convention prisoners of war were to receive the same treatment as captured troops. Prisoners were not to be treated as c i v i l i a n criminals and procedures for trying and punishing crimes or misdemeanors were under the jurisdiction of military courts.*' Prisoners' food, clothing, housing and pay for work were to be equal in quality and kind to those of the m i l i t i a . 88. Although prisoners were entitled to equal treatment to sol-diers, within the internment camps there were two classes of internees. F i r s t class prisoners, as defined by the Hague Convention, included a l l officers. In adapting these regulations to Canadian conditions, Otter distinguished between prisoners on the basis of their social class. "Owing to the difference existing in their previous occupa-tion," he placed professionals in the f i r s t class category. 5 This group of professionals comprised doctors, lawyers, merchants and dentists. They became especially active in the l i f e of the intern-ment camp. They formed camp committees to protect prisoners' rights and tried to improve camp conditions. However, f i r s t class prison-ers were usually motivated by a desire to maintain a style of l i f e which they considered appropriate to their own status and usually the camp committees they formed represented only their own interests. 6 Second class prisoners were composed largely of Austro-Hungar-ian labourers, primarily those who had been destitute and found them-selves "unloaded" from municipal welfare l i s t s onto the internment camps.7 In Bri t i s h Columbia a large number of the second class p r i -soners had been interned when the provincial government urged federal authorities to pass an order-in-counci1 permitting the internment of employed enemy aliens whose presence threatened to cause labor unrest. This order was passed on 28 June 1915. It included a clause whereby these prisoners might be released as soon as the conditions which prompted their internment -- unemployment and zealous patriotism of 89. the B r i t i s h citizens — subsided. The wives and families of these prisoners received support either through payments which permitted them to maintain their residences or they were interned along with 9 their husbands. ,-. Very few families actually received support; most of them had to seek employment to maintain themselves.*^ Most of the second class prisoners, however, were single. During the war a total of 8,579 people were interned, among them 156 children and 81 women who had accompanied their husbands* Austro-Hungarians, including Croats, Ruthenians, Slovaks and Czechs made up the largest number of prisoners, 5,954. There were 2,009 German prisoners, 205 Turks and 99 Bulgarians in the camps. Ano-ther 312 prisoners represented a variety of nationalities, some of whom were interned for p o l i t i c a l reasons during the labour c r i s i s in June 1919. 1 1 Some alien enemies encountered Internment for the f i r s t time at a receiving station. Such stations were temporary holding cen-tres where prisoners were registered and detained in immigration buildings, barracks or prisons un t i l they could be transfered to 12 permanent camps. When a prisoner arrived at the permanent camp he was assigned a number, he completed forms relating to his c i t i -zenship, profession, length of residence in Canada, and he sur-rendered money or jewellery. The money was deposited with a P r i -soners of War Trust Fund and the jewellery with the camp comman-13 der. Many of the prisoners who had been long residents of Canada owned real-estate, homes or securities. These properties were placed 90. under the jurisdiction of the Custodian of Enemy Alien Properties which came under the control of the Ministry of Finance. The Min-ister could require banks and businesses to provide f u l l statements of any property, debts or accounts owned by enemy aliens. Such prop-erties were placed to the credit of the Canadian government u n t i l 14 the ending of the war would bring about a settlement. In B r i t i s h Columbia Vernon became the central permanent camp for the province. Lt. Col. W. Ridgway Wilson assigned a l l f i r s t class prisoners to this camp. Two other permanent camps operated at Nanaimo and at Fernie-Morrissey. 1 5 These two camps included a large number of second class prisoners who were later transfered to the third type of camp, the working camp. The working camps were located in the interior of the prov-ince where the provincial government desired road construction or clearing of parks. Work crews were composed primarily of Austro-Hungarians who were experienced in such work. Provincial public works o f f i c i a l s had a direct interest in maintaining these camps because some interior communities had expressed interest in having work done which the Bowser government was unprepared to undertake at i t s own expense. 1 6 Communities also looked forward to the hiring of horse teams and guards in their l o c a l i t i e s or to obtain-ing contracts for supplying the camps. Since the federal government was responsible for financing the camps the provincial government could obtain the completion of projects without any cost. 91. The Hague Convention, although i t c l e a r l y stated prisoners of war could not be forced to work, permitted three classes of employ-ment f o r prisoners. A l l prisoners were obligated to maintain t h e i r own quarters and cook f o r themselves.* 7 Prisoners performed such duties grudgingly, and the supervision and inspection of t h e i r quar-te r s sometimes provoked f r i c t i o n between s o l d i e r s and internees. The Convention allowed the state to employ prisoners of war on pub-l i c works or the maintenance of the camps. Payment f o r such work amounted to twenty-five cents per day, the equivalent of the Can-18 adian s o l d i e r ' s "working pay". The t h i r d type of labour permitted the prisoners of war was employment with private corporations. Com-panies h i r i n g prisoners had to f u r n i s h quarters and food; s a l a r i e s were negotiated with internment o f f i c i a l s and prisoners* earnings 19 usually d i d not exceed a s o l d i e r ' s pay. Both the working camp and the p r a c t i c e of private employment of prisoners occurred during the war. However, as prisoners' complaints about working conditions i n the remote and i s o l a t e d camps grew and as resistance to d i s c i p -l i n e developed i n the camps, Otter turned more and more to private employers as the best means f o r employing prisoner labour. Prisoners of war resented the work on the government road and p r o v i n c i a l park projects. Aroused e a r l y to begin an eight hour work day, prisoners cooked t h e i r own food and stared despairingly at work on a road which ended nowhere. A f t e r a day's work with pick and shovels they returned to rough bunkhouses or c o l d tents to cook t h e i r meals, clean camp and f a l l to sleep i n weariness. 92. L i t t l e distinguished the l i f e of guards from that of the p r i -soners. The monotonous routine, fatigue, and dreary weather also taxed the patience of the guards who lived under the same conditions as the prisoners and who frequently complained that they received government issues of clothing, straw hats, boots and other working gear after the prisoners were supplied. One guard commented to a 20 v i s i t o r , "We get the dirty end of I t , " and petty issues became im-portant to soldiers who were working for very l i t t l e compensation. It was d i f f i c u l t to relate one's guard duty in a wilderness camp to the heroic sacrifices of front-line soldiers which the newspapers brandished in the headlines. In the spring of 1916 militant opposition to the working con-ditions and discipline at the Edgewood and Mara Lake camps arose among the prisoners. The prisoners who had been assigned heavy work 21 on a road at Edgewood, refused on 20 April to continue work. By May the refusal to work had become an organized strike involving 110 prisoners. The commander of the camp, Lt. C. Hawly reduced ra-22 tions and placed the "ring leaders" in solitary confinement. When these measures failed to bring submission he requested permission 23 from Otter to reduce rations for another week. Otter refused per-mission and ordered Col. W. Ridgway Wilson to inspect the conditions at the camp. Wilson reported that the prisoners were quiet and orderly. They complained about inadequate clothing, poor food, working an eight-hour day for a pittance, and about the non-payment of earnings to prison-ers who were released from camp.'*4 He recommended a change in the command of the camp, arranged to have the strike leaders removed and urged Otter to take measures to enforce discipline. "If we have to give in and they win," Wilson wrote, "then we must give up a l l idea 23 of controlling them and getting work out of them In the future." He thought that the aim of the strikers was to undermine the working camp system and feared that lack of firm action at Edgewood would jeopardize the entire working camp system in the province. Unrest 26 was already developing at the Monashee-Mara Lake camp. When Otter received Wilson's report he feared that the pro-tracted strike at Edgewood might lead to an insurrection. Rather than risk a major outbreak, Otter decided to disband the camp. In-stead of punishing the strikers and removing the leaders, he ordered Wilson to shut down the camp and transfer a l l prisoners to Fernie-27 Morrissey. Wilson, however, was under pressure from Thomas Taylor, the provincial Minister of Public Works, to see that the camp oper-ations continued. When Taylor informed Wilson that the provincial government could not replace the prisoners and consequently would 28 have to discontinue the road project entirely, Wilson notified Otter that he wanted to maintain the camp, and urged him to agree with his own proposals. The Director of Internment Operations hes-itated; f i n a l l y he approved Wilson's recommendation. The twenty "worst offenders" were removed to Vernon and replaced by new p r i -soners. Put under a new command, the prisoners at Edgewood began to work again. Otter cautioned the commander against punishment of prisoners, particularly the c i v i l i a n s . He also pointed out that 94. the majority of the Austro-Hungarians were c i v i l i a n s . Technically only 3,138 internees were classified as prisoners of war, reservists 29 or men captured in arms. Since prisoners could not actually be forced to work, Otter stressed that encouragement and good relations with the internees were essential to camp operations. As a positive incentive to work Otter recommended that those prisoners who per-formed well should be released to find employment with industries 30 in the province. Because of continuing d i f f i c u l t i e s with the prisoners, in September Otter f i n a l l y ordered the camp closed. The events that transpired at the Edgewood camp convinced Otter that prisoner of war labour camps were ineffective. lit* was clear that Austro-Hungarians who had earned $3.50 a day working on roads and railways before the war would refuse to work for twenty-five cents a day. Many of the prisoners had been sent to the camps because they were destitute or i l l or because municipal-i t i e s wanted to dump responsibility for them onto the federal gov-ernment. Otter objected to this policy and informed Wilson such 31 cases would be returned to the c i t i e s . Coinciding with the d i f f i c u l t i e s at Edgewood and Otter's sub-sequent decision to parole increasing numbers of prisoners was a growing demand among the industries in British Columbia for labour. By the spring of 1916 the economic situation was showing a marked improvement and employers were seeking additional workers to meet the demands of war!: production. However, the labour force had been depleted by recruitment drives. Canadians were enlisting at the 95. rate of nearly thirty thousand men a month in January 1916. The manager of the Crow's Nest Pass Coal Company, U.R. Wilson, reported in September to company directors that "District 18 (Fernie) has already supplied more men to the Front than any other d i s t r i c t in Canada; over 1,280 men, almost a l l of them our own workmen, having 32 joined the colors." The shortage of labor prevented maximum pro-duction of coal, Wilson declared, and he urged Ottawa to discontinue 33 recruitment in the Fernie d i s t r i c t . In May 1916 the company's law-yers requested Premier Bowser to persuade federal authorities to re-lease prisoners from the camps for work in the mines. The lawyers pointed out that releasing alien enemies was a delicate matter which would have to be handled very carefully "as i t might be interpreted 34 as unpatriotic." Lumber manufacturers also encouraged similar action. The Mountain Lumber Manufacturing Association in Nelson asked the federal government to remove restrictions on the entry 35 of workers from the United States. Without additional labour these lumbermen maintained they would be unable to meet demands. While industries in the province were requesting more man-power, the Imperial Munitions Board was investigating the acute labour shortage which was interfering with the production and de-36 livery of munitions. Suggestions were made that the Alien Labor law should be suspended and that a massive publicity campaign 37 should be launched to recruit more labour. Posters urged those people who were unable to fight to join the war effort by producing munitions. "Every Shell i s a Life Saver," the posters proclaimed and they challenged the reader with the question, "Have you offered?" While recognizing the need for additional labour, the federal government hesitated to move too quickly to meet the demands of i n -dustries by releasing interned alien enemies* Opposition to such a step appeared in Bri t i s h Columbia in the summer of 1916. On 5 June the South Vancouver council forwarded a resolution to Premier Bowser opposing the release of interned alien enemies to work on railways 39 in the province. This resolution supported a similar plea from the Elko Board of Trade which considered the employment of enemy aliens an injustice to the men at the front who were sacrificing 40 their lives and prosperity to defend Canada. Vancouver City Coun-c i l convened a special meeting in the last week of July to discuss with immigration o f f i c i a l s , m i l i t i a representatives, secret agents and city police the increased number of enemy aliens who were mov-41 ing from the prairies to work in the province. So long as an enemy alien had a travel permit from the police in his locality he was permitted to move about. Vancouver's council feared that the migrating aliens might rekindle the anti-alien feelings. A l -though Rev. G.D. Ireland, the Director of Welfare, reported that most of the Austro-Hungarians were finding employment, he doubted 42 this condition could continue. The Vancouver council recommended to federal authorities that enemy aliens should be debarred from 43 travelling from one province to another. Labour organizations also objected to releasing enemy aliens from the camps. The Federation!st claimed that workers were leaving 97. B r i t i s h Columbia because "bohunks of the Austro-Hungarian species" were s t i l l employed in the Slocan d i s t r i c t , on the railways and 44 at the Britannia mines on Howe Sound. The newspaper complained that enemy aliens replaced every man who enlisted. The Vancouver Trades and Labor Council wrote to the M i l i t i a Department and Otter 45 requesting that enemy aliens not be released to work. In August the Federation!st published a reply from internment operations stating, "There i s a great scarcity of workers now in the country and the employment of alien enem-ies Is absolutely essential to meet the re-quirements.^^ Dissatisfied with the reply, the labour unions were willing to sup-port measures to prevent the release of enemy aliens* While municipal governments and labour were*.urglng the federal authorities to maintain the restrictions on the movement and employ-ment of enemy aliens, m i l i t i a authorities in Bri t i s h Columbia took a firm stand on these issues, especially after a report was sub-mitted to Lt. Col. Joseph Mackay by Sgt. C.G.G. Mclnnes. In July 1916 Mclnnes had travelled in the Kootenay and Boundary d i s t r i c t s on a recruiting and inspection tour. In several communities he had found a lack of s p i r i t among inhabitants, he had received a cool reception and in Sandon he had been forced to leave because of 47 resentment over his recruiting efforts. He attributed the opposi-tion to recruiting to local Germans and Irish, but he also blamed opposition on high wages and on anxiety among workers lest they be 48 replaced by enemy aliens i f they joined the m i l i t i a . Mclnnes 98. emphasized that the release of enemy aliens°had undermined his re-cruiting efforts. He also suggested that the employment of Ameri-cans, who were indifferent to the war effort, encouraged a lack of 49 interest among some workers. He found i t intolerable that govern-ment apointees of German origin had been retained in some of the interior towns. 5 0 Mclnnes thought that federal o f f i c i a l s showed a disregard for the provincial and national interest by permitting alien enemies to work. He could not accept a policy which compromised the loyalty of soldiers and citizens when a national war effort required absol-ute unity and the support of a l l men and women within the Empire. With these concerns in mind, Mclnnes and his superior officer, Lt. Col. Joseph Mackay, recommended to the d i s t r i c t command in Victoria that the release of alien enemies from the camps should be discon-tinued and that alien enemy workers should receive only a living wage.51 Other aliens, his report suggested, should be taxed f i f t y per cent of their earnings. In addition, a l l B r i t i s h Columbians be-52 tween the ages of eighteen and forty-five should be conscripted* Mclnnes's report with his recommendations was forwarded to Premier Bowser who sympathized with the petitions and the suggestions which he had received from groups opposing the release of alien enemies from the camps. Since Bowser faced an impending election in September, he wanted to avoid a controversy over the alien enemies. It was his i n i t i a t i v e in the spring of 1915 that had resulted in the internment of the 99. Austro-Hungarians. He continued to support the position taken by the municipalities, organized labour and the m i l i t i a that alien enemies 53 should remain in the camps. Meanwhile, in answer to criticism in the province over the federal government's internment and parole policy, a brief was pre-pared for the Minister of Justice by W.F. O'Connor, a deputy minister within the department. The brief, which he entitled the "Detention, Internment, and Release of Aliens of Enemy Nationality," outlined the 54 federal government's policy. After outlining briefly the order-in-counciIs providing for the internment of alien enemies and the rights and obligations of alien enemies i n Canada, O'Connor dealt with the problem of releasing alien enemies from the camps. He argued that the Austro-Hungarians 55 had originally been interned for humanitarian reasons. Both their own destitution and the opposition from organized labour had com-pelled the government to intern them. Misfortune, rather than hos-t i l i t y or suspicion had been the main reason for interning these aliens. Since the federal government could release these wards whenever the conditions which had led to their internment ceased, O'Connor posed the question, Why should those who have been interned, not because they were dangerous to leave at large, but because they were unable either to;-vobtain work or to leave the country, be supported at the public expense, with their wives and fam-i l i e s , when i r released, they can obtain work and may leave the country 100. Continuing internment was too costly and further expenditures could not be j u s t i f i e d , O'Connor argued, when war production demanded i n -creased labour. In response to labour's objections that enemy aliens earned less than other workers and undercut their salaries, O'Connor f e l t that enemy aliens should be released only i f Canadian workers 58 were unavailable. Employers, he contended, paid equal wages to the enemy aliens. This, however, was not always the case. The em-ployment of prisoner of war labour frequently appealed to some com-panies because i t was cheaper. Prisoners working on the railway crews received twenty cents an hour from which f i f t y cents was de-59 ducted for food. Although a company employing alien labour was obligated to supply housing, i t s expenses were minimal because the m i l i t i a continued to guard the prisoners on the job. On the other hand Mclnnes and the Federation!st had complained that the earnings 60 of enemy aliens had been too high. The issue remained unresolved. The federal government used O'Connor's brief to j u s t i f y fur-ther paroles and releases in spite of objections by British Colum-bia. Borden replied to South Vancouver's objections to the employ-ment of prisoners of war by stating that enemy aliens were essential to war production.^* On the 6 September W.R. Wilson of the Crow's Nest Pass Coal Company was informed by the Minister of Labour that orders to discontinue recruitment in Dis t r i c t 18 had been issued to 62 the M i l i t i a and Defence department. In December the Alien Labor Act was suspended to permit companies to recruit workers from the 63 United States. By July, 1917 the internment o f f i c i a l s had 101. released 5,826 prisoners, the vast majority of them Austro-Hungarians. Intent on alleviating the shortage of labour and curtailing the expense of internment, the federal authorities gradually relaxed their policies. However, they were unwilling to extend such a concession to the German prisoners of war. Unlike the Austro-Hungarians, the majority of Germans had been interned because they were reservists, many of them officers, in the German forces. Only one hundred of the German prisoners were c i v i l -ians. Germans did not join in ibhevrworking camps in the province and many enjoyed the privileges of f i r s t class prisoners because they were professionals or officers. They had separate quarters, they were not required to join the occasional work forays outside the Vernon camp and their financial position enabled them to supplement their rations with extras from the canteen. Many of these prisoners had considerable investments, securities or bank accounts which had been deposited with the Custodian of Enemy Alien Property. Any profit derived from these properties -- the prisoners could s e l l any prop-erty with the approval of the Custodian so long as the transaction did not involve trading with the enemy ~ was deposited to the p r i -soner's account. The prisoner could then use his money to purchase clothing, additional foods or other amenities. Prisoners were sup-posed to limit additional purchases to $5 a month, but this regula-tion was not ri g i d l y enforced. Business transactions between prisoners and the outside world, however, were d i f f i c u l t . Since a l l correspondence went through the 102. local commander to be forwarded to Otter and then to the Custodian of Enemy Property, transactions frequently took several weeks to complete. Usually the banks, unsure of the exact status of alien enemy property, issued foreclosure notices to prisoners. Since the prisoner was un-able to maintain payments, his property often went to public auction where he lost considerably on i t s value. Purchasers, who knew they could take advantage of the prisoner's i n a b i l i t y to move quickly and deal with a variety of buyers, pressed hard on agreements to purchase from prisoners. Egon von Parpart, who had been interned at Vernon, held a farm valued at $75,000.65 He had an outstanding loan of $24,000 and was informed by the mortgagee that he should s e l l his 66 farm. The price was $20,000. During the war, f i r s t class prisoners tried to take as much advantage as possible of their funds. In a desperate effort to main-tain class distinctions and a style of l i f e enjoyed outside the con-fines of the Vernon camp, they purchased a variety of luxuries which they hoped would soften the blow of the loss of property, freedom and social respect. One prisoner, who loaned money to penniless peers at usurous rates of interest and demanded t i t l e s to property as collateral, or-dered more than $500 worth of clothing, caviar, candies, and special teas to alleviate the dreariness of camp f a r e . 6 7 He also had con-structed a private cottage from lumber which had been unused by 68 camp authorities. Another group of f i r s t class prisoners joined together in the summer of 1915 to employ Carl von Mackensen's former 103. housekeeper Fannie Priester to cook for them since "the living con-ditions in the f i r s t class camp had become absolutely unbearable and the food especially was practically uneatable...." 6 9 These prisoners employed Fannie Priester for almost two years. When Miss Priester planned to terminate her services, camp authorities hesitated to grant her permission to leave since she was a shrewd and suspicious woman who might carry information about the Vernon training camp to the enemy.70 In a lengthy letter to the American Consul which was passed on to Canadian authorities, von Mackensen admonished o f f i -c i a l s "that an internment camp for an unmarried woman i s not the place with 250 unmarried men aroundVand she had %<g>i live in a tent alone..*." 7 Doherty, the Minister of Justice, amenable to such gentle reproof, per-mitted Fannie Priester to leave the camp on the 26 February 1917. The efforts of the f i r s t class prisoners to recreate their pre-war world was a desperate diversion to recoup what they knew were per-manent losses. They realized repatriation and deportation awaited them at the end of the war. Embittered by the fateful circumstances which had shattered their status and acceptance in British Columbian society, many of them resolved to express their loyalty to Germany. In June 1919 a camp committee of f i r s t class prisoners at Vernon de-72 clared that they desired repatriation. 0 ne prisoner expressed his disillusionment and bitterness when he wrote to Otter shortly after his internment, I thought to evade the tyrannical German Militarism when I l e f t a beautiful land for this prosaic Dollar!a« Now I got caught here by a Military Despotism, worse yet and 104. s t i l l far less in the line of c i v i l i z a t i o n , because i t perfidiously catches and wrecks i t s victims unaware after drawing them here with alluring advertisements! Contemptible Canada!?3 The expectations and success of some Germans, shattered by the pan-demic patriotism of nationals at war, l e f t a bitter legacy in their thoughts and feelings about the beckoning opportunities offered by Canada, The outward appearances of luxury among the f i r s t class aroused complaints from some British Columbians who viewed the pampering of prisoners as an affront to the sacrifices made by soldiers and c i t i -zens in the war effort. During the autumn of 1916, when objections to the release of Austro-Hungarians compelled the government to issue O'Conner's brief, Otter became particularly sensitive to the prob-lem solved in the release of prisoners in British Columbia, In reply to the American consul's request for freeing Fannie Priester, Otter informed the consul that she could not be released because of her knowledge of the training f a c i l i t i e s at Vernon and "... the strong 74 prejudice of the B r i t i s h Columbia public now extant." Both Otter and the M i l i t i a Department showed special concern over the publica-tion of any newspaper or magazine articles dealing with the intern-ment camps and the release of prisoners. The chief press censor, Chambers, Informed the Edmonton Journal that " i t seems desirable on general principles for our papers to give as l i t t l e information as possible regarding the internment camps..."75 He censored a photo-graph and a r t i c l e published by the paper describing the Jasper camp; and he issued instructions that the Journal's staff should undertake 105. no further assignments* Similarly, when Chambers submitted proofs to Otter for a Maclean's article on a camp in Nova Scotia, permission was withheld for i t s publication. 7 6 In spite of the press censorship and Otter's efforts to maintain good public relations, the Vancouver Council of Women investigated com-plaints about "overpetted internees". The Council presented a report to the Department of Justice in the f a l l of 1918, complaining not only about the luxuries available to the prisoners but also about the pro-grammes offered by the Y.M.C.A. as being too entertaining for prisoners of war. At Vernon and Femie-Morrissey the Y.M.C.A. had constructed buildings with funds provided by the internment operations. Otter a t t r i -buted the peaceful and generally calm atmosphere of the Vernon and Fernie-Morrissey camps to the programmes offered by the Y instructors. These programmes included "sing songs", films, language instruction, lectures and religious services. 7 7 Some prisoners performed concerts with instruments they had either made or purchased. When the strike at the Edgewood camp had threatened to spread to the Mara Lake camp, Otter had arranged for a Y.M.C.A. instructor to begin a programme at 78 that camp. The prisoners responded well to the camp meetings and the Y.M.C.A.*s work in Otter's view alleviated the malaisettbat'mifefot have turned the camp into another Edgewood. Otter refused to curtail the Y.M.C.A. programmes, but he did inform camp commanders that canteen privileges and mail orders for luxuries, "particularly at Vernon" would 79 have to cease. The outward appearances of luxury among prisoners belied the stress and anxiety experienced by many internees. The strain of 106. long-term confinement, loss of property and jobs and the complete rever-80 saleinatheirtfortunesds led in several instances to insanity. Tuber-culosis and other diseases were not uncommon, and they ruined the health of individuals who otherwise would have been healthy. Within the Ver-non camp there were r i v a l factions, the presence of which increased the anxiety and the insecurity f e l t by many prisoners. The socialist faction threatened to overrun and loot the aristocrats who lived in 81 a separate quarter of the camp. The uncertainty of this l i f e , the lack of control over events and the rejection by the society which had 82 formerly accepted them was a personal calamity for the prisoners. But public indignation over the conditions in the camps contin-ued to bring criticism on the federal government. The luxuries enjoyed by f i r s t class prisoners suggested that a lenient policy had been adopt-ed by Otter and by camp commanders. Men and women, whose sons lived and died in the trenches, or whose husbands were returning with patchy lungs and lost limbs, viewed the easy treatment of prisoners as a be-trayal of their own sacrifices. The internment camp was an extreme measure for controlling the enemy alien population. The federal government recognized this and attempted to enforce internment regulations judiciously. However, with the growth of a war psychology among various segments of provin-c i a l society the government was compelled to intern hundreds of Austro-Hungarians who represented no actual military threat to the country. When economic conditions improved the government released these p r i -soners but not without strong opposition from labour, provincial 107. m i l i t i a leaders and provincial politicians. When veterans returned to the province they strengthened the voices which demanded recompense for sacrifices and a cleansing of Canadian society. In making their demands they sharpened the angry edge of national r i v a l r i e s which would sever Germans and Austro-Hungarians from post-war participation in Canadian immigration policy. 108. Footnotes W. Stewart Wallace, The Macmillan Dictionary of Canadian Biography. London, Macmillan, 1963, pp. 567-568. See also, p. 252; p. 308, George F.G. Stanley, Canada's Soldiers, The Military History of an Un-military People, Toronto, Macmillan, 1960. 2 Canada, Minister of Justice, Report by Major-General Sir William Otter, Director of Internment Operations, Internment Operations: 1914- 1920 (hereafter cited as Otter, Internment Operations). Ottawa, King's Publishers, 1921, p. 3. 3 Ibid.. p. 4. 4 Ibid., p. 7. 5Ibjd., p. 6. Public Archives of Canada (hereafter cited as PAC), Secretary of State Papers, Custodian of Enemy Property. World War I, Internment  Operations. Administration Files (hereafter cited as Can., Custodian of Enemy Property), vol. I, No. 1077, C E . Michaelis, P.O.W. #782 to Beni I s e l i , Consul General of Switzerland, 1 May 1919; See also, Michaelis to Otter, 4 September 1919. Michaelis's correspondence i n -cludes almost nine hundred pages and provides insight and information into camp conditions at Vernon, the problems confronted by prisoners and the stress and anxiety accompanying internment camp l i f e . Otter, Internment Operations, p. 6. Q Canada, Department of the Secretary of State, War Documents (here-after cited as Can., War Documents), p. 623. 9 Otter, Internment Operations, pp. 6-7. 1 0PAC, Robert Laird Borden Papers (hereafter cited as Borden Papers), vol. 192, F i l e 674 (4) War AllensT H.H« Stevens to Borden, 26 January 1916, p. 106598. Stevens reported that some families of interned Austro-Hungarians were destitute andaunable to support themselves. 1 1Otter, Internment Operations, p. 6. 12 Ibid., p. 5. 13 Otter, Internment Operations, p. 11. 109. PAC, Custodian of Enemy Property, vol. 9, F i l e 2273, 6 August 1916. Regulations applying to enemy property came under the Consolidated Orders Respecting Trading with the Enemy, 2 May 1916. By the 30 Nov-ember 1918 real and personal property held by Germans in Canada amount-ed to $8,427,543; by Austrians $322,313. The Secretary of State had the authority under his own warrant to wind up an enemy concern, but in a l l cases the authority of the courts was invoked and applications were made for the appointment of receivers and controllers. See, Can., Custodian of Enemy Property, vol. 11, Memorandum for the Secretary  of State. 25 September 1918. 15 Otter, Internment Operations, p. 5. The opening and closing dates for camps in British Columbia were: Vernon Nanaimo Monashee-Mara Lake Fernie-Morrissey Edgewood Revelstoke-Field-Otter Jasper 18/9/14 20/9/14 2/6/15 9/6/15 19/8/15 6/9/15 8/2/16 20/2/20 17/9/15 29/7/17 21/10/18 23/9/16 23/10/16 31/8/16 Vernon News, 14 May 1915, p. 9. Otter, Internment Operations, p. 9. Ibid., Prisoners working in the railway camps earned 20c an hour less 50c a day for subsistence. 1 9 I b l d . . pp. 9-10. 20 PAC, Young Men's Christian Association Papers (hereafter cited as YMCA Papers), vol. 1, f i l e 3103, Mara Lake-Sicamus Station, R.M. Jones, instructor, to Shepard, YMCA secretary, 13 July 1916. 2i " " • PAC, Can., Custodian of Enemy Property, vol. 2, F i l e 3130, Block to Otter, 20 April 1916. 2 2 I b i d . , F i l e 3168, Hawly to Otter, 2 May 1916. 2 3 I b i d . , 6 May 1916. 2*Ibid., Wilson to Otter, 14 May 1916. 2 5 I b i d . 110. 2 6 I b i d . 27 Can., Custodian of Enemy Property, vol. 2, F i l e 3168, Otter to Wilson, 17 May 1916. 2 8 I b i d . , Wilson to Otter, 18 May 1916. 29 Otter, Internment Operations, p. 6. 30 " ' Can., Custodian of Enemy Property, vol. 2, F i l e 3168, Otter to Edgewood Commandant, 28 July 1916. 3 1 I b i d . , Otter to Wilson, 26 June 1916. 32 Crow's Nest P A S S Industries,. Ltd., Fernie, B.C., Minutes of the  Meetings of the. Directors of the Crow's Nest Pass Coal Company 7 Aug- ust 1908 to 10 June 1921 (hereafter cited as Minutes, CNPCC), WiR. Wilson to Directors, 11 September 1916, p. 288. 33 Ibid. ^ P r o v i n c i a l Archives of British Columbia (hereafter cited as PABC), Premier's O f f i c i a l Correspondence, H.W. Herchmer to Bowser, 15 May 1916, p. 605. 35 PABC, Premier's O f f i c i a l Correspondence, Mountain Lumber Manufactur-ing Association to Bowser, 21 July 1916, p. 1000. PAC, Borden Papers, vol. 211, F i l e 1052, G.B. Gordon, Vice-Chairman to E l l i o t , Master General of Ordinance, 18 August 1916, p. 118813. 3 7 I b l d . , 15 September 1916, p. 11838. PABC, Premier's O f f i c i a l Correspondence. J.B. Springforth to Bowser, 5 July 1916, p. 763. 39 PAC, Department of National Defence, Military Di s t r i c t No. 11, vol. 4661, F i l e 99-221, Employment of Aliens, B.C. (hereafter cited as Can., D.N.D.), Elko Board of Trade to General Sam Hughes, 23 October 1915. ^°PABC, Premier's O f f i c i a l Correspondence, M.M. Bennett to Bowser, 31 July 1916, p. 973. I l l 41 Ibid., M.B. MacLennan to Rev. G.D. Ireland, 19 July 1916, p. 973. 4 2 I b i d . 43 British Columbia Federation!st. 9 June 1916, p. 1. 44 Bri t i s h Columbia Federation!st, 9 June 1916, p. 4. 45 British Columbia Federationist. 4 August 1916, p. 1. 46 PABC, Premier's O f f i c i a l Correspondence, Lt. Col. Joseph Mackay to Bowser, 16 July 1916, p. 999. 4 7 I b i d . 4 8 I b i d . , p. 1002. 49 Ibid. 5 0 I b i d . , p. 1004. 5 1 I b i d . 52 Bowser had forwarded petitions opposing the release of alien enemies to the federal government, though he refused to act as an intermed-iary for the Crow's Nest Pass Coal Company or the lumber interests who favored changes in restrictions on alien labour. 53 PAC, W.F. O'Connor Papers (hereafter cited as O'Connor Papers), vol. 10 (1), O'Connor to C.J. Doherty, Minister of Justice, 9 November 1916. 5 4 I b i d . , p. 3. 5 5 I b i d . 5 6 I b i d . , p. 4. 5 7 I b i d . Otter, Internment Operations, p. 10. 5 9 B r i t i s h Columbia Federationist, 16 February 1917, p. 1. Canadian Annual Review, 1916, p. 432. 112. 6Minutes of the CNPCC. 6 September 1916, p. 284. 6 2 I b i d . , 14 December 1916, p. 320. gj PAC, Sir William D. Otter Papers, vol. 1, F i l e 1, Internment Opera-tions, Prisoners of War. 10 August 1917. 64 ' - - •-PAC, Can., Custodian of Enemy Property, vol. 2, F i l e 2799, Egon von Parpart to Otter, 10 October 1917. 65 ' ' -PAC, Can., Custodian of Enemy Property, vol. 2, F i l e 2799, 10 October 1917. gg Ibid., vol. 1, No. 1077, C.E. Michaelis to Otter, 5 September 1916; see also, 6 November 1916. 6 7 I b i d . , Michaelis to Otter, 17 June 1916. 68 Ibid.. Carl von Mackensen to G.N. West, 8 November 1916. 6 9 I b i d . , Otter to West, 2 November 1916. 7°0p. c i t . 7 1PAC, Can., Custodian of Enemy Property, vol. 1, No. 1077, F i l e 5, Michaelis to I s e l i , 1 May 1919. 7 2 I b l d . . Michaelis to Otter, 4 April 1915. 73 Ibid.. F i l e 3102, Otter to West, 2 November 1916. PAC,. Department of the Secretary of State Papers. Chief Press Censor  1915-1920. vol. 45, F i l e 197, E.J. Chambers to Jennings, p. 3. 75 Ibid., Chambers to Otter, 29 June 1917, p. 64. yg -Otter, Internment Operations, p. 14. 7 7PAC, YMCA Papers, vol. 2, F i l e 3103, Mara Lake, 10 June 1916, Shepard to Otter. yg ... PAC, Can., Custodian of Enemy Property, vol. 2, F i l e 5, Otter to Commandant, 18 September 1918. 113. Otter. Internment Operations, p. 8. 80 British Columbian Veterans Weekly, 24 July 1919, p. 9. 81 E.H. Vaughan, Community Under Stress: An Internment Camp Culture, Princeton University Press, 1959, pp. 127-133. Chapter 5 The Returned Soldier and the Enemy Alien 114. The veterans who poured back into the c i v i l i a n homefront soc-iety from 1918 to 1920 represented an unique and dynamic element in provincial l i f e . The influx of several thousand returned soldiers, men who had joined the Canadian expeditionary Force for a variety of reasons -- patriotism or adventure or escape from unemployment --created an unsettling atmosphere in provincial l i f e . The returned sol-dier viewed his surroundings from the perspective of his experience: several years in uniform had influenced his thoughts and feelings about the nature of c i v i l i a n society, i t s proper ethnic composition, i t s pol-i t i c s and i t s social and economic relationships. Many veterans believed that the battlefield in Europe and the "cleansing f i r e " of war had provided them with special credentials for true citizenship.* Convinced that experience at the front was the true test of a man's loyalty, returned soldiers frequently demanded representation on committees or organizations designed to assist vet-erans, for they f e l t that fellow soldiers understood their needs best. The war had a leveling effect since class distinctions had been blurred in the heat of battle. Some veterans carried this equal!tar-ianism over into c i v i l i a n l i f e where they hoped to apply their war-time exper1 erieonandPtheifcnew^poii'ti-c~ai*Sc t ivisfi t o t n e solution of p o l i t i c a l and social problems. A few veterans entered p o l i t i c s pro* claiming that the returned soldier was psychologically f i t to take Immediate action on problems which the traditional p o l i t i c a l parties were unable to tackle because they were bound to business and other interests. Although the returned soldiers rejected revolutionary tactics, they demanded a change from the old style, pre-war p o l i t i c s 115. to a "more social, economic and p o l i t i c a l democracy." In spite of the radical rhetoric which characterized some of their speeches, the majority of them returned their attention to specific problems and issues. By the time that the largest number of returned soldiers arrived in the province in the spring of 1919, many veterans had already formed soldiers' clubs* These were small organizations formed to assist vet-erans in finding employment and adjusting to c i v i l i a n l i f e . With the assistance of business groups the organizations were usually success-ful in locating jobs, but even between 1916 and 1918 when labour was at a premium, work could not be found for some returned soldiers. As early as March 1916 a Member of Parliament from Vancouver, H.H. Stevens, inquired on behalf of veterans as to what plans the government had to assist the soldiers. In reply, both the M i l i t i a Department and the dis-t r i c t commander, Col. J . Duff-Stewart, suggested that returned soldiers 3 could be employed on guard duty throughout the province. The veterans' association reported that returned soldiers in Vancouver, Victoria and New Westminster were disinclined to serve as guards because the pay was inadequate. By the spring of 1918, when the number of returned soldiers had reached nearly six thousand, the veterans undertook the formation of their own provincial organization to represent their interests and uni-fy the disparate local organizations in the province. In February 1918 Vancouver and Victoria veterans joined together to form a branch of the Great War Veterans' Association. This Association was recognized nationally as the o f f i c i a l veterans' organization both because of i t s 116. large membership of 40,000 persons and i t s national extent. The pro-vincial organization urged other veterans* organizations such as the Comrades of the War, whose membership included only men who had served in France, and Campaigners of the War, the Army and Navy Veterans Asso-ciation, to form an united front by joining the G.W.V.A.5 David Lough-nan, a veteran from Vancouver, who was elected president of the provin-c i a l G.W.V.A. Qffi 7uFebruary 1918 outlined the objectives of the asso-ciation in the British Columbia Veterans' Weekly, the o f f i c i a l organ of the membership. The G.W.V.A. was to preserve the s p i r i t of mutual ser-vice by working on projects useful to both the soldiers and the public, maintain memories of the war, and encourage loyalty to Canada and to the Empire.6 Clause five of the G.W.V.A.*s charger stated that i t was the duty of the veterans "To voice reasonable demands and just griev-7 ances." The expectations of soldiers had been raised by Sir Robert Borden's announcement that "Canada i s yours." British Columbia's premier, John g Oliver, had also spoken of "Homes f i t for heroes*" and thus had awakened the hope that the.returned soldiers would be welcomed and assisted by the province. These men expected to play a leading role in what they 9 described as the "regeneration in our national l i f e . " With the strength of an unified association which had national a f f i l i a t i o n s , the veterans in B r i t i s h Columbia began to take action to solve their prob-mens. The f i r s t d i f f i c u l t y usually confronting the returned soldiers was finding employment. Since men could take their discharge in any 117. province of the Dominion with transportation expenses included, many had decided to receive their discharge in British Columbia, which was noted for i t s climate, i t s prosperity and i t s warm-hearted premier. More than seventeen thousand veterans who had enlisted from other provinces settled in British Columbia. 1 0 Municipal and provincial o f f i c i a l s , who were alarmed by the large numbers of returning soldiers, feared their potential discon-tent i f they found no jobs awaiting them. The larger c i t i e s attract-ed the majority of the veterans, and these municipalities objected to the permission granted to the soldiers to be discharged whereever they chose. Mayor R.H. Gale of Vancouver informed Borden's govern-ment that unemployed soldiers would become a problem" unless your government i s prepared either to guarantee their employment or main-tain them in comfort until they shall have secured positions." 1 1 He urged the federal government to assume f u l l responsibility for the care of unemployed veterans. The provincial government also affirmed i t s understanding that the provincial-dominion conference held in Nov-ember 1918 had agreed that the federal government was responsible for the expenses of the programmes set up to re-establish the veterans. Pre-mier John Oliver wrote to the acting premier, W.T. White, that the British Columbia government, although willing to share in the adminis-tration of programmes for soldiers, had understood "that the duty of the re-establishment of returned soldiers in c i v i l i a n l i f e pertains to 12 the Federal government." Oliver was concerned that not enough work and financing was available and that discontent on the part of returned 118. soldiers could develop into an explosive situation. Although the provincial economy had revived during 1918, espec-i a l l y at Vancouver and Victoria, the cessation of h o s t i l i t i e s threat-ened a work stoppage. As the wartime demand for coal, minerals and 13 lumber products diminished many men were forced out of work. The creation of new jobs became, as one soldier described i t , "the only hope for the future." The employment of alien enemies, many of whom 14 had gotten jobs because of earlier labour shortages, was denounced by the veterans. The i n i t i a l spark which made the employment of alien enemies into a burning issue was the Unionist election campaign of December 1917. The campaign had been characterized by v i t r i o l i c rhetoric em-phasizing the evils committed by Prussian militarism and the German war machine. During the war the press had transformed the Germans into barbarians, "uncivilized Huns", and destroyers of c i v i l i z a t i o n . This new image was imprinted on the public mind. H.H. Stevens and H.S. Clements, both representatives in Parliament from Vancouver r i d -ings, compared the future of Vancouver to Brussels' fate i f Germany's autocratic power"was le f t unchecked. German disrespect for women and to humanity in general was painted in lurid details by candidates who described the Germans as "uncivilized savages", lustful and cruel men who "violated women and g i r l s , murdered their husbands, tortured and mutilated children and murdered babies." 1 5 The campaigners sim-p l i f i e d the issues and equated a vote for.-£im Unionists with a vote for the protection of Canadian women and the preservation of the Empire. 119. Unionist candidates were successful in British Columbia, where they had swept twelve representatives into the House of Commons. Only one Liberal entered parliament from the province. The campaign had raised fears concerning the a c t i v i t i e s of Germans and Austro-Hungarians in the province. H.S. Clements, who was returned from Courtenay-Comox, reminded Sir Robert Borden after the election that provincial candidates had promised their consti-tuencies that something would be done to restrict the entry of aliens into the province. He wrote to Borden. "If we are going to save Canada for the Anglo-Saxon race now i s the time to begin doing i t . I have particularly in mind the following races: Greeks, Italians, Austrians, Swedes, and natur-alized Germans. Wherever I went in my d i s t r i c t our own blood and kin bi t t e r l y complained that these aliens were opposing the government and supporting the Laurier Liberals. Clements recommended the setting up of a semi-military commission to register and classify a l l aliens in Canada according to origins, a t t i -tudes, family ties, and religions so that a record of their progress towards assimilation might be made.17 His views won approval from many members of the G.W.V.A. who thought that true reform and a re-vitalization of Canadian l i f e involved the exclusion of aliens. They campaigned for the internment of a l l alien enemies, their deportation after the war, and a post-war immigration policy which would exclude Europeans, especially Germans and Austro-Hungarians. Hyphenated Can-adians had become an intolerable anomaly in national l i f e . Though they were most vehement in denouncing enemy aliens, the returned soldiers also considered other "aliens" to be incompatible 120. with Canadian ideals. These "aliens" were war profiteers and grasping landlords. Numerous cartoons appeared showing" the war profiteer r i d -ing in his highly polished car, a fat cigar stuck in his mouth, and a fur-coated dame settled by his side as symbolizing the men who had stayed behind and reaped the profits of war contracts while the s o l -diers were fighting in the trenches. "While others are giving every-thing, even l i f e i t s e l f , these fiends in human disguise, vampires and vultures, are sucking the blood and picking the bones of those who 18 f a l l by the wayside," the editor of the Veteran wrote. One cartoon in this newspaper depicted the f i s t of a returned soldier smashing the three types of aliens in Canadian l i f e — enemy aliens, profiters 19 and landlords. The procrastinating, partisan politician who refused to take firm action was considered to be in league with these "aliens." The returned soldiers in Br i t i s h Columbia grew increasingly im-patient with the federal policy of tolerating the presence of enemy aliens. Because of the "criminal slackness" shown by federal author-i t i e s in dealing with the problem, the G.W.V..AA. sent representatives to Ottawa to join representatives from other provinces, where the headquar-ters of the Association had expressed equal concern about enemy aliens. In March 1918 the delegates proposed to the Union cabinet the conscrip-tion of a l l enemy aliens for labour and their deportation after the war. A l l i e d aliens who had failed to register under the regulations of the Military Service Act would be required to serve in the Canadian or their respective forces. The veterans believed that these a l l i e d a l -iens were not only shirking their duty, but also earning high wages T 1 2 L . without making contributions to victory loans or making sacrifices for 20 the war. Free of war burdens and capable of moving from one area of the country to another, the aliens were considered a menace to the com-21 munity. If the conference failed to produce concrete proposals dele-gates pointed out that " i n the larger c i t i e s serious d i f f i c u l t i e s might 22 arise." The returned soldiers considered their proposals both just and r e a l i s t i c The sacrifices which had been demanded of them could also be required of aliens. If thousands of men could be mobilized to tra-vel overseas to the trenches with complete equipment and personnel, then the conscription of enemy aliens for work, most of whom were a l -ready registered, presented even less of an administrative problem. In preparation for his meeting with the veterans Borden had or-dered a report from the Minister of Justice. Loring C. Christie, the deputy minister, prepared the memorandum outlining the govern-ment's reasons for opposing the conscription of aliens. His report covered both the domestic and international implications of adopting such a policy. Keeping- within the limitations of the Hague Conven-tions, i t was argued, that the government had done what i t considered to be both legal and necessary to regulate the alien enemies. The internment of incorrigible alien enemies and the registration of a l l other enemy aliens had been undertaken. The prime minister viewed these measures as adequate. As for the conscription of aliens, Borden argued that "discriminatory legis-lation would instantly provoke reprisals on the part of enemy states.... 122. If the government took such a risk, the practical d i f f i c u l t i e s of car-rying out such a policy were insurmountable. The administrative mach-inery and the dislocation of current war production would result from conscription of enemy aliens and presented gigantic problems. Fur-thermore conscripted labour was far less productive than "the volun-25 tary work of these people." For the same reasons the government rejected internment. Although the government conceded that " I r r i t a t i o n " was caused by the presence of alien enemies, i t rejected the proposals of the soldiers because of le-gal and practical considerations. Another objection presented to the soldiers' delegation was the h o s t i l i t y which had been expressed by labour groups co conscription 7 of labour. Borden had met with labour leaders earlier in the year and they had informed him that labour was opposed to any form of con-26 script!on. The G.W.V.A. argued that only the radical labour lead-ers had opposed conscription and that even the conservative Canadian 27 Federation of Labour had recommended a modified form of ..-conscription. The Trades and Labour Congress, however, was opposed to conscription of labour and had adopted a resolution stating that, "No man, alien or otherwise, should be forced to work unless he i s granted f u l l industrial freedom of a citizen of Canada. The Congress supported internment of dangerous enemy aliens; but It declared that a l l labour, so long as i t obeyed regulations, should be free. The unions opposed conscription of any group, because they thought "industrial freedom" was a basic right of the worker. They 123. also feared that i f one group were conscripted, a precedent might be established which i f the war continued, would apply to a l l Canadian labour. Government intervention loomed as a potential threat to the increasing p o l i t i c a l and economic strength of the unions, especially during the war years, when labour unions had increased their member-ship and finances. After rejecting the veterans' proposals Borden appointed a com-mittee to hold further discussions with the veterans. The immediate reaction on 27 March was a mass march of more than two thousand vet-erans who paraded past the parliament buildings in Victoria demand-29 ing a "square deal". When this news reached soldiers in Bri t i s h Columbia they described the federal government's inaction as a stun-ning blow. Aftert'its failure in Ottawa, the provincial association directed i t s efforts towards the provincial government. Although i t realized the regulations controlling aliens came under federal jurisdiction, i t hoped that a massive campaign throughout the province, backed by a resolution from the provincial government, would force Ottawa to re-consider i t s decision. As the community G.W.V.A. organizations gained strength, the provincial association pressed ci v i c and social organi-zations to pass resolutions calling for the internment or conscription of aliens, and for a post-war immigration policy to exclude future im-migrants from enemy countries. Following their failure in Ottawa, the f i r s t step taken by the veterans in Victoria was to organize a massive march on the legislative 124. buildings because the federal government "had been or was unable to 31 recognize representations made through ordinary channels." On 10 April 1918 a procession of nearly three thousand people, representa-tive of a cross section of Victoria citizens, marched to the govern-ment buildings to present a petition to Premier Oliver demanding that the provincial government support the conscription and the deporta-32 tion of alien enemies. The resolution had the backing of the Vic-toria Board of Trade, the soldiers' organizations, and other groups 33 such as the Anti-Hun League. The G.W.V.A. expected the provincial government to endorse this resolution. Oliver, however, qualified his endorsation of the G.W.V.A. resol-ution, stating what the veterans already knewt aliens were a Dominion matter and the federal government had special reasons for i t s decisions Under pressure from members of the demonstration who catcalled demand-ing a forthright statement, the premier conceded that his government would support proposals to "make aliens shoulder their share of the burden...." 3 5 To maintain pressure on the government and to make i t s vague com-mitment into a firm resolution, the G.W.V.A. held a similar march in Vancouver on 13 Ap r i l . Marching bagpipers as well as cars of disabled veterans leading fifteen hundred "battle scarred" veterans attracted cheering crowds as they proceeded to the Cambie Street parade grounds. Placards inscribed "Intern or Conscript A l l Alien Enemies", and "A Square Deal for Returned Soldiers" illustrated the mood of the veterans David Loughnan addressed the crowd in a rousing speech in which he 125. c r i t i c i z e d both levels of government for their inaction and their lack 36 of assistance to the returned soldiers. The veterans hammered at the same theme at a l l their meetings, but they also stressed that a militant stance represented no threat to the public order. They pointed to the support that they had ob-tained form c i v i c associations and business groups as evidence of the acceptance of their legitimate complaints. The Veteran reassured the public that the soldiers' movement was under control and the G.W.V.A. was "a force of calm and deliberate opinion." The veterans desired to maintain a good image: the Association included in i t s statement of objectives a clause "To secure and maintain the complete confidence of the p u b l i c . " 3 7 Members of the Legislative Assembly agreed with the soldiers that a statement of policy was necessary. On 21 April Oliver announced that his government would support a resolution to send the veterans* propos-als to Ottawa. An unanimous vote carried the resolution on the same day. In the debate Liberal members attacked the opposition for p o l i t i -cizing the.returned soldiers issue in order to make p o l i t i c a l capital in the forthcoming Victoria bye-election in which the soldiers intended to run their own candidate. W.J. Bowser, the Conservative leader, assert-ed that Oliver's government had appointed Germans to c i v i l service posts and neglected appointments of veterans. The Hon. T.D. Pattullo presented evidence that P. Lorenzen, whom Bowser had accused of being German, was 38 in fact originally from Denmark. The Liberals also claimed that too 126. many returned soldiers were unqualified for some jobs but that every effort was being made to employ veterans wherever possible. The veterans, however, remained dissatisfied. It was with re-luctance that the veterans had entered provincial p o l i t i c s for fear of splintering the unity of the soldiers' movement. However, the G.W.V.A. was ready to support any politician who would advance i t s aims. When the Victoria association chose Pvt. Frank Giolma as the soldiers' candidate in the bye-election the Veteran supported his can-didacy. When Giolma won a surprise victory over the traditional par-ties , his election was heralded as proof that the returned soldiers were stronger than those who ran "bogus returned soldiers" in the 39 hope of deceiving the veterans. The June bye-election dismayed the two major parties who had expected the soldier vote to splinter. Giolma, an unknown and inex-perienced private who had served in France, had no p o l i t i c a l back-ground or any connection with business or p o l i t i c a l leaders in the city. Returned soldiers celebrated his victory as an example of the growing alliance between soldiers, women's groups and workers. The G.W.V.A. kept close tabs on the federal members of par-liament and their statements regarding enemy aliens. H.S. Clements presented the G.W.V.A. resolutions along with the provincial govern-ment's statement of support for the soldiers to the House of Commons on the 22 Apr i l , but his effort to obtain satisfaction failed. Un-daunted but embittered by this failure, Clements declared in an i n -terview with the editor of the Veteran that, 127. the time has arrived in the great stress of this international war, when international law might very well be forgotten, and when the Act of Confederation might be overlooked, i f necessary, to meet the situation. The Veteran also gave large coverage to Major R.C. Cooper's view that enemy aliens were playing too large a role in the affairs of the labour unions. The Member of Parliament from Vancouver-South had voted for the soldiers' resolution, but he refused to accept Clements 41 extreme position. Other Members of Parliament, particularly H.H. Stevens and S.JT. Crowe, both of whom represented Vancouver ridings, urged restraint on the soldiers and their acceptance of government 42 policy. But like Cooper and Clements, the members of parliament attributed the labour unrest in the province to the acti v i t i e s of enemy aliens. In so doing they lent indirect support to the soldiers' claims that aliens were indeed a real threat to the war effort. Once the connection was made between labour agitation and the presence of aliens in the unions, a review and investigation of alien enemy activities got underway. In British Columbia the Mountain Lum-ber Manufacturers' Association prompted an investigation of radical labour organizations when i t informed the government on the 11 Feb-ruary 1918 that members of the International Workers of the World (IWW) were secretly working in the lumbering d i s t r i c t s in the prov-i n c e . 4 3 It requested the government to censor the circulation of for-44 elgn language materials and to outlaw the IWW, which was distribut-ing pamphlets. Sir Joseph W. Flavelle, director of the Imperial Muni-tions Board, also suspected that German sympathizers might by providing 128. direction for the labour d i f f i c u l t i e s in the West. He suggested to Borden that the fact that executive members of the International Bro-therhood of Boilermakers -- Schmidt, Hinzman, Reinemeier — had German 45 names might Indicate a link to German agents. In Kay 1918 Flavelle reported that "There i s a large body of opinion in the province that the troubles in British Columbia are to no small extent incident to the presence of dangerous men who are actuated by pro-German motives."' Borden ordered an immediate investigation into the IWW and other radical labour organizations. The Dominion Commissioner of Police, Sir A.P. Sherwood, placed undercover agents in suspected organizations 47 in Vancouver and lumbering d i s t r i c t s . Although no direct link be-tween German sympathizers or enemy aliens and the labour d i f f i c u l t i e s was discovered, the federal authorities persisted in the investiga-tions. From the spring of 1918 until the summer of 1919 the alien enemy continued to be a central theme of a l l discussions relating to labour unrest. Workers in the shipyards in Vancouver, New Westminster and Victoria went on strike on the 28 May 1918 for wage parity with American shipyard workers. On 4 June workers were compelled to return 48 to work without a wage increase. The veterans opposed the strike 49 because the ships were essential to the war effort. Although the veterans believed the shipyard strike had been inspired by unpatriotic workers who were influenced by IWW and Bolshevik agitators, an ex-haustive investigation by the police produced no evidence linking radicals or revolutionaries with the s t r i k e . 5 0 S t i l l the feeling 129. persisted among the veterans and the general public that aliens were responsible for the unrest. 5 1 Although the veterans had viewed Giolma's election in Victoria as evidence of the potentiality of an alliance between veterans, wo-men and workers, in fact any p o l i t i c a l relationship between workers and soldiers, so long as the war continued, had inherent d i f f i c u l t i e s . The labour unions were seeking to maintain their high wages and their bargaining strength which they had gained as a result of the demands for war production. As rising costs for basic necessities forced them to strike for higher wages, the war experience for them centered ar-ound consolidation of their power to bargain with war contractors. For the returned soldier, In contrast, the winning of the war and a s p i r i t of sacrifice was the major consideration. In August 1918 another strike severed the soldiers and a large segment of Vancouver's population from the labour organizers. As a protest to the shooting of Albert Goodwin, a labour organizer and pac-i f i s t draft evader from Cumberland, the British Columbia Federation of Labour called for a twenty-four hour sympathy strike. In Cumberland a large parade of workers marched through the town to mourn Goodwin's death. In Vancouver street railway men, longshoremen and many other workers walked out. In response to the strike about 300 soldiers made a raid on the Labour Temple and forced leaders of the strike to kiss 52 the flag. The following day, 3 August, the soldiers renewed their attack on labour leaders when they gathered at the Longshoreman's Hall to demand that the strike leaders and foreigners be deported. The soldiers 130. and the press blamed German influence for the agitation and denounced 53 the strikers as "Red-Socialists with pro-German ideas." The strike leaders had miscalculated entirely on the public response. From this time forth there was no prospect of an alliance between radical work-ers and the soldiers. This strike reaffirmed the common belief that aliens were behind the labour agitation. In the summer of 1918 Borden had requested C.H. Cahan, a prom-inent Montreal lawyer, to undertake an extensive investigation to det-ermine whether a new and a more effective organization was neces-sary to formulate and administer additional regulations to control aliens and radical labour leaders, some of whom might be German agents or operating with German support. In July Cahan produced a secret report to the cabinet outlining his views. His research had revealed that many Ukrainians, Russians and Austrians had been influenced by the recent revolution in Russia but the radical literature circulat-ing among them posed l i t t l e threat to Canada's security; and such l i t -erature, he argued, could not be traced to German agents or war pro-54 paganda. The formation of protective leagues, an idea suggested to Cahan by the minister of justice, did not appeal to him. Such leagues had been formed in the United States as quasi-vigilante committees to look into reports of disloyalty among Germans and to ban some German societies, publications, and the teaching of European languages. Cahan argued that i f such leagues were formed in Canada they would probably degenerate into factions seeking to expose discrimination in the teaching of French and English in the schools, the enforcement 131. of the Military Services Act, or religious quarrels. Rather than benefitting Canadian unity, such extra-legal associations would only embroil local citizens in racial conflicts. He recommended that the police, RNWMP, and immigration o f f i c i a l s adequately control any "iso-lated cases of German or other disloyal intrigues." 5 6 As for the wave of unrest, flowing from the west across the coun-try, Cahan attributed i t to the war weariness of Canadians who had not anticipated such a long-term and costly commitment to the war. In-stead of directing i t s efforts towards a crusade against local German propaganda, Cahan emphasized that the diminishing enthusiasm of the Canadian people should be bolstered with "a great moral and in t e l l e c -tual propaganda in favor of the successful prosecution of the war to a bitter end." 5 7 Complaints over high taxes, rising food costs, war profiteering, and neglect of returned soldiers' demands were more im-portant substantive issues than German propaganda. He urged the govern-ment to tackle these problems, although he admitted they seemed incap-able of "any early satisfactory solution." Before the government could attack these problems, Cahan emphasized that, the people of Canada must be more ful l y i n -formed, their patriotism again refreshed and enthused, their resolution hardened, and their purpose to fight and to suffer t i l l the end strengthened and sustained. How to strengthen and maintain the w i l l of the people, became, then, an important goal for the government. Impressed by Cahan's analysis, Borden decided to acquire his a b i l i t i e s in the government. In September he requested the Montreal 132. lawyer to undertake another secret report, this time to re-evaluate the administration and the efficient enforcement of laws regulating the enemy aliens, and the "surveillance and control of a l l aliens resident in Canada...who are otherwise disposed to be in sympathy with the p o l i t i c a l and military designs of Germany, Austro-Hungaria, 59 Bulgaria and Turkey?" In this report Cahan's views changed substantially. Even though the existing laws had been well enforced, he thought additional meas-ures should be taken to extend the registration of aliens to include a l l Ukrainians, Russians, and Finns, i f the "public order and preser-vation of public safety in Canada" were to be maintained. 6 0 Supplied with secret documents from the United States government's Committee for Public Information which included special, secret orders for Ger-man agents in Canada and the United States to organize disruptions in the ports and in the major commercial centres of Canada so that the delivery of war materials would be tied up, and having made a closer inspection of the sources of the radical literature being circulated in foreign languages, Cahan was thoroughly convinced that the Ukrainians and Finns had come under German influence, and that the strikes associated with radical labour leaders were indirectly controlled by German agents. 6 1 As evidence of the extent of revol-utionary a c t i v i t i e s among the Russians, Ukrainians and Finns, Cahan provided numerous translations of newspapers, pamphlets and leaflets advocating anti-war sentiments, the destruction of state authority, the subversion of religion and the overthrow of capitalism. A 133 pamphlet entitled "Who Needs War," published in Russian, suggested a pro-German attitude: Now everybody talks about German brutalities and crimes and vandalism! But take Germany previous to the war: Was not Germany the f i r s t and most popular and educated of a l l Nations of the world? Did not the whole Uni-verse obtain their education and culture from Germany? And now they are the lowest race existing! Why? Here we have an indication which proves that Germany's foes are the most hypocritical Nations that live upon the Earth!^2 The prevention, the pamphlet concluded, could only be achieved in one way: A l l the working classes a l l over the world must be united and establish one world-wide Union-Socialism, take a l l property from their masters, banish a l l Capitalists and Exploiters, over come a l l Rulers, and take the reins into their own hands and use them to good purpose.^3 Singling out several organizations, among them the Social Demo-cratic Party of Canada, the Ukrainian Social Democratic Party, the Russian Revolutionary Group and "any other Society or Organization inculcating the same doctrines or teachings", Cahan recommended the suppression of such groups and the censorship of a l l radical l i t e r a -64 ture. To administer additional laws and regulations to preserve the public safety, he proposed the setting up of a new branch within the department of justice to be known as the Public Safety Branch. Such a branch would co-ordinate a l l government departments which had some part to play in the enforcement of federal laws and regulations relat-ing to the aliens i n Canada? It would function "until peace i s de-clared and general mobilization effected." Such a branch, Cahan 134. suggested, would receive popular approval and enable the government to gain the assistance of public and private organizations who wereinter-ested in the efficient enforcement of regulations. The press in British Columbia had been concerned not only over the radical publications but also had objected to the continuing c i r -culation of German newspapers. The Chief Press Censor, C.J. Chambers, had adopted the policy of permitting German newspapers to publish under s t r i c t supervision because he thought this would prevent the smuggling of dangerous literature into the country, while at the same time per-mitting the government to keep watch on the thoughts and feelings of 65 Germans and Austro-Hungarians, especially in the prairie provinces. In Vancouver the German newspapers had ceased publication when the war began. However, papers such as Der Courier and Der Nordwestern were available in Vancouver and the local press waged a campaign to have them banned. The Sun and Province urged Chambers to forbid these pub-lications and the Vancouver city council passed a resolution on 9 May 1918 recommending that the government ban a l l German publications. 6 6 The Sun reported that at Prince George people were overheard saying, "We w i l l welcome the day when the German language and German publi-cations are forbidden in Canada.6,7 Apart from the expressions voiced in the press, Chambers was receiving confidential reports from an. fl.E. Nichols, Director of Public Information, who was travelling in the West with the War Lect-ure Bureau. Nichols's reports revealed the general atmosphere of suspicion existing among government agents to the effect that Germans 135 and labourers were^tiisloyal. He described overhearing a woman in Vic-toria, "bearing evidence of Germanic extraction in face and speech and weight, remark recently to a citizen: 'Germany had won, but the 68 A l l i e s (Alleys, she pronounced It) don't seem to know i t ! " Nichols reported that labourers attending the war lectures frequently denounced 69 speakers for not discussing the high cost of living and war profits. Cahan had correctly gauged the sympathy of the press and a pub-l i c which suspected the existence of a link between enemy aliens, for-eign languages and labour unrest. His report represented more than a lawyer's analysis of radical literature and revolutionary organizations; i t also embodied an understanding of the grievances underlying the po-tentially explosive unrest that was stirring among organized labour, returned soldiers, women, businessmen, newspaper editors, and munici-pal and provincial politicians. To prevent a co l l i s i o n between these groups Cahan had recommended in his f i r s t report a re-invigorated patriotism and a concerted effort to solve the "financial, industrial and economic problems growing out of the war, and which are, perhaps, incapable of any early satisfactory s o l u t i o n . " 7 0 His second report concentrated not on the seemingly insoluble problems confronting the Union government in the last months of the war and the approaching problems of demobilization, but focused on the preventive measures and regulations "for safe guarding (sic) the public interests against enemy a l i e n s . " 7 1 That the government had instructed Cahan to undertake a review of existing regulations ahditheffeefEectivenessctnteonfcrolling enemy aliens both as a response to public discontent and from a 136. growing sense that p o l i t i c a l and social instability posed a threat to Canada's security i s evident. On two levels Cahan's report had a particular impact. His investigation of radical literature, reinforced by information at-ained from United States sources, confirmed his suspicion that a link existed between enemy aliens, radical labour organizations and Germany's war effort. The enemy alien was no longer a boggle, but in fact, he was the source of labour unrest and social i n s t a b i l i t y . This view l e g i -timized a large segment of popular feeling that contended that the preservation of Canada's security rested primarily wfthrcdnfcfolhofcenemy alien. Secondly, the report had an immediate effect on the Union cab-inet. On receiving the report, the Minister of Justice, C.J. Doherty, notified Cahan, The facts which you have placed before us and the recommendations based thereon, demand in my judgment, immediate and vigorous action. I am circulating the report as a secret document to my colleagues, and I expect to have the sub-ject taken up this afternoon or tomorrow at the l a t e s t . ^ After conferring with the cabinet Doherty proceeded to appoint Cahan as Director of the Public Safety Branch. This committee would co-ordinate the branches of the federal government and insure the co-operation of provincial and municipal authorities in dealing with the aliens. On 28 September the government passed an order-in-counci1 containing Cahan*s recommendations banning any party advocating revo-lution. 137. While the federal government was centralizing the control and regulations of enemy aliens through the creation of the Public Safety Branch, the G.W.V.A. took the lead in encouraging other associations throughout British Columbia to press for internment of enemy aliens and for a post-war immigration policy excluding the entry of residents of former enemy countries. The Anti-Hun League in Victoria recommend-ed not only internment and prohibition of German immigration but also 73 the curtailment of trade with post-war Germany. When, in January and February 1919 waves of returning soldiers entered the province, pressure on the government to amend the Immigration Act mounted. The British Campaigner's Association passed unanimously a resolution c a l -74 ling for the deportation of a l l alien enemies. In addition to the support of the soldiers organizations which included the Army and Navy Veterans of Canada and the Navy League, the G.W.V.A. successfully brought together municipal bodies, the provincial government and various citizens groups. The Victoria City Council had passed a resolution on 16 December 1918 agreeing to the G.W.V.A.*s proposals to oppose the immigration of enemy aliens. At a meeting of the Men's Auxiliary to the G.W.V.A. in Victoria the asso-ciation received approval for i t s demands that enemy aliens remain dis-franchised, be prohibited from immigrating to Canada, denied citizen-ship, and excluded from membership in the Victoria Board of Trade; the municipal council, the Win the War League, the Rotary Club and the Local Council of WomenJ5supported these proposals. In Vancouver H. Bell-Irving, a leading businessman, headed the 138. formation of a 'Reconstruction Group' with the intention of organizing a l l local bodies to, protest against the release of Interned aliens except for the purpose of deportation, in view of undesirable citizenship and their probable com-petition with returned men. The efforts of this group proved successful. The city councils in Vancouver, South Vancouver, West Vancouver and Port Coquitlam for-warded resolutions to Ottawa urging the deportation of enemy aliens and a new immigration p o l i c y . 7 7 Communities in the interior -- Kam-loops, Penticton, Prince George and Fernie -- also passed resolutions which were sent to the Union cabinet. The response of the British Columbians and of people in the other regions of the country to the returned soldiers' demands for action overwhelmed the federal government. In February the Acting Premier, Sir Thomas White, wired to Borden in Paris that public op-inion across the country threatened to break out in violence unless the government passed new order-in-counciIs or enacted new legisla-78 tion. Borden replied that the government would continue to deport those enemy aliens already interned, but that limited shipping f a c i l -i t i e s hindered the speed of such an undertaking. As a concession to the urgent demands he recommended the passing of an order-in-counci1 to permit local judges to hear cases brought against alien enemies by any person who in the opinion of the judge is sufficiently representative of the feeling of the community to lay a complaint.7° 139. If a county or a d i s t r i c t court judge determined that an alien was guilty of sedition, he would have the authority to intern him. This order permitted loc a l i t i e s to proceed against undesirable enemy aliens and in effect decentralized federal control of enemy aliens. Citizens could now Initiate action against any enemy alien who might come under suspicion. Another objective of the returned soldiers was to replace the enemy aliens who were employed in the industries of the province. On the 7 February 1919 returned soldiers planned a march in Victoria demonstrating against the employment of enemy aliens at Ladysmith, 80 the Crow's Nest Pass and the smelter at Anyox. Their decision may have been influenced by a violent attack on enemy aliens which re-turned soldiers in Winnipeg had made. Companies responded quickly to the demands of the soldiers. The Grand Forks Gazette reported on 7 March 1919 that the management of Granby's northern plant had replaced 135 enemy aliens with veterans. Though forty enemy aliens s t i l l worked at the smelter, the company promised to replace them 81 as soon as veterans were available. The newspaper had unkind words for the Great Northern Railway which was hiring Doukobors and enemy aliens. Condemning the railway for employing these aliens, the newspaper emphasized that even naturalized citizens of enemy origin would have to go. "Naturalization has been the camouflage that has covered untold cunning and gloating of enemy aliens", wrote the editor. Unless the railway recognized the rights of the returned soldier, he predicted, i t could expect labor d i f f i c u l t i e s . Two 140. weeks later the Great Northern fired enemy aliens and hired veterans. Other companies followed suit. The provincial government reported that only 96 Germans and 530 Austro-Hungarians were s t i l l employed in the 84 lumber and mining industries. By the end of 1919 a marked reduc-tion had taken place in the number of foreigners employed in a l l cate-gories of labour and the efforts of the returned soldiers to find em-ployment for themselves had improved substantially. Nonetheless Van-couver's mayor, R.H. Gale, continued to plead with the federal gov-ernment to supply more jobs for the soldiers. Because veterans tended to congregate in Vancouver, the situation seemed especially acute there and Gale feared that an alliance between the soldiers and the unions 85 was s t i l l a possibility. At a meeting of the British Columbian Federation of Labour, held in Calgary on 10 March 1919, the Federation had attempted to heal the wounds created by Goodwin strike debacle by forming a com-mittee to negotiate with the returned soldiers so that a common bond 86 might be created between labour and the veterans. The Federation argued that the aliens were being employed by the capitalists as a wedge to divide the veterans from the workers. Although i t objected to the "wholesale immigration of workers from other parts of the world...", the federation condemned the capitalists as the true aliens. The Federation's effort to bring about a re-conciliation between the workers and soldiers to form an united front against the real alien, the capitalist, was exactly what government o f f i c i a l s wished to avoid. The Federation had backed a successful strike of more than 3,000 141. Vancouver shipyard workers because of the dismissal of one returned soldier on 5 December 1918. : ; r o n in fear of such an allinnce.-As the Winnipeg strike unfolded in May 1919 labour groups be-gan calling for a mass sympathy strike in Vancouver. Immigration agents wired that men being discharged from the shipyards might join in a general strike. The immigration agent in Vancouver, R.G. Mac-beth, emphasized that unless post-discharge pay. for the soldiers was extended, they might join the workers: Nothing could be worse than to allow the returned men who are now a strongly loy-a l i s t party to d r i f t into a kind of a l i i - : ance with the Bolshevik element that wants 6 s to smash everything. When a central strike committee in Vancouver called out the workers for a sympathy strike with Winnipeg groups, a majority of workers went out. But most soldiers' organizations failed to participate in the strike. Strike leaders were accused of being foreign agi-tators by the press, the Citizen's League and by Premier John O l i -89 ver. The G.W.V.A. condemned the Winnipeg Strike and opposed any 90 form of support of the Winnipeg strikers. The response of the federal government to the Winnipeg Strike was immediate and swift. On 15 June 1919 the R.N.W.M.P. issued or-ders to western offices that secret service men be prepared in Winni-peg, Vancouver, Calgary and Edmonton "to trace out and look after a l l 91 undesirables." W.H. Routledge, the Assistant Commissioner of the R.N.W.M.P., issued on 16 June circular 71 directing agents to arrest prominent agitators in British Columbia and intern them without delay 142. at the Vernon Internment camp. Immigration agents were instructed to assist the police and prevent undesirables entering from the United States. If additional assistance was necessary then agents were to 93 employ, preferably, returned soldiers. In Vancouver several Rus-sians were arrested and sent to Vernon, where they were held until de-94 portation proceedings could be undertaken. The legal authority permitting the arrest, internment and depor-tation of labour agitators and "undesirables" derived from clauses of the immigration act which had been amended on the 12 May 1919. A l -though the federal cabinet had passed an order-in-counci1 on the 30 November 1918 debarring the immigration of enemy aliens, fur-ther measures seemed necessary in light of public h o s t i l i t y towards aliens. On 7 April 1919 J.A. Calder, Minister of Immigration and Colonization, presented B i l l 52, An Act to Amend the Immigration Act, in response to the public concern for a new immigration policy, a 95 concern which had arisen as a result of the war. The main issue before the Commons was to determine what class or type of immigrant would be allowed to enter Canada after the war. Two sections of the b i l l relating to aliens were c r i t i c a l in determining a new policy that would allow the government broader dis-cretion in excluding undesirables. Section 38 (c) provided power by order-in-counci1 to prohibit persons for any "reason which may be 96 deemed advisable." Without defining or classifying specific c r i -teria for the exclusion of an applicant, the section could be applied to any individual or group. Under section 3, paragraph (p) enemy 143. aliens or persons who had been enemy aliens were excluded from enter-97 ing Canada. Equally important was section 41 of the b i l l which per-mitted the government to deport anyone advocating or "teaching disbe-98 l i e f or opposition to organized government." Taken together these three clauses represented a move away from the pre-war open immigration policy for European settlers. Immigrants who had formerly been accepted as suitable for Canadian settlement were now excluded from entering Canada. Prime Minister Borden, commenting on the necessity for such measures, stated that the public mind lacked the "usual balance" and therefore a firm policy was essential to re-99 storing a normal "balance" in Canadian society. The agitation of the returned soldiers flowed dynamically through provincial society in the last year of the war and reawakened h o s t i l i t y towards Germans, Austro-Hungarians and other aliens in British Columbia. By directing attention to the enemy alien as the cause of post-war social and economic d i f f i c u l t i e s , the community projected i t s anxieties onto the immigrants and opened the avenue to a simplistic explanation for post-war problems, problems which existed not only in Canada but also in the United States, England and Europe. In a strenuous effort to re-establish s t a b i l i t y and control, the Canadian government enacted legislation and set up agencies to suppress aliens. However, as a suc-cession of measures--internment, deportation, an exclusion!st immigra-tion policy — failed to prevent labour unrest and turmoil, i t appeared that the enemy alien had not been the cause for Canadian problems after 144. a l l . The leaders of the strikes and radical labour organizations had not been Germans or Austro-Hungarians.* 0 0 When the Royal Commission on Industrial Unrest made i t s report in July 1919 no reference was 101 made to the enemy alien as the cause for labour unrest. The enemy alien had been a scapegoat. On 27 February 1920 the last group of prisoners of war in Canada were shipped back to Europe. On board the SS Mellta were 26 men who had been interned at Vernon. Among them was C.E. Michaelis who had written a short poem to internment o f f i c i a l s entitled 0 Canada. Five sad years on every hand, did I say, I am your friend? Five made years, with bitter woe did you answer, I'm Your foe. Yet, you land so young and c h i l l , cannot help to love you s t i l l , wooing ture in woe and weal sometimes won a hear of steel Steel you had around your breast, War was your interest. Now that peace once more i s here, 1 Q 2 Won't you change your mind, my Dear? Canada had changed i t s mind, but in favor of a nationalistic fervor which defined the presence of the German and the Austro-Hungarian as incompatible with the Canadian society of the post-war era. 144a. Conclusion The outbreak of war in August 1914 compelled the federal govern-ment to consider two problems in dealing with the enemy alien: his loyalty and his legal status. So long as enemy aliens obeyed the law and pursued their occupations peacefully the government considered them loyal members of the community. The Conservative government placed no demands on the enemy alien to express his loyalty actively by joining the m i l i t i a for overseas duty. If he maintained a peaceful and pas-sive neutrality the government assured him the protection of his prop-erty and c i v i l rights. As the war entered the autumn of 1914 the federal government dis-covered i t was less able to keep i t s promise to the enemy aliens be-cause of growing popular sentiment against the lack of restrictions im-posed on the aliens. In response to pressures from labour, provincial organizations and provincial governments, the Conservative government was compelled to pass an order-in-Council providing for the registra-tion and internment of enemy aliens. The significance of this order was that i t provided the means whereby aliens could be excluded from continued participation in the community. The order was a step in re-defining the social relations between the receiving culture and the enemy alien immigrant because internment offered a new dimension to municipal and provincial authorities. If necessary, they could recommend to m i l i t i a authorities that certain enemy aliens should be Interned, especially when unemployment and labour unrest threatened in some communities. 144b. Economic conditions played a role in the change of attitudes to-wards the aliens. The severity of the recession in 1913 continued into the f i r s t year of the war. Construction projects, railway developments and mining and timber production curtailed operations because of inade-quate markets. Municipal and provincial governments used internment to alleviate some of the unemployment and ho s t i l i t y against the enemy alien. These rapid changes in economic and social conditions heightened the v i s i b i l i t y of the enemy alien. The enemy alien was defined as a threat to the sta b i l i t y of society and he became an object of fear and hatred. With the return of veterans in 1918 and 1919 the effort to sever the German and Austro-Hungarian from participation in Canadian l i f e regained strength. During four years of war the status of the German and Austro-Hungarian population changed dramatically. The declaration of war. the persisting depression and the fear of attack had triggered resent-ment and then hatred for the enemy alien and the naturalized subject of enemy origin. This hatred grew as a result of stories of German atrocities in Belgium, news from the warfront: and the sinking of the Lusitania. The attitude that the immigrant of enemy origin was unde-sirable became ingrained in the minds of British Columbians and Can-adians and they demanded action to restrict enemy aliens. The unan-imous endorsation by the Legislative Assembly of a G.W.V.A. resolu-tion to deport and exclude enemy aliens from post-war immigration and citizenship signalled the beginning of new regulations for European immigrants desiring to settle in Canada. The "new era" of which Carl Lowenberg spoke in 1914 would be postponed u n t i l another time. 145. Footnotes British Columbian Veterans Weekly (Hereafter cited as BCVW (7 Feb-ruary 1918, p. 11. 2 I b i d . . 13 February 1919, p. 13. 3 Public Archives of Canada (Hereafter cited as PAC), Canada, Depart-ment of M i l i t i a and Defence, Vol. 848, F i l e "Employment of Returned Soldiers for Guard Duty", H.H. Stevens to A.E. Kemp, 27 March 1916, p. 84. 4 I b l d . . p. 153. 5BCVW, 7 February 1918, p. 8; 9 May 1918, p. 3; 24 October 1918, p. 1. The Great War Veterans Association was recognized as the o f f i c i a l re-turned soldiers organization both because of i t s large membership and national extent. By May 1918 i t had 40,000 members and i t s supporters in B r i t i s h Columbia were estimated at 6,000. It urged other groups in the province such as Comrades of the War, whose membership was limited to only those men who had served in France, the Campaigners of the War (men who had actually served in the trenches), the Army and Navy Veter-ans Association, and British Campaigners Association to join with the G.W.V.A. to form a united front to achieve their goals. As the only provincial wide organization i t took the lead in voicing the veterans* grievances and in organizing communities to support their aims. 6BCVW, 7 February 1918, p. 2. 7Ibld., The f i f t h clause of the GWVA's statement of purpose read, "To voice reasonable demands and just grievances". Clause six stated, "To inculcate at a l l times loyalty to Canada and the Empire." g S.W. Jackman, Portraits of the Premiers,Sydney, B.C.,Gray's, 1971, p. 191. 9BCVW. 7 February 1918, p. 6. 1 0 B r i t i s h Columbia, Annual Report of the Department of Labor, 1919, p. K 43. 1 1P.A.C, Canada, Department of the Interior, Immigration Branch (Here-after cited as Immigration Branch), Box 257, F i l e 751249, "Unemploy-ment: Vancouver," R.H. Gale to F.P. Healy, 1 3 December 1918. 146. 12 Br i t i s h Columbia Sessional Papers (Hereafter cited as BCSP) 1919, Vol. 2, Correspondence Regarding Conference, 19 November 1918, p. M 17. 13BCSP, 1919, Vol. 2, p. K 6. 14 Br i t i s h Columbia, Annual Report of the Department of Labor (Here-after cited as B.C. Labor Report) 1918, p. H 5. See also, Immigra-tion Branch, Box 257, F i l e 752149, J o l i e f f e to Scott, 15 May 1917. 15 P.A.C., H.H. Stevens Papers, Vol. I, Clipping Books, 18 December 1918. Included in this volume i s a Union Campaign pamphlet entitled German Atrocities, pp. 1-3. 16P.A.C. Robert Laird Borden Papers (Hereafter cited as Borden Papers) Vol. 30, H.S. Clements to Borden, 27 December 1917. * 7Ibid., p. 2. 18BCVW, 21 March 1918, p. 12. 1 9 I b i d . , 12 December 1918, p. 1. 70 BCVW, 28 March 1918; 4 April 1918, p. 1. 21 Ibid. The Weekly frequently portrayed in cartoons an image of the alien as a "hidden menace," usually d i f f i c u l t to identify because they posed as Belgium or Dutch immigrants. This placed a premium on sus-picion. 22 Ibid. 2 3P.A.C, L.C. Christie Papers, Vol. 2, Memorandum, p. 1324. 2 4 I b i d . , see also BCVW. 11 April 1918, p. 2. 2 5 I b i d . 2 6Robert Laird Borden: His Memoirs. Vol. II. 1916-1920, Carleton Library, Toronto, 1969, p. 115. 2 7Canada, Labor Gazette, Vol. 18, 1918, p. 782. 147. 2 8 I b i d . , p. 833. 29BCVW.. 4 April 1918, p. 6. 3 0 I b i d . 31BCVW. 4 April 1918, p. 6. 32BCVW. 18 April 1918, p. 4. See also Victoria Dally Colonist. 11 April 1918, p. 1. 33 Provincial Archives of British Columbia (Hereafter cited as PABC) Premier's O f f i c i a l Correspondence (Hereafter cited as POC) F.E. E l -worthy to John Oliver, 9 April 1918. 34BCVW. 18 April 1918, p. 4. 3 5 I b i d . BCVW, 25 April 1918, p. 6. 3 7 I b i d . Victoria Daily Colonist, 21 April 1918, p. 5. BCVW, 11 July 1918, p. 9. 40BCVW, 16 May 1918, p. 6. Ibid. 42BCVW, 13 June 1918, pp. 12-13; 27 June 1918, p. 1. 4 3P.A.C, Borden Papers, Vol. 238, F i l e 2363, Mountain Lumber Manu-facturer's Association to R.L. Borden, 11 February 1918, p. 56588. 4 4 I b l d . . p. 56589. 4 5P.A.C, Borden Papers, Vol. 238, F i l e 2363, J . Flavelle to Borden, 20 February 1918, p. 56593. 46 Ibid., Flavelle to Borden, 16 May 1918, p. 56623. 148. 47 Ibid.. A.P. Sherwood to Borden, 5 March 1918, p. 56601. 48 P.A.C., Immigration Branch, Box 257, F i l e : "Unemployment Vancouver", 27 May 1918, p. 1. 49 Ibid. 5°P.A.C, Borden Papers, A.P. Sherwood to Committee on the I.W.W., 16 June 1918, p. 56672. 5 1 I b i d . , F.A. Acland to Deputy Minister of Labour, 10 June 1918, p. 56665. 52 P.A.C., Immigration Branch, Box 237, F i l e : "Unemployment Vancouver", Quinn to Calder, 3 August 1918. 5 3 I b l d . 5 4P.A.C, Borden Papers, Vol. 104, OC 519, "Enemy Aliens and Bolsheviks,* C.H. Cahan to Borden, 20 July 1918, p. 56657. 3 3 I b i d . . p. 56658. 5 6 I b i d . , p. 56659. 5 7 I b i d . , p. 56660. 5 8 I b l d . 59 Ibid., Cahan to C.J. Doherty, 14 September 1918, p. 1. Ibid., p. 4. 6 1Ibld,, 6 2 I b i d . , p. 11. 6 3 I b l d . 6 4 I b i d . , p. 12. 149. 6 5PAC, Department of the Secretary of State Papers, Chief Press Cen-sor, Vol. I, F i l e 119, Chambers to A. Meighen, 4 January 1918. 6 6 I b i d . , 9 May 1918. 6 7 I b i d . , 21 June 1918. 6 8 I b i d . , F i l e 199, Mr. Nichols to Chambers, 11 June 1918. 6 9 I b i d . 7 0PAC, Borden Papers, vol. 104, OC 519, "Enemy Aliens and Bolsheviks", C.H. Cahan to Borden, 20 July 1918, p. 56657. 7 1 I b i d . , p. 56665. 72 Ibid., Doherty to Cahan, 14 September 1918, p. 56685. 73 Victoria Tiroes, 23 September 1918, p. 4. The Victoria organization was probably a f f i l i a t e d with the Anti-Teutonic League which had been inaugurated on 15 November 1915 in Edmonton. The organizationswas<de-voted to the total exclusion of a l l Germans and any connections with Germany. See pamphlet entitled "The Anti-Teutonic League" in PAC, De-partment of M i l i t i a and Defence Papers, vol. 426, f i l e HQ 54-21-1-53. 74 PAC, Borden Papers, vol. 155, OC 252, "Aliens", Army and Navy Veterans Association to Borden, 31 June 1919, p. 85. See also, University of British Columbia, Special Collections, S.F. Tolmie Papers. Box 24-3, E.B. Halsall to S.F. Tolmie, 20 December 1918. 7 5 V i c t o r i a Colonist, 24 December 1918, p. 4. 7 6 V i c t o r i a Times, 16 December 1918, p. 9. 7 7PAC, Borden Papers, vol. 155, OC A 252, "Aliens", Loyal Orange Lodge, Kamloops, B.C. to Borden, 21 January 1919, The f i l e contains numerous resolutions calling for deportation and for an exclusion!st immigra-tion policy. , 7 8 I b i d . , White to Borden, 11 February 1919, p. 23054. 79 Vancouver Sun, 14 February 1919, p. 1. 150. 80 Victoria-Times, 7 February 1919, p. 11. 81 Grand Forks Gazette, 7 March 1919, p. 1. 8 2 I b i d . , p. 2. 83 Ibid.. 23 March 1919, p. 1. 84 BCSP. vol. 2, Annual Report of the Department of Labour, 1919, p. K 6. 85 PAC, Department of Immigration and Colonization Papers, Box 238, F i l e 752149, Gale to Acting Premier Sir Thomas White, 24 March 1919. See also Victoria Colonist. 25 March 1919, p. 1. 86 PAC, Minutes of the Meeting of the Convention of the B.C. Federa- tion of Labor Held In the City of Calgary, March 10-12, 1919, p. 82. 8 7 I b i d . , p. 79. 88 PAC, Department of Immigration and Colonization Papers. Box 238, F i l e 752149, R.G. MacBeth to Col. A.B. Perry, 17 May 1919. 89 Dorothy G. Steeves, The Compassionate Rebel. Vancouver, Evergreen, 1960, p. 51. 9°BCVW. 15 May 1919, p. 4. 91 PAC, Royal Northwest Mounted Police Papers, vol. 70, Crime Investi-gation Branch, F i l e 22/2, A.A. McLean to W.H. Routledge, 15 June 1919. 92 Ibid., W.H. Routledge to Officers Commanding Distr i c t s , 16 June 1919. 93 PAC, Borden Papers, vol. 155 OC A 252 "Aliens", W.W. Cory to Agents, 15 June 1919, p. 83125. 94 PAC, Department of Immigration and Colonization Papers, Box 324, W.W. Cory to A.L. J o l l i f f e , 11 October 1919. 95 Canada, O f f i c i a l Report of the Debates of the Houses of the Domin- ion of Canada, 1919, vol. 2, p. 1866. 151. 9 6 I b l d . , p. 1207. 9 7 I b i d . , p. 1883. 98 Ibid.. vol. 3, p. 2283. 99 Borden. Memoirs, vol. 2, p. 214. *°°Steeves, Compassionate Rebel, p. 51. *°*Canada, Labour Gazette. 1919, supplement of "Report of Commission to Enquire into Industrial Relations in Canada", p. 6. 102 PAC, Department of the Secretary of State, Custodian of Enemy Pro- perty, vol. 1077, C.E. Michaelis to Internment Camp Cammandant, 28 Feb-ruary 1919. Another poem written by Michaelis to the Swiss Council in June 1919 entitled Kriegsgefangenschaft, read, Jahre Kommen, Jahre gehen --: Wie in al l e r Menschenwelt i s t es rechtlich zu verstehen dass man uns gefangen haelt? Jahre kommen, Jahre gehn, Und so geht dad Leben hin--: Menschenwelt, Kannst du verstehen, dass ich dir entremdet bin. 152. Bibliography Manuscript sources A. Personal papers, correspondence Sir Robert Laird Borden Papers, Ottawa, Public Archives of Canada. A.E. Kemp Papers, Ottawa, Public Archives of Canada. Christie Loring Papers, Ottawa, Public Archives of Canada. Sir Richard McBride Papers, Victoria, Public Archives of B r i t -ish Columbia. W.F. 0,Connor Papers, Ottawa, Public Archives of Canada. Sir William D. Otter Papers, Ottawa,Public Archives of Canada. Premier's O f f i c i a l Correspondence, Victoria, Public Archives of British Columbia. H.H. Stevens Papers, Ottawa, Public Archives of Canada. Simon Fraser Tolmie Papers, Vancouver, University of British Columbia, Special Collections. B. O f f i c i a l reports Canada. Department of the Interior, Immigration Branch F i l e s , Ottawa, Public Archives of Canada. Canada. Department of Labour Correspondence. Ottawa, Public Archives of Canada. Canada. Department of National Defence. Ottawa, Public Archives of Canada. Canada. Royal Canadian Mounted Police Records. Crime Investi-gation Branch Fi l e s , Ottawa, Public Archives of Canada. Canada. Department of the Secretary of State Papers, Ottawa, Public Archives of Canada. Presbyterian Church of Canada. Acts and Proceedings, Fortieth  General Assembly, 1914, Toronto, Archives of the British Col-umbia Conference of the United Church of Canada. 153. Theses Boudreau, Joseph A. "The Canadian War Time Elections Act 1917." University of California, Los Angeles, unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, 1964. Krahn, John J . "A History of the Mennonites in British Colum-bia." University of British Columbia, unpublished Graduation Essayy 1955. Kydd, M.W. "Alien Races in the Canadian West." McGill Univer-sity, unpublished M.A. Thesis, 1924. Moellmann, Albert. "Germans in Canada: Occupational and Social Adjustment of German Immigrants in Canada." McGill University, unpublished M.A. Thesis, 1934. Silverman, Peter G. "A History of the M i l i t i a and Defences of British Columbia." University of British Columbia, unpublished M.A. Thesis, 1956. Sinclair, Alasdair M. "Internal Migration in Canada, 1871-1951." Harvard University, unpublished t?h.D. Thesis, 1966. Smith, Brian R.D. "Sir Richard McBride: A Study in the Conser-vative Party of British Columbia 1903-1916." Queens University, unpublished M.A. Thesis, 1959. Wargo, Alan J . "The Great Coal Strike 1912-1914." University of British Columbia, unpublished Graduation B.A. Essay, 1962. Williams, Charles B. "Canadian-American Trade Union Relations: A Study of the Development of Binational Unionism." Cornell University, unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, 1964. Miscellaneous manuscript materials Frontier College Papers, Ottawa, Public Archives of Canada. "Minutes of the British Campaigners Association," Victoria, Public Archives of British Columbia. "Minutes of the Meeting of the Conference of the British Col-umbia Federation of Labour...," Ottawa, Public Archives of Can-ada. "Minutes of the Meetings of the Directors of the Crow's Nest Pass Coal Company," Fernie, B.C., Crow's Nest Pass Industries, Ltd. "Programm Fuer Die Kaiser Geburtstagsfeier und Drittes Stiftungs-fest des Deutschen Verelns," Victoria, 26 January 1912. 154. Miscellaneous manuscript materials - continued Young Men's Christian Association Papers, Ottawa, Public Archives of Canada. II. Printed sources A. Government publications Bri t i s h Columbia, Bureau of Information and Immigration. "Annual Report". British Columbia, Legislative Assembly, Sessional Papers. Victoria, King*s Printer, 1903, pp. J131-J32. British Columbia, Department of Labour, Annual Reports. Vic-toria, King's Printer, 1918-1919. Brit i s h Columbia, Legislative Assembly. Sessional Papers. Vic-toria, King's Printer, 1919, vol. 2, p. M15. (Correspondence Regarding Meeting of Provincial Premiers and Dominion Govern-ment, November 19th to 23rd, 1918). Bri t i s h Columbiat Royal Commission on Labour. "Report." Bri t i s h Columbia, Legislative Assembly, Sessional Papers. Victoria, King's Printer, 1914, vol. 2, pp. M1-M27. British Columbia, Special Commission Appointed to Inquire Into Causes of Explosion in Coal Mines. "Report." British Columbia, Legislative Assembly, Sessional Papers. Victoria, King's Printer, 1903, pp. J9-J16. Canada, The Canada Gazette? Ottawa, King's Printer, 1919, vol. 52. Canada, Department of Labour, Labour Gazette, Ottawa, King's Printer, 1900-1903, 1915-1919. Canada, F i f t h Census, Ottawa, King's Printer, 1912, vol. 3. Canada, Minister of Justice. Report of Major-General Sir Wil- liam D. Otter on Internment Operations: 1914-1920, Ottawa, King's Printer, 1921. Canada, Department of the Secretary of State. Copies of Pro- clamations. Orders in Council and Documents Relating to the  European War, Ottawa, King's Printer, 1915, 4 vols. Canada, Parliament, House of Commons, O f f i c i a l Report of Debates. Ottawa, King's Printer, 1914-1919. Canada, Parliament. Sessional Papers, Ottawa, Queen's Printer, 1898, No. 90A (Report of the Commissioners Into Conditions Res-pecting ... the Crow's Nest Pass Railway). 155. Government Publications - continued Canada, Statutes of Canada. Ottawa, King's Printer, 1919, vol. 1, pp. 91-105. United States, Department of Commerce. United States Dally  Consular and Trade Reports. 1912-1916. D. General Works 1. Books Allen, Ralph, Ordeal by Fire: Canada 1910-1945. Toronto, Doubleday, 1961. Anderson, J.T.M., Education of the New Canadian. New York, R.M. McBride and Company, 1918. Aurand, Harold W., From the Molly Maguires to the United Mine  Workers. Philadelphia, Temple University Press, 1971. Berger, Morroe, ed., Freedom and Control in Modern Society. New York, Van Nostrand, 1954. Berkowitz, Leonard, Aggression: A Social Psychological Analysis. New York, McGraw-Hill, 1962. Borden, Robert Laird, The War and the Future. London, Hodder and Stoughton, 1917. Borden, Henry, ed., Robert Laird Bordent His Memoirs. Toronto, Macmillan, 1938. Borrie, W.D., ed., The Cultural Integration of Immigrants. Paris, Unesco, 1959. Bradwin, E.W., The Bunkhouse Man: A Study of Work and Pay in  the Camps of Canada. New York, Columbia University Press, 1928. Brown, Ashley G. and J . Boam, British Columbia: Its History, People, Commerce, Industries and Resources. London, Sells Ltd., 1912. Bryce, P.H., The Value to Canada of the Continental Immigrant. Ottawa, 1928. Conet, Ralph W. and L. Molly Levin, Problems in Research on  Community Violence. New York, Praeger, 1969. Corbett, David C , Canada's Immigration Policy: A Critique. Toronto, University of Toronto Press, 1957. 156. Books - Continued Dawson, CA. and Eva R. Younge, Pioneering in the Prairie  Provinces: The Social Sldeoof the Settlement Process. Toronto, Macmillan, 1940. Dublin, L.I., Population Problems in the United States and  Canada. Boston and New York, Houghton M i f f l i n , 1926. E l l i o t t , Jean Leonard, Immigrant Groups. Scarborough, Prentice-Hall, 1971. England, Robert, The Central European Immigrant in Canada. Toronto, Macmillan, 1929. Fahey, John, Inland Empire: D.C. Corbin and Spokane. Seattle, University of Washington Press, 1965. Falconer, Robert A., German Tragedy and Its Meaning for Canada. Toronto, University of Toronto Press, 1915. Field, Fred W., Capital Investment in Canada. Montreal, The Monetary Times, 1911. Fraser, G.F., Control of Aliens in the British Commonwealth of  Nations. London, Hogarth Press, 1940. Feobel, Julius, Die Deutsche Auswanderung und Ihre Kulturis- tortsche Bedeutung. Leipzig, 1858. Gibbon, J.M., Canadian Mosaic; The Making of a Northern Nation. Toronto, McClelland and Stewart, 1938. Gray, James H., RedI,Li;ghts on the Prairies. Toronto, Macmillan, 1971. Gregson, Harry, A History of Victoria 1842-1970. Victoria, Observer Publishing Company, 1971. Hansen, Marcus Leed, The Mingling of the Canadian and American  Peoples. Toronto, Ryerson Press, 1940. Harvey, D.C, The Colonization of Canada. Toronto, Clarke and Irwin, 1936. Henderson's Gazetteer and Directory. Vancouver, Henderson Pub-lishing Ltd., 1900-1916. Howay, F.W. and E.O.S. Scholefield, British Columbia: From the  Earliest Times to the Present. Vancouver, Clarke Publishing Company, 1914, 4 vols. 157. Books - Continued Jackman, S.W., The Men at Cary Castle. Victoria, Morriss Print-ing Company Ltd., 1972. Jackman, S.W., Portraits of the Premiers: An Informal History  of British Columbia. Sidney, B.C., Gray's Publishing Ltd., 1971. Keith, Arthur B., War Government of the Br i t i s h Dominions. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1921. Kennedy, H.A., New Canada and New Canadians. Toronto, The Mission Book Company, 1907. Kerr, J.B., Biographical Dictionary of Weil-Known British Col- umbians. Vancouver, Kerr and Begg, 1890. Kirschbaum, Joseph M., Slovaks in Canada. Toronto, Canadian Ethnic Press Association of Ontario, 1967. LaViolette, F.E., The Canadian Japanese and World War II: A  Sociological and Psychological Account. Toronto, University of Toronto Press, 1948. Lehman, Heinz, Das Deutschtum in Westkanada. Berlin, 1939, 2 vols. Logan, H.A., The History of Trade Union Organization in Canada. Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1928. Lower, A.R.M., Canadians in the Making: A Social History of  Canada. Toronto, Longmans, 1958. Miller, J.O., The New Era In Canada. Toronto, J.M. Dent and Sons, 1917. Mitchell, E.B., In Western Canada Before the War. London, J . Murray, 1915. Nordegg, Martin, The Pos s i b i l i t i e s of Canada Are Truly Great. Toronto, Macmillan, 1971. Norris, John M., Strangers Entertained - A History of the Eth- nic Groups of British Columbia. Vancouver, British Columbia Centennial *71 Committee, 1971. Ormsby, Margaret A., British Columbia; A History. Vancouver, Macmillans, 1958. P h i l l i p s , Paul, No Power Greater. Vancouver, B.C. Federation of Labour, Boag Foundation, 1967. 158. Books - Continued Ramsey, Bruce, History of the German-Canadians in B r i t i s h  Columbia. Winnipeg, National Publishers, 1958. Reynolds, Lloyd G., The Bri t i s h Immigrant; His Social and  Economic Adjustment to Canada. Toronto, Oxford University Press, 1935. Roy, R.H., Sinews of Steel: A History of the British Colum- bia Dragoons. Kelowna, British Columbia Dragoons, 1965. Sandwell, B.K., The Canadian Peoples. Toronto, Oxford Univer-sity Press, 1941. Smith, W.G., A Study in Canadian Immigration. Toronto, Ryerson Press, 1920. Sorokin, P.A., Man and Society in Calamity. New York, Dutton, 1942. Stanley, George F.G., Canada's Soldiers: The Military History  of An Unmilitary People. Toronto, Macmillan, 1960. Thomas, Brinley, ed., Economics of International Migrations, London, Macmillan, 1958. Thornhill, John Bensley, Bri t i s h Columbia in the Making. London, Constable and Company, 1913. Vaughn, E.H., Community Under Stress: An Internment Camp Cul- ture. Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1949. Yeigh, Frank, Through the Heart of Canada. Toronto, S.B. Gundy, 1913. 2. Periodicals Angus, H.P., "Canadian Immigration: The Law and Its Administra-tion." American Journal of International Law, vol. 28, 1934, pp. 74-89. Baumgarten, F.W., "Central European Immigration." Queen's Quar- terly, vol. 37 (Winter 1930), pp. 183-192. Bordreau, J.A., "Enemy Aliens in Alberta." Alberta Historical  Quarterly, vol. 12 (Winter 1964), pp. 1-8. "A Canadian Who Has Brought Canada and Germany Into Closer Rela-tions." B r i t i s h Columbia Magazine, (May 1914), pp. 248-249. 159. Periodicals - continued Fairfax, John, "Canadian Churches and the Last War." Canadian  Forum, vol. 16 (November 1934), pp. 12-14. Gorden, Milton M.f "Assimilation in America: Theory and Reality." Daedalus, vol. 90, No. 2 (Spring 1961), pp. 263-285. Hopkins, J . Castell, Canadian Annual Review. 1914-1919. Humphries, Charles, "Lusitania Riots 1915." Bri t i s h Columbia  Historical News, vol. 5, no. 1, 1971, pp. 15-23. Malycky, Alexander., ed., Canadian Ethnic Studies, vol. 1, no. 1, Calgary, 1969. Mann, John A., "Relations Between Cognitive, Affective and Be-havioral Aspects of Racial Prejudice." Journal of Social Psy- chology, vol. 49 (1959), pp. 223-228. McDougall, Duncan M., "Immigration Into Canada 1851-1920." Canadian Journal of Economics and P o l i t i c a l Science, vol. 27, no. 2 (May 1961), pp. 162-175. Kramer, Bernard, "Dimensions of Prejudice." The Journal of  Psychology, vol. 27 (1949), pp. 389-451. LaViolettee, Forrest, "A History of Stereotypes." Social Forces, vol. 29 (1951), pp. 257-262. Ryder, N., "The Interpretation of Origin Statistics." Canadian  Journal of Economics and P o l i t i c a l Science, vol. 21, no. 4 (November 1955), pp. Shermerhorn, R.A., "Toward a General Theory of Minority Groups." Phylon. vol. 25 (1964), pp. 238-246. Timlin, M.F., "Canada's Immigration Policy." Canadian Journal  of Economics and P o l i t i c a l Science, vol. 26, no. 4 (November 1960), pp. 517-52. Tucker, Gilbert Norman, "Canada's First Submarines: CC 1 and CC 2, An Episode of the Naval War in the Pacific, 1914-1918." British  Columbia Historical Quarterly, vol. 7, no. 3 (July 1943), pp. 147-170. 3. Newspapers The B r i t i s h Columbian. The B.C. Federation!st. The B.C. Veterans Weekly. The Fernie Dis t r i c t Ledger. The Fernie Free Press. The Grand Forks Gazette. The Grand Forks Miner. The Morrissey Miner. The Vancouver News-Advert1zer. The Vancouver Province. The Vancouver Sun. The Vernon News. The Victoria Colonist. 


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