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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Causes of agitation for one Prairie province Brangwin, Christopher James 1973

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cop. CAUSES OF AGITATION FOR ONE PRAIRIE PROVINCE. by CHRISTOPHER JAMES BRANGWIN B.Ed., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1971. Dip. Geog. U n i v e r s i t y of London, 1969. A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of GEOGRAPHY We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d standard. THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 1973 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s representatives. It i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. C.J. BRANGWIN Department of GEOGRAPHY The University of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date APRIL 10TH, 19 73 - i -AB3TRACT The s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e o f t h i s t h e s i s i s to examine the causes o f a g i t a t i o n f o r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f one p r o v i n c e to encompass the th r e e e x i s t i n g p r o v i n c e s o f A l b e r t a , Saskatchewan and Manitoba, o r the P r a i r i e r e g i o n . R e g i o n a l s t u d i e s are hampered by the somewhat e l u s i v e meaning o f ' r e g i o n 1 . I t i s argued here, however, t h a t the P r a i r i e s c o n s t i t u t e a d i s t i n c t i v e r e g i o n o f Canada,and such argument can be defended by l o o k i n g i n t o the h i s t o r i c a l , c u l t u r a l and economic need f o r P r a i r i e people to adopt a c o l l e c t i v e p h i l o s o p h y towards t h e i r l i v e s c o n c e r n i n g common g o a l s , and, more r e c e n t l y , an antagonism towards E a s t e r n Canadian economic domination over the P r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s . Such a view of the th r e e P r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s has many times s t i m u l a t e d the q u e s t i o n - Why don't they j o i n t o g e t h e r and c r e a t e one P r a i r i e p r o v i n c e ? The Conference t o d i s c u s s t h i s q u e s t i o n was most r e c e n t l y h e l d a t L e t h b r i d g e , A l b e r t a , and from the proceedings o f t h i s conference comes the s t i m u l u s and i n t e r e s t i n t h i s t o p i c . A f u r t h e r o b j e c t i v e i s t o i d e n t i f y the i n t e r e s t i n g growth of c o - o p e r a t i v e o r g a n i s a t i o n s which t r a n s c e n d p o l i t i c a l boundaries w i t h i n the P r a i r i e s . I t i s suggested t h a t these are i n d i r e c t response to the f a c t t h a t the r e g i o n needs a c o - o p e r a t i v e approach to many of the problems t h a t are fa c e d by the whole r e g i o n . T h i s i s indeed a cause f o r a g i t a t i o n i n t h a t i n t e g r a t i o n i s i n c r e a s i n g i n the P r a i r i e s . Argument can be made t h a t p o l i t i c a l u n i f i c a t i o n i s the u l t i m a t e s t e p . I t must be p o i n t e d out t h a t the w r i t e r has not taken a stand on the a d v i s a b i l i t y o f the i d e a , but merely to i d e n t i f y the bases of the a g i t a t i o n f o r i t . The method o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t h i s work i s to determine the extent t o which the P r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s c o u l d be co n s i d e r e d to have an i d e n t i t y which p o i n t s p a r t i c u l a r l y to the Western a l i e n a t i o n q u e s t i o n . A measure of the f o l l o w i n g f o r the i d e a o f P r a i r i e union i s given. T h i s i s examined w i t h regard to the i n c r e a s i n g number o f o r g a n i s a t i o n s t h a t concern themselves w i t h a P r a i r i e h i n t e r l a n d , as opposed to an area o f i n f l u e n c e c o n t a i n e d by the p o l i t i c a l borders of one of the P r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s . The c o n c l u s i o n i s t h a t the P r a i r i e s do have a d e f i n a b l e i d e n t i t y which i s predominantly a r e s u l t of the f e e l i n g of Western a l i e n a t i o n i n the P r a i r i e s . The d e s i r e to c o n t r o l t h e i r own f u t u r e s t i m u l a t e s the growth of P r a i r i e o r g a n i s a t i o n s . The a g i t a t i o n f o r P r a i r i e u n i t y does not n e c e s s a r i l y express i t s e l f i n terms of a p o l i t i c a l union, but i n terms o f P r a i r i e c o - o p e r a t i o n . - i v -TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I . INTRODUCTION 1 CHAPTER I I . THE HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE. 16 CHAPTER I I I . THE ONE PRAIRIE PROVINCE CONFERENCE AND THE SUPPORT FOR THE IDEA. 40 CHAPTER IV. PRAIRIE IDENTITY. 60 CHAPTER V. REGIONAL CO-OPERATION WITHIN THE PRAIRIE PROVINCES. 66 CHAPTER VI. CONCLUSION 81 BIBLIOGRAPHY. 90 APPENDIX 1. THE PRAIRIES AS A REGION. 98 APPENDIX 2. ATTENDANCE AT THE ONE PRAIRIE PROVINCE CONFERENCE. 100 APPENDIX 3. APPENDIX 4. APPENDIX 5 . THE ALB RTA ELECTORAL STUDY, 1969. D.K. ELTON. 102 PRAIRIE IDENTITY STUDY. 104 "JURISDICTION OF FEDERAL 'REGIONAL OFFICES, AGENCIES, DIVISIONS, OR BRANCHES IN THE PRAIRIE PROVINCES, 1970." DR. CARD. 107 -v-LIST OF TABLES: TABLES I, I I , I I I A MEASURE OF THE DEGREE TO WHICH ALIENATION IS FELT BY A SAMPLE OF PEOPLE FROM ALBERTA. 44 TABLE I WESTERN ALIENATION - GREATER BENEFITS TO EASTERN CANADIANS. 44 TABLE I I WESTERN ALIENATION - TARIFF TO PROTECT EASTERN MANUFACTURERS. 44 TABLE. I l l WESTERN ALIENATION • FEDERAL GOVERNMENT. CONCERN OF THE 44 TABLE IV, V A MEASURE FOR THE SUPPORT OF THE ONE PRAIRIE PROVINCE IDEA. 50 TABLE VI CONTENT ANALYSIS OF STUDENT RESPONSE TO A QUESTION ON THE ONE PRAIRIE PROVINCE IDEA. 52 TABLE VII TABLE V I I I ECONOMIC DISPARITIES WITHIN THE PRAIRIE PROVINCES. VALUE ADDED IN GOODS-PRODUCING INDUSTRIES AND PERCENTAGE ANALYSIS BY PRAIRIE PROVINCES 1967. PRAIRIE IDENTITY. 55 61 TABLE IX PRAIRIE IDENTITY - CONTENT ANALYSIS ON PRAIRIE IDENTITY STUDY. (OPEN-ENDED QUESTION). 62 - v i -TABLE OF MAPS TERRITORIAL DISTRICTS OF CANADA 1898 PRAIRIE TERRITORIAL DISTRICTS 1898 I wish to acknowledge my debt of g r a t i t u d e to the many people who were so w i l l i n g to h e l p me; and e s p e c i a l l y to my a d v i s o r , Dr. J.V. Minghi, ( U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia) f o r the encouragement he has extended to me, and a l s o to Dr. B.Y. Card ( U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a ) , Dr. D.K. E l t o n ( U n i v e r s i t y of L e t h b r i d g e ) , and to my f e l l o w graduate students. CJB U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 1973. -1-CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION " I t i s a l e s s o n which a l l h i s t o r y teaches wise men, to put t r u s t i n i d e a s and not i n circumstances." Emerson, M i s c e l l a n i e s : War T h i s t h e s i s i s a study of r e g i o n a l i s m and of p o l i t i c a l I n t e g r a t i o n as they e x i s t w i t h i n the P r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s . P o l i t i c a l , economic and c u l t u r a l l y d e r i v e d processes impinging upon the P r a i r i e landscape have gi v e n r i s e to the i d e a o f amalgamating the P r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s i n t o one. Behind any i d e a of t e r r i t o r i a l change and o f br e a k i n g down e x i s t i n g p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e s , there i s presumably some d i s c o n t e n t with the presen t s t r u c t u r e , and there are presumably noti o n s h e l d o f what the new s t r u c t u r e should be and do. I t i s these n o t i o n s of the p o t e n t i a l l y r e v i s e d s t r u c t u r e coupled w i t h the degree of i n t e g r a t i o n t h a t has taken place'among A l b e r t a , Saskatchewan and Manitoba t h a t form the b a s i s o f the One P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e i d e a and the t o p i c of t h i s t h e s i s . C l o s e l y a l l i e d to r e g i o n a l s t u d i e s i n the Canadian context i s the study o f the f e d e r a l system o f government. -2-A f e d e r a t i o n i s based on i t s r e g i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s and allows f o r each i n d i v i d u a l e n t i t y w i t h i n the f e d e r a t i o n to f o s t e r i t s own i d e n t i t y . At the same time u n i t y of the whole f e d e r a t e d s t a t e c o n s t i t u t e s c o n s i d e r a b l e gains to each p a r t of the f e d e r a l system. The f e d e r a l system of government allows the p r o v i n c e s to c o - e x i s t w i t h i n the component area, and thus, as i n a l l f e d e r a t i o n s , the p o l i t i c a l d i v i s i o n s w i t h i n the f e d e r a t i o n become a n a c h r o n i s t i c unless they are s u s c e p t i b l e to change. The i d e a of i n t e g r a t i n g the P r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s i n t o one l a r g e u n i t w i t h i n the Canadian f e d e r a t i o n has been put forward on numerous o c c a s i o n s . The f i r s t major a g i t a t i o n f o r such union o c c u r r e d d u r i n g the debate on autonomy of p a r t of the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s p r i o r to the e n t r y of A l b e r t a and Saskatchewan i n t o c o n f e d e r a t i o n i n 1905. In 1932 the well-known j u r i s t , the Hon. W.F. Turgeon, p u b l i s h e d a p r o v o c a t i v e a r t i c l e i n a n a t i o n a l magazine,"*" which s t i m u l a t e d i n t e r e s t i n the i d e a , and almost p r e d i c t a b l y an a c t i v e press was generated i n response. The i d e a was endorsed by S i r John A i r d , p r e s i d e n t of the Canadian Bank of Commerce, by F.W. T u r n b u l l , a member of p a r l i a m e n t f o r 1. W.F.A. Turgeon, " I ' d U n i t e the P r a i r i e s , " Macleans Magazine, (Feb. 1, 1932), p.17. -3-Regina, and s i g n i f i c a n t l y , by Premier Bracken of 2 Manitoba. The i s s u e was r a i s e d again i n 1937 a t the 3 Royal Commission on Dominion P r o v i n c i a l R e l a t i o n s . P r a i r i e h i s t o r i c a l l i t e r a t u r e and r e c o r d s of the l e g i s l a t u r e s of the P r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s r e v e a l no s i g n i f i c a n t d i s c u s s i o n o f u n i t i n g the r e g i o n i n t o one p o l i t i c a l u n i t f o r a p e r i o d o f over twenty y e a r s . T h i s long gap of i n a c t i v i t y as f a r as the One P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e i d e a i s concerned, i s probably a s s o c i a t e d with the c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f the war and post war years being more p r e s s i n g , and too, t h a t the war s t i m u l a t e d a g r e a t e r Canadian a l l e g i a n c e as opposed to a r e g i o n a l one. With the growing awareness of economic problems f a c i n g the P r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s i n the e a r l y 1960's, j o i n t programmes d i r e c t e d a t r e s o u r c e development among the three p r o v i n c e s , and p a r t i c u l a r l y between Saskatchewan and Manitoba, 2. J . Bracken, E x h i b i t No. 32 from the Records of the Royal Commission on Dominion P r o v i n c i a l R e l a t i o n s (RG 33/23. V o l . 2). F i l e d Dec. 28, 1937. In t h i s b r i e f Premier Bracken o u t l i n e s correspondence and press statements of 19 32, more of which i s used i n Chapter 2 of t h i s t h e s i s . 3. Rowel1 & S i r o i s Commission. Report o f the Royal Commission on D o m i n i o n - P r o v i n c i a l R e l a t i o n s , Books 1 and 2 and Documents. Canada 1867-1939. -4-encouraged a r e g i o n a l union o f the P r a i r i e s r a t h e r than a d i v i s i o n by p o l i t i c a l boundaries i n t o three j u r i s d i c t i o n s . Many problems r e l a t i n g to the economy of t h i s r e g i o n were common ones, not the l e a s t o f which was the domination t h a t was f e l t from Eastern Canada; such arguments as u n f a i r f r e i g h t r a t e s were and s t i l l are commonplace, and l a r g e l y were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a massive p r o t e s t i n 1959 by P r a i r i e 4 farmers. The i d e a o f p o l i t i c a l union o f the P r a i r i e s again was p r e s e n t i n newspapers, p a r t i c u l a r l y as a r e s u l t o f B r i t i s h Columbia's Premier, W.A.C. Bennett's proposals i n 5 the 1968 F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l Conference. Here Premier Bennett c a l l e d f o r a r e d u c t i o n i n the number of pro v i n c e s to f i v e , f o l l o w i n g the f i v e economic r e g i o n s o f Canada as used by the F e d e r a l Government f o r the records of the 6 Dominion Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s . 4. Western Farm D e l e g a t i o n , On to Ottawa, 19 59. A r e p o r t on a d e l e g a t i o n to Ottawa. A p r o t e s t on c o n d i t i o n s f a c i n g P r a i r i e farmers. 5. W.A.C. Bennett, F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l Conference, Ottawa, 1969, p.10. 6. The f i v e r e g i o n s are A t l a n t i c , Quebec, O n t a r i o , P r a i r i e s and B r i t i s h Columbia. The Northwest T e r r i t o r y and the Yukon T e r r i t o r y were i n c l u d e d i n t o the P r a i r i e s and B r i t i s h Columbia r e s p e c t i v e l y . -5-More r e c e n t l y the q u e s t i o n o f P r a i r i e i n t e g r a t i o n has been r a i s e d again i n L e t h b r i d g e , A l b e r t a . T h i s conference, 7 h e l d i n May 1970, a t t r a c t e d speakers and r e g i s t r a n t s from 8 a l l over Canada. The proceedings, e d i t e d by D.K. E l t o n , r e v e a l three fundamental q u e s t i o n s . What are the causes of a g i t a t i o n f o r P r a i r i e union? How would such a union be implemented i n c l u d i n g c o n s t i t u t i o n a l problems? What p o s s i b l e e f f e c t s c o u l d be expected from such a union? T h i s t h e s i s answers the f i r s t q u e s t i o n : What are the causes of a g i t a t i o n f o r P r a i r i e union? The q u e s t i o n needs c l a r i f i c a t i o n . The h i s t o r i c a l a spects are of paramount importance i n understanding the r o o t s o f the id e a o f P r a i r i e u n i f i c a t i o n , r e c o g n i s i n g however t h a t the h i s t o r i c a l bases f o r the i d e a are not n e c e s s a r i l y the bases f o r the presen t i n t e r e s t and f o l l o w i n g . No attempt to j u s t i f y the a d v i s a b i l i t y o f the i d e a i s made by the w r i t e r ; i t i s enough t o accept t h a t the i d e a has been s e r i o u s l y p o s t u l a t e d , i n the p a s t and more r e c e n t l y , and the b a s i s f o r such union w i l l be examined from a p o l i t i c a l geographic view. 7. Sponsored by the U n i v e r s i t y of L e t h b r i d g e and the Le t h b r i d g e Herald. 8. D.K. E l t o n , (ed), One P r a i r i e Province? A Question For Canada, 19 70. R e f e r r e d t o l a t e r as the Let h b r i d g e Conference. -6-9 T h i s t h e s i s i s a study i n P o l i t i c a l Geography as i t looks to the r e c o g n i t i o n of the need to a l i g n p o l i t i c a l -a d m i n i s t r a t i v e areas so as to c o i n c i d e with.socio-economic i n t e r e s t s . R e c o g n i t i o n o f r e g i o n a l i d e n t i t y and d i v e r s i t y 10 has long p l a y e d a p a r t i n p o l i t i c a l geographic l i t e r a t u r e . 9. The d e f i n i t i o n o f P o l i t i c a l Geography, "the s p a t i a l a n a l y s i s of p o l i t i c a l phenomena", i s as used by Kasperson and Minghi i n R.E. Kasperson and J.V. Minghi, (eds), The S t r u c t u r e of P o l i t i c a l Geography,19 69,p.xi. 10. Many examples of p o l i t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n s t u d i e s can be c i t e d . Those adding s i g n i f i c a n t l y to the background r e a d i n g of the w r i t e r a r e : -E. Moore, "The Causes of A g i t a t i o n a f t e r 1901 f o r the Establishment of a New S t a t e i n Northern New South Wales," M.A. T h e s i s , New England U n i v e r s i t y , 1955. G. Spencer, "The New England New State Movement - A Problem i n P o l i t i c a l Geography," B.A. T h e s i s , Newcastle U n i v e r s i t y , 19 60. E.R. Woolmington, "The G e o g r a p h i c a l Scope o f Support f o r the New S t a t e Movement i n Northern New South Wales," PhD T h e s i s , New England U n i v e r s i t y , 1963. E. Dale, "The State Idea: M i s s i n g Prop o f the West Indies F e d e r a t i o n , " S c o t t i s h G e o g r a p h i c a l Magazine, V. 78. (Dec,1962), pp.166-176. T. Franck, Why F e d e r a t i o n s F a i l , 1962. A.J. Hughes, E a s t A f r i c a : The Search f o r U n i t y , 1963. C. Ake, " P o l i t i c a l I n t e g r a t i o n and P o l i t i c a l S t a b i l i t y : A Hypothesis," World P o l i t i c s , XIX, ( A p r i l , 19 67), pp.486-499. A. E t z i o n i , "European U n i f i c a t i o n : a S t r a t e g y of Change," World P o l i t i c s , XVI, (Oct., 1963), pp/32-51. C.A. F i s h e r , "The Geographical S e t t i n g o f the Proposed Malaysian F e d e r a t i o n : Some Primary C o n s i d e r a t i o n s , " J o u r n a l of T r o p i c a l Geography, XVII, (May, 1963), pp.99-115. P.E. Jacob & J.V. Toscano, The I n t e g r a t i o n of P o l i t i c a l  Communities, 1964. A. E t z i o n i , P o l i t i c a l U n i f i c a t i o n , 1965. -7-a most r e c e n t example c l o s e l y a l l i e d t o the Canadian 11 F e d e r a t i o n , being the Maritime Union Study. These s t u d i e s have t r a c e d the h i s t o r i c a l development o f the c e n t r a l i d e a around which they have been p o s t u l a t e d and looked a t the b a s i s of p r e s e n t r a t i o n a l e f o r the i d e a . Such i s the case i n t h i s t h e s i s . Although s e v e r a l w r i t e r s have g i v e n a t t e n t i o n to the 12 s t r u c t u r e of P r a i r i e p o l i t i c s and i t s impact on Western Canadian i n s t i t u t i o n s , no w r i t e r has y e t d e a l t e x p l i c i t y w i t h the concepts of p o l i t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n as found i n the P r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s w i t h the view of understanding the a g i t a t i o n f o r P r a i r i e union. An examination of the l i t e r a t u r e r e v e a l s , a t b e s t , a r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t the i d e a 11. F. Drummie, (ed), The Maritime Union Study. A l s o G. Hawkins, (ed) ,~~The Idea of Maritime Union, 1965. 12. W.L. Morton, "The B i a s of P r a i r i e P o l i t i c s , " T r a n s a c t i o n s of the Royal S o c i e t y of Canada, V o l . XLIX, S e r i e s I I I , (June, 1955), p.57. D.Smith, " P r a i r i e R e v o l t : F e d e r a l i s m and the Party System," i n G. Thorburn, P a r t y P o l i t i c s i n Canada, 1967. L.G. Thomas, The L i b e r a l P a r t y i n A l b e r t a , Toronto, 1959. M.S. Donnelly, The Government of Manitoba, Toronto, 1963. J.E. Hodgetts, "Regional I n t e r e s t and P o l i c y i n a F e d e r a l S t r u c t u r e , " Canadian J o u r n a l of Economics and P o l i t i c a l  S c i e n c e , XXXII, No. 1, (Feb., 1966), p.6. -8-has been prese n t f o r some time. T h i s l i t e r a t u r e presents o n l y a r a t h e r c u r s o r y e v a l u a t i o n of some of the problems t h a t are common to the three p r o v i n c e s . Thus i t i s maintained by the w r i t e r t h a t t h i s t h e s i s w i l l make a worthwhile c o n t r i b u t i o n to the l i t e r a t u r e i n t h a t i t examines the impact of i n t e g r a t o r y f a c t o r s on the p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e s of the P r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s , and r e v e a l s f o r the f i r s t time the b a s i s to the i d e a o f union. The c o n c l u s i o n reached w i l l be u s e f u l i n f u t u r e debate on the s u b j e c t , which indeed promises to be i n the o f f i n g w i t h the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f the "Canada West C o u n c i l " , a committee formed f o l l o w i n g the L e t h b r i d g e Conference to examine the i d e a of P r a i r i e union, or a t l e a s t P r a i r i e c o - o p e r a t i o n , more thoroughly. Then too, t h i s t h e s i s examines the growing awareness of a P r a i r i e i d e n t i t y as a b a s i s to P r a i r i e union. I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t the t i t l e adopted f o r the L e t h b r i d g e Conference was - One P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e , A Question f o r Canada - a reminder t h a t the West i s a changing p a r t of the Canadian C o n f e d e r a t i o n and t h a t i t s development may p o i n t to a change i n the whole f e d e r a l s t r u c t u r e . ... people, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the west, see the c u r r e n t p o l i t i c a l ferment i n the west as a s i g n t h a t fundamental changes are a t work - changes a l t e r i n g the e n t i r e r e l a t i o n s h i p of the west w i t h i n C o n f e d e r a t i o n . -9-T h i s viewpoint maintains t h a t u n r e s t w i l l not be subdued by s e l l i n g wheat, t i n k e r i n g w i t h f r e i g h t r a t e s or making s p e c i a l 'concessions' to western p o l i t i c i a n s . The west i s not l o o k i n g f o r handouts from Ottawa. I t i s c l e a r t h a t one of the major c h a l l e n g e s f a c i n g a l l Canadians i n the 1970's w i l l be to f i n d out what the modern west r e a l l y wants. As d u r i n g the '60's, a popular Canadian q u e s t i o n was 'What does Quebec want? 1 -so d u r i n g the '70's the q u e s t i o n i s 'What does the west want?' 13 In l o o k i n g f o r "what the west r e a l l y wants", an' examination of r e c e n t press a r t i c l e s r e v e a l s a s t r o n g d e s i r e to take a g r e a t e r share i n s o l v i n g western problems and shaping i t s own r e g i o n a l d e s t i n y . To understand the bases of the One P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e i d e a the arguments d i r e c t e d a t "Western A l i e n a t i o n " from Eastern economic c o n t r o l have to be a p p r e c i a t e d , as they are the key to growing awareness of the need f o r i n t e g r a t i o n w i t h i n the P r a i r i e Region. The end product of t h i s i n t e g r a t i o n may be e v e n t u a l union, but c e r t a i n l y the need f o r economic i n t e g r a t i o n , or a c e r t a i n degree of i t , i s r e c o g n i s e d by the three men who now l e a d the P r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s . The i d e o l o g i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s which separate them (The P r a i r i e Provinces) seem to be f a r l e s s important than t h e i r s i m i l a r i t i e s of temperament and approach to government ... The p o l i t i c a l r e s u l t w i l l be a f a r more cohesive P r a i r i e b l ock than the r e s t of Canada has been accustomed to encountering. 14 13. G. Molgat, The West and Canada's Challenges f o r the  1970's, Paper g i v e n a t C a r l e t o n U n i v e r s i t y , Feb., 1970, p.2. 14. P. Desbarates, "Three Young Premiers New Young Force on. N a t i o n a l Scene," Toronto S t a r , XNov. 27,1971)./ -10-R e f e r r i n g to the i d e a of P r a i r i e union Premier Blakeney (Saskatchewan) s t a t e d : ... i t i s worth a look, s i n c e every Canadian problem appears to be a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l problem. In t h a t context P r a i r i e union i s a good i d e a . 15 Premier Lougheed ( A l b e r t a ) , although a g a i n s t eventual P r a i r i e union c a l l s f o r a combined Western approach: I t h i n k t h a t w i l l be a forward t h i n g f o r Canada t h a t the balance between Quebec and O n t a r i o w i l l be to a degree o f f s e t by perhaps, a growth towards p o l i t i c a l union i n the Maritimes and a t the same time a s t r o n g e r and more u n i t e d Western view. 16 Premier Schreyer (Manitoba), who supports P n a i r i e union, c a l l s f o r a f u n c t i o n a l a l l i a n c e a t t h i s time between the 17 P r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s r a t h e r than a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l one. These views r e v e a l t h a t indeed p o l i t i c a l , economic and c u l t u r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n the three P r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s do p o i n t towards a changing Western outlook w i t h i n the Canadian f e d e r a t i o n , and i t i s these changes which have developed h i s t o r i c a l l y and most r e c e n t l y and which u n d e r l i e the i d e a o f P r a i r i e union. 15. Loc. C i t . 16. Loc. C i t . 17. Loc. C i t . -11-Hypothesis and T h e s i s Question The h y p o t h e s i s of t h i s t h e s i s i s t h a t the a g i t a t i o n f o r p o l i t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n of the P r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s i s a f u n c t i o n o f the changing regard f o r Western Canadian r e g i o n a l i s m w i t h i n the Canadian F e d e r a t i o n . The q u e s t i o n c o n t a i n e d h e r e i n i s simply: What are the causes of a g i t a t i o n f o r the One P r a i r i e Province Idea? Problem The problem examined i s an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and i s o l a t i o n o f the r e l e v a n t p o l i t i c a l , economic and c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s of i n t e g r a t i o n as they e x i s t w i t h i n the P r a i r i e r e g i o n , and to equate them to the i d e a of p o l i t i c a l u n i f i c a t i o n of the P r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s . An examination i n t o the proceedings of the L e t h b r i d g e Conference and the press t h a t i t generated i s of keynote importance to t h i s t h e s i s as i t c o n t a i n s numerous statements of Western awareness of the P r a i r i e s as a r e g i o n . The Study Area. The P r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s are c e r t a i n l y not a l l P r a i r i e g r a s s l a n d and, i n f a c t , any attempt to j u s t i f y the P r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s as a s t r i c t g e o g r a p h i c a l r e g i o n would be u n l i k e l y . However, the southern areas of the three p r o v i n c e s , the areas most densely populated, c o i n c i d e i n most p a r t w i t h what -12-i s known as " p r a i r i e " , and thus the P r a i r i e r e g i o n has come to mean the three p r o v i n c e s . The whole area was i n f a c t governed, p r i o r t o 1905, as one, when i t was p a r t of the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s . Then too, common problems have con f r o n t e d the three p r o v i n c e s which r e l a t e d d i r e c t l y to the area's g e o g r a p h i c a l l o c a t i o n and the h i s t o r i c a l e x p e r i e n c e . T h i s t h e s i s makes the assumption t h a t the P r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s c o n s t i t u t e a r e g i o n , and i t i s p o i n t e d out here t h a t the same assumption i s taken by government departments, Royal Commissions,and a l a r g e body of l i t e r a t u r e . (See APPENDIX I ) . A somewhat a s s e r t i v e view of the P r a i r i e r e g i o n i s g i v e n by Edward McCourt:-The P r a i r i e P rovinces c o n s t i t u t e the most homogeneous of the g r e a t n a t u r a l d i v i s i o n s w i t h i n t h i s country. In s p i t e of the abutment o f the Rocky Mountains on the western f l a n k of A l b e r t a , a l l t h r e e , i n t h e i r s e t t l e d areas, are p r i m a r i l y f l a t and a g r i c u l t u r a l ; they are hot i n summer and c o l d i n w i n t e r and the wind blows hard and o f t e n a c r o s s them. The sun s e t s over them i n a b l a z e of c o l o u r beyond the comprehension o f anyone u n f a m i l i a r w i t h the P r a i r i e s ; and the g r e a t arch of n o r t h e r n l i g h t s i s a common s i g h t three q u a r t e r s of the year. The p r o v i n c e s are a l i k e i n h e t e r o g e n e i t y of t h e i r people, the Anglo-Saxon c o n s t i t u t i n g i n each something l e s s than h a l f of the p o p u l a t i o n . A l l three are bordered by Americans on the south and a v a s t , v i r t u a l l y unexplored h i n t e r l a n d on the n o r t h . They are young a g r e s s i v e and u n i t e d i n t h e i r h o s t i l i t y to O n t a r i o . 18 18. E. McCourt, The Canadian West i n F i c t i o n , 1970, p.5. -13-Source of Data The u n d e r l y i n g data used i n t h i s t h e s i s i s the proceedings of the L e t h b r i d g e Conference, the correspondence t h a t the w r i t e r had with the m a j o r i t y of the speakers a t t h a t conference, and the i n t e r v i e w s conducted with p o l i t i c i a n s , government o f f i c i a l s and businessmen on two t r i p s to the P r a i r i e s . In a d d i t i o n , data was c o l l e c t e d from 19 20 the A l b e r t a E l e c t o r a t e Study and the 1965 M e i s a l study. In examining the h i s t o r i c a l a spects of the t h e s i s 21 q u e s t i o n , L i n g a r d ' s book made i t p o s s i b l e to i s o l a t e the 22 o r i g i n a l sources t h a t needed a t t e n t i o n . S i m i l a r l y L i p s e t ' s 23 and Macphersons works p r o v i d e d the i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e d on p o l i t i c a l p a r t y development i n the P r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s . 24 Morton's and Swainson's books on the h i s t o r y of Manitoba, and o t h e r works p e r t a i n i n g to the o t h e r P r o v i n c e s , provide the base upon which the h i s t o r i c a l chapter s i t s . 19. D.K. E l t o n , The A l b e r t a E l e c t o r a t e Study, 1969. 20. J . M e i s e l , 1965 Canadian N a t i o n a l E l e c t i o n Study. 21. C.C. L i n g a r d , T e r r i t o r i a l Government i n Canada, 1946. 22. S.M. L i p s e t , A g r a r i a n S o c i a l i s m , 1950. 23. C.B. Macpherson, Democracy i n A l b e r t a : S o c i a l C r e d i t and the Party System, 1953. 24. W.L. Morton, Manitoba: A H i s t o r y , 1957. and D/ Swainspn, H i s t o r i c a l Essays on the P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e s , 19 70. -14-Government p u b l i c a t i o n s r e l a t i n g to c e r t a i n views of the problem were p r o v i d e d w i t h the Rowell Commission and 25 the Batten Commission. In a d d i t i o n P o s i t i o n Papers from the l e g i s l a t u r e s of each P r o v i n c e gave a p r e d i c t i v e view 26 of the West i n the 19 70's. The data p e r t a i n i n g to common P r a i r i e o r g a n i s a t i o n s which are d i r e c t e d to economic and resource i n t e g r a t i o n , i n v a r y i n g degrees, was a v a i l a b l e through the F e d e r a l Department of Intergovernmental R e l a t i o n s , Ottawa, and u l t i m a t e l y from the o r g a n i s a t i o n s themselves. The c o n s t i t u t i o n s of these bodies are not always a v a i l a b l e but where they c o u l d be o b t a i n e d they make a s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n . The importance o f newspaper a r t i c l e s , both from the pa s t and c u r r e n t e r a , cannot be underestimated. Two books 27 28 r e c e n t l y p u b l i s h e d , Zimmerman and Gagan , c o n t r i b u t e d much to the understanding of P r a i r i e i d e n t i t y . Other m a t e r i a l s are to be found i n the b i b l i o g r a p h y . 25. Two Royal Commissions, The D o m i n i o n - P r o v i n c i a l Commission, 19 37, and the Commissionoon Consumer Problems and  I n f l a t i o n ( P r a i r i e P r ovinces Cost Study Commission) r>1968. The l a t t e r commission a l s o has s u p p o r t i n g s t u d i e s . 26. P a r t i c u l a r l y Premier Strom's paper - A Case f o r the West, See a l s o Footnote 13. 27. C.C. Zimmerman and G.W. Moneo, The P r a i r i e Community System, 1971. 28. D.P. Gagan, (ed) , P r a i r i e P e r s p e c t i v e s , 1970. -15-O u t l i n e The s t r u c t u r e o f t h i s t h e s i s f o l l o w s t h i s breakdown. Chapter I I i s an h i s t o r i c a l overview of the P r a i r i e r e g i o n d e a l i n g w i t h d i v e r s i t y o f e t h n i c s e t t l e m e n t , the i n f l u e n c e o f a common environment, common occupations and r u r a l p i o n e e r i n g . A l s o i n c l u d e d are the autonomy debate 29 and the c o n t r i b u t i o n by F r e d e r i c k H a u l t a i n i n p o i n t i n g t o the formation o f a Western o u t l o o k . The chapter concludes w i t h a comment on the h i s t o r i c a l b a s i s to the id e a o f P r a i r i e union. Chapter I I I analyses the p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n immediately p r i o r t o the Let h b r i d g e Conference, Western a l i e n a t i o n and the i n t e g r a t i o n which was becoming apparent w i t h i n the P r a i r i e s . Chapter IV pays p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n to the P r a i r i e i d e n t i t y q u e s t i o n and to the d i s p a r i t i e s o f wealth t h a t i s d i v i d e d by p o l i t i c a l j u r i s d i c a t i o n w i t h i n the P r a i r i e r e g i o n . Chaper V examines the r e g i o n a l c o - o p e r a t i o n t h a t has been shown to e x i s t w i t h i n the P r a i r i e s , and Chapter VI concludes by e v a l u a t i n g the impact o f the Le t h b r i d g e Conference, and d i s c u s s e s t h i s i n terms of P r a i r i e i d e n t i t y and the degree o f i n t e g r a t i o n t h a t does e x i s t w i t h i n the three P r o v i n c e s . 29. Premier of Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s to 1905. -16-CHAPTER II THE HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE TO PRAIRIE UNITY An Overview An examination o f the h i s t o r y o f the P r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s r e v e a l s a r e c u r r i n g theme, one which c a l l s f o r a s i n g l e p o l i t i c a l u n i t t o be formed out of what are now r e f e r r e d to as the P r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s . The i d e a o f union i n the p a s t d i d not c o i n c i d e w i t h any p e r i o d o f economic r e c e s s i o n nor with a p e r i o d of a f f l u e n c e , but, p r e d i c t a b l y , came a t a time when i s s u e s o f p r o v i n c i a l - d o m i n i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p s were debated. The i n e q u a l i t i e s between E a s t e r n and Western Canada, the l a t t e r a l i e n a t e d from the E a s t e r n economic c e n t r e , were seen as i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h the economy of the three P r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s . The p o l i t i c a l h i s t o r y of the Western p l a i n s , o r the P r a i r i e r e g i o n as i t i s known today, has witnessed a g r e a t e r v a r i e t y of governments than any o t h e r r e g i o n i n the 1 C o n f e d e r a t i o n . I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t , however, t h a t t h i s r e g i o n was a d m i n i s t e r e d as one u n i t , a l b e i t a t e r r i t o r i a l government under the c o n t r o l of the F e d e r a l Government i n the E a s t , u n t i l Manitoba achieved i t s autonomy i n 1870. 1. E. O l i v e r , The Canadian North West, V o l . 1, p.20. -17-The remaining area continued to be adm i n i s t e r e d as one u n t i l the e x i s t i n g p r o v i n c e s of A l b e r t a and Saskatchewan were admitted i n t o the C o n f e d e r a t i o n w i t h p r o v i n c i a l s t a t u s i n 1905. The Acts o f 1869 p r o v i d e d f o r "the temporary Government o f Rupert's Land and the North West T e r r i t o r y when u n i t e d 2 w i t h Canada". Thus, the most fundamental 'idea' o f Canadian u n i t y was made p o s s i b l e by t h i s A c t ; the i d e a o f p o l i t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n o f the Western t e r r i t o r y w i t h the e x i s t i n g p r o v i n c e s to form a Canadian C o n f e d e r a t i o n from sea to sea. M o b i l i t y o f people i n the P r a i r i e s p r i o r to 1870 was by way of the b i r c h bark canoe, the York boat, steamers which p l i e d up the Red R i v e r , and, f o r l o c a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , the horse and p r a i r i e c a r t . Furs were hauled by these conveyances, u l t i m a t e l y r e a c h i n g the European o r E a s t e r n p r o v i n c e markets. But i n 1878 a r a i l w a y was b u i l t between Winnipeg and St. L o u i s , which then allowed a connection to Chicago and thus to the sea v i a the Great Lakes. T h i s r a i l h e a d made a v a i l a b l e an e a s i e r access f o r immigrants from Europe and the Un i t e d S t a t e s . Connections were a v a i l a b l e 2. S t a t u t e s o f Canada, 32-33. V i c t . c.3. -18-v i a the l a k e r o u t e then o v e r l a n d to Winnipeg, but t h i s was a somewhat arduous journey and extremely i n e f f i c i e n t 3 d e s p i t e government i n t e r v e n t i o n t o improve t h i s r o u t e . By 1883 the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway had reached Winnipeg, having taken an a l l - C a n a d i a n route f o l l o w i n g the Northern shore o f Lake S u p e r i o r , thus r e d u c i n g t r a v e l l i n g time, between the E a s t e r n c i t i e s and Winnipeg. Two years l a t e r the l i n e reached the Western Seaboard, and thus the " N a t i o n a l Dream" became a r e a l i t y . T h i s f e a t was h e r a l d e d as the cohesive f o r c e needed to u n i t e the C o n f e d e r a t i o n , but among the numerous p l a t i t u d e s o f the day were heard h i n t s o f n e g a t i v e aspects of the scheme. ... s a i d the f a t h e r s of C o n f e d e r a t i o n , 'Let us b i n d the p r o v i n c e s together w i t h s t e e l r a i l s ' . 'Yes', was Huntington's r e p l y , 'but you are going to b i n d them together a t the ends.' 4 3. For a comprehensive account of t h i s , see P. Berton, The N a t i o n a l Dream, Chs. 1, 2. 4. J . Nelson, "The Problems o f Our P r o v i n c e s , " Macleans, (May 15, 1923), V.36, No. 10. p.13. (Huntington, L.S., 1827-88. P o l i t i c i a n and Author. 1861 E l e c t e d l i b e r a l member o f l e g i s l a t i v e assembly, Lower Canada. 186 3-64 S o l i c i t o r ' General of Canada. 186 4-65 opposed C o n f e d e r a t i o n . 1873 prepared charges a g a i n s t Macdonald government i n co n n e c t i o n w i t h g r a n t i n g CPR Charter which l e d to t h a t government's d o w n f a l l ) . -19-With the development of a r a i l w a y system w i t h i n the P r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s and i n B r i t i s h Columbia by the b e g i n n i n g of Twentieth Century, the way was open f o r a l a r g e m i g r a t i o n o f B r i t i s h and European people i n t o the West, the r a i l w a y p r o v i d i n g the impetus to t h i s i n c r e a s e d m o b i l i t y i n t o the Western T e r r i t o r y . The West was c h a r a c t e r i s e d as "Newer Canada" d i f f e r i n g from the "Older" E a s t by o c c u p a t i o n , by r a c i a l m i l i e u and by outlook. The West was a pioneer f r i n g e which had achieved a new r e l e v a n c e w i t h i n C o n f e d e r a t i o n , a r e l e v a n c e t h a t s h i f t e d i t s c o n c e n t r a t i o n from f u r t r a d i n g to one of a g r a r i a n importance. The s t r o n g e s t i n f l u e n c e , nonetheless, came from the O n t a r i o s e t t l e r s , who i n t r o d u c e d i n t o the P r a i r i e s the a t t i t u d e s p r e v a l e n t i n t h e i r former p r o v i n c e . In r e t r o s p e c t the West and O n t a r i o d i d c o n s t i t u t e a p a r t i c u l a r e n t i t y , bound t o g e t h e r by common v a l u e s , s i m i l a r i n s t i t u t i o n s , and a commitment to the concept of an E n g l i s h Canada. T h i s d i d not prevent the growth of a unique Western r e g i o n a l i s m . Western c o n d i t i o n s , p r i m a r i l y economic but a l s o c u l t u r a l and p o l i t i c a l , changed the outlook o f the newcomers. Very soon Westerners became conscious of t h e i r own r e g i o n a l i d e n t i t y and of t h e i r u n d e r - p r i v i l e g e d p o s i t i o n i n the dominion. 5 5. F.W. R u t h e r f o r d , "The Western Press and Regionalism, 1870-96," Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Review, L I I , No. 3, (Sept. , 19.71) , p. 228. -20-Huntington saw the dangers behind the d i f f e r e n c e s o f i d e n t i t y i n Canada, and h i s i n t u i t i v e f e e l i n g s were o f a West and an E a s t a t o p p o s i t e ends o f the very l i n k which was supposed to j o i n them but which would a l s o a l i e n a t e one from the other. In 1923 a j o u r n a l i s t , John.Nelson, wrote a s e r i e s of a r t i c l e s o u t l i n i n g the problems of the P r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s . He accepted Huntington's f o r e s i g h t as being extremely e n l i g h t e n e d : Much of Canada i s s t i l l a strange l a n d to o t h e r p a r t s o f i t . A Comprehension by a l l o f the d i f f i c u l t i e s of each i s fundamental to t h a t sympathetic c o - o p e r a t i o n without which C o n f e d e r a t i o n i s but a rope i n the sand. 6 T h i s i s an i n t e r e s t i n g o b s e r v a t i o n ; h i n d s i g h t a f f o r d s many p l e a s u r e s , and, indeed, a more r e c e n t examination of the debate of r e g i o n a l d i s p a r i t i e s , o f E a s t e r n economic domination o f the West, and the c a l l by statesmen to co-operate more w i t h i n the P r a i r i e r e g i o n , d i s c l o s e s a s i m i l a r c o n c l u s i o n . For, example, Premier Strom's statement to the F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l C o n s t i t u t i o n a l Conference i n 1969 was very s i m i l a r to t h a t expressed i n the 192 3 statement above. 6. J . Nelson, .p/13. -21-We w i l l co-operate w i t h the F e d e r a l Government t o the f u l l e s t extent of our a b i l i t y t o b r i n g r e g i o n a l a l i e n a t i o n and i n e q u a l i t y i n Canada to an end, but there must be a corresponding e f f o r t on the p a r t of the F e d e r a l Government and the P r o v i n c i a l Government of C e n t r a l Canada to r e c o g n i s e and accommodate the concerns of the west. 7 The One P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e Idea - The Autonomy Debate The q u e s t i o n , f o l l o w i n g C o n f e d e r a t i o n , was what was to be the r a t i o n a l e behind d i v i d i n g the Northwest i n t o d i s t r i c t s f o r e f f e c t i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and l a t e r , the much debated autonomy q u e s t i o n of g r a n t i n g p r o v i n c i a l government to the d i s t r i c t s of A l b e r t a , Saskatchewan, A s s i n i b o i a and Athabaska. (See Map 1. T e r r i t o r i a l D i s t r i c t s 1898 and Map 2. P r a i r i e T e r r i t o r i a l D i s t r i c t s 1898). The 8 Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s A c t of 1875 p r o v i d e d f o r a r e s i d e n t Lieutenant-Governor and a Northwest C o u n c i l to be made up of not more than f i v e persons and having e x e c u t i v e and l e g i s l a t i v e powers. The A c t f u r t h e r p r o v i d e d f o r the T e r r i t o r y to be d i v i d e d i n t o e l e c t o r a l d i s t r i c t s which would e l e c t a member to the C o u n c i l . When the number of e l e c t e d members reached twenty-one, the c o u n c i l became defunct and the e l e c t e d members were desi g n a t e d the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly. 7. H.E. Strom, A Case f o r the West, An address to the F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l C o n s t i t u t i o n a l Conference, Feb., 1969. 8. S t a t u t e s of Canada, 38, V i c t , c.49, 1875. -22-SOURCE- L.J.Burpee, An Historicol Atlns of Cnnnrin, Toronto, 1927. -23-The implementation of t h i s step, thus forming the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly, took p l a c e i n 1888 w i t h twenty-two members. Problems of E a s t e r n c o n t r o l over the l e g i s l a t u r e became apparent almost immediately, p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h the c o n t r o l o f tax monies c o l l e c t e d i n the T e r r i t o r y , and demands f o r f u l l r e s p o n s i b l e government were r a i s e d . An amending Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s A c t of 1891 granted much of what was demanded "... r e c e i v i n g powers t o make ordinances c o v e r i n g v i r t u a l l y a l l matters a l l o t t e d to the p r o v i n c e s under the 9 B r i t i s h North American A c t except t h a t of borrowing money." 10 An e x e c u t i v e committee l e d by F.W.G. H a u l t a i n was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1891 to a d v i s e i n the government o f the T e r r i t o r i e s . Premier H a u l t a i n worked i n c e s s a n t l y towards the i d e a of m a i n t a i n i n g one a d m i n i s t r a t i o n f o r the t e r r i t o r i a l d i s t r i c t s o f A l b e r t a , Saskatchewan, Athabaska and A s s i n i b o i a . W.L. Morton suggests t h a t " F r e d e r i c k H a u l t a i n has always seemed to me to be the key p e r s o n a l i t y i n the 11 formation of the Western outlook." I t i s c e r t a i n t h a t 9. C. L i n g a r d , T e r r i t o r i a l Government i n Canada, p.6. 10. Commonly known as Premier H a u l t a i n - a member of the N o r t h ~ west Committee, a lawyer from F o r t Macleod, Knighted i n 1916. C h i e f J u s t i c e t o the Supreme Court of Saskatchewan 1912-1937. 11. W.L. Morton, i n a l e t t e r t o the w r i t e r dated Dec.22,1971. Dr. Morton i s P r o f e s s o r of H i s t o r y , T r e n t U n i v e r s i t y , Peterborough, O n t a r i o . -24-H a u l t a i n ' s c o n s i s t e n t concern f o r the West's p o s i t i o n i n the C o n f e d e r a t i o n and f o r a more fa v o u r a b l e balance o f power to govern more e f f i c i e n t l y , marked him as b e i n g one who c o n s t a n t l y expounded a p o l i t i c a l p h i l o s o p h y f o r the West, a view which changed l i t t l e , i f a t a l l , throughout h i s time i n o f f i c e . He was indeed a constant r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the view of one p r o v i n c e f o r the Northwest, autonomy of s c h o o l l e g i s l a t i o n , and a c o n t i n u a l a g i t a t o r f o r the t e r r i t o r i a l (and l a t e r p r o v i n c i a l ) c o n t r o l of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s , which had not been r e l i n q u i s h e d by the L a u r i e r Government i n 1905 f o r A l b e r t a o r Saskatchewan. ( F i n a l l y r e l i n q u i s h e d i n 1930). The movement west o f the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway, c r o s s i n g 750 m i l e s of t e r r i t o r i a l l a n d w i t h tax exemption, was seen by H a u l t a i n and the Northwest C o u n c i l as an ... e x t r a o r d i n a r y burden upon the people o f the West... Ample evidence e x i s t s to show t h a t the r a i l w a y was not i n any sense b u i l t f o r the b e n e f i t of the Northwest... i t i s d i f f i c u l t f o r the people of the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s to understand why they should be c a l l e d upon to assume any o t h e r burden than t h a t o f c o n t r i b u t i n g p r p p o r t i o n a l l y - and no more - w i t h the people of other p a r t s of Canada towards the c o s t of c a r r y i n g out o b l i g a t i o n s assumed by Canada under the compact w i t h B r i t i s h Columbia. 12 12. S e s s i o n a l Papers, No. 116, 1903, V o l . X I I I , H a u l t a i n ' s  L e t t e r to L a u r i e r , Dec. 7, 1901, pp. 24,25. -25-Then too, the a d d i t i o n a l f i n a n c i a l burden of an i n c r e a s i n g p o p u l a t i o n w i t h i n the t e r r i t o r y , p a r t i c u l a r l y a f t e r 189 6, p r o p o r t i o n a l l y i n c r e a s e d the need f o r f u r t h e r grants from the F e d e r a l Government. H a u l t a i n w r i t e s i n 1901, On the one hand, our l i m i t a t i o n s preclude our doing f o r o u r s e l v e s the t h i n g s t h a t ought to be done and on the ot h e r hand, Pa r l i a m e n t makes no e f f o r t to a s s i s t us w i t h an even approximate degree o f adequacy. 13 Being a t e r r i t o r i a l government, the Northwest C o u n c i l was prevented from o b t a i n i n g the b e n e f i t s of t h e i r resources such as timber, m i n e r a l s and la n d s , unable to c h a r t e r r a i l w a y s 14 or borrow money. H a u l t a i n ' s l e t t e r t o S i r W i l f r e d L a u r i e r c l e a r l y enumerates the b a s i s to the Autonomy B i l l which he put forward i n 1901. In t h i s l e t t e r H a u l t a i n again d i s c u s s e d the economic problems t h a t face the T e r r i t o r y , the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h b e i n g a t e r r i t o r i a l 15 government, the d u p l i c a t i o n o f Dominion a d m i n i s t r a t i o n work, p a r t i c u l a r l y as i t r e l a t e s to the j u s t i c e department, and the l a c k of adequate funds being granted to keep pace w i t h a growing and d i v e r s e immigration. 13. I b i d , p.11. 14. L a u r i e r Paper 19 01, pp.1-8, a l s o d i s c u s s e d i n C. L i n g a r d , T e r r i t o r i a l Government i n Canada, p.38. 15. T h i s i s a l s o mentioned i n S e s s i o n a l Paper 116, p.11. -26-General acceptance of autonomy of the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s was i n no way a unanimous acceptance o f the i d e a t h a t one p r o v i n c e was the most v i a b l e answer; indeed, backing f o r one, two, three,and even f o u r p r o v i n c e s was proposed. In a d d i t i o n a s m a l l e r group d e s i r e d a westward e x t e n s i o n of the Manitoba border. Nonetheless, a t the t e r r i t o r i a l g e n e r a l e l e c t i o n o f 1902 H a u l t a i n s t r e s s e d i n h i s p r e - e l e c t i o n address t h a t h i s government has presented to the F e d e r a l A u t h o r i t i e s the claims o f the people ... In t h a t document the t e r r i t o r i a l government has expressed i t s o p i n i o n i n favour of the o r g a n i s a t i o n of one p r o v i n c e o n l y . A c t i o n upon the whole q u e s t i o n has been postponed by the Dominion Government, p r i n c i p a l l y upon the grounds t h a t there i s a 'divergence o f o p i n i o n r e s p e c t i n g the q u e s t i o n whether t h e r e should be one p r o v i n c e o n l y or more than one' ... The o p i n i o n of the t e r r i t o r i a l government i s based upon the f a c t t h a t i n the past, one government and one l e g i s l a t i o n have found no d i f f i c u l t y i n conducting the a f f a i r s of the country ( i . e . T e r r i t o r y ) o t h e r than such as arose from the inadequacy of the revenues, and i t i s not a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t any d i f f i c u l t y which cannot be met w i t h , w i l l a r i s e i n the f u t u r e . 16 The r e s u l t s of the e l e c t i o n were overwhelmingly i n H a u l t a i n ' s favour, which was taken by the p r e s s to be a statement o f c o n f i d e n c e i n h i s e l e c t i o n p o l i c y to achieve autonomy f o r the Northwest T e r r i t o r y as one p r o v i n c e . 16. Macleod Gazette, May 2, 1902. -27-S e c t i o n One of H a u l t a i n * s B i l l f o r Autonomy c a l l e d f o r the e r e c t i o n o f one p r o v i n c e on January 1, 1903, out of the d i s t r i c t s comprised of A s s i n i b o i a , Saskatchewan, A l b e r t a , and t h a t p o r t i o n o f the d i s t r i c t o f Athabaska l y i n g to the 17 south of the f i f t y - s e v e n t h p a r a l l e l of n o r t h l a t i t u d e . H a u l t a i n argued i n h i s l e t t e r to L a u r i e r , i n which he f i r s t d r a f t e d t h i s b i l l , t h a t even though the proposed p r o v i n c e was l a r g e r than the others much of the area o f Athabaska and the no r t h e r n and e a s t e r n p o r t i o n s o f Saskatchewan were unproductive and would never a t t r a c t anything more than a 18 s m a l l p o p u l a t i o n . He a l s o s t a t e d i n t h i s l e t t e r t h a t the people l i v i n g w i t h i n these areas were s a t i s f i e d w i t h the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the t e r r i t o r y and d i d not see anything to be gained by i t s d i s s e c t i o n i n t o more than one a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t . The i s s u e s noted by H a u l t a i n i n t h i s l e t t e r t o L a u r i e r had been presented t o the people of the T e r r i t o r y on numerous o c c a s i o n s , the most comprehensive statement being 19 made a t Indian Head on December 18, 1901. At t h i s time 17. S e s s i o n a l Paper 116, a l s o L i n g a r d , p.38. 18. Proposed Provin c e 404,000 sq.miles - Quebec 347,000, O n t a r i o 220,000, B r i t i s h Columbia 383,000 - S e s s i o n a l  Papers 116, p.13. 19. The f u l l speech i s r e p o r t e d i n The Telegram, (Manitoba), F r i d a y , Dec. 27th, 1901. -28-H a u l t a i n r e p o r t e d h i s government's stand on autonomy and the One P r o v i n c e i d e a as w e l l as a r e b u t t a l t o Premier R o b l i n ' s (Manitoba) p r o p o s a l to extend Manitoba's border westward. At t h i s time he f u r t h e r defended the s i z e o f the proposed p r o v i n c e , l o o k i n g to the A u s t r a l i a n example, n o t i n g t h a t the area o f Western A u s t r a l i a , South A u s t r a l i a and Queensland were a l l w e l l i n excess of t h a t of the one p r o v i n c e t h a t he was proposing. Thus,the terms of the autonomy debated were l a i d c l e a r l y b e f o r e the F e d e r a l Government i n Ottawa, as they had been p r e v i o u s l y . The r e p l y , however, d i d not come, and a t the opening of the F o u r t h S e s s i o n of the T e r r i t o r i a l L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly he expressed the Government's r e g r e t t h a t no communication had been r e c e i v e d from Ottawa. The i s s u e o f autonomy continued on i n l i k e manner f o r two more yea r s , t e r m i n a t i n g a t the opening of Parliament i n Ottawa w i t h the f o l l o w i n g statement from the Speech from the Throne: "The r a p i d growth i n the p o p u l a t i o n of the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s d u r i n g the p a s t two years j u s t i f i e s the wisdom of c o n f e r r i n g on these t e r r i t o r i e s p r o v i n c i a l 20 autonomy." Thus i n 1905 S i r W i l l i a m L a u r i e r submitted 20. Debate, House of Commons, Canada, 1905, V o l . 1, C o l . 6. -29-l e g i s l a t i o n f o r the establishment of two p r o v i n c e s of A l b e r t a and Saskatchewan. The r a t i o n a l e behind making the d e c i s i o n f o r one p r o v i n c e was t h a t i t would be too l a r g e a p o l i t i c a l u n i t . L a u r i e r argued t h a t the n o r t h e r n l i m i t of the two new p r o v i n c e s would not extend in t o , the D i s t r i c t of Mackenzie because the area to the n o r t h o f 60°N was u n f i t f o r a g r i c u l t u r e ^ although p o s s e s s i n g d e f i n i t e i n d i c a t i o n s of m i n e r a l wealth, the area was u n f i t f o r settlement due to an absence o f accompanying r u r a l p r o d u c t i v i t y . The government's d e c i s i o n Was to g i v e autonomy to t h a t s e c t i o n of the t e r r i t o r y bounded by the l i n e n o r t h from the U n i t e d S t a t e s border to the l i n e d i v i d i n g the d i s t r i c t s of Mackenzie and Athabaska, (See Map 1. and 2, Page 22) and the 60°N p a r a l l e l o f l a t i t u d e . The d e c i s i o n t o r e t a i n the t e r r i t o r y of Athabaska w i t h i n the autonomous area, was t h a t , even though t h i s t e r r i t o r y was not c o n s i d e r e d wholly f e r t i l e , a g r i c u l t u r a l l y r i c h lands were a v a i l a b l e p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the Peace R i v e r V a l l e y , and s e t t l e m e n t s had developed i n t h i s area. The l a n d area of t h i s autonomous region,made up 550,345 square m i l e s , was c o n s i d e r e d too l a r g e to be made i n t o a s i n g l e -30-p r o v i n c e . By d i v i d i n g the area i n t o two h a l v e s , thus forming two p r o v i n c e s , L a u r i e r argued t h a t each p r o v i n c e was g i v e n an area which was o f manageable s i z e , c o r r e s p o n d i n g approximately to the s i z e o f O n t a r i o . The boundary was thus drawn along the f o u r t h m e r i d i a n (110°W), which not o n l y d i v i d e d the autonomous area i n t o approximately two p r o v i n c e s , but a l s o e v e n t u a l l y s p l i t the p o p u l a t i o n (approximately 250,000 people i n each p r o v i n c e ) . The p r o v i n c i a l c a p i t a l s were s e t as Regina i n Saskatchewan, and p r o v i s i o n a l l y Edmonton, due to i t s c e n t r a l p o s i t i o n , i n A l b e r t a . The f o u r t h meridian (110°W) boundary was c r i t i c i s e d h e a v i l y , p a r t i c u l a r l y by r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from the southern c i t i e s o f Ca l g a r y , Medicine Hat and Macleod, who o b j e c t e d t o the d i v i s i o n o f the range country. They argued the d i v i s i o n , i f to be made at a l l , should be the 107°W m e r i d i a n , as the former m e r i d i a n cut the l i v e s t o c k i n d u s t r y i n t o areas o f d i f f e r e n t p o l i t i c a l l e g i s l a t i o n . The d e c i s i o n , however, remained unchanged. The d e c i s i o n t o form two p r o v i n c e s r a t h e r than one from the d i s t r i c t o f the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s i m p l i e d a p o l i t i c a l d i v i s i o n w i t h i n a r e g i o n which had much i n common. -31-T h i s caused a s e p a r a t i o n o f the u n i t e d p o l i t i c a l f o r c e t h a t would have been formed w i t h i n the F e d e r a t i o n i f one p r o v i n c e had been e s t a b l i s h e d . Fear o f an e a s t e r n p o r t i o n o f the proposed t e r r i t o r y o f the One P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e being annexed by Manitoba c e r t a i n l y undermined the H a u l t a i n government's p r o p o s a l . The view h e l d by l i b e r a l members of the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s , t h a t Regina c o n s t i t u t e d too much c e n t r a l i s e d f o r c e on the t e r r i t o r i a l d i s t r i c t s , added much weight to the c r e a t i o n of two p r o v i n c e s . L a u r i e r a l s o r e j e c t e d the Manitoba p r o p o s a l o f extending i t s borders westward on the grounds t h a t i t was not a c c e p t a b l e t o the people l i v i n g i n the area a f f e c t e d , and t h a t t h i s area was w e l l d e f i n e d as p a r t o f the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s and would thus become p a r t o f 21 the new p r o v i n c e o f Saskatchewan. - Hence, the i n a u g u r a t i o n o f these two p r o v i n c e s brought to an-end the d i s p u t e . Debates on Amalgamating the Three P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e s The i d e a o f amalgamating A l b e r t a , Saskatchewan and Manitoba i n t o one pro v i n c e has been documented on numerous 21. N.L. N i c h o l s o n , The Boundaries of Canada, I t s Prov i n c e s  and T e r r i t o r i e s , p.82. -32-o c c a s i o n s . The f i r s t mention of such an i d e a was put forward by C a p t a i n John P a l l i s e r who suggested t h a t the area between the Red R i v e r settlement and B r i t i s h Columbia should c o n s t i t u t e a s i n g l e B r i t i s h Colony, g e n e r a l l y f o l l o w i n g as i t s n o r t h e r n boundary, the 54° North p a r a l l e l and the 49th p a r a l l e l i n the south from the e a s t e r n end o f the Lake o f Woods to the Rocky Mountain c r e s t . The most s i g n i f i c a n t d i s c u s s i o n however, o c c u r r e d from the beginning of 1932 w i t h the p r o p o s a l of John Bracken (Premier o f Manitoba) to d i m i n i s h the number of l e g i s l a t u r e members the P r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s and to Consider whether one l e g i s l a t i o n i n s t e a d of three would not be to the g e n e r a l advantage o f the West ... I would suggest t h a t a committee b r i n g i n a recommendation to the l e g i s l a t u r e not o n l y i n favour of a s m a l l e r number of members and a f a i r i e r method o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , but a l s o i n favour o f a s k i n g the o t h e r governments to j o i n w i t h us i n having the whole g u e s t i o n c a r e f u l l y examined w i t h a view to l a y i n g before the p u b l i c the advantages, and the disadvantages, i f there are any, of such a p r o p o s a l . 22 He f u r t h e r argued t h a t the combined economy o f one l e g i s l a t u r e would c o n s t i t u t e c o n s i d e r a b l e s a v i n g s . 22. E x h i b i t No. 32. E x h i b i t t o Rowell Commission 1937. Bracken here recounts p r e v i o u s correspondence on the i d e a of One P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e , January, 1932. -33-T h i s view was endorsed by J u s t i c e W. Turgeon o f Regina, who argued t h a t the people of Western p r o v i n c e s ... have developed a s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l i n d i v i d u a l i t y which tends to b r i n g them together, and which would make i t comparatively easy f o r them to agree on the management i n common of t h e i r l o c a l a f f a i r s . 23 The r e a l i s a t i o n t h a t the P r a i r i e people had developed a common i d e n t i t y , a n o t i o n t h a t H a u l t a i n a l s o b e l i e v e d , l e d Turgeon to see union of the three p r o v i n c e s i n terms o f advantages to the economy, management of n a t u r a l r esources and education, and a reduced l e g i s l a t i v e body ending the need f o r a m u l t i p l i c i t y o f government departments when adm i n i s t e r e d as one p o l i t i c a l u n i t . These views r e c e i v e d c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s c u s s i o n ; among the 24 p r i v a t e views expressed, Premier J.E. Brownlee of A l b e r t a agreed t h a t economy would be achieved but a l s o he saw advantages i n having one government as one P r a i r i e v o i c e i n a l l Dominion matters. S i m i l a r l y , Premier J . Anderson o f Saskatchewan saw advantage i n the p r o p o s a l . The u n d e r l y i n g comment to be found i n the m a j o r i t y o f p o s i t i v e o p i n i o n s on the i d e a was the economy to be achieved by the r e d u c t i o n i n the number of p r o v i n c i a l governments. The Royal 25 Commission o f Dominion P r o v i n c i a l R e l a t i o n s thus d i s c u s s e d 23. W.F.A. Turgeon, " I ' d U n i t e the P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e s , " Macleans, (Feb. 1, 1932), p. 40-24. J . Bracken, E x h i b i t No. 32. 25. Royal Commission o f Dominion P r o v i n c i a l Relations,(Rowel1 Commission). See "Union o f C e r t a i n P r o v i n c e s , " p.167. -34-t h i s view, and r e v e a l e d t h a t the savings would be approximately f i v e per cent o f the e x i s t i n g c u r r e n t expenditure o f the three p r o v i n c e s . The p o o l i n g o f economic r i s k , however, was seen to be an advantage to union i f recommendation made elsewhere i n the Commission's r e p o r t were not a c c e p t a b l e . Making t h i s assumption there would be a str o n g case f o r union of the P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e s on grounds t h a t i t would improve the ge n e r a l c r e d i t s t a n d i n g o f the r e g i o n . By union, the economic r i s k s o f the three p r o v i n c e s would be pooled, and the r e s u l t i n g i n c r e a s e i n f i n a n c i a l s t a b i l i t y f o r the r e g i o n would tend to d i m i n i s h the need f o r Dominion a s s i s t a n c e i n time o f crop f a i l u r e . 26 The matter of P r a i r i e union was r a i s e d again more r e c e n t l y by the then-Premier of B r i t i s h Columbia (W.A.C. 27 Bennett) i n 1968 a t the F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l Conference. T h i s submission c a l l s f o r the F e d e r a l Government to re c o g n i s e the " l e g i t i m a t e needs of the f i v e economic 28 r e g i o n s o f Canada." In a d d i t i o n , t h i s p r o p o s a l requests c o n s i d e r a t i o n to be giv e n to extend the p r o v i n c i a l boundaries northwards t o the l i m i t s o f c o n t i n e n t a l Canada, thus d i v i d i n g the Yukon and Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s among B r i t i s h Columbia and the P r a i r i e s . 26. I b i d , p.168. 27. Submission by Hon. W.A.C.Bennett, Broposals o f the Pro v i n c e s of B r i t i s h Columbia on the C o n s t i t u t i o n o f Canada. 28. A t l a n t i c , Quebec, O n t a r i o , The P r a i r i e s and B r i t i s h Columbia. -35-Such a view would c e r t a i n l y appear to be w i t h i n the s e l f i n t e r e s t o f Mr. Bennett's j u r i s d i c t i o n and, a t t h a t l e v e l , can be dis m i s s e d as a p o s i t i v e argument. On the ot h e r hand the Yukon and Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s , by j o i n i n g w i t h t h e i r southern provinces, c o u l d a l s o stand to ga i n by such a union and the argument must t h e r e f o r e be co n s i d e r e d s e r i o u s l y . The p o l i t i c a l h i s t o r y o f the One P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e i d e a r e v e a l s t h a t i t s b a s i s has been l a r g e l y economic; i t a s s e r t s t h a t i f the p r o v i n c e s c o u l d be p o l i t i c a l l y u n i f i e d , i t would c r e a t e a more e f f e c t i v e balance between the r i c h e r p r o v i n c e s to the Ea s t and West; r e c o g n i s i n g t h a t a f e d e r a t i o n of equals i s more l o g i c a l than one of unequals. The p r o p o s i t i o n s made have not been c a l l s f o r 29 s e c e s s i o n , but f o r a r e o r g a n i s a t i o n o f the Co n f e d e r a t i o n to rec o g n i s e the economic gains t h a t they b e l i e v e would be forthcoming. Some a l s o see the P r a i r i e s as a c u l t u r a l r e g i o n , r e c o g n i s i n g i t s d i v e r s i t i e s , but a c c e p t i n g the commonalities of the landscape and the way of l i f e o f i t s people as being the c o h e s i v e element t h a t binds i t t o g e t h e r . Andrew C l a r k , r e c o g n i s i n g the gr e a t d i v e r s i t y w i t h i n the P r a i r i e s concedes t h a t 29. The prospect i s d i s c u s s e d i n D.K. E l t o n (ed), One  P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e Conference: A Question f o r Canada, p.185. -36-those who l i v e i n the r e g i o n have u s u a l l y tended to i d e n t i f y themselves w i t h a l l o f i t r a t h e r than w i t h a p a r t . There was l i t t l e to d i s t i n g u i s h the i n d i v i d u a l u n i t s and much to b i n d them together i n the shared h i s t o r y o f the f u r t r a d e , dominant u n t i l the new Canada reached west a century ago and c l u t c h e d t o i t s bosom Rupert's Land, the Northwest T e r r i t o r y and B r i t i s h Columbia. Even t h e r e a f t e r , the o l d a t t i t u d e s and channels o f communication were dominant u n t i l the advent o f the r a i l w a y , the Northwest R e b e l l i o n and the f i r s t wave o f tr u e farming s e t t l e r s made t h e i r impact i n the e i g h t i e s . Moreover, the f i r s t years o f a g r i c u l t u r a l s e t t l e m e n t i n v o l v e d much the same k i n d o f people fanning out from Winnipeg i n a steady s e r i e s o f streams to the west and northwest. Manitoba was c l e a r l y the c u l t u r a l and economic p r o g e n i t o r of the o t h e r two, and the s t r o n g s i m i l a r i t i e s r e f l e c t the common h e r i t a g e . 30 The r e c o g n i t i o n o f economic and c u l t u r a l t i e s w i t h i n the P r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s , cohesive enough to be r e c o g n i s e d as c o n s t i t u t i n g a r e g i o n , i s the key to the i d e a o f union. The d i v e r s i t i e s t h a t e x i s t have p a r a l l e l s i n O n t a r i o , and i t would appear t h a t such d i v e r s i t y has been used t o economic advantage i n the case of t h a t p r o v i n c e . The h i s t o r i c a l aspects o f the One P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e i d e a r e v e a l an i n c r e a s i n g need f o r i n t e r p r o v i n c i a l c o - o p e r a t i o n and j o i n t p r o j e c t p l a n n i n g , a t r e n d which appears t o be happening, and which i n themselves, are i n t e g r a t i v e f o r c e s b i n d i n g the P r a i r i e r e g i o n . 30. A. C l a r k , " H i s t o r i c a l and Geographical P e r s p e c t i v e , " i n D. E l t o n (ed), One P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e : A Question  f o r Canada, pp.330-31. -37-C o n c l u s i o n W.O. M i t c h e l l ' s novel, "Who has Seen the Wind", i l l u s t r a t e s the P r a i r i e sky and wind and t r a n q u i l i t y . I t i s an e v o c a t i o n of f e e l i n g and o f bel o n g i n g , l e a v i n g the reader w i t h an i d e a o f the uniqueness o f P r a i r i e l i f e . And so i t i s unique, f o r many reasons,but fundamentally as a r e s u l t o f i t s environment which has i t s impress upon P r a i r i e h i s t o r y . I t i s however, necessary t o understand t h a t the i n s t i t u t i o n s o f the P r a i r i e West were Canadian i n s t i t u t i o n s and t h a t tfie people who worked these i n s t i t u t i o n s and determined the p o l i t i c a l development of the West were i n the overwhelming m a j o r i t y of Canadian b i r t h and an c e s t r y . 31. The s t r o n g i n f l u e n c e of On t a r i o n i n s t i t u t i o n s l e f t a d e f i n i t e mark on P r a i r i e l i f e . Notwithstanding t h i s , c o l o n i z a t i o n o f the P r a i r i e s came l a t e r than t h a t o f E a s t e r n and C e n t r a l Canada; a l s o problems o f d i s t a n c e and a c c e s s a b i l i t y produced a d i s t i n c t i v e Western Canadian m e n t a l i t y , moulded by the common a g r a r i a n o c c u p a t i o n and the problems-jwhich face such an occu p a t i o n imposed by g e o g r a p h i c a l l o c a t i o n . But these were not the o n l y problems; e x t e r n a l l y c o n t r o l l e d f a c t o r s such as world market c o n d i t i o n s f o r g r a i n and r a i l w a y f r e i g h t r a t e s were c e r t a i n l y common problems which had the e f f e c t of b i n d i n g 31. W.L. Morton, "The Bias of P r a i r i e P o l i t i c s , " T r a n s a c t i o n s  o f the Royal S o c i e t y o f Canada, V o l . XLIV, S e r i e s I I I , (June, 1955), p.57. -38-the people together. Thus by examining the common f a c t o r s o f h i s t o r i c a l P r a i r i e economic l i f e , an argument f o r e x p l a i n i n g the emergence of a P r a i r i e i d e n t i t y can be made. But to accept t h a t t r a d i t i o n and c u l t u r a l t r a i t s brought from elsewhere to the P r a i r i e s by a m u l t i p l i c i t y o f races were to be f o r g o t t e n would seem u n r e a l i s t i c , the 32 p i o n e e r b e i n g " i m i t a t i v e r a t h e r than c r e a t i v e . " However i t would seem reasonable t o a s s e r t t h a t f o l l o w i n g generations o f P r a i r i e people would adhere more to\.ttie t r a d i t i o n and c u l t u r e which g r a d u a l l y formed w i t h i n the new s e t t i n g , and thus a d i s t i n c t i v e a g r a r i a n i d e n t i t y would form, with an i n c r e a s i n g degree of d i s t i n c t i v e homogenity. The P r a i r i e s , then, have a r e g i o n a l i d e n t i t y r o o t e d i n an h i s t o r i c a l l y common base. Morton argues t h a t t h i s r e g i o n a l i d e n t i t y i s not what d i s t i n g u i s h e s the p o l i t i c a l b i a s which made P r a i r i e p o l i t i c s d i f f e r e n t from t h a t o f C e n t r a l Canada, "... the sub o r d i n a t e s t a t u s g i v e n the West i n C o n f e d e r a t i o n was the i n i t i a l b i a s t h a t s e t i n t r a i n the. development of P r a i r i e p o l i t i c s towards an i n c r e a s i n g 33 d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n from the Canadian standard." I f the P r a i r i e s were to be equal p a r t n e r s i n Co n f e d e r a t i o n w i t h 32. F.G. St a n l e y , "Western Canada and the F r o n t i e r T h e s i s , " Report o f the Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Assoc., Annual Meeting, London, May, 1940, ( E d i t e d by R.G. R i d d e l l , Toronto, 1940), p.106. 33. W.L. Morton, "The B i a s of P r a i r i e P o l i t i c s , " p.58. -39-the o t h e r p r o v i n c e s i t was c l e a r , p r i o r t o C o n f e d e r a t i o n , t h a t p o l i t i c a l autonomy would be the method t o achieve i t . A h i s t o r y o f the P r a i r i e p o l i t i c s and t h e i r o b j e c t i v e s r e v e a l s a d r i v e to e s t a b l i s h t h i s e q u a l i t y . I t i s then, l i t t l e wonder, t h a t debate on the i d e a of amalgamating the three P r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s i n t o one s t r o n g p o l i t i c a l , r e p r e s e n t a t i o n has been c o n t i n u a l l y put forward. I t i s t h i s d e s i r e t o e q u a l i s e p r o v i n c i a l s t a t u s w i t h i n the C o n f e d e r a t i o n which r e v e a l s an u n d e r l y i n g base to the P r a i r i e union i d e a . "... The West as a r e g i o n o f p o l i t i c a l and m a t e r i a l d i f f e r e n c e s s u f f i c i e n t l y s i g n i f i c a n t to g i v e i t the c h a r a c t e r o f a s u b - s o c i e t y . That b e i n g so, i t i s the r e l a t i o n s o f the s u b - s o c i e t y .wi'thathe n a t i o n of which i t i s a p a r t which make s i g n i f i c a n t the h i s t o r y o f the 34 P r a i r i e West." 34. I b i d , p. 66. CHAPTER I I I THE ONE PRAIRIE CONFERENCE AND THE SUPPORT FOR THE IDEA The most r e c e n t and, indeed, the most comprehensive d i s c u s s i o n on the i d e a t o u n i t e the P r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s was h e l d i n L e t h b r i d g e , A l b e r t a i n May 1970. T h i s conference drew together academics and p o l i t i c i a n s from the whole of Canada, and p a r t i c u l a r l y from the three P r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s (see Appendix I I ) , to debate the i d e a , and i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t to present here the main stream of ideas d i s c u s s e d , as they r e p r e s e n t not onl y the most r e c e n t but c e r t a i n l y the most comprehensive c o l l e c t i o n o f o p i n i o n s formulated a t any one time. I t i s important to note t h a t the t i t l e o f the Conference 1 i n c l u d e s "... A Question f o r Canada," and the comments made by the speakers s t r i c t l y r e l a t e d to the "Canadian" context. The n o t i o n t h a t the proposed new pro v i n c e might wish to break away from the Canadian F e d e r a t i o n was di s c o u n t e d completely. The u n d e r l y i n g agreement t h a t permeates i t s way i n t o the proceedings of the Conference i s the a l i e n a t i o n t h a t the West f e e l s from Ottawa, t h a t an end must come to 1. One P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e - A Question f o r Canada. A n a t i o n a l conference to study the f e a s i b i l i t y of a One P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e . May 10-13, 1970, L e t h b r i d g e , A l b e r t a . -41-"... the constant c a t e r i n g to the v e s t e d i n d u s t r i a l i n t e r e s t s i n the S t . Lawrence V a l l e y and c e n t r e d around the 2 i n d u s t r i a l Golden Horseshoe i n Southern O n t a r i o . " That one or two p r o v i n c e s i n a F e d e r a t i o n should w i e l d more economic and marketing power than the o t h e r s , and thus demand and r e c e i v e more from the F e d e r a l Government i s unacceptable. The emphasis o f Western a l i e n a t i o n i s d i r e c t e d a t the i n e q u a l i t y of Western b u s i n e s s and r u r a l i n d u s t r i e s from the s e a t of the F e d e r a l Government i n Ottawa. With the c l o s e p r o x i m i t y of the C e n t r a l Canadian p r o v i n c e s to Ottawa i t would appear t h a t they are o f t e n a b l e to o b t a i n b e n e f i t s from F e d e r a l l e g i s l a t i o n which favour t h e i r requirements and which are o f t e n unfavourable to the 3 requirements of the P r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s . The reason f o r such i n e q u a l i t y may w e l l be expressed i n the number of members r e p r e s e n t i n g the P r a i r i e s i n the House of Commons. The r e p r e s e n t a t i o n from the P r a i r i e r e g i o n i s f o r t y s i x seats among a t o t a l of two hundred and s i x t y f o u r members. The P r a i r i e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n then can h a r d l y hope to c o n t r o l the house or c a b i n e t . I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t o note t h a t the m e t r o p o l i t a n areas of Toronto and Montreal combined have 2. Premier E. Schreyer, statement to Canadian Club i n Ottawa, Feb. 1970. As r e p o r t e d i n D. Thomson's paper, "The P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e s and the Canadian F e d e r a t i o n , " submitted to the One P r a i r i e Province Conference, D.K. E l t o n (ed), One P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e - A Question f o r Canada, p. 48. 3. T h i s p o i n t has been made by Premier H. Strom, A Case f o r the West, p.18. -42-almost as many members as the whole P r a i r i e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . Then too, there has been a l o n g p e r i o d o f l i b e r a l government i n Ottawa with l i t t l e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n from P r a i r i e members, the P r a i r i e s being a c o n s e r v a t i v e s t r o n g h o l d . ... the P r a i r i e s r e a l i s e they have l i t t l e chance of a c h i e v i n g j u s t i c e through p o l i t i c a l instruments. I r o n i c a l l y , they are j u s t as weak i n terms of f i n a n c i a l might. They have g r e a t wealth i n the p r o d u c t i o n o f primary r e s o u r c e s , but the purse s t r i n g s are h e l d by other hands. The Canadian f i n a n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s t h a t provide the funds f o r p r i v a t e i n d u s t r i a l development are almost a l l i n the E a s t . 4 Another aspect o f the a l i e n a t i o n f r e q u e n t l y s t a t e d i n the West i s the seemingly f a v o u r a b l e p o s i t i o n which Quebec appears to be able t o ma i n t a i n w i t h i n the F e d e r a t i o n . The French language i s imposed upon a s o c i e t y t h a t does not speak French, nor does i t need torldo so, except i n order to s a t i s f y the requirements o f a b i l i n g u a l E a s t . The East i s the hub of economic and l e g i s l a t i v e c o n t r o l , and hence a hub which c o n t r o l s the P r a i r i e economy. T h i s s i t u a t i o n becomes even more incongruous when i t i s r e a l i s e d t h a t the P r a i r i e p o p u l a t i o n i s made up of a m u l t i p l i c i t y o f n a t i o n a l i t i e s , fewer than s i x per cent being o f French o r i g i n , and g r e a t e r than e i g h t per cent being Ukranian, and ni n e per cent German. These people too f e e l a d e s i r e t o be r e c o g n i s e d as making up p a r t o f the Canadian p o p u l a t i o n , and t h a t r e c o g n i t i o n and o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a l l groups should be 4. P. Thompson (ed), The P r a i r i e P rovinces - A l i e n a t i o n and  Anger,1969, p.5. r e a l i s e d r e g a r d l e s s of language or r a c e . A measure of the degree to which a l i e n a t i o n i s f e l t by the people o f A l b e r t a has been a s c e r t a i n e d by P r o f e s s o r D.K. E l t o n i n h i s 1969 A l b e r t a E l e c t o r a t e 5 Study. The f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s were d i r e c t e d to 567 6 v o t e r s i n A l b e r t a . The f i n d i n g s of the survey were t h a t a l i e n a t i o n does e x i s t i n A l b e r t a , and i t i s reasonable to assume t h a t s i m i l a r d i s c o n t e n t i s to be found i n o t h e r Western p r o v i n c e s . T a b l e s , I, II and I I I examine p o i n t s of Western a l i e n a t i o n , and the responses i n d i c a t e t h a t approximately h a l f of the people i n t e r v i e w e d f e l t some a l i e n a t i o n from E a s t e r n Canada. T h i s a l i e n a t i o n r e f e r s to b e n e f i t s made a v a i l a b l e to E a s t e r n Canadians a t the expense o f Western Canada, and to t a r i f f p r o t e c t i o n opposing Western Canadian i n t e r e s t s . Table I I I (Western A l i e n a t i o n -The Concern o f the F e d e r a l Government) c a l l i n g f o r a more ge n e r a l response, o b t a i n e d a s l i g h t l y g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n s u p p o r t i n g the view t h a t the F e d e r a l Government was more concerned w i t h E a s t e r n problems than w i t h Western ones. 5. D.K. E l t o n , A l b e r t a E l e c t o r a t e Study 1969, Much of the i n f o r m a t i o n i s a l s o a v a i l a b l e i n E l t o n (ed), One P r a i r i e  P r o v i n c e - A Question f o r Canada, pp. 142-144. 6. See Appendix 3 f o r d e t a i l s o f the study. -44-TABLE I WESTERN ALIENATION - GREATER BENEFITS TO EASTERN CANADIANS "The e a s t e r n Canadians r e c e i v e more b e n e f i t s than do western Canadians from being p a r t of the Dominion of Canada." Response a) s t r o n g l y agree b) agree c) d i s a g r e e d) d i s a g r e e s t r o n g l y e) no response Frequency 68 258 229 7 5 Percentage 12.0 45.5 57.5% agree 40.4 1.2 41.6% d i s a g r e e TABLE I I WESTERN ALIENATION - TARIFF TO PROTECT EASTERN MANUFACTURERS "The west i s always g e t t i n g a raw d e a l because the n a t i o n a l government imposes h i g h t a r i f f s to p r o t e c t e a s t e r n manufacturers." Response a) s t r o n g l y agree b) agree c) d i s a g r e e d) d i s a g r e e s t r o n g l y e) no response Frequency 47 254 248 6 12 Percentage 8.3 44.8 53.1% agree 43.7 1.1 44.8% d i s a g r e e 2.1 TABLE I I I WESTERN ALIENATION - CONCERN OF THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT "The Government i n Ottawa i s more concerned about the problems of E a s t e r n Canadians than they are about the problems o f Western Canadians." Response a) s t r o n g l y agree b) agree c) d i s a g r e e d) d i s a g r e e s t r o n g l y e) no response Frequency 58 288 209 9 3 Percentage 10.2 50.8 60.2% agree 36.9 1.6 38.5% d i s a g r e e 0.5 Tables I, I I and I I I - A Measure of the degree to which a l i e n a t i o n i s f e l t by a sample o f people from A l b e r t a . -4B-A number o f r e c e n t p u b l i c a t i o n s p o i n t a l s o to the growing 7 awareness of the a l i e n a t i o n problem. These books, magazine a r t i c l e s and newspaper r e p o r t s p o i n t out the d i s p a r i t i e s t h a t e x i s t i n the F e d e r a l Government's a t t i t u d e towards the Ea s t , and p a r t i c u l a r l y Quebec's s t a t u s i n the F e d e r a t i o n . Examples are numerous: b i t t e r a r t i c l e s appeared over the a t t i t u d e taken by the Prime M i n i s t e r , Mr. Trudeau, who was r e p o r t e d as s a y i n g a t a Winnipeg meeting: "Why should I s e l l your 8 wheat?" T h i s statement, coming a t a time when wheat farmers were f a c i n g a d i s a s t r o u s year s t i m u l a t e d by a slump i n e x p o r t a t i o n and the p r i c e c u t t i n g o f the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Grains Agreement p r i c e s t r u c t u r e , would appear t o have done 7. J . Barr & 0. Anderson (eds), The U n f i n i s h e d R e v o l t , Toronto, 1961. P. Thompson (ed), The P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e s - A l i e n a t i o n and  Anger, Toronto, 1969. A. Edinborough, "Notice towards a d e f i n i t i o n of the mind of the West," Saturday Night, ( J u l y , 1969). W. Stewart, "The Coming Showdown w i t h the West," Macleans, ( J u l y , 1969). Newspapers: The Gazette (Montreal), Nov. 24, 1971, P. Desbarats "West's d i v e r g i n g p r o v i n c e s share d i s t r u s t o f E a s t . " Vancouver Sun, Nov. 3, 1971, P. Desbarats, "Canada's West U n i t e d by f e a r o f E a s t . " Winnipeg Free P r e s s , Jan. 17, 1971, P. Newman, "West's unease now a farce." 8. P. Trudeau, Prime M i n i s t e r , s t a t e d a t a farmers' meeting i n Winnipeg. Reported by W. Stewart, "The Coming Showdown wit h the West," Macleans, ( J u l y , 1969), p/37. -46-n o t h i n g to cement f e e l i n g s of bel o n g i n g to an E a s t e r n Canada which i s the centre o f Canadian g r a i n marketing. In Manitoba, the t r a n s f e r of the A i r Canada overhaul base from Winnipeg to Montreal, r e s u l t i n g 51 a l o s s of a l a r g e number of jobs and a l a r g e amount of investment, s t i m u l a t e d the Manitoba F e d e r a t i o n o f Labour t o ask i n a 9 n a t i o n a l newspaper "Is the j u s t s o c i e t y j u s t f o r Quebec?" When speaking about western a l i e n a t i o n Premier Strom summarised the s i t u a t i o n s a y i n g ... i n g e n e r a l , the accommodation which we r e q u i r e i n c l u d e s changes i n a t t i t u d e , changes i n the o r i e n t a t i o n o f v a r i o u s F e d e r a l departments, changes i n the •operating p o l i c i e s o f the F e d e r a l Government, and a c r e a t i o n o f new p o l i c i e s to cope w i t h the causes •: o f our d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n . 10 The r a t i o n a l e f o r the Conference had as i t s u n d e r l y i n g p h i l o s o p h y t h a t d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n was indeed p r e s e n t i n the Western p r o v i n c e s , and t h a t c l e a r l y the view of many P r a i r i e people was t h a t they were l o o k i n g f o r a l t e r n a t i v e s . Thus, i n e a r l y 1970, the L i b e r a l Cabinet M i n i s t e r , James Richardson, s t a t e d t h a t "an i n c r e a s i n g number o f Western Canadians are ready to r e - n e g o t i a t e the c o n d i t i o n s and terms upon which 11 Western Canada s t a y s i n the C o n f e d e r a t i o n . " Such a 9. W. Stewart, p.39. 10. H. Strom, A Case f o r the West, p.8. 11. P. Thompson (ed), The P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e - A l i e n a t i o n and Anger, 1969, p . l . -47-view would appear to be extreme; i t i s important t o note, however, t h a t t h i s statement does not s u b s c r i b e to l e a v i n g the Confederation,but to r e c o g n i s i n g the p r i n c i p l e s o f C o n f e d e r a t i o n to the extent t h a t r e g i o n a l development can take p l a c e without the encumbrances o f p o l i t i c a l s u b d i v i s i o n s (made i n the West bef o r e the people of the West were ab l e to take any a c t i v e p a r t i n d e f i n i n g t h i s p o l i t i c a l d i v i s i o n ) . A t the L e t h b r i d g e Conference, James Richardson r e d e f i n e d h i s e a r l i e r statement: We have the o p p o r t u n i t y , and i n f a c t the o b l i g a t i o n to redraw the map of Canada i f we s i n c e r e l y b e l i e v e we can improve Canada by so doing ... L e t us look a t some of the m e r i t s of a l a r g e r and s t r o n g e r government i n the West. The f i r s t i s t h a t a l l the powers and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s now g i v e n to the p r o v i n c e s under the c o n s t i t u t i o n would be l e g i s l a t e d and administered evenly i n t h i s v a s t r e g i o n . The two areas of p r o v i n c i a l j u r i s d i c t i o n o f g r e a t e r importance i n t h i s r e s p e c t would be n a t u r a l resources development and human resource development ... The second m e r i t o f a l a r g e r government .. and a s t r o n g e r government, would be b e t t e r a b l e tor n e g o t i a t e a p p r o p r i a t e changes i n the d i v i s i o n of powers between the c e n t r a l government and the r e g i o n a l government ... A t h i r d fundamental m e r i t ... i s t h a t i t would h e l p to achieve the e s s e n t i a l balance of Canada which i s v i t a l to our on-going C o n f e d e r a t i o n ... the i n c r e a s i n g c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f economic and f i n a n c i a l and p o l i t i c a l power i n O n t a r i o and Quebec, has threatened the balance o f Canada and t h e r e f o r e an important purpose which I see f o r a l a r g e r r e g i o n a l government i n the West, i s t h a t i t would be b e t t e r able to balance the growing power of the c e n t r a l p r o v i n c e s . 12 The Conference was thus p r e f a c e d by t a l k s o f a realignment or a "new d d a i " f o r the West. Such major changes 12. D.K. E l t o n (ed), One P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e - A Question f o r  Canada, pp.2 2-2 3. -48-were not, however, wholeheartedly accepted by many, although the e s s e n t i a l p o i n t s made a t the opening address were l a r g e l y agreed upon. Thus, James Richardson's arguments f o r the c r e a t i o n o f one P r a i r i e p r o v i n c e although w i d e l y accepted, were not n e c e s s a r i l y taken t o the same c o n c l u s i o n , and a l a r g e f o l l o w i n g accepted the c o n c l u s i o n made by Pet e r Lougheed, who c a l l e d f o r a much g r e a t e r degree of c o - o p e r a t i o n between p r o v i n c i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s . Then, too, t h e r e was the q u e s t i o n of Quebec and i t s s t a t u s i n the Canadian C o n f e d e r a t i o n , which p r i o r to the Conference, was i n the balance, as the 1969 Quebec e l e c t i o n s were bese t w i t h t a l k o f s e p a r a t i o n on the one hand, and a c a l l f o r u n i t y and a s t r e n g t h e n i n g o f the regions o f Canada to encompass Quebec i n t o the F e d e r a t i o n , on the other. The r e a c t i o n by P r a i r i e people i n t e r v i e w e d by the w r i t e r was t h a t Quebec must s t a y i n the C o n f e d e r a t i o n i f Canada was to mai n t a i n i t s u n i t y , and the onl y way of a c h i e v i n g such an aim was to d e c e n t r a l i s e the government, r e c o g n i s i n g the d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s of the n a t u r a l regions o f Canada. The outcome of the Quebec e l e c t i o n s , being h e l d p r i o r t o the Conference, was fundamentally very important, as had the Quebec p a r t y under Rene Levesque been elected, s e p a r a t i o n would have been a d i s t i n c t p o s s i b i l i t y . -49-Had s e p a r a t i o n been voted f o r , the q u e s t i o n t h a t remains unanswered Js what would the r e a c t i o n then have been i n the P r a i r i e s and the Maritimes? THE FOLLOWING FOR THE IDEA In d i s c u s s i n g the backing o f the One P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e i d e a i t i s important to c o n s i d e r the views h e l d by the people, as h i t h e r t o the o p i n i o n s put forward have been those of the p o l i t i c a l o r business e l i t e . What then are the views of the l a y community about such an i d e a , and what advantages can they see f o r i t ? No data i s a v a i l a b l e f o r Manitoba and Saskatchewan on such a q u e s t i o n ; however, the survey conducted by P r o f e s s o r 13 D. E l t o n i n 1969 on such views h e l d by 56 7 A l b e r t a v o t e r s r e v e a l s a s i g n i f i c a n t f o l l o w i n g f o r the i d e a . Two questions ( i n d i c a t e d here as Table IV and V) were i n c l u d e d i n P r o f e s s o r E l t o n ' s survey r e l a t i n g to the One P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e i d e a , and i n each ease the a f f i r m a t i v e r e s u l t was twenty three per cent i n favour o f union. 13. D.K. E l t o n , A l b e r t a E l e c t o r a t e Study 1969, Aggregate T a b l e s , p.12. -50-TABLE IV MEASURE FOR SUPPORT OF THE ONE PRAIRIE PROVINCE IDEA "Are you i n favour o f One P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e ? " Response Frequency Percentage a) Yes 130 23.0 b) No 373 65.9 c) Don't know 63 11.1 d) Not a s c e r t a i n e d 1 TABLE V MEASURE FOR SUPPORT OF THE ONE PRAIRIE PROVINCE IDEA "The three Western p r o v i n c e s should j o i n t o gether and form one l a r g e .province." Response a) agree s t r o n g l y b) agree c) d i s a g r e e d) d i s a g r e e s t r o n g l y e) no response Frequency 21 108 349 85 4 Percentage 3.7 19.9 22.7% agree 61.6 15.0 76.6% d i s a g r e e Of the a f f i r m a t i v e response i n Tables IV and V, people who had l i v e d i n A l b e r t a f o r l e s s than ten years tended to be i n favour o f P r a i r i e amalgamation more than r e s i d e n t s of lo n g e r p e r i o d s , and a l s o a s l i g h t l y h i g h e r response was found to e x i s t among a g r i c u l t u r a l and s e r v i c e workers. Educa t i o n l e v e l showed a s l i g h t i n c r e a s e from respondents having some h i g h s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n to those w i t h h i g h s c h o o l g r a d u a t i o n and/or u n i v e r s i t y g r a d u a t i o n . Such trends would seem to i n d i c a t e t h a t the a g r i c u l t u r a l community i s more f a v o u r a b l e to the i d e a , probably because i t i s the most s e v e r e l y -51-a f f e c t e d by the inadequacies of the Wheat Board a t t h a t time to f i n d markets f o r t h e i r wheat. The g r a d a t i o n towards a p o s i t i v e response a c c o r d i n g to e d u c a t i o n l e v e l , i t i s suggested, i s due to a g r e a t e r awareness o f the problems c o n f r o n t i n g the area. The response to the i d e a of the P r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s amalgamating i s s i g n i f i c a n t ; i t i s , however, hard to determine i f the r a m i f i c a t i o n s of such a s t e p , were i t implemented, are r e a l i s e d by the l a y community, and i f they were, one c o u l d w e l l ask what the r e s u l t would be. Then too, i t must be a p p r e c i a t e d t h a t the survey was conducted i n A l b e r t a , and thus c o n t a i n s the views of a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h a t p r o v i n c e . I t does not, however, seem an unreasonable assumption to suggest t h a t the s t a t i s t i c s presented here would be comparable, were they a v a i l a b l e , from Saskatchewan and Manitoba, s i n c e these two p r o v i n c e s have much to g a i n , e c o n o m i c a l l y , by an amalgamation. C o n s i d e r i n g the twenty three per cent who were i n favour of the i d e a w i t h the f i f t y f o u r per cent who answered t h a t they f e l t the West was r e c e i v i n g a "raw d e a l " from the N a t i o n a l Government (Table I I ) , an i n d i c a t i o n i s documented t h a t d i s c o n t e n t i s f e l t i n A l b e r t a , and t h a t as a r e s u l t of t h i s d i s c o n t e n t , a s i g n i f i c a n t number of v o t e r s see advantage i n j o i n i n g the three p r o v i n c e s together. -52-Ih a f a r l e s s r i g o r o u s study.Dr. Brigham Card, a s o c i o l o g i s t from the U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a , asked h i s s e n i o r undergraduate students to w r i t e an answer to the q u e s t i o n , "Suppose you were i n v i t e d t o speak a t the Conference a t L e t h b r i d g e on 'One P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e , A Question f o r Canada 1, what would you say?" Of the f o r t y one who responded f i f t y per cent were i n favour of the i d e a , twenty per cent were a g a i n s t and twelve per cent were non-committal. 14 Dr. Card g i v e s a content a n a l y s i s of t h e i r answers. TABLE VI CONTENT ANALYSIS OF STUDENT RESPONSE TO A QUESTION OF THE ONE PRAIRIE PROVINCE IDEA MAJOR FACTORS INDICATED P o l i t i c a l Economic Demographic E d u c a t i o n a l A t t i t u d i n a l O p e r a t i o n a l (Means to achieve Unity) COMPONENTS OF MAJOR FACTORS e x p l o i t a t i o n , subservience o f West to E a s t , need f o r a u n i t e d v o i c e , need to r e c o g n i s e i n t e r n a l p o l i t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s , to remain p a r t of Canada. s i m i l a r i t y i n sources of income; d i s p a r i t y between A l b e r t a and the other two p r o v i n c e s . e t h n i c balance comparable i n the three p r o v i n c e s . r e d u c t i o n of number of s c h o o l systems w i t h u n i t y . f e e l i n g of a l i e n a t i o n from East, f e e l i n g of s h a r i n g common problems, s i m i l a r s t y l e of l i f e i n the t h r e e p r o v i n c e s , p e r c e i v e d by o u t s i d e r s as from the P r a i r i e r e g i o n . e x t e n s i o n of P r a i r i e c o - o p e r a t i v e s and wheat p o o l s , conference, e d u c a t i o n a l campaign, surveys to f i n d p r e s e n t views, more s o c i a l movements to a p o p u l i s t nature, c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h neighbouring U.S. S t a t e s . 14. B.Y. Card, " P o l i t i c a l Union, Regionalism, or Both?" i n D. E l t o n (ed), One P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e - A Question  f o r Canada, p.10 8. -53-The keynote to t h i s a n a l y s i s i s t h a t w i t h i n t h i s s m a l l group of students a need f o r r e g i o n a l c o - o p e r a t i o n was seen to be d e s i r a b l e , r a t h e r than a r e - o r g a n i s a t i o n o f the p o l i t i c a l boundaries o f the P r a i r i e r e g i o n . 15 Another study conducted by Maclean's Magazine i n October 1959, begins by sugges t i n g to readers t h a t c e r t a i n g e o g r a p h i c a l d i v i s i o n s t h a t may have made a d m i n i s t r a t i v e sense 50 or 100 years ago are ho long e r so c l e a r l y v a l i d . P l a nners i n the Maritimes, more out of d e s p e r a t i o n than d e s i r e , are s e r i o u s l y c o n s i d e r i n g p o l i t i c a l union. Pressure groups on the P r a i r i e s are advocating a western Bloc ... The Yukon has long been demanding f u l l p r o v i n c i a l s t a t u s , while B.C.'s W.A.C. Bennett wants to swallow the t e r r i t o r y whole. 16 The survey p r e s e n t s f o u r maps g i v i n g an a l t e r n a t i v e p o l i t i c a l r e d i v i s i o n o f Canada. Map 1 presents Canada with i t s p r e s e n t p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e . Map 2 d i v i d e s Canada i n t o e i g h t s u b - d i v i s i o n s i n which the P r a i r i e r e g i o n i s i n c l u d e d w i t h the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s (B.C. i n c l u d e s Yukon t e r r i t o r y ) , and i n a d d i t i o n to Maritime union, O n t a r i o and Quebec, the c i t i e s of Montreal and Toronto are shown as c i t y p r o v i n c e s . Map 3 shows "Canada West" as the whole n a t i o n as one, except independent Quebec, and the Maritimes connected by a c o r r i d o r to Canada West. F i n a l l y , Map 4 shows Canada as p a r t of the U n i t e d S t a t e s w i t h an independat Quebec. 15. D. M a r s h a l l , "Which Canada would you choose?" Macleans Magazine, (October, 1969), C e n t r e f o i l . T h i s survey although not p a r t of the O n e . P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e Conference, i s c o n t a i n e d i n t h i s chapter as i t s r e s u l t s complement the f i n d i n g s o f Dr. E l t o n ' s survey and Dr. Card's o b s e r v a t i o n . (See fo o t n o t e s 13 and 14). 16. D. M a r s h a l l , I b i d , C e n t r e f o i l . -54-Although t h i s survey c o u l d be d i s c o u n t e d as b e i n g too su g g e s t i v e towards one a l t e r n a t i v e , o r t h a t i t s r e s u l t s r e p r e s e n t an u n r e a l i s t i c response, the data nonetheless serves as an i n d i c a t i o n o f the view of 1200 Canadians. The r e s u l t s were Map 1: 27 per ce n t ; Map 2: 41 per cent; Map 3: 10.5 per cent; Map 4: 13 per cent. (The remaining 8.5 per cent suggested other v a r i a t i o n s ) . The map i n d i c a t i n g the P r a i r i e s as one p o l i t i c a l u n i t , among oth e r changes, was the most popular c h o i c e . The net r e s u l t " from these three surveys i s t h a t they i n d i c a t e t h a t a f o l l o w i n g o f s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n i s pre s e n t f o r an amalgamation of A l b e r t a , Saskatchewan and Manitoba, although c l e a r l y i t i s the m i n o r i t y view. From the l i t e r a t u r e a v a i l a b l e , the survey conducted by P r o f e s s o r E l t o n and the w r i t e r ' s i n t e r v i e w s w i t h over 120 people i n the t h r e e P r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s , i t would appear the cause of a g i t a t i o n f o r supporting the One P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e movement was the a l i e n a t i o n t h a t Western Canada f e e l s from E a s t e r n Canada. Economic C o n s i d e r a t i o n s - D i s p a r i t i e s w i t h i n the P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e s The economic r e s u l t o f forming one p r o v i n c e to encompass the e x i s t i n g p r o v i n c e s of A l b e r t a , Saskatchewan and Manitoba would c e r t a i n l y be t o e l i m i n a t e the d i s p a r i t y o f goods-producing i n d u s t r i e s t h a t e x i s t w i t h i n each p o l i t i c a l j u r i s d i c t i o n a t present. TABLE VII ECONOMIC DISPARITIES WITHIN THE PRAIRIE PROVINCES VALUE ADDED IN GOODS-PRODUCING INDUSTRIES AND PERCENTAGE ANALYSIS BY PRAIRIE PROVINCES 1967. Manitoba Saskatchewan A l b e r t a $'000 Q. "O $'000 Q. "o $'000 •6 A g r i c u l t u r e 267,777 25.4 636,837 43.6 523,031 19.2 F o r e s t r y 2,256 0.2 3,556 0.2 7,591 0.3 F i s h e r i e s 2,527 0.2 1,163 0.1 758 -Trapping 1,284 0.1 1,131 0.1 . 1,549 0.1 Mining 96,429 8.8 306,527 21.0 895,205 32.8 E l e c t r i c Power 57,629 5.3 54,872 3.7 .. 77,763 2.8 Manufacturing 424,6 39 38.9 165,696 11. 3 574,215 21.1 C o n s t r u c t i o n 2 30,001 21.1 2 92,371 20.0 64 7,2 29 23.7 TOTAL 1 ,901,5 42 100.0 1,461,883 100.0 2,727,341 100.0 17. A.L. Boykiw, "One P r a i r i e Province and r e g i o n a l development," i n D. E l t o n (ed), One P r a i r i e Province - A Question f o r Canada, p.385. -56-The t a b l e presented i n the proceedings o f the Let h b r i d g e Conference by A.L. Boykiw-.suggests t h a t i n 19 67 c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s p a r i t y e x i s t e d between goods-producing i n d u s t r i e s on a comparative b a s i s between the three p r o v i n c e s . Table VII i n d i c a t e s the importance o f the va l u e o f a g r i c u l t u r a l products i n the P r a i r i e s , and t h a t manufacturing v a r i e s q u i t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n the value added goods producing i n d u s t r i e s , w i t h Manitoba being the h i g h e s t a t 38.9 per cent f o l l o w e d by A l b e r t a 21.1 per cent and Saskatchewan 11.3 per cent. The l a t t e r f i g u r e s however must be brought i n t o p e r s p e c t i v e when compared wi t h Quebec and On t a r i o (67 per cent and 71 per cent r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . In view of the l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of the gross n a t i o n a l expenditure being s u p p l i e d by imports, and the heavy c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f manufacturing i n O n t a r i o and Quebec, i t i s reasonable to assume t h a t the trade i n manufactured goods between the P r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s i s r a t h e r l i m i t e d . Most o f the manufacturing i n the P r a i r i e s i s f o r l o c a l demand. 18 Some products manufactured w i t h i n each of the P r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s do experience p r o v i n c i a l p r e f e r e n c e l e g i s l a t i o n thus r e s t r i c t i n g i n t e r p r o v i n c i a l t r a d e . T h i s s i t u a t i o n would c e r t a i n l y be e l i m i n a t e d by the formation o f one p r o v i n c e as i t would e f f e c t i v e l y e l i m i n a t e trade b a r r i e r s w i t h i n the P r a i r i e r e g i o n . The t o t a l v alue o f the i n d u s t r i e s i n c l u d e d i n Table VII i n d i c a t e s t h a t c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s p a r i t y e x i s t s w i t h A l b e r t a 18. I b i d , p.384. -57-having almost twice the value of Saskatchewan and a g r e a t e r margin over Manitoba. Union of the three p r o v i n c e s would c e r t a i n l y d i m i n i s h the wealth o f A l b e r t a i n favour o f the othe r two p r o v i n c e s . The marketing of P r a i r i e exports (which i n c l u d e c o a l , n i c k e l , potash, gas, o i l and beef c a t t l e ) i s c a r r i e d out wit h F e d e r a l Government i n f l u e n c e i n E a s t e r n Canada, and, more r e c e n t l y on the P a c i f i c seaboard i n B r i t i s h Columbia: ... u n i f i c a t i o n of the P r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s , e x p r e s s i n g a s t r o n g p o s i t i o n on the marketing of these products, c o u l d add more impetus to the marketing o f some of these products. 19 T h i s i m p l i e s a g r e a t e r s t r e n g t h i s to be had by u n i f y i n g the P r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s both a t the market p l a c e and i n government. Such may be the case, although an argument can be found which suggests t h a t three independent r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s backed by t h e i r own government are more powerful than one. Summary o f the One P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e Conference The Conference p o i n t s out the many advantages and too, the disadvantages of t h i s i d e a o f amalgamation. The common denominator, however, i s t h a t a need i s seen to co-operate much more c l o s e l y w i t h i n an area which many are prepared t o c o n s i d e r as one r e g i o n . I t i s c l e a r t h a t the P r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s look westward and f e e l a l i e n a t e d from the East . M i l d r e d Schwartz r e v e a l e d some i n t e r e s t i n g trends from the M e i s e l study concerning p o l i t i c a l o p i n i o n s and 19. I b i d , p.386. -58-behaviour o f P r a i r i e people -C u r r e n t l y , the P r a i r i e Provinces; are o r i e n t a t e d westward* Saskatchewan-and Manitoba look to A l b e r t a , but A l b e r t a does not r e c i p r o c a t e . A l b e r t a looks away from the P r a i r i e s t o B r i t i s h Columbia i n terms of i t s d i f f i n i t i e s and standards o f comparison. 20 I t would seem c l e a r t h a t A l b e r t a , by l o o k i n g westward t o B r i t i s h Columbia, draws w i t h i t Manitoba and Saskatchewan, and t h a t economically the Canada West concept c o u l d i n c l u d e B r i t i s h Columbia as w e l l , which t o many a t the Le t h b r i d g e Conference i n d i c a t e d a need f o r g r e a t e r inter-governmental c o - o p e r a t i o n with B r i t i s h Columbia as w e l l as the P r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s . Such has, most r e c e n t l y , been the case with B r i t i s h Columbia's new NDP Government e s t a b l i s h i n g l i n k s by s i t t i n g with the P r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s on the economic c o u n c i l conferences. I t i s t h i s d i s p a r i t y o f a l l e g i a n c e t h a t s t i m u l a t e s the o p p o s i t i o n t o the i d e a o f p o l i t i c a l u n i f i c a t i o n of the three P r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s , and extends i t i n t o a Western Canada concept which c a l l s f o r c o - o p e r a t i o n f o r i n t e r p r o v i n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s t o break down the b a r r i e r e f f e c t t h a t the boundaries have t o the flow o f t r a d e . In r e a c t i o n to t h i s b a r r i e r t o p o l i t i c a l boundaries many o r g a n i s a t i o n s have been developed to c o u n t e r a c t the e f f e c t s o f fragmentation which are d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter V. 20. M.A. Schwartz, "Attachments to Pro v i n c e s and Region i n the P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e s , " i n D. E l t o n (ed),One P r a i r i e  P r o v i n c e - A Question f o r Canada, p.105. -59-The q u e s t i o n o f b e l o n g i n g to a Western Canada, or perhaps t o the P r a i r i e s , b r i n g s to the f o r e f r o n t the matters of i d e n t i t y and o f d i s p a r i t y of a l l e g i a n c e . The a g i t a t i o n f o r a One P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e r e s t s , i n l a r g e p a r t , upon the concept of a P r a i r i e i d e n t i t y , demanding a cohesion w i t h i n the P r a i r i e s . Chapter IV examines the cohesive elements t h a t account f o r a P r a i r i e i d e n t i t y . -60-CHAPTER IV PRAIRIE IDENTITY I t has been argued t h a t support f o r the i d e a o f c r e a t i n g one p r o v i n c e w i t h i n the P r a i r i e s i s s i g n i f i c a n t , a l b e i t i n a m i n o r i t y ? T.he q u e s t i o n has now been asked "to what extent does a P r a i r i e i d e n t i t y c o n t r i b u t e to the a g i t a t i o n f o r the ide a ? " Such a q u e s t i o n i m p l i e s t h a t a cohesive element, b i n d i n g P r a i r i e people together, may be d i s c e r n i b l e . Such cohesion c o u l d be a t t r i b u t a b l e to f a c t o r s o f environment, to common problems of o c c u p a t i o n , to a need to c o n s o l i d a t e i n order t o c r e a t e a balance w i t h i n the whole n a t i o n , o r , of course, to many other reasons. But i s there a f e e l i n g of P r a i r i e cohesiveness? The survey conducted by the w r i t e r attempts to determine whether, i n f a c t , a P r a i r i e i d e n t i t y can be s a i d to e x i s t . The survey was by i n t e r v i e w , e i t h e r by l e t t e r o r by d i r e c t q u e s t i o n i n g . (See Table V I I I and IX). Most of the speakers a t the Le t h b r i d g e Conference c o n s t i t u t e d the group questioned f i r s t , c o n s i s t i n g mainly o f a p o l i t i c a l , academic or b u s i n e s s e l i t e . D i r e c t q u e s t i o n i n g was used to i n t e r v i e w s t u d e n t s , newspaper e x e c u t i v e s and the l a y p u b l i c i n Manitoba, Saskatoon, Edmonton, Ca l g a r y and L e t h b r i d g e . (See Appendix 4 ) . S i x t y f i v e people were i n t e r v i e w e d o r corresponded w i t h and asked --61-TABLE V I I I - PRAIRIE IDENTITY 1) Do you f e e l t h a t a d i s c e r n i b l e P r a i r i e i d e n t i t y e x i s t s w i t h i n A l b e r t a , Saskatchewan and Manitoba? Response Frequency Percentage Yes 37 56.9 No 16 24.6 Don't know 12 18.5 The response to t h i s q u e s t i o n i n d i c a t e s t h a t , i n a very l i m i t e d sample, P r a i r i e i d e n t i t y i s d i s c e r n i b l e , and t h a t i t encompasses the three P r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s ; however, a wide v a r i a t i o n became e v i d e n t when they were asked to d e f i n e the b a s i s of such i d e n t i t y . A sample -P r o f . J.H. Thompson - M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y : Yes. Undoubtedly a f e e l i n g of common i d e n t i t y has e x i s t e d among r e s i d e n t s of Manitoba, Saskatchewan and A l b e r t a s i n c e the e a r l y years of t h i s century. A l l these p r o v i n c e s , u n l i k e the o t h e r seven, were e s s e n t i a l l y c r e a t i o n s of the F e d e r a l Government, wi t h e x p l i c i t and i m p l i c i t i n f e r i o r s t a t u s i n C o n f e d e r a t i o n . The p r o v i n c i a l economics, w i t h t h e i r emphais on wheat p r o d u c t i o n f o r export, were a second source of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . Each s u f f e r e d the d i s a b i l i t i e s imposed by the ' n a t i o n a l p o l i c y ' , which d e l i b e r a t e l y c o n c e n t r a t e d i n d u s t r i a l growth i n C e n t r a l Canada. Manitoba, Saskatchewan and A l b e r t a f a c e d s i m i l a r s o c i a l problems, caused by the s t r a i n s of moulding a u n i t e d s o c i e t y from e t h n i c d i v e r s i t y , and each pr o v i n c e f a c e d a s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n d u r i n g the g r e a t d e p r e s s i o n of the 19 30's. 1 E. C. Manning, the Senate o f Canada. ... there i s a P r a i r i e i d e n t i t y i n the sense t h a t a c o n s i d e r a b l e number of mutual i n t e r e s t s and problems are common to a l l three P r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s . Theie i s a l s o a mutual bond between these p r o v i n c e s a r i s i n g from long s t a n d i n g with r e s p e c t to e x c e s s i v e f r e i g h t r a t e s and the f a c t t h a t the t a r i f f p r o t e c t i o n a f f o r d e d 1. J.H. Thompson, i n a l e t t e r t o the w r i t e r , Dec. 2, 1971. i n d u s t r y i n C e n t r a l Canada works to the disadvantage of the P r a i r i e r e g i o n . 2 The i s s u e o f Western a l i e n a t i o n appears again i n these two responses, as i t does i n most answers to the q u e s t i o n on i d e n t i t y . The f a c t t h a t d i v e r s i t i e s are a l s o p r e s e n t i s a l s o s u b s t a n t i a t e d by the r e t u r n s to t h i s q u e s t i o n : a content a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d the f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s ; TABLE IX CONTENT ANALYSIS ON THE BASIS OF PRAIRIE IDENTITY STUDY. (OPEN-ENDED QUESTION) CONTENT HEADING H i s t o r i c a l P o l i t i c a l Economic Environment People f e l t they belonged t o a d i s t i n c t i v e s i t u a t i o n and way o f l i f e . R e c o g n i t i o n as P r a i r i e f o l k . T h i s i d e n t i t y i s s t r o n g l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h being Canadian?.. A l b e r t a was d i f f e r e n t from the oth e r two pr o v i n c e s as American s e t t l e r s impregnated a d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e and had g r e a t e r f i n a n c e s than the European s e t t l e r s i n Manitoba and Saskatchewan. F r o n t i e r e f f o r t to mould area together. A l i e n a t e d and e x p l o i t e d by Eas t . Having i n f e r i o r s t a t u s i n the Canadian F e d e r a t i o n . A need seen t o balance the n a t i o n p o l i t i c a l l y . D i s a b i l i t i e s imposed by n a t i o n a l p o l i c y - t a r i f f s , f r e i g h t r a t e s , wheat markets e t c . I n f e r i o r i t y t o Quebec. French language not a p p l i c a b l e t o West. More co - o p e r a t i o n between governments r e q u i r e d . P r a i r i e s are an economic ma l a i s e . Sharing o f n a t u r a l resources r e q u i r e d . Many common o r g a n i s a t i o n s formed t o combat the e x p l o i t a t i o n from the E a s t . The P r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s are not p h y s i c a l l y p l a i n s , thus " P r a i r i e " tends t o be a misnomer. However P r a i r i e has come t o be regarded as the term used t o d e s c r i b e and j u s t i f y the r e g i o n as such. 2. E.C. Manning, i n a l e t t e r to the w r i t e r , Dec. 2, 1971. -63-D i v e r s i t y D i v e r s i t y e v i d e n t i n r e l i g i o n , languages, o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e w i t h i n P r a i r i e s . The breakdown of the comments made i n the open-ended response are s i m i l a r to the a n a l y s i s made by Dr. Card from h i s students' comments. (Chapter I I I ) . They o u t l i n e t h a t although many common f a c t o r s can be found w i t h i n the three p r o v i n c e s , g r e a t d i v e r s i t y a l s o e x i s t s . The concept o f an i d e n t i t y i n the sense t h a t there i s an ab s o l u t e sameness i s not pr e s e n t on the P r a i r i e s , but the term i s used t o denote a common " p e r s o n a l i t y " . I t i s important to understand t h a t a r e c o g n i t i o n of " i d e n t i t y " may not n e c e s s a r i l y i n d i c a t e a f e e l i n g o f cohesiveness having i t s r o o t s w i t h i n the P r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s . From the data c o l l e c t e d by Dr. E l t o n (see Tables I , I I and I I I ) i t appears t h a t the people o f A l b e r t a expressed an a n t a g o n i s t i c f e e l i n g when questioned on t h e i r o p i n i o n o f Western Canadian s t a t u s i n the Co n f e d e r a t i o n . Thus, the q u e s t i o n i s posed: i s the a g i t a t i o n f o r a One P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e based upon a d e s i r e to u n i t e the e x i s t i n g p l a i n s p r o v i n c e s f o r a t t a i n i n g common b e n e f i t s ? o r i s i t a r e s u l t of the a l i e n a t i o n f e l t by the P r a i r i e people from the East? In oth e r words, i s the st i m u l u s f o r u n i t y an a g i t a t i o n w holly from w i t h i n the P r a i r i e r e g i o n , or i s i t a r e a c t i o n to an o u t s i d e i n f l u e n c e ? The impression t h a t i s ob t a i n e d by t h i s w r i t e r i s t h a t , as examples of Western a l i e n a t i o n are brought t o the f o r e f r o n t by the media, the response i s one o f anger d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t the E a s t e r n p r o v i n c e s . T h i s response c a l l s f o r u n i t e d a c t i o n w i t h i n the Western p r o v i n c e s . A c o l l e c t i v e P r a i r i e response comes about, consequently,due t o the P r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s s e e i n g a need t o balance the e f f e c t o f the s t r o n g decision-making f o r c e o f E a s t e r n Canada, where many of the p o l i c y and marketing d e c i s i o n s are made f o r the P r a i r i e s . T h i s i s seen to be u n d e s i r a b l e , as i s documented i n Table IX. The p o s i t i v e response ( f i f t y seven per cent) g i v e n t o the q u e s t i o n on P r a i r i e i d e n t i t y (Table VIII) i s s u b s t a n t i a t e d by the response to the open-ended q u e s t i o n (Table I X ) . I d e n t i t y i s regarded as a r e a c t i o n to the Western a l i e n a t i o n viewpoint. I t i s conceded i n Table IX t h a t d i v e r s i t y does e x i s t w i t h i n the P r a i r i e r e g i o n p a r t i c u l a r l y i n terms o f language, race and even the base o f the economy. Yet, as Table IX a l s o suggests, there are bases f o r much common f e e l i n g w i t h i n the three P r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s ; many common problems are shared, a common h i s t o r i c a l experience has been shared to the extent t h a t the whole area was admi n i s t e r e d as a t e r r i t o r y p r i o r t o Manitoba g a i n i n g i t s p r o v i n c i a l s t a t u s , a common r u r a l a c t i v i t y has been experienced, immigration problems have been shared, as w e l l as communication and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n problems. More r e c e n t l y , the d e p r e s s i o n o f the 19 30's, i n v a r y i n g degrees, was shared, and the growing d i s c o n t e n t -65-w i t h the s t a t u s o f Western Canada i n the C o n f e d e r a t i o n i s a l s o shared. The l i m i t s of what was c o n s i d e r e d the P r a i r i e r e g i o n by the respondents was almost unanimously the populated area of A l b e r t a , Manitoba and Saskatchewan. Many agreed t h a t the area was thus p o o r l y named, but t h a t the term " P r a i r i e " had come to be regarded as a whole r e g i o n . When c o n s i d e r i n g these q u e s t i o n s and the response made to the w r i t e r ' s questions i n terms of the One P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e i d e a , the important f a c t o r i s to note t h a t a common ground, i n a c o l l e c t i v e sense, i s indeed f e l t among the P r a i r i e people. The problems t h a t need to be s o l v e d f o r t h i s r e g i o n to develop t r a n s c e n d p r o v i n c i a l boundaries, and i n r e a c t i o n to the p r e s s u r e s f e l t by these p r o v i n c e s , common o r g a n i s a t i o n s are p r e s e n t , and are growing more numerous, p u t t i n g a u n i t e d and i n t e g r a t e d view forward. The f o l l o w i n g chapter d i s c u s s e s these o r g a n i s a t i o n s . -66-CHAPTER V REGIONAL CO-OPERATION WITHIN THE PRAIRIE PROVINCES "The need to balance between the d e s i r e f o r Canadian u n i t y on one hand and the a s p i r a t i o n s and the economic and s o c i a l r e a l i t i e s of t h i s r e g i o n on the o t h e r . " 1 The West can be regarded as a r e g i o n having c e r t a i n commonalities and f a c i n g problems of a l i e n a t i o n from E a s t e r n Canada. At the same time there i s a g r e a t d i v e r s i t y . As a r e s u l t , "the need to balance" has brought about a l a r g e degree of r e g i o n a l c o - o p e r a t i o n among the P r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s . T h i s c o - o p e r a t i o n has become necessary i n order t o break down the r e s t r i c t i o n s p l a c e d upon the p r o v i n c e s by the boundaries t h a t separate them; f o r example, the p r o v i n c i a l r e g u l a t i o n s f o r i n t e r p r o v i n c i a l t r u c k i n g l i c e n c i n g , i n which road haulage companies, wis h i n g to t r a n s p o r t goods across p r o v i n c i a l boundaries, were r e q u i r e d to seek the pe r m i s s i o n o f each p r o v i n c i a l motor t r a n s p o r t 2 board. T h i s meant an a p p l i c a t i o n was r e q u i r e d f o r each p r o v i n c e . T h i s s i t u a t i o n , causing a g r e a t d e a l o f time l o s s and thus expense, was f i n a l l y stopped by the proc l a m a t i o n of the 1967 N a t i o n a l T r a n s p o r t A c t , thus r e q u i r i n g o n l y one a p p l i c a t i o n . Such an example p o i n t s out the need f o r c o - o p e r a t i o n , which, i n t h i s case, has been g i v e n . 1. P. Lougheed, "What are the a l t e r n a t i v e s ? , " i n D. E l t o n , One P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e ? , p.398. 2. T h i s example i s c i t e d by L. Evans, "What are the a l t e r n a t i v e s , " i n E l t o n , p. 42 6. -67-The three P r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s as they e x i s t to-day are r e a l l y very c l o s e to being one economic u n i t . R e l a t i v e l y few r e s t r i c t i o n s e x i s t with r e g a r d to the movement o f goods and s e r v i c e s w i t h i n the P r a i r i e r e g i o n ... Manitoba businessmen view the P r a i r i e s as one market. 3 With communications running a c r o s s Canada predominantly from E a s t to West and so l i n k i n g each of the P r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s i t i s i n e v i t a b l e t h a t a g r e a t d e a l of commerce should e x i s t between each of the three P r o v i n c e s , and, too, t h a t the major r a i l h e a d s should serve as c o l l e c t i o n p o i n t s f o r t h i s commercial a c t i v i t y . The r a i l h e a d thus r e q u i r e d an i n i t i a l c o - o p e r a t i o n amongst the three p r o v i n c e s , w i t h Winnipeg as the c e n t r e of the Western d i v i s i o n of the C.P.R. The t r a n s p o r t a t i o n of g r a i n to the E a s t , and l a t e r to the Western seaboard to cope with an A s i a n market, again r e q u i r e d p r o v i n c i a l wheat pools to co-operate w i t h the Canadian board. Hence, as r u r a l occupations are of paramount importance t o a l l three P r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s , the F e d e r a l Government has acted as the c o - o r d i n a t i n g agent to f a c i l i t a t e the movement o f g r a i n , and o t h e r produce, to the market p l a c e . The e f f o r t s o f F r e d e r i c k H a u l t a i n to maintain a r e g i o n a l government f o r the P r a i r i e s must have been the f i r s t c o n c e r t e d e f f o r t to b i n d the whole r e g i o n i n t o one p o l i t i c a l l e g i s l a t i o n . These having f a i l e d , due to the 3. Op. c i t , p.425. -68-F e d e r a l Government's i n s i s t e n c e on f u r t h e r p o l i t i c a l f r a g m e n t a t i o n o f the P r a i r i e s , o t h e r o r g a n i s a t i o n s , s e e i n g common i n t e r e s t among the v a r i o u s P r a i r i e o c c u p a t i o n s , sought t o e s t a b l i s h r e g i o n a l p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s based upon economic p r o t e s t . Such p a r t i e s as the P r o g r e s s i v e P a r t y , The U n i t e d Farmers of A l b e r t a , of Saskatchewan and o f Manitoba, and CCF Party i n Saskatchewan and A l b e r t a attempted t o fuse t o g e t h e r the a g r a r i a n i n t e r e s t s o f Western Canada, T h e i r stance, p a r t i c u l a r l y t h a t o f the CCF P a r t y , i s t o r e p r e s e n t the working man without being l e f t o f c e n t r e ; to move more to the r i g h t would encroach upon the l i b e r a l or c o n s e r v a t i v e view, and thus i t would l o s e i t s i d e n t i t y . While i t (the CCF Party) i s stuck on the horns of a dilemma, the Co n s e r v a t i e s and L i b e r a l s have a p p r o p r i a t e d many of I t s s o c i a l w e l f a r e planks. I t s c h i e f o b s t a c l e i s the hard f a c t of Canadian middle c l a s s democracy; l i k e a l l r a d i c a l and s e c t i o n a l p a r t i e s i t can c o n s i d e r broadening i t s appeal only a t the r i s k o f l o s i n g i t s c l a i m to e x i s t e n c e . 4 Thus with such encroachment by oth e r p a r t i e s the CCF c o l l a p s e d . I t i s suggested here, however, t h a t the need f o r p a r t i e s to r e p r e s e n t , among o t h e r s , the a g r a r i a n p o p u l a t i o n was necessary, and such n e c e s s i t y transcended p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c a l boundaries. I t would not appear t o be too generous to take the view t h a t , i n r e t r o s p e c t , the f u n c t i o n o f the p o l i t i c a l or q u a s i - p o l i t i c a l a g r a r i a n o r g a n i s a t i o n s has been to present, a t l e a s t , the view of 4. P.Fox, " P o l i t i c s and P a r t i e s i n Canada r" i n P.Fox, p o l i t i c s : Canada - Problems i n Canadian Government, p. 342 the farmers, and t h a t these views have been g i v e n t h e i r due c o n s i d e r a t i o n by the l a r g e p a r t i e s which have e v o l v e d as the powers t h a t be. An o r g a n i s a t i o n d e d i c a t e d to p r o t e c t the farmers of Canada was formed i n December 1921, and named the Farmers' Union o f Canada, wi t h i t s headquarters i n Ituna, Saskatchewan. ( S i g n i f i c a n t l y , those of the g r a i n growing p r o v i n c e s of Western Canada sought to g a i n more from t h i s o r g a n i s a t i o n , as i t was s t a r t e d i n and a d m i n i s t e r e d from Saskatchewan). The C o n s t i t u t i o n i s a m a n i f e s t a t i o n of the views of the Union's f i r s t P r e s i d e n t , Norbert Henri Schwarz, who c a l l e d f o r the "Farmers of the World to U n i t e . " He w r i t e s , farmers "... r e a l i z e d , a f t e r many years of d e c e p t i o n t h a t i t was u s e l e s s t o r e l y on Governments t h a t were never c o n t r o l l e d 5 by the people, but by a few, c o n t r o l l e d o l d men." He urged farmers to take the i n i t i a t i v e and s i g n i f i c a n t c l a u s e s i n the c o n s t i t u t i o n s t a t e : Clause I I : To p r o t e c t the farmer. To o b t a i n complete c o n t r o l of the main Canadian produce. To market our crops under our own system. To a f f i l i a t e w i t h a l l the farmer o r g a n i z a t i o n s of the world, w i t h one c e n t r a l e x e c u t i v e i n each country, which w i l l f i x p r i c e s a c c o r d i n g to a f a i r average of estimates sent i n by the l o c a l s , w i l l through the same source a l s o know amount of marketable produce i n the country; w i l l have to keep informed as to the demands and needs of importing c o u n t r i e s , and w i l l a l s o h elp to prevent the r e - o c c u r r e n c e of famine by knowing ahead of time where and when food w i l l be needed, and then i n s i s t towards the d i f f e r e n t governments with the f u l l support of farmers and workers combined t h a t the Governments s h a l l do what they are there f o r ; a t t e n d to the w e l f a r e o f the masses of the people. 5. D.S. S p a f f o r d , "The O r i g i n of the Farmers' Union of Canada, i n D. Swainson, H i s t o r i c a l Essays on the P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e s p.255. -70-Clause I I I . I f the E x e c u t i o n ( s i c ) Board t h i n k s c e r t a i n steps are necessary to the w e l f a r e of the farmers, the conditions, w i l l have to be put b e f o r e the farmer members and decided by a vote of the members o f the Farmers 1 Union of Canada . I f the m a j o r i t y i s i n favour of c e r t a i n d e c i s i o n s every member of the Farmers 1 Union o f Canada binds h i m s e l f to u n c o n d i t i o n a l l y obey the or d e r s o f the e x e c u t i v e o f the Union. 6 The Farmers' Union was, by c o n t r a s t to the c o n s e r v a t i v e Saskatchewan G r a i n Growers A s s o c i a t i o n , m i l i t a n t i n so f a r as i t ex e r t e d c o n t r o l over the 'subordinate l o d g e s 1 o f the Union from the C e n t r a l O f f i c e , and c a l l e d upon secrecy and a c e r t a i n amount o f r i t u a l a t i t s numerous meetings. The p o l i t i c a l impress of the Union was understandably i n support of the labour p a r t i e s ' p l a t f o r m , but an a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p o l i t i c s was not attempted. The impress of t h i s Union on P r a i r i e l i f e i s hard to determine; i t does, however, pr o v i d e a u s e f u l source of i n f o r m a t i o n to determine the a g r a r i a n d i s c o n t e n t t h a t e x i s t e d a f t e r the d e p r e s s i o n f o l l o w i n g the F i r s t World War. At t h i s time the p r i c e o f wheat had dropped s i g n i f i c a n t l y from the bouyant r e t u r n s t h a t g r a i n growers had been g e t t i n g d u r i n g the war y e a r s . And too, no s t a b i l i t y of g r a i n p r i c e was assured by the Government, c o n t r i b u t i n g f u r t h e r to the farmers' d i s c o n t e n t . T h i s o r g a n i s a t i o n , one of many formed due t o t h i s d i s c o n t e n t , d i d not adhere t o p r o v i n c i a l boundaries, and i t i s another example of the a g r a r i a n p o p u l a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y of the P r a i r i e group, p r e s e n t i n g a 6. o p . c i t . , pp.262-3. -71-common view to Ottawa. S i m i l a r h i s t o r i c a l o r g a n i s a t i o n s can be c i t e d which were formed to f o s t e r a P r a i r i e r e g i o n a l view, such as the P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e Manufacturers A s s o c i a t i o n , w i t h i t s headquarters i n Winnipeg. The need f o r r e g i o n a l c o - o p e r a t i o n d i d not r e s t r i c t 7 i t s e l f t o secondary or primary i n d u s t r i e s . Dr. Card s.uggests t h a t the need f o r r e g i o n a l c o - o p e r a t i o n was a d e c i s i v e f a c t o r i n the establishment of the U n i t e d Church of Canada from the h i t h e r t o fragmented r u r a l church problem. The r o l e of the F e d e r a l Government's Department of the I n t e r i o r from the e a r l y years of n a t i o n a l p o l i c y was e s s e n t i a l l y to s e t t l e the problems of and develop the 8 P l a i n s r e g i o n . "For years there has been an e q u i v a l e n t of a P r a i r i e r e g i o n 'desk' f o r the Prime M i n i s t e r i n 9 Ottawa." In support of t h i s the F e d e r a l Government continues to use "The P r a i r i e s " as a b a s i s f o r P r a i r i e s t a t i s t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h i n the Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s r e p o r t s . The N a t i o n a l Employment S e r v i c e s a l s o uses "The P r a i r i e s " as a r e g i o n f o r t h e i r o r g a n i s a t i o n . From the evidence a v a i l a b l e , however, and from r e c e n t r e s e a r c h , i t would appear t h a t as f a r as the F e d e r a l 7. B. Card, " P o l i t i c a l Union, Regionalism or Both?" i n D. E l t o n , p.120. 8. Op. c i t . , p.121. 9. Loc. c i t . -72-Government's j u r i s d i c t i o n o f r e g i o n a l o f f i c e s i n the P r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s are concerned, eighteen of e i g h t y f o u r j u r i s d i c t i o n s are c l e a r l y r e g i o n a l i n t h a t they combine the three p r o v i n c e s . However, f i f t y two j u r i s d i c t i o n s d e a l with the p r o v i n c e s s e p a r a t e l y , o r d i v i d e A l b e r t a i n t o two r e g i o n s and d e a l w i t h Manitoba and Saskatchewan s e p a r a t e l y i n the P r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s , some of which extend Into the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s and o t h e r s i n t o B.C. "There appears to be l i t t l e r e g i o n a l r a t i o n a l e g u i d i n g F e d e r a l r e l a t i o n s with the P r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s a t 10 p r e s e n t . " Such a f i n d i n g i s not i n c o n f l i c t w i t h the p o i n t being made i n t h i s chapter, which i s t h a t the P r a i r i e r e g i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s e x i s t e d or e x i s t as a r e s u l t of the F e d e r a l Government's d e c i s i o n i n the f i r s t p l a c e to d i v i d e the P l a i n s area i n t o s eparate p o l i t i c a l e n t i t i e s , and t h a t these i n t e r p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n s continue to grow i n the form of a counter balance to the hugeness of O n t a r i o and Quebec, which themselves h o l d most o f the F e d e r a l o f f i c e s w i t h P r a i r i e j u r i s d i c t i o n . The f a c t t h a t there "seems to be l i t t l e r e g i o n a l r a t i o n a l e g u i d i n g F e d e r a l r e l a t i o n s " then, i s e x a c t l y the major p o i n t of c o n t e n t i o n which P r a i r i e r e g i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s have i n t h e i r d i s p u t e w i t h the F e d e r a l Government; i t i s , i n f a c t , t h e i r ' r a i s o n d ' e t r e ' . 10. l o c . c i t . (See Appendix 5 f o r Dr. Card's t a b l e on F e d e r a l J u r i s d i c t i o n O f f i c e s i n the P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e s , 1970.) -73-The F e d e r a l Government i n A p r i l 1969 undertook to attempt to work towards reducing "the economic and s o c i a l d i s p a r i t i e s 11 between the v a r i o u s regions of Canada" by p a s s i n g l e g i s l a t i o n f o r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the Department of Regional Economic Expansion. At i t s i n c e p t i o n , Government l e g i s l a t i o n terminated a nurioer of the then e x i s t i n g agencies and programmes, but i n c o r p o r a t e d t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s i n t o the new department. The three r e g i o n s f o r the department's o p e r a t i o n s were East (the f o u r A t l a n t i c P r o v i n c e s ) , Centre (Quebec and O n t a r i o ) , and the West (The P r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s and B r i t i s h Columbia). The M i n i s t e r f o r the Department, the Hon. Jean Marchand, when speaking a t the One P r a i r i e Conference a t L e t h b r i d g e , used as h i s theme "Regional and n a t i o n a l c o - o p e r a t i o n ... Co-operation on a r e g i o n a l s c a l e -c o - o p e r a t i o n o f the people o f the whole of t h i s g r e a t P r a i r i e area - i s h i g h l y important to your economic progress and 13 s o c i a l w e l f a r e . " A programme o r i g i n a t i n g p r i o r t o the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the Department o f Regional Economic Expansion, but now a d m i n i s t e r e d by i t , i s the P r a i r i e Farm R e h a b i l i t a t i o n A c t (PFRA) w i t h headquarters i n Regina. T h i s programme "provides t e c h n i c a l and f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e f o r water development p r o j e c t s i n the a g r i c u l t u r a l areas of 11. Information Canada P u b l i c a t i o n on Department of Regional Economic Expansion (DREE), Ottawa, 1971, p . l . 12. op. c i t . , p.3. 13. J . Marchand, i n E l t o n , p.35. -74-14 Manitoba, Saskatchewan and A l b e r t a . " Other a c t i v i t i e s of PFRA work co-operate with o t h e r F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l agencies i n l a n d and water use s t u d i e s , as i n the work being c a r r i e d out by the Saskatchewan-Nelson Basin Board. P r a i r i e water flows a c r o s s the p r o v i n c i a l boundaries and much of t h i s water i s r e q u i r e d f o r i r r i g a t i o n and oth e r purposes. The P r a i r i e Water Board was formed i n J u l y , 1948, between the Governments o f Canada and the three P r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s i n order to f a c i l i t a t e c o - o p e r a t i o n o f a common re s o u r c e . I t s aim s t a t e d : ... t o recommend the b e s t use to be made of i n t e r p r o v i n c i a l waters i n r e l a t i o n t o a s s o c i a t e d resources i n Manitoba, Saskatchewan and A l b e r t a and to recommend the a l l o c a t i o n o f water as between each such p r o v i n c e of streams f l o w i n g from one p r o v i n c e i n t o another p r o v i n c e . 15 These two c o - o p e r a t i v e o r g a n i s a t i o n s r e c o g n i s e a need to i n t e g r a t e i n order t o f a c i l i t a t e m utually common areas o f concern, p a r t i c u l a r l y to ex p l o r e and p l a n f o r f u t u r e development which would i n c r e a s e p r o d u c t i o n . The l a t t e r o r g a n i s a t i o n has not, however, proved to be a st r o n g example of p r o v i n c i a l c o - o p e r a t i o n . A l b e r t a , although i n t e r e s t e d i n making f e a s i b i l i t y s t u d i e s o f the Saskatchewan-Nelson B a s i n , has shown l i t t l e enthusiasm f o r a common a d m i n i s t r a t i o n 14. DREE, p.8. 15.S. Raby, " A l b e r t a and the P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e Water Board," Can. Geog., V I I I , 2, (1964), p.87. O r i g i n a l source, Royal Commission on the South Saskatchewan P r o j e c t : Report, Ottawa, 1951, pp. 422-3. -75-16 f o r the B a s i n , d e s p i t e i t s submission i n 1952 to the Royal Commission t h a t a s i n g l e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a u t h o r i t y would have to be s e t up. Such a view must fundamentally come from the r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t A l b e r t a i s not dependent upon Saskatchewan or Manitoba f o r water. Undeniably, such i s the case as a p p l i e d to o t h e r r e s o u r c e s , and f o r t h i s reason, i t c o u l d w e l l be c o n s i d e r e d the "wayward c h i l d " r e g a r d i n g comprehensive, i n t e r p r o v i n c i a l c o - o p e r a t i o n , or e v e n t u a l p o l i t i c a l union. The former Premier of A l b e r t a , H. Strom, denies such a l l e g a t i o n s , a t the same time c a l l i n g f o r more c o - o p e r a t i o n between the P r a i r i e Premiers, and indeed, f o r a " c o - o p e r a t i v e f e d e r a t i o n . " The concerns o f A l b e r t a ' s poor and r e s i d e n t s of the underdeveloped r e g i o n s of t h i s p r o v i n c e , s u f f e r because of the impression sometimes g i v e n by s e n i o r people i n the Department of Regional Economic Expansion t h a t ' A l b e r t a i s a f a t c a t ' " . 17 16. Raby has r e p o r t e d two statements about t h i s p r o v i n c i a l i s m i n h i s paper (Footnote 15) i n which he quotes the head of the E n g i n e e r i n g D i v i s i o n of A l b e r t a ' s Water Resources Branch. Speaking a t a Western Canada Reclamation A s s o c i a t i o n Conference ( F a l l , 1 9 6 2 ) . See p. 90 of Raby's paper: A l b e r t a ..., although i n t e r e s t e d i n an i n t e g r a t e d B a s i n p l a n , would c e r t a i n l y oppose any s u g g e s t i o n o f .': any s o r t of i n t e r - b a s i n o r i n t e r p r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t y on the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the Nelson-Saskatchewan Bas i n ... I t seems t h a t the p o l i c y of the A l b e r t a Government a t the moment i s not to become too i n v o l v e d or t i e d down too much to an i n t e g r a t e d b a s i n p l a n . 17. Strom, i n E l t o n , p.33. -76-Most r e c e n t l y , an i n t e r p r o v i n c i a l agency made up an e x e c u t i v e o f the three Premiers o f the P r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s , 18 known as the P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e s Economic C o u n c i l , has been e s t a b l i s h e d . T h i s c o u n c i l has p r o v i d e d a forum f o r the le a d e r s o f the three p r o v i n c e s t o d i s c u s s common problems, r e a l i z i n g t h a t t h e i r independent j u r i s d i c t i o n s n e c e s s i t a t e a r e g i o n a l approach to p l a n n i n g and s o l v i n g problems. T h i s intergovernmental c o - o p e r a t i o n has had some t a n g i b l e r e s u l t s , such as the es t a b l i s h m e n t of the I n t e r p r o v i n c i a l Committee on 19 U n i v e r s i t y R a t i o n a l i z a t i o n (IPCUR) i n 1966, and e f f e c t i v e d i s c u s s i o n on plans f o r development i n the Saskatchewan -Nelson Bas i n . Of p a r t i c u l a r concern t o the C o u n c i l has been any case where r e g i o n a l needs transcend p r o v i n c i a l boundaries, p a r t i c u l a r l y where underpopulated areas are concerned. The IPCUR attempts t o d i s c u s s r e g u l a r l y common u n i v e r s i t y problems and to c o - o r d i n a t e the development o f r e g i o n a l h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . Thus, i n t h i s c a p a c i t y , t h e Committee has s t u d i e d l i b r a r y automation, and experimental 20 graduate and undergraduate programmes. 18. The c o n s t i t u t i o n o f t h i s c o u n c i l has not been made p u b l i c , nor have the b r i e f s of the d i s c u s s i o n s h e l d . To date a l l such i n f o r m a t i o n i s c l a s s i f i e d and thus u n a v a i l a b l e . 19. J.R. Cameron, and J.F. Graham, Post-Secondary and Government Finance, 1971, p.147. 20. For a review o f t h i s Board's work, see The U n i v e r s i t y S o c i e t y and Government, Report o f the Commission on The  R e l a t i o n s Between U n i v e r s i t i e s and Governments, (Rowat-H u r t u b i s e ) , pp.189-193. The U n i v e r s i t y of Saskatchewan, by o f f e r i n g degrees i n a f a c u l t y of V e t e r i n a r y S c ience a t Saskatoon, performs a r e g i o n a l task, f o r which the A l b e r t a Government pays a grant o f $2,500 per A l b e r t a n student e n r o l l e d i n t h a t f a c u l t y . (This amounted to $160,000 i n 1970-71). Manitoba p r o v i d e s no a s s i s t a n c e , but uses the V e t e r i n a r y Science f a c i l i t i e s . Only the V e t e r i n a r y Science f a c u l t y a t the U n i v e r s i t y of Saskatchewan c o u l d be d e s c r i b e d as a r e g i o n a l f a c u l t y . Another edu c a t i o n f a c i l i t y being used by Western Canada ( i n c l u d i n g B r i t i s h Columbia i n t h i s case) i s the Banff School of F i n e A r t s , which has extended i t s scope t o i n c l u d e The Advanced School of Business Management. Wit h i n the primary i n d u s t r y i n the P r a i r i e s are such o r g a n i s a t i o n s as the Canada Wheat Board (a F e d e r a l body which does not r e s t r i c t i t s e l f to the P r a i r i e s , but predominantly i s concerned w i t h the wheat growing r e g i o n o f the p l a i n s ) , the i n t e r p r o v i n c i a l Farmers Union C o u n c i l , the Western Farm Management E x t e n s i o n Committee and the Fund f o r R u r a l Economic Development (FRED) which comes under the c o n t r o l o f the Department of Regional Economic Expansion. The FRED p l a n : ... p r o v i d e s f o r the i n i t i a t i o n o f comprehensive F e d e r a l P r o v i n c i a l development p l a n s f o r s e l e c t e d r u r a l areas of the country, where th e r e was r e c o g n i s e d p o t e n t i a l f o r development, but widespread low income -78-r e s u l t i n g from economic and s o c i a l adjustment problems. 21 Wit h i n the P r a i r i e s e x t e n s i v e work has been c a r r i e d out i n the I n t e r l a k e area o f Manitoba. A department t o handle intergovernmental a f f a i r s has been e s t a b l i s h e d by the A l b e r t a Government. T h i s m i n i s t e r i a l p o s i t i o n i s a new p o r t f o l i o , which seeks to b r i n g t o g e t h e r the F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l governments to d i s c u s s matters p e r t a i n i n g to A l b e r t a . As such the P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e s Economic C o u n c i l i s an important l i n k a g e with t h i s department, as here a f u r t h e r c onnection can be made wit h the v a r i o u s p r o v i n c i a l departments of the A l b e r t a Government i n matters t h a t transcend p o l i t i c a l boundaries. I n t e r p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n s w i t h concern f o r the environment can be c i t e d : the P r a i r i e P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Committee, which i s an adjunct o f the Department o f Environment, and the Western Canadian Waterfowl Committee, an a d j u n c t o f the Department o f Lands and F o r e s t s . Western Canada, and i n p a r t i c u l a r the P r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s , have many common aspects which p e r t a i n t o the p h y s i c a l , c u l t u r a l or economic landscape; i n d i c a t i o n s are t h a t the need t o co-operate w i t h one another i s i n c r e a s i n g . The q u e s t i o n t h a t needs to be asked i s why t h i s t r e n d i s 21. DREE, p.10. -79-necessary. The answer i s t h a t a l l the o r g a n i s a t i o n s d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s chapter have a need to co-operate, a t l e a s t a t a p l a n n i n g l e v e l , toward the formation o f a j o i n t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The o v e r r i d i n g response t o the q u e s t i o n 'why does t h i s o r g a n i s a t i o n ' s work extend beyond t h i s province?' asked by the w r i t e r t o r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of three o r g a n i s a t i o n s f a v o u r i n g r e g i o n a l c o - o p e r a t i o n was t h a t the concern o f each^ p a r t i c u l a r body d i d not r e s t r i c t i t s e l f t o one p r o v i n c e alone, b u t to the whole of the P r a i r i e s . With regard t o primary i n d u s t r i e s concerned w i t h s e l l i n g g r a i n , the response to the q u e s t i o n was t h a t a u n i t e d body was r e q u i r e d to c o n f r o n t Ottawa w i t h t h e i r demands. I t i s thus reasonable to p o s t u l a t e t h a t the growth and i n c r e a s i n g s t r e n g t h of these i n t e r p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n s on the P r a i r i e s i s i n r e a c t i o n t o the r e a l i s a t i o n t h a t much can be gained by t a k i n g a r e g i o n a l view of p a r t i c u l a r problems on the P r a i r i e s , a s so many common aspects t h a t have h i t h e r t o been d e a l t w i t h by the i n d i v i d u a l p r o v i n c e s can b e s t be r e s o l v e d by a c o - o p e r a t i v e body such as the P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e s Economic C o u n c i l . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t the three P r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s have c a l l e d f o r more c o - o p e r a t i o n , and, i n f a c t , a t the One P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e Conference, they argued f o r a g r e a t e r -80-s t r e n g t h e n i n g of the P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e Economic C o u n c i l . I t i s t h i s degree o f amalgamation t h a t they see as most d e s i r a b l e f o r the P r a i r i e s ; t h i s does not n e c e s s a r i l y imply p o l i t i c a l union. -81-CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSION The fundamental reason behind a g i t a t i o n f o r the amalgamation of the three P r a i r i e provinces i n t o one p o l i t i c a l u n i t i s , and always has been t h a t the P r a i r i e s c o n s t i t u t e a r e g i o n , and t h a t by p o l i t i c a l l y d i v i d i n g the r e g i o n i n t o three separate j u r i s d i c t i o n s they have been made d i s c o n t i g u o u s w i t h each o t h e r . Such a need has been seen by many as reason f o r encouraging and a g i t a t i n g f o r p o l i t i c a l union. The boundaries between the pr o v i n c e s are seen as b a r r i e r s to the flow o f funds and s e r v i c e s between one p r o v i n c e and another, which would not be the case i f the whole r e g i o n c o n s t i t u t e d one p o l i t i c a l u n i t . W i t h i n 1 the P r a i r i e r e g i o n d i s p a r i t i e s o f wealth c l e a r l y e x i s t and thus i f the P r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s became one p o l i t i c a l u n i t i t i s l i k e l y t h a t there would be more e q u a l i z a t i o n of income and p r o v i n c i a l government res o u r c e s and s e r v i c e s ; s i n c e the p r o v i n c i a l boundaries would no longer be b a r r i e r s t o the flow o f funds from one r e g i o n to another i n the P r a i r i e s . 2 Thus the economic b e n e f i t f o r Manitoba and Saskatchewan i n b e i n g u n i t e d together with A l b e r t a would g i v e s i g n i f i c a n t economic g a i n t o the former two p r o v i n c e s . 1. T h i s was demonstrated i n Chapter 3, Table V II of t h i s t h e s i s . 2. A.L. Boykiw, "One P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e and Regional Development," i n D. E l t o n , One P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e - A  Question f o r Canada, p.388. - 8 2 -The u n d e r l y i n g q u e s t i o n i s consequently:- what economic l o s s would be f e l t w i t h i n the A l b e r t a economy due to the r e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e i r revenues to encompass the whole P r a i r i e region? From the l i t e r a t u r e t h a t i s a v a i l a b l e on t h i s p o i n t , and from i n t e r v i e w s conducted by the w r i t e r i t would appear t h a t fundamentally, f o r reasons of p e r c e i v e d economic l o s s , A l b e r t a i s the l e a s t r e c e p t i v e to the i d e a o f P r a i r i e union. An a r t i c l e from the Le t h b r i d g e H e r a l d i n response to statements made a t the One P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e Conference by A l b e r t a ' s Premier a t the time of the Conference, Mr. H. Strom, supports t h i s view. Many of the Saskatchewan delegates o f the One P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e Conference had l o s t some of t h e i r enthusiasm f o r the d i s c u s s i o n ... They blamed t h e i r d e c l i n e i n i n t e r e s t to a l a r g e e x t e n t on a speech by A l b e r t a Premier, Harry Strom, who some f e l t has e f f e c t i v e l y torpedoed the s p i r i t of g i v e and take d i s c u s s i o n o f the p r o p o s a l . 3 Despite the f a c t t h a t the a g i t a t i o n to u n i t e the P r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s i s a m i n o r i t y view, the P r a i r i e people q u i t e c l e a r l y e x h i b i t a f e e l i n g of s o l i d a r i t y w i t h the P r a i r i e r e g i o n . The exte n t to which a p r o v i n c i a l a l l e g i a n c e would i n c r e a s e a P r a i r i e i d e n t i t y i s u n c e r t a i n ; i t would appear t o the w r i t e r t h a t i t would vary c o n s i d e r a b l y w i t h i n the r e g i o n . 3. Hinds, L e t h b r i d g e Herald, May 13, 1970. -83-V a r i a t i o n s i n support and a g i t a t i o n f o r the idea w i t h i n the whole P r a i r i e r e g i o n occur a c c o r d i n g t o b a s i c a l l y two c o n s i d e r a t i o n s : the f i r s t i s the economic g a i n o r l o s s t h a t would r e s u l t from union. I t would appear t h a t the most a c t i v e o p p o s i t i o n comes from A l b e r t a , which stands to have i t s economic wealth (compared with Manitoba and Saskatchewan) shared w i t h the remainder o f the P r a i r i e r e g i o n . Then, too, one's l o s s i s another's g a i n . The qu e s t i o n t h a t needs to be asked i s whether the g a i n i s going to c r e a t e u l t i m a t e l y a more v i a b l e economic u n i t w i t h i n the Canadian F e d e r a t i o n . W i l l i t al l o w the P r a i r i e s to t r u l y partake i n the "F e d e r a l Idea" to the exte n t o f being a f u l l y - f l e d g e d member, not s u b s e r v i e n t to the other u n i t s t h a t make up the F e d e r a t i o n ? The q u e s t i o n i m p l i e s the importance o f a p o l i t i c a l measure of P r a i r i e c o - o p e r a t i o n . Under the present arrangement of three P r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s i t i s p o s s i b l e to use one p r o v i n c e a g a i n s t another to m a i n t a i n a balance of power w i t h i n the F e d e r a t i o n . P r a i r i e union would c e r t a i n l y have a g r e a t e r s t a t u s , i n terms of s i z e , w i t h i n the F e d e r a t i o n , but because one a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , i n s t e a d o f three,would r e p r e s e n t the r e g i o n t h i s balance o f p o l i t i c a l power would not be p o s s i b l e . -84-The second c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s the West's f e e l i n g o f a l i e n a t i o n from the E a s t . T h i s i m p l i e s t h a t Western s t a t u s i n the F e d e r a t i o n i s of some lower order than t h a t of the e c o n o m i c a l l y and p o l i t i c a l l y dominant p r o v i n c e s i n the E a s t . These views vary c o n s i d e r a b l y i n s t r e n g t h w i t h i n the p r o v i n c e s , but most s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n the u r b a n - r u r a l scene. The reasons f o r t h i s i s t h a t the a g r i c u l t u r a l primary i n d u s t r y i s e x p e r i e n c i n g hard economic times, n o t a b l y the wheat i n d u s t r y i n r e c e n t y e a r s . Because the marketing, f i n a n c i n g and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r a l , as w e l l as;mineral-based i n d u s t r i e s , are s i t u a t e d almost e x c l u s i v e l y i n E a s t e r n Canada, the P r a i r i e a g i t a t i o n i s d i r e c t e d towards the E a s t . The c i t y d w e l l e r may be sympathetic and may n o t i c e the d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t s of poor g r a i n r e t u r n s on h i s p r o v i n c i a l economy, but n o n e t h e l e s s , he i s removed from the s i t u a t i o n d i r e c t l y , and thus does not u s u a l l y express Western a l i e n a t i o n as s t r o n g l y as h i s r u r a l c o u n t e r p a r t . D i f f e r i n g socio-economic c l a s s e s d i d appear t o be s i g n i f i c a n t i n e x p r e s s i n g support f o r the i d e a . I t was, i n f a c t , the b u s i n e s s , academic and p o l i t i c a l e l i t e , t h a t expressed the o r i g i n a l a g i t a t i o n f o r the i d e a . The a g i t a t i o n f o r the One P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e i d e a may w e l l be v a l i d i f the d e s i r e was present among a l l P r a i r i e people to break t h e i r p r o v i n c i a l a l l e g i a n c e s and a c t as one. Such a f e e l i n g -85-i s not presen t and thus union i s u n l i k e l y , but the d e s i r e to co-operate w i t h each o t h e r i s c e r t a i n l y p r esent, and numerous examples of such c o - o p e r a t i o n have been c i t e d . I t i s i n c o r r e c t , t h e r e f o r e , to see these c o - o p e r a t i v e ventures as sign s o f p o l i t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n ; indeed, they are s i g n s p u r e l y of a r e g i o n , which i s p o l i t i c a l l y fragmented, s e e i n g a need t o look to common areas o f concern, such as t h e i r f e e l i n g o f a l i e n a t i o n from the E a s t . The i n t e g r a t o r y f o r c e s t h a t are e v i d e n t here s t r e n g t h e n the c o - o p e r a t i v e o r g a n i s a t i o n s , but c e r t a i n l y do l i t t l e to weaken the p o l i t i c a l j u r i s d i c t i o n . D espite the acceptance by many a t the One P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e Conference t h a t the i d e a of P r a i r i e u n i t y was not a s t r o n g l y h e l d p o i n t o f view, the proponents of i t continue to a g i t a t e as they have done f o r over f i f t y y e a r s . Undoubtedly, a f o l l o w i n g f o r the ideas does e x i s t ; and, too, with a c t i v e t a l k o f a Maritime P r o v i n c i a l union i t i s c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t , should such a union take p l a c e i n E a s t e r n Canada, the P r a i r i e Union i d e a may w e l l besseen more f a v o u r a b l y . Future Research Needs I t i s unfortunate t h a t data measuring the support f o r the ide a of P r a i r i e Union has not been generated i n Manitoba and -86-4 Saskatchewan as i t was by P r o f e s s o r E l t o n f o r the Province of A l b e r t a . The same questions as were co n t a i n e d i n h i s study c o u l d w e l l be asked i n a P r a i r i e wide survey. Whether the a f f i r m a t i v e answers would c o r r e l a t e w i t h A l b e r t a ' s twenty three per cent would indeed be i n t e r e s t i n g . Then, too, the matter of P r a i r i e newspaper c i r c u l a t i o n and i n t e r p r o v i n c i a l ( i . e . w i t h i n the P r a i r i e provinces) telephone usage would g i v e an i n d i c a t i o n o f the degree of inter-communication t h a t e x i s t s between the p r o v i n c e s . In the same way, by l o o k i n g a t the communication ac r o s s the A l b e r t a - B r i t i s h Columbia border f o r the same two examples-newspaper c i r c u l a t i o n and telephone usage, an i n t e r e s t i n g comparison c o u l d be thrown upon Dr. M i l d r e d Schwartz's t h e s i s t h a t A l b e r t a i s l o o k i n g westwards, r a t h e r than towards the P r a i r i e s , f o r " i t s a f f i n i t i e s and standards 5 o f comparison." Dr. Card c a l l s f o r more work to be done i n c o l l e c t i n g a l i s t of common P r a i r i e o r g a n i s a t i o n s , e i t h e r p o l i t i c a l or commercial; wi t h t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n a c o n s t i t u t i o n or statement of p h i l o s o p h y of these o r g a n i s a t i o n s i s e s s e n t i a l i f any i n d i c a t i o n o f the s t r e n g t h of the 4. D. E l t o n , The A l b e r t a E l e c t o r a t e Study - 19 69. A P r e l i m i n a r y Report, U n i v e r s i t y of L e t h b r i d g e , 1969. 5. M.A. Schwartz, "Attachments t o Pro v i n c e and Region i n the P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e s , " i n E l t o n , p.105. i n f l u e n c e o f such an o r g a n i s a t i o n i s to be determined. An example i s to be found i n the P r a i r i e Economic C o u n c i l . Such a c o u n c i l , w i t h the Premiers of each P r a i r i e p r o v i n c e p r e s i d i n g , would seem t o be extremely i n d i c a t i v e of the t h r e e p r o v i n c i a l governments seeing a need to d i s c u s s common problems and move towards some mutually agreeable aims or o b j e c t i v e s . However, the c o n s t i t u t i o n f o r such a c o u n c i l does not appear to e x i s t . I f then, t h i s c o u n c i l i s merely a forum f o r d i s c u s s i o n w ithout c l e a r l y s e t down aims, then such a c o u n c i l cannot be g i v e n the same degree of importance as others t h a t have d e f i n e d t h e i r aims and o b j e c t i v e s i n terms of the P r a i r i e r e g i o n . In l o o k i n g a t the h i s t o r i c a l background to the One P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e i d e a , the d i v i s i o n of the P r a i r i e s was made predominantly as a r e s u l t o f the s i z e of one l a r g e p r o v i n c e being c o n s i d e r e d too l a r g e t o be w i t h i n the Canadian F e d e r a t i o n . A f e d e r a t i o n i s based upon i t s r e g i o n s , and i d e a l l y allows f o r each u n i t w i t h i n the f e d e r a l s t r u c t u r e to f o s t e r i t s own i d e n t i t y . I t would seem i n e v i t a b l e t h a t t h i s i d e n t i t y would change, and thus the f e d e r a l s t r u c t u r e has to be f l e x i b l e enough to change w i t h i t . How much the Canadian F e d e r a t i o n has changed i n accordance with r e g i o n a l i d e n t i t i e s changing, and the e x t e n t to which the F e d e r a t i o n has become a n a c h r o n i s t i c , i s a f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h need. I t would seem a reasonable -88-p o s t u l a t i o n t h a t the P r a i r i e s have developed e c o n o m i c a l l y and c u l t u r a l l y to a p o i n t t h a t the value s f o r t h e i r o r i g i n a l acceptance i n t o the F e d e r a t i o n have changed. They have been l e f t w i t h a s t a t u s t h a t does not all o w them to c o - e x i s t w i t h i n the F e d e r a t i o n as equal p a r t n e r s . Summary The a g i t a t i o n f o r p o l i t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n o f the P r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s , as the hypothesis s t a t e s , i s based upon the growing awareness of P r a i r i e people to view A l b e r t a , Saskatchewan and Manitoba as a r e g i o n of Canada - a Western Canadian r e g i o n a l i s m , which f o r some would i n c l u d e B r i t i s h Columbia. T h i s r e g i o n a l awareness has developed i n most p a r t due to the many common problems t h a t the Western p r o v i n c e s f a c e , and p a r t i c u l a r l y from t h e i r f e e l i n g o f a l i e n a t i o n from the Eas t . In r e a c t i o n to t h i s , the P r a i r i e s have developed many common o r g a n i s a t i o n s which transcend p o l i t i c a l boundaries. From the evidence gathered i t would seem a t t h i s time t h a t there i s a s t r o n g e r emphasis on the need f o r P r a i r i e c o - o p e r a t i o n than f o r p o l i t i c a l union. The c o n t r i b u t i o n of t h i s work i s fundamentally i n two areas. F i r s t l y , i t i s d i r e c t e d a t p r o v i d i n g a g r e a t e r understanding o f the P r a i r i e r e g i o n and of i t s s t a t u s -89-w i t h i n the F e d e r a l s t r u c t u r e o f Canada. I t r e v e a l s t h a t the P r a i r i e s are changing i n c h a r a c t e r . 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Nye, J.S., "Comparative Regional I n t e g r a t i o n Concepts and Measurement," I n t e r n a t i o n a l O r g a n i s a t i o n , XXII, (1968). -94-Nye, J.S., Pa t t e r n s and C a t a l y s t s i n Regional I n t e g r a t i o n , " I n t e r n a t i o n a l O r g a n i s a t i o n , XIX, 4, (1965). O l i v e r , E.H. (ed), The Canadian Northwest, I t s E a r l y  Development and L e g i s l a t i v e Records, Ottawa, 1915. P l i s c h k e , E., Systems of I n t e g r a t i n g the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Community, P r i n c e t o n , 1964. P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e s Cost Study Commission, Report of the Royal  Commission on Consumer Problems and I n f l a t i o n , Regina, 1968. Raby, S., " A l b e r t a and the P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e s Water Board," Canadian Geographer, V I I I , 2, (1964). Ri c h a r d s , J.H.R., "Changing Canadian F r o n t i e r s , " Canadian  Geographer, IV, (1961). R i c h a r d s , J.H., " P r o v i n c i a l i s m , Regionalism and F e d e r a l i s m as seen i n J o i n t Resource Development Programmes," Canadian  Geographer, IX, 4, (1965). Robinson, J.L., "The Problem of Geographic Regions i n Canada," Canadian Geographer, I I , 7, (1956). R u t h e r f o r d , P.F.W., "The Western Press and Regionalism 1870-1896," Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Review, L I I , 3 , (Sept., 1971). Saunders, S.A. and E. Back, The R o w e l l - S i r o i s Commission, Toronto, 1941. Sharp, P.F., The A g r a r i a n R e v o l t i n Western 'Canada, M i n n e a p o l i s , 1948. S h o r t t , A. and A. Doughty (eds), Canada and i t s P r o v i n c e s , XIX, 1914. S p a f f o r d , D.S., "The O r i g i n o f the Farmers Union of Canada," Saskatchewan H i s t o r y , XVIII, 3, (196 5). Spencer, G., "The New England S t a t e Movement - a Problem i n P o l i t i c a l Geography," B.A. T h e s i s , Newcastle U n i v e r s i t y , 1960. S t a b l e r , J . , "Recent Developments i n the P r a i r i e Region and i t s I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Regional Economic P o l i c i e s w i t h S p e c i a l Reference to Saskatchewan," 19 70, ( B r i e f on b e h a l f o f Regina and Saskatoon presented by Dept. o f Regional Economic Expansion, 1970) . S t a n l e y , G.F.G., "Western Canada and the F r o n t i e r T h e s i s , " Canadian H i s t o r i a l A s s o c i a t i o n , Report of the Annual Meeting, May 22-24, 1940, wit h h i s t o r i c a l papers. -95-Stewart, W., "The Coming Showdown w i t h the West," Macleans  Magazine, ( J u l y , 1969). Strom, H.E., "A Case f o r the West," An address to the F e d e r a l P r o v i n c i a l C o n s t i t u t i o n a l Conference, February, 1969. Swainson, Donald, H i s t o r i c a l Essays on the P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e s , Toronto, 1970. Thomas, L.G., The L i b e r a l P a r t y i n A l b e r t a , a H i s t o r y of  P o l i t i c s i n the Province of A l b e r t a , 1905-1921, Toronto,1959. Thomas, L.H., The North West T e r r i t o r i e s , 1870-1905, Ottawa, 1970. Thomas, L.H., "The P o l i t i c a l and P r i v a t e L i f e o f F.W.G. H a u l t a i n , " Saskatchewan H i s t o r y , XXIII, 2, (1970). Thompson, P. (ed), The P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e - A l i e n a t i o n and  Anger, Toronto, 1969. Thorburn, H.G. (ed), P a r t y P o l i t i c s i n Canada, Toronto,1967. Turgeon, W.F.A., "I' d Unite the P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e s , " Macleans  Magazine, (Feb. 1, 1932). Wade, M., Regionalism i n the Canadian Community 1867-1967, Toronto, 1969. Waite, P.B., The L i f e and Times of C o n f e d e r a t i o n 1864-1867, Toronto, 1962. Warkentin, J . (ed), Canada - a Geographical I n t e r p r e t a t i o n , Toronto, 1968. Watkins, E., "Western View," Saturday Ni g h t , LXXXIV, 2, (Feb., 1969). Weir, T.R. (ed),Economic A t l a s of Manitoba, Winnipeg, 1960. Weir, T., "Pioneer Settlement of S.W. Manitoba 1879 to 1901," Canadian Geographer, V I I I , 2, (1964). Western Farm D e l e g a t i o n , On to Ottawa, Saskatoon, 1959. Woolmington, E.R., "The Geographical Scope of Support f o r the New S t a t e Movement i n Northern New South Wales," PhD T h e s i s , New England U n i v e r s i t y , 196 3. Zimmerman, C.C. and G.W. Moneo, "The P r a i r i e Community of Canada," Proceedings of the XXII Congress of the I n s t i t u t e  I n t e r n a t i o n a l de S o c i o l o g i e , Rome, Sept., 1969. Zimmerman, C.C. and G.W. Moneo, The P r a i r i e Community System, Ottawa, 1971. -96-GQVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS Government of Canada. Information Canada P u b l i c a t i o n on Department o f Regional  Economic Expansion/ Ottawa, 1971. I n t e r p r o v i n c i a l Farm Union C o u n c i l , Submission t o the S e l e c t Standing Committee on A g r i c u l t u r e and C o l o n i z a t i o n . North West T e r r i t o r i e s , Debate, 1898. North West T e r r i t o r i e s , J o u r n a l s , 1902, p.18, " O f f i c i a l D e c i s i o n Not to Form the NWT i n t o a P r o v i n c i a l I n s t i t u t i o n , " 1902, p.26, "Two Pr o v i n c e Members." 1903, Appendix pp.3-38. P a r l i a m e n t a r y Debates of the House of Commons. 1901, V o l . 1, C o l s , 2006-19, 2013-15, 2016; 1902, V o l . 2 f C o l s , 3064, 3074, 3085, 3104; 1903, V o l . 6, C o l . 13914; 1905, V o l . 1, Cols,1421-59. Rowat-Hurtubise Report on the R e l a t i o n s between U n i v e r s i t i e s and Governments. R o w e l l - S i r o i s Commission, Report o f the Royal Commission on D o m i n i o n - P r o v i n c i a l R e l a t i o n s , Books 1,2 and documents 1940. S e s s i o n a l Papers, 1903, V o l . X I I I , Paper, 116. NEWSPAPERS AND DEBATES A l b e r t a n , ( C a l g a r y ) , March, 16, 1901. Free P r e s s , (Winnipeg), Sept. 12, 1933, "One Government f o r P r a i r i e P r ovinces i s favoured by Acheson." Sept. 19, 1933,"One Large P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e ? " Jan. 17, 1970, "West's Unease now a Force." ' M a y 8, 1970, " P r a i r i e U n i t y Cabinent T o p i c . " Gazette, (Macleod), March 22, 1901, "One P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e . " May 2, 1902, H a u l t a i n ' s l e t t e r to L a u r i e r . Dec. 2, 1901; H a u l t a i n ' s E l e c t i o n Address, A p r i l 29, 1902. Sept. 1, 1905, "Confederation Day - a Comment Her a l d , ( C a l g a r y ) , June, 29, 1891. J o u r n a l , (Edmonton),, A p r i l 22, 1964, "Let's Have F i v e P r o v i n c e s . Leader, (Regina NWT), A p r i l 3, 1902, "Address Adopted." A p r i l 10, 1902, "Autonomy Refused." A p r i l 17, 1902, "Autonomy Debate." ' A p r i l 24, 1902, "One or Two P r o v i n c e s . " Dec. 14, 1904, "A C a l l f o r Standing Firm on One P r o v i n c e Idea." Leader Post, (Regina), May 8, 1970, " F i v e Provinces Mooted." Sun, (Vancouver), Nov. 23, 1971, "Canada's West U n i t e d by Fear of E a s t . " Jan. 15, 1971, " A l b e r t a R e j e c t s P r a i r i e L a b e l . " S t a r , ( T o r o n t o ) , Nov. 27, 1971, "Three P r a i r i e Premiers New Young Force on N a t i o n a l Scene." Telegram, (Winnipeg), Dec. 27, 1901, "Speech of Premier H a u l t a i n a t I n d i a n Head, Dec. 18, 1901. V i d e t t e , (Indian Head), Dec.25, 1901, "Debate on the Annexation of T e r r i t o r y Question to Manitoba, Premier R o b l i n o f Manitoba w i t h Premier H a u l t a i n , I n d i a n Head, Dec.18, 19 01. -98-APPENDIX I THE PRAIRIES AS A REGION The Canadian P r a i r i e s have h i s t o r i c a l l y been s e t t l e d by a v a r i e t y o f races but have f a c e d common problems of farming the l a n d , drought, and marketing of t h e i r produce. They were b a s i c a l l y a r u r a l people and as such have shared a common phi l o s o p h y o f c o - o p e r a t i o n between one another and wit h the l a n d i t s e l f . The advent o f b i g business and the development of mining i n the P r a i r i e encouraged the P r a i r i e farmers i n t o c e n t r e s which have formed i n t o huge urban conglomerates, p r o v i d i n g wheatpools, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c e n t r e s and goods and s e r v i c e s g e n e r a l l y . With t h i s growth i n huge urbanized c e n t r e s has come d i s c o n t e n t w i t h the E a s t e r n c i t i e s from which so much of P r a i r i e l i f e i s c o n t r o l l e d , f r e i g h t r a t e s and wheat marketing being two. The c o l l e c t i v e response has been f i r s t l y to be a n t a g o n i s t i c t o the East and l a t e r to o r g a n i s e , w i t h i n the three P r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s , c o - o p e r a t i v e o r g a n i s a t i o n s which g i v e the P r a i r i e r e g i o n a more f o r c e f u l v o i c e . P.F.W. Rut h e r f o r d suggests P r a i r i e r e g i o n a l i s m has been f o s t e r e d by E a s t e r n domination. He assumes the e x i s t e n c e o f a Western community ... c o n s i d e r i n g the d i v e r s i t y of p r a i r i e l i f e and the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f m e t r o p o l i t a n r i v a l r i e s , some readers may doubt t h i s assumption. But the west had a s t r i k i n g l y uniform a t t i t u d e towards i t s d e s t i n y , i t s c h a r a c t e r , and i t s problems. And western towns were u n i t e d i n the s t r u g g l e to develop the p r a i r i e s and to f r e e t h e i r r e g i o n from e a s t e r n domination. Thus i t -99-1 seems f a i r t o speak of a western community. George F.G. S t a n l e y agrees w i t h the concept o f a P r a i r i e r e g i o n , ... the p l a i n s and the park b e l t t o gether c o n s t i t u t e a s i n g l e u n i t , p h y s i c a l l y , e c o n o m i c a l l y and h i s t o r i c a l l y t h i s u n i t shares n e i t h e r i t s economy nor i t s c u l t u r e w i t h the c o r d i l l e r a o f B r i t i s h Columbia, or w i t h the rocky l a k e l a n d of the Canadian s h i e l d . These regions have t h e i r own d i s t i n c t i v e g e o g r a p h i c a l f e a t u r e s , t h e i r own problems and t h e i r own f u t u r e . 2 Other sources which support the P r a i r i e s as a d i s t i n c t i v e g e o g r a p h i c a l r e g i o n a r e -1. The Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s use "The P r a i r i e s " (encompassing A l b e r t a , Saskatchewan and Manitoba) as a r e g i o n of Canada. 2. R o w e l l - S i r o s Commission. Royal Commission on Dominion P r o v i n c i a l R e l a t i o n s , Canada, 1867-1939. T h i s Commission i n c l u d e s a number of s u p p o r t i n g s t u d i e s which look to the P r a i r i e s as a r e g i o n of Canada-e.g. W.J. Waines - " P r a i r i e s P o p u l a t i o n P o s s i b i l i t i e s . " 3. The Royal Commission on consumer problems and i n f l a t i o n , 1938.. Supporting s t u d i e s i n c l u d e -(i) P r a i r i e Regional Development and P r o s p e c t s . ( i i ) T r a n s p o r t a t i o n on the P r a i r i e s . 4. S t a b l e r , J . "Recent Developments i n the P r a i r i e Region and i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Regional Economic P o l i c i e s w i t h s p e c i a l r e f e r e n c e to Saskatchewan." B r i e f on b e h a l f of Regina and Saskatoon presented by Dept. o f Regional Economic Expansion 1967. Government P u b l i c a t i o n . 1. P.F.W. Rutherford/"The Western Press and Regionalism,1870-96." The Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Review, Vol.41,3,(Sept.,1971),p.287. 2. George F.G.Stanley,"The Western Canadian Mystique," i n D.P.Gagan,(ed), P r a i r i e P e r s p e c t i v e s , Toronto/!970,p.8. -100-APPENDIX 2 ATTENDANCE AT THE ONE PRAIRIE PROVINCE CONFERENCE-The One P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e Conference: One P r a i r i e Province? A Question f o r Canada. A N a t i o n a l Conference to study the F e a s i b i l i t y o f One P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e , May 10th - 13th, 1970. E d i t o r of Proceedings,D.K. E l t o n . Conference Co-sponsors: Dr. W i l l i a m E. B e c k e l , A c t i n g P r e s i d e n t The U n i v e r s i t y of L e t h b r i d g e . Conference C o - o r d i n a t o r : D.S. O'Connell. Guest Speakers: James A. Richardson, F e d e r a l M i n i s t e r of Supply and S e r v i c e s . Harry E. Strom, Premier o f A l b e r t a . Jean Marchand, F e d e r a l M i n i s t e r o f Regional Economic Expansion. P a n e l i s t s : Donald Baron, E d i t o r , Country Guide Magazine, Winnipeg. Edward P. B e n o i t , M.L.A., Edmonton. A l l a n E. Blakeney, M.L.A., Regina. A.L. Boykiw, V i c e - P r e s i d e n t , Hu H a r r i e s and A s s o c i a t e s L t d . , C a l g a r y . Sidney L. Buckwold, Mayor, Saskatoon. R.M. Burns, D i r e c t o r , I n s t i t u t e of Intergovernmental R e l a t i o n s , Queens U n i v e r s i t y , Kingston. Brigham Y. Card, Department of E d u c a t i o n a l Foundations, U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a , Edmonton. Andrew H. C l a r k , Department of Geography, U n i v e r s i t y of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin. F r e d R. Drummie, E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r , Maritime Union Study, F e d e r i c t o n . David K. E l t o n , Department o f P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e , The U n i v e r s i t y of L e t h b r i d g e , L e t h b r i d g e . A l v i n , A. Hamilton, Former F e d e r a l M i n i s t e r of A g r i c u l t u r e , O n t a r i o . E r i c J . Hanson, Department of Economics, U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a , Edmonton. D a r r e l V. Heald, A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l o f Saskatchewan, Regina. Ralph O. H e d l i n , Menzies and A s s o c i a t e s L t d . , Toronto. Warner Jorgenson, M.L'.A., Winnipeg. -101-L a u r i e r L a P i e r r e , D i r e c t o r , French Canadian S t u d i e s Program, M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y , Montreal. A r l e i g h H. Laycock, Department o f Geography, U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a , Edmonton. Pe t e r Lougheed, Leader of the O p p o s i t i o n , Edmonton. Stephen G. P e i t c h i n i s , Department of Economics, U n i v e r s i t y of C a l g a r y , C a l g a r y . John E. Ob e r h o l t z , Human Resources Development A u t h o r i t y , Edmonton. M i l d r e d A. Schwartz, Department of Sociology, U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s a t Chicago C i r c l y , Chicago. Thomas K. Shoyama, A s s i s t a n t Deputy M i n i s t e r , F e d e r a l Department of Finance, Ottawa. Barry L. S t r a y e r , D i r e c t o r , C o n s t i t u t i o n a l Review S e c t i o n , P r i v y C o u n c i l , Ottawa. J.R.W. Sykes, Mayor, Calgary. A l a n M. Thomas, E x e c u t i v e A s s i s t a n t to The Honourable Robert Stanbury, House of Commons, Ottawa. Dale C. Thomson, D i r e c t o r , Centre o f Canadian S t u d i e s , The John Hopkins U n i v e r s i t y , Washington, D.C. Norman Ward, Department o f P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e , U n i v e r s i t y o f Saskatchewan, Saskatoon. -102-APPENDIX 3 1 THE ALBERTA ELECTORATE STUDY, 1969. D.K. ELTON. T h i s study i s a survey r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t concerning E l e c t o r a l P e r c e p t i o n o f F e d e r a l i s m : The A l b e r t a E l e c t o r a t e . The o b j e c t i v e o f t h i s survey r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t was to undertake an e x p l o r a t o r y i n v e s t i g a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the knowledge, s a l i e n c y , and e v a l u a t i o n of f e d e r a l i s m by the c i t i z e n s of A l b e r t a . S p e c i f i c a l l y , i t sought to answer the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s : 1. To what extent does the average A l b e r t a c i t i z e n understand the f e d e r a l form o f government under which he l i v e s and the r e s u l t i n g d i v i s i o n of power between the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l governments? ,2. How important i s i t to the c i t i z e n s o f A l b e r t a i n gene r a l t h a t a v i a b l e balance between the two l e v e l s of government be maintained? That i s , would i t make any d i f f e r e n c e to A l b e r t a ' s c i t i z e n s i f the f e d e r a l government took over such p r o v i n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s as h e a l t h and we l f a r e ? Or, on the o t h e r hand, would i t make any d i f f e r e n c e i f the p r o v i n c i a l government became r e s p o n s i b l e f o r such t h i n g s as the r e g u l a t i o n o f b r o a d c a s t i n g o r f a m i l y allowances, e t c . ? 3. How do A l b e r t a c i t i z e n s evaluate the presen t a c t i v i t i e s o f the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l governments r e g a r d i n g c o n s t i t u t i o n a l reform? The i n t e r v i e w i n g took p l a c e i n October and e a r l y November, 19 69, encompassing a four-week p e r i o d . A sample of 600 p o t e n t i a l respondents was chosen from f o r t y one of A l b e r t a ' s s i x t y f i v e p r o v i n c i a l c o n s t i t u e n c i e s . The r a t i o n a l e behind the e x c l u s i o n of twenty-four c o n s t i t u e n c i e s was mainly one of f i n a n c e s and a c c e s s i b i l i t y . I t was t h e r e f o r e decided to l i m i t the parameters of the study to the major urban c e n t r e s (Edmonton and C a l g a r y ) , and those s m a l l c i t i e s o f r u r a l areas t h a t were reasonably a c c e s s i b l e to the f i e l d 1. T h i s e x p l a n a t i o n i s quoted i n e n t i r e t y from E l t o n D., The A l b e r t a E l e c t o r a t e Study, p.1. -103-workers a v a i l a b l e . While on the s u r f a c e one might conclude t h a t the parameters of the sample are s m a l l , i t must be remembered t h a t t h e r e are v a s t areas o f A l b e r t a t h a t are s p a r s e l y populated. In f a c t , over s e v e n t y - f i v e per cent of the 1967 A l b e r t a e l e c t o r a t e l i v e i n the fo r t y - o n e c o n s t i t u e n c i e s from which the sample was drawn. The sample was p r o p o r t i o n a l l y s t r a t i f i e d g e o g r a p h i c a l l y on the b a s i s o f major urban ce n t r e s (Edmonton, C a l g a r y ) , s m a l l r u r a l areas ( i n c l u s i v e o f smal l c i t i e s and towns such as Camrose, F o r t Macleod, Vulcan, F o r t Saskatchewan, e t c . ) . T h i s r e s u l t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g a l l o c a t i o n o f i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e s : -Geographic L o c a t i o n of Samples Number of E l i g i b l e E l e c t o r s Interview Schedule Edmonton Cal g a r y Small C i t i e s R u r a l 35% 30% 10% 25% 207,304 178,110 57,230 151,385 210 180 60 150 TOTALS 100^ 594,029 600 * T o t a l names on e l e c t o r a t e l i s t , 795,034. -104-APPENDIX 4 PRAIRIE IDENTITY STUDY. Th i s survey was conducted by the w r i t e r i n three forms -1) As p a r t o f an i n t e r v i e w . 2) By d i r e c t l y p u t t i n g the q u e s t i o n to students s e l e c t e d a t random at the U n i v e r s i t i e s of Manitoba, Saskatchewan (Saskatoon), L e t h b r i d g e , Edmonton and C a l g a r y . 3) By l e t t e r . S i x t y - f i v e people responded. The two q u e s t i o n s were asked i n one of the forms above. (i) Do you f e e l t h a t a d i s c e r n i b l e P r a i r i e i d e n t i t y e x i s t s w i t h A l b e r t a , Saskatchewan and Manitoba? I f answer was'Yes' -( i i ) What i s the b a s i s of t h i s i d e n t i t y ? The l a t t e r / b e i n g an open-ended response, was analysed i n t o content headings, the r e s u l t s o f which appear i n the t e x t . Interviews -Edward P. B e n o i t Brigham Y Card D.K. E l t o n A r l e i g h H. Laycock Cleo W. Mowers L.D. Mabbott J.P. Meekison H. Strom Correspondence -O.A. Anderson M.L.A., Edmonton. Department o f E d u c a t i o n a l Foundation, The U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a . Department o f P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e , The U n i v e r s i t y of L e t h b r i d g e . Department of Geography, The U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a , Edmonton. E d i t o r and P u b l i s h e r , The L e t h b r i d g e H e r a l d . E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r , Department of F e d e r a l and Intergovernmental A f f a i r s . Assoc. Dean, F a c u l t y of Graduate S t u d i e s and Research, The U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a , Edmonton. Former Premier of A l b e r t a . Former Research A s s i s t a n t to Premier Strom. -105-D. Baron E. P. B e n o i t R.M. Burns J.R. Cameron B.Y. Card F.R. Drummie D. K. E l t o n E. J . Hanson A. L a f o r d L.L. L a P i e r r e A.H. Laycock L.D. Mabbot E.C.Manning E.E. M i l l e r W.L. Morton J.P. Meekison A. W. P i a t t S.G. P e i t c h i n i s M.A. Schwartz B. C. S t r a y e r D. Swainson R. Sykes J.H. Thompson D.C. Thomson N. Ward E d i t o r , Country Guide-Farm Magazine. M.L.A. A l b e r t a . D i r e c t o r I n s t i t u t e of Intergovernmental R e l a t i o n s , Queens U n i v e r s i t y . Research A s s o c i a t e , Royal Commission on Educat i o n P u b l i c S e r v i c e s and P r o v i n c i a l -M u n i c i p a l R e l a t i o n s . P r o f e s s o r , F a c u l t y of Education, U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a . S e c r e t a r y of the Cabinet, Nova S c o t i a . P r o f e s s o r , Department of P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e , The U n i v e r s i t y of L e t h b r i d g e . P r o f e s s o r , Department o f Economics, The U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a . Department A s s i s t a n t O f f i c e of the M i n i s t e r of Regional Economic Expansion. P r o f e s s o r , Department of H i s t o r y , M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y . P r o f e s s o r , Department o f Geography, U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a . E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r , Department of F e d e r a l and Intergovernmental A f f a i r s , A l b e r t a . The Senate, Canada. P r o f e s s o r o f Geography, The U n i v e r s i t y of L e t h b r i d g e . P r o f e s s o r of Assoc. Dea$, Research. E x e c u t i v e S e c r e t a r y , U n i t e d Farmers o f A l b e r t a C o - o p e r a t i v e . P r o f e s s o r , Department o f Economics, U n i v e r s i t y of C a l g a r y . P r o f e s s o r , Department of S o c i o l o g y , U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s , Chicago C i r c l e . D i r e c t o r , C o n s t i t u t i o n a l Review, P r i v y C o u n c i l O f f i c e . Assoc. P r o f e s s o r , Department of H i s t o r y , Queen's U n i v e r s i t y . Mayor of C a l g a r y . Department of H i s t o r y , M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y . D i r e c t o r , Centre of Canadian S t u d i e s , School of Advanced I n t e r n a t i o n a l S t u d i e s , John Hopkins U n i v e r s i t y . P r o f e s s o r , Department of P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e , U n i v e r s i t y o f Saskatchewan. H i s t o r y , T r e n t U n i v e r s i t y . F a c u l t y of Graduate Studi e s and In a d d i t i o n to the above, o t h e r l e t t e r s were r e c e i v e d , but d i d not respond to the r e l e v a n t q u e s t i o n s concerning P r a i r i e i d e n t i t y . -106-Newspapers, e i t h e r by l e t t e r or i n t e r v i e w - No response t o r e l e v a n t q u e s t i o n s . Toronto D a i l y S t a r , Toronto. Macleans Magazine. Maclean-^Hunter L t d . , Tor on t o . Edmonton J o u r n a l , Edmonton. Winnipeg Free P r e s s , Winnipeg. V i c t o r i a C o l o n i s t , V i c t o r i a . The A l b e r t a n , C a l g a r y . The Calgary H e r a l d , C a l g a r y . Medicine Hat News, Medicine Hat. Red Deer Advocate, Red Deer. Herald-Tribune, Grand P r a i r i e . The Times, V i c t o r i a . The Vancouver Sun, Vancouver. The Leader-Post, Regina. The Star-Phoenix, Saskatoon. The H e r a l d , P r i n c e A l b e r t . Time-Herald, Moose Jaw. The Tribune, Winnipeg. A Ramble Sample o f students. Students were chosen mainly because of t h e i r a v a i l a b i l i t y , and t h e i r w i l l i n g n e s s to answer q u e s t i o n s and pre s e n t an o p i n i o n on the s u b j e c t . Time a v a i l a b i l i t y a l s o made students an a t t r a c t i v e sample group. *The E d i t o r . *The E d i t o r . The E d i t o r . The E d i t o r . *The E d i t o r . The E d i t o r . The E d i t o r . The E d i t o r . The E d i t o r . *The E d i t o r . *The E d i t o r . *The E d i t o r . The E d i t o r . The E d i t o r . *The E d i t o r . The E d i t o r . The E d i t o r . -107-APPENDIX 5 JURISDICTIONS OF FEDERAL "REGIONAL" OFFICES, AGENCIES, DIVISIONS OR BRANCHES IN THE PRAIRIE PROVINCES, 1970. 1 Th i s t a b l e i s taken from - Card, B.Y., " P o l i t i c a l Union, Regionalism or Both?" i n E l t o n , D.K., One P r a i r i e P rovince? A Question f o r Canada, p.122. J u r i s d i c t i o n Areas D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Regional Headquarters T o t a l Winnipeg Regina Calgary Edmonton Other Number The 3 P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e s as a r e g i o n 18 Man.Sask.as a r e g i o n 3 Alta.&B.C. as a r e g i o n 1 A l t a . N.W.T.S Y.T. 3 A l t a . s u b d i v i d e d as two r e g i o n s , and Sask.and Man. as two reg i o n s 16 Four Western p r o v i n c e s as a Region. 3 2 Sa s k . A l t a . &B.C. as a Region 1 A l t a . a s a r e g i o n , Man.S Sask. Combined as a Region 2 N.W.T. & Y.T. 2 Each Prov i n c e as a Region 36 12 12 1 2 12 Drumheller Vancouver T o t a l Regional B4 20 27_ 1_ i§. -O f f i c e s o r Agencies 1. Compiled from m a i l i n g l i s t o f the Edmonton O f f i c e o f the P u b l i c S e r v i c e Commission, supplemented by i n t e r v i e w d a t a / 2. Regina i n most cases, though some may be Saskatoon. 3. That p a r t o f B.C. a d j o i n i n g A l b e r t a i n c l u d e d f o r Western Region of N a t i o n a l and H i s t o r i c Parks. 

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