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Investigation of the oral, anal and hysterical character types and their relationship to percetions of… Bowman, Roland Glen 1973

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AN INVESTIGATION OF THE ORAL, ANAL AND HYSTERICAL CHARACTER TYPES AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP TO PERCEPTIONS OF CHILDREARING by ROLAND GLEN BOWMAN B.A. (Hon.), U n i v e r s i t y of Saskatchewan, 1969 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of Psychology We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard / THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1973 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s representatives. It i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department The University of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date ^LfX. r / 7 7 3 ABSTRACT Although p s y c h o a n a l y t i c theory can p r o v i d e a l a r g e number of t e s t a b l e hypotheses concerning p e r s o n a l i t y development, s c i e n t i f i c psychology has been slow to r e a l i z e t h i s p o t e n t i a l . The concept of c h a r a c t e r type i s one aspect of Freudian theory which merits f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . I t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t c e r t a i n t r a i t s occur together i n a d u l t p e r s o n a l i t y because they a r i s e at the same l e v e l of psychosexual development. The present study t e s t e d the e m p i r i c a l v a l i d i t y of the o r a l , anal and h y s t e r i c a l c h a r a c t e r c o n s t r u c t s i n a normal sample. R e l a t i o n s h i p s between c h a r a c t e r type and p e r c e p t i o n s of p a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e s and behavior were a l s o e x p l o r e d . 143 psychology students completed a p e r s o n a l i t y q u e s t i o n n a i r e , which provided s c o r e s f o r t r a i t s r e l e v a n t to the c h a r a c t e r typology, and the P a r e n t a l Bole P a t t e r n s q u e s t i o n n a i r e (PBP), a measure of a d u l t ' s p e r c e p t i o n s of t h e i r own c h i l d r e a r i n g . S u b j e c t s a l s o provided i n f o r m a t i o n about b i r t h order, number of s i b l i n g s , p a r e n t s ' m a r i t a l s t a t u s and other demographic v a r i a b l e s thought to be r e l e v a n t to the p e r s o n a l i t y types. I t was hypothesized t h a t those t r a i t s which have been a t t r i b u t e d t o the o r a l , a n a l and h y s t e r i c a l types would form c o r r e l a t i o n c l u s t e r s . F a c t o r a n a l y s i s was used to t e s t the nature of these i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s . S e v e r a l hypotheses concerning r e l a t i o n s h i p s between p e r s o n a l i t y and c h i l d r e a r i n g were a l s o advanced. These were t e s t e d by computing c o r r e l a t i o n s between p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s c o r e s and PBP s c o r e s . For both male and female s u b j e c t s , f a c t o r s i d e n t i f i a b l e as the o r a l , a n a l and h y s t e r i c a l emerged, although the r e s u l t s d i d not support a view of the o r a l c h a r a c t e r as a u n i t a r y c o n s t r u c t . The a n a l c h a r a c t e r emerged most c l e a r l y . These f i n d i n g s were d i s c u s s e d i n r e l a t i o n to p u b l i s h e d s t u d i e s i n which the same p e r s o n a l i t y q u e s t i o n n a i r e was used i n a p s y c h i a t r i c p o p u l a t i o n . • The m a j o r i t y of the hypotheses p e r t a i n i n g to r e l a t i o n s h i p s between p e r s o n a l i t y and c h i l d r e a r i n g a l s o r e c e i v e d support. The o r a l c h a r a c t e r was a s s o c i a t e d with p e r c e p t i o n s of low p a r e n t a l warmth and high c o n t r o l , the a n a l c h a r a c t e r with high warmth (for females), and the h y s t e r i c a l c h a r a c t e r with low warmth. iv A m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e performed on groups of s u b j e c t s t y p i c a l of one of the three c h a r a c t e r types f a i l e d to i n d i c a t e s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n c h i l d r e a r i n g p e r c e p t i o n s . S i n c e an adequate typology should enable r e s e a r c h e r s to make p r e d i c t i o n s on the b a s i s of s u b j e c t assignment to type, the u s e f u l n e s s of the p s y c h o a n a l y t i c c h a r a c t e r typology remains i n q u e s t i o n . A l l a n Best, Ph.D. ) V TABLE OF CONTENTS I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 D e s c r i p t i o n s of the O r a l , Anal and H y s t e r i c a l Character Types 7 The E m p i r i c a l V a l i d i t y of the Character Typology 14 The C h a r a c t e r Typology and C h i l d r e a r i n g V a r i a b l e s 21 Dimensions of C h i l d r e a r i n g Behavior ......... 26 P a r e n t a l A t t i t u d e s and Behavior and the Development of P e r s o n a l i t y 31 Hypotheses .................................. 36 Method 38 Subjects 38 Measures Used 38 Procedure 40 S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s 41 R e s u l t s 44 Demographic V a r i a b l e s 44 Test s t a t i s t i c s : P e r s o n a l i t y Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 46 Factor A n a l y s i s of P e r s o n a l i t y S c a l e s ....... 47 C h i l d r e a r i n g s c a l e s 52 I P e r s o n a l i t y and P e r c e p t i o n s of C h i l d r e a r i n g ...54 R e l a t i o n s h i p s I n v o l v i n g Demographic V a r i a b l e s 57 v i D i s c u s s i o n 60 References 69 Appendix 1. P e r s o n a l i t y Test S c a l e s 75 Appendix 2. S c a l e s f o r the P a r e n t a l Role P a t t e r n s Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 96 Appendix 3. S c a l e S t a t i s t i c s .115 Appendix 4. F a c t o r S t r u c t u r e f o r P e r s o n a l i t y Q u e s t i o n n a i r e ..............118 v i i TABLES Table I. R e l a t i o n s h i p s between C h i l d r e a r i n g Atmosphere and P e r s o n a l i t y ., 35 Table I I . Loadings f o r P e r s o n a l i t y F a c t o r s — Hales 49 Table I I I . Loadings f o r P e r s o n a l i t y F a c t o r s — Females 50 Table IV. T r a i t s Loading on Lazare e t a l . ' s (1970) O r a l , Obsessive and H y s t e r i c a l F a c t o r s .. 51 Table V. C o r r e l a t i o n s between P e r s o n a l i t y Factor Scores and PRP s c o r e s 55 Table VI. S i g n i f i c a n t C o r r e l a t i o n s between P e r s o n a l i t y F a c t o r s and Demographic V a r i a b l e s ... 58 Table VII. S i g n i f i c a n t C o r r e l a t i o n s between C h i l d r e a r i n g and Demographic V a r i a b l e s .......... 59 v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would l i k e to thank Dr. A l l a n Best f o r h i s help and encouragement i n a l l aspects of t h e s i s r e s e a r c h . I am a l s o g r a t e f u l to Dr. E. I. S i g n o r i f o r h i s a s s i s t a n c e i n pre p a r i n g the f i n a l work. None of t h i s would have been p o s s i b l e without Sheena, who provided ESW and other more t a n g i b l e forms of a s s i s t a n c e throughout. 1 INTRODUCTION Although p s y c h o a n a l y t i c theory can provide a l a r g e number of t e s t a b l e hypotheses concerning p e r s o n a l i t y development, s c i e n t i f i c psychology has been slow to r e a l i z e t h i s p o t e n t i a l . S a r n o f f (1971) suggests t h a t "some experimenters have s h i e d away from such research simply out of sheer r e l u c t a n c e to face the l a b o r of c o n s t r u c t i n g the methodological foundation that t h i s area of experimentation has been l a c k i n g . A l s o formidable i s the i n t e l l e c t u a l task of t e a s i n g out syst e m a t i c semantic d e f i n i t i o n s and deducing s p e c i f i c hypotheses from the lo o s e f a b r i c of Freudian prose. And one cannot gainsay the a t t r a c t i o n of working on concepts whose o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s and techniques of manipulation have already e n l i s t e d a f a i r degree of employment among f e l l o w experimenters." (p. 4)' However, while r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s have been slow to accumulate, the rec e n t p u b l i c a t i o n of two books which summarize past r e s e a r c h and suggest new d i r e c t i o n s f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t h i s area p r o v i d e s some i n d i c a t i o n of c o n t i n u i n g experimental i n t e r e s t ( K l i n e , 1972 and S a r n o f f , 1971). One of the major c o n t r i b u t i o n s to the study of normal p e r s o n a l i t y provided by p s y c h o a n a l y t i c theory i s the no t i o n of c h a r a c t e r type. In g e n e r a l , the hypothesis i s t h a t c e r t a i n p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s occur together i n a d u l t p e r s o n a l i t y because they a r i s e a t the same l e v e l of 2 psychosexual development. For example, the "ana l t r i a d " (parsimony, o r d e r l i n e s s and obstinacy) i s a s s o c i a t e d with the a n a l stage and c o n f l i c t s surrounding bowel t r a i n i n g . The concept of "type" i s an a t t r a c t i v e one i n the study of p e r s o n a l i t y because t y p o l o g i e s are able t o impose a degree of order i n a very c o n f u s i n g a r e a . They are economical i n t h a t , i f a person i s c o r r e c t l y assigned to a type, p r e d i c t i o n s can be made on the b a s i s of past experience with s i m i l a r i n d i v i d u a l s , who were a l s o members of that type. Two d i f f e r e n t s t r a t e g i e s have been popular i n p e r s o n a l i t y r e s e a r c h . F i r s t , i n v e s t i g a t o r s have obtained measures on a s i n g l e dimension, and attempted to r e l a t e these to behavior i n experimental s i t u a t i o n s or to scores on other d i s c r e t e v a r i a b l e s . While t h i s approach permits e l e g a n t experimental design, i t may r e v e a l l i t t l e about persons. At the other extreme, r e s e a r c h has attempted to encompass the e n t i r e range of p e r s o n a l i t y . T h i s o f t e n means t h a t s u b j e c t s ' scores are r e p o r t e d f o r a l a r g e number of measures. T h i s procedure p r o v i d e s more i n f o r m a t i o n about persons, but because of the l a r g e number of v a r i a b l e s i n v o l v e d i t may be d i f f i c u l t to c o n c e p t u a l i z e i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n a l i t y . The type approach r e p r e s e n t s a compromise s o l u t i o n . 3 A s i n g l e l a b e l can convey a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of i n f o r m a t i o n and a l s o permits c l e a n experimental design. However, i t has been much c r i t i c i z e d , e s p e c i a l l y by Anglo-Saxon p s y c h o l o g i s t s (according to Eysenck, 1970, pp. 10-14). C r i t i c s have objected t h a t t y p o l o g i e s are doomed to f a i l u r e because p s y c h o l o g i c a l dimensions are continuous r a t h e r than d i s c o n t i n u o u s . For example, M i s c h e l (1971, pp.11-23) w r i t e s of the f a l l a c y i n v o l v e d i n attempting to "pigeonhole" the i n d i v i d u a l i n t o one of a few c a t e g o r i e s . Eysenck p o i n t s out t h a t t h i s kind of c r i t i c i s m i n d i c a t e s a misconception of t y p i n g , s i n c e t y p o l o g i s t s have normally been w e l l aware t h a t not a l l persons can be assigned to one of a s m a l l group of types. He quotes a statement of Jung to the e f f e c t that everyone possesses both the mechanisms of e x t r a v e r s i o n and i n t r o v e r s i o n , and t h a t the l a b e l s " e x t r a v e r t " and " i n t r o v e r t " merely i n d i c a t e the r e l a t i v e s t r e n g t h s of these response t e n d e n c i e s . The opponents of typology o f t e n p r e f e r to work with t r a i t s . Yet, as Eysenck again has pointed out, a type i s a group of c o r r e l a t e d t r a i t s i n the same way t h a t a t r a i t i s a group of c o r r e l a t e d a c t s or t e n d e n c i e s . Thus, the major d i f f e r e n c e between the two l i e s i n the l e v e l of i n c l u s i v e n e s s or o r g a n i z a t i o n . C a t t e l l (1966, pp.289-92) has i d e n t i f i e d 45 semantic uses f o r "type". However, he d i s c u s s e s only two of these, 4 b i p o l a r and s p e c i e s types, because the vast m a j o r i t y of uses cannot be d e a l t with s t a t i s t i c a l l y due to imprecise d e f i n i t i o n . B i p o l a r types are e s s e n t i a l l y groups of extreme s c o r e r s on a continuous dimension. One of the best-known examples of t h i s s o r t o f typology i s based i n the i n t r o v e r s i o n - e x t r a v e r s i o n dimension. In c o n t r a s t , s p e c i e s types r e q u i r e t h a t a score d i s t r i b u t i o n be r e l a t i v e l y d i s c o n t i n u o u s . I t may be d i s c o v e r e d t h a t t r a i t s c o r e s have a high frequency a t one p o i n t (or a t s e v e r a l points) along a dimension. In the case of measurement on s e v e r a l v a r i a b l e s , people may si m u l t a n e o u s l y c l u s t e r on s e v e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The s i t u a t i o n i s complicated by C a t t e l l ' s (1952) r e f e r e n c e s to both continuous and d i s c o n t i n u o u s s p e c i e s types. In the f i r s t case, p a t t e r n s d i f f e r but i n a continuous way, f o r example, the a r t i s t versus the busnessman type. T r u l y d i s c o n t i n u o u s types are s i m i l a r to b i o l o g i c a l s p e c i e s with the members of one type being q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t from the members of another. The p s y c h o a n a l y t i c types conform f a i r l y w e ll to the continuous s p e c i e s model. One might expect, f o r example, t h a t the anal type would be r e l a t i v e l y d i s t i n c t from the o r a l type. An " a n a l " i n d i v i d u a l who evidences the t r a i t s of parsimony, o r d e r l i n e s s and o b s t i n a c y i s not expected to 5 be h i g h l y a g g r e s s i v e or dependent s i n c e the l a t t e r are c o n s i d e r e d to be o r a l t r a i t s . The o p p o s i t e s i t u a t i o n should be found f o r a person whose p e r s o n a l i t y i s b a s i c a l l y o r a l . However, i t i s not c l e a r to what extent c h a r a c t e r types are to be c o n s i d e r e d "pure"; t h a t i s , to what extent should we expect i n d i v i d u a l s belonging to one or another of these types to c l u s t e r i n m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l space? Freud (1931) has s t a t e d that mixed r a t h e r than unmixed types are more o f t e n found. In t h i s s i t u a t i o n , i t would be an u n f a i r t e s t of p s y c h o a n a l y t i c theory to hypothesize t h a t a l l , or even most, people can be assigned to one or another c h a r a c t e r type. Instead, the theory of c h a r a c t e r types i n i t s s i m p l e s t form merely suggests that c e r t a i n p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s should form p a t t e r n s . T h i s h y p o t h e s i s lends i t s e l f to t e s t i n g by f a c t o r ' a n a l y s i s . Recent r e s e a r c h which has used t h i s technique w i l l be d i s c u s s e d below. While r e s u l t s have sometimes been promising, much work remains to be done because of inadequacies i n r e s e a r c h design and d i f f i c u l t i e s i n g e n e r a l i z i n g r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s . (Measures have o f t e n been used e x c l u s i v e l y i n p s y c h i a t r i c or normal groups, and o f t e n data have been obtained f o r s u b j e c t s of only one sex.) As was noted e a r l i e r , the c h a r a c t e r typology i s r e l a t e d to e a r l y c h i l d development. The t r a d i t i o n a l 6 hypotheses c o r r e l a t e f e e d i n g and c l e a n l i n e s s t r a i n i n g , as w e l l as response to the o e d i p a l s i t u a t i o n , with l a t e r p e r s o n a l i t y o r g a n i z a t i o n , but a view now more commonly hel d i s that these events are important mainly as they r e f l e c t g e n e r a l a t t i t u d e s i n the parent. The present research' was an attempt to r e l a t e the c h a r a c t e r typology to broad c h i l d r e a r i n g dimensions i n developmental psychology. 7 D e s c r i p t i o n s of the O r a l , Anal and H y s t e r i c a l Character Types: According to F e n i c h e l (1945), c h a r a c t e r i s the " h a b i t u a l mode of b r i n g i n g i n t o harmony the tasks presented by i n t e r n a l demands and the e x t e r n a l world ... (and i s ) n e c e s s a r i l y a f u n c t i o n of the ... Ego" (p. 467). Adult c h a r a c t e r (or p e r s o n a l i t y ) w i l l be determined by the i n t e r a c t i o n between i n s t i n c t u a l demands and the r e a l i t i e s of the environment. From the beginning, psychoanalysts s t r e s s e d the importance of the environment i n i n f a n c y and e a r l y c h i l d h o o d as a determinant of f u t u r e p e r s o n a l i t y . A f a i r l y l a r g e number of c h a r a c t e r types have been r e l a t e d to v a r i a t i o n s i n the course of psychosexual development; f o r example, F e n i c h e l d e s c r i b e s o r a l , a n a l , u r e t h r a l , p h a l l i c , h y s t e r i c a l , n a r c i s s i s t i c and other types. The present i n v e s t i g a t i o n w i l l i n v o l v e three of these: o r a l , a n a l and h y s t e r i c a l . 1. The a n a l c h a r a c t e r : The anal c h a r a c t e r was the f i r s t to be d e s c r i b e d , and i s a l s o the most c l e a r l y d e f i n e d of the c h a r a c t e r types. In h i s o r i g i n a l paper concerning a n a l e r o t i c i s m , Freud (1908) f i r s t noted the r e g u l a r combination of those t r a i t s which have come to be known as the " a n a l t r i a d " 8 o r d e r l i n e s s , parsimony and o b s t i n a c y — i n c e r t a i n of h i s p a t i e n t s . Also i n t h i s paper, Freud g i v e s the "formula f o r the form a t i o n of the u l t i m a t e c h a r a c t e r from the c o n s t i t u e n t c h a r a c t e r t r a i t s " . According t o Freud, "permanent c h a r a c t e r t r a i t s are e i t h e r unchanged p e r p e t u a t i o n s of the o r i g i n a l impulses, s u b l i m a t i o n s of them or r e a c t i o n formations a g a i n s t them". (p. 50) Anal t r a i t s a r i s e i n the s i t u a t i o n of bowel t r a i n i n g . O r d e r l i n e s s i s a r e a c t i o n formation a g a i n s t the i n f a n t i l e wish to r e b e l a g a i n s t the requirements of t r a i n i n g . I t appears that o b s t i n a c y i s a c o n t i n u a t i o n of the c h i l d ' s wish not to comply with maternal demands, while parsimony would r e p r e s e n t s u b l i m a t i o n . Abraham (1921) expanded on Freud's views, and s t r e s s e d the notion that the a n a l c h a r a c t e r i s b a s i c a l l y unproductive, because the perseverance t y p i c a l of t h i s type i s o f t e n wasted i n the observance of f i x e d forms. Other anal t r a i t s d i s c u s s e d by Abraham are the tendency to i n t e r r u p t ongoing a c t i v i t y , worry over waste of money and time, p l e a s u r e i n possession, r u l e - f o l l o w i n g , s y s t e m a t i z i n g and avoidance of > i n i t i a t i v e . In a l a t e r paper Abraham (1924) notes that some of these t r a i t s are u s e f u l i n t h a t they a s s i s t the i n d i v i d u a l i n a d j u s t i n g to h i s environment. 9 Heich (1933) added s e v e r a l t r a i t s to the growing l i s t . Among these were strong g u i l t f e e l i n g s , i n d e c i s i o n , r e s t r a i n t and c o n t r o l , a f f e c t - b l o c k i n g , and c i r c u m s t a n t i a l t h i n k i n g . The d e s c r i p t i o n of the a n a l c h a r a c t e r has not been s u b s t a n t i a l l y modified s i n c e . Sometimes the a n a l c h a r a c t e r is* considered to have two a s p e c t s : a n a l - r e t e n t i v e and a n a l - e x p u l s i v e . The t r a i t s mentioned above belong to the former and are i a s s o c i a t e d with compliance i n t o i l e t t r a i n i n g , although the i n c l u s i o n of o b s t i n a c y may be questio n e d . In c o n t r a s t , a n a l - e x p u l s i v e t r a i t s are r e l a t e d to a f a i l u r e to comply with p a r e n t a l demands. Some examples of these t r a i t s would be: d e f i a n t messiness, l a c k of p u n c t u a l i t y and s p e n d t h r i f t behavior. 2. The o r a l c h a r a c t e r : The o r a l c h a r a c t e r was f i r s t d e s c r i b e d by Abraham (1924). He suggested t h a t two d i f f e r e n t p e r s o n a l i t y p a t t e r n s are a s s o c i a t e d with the o r a l stage — the " g r a t i f i e d " and " u n g r a t i f i e d " types. Optimism, g e n e r o s i t y and p a s s i v i t y are a s s o c i a t e d with the o r a l - g r a t i f i e d p e r s o n a l i t y , while h o s t i l i t y , parsimony, impatience, c l i n g i n g , j e a l o u s y , and m a l i c i o u s n e s s are r e l a t e d to 10 f a i l u r e s of g r a t i f i c a t i o n . In g e n e r a l , concern over s e c u r i t y i s regarded as an o r a l t r a i t . In a paper of the same year. Glover (1924) gave another of the c l a s s i c d e s c r i p t i o n s of the o r a l c h a r a c t e r and i t s o r i g i n s . He a l s o notes t h a t the o r a l - g r a t i f i e d p e r s o n a l i t y w i l l be o p t i m i s t i c and p a s s i v e . To Abraham's l i s t of o r a l - u n g r a t i f i e d t r a i t s , he adds f e e l i n g s of i n j u s t i c e , envy, a d i s l i k e of s h a r i n g and l a b i l i t y of mood. I t i s obvious t h a t both Abraham and Glover considered the u n g r a t i f i e d aspect of the o r a l c h a r a c t e r to be of most i n t e r e s t . T h i s presumably r e f l e c t s the concern of psychoanalysts with the abnormal s i n c e d e s c r i p t i o n s of the o r a l - g r a t i f i e d c h a r a c t e r appear to i n v o l v e l e s s pathology. In the case of the a n a l c h a r a c t e r , i t i s a l s o the e f f e c t s of r i g i d i t y and d e p r i v a t i o n which are s t r e s s e d . When w r i t e r s now d i s c u s s the " o r a l c h a r a c t e r " , i t i s l i k e l y to be the " o r a l u n g r a t i f i e d c h a r a c t e r " , while d i s c u s s i o n s of the "anal c h a r a c t e r " r a r e l y d e a l with t r a i t s a r i s i n g from too l e n i e n t parent behavior. They focus p r i m a r i l y on the a n a l - r e t e n t i v e type. ) 3. The h y s t e r i c a l c h a r a c t e r : Lazare (1971) has attempted to c l a r i f y the concept of 11 the h y s t e r i c a l c h a r a c t e r by t r a c i n g i t s development. He notes that the most i n f l u e n t i a l d e s c r i p t i o n of t h i s c h a r a c t e r type was t h a t given by Reich (1933). In Reich's view, h y s t e r i c a l p a t i e n t s are f i x a t e d at an advanced stage of l i b i d i n a l development and are thus more amenable to treatment. They are caught i n a c o n f l i c t between i n t e n s e f e a r of s e x u a l i t y , because of r e p r e s s e d i n c e s t u o u s wishes, and strong s e x u a l s t r i v i n g s . He suggests that the most out s t a n d i n g h y s t e r i c a l t r a i t i s an obvious sexual behavior or coquetry. Other t r a i t s mentioned are: easy e x c i t a b i l i t y , a tendency to unexpected changes i n behavior, s u g g e s t i b i l i t y and v i v i d i m a g i n a t i o n . Marmor (1953) has s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d p s y c h o a n a l y t i c t h i n k i n g about the h y s t e r i c a l c h a r a c t e r by arguing that o r a l f i x a t i o n s are of b a s i c importance. He presents a p i c t u r e of the h y s t e r i c a l person as someone l o o k i n g f o r l o v e while appearing to look f o r sex. Lazare notes t h a t r e c e n t w r i t i n g about the h y s t e r i c a l p e r s o n a l i t y has emphasized the s i c k n e s s - h e a l t h dimension. I t now seems agreed that r a t h e r than being easy to t r e a t , h y s t e r i c s may f a l l anywhere along t h i s dimension. The problems of the "healthy h y s t e r i c " r e v o l v e around sexual behavior and the oedipus c o n f l i c t , while i n the " s i c k h y s t e r i c " o r a l concerns are predominant. In t h i s case 12 there w i l l be an exaggeration of h y s t e r i c a l t r a i t s , e.g., e x h i b i t i o n i s m becomes more a g g r e s s i v e and sexual p r o v o c a t i v e n e s s more crude. There i s a tendency to i s o l a t e and f o r the person to view h e r s e l f as d i f f e r e n t and s u p e r i o r . L i t t l e g u i l t i s experienced and o r a l a g g r e s s i o n and "pouty c o n t r a r i n e s s " are common. as w e l l , f r i e n d s h i p s w i l l be of s h o r t d u r a t i o n and behavior may be e r a t i c and i m p u l s i v e . On the other hand, the he a l t h y h y s t e r i c i s l i k e l y t o be e n e r g e t i c , ambitious, c o m p e t i t i v e and may possess a s t r i c t superego. She may maintain f r i e n d s h i p s over long p e r i o d s of time, although with o c c a s i o n a l emotional storms. From the above d i s c u s s i o n there i s reason to expect a mixture of h y s t e r i c a l and o r a l t r a i t s i n a d u l t p e r s o n a l i t y . Glover (1924) provided a g e n e r a l statement about p u r i t y of types. He s t a t e s that "the more one attempts to c o r r e l a t e v a r i o u s c h a r a c t e r t r a i t s , the more apparent i t becomes t h a t we have to deal with i m p r i n t s from a l l stages of ego and l i b i d o development" (p„ 39). As w e l l , F e n i c h e l (1945) notes that i t i s d i f f i c u l t to f i n d o r a l elements " f r e e from l a t e r a n a l admixture". (p. 488) he a l s o s t a t e s t h a t the o r a l c h a r a c t e r i s not as c l e a r as the a n a l , because more o r a l elements p e r s i s t as 13 e r o t i c a c t i v i t i e s (and are t h e r e f o r e not "converted" to c h a r a c t e r ) , and many elements which l a t e r become c l e a r l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d are i n t e g r a t e d i n the o r a l stage. 14 The E m p i r i c a l V a l i d i t y of the Character Typology: One of the e a r l i e s t , and a l s o one of the most i n f l u e n t i a l , e m p i r i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s of c h a r a c t e r types was r e p o r t e d by Goldman-Eisler (1951). She developed a s e r i e s of s e l f - r e p o r t s c a l e s designed to measure nineteen t r a i t s mentioned by p s y c h o a n a l y t i c w r i t e r s i n connection with the o r a l c h a r a c t e r . These were administered to a group of m i d d l e - c l a s s a d u l t s . F a c t o r a n a l y s i s of the data i n d i c a t e d f a c t o r s of " o r a l pessimism" and " o r a l a g g r e s s i o n " . While t h i s r e s u l t provided some support f o r t h e o r e t i c a l f o r m u l a t i o n s , i t was not expected that a g g r e s s i o n would be u n r e l a t e d to pessimism, s i n c e both t r a i t s are aspects of the o r a l - u n g r a t i f i e d p e r s o n a l i t y . However, Goldman-Eisler's pessimism f a c t o r d i d show p o s i t i v e l o a d i n g s on a number of other o r a l - u n g r a t i f i e d t r a i t s c a l e s (e.g., a l o o f n e s s and p a s s i v i t y ) , and negative l o a d i n g s on some o r a l - g r a t i f i e d t r a i t s (e.g., optimism, nurturance and s o c i a b i l i t y ) . More r e c e n t l y , G o t t h e i l (1965) devised a q u e s t i o n n a i r e to measure a n a l as well as o r a l t r a i t s . In an attempt to v a l i d a t e h i s s c a l e , he asked a group of p s y c h o l o g i s t s and p s y c h i a t r i s t s to i n d i c a t e the expected response of o r a l and a n a l p e r s o n a l i t i e s to h i s items. He was a b l e to r e p o r t a f a i r l y high l e v e l of agreement. The 15 q u e s t i o n n a i r e was then administered to a group of army men ( G o t t h e i l and Stone, 1 9 6 8 ) . F a c t o r a n a l y s i s of the data r e v e a l e d f i v e f a c t o r s . Two of these appeared to correspond to the o r a l and anal c h a r a c t e r s , but they accounted f o r only 5 . 3 % of the t o t a l score v a r i a n c e . Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , the authors concluded that these types were "not the most potent o r g a n i z i n g f a c t o r s " i n the data! B e l o f f ( 1 9 5 7 ) has a l s o i n v e s t i g a t e d the a n a l c h a r a c t e r . She devised a q u e s t i o n n a i r e measure of f o u r t e e n anal t r a i t s c a l e s . Data was f i r s t c o l l e c t e d from a group of undergraduates to o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n on s c a l e c o n s i s t e n c y . On t h i s b a s i s the " b e s t " items were chosen f o r her q u e s t i o n n a i r e . These were administered to a group of students i n a r e s i d e n c e ( N = 1 2 0 ) . at the same time peer r a t i n g s were gathered. Both s e t s of scores were subjected to f a c t o r a n a l y s i s and i n each case one f a c t o r emerged. The s c a l e s with the h i g h e s t l o a d i n g s on the f a c t o r were s u p e r i o r i t y , d e s i r e to dominate, quasi-sadism, i r r i t a b i l i t y , c o n s c i e n t i o u s n e s s and o b s t i n a c y . The "ana l t r i a d " accounted f o r l e s s v a r i a n c e than might have been expected. K l i n e ( 1 9 7 1 ) notes t h a t B e l o f f s r e s u l t s cannot be accepted as str o n g support f o r the v a l i d i t y of the anal c h a r a c t e r c o n s t r u c t s i n c e the emergence of a g e n e r a l f a c t o r i n t h i s s o r t of study only p r o v i d e s evidence f o r s c a l e homogeneity. \ 16 Sandler and H a z a r i (1960) have r e p o r t e d a study of the o b s e s s i v e p e r s o n a l i t y 1 , and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to obs e s s i v e symptoms. They administered a 40-item q u e s t i o n n a i r e which purported to measure aspects of ob s e s s i v e t h i n k i n g and behavior to a group of p s y c h i a t r i c p a t i e n t s . A f a c t o r a n a l y s i s of the data i n d i c a t e d two f a c t o r s , one which r e l a t e d to t r a i t s and the other to symptoms. K l i n e (1967) r e p l i c a t e d t h e i r r e s u l t s i n a normal p o p u l a t i o n . (It i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h at a "symptom" f a c t o r should a l s o emerge here s i n c e Sandler and Hazari s t a t e d t hat o n l y an exaggerated p i c t u r e of t h e i r symptom f a c t o r would r e p r e s e n t o b s e s s i o n a l neurosis.) More r e c e n t l y K l i n e (1968a, 1969) has dev i s e d h i s own paper and p e n c i l measure of the a n a l c h a r a c t e r . T h i s s c a l e i s unusual i n t h i s area i n that checks were made on the o p e r a t i o n of s o c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y and other response s e t s . V a l i d i t y data was obtained by s u b j e c t i n g data from the q u e s t i o n n a i r e to a f a c t o r a n a l y s i s along with scores on the MMPI, 16PF, and the B e l o f f and S a n d l e r - H a z a r i s c a l e s . In g e n e r a l , r e s u l t s support K l i n e ' s c o n c l u s i o n t h a t h i s s c a l e i s a v a l i d measure of the an a l c h a r a c t e r . 1. I t appears that the terms " a n a l " and " o b s e s s i v e " can be used i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y without causing c o n f u s i o n . Ingram (1961) compared d e s c r i p t i o n s of the anal c h a r a c t e r and the obsess i v e p e r s o n a l i t y and found that usage d i f f e r e d only i n terms of the t r a i t s emphasized. 17 S e v e r a l r e s e a r c h e r s have attempted to provide evidence f o r the v a l i d i t y of three or more c h a r a c t e r types i n the same i n v e s t i g a t i o n . For example, Barnes (1952) adm i n i s t e r e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s measuring o r a l , anal and p h a l l i c p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s to a group of over 200 male undergraduates. Twenty-four t e s t s cores were i n c l u d e d i n a f a c t o r a n a l y s i s and e l e v e n f a c t o r s e x t r a c t e d . Of these only three were c o n s i s t e n t with p s y c h o a n a l y t i c f o r m u l a t i o n s . One of them appeared to be an a n a l f a c t o r (with high l o a d i n g s on meticulousness, o r d e r l i n e s s , e t c . ) , another r e f l e c t e d "ambivalence over dependency at the end of the o r a l stage", while the t h i r d loaded on the t r a i t of s e x u a l a g g r e s s i o n and may have been r e l a t e d to the p h a l l i c s tage. The Dynamic P e r s o n a l i t y Inventory (DPI) (Grygier, 1961) has sometimes been used i n s t u d i e s r e l e v a n t to the present t o p i c . The DPI p u r p o r t s to measure o r a l , a n a l , p h a l l i c and other t r a i t s . A f a c t o r a n a l y s i s of s c o r e s obtained from a sample of c o l l e g e students ( K l i n e , 1968b) provided l i t t l e evidence f o r the v a l i d i t y of the c h a r a c t e r typology, s i n c e only the f i r s t of eleven f a c t o r s was i n agreement with p s y c h o a n a l y t i c theory. T h i s f a c t o r loaded on a n a l t r a i t s . S a r n o f f (1971, p. 34) notes that the anal s c a l e s of the DPI have "produced the most s u p p o r t i v e r e s u l t s f o r the p r e d i c t i o n s made from them", i n comparison 18 to other DPI s c a l e s . Finney (1961a) reported a study i n which he used an i n v e n t o r y made up of MMPI items and the Gough and F s c a l e s . These items were administered to a group of 100 n e u r o t i c p a t i e n t s , and scores were s u b j e c t e d to f a c t o r a n a l y s i s with o b l i q u e r o t a t i o n . Finney obtained f a c t o r s which he i d e n t i f i e d as the " a n a l compulsive c h a r a c t e r " with high l o a d i n g s on o r d e r l i n e s s , s t i n g i n e s s , e t c . , the " h y s t e r i c a l c h a r a c t e r or r e p r e s s i o n " , which loaded p o s i t i v e l y on a s u b t l e form of the Hy s c a l e and n e g a t i v e l y on the F s c a l e , and " o r a l a g g r e s s i o n or delinquency". T h i s l a s t f a c t o r had high l o a d i n g s on the Pd s c a l e and the Gough-Petersen delinquency s c a l e . High s c o r e r s on the l a t t e r have been d e s c r i b e d as demanding and e x h i b i t i o n i s t i c . Two other f a c t o r s ("paranoid c h a r a c t e r or p r o j e c t i o n " , and "conversion") were a l s o r e p o r t e d . F i n a l l y , Lazare, Klerman and Armor (1966) have explo r e d the e m p i r i c a l v a l i d i t y of the o r a l , a n a l and h y s t e r i c a l c h a r a c t e r s . From a review of the l i t e r a t u r e they a r r i v e d at a group of twenty t r a i t s r e l e v a n t to these t h r e e types. A q u e s t i o n n a i r e was c o n s t r u c t e d to measure these and administered to a group of n i n e t y female p s y c h i a t r i c p a t i e n t s who were s e l e c t e d because t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t i e s approximated one of the three types i n terms 19 of r e s i d e n t s ' r a t i n g s . S c a l e s c o r e s (20 per subject) were then s u b j e c t e d t o f a c t o r a n a l y s i s . Three f a c t o r s , accounting f o r 41% of the v a r i a n c e , were e x t r a c t e d . Of these, the "o b s e s s i v e f a c t o r " had a l o a d i n g p a t t e r n c l o s e s t to that p r e d i c t e d . A l l of the s c a l e s with l o a d i n g s above .40 on t h i s f a c t o r had been con s i d e r e d a n a l . The " o r a l " and " h y s t e r i c a l " f a c t o r s d i d not emerge as c l e a r l y . The l a t t e r had l o a d i n g s on s e v e r a l h y s t e r i c a l t r a i t s , but a g g r e s s i o n a l s o loaded h i g h l y . T h i s r e s u l t i s d i s c u s s e d i n r e l a t i o n to r e c e n t t h i n k i n g r e g a r d i n g the h y s t e r i c a l c h a r a c t e r , e s p e c i a l l y with respect to Marmor's (1953) n o t i o n s about o r a l f e a t u r e s i n the h y s t e r i c a l c h a r a c t e r . Loadings on the " o r a l f a c t o r " d i f f e r e d most from p r e d i c t i o n s . T h i s seems c o n s i s t e n t with the f a c t t h a t the o r a l c h a r a c t e r has been the most d i f f i c u l t to d e l i m i t t h e o r e t i c a l l y . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h i s f a c t o r had high l o a d i n g s on s e v e r a l h y s t e r i c a l and ob s e s s i v e t r a i t s as w e l l as on o r a l t r a i t s . In a more re c e n t paper Lazare et a l . (1970) r e p o r t a r e p l i c a t i o n of the above procedures. Again the s u b j e c t s were female p s y c h i a t r i c p a t i e n t s , but t h i s time they were un s e l e c t e d . Three f a c t o r s accounted f o r 43% of the v a r i a n c e among t e s t s c o r e s . These were very s i m i l a r to those d e s c r i b e d above. Rank order c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r the " o r a l " , " o b s e s s i v e " and " h y s t e r i c a l " f a c t o r s i n the two 20 s t u d i e s were .93, .66, and .94 r e s p e c t i v e l y . Although the c o r r e l a t i o n f o r the second f a c t o r i s lower than the other two, v i r t u a l l y every t r a i t with a high l o a d i n g on t h i s f a c t o r i n both s t u d i e s has been c l i n i c a l l y d e f i n e d as o b s e s s i v e . What c o n c l u s i o n s can be drawn from the r e s e a r c h c i t e d above? F i r s t of a l l , i t seems t h a t there i s f a i r l y c l e a r evidence f o r the v a l i d i t y of the a n a l c h a r a c t e r c o n s t r u c t i n both p s y c h i a t r i c and normal p o p u l a t i o n s . Evidence f o r the o r a l and h y s t e r i c a l c h a r a c t e r c o n s t r u c t s i s c o n s i d e r a b l y weaker. T h i s s i t u a t i o n may r e f l e c t the f a c t t h a t the anal c h a r a c t e r has been more adequately d e s c r i b e d than the other types. There has a l s o been g r e a t e r agreement among c l i n i c i a n s with regard to i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n . The weaknesses of many of these s t u d i e s are a l l too obvious. There has been l i t t l e concern with response s e t s as they a f f e c t q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e s u l t s and few attempts to v a l i d a t e the measures used. K l i n e (1972) notes t h a t the work of Lazare, Klerman and Armor i s not as open to the former c r i t i c i s m as t h a t of others s i n c e the emergence of s e v e r a l f a c t o r s argues a g a i n s t the o p e r a t i o n of a response s e t , which would tend to produce a general f a c t o r . As w e l l , t h e i r r e p o r t e d p a t t e r n of f a c t o r l o a d i n g s p r o v i d e s some evidence f o r the c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y of t h e i r measure. 21 The C h a r a c t e r T y p o l o g y and C h i l d r e a r i n g V a r i a b l e s : W h i l e a l a r g e amount o f r e s e a r c h has a t t e m p t e d t o r e l a t e p e r s o n a l i t y d e v e l o p m e n t t o p a r e n t a l c h i l d r e a r i n g b e h a v i o r , o n l y a s m a l l number o f s t u d i e s a r e d i r e c t l y r e l e v a n t t o t h e p s y c h o a n a l y t i c c h a r a c t e r t y p o l o g y . Of t h e s e , s e v e r a l have d e a l t w i t h t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between c h a r a c t e r t y p e and s p e c i f i c e v e n t s i n e a r l y c h i l d h o o d . F o r example, G o l d m a n - E i s l e r (1951) t e s t e d t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t o r a l c h a r a c t e r t r a i t s a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e a r l y weaning. She was a b l e t o r e p o r t a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n . However, s i n c e t h e d a t a on weaning was o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e s u b j e c t s t h e m s e l v e s (most o f whom were u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s ) , t h e i r r e l i a b i l i t y may be q u e s t i o n e d . G o l d m a n - E i s l e r a r g u e s t h a t weaning i s o n l y i m p o r t a n t i n s o f a r as i t r e f l e c t s g e n e r a l m a t e r n a l a t t i t u d e s , e s p e c i a l l y d e g r e e o f n u r t u r a n c e . The h y p o t h e s i z e d r e l a t i o n s h i p between a n a l t r a i t s and r i g i d b o w e l t r a i n i n g was i n v e s t i g a t e d by B e l o f f (1957). I n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e age a t w h i c h bowel t r a i n i n g had been c o m p l e t e d was o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e m o t h e r s o f h e r s u b j e c t s . T h e s e d a t a were n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o s c o r e s on h e r q u e s t i o n n a i r e measure o f a n a l c h a r a c t e r . G o t t h e i l and S t o n e (1968) have r e p o r t e d r e s e a r c h d e a l i n g w i t h t h e a s s o c i a t i o n between mouth and bowel 22 h a b i t s and the o r a l and anal c h a r a c t e r s . They c o n s t r u c t e d a q u e s t i o n n a i r e which d e a l t with both p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s and s e v e r a l mouth and bowel p r a c t i c e s , e.g., smoking, d r i n k i n g , and concern with r e g u l a r i t y . A f a c t o r a n a l y s i s of data c o l l e c t e d from a group of army men f a i l e d to i n d i c a t e a p r e f e r e n t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between o r a l t r a i t s and h a b i t s , or between a n a l t r a i t s and h a b i t s . K l i n e (1972) has reviewed the r e s e a r c h c i t e d above, along with s e v e r a l other r e p o r t s , and f i n d s that only two s t u d i e s p r o v i d e even s l i g h t support f o r p s y c h o a n a l y t i c theory. However, i n research of t h i s s o r t i t i s always p o s s i b l e t h a t p s y c h o a n a l y t i c theory has been m i s i n t e r p r e t e d d u r i n g the process of d e r i v i n g t e s t a b l e hypotheses. For example, the notion t h a t a c h i l d ' s age at completion of bowel t r a i n i n g i s n e c e s s a r i l y r e l a t e d to a n a l t r a i t s i s somewhat s i m p l i s t i c , s i n c e i t i s obvious t h a t other measures of s e v e r i t y of t r a i n i n g could a l s o be used. S e v e r a l i n v e s t i g a t o r s have provided evidence f o r c h i l d r e a r i n g antecedents of o r a l , a n a l and h y s t e r i c a l t r a i t s which would not be s p e c i f i c a l l y p r e d i c t e d from p s y c h o a n a l y t i c theory (although they are not n e c e s s a r i l y i n c o n t r a d i c t i o n ) . In the study reported by B e l o f f (1957) the mothers o f the undergraduate s u b j e c t s a l s o completed 23 the a n a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e . There was a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the s c o r e s of mothers and sons, s u g g e s t i n g t h a t the mothers of c h i l d r e n with anal p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s may a l s o possess these same c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Heatherington and B r a c k b i l l (1963) present experimental r e s u l t s i n support o f t h i s view. B e h a v i o r a l r a t i n g s of o b s t i n a c y , o r d e r l i n e s s and parsimony f o r a group of c h i l d r e n were p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d with q u e s t i o n n a i r e scores f o r these t r a i t s i n the dominant parent. In a d d i t i o n , Adams (1972) has r e p o r t e d t h a t anal t r a i t s are conspicuous i n the p e r s o n a l i t i e s of the parents of o b s e s s i o n a l c h i l d r e n . He notes emphasis on c l e a n l i n e s s , d i s a p p r o v a l of s p o n t a n e i t y , very c o n v e n t i o n a l behavior, e t c . , i n d e s c r i p t i o n s of the mothers and f a t h e r s of c h i l d r e n with o b s e s s i v e symptoms. I t appears that the m a j o r i t y of the r e s e a r c h concerning the antecedents of the o r a l c h a r a c t e r has focused on the i n f a n t f e e d i n g s i t u a t i o n . However, Finney (1961b) does present evidence f o r the importance of g e n e r a l l e v e l of nurturance i n the development of o r a l t r a i t s . He found that c l i n i c a l r a t i n g s of maternal nurturance were s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d i n a negative d i r e c t i o n to r a t i n g s of pessimism, dependency, a n x i e t y , and p a s s i v e h o s t i l i t y i n the c h i l d . The s u b j e c t s i n t h i s study were a group of 31 guidance c l i n i c p a t i e n t s and 24 t h e i r mothers. Finney's r e s u l t s support Goldman-Eisler's o p i n i o n that the o r a l c h a r a c t e r may be a s s o c i a t e d with g e n e r a l a t t i t u d e s of the mother. F i t z g e r a l d (1948) has suggested that l o v e - d e p r i v a t i o n g i v e s r i s e to h y s t e r i c a l t r a i t s , because i t c r e a t e s a h a b i t of " l o v e - c r a v i n g " from which other h y s t e r i c a l f e a t u r e s develop. He s p e c u l a t e s t h a t these t r a i t s may be more common i n females than i n males because the d i s r u p t i o n of a mother's love i s more damaging to the g i r l s i n c e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i s s t r o n g e r i n her case. However, with regard to sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n the occurrence of h y s t e r i c a l t r a i t s , F o r r e s t (1967) has noted that i n a p s y c h i a t r i c p o p u l a t i o n males with behavior and a t t i t u d e s s i m i l a r to those of " h y s t e r i c a l " females are l i k e l y to be l a b e l e d e i t h e r a l c o h o l i c or psychopathic. Thus, i t may be t h a t the i n c i d e n c e of h y s t e r i c a l t r a i t s i s e q u i v a l e n t i n males and females, but that l a b e l s d i f f e r . B l i n d e r (1966) suggests t h a t the h y s t e r i c a l p e r s o n a l i t y i s a s s o c i a t e d with a poor mother-daughter r e l a t i o n s h i p (at l e a s t i n a p s y c h i a t r i c p o p u l a t i o n ) , while Hojer-Peterson (1965) b e l i e v e s t h a t female h y s t e r i c s i d e n t i f y mainly with t h e i r f a t h e r s . Although these would appear to be e a s i l y t e s t e d p r o p o s i t i o n s , a p p a r e n t l y they have not been e m p i r i c a l l y i n v e s t i g a t e d . 25 Lazare (1971) r e p o r t s that the "healthy h y s t e r i c " (as d e f i n e d i n an e a r l i e r s e c t i o n ) i s o f t e n the e l d e s t c h i l d , her f a t h e r ' s f a v o u r i t e and the most g i f t e d of h i s c h i l d r e n . She o f t e n has an unfavourable view of her mother, although t h i s may be q u i t e i n a c c u r a t e . In c o n t r a s t , the " s i c k h y s t e r i c " has had a d i s t u r b e d f a m i l y l i f e , o f t e n with i n s u f f i c i e n t care from her mother. In summary, i t seems t h a t one of the antecedents of the o r a l c h a r a c t e r i s l a c k of nurturance on the part of the mother. T h i s f i n d i n g i s i n agreement with the c l a s s i c f o r m u l a t i o n of the development of t h i s c h a r a c t e r type, i . e . , o r a l u n g r a t i f i e d t r a i t s should be a s s o c i a t e d with disappointment i n the o r a l phase. The mothers of persons with a n a l t r a i t s have o f t e n been d e s c r i b e d as " a n a l " themselves. Thus, one would expect them to be r i g i d and probably r e s t r i c t i v e i n t h e i r approach to c h i l d r e a r i n g . And f i n a l l y , h y s t e r i c a l t r a i t s i n women have been a s s o c i a t e d with a poor r e l a t i o n s h i p between mother and c h i l d . I t i s p o s s i b l e that t h i s i s due t o maternal r e j e c t i o n — or a l t e r n a t e l y , that maternal behavior i s merely construed i n t h i s way. I t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e that the h y s t e r i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s c o r r e l a t e d with a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the c h i l d and h i s or her opposite sex parent, but the p r o p o s i t i o n has so f a r r e c e i v e d support only from case h i s t o r y m a t e r i a l . 26 Dimensions Of C h i l d r e a r i n g Behavior: G o l d i n (1969) notes that two main streams of r e s e a r c h are evident i n the study of p a r e n t a l i n f l u e n c e s on c h i l d development. There has been an attempt (1) to determine the r e l a t i o n s h i p between p a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e s and c h i l d response, and (2) to study c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s from a phenomenological poin t of view. A number of c o n s i s t e n t c o r r e l a t i o n s between p a r e n t a l behavior and c h i l d p e r s o n a l i t y have been e s t a b l i s h e d , some of which are d i s c u s s e d i n the next s e c t i o n . However, the r e l a t i o n s h i p between p a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e s toward c h i l d r e a r i n g and concurrent parent behavior, as well as subsequent c h i l d behavior, remains u n c l e a r . The measure most o f t e n used to study p a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e s i s the Parent A t t i t u d e Research Instrument (PARI) (Schaefer and B e l l , 1958). Becker and Krug (1965) have reviewed r e s e a r c h i n which the PARI was used and concluded t h a t the i n v e n t o r y has poor p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y . They a l s o found t h a t a t t i t u d e measures were i n f l u e n c e d by e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l and the response s e t of acquiescence. Perhaps we should not be s u r p r i s e d to l e a r n t h a t parents f a i l to g i v e r e l i a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e i r a t t i t u d e s toward c h i l d r e a r i n g and a l s o concerning t h e i r a c t u a l behavior. Yarrow (1963) has pointed out t h a t mothers' 27 i n t e r v i e w responses " r e p r e s e n t s e l f - d e s c r i p t i o n s by extremely ego-involved r e p o r t e r s " . I t i s u n l i k e l y that any mother, a f t e r r e a d i n g a s e l e c t i o n of women's magazines, c o u l d be completely unaware of expert o p i n i o n i n these matters, and the temptation to provide s o c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e responses may be very s t r o n g . P a r t l y f o r t h i s reason, a c o n s i d e r a b l e number of s t u d i e s have used c h i l d r e n ' s d e s c r i p t i o n s of parent behavior. Evidence f o r the v a l i d i t y of c h i l d r e p o r t s has been provided by Bronson et a l . (1959). In t h e i r study 100 c h i l d r e n provided i n f o r m a t i o n about p a r e n t a l a u t h o r i t y , a f f e c t i o n and involvement. There were h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s between these d e s c r i p t i o n s and i n t e r v i e w e r s ' r a t i n g s of p a r e n t a l behavior. another advantage of c o l l e c t i n g data from c h i l d r e n i s t h a t these responses probably w i l l be more d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to c h i l d r e n ' s p e r s o n a l i t i e s and b e h a v i o r s , than w i l l a c t u a l parent behavior. Two r e c e n t s t u d i e s support t h i s view. In the f i r s t , Frydman (1968) obtained measures of c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s of p a r e n t a l acceptance and a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m , as w e l l as o b s e r v a t i o n a l measures of the p a r e n t - c h i l d i n t e r a c t i o n . Although s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s r e v e a l e d no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between parents' a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m or a c c e p t i n g behavior and 28 a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m ' i n c h i l d r e n , the l a t t e r t r a i t was s i g n i f i c a n t l y n e g a t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d with c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s of acceptance. In the second study. Cox (1970) r e p o r t e d t h a t r a t i n g s of the behavior of young a d o l e s c e n t s were more h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d with the c h i l d ' s p e r c e p t i o n of each parent's a f f e c t i o n a l behavior, than with the p arent's own r e p o r t . I t i s p o s s i b l e i n both of these s t u d i e s t h a t c h i l d r e n ' s r e p o r t s were more accurate than those of t h e i r parents, but other i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s are p o s s i b l e . Probably the most s e r i o u s concern i n using c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s of p a r e n t a l behavior i n the study of p e r s o n a l i t y development i s not whether parent behavior i s a c c u r a t e l y p e r c e i v e d , but r a t h e r to what extent the p e r c e p t i o n s of the c h i l d are i n f l u e n c e d by h i s own p e r s o n a l i t y . Only l o n g i t u d i n a l r e s e a r c h can hope to answer t h i s s o r t of c a u s a l q u e s t i o n . In r e c e n t years s e v e r a l i n v e n t o r i e s have been c o n s t r u c t e d to d e a l with c h i l d r e n ' s r e p o r t s of c h i l d r e a r i n g p r a c t i c e s . S l a t e r (1962) developed a q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r use with a d u l t s . The P a r e n t a l Role P a t t e r n s q u e s t i o n n a i r e (PRP) c o n s i s t s of 50 statements about parents to which the s u b j e c t i s asked to respond a c c o r d i n g to how c h a r a c t e r i s t i c the statements are of h i s 29 mother and h i s f a t h e r . S l a t e r c o l l e c t e d data f o r a group of 138 male c o l l e g e freshmen. A c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s enabled him to c o n s t r u c t two s c a l e s which he named "Emotional Supportiveness and Warmth" and " I n h i b i t o r y Demands and D i s c i p l i n e " . Couch (1960) e s s e n t i a l l y r e p l i c a t e d these s c a l e s using a f a c t o r a n a l y t i c procedure, and Palmer (1966) found the two dimensions to be independent i n another group of c o l l e g e males. S i m i l a r dimensions emerged from an a n a l y s i s of Roe and Siegelman»s (1963) P a r e n t - C h i l d R e l a t i o n s Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . T h i s measure was a l s o devised f o r use with a d u l t s , and i s made up of 130 items arranged i n t o 10 s c a l e s (e.g., p r o t e c t i o n , demanding, r e j e c t i n g , n e g l e c t , e t c . ) . F a c t o r a n a l y s i s of sc o r e s f o r a c o l l e g e sample i n d i c a t e d the importance of f a c t o r s which were l a b e l e d " l o v e - r e j e c t i o n " and "casual-demanding". Siegelman (1965b) has r e p o r t e d a f a c t o r a n a l y s i s of the Bronfenbrenner Parent Behavior Q u e s t i o n n a i r e (Bronfenbrenner, 1961). Data were c o l l e c t e d f o r a group of f o u r t h to s i x t h grade c h i l d r e n i n a low socioeconomic area of New York. Three f a c t o r s emerged: " l o v i n g " , " p u n i s h i n g " and "demanding". Siegelman suggests that the punishment f a c t o r appears here, but not i n h i s c o l l e g e sample, because c h i l d r e n r e p o r t more ambivalent and 30 i n c o n s i s t e n t behaviors than do adults.. That i s , c h i l d r e n are able to p e r c e i v e l o v i n g and punishing as independent of each other. Another c h i l d r e p o r t measure has been c o n s t r u c t e d by Schaefer (1965a) — the C h i l d r e n ' s Reports of P a r e n t a l Behavior Inventory. A f a c t o r a n a l y s i s of s c o r e s f o r a group of young ad o l e s c e n t s i n d i c a t e d three f a c t o r s : " a c c e p t a n c e - r e j e c t i o n " , " p s y c h o l o g i c a l autonomy-p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n t r o l " and " f i r m c o n t r o l - l a x c o n t r o l " . These f a c t o r s were r e p l i c a t e d i n an independent sample (Renson, Schaefer and Levy, 1968). G o l d i n (1969) has reviewed the l i t e r a t u r e on parent-c h i l d r e l a t i o n s with s p e c i a l r e f e r e n c e to the f a c t o r a n a l y t i c models proposed by Schaefer (1965b) and Siegelman (1965b). While he f i n d s both c o n s i s t e n t with experimental r e s e a r c h , he c o n s i d e r s Siegelman's model s u p e r i o r because of the c l e a r punishment dimension. However, G o l d i n notes t h a t v a r i a b l e s such as c o n s i s t e n c y of parent behavior, p a r e n t a l sex r o l e s , and age of the c h i l d are not handled by these f o r m u l a t i o n s , although they are l i k e l y to be r e l e v a n t t o p e r s o n a l i t y development. 31 P a r e n t a l A t t i t u d e s and Behavior and the Development of P e r s o n a l i t y : The r e l a t i o n s h i p between c h i l d r e a r i n g p r a c t i c e s and subsequent p e r s o n a l i t y s t r u c t u r e i s s t i l l f a r from c l e a r . T h i s i s h a r d l y s u r p r i s i n g s i n c e the dimensions of c h i l d r e a r i n g noted above are broad and i n v e s t i g a t o r s have attempted to measure them i n d i f f e r e n t ways. As w e l l , i t i s to be expected t h a t many v a r i a b l e s other than p a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e s and behavior w i l l be important i n p e r s o n a l i t y development. There i s c o n s i d e r a b l e agreement among developmental p s y c h o l o g i s t s t h a t the most important c h i l d r e a r i n g dimension i s " l o v i n g - r e j e c t i n g " . Medinnus and Johnson (1969) c i t e f i n d i n g s from the F e l s s t u d i e s which i n d i c a t e t h a t the a c t i v e l y r e j e c t e d preschool c h i l d i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by high e m o t i o n a l i t y and low emotional c o n t r o l . At s c h o o l age these c h i l d r e n show an i n c r e a s e i n quarrelsomeness and a great deal of s i b l i n g h o s t i l i t y . McCord et a l . (1961) found that a ggression was a s s o c i a t e d with r e j e c t i o n i n a sample of n i n e - y e a r - o l d boys, and G o l d i n c i t e s a number of s t u d i e s i n which d e l i n q u e n t and "maladjusted" c h i l d r e n p e r c e i v e d t h e i r parents as r e j e c t i n g . In an a d u l t group. S l a t e r (1962) found that p e r c e i v e d warmth was p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d to MMPI-derived 32 measures of ego s t r e n g t h and e x t r a v e r s i o n . T h i s f i n d i n g agrees with Siegelman's (1965a) r e p o r t that anxious i n t r o v e r t e d males, s e l e c t e d on the b a s i s of 16PF s c o r e s , r e p o r t r e j e c t i n g parents, while e x t r a v e r t e d females d e s c r i b e t h e i r f a t h e r s as l o v i n g . In a l a t e r study, Siegelman (1966) found s e v e r a l other r e l a t i o n s h i p s between c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s and p e r s o n a l i t y v a r i a b l e s . For a group of f o u r t h to s i x t h grade c h i l d r e n there were s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s between maternal love and measures of dependence and depression i n the c h i l d . There was a l s o a s i g n i f i c a n t negative c o r r e l a t i o n , f o r both parents, between p a r e n t a l l o v e and "withdrawal" i n the c h i l d . With r e s p e c t to the other major dimension i n c h i l d r e a r i n g — the c o n t r o l continuum, Watson (1957) presented data f o r c h i l d r e n from nursery s c h o o l to s i x t h grade. These c h i l d r e n were a l l from "good" homes. Firm c o n t r o l was p o s i t i v e l y a s s o c i a t e d with l i t t l e i n i t i a t i v e or s p o n t a n e i t y , dependent behavior, i n n e r h o s t i l i t y , l e s s f r i e n d l i n e s s , and l e s s c o o p e r a t i o n . More r e c e n t l y . Winder and Wiggins (1964) found that dependent boys have parents who show a t t i t u d e s of high ambivalence, high s t r i c t n e s s and high p u n i t i v e n e s s . T h e i r sample c o n s i s t e d of 200 elementary s c h o o l boys, and the dependency measure was d e r i v e d from a s o c i o m e t r i c technique. In a d u l t s , S l a t e r 33 (1962) r e p o r t e d a negative r e l a t i o n s h i p between p e r c e i v e d d i s c i p l i n e and e x t r a v e r s i o n and ego s t r e n g t h . Hoffman (1960) has emphasized the importance of d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between two types of d i s c i p l i n e which he r e f e r s to.as " l o v e - o r i e n t e d " and "power-oriented". In the case of the former, the parent c o n t r o l s the c h i l d ^ behavior by e i t h e r g i v i n g or withdrawing l o v e , while f o r the l a t t e r , the c h i l d i s coerced i n t o doing what the parent wishes by p h y s i c a l f o r c e . L o v e - o r i e n t e d d i s c i p l i n e w i l l r e s u l t i n the i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n of p a r e n t a l standards, but power-oriented techniques are l i k e l y to l e a d to the development of moral o r i e n t a t i o n based on f e a r of d e t e c t i o n . Becker (1964) c i t e s r e s e a r c h r e p o r t s which i n d i c a t e t h a t the frequent use of p r a i s e — a l o v e -o r i e n t e d technique — i s r e l a t e d t o high g u i l t i n c h i l d r e n . There i s c o n s i d e r a b l e evidence f o r sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h i s area. For a group of p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . Sears et a l . (1953) found r a t i n g s of maternal p u n i t i v e n e s s , d e r i v e d from i n t e r v i e w s and d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n , to be p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d to dependency i n g i r l s but n e g a t i v e l y i n boys. Bronfenbrenner (1961) found that boys rated high on r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and l e a d e r s h i p tended t o come from homes i n which the mother was warm and nurturant and the f a t h e r 34 a moderately s t r o n g d i s c i p l i n a r i a n . For the g i r l s i n t h i s study, nurturance was more c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d with dependence than l e a d e r s h i p and str o n g p a t e r n a l d i s c i p l i n e was a s s o c i a t e d with i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Bronfenbrenner•s s u b j e c t s were i n the tenth grade. As w e l l , Schaefer and Bayley (1963) found t h a t a mother's behavior was more c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to her son's l a t e r behavior than to her daughter's. Research f i n d i n g s concerning c h i l d r e a r i n g * and p e r s o n a l i t y have been organized i n t o a t a b l e showing the i n t e r a c t i o n of the warmth and c o n t r o l dimensions by Becker (1964) (see Table I ) . T h i s t a b l e n e c e s s a r i l y presents an o v e r s i m p l i f i e d p i c t u r e of experimental r e s u l t s . Table I R e l a t i o n s h i p s between C h i l d r e a r i n g Atmosphere and P e r s o n a l i t y 1 Warm-Restrictive submissive, dependent p o l i t e , neat, obedient, minimal a g g r e s s i o n , compliant, not f r i e n d l y Warm-Permissive a c t i v e , out-going, c r e a t i v e , independent, s u c e s s f u l l y a g g r e s s i v e minimal s e l f - a g g r e s s i o n H o s t i l e - R e s t r i c t i v e n e u r o t i c problems, q u a r r e l l i n g ' , s o c i a l withdrawal, s e l f - a g g r e s s i o n H o s t i l e - P e r m i s s i v e delinquency, non-compliance, maximal a g g r e s s i o n 1. Adapted from Becker (1964) 36 Hypotheses: The present r e s e a r c h explored r e l a t i o n s h i p s between a d u l t p e r s o n a l i t y , c o n c e p t u a l i z e d i n terms of the o r a l , a n a l and h y s t e r i c a l c h a r a c t e r types, and p e r c e p t i o n s of c h i l d r e a r i n g . There were two s e t s of hypotheses. One s e t concerned the e m p i r i c a l c l u s t e r i n g of the t r a i t s a t t r i b u t e d to these types by p s y c h o a n a l y t i c w r i t e r s , and the other p e r t a i n e d to the a s s o c i a t i o n between the c h a r a c t e r typology and c h i l d r e a r i n g dimensions. I t i s apparent that u n l e s s the f i r s t hypotheses r e c e i v e d at l e a s t some support from the data, i t would be impossible to t e s t the other hypotheses. T h i s study f o l l o w e d Lazare, Klerman and Armor (1966) i n h y p o t h e s i z i n g t h a t the f o l l o w i n g p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s are h i g h l y i n t e r c o r r e l a t e d : (1) the o r a l c h a r a c t e r — a g g r e s s i o n , dependence, o r a l a g g r e s s i o n , parsimony, p a s s i v i t y , pessimism, and r e j e c t i o n of o t h e r s , (2) the a n a l c h a r a c t e r — emotional c o n s t r i c t i o n , o b s t i n a c y , o r d e r l i n e s s , parsimony, perseverance, r e j e c t i o n of others, r i g i d i t y , s e l f - d o u b t , and severe superego, and (3) the h y s t e r i c a l c h a r a c t e r — dependence, e g o c e n t r i c i t y , e m o t i o n a l i t y , e x h i b i t i o n i s m , f e a r of s e x u a l i t y , sexual p r o v o c a t i v e n e s s , and s u g g e s t i b i l i t y . The l i t e r a t u r e on c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s of p a r e n t a l 37 a t t i t u d e s and behavior, as w e l l as re s e a r c h concerning the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the o r a l , a n a l and h y s t e r i c a l types and c h i l d r e a r i n g v a r i a b l e s , suggested the f o l l o w i n g hypotheses: (1) the o r a l c h a r a c t e r i s a s s o c i a t e d with r e p o r t s of low p a r e n t a l warmth and high p a r e n t a l c o n t r o l ; (2) the a n a l c h a r a c t e r i s a s s o c i a t e d with high p e r c e i v e d warmth and high c o n t r o l ; and (3) the h y s t e r i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s a s s o c i a t e d with low p e r c e i v e d warmth and low c o n t r o l . 38 METHOD Su b j e c t s : 143 students (68 males and 75 females) from s e v e r a l undergraduate psychology c l a s s e s served as s u b j e c t s i n t h i s study. They ranged i n age from 16 to 48 years, with a mean age of 22.85 years (s.d,=5.96). I f s u b j e c t s f a i l e d to answer more than 90% of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e items t h e i r data were dropped from the a n a l y s i s . T h i s reduced the N to 130 (63 males and 67 females). I t should a l s o be noted t h a t , s i n c e some s u b j e c t s were unable to supply r a t i n g s f o r both parents, the n's f o r some analyses were reduced s t i l l f u r t h e r . Measures used: The p e r s o n a l i t y i n v e n t o r y used i n t h i s study was developed by Lazare, Klermau and armor (1966) to measure o r a l , o b s e s s i v e and h y s t e r i c a l t r a i t s . I t s c o n s t r u c t i o n began with a group o f 200 dichotomous response items organized i n t o 20 s c a l e s . The m a j o r i t y (705?) of the items were taken from Murray (1938) and Goldman-Eisler (1951). Those items with the lowest i t e m - t o - t r a i t c o r r e l a t i o n s 39 were r e j e c t e d a f t e r an i n i t i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e to 90 s u b j e c t s , thus reducing the t o t a l number of items to 140 (see Appendix 1). Of these, 80% had i t e m - t o - t r a i t c o r r e l a t i o n s g r e a t e r than .50. The p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s which the q u e s t i o n n a i r e attempts to measure are as f o l l o w s : a g g r e s s i o n , e g o c e n t r i c i t y , dependence, e m o t i o n a l i t y , emotional c o n s t r i c t i o n , f e a r of s e x u a l i t y , e x h i b i t i o n i s m , o b s t i n a c y , o r a l a g g r e s s i o n , parsimony, o r d e r l i n e s s , p a s s i v i t y , perseverance, r e j e c t i o n of o t h e r s , pessimism, r i g i d i t y , s e l f - d o u b t , s u g g e s t i b i l i t y , s e x u a l provocativeness, and severe superego. The Parent Role P a t t e r n s q u e s t i o n n a i r e (PRP) was c o n s t r u c t e d by S l a t e r (1962) to assess p a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e s and behaviour as p e r c e i v e d by a d u l t o f f s p r i n g . The measure c o n s i s t s of 50 statements about parents i n response to which the s u b j e c t i s asked t o i n d i c a t e how c h a r a c t e r i s t i c the item i s of h i s own parents (on a 5-p o i n t r a t i n g s c a l e ) . R atings are done s e p a r a t e l y f o r mother and f a t h e r , and two s c o r e s can be d e r i v e d f o r each parent. The f i r s t , E m o t i o n a l Supportiveness and warmth (ESS) r e f l e c t s the degree to which the parent i s viewed as h e l p f u l , n u r t u r a n t , a f f e c t i o n a t e and rewarding. The s e c o n d , I n h i b i t o r y Demands and D i s c i p l i n e (IDD) r e f l e c t s 40 s t r i c t n e s s , p u r i t a n i c a l a t t i t u d e s , demanding a g g r e s s i v e n e s s and p u n i t i v e n e s s on the pa r t of the parent. S l a t e r ' s PRP was s e l e c t e d f o r use i n the present r e s e a r c h f o r two reasons. F i r s t l y , i t was designed f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n to a d u l t s u b j e c t s which, f o r example, Schaefer's (1965a) s c a l e s were not. And secondly, i t i s f a i r l y b r i e f . T h i s was an e s s e n t i a l requirement as the design c a l l e d f o r s u b j e c t s t o complete the p e r s o n a l i t y and c h i l d r e a r i n g s c a l e s a t one s i t t i n g . Procedure: The data were c o l l e c t e d from students i n f o u r psychology c l a s s e s . As w e l l as completing the p e r s o n a l i t y q u e s t i o n n a i r e and the PRP, s u b j e c t s provided i n f o r m a t i o n about age, sex, parents' m a r i t a l s t a t u s , l e n g t h of time during which t h e i r mothers and f a t h e r s were present i n the home, number of s i b l i n g s , and b i r t h order, and a l s o r a t e d the happiness of t h e i r parents' marriage. S i n c e i t was not p o s s i b l e t o o b t a i n c l a s s time f o r t h i s r e s e a r c h , s u b j e c t s took q u e s t i o n n a i r e s home with them and r e t u r n e d them during the f o l l o w i n g c l a s s p e r i o d . Cooperation was s t r i c t l y v o l u n t a r y , but r e t u r n r a t e exceeded 80%. 41 S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s : 1. T a b u l a t i o n s were done f o r the demographic v a r i a b l e s l i s t e d above f o r the e n t i r e group and by sex. T e s t s f o r sex d i f f e r e n c e s were performed using C h i -sguares. 2. For the p e r s o n a l i t y i n v e n t o r y , frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n s by item were computed to check endorsement frequency. T r a i t s c o r e s were then c a l c u l a t e d a c c o r d i n g to the s c a l e s developed by Lazare, Klerman and Armor (1966) (see Appendix 1). Means and standard d e v i a t i o n s were computed s e p a r a t e l y f o r males and females, and t - t e s t s were used to t e s t f o r sex d i f f e r e n c e s . As a measure of s c a l e homogeneity, i t e m - t o - t r a i t c o r r e l a t i o n s were c a l c u l a t e d f o r the 20 s c a l e s . The c o e f f i c i e n t of skewness (see Snedecor and Cochrane,1967, p.86) was used to t e s t the normalcy of s c a l e s c o r e d i s t r i b u t i o n s . F i n a l l y , a\ f a c t o r a n a l y s i s ( p r i n c i p a l components, Varimax r o t a t i o n ) was performed on the s c a l e scores, s e p a r a t e l y f o r males and females. T h i s procedure was used to t e s t the h y p o t h e s i s that t r a i t s which had been a t t r i b u t e d to the o r a l , a n a l and h y s t e r i c a l c h a r a c t e r types would c l u s t e r i n m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l space. Factor 42 s c o r e s were c a l c u l a t e d f o r a l l s u b j e c t s . 3. The PRP was scored a c c o r d i n g to S l a t e r ' s s c a l e s . I t was decided to c r o s s - v a l i d a t e S l a t e r ' s dimensions i n the present sample by performing a f a c t o r a n a l y s i s on the 50 PRP items. T h i s seemed e s p e c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e s i n c e h i s o r i g i n a l group had c o n s i s t e d e n t i r e l y of males. The r e s u l t s of an i n i t i a l f a c t o r a n a l y s i s ( p r i n c i p a l components, Varimax r o t a t i o n ) were u n s a t i s f a c t o r y because too few items loaded on each of a l a r g e number of f a c t o r s . For example, there were 13 f a c t o r s with eigenvalues g r e a t e r than 1.0 f o r the "mother" items f o r male s u b j e c t s . On the average, fewer than f o u r items had l o a d i n g s above .40 on any one f a c t o r . By r e s t r i c t i n g f a c t o r s to f i v e a b e t t e r s o l u t i o n was o b tained. I t was p o s s i b l e t o c o n s t r u c t e i g h t new s c a l e s f o r males (four f o r p e r c e p t i o n s of each parent) and ten new s c a l e s f o r females ( f i v e f o r each p a r e n t ) . In s c a l e c o n s t r u c t i o n , only items with l o a d i n g s above .30 were co n s i d e r e d . These were weighted a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r f a c t o r l o a d i n g s and were sometimes assigned to more than one s c a l e . The usual s c a l e s t a t i s t i c s were c a l c u l a t e d f o r the r e s u l t i n g s c a l e s c o r e s . C o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s were computed to a ssess the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the new s c a l e s and S l a t e r ' s o r i g i n a l s c a l e s . 43 4. C o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s were a l s o c a l c u l a t e d t o t e s t the a s s o c i a t i o n between p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s c o r e s and s c o r e s on the new PRP s c a l e s . T h i s was done s e p a r a t e l y f o r males and females. To f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t e t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p , a n a l y s e s of v a r i a n c e were performed on the c h i l d r e a r i n g data f o r groups of s u b j e c t s with extreme f a c t o r s c o r e s . ( F a c t o r 2 f o r females was not i n c l u d e d i n t h i s a n a l y s i s because i t was i m p o s s i b l e to i n t e r p r e t i n terms of c h a r a c t e r t y p e ) . For each f a c t o r the " h i g h " group c o n s i s t e d of those s u b j e c t s whose f a c t o r s c o r e s were among the top 20%. The "low" s u b j e c t s had s c o r e s i n the lower 20% of the f a c t o r s c o r e d i s t r i b u t i o n . N's v a r i e d , with the groups comprising from f i v e to e i g h t s u b j e c t s . To t e s t d i f f e r e n c e s between the c h a r a c t e r types (as r e f l e c t e d i n the p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s ) a m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e (MANOVft) was performed on the groups of high s c o r e r s . I t was intended that t h i s procedure should i n d i c a t e whether s u b j e c t s who e x e m p l i f i e d the three c h a r a c t e r types would i n f a c t have d i f f e r e n t p e r c e p t i o n s of t h e i r parent's c h i l d r e a r i n g a t t i t u d e s and behavior. 5. C o r r e l a t i o n s between the demographic v a r i a b l e s and p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s c o r e s and PRP s c o r e s were computed. 44 RESULTS The r e s u l t s are presented i n the same order as t h a t f o l l o w e d i n the s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s s e c t i o n . F i r s t , a d e s c r i p t i o n of the sample i n terms of the demographic v a r i a b l e s i s given. T h i s i s fo l l o w e d by t e s t s t a t i s t i c s f o r the p e r s o n a l i t y q u e s t i o n n a i r e , and the r e s u l t s of the f a c t o r a n a l y s i s of t h i s measure. D e s c r i p t i o n s of the c h i l d r e a r i n g s c a l e s c o n s t r u c t e d i n the present study are found i n the next s e c t i o n . These are fo l l o w e d by a p r e s e n t a t i o n of s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s between p e r s o n a l i t y and c h i l d r e a r i n g measures. F i n a l l y , c o r r e l a t i o n s of the demographic v a r i a b l e s with both p e r s o n a l i t y and PRP s c a l e s are presented. Demographic V a r i a b l e s : M a r i t a l s t a t u s : 70% of the, parents of the s u b j e c t s i n the sample were married and 9.2% were d i v o r c e d or separated. 15.4% of the sample repo r t e d one deceased parent and 5.4% r e p o r t e d both parents deceased. M a r i t a l happiness r a t i n g : 33.1% of the sample r a t e d t h e i r parents* marriages very happy, 38.5% r a t e d them 45 f a i r l y happy, 14.6%, n e i t h e r happy or unhappy, 7.7%, f a i r l y unhappy, and 3.8%, very unhappy. Presence of mother i n the home: 87.7% o f the s u b j e c t s r e p o r t e d that t h e i r mothers were s t i l l present i n the home, and more than h a l f of the remaining s u b j e c t s r e p o r t e d her present u n t i l 15 years of age (an a d d i t i o n a l 8.5%) . Presence of f a t h e r i n the home: On the average, f a t h e r s were present f o r s h o r t e r p e r i o d s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , 76.2% of the sample repo r t e d t h e i r f a t h e r s s t i l l present i n the home. An a d d i t i o n a l 16.2% repor t e d him present u n t i l they were 15 years of age, and 5.4% u n t i l they were TO years of age. Number of s i b l i n g s : 34.6% of the s u b j e c t s had only one s i b l i n g , 26.9% had two s i b l i n g s and 19.2% had three. 15.5% had f o u r or more s i b l i n g s . B i r t h o r d e r : The p r o p o r t i o n of s u b j e c t s i n the e l d e s t , middle and youngest c h i l d c a t e g o r i e s was n e a r l y equal (33.8%, 32.3%, and 30.8%). 3.1% of the s u b j e c t s were only c h i l d r e n . There were no s i g n i f i c a n t sex d i f f e r e n c e s f o r any of the above v a r i a b l e s . T h i s was not unexpected s i n c e male and female c h i l d r e n should be randomly d i s t r i b u t e d i n 46 d i f f e r e n t types of home environment. Te s t S t a t i s t i c s : P e r s o n a l i t y Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Endorsement f r e q u e n c i e s f o r the p e r s o n a l i t y items, expressed as the p r o p o r t i o n of " t r u e " responses, ranged from .00 to .99. These were t a b u l a t e d s e p a r a t e l y f o r males and females and appear i n Appendix 1. Approximately 44% of the values f e l l between .40 and .59, with 26% below t h i s range and 30% above. The f e a r of s e x u a l i t y and pessimism s c a l e s had the most extreme f r e q u e n c i e s . O v e r a l l there were s l i g h t l y fewer extreme f r e q u e n c i e s f o r females than f o r males. Means, standard d e v i a t i o n s and c o e f f i c i e n t s of skewness f o r each t r a i t s c a l e appear i n Appendix 3. The s c a l e s which showed the g r e a t e s t degree of skew were the f e a r of s e x u a l i t y and pessimism measures. In both cases s c o r e s were n e g a t i v e l y skewed. An i n s p e c t i o n of endorsement f r e q u e n c i e s f o r these s c a l e s i n d i c a t e s a c l e a r preponderance of f a l s e responses f o r many of the items. I t e m - t o - t r a i t c o r r e l a t i o n s are presented i n Appendix 1. These v a r i e d from .09 to .76, but the m a j o r i t y f e l l between .40 and .70 (approximately 80%). Approximately 14% were below .39 and the remaining 6% of the 47 c o r r e l a t i o n s exceeded .70. There was a tendency f o r c o r r e l a t i o n s to be higher f o r female s u b j e c t s . For example, i n t h i s group 61% of the values exceeded .50 while o n l y 53% of the c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r males were i n excess of t h i s value. These r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e somewhat lower s c a l e c o n s i s t e n c y f o r the present sample than that r e p o r t e d by Lazare et a l . (1966) f o r h i s female c l i n i c a l sample where 80% of the i t e m - t o - t r a i t c o r r e l a t i o n s exceeded .50. I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h i s occurred because some of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e items were not a p p r o p r i a t e i n a u n i v e r s i t y p o p u l a t i o n . However, C a t t e l l and T s u j i o k a (1964) found i t e m - t o - t r a i t r e l i a b i l i t i e s of .49 " h i g h l y s a t i s f a c t o r y " f o r s i x - i t e m 16PF s c a l e s . T - t e s t s i n d i c a t e d no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between mean sco r e s f o r males and females on any of the p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s c a l e s . F a c t o r A n a l y s i s of P e r s o n a l i t y S c a l e s . I t was a l r e a d y noted t h a t f a c t o r a n a l y s i s was done s e p a r a t e l y f o r male and female s u b j e c t s c o r e s . In the case of the former, f o u r r o t a t e d f a c t o r s had e i g e n v a l u e s g r e a t e r than u n i t y . These accounted f o r 19.4%, 14.6%, 8.9% and 7.5% of the I unrotated score v a r i a n c e . 48 r e s p e c t i v e l y . Table I I l i s t s s c a l e s with high l o a d i n g s on these f a c t o r s . (Complete f a c t o r l o a d i n g s f o r both sexes appear i n Appendix 4.) the f i r s t f a c t o r i s c l e a r l y " a n a l " with high l o a d i n g s on three anal t r a i t s . F a c t o r 2 appears to be a " h y s t e r i c a l " f a c t o r , s i n c e a l l of the s c a l e s with high l o a d i n g s r e f l e c t h y s t e r i c a l t r a i t s . F a c t o r four loads mainly on two o r a l t r a i t s . The most d i f f i c u l t f a c t o r to i n t e r p r e t i s f a c t o r 3 which loads on t r a i t s from a l l three of the c h a r a c t e r types. For females, f i v e r o t a t e d f a c t o r s had e i g e n v a l u e s g r e a t e r than 1.0. These accounted f o r 19.3?, 12.95?, 11 . 5 % , 7.7% and 7.6% of the unrotated v a r i a n c e , r e s p e c t i v e l y . I t i s apparent from Table I I I t h a t the f a c t o r s are i n g e n e r a l l e s s e a s i l y i n t e r p r e t a b l e than the f a c t o r s which emerged f o r male s u b j e c t s . F a c t o r 1 might be l a b e l e d " o r a l " , but the h y s t e r i c a l t r a i t of e m o t i o n a l i t y shows the h i g h e s t l o a d i n g on i t . F a c t o r 3 i s c l e a r l y " a n a l " , but the second f a c t o r loads on a mixture of o r a l and a n a l t r a i t s . F a c t o r s 4 and 5 a l s o load on t r a i t s c a l e s f o r more than one type. Factor l o a d i n g s obtained by Lazare, Klerman and Armor (1970) are reproduced i n Table IV. Spearman rank order c o r r e l a t i o n s between these l o a d i n g s plus the l o a d i n g s lower than .40 and those obtained i n the present study 49 Table I I Loadings f o r P e r s o n a l i t y F a c t o r s — Males F a c t o r 1 Factor 2 R i g i d i t y ,89 Superego .48 R e j e c t i o n of Others -.47 O r d e r l i n e s s .43 Emotional C o n s t r i c t i o n .34 E x h i b i t i o n i s m .66 Sexual P r o v o c a t i v e -ness .65 Dependence E g o c e n t r i c i t y .53 ,37 Fac t o r 3 Factor 4 P a s s i v i t y .63 Aggression .53 Obstinacy .49 E g o c e n t r i c i t y .41 O r a l Aggression .39 Pessimism Dependence .87 .4 1 50 Table I I I Loadings f o r P e r s o n a l i t y F a c t o r s — Females F a c t o r 1 F a c t o r 2 E m o t i o n a l i t y .78 Dependence .59 Emotional C o n s t r i c t i o n -.52 E g o c e n t r i c i t y .51 Pessimism .37 Aggression .37 Aggression Obstinacy S u g g e s t i b i l i t y Dependence .62 .62 -.60 -.41 F a c t o r 3 Superego .67 R i g i d i t y .63 Perseverance .48 E x h i b i t i o n i s m -.42 F a c t o r 4 Sexual P r o v o c a t i v e -ness .64 O r a l Aggression .55 R e j e c t i o n of Others .38 E x h i b i t i o n i s m .38 F a c t o r 5 Self-Doubt .66 Perseverance -.56 P a s s i v i t y .55 51 i Table IV T r a i t s Loading on Lazare et a l . ' s (1970) O r a l , Obsessive and H y s t e r i c a l F a c t o r s H y s t e r i c a l Factor O b s e s s i o n a l F a c t o r Aggression .68 Emotional E m o t i o n a l i t y .67 C o n s t r i c t i o n .67 O r a l Aggression .66 O r d e r l i n e s s .66 Obstinacy .64 Parsimony .63 E x h i b i t i o n i s m .53 R i g i d i t y .61 E g o c e n t r i c i t y .50 Superego .55 Sexual P r o v o c a t i v e - Perseverance .50 ness .38 Sexual P r o v o c a t i v e -ness -.40 O r a l Factor Dependence .74 Pessimism .61 Fear of S e x u a l i t y .60 Self-Doubt .57 E g o c e n t r i c i t y .56 P a s s i v i t y .49 S u g g e s t i b i l i t y .39 Perseverance -.39 52 i n d i c a t e that t h e i r " o r a l " f a c t o r i s most c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to f a c t o r 5 f o r females (r=.58) and f a c t o r 4 f o r males (r=.65). T h e i r " a n a l " f a c t o r i s most s i m i l a r to f a c t o r 3 f o r females (r=.55) and f a c t o r 1 f o r males (r=.57), and the " h y s t e r i c a l " f a c t o r i s most h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d with f a c t o r 1 f o r females (r=.68) and f a c t o r 2 f o r males (r=.42). A l l of these c o r r e l a t i o n s , except the l a s t , are s i g n i f i c a n t beyond the .05 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e . T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t the f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e used has some degree of s t a b i l i t y a c r o s s p o p u l a t i o n s . C h i l d r e a r i n g S c a l e s : The f a c t o r a n a l y s i s of the c h i l d r e a r i n g q u e s t i o n n a i r e , with f a c t o r s l i m i t e d to s i x , i n d i c a t e d c l e a r warmth and c o n t r o l dimensions f o r males. These accounted f o r the l a r g e s t p o r t i o n of the v a r i a n c e , 14.5% and 8.1%, r e s p e c t i v e l y , f o r p e r c e p t i o n s of mother, and 19.7% and 9.4% f o r f a t h e r . The s c a l e s c o n s t r u c t e d f o r these f a c t o r s were named Maternal Warmth, and Maternal C o n t r o l , and P a t e r n a l Warmth and P a t e r n a l C o n t r o l . They appear i n appendix 2 along with f a c t o r l o a d i n g s f o r a l l items i n the s c a l e s . For females, a s i n g l e c o n t r o l dimension emerged, but 53 the warmth dimension s p l i t i n t o two components- For p e r c e p t i o n s o f mother, the f i r s t f a c t o r accounted f o r 19.6% of the score v a r i a n c e . I n s p e c t i o n of the l o a d i n g p a t t e r n suggested the l a b e l Good Mother f o r t h i s f a c t o r , because i t presents a p i c t u r e of the mother as h e l p f u l t r y i n g to do what i s " b e s t " f o r her c h i l d . The t h i r d f a c t o r accounted f o r only 8.2% of the v a r i a n c e . Items with high l o a d i n g s i n d i c a t e d that t h i s f a c t o r was more n e a r l y the e q u i v a l e n t of the the warmth f a c t o r s f o r males, s i n c e the mother i s p e r c e i v e d as being more dem o n s t r a t i v e l y a f f e c t i o n a t e and e m o t i o n a l l y s u p p o r t i v e than i s the case f o r f a c t o r 1. T h i s f a c t o r was thus l a b e l e d Maternal Warmth. In the case of p e r c e p t i o n s of f a t h e r s by daughters, the f i r s t f a c t o r accounted f o r 21.5% of 'the v a r i a n c e and c l e a r l y r e f l e c t e d degree of warmth. However, the f o u r t h f a c t o r loaded on s i m i l a r items. Since many of these concerned p r a i s e t h i s l a b e l was t e n t a t i v e l y assigned to the f a c t o r . For both males and females a f a c t o r r e f l e c t i n g g r e g a r i o u s n e s s and i n t e r e s t i n s o c i a l o c c a s i o n s emerged f o r f a t h e r . T h i s was l a b e l e d S o c i a b l e F a t h e r . A f a c t o r t e n t a t i v e l y l a b e l e d Dominant Mother was a l s o i n d i c a t e d f o r both sexes. Another f a c t o r which i s d i f f i c u l t to 54 i n t e r p r e t i s present f o r both parents. S u b s t a n t i a l l o a d i n g s on c u l t u r a l i n t e r e s t , open e x p r e s s i o n of f e e l i n g s , help with s c h o o l work and guidance i n c a r e e r c h o i c e , and n o t - c o n v e n t i o n a l behavior suggested the l a b e l Modern Parent. The warmth and c o n t r o l s c a l e s f o r both sexes are very s i m i l a r to S l a t e r ' s ESW and IDD dimensions. T h i s i s evidenced by c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s ranging from .79 to .96 f o r the r e l e v a n t s c a l e s . In a l l cases the warmth s c a l e s were more h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d . P e r s o n a l i t y and P e r c e p t i o n s of C h i l d r e a r i n g : C o r r e l a t i o n s between p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r scores and the new PRP s c a l e s are presented i n Table V. I t w i l l be noted t h a t there were many more s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s f o r females than for, males. In g e n e r a l , both o r a l and h y s t e r i c a l t r a i t s are a s s o c i a t e d with low perc e i v e d warmth and high p e r c e i v e d c o n t r o l , while the a n a l c h a r a c t e r i s a s s o c i a t e d with high warmth. However, not a l l of these r e l a t i o n s h i p s are apparent f o r both sexes, nor do they always hold f o r p e r c e p t i o n s of both mother and f a t h e r . The analyses of v a r i a n c e used to t e s t f o r d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r c e p t i o n s of c h i l d r e a r i n g between s u b j e c t s who had 55 Table V C o r r e l a t i o n s between P e r s o n a l i t y Factor Scores and PRP Scores F a c t o r s A. Males: 1 2 3 4 Maternal Warmth . 10 -.08 -.09 -.03 Maternal C o n t r o l -.08 .03 . 0 2 .03 S o c i a b l e Mother - . 2 0 -.10 - . 3 3 1 -.04 Modern Mother .09 -.13 . 10 . 16 P a t e r n a l Warmth -.06 -. 14 -.06 . 11 P a t e r n a l C o n t r o l -.11 .08 . 2 9 1 -. 15 S o c i a b l e Father .09 -. 18 . 0 2 .09 Modern Father - . 0 2 - . 3 2 1 -.08 .03 B. Females: 1 2 3 4 5 Maternal Warmth -.15 . 0 2 . 2 5 1 -.10 - . 2 5 1 Maternal C o n t r o l .08 .06 -.13 .05 -.12 S o c i a b l e Mother . 14 .261 -. 10 .06 -.11 Modern Mother -. 10 -.13 -.03 -. 10 -.06 Good Mother -.13 . 0 2 .14 - . 2 4 1 - . 3 2 1 P a t e r n a l Warmth -. 18 - . 0 2 . 15 -. 18 - . 3 6 1 P a t e r n a l C o n t r o l .06 .09 .08 .211 -.16 S o c i a b l e Father -.08 - . 2 5 1 -.18 -.05 - . 2 0 Modern Father -. 14 -.08 .05 -.14 .05 P r a i s e - . 2 3 1 -.06 .07 -. 26 1 -.261 1. p<.05 56 very high or very low p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s c o r e s , i n d i c a t e d o n l y a few s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s . Hales with high s c o r e s on f a c t o r 3 p e r c e i v e d t h e i r mothers to be more dominant than d i d low s c o r e r s (F=7.3, df=1,10, p=.02). For females, high s c o r e r s on f a c t o r 1 p e r c e i v e d mother as more dominant (F=7.4, df=1,10, p=.02) and f a t h e r as more s o c i a b l e (F=9.4, df=1,10, p=.01). High s c o r e r s on f a c t o r 2 p e r c e i v e d mother to be warmer (F=4.7, df=1,13, p=.05). So s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found among high f a c t o r s c o r e r s i n the HRNOVft performed on the c h i l d r e a r i n g s c o r e s . I n s o f a r as t h i s s t a t i s t i c a l procedure t e s t e d d i f f e r e n c e s among c h a r a c t e r types, t h i s r e s u l t i n d i c a t e s t h a t there are no d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r c e p t i o n s of c h i l d r e a r i n g among o r a l , a n a l and h y s t e r i c a l c h a r a c t e r types. In c o n t r a s t , the a n a l y s e s of v a r i a n c e d e s c r i b e d above, i n d i c a t e t h a t the degree t o which a s u b j e c t i s s i m i l a r to a c h a r a c t e r type i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to s e v e r a l c h i l d r e a r i n g measures. That i s , a female who i s h i g h l y " a n a l " i s more l i k e l y to p e r c e i v e h i s parents as warm people than i s a person low on a n a l t r a i t s , however, s u b j e c t s high on a n a l t r a i t s do not p e r c e i v e t h e i r parents i n a s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t way than do s u b j e c t s high on o r a l or h y s t e r i c a l t r a i t s . 57 R e l a t i o n s h i p s i n v o l v i n g Demographic V a r i a b l e s : S i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s between demographic v a r i a b l e s and p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s cores are presented i n Table VI. Of the group of 32 c o r r e l a t i o n s o n l y f o u r are s i g n i f i c a n t . The d i r e c t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between o number of s i b l i n g s and f a c t o r 2 f o r males i n d i c a t e s that persons with h y s t e r i c a l c h a r a c t e r s are more l i k e l y to have a s m a l l number of s i b l i n g s . Other c o r r e l a t i o n s suggest t h a t the a n a l c h a r a c t e r , i n females, ( f a c t o r 3) i s more commmon with i n c r e a s i n g age, and t h a t a g g r e s s i o n , o b s t i n a c y , and independence ( f a c t o r 2) may be a s s o c i a t e d with the d i v o r c e or s e p a r a t i o n of parents, and with m a r i t a l unhappiness. Table VII presents c o r r e l a t i o n s between demographic and c h i l d r e a r i n g measures. With i n c r e a s i n g age the p e r c e p t i o n s of both males and females are l e s s l i k e l y to f i t the d e s c r i p t i o n of the Modern Parent. P e r c e p t i o n s of mother as dominant are not s u r p r i s i n g l y more l i k e l y i n the s i n g l e parent f a m i l y , although only f o r female s u b j e c t s . M a r i t a l happiness i s i n g e n e r a l a s s o c i a t e d with high warmth. F i n a l l y , a l a r g e r number of s i b l i n g s i s p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d with p e r c e p t i o n s of mother as dominant and f a t h e r as "modern" f o r males. Table VI S i g n i f i c a n t C o r r e l a t i o n s between P e r s o n a l i t y F a c t o r s and Demographic V a r i a b l e s Males: r Females: Fa c t o r 2 Factor 2 Number of S i b l i n g s -.26 M a r i t a l S t a t u s M a r i t a l Happiness Factor 3 Age 59 Table VII S i g n i f i c a n t C o r r e l a t i o n s between C h i l d r e a r i n g and Demographic Measures Males: r Age Modern Mother - -.28 M a r i t a l Happiness P a t e r n a l Warmth .45 S o c i a b l e Father .24 Modern Father .28 Presence of Father Dominant Mother -.38 Number of S i b l i n g s Dominant Mother -.28 Modern Father .32 B i r t h Order S o c i a b l e Father -.26 Females: r Age Modern Father -.22 M a r i t a l S t a t u s Dominant Mother .22 M a r i t a l Happiness Maternal Warmth .42 Maternal C o n t r o l .21 Good Mother .44 P a t e r n a l Warmth .65 P a t e r n a l C o n t r o l -.40 S o c i a b l e Father .29 P r a i s e .65 60 DISCUSSION Fa c t o r a n a l y s i s provided some evidence i n support of the c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y of the o r a l , a n a l and h y s t e r i c a l types. As i n e a r l i e r r e s e a r c h , the " a n a l " f a c t o r emerged most c l e a r l y . T h i s f a c t o r accounted f o r the l a r g e s t p o r t i o n o f the v a r i a n c e f o r males. For females the anal component was c l e a r l y present but d i d not account f o r as much of the v a r i a n c e . P o s s i b l y t h i s d i f f e r e n c e i n d i c a t e s t h a t a nal t r a i t s are of g r e a t e r importance i n male p e r s o n a l i t y . For both sexes severe superego and r i g i d i t y had high l o a d i n g s on the " a n a l " f a c t o r , while perseverance loaded h i g h l y f o r females. The onl y member of the a n a l t r i a d to l o a d s i g n i f i c a n t l y was o r d e r l i n e s s , which loaded on the male " a n a l " f a c t o r . For both male and female s u b j e c t s o b s t i n a c y loaded on another f a c t o r ( f a c t o r 3 f o r males and f a c t o r 2 f o r females). I t was a s s o c i a t e d p o s i t i v e l y with o r a l t r a i t s i n males, while f o r females o b s t i n a c y was p o s i t i v e l y a s s o c i a t e d with a g g r e s s i o n , an o r a l t r a i t , but n e g a t i v e l y a s s o c i a t e d with dependence, another o r a l t r a i t , and s u g g e s t i b i l i t y , a h y s t e r i c a l t r a i t . H y s t e r i c a l f a c t o r s were f a i r l y e a s i l y i d e n t i f i e d f o r 61 both males and females; these are f a c t o r s 2 and 4 r e s p e c t i v e l y . T h i s l a b e l i n g i n d i c a t e s a disagreement with Lazare et a l . (1970) s i n c e t h e i r " h y s t e r i c a l f a c t o r " c o r r e l a t e d most h i g h l y with f a c t o r 1 f o r females. The high l o a d i n g on t h i s f a c t o r f o r the o r a l a g g r e s s i o n s c a l e may be d i f f i c u l t to i n t e r p r e t i n terms of the c l a s s i c d e s c r i p t i o n s of the c h a r a c t e r type but i t seems i n agreement with the common o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t h y s t e r i c a l p e r s o n a l i t i e s are " d i f f i c u l t " . Fear of s e x u a l i t y , which has been co n s i d e r e d a d e f i n i n g t r a i t of t h i s c h a r a c t e r type, f a i l e d t o loa d s i g n i f i c a n t l y on any of the p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s . T h i s outcome i s probably due to very extreme endorsement f r e q u e n c i e s f o r items i n the s c a l e ; few s u b j e c t s gave true responses. The r e s u l t i n g low v a r i a n c e f o r s u b j e c t s c a l e s c o r e s would p r o h i b i t l a r g e c o r r e l a t i o n s with other s c a l e s . R e s u l t s of the present study do not support a view of the o r a l c h a r a c t e r as a u n i t a r y c o n s t r u c t . For males, f a c t o r 4 with high l o a d i n g s on two o r a l t r a i t s — pessimism and dependence, has the highest r e l a t i o n s h i p with the " o r a l " f a c t o r of Lazare et a l . However, f a c t o r 3 a l s o l oads on s e v e r a l o r a l t r a i t s — p a s s i v i t y , a g g r e s s i o n and o r a l a g g r e s s i o n . Loadings on ob s t i n a c y and e g o c e n t r i c i t y complicate the p i c t u r e , although an argument co u l d be made f o r c o n s i d e r i n g e g o c e n t r i c i t y an o r a l t r a i t . 62 I t would seem that o v e r - g r a t i f i c a t i o n d u r i n g the o r a l s t a g e ~ c o u l d prevent the development of proper o b j e c t r e l a t i o n s , thus r e s u l t i n g i n an e g o c e n t r i c a t t i t u d e i n l a t e r l i f e . f a c t o r s 3 and 4 are somewhat s i m i l a r to Goldman-Eisler's (1951) o r a l a g g r e s s i v e and o r a l p e s s i m i s t f a c t o r s , although only two t r a i t s have high l o a d i n g s on the present " o r a l p e s s i m i s t " f a c t o r . T h i s s i m i l a r i t y to Goldman-Eisler's f i n d i n g s i s not s u r p r i s i n g s i n c e the i n v e n t o r y used c o n t a i n e d items from her q u e s t i o n n a i r e measure. For females, f a c t o r 5 i s most s i m i l a r to Lazare's " o r a l " f a c t o r , however, i t l o a d s s i g n i f i c a n t l y on only one o r a l t r a i t — p a s s i v i t y . The p a t t e r n of s c a l e l o a d i n g s on f a c t o r 1 conforms more c l o s e l y to c l i n i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n s of the o r a l c h a r a c t e r . although e m o t i o n a l i t y has been co n s i d e r e d a h y s t e r i c a l t r a i t . Glover (1924) i n c l u d e s l a b i l i t y of mood i n h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of the o r a l c h a r a c t e r . As was the case with male s u b j e c t s , the aggression s c a l e f a i l e d to l o a d with other o r a l t r a i t s . In g e n e r a l , fewer t r a i t s c a l e s had high l o a d i n g s on any one f a c t o r i n t h i s study than i n e i t h e r of the previous s t u d i e s i n which the p e r s o n a l i t y q u e s t i o n n a i r e was used (Lazare et a l . , 1966 and 1970). T h i s r e s u l t may have occu r r e d because the measure has more rele v a n c e i n a 63 p s y c h i a t r i c p o p u l a t i o n . I t i s p o s s i b l e to argue t h a t the c h a r a c t e r types should emerge more c l e a r l y i n a c l i n i c a l sample, s i n c e they have been d e s c r i b e d by c l i n i c i a n s and are based on o b s e r v a t i o n s of p s y c h i a t r i c p a t i e n t s . However, the present r e s u l t s are s t i l l encouraging. The f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e of the i n v e n t o r y used appears r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e , as evidenced by s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s between f a c t o r s from t h i s and e a r l i e r s t u d i e s , and the f a c t o r s e x t r a c t e d are g e n e r a l l y i n agreement with p s y c h o a n a l y t i c f o r m u l a t i o n s . I t i s not p o s s i b l e t o determine to what extent the r e s u l t s of the f a c t o r a n a l y s i s are a f u n c t i o n of the s p e c i f i c items which make up the i n v e n t o r y . T h i s measure has yet to be v a l i d a t e d a g a i n s t an e x t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n , and there were no checks on the o p e r a t i o n of s o c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y or response s e t s . An i n s p e c t i o n of item endorsement f r e q u e n c i e s suggests t h a t s o c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y may be a confounding v a r i a b l e . T y p i c a l l y , a n a l items have a preponderance of " t r u e " responses — t h i s i s the case f o r the emotional c o n s t r i c t i o n , o b s t i n a c y , parsimony, o r d e r l i n e s s and superego s c a l e s . Only the s e l f - d o u b t items tend to be answered " f a l s e " , and i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t t h i s s c a l e does not load with other anal s c a l e s . None of the o r a l and h y s t e r i c a l s c a l e s have a marked p u l l f o r a f f i r m a t i v e responses, and s e v e r a l of them •64 c l e a r l y tend to evoke f a l s e responses. While t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p between endorsement frequency and c h a r a c t e r type measures may e x p l a i n the s e p a r a t i o n of anal from o r a l and h y s t e r i c a l t r a i t s , i t cannot e x p l a i n the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between the l a t t e r groups. I t i s c l e a r t h a t the q u e s t i o n n a i r e should be r e v i s e d so t h a t t r a i t s c a l e s w i l l r e f l e c t the same degree of s o c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e behavior, but t h i s may be a d i f f i c u l t task given the n e g a t i v e c o n n o t a t i o n s of many of the t r a i t s r e l e v a n t to the c h a r a c t e r typology. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g that there were no sex d i f f e r e n c e s f o r p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s c o r e s , or f o r the demographic v a r i a b l e s . However, the importance of t r e a t i n g the sexes s e p a r a t e l y i n p e r s o n a l i t y study i s emphasized by the emergence of f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e s which d i f f e r f o r males and females f o r both p e r s o n a l i t y and c h i l d r e a r i n g v a r i a b l e s . In the l a t t e r case, the f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e f o r females was more complex than f o r male s u b j e c t s . While other i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of t h i s f i n d i n g are p o s s i b l e , one might s p e c u l a t e t h a t females, who are o f t e n s a i d to be more per s o n - o r i e n t e d than males, are more observant of p a r e n t a l behavior, and, t h e r e f o r e , r e g u i r e more dimensions to e x p l a i n t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s . The hypotheses concerning r e l a t i o n s h i p s between 65 c h a r a c t e r type and p e r c e p t i o n s of c h i l d r e a r i n g a l l r e c e i v e d some support i n the data. I t appears t h a t the o r a l c h a r a c t e r i s a s s o c i a t e d with low p e r c e i v e d warmth. Thus, males with extremely high scores on f a c t o r 3 ("oral aggression") a l s o had higher s c o r e s on Maternal Warmth than d i d low s c o r e r s , and t h e r e was a negative c o r r e l a t i o n between sc o r e s on f a c t o r 1, which a l s o seems to be an o r a l f a c t o r , and the P r a i s e s c a l e . As w e l l , to the extent that f a c t o r 5 f o r females r e f l e c t s o r a l i t y , s i g n i f i c a n t negative c o r r e l a t i o n s between sc o r e s on t h i s f a c t o r and both Maternal and P a t e r n a l Warmth a l s o support the h y p o t h e s i s . The s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between f a c t o r 3 f o r males and P a t e r n a l C o n t r o l supports the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t persons with o r a l c h a r a c t e r s w i l l p e r c e i v e parents as r e s t r i c t i v e . The a nal c h a r a c t e r i s a s s o c i a t e d with high warmth f o r females. T h i s c o n c l u s i o n i s supported by a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between s c o r e s on f a c t o r 3 f o r females and the Maternal Warmth s c a l e . There was no i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p a l s o holds f o r males, nor was there evidence t h a t the a n a l c h a r a c t e r i s a s s o c i a t e d with p e r c e p t i o n s of high p a r e n t a l c o n t r o l . I f p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r 4 f o r females i s c o n s i d e r e d " h y s t e r i c a l " , the hypothesized r e l a t i o n s h i p between the 66 h y s t e r i c a l p e r s o n a l i t y and low pe r c e i v e d warmth r e c e i v e s some support from the negative c o r r e l a t i o n s between t h i s f a c t o r and the Good Mother and P r a i s e s c a l e s , both of which r e f l e c t warmth. Contrary to e x p e c t a t i o n , there was a l s o a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between scores on f a c t o r 4 and P a t e r n a l C o n t r o l . None of the c o r r e l a t i o n s i n v o l v i n g the male " h y s t e r i c a l f a c t o r " were s i g n i f i c a n t . In summary, almost a l l of the s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g s r e l e v a n t to the hypotheses concerning p e r s o n a l i t y and c h i l d r e a r i n g were i n the expected d i r e c t i o n . The o r a l c h a r a c t e r was a s s o c i a t e d with p e r c e p t i o n s of low warmth and high c o n t r o l ; a n a l t r a i t s were p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d with warmth; and h y s t e r i c a l p e r s o n a l i t i e s p e r c e i v e d parents as l e s s warm. Contrary to hypotheses, there were no r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the a n a l c h a r a c t e r and high c o n t r o l , or between the h y s t e r i c a l c h a r a c t e r and low c o n t r o l . In f a c t , the l a t t e r type was a s s o c i a t e d with high p e r c e i v e d c o n t r o l . However, i t should be noted that i t was d i f f i c u l t to determine the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the o r a l and h y s t e r i c a l c h a r a c t e r s and the c o n t r o l dimension, because t r a i t s belonging to these two types f a i l e d to separate c l e a r l y i n the f a c t o r a n a l y s i s . T h i s problem d i d not a r i s e with r e s p e c t to p a r e n t a l warmth because i t was hypothesized t h a t both o r a l and h y s t e r i c a l t r a i t s would be a s s o c i a t e d with low pe r c e i v e d warmth. 67 The f a i l u r e of the m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s to i n d i c a t e s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among c h a r a c t e r types i n terms c f the c h i l d r e a r i n g measures, c o u l d be taken as an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t i t i s not u s e f u l to c o n c e p t u a l i z e p e r s o n a l i t y a c c o r d i n g to the o r a l , a n a l and h y s t e r i c a l c h a r a c t e r types. An adequate typology should enable r e s e a r c h e r s to make p r e d i c t i o n s on the b a s i s of s u b j e c t assignment to a type, but the r e s u l t s of the HANOvA suggest that t h i s i s not p o s s i b l e i n t h i s i n s t a n c e . However, c e r t a i n l i m i t a t i o n s i n the present study p r e c l u d e a d e f i n i t e c o n c l u s i o n . As a l r e a d y noted, the measure of c h a r a c t e r type used was not designed f o r a u n i v e r s i t y p o p u l a t i o n and remains e s s e n t i a l l y u n v a l i d a t e d . As w e l l , the f a c t o r a n a l y s i s of the c h i l d r e a r i n g q u e s t i o n n a i r e was based on a I minimum number of s u b j e c t s (for males, there were 50 v a r i a b l e s and 63 s u b j e c t s ) . T h i s may have r e s u l t e d i n somewhat u n r e l i a b l e s c a l e s , although high c o r r e l a t i o n s with e a r l i e r s c a l e s based on the same items ( S l a t e r , 1962) would argue a g a i n s t t h i s . F i n a l l y , the very s m a l l number of s u b j e c t s i n c l u d e d i n the MANOVA may have p r o h i b i t e d s i g n i f i c a n t group d i f f e r e n c e s . The major c o n c l u s i o n which can be drawn from the present study i s t h a t p e r c e p t i o n s of c h i l d r e a r i n g are r e l a t e d to measures of c h a r a c t e r type. However, 68 differences between types were not demonstrated on childrearing measures. U n t i l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n by type re s u l t s in s i g n i f i c a n t differences on these, or other measures, the usefulness of the psychoanalytic character typology remains in question. 69 REFERENCES Abraham, K. (1921) C o n t r i b u t i o n s to the theory of the a n a l c h a r a c t e r . In S e l e c t e d papers of K a r l Abraham. London: Hogarth Press and I n s t i t u t e of P s y c h o a n a l y s i s , 1948. Abraham, K. (1924) The i n f l u e n c e of o r a l e r o t i c i s m on c h a r a c t e r f o r m a t i o n . In S e l e c t e d papers of K a r l Abraham. London: Hogarth Press and I n s t i t u t e of P s y c h o a n a l y s i s , 1948. Adams, P. L. 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Ames, Iowa: Iowa State U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1967. Watson, G. Some p e r s o n a l i t y , d i f f e r e n c e s i n c h i l d r e n r e l a t e d to s t r i c t or permissive p a r e n t a l d i s c i p l i n e . 74 J o u r n a l of Psychology., 1957, 44, 227-49. Winder, C. L. S Wiggins, J . S. S o c i a l r e p u t a t i o n and s o c i a l b e havior: a f u r t h e r e v a l u a t i o n of the Peer Nomination Inventory. J o u r n a l of Abnormal Psychology, 1964, 68, 681-4. Yarrow, M. R. Problems of methods i n p a r e n t - c h i l d r e s e a r c h . C h i l d Development, 1963, 34, 215-26. 75 Appendix 1. P e r s o n a l i t y T e s t S c a l e s . A. I t e m - t o - t r a i t C o r r e l a t i o n s : Aggression: 1. I am con s i d e r e d a g g r e s s i v e by some of my acguaintances. 15. I am apt to express my i r r i t a t i o n r a t h e r than hold i t back. Males Females .64 .43 ,76 67 32. I f someone annoys me, I am apt to t e l l him what I t h i n k of him. .61 .60 45. I f I come a c r o s s a domineering person I am i n c l i n e d to put him i n h i s place, .46 .58 75. I o f t e n l e t myself go when I am angry. .47 .64 105. I get i n t o a f i g h t i n g mood when the o c c a s i o n seems to demand i t . .69 .49 119. I get angry and show i t when I am t r e a t e d with d i s r e s p e c t . .43 .43 E g o c e n t r i c i t y : 16. I can become e n t i r e l y absorbed i n t h i n k i n g about my p e r s o n a l a f f a i r s , my h e a l t h , my cares and my r e l a t i o n s with o t h e r s . .49 .47 34. I d i s l i k e s h a r i n g the c r e d i t of an achievement with o t h e r s . .61 .42 47. I t a l k a great d e a l about myself, my ex p e r i e n c e s , my f e e l i n g s and my i d e a s . .26 .32 90. I can e a s i l y become wrapped up i n my own i n t e r e s t s and f o r g e t the e x i s t e n c e of o t h e r s . .48 .44 107. I f e e l t h a t I have enough t r o u b l e on my hands without worrying about other people's t r o u b l e s . .35 .46 128. I t r y to get my own way r e g a r d l e s s of o p p o s i t i o n . 130. My f e e l i n g s are e a s i l y h u r t by r i d i c u l e or by s l i g h t i n g remarks. Dependence: 2. I am e a s i l y discouraged when t h i n g s go wrong. 33. I t h i n k of myself sometimes as neglected and unloved. 46. I am apt to complain about my s u f f e r i n g s and hardships. 76. I f e e l l o s t and h e l p l e s s when I am l e f t by someone I l o v e . 106. I f e e l i n s e c u r e when I must a c t on my own r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . 120. I t h i n k that most people are r a t h e r s e l f - c e n t e r e d and h e a r t l e s s . 129. I want sympathy, understanding and a f f e c t i o n more than anything e l s e . E m o t i o n a l i t y : 3. My f e e l i n g s and emotions are e a s i l y aroused. 17. I g i v e f u l l vent to my f e e l i n g s when I am s t i r r e d . 48. I am co n s i d e r e d somewhat e x c i t a b l e by my f r i e n d s . 63. I am r a t h e r s e n s i t i v e , i m p r e s s i o n a b l e and e a s i l y s t i r r e d . 77. I have i n t e n s e l i k e s and d i s l i k e s . 91. I d i s p l a y temper when the oc c a s i o n warrants i t . 121. I f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t to c o n t r o l my emotions. Emotional C o n s t r i c t i o n : 5. I am calm and p l a c i d most of the time. 20. I u s u a l l y express myself with c a u t i o n and r e s t r a i n t . 50. I am moderate i n my t a s t e s and sentiments. 65. I t takes a gr e a t d e a l to make me angry. 94. I do t h i n g s i n a l e i s u r e l y s o r t of way without worry or i r r i t a t i o n . 110. My emotional l i f e i s marked with moderation and balance. 132. I take p r i d e i n my a b i l i t y t o c o n t r o l my emotions. Fear of S e x u a l i t y : 19. I have had a d i f f i c u l t s e x u a l adjustment. 36. I have o f t e n thought that s e x u a l l y men are animals. 49. I f i n d sex d i s t a s t e f u l and f r i g h t e n i n g , (no males responded true to t h i s item) 79. In c o n s i d e r i n g marriage, I do not, or d i d not, enjoy t h i n k i n g about the sexu a l a s p e c t s . 93. Although my mind i s o f t e n preoccupied with s e x u a l matters, I have an i n t e n s e f e a r of sex. 78 109. Others have f e l t t h a t I have been a f r a i d of sex. .56 .48 131. At times I have thought I was s e x u a l l y f r i g i d (or impotent). .27 .74 E x h i b i t i o n i s m : 4. Sometimes when I am i n a crowd I say humorous t h i n g s which I expect s t r a n g e r s w i l l overhear. .45 .51 18. I o f t e n dramatize a s t o r y which I am t e l l i n g and demonstrate e x a c t l y how ev e r y t h i n g happened. 35. I have enjoyed f l i r t i n g . 64. I f e e l p l e a s a n t l y e x h i l a r a t e d when a l l eyes are upon me. 78. I enjoy h o l d i n g the f l o o r and performing before a group. 92. I o f t e n exaggerate my part i n an event to make myself appear i n a more i n t e r e s t i n g l i g h t . 108. I am d i s s a t i s f i e d i f I remain unnoticed. O bstinacy: 6. When I have decided how to do a thin g I d i s l i k e having o t h e r s make suggestions. .43 .59 21. My ways of doing t h i n g s are u s u a l l y work out b e t t e r than those of o t h e r s . .59 .48 37. I have s t r o n g o p i n i o n s on many s u b j e c t s . .43 .45 .58 .45 .57 .64 .67 .65 .54 .62 .59 .54 .66 .61 51. I do not u s u a l l y back down from my o p i n i o n s even when o t h e r s argue with me. 66. I tend t o be stubborn about t h i n g s I c o n s i d e r important. 123. I become angry when someone i n s i s t s upon doing something with which I do not agree. 133. I u s u a l l y stand up f o r my r i g h t s . O r a l A g g ression: 7. I f i n d myself f r e g u e n t l y d i s a g r e e i n g with and c o n t r a d i c t i n g other people. 22. I must admit I enjoy swearing. 41. I have f r e g u e n t l y been t o l d t h a t I have a s c o r n f u l manner when I argue, e s p e c i a l l y with people whose i d e a s I c o n s i d e r i n f e r i o r to mine. 52. I tend to make b i t i n g and s a r c a s t i c remarks when I c r i t i c i z e other people. 80. When i n a rage, I tend to p h y s i c a l l y express my f e e l i n g s , l i k e stamping my f e e t , and t e a r i n g t h i n g s , e t c . 95. I am fond of a r g u i n g . 134. I f i n d t h a t sarcasm can be a good weapon to defend my point of view. Parsimony: 8. I p r i d e myself on my t h r i f t i n e s s . 23. I do not l i k e t o waste money. 55. I l i k e to c o l l e c t t h i n g s . 69. I b e l i e v e i n "s a v i n g f o r a r a i n y day". 83. I keep a c a r e f u l r e c o r d of money that I spend. 98. I c h e r i s h the poss e s s i o n s t h a t I have. 124. I sometimes enjoy going through and l o o k i n g at my p o s s e s s i o n s . O r d e r l i n e s s : 38. I am s y s t e m a t i c and methodical i n my d a i l y l i f e . 53. I u s u a l l y get through ray work e f f i c i e n t l y without wasting time. 67. I o r g a n i z e my d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s so t h a t t h e r e i s l i t t l e c o n f u s i o n . 81. When I have t o undertake something d i f f i c u l t I make out a plan of procedure. 96. I l i k e t o arrange my l i f e so that i t runs smoothly and without c o n f l i c t . 135. E v e r y t h i n g I do must be p r e c i s e and a c c u r a t e . 136. I have a tendency to put t h i n g s o f f u n t i l the l a s t minute. P a s s i v i t y : 9. Good luck i s more help than hard work. 39. Work has no place i n p a r a d i s e . 54. I t i s b e t t e r t o do nothing than make a mistake. 68. Comfort i s necessary f o r a contented l i f e . 82. I don't l i k e c o m p e t i t i o n , i t i r r i t a t e s r a t h e r than s t i m u l a t e s me. 97. I t i s b e t t e r to play i t s a f e than to take a chance on success and r i s k f a i l u r e . 111. I would l i k e a l i f e of ease and l u x u r y . Perseverance: 10. I can work at a d i f f i c u l t task f o r a long time without g e t t i n g t i r e d of i t . 24. I am ab l e to keep working, day i n , day out, without g e t t i n g bored or t i r e d . 40. i can stand very long p e r i o d s of e x e r t i o n . 56. I am a horse f o r work. I am seldom exhausted. 70. I can enjoy a long s p e l l of continuous a c t i v i t y . 84. I s t i c k to a job even though i t seems I am not g e t t i n g r e s u l t s . 99. I f i n d t h a t I enjoy work more than r e l a x a t i o n . R e j e c t i o n of Others: 12. I get annoyed when my time i s taken up with people i n whom I am not i n t e r e s t e d . 26. I f i n d the company of d u l l people completely unbearable. 58. I u s u a l l y keep myself a l o o f and somewhat hard to approach. 71. I avoid c l o s e n e s s and f a m i l i a r i t y with other people. 86. I am i n t o l e r a n t of people who bore me. 101. I o f t e n tend to express my resentment a g a i n s t a person by having nothing more to do with him. 113. I have always p r e f e r r e d the company of o l d e r , t a l e n t e d , or g e n e r a l l y s u p e r i o r people. Pessimism: 11. I t i s misery to be born, pain to l i v e and g r i e f to d i e . 25. L i f e i s a heavy lo a d along a rough and weary road. 57. Hope only b r i n g s disappointment. 85. Hardly anyone c a r e s much what happens to you. 100. S e l f i s h n e s s and envy are the most powerful motives of mankind. 112. There i s sure to be a snag somewhere. 137. I f e e l that people who say that every c l o u d has a s i l v e r l i n i n g j u s t aren't being r e a l i s t i c . R i g i d i t y : 27. I p r e f e r to a s s o c i a t e with my o l d f r i e n d s even though by doing so I miss the o p p o r t u n i t y of meeting more i n t e r e s t i n g people. 42. I am u s u a l l y c o n s i s t e n t i n my behavior go about my work i n the same way frequent the same r o u t e s , e t c . 59. I f i n d t h a t many of may t a s t e s and sentiments have remained r e l a t i v e l y c o n s t a n t . 87. I f i n d t h a t a w e l l - o r d e r e d mode of l i f e , with r e g u l a r hours and an e s t a b l i s h e d r o u t i n e i s most s u i t e d to my temperament. 102. I r e s p e c t custom and am t h e r e f o r e somewhat r e s i s t a n t t o untested change. 114. I am a c r e a t u r e of h a b i t ; I can even endure monotony without f r e t t i n g . 125. I am guided i n my conduct by c e r t a i n p r i n c i p l e s which I have accepted. Self-Doubt: 13. When suddenly c o n f r o n t e d by a c r i s i s I can become i n h i b i t e d and do n o t h i n g . 29. I am slow to decide on a course of a c t i o n . 73. I d i s l i k e making h u r r i e d d e c i s i o n s . 88. I do most t h i n g s slowly and d e l i b e r a t e l y . 104. I am poor a t quick r e t o r t s and snap judgments. 116. I t h i n k much and speak l i t t l e . 138. I f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t to make d e c i s i o n s . S u g g e s t i b i l i t y : 14. I am e a s i l y swayed by o t h e r s . 31. People l i k e me because I u s u a l l y go along with what they want. 44. I t i s d i f f i c u l t f o r me to s t i c k to my own o p i n i o n s when someone e l s e i n s i s t s on t h e i r s . 62. I am a good f o l l o w e r . 74. I can o f t e n be e a s i l y convinced. 118. I am u s u a l l y w i l l i n g to go along with the o p i n i o n s of e x p e r t s . 139. Sometimes I f e e l I have no mind of my own. Sexual P r o v o c a t i v e n e s s : 30. I have enjoyed f l i r t i n g . 43. I have been a " t e a s e " . 61. I enjoy being " c a r r i e d away" by romantic movies. 89. I spend a good d e a l of time t h i n k i n g about sexual matters. 117. I have d i f f i c u l t y c o n t r o l l i n g my sex u a l impulses. 122. I have enjoyed l e a d i n g men (or women) on and then running the other way. 127. I have enjoyed p l a y i n g the female-male c a t and mouse game. Superego: 28. I avoid gay and i r r e s p o n s i b l e p leasure seekers. 60. I am c o n s c i e n t i o u s about t e l l i n g the t r u t h . 72. I do not allow myself the enjoyment of c e r t a i n u n p r o f i t a b l e p l e a s u r e s . 103. I c a r r y a s t r i c t c o n s c i e n c e with me wherever I go. 115. I have a st r o n g sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y about my d u t i e s . 125. I am guided i n my conduct by c e r t a i n p r i n c i p l e s which I have accepted. 126. I t h i n k I have a more r i g o r o u s standard of r i g h t and wrong than most people. 86 B. Endorsement Fr e q u e n c i e s : Aggression: 1. I am co n s i d e r e d a g g r e s s i v e by some of my acquaintances. 15. I am apt to express my i r r i t a t i o n r a t h e r than hold i t back. 32. I f someone annoys me, I am apt to t e l l him what I t h i n k of him. 45. I f I come across a domineering person I am i n c l i n e d to put him i n h i s pla c e . 75. I o f t e n l e t myself go when I am angry, 105. I get i n t o a f i g h t i n g mood when the o c c a s i o n seems to demand i t . 119. I get angry and show i t when I am t r e a t e d with d i s r e s p e c t . Males Females .40 .36 48 35 38 32 64 62 .52 .19 .27 .37 . 63 .75 E g o c e n t r i c i t y : 16. I can become e n t i r e l y absorbed i n t h i n k i n g about my pe r s o n a l a f f a i r s , my h e a l t h , my cares and my r e l a t i o n s with o t h e r s . .71 .61 34. I d i s l i k e s h a r i n g the c r e d i t of an achievement with o t h e r s . .30 .30 47. I t a l k a great deal about myself, my e x p e r i e n c e s , my f e e l i n g s and my i d e a s . .52 .51 90. I can e a s i l y become wrapped up i n my own i n t e r e s t s and f o r g e t the e x i s t e n c e of o t h e r s . .51 .30 107. I f e e l t h a t I have enough t r o u b l e on my hands without worrying about other people's t r o u b l e s . .32 .19 128. I t r y to get my own way r e g a r d l e s s of o p p o s i t i o n . 130. My f e e l i n g s are e a s i l y hurt by r i d i c u l e or by s l i g h t i n g remarks. Dependence: 2. I am e a s i l y discouraged when t h i n g s go wrong. 33. I t h i n k of myself sometimes as neglected and unloved. 46. I am apt t o complain about my s u f f e r i n g s and hardships. 76. I f e e l l o s t and h e l p l e s s when I am l e f t by someone I l o v e . 106. I f e e l i n s e c u r e when I must act on my own r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . 120. I t h i n k that most people are r a t h e r s e i f - c e n t e r e d and h e a r t l e s s . 129. I want sympathy, understanding and a f f e c t i o n more than anything e l s e . E m o t i o n a l i t y : 3. My f e e l i n g s and emotions are e a s i l y aroused. 17. I g i v e f u l l vent to my f e e l i n g s when I am s t i r r e d . 48. I am c o n s i d e r e d somewhat e x c i t a b l e by my f r i e n d s . 63. I am r a t h e r s e n s i t i v e , impressionable and e a s i l y s t i r r e d . 77. I have i n t e n s e l i k e s and d i s l i k e s . 91. I d i s p l a y temper when the occ a s i o n warrants i t . 121. I f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t t o c o n t r o l my emotions. Emotional C o n s t r i c t i o n : 5. I am calm and p l a c i d most of the time. 20. I u s u a l l y express myself with c a u t i o n and r e s t r a i n t . 50. I am moderate i n my t a s t e s and sentiments. 65* I t takes a great d e a l to make me angry. 94. I do t h i n g s i n a l e i s u r e l y s o r t of way without worry or i r r i t a t i o n . 110. My emotional l i f e i s marked with moderation and balance. 132. I take p r i d e i n my a b i l i t y to c o n t r o l my emotions. Fear of S e x u a l i t y : 19. I have had a d i f f i c u l t s e xual adjustment. 36. I have o f t e n thought that s e x u a l l y men are animals. 49. I f i n d sex d i s t a s t e f u l and f r i g h t e n i n g . 79. In c o n s i d e r i n g marriage, I do not, or d i d not, enjoy t h i n k i n g about the se x u a l a s p e c t s . 93. Although my mind i s o f t e n preoccupied with sexual matters, I have an i n t e n s e f e a r of sex. 109. Others have f e l t that I have been a f r a i d of sex. 89 131. At times I have thought I was s e x u a l l y f r i g i d (or impotent). 11 21 E x h i b i t i o n i s m : 4. Sometimes when I am i n a crowd I say humorous t h i n g s which I expect s t r a n g e r s w i l l overhear. 18. I o f t e n dramatize a s t o r y which I am t e l l i n g and demonstrate e x a c t l y how e v e r y t h i n g happened. 35. I have enjoyed f l i r t i n g . 64. I f e e l p l e a s a n t l y e x h i l a r a t e d when a l l eyes are upon me.. 78. I enjoy h o l d i n g the f l o o r and performing before a group. 92. I o f t e n exaggerate my pa r t i n an event to make myself appear i n a more i n t e r e s t i n g l i g h t . 108. I am d i s s a t i s f i e d i f I remain unnoticed. 65 54 ,75 46 35 ,49 51 . 42 .48 .67 .34 .27 .33 . 52 Obstinacy: 6. When I have decided how to do a t h i n g I d i s l i k e having o t h e r s make su g g e s t i o n s . .48 .56 21. My ways of doing t h i n g s are usually, work out b e t t e r than those of o t h e r s . .64 .57 37. I have s t r o n g o p i n i o n s on many s u b j e c t s . .75 .76 51. I do not u s u a l l y back down from my o p i n i o n s even when o t h e r s argue with me. .76 .78 66. I tend to be stubborn about t h i n g s I c o n s i d e r important. .95 .99 123. I become angry when someone i n s i s t s upon doing something with which I do not agree. .46 .51 133. I u s u a l l y stand up f o r my r i g h t s . O r a l Aggression: 7. I f i n d myself f r e q u e n t l y d i s a g r e e i n g with and c o n t r a d i c t i n g other people. 22. I must admit I enjoy swearing. 41. I have f r e q u e n t l y been t o l d that I have a s c o r n f u l manner when I argue, e s p e c i a l l y with people whose i d e a s I c o n s i d e r i n f e r i o r to mine. 52. I tend to make b i t i n g and s a r c a s t i c remarks when I c r i t i c i z e other people. 80. When i n a rage, I tend to p h y s i c a l l y express my f e e l i n g s , l i k e stamping my f e e t , and t e a r i n g t h i n g s , e t c . 95. I am fond of arguing. 134. I f i n d t h a t sarcasm can be a good weapon to defend my p o i n t of view. Parsimony: 8. I p r i d e myself on my t h r i f t i n e s s . 23. I do not l i k e to waste money. 55. I l i k e t o c o l l e c t t h i n g s . 69. I b e l i e v e i n " s a v i n g f o r a r a i n y day". 83. I keep a c a r e f u l r e c o r d of money t h a t I spend. 98. I c h e r i s h the poss e s s i o n s that I have. 124. I sometimes enjoy going /through and l o o k i n g at my p o s s e s s i o n s . O r d e r l i n e s s : 38. I am s y s t e m a t i c and methodical i n my d a i l y l i f e . 53. I u s u a l l y get through my work e f f i c i e n t l y without wasting time. 67. I org a n i z e my d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s so t h a t there i s l i t t l e c o n f u s i o n . 81. When I have to undertake something d i f f i c u l t I make out a plan of procedure. 96. I l i k e to arrange my l i f e so that i t runs smoothly and without c o n f l i c t . 135. E v e r y t h i n g I do must be p r e c i s e and a c c u r a t e . 136. I have a tendency t o put t h i n g s o f f u n t i l the l a s t minute. P a s s i v i t y : 9. Good l u c k i s more help than hard work. 39. Work has no p l a c e i n p a r a d i s e . 54. I t i s b e t t e r to do nothing than make a mistake. 68. Comfort i s necessary f o r a contented l i f e . 82. I don't l i k e c ompetition* i t i r r i t a t e s r a t h e r than s t i m u l a t e s me. 97. I t i s b e t t e r to play i t s a f e than to take a chance on success and r i s k f a i l u r e . 111. I would l i k e a l i f e of ease and l u x u r y . Perseverance: 10. I can work at a d i f f i c u l t task f o r a long time without g e t t i n g t i r e d of i t . 24. I am a b l e t o keep working, day i n , day out, without g e t t i n g bored or t i r e d . 40. I can stand very long p e r i o d s of e x e r t i o n . 56. I am a horse f o r work. I am seldom exhausted. 70. I can enjoy a long s p e l l of continuous a c t i v i t y . 84. I s t i c k to a job even though i t seems I am not g e t t i n g r e s u l t s . 99. I f i n d t h a t I enjoy work more than r e l a x a t i o n . R e j e c t i o n of Others: 12. I get annoyed when my time i s taken up with people i n whom I am not i n t e r e s t e d . 26. I f i n d the company of d u l l people completely unbearable. 58. I u s u a l l y keep myself a l o o f and somewhat hard to approach. 71. I a v o i d c l o s e n e s s and f a m i l i a r i t y with other people. 86. I am i n t o l e r a n t of people who bore me. 101. I o f t e n tend t o express my resentment a g a i n s t a person by having nothing more to do with him. 113. I have always p r e f e r r e d the company of o l d e r , t a l e n t e d , or g e n e r a l l y s u p e r i o r people. Pessimism: 11. I t i s misery to be born, pain to l i v e and g r i e f to d i e . 25. L i f e i s a heavy load along a rough and weary road. 57. Hope onl y b r i n g s disappointment. 85. Hardly anyone c a r e s much what happens to you. 100. S e l f i s h n e s s and envy are the most powerful motives of mankind. 112. There i s sure to be a snag somewhere. 137. I f e e l t h a t people who say that every c l o u d has a s i l v e r l i n i n g j u s t a ren't being r e a l i s t i c . R i g i d i t y : 27. I p r e f e r to a s s o c i a t e with my o l d f r i e n d s even though by doing so I miss the o p p o r t u n i t y of meeting more i n t e r e s t i n g people. 42. I am u s u a l l y c o n s i s t e n t i n my behavior; go about my work i n the same way f r e q u e n t the same r o u t e s , e t c . 59. I f i n d t h a t many of may t a s t e s and sentiments have remained r e l a t i v e l y constant. 87. I f i n d t h a t a well-ordered mode of l i f e , with r e g u l a r hours and an e s t a b l i s h e d r o u t i n e i s most s u i t e d to my temperament. 102. I r e s p e c t custom and am t h e r e f o r e somewhat r e s i s t a n t to untested change. 114. I am a c r e a t u r e of h a b i t ; I can even endure monotony without f r e t t i n g . 125. I am guided i n my conduct by c e r t a i n p r i n c i p l e s which I have accepted. Self-Doubt: 13. When suddenly c o n f r o n t e d by a c r i s i s I can become i n h i b i t e d and do no t h i n g . 29. I am slow to decide on a course of a c t i o n . 73. I d i s l i k e making h u r r i e d d e c i s i o n s . 88. I do most t h i n g s s l o w l y and d e l i b e r a t e l y . 104. I am poor a t quick r e t o r t s and snap judgments. 116. I t h i n k much and speak l i t t l e . 138. I f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t to make d e c i s i o n s . S u g g e s t i b i l i t y : 14. I am e a s i l y swayed by o t h e r s . 31. People l i k e me because I u s u a l l y go along with what they want. 44. I t i s d i f f i c u l t f o r me to s t i c k to my own o p i n i o n s when someone e l s e i n s i s t s on t h e i r s . 62. I am a good f o l l o w e r . 74. I can o f t e n be e a s i l y convinced. 118. I am u s u a l l y w i l l i n g to go along with the o p i n i o n s of e x p e r t s . 139. Sometimes I f e e l I have no mind of my own. Sexual P r o v o c a t i v e n e s s : 30. I have enjoyed f l i r t i n g . 43. I have been a "tease". 61. I enjoy being " c a r r i e d away" by romantic movies. 89. I spend a good d e a l of time t h i n k i n g about sexual matters. 117. I have d i f f i c u l t y c o n t r o l l i n g my sexual impulses. 122. I have enjoyed l e a d i n g men (or women) on and then running the other way. 127. I have enjoyed p l a y i n g the female-male c a t and mouse game. Superego: 28. I avoid gay and i r r e s p o n s i b l e p l e a s u r e s e e k e r s . 60. I am c o n s c i e n t i o u s about t e l l i n g the t r u t h . 72. I do not allow myself the enjoyment of c e r t a i n u n p r o f i t a b l e p l e a s u r e s . 103. I c a r r y a s t r i c t c o n s c i e n c e with me wherever I go. 115. I have a str o n g sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y about my d u t i e s . 125. I am guided i n my conduct by c e r t a i n p r i n c i p l e s which I have accepted. 126. I t h i n k I have a more r i g o r o u s standard of r i g h t and wrong than most people. 96 Appendix 2. S c a l e s f o r the P a r e n t a l Role P a t t e r n s q u e s t i o n n a i r e . A. Males : Loading 1. Maternal Warmth: 10. Some parents encourage t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o b r i n g f r i e n d s home. .41 14. Some parents make a tremendous e f f o r t to keep the f a m i l y c l o s e l y k n i t . .46 16. Some people always express t h e i r f e e l i n g s openly, r a t h e r than keeping them to themselves. .38 20. Some parents spend a l o t of time e n t e r t a i n i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n by p l a y i n g games with them, going on p i c n i c s , t a k i n g them to the c i r c u s , e t c . .48 21. Some parents are always sympathetic whenever t h e i r c h i l d c r i e s or i s upset about something. .34 29. Some parents are very demonstrative i n e x p r essing l o v e and a f f e c t i o n toward t h e i r c h i l d r e n . .48 30. Some parents g i v e t h e i r c h i l d r e n a l o t of help with s c h o o l work. .47 32. Some parents t r y to reason with t h e i r c h i l d r e n when they misbehave, r a t h e r than u s i n g some form of punishment. .53 34. Some parents r e g u l a t e the behavior of t h e i r c h i l d r e n by p r a i s i n g them when they do w e l l . .60 38. Some parents are e s p e c i a l l y concerned with t e a c h i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n a g r e a t d e a l i n the way on gen e r a l i n f o r m a t i o n and p r a c t i c a l knowledge. . 52 39. Some parents are h e l p f u l i n teaching t h e i r c h i l d r e n how to get along with other people. .71 40. Some parents are h e l p f u l i n teaching t h e i r c h i l d how to l i v e comfortably with h i m s e l f . 41. Some parents are very e f f e c t i v e i n mai n t a i n i n g d i s c i p l i n e i n the home. 44. Some parents are very e f f e c t i v e i n h e l p i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n s o l v e problems r e l a t e d to f r i e n d s h i p s o u t s i d e the f a m i l y . 45. Some parents are very e f f e c t i v e i n h e l p i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n s o l v e p r a c t i c a l problems l i k e l e a r n i n g new s k i l l s . 46. Some parents are very e f f e c t i v e i n h e l p i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n through the v a r i o u s emotional c r i s e s a s s o c i a t e d with growing up. 49. How o f t e n d i d you f e e l f r e e to c o n f i d e i n your parents and t e l l them your t r o u b l e s ? ( i n d i c a t e s often) 2. Maternal C o n t r o l : 13. Some paren t s , when they make a r u l e , s t i c k to i t , r a t h e r than p e r m i t t i n g exceptions and v i o l a t i o n s under p a r t i c u l a r c i rcumstances. 18. Some parents o b j e c t when t h e i r c h i l d r e n l o a f , daydream or get s p r i n g f e v e r . 19. Some parents p l a c e a l o t of emphasis on "being a man" and not g e t t i n g e a s i l y upset. 22. Some parents i n s i s t upon prompt and unguestioning obedience. 24. Some parents always allow t h e i r c h i l d r e n to express t h e i r f e e l i n g s when the c h i l d r e n are angry or annoyed at them. 25. Some parents are s t r i c t . 98 26. Some people d e r i v e great pleasure from h e l p i n g and c a r i n g f o r other people. -.41 27. Some people are i n c l i n e d to hold a grudge. .49 28. Some parents use p h y s i c a l punishment as t h e i r p r i n c i p l e form of d i s c i p l i n e . 55 33. Many parents place a l o t of emphasis on the importance of keeping busy and not wasting time on i d l e p l e a s u r e s . .64 35. Many parents get angry when t h e i r c h i l d r e n are d i s o b e d i e n t or d e f i a n t . .33 S o c i a b l e Mother: 1. Some people are very s o c i a b l e and gr e g a r i o u s . 4. Some people are very i n t e r e s t e d i n l i t e r a t u r e . 57 .33 6. Some people get tremendous pleasure from p l a y i n g host. .41 9. Some people p l a c e a l o t of emphasis upon the importance of c o n t r o l l i n g one's f e e l i n g s . .46 11. Some people are very a s s e r t i v e . .60 30. Many parents give t h e i r c h i l d r e n a l o t of help with s c h o o l work. .33 33. Many parents p l a c e a l o t of emphasis on the importance of keeping busy and not wasting time with i d l e p l e a s u r e s . .31 47. Which parent administered the d i s c i p l i n e i n your f a m i l y when both parents were present? -.30 ( i n d i c a t e s mother) 48. Which of your parents had the f i n a l say as to what you could or co u l d not do? -.60 ( i n d i c a t e s mother) 4. Modern Mother: 4. Some people are very i n t e r e s t e d i n l i t e r a t u r e . 8. Some people are very o p t i m i s t i c about the motives of o t h e r s . 15. Some parents t r y to smooth over q u a r r e l s and arguments that a r i s e i n the f a m i l y . 38. Some parents are e s p e c i a l l y concerned with t e a c h i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n a great d e a l i n the way of ge n e r a l i n f o r m a t i o n and p r a c t i c a l knowledge. 41. Some parents are very e f f e c t i v e i n m a i n t a i n i n g d i s c i p l i n e i n the home. 47. Which parent adminstered the d i s c i p l i n e i n your f a m i l y when both parents were present ( i n d i c a t e s f a t h e r ) 5. P a t e r n a l Warmth: 10. Some parents encourage t h e i r c h i l d r e n to b r i n g f r i e n d s home. 12. Some parents give t h e i r c h i l d r e n a phenomenal amount of care and a t t e n t i o n . 14. Some parents make a tremendous e f f o r t t o keep the f a m i l y c l o s e l y k n i t . 15. Some parents t r y to smooth over q u a r r e l s and arguments that a r i s e i n the f a m i l y . 20. Some parents spend a l o t of time e n t e r t a i n i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n by p l a y i n g games with them, going on p i c n i c s , t a k i n g them to the c i r c u s , e t c . 21. Some parents are always sympathetic whenever t h e i r c h i l d c r i e s or i s upset about something. 24. Some parents always allow t h e i r c h i l d r e n to express t h e i r f e e l i n g s when the c h i l d r e n are angry or annoyed with them. 26. Some people d e r i v e g r e a t p l e a s u r e from h e l p i n g and c a r i n g f o r other people. 29. Some parents are very demonstrative i n expr e s s i n g love and a f f e c t i o n toward t h e i r c h i l d r e n . 30. Many parents give t h e i r c h i l d r e n a l o t of help with s c h o o l work. 32. Some parents t r y to reason with t h e i r c h i l d r e n when they misbehave r a t h e r than u s i n g some form of punishment. 34. Some parents r e g u l a t e the behavior of t h e i r c h i l d r e n by p r a i s i n g them when they do w e l l . 36. Many people seem to spend t h e i r whole l i v e s working and s t i v i n g with hardly any thought of p l e a s u r e . 38. Some parents are e s p e c i a l l y concerned with teaching t h e i r c h i l d r e n a gre a t d e a l i n the way of ge n e r a l i n f o r m a t i o n and p r a c t i c a l knowledge. 39. Some parents are h e l p f u l i n teaching t h e i r c h i l d r e n how to get along with other people. 40. Some parents are h e l p f u l i n teaching t h e i r c h i l d to l i v e comfortably with h i m s e l f . 41. Some parents are very e f f e c t i v e i n main t a i n i n g d i s c i p l i n e i n the home. 42. Some parents p r a i s e t h e i r c h i l d r e n when they get good grades. 43. Some parents p r a i s e a c h i l d most when he accomplishes something of which he himself i s proud. 44. Some parents are e f f e c t i v e i n h e l p i n g the c h i l d s o l v e problems r e l a t e d to h i s f r i e n d s h i p s o u t s i d e the f a m i l y . 45. Some parents are most e f f e c t i v e i n h e l p i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n s o l v e p r a c t i c a l problems l i k e l e a r n i n g new s k i l l s . 46. Some parents are very e f f e c t i v e i n h e l p i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n through the v a r i o u s c r i s e s a s s o c i a t e d with growing up. 49. How o f t e n d i d you f e e l f r e e to c o n f i d e i n your parents and t e l l them your t r o u b l e s ? ( i n d i c a t e s often) 50. Some parents p r a i s e t h e i r c h i l d r e n when they achieve success i n t h e i r s o c i a l l i f e . 6. P a t e r n a l C o n t r o l : 5. Some people are easy-going. 10. Some parents encourage t h e i r c h i l d r e n to b r i n g f r i e n d s home. 13. Some pa r e n t s , when they make a r u l e , s t i c ] to i t , r a t h e r than p e r m i t t i n g e x c e p t i o n s and v i o l a t i o n s under p a r t i c u l a r circumstances. 17. Some parents are s o f t with regard to d i s c i p l i n e . 18. Some parents o b j e c t when t h e i r c h i l d r e n l o a f , daydream or get s p r i n g f e v e r . 19. Some parents p l a c e a l o t of emphasis on "being a man" and not g e t t i n g e a s i l y upset. 22. Some parents i n s i s t upon prompt and unguestionning obedience. 24. Some parents always allow t h e i r c h i l d r e n to express t h e i r f e e l i n g s when the c h i l d r e n are angry or annoyed with them. 25. Some parents are s t r i c t . 28. Some parents use p h y s i c a l punishment as t h e i r p r i n c i p l e form of d i s c i p l i n e . 31. Many people are c o n v e n t i o n a l and conform to a l l the r u l e s and demands of s o c i e t y . 33. Many parents p l a c e a l o t of emphasis on the importance of keeping busy and not wasting time on i d l e p l e a s u r e s . 35. Many parents get very angry when t h e i r c h i l d r e n are d i s o b e d i e n t or d e f i a n t . 37. Many parents take pains to guide t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r c h o i c e of c a r e e r . 41. Some parents are very e f f e c t i v e i n mainta i n i n g d i s c i p l i n e i n the home. 7. S o c i a b l e F a t h e r ; 5. Some people are easy-going. 6. Some people get tremendous p l e a s u r e from p l a y i n g host. 8. Some people are very o p t i m i s t i c about the motives of other s . 12, Some parents g i v e t h e i r c h i l d r e n a phenomenal amount of care and a t t e n t i o n . 26. Some people d e r i v e great pleasure from h e l p i n g and c a r i n g f o r other people. 27. Some people are i n c l i n e d t o hold a grudge. 36. Many people seem to spend t h e i r whole l i v e s working and s t r i v i n g with h a r d l y any thought of p l e a s u r e . 41. Some parents are very e f f e c t i v e i n mai n t a i n i n g d i s c i p l i n e i n the home. 49. How o f t e n d i d you f e e l f r e e to c o n f i d e i n your parents and t e l l them your t r o u b l e s ? ( i n d i c a t e s often) 50. Some parents p r a i s e t h e i r c h i l d r e n f o r successes i n t h e i r s o c i a l l i f e . 103 8. Modern Father : 4. Some people are very i n t e r e s t e d i n l i t e r a t u r e . .53 6. Some people get tremendous pleasure from p l a y i n g host. .31 14. Some parents make a tremendous e f f o r t t o keep the f a m i l y c l o s e l y k n i t . .33 16. Some people always express t h e i r f e e l i n g s openly r a t h e r than keeping them to themselves. .58 23. Some parents are very i n t e r e s t e d i n music and a r t . .69 27. Some people are i n c l i n e d to hold a grudge. .42 29. Some parents are very demonstrative i n e x p r e s s i n g l o v e and a f f e c t i o n toward t h e i r c h i l d r e n . .40 30. Many parents give t h e i r c h i l d r e n a l o t of help with s c h o o l work. .53 38. Some parents are e s p e c i a l l y concerned with teaching c h i l d r e n a gre a t d e a l i n the way of g e n e r a l i n f o r m a t i o n and p r a c t i c a l knowledge. .40 49. How o f t e n d i d you f e e l f r e e to c o n f i d e i n your parents and t e l l them your t r o u b l e s ? ( i n d i c a t e s often) 42 B. Females. 1. Maternal Warmth: 2. Some people are "outdoor" types. 3. Some people are i n c l i n e d to emphasize the humorous s i d e of a s i t u a t i o n . 5. Some people are easy-going. 10. Some parents encourage t h e i r c h i l d r e n to b r i n g f r i e n d s home. 15. Some parents t r y to smooth over q u a r r e l s and arguments that a r i s e i n the f a m i l y . 20. Some parents spend a l o t of time e n t e r t a i n i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n by p l a y i n g games with them, going on p i c n i c s , t a k i n g them to the c i r c u s , e t c . 21. Some parents are always sympathetic whenever t h e i r c h i l d c r i e s or i s upset about something. 24. Some parents always allow t h e i r c h i l d r e n to express t h e i r f e e l i n g s when the c h i l d r e n are angry or annoyed at them. 26. Some people d e r i v e g r e a t pleasure from h e l p i n g and c a r i n g f o r other people. 27. Some people are i n c l i n e d to hold a grudge. 32. Some parents t r y to reason with t h e i r c h i l d r e n when they misbehave, r a t h e r than using some form of punishment. 34. Some parents r e g u l a t e the behavior of t h e i r c h i l d r e n by p r a i s i n g them when they do w e l l . 38. Some parents are e s p e c i a l l y concerned with t e a c h i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n a great d e a l i n the way of g e n e r a l i n f o r m a t i o n and p r a c t i c a l knowledge. 39. Some parents are h e l p f u l i n teaching t h e i r c h i l d r e n how to get along with other people. 40. Some parents are h e l p f u l i n teaching t h e i r c h i l d t o l i v e comfortably with h i m s e l f , 41. Some parents are very e f f e c t i v e i n mai n t a i n i n g d i s c i p l i n e i n the home. 43. Some parents p r a i s e a c h i l d most when he accomplishes something of which he hi m s e l f i s proud. , 44. Some parents are e f f e c t i v e i n h e l p i n g the c h i l d s o l v e problems r e l a t e d to h i s f r i e n d s h i p s o u t s i d e the f a m i l y . 45. Some parents are most e f f e c t i v e i n h e l p i n g t h e i r c h i l d s o l v e p r a c t i c a l problems l i k e l e a r n i n g new s k i l l s . 46. Some parents are very e f f e c t i v e i n he l p i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n through the v a r i o u s emotional c r i s e s a s s o c i a t e d with growing up. 48. Which of your parents had the f i n a l say as t o what you could or co u l d not do? ( i n d i c a t e s f a t h e r ) 49. How o f t e n d i d you f e e l f r e e to c o n f i d e i n your parents and t e l l them your t r o u b l e s ? ( i n d i c a t e s often) 2. Maternal C o n t r o l : 8. Some people are very o p t i m i s t i c about the motives of o t h e r s . 9. Some people p l a c e a l o t of emphhasis upon the importance of c o n t r o l l i n g one's f e e l i n g s . 13. Some parents, when they make a r u l e , s t i c k t o i t , r a t h e r than p e r m i t t i n g exception and v i o l a t i o n s under p a r t i c u l a r circumstances 17. Some parents are s o f t with regard to d i s c i p l i n e . 18. Some parents o b j e c t when t h e i r c h i l d r e n l o a f , daydream, or get s p r i n g f e v e r . 19. Some parents p l a c e a l o t of emphasis on "being a man" and not g e t t i n g e a s i l y upset. 22. Some parents i n s i s t upon prompt and unguestionning obedience. 25. Some parents are s t r i c t . 31. Many people are c o n v e n t i o n a l and conform t o a l l the r u l e s and demands of s o c i e t y . 33. Many parents p l a c e a l o t of emphasis on the importance of keeping busy and not wasting time on i d l e p l e a s u r e s . 35. Many parents get angry when t h e i r c h i l d r e n are d i s o b e d i e n t or d e f i a n t . 3. Dominant Mother: I . Some people are very s o c i a b l e and g r e g a r i o u s . 6. Some people get tremendous pleasure from p l a y i n g host. I I . Some people are very a s s e r t i v e . 16. Some Xpeople always express t h e i r f e e l i n g s openly, r a t h e r than keeping them to themselves. 21. Some parents are always sympathetic whenever t h e i r c h i l d c r i e s or i s upset about something. 25. Some parents are s t r i c t . 27. Some people are i n c l i n e d to hold a grudge. 41. Some parents are very e f f e c t i v e i n main t a i n i n g d i s c i p l i n e i n the home. 47. Which parent administered the d i s c i p l i n e your f a m i l y when both parents were present? ( i n d i c a t e s mother) 4. Modern Mother: 2. Some people are "outdoor types". 4. Some people are very i n t e r e s t e d i n l i t e r a t u r e . 23. Some parents are very i n t e r e s t e d i n music and a r t . 26. Some people d e r i v e great pleasure from h e l p i n g and c a r i n g f o r other people. 29. Some parents are very demonstrative i n e x p r e s s i n g love and a f f e c t i o n toward t h e i r c h i l d r e n . 30. Some parents g i v e t h e i r c h i l d r e n a l o t of help with s c h o o l work. 31. Many people are c o n v e n t i o n a l and conform to a l l the r u l e s and demands of s o c i e t y . 37. Some parents take pains to guide t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r c h o i c e of a c a r e e r . 5. Good Mother: 7. Some parents place a c e r t a i n emphasis on g e t t i n g good grades i n s c h o o l . 10. Some parents encourage t h e i r c h i l d r e n to b r i n g f r i e n d s home. 12. Some parents g i v e t h e i r c h i l d r e n a phenomenal amount of care and a t t e n t i o n . 20. Some parents spend a l o t of time e n t e r t a i n i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n by p l a y i n g games with them, going on p i c n i c s , t a k i n g them to the c i r c u s , e t c . 23. Some parents are very i n t e r e s t e d i n music and a r t . 28. Some parents use p h y s i c a l punishment as t h e i r p r i n c i p l e form of d i s c i p l i n e . 32. Some parents t r y to reason with t h e i r c h i l d r e n when they misbehave, r a t h e r than u s i n g some form of punishment. 34. Some parents r e g u l a t e the behavior of t h e i r c h i l d r e n by p r a i s i n g them when they do w e l l . 36. Many people seem to spend t h e i r whole l i v e s working and s t r i v i n g with h a r d l y any thought of p l e a s u r e . 37. Some parents take pains to guide t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r c h o i c e of a c a r e e r . 39. Some parents are h e l p f u l i n teaching t h e i r c h i l d r e n how to get along with other people. 40. Some parents are h e l p f u l i n teaching t h e i r c h i l d to l i v e c o m f ortably with h i m s e l f , 42. Some parents p r a i s e t h e i r c h i l d r e n when they get good grades. 43. Some parents p r a i s e a c h i l d most when he accomplishes something of which he hims e l f i s proud. 44. Some parents are e f f e c t i v e i n h e l p i n g the c h i l d s o l v e problems r e l a t e d to h i s f r i e n d s h i p s o u t s i d e the f a m i l y . 45. Some parents are most e f f e c t i v e i n h e l p i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n s o l v e p r a c t i c a l problems l i k e l e a r n i n g new s k i l l s . 46. Some parents are very e f f e c t i v e i n h e l p i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n through the v a r i o u s emotional c r i s e s a s s o c i a t e d with growing up. 49. How o f t e n d i d you f e e l f r e e to c o n f i d e i n your parents and t e l l them your t r o u b l e s ? ( i n d i c a t e s often) 50. Some parents p r a i s e t h e i r c h i l d r e n when they achieve successes i n t h e i r s o c i a l l i f e . 6. P a t e r n a l Warmth: 6. Some people get tremendous pleasure from p l a y i n g host. 10. Some parents encourage t h e i r c h i l d r e n to b r i n g f r i e n d s home. 12. Some parents g i v e t h e i r c h i l d r e n a phenomenal amount of care and a t t e n t i o n . 14. Some parents make a tremendous e f f o r t to keep the f a m i l y c l o s e l y k n i t . 15. Some parents t r y to smooth over g u a r r e l s and arguments t h a t a r i s e i n the f a m i l y . 20. Some parents spend a l o t of time e n t e r t a i n i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n by p l a y i n g games with them, going on p i c n i c s , t a k i n g them to the c i r c u s , e t c . 21. Some parents are always sympathetic whenever t h e i r c h i l d c r i e s or i s upset about something. 23. Some parents are i n t e r e s t e d i n music and a r t . 24. Some parents always allow t h e i r c h i l d r e n to express t h e i r f e e l i n g s when the c h i l d r e n are angry or annoyed at them. 26. Some people d e r i v e g r e a t pleasure from h e l p i n g and c a r i n g f o r other people. 29. Some parents are very demonstrative i n e x p r e s s i n g l o v e and a f f e c t i o n toward t h e i r c h i l d r e n . 30.. Many parents give t h e i r c h i l d r e n a l o t of help with s c h o o l work. 32. Some parents t r y to reason with t h e i r c h i l d r e n when they misbehave, r a t h e r than u s i n g some form of punishment. 34. Some parents r e g u l a t e the behavior of t h e i r c h i l d r e n , by p r a i s i n g them when t h e y do w e l l . 38. Some parents are e s p e c i a l l y concerned with t e a c h i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n a gre a t d e a l i n the way of g e n e r a l i n f o r m a t i o n and p r a c t i c a l knowledge. 39. Some parents are h e l p f u l i n teaching t h e i r c h i l d r e n how t o get along with other people. 40. Some parents are h e l p f u l i n teaching t h e i r c h i l d t o l i v e comfortably with h i m s e l f . 41. Some parents are very e f f e c t i v e i n main t a i n i n g d i s c i p l i n e i n the home. 43. Some parents p r a i s e a c h i l d most when he accomplishes something of which he himself i s proud. 44. Some parents are e f f e c t i v e i n h e l p i n g the c h i l d s o l v e problems r e l a t e d to h i s f r i e n d s h i p s o u t s i d e the f a m i l y . v. 45. Some parents are most e f f e c t i v e i n h e l p i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n s o l v e p r a c t i c a l problems l i k e l e a r n i n g new s k i l l s . 46. Some parents are very e f f e c t i v e i n h e l p i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n through the v a r i o u s emotional c r i s e s a s s o c i a t e d with growing up. 49. How o f t e n d i d you f e e l f r e e to c o n f i d e i n your parents and t e l l them your t r o u b l e s ? ( i n d i c a t e s often) 7. P a t e r n a l C o n t r o l : 5. Some people are easy going. 8. Some people are very o p t i m i s t i c about the motives o f o t h e r s . 11. Some people are very a s s e r t i v e . 12. Some parents give t h e i r c h i l d r e n a phenomenal amount of care and a t t e n t i o n . 13. Some parents, when they make a r u l e , s t i c k to i t , r a t h e r than p e r m i t t i n g exceptions and v i o l a t i o n s under p a r t i c u l a r circumstances. 17. Some parents are s o f t with regard to d i s c i p l i n e . 18. Some parents o b j e c t when t h e i r c h i l d r e n l o a f , daydream or get s p r i n g f e v e r . 22. Some parent i n s i s t upon prompt and unguestionning obedience. 25. Some parents are s t r i c t . 28. Some parents use p h y s i c a l punishment as t h e i r p r i n c i p l e form of d i s c i p l i n e . 32. Some parents t r y to reason with t h e i r c h i l d r e n when they misbehave, r a t h e r than u s i n g some form of punishment. 33. Many parents p l a c e a l o t of emphasis on the importance of keeping busy and not wasting time with i d l e p l e a s u r e s . 35. Many parents get angry when t h e i r c h i l d r e n are d i s o b e d i e n t or d e f i a n t . 36. Many people seem to spend t h e i r whole l i v e s working and s t r i v i n g with h a r d l y any thought o f p l e a s u r e . 39. Some parents are h e l p f u l i n teaching t h e i r c h i l d r e n how to get along with other people. 45. Some parents are most e f f e c t i v e i n h e l p i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n s o l v e p r a c t i c a l problems l i k e l e a r n i n g new s k i l l s . 112 47. Which parent administered the d i s c i p l i n e i n your f a m i l y when both parents were present? .40 ( i n d i c a t e s f a t h e r ) 50. Some parents p r a i s e t h e i r c h i l d r e n when they achieve successes i n t h e i r s o c i a l l i f e . -.43 8. S o c i a b l e Father: 1. Some people are very s o c i a b l e and gr e g a r i o u s . .84 3. Some people are i n c l i n e d to emphasize the humorous s i d e o f a s i t u a t i o n . .77 6. Some people get tremendous ple a s u r e from p l a y i n g host. .49 8. Some people are very o p t i m i s t i c about the motives of o t h e r s . .43 9. Modern Father: 2. Some people are "outdoor types". .35 4. Some people are very i n t e r e s t e d i n l i t e r a t u r e . .32 9. Some people are very o p t i m i s t i c about the motives of o t h e r s . -.34 15. Some parents t r y to smooth over g u a r r e l s and arguments that a r i s e i n the f a m i l y . -.39 16. Some people always express t h e i r f e e l i n g s openly, r a t h e r than keeping them to themselves. .46 18. Some parents o b j e c t when t h e i r c h i l d r e n l o a f , daydream, or get s p r i n g f e v e r . -.37 19. Some parents p l a c e a l o t of emphasis on "being a man" and not g e t t i n g e a s i l t upset. -.58 23. Some parents are very i n t e r e s t e d i n a r t and music. 31. Some people d e r i v e g r e a t p l e a s u r e from h e l p i n g and c a r i n g f o r other people. 10. P r a i s e — Father: 5. Some people are easy going. 7. Some parents p l a c e a c e r t a i n emphasis on g e t t i n g good grades on s c h o o l . 10. Some parents encourage t h e i r c h i l d r e n to b r i n g f r i e n d s home. 12. Some parents g i v e t h e i r c h i l d r e n a phenomenal amount of care and a t t e n t i o n . 32. Some parents t r y to reason with t h e i r c h i l d r e n when they misbehave, r a t h e r than using some form of punishment. 34. Some parents r e g u l a t e the behavior of t h e i r c h i l d r e n by p r a i s i n g them when they do w e l l . 37. Some parents take pains to guide t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r c h o i c e of a c a r e e r . 38. Some parents are e s p e c i a l l y concerned with t e a c h i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n a great d e a l i n the way of g e n e r a l i n f o r m a t i o n and p r a c t i c a l knowledge. 39. Some parents are h e l p f u l i n teaching t h e i r c h i l d r e n how to get along with other people. 40. Some parents are h e l p f u l i n t e a c h i n g t h e i r c h i l d to l i v e comfortably with h i m s e l f . 42. Some parents p r a i s e t h e i r c h i l d r e n when they get good grades. 114 43. Some parents p r a i s e a c h i l d most when he accomplished something of which he himself i s proud. .58 44. Some parents are e f f e c t i v e i n h e l p i n g the c h i l d s o l v e problems r e l a t e d to h i s f r i e n d s h i p s o u t s i d e the f a m i l y . .44 45. Some parents are very e f f e c t i v e i n h e l p i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n s o l v e p r a c t i c a l problems l i k e l e a r n i n g new s k i l l s . .47 46. Some parents are very e f f e c t i v e i n h e l p i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n through the v a r i o u s emotional c r i s e s a s s o c i a t e d with growing up. .31 47. Which parent administered the d i s c i p l i n e i n your f a m i l y when both parents were present? .46 ( i n d i c a t e s f a t h e r ) 48. Which of your parents had the f i n a l say as to what you co u l d or c o u l d not do? .45 ( i n d i c a t e s f a t h e r ) 50. Some parents p r a i s e t h e i r c h i l d r e n when they achieve successes i n t h e i r s o c i a l l i f e . .47 115 Appendix 3: S c a l e S t a t i s t i c s . A. P e r s o n a l i t y q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Mean s.d. Skew se Males: 1. Aggression. 10.70 2. 06 -0. 01 .26 2. E g o c e n t r i c i t y . 10. 62 1. 52 -0. 34 . 19 3. Dependence. 11.62 1. 75 -0. 54 . 22 4. E m o t i o n a l i t y . 10.29 1. 94 0. 15 . 24 5. Emotional c o n s t r i c t i o n 9.65 1. 94 0. 45 .24 6. Fear of s e x u a l i t y . 13.06 1. 05 -1. 15i . 13 7. E x h i b i t i o n i s m . 10.22 2. 03 0. 15 . 26 8. Obstinacy. 9.05 1. 30 0. 18 . 16 9. O r a l a g g r e s s i o n . 10.97 1. 63 -0. 18 .21 10. Parsimony. 10. 11 1. 86 0. 05 . 23 11. O r d e r l i n e s s . 9.78 1. 71 0. 12 .22 12. P a s s i v i t y . 11.49 1. 32 -0. 15 . 17 13. Perseverance. 10.40 1. 69 0. 11 .21 14. R e j e c t i o n of o t h e r s . 10.78 1. 80 -0. 15 .23 15. Pessimism. 12.30 1. 35 -0. 96 1 . 17 16. R i g i d i t y . 10. 18 1. 67 -0. 01 17. S e l f - d o u b t . 10.92 1 . 95 -0. 22 .25 18. S u g g e s t i b i l i t y . 11.70 1. 72 -0. 51 .22 19. Sexual p r o v o c a t i v e n e s s 10.79 1. 49 -0. 25 . 19 20. Superego. 9.79 1. 75 0. 61 . 22 1. S i g n i f i c a n t skew (p<.05) 1 16 Females: Mean S. D. Skew se 1. Aggression. 10.67 1. 89 0.06 . 23 2. E g o c e n t r i c i t y . 10.94 1. 41 -0.06 . 17 3. Dependence. 11.24 1. 87 -0.08 .23 4. E m o t i o n a l i t y . 9.73 1. 60 -0. 29 . 20 5. Emotional c o n s t r i c t i o n 10. 15 1. 84 0.38 .23 6. Fear of s e x u a l i t y . 12.81 1. 72 -1.89 i .21 7. E x h i b i t i o n i s m . 10.97 1. 93 -0.20 .24 8. Obstinacy. 9.02 1. 25 0.44 . 15 9. o r a l a g g r e s s i o n . 11.88 1. 86 -0.67* .23 10. Parsimony. 9.66 1. 92 0.59 . 23 11. O r d e r l i n e s s . 9.61 1. 56 0. 47 . 19 12. P a s s i v i t y . 11.55 1. 54 -0.45 . 19 13. Perseverance. 10.90 1. 77 -0.04 . 22 14. R e j e c t i o n of o t h e r s . 11.09 1. 92 0. 12 . 24 15. Pessimism. 12.33 1. 46 -0.701 . 18 16. R i g i d i t y . 10.00 1. 39 0.31 . 17 17. S e l f - d o u b t . 10.96 1. 90 -0. 36 . 23 18. S u g g e s t i b i l i t y . 11.25 2. 00 -0.52 .25 19. Sexual p r o v o c a t i v e n e s s 11.33 1. 52 -0. 15 . 19 20. Superego. 9.42 1. 56 0. 54 . 19 1. S i g n i f i c a n t skew (p<.05) 1 17 B, P a r e n t a l Role P a t t e r n s q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Males: Mean s. d. skew 1. Maternal Warmth: 23.51 5. 41 0 . 3 9 2. Maternal C o n t r o l : 16.00 3. 04 0 . 3 7 3. S o c i a b l e Mother: 10.78 2. 25 -0.10 4. Modern Mother: 7. 95 1. 86 0 . 73 i 5. P a t e r n a l Warmth: 36. 31 8. 39 0. 43 6. P a t e r n a l C o n t r o l : 18.63 4 . 00 -0.05 7. S o c i a b l e F a t h e r : 13.80 3. 11 0 . 5 9 8. Modern Father: 14. 19 3. 32 -0. 14 Females: 1. Maternal Warmth: 25 . 4 9 6. 86 1 . 021 2. Maternal C o n t r o l : 15 . 3 7 3. 41 0.00 3- S o c i a b l e Mother: 9.96 2. 20 0. 17 4. Modern Mother: 10.06 2. 55 0.24 5. Good Mother: 19.78 5. 46 1.03 » 6. P a t e r n a l Warmth: 28.78 7. 71 0 . 971 7. P a t e r n a l C o n t r o l : 22.70 5. 02 -0.32 8. S o c i a b l e F a t h e r : 6.67 2. 38 0 . 7 5 1 9. Modern Father: 1 1.65 2. 33 -0.29 10. P r a i s e : 20.65 5. 64 1.08i 1. S i g n i f i c a n t skew (p<.05) Appendix 4: P e r s o n a l i t y F a c t o r S t r u c t u r e A. Males: F a c t o r s 1 2 3 4 Aggression .09 . 14 .57 . 12 E g o c e n t r i c i t y -.04 .37 .41 .34 Dependence .26 .53 .01 .41 E m o t i o n a l i t y .16 . 24 . 14 . 18 Emotional C o n s t r i c t . .34 . 08 -.02 . 15 Fear of S e x u a l i t y .09 . 10 -.04 -. 02 E x h i b i t i o n i s m .02 .66 . 33 -.04 Obstinacy -.08 .06 .49 -.05 O r a l Aggression -.30 . 12 .39 -.09 Parsimony . 14 . 12 .09 . 05 O r d e r l i n e s s .43 .24 .30 .01 P a s s i v i t y -.01 .19 .63 .24 Perseverance .05 -. 3 3 -.03 -. 06 R e j e c t i o n of Others -.47 . 15 .31 . 33 Pessimism .05 -.06 .09 .87 R i g i d i t y .89 .03 -.06 .08 Self-Doubt .20 . 12 -.23 . 36 S u g g e s t i b i l i t y .22 .08 -.09 .04 Sexual P r o v o c a t i v e . -.04 .65 .09 -.03 Superego .48 -.35 -.02 . 20 1 19 B. Females: 1 a g g r e s s i o n .36 E g o c e n t r i c i t y .51 Dependence .59 E m o t i o n a l i t y .78 Emotional C o n s t r i c t . -.52 Fear of Sex -.09 E x h i b i t i o n i s m .07 Obstinacy .15 O r a l a g g r e s s i o n . 24 Parsimony .10 O r d e r l i n e s s -.13 P a s s i v i t y .. 18 Perseverance -.01 R e j e c t i o n of Others .01 Pessimism .37 R i g i d i t y .03 Self-Doubt -.12 S u g g e s t i b i l i t y .16 Sex. P r o v o c a t i v e . . 12 Superego -.07 F a c t o r s 2 3 4 5 .63 -.22 . 18 -.20 .07 -.07 .28 .00 -.41 .05 .02 .22 . 15 .06 .07 .07 -.36 .30 . 16 .26 -.04 .08 . 16 .07 .27 -.42 . 38 -.27 .62 -.01 . 15 .01 . 25 .04 .55 .06 -.03 . 23 -.02 .02 .01 .08 -.03 -.04 .05 -.10 .22 .55 . 16 . 48 . 15 -. 56 .35 .11 .38 . 10 .13 .00 -.01 .09 -. 18 .63 -.06 .01 -.23 . 18 -. 19 .66 -.60 -.04 .25 .31 -.03 -. 16 .64 -.02 .22 .67 -. 19 -. 14 

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