Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Planning and decision-making in the fish and wildlife branch : a study of steelhead fishermen's characteristics,… Alker, Kevin Godfrey 1973

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1973_A8 A45_4.pdf [ 4.17MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0101322.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0101322-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0101322-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0101322-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0101322-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0101322-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0101322-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0101322-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0101322.ris

Full Text

I " • / PLANNING AND DECISION-MAKING IN THE FISH AND WILDLIFE BRANCH - A STUDY OF STEELHEAD FISHERMEN'S CHARACTERISTICS, PREFERENCES, OPINIONS AND ATTITUDES by KEVIN GODFREY ALKER B .Ed . U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1971 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the School o f Community and Reg iona l P l a n n i n g We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g to the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d s THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A u g u s t , 1973 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis fo r scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s representatives. It i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department o f Community and Reg iona l P l a n n i n g The University of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8 , Canada Date A u g u s t , 1973 ABSTRACT P l a n n i n g i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h u n d e r s t a n d i n g and r e l a t i n g bo th the p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l a s p e c t s o f an env i r onmen t and a r r i v i n g a t a l t e r n a t i v e s wh i ch b e s t s a t i s f y the p u b l i c f o r whom the r e s o u r c e i s b e i n g managed. To p l a n so t h a t maximum b e n e f i t s a r e d e r i v e d i t i s impor t an t to weigh b e n e f i t s and c o s t s to d e t e r m i n e the f e a s a b i l i t y o f an a l t e r n a t i v e . However , p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n is an a r e a wh i ch o p e r a t e s o u t s i d e the market mechanism and t h e r e f o r e methods u s i n g o t h e r than monetary measures must be d e v e l o p e d to d e t e r m i n e how maximum p u b l i c b e n e f i t s can be a c h i e v e d . The l i t e r a t u r e p r o v i d e s l i t t l e h e l p i n o ve r com ing t h i s p r o b l e m . The few s t u d i e s u n d e r t a k e n on c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , p r e f e r e n c e s and a t t i t u d e s o f r e c r e a t i o n i s t s have not been c a r r i e d ou t in the c o n t e x t o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g and t h e r e f o r e many o f the f i n d i n g s o f t hese s t u d i e s a r e i n a p p l i c a b l e in p l a n n i n g . T h i s s t u d y s u g g e s t s a me thodo logy wh i ch c o u l d be used by the F i s h and W i l d l i f e B ranch to e n a b l e more e f f e c t i v e deve lopment o f a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r p l a n n i n g o f the s t e e l h e a d s p o r t f i s h e r y r e s o u r c e . A q u e s t i o n n a i r e was d e v e l o p e d t o e n a b l e a s ses smen t o f the u s e r p u b l i c ' s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , p r e f e r e n c e s , o p i n i o n s and a t t i t u d e s . By t h i s method the p u b l i c ' s d e s i r e s can be taken i n t o a c c o u n t in the g e n e r a t i o n o f a l t e r n a t i v e s t h e r e b y a p p r o a c h i n g the goa l o f m a x i m i z i n g p u b l i c b e n e f i t s . - i i i -For the pu rpose o f the s tudy s t e e l h e a d f i s h e r m e n o f the Lower M a i n l a n d o f B r i t i s h Co lumb ia were s amp l ed . As the F i s h and W i l d l i f e B ranch now a s s e s s e s f i s h e r m e n ' s v iews by ad hoc mee t i ngs w i t h f i s h e r -men f rom o r g a n i z e d c l u b s the sample o f f i s h e r m e n taken f o r t h i s s t udy were from two d i s c e r n a b l e g r o u p s ; the o r g a n i z e d and the u n o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e was d i s t r i b u t e d to 117 o r g a n i z e d and 3 7 8 u n o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n . By t h i s method i t was p o s s i b l e to t e s t i f o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n (about 5% o f a l l s t e e l h e a d f i s h e r m e n ) were r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f a l l s t e e l h e a d e r s . From the o r g a n i z e d sample 61 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were r e t u r n e d w h i l e 164 were i n c l u d e d in the d a t a a n a l y s i s f rom the u n o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e was d i s t r i b u t e d to 7 managers o f the Lower M a i n l a n d s t e e l h e a d f i s h e r y . The r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d f rom t h i s g r o u p , i t was h o p e d , c o u l d be compared w i t h t h o s e o f the two f i s h e r m e n g r o u p s . However , r e s u l t s f rom t h i s s e c t o r have not been d e e p l y a n a l y s e d because o f the sma l l number in the sample and the d i f f e r e n c e in i n f l u e n c e t h a t the v a r i o u s members o f t h i s g roup c o u l d b r i n g t o bea r on d e c i s i o n s . U s i n g the S t a t i s t i c a l Package f o r the S o c i a l S c i e n c e s ( S . P . S . S . ) and c r o s s t a b format the f i s h e r m e n were compared on t h e i r r e s p o n s e s t o the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . From a n a l y s i s o f t h e s e d a t a a number o f c o n c l u s i o n s were f o r t h c o m i n g : - i v -O r g a n i z e d and u n o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n were found to be d i f f e r e n t . T h e r e i s a wide range o f f i s h i n g e x p e r i e n c e d e s i r e d . A s y s t e m a t i c c o l l e c t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n on r e s o u r c e u s e r s i s f e a s i b l e and d e s i r a b l e . These c o n c l u s i o n s have i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the p l a n n i n g o f t h i s r e s o u r c e . By e s t a b l i s h i n g tha t o r g a n i z e d and u n o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n a r e d i f f e r e n t i t i s c l e a r t h a t the c o l l e c t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n on the d e s i r e s o f both g roups o f f i s h e r m e n is needed . The Branch a l r e a d y c o l l e c t s i n f o r m a t i o n on c a t c h and r e l e a s e s t a t i s t i c s by q u e s t i o n n a i r e and t h i s v e h i c l e c o u l d be ex tended to g a t h e r f i s h e r m e n ' s o p i n i o n s , a t t i t u d e s and d e s i r e s . The wide range o f e x p e r i e n c e s d e s i r e d by the f i s h e r m e n s u g g e s t s t h a t a range o f a l t e r n a t i v e s must be p r o v i d e d in o r d e r to i n c r e a s e u s e r b e n e f i t s . The F i s h and W i l d l i f e B ranch then must not l ook f o r s i n g l e s o l u t i o n s in p l a n n i n g f o r the r e s o u r c e but adopt a f l e x i b l e a p p r o a c h . The g e o g r a p h i c a l d i v e r s i t y o f the r e s o u r c e o f f e r s the Branch many o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r e x p e r i m e n t i n g w i t h programs wh ich would d e l i v e r to d i f f e r e n t g roups o f f i s h e r m e n the v a r i o u s t ypes o f e x p e r i e n c e s they d e s i r e . These g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n s a r e a p p l i c a b l e to o t h e r a g e n c i e s cha rged w i t h p r o v i d i n g o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s in a non-market c o n t e x t . These a g e n c i e s c u r r e n t l y devo t e most o f t h e i r e n e r g i e s - v t o managing the p h y s i c a l r e s o u r c e independent o f any s y s t e m a t i c f e e d b a c k f rom the p u b l i c . The p r a c t i c e o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e a n a l y s i s as a method o f d e t e r m i n i n g use r p r e f e r e n c e s f o r p l a n n i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s has become commonplace in the urban a r ea s o f p l a n n i n g . In r e c r e a t i o n and r e s o u r c e p l a n n i n g , t h e r e i s a l a r g e p o t e n t i a l f o r i n v o l v i n g the p u b l i c in a s y s t e m a t i c manner to e s t a b l i s h a b e t t e r b a s i s f o r d e v e l o p i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s wh i ch w i l l i n c r e a s e u s e r s s a t i s f a c t i o n . - v i -TABLE OF CONTENT Page A b s t r a c t i i L i s t o f T a b l e s ix L i s t o f F i g u r e s x ' Acknowledgement X M CHAPTER ONE - INTRODUCTION A . The Genera l Pu rpose o f the S tudy 1 B. The Na tu re o f the Management P rob lem 1 C . The D e c i s i o n Mak ing P r o c e s s h D. The S i g n i f i c a n c e o f the R e c r e a t i o n a l F i s h e r y 8 CHAPTER TWO - LITERATURE REVIEW OF USER CHARACTERISTICS, OPINIONS, PREFERENCES AND ATTITUDES A . I n t r o d u c t i o n 15 B. R e c r e a t i o n a l S t u d i e s I n v o l v i n g P r e f e r e n c e s and A t t i t u d e s 16 ( i ) Gene ra l Rev iew o f R e c r e a t i o n L i t e r a t u r e 16 ( i i ) C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , P r e f e r e n c e s and A t t i t u d e s o f F i she rmen 20 ( i i i ) L o c a l S t u d i e s on F i she rmen 22 C . I m p l i c a t i o n f o r P r e f e r e n c e s and A t t i t u d e S t u d i e s o f F i she rmen 31 CHAPTER THREE - CHARACTERISTICS OF STEELHEAD FISHERMEN A . I n t r o d u c t i o n 3^ B. S o c i o - E c o n o m i c C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 36 ( i ) Sex 36 ( i i ) Age 37 ( i i i ) Income 39 ( i v ) E d u c a t i o n kO (v) O c c u p a t i o n 41 ( v i ) O r i g i n s o f F i she rmen k2 ( v i i ) Summary o f S o c i o - E c o n o m i c C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s **3 - v i i -TABLE OF CONTENT - CONTINUED Page C. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f F i shermen kk ( i ) Years F i s h e d f o r S t e e l h e a d kk ( i i ) Days F i s h e d L a s t Season 46 ( i i i ) Number Caught k3 ( i v ) Equipment Used kS (v) S p e c i e s A n g l e d Fo r 52 ( v i ) T e a c h i n g O the r P eop l e to F i s h 55 ( v i i ) O t h e r L e i s u r e A c t i v i t i e s 56 ( v i i i ) Summary o f F i s h e r m e n ' s C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 56 CHAPTER FOUR - PREFERENCES AND OPINIONS OF STEELHEAD FISHERMEN AND MANAGERS A. The E x p e r i e n c e D e s i r e d by S t e e l h e a d F i she rmen 58 ( i ) The Lower M a i n l a n d E x p e r i e n c e 60 ( i i ) D e t r a c t i o n s 6k ( i i i ) Summary o f E x p e r i e n c e s D e s i r e d by S t e e l h e a d F i shermen 65 B. S t e e l h e a d F i s h e r m e n ' s P r e f e r e n c e s and O p i n i o n s on Management A l t e r n a t i v e s 66 ( i ) P r e f e r e n c e s f o r Management A l t e r n a t i v e s 67 ( i i ) The H a t c h e r y Program. 69 ( i i i ) Summary o f P r e f e r e n c e s and O p i n i o n s on Management A l t e r n a t i v e s 72 C. P r e f e r e n c e s and O p i n i o n s o f S t e e l h e a d Managers 73 ( i ) The E x p e r i e n c e 73 ( i i ) Management A l t e r n a t i v e s 73 CHAPTER FIVE - ATTITUDINAL RESPONSES OF FISHERMEN AND MANAGERS A. I n t r o d u c t i o n 75 B. Management S t a t ements o f F i she rmen 76 ( i ) F l y F i s h i n g R e s t r i c t i o n s 76 ( i i ) A t t i t u d e Toward H a t c h e r y F i s h 77 - v i i i TABLE OF CONTENT - CONTINUED Page ( i i i ) F i s h and W i l d l i f e E x p e r i m e n t a l Programs 77 ( i v ) A t t i t u d e Towards A c c e s s R e s t r i c t i o n s 78 (v) The Non-Res iden t A n g l e r 79 C. A t t i t u d e Toward the F i s h i n g E x p e r i e n c e o f F i she rmen 81 ( i ) F i s h i n g Wi th O t h e r F i she rmen in S i g h t 81 ( i i ) The Ca t ch o r the O u t d o o r s 81 ( i i i ) Ca t ch and R e l e a s e Programs 82 ( i v ) The R e g u l a r C a t c h 83 (v) T rophy S i z e F i s h 83 ( v i ) Days F i s h i n g o r an Improved E x p e r i e n c e 83 D. A t t i t u d i n a l Responses o f Managers 8k ( i ) Management S t a t emen t s 8k E. Summary and Compar i son 86 CHAPTER SIX - CONCLUSIONS OF THE STUDY A . I n t r o d u c t i o n 87 B. L i m i t a t i o n s o f the S tudy 87 . C . C o n c l u s i o n s A r i s i n g f rom the S tudy 90 ( i ) The O r g a n i z e d and the U n o r g a n i z e d F i she rmen 91 ( i i ) The Need f o r a D i f f e r e n t i a t e d P r o d u c t 95 ( i i i ) A S y s t e m a t i c Method f o r I n f o r m a t i o n G e n e r a t i o n 97 D. Summary 102 BIBLIOGRAPHY 10*» APPENDIX A 108 APPENDIX B 116 APPENDIX C '18 - i x -L IST OF TABLES Page 1. ELEMENTS IMPORTANT TO HIGH QUALITY STEELHEAD FISHING 2 7 2. AGE DISTRIBUTION OF STEELHEAD FISHERMEN 3 8 3. INCOME LEVELS OF STEELHEAD FISHERMEN 39 4. EDUCATION LEVELS OF STEELHEAD FISHERMEN 40 5. OCCUPATION OF STEELHEAD FISHERMEN 41 6. ORIGINS OF STEELHEAD FISHERMEN 42 7. DIFFERENCE IN YEARS BETWEEN THE TIME FIRST FISHED TO THE TIME OF TAKING UP STEELHEADING 45 8. NUMBER OF YEARS FISHED FOR STEELHEAD 46 9 . PROPORTION OF STEELHEAD FISHING TIME SPENT USING FLY 50 10. PROPORTION OF STEELHEAD FISHING TIME SPENT USING LURE 50 11. PROPORTION OF STEELHEAD FISHING TIME SPENT USING BAIT 51 12. PROPORTION OF FISHING TIME SPENT ANGLING FOR SUMMER RUN STEELHEAD 52 1 3 . PROPORTION OF FISHING TIME SPENT ANGLING FOR WINTER RUN STEELHEAD 53 14. PROPORTION OF FISHING TIME SPENT ANGLING FOR OTHER TROUT 53 15. PROPORTION OF FISHING TIME SPENT ANGLING FOR SALMON 53 16. NUMBER OF PEOPLE TAUGHT TO STEELHEAD 55 17 . STEELHEAD FISHERMEN'S PREFERENCE FOR ENJOYMENT IN FISHING EXPERIENCE 59 18. REASONS FOR CHOOSING LOWER MAINLAND STREAMS 60 - x -L IST OF TABLES - CONTINUED Page 1 9 . PERCENTAGE OF TIME SPENT FISHING LOWER MAINLAND STREAMS 62 2 0 . SUBSTITUTIONS FOR STEELHEAD FISHING ON THE LOWER MAINLAND 64 2 1 . MANAGEMENT ALTERNATIVE PREFERENCES 6 8 2 2 . PREFERENCES FOR HATCHERY BRED FISH 6 9 2 3 . WHO SHOULD PAY FOR THE HATCHERY PROGRAM? 70 24 . REASONS FOR STOCKING CERTAIN STREAMS 71 2 5 . ATTITUDINAL RESPONSES OF FISHERMEN AND MANAGERS -MANAGEMENT STATEMENTS 80 26 . ATTITUDINAL RESPONSES OF FISHERMEN AND MANAGERS -FISHING EXPERIENCE 86 / X / - x i L IST OF FIGURES Page 1. RECREATION ACTIV IT IES AND PARTICIPATION 10 2. THE LOWER MAINLAND REGION OF B .C . 12 3. ACTIVE STEELHEADERS: TOTAL CATCH 1966-69 30 h. COMPARISON BETWEEN "SUCCESSFUL" AND " A C T I V E " STEELHEADERS 30 5 . DISTRIBUTION OF ORGANIZED AND UNORGANIZED FISHERMEN BY DAYS FISHED FOR STEELHEAD hj 6. DISTRIBUTION OF ORGANIZED AND UNORGANIZED FISHERMEN BY FISHING SUCCESS h8 x i i -ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS S i n c e r e thanks a re e x t e n d e d to P r o f e s s o r I r v i n g Fox and Ken P e t e r s o n o f Wes twa te r , the Water Resea rch I n s t i t u t e , f o r t h e i r a d v i c e , a s s i s t a n c e and c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m t h r o u g h o u t t h i s s t u d y . The a u t h o r wou ld a l s o l i k e to acknowledge the f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t o f Westwater in d a t a c o l l e c t i o n . V a l u a b l e a s s i s t a n c e was a l s o r e c e i v e d f rom many o f the F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch s t a f f and in p a r t i c u l a r , Ron Thomas o f the B r a n c h ' s Head O f f i c e . F i n a l l y , I w i sh to e x p r e s s my i n d e b t e d n e s s to my w i f e , P a t s y , f o r he r p a t i e n c e , s u p p o r t and a s s i s t a n c e d u r i n g the p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s s t udy and o v e r the c o u r s e o f the p a s t two y e a r s . CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION A. The Genera l Purpose o f the S tudy The f r e s h w a t e r f i s h e r y o f B r i t i s h Co lumb ia i s a v a l u a b l e r e s o u r c e , both as a s o u r c e o f r e c r e a t i o n f o r l o c a l r e s i d e n t s and as an impor t an t e l ement o f the t o u r i s t i n d u s t r y . To s e c u r e the g r e a t e s t p r a c t i c a b l e b e n e f i t s f rom the r e s o u r c e i t must be managed w i t h due r ega rd to i t s b i o l o g i c a l p o t e n t i a l s , the u s e r s a t i s f a c t i o n s t h a t can be d e r i v e d t h e r e f r o m , and the c o s t s o f a c h i e v i n g d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f s a t i s f a c t i o n . T h i s t h e s i s i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h ways o f measu r i ng and t a k i n g i n t o a c c o u n t the b e n e f i t s o r s a t i s f a c t i o n s d e r i v e d f rom the r e s o u r c e in p l a n n i n g management p r o g r a m s . T h i s o b j e c t i v e i s pu r sued th rough a case s tudy o f the s t e e l h e a d s p o r t f i s h e r y in the Lower M a i n l a n d o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . B. The Na tu re o f the Management P rob l em Many p u b l i c a g e n c i e s f a c e s i m i l a r p rob lems to t h o s e c o n f r o n t e d by the F i s h and W i l d l i f e B ranch o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . In p a r t i c u l a r , two o f the most p r e s s i n g p rob l ems a r e : ( i ) T a k i n g i n t o a c c o u n t the b e n e f i t s o r s a t i s f a c t i o n d e r i v e d f rom a non-market r e s o u r c e to e n s u r e o p t i m a l b e n e f i t ; - 2 -( i i ) The need f o r commun i ca t i on and c o - o r d i n a t e d d e c i s i o n -mak ing between r e s o u r c e depa r tments whose p l a n s a f f e c t one a n o t h e r . A l t h o u g h the l a t t e r p rob l em i s impo r t an t and needs to be r e s o l v e d the f o cus o f t h i s t h e s i s w i l l be c o n c e n t r a t e d on the fo rmer - the m a x i m i z a t i o n o f b e n e f i t s . The market mechanism wh i ch t r a d i t i o n a l l y r e g u l a t e s s u p p l y and demand, and we ighs b e n e f i t s and c o s t , does not a p p l y when c o n s i d e r i n g the F i s h and W i l d l i f e s p o r t f i s h e r y p r o g r a m s . T r a d i t i o n has d i c t a t e d t h a t r e c r e a t i o n to a g r e a t e x t e n t i s a " p u b l i c g o o d " and t h e r e f o r e s h o u l d be o u t s i d e the market p l a c e in wh i ch i n ves tmen t i n s u p p l y i s gove rned in l a r g e p a r t by p u b l i c demand. The c o s t to the p u b l i c o f p a r t a k i n g o f the r e s o u r c e , t h e n , i s d i f f i c u l t to measure , as the a d m i s s i o n o r l i c e n c e f e e s , where they e x i s t , bea r l i t t l e r e l a t i o n s h i p to the b e n e f i t s e n j o y e d . T h e r e f o r e , the p u b l i c o f f i c i a l o r agency who t h e o r e t i c a l l y pu r sues the goal o f making d e c i s i o n s wh i ch max imize b e n e f i t s to the p u b l i c , f a c e s the p r o b l e m o f d e t e r m i n i n g b e n e f i t s o t h e r than by t r a d i t i o n a l e conomic means. Because the market mechanism i s not a p p l i c a b l e , a n o t h e r method i s needed to e n s u r e t h a t the management and p l a n n i n g o f the f i s h e r y r e s o u r c e i s c a r r i e d ou t in the p u b l i c ' s b e s t i n t e r e s t . In r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g t h i s has been a t t emp ted by a s sessmen t o f p u b l i c d e s i r e s . - 3 -In t h e o r y , the d e s i r e s o f the p u b l i c a r e e x p r e s s e d th rough the e l e c t o r a l p r o c e s s , and r e s o u r c e management d e c i s i o n s taken by the l e g i s l a t i v e b ranch o f government thus r e f l e c t the p u b l i c ' s w i s h e s . T h i s , o f c o u r s e , assumes t h a t the e l e c t e d o f f i c i a l u n d e r s t a n d s the d e s i r e s and p r e f e r e n c e s o f h i s c o n s t i t u e n t s , and t h a t the p u b l i c in t u r n a re c o n t i n u a l l y and a c c u r a t e l y i n fo rmed about the i s s u e s a d d r e s s e d by gove rnment . However, the c o m p l e x i t y o f s o c i e t y today no l o n g e r a l l o w s f o r the r e g u l a r commun i ca t i on between the p u b l i c and the e l e c t e d o f f i c i a l on a l l governmenta l a c t i v i t i e s . M o r e o v e r , the e l e c t e d o f f i c i a l does not have t ime to deal p e r s o n a l l y w i t h the d i v e r s i t y o f d e c i s i o n s tha t must be made by government in modern s o c i e t y . The r e s u l t o f t he se f a c t o r s has been the r i s e and e x p a n s i o n o f government b u r e a u c r a c i e s . In t h e o r y , the r o l e o f the p l a n n e r and a d m i n i s t r a t o r i s to a i d the p o l i t i c i a n in a r r i v i n g a t o p t i m a l d e c i s i o n s . In p r a c t i c e , they have s u p p l a n t e d the p o l i t i c i a n in d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g f o r many o f the q u e s t i o n t h a t a r i s e in t h e i r a g e n c y . I f d e c i s i o n s a re made t h a t the p u b l i c f e e l s a r e b e s t , then the agency i s m a x i m i z i n g n e t b e n e f i t s to the p u b l i c i t s e r v e s . However , a g e n c i e s o f t e n l a ck i n f o r m a t i o n on what the p u b l i c d e s i r e s a n d , t h e r e f o r e , cannot know i f they a re o p t i m i z i n g ne t b e n e f i t s . Because o f t h i s , t h e r e tends to be a breakdown in the d e m o c r a t i c p r o c e s s . The agency makes d e c i s i o n s f o r the p u b l i c in a g row ing number o f a r e a s , y e t the p u b l i c has l i t t l e i npu t i n t o t hese d e c i s i o n s . The r e s u l t has been w i d e s p r e a d d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n and a sense o f a l i e n a t i o n among the p u b l i c . C o l i n Vaughan ( 1 9 7 0 s t a t e s : - k -" The f a i l u r e o f the remote b u r e a u c r a t to a d m i n i s t r a t e and l e g i s l a t e f o r the r ea l needs o f p e o p l e has become a c r i s i s in o u r s o c i e t y . The e d u c a t o r s have l o s t c o n t a c t w i t h those who w i sh to l e a r n , the a u t h o r i t i e s have l o s t c o n t a c t w i t h the p u b l i c ; the p o l i t i c i a n has l o s t c o n t a c t w i t h h i s c o n s t i t u e n t s the p e o p l e a re unab l e to r e l a t e to the forms o f government they have i n h e r i t e d and governments a r e unab l e to p e r f o r m the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s they would f u l f i l l . " (p . 7) I f i t i s p o s s i b l e to a s s e s s p u b l i c w a n t s , and the agency does s o in i t s p l a n n i n g , " g o o d " o r o p t i m a l d e c i s i o n s h o u l d r e s u l t . However , the p u b l i c o f t e n b e l i e v e s t h a t d e c i s i o n s a r e not m a x i m i z i n g s o c i a l b e n e f i t s , a b e l i e f r i s i n g f rom the absence o f e f f e c t i v e commun ica t ion mechan isms . Compounding t h i s p r o b l e m i s the u n s u i t a b i 1 i t y o f the t r a d i t i o n a l o r g a n i z a -t i o n a l a r rangements o f n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e a g e n c i e s f o r e v a l u a t i n g t h e s e b e n e f i t s . C. The D e c i s i o n - M a k i n g P r o c e s s Because o f the n a t u r e o f the p r o b l e m wh ich f a c e s many r e s o u r c e a g e n c i e s , t h a t i s , e x p a n d i n g t h e i r d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s to e n a b l e a ssessment o f s o c i a l e f f i c i e n c y , i t i s i n s t r u c t i v e to examine an i d e a l i z e d s y s t em o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g to see where the F i s h and W i l d l i f e B ranch may be f a i l i n g i n i t s d e s i r e to max imize s o c i a l b e n e f i t s . - 5 -An i d e a l p u b l i c d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s in an agency t r y i n g to a c h i e v e s o c i a l e f f i c i e n c y in i t s p l a n n i n g and management o f a r e s o u r c e o u t s i d e the market mechanism must h a v e , among o t h e r t h i n g s , p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Not o n l y must t h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n come f rom the o r g a n i s e d and more aware g r o u p s , but a l s o f rom the u n o r g a n i s e d and pe rhaps l e s s a r t i c u l a t e 'segments o f the p u b l i c . The i dea l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s c o u l d be c o n s t r u c t e d in the f o l l o w i n g s e q u e n t i a l form a l l o w i n g f o r a l l g roups to p a r t i c i p a t e : 1. I d e n t i f i c a t i o n and d e f i n i t i o n o f the p r o b l e m to be s o l v e d . 2. D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f the range o f p r e f e r e n c e s t h a t members o f s o c i e t y h o l d . ( T h i s s t e p is n e c e s s a r y to a s s u r e the g e n e r a t i o n o f a l t e r n a t i v e s t h a t r e f l e c t the d e s i r e s o f d i f f e r e n t members o f s o c i e t y . ) 3. G e n e r a t i o n o f a l t e r n a t i v e s o l u t i o n s . A p p l i c a t i o n by each i n d i v i d u a l (or h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e ) o f h i s own measurement sys tem to each a l t e r n a t i v e to d e t e r m i n e wh i ch a l t e r n a t i v e he c o n s i d e r s to be p r e f e r a b l e . 5 . B a l a n c i n g o f i n d i v i d u a l p r e f e r e n c e s a g a i n s t one a n o t h e r . 6 . S e l e c t i o n and p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the b e t t e r a l t e r n a t i v e s to e l e c t e d d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s . 7. S e l e c t i o n o f the s o c i a l l y o p t i m a l s o l u t i o n . - 6 -The f o r e g o i n g s t e p s e n v i s a g e an i n t e g r a t e d p r o c e s s under wh ich a l t e r n a t i v e s a r e i d e n t i f i e d by the p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f , p r e f e r e n c e s a re i n d i c a t e d by u s e r s and the f i n a l c h o i c e s a re made by e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . T r a d i t i o n a l l y a g e n c i e s l i k e the F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch have d e v e l o p e d a poo l o f s t a f f , who, by t h e i r t r a i n i n g in b i o l o g y o r e n g i n e e r i n g , have g i v e n t h e i r agency a c e r t a i n p e r s p e c t i v e on management p r o b l e m s . O b v i o u s l y p e o p l e a re needed in such a g e n c i e s who u n d e r s t a n d the b i o l o g i c a l and p h y s i c a l a s p e c t s o f the p rob l em to g e n e r a t e a l t e r n a t i v e s o l u t i o n s and a s s e s s t h e i r b i o l o g i c a l a s p e c t s . However , s i n c e a r e s o u r c e such as the s p o r t f i s h e r y , i s managed f o r the g e n e r a l p u b l i c , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t h a t the p r e f e r e n c e s and a t t i t u d e s o f the u s e r group d e t e r m i n e wh i ch a l t e r n a t i v e s w i l l p roduce the g r e a t e s t s a t i s f a c t i o n . In p r a c t i c e f i s h e r m e n p r e f e r e n c e s have come to the F i s h and W i l d l i f e B ranch r a t h e r s p o r a d i c a l l y as t h e r e has been no s y s t e m a t i c e f f o r t to c o n t a c t members o f the p u b l i c who a re c o n c e r n e d w i t h use o f the r e s o u r c e . I n d i c a t i o n s a r e t h a t the p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f has i t s most r e g u l a r c o n t a c t s w i t h o r g a n i z e d groups o f f i s h e r m e n . A l t h o u g h s p o r a d i c a l l y , t h i s l i m i t e d c o n t a c t w i t h o r g a n i z e d groups o f f i s h e r m e n a l l o w s f i s h e r i e s managers t o d e v e l o p a f e e l f o r the a t t i t u d e s and d e s i r e s o f some f i s h e r m e n . However , the r e s o u r c e u s e r who j o i n s c l u b s such as the S t e e l h e a d S o c i e t y may be a t y p i c a l , and t h e r e f o r e may no t be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f a l l f i s h e r m e n . As a r e s u l t the v iews o f the u n o r g a n i z e d u s e r a r e n e g l e c t e d . The l a c k o f - 7 -s y s t e m a t i c d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f the v iews o f s p o r t s f i s h e r m e n , and in p a r t i c u l a r the e v i d e n t l a c k o f commun ica t ion between the p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f o f the F i s h and W i l d l i f e B ranch and the u n o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n , i n d i c a t e t h a t e s s e n t i a l s t e p s in the i d e a l i z e d d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s a r e no t b e i n g met . Views o f u n o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d when p l a n n i n g f o r the f u t u r e o f the f i s h e r y as t h i s group forms the l a r g e s t p r o p o r t i o n o f the f i s h i n g p u b l i c , and i t i s fundamenta l in a democracy t h a t the p r e f e r e n c e s and a t t i t u d e s o f a l l p a r t i e s a f f e c t e d by a p u b l i c p rogram be taken i n t o a c c o u n t . The F i s h e r i e s Branch i s w e l l aware o f the p r o b l e m , but as y e t , has no t the s t a f f w i t h e x p e r t i s e in t h i s a r e a , o r the money to unde r t ake a c o m p r e h e n s i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n p r o g r a m . A r e c e n t s t u d y on Resea r ch Needs f o r I n t e n s i v e Management  o f B r i t i s h Co lumb ia S t e e l h e a d by F r e d W i t h l e r (1972) recommended: " T h a t methods o f commun ica t ion be d e v e l o p e d to r e v e a l what i t i s t h a t a n g l e r s d e s i r e f o r t h e i r s p o r t , so t h a t management can be d i r e c t e d toward s a t i s f y i n g those d e s i r e s . A t the same t ime i n f o r m a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s s h o u l d be d e v e l o p e d wh i ch r e vea l to the a n g l e r how s t e e l h e a d p o p u l a t i o n s may be m a i n t a i n e d o r i n c r e a s e d , and how i n t r u s i o n o f human p o p u l a t i o n and i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n i n t o the e n v i r o n m e n t o f the f i s h and f i s h e r m a n may be p r e v e n t e d o r a m e l i o r a t e d . " (p . 26) - 8 -The f o r e g o i n g o b s e r v a t i o n s have l e d to s e l e c t i o n o f the f o l l o w i n g o b j e c t i v e s f o r t h i s s t u d y : To d e v e l o p and t e s t a methodo logy f o r d e t e r m i n i n g the p r e f e r e n c e s , a t t i t u d e s and o p i n i o n s o f s p o r t s f i s h e r m e n t h a t wou ld have p r a c t i c a l use in p l a n n i n g s p o r t s f i s h e r y programs so as to max imize u s e r s a t i s f a c t i o n s . The i d e a l o f a r r i v i n g a t s o l u t i o n s to p rob l ems wh i ch maximize s o c i a l b e n e f i t s i s no t un ique to f i s h and w i l d l i f e management, but a p p l i c a b l e to a range o f government a g e n c i e s . To examine the p r o b l e m , however , t h i s s t udy w i l l s p e c i f i c a l l y f o cus on the r e c r e a t i o n a l f i s h e r y . D. The S i g n i f i c a n c e o f the R e c r e a t i o n a l F i s h e r y " A n g l i n g i s a use o f l e i s u r e t h a t h o l d s the i n t e r e s t o f between 20 and 2 5 p e r c e n t o f the e n t i r e Canad ian p o p u l a t i o n and t h e r e f o r e dese r ve s s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n . " ( M a c d o n a l d , 1967, p. 226) In B r i t i s h Co lumb ia d u r i n g the 1969-1970 season a t o t a l o f 383 ,300 f r e s h w a t e r f i s h i n g l i c e n c e s were s o l d and o v e r t h r e e m i l l i o n a n g l e r days were r e c o r d e d . R e p o r t e d l y t h i s r e s o u r c e is wor th a p p r o x i m a t e l y $395 m i l l i o n in t o t a l b e n e f i t s to B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . ( P e a r s e , Bowden, 1971 , p. 31) The Ou tdoo r R e c r e a t i o n Resources Review Commiss ion ( O . R . R . R . C . ) in the U n i t e d S t a t e s ( 1962 ) , d i s c o v e r e d t h a t o f a l l o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s f i s h i n g was the most s p o n t a n e o u s l y men t i oned as the a c t i v i t y - 9 -in wh ich p e o p l e i n t e n d e d to p a r t i c i p a t e . ( F i g u r e 1 ) . In a d d i t i o n , i t must be remembered t h a t s e v e r a l t ypes o f demand a re p r e s e n t . The f i r s t i s a c t u a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n ; a n o t h e r i s l a t e n t demand, t h a t i s , demand t h a t is b r o u g h t out by l e a r n i n g o r by new and b e t t e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s . A f u r t h e r c a t e g o r y i s o p t i o n demand; demand e x p r e s s e d by those who w i sh to p r e s e r v e the o p t i o n to p a r t i c i p a t e in the f u t u r e o r who w i sh to see a r e c r e a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e m a i n t a i n e d f o r f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s . In B r i t i s h Co lumb ia t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e t h a t l a t e n t demand e x i s t s w i t h i n the r e c r e a t i o n a l f i s h e r y . It appea r s t h a t t h e r e a re two d i s t i n c t groups o f r e c r e a t i o n a l f i s h e r m e n . F o r , w h i l e t h e r e a re those who buy l i c e n c e s e v e r y y e a r , t h e r e a re a l s o t h o s e who p u r c h a s e a l i c e n c e o n l y when i t i s r e p o r t e d t h a t a good s u p p l y o f f i s h is e x p e c t e d . It i s s u g g e s t e d , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t programs d e s i g n e d to improve the s u p p l y o f f i s h c o u l d l e a d to more c o n s i s t e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n by t h i s l a t t e r g r o u p . The demand f o r the r e c r e a t i o n a l f i s h e r y i s , t h u s , not f i x e d but f l u c t u a t i n g , b e i n g gove rned to some degree by the q u a l i t y o f the e x p e r i e n c e , wh i ch i n c l u d e s s u c c e s s r a t i o s , and a l s o a c c e s s a b i 1 i t y . O p t i o n demand a l s o e x i s t s , but i t s e x t e n t i s p r o b l e m a t i c a l . P r e s e n t s o c i a l t r ends o f i n c r e a s e d l e i s u r e t i m e , g r e a t e r d i s p o s a b l e income and improved t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a l s o i n d i c a t e an i n c r e a s i n g f u t u r e demand f o r f i s h i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s . T h u s , in f o c u s s i n g on the p rob lems o f managing the s p o r t f i s h e r y , a s i g n i f i c a n t r e s o u r c e management p rob l em i s b e i n g a d d r e s s e d . D e s p i t e the l a r g e number o f a n g l e r s , and the v a l u e o f the f i s h e r y , v e r y l i t t l e r e s e a r c h has been d i r e c t e d toward m e a s u r i n g the b e n e f i t s t h a t a c c r u e to s o c i e t y f rom p l a n n i n g the deve lopment o f t h i s r e s o u r c e . - 10 -FIGURE 1: RECREATION ACTIVIT IES AND PARTICIPATION PREFERENCE OF PARTICIPANTS AND NON-PARTICIPANTS IN OUTDOOR ACTIVITIES Auto riding-sightseeing, relaxing Picnics Outdoor swimming, beach activities. | / / / /I Fishing Boating and.. Canoeing _ Hiking Nature and Bird W a l k s -Hunting ... Camping m • P a r t i c i p a t e d but e x p r e s s e d no d e s i r e to do so more o f t e n . P a r t i c i p a t e d and would l i k e to do so more o f t e n . SP0NTANE0US._ MENTION A S . A USUAL. OUTDOOR RECREATION ACTIVITIES Pleasure Driving Picnicing . Swiming, the Beach . Fishing Boating and Canoeing Hiking Walks Nature ; Bird Walks Hunting Camping % Did not p a r t i c i p a t e but wou ld l i k e to take i t up in the f u t u r e , SOURCE: U n i t e d S t a t e s Department o f I n t e r i o r Ou tdoor R e c r e a t i o n Review C o m m i s s i o n , Repor t 7, 1962. - 11 -A s s e s s i n g the n a t u r e o f the f i s h e r m e n , what he wants f rom h i s e x p e r i e n c e , and h i s a t t i t u d e s and p r e f e r e n c e s toward f u t u r e management a l t e r n a t i v e s has no t been done s y s t e m a t i c a l l y . Of c o u r s e , b i o l o g i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a re paramount in the sense t h a t w i t h o u t f i s h t h e r e is no f i s h e r y , bu t f i s h e r y managers a re i n c r e a s i n g l y coming to the v iew t h a t the f i s h e r m e n themse l ves need to be c o n s u l t e d f o r e f f e c t i v e management o f the r e s o u r c e . I f we assume t h a t the r e s o u r c e i s b e i n g managed f o r the r e c r e a t i o n a l f i s h e r m e n then a ssessmen t o f h i s d e s i r e s and p r e f e r e n c e s in a s y s t e m a t i c f a s h i o n i s one o f the major c h a l l e n g e s f a c i n g t h i s r e s o u r c e p l a n n i n g agency t o d a y . Fo r the pu rpose o f t h i s t h e s i s , o n l y a p o r t i o n o f the t o t a l B r i t i s h Co lumb ia r e c r e a t i o n a l f i s h e r y w i l l be i n v e s t i g a t e d : the s t e e l h e a d f i s h e r y in the Lower M a i n l a n d . ( F i g u r e 2 ) . The Lower M a i n l a n d s u p p o r t s bo th a t r o u t and sa lmon s p o r t f i s h e r y o f wh i ch the anadromous t r o u t , the s t e e l h e a d (sa lmo g a i r d n e r i i ) , i s c o n s i d e r e d by many to be the b e s t o f the f r e s h w a t e r s p o r t f i s h . The s t e e l h e a d f r e q u e n t s most o f the s t r eams o f t h i s a r e a and r e p r e s e n t s a s p e c i a l a t t r a c t i o n to l o c a l a n g l e r s as w e l l as those f rom o u t o f the P r o v i n c e . " The s t e e l h e a d i s r ega rded as an e x c e p t i o n a l l y f i n e s p o r t f i s h -a t r u e t e s t o f an a n g l e r ' s s k i l l f o r i t i s d i f f i c u l t to hook , a n d , when h o o k e d , i s d i f f i c u l t to l a n d . " (Pearse-Bowden, 1971, p. 3 6 ) . T h i s f i s h spawns in f r e s h w a t e r r i v e r s and s t r eams where the young f r y remain f o r two to t h r e e y e a r s b e f o r e m i g r a t i n g to the s e a , r e t u r n i n g in a n o t h e r two to t h r e e y e a r s to spawn. U n l i k e the s a l m o n , a s t e e l h e a d may r e t u r n a number o f t imes to f r e s h w a t e r to spawn. S t e e l h e a d runs o c c u r on d i f f e r e n t - 13 -r i v e r s a t d i f f e r e n t t imes w i t h two d i s t i n c t t ypes o f f i s h r u n n i n g a t d i f f e r e n t s easons o f the y e a r . The w i n t e r run f i s h i s by f a r the most numerous , y e t the summer run is r e g a r d e d h i g h l y as a s p o r t f i s h because o f the r e l a t i v e s c a r c i t y , i n c r e a s i n g the c h a l l e n g e o f the c a t c h . Data a re a v a i l a b l e on the b i o l o g i c a l a s p e c t s and use o f t h i s s p e c i f i c s p o r t f i s h e r y r e s o u r c e f rom the F i s h and W i l d l i f e B r a n c h . L i c e n c e d a t a h e l d by the B ranch a l s o p e r m i t s the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f a l l l i c e n c e d s t e e l h e a d f i s h e r m e n in the P r o v i n c e . O r g a n i z e d g r o u p s , such as the S t e e l h e a d S o c i e t y , have as t h e i r p r i m a r y c o n c e r n the management o f the s t e e l h e a d f i s h e r y in the b e s t i n t e r e s t o f t h e i r members. T h u s , i t i s p o s s i b l e to t e s t the o b j e c t i v e s p e c i f i e d e a r l i e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r as i t a p p l i e s to one impo r t an t p a r t o f the s p o r t f i s h e r y . Not o n l y s h o u l d i t be p o s s i b l e to a s c e r t a i n the f i s h e r m e n ' s o p i n i o n s , a t t i t u d e s , and p r e f e r e n c e s but i t can be done on the grounds o f membership in o r g a n i z a -t i o n s i n t e r e s t e d p r i m a r i l y in management o f t h i s f i s h e r y and those f i s h e r m e n who a re not o r g a n i z a t i o n members. T h e r e f o r e , i n f o r m a t i o n on f i s h e r m e n ' s d e s i r e s w i l l be a v a i l a b l e and i t w i l l be p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r m i n e the d i f f e r e n c e s between the v iews o f the two g r o u p s . C h a p t e r two rev iews s t u d i e s t h a t have been c a r r i e d o u t on the assessment o f u s e r p r e f e r e n c e s and s a t i s f a c t i o n s in v a r i o u s r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . Very few o f the s t u d i e s were c a r r i e d o u t on f i s h e r m e n but the m e t h o d o l o g i e s a s se s smen t s and recommendat ions bea r on t h i s t h e s i s . - ]k -In the subsequen t c h a p t e r s an assessment is made o f Lower M a i n l a n d s t e e l h e a d f i s h e r m e n ' s p r e f e r e n c e s and a t t i t u d e s f rom r e s u l t s o f a q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Th ree i d e n t i f i a b l e groups who i n f l u e n c e d e c i s i o n -making i n d i f f e r e n t ways a r e e x a m i n e d ; the o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n , the u n o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n and the f i s h e r y r e s o u r c e managers . The l a t t e r g r o u p ' s v iews a r e o f i n t e r e s t because o f the key r o l e wh ich they have in i n f l u e n c i n g d e c i s i o n s in t h i s r e s o u r c e a r e a . L i k e r e sponses f rom a l l t h r e e g roups wou ld s u g g e s t t h a t t h e r e a re few commun ica t ion p rob lems and i t wou ld be a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t s o c i a l b e n e f i t s a r e in some sense b e i n g m a x i m i z e d . On the o t h e r h a n d , i f a g r e a t d i v e r s i t y o f p r e f e r e n c e s and a t t i t u d e s e x i s t then i t w i l l be c l e a r t h a t b e n e f i t s a r e not b e i n g m a x i m i z e d . The d a t a f rom the q u e s t i o n n a i r e and the methodo logy o f the t h e s i s s h o u l d p r o v i d e g u i d a n c e as to the d i r e c t i o n in wh i ch the p l a n n i n g in t h i s agency s h o u l d be mov ing . In a n a l y z i n g the d a t a i t w i l l a l s o be d e t e r m i n e d whe the r i d e n t i f i a b l e sub-groups w i t h i n the u s e r group have s i m i l a r p r e f e r e n c e s . T a b u l a t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f r e s u l t s w i l l be done in a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e i r i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r p l a n n i n g and management. By d o i n g t h i s i t i s p o s s i b l e to demons t r a t e a methodo logy f o r d e t e r m i n i n g the f i s h e r m e n ' s p r e f e r e n c e s and i n c o r p o r a t i n g them i n t o the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s . The f i n a l c h a p t e r draws c o n c l u s i o n s f rom the r e s u l t s p r e s e n t e d and s u g g e s t s avenues f o r e x t e n d i n g the work . - 15 -CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW OF USER CHARACTERISTICS, OPINIONS, PREFERENCES AND ATTITUDES A. I n t r o d u c t i o n T h i s c h a p t e r c o n s i s t s o f a rev iew o f l i t e r a t u r e wh ich bea r s upon the a s ses smen t o f r e c r e a t i o n i s t s 1 , and in p a r t i c u l a r , f i s h e r m e n ' s p r e f e r e n c e s and a t t i t u d e s . The l i t e r a t u r e i s r a t h e r l i m i t e d , as t h i s a r e a o f b e h a v i o u r a l r e s e a r c h is r e l a t i v e l y new in the f i e l d o f r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g . However , to g i v e the a v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n some o r d e r i t w i l l be rev i ewed in the b r o a d sense o f r e c r e a t i o n s t u d i e s and then become more s p e c i f i c to the f i s h i n g e x p e r i e n c e . From these s t u d i e s w i l l be drawn some o f the p r e f e r e n c e s and a t t i t u d e s wh i ch a r e a l r e a d y i d e n t i f i a b l e o r b e l i e v e d to e x i s t , but m a i n l y the r ev i ew w i l l be used to i n d i c a t e a p p r o p r i a t e m e t h o d o l o g i e s . As y e t " p r e f e r e n c e s and a t t i t u d e s " have not been d e f i n e d in any fo rma l way. T h i s t h e s i s w i l l use t hese words in s i m p l e f a s h i o n . P r e f e r e n c e s r e l a t e to the " c h o i c e " o f one t h i n g o v e r a n o t h e r as the r e s u l t o f e x p e r i e n c e , l e a r n i n g o r whim. A t t i t u d e is a more complex term and i n v o l v e s p e r c e p t i o n s , l e a r n i n g and u n d e r s t a n d i n g s o v e r a c o n s i d e r a b l e p e r i o d o f t i m e . P r o p e r l y d e s i g n e d a t t i t u d i n a l q u e s t i o n s i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o a q u e s t i o n n a i r e can a i d in a s s e s s i n g the s t r e n g t h o f a g i v e n a t t i t u d e . A t t imes r e f e r e n c e w i l l be made to " o p i n i o n s " . T h i s r e f e r s to v iews about f a c t u a l m a t t e r s wh i ch may be open to d i s p u t e . A t t i t u d e s , p r e f e r e n c e s , and o p i n i o n s w i l l be r e l a t e d to such " c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s " o f the f i s h e r m e n as a g e , income l e v e l , and e d u c a t i o n . - 16 -B. R e c r e a t i o n a l S t u d i e s I n v o l v i n g P r e f e r e n c e s and A t t i t u d e s ( i ) Genera l Review o f R e c r e a t i o n L i t e r a t u r e Clawson (1966, p. 33) has s u g g e s t e d t h a t the r e c r e a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e c o n s i s t s o f a number o f components wh i ch when g rouped t o g e t h e r form a t o t a l e x p e r i e n c e : t h i n k i n g about the e x p e r i e n c e , the j o u r n e y to the s i t e , the o n - s i t e e x p e r i e n c e , the j o u r n e y home and the remembrance o f the t r i p . A l l i n f l u e n c e the r e c r e a t i o n i s t s 1 a t t i t u d e s and p r e f e r e n c e s toward a r e c r e a t i o n a l p a s t i m e o r the way in wh i ch he p a r t i c i p a t e s in the a c t i v i t y . C lawson t h e r e f o r e s u g g e s t s t h a t p r e f e r e n c e s and a t t i t u d e s can span a number o f d i f f e r e n t s u b s e c t i o n s o f the whole e x p e r i e n c e . Most o f the s t u d i e s c o n d u c t e d , however , l a r g e l y c o n c e r n themse l ves w i t h the o n -s i t e e x p e r i e n c e . Hendee e t a l (1968) c o n d u c t e d a s t udy o f w i l d e r n e s s u s e r s in the P a c i f i c Nor thwes t r e g i o n o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s . The aim o f the s t u d y was to f i n d ou t what k i n d o f p e o p l e v i s i t e d w i l d e r n e s s a r e a s o f the r e g i o n and to f i n d ou t what v a l u e s and codes o f b e h a v i o u r they a s s o c i a t e d w i t h w i l d e r n e s s u s e . They a l s o t r i e d to a s s e s s how the u se r s f e l t about c e r t a i n p o l i c i e s t h a t c o u l d be a p p l i e d i n management o f such an a r e a . The demograph i c i n f o r m a t i o n c o m p i l e d on u s e r s , Hendee s u g g e s t s , wou ld be h e l p f u l in i n d i c a t i n g f u t u r e t r e n d s in w i l d e r n e s s a r e a u s e . On the b a s i s o f income, e d u c a t i o n , and o c c u p a t i o n i n f o r m a t i o n , f u t u r e use o f a r eas c o u l d be e s t i m a t e d by e x t r a p o l a t i n g p r e s e n t t r ends o f upward m o b i l i t y o f s o c i o - e c o n o m i c g r o u p s . - 17 -By a t t i t u d i n a l r e sponses to c e r t a i n q u e s t i o n s p o s e d , Hendee i d e n t i f i e d one sub-group o f w i l d e r n e s s u s e r : the p u r i s t . He found the p u r i s t s more p e r c e p t i v e to w i l d e r n e s s v a l u e s a n d , t h e r e f o r e , s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e i r o p i n i o n s s h o u l d r e c e i v e g r e a t e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n than o t h e r u s e r s . One might v iew the s t e e l h e a d f i s h e r m e n the same way Hendee does the p u r i s t w i l d e r n e s s u s e r . T h i s can be s u g g e s t e d because o f the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n v o l v e d in making the c a t c h and the f a c t t h a t the s p e c i e s i s most p l e n t i f u l in the l e s s f a v o u r a b l e season o f the y e a r f o r o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n . T h e r e f o r e , amongst the f i s h i n g p o p u l a t i o n the s t e e l h e a d e r appea rs to be a u n i q u e , no t to say e c c e n t r i c , phenomenon. Hendee , Ga l e and C a t t o n ( 1 9 7 1 ) in d i s c u s s i n g age and i t s r e l a t i o n to a c t i v i t y p r e f e r e n c e a l s o a l l u d e t o t h i s " p u r i s t " p h i l o s o p h y . They s u g g e s t t h a t r e c r e a t i o n i s t s move th rough d i f f e r e n t s t a g e s in the type o f e x p e r i e n c e d e s i r e d as they grow o l d e r . One s t a g e wh ich they c h a r a c t e r i z e as the " e x t r a c t i v e - s y m b o l i c " has r e l e v a n c e f o r f i s h i n g . T h i s c o u l d b e s t be d e s c r i b e d as the s t a g e where the i d e a l i s the t a k i n g o f the l a r g e t rophy f i s h . However , Meeson ( 1 9 7 2 ) s u g g e s t s t h a t t h i s c o u l d be c a r r i e d a s t e p f u r t h e r to what c o u l d be c a l l e d the " n o n -e x t r a c t i v e s y m b o l i c " . In f i s h i n g t h i s wou ld be the r ea l p u r i s t who d e r i v e s s a t i s f a c t i o n from the c a t c h , y e t r e l e a s e s the f i s h . Burch and Wenger ( 1 9 6 7 ) a l s o i d e n t i f y the w i l d e r n e s s - p u r i s t camper who pe rhaps i s much l i k e the f i s h e r m a n who does no t l i k e c rowd ing bu t e n j o y s h i s s u r r o u n d i n g s as much as he does c a t c h i n g the f i s h . The w i l d e r n e s s p u r i s t wou ld be d i a m e t r i c a l l y opposed in a t t i t u d e s and - 18 -p r e f e r e n c e s , I t i s assumed, to the easy a c c e s s camper (La Page , 1969) who goes camping to meet p e o p l e . T h i s l a t t e r type o f camper has f o r c e d the l e s s g r e g a r i o u s f u r t h e r a f i e l d . (Hendee and C a m p b e l l , I 9 6 9 ) . Presumab ly a s i m i l a r t h i n g happens w i t h f i s h e r m e n . The more p u r i s t wou ld move from crowded a reas to those o f f e r i n g the q u a l i t y o f e x p e r i e n c e wh i ch he s e e k s . T h i s c o u l d be p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e nea r h e a v i l y p o p u l a t e d urban a r e a s . S tanky ( I 9 7 I ) a t t e m p t e d to d e t e r m i n e the a t t i t u d e s o f r e c r e a t i o n i s t s to s o l i t u d e and c rowd ing by a q u e s t i o n n a i r e a p p r o a c h . He a l s o i d e n t i f i e d the " p u r i s t " . Lucas ( 1 9 6 4 ) , on the o t h e r h a n d , was a b l e to group r e c r e a t i o n i s t s 1 p e r c e p t i o n s and a t t i t u d e s on the b a s i s o f equ ipment b e i n g used in the Boundary Water Canoe A r e a . P e o p l e t r a v e l l i n g by canoe had d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e s and p r e f e r e n c e s to those u s i n g motor-c r a f t . F i s h i n g w i t h d i f f e r e n t t ypes o f equ ipment may t e l l someth ing o f f i s h e r m e n ' s p r e f e r e n c e s and a t t i t u d e s . It c o u l d a l s o be t h a t f i s h e r m e n who f i s h f o r s i m i l a r s p e c i e s may e x h i b i t s i m i l a r t r a i t s to one a n o t h e r y e t when compared t o o t h e r r e c r e a t i o n i s t s o r f i s h e r m e n a n g l i n g f o r o t h e r s p e c i e s t h e r e may be d i f f e r e n c e s . T h o r s e l l ' s ( 1 9 7 1 ) d i s s e r t a t i o n on the w i l d e r n e s s r e c r e a t i o n u s e r in B r i t i s h Co lumb ia i d e n t i f i e s a number o f p r e f e r e n c e s and a t t i t u d e s h e l d by w i l d e r n e s s u s e r s wh ich may be e q u a l l y a p p l i c a b l e to r e c r e a t i o n a l f i s h e r m e n . They i n c l u d e d : - 19 -Doing something different Being with family and friends Soli tude Feeling close to nature Relaxing Escaping from c i v i l i za t ion Hendee (1967) developed a l i s t which reflected the reasons for area preference by user type which in this case refers to campers and wilderness users: Features of the natural environment Types of faci1i ties Act iv i t ies inherent to the preferred area Insulation from people Type and amount of supervision in area Ava i lab i l i ty of interpretive services Accessab i1i ty Hunting or no hunting allowed Less restrict ions (on act iv i t ies ) The foregoing studies indicate that the recreationist is seeking a dist inct ive type of experience and that preferences of individuals vary s ign i f i cant ly . This confirms the view underlying this study that to maximize user benefits i t is necessary to offer the kinds of experiences that accord with the range of user preferences. - 2 0 -( i i ) C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , P r e f e r e n c e s and A t t i t u d e s o f F i she rmen A l t h o u g h r e c r e a t i o n a l f i s h i n g i s an e x t r e m e l y p o p u l a r p a s t i m e , few r e s e a r c h e r s have a t t empted to examine t h i s r e s o u r c e u s e r in any d e p t h . The h i k e r , the camper , the w i l d e r n e s s u s e r a r e r e c e i v i n g t h e i r sha r e o f r e s e a r c h a t t e n t i o n y e t f i s h i n g and the f i s h e r m a n remain n e g l e c t e d . O b v i o u s l y i t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t the r e c r e a t i o n a l p l a n n e r know someth ing about the r e c r e a t i o n i s t o r f i s h e r m a n c l i e n t e l e . Resea rch to d a t e , however , has in g e n e r a l , c o n c e n t r a t e d on e s t a b l i s h i n g the f i s h e r m a n ' s s o c i a l and e conomi c s t a t u s . Gray ( 1 9 6 1 ) i d e n i f i e d u s e r g roups in f o r e s t r e c r e a t i o n , o f wh i ch the f i s h e r m a n was o n e . Bev ins e t a l ( 1 9 6 8 ) , S o f r a n k o and No lan ( 1 9 7 0 ) , and Bond and W h i t t a k e r ( 1 9 7 1 ) c o n d u c t e d s i m i l a r s t u d i e s on f i s h e r m e n in e a s t e r n U n i t e d S t a t e s , u s i n g s i m i l a r s e t s o f s o c i o -e conomic c r i t e r i a . The i n f o r m a t i o n d e v e l o p e d in t hese s t u d i e s i s a s t e p in d e t e r m i n i n g who i t i s t h a t f i s h e s bu t i t i s o f l i t t l e h e l p to the manager and p l a n n e r . Hendee ' s i dea o f u s i n g e d u c a t i o n and income l e v e l s as a b a s i s f o r p r o j e c t i n g the numbers o f p e o p l e l i k e l y to p a r t i c i p a t e in v a r i o u s r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s in the f u t u r e may be the o n l y i n s t a n c e in wh i ch the r e s e a r c h has d i r e c t a p p l i c a t i o n to p l a n n i n g and management. S u g g e s t i o n s on f i s h e r m e n ' s p r e f e r e n c e s and a t t i t u d e s seem more l i k e l y to be found in r a t h e r undocumented form in a v a r i e t y o f f i s h i n g books and newspaper a r t i c l e s and th rough g e n e r a l c o n t a c t w i t h f i s h e r m e n . The B .C . Game F i s h i s o f p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t as a r e f e r e n c e as i t c o v e r s the wide v a r i e t y o f f i s h in the P r o v i n c e . As the a r t i c l e s - 21 -in the book a re c o n t r i b u t e d by d i f f e r e n t w r i t e r s i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to no te t h a t each a u t h o r c r e d i t s the f i s h he d e s c r i b e s w i t h c e r t a i n d e s i r a b l e q u a l i t i e s . Lee S t r a i g h t d e s c r i b e s the " t a c k l e smash ing c h i n o o k " , w h i l e Dave Hurn d e s c r i b e s the brown t r o u t as " e x o t i c and b e a u t i f u l " and Pe te B roomha l l a l l u d e s to the " s u p e r i o r i t y " o f the s t e e l h e a d . The type o f f i s h one f i s h e s f o r , t h e r e f o r e , c o u l d s u g g e s t the q u a l i t y one seeks in the f i s h i n g e x p e r i e n c e . Wh i l e some f i s h e r m e n a re d i s c e r n i n g as to the s p e c i e s they f i s h , o t h e r s a n g l e f o r wha teve r w i l l b i t e . A t the p r i c e o f b e e f today one can s y m p a t h i z e w i t h the l a t t e r . Pe rhaps the t a k i n g o f the f i s h to e a t i s the i n i t i a l s t a g e th rough wh i ch f i s h e r m e n p a s s . R o d e r i c k Haig-Brown (1959) in h i s book F i s h e r m e n ' s Summer d e s c r i b e s p r e f e r e n c e s o f s t e e l h e a d f i s h e r m e n when he s u g g e s t s the s i x a s p e c t s wh i ch a re i m p o r t a n t components o f an e x p e r i e n c e : s i z e o f r i v e r , c a t c h / s u c c e s s , a c commoda t i on , l o c a l p o p u l a t i o n , l o c a l use and a c c e s s a b i l He a l s o s u g g e s t s t h a t s t e e l h e a d f i s h e r m e n s e a r c h f o r "more and more d i f f i c u l t and r o m a n t i c c i r c u m s t a n c e s f o r c a t c h i n g s t e e l h e a d " (p . 159)-Mike Cramond (1964) goes on to d e s c r i b e the s t e e l h e a d f i s h e r m a n in p a r t i c u l a r as d e d i c a t e d to one f i s h s p e c i e s , who l i k e s to f i s h by h i m s e l f , y e t when he c a t c h e s a s t e e l h e a d he w i l l not e a t i t . Gordon (1971) c o n d u c t e d a s tudy o f Idaho f i s h e r m e n by q u e s t i o n n a i r e to d e t e r m i n e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e s , o p i n i o n s and b e h a v i o u r . He found t h a t a n g l e r s u t i l i z i n g the Idaho - 22 -s p o r t f i s h e r y r e s o u r c e s had v a r i e d but s t r o n g and s p e c i f i c p r e f e r e n c e s , o p i n i o n s and b e h a v i o u r p a t t e r n s t h a t were s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n f l u e n c e d by age and income. A l t h o u g h Gordon does not a n a l y s e h i s da t a to any depth to draw o u t p l a n n i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s he does s u g g e s t some f i s h e r y management p r e f e r e n c e s and a t t i t u d e s e x p r e s s e d by f i s h e r m e n . Some o f h i s f i n d i n g s a re summar ized be low : F i shermen were as much in f a v o u r o f h a t c h e r y f i s h as they were o f m a i n t a i n i n g w i l d s t o c k s . S m a l l e r bag l i m i t s were p r e f e r r e d o v e r r e s t r i c t i o n s on l e n g t h o f s e a s o n . A range o f f i s h s i z e s wou ld be needed in a h a t c h e r y p r o d u c e d f i s h e r y . A m a j o r i t y o f a n g l e r s e x p r e s s e d the o p i n i o n t h a t c a t c h and r e l e a s e f i s h i n g was w o r t h w h i l e and t h a t they wou ld be w i l l i n g to p a r t i c i p a t e . ( i i i ) Loca l S t u d i e s on F i she rmen Resea rch done w i t h f i s h e r m e n in B r i t i s h Co lumb ia i n c l u d e s a s t udy by Sewe l l and R o s t r o n , (1971)- T h i s s t udy was c o n c e r n e d w i t h s a l t w a t e r f i s h e r m e n in the V i c t o r i a a r e a . T h e i r a im was t o : - 2 3 -(a) I d e n t i f y the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f s p o r t s f i s h e r m e n , and (b) I d e n t i f y f a c t o r s t h a t appea r to a f f e c t t h e i r d e c i s i o n s . It was shown t h a t t h e r e was l i t t l e c o m p a r a b i l i t y between s a l t w a t e r s p o r t s f i s h i n g and o t h e r o u t d o o r a c t i v i t i e s . It was a l s o shown t h a t f i s h e r m e n d i d not use t h e i r b o a t s f o r o t h e r w a t e r o r i e n t e d a c t i v i t i e s . R a t h e r , they would a t t empt to s e l l t h e i r b o a t s i f they c o u l d not f i s h . F r e s h w a t e r f i s h i n g was found to be an i m p o r t a n t p a s t i m e f o r 50% o f the s a l t w a t e r f i s h e r m e n p o p u l a t i o n . " P o s s i b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s t h a t o t h e r o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s were men t i oned as impo r t an t b e c a u s e they were r ega rded as a c t i v i t i e s wh i ch e n a b l e the d i s c h a r g e o f f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . In c o n t r a s t , s a l t w a t e r f i s h i n g appea rs t o be an a c t i v i t y f o r the man in the h o u s e h o l d and no t f o r the w i f e o r f a m i l y as a w h o l e . " (Sewel l and R o s t r o n , 1971, P- 9 1 ) . F r e s h w a t e r s t e e l h e a d f i s h e r m e n a r e e x p e c t e d to e x h i b i t the same p r e f e r e n c e s - t he f i s h i n g e x p e r i e n c e b e i n g male d o m i n a t e d . S tevens ( a f t e r S e w e l l , 1971, p. I1*) assumed t h a t " t h e t h r i l l o f c a t c h i n g a f i s h was the major v a l u e i n v o l v e d in the r e c r e a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e o f f i s h i n g . T h i s i s e x p r e s s e d in h i s measure o f s u c c e s s pe r u n i t o f e f f o r t . " S e w e l l ' s s t u d y r e v e a l s t h a t a l t h o u g h the a n t i c i -p a t i o n o f c a t c h i n g a f i s h may be m o t i v a t i o n f o r g o i n g f i s h i n g , i t i s no t a s a t i s f a c t o r y i n d i c a t o r o f the o v e r a l l r e c r e a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e - 24 -i n v o l v e d . The p o s s i b i l i t y o f g e t t i n g away f rom the work-a-day w o r l d , e n j o y i n g the compan ionsh ip o f o t h e r s and so on may be more i m p o r t a n t as measures o f the v a l u e o f the r e c r e a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e than the a c t u a l c a t c h i n g o f a f i s h . (p. 9 5 ) . A l t h o u g h the Sewel1 and R o s t r o n ' s ( 1 9 7 1 ) s t u d y " s u g g e s t " o t h e r m o t i v a t i o n s f o r f i s h i n g , the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s s u e d in t h i s s t u d y to s t e e l h e a d e r s a t t e m p t s to " d o c u m e n t " the complementary m o t i v a t i o n s to c a t c h i n g o f the f i s h to e n a b l e a ssessment o f a t t i t u d e s and p r e f e r e n c e s . The s e r i e s o f r e p o r t s e n t i t l e d The S t e e l h e a d T r o u t S p o r t  F i s h i n g A n a l y s i s by G. P e t e r s o n and R. Thomas o f the F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch i s an i m p o r t a n t s o u r c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n f o r s t e e l h e a d p o l i c y f o r m u l a t i o n in B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . T h i s s t u d y has been c o n d u c t e d on an annual b a s i s s i n c e 1 9 6 6 - 1 9 6 7 s eason to e n a b l e r e s o u r c e managers to a s s e s s where p r e s s u r e has o c c u r r e d in the fo rm o f a n g l e r s , how many f i s h were c a u g h t , where the a n g l e r r e s i d e d , and i f i n f a c t , they f i s h e d f o r s t e e l h e a d . In t h i s manner i t has been p o s s i b l e to e s t i m a t e the numbers o f f i s h e r m e n t h a t f i s h e d and to e s t i m a t e the annua l c a t c h . S i n c e 1 9 6 6 s t e e l h e a d f i s h e r m e n have been o b l i g e d to p u r c h a s e a l i c e n c e a d d i t i o n a l to the r e g u l a r f r e s h w a t e r f i s h i n g p e r m i t . Th rough the l i c e n c i n g scheme i t has been p o s s i b l e to s u r v e y the f i s h e r m e n by means o f a q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The r esponden t i s a i d e d in c o m p l e t i n g the q u e s t i o n n a i r e by r e v i e w i n g h i s p u n c h c a r d on wh i ch he has r e c o r d e d when and where he caught a s t e e l h e a d t h a t s e a s o n . T h i s method has - 25 -p roved e f f i c i e n t and the i n f o r m a t i o n has been u s e f u l to the r e s o u r c e managers in assessment o f impact on the p h y s i c a l r e s o u r c e . It wou ld be p o s s i b l e to use t h i s v e h i c l e to d e t e r m i n e a s p e c t s o f f i s h e r m e n ' s a t t i t u d e s and p r e f e r e n c e s toward f u t u r e d i r e c t i o n o f the f i s h e r y . The Pearse-Bowden s t u d y on the Va l ue o f F r e s h w a t e r F i s h i n g  in B r i t i s h Co lumb ia ( 1 9 7 0 , was c o n c e r n e d w i t h the economics o f f i s h i n g . B e s i des e s t a b l i s h i n g an economic wor th o f the f i s h e r y they a t t e m p t e d " t o f i n d ou t who a n g l e r s a r e and i n d i c a t e r o u g h l y the d i r e c t i o n s o f some o f the p r e s s u r e s a c t i n g on a n g l e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n " (p . 16 ) . B a s i c a l l y they drew c o m p a r i s o n s in age-sex b reakdowns , o c c u p a t i o n , e d u c a t i o n and income. Some a t t empt was then made to l ook a t r e g i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s . It was l e a r n e d t h a t f r e s h w a t e r f i s h e r m e n , in g e n e r a l , were p r o p o r t i o n a l l y in h i g h e r income b r a c k e t s . T h i s was p a r t i a l l y s u g g e s t e d by the f a c t t h a t e d u c a t i o n l e v e l was a l s o h i g h in r e l a t i o n t o the ave rage male in the P r o v i n c e . Pe rhaps t h i s s u g g e s t s s t e e l h e a d f i s h e r m e n , in g e n e r a l , c o u l d a f f o r d to t r a v e l f u r t h e r a f i e l d f o r t h e i r s p o r t , a f a c t wh i ch may have s i g n i f i c a n t management i m p l i c a t i o n s . I f the " p u r i s t " has a l t e r n a t i v e s , s h o u l d s p e c i a l e f f o r t s be made on h i s b e h a l f on the Lower M a i n l a n d ? B e s i d e the major emphas i s o f the Pearse-Bowden s t u d y , the e conomic wor th o f the r e s o u r c e , the s t u d y a l s o e x p l o r e d some o f the q u a l i t a t i v e a s p e c t s w i t h r e g a r d to f i s h e r m e n ' s comments and o p i n i o n s . Of the comments f rom f r e s h w a t e r f i s h e r m e n , e x c l u d i n g s t e e l h e a d e r s , 50% f e l t t h a t the q u a l i t y o f t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e was d e c l i n i n g . They f e l t the e x p e r i e n c e c o u l d be improved by g r e a t e r e n f o r c e m e n t o f r e g u l a t i o n s . - 2 6 -The management programs f e l t to be b e s t were n a t u r a l spawning grounds and the a d d i t i o n o f h a t c h e r y b r e d f i s h . F i she rmen were not r e c e p t i v e to n o n - r e s i d e n t a n g l e r s w i t h more than h a l f o f a l l r e s i d e n t a n g l e r s combined recommending t h a t n o n - r e s i d e n t s be d i s c o u r a g e d in some way f rom f i s h i n g in B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The s t e e l h e a d e r s b e l i e v e d t h a t p o l l u t i o n was the b i g g e s t p rob l em f a c i n g the f i s h e r y and f o r the p r o t e c t i o n o f f i s h , Gk% thought t h i s i s where the g r e a t e s t e f f o r t s h o u l d l i e . "Many f i s h e r m e n were in f a v o u r o f d e v e l o p i n g a h a t c h e r y program f o r s t e e l h e a d as has been done s u c c e s s f u l l y f o r i t s f r e s h w a t e r c o u s i n , the ra inbow t r o u t . O t h e r s were c o n c e r n e d about p r o t e c t i n g and e n h a n c i n g the n a t u r a l h a b i t a t o f s t e e l h e a d th rough s t r i c t e r c o n t r o l o v e r l o g g i n g , and e f f l u e n t d i s c h a r g e s i n t o s t reams and th rough the c r e a t i o n o f spawning c h a n n e l s . Some f e l t t h a t more s h o u l d be done to p r e v e n t the n e t t i n g o f s t e e l h e a d a t sea by commerc ia l f i s h e r m e n " (p . kS). R e s i d e n t s t e e l h e a d e r s in t h i s s t u d y were asked about f i v e e l emen t s i m p o r t a n t to them f o r a h i g h q u a l i t y f i s h i n g e x p e r i e n c e . U n s p o i l e d n a t u r a l env i r onmen t was ranked f i r s t by o f f i s h e r m e n ( Tab l e 2 ) . The o t h e r c a t e g o r i e s w e r e : good chance o f c a t c h i n g s t e e l h e a d , r e g a r d l e s s o f s i z e ; s o l i t u d e , absence o f o t h e r f i s h e r m e n ; chance o f c a t c h i n g ve ry l a r g e s t e e l h e a d ; and ease o f a c c e s s . - 2 7 -TABLE I ELEMENTS IMPORTANT TO HIGH QUALITY STEELHEAD FISHING Rank E lement 1 s t 2 n d 3 r d 4 t h 5 t h U n s p o i l e d n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t 54 21 15 7 3 Good chance o f c a t c h i n g s t e e l h e a d r e g a r d l e s s o f s i z e 2 7 2 9 2 6 12 6 S o l i t u d e , absence o f o t h e r f i s h e r m e n 11 32 2 4 19 14 Chance o f c a t c h i n g ve r y l a r g e s t e e l h e a d 4 11 15 30 40 Ease o f a c c e s s 4 8 2 0 30 3 8 Pearse-Bowden (1971) p. 51 - 2 8 -With regard to restr ict ing act iv i ty to fly fishing on some rivers, kk% thought i t was a good idea. Other fishermen thought steelhead were hard enough to catch at present without increasing the d i f f i cu l t y by imposing these restr ic t ions. Those who fe l t f ly fishing was a good idea thought i t would reduce pressure on these areas and tend to "induce better fishing habits and more sporting behaviour on the part of steelhead anglers" (Pearse-Bowden, 1971, p. 51). This study arrived at various pieces of information which are important to the decision-maker but did not suggest how to organize these findings to u t i l i ze them in the decision-making process. Information generation is basic to rational decision-making but is relat ively meaningless unless it feeds into a structure which is able to make use of the information. Pearse-Bowden have attempted to identify some of the qualit ies that steelhead fishermen desire. This is a f i r s t step in identifying the range of opportunities that fishermen want. Some fishermen prefer good fishing above a l l e lse , with the prime motiva-tion of their experience being to catch a f i sh . Others are concerned with the challenge; fishing only with f ly and releasing many of the f ish caught. Solitude is another feature which the Pearse-Bowden study ident i f ied. An understanding and some quantitative measure of how many people would want this type of experience would encourage planners - 29 -to p r e s e r v e t h i s e x p e r i e n c e , p r e f e r a b l y in c l o s e p r o x i m i t y to urban a r e a s . The f i s h e r m a n who wants to c a t c h a f i s h and have easy a c c e s s is pe rhaps the e a s i e s t to s a t i s f y bu t the p e r c e n t a g e o f f i s h e r m e n who f a l l i n t o t h i s c a t e g o r y i s as y e t unknown. Pearse-Bowden ( 1 9 7 1 ) a l s o i d e n t i f i e s two o t h e r i n t e r e s t i n g a s p e c t s w i t h r ega rd to the s t e e l h e a d f i s h i n g : f i r s t l y they found t h a t the t o t a l c a t c h o f s t e e l h e a d i s d e c l i n i n g y e t the number o f a c t i v e s t e e l h e a d f i s h e r m e n i s not d e c l i n i n g in p r o p o r t i o n . In f a c t , in the f i n a l y e a r r e p o r t e d t he r e was a drop in numbers caught y e t a r i s e in number o f a n g l e r s o v e r the p r e v i o u s y e a r ( F i g u r e 3 ) . S e c o n d l y , they i d e n t i f i e d two d i s t i n c t g roups o f " s u c c e s s f u l s t e e l h e a d e r s " and " a c t i v e s t e e l h e a d e r s " ( F i g u r e k). The chance to c a t c h a l a r g e f i s h o r t r ophy s i z e d f i s h i s a l s o i n d i c a t i v e o f some f i s h e r m e n ' s d e s i r e s . Ha ig-B rown , Mike Cramond and o t h e r w r i t e r s e x t o l the v i r t u e s and t h r i l l o f t a k i n g a l a r g e f i s h and o f t e n r e t u r n i n g them to the s t r e a m . N o t h i n g has been w r i t t e n to s u g g e s t why t h i s " c a t c h and r e l e a s e " a t t i t u d e has a r i s e n . Cou ld i t be t h a t l o n g - t i m e f i s h e r m e n l o s e i n t e r e s t in t a k i n g the c a t c h home, o r g a i n a l o ve o f n a t u r e and t h e i r s p o r t f i s h wh i ch r e s u l t s f rom a l o n g a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the f i s h e r y ? - 30 -FIGURE 3 : ACTIVE STEELHEADERS: TOTAL CATCH 1 9 6 6 - 6 9 STEELHEAD CATCH IN RECENT YEARS 8 0 i FIGURE k: COMPARISON BETWEEN "SUCCESSFUL" AND " A C T I V E " STEELHEADERS 7 Steelhead Season(Yr.) SOURCE: Pearse-Bowden Economic C o n s u l t a n t s Va l ue o f F r e sh Water S p o r t F i s h i n g in B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Repor t 5, 1971 - 31 -C. I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r P r e f e r e n c e and A t t i t u d e S t u d i e s o f Fi shermen P r e f e r e n c e s and a t t i t u d e s o f f i s h e r m e n a re o f l i t t l e use to the p l a n n e r and manager u n l e s s they can be examined s y s t e m a t i c a l l y , as one wou ld e x p e c t to r e c e i v e a range o f r e sponses to any type o f q u e s t i o n . T h e r e f o r e , i t i s p r o p o s e d to s e l e c t f rom the l i t e r a t u r e p o s s i b l e f i s h e r m e n types who can be i d e n t i f i e d and a s c e r t a i n t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e s and a t t i t u d e s . The o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m a n as opposed to the u n o r g a n i z e d , the p u r i s t and the c a t c h - a n y t h i n g - a n y w h e r e f i s h e r m a n , the easy a c c e s s a n g l e r and those who c o u l d be g rouped by p r e f e r e n c e f o r c e r t a i n t ypes o f e q u i p m e n t . E q u i p m e n t , meaning the manner by wh i ch a f i s h e r m a n a n g l e s , can be s i m p l y c l a s s i f i e d as l u r e , b a i t o r f l y . The type o f e q u i p m e n t , t h e n , c o u l d c o r r e l a t e to the type o f e x p e r i e n c e d e s i r e d . The work o f Lucas (1964) in the Boundary Water Canoe A r e a pe rhaps b e s t i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s p o s s i b l e g r o u p i n g : D i f f e r e n t equ ipment D i f f e r e n t p r e f e r e n c e f o r e x p e r i e n c e D T f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e s to the s u r r o u n d i n g s . A t t i t u d e and p r e f e r e n c e o f f i s h e r m e n p r o b a b l y va ry w i t h the type o f f i s h they a n g l e f o r , t h e i r s u c c e s s , t h e i r e f f o r t and the number they keep . Some f i s h e r m e n a t t emp t to c a t c h as many f i s h as they c a n , - 32 -in some c a s e s , r e g a r d l e s s o f f i s h s i z e o r the r e g u l a t i o n l i m i t . T h i s t ype o f f i s h e r m e n may be in the m i n o r i t y . Most f i s h e r m e n , however , a c c o r d i n g to the l i t e r a t u r e s t r i v e to c a t c h " t h e b i g o n e " . The re a re o t h e r f i s h e r m e n who e x h i b i t d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e s a g a i n toward the f i s h e r y . These f i s h e r m e n , a l t h o u g h r e g a r d i n g the c a t c h h i g h l y , w i l l a l s o r e l e a s e many t h a t they c a t c h , t he r eby r e c e i v i n g a g r e a t dea l o f p l e a s u r e . T h i s a t t i t u d e is pe rhaps c l o s e l y r e l a t e d in e x p e r i e n c e and a t t i t u d e to f i s h i n g as H e n d e e ' s ( 1 9 6 7 ) p u r i s t in the w i l d e r n e s s s e t t i n g . If the p r o p o r t i o n o f f i s h e r m e n in t h i s group and the t o t a l e x p e r i e n c e they d e s i r e d were known, ma in tenance o f t h i s k i n d o f e x p e r i e n c e by s u i t a b l e p l a n n i n g and management c o u l d be j u s t i f i e d . Meeson ( 1 9 7 2 ) has s u g g e s t e d t h a t the p u r i s t i s one type o f f i s h e r m a n . He a l s o i d e n t i f i e s the easy a c c e s s f i s h e r m a n and the a n g l e r who swings between t hese two d i f f e r i n g t y p e s . On the Lower M a i n l a n d , the easy a c c e s s f i s h e r m a n i s p r o b a b l y most common as t h e r e a re g r e a t e r t ime c o n s t r a i n t s on a t t e m p t i n g to f i n d a more p u r i s t e x p e r i e n c e . Meeson s u g g e s t s p u r i s t f i s h e r m e n p r e f e r to be a b l e to f i s h i n a e s t h e t i c and p l e a s i n g s u r r o u n d i n g s . He may j o u r n e y to the s i t e w i t h f r i e n d s but d u r i n g the f i s h i n g e x p e r i e n c e does not l i k e to meet many o t h e r p e o p l e . He can pe rhaps be i d e n t i f i e d by the type o f - 33 -equ ipment he u s e s ; w i t h f l y f i s h e r m e n b e i n g more o f t e n than no t found in t h i s g r o u p i n g . In s o c i o - e c o n o m i c terms he r a t es h i g h e r than a ve r age in e d u c a t i o n and income. The easy a c c e s s f i s h e r m a n is u s u a l l y the most i n t e r e s t e d in the c a t c h . He p r o b a b l y spends much o f h i s f i s h i n g t ime on the Lower M a i n l a n d because o f i t s a c c e s s a b i 1 i t y , i f he l i v e s in t h i s a r e a , and w i l l be the most i n d i g n a n t about the poo r c a t c h / e f f o r t r a t i o . To t h i s end he w i l l f a v o u r a h a t c h e r y program as l ong as the r e s u l t i s more f i s h . The c o m b i n a t i o n f i s h e r m a n , Meeson s u g g e s t s , wou ld f i s h in e i t h e r manner and c o u l d be c l a s s i f i e d in d i f f e r e n t camps a t d i f f e r e n t t i m e s . As a r e s i d e n t o f the Lower M a i n l a n d he p r o b a b l y f i s h e s s t reams w i t h easy a c c e s s on weekends . On h o l i d a y s , however , he wou ld f i s h s t r eams more in a c c o r d w i t h the p u r i s t i d e a l s . The l i t e r a t u r e has p r o v i d e d the b a s i s f o r the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s s u e d as p a r t o f t h i s s t u d y to d e t e r m i n e s t e e l h e a d f i s h e r m e n ' s o p i n i o n s , p r e f e r e n c e s and a t t i t u d e s . It has a l s o g i v e n a number o f methods by wh ich i t may be p o s s i b l e to group f i s h e r m e n in a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and a t t i t u d e s . In the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r s the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , p r e f e r e n c e s and o p i n i o n s o f s t e e l h e a d f i s h e r m e n and managers a re a n a l y z e d on the b a s i s o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s u r v e y . - 34 -CHAPTER THREE CHARACTERISTICS OF STEELHEAD FISHERMEN A. I n t r o d u c t i o n The s t e e l h e a d q u e s t i o n n a i r e was i s s u e d to both o r g a n i z e d and u n o r g a n i z e d s t e e l h e a d f i s h e r m e n , r e s i d e n t on the Lower M a i n l a n d o f B r i t i s h Co lumb i a (Append ix A ) . The o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n were sampled by d i s t r i b u t i n g the q u e s t i o n n a i r e a t the S t e e l h e a d S o c i e t y ' s Annual Genera l M e e t i n g and by d i s t r i b u t i o n to members o f the K i n g f i s h e r s and Totem F l y F i s h i n g C l u b s . The t o t a l membership o f t hese g roups i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 200 and o f t hese 117 were s a m p l e d . The u n o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n were randomly sampled th rough the l i c e n c e t ag s tubs h e l d by the F i s h and W i l d l i f e B ranch in V i c t o r i a . 11 ,500 l i c e n c e s were s o l d to r e s i d e n t s o f the Lower M a i n l a n d and o f t h i s number 410 were s e n t q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . Of those sampled 56 (52%) o f the o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n responded w h i l e 122 (43%) o f the u n o r g a n i z e d c o u l d be i n c l u d e d in the a n a l y s i s . Some o f the randomly s e l e c t e d f i s h e r m e n were o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n (4%) , and as o n l y u n o r g a n i z e d were wanted th rough t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s a m p l i n g p r o c e d u r e , the o r g a n i z e d were e x c l u d e d when d a t a were p r o c e s s e d . The f o l l o w i n g pages dea l w i t h the two f i s h e r m e n g roups on an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s ; the o r g a n i z e d and the u n o r g a n i z e d . T h i s has been done to d e t e r m i n e what c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , p r e f e r e n c e s and o p i n i o n s a re e x h i b i t e d by each g r o u p . Because o f the n a t u r e o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e - 35 -and the s m a l l sample s i z e the d a t a p r e s e n t e d a r e no t meant to be d e f i n i t i v e but r a t h e r to s u g g e s t b road d i f f e r e n c e s between these two groups and a r ea s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . Coup led w i t h t h i s i s the f a c t t h a t a t t i t u d e s and p r e f e r e n c e s w i l l change c o n s t a n t l y a n d , t h e r e f o r e , da t a g a t h e r e d he re w i l l change o v e r a p e r i o d o f t i m e . However , the a n a l y s i s i s meant to i n d i c a t e the type o f p e r s o n who f i s h e s f o r s t e e l h e a d , who j o i n s o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and i t s u g g e s t s p r e f e r e n c e s and o p i n i o n s wh ich f i s h e r m e n h e l d a t the t ime o f c o m p l e t i n g the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Compar ison between the two groups w i l l be done f i r s t l y on s o c i o - e c o n o m i c g r o u n d s . S e c o n d l y , an a n a l y s i s o f p r e f e r e n c e s towards e x p e r i e n c e d e s i r e d and management a l t e r n a t i v e s w i l l be c a r r i e d o u t . Through an a n a l y s i s o f t he se d a t a i t i s hoped t h a t i t w i l l be p o s s i b l e to (a) d e t e r m i n e the range o f e x p e r i e n c e s wh ich the f i s h e r m e n in g e n e r a l d e s i r e and (b) s u g g e s t the d i f f e r e n c e s wh i ch can be drawn between o r g a n i z e d and u n o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n on the b a s i s o f s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , e x p e r i e n c e d e s i r e d , and o p i n i o n s s t a t e d . The managers ' o p i n i o n s and p r e f e r e n c e s were a l s o g a t h e r e d u s i n g the same q u e s t i o n n a i r e as the one used f o r f i s h e r m e n w i t h a c o v e r i n g l e t t e r a s k i n g them to f i l l in o n l y c e r t a i n q u e s t i o n s i f they were no t s t e e l h e a d f i s h e r m e n . It was f e l t t h a t the managers ' o p i n i o n s - 36 -and p r e f e r e n c e s wou ld i n d i c a t e the l i k e l y d i r e c t i o n in wh ich t h i s agency wou ld move in the f u t u r e and wou ld a l s o e n a b l e compar i son between t h e i r o p i n i o n s and a t t i t u d e s and those o f the f i s h e r m e n . On ly seven q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were i s s u e d to t h i s group as t h i s was b e l i e v e d to be the u n i v e r s e o f managers i n f l u e n c i n g d e c i s i o n s on the Lower M a i n l a n d . B. Soc io-Econom?c C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s The s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i l l be u s e d , in t h i s s t u d y , as a method o f c l a s s i f y i n g sub-groups o r as a method o f d e t e r m i n i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f p e o p l e who j o i n c l u b s . T h i s w i l l be an a i d to p l a n n e r s in d e t e r m i n i n g j u s t whose a t t i t u d e s they a re s a m p l i n g and what p r o p o r t i o n o f the p o p u l a t i o n t hese v iews a r e l i k e l y to r e p r e s e n t . ( i ) Sex The l i t e r a t u r e on s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s o f f i s h e r m e n ( B e v i n s , ( 1968 ) , Bond e t a l (1971)) c o n c l u d e t h a t f i s h i n g i s domina ted by m a l e s . F i s h i n g and s t e e l h e a d i n g in p a r t i c u l a r , in B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , i s no e x c e p t i o n . Of o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n , women r e p r e s e n t e d 3% o f those s a m p l e d , w h i l e in the u n o r g a n i z e d g r o u p , women r e p r e s e n t e d k% o f those s a m p l e d . As a r e s u l t o f t h i s a l l compar i sons a re t h e r e f o r e made w i t h the male p o p u l a t i o n o f the P r o v i n c e as shown in T a b l e 2. Pearse-Bowden ( 1 9 7 0 f o l l o w e d a s i m i l a r p a t t e r n in t h e i r r e s e a r c h , and t h e r e f o r e i t i s p o s s i b l e to compare r e s u l t s w i t h the f i n d i n g s o f t h a t s t u d y . - 37 -( i i ) Age Us i ng both the male p o p u l a t i o n o f B r i t i s h Co lumb ia and the age d i s t r i b u t i o n o f f i s h e r m e n , i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t the u n o r g a n i z e d s t e e l h e a d e r sample c o r r e s p o n d s c l o s e l y to the f i g u r e s g e n e r a t e d by the Pearse-Bowden s tudy f o r the whole f i s h i n g p o p u l a t i o n o f B r i t i s h Co lumb ia ( Tab l e 2 ) . As age i n c r e a s e s a g r e a t e r p e r c e n t a g e o f the male p o p u l a t i o n appea rs to take up f i s h i n g : whereas 8% o f the male p o p u l a t i o n is o v e r 6 0 , 16% o f u n o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n a r e found in t h i s g r o u p . The o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n , however , a r e a p p a r e n t l y q u i t e d i f f e r e n t . P a r t i c i p a t i o n in s t e e l h e a d c l u b s and the S o c i e t y i s l a r g e l y c o n f i n e d to those between the ages o f 20 and 50 w i t h the m a j o r i t y o f members in the younge r age b r a c k e t s . One c o u l d p o s t u l a t e a number o f r easons f o r such a d i s t r i b u t i o n , such as the younge r p u b l i c ' s g row ing c o n c e r n f o r the e n v i r o n m e n t , and the awareness among young p e o p l e o f how to e x e r t p o l i t i c a l p r e s s u r e - th rough s t r o n g a r t i c u l a t e g r o u p s . - 3 8 -TABLE 2 AGE DISTRIBUTION OF STEELHEAD FISHERMEN ( P e r cen t ) Under 30 31-40 4 1 - 5 0 5 1 - 6 0 Over 6 0 *Male P o p u l a t i o n o f B .C . 2 9 25 2 3 15 8 ^Average F i she rmen 2 2 21 2 0 16 21 U n o r g a n i z e d 2 2 2 2 21 19 16 O r g a n i z e d 4 3 32 19 5 1 From Pearse-Bowden ( 1 9 7 1 ) Chi Square . 0 0 5 - 39 -( i i i ) Income Income d i s t r i b u t i o n s u g g e s t s i m i l a r f i n d i n g s as above . The o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n , in g e n e r a l , e a rn more on the a ve r age than the u n o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n . ( T ab l e 3)- In the $12,000+ b r a c k e t t h e r e are kk% in the o r g a n i z e d group and 3&% f o r the u n o r g a n i z e d . TABLE 3 INCOME LEVELS OF STEELHEAD FISHERMEN (Percen t) Less Than $3 ,000 $6 ,000 $9 ,000 $12 ,000 $15 ,000 $3 ,000 - 5 , 9 9 9 -8 ,999 -11 ,999 -14 ,999 -17 ,999 $18,000+ U n o r g a n i z e d k 8 15 37 20 7 O r g a n i z e d 5 0 18 33 22 17 Chi Square . 100 - 40 -( i v ) Educa t ion S t u d i e s p r e v i o u s l y done on the s o c i o - e c o n o m i c a s p e c t s o f f i s h e r m e n such as B i s h o p ' s ( 1 9 6 7 ) s t u d y , r e vea l on the a ve rage f i s h e r m e n have h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n l e v e l s than the g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n . E d u c a t i o n a t t a i n m e n t s o f s t e e l h e a d e r s i s i n t e r e s t i n g in the way the d i s t r i b u t i o n o c c u r s ( T ab l e 4 ) . The u n o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n tend to f a l l a t e i t h e r end o f the s c a l e w i t h 20% h a v i n g u n i v e r s i t y degrees (which may r e f l e c t i n adequa t e sample s i z e ) . O r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n c e n t r e on the h i g h s c h o o l g r a d u a t e and p o s t - s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n l e v e l s . ' TABLE 4 EDUCATION LEVELS OF STEELHEAD FISHERMEN ( P e r c e n t ) Less than Some Pos t U n i v e r s i t y Grade 8 8-11 Grade 12 S e conda r y Degree U n o r g a n i z e d 5 3 5 2 6 14 2 0 O r g a n i z e d 3 2 7 2 9 30 11 Chi Square . 1 0 0 - 41 -(v) O c c u p a t i o n The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s y s t em o f o c c u p a t i o n used by Pea r se-Bowden was a l s o used in t h i s s t udy f o r the sake o f c o m p a r a b i l i t y . The u n o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n c l o s e l y resemble the p r o f i l e o f o c c u p a t i o n s t h a t were d e v e l o p e d in the p r e v i o u s s t u d y . Ma jo r d i f f e r e n c e s , howeve r , were d i s c o v e r e d in the make-up o f o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n w i t h a n o t i c e a b l y h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n o f o c c u p a t i o n s , by c o m p a r i s o n , b e i n g in s a l e s and the s a l a r i e d p r o f e s s i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s ( T a b l e 5 ) . TABLE 5 OCCUPATION OF STEELHEAD FISHERMEN ( Pe r cen t ) Wage S a l a r i e d E a r n e r P r o f s . C l e r i - S e l f -S a l e s ca l Employed Not in Farm Work Fo ^B. C. F i shermen 47 2 2 17 Unorgan i zed 49 2 0 17 Organ i zed 41 2 6 18 From Pearse-Bowden ( 1 9 7 0 Chi Square . 0 1 0 - 42 -( v i ) O r i g i n A number o f w r i t e r s , i n c l u d i n g B e v i n s e t al (1968) and Bond and W h i t t a k e r (1971) d e t e r m i n e d the p e r c e n t a g e o f f i s h e r m e n f rom r u r a l and urban b a c k g r o u n d s . T h i s s t u d y a l s o a s s e s s e d where the f i s h e r m a n was f i r s t l i v i n g when he took up f i s h i n g . It was p o s t u l a t e d t h a t i t wou ld be p o s s i b l e to s u g g e s t a c o r r e l a t i o n between t h i s s p o r t and r u r a l n e s s as i t was e x p e c t e d tha t f i s h e r m e n may have l e a r n e d the s p o r t in the r u r a l s e t t i n g where a m e n i t i e s o f the c i t y were not a v a i l a b l e . However , the i n f o r m a t i o n f rom t h i s s t udy s u g g e s t s t h a t a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f s t e e l h e a d e r s were urban d w e l l e r s when they f i r s t t ook up f i s h i n g . The h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n o f o r g a n i z e d s t e e l h e a d e r s in the urban c l a s s i f i c a t i o n c o u l d be due l a r g e l y to the f a c t t h a t the o r g a n i z e d c lubs sampled a re c i t y b a s e d . TABLE 6 ORIGINS OF STEELHEAD FISHERMEN ( P e r c e n t ) Urban Ru ra l Sma11 Town U n o r g a n i z e d 46 23 27 O r g a n i z e d 64 17 20 Chi Square .025 - 43 -It appears f rom g e n e r a l o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t the o r i g i n o f the f i s h e r m e n may have ve ry l i t t l e to do w i t h the f i s h i n g e x p e r i e n c e . The w r i t e r s u g g e s t s t h a t no m a t t e r when a p e r s o n took up f i s h i n g , whe the r l i v i n g in an u r b a n , r u r a l o r sma l l town e n v i r o n m e n t , the major f a c t o r i n f l u e n c i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f the o p p o r t u n i t y . I f the r e s o u r c e i s no t a v a i l a b l e p e o p l e w i l l not f i s h and i f the f i s h i n g e x p e r i e n c e cannot be a c h i e v e d in c l o s e p r o x i m i t y to the urban a r e a , urban r e s i d e n t s w i l l not f i s h as r e g u l a r l y , o r in as l a r g e a number, as they c u r r e n t l y do on the Lower M a i n l a n d . ( v i i ) Summary o f S o c i o - E c o n o m i c Data The s o c i o - e c o n o m i c da t a e n a b l e s p l a n n e r s and managers t o d e f i n e more a c c u r a t e l y the c l i e n t e l e b e i n g s e r v e d . The method o f g a t h e r i n g and p r e s e n t i n g da t a in t h i s s e c t i o n c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e s t ha t a t l e a s t two c l i e n t e l e g roups a r e i d e n t i f i a b l e ; the o r g a n i z e d and the u n o r g a n i z e d s t e e l h e a d f i s h e r m e n . The o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m a n i s younge r on a ve r age than the u n o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m a n , has a h i g h e r income than the u n o r g a n i z e d , and on the ave rage has a b e t t e r e d u c a t i o n . In the u n o r g a n i z e d group t h e r e a p p e a r s to be a sub-p o p u l a t i o n o f h i g h l y p a i d and e d u c a t e d f i s h e r m e n . T h i s group tends to skew the a ve rage f i g u r e s f o r the u n o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m a n c a t e g o r y . - kU -T h i s s u b - p o p u l a t i o n wou ld be an i n t e r e s t i n g group to e x p l o r e f u r t h e r to see i f t h e i r v iews and f i s h i n g h a b i t s c o r r e s p o n d w i t h o t h e r s in the u n o r g a n i z e d c a t e g o r y . However , in a n a l y s i s o f o t h e r da t a they a re u n i d e n t i f i a b l e . C. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f F i she rmen The d i f f e r e n c e s between o r g a n i z e d and u n o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n a re even more c l e a r l y demons t r a t ed when t h e i r f i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e v i e w e d . Such t h i n g s as the number o f days they f i s h , the number c a u g h t , equ ipment u s e d , and the type o f f i s h a n g l e d f o r , a c c o r d i n g to Lucas (1962) and Meeson (1972) c o u l d be a way o f g r o u p i n g a n g l e r s . T h i s s t u d y acknowledges the p o s s i b i l i t y o f g r o u p i n g a n g l e r s a l o n g t hese l i n e s , b u t , because o f the s t u d y ' s sample s i z e and the e x p l o r a t o r y n a t u r e o f the e x e r c i s e , o n l y the d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n , the v iews o f o r g a n i z e d and u n o r g a n i z e d s t e e l h e a d f i s h e r m e n w i l l be d e a l t w i t h in any d e p t h . ( i ) Yea r s F i s h e d f o r S t e e l h e a d F i she rmen were a sked how many y e a r s they had f i s h e d and then how many y e a r s they had s t e e l h e a d e d . In t h i s way, i t was hoped t h a t some idea as to the t ime l a g wh i ch might be e x p e c t e d between t a k i n g up f i s h i n g and p r o g r e s s i n g to s t e e l h e a d f i s h i n g c o u l d be d e t e r m i n e d ( Tab l e 7 ) . T h i s was based on the p r e m i s e t h a t one wou ld tend to p r o g r e s s to s t e e l h e a d f i s h i n g f rom o t h e r f i s h i n g because o f - ks -i t s r equ i r emen t f o r g r e a t e r s k i l l . By b e i n g a b l e to de t e rm ine the number o f p e o p l e t a k i n g up f i s h i n g t h rough the f i s h i n g l i c e n c e s a l e s , i t was hoped t h a t i f a t ime l a g i s a p p a r e n t t h i s wou ld f a c i l i t a t e more a c c u r a t e p r e d i c t i o n o f s t e e l h e a d l i c e n c e s a l e s a t some f u t u r e d a t e . I f t h i s were p o s s i b l e managers wou ld have a l e a d t ime to p l a n . And t he r e does appea r to be an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t p e o p l e g r adua t e to s t e e l h e a d f i s h i n g . T h i s can be seen in bo th o r g a n i z e d and u n o r g a n i z e d w i t h a range o f 1 - 2 0 y e a r s between t a k i n g up f i s h i n g and f i s h i n g f o r s t e e l h e a d . TABLE 7 DIFFERENCE IN YEARS BETWEEN THE TIME F IRST FISHED  TO THE TIME OF TAKING UP STEELHEADING ( P e r cen t ) Same 1-10 1 1 - 2 0 2 1 - 3 0 31-40 4 1 - 5 0 50+ U n o r g a n i z e d 17 3 4 21 13 8 4 3 O r g a n i z e d 12 4 5 2 7 11 5 0 0 Chi Square . 0 5 0 - 46 -The number o f y e a r s f i s h e d f o r s t e e l h e a d a l s o shows d i f f e r e n c e s between the o r g a n i z e d and the u n o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n (Tab l e 8 ) . P e r h a p s , however , t h i s i s an i n d i r e c t c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h t h e i r age d i s t r i b u t i o n w i t h , as shown in T a b l e 1, the o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n b e i n g y o u n g e r . TABLE 8 NUMBER OF YEARS FISHED FOR STEELHEAD ( P e r cen t ) Under 1 1-10 11-20 21-30 31-40 41-50 U n o r g a n i z e d 5 23 17 21 16 18 O r g a n i z e d 2 20 35 30 7 6 ( i i ) Days F i s h e d The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f u n o r g a n i z e d and o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n in r e l a t i o n to the number o f days f i s h e d shows t h a t the u n o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m a n f i s h e s f o r s t e e l h e a d much l e s s than does the o r g a n i z e d ( F i g u r e 4 ) . S i x t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t o f the o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n f i s h more than twenty days as compared to t w e n t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o f the u n o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n . It can a l s o be seen t h a t f o r t y - s i x p e r c e n t o f a l l u n o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n who f i s h e d d i d so ten o r l e s s days p e r s e a s o n . - hi -FIGURE 5 DISTRIBUTION OF FISHERMEN BY DAYS FISHED FOR STEELHEAD Number of Days Fished for SteeIhead{'72-'73 Season) - 48 -FIGURE 6 THE NUMBER OF FISH CAUGHT BY PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL POPULATION 50i Number of Steelhead Caught - hS -( H i ) Number o f F i s h Caught The o r g a n i z e d f i sherman•was a g r e a t deal more s u c c e s s f u l than the u n o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m a n ( F i g u r e 5 ) . T h i s i s o b v i o u s when compar ing the number o f f i s h e r m e n f rom each group who caught 25 o r more f i s h : 2k% o f the o r g a n i z e d as compared to h% o f the u n o r g a n i z e d . In f a c t , o v e r h a l f the u n o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n were c o m p l e t e l y u n s u c c e s s f u l as compared to under a q u a r t e r o f the o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n in the same c a t e g o r y . The c o m p a r a t i v e f i g u r e s on s u c c e s s r a t e does g i v e an i n d i c a t i o n to the manager as to the number o f p e o p l e who would be a f f e c t e d by a l o w e r i n g o f the p r e s e n t c a t c h l i m i t o f hO f i s h p e r s e a s o n . I f , f o r examp l e , c a t c h was lowered to 30 f i s h p e r season i t wou ld have min ima l a f f e c t on u n o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n w h i l e 20% o f the o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n wou ld be c o n c e r n e d . The h i g h e r numbers o f f i s h caught by o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n c o u l d be d i r e c t l y due to the h i g h number o f days f i s h e d p e r s e a s o n . ( i v) Equipment Used Lucas (1962 ) , in h i s Boundary Water Canoe S t u d y , s u g g e s t e d t h a t d i f f e r e n t r e c r e a t i o n i s t s who use d i f f e r e n t equ ipment seek a d i f f e r e n t e x p e r i e n c e . T h i s c o u l d be t r u e o f p e o p l e who use d i f f e r e n t f i s h i n g equ ipment o r spen t d i f f e r i n g amounts o f t ime f i s h i n g f o r one o r o t h e r f i s h s p e c i e s . In the f o l l o w i n g pages a compa r i son o f o r g a n i z e d and u n o r g a n i z e d s t e e l h e a d f i s h e r m e n i s made on the b a s i s o f type o f equ ipment used ( T a b l e s 9 , 10 S 11 ) . - 50 -TABLE 9 PROPORTION OF STEELHEAD FISHING TIME SPENT USING FLY ( Pe r cen t ) 2 5 % o r D o n ' t F i s h l e s s 50% 15% 1 0 0 % T h i s Way U n o r g a n i z e d 30 13 7 3 kj O r g a n i z e d 18 6 9 17 5 0 Chi Square . 0 0 5 TABLE 10 PROPORTION OF STEELHEAD FISHING TIME SPENT USING LURE ( Pe r cen t ) 2 5 % o r D o n ' t F i s h l e s s 5 0 % 7 5 % 1 0 0 % T h i s Way U n o r g a n i z e d 2 6 34 21 7 12 O r g a n i z e d 33 2 3 21 2 21 Chi Square . 1 0 0 - 51 -TABLE 11 PROPORTION OF STEELHEAD FISHING TIME SPENT USING BAIT ( Pe r cen t ) 2 5 % o r D o n ' t F i s h Less 5 0 % 7 5 % 1 0 0 % T h i s Way U n o r g a n i z e d kl 22 12 7 17 O r g a n i z e d 32 21 17 0 30 Chi Square . 1 0 0 In t h i s s e c t i o n f l y , l u r e and b a i t a r e examined as ways by wh i ch the f i s h e r m e n a t t empt to c a t c h the f i s h . Each o f t hese methods have a d i f f e r e n t q u a l i t y o f e x p e r i e n c e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h them a n d , t h e r e f o r e , c o u l d be a b a s i s f o r c l a s s i f y i n g f i s h e r m e n . An e x a m i n a t i o n o f the numbers o f f i s h e r m e n and amount o f t ime s p e n t f i s h i n g by each group w i l l be i m p o r t a n t to a s c e r t a i n i f in the p l a n n i n g and management o f t h i s r e s o u r c e an a t t emp t i s made to c a t e r to the d i f f e r e n t e x p e r i e n c e s . On ly h a l f o f a l l s t e e l h e a d f i s h e r m e n use a f l y a t a l l in s t e e l h e a d i n g w i t h most o f t hese u s i n g i t 2 5 % o r l e s s o f t h e i r f i s h i n g t i m e . The o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n have one group o f p a r t i c u l a r l y a v i d f l y f i s h e r m e n ( 1 7 % ) who f i s h a l l t h e i r f i s h i n g t ime in t h i s manner. At the o t h e r end o f the s c a l e a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n ( 3 0 % ) o f u n o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n f i s h t h i s way 2 5 % o r l e s s o f t h e i r t i m e . - 52 -The l a r g e s t p r o p o r t i o n o f f i s h e r m e n who use l u r e s 2 5 % o r l e s s o f the t ime a r e in the o r g a n i z e d group (33%)- On the o t h e r h a n d , 46% o f o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n f i s h t h i s way 5 0 % o r more o f the t i m e . T h i s compares w i t h 1 2 % f o r the u n o r g a n i z e d g r o u p s . The b a i t f i s h e r m a n i s l e s s d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e between o r g a n i z e d and u n o r g a n i z e d g r o u p s . The o n l y major d i f f e r e n c e s appea r to be t h a t 7 0 % o f the o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n f i s h by t h i s method whereas 8 3 % o f the u n o r g a n i z e d f i s h w i t h b a i t . Of the u n o r g a n i z e d t h a t do f i s h w i t h b a i t , a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n do so o n l y 2 5 % o r l e s s o f t h e i r t i m e . (v) S p e c i e s A n g l e d Fo r TABLE 12 PROPORTION OF FISHING TIME SPENT ANGLING FOR SUMMER RUN STEELHEAD ( Pe r cen t ) 2 5 % o r D id no t f i s h Less 5 0 % 7 5 % 1 0 0 % f o r t h i s s p e c i e s U n o r g a n i z e d 2 8 7 0 k 6 0 O r g a n i z e d 4 5 2 3 3 4 7 Chi Square . 0 5 0 - 53 -TABLE 13 PROPORTION OF FISHING TIME SPENT ANGLING FOR WINTER RUN STEELHEAD ( P e r cen t ) 2 5 % o r D i d n ' t F i s h Less 5 0 % 7 5 % 1 0 0 % f o r W i n t e r Run U n o r g a n i z e d 36 28 13 15 9 O r g a n i z e d 11 32 33 21 3 Chi Square .005 TABLE U PROPORTION OF FISHING TIME SPENT ANGLING FOR OTHER TROUT ( P e r cen t ) 2 5 % o r D o n ' t F i s h f o r Less 5 0 % 7 5 % 1 0 0 % O t h e r T r o u t U n o r g a n i z e d hZ 19 10 10 18 O r g a n i z e d 2 9 9 3 3 k3 Chi Square . 1 0 0 TABLE 15 PROPORTION OF FISHING TIME SPENT ANGLING FOR SALMON ( P e r cen t ) 2 5 % o r D o n ' t F i s h f o r Less 5 0 % 7 5 % 1 0 0 % T h i s S p e c i e s U n o r g a n i z e d kS 13 k 7 30 O r g a n i z e d 9 3 8 3 6 Chi Square . 5 0 0 - 5 4 -The s p e c i e s o f f i s h a n g l e d f o r i s a n o t h e r method by which f i s h e r m e n can be grouped and is a f u r t h e r example o f the d i f f e r e n c e between o r g a n i z e d and u n o r g a n i z e d g r o u p s . O r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n a re more l i k e l y to f i s h summer run s t e e l h e a d than a re u n o r g a n i z e d , ( Tab l e 1 2 ) , bu t f o r the m a j o r i t y i t i s 2 5 % o r l e s s o f t h e i r f i s h i n g t i m e . Most ( 8 6 % ) o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n spend 5 0 % o r more o f t h e i r t ime f i s h i n g f o r w i n t e r run f i s h ( T a b l e 13 ) and o t h e r t r o u t . A p p r o x i m a t e l y h a l f o f the o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n do f i s h , bu t u s u a l l y t h i s i s 2 5 % o r l e s s o f t h e i r t o t a l f i s h i n g as i s sa lmon f i s h i n g ( f r e s h o r s a l t ) . ( T ab l e s 14 & 1 5 ) - O t h e r s p e c i e s a r e r a r e l y f i s h e d f o r . The d a t a s u g g e s t t h a t some f i s h e r m e n ( 2 5 % o f a l l o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n ) f i s h e x c l u s i v e l y f o r s t e e l h e a d as was p r e v i o u s l y s u g g e s t e d by the 1 i t e r a t u r e . The u n o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n a re l e s s l i k e l y to f i s h f o r summer run than a re the o r g a n i z e d , but a r e more l i k e l y to f i s h f o r o t h e r s p e c i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y o t h e r s p e c i e s o f t r o u t . It appea rs t h a t the u n o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m a n i s more i n c l i n e d to va r y h i s f i s h i n g e x p e r i e n c e in the type o f f i s h he a n g l e s f o r on a more r e g u l a r b a s i s . The e x c e p t i o n may be in the p u r s u i t o f o t h e r t r o u t . It i s a l s o i n t e r e s t i n g to no te t h a t 3 6 % o f a l l u n o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n spend 2 5 % o r l e s s o f t h e i r a n g l i n g t ime in p u r s u i t o f w i n t e r run s t e e l h e a d . When compared to o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n in t h i s group ( 1 1 % ) , i t can be seen t h a t many u n o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n a re no t a v i d w i n t e r run s t e e l -h e a d e r s . In f a c t , o n l y 2 8 % o f a l l u n o r g a n i z e d f i s h f o r s t e e l h e a d 7 5 % o r more o f the t ime as compared to 5 4 % o f the o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n in t h i s c a t e g o r y . - 5 5 -( v i ) T e a c h i n g O the r P e o p l e to F i s h f o r S t e e l h e a d The q u e s t i o n o f t e a c h i n g o t h e r p e o p l e to f i s h f o r s t e e l h e a d was asked to see i f f i s h e r m e n were w i l l i n g to t e a c h o t h e r s t h e i r s p o r t o r whether they r e f r a i n e d f rom t e a c h i n g o t h e r s as a means o f p r o t e c t i n g the r e s o u r c e f rom i n c r e a s e d p r e s s u r e . It a p p e a r s f rom the r e s p o n s e to t h i s q u e s t i o n t h a t the o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n i n s t r u c t more p e o p l e than do the u n o r g a n i z e d ( Tab l e 1 6 ) . N e a r l y 10% o f a l l o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n have t augh t two o r more p e o p l e to s t e e l h e a d compared w i t h k3% f o r the u n o r g a n i z e d g r o u p s . TABLE 16 NUMBER OF PEOPLE TAUGHT TO STEELHEAD FISH ( P e r cen t ) None Taught 1 2 3 ^ 5 6 U n o r g a n i z e d kk 13 8 5 5 6 2 O r g a n i z e d 2 3 8 2 5 8 5 k 5 7 8+ 0 17 0 2 2 Chi Square . 0 1 0 - 56 -( v i i ) O t h e r L e i s u r e A c t i v i t i e s o f S t e e l h e a d e r s An u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the mix o f r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s t h a t the f i s h e r m a n p a r t i c i p a t e s in i s h e l p f u l in f u r t h e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g the impor tance o f s t e e l h e a d to h i s o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n . The o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m a n o f t e n m e n t i o n e d , as l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s , two p a r t s o f h i s f i s h i n g e x p e r i e n c e ; t y i n g f l i e s and f i s h i n g . In r e l a t S o n to f i s h i n g the nex t a c t i v i t y o f camping r e c e i v e d a low r ank . The (unorgan ized f i s h e r m a n , men t i oned f i s h i n g most o f t e n , bu t a l s o inclwuded b o a t i n g , h u n t i n g and camping amongst h i s o ther r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s . The o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m a n ' s f a i l u r e to a t t a c h ^importance to the o t h e r r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s i n d i c a t e s t h a t he has l e s s a c t i v i t i e s to s u b s t i t u t e f o r f i s h i n g . The u n o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m a n appea rs to have s u b s t i t u t e s but r ega rds f i s h i n g as h i s imost i m p o r t a n t r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y . T h i s s u g g e s t s the p o s s i b i l i t y o f r e d u c i n g the p r e s s u r e upon the f i s h i n g r e s o u r c e by d e t e r m i n i n g tihe k i n d o f r e c r e a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s t h a t f i s h e r m e n seek and then s u p p l y i n g a w i d e r range o f n o n - f i s h i n g r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s to meet u s e r p r e f e r e n c e s . ( v i i i ) Summary o f F i s h e r m e n ' s C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s The o r g a n i z e d s t e e l h e a d f i s h e r m a n spends a good many more days f i s h i n g f o r s t e e l h e a d than does the u n o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m a n . One r e s u l t i s t h a t he c a t c h e s more f i s h . The g r e a t e r i n t e r e s t shown by the o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m a n in s t e e l h e a d i s c l e a r l y e v i d e n c e d in the t a b l e s - 57 -shewing the type o f f i s h a n g l e d f o r . The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s d i s p l a y e d by the o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m a n appea r to r e f l e c t a g r e a t e r d e d i c a t i o n to the s p o r t than i s the case o f the u n o r g a n i z e d . Because o f t h i s i t i s l o g i c a l to s u g g e s t t ha t the o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n appea r to use t h i s r e s o u r c e a g r e a t deal more than the u n o r g a n i z e d and wou ld as a r e s u l t have a l a r g e r s t a k e in i t s management than h i s number wou ld i n d i c a t e . T h e r e f o r e , i t c o u l d be as Hendee (1968) s u g g e s t e d w i t h h i s " p u r i s t w i l d e r n e s s u s e r " , t h a t h i s p r e f e r e n c e s s h o u l d be g i v e n g r e a t e r we igh t than h i s number wou ld s u g g e s t because o f the g r e a t e r l o s s t h i s , p e r s o n wou ld f a c e i f the r e s o u r c e were i m p a i r e d o r d e s t r o y e d . We can compare t h i s to a market s i t u a t i o n where few i n d i v i d u a l s can " v o t e " e f f e c t i v e l y by p a y i n g h i g h e r amounts f o r goods they d e s i r e and thus c o n t i n u e to encou rage s u p p l y . - 58 -CHAPTER FOUR PREFERENCES £ OPINIONS OF STEELHEAD FISHERMEN & MANAGERS A. The E x p e r i e n c e D e s i r e d by S t e e l h e a d F i she rmen A number o f q u e s t i o n s were put to s t e e l h e a d f i s h e r m e n to a s s e s s t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e s f o r the f i s h i n g e x p e r i e n c e they d e s i r e d . By e x a m i n a t i o n o f the e x p e r i e n c e the f i s h e r m e n found most e n j o y a b l e and the a s p e c t s t h a t d e t r a c t f rom the e x p e r i e n c e , s u g g e s t i o n s can be made as to the q u a l i t i e s wh ich s h o u l d be r ega rded as i m p o r t a n t in the g e n e r a t i o n o f f u t u r e p l a n n i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s . Wh i l e some o f the p r e f e r e n c e s e x p r e s s e d may be Utopian, such e x p r e s s i o n s can be tempered by a s k i n g about a c t u a l f i s h i n g e x p e r i e n c e s and why the f i s h e r m a n l i k e s p a r t i c u l a r l o c a t i o n s . The q u e s t i o n s r e l a t i n g to e x p e r i e n c e by n e c e s s i t y needed to be l e f t open-ended . The s t e e l h e a d f i s h i n g e x p e r i e n c e , i t was s u s p e c t e d , i s d i f f e r e n t in i m p o r t a n t ways f rom o t h e r t ypes o f s p o r t f i s h i n g , and s i n c e few b e h a v i o u r a l s t u d i e s have been c o n d u c t e d on f i s h i n g , t h e r e was no b a s i s upon wh i ch to d e t e r m i n e where s t e e l h e a d f i s h i n g f i t s i n t o the range o f e x p e r i e n c e s . Inasmuch as n a r r a t i v e answers were e n c o u r a g e d the method o f a n a l y z i n g the e x p e r i e n c e s r e p o r t e d p r o c e e d e d as f o l l o w s : A s can was made o f the r e sponses f o r words t h a t s u g g e s t e d how the f i s h e r m a n a c h i e v e d h i s e n j o y m e n t . For each r e sponden t h i s key i deas were s e l e c t e d and r e c o r d e d . Then the number o f t imes each i dea was - 59 -e x p r e s s e d were added t o g e t h e r and taken as a p e r c e n t a g e o f the t o t a l number o f t imes a l l r e sponses were m e n t i o n e d . (See Append ix A ) . It was c l e a r l y e v i d e n t t h a t both g roups o f f i s h e r m e n were in agreement t h a t the most e n j o y a b l e a s p e c t o f f i s h i n g was the q u a l i t y o f t h e i r s u r r o u n d i n g s . F i she rmen c l e a r l y v iewed the o u t d o o r s e x p e r i e n c e and the a e s t h e t i c s o f n a t u r e as the p r ime g r a t i f i c a t i o n from t h e i r s p o r t ( Tab l e 17 ) . C a t c h i n g f i s h wou ld be assumed to be a p r ime m o t i v a t i o n to f i s h , t h e r e f o r e , i t was no t s u r p r i s i n g to f i n d t h a t the e x p e r i e n c e o f c a t c h i n g the f i s h ranked h i g h l y . I f C l a w s o n ' s ( 1 9 6 1 ) breakdown o f a r e c r e a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e were u s e d ; the b e f o r e , the a f t e r , and the o n - s i t e e x p e r i e n c e , i t appea r s the o n - s i t e e x p e r i e n c e is by f a r the most i m p o r t a n t . TABLE 17 STEELHEAD FISHERMEN'S PREFERENCE FOR ENJOYMENT IN FISHING EXPERIENCE ( Pe r cen t age o f a l1 r e s p o n s e s ) Unorgan i zed Organ i z e d Compan ionsh ip 8 11 Get away - Re lax 17 16 Outdoor A e s t h e t i c s 2 6 2 8 C a t c h i n g a F i s h 14 19 Chance f o r a La rge F i s h 3 4 C h a l l e n g e 13 13 Ea t 8 1 Memories 7 6 E v e r y t h i n g k 2 - 60 -From comments w r i t t e n by f i s h e r m e n r e s p o n d i n g to the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i t appears t h a t the chance o f g e t t i n g away f rom home and e ve r yday s u r r o u n d i n g s is a l s o a major d r i v i n g f o r c e to f i s h . ( i ) The Lower M a i n l a n d E x p e r i e n c e S t e e l h e a d f i s h e r m e n were asked to l i s t t h e i r f a v o u r e d s t reams and to g i v e r easons f o r t h e i r c h o i c e s . (The s t reams s e l e c t e d on the Lower M a i n l a n d a re l i s t e d in Append ix C ) . However , by a s k i n g reasons f o r t h e i r s e l e c t i o n i t was hoped to ga in i n s i g h t i n t o the q u a l i t i e s they f e l t the Lower M a i n l a n d s t reams h e l d . TABLE 18 REASONS FOR CHOOSING LOWER MAINLAND STREAMS ( Pe r cen t age o f a l l r e sponses ) Unorgan i zed Organ i zed C o n v e n i e n t 3 8 2 8 A c c e s s a b i l l t y 13 17 P e r s o n a l Knowledge o f an a r e a 6 2 Not crowded 7 9 Good F i s h i n g 17 2 0 Good f o r C e r t a i n Types 9 8 O t h e r 1 6 A e s t h e t i c s 9 11 - 61 -A l i s t o f s t reams and reasons why the s t reams were f a v o u r e d was d e v e l o p e d by the r e sponden t to the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . T h i s e n a b l e d the "U top ian " i d e a l o f "what i t i s " t h a t i s e n j o y a b l e in the f i s h i n g e x p e r i e n c e to be put i n t o more p r a c t i c a l t e rms . From t h i s an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the reasons' why f i s h e r m e n a re drawn to c e r t a i n s t reams on the Lower M a i n l a n d can be examined . ( Tab l e 18 ) . N e a r n e s s , a c c e s s a b i 1 i t y and good f i s h i n g were r a n k e d , in t h a t o r d e r , by bo th g roups as r easons why they f i s h e d c e r t a i n Lower M a i n l a n d s t r e a m s . Not crowded was ranked f o u r t h , pe rhaps because t h i s q u a l i t y i s d i f f i c u l t to f i n d on the Lower M a i n l a n d r i v e r s t o d a y . The f a v o u r e d s t r e a m s , ranked on the number o f t imes m e n t i o n e d , were f o r the u n o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n , the V e d d e r , Cheakamus and the A l o u e t t e . Fo r the o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n the f i r s t two r i v e r s men t i oned were the most f a v o u r e d but the t h i r d s e l e c t i o n was the C h e h a l i s R i v e r . Fo r a r eas o t h e r than the Lower M a i n l a n d the q u a l i t i e s r ega rded most h i g h l y by o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n was good f i s h i n g , in t h a t the r i v e r s were p r o d u c t i v e , and t h a t the s t r e a m p o s s e s s e d q u a l i t i e s t h a t e n a b l e d a s p e c i f i c t ype o f f i s h i n g to take p l a c e on i t , such as f l y f i s h i n g . The u n o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m a n p r i z e d p r o d u c t i v e q u a l i t i e s o f s t r eams and the l a c k o f c rowds . The u n o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m a n was the g r e a t e s t u s e r o f the Lower M a i n l a n d s t reams in terms o f numbers in t h a t an u n o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m a n , on the a v e r a g e , spen t most o f h i s f i s h i n g time in t h i s a r e a . ( T ab l e 19 ) . F i f t y - n i n e p e r c e n t o f a l l u n o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n - 62 -as compared to o n l y 18% o f o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n s p e n t a l l t h e i r f i s h i n g t ime in t h i s r e g i o n . TABLE 19 PERCENTAGE OF TIME SPENT FISHING LOWER MAINLAND STREAMS ( P e r cen t ) 1-19% 2 0 - 3 9 % 4 0 - 5 9 % 6 0 - 7 9 % 8 0 - 9 9 % 1 0 0 % 4 1 7 6 13 59 4 3 12 26 32 18 Chi Square . 0 0 5 A l a r g e p e r c e n t a g e o f the f i s h e r m e n who d i d no t f i s h the Lower M a i n l a n d can be a c c o u n t e d f o r by those who p u r c h a s e d l i c e n c e s f o r v a c a t i o n f i s h i n g in o t h e r a r ea s o f the P r o v i n c e . However , the breakdown s u g g e s t s t h a t o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n a r e p r e p a r e d to t r a v e l f u r t h e r to f i s h than the m a j o r i t y o f u n o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n . On the o t h e r h a n d , the Lower M a i n l a n d may no l o n g e r o f f e r the e x p e r i e n c e they seek in t h a t a s p e c t s such as c rowd ing d e t r a c t s i g n i f i c a n t l y and cause them to go e l s e w h e r e . I f the Lower M a i n l a n d i s no t o f f e r i n g some s t e e l h e a d e r s the q u a l i t y o f e x p e r i e n c e they d e s i r e then what i s i t t h a t i s c h a n g i n g on the Lower Ma in l and ? F i shermen were asked to v iew the p r o b l e m f rom two s i d e s - the e x p e r i e n c e ; and the changes in the f i s h : By 0% U n o r g a n i z e d 10 O r g a n i z e d 5 - 63 -t h i s method i t was hoped to b reak the e x p e r i e n c e i n t o i t s s o c i a l and b i o l o g i c a l a s p e c t s . A l a r g e number o f p e o p l e f a i l e d to answer t h i s q u e s t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y those who had no t f i s h e d f o r a l ong p e r i o d o f t ime o r those who had p u r c h a s e d a l i c e n c e in the hope they may l a n d a s t e e l h e a d w h i l e f i s h i n g f o r o t h e r v a r i e t i e s . A p p r o x i m a t e l y h a l f o f the o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n who r e p l i e d f e l t Lower M a i n l a n d f i s h i n g was d e c l i n i n g because o f the l a c k o f f i s h , w h i l e a p p r o x i m a t e l y o n e - t h i r d o f the u n o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n f e l t the same. Wi th r e g a r d to changes in e x p e r i e n c e i t was f e l t by bo th g roups t h a t t he r e was more c rowd ing and more f i shermen. A l s o , the o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n b e l i e v e d t h a t some f i s h e r m e n had a poo r a t t i t u d e toward the r e s o u r c e . The r e sponses from the u n o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n showed l i t t l e awareness o f the poo r a t t i t u d e p r o b l e m o f o t h e r r e c r e a t i o n i s t s . As i t appea rs t h a t a m a j o r i t y o f f i s h e r m e n do f i s h the Lower M a i n l a n d , f o r a t l e a s t a p o r t i o n o f t h e i r f i s h i n g t i m e , the w r i t e r s u g g e s t s t h a t i f t h i s a r ea becomes f u r t h e r r e s t r i c t e d in i t s a b i l i t y to p r o v i d e the d e s i r e d f i s h i n g e x p e r i e n c e , a p rob l em may a r i s e f o r o t h e r a reas r e c e i v i n g added p r e s s u r e . It c o u l d a l s o r e s u l t in some f i s h e r m e n g i v i n g up the s p o r t a l t o g e t h e r . The r e sponses i n d i c a t e t h a t Vancouve r I s l a n d and the I n t e r i o r wou ld be the nex t a r ea s to come under p r e s s u r e ( Tab l e 2 0 ) . - 64 -A l t h o u g h f i s h e r m e n wou ld d r i f t to these a reas a g r e a t e r t ime c o n s t r a i n t would r e s u l t and fewer days o f f i s h i n g wou ld be p o s s i b l e . The u n o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n a l s o wou ld be much more l i k e l y to g i v e up f i s h i n g than the o r g a n i z e d s t e e l h e a d e r s . Many f i s h e r m e n c o u l d not c o n c e i v e o f the Lower M a i n l a n d not b e i n g a v a i l a b l e f o r s t e e l h e a d f i s h i n g , bu t f e l t i f i t were n o t , they wou ld have to c o m p l a i n to someone. TABLE 20 SUBSTITUTIONS FOR STEELHEAD FISHING ON THE LOWER MAINLAND ( P e r cen t age ) Unorgan i zed Organ i zed G i ve up f i s h i n g 17 7 Go to the U.S . 3 13 Vancouve r I s l a n d 11 2 6 I n t e r i o r 15 14 U n s p e c i f i e d E l s ewhe re 2 9 31 O t h e r S p e c i e s 14 3 Compla in 11 6 ( i i ) D e t r a c t i o n s The major d e t r a c t i o n i d e n t i f i e d was c rowd ing o f f i s h e r m e n . A l a r g e number o f f i s h e r m e n in one a r e a wou ld o b v i o u s l y d e t r a c t f rom the a l r e a d y s t a t e d m o t i v a t i o n s o f the f i s h e r m e n - t h a t o f g e t t i n g away to r e l a x and e n j o y the o u t d o o r s in peace and q u i e t . A n o t h e r f r e q u e n t l y men t i oned a s p e c t was t h a t o f the i n c o n s i d e r a t e a n g l e r who e i t h e r l e f t l i t t e r o r f a i l e d to o b s e r v e the e t h i c s o f f i s h i n g . - 65 -Some s u g g e s t i o n s as to what the d e t r a c t i o n s wou ld be were n o i s e , t a k i n g u n d e r s i z e f i s h and c a s t i n g i n d i s c r i m i n a t e l y . The o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n a l s o ranked c rowd ing h i g h l y in the f e a t u r e s t h a t d e t r a c t e d from t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e , w h i l e they a l s o r ega rded p o l l u t i o n o f the w a t e r as b e i n g a n o t h e r p r ime f a c t o r . It was i n d i c a t e d tha t wa te r c l a r i t y i s an impor t an t a s p e c t in c h o o s i n g an a r e a to f i s h . ( i i i ) Summary o f E x p e r i e n c e D e s i r e d T h i s s e l e c t i o n o f the s t u d y was un ique in t h a t the f i s h e r m e n were l a r g e l y in agreement in what they e n j o y e d from t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e and what d e t r a c t e d from i t . The o u t d o o r s and b e i n g a b l e to ge t away to r e l a x were c l e a r l y the most a t t r a c t i v e a s p e c t c i t e d by f i s h e r m e n , w h i l e c rowd ing was r e g a r d e d as the b i g g e s t d e t r a c t i o n . The d i f f e r e n c e s between the o r g a n i z e d and u n o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n were o n l y c l e a r l y e v i d e n t w i t h r e g a r d to the p e r c e n t a g e o f t ime each group s p e n t on the Lower M a i n l a n d . The o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m a n , because he f i s h e s more , l o o k s f o r a g r e a t e r v a r i e t y in e x p e r i e n c e , and t h e r e f o r e tends to seek o t h e r a r e a s . The e x p e r i e n c e d e s i r e d , a l t h o u g h d i f f i c u l t to i s o l a t e because o f Utopian i d e a l s b e i n g e x p r e s s e d , i s n e v e r t h e l e s s i m p o r t a n t to a s c e r t a i n . P l a n n i n g and managing a r e s o u r c e to max imize u s e r s a t i s f a c t i o n r e q u i r e s an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f u s e r d e s i r e s . On l y by p l a n n i n g to meet these d e s i r e s can the s o c i a l b e n e f i t s be m a x i m i z e d . - 66 -B. S t e e l h e a d F i s h e r m e n ' s P r e f e r e n c e s and O p i n i o n s f o r Management A l t e r n a t i v e s Argument c o n t i n u e s on the i s s u e o f what a re the b e s t management a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r f i s h e r i e s managers to use in the f i g h t a g a i n s t i n c r e a s i n g p r e s s u r e on a l i m i t e d r e s o u r c e . On the Lower M a i n l a n d , management p rob lems a r e m a g n i f i e d by an urban p o p u l a t i o n in c l o s e p r o x i m i t y to f i s h i n g r i v e r s , w i t h a l o s s o f r i v e r bank a c c e s s and the d e s t r u c t i o n o f s t reams by p o l l u t i o n and damming. The F e d e r a l Government H a t c h e r y i s a l r e a d y in o p e r a t i o n on the C a p i l a n o R i v e r and i s now p r o d u c i n g s t e e l h e a d f o r p l a n t i n g in r i v e r s as y e t u n s p e c i f i e d . The P r o v i n c i a l Government has p l a n s to p r o v i d e a s t e e l h e a d r a i s i n g c a p a b i l i t y in the A b b o t s f o r d H a t c h e r y . However , t h e r e a re s h a r p l y d i f f e r i n g o p i n i o n s on the s u i t a b i l i t y o f h a t c h e r y r a i s e d f i s h as a s o l u t i o n o f the p r o b l e m f a c i n g the f i s h e r y . R o d e r i c k Ha ig-B rown , the n o t e d B .C . c o n s e r v a t i o n i s t , i s vehement l y opposed to h a t c h e r y programs and s t o c k i n g o f s t r e a m s , c a l l i n g i t a " l a s t r e s o r t " . He p o i n t s ou t t h a t the a c t u a l c o s t o f p r o d u c i n g the f i s h to be caught i s about $8 p e r f i s h , g e n e t i c p o l l u t i o n can r e s u l t , in t h a t weakness o f the a r t i f i c i a l l y r a i s e d s t o c k become m a g n i f i e d , and h a t c h e r y programs r e a l l y do not s o l v e the p r o b l e m . ( A d d r e s s , B .C . S t e e l h e a d S o c i e t y , 1973 ) . Many w r i t e r s p o i n t ou t t h a t the reason h a t c h e r y f i s h a re o f t e n needed f o r s t o c k i n g i s because o f p o l l u t i o n o r d i v e r s i o n o f s t r e a m s . Ha t che r y f i s h do not s o l v e t hese p rob lems a n d , n e i t h e r do they s o l v e the p rob l em o f o v e r f i s h i n g because as more f i s h are a v a i l a b l e by t h i s a r t i f i c i a l means , p r e s s u r e f rom f i s h e r m e n i n c r e a s e s . - 67 -Those in f a v o u r o f h a t c h e r y programs a r e o f two t y p e s : (a) those who j u s t want more f i s h , and (b) those who see such a p rogram as a means o f s t o c k i n g s t reams which have had s t o c k s e l i m i n a t e d o r l a r g e l y d e p l e t e d because o f n a t u r a l o r manmade o b s t a c l e s such as dams o r p o l l u t i o n . In the S t a t e s o f Wash ing ton and O r e g o n , s t e e l h e a d h a t c h e r y programs a r e r e p o r t e d to be o p e r a t i n g ve ry s u c c e s s f u l l y , Which road does B r i t i s h Co lumb ia t a k e : n a t u r a l r e a r i n g , h a t c h e r y f i s h o r a c o m b i n a t i o n o f the two? The b i o l o g i c a l a s p e c t s o f s t o c k i n g s t reams w i t h f i s h r e a r e d in h a t c h e r i e s i s an i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n the a t t i t u d e s and p r e f e r e n c e s o f f i s h e r m e n s h o u l d be taken i n t o a c c o u n t in d e c i d i n g what c o u r s e to p u r s u e . It does no t f o l l o w t h a t the r e sponses o f the f i s h e r m e n s h o u l d be f o l l o w e d b l i n d l y . The r e sponses o f the f i s h e r m e n may i n d i c a t e t h a t they l a c k knowledge o f the b i o l o g i c a l consequences o f one o r more a l t e r n a t i v e s . I f t h i s i s the c a s e , the t e s t o f f i s h e r m e n ' s p r e f e r e n c e s i n d i c a t e s a need f o r the F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch to communicate i t s knowledge more e f f e c t i v e l y to f i s h e r m e n . ( i ) P r e f e r e n c e s f o r Management A l t e r n a t i v e s To t e s t the f i s h e r m e n ' s p r e f e r e n c e s on management a l t e r n a t i v e s they were asked v a r i o u s q u e s t i o n s r e l a t i n g to t h i s s u b j e c t . The f i r s t q u e s t i o n was open-ended and asked the f i s h e r m e n to s u g g e s t management a l t e r n a t i v e s wh i ch s h o u l d be emphas i zed on the - 6 8 -Lower M a i n l a n d . Thus the f i s h e r m e n d e f i n e d , in t h e i r own way, the Lower M a i n l a n d ' s p rob lems and they were then a b l e to s u g g e s t what they f e l t wou ld a i d in a c h i e v i n g s o l u t i o n s . Where r e g u l a t i o n s were s u g g e s t e d they were b roken down to get an i dea o f the types o f r e g u l a t i o n b e i n g s u g g e s t e d . TABLE 21 MANAGEMENT ALTERNATIVE PREFERENCES ( Pe r cen t age o f a l l r e s p o n s e s ) Unorgan i zed Organ i zed H a t c h e r y F i s h 12 5 N a t u r a l R a i s i n g 8 16 P r o t e c t Resource 2 0 2 7 Green S t r i p P u b l i c A c c e s s 6 9 En fo r cemen t 11 10 P r o t e c t Young Seago ing 8 7 R e g u l a t i o n 2 8 2 0 O t h e r 7 6 It is i n t e r e s t i n g to no te f rom T a b l e 21 t h a t t he re a re s t r o n g f e e l i n g s f o r p r o t e c t i o n o f the r e s o u r c e f rom l o g g i n g , damming, p o l l u t i o n , and the i m p o s i t i o n o f r e g u l a t i o n s . The f i g u r e s on n a t u r a l r a i s i n g as opposed to h a t c h e r y f i s h shows t h a t t h e r e appears to be d i s a g r e e m e n t between o r g a n i z e d and u n o r g a n i z e d s t e e l h e a d e r s . The - 69 -q u e s t i o n o f h a t c h e r y r a i s e d f i s h opposed to n a t u r a l runs is examined in a l a t e r q u e s t i o n . T w e n t y - s i x p e r c e n t o f the o r g a n i z e d and twenty-seven p e r c e n t o f the u n o r g a n i z e d s u p p o r t e d the use o f some type o f r e g u l a t i o n s to dea l w i t h the p r o b l e m . These f i s h e r m e n , in the m a j o r i t y o f c a s e s , recommended a r e d u c t i o n in c a t c h e i t h e r on a pe r day b a s i s o r s e a s o n a l l y . Some a l s o s u g g e s t e d t h a t c a t c h and r e l e a s e f i s h e r m e n s h o u l d o n l y be a l l o w e d to c a t c h t h e i r l i m i t , f o r t y , as opposed to r e l e a s i n g f i s h and m a i n t a i n i n g t h e i r p l a c e on the r i v e r . The re was a l s o some s u p p o r t f o r l o n g e r c l o s e d seasons to a l l o w more f i s h to m i g r a t e . ( i i ) The H a t c h e r y Program To r e f i n e the f e e l i n g and p r e f e r e n c e s o f f i s h e r m e n toward the h a t c h e r y p r o g r a m , the s t e e l h e a d f i s h e r m e n were asked i f they ag r eed o r d i s a g r e e d w i t h such a p rogram f o r the Lower M a i n l a n d . In g e n e r a l terms both groups were f o r the scheme bu t the o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n appea r to f a v o u r the s t o c k i n g o f some s t reams o n l y . TABLE 22 PREFERENCES FOR HATCHERY BRED FISH ( P e r cen t ) Argues Yes - on some Argues f o r one For A g a i n s t Both S i d e s S t ream On l y Wi th Bes t P romise U n o r g a n i z e d 78 9 3 O r g a n i z e d 17 30 8 7 43 - 70 -Those who were " f o r " the h a t c h e r y p rogram f e l t t h a t t he r e was a l a c k o f f i s h and the h a t c h e r y wou ld i n c r e a s e the amount o f f i s h a v a i l a b l e . Those who v o t e d " a g a i n s t " h a t c h e r y b r ed f i s h i n t i m a t e d , amongst o t h e r t h i n g s , t h a t t h e r e was s t i l l more t h a t c o u l d be done to improve the f i s h e r y w i t h o u t r e s o r t i n g to a r t i f i c i a l p r o p a g a t i o n . Brown ( 1 9 7 3 ) , s u g g e s t s t h a t an i n ves tmen t o f $ 8 wou ld have gone i n t o each s t e e l h e a d by the t ime he was c a u g h t . The q u e s t i o n i s : Who s h o u l d b e a r the c o s t ? To a s c e r t a i n who the s t e e l h e a d e r thought s h o u l d p a y , the q u e s t i o n was a s k e d , "Who s h o u l d pay f o r the h a t c h e r y p r o g r a m ? " Those who were a g a i n s t the scheme, in g e n e r a l , d i d no t answer t h i s q u e s t i o n . However , those who d i d answer have had t h e i r r e sponses r e c o r d e d in T a b l e 2 3 . I f the h a t c h e r y program were to go a h e a d , R o d e r i c k H a i g -TABLE 2 3 WHO SHOULD PAY FOR THE HATCHERY PROGRAM? ( P e r cen t ) F i she rmen in Gene ra l S t e e l h e a d e r s ASB ASC (B) (C) Unorgan i zed 9 6 Organ i zed 3 0 2 0 0 7 Chi Square . 0 2 5 - 71 -O p i n i o n s were e x p r e s s e d t h a t a h a t c h e r y would b e n e f i t a l l and s i n c e r e c r e a t i o n n o r m a l l y i s p a i d f o r ou t o f g e n e r a l revenue so s h o u l d a h a t c h e r y p rog ram. O the rs a s s e r t e d t h a t pe rhaps an added tax c o u l d be p l a c e d on s p o r t i n g goods to e n a b l e the f a c i l i t y to be es t a b l i s h e d . S t e e l h e a d f i s h e r m e n were then asked what r i v e r s they f e l t s h o u l d be s t o c k e d . To see i f t h e r e was a r a t i o n a l e b e h i n d c h o o s i n g c e r t a i n s t reams f o r s t o c k i n g , they were asked why they chose the p a r t i c u l a r s t reams they d i d . TABLE 2k REASONS FOR STOCKING CERTAIN STREAMS ( P e r c e n t o f a l l r e s p o n s e s ) Unorgan i zed Organ i zed C u r r e n t l a c k o f f i s h 2 6 32 Heavy f i s h i n g p r e s s u r e 13 8 C l o s e 15 18 Take p r e s s u r e o f f o t h e r s t r eams 6 10 S p a r i n g a r e a d e s t r o y e d k 2 Not po l 1 u t e d 17 0 La rge s t r e a m 9 0 Cannot r e c o v e r 5 2 8 Can be m o n i t o r e d 5 2 - 72 -The u n o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n f e e l , in b road t e r m s , t ha t the r i v e r s to be s t o c k e d a re those wh i ch have few f i s h , a re l a r g e s t r e a m s , and wh ich a re r e l a t i v e l y u n p o l l u t e d . The o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n , on the o t h e r h a n d , ag ree t h a t the s t reams to be s t o c k e d a re those w i t h a l a c k o f f i s h , bu t f e e l i t s h o u l d be those t h a t have l i t t l e chance o f r e c o v e r y . Such s t reams wou ld be those t h a t have been dammed, have no spawning a r e a s , o r those s u f f e r i n g f rom s e v e r e a g r i c u l t u r a l r u n -o f f p rob lems wh i ch may e v e n t u a l l y be c l e a n e d up. ( i i i ) Summary o f S t e e l h e a d F i s h e r m e n ' s P r e f e r e n c e s  and O p i n i o n s on Management A l t e r n a t i v e s The da t a rev i ewed in the p r e c e d i n g pages i n d i c a t e some o f the d i f f e r e n c e s wh ich can be a t t r i b u t e d to the o r g a n i z e d and the u n o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n w i t h r e g a r d to t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , p r e f e r e n c e s and o p i n i o n s . The management a l t e r n a t i v e wh i ch appears to b r i n g a l l p rob lems i n t o f o c u s i s t h a t o f the h a t c h e r y q u e s t i o n . Not o n l y i s t h e r e d i v e r s i t y in the a t t i t u d e s toward t h i s scheme amongst o r g a n i z e d and u n o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n , but t h e r e is a l s o c o n f l i c t as to where such f i s h wou ld be s t o c k e d . As t h i s type o f program i s e n v i s a g e d f o r the Lower M a i n l a n d i t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t the p l a n n e r s and managers be aware o f the r e a c t i o n o f f i s h e r m e n . The approach taken by management may appea r b i o l o g i c a l l y s o u n d , bu t may no t appea r to the r e s o u r c e u s e r as b e i n g in h i s b e s t i n t e r e s t . Some way must be found to r e s o l v e t h i s c o n f l i c t . c. - 73 -P r e f e r e n c e s and O p i n i o n s o f Managers An assessment o f managers ' p r e f e r e n c e s and o p i n i o n s s h o u l d i n d i c a t e the d i r e c t i o n o f t h i n k i n g in r e g a r d to p l a n n i n g the r e s o u r c e If t h e r e a r e good c h a n n e l s o f commun i ca t i on a compar i son o f the p r e f e r e n c e s and o p i n i o n s o f managers and f i s h e r m e n wou ld i n d i c a t e a h i g h degree o f s i m i l a r i t y . I n t e r n a l commun ica t ion c o u l d a l s o be a s s e s s e d to some degree s i n c e a s i m i l a r i t y in r esponses f rom managers wou ld i n d i c a t e t h a t p o l i c i e s have been d e f i n e d and ag reed upon . ( i ) The E x p e r i e n c e The e x p e r i e n c e t h a t f i s h e r i e s managers f a v o u r e i t h e r th rough what they b e l i e v e the f i s h e r m e n want o r th rough t h e i r own e x p e r i e n c e , i s f i r s t l y the c h a l l e n g e f o l l o w e d by g e t t i n g away t o r e l a x and the o u t d o o r e x p e r i e n c e . The major d e t r a c t i o n , on the o t h e r h a n d , was c o n s i d e r e d to be c r o w d i n g . S p o i l a g e o f banks by l o g g i n g and i n c o n s i d e r a t e a n g l i n g were a l s o m e n t i o n e d . ( i i ) Management A l t e r n a t i v e s The management a l t e r n a t i v e f o c u s e d on in the s t udy was the h a t c h e r y p rogram and i t was i n t e r e s t i n g to no te t h a t management a l s o b e l i e v e d t h a t i t s h o u l d be emphas i zed a l o n g w i t h p r o t e c t i o n o f the r e s o u r c e from d e l e t e r i o u s consequences such as l o g g i n g o f f banks o r p o l l u t i o n . However , in the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n on the h a t c h e r y p rogram the managers were s p l i t on the i s s u e : 50% f a v o u r e d the s t o c k ! o f some s t reams w i t h h a t c h e r y s t o c k w h i l e the o t h e r 50% were - 74 -opposed to the h a t c h e r y p r o g r a m . The reason t h a t s t o c k i n g was f e l t to be needed in c e r t a i n s t reams was because t he r e i s a c u r r e n t l a c k o f f i s h and many o f the s t reams have no p o s s i b i l i t y o f p r o v i d i n g a s t e e l h e a d run in the f u t u r e . The m a j o r i t y o f the managers were f i s h e r m e n b u t i n g e n e r a l t h e i r s t e e l h e a d c a t c h was low l a s t s e a s o n . Many d i d n o t f i s h the Lower M a i n l a n d and t h e r e f o r e d i d not comment on t h i s s e c t i o n o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . F u r t h e r a n a l y s i s o f the f i s h e r i e s m a n a g e r s ' r e sponses wou ld n o t p roduce i n f o r m a t i o n p e r t i n e n t to t h i s s t u d y and t h e r e f o r e was no t c a r r i e d o u t . - 75 -CHAPTER FIVE ATTITUDINAL RESPONSES OF FISHERMEN AND MANAGERS A. I n t r o d u c t i o n In an a t t empt to a s c e r t a i n a t t i t u d e s o f f i s h e r m e n and managers a number o f s t a t e m e n t s t hough t p e r t i n e n t to management d e c i s i o n s and the e x p e r i e n c e d e s i r e d were i n s e r t e d in the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The r e sponden t s were g i v e n a s c a l e f rom 1 to 5 to r e c o r d the answer wh i ch b e s t r e p r e s e n t e d t h e i r a t t i t u d e toward the s t a t e m e n t . The f i v e g rade s c a l e ranged f rom s t r o n g l y a g r e e , th rough a g r e e , not c o n c e r n e d e i t h e r way, d i s a g r e e to s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e . T h e r e f o r e , the a n a l y s i s o f d a t a in t h i s c h a p t e r w i l l d i f f e r f rom the p r e c e d i n g one in t h a t the s t r e n g t h o f f e e l i n g s f o r and a g a i n s t the s t a t e m e n t s can be a s c e r t a i n e d . The s t a t e m e n t s were examined i n d e p e n d e n t l y , bu t to g i v e some o r d e r to the a n a l y s i s they have been b r o a d l y c l a s s i f i e d i n t o s t a t e m e n t s c o n c e r n i n g management and those c o n c e r n i n g f i s h e r m e n ' s a t t i t u d e toward a c e r t a i n t ype o f e x p e r i e n c e . The s t a t e m e n t s were a l s o l o o k e d a t as an o v e r a l l a t t i t u d e o f f i s h e r m e n and then how the r e sponses v a r i e d between o r g a n i z e d and u n o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n . The v a r i a t i o n was a s s e s s e d by means o f a c h i - s q u a r e t e s t . (Append ix B ) . - 76 -B. Management S t a tements f rom F i she rmen ( i ) F l y F i s h i n g R e s t r i c t i o n s The s t a t e m e n t was posed as to whe the r the r e sponden t wou ld l i k e to see " f l y f i s h i n g o n l y " r e s t r i c t i o n s on the Lower M a i n l a n d . T h i s s t a t e m e n t a t t empted to a s c e r t a i n the f e a s i b i l i t y o f a d o p t i n g a management program f o r a s p e c i f i c t ype o f s t e e l h e a d i n g e x p e r i e n c e - an e x p e r i e n c e l a r g e l y p u r s u e d by o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n and then o n l y by 50% o f t h i s g roup to any d e g r e e . In terms o f p e r c e n t a g e o f f i s h e r m e n r e sponses o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n a re d i v i d e d in t h e i r a t t i t u d e toward t h i s management p o l i c y . T h i r t y - n i n e p e r c e n t o f the o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n agree o r s t r o n g l y ag ree to such a r e s t r i c t i o n , w h i l e t h i r t y - t w o p e r c e n t o f the u n o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n a re c l a s s i f i e d in the agreement g r o u p . Compar ing these r e s u l t s w i t h Pearse-Bowden (1971) f i n d i n g s to a s i m i l a r q u e s t i o n i t can be seen t h a t r e s u l t s a r e no t d i s s i m i l a r w i t h Pearse-Bowden f i n d i n g s ; f o r t y p e r c e n t o f f i s h e r m e n f e e l i n g such r e s t r i c t i o n i s a good i d e a . However , w i t h r e g a r d to t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s t a t emen t the m a j o r i t y o f f i s h e r m e n were in d i s a g r e e m e n t . Because t h i s s t a t e m e n t ' s r e sponses were no t found to be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s was n o t c a r r i e d o u t . - 77 -(i i ) A t t i t u d e Toward H a t c h e r y F i s h Much argument has gone on o v e r the q u a l i t y o f h a t c h e r y r a i s e d f i s h as compared to the w i l d v a r i e t y . Some f i s h e r y managers w i l l a rgue tha t t h i s p o l i c y works in Wash ing ton and Oregon and i s the o n l y way to save the s p o r t f i s h e r y . O the r s c a l l h a t c h e r y programs an a d m i s s i o n o f d e f e a t . R e g a r d l e s s o f the arguments o f the e x p e r t s , the f i s h e r m e n have b u i l t up an a t t i t u d e towards h a t c h e r y r a i s e d f i s h . By t r y i n g to gauge t h i s a t t i t u d e someth ing can be s a i d abou t a c c e p t a n c e o f h a t c h e r y b r ed f i s h o v e r the w i l d v a r i e t y . O r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e (kS%) w i t h the s t a t emen t t ha t h a t c h e r y b red f i s h a re as good a game f i s h as the w i l d v a r i e t y . ( T ab l e 2 5 ) . T h i s c o r r e s p o n d s to r e s p o n s e s to a n o t h e r q u e s t i o n about whe the r f i s h e r m e n a r e f o r o r a g a i n s t the h a t c h e r y p rog ram. The o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n , a t p r e s e n t , a p p e a r u n c o n v i n c e d o f the m e r i t s o f the h a t c h e r y f i s h . The u n o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n , however , a r e in agreement w i t h the s t a t e m e n t . T h e i r a t t i t u d e s u g g e s t s t h a t they a r e more i n t e r e s t e d in c a t c h i n g a f i s h r a t h e r than i n the c h a r a c t e r o f the f i s h c a u g h t . ( i i i ) F i s h and W i l d l i f e E x p e r i m e n t a l Programs It has been s u g g e s t e d to the F i s h and W i l d l i f e B ranch t h a t they s h o u l d conduc t v a r i o u s management programs on an e x p e r i m e n t a l b a s i s and m o n i t o r the r e s u l t s . F l y f i s h i n g o n l y r e s t r i c t i o n s on t h r e e i n t e r i o r l a k e s were i n t r o d u c e d as an e x p e r i m e n t and c o n t i n u e d when f i s h e r m e n responded p o s i t i v e l y . T h i s i s a u s e f u l method o f t e s t i n g new p o l i c i e s and t h e i r impact on s p o r t f i s h e r m e n , and s h o u l d - 78 -be p r a c t i c e d much more w i d e l y and i m a g i n a t i v e l y . However , u n l e s s f i s h e r m e n agree in p r i n c i p l e w i t h more w i d e s p r e a d use o f such e x p e r i m e n t s the B ranch may c r e a t e mo r e " p r o b 1 ems f o r i t s e l f than i t s o l v e s . B a s i c agreement was e x p r e s s e d f o r such a scheme but one s t a t i s t i c a l l y r e l e v a n t group emerged wh i ch was in o p p o s i t i o n . W i t h i n the o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n i s a group wh i ch s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e w i t h such a p rogram ( 17% ) i n v o l v i n g e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n . F u r t h e r e x p l o r a t i o n o f the reason f o r t h i s may be n e e d e d , bu t i t wou ld appea r t h a t e i t h e r the f i s h e r m e n do not want t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e tampered w i t h by the F i s h and W i l d l i f e B r a n c h , o r they have a d i s t r u s t o f the a g e n c y . The u n o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n , in g e n e r a l , a r e in agreement ( 8 1 % ) . T h e r e w o u l d , t h e r e f o r e , be l i t t l e need to c o n v i n c e t h i s g roup t h a t a p o l i c y o f e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n to gauge f i s h e r m e n ' s v iews wou ld be d e s i r a b l e . ( i v ) A t t i t u d e Toward A c c e s s R e s t r i c t i o n s The s t a t e m e n t was p o s e d : I wou ld be o p p o s e d to r e g u l a t i o n wh i ch wou ld r e s t r i c t my a c c e s s to Lower M a i n l a n d s t reams even i f i t r e s u l t e d in l e s s crowded c o n d i t i o n s . Through t h i s q u e s t i o n management c o u l d a s c e r t a i n i f the f i s h e r m e n wou ld be w i l l i n g to take l e s s days f i s h i n g to improve the f i s h i n g e x p e r i e n c e w i t h r e s p e c t to c r o w d i n g . Response to t h i s s t a t e m e n t depends on the f i s h e r m a n ' s a t t i t u d e toward c rowd ing and h i s a t t i t u d e toward the r e s o u r c e and i t s a v a i l a b i l i t y . - 79 -The r e p l i e s i n d i c a t e t h a t both groups oppose the idea o f r e g u l a t i o n to r e s t r i c t a c c e s s . O r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n , in p a r t i c u l a r , s t r o n g l y opposed (45%) the i dea o f l i m i t i n g a c c e s s . T h i s c o u l d be because o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n know where to go to a v o i d c rowd ing anyway, and t h e r e f o r e do not w i sh to be r e s t r i c t e d . On the o t h e r h a n d , i t may r e s u l t f rom the a t t i t u d e t h a t the r e s o u r c e s h o u l d be a v a i l a b l e f o r anyone to use 'at a n y t i m e : The p u b l i c r e s o u r c e f o r the p u b l i c to u s e . U n o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n a l s o d i d not want a c c e s s r e s t r i c t e d . N a t u r a l l y i t would depend on j u s t how t h i s a c c e s s r e s t r i c t i o n was imposed , but f o r the f i s h e r m e n who f i s h o n l y a few days pe r s e a s o n , an a c c e s s r e s t r i c t i o n a t c e r t a i n t imes may be a s e v e r e h a n d i c a p . (v) The Non-Res iden t A n g l e r "More than h a l f o f a l l r e s i d e n t s combined thought t h a t n o n - r e s i d e n t s s h o u l d , in some way, be d i s c o u r a g e d f rom f i s h i n g in B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 3 1 % thought t h a t the p r e s e n t p o l i c y s h o u l d be c o n t i n u e d and o n l y 1 0 % w i s h e d to see more n o n - r e s i d e n t s f i s h i n g in the p r o v i n c e . " ( Pearse-Bowden, 1 9 7 1 , P- 4 8 ) . A l t h o u g h f i s h e r y managers a re aware t h a t n o n - r e s i d e n t a n g l e r s r e a l l y have o n l y m inor e f f e c t on the r e s o u r c e , r e s i d e n t a n g l e r s do not f a v o u r a d m i s s i o n o f t hese f i s h e r m e n . T h i s was t r u e in Pea rse-Bowden 1 s s t u d i e s and i s a l s o t r u e h e r e . Fo r t y- two p e r c e n t o f the o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e d w i t h the s t a t emen t TABLE 2 5 ATTITUDINAL RESPONSES OF FISHERMEN AND MANAGERS Management S ta tements ( i ) F l y F i s h i n g R e s t r i c t i o n s : I wou ld l i k e to see f l y f i s h i n g o n l y r e s t r i c t i o n on some s t e e l h e a d s t reams in the Lower M a i n l a n d . ( i i ) A t t i t u d e Toward Ha t che ry F i s h : H a t c h e r y b r ed f i s h a re as good a game f i s h as the w i l d v a r i e t y . ( i i i ) F i s h £ W i l d l i f e Expe r imen ta l P rograms: The F i s h £ W i l d l i f e s h o u l d t r y v a r i o u s management programs to see how f i s h e r -men r e a c t and to see what e f f e c t i t has on the f i s h e r y . ( i v ) A t t i t u d e Toward Acces s R e s t r i c t i o n s : I wou ld be opposed to r e g u l a t i o n s wh i ch wou ld r e s t r i c t my a c cess to Lower M a i n l a n d s t reams even i f i t r e s u l t e d in l e s s crowded c o n d i t i o n s . (v) The Non-Res iden t A n g l e r : N o n - r e s i d e n t a n g l e r s o f the P r o v i n c e have l i t t l e e f f e c t on the Lower M a i n -l and s t e e l h e a d f i s h e r y and t h e r e f o r e s h o u l d not be r e s t r i c t e d from o b t a i n i n g a s t e e l h e a d l i c e n c e . O r g . Unorg . Managers O r g . Unorg . Mangers O r g . Unorg . Managers O r g . Unorg . Managers O r g . Unorg . Managers S t r o n g l y Agree 23 15 17 7 15 0 2 3 35 50 45 30 25 9 6 0 Chi Agree 16 17 50 Chi Square . 0 2 5 10 38 0 Chi Square . 0 0 5 43 46 50 Chi Square . 0 0 5 20 30 0 Chi Square . 5 0 0 21 2 7 80 Not Concerned 16 18 33 7 21 75 3 11 0 5 9 75 11 8 20 D i s a g r e e 14 32 0 31 18 -0 14 5 0 19 2 0 0 16 2 2 0 Square . 7 5 0 Chi square q i v e n o n l y f o r o r n a n i T o H anH imnrn;n S t r o n g l y Pi s ag ree 31 18 0 4 5 8 2 5 17 3 0 1 1 1 1 2 5 4 3 37 0 00 o - 81 -t h a t s i n c e the n o n - r e s i d e n t has l i t t l e e f f e c t on the Lower M a i n l a n d s t reams he s h o u l d not be r e s t r i c t e d . T h i r t y - s e v e n p e r c e n t o f the u n o r g a n i z e d c o n c u r r e d w i t h the o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n ' s a t t i t u d e s . C. A t t i t u d e Toward the F i s h i n g E x p e r i e n c e ( i ) F i s h i n g w i t h O t h e r F i she rmen in S i g h t It appea rs t h a t the o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m a n i s more g r e g a r i o u s than the u n o r g a n i z e d in t h a t the o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m a n (k5%) s t r o n g l y ag rees w i t h the s t a t emen t t h a t : "I wou ld p r e f e r to f i s h w i t h no o t h e r f i s h e r m e n in s i g h t " . By the same p e r c e n t a g e the u n o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m a n agrees t h a t he l i k e s to f i s h w i t h no o t h e r f i s h e r m e n in s i g h t . The o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m a n ' s answer may s u g g e s t t h a t he e n j o y s compan ionsh ip in h i s f i s h i n g e x p e r i e n c e and pe rhaps can f i s h s t reams wh i ch a re r e l a t i v e l y uncrowded . On the o t h e r h a n d , the u n o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m a n may o n l y have knowledge o f a l i m i t e d number o f s t reams and these a re a lways c rowded . H i s r e sponse may be the r e s u l t o f b e i n g crowded c o n t i n u a l l y in h i s f i s h i n g e x p e r i e n c e . (i i ) The Catch o r the O u t d o o r s Some f i s h e r m e n d i d not r espond to t h i s s t a t emen t t h a t , c a t c h i n g a s t e e l h e a d i s not as i m p o r t a n t t o me as j u s t g e t t i n g away f o r the o u t d o o r e x p e r i e n c e , because they f e l t t h a t both c a t c h and o u t d o o r s were i m p o r t a n t . It i s i n t e r e s t i n g to no te t h a t bo th these - 82 -f a c t o r s r a t e d h i g h l y in the r e sponse o f f i s h e r m e n when asked about what i t was they e n j o y e d about the f i s h i n g e x p e r i e n c e . Most f i s h e r m e n , in both g roups (3&% o f the o r g a n i z e d and 46% o f the u n o r g a n i z e d ) , ag reed t h a t the o u t d o o r s was more impo r t an t than the c a t c h w i t h a m i n o r i t y group s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e i n g (11% o f the o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n ) ; ( i i i ) Ca tch and Re l e a se Programs The c a t c h and r e l e a s e program i s a d v o c a t e d by some managers as a means o f g i v i n g the f i s h e r m a n the o p p o r t u n i t y o f c a t c h i n g a f i s h y e t m a i n t a i n i n g the s u p p l y , as a l l f i s h a r e r e l e a s e d . T h i s appea r s f e a s i b l e as some ve r y p r o f i c i e n t f i s h e r m e n have a l r e a d y r eached the p o i n t where they r e c e i v e g r a t i f i c a t i o n by b e i n g a b l e to c a t c h a f i s h and then r e l e a s e i t . T h i s i s Meeson ' s (1972) n o n - e x t r a c t i v e s t a g e . The o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n s t r o n g l y a g r e e to ag ree (80%) , pe rhaps because many o f the f i s h e r m e n do t h i s a l r e a d y , and i t appea rs t h a t t h i s t ype o f p rogram wou ld be e c o l o g i c a l l y sound in e n a b l i n g a f i n i t e number o f f i s h to s a t i s f y more than j u s t one f i s h e r m a n ' s a s p i r a t i o n s . The u n o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m a n , a l t h o u g h in l a r g e p a r t f a v o u r i n g such a scheme, (54%) has a s t a t i s t i c a l l y i m p o r t a n t g roup who d i s a g r e e (22%) and s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e (13%) . T h i s may c o n s i s t o f the e x t r a c t i v e f i s h e r m e n who l i k e to t ake the f i s h home; the f i s h e r m e n sometimes d e s c r i b e d u n c h a r i t a b l y , as "meat h u n g r y " . - 83 -( i v ) The R e g u l a r Ca tch The s t a t e m e n t , "I wou ld p r e f e r to c a t c h s t e e l h e a d r e g u l a r l y , even i f s m a l l " , was d e s i g n e d to see i f the c a t c h i s an impo r t an t p a r t o f the f i s h i n g e x p e r i e n c e . The r e sponse to the q u e s t i o n may r e f l e c t the degree o f s u c c e s s a f i s h e r m a n has and may c o r r e s p o n d to whether he wou ld f i s h f o r h a t c h e r y r a i s e d , s t a n d a r d - s i z e d f i s h . F i f t y - s e v e n p e r c e n t o f the o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n d i s a g r e e d o r s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e d t h a t they wou ld p r e f e r to c a t c h s t e e l h e a d r e g u l a r l y , even i f s m a l l , w h i l e 34% o f the u n o r g a n i z e d c o u l d be c l a s s i f i e d in the same g r o u p . At the o t h e r end o f the s c a l e f o r t h i s s t a t e m e n t , o n l y 8% o f the o r g a n i z e d s t r o n g l y ag r eed as compared to 15% o f the unorgan i z e d . (v) T rophy S i z e d F i s h The s t a t e m e n t t h a t , " The o n l y s t e e l h e a d wor th c a t c h i n g i s a t r o p h y - s i z e d f i s h " , was meant to a t t r a c t the e l i t i s t to respond i n the a f f i r m a t i v e . However , the r e s u l t was t h a t a v e r y l a r g e m a j o r i t y o f bo th o r g a n i z e d (91%) and u n o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n (87%) d i s a g r e e d o r s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e d . It appea r s t h a t most f i s h e r m e n do no t g a i n u l t i m a t e s a t i s f a c t i o n f rom c a t c h i n g a t r o p h y - s i z e d f i s h . ( v i ) Days F i s h i n g o r an Improved E x p e r i e n c e A l t h o u g h r e sponses to an e a r l i e r s t a t e m e n t s u g g e s t e d t h a t in gene r a l f i s h e r m e n wou ld no t be w i l l i n g to have t h e i r a c c e s s r e s t r i c t e d to l i m i t c r o w d i n g , bo th groups f a v o u r e d fewer days i f t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e wou ld be o f a h i g h e r q u a l i t y . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t the e x p e r i e n c e - 84 -improvement may r e v o l v e a round the t r a n q u i l , p l e a s a n t e x p e r i e n c e in the o u t d o o r s where the chance o f c a t c h i n g a f i s h was e v e r - p r e s e n t . In l a r g e p a r t , t h e n , the e x p e r i e n c e wou ld have to do w i t h the n a t u r a l s u r r o u n d i n g s and improvement o f the b a n k - s i d e a e s t h e t i c s and wa te r q u a l i t y . In d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h f i s h e r m e n and in comments on the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , the major p rob lems they saw were l o g booms, garbage and c r o w d i n g , a l l o f wh ich s p o i l e d the e x p e r i e n c e . D. A t t l t u d l n a l Responses o f Managers Because o n l y a few members o f the F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch i n f l u e n c e s t e e l h e a d management, the sample o f t h i s group was s m a l l . The i n f l u e n c e o f the v a r i o u s managers who r e sponded wou ld n o t , o f c o u r s e , be e q u a l . A t t i t u d e s e x p r e s s e d , t h e r e f o r e , a r e d i f f i c u l t to q u a n t i f y and to e x t r a p o l a t e . However , they i n d i c a t e the d i r e c t i o n in wh ich management in g e n e r a l f e e l s the r e s o u r c e s h o u l d be m o v i n g . ( i ) Management S t a tements Responses to s t a t e m e n t on management a l t e r n a t i v e s showed t h a t in t h r e e ou t o f f i v e s t a t e m e n t s management were o f a s i m i l a r m i n d . However , i t was a l s o e v i d e n t t h a t in a number o f cases the r e sponse was n o n - c o m m i t t a l . W i th " f l y f i s h i n g o n l y " r e s t r i c t i o n on some s t reams o f the Lower M a i n l a n d ( Tab l e 2 5 ) , &7% o f the managers ag ree to s t r o n g l y - 85 -a g r e e . T h i s may stem from r e a l i z a t i o n tha t the f i s h e r y i s a s y s t e m , and w i t h i n the s y s t e m , d i f f e r e n t e x p e r i e n c e s have to be p r o v i d e d f o r a range o f r e s o u r c e u s e r s . The re was a l a r g e l y non-commi t t a l r e sponse on the game q u a l i t i e s o f h a t c h e r y f i s h . A l t h o u g h one manager s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e d t h a t h a t c h e r y b r ed f i s h a re as good a game f i s h as the w i l d v a r i e t y , i t i s a s a f e a s s u m p t i o n to make t h a t no one r e a l l y knows i f t h e r e a re d i f f e r e n c e s . The re is g e n e r a l concensus t h a t the F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch s h o u l d be t r y i n g v a r i o u s management programs to a s s e s s how w e l l they work . Responses to t h i s s t a t e m e n t were a l l on the agree s i d e . However , when asked about r e s t r i c t i o n o f a c c e s s by r e g u l a t i o n the managers e i t h e r c l u s t e r e d on the non-commi t t a l r e sponse (75%) o r were a t e i t h e r end o f the s c a l e . It wou ld appea r t h e n , t h a t v iews on p o s s i b l y l i m i t i n g the number o f l i c e n c e h o l d e r s a b l e to f i s h on a c e r t a i n day , f o r e x a m p l e , has no t been d i s c u s s e d so t h a t a t t i t u d e s have no t been f o r m e d . The a n a l y s i s o f l i c e n c e h o l d e r s c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e s t h a t the n o n - r e s i d e n t has a n e g l i g i b l e e f f e c t on the f i s h e r y . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e on the Lower M a i n l a n d o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . Managers appea r to be aware o f t h i s and t h e r e f o r e ag reed ( 8 0 % ) t ha t n o n - r e s i d e n t s s h o u l d no t be r e s t r i c t e d f rom a c c e s s to the r e s o u r c e . - 86 -E. Summary and Compar i son The r e s p o n s e s to the a t t i t u d i n a l s t a t emen t s bear e x a m i n a t i o n in t h a t they not o n l y p o i n t ou t a t t i t u d i n a l d i f f e r e n c e s between the o r g a n i z e d and u n o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n but they d i s t i n g u i s h d i f f e r e n c e s in a t t i t u d e between f i s h e r m e n and manager . In t h i s summary the most o b v i o u s d i f f e r e n c e s w i l l be p o i n t e d ou t to e n a b l e c o n c l u s i o n s to be drawn in l a t e r c h a p t e r s . W i t h i n the management s t a t e m e n t s , f o r e x a m p l e , the l a r g e s t p e r c e n t a g e o f f i s h e r m e n bo th o r g a n i z e d and u n o r g a n i z e d d i s a g r e e , and in some<. c a s e s s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e , w i t h the idea o f " f l y f i s h i n g o n l y " r e g u l a t i o n s on some s t r e a m s . T h i s j u x t a p o s i t i o n between management and f i s h e r m e n a l s o e x i s t s in a t t i t u d e toward the n o n -r e s i d e n t f i s h e r m e n . Pe rhaps i t i s t h a t management have gauged the e f f e c t o f the n o n - r e s i d e n t on the r e s o u r c e w h i l e the f i s h e r m e n p e r c e i v e s an e f f e c t wh i ch does not r e a l l y o c c u r . As f a r as a t t i t u d e s t a t e m e n t s w i t h r e g a r d to f i s h i n g e x p e r i e n c e i t appea r s t h a t f i s h e r m e n and managers a r e c l o s e l y a l i g n e d in t h e i r a t t i t u d e s . T h e r e f o r e i t c o u l d be s a i d t h a t t h e r e i s l i t t l e deba te about f i s h i n g e x p e r i e n c e d e s i r e d . The p rob l em a r i s e s when l o o k i n g a t management a l t e r n a t i v e s . T A B L E 26 A T T I T U D I N A L RESPONSES OF F I SHERMEN AND MANAGERS A t t i t u d i n a l S t a t e m e n t s - F i s h i n g E x p e r i e n c e S t r o n g l y A g r e e Ag r e e N o t C o n c e r n e d P i s a g r e e S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e ( i ) I p r e f e r t o f i s h w i t h n o o t h e r f i s h e r m e n i n s i g h t . ( i i ) C a t c h i n g a s t e e l h e a d i s n o t as i m p o r t a n t t o me as j u s t g e t t i n g away f o r t h e o u t d o o r e x p e r i e n c e . ( i i i ) I w o u l d be w i l l i n g t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n a c a t c h a n d r e l e a s e f i s h e r y ( " f i s h i n g f o r f u n " ) ( i v ) I w o u l d p r e f e r t o c a t c h a s t e e l -h e a d r e g u l a r l y , e v e n i f s m a l l . ( v ) T h e o n l y s t e e l h e a d w o r t h c a t c h i n g i s t r o p h y - s i z e . ( v i ) I w o u l d a c c e p t l e s s d a y s f i s h i n g i f I c o u l d g e t a h i g h e r q u a l i t y e x p e r i e n c e . O r g . U n o r g . M a n a g e r s O r g . U n o r g . M a n a g e r s O r g . U n o r g . M a n a g e r s O r g . U n o r g . M a n a g e r s O r g . U n o r g . . M a n a g e r s O r g . U n o r g . M a n a g e r s 20 17 17 25 2 0 49 C h i S q u a r e . 5 0 0 17 22 3 3 3 6 45 33 C h i S q u a r e . 2 5 0 3 8 22 33 C h i S q a u r e 8 15 0 4 2 32 50 . 0 0 5 2 3 32 4 0 C h i S q u a r e . 0 5 0 2 3 0 C h i S q u a r e 14 16 3 3 C h i S q u a r e 3 4 0 . 9 0 0 4 3 3 8 6 7 . 7 5 0 4 3 3 8 17 15 11 0 8 11 0 12 19 2 0 4 6 25 9 11 0 9 18 17 21 16 33 8 2 2 17 39 26 40 44 4 0 75 20 26 0 3 6 0 11 4 0 4 13 0 18 8 0 4 7 4 7 0 14 9 0 C h i S q u a r e g i v e n o n l y f o r o r g a n i z e d a n d u n o r g a n i z e d g r o u p i n g s . - 87 -CHAPTER SIX CONCLUSIONS OF THE STUDY A. I n t r o d u c t i o n The p r e c e d i n g t h r e e c h a p t e r s p r e s e n t e d the da t a f rom t h i s s t u d y . In t h i s c h a p t e r the s a l i e n t a s p e c t s o f these da t a w i l l be rev i ewed in l i g h t o f c o n c l u s i o n s wh ich can be drawn. As the c o n c l u s i o n s a re r e s t r i c t e d by the s t u d y ' s l i m i t a t i o n s a b r i e f rev iew o f these f o l l o w s . B. L i m i t a t i o n s o f the S tudy T h i s s t u d y does have a number o f l i m i t a t i o n wh ich must be kep t in m i n d . F i r s t l y , the sample s i z e s must be r e c o g n i z e d . A sample o f o n l y k% o f a l l u n o r g a n i z e d s t e e l h e a d f i s h e r m e n was t a k e n . The o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n because o f t h e i r s m a l l e r numbers and ready i d e n t i f i c a t i o n e n a b l e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 60% to be s a m p l e d . The s tudy was c o n d u c t e d on the Lower M a i n l a n d o f the P r o v i n c e and w i t h a s p e c i f i c group d e f i n e d as u n o r g a n i z e d and o r g a n i z e d s t e e l h e a d f i s h e r m e n . T h e r e f o r e , c o n c l u s i o n s can o n l y be drawn about the Lower M a i n l a n d S t e e l h e a d a n g l e r , and about the groups based on how they were d e f i n e d f o r s a m p l i n g p u r p o s e s . - 88 -It s h o u l d be remembered t h a t the major compar i son between o r g a n i z e d and u n o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n r e s u l t e d in a n a l y s i s b e i n g c a r r i e d ou t a l o n g these l i n e s . P o s s i b i l i t i e s e x i s t f o r l o o k i n g a t the da t a based on o t h e r c r i t e r i a such as number o f f i s h caught l a s t s e a s o n , e x p e r i e n c e d e s i r e d , and equ ipment u s e d . T h i s wou ld be the next s t e p , u s i n g a l a r g e r sample s i z e , to g a i n a f u l l e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the components wh i ch make a s p e c i f i c e x p e r i e n c e . Managers were a lso asked to comp le t e the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . However , the major l i m i t a t i o n to t hese da t a was the f a c t t h a t d i f f e r e n t managers have d i f f e r e n t powers o f i n f l u e n c e on a l t e r n a t i v e management d e c i s i o n s wh i ch may be g e n e r a t e d . O b v i o u s l y the C h i e f o f F i s h e r i e s wou ld be a g r e a t dea l more i n f l u e n t i a l than a c o n s e r v a t i o n o f f i c e r . A l s o , the v iews wh i ch they e x p r e s s e d were t h e i r own r a t h e r than a p e r c e p t i o n o f . w h a t they b e l i e v e d the f i s h e r m e n wan ted . T h e r e f o r e , i t was d i f f i c u l t to a s s e s s the r e sponses and compare them to the f i s h e r m e n ' s v iews to see i f d i v e r s i t y o f v iews were a p p a r e n t as the number sampled was sma l l and r e sponse may have been g i v e n as f i s h e r m e n and not as managers . T h i s s e c t i o n o f the s t u d y , t h e n , i s r ega rded as i n c o n c l u s i v e . S t u d i e s o f p e r c e p t i o n s and a t t i t u d e s o b v i o u s l y a re not a panacea f o r i n f o r m a t i o n on which p o l i c y d e c i s i o n can be b a s e d . P a r t i c u l a r p rob lems o f t h i s s tudy have been d i s c u s s e d above . O t h e r l i m i t a t i o n s wh i ch must be i d e n t i f i e d a re b i a s , d a t i n g o f i n f o r m a t i o n , o v e r s a m p l i n g and the e f f e c t o f i n f o r m a t i o n on r e s p o n s e . - 89 -B i a s i n g o f a s tudy i s a lways p o s s i b l e when one i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h human b e h a v i o u r . T h i s danger i s e s p e c i a l l y a c u t e in p e r c e p t i o n and a t t i t u d e s t u d i e s because the r e sponden t i s asked to r e a c t to a q u e s t i o n he may not have p e r c e i v e d as b e i n g a p r o b l e m . An example o f t h i s would be in the q u e s t i o n r e l a t i n g to d e t r a c t i o n s f rom the f i s h i n g e x p e r i e n c e . When a r e sponse is r e c e i v e d t h a t c rowd ing d e t r a c t s f rom the e x p e r i e n c e , does t h i s r e a l l y d e t r a c t f rom h i s e x p e r i e n c e , o r would the same r e sponse be f o r t h c o m i n g i f he f i s h e d w i t h one o r one hundred f i s h e r m e n in c l o s e p r o x i m i t y ? Crowding c o u l d a l s o be a c o n d i t i o n e d r e sponse in t h a t the f i s h e r m a n b e l i e v e s t h i s i s the r e sponse e x p e c t e d . On ly by o b s e r v i n g a t the s i t e c o u l d a b e t t e r assessment be made. T h i s l e a d s to a n o t h e r d i f f i c u l t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h these t ypes o f s t u d i e s . The p rob l em o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . The a t t i t u d i n a l r e sponses a r e examples where " s t r o n g l y a g r e e " th rough t o " s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e " c o u l d mean d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s to d i f f e r e n t i n d i v i d u a l s . B a s i c a l l y the r e sponse wou ld depend on a s p e c t s o f " a w a r e n e s s " and " c o n c e r n " . Respondents aware o f a p a r t i c u l a r p r o b l e m wou ld r e a c t more s t r o n g l y than t h o s e who were unaware . A l s o the p e r s o n who i s more c o n c e r n e d may be the p e r s o n who u n d e r s t a n d s more c l e a r l y the e f f e c t o f a s i t u a t i o n o r can see d i r e c t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r h i m s e l f . Out o f da t e i n f o r m a t i o n i s a f u r t h e r p r o b l e m . P e o p l e ' s a t t i t u d e s , o p i n i o n s and p e r c e p t i o n s a re c o n t i n u a l l y c h a n g i n g o v e r t i m e . I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f r e s u l t s o f a s t u d y , t h e r e f o r e , must take i n t o a c coun t the c i r c u m s t a n c e s p r e v a i l i n g a t the t ime o f the i n v e s t i g a t i o n . An i m p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s l i m i t a t i o n i s the need f o r c o n t i n u o u s m o n i t o r i n g . - 90 -C o n v e r s e l y , c o n t i n u o u s m o n i t o r i n g does have i t s drawbacks in t h a t groups can be o v e r - i n t e r v i e w e d . A l t h o u g h o n l y one r e t u r n was r e c e i v e d where o b j e c t i o n to the q u e s t i o n n a i r e was e x p r e s s e d , i t i s an e v e r p r e s e n t d i f f i c u l t y wh ich c o u l d a r i s e . The p r o v i s i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n i n f l u e n c e s p e r c e p t i o n s and a t t i t u d e s and the reby r e s p o n s e s . Members o f c l u b s and the S t e e l h e a d S o c i e t y r e c e i v e i n f o r m a t i o n th rough t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n s . O the r s may be i n f l u e n c e d th rough a r t i c l e s in the news m e d i a . T h e r e f o r e , r e sponses may be the r e s u l t o f e d u c a t i o n on a t o p i c r a t h e r than e x p e r i e n c e . Pe rhaps the i n f o r m a t i o n i f g i v e n w ide enough p u b l i c i t y w i l l r e s u l t in a m a j o r i t y o f p e o p l e r e s p o n d i n g in a p a r t i c u l a r manner. F i n a l l y , i t s h o u l d be r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h e r e is a c o n t i n u a l danger in s t u d i e s o f t h i s t y p e , t h a t they can be used to j u s t i f y what p l a n n e r s and managers have a l r e a d y d e c i d e d upon . If t h i s o c c u r s , such s t u d i e s w i l l f a l l i n t o the same d i s r e p u t e t h a t has b e f a l l e n such t e c h n i q u e s as c o s t - b e n e f i t a n a l y s i s , where the s tudy i s done to j u s t i f y the p r o j e c t r a t h e r than to e q u a t e i t s m e r i t s . C. C o n c l u s i o n s A r i s i n g f rom the S tudy The f o l l o w i n g a re the c o n c l u s i o n s a r r i v e d a t by t h i s s t u d y : 1. O r g a n i z e d and u n o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n a re d i f f e r e n t . - 91 -2. The re i s a w ide range o f e x p e r i e n c e s d e s i r e d and t h e r e f o r e a need f o r the p r o v i s i o n o f a d i v e r s i t y o f r e c r e a t i o n a l f i s h i n g e x p e r i e n c e s . 3. A s y s t e m a t i c c o l l e c t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n on r e s o u r c e u se r s i s ' f e a s i b l e as w e l l as d e s i r a b l e . Each o f these c o n c l u s i o n s i s d i s c u s s e d below and s u g g e s t i o n s as to p l a n n i n g i m p l i c a t i o n s a re made where a p p r o p r i a t e . ( i ) The O r g a n i z e d and U n o r g a n i z e d F i she rman The a n a l y s i s o f d a t a was c a r r i e d o u t in such a manner t h a t i t wou ld be p o s s i b l e to compare the r e sponses from the o r g a n i z e d and u n o r g a n i z e d s t e e l h e a d f i s h e r m e n . The d i f f e r e n c e s between these two groups were n o t e d on a number o f o c c a s i o n s t h r o u g h o u t the d a t a a n a l y s i s . S o c i o - e c o n o m i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , a t t i t u d e s toward s t a t e m e n t s on management and the e x p e r i e n c e d e s i r e d , the t ype o f equ ipment used and the t ime s p e n t f i s h i n g a l l tended to d i f f e r e n t i a t e one group f rom the o t h e r . The s o c i o - e c o n o m i c a s p e c t s were one a r e a in wh i ch the d i f f e r e n c e between the two groups was e a s i l y d i s c e r n i b l e . The age d i s t r i b u t i o n , f o r e x a m p l e , between o r g a n i z e d and u n o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n was n o t e d to be s u b s t a n t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t . The o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n sampled were much y o u n g e r than the u n o r g a n i z e d . From t h i s s t a r t i n g - 92 -p o i n t v a r i a t i o n s between the two groups c o u l d be seen in o t h e r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c d a t a . Age and e d u c a t i o n r e f l e c t e d in l a r g e p a r t , the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o b s e r v e d in income and o c c u p a t i o n : The o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n b e i n g y o u n g e r , b e t t e r e d u c a t e d on the a v e r a g e , and o f t e n h o l d i n g a p r o f e s s i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n o r in s a l e s . A n o t h e r d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f a c t o r between these two groups was the amount o f t ime the f i s h e r m e n s p e n t f i s h i n g and the number o f f i s h caugh t l a s t s e a s o n . The o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m a n , as a g e n e r a l r u l e , f i s h e d more days and was more s u c c e s s f u l than h i s c o u n t e r p a r t , the u n o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m a n . In f a c t , i t appears t h a t the o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m a n f i s h e s tw i c e as much as the u n o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m a n . The equ ipment used was a n o t h e r d i s t i n g u i s h i n g d i f f e r e n c e in t ha t the o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m a n is more i n c l i n e d to s p e c i a l i z e . A h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n f i s h more than h a l f o f t h e i r f i s h i n g t ime w i t h e i t h e r f l y o r l u r e and to a l e s s e r e x t e n t w i t h b a i t , w h i l e the u n o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m a n i s more ap t t o t r y the range o f a n g l i n g me thods . A s i m i l a r s p e c i a l i z a t i o n can be seen in the f i s h a n g l e d f o r . The o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m a n b a s i c a l l y f i s h e s f o r w i n t e r run s t e e l h e a d and o c c a s i o n a l l y f o r s a l m o n . The u n o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m a n f i s h e s as much f o r o t h e r t r o u t as he does f o r s t e e l h e a d . - 93 -The two groups a l s o had d i s c e r n i b l e d i f f e r e n c e s in t h e i r o p i n i o n s on management a l t e r n a t i v e s . The o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m a n i s much more l i k e l y to h o l d a s i m i l a r a t t i t u d e to t hose o f h i s f e l l o w c l u b o r s o c i e t y members. T h i s i s e v i d e n c e d in the p e r c e n t a g e s c o r e s on the a t t i t u d i n a l s c a l e . In n i n e ou t o f the twe l ve s t a t e m e n t s the o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n ' s r e sponses group a round a s p e c i f i c r e p l y wh i ch gave t h i s r e sponse the h i g h e s t p e r c e n t a g e o f both o r g a n i z e d and u n o r g a n i z e d g r o u p s . T h i s i s u n d e r s t a n d a b l e to some d e g r e e , in t h a t one wou ld e x p e c t the o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n ' s a t t i t u d e s to r e f l e c t the v iews o f the c l u b o r s o c i e t y on many o f the i s s u e s p r e s e n t e d . The o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n ' s a t t i t u d e s t ended a l s o to be more s t r o n g l y h e l d in t h a t they p o l a r i z e d a t e i t h e r end o f the s c a l e . T h i s was e v i d e n t in r e sponse to the p r o t e c t i o n o f w i l d s p e c i e s o v e r i n t r o d u c i n g h a t c h e r y b r ed s t e e l h e a d . A t t i t u d e s d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y a g a i n when i t came to the q u a l i t i e s they l o o k e d f o r in the f i s h they were a t t e m p t i n g to c a t c h . In r e sponse to the a t t i t u d i n a l s t a t e m e n t on h a t c h e r y b r ed f i s h as opposed to the w i l d v a r i e t y , on t h e i r q u a l i t i e s as a game f i s h , the m a j o r i t y o f the o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n were s t r o n g l y o f the a t t i t u d e t h a t the h a t c h e r y v a r i e t y i s not as good a game f i s h . U n o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n f e l t t h a t the h a t c h e r y v a r i e t y i s as good a game f i s h . U n o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n f e l t t h a t h a t c h e r y b r e d f i s h were as good and tha t the s i z e o f f i s h caught c o u l d be s m a l l as l o n g as the c a t c h was r e g u l a r . The o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n d i s a g r e e d w i t h the l a t t e r s t a t e m e n t . T h i s p r o b a b l y r e f l e c t s the s u c c e s s r a t i o o f these f i s h e r m e n . I f the u n o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m a n has caught v e r y few - Sh -f i s h he wou ld be more i n c l i n e d to o p t f o r the r e g u l a r c a t c h , even i f s m a l l , w h i l e the o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m a n who can c a t c h f i s h more r e g u l a r l y i s more in f a v o u r o f a q u a l i t y s i z e d f i s h . In g a t h e r i n g o p i n i o n s on management a l t e r n a t i v e s i t a l s o appea red t h a t o r g a n i z e d and u n o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n had f u n d a -m e n t a l l y d i f f e r e n t v i e w s . The u n o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n tended to have a much s h a l l o w e r v iew o f management needs than d i d the o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n in t h a t they were more in f a v o u r o f r e g u l a t i o n and h a t c h e r y f i s h than were the o r g a n i z e d . T h i s i s an example o f management t e c h n i q u e s wh i ch do not a im a t s o l v i n g p rob lems a t t h e i r s o u r c e . The o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n on the o t h e r hand were m o s t l y in f a v o u r o f p r o t e c t i n g the r e s o u r c e and r a t e d n a t u r a l r a i s i n g h i g h l y . From the summary o f i n f o r m a t i o n on o r g a n i z e d and u n o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n i t can be c o n c l u d e d t h a t these two groups a re d i f f e r e n t . T h e r e f o r e , in d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g bo th u s e r g roups must be taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n i f the a l t e r n a t i v e s g e n e r a t e d a t the p l a n n i n g and management s t a g e a re to r e f l e c t a c c u r a t e l y the p u b l i c ' s wi s h e s . In the p a s t the F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch has f a i l e d to do t h i s in any s y s t e m a t i c f a s h i o n and has r e l i e d upon c o n t a c t l a r g e l y w i t h one g r o u p , the o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n , f o r p u b l i c r e a c t i o n . As - 95 -the o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n a re o n l y a sma l l s e l e c t g roup t h e i r v iews a re not n e c e s s a r i l y those o f the m a j o r i t y . ( i i ) The Need f o r a D i f f e r e n t i a t e d P r o d u c t W i t h i n the c a t e g o r i e s o f o r g a n i z e d and u n o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n t h e r e were ranges in the e x p e r i e n c e d e s i r e d . I t can be seen f rom the da t a t h a t the t ype o f equ ipment u s e d , and the f i s h a n g l e d f o r , v a r i e s c o n s i d e r a b l y . Some f i s h e r m e n a re p r e p a r e d to f i s h in more crowded a r eas on one h a n d , and s e c l u d e d s t reams on the o t h e r . O the r s t r a v e l away f rom the Lower M a i n l a n d on many o c c a s i o n s w h i l e s t i l l o t h e r s n e v e r l e ave the a r e a . The f i s h e r m e n may e n j o y c a t c h i n g a n y t h i n g , o r he may l i k e to c a t c h l a r g e f i s h in the most c h a l l e n g i n g way p o s s i b l e . These e x p e r i e n c e s r e p r e s e n t a who le range o f d e s i r e s f o r f i s h i n g and to s a t i s f y the m a j o r i t y o f f i s h e r m e n the r e s o u r c e must be thought o f in h o l i s t i c t e r m s . Because o f the l i m i t e d sample s i z e i t i s d i f f i c u l t to i s o l a t e the v a r i o u s d e s i r e s o f the f i s h e r m e n in a mean ing fu l way to g i v e management an i d e a o f the d i f f e r e n t i a t e d p r o d u c t d e s i r e d . However , the u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f what the p r o d u c t s a re t h a t need to be p r o v i d e d i s b a s i c to f u t u r e p l a n n i n g o f the s t e e l h e a d f i s h i n g r e s o u r c e . - 96 -A number o f r e s e a r c h e r s , i n c l u d i n g Hendee (1968) and S tankey (1971) showed t h a t d i f f e r e n t r e c r e a t i o n i s t s d e s i r e d d i f f e r e n t forms o f e x p e r i e n c e . The f i s h e r m a n i s no e x c e p t i o n . Meeson (1972) s u g g e s t e d t h a t f i s h e r m e n a c t u a l l y p r o g r e s s th rough d i f f e r e n t s t a g e s ; the more e x p e r t they become, t he reby l o o k i n g f o r a new e x p e r i e n c e wh i ch can o n l y be p r o v i d e d i f a d i f f e r e n t i a t e d p r o d u c t i s a v a i l a b l e . The u n o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n f i s h l e s s and c a t c h fewer f i s h than do the o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n . The u n o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n , t h e n , a r e the most a r d e n t s u p p o r t e r s o f the h a t c h e r y p rogram as i t i s b e l i e v e d , by t h i s g r o u p , t h a t they w i l l have a much h i g h e r p o s s i b i l i t y o f c a t c h i n g a f i s h . O r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n , on the o t h e r h a n d , b e l i e v e the h a t c h e r y program wou ld be e f f e c t i v e o n l y i f i t s t o c k e d s t reams d e p l e t e d because o f spawning a r ea s a l r e a d y d e s t r o y e d o r p o l l u t e d . It can be s u g g e s t e d tha t u n o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n wou ld be s a t i s f i e d to c a t c h a f i s h r e g u l a r l y , and wou ld p a r t i c i p a t e in a h a t c h e r y p rogram s u p p l y i n g f i s h o f a r e l a t i v e l y u n i f o r m s i z e , as they a l s o b e l i e v e the h a t c h e r y f i s h to be as good a game f i s h . Many o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n c o u l d no t be e x p e c t e d to have a s a t i s f a c t o r y f i s h i n g e x p e r i e n c e in a more a r t i f i c i a l and more crowded e n v i r o n m e n t . By i n v e n t o r y o f s t reams based upon the e x p e r i e n c e wh i ch can be p r o v i d e d , the management and p l a n n i n g o f the f i s h e r y c o u l d be more e f f e c t i v e . F i r s t l y , i f we a re to p r o v i d e a d i f f e r e n t i a t e d - 9 7 -e x p e r i e n c e f o r s t e e l h e a d e r s i t s h o u l d be d e c i d e d I f s t e e l h e a d f i s h i n g , in i t s e l f , i s a s p e c i f i c f i s h i n g e x p e r i e n c e , an e x p e r i e n c e t h a t i s c h a l l e n g i n g because o f the s c a r c i t y o f the f i s h . S e c o n d l y , i t must be known hew many f i s h e r m e n want a p a r t i c u l a r t ype o f e x p e r i e n c e and a t t empt to weigh t h i s a g a i n s t the r i v e r s y s t e m ' s p o t e n t i a l f o r p r o v i d i n g what i s d e s i r e d . Sample s i z e , in t h i s s t u d y , s e r i o u s l y hampered the p o s s i b i l i t y o f d e t e r m i n i n g range o f e x p e r i e n c e . A l t h o u g h i t was o b v i o u s t h a t d i f f e r e n t f i s h e r m e n r e q u i r e d d i f f e r e n t e x p e r i e n c e s , f u t u r e s t u d i e s in t h i s a r e a a re n e e d e d . ( i i i ) A S y s t e m a t i c Method f o r I n f o r m a t i o n G e n e r a t i o n In a c c o r d w i t h the W i t h l e r (1972) r e p o r t , s t e e l h e a d f i s h e r m e n ' s v iews must be sough t to a c h i e v e b e t t e r p l a n n i n g . T h i s s t u d y c o n c l u d e s t h a t a s y s t e m a t i c g a t h e r i n g o f f i s h e r m e n ' s p r e f e r e n c e s , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and o p i n i o n s i s f e a s i b l e . T h i s a s sessmen t o f the f i s h e r m e n ' s p r e f e r e n c e s , a t t i t u d e s , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and o p i n i o n s e n a b l e s the p l a n n e r s o f the r e s o u r c e to i n c l u d e i n f o r m a t i o n in the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s wh i ch was not p r e v i o u s l y a v a i l a b l e . By t a k i n g i n t o a c c o u n t u s e r p r e f e r e n c e s the agency i s b e t t e r a b l e to max imize b e n e f i t s to s o c i e t y , wh i ch must be i t s u l t i m a t e g o a l . - 98 -By u n d e r s t a n d i n g why p e o p l e f i s h , the methods they use and the q u a l i t i e s they d e s i r e , the whole r e s o u r c e can be v iewed as a s ys tem and the d e s i r e d q u a n t i t i e s o f c e r t a i n types o f e x p e r i e n c e can be s u p p l i e d . F u t u r e s t u d i e s may a t t empt to go f u r t h e r in t h i s f i e l d o f i d e n t i f y i n g the s u b - p o p u l a t i o n s so a c l e a r e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the range o f e x p e r i e n c e d e s i r e d , and the numbers r e q u i r i n g i t , can be i d e n t i f i e d . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e app roach used in t h i s s t u d y may no t be f e a s i b l e as a r e g u l a r p r a c t i c e in t h a t i t was a t t e m p t i n g to e s t a b l i s h a b a s i s f rom which to work ; a methodo logy on wh i ch to b u i l d . It a l s o c o n t a i n e d open-ended q u e s t i o n s which r e q u i r e more t ime to code and i n t e r p r e t and may, t h e r e f o r e , be i m p r a c t i c a l because o f these f a c t o r s . It wou ld appea r t h a t the s t e e l h e a d q u e s t i o n n a i r e on c a t c h and e f f o r t p r e s e n t l y used by the F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch i s a ready-made v e h i c l e wh i ch c o u l d be used to o b t a i n p u b l i c f e e d b a c k . A t p r e s e n t the q u e s t i o n n a i r e is mere l y a p o s t c a r d but c o u l d be e x t e n d e d to form an a r rangement s i m i l a r to an ae rog ram. Q u e s t i o n s a sked c o u l d r e l a t e to g e n e r a l a s p e c t s o r to s p e c i f i c programs which the agency i s c o n t e m p l a t i n g i n t r o d u c i n g . T h i s wou ld e n a b l e the B ranch to t e s t ideas b e f o r e becoming commit ted to a p o l i c y by d e t e r m i n i n g i f they have the s u p p o r t o f f i s h e r m e n . _ 9 9 -L a r g e r q u e s t i o n n a i r e s may have a p l a c e , on o c c a s i o n , i f a l a r g e amount o f d a t a i s r e q u i r e d . Such q u e s t i o n n a i r e s c o u l d be a d m i n i s t e r e d in pe r son by summer s t u d e n t s o r by m a i l . It wou ld appea r t h a t e i t h e r way the b e n e f i t s o f a good q u e s t i o n n a i r e in i n f o r m a t i o n g e n e r a t e d wou ld f a r ou twe igh the c o s t . As sessmen t o f the v iews o f f i s h e r m e n , o r f o r t h a t m a t t e r anyone , r e q u i r e s t h a t the p e r s o n e x p r e s s i n g the v iew o r o p i n i o n i s w e l l i n f o r m e d . From t h i s s t udy i t appea r s t h a t the o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m a n i s w e l l i n fo rmed w h i l e the u n o r g a n i z e d is l e s s s o . T h i s has l e d to a number o f s u g g e s t i o n s b e i n g made on k e e p i n g the p u b l i c i n f o r m e d . The i d e a l i z e d d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s (p . 5 ) does e n v i s a g e the g e n e r a t i o n o f a l t e r n a t i v e s wh i ch can be m o d i f i e d by p u b l i c i n p u t . It does r e q u i r e a two way commun ica t ion s y s t em then f o r t h i s to happen in a r e a l i s t i c f a s h i o n . The f i r s t two recommendat ions be low s u g g e s t a s ys tem f o r f e e d b a c k whereby the agency i s kep t i n f o r m e d o f the r e s o u r c e u s e r s ' w i s h e s . However , in the o t h e r d i r e c t i o n t he r e must be an i n f o r m a t i o n f l ow f rom the agency to the p e o p l e as an i l l -i n f o rmed c l i e n t e l e makes i t i m p o s s i b l e f o r the agency to do i t s j o b . T h e r e f o r e , k e e p i n g the p u b l i c i n fo rmed o f r e a s o n i n g b e h i n d d e c i s i o n s and the c h o i c e s t h a t can be made, i s v i t a l to a good d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s . T h i s can be e a s i l y done th rough the mechanisms t h a t a re a l r e a d y a v a i l a b l e to the B r a n c h . Some s u g g e s t i o n s a re as f o l l o w s : - 100 -L i c e n c e s a re s o l d t h r o u g h o u t the P r o v i n c e in a v a r i e t y o f l o c a t i o n s . L i t e r a t u r e such as the Pearse-Bowden s t u d i e s c o u l d be s e n t on cons ignment to these vendors to s e l l a t a p r i c e to c o v e r h a n d l i n g . Pe rhaps even as a money r a i s e r f o r the B r a n c h . The i n f o r m a t i o n in t hese b o o k l e t s and o t h e r p u b l i c a t i o n s o f the Branch wou ld be o f g r e a t e d u c a t i o n a l v a l u e . In f u t u r e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s i t wou ld be p o s s i b l e to d e t e r m i n e the s o u r c e o f the f i s h e r m e n ' s i n f o r m a t i o n on r e c r e a t i o n . Once i n f o r m a t i o n s o u r c e s had been l o c a t e d the F i s h and W i l d l i f e B ranch c o u l d e n c o u r a g e p e o p l e to p l a c e a r t i c l e s in these p u b l i c a t i o n s . One a r t i c l e may be by an a d v o c a t e o f h a t c h e r y programs and on the o t h e r page c o u l d be one t a k i n g an o p p o s i n g v i e w . The r e g u l a t i o n s c o u l d a l s o be used as a method o f d i s s e m i n a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . By e x p a n d i n g t h i s i n t o a sma l l b o o k l e t v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f the f i s h e r y c o u l d be p o i n t e d o u t . E d u c a t i o n i s a l s o p o s s i b l e th rough n i g h t s c h o o l c o u r s e s . New f i s h e r m e n s h o u l d be exposed to the e t h i c s o f f i s h i n g and i t s management p rob lems as w e l l as the s k i l l s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the s p o r t . N i g h t s c h o o l c o u r s e s a r e run by Schoo l D i s t r i c t s so wou ld be o f no monetary c o s t to the B ranch - 101 -y e t i t wou ld be a means o f e n s u r i n g t h a t the new a n g l e r becomes i n fo rmed about the r e s o u r c e and is f a m i l i a r w i t h s o u r c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n . F i s h i n g c l u b p e r s o n n e l c o u l d be e n c o u r a g e d to run such c o u r s e s . (e) Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s can a l s o be e d u c a t i o n a l by s t a t i n g the a l t e r n a t i v e s and the e x p e c t e d r e s u l t o f a d o p t i n g a c e r t a i n p o l i c y . When u s i n g a q u e s t i o n n a i r e to a s s e s s f i s h e r m e n ' s v iews on a s p e c i f i c t o p i c such as a p a r t i c u l a r management a l t e r n a t i v e , the q u e s t i o n can be d e s i g n e d to be i n f o r m a t i v e . Such q u e s t i o n s can be b e n e f i c i a l bu t w o r d i n g i s c l e a r l y i m p o r t a n t as they can o f t e n become o v e r l y l o n g . An example o f an e d u c a t i o n a l q u e s t i o n may b e : " H a t c h e r y s t o c k i n g o f some s t reams may r e s u l t in b e t t e r c a t c h but a g r e a t dea l more c r o w d i n g . Would you f i s h f o r these f i s h even i f c o n d i t i o n s were q u i t e crowded (one f i s h e r m a n e v e r y 15 f e e t ) ? In c o n c l u d i n g t h i s s e c t i o n on e d u c a t i n g the p u b l i c , the B ranch needs to e d u c a t e the f i s h e r m e n to the f a c t t h a t the manager does no t know a l l the answers and as i t i s f o r the p u b l i c t h a t the r e s o u r c e i s managed, i t i s the p u b l i c whose d e s i r e s must be met . S y s t e m a t i c i n f o r m a t i o n f l ow in both d i r e c t i o n s i s o b v i o u s l y r e q u i r e d . - 102 -D. Summa ry The s t u d y f o c u s e s on a method wh i ch c o u l d be used by the F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch to a s s e s s u s e r p r e f e r e n c e s wh i ch w o u l d , in t u r n , a s s i s t in g e n e r a t i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s in the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s . By the use o f a q u e s t i o n n a i r e t e c h n i q u e and the s y s t e m a t i c s a m p l i n g o f d i f f e r e n t u s e r g roups u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n is o b t a i n e d . The t e c h n i q u e used he re has a p p l i c a t i o n in many a reas o f p l a n n i n g where b e n e f i t d e r i v e d by the p u b l i c can o n l y be d e t e r m i n e d by e n s u r i n g t h a t p u b l i c w i shes a r e b e i n g f o l l o w e d . Many p u b l i c a g e n c i e s e s p e c i a l l y those c o n c e r n e d w i t h r e c r e a t i o n t h e r e f o r e wou ld do w e l l to c o n s i d e r such a m e t h o d o l o g y . T h i s i s a way in wh i ch the numbers d e s i r i n g a c e r t a i n e x p e r i e n c e can be d e t e r m i n e d and where f e a s i b l e accommodat ion f o r these d e s i r e s can be made. It has been shown in t h i s s tudy t h a t a range o f e x p e r i e n c e s a r e d e s i r e d and o n l y by t h i s type o f s y s t e m a t i c me thodo logy can they be a s s e s s e d and v iewed as p a r t o f a sys tem o f e x p e r i e n c e s wh i ch the agency s h o u l d be a i m i n g to p r o v i d e . R e c r e a t i o n and Resource P l a n n i n g h a s , in the p a s t , c o n c e n t r a t e d on a ssessmen t o f the p h y s i c a l q u a l i t i e s o f a r e s o u r c e w i t h o u t c o n s i d e r i n g the r e s o u r c e u s e r and h i s p r e f e r e n c e s . P l a n n i n g , as a d i s c i p l i n e , c o n s i d e r s bo th the p h y s i c a l and the s o c i a l a s p e c t s in d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g in a s y s t e m a t i c manner a t t e m p t i n g to i n c l u d e a l l - 103 -a s p e c t s and a l l p u b l i c s . T h i s type o f p l a n n i n g a p p r o a c h , now e v i d e n t in the urban s p h e r e s , must become a more i n t e g r a l p a r t o f the management o f r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e . It is hoped t h i s s t u d y w i l l c o n t r i b u t e to the p r o c e s s . - 104 -BIBLIOGRAPHY A r a k i e , Dav id H, F i s h i n g B lue Book. B r o o k l y n , New Y o r k : P r i n t e d in K o r e a , 1 9 6 9 . B e v i n s , Ma l co lm I., Bond , Rober t S . , C o r c o r o n , Thomas J . , M c i n t o s h Kenneth 0 . , and M c N e i l , R i c h a r d J . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Hunte rs and F i she rmen in S i x N o r t h e a s t e r n S t a t e s . B u r l i n g t o n , Ve rmont : A g r i c u l t u r a l Expe r imen t S t a t i o n U n i v e r s i t y o f Ve rmont , B u l l e t i n 6 5 6 , 1968, p . 7 6 . Bond, Rober t S . , and W h i t t a k e r , James C. H u n t e r - F i s h e r m a n C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : F a c t o r s in W i l d l i f e Management and P o l i c y D e c i s i o n s . Upper D a r b y , P e n n s y l v a n i a : In R e c r e a t i o n Symposium P r o -c e e d i n g s , N o r t h e a s t e r n F o r e s t Expe r imen t S t a t i o n , 1971 pp .128 - 134. B roomha l1 , Pe te and B r i e n d l e , J a c e , e d . B r i t i s h Co lumb ia Game F i s h . V a n c o u v e r , Canada : Weste rn F i s h and Game M a g a z i n e , 1970. B u r c h , W.R . , and N e i l , H. S o c i a l B e h a v i o u r . N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s and  the E n v i r o n m e n t . New Y o r k : Ha rpe r and Row, 1972. B y r e , Gary L i , and J ames , George A . Leng th and Rates o f I n d i v i d u a l  P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n V a r i o u s A c t i v i t i e s on R e c r e a t i o n S i t e s  and A r e a s . A s h e v i l l e , N o r t h C a r o l i n a : S o u t h e a s t e r n F o r e s t Expe r imen t S t a t i o n , USDA F o r e s t S e r v i c e Resea r ch N o t e , S E - 1 6 1 , 1971, p . 4 . C a t t o n , W i l l i a m R. J r . M o t i v a t i o n s o f W i l d e r n e s s U s e r s . In P u l p and Paper Magaz ine o f Canada , December 19 , 1969, p p . 1 2 1 - 1 2 6 . C h u r c h i l l , Warren and Snow, Howard. W i s c o n s i n C o n s e r v a t i o n Department T e c h n i c a l B u l l e t i n 3 2 , p . 3 1 . C i t i z e n Invo l vement . T o r o n t o , O n t a r i o : P r e p a r e d f o r the Commit tee on Government P r o d u c t i v i t y . Queens P r i n t e r , T o r o n t o , 1972. C l a w s o n , M.and K n e t s c h , J . E conomics o f Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n . W a s h i n g t o n : Resources f o r the F u t u r e I n c . , 1966. D a v i s , R.K. R e c r e a t i o n P l a n n i n g as an Economic P r o b l e m . N a t u r a l Resou r ces J o u r n a l , V o l . 3 , No. 2, 1963, p . 2 4 1 . G o r d o n , C . D o u g l a s . A S o c i o - e c o n o m i c A n a l y s i s o f S p o r t F i s h e r i e s . U n i v e r s i t y o f Idaho, P h . D . D i s s e r t a t i o n , 1970. G o r d o n , C D . , Chapman, D.W. and B j o r n n , T . C . The P r e f e r e n c e s , O p i n i o n s  and B e h a v i o u r o f Idaho A n g l e r s as R e l a t e d to Q u a l i t y in  Sa lmon id F i s h e r i e s . Wyoming: P r o c e e d i n g s o f the 49th Annual C o n f e r e n c e Weste rn A s s o c i a t i o n o f S t a t e Game and F i s h C o m m i s s i o n , J u n e , 1969-- 105 -Ha ig-Brown , R o d e r i c k . A d d r e s s to S t e e l h e a d S o c i e t y . V a n c o u v e r : Genera l M e e t i n g , F e b r u a r y , 1973. Hendee , John C. R e c r e a t i o n C l i e n t e l e - The A t t i t u d e s o f R e c r e a t i o n i s t s  P r e f e r r i n g D i f f e r e n t Management A g e n c i e s , Car Campgrounds  o r W i l d e r n e s s in the P a c i f i c No r thwes t . U n i v e r s i t y o f W a s h i n g t o n , P h . D . D i s s e r t a t i o n , 1 9 6 7 -Hendee , J . C . Rura l Urban D i f f e r e n c e in P a r t i c i p a t i o n , J o u r n a l o f R e s e a r c h , Vo l 1, #4, 1 9 6 9 , p.333. Hendee, John C. C a t t o n , W i l l i a m R., Ma r low , L a r r y D . , and Rockman, F rank C . W i l d e r n e s s U s e r s in the P a c i f i c No r th West -T h e i r C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , V a l u e s , and Management P r e f e r e n c e s . P o r t l a n d , O r e g o n : U .S . Depar tment o f A g r i c u l t u r e , PNW-61, 1968. Hendee , J . C a l e , R.P. and H a r r y , J . C o n s e r v a t i o n . P o l i t i c s and Democracy . J o u r n a l o f S o i l and Water C o n s e r v a t i o n #24, N o v / D e c , 1969, p.212. K a r a n k a , E e r o , J . The A p p l i c a t i o n o f a P r e d a t o r - P r e y Model t o the . management of a B i o l og i ca l Resource: The Example of S t e e l h e a d A n q l i n q . M.A. T h e s i s , Geog raphy , 1970. K a t z , D . , and Kahn , R .L . The S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y o f O r g a n i z a t i o n . New Y o r k , L o n d o n , S ydney : John W i l e y and Son I n c . , 1 9 6 7 . L u c a s , R o b e r t . R e c r e a t i o n C a r r y i n g C a p a c i t y o f the Q u e t i c o - S u p e r i o r  A r e a . U .S . Depar tment o f A g r i c u l t u r e , 1964. L i n s a y , J . and O g l e , R. S o c i o - e c o n o m i c P a t t e r n s o f Ou tdoor R e c r e a t i o n  Use Near Urban A r e a s . J o u n a l o f L e i s u r e R e s e a r c h , V o l . 4, #1, W i n t e r , 1972, p.19. L o w e n t h a l , P. R e c r e a t i o n a l H a b i t s and V a l u e s . I m p l i c a t i o n f o r L a n d -scape Q u a l i t v . New York S t a t e P l a n n i n g News, Vo l 33, #4, J u l y / A u g u s t , 1969, p . l . McDona ld , J . Symposium on R e c r e a t i o n i n Canada . O t t awa : 1967. M e u l l e r , E. and Wood, M. P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Ou tdoo r R e c r e a t i o n : F a c t o r s A f f e c t i n g Demand Among Amer i c an a d u l t s . W a s h i n g t o n , D . C . : O . R . R . R . C . S tudy R e p o r t #20, U .S . Government , p.10. M i l l e n b a c h , C l i f f . N a t u r a l R e a r i n g Fond P r o d u c t i o n o f S t e e l h e a d T r o u t . S t a t e o f Wash ington Depar tment o f Game, 1971. N i e , Norman H . , B en t , D a l e H . , and H a d l a i H u l l C . S t a t i s t i c a l Package For the S o c i a l S c i e n c e s , New Y o r k : McGraw H i l l Book C o . , 1970. - 106 -P e a r s e , P e t e r H and Lamb M. The V a l u e o f the Kootenay Lake Spo r t F i s h e r y . V i c t o r i a , B . C . : B r i t i s h Co lumb ia F i s h and W i l d l i f e B r a n c h , S tudy Repor t #3, 1969. P ea r s e Bowden Economic C o n s u l t a n t s L i m i t e d . The V a l u e o f F r e sh Water  Spo r t F i s h i n g in B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . V i c t o r i a , B . C . : F i s h and W i l d l i f e B r a n c h , S tudy Repor t #5, 1971. P e t e r s o n , C .R . and Thomas, R. S t e e l h e a d T r o u t S p o r t F i s h e r y A n a l y s i s . V i c t o r i a , B . C . : F i s h e r i e s Repor t No. 5 9 , B .C . F i s h and Wi I d l i f e B r a n c h , 1968. R o s s i d e s , D a n i e l , W. V o l u n t a r y P a r t i c i p a t i o n in Canada . T o r o n t o , O n t a r i o : Depar tment o f S o c i o l o g y , York U n i v e r s i t y , A p r i l , 1966. S e w e l l , W.D.R. and B u r t o n , I an , e d . P e r c e p t i o n s and A t t i t u d e s in  Resou rce Management. O t t a w a , C a n a d a : 1971. S e w e l l , W.R.D. and R o s t r o n g J . R e c r e a t i o n a l F i s h i n g E v a l u a t i o n . O t t a w a , Canada : Depar tment o f F i s h e r i e s and F o r e s t r y , F e b r u a r y , 1970. S i e g e l , S i d n e y . N o n p a r a m e t r i c S t a t i s t i c s f o r B e h a v i o u r a l S c i e n c e s . T o r o n t o , O n t a r i o : McGraw-H i l l Book C o . , 1956. S o f r a n k o , Andrew J . and N o l a n , M i c h a e l F. S e l e c t e d C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . P a r t i c i p a t i o n P a t t e r n s , and A t t i t u d e s o f Hun te r s and F i she rmen  in P e n n s y l v a n i a , . P e n n s y l v a n i a S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , C o l l e g e o f A g r i c u l t u r e , A g r i c u l t u r a l Expe r imen t S t a t i o n , B u l l e t i n 7 7 0 , June 1970, p . 3 9 . S p a l d i n g , I r v i n g A . V a r i a t i o n o f E m o t i o n a l S t a t e s and E n v i r o n m e n t a l  A c t i v i t y D u r i n g O c c u p a t i o n a l A c t i v i t y and Spo r t F i s h i n g . U n i v e r s i t y o f Rhode I s l and A g r i c u l t u r a l E x p e r i m e n t a l S t a t i o n , B u i l e t i n 402 , 1970. S t a n k e y , G. The P e r c e p t i o n o f W i l d e r n e s s R e c r e a t i o n C a r r y i n g C a p a c i t y . P h . D . , U n i v e r s i t y o f M i c h i g a n , 1971. S t e p h e n s , J . B . A n g l e r Suc ces s as a Q u a l i t y De t e rm inan t o f S p o r t F i s h e r y  . R e c r e a t i o n a l V a l u e s . T r a n s a c t i o n s o f A m e r i c a n F i s h e r i e s S o c i e t y , V o l . 9 5 , #4, 1966, p . 3 5 8 . T h o r s e l 1 , James. W i l d e r n e s s R e c r e a t i o n U s e r s - T h e i r C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , M o t i v a t i o n s , and O p i n i o n s ; A S tudy o f T h r e e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a  P r o v i n c i a l P a r k s . P h . D . T h e s i s , U . B . C . , 1971. U n i t e d S t a t e s Depar tment o f I n t e r i o r . Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n Rev iew. W a s h i n g t o n , D . C . : Commiss ion S p o r t F i s h i n g Today and Tomorrow, Repor t #7, 1962. Wager, J . A . C a r r y i n g C a p a c i t y o f W i l d l a n d s For R e c r e a t i o n . P h . D . T h e s i s , H a r v a r d , 1963. Warner , K a t e r i n e , F. P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n in Water Resou r ces P l a n n i n g . V i r g i n i a : N a t i o n a l Water C o m m i s s i o n , 1971. - 107 -Western A s s o c i a t i o n o f 49th Annua l Western A s s o c i a t i o n o f 51s t Annua l S t a t e F i s h and Game C o n f e r e n c e , 1969. S t a t e F i s h and Game C o n f e r e n c e , 1971• C o m m i s s i o n e r s . Wyoming: C o m m i s s i o n e r s . C o l o r a d o : W i t h l e r , F r e d . Re sea r ch Needs f o r I n t e n s i v e Management o f B r i t i s h Co lumb i a S t e e l h e a d . V i c t o r i a : B .C . Depar tment o f R e c r e a t i o n and C o n s e r v a t i o n , F i s h and W i l d l i f e B r a n c h , 1972 - 108 -APPENDIX A - 112 -STEELHEAD FISHERMAN QUESTIONNAIRE 1. Where were you l i v i n g when you f i r s t took up fishing? Was t h i s an urban area, r u r a l or a small town? How many years ago was th i s ? 2. How man> years have you fished for steelhead? '  3. How many others have you taught to steelhead f i s h ? 4. Do you f e e l that e x i s t i n g steelheading areas are overcrowded? 5. How many days (approx.) l a s t season d i d you f i s h f o r steelhead? Approximately how many did you catch? Approximately what % of your steelheading time was spent on on the Lower Mainland? 6. L i s t your favourite steelhead streams i n order of preference giving reasons for your choice. Stream Reasons 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 7. (a) Have you noticed any changes i n Lower Mainland Steelhead f i s h i n g over the l a s t few years? I f so, what? With respect to f i s h . With respect to f i s h i n g experience. (b) What would you do i f the Lower Mainland was not available to you for steelhead fishing? 8. What are the things which "you enjoy most about your steelhead fis"hing? Please describe them i n as much d e t a i l as you wish i n the space below. (Think about the planning of the f i s h i n g t r i p , the on-site experience, the rememberance of the t r i p , eating the catch, e t c ) . -113 -- L -9. What detracts from your f i s h i n g experience. (Crowding, p o l l u t i o n or poorweather may be some of the factors you would consider). 10. 11. Please rate the following statements by the way you f e e l about steelheading. The numbers beside each statement are for ease of answering. C i r c l e the one you f e e l applies. 1. Strongly Agree 2. Agree 3. Not concerned either way 4. Disagree 5. Strongly Disagree a. I would l i k e to see ' f l y f i s h i n g only' r e s t r i c t i o n s 1 2 3 4 on some steelhead streams on the Lower Mainland. b. I prefer to f i s h with no other fishermen i n sight. 1 2 3 4 c. Catching a steelhead i s not as important to me 1 2 3 4 as just getting away for the outdoor experience. d. Hatchery bred f i s h are as good a game f i s h as 1 2 3 4 the w i l d v a r i e t y . e. The Fish and W i l d l i f e Branch should t r y various 1 2 3 4 management programs to see how fishermen react and to see what eff e c t i t has on the fi s h e r y . f. I would prefer better protection of w i l d species 1 2 3 4 more than the introduction of hatchery bred steelhead. g. I would be opposed to regulations which would 1 2 3 4 r e s t r i c t my access to Lower Mainland streams even i f i t resulted i n less crowded conditions. h. I would be w i l l i n g to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a catch and 1 2 3 4 release fishery. ('Fishing for fun' only). i . Non-resident anglers of the Province have l i t t l e 1 2 3 4 effect on the Lower Mainland steelhead f i s h e r y and therefore should not be r e s t r i c t e d from obtaining a steelhead licence. j . I would prefer to catch steelhead regulary> even i f smalL 1 2 3 k. The only steelhead worth catching i s trophy s i z e . 1 2 3 1. I would accept less days of f i s h i n g i f I could get 1 2 3 a higher q u a l i t y f i s h i n g experience. 4 4 4 Please check the boxes which best apply. I f i s h with: F l i e s Lures Bait I f i s h f o r : Summer Run Steelhead Winter Run Steelhead Other Trout Salmon ^^J>thei^Srjecies Percent of my angling time. 100% • • 75% 50% 251 0% ] • • ] • • 'CD.' CD CD CD CD CD 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 I 1 12. There are various alternatives open to the f i s h e r i e s manager i n t h e i r attempt to better manage t h i s recreation resource, both from the point of view of the f i s h and of the fishermen. What do you f e e l should be empasized i n the managing of the steelhead fisher y i n the Lower Mainland? 13. One management alternative i s about to be i n i t i a t e d by giving the Abbotsford and Capilano hatcheries a steelhead production c a p a b i l i t y . (a) Do you agree with the steelhead hatchery program? Give reasons 'for' or 'against'. I f yes, who do you think should pay? (i) taxpayers i n general ( i i ) a l l fishermen ( i i i ) steelheaders only (b) What r i v e r s of the Lower Mainland would you suggest are suitable to stock with hatchery bred f i s h . (c) Why? PERSONAL INFORMATION (please check ones which apply) a. b. Male Female Age Under 20 21 - 30 31 - 40 " 4 1 - 5 0 51 - 60 61 + c. Occupation Education Less than Gr. 8. Grade 8 - 1 1 High School Grad. Some Post. Sec. Ed. University degree , Household Income Below 3000 3000 - 5999 6000 - 8999 9000 - 11,999 12,000 - 14,999 15,000 - 17,999 18,000 + f. Where do you l i v e ? North § West Van. Vancouver Richmond-Delta-Surrey Coq.-Pt.Moody-Bby.-New West, Maple Ridge-Mission Langley-Abbotsford Chi11iwack Agassiz-Hope Other (specify) g. L i s t your favourite l e i s u r e time a c t i v i e s . Are you a member of a sport f i s h i n g club? Tf V P S ' which one? - 116 -A P P E N D I X B - 117 -THE USE OF THE CHI SQUARE TEST In analysis of the data obtained the chi square test has been used. This test enabled two nominal-seale variables to be cross-classif ied. In this case responses from organized and unorganized fishermen groups. The number following chi square at the base of tables in actual fact indicates the degree of significance that can be attached to this table as a result of di f fer ing opinions and attitudes being expressed by the two groups being tested. The number given following chi square represents the probability of this type of distr ibution occurring. The closer the number is to 1.0 the greater the s i gn i f i cance. Importance of individual cel ls in the matrix can be determined 2 by the equation (fo - fe) (fo and fe refer to observed and expected frequencies of each ce l l . ) Obviously i f both fo and fe are identical we accept a null hypothesis that the same distr ibution would occur for both groups. In most cases they will not be the same and we can obtain a chi square score. By determining degrees of freedom according to the number of cel ls in the matrix the significance level of the cell can be ascertained. This helps to identify spec i f ic areas of significance within the sub-populations. - 118 -APPENDIX C STREAMS - 119 SUGGESTED FOR STOCKING NAME OF STREAM ORGANIZED UNORGANIZED Bear R i v e r 1 — B r u n e t t e R i v e r 2 -C a p i l a n o R i v e r 2h 22 Cheakamus R i v e r 2 10 Cheekeye R i v e r - 1 C h e h a l i s R i v e r 2 2 3 C o q u i h a l l a R i v e r \h 13 Coqui t l am Ri v e r 15 2 6 De B o v i 1 l e S l ough - 1 Emory Creek - 1 F r a s e r R i v e r 1 k H a r r i s o n R i v e r - 6 I nd ian R i v e r h 3 Kanaka Creek k 2 L i t t l e Campbel l R i v e r k 8 Lynne Creek 13 5 Maurquam R i v e r 11 2 N a h a t l a t c h R i v e r - 1 Nicomekl R i v e r 14 9 P i t t R i v e r - h Ra iny R i v e r - 2 Ruby Creek - 1 - 120 -- i i -NAME OF STREAM ORGANIZED UNORGANIZED Salmon R i v e r - 3 ' S e r p e n t i n e R i v e r 6 7 Seymour R i v e r 15 23 Si 1 v e r Creek 8 7 A l o u e t t e Creek 14 2 7 S tave R i v e r 12 7 S u i c i d e Creek 2 3 V e d d e r - C h i l 1 i w a c k 8 46 TOTAL 194 267 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0101322/manifest

Comment

Related Items