UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

An economic survey of bovine Haematuria Vesicalia in British Columbia : the occurrence of the disease… Mackenzie, James Cameron 1932

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1932_A4 M2 E2.pdf [ 4.76MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0101312.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0101312-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0101312-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0101312-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0101312-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0101312-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0101312-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0101312-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0101312.ris

Full Text

ECONOMIC SUBSET OF BO VI EE HAEMATURIA VESICALIS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA: The Occurrence of the Disease and Results of a Method of Treatment (\ , s A Thesis submitted for the Degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE IN AGRICULTURE in the Department of ANIMAL HUSBANDRY The: University of British Columbia APRIL, 1932 UmtODUCTIOH" Haematuria Vesicalis i s commonly called "Red Water" disease of cattle in British Columbia* The disease causes severe economic losses annually i n the herds of farm operators in the "Red Water" area* Haematuria Vesicalis i s distinct from a l l other types of "Red Water" in that: 1* It i s confined to cattle, both sexes being a f f l i c t e d , although females are in the great majority* 2* It i s peculiarly confined to certain definite l o c a l i t i e s under similar geographic conditions* 3* It i s almost entirely a localized affection of the bladder. 4* The disease usually shows chronic progress once i t makes i t s appearance* 5* It i s of far greater distinction because of the fact that no one has definitely proven the cause of the disease or submitted a treatment that i s absolute in i t s control* The Animal Husbandry Department of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia has carried on investigations during the winter of 1930 and the spring of 1931 relative to the causes, effects, losses, history of animals, feeding, and general 2 practices on the "Red Water1* areas. Field feeding t r i a l s were carried on over this period with a treatment of coral rock and soda "bicarbonate* ACIOTOWLEDGEMENTS The writer wishes to take this opportunity of expressing; his thanks to F. M. Clement, Dean of the Faculty of Agriculture and members of the Animal Husbandry Department of the University of British Columbia* for their criticisms and helpful suggestions in connection with this investigation* The writer also expresses deep gratitude to Mr. ¥. H. H i l l , Department of National Health, Vancouver, B. C., and Dr. E. A. Bruce, Dominion Animal Pathologist, Agassis, B. C., for their interest and valuable assistance while the work was in progress. Grateful acknowledgement i s also made to the many farm operators who have co-operated so materially in supplying information and property for this investigation. H. M. King, Professor and Head of the Department. R. L. ^ avis, Associate Professor* H. R. Hare, Associate Professor. J. G. Jervis, Special Lecturer i n Veterinary Science. C P U T E 3J T S Page. Description of the Disease* 1 Economics of the Disease* 2 Diagnosis. 3 Course of the Disease. 4 The Project* 6 Territory Covered* 6 Method of Making Contact with co-Operators* 7 History of Materials used in this Project* 8 The Materials. 10 Method of Preparation of Materials* 11 Raterof Feeding* 11 The Results of Coral Rock-Soda Bicarbonate Treatment* 11 Description of Typical "Red Water" Lands. 13 Distribution of "Red Water" Farms. 13 Acreage Covered. 14 Cultivation of Lands. 15 Topography of Lands. 16 Soil Types. 16 Drainage* 17 Reaction of s o i l * 17 Cultivation Practices. 18 Feeding Stuffs Grown on "Red Water" Farms. 18 Pasturage. 19 Feeding Stuffs Purchased. 20 Page Description of Barns. 20 Feeding of Concentrates and Mineral Supplements. 21 Water Supply. 21 Number and Distribution of Animals i n the Survey. 22 Size of Herds. 22 Breeds Affected. 23 Source of Young Stock. 23 Age Range of Affected Animals. 24 Age of Contraction of -Disease. 25 The Time and Other Factors Favouring the Contraction of the Disease. 25 Effect on Milk Production. 26 Condition of Affected Animals. 2? Suggested Causes of the Disease. 27 Remedies Suggested. 29 History of Appearance of Disease on Individual Farms. 30 Economic Effect of Disease. 31 Usefulness of Milk and Meat of Affected Animals. 31 Suggestions. 32 Conclusions. 34 Bibliography. 35 Appendix Map Showing Locations of Red Water Co-Operators. 39 Questionaire, Form 1. 40 Questionalre, Form 2. 44 Tables Compiled from Questionaire Form 1. 46 Tables Compiled from Questionaire Form 2. 59 DESCRIPTION OF THE DISEASE The "Red Water" disease of cattle, a local name for Haematuria Vesicalis (discharge of bloody urine of or pertaining to the bladder) i s a term which has i n the past been used somewhat loosely, with the result that there are a number of affections so designated* For example, reddish colored urine may be passed by animals a f f l i c t e d with peroplasmois, bacillary hemaglobinuria* anthrax and renal c a l c u l i * It might also be caused by malnutrition due to feeding frozen roots, moldy hay and even by mechanical injuries* Accurate information on the early history of the disease i s somewhat d i f f i c u l t to obtain because i n earlier years i t s true nature was not recognized and i t was confused with other diseases which i t more or less resembles* In various parts of the world, diseases commonly termed "Red Water" have occurred of which some of them are similar, while others are entirely separate and distinct* "Red Water" as here discussed refers only to the disease Haemajfuria Vesicalis which i s so prevalent i n the coastal region of B r i t i s h Columbia and the States of Washington and Oregon. Of great distinction i s the fact that no one has definitely proven the cause for the disease, or submitted a treatment that i s absolute i n i t s control* - 2 -Haematuria Vesicalis i s distinct from a l l other types of "Red Water* in that (l) It i s confined to cattle, both sexes "being affected, although females are i n the great majority. (2) It i s peculiarly confined to certain definite l o c a l i t i e s under similar geo-graphic conditions. (3) It i s almost entirely a localized affection of the Bladder. ( l ) ( 4> ( l 8 ) ( S ) animals autopsied l o c a l l y have shown primary affection of bladder only. The redness of the urine, whether i t be only slightly colored, ar t e r i a l red in color or contains blood clots, i s the result of small bleeding growths on the inner (16) lining of the bladder. (4) The disease usually shows chronic progress once i t makes i t s appearance* ^ 1^)(4)(5) ECONOMICS OF THE DISEASE The disease ha3 been apparent i n certain sections of B r i t i s h Columbia for at least f i f t y years or ever since many sections peculiar to the disease have been settled. It i s of great economic importance and significance to a l l farm operators in the "Red Water" area. Great losses have been manifest annually to farm operators both as to their - 3 -"breeding: stock and i n dollars and cents* There are cases where single operator's losses have "been conservatively estimated at over forty thousand dollars, and some individuals have "been actually forced out of the dairy "business* Others have been constantly kept on the verge of bankruptcy on account of their losses of cattle* lessened production and restricted sale of stock* In the "Red Water" area i t i s d i f f i c u l t to estimate the total number of farm operators whose cattle have suffered or are suffering from the disease* It i s f e l t that as soon as i t i s known that herds have suffered from the ravishes of the disease, the value of their holdings would immediately decrease as well as any chance they might have in the sale of stock for breeding or production purposes* It i s for these reasons that many operators, while very interested i n any investigations concerning the eradication of the disease, w i l l deny ever having had i t i n their herds* This i s often true even though this fact i s known to their neighbors. DIAGNOSIS OF THE DISEASE To veterinarians and stockmen who have had even considerable experience with the disease, the diagnosis i s very d i f f i c u l t unless the animal i s seen urinating and the "Red Water" i s apparent* When this sympton is seen i t i s 4 -almost invariably the beginning of the end. From then on the disease i s chronic and the animal may l i v e for a. period of weeks or possibly a number of years* the time probably depending on the constitution of the individual animal and i t s power to withstand the advancement of the disease and the loss of blood. Bull, Dickinson and Dann ^ states "An animal suffering from enzootic haematuria passes bloody urine from time to time. The amount of blood present in the urine varies very considerably and the amount passed by an animal may be too small to attract the attention of the owner or attendant. Again the haemorrhages, although relatively large, may be of very short duration and escape detection under ordinary circumstances. We conclude that the haemorrhage must be large and continue for some time before the attendant w i l l observe any abnormality. The haemorrhage from the lesions in the bladder mucosa is accidental. One or more small and insignificant lesions may lead to severe or even f a t a l haemorrhages, while larger or more extensive lesions may bleed very l i t t l e . We find that lesions may be present in the bladder for many years without definite symptons of haematuria developing. The c l i n i c a l diagnosis is uncertain, for an examination of the urine from an affected animal at any one time may f a i l to show the presence of blood, either macroscopically or microscopically. Under these circumstances one i s unable to obtain exact inform-ation as to the number of animals affected i n a herd, nor i s i t possible to exclude the presence of the disease i n any herd." COURSE OF THE DISEASE In the f i r s t visible stage of the disease nothing unusual i s noticed except a slight red color i n the urine which i s pinkish and most pronounced at the end of the urination* The color may vary from a slight pinkish to a bright a r t e r i a l red. Part of the urine may appear normal with the coloring at the end of the urination, or i t may "be colored throughout. This condition may then clear up and not show again for some considerable time. In other cases the passing of increasing quantities of blood at varying intervals, when the disease has been in progress for some time, i s accompanied by the passing of clots of blood. These clots vary i n size from the size of a pea to six inches in length and three inches in diameter. It i s generally considered, by stockmen, that when clots begin to show, the end i s very near. In some cases the urine takes on various colors described as coffee colored, the color of port wine, reddish brown, and even black* In many case3 the animal makes frequent attempts to urinate, passing: only a small quantity of urine* The physical condition of animals affected seems to vary greatly. Some animals keep up their normal weight and condition, eat and produce as i f they were i n normal health; while others w i l l go off their feed for days, lose weight rapidly and practiC' a l l y dry up* Some seem to exhibit a depraved appetite and when outside w i l l eat s o i l as i f i t were a grain mixture* This probably indicates that there i s a nutritional deficiency, or a lack of nutritional balance in the animal*i diet* - 6 -THE PROJECT The purpose of the project was: (1) To continue preliminary work already covered in order to ascertain the possible value and benefits as a cure by feeding: the mixture of Coral Rock and Sodium bicarbonate to cattle a f f l i c t e d with the disease on a number of animals under varying conditions* (2) To ascertain the value of the mixture as a means of preventing cattle on "Red Water" farms from becoming affected* (3) To obtain various specimens of materials from affected animals for analysis and further investigations. (4) To investigate the s o i l s , crops and other products originating on these areas* (5) To obtain views of men concerned with the disease regarding causes, effects, losses and any other inform-ation available which would be of value in the discovery of the cause or prevention of the disease. This project commenced in October 1930, but owing to a reduction in appropriations to the University of Br i t i s h Columbia was discontinued for the time being i n the spring of 1931* TERRITORY COVERED The lo c a l i t y in which investigations were carried - 7 -on was on both the north and south sides of the Eraser River* This extended from the city of "Vancouver as far east on the north side of the river as Hatzlc, and on the south side of the river as far east as Rosedale, taking in the territory south to the international boundary* METHOD OF MAKING CONTACT WITH CO-OPERATORS Announcements were inserted i n various newspapers and agricultural papers stating that the disease was to be investigated and materials would be supplied free of charge i n exchange for co-operation i n the form of personal and confidential information as well as results on the feeding of the mixture supplied* As soon as farmers indicated their willingness to co-operate in this project, the Animal Husbandry Department sent out a form l e t t e r explaining the purpose of the project, method of feeding, dosages and manner of keeping records* At the same time a small amount of the mixture was 3ent by mail in order that no time would be lost i n commencing the treatment. A l l operators desiring to co-operate were accepted* Later, v i s i t s were paid to these co-operators and any d i f f i c u l t i e s or questions which had arisen were discussed and a l l possible information given. Two questionnaires were compiled, one dealing with general farm conditions, and the other dealing more specifically with individual animals as to history, age, condition and 8 feeding practices• Each co-operator was requested to f i l l i n these sheets to the "best of his a b i l i t y and return them to the Department* HISTORY OF MATERIALS USED Iff THIS PROJECT In 1926 Dr. E. A. Bruce, Dominion Animal Pathologist at the Dominion Government Experimental Farm at Agassiz, Br i t i s h Columbia, addressing a meeting of the North West Veterinarians* Association held at Victoria, British; Columbia on some of the probably causes of Haematuria Vesicalis, advanced the theory that the disease might be due to some of the silicates present in the s o i l of the "Red Water11 areas. At this time Dr. Bruce advocated the use of a mixture of lime and sodium bicarbonate as a treat-ment for animal3 a f f l i c t e d * As a result of this suggestion Dr. A, Hendrickson, a veterinarian practising at Burlington, Washington, commenced the use of this treatment when he obtained results which were of an encouraging nature; later he substituted a product known as "Shell Flour" in place of the lime. He then increased the dose and obtained better results than anything before used i n the treatment of "Red Water.* Results of his experiments were reported while i n attendance at the convention of the North West Veterinarians* Association held in 1929 at Vancouver* - 9 -Following these favorable reports, Dr. J. (J. Jervis, Lecturer in Animal Pathology at the University of Br i t i s h Columbia, and Dr. Bruce paid a v i s i t to Dr. Hendrickson i n Burlington and evolved the idea of conducting f i e l d feeding t r i a l s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. In consequence of this v i s i t , the Animal Husbandry Department of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia purchased half a ton of Coral Rock from the Marine Products Corporation in Seattle and at the same time purchased a supply of commercial sodium bicarbonate. These two substances were placed at the disposal of Dr. Jervis for dissemination among farms affected with "Red Water." The distribution of these materials was made during the winter of 1929 and the spring of 1930, and the results obtained seemed to warrant the continuation of the project for a f a i r l y long period i n order to obtain more definite results as to a possible cure of the disease. In the spring of 1930 the results obtained were then only indicative of possible progress. The Animal Husbandry Department of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia therefore decided to investigate the disease over a period of two years in a co-operative project with farm operators whose herds were suffering from the disease. 10 -THE MATERIALS The Coral Rock, sold under the trade name of "Shell Flour, n was purchased from the Marine Products Corporation i n Seattle* Washington* The composition of this material as given by the Marine Products Corporation i s as follows: Analysis: Calcium oxide 52*90$ Calcium carbonate 94*41$ Organic matter content *80$ S i l i c a 4*40$ Iodine (a. trace) It i s reported there are also traces of many other elements not yet identified* The actual source of the coral has not been revealed, but i t i s understood to be taken fresh from the ocean somewhere in the South Sea Islands, sun dried and shipped as ballast to Taccana, Washington and ground into flour* The ground coral rock i s tasteless and odorless* Its color i s slightly darker and more speckled than that of white pepper* The fineness varies from a talcum powder to that of a fine sand* The price of the "Shell Flour" was $18.00 per ton, f.o*b* Seattle* The sodium bicarbonate used was the ordinary commercial variety put up i n 112 lb* legs, and cost from 4§- to 5f£ per pound* - 11 -METHOD OF PREPARATION OF MATERIAL Two parts of coral rock to one part of sodium "bicarbonate by weight were thoroughly mixed, f i r s t by hand, then by running the mixture twice through a fine sieve i n order that any particles or lumps might be broken up. This also insured a more uniform mixture. The mixture was then sacked and stored u n t i l required for distribution among the farmers. RATE OF FEEDING The amount recommended to be fed daily was two tablespoanfulls three times a day scattered over the con-centrated feeding stuffs, or this can be done in any other suitable way. Some men fed more or less of the mixture, depending on their personal opinions and the desires of the animal. In some cases the animal would not eat readily of the mixture and so i t had to be administered as a drench, or the animal had to be forced to take i t . In other cases the animals take very readily to the mixture and seem to be very anxious to get i t . THE RESULTS OF THE CORAL ROCK-SQBA. BICARBONATE TREATMENT While over three tons of materials were distributed among co-operators, the period of time over which the actual feeding took place was insufficient to give any definite 12 -results as to the true value of the mixture supplied by the Animal Husbandry Department of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia as a cure or preventative for the disease* The concensus of opinion was, however, that the mixture had great merit and the co-operators a l l desiredand requested that they be allowed to continue feeding i t to their cattle* While some animals died after having received the treatment for some time, and others did not seem to improve, their owners believe, and are probably quite correct, that the d:fcease was too far advanced before the feeding was commenced* Others who f u l l y expected a complete loss i n a very short time found that the mixture not only helped in reducing the loss of blood, but actually brought up the milk production* It was f e l t by practically a l l co-operators that the treatment pro-longed the lives of the animals even though i t might not be a complete cure or preventative* In cases where the disease was i n the early stages the animals cleared up and apparently became normal, i f the treatment was continued* It was also found by those who fed the material to a l l animals in their herds, that, up to the present, no new cases of the disease have developed* The feeding of animals not known to be suffering from the disease was not generally carried on, so that the above statement was based only on the two or three herds which had received the treatment* Since no definite cause i s known for the disease and since i t i s found that the tendency of the treatment was - 13 -to prolong the l i f e and usefulness of the animal, the treatment has been of benefit to animals, both i n the f i r s t stages, and animals that have been suffering from the disease, for some considerable period of time* DESCRIPTION OF TYPICAL "RED WATER" LANDS Haematuria Vesicalis i s essentially a disease of bench land, although i t i s not necessary that such benches be of any great altitude* Even on this bench land low lying areas are found which are swampy i n nature* The disease does not occur on the more or less treeless bottom land such as are designated prairies i n B r i t i s h Columbia* For example, a prairie only a few hundred acres i n extent upon which the disease never develops may be surrounded by bench land farms upon which many cases have been found and many losses have occurred* The typical "Red Water" country i s bush land upon which practically a l l varieties of trees and plants, common to the d i s t r i c t , are found* The bracken fern is a very pro-minent plant on this bush land* DISTRIBUTION OP "RED WATER" FARMS The farms included in t h i 3 project are from various municipalities in the New Westminster D i s t r i c t * The municipalities and the number of farms from which the inform-ation for this thesis i s based, are as follows: - 14 -Surrey 1 Langley 16 Matsqui 26 Chilliwack 8 Maple Ridge 4 Lillooet D i s t r i c t _1 Total 56 The range of occupancy of co-operators on these farms varies from 40 years down to 2 years. Table showing number of various periods of occupancy and number of co-operators in each, group: 40 years 30-40 20-30 10-20 2-10 4 5 7 23 17 ACREAGE COVERED In this survey the total number of acres, of a l l farms investigated, is two thousand seven hundred and thirty-four* 24 acres are i n Surrey 606 n » » Langley 1605 n » " Matsqui 280 tt " " Chilliwack 139 M » " Maple Ridge 80 » n " Lillooet D i s t r i c t The acreage on the individual farms varies a l l the way from five up to one hundred and sixty* - 15 -Table showing number of farms in various sizes of farm acreages* 100 acres 51-99 26-50 5-25 and over 4 14 21 17 CULTIVATION OF LANDS The average number of acres per farm in this survey i s approximately forty-nine acres* In the matter of cleared land the total acreage is one thousand two hundred and twenty-nine acres distributed as follows: Surrey 15 acre Langley 308 it Matsqui 635 * Chilliwack 195 H Maple Ridge 44 n Lillooet D i s t r i c t 32 The cleared acreage on these farms varies from three acres up to one hundred and thirty acres* Table showing number of farms i n various sizes of cultivated land acreages* 100 acres 51-99 26-50 5-25 and over 1 2 8 45 - 16 -44.9 per cent, of the total acreage in the survey is cleared land. There i s a great variance in the number of years the land has been cleared. The number of years varies from one to f i f t y . The general practice seems to be to spread the clearing over a number of years, doing the clearing at odd times. The variance i n years -would seem to suggest that the actual number of years the land has been cleared, i n i t s e l f , has no effect on the disease. TOPOGRAPHY OF LANDS The general topography of the "Red Water" land i s of a r o l l i n g type. Of the replies received there are forty-one operators who report that their land i s rolli n g , and nine report theirs level* On these r o l l i n g types of farms there i s a wide difference of altitude between farms i n the same di s t r i c t and other d i s t r i c t s as well as on individual farms. On some farms, while the land i s r o l l i n g , there i s only a few feet difference in altitude, while on other land termed rol l i n g , there may be deep ravines or h i l l s i d e s with a variation i n altitude of over one hundred feet. SOIL TYPES The same variance i s true as to s o i l types, the s o i l differing widely as to d i s t r i c t s and individual farms. There 17 are three main types of s o i l reported; these are chocolate loam, sandy loam and clay* These soils are f a i r l y evenly divided and make up the majority of the s o i l s * Then there are a few farms with what i s described as gravelly, peat, brownish black s o i l , and red clay* There may be any combination of these types on some farms* DRAINAGE Of the f i f t y - s i x farms studied i n this survey there are twenty-nine which are dependent wholly on natural drainage* Some of these farms are very well drained naturally, while on others there i s a great need for under-drainage* There are sixteen who have some under-drainage on their land. In the great majority of cases the land that i s under-drained i s used for the growing of root crops. Eight farmers report their land i s f u l l y supplied with under-drains. These of course refer only to the land which i s cleared and under cultivation. Three men fa i l e d to answer this question. REACTION OE SOIL While i t i s generally considered and agreed that a l l of the land in this area is acid, there are only nine who definitely know that their s o i l i s actually acid i n reaction-One operator reports that his land i s not acid i n reaction while the rest are doubtful as to the reaction. - 18 CULTIVATION PRACTICES Thirty-two of the farmers plow their land once every three years, seven follow a practice of having their land plowed once in every four years, two i n five years, two in six years, and seven i n seven years. The remaining farmers have no fixed system of cultivating which may almost mean that the land, once i t i s "broken, i s not plowed for many years. In some cases this would "be as high as fifteen years or more* The depth of plowing varies from four to ten inches. Individual farmers w i l l vary from one to four inches in their own plowing, About half of the farmers plow from five to six inches in depth; about one third plow from six to eight inches and the remainder vary up to ten inches. A l l farmers apply their stable manure to the land. Not quite half of the co-operators have applied some form of commercial f e r t i l i z e r in small quantities. In almost a l l cases the commercial f e r t i l i z e r s are used on the root crops only. A few men have applied small quantities of lime, but only for one single year and on a limited acreage. FEEDING- STUFFS GROWN There i s a great variety of feeds grown on these farms. There i s probably every mixture of hays grown as over half of the co-operators report that they grow "mixed hay." These mixtures are generally composed of timothy, oats and the - 19 -clovers* There are a few who grow straight oats for hay, also several mho have straight clover crops* Two or three grow a l i t t l e a l f a l f a along with their other hays* It i s a f a i r l y common practice for farmers to salt their hay when storing* Roots are grown on many of the farms, the frequency of these are i n the order of mangels, carrots, turnips and beets* A botanical survey has failed to indicate any difference in the herbage and grasses between"Red Water" farms and those on which the disease does not occur* PASTURAGE The pasture of animals in the "Red Water" areas vary considerably* In almost a l l cases, unless the whole area of the farm was cleared the cattle were pastured on some type of uncleared land* This may be heavily timbered land, stump land, that may or may not have been, seeded down to grasses, or bush land that may have a l l varieties of vegetation common to the Lower Mainland of B r i t i s h Columbia. On many farms the cattle have access to some cleared land at some time of the year. About one third of the co-operators plow their pasture land* Of this number over half of them plow at least once i n every three years, and the great majority of those plowing their pasture land plow at least once in every five years. Some cleared pasture has never been plowed since the land was broken. The depth of this plowing i s mostly from six to eight inches. It would seem that the cause of the disease does not - 20 -originate in the uncleared land on account.of the fact the number of bulls that have been known to die of the disease and have never been on uncleared land • FEEDING STUFFS PURCHASED In the great majority of cases a l l the roughages are grown on the farm and most of the concentrates are purchased* The feeds purchased vary widely from special commercial dairy cattle feed mixtures down to the lowest grade of concentrates obtainable* The concentrate mixtures vary widely being made up from one to half a dozen plant sources; several include f i s h meal in their fixtures• The source of these feeds i s of course unknown to the farmer as these feeding stuffs are sold by large feeding houses and are shipped out from their large warehouses* There i s a small quantity of hay purchased by some men* DESCRIPTION OF BARNS In a l l cases the barns are of wooden construction* The great majority of barns have wooden floors* There i s , however, a small number which have had cement floors put in* In the matter of cleanliness there i s a very marked variation* Some barns are very poorly kept, dirty, dark, small, dismal and really not f i t for cattle, while others are neat, clean, well lighted and ventilated. It would seem that the stable conditions do not have very much to do with the disease as - 21 -some of the men who have the greatest losses and are troubled most with the disease have the "best kept, most carefully-constructed and e f f i c i e n t l y planned barns* FEEDING OF CONCENTRATES AND MINERAL SUPPLEMENTS In a l l cases the cattle are fed concentrates twice daily and in many cases hay i s fed three times daily for part of the year* In the majority of cases some kind of a mineral supplement i s fed* Salt and bone meal are the chief sources of minerals. A few farmers mixed special mineral mixtures of their own, an example of which i s 30 lbs. limestone, 30 lbs. iodized salt, 30 lbs. bone meal and 4 lbs* "Kow Kure." This particular mixture i s fed at the rate of 2 per cent. The percentage of the mineral mixtures vary from one half of one per cent, up to six per cent. Quite a number of farmers use salt blocks instead of any definite feeding of salt* There are only three of the f i f t y - s i x co-operators who feed ensilage to their cattle* WATER SUPPLY The water supply for cattle varies considerably* In some cases the animals get cit y water piper for some miles. This i s true of certain sections in Chilliwack where they have the Elk Creek water system for the c i t y . There are two or three who have Artesian wells from which the cattle are supplied. There are also two or three who supply their - 22 -cattle "with river water* Springs and creeks are common sources for water supplies* Wells vary in depth from six to ninety feet on different farms* There i s also a variation i n depths of wells on individual farms of from ten to ninety feet. If the drainage i s poor many cattle drink the surface water which i s present. It happens that some cattle are particularly fond of water from definite sources. Some are very fond of getting i t from a definite water hole, while others prefer water from a well. NUMBER OF ANIMALS IN SURVEY In this survey there are five hundred and eighty-one head of cattle owned by the co-operators of which there are ninety-one females and one male affected with Haematuria Vesicalis. These cattle are distributed among the various municipalities as follows. Animals not Affected Animals Affected Surrey 4 2 Langley 162 33 Matsqui 277 39 Chilliwack 88 11 Maple Ridge 35 4 Lillooet D i s t r i c t 15 3 Totals 581 92 SIZE OF HERDS The size of herds vary from three to twenty-six head and the average number per herd i s a l i t t l e better than ten. - 23 -BREEDS AFFECTED Most of the animals represented are grade dairy-cattle. Many types of grades are represented. It would "be impossible and incorrect to state that any one breed i s any more susceptible than another from information obtained in this survey. The probably reason that there are more of any one breed of cattle than another i s on account of the personal desires of the operators and the breed most popular i n the d i s t r i c t . Most of the co-operators have.no feeling; that there i s any one breed of cattle more susceptible than another. Those who have ideas along this line obtain them from their own personal experience with that breed which they are handling. Some men 3ay that "Ayrshires are more susceptible on account of being better rustlers and as a result pick up various things vdiich. are injurious." Then a few state, "That because Holsteins consume more feed they are more susceptible and liable to have the disease." Jerseys are considered by some because they state "That this breed is of a weaker constit-ution and are of a more nervous nature than other breeds.*1 SOURCE OF YOUNG STOCK The practice of farmers i s to keep the best of their heifer calves. About sixty-one per cent, of the farmers buy young stock, thirty-six per cent, do not buy stock, and three per cent, do not answer as to their buying. Of the stock - 24 -raised "by the farmer, seventy-seven per cent, of the co-oper-ators claim that their own stock contract "Red Water." Eighteen per cent, claim that those raised on the farm do not contract "Red Water," and five per cent, do not offer an opinion. In the matter of animals purchased and "brought on to the farms under investigation, forty-eight per cent, of co-operators state that animals purchased contract the disease. Fourteen per cent claim that purchased cattle do not contract the disease. Thirty-nine per cent, of the men do not venture an opinion in this matter. AGE RANGE OF AFFECTED ANIMALS'. The ages of the individual animals included in the survey ranged from one to thirteen years. There are cases where men have reported calves dying, of "Red Water" under one year of age, "but this i s generally "believed to "be very doubtful. The average age of animals in this survey when "Red Water" "becomes evident i s five years. (18) Kerrigan ' in discussing the range in age of affected animals states "The animals affected are generally matured cows (five years old and over) "but occasionally younger animals have "been noted as exhibiting typical symptons. - 25 -AGE OF CONTRACTION OF DISEASE The course of the disease, i t i s generally believed, depends largely on the individual animal*s power to withstand the disease* Approximately one third of the animals contracting "Red Water" have been purchased by their owners and brought on to the farm* The distances from which these animals were purchased vary from immediate neighbors to some considerable number of miles* In practically a l l cases the animals were apparently not affected with the disease at the time of pur-chase* THE TIME AND OTHER FACTORS FAVOURING THE  CONTRACTION OF THE DISEASE The time of year at which "Red Water" seems to affect the cattle most brings forth a variety of opinions* The greatest number of opinions favors that the worst time for cattle i s that time when the cattle are getting.dry feed in the winter and early spring* Some others claim that this time i s the worst but offer no reason. The calving period i s stated by some to be the worst time of year. Then two or three claim that the cold wet rain i s the reason for the disease being more prevalent at a certain time of the year* Water on the land in f a l l and winter is claimed to be the cause of the disease being at i t s worst at that time. One man - 26 -states that i t is his "belief that second crop clover when fed to cattle brings on the disease. The general consensus of opinion i s that the green grass of spring and summer i s very beneficial for their cattle, and the visable evidence of the disease disappears • markedly during that period of the year. About twenty per cent, of the co-operators do not agree with this and state that there does not seem to be any difference with the various seasons of the year. Fifty-seven per cent, of the co-operators believe that the state of pregnancy has no effect on the disease. About twenty per cent, state that the state of pregnancy does have a definite effect. In these cases i t i s believed, that the development of the foetus which causes an additional tax on the system of the dam, stimulates the disease. This is manifested from a period of about two months previous to calving u n t i l about two weeks after. EFFECT OF MILK PRODUCTION Approximately seventy per cent, of the operators believe that the quantity of milk i s reduced on account of their cattle having contracted the disease. About fifteen per cent, of this number claim that the production i s only affected i f the animal i s i n the last stages of the disease or has a very bad attack. Very few men have an opinion as - 27 to whether the quality of the milk i s affected at a l l as they have had no reports on experience as to quality* Twenty per cent, state that the milk production i s not affected in any way, and ten per cent do not venture an opinion. CONDITION OF AFFECTED ANIMALS Opinions are nearly evenly divided as to whether or not the weight and condition (flesh) are affected with the progress of the disease. In some cases the animal seems to thrive and put on weight. These animals seem, to the casual observer, to be perfectly normal and healthy i n appearance. Then i n other cases the animals w i l l either gradually lose weight u n t i l they f i n a l l y die or are slaughtered. Some animals seem to lose their flesh markedly and are certainly in a very poor condition as the disease progresses. The majority of men are of the opinion that i t i s not an hereditary disease while a few of them hold the apposite view. It i s generally conceded that there i s a pre-disposition for the offspring of "Red Water" animals to contract the disease at an earlier age than did their dams or sires. It i s found that i f calves are removed from the "Red Water" area at an early age the disease i s not contracted. SUGGESTED CAUSES OF THE DISEASE Some of the causes, suggested by the co-operators, of the disease, may be classified as follows: - 28 -1. Soils Mineral deficiency or excess, lack of lime, acidity swampy nature, cedar debris* 2. Herbages Weeds, bracken, oat hay with fern dust, mineral deficiency in winter feeds, red clover, acid plants (such as alder and squaw plum), balsam brushy maple leaves* 3. Water* Bad, and fern dust in the water* 4. Generals Catching cold, blood, heredity, ticks from rabbits, road dust, confined in barns, salt i n the hay* It i s claimed by some operators that good farm practices have eliminated the disease on their farms* Bull, Dickinson and Dann. i n discussing the cause of the disease states ttThere would appear to be l i t t l e doubt that certain s o i l conditions lead to some abnormality in the herbage which i s directly responsible for the production of the disease* This abnormality may be the absence of some inorganic constituent, such as one of the rarer elements, the absence of some organic substance which i s usually present i n mixed pasturage, or the presence of some abnormal organic substance due to some abnormal metabolism of the plant* There does not seem to be much support for the hypothesis that some mineral deficiency in the plant i s responsible but this cannot be excluded* Mere traces of some inorganic substance may be necessary for the normal metabolic processes in the cow while other herbivorous animals are able to do without i t . " "The lesions observed i n the bladders of affected animals do not suggest an infective origin* Except in this disease, tumors of the bladder are extremely rare, in cattle. The pathological lesions observed in "Red Water" involve more than one tissue." - 29 -Craig states: n I t would appear that whatever the causal agent may he, i t must be operating for a long period before symptoms develop* From the circumstances under which the disease appears i t i s probable that the disease i s due to some chemical compound or toxic agent which i s picked up at pasture and which i s fed over long periods* This i s suggested by the condition of the pasture and by the fact that the disease i s noted in adult cattle only when they have been kept on certain farms for a number of years* But when one comes to decide what that agent i s or whether there is some particular plant responsible one can come to no conclusion*" (21) Walker v ' i n discussing the cause of the sa medisease states "I am inclined to think that a plant toxine having specific effects on the urinary system i s responsible*" Craig and Kehoe and Kerrigan ^ 1 8^ have investigated, in detail, the belief that the disease was microbic i n origin but found no support for this suggestion* They also observe that the disease appears to be associated with farms where much of the land i s badly cultutated or has gone out of cultivation* REMEDIES SUGGESTED There are scores and scores of cures or remedies used for the control of the disease* These vary from manures to highly advertised patent medicines and very complicated prescriptions* Up to the present time, nothing has been found to give a permanent r e l i e f * This conclusion was f u l l y (5) supported by Craig* 30 -HISTORY OF APPEARANCE OF DISEASE OH INDIVIDUAL FARMS The history of the disease on known "Red Water" farms, located in the "Red Water" area, is not always linked with their establishment, nor does the disease make i t s appearance at any set time after the land has been broken* In some cases the operator may be on the land for ten, twenty or even thirty years before they have a case of the disease* In other cases the disease appears as soon as the land has been settled and has been present ever since* From figures submitted in this survey, i t i s found that the disease has been present on farms varying from one to forty years* Forty-one per cent, of the co-operators declare that the disease has been increasing i n recent years* Very few of the operators offered comprehensive reasons for this increase* Those who do venture an opinion are divided i n their reasons* It i s stated by one that the main reason i s that the winters are now more severe than they were some years ago* Another states that he believed the disease i s contagious. Two other men declared i t is because there are now more cattle in the area than previously. Lastly, one man gave as an explanation that i t i s on account of there being more land settled. Fourteen per cent, of the co-operators stated that in their opinion the disease was diminishing i n recent years. 31 -The reasons advanced by this group i s as follows: the use of better water; greater care of the cattle; different stock, and more cultivation of the land* Sixteen per cent* of the co-operators declared that the disease was neither increasing nor decreasing in recent years, but was just the same as i t ever was* Twenty-nine per cent* did not offer an opinion on this question* ECONOMIC EFFECT OF DISEASE Losses both in cattle and dollars and cents vary greatly on the individual farms. The actual losses are also estimated i n many ways. Some men estimate their total loss as the value placed on their animals, while others include the probable production in milk and offspring* There are men who claim that their whole system of farming is affected in that they build up their herds with the stock they desired and were forced to discard their animals at a younger age than would be necessary i f the disease were eliminated. USEFULNESS OF MILK AND MEAT OF AFFECTED ANIMALS Since Haematuria Vesicalis is a disease of the bladder, i t was generally considered that the milk and meat from animals in good physical condition was perfectly whole-some and f i t for sale on the market. If, however, the animal becomes poor and weak from the loss of blood, the milk should not be used, nor should the meat from such an animal - 32 -be used for buman consumption* Farmers having affected cattle generally attempt to fatten them and dispose of them to local butchers* The price for animals of this type i s very low, ranging from $5*00 upwards, depending on their condition* The butchers know that the farmer i s forced to s e l l in order that the animal w i l l not be a total loss and hence pays as l i t t l e as possible* SUGGESTIONS 1* That there be complete co-operation between federal and provincial governments and the University of British Columbia i n the work of discovering the cause and treatment of this disease* 2* That analyses be made of s o i l s , roughages and other products from various parts of the "Red Water" area for comparison with those from non "Red Water" areas* 3. That analyses be made of samples of urine from animals in the various stages of the disease and at various times of the year for comparison with normal animals* 4* That the milk of animals be investigated in various stages of the disease and while the animals are on winter and summer rations* 5* That animals in the various stages of the disease be autopsied to ascertain the effects of various treatments administered* 6* That a complete botanical survey be made on a number of - 33 -"Red Water" farms in various parts of the country to determine the plants which are common to a l l and which might he the cause of the disease. 7* That an experimental farm he established in the "Red Water" area on which complete surveys of soils, plants and water be made before and during improvements of the farm. 8. That a. number of animals of approximately the same age be obtained when the f i r s t appearance of the disease i s apparent. That this group be divided; one part supplied with feeds and water from the "Red Water" farm; and another part supplied with feeds and water supplied from lands which are known to be non "Red Water." 9. That a group of animals be obtained to ascertain the changes or effects that take place in the animal's body from feeding various amounts of the material as supplied by the Animal Husbandry Department of the University of British Columbia. 10. That a study of other systems of farming be made with a view to recommending definite changes in the affected areas. 11. That a study of the s o i l and i t s proper management be made in the affected areas. 12. That a study of the possibility of changing the kind and quality of the roughages grown and pasture practices of the affected areas. - 34 -CONCLUSIONS 1* That the treatment supplied "by the Animal Husbandry Department of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia tends to clear up animals in the early stages of the disease. 2* That the treatment supplied tends to prolong the l i f e and usefulness of animals which have been a f f l i c t e d for some time. 3. That the treatment has the virtue of being simple i n composition, low in cost, easily handled and readily fed to affected animals. 4. That the treatment alone cannot be expected to remove the cause, but appears to be, in many cases, an effective temporary r e l i e f . 5. a. That dairying i s the major project on the majority of farms. b. That the average size of farms observed in the survey consisted of forty-nine acres with less than half of the acreage under cultivation. c. That the average number of acres per animal i s 4.7 acres. 35 BIBLIOGRAPHY (1) B u l l , L. B», Dickinson, C. G., and Dann, A. T. Enzootic Haematuria (Haematuria Vesicalis) of Cattle in South Australia. Unpublished paper for F i f t h Pacific Science Congress. 1932. (2) Bruce, E. A., Private Communication. Anim. Path. Res. Sta. Agassiz, B. C , Canada. 1931. (3) Craig, J. F.j and Kehoe, D. Chronic Haematuria of Cattle in Ireland. Jour. Dept. Agric. and Tech. Instr. for Ireland. 22rNo. 4. 325-377. 1923. (4) Craig, J. F., and Kehoe, D. Chronic Haematuria i n Cattle i Jour. Dept. Agric. and Tech. Instr. for Ireland. 25f No. 2. 1926. (5) Craig, J. F., Chronic Haematuria of Cattle, (with discussion) Vet. Rec. 10: No. 4. 68-71, 87-88. 1930. (6) Dickinson, C. G., and Bull, L. B. Enzootic Haematuria of Bovines. Jour. Counc. Sc. and Ind. Res. Australia. 2: No. 4. 232-238. 1929. 36 (?) Grauer, F. W., Hematuria. Vesicalis (Red Water) and i t s Relationship To B r i t i s h Columbia Agriculture* Thesis. 1930. (8) Hodwen, S. Red Water in B r i t i s h Columbia. Ann. Rept. Vet. Dir. Gen. and Live Stock Comm. Dept. Agric* Canada. 136-144. 1911. (9) Hodwen, S. Haematuria. Ann. Rept. Vet. Dir. Gen. Dept. Agric. Canada. 74-79. 1913. (10) Hodwen, S. A Study of Haematuria in France and Other Countries. Ann. Rept. Vet. Dir. Gen. Dept. Agric. Canada. 119-129. 1914* (11) Hodwen, S. Bovine Haematuria. Jour. Am. Vet. Med. Assn. 51$ N.S. 4. 4* No. 6, 822-830 1917. (12) Hoare, E. W. A System of Vetinary Medicine. General Diseases 2t 1915. (13) Hutyra, F. and Marek, J . Pathology and Therapeutics of the Diseases of Domestic A nimals. 1: 981-982, 1912 and 3: 1926. 3? (14) Imperial Agricultural Bureaux. AL Preliminary Bote on Chronic Haematuria (Haematuria Vesicalis) i n Cattle. The Vet. B u l l . 1: Ho. 1, 94-95. 1931. (15) Jervis, J. G-. Private Communication. Lect. Anim. Path. University of B r i t i s h Columbia. 1931. (16) Kalkus, J. W. Red Water or Bloody Urine i n Cattle. West. Wash. Exp. Sta. 12: Ho. 3, 74-76. 1924. (17) Kearney, W. Haematuria. Ann. Rept. Dept. of Agric. Br. East Africa. 176-177, 1917—1918. (18) Kerrigan, J. Chronic Haematuria Affecting Cattle. H. Zeal. Jour. Agric. 33: Ho. 2, 85-87. 1926. (19) McKee, J. R., and McKee, C. S. Red Water in Cattle. B u l l . Vancouver Med. Assn. 5:Ho. 3, 55-69. 1928. (20) Record, E. and Vawter, L. R. Red Water Disease of Cattle, (Bacillary hemoglob-inuria. ) The Univ. of Nevada. Agric. Exp* Sta. Bull. No. 103. 1928. N- 38 -(21) Walker, I., Private Communication to W. H. H i l l . Haematuria Vesicalis in Cattle. Chief. Vet. Res. Off. Vet. Res. Lab. Kenya Colony, Br. East Africa. Jan* 1932. - 40 -Form 1* C-o-operator *s No** THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Red Water Project Bate 1. Name of Operator* • • ..... 2* Legal description of property.......* 3* P. 0. Address . 4. How Long have you been on this property 5* Total acreage. 6. Number of acres cleared... 7* How many years has i t been cleared..... 8. How often i s i t ploughed 9. How deeply is i t ploughed... 10* What f e r t i l i z e r s do you use, i f any.... 11. What amount of f e r t i l i z e r s per acre per year.. 12* What crops do you grow for feeding your cattle 13* Description of uncleared land 14* Description of pasture... 15. Has this pasture land been ploughed 41 -16* How often.......................... 17* How deep 18. Altitude 19. Rainfall 20. Topography. 21. Soil Type 22. Reaction...... * 23. Drainage (natural and underdrained) 24. Stable conditions 25. Where do cattle get their water supply. Wells..........• How deep.........Spring.........Sloughs * .Rivers or creeks Other sources. 26. Total Ho. of animals in herd.......... .* 27. Breed • 28. Number affected • • 29. What do you consider to be the cause of red water........ 30. At what age do you consider red water i s contracted 31. Is i t worse at any particular time of the year 32. Why - 42 -33. Is i t better at any particular time of the year 34. Why 35. In your opinion i s red water hereditary........ 36. Upon what facts do you base your opinion....... 37. Does the state of pregnancy affect i t 38. If so, how and when » 39. Do you consider red water affects the quality and quantity of milk produced................ 40. What breed do you consider most susceptible 41. Why 42. Do you consider there i s more than one type of red water in B r i t i s h Columbia.. 43. If so, what are the symptoms 44. Do you raise your own young stock 45. Do they contract red water. 46. Do you buy young stock - 43 -47. Bo they contract red water 48. Known history as a red water farm 49• How many animals have you lost each year............... •«• > 50. Give an estimate of your loss caused "by red water since starting to farm this property............ 51. In your opinion is red water increasing or decreasing in recent years. 52. What i s the reason............. 53. .To whom sold, when, and how much realized for animals disposed of • 54. Suggestions 55. Remarks - 44 Form 2. Go-operatorrs Ho Animal Ho THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA. Red Water Individual Animal Report Date 1• Name......................... • 2. Owner •••• * 3. Breed ... 4. Sex...... 5. State of Pregnancy...... 6. Age • 7. Did you raise this animal 8. If not where did i t come from and at what age 9. Was i t affected at time of purchase 10. At what age and date did i t become affected 11. Has any of her offspring contracted red water......... If so at what age..................................... What is her average annual production 12. Has red water affected the quality and quantity of her milk production. 13. Has red water affected her weight and condition » If so, how...... 45 14. Related pathological conditions 15* Autopsy 16. What home grown feeds do you use What kinds and quantities 17. Quality. 18. Do you feed ensilage. If so, what kind..... 19. What feeds do you buy 20. What is their source 21. About how much, of feed is grown and how much bought per year • •• 22. How many times a day do you feed... 23. Do you feed any mineral supplements If so, what and how much........... 24. Feeding management remarks - 46 -Tables Compiled from Q,uestionaire Form !• 4. How long have you "been on this property. 5. Total acreage. 6. Number of acres cleared. 7. How many years has i t been cleared. 8. How often i s i t ploughed. 9. How deeply is i t ploughed. Farm Ques. No. 4 5 6 7 8 9 1. 17 12 12 18-20 2-3 8-9 2. 2 8 8 ? «? _ 3. 11 80 20 1-40 2 5-6 4. 22 40 20 1-32 3 6-8 5. 3 80 40 1-22 ? 4-6 6. 6 30 15 12 3 5-7 7. 19 26 21 1-15 3 9 8. 8 20 9 1-9 3 5 9. 40 40 25 1-40 3-4 7 10. 16 160 25 13 3 6 11. 7 25 10 1-17 7 4-8 12. 1 60 35 18 - -13. 10 20 10 1-10 - 6-8 14. 35 80 60 1-35 N.5. 5 15* 2 145 50 1-50 4 6 16. 10 57 14 1-10 5 6 17. 40 156 35 10-40 3 6-8 18. 10 83 25 7-25 3 8 21. 11 24 15 1-11 5 6 23. 20 20 18 1-20 3 5-6 25. 31 40 15 1-30 4 4-5 26. 10 40 15 1-10 3 5 27. 11 20 12 11 4 5 28. 35 40 30 20 3 6 29. 10 70 70 10 3 6 30. 11 27 17 1-11 4 6 31. 7 52 14 1-7 3 6-8 35. 30 80 25 1-30 3 6 36. 4 70 15 5 2 6 37. 4 30 25 1-20 3 6-7 38. 12 40 20 40 N.S. 5 39. 26 40 8 2-26 3 6-7 40. 10 20 20 1-10 3 6 41. 17 39 10 1-17 1 6-7 42. 3 38 9 1-? very l i t t l e 8-9 43. 20 5 5 17 3 8 - 47 Farm Ho. 4 5 6 7 8 9 44. 37 80 23 2-35 4-5 6 45.. 9 10 3 1-3 3 5-6 46. 19 50 10 2-25 4 6 47. 11 37 18 1-11 4 6-7 48. 40 25 10 1-40 1 6-7 49. 7 25 25 ? 6 5-6 50. 25 10 8 15 3 4 51. 14 92 14 1-14 1-14 6 52. 18 10 8 8 8 6 53. 6 40 15 ? 3 6 54. 6 40 15 ? 3 6 57. 21 10 6 2-20 3 4 58. 40 49 35 ? ? 6 59. 11 80 32 1-11 3 9 60* 10 80 35 1-10 3 4-6 62. 20 10 3 3-10 2 10 63. 6 40 20 ? 6 6-8 64. 5 28 23 5 3 8 65. 8 41 15 1-8 - 5-6 66. 14 160 130 1-13 3 4-6 48 -10. What f e r t i l i z e r s do you use, i f any. 11. What amount of f e r t i l i z e r s per acre per year. 12. What crops do you grow for feeding your cattle. 14. Description of pasture. Farm Ques. Ho. 10 11 12 14 1. S.M. CM. C & 0 Hay, Mangles Cleared 2. S.M. C.Fert. Hay, Roots, Carrots, Low level land (mostly) Mangle s 3. S.M. 250 Mixed Hay, Carrots, Rough cleared, Roots, Seeded to grass 4. S.M. C.Fert. C & T Hay, Turnips, Bush, seeded Lime Carrots, Mangles 5. S.M. C.Fert. 300 T Hay, Red Clover, Bush, High and Lime Green Oats Low land 6. S.M. CM. Mixed hay* Hay f i e l d s , Uncleared 7; S.M. Mixed Hay Uncleared 8. S.M. 0 & C Hay Uncleared 9. S.M. C.Fert. C & 0 Hay, Ensilage Partly cleared and uncleared 10. S.M. C & T Hay, Oats, Part low, Carrot s Floods 11. S.M. C & T Hay, Beets, Uncleared Carrots 12. S.M. Oat Hay, Carrots, Cleared Mangles 13. S.M. C.Fert• Hay, Turnips Ferns 14. S.M. Mixed Hay, Turnips Uncleared 15. S.M. Hay, Ensilage, Uncleared Turnips 16. S.M. Hay, Roots Uncleared 17. S.M. C.Fert. 400 Mixed Hay Uncleared 18. S.M. C.Fert. 500 Hay, Roots Uncleared 21. S.M. Seaweed Hay, Mangles Part cleared 23 i S.M. C.Fert. A l f a l f a , 0 & C Hay, Lime Mangles, Mostly cleared 25. S.M. C.Fert. Mixed Hay, Mangles Uncleared 26. S.M. C.Fert. Mixed Hay, Mangles Seeded Lime 27. S.M. Lime Mixed Hay, Mangles Barnyard and Hayfield 28. S.M. Corn, Mixed Hay, Uncleared Carrots 29. S.M. C.Fert. 300 Mixed Hay, Beets, Cleared Mangles 30. S.M* Oat Hay, Carrots, Part cleared Mangles 31. S.M. Mixed Hay, Mangles Uncleared 49. Farm No. Ques. 10 11 12 14 35. S.M. Lime 1 ton Hay, Roots Uncleared 36. S.M. Lime 1 ton Hay, Roots Uncleared 37. S.M. C.Fert. 500 Hay, Roots Cleared 38. S.M. Hay, Roots Mostly cleared Fern patches 39. S.M. C & 0 Hay, Beets Seeded Mangles 40. S.M. C Hay Cleared 41. S.M. 0 & C Hay Stumps 42. S.M. Red & White Carrots Seeded 43. S.M. Oats, Hay- Cleared 44. S.M. C.Fert. 5-600 Mixed Hay, Corn, Harts Rough "burnt 45. S.M. Goat M. Mixed Hay Uncleared 46. S.M. C.Fert. 400 Mixed Hay, Roots None 47. S.M. C & T Hay Uncieared 48. S.M. Mixed Hay, Corn Uncleared 49. S.M. Hay, Corn, Carrots Cleared 50. S.M. Carrots, Potatoes Cleared 51. S.M. C & 0 Hay Everything 52. S.M. C.Fert. Hay Cleared 54. S.M. Hay Cleared 57. S.M. Mixed Hay Uncieared 59. None Mixed & 0 Hay, Part cleared A l f a l f a , Corn, Roots Kale 60. S.M. C.Fert. 150 P,0,T, A l f a l f a , mixed Hay Cleared 62. S.M. Oat Hay Uncleared 63. S.M. 0, P, Silage, Mixed Hay, Carrots Hillside 64. S.M. C & T Hay, Green Rye Oats, Y/heat None 65. S.M. Mixed Hay, Carrots, Uncleared Turnips 66. S.M. C.Fert. 600 Mixed Hay, Carrots, Cleared Mangles, Turnips - 50 -15. Has this pasture land been ploughed. 16. How often. 20. Topography. 21. S o i l Type. 22* Reaction. 23. Drainage (natural and underdrained)* ( no and yes ). Farm Ques. No. ie 16 20 21 22 23 1. Yes 2-3 Rolling Black Brown yes Loam 2. Level Clay Loam some 3. No Rolling Sandy Loam Acid some 4. No Rolling Sandy Loam some 5. Yes 1-15 Rolling Sandy Loam some Gravelly 6. Part 3 Rolling High Acid no 7. No Flat Black choc. Not acid yes Sandy Loam 8. No Rolling Choc. Loam Acid 9, No Rolling Sandy Loam no 10. No Rolling Clay yes 11. No Rolling Choc. Loam no 12. Yes Flat Clay Loam Acid yes 13. Yes 3 Flat Choc. Loam yes 14. ? Rolling Choc. Loam Acid 15. No Rolling Choc. Loam Acid both 16. No Rolling: L. Sandy no Loam 17. No Rolling- Clay Loam Acid some 18. No Rolling Clay Loam Acid some 21. Yes 5 Rolling Clay Loam no 23. Yes 3 Rolling Light Loam Acid no 25. No Rolling Mt. Soil Acid no 26. No Flat Light Loam Acid no 27. No Flat Gravel Acid no 28. No Rolling Choc. Loam no 29. Yes 3 Level Clay Loam, Acid no Peat 30. No Rolling Sandy Loam, Acid no Sandy Subsoil 31. No Rolling All u v i a l Acid no 35. No Rolling Red Loam no 36. No Rolling Red Loam no 37. Yes 2 Rolling Choc. Loam Acid no 38. Some ? Rolling Clay Loam part 39. No Rolling Choc. Loam no 40. Yes 5 Rolling Choc• Loam Acid no 41. Yes 2 Level Loam yes 42. No Flat, Brown Ravines - 51 -Farm Ho. Ques. 15 16 20 21 22 23 43. Tes 3 Southern Slope Sandy Loam no 44. Some 5 Rolling Choc. Clay some Loam 45. Ho Sand H i l l Sandy Loam no 46. Rolling Clay Loam Acid some 47. Ho Rolling Choc. Loam no 48. No Plat Sandy Loam no 49. Rolling Clay Loam, some Peat Loam 50. Yes Rolling Light no 51. No Rolling Choc. Loam no 52. Yes 8 Clay Loam Acid yes 54. Yes 6 Rolling Mixed some 57. No. Rolling Choc. Loam yes 59. Part 1-5 Level Sandy Loam Acid no 60. Yes 3 Plat Sandy Loam no 62. No Sandy no 63. No Rolling; Choc. Loam. Acid no 64. Sandy 65. No Rolling Choc. Loam, Light Sandy part 66. Some 2 Rolling Red Clay Acid some - 52 -25. Where do cattle get their water supply. Wells, How deep, Spring, Sloughs, Rivers or creeks, Other Sources. 26. Total No. of animals i n herd. 27. Breed. 28. Number affected. 30. At what age do you consider red water i s contracted. 31-32. Is i t worse at any particular time of the year. Why. 33-34. Is i t better at any particular time of the year. Why. Farm Q,ue's. No. 25 26 27 28 30 31-32 33-34 1. Well 6 Grades 2 Winter Spring Dry Hay Green Gras 2. Artesian 5 H-J G. 1 ? 3. Creeks inwinter F a l l , E. Spring Wells, 12', 20 Spring, Pasture 30 1. 13 J. G. 4 1st calf Cold Rain Dry Rations 4. Creek, winter, Wells, 15' 90* 10 J. G. 5 any age E. Summer Winter 5. Creeks, Well, 12' 20 Gu. 6 any age Spring Grass 6. Creeks Well 26* 9 Gu. 1 after Winter mo. 1st calf 7. Artesian 12 Gu. G. 1 6-7 yrs. August Spring Rain water Dry Tonic 8. Wells 9 G. 1 ? After calf ? 9. Spring 7 G. 1 5 or overLate f a l l , Summer Early spring Good change of Pasture Feed 10. Seepage, 9 Gu. G. 1 a l l ages F a l l No* WelL, 8* 11. Well, slough 8 Gu. G. 1 4-5 12. River 22 Gu. G. 2 6-7 Cold Wet Summer or over 13. Creeks 7 J. G. 1 5-6 or F a l l and Summer less Spring Grass 14. Well, any- 20 J. G. 4 End of Early where winter Summer 15. Spring 24 J. G. 3 1-up 16. Well, 7-60* 14 J". G. 2 6 mo. to F a l l Summer Creeks 6 yr. Change Grass 17. Wells, 14» 2 6 H.Gu.G. 1 a l l ages Spring & Spring most 6 yr.F a l l , Grass Dry 18. Well, 12* 11 H. G. 1 a l l ages F a l l , 2nd Spring Creek most 6yr. crop clovo? Grass 21. Well, 70» 4 H. G. 2 4-7 Winter Spring Ditches Dry Grass 53 -Farm Ques. No. 25 26 27 28 30 31-52 35-54 23. Well 18* 11 Gu.G. 1 Any age No No 25. Creek 8 j . g. 2 2 yr. up Winter Spring ? Grass 26. Well 8* 8 S.Gu. 2 5-6 Hot summer Winter Do not drink ? 27. Well 30* 3 G. 1 ? Hot weatherSpring ? Grass 28. Creek 13 G. 2 5-6 Early spring Summer 9 9 29. City,ditchesl7 Gu.G. 1 5-6 F a l l Summer Dry feed Grass 30.. Creeks 19 G. 1 5 F a l l Spring Dry feed Grass 31. Spring, 6 J.Gu.G. 1 3-10 Jan.Feb. June,Jul• Ditches Dry, Calf Grass 35. Spring 17 A.G. 1 1-10 Calving Dry cows Ditches do not show 36. Spring 13 J.G. 1 ? ? ? 37. Spring 8 J.& G. 1 2-5 No No 38. Pond 14 J. 2 3 Winter o Summer 39. Well 24' 10 J.G. 1 4-7 f Calving 40. Well 50* 8 2 4-5 Winter Summer Water on Good Land Water 41. Well 60* 6 J.&A.G. 3 Any age No -42. Well 20* 8 J.Gu. 1 Any age ? -Creeks 43. Spring 4 J.G. 1 Older cows Winter ? Dry Hay 44. Well 30* 11 J.G. 2 1-10 Winter No Pond Dry Hay 45. Well 14* Bush Pools 5 J. 1 -46. Well 28' 5 J. 1 Any age No No Creeks 47. Well 45' 5 J.Gu.G. 1 3-4 Early sprirgNo Creeks ? 48. Vedder Riverl4 G. 1 6-7 Winter Summer Dry Feed Grass 49. C-ity water 14 J. 1 - Dry Feed Grass 50. Spring 5 J.G. 2 3-4 Depends on Grass Slough stage of RW 51. Spring; Creeks4 J.G. 1 Any age F a l l Grass Change Feed 54. Creek 10 J.Gu.G. 1 Any age - -- 54 -Farm Ques. Ho. 25 57. Well 8* 59. Well 60. Well 25 r 62. Well 46* 63. River 64. Well 10f 65. Well 20-40* 8 66. Spring 1 26 27 28 I 3 G. 1 4-5 5 G. 2 2-5 17 Gu.J. 1 ? 7 G. 1 Aged 11 J.H.G. 3 5-6 5 G. 2 2-5 30 31-32 35-34 F a l l Grass Onange of Feed F a l l , Winter, Grass & Spring F a l l Winter Dry Feed Calving Spring 9 J. & E.G. 1 Any age Ho H. 0 Any age Ho Grass Summer Grass Ho Ho 55 -35. In your opinion i s red water hereditary* 37-38. Does the state of pregnancy affect i t * If so, how and when. 39. Do you consider red water affects the quality and quantity of milk produced. 42. Do you consider there is more than one type of red water in British Columbia. 44. Do you raise your own young stock. 45. Do they contract red water. 46. Do you buy young stock. 47. Do they contract red water. Farm Ho. Ques 35 • 37-38 39 42 44 45 46 47 1. Ho Yes Yes ? Yes Ho Yes Yes o After calf d . 3. Ho Yes, Yes ? Yes Yes Yes Yes Calving 4. Yes Yes, drain Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 5. Yes Yes Yes Ho Yes Yes Ho Ho 6. Ho Ho Yes Ho Yes Ho Yes Yes 7. Ho Ho Ho Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes a. ? Yes Yes i f bad ? Yes Ho Yes Yes 9. Ho Yes, calf Ho ? Yes Yes Yes Yes, not so bad 10* Ho Ho Yes ? Yes Yes Yes Yes,worse 11. Yes Ho Ho - Yes Yes Ho 12. Ho Yes, calf Yes, down — Yes Yes Yes Yes 13. Yes Ho Yes Ho Yes Yes Yes Yes 14. Ho Ho Ho — Yes Yes Ho 15. ? ? Yes, down Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 16. Yes Ho Ho Ho Yes Yes Ho 17. Ho Yes, calf Ho ? Yes Yes Yes Yes 18* Ho If thin yesHo ? Yes Yes Yes Yes Strong, no 21. Ho Ho Yes ? Yes Yes Yes Yes 23. Ho Ho Ho ? Yes Yes Yes Ho 25. Ho Yes, calf Ho Ho Yes Yes Ho -26. Yes Yes, hard Yes Ho Yes Yes Yes Yes to breathe 27. ? Yes Yes Ho Yes Yes Ho 28. ? Yes, calf ? ? Yes Yes Ho 29. Ho ? Yes ? Yes Ho Yes Yes 30. Ho Yes, calf Yes ? Yes Yes Ho 31. Ho Yes, calf Yes ? Yes Yes Ho 35. Ho Yes', lack Yes, last Yes Yes Yes Yes Hot so bad of food stages 36. — — • - - - Yes Yes Farm O^ ues. No. 35 57-38 - 56 -39 42 44 45 46 47 37. No No No ? Yes Yes Yes Yes 38. No - Yes, No Yes Yes No Yes Quantities 39. Yes ? Yes ? Yes Yes Yes Yes 40. No No Yes Yes Yes Yes No 41. No Yes Yes Yes 42. No Yes, late No Yes No No No stages 43. No Yes Yes ? Yes Yes No No 44. No Yes No, i f good No Yes Yes Yes Yes condition 45. Yes No Yes No 46. No No Yes ? Yes Yes No 47. ? ? Yes, down ? Yes Yes Yes Yes 48. No ? ? ? Yes Yes No 49. Yes - Yes -50. No No Yes, i f badYes Yes Yes No 51. ? No Yes, i f bad? Yes Yes Yes Yes 52. No Yes Yes, i f badNo Yes Yes No 54. No Yes Yes — Yes No Yes Yes 57. Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes 59. No Yes, calving Yes ? Yes Yes Yes No 60. ? Yes, calf Yes ? Yes No Yes No 62. No Nov Yes,quant- No Yes No No ity 63. Yes Yes, strain Yes No Yes Yes No 64. Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No 65. No Yes Yes ? Yes Yes 66. No Yes, strain No - Yes Yes Yes Yes - 57 48. Known history as a red water farm. 49. How many animals have you lost each year. 50. Give an estimate of your loss caused by red water since starting to farm this property. 51. In your opinion is red water increasing or decreasing in recent years. 52. What i s the reason. Farm Q,ues. No. 48 49 50 51 52 1. 2 yr. 2 |250 increasing F i r s t case 2. Fir s t case 3. 40 yr. 2 1000 same 4. 32 yr. 2 ? increasing 5. 20 yr. 2 400 ? 6. 35 yr. 1 350 increasing 7. 15 yr. 1000 decreasing Different stock and Cultivation 8. First case 9. 40 yr. 1 2000 decreasing Better care 10. 20 yr. 2 1400 decreasing Cultivation 11. 3 yr. 1 First case 12. ? 1 200 ? First case 13. ? 4 600 increasing 14. 30 yr. 2 50000 same 15. ? 1 same 16. ? 2 600 decreasing Better water 17. 40 yr. 2 20000 decreasing Clearing land 18. 15 yr. 2 700 decreasing Cultivation 21. ? 2 lost i n 11 yr. 23. 10 yr. decreasing 1 lost in 10 yr. 25. 400 decreasing 1 lost in 20 yr. 26. ? 700 increasing 6 lost in 5 yr. 27. 5yr. ? ? 2 lost in 11 yr. 28. 35 yr. 2 ? increasing 29. 75 same 1 lost in 10 yr. 30. 11 yr. 1 2000 increasing Winters more severe 31. 400 increasing 3 lost in 7 yr. More land 35. 30 yr. ruinous same 36. 125 same 1 lost i n 4 yr. 37. 2 700 increasing 38. 3 ? same 39. 2 yr. 2 400 - increasing More cows 40. 1 yr. 0 0 same Firs t case 41. 4 yr. 7 650 increasing - 58 -Farm Que s. Ho. 48 49 50 51 52 42. 1 yr. 0 $ 0 increasing Fi r s t case 43. 1 yr • 0 0 increasing F i r s t case 44. 37 yr. 2 increasing More cattle 45. 1 yr. 0 0 increasing ? 46. 19 yr. 1 ? increasing 47. 2 yr. 600 increasing 5 lost in 2 yr. 48. ? 0 0 ? 49. «? 1 increasing 50. 5 yr. 2 increasing Contageous 51. 2 yr. 1 300 increasing 52. ? - ? 3 lost in 18 yr. 54. ? 170 — 2 lost in 6 yr. "57. 18 yr. 200 comes and 4 lost in 18 yr. goes 59. 5 yr. 1200 increasing 4 lost in 5 yr. 60. increasing 62. increasing 4 lost in 20 yr. 63. 2 yr. 0 0 increasing by leaps & bounds 64. ? 1 — increasing 65. 2 yr. same 1 lost in 2 yr. 66. 12 yr. herd ruinous increasing More land 40000 59 -Tables Compiled from Questionaire Form 2. 1. Animal No. 2. Co-operator's No* 3. Breed. 5. State of pregnancy. 6. Age * 7. Did you raise this animal * 8. If not where did i t come from and at what age. 9. Was i t affected at time of purchase. 10. At what age and date did i t become affected. Farm Animal Ques. No. No. 3 5 6 7 8 9 10 1. 1 G. July- »30 8£ No Locally No 1930-8 2 G. Oct.- '30 9 No Locally No 1930-8£ 2. 1 3. 1 G. May-'31 6 Yes 1930-5 2 G. Jan»- '31 5 Yes 1930-4 3 G. Jan»- '31 5 Yes 1929-3 4 G. Nov.- '30 7-i- No Locally 1930-71 4. 1 G. Aug.- '30 6-1" Yes 1930-5 2 G. Jan.- '31 3 Yes 2 3 G. Oct.- '31 i i 1 4 G. Jan. '31 6 Yes 4 5 G. 3 Yes 2 5. 1 Gu. Dec- '30 5 No Locally No 1929-31 2 G. Oct .© r30 4 No Locally No 1930-31 3 G. Oct.- '30 9 No Locally Yes 1928 4 G. Dec- '30 3 Yes 1929-2 5 Gu. Dec- '30 4 No Locally No 1930-31 6. 1 G. Ju l . - '30 5 No Locally No 1930-41 7. 1 G. . Apr.- '30 71 Yes 1928-6 2 G. Mar. -'31 ?t Yes 1930-7 8. 1 G. ^ X l g . - '30 3 No No 1930-21 9. 1 G. Oct.- f30 7 No No 1928-5 10. 1 G. Feb.- '31 5 Yes 11. 1 G. May-« 31 4£ Yes 1929-31 12. 1 G. June-•31 7 Yes 1930-61 2 G. Ju l . - •30 8 Yes 1930-71 13. 1 G. ? 6 Yes 1930-51 14. 1 G. Dec- •30 5 Yes 1929-4 2 G. Feb.- '31 9 Yes 1928-7 3 G. Feb.- '31 10 Yes Yes 1927-6 15. 1 J. Jan.- '31 10 Yes 1930-10 2 J. Feb.- '31 4 No LocallyYes 1930-31 16. 1 G. Oct.- *30 7 Yes 1930-61 2 G. Dec- '30 6 Yes 4 Farm Animal Q,ues. No* No* 3 - 60 -5 6 7 8 9 10 17. 1 J. 0ct.-*30 5i No No 1929-4 18. 1 G. Nov.-*30 6 Yes 1930-5i 21. 1 G. Nov.-*30 6 Yes 1929-5 2 G. ? 9 No Locally No 1929-8 22. 1 G. Dec.-'30 4 Yes 1930-4 23. 1 G. Oct.-'SO 7 Yes 1 929-6 25. 1 G. Dec.-*30 5 Yes 1929-4 26. 1 G. Jan.-r31 4 Yes 1930-3i 27. 1 G. Feb.-'31 3 Yes 1930-21-29. 1 G. Jan.-*31 7 No Locally Yes -30. 1 G. Mar.-f30 4 No Locally No 1928-2 2 H. Jun.-*30 6 No Locally No 1930-6 28. 1 A. 8 Yes 1928-5 2 A. 5 Yes — 31. 1 G. Nov.-*29 3£ 1929-2i 35. 1 G. Not "bred 10 No Locally No 1928-8 36. 1 G. June-*30 9 No Locally No 1929-8 37. 1 J. Sept.-'30 3 Yes 1930-2 2 G. June-'31 3 Yes 1930-2f 1930-6i 39. 1 G. Dec.-r30 7 No No 40. 1 G. May-* 31 5 Yes 1929-3 2 G. Jan.-*31 6 Yes 1930-5i 41. 1 G. Not bred 6 Yes 1930-5 42. 1 G. Feb.-'31 3 No Locally 1930-2i 43. 1 G. Sept.-*30 7 Yes 1930-6t 45. 1 J. Jan.-'Sl H i No Sardis No 1930-11 46. 1 G. Jan.-*31 7 Yes 5i 1931-41-47. 1 G. Jan.- * 31 4i Yes 49. l(bull) J. 4 No Chilliwack No 1930-3i 50. 1 G. Mar.-'31 4 Yes 2 G. Not bred 5 Yes 4 51. 1 H. Jan.- * 31 7 Yes 1929-5 2 H. Sept.-r30 4 Yes 1930-3 52. 1 G. Nov.-'30 8 No Matsqui Yes ? 53. 1 Gu. Jan.-131 6 No Coghlan No 6 2 G. Mar.-*31 9 No Coghlan No 8 54. 1 G. Jan.-'31 3i No Locally No 1931-3i 57. 1 G. Apr.- * 31 5 Yes 1930-4-J-59* 1 . A. Nov.-'31 5i YeB 1928-21-60. 1 J. Not bred 7 No Locally No 5i 62. 1 G. Mar.-*31 13 No ? No 1931-13 63. 1 G. Feb.-*31 6 Yes 1931-6 2 G. Feb.-'31 6 Yes 1930-5 3 Gu. Feb.-131 5 Yes 1931-5 65. 1 J. Feb.-131 4 Yes 1930-3 - 61 -11* Has any of her offspring contracted red water. 13. Has red water affected her weight and condition. 19. What feeds do you "buy. 21. About how much of feed is grown and how much bought per year. 23. Do you feed any mineral supplements. Farm Animal Q,ues« No. No. 11 13 1. 1 No Yes 2 No No 2. 1 3. 1 No No 2 No No 3 No No 4 Yes No 4. 1 Yes Yes 2 No — 3 - Yes 4 Yes Yes 5 No Ye 3 5. 1 No No 2 Yes No 3 Yes No 4 No No 5 No No 6. 1 No Yes 7. 1 No No 2 No Yes 8. 1 No No 9. 1 No Yes 10. 1 No Yes 11. 1 No No 12. 1 No Yes 2 No No 13. 1 Yes Yes 14. 1 No Yes 2 No No 3 No No 15. 1 No No 2 No No 16. 1 Yes No 2 Yes No 17. 1 No No 19 21 23 Bran, Shorts, Barley, O.C.M. Salt,Bone 4$ Bran, Gd.Oats, Concentrates Oat Scelpings, Bone Meal Soya Bean, Salt Screenings l / 3 Hay,Bran, 2/3 grown Salt Lick Gd.Oats, Gd. l / 3 bought Tried feed-Barley, O.C.M. ing Lime Concentrates for 2 yr. Bought a l f a l f a from Yakima Oat Chop, Bran, Linseed, Beet Pulp Barley,Shorts, Bran,Oats,O.C.M. Ground 0ats,0CM. Screenings,Bran Bran,Screenings Bar1ey,Bran,Oat Scelpings,Linseed Ground Oats Dairy Peed 18$ Bran, Shorts, Oat Chop, O.C.M. Grain Bran, Shorts, O.C.M. Shorts, Screenings, 18$ Iodized Salt Lick in yard 3$ Bone Flour Salt Lick Salt,Bone Meal,i of 1$ Bone Meal Salt,BoneMeal Mineral Cow Feed Salt Salt Lick Salt None Salt Grow nearly Salt Licks a l l Mineral Cow Feed Salt, 18$ Farm Animal Ques Ho. Ho. 11 13 18. 1 Ho Tes 21. 1 Ho Ho 2 Ho Ho 22. 1 Ho Ho 23. 1 Ho Ho 25. 1 Ho Yes 2 Yes Ho 26. 1 Ho Began 27. 1 Yea -28. 1 Ho Yes 2. Ho Ho 29. 1 Ho Yes 30. 1 Ho Hot mui 2 Ho Yes 31. 1 H 0 Yes 35. 1 Ho Ho 36. 1 Ho Yes 37. 1 _ Ho 2 - Ho 39. 1 Ho . Yes 40 w 1 — Ho 2 Ho Ho 41. 1 7 Yes 42. 1 Ho Ho 43. 1 Ho Ho 45. 1 Ho Ho 46. 1 Ho Yes 47. 1 Ho Yes 49. 1 Ho Ho 50. 1 Ho Ho 2 Ho Yes 51. 1 Ho Yes 2 Ho Yes 52. 1 ? Yes 53. 1 Ho Yes 2. Yes Yes 54. 1 Yes Ho 57. 1 Yes Yes 62 -19 21 23 Oat Chop 1&fo Chopj Mangles Bran, Bone Flour Oat Chop, Bran, Soya Bean, OCM. 1Q% Oat Chop,Bran,09M. Oat Chop,Bran Bran, Bran,Barley Chop,OCM. Oat Chop,OCM. Bran, Screenings, Fish Meal Screenings, Fish Meal Ground Oats,OCM. Gd.Oats, Bran,OCM. Salt twice a day Salt Bone Flour3$ Salt In 18# Salt Salt Salt Salt,Bone Flour, 1-|$ Salt Ground Bone Salt Home Made Mixture 2% Salt, not regular Gd.Bone,Salt Salt Blocks Crushed Oats,OCM. Bone Meal Dairy Feed,Screenings Salt Middlings Ho Mostly 18$, some Hay -£Hay Dairy Feed & Salt Blocks Bran, Crushed Oats, Hot regularly OCM, Soya Bean, Hay l/3Hay Shorts, Bran, Salt Blocks Bran,Shorts, Oat Chop, Hot to h u l l Soya Bean Shorts, Bran, Salt Salt, a l l they want Loose Hay, 18^ £Hay Salt & Lime i n water Bran,Gd.Oats,OCM. Salt Lick Linseed,Bran,BarleyChop Hot for 2 l/lOHay years Bran, Bar 1 ey , OCM. Oat ScalpingB 18J5, Oat Chop, Bran,some Salt OCM. Hay - 63 Farm Animal Q,ues. Ho. Ho. 11 13 19 21 23  59 • 1 - Yes A l l grown Bone Meal 60. 1 Ho Yes Bran.Oat Chop,Soya BoneHeal3?£ Bean,Corn Meal 62. 1 Ho ? £ bought In mixture 63. 1 Ho Ho OCM.Bran, Screenings Salt,Bone 2 Ho Yes Oat Chop Ifeal,l# 3 Ho Has 65. 1 Ho Yes A l l grown Salt ABBREVIATIONS H. S. Ho System S. M. .Stable Manure C M . Chicken Manure C. Fert.. Commercial F e r t i l i z e r C & O . Clover and Oat C.&T .Clover and Timothy G. .Grade H. . . . . . . . . . . . .Holstein J .Jersey Gu » .Guernsey A Ayrshire S.... Shorthorn 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
https://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0101312/manifest

Comment

Related Items