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Role of house leaders in the Canadian House of Commons Carter, Wendy L. 1973

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THE ROLE OF HOUSE LEADERS IN THE CANADIAN HOUSE OF COMMONS  by  WENDY L. CARTER B.A. , U n i v e r s i t y  o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1970  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  i n the Department of Political We a c c e p t t h i s required  Science  t h e s i s as conforming  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August, 1973  to the  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r  an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e  and  study.  I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  be  granted by  Political  Science  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada  Date  s h a l l not be  permission.  Department o f  AugustIS,  1973.  Department or  I t i s understood t h a t copying or  of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n written  the Head of my  publication  allowed without  my  ii  A B S T R A C T  T h i s t h e s i s d e a l s w i t h t h e r o l e o f House l e a d e r s I n the o r g a n i z a t i o n and conduct o f b u s i n e s s i n t h e Canadian Parliament.  The p o s i t i o n o f House l e a d e r i n t h e p a r l i a -  mentary p a r t i e s has emerged out o f a c o m p l e x i t y o f f a c t o r s and p r e s s u r e s p l a c e d upon t h e p a r l i a m e n t a r y system d u r i n g the l a s t t h i r t y y e a r s .  I t may now be s a i d t h a t House l e a -  ders form t h e p r i m a r y communication channel between t h e p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e b u s i n e s s o f t h e Canadian House o f Commons. The a d v e r s a r y system i n p a r l i a m e n t , r e i n f o r c e d by t h e t r a d i t i o n a l p o s i t i o n of the o p p o s i t i o n , r e q u i r e s that the p a r t i e s cooperate business.  i n o r g a n i z i n g t h e conduct o f p a r l i a m e n t a r y  The House l e a d e r s meet i n f o r m a l l y and p r i v a t e l y  t o n e g o t i a t e and t o arrange matters.  t h e t i m i n g o f debates and o t h e r  The House l e a d e r s perform  within their parties.  other important  duties  The Government House l e a d e r i s r e -  s p o n s i b l e t o t h e prime m i n i s t e r and c a b i n e t f o r t h e o v e r a l l management o f t h e House, management o f t h e government's l e g i s l a t i v e s c h e d u l e , and a s s i s t a n c e i n t h e development o f legislation.  The contemporary Government House l e a d e r i s  a l s o i n v o l v e d i n long-range  l e g i s l a t i v e planning.  Opposi-  t i o n House l e a d e r s keep t h e i r p a r t i e s informed about House a c t i v i t i e s and perform  important  s t r a t e g y and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  ill  duties.  A l l House l e a d e r s a r e I n v o l v e d  d e b a t e s and p a r l i a m e n t a r y  In  procedural  reforms.  House l e a d e r s a r e a p p o i n t e d  from w i t h i n t h e p a r l i a -  mentary p a r t y and any a u t h o r i t y they  p o s s e s s f o r making  l n t e r p a r t y a g r e e m e n t s comes f r o m t h e p a r t y . normally  s e n i o r and r e s p e c t e d  tacts with  the other  party.  has  decreased  members and have u n i q u e  con-  House l e a d e r s a r e f a c t o r s w h i c h  u s u a l l y enhance t h e i r the  That they a r e  i n f l u e n c e and p e r s u a s i v e  powers  The d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e p o s i t i o n o f House the Influence  over leaders  o f p a r t y whips; y e t the whips  r e m a i n and t h e r o l e s o f House l e a d e r s a n d p a r t y w h i p s now  be s e e n a s c o m p l e m e n t a r y . House l e a d e r s n a t u r a l l y must o p e r a t e  rules role  o f t h e House, a n d c h a n g e s i n t h e s e o f t h e House l e a d e r s .  The i n a b i l i t y  w i t h i n the  activity  leaves  informal  to develop a legislative  c o m m u n i c a t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e House  l e a d e r s a s t h e c r u c i a l method o f s c h e d u l i n g these  formal  r u l e s a f f e c t the  w o r k i n g t i m e a l l o c a t i o n mechanism f o r Commons  and  limiting  debates. The r o l e  significant hold  may  p e r f o r m e d by House l e a d e r s h a s become more  a n d i t i s now  powerful  the r o l e  become s t i l l process.  that  House  leaders  p o s i t i o n s i n t t h e C a n a d i a n House o f Commons.  As g o v e r n m e n t b u s i n e s s complexity  recognized  Increases  y e t f u r t h e r ln&amount a n d  o f House l e a d e r s may  more s i g n i f i c a n t  be e x p e c t e d t o  In the Canadian  parliamentary  T A B L E  OF  C O N T E N T S  PAGE INTRODUCTION CHAPTER 1:  1 THE SETTING  6  A. The P a r l i a m e n t a r y Adversary System  6  B. R e s t r a i n t s w i t h i n the Adversary System....  7  C. T r a d i t i o n a l Communication L i n k s Between the P a r t i e s  8  CHAPTER 2:  EVOLUTION OF THE ROLE OF HOUSE LEADERS  11  A. B r i t i s h O r i g i n s o f the P o s i t i o n o f Leader of the House  11  B. F a c t o r s Leading t o the Appointment o f the F i r s t Canadian Government House Leader....  Ik  C. E a r l y E v o l u t i o n o f the p o s i t i o n o f Government House Leader  16  D. I n i t i a l Steps i n the C r e a t i o n o f the P o s i t i o n o f O p p o s i t i o n House Leaders  18  E. The E r a o f M i n o r i t y Governments and F u r t h e r E v o l u t i o n o f the P o s i t i o n o f House Leaders 21 F. Appointment o f a F u l l - t i m e Government House Leader and Other Recent Developments 26 CHAPTER 3:  THE ROLE OF THE HOUSE LEADERS  Jk  A. C o l l e c t i v e Role  35  B. I n d i v i d u a l R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s 1. The Government House Leader 2. The O p p o s i t i o n House Leader  38 38 k?  CHAPTER k:  HOUSE LEADERS' MEETINGS  53  PAGE CHAPTER 5:  THE HOUSE LEADERS' SOURCE OF POWER AND AUTHORITY WITHIN THE PARTY STRUCTURE '  63  A. The Government House L e a d e r *  63  B. The O p p o s i t i o n House L e a d e r s  69  C. C r o s s - p r e s s u r e s on t h e House L e a d e r s ' R o l e  76  CHAPTER 6:  THE HOUSE LEADER AND THE PARTY WHIP..  CHAPTER 7:  THE INFLUENCE OF PROCEDURAL REFORM ON THE ROLE OF THE HOUSE LEADERS  79  90  A. Recent P r o c e d u r a l Reforms  90  B. Time A l l o c a t i o n on Government L e g i s l a t i o n 1. T r a d i t i o n a l Methods f o r S h o r t e n i n g Debate 2. R u l e 32-A 3. R u l e 15-A k. R u l e 16-A 5. S t a n d i n g Order 75 A, B, and C 6. Problems w i t h t h e New Rule  9  CHAPTER 8: BIBLIOGRAPHY  CONCLUSION  2  93 93 96 99 100 102 106 109  A C K N O W L E D G M E N T  While  the shortcomings  author alone, thanks  My g r a t e f u l t h a n k s  to l i s t  t h e s i s belong t o the  must be e x p r e s s e d t o t h e many p e o p l e  w i t h o u t whose a s s i s t a n c e  me t h e p r i v i l e g e  i n this  i t w o u l d n o t have b e e n go t o t h o s e  o f an interview.  completed.  i n d i v i d u a l s who g r a n t e d T h e number i s t o o g r e a t  h e r e , b u t t h e i r names c a n be l o c a t e d  i n the b i b l i o -  graphy. To ularly  t h e P a r l i a m e n t a r y I n t e r n s h i p Program, a n d p a r t i c t o my n i n e f e l l o w  stimulating experience. that  interns,  go my t h a n k s  f o r a most  I t was d u r i n g my y e a r i n Ottawa  I was a b l e t o c a r r y o u t t h e r e s e a r c h f o r t h i s  paper.  S i n c e r e t h a n k s must a l s o go t o D r . A l a n C a i r n s a n d D r . P a u l T e n n a n t who s u p e r v i s e d t h e w r i t i n g o f t h i s A p a r t i c u l a r note who t y p e d t h e t h e s i s Finally, constant  o f thanks  paper.  g o e s t o Donna M c G u i n n e s s  i n superb and r e c o r d f a s h i o n .  t o those  s p e c i a l p e o p l e who s t o o d b y me w i t h  e n c o u r a g e m e n t go my u n s p o k e n b u t g r a t e f u l  thanks.  I N T R O D U C T I O N  " P a r l i a m e n t may be compared t o a r i c h diamond l o d e , s t i l l w o r t h m i n i n g , and many f a c e t s o f p a r l i a m e n t a r e r e l a t i v e l y u n s t u d i e d and u n r e c o r d e d " . T h i s statement i s even more t r u e o f t h e Canadian P a r l i a m e n t t h a n o f t h e B r i t i s h P a r l i a m e n t t o w h i c h i t was applied.  S t u d i e s c e n t e r i n g on t h e Canadian P a r l i a m e n t have  d e a l t t r a d i t i o n a l l y w i t h t h e f o r m a l c o n s t i t u t i o n a l powers and components o f t h a t i n s t i t u t i o n .  A.D.P. Heeney wrote i n  19&6: " I t i s my i m p r e s s i o n t h a t , w h i l e we a r e r e a s o n a b l y f o r t u n a t e i n h a v i n g i n Canada a considerable l i t e r a t u r e i n the h i s t o r y and law o f t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n , we have n o t , as y e t , a c h i e v e d a comparable product on t h e humbler l e v e l o f c o n s t i t u t i o n a l p r a c t i c e and p r o c e d u r e . " S i n c e Heeney's a d m o n i t i o n ,  a number o f books and a r t i c l e s  have been w r i t t e n d e a l i n g w i t h p a r l i a m e n t on a more p r a c t i c a l and r e a l i s t i c l e v e l .  Several exhaustive studies of the  Senate have been p r o d u c e d . ^ P a r l i a m e n t a r y procedures  have  been s c r u t i n i z e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e v a r i o u s attempts  a t r e f o r m i n g t h e House o f Common's r u l e s .  In addi-  t i o n , s e v e r a l f a i r l y d r y and l e g a l i s t i c books o f p a r l i a m e n t a r y procedures  and p r a c t i c e s have been w r i t t e n o r updated f o r  use p r i m a r i l y a t t h e T a b l e i n t h e P a r l i a m e n t a r y chambers. ^ Other c o n t r i b u t i o n s have been made on p a r t i c u l a r a s p e c t s o f  the House o f Commons such as p a r l i a m e n t a r y  committees and  7  the Speakership.  One unexamined area i s the o p e r a t i o n  of the House o f Commons - how, i n e f f e c t , business ducted  In the p a r t i s a n p o l i t i c a l chamber.  amines the important  i s con-  T h i s t h e s i s ex-  r o l e o f House l e a d e r s i n the conduct o f  parliamentary business.  The p o s i t i o n o f House l e a d e r s i s a  r e l a t i v e l y new aspect o f the House, and i s one which has evolved w i t h the i n c r e a s e i n amount and complexity  o f govern-  ment business and with the development o f parliament full-time operation.  into a  T h i s t h e s i s analyzes the development  of t h e r o l e o f House l e a d e r s . Chapter one d i s c u s s e s the a d v e r s a r y nature o f the House of Commons and t r a d i t i o n a l methods f o r h a n d l i n g the conduct of b u s i n e s s .  Chapter two d e s c r i b e s the e v o l u t i o n o f the  p o s i t i o n o f House l e a d e r s . House l e a d e r s  1  Chapter three d e a l s w i t h t h e  r o l e and w i t h t h e i r c o l l e c t i v e and i n d i v i d u a l  responsibilities. l e a d e r s ' meetings.  Chapter f o u r i s concerned with the House Chapter f i v e d e a l s with the House l e a d e r s '  source o f power and a u t h o r i t y w i t h i n the p a r t y s t r u c t u r e and a l s o i n c l u d e s a b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n o f the c r o s s - p r e s s u r e s on the House l e a d e r s ' r o l e .  Chapter s i x c o n t a i n s a d i s c u s s i o n  of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the House l e a d e r and the P a r t y whip.  Chapter seven d i s c u s s e s t h e i i i n f l u e n c e o f p r o c e d u r a l  reform on the r o l e of the House l e a d e r s . Because t h i s paper encroaches on v i r g i n t e r r i t o r y , heavy r e l i a n c e f o r source m a t e r i a l s Is n e c e s s a r i l y and n a t u r a l l y p l a c e d on p a r l i a m e n t a r y papers and documents, on l e n g t h y  I n t e r v i e w s and i n f o r m a l d i s c u s s i o n s I conducted  with  p r e s e n t and p a s t House l e a d e r s and o t h e r persons w i t h t h e House l e a d e r s ' r o l e .  familiar  I n conducting these  views I f o l l o w e d an open and f l e x i b l e a p p r o a c h .  inter-  I prepared  f o r my own use a l i s t o f broad q u e s t i o n s t o p r o v i d e some guidance  and u n i f o r m i t y ; however, t h e s e were a d j u s t e d t o  f i t t h e c l i m a t e o f each i n t e r v i e w and t h e p e r s o n a l i n c l i n a t i o n s o f those i n d i v i d u a l s b e i n g i n t e r v i e w e d .  As Lewis  Dexter comments, "...the g r e a t advantage o f t h e e l i t e and s p e c i a l i z e d i n t e r v i e w t e c h n i q u e i s t h a t t h e i n t e r v i e w e r can adapt h i s comments and q u e s t i o n s t o t h e u n f o l d i n g i n t e r a c t i o n g  between h i m s e l f and t h e i n t e r v i e w e e " .  As House l e a d e r s '  a c t i v i t i e s a r e g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d h i g h l y s e n s i t i v e and p r i v a t e , most i n d i v i d u a l s p r e f e r r e d t o have t h e i r comments " o f f t h e r e c o r d " .  explicit  However, i n t h i s t h e s i s I have  quoted d i r e c t l y from these i n t e r v i e w s w i t h o u t s p e c i f y i n g p r e cise  sources. The g e n e s i s o f t h i s t h e s i s o c c u r r e d d u r i n g my y e a r as  a Parliamentary Intern.  As a p a r t i c i p a n t - o b s e r v e r i n t h e  Canadian P a r l i a m e n t I was a b l e t o observe and converse  with  the House l e a d e r s and o t h e r p a r l i a m e n t a r i a n s o v e r an extended period.  O b s e r v a t i o n and d i s c u s s i o n h e i g h t e n e d my a p p r e c i a t i o n  o f t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e House l e a d e r s ' r o l e i n t h e organi z a t i o n and conduct o f p a r l i a m e n t a r y b u s i n e s s .  This thesis  i s o f course not an e x h a u s t i v e s t u d y o f p a r l i a m e n t a r y o p e r a t i o n , but i t may p r o v i d e a b e g i n n i n g t o a most f r u i t f u l and i n t e r e s t i n g a r e a o f p a r l i a m e n t a r y s t u d y .  FOOTNOTES;  Intro-duct Ion  1 Young, R o l a n d , The B r i t i s h P a r l i a m e n t . London, F a b e r and F a b e r , 1962, p. 9 . 2 Heeney, A.D.P. "Cabinet Government i n Canada", Canadian J o u r n a l o f Economics and P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e , ( h e r e a f t e r c i t e d a s CJEPS). V. 1 2 . n . 3 . August. 1946. p. 282. 3 These s t u d i e s i n c l u d e B r i g g s , E.D., "The Senate: Reform o r R e c o n s t r u c t i o n ? " , Queens Q u a r t e r l y . V. 75, n . l . S p r i n g I 9 6 8 ; Kunz, E.A., The Modem Senate o f Canada. 1 9 2 3 - 6 3 : A R e - a p p r a i s a l , T o r o n t o , U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s ; 1965; MacKay, R.A., The Unreformed Senateiaof Canada, r e v i s e d e d i t i o n , T o r o n t o , M c C l e l l a n d and S t e w a r t , 1963; T u r n e r , J.N., "The Senate o f C a n a d a — P o l i t i c a l Conundrum", i n R.M. C l a r k ( e d ) , Canadian I s s u e s ; E s s a y s i n Honour o f Henry F. Angus. T o r o n t o , U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 19^1. . 4 M a j o r s t u d i e s d e a l i n g w i t h Canadian p a r l i a m e n t a r y p r o c e d u r e s i n c l u d e B l a i r , R o n a l d , "What Happens t o P a r l i a m e n t ? " , i n T.O. L l o y d and J . McLeod ( e d s ) , Agenda 1970. T o r o n t o U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1 9 6 8 , pp. 217-240; Dawson, W.F., Procedure i n t h e Canadian House o f Commons. T o r o n t o , U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 196S; H o c k i n , Thomas A., "The 1965 P a r l i a m e n t a r y Reforms and t h e F u t u r e o f Canada's House o f Commons", Paper p r e s e n t e d t o t h e Canadian P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e A s s o c i a t i o n A n n u a l M e e t i n g , S h e r b r o o k e , Quebec, June 8 - 1 0 , I 9 6 6 ; J e w l t t , P a u l i n e , "The Reform o f P a r l i a m e n t " , J o u r n a l o f Canadian S t u d i e s , V . l , I 9 6 6 ; Laundy, P h i l i p , " P r o c e d u r a l Reform i n t h e Canadian House o f Commons", The P a r l i a m e n t a r i a n , V. 50, n . 2 , A p r i l , 1969; L l o y d , T r e v o r , "Reform o f P a r l i a m e n t a r y P r o c e e d i n g s " , i n Abraham R o t s t e i n ( e d ) , The P r o s p e c t o f Change: P r o p o s a l s f o r Canada's F u t u r e , T o r o n t o , M c G r a w - H i l l , 1 9 6 5 . PP« 23-69; MacDonald, The Honourable Donald S., "Change I n t h e House o f Commons—New R u l e s " , Canadian P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , V. 13, 1970, pp. 30-39; Page, Donald, " S t r e a m l i n i n g t h e P r o c e d u r e s o f t h e Canadian House o f Commons", CJEPS. V. 33, N. 1, F e b r u a r y , 1967,  PP. 2 7 - ^ 9 .  5 The major Canadian r e f e r e n c e book produced s i n c e 1946 i s Beauchesne, A r t h u r , R u l e s and Forms o f t h e House o f Commons OF Canada. T o r o n t o , The C a r s w e l l Co. o f Canada L t d . , 1 9 5 8 . Of c o n t i n u i n g use i s B o u m i o t , S i r John George, P a r l i a m e n t a r y P r o c e d u r e and P r a c t i c e i n t h e Dominion o f Canada, f o u r t h e d i t i o n , T o r o n t o , Canada Law Book Co., 1 9 1 6 . See a l s o Dubroy, J . Gordon, r e v i s e d e d i t i o n o f B o u r l n o t ' s R u l e s o f O r d e r , T o r o n t o , M c C l e l l a n d and S t e w a r t , 1 9 6 3 .  6 See, f o r example, F r a n k s , C.E.S., "The Dilemma o f t h e S t a n d i n g Committees o f t h e Canadian House o f Commons", Canadian J o u r n a l o f P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e . V. 4, N. 4, December 1971• PP. 461-476; H o c k i n , Thomas A., "The Advance o f t h e S t a n d i n g Committees i n Canada's House o f Commons: 1965-70", Canadian P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . V. 1 3 . n . 2, Summer, 1970. 7 Papers on t h e Canadian Speaker i n c l u d e A i t c h i s o n , J.H., "The S p e a k e r s h i p o f t h e Canadian House o f Commons", i n R.M. C l a r k ( e d ) , Canadian I s s u e s . T o r o n t o , U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , I 9 6 I , pp. 23-56; S m i t h , D., "The S p e a k e r s h i p of t h e Canadian House o f Commons: Some P r o p o s a l s " , A Paper p r e s e n t e d l o r t h e House o f Common's S p e c i a l Committee on Procedure and O r g a n i z a t i o n , Ottawa, Queen's P r i n t e r , 1 9 6 5 . 8 D e x t e r , L e w i s , E l i t e and S p e c i a l i z e d I n t e r v i e w i n g , E v a n s t o n , N o r t h w e s t e r n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1970, p. 50.  C H A P T E R  1  The S e t t i n g Adversary a c t i v i t y i s v e r y much a p a r t o f the Canadian House o f Commons, f o r p r o v i s i o n o f an o p p o r t u n i t y t o express o p p o s i t i o n t o government p o l i c i e s and a c t i v i t i e s i s an e s t a b l i s h e d p r a c t i c e i n the Canadian P a r l i a m e n t .  Because o f the  d e s i r e o f the government t o command a constant m a j o r i t y i n the House and because o f the development o f h i g h l y d i s c i p l i n e d p a r l i a m e n t a r y p a r t i e s t h i s o p p o s i t i o n may be d i s c e r n e d w i t h i n the i n n e r c o n f i n e s o f the government p a r t y and i n the a c t i v i t i e s of  the o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s .  In the contemporary House, most  government p r o p o s a l s run the g a u n t l e t o f the government  cau-  cus b e f o r e b i l l s a r e i n t r o d u c e d and debated i n p a r l i a m e n t . Having r e c e i v e d an o p p o r t u n i t y t o express  concern o r d i s a p p r o v a l  over these p o l i c i e s and o t h e r government a c t i v i t i e s , the government member i s expected  t o support h i s s i d e o f the House.  Public opposition i s l e f t  t o the o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s .  The  government i s anxious t o have i t s p o l i c i e s and f i n a n c i a l exp e n d i t u r e s approved w i t h minimum c o n f l i c t and as r a p i d l y as possible.  The o p p o s i t i o n i s e q u a l l y d e s i r o u s o f exposing any  weak p o i n t s i n these matters  through  f u l l debate.  Any flaw  may t r u l y be bad f o r the country; they may a l s o provide ammunition a g a i n s t the government i n the next g e n e r a l e l e c t i o n . A t e n s i o n t h e r e f o r e e x i s t s between the government, which has a reasonable  r i g h t t o have the country^s business  accomplished,  and the o p p o s i t i o n , which has an e s t a b l i s h e d r i g h t t o oppose  measures i t c o n s i d e r s a r e not i n the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t .  This  t e n s i o n i s f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t e d i n the Canadian P a r l i a m e n t by the e x i s t e n c e o f t h i r d , f o u r t h , and even f i f t h  political  p a r t i e s , each o f w h i c h e x p e c t s t o t a k e a f u l l p a r t i n the o f f i c i a l a c t i v i t i e s o f the House. I f p o l i t i c a l c o n t r o v e r s y between the p a r t i e s were unc o n t r o l l e d , the House o f Commons c o u l d not f u n c t i o n .  There  a r e , however, a number o f r e s t r a i n t s w i t h i n t h e p a r l i a m e n t a r y a d v e r s a r y system.  F i r s t , the House o p e r a t e s through an e s t a b -  l i s h e d s e t o f r u l e s , the S t a n d i n g O r d e r s , most o f w h i c h a r e a c c e p t e d by the members as r e a s o n a b l e and b e n e f i c i a l .  These  r u l e s p r o v i d e f o r t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the House and o f i t s committees, and f o r a weekly schedule o f House b u s i n e s s . They a l s o p r o v i d e s t a n d a r d s o f House decorum, r u l e s o f r e l e vancy, and time l i m i t a t i o n s on the members  1  speeches.  The  S t a n d i n g Orders a r e r e g u l a t e d by the Speaker and a p p e a l s a g a i n s t h i s r u l i n g a r e now by p r e c e d e n t s  p r o h i b i t e d . Another r e s t r a i n t i s provided  e s t a b l i s h e d i n p r e v i o u s p a r l i a m e n t s and w h i c h  r e a c h f a r back i n t o B r i t i s h p a r l i a m e n t a r y h i s t o r y . r u l i n g s a r e an a c c e p t e d p a r t o f such p r e c e d e n t s .  Speaker's A third  l i m i t a t i o n i s found i n c e r t a i n c o n v e n t i o n s and p r a c t i c e s o f the House - f o r example, t h a t i n any round o f speeches i n the House, the O f f i c i a l O p p o s i t i o n w i l l n o r m a l l y f o l l o w the government and w i l l be f o l l o w e d by the o t h e r p a r t i e s i n o r d e r of s i z e .  One  f i n a l r e s t r a i n t on p a r l i a m e n t a r y c o n t r o v e r s y  i s s u p p l i e d by t h e , p a r t i e s t h e m s e l v e s . government may  I n the House, the  be a n x i o u s t o get i t s programs t h r o u g h ,  but  i t i s a l s o aware o f the p l a c e i n p a r l i a m e n t a r y o f the o p p o s i t i o n .  Attempts t o accommodate the  p a r t i e s a r e not o n l y p o l i t i c a l l y e x p e d i e n t ,  democracy opposition  b o t h i n terms of  a v o i d i n g the appearance of an a u t h o r i t a r i a n government i n terms o f h a s t e n i n g  the p r o g r e s s  o f b u s i n e s s , but  and  they  a l s o r e f l e c t a r e a l i s t i c assessment o f the p l a c e of the oppos i t i o n and the c o n t r i b u t i o n s i t can make t o i m p r o v i n g ment b u s i n e s s . conscious  The  govern-  o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s , f o r t h e i r p a r t , are  o f the f a c t t h a t i t i s the government's r e s p o n s i -  b i l i t y t o g o v e r n , and t h a t t h e y too a r e h e l d r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the r e s u l t s o f an i n c o m p l e t e l e g i s l a t i v e program.  They a r e  a l s o a n x i o u s not t o appear u n d u l y o b s t r u c t i v e . Much o f the p a r l i a m e n t a r y  business  i s therefore  organized  t h r o u g h i n f o r m a l communication channels e s t a b l i s h e d between the o p p o s i n g g r o u p s .  At the p r e s e n t  t i m e , the House l e a d e r s  form the most s i g n i f i c a n t communication l i n k f o r the conduct o f House b u s i n e s s , a l i n k p r e v i o u s l y f u r n i s h e d by the of each p o l i t i c a l p a r t y and by the p a r t y w h i p s .  The whip  r e c o g n i z e d by each p o l i t i c a l p a r t y as i t s i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h the w i d e r House o f Commons.  leaders  link  The whip has been r e f e r r e d  t o as an e x e c u t i v e o f f i c e r o f the b a t t l e s h i p , a k e e p e r o f hounds, a f a t h e r c o n f e s s o r , o r more c o n t e m p o r a r i l y , mother o r shop s t e w a r d .  I t was  i n f o r m e d of the c u r r e n t b u s i n e s s were p r e s e n t  was  as a  the den  h i s d u t y t o keep the members and e v e n t s , ensure t h a t t h e y  f o r debates and v o t e s , and a r r a n g e f o r p a i r i n g .  While a p p o i n t e d by the p a r t y l e a d e r and thus expected  to  keep him a p p r i s e d o f the members  was  1  a t t i t u d e s , the whip  a l s o the defender o f the I n t e r e s t s o f p r i v a t e members. Most s i g n i f i c a n t l y , he was  the c h a n n e l o f communication be-  tween the p a r t i e s c o n c e r n i n g t o p i c s f o r d e b a t e s , the o r d e r o f b u s i n e s s , and the s e l e c t i o n and o r d e r o f s p e a k e r s .  He  would meet i n f o r m a l l y and i r r e g u l a r l y w i t h h i s o p p o s i t e numbers t o arrange these and o t h e r p r o c e d u r a l m a t t e r s . Depending on the s e r i o u s n e s s o f an i s s u e , two avenues were open i f the whips were unable t o r e s o l v e a The most common was  conflict.  t o s h e l v e a b i l l u n t i l the end o f the  s e s s i o n when members were a n x i o u s t o r e t u r n t o t h e i r s t i t u e n c i e s , o r e l s e t o p e r m i t the MP's  con-  t o debate the  u n t i l t h e y and the s u b j e c t m a t t e r were exhausted. avenue, used i n r a r e p a r l i a m e n t a r y c r i s e s , was  matter  The  second  a private  m e e t i n g a t the t o p l e v e l between the Prime M i n i s t e r and Leader o f the O p p o s i t i o n .  Here, s i g n i f i c a n t p o l i c y  t i o n would be exchanged e i t h e r i n an attempt  the  informa-  t o convince  o p p o s i t i o n l e a d e r o f the i s s u e ' s s e r i o u s n e s s , o r t o  the  convince  the Prime M i n i s t e r t h a t c e r t a i n changes were n e c e s s a r y t o remove any o b s t r u c t i o n . Over the l a s t s e v e r a l decades the House l e a d e r s have come t o p r o v i d e a new Commons.  communication l i n k i n the House o f  I n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the p a r t y whips and  party  l e a d e r s , i t i s t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o arrange the b u s i n e s s o f the House.  I n d o i n g so, t h e y have t a k e n o v e r some o f the  d u t i e s p r e v i o u s l y performed by the o t h e r channels. present  The  s e p a r a t i o n o f t a s k s lends f a i r l y d i s t i n c t d u t i e s  to each group and the House l e a d e r s would now be p l a c e d between the p a r t y l e a d e r s but above the whips i n any h i e r a r c h y of p a r t y a u t h o r i t y . of t h i s new  The major f a c t o r s l e a d i n g t o the c r e a t i o n  l i n k , most of which can be d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o  the recent e x p l o s i o n of government b u s i n e s s , w i l l be i n the remaining p a r t s of t h i s  thesis.  analyzed  C H A P T E R E v o l u t i o n o f the Role  The  present  2 o f House  s t a t u r e and r o l e  be  a p p r e c i a t e d through  of  House l e a d e r e v o l v e d .  Leaders  o f House l e a d e r s c a n b e s t  some k n o w l e d g e o f how t h e p o s i t i o n s The f o l l o w i n g account  of their  d e v e l o p m e n t must be c o n s i d e r e d p r e l i m i n a r y i n n a t u r e , more t h o r o u g h additional The Without a  historical  r e s e a r c h would p r o b a b l y  since  uncover  f a c t o r s which c o n t r i b u t e d t o the e v o l u t i o n .  p a r l i a m e n t a r y s y s t e m h a s a way o f c r e a t i n g legislation  of conscious d e c i s i o n .  positions  They e v o l v e  c h a o s o f f a c t o r s w h i c h i n r e t r o s p e c t seem t o have a  l o g i c o r p a t t e r n but a t the time  o f t h e i r appearance  certain represent  a d h o c d e c i s i o n s p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e immediate p o l i t i c a l tion.  Certainly  such  Factors  influencing  dition,  extended  structural  through  situa-  i s t r u e o f t h e p o s i t i o n o f House l e a d e r .  i t s development  include parliamentary  a n d momentary c r i s e s ,  personality  tra-  factors,  c h a n g e s i n t h e government a n d p a r l i a m e n t , a n d t h e  amount a n d c o m p l e x i t y  o f House b u s i n e s s .  O r i g i n a l l y the  p o s i t i o n o f "House l e a d e r " was n o t p r e s e n t w i t h i n t h e Canadian p o l i t i c a l institutions Great  system.  As w i t h t h e b u l k o f o u r p a r l i a m e n t a r y  i t d e r i v e d from  Britain.  t h e Mother o f P a r l i a m e n t s i n  B u t a s w i t h most o f t h e s e  p o s i t i o n o f House l e a d e r h a s b e e n a d a p t e d political  situation  r a t h e r than  borrowings,  the  t o f i t o u r unique  h a v i n g been c o p i e d  unchanged.  The term "Leader o f t h e House" i n B r i t a i n was o r i g i n a l l y a p p l i e d t o t h e c h i e f spokesman f o r t h e Government i n t h e House o f Commons when t h e Prime M i n i s t e r was a member o f t h e House o f L o r d s .  When t h e Prime M i n i s t e r was a member o f t h e  lower House he l e d t h e Government h i m s e l f .  Norman W i l d i n g  and P h i l i p Laundy i n t h e i r E n c y c l o p e d i a o f P a r l i a m e n t s t a t e that the t i t l e  "Leader o f t h e House" was n o t r e c o g n i z e d i n  p a r l i a m e n t a r y t e r m i n o l o g y u n t i l t h e middle o f t h e 1 9 T H Cent u r y , a l t h o u g h t h e i n s t i t u t i o n i t s e l f had e x i s t e d f o r some time p r e v i o u s l y . They w r i t e : "As l a t e as 1840, L o r d John R u s s e l l , who was t h e c h i e f M i n i s t e r o f t h e Crown i n t h e House o f Commons when t h e Prime M i n i s t e r ( L o r d Melbourne) was i n t h e House o f L o r d s , i s r e f e r r e d t o i n a debate as t h e 'noble L o r d who has t o conduct, on t h e p a r t o f t h e Crown, t h e business o f the country i n t h i s House ." 1  The term Leader o f t h e House had two s e n s e s .  1  I t was meant t o  a p p l y t o t h e Prime M i n i s t e r ' s p o l i t i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n the Commons I f t h e p a r t y l e a d e r h i m s e l f was a member o f t h e upper House. ( P r i o r t o t h e  20TH  Century, t h e l e a d e r o f t h e  Government f r e q u e n t l y was s e a t e d i n t h e House o f L o r d s . ) The term a l s o r e f e r s t o an i n d i v i d u a l who performs a s p e c i f i c f u n c t i o n w i t h i n t h e Commons.  I n G l a d s t o n e ' s words, t h e  Leader o f t h e House " s u g g e s t s , and i n a g r e a t degree f i x e s , the course o f a l l p r i n c i p a l m a t t e r s o f b u s i n e s s , s u p e r v i s e s and keeps i n harmony t h e a c t i o n s o f h i s c o l l e a g u e s , t a k e s t h e i n i t i a t i v e i n m a t t e r s o f c e r e m o n i a l p r o c e d u r e , and a d v i s e s t h e House i n e v e r y d i f f i c u l t y as i t a r i s e s " .  T h i s l a t t e r sense  t h a t r e f e r r i n g t o t h e managing o f t h e b u s i n e s s o f t h e House o f Commons, has been dominant i n B r i t a i n .  The l a s t Leader  o f t h e House t o be so d e s i g n a t e d because t h e Prime M i n i s t e r was i n t h e House o f L o r d s was B a l f o u r who a c t e d on b e h a l f o f L o r d S a l i s b u r y from 1895 t o 1902. 3  since that time, a l l  Prime M i n i s t e r s have been from t h e Commons. I n Canada, o n l y two o f o u r Prime M i n i s t e r s have l e d t h e Government from t h e S e n a t e .  S i r John Abbott had as h i s l i e u -  t e n a n t i n t h e House o f Commons t h e M i n i s t e r o f J u s t i c e , S i r John S.D. Thompson, who a c t u a l l y assumed t h e p o s i t i o n o f F i r s t M i n i s t e r f o l l o w i n g A b b o t t ' s d e a t h i n 1893.  He, i n t u r n ,  was f o l l o w e d a s Prime M i n i s t e r i n 1895 hy S e n a t o r , t h e Honoura b l e Mackenzie B o w e l l , who had a s h i s Commons' l e a d e r , t h e M i n i s t e r o f F i n a n c e , George F o s t e r .  B o t h prime m i n i s t e r s from  the Senate had o n l y b r i e f terms o f one y e a r e a c h . From 1902 u n t i l t h e 1940's t h e B r i t i s h Prime M i n i s t e r h i m s e l f g e n e r a l l y a c t e d a s t h e Leader o f t h e House, a l t h o u g h he f r e q u e n t l y a p p o i n t e d a deputy l e a d e r t o c a r r y out some o f the day-to-day d u t i e s .  The o n l y break i n t h i s p a t t e r n o c c u r r e d  d u r i n g t h e F i r s t World War when L l o y d George c o n f i d e d t h e House l e a d e r s h i p t o Bonar Law, and l a t e r t o A u s t e n C h a m b e r l a i n . When Bonar Law r e p l a c e d  L l o y d George as Prime M i n i s t e r i n  1922, he r e v e r t e d t o t h e former p r a c t i c e o f h a n d l i n g t h e House duties himself. ^  D u r i n g t h e Second World War, t h e B r i t i s h  Prime M i n i s t e r a g a i n a p p o i n t e d one o f h i s m i n i s t e r s t o p e r form some o f h i s House d u t i e s .  Since that time, the post of  B r i t i s h Leader o f t h e House has e x i s t e d s e p a r a t e l y from t h a t o f t h e Prime M i n i s t e r .  It was not u n t i l a f t e r World War I I that the p o s i t i o n o f Leader o f the House, as d i s t i n c t from the Prime M i n i s t e r , became r e a d i l y i d e n t i f i a b l e i n Canada.  P r i o r t o t h a t , the Prime  M i n i s t e r had kept f u l l r e i n s on events i n the House o f Commons for  the government, although, when he was absent, another m i n i -  s t e r would perform such d u t i e s as announcing the next business.  day's  The war i t s e l f was one o f the major c o n t r i b u t i n g  f a c t o r s t o an e x p l i c i t d i v i s i o n o f the Prime M i n i s t e r ' s r o l e s . The newly c r e a t e d war cabinet met almost c o n t i n u o u s l y  requiring  a r e o r i e n t a t i o n o f Prime M i n i s t e r MacKenzie King's time and priorities.^ Health,  I n c r e a s i n g l y the M i n i s t e r o f Pensions and N a t i o n a l  Ian A l i s t a r Mackenzie, assumed the d u t i e s o f managing  the House b u s i n e s s . At f i r s t  ?  the M i n i s t e r ' s r o l e i n t h i s a r e a was u n o f f i c i a l .  As Jack P i c k e r s g i l l , a t t h a t time the P r i v a t e S e c r e t a r y t o the Prime M i n i s t e r , and l a t e r a Government House l e a d e r hims e l f , commented: "When I came t o Ottawa 35 years ago, nobody had ever heard o f such a t h i n g as a house l e a d e r . The o n l y person on the government s i d e o f the House who had any a u t h o r i t y , p a r l i a m e n t a r y a u t h o r i t y , apart from the Prime M i n i s t e r was the Government Whip. I t h i n k the p o s i t i o n of House Leader developed i n l a r g e p a r t because Mr. MacKenzie King got o l d and t i r e d , and he d i d n ' t want t o go t o the House o f Commons i n the evening. And Ian Mackenzie ... j u s t took over the f u n c t i o n o f announcing what the government's b u s i n e s s was. Before t h a t , when the Prime M i n i s t e r wasn't t h e r e , whatever s e n i o r m i n i s t e r was i n the House d i d i t . " ° In 1946, the Prime M i n i s t e r announced o b l i q u e l y that he had  t u r n e d o v e r some o f h i s p a r l i a m e n t a r y d u t i e s t o a House leader.  His f i r s t r e f e r e n c e to t h i s d i v i s i o n of r o l e s i s  r e c o r d e d i n t h e P a r l i a m e n t a r y Debates: '...when I have been absent on r e c e n t o c c a s i o n s , the M i n i s t e r o f F i n a n c e has been A c t i n g Prime M i n i s t e r . As Mr. I l s l e y w i l l not be here d u r i n g my absence on t h i s o c c a s i o n , I have asked my c o l l e a g u e the M i n i s t e r o f J u s t i c e ( S t . L a u r e n t ) i f he would t a k e on the d u t i e s o f A c t i n g Prime M i n i s t e r . . . m y c o l l e a g u e , Mr. Mackenzie, t h e Mini s t e r o f V e t e r a n s A f f a i r s , w i l l be a c t i n g p r e s i dent o f the c o u n c i l and w i l l a l s o c o n t i n u e t o e x e r c i s e . .In the v e r y e f f i c i e n t manner i n w h i c h he has i n t h e p a s t , s u p e r v i s i o n o v e r the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e b u s i n e s s o f the house, as house leader..." ? I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t w h i l e Mackenzie now  s u p e r v i s e d the  House b u s i n e s s and was p r o b a b l y i n v o l v e d i n any back room d i s c u s s i o n s between the p a r t i e s , the customary  communication  l i n k s remained between t h e w h i p s , and, i f n e c e s s a r y , t h e p a r t y leaders.  T h i s has been documented i n the: o f f i c i a l debates o f  the House.  1 0  The s e p a r a t e p o s i t i o n o f Government House l e a d e r , t h e n , a r o s e from t h e need t o o r g a n i z e and announce the House b u s i n e s s when t h e prime m i n i s t e r was a b s e n t . c r i s i s which c r e a t e d t h e need.  The war was an  extended  The amount o f b u s i n e s s r e q u i r i n g  the government's a t t e n t i o n was a n o t h e r f a c t o r .  A.D.P. Heeney,  i n h i s s t u d y o f c a b i n e t government used one rough i n d i c a t o r t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e i n c r e a s e d w o r k l o a d o f t h a t body d u r i n g the war period.  A c c o r d i n g t o h i s s t u d y , 92,350 items o f b u s i n e s s were  passed by t h e G o v e r n o r - i n - C o u n c i l between 1939 and 19^5, i n c r e a s e o f more t h a n two-and-a-half t i m e s over the level. H  an  pre-war  Jack P i c k e r s g i l l c i t e d another probable f a c t o r .  MacKenzie K i n g ' s age. Postwar r e c o n s t r u c t i o n and t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e p o s i t i v e o r w e l f a r e s t a t e a l s o o c c u p i e d t h e prime m i n i s t e r and l e d him t o d e l e g a t e some House r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s to another m i n i s t e r .  As t h e Government House l e a d e r s h i p was  not a s t a t u t o r y o f f i c e , n o r i s t h e Leader f o r m a l l y a p p o i n t e d 12 by t h e Grown i n e i t h e r Great B r i t a i n o r Canada, f e l l t o another  the p o s i t i o n  c a b i n e t member, I a n M a c k e n z i e .  When Mackenzie r e t i r e d from t h e House l e a d e r s h i p s h o r t l y b e f o r e b e i n g summoned t o t h e Senate i n J a n u a r y , was no a u t o m a t i c  successor t o h i s p o s i t i o n .  19^8, t h e r e  For several  months t h e prime m i n i s t e r once a g a i n undertook these d u t i e s , a l t h o u g h he d i d a l l o t t h e e v e n i n g announcement o f b u s i n e s s t o his various ministers. ^  The second Canadian House l e a d e r ,  Alphonse F o u r n i e r , s l i p p e d i n t o t h e p o s i t i o n i n much t h e same way as had M a c k e n z i e .  P i c k e r s g i l l , a c c o r d i n g t o h i s own  r e c o l l e c t i o n , was asked by t h e Prime M i n i s t e r one day how F o u r n i e r had come t o be t h e "spokesman o f t h e government". S h o r t l y a f t e r w a r d s , K i n g a c t u a l l y asked F o u r n i e r t o assume these d u t i e s . ^  This i n s i d e perspective r e v e a l s that the  e x i s t e n c e o f a d i s t i n c t House l e a d e r had n o t y e t reached  a  p o i n t where i t was c o n s i d e r e d i n c o n c e i v a b l e by t h e Prime M i n i s t e r t o be w i t h o u t i t .  I t was up t o one o f t h e c a b i n e t  m i n i s t e r s t o p e r c e i v e a gap and attempt t o f i l l  it,  with  o f f i c i a l recognition following afterwards. One o f t h e t e s t s o f t h e permanency o f any newly e s t a b l i s h e d p o s i t i o n i s i t s a b i l i t y t o s u r v i v e a change i n s e n i o r  leadership.  This test  late  when L o u i s  i n 19^8  L i b e r a l party Laurent  had  ;  obviously  was  relative  l a t e r as  learned  House d u r i n g  p r i m e m i n i s t e r s h i p and ease.  he  he  have h a n d l e d t h e  was  to undertake continuation  i n the  t a t e d by  the  fact  was  and  little  arrangement.  This  w o u l d be i s an  tions  i n f l u e n c i n g the  House  leader. S t . Laurent  ities  by  C i t i z e n s h i p and of the  new  position, years. ly  ne  portfolios,  the  lation eight  p o s i t i o n was  already  delegation  He  c o u l d not  that  legislation  facili-  performing  ade-  of  post was  Minister  at the  of  commencement  well qualified for  assumed a s w e l l one One  to a s s i s t  committee  months i n s t e a d o f t h e  House r e s p o n s i b l l  i n these duties  of Finance.  i n c r e a s i n g i n volume and  Government  for  the  several  have b e e n v i e w e d a s p a r t i c u l a r  l a t e r he  Government House l e a d e r was  successful  more unwelcome  inclina-  i n 1953.  years  duties  find  Walter H a r r i s , I n i t i a l l y  duties  House  o b v i o u s example o f p e r s o n a l  assisted Foumier  o n e r o u s f o r two  heaviest as  <p  the  workable  Immigration, to the  having  ^  gained  for  and  r e l i e v e d to  development of a separate  parliament  St.  from d i s r u p t i n g a  continued  appointing  the  time  some o f t h e  he  as  however,.his  probably  Fournier's  that  King  his apprenticeship  Like h i s predecessor,  simple  leadership  r u l e s , procedures,  chores.  quately  House  Prime M i n i s t e r .  the  could  consumed e l s e w h e r e ; and  a minister willing  f o r the  S t . Laurent replaced  leader and  p r a c t i c e s o f the  with  occurred  i n the the  of  i n the cabinet.  sessions  traditional  Harris'  three  of  the  tasks  c r e a t i o n of With  legis-  s t r e t c h i n g to or four,  a  the  government had p e r c e i v e d t h e need t o s t u d y proposed l e g i s l a t i o n w i t h g r e a t e r care and t o schedule t o some e x t e n t i t s i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e House o f Commons.  The committee, s i m i l a r  t o one t h a t had "been c r e a t e d i n B r i t a i n a few y e a r s b e f o r e , was composed o f s e v e r a l s e n i o r m i n i s t e r s , i n c l u d i n g H a r r i s , and met when t h e need r e q u i r e d .  This represented a s t r u c t u r a l  change i n t h e government which a s s i s t e d i n t h e development o f the p o s i t i o n o f Government House l e a d e r . D u r i n g h i s t e n u r e , H a r r i s began t o d e v e l o p ad hoc channels o f communication w i t h t h e O f f i c i a l O p p o s i t i o n  through  such s e n i o r o p p o s i t i o n members as Howard Green and E. Davie Fulton.  These channels s u p p l a n t e d , t o some degree, communi-  c a t i o n s between t h e p a r t y l e a d e r s .  The age and p h y s i c a l  h e a l t h o f S t . Laurent was one c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r t o t h i s e v o l u t i o n , as was h i s g e n e r a l l a c k o f concern f o r t h i s o f House b u s i n e s s . ^  aspect  A n o t h e r f a c t o r was t h e p e r s o n a l hos-  t i l i t y t o S t . Laurent o f O p p o s i t i o n Leader George Drew; t h i s d e t e r r e d t h e prime m i n i s t e r from meeting w i t h him f r e quently.  The main c h a n n e l f o r making arrangements, however,  remained t h e p a r t y w h i p s .  I t was d u r i n g t h i s p a r l i a m e n t t h a t  the o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s began t a k i n g s t e p s t o c o u n t e r a c t t h e growing powers o f t h e government r e g a r d i n g House b u s i n e s s . O p p o s i t i o n concern was p r e c i p i t a t e d f i r s t by t h e Defence P r o d u c t i o n A c t which had passed  through t h e House w i t h o n l y  a few c o n c e s s i o n s made and w i t h t h e Government House Leader moving t h a t "the p r e v i o u s q u e s t i o n be p u t " t o end debate.  The The  s e c o n d e v e n t was t h e h i s t o r i c  of the  a s t h e method employed b y t h e government t o s p e e d  p a s s a g e t h r o u g h t h e House o f Commons:  final but  debate.  p i p e l i n e d e b a t e c o n c e r n e d n o t s o much t h e m e r i t s  proposal its  pipeline  closure.  v o t e s were t a k e n , t h e Government r e c e i v e d  the opposition  When t h e  its bill,  p a r t i e s now had a g r o u p o f MPs  highly  t u n e d t o t h e p r o c e d u r e s and p r a c t i c e s o f t h e House. were t o u s e t h i s k n o w l e d g e i n n e g o t i a t i o n s in.the tion the  future.  Stanley  w i t h t h e Government  Any l i n k s between t h e government a n d  ceased t o operate d u r i n g opposition  They  parties created  the p i p e l i n e debate. t h e i r own c h a n n e l s ,  Knowles and E . Davie F u l t o n  opposiInstead,  with  taking a leading  part.  ( K n o w l e s was t h e CCF w h i p a t t h e t i m e , h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the  discussions  other  whips.)  instructions  was q u a l i t a t i v e l y  d i f f e r e n t from t h a t  These quasi-House of their  party  leaders  leaders  of the  met u n d e r t h e  and caucuses t o p l a n co17  ordinated The  s t r a t e g i e s to counteract  p i p e l i n e debate l e f t  many b i t t e r  government and o p p o s i t i o n  members' d a y s , a n d t h e l i k e .  f o r arranging  Communication  i n t h e incumbents o f a l l p a r l i a m e n t a r y  party  G e o r g e Drew, t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e  December, 1956, a n d was r e p l a c e d  speakers,  links,  House l e a d e r b y a s s i g n i n g business f o r the party,  changes  positions of  leader,  retired in I t was  the concept o f o p p o s i t i o n  Howard G r e e n t o t a k e  c h a r g e o f House  a l t h o u g h G r e e n was n o t a t t h e t i m e  to as 'opposition  House  private  however,  by John D i e f e n b a k e r .  D i e f e n b a k e r who a c t u a l l y i n i t i a t e d  referred  f e e l i n g s between t h e  i n a state of f l u x f o r several years with  authority.  action.  b u t t h e w h i p s were s o o n a b l e t o  resume a n y n e c e s s a r y d i s c u s s i o n s  remained  t h e government  leader'.  T h e n came t h e g e n e r a l e l e c t i o n o f 1 9 5 7 a n d t h e d e f e a t o f the  Liberal  government.  S t . Laurent  wards a n d L e s t e r P e a r s o n t o o k tion.  Walter  been d e f e a t e d  Harris,  appointed  t h e f o r m e r Government  afteropposi-  House l e a d e r , had  and n e i t h e r S t . Laurent n o r  a n o p p o s i t i o n House l e a d e r .  Diefenbaker  Howard G r e e n , now M i n i s t e r o f P u b l i c Works, t o t h e  House l e a d e r s h i p f o r t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e third  shortly  charge., o f t h e o f f i c i a l  i n the e l e c t i o n ,  Pearson appointed  retired  prime m i n i s t e r t o a p p o i n t  Government, b e c o m i n g t h e  a separate  Government  House  leader. The Credit  1958 general e l e c t i o n  candidates,  parliament  saw t h e d e f e a t  l e a v i n g the party without  f o r the next  four years.  highly  individualistic  Although  they  procedural  l e a v i n g that party with  expert eight  MP's a n d no c e n t r a l a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e .  commanded a n o v e r w h e l m i n g m a j o r i t y o f 208 mem-  i n c o m p a r i s o n t o t h e L i b e r a l ' s 4 9 a n d t h e CCF's e i g h t ,  bers the  Conservatives  and  Goliath situation  soon found  themselves faced with a  I n t h e House.  L e s t e r Pearson,  w i t h a t t a c k i n g t h e government's p o l i c i e s , relating rier.  t o House b u s i n e s s  turned  David concerned  the duties  o v e r t o h i s deskmate, L i o n e l  Chev-  C h e v r i e r , a s s i s t e d b y P l c k e r s g i l l and o c c a s i o n a l l y b y  P a u l M a r t i n and Pearson,  undertook t o challenge the govern-  ment on e v e r y move i t made  i n t h e House.  employed b y C h e v r i e r w h i c h a n n o y e d b o t h in  representation i n  M.J. C o l d w e l l , CCF p a r t y  l e a d e r , and S t a n l e y Knowles, l o n g - r e c o g n i z e d o f t h e CCF, were a l s o d e f e a t e d ,  of a l l Social  One o f t h e t a c t i c s  G r e e n and h i s s u c c e s s o r  1 9 5 9 . G o r d o n C h u r c h i l l , was h i s h a b i t o f a s k i n g t h e House  l e a d e r each evening  what b u s i n e s s  was p l a n n e d  b y t h e government  f o r the n e x t and f o l l o w i n g d a y s .  P r i o r t o t h a t , i t had  i 0  been customary f o r the Government House l e a d e r t o announce the b u s i n e s s w i t h o u t any q u e s t i o n s o r d i s c u s s i o n from the other s i d e .  T h i s s i m p l e t a c t i c had the e f f e c t o f p u b l i c i z i n g  many o f the backroom d i s c u s s i o n s t h a t had t a k e n p l a c e , and brought many o f t h e s e n e g o t i a t i o n s onto the f l o o r o f the House i t s e l f .  I n the i n t e r e s t s o f g a i n i n g a f a i r l y smooth  p r o g r e s s i o n o f b u s i n e s s through the House, the Government House l e a d e r sought out someone i n the O f f i c i a l  Opposition  w i t h whom he c o u l d r e s o l v e minor w r a n g l e s and undo p r o c e d u r a l knots.  The whips d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d were i n e x p e r i e n c e d  and  not p a r t i c u l a r l y i n v o l v e d i n d e v e l o p i n g p a r t y s t r a t e g i e s and tactics.  C h e v r i e r was  an o b v i o u s  House l e a d e r took t o m e e t i n g him  c h o i c e and the Government "behind the c u r t a i n s " , o r  i n room 16 a c r o s s the h a l l from the House, when the need required.  C h e v r i e r had no o f f i c i a l t i t l e , but was  known as  the spokesman f o r the o p p o s i t i o n on t h e s e m a t t e r s .  The  Govern  ment House l e a d e r ' s c o n t a c t s w i t h the CCF-NDP were l e s s quent, but on those o c c a s i o n s i t was  u s u a l l y necessary  fref o r him  t o canvass the views o f each member. A f u r t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r l e a d i n g t o the  establishment  o f a d i s t i n c t t h i r d l e v e l communication l i n k among the p a r t i e s was  the s e r i e s o f m i n o r i t y governments i n the mid-1960's,  p a r t i c u l a r l y a f t e r t h e r e t u r n o f a L i b e r a l government i n  1963.  I n the p a s t , the Government House l e a d e r had c o n s i d e r e d i t w i s e , a l t h o u g h not e s s e n t i a l , t o a s c e r t a i n the s e n t i m e n t s  of  the o p p o s i t i o n b e f o r e a r r a n g i n g some a s p e c t s o f the government  program. before  I t was  any  now  necessary  s t e p s were t a k e n .  the n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h the Rather  than  w h i p , t h e new  t o know t h e i r v i e w s and Of  two,  l e a v i n g most  particular  and  then  plans  importance  t h r e e , minor  were  parties.  interparty discussions to  L i b e r a l Government House l e a d e r , J a c k  the  Pickersgill,  began m e e t i n g f r e q u e n t l y w i t h members o f o t h e r p a r t i e s ,  either  20 singly or c o l l e c t i v e l y . O p p o s i t i o n was post  with  the  t h e NDP  House l e a d e r b y  appointed  split  became t h e  counterpart  G o r d o n C h u r c h i l l , now  of Conservative  P a t t e r s o n was  His  the S o c i a l  i n that party  Creditiste  wore two  He  appointed  w h i p by  c a u c u s i n 1965.  t r a c k o f t h e MP's.  the  Alex  1963.  Gilles  and, Gregoire again  h a t s by a t t e n d i n g b o t h both The  House l e a d e r and w h i p s ' r o l e now tactics  and  S u c h a f u n c t i o n was  poor t i m i n g o f v o t e s , o r a s u r p r i s e vote whole when no  formal  S t a n l e y Knowles,  l e s s t h a t o f p l a n n i n g s t r a t e g i e s and keeping  t o the  Diefehbaker.  i n October,  of gatherings. t h e NDP  was  appointed  Official  C r e d i t House l e a d e r  House l e a d e r .  whip, i n e f f e c t  i n the  a d v a n c e w a r n i n g had  t o be  types party  became  more one  of  c r u c i a l as  a  i n Committee-of-thegiven,  could  defeat  government. One  factor assisting  i n the  House l e a d e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y to the  development o f the  f o r t h e o p p o s i t i o n , was  House o f S t a n l e y K n o w l e s .  understanding manipulate  the  of parliamentary rules.  During  Knowles i s u n i q u e  procedure this  and  p e r i o d he  s i o n p o s s i b l e t o f o r c e a m e e t i n g between the to p a r t i c i p a t e  v i g o r o u s l y i n these  position the  return  i n h i s deep  in his a b i l i t y used every  to  occa-  House l e a d e r s  gatherings.  of  and  The  Government House l e a d e r ' s  thened by  Prime M i n i s t e r P e a r s o n .  leave  o r g a n i z a t i o n and  the  minister. ings the  T h i s e r a was  i n the  d i s c u s s i o n s were n o t and  i t was  left  P e a r s o n was  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i n the  frequent  to the  and  to  to  another  strong adversary  constant  Leader of the  streng-  content  c o n d u c t o f House b u s i n e s s  House, e p i t o m i z e d  P r i m e M i n i s t e r and  p o s i t i o n , t o o , was  feel-  c l a s h between  Opposition.  were u s u a l l y  Top  level  unsuccessful;  House l e a d e r s t o m a i n t a i n  communica-  t i o n s between the p a r t i e s . Another important the in  p o s i t i o n and  parliamentary  role  the  o f House l e a d e r s was  business.  "Today's a g e n d a { p f to  f a c t o r i n f l u e n c i n g the  parliament]  amount o f b u s i n e s s  e v e n b a c k a few  I n 1964,  decades..."  Knowles r e f e r r e d t o t h e  In the n i n e t e e n t h  lasted  and  the  sessions  During  the  exceeded  I967, trate  2  2  S e c o n d W o r l d War,  the  Since  the  typical  years,  he  session during  found t h a t the the  first  session  W o r l d War  typical  to  I  days never session  In a paper prepared  several other  1957  or  a h a l f months".  e x p a n d e d w o r k l o a d o f government and five-year period  ago,  statement,  number o f s i t t i n g  t h a t time the  Gordon Robertson used  century  parliamentary  "even d u r i n g  e i g h t months o r more.  Comparing the five  his  f o r o n l y f o u r o r f o u r and  s i x months.  the  support  a h a l f months, and  ran  been r u n n i n g  a  century,  increase  r e i t i o n s h i p at a l l  Parliament  To  1  massive  of  Knowles wrote,  increasing length of  sessions. two  2  Stanley  b e a r s no  before  the  development  indices to  had  in illus-  parliament.  I962 w i t h  the  following  g r e a t e s t number of. days; p e r  p e r i o d was  174.  I n c o n t r a s t , between  1963  and I 9 6 7 t h e r e were s e s s i o n s o f 248  and 250 d a y s .  the f i r s t p e r i o d , the l a r g e s t number o f b i l l s passed one  s e s s i o n was  continued: first  "The  64;  583 pages o f l e g a l t e x t ; i n  751 pages o f s t a t u t e s , and  To i l l u s t r a t e the w o r k l o a d  " I n t h e y e a r s 1957  per y e a r ; from 1964 o f 70 p e r c e n t .  i n 1966-67,  of the c a b i n e t  t o 1959 t h e y averaged  t o 1966 the average was  he s t a t e s , "The  656  f o r 800  382  - an i n c r e a s e  By August o f 1967 t h e Cabinet had 532  ments b e f o r e i t , so the p r o s p e c t was  The  1964-  c a l c u l a t e d t h e number o f documents r e q u i r i n g c a b i n e t  consideration:  story.  He  l a r g e s t p r i n t e d volume o f s t a t u t e s i n t h e  65 P a r l i a m e n t passed  Robertson  i n any  i n I967 P a r l i a m e n t passed 97 b i l l s .  f i v e - y e a r p e r i o d had  1273 pages".  In  docu-  f o r 1967".  As  i n c r e a s e d mass o f b u s i n e s s i s not the whole  I t i s a l s o f a r more complex t h a n i t used t o c o n s t a n t n e g o t i a t i n g and o r g a n i z i n g o f an  be". increasingly  voluminous and complex government program p l a y e d h e a v i l y on the Government House l e a d e r who, s p o n s i b l e f o r h i s own t h a t Pearson  department.  as a m i n i s t e r , was  I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g ,  had f o u r House l e a d e r s i n f i v e y e a r s .  l e f t a f t e r a y e a r t o become M i n i s t e r o f T r a n s p o r t . Guy  F a v r e a u , was  also rethen,  Pickersgill, His successor,  a l r e a d y overworked as the M i n i s t e r o f J u s t i c e  and l e a d e r o f the f e d e r a l p a r t y i n Quebec and w i t h i n e i g h t months asked t o be removed.  The  t h i r d Government House l e a d e r ,  George M c l l r a i t h , had the l o n g e s t t e n u r e f o r the two y e a r s .  period—over  He began as the P r e s i d e n t o f the P r i v y C o u n c i l  (a p o r t f o l i o w i t h o u t a m i n i s t r y and r e s e r v e d f o r s p e c i a l  respon-  s i b i l i t i e s a s s i g n e d by t h e Prime M i n i s t e r ) and was t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e m i n i s t r y o f P u b l i c Works i n J u l y I 9 6 5 . Eachen, M i n i s t e r o f N a t i o n a l H e a l t h , was a p p o i n t e d i n t h e f i n a l year o f Pearson's l e a d e r s h i p . t h r e e were e x p e r i e n c e d procedures.  2  3  A l l a n Mac-  t o t h e post  Of t h e s e f o u r men,  p a r l i a m e n t a r i a n s w e l l v e r s e d i n House  F a v r e a u was t h e o n l y n o v i c e ; and i t i s gener-  a l l y conceded t h a t , w h i l e h i s r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e o p p o s i t i o n House l e a d e r s were more t h a n c o r d i a l , he was i n e f f e c t i v e i n avoiding procedural The  jams i n t h e House.  o p p o s i t i o n House l e a d e r s , c a r r y i n g p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y  fewer r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , remained l o n g e r i n t h e i r p o s i t i o n s . The  C o n s e r v a t i v e s made one change, r e p l a c i n g C h u r c h i l l w i t h  M i c h a e l S t a r r i n I965.  Gerard L a p r i s e c a r r i e d the d u t i e s f o r  the C r e d i t i s t e s when G r e g o i r e  retired.  With t h e stepped-up need f o r i n t e r p a r t y d i s c u s s i o n s and the eyes o f t h e n a t i o n f o c u s s e d on t h e House o f Commons, i t was  i n e v i t a b l e t h a t t h e e x i s t e n c e o f House l e a d e r s and t h e i r  d i s c u s s i o n s would become a m a t t e r o f p u b l i c knowledge. a d d i t i o n a l f a c t o r which probably  One  contributed to a public rec-  o g n i t i o n o f t h e i r r o l e was t h e i n t e r e s t t a k e n by t h e v a r i o u s media i n t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s . appointed  E v e r y time a House l e a d e r was  o r r e t i r e d , broadcasters  the m o t i v e s behind  and j o u r n a l i s t s would a n a l y z e  such a move and d i s c u s s t h e s t r e n g t h s and  weaknesses o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l c o n c e r n e d .  Open d i s p u t e s  between t h e House l e a d e r s were a l s o emphasized.  J  The House  l e a d e r s became r e c o g n i z e d a s u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n sources f o r the media on what was t o happen i n t h e House; and t h e y , i n  t u r n , o c c a s i o n a l l y sought o u t t h e media t o put f o r w a r d  their  party p o s i t i o n s . D u r i n g most o f t h e m i n o r i t y government p e r i o d  concentrated  attempts were made t o r e f o r m t h e a n t i q u a t e d House The  procedures.  House l e a d e r s were i n s t r u m e n t a l i n d e v e l o p i n g and i m p l e -  menting v a r i o u s p r o v i s i o n a l r e f o r m s ; and t h i s a c t i v i t y  heigh-  tened t h e i r v a l u e and c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e i r f u r t h e r e v o l u t i o n . The  s t r i n g o f m i n o r i t y governments ended i n 1968 w i t h  the e l e c t i o n o f P i e r r e Trudeau as Prime M i n i s t e r .  One o f h i s  f i r s t t a s k s was t o r e o r g a n i z e t h e c a b i n e t and i t s system o f committees and t o complete t h e s e r i e s o f p a r l i a m e n t a r y w h i c h had p r o v i s i o n a l l y begun i n t h e e a r l y 1960's.  reforms  To t h a t  end, he a p p o i n t e d Donald Ma6Donald t o t h e House l e a d e r s h i p and a s s i g n e d him t h e c a b i n e t p o s t o f P r e s i d e n t o f t h e P r i v y Council.  T h i s was t h e r e s u l t o f an e x p l i c i t p o l i c y d e c i s i o n  made t o f r e e t h e House l e a d e r from cumbersome d e p a r t m e n t a l sponsibilities.  re-  As t h e f i r s t f u l l - t i m e Government House  l e a d e r , MacDonald was a b l e t o devote h i s time t o s t u d y i n g p r o c e d u r a l reforms and p l a n n i n g t h e government's program and i t s parliamentary schedule.  He had one a s s i s t a n t , D r . John  S t e w a r t , who, b e f o r e h i s d e f e a t I n t h e 1968 e l e c t i o n , had been v i c e - c h a i r m a n o f t h e S p e c i a l Committee on P r o c e d u r e .  Stewart  had a l s o a s s i s t e d M c l l r a i t h i n h i s House d u t i e s as h i s P a r l i a mentary S e c r e t a r y and proved an I n v a l u a b l e a i d t o MacDonald who,  l i k e P a v r e a u , was i n e x p e r i e n c e d i n t h i s a r e a . ^ 2  Although  the government commanded a m a j o r i t y i n t h e House and was n o t dependent on any o p p o s i t i o n p a r t y f o r n u m e r i c a l s u p p o r t , t h e c h a n n e l o f communications between t h e House l e a d e r s  continued  to operate.  The  opposition  t o l e r a t e d a decrease  in their participation,  D o n a l d have  jeopardized  a move.  needed the  the  He  Conservative  tiste  House l e a d e r s w o u l d n e v e r  procedural support  reform  House l e a d e r ,  2  ?  to  by  of Stanley  House l e a d e r , and  nor  have  would  Mac-  suggesting  K n o w l e s , Ged  Gilbert  such Baldwin,  Rondeau, t h e  convince t h e i r party  Credi-  caucuses of  the  op value  of The  suggested  reforms.  communication  c h a n n e l s between the  advantageous to a l l concerned. t o use  these  The  Government House  was  able  c h a n n e l s t o g a i n an  the  o p p o s i t i o n t o government p r o p o s a l s  duction  i n the  able  l e a r n a b o u t most p r o p o s a l s  to  House a c c o r d i n g l y .  l i n g a h e a d o f t i m e and  were a b l e  egies.  The  and  p o s t - 1 9 6 8 d i s c u s s i o n s was  the  could'only  defeat,  the  threaten  daily  f o r the  proposed  proposals  contrast  opposition  and  their  tentative  the  intro-  schedustrat-  discussions  opposition  not  from  p a r t i e s were  pre-1968  t h a t now  House  threaten  to  p r a c t i c e o f w e e k l y announcements  of  to the  the  the  routine  f o l l o w i n g day.  House l e a d e r s  before  Thursday.  i t could  British  The  change t h e  agreeing  of  This  led  frequently  s c h e d u l e on T u e s d a y , r e p o r t i n g  Wednesday m o r n i n g , and  v a n t a g e , however, a s in  The  f o l l o w i n g week t o r e p l a c e  C a u c u s e s on the  plan t h e i r  t o p l a n more e l a b o r a t e  e v e n i n g announcements f o r t h e  d i s c u s s i n g the  with  so  t o o b s t r u c t , and  t o more r e g u l a r m e e t i n g s w i t h  their  leader  government.  MacDonald began the business  were  advance r e a c t i o n  and  major d i f f e r e n c e between the  leaders  House l e a d e r s  or  to  disagreeing  government h e l d t h e plan without  s y s t e m where a s c h e d u l e ,  notice,  once  ad-  a n n o u n c e d , c a n n o t be The  Government  revised unless  a l l the  29  p a r t i e s agree.  l e a d e r c o u l d a l s o choose t o w i t h h o l d  informa-  tion. MacDonald cussions,  i n c l u d e d h i s a s s i s t a n t i n the  a procedure never considered  considered,  rejected with  the  more f o r m a l  i n the  past,  thought t h a t the  House l e a d e r w o u l d n e v e r t o l e r a t e s t a f f  dis-  or, i f  opposition  i n these  private  mee-  30 tings.  The  a s s i s t a n t kept minutes f o r the  l e a d e r ' s use.  He  was  a l s o the  opposition representatives  information  i f the  Government contact  House  point  for  Government House l e a d e r  the  was  unavailable. The  House l e a d e r s h i p was  assumed o n c e a g a i n  MacEachen i n S e p t e m b e r , 1970.  He,  time to these  as  cil. an  responsibilities  MacEachen b r o u g h t one  to  create  to a s s i s t ders  him  the  Legislative  i n the  were n o t  the  pleased  a r i u m and in  viewed the  the  with the  Allan  to devote  of the  P r i v y Counhim.  Through  p r i m e m i n i s t e r , he  S e c r e t a r i a t , a cadre of  this  The  financial  resources  m a j o r p a r t y w h i p s who  they  was  experts  o p p o s i t i o n House  development as  full  had  to provide  leaneither them.  r e c e i v e a y e a r l y honor-  s e v e r a l a s s i s t a n t s i n r e c o g n i t i o n of t h e i r p o s i t i o n s  parliament,  resources  an  two  by  House d u t i e s .  a d d i t i o n a l s t a f f nor Unlike  President  able  major i n n o v a t i o n w i t h  order-in-councll authorized  able  t o o , was  by  as  the  House l e a d e r s a r e  a p r i v a t e member.  S e c r e t a r i a t as  u n f a i r advantage  o n l y the  o p p o s i t i o n House  g i v i n g t h e Government House  In p r e p a r i n g  discussing procedural  The  allotted  reforms.  for procedural They d i s l i k e d  same  leaders leader  d e b a t e s and  the  in  confidential  nature  o f any  should  be  reports prepared,  and  more p r o p e r l y a t t a c h e d  on  P r o c e d u r e and  The  government  for  the  Organization  saw  the  Government  to the  f o r the  organize  to  s p e e d up  i t s passage through the  the  With the  massive  that  Leader of the  i n these One  a form o f  Committee  department  government's p a r l i a m e n t a r y  increase  parliamentary  i n business,  House s h o u l d  be  a s p i r a t i o n s of the  the  legislative  saw  the  program  program.  s y s t e m where t h e  If that  Leader of the  C h i e f Government Whip t h e negotiating with  staff  the  have t a k e n p l a c e .  involvement  occurred,  has  But  the  tion  proposal  as  life  not  process.  the to  the  his  of the  i n the  government.  the  they  n e g o t i a t i o n s between the  and  govern-  the  p o s i t i o n of  The  conditions  to the  the m a j o r i t y  a c t u a l proposals  the  might  t i m i n g of a p a r t i c u l a r  were d u r i n g  and  G i v e n t i m e , and  o r on m a k i n g m i n o r c o n c e s s i o n s  a l s o on  Bri-  for discussing  Once a g a i n ,  been p l a c e d  o n l y on  House l e a d e r s , a s  p e r i o d , but The  f o r the  planning  e l e c t i o n of another minority this  to  some i n d i v i d u a l s  House d e l e g a t e s  opposition parties.  retarded  survival rest  lative  assist  in  paralleling  responsibility  Government House l e a d e r has  for  felt  to  c o n d i t i o n s o f m a j o r i t y government, such a development  negotiating  and  process.  government  given  f u t u r e e v o l u t i o n o f l h i s r o l e as  ment i n 1972  were  S e c r e t a r i a t members was  Government House l e a d e r ' s  the  tish  Standing  staff  duties.  of the  i n c r e a s e the  such  House l e a d e r whose r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  p l a n and  him  that  b e n e f i t o f a l l members.  S e c r e t a r i a t as  to  the  felt  their  legis-  opposigovernment  contents.  p a r t i e s have become much more open  i n d i v i d u a l House l e a d e r s t a k e  their  cases  before  the  pub-  lie.  The O p p o s i t i o n House l e a d e r , f u r t h e r m o r e , has responded  t o t h e e x i s t e n c e o f the S e c r e t a r i a t by h i r i n g an a s s i s t a n t (who  i s o f f i c i a l l y p a r t o f the O p p o s i t i o n Leader's The  Office).  House l e a d e r s , t h e n , have become t h e e s t a b l i s h e d chan  n e i o f communication between the p a r t i e s .  The whips c o n t i n u e  t o meet t o d e c i d e on t h e o r d e r o f s p e a k e r s , o r g a n i z e p a i r s , a r r a n g e the t i m i n g o f v o t e s , and so on; but t h e y are r a r e l y i n v o l v e d i n the more i n t r i c a t e n e g o t i a t i o n s . The p a r t y l e a d e r s a r e u t i l i z e d o n l y as a c h a n n e l f o r emergencies and as a last  resort.  FOOTNOTES;  Chapter  2  1 Laundy, P h i l i p , and Norman W i l d i n g , An E n c y c l o p e d i a of P a r l i a m e n t . f o u r t h e d i t i o n , London, C a s s e l l , 1972, p. 427. For o t h e r h i s t o r i c a l r e f e r e n c e s , see Abraham, L.A., and S.C. Hawtrey, Abraham and Hawtrey's P a r l i a m e n t a r y D i c t i o n a r y , London, Butterworth, 1970, p. 117; May, S i r Thomas E r s k l n e , T r e a t i s e on the Law P r i v i l e g e s , Proceedings and Usage of Parliament, e i g h t e e n t h e d i t i o n , London, Butterworth, 1971. P. 289; and R e d l i c h , J o s e f , The Procedure of the House of Commons; a study of I t s h i s t o r y and present form. London, A. Constable and Co L t d , 1908, p. 120. p  2 Gladstone, Gleanings I . London, John Murray, 1879. P« -11• 3 Abraham and Hawtrey, op. c i t . , p.  117.  4 Canada., Parliament,. House of Commons, the Debates ( h e r e a f t e r c i t e d Can. H7~of C. Debates). 1892-96 5 Abraham and Hawtrey, op. c i t . , pp. 117-8. S i r Thomas E r s k l n e , op. c i t . , p. 239.  See a l s o  May,  6 T h i s Is shown In a speech MacKenzie King gave to the House of Commons i n February, 1942: " . . . I am t r y i n g to g i v e a l l the time I p o s s i b l e can t o the v e r y important matters immediately concerned w i t h the war e f f o r t of the country. That i n v o l v e s of n e c e s s i t y my absence from the house a good p a r t of the time d u r i n g the course of...debate...." Can. H. o f C. Debates. February 2, 1942,  p.  216.  7 For example i l l u s t r a t i n g Mackenzie's involvement i n House b u s i n e s s see Can. H. of C. Debates. 1942, pp. 1360-61; 1944;  P. 3565; and 1945, pp. 760-2.  8 Interview w i t h the Honourable Jack P i c k e r s g i l l , August, 1972. H e r e a f t e r I have o n l y f o o t n o t e d Interviews where the name of person Interviewed i s not obvious from the body of the t e x t . A l l i n t e r v i e w s , as i n d i c a t e d i n the b i b l i o g r a p h y , were conducted between February and-August, 1972. 9 Can. H. of C. Debates. J u l y 12, 10 See,  1946,  p. 3394.  f o r example, Can. H. of C. Debates. 1942,  My p.  emphasis. 3102.  11 Heeney, A.D.P., "Cabinet Government i n Canada", CJEPS, V. 12, n. 3. August, 1946, p. 286.  12 May, 13  See  op. c i t . , p. Can.  239.  H. of C. Debates, 1948-49.  14 Interview with Jack  Pickersgill.  15  Interview w i t h the Honourable Walter H a r r i s .  16  See,  17  Interview with S t a n l e y Knowles.  f o r example, Can. H. of C. Debates. June 23,  p. 6521-31; J u l y 6,  18 The  1972.  1955,  p. 574?; June 1,  1956,  1954,  p. 4607.  12,  Honourable Gordon C h u r c h i l l to the author, August  19 The T w e n t y - f i f t h Parliament (1962-3), w i t h the C o n s e r v a t i v e s s t i l l i n power, was open f o r o n l y f o u r months and brought few v i s i b l e changes. C h u r c h i l l continued to f u n c t i o n as the Government House l e a d e r and C h e v r i e r a c t e d f o r the L i b e r a l o p p o s i t i o n . L i t t l e attempt was made by the C o n s e r v a t i v e s t o g a i n the coo p e r a t i o n o f the minor p a r t i e s through these communication channels. 20 See, 148.  f o r example, Can. H. of C. Debates. May  22,  21 Knowles, S t a n l e y , "I B e l i e v e i n Parliament", An Open L e c t u r e f o r Huron C o l l e g e , November 19, 1964,  1963,  pp.  p.  5-6.  22 Robertson, Gordon, "The Canadian Parliament and Cabinet i n the Face o f Modern Demands", Canadian P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a -  t i o n . V. 11,  n. 3, 1968,  pp. 272-9.  23 P i c k e r s g i l l a s s i s t e d L i o n e l C h e v r i e r as the " o p p o s i t i o n spokesman" between 1958 and 1962; MacEachen had a d v i s e d the p a r t y i n p r o c e d u r a l matters as Pearson's a s s i s t a n t d u r i n g t h a t same p e r i o d ; and M c l l r a i t h , f i r s t e l e c t e d to parliament i n 19^0, had been an MP f o r t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s . 24 Reference t o the newspapers and news-clips d u r i n g the p e r i o d would i l l u s t r a t e t h i s p o i n t . See, f o r example, Jackson, R i c h a r d , " H i l l T a l k " , The J o u r n a l . June 29, 1963; Scanlon, Joseph, "New Quebec L i b e r a l Chief s t r o n g f o r C o n f e d e r a t i o n " , Toronto S t a r , A p r i l 27, 1964; Charpentler, Jean, "Un r e t r a i t s t r e g i q u e " , Le D r o i t . June 11, 1964; Jackson, R i c h a r d , "An Accolade f o r the House Leader:, The J o u r n a l . February 18, I965; F i s h e r , Douglas, "The C o n t r o v e r s i a l Jack P i c k e r s g i l l " , The J o u r n a l , March 16, 1965; Pepin, Marcel, "George M c l l r a i t h possede de b e l l e s q u a l i t e s comme l e a d e r p a r l i a m e n t a i r e " , Le D r o i t . March 27, 1965; E d i t o r i a l , " S t a r r Back i n Key Role and His S t a r S t i l l R i s i n g " , The Oshawa Times, November 25, 1965; Article, "House l e a d e r q u i t s " , The C i t i z e n . May 3, 1967; Article, " M c l l r a i t h Q u i t s Commons Post, MacEachen t o be House l e a d e r " , The Montreal Gazette. May 4, I967. "  25 See, f o r example, B a i n , George, "PC C o m p l a i n t s a F r a u d " , The Globe and M a l l . October 9, 1964. 26 I n t e r v i e w w i t h the Honourable Donald MacDonald. 27 Rondeau was  r e p l a c e d by Andre F o r t i n i n  1969.  28 See Chapter seven f o r the major p o i n t o f c o n t e n t i o n i n these p r o c e d u r a l r e f o r m s . 29 Campion, G.F.M., An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o the Procedure o f the House o f Commons, t h i r d e d i t i o n , London, M a c m i l l a n , 1958, p. 185. 30 I n t e r v i e w s w i t h former Government House l e a d e r s . 31  I n t e r v i e w s w i t h members o f L e g i s l a t i v e S e c r e t a r i a t .  C H A P T E R The  R o l e o f t h e House  House l e a d e r s responsibilities. der  Leaders  p o s s e s s no handy g u i d e b o o k s o u t l i n i n g The o n l y r e f e r e n c e  o f t h e House i n o f f i c i a l  a quotation  3  to the position  Canadian procedural  from R a d l i c h found  their  o f Lea-  manuals i s  i n B e a u c h e s n e ' s R u l e s a n d Forms  o f t h e House o f Commons o f C a n a d a .  It states,  i n part:  " I t i s h i s t a s k i n t h e name o f t h e g o v e r n ment a n d t h e p a r t y i n o f f i c e t o d i s t r i b u t e o v e r t h e s e s s i o n t h e program o f l e g i s l a t i o n announced i n t h e King's speech and t o advocate i t i n t h e house. He assumes t h e d u t y of proposing a l l such motions concerning the a g e n d a o f t h e house a s a r e deemed a d v i s a b l e by t h e government a n d i s t h e i r spokesman i n the debate thereon..."  No m e n t i o n Bain,  i s made o f t h e O p p o s i t i o n  i n h i s small booklet  includes this  brief  House l e a d e r s .  d e s c r i b i n g the Canadian  definition  o f House  George Parliament,  leader:  "The House l e a d e r - e a c h p a r t y has one f u n c t i o n s more o u t s i d e t h e House o f Commons t h a n i n i t . T h e Government House l e a d e r i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r scheduling the flow o f government's b u s i n e s s t h r o u g h t h e House a n d t o e n s u r e t h a t I t d o e s f l o w , he must seek t h e c o - o p e r a t i o n o f t h e House l e a d e r s o f t h e o t h e r g r o u p s . " The  House l e a d e r ' s  limitations  job i s b a s i c a l l y  t o be d e s c r i b e d  c a r r y i n g out t h e i r various consciously site  later,  what h e , w i t h i n  certain  c h o o s e s t o make i t .  When  d u t i e s , t h e House l e a d e r s do n o t  categorize their  tasks.  What f o l l o w s  i s a compo-  p i c t u r e o f t h e House l e a d e r s ' r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ,  performed  to  a greater or lesser  interest  b y e a c h House  The assist It  e x t e n t and w i t h v a r y i n g degrees o f  major  leader.  collective  role  o f t h e House l e a d e r s  i s to  i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f b u s i n e s s i n t h e House o f Commons.  i s their  difficulties  duty t o attempt which  t o r e s o l v e any p a r t y and p r o c e d u r a l  may d i s r u p t  t h e smooth f l o w o f t h a t b u s i n e s s ,  subject  to the p o l i t i c a l  s t r a t e g i e s o f t h e i r own  group.  "House b u s i n e s s " r e f e r s n o t o n l y to. t h a t m a j o r  sumer o f t i m e , g o v e r n m e n t l e g i s l a t i o n , and  d e b a t e s w h i c h may be c o n d u c t e d  d i n g Orders c o n t a i n a comprehensive which  establishes  specific  particular con-  but t o a l l d i s c u s s i o n s  i n t h e chamber. weekly  routine  The S t a n of business  days and t i m e s f o r such m a t t e r s as  q u e s t i o n p e r i o d , w r i t t e n q u e s t i o n s and o r d e r s f o r r e t u r n , p r i v a t e member's m o t i o n s  and b i l l s ,  t h e adjournement  committee  r e p o r t s , a n d government m o t i o n s  addition,  they provide f o r standard debates  Speech  a n d Budget  which,  with the r e f e r r a l  d i n g committees,  debate,  and o r d e r s .  In  such a s t h e Throne  d e b a t e s , a n d t w e n t y - f i v e O p p o s i t i o n Days, o f government e s t i m a t e s t o t h e s t a n -  have r e p l a c e d t h e o l d s u p p l y d e b a t e s .  A l l o w a n c e must f u r t h e r be made f o r two s t a n d i n g o r d e r s w h i c h permit under  d e b a t e s on m a t t e r s o f u r g e n c y a n d i m p o r t a n c e .  Also  t h e House l e a d e r s ' p u r v i e w a r e government e s t i m a t e s ,  bills,  and s p e c i a l  studies  referred  t o t h e House  W i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f government these matters a r e subject  to strict  legislation,  committees. a l l of  time l i m i t a t i o n s .  They  do,  however, r e q u i r e i n i t i a l  ments t h r o u g h o u t  the  o r g a n i z a t i o n and  s e s s i o n , and  House l e a d e r s .  One  example  members* h o u r .  At the  i s the  order  list  At  the  f o r the  t h e S p e a k e r and  present  on t h e a l l o t t e d  time,  i s normally  t h e member o r t h e government  to  f o u r times  order paper.  p r i v a t e members* b u s i n e s s  ceed  e f f e c t e d by  day.  speaker  s e s s i o n , the  House o f f i c i a l s  a lottery  While the  cide the to  t h e new  proceed  change and  debate.  The  i f t h e Whip i s t o be  i s not  tween t h e  bill  list.  a p p l i e d and  allotted  to three  Without  before  June 3 0 — b u t  Standing  Orders.  s p e c i f y the  days.  The  House  to  to  speakers  co-operation  be-  wasted. House  leaders  These debates  are  parliamentary y e a r — f i v e  s i x p r i o r t o March 2 6 ,  the a c t u a l days a r e not  and  thirteen  specified  I t i s the government's p r e r o g a t i v e Customarily,  de-  message  f o r enough  such  o p p o s i t i o n days.  p e r i o d s i n the  p r i o r t o December 1 0 ,  pro-  p a r t y members  convey t h i s  then arranges  t h a t h o u r c o u l d be  twenty-five  to  are prepared  A n o t h e r example o f a r r a n g e m e n t s between t h e r e l a t e s to the  to  order f o r  Government House l e a d e r must  or motion out.  parties,  motions  i s held  prepared  down t h e  that speakers  C h i e f Government Whip who t a l k the  and  in  followed, occasionally  leaders are responsible f o r ensuring that t h e i r  handle  House  Through agreement, i t i s d e c i d e d  p o s t p o n e t h a t d e b a t e and  a r e aware o f t h i s  the  weekly p r i v a t e  i n w h i c h p r i v a t e members' b i l l s  are to bepdebated. produce the  are  commencement o f a new  l e a d e r s must meet t o a s s i s t s e l e c t i n g the  these  f u r t h e r arrange-  the  Government House  i n the to leader  consults with his opposition  counterparts  T i m i n g f r e q u e n t l y becomes a t o o l i n t h e t i a t i o n s , the day  Government House l e a d e r a g r e e i n g  i n return f o r other  the  government.  concessions or the  discussions and  the  are  The  use  apportion By is  opposition  f a r the  s p e n t on  three  p o r t i o n of the  w h i c h has  order  c a l l i n g o f government b i l l s government.  i s t h a t the  b i l l s must be  fashion.  The  t o consult w i t h the debates.  The on  temper of  only the  Unlike  of precedence,  i s s o l e l y at the  of the  the discre-  freedom  paper, placed  o p p o s i t i o n about the a courtesy  time  p r i v a t e members'  l i m i t a t i o n to this order  to  debates.  g o v e r n m e n t i s t h u s u n d e r no  I t i s simply  the  Negotiations  House l e a d e r s '  established order  t i o n of the  routine  the  o p p o s i t i o n House l e a d e r s  government l e g i s l a t i o n . an  preferred  agreements  at that time.  business, and  f o r other  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n these  greatest  on a  nego-  i s s u e planned f o r debate  s t a t e of other negotiations  must a l s o o c c u r among t h e  so.  opposition's  o f t h i s t o o l and  dependent upon t h e  doing  House l e a d e r s '  o f f e r i n g t o a c c e p t a l e s s p r e f e r r e d day by  before  there  in  obligation  o r g a n i z a t i o n of House t h a t t h e  these govern-  ment a n n o u n c e s i n a d v a n c e what l e g i s l a t i o n i s l i k e l y t o come up  f o r d e b a t e on t h e  t h e more s t a n d a r d o f t i m e on  f o l l o w i n g days.  debates, there  i s no  However, a l s o formal  government l e g i s l a t i o n u n l e s s  one  limitation i s imposed by  government t h r o u g h c l o s u r e o r t i m e a l l o c a t i o n . always been a h e a l t h y Canadian Parliament  unlike  There  has  d i s r e s p e c t , perhaps even f e a r , i n  f o r the a r b i t r a r y  l i m i t s on g o v e r n m e n t d e b a t e s .  As  i m p o s i t i o n of  chapter seven  the  time  discusses,  the  v a r i o u s a t t e m p t s have been made t o p r o v i d e an a c c e p t a b l e time a l l o c a t i o n mechanism f o r government o r d e r s , none o f w h i c h has proved s u c c e s s f u l . speeding  The o n l y workable method f o r  up t h e p r o g r e s s o f most government b u s i n e s s  i s , as  George B a i n p o i n t s o u t , t h r o u g h c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h t h e oppos i t i o n House l e a d e r s .  Together, they negotiate t o f i n d the  b e s t p o s s i b l e use o f t h e House t i m e .  How t h e s e n e g o t i a t i o n s  are conducted, and t h e t a c t i c s employed, i s t h e s u b j e c t o f the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r .  In addition to their collective r e -  s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a s s i s t i n g i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f House b u s i n e s s , t h e House l e a d e r s have s e v e r a l i n d i v i d u a l d u t i e s t o p e r f o r m f o r t h e i r own p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s w h i c h a f f e c t t h e conduct o f t h e i r b u s i n e s s .  The Government House l e a d e r has  the most e x t e n s i v e d u t i e s , and i t i s t o h i s r o l e t h a t we t u r n first. The Government House l e a d e r i s now a c a b i n e t member charged by t h e Prime M i n i s t e r w i t h s e v e r a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s r e l a t e d t o t h e b u s i n e s s o f t h e House o f Commons.  I n Donald  MacDonald's words, he i s b a s i c a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r "making the p a r l i a m e n t a r y machine work".  As. n o t e d i n t h e h i s t o r i c a l  s e c t i o n , t h e House l e a d e r s h i p i s n o t a s t a t u t o r y o f f i c e ; t h e r e f o r e , i t has always been combined w i t h a n o t h e r m i n i s t e r i a l p o r t f o l i o , e i t h e r t h e prime m i n i s t e r s h i p o r a n o t h e r cabinet p o s i t i o n .  A v a r i e t y o f departments have had t h e  honour o f s h a r i n g t h e i r m i n i s t e r w i t h t h e House  duties—pen-  s i o n s and n a t i o n a l h e a l t h , v e t e r a n s a f f a i r s , p u b l i c w o r k s , c i t i z e n s h i p and i m m i g r a t i o n ,  finance, secretary of state,  j u s t i c e , and h e a l t h and w e l f a r e have a l l had t h i s  privilege.  In 1968  the House l e a d e r s h i p was  President  to the post  of  of the P r i v y C o u n c i l , a r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t i t had  indeed become a f u l l - t i m e job. President attached  assigned  L i k e t h a t of the B r i t i s h  of the C o u n c i l , t h i s p o s i t i o n was to t h a t of the Prime M i n i s t e r .  of the o f f i c e r e l a t e to one  originally  The  d i r e c t duties  s p e c i f i c f u n c t i o n : c h a i r i n g the  formal meetings o f the p r i v y c o u n c i l . r a r e l y o c c u r , the P r e s i d e n t  Lord  As such f u l l s c a l e meetings  of the P r i v y C o u n c i l i s respon-  s i b l e f o r c h a i r i n g meetings of the S p e c i a l Committee of Cabinet, a group of three o r f o u r m i n i s t e r s who to pass thousands o f o r d e r s - i n - c o u n c i l . House d u t i e s and responsible  gather weekly  In a d d i t i o n to  o r d e r s - l n - c o u n c l l , the present  President  f o r such matters as e l e c t i o n expenses and  Board.  He  reform, and  is  conflict  of i n t e r e s t l e g i s l a t i o n , e l e c t o r a l r e d i s t r i b u t i o n , the of p r o c e d u r a l  the  study  the P u b l i c S e r v i c e S t a f f R e l a t i o n s  i s a l s o a member of the Commission of I n t e r n a l  Economy d e a l i n g w i t h members' p r e r e q u i s i t e s . The i n e t and  Government House l e a d e r s ' major d u t i e s f o r the government p a r t y f a l l  i n t o three a r e a s :  cab-  overall  s u p e r v i s i o n and management of the House of Commons, management of the government's l e g i s l a t i v e schedule, and the development of government l e g i s l a t i o n .  assistance  The  present  in Govern-  ment House l e a d e r i s a l s o i n v o l v e d i n long-range p l a n n i n g government l e g i s l a t i v e p r i o r i t i e s , an of government a c t i v i t y .  i n c r e a s i n g l y complex area  Managing the Commons i n v o l v e s  o v e r a l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r many r o u t i n e matters such as g a n i z i n g p r i v a t e members' hour and  and  an or-  the adjournment debate,  and  requesting replies  and  requests  The  present  these  from  departments to w r i t t e n q u e s t i o n s  f o r government documents a s k e d House l e a d e r has  f o r i n the  f o r s e v e r a l years  duties to his Parliamentary secretary.  q u i r e s o r g a n i z i n g the mechanics of a s e s s i o n and  calling  delegated It also  The  House l e a d e r must make d e c i s i o n s a s t o t h e d a t e he  holds  some  re-  f o r the opening  p r e p a r i n g f o r i t s adjournment.  o f v o t e s when p o s s i b l e , and  House.  Government  and  timing  responsibility  w i t h t h e w h i p f o r e n s u r i n g t h a t government members a r e of these the  dates  and  are present  to cast t h e i r votes.  C h i e f Government Whip i s s t i l l  the Prime M i n i s t e r f o r such  consultation with  he  reports to  c a r r i e s out arrangements i n  under the  purview of the  A t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f a new  composition  f o r these  makes t h e s e  a r r a n g e m e n t s more c o m p l e x .  leader then  s e l e c t s the  committees.  The  committee  M a i n t a i n i n g t h e membership and  be  The  ling  supervise t h e i r progress. of these  committees.  He  party  Government t h e two  a s s i g n e d t o each  quorums i s a d u t y  special  and  e x i s t e n c e of a m i n o r i t y  however t h e Government House l e a d e r must e s t i m a t e s , and  Government  p a r l i a m e n t , he  chairmen and  w h i c h government b a c k b e n c h e r s w i l l  and  While  responsible to  t h e w h i p work w i t h t h e o p p o s i t i o n t o e s t a b l i s h t h e  of b i l l s ,  aware  him.  House c o m m i t t e e s f a l l House l e a d e r .  nominally  tasks, in r e a l i t y  t h e Government House l e a d e r and  of  House decide committee.  of the  c o - o r d i n a t e the  s t u d i e s to the a l s o arranges  whip; reference  committees the  schedu-  Managing t h e House i n c l u d e s making arrangements f o r Throne Speech, Budget and O p p o s i t i o n Day d e b a t e s . i n c l u d e s o r g a n i z i n g government d e b a t e s .  I t also  Based on h i s l e g i s -  l a t i v e s c h e d u l e , p a r t i c u l a r i n s t r u c t i o n s from t h e c a b i n e t , and c o n s u l t a t i o n s and agreements made w i t h t h e o p p o s i t i o n House l e a d e r s , t h e Government House l e a d e r s e l e c t s t h e b i l l s t o be debated b o t h on a w e e k l y and a day-to-day b a s i s .  He  must a d v i s e t h e c a b i n e t and m i n i s t e r s concerned t h a t c e r t a i n legislation  i s g o i n g f o r w a r d , e s t i m a t e how l o n g i t w i l l  take,  a r r a n g e time f o r m i n i s t e r s ; speeches, a d v i s e t h e caucus o f any t a c t i c a l p l a n s , and work w i t h t h e whip i f any v o t e s a r e planned.  He i s a l s o r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a r r a n g i n g t h e c o n t i n u i t y  of b u s i n e s s  so t h a t i f debate on one b i l l f i n i s h e s ahead o f  s c h e d u l e , t h e r e w i l l be a n o t h e r m i n i s t e r a v a i l a b l e t o b r i n g on t h e n e x t p i e c e o f l e g i s l a t i o n . Making t h e p a r l i a m e n t a r y machine work i n v o l v e s d e a l i n g w i t h t h e government caucus as w e l l .  A t each Wednesday caucus  meeting t h e Government House l e a d e r o u t l i n e s t h e b u s i n e s s t o be debated t h e f o l l o w i n g week and d e s c r i b e s any arrangements made w i t h t h e o p p o s i t i o n .  As t h e members have l i k e l y  any o b j e c t i o n s t o c e r t a i n l e g i s l a t i o n p r e v i o u s l y , t h e y accept  h i s schedule w i t h o u t  comments.  voiced normally  The Government House  l e a d e r may use t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y t o a d v i s e t h e caucus about members p e r q u i s i t e s o r House decorum.  One House l e a d e r , f o r  example, a b h o r r e d t h e r e a d i n g o f newspapers i n t h e House and he used h i s p o s i t i o n as Government House l e a d e r t o r e q u e s t a halt to this practice.  If takes  a member h a s a p r o b l e m o r a c o m p l a i n t ,  i t t o the whip.  I f s e r i o u s , i t i s passed  Government House l e a d e r f o r d i s c u s s i o n w i t h or i t i s raised unreceptive will  t h e Prime M i n i s t e r  o r t h e r e may be a p e r s o n a l i t y c l a s h , a n d t h e member T h e Government  House  i s a l s o i n v o l v e d i n s e l e c t i n g members f o r s p e c i a l  delegations, a u s e f u l persuasive Another duty  power t o g a i n t h e i r  when t h e y a r e r a i s e d  cause o f h i s involvement  o f t h e r u l e s and precedents  i n t h e House.  must be e x t e n s i v e .  Be-  Thus on  o f p r i v i l e g e , motions t o debate a  matter o f urgency o r any o t h e r p r o c e d u r a l q u e s t i o n ,  i t i s the  Government House l e a d e r who s p e a k s f o r t h e g o v e r n m e n t .  is  duty  progresses the  o f t h e Government House  the study  of procedural reforms.  through  formal rules  rules that w i l l legislation  prepared  f o r debate.  How q u i c k l y t h e b u s i n e s s  Searching  f u r t h e r organize  In t h i s ,  One  l e a d e r i n House management  t h e House d e p e n d s i n t h e f i r s t  i s a constant  House l e a d e r .  support.  i n a r r a n g i n g t h e b u s i n e s s , h i s know-  points of order, questions  final  trips  o f t h e Government House l e a d e r i s a r g u i n g  procedural matters  ledge  on t o t h e  On o c c a s i o n , t h e w h i p may be  t u r n t o t h e House l e a d e r i n s t e a d .  leader and  i n the cabinet.  he n o r m a l l y  f o r new a n d a c c e p t a b l e  and hasten  preoccupation  i n s t a n c e on  t h e passage o f  o f t h e Government  he i s a s s i s t e d b y r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s  by t h e L e g i s l a t i v e  Secretariat.  The o r g a n i z i n g o f g o v e r n m e n t d e b a t e s d i s c u s s e d  earlier  is  a l s o p a r t o f t h e Government House l e a d e r ' s s e c o n d f u n c t i o n  of  managing t h e government's l e g i s l a t i v e  schedule.  e a c h new s e s s i o n , t h e c a b i n e t must d e c i d e what  Prior to  legislation  i t would l i k e debated and passed t h a t s e s s i o n .  Arguments  can be long and hot as m i n i s t e r s v i e f o r a p l a c e i n the l e g i s l a t i v e program.  A f t e r the d e c i s i o n has been taken, the  Government House l e a d e r draws up a t e n t a t i v e schedule and submits i t t o c a b i n e t f o r a p p r o v a l .  He a l s o has a hand i n  p r e p a r i n g the Throne Speech, which o u t l i n e s the government's planned program. Once the s e s s i o n opens and b i l l s a r e on the o r d e r paper, the Government House l e a d e r assumes t o t a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c a l l i n g government b u s i n e s s i n the House. amount o f f l e x i b i l i t y  He needs a c e r t a i n  so t h a t he may n e g o t i a t e w i t h the oppo-  s i t i o n House l e a d e r s and schedule the b u s i n e s s i n a manner i n which i t i s most l i k e l y t o be accomplished.  S c h e d u l i n g of  government b u s i n e s s i s an i n t r i c a t e o p e r a t i o n .  The Govern-  ment House l e a d e r must take i n t o account the p r i o r i t y which the government p l a c e s on a b i l l , renewing  s t a t u t o r y e x p i r y da ties f o r  some l e g i s l a t i o n , new p r i o r i t i e s , o p p o s i t i o n o b j e c -  t i v e s and t a c t i c s , g e n e r a l sentiment as i t i s expressed In the country, and o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s o f the m i n i s t e r s and p a r t i e s . T r y i n g t o get a b i l l i n both languages another problem  out o f the d r a f t i n g process and p r i n t e d  i n time f o r i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the House Is  he c o n t i n u a l l y f a c e s .  As the b i l l s pass  through  the House, he must keep t r a c k o f the stages they have reached. For  t h i s purpose, h i s s t a f f prepares a monthly progress t a b l e .  The Government House l e a d e r must push the s t a n d i n g committees to  complete  t h e i r stage o f a b i l l ;  when l e g i s l a t i o n i s t o be debated  and must remind the whip i n coramlttee-of-the-whole  as votes can be c a l l e d without warning a t any time.  He must  a l s o k e e p t h e government  caucus  Once b i l l s  i n f o r m e d a s t o when  bills  are  t o be d e b a t e d .  the  Government House l e a d e r must t h e n s u p e r v i s e t h e i r  gress through the Senate, the  Senate  bills  duction  passage.  i n the Senate  p a s s e d b o t h H o u s e s , he must a r r a n g e  i n t h e development  After the b i l l s  intro-  have  f o r t h e i r Royal Assent.  o f government  e n d , he i s t h e c h a i r m a n  legislation.  To  o f t h e C a b i n e t Committee on  L e g i s l a t i o n a n d House P l a n n i n g . out  fortheir  t h i r d m a j o r d u t y o f t h e Government House l e a d e r i s  assisting this  He must a l s o s u p e r v i s e  and arrange  i n t h e House i f n e c e s s a r y .  The  pro-  p r e s s i n g t h e Government L e a d e r o f  t o hasten t h e i r  originating  have p a s s e d t h r o u g h t h e House,  When a new p r o p o s a l a r i s e s  o f t h e e l e c t o r a l p r o g r a m , o r from a m i n i s t e r , a  department,  or  another source, i t i s normally presented t o the cabinet.  If  t h a t body f e e l s t h a t  request or  that  a "head" be p r e p a r e d b y t h e r e l e v a n t  i n t e r - d e p a r t m e n t a l committee o u t l i n i n g  any a l t e r n a t i v e cabinet it  t h e p r o p o s a l h a s some m e r i t , t h e y  proposals.  committee  T h i s t h e n goes t o t h e a p p r o p r i a t e  f o r further discussion.  t h e n be d r a f t e d , a n d f o r t h i s drafting  purpose  section of the Justice  The  role  policy.  A bill  must  i t i s sent to the  o f t h e C a b i n e t Committee on L e g i s l a t i o n a n d  structure,  a working  I f necessary,  Department.  House P l a n n i n g i s t o s t u d y d r a f t general  t h e p r o p o s a l and  f o r d i s c u s s i o n and a p p r o v a l .  returns to cabinet  department  l e g a l wording,  measure, and t o ensure If a b i l l  passes t h i s  legislation according to fairness, that  a c c e p t a b i l i t y as  i treflects  government  examination and t h e r e i s a  likelihood schedule bills  at  It the  by  with  the back  government Intimate  sensitivity  the  t h e Government government  keeping  government  c a u c u s and  Government House  c a b i n e t committee and  caucus  leader's bill  the  impressions  knowledge o f t h e  any  legislation  potential difficulty. in legislative  and  This  areas  knowledge,  s c h e d u l i n g and  understanding  s t r a t e g i e s o f the o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s ,  House l e a d e r v e r y  legislative  p r i o r i t i e s and excess  These  leader  future legislation  lative  for printing.  benchers.  bills  influential  makes  i n middle-range  planning.  U n l i k e the B r i t i s h no  legislative  c a u c u s t h a t t h e Government House  and  g o a l s and  The  sent  the  t h e m i n i s t e r t o have t h e d r a f t  this  plus h i s experience of  t o the  for discussion.  i s through  g a i n s an of  incorporated into  some p o i n t , i t i s t h e n  i s to arrange  Inspected  of  i t s being  are o f t e n presented  committees task  of  Cabinet,  the  Canadian Cabinet  committee t o s o r t perform  a  out  has  government  " s l a u g h t e r of the  back i n the departments  legis-  innocents",  instead of  3 p u t t i n g them on  the  order paper.  Committee o f c a b i n e t , c h a i r e d by Government  Two  results  tive  can  planning  a great  not  occur  a r e a l w a y s f a r more b i l l s government  the  Priorities  i n the  hope o r e x p e c t  Planning  and,  the  long-range  legislative  lack.  i n t o the  to pass;  i s a haphazard p r o c e s s .  deal of planning  sense o f  from t h i s  introduced  and  Prime M i n i s t e r , w i t h  House l e a d e r a s a member, does l o o k a t  government p r i o r i t i e s b u t proposals.  The  First,  there  House t h a n  second,  the  legisla-  At  the  present  time,  i s c o - o r d i n a t e d by  the  Privy Council  Office  (PCO).  Eighteen months before a new s e s s i o n the  S e c r e t a r y t o the Cabinet w r i t e s t o a l l departments r e q u e s t i n g proposals  f o r government l e g i s l a t i o n , t o be submitted  three o r f o u r months. and  within  These items a r e reviewed by the PCO  sent t o cabinet through the Prime M i n i s t e r with recommen-  dations attached.  While making some changes, the cabinet  g e n e r a l l y approves the prepared items t o be considered or e i g h t months.  list.  The departments with  send p o l i c y memorandums w i t h i n seven  At another cabinet meeting, the proposals  are approved o r r e j e c t e d , and those approved a r e sent f o r f u r t h e r study and d r a f t i n g . In.addition to this l i s t ,  the cabinet may have f u r t h e r  p r o p o s a l s , s i n c e i n d i v i d u a l m i n i s t e r s may advocate new p o l i c i e s and there a r e numerous shelved b i l l s sessions.  from the previous  The cabinet has many immediate problems t o f a c e ,  p a r t i c u l a r l y near the end o f the e x i s t i n g s e s s i o n , and i s i l l equipped t o handle the lengthy i n - f i g h t s between the m i n i s t e r s over l e g i s l a t i v e p r i o r i t i e s . his  other r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , may not have s t u d i e d the s i t u a -  t i o n i n depth. although at  The Prime M i n i s t e r , t o o , g i v e n  I t i s the c a b i n e t ' s d e c i s i o n , however, and  the Government House l e a d e r may be very  influential  t h i s p o i n t i n o u t l i n i n g p o t e n t i a l hazards and p i t f a l l s , he  has no c o n t r o l over t h i s p r e - l e g i s l a t i v e  process.  In 1972 an ad-hoc committee o f cabinet was formed, i t s membership i d e n t i c a l to t h a t o f the Cabinet  Committee o f  L e g i s l a t i o n and House Planning, t o c o n s i d e r these  legislative  p r i o r i t i e s i n greater d e t a i l .  comprising  two  A s t a f f committee,  members each from the P r i v y C o u n c i l O f f i c e , Department  o f J u s t i c e , and L e g i s l a t i v e by  cabinet  lative  order  t o study  S e c r e t a r i a t , was a l s o e s t a b l i s h e d  the question  of placing the l e g i s -  u n i t o f t h e PCO a n d t h e l e g i s l a t i v e  drafting section  o f t h e Department o f J u s t i c e u n d e r t h e a u t h o r i t y o f t h e President yet  tial  of the l e g i s l a t i v e  process  may y e t u n d e r g o  f o r t h e government a n d p a r t y  i n office  o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d c o n d u c t o f House b u s i n e s s . to maintain  progress  a smooth f l o w  of business  duties  which  l i n k with  concern;  I t Is h i s  and hasten  responsibilities  and f o r t h i s  he r e q u i r e s a  communication  House l e a d e r s p o s s e s s none o f t h e l e g i s l a t i v e o f t h e Government  government p r o p o s a l s  party duties mainly  House l e a d e r .  They  r a t h e r t h a n a c t ; and t h e i r  Involve  organizing their  Opposition  House l e a d e r  captain of the party  Through h i s contacts  i s considered  parliamentary  and a r r a n g e m e n t s w i t h  for  debate  then,  the other  House l e a d e r s h o u l d  d e b a t e d a n d what  i n t h e House a n d i n c o m m i t t e e s .  i s to provide  i s concerned. House  a n d b y k e e p i n g a c l o s e eye on  Order Paper, the O p p o s i t i o n a l l t i m e s o f what i s b e i n g  The  t h e g e n e r a l manager o r  i n s o f a r a s House b u s i n e s s  l e a d e r s a n d House o f f i c i a l s ,  react  individual  c a u c u s e s and a d v i s i n g them on how a n d when t o r e a c t .  at  its  the opposition p a r t i e s .  Opposition  the  affect  t h r o u g h t h e House w h i c h i s t h e g o v e r n m e n t ' s m a j o r  parliamentary  the  i s not  substan-  Government House l e a d e r t h u s h a s e x t e n s i v e  perform  ability  to  committee  changes. ^ The  the  While t h e f i r s t  permanent a n d t h e s e c o n d has r e a c h e d no c o n c l u s i o n , t h e  planning  to  of Privy Council.  an i n f o r m a t i o n  source  p a r t y members on t h e House a c t i v i t i e s .  be aware  i s planned  His f i r s t  duty,  t o h i s l e a d e r and  A second  major  responsibility debates.  i s o r g a n i z i n g the  When a p a r t y member has  f o r d e b a t e , f o r example, t h e  member i s aware o f t h i s i n the  debate.  speak i n the  party's  planning  and  fact  t o be  As  the  less  and  Similarly,  t o the  party  organization.  placed  on  the  who  informed i s being  The  order  the  to each p a r t y  w i s h t o speak, the  but  the  legislation,  the  Wednesday c a u c u s o f w h i c h b i l l s and  o f any  of  the  so t h a t  debated the  speakers f o r these  deal  part  is  of  in sends  normally  House l e a d e r and  whip,  l e a d e r , must s e l e c t the  members a r e  can  arrange with  will  likely  f o l l o w i n g week. d e b a t e s and  develop f u r t h e r party  the  members a r e  the  present  informed be  other  the  The  House announces  whip a r r a n g e s  reminds the progress  at  brought  Government House l e a d e r  House l e a d e r must s u p e r v i s e he  par-  committee.  s u g g e s t e d arrangements between the  Each Thursday, the  t o p i c s t o be  lists  in  of  speeches.  F o r government  leaders.  con-  i f a subject discussed  to  paper twenty-four hours i n advance.  T h e y must a l s o e n s u r e t h a t  forward  assist  i n d r a f t i n g t h e m o t i o n , and  speakers.  the  members t o  House l e a d e r t a k e s  i n consultation with  the  the  i f a member i s s c h e d u l e d  frequently  to give  p a r t y whip, t h a t  has.other  number o f s p e a k e r s a l l o t t e d  than those  these  scheduled  o p p o s i t i o n days a l s o r e q u i r e a g r e a t  selecting a topic, assists it  or the  Members must be  interest  The  a private b i l l  in  a d j o u r n m e n t d e b a t e , t h i s message must be  v e y e d t o him. ticular  part  o p p o s i t i o n House l e a d e r must  ensure, e i t h e r through himself  him  p a r t y to take  members,  of  s t r a t e g i e s or  business perhaps  House l e a d e r s t o c o m p l e t e t h e  debate.  I f any new arrangements have been made, he must convey t h e s e t o t h e members p r e s e n t i n t h e House and r e q u e s t t h e i r s u p p o r t . L i k e t h e Government House l e a d e r , t h e o p p o s i t i o n House l e a d e r keeps t r a c k o f a l l government l e g i s l a t i o n and t h e v a r i o u s s t a g e s i t has r e a c h e d .  I n t h i s manner, he can f o r e c a s t  the government's l i k e l y i n t e n t i o n s and p r e p a r e t h e caucus for  f u t u r e debate.  The o p p o s i t i o n House l e a d e r  supervises  the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f b i l l s t o caucus committees and t o t h e r e search  s t a f f f o r s c r u t i n y , and h a s t e n s t h e i r s t u d y i f t h e l e g -  i s l a t i o n appears r e a d y f o r d e b a t e . further research  He may a l s o suggest  p r o j e c t s on p o t e n t i a l p o l i c y m a t t e r s .  If  amendments a r e t o be proposed, he i s f r e q u e n t l y c a l l e d upon for  d r a f t i n g t o ensure t h a t t h e y a r e t e c h n i c a l l y p e r f e c t and  procedurally acceptable  t o t h e House.  Another a c t i v i t y of  the o p p o s i t i o n House l e a d e r i s t o t a k e p a r t I n t h e d i s c u s s i o n and development o f q u e s t i o n s  f o r the d a i l y question  period.  He may a d v i s e members on t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f motions o f urgency and w r i t t e n q u e s t i o n s The  and r e q u e s t s  f o r government documents.  o p p o s i t i o n House l e a d e r i s one o f t h e major p a r t y  s t r a t e g i s t s f o r House b u s i n e s s .  Through h i s c o n t a c t s w i t h t h e  o t h e r House l e a d e r s , he i s n o t o n l y aware o f what i s l i k e l y t o be d i s c u s s e d  i n t h e House b u t a l s o o f many o f t h e s t r a t e -  g i e s and t a c t i c s p l a n n e d by t h e government and t h e o t h e r opposition parties.  He i s t h e r e f o r e i n an i d e a l p o s i t i o n  t o a d v i s e t h e caucus about t h e s t r a t e g i e s t h e y s h o u l d towards t h e v a r i o u s government p r o p o s a l s :  which b i l l s  adopt should  .take p r i o r i t y , how  l o n g the a t t a c k s h o u l d be, and w h i c h a r e a s  are o f prime s e n s i t i v i t y t o the government, t o the p a r t i e s , and t o t h e i r own House l e a d e r may  p a r t y as w e l l .  The  opposition  have t o c a j o l e some of h i s own  one a t t a c k i n f a v o u r of a n o t h e r .  Or he may  other  members t o drop  suggest i n c r e a s i n g  the a t t a c k i f i t appears p o l i t i c a l l y a s t u t e o r the government i s weakening and p r e p a r i n g t o compromise.  When t h e r e i s a  m i n o r i t y government, the p a r t y must a l s o d e c i d e , o f t e n based on the i n f o r m a t i o n conveyed by the o t h e r o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s t h r o u g h the House l e a d e r s , whether i t w i l l support  the g o v e r n -  ment on c e r t a i n p o l i c i e s r e g a r d l e s s o f any p e r c e i v e d weaknesses o r whether i t w i l l j o i n the o t h e r o p p o s i t i o n groups t o d e f e a t a measure and perhaps even the government i t s e l f . t i o n House l e a d e r i s d e e p l y  The  opposi-  i n v o l v e d i n such s t r a t e g y d i s c u s s -  i o n s , b o t h t o p r o v i d e a d v i c e and t o r e c e i v e i n f o r m a t i o n he can use  i n f u t u r e House l e a d e r s ' n e g o t i a t i o n s .  T a k i n g p a r t i n p r o c e d u r a l debates i n the House i s a n o t h e r d u t y of the o p p o s i t i o n House l e a d e r .  It i s his responsibility  t o ensure t h a t the p a r t y does not l o s e p o s i t i o n o r momentum t h r o u g h an i n a b i l i t y t o use the r u l e s .  O c c a s i o n a l l y these  debates a r e s i m p l y open a t t e m p t s by the House l e a d e r s t o r e a c h agreements on the conduct o f b u s i n e s s .  The  i s n o r m a l l y the p r o c e d u r a l e x p e r t of the p a r t y .  House l e a d e r He  provides  the members w i t h a d v i c e on the p r o p e r p r o c e d u r e s f o r debate, on p r e p a r i n g amendments, on p r e s e n t i n g q u e s t i o n s of p r i v i l e g e o r p o i n t s o f o r d e r , on r u l e s of r e l e v a n c y , on m a t t e r s of  decorum and so on.  He i s u s u a l l y t h e p a r t y member most  i n v o l v e d i n the study o f procedural  reform.  The o p p o s i t i o n House l e a d e r i s t h e f o c a l p o i n t o f t h e p a r t y f o r m a t t e r s r e l a t i n g t o t h e conduct o f House b u s i n e s s . H i s most s i g n i f i c a n t f u n c t i o n from t h e p a r t y ' s p e r s p e c t i v e , however, i s h i s l i n k w i t h t h e o t h e r p a r t i e s .  How t h e comm-  u n i c a t i o n c h a n n e l between t h e House l e a d e r s o p e r a t e s t o p i c of the f o l l o w i n g chapter.  i s the  FOOTNOTES:  Chapter 3  1 R e d l i c f a , J o s e f , The Procedure o f t h e House o f Commons, London, A. C o n s t a b l e and Co L t d , 1 9 0 8 , quoted i n Beauchesne, A r t h u r , Rules and Forms o f t h e House o f Commons o f Canada, T o r o n t o , t h e C a r s w e l l Co o f Canada L t d , 1 9 5 8 , p. 82. 2 B a i n , George, Canada P a r i l a m e n t , Ottawa, I n f o r m a t i o n Canada, 1 9 7 2 , p. 1 2 . 1  3 M o r r i s o n , t h e R i g h t Honourable L o r d H e r b e r t , Government and P a r l i a m e n t , London, Oxford U n i v e r s i t y 1964, ( c . 1954 and 1 9 5 9 ) . c h a p t e r 1 1 .  Press,  4 T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n flame from a seminar h e l d by t h e P a r l i a mentary I n t e r n s w i t h Gordon R o b e r t s o n , S e c r e t a r y t o t h e Cabinet, Spring, 1972. 5 I n t e r v i e w s w i t h members o f t h e L e g i s l a t i v e  Secretariat.  53  C H A P T E R House L e a d e r s '  Collectively  4  Meetings  i t i s t h e House l e a d e r s  negotiate  and a r r a n g e t h e b u s i n e s s  will  continuously  flow  partisan  chamber.  be c o n t i n u o u s l y  d e p e n d i n g upon t h e t i m e o f y e a r ,  observed,  factors.  First,  Such  flexibility  t h e House  t h i s may  leaders  be o n l y  once  on t h e f l o o r o f t h e H u s e , 0  the subject  Further as v a r i o u s  o f debate, and  House l e a d e r s  have  i f t h e Government House l e a d e r c h o o s e s n o t t o  a m e e t i n g f o r s e v e r a l weeks o r i f a n o p p o s i t i o n House or party representative f a i l s gatherings,  to r e g u l a r l y attend  undue c o n c e r n i s n o t e x p r e s s e d  leaders, the p a r t i e s , o r the press situation.  A third  reason  leader  these  by t h e o t h e r  o v e r some s e e m i n g l y  f o r such f l e x i b i l i t y  call  House unusual  i s that i f  c o m m u n i c a t i o n s do b r e a k down b e t w e e n t h e House  l e a d e r s , as  they  discussions  may  d i d during  t h e p i p e l i n e and f l a g  resume a t t h e end o f h o s t i l i t i e s  political  debates, without  formality or  speculation.  The c o m m u n i c a t i o n  c h a n n e l b e t w e e n t h e House l e a d e r s c a n  be s a i d t o be o p e r a t i n g w h e n e v e r two o r more House are  be  i s no f o r m a l i t y t o o r s e t s c h e d u l e f o r  n e e d meet o n l y when t h e n e e d a r i s e s ,  many o t h e r  i n the  "House l e a d e r s ' M e e t i n g s " may  preferred f o r s e v e r a l reasons.  a week o r i t may  to discuss,  o f t h e House s o t h a t i t  c o m m u n i c a t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e House l e a d e r s . is  role  and as smoothly as i s f e a s i b l e  The t i t l e  a misnomer f o r t h e r e  1  d i s c u s s i n g the business  o f t h e House.  s a t i o n s a r e one f o r m o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n .  leaders  Telephone  conver-  The House l e a d e r s a r e  f r e q u e n t l y i n c o n t a c t w i t h one a n o t h e r by phone t o c l a r i f y an agreement o r t o a c c e p t o r r e j e c t a suggested  arrangement.  There a r e f r e q u e n t d i s c u s s i o n s "behind t h e Speaker's C h a i r " , b e h i n d t h e c u r t a i n s , o r on t h e f l o o r o f t h e House.  Attempts  t o f o r m u l a t e agreements a r e o f t e n made i n t h e debate  itself.  I n a d d i t i o n t o these r a t h e r spontaneous forms o f communic a t i o n , t h e House l e a d e r s h o l d more f o r m a l and l e n g t h y meetings t o d i s c u s s t h e g e n e r a l o r d e r o f b u s i n e s s o r t o work o u t some problem r e l a t e d t o a p a r t i c u l a r p i e c e o f l e g i s l a t i o n .  Notwith-  s t a n d i n g t h e remarks made above, s i n c e t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e r e g u l a r w e e k l y announcement o f b u s i n e s s t h e House l e a d e r s have g e n e r a l l y h e l d a t l e a s t one o f t h e s e more l e n g t h y meetings each week.  Meetings tend t o i n c r e a s e i n f r e q u e n c y as t h e House  n e a r s an adjournment.  The more f o r m a l meetings a r e c a l l e d  by t h e Government House l e a d e r and a r e conducted i n h i s House o f Commons o f f i c e .  They a r e n o r m a l l y a t t e n d e d by t h e House  l e a d e r s o f t h e t h r e e l a r g e r p a r t i e s , t h e Government House l e a der's P a r l i a m e n t a r y S e c r e t a r y , and a member o f t h e Government House l e a d e r ' s s t a f f .  The C r e d i t i s t e s have t r a d i t i o n a l l y ex-  p r e s s e d l i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n t h e conduct o f House b u s i n e s s and one can expect t o f i n d any member o f t h a t p a r t y , i n c l u d i n g the l e a d e r , a t t e n d i n g on b e h a l f o f t h e C r e d i t i s t e House l e a der.  F o r t h e l a s t s e v e r a l y e a r s , t h e C r e d i t i s t e member has  normallybeenaccompanied by a P a r l i a m e n t a r y I n t e r n who s e r v e s t o t r a n s l a t e t h e d i s c u s s i o n and t o prepare a memo on t h e transactions f o r the party.  Other i n d i v i d u a l s a t t e n d from time  to time, tive by are be  i n c l u d i n g , r e c e n t l y , an a s s i s t a n t t o t h e Conserva-  House l e a d e r .  During  these  gatherings,  t h e Government House l e a d e r ' s  staff  minutes a r e taken  member.  These  f o r t h e Government House l e a d e r i s u s e o n l y , r e f e r r e d t o by t h e o t h e r The  meetings  House  notes  and cannot  leaders.  i n v a r i a b l y bear the imprint  o f the Govern-  ment House l e a d e r f o r he i s i n c o n t r o l o f t h e l e g i s l a t i v e gram.  D o n a l d M a c D o n a l d , f o r example, was v e r y  methodical. schedule  He w o u l d o u t l i n e o n a b l a c k b o a r d  would b e g i n , various  bills  should  a proposed  The p r e s e n t  House l e a d e r s .  He  Government House l e a d e r , A l l a n Macapproach.  Leading  gradually  into  p u r p o s e a t hand, he a s k s t h e o p p o s i t i o n House l e a d e r s what  thoughts they  may have on t h e c o n d u c t o f b u s i n e s s .  produces a l i s t  He t h e n  of l e g i s l a t i o n o r , i f the discussion r e l a t e s  t o one p a r t i c u l a r b i l l ,  a proposed order  government w i s h e s d e b a t e d .  of clauses, that the  The c o n v e r s a t i o n  o r d e r w o u l d l i k e l y be t h e l e a s t  centers  that  devote t o the v a r i o u s  The o p p o s i t i o n House  d i s c u s s the schedule  subjects. with  h i s party plans to leaders  t h e i r p a r t i e s and t h e n r e p o r t  the p r e f e r r e d arrangement. schedule  on w h i c h  o f f e n s i v e t o t h e p a r t i e s and  how l o n g e a c h House l e a d e r f e e l s  the  and the  t o have t h e House l e a d e r s a g r e e t o t h a t  Eachen, uses a s o f t - s e l l  on  debate  on government p r i o r i t i e s  comments made b y t h e O p p o s i t i o n  schedule.  be h e l d ,  be d e b a t e d , when t h e b u d g e t  a n d so o n — b a s e d  would t h e n attempt  the  o r g a n i z e d and  f o r t h e month—when o p p o s i t i o n days s h o u l d  where v a r i o u s  pro-  back  W i t h some a c c o m m o d a t i o n s made,  i s tentatively set.  Many of the former Government House l e a d e r s express a d i s l i k e f o r the r e c e n t l y implemented weekly announcement of b u s i n e s s and f o r the i n c r e a s e d r e g u l a r i t y of more f o r m a l House l e a d e r s ' meetings.  They f e e l t h a t these  procedures  decrease the u n i l a t e r a l a u t h o r i t y of the government t o o r d e r the b u s i n e s s as i t chooses.one favourite t a c t i c was  House l e a d e r mentioned  to s l i p i n r e l a t i v e l y uncontroversial  near the end of a s i t t i n g f o r q u i c k passage. p o s s i b l e w i t h the convention of announcing advance.  that h i s bills  T h i s i s no l o n g e r  the schedule i n  S e v e r a l of them s a i d t h a t these meetings  g i v e the  o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s too much advance warning and they were t h e r e f o r e a b l e t o prepare a more strenuous a t t a c k . To some e x t e n t , these comments are v a l i d .  However, the  present House l e a d e r s f e e l that more progress can be gained by a l l o w i n g the o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s some i n f l u e n c e on the schedule.  R e a l i z i n g that a more s i g n i f i c a n t b i l l  c a l l e d f o r debate, they may  its  be  decrease the l e n g t h of time spent  on that l e g i s l a t i o n immediately b e f o r e the House. warning on the b i l l s may  will  Advance  a l l o w the o p p o s i t i o n time t o c l a r i f y  a t t a c k and concentrate on the p o i n t s at i s s u e r a t h e r than  a g e n e r a l a t t a c k on the b i l l .  The government, too, can l e a r n  a great d e a l i n these meetings about p o t e n t i a l areas of cont e n t i o n and the s t r a t e g i e s planned by the o p p o s i t i o n  groups,  and i t can then prepare a more cogent defence o r a l t e r n a t i v e l y a g r a c e f u l compromise. It  i s d i f f i c u l t t o g e n e r a l i z e about the communications  between the House l e a d e r s .  Every o c c a s i o n on which they  meet  i s somewhat u n i q u e  and  c o n d i t i o n s which a f f e c t  brings into  their discussions.  issue,  p r e c e d i n g b u s i n e s s , the business  of  o r the time  day  the  i n the  to f o l l o w , the  country,  discussions are  a l l affect  conducted.  o r g a n i z a t i o n on one  t h e way  What may  of  immediate time  party  t h e g e n e r a l mood  House, e v e n t h e mood o f t h e House l e a d e r s a n d  personal characteristics  on  The  of year, p r e d i s p o s i t i o n s of other  members, p e r c e i v e d f e e l i n g s of  play a variety  their  i n which  seem a m a t t e r  the  f o r general  o c c a s i o n can r e q u i r e d e t a i l e d n e g o t i a t i o n  another. Many o f t h e  matters  House l e a d e r s ' t a l k s r e l a t e  of o r g a n i z a t i o n .  a r i s i n g near  t h e end  Parliament, although typical  arranged  Bill  same d a y .  put  forward,  As  last  s e s s i o n i n the  f o r the  t h a n one they  had  Family  i t s r e p o r t and  Twenty-Eighth  of the  day.  unanimous c o n s e n t i s t o be not  dealt  The  Insurance  third  t h e O p p o s i t i o n had  t h e end  stage  this b i l l  However, when t h e  w i t h on t h e  same day,  they  o f t h e s e members r e f u s e d t o  forward  the  Farm C r e d i t  The  Bill;  o n l y begun when a member r o s e t o r e m i n d t h e  the A g r i c u l t u r e  Speaker  Committee was  found  independent  debate ground t o a h a l t .  had  would  o f t h e House, r e q u i r e d i f more  the needed  bate  on  s e v e r a l amendments t o  One  ment t h e r e f o r e b r o u g h t  lea-  Security Plan  Members o f P a r l i a m e n t . and  House  reading stages  considered the views of the  consent;  problem  p e r h a p s more complex t h a n t h e norm, i s  t h e y assumed t h a t t h e d e b a t e on  continue u n t i l  that  f o l l o w i n g example o f a  to c a r r y the  through  the  asked  of the  necessary  o f t h e n e e d t o make some a r r a n g e m e n t s .  d e r s had (FISP)  The  to  give  governbut  de-  House t h a t  meeting simultaneously with  the  58  Wheat B o a r d ; and members on The  the  the  most k n o w l e d g e a b l e and  Farm C r e d i t B i l l  bers for  the  who the  L a b o u r Code B i l l .  had farm  been p r e p a r i n g credit  order  of  speakers.  parties, arguing had  the that  labour had  prepared  example  illustrates  House l e a d e r s  the  House l e a d e r s and arranging  the  Many o f t h e  the  standing vote  orders;  the  t h a t the  bills  without  immediate p r o b l e m  which  role  of the  only  the  House.  The  to the  House l e a d e r s may  they  may  a g r e e t o end T h e y may  a d e b a t e and  decide  i f the  of a b i l l  h e l d t o see  obstreperous  House c a n  rush  The  t a l k s may  simply  in  hold  in  i f a House  those  clauses  c o n s i s t of  the the  bill. the  leader  leave  through s e v e r a l  to  cer-  of a  passed  member t o  business  agree  t o have o n l y a  i n d i v i d u a l s concerned with  House.  of  flexibility  House l e a d e r s d i s c u s s i o n s r e l a t e  persuade a p a r t i c u l a r l y  the  the  warning.  speakers from each p a r t y f o r a stage  see  the  House a g e n d a .  Some d i s c u s s i o n s a r e  House; o r t o  those  government  i t h i g h l i g h t s both the  e v e n t r y t o have a l l s t a g e s  same d a y .  then  afternoon  the need f o r c o n t i n u i n g  c e r t a i n hour.  t a i n number o f  while  reorganizing  members' s p e e c h e s f u r t h e r t h a n t h a t p r o v i d e d  at a  T h e y may  contacting  and  o n l y an  f a c e d , but  immediately before limit  not  bring  agreement among  o p p o s i t i o n s c o u l d have s p e n t t h e y were n o t  committee.  F I S P d e b a t e and  code and b e e n no  that  c o n t a c t i n g mem-  It also required  I f there  the  out  f o r the  concerned  d e b a t e and  This required  b e e n u n f a i r i n b r i n g i n g on new  This  can  the  stop that  first  debate.  members c o n c e r n e d w i t h  in  were a t t e n d i n g  House l e a d e r s t h e n a g r e e d t o  forward  most  the  clauses are  warning  the if  Government  House  his legislation  leader  t o keep a c a b i n e t  i s under p a r t i c u l a r l y  As one f o r m e r o p p o s i t i o n  House  leader  minister  severe  pointed  quiet  criticism.  out:  "I t h i n k a m i n i s t e r s h o u l d have enough godd s e n s e t o r e a l i z e t h a t he i s t h e r e f o r t h e purpose o f g e t t i n g h i s l e g i s l a t i o n through. He h a s g o t t o be i n s e n s i t i v e t o t h e c r i t i cism. I f he f i g h t s b a c k , he a r o u s e s f o u r more members who n e v e r i n t e n d e d t o s p e a k a t all. The government g e t s i t s l e g i s l a t i o n , b u t t h e o p p o s i t i o n h a s t o have t h e l a s t word of c r i t i c i s m . T h a t i s what we a r e h e r e f o r " .  Underlying ments  a l l o f t h e House  i s a sense o f n e g o t i a t i o n .  cribed stick  t h e House process".  leaders*  talks  age p e n s i o n b i l l  piece  o f farm  blocks  foremost talks  i n t h e Government  t h i s measure  so t h a t  on t h e  The o p p o s i t i o n the  government.  attractive  bill,  des-  have  legis-  f o r example,  an  to a l l parties or a to the  a n d t h e NDP.  prairie  Therefore,  l e a d e r ' s . , t h o u g h t s when he  up t h e a g e n d a o f t h e House  distasteful  w h i c h y y o u want  party  House  I n t h e w h i p ' s words:  with t h i s  i t may  to the opposition,  which i s of i n t e r e s t  agree-  " c a r r o t and  l e g i s l a t i o n which Is of i n t e r e s t  about s e t t i n g  trade.  a s b a s e d on a  i n both the Conservative  and  One w h i p i n t e r v i e w e d  The government knows t h a t  l a t i o n which i s a t t r a c t i v e old  leaders' discussions  " I f y o u l e t me I will  give  i s what  make  you t h i s  he c a n  progress little  y o u c a n b o a s t b a c k home t h a t  you  bill forced  Government". parties,  t o o , have n o t i o n s  They p e r c e i v e  bills  which are  t o t h e government a n d o t h e r s  of trade  with  particularly  w h i c h may  be o f  lesser  ou  i m p o r t a n c e t o t h e government b u t s i g n i f i c a n t party's  policies.  They t h e r e f o r e  negotiate  t o h a s t e n t h e p r o g r e s s o f one b i l l goes f o r w a r d a s w e l l . opposition important  f o rtheir  w i t h t h e government  i fanother that  A more l i k e l y n o t i o n  own  t h e y want  of trade  f o r the  i s t o o f f e r t o s p e e d up t h e p a s s a g e o f one t o t h e government  bill  i f c e r t a i n c o n c e s s i o n s a n d amend-  ments a r e made t o a n o t h e r p i e c e  of l e g i s l a t i o n .  The  discussions  move b a c k a n d f o r t h i n t h i s way, t h e government g i v i n g a here, the o p p o s i t i o n the  House l e a d e r s  co-ordinate  p a r t i e s g i v i n g something t h e r e .  who p r e s e n t  the various  a l t e r n a t i v e s and  t h e b u s i n e s s o f t h e House i s n o t a  and  when t h e House l e a d e r s  can  n e v e r be c e r t a i n how a d e b a t e w i l l  r e a l l y go.  f e e l i n g s o f t h e members.  b o t h the debate and the f o c a l  point  they  I t i s often  o f time and then  T h e mood o f t h e House  may change o r new f a c t o r s may come t o l i g h t  which can r e o r i e n t  of discussions.  This, too,  a n o t h e r r e a s o n f o r t h e i n f o r m a l i t y w i t h w h i c h t h e House  leaders  carry out t h e i r  House l e a d e r s ' As  science,  are discussing the business,  n e c e s s a r y t o l e t t h e debate r u n f o r a p e r i o d  is  And i t i s  the arrangements.  Arranging  reassess the  little  one House l e a d e r  communications.  discussions  are characterized  by  p u t i t , "We a l l g e t t o know e a c h  frankness. other  p r e t t y w e l l a n d y o u know how f a r y o u c a n go a n d y o u know how far  the other  about y o u " .  side  i s bluffing.  Another s a i d that  And I s u p p o s e t h e y know the frankness i s u s u a l l y  b e c a u s e when i t i s n o t f o r t h c o m i n g , t h e o t h e r receive  a message e q u a l l y  House  that there  leaders  c l e a r a b o u t what i s g o i n g t o h a p p e n .  Such frankness among t h e the  e x i s t s because t h e r e  House l e a d e r s t h a t t h e i r  record.  It i s part  comments made i n t h e s e  of the  is a silent t a l k s are  Privacy  in  t o make t h e  order  have t o be policies;  m e e t i n g s a r e n o n - a t t r i b u t a b l e and  made.  P u b l i c l y , the  e q u a l l y , the  other  down, i t may o f one If,  parliamentary  be  a result  o r had  o f a House l e a d e r s  o p p o s i t i o n group over the  the  g o v e r n m e n t may they  tion  on  may  rapport  in isolation between t h e  the ders  mid  government  had  In r e a l i t y , making t h a t  f r o m what was  policy  catering to however, concession opposi-  concession received  in  House l e a d e r s w i l l t o l e r a t e the  to outweigh the  1960's, f o r example, one  made  government w o u l d  making o f a  o n l y a s m a l l degree of p u b l i c i t y before h o l d i n g such meetings begin  back  the whole p i c t u r e .  agreed to review a  more by  side  the p u b l i c a t i o n  a l s o a p p e a r t o be  The  those  I f one  have r e c e i v e d c e r t a i n a g r e e m e n t s f r o m t h e  considered The  the  others.  s e v e r a l other matters.  c a n n o t be return.  have g a i n e d  that  i s seen t o  Further,  meeting, the  1  I t may  one  or  to d i s t o r t  i t were known t h a t  a p p e a r t o have weakened.  as  party  concessions  detrimental.  concession  made w o u l d t e n d  are  government must d e f e n d i t s  c o n s i d e r weak and  c e r t a i n amendments t o a b i l l as  m a c h i n e work,  accused of weakness.  concession  f o r example,  w i t h i n the  o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s must a t t a c k  i s known t o make a  off  h o n o u r code t h a t  i s r e q u i r e d because a l l s i d e s r e c o g n i z e  p o l i c i e s which they o r the  p r i v a t e and  parliamentary  k e p t w i t h i n t h e m e e t i n g s t h e m s e l v e s and caucus.  understanding  of the  disadvantages advantages.  o p p o s i t i o n House  a c c u s e d a n o t h e r o f r e v e a l i n g some i n f o r m a t i o n  of In lea-  arising  from these  private talks,  ther meetings. the  p o s i t i o n of meeting s e p a r a t e l y with  his part. flow  of business  e a c h House  the type  into  leader,  o f a t t i t u d e s decreased  t h e smooth  t h r o u g h t h e House a n d p r e c i p i t a t e d t h e  o f a n a l r e a d y o v e r w o r k e d Government House  the contents  basis,  any f u r -  d e a l o f a d d i t i o n a l t i m e and e n e r g y o n  This hardening  retirement  to attend  The Government House l e a d e r was f o r c e d  n e c e s s i t a t i n g a great  If  a n d he r e f u s e d  o f these  leader.  m e e t i n g s became p u b l i c o n a r e g u l a r  o f n e g o t i a t i o n s w o u l d change d r a s t i c a l l y .  A  new c h a n n e l o f s e c r e t c o m m u n i c a t i o n s w o u l d u n d o u b t e d l y be created. The  House l e a d e r s a s a g r o u p have no c o l l e c t i v e  to enforce discusses prevents leaders  a n y a g r e e m e n t s t h e y i m a y make. t h e problems inherent  seven  O r d e r 75 w h i c h  On o c c a s i o n ,  the H use 0  s u g g e s t t h a t a c e r t a i n a r r a n g e m e n t be made a n o r d e r  House a c c e p t s  every  i n Standing  i t s use f o r time a l l o c a t i o n .  o f t h e House, a p r o c e s s the  Chapter  power  member.  r e q u i r i n g unanimous c o n s e n t .  Whether  s u c h a n a g r e e m e n t d e p e n d s on t h e mood o f  The m a j o r i t y  whether the i n d i v i d u a l  o f a g r e e m e n t s , however, h i n g e on  House l e a d e r has a s s e s s e d  c o r r e c t l y the  mood o f h i s p a r t y , w h e t h e r he h a s f o l l o w e d  party i n s t r u c t i o n s ,  and,  t o b a c k up t h e  finally,  whether t h e p a r t y  commitments he has made.  i swilling  5  C H A P T E R The  House L e a d e r s ' Source, o f Power and Within the P a r t y S t r u c t u r e  The simply  communication  the  c h a n n e l between t h e  a c o n v e n t i o n of the  House l e a d e r s  are  parliamentary  Authority  supplied  House. by  As  the  House l e a d e r s  stated  i n Chapter  p a r t i e s to a s s i s t  about the  The  House  business  and  make a r r a n g e m e n t s comes s o l e l y from t h e i r p a r t i e s  not  i n any The  the  formal  way  from the  House  Government House l e a d e r  prime m i n i s t e r .  His  f o r he  i s c a r r y i n g out  direct  concern to the  i s appointed d i r e c t l y  p o s i t i o n i n the  d u t i e s which are prime m i n i s t e r .  According  of the  prime m i n i s t e r ,  it  prime m i n i s t e r ' s  can  the he  have any  t i o n as  to the the  s t e r may  choose not  leader,  a l t h o u g h the  the  relatively,  slight.  very  to point "He  much  s a y s and And  out  is a  only  of House  this servant  does c a r r y  A d j u t a n t who, men  Commanding O f f i c e r " . the  practical  expanded r o l e o f  i s unique,  with  i n that  way  Gordon C h u r c h i l l viewed h i s  o f an  to f i l l  by  Most Government  consent.  o f f i c e r s and  t i o n s of  given  tacit  authority."  " s i m i l a r to that  p a s s e s on  what he  ministry still  to Walter H a r r i s , and  and  Itself.  l e a d e r s , when I n t e r v i e w e d , were q u i c k uniqueness.  one,  i n making  a d v e r s a r y a s y s t e m a workable one.  a u t h o r i t y they possess to negotiate  is  the  Even so,  of  the  on  occasion,  regiment  In theory,  any  the  instruc  prime  p o s i t i o n o f Government l i k e l i h o o d of t h i s prime m i n i s t e r ,  the  posi  House  occurring,  ^ is  prime m i n i s t e r  mini-  now  retains  the  ultimate is  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r leading  his traditional  sponsibility  t h e House b e c a u s e  r o l e a n d b e c a u s e he must t a k e  f o r everything  a minister  does.  this  final re-  R e l a t i o n s be-  tween p r i m e m i n i s t e r a n d Government House l e a d e r must f o r e be v e r y had  close.  few f o r m a l  almost other  hourly  Walter H a r r i s  s t a t e s t h a t a l t h o u g h he  meetings w i t h t h e prime m i n i s t e r throughout  the day.  hand, e s t a b l i s h e d t h e r o u t i n e  of  two have a l w a y s had s e a t s Commons a n d may c o n s u l t  o f meeting w i t h t h e prime  another opportunity.  The p r e s e n t  a member o f t h e C a b i n e t chaired  t h e day's  close together  there.  he saw him  G e o r g e M c l l r a i t h , on t h e  m i n i s t e r a t 8 : 5 0 every morning t o d i s c u s s The  there-  business.  i n t h e House  Cabinet meetings  provide  Government House l e a d e r i s  Committee on P r i o r i t i e s  and  Planning  by t h e Prime M i n i s t e r , which i s a n o t h e r forum f o r t h e  exchange o f i d e a s . How much a u t h o r i t y ghe Government House l e a d e r a c t u a l l y possesses  i s frequently  is willing he  to take.  d e p e n d e n t on how much a u t h o r i t y he  D o n a l d M a c D o n a l d , f o r example, s a i d  n e v e r s a t down w i t h t h e p r i m e m i n i s t e r  sion of t h e i r  responsibilities.  to discuss  George M c l l r a i t h s a i d ,  I exercised a  great  tant  deal  it."  divi-  He was a p p o i n t e d t o t h e  p o s i t i o n a n d went a h e a d t o c a r v e o u t t h e r o l e a s he it.  a  that  " I was g i v e n  perceived  t h e a u t h o r i t y , and  A l l a n McEachen, t o o , a p p e a r s t o have assumed  o f a u t h o r i t y o v e r t h e House b u s i n e s s .  An  impor-  f a c t o r i s t h e amount o f i n t e r e s t t a k e n b y t h e p r i m e  minister  i n the a c t i v i t i e s  o f t h e House a n d how much a u t h o r i t y  65  he  himself  w i s h e s t o have o v e r t h e  Louis S t . Laurent House l e a d e r and by  the  opposition  left  a great  conduct of  deal of  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to  on numerous o c c a s i o n s In the  business.  he  was  even  House f o r a b d i c a t i n g t h e  his  chastized traditional  2 role  of  l e a d e r of the  House.  House l e a d e r s a g r e a t he  L e s t e r P e a r s o n a l s o gave  deal of a u t h o r i t y .  In h i s  his  interview,  said, "When I became L e a d e r o f t h e House a s P r i m e M i n i s t e r , I l e f t t h e c o n d u c t o f b u s i n e s s and the n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h the o t h e r p a r t i e s t o my House l e a d e r . . . I u s e d t o l e t t h e House l e a d e r r u n t h e whole show. As l o n g as he was d o i n g h i s j o b , i t wasn't n e c e s s a r y f o r me t o intervene. But he w o u l d t e l l me, o f c o u r s e , what was g o i n g on; and he w o u l d o p e r a t e u n d e r g e n e r a l instructions.... U n l e s s t h e r e was s o m e t h i n g i m p o r t a n t , I ' d l e a v e i t t o him t o c o n t a c t me when he wanted t o , w h i c h he d i d n e a r l y e v e r y day; and I k e p t i n v e r y c l o s e t o u c h w i t h him."  John Diefenbaker, interest  on  the  i n everything  C h u r c h i l l was job w i t h  a  other  hand, t o o k a much  that occurred  q u o t e d as  saying,  i n the  "The  not  of the  support  amount o f a u t h o r i t y r e t a i n e d by  ster.  One the  t h a t o f an  P i e r r e Trudeau appears content  authority  f o r House b u s i n e s s c h e c k on  cabinet.  activities  s i o n s to the  will  to leave  t o h i s House  power o f t h e  be  i s Involved  c a l l e d and  o p p o s i t i o n i n the  a  Adjutant  gives  h i s prime most o f  mini-  the  leader.  Government House l e a d e r i s  cabinet m i n i s t e r s are  b e c a u s e he  which b i l l s  bills.  The  the  Gordon  much power." ^  His perception to the  as b e i n g  House.  House l e a d e r s h i p I s  l o t o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y but role  greater  Interested  In d e v e l o p i n g  in his  the  order  o c c a s i o n a l l y i n making f o r m o f amendments t o  A l t h o u g h most government p r i o r i t i e s  are  in  concesthese  settled  in  the  cabinet,  the  of b i l l s .  House l e a d e r  still  Most amendments a r e  has  some l e e w a y i n t h e  made i n t h e  cabinet  i n d i v i d u a l m i n i s t e r concerned, a l t h o u g h the l e a d e r may it the  take the  means t h a t  the  ministers  have g r e a t islation  do  Initiative  business not  will  in his  to his timetable.  He  may  f o r the  bill,  on  the  conduct  cabinet  decide  the  Government House l e a d e r w o u l d r e c e i v e e x p l i c i t  and  from the  cabinet.  House P l a n n i n g  may  The  Cabinet  ideas  comes m a i n l y as  about the i n the  and  not  direct  the  House l e a d e r ' s  d i r e c t e d to the  on  legislative  form o f a d v i c e  control.  to  a  a  stick  to  occasions instruc-  schedule. and  the  i n the  committee may Their  suggestions,  I f t h e y were n o t  minister.  the  Committee on L e g i s l a t i o n  the  performance, t h e i r  prime  such  Having been i n v o l v e d  of d r a f t l e g i s l a t i o n ministers  great  attempted  a l s o have some i n f l u e n c e o v e r  Government House l e a d e r .  useful  once  i n passing  p o s i t i o n o r make some a c c o m m o d a t i o n .  leg-  legislation  whether t o On  may  feelings  of b u s i n e s s  its  tions  the  said that  I f they foresaw major d i f f i c u l t i e s  t h e y would l e t the  If  their  soothing  s e s s i o n were e s t a b l i s h e d , t h e y  discussions  House  a l s o spend a  a n x i o u s t o have t h e i r  Most Government House l e a d e r s  t o keep c a b i n e t minimum.  are  the  judgment he  i n p e r s u a d i n g them t o p r e s e n t  o f t h o s e m i n i s t e r s who  priorities  Government  p r o c e e d more r a p i d l y .  d e a l o f t i m e e x p l a i n i n g h i s d e c i s i o n s and  completed.  o r by  concede a minor p o i n t i f  have c o n f i d e n c e  difficulty  according  to  calling  study  have many influence however,  satisfied  c o m p l a i n t s would  with be  Another  c o n t r o l on t h e Government House l e a d e r i s p r o -  v i d e d by t h e c a u c u s .  At the weekly  meeting  the  House l e a d e r ' s s t a t e m e n t s . i s n o r m a l l y t h e f i r s t He  outlines  If  t h e members' d i s c o n t e n t  not  t h e b u s i n e s s t o be  been a l l e v i a t e d ,  conducted  on t h e  legislation  v o i c e an o b j e c t i o n .  m i n i s t e r must t h e n d e c i d e i f t h e b u s i n e s s w i l l planned o r i f the m i n i s t e r  involved  N o r m a l l y most d i f f i c u l t i e s  will  vance, ions  b o t h t h r o u g h the caucus  i n c a u c u s , and  f r o m t h e w h i p who, views, w i l l  through  in  c o n s i d e r a t i o n of t h e i r views;  legislation  the  cabinet.  attempts  i n ad-  beforehand backbenchers  1  leader.  and w o u l d l i k e l y  have d i s c u s s e d  c a b i n e t so t h a t  the  on t h e s c h e d u l e o r t h e  w o u l d have b e e n made and  supported  Once i n t h e House, t h e Government House  by  leader  t o k e e p t h e number o f government s p e a k e r s t o t h e  member f r o m  cannot  p r e v e n t a government  s p e a k i n g i f t h e member i s d e t e r m i n e d  opportunity.  Y e t a n o t h e r g r o u p w h i c h may  Government House l e a d e r ' s a c t i v i t i e s  complete  p o s t on t h e  m i n i s t e r and  minimum r e q u i r e d ; a l t h o u g h he  chairmen.  review.  have d e v e l o p e d h i s s c h e d u l e  e i t h e r would not appear  d e c i s i o n t o go a h e a d  as  and g e n e r a l d i s c u s s -  information received  Government House l e a d e r w i l l  w i t h t h e prime  prime  s h o u l d make a n o t h e r  committees  as the l i s t e n i n g  has  go a h e a d  have r e p o r t e d t o t h e Government House  problems  The  have t h e n b e e n c l e a r e d  The  any  agenda.  t h e f o l l o w i n g week.  o v e r some o f t h e  t h e y may  Government  influence  i s t h e House  I f they are unable t o f o r c e t h e i r t h e committee  stage of a b i l l  to take  the  the  committee  committees  w i t h i n the time  to desired  (JO  by  t h e House  leader,  significantly.  he may  Their  have t o r e v i s e h i s s c h e d u l e  influence  no c o n t r o l s o v e r t h e e v e n t u a l the  i s indirect  timing  as they  of the report  possess stage i n  House. The Government House l e a d e r ' s  f r o m t h e p r i m e m i n i s t e r who exerts  great  interest  a u t h o r i t y , then,  appoints  him.  derives  The p r i m e  minister  c o n t r o l o v e r t h e Government House l e a d e r t h r o u g h t h e  t h e prime m i n i s t e r t a k e s  d i r e c t i n g the conduct  i n s u p e r v i s i n g a n d pefchaps  o f House b u s i n e s s .  The c a b i n e t , t o o ,  c o n t r o l s t h e Government House l e a d e r by e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e slative on  priorities  important  f o r the s e s s i o n and f u r t h e r l i m i t  To be e f f e c t i v e ,  however, t h e  Government House l e a d e r must have enough f l e x i b i l i t y given  the business  his  contacts  t h r o u g h t h e House.  with  the other  prime m i n i s t e r and c a b i n e t judgment, t h e Goveimment The c a u c u s e x e r t s  cabinet the  and t h i s  ministers.  legislation,  recognize  House  this  l e a d e r may  little  comes f r o m  As l o n g a s t h e fact  and t r u s t h i s  exercise  h i s power.  c o n t r o l over the Govern-  The members' c o n c e r n i s w i t h  the  legisla-  i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the r e l e v a n t Once t h e c a b i n e t  party  House l e a d e r n e e d o n l y must  His influence  House l e a d e r s .  relatively  ment House l e a d e r . itself  within  s t r a t e g i e s to develop the t a c t i c s necessary t o  get  tion  h i s power  l e g i s l a t i o n by p r o v i d i n g g u i d e l i n e s f o r I t s  p a s s a g e t h r o u g h t h e House.  certain  legi-  s p e a k on t h e b i l l .  discipline prepare  decides  t o move a h e a d on  t a k e s o v e r a n d t h e Government  f o r t h o s e members who  Very r a r e l y  absolutely  d o e s a government b a c k -  bencher attempt t o Cowan w i t h nal  the  filibuster  support  of the  a government b i l l Creditistes  source  more d i f f i c u l t According leader  of the to  t o NDP  is really  l o c a t e f o r h i s powers a r e leader David an  L e w i s , an  "interlocutory":  power t o n e g o t i a t e  All  o p p o s i t i o n House l e a d e r s a r e  but  1969  crimi-  these  appointments are normally  i n the  the  leader's  Conservative  opinion" i s taken.  the  actions. nition  ultimate T h i s type  of the  discipline  i n the  assert  their  His only of the  caucuses, a  party  f o r the  i s simply  vote;  House  But  agreeing  recogfor  stringent  and  L i k e the  u n l i k e the  no  Governformal  government  a r e more l i k e l y  to planned  must  leader's  a realistic  government p a r t y .  power  party,  House l e a d e r o c c u p i e s ,  p a r t y members.  i n f l u e n c e o v e r the  by  In  e n t i r e caucus  o p p o s i t i o n House l e a d e r has  f r e e d o m by n o t  caucuses,  "concensus  the  opposition parties i s less  lea-  members.  head o f the  i n d i v i d u a l o p p o s i t i o n MPs  to  arrangements.  c a u c u s comes f r o m h i s knowledge  n e g o t i a t i o n s , h i s p o s i t i o n as a  p a r t y member and  the  i s confirmed  l e a d e r , as  of approval  than i n the  c o n t r o l s over the the  the  responsibility  ment House l e a d e r , t h e  their  with  decide".  o p p o s i t i o n House l e a d e r ' s  p o s i t i o n which the  effective  p a r t y MPs  a p p r o v e d by  Through t h i s a p p r o v a l ,  a u t h o r i t y although  power t o  i n c r e a s i n g democracy i n the  assumes some c o n t r o l o v e r t h e  accept  i s a negotiator  s e l e c t e d by  Creditiste  fluid.  o p p o s i t i o n House  "He  recommendation'  and  extremely  n e c e s s a r i l y the  but  NDP,  because of the  not  ders,  less  Ralph  o p p o s i t i o n House l e a d e r ' s a u t h o r i t y i s  the  and  the  did  code amendments. The  the  on  as  his t i e s with  the  s e n i o r and  party  leader.  respected  The closely the  opposition together;  they  a r e i n constant  day, and t h e i r desks a r e adjacent  easy c o n s u l t a t i o n . every a  House l e a d e r a n d p a r t y  co-ordinate  i n case a n y t h i n g their positions.  v a t i v e meeting on t h e q u e s t i o n an o p p o r t u n i t y  opportunity party  very  throughout  i n t h e House t o a l l o w at 9:30  gathers  m o r n i n g , a n d t h e House l e a d e r a n d p a r t y  should  with  contact  T h e NDP c a u c u s e x e c u t i v e  few m i n u t e s b e f o r e h a n d  they  l e a d e r work  l e a d e r meet f o r  has a r i s e n on w h i c h The m o r n i n g  period provides  those  t o d i s c u s s t h e House b u s i n e s s .  Conserleaders  Another  f o r c o n s u l t a t i o n between t h e House l e a d e r a n d  leader occurs  before  t h e Wednesday c a u c u s  meetings.  How much r e a l a u t h o r i t y t h e o p p o s i t i o n House l e a d e r r e ceives the  from h i s p a r t y  government p a r t y ,  take.  Stanley  without  l e a d e r o f t e n depends, a s i n t h e case o f on how much a u t h o r i t y he i s w i l l i n g t o  K n o w l e s s t a t e d t h a t he made numerous d e c i s i o n s  consultations with  the l e a d e r o r caucus, but that  " I have t o know when I have enough a u t h o r i t y t o s e t t l e o r when I have t o go b a c k " . l e a d e r has t o l e a v e  I t was h i s v i e w t h a t  t h e House l e a d e r h a s t o r e a l i z e  Ged  Baldwin  of  felt  t h a t t h e r e was a r a t h e r c o n s t a n t  i n f o r m a t i o n between h i m s e l f  taken  the  the party  c a u c u s committee  these  was a v a i l a b l e ,  leader".  crossflow  a n d t h e l e a d e r a n d "we know I f a d e c i s i o n had t o  i n b e t w e e n t h e c a u c u s m e e t i n g s , he w o u l d  check w i t h  function,  he i s n o t t h e p a r t y  how we e a c h t h i n k , what o u r v i e w s a r e " . be  "the p a r t y  t o t h e House l e a d e r t h a t p e r s o n ' s  but  things  normally  l e a d e r , t h e whip, and t h e chairman o f concerned w i t h  the issue.  B u t i f none o f  he w o u l d make t h e d e c i s i o n on h i s own.  (*-  More i m p o r t a n t is willing present  to delegate  Conservative  responsibility "He  l e a d e r appears to  occasions,  the  he  leader David situation'. of the  caucus are  said,  For these,  "he  The  c l a s s of  second  l a t i o n and  whether the  debate; whether the to block  the  party  caucus to r e c e i v e d e r and  party the  The  party  supports  p o l i c y and  instructions.  caucus e x e c u t i v e  NDP  be  of  consists  no  leader  problem.  judgment".  House l e a d e r knows supports  i t but  For these  r e p o r t t o the  of the  many  the  wants a  legis-  long  p o i n t of  wanting  p a r t y o p p o s e s i t m e r e l y t o make  leader disagree,  advice  check o v e r the  i s where t h e  government".  House l e a d e r w i l l  On  House  uses h i s best  p a r t y opposes i t t o the  m e r e l y agenda, but  issues i n  classes  the m a j o r i t y ,  i n which the  "whether t h e  i t , o r whether the  tough f o r the  follow  1  details  interested.  agreement t h e r e w i l l  situation  t h a t more i s i n v o l v e d }  minor  a u t h o r i t y i n t o two  goes a h e a d and  of  that,  House l e a d e r m y s e l f " .  non-controversial situations  just  deal  inJne."The C r e d i -  many o f t h e  w h i c h makes up  i f he makes an  i s not  the  The  Baldwin stated  confidence  particularly  "I a c t as  first,  leave a great  Ged  leaves  Lewis d i v i d e s the The  leader  assumes a u t h o r i t y o v e r t h o s e  knows t h a t  it  has  Caouette,  t o h i s House l e a d e r b u t and  party  a u t h o r i t y t o h i s House l e a d e r .  judgment and  leader, Real  w h i c h he  degree to which the  t o h i s House l e a d e r .  r e s p e c t s my  tiste  i s the  party  areas,  tactic  l e a d e r and  Generally, the  and  where t h e party  House l e a d e r  strategy,  then to  i f the  issue  the  House  is likely  leato  leader.  o r shadow c a b i n e t  o p p o s i t i o n House l e a d e r .  The  provides shadow  another gabinet  normally  c o n s i s t s of  many o f t h e s e allocated and  who  are  many o f t h e  As  w e l l as  party  certain policy  On  occasion  plans  and  the  members a r e  p o l i c y area  policies  and  executive  the  shadow c a b i n e t  tive  and  NDP  s m a l l e r and small size tend  has  a  o f the  the  The  articulating meetings,  party  his tactics House  sentiments  accordingly.  leader's  House l e a d e r w i l l  also  chairman r e s p o n s i b l e  suggestions  views of  for a the  f o r party strategies.  important  Creditlste  f o r the  Conserva-  executive  i s much  s o p h i s t i c a t e d s t r u c t u r e because of  p a r t y and majority  because the  normally other  statement  Creditlste  of t h e i r time to the and  to  c h e c k s on At  the  the  forward  Government House l e a d e r and  advocacy  the  e n t i r e caucus.  opposition  the  any  of  business.  House  r e g u l a r Wednesday  i s normally  I t i s h i s duty to put  by  the  members  constituency  dealt with  caucus i t s e l f .  House l e a d e r ' s  agenda.  their  C r e d i t monetary p o l i c i e s  i s the  The  the  duties,  From t h e i r  f o r debate to g a i n the  less  O v e r r i d i n g these  for  o v e r r u l e the  is particularly  House s t r a t e g i e s a r e  leader  may  House l e a d e r s .  to devote the  Social  cabinet  individual  t o gauge t h e  can a d j u s t  c a u c u s committee  scheduled  their  strategies.  i s able  i s s u e s and  committee members and The  government  responsible  suggest a l t e r n a t i v e s .  consult with  by  conducting  o p p o s i t i o n House l e a d e r  on  the  which p a r a l l e l the  o f whom a r e  f r e q u e n t l y c h a i r caucus committees d e a l i n g w i t h  shadow c a b i n e t  the  Conservatives,  former cabinet m i n i s t e r s — m o s t  p o l i c y areas  p o l i c y areas. the  s e n i o r m e m b e r s — f o r the  first  on  caucus the  arrangements  to e x p l a i n the  views  suggested expressed  by  the  other  o p p o s i t i o n groups towards these  He  may  then suggest t a c t i c s which the  he  may  simply  request  comments f r o m t h e  caucus a motion i s n o r m a l l y on  tactics.  In the  passed to  Conservative  c o n s e n s u s v i e w i s summed up man,  o r the  this  fact  party  leader.  i s reported  by  the  I f no  t o the  power o v e r t h e  a great other  business.  i s not  g a i n the  der  should  which they  also  t r y and  comments a r e  caucus c h a i r reached  little  usually  i n dealing with  feel  i s not  should t o do  NDP,  likely  f o l l o w the  not  He  But  be  accorded the  House  listens  Ged  done.  The  secret,  things  according  t o make c e r t a i n t h a t  to gain a any  he  leader  may  caucus agreement.  d i s s i d e n t members  I f , however, t h e y  normal procedure  lea-  Baldwin  c a u c u s t o do  The  House  to t r y  "a good House  up.  for-  says t h a t the  the  i s taken,  majority.  the  t o ask  c a s e t o b a c k him  independent a c t i o n , the  caucus, the  party.  forcefully  i f a vote  i n advance.  caucus.  i t o f t e n and  express himself  Bell  a  leader.  mold p u b l i c o p i n i o n " .  o c c a s i o n a l l y has  In the  the  decision  House l e a d e r has  p a r t y w h i p Tom  consensus of the  a good s u p p o r t i n g  leader  His  NDP  caucuses,  House l e a d e r ,  Government House  t h a t a c t i v e i n the  not  s a y s t h a t he  has  the  Creditiste  or  In the  c o n s e n s u s c a n be  h i s experience  Conservative  and  t o him,  members.  d e a l of a t t e n t i o n because of h i s c o n t a c t s w i t h  p a r t i e s and  leader  caucus.  could follow  confirm  and  As m e n t i o n e d p r e v i o u s l y , t h e mal  party  suggestions.  will  intend to  i s t o warn t h e  E v e n i f a n a g r e e m e n t has  o p p o s i t i o n House l e a d e r may  take House  been r e a c h e d have  in  difficulty  YD  in  enforcing  that  decision.  Particularly  i n a large  caucus,  some o f t h e members may n o t have a t t e n d e d t h e m e e t i n g a n d o f t e n consider  that  they are not party  t o t h e a g r e e m e n t s made.  d e c i s i o n s made I n t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e  caucus a r e n e v e r  d e c i s i o n s , a n d members may change t h e i r m i n d s a t a point  i n the debate.  regardless and to  Strong  individualists  make a n i s s u e  later  i n the party,  out o f something t h e p a r t y would  see passed q u i e t l y and q u i c k l y .  House l e a d e r s  When m a k i n g  prefer  arrange-  channels, the opposition  u s u a l l y r e m i n d t h e Government House l e a d e r  agreements a r e always s u b j e c t  r e f u s i n g t o accept The  firm  o f t h e c a u c u s c o n s e n s u s , may move i n t o t h e House  ments t h r o u g h t h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n  any  The  party  the  appointment.  t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l member  t h e agreement.  opposition  the  that  House l e a d e r ' s  authority  i s received  from  l e a d e r who s e l e c t s him a n d t h e c a u c u s w h i c h a p p r o v e s H i s immediate powers a r e d e p e n d e n t upon t h e  degree o f confidence,  i n d e p e n d e n c e , a n d s u p p o r t a c c o r d e d him  by  H i s powers may be f u r t h e r l i m i t e d b y t h e  the party  leader.  amount o f i n v o l v e m e n t d i s p l a y e d party's  s t r a t e g i e s and t a c t i c s .  by t h e shadow c a b i n e t More s i g n i f i c a n t l y ,  i n the h i s pow-  ers a r e l i m i t e d by the views o f t h e caucus, t h e degree o f party  cohesion,  persuasion holding  and h i s a b i l i t y  inclination  t o be e f f e c t i v e l y  h i s p a r t y members t o a n a g r e e m e n t .  House l e a d e r s the  a n d t h e House l e a d e r ' s  do n o t c o n s i d e r  i ttheir  t o use  persuasive Most  in  opposition  right to interfere with  p r i v i l e g e s o f t h e Member o f P a r l i a m e n t a n d t h e i r  a r r a n g e House b u s i n e s s t h r o u g h t h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n  power t o  channels,  particularly  in relation  by t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c What t h e House can  accomplish  w i t h i n h i s own  to the timing of debates,  opposition  i s limited  MP.  l e a d e r , b o t h Government  and  opposition,  i s f r e q u e n t l y l i m i t e d by i n d i v i d u a l s a n d g r o u p s party.  However,  t h e House  leader  normally  p o s s e s s e s c e r t a i n q u a l i t i e s w h i c h enhance h i s p o s i t i o n . is  u s u a l l y a s e n i o r and e x p e r i e n c e d  extensive  knowledge o f how  p a r t y member w i t h  parliament  operates  He  an  a n d how  the  r u l e s a r e a p p l i e d a n d a knowledge o f c u r r e n t and c o n t r o v e r s i a l legislation.  They u s u a l l y enjoy  l e a d e r a n d most members. have a good s u p p l y  The b e t t e r House  of p o l i t i c a l  n e g o t i a t i o n a n d compromise  intuition,  the q u a l i t i e s  of a diplomat.  good Two  of the  leaders  judgment, and t a c t o f t h e most  l e a d e r a r e an a b i l i t y  along  people and an a b i l i t y  to respect  views o f others while  leaders possessing of  these  influence i n their  significant  being  to get  a n d accommodate  a good s t r a t e g i s t .  q u a l i t i e s normally  -  important  o f a s u c c e s s f u l House  the  in  organized.  attributes with  party  normally  some s k i l l  a n d a r e o r d e r l y and  They possess honesty, s i n c e r i t y , all  the confidence  House  have a g r e a t  deal  p a r t y b u t a t t h e same t i m e e x p e r i e n c e  tension o r cross  pressure  as they  perform  a  their  role. The  House  leader i s f i r s t  a n d f o r e m o s t a p a r t y member;  he i s e x p e c t e d t o do a l l t h a t he p o s s i b l y c a n t o a d v a n c e t h e interests official  of h i s party. o f t h e House;  However he i s a l s o c o n s i d e r e d like  the p a r t y  a quasi-  l e a d e r s a n d w h i p s , he  f(  must  submerge many o f h i s p a r t i s a n s e n t i m e n t s  of making t h e a d v e r s a r y  system a workable one.  t h a t when t h e House l e a d e r p e r c e i v e s all  i t can t o support  feels  or attack  fortheir  party.  if  t h e absence o f t h a t  at  a lower key.  must be a b l e  information  gained  Equally,  should  T h i s assessment on p a r t y  divulge t o the other  pressures  simultaneously;  he c a n p r e s e n t  s t r a t e g i e s and p l a n s  cannot  function.  he  These c r o s s  should pressures  o f the system i n  a n d when t h e House l e a d e r  both appears  i t may i n d i c a t e t h a t he h a s I f he i s u n a b l e t o submerge  t o some e x t e n t , B u t i f he g i v e s  may s o o n r e p l a c e h i m .  h i s party's  i s i t possible to satisfy  been l e s s p a r t i s a n i n a n o t h e r . party loyalty  sentiments  i n c l u d e s t h e d e c i s i o n a s t o how  more p a r t i s a n i n one s i t u a t i o n  his  leaders  be made i n t h e i n t e r e s t s o f  House l e a d e r s .  Rarely  House  keep p a r t y  t h e House l e a d e r a r e a n i n e v i t a b l e p a r t  w h i c h he o p e r a t e s .  choose  i n t h e House l e a d e r s ' m e e t i n g s , he  t o judge how f o r c e f u l l y  much i n f o r m a t i o n  he w i l l  from t h e o t h e r  information w i l l  c a s e a n d when c o n c e s s i o n s House.  t h e i r v i e w o f what i s  I t may a l s o mean t h a t  withhold  on  t h a t t h e p a r t y h a s done  o f t h e House, he may have t o p e r s u a d e  to  the  means  some l e g i s l a t i o n o r i f he  own p a r t y members t o go a g a i n s t  best  This  that p a r t i s a n v i n d l c t i v e n e s s i s threatening t o des-  troy the operation his  i n the i n t e r e s t s  t h e communication i n too e a s i l y ,  channel  the party  78  FOOTNOTES;  Chapter 5  1 Marc L a l o n d e , t h e n P r i n c i p a l S e c r e t a r y t o t h e Prime M i n i s t e r , e x p l o r e d the e x t e n s i v e d u t i e s of the contemporary prime m i n i s t e r i n "The Changing R o l e o f the Prime M i n i s t e r ' O f f i c e " , Canadian P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , V. 14, w i n t e r , 1971. 2 See, f o r example, Can. H. o f C. Debates. June 2 3 , 1 9 5 4 , pp. 6 5 2 1 - 3 1 ; J u l y 6 , 1 9 5 5 . P. 5747; June 1, 1 9 5 6 , p. 4 6 0 7 . 3 Quoted i n S t e w a r t , Walter,. "Guy F a v r e a u , Our Next Prime M i n i s t e r ? " , Canadian Weekly. June 2 0 , 1 9 6 4 , p. 2 .  6  C H A P T E R The  House L e a d e r and  A study of the  r o l e of  the  Party  House l e a d e r s  P a r l i a m e n t w o u l d "be i n c o m p l e t e w i t h o u t the  r e l a t i o n s h i p between the  parliamentary  functionary,  and  the  whip a r e  involved  and  in organizing  the  Whip  Whip.  i n the  party  House o f  ally  i n t e r - p a r t y communication  Canadian P a r l i a m e n t . and  the  Commons.  The  c r e a t i o n o f a new  to decrease the  The  evolution  influence  w h i p s have link  in  c h a n n e l has  in  and  have become a n  indisputable  House  House l e a d e r ceives  has  a full  staff.  The  contract  cabinet  present  to  the  other  of  the  House; and  extra  staff  Chief  Whip r e c e i v e  an  he  re-  complement  additional staff  been c o n s i d e r e d  Government  and  hired  of on  Opposition  particular privileges.  hand, have l o n g the  minister,  a minister's  organization,  The  Legislative Secretariat.  r e c e i v e no  on  Opposition  s a l a r y and  incumbent has  form the  House l e a d e r s  cabinet  Although  stature  been o f f i c i a l l y r e c o g n i z e d . always been a  tended  whips.  p o s i t i o n s have i n c r e a s e d  yet  the leaders  House l e a d e r s '  t h e y have n o t  the  tradition-  House  of the  leader  parliament  the  part  other  to handle  of the  to  House  of  of the  communication  power and  that  Both the  business of the formed the  and  operation  parliamentary  Canadian  some r e f e r e n c e  House l e a d e r  the  In the  The  whips,  quasi-officials  Government Whip and a d d i t i o n a l $4,000 p e r  i n r e c o g n i t i o n of t h e i r p o s i t i o n s . ^  Chief annum  and  Several  80  f o r m e r Government House l e a d e r s ination against feel  that  view the apparent  o p p o s i t i o n House l e a d e r s  t o o much e m p h a s i s i s b e i n g  House l e a d e r who  discrim-  as j u s t i f i e d .  placed  They  on t h e o p p o s i t i o n  i s , i n t h e i r terms, simply  a  "glorified  whip". Reference to the B r i t i s h channels would tend  t o support  it  meet w i t h  i s t h e w h i p s who  official  to discuss  no o p p o s i t i o n f o r m s what  i n t e r - p a r t y communication t h i s view.  In Great  the a s s i s t a n c e  of a  Britain non-partisan  a n d a r r a n g e t h e House b u s i n e s s .  House l e a d e r s .  There are  The L e a d e r o f t h e House  c o u l d be c a l l e d a l e g i s l a t i v e  r o l e while  h i s Chief  Government Whip p e r f o r m s t h e f l o o r manager's r o l e . British  p a r t i e s have e l a b o r a t e  the  more r o u t i n e t a s k s  all  cabinet  business. misnamed  a n d t h e C h i e f Government Whip  Thus the B r i t i s h whips c o u l d  e q u a l l y be  House l e a d e r s , t h e m a j o r d i f f e r e n c e b e i n g  r o l e with  some o f t h e d u t i e s o f a f l o o r  complementary; l e a v i n g a s i d e  responsibilities  to locate.  duties are at present  between t h e i r  I n t h e New  completely  manager. roles  the p a r t i c u l a r l e g i s l a t i v e  o f t h e House l e a d e r a n d w h i p i n t e r t w i n e  difficult  that the  saw t h e i r  o f t h e Government House l e a d e r ,  a clear dividing line  called  combines a l e s s s o p h i s t i c a t e d  Most House l e a d e r s and w h i p s i n t e r v i e w e d  is  attends  m e e t i n g s r e l a t e d t o t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f House  legislative  that  The  systems o f whips t o c a r r y out  C a n a d i a n Government House l e a d e r  as  per-  the duties  t o such an  extent  responsibilities  Democratic Party, the  meshed  i n one  individual.  ei  When q u e s t i o n e d  a b o u t t h i s phenomenon w i t h i n t h e  people  interviewed attributed  of  p a r t y and  the  David  L e w i s and  p a r t y were t o  the nature  members) t h e  of  the  Knowles h i m s e l f  d u t i e s would  caucus i s a d e f i n i t e  quired  of the  Credit  Party with  The of  has  at  o f the  individual  felt  that  l i k e l y be factor  House l e a d e r and  least  both  t h e most s e n i o r and  himself.  House.  He  divided.  over  The  size  amount o f work r e -  However, t h e the  House l e a d e r and  i s , as G e o f f r e y  Both  parliamentary  Social  size  a House l e a d e r and  experienced  size  (e.g. to  o n l y f i f t e e n members, h a l f nominally,  most  the  i f the  i n the  whip.  p o i n t r e m a i n s t h a t t h e NDP  present  factors:  increase s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n size  50  NDP,  i t t o two  NDP,  a  the  whip.  whip i s  parliamentarians S t e v e n s once  of  one  i n the  called'him,  2  the to  "Commons M a s t e r C r a f t s m a n " , r e t i r e from p a r l i a m e n t a r y  e m p h a s i s on  the  appoint  members t o r e p l a c e  two  The  role  of the  life,  w h i p c a n be  commencement o f a new i n the  NDP,  and  then  the  own  members.  g i v e n the  The  present  likely  him.  by  first  parliament  a brief duty  between the study  of  House  the  o f the whip a t  i s to allocate  the  offices  and  H u s e o f Commons t o members o f P a r l i a m e n t .  The  Q  w h i p s meet t o make t h e  the  the  House l e a d e r , w o u l d  clarified  whip's major a c t i v i t i e s .  of  i f S t a n l e y Knowles were  p a t t e r n of r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s shared  l e a d e r and  seats  and  initial  d i v i s i o n o f o f f i c e s and  i n d i v i d u a l whip d i s t r i b u t e s A second t a s k  House c o m m i t t e e s .  i s to a s s i s t  The  these  among h i s  i n the  whip r e p r e s e n t s  seats,  organization  his party  on  82  the  Striking  Committee w h i c h d i v i d e s t h e  ship according the  House.  to the  How  the  the  In the  approval  of the  chairmen. assigning  The  and  initial  committees.  The  they supervise  House c o m m i t t e e s and  for  their  opposition  changes t o him  quorums f o r e a c h committee and majority  when any  leader tee  decisions  o f ,the  handles a  whips, too,  the  Chief  at  staff least  ticularly  f o l l o w the  Chief  members a b o u t  those d e a l i n g with  w h i p and  have t o be  requests maintain members  taken.  Government  House  assist  him  commit-  In h i s  The  the  a  deputy  whip's  The  House  staff  opposition committees.  Opposition  Whip  and  t h e i r m e e t i n g s and  Government  encourage  sitting,  controversial subjects.  Chief  and  to the  membership c h a n g e s go  then to the  reporting  government  duties.  of  the  for  Government Whip has  activities  as  committee  for  a minimum c o v e r a g e o f a l l c o m m i t t e e s  mentioned, o p p o s i t i o n party  To  l a r g e p o r t i o n of the  remind the  with  He: s h o u l d  government b a c k b e n c h e r s .  E a c h m o r n i n g , f o r example, t h e his  well  committees' a c t i v i t i e s  i s another of h i s d u t i e s .  w h i p , one also  as w e l l .  potential difficulties  responsibilities,  interest  whips s e n d i n g  ensure that  Keeping a c l o s e watch o v e r the r e p o r t i n g any  as  in  representatives  n o r m a l l y s e l e c t s the  membership c h a n g e s , t h e  the  task  Government House l e a d e r ,  any  make up  this  some  Government Whip i s r e s p o n s i b l e  rooms t o t h e  party's  i s of  s e l e c t i o n of party  ministry, Chief  member-  p a r t i e s ' numerical representation  membership i s a l l o t t e d  House l e a d e r s  assisting for  to the  committee  first Whip.  to  parAs  the  83  Another to  responsibility  m a i n t a i n a quorum  from  o f t h e C h i e f Government  i n t h e House  c a l l i n g f o r an adjournment.  p a r e s a House  Whip i s  t o prevent the opposition For this  purpose,  he p r e -  d u t y r o s t e r f o r t h e government members a n d  keeps a d a i l y attendance  record.  I t i s t h e government  whip's  d u t y t o k e e p t r a c k o f t h e members a t a l l t i m e s  i n t h e event  of  With h i s  a s u r p r i s e vote being c a l l e d  knowledge  o f the l o c a t i o n  i n t h e House.  o f t h e members, t h e government  p r o v i d e s a d v i c e t o t h e Government v o t e s o n government  in  However,  t h e y do k e e p t r a c k o f t h e i r  knowing t h e l o c a t i o n  of  be t a k e n .  c o n t r o l over the attendance  case o f emergency.  a vote  l e a d e r a s t o when  l e g i s l a t i o n can s a f e l y  t i o n w h i p s have l e s s members.  House  whip  Opposi-  of their  whereabouts  I n a m i n o r i t y government  situation,  o f t h e members c a n be c r i t i c a l .  When  i s called,  t h e whips a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t a k i n g a  t h e i r members.  I f t h e y ' r e s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e number,  count  t h e y may s t o p t h e b e l l a h e a d o f t i m e a n d p r o c e e d w i t h t h e vote.  To s i g n a l  t h e Speaker,  t h e C h i e f Government  Whip a n d  t h e C h i e f O p p o s i t i o n Whip w a l k t o g e t h e r down t h e c e n t e r a i s l e of may  t h e Commons t o t h e i r also assist  seats.  some o f t h e members i n f i n d i n g  p l a n t o be a b s e n t  from  "pairs"  I f they  t h e House.  Concerning the day-to-day whips r e c e i v e  B e f o r e a v o t e , t h e whips  i n f o r m a t i o n from  a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e House, t h e their  House  l e a d e r s about t h e  84  b u s i n e s s t o be d e b a t e d .  The w h i p s a s s i s t  i n a l e r t i n g the  members a b o u t t h a t b u s i n e s s a n d i n r e m i n d i n g party's  general policies  and planned  is  responsible f o r keeping  If  time  on a d e b a t e  consult with t h e i r  lists  i s limited,  strategies.  t o speak.  t h e o p p o s i t i o n whips  House l e a d e r s a n d , i f n e c e s s a r y ,  government w h i p c h e c k s  normally the lea-  be g i v e n p r i o r i t y .  The  w i t h t h e Government House l e a d e r and  f r e q u e n t l y with the m i n i s t e r s concerned.  The  instructions  t h e House l e a d e r s may have i n c l u d e d a s p e c i f i c number o f  speakers  t o be a l l o t t e d  t o each p a r t y .  If this  c a s e , t h e w h i p s meet a n d n e g o t i a t e a r a t i o . pare  a speakers'  House. and,  list  They then  pre-  which i s g i v e n t o the Speaker o f the  on o c c a s i o n he may r e c o g n i z e a p e r s i s t e n t t h e arrangement awry.  members a r e aware o f t h e l i s t can t h e n  follow the order  and a c c e p t  i t ; and the Speaker  i s t o see t h a t t h e debate  p u r p o s e he i s i n c o n s t a n t  w i t h t h e o t h e r w h i p s on t h e f l o o r  a s t o how many s p e a k e r s  thus  suggested.  smoothly, and f o r t h i s  s u b j e c t t o any time  member,  I n g e n e r a l , however, t h e  One o f t h e w h i p ' s i n t e r e s t s flows  i s not the  The S p e a k e r i s u n d e r no o b l i g a t i o n t o f o l l o w t h e l i s t  throwing  not  Each whip  o f members who w i s h  d e r s , t o d e c i d e w h i c h members w i l l  from  them a b o u t t h e  o f t h e House.  limitations,  t h e y make  On  could continue,  unanimous c o n s e n t  t o extend  how much  i f t h e House w o u l d  the debate  h o u r o r p a s t a d j o u r n m e n t , when t h e v o t e  into  debates  assessments  each p a r t y has r e m a i n i n g ,  l o n g e r t h e debate  contact  private  give members'  c o u l d be c a l l e d , a n d  so o n . to  O c c a s i o n a l l y t h e whips w i l l  limit  request areas  the time allowed  f o r e a c h member's s p e e c h .  such as these,  The  the role  to overlap.  whip has a r o l e t o p l a y  f o l l o w i n g week a n d d i s c u s s e d  i n t h e caucus as w e l l . planned  After  f o r the  any s u g g e s t e d arrangements and  s t r a t e g i e s , t h e w h i p i n d i c a t e s t o t h e members when  must be a v a i l a b l e f o r v o t e s , be  h e l d , a n d what  i s expected  when o t h e r v o t e s  could  i n t h e way o f House  He may a l s o r e m i n d t h e members t o c o n t a c t speak i n any p a r t i c u l a r d e b a t e . disciplinarian.  In  o f t h e whip and t h a t o f t h e  House l e a d e r h a s o u t l i n e d t h e b u s i n e s s  party  Such a  must r e c e i v e t h e unanimous c o n s e n t o f t h e House.  House l e a d e r t e n d  the  agree t o ask the Speaker  possibly  attendance.  him i f t h e y  wish t o  The w h i p i s t h e c h i e f  He i s a l s o f r e q u e n t l y t h e c o n f i d a n t  members a b o u t t h e i r p e r s o n a l  problems.  He s h o u l d  they  party  o f the  be a l e r t  t o r e c u r r i n g absences on t h e p a r t  o f a member o r h i s l a c k o f  participation  t o w h i c h he"has b e e n  assigned.  i n those  He w i l l  activities  contact  t h e member a n d a t t e m p t  p r o b l e m r e s o l v e d so t h a t t h e MP may a t t e n d duties.  sentatives  f o r t h e many d e l e g a t i o n s ,  speakers f o r the various The  discipline.  i n the s e l e c t i o n of repre-  w h i c h t h e MPs a r e e x p e c t e d t o a t t e n d ,  filled  t o h i s parliamentary  T h e w h i p has some p a t r o n a g e t o e n f o r c e  W i t h t h e House l e a d e r , he a s s i s t s  t o have t h e  trips,  and  conferences  and i n choosing  debates.  p o s i t i o n o f C h i e f Government Whip i s one w h i c h i s  by p e r s o n a l  a p p o i n t m e n t o f t h e p r i m e m i n i s t e r , a n d one  OO  of h i s t r a d i t i o n a l tween  roles  has b e e n t o p r o v i d e a l i a i s o n  t h e prime m i n i s t e r and h i s backbench.  l e a d e r i n f o r m e d o f t h e members alty  t o him;  against  1  between  On t h e one  hand, t h e w h i p  d u t y has  is a liaison  hand,  he i s a l i a i s o n  o f f i c e r between  whip  officer  on t h e f l o o r o f t h e House.  G r a n t Deachman s a i d t h a t  he met  a n d on t h e  support Former  w i t h Prime  t h e p r i m e m i n i s t e r a s a man  responsibilities, minimum.  he t r i e d  However, he was  minister's  staff.  government Minister Because  w i t h so many  t o reduce these meetings t o a in daily  o o n t a c t w i t h the prime  James W a l k e r , a C h i e f  u n d e r Prime M i n i s t e r P e a r s o n , f e l t c o n t a c t w i t h the prime m i n i s t e r The  other  of the  T r u d e a u on a n a d h o c b a s i s when t h e n e e d r e q u i r e d . Deachman saw  their  t h e members a n d t h e  Government House l e a d e r c o n c e r n i n g t h e i r legislation  posi-  been  t h e p r i m e m i n i s t e r and t h e members c o n c e r n i n g  l o y a l t y and adherence t o t h e prime m i n i s t e r ;  loy-  interests  With the s t r e n g t h e n i n g  t i o n o f t h e Government House l e a d e r , t h i s divided.  He keeps t h e  a t t i t u d e s and o f t h e i r  and he d e f e n d s p r i v a t e members'  those of the Cabinet.  be-  c o n t e m p o r a r y government  that  Government Whip he had much g r e a t e r  t h a n do t h e p r e s e n t  whips.  w h i p meets f r e q u e n t l y w i t h t h e  Government House l e a d e r on House b u s i n e s s ; and the views o f the backbench r e a c h the cabinet  increasingly  through t h i s  channel. The leaders;  o p p o s i t i o n p a r t y whips a r e a p p o i n t e d by t h e  party  and t h e i r a p p o i n t m e n t s a r e n o r m a l l y a p p r o v e d b y  87  the  caucuses.  Their  members a r e now d e r s and  the  As  taken d i r e c t l y  to the  Relations  responsibilities  d i v i d e d between d e a l i n g w i t h  House l e a d e r .  complaints are relating  liaison  between t h e  three  passed  f r e e l y among them.  by  House l e a d e r ,  the  development o f p a r t y  could  through the gain  government  rule,  to the  House  government and  Before  tactics  that  the  some a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e  much more  leaders.  House l e a d e r s '  functions  w h i p s ' r o l e and  gist the  duties.  House l e a d e r s *  The  The  c o n t e m p o r a r y House l e a d e r  and  the  whip i s i n v o l v e d  ization.  Tom  Bell,  i n the the  r e l a t i o n s h i p t h i s way:  are  the  brains".  left This  "The  the  the  the  is  now.  parties and  the  communication time.  whips'  The  removed  whips  i s the  i s the  i n the  these  with  major  distinction  role.  major p a r t y s t r a t e -  c o n d u c t o f House  more m e c h a n i c a l a s p e c t s  Conservative  p h y s i c a l p a r t whereas the who  p o s i t i o n has  r o l e and  chief negotiator  in  a c c o m m o d a t i o n were made t h r o u g h  development of the  between the  is  opposition's  c h a n n e l s were much l e s s s o p h i s t i c a t e d a t t h a t  basically administrative  close  information  government's p l a n s  i f n e c e s s a r y , the  from the  leader.  opposition  could  w h i p s and,  problems  t h a n he  about the  Attempts t o reach  personal  much more i n v o l v e d  s t r a t e g i e s and  gain  lea-  t h e s e d u t i e s were assumed  w h i p was  whips, too,  party-  party  any  l e a d e r , but  some i d e a s  strategies. the  go  the  f u n c t i o n a r i e s are  o p p o s i t i o n than i n the  I t was  to the  House b u s i n e s s  i n the  the  a general  f o r the  businessj  of  whip, e x p l a i n e d  organ-  their  w h i p s d e a l more o r l e s s w i t h  House l e a d e r s  seem t o be  D o n a l d M a c D o n a l d saw  the  the  ones  their relationship  88  as  that  the  o f a commissioned o f f i c e r and a s e r g e a n t :  c a p t a i n of the platoon  a c t u a l l y t a l k s t o them." d u t i e s a s "a l i t t l e  we  " t h e House  are going  Stanley  Knowles v i e w e d t h e w h i p ' s  His perception  to do—and negotiates  leader  decisions—what  a n d so on; he t h e n up o f a c t u a l  have b e e n made a n d f o r t h i s  frequently reports House  was  passes  speakers".  depends on t h e w h i p t o c a r r y o u t many o f t h e  arrangements t h a t  the  more h o u s e -  o f t h e two r o l e s  l e a d e r makes t h e k i n d o f p o l i c y  t o t h e whip such d u t i e s as the l i n i n g The House  g o e s a r o u n d and  l e s s l e a d e r s h i p and a l i t t l e  keeping arrangements". that  but the sergeant  "You a r e  leader  t o t h e House  leader.  i s a senior cabinet  r e a s o n t h e whip  I n t h e government,  m i n i s t e r , and h i s r e l a -  tionship with  t h e w h i p t e n d s t o be v i e w e d a s s u p e r i o r t o a  subordinate.  In the o p p o s i t i o n  in  a s i m i l a r manner,  p a r t i e s , t h e two a r e  a n d a r e o f more e q u a l  status.  appointed  The  opposi-  t i o n w h i p a p p e a r s t o have more i n f l u e n c e i n t h e a f f a i r s the  party  t h a n h i s government  The d i v i s i o n  counterpart.  o f House and p a r t y  responsibilities is  u l t i m a t e l y a m a t t e r o f a c c o m m o d a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e House and  the whip.  find  some House  G r a n t Deachman s u r m i s e d , l e a d e r s who  tend  c l o s e t o t h e i r v e s t , and o t h e r and  easier style;  tends t o expand". on  t h e whip's a t t i t u d e .  very  "I t h i n k  ones who  case,  that a great  leader  will  cards  do i t i n a much f r e e r t h e whip's r o l e  deal also  I f the whip p e r c e i v e d  n a r r o w one, t h e House  you  to play a l l t h e i r  and i n t h e l a t t e r He f e l t  of  l e a d e r would tend  depended  h i s r o l e as a  t o a b s o r b some  work w h i c h w o u l d o t h e r w i s e be done b y t h e w h i p .  FOOTNOTES:  Chapter 6  1 A r e c e n t a d v i s o r y committee o n p a r l i a m e n t a r y s a l a r i e s recommended t h a t t h e O f f i c i a l O p p o s i t i o n House l e a d e r be g i v e n an honorarium s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f the whips. The report states: "The s a l a r y o f t h e Member who i s d e s i g n a t e d t o a c t a s House l e a d e r o f t h e o f f i c i a l o p p o s i t i o n be e s t a b l i s h e d a t $ 6 0 0 0 p e r annum. A l t h o u g h no c o m p e n s a t i o n i s now p r o v i d e d f o r t h i s p o s i t i o n , In o u r o p i n i o n , t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e r o l e warrants s p e c i f i c remuneration." R e p o r t o f t h e A d v i s o r y Committee on P a r l i a m e n t a r y S a l a r i e s and E x p e n s e s , O t t a w a , Queen's P r i n t e r , 1 9 7 0 , p a r a . 131, p . 42. No a c t i o n was t a k e n on t h i s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n , o s t e n s i b l y b e c a u s e t h e i s s u e w o u l d have c o m p l i c a t e d t h e d e b a t e on Members * salary increases. 2 S t e v e n s , G e o f f r e y , "The Commons' M a s t e r C r a f t s m a n " , Time ( C a n a d i a n e d i t i o n ) , O c t o b e r 1 9 , 1 9 7 0 , p . 1 5 .  90  C H A P T E R The  I n f l u e n c e o f P r o c e d u r a l R e f o r m on R o l e o f t h e House L e a d e r s  C h a p t e r one a s one in  ?  d e s c r i b e d the Standing Orders of the  of the major r e s t r a i n t s w i t h i n the a d v e r s a r y  parliament.  business.  R e f o r m s o f t h e r u l e s and  affect  t h e House l e a d e r s *  cedure  has a l w a y s  it  the development  was  increase led  existed  r e v o l v e d around  conduct  o f House  Concern  i n the Canadian  of the p o s i t i v e  The  reforms.  Almost  o v e r pro??  P a r l i a m e n t , but  s t a t e and  time o p e r a t i o n . into  a l l rule  f i n d i n g the best u t i l i z a t i o n  first  change was  the  of time  perhaps  through the f a l l  When t h e House c o u l d n o t k e e p  a c t i v i t y are subject  to e x p l i c i t  debate  from the Throne  t h e Budget debate  these time  time  by t h e o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s a l s o  and pace  reforms  of parliamentary  limitations. i s limited  to s i x days.  p e r i o d s amendments and  full-  f o r t h e House t o s i t  T o d a y a l l s p h e r e s b u t one  on t h e S p e e c h  i n the  t h r e e o r f o u r months t o a  t h e summer months and  were u n d e r t a k e n .  which  c h a n g e s have  w i t h t h e amount o f b u s i n e s s c o m i n g b e f o r e i t f u r t h e r  d a y s and  massive  to i n c r e a s e the l e n g t h of the  I t i s n o t u n u s u a l now  winter without a recess.  the  p r o c e d u r e s a r e bound  activities.  s e s s i o n s from the t r a d i t i o n a l  well  system  i n t h e amount o f c o m p l e x i t y o f government work  to significant  House.  House  I t i s on t h e b a s i s o f t h e s e O r d e r s t h a t  House l e a d e r s a r r a n g e and n e g o t i a t e t h e  to  the  to  The eight  W i t h i n each  sub-amendments  of  proposed  have a n a l l o t t e d t i m e  period.  91  P r i v a t e members b u s i n e s s , w h i c h u s e d cant for  til  a  signifi-  p o r t i o n o f t h e p a r l i a m e n t a r y week, i s now d i s c u s s e d o n l y f o u r h o u r s a week; and a g r e e m e n t s a r e n o t i n f r e -  q u e n t l y made t o expend d e b a t e s this  t o command  time.  on government b i l l s  The q u e s t i o n p e r i o d , w h i c h u s e d  into  t o extend un-  members h a d r u n o u t o f q u e s t i o n s , i s now l i m i t e d t o  f o r t y minutes.  Speeches f o r a l l types  of debates  are also  limited.  A r e v o l u t i o n a r y r e f o r m i m p l e m e n t e d i n I968 was t h e c a l e n d a r i z i n g o f t h e p a r l i a m e n t a r y y e a r and t h e removal o f the ding  scrutiny  o f t h e main e s t i m a t e s  committees.  l e n g t h y debate its  estimates  Supply  from  t h e House t o i t s s t a n  was p r e v i o u s l y g r a n t e d  only  i n t h e House, b u t now t h e government  after turns  o v e r t o t h e committee a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f  M a r c h a n d t h e y a r e r e t u r n e d a t t h e e n d o f May t o be v o t e d upon b y t h e House o f Commons.  In the place of supply  are t w e n t y - f i v e o p p o s i t i o n days, for  non-confidence  for  d e a l i n g w i t h any e s t i m a t e s  s i x o f w h i c h may be  days used  v o t e s , as w e l l as an a d d i t i o n a l t h r e e from  days  a previous session.  T h e s e p r o v i s i o n s and p r o c e d u r e s  provide other  controls over time.  o f House c o m m i t t e e s a n d t h e  referral  to these  The r e f o r m  effective  c o m m i t t e e s o f most government  legislation,  r e p l a c i n g an e x t e n s i v e use o f t h e Committee-of-the-Whole, was a l s o  intended t o decrease  a d d i t i o n of a report: stage  t h e l o a d on t h e H o u s e .  f o r government  however ( d e s p i t e t h e r e s t r i c t i o n s  The  legislation,  p l a c e d upon amendments  during this  s t a g e ) , has d e c r e a s e d t h e Impace o f t h i s  on House t i m e . tive  Other t i m e - s a v i n g reforms f o r the  legisla-  p r o c e s s were t h e e l i m i n a t i o n o f t h e r e s o l u t i o n  p r e c e d i n g money b i l l s , ways and means, and tions.  The  stage  t h e a b o l i t i o n o f t h e committee  removal o f the debate  on b u d g e t  on resolu-  l a t t e r r e s o l u t i o n s a r e put t o a v o t e a f t e r  c o n c l u s i o n o f the budget W i t h some r e s e r v a t i o n s , groups  reform  debate  the  or at another appropriate time.  t h e House l e a d e r s o f a l l p o l i t i c a l  had b e e n a d v o c a t i n g s u c h r e f o r m s f o r many y e a r s .  S p e c i a l committees  had b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d and  provisional re-  f o r m s t e s t e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e 1 9 6 0 ' s ; t h e m a i n p r o b l e m was of  convincing rank-and-file  of  t h e s e changes  would  p a r t y members t h a t t h e  outweigh  advantages  the disadvantages o f time  I n December o f . 1 9 6 8 t h e p r o v i s i o n a l r u l e s  allocation.  that  which  r e m a i n e d were made permanent b y a unanimous v o t e o f t h e House. These  changes  e f f e c t i v e l y withdrew  f r o m t h e House  leaders'  c o n s u l t a t i o n s many o f t h e t o o l s o f n e g o t i a t i o n t h a t  had  been  u s e d by t h e o p p o s i t i o n House l e a d e r s t o g a i n c o n c e s s i o n s from the government. The  area of greatest  however, was,  and  legislation.  Until  ment c o u l d  remains, time a l l o c a t i o n I965,  remained u n r e s o l v e d , f o r government  t h e o n l y f o r m a l ways t h e  govern-  s h o r t e n a d e b a t e were b y m o v i n g t h e p r e v i o u s  q u e s t i o n o r by limiting  controversy that  debate  imposing c l o s u r e .  The  first  method meant  t o the main q u e s t i o n of a b i l l .  I f the  even-  t u a l v o t e on  t h a t m o t i o n was  were v o t e d on w i t h o u t moving the to  the  previous  involved their  was  of the  bill;  d e b a t e on  the  speeches to the  to which  t h i s manner has  i t was  c r e a t i n g the defeat  advantage  however t h i s and  In the  the  The  i t s use  i t has  of  1964,  P r o c e d u r e and  S t a n d i n g O r d e r 32-A  other  allocated  f r o m one  the  matter of  i n the  for  official  opposition  i n the  has  equal The  opposition,  i n number o f t h e  Special new  Business time to  Composition of t h i s suggestions  commit-  five  representatives  f o r the  number o f o p p o s i t i o n members t o t h i s  be  ranging  ( t h e r e were  f o r each of the  representatives  Speaker would a p p o i n t  fear  frequently  proposed a  t i m e ) t o two one  even  p i p e l i n e debate.  for a sessional  1  stage  debate  distasteful  i n 1957  f o r each party  House a t t h a t  p a r t i e s , and  each  a u t h o r i t a r i a n government.  Organization  some d i s p u t e ,  representative  parties the  method,  a sub-committee o f the  t o government b i l l s .  limiting  r a r e l y been used f o r  closure  to provide  pre-  S p e a k e r became  Committee t o a l l o c a t e i n a d v a n c e o f d e b a t e t h e  t e e was  d i d not  Termination of  always been considered  s p r i n g of  Committee on  applied.  L i b e r a l government  been a t t r i b u t e d to  of  t o w h e t h e r members were  p u b l i c image o f an  of the  clauses  i t limited discussion  subject-at-hand.  t o government members, and  The  other  ended d i s c u s s i o n a f t e r a d a y ' s d e b a t e on  of a b i l l  of  The  that  subject  i n many w r a n g l e s a s  closure,  in  f u r t h e r debate.  question  main q u e s t i o n  vent extensive  a f f i r m a t i v e , the  other government  representatives.  committee on  the  94  nomination of the party would the  leaders;  and t h e Deputy S p e a k e r  c h a i r t h e committee b u t have no v o t e .  calling  o f an o r d e r f o r c e r t a i n  I f , p r i o r to  stages of debate, a  minister requested that  t h e m a t t e r o f t i m e be r e f e r r e d  the Business  that  Committee,  r e a c h agreement be a l l o t t e d If  f o r d e b a t e on a n y s t a g e o r s t a g e s  w o u l d v o t e on t h a t agreement  committee w o u l d e n d e a v o u r t o  on t h e maximum number o f s i t t i n g  t h e committee was  to  able to report  recommendation  referred.  agreement,  t h e House  w i t h o u t d e b a t e , and t h e  w o u l d become a n o r d e r o f t h e House.  made t o s i t b e y o n d t h e a d j o u r n m e n t  days t o  Allowance  h o u r on t h e l a s t  was  day o f  t h e o r d e r e d d e b a t e i f t h e committee's r e c o m m e n d a t i o n  was  unanimous.  unable to  I f , however,  make a r e p o r t if  t h e B u s i n e s s Committee  t o t h e House,  the debate would t h e n p r o c e e d as  no r e f e r e n c e had b e e n made.  a s S t a n l e y Knowles  The v i r t u e  emphasized l a t e r ,  was  of the  that  allocated  t o a measure  the  o r second stage of debate something  first  one  stage a t a time.  d e v e l o p e d , o r i f t h e government sals  was  not  proposal,  time would "Thus  be  i f during  far-reaching  produced unacceptable  propo-  o r amendments, t h e House c o u l d r e f u s e t o a c c e p t a t i m e p  limit  on t h e t h i r d  or fourth  The B u s i n e s s Committee by t h e m a i n leaders  committee  for their  ment was House was  embroiled  stage of debate". p r o p o s a l was  a n d was  comments.  then referred At t h a t  i n the f l a g  to the  party  t i m e , however,  parlia-  d e b a t e and t h e mood o f t h e  not conducive t o d i s c u s s i n g  p a r t i c u l a r l y a measure  t a c i t l y agreed to  procedural  which t h r e a t e n e d t o l i m i t  reform, the  "free  95  s p e e c h " o f t h e members. the  strongest  the  proposal.  The C o n s e r v a t i v e  o p p o s i t i o n t o a new f l a g ,  l e t t e r t o t h e l e a d e r s he i m p l o r e d ^  .p  ne  r  eply  Gordon C h u r c h i l l : and  refused t o accept  I n A u g u s t , 1964, K n o w l e s a g a i n  an a l l - p a r t y a g r e e m e n t on t h e B u s i n e s s  posal.  leader, then c r e a t i n g  tried  Committee.  t o reach I n a n open  them t o r e c o n s i d e r t h e p r o -  came f r o m C o n s e r v a t i v e " A l l o c a t i o n o f time  House  leader  i s a form o f c l o s u r e  i t i s the s t r a i t jacket of the order  o f t h e House t o w h i c h  4 I object".  He r e m i n d e d K n o w l e s o f t h e numerous  on w h i c h t h e r e  had been agreement  i n the past  to l i m i t the  t i m e on c e r t a i n m e a s u r e s , a n o b v i o u s r e f e r e n c e leaders'  consultations:  done o n o c c a s i o n ,  t i m e - h o n o u r e d p r a c t i c e o f t h e House.  o f t h e House a r e r e q u i r e d " . tion  He o b j e c t e d  that a representative of a party  to a limitation menced.  o f debate before  C h u r c h i l l ' s reference  members h a d b e e n p r o p o s i n g .  that  No f o r m a l to the  could bind  t o admit  expectah i s group com-  T h e y were l o o k i n g f o r some t h e House  leaders'  t o break an a g r e e -  point.  procedure that  orders  debate had even  a g r e e m e n t s some c l o u t i f a n y members t r i e d  The  acceptable  t o what t h e s u b - c o m m i t t e e  machinery which would g i v e  ment a t a l a t e r  i s an  t o binding the opposition  members was i n p a r t a r e f e r e n c e  procedural  t o t h e House  " L i m i t a t i o n o f debate by i n f o r m a l  a g r e e m e n t , a s i s now b e i n g and  occasions  committee,  "While  i n i t s August  r e p o r t , was f o r c e d  i t has n o t y e t been p o s s i b l e t o r e a c h  a l l - p a r t y accommodation...there  seems t o be w i d e - s p r e a d  yo  agreement t h a t  greater  the  best  p o s s i b l e use  tee  also  warned:  a t t e n t i o n n e e d s t o be of parliamentary  paid  time . ^ 1 1  to  ensuring  The  commit-  " . . . t h i s i s n o t an a r e a f o r l e g i s l a t i o n o r u n i l a t e r a l a c t i o n oh t h e p a r t o f t h e G o v e r n ment. Any change i n t h e r u l e s t o p r o v i d e machinery f o r the a l l o c a t i o n of time should, i n o u r v i e w , be worked out t h r o u g h c o n s u l t a t i o n among a l l p a r t i e s s i n c e t h e s u c c e s s f u l i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f any scheme w i l l r e q u i r e good f a i t h on a l l s i d e s . A s o l u t i o n by p a r t y ^ a g r e e m e n t p r e s u p p o s e s a w i l l t o make i t work".  The  Government, a n x i o u s t o  p r o b l e m , d i d e x a c t l y as and  on  May  I968  11,  order  15A  the  this  procedure  allocation  to  the  a business  time  feared;  order  p r o v i s i o n a l reforms, the create  of  committee had  l e g i s l a t i o n a p p e a r e d on  p r o p o s i n g , among o t h e r standing  resolve  paper  creation  committee  of  for  7 allocating  time.  The  committee w o u l d be  member f r o m e a c h p a r t y a p p o i n t e d by dations could  from the  propose that  r e f e r r e d to the three  party  days as  any  leaders. item  committee  to the  of  the  composed o f  S p e a k e r on  During debate a business or  If  and  notion  w o u l d be  out  of the  House.  no  become an  a g r e e m e n t was  reached or the  within  the  notice  a timetabling  w o u l d be of time  order  time s p e c i f i e d ,  put  to a vote.  could not  be  In the  shorter  report  could  be  within an  decided  with-  I f , however,  committee f a i l e d  a minister  m o t i o n and  minister  i t produced  unanimous r e c o m m e n d a t i o n , t h a t d e b a t e and  recommen-  stage thereof  for consideration  time f o r debate.  one  to  report  introduce  with  a f t e r a day's debate i t latter  t h a n two  event, the  allocation  days f o r each  of  s e c o n d r e a d i n g and t h e committee reading.  s t a g e a n d one d a y f o r t h i r d  S t a n d i n g O r d e r 15A a l s o  provided  f o r the Speaker  t o e x t e n d d e b a t e f o r n o t more t h a n two d a y s i f i n h i s o p i n i o n a p r o p o s e d amendment r a i s e d a n y new discussed.  The  proposed r u l e ; to a s p e c i a l  i s s u e s w h i c h had n o t b e e n  C o n s e r v a t i v e s once a g a i n l e d t h e a t t a c k however  on June 8 t h e y a g r e e d t o r e f e r t h e  p r o c e d u r e committee w i t h  b a c k on J u n e 11. committee was on t h e f i n a l  The  only  to provide  significant  change made b y t h e  f o r a four-hour e x t e n s i o n o f debate  day o f the a l l o c a t i o n  r e p o r t was  a n d one NDP guillotine  order i f a l l  a d o p t e d on d i v i s i o n ,  member r e m a i n i n g o p p o s e d .  members  the  Fears of  The  Conservatives this  y e a r s , o n l y two m a t t e r s were r e f e r r e d  to the business  The  one  Armed F o r c e s U n i f i c a t i o n B i l l  Government  i n the business  was  committee  House l e a d e r M c l l r a i t h  b r o a d c a s t i n g l e g i s l a t i o n was  c h a n n e l s removed  committee. When  b r o k e down ( J u n e  p r o p o s e d h i s own  referred  time  I965), alloca-  The  t o the business  but concessions agreed t o through the  House l e a d e r s ' government  also  three  such measure.  t i o n m o t i o n a n d t h e d e b a t e ended a f t e r t h r e e d a y s .  committee  who  c l a u s e proved unfounded a s , i n the f o l l o w i n g  deliberations  issue  instructions to report  w i s h e d t o do so had n o t had a n o p p o r t u n i t y t o s p e a k . committee  on t h e  informal  the need f o r a r e p o r t  or  motion.  The m a j o r a d v a n t a g e o f t h e b u s i n e s s House l e a d e r s was  that  committee  f o r the  i t would p r o v i d e the Speaker w i t h the  power t o e n f o r c e t i m e a l l o c a t i o n a g r e e m e n t s  r e a c h e d by  them.  yu  I n f o r m a l a g r e e m e n t s had through  an  contained  motion i f the  one  motion could cover  of the b i l l .  The  This  i n fact  w h i c h i t s use 1965  rules  business  was  o n l y one  But  stage  failed  c o u l d a l s o be  used  reforms,  to report.  used a f t e r a  O r d e r 32A,  t h e two  Thomas H o c k i n ,  touched  upon t h e  committee w h i c h r e n d e r e d  an  That stages debate indication  i f t h e d e b a t e became b o g g e d  i s what o c c u r r e d on  attempted.  15A  Order  or a l l remaining  proposed Standing o n l y be  Standing  government t o p r o p o s e i t s  committee  committee  i t would l i k e l y  down.  the  business  begun, u n l i k e t h e  that  obstruction.  p r o v i s i o n f o r the  own  had  habit of being broken, frequently-  i n a d v e r t e n t e r r o r o r a p r i v a t e member, a n d ' a House  O r d e r w o u l d remove s u c h also  the  bills  for  i n h i s study  immediate  flaw of  of the  i t useless:  " I f t h e Government i n d i c a t e s t h a t i t i s f e a r f u l o f mere ' g e n t l e m e n a g r e e m e n t s ' and a s k s f o r t h e a p p r o v a l o f t h e b u s i n e s s c o m m i t t e e , i t may find i t s request l u d i c r o u s l y counter-productive. The O p p o s i t i o n m i g h t f i n d t h e r e q u e s t s u s p i c i o u s and i n order to a l l e v i a t e t h i s newly-fanned appreh e n s i o n t h e Government may f i n d i t s e l f g r a n t i n g f a r more t i m e f o r d e b a t e by i t s use o f t h e b u s i n e s s committee t h a n t h e O p p o s i t i o n m i g h t o r i g i n a l l y have t h o u g h t o f a s k i n g f o r b e f o r e t h e Government f a n n e d a n a i r o f i n t r i g u e by a s k i n g f o r a s t r i c t time a l l o c a t i o n . O p p o s i t i o n s can be p e r v e r s e when Governments g i v e i n t i m a t i o n s t h a t perhaps t h e r e i s r e a s o n t o be. Informal g e n t l e m e n a g r e e m e n t s a r e o f t e n f a r more u s e f u l t o busy Governments because t h e y g i v e l e s s cause for Opposition suspicion." ^ Standing other reforms  O r d e r 15A  was  disappeared  a p r o v i s i o n a l r u l e which l i k e  f o l l o w i n g the  election  i n I968.  many A  99  f u r t h e r attempt a t time a l l o c a t i o n f o r government was  legislation  made by the new S p e c i a l Committee on Procedure and Organ-  i z a t i o n which presented t h a t year.  1  0  an e x t e n s i v e  r e p o r t on December 6 of  Rule 16A was the o n l y reform  unanimous a p p r o v a l  o f the House.  not t o r e c e i v e the  Rule 16A c a l l e d f o r a con-  t i n u i n g committee o f p a r t y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s — i n e f f e c t , the House l e a d e r s — t o make arrangements f o r the c a l l i n g , a t i o n and d i s p o s i n g of House b u s i n e s s .  consider-  I f the committee  not reach agreement on the time a l l o t m e n t  could  for a particular  measure, a m i n i s t e r could then i n t r o d u c e a time a l l o c a t i o n motion; and a f t e r two hours o f debate, i f a t l e a s t t e n members demanded i t , the motion would come t o a v o t e .  The i r o n y of  the r u l e , as p o i n t e d out d u r i n g the f i e r c e debate which f o l l o w e d , was t h a t no p r o v i s i o n had been made f o r a quorum of House l e a d e r s on the committee.  The Government House l e a -  der would be v i r t u a l l y f r e e t o e s t a b l i s h the t i m e t a b l e self.  him-  A l l three o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s were s t r o n g l y opposed  to Rule 1 6 A ; and f o r a time i t appeared as i f agreement would be l o s t f o r the other reform  proposals  as w e l l .  With  a House m a j o r i t y , t t h e L i b e r a l s could have waited out the storm and e v e n t u a l l y passed the procedure committee motion. However, r e c o g n i z i n g the s e n s i t i v e nature o f p r o c e d u r a l r e forms, the government o f f e r e d t o make the p r o p o s a l more p a l a t a b l e by a g r e e i n g f o u r stages  t o a l l o c a t e time f o r o n l y two o f the  o f a b i l l a t one time.  When t h i s was not accepted  by the o p p o s i t i o n , the government decided  t o withdraw the  JLUU  measure.  A l l a n MacEachen, a f o r m e r Government House  s o o n t o be The  p l a c e d In t h a t  post a g a i n , handled the  retreat.  government w o u l d w i t h d r a w t h e t i m e a l l o c a t i o n  refer be  i t b a c k t o committee  i f the r e s t  communication  rule  and  of the reforms  passed b e f o r e the Christmas r e c e s s .  House l e a d e r s '  leader,  I t was  channel that  could  through  the  a n agreement  was  reached. The time  most r e c e n t a t t e m p t  a t d e v e l o p i n g an a l l o c a t i o n  r u l e b e g a n w i t h t h e House p r o c e d u r e  w i t h Standing Order July, "the  I969.  75A,  R u l e 75A  B and  C,  1  1  provided that  committee and  passed under  a  specified  o r more s t a g e s o f a  bill,  such a motion without  and  i t w o u l d be  stated that to  decided without debate.  a minister  motion. two  D e b a t e on t h e m o t i o n  o n l y once a n d n o t  c o u l d n o t be  having given notice propose that  stage of a  notice rule  proposed  reached under  propose  The  75A  a l l o t m e n t t o be n o t l e s s t h a n one  motion would then a p p l y .  such  a  75B  third  rule  b y t h e government i f o r B.  A  day,  a time a l l o t m e n t f o r the stage then under  rule  public  p u t , any member s p e a k i n g  on t h e p r e v i o u s s i t t i n g  r u l e s as a p p l i e d under  came  c o u l d e x t e n d t o a maximum o f  f o r more t h a n t e n m i n u t e s .  f o r time a l l o c a t i o n  agreement  second  could, again without n o t i c e ,  h o u r s b e f o r e t h e q e u s t i o n was  allowed  public  i f a m a j o r i t y of the p a r t y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  a time a l l o c a t i o n agreement f o r any  bill,  The  in  a g r e e m e n t among  t i m e t o t h e p r o c e e d i n g s a t one a m i n i s t e r c o u l d propose  ended  closure  i f t h e r e was  representatives of a l l p a r t i e s " to a l l o t  of  sitting  minister, could  then  consideration,  day.  f o r a two-hour debate  B e f o r e t h e government moved  The on  same the  closure  101  to  a c h i e v e t h e time a l l o c a t i o n  and  acrimonious.  rule,  debate  A c c o r d i n g t o the Canadian  t h e House l e a d e r s met numerous t i m e s  had been s t r o n g Annual  Review,  i n an attempt  to r e -  12 solve and  the issue. 22,  on J u l y  that  C o n c e s s i o n s were o f f e r e d  " o p p o s i t i o n House l e a d e r s e x p r e s s e d  a s o l u t i o n was a t h a n d " .  Just  five  Government House l e a d e r a n n o u n c e d t h a t in  effect,  time  has  c l o s u r e w o u l d be a p p l i e d ,  75A a n d B have n e v e r b e e n u s e d , once—to  opposition expressed  f l a g debates.  i t s dislike  f o rthe rule,  D e b a t e was c e r t a i n l y  which provided the r u l e .  article  entitled  preted the public's  but r u l e  t h e income t a x b i l l .  dismay d i d n o t r e a c h t h e f e v e r p i t c h  tive  l a t e r , the  measure.  been a p p l i e d  debate  hours  optimism  l o w e r i n g t h e boom on a n y immediate u s e o f t h e  allocation Rules  by a l l s i d e s ,  75C  Although the shouts o f  o f the p i p e l i n e o r less  Bruce  intense than the  Hutchison,  ina  "A Yawn B e s i d e t h e G u i l l o t i n e "  percep-  inter-  reaction as:  "The p e o p l e , I b e l i e v e , a r e n o t i n d i f f e r e n t but i n t h e case o f a v a s t l y c o m p l i c a t e d p i e c e of l e g i s l a t i o n a r e c o n f u s e d , t i r e d , a n d b o r e d by a d u l l , i n c o m p r e h e n s i b l e a r g u m e n t . They could e a s i l y grasp the simple business of the p i p e l i n e c l o s u r e and r e j e c t i t s authors a t t h e f i r s t chance. T h e y c o u l d n o t hope t o g r a s p more t h a n 700 p a g e s o f l e g a l p h r a s e o l o g y a n d amendments i n n u m e r a b l e w h i c h b a f f l e d t h e b e s t lawyers and t h e r e f o r e they l e f t i t t o the government i n a b l i n d a c t o f f a i t h o r , more accurately, of desperation." ^  T h i s argument  c o u l d e q u a l l y be a p p l i e d  to the parliamentar-  i a n s who h a d b e e n d e b a t i n g t h e b i l l  f o r months.  l e a d e r s had attempted  t h e debate  to facilitate  T h e House  by d i v i d i n g the  l e g i s l a t i o n i n t o s e c t i o n s and v o l u n t a r i l y a g r e e i n g t o l i m i t the amount o f debate f o r each s e c t i o n .  By December, they  were o n l y o n e - t h i r d o f the way through the b i l l of-the-whole, and although  i n committee-  the o p p o s i t i o n House l e a d e r s  pro-  t e s t e d t h a t the v o l u n t a r y arrangements were o p e r a t i n g smoothly and  should n o t be destroyed,  they may have been s e c r e t l y  r e l i e v e d t o see the debate ended through government a c t i o n and t h e r e f o r e government p o l i t i c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . of 75C may not come as e a s i l y on a l e s s complex  The use  bill.  T h i s time a l l o c a t i o n measure, l i k e the many o t h e r p r o p o s a l s attempted, has a number o f inherent problems which p r o h i b i t i t s e f f e c t i v e use by the House l e a d e r s . difficulties Standing  i n the present  One o f the  rule i s a drafting error i n  Order 75B. Since the Government House l e a d e r i s not  s t a t e d t o be a necessary  member o f the " m a j o r i t y " o f p a r t y  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , the three o p p o s i t i o n House l e a d e r s may u n i t e a g a i n s t t h e government and propose a very a l l o c a t i o n o f time f o r some l e g i s l a t i o n .  extensive  However the r u l e a l s o  s t a t e s t h a t a m i n i s t e r must propose the time a l l o c a t i o n motion, and the q u e s t i o n becomes: how would the o p p o s i t i o n House l e a ders get t h e i r motion before the House? Rule 75B was o b v i o u s l y intended  f o r use i n f i l i b u s t e r s  conducted by only one o p p o s i t i o n p a r t y such as the 1964 f l a g debate o r the C r e d i t i s t e s ' blockade of c r i m i n a l code amendments i n the s p r i n g of 1969*  The Conservatives a r e  p a r t i c u l a r l y f e a r f u l o f t h i s time a l l o c a t i o n measure as i t would be r e l a t i v e l y easy f o r the two s m a l l e r o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s t o u n i t e w i t h the government a g a i n s t them.  One  103  must q u e s t i o n w h e t h e r t h e as  i t c o u l d mean a  lengthy  House l e a d e r s w o u l d use breakdown o f t h e i r  this  rule  communication  channel. R u l e 75A provide Unlike  i s s i m i l a r to past  f o r c e t o any attempts to  create  i n d i v i d u a l MP  arrangement.  Used a g a i n s t  r u l e w o u l d be  presupposes t h a t the support; the  and  the  any  His a b i l i t y The  the  s u s p i c i o n s of the  h e s i t a t e to  beyond an  source  time a l l o t t e d  the  government u n i l a t e r a l a u t h o r i t y t o o p p o s i t i o n have b u i l t  t o g i v e up  a debate  advanced f o r the  are attached  o v e r many y e a r s  govern-  which  In r e a l i t y ,  i t .  gives  concept  the  to  and  The  Would  i n f o r m a l agreement  75A  allocation.  his  through  rules  i s that they  be  agreement?  t o become minimums, and  c o u l d be  of  apply.  r a i s e d by  reason B  that  be  strongest  likely  caucus would  House l e a d e r some power,  i n f o r m a l House l e a d e r s  the  party  a g r e e m e n t among t h e p a r t i e s ,  have e n d e d e a r l i e r  expand t o f i l l  disagree,  a l i e n a t i n g some o f  a m b i g u i t y o f the  o p p o s i t i o n not  maximums t e n d  conceivably  to t h i s  strongly commit t h e  t o work w i t h i n t h e the  Parlia-  canvassed h i s caucus f o r  r a i s e d by Thomas H o c k i n w o u l d s t i l l  ment g o i n g  an  However, i t a l s o  s e v e r a l members who  I f t h e r e were g e n e r a l  points  could  the  unanimous  i n d e p e n d e n t Members o f  r u l e does g i v e  the  i t would  h e l p l e s s t o break  most e f f e c t i v e .  are  i t a l s o heightens  Further,  through  c r e a t i n g i n t e r n a l d i s s e n t and  members.  authority.  may  w o u l d be  House l e a d e r has  i f there  jeopardized. but  House o r d e r s  i n d i v i d u a l House l e a d e r may  f o r f e a r of  i n that  House l e a d e r s a g r e e m e n t s made u n d e r i t .  consent, the  ment, t h e  proposals  up  failure  t o r u l e 75C impose  great  o f a r g u m e n t ; and  the major t o o l which they  the of  which  time  resistance they  are  possess f o r  not  con-  104  trolling  the government.  t a s t e f u l package.  At the present  t i o n between t h e House for  limiting  R u l e 75 i s l o o k e d upon a s a  leaders  time,  Informal  dis-  communica  i s t h e o n l y w o r k a b l e method  d e b a t e on government  legislation.  105  FOOTNOTES:  Chapter  7  1 Unpublished memoranda t o the House o f Commons S p e c i a l Committee on Procedure and O r g a n i z a t i o n , S p r i n g , 1 9 6 4 . 2 Knowles, S t a n l e y , L e t t e r t o the E d i t o r , The J o u r n a l . August 2 5 , 1 9 6 4 . 3 Knowles, S t a n l e y , "An Open L e t t e r t o the Leaders o f the P a r t i e s i n the House of Commons", The J o u r n a l , August 14, 1964. .4 C h u r c h i l l , the Honourable Gordon, L e t t e r t o the E d i t o r , The J o u r n a l , August 20, 1 9 6 4 . 5 Canada, P a r l i a m e n t , House o f Commons, S p e c i a l Committee on Procedure and O r g a n i z a t i o n , Tenth Report, August 19. 1964. p. 4. T h i s document i s l o c a t e d i n the L i b r a r y o f P a r l i a m e n t . 6 I b i d . , p. 4 . 7 M a t e r i a l f o r t h i s and the f o l l o w i n g two paragraphs i s l o c a t e d i n Canada. P a r l i a m e n t , House o f Commons, the J o u r n a l s , June 1 1 , 1 9 6 5 , pp. 2 1 9 - 2 2 3 . 8 Can. H. o f C. Debates. I 9 6 5 t o I 9 6 8 . 9 Hockin, Thomas A., "The I965 P a r l i a m e n t a r y Reforms and the Future o f Canada's House o f Commons", A Paper presented t o ;the Annual Meeting o f the Canadian P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e A s s o c i a t i o n , Sherbrooke, Quebec, June 8-10, 1966, p. 8. 10 Can. H. o f C. Debates. December 6, I 9 6 8 . 11 Canada, Standing Orders o f the House o f Commons, Ottawa, Queen's P r i n t e r , I 9 6 9 , pp. 83-85. 12 S a y w e l l , John and Paul Stevens, Canadian Annual Review 1^68, Toronto, U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto P r e s s , I 9 6 9 , p. 12. 13 Hutchison, Bruce, "A Yawn Beside the G u i l l o t i n e " , The C i t i z e n , December, 1 9 7 1 .  106  C O N C L U S I O N This thesis  has d e s c r i b e d a n d a n a l y z e d t h e e v o l u t i o n o f  t h e r o l e a n d p o s i t i o n o f House l e a d e r s i n t h e o p e r a t i o n o f the  Canadian  House o f Commons.  The n e e d f o r t h e r o l e  out  o f the adversary nature of parliament.  The p r o v i s i o n o f  o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o express  o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e government  ways b e e n a n e s t a b l i s h e d  part  dition. ties,  With  o f t h e Canadian  t h e development o f d i s c i p l i n e d  open o p p o s i t i o n moved i n t o a c o n f l i c t  arose  has a l -  political political  trapar-  between t h e govern-  ment, s u p p o r t e d b y i t s l o y a l members, a n d t h e o p p o s i t i o n T e n s i o n between t h e s e g r o u p s increase  be  political  t h e m a j o r s c a r c e commodity o f t h e H o u s e .  parties  recognize that  o r g a n i z e d t o make f u l l  tical that  battle  their  use o f t h i s  c o n t r o v e r s y must  time and t h a t  the p o l i -  h a s t o be k e p t w i t h i n manageable p r o p o r t i o n s so  parliament can f u n c t i o n .  sible  The House l e a d e r s a r e r e s p o n -  f o r accomplishing these g o a l s . The  communication  c h a n n e l p r o v i d e d b y t h e House l e a d e r s  is  an e s s e n t i a l p a r t  it  the opposition parties  f o r debate  of the functioning of parliament. can l e a r n  i n advance t h e major  Through topics  and they a r e thus a b l e t o o r g a n i z e t h e i r p a r t i e s and  p r e p a r e a more c o g e n t the  was h e i g h t e n e d b y t h e phenomenal  i n t h e amount a n d c o m p l e x i t y o f government . b u s i n e s s ,  w h i c h h a s made t i m e The  parties.  attack.  The g o v e r n m e n t , t o o , c a n u s e  channel t o d i s c o v e r t h e p o t e n t i a l areas o f c o n t e n t i o n and  the degree  of opposition  likely  prepare a s t r o n g e r defence compromise.  t o be e x p r e s s e d .  I t can then  and, i f n e c e s s a r y , a g r a c e f u l  The c h a n n e l c a n a l s o be u s e d  to negotiate the  10?  order able  i n which the mix  of  c o n t r o v e r s i a l and  a c h i e v e d , the One are  business w i l l  business w i l l  advantage of the  private.  Both the  meet when t h e reassess  the  flow  government and  at  one  arise  n e e d a r i s e s and  the  change t h e  traditional  when he  t o an as  r i g h t of the  have no  agreement.  a s e n i o r and  for now,  the  consider  that  their  government b i l l s i s t h e i r o n l y the  government.  opposition It  The  only  volume and  complexity.  to, are  i f new  Parliament  c r u c i a l t o do  factors  factors to  so.  commit t h e i r  government  The parties power  party.  legislation.  proved s u c c e s s f u l . r i g h t to  s t a l l the  significant  rules  Until  The passage  i s a g r e e m e n t among t h e  is i t likely  of  tool for influencing  House  government b u s i n e s s w i l l Nor  Is  speak  method o f t i m e a l l o c a t i o n w h i c h  p a r t i e s support  i s u n l i k e l y that  leaders  s e v e r a l attempts to develop  none o f t h e s e e f f o r t s has  opposition  constantly  of these  member o f t h e i r  a l l o c a t i o n o f t i m e on  they  strength.  House  t o o l i s t h e i r persuasive  Chapter seven d e s c r i b e d  smoothly.  consensus a r r i v e d  One  powers t o  Their only respected  A  be  make  House l e a d e r s  Member o f  formal  can  The  afternoon  of debate.  f e e l s i t i s . n e c e s s a r y and  House l e a d e r s  thus able  dissipate that  more  appearance of  informal.  situation.  focus  b i l l s can  opposition  outside  are  accept-  meetings Is that  1  i t develops.  fluid  morning could to  an  they are  s i t u a t i o n as  I f an  more r a p i d l y and  House l e a d e r s  i s that  dealing with a very  debated.  non-controversial  concessions while maintaining Another advantage  be  i n the  the  leaders.  decrease  forseeable  in  108  future of  that  formal  time a l l o c a t i o n w i l l  conducting business  i n t h e C a n a d i a n House.  o n l y w o r k a b l e method o f o r g a n i z i n g and  ensuring  consultations perform  become t h e method  the conduct o f b u s i n e s s  i t s smooth a n d r a p i d f l o w  i s through  b e t w e e n t h e House l e a d e r s .  i s u n l i k e l y t o become more f o r m a l  meeting hours, p u b l i c a t i o n of d i s c u s s i o n s explicit  powers, but i t w i l l  more i d e n t i f i a b l e . role  nized.  The r o l e  informal they  i n terms o f r e g u l a r or provision of  become more e s t a b l i s h e d and  The i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e House  i n parliamentary  Thus t h e  activities will  leaders'  i n c r e a s i n g l y be  recog-  109 B I B L I O G R A P H Y No b o o k s o r a r t i c l e s h a v e b e e n w r i t t e n on C a n a d i a n House l e a d e r s . A s most o f t h e m a t e r i a l f o r t h i s t h e s i s came f r o m i n t e r v i e w s a n d i n f o r m a l d i s c u s s i o n s , I am l i s t i n g t h e s e i n t e r v i e w s f i r s t , f o l l o w e d by g e n e r a l works r e l a t i n g t o t h e C a n a d i a n p a r l i a m e n t , n e w s p a p e r a r t i c l e s , and g e n e r a l w o r k s on t h e B r i t i s h p a r l i a m e n t . I.  Personal  Interviews  and O t h e r D i r e c t  Sources of Enquiry.  A t k i n s o n , M i c h a e l , Member o f t h e L e g i s l a t i v e 1971- 2; J u l y 26, 1972.  Secretariat,  B a l d w i n , G e r a l d , C o n s e r v a t i v e House l e a d e r , 1968 t o t h e p r e s e n t ; J u n e 29, 1972. Bell,  Thomas, C o n s e r v a t i v e Whip, 1968 t o t h e p r e s e n t ; J u n e 29; 1972.  Blue,  Sandy, Member o f t h e L e g i s l a t i v e S e c r e t a r i a t , 1971 t o t h e p r e s e n t ; J u l y 28, 1972.  Caouette, R e a l , Leader o f t h e R a i l l i m e n t s des C r e d i t i s t e s , 1963-72, and t h e S o c i a l C r e d i t P a r t y o f C a n a d a , 1972 t o t h e p r e s e n t ; J u l y 5, 1972. Chevrier, the Honourable L i o n e l , 1958-63, J u l y 13, 1972.  Liberal  House  leader,  C h u r c h i l l , t h e H o n o u r a b l e G o r d o n , C o n s e r v a t i v e House l e a d e r , ( t h e g o v e r n m e n t , 1959-63; and t h e o p p o s i t i o n , 1 9 6 3 - 6 5 ) ; c o r r e s p o n d e n c e w i t h t h e a u t h o r , A u g u s t 12, 1972. Deachman, G r a n t , L i b e r a l C h i e f G o v e r n m e n t 1972- 3; J u n e 28, 1972.  Whip,  Fairney, Robert, Secretary to the Conservative 1958 t o t h e p r e s e n t ; J u l y , 1972. F a i r w e a t h e r , Gordon, C o n s e r v a t i v e J u n e 29, 1972. F o r t i n , Andre, C r e d i t i s t e 1969 t o t h e p r e s e n t ;  Whip,  Member o f P a r l i a m e n t ;  House l e a d e r , J u n e 29, 1972.  F r a s e r , A l i s t a i r , C l e r k o f t h e H o u s e o f Commons, 1967 t o t h e p r e s e n t ; s e v e r a l i n f o r m a l d i s c u s s i o n s , 1972. G r e e n , t h e H o n o u r a b l e Howard, C o n s e r v a t i v e H o u s e l e a d e r , ( i n f o r m a l l y 1955 t o 1957; and t h e g o v e r n m e n t , 1 9 5 7 - 5 9 ) ; A u g u s t , 1972.  110  H a r r i s , the Honourable Walter, L i b e r a l 1953-57; A u g u s t 13, 1972.  G o v e r n m e n t House  Jackson, Robert, D i r e c t o r of the L e g i s l a t i v e 1971-2; J u l y 14, 1972. 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