UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Causes of agitation for one Prairie province Brangwin, Christopher James 1973

You don't seem to have a PDF reader installed, try download the pdf

Item Metadata

Download

Media
UBC_1973_A8 B73_5.pdf [ 5.1MB ]
[if-you-see-this-DO-NOT-CLICK]
Metadata
JSON: 1.0101325.json
JSON-LD: 1.0101325+ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 1.0101325.xml
RDF/JSON: 1.0101325+rdf.json
Turtle: 1.0101325+rdf-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 1.0101325+rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 1.0101325 +original-record.json
Full Text
1.0101325.txt
Citation
1.0101325.ris

Full Text

cop.  CAUSES OF AGITATION FOR ONE PRAIRIE PROVINCE.  by CHRISTOPHER JAMES  BRANGWIN  B.Ed., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1971. D i p . Geog. U n i v e r s i t y o f London, 1969.  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS  FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER  in  OF ARTS  t h e Department of GEOGRAPHY  We a c c e p t required  this  thesis  as conforming  to the  standard.  THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H 1973  COLUMBIA  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r  an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the  L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e  and study.  I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head o f my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n  of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my written  permission.  C.J.  Department o f  GEOGRAPHY  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada  Date  A P R I L 10TH, 19 73  BRANGWIN  - i AB3TRACT  The the  specific  objective of this  causes o f a g i t a t i o n  thesis  i s t o examine  f o r the establishment  province  t o encompass t h e t h r e e  Alberta,  Saskatchewan and M a n i t o b a , o r t h e P r a i r i e  Regional  1  such  I t i s argued here,  constitute a distinctive  region.  elusive  however, t h a t t h e  r e g i o n o f Canada,and  argument c a n be d e f e n d e d by l o o k i n g i n t o t h e  historical, to  provinces of  s t u d i e s a r e hampered b y t h e somewhat  meaning o f ' r e g i o n . Prairies  existing  o f one  cultural  adopt a c o l l e c t i v e  concerning  common  and economic need f o r P r a i r i e philosophy  towards t h e i r  people  lives  g o a l s , a n d , more r e c e n t l y , a n a n t a g o n i s m  towards E a s t e r n Canadian economic domination  over  the P r a i r i e  provinces.  Such a view o f t h e t h r e e P r a i r i e times  stimulated the question  together discuss Alberta, the  province?  join  The C o n f e r e n c e  to  q u e s t i o n was most r e c e n t l y h e l d a t L e t h b r i d g e ,  and from t h e p r o c e e d i n g s  stimulus  A  - Why d o n ' t t h e y  a n d c r e a t e one P r a i r i e this  p r o v i n c e s h a s many  and i n t e r e s t  i n this  of this  conference  comes  topic.  further objective i s to identify  the interesting  growth o f c o - o p e r a t i v e o r g a n i s a t i o n s which  transcend  political  boundaries within  suggested that these that the  the P r a i r i e s .  are i n d i r e c t  It is  response t o the f a c t  t h e r e g i o n needs a c o - o p e r a t i v e  a p p r o a c h t o many o f  problems t h a t a r e f a c e d by t h e whole r e g i o n .  indeed  This i s  a cause f o r a g i t a t i o n i n t h a t i n t e g r a t i o n i s  increasing political pointed  i n the Prairies. unification  Argument c a n be made t h a t  i s the ultimate  step.  I t must be  o u t t h a t t h e w r i t e r has n o t taken a stand  advisability  o f the idea, but merely  to identify  on t h e t h e bases  of the a g i t a t i o n f o r i t .  The  method o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t h i s work i s t o  determine the extent considered to  t o which t h e P r a i r i e  provinces  t o h a v e an i d e n t i t y w h i c h p o i n t s  c o u l d be  particularly  t h e Western a l i e n a t i o n q u e s t i o n .  A measure o f t h e f o l l o w i n g f o r t h e i d e a o f P r a i r i e union  i s given.  This  i s examined w i t h  i n c r e a s i n g number o f o r g a n i s a t i o n s with  regard  to the  that concern  themselves  a P r a i r i e h i n t e r l a n d , a s o p p o s e d t o an a r e a o f  influence Prairie  contained  by t h e p o l i t i c a l  borders  o f one o f t h e  provinces.  The definable  conclusion  i s that the P r a i r i e s  i d e n t i t y which i s predominantly  do h a v e a a result of  the  f e e l i n g o f Western a l i e n a t i o n i n the P r a i r i e s .  desire  to c o n t r o l  t h e i r own  Prairie organisations. does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y  future  stimulates  t h e growth o f  The a g i t a t i o n f o r P r a i r i e  express  itself  u n i o n , b u t i n terms o f P r a i r i e  i n terms o f a  co-operation.  The  unity political  -ivTABLE OF CONTENTS  CHAPTER I .  INTRODUCTION  CHAPTER I I .  THE HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE.  CHAPTER I I I .  THE ONE PRAIRIE PROVINCE CONFERENCE AND THE SUPPORT  1 16  FOR  THE IDEA.  40  CHAPTER I V .  PRAIRIE IDENTITY.  60  CHAPTER V.  REGIONAL CO-OPERATION WITHIN THE  CHAPTER V I .  PRAIRIE PROVINCES.  66  CONCLUSION  81  BIBLIOGRAPHY.  90  APPENDIX 1.  THE PRAIRIES AS A REGION.  98  APPENDIX 2. APPENDIX 3.  ATTENDANCE AT THE ONE PRAIRIE PROVINCE CONFERENCE. THE ALBERTA ELECTORAL STUDY, 1969. 100 D.K. ELTON. 102  APPENDIX 4.  PRAIRIE IDENTITY STUDY.  104  APPENDIX 5 .  "JURISDICTION OF FEDERAL 'REGIONAL OFFICES, AGENCIES, DIVISIONS, OR BRANCHES IN THE PRAIRIE PROVINCES, 1970." DR. CARD.  107  -vL I S T OF TABLES:  TABLES  I, I I , I I I  TABLE I TABLE I I TABLE. I l l  A MEASURE OF THE DEGREE TO WHICH ALIENATION IS F E L T BY A SAMPLE OF PEOPLE FROM ALBERTA.  44  WESTERN ALIENATION - GREATER BENEFITS TO EASTERN CANADIANS.  44  WESTERN ALIENATION - TARIFF TO PROTECT EASTERN MANUFACTURERS.  44  WESTERN ALIENATION • FEDERAL GOVERNMENT.  CONCERN OF  THE 44  TABLE I V , V  A MEASURE FOR THE SUPPORT OF ONE PRAIRIE PROVINCE IDEA.  TABLE V I  CONTENT ANALYSIS OF STUDENT RESPONSE TO A QUESTION ON THE ONE PRAIRIE PROVINCE IDEA.  52  ECONOMIC DISPARITIES WITHIN THE PRAIRIE PROVINCES. VALUE ADDED IN GOODS-PRODUCING INDUSTRIES AND PERCENTAGE ANALYSIS BY PRAIRIE PROVINCES 1967.  55  PRAIRIE IDENTITY.  61  PRAIRIE IDENTITY - CONTENT ANALYSIS ON PRAIRIE IDENTITY STUDY. (OPEN-ENDED QUESTION).  62  TABLE V I I  TABLE  VIII  TABLE IX  THE 50  -viTABLE OF MAPS  TERRITORIAL DISTRICTS OF CANADA 1898  PRAIRIE TERRITORIAL DISTRICTS 1898  I w i s h t o a c k n o w l e d g e my d e b t o f g r a t i t u d e t o t h e many p e o p l e who were so w i l l i n g t o h e l p me; and e s p e c i a l l y t o my a d v i s o r , Dr. J.V. M i n g h i , ( U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia) f o r the encouragement he h a s e x t e n d e d t o me, and a l s o t o Dr. B.Y. C a r d ( U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a ) , D r . D.K. E l t o n (University o f L e t h b r i d g e ) , and t o my f e l l o w g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s .  CJB University of B r i t i s h 1973.  Columbia  -1CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION  " I t i s a l e s s o n w h i c h a l l h i s t o r y t e a c h e s w i s e men, t o p u t t r u s t i n i d e a s and n o t i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s . " Emerson,  This  t h e s i s i s a study o f r e g i o n a l i s m  Integration Political,  as t h e y e x i s t w i t h i n  the P r a i r i e  derived  of t e r r i t o r i a l  down e x i s t i n g p o l i t i c a l some d i s c o n t e n t  with  presumably notions and do.  the present  of this  Closely context  i n t o one.  c h a n g e and o f  breaking  i s presumably  s t r u c t u r e , and t h e r e a r e should  be  of the p o t e n t i a l l y revised  t h e degree o f i n t e g r a t i o n t h a t has  taken place'among A l b e r t a ,  topic  rise to  h e l d o f what t h e new s t r u c t u r e  coupled with  form the b a s i s  processes  provinces  s t r u c t u r e s , there  I t i s these notions  structure  provinces.  l a n d s c a p e have g i v e n  i d e a o f amalgamating t h e P r a i r i e  B e h i n d any i d e a  and o f p o l i t i c a l  the P r a i r i e  economic and c u l t u r a l l y  i m p i n g i n g upon the  M i s c e l l a n i e s : War  Saskatchewan  and M a n i t o b a  o f t h e One P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e  that  i d e a and t h e  thesis.  allied  to regional  studies  i n the Canadian  i s t h e s t u d y o f t h e f e d e r a l s y s t e m o f government.  -2-  A federation  i s b a s e d on i t s r e g i o n a l  for  each i n d i v i d u a l e n t i t y w i t h i n  its  own  identity.  federated of  state  the f e d e r a l  allows  constitutes system.  The  considerable  to co-exist within  the f e d e r a t i o n to  The i d e a large  during  interest p r e s s was  t o each  part  government  the p o l i t i c a l  area,  divisions  unless  they are  jurist,  article  The  into  has b e e n  f i r s t major  agitation  t h e d e b a t e on autonomy o f  into confederation  t h e Hon.  W.F.  The  In  Turgeon, p u b l i s h e d  and a l m o s t p r e d i c t a b l y  generated i n response.  of  i n 1905.  i n a n a t i o n a l magazine,"*" w h i c h  i n the idea,  an  i d e a was  active endorsed  o f t h e C a n a d i a n Bank o f  Commerce, by F.W.  a member o f p a r l i a m e n t f o r  1. W.F.A. T u r g e o n , " I ' d U n i t e t h e P r a i r i e s , " M a c l e a n s M a g a z i n e , (Feb. 1, 1 9 3 2 ) , p . 1 7 .  1932 a  stimulated  by S i r J o h n A i r d , p r e s i d e n t Turnbull,  one  put  T e r r i t o r i e s p r i o r to the entry  and S a s k a t c h e w a n  provocative  whole  t h e component  the Canadian f e d e r a t i o n  o f the Northwest  well-known  to f o s t e r  of i n t e g r a t i n g the P r a i r i e provinces  f o r such union occurred  the  allows  change.  unit within  Alberta  gains  become a n a c h r o n i s t i c  f o r w a r d on numerous o c c a s i o n s .  part  and  o f the  f e d e r a l system o f  and t h u s , as i n a l l f e d e r a t i o n s ,  susceptible  the f e d e r a t i o n  A t t h e same t i m e u n i t y  the provinces  within  differences  -3-  Regina,  and 2 Manitoba. Royal  The  i s s u e was  C o m m i s s i o n on  Prairie legislatures significant political  This Province the  significantly,  by P r e m i e r raised  again  literature  of the P r a i r i e  at  the 3  of i n a c t i v i t y  i d e a i s concerned,  records of reveal  no  as  and  years.  f a r as  t h e One  Prairie  associated with  p o s t war  t o o , t h a t t h e war  one  twenty  i s probably  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f t h e war  the  the r e g i o n i n t o  f o r a p e r i o d of over  more p r e s s i n g , and  i n 1937  and  provinces  discussion of uniting  l o n g gap  of  Dominion P r o v i n c i a l R e l a t i o n s .  historical  unit  Bracken  years  stimulated a  C a n a d i a n a l l e g i a n c e as o p p o s e d t o a r e g i o n a l  being greater  one.  W i t h the growing awareness o f economic problems the P r a i r i e directed and  provinces  at resource  particularly  i n the e a r l y  1960's, j o i n t  d e v e l o p m e n t among t h e  between S a s k a t c h e w a n and  three  facing  programmes provinces,  Manitoba,  2.  J . B r a c k e n , E x h i b i t No. 32 f r o m t h e R e c o r d s o f t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n on D o m i n i o n P r o v i n c i a l R e l a t i o n s (RG 33/23. V o l . 2 ) . F i l e d Dec. 28, 1937. In t h i s b r i e f Premier B r a c k e n o u t l i n e s c o r r e s p o n d e n c e and p r e s s s t a t e m e n t s o f 19 32, more o f w h i c h i s u s e d i n C h a p t e r 2 o f t h i s t h e s i s .  3.  Rowel1 & S i r o i s C o m m i s s i o n . Report o f the Royal Commission on D o m i n i o n - P r o v i n c i a l R e l a t i o n s , Books 1 and 2 and Documents. Canada 1867-1939.  -4-  encouraged a r e g i o n a l union o f t h e P r a i r i e s  rather  division  jurisdictions.  by p o l i t i c a l  Many p r o b l e m s r e l a t i n g  boundaries  into three  t o t h e economy o f t h i s  than a  region  were  common o n e s , n o t t h e l e a s t o f w h i c h was t h e d o m i n a t i o n was  felt  freight  from E a s t e r n  that  Canada; s u c h a r g u m e n t s as u n f a i r  r a t e s were a n d s t i l l  a r e commonplace, a n d l a r g e l y  were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a m a s s i v e p r o t e s t i n 1959 b y P r a i r i e 4 farmers. The i d e a o f p o l i t i c a l u n i o n o f t h e P r a i r i e s a g a i n was  present  i n newspapers, p a r t i c u l a r l y  as a r e s u l t o f  British the  C o l u m b i a ' s P r e m i e r , W.A.C. B e n n e t t ' s p r o p o s a l s i n 5 1968 F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l C o n f e r e n c e . Here P r e m i e r  Bennett c a l l e d to  five,  for a reduction  i n t h e number o f p r o v i n c e s  f o l l o w i n g t h e f i v e economic r e g i o n s  used by t h e F e d e r a l  o f Canada a s  Government f o r t h e r e c o r d s 6 Dominion Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s .  of the  4.  W e s t e r n Farm D e l e g a t i o n , On t o O t t a w a , 19 59. A r e p o r t on a d e l e g a t i o n t o Ottawa. A p r o t e s t on c o n d i t i o n s f a c i n g P r a i r i e farmers.  5.  W.A.C. B e n n e t t , F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l C o n f e r e n c e , 1969, p . 1 0 .  6.  The f i v e r e g i o n s a r e A t l a n t i c , Quebec, O n t a r i o , P r a i r i e s and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The N o r t h w e s t T e r r i t o r y a n d t h e Yukon T e r r i t o r y were i n c l u d e d i n t o t h e P r a i r i e s a n d B r i t i s h Columbia r e s p e c t i v e l y .  Ottawa,  -5-  More r e c e n t l y  t h e q u e s t i o n o f P r a i r i e i n t e g r a t i o n has  been r a i s e d a g a i n i n L e t h b r i d g e , A l b e r t a . This conference, 7 h e l d i n May 1970, a t t r a c t e d s p e a k e r s and r e g i s t r a n t s f r o m 8 all  o v e r Canada.  reveal  The p r o c e e d i n g s ,  edited  three fundamental q u e s t i o n s .  agitation  f o r P r a i r i e union?  implemented i n c l u d i n g effects  could  This  What a r e t h e c a u s e s o f  How w o u l d s u c h a u n i o n be  c o n s t i t u t i o n a l problems?  answers t h e f i r s t  question:  causes o f a g i t a t i o n f o r P r a i r i e union? clarification.  The h i s t o r i c a l  unification,  recognising  for  are not n e c e s s a r i l y  interest  and  however t h a t  made b y t h e w r i t e r ; been s e r i o u s l y the basis  geographic  possible  What a r e t h e  The q u e s t i o n  needs  of the idea  of Prairie  the h i s t o r i c a l  the bases  bases  f o r the present  following.  No a t t e m p t t o j u s t i f y  and  What  a s p e c t s a r e o f paramount  i n understanding the roots  the idea  Elton,  be e x p e c t e d f r o m s u c h a u n i o n ?  thesis  importance  b y D.K.  the a d v i s a b i l i t y o f the idea i s  i t i s enough t o a c c e p t  postulated,  that  i n t h e p a s t and more  f o r such union w i l l  t h e i d e a has recently,  be e x a m i n e d f r o m a  political  view.  7. S p o n s o r e d by t h e U n i v e r s i t y Lethbridge Herald.  o f L e t h b r i d g e and t h e  8. D.K. E l t o n , ( e d ) , One P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e ? A Question For C a n a d a , 19 70. R e f e r r e d t o l a t e r as t h e L e t h b r i d g e Conference.  -6This looks  t h e s i s i s a study  to the  r e c o g n i t i o n of the  administrative interests.  in Political  areas  so as  Recognition  9 G e o g r a p h y as i t  need t o a l i g n  political-  to c o i n c i d e with.socio-economic  of regional i d e n t i t y  and  diversity 10  has  long played  a part i n p o l i t i c a l  geographic  literature.  9.  The d e f i n i t i o n o f P o l i t i c a l G e o g r a p h y , " t h e s p a t i a l a n a l y s i s o f p o l i t i c a l phenomena", i s as u s e d by K a s p e r s o n and M i n g h i i n R.E. K a s p e r s o n and J.V. Minghi, ( e d s ) , The S t r u c t u r e o f P o l i t i c a l Geography,19 6 9 , p . x i .  10.  Many examples o f p o l i t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n s t u d i e s can be cited. Those a d d i n g s i g n i f i c a n t l y to the background reading of the w r i t e r a r e : E. Moore, "The C a u s e s o f A g i t a t i o n a f t e r 1901 E s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a New S t a t e i n N o r t h e r n New M.A. T h e s i s , New E n g l a n d U n i v e r s i t y , 1955.  f o r the South Wales,"  G. S p e n c e r , "The New E n g l a n d New S t a t e Movement - A P r o b l e m i n P o l i t i c a l G e o g r a p h y , " B.A. T h e s i s , N e w c a s t l e U n i v e r s i t y , 19 60. E.R. W o o l m i n g t o n , "The G e o g r a p h i c a l S c o p e o f S u p p o r t f o r t h e New S t a t e Movement i n N o r t h e r n New S o u t h W a l e s , " PhD T h e s i s , New E n g l a n d U n i v e r s i t y , 1963. E . D a l e , "The S t a t e I d e a : M i s s i n g P r o p o f t h e West I n d i e s F e d e r a t i o n , " S c o t t i s h G e o g r a p h i c a l M a g a z i n e , V. 78. ( D e c , 1 9 6 2 ) , pp.166-176. T.  F r a n c k , Why  A.J.  Federations  Hughes, E a s t A f r i c a :  Fail, The  1962.  Search  for Unity,  1963.  C. Ake, " P o l i t i c a l I n t e g r a t i o n and P o l i t i c a l S t a b i l i t y : A H y p o t h e s i s , " W o r l d P o l i t i c s , XIX, ( A p r i l , 19 67), pp.486-499. A. E t z i o n i , " E u r o p e a n U n i f i c a t i o n : a S t r a t e g y o f W o r l d P o l i t i c s , XVI, ( O c t . , 1 9 6 3 ) , pp/32-51.  Change,"  C.A. F i s h e r , "The G e o g r a p h i c a l S e t t i n g o f t h e P r o p o s e d M a l a y s i a n F e d e r a t i o n : Some P r i m a r y C o n s i d e r a t i o n s , " J o u r n a l o f T r o p i c a l G e o g r a p h y , X V I I , (May, 1963), pp.99-115. P.E. J a c o b & J.V. T o s c a n o , The Communities, 1964. A.  Etzioni,  Political  I n t e g r a t i o n of  Unification,  1965.  Political  -7-  a most r e c e n t  example c l o s e l y a l l i e d  Federation,  being  have t r a c e d  the  the  t o the  Maritime Union Study.  historical  development o f  a r o u n d w h i c h t h e y have been p o s t u l a t e d basis in  of present  this  r a t i o n a l e f o r the  These  the  and  studies  central  looked  at  idea the  idea.  Such i s the  case  have g i v e n 12  a t t e n t i o n to  the  thesis.  Although several writers structure of P r a i r i e  politics  Canadian i n s t i t u t i o n s , w i t h the Prairie  Canadian 11  no  agitation  w i t h the  for Prairie  i t s i m p a c t on  w r i t e r has  concepts of p o l i t i c a l provinces  and  dealt  i n t e g r a t i o n as  view of  union.  yet  An  Western  explicity found  understanding  examination of  in  the  the the  l i t e r a t u r e r e v e a l s , at best, a r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t the i d e a 11. F. Drummie, ( e d ) , The M a r i t i m e U n i o n S t u d y . A l s o G. Hawkins, (ed) ,~~The I d e a o f M a r i t i m e U n i o n , 1965. 12.  W.L. M o r t o n , "The B i a s o f P r a i r i e P o l i t i c s , " T r a n s a c t i o n s o f t h e R o y a l S o c i e t y o f Canada, V o l . S e r i e s I I I , (June, 1 9 5 5 ) , p.57. D.Smith, " P r a i r i e R e v o l t : F e d e r a l i s m and S y s t e m , " i n G. T h o r b u r n , P a r t y P o l i t i c s 1967. L.G.  Thomas, The  L i b e r a l Party  M.S.  D o n n e l l y , The  XLIX,  the Party i n Canada,  in Alberta,  Toronto,  1959.  Government o f M a n i t o b a , T o r o n t o ,  1963.  J . E . H o d g e t t s , " R e g i o n a l I n t e r e s t and P o l i c y i n a F e d e r a l S t r u c t u r e , " C a n a d i a n J o u r n a l o f E c o n o m i c s and P o l i t i c a l Science, X X X I I , No. 1, (Feb., 1 9 6 6 ) , p.6.  -8-  has  been p r e s e n t  a rather  cursory  common t o t h e writer that  f o r some t i m e . evaluation  three  this  thesis w i l l  of  the  the  Prairie  basis  will  be  to  the  useful  of the  the  t o be  union, or  i n the  Then t o o , a Prairie  Conference  at l e a s t  identity  significant  that  C o n f e r e n c e was  the  the  The  offing  i t examines  political f o r the  the  co-operation,  a basis  the  - One  title  Canadian Confederation  and  reached which  establishment  formed idea of more  following Prairie  thoroughly.  union.  adopted f o r the  the  time  growing awareness  to P r a i r i e  P r a i r i e Province,  Canada - a r e m i n d e r t h a t  the  a committee  t h e s i s examines t h e as  first  subject,  with  the  structures  conclusion  t o examine t h e  Prairie  this  Thus i t i s m a i n t a i n e d by  d e b a t e on  "Canada West C o u n c i l " ,  Lethbridge  are  reveals  idea of union.  i n future  indeed promises  and  only  problems t h a t  in that  f a c t o r s on  provinces,  the  presents  make a w o r t h w h i l e  literature  integratory  literature  some o f  provinces.  c o n t r i b u t i o n to the impact of  of  This  It is  Lethbridge  A Question  for  West i s a c h a n g i n g p a r t o f  that  to a change i n the whole f e d e r a l  of  i t s d e v e l o p m e n t may  the  point  structure.  ... p e o p l e , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e w e s t , see t h e c u r r e n t p o l i t i c a l f e r m e n t i n t h e w e s t as a s i g n t h a t f u n d a m e n t a l c h a n g e s a r e a t work - changes a l t e r i n g t h e e n t i r e r e l a t i o n s h i p of the west w i t h i n Confederation.  -9-  T h i s v i e w p o i n t m a i n t a i n s t h a t u n r e s t w i l l n o t be s u b d u e d by s e l l i n g wheat, t i n k e r i n g w i t h f r e i g h t r a t e s o r making s p e c i a l ' c o n c e s s i o n s ' to w e s t e r n p o l i t i c i a n s . The w e s t i s n o t l o o k i n g f o r h a n d o u t s f r o m O t t a w a . It is c l e a r t h a t one o f t h e m a j o r c h a l l e n g e s f a c i n g a l l C a n a d i a n s i n t h e 1970's w i l l be t o f i n d o u t what t h e modern w e s t r e a l l y w a n t s . As d u r i n g t h e '60's, a p o p u l a r C a n a d i a n q u e s t i o n was 'What does Quebec w a n t ? so d u r i n g t h e '70's t h e q u e s t i o n i s 'What does t h e west want?' 13 1  In l o o k i n g f o r "what t h e w e s t r e a l l y w a n t s " , examination  of recent press  to take  a g r e a t e r share  shaping  i t s own  To  understand  economic c o n t r o l  i n s o l v i n g western problems  and  t h e b a s e s o f t h e One  Prairie  a t "Western A l i e n a t i o n "  have t o be  a p p r e c i a t e d , as  Province from  they  idea  Eastern  are  the  t o g r o w i n g a w a r e n e s s o f t h e need f o r i n t e g r a t i o n w i t h i n  the P r a i r i e eventual  Region.  union,  integration, the  reveals a strong desire  regional destiny.  t h e arguments d i r e c t e d  key  articles  an'  t h r e e men  but  The  certainly  or a c e r t a i n who  end  now  product  of t h i s  i n t e g r a t i o n may  the need f o r economic  degree of  i t , i s recognised  l e a d the P r a i r i e  by  provinces.  The i d e o l o g i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s w h i c h s e p a r a t e them (The P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e s ) seem t o be f a r l e s s i m p o r t a n t t h a n t h e i r s i m i l a r i t i e s o f temperament and a p p r o a c h t o g o v e r n m e n t ... The p o l i t i c a l r e s u l t w i l l be a f a r more c o h e s i v e P r a i r i e b l o c k t h a n t h e r e s t o f Canada h a s been accustomed t o e n c o u n t e r i n g . 14  13.  G. M o l g a t , The West and Canada's C h a l l e n g e s f o r t h e 1970's, P a p e r g i v e n a t C a r l e t o n U n i v e r s i t y , F e b . , 1970, p.2.  14.  P. D e s b a r a t e s , " T h r e e Young P r e m i e r s New Young F o r c e on. N a t i o n a l S c e n e , " T o r o n t o S t a r , XNov. 27,1971)./  be  -10Referring  to the  (Saskatchewan)  idea  of P r a i r i e  union Premier  Blakeney  stated:  ... i t i s w o r t h a l o o k , s i n c e e v e r y C a n a d i a n p r o b l e m a p p e a r s t o be a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l p r o b l e m . I n t h a t c o n t e x t P r a i r i e u n i o n i s a good i d e a . 15  Premier union  Lougheed  calls  (Alberta), although  f o r a combined W e s t e r n  against  eventual  Prairie  approach:  I t h i n k t h a t w i l l be a f o r w a r d t h i n g f o r Canada t h a t t h e b a l a n c e between Quebec and O n t a r i o w i l l be t o a d e g r e e o f f s e t by p e r h a p s , a g r o w t h t o w a r d s p o l i t i c a l u n i o n i n t h e M a r i t i m e s and a t t h e same t i m e a s t r o n g e r and more u n i t e d W e s t e r n v i e w . 16  Premier calls  Schreyer  ( M a n i t o b a ) , who  supports P n a i r i e  union,  f o r a functional a l l i a n c e at this  Prairie  provinces rather  These views r e v e a l  than  that  t i m e between t h e 17 a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l one.  indeed p o l i t i c a l ,  cultural  relationships within  do  towards a changing Western o u t l o o k w i t h i n  the  federation,  have  point  Canadian developed  and  historically  the idea of P r a i r i e  15. L o c . C i t . 16.  Loc. C i t .  17.  Loc. C i t .  the three P r a i r i e  economic  provinces  i t i s t h e s e changes which  and  union.  and  most r e c e n t l y and w h i c h  underlie  -11-  Hypothesis The  and  Thesis  hypothesis  for political  Question  of t h i s  integration  f u n c t i o n o f the  changing  thesis  i s t h a t the  o f the P r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s regard  f o r Western  h e r e i n i s s i m p l y : What a r e  f o r t h e One  Prairie  Province  is a  Canadian  r e g i o n a l i s m w i t h i n the Canadian F e d e r a t i o n . contained  agitation  The  question  the causes of  agitation  Idea?  Problem The  p r o b l e m e x a m i n e d i s an  isolation  of the r e l e v a n t p o l i t i c a l ,  factors of integration region,  and  unification  to equate  as  they  e x i s t w i t h i n the  them t o t h e i d e a o f provinces.  The  An  i s of keynote importance  i t c o n t a i n s numerous s t a t e m e n t s  Study  and  e c o n o m i c and  cultural  Prairie  political examination  of the L e t h b r i d g e Conference  i t generated  the P r a i r i e s  The  as  o f the P r a i r i e  the proceedings that  identification  and  the  to t h i s  press  thesis  o f Western awareness  of  as a r e g i o n .  Area. P r a i r i e provinces in fact,  attempt to  a l l Prairie  and,  provinces  as  a strict  g e o g r a p h i c a l r e g i o n w o u l d be  However, t h e  southern  areas  most d e n s e l y  any  are c e r t a i n l y not  grassland  areas  into  justify  the  of the three p r o v i n c e s ,  populated,  Prairie unlikely. the  c o i n c i d e i n most p a r t w i t h  what  -12-  is  known as  "prairie",  come t o mean t h e fact  and  t o 1905,  the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s . confronted  the  the  geographical  experience. Prairie here Royal  as  The one,  region  when i t was  Then t o o ,  location  and  T h i s t h e s i s makes t h e  Commissions,and  the  i s taken  (See APPENDIX I ) .  A  region  Edward M c C o u r t : -  i s g i v e n by  part  directly  of  by  to  historical  assumption t h a t  a l a r g e body o f  in  common p r o b l e m s have  c o n s t i t u t e a r e g i o n , and  same a s s u m p t i o n  has  whole a r e a was  three provinces which r e l a t e d  provinces  t h a t the  the P r a i r i e  three provinces.  governed, p r i o r  area's  thus  the  i t i s pointed government  out  departments,  literature.  somewhat a s s e r t i v e v i e w o f t h e  Prairie  The P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e s c o n s t i t u t e t h e most homogeneous of the great n a t u r a l d i v i s i o n s w i t h i n t h i s country. I n s p i t e o f t h e abutment o f t h e Rocky M o u n t a i n s on t h e western f l a n k of A l b e r t a , a l l three, i n t h e i r s e t t l e d a r e a s , a r e p r i m a r i l y f l a t and a g r i c u l t u r a l ; t h e y a r e h o t i n summer and c o l d i n w i n t e r and t h e w i n d b l o w s h a r d and o f t e n a c r o s s them. The sun s e t s o v e r them i n a b l a z e o f c o l o u r b e y o n d t h e c o m p r e h e n s i o n o f anyone u n f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e P r a i r i e s ; and t h e g r e a t a r c h o f n o r t h e r n l i g h t s i s a common s i g h t t h r e e q u a r t e r s o f t h e year. The p r o v i n c e s a r e a l i k e i n h e t e r o g e n e i t y o f t h e i r p e o p l e , the Anglo-Saxon c o n s t i t u t i n g i n each something l e s s than h a l f o f the p o p u l a t i o n . A l l three are b o r d e r e d by A m e r i c a n s on t h e s o u t h and a v a s t , v i r t u a l l y u n e x p l o r e d h i n t e r l a n d on t h e n o r t h . They a r e young a g r e s s i v e and u n i t e d i n t h e i r h o s t i l i t y t o O n t a r i o . 18  18.  E. M c C o u r t , The  C a n a d i a n West i n F i c t i o n ,  1970,  p.5.  -13-  Source of The  Data underlying data  proceedings  of  the L e t h b r i d g e  t h a t t h e w r i t e r had that conference, politicians, trips  used i n t h i s  and  with the  t h e s i s i s the  Conference,  the m a j o r i t y  the  o f the  correspondence speakers  interviews conducted  government o f f i c i a l s  and  at  with  b u s i n e s s m e n on  two  to the P r a i r i e s .  I n a d d i t i o n , d a t a was c o l l e c t e d f r o m 19 20 the A l b e r t a E l e c t o r a t e Study and t h e 1965 M e i s a l s t u d y .  In e x a m i n i n g t h e h i s t o r i c a l a s p e c t s o f t h e t h e s i s 21 question, Lingard's book made i t p o s s i b l e t o i s o l a t e  the 22  original and on  t h a t needed a t t e n t i o n . S i m i l a r l y L i p s e t ' s 23 Macphersons works p r o v i d e d t h e i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e d  political 24  Morton's and  sources  and  p a r t y development i n the S w a i n s o n ' s books on  Prairie  the h i s t o r y  o t h e r works p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e o t h e r  t h e b a s e upon w h i c h t h e h i s t o r i c a l  E l t o n , The  provinces. of  Manitoba,  Provinces,  chapter  provide  sits.  19.  D.K.  A l b e r t a E l e c t o r a t e Study,  1969.  20.  J . M e i s e l , 1965  Canadian N a t i o n a l E l e c t i o n  Study.  21.  C.C.  L i n g a r d , T e r r i t o r i a l Government i n Canada,  22.  S.M.  Lipset, Agrarian  23.  C.B. and  M a c p h e r s o n , Democracy i n A l b e r t a : S o c i a l C r e d i t t h e P a r t y S y s t e m , 1953.  24.  W.L. M o r t o n , M a n i t o b a : A H i s t o r y , 1957. and D/ S w a i n s p n , H i s t o r i c a l E s s a y s on t h e P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e s , 19 70.  Socialism,  1946.  1950.  -14-  Government p u b l i c a t i o n s  relating  to c e r t a i n  views  the problem  were p r o v i d e d w i t h t h e R o w e l l C o m m i s s i o n 25 the B a t t e n Commission. In a d d i t i o n P o s i t i o n P a p e r s t h e l e g i s l a t u r e s o f each P r o v i n c e gave a p r e d i c t i v e 26 o f t h e West i n t h e 19 70's.  The  data pertaining  are d i r e c t e d  t o e c o n o m i c and  v a r y i n g d e g r e e s , was of  t o common P r a i r i e  the o r g a n i s a t i o n s  O t t a w a , and  themselves.  t h e s e b o d i e s are not always  importance  c u r r e n t e r a , cannot  recently  p u b l i s h e d , Zimmerman  25.  which  in  ultimately  constitutions  and  of could  contribution.  both from  be u n d e r e s t i m a t e d . 27 28  to the understanding of P r a i r i e found i n the  The  o f newspaper a r t i c l e s ,  p a s t and  t o be  view  a v a i l a b l e b u t where t h e y  be o b t a i n e d t h e y make a s i g n i f i c a n t  The  from  t h r o u g h the F e d e r a l Department  Intergovernmental Relations,  from  and  organisations  resource integration,  available  of  Gagan  identity.  Two  the books  , c o n t r i b u t e d much Other m a t e r i a l s  are  bibliography.  Two R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n s , The D o m i n i o n - P r o v i n c i a l C o m m i s s i o n , 19 37, and t h e C o m m i s s i o n o o n Consumer P r o b l e m s and I n f l a t i o n ( P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e s C o s t Study Commission) >1968. The l a t t e r c o m m i s s i o n a l s o h a s s u p p o r t i n g s t u d i e s . r  26.  P a r t i c u l a r l y Premier Strom's paper See a l s o F o o t n o t e 13.  - A C a s e f o r t h e West,  27.  C.C. Zimmerman and System, 1971.  Prairie  28.  D.P.  Gagan,  G.W.  Moneo, The  (ed) , P r a i r i e  Perspectives,  Community  1970.  -15-  Outline The Chapter  structure of this  thesis follows  this  I I i s an h i s t o r i c a l overview o f t h e P r a i r i e  dealing with  diversity  of ethnic  settlement,  o f a common e n v i r o n m e n t , common o c c u p a t i o n s pioneering.  Also  t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n by F r e d e r i c k  the  formation  Haultain  o f a Western o u t l o o k .  union.  immediately alienation  Chapter  prior  I I I analyses  t o the Lethbridge  and r u r a l  i n pointing to  The c h a p t e r  concludes  to the P r a i r i e  Conference,  identity  question  the  region.  co-operation  jurisdication  C o n f e r e n c e , and d i s c u s s e s  identity  does e x i s t  within  within  within the  a n d C h a p t e r V I c o n c l u d e s by e v a l u a t i n g  of P r a i r i e  attention  Chaper V examines t h e r e g i o n a l  t h a t h a s been shown t o e x i s t  the Lethbridge  apparent  and t o t h e d i s p a r i t i e s o f  i s d i v i d e d by p o l i t i c a l  Prairie  situation  Western  C h a p t e r IV p a y s p a r t i c u l a r  wealth that  Prairies,  the p o l i t i c a l  a n d t h e i n t e g r a t i o n w h i c h was b e c o m i n g  within the Prairies.  29.  the influence  a comment on t h e h i s t o r i c a l b a s i s t o t h e i d e a o f  Prairie  of  region  i n c l u d e d a r e t h e autonomy d e b a t e 29  and  with  breakdown.  this  t h e impact i n terms  and t h e degree o f i n t e g r a t i o n t h a t  the three  Provinces.  Premier o f Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s  t o 1905.  -16-  CHAPTER I I THE  An  HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE TO  Overview An  examination  o f the h i s t o r y o f the P r a i r i e  r e v e a l s a r e c u r r i n g theme, one political as did  PRAIRIE UNITY  the  unit  t o be  Prairie  not  provinces.  coincide with  nor with  formed out  any  The  which c a l l s  for a  o f what a r e now i d e a of union  provinces single  r e f e r r e d to  i n the  past  p e r i o d o f economic r e c e s s i o n  a p e r i o d of a f f l u e n c e , but,  p r e d i c t a b l y , came a t  a t i m e when i s s u e s o f p r o v i n c i a l - d o m i n i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p s were d e b a t e d . Canada, the  The  latter  inequalities  a l i e n a t e d from the E a s t e r n  c e n t r e , were s e e n as three  Prairie  The Prairie  i n t e r f e r i n g with  r e g i o n as  history  Confederation.  E.  administered  until  Oliver,  any  other  It is significant,  government under the  1.  Western  economic  economy o f  of the Western p l a i n s ,  i t i s known t o d a y , has  v a r i e t y o f governments than 1  the E a s t ,  the  and  the  provinces.  political  r e g i o n was  between E a s t e r n  as  one  region  in  albeit  a  a  the greater  the this  territorial  c o n t r o l o f t h e F e d e r a l Government i n  Manitoba achieved  The  witnessed  however, t h a t  unit,  or  i t s autonomy i n  C a n a d i a n N o r t h West, V o l . 1,  1870.  p.20.  -17-  The  remaining  until  area continued  the e x i s t i n g  were a d m i t t e d  t o be a d m i n i s t e r e d  a s one  p r o v i n c e s o f A l b e r t a and Saskatchewan  into the Confederation with p r o v i n c i a l  status  i n 1905.  The  A c t s o f 1869 p r o v i d e d f o r " t h e t e m p o r a r y  of Rupert's with  Land and t h e N o r t h 2  Canada".  Government  West T e r r i t o r y when u n i t e d  T h u s , t h e most f u n d a m e n t a l  'idea' o f  C a n a d i a n u n i t y was made p o s s i b l e b y t h i s A c t ; t h e i d e a o f political  i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e Western t e r r i t o r y  the e x i s t i n g sea  p r o v i n c e s t o form  a Canadian Confederation  from  to sea.  Mobility  o f people  i n the P r a i r i e s  by way o f t h e b i r c h b a r k which p l i e d the horse  prior  canoe, t h e York boat,  and p r a i r i e  cart.  steamers  F u r s were h a u l e d  B u t i n 1878 a r a i l w a y was  between W i n n i p e g a n d S t . L o u i s , w h i c h t h e n and t h u s  by t h e s e  r e a c h i n g t h e European o r  Eastern province markets.  to Chicago  t o 1870 was  up t h e Red R i v e r , a n d , f o r l o c a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ,  conveyances, u l t i m a t e l y  Europe and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s .  This  f o r immigrants  Connections  S t a t u t e s o f Canada, 32-33. V i c t . c . 3 .  built  allowed a connection  t o t h e s e a v i a t h e Great Lakes.  r a i l h e a d made a v a i l a b l e an e a s i e r a c c e s s  2.  with  were  from  available  -18-  via  the  l a k e route then o v e r l a n d to Winnipeg, but  was  a somewhat a r d u o u s  journey  and  inefficient 3 t o improve t h i s r o u t e .  d e s p i t e government i n t e r v e n t i o n By  1883  having of  the Canadian P a c i f i c taken  an  extremely  Railway  had  reducing t r a v e l l i n g  t h e E a s t e r n c i t i e s and W i n n i p e g .  Two  reached  thus  t h e W e s t e r n S e a b o a r d , and  of  Winnipeg,  years the  time,  shore  between  later  the  line  " N a t i o n a l Dream"  reality.  This unite  reached  a l l - C a n a d i a n r o u t e f o l l o w i n g the Northern  Lake S u p e r i o r , thus  became a  this  f e a t was  h e r a l d e d as  the C o n f e d e r a t i o n , but  t h e day  were h e a r d  the c o h e s i v e  f o r c e needed  among t h e numerous  to  platitudes  hints of negative aspects of  the  scheme.  ... s a i d t h e f a t h e r s o f C o n f e d e r a t i o n , ' L e t us b i n d the p r o v i n c e s together w i t h s t e e l r a i l s ' . 'Yes', was H u n t i n g t o n ' s r e p l y , 'but y o u a r e g o i n g t o b i n d them t o g e t h e r a t t h e e n d s . ' 4  3. F o r a c o m p r e h e n s i v e a c c o u n t o f t h i s , The N a t i o n a l Dream, Chs. 1, 2. 4.  s e e P.  Berton,  J . N e l s o n , "The P r o b l e m s o f Our P r o v i n c e s , " M a c l e a n s , (May 15, 1923), V.36, No. 10. p.13. ( H u n t i n g t o n , L.S., 1827-88. P o l i t i c i a n and A u t h o r . 1861 E l e c t e d l i b e r a l member o f l e g i s l a t i v e a s s e m b l y , Lower Canada. 186 3-64 S o l i c i t o r ' G e n e r a l o f Canada. 186 4-65 o p p o s e d C o n f e d e r a t i o n . 1873 p r e p a r e d c h a r g e s a g a i n s t Macdonald government i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h g r a n t i n g CPR C h a r t e r w h i c h l e d t o t h a t g o v e r n m e n t ' s downfall).  -19-  W i t h the development o f a r a i l w a y system w i t h i n Prairie  provinces  of Twentieth of B r i t i s h providing  and  in British  Century,  and the  t h e way  to t h i s  the Western T e r r i t o r y . Canada" d i f f e r i n g by  racial  f r i n g e w h i c h had  achieved  a relevance  prevalent i n their  t h e West, t h e  West was  a new  The  "Newer  occupation,  West was  a  pioneer  relevance within  that shifted  i t s concentration  of a g r a r i a n importance.  former  railway  c h a r a c t e r i s e d as  " O l d e r " E a s t by  introduced into  beginning  increased mobility into  influence, nonetheless,  s e t t l e r s , who  the  open f o r a l a r g e m i g r a t i o n  into  by o u t l o o k .  f r o m f u r t r a d i n g t o one strongest  The  from the  m i l i e u and  Confederation,  was  European people impetus  C o l u m b i a by  the  came f r o m t h e  the P r a i r i e s  The Ontario  the a t t i t u d e s  province.  I n r e t r o s p e c t t h e West and O n t a r i o d i d c o n s t i t u t e a p a r t i c u l a r e n t i t y , bound t o g e t h e r by common v a l u e s , s i m i l a r i n s t i t u t i o n s , and a commitment t o t h e c o n c e p t o f an E n g l i s h Canada. T h i s d i d not prevent the growth o f a unique Western r e g i o n a l i s m . Western c o n d i t i o n s , p r i m a r i l y e c o n o m i c b u t a l s o c u l t u r a l and p o l i t i c a l , c h a n g e d t h e o u t l o o k o f t h e newcomers. Very s o o n W e s t e r n e r s became c o n s c i o u s o f t h e i r own r e g i o n a l i d e n t i t y and o f t h e i r u n d e r - p r i v i l e g e d p o s i t i o n i n the dominion. 5  5.  F.W. R u t h e r f o r d , "The W e s t e r n P r e s s and 1870-96," C a n a d i a n H i s t o r i c a l Review, ( S e p t . , 19.71) , p. 228.  Regionalism, L I I , No. 3,  -20-  Huntington  saw  the dangers  behind  identity  i n Canada, and  West and  an E a s t a t o p p o s i t e ends o f t h e v e r y l i n k  was  supposed  from  of  f e e l i n g s were o f a which  them b u t w h i c h w o u l d a l s o a l i e n a t e  one  the other.  In  1923  articles He  to j o i n  his intuitive  the d i f f e r e n c e s  a journalist,  outlining  John.Nelson,  wrote a s e r i e s  of  the problems of the P r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s .  accepted Huntington's  foresight  as b e i n g  extremely  enlightened:  Much o f Canada i s s t i l l a s t r a n g e l a n d t o o t h e r p a r t s o f i t . A C o m p r e h e n s i o n by a l l o f t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s o f each i s fundamental t o t h a t sympathetic c o - o p e r a t i o n without which C o n f e d e r a t i o n i s but a rope i n the sand. 6  This  i s an  interesting observation; hindsight  many p l e a s u r e s , and,  i n d e e d , a more r e c e n t e x a m i n a t i o n  the debate  of regional  domination  o f t h e West, and  c o - o p e r a t e more w i t h i n similar to was  conclusion.  t h e c a l l by  the P r a i r i e  J . N e l s o n , .p/13.  of  o f E a s t e r n economic statesmen  to  region, discloses  F o r , example, P r e m i e r Constitutional  Strom's  Conference  t o t h a t e x p r e s s e d i n t h e 192 3  above.  6.  disparities,  the F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l very s i m i l a r  affords  a  statement in  1969  statement  -21-  We w i l l c o - o p e r a t e w i t h t h e F e d e r a l Government t o the f u l l e s t extent of our a b i l i t y to b r i n g r e g i o n a l a l i e n a t i o n and i n e q u a l i t y i n Canada t o an end, but t h e r e must be a c o r r e s p o n d i n g e f f o r t on t h e p a r t o f t h e F e d e r a l Government and t h e P r o v i n c i a l Government o f C e n t r a l Canada t o r e c o g n i s e and accommodate t h e concerns of the west. 7  The  One  P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e Idea  The t o be  question,  the  districts  following  -  The  Northwest  for effective administration,  and  Assiniboia  the  and  Map  2.  districts  Athabaska.  of  1875  powers.  t o be  The  divided  a member t o  the  Act  elected  the  provincial  Territorial  Districts  having  further  into  later,  The  resident  t o be  executive  provided  Districts  1898).  for a  a Northwest C o u n c i l  for  made  up  and the  i n t o e l e c t o r a l d i s t r i c t s which would  Council.  members r e a c h e d t w e n t y - o n e , t h e the  1.  was  Saskatchewan,  provided  more t h a n f i v e p e r s o n s and  Territory elect  Map  Prairie Territorial 8  L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r and  legislative  granting  of A l b e r t a , (See  Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s Act  of not  what  r a t i o n a l e behind d i v i d i n g the  government to  and  Debate  C o n f e d e r a t i o n , was  much d e b a t e d autonomy q u e s t i o n o f  1898  Autonomy  When t h e  number o f  c o u n c i l became d e f u n c t  members were d e s i g n a t e d t h e  H.E. S t r o m , A C a s e f o r t h e West, An a d d r e s s t o F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l C o n s t i t u t i o n a l Conference, 1969.  8.  Statutes  V i c t , c.49,  and  L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly.  7.  o f C a n a d a , 38,  elected  1875.  the Feb.,  -22-  SOURCE- L.J.Burpee, An Historicol Atlns of  Cnnnrin,  Toronto, 1927.  -23-  The  implementation of t h i s  Assembly,  t o o k p l a c e i n 1888  Problems  was  w i t h t w e n t y - t w o members.  i n the T e r r i t o r y ,  and  r e s p o n s i b l e g o v e r n m e n t were r a i s e d . Territories  demanded "...  virtually  became  immediately, p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h the c o n t r o l  t a x monies c o l l e c t e d  Northwest  Legislative  of E a s t e r n c o n t r o l over the l e g i s l a t u r e  apparent almost  full  s t e p , thus forming the  A c t o f 1891  receiving  a l l matters  of  demands f o r An  amending  g r a n t e d much o f what  powers t o make o r d i n a n c e s c o v e r i n g  allotted  t o the p r o v i n c e s under  the 9  British  North American  A c t e x c e p t t h a t o f b o r r o w i n g money." 10  An  e x e c u t i v e c o m m i t t e e l e d by F.W.G. H a u l t a i n  in  1891  t o a d v i s e i n t h e government o f the  P r e m i e r H a u l t a i n worked i n c e s s a n t l y o f m a i n t a i n i n g one districts  of Alberta,  Assiniboia. has  always  administration  W.L.  f o r the  t h e key 11 f o r m a t i o n o f the Western o u t l o o k . "  9. C.  seemed t o me  suggests that t o be  Lingard, T e r r i t o r i a l  established  Territories.  towards  the  idea  territorial  Saskatchewan, Athabaska  Morton  was  and  "Frederick personality  Haultain i n the  It i s certain  Government i n C a n a d a ,  that  p.6.  10. Commonly known a s P r e m i e r H a u l t a i n - a member o f t h e N o r t h ~ west Committee, a l a w y e r f r o m F o r t M a c l e o d , K n i g h t e d i n 1916. C h i e f J u s t i c e t o t h e Supreme C o u r t o f S a s k a t c h e w a n 1912-1937. 11. W.L. M o r t o n , i n a l e t t e r t o t h e w r i t e r d a t e d Dec.22,1971. Dr. Morton i s P r o f e s s o r o f H i s t o r y , T r e n t U n i v e r s i t y , Peterborough, Ontario.  -24-  Haultain's the  concern f o r the  C o n f e d e r a t i o n and  power t o who  consistent  f o r a more f a v o u r a b l e b a l a n c e  g o v e r n more e f f i c i e n t l y , marked him  constantly  expounded a p o l i t i c a l  West, a v i e w w h i c h c h a n g e d l i t t l e , his of  time i n o f f i c e . the  school  v i e w o f one  He  territorial  (and  and  later  r e s o u r c e s , w h i c h had Government i n 1905 relinquished  crossing was  in  was  s e e n by  or  one  the  representative  N o r t h w e s t , autonomy agitator  for  c o n t r o l of  been r e l i n q u i s h e d  for Alberta  by  of  the  natural the  Saskatchewan.  Laurier (Finally  1930).  movement w e s t o f 750  f o r the  provincial)  of  being  philosophy for  in  i f at a l l , throughout  a continual  not  as  indeed a constant  province  legislation,  The  West's p o s i t i o n  miles of Haultain  the  Canadian P a c i f i c  territorial and  the  land with  tax  Northwest C o u n c i l  Railway, exemption, as  an  ... e x t r a o r d i n a r y b u r d e n upon t h e p e o p l e o f t h e West... Ample e v i d e n c e e x i s t s to show t h a t t h e railway was n o t i n any s e n s e b u i l t f o r t h e b e n e f i t o f t h e Northwest... i t i s d i f f i c u l t f o r the people of the N o r t h w e s t T e r r i t o r i e s t o u n d e r s t a n d why t h e y s h o u l d be c a l l e d upon t o assume any o t h e r b u r d e n t h a n t h a t o f c o n t r i b u t i n g p r p p o r t i o n a l l y - a n d no more - w i t h t h e p e o p l e o f o t h e r p a r t s o f Canada towards the c o s t o f c a r r y i n g o u t o b l i g a t i o n s assumed by Canada u n d e r t h e compact w i t h B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 12  12.  S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s , No. 116, 1903, V o l . X I I I , Haultain's L e t t e r t o L a u r i e r , Dec. 7, 1901, pp. 24,25.  -25-  Then  t o o , t h e a d d i t i o n a l f i n a n c i a l b u r d e n o f an  increasing after  population  within  the t e r r i t o r y ,  189 6, p r o p o r t i o n a l l y i n c r e a s e d  grants  from the F e d e r a l  Government.  particularly  t h e need  for further  Haultain  writes  i n 1901,  On t h e one hand, o u r l i m i t a t i o n s p r e c l u d e o u r d o i n g f o r o u r s e l v e s t h e t h i n g s t h a t o u g h t t o be done and on t h e o t h e r hand, P a r l i a m e n t makes no e f f o r t t o a s s i s t us w i t h an e v e n a p p r o x i m a t e d e g r e e o f adequacy. 13  Being a t e r r i t o r i a l prevented as  from o b t a i n i n g  timber, minerals  o r b o r r o w money. clearly  government,  and l a n d s ,  the b a s i s  he p u t f o r w a r d i n 1901. discussed  t h e economic  administrative  the b e n e f i t s of t h e i r  Haultain's  enumerates  the Northwest C o u n c i l  resources  unable to c h a r t e r 14  letter  to S i r Wilfred  problems  l e t t e r Haultain that  problems a s s o c i a t e d  face  such  railways  t o t h e Autonomy B i l l  In t h i s  was  Laurier  which again  the T e r r i t o r y , the  with being  a  territorial  15 government, particularly  t h e d u p l i c a t i o n o f Dominion  as i t r e l a t e s t o t h e j u s t i c e  l a c k o f adequate funds b e i n g g r o w i n g and d i v e r s e 13. I b i d ,  administration  granted  d e p a r t m e n t , and t h e  t o keep pace w i t h  a  immigration.  p.11.  14. L a u r i e r P a p e r 19 01, pp.1-8, a l s o d i s c u s s e d T e r r i t o r i a l Government i n Canada, p.38. 15. T h i s  work,  i s a l s o mentioned i n S e s s i o n a l  i n C.  P a p e r 116,  Lingard,  p.11.  -26-  General  acceptance  T e r r i t o r i e s was idea  t h a t one  backing  i n no way  two,  Northwest  a unanimous a c c e p t a n c e  p r o v i n c e was  f o r one,  proposed.  o f autonomy o f t h e  t h e most v i a b l e  three,and  of  answer;  the indeed,  even f o u r p r o v i n c e s  was  In a d d i t i o n a s m a l l e r group d e s i r e d a westward  e x t e n s i o n of the Manitoba border. territorial pre-election  general e l e c t i o n of address  Nonetheless,  1902  at  the  Haultain stressed i n his  t h a t h i s government  has p r e s e n t e d t o t h e F e d e r a l A u t h o r i t i e s t h e c l a i m s o f t h e p e o p l e ... I n t h a t document t h e t e r r i t o r i a l government has e x p r e s s e d i t s o p i n i o n i n f a v o u r o f t h e o r g a n i s a t i o n o f one p r o v i n c e o n l y . A c t i o n upon t h e w h o l e q u e s t i o n has b e e n p o s t p o n e d by t h e D o m i n i o n Government, p r i n c i p a l l y upon t h e grounds t h a t t h e r e i s a 'divergence o f o p i n i o n r e s p e c t i n g t h e q u e s t i o n w h e t h e r t h e r e s h o u l d be one p r o v i n c e o n l y o r more t h a n one' ... The o p i n i o n o f t h e t e r r i t o r i a l government i s based upon t h e f a c t t h a t i n t h e p a s t , one g o v e r n m e n t and one l e g i s l a t i o n have f o u n d no d i f f i c u l t y i n conducting the a f f a i r s of the country ( i . e . T e r r i t o r y ) o t h e r t h a n s u c h as a r o s e f r o m t h e i n a d e q u a c y o f t h e r e v e n u e s , and i t i s n o t a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t any d i f f i c u l t y w h i c h c a n n o t be met w i t h , w i l l a r i s e i n the f u t u r e . 16  The in  results  o f t h e e l e c t i o n were  H a u l t a i n ' s f a v o u r , w h i c h was  a statement  of confidence  taken  Macleod Gazette,  May  by  the p r e s s  in his election policy  autonomy f o r t h e N o r t h w e s t T e r r i t o r y  16.  overwhelmingly  2,  1902.  as one  to  to  be  achieve  province.  -27-  Section  One o f H a u l t a i n * s  Bill  the  e r e c t i o n o f one p r o v i n c e  the  districts  and  that portion of the d i s t r i c t  on J a n u a r y  drafted  argued i n h i s l e t t e r this b i l l ,  1, 1903, o u t o f  o f Athabaska l y i n g  l a r g e r than the others  and  the northern  to Laurier,  portions  people l i v i n g within administration  He a l s o s t a t e d  first  province  o f Athabaska  o f S a s k a t c h e w a n were  u n p r o d u c t i v e and w o u l d n e v e r a t t r a c t a n y t h i n g 18 population.  to the 17  i n w h i c h he  much o f t h e a r e a  and e a s t e r n  Alberta,  of north l a t i t u d e .  t h a t even though t h e proposed  was  small  called for  comprised o f A s s i n i b o i a , Saskatchewan,  south of the f i f t y - s e v e n t h p a r a l l e l Haultain  f o r Autonomy  i n this  more  letter  than a that the  t h e s e a r e a s were s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e  of the t e r r i t o r y  and d i d n o t s e e  anything  t o b e g a i n e d by i t s d i s s e c t i o n i n t o more t h a n one administrative The had  unit.  issues  n o t e d by H a u l t a i n  i n this  letter  to Laurier  been p r e s e n t e d t o t h e p e o p l e o f t h e T e r r i t o r y on  numerous o c c a s i o n s , made a t I n d i a n  t h e most c o m p r e h e n s i v e s t a t e m e n t b e i n g 19 Head o n December 18, 1901. A t t h i s time  17.  Sessional  P a p e r 116, a l s o L i n g a r d ,  18.  P r o p o s e d P r o v i n c e 404,000 s q . m i l e s - Quebec 347,000, O n t a r i o 220,000, B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 383,000 - S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s 116, p.13.  19.  The f u l l Friday,  speech i s reported Dec. 2 7 t h , 1901.  p.38.  i n The T e l e g r a m ,  (Manitoba),  -28-  Haultain One  r e p o r t e d h i s g o v e r n m e n t ' s s t a n d on  Province  i d e a as w e l l as  (Manitoba) p r o p o s a l At  this  time  province,  he  to extend  to Premier  Manitoba's border  f u r t h e r defended the  size  westward.  of the  were a l l w e l l i n e x c e s s  South A u s t r a l i a  and  o f t h a t o f t h e one  proposed  province  that  he  proposing.  clearly  before  been p r e v i o u s l y .  and  a t the opening  The  r e p l y , however, d i d n o t  of the F o u r t h  L e g i s l a t i v e A s s e m b l y he t h a t no  laid  t h e F e d e r a l Government i n O t t a w a , as  had  Session of the  expressed  communication had  the  i s s u e o f autonomy c o n t i n u e d  on  Ottawa w i t h  the  the Throne:  "The  rapid  Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s  come,  Territorial  Ottawa.  i n l i k e manner f o r  t e r m i n a t i n g a t the opening f o l l o w i n g statement  they  Government's r e g r e t  been r e c e i v e d f r o m  more y e a r s ,  of Parliament  from the  Speech  growth i n the p o p u l a t i o n o f d u r i n g t h e p a s t two  years  two in  from the  justifies  t h e wisdom o f c o n f e r r i n g on t h e s e t e r r i t o r i e s p r o v i n c i a l 20 autonomy." Thus i n 1905 S i r W i l l i a m L a u r i e r s u b m i t t e d  20.  the  Queensland  T h u s , t h e t e r m s o f t h e autonomy d e b a t e d were  The  the  Roblin's  l o o k i n g t o t h e A u s t r a l i a n example, n o t i n g t h a t  area o f Western A u s t r a l i a ,  was  a rebuttal  autonomy and  D e b a t e , House o f Commons, Canada, 1905, C o l . 6.  Vol.  1,  -29-  legislation  f o r the  Alberta  Saskatchewan.  and  decision  f o r one  a political  establishment The  p r o v i n c e was  o f two  rationale  because the area agriculture^  possessing d e f i n i t e  t h e a r e a was  of  too  the  large  unfit  of  two  the  line  north  unfit  for  indications  f o r settlement  productivity.  the  (See Map  1.  from the U n i t e d  districts and  2,  The  of  due  to  and  an  government's territory  States border  of Mackenzie  Page 22)  new  Mackenzie  t o g i v e autonomy t o t h a t s e c t i o n o f t h e  dividing  Athabaska,  making  of the  into, the D i s t r i c t  absence o f accompanying r u r a l d e c i s i o n Was  limit  t o t h e n o r t h o f 60°N was  although  mineral wealth,  line  of  unit.  p r o v i n c e s would not extend  the  behind  t h a t i t w o u l d be  L a u r i e r argued t h a t the n o r t h e r n  b o u n d e d by  provinces  to  and  the  60°N  parallel  latitude.  The within  decision to retain  the  autonomous a r e a , was  t e r r i t o r y was rich  and  land area of t h i s m i l e s , was  developed  t o o l a r g e t o be  this  agriculturally  i n t h e Peace in this  autonomous r e g i o n , m a d e up  considered  Athabaska  fertile,  particularly  s e t t l e m e n t s had  of  t h a t , even though  not considered wholly  l a n d s were a v a i l a b l e  Valley,  the t e r r i t o r y  area.  550,345  made i n t o a  River The square  single  -30-  province. forming was  By d i v i d i n g  into  two p r o v i n c e s , L a u r i e r a r g u e d  two h a l v e s , t h a t each  g i v e n a n a r e a w h i c h was o f m a n a g e a b l e  corresponding The  the area  approximately  thus province  size,  to the size of Ontario.  b o u n d a r y was t h u s drawn a l o n g t h e f o u r t h m e r i d i a n  (110°W),  which n o t only d i v i d e d  approximately  t h e autonomous a r e a  into  two p r o v i n c e s , b u t a l s o e v e n t u a l l y s p l i t  the p o p u l a t i o n  (approximately  250,000 p e o p l e  i n each  province).  The  provincial  c a p i t a l s were s e t a s R e g i n a i n  Saskatchewan, and p r o v i s i o n a l l y central  position,  i n Alberta.  (110°W) b o u n d a r y was c r i t i c i s e d by  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from  Medicine  cut  heavily, particularly  the southern  They argued  the livestock  decision  the d i s t r i c t political  cities  of Calgary,  the d i v i s i o n ,  a l l , s h o u l d be t h e 107°W m e r i d i a n ,  legislation. The  The f o u r t h m e r i d i a n  H a t a n d M a c l e o d , who o b j e c t e d t o t h e d i v i s i o n o f  the range country. at  Edmonton, due t o i t s  industry into  areas  as t h e f o r m e r of different  The d e c i s i o n , however, r e m a i n e d t o form  i f t o be made  two p r o v i n c e s r a t h e r t h a n  o f t h e Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s  meridian political  unchanged. one f r o m  implied a  d i v i s i o n w i t h i n a r e g i o n w h i c h h a d much i n common.  -31-  This  caused a separation  t h a t w o u l d have b e e n one p r o v i n c e  of the united  formed w i t h i n  Province  being  Haultain  government's  F e a r o f an o f t h e One  districts,  undermined t h e  The v i e w h e l d by  members o f t h e N o r t h w e s t T e r r i t o r i e s , constituted  eastern  Prairie  a n n e x e d by M a n i t o b a c e r t a i n l y proposal.  t o o much c e n t r a l i s e d f o r c e on t h e t e r r i t o r i a l added much w e i g h t t o t h e c r e a t i o n o f two  i t s b o r d e r s westward  not  acceptable  and  that  this  t o the people area  was w e l l  Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s the  liberal  t h a t Regina  L a u r i e r a l s o r e j e c t e d t h e Manitoba proposal extending  force  the Federation i f  had been e s t a b l i s h e d .  p o r t i o n o f the proposed t e r r i t o r y  political  new p r o v i n c e  inauguration  of  on t h e g r o u n d s t h a t  living defined  i n the area as p a r t  provinces.  i t was  affected,  of the  a n d w o u l d t h u s become p a r t o f 21  o f Saskatchewan.  -  o f t h e s e two p r o v i n c e s  Hence, t h e b r o u g h t t o an-end t h e  dispute.  D e b a t e s on A m a l g a m a t i n g  the Three P r a i r i e  The i d e a o f a m a l g a m a t i n g A l b e r t a , M a n i t o b a i n t o one p r o v i n c e  Provinces  S a s k a t c h e w a n and  has been documented  21. N.L. N i c h o l s o n , The B o u n d a r i e s o f Canada, and T e r r i t o r i e s , p.82.  on numerous  I t s Provinces  -32-  occasions. forward  by  The  first  such  C a p t a i n J o h n P a l l i s e r who  a r e a between t h e Red should  mention of  an i d e a was suggested  River settlement  constitute a single British  and  f o l l o w i n g as  i t s n o r t h e r n boundary, the  and  parallel  the  49th  i n the south  that  British  Colony,  put  Columbia  generally  54° North  parallel  from the e a s t e r n  o f t h e L a k e o f Woods t o t h e Rocky M o u n t a i n c r e s t . significant of  1932  with  d i s c u s s i o n however, o c c u r r e d the p r o p o s a l o f John Bracken  o f Manitoba) to d i m i n i s h the the  Prairie  provinces  and  number o f  the  from the  end The  most  beginning  (Premier  legislature  members  to  C o n s i d e r w h e t h e r one l e g i s l a t i o n i n s t e a d o f t h r e e w o u l d n o t be t o t h e g e n e r a l a d v a n t a g e o f t h e West ... I w o u l d s u g g e s t t h a t a c o m m i t t e e b r i n g i n a recommendation t o the l e g i s l a t u r e n o t o n l y i n f a v o u r o f a s m a l l e r number o f members and a f a i r i e r method o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , b u t a l s o i n f a v o u r o f a s k i n g t h e o t h e r g o v e r n m e n t s t o j o i n w i t h us i n h a v i n g the whole g u e s t i o n c a r e f u l l y examined w i t h a view t o l a y i n g b e f o r e t h e p u b l i c t h e a d v a n t a g e s , and t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e s , i f t h e r e a r e any, o f s u c h a proposal. 22  He  f u r t h e r a r g u e d t h a t t h e combined economy o f  l e g i s l a t u r e would c o n s t i t u t e c o n s i d e r a b l e 22.  one  savings.  E x h i b i t No. 32. E x h i b i t t o R o w e l l C o m m i s s i o n 1937. Bracken here recounts previous correspondence on t h e i d e a o f One P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e , J a n u a r y , 1932.  -33T h i s v i e w was who  argued that  e n d o r s e d by J u s t i c e W.  the people o f Western  Turgeon o f Regina,  provinces  ... h a v e d e v e l o p e d a s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l i n d i v i d u a l i t y w h i c h t e n d s t o b r i n g them t o g e t h e r , and w h i c h w o u l d make i t c o m p a r a t i v e l y e a s y f o r them t o a g r e e on t h e management i n common of t h e i r l o c a l a f f a i r s . 23 The  realisation  t h a t t h e P r a i r i e p e o p l e had d e v e l o p e d a  common i d e n t i t y , led  a notion that Haultain  also  believed,  Turgeon t o see u n i o n o f the t h r e e p r o v i n c e s  o f a d v a n t a g e s t o t h e economy, management o f resources the need  i n terms  natural  and e d u c a t i o n , and a r e d u c e d l e g i s l a t i v e body for a multiplicity  administered  o f government  as one p o l i t i c a l  ending  d e p a r t m e n t s when  unit.  T h e s e v i e w s r e c e i v e d c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s c u s s i o n ; among t h e 24 p r i v a t e views e x p r e s s e d , Premier J . E . Brownlee o f A l b e r t a a g r e e d t h a t economy w o u l d be a c h i e v e d b u t a l s o he advantages in  i n h a v i n g one  a l l Dominion m a t t e r s .  o f Saskatchewan  saw  government Similarly,  advantage  saw  as one P r a i r i e  voice  Premier J . Anderson  i n the p r o p o s a l .  The  underlying  comment t o be f o u n d i n t h e m a j o r i t y o f p o s i t i v e o p i n i o n s t h e i d e a was in  t h e economy t o be a c h i e v e d b y  t h e number o f p r o v i n c i a l  Commission  o f Dominion  23. W.F.A. T u r g e o n , Macleans,  reduction  governments.  Provincial  The R o y a l 25 Relations thus d i s c u s s e d  " I ' d Unite the P r a i r i e  (Feb. 1,  the  on  Provinces,"  1 9 3 2 ) , p. 40-  24. J . B r a c k e n , E x h i b i t No.  32.  25. R o y a l Commission o f D o m i n i o n P r o v i n c i a l R e l a t i o n s , ( R o w e l 1 C o m m i s s i o n ) . See " U n i o n o f C e r t a i n P r o v i n c e s , " p.167.  -34t h i s view, and r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e s a v i n g s would be approximately expenditure  f i v e per cent o f the e x i s t i n g  o f the three provinces.  economic r i s k , union  current  The p o o l i n g o f  however, was s e e n t o b e an a d v a n t a g e t o  i f r e c o m m e n d a t i o n made e l s e w h e r e  r e p o r t were n o t a c c e p t a b l e .  i n t h e Commission's  Making t h i s  assumption  t h e r e would be a s t r o n g c a s e f o r u n i o n o f t h e P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e s on g r o u n d s t h a t i t w o u l d improve t h e g e n e r a l c r e d i t s t a n d i n g o f t h e r e g i o n . By u n i o n , t h e e c o n o m i c r i s k s o f t h e t h r e e p r o v i n c e s w o u l d be p o o l e d , a n d t h e r e s u l t i n g i n c r e a s e i n f i n a n c i a l s t a b i l i t y f o r the r e g i o n would tend t o d i m i n i s h t h e n e e d f o r D o m i n i o n a s s i s t a n c e i n time of crop f a i l u r e . 26  The  matter o f P r a i r i e  u n i o n was r a i s e d  r e c e n t l y by t h e then-Premier  (W.A.C. 27 i n 1968 a t t h e F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l C o n f e r e n c e .  Bennett) This  submission  calls  of B r i t i s h  Columbia  f o r t h e F e d e r a l Government t o  r e c o g n i s e t h e " l e g i t i m a t e needs o f t h e f i v e 28 r e g i o n s o f Canada." consideration boundaries thus  In addition, this  t o be g i v e n t o e x t e n d  northwards t o t h e l i m i t s  dividing  British  a g a i n more  economic  proposal  requests  the p r o v i n c i a l o f c o n t i n e n t a l Canada,  t h e Yukon and N o r t h w e s t T e r r i t o r i e s  among  Columbia and t h e P r a i r i e s .  26.  Ibid,  p.168.  27.  Submission Provinces Canada.  28.  A t l a n t i c , Quebec, O n t a r i o , The P r a i r i e s Columbia.  b y Hon. W.A.C.Bennett, B r o p o s a l s o f t h e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a on t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n o f  and B r i t i s h  -35Such a view would c e r t a i n l y appear t o be w i t h i n t h e self  i n t e r e s t o f Mr. B e n n e t t ' s  level,  can be d i s m i s s e d  jurisdiction  and, a t t h a t  a s a p o s i t i v e argument.  On t h e o t h e r  h a n d t h e Yukon a n d N o r t h w e s t T e r r i t o r i e s ,  by j o i n i n g w i t h  their  to gain  southern provinces, could  a l s o stand  u n i o n a n d t h e argument must t h e r e f o r e  be  by such a  considered  seriously.  The idea  reveals  asserts it  political that  that  i t s basis  t o the East  propositions 29  secession, recognise  a n d West; r e c o g n i s i n g  the  of the Confederation  its diversities,  but accepting  element t h a t binds the great  to  t h e y b e l i e v e w o u l d be  Some a l s o s e e t h e P r a i r i e s as a c u l t u r a l  cohesive  concedes  29.  that  t h e l a n d s c a p e a n d t h e way o f l i f e  recognising  that a federation  made have n o t b e e n c a l l s f o r  t h e economic g a i n s  recognising  unified,  t h a n one o f u n e q u a l s .  but f o r a reorganisation  forthcoming.  of  could be p o l i t i c a l l y  a more e f f e c t i v e b a l a n c e between t h e r i c h e r  o f e q u a l s i s more l o g i c a l  The  Province  has been l a r g e l y economic; i t  i fthe provinces  would c r e a t e  provinces  h i s t o r y o f t h e One P r a i r i e  region,  the commonalities  o f i t s p e o p l e as b e i n g  i t together.  diversity within  Andrew  Clark,  the P r a i r i e s  that  The p r o s p e c t i s d i s c u s s e d i n D.K. E l t o n ( e d ) , One P r a i r i e Province Conference: A Question f o r Canada, p.185.  -36t h o s e who l i v e i n t h e r e g i o n h a v e u s u a l l y t e n d e d to i d e n t i f y themselves with a l l o f i t r a t h e r than with a part. T h e r e was l i t t l e t o d i s t i n g u i s h t h e i n d i v i d u a l u n i t s and much t o b i n d them t o g e t h e r i n t h e s h a r e d h i s t o r y o f t h e f u r t r a d e , dominant u n t i l t h e new Canada r e a c h e d w e s t a c e n t u r y ago and c l u t c h e d t o i t s bosom R u p e r t ' s L a n d , t h e N o r t h w e s t T e r r i t o r y and B r i t i s h Columbia. Even t h e r e a f t e r , t h e o l d a t t i t u d e s and c h a n n e l s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n were d o m i n a n t u n t i l t h e a d v e n t o f t h e r a i l w a y , t h e N o r t h w e s t R e b e l l i o n and t h e f i r s t wave o f t r u e f a r m i n g s e t t l e r s made t h e i r i m p a c t i n t h e eighties. Moreover, the f i r s t years o f a g r i c u l t u r a l s e t t l e m e n t i n v o l v e d much t h e same k i n d o f p e o p l e fanning o u t from Winnipeg i n a steady s e r i e s o f s t r e a m s t o t h e w e s t and n o r t h w e s t . M a n i t o b a was c l e a r l y t h e c u l t u r a l and economic p r o g e n i t o r o f t h e o t h e r two, and t h e s t r o n g s i m i l a r i t i e s r e f l e c t t h e common h e r i t a g e . 30  The the as The it  r e c o g n i t i o n o f economic and c u l t u r a l  Prairie  provinces,  cohesive  constituting a region, diversities  enough t o b e  t h a t e x i s t have p a r a l l e l s  recognised  aspects  i n O n t a r i o , and  has been used t o  economic advantage i n t h e case o f t h a t  historical  within  i s t h e key t o t h e i d e a o f union.  would appear t h a t such d i v e r s i t y  The  ties  province.  o f t h e One P r a i r i e  Province  i d e a r e v e a l an i n c r e a s i n g need f o r i n t e r p r o v i n c i a l co-operation  and j o i n t p r o j e c t p l a n n i n g ,  a trend  which  appears t o be h a p p e n i n g , and which i n t h e m s e l v e s , a r e integrative  30.  forces binding  the P r a i r i e  region.  A. C l a r k , " H i s t o r i c a l a n d G e o g r a p h i c a l Perspective," i n D. E l t o n ( e d ) , One P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e : A Q u e s t i o n f o r C a n a d a , pp.330-31.  -37Conclusion W.O.  Mitchell's  illustrates It  n o v e l , "Who h a s Seen t h e Wind",  the P r a i r i e  s k y and w i n d a n d t r a n q u i l i t y .  i s an e v o c a t i o n o f f e e l i n g  and o f b e l o n g i n g ,  t h e r e a d e r w i t h an i d e a o f t h e u n i q u e n e s s And  so i t i s unique,  as a r e s u l t Prairie  f o r many r e a s o n s , b u t  o f i t s environment  history.  leaving  of Prairie  life.  fundamentally  which has i t s impress  upon  I t i s however, n e c e s s a r y t o u n d e r s t a n d  t h a t t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s o f t h e P r a i r i e West were C a n a d i a n i n s t i t u t i o n s a n d t h a t tfie p e o p l e who worked t h e s e i n s t i t u t i o n s and d e t e r m i n e d t h e p o l i t i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e West were i n t h e overwhelming m a j o r i t y o f Canadian b i r t h and ancestry. 31. The  strong influence of Ontarion i n s t i t u t i o n s  definite  mark o n P r a i r i e  life.  c o l o n i z a t i o n o f the P r a i r i e s E a s t e r n and C e n t r a l and  accessability  left a  Notwithstanding  came l a t e r  this,  than t h a t o f  Canada; a l s o p r o b l e m s o f d i s t a n c e  produced  a d i s t i n c t i v e Western  Canadian  m e n t a l i t y , m o u l d e d b y t h e common a g r a r i a n o c c u p a t i o n a n d t h e problems-jwhich  f a c e s u c h an o c c u p a t i o n i m p o s e d b y  geographical location. problems; conditions certainly  externally f o r grain  B u t t h e s e were n o t t h e o n l y  controlled  factors  such  and r a i l w a y f r e i g h t  as w o r l d  market  r a t e s were  common p r o b l e m s w h i c h h a d t h e e f f e c t  of binding  31. W.L. M o r t o n , "The B i a s o f P r a i r i e P o l i t i c s , " T r a n s a c t i o n s o f t h e R o y a l S o c i e t y o f Canada, V o l . XLIV, S e r i e s I I I , ( J u n e , 1955), p.57.  -38the  people together.  factors for  of historical Prairie  explaining  made.  Thus b y e x a m i n i n g t h e common economic l i f e ,  t h e emergence o f a P r a i r i e  But t o accept t h a t  tradition  being  "imitative rather  Prairie  by a m u l t i p l i c i t y o f  thus a d i s t i n c t i v e  agrarian  Prairies,  regional identity  identity  i n Confederation  differentiation  identity  Morton argues t h a t  politics different  was t h e i n i t i a l  with  homogenity.  bias  that  rooted i n this  the p o l i t i c a l from t h a t o f  "... t h e s u b o r d i n a t e s t a t u s  development o f P r a i r i e  Prairies  of  setting,  would form,  i s n o t what d i s t i n g u i s h e s  b i a s w h i c h made P r a i r i e Canada,  t h e new  t h e n , have a r e g i o n a l  h i s t o r i c a l l y common b a s e .  Central  following generations  formed w i t h i n  i n c r e a s i n g degree o f d i s t i n c t i v e  The  However i t  p e o p l e w o u l d a d h e r e more to\.ttie t r a d i t i o n a n d  c u l t u r e which g r a d u a l l y  an  traits  than c r e a t i v e . "  w o u l d seem r e a s o n a b l e t o a s s e r t t h a t  an  c a n be  were t o b e f o r g o t t e n w o u l d seem u n r e a l i s t i c , t h e 32  pioneer  and  identity  and c u l t u r a l  brought from elsewhere t o t h e P r a i r i e s races  an argument  given  t h e West  s e t i n t r a i n the.  p o l i t i c s t o w a r d s an i n c r e a s i n g 33  from the Canadian s t a n d a r d . "  were t o be e q u a l p a r t n e r s  I f the  i n Confederation  with  32.  F.G. S t a n l e y , " W e s t e r n C a n a d a and t h e F r o n t i e r T h e s i s , " Report o f the Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Assoc., Annual M e e t i n g , London, May, 1940, ( E d i t e d b y R.G. R i d d e l l , T o r o n t o , 1 9 4 0 ) , p.106.  33.  W.L. M o r t o n ,  "The B i a s  of P r a i r i e  P o l i t i c s , " p.58.  -39-  the  other  provinces  that p o l i t i c a l  i t was  little three  and t h e i r  a drive to establish this  equality.  Confederation,  objectives I t i s then,  wonder, t h a t d e b a t e on t h e i d e a o f a m a l g a m a t i n g t h e Prairie  provinces  i n t o one s t r o n g  to equalise provincial  status w i t h i n the  base t o the P r a i r i e  "... The West as a r e g i o n o f p o l i t i c a l differences  sufficiently  significant  character of a sub-society. relations  political,  c o n t i n u a l l y put forward.  w h i c h r e v e a l s an u n d e r l y i n g  I t i s this Confederation union  idea.  and m a t e r i a l  t o g i v e i t the  That being  so, i t i s the  o f t h e s u b - s o c i e t y .wi'thathe n a t i o n o f w h i c h i t  is  a p a r t w h i c h make s i g n i f i c a n t 34 P r a i r i e West."  34.  to  politics  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n has been desire  prior  autonomy w o u l d be t h e method t o a c h i e v e i t .  A h i s t o r y of the P r a i r i e reveals  clear,  I b i d , p. 66.  the h i s t o r y o f the  CHAPTER I I I THE  ONE PRAIRIE CONFERENCE AND THE SUPPORT FOR THE IDEA  The  most r e c e n t a n d , i n d e e d ,  t h e most  comprehensive  d i s c u s s i o n on the i d e a t o u n i t e the P r a i r i e held  i n L e t h b r i d g e , A l b e r t a i n May 1970.  drew t o g e t h e r  academics and p o l i t i c i a n s  Canada, and p a r t i c u l a r l y  provinces  This  was  conference  from the whole o f  from the three P r a i r i e  provinces  (see A p p e n d i x I I ) , t o d e b a t e t h e i d e a , a n d i t i s significant  to present  d i s c u s s e d , as they certainly  includes by The  t h e main s t r e a m  a t any one  i s important  of opinions  time.  t o note  "... A Q u e s t i o n  the speakers  of ideas  r e p r e s e n t n o t o n l y t h e most r e c e n t b u t  t h e most c o m p r e h e n s i v e c o l l e c t i o n  formulated  It  here  that the t i t l e 1  o f the  Conference  f o r C a n a d a , " a n d t h e comments made  s t r i c t l y related  t o the "Canadian"  context.  n o t i o n t h a t t h e p r o p o s e d new p r o v i n c e m i g h t w i s h t o  b r e a k away f r o m t h e C a n a d i a n F e d e r a t i o n was  discounted  completely.  The  u n d e r l y i n g a g r e e m e n t t h a t p e r m e a t e s i t s way  the proceedings West f e e l s  o f the Conference  i s the a l i e n a t i o n  into that the  f r o m O t t a w a , t h a t an e n d must come t o  1. One P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e - A Q u e s t i o n f o r Canada. A n a t i o n a l c o n f e r e n c e t o s t u d y t h e f e a s i b i l i t y o f a One P r a i r i e Province. May 10-13, 1970, L e t h b r i d g e , A l b e r t a .  -41"... in  the  the  constant  c a t e r i n g t o the  S t . L a w r e n c e V a l l e y and  vested  centred  industrial interests  around  the 2  industrial o r two and  Golden Horseshoe i n Southern O n t a r i o . "  provinces  i n a Federation  m a r k e t i n g power t h a n the  r e c e i v e more f r o m t h e  The  should  others,  Federal  the  s e a t o f the  the  close proximity  Federal of  and  from F e d e r a l  r e q u i r e m e n t s and  and  unacceptable.  i n e q u a l i t y may representing  metropolitan  provinces.  expressed  the P r a i r i e s  obtain  their to  the  reason  House o f Commons. region  h u n d r e d and  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n then can  areas  The  to  to  for  such  i n t h e number o f members  i n the  Prairie  o f two  the house o r c a b i n e t .  With  often able  often unfavourable 3  Prairie  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n from the  Prairie  are  the  i n d u s t r i e s from  l e g i s l a t i o n which favour  w e l l be  among a t o t a l  rural  the C e n t r a l Canadian p r o v i n c e s  which are  requirements of the  The  t h u s demand  Government i n O t t a w a .  Ottawa i t would appear t h a t they  seats  and  Government i s  o f Western b u s i n e s s  one  w i e l d more e c o n o m i c  emphasis o f Western a l i e n a t i o n i s d i r e c t e d a t  inequality  benefits  That  is forty sixty  hardly  It is significant  o f T o r o n t o and  The  six  f o u r members.  hope t o c o n t r o l  to note t h a t  Montreal  combined  the  have  2.  P r e m i e r E. S c h r e y e r , s t a t e m e n t t o C a n a d i a n C l u b i n O t t a w a , F e b . 1970. As r e p o r t e d i n D. Thomson's p a p e r , "The P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e s and t h e C a n a d i a n F e d e r a t i o n , " s u b m i t t e d t o t h e One P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e C o n f e r e n c e , D.K. E l t o n ( e d ) , One P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e - A Q u e s t i o n f o r C a n a d a , p. 48.  3.  T h i s p o i n t has b e e n made by t h e West, p.18.  P r e m i e r H.  Strom, A Case f o r  -42a l m o s t a s many members as t h e w h o l e P r a i r i e  representation.  Then t o o , t h e r e h a s been a l o n g p e r i o d o f l i b e r a l government i n Ottawa w i t h members, t h e P r a i r i e s  little  being  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n from  a conservative  Prairie  stronghold.  ... t h e P r a i r i e s r e a l i s e t h e y have l i t t l e c h a n c e of a c h i e v i n g j u s t i c e through p o l i t i c a l i n s t r u m e n t s . I r o n i c a l l y , t h e y a r e j u s t a s weak i n t e r m s o f f i n a n c i a l might. They have g r e a t w e a l t h i n t h e production o f primary resources, b u t the purse s t r i n g s a r e h e l d by o t h e r hands. The C a n a d i a n f i n a n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s t h a t p r o v i d e t h e funds f o r p r i v a t e i n d u s t r i a l development a r e almost a l l i n the East. 4 Another aspect  of the alienation  t h e West i s t h e s e e m i n g l y f a v o u r a b l e appears t o be a b l e French  position  within the Federation.  n o r does i t n e e d torldo s o , e x c e p t  the requirements  of a bilingual  East.  t h e hub o f e c o n o m i c and l e g i s l a t i v e c o n t r o l , hub  w h i c h Quebec The  l a n g u a g e i s imposed upon a s o c i e t y t h a t does n o t  speak F r e n c h , satisfy  to maintain  frequently stated i n  which c o n t r o l s the P r a i r i e  economy.  This  even more i n c o n g r u o u s when i t i s r e a l i s e d  i n order to The E a s t i s  and h e n c e a situation  becomes  that the P r a i r i e  population  i s made up o f a m u l t i p l i c i t y  of nationalities,  fewer than  s i x per cent being  origin,  than  e i g h t per cent  German.  being  These people  o f French  Ukranian,  and g r e a t e r  and n i n e p e r c e n t  t o o f e e l a d e s i r e t o be r e c o g n i s e d as  m a k i n g up p a r t o f t h e C a n a d i a n p o p u l a t i o n , and t h a t r e c o g n i t i o n and o p p o r t u n i t y  f o r a l l groups  4. P. Thompson ( e d ) , The P r a i r i e Anger,1969, p.5.  Provinces  should be  - A l i e n a t i o n and  realised  r e g a r d l e s s of language or  A measure o f t h e felt  by  the  race.  degree to which a l i e n a t i o n i s  p e o p l e o f A l b e r t a has  been a s c e r t a i n e d  by  P r o f e s s o r D.K. E l t o n i n h i s 1969 A l b e r t a E l e c t o r a t e 5 Study. The f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s were d i r e c t e d t o 567 6 voters  in Alberta.  alienation to  The  does e x i s t  discontent  Tables,  alienation to  h a l f of  the  from E a s t e r n  the  i t is  This  Western Canadian i n t e r e s t s .  general  Federal  response, obtained  supporting  the  concerned with  indicate that felt  Federal  some  the  p r o t e c t i o n opposing  (Western A l i e n a t i o n -  Government) c a l l i n g  view t h a t the Eastern  III  a slightly  points  Canadians a t  to t a r i f f  Table  other  alienation refers  b e n e f i t s made a v a i l a b l e t o E a s t e r n  Concern o f the  found i n  I I I examine  responses  Canada.  were t h a t  reasonable  people interviewed  e x p e n s e o f W e s t e r n Canada, and  The  survey  i s t o be  I , I I and  o f W e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n , and approximately  the  i n A l b e r t a , and  assume t h a t s i m i l a r  Western p r o v i n c e s .  f i n d i n g s of  greater  f o r a more proportion  Government was  problems than w i t h Western  more  ones.  5.  D.K. E l t o n , A l b e r t a E l e c t o r a t e S t u d y 1969, Much o f i n f o r m a t i o n i s a l s o a v a i l a b l e i n E l t o n ( e d ) , One P r o v i n c e - A Q u e s t i o n f o r Canada, pp. 142-144.  6.  See  Appendix  3 for details  of  the  study.  the Prairie  -44-  TABLE I  WESTERN ALIENATION - GREATER BENEFITS EASTERN CANADIANS  TO  "The e a s t e r n C a n a d i a n s r e c e i v e more b e n e f i t s t h a n do w e s t e r n Canadians from b e i n g p a r t o f the Dominion o f Canada." Response a) s t r o n g l y a g r e e b) a g r e e c) d i s a g r e e d) d i s a g r e e s t r o n g l y e) no r e s p o n s e  TABLE I I  Percentage  Frequency 68 258 229 7 5  WESTERN ALIENATION - TARIFF TO MANUFACTURERS  12.0 45.5 40.4 1.2  57.5%  agree  41.6%  disagree  PROTECT EASTERN  "The w e s t i s a l w a y s g e t t i n g a raw d e a l b e c a u s e t h e n a t i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t imposes h i g h t a r i f f s t o p r o t e c t e a s t e r n manufacturers." Response a) s t r o n g l y a g r e e b) a g r e e c) d i s a g r e e d) d i s a g r e e s t r o n g l y e) no r e s p o n s e  TABLE I I I  Percentage  Frequency 47 254 248 6 12  WESTERN ALIENATION - CONCERN OF GOVERNMENT  8.3 44.8 43.7 1.1 2.1  THE  53.1%  agree  44.8%  disagree  FEDERAL  "The Government i n Ottawa i s more c o n c e r n e d a b o u t problems o f E a s t e r n Canadians than they are about problems o f Western Canadians." Response a) s t r o n g l y a g r e e b) a g r e e c) d i s a g r e e d) d i s a g r e e s t r o n g l y e) no r e s p o n s e  Frequency 58 288 209 9 3  the the  Percentage 10.2 50.8 36.9 1.6 0.5  60.2%  agree  38.5%  disagree  T a b l e s I , I I and I I I - A Measure o f t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h a l i e n a t i o n i s f e l t by a sample o f p e o p l e f r o m A l b e r t a .  -4B-  A number o f r e c e n t p u b l i c a t i o n s awareness articles exist  p o i n t a l s o t o t h e growing 7 o f t h e a l i e n a t i o n problem. These books, magazine  and newspaper r e p o r t s p o i n t o u t t h e d i s p a r i t i e s  i n t h e F e d e r a l Government's a t t i t u d e  and p a r t i c u l a r l y  Quebec's s t a t u s  a r e numerous: b i t t e r  articles  towards  wheat?"  s t a t e m e n t , coming  f a r m e r s were f a c i n g in exportation  Examples  appeared over the a t t i t u d e  a t a Winnipeg meeting: This  the East,  i n the Federation.  t a k e n by t h e P r i m e M i n i s t e r , Mr. T r u d e a u , who was as s a y i n g 8  "Why  should  reported  I sell  your  a t a t i m e when wheat  a d i s a s t r o u s y e a r s t i m u l a t e d by a  and t h e p r i c e  G r a i n s Agreement p r i c e  slump  cutting of the International  s t r u c t u r e , would  7. J . B a r r & 0. A n d e r s o n T o r o n t o , 1961.  that  a p p e a r t o have  ( e d s ) , The U n f i n i s h e d  P. Thompson ( e d ) , The P r a i r i e A n g e r , T o r o n t o , 1969.  done  Revolt,  P r o v i n c e s - A l i e n a t i o n and  A. E d i n b o r o u g h , " N o t i c e t o w a r d s a d e f i n i t i o n t h e West," S a t u r d a y N i g h t , ( J u l y , 1 9 6 9 ) .  o f t h e mind o f  W. S t e w a r t , "The Coming Showdown w i t h t h e West," M a c l e a n s , ( J u l y , 1969). N e w s p a p e r s : The G a z e t t e ( M o n t r e a l ) , Nov. 24, 1971, P. D e s b a r a t s "West's d i v e r g i n g p r o v i n c e s s h a r e d i s t r u s t of East." V a n c o u v e r Sun, Nov. 3, 1971, P. D e s b a r a t s , "Canada's U n i t e d by f e a r o f E a s t . "  West  W i n n i p e g F r e e P r e s s , J a n . 17, 1971, P. Newman, "West's u n e a s e now a f a r c e . " 8. P. T r u d e a u , P r i m e M i n i s t e r , s t a t e d a t a f a r m e r s ' m e e t i n g i n Winnipeg. R e p o r t e d b y W. S t e w a r t , "The Coming Showdown w i t h t h e West," M a c l e a n s , ( J u l y , 1 9 6 9 ) , p / 3 7 .  -46-  nothing  t o cement  feelings of belonging  t o an E a s t e r n  Canada w h i c h i s t h e c e n t r e o f C a n a d i a n g r a i n m a r k e t i n g .  I n M a n i t o b a , t h e t r a n s f e r o f t h e A i r Canada  overhaul  b a s e f r o m W i n n i p e g t o M o n t r e a l , r e s u l t i n g 51 a l o s s o f a l a r g e number o f j o b s and a l a r g e amount o f i n v e s t m e n t , stimulated  t h e Manitoba F e d e r a t i o n o f Labour t o ask i n a 9  n a t i o n a l newspaper  "Is the just  society  just  When s p e a k i n g a b o u t w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n summarised  •:  the situation  P r e m i e r Strom  saying  ... i n g e n e r a l , t h e accommodation w h i c h we r e q u i r e i n c l u d e s changes i n a t t i t u d e , changes i n t h e o r i e n t a t i o n o f v a r i o u s F e d e r a l departments, changes i n t h e • o p e r a t i n g p o l i c i e s o f t h e F e d e r a l Government, a n d a c r e a t i o n o f new p o l i c i e s t o c o p e w i t h t h e c a u s e s o f our d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n . 10 The r a t i o n a l e  philosophy  f o r t h e C o n f e r e n c e h a d as i t s u n d e r l y i n g  t h a t d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n was i n d e e d p r e s e n t i n t h e  Western p r o v i n c e s ,  and t h a t c l e a r l y  p e o p l e was t h a t t h e y were l o o k i n g early stated ready  f o r Quebec?"  1970, t h e L i b e r a l that  W e s t e r n Canada  f o ralternatives.  Cabinet Minister,  "an i n c r e a s i n g  to re-negotiate  t h e v i e w o f many  James  Prairie Thus, i n  Richardson,  number o f W e s t e r n C a n a d i a n s a r e  the conditions  a n d t e r m s upon w h i c h 11 stays i n the Confederation." Such a  9. W.  S t e w a r t , p.39.  10. H.  S t r o m , A C a s e f o r t h e West, p . 8 .  11. P. Thompson ( e d ) , The P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e and A n g e r , 1969, p . l .  - Alienation  -47v i e w w o u l d a p p e a r t o be e x t r e m e ; i t i s i m p o r t a n t however,  that this  statement  the Confederation,but Confederation take  take At  the people  of p o l i t i c a l  earlier  Conference,  subdivisions  o f t h e West were a b l e t o  any a c t i v e p a r t i n d e f i n i n g t h i s  the Lethbridge  of  t h a t r e g i o n a l development can  t h e encumbrances  (made i n t h e West b e f o r e  note,  does n o t s u b s c r i b e t o l e a v i n g  to r e c o g n i s i n g the p r i n c i p l e s  to the extent  place without  to  political  James R i c h a r d s o n  division). redefined his  statement:  We h a v e t h e o p p o r t u n i t y , and i n f a c t t h e o b l i g a t i o n t o r e d r a w t h e map o f Canada i f we s i n c e r e l y b e l i e v e we c a n i m p r o v e Canada by s o d o i n g ... L e t us l o o k a t some o f t h e m e r i t s o f a l a r g e r and s t r o n g e r government i n t h e West. The f i r s t i s t h a t a l l t h e powers and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s now g i v e n t o t h e p r o v i n c e s u n d e r t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n w o u l d be l e g i s l a t e d and administered evenly i n t h i s vast region. The two areas of p r o v i n c i a l j u r i s d i c t i o n o f g r e a t e r importance i n t h i s r e s p e c t w o u l d be n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s d e v e l o p m e n t and human r e s o u r c e d e v e l o p m e n t ... The s e c o n d m e r i t o f a l a r g e r government .. and a s t r o n g e r government, w o u l d be b e t t e r a b l e t o r n e g o t i a t e a p p r o p r i a t e c h a n g e s i n t h e d i v i s i o n o f powers between t h e c e n t r a l government and t h e r e g i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t ... A t h i r d f u n d a m e n t a l m e r i t ... i s t h a t i t would h e l p to a c h i e v e the e s s e n t i a l balance o f Canada w h i c h i s v i t a l t o o u r o n - g o i n g C o n f e d e r a t i o n ... t h e i n c r e a s i n g c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f e c o n o m i c and f i n a n c i a l and p o l i t i c a l power i n O n t a r i o and Quebec, h a s t h r e a t e n e d t h e b a l a n c e o f Canada and t h e r e f o r e an i m p o r t a n t purpose which I see f o r a l a r g e r r e g i o n a l government i n t h e West, i s t h a t i t w o u l d b e b e t t e r a b l e t o b a l a n c e t h e g r o w i n g power o f t h e c e n t r a l provinces. 12 The C o n f e r e n c e realignment  was  o r a "new  thus  p r e f a c e d by t a l k s  of a  d d a i " f o r t h e West. S u c h m a j o r  12. D.K. E l t o n ( e d ) , One Canada, pp.2 2-2 3.  changes  P r a i r i e Province - A Question f o r  -48-  were n o t , however, w h o l e h e a r t e d l y  accepted  the e s s e n t i a l  p o i n t s made a t t h e o p e n i n g  agreed  T h u s , James R i c h a r d s o n ' s  upon.  c r e a t i o n o f one P r a i r i e  b y many,  address  although  were  largely  arguments f o r t h e  province although  widely  accepted,  were n o t n e c e s s a r i l y t a k e n  t o t h e same c o n c l u s i o n , and  a l a r g e f o l l o w i n g accepted  t h e c o n c l u s i o n made by  P e t e r L o u g h e e d , who c a l l e d  f o r a much g r e a t e r d e g r e e o f  c o - o p e r a t i o n between p r o v i n c i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s .  T h e n , t o o , t h e r e was t h e q u e s t i o n o f Quebec and i t s status  i n the Canadian Confederation,  Conference,  was i n t h e b a l a n c e ,  were b e s e t w i t h a call  which p r i o r  as t h e 1969 Quebec  tothe elections  t a l k o f s e p a r a t i o n on t h e one hand, a n d  f o r u n i t y and a s t r e n g t h e n i n g o f t h e r e g i o n s o f  Canada t o encompass Quebec i n t o  t h e F e d e r a t i o n , on the  other.  people  The r e a c t i o n by P r a i r i e  i n t e r v i e w e d by t h e  w r i t e r was t h a t Quebec must s t a y i n t h e C o n f e d e r a t i o n i f Canada was t o m a i n t a i n achieving  such  recognising  i t s u n i t y , a n d t h e o n l y way o f  an a i m was t o d e c e n t r a l i s e t h e g o v e r n m e n t ,  the d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s  of the natural regions o f  Canada.  The  outcome o f t h e Quebec e l e c t i o n s ,  to the Conference, had  was f u n d a m e n t a l l y  very  being  held  important,  prior as  t h e Quebec p a r t y u n d e r Rene L e v e s q u e b e e n e l e c t e d ,  s e p a r a t i o n would have been a d i s t i n c t  possibility.  -49Had  s e p a r a t i o n been v o t e d  f o r , the question that  u n a n s w e r e d Js what w o u l d t h e r e a c t i o n Prairies  THE  remains  t h e n h a v e been i n t h e  and t h e M a r i t i m e s ?  FOLLOWING FOR THE IDEA In  idea  discussing  t h e b a c k i n g o f t h e One P r a i r i e  i t i s important  people,  as h i t h e r t o  Province  t o c o n s i d e r t h e views h e l d by t h e the o p i n i o n s put forward  of  the p o l i t i c a l  o r business e l i t e .  of  t h e l a y community a b o u t  such  have b e e n  those  What t h e n a r e t h e v i e w s  an i d e a ,  a n d what  advantages can they see f o r i t ?  No d a t a i s a v a i l a b l e such  f o r Manitoba  a q u e s t i o n ; however, t h e s u r v e y 13  D. E l t o n reveals  i n 1969  included Prairie  conducted  by Professor  on s u c h v i e w s h e l d b y 56 7 A l b e r t a  a significant  Two q u e s t i o n s  and S a s k a t c h e w a n on  following  f o r the idea.  ( i n d i c a t e d here  as T a b l e I V and V) were  i n P r o f e s s o r E l t o n ' s survey Province idea,  voters  and i n each  relating  ease  t o t h e One  the a f f i r m a t i v e  r e s u l t was t w e n t y t h r e e p e r c e n t i n f a v o u r o f u n i o n .  13.  D.K. E l t o n , A l b e r t a E l e c t o r a t e T a b l e s , p.12.  Study  1969,  Aggregate  -50-  TABLE I V "Are  MEASURE  FOR SUPPORT OF THE ONE PRAIRIE PROVINCE IDEA  y o u i n f a v o u r o f One P r a i r i e Response  a) b) c) d)  Frequency  Yes No Don't know Not a s c e r t a i n e d  TABLE V  MEASURE  should  join  together  Frequency  a) a g r e e s t r o n g l y b) a g r e e c) d i s a g r e e d) d i s a g r e e s t r o n g l y e) no r e s p o n s e  be  23.0 65.9 11.1  FOR SUPPORT OF THE ONE PRAIRIE PROVINCE IDEA  Response  response  i n Alberta f o r less  i n favour o f P r a i r i e  and form  Percentage  21 108 349 85 4  the affirmative  who had l i v e d  Percentage  130 373 63 1  "The t h r e e W e s t e r n p r o v i n c e s one l a r g e . p r o v i n c e . "  Of  Province?"  3.7 19.9 22.7% a g r e e 61.6 15.0 76.6% d i s a g r e e  i n Tables than  I V and V,  ten years  a m a l g a m a t i o n more t h a n  tended t o  residents of  l o n g e r p e r i o d s , and a l s o a s l i g h t l y h i g h e r response to e x i s t level  among a g r i c u l t u r a l  showed a s l i g h t  high school education and/or u n i v e r s i t y to i n d i c a t e to  and s e r v i c e w o r k e r s .  i n c r e a s e from respondents to those with h i g h school  graduation.  was  found  Education having  some  graduation  Such t r e n d s w o u l d seem  that the a g r i c u l t u r a l  the idea, probably  people  community i s more f a v o u r a b l e  b e c a u s e i t i s t h e most s e v e r e l y  -51-  a f f e c t e d by to  the inadequacies  o f t h e Wheat B o a r d a t t h a t  f i n d m a r k e t s f o r t h e i r wheat.  positive  response  suggested,  i s due  confronting  The  the  according to education  t o the  idea of the P r a i r i e  are  t h e y were, one  r e a l i s e d by  the  thus  h e r e w o u l d be  I t does n o t ,  Manitoba, s i n c e these by  an  C o n s i d e r i n g the twenty t h r e e per  felt  the  fifty  t h e West was  N a t i o n a l Government  of  this  four per  receiving  advantage i n j o i n i n g  the  statistics available,  two  c e n t who  c e n t who  provinces  were i n  answered  d e a l " from  indication  i n A l b e r t a , and  discontent, a significant  a  amalgamation.  a "raw  ( T a b l e I I ) , an  that discontent i s f e l t  was  however, seem  t h a t the  c o m p a r a b l e , were t h e y  have much t o g a i n , e c o n o m i c a l l y ,  idea with  be.  c o n t a i n s the views of  assumption to suggest  f r o m S a s k a t c h e w a n and  they  to  a s t e p , were i t  a p p r e c i a t e d t h a t the survey  i n A l b e r t a , and  an u n r e a s o n a b l e  the  provinces  l a y community, and i f  representation of that province.  of  problems  c o u l d w e l l a s k what t h e r e s u l t w o u l d  Then t o o , i t must be  presented  i t is  i t i s , however, h a r d  i f the r a m i f i c a t i o n s of such  implemented,  level,  t o a g r e a t e r awareness o f the  amalgamating i s s i g n i f i c a n t ;  conducted  g r a d a t i o n towards a  area.  response  determine  The  time  that  the  i s documented  t h a t as  a  number o f v o t e r s  three provinces  favour  together.  result see  -52-  Ih a f a r l e s s sociologist  r i g o r o u s study.Dr.  from the U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a , asked  s e n i o r undergraduate students question, at  "Suppose y o u  Lethbridge  on  'One  per  say?"  Of  answer t o  c e n t were a g a i n s t and  Dr.  Card  gives a content  twelve  the  per  forty  one  of the  for  i d e a , twenty  c e n t were  a n a l y s i s of t h e i r  COMPONENTS OF  Conference  who  non-committal. 14 answers.  CONTENT ANALYSIS OF STUDENT RESPONSE TO OF THE ONE PRAIRIE PROVINCE IDEA  MAJOR FACTORS INDICATED  the  t o speak a t the  c e n t were i n f a v o u r  per  a  his  P r a i r i e Province, A Question  1  responded f i f t y  t o w r i t e an  were i n v i t e d  C a n a d a , what w o u l d y o u  TABLE V I  Brigham Card,  A QUESTION  MAJOR FACTORS  Political  e x p l o i t a t i o n , s u b s e r v i e n c e o f West t o E a s t , need f o r a u n i t e d v o i c e , need t o r e c o g n i s e i n t e r n a l p o l i t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s , to remain p a r t o f Canada.  Economic  s i m i l a r i t y i n s o u r c e s o f income; d i s p a r i t y between A l b e r t a and t h e o t h e r two p r o v i n c e s .  Demographic  ethnic balance provinces.  Educational  r e d u c t i o n o f number o f unity.  Attitudinal  f e e l i n g of a l i e n a t i o n from E a s t , f e e l i n g o f s h a r i n g common p r o b l e m s , s i m i l a r s t y l e of l i f e i n the three provinces, perceived by o u t s i d e r s as f r o m t h e P r a i r i e r e g i o n .  Operational (Means t o achieve Unity)  e x t e n s i o n o f P r a i r i e c o - o p e r a t i v e s and wheat p o o l s , c o n f e r e n c e , e d u c a t i o n a l c a m p a i g n , s u r v e y s t o f i n d p r e s e n t v i e w s , more s o c i a l movements t o a p o p u l i s t n a t u r e , c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h n e i g h b o u r i n g U.S. States.  14.  comparable i n the school  three  systems  with  B.Y. C a r d , " P o l i t i c a l U n i o n , R e g i o n a l i s m , o r B o t h ? " i n D. E l t o n ( e d ) , One P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e - A Q u e s t i o n f o r Canada, p.10 8.  -53The  keynote  to this  analysis  i s that within this  group o f s t u d e n t s a need f o r r e g i o n a l t o be d e s i r a b l e , political  boundaries  Another October  r a t h e r than  c o - o p e r a t i o n was  small seen  a re-organisation o f the  of the P r a i r i e region.  study conducted  by Maclean's Magazine  1959, b e g i n s by s u g g e s t i n g t o r e a d e r s  15 in  that  c e r t a i n g e o g r a p h i c a l d i v i s i o n s t h a t may have made a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s e n s e 50 o r 100 y e a r s ago a r e ho longer so c l e a r l y v a l i d . Planners i n the Maritimes, more o u t o f d e s p e r a t i o n t h a n d e s i r e , a r e s e r i o u s l y considering p o l i t i c a l union. P r e s s u r e g r o u p s on t h e P r a i r i e s a r e a d v o c a t i n g a w e s t e r n B l o c ... The Yukon has l o n g b e e n demanding f u l l p r o v i n c i a l s t a t u s , w h i l e B.C.'s W.A.C. B e n n e t t wants t o s w a l l o w t h e t e r r i t o r y whole. 16 The  s u r v e y p r e s e n t s f o u r maps g i v i n g  political its  present p o l i t i c a l  eight with and  r e d i v i s i o n o f Canada.  Map 1 p r e s e n t s Canada w i t h  structure.  Map 2 d i v i d e s Canada  s u b - d i v i s i o n s i n which the P r a i r i e the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s  i n addition  the c i t i e s provinces.  of Montreal  into  region i s included  (B.C. i n c l u d e s Yukon  territory),  u n i o n , O n t a r i o and Quebec,  and T o r o n t o  a r e shown a s c i t y  Map 3 shows "Canada West" a s t h e w h o l e n a t i o n  as o n e , e x c e p t connected  to Maritime  an a l t e r n a t i v e  independent  by a c o r r i d o r  Quebec, a n d t h e M a r i t i m e s  t o Canada West. F i n a l l y ,  Map 4 shows  C a n a d a a s p a r t o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s w i t h an i n d e p e n d a t  Quebec.  15.  D. M a r s h a l l , "Which Canada w o u l d y o u c h o o s e ? " M a c l e a n s Magazine, (October, 1969), C e n t r e f o i l . T h i s survey although not p a r t o f the O n e . P r a i r i e Province Conference, i s c o n t a i n e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r a s i t s r e s u l t s complement t h e f i n d i n g s o f Dr. E l t o n ' s s u r v e y and D r . C a r d ' s o b s e r v a t i o n . (See f o o t n o t e s 13 a n d 1 4 ) .  16.  D. M a r s h a l l , I b i d ,  Centrefoil.  -54-  Although suggestive  t h i s survey  c o u l d be d i s c o u n t e d  t o w a r d s one a l t e r n a t i v e ,  r e p r e s e n t an u n r e a l i s t i c r e s p o n s e , serves  as a n i n d i c a t i o n  results  or that i t s results the data  suggested  the P r a i r i e s  a s one p o l i t i c a l  was t h e most p o p u l a r  The  (The r e m a i n i n g  other v a r i a t i o n s ) . unit,  The map  among o t h e r  indicating  changes,  choice.  net r e s u l t "  indicate  from these  three  surveys  i s that  they  that a following of s i g n i f i c a n t proportion i s f o r an a m a l g a m a t i o n o f A l b e r t a , S a s k a t c h e w a n and  Manitoba, although literature  the  The  were Map 1: 27 p e r c e n t ; Map 2: 41 p e r c e n t ;  8.5 p e r c e n t  Elton  nonetheless  o f t h e v i e w o f 1200 C a n a d i a n s .  Map 3: 10.5 p e r c e n t ; Map 4: 13 p e r c e n t .  present  as b e i n g t o o  c l e a r l y i t i s the m i n o r i t y view.  available,  the survey  conducted  and t h e w r i t e r ' s i n t e r v i e w s w i t h  over  From t h e  by P r o f e s s o r 120 p e o p l e i n  t h r e e P r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s , i t would appear t h e cause o f  agitation  f o r supporting t h e One P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e movement was  the a l i e n a t i o n  t h a t W e s t e r n Canada f e e l s  Economic C o n s i d e r a t i o n s - D i s p a r i t i e s  from E a s t e r n  Canada.  w i t h i n the P r a i r i e  Provinces The  economic r e s u l t o f forming  the e x i s t i n g  be t o e l i m i n a t e t h e d i s p a r i t y  industries  jurisdiction  t o encompass  p r o v i n c e s o f A l b e r t a , S a s k a t c h e w a n and M a n i t o b a  would c e r t a i n l y producing  one p r o v i n c e  t h a t e x i s t w i t h i n each  a t present.  o f goods-  political  TABLE V I I  ECONOMIC DISPARITIES WITHIN THE PRAIRIE PROVINCES VALUE ADDED IN GOODS-PRODUCING INDUSTRIES AND PERCENTAGE ANALYSIS BY PRAIRIE PROVINCES 1967. Manitoba $'000  Agriculture  Q. "O  Saskatchewan $'000  Q. "o  Alberta $'000  •6  267,777  25.4  636,837  43.6  523,031  19.2  Forestry  2,256  0.2  3,556  0.2  7,591  0.3  Fisheries  2,527  0.2  1,163  0.1  758  Trapping  1,284  0.1  1,131  0.1  . 1,549  0.1  Mining  96,429  8.8  306,527  21.0  895,205  32.8  Electric Power  57,629  5.3  54,872  3.7  .. 77,763  Manufacturing  424,6 39  38.9  165,696  11. 3  574,215  21.1  Construction  2 30,001  21.1  2 92,371  20.0  64 7,2 29  23.7  1 ,901,5 42  100.0  100.0  2,727,341  100.0  TOTAL  17.  1,461,883  A . L . Boykiw, "One P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e and r e g i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t , " i n D. E l t o n ( e d ) , One P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e - A Q u e s t i o n f o r C a n a d a , p.385.  -  2.8  -56-  The  table presented  Conference disparity  i n the proceedings  o f the Lethbridge  b y A . L . Boykiw-.suggests t h a t i n 19 67 c o n s i d e r a b l e e x i s t e d between g o o d s - p r o d u c i n g  comparative  i n d u s t r i e s on a  b a s i s between t h e t h r e e p r o v i n c e s .  Table VII indicates agricultural  products  the importance  of the value of  i n the P r a i r i e s ,  varies quite significantly  and t h a t  manufacturing  i n t h e v a l u e added goods  i n d u s t r i e s , with Manitoba being  producing  t h e h i g h e s t a t 38.9 p e r c e n t  f o l l o w e d b y A l b e r t a 21.1 p e r c e n t and S a s k a t c h e w a n 11.3 p e r cent.  The l a t t e r  figures  however must b e b r o u g h t  p e r s p e c t i v e when compared w i t h Quebec and O n t a r i o c e n t and 71 p e r c e n t  into (67 p e r  respectively).  In view o f the l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f the gross n a t i o n a l e x p e n d i t u r e b e i n g s u p p l i e d b y i m p o r t s , and t h e h e a v y c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n O n t a r i o and Quebec, i t i s r e a s o n a b l e t o assume t h a t t h e t r a d e i n m a n u f a c t u r e d goods b e t w e e n t h e P r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s i s r a t h e r l i m i t e d . Most o f t h e m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n t h e P r a i r i e s i s f o r l o c a l demand. 18 Some p r o d u c t s  manufactured w i t h i n each o f t h e P r a i r i e  p r o v i n c e s do e x p e r i e n c e thus  restricting  would c e r t a i n l y  provincial  interprovincial  the P r a i r i e  The  total  trade.  situation  eliminate trade  barriers  region.  value of the industries  indicates  that considerable disparity  18.  p.384.  Ibid,  This  legislation  be e l i m i n a t e d by t h e f o r m a t i o n o f one  p r o v i n c e as i t would e f f e c t i v e l y within  preference  included i n Table VII exists with Alberta  -57-  having  almost twice  the value  margin over Manitoba. certainly other  diminish  Union o f t h e three  two p r o v i n c e s .  c a r r i e d out with  Eastern  provinces  the wealth o f A l b e r t a i n favour The m a r k e t i n g o f P r a i r i e  (which i n c l u d e c o a l , is  o f S a s k a t c h e w a n and a g r e a t e r  nickel,  potash,  would of the  exports  g a s , o i l and b e e f  cattle)  F e d e r a l Government i n f l u e n c e i n  C a n a d a , a n d , more r e c e n t l y o n t h e P a c i f i c  seaboard i n B r i t i s h  Columbia:  ... u n i f i c a t i o n o f t h e P r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s , e x p r e s s i n g a s t r o n g p o s i t i o n on t h e m a r k e t i n g o f t h e s e p r o d u c t s , c o u l d a d d more i m p e t u s t o t h e m a r k e t i n g o f some o f these products. 19 This  implies a greater  the P r a i r i e government. be  provinces  strength  i s t o be had by u n i f y i n g  both a t t h e market p l a c e  S u c h may b e t h e c a s e ,  found which suggests t h a t three  although  and i n  a n argument c a n  independent  representatives  b a c k e d b y t h e i r own g o v e r n m e n t a r e more p o w e r f u l  Summary o f t h e One P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e The the  than one.  Conference  C o n f e r e n c e p o i n t s o u t t h e many a d v a n t a g e s and t o o ,  disadvantages of t h i s  i d e a o f amalgamation.  The common  d e n o m i n a t o r , however, i s t h a t a need i s s e e n t o c o - o p e r a t e much more c l o s e l y w i t h i n prepared  to consider  P r a i r i e provinces East.  Mildred  the M e i s e l  19. I b i d ,  a s one r e g i o n .  p.386.  I t i s clear  l o o k w e s t w a r d and f e e l  Schwartz r e v e a l e d  study  an a r e a w h i c h many a r e  concerning  that the  a l i e n a t e d from t h e  some i n t e r e s t i n g  political  o p i n i o n s and  trends  from  -58-  behaviour  of Prairie  people  -  C u r r e n t l y , t h e P r a i r i e Provinces; a r e o r i e n t a t e d westward* Saskatchewan-and Manitoba l o o k t o A l b e r t a , b u t A l b e r t a does n o t r e c i p r o c a t e . A l b e r t a l o o k s away f r o m t h e P r a i r i e s t o B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n t e r m s o f i t s d i f f i n i t i e s and s t a n d a r d s o f c o m p a r i s o n . 20 I t w o u l d seem c l e a r  t h a t A l b e r t a , by l o o k i n g w e s t w a r d t o  B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , draws w i t h and  that economically  British  t h e C a n a d a West c o n c e p t  could include  C o l u m b i a a s w e l l , w h i c h t o many a t t h e L e t h b r i d g e  Conference  indicated  a need f o r g r e a t e r  co-operation with B r i t i s h provinces. British  i t M a n i t o b a and S a s k a t c h e w a n ,  inter-governmental  Columbia as w e l l as the P r a i r i e  S u c h h a s , most r e c e n t l y , b e e n t h e c a s e  C o l u m b i a ' s new NDP Government e s t a b l i s h i n g  s i t t i n g with  the P r a i r i e  provinces  on t h e e c o n o m i c  with l i n k s by council  conferences.  It  i s this  opposition  disparity of allegiance that stimulates the  t o the idea o f p o l i t i c a l  Prairie  p r o v i n c e s , and extends  concept  which c a l l s  institutions boundaries barrier  f o r co-operation  have t o t h e f l o w o f t r a d e . boundaries  to counteract  are d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter  20.  of the three  i t i n t o a W e s t e r n Canada for interprovincial  t o b r e a k down t h e b a r r i e r  to p o l i t i c a l  developed  unification  effect  that the  In reaction to t h i s  many o r g a n i s a t i o n s have b e e n  the e f f e c t s o f fragmentation  which  V.  M.A. S c h w a r t z , " A t t a c h m e n t s t o P r o v i n c e s and R e g i o n i n t h e P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e s , " i n D. E l t o n (ed),One P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e - A Q u e s t i o n f o r C a n a d a , p.105.  -59-  The q u e s t i o n o f b e l o n g i n g perhaps t o the P r a i r i e s , matters of i d e n t i t y  The a g i t a t i o n large part, demanding examines identity.  brings  t o a Western Canada, o r to the f o r e f r o n t  and o f d i s p a r i t y  f o r a One  Prairie  of  allegiance.  Province rests,  upon t h e c o n c e p t o f a P r a i r i e  a cohesion within  the  the P r a i r i e s .  in  identity, C h a p t e r IV  the cohesive elements t h a t account f o r a  Prairie  -60CHAPTER I V PRAIRIE IDENTITY  It one  has been argued t h a t s u p p o r t  province within the P r a i r i e s  f o r the idea of creating  i s significant,  a m i n o r i t y ? T.he q u e s t i o n h a s now b e e n a s k e d does a P r a i r i e idea?"  identity  " t o what  contribute to the agitation  Such a q u e s t i o n i m p l i e s t h a t a c o h e s i v e  b i n d i n g P r a i r i e people Such c o h e s i o n  c o u l d be a t t r i b u t a b l e  a feeling  The  of Prairie  survey  The direct  element,  t o a need t o  w i t h i n t h e whole  reasons.  But i s there  cohesiveness?  by the w r i t e r attempts  a Prairie  identity  can be s a i d  t o determine to exist.  s u r v e y was b y i n t e r v i e w , e i t h e r b y l e t t e r  questioning.  speakers  t o many o t h e r  conducted  whether, i n f a c t ,  (See T a b l e V I I I a n d I X ) .  a t the Lethbridge Conference  questioned  first,  or business students,  elite.  f o r the  to factors of  i n order t o create a balance  nation, o r , o f course,  extent  t o g e t h e r , may b e d i s c e r n i b l e .  e n v i r o n m e n t , t o common p r o b l e m s o f o c c u p a t i o n , consolidate  albeit i n  c o n s i s t i n g mainly  o r by  Most o f t h e  c o n s t i t u t e d t h e group  of a political,  academic  D i r e c t q u e s t i o n i n g was u s e d t o i n t e r v i e w  newspaper e x e c u t i v e s  and t h e l a y p u b l i c i n  M a n i t o b a , S a s k a t o o n , Edmonton, C a l g a r y  and L e t h b r i d g e .  (See A p p e n d i x 4 ) .  Sixty and  asked  f i v e people -  were i n t e r v i e w e d o r c o r r e s p o n d e d  with  -61TABLE V I I I 1)  PRAIRIE IDENTITY  Do y o u f e e l t h a t a d i s c e r n i b l e P r a i r i e i d e n t i t y e x i s t s w i t h i n A l b e r t a , S a s k a t c h e w a n and M a n i t o b a ? Response  Frequency  Yes No Don't know  The very it  Percentage  37 16 12  response to  this  question  l i m i t e d sample, P r a i r i e  encompasses t h e  three  56.9 24.6 18.5  indicates that,  in a  i d e n t i t y i s d i s c e r n i b l e , and  Prairie  provinces;  however, a w i d e  v a r i a t i o n became e v i d e n t  when t h e y were a s k e d t o d e f i n e  basis  of  A  Prof.  J.H.  such i d e n t i t y .  sample  Thompson - M c G i l l  that  the  -  University:  Y e s . U n d o u b t e d l y a f e e l i n g o f common i d e n t i t y has e x i s t e d among r e s i d e n t s o f M a n i t o b a , S a s k a t c h e w a n and A l b e r t a s i n c e the e a r l y years of t h i s century. All t h e s e p r o v i n c e s , u n l i k e the o t h e r seven, were e s s e n t i a l l y c r e a t i o n s o f t h e F e d e r a l Government, w i t h e x p l i c i t and i m p l i c i t i n f e r i o r s t a t u s i n C o n f e d e r a t i o n . The p r o v i n c i a l e c o n o m i c s , w i t h t h e i r emphais on wheat p r o d u c t i o n f o r e x p o r t , were a s e c o n d s o u r c e o f identification. Each s u f f e r e d the d i s a b i l i t i e s i m p o s e d by t h e ' n a t i o n a l p o l i c y ' , w h i c h d e l i b e r a t e l y c o n c e n t r a t e d i n d u s t r i a l g r o w t h i n C e n t r a l Canada. M a n i t o b a , S a s k a t c h e w a n and A l b e r t a f a c e d s i m i l a r s o c i a l p r o b l e m s , c a u s e d by t h e s t r a i n s o f m o u l d i n g a u n i t e d s o c i e t y f r o m e t h n i c d i v e r s i t y , and e a c h p r o v i n c e f a c e d a s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n d u r i n g the g r e a t depression o f t h e 19 30's. 1 E.  C.  Manning, the  Senate o f  Canada.  ... t h e r e i s a P r a i r i e i d e n t i t y i n t h e s e n s e t h a t a c o n s i d e r a b l e number o f m u t u a l i n t e r e s t s and p r o b l e m s a r e common t o a l l t h r e e P r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s . Theie i s a l s o a m u t u a l bond between t h e s e p r o v i n c e s arising from long s t a n d i n g w i t h r e s p e c t to e x c e s s i v e f r e i g h t r a t e s and t h e f a c t t h a t t h e t a r i f f p r o t e c t i o n a f f o r d e d 1.  J.H.  Thompson, i n a l e t t e r  t o t h e w r i t e r , Dec.  2,  1971.  i n d u s t r y i n C e n t r a l Canada works t o t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e of the P r a i r i e region. 2 The  i s s u e o f Western a l i e n a t i o n  two  responses,  on  identity.  also  appears again  as i t does i n most a n s w e r s t o t h e q u e s t i o n The f a c t  that d i v e r s i t i e s are also present i s  s u b s t a n t i a t e d by t h e r e t u r n s  analysis  to this  question:  a  content  i n d i c a t e d the f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s ;  TABLE IX  CONTENT ANALYSIS ON THE BASIS OF PRAIRIE IDENTITY STUDY.  CONTENT  i n these  (OPEN-ENDED QUESTION)  HEADING  Historical  People f e l t they belonged t o a d i s t i n c t i v e s i t u a t i o n and way o f l i f e . R e c o g n i t i o n a s Prairie folk. This i d e n t i t y i s strongly a s s o c i a t e d w i t h b e i n g Canadian?.. Alberta was d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e o t h e r two p r o v i n c e s as A m e r i c a n s e t t l e r s i m p r e g n a t e d a d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e and h a d g r e a t e r f i n a n c e s t h a n t h e European s e t t l e r s i n Manitoba and Saskatchewan. F r o n t i e r e f f o r t t o mould a r e a t o g e t h e r .  Political  A l i e n a t e d and e x p l o i t e d by E a s t . Having i n f e r i o r s t a t u s i n the Canadian F e d e r a t i o n . A need seen t o b a l a n c e t h e n a t i o n politically. D i s a b i l i t i e s imposed by n a t i o n a l p o l i c y - t a r i f f s , f r e i g h t r a t e s , wheat m a r k e t s e t c . I n f e r i o r i t y t o Quebec. F r e n c h l a n g u a g e n o t a p p l i c a b l e t o West. More c o - o p e r a t i o n between g o v e r n m e n t s r e q u i r e d .  Economic  P r a i r i e s a r e an economic m a l a i s e . Sharing o f natural resources required. Many common o r g a n i s a t i o n s f o r m e d t o combat t h e e x p l o i t a t i o n from the E a s t .  Environment  The P r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s a r e n o t p h y s i c a l l y p l a i n s , t h u s " P r a i r i e " t e n d s t o b e a misnomer. However P r a i r i e h a s come t o b e r e g a r d e d as t h e t e r m u s e d t o d e s c r i b e and j u s t i f y t h e r e g i o n a s such.  2.  E.C. M a n n i n g , i n a l e t t e r t o t h e w r i t e r , Dec. 2, 1971.  -63Diversity  D i v e r s i t y evident occupational  The  i n religion,  structure within  languages, Prairies.  breakdown o f t h e comments made i n t h e o p e n - e n d e d  r e s p o n s e a r e s i m i l a r t o t h e a n a l y s i s made b y D r . C a r d his  students'  comments.  ( C h a p t e r I I I ) . They o u t l i n e  a l t h o u g h many common f a c t o r s c a n be f o u n d w i t h i n provinces, identity is  great  diversity also exists.  i n the sense t h a t  not present  there  on t h e P r a i r i e s ,  d e n o t e a common " p e r s o n a l i t y " . that  from  that  the three  The c o n c e p t o f an  i s an a b s o l u t e  sameness  b u t t h e term i s used t o I t i s important  to understand  a r e c o g n i t i o n o f " i d e n t i t y " may n o t n e c e s s a r i l y  indicate  a f e e l i n g o f cohesiveness having i t s roots within the Prairie  provinces.  From t h e d a t a c o l l e c t e d by D r . E l t o n ( s e e  T a b l e s I , I I and I I I )  i t appears t h a t  e x p r e s s e d an a n t a g o n i s t i c opinion the  Province plains  f e e l i n g when q u e s t i o n e d on t h e i r  o f Western Canadian s t a t u s  question  b a s e d upon a d e s i r e  provinces  East?  to unite  The  Thus,  the e x i s t i n g  f o r a t t a i n i n g common b e n e f i t s ?  In other  agitation wholly reaction  i n the Confederation.  i s p o s e d : i s t h e a g i t a t i o n f o r a One P r a i r i e  a r e s u l t of the a l i e n a t i o n f e l t the  the people o f A l b e r t a  words, i s t h e s t i m u l u s  from w i t h i n  t o an o u t s i d e  impression  by t h e P r a i r i e  the P r a i r i e  or i s i t  people  from  f o r u n i t y an  region,  or i s i t a  influence?  that  i s obtained  by t h i s w r i t e r  i s that,  as  examples o f Western a l i e n a t i o n a r e b r o u g h t t o t h e f o r e f r o n t  by  t h e m e d i a , t h e r e s p o n s e i s one o f a n g e r d i r e c t e d  against  the E a s t e r n p r o v i n c e s .  T h i s response  calls  f o r united  a c t i o n w i t h i n the Western p r o v i n c e s .  A collective consequently,due balance  Prairie  response  t o the P r a i r i e  comes  about,  p r o v i n c e s s e e i n g a need t o  the e f f e c t o f the strong decision-making  E a s t e r n Canada, where many o f t h e p o l i c y decisions  a r e made f o r t h e P r a i r i e s .  and m a r k e t i n g  T h i s i s seen  u n d e s i r a b l e , a s i s documented i n T a b l e I X . response Prairie  (fifty identity  seven  p e r cent)  (Table VIII)  g i v e n t o t h e q u e s t i o n on  i s s u b s t a n t i a t e d by t h e  t o t h e open-ended q u e s t i o n  regarded  as a r e a c t i o n t o t h e Western a l i e n a t i o n  i s conceded  the P r a i r i e  (Table IX).  i n T a b l e IX t h a t  region particularly  e v e n t h e b a s e o f t h e economy. there a r e bases  diversity  Identity i s viewpoint.  does e x i s t w i t h i n  i n terms o f language, Y e t , a s T a b l e IX a l s o  e x p e r i e n c e has been shared  Manitoba  gaining i t s provincial  activity  has been e x p e r i e n c e d ,  problems.  as w e l l  status,  a common  prior to  a common  rural  i m m i g r a t i o n p r o b l e m s have  as communication  More r e c e n t l y ,  v a r y i n g degrees,  suggests,  to the extent that the  w h o l e a r e a was a d m i n i s t e r e d a s a t e r r i t o r y  been s h a r e d ,  r a c e and  f o r much common f e e l i n g w i t h i n t h e t h r e e  P r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s ; many common p r o b l e m s a r e s h a r e d , historical  t o be  The p o s i t i v e  response  It  force of  and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  t h e d e p r e s s i o n o f t h e 19 30's, i n  was s h a r e d , a n d t h e g r o w i n g  discontent  -65-  w i t h t h e s t a t u s o f W e s t e r n Canada i n t h e C o n f e d e r a t i o n i s also  shared.  The  limits  o f what was  by  the respondents  of  A l b e r t a , Manitoba  a r e a was  was  considered the P r a i r i e  almost  and  unanimously  Saskatchewan.  t h u s p o o r l y named, b u t  come t o be  regarded  that  the w r i t e r ' s  Province idea,  the term  "Prairie"  the response  q u e s t i o n s i n t e r m s o f t h e One the important  factor  sense,  the had  felt  made  Prairie  i s to note  i s indeed  p r o b l e m s t h a t n e e d t o be transcend provincial  the p r e s s u r e s f e l t a r e p r e s e n t , and united  that  t h a t a common among  the  people.  The develop  area  as a w h o l e r e g i o n .  ground, i n a c o l l e c t i v e Prairie  the populated  Many a g r e e d  When c o n s i d e r i n g t h e s e q u e s t i o n s and to  region  and  discusses  by  solved for this  boundaries,  and  region to  i n reaction  to  t h e s e p r o v i n c e s , common o r g a n i s a t i o n s  are growing  more numerous, p u t t i n g  i n t e g r a t e d view forward. these o r g a n i s a t i o n s .  The  following  a chapter  -66CHAPTER V REGIONAL CO-OPERATION WITHIN THE PRAIRIE PROVINCES  "The need t o b a l a n c e between t h e d e s i r e f o r C a n a d i a n u n i t y on one h a n d and t h e a s p i r a t i o n s a n d t h e e c o n o m i c a n d s o c i a l r e a l i t i e s o f t h i s r e g i o n on t h e o t h e r . " 1 The  West c a n b e r e g a r d e d  commonalities Eastern As  and f a c i n g p r o b l e m s o f a l i e n a t i o n  Canada.  a result,  as a r e g i o n having  A t t h e same t i m e t h e r e  " t h e need t o b a l a n c e "  This co-operation  that separate  i s a great  them; f o r example, t h e  regulations f o r interprovincial  licencing,  i n which road h a u l a g e companies,  to seek t h e p e r m i s s i o n 2 board.  of  trucking wishing  p r o v i n c i a l boundaries,  were r e q u i r e d  o f each p r o v i n c i a l motor t r a n s p o r t  T h i s meant a n a p p l i c a t i o n was r e q u i r e d f o r e a c h  province. loss  i n order  p l a c e d upon t h e p r o v i n c e s b y  provincial  t o t r a n s p o r t goods a c r o s s  diversity.  among t h e P r a i r i e  h a s become n e c e s s a r y  t o b r e a k down t h e r e s t r i c t i o n s the boundaries  from  has brought about a  l a r g e degree o f r e g i o n a l c o - o p e r a t i o n provinces.  certain  This  and t h u s  situation,  causing  e x p e n s e , was f i n a l l y  t h e 1967 N a t i o n a l T r a n s p o r t  Act,  a g r e a t d e a l o f time stopped thus  by the p r o c l a m a t i o n  r e q u i r i n g o n l y one  application.  Such an example p o i n t s o u t t h e n e e d f o r  co-operation,  which,  i n this  case,  has been  given.  1.  P. L o u g h e e d , "What a r e t h e a l t e r n a t i v e s ? , " i n D. E l t o n , One P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e ? , p.398.  2.  T h i s example i s c i t e d by L . E v a n s , a l t e r n a t i v e s , " i n E l t o n , p . 42 6.  "What a r e t h e  -67The t h r e e P r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s as t h e y e x i s t t o - d a y a r e r e a l l y v e r y c l o s e t o b e i n g one e c o n o m i c u n i t . R e l a t i v e l y few r e s t r i c t i o n s e x i s t w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e movement o f goods and s e r v i c e s w i t h i n t h e P r a i r i e r e g i o n ... M a n i t o b a b u s i n e s s m e n v i e w t h e P r a i r i e s as one m a r k e t . 3 With communications r u n n i n g f r o m E a s t t o West and provinces  i t i s inevitable  should e x i s t that for an  so l i n k i n g  between e a c h o f t h e  commercial a c t i v i t y .  initial  co-operation  each of the  predominantly  Prairie  that a great deal of  the major r a i l h e a d s s h o u l d this  a c r o s s Canada  commerce  t h r e e P r o v i n c e s , and, s e r v e as  The  collection  railhead  thus  points  required  amongst t h e t h r e e p r o v i n c e s ,  W i n n i p e g as  the centre of the Western d i v i s i o n of  C.P.R.  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o f g r a i n t o t h e E a s t , and  to  The  the Western seaboard  again  t o cope w i t h  required provincial  the Canadian board.  wheat p o o l s  Hence, as r u r a l  an A s i a n  facilitate  a c t e d as  with  the later  market,  to co-operate occupations  with  are  paramount importance t o a l l t h r e e P r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s , F e d e r a l Government has  too,  of the  the c o - o r d i n a t i n g agent  t h e movement o f g r a i n , and  other produce,  to  the market p l a c e .  The regional first  Op.  of Frederick Haultain to maintain  a  g o v e r n m e n t f o r t h e P r a i r i e s must h a v e b e e n  concerted  political  3.  efforts  e f f o r t t o b i n d the whole r e g i o n i n t o  legislation.  c i t , p.425.  These h a v i n g  failed,  due  to  the one the  to  -68Federal  Government's i n s i s t e n c e o n f u r t h e r  fragmentation seeing  of the P r a i r i e s ,  common i n t e r e s t  other  organisations,  among t h e v a r i o u s  sought t o e s t a b l i s h r e g i o n a l p o l i t i c a l economic p r o t e s t . The  United  and  CCF P a r t y  together stance,  Prairie  occupations,  p a r t i e s b a s e d upon  Such p a r t i e s as t h e P r o g r e s s i v e  Party,  F a r m e r s o f A l b e r t a , o f S a s k a t c h e w a n and o f M a n i t o b a , i n S a s k a t c h e w a n and A l b e r t a a t t e m p t e d t o f u s e  the agrarian particularly  represent  political  i n t e r e s t s o f W e s t e r n Canada, t h a t o f t h e CCF P a r t y ,  t h e w o r k i n g man w i t h o u t  being  Their  i s to  l e f t of centre; to  move more t o t h e r i g h t w o u l d e n c r o a c h upon t h e l i b e r a l or conservative  view, and thus i t would l o s e i t s i d e n t i t y .  W h i l e i t ( t h e CCF P a r t y ) i s s t u c k on t h e h o r n s o f a dilemma, t h e C o n s e r v a t i e s and L i b e r a l s have a p p r o p r i a t e d many o f I t s s o c i a l w e l f a r e p l a n k s . I t s c h i e f o b s t a c l e i s the hard f a c t of Canadian middle c l a s s d e m o c r a c y ; l i k e a l l r a d i c a l and s e c t i o n a l p a r t i e s i t can consider broadening i t s appeal only at the r i s k o f l o s i n g i t s claim to existence. 4 Thus w i t h collapsed. for  such encroachment by o t h e r  I t i s suggested here,  parties to represent,  p o p u l a t i o n was n e c e s s a r y , provincial too  political  generous t o take  p a r t i e s t h e CCF  however, t h a t t h e n e e d  among o t h e r s ,  the agrarian  and s u c h n e c e s s i t y  boundaries.  transcended  I t w o u l d n o t a p p e a r t o be  t h e view t h a t , i n r e t r o s p e c t , the  function of the p o l i t i c a l  or quasi-political  o r g a n i s a t i o n s has been t o p r e s e n t ,  at least,  agrarian t h e view o f  4. P.Fox, " P o l i t i c s a n d P a r t i e s i n C a n a d a " i n P.Fox, p o l i t i c s : Canada - P r o b l e m s i n C a n a d i a n Government, p. 342 r  the farmers,  and  that  c o n s i d e r a t i o n by t h e powers t h a t  An  t h e l a r g e p a r t i e s w h i c h have e v o l v e d be.  f o r m e d i n December 1921,  o f Canada, w i t h  (Significantly,  i t was  The  and  i t s headquarters  named t h e i n Ituna,  those of the g r a i n growing  W e s t e r n Canada s o u g h t as  started  Constitution  t o g a i n more f r o m  i n and  for  "Farmers o f the W o r l d t o U n i t e . "  "...  useless by  in  farmers  Saskatchewan.  provinces of  Saskatchewan).  H e n r i Schwarz,  who  He w r i t e s ,  a f t e r many y e a r s o f d e c e p t i o n t h a t  to r e l y  the people,  urged  President, Norbert  realized,  Farmers'  i s a m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f the views of  first  on  Governments t h a t were n e v e r  b u t by  a few,  controlled  to take the i n i t i a t i v e  and  of  this organisation,  a d m i n i s t e r e d from  Union's the  due  as  o r g a n i s a t i o n d e d i c a t e d to p r o t e c t the farmers  Canada was Union  t h e s e v i e w s have b e e n g i v e n t h e i r  the called farmers  i t was  controlled 5  o l d men." significant  He clauses  the c o n s t i t u t i o n s t a t e : C l a u s e I I : To p r o t e c t t h e f a r m e r . To o b t a i n c o m p l e t e c o n t r o l o f the main Canadian produce. To m a r k e t o u r c r o p s u n d e r o u r own s y s t e m . To a f f i l i a t e w i t h a l l t h e f a r m e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s o f t h e w o r l d , w i t h one c e n t r a l e x e c u t i v e i n each country, which w i l l f i x p r i c e s a c c o r d i n g t o a f a i r a v e r a g e o f e s t i m a t e s s e n t i n by t h e l o c a l s , w i l l t h r o u g h t h e same s o u r c e a l s o know amount o f m a r k e t a b l e p r o d u c e i n t h e c o u n t r y ; w i l l h a v e t o k e e p i n f o r m e d a s t o t h e demands and n e e d s o f i m p o r t i n g c o u n t r i e s , and w i l l a l s o h e l p t o p r e v e n t t h e r e - o c c u r r e n c e o f f a m i n e by knowing a h e a d o f t i m e where and when f o o d w i l l be n e e d e d , and t h e n i n s i s t t o w a r d s t h e d i f f e r e n t governments w i t h the f u l l s u p p o r t o f farmers and w o r k e r s c o m b i n e d t h a t t h e Governments s h a l l do what t h e y a r e t h e r e f o r ; a t t e n d t o t h e w e l f a r e o f t h e masses of the p e o p l e .  5. D.S. S p a f f o r d , "The O r i g i n o f t h e F a r m e r s ' U n i o n o f C a n a d a , i n D. S w a i n s o n , H i s t o r i c a l E s s a y s on t h e P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e s p.255.  -70Clause I I I . I f t h e E x e c u t i o n ( s i c ) Board t h i n k s c e r t a i n steps a r e necessary to the welfare o f the farmers, t h e c o n d i t i o n s , w i l l have t o b e p u t b e f o r e t h e f a r m e r members and d e c i d e d b y a v o t e o f t h e members o f t h e Farmers U n i o n o f Canada . I f t h e m a j o r i t y i s i n f a v o u r o f c e r t a i n d e c i s i o n s e v e r y member o f t h e F a r m e r s Union o f Canada b i n d s h i m s e l f t o u n c o n d i t i o n a l l y o b e y t h e orders o f t h e e x e c u t i v e o f the Union. 6 1  1  The  F a r m e r s ' U n i o n was, b y c o n t r a s t t o t h e c o n s e r v a t i v e  Saskatchewan G r a i n as  i t exerted  Growers A s s o c i a t i o n , m i l i t a n t  c o n t r o l over the 'subordinate  Union from t h e C e n t r a l O f f i c e , a c e r t a i n amount o f r i t u a l political  the labour  in  politics  parties' platform,  b u t an a c t i v e  Union on P r a i r i e  the depression  t h e war y e a r s .  was a s s u r e d farmers' due  life  i n support  participation  i s hard t o  that  f o l l o w i n g t h e F i r s t W o r l d War. significantly  t h a t g r a i n growers had been g e t t i n g  And t o o , no s t a b i l i t y  of grain price  b y t h e Government, c o n t r i b u t i n g f u r t h e r t o t h e  discontent.  to this  The  a u s e f u l source o f  t i m e t h e p r i c e o f wheat h a d d r o p p e d  from t h e bouyant r e t u r n s during  upon s e c r e c y and  t o determine the a g r a r i a n d i s c o n t e n t  existed after this  o f the  was n o t a t t e m p t e d .  impress o f t h i s  information  1  a t i t s numerous m e e t i n g s .  d e t e r m i n e ; i t d o e s , however, p r o v i d e  At  lodges  i m p r e s s o f t h e U n i o n was u n d e r s t a n d a b l y  of  The  and c a l l e d  i n so f a r  T h i s o r g a n i s a t i o n , o n e o f many  discontent,  d i d n o t adhere t o p r o v i n c i a l  boundaries,  and i t i s a n o t h e r example o f t h e a g r a r i a n  population,  particularly  6. o p . c i t . , pp.262-3.  formed  o f the P r a i r i e group, p r e s e n t i n g a  -71-  common v i e w t o O t t a w a . be  organisations  c i t e d w h i c h were f o r m e d t o f o s t e r a P r a i r i e  s u c h as its  Similar historical  the  Prairie  headquarters  The itself  Province  r e g i o n a l view,  Manufacturers A s s o c i a t i o n ,  need f o r r e g i o n a l c o - o p e r a t i o n  d i d not  industries.  restrict 7  Dr.  Card  s.uggests t h a t t h e n e e d f o r r e g i o n a l c o - o p e r a t i o n f a c t o r i n the  establishment  the  role  Interior  essentially  of the  Federal  from the to  the  a  Church  church  problem.  Government's D e p a r t m e n t  e a r l y years  settle  was  of the United  o f Canada from t h e h i t h e r t o fragmented r u r a l  The  with  i n Winnipeg.  to secondary or primary  decisive  can  of national p o l i c y  p r o b l e m s o f and  develop  of was  the  8 Plains  region.  "For years  of a P r a i r i e 9  region  Ottawa."  In  support  continues  t o use  statistical Statistics a l s o uses  7.  B.  "The  this  the  Prairies"  The  Prairies"  as  p.120.  Op.  c i t . , p.121.  9.  Loc. c i t .  equivalent  Government  a basis for  N a t i o n a l Employment as  Prairie  the Dominion Bureau  a region  f a r as  Union, Regionalism  from the  of  Services  for their  a v a i l a b l e , however, and  "Political  8.  been an  Federal  i t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t as  Card,  Elton,  of  "The  reports.  has  'desk' f o r t h e P r i m e M i n i s t e r i n  information within  From the e v i d e n c e research,  there  organisation. recent  Federal  or Both?" i n  D.  -72Government's j u r i s d i c t i o n o f r e g i o n a l o f f i c e s Prairie  provinces  jurisdictions the  three  clearly  separately  and  M a n i t o b a and  Prairie  provinces,  the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s  " T h e r e a p p e a r s t o be guiding Federal 10  little  relations  Such a f i n d i n g  point being  made i n t h i s  Federal divide and in  institutions  and  Federal  offices  there  relations"  contention  10.  into  little then,  the F e d e r a l  extend  B.C.  provinces  i n c o n f l i c t with  at the  which i s that the  separate  as  first  a result place  political  organisations  balance  Prairie  which P r a i r i e  dispute with 'raison  others  of  the  entities,  continue  t o the hugeness  jurisdiction.  Prairie  to  The  t o grow  of  Quebec, w h i c h t h e m s e l v e s h o l d most o f  "seems t o be  Federal  chapter,  interprovincial  with  into  Saskatchewan  the P r a i r i e  i s not  into  form of a counter  Ontario  jurisdictions  some o f w h i c h  existed or e x i s t  P l a i n s area  that these the  and  Government's d e c i s i o n i n t h e the  combine  regional rationale  with  present."  regional  four  separately, or divide Alberta  deal with  i n the  two  the  of eighty  r e g i o n a l i n t h a t they  However, f i f t y  the p r o v i n c e s  regions  Into  concerned, eighteen  provinces.  deal with two  are  are  in  the  fact  that  regional rationale guiding i s e x a c t l y the major p o i n t regional institutions  of  have i n  Government; i t i s , i n f a c t ,  their  their  d'etre'.  l o c . c i t . (See A p p e n d i x 5 f o r Dr. C a r d ' s t a b l e on F e d e r a l J u r i s d i c t i o n O f f i c e s i n the P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e s , 1970.)  -73The  F e d e r a l Government i n A p r i l  t o work t o w a r d s r e d u c i n g  Regional  f o r the  and  programmes, b u t  department. were E a s t and  establishment  terminated  The  At  Columbia).  The  regions  t h e West  used as  co-operation  o f the people  - i s h i g h l y important 13  social welfare."  Expansion,  Prairie  a t t h e One  Prairie  on  programme " p r o v i d e s  o f the whole o f  administered (PFRA) w i t h  by  and  financial  13.  J . Marchand, i n E l t o n ,  national  great  prior  c i t . , p.3. p.35.  to  Prairie and  the  Economic Farm  i n Regina.  This  assistance for areas  Department o f  (DREE), O t t a w a , 1971,  op.  Hon.  Conference  this  agricultural  Canada P u b l i c a t i o n on  12.  British  i t , i s the P r a i r i e  headquarters  t e c h n i c a l and  Economic Expansion  new  operations  to your economic p r o g r e s s  water development p r o j e c t s i n the Information  and  the  a regional scale -  o f the Department o f R e g i o n a l  Rehabilitation Act  11.  into  (Quebec  provinces  A programme o r i g i n a t i n g  b u t now  agencies  f o r the department's  (The  Co-operation  of  existing  activities  h i s theme " R e g i o n a l  ...  establishment  then  M i n i s t e r f o r the Department, the  co-operation  area  the  P r o v i n c e s ) , Centre  J e a n M a r c h a n d , when s p e a k i n g at Lethbridge,  the Department  i t s i n c e p t i o n , Government  a nurioer o f  (the f o u r A t l a n t i c  O n t a r i o ) , and  of  incorporated their  three  attempt  e c o n o m i c and s o c i a l d i s p a r i t i e s 11 o f Canada" by p a s s i n g  Economic Expansion.  legislation  undertook to  "the  between t h e v a r i o u s r e g i o n s legislation  1969  p.l.  of Regional  -7414 M a n i t o b a , Saskatchewan and A l b e r t a . " PFRA work c o - o p e r a t e agencies being  with  Other a c t i v i t i e s o f  o t h e r F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l  i n l a n d a n d w a t e r u s e s t u d i e s , a s i n t h e work  carried  o u t by t h e Saskatchewan-Nelson B a s i n  P r a i r i e water flows  across  the p r o v i n c i a l  boundaries  much o f t h i s w a t e r i s r e q u i r e d f o r i r r i g a t i o n purposes.  resource.  and  and o t h e r  The P r a i r i e Water B o a r d was f o r m e d i n J u l y , 1948,  between t h e Governments o f Canada a n d t h e t h r e e provinces  Board.  i n order  to f a c i l i t a t e  Prairie  c o - o p e r a t i o n o f a common  I t s aim s t a t e d :  ... t o recommend t h e b e s t u s e t o b e made o f i n t e r p r o v i n c i a l waters i n r e l a t i o n t o a s s o c i a t e d r e s o u r c e s i n M a n i t o b a , S a s k a t c h e w a n and A l b e r t a a n d t o recommend t h e a l l o c a t i o n o f w a t e r as b e t w e e n e a c h s u c h p r o v i n c e o f s t r e a m s f l o w i n g f r o m one p r o v i n c e i n t o another province. 15 T h e s e two c o - o p e r a t i v e o r g a n i s a t i o n s r e c o g n i s e  a need t o  integrate i n order t o f a c i l i t a t e mutually  common a r e a s o f  concern,  f o r future  particularly  to explore  and p l a n  development which would i n c r e a s e p r o d u c t i o n . o r g a n i s a t i o n has n o t , of p r o v i n c i a l  however, p r o v e d  co-operation.  i n making f e a s i b i l i t y  t o be a s t r o n g  A l b e r t a , although  example  interested  s t u d i e s o f t h e Saskatchewan-Nelson  B a s i n , h a s shown l i t t l e  14.  The l a t t e r  enthusiasm  f o r a common a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  DREE, p . 8 .  15.S. Raby, " A l b e r t a a n d t h e P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e Water B o a r d , " Can. Geog., V I I I , 2, (1964), p . 8 7 . O r i g i n a l s o u r c e , R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n on t h e S o u t h S a s k a t c h e w a n P r o j e c t : R e p o r t , O t t a w a , 1951, p p . 422-3.  -7516 for  the  Basin,  despite  i t s s u b m i s s i o n i n 1952  Commission t h a t a s i n g l e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e have t o be the  s e t up.  realization  applied  c o u l d w e l l be  authority  that Alberta  i s not  to other  considered  resources, the  dependent  denies  union.  and  for this  "wayward c h i l d "  for  The  between the  a "co-operative  such i s  the  reason, i t  regarding or  eventual  former Premier of A l b e r t a ,  such a l l e g a t i o n s , a t the  co-operation  would  upon  Undeniably,  comprehensive, i n t e r p r o v i n c i a l co-operation, political  Royal  S u c h a v i e w must f u n d a m e n t a l l y come f r o m  Saskatchewan o r Manitoba f o r water. c a s e as  to the  same t i m e c a l l i n g  P r a i r i e P r e m i e r s , and  H.  Strom,  f o r more  indeed,  federation."  The c o n c e r n s o f A l b e r t a ' s p o o r and r e s i d e n t s o f t h e underdeveloped regions of t h i s p r o v i n c e , s u f f e r because o f t h e i m p r e s s i o n sometimes g i v e n by s e n i o r p e o p l e i n the Department o f R e g i o n a l Economic E x p a n s i o n t h a t 'Alberta i s a fat cat'". 17  16.  Raby has r e p o r t e d two s t a t e m e n t s a b o u t t h i s p r o v i n c i a l i s m i n h i s p a p e r ( F o o t n o t e 15) i n w h i c h he q u o t e s t h e h e a d o f t h e E n g i n e e r i n g D i v i s i o n o f A l b e r t a ' s Water Resources Branch. S p e a k i n g a t a W e s t e r n Canada R e c l a m a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n C o n f e r e n c e ( F a l l , 1 9 6 2 ) . See p. 90 o f Raby's p a p e r : A l b e r t a ..., a l t h o u g h i n t e r e s t e d i n an i n t e g r a t e d B a s i n p l a n , w o u l d c e r t a i n l y o p p o s e any s u g g e s t i o n o f .': any s o r t o f i n t e r - b a s i n o r i n t e r p r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t y on t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e N e l s o n - S a s k a t c h e w a n B a s i n ... I t seems t h a t t h e p o l i c y o f t h e A l b e r t a Government a t t h e moment i s n o t t o become t o o i n v o l v e d o r t i e d down t o o much t o an i n t e g r a t e d b a s i n plan.  17.  Strom, i n E l t o n ,  p.33.  -76-  M o s t r e c e n t l y , an i n t e r p r o v i n c i a l an e x e c u t i v e  a g e n c y made up  o f the three  known a s t h e P r a i r i e established.  This  Premiers o f the P r a i r i e provinces, 18 P r o v i n c e s Economic C o u n c i l , h a s been  c o u n c i l has p r o v i d e d  a forum f o r t h e  leaders o f the three  provinces  realizing  independent j u r i s d i c t i o n s  that their  a r e g i o n a l approach t o planning intergovernmental  co-operation  such as t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t University  Nelson Basin.  problems,  necessitate  and s o l v i n g problems. h a s h a d some t a n g i b l e  This results,  o f t h e I n t e r p r o v i n c i a l Committee on 19  R a t i o n a l i z a t i o n (IPCUR)  d i s c u s s i o n on p l a n s  any  t o d i s c u s s common  i n 1966, a n d e f f e c t i v e  f o r development i n t h e Saskatchewan -  Of p a r t i c u l a r  c o n c e r n t o t h e C o u n c i l h a s been  c a s e where r e g i o n a l n e e d s t r a n s c e n d  provincial  boundaries,  p a r t i c u l a r l y where u n d e r p o p u l a t e d a r e a s a r e  concerned.  The IPCUR a t t e m p t s  university  t o d i s c u s s r e g u l a r l y common  problems and t o c o - o r d i n a t e  regional higher  education.  Thus, i n t h i s  Committee h a s s t u d i e d l i b r a r y graduate and undergraduate  t h e development o f capacity,the  a u t o m a t i o n , and 20 programmes.  experimental  18.  The c o n s t i t u t i o n o f t h i s c o u n c i l h a s n o t b e e n made p u b l i c , nor have t h e b r i e f s o f t h e d i s c u s s i o n s h e l d . To d a t e a l l such i n f o r m a t i o n i s c l a s s i f i e d and thus u n a v a i l a b l e .  19.  J.R. Cameron, a n d J . F . Graham, P o s t - S e c o n d a r y and Government F i n a n c e , 1971, p.147.  20.  F o r a r e v i e w o f t h i s B o a r d ' s work, s e e The U n i v e r s i t y S o c i e t y a n d Government, R e p o r t o f t h e C o m m i s s i o n o n The R e l a t i o n s Between U n i v e r s i t i e s a n d G o v e r n m e n t s , (RowatH u r t u b i s e ) , pp.189-193.  The U n i v e r s i t y o f S a s k a t c h e w a n , by o f f e r i n g a  faculty  regional of  of V e t e r i n a r y Science a t Saskatoon, performs a task,  f o r w h i c h t h e A l b e r t a Government p a y s a  $2,500 p e r A l b e r t a n s t u d e n t e n r o l l e d  i n that  ( T h i s amounted t o $160,000 i n 1 9 7 0 - 7 1 ) . no a s s i s t a n c e ,  but uses the V e t e r i n a r y  Only the V e t e r i n a r y Saskatchewan  Science  faculty  c o u l d be d e s c r i b e d  Another education f a c i l i t y (including B r i t i s h of  degrees i n  faculty.  Manitoba provides Science  facilities.  a t the U n i v e r s i t y of  as a r e g i o n a l  being  Columbia i n t h i s  grant  faculty.  used by Western  Canada  case) i s the Banff  F i n e A r t s , w h i c h has e x t e n d e d i t s s c o p e t o  include  School The  A d v a n c e d S c h o o l o f B u s i n e s s Management.  Within  the p r i m a r y i n d u s t r y  organisations  a s t h e Canada Wheat B o a r d  does n o t r e s t r i c t is the  i n the P r a i r i e s  itself  (a F e d e r a l body  to the P r a i r i e s ,  which  but predominantly  c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e wheat g r o w i n g r e g i o n o f t h e p l a i n s ) , i n t e r p r o v i n c i a l Farmers Union C o u n c i l ,  Farm Management E x t e n s i o n Committee Economic of  are such  Development  the Department  the Western  and t h e F u n d  f o r Rural  (FRED) w h i c h comes u n d e r t h e c o n t r o l  o f R e g i o n a l Economic  Expansion.  The  FRED p l a n : ... p r o v i d e s f o r t h e i n i t i a t i o n o f c o m p r e h e n s i v e F e d e r a l P r o v i n c i a l development p l a n s f o r s e l e c t e d r u r a l a r e a s o f t h e c o u n t r y , where t h e r e was r e c o g n i s e d p o t e n t i a l f o r d e v e l o p m e n t , b u t w i d e s p r e a d low income  -78-  resulting problems.  from economic 21  Within the P r a i r i e s in  A l b e r t a Government. p o r t f o l i o , which Provincial Alberta.  has been  seeks t o b r i n g  t o handle  e s t a b l i s h e d by the position  i s a new  to discuss matters p e r t a i n i n g to  As such t h e P r a i r i e  P r o v i n c e s Economic department,  Council  as here a  c o n n e c t i o n c a n be made w i t h t h e v a r i o u s  departments  c a r r i e d out  t o g e t h e r t h e F e d e r a l and  an i m p o r t a n t l i n k a g e w i t h t h i s  further  A department  This ministerial  governments  adjustment  e x t e n s i v e work h a s been  the I n t e r l a k e area o f Manitoba.  intergovernmental a f f a i r s  is  and s o c i a l  o f t h e A l b e r t a Government i n m a t t e r s  provincial that  transcend p o l i t i c a l boundaries.  I n t e r p r o v i n c i a l organisations with concern f o r the environment  can be c i t e d :  Committee, w h i c h Environment,  the P r a i r i e  and t h e Western  Canadian Waterfowl o f Lands  Canada, and i n p a r t i c u l a r  have many common a s p e c t s w h i c h p e r t a i n cultural need  Control  i s an a d j u n c t o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f  an a d j u n c t o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t  Western  Pollution  o r economic  Committee,  and F o r e s t s .  the Prairie  to the physical,  landscape; i n d i c a t i o n s  are that the  t o c o - o p e r a t e w i t h one a n o t h e r i s i n c r e a s i n g .  q u e s t i o n t h a t needs  21. DREE, p . 1 0 .  provinces,  t o b e a s k e d i s why t h i s  The  trend i s  -79-  necessary. discussed least  The answer i s t h a t a l l t h e o r g a n i s a t i o n s i n this  chapter  a t a planning  administration.  have a need t o c o - o p e r a t e , a t  level,  toward t h e f o r m a t i o n  The o v e r r i d i n g r e s p o n s e  concern  o f each^ p a r t i c u l a r body d i d n o t r e s t r i c t  province  grain,  It  can  the response  i s thus  industries  concerned  the Prairies  with  reasonable  their  demands.  to p o s t u l a t e t h a t t h e growth interprovincial  s o many common  aspects  c a n b e s t b e r e s o l v e d by a c o - o p e r a t i v e body s u c h  called  t h a t much  by t a k i n g a r e g i o n a l view o f p a r t i c u l a r  have h i t h e r t o b e e n d e a l t w i t h b y t h e i n d i v i d u a l  It  organisations  i s i n reaction to the r e a l i s a t i o n  p r o b l e m s on t h e P r a i r i e s , a s  Prairie  selling  t o t h e q u e s t i o n was t h a t a u n i t e d body  i n c r e a s i n g strength o f these  be g a i n e d  i t s e l f to  a l o n e , b u t t o t h e whole o f t h e P r a i r i e s .  was r e q u i r e d t o c o n f r o n t O t t a w a w i t h  on  province?'  f a v o u r i n g r e g i o n a l c o - o p e r a t i o n was t h a t t h e  With regard t o primary  and  beyond t h i s  by t h e w r i t e r t o r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h r e e  organisations  one  joint  t o the question  'why does t h i s o r g a n i s a t i o n ' s work e x t e n d asked  of a  Provinces  provinces as t h e  Economic C o u n c i l .  i s interesting  that the three P r a i r i e provinces  f o r more c o - o p e r a t i o n , a n d , i n f a c t ,  P r a i r i e Province  that  Conference,  they  argued  a t t h e One  f o r a greater  have  -80-  strengthening It  i s this  desirable imply  of the P r a i r i e  P r o v i n c e Economic  degree o f amalgamation t h a t f o r the P r a i r i e s ;  political  union.  this  Council.  t h e y see a s most  does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y  -81CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSION  The  fundamental reason behind  amalgamation o f t h e t h r e e P r a i r i e political  unit  constitute  p r o v i n c e s i n t o one  i s , a n d a l w a y s has b e e n t h a t t h e P r a i r i e s  three separate  made d i s c o n t i g u o u s w i t h s e e n b y many as r e a s o n union.  jurisdictions  each o t h e r .  f o r encouraging  The b o u n d a r i e s  dividing the  they  and a g i t a t i n g f o r  between t h e p r o v i n c e s  t o t h e flow o f funds  between one p r o v i n c e  and a n o t h e r ,  and s e r v i c e s  w h i c h w o u l d n o t be t h e c a s e  t h e w h o l e r e g i o n c o n s t i t u t e d one p o l i t i c a l  the P r a i r i e thus  region d i s p a r i t i e s  have been  Such a need h a s been  are seen as b a r r i e r s  if  f o r the  a r e g i o n , and t h a t by p o l i t i c a l l y  region into  political  agitation  o f wealth  unit.  clearly  Within 1 exist and  i f t h e P r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s became one p o l i t i c a l  unit  i t i s l i k e l y t h a t t h e r e w o u l d b e more e q u a l i z a t i o n o f income and p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t r e s o u r c e s and s e r v i c e s ; s i n c e t h e p r o v i n c i a l boundaries would no l o n g e r b e b a r r i e r s t o t h e f l o w o f f u n d s f r o m one r e g i o n t o another i n the P r a i r i e s . 2 Thus t h e e c o n o m i c b e n e f i t f o r M a n i t o b a a n d S a s k a t c h e w a n in being  u n i t e d t o g e t h e r with A l b e r t a would  significant  give  e c o n o m i c g a i n t o t h e f o r m e r two p r o v i n c e s .  1. T h i s was d e m o n s t r a t e d  i n Chapter  3, T a b l e V I I o f t h i s  2. A . L . Boykiw, "One P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e a n d R e g i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t , " i n D. E l t o n , One P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e Q u e s t i o n f o r Canada, p.388.  - A  thesis.  -82-  The  underlying  loss the  question  would be f e l t  the w r i t e r  revenues  to the idea  economy due t o t o encompass t h e  From t h e l i t e r a t u r e  point,  economic l o s s , of Prairie  that i s  and f r o m i n t e r v i e w s  i t would appear t h a t  of perceived  Herald  the Alberta  of their  region?  a v a i l a b l e on t h i s  fundamentally,  Alberta  union.  c o n d u c t e d by f o r reasons  i s the l e a s t  An a r t i c l e  C o n f e r e n c e by A l b e r t a ' s  receptive  from t h e  i n r e s p o n s e t o s t a t e m e n t s made a t t h e One  Province of  within  redistribution  whole P r a i r i e  i s c o n s e q u e n t l y : - what e c o n o m i c  Lethbridge  Prairie  Premier a t the time  t h e C o n f e r e n c e , Mr. H. S t r o m , s u p p o r t s  this  view.  Many o f t h e S a s k a t c h e w a n d e l e g a t e s o f t h e One P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e C o n f e r e n c e h a d l o s t some o f t h e i r e n t h u s i a s m f o r t h e d i s c u s s i o n ... They b l a m e d t h e i r d e c l i n e i n i n t e r e s t t o a l a r g e e x t e n t on a s p e e c h by A l b e r t a P r e m i e r , H a r r y S t r o m , who some f e l t h a s e f f e c t i v e l y t o r p e d o e d t h e s p i r i t o f g i v e and t a k e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e p r o p o s a l . 3 Despite provinces clearly  the fact  that  i s a minority  exhibit  The e x t e n t  increase  a Prairie  to the writer that  to unite  view, the P r a i r i e  a feeling  region.  the agitation  of s o l i d a r i t y with  t o which a p r o v i n c i a l identity  i s uncertain;  i t would vary  Hinds, Lethbridge  Herald,  May 13, 1970.  quite  the P r a i r i e  a l l e g i a n c e would i t would  considerably  region.  3.  people  the P r a i r i e  appear  within the  -83-  Variations  i n support  the whole P r a i r i e considerations: would r e s u l t  and a g i t a t i o n f o r t h e i d e a  region occur  the f i r s t  from union.  according  t o b a s i c a l l y two  i s t h e economic g a i n o r l o s s t h a t I t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t t h e most  a c t i v e o p p o s i t i o n comes f r o m A l b e r t a , w h i c h s t a n d s its  economic w e a l t h  (compared w i t h  Saskatchewan) shared  with  t o have  M a n i t o b a and  the remainder o f the P r a i r i e  region.  Then, t o o , o n e ' s l o s s i s a n o t h e r ' s g a i n .  question  t h a t needs t o b e a s k e d i s w h e t h e r t h e g a i n i s  going  the Canadian Federation.  truly  partake  i n the "Federal  Will  i tallow  a fully-fledged  other  u n i t s t h a t make up t h e F e d e r a t i o n ?  The  question  co-operation.  arrangement o f three  o f power w i t h i n certainly the  member, n o t s u b s e r v i e n t  i ti s possible to  against another t o maintain the Federation.  political  Under t h e p r e s e n t  P r a i r i e provinces  have a g r e a t e r  Federation,  to the  i m p l i e s the importance o f a  measure o f P r a i r i e  one p r o v i n c e  the P r a i r i e s  Idea" to the extent o f  being  use  The  t o c r e a t e u l t i m a t e l y a more v i a b l e e c o n o m i c u n i t  within to  within  Prairie  a  union  balance would  s t a t u s , i n terms o f s i z e ,  within  b u t b e c a u s e one a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , i n s t e a d o f  three,would represent  the region  power w o u l d n o t be p o s s i b l e .  this  balance  of p o l i t i c a l  -84-  The  s e c o n d c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s t h e West's f e e l i n g  alienation status the  from the E a s t .  i n the  Federation  economically  and  This i s of  of  i m p l i e s t h a t Western some l o w e r o r d e r  politically  than t h a t  dominant p r o v i n c e s  in  of  the  East.  These views vary provinces, The  but  most s i g n i f i c a n t l y  reasons f o r t h i s  industry  considerably  i s t h a t the  i s experiencing  hard  the wheat i n d u s t r y i n r e c e n t financing  and  the  Eastern  notice his  The  the  from the  city  in  expressed for  the  the  One  original  well  a g i t a t i o n i s d i r e c t e d towards be  and  sympathetic  he  and  may on  i s removed  t h u s does n o t  s t r o n g l y as  his  usually rural  socio-economic c l a s s e s d i d appear  i n expressing  the business,  as  marketing,  s i t u a t e d almost e x c l u s i v e l y  nonetheless,  directly,  Differing  significant  fact,  Because the  e f f e c t s of poor g r a i n r e t u r n s  e x p r e s s W e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n as  t o be  notably  Prairie  economy, b u t  situation  counterpart.  economic times, years.  the scene.  primary  d w e l l e r may  detrimental  provincial  urban-rural  agricultural  i n d u s t r i e s , are  Canada, t h e  East.  i n the  administration of a g r i c u l t u r a l ,  as;mineral-based in  i n strength within  support  a c a d e m i c and  political  a g i t a t i o n f o r the  P r a i r i e Province  d e s i r e was  present  provincial  a l l e g i a n c e s and  i d e a may  among a l l P r a i r i e a c t as  f o r the  idea.  w e l l be  idea.  elite, The valid  people to break  one.  Such a  It  was,  that agitation i f the their  feeling  -85-  is  not present  to  co-operate  and thus  union  i s unlikely,  but the desire  with each other  i s certainly  p r e s e n t , and  numerous e x a m p l e s o f s u c h  It  i s incorrect,  ventures are  c o - o p e r a t i o n have b e e n  t h e r e f o r e , t o see these  as s i g n s o f p o l i t i c a l  integration;  co-operative  indeed,  they  s i g n s p u r e l y o f a r e g i o n , which i s p o l i t i c a l l y  fragmented, s e e i n g a need t o l o o k concern, East.  such  as t h e i r  feeling  t o common  areas o f  of alienation  from t h e  The i n t e g r a t o r y f o r c e s t h a t a r e e v i d e n t  strengthen do  cited.  little  the co-operative organisations, but certainly t o weaken t h e p o l i t i c a l  Despite Province  here  the acceptance  Conference  jurisdiction.  b y many a t t h e One P r a i r i e  that the idea of P r a i r i e  u n i t y was n o t  a s t r o n g l y h e l d p o i n t o f view, t h e proponents o f i t continue  t o a g i t a t e as t h e y  have done f o r o v e r  fifty  Undoubtedly, a f o l l o w i n g f o r t h e i d e a s does e x i s t ; with  active  conceivable  talk  o f a Maritime  that, should  such  E a s t e r n Canada, t h e P r a i r i e more  Provincial a union  take  union  years.  and,  too,  i t is  place i n  U n i o n i d e a may w e l l  besseen  favourably.  Future It  R e s e a r c h Needs i s unfortunate  idea of P r a i r i e  that data measuring the support  U n i o n has n o t b e e n g e n e r a t e d  f o r the  i n M a n i t o b a and  -86-  4 S a s k a t c h e w a n as of A l b e r t a . study the  The  i t was  by  Professor  same q u e s t i o n s  c o u l d w e l l be  Elton  f o r the  as were c o n t a i n e d  too,  per  cent would i n d e e d  the m a t t e r o f P r a i r i e  interprovincial  be  the  Prairie  inter-communication  t h a t e x i s t s between the  by  of  l o o k i n g a t the  c o m p a r i s o n c o u l d be thesis  Dr.  Card c a l l s  f o r more work t o be  this  statement of philosophy essential  5.  provinces.  u s a g e , an Mildred  i f any  telephone  of  across  same two  for " i t s affinities  o f common P r a i r i e  or commercial; with  4.  telephone  t h r o w n upon Dr.  Prairies, 5 comparison."  a list  f o r the  and  In  the  examples-  interesting  Schwartz's  t h a t A l b e r t a i s l o o k i n g westwards, r a t h e r  t o w a r d s the of  and  degree  communication  A l b e r t a - B r i t i s h Columbia border newspaper c i r c u l a t i o n  the  Then,  provinces)  indication  same way,  Alberta's  newspaper c i r c u l a t i o n  (i.e. within  Whether  interesting.  u s a g e w o u l d g i v e an  the  in his  asked i n a P r a i r i e wide s u r v e y .  a f f i r m a t i v e answers would c o r r e l a t e w i t h  twenty t h r e e  Province  and  than  standards  done i n  collecting  organisations, either p o l i t i c a l information of  these  i n d i c a t i o n of  a c o n s t i t u t i o n or  organisations  the  strength  of  is the  D. E l t o n , The A l b e r t a E l e c t o r a t e S t u d y - 19 69. P r e l i m i n a r y Report, U n i v e r s i t y of Lethbridge, M.A. Schwartz, "Attachments t o P r o v i n c e P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e s , " i n E l t o n , p.105.  and  A 1969.  Region i n  the  i n f l u e n c e o f s u c h an o r g a n i s a t i o n i s t o be d e t e r m i n e d . example i s t o be  found i n the P r a i r i e  Economic  Such a c o u n c i l , w i t h t h e P r e m i e r s o f e a c h p r e s i d i n g , w o u l d seem t o be three p r o v i n c i a l problems  extremely  i n d i c a t i v e of  However, t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n  does n o t a p p e a r  to e x i s t .  I f then, t h i s  f o r discussion without c l e a r l y  such a c o u n c i l  to discuss  f o r such a council  as o t h e r s t h a t have d e f i n e d  objectives  i n terms  of the P r a i r i e  their  i s merely  the d i v i s i o n  province being considered too large  and  Federation.  ideally  structure  to the  One  o f the P r a i r i e s  was  federal it.  How  i t s own  i s based  that t h i s  structure  has  a further  upon i t s r e g i o n s , federal  i d e n t i t y w o u l d c h a n g e , and  thus  much t h e C a n a d i a n  e x t e n t to which  the  seem  t o be  identity.  the  large  I t would  accordance with r e g i o n a l  is  t o be w i t h i n  a l l o w s f o r each u n i t w i t h i n  to foster  inevitable  A federation  and  region.  made p r e d o m i n a n t l y as a r e s u l t o f t h e s i z e o f one  Canadian  flexible  changed i n  changing,  t h e F e d e r a t i o n has become  r e s e a r c h need.  the  enough t o change w i t h  F e d e r a t i o n has  identities  then  of  aims  In l o o k i n g a t the h i s t o r i c a l background Province idea,  common  council  s e t down a i m s ,  c a n n o t be g i v e n t h e same d e g r e e  importance  Prairie  the  some m u t u a l l y a g r e e a b l e aims  or o b j e c t i v e s .  a forum  Council.  P r a i r i e province  g o v e r n m e n t s s e e i n g a need  and move t o w a r d s  An  and  the  anachronistic,  I t w o u l d seem a r e a s o n a b l e  -88-  postulation and  that the Prairies  culturally  original  to a point  acceptance  have d e v e l o p e d  that the values  into the Federation  They have b e e n l e f t w i t h them t o c o - e x i s t w i t h i n  a status  economically  for their  have  changed.  t h a t does n o t a l l o w  the Federation  as e q u a l  partners.  Summary The  agitation f o rpolitical  provinces,  as t h e h y p o t h e s i s  growing awareness o f P r a i r i e  i n t e g r a t i o n o f the P r a i r i e  s t a t e s , i s b a s e d upon t h e people  t o view A l b e r t a ,  Saskatchewan and M a n i t o b a as a r e g i o n Western Canadian r e g i o n a l i s m , include  British  Columbia.  o f Canada - a  w h i c h f o r some w o u l d  This  r e g i o n a l a w a r e n e s s has  d e v e l o p e d i n most p a r t due t o t h e many common that  t h e Western p r o v i n c e s  their  feeling  this,  the Prairies  which  transcend  gathered  f a c e , and p a r t i c u l a r l y  o f a l i e n a t i o n from t h e E a s t .  boundaries.  i t w o u l d seem a t t h i s  political  The two  organisations  From t h e e v i d e n c e  time t h a t there  e m p h a s i s on t h e n e e d f o r P r a i r i e  from  In r e a c t i o n t o  have d e v e l o p e d many common  political  problems  co-operation  isa  stronger  than f o r  union.  c o n t r i b u t i o n o f t h i s work i s f u n d a m e n t a l l y i n  areas.  Firstly,  i t i s directed at providing  understanding o f the P r a i r i e  region  a  greater  and o f i t s s t a t u s  -89-  within  t h e F e d e r a l s t r u c t u r e o f Canada.  the P r a i r i e s reveals  are changing  i n character.  I t reveals  Secondly, i t  t h e e v o l u t i o n o f an i d e a o f r e g i o n a l  w h i c h i s e x p r e s s e d by many as p o l i t i c a l thus i s a b a s i s  of a g i t a t i o n f o r the  that  integration  integration,  idea.  and  -90-  SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS AND  ARTICLES  Ake, C., " P o l i t i c a l I n t e g r a t i o n and P o l i t i c a l a h y p o t h e s i s , " W o r l d P o l i t i c s , XIX, (April, B a r r , J . J . , and 1971.  0.  A n d e r s o n , The  Stability: 1967).  Unfinished Revolt,  Montreal,  Beck, J.M., The H i s t o r y o f M a r i t i m e U n i o n ; a S t u d y i n F r u s t r a t i o n , M a r i t i m e U n i o n S t u d y , F r e d e r i c t o n , 1969. B e n n e t t , W.A.C, " P r o p o s a l o f t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a on t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n o f Canada," C o n s t i t u t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e , O t t a w a , December, 1968. B e r t o n , P., The L a s t S p i k e : The Toronto, 1971. B e r t o n , P., The 1881, T o r o n t o ,  Great  N a t i o n a l Dream: The 1970.  Railway,  1881-1885,  Great Railway,  B l a c k , E.R., "Canadian Concepts of F e d e r a l i s m , " Duke U n i v e r s i t y , 1962.  PKD  B r a c k e n , J . , " S t a t e m e n t t o t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n on P r o v i n c i a l R e l a t i o n s , " Ottawa, 1938. B u r p e e , L . J . , An B u r t , A.L., 1931.  The  Historical Atlas  1871-  Thesis,  Dominion  o f Canada, T o r o n t o ,  Romance o f t h e P r a i r i e  Provinces,  1927.  Toronto,  Cameron, J.R. and J . F . Graham, P o s t S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t i o n and Government F i n a n c e . A Study of Current F e d e r a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the F i n a n c i n g of Post Secondary Education, Prepared f o r the C o u n c i l of M i n i s t e r s of Education f o r Canada, t h e F i n a n c i n g P o s t S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t i o n P r o j e c t , Dalhousie University, 1971. Camu, P., E.E. Weeks and Canada, T o r o n t o , 1964. C a r d , B.Y., The A Sociological  Z.W.  Sametz, E c o n o m i c G e o g r a p h y o f  Canadian P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e s from I n t r o d u c t i o n , Toronto, 1960.  1870-1950:  -91C a r d , B..Y,. ( e d l P e r s p e c t i v e s on R e g i o n s a n d R e g i o n a l i s m , Edmonton, 196 8. D a l e , E . , The S t a t e I d e a : M i s s i n g P r o p o f t h e West I n d i e s F e d e r a t i o n , " S c o t t i s h G e o g r a p h i c a l M a g a z i n e , V o l . 78, (Dec., 1962) . Dawson, C A . and E.R. Younge, " P i o n e e r i n g i n t h e P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e s - The S o c i a l a i d e o f t h e S e t t l e m e n t P r o c e s s , " V o l . V I I I , Canadian F r o n t i e r s o f S e t t l e m e n t , Toronto,1940. Dawson, E..A., G r o u p S e t t l e m e n t , E t h n i c Communities i n W e s t e r n Canada, T o r o n t o , 1936. D o n n e l l y , M.S., Drummie, F.R. 1970.  The Government o f M a n i t o b a ,  (ed),  Toronto,1963.  The M a r i t i m e U n i o n S t u d y ,  Duchacek, I.D., C o m p a r a t i v e F e d e r a l i s m - The D i m e n s i o n s o f P o l i t i c s , C h i c a g o , 19 70. E d i n b o r o u g h , A., "Notes t o w a r d s a d e f i n i t i o n West," S a t u r d a y N i g h t , ( J u l y , 1 9 6 9 ) .  Fredericton,  Territorial o f t h e mind o f  E l t o n , D.K. ( e d ) , One P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e ? C o n f e r e n c e P r o c e e d i n g s and S e l e c t e d P a p e r s , L e t h b r i d g e , 1970. E n g l a n d , R., C o l o n i z a t i o n o f W e s t e r n Canada - A S t u d y o f C o n t e m p o r a r y L a n d Use S e t t l e m e n t (1896-19 34), London,1936. E n g l e m a n n , F . and M. S c h w a r t z , P o l i t i c a l P a r t i e s C a n a d i a n S o c i a l S t r u c t u r e , S c a r b o r o u g h , 19 67. E s t a l l , R.C. and R.D. Buchanan, I n d u s t r i a l E c o n o m i c Geography, T o r o n t o , 19 65.  and t h e  A c t i v i t y and  E t z i o n i , A., " E u r o p e a n U n i f i c a t i o n : a S t r a t e g y o f Change," W o r l d P o l i t i c s , XVI, (Oct., 1963). E t z i o n i , A., "A P a r d i g m f o r t h e S t u d y o f P o l i t i c a l U n i f i c a t i o n , " W o r l d P o l i t i c s , XV, ( O c t . , 1 9 6 2 ) . E t z i o n i , A., P o l i t i c a l U n i f i c a t i o n - a Comparative Study o f L e a d e r s and F o r c e s , New Y o r k , 1965. F i s h e r , C.A., "The G e o g r a p h i c a l S e t t i n g o f t h e P r o p o s e d M a l a y s i a n F e d e r a t i o n : Some P r i m a r y C o n s i d e r a t i o n s , " J o u r n a l o f T r o p i c a l Geography, X V I I , (May, 1 9 6 3 ) . Fox, P a u l , P o l i t i c s : Canada. P r o b l e m s Government, 2nd e d . , T o r o n t o , 1966.  i n Canadian ~~  -92Fox, the  P.WL. , " R e g i o n a l i s m a n d C o n f e d e r a t i o n / ' R e g i o n a l i s m i n C a n a d i a n Community, e d , M. Wade, T o r o n t o , 1964.  F r a n c k , T., Why F e d e r a t i o n s F a i l ,  B a l t i m o r e , 1963.  Gagan, D. ( e d ) , P r a i r i e P e r s p e c t i v e s - P a p e r s o f t h e W e s t e r n C a n a d i a n S t u d i e s C o n f e r e n c e , T o r o n t o , 1970. H a m i l t o n , A., "The S a s k a t c h e w a n E l e c t i o n , An A n a l y s i s , " C a n a d i a n Forum, XXXVI, ( 1 9 5 6 ) . H a r r i s , R.C., " H i s t o r i c a l Geography G e o g r a p h e r , X I , 4, ( 1 9 6 7 ) .  i n Canada,"  Canadian  H a r r i s , R.V., "The A d v a n t a g e s o f t h e U n i o n o f t h e M a r i t i m e P r o v i n c e s , " A c a d i e n s i s , V I I I , ( O c t o b e r , 1908). Hawkins, G.R.S., ( e d ) , The I d e a o f M a r i t i m e U n i o n , ( R e p o r t o f a C o n f e r e n c e s p o n s o r e d j o i n t l y by t h e Canadian I n s t i t u t e on P u b l i c A f f a i r s a n d Mount A l l i s o n U n i v e r s i t y ) , 1965. Hill,  D o u g l a s , The O p e n i n g  o f t h e C a n a d i a n West, Lond.,1967.  Hodgetts, J.E., "Regional I n t e r e s t s and P o l i c y S t r u c t u r e , " The C a n a d i a n J o u r n a l o f E c o n o m i c s S c i e n c e , XXXII, I , (Feb.,1966). Hoover,  E.M., The L o c a t i o n o f E c o n o m i c  Hughes, A . J . , E a s t A f r i c a , 1963.  i n a Federal and P o l i t i c a l  Activity,  The S e a r c h f o r U n i t y ,  J a c o b , P.E. a n d J.V. T o s c a n o , C o m m u n i t i e s , N.Y., 1964.  Toronto,1963. Baltimore,  The I n t e g r a t i o n o f P o l i t i c a l  J e n k i n s , C.C., "The West Won't S t a y Down," M a c l e a n s XXXV, 3, ( F e b . 1,1922).  Magazine,  K a r n e s , T . L . , The F a i l u r e o f U n i o n i n C e n t r a l A m e r i c a 18241960, N o r t h C a r o l i n a , 1961. K a s p e r s o n , R.E. a n d J . V . M i n g h i , The S t r u c t u r e o f P o l i t i c a l Geography, C h i c a g o , 1969. L i n g a r d , C.C., T e r r i t o r i a l  Government i n C a n a d a ,  Toronto,1946.  L i p h a r t , A., " C u l t u r a l D i v e r s i t y a n d T h e o r i e s o f P o l i t i c a l I n t e g r a t i o n , " Canadian J o u r n a l o f P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e, IV, (March, 1 9 7 1 ) . Lipset,  S.M., A g r a r i a n  Socialism,  B e r k e l e y , 1950.  -93Lower, A., "What t h i s C o u n t r y Needs i s 10 New P r o v i n c e s , " M a c l e a n s M a g a z i n e , ( O c t . 15, 1 9 4 8 ) . M c C o u r t , E.A., The C a n a d i a n M a c k i n t o s h , W.A., P r a i r i e S e t t i n g , T o r o n t o , 1934. M a c k i n t o s h , W.A., T o r o n t o , 1935.  West i n F i c t i o n ,  T o r o n t o , 1970.  S e t t l e m e n t - The G e o g r a p h i c a l  Economic Problems o f t h e P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e s ,  M a c p h e r s o n , C.B., Democracy i n A l b e r t a : S o c r e d and t h e P a r t y S y s t e m , T o r o n t o , 1953. Maddox, W.P., " I n t e r n a t i o n a l A f f a i r s , t h e P o l i t i c a l B a s i s o f F e d e r a t i o n , " A m e r i c a n P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e Review, XXXV, 6 (Dec, 1941). y  M a l l o r y , J.R., "The F i v e F a c e s o f F e d e r a l i s m , " The F u t u r e o f C a n a d i a n F e d e r a l i s m , e d . P.A. C r a p e a u and C.B. M a c p h e r s o n , T o r o n t o , 19 65. Martin, Lands"  Chester, History o f P r a i r i e P o l i c y , T o r o n t o , 1938.  M e i s e l , John,1965 C a n a d i a n A r b o r , 1966. Mitchell,  W.O.,  Who  S e t t l e m e n t and "Dominion  National Election  Study,  Ann  Has S e e n t h e Wind, T o r o n t o , 1947.  M o l g a t , G., The West and Canada's C h a l l e n g e s f o r t h e 1970's, O t t a w a , 1970"!! ( C a n a d i a n S t u d e n t s L i b e r a l C o n f e r e n c e , O t t a w a , F e b . 6, 7, 8, 1970, C a r l e t o n U n i v e r s i t y ) . Moore, E . , "The C a u s e s o f A g i t a t i o n a f t e r 1901 f o r t h e E s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a New S t a t e i n N o r t h e r n New S o u t h W a l e s , " M.A. T h e s i s , New E n g l a n d U n i v e r s i t y , 1955. M o r t o n , W.I., " B i a s o f P r a i r i e P o l i t i c s , " T r a n s a c t i o n o f t h e R o y a l S o c i e t y o f Canada, XLIX, S e r i e s I I I , (June, 1955). M o r t o n , W.L.,  Manitoba,  A History,  T o r o n t o , 1957.  N e l s o n , J . , "The P r o b l e m s o f Our P r o v i n c e , " M a c l e a n s XXXVI, I I , (June 1, 192 3 ) .  Magazine,  N e l s o n , J.G., "Man and L a n d s c a p e i n t h e W e s t e r n P l a i n s o f Canada," C a n a d i a n G e o g r a p h e r , I I , ( 1 9 6 7 ) . N i c h o l s o n , N.L., The B o u n d a r i e s o f Canada, i t s P r o v i n c e s and T e r r i t o r i e s , O t t a w a , i y b 4 . Nye, J . S . , " C o m p a r a t i v e R e g i o n a l I n t e g r a t i o n C o n c e p t s and Measurement," I n t e r n a t i o n a l O r g a n i s a t i o n , X X I I , ( 1 9 6 8 ) .  -94Nye, J . S . , P a t t e r n s and C a t a l y s t s i n R e g i o n a l I n t e g r a t i o n , " I n t e r n a t i o n a l O r g a n i s a t i o n , XIX, 4, ( 1 9 6 5 ) . O l i v e r , E.H. ( e d ) , The C a n a d i a n N o r t h w e s t , I t s E a r l y Development a n d L e g i s l a t i v e R e c o r d s , O t t a w a , 1915. P l i s c h k e , E . , Systems P r i n c e t o n , 1964.  of Integrating  the International  Community,  P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e s C o s t Study Commission, R e p o r t o f t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n on Consumer P r o b l e m s a n d I n f l a t i o n , R e g i n a , 1968. Raby, S., " A l b e r t a and t h e P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e s W a t e r C a n a d i a n G e o g r a p h e r , V I I I , 2, ( 1 9 6 4 ) . R i c h a r d s , J.H.R., " C h a n g i n g Geographer, IV, (1961).  Canadian F r o n t i e r s , "  Board,"  Canadian  R i c h a r d s , J.H., " P r o v i n c i a l i s m , R e g i o n a l i s m and F e d e r a l i s m a s s e e n i n J o i n t R e s o u r c e D e v e l o p m e n t Programmes," C a n a d i a n G e o g r a p h e r , IX, 4, ( 1 9 6 5 ) . R o b i n s o n , J . L . , "The P r o b l e m o f G e o g r a p h i c R e g i o n s C a n a d i a n G e o g r a p h e r , I I , 7, ( 1 9 5 6 ) .  i n Canada,"  R u t h e r f o r d , P.F.W., "The W e s t e r n P r e s s a n d R e g i o n a l i s m 18701896," C a n a d i a n H i s t o r i c a l Review, L I I , 3 , ( S e p t . , 1 9 7 1 ) . S a u n d e r s , S.A. and E. Back, T o r o n t o , 1941.  The R o w e l l - S i r o i s  S h a r p , P.F., The A g r a r i a n R e v o l t i n W e s t e r n M i n n e a p o l i s , 1948. S h o r t t , A. and A. Doughty XIX, 1914.  Commission,  'Canada,  ( e d s ) , Canada a n d i t s P r o v i n c e s ,  S p a f f o r d , D.S., "The O r i g i n o f t h e F a r m e r s S a s k a t c h e w a n H i s t o r y , X V I I I , 3, (196 5 ) .  U n i o n o f Canada,"  S p e n c e r , G., "The New E n g l a n d S t a t e Movement - a P r o b l e m i n P o l i t i c a l Geography," B.A. T h e s i s , N e w c a s t l e U n i v e r s i t y , 1960. S t a b l e r , J . , " R e c e n t D e v e l o p m e n t s i n t h e P r a i r i e R e g i o n and i t s I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r R e g i o n a l Economic P o l i c i e s w i t h S p e c i a l R e f e r e n c e t o S a s k a t c h e w a n , " 19 70, ( B r i e f on b e h a l f o f R e g i n a a n d S a s k a t o o n p r e s e n t e d by D e p t . o f R e g i o n a l E c o n o m i c E x p a n s i o n , 1970) . S t a n l e y , G.F.G., " W e s t e r n Canada a n d t h e F r o n t i e r T h e s i s , " Canadian H i s t o r i a l A s s o c i a t i o n , Report o f t h e Annual Meeting, May 22-24, 1940, w i t h h i s t o r i c a l p a p e r s .  -95S t e w a r t , W., "The Coming Showdown w i t h Magazine, ( J u l y , 1969).  t h e West," M a c l e a n s  Strom, H.E., "A C a s e f o r t h e West," An a d d r e s s t o t h e F e d e r a l P r o v i n c i a l C o n s t i t u t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e , F e b r u a r y , 1969. Swainson, Donald, H i s t o r i c a l T o r o n t o , 1970.  E s s a y s on t h e P r a i r i e  Provinces,  Thomas, L.G., The L i b e r a l P a r t y i n A l b e r t a , a H i s t o r y o f P o l i t i c s i n t h e P r o v i n c e o f A l b e r t a , 1905-1921, T o r o n t o , 1 9 5 9 . Thomas, L.H., 1970.  The N o r t h West T e r r i t o r i e s ,  1870-1905,  Ottawa,  Thomas, L.H., "The P o l i t i c a l and P r i v a t e L i f e o f F.W.G. H a u l t a i n , " S a s k a t c h e w a n H i s t o r y , X X I I I , 2, (1970). Thompson, P. ( e d ) , The P r a i r i e A n g e r , T o r o n t o , 1969. T h o r b u r n , H.G.  Province - Alienation  ( e d ) , P a r t y P o l i t i c s i n Canada,  T u r g e o n , W.F.A., " I ' d U n i t e t h e P r a i r i e M a g a z i n e , (Feb. 1, 1 9 3 2 ) .  i n t h e C a n a d i a n Community  W a i t e , P.B., The L i f e T o r o n t o , 1962.  and Times  W a r k e n t i n , J . ( e d ) , Canada T o r o n t o , 1968.  W e i r , T.R.  Macleans  1867-1967,  of Confederation  - a Geographical  W a t k i n s , E . , "Western View," (Feb., 1969).  Toronto,1967.  Provinces,"  Wade, M., R e g i o n a l i s m T o r o n t o , 1969.  and  1864-1867,  Interpretation,  S a t u r d a y N i g h t , LXXXIV,  2,  (ed),Economic A t l a s o f Manitoba, Winnipeg,  W e i r , T., " P i o n e e r S e t t l e m e n t o f S.W. M a n i t o b a 1879 C a n a d i a n G e o g r a p h e r , V I I I , 2, ( 1 9 6 4 ) . W e s t e r n Farm  Delegation,  On  t o Ottawa,  Saskatoon,  1960.  t o 1901,"  1959.  W o o l m i n g t o n , E.R., "The G e o g r a p h i c a l Scope o f S u p p o r t f o r t h e New S t a t e Movement i n N o r t h e r n New S o u t h W a l e s , " PhD T h e s i s , New E n g l a n d U n i v e r s i t y , 196 3. Zimmerman, C.C. and G.W. Moneo, "The P r a i r i e Community o f Canada," P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e X X I I C o n g r e s s o f t h e I n s t i t u t e I n t e r n a t i o n a l de S o c i o l o g i e , Rome, S e p t . , 1969. Zimmerman, C.C. O t t a w a , 1971.  and G.W.  Moneo, The P r a i r i e  Community  System,  -96-  GQVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS Government o f Canada. I n f o r m a t i o n Canada P u b l i c a t i o n on D e p a r t m e n t o f R e g i o n a l E c o n o m i c E x p a n s i o n / O t t a w a , 1971. I n t e r p r o v i n c i a l Farm U n i o n C o u n c i l , S u b m i s s i o n t o t h e S e l e c t S t a n d i n g Committee on A g r i c u l t u r e a n d C o l o n i z a t i o n . N o r t h West T e r r i t o r i e s ,  D e b a t e , 1898.  N o r t h West T e r r i t o r i e s , J o u r n a l s , 1902, p . 1 8 , " O f f i c i a l D e c i s i o n N o t t o Form t h e NWT i n t o a P r o v i n c i a l I n s t i t u t i o n , " 1902, p.26, "Two P r o v i n c e Members." 1903, A p p e n d i x pp.3-38. P a r l i a m e n t a r y D e b a t e s o f t h e House o f Commons. 1901, V o l . 1, C o l s , 2006-19, 2013-15, 2016; 1902, V o l . 2 C o l s , 3064, 3074, 3085, 3104; 1903, V o l . 6, C o l . 13914; 1905, V o l . 1, Cols,1421-59. f  R o w a t - H u r t u b i s e R e p o r t on t h e R e l a t i o n s and G o v e r n m e n t s .  between U n i v e r s i t i e s  R o w e l l - S i r o i s Commission, Report o f t h e R o y a l Commission on D o m i n i o n - P r o v i n c i a l R e l a t i o n s , Books 1,2 a n d documents 1940. Sessional  Papers,  1903, V o l . X I I I ,  P a p e r , 116.  NEWSPAPERS AND Albertan,  DEBATES  ( C a l g a r y ) , M a r c h , 16,  1901.  F r e e P r e s s , ( W i n n i p e g ) , S e p t . 12, P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e s i s f a v o u r e d by Sept. Jan. '  M  Gazette,  a  y  19, 17,  8,  (Macleod),  1933, "One Acheson."  1933,"One L a r g e 1970,  1970,  M a r c h 22,  Government f o r  Prairie  Province?"  "West's Unease now "Prairie  1901,  a  Force."  Unity Cabinent  "One  Prairie  Topic."  Province."  May 2, 1902, H a u l t a i n ' s l e t t e r t o L a u r i e r . Dec. 2, 1901; H a u l t a i n ' s E l e c t i o n A d d r e s s , A p r i l 29, 1902. Sept. Herald,  (Edmonton),, A p r i l (Regina  NWT),  '  - a Comment  1891. 1964,  " L e t ' s Have F i v e  3,  1902,  "Address Adopted."  10,  1902,  "Autonomy  Refused."  April  17,  1902,  "Autonomy  Debate."  April  24,  1902,  "One  14,  1904,  Province  ( R e g i n a ) , May  (Vancouver),  Day  April  One Leader Post,  "Confederation  22,  April  Dec.  Sun,  1905,  ( C a l g a r y ) , J u n e , 29,  Journal, Leader,  1,  8,  "A  o r Two  Call  Provinces.  Provinces."  f o r Standing  Firm  on  Idea."  1970,  "Five Provinces  Mooted."  Nov. 23, 1971, "Canada's West U n i t e d by Fear of East." J a n . 15, 1971, " A l b e r t a R e j e c t s P r a i r i e Label."  S t a r , ( T o r o n t o ) , Nov. 27, 1971, " T h r e e P r a i r i e Premiers New Young F o r c e on N a t i o n a l S c e n e . " Telegram,  (Winnipeg),  Dec. 27, Haultain  1901, " S p e e c h of Premier a t I n d i a n Head, Dec. 18, 1901.  V i d e t t e , ( I n d i a n H e a d ) , Dec.25, 1901, "Debate on t h e Annexation of T e r r i t o r y Question to Manitoba, Premier R o b l i n o f M a n i t o b a w i t h P r e m i e r H a u l t a i n , I n d i a n Head, Dec.18, 19 01.  -98APPENDIX I THE  PRAIRIES AS A REGION  The  Canadian P r a i r i e s  variety land,  of races  a rural  philosophy  people  produce.  They were  and as such have s h a r e d  of co-operation  between one a n o t h e r  a common  and w i t h t h e  itself.  The  advent o f b i g business  the  Prairie  and t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f m i n i n g i n  encouraged t h e P r a i r i e  w h i c h have f o r m e d i n t o  generally.  With t h i s  come d i s c o n t e n t w i t h Prairie  life  farmers  g r o w t h i n huge u r b a n i z e d the Eastern c i t i e s  two.  The c o l l e c t i v e  Prairie  provinces,  which g i v e the P r a i r i e Rutherford Eastern  suggests  r a t e s a n d wheat r e s p o n s e has b e e n  domination.  co-operative  to organise,  firstly within  organisations  r e g i o n a more f o r c e f u l  Prairie  c e n t r e s has  f r o m w h i c h so much o f  b e a n t a g o n i s t i c t o t h e E a s t and l a t e r  the three  centres  a n d goods and s e r v i c e s  i s controlled, freight  marketing being  into  huge u r b a n c o n g l o m e r a t e s , p r o v i d i n g  wheatpools, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n centres  to  by a  b u t h a v e f a c e d common p r o b l e m s o f f a r m i n g t h e  d r o u g h t , and m a r k e t i n g o f t h e i r  basically  land  have h i s t o r i c a l l y been s e t t l e d  voice.  P.F.W.  r e g i o n a l i s m has been f o s t e r e d by  He assumes t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a W e s t e r n  community ... c o n s i d e r i n g t h e d i v e r s i t y o f p r a i r i e l i f e a n d t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f m e t r o p o l i t a n r i v a l r i e s , some r e a d e r s may d o u b t t h i s a s s u m p t i o n . But t h e west had a s t r i k i n g l y uniform a t t i t u d e towards i t s d e s t i n y , i t s c h a r a c t e r , and i t s problems. And w e s t e r n towns were u n i t e d i n t h e s t r u g g l e t o d e v e l o p t h e p r a i r i e s and t o f r e e t h e i r r e g i o n from e a s t e r n domination. Thus i t  -991 seems f a i r George F.G.  t o s p e a k o f a w e s t e r n community.  Stanley agrees with  the concept of a  Prairie  region, ... t h e p l a i n s and t h e p a r k b e l t t o g e t h e r c o n s t i t u t e a s i n g l e u n i t , p h y s i c a l l y , e c o n o m i c a l l y and h i s t o r i c a l l y t h i s u n i t s h a r e s n e i t h e r i t s economy n o r i t s c u l t u r e w i t h the c o r d i l l e r a o f B r i t i s h Columbia, or w i t h the rocky l a k e l a n d of the Canadian s h i e l d . These r e g i o n s h a v e t h e i r own d i s t i n c t i v e g e o g r a p h i c a l f e a t u r e s , t h e i r own p r o b l e m s and t h e i r own f u t u r e . 2  Other sources which support the P r a i r i e s  as a  distinctive  "The  Prairies"  geographical region are1. The D o m i n i o n B u r e a u o f S t a t i s t i c s (encompassing A l b e r t a , of  Saskatchewan  use  and Manitoba) as a  region  Canada.  2. R o w e l l - S i r o s C o m m i s s i o n . Provincial  Relations,  R o y a l Commission  Canada,  1867-1939. T h i s  includes  a number o f s u p p o r t i n g  Prairies  as a r e g i o n o f C a n a d a - e . g .  on  Dominion  Commission  s t u d i e s which look to the W.J.  Waines -  "Prairies  Population P o s s i b i l i t i e s . " 3. The R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n Supporting  studies  include  Prairie  (ii)  T r a n s p o r t a t i o n on t h e  special  R e g i o n a l Development  and  Prospects.  Prairies.  J . "Recent Developments  implications  p r o b l e m s and i n f l a t i o n , 1938..  -  (i)  4. S t a b l e r , its  on consumer  i n the P r a i r i e  f o r R e g i o n a l Economic  r e f e r e n c e t o Saskatchewan."  Policies  Brief  1967.  Government  with  on b e h a l f o f R e g i n a  and S a s k a t o o n p r e s e n t e d by D e p t . o f R e g i o n a l Expansion  R e g i o n and  Economic  Publication.  1. P.F.W. R u t h e r f o r d / " T h e W e s t e r n P r e s s and R e g i o n a l i s m , 1 8 7 0 - 9 6 . " The C a n a d i a n H i s t o r i c a l Review, V o l . 4 1 , 3 , ( S e p t . , 1 9 7 1 ) , p . 2 8 7 . 2. G e o r g e F . G . S t a n l e y , " T h e W e s t e r n C a n a d i a n M y s t i q u e , " i n D.P.Gagan,(ed), P r a i r i e P e r s p e c t i v e s , Toronto/!970,p.8.  -100APPENDIX 2 ATTENDANCE AT The  One  THE  Prairie  ONE  PRAIRIE PROVINCE CONFERENCE-  Province Conference:  One  Prairie  A Q u e s t i o n f o r Canada. A N a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e Feasibility  o f One  Prairie  E d i t o r o f Proceedings,D.K.  P r o v i n c e , May  Co-sponsors:  Conference  C o - o r d i n a t o r : D.S.  Speakers:  Panelists:  to study  10th - 13th,  the 1970.  Elton.  Conference  Guest  Province?  Dr. W i l l i a m E . B e c k e l , A c t i n g P r e s i d e n t The U n i v e r s i t y o f L e t h b r i d g e . O'Connell.  James A. R i c h a r d s o n , F e d e r a l M i n i s t e r o f S u p p l y and S e r v i c e s . H a r r y E. S t r o m , P r e m i e r o f A l b e r t a . Jean Marchand, F e d e r a l M i n i s t e r o f R e g i o n a l Economic E x p a n s i o n . Donald Baron, E d i t o r , Country Guide Magazine, Winnipeg. Edward P. B e n o i t , M.L.A., Edmonton. A l l a n E . B l a k e n e y , M.L.A., R e g i n a . A.L. Boykiw, V i c e - P r e s i d e n t , Hu H a r r i e s and Associates Ltd., Calgary. S i d n e y L. B u c k w o l d , Mayor, S a s k a t o o n . R.M. B u r n s , D i r e c t o r , I n s t i t u t e o f I n t e r g o v e r n m e n t a l R e l a t i o n s , Queens University, Kingston. B r i g h a m Y. C a r d , D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n a l F o u n d a t i o n s , U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a , Edmonton. Andrew H. C l a r k , D e p a r t m e n t o f G e o g r a p h y , U n i v e r s i t y o f W i s c o n s i n , Madison, W i s c o n s i n . F r e d R. Drummie, E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r , M a r i t i m e Union Study, F e d e r i c t o n . D a v i d K. E l t o n , D e p a r t m e n t o f P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e , The U n i v e r s i t y o f L e t h b r i d g e , L e t h b r i d g e . A l v i n , A. H a m i l t o n , F o r m e r F e d e r a l M i n i s t e r o f Agriculture, Ontario. E r i c J . Hanson, D e p a r t m e n t o f E c o n o m i c s , U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a , Edmonton. D a r r e l V. H e a l d , A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l o f Saskatchewan, Regina. R a l p h O. H e d l i n , M e n z i e s and A s s o c i a t e s L t d . , Toronto. Warner J o r g e n s o n , M.L'.A., W i n n i p e g .  -101-  L a u r i e r L a P i e r r e , D i r e c t o r , French Canadian S t u d i e s Program, M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y , Montreal. A r l e i g h H. L a y c o c k , D e p a r t m e n t o f G e o g r a p h y , U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a , Edmonton. P e t e r Lougheed, Leader o f t h e O p p o s i t i o n , Edmonton. S t e p h e n G. P e i t c h i n i s , D e p a r t m e n t o f E c o n o m i c s , University of Calgary, Calgary. J o h n E . O b e r h o l t z , Human R e s o u r c e s D e v e l o p m e n t A u t h o r i t y , Edmonton. M i l d r e d A. S c h w a r t z , D e p a r t m e n t o f S o c i o l o g y , U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s a t Chicago C i r c l y , Chicago. Thomas K. Shoyama, A s s i s t a n t Deputy M i n i s t e r , F e d e r a l Department o f F i n a n c e , Ottawa. B a r r y L. S t r a y e r , D i r e c t o r , C o n s t i t u t i o n a l Review S e c t i o n , P r i v y C o u n c i l , O t t a w a . J.R.W. S y k e s , Mayor, C a l g a r y . A l a n M. Thomas, E x e c u t i v e A s s i s t a n t t o The H o n o u r a b l e R o b e r t S t a n b u r y , House o f Commons, O t t a w a . D a l e C. Thomson, D i r e c t o r , C e n t r e o f C a n a d i a n S t u d i e s , The J o h n H o p k i n s U n i v e r s i t y , W a s h i n g t o n , D.C. Norman Ward, D e p a r t m e n t o f P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e , U n i v e r s i t y o f Saskatchewan, Saskatoon.  -102-  APPENDIX 3 1 THE  ALBERTA ELECTORATE STUDY, 1969. D.K. ELTON.  This  study i s a survey research  Perception  of Federalism:  p r o j e c t concerning  Electoral  The A l b e r t a E l e c t o r a t e .  The o b j e c t i v e o f t h i s s u r v e y r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t was t o u n d e r t a k e an e x p l o r a t o r y i n v e s t i g a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e k n o w l e d g e , s a l i e n c y , a n d e v a l u a t i o n o f f e d e r a l i s m by the c i t i z e n s o f A l b e r t a . S p e c i f i c a l l y , i t s o u g h t t o answer the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s : 1. To what e x t e n t does t h e a v e r a g e A l b e r t a c i t i z e n u n d e r s t a n d t h e f e d e r a l f o r m o f government u n d e r w h i c h he l i v e s a n d t h e r e s u l t i n g d i v i s i o n o f power between t h e f e d e r a l a n d p r o v i n c i a l governments? ,2. How i m p o r t a n t i s i t t o t h e c i t i z e n s o f A l b e r t a i n g e n e r a l t h a t a v i a b l e b a l a n c e between t h e two l e v e l s o f government b e m a i n t a i n e d ? That i s , would i t make any d i f f e r e n c e t o A l b e r t a ' s c i t i z e n s i f t h e f e d e r a l government t o o k o v e r s u c h p r o v i n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s as h e a l t h and w e l f a r e ? Or, on t h e o t h e r hand, w o u l d i t make any d i f f e r e n c e i f t h e p r o v i n c i a l government became r e s p o n s i b l e f o r such t h i n g s as t h e r e g u l a t i o n o f b r o a d c a s t i n g o r family allowances, etc.? 3.  The  How do A l b e r t a c i t i z e n s e v a l u a t e t h e p r e s e n t a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l governments regarding c o n s t i t u t i o n a l reform?  interviewing  took p l a c e  encompassing a four-week  i n O c t o b e r a n d e a r l y November, 19 69,  period.  A sample o f 600 p o t e n t i a l r e s p o n d e n t s was c h o s e n f r o m f o r t y one o f A l b e r t a ' s s i x t y f i v e p r o v i n c i a l constituencies. The r a t i o n a l e b e h i n d t h e e x c l u s i o n o f t w e n t y - f o u r c o n s t i t u e n c i e s was m a i n l y o n e o f f i n a n c e s a n d accessibility. I t was t h e r e f o r e d e c i d e d t o l i m i t t h e parameters o f t h e study t o the major urban c e n t r e s (Edmonton a n d C a l g a r y ) , a n d t h o s e s m a l l c i t i e s o f r u r a l a r e a s t h a t were r e a s o n a b l y a c c e s s i b l e t o t h e f i e l d  1.  T h i s e x p l a n a t i o n i s q u o t e d i n e n t i r e t y f r o m E l t o n D., The A l b e r t a E l e c t o r a t e S t u d y , p . 1 .  -103-  w o r k e r s a v a i l a b l e . W h i l e on t h e s u r f a c e one m i g h t c o n c l u d e t h a t t h e p a r a m e t e r s o f t h e sample a r e s m a l l , i t must b e remembered t h a t t h e r e a r e v a s t a r e a s o f A l b e r t a that are sparsely populated. In f a c t , over s e v e n t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o f t h e 1967 A l b e r t a e l e c t o r a t e l i v e i n t h e f o r t y - o n e c o n s t i t u e n c i e s from which t h e sample was drawn. The sample was p r o p o r t i o n a l l y s t r a t i f i e d g e o g r a p h i c a l l y on t h e b a s i s o f m a j o r u r b a n c e n t r e s (Edmonton, C a l g a r y ) , s m a l l r u r a l a r e a s ( i n c l u s i v e o f s m a l l c i t i e s and towns s u c h a s Camrose, F o r t M a c l e o d , V u l c a n , F o r t Saskatchewan, e t c . ) . This resulted i n the following allocation of interview schedules:Geographic Location Edmonton Calgary Small C i t i e s Rural TOTALS  of Samples  Number o f Eligible Electors  35% 30% 10% 25% 100^  * T o t a l names on e l e c t o r a t e l i s t ,  Interview Schedule  207,304 178,110 57,230 151,385  210 180 60 150  594,029  600  795,034.  -104-  APPENDIX 4 PRAIRIE IDENTITY STUDY. This  s u r v e y was 1) As  The  conducted  p a r t o f an  by  the w r i t e r i n three  forms  -  interview.  2)  By d i r e c t l y p u t t i n g t h e q u e s t i o n t o s t u d e n t s s e l e c t e d a t random a t t h e U n i v e r s i t i e s o f M a n i t o b a , S a s k a t c h e w a n ( S a s k a t o o n ) , L e t h b r i d g e , Edmonton and Calgary.  3)  By  two  letter.  S i x t y - f i v e people  q u e s t i o n s were a s k e d  (i)  i n one  responded. of the  forms  above.  Do y o u f e e l t h a t a d i s c e r n i b l e P r a i r i e i d e n t i t y e x i s t s w i t h A l b e r t a , S a s k a t c h e w a n and M a n i t o b a ? If  (ii)  answer was'Yes' -  What i s t h e b a s i s o f t h i s  identity?  The l a t t e r / b e i n g an o p e n - e n d e d r e s p o n s e , was a n a l y s e d i n t o content headings, the r e s u l t s o f which appear i n the t e x t .  Interviews Edward P. Brigham Y D.K.  Benoit Card  Elton  Arleigh  H.  Laycock  C l e o W. Mowers L.D. M a b b o t t J.P. H.  Meekison  Strom  Correspondence O.A.  Anderson  M.L.A., Edmonton. Department o f E d u c a t i o n a l F o u n d a t i o n , The U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a . D e p a r t m e n t o f P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e , The University of Lethbridge. D e p a r t m e n t o f G e o g r a p h y , The U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a , Edmonton. E d i t o r and P u b l i s h e r , The L e t h b r i d g e H e r a l d . E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r , Department o f F e d e r a l and I n t e r g o v e r n m e n t a l Affairs. A s s o c . Dean, F a c u l t y o f G r a d u a t e S t u d i e s and R e s e a r c h , The U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a , Edmonton. Former Premier o f A l b e r t a .  Former R e s e a r c h A s s i s t a n t t o Premier  Strom.  -105D. B a r o n E . P. B e n o i t R.M. B u r n s J.R.  Cameron  B.Y.  Card  F.R.  Drummie  D. K.  Elton  E. J .  Hanson  A.  Laford  L.L. A.H.  LaPierre Laycock  L.D. Mabbot E.C.Manning E.E. M i l l e r W.L. J.P.  Morton Meekison  A. W.  Piatt  S.G.  Peitchinis  M.A.  Schwartz  B. C.  Strayer  D.  Swainson  R. S y k e s J.H. Thompson D.C. Thomson N. Ward  E d i t o r , Country Guide-Farm Magazine. M.L.A. A l b e r t a . D i r e c t o r I n s t i t u t e of Intergovernmental R e l a t i o n s , Queens U n i v e r s i t y . R e s e a r c h A s s o c i a t e , R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n on E d u c a t i o n P u b l i c S e r v i c e s and P r o v i n c i a l Municipal Relations. Professor, Faculty of Education, University of Alberta. S e c r e t a r y o f t h e C a b i n e t , Nova S c o t i a . P r o f e s s o r , Department o f P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e , The U n i v e r s i t y o f L e t h b r i d g e . P r o f e s s o r , D e p a r t m e n t o f E c o n o m i c s , The University of Alberta. Department A s s i s t a n t O f f i c e o f the M i n i s t e r o f R e g i o n a l Economic Expansion. P r o f e s s o r , Department o f H i s t o r y , M c G i l l University. P r o f e s s o r , Department o f Geography, University of Alberta. E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r , Department o f F e d e r a l and I n t e r g o v e r n m e n t a l A f f a i r s , A l b e r t a . The S e n a t e , Canada. P r o f e s s o r o f G e o g r a p h y , The U n i v e r s i t y o f Lethbridge. Professor of History, Trent U n i v e r s i t y . A s s o c . Dea$, F a c u l t y o f G r a d u a t e S t u d i e s and Research. E x e c u t i v e S e c r e t a r y , U n i t e d Farmers o f Alberta Co-operative. P r o f e s s o r , Department o f Economics, U n i v e r s i t y of Calgary. P r o f e s s o r , Department o f S o c i o l o g y , U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s , Chicago C i r c l e . D i r e c t o r , C o n s t i t u t i o n a l Review, P r i v y Council Office. A s s o c . P r o f e s s o r , Department o f H i s t o r y , Queen's U n i v e r s i t y . Mayor o f C a l g a r y . Department o f H i s t o r y , M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y . D i r e c t o r , Centre of Canadian Studies, S c h o o l of Advanced I n t e r n a t i o n a l Studies, John Hopkins U n i v e r s i t y . P r o f e s s o r , Department o f P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e , U n i v e r s i t y o f Saskatchewan.  I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e a b o v e , o t h e r l e t t e r s were r e c e i v e d , did not respond to the relevant questions concerning Prairie identity.  but  -106-  Newspapers, e i t h e r by l e t t e r *The *The The The *The The The The The *The *The *The The The *The The The  o r i n t e r v i e w - No r e s p o n s e t o relevant questions.  E d i t o r . Toronto D a i l y S t a r , Toronto. E d i t o r . M a c l e a n s M a g a z i n e . Maclean-^Hunter L t d . , T o r on t o . E d i t o r . Edmonton J o u r n a l , Edmonton. E d i t o r . Winnipeg Free P r e s s , Winnipeg. Editor. Victoria Colonist, Victoria. E d i t o r . The A l b e r t a n , C a l g a r y . E d i t o r . The C a l g a r y H e r a l d , C a l g a r y . E d i t o r . M e d i c i n e H a t News, M e d i c i n e H a t . E d i t o r . Red D e e r A d v o c a t e , Red D e e r . E d i t o r . H e r a l d - T r i b u n e , Grand P r a i r i e . E d i t o r . The T i m e s , V i c t o r i a . E d i t o r . The V a n c o u v e r Sun, V a n c o u v e r . Regina. E d i t o r . The L e a d e r - P o s t , E d i t o r . The S t a r - P h o e n i x , S a s k a t o o n . E d i t o r . The H e r a l d , P r i n c e A l b e r t . E d i t o r . T i m e - H e r a l d , Moose Jaw. E d i t o r . The T r i b u n e , W i n n i p e g .  A Ramble Sample o f s t u d e n t s . S t u d e n t s were c h o s e n m a i n l y b e c a u s e o f t h e i r a v a i l a b i l i t y , and t h e i r w i l l i n g n e s s t o answer q u e s t i o n s and p r e s e n t an o p i n i o n o n t h e s u b j e c t . Time a v a i l a b i l i t y a l s o made s t u d e n t s an a t t r a c t i v e sample g r o u p .  -107APPENDIX 5  JURISDICTIONS OF FEDERAL "REGIONAL" OFFICES, AGENCIES, DIVISIONS OR BRANCHES IN THE PRAIRIE PROVINCES, 1970. 1 T h i s t a b l e i s t a k e n f r o m - C a r d , B.Y., " P o l i t i c a l U n i o n , R e g i o n a l i s m o r B o t h ? " i n E l t o n , D.K., One P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e ? A Q u e s t i o n f o r C a n a d a , p.122. Jurisdiction  Areas  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Regional Headquarters  T o t a l Winnipeg Number The 3 P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e s as a region  3  Alta.&B.C. as a region  1  Alta.  3  Other  Drumheller  18  Man.Sask.as a region  N.W.T.S Y.T.  R e g i n a C a l g a r y Edmonton  Alta.subdivided as two r e g i o n s , and S a s k . a n d Man. as two r e g i o n s 16 Four Western p r o v i n c e s as a Region. 3  2  S a s k . A l t a . &B.C. as a Region  1  Alta.as a region, Man.S S a s k . Combined as a Region  2  1  N.W.T. & Y.T.  2  2  Each P r o v i n c e as a Region  Vancouver  12  12  Total Regional B4 O f f i c e s o r Agencies  20  27_  1. C o m p i l e d  list  Public  36  from m a i l i n g Service  12 1_  i§.  -  o f t h e Edmonton O f f i c e o f t h e  Commission,  2. R e g i n a i n most c a s e s , t h o u g h  supplemented  by i n t e r v i e w  data/  some may b e S a s k a t o o n .  3. T h a t p a r t o f B.C. a d j o i n i n g A l b e r t a i n c l u d e d Region o f N a t i o n a l and H i s t o r i c P a r k s .  f o r Western  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

    

Usage Statistics

Country Views Downloads
United States 104 0
China 35 12
Canada 7 1
United Kingdom 5 0
India 1 0
Iran 1 0
Republic of Korea 1 0
Russia 1 0
City Views Downloads
Cupertino 94 0
Beijing 24 0
Shenzhen 10 12
Unknown 8 3
Vancouver 4 0
Mountain View 3 0
Ottawa 3 0
Ashburn 2 0
Sunnyvale 1 0
Redwood City 1 0
Guangzhou 1 0
State College 1 0
Redmond 1 0

{[{ mDataHeader[type] }]} {[{ month[type] }]} {[{ tData[type] }]}
Download Stats

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0101325/manifest

Comment

Related Items