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The effect of various levels of roughages and various grains on the growth patterns of growing and fattening… Gardner, Joseph William 1973

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c: THE  EFFECT OF VARIOUS LEVELS OF ROUGHAGES AND VARIOUS GRAINS ON THE GROWTH PATTERNS OF GROWING AND FATTENING STEERS  by JOSEPH WILLIAM GARDNER B.Sc.(Agr.),  The U n i v e r s i t y  of British  Columbia,  1970  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE MASTER  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF OF SCIENCE IN AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES i n t h e Department of Animal  We a c c e p t  this  thesis  Science  as conforming  to the required  standard.  THE  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH April,  1973  COLUMBIA  In  presenting  this thesis  r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an British freely  Columbia, available  agree t h a t thesis o f my  University  of  the  Library  s h a l l make i t  f o r reference  and  study.  I  o r by copying  f i n a n c i a l gain  written  the  I agree t h a t  f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may Department  f u l f i l m e n t of  advanced degree at the  permission f o r extensive  understood that for  in partial  be  copying of g r a n t e d by  his representatives. or  publication  s h a l l not  be  It  of t h i s  allowed without  permission.  Department The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r £, Canada.  further  Columbia,  this the  Head  is thesis my  ABSTRACT  In Study I a l f a l f a - b e r m u d a straw  was  fed with  rolled  s o y b e a n o i l m e a l and proportions, to  was  straw,  i n twenty protein-supplemented  7&%  included.  feasible  without gain,  steers.  rolled The  roughage l e v e l was  barley, pelleted  or  beet  oat  pulp,  c r a c k e d wheat, i n v a r i o u s  immature H e r e f o r d  long  g r a s s hay  o f 10%.  A control ration  b a r l e y and  best  12%  of  10%  soybean o i l meal  r e s u l t s were o b t a i n e d w i t h However, i t was  t o f e e d roughage l e v e l s  detrimental effects  feed e f f i c i e n c y ,  rations  shown t h a t i t  as h i g h as 1+0%  t o e i t h e r average  or carcass  a  daily  quality.  I n S t u d y I I v a r i o u s f e e d g r a i n s were f e d i n the  ratio  90:10  (concentrate to roughage).  C a n a d i a n f e e d g r a i n s o f b a r l e y and with  corn.  Various  also  compared.  were o b t a i n e d cost  of the  factor  ratios  on  wheat were  of these  Excellent gains  and  a l l r a t i o n s and  which to  feed  i t was  use.  compared  f e e d g r a i n s were  g r a i n s a v a i l a b l e w o u l d be  i n determining  The  efficiencies shown t h a t  the  largest  the  TABLE OF  CONTENTS PAGE  1  INTRODUCTION STUDY I  THE EFFECT OF VARIOUS LEVELS OF ROUGHAGES ON THE GROWTH PATTERNS OF GROWING AND FATTENING STEERS A.  INTRODUCTION  6  B.  LITERATURE REVIEW  8  C.  MATERIALS AND METHODS (a)  Feeding  16  Trial  E x p e r i m e n t a l D e s i g n .... E x p e r i m e n t a l A n i m a l s ... Hous i n g I n i t i a l T r e a t m e n t and F e e d i n g P r o c e d u r e .... Rations Weighing Procedure .... Ration Costs (b)  Management  17 IS 22 22  Procedures  Adaption Ringworm C o n t r o l B l o a t i n Animals R a t i o n Adjustments  D.  16 16 16  (c)  Carcass  (d)  Digestibility  ....  24 24 24 2$ 26  Trial ...  27  Average D a i l y Gains ... Feed Consumption R a t i o n Cost p e r Kilogram of Gain  29 29  Trial  RESULTS AND DISCUSSION (a)  Feeding  Trial  29  PAGE  (a)  STUDY I I  Feeding  Trial  - continued  Growth C u r v e s Ration Analyses Feedlot Application  30 30 30  (b)  Carcass  34  (c)  Digestibility  Trial Trial  36  THE EFFECT OF VARIOUS FEED GRAINS ON THE GROWTH PATTERNS OF GROWING AND FATTENING STEERS  A.  INTRODUCTION  39  B.  LITERATURE REVIEW  41  C.  MATERIALS AND METHODS (a)  Feeding  Trial  Experimental Design E x p e r i m e n t a l Animals Housing I n i t i a l T r e a t m e n t and Feeding Procedure Rations Weighing Procedure Ration Costs (b)  (c) D.  Management  4# 4$ 4$ 49 51 51 51  Procedures  Adaption Animal H e a l t h Ration Preparation  55 55 56  Carcass  56  Trial  RESULTS AND DISCUSSION (a)  Feeding  Trial  Average D a i l y  Gains  57  V  PAGE  .'(a)  Feeding T r i a l - continued Feed Consumption R a t i o n Cost p e r K i l o g r a m of Gain Growth Data Ration Analyses Energy  (b)  Carcass T r i a l  57 5o" 5$ 63 69  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS STUDY I  72  STUDY I I  73  GENERAL CONCLUSIONS  75  BIBLIOGRAPHY  79  LIST OF TABLES PAGE  STUDY I TABLE I.  CONSTITUENTS OF RATIONS INCORPORATING STRAW  19  II.  CONSTITUENTS OF RATIONS INCORPORATING HAY  20  COMPOSITION OF EXPERIMENTAL PREMIX  21  COSTS OF MATERIALS  23  III. IV. V.  VI. VII.  VIII.  AVERAGE DAILY GAINS AND FEED EFFICIENCIES  32  PROXIMATE ANALYSES OF RATIONS  33  PEN AVERAGE DRESSING PERCENTAGES, RIB EYE AND FAT COVER MEASUREMENTS  35  AVERAGE DRY MATTER DIGESTIBILITIES  37  STUDY I I IX. X. XI. XII. XIII. XIV.  RATION COMPOSITIONS AND COSTS  50  PROXIMATE ANALYSES OF FEEDSTUFFS  52  COMPOSITION OF EXPERIMENTAL PREMIX  53  COSTS OF MATERIALS  54  AVERAGE DAILY GAINS AND FEED EFFICIENCIES AVERAGE DAILY GAINS IN PERIODS OF TWO WEEKS  59 60  vii  PAGE  TABLE XV.  XVI. XVII. XVIII.  XIX. XX. XXI. XXII.  FEED E F F I C I E N C Y - KILOGRAMS  OF  FEED/KILOGRAMS OF GAIN  61  PROXIMATE ANALYSES OF RATIONS  62  NET ENERGY REQUIREMENTS OF GROWING AND FINISHING BEEF CATTLE NET ENERGY AND D I G E S T I B L E PROTEIN  64  VALUES OF FEEDS USED IN RATIONS  65  THEORETICAL FEED CONSUMPTION  66  THEORETICAL VERSUS ACTUAL GAINS  67  PROTEIN REQUIREMENTS  FOR  FINISHING STEERS  70  RATION AVERAGE DRESSING PERCENTAGES  71  L I S T OF FIGURES  PAGE  FIGURE  STUDY I  I.  Growth C u r v e  Ration  1  31  STUDY I I  II.  Energy R e l a t i o n s h i p s  42  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  The gratitude  w r i t e r wishes t o express h i s  t o D r . W.D.  K i t t s , Chairman o f t h e  Departments o f Animal Science  and P o u l t r y  f o r t h e encouragement, c o n s u l t a t i o n , received for  and guidance  throughout the course o f t h i s  allowing  Science,  s t u d y , and  t h e use o f t h e departmental  facilities. The Division, R. H i l l ,  w r i t e r t h a n k s Mr. D. Owen,  Canada D e p a r t m e n t  o f A g r i c u l t u r e , and Mr.  Richmond P a c k e r s , f o r t h e i r  i n the carcass  Livestock  s t u d y and e v a l u a t i o n  co-operation section of this  thesis. Thanks a r e a l s o  e x t e n d e d t o Mr. J . C .  M a c G r e g o r a n d t o Mr. Wes C o p e l a n d o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t of Animal Science e x p e r i m e n t a l work.  for their  assistance  during the  INTRODUCTION  Ruminants a r e unique i n t h a t t h e y their  complex s t o m a c h a m i c r o b i a l p o p u l a t i o n .  association  i s required f o r the animals'  Physiologically  and a n a t o m i c a l l y ,  adapted t o u t i l i z e that  roughage.  roughage feeds  t h e ruminant i s  When i t i s r e a l i z e d  suited f o r the production of  c e r t a i n w i l d animals,  feed  resource  are the only  at present,  cattle  feeds  o f food  fibre  with  vast  f o r man.  The main d i f f e r e n c e  between r o u g h a g e s and c o n c e n t r a t e s contain.  this  a r e made up l a r g e l y o f  r o u g h a g e s and c o n c e n t r a t e s .  they  sheep,  practical  of u t i l i z i n g  f o r the production  Most  of f i b r e  land i s  o r f o r grazing, then c a t t l e ,  means, a t l e a s t  This  well-being.  o v e r 60$ o f t h e w o r l d ' s a g r i c u l t u r a l  n o n - a r a b l e and o n l y  and  foster i n  Concentrates  i s i n t h e amount a r e low i n  f e w o f t h e common i n g r e d i e n t s o f g r a i n  (concentrate)  r a t i o n s having  amount o f f i b r e  o v e r 10$ f i b r e .  i n roughages v a r i e s , w i t h  hay crops  averaging  28$ c r u d e f i b r e ,  component  o f t h e f e e d i s composed m a i n l y o f c e l l u l o s e ,  hemieellulose, state  and l i g n i n ,  of maturity  a n d s t r a w s 3$%.  The  The f i b r e  and i s d e p e n d e n t on t h e  of the plant.  Digestion of the  2.  forage fibre  g e n e r a l l y becomes l e s s content.  This fibre  carbohydrate  nature,  i t i s only p a r t i a l l y  the  by  ruminants.  ruminant  of high  has  cellulose  beef  cattle  and  cattle is  heifers  little  animals  there  can  be  ing  of  utilization  been a t r e n d  finished i s not  over-all  minimal l e v e l  f o r the  food  low-fibre rations.  R e s e a r c h has  r e c e i v i n g "high  has  on  without of  indicated that  f o r roughage f e d  energy d i e t s " .  rumen t o m a i n t a i n  to Even  diets  efficiency  many t h a t a p h y s i c a l r o u g h n e s s f a c t o r required  a  unique d i g e s t i v e system  procedure  to the  production.  a practical  as  i n growing r a t i o n s .  years,  roughage, t h i s  offers  utilized  high-energy  t h o u g h s t e e r s and lacking  The  feeds  increasing  because o f i t s i n s o l u b l e  prompted much work on t h e  In r e c e n t feed  with  component o f r o u g h a g e s i s  largely  nutrient  but,  efficient  hazards beef there  to  It i s felt i n the  by  ration i s  i t s normal f u n c t i o n -  pattern. The  F o o d and  United Nations agricultural  (FAO  1971)  project  are that  Canada w i l l  has  of  made a l a r g e number  the of  commodity p r o j e c t i o n s w h i c h e m p h a s i z e  importance of research jections  Agriculture Organization  i n beef  production.  f o r the  time p e r i o d of  i n 19#0  the  be  about the  The  1970-19^0.  a n n u a l wheat p r o d u c t i o n same as t h e  annual  the  proThey in  production  3.  o b t a i n e d i n t h e base p e r i o d o f I964-I966; however, l e s s acreage w i l l be i n v o l v e d .  I t i s interesting to  note t h a t t h e p r o j e c t e d p r o d u c t i o n o f b o t h c o r n and b a r l e y , however, w i l l be b e t t e r t h a n 200$ o f t h e a n n u a l p r o d u c t i o n i n t h e base p e r i o d o f 1964-1966. The a n n u a l p r o d u c t i o n o f beef and v e a l i n N o r t h America i n 1964-1966 was 9.73 m i l l i o n t o n s , w i t h an average c a r c a s s weight o f 481 pounds.  I n 1970  t h i s p r o d u c t i o n i n c r e a s e d t o 11.24 m i l l i o n t o n s , w i t h an average c a r c a s s weight o f 506 pounds.  The p r o -  j e c t e d a n n u a l p r o d u c t i o n f o r beef and v e a l i n 1980 i n N o r t h America i s 14.09 m i l l i o n t o n s , w i t h an average c a r c a s s weight o f 590 pounds. In t h e 1964-1966 base p e r i o d i n N o r t h A m e r i c a , t h e a n n u a l average p e r c a p i t a consumption o f beef and v e a l was 105 pounds. to  115 pounds.  By 1970 t h i s had r i s e n  The p r o j e c t e d i n c r e a s e by 1980 shows an  a n n u a l p e r c a p i t a demand f o r beef and v e a l o f 133 pounds. When t h i s i s c o u p l e d w i t h t h e l a r g e i n c r e a s e i n p o p u l a t i o n e x p e c t e d and t h e r o l e N o r t h America may be a b l e t o p l a y i n h e l p i n g t h o s e c o u n t r i e s o f l o w e r economic s t a t u s , t h e growth e x p e c t e d i n t h e beef i n d u s t r y a l o n e can o n l y be c o n s i d e r e d as phenomenal.  The w o r l d l e v e l  of t o t a l a n n u a l demand f o r beef and v e a l i s p r o j e c t e d to  be a p p r o x i m a t e l y 200$ o f t h e a n n u a l demand i n t h e  1964-1966  b a s e p e r i o d , w h i c h was  32.£3  million  metric  tons. T h i s Study i s d i v i d e d i n t o Study fed It  I, d i f f e r e n t  with  roughage s o u r c e s  fattening carcass  composition.  was made.  that high  o f those  on t h e r a t i o n  In  animals  roughage  effect  i n the feeding  digestibility  this  Study I I , a f e e d i n g t r i a l  r e m a i n e d t h e same w i t h  trial  Study  was  included rations.  conducted  r a t i o of the diet  v a r i a t i o n s w i t h i n the concen-  The p r i m a r y  aim o f t h i s  to  demonstrate t h e c a p a c i t y o f corn,  to  elicit  comparable r e s u l t s ,  o f mixing  on  o f a f e e d h a s a marked  where t h e r o u g h a g e t o c o n c e n t r a t e  effect  were  trial.  evaluations of the experimental  proportion.  In  An a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e c a r c a s s  As r o u g h a g e c o n t e n t  digestibility  trate  feeding  r a t i o n s have an u n d e s i r a b l e  characteristics  effect  and l e v e l s  various grains i n a cattle  h a s g e n e r a l l y been c o n s i d e r e d  two s e c t i o n s .  S t u d y was  b a r l e y , a n d wheat  and t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e  the grains i n various  proportions.  5.  STUDY I  THE E F F E C T OF VARIOUS ON THE GROWTH  LEVELS OF ROUGHAGES PATTERNS  OF GROWING AND FATTENING STEERS  6.  A.  INTRODUCTION  The fattening  most e f f i c i e n t  beef steers i s a s s o c i a t e d with  o f g a i n , w h i c h means h i g h  daily  percentages of g r a i n i n the istics  of high  efficiency bulk.  are  Further  a high  with  of feed high  intakes The  produce  of animals i n the  inclusion  fattening of the  low are  cost,  f e e d l o t , with  than could  be  high-roughage r a t i o n s . i n using  These i n c l u d e a p o s s i b l e liver  abscesses,  bloat.  This the  high  rations  a lower labour  o f rumen p a r a k e r a t o s i s ,  f o u n d e r and  and  o f e n e r g y and  c a p i t a l turnover  grain rations.  occurrence  rates  this  T h e r e a r e , however, d i s a d v a n t a g e s high  in  character-  advantages of u s i n g these  a resultant higher with  ration.  concentration  a greater turnover  achieved  feed  grain rations that  ease of mechanical h a n d l i n g and  utilization  study  examining  of l o w - q u a l i t y roughages i n i n t e n s i v e  rations.  effects  involves a feeding t r i a l  This  of the  characteristics.  a l s o i n c l u d e s an  feeding t r i a l  Digestibility  on  inspection  carcass  s t u d i e s of the  experi-  m e n t a l r a t i o n s were done i n o r d e r  to assess  accurately  roughages i n beef  the  use  cattle rations.  of low-quality  more  7.  In terms of o b t a i n i n g use to  o f the  most  efficient  beef animal, m o d i f i c a t i o n of the  cereal ratio  production  the  shows g r e a t  roughage  promise i n maximizing  from g r a i n based d i e t s .  Economy i n  utilization  o f c e r e a l e n e r g y and  be  under i n t e n s i v e s p e c i a l i z e d c o n d i t i o n s  achieved  of production,  and  the  order  t o maximize  can  only  beef producer i s g r e a t l y i n  need of q u a n t i t a t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n in  nitrogen  the  output.  on  dietary  balance  8.  B.  LITERATURE REVIEW The unique d i g e s t i v e system o f c a t t l e  has  prompted much work on t h e i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f h i g h c e l l u l o s e f e e d s i n t o e f f i c i e n t growing  rations.  Beeson and P e r r y (1952) s t a t e d t h a t " a t p r e s e n t , a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f roughages ( c o r n cobs, soybean s t r a w , oat s t r a w and g r a s s s i l a g e ) i s b e i n g wasted t h r o u g h improper use.  Each y e a r , o v e r 20 m i l l i o n  t o n s o f c o r n cobs are produced,  but by f a r t h e l a r g e r  share i s burned o r thrown out t o r o t " .  In f i v e  e x p e r i m e n t s , u s i n g immature H e r e f o r d s t e e r s , Beeson and P e r r y (1952) were a b l e t o o b t a i n g a i n s o f t o 1.56  1.2#  pounds d a i l y by f e e d i n g ground c o r n cobs and  p r o t e i n , and 2.06  t o 2.21  pounds d a i l y g a i n when c o r n  s i l a g e and p r o t e i n supplement were f e d . The f e e d i n g o f a l l - c o n c e n t r a t e d i e t s t o ruminants  i s not a new  concept.  However, t h e  o f f e e d i n g a l l - c o n c e n t r a t e d i e t s t o immature a n i m a l s are v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g .  effects growing  Davenport (1897) was  u n s u c c e s s f u l i n attempts t o r e a r c a l v e s on r a t i o n s d e v o i d o f roughage, and concluded t h a t f i b r o u s m a t e r i a l s were n e c e s s a r y i n t h e ruminant  diet.  c o n f i r m e d by s e v e r a l e x p e r i m e n t e r s .  This f a c t  was  Huffman (1928)  p o s t u l a t e d an "unknown f a c t o r " i n hay n e c e s s a r y t o m a i n t a i n the h e a l t h of c a t t l e .  G e u r i n e t a l (1959)  9.  fed  concentrate diets  was  rolled  of  t o p r e s e r v e t h e roughage  the h u l l s .  2.95  using  barley.  Bond  characteristics  (1966)  protein  s u p p l e m e n t and  conducted  on t h e a l l -  ration.  Although  high-concentrate  rations  b e t t e r g a i n s and f e e d c o n v e r s i o n t h a n roughage r a t i o n s handling  summarized  and c o s t l y  A r e p o r t by Haskins  some o f t h e e f f e c t s  et a l  o f high-concen-  as f o l l o w s :  A h i g h i n c i d e n c e o f rumen p a r a k e r a t o s i s a n d liver  abscesses  rations 2.  a n d show a b e t t e r a d a p t i o n t o m i x i n g ,  can occur.  rations  result i n  do h i g h -  and s t o r a g e , s e v e r a l i m p o r t a n t  effects  (I969)  1.  experiment  He r e p o r t e d f a s t e r g a i n s a n d l o w e r  c o n v e r s i o n r a t e s by t h e a n i m a l s  concentrate  trate  an  an a l l - c o n c e n t r a t e c o r n r a t i o n v e r s u s a  roughage r a t i o n .  side  b a r l e y which  T h e s e w o r k e r s r e p o r t e d g a i n s up t o  pounds p e r d a y on a 32%  rolled  feed  supplemented with  i n animals  f e d high-energy  occurred.  I n c l u s i o n o f roughage  (hay)  drastically  reduced  ( f r o m 67% t o 0%) t h e i n c i d e n c e o f a b s c e s s e d livers, of 3.  indicating  that the physical properties  t h e roughage source  Rapid lactic  accumulation acid,  are involved.  of volatile  fatty  acids,  a n d l o w e r i n g o f rumen pH, w h i c h  may  be a n t a g o n i s t i c  were  a trial  corn  and p e l l e t i n g a r a t i o n con-  30% Bermuda g r a s s  hay and 50% g r o u n d  w i t h p r o t e i n and m i n e r a l  effects  of i n c l u d i n g long  c a l v e s , were s t u d i e d periods  (1961),  c o n d u c t e d by C u l l i s o n  effects of grinding  taining  epithelium,  observed.  In the  t o t h e rumen  shelled  supplements, and t h e  o a t s t r a w on f a t t e n i n g  at slaughter,  following  o f 196 and 210 d a y s r e s p e c t i v e l y .  feeding  Varying  d e g r e e s o f an a b n o r m a l rumen w a l l were o b s e r v e d i n a n i m a l s on b o t h g r o u n d and p e l l e t e d r a t i o n s . papillae  o f t h e rumen o f t h e s e  and  excessively  off  some a r e a s o f t h e rumen w a l l .  control  long.  calves  The  appeared  K e r a t i n o u s t i s s u e was  r a t i o n of concentrates  dark  sloughing  Those a n i m a l s on a  and l o n g  hay  exhibited  a n o r m a l rumen w a l l , w h i l e t h o s e w h i c h r e c e i v e d with the basic wise normal  ration, exhibited  a yellowish  straw  but  rumen.  From s t u d y i n g  experiments i n v o l v i n g the use  of  r o u g h a g e s u b s t i t u t e s , i t seems t h a t  of  r o u g h a g e p e r s e i n t h e f o r m o f hay o r s t r a w i s  desirable. are live  paid  The g r e a t  on t h e b a s i s  animals rather  produced.  other-  majority  the i n c l u s i o n  of feedlot  operators  of a v i s u a l evaluation  t h a n an e v a l u a t i o n  They a r e n o t p e n a l i z e d  of the  of the carcass  f o r bad l i v e r s  on  either  system.  increased feed  feed  handling,  They may f e e l , efficiency,  All-grain  o f gain  that  and e a s e o f  of digestive  upsets  rations.  r a t i o n s have been f e d s u c c e s s -  However, t h e y a p p e a r t o be most  with high-fibre grains so  rate  o f f s e t the r i s k  common w i t h h i g h - g r a i n  fully.  therefore,  such as o a t s  successful  or barley,  as t o r e t a i n a f i b r o u s c o n s i s t e n c y .  rolled  Hironaka et a l  (1962) c o n d u c t e d an e x p e r i m e n t t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e f f e c t s of  level  on  r a t e and e f f i c i e n c y  was at  of feed  f e d dry,  consumption  o f an a l l - b a r l e y  of gain  by s t e e r s .  2.0,  a n d 2.5 pounds p e r d a y .  conversions 7.02,  (lbs. feed/lbs.  and 7.05.  chronic  The b a r l e y  crimped w i t h a m i n e r a l - v i t a m i n  l e v e l s c a l c u l a t e d t o produce a g a i n  bloaters,  ration  supplement  o f 1.0, 1.5,  The c o r r e s p o n d i n g  feed  g a i n ) , were 10.92, 8.51,  Randomly f i v e  of the steers  and one s t e e r h a d s m a l l  became  liver  abscesses. Assuming t h a t necessary  i n the rations of feedlot  proportions if  a c e r t a i n amount o f r o u g h a g e i s  o f concentrate  cattle,  t o r o u g h a g e must be known  maximum p e r f o r m a n c e i s t o be o b t a i n e d  A general  recommendation i s t h a t  r o u g h a g e be i n c l u d e d upsets.  the exact  f r o m them.  a minimum o f 10$  i n a r a t i o n t o prevent  digestive  I f t h e roughage p e r c e n t a g e i s i n c r e a s e d ,  lower r a t e s o f g a i n and d e c r e a s i n g f e e d e f f i c i e n c y will  occur. Experiments u s i n g v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f roughage  i n the r a t i o n have been c a r r i e d out. et  Richardson  a l (1961), u s i n g roughage t o concentrate r a t i o s o f  1:1,  1:3, and 1:5 o f a l f a l f a  hay and cracked sorghum  g r a i n , found the h i g h e s t average g a i n was w i t h the 1:5 ratio. White and Reynolds alfalfa  (1969),  using  20$ and  40$  hay as the roughage source, w i t h ground sorghum  g r a i n and soybean meal as the concentrate  sources,  showed t h a t consumption o f a r a t i o n c o n t a i n i n g 40$ hay was  h i g h e r than t h a t o f a r a t i o n c o n t a i n i n g 20$  roughage, and h i g h e r than the consumption o f t h e a l l concentrate r a t i o n .  They showed t h a t the source o f  roughage i n f l u e n c e d t h e g a i n and c a r c a s s Swan and Lamming of  (I969)  c i t e d research at the University  I l l i n o i s where t r i a l s were conducted  trate-roughage  weights.  u s i n g concen-  r a t i o s v a r y i n g from 80:20 t o 0:100 on  a l l - p e l l e t e d r a t i o n s c o n t a i n i n g ground s h e l l e d corn and soybean o i l meal w i t h ground hay as the roughage s o u r c e . Highest average d a i l y g a i n s were obtained w i t h a 60:40 concentrate t o roughage r a t i o n . was  Best f e e d c o n v e r s i o n  w i t h the 80$ concentrate r a t i o n , but average d a i l y  g a i n d i d not i n c r e a s e by r a i s i n g t h e concentrate  level  f r o m 60%  80%.  to  concentrate at  the  Feed  i n t a k e was  l e v e l , with  high levels  of  the  rations. improved brought  The  required  feed  levels  conversion  f o r marketing.  consequently,  concentrate  finishing  Several costly  with  efficiencies  have  carcass grades,  a r e d u c t i o n i n the  become more f r e q u e n t  percentages  of concentrates  dressing percentages, about  dressing  improve w i t h h i g h e r  higher  80%  at the  concentrates.  P e r f o r m a n c e and h a v e been shown t o  best  reduced  and  times  side  effects  higher grain levels  and,  b e t t e r management p r a c t i c e s a r e  necessary. Local  c o n d i t i o n s and  determine which feeds of  different  value,  being  upon t h e  feeds, an  a r e most e c o n o m i c a l ;  in relation  important  most e c o n o m i c a l  efficiency  of l i v e  percentage  and  availability will  to t h e i r  the  nutritive  consideration. ration  weight  When d e c i d i n g  to feed, rate  g a i n , as w e l l a s  c a r c a s s grade expected,  cost  and  dressing  must a l s o  be  considered. Digestion t r i a l s mixed  r a t i o n s has,  confinement collection Noblitt  i n the  with  animals  et a l ( 1 9 6 3 ) ,  use  E l l e n b e r g e r et a l and  total  past, generally involved  to d i g e s t i o n c r a t e s or the apparatus.  fed  Waldo e t a l  of  fecal  (1927),  (1961),  have  reported  that  stress significantly  digestibility  of nutrients.  Much o f t h e work w h i c h w i t h t h e use o f chromic  t e c h n i q u e s which representative  will  for  result  (1951)  i n samples  were t a k e n d a i l y  s a t i s f a c t o r y co-  w i t h sheep  f o r f o u r days  (1958)  Bradley  found  between d i g e s t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s . f o r gross energy  samples  i n metabolism  f o rsteers  coefficient  and composited close  agreement  collection of  a n d 7-day  samples,  when random  crude p r o t e i n and  c a l c u l a t e d from: t o t a l  feces, twice d a i l y  that are  excretion.  reported  of digestibility  each a n i m a l .  conducted  h a s been d e v o t e d t o  of the t o t a l f e c a l  Crampton and L l o y d  samples  has been  o x i d e a s an e x t e r n a l  indicator of digestibility  efficients  affects the  composited  crates.  Digestion  of a nutrient i s described as:  Digestion  coefficient  = 100  ( §^  )  3.  where a =  parts o f n u t r i e n t / u n i t of index substance i n food.  b =  parts of n u t r i e n t / u n i t o f index substance i n f e c e s .  Many e x p e r i m e n t s  (1950)  indicate that  conventional  the  quoted  by S c h u r c h  et a l  Cr 03 method c a n r e p l a c e t h e 2  procedures f o r determining  digestibility  of  rations or nutrients  a d v a n t a g e , t h e method  consumed.  leads  m e n t a l p r o c e d u r e by a v o i d i n g quantitative output. by  record  to a simplified experithe necessity  of e i t h e r food  intake  of a or feces  The c h e m i c a l work, however, i s i n c r e a s e d  the necessity  feed  As a main  and f e c e s .  accurate  t o determine the C^O^ An e a s y , r a p i d and  a n a l y t i c a l method o f C ^ C ^  of primary  content of  acceptablyi s , therefore,  importance. R e c e n t work, d e s i g n e d t o s t u d y t h e e f f e c t  of f e c a l  collection  of nutrients  a p p a r a t u s on t h e  by s t e e r s  digestibility  f e d a complete p e l l e t e d  ration  ad l i b i t u m , and t o compare t o t a l  versus  chromic oxide  efficients, Their  was  indicator digestibility  completed  results, generally  difference  collection  by P h a r e t a l i n d i c a t e d no  between methods e m p l o y e d .  co-  (1971)•  significant  MATERIALS AND  (a)  Feeding  METHODS  Trial  Experimental Design The  e x p e r i m e n t a l a n i m a l s were  allocated randomly mental  t o twenty receiving  rations.  pens w i t h e a c h p e n one o f t w e n t y  was  at the conclusion  to f a c i l i t a t e Experimental The  steer Lake  weight  group  of the feeding trial.  Animals (100 H e r e f o r d  c a l v e s ) were o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e D o u g l a s Cattle  Co., D o u g l a s  L a k e , B.C.,  and  on t h e b a s i s o f u n i f o r m body  w e i g h t s and c o n f o r m a t i o n .  was  454-477  of  a digestibility  experimental animals  were s e l e c t e d  of  slaughtered  One a n i m a l f r o m e a c h r a t i o n  retained  trial  experi-  The a n i m a l s were  when t h e y r e a c h e d a l i v e kilograms.  randomly-  The a v e r a g e  t h e a n i m a l s when r e c e i v e d 200 k i l o g r a m s .  t a g g e d and a l l o c a t e d  weight  at the f e e d l o t  The s t e e r s were a l l e a r a t random t o p e n s ,  five  animals i n each. Housing E a c h g r o u p was by 9.14  meter  square meters  confined  in a  3*65  pen, a l l o w i n g each a n i m a l of area.  E a c h pen was  meter 6.67  bedded  17.  w i t h wood shavings, and shavings were added as needed.  Water and c o b a l t - i o d i z e d s a l t  b l o c k s were p r o v i d e d ad l i b i t u m t o a l l groups. I n i t i a l Treatment and Feeding  Procedure  On a r r i v a l at the experimental ities,  facil-  the animals were f e d a l f a l f a - b e r m u d a  grass hay (long form).  The animals were  g i v e n i n j e c t i o n s o f P r o v i t e ^ (1 cc.) (Vitamins A, D2, and E ) , t o prevent o r c o r r e c t any v i t a m i n d e f i c i e n c i e s , and ReaPlex  (2 cc.) f o r p r e v e n t i o n o f i n f e c t i o u s  2  bovine  rhinotracheitis.  The hay d i e t s were  s u p p l i e d f o r 17 days, and g r a i n was added on day 17, a t 1.9 kg/animal/day. experimental  The  v i t a m i n - m i n e r a l Premix-^ was  added a t .45 kg/animal/day on day 24, and the hay c o n s t i t u e n t was added i n the chopped form on day 25. full  The animals were g i v e n a  5-week t r a n s i t i o n p e r i o d and were on  Ayerst Laboratories D i v i s i o n of Ayerst, McKenna & H a r r i s o n L i m i t e d , Montreal, Quebec. F o r t Dodge L a b o r a t o r i e s I n c . , F o r t Dodge, Iowa. V i t a m i n - M i n e r a l Premix Table I I I .  Composition  full  experimental  r a t i o n s b y d a y 35.  s t e e r s were s u b c u t a n e o u s l y ear with to  implanted  i nthe  36 mg o f D i e t h y l s t i l b e s t r o l  obtain  rate  A l l  increased  feed  (DES)  e f f i c i e n c i e s and  o f g a i n t h a t h a d been o b t a i n e d  i nthe  literature. The  daily  experiment  feeding  procedure during t h e  involved feeding  each morning.  once p e r day,  On w e i g h i n g d a y s , f e e d  was  withheld  one h o u r u n t i l w e i g h i n g was com-  pleted.  The a n i m a l s were f e d a s much a s  they  could  consume i n 24 h o u r s  (full  feed).  Rations Rations ing  nutritionally  Ration and  were d e s i g n e d  compositions  II.  and t o be  t o n o t be l i m i t isonitrogenous.  are given  i n Tables  P r o t e i n and V i t a m i n - M i n e r a l  composition  are given  the A s s o c i a t i o n of O f f i c i a l  Chemists  (I960).  Premix  i n Table I I I .  Methods o f a n a l y s i s u s e d a r e t h o s e by  I  published  Agricultural  TABLE  I  CONSTITUENTS OF RATIONS INCORPORATING STRAW (air dry basis) (Day 1 - Day 150)  Ration  1 2 3  4  5  6 7 8 9  10  Straw  %  h  C C C C C C C C C  10 10  25  40 10 25 40 10 25 40  Barley  %  Wheat  %  Beet Pulp %  78 78  60  42 61.6 47.2 33.2  15.4  11.a 82.5 63.5 44  8  Soybean o i l meal %  12 12 15 18  13  16 18.5  7.5 11.5  16  (Day 150 - S l a u g h t e r )  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9  10  C 10  c c c c c c c c c  10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10  78 78 78 78  61.6 61.6 61.6  82.5 82.5 82.5  15.4 15.4 15.4  12 12 12 12 13 13 13 7.5 7.5 7.5  L e t t e r (L) o r (C) b e f o r e Straw P e r c e n t denotes l o n g o r chopped. N.B.  I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e i n d i c a t e d r a t i o n each a n i m a l r e c e i v e d .45 kg p e r day o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l V i t a m i n - M i n e r a l supplement.  TABLE I I  CONSTITUENTS OF RATIONS INCORPORATING (air dry basis)  1-95)  (Day  Hay Ration  h  11 12 13 14 15  C C  c c c c c c c  16 17  18 19 20  10 10 25 40 10 25 40 10 25 40  Barley  11 12  L C C C C C C C C C  13 14  15 16 17 18 19 20  10 10 25 40 10 25 40 10 25 40  $  69 56.5 64 51.4 44.8  10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 c 10 C C C C C C C C C  13 14  15 16 17 18 19 20 ^Letter N.B.  Beet Pulp  16 86 73.5 60  13.6 11.2  %  Soybean o i l meal %  9 9 6 3.5 10 7.0 4.0 4 1.5  95 - 150)  90 90  75  60  74 61.4 48.8  90  16 13.6 11.2  75  60 (Day  11 12  Wheat  % 81 81  (Day  HAY  150  -  Slaughter)  90 90 90 90  74 74 74  90 90  16 16 16  90  ( L ) o r (C) b e f o r e Hay P e r c e n t chopped.  denotes l o n g o r  In a d d i t i o n t o t h e i n d i c a t e d r a t i o n each animal r e c e i v e d .45 k g p e r d a y o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l V i t a m i n - M i n e r a l supplement.  TABLE I I I COMPOSITION OF EXPERIMENTAL PREMIX  V i t a m i n -• M i n e r a l Supplement Vitamin A  -  140 gm ( 3 2 5 , 000 I.U. p e r gm)  Vitamin D  -  120 gm (80 m i l l i o n I.U. p e r l b . )  CuS0  40 gm  4  40 gm  CoSO^ MnSO^  -  6 0 0 gm  ZnS04  - 1 0 0 0 gm  Prodine  -  36 (170 mg I o d i n e p e r gm)  E x p e r i m e n t a l Premix ( f e d a t .45 kg p e r head p e r day) V i t a m i n M i x as above  4.5  kg  Limestone  6 3 . 6 kg  D i c a l c i u m Phosphate  4 5 . 4 kg  Salt  72.7  kg  Barley  6 1 8 . 1 kg  Shorts  9 0 . 8 kg  Tallow  1 3 . 6 kg  Total  909  kg  22.  Weighing  Procedure  Weighing of a l l experimental bi-weekly. animals  A f t e r b e i n g w e i g h e d a few  became a c c u s t o m e d t o t h e  o p e r a t i o n was Ration Costs  done w i t h  of a l l r a t i o n  low  procedure  the  and  the  a minimum o f d i s t u r b a n c e .  per ton.  the  i n Table  t h e most e x p e n s i v e Ration  c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t the  d i s t a n c e from  c o n s t i t u e n t s and  c o s t s are given  S o y b e a n o i l m e a l was $131.00  times,  done  Costs  miscellaneous  at  c a t t l e was  areas  c o s t s were  feedlot  was  other  IV. constituent reasonably  a considerable  of feed production.  TABLE IV COSTS OF MATERIALS  Hay  $51.80/ton ( m e t r i c ) ($47.00/ton ( S h o r t ) )  St raw  $33.58  Barley  $57.32 . "  Wheat  $69.44  Beet P u l p Experimental Premix Soybean o i l meal  rt  ($35.00  "  "  )  tt  ($53.00  »  »  )  "  it  ($63.00  "  "  )  $71.65  »  tt  ($65.00  "  $33.18  »  tt  ($30.00  »  "  )  $144.40  "  tt  ($131.00  "  "  )  »  n  )  Other C o s t s Ear  Tags  Scale Salt Blocks D i e t h y l s t i l b e s t r o l implants  -  Re~usable $30.00 (maintenance) $22.50 $35.00 (3.5 c e n t s / a n i m a l )  Cattle 100 head  -  49,310 @ 33.50 cwt l e s s 4% s h r i n k plus f r e i g h t @ .75/cwt.  $19,176.35 767.04 13,409.31 353.64 $18,768.45  (b)  Management  Procedures  Adaption The  animals  the  rations  All  were s h i p p e d  t i o n s and,  and  adapted the  experimental  directly  immediately  facilities,  solid  No  all  from  environment.  range  upon a r r i v a l  experimental food.  exceedingly w e l l to  at  were s t a r t e d  s h i p p i n g f e v e r was  q u i c k l y adapted  condi-  to the  feedlot  the on  evident  and  environment.  Ringworm C o n t r o l An  outbreak  o f ringworm  (Trichophyton  verrucosum) o c c u r r e d d u r i n g the afflicting,  i n v a r y i n g degrees,  the animals. topical to  infected  outbreak  areas.  repeated  Bloat One  The  applications  following  in  was  over  40$  infection  with  motor o i l  subsided  applications.  i n Group 17 straw,  T r e a t m e n t by d r e n c h i n g T u r c a p s o l ^ and  (#20), on  a  began b l o a t i n g  on  w i t h 6 ounces  of  h o s i n g was  successful.  Canadian I n d u s t r i e s L t d . , Vancouver, B r i t i s h P i t m a n Moore, Don  of  controlled  o f C a p i t a n ^ and The  70$  Animals  animal  containing  experiment,  Mills,  Ontario.  ration day  65.  The  Columbia.  a n i m a l a g a i n b l o a t e d on day 80 and was treated again. day  B l o a t i n g r e p e a t e d a g a i n on  9 0 , and t r e a t m e n t  that  date.  h a d no e f f e c t  Consequently  after  t h e a n i m a l was  s l a u g h t e r e d on day 9 6 , a n d d r e s s e d a t 1 5 4 . 5 k g with a d r e s s i n g percentage Ration The basic 1.  o f 57%.  Adjustments  r a t i o n adjustments  were made f o r two  reasons:  G r a s s h a y was no l o n g e r a v a i l a b l e and s w i t c h i n g t o a l f a l f a hay caused an increase  2.  i n the protein  rations  11-20.  Animals  had reached  weight  286-348 k g l i v e  a t t h i s t i m e , and r a t i o n s  have had p r o t e i n 16.9%.  content o f  levels  would  o f 13.97% t o  The N a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l  recommendation  i s 10.4% t o t a l  On day 95 o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t ,  protein. soybean o i l  m e a l was e l i m i n a t e d f r o m t h e h a y r a t i o n s . All  other r a t i o n  raised  c o n c e n t r a t e c o n s t i t u e n t s were  t o g i v e 100% t o t a l s .  26. (c)  Carcass  Trial  The reached The  The  animals a live  were s l a u g h t e r e d when  weight  of  f o l l o w i n g d a t a were  454-477  they  kilograms.  collected:  1.  Shipping  2.  Hot c a r c a s s w e i g h t  3.  Government g r a d e  4.  R i b eye measurement  5.  Fat cover  weight  measurement  s h i p p i n g weight  o f each animal  was  p r i o r to i t l e a v i n g the experimental  obtained  facilities,  a f t e r t h e a n i m a l s * f e e d had b e e n w i t h h e l d f o r 12  hours.  Both the hot carcass weight  government grade a r e a m a t t e r o f  and t h e  procedure.  The  o n l y a r r a n g e m e n t t h a t had t o be made was f o r  the  e a r t a g t o remain with  was  done by c u t t i n g  the carcass.  the e a r t a g out o f the e a r  at  s l a u g h t e r and p i n n i n g i t i n t h e body  of  the gutted  one week l a t e r ,  c a r c a s s e s were s t i l l  while the  i n t h e c o o l e r , t h e r i b eye  and  f a t c o v e r measurements were t a k e n .  was  done by t a k i n g t h e r i g h t  s i d e and  the  q u a r t e r s between t h e 11th  and 12th  was t h e n  cavity  carcass.  Approximately  A transparent  This  plastic  grid  with  placed over the l o i n  2.54  eye  This dividing ribs.  cm  spacings  (longissmus  d o r s i ) and a measurement t a k e n . c o v e r measurements were t a k e n  The f a t  by o b t a i n i n g  the l e n g t h o f t h e l o i n eye from  t h e back  bone down t h e s i d e a n d t h e n t a k i n g f a t measurements a t o n e - q u a r t e r , three-quarters  Digestibility  of this distance.  Trial  One a n i m a l f r o m tained to  each  ration  group  was re-  a t the c o n c l u s i o n o f the f e e d i n g study  facilitate  a digestibility trial.  a n i m a l s were f e d 6.8 respective rations  collected  each  These  kilograms of t h e i r  a n d 32 grams o f c h r o m i c  oxide i n c a p s u l a t e d form.  Fecal  day and c h r o m i c  m i n a t i o n s were made. to  o n e - h a l f , and  s a m p l e s were  oxide deter-  A b a l l i n g gun was u s e d  administer the capsules to the animals.  U n f o r t u n a t e l y two s t e e r s h a d t o be s h i p p e d a s they would n o t adapt  t o the procedure  Because o f t h e reduced digestion t r i a l animals The tive  days,  to test  received  f o r t h e l a s t 7 days.  collections  different  rations.  t h e Cr^O-j f o r 17  consecu-  with f e c a l  the marker each  number o f a n i m a l s , t h e  was r e p e a t e d , w i t h t h e same  b e i n g used  steers  used.  collections  being  taken  The a n i m a l s were g i v e n  d a y a t 9 a.m.,  were done a t 4  and t h e f e c a l  p.m.  The  procedure used  determination  o r f e c e s were a s h e d i n a 75 m l  a t about 600°C.  crucible  approximately with  1 gm o f Na202 was a d d e d , m i x e d  a t g e n t l e heat  h e a t i n g was c o n t i n u e d a low r e d heat, ally.  to  After cooling,  t h e a s h by s w i r l i n g t h e c r u c i b l e ,  mixture fused  500  oxide  was a s f o l l o w s :  1 t o 2 gm o f f e e d nickel  i n t h e chromic  until  standing ferred  f o rfive  into  thoroughly  with  thirty flask  The s o l u t i o n was  trans-  standing  water.  The s o l u -  i n t h e beaker f o r about  filtered  i n t o an E r l e n m e y e r  and t h e r e s i d u e was washed w i t h warm  tilled  water.  The f i l t r a t e  a 500 ml v o l u m e t r i c distilled  measured w i t h  blank.  flask  water.  and made up t o volume  L i g h t t r a n s m i s s i o n was  and w i t h  distilled  calibration  curve.  using  water as a  The amount o f O 2 O 3 was d e t e r m i n e d  a standard  dis-  was t r a n s f e r r e d i n t o  a photoelectric colorimeter,  a 4 4 0 mu f i l t e r ,  left  The c r u c i b l e was washed  hot d i s t i l l e d  minutes, then  ina  w a t e r was added  t o t e n minutes, then  a beaker.  t i o n was l e f t  1950)  occasion-  When c o l d , t h e c r u c i b l e was p l a c e d  dissolve the residue.  The  minutes a t  swirling the crucible  ml b e a k e r and c o l d d i s t i l l e d  with  and t h e  liquid.  f o r about f i v e  well  (Schurch  from  et a l .  RESULTS AND  (a)  DISCUSSION  Feeding  Trial  Average D a i l y  Gains  Average d a i l y  gains  were c a l c u l a t e d on  a b a s i s o f 14-day i n t e r v a l s . less  arbitrary  basis.  Table  average d a i l y No. 12  than  T h i s method i s  calculating  on a  V i n d i c a t e s that the l a r g e s t gains  were o b t a i n e d  {10% c h o p p e d h a y , 81%  feed  order  efficiencies  with  Feed  ration.  Consumption  Ration  No. 12 h a d t h e l o w e s t  feed  s u m p t i o n i n t h e 227-272 kg r a n g e and No. 13  costs  must be c o n s i d e r e d i n  t o e s t a b l i s h t h e most p r a c t i c a l Feed  Ration  steam-rolled  b a r l e y and 9% s o y b e a n o i l m e a l ) . and  daily  had t h e l o w e s t  feed  con-  Ration  consumption i n t h e  272-318 kg range. Ration The of feed  Cost  per Kilogram  o f Gain  c o s t o f each r a t i o n ,  and t h e  r e q u i r e d f o r one k i l o g r a m  kilograms  of gain, are  the  two main p o i n t s t o c o n s i d e r  i n calculating  the  cost per kilogram  As t h e e x p e r i -  ment p r o g r e s s e d , gain  increased,  requiring  of gain.  t h e c o s t o f one k i l o g r a m o f with  greater  the majority  of animals  i n t a k e s t o p u t on a  kilogram  of gain. and  Ration  ration  given  costs, feed  cost per  i n Table  Growth  are  Curves f o r a l l the  r a t i o n s are  i n c l u d e d ; however, a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  curve in  kilogram of gain,  V.  Growth c u r v e s not  conversions,  p e r t a i n i n g t o R a t i o n No.  Figure I .  obtained  on  c h a n g e s due  1 i s given  S i m i l a r growth curves a l l rations, to the  with  no  over-wintering  were  major period  o r r a t i o n a d j u s t m e n t s t h a t were made. Ration The used  Analyses  proximate  i s given  analyses  i n Table  of the r a t i o n s  VI.  Feedlot A p p l i c a t i o n F e e d e f f i c i e n c i e s were h i g h and high  enough f o r a l l r a t i o n s t o  that  practical  feedlot  gains  demonstrate  a p p l i c a t i o n of a l l r a t i o n s t  operations  i s possible.  FIGURE  400  h  2b  ' 4b  '6080  TOO TIME  r  I  ~T2o * 140 ' 160 " 180  (days)  '  2CJ0  STUDY I  TABLE  V  AVERAGE DAILY GAINS AND FEED  EFFICIENCIES  (Nov. 21 - May 15) 175 days  R a t i o n M a j o r ConNo. s t i t u e n t s % 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10  10LS/78B 10S/78B 25S/60B 40S/42B 10S/6lB/l5Be  11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20  10LH/81B 10H/81B 25H/69B 40H/56B 10H/64B/l6Be  25S/47B/llBe  40S/33B/8Be 10S/82W 25S/63W 40S/44W  25H/51B/l3Be  40H/44B/llBe 10H/86W 25H/73W  40H/60W  O v e r a l l A.D.G.(kg) ( l b s )  Average Feed O v e r a l l Cost p e r F.E.2 4 5 . 4 5 kg g a i n  1.17 1.21 1.08 1.04 1.15 1.02 1.05 1.14 1.11 1.04  2.59 2.68 2.38 2.30 2.53 2.25 2.33 2.52 2.45 2.30  6.34 6.11 6.39 7.04 6.80 7.10 6.65 5.70 6.15 6.19  $19.08 18.39 19.17 21.06 21.42 22.13 20.38 18.73 19.75 19.53  1.24 1.31 1.18 1.15 1.25 1.24 1.26 1.15 1.18 1.18  2.73 2.89 2.61 2.53 2.76 2.73 2.78 2.53 2.61 2.60  5.05 5.18 5.43 6.70 5.11 5.78 6.12 6.18 5.61 5.51  14.90 15.29 15.18 17.81 15.81 16.89 16.84 16.55 16.74 16.65  x  A.D.G. -  Average D a i l y G a i n = F i n a l Wt. - I n i t i a l Wt. 175 days  2  F.E.  Feed E f f i c i e n c y  -  (kg f e e d / k g o f g a i n )  L - denotes l o n g form as a g a i n s t chopped H - Hay B. - B a r l e y W - Wheat S - Straw Be - Beet P u l p  TABLE V'l  STUDY I  PROXIMATE ANALYSES OF RATIONS (dry matter b a s i s )  Ration No. 1 2  3  4  5 6 7 8  9  10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 1 2  Major Constituents %  Crude Protein %  Crude Fibre %  Crude Fat %  10LS/78B 10S/78B 25S/60B 40S/42B 10S/6lB/l5Be 25S/47B/llBe 40S/33B/8Be 10S/82W 25S/63W 40S/44W 10LH/81B 10H/81B 25H/69B 40H/56B 10H/64B/l6Be 25H/51B/I31e 40H/44B/llBe 10H/86W 25H/73W 40H/60W  16.22 16.22 16.01  10.67 10.69 17.84 25.01 13.24 19.81 26.39  2.49 2.49 2.41 2.31 2.18 2.15 2.13 2.24 2.32 2.08 2.49 2.49 2.41 2.32 2.17 2.13 2.09 2.04 2.02 2.01  15.95  16.17 16.14 15.9 15.71 15.61 16.80 16.19 16.19 15.42 14.83 16.12 15.42 14.70 15.43 13.97 14.31  9.89  17.60 25.32 8.74 8.74 13.02 17.28 11.40 15.28 19.14  7.44  11.89 16.38  2  Ash %  Ca %  2.23 3.23 4.15 5.07 4.19  .06 .06 .09 .12 .11 .12 .14 .23 .23 .23 .19 .19 .39 .60 .23 .43 .63 .17 .46 .71  4.89  6.70 3.24  4.86  6.06 2.54 2.54 2.39 2.25  3.54 3.24 2.94 2.54 2.38 2.25  N i t r o g e n Free E x t r a c t  L -  denotes  Gross  H B W  Hay Barley Wheat StrawBeet Pulp  Energy  s  Be  G.E. KCal/kg  N.F.E. 56.06 67.32 59.46 51.6 64.14 56.91 43.90 57.51 55.69 51.42 57.16 57.16 51.14 49.78 54.64 51.37 48.13 58.01 55.27 50.34  %  4.624 4.323 4.592 4.550 4.643 4.604 4.567 4.203 4.013  4.857  4.596 4.596 4.524 4.451 4.616 4.541 4.466 4.216 3.858 3.907  l o n g form as a g a i n s t chopped  (b)  Carcass  Trial  The are  results  of the c a r c a s s i n f o r m a t i o n  given i n Table V I I .  97  graded  overall  "choice",  averages  Of t h e  animals,  3 graded  and  "good".  were:  Range  Mean Shipping Dressed  Weight Weight  Dressing Rib  Eye  473  kg  3 8 9 - 5 4 1 kg  274  kg  2 4 0 - 3 1 7 kg  57.3$  54.8 -  67.72  43.53-82.23  $ Measurement  sq Fat  Cover  The  sq cm  cm  1.27  2.03  Average  61.9$  - 3.30  cm  cm  The in  this  grade  fact  97$  that  study s t i l l  of the animals  managed t o f a l l  classification  under  involved  within  t h e Canada  Depart-  ment o f A g r i c u l t u r e B e e f C a r c a s s G r a d i n g , to  September 5 ,  1972,  inaccuracy of the is  little  o r no  p o i n t s out the  system.  obtained.  it  the range  d i d not a f f e c t  had  both the l e a s t  rib  eye  the  figures  them a d v e r s e l y .  grade  at a l l ,  graded and  This carcass  f a t c o v e r and t h e  measurement.  there  lean  animal of the 3 that  O n l y one  "good" a f f e c t e d  that  between t h e  meat i n k i l o g r a m s i n a c a r c a s s and  prior  apparent  I t appears  correlation  one  largest  STUDY I  TABLE V I I  PEN AVERAGE DRESSING PERCENTAGES. RIB EYE AND FAT COVER MEASUREMENTS  Ration No.  Major Constituents %  1 2  10LS/78B 10S/78B  8  40S/42B 10S/6lB/l5Be 25S/47B/llBe 40S/33B/8Be 10S/82W 25S/63W 40S/44W 10LH/81B 10H/81B  3 4 5 6 7  25S/60B  9  10 11 12  13  25H/69B  40H/56B 10H/64B/l6Be 25H/51B/l3Be 40H/44B/llBe 10H/86W 25H/73W 40H/60W  14 15 16 17 18  19 20 L H B W  -  Dressing fo  R i b Eye sq cm sq i n c h e s  57.7  61.2  57.7  70.9 69.0  58.3 56.9 55.8 57.8  56.5  58.4 57.5 57.5 57.8 58.7 57.6  58.1 58.1 58.2  57.9  59.2  59.4  58.5  denotes l o n g form as a g a i n s t Hay Barley Wheat  66.4 66.4 67.7  66.4 66.4  74.1  69.6 69.6 64.5  69.6  72.2 69.O 67.7 67.7 70.9 67.7  66.4  chopped  Fat cm  9.5 10.3 10.3 10.5  2.03 1.77 1.52  10.7 10.3 10.3 11.5 10.8 10.8  2.03 2.03 2.03 1.77 1.77 1.77  11.0  10.0 10.8 11.2  10.7 10.5 10.5  11.0  10.5 10.3 S Be -  2.28  2.28  2.28  Cover inches  .9 .8 .7 .6  .9 .8  .8  .8  .7 .7 .7 .9  2.03 1.77  .8  2.03  .8  2.28 2.28 2.28 2.28  2.03  Straw Beet P u l p  .7 .9 .9 .9  .9 .8  It  should  be n o t e d t h a t  consumed t h e r a t i o n s h a v i n g (4,  7, 10, 14,  fat  cover.  17,  Those t h a t  of  l e s s than the average 17,  (40% s t r a w ) ,  were o f f e r e d  7, 10  20, c o n t a i n e d  Digestibility  that  40% r o u g h a g e  20) h a d l e s s t h a n  4,  14,  the animals  average rations  h a d a r i b eye measurement (Table  VII).  Rations  40% h a y .  Trial  T h e r e seems t o be an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h e high 10,  roughage r a t i o n s 14, 17,  ibility.  (40%), i . e .  20, h a d a l o w e r d r y m a t t e r  The r e s u l t s o f t h e t r i a l  Table VIII.  r a t i o n s 4,  This t r i a l  encountered  p r o b l e m s w h i c h e x p l a i n why  there  digest-  are given i n numerous  were n o t two  a n i m a l s u s e d on e a c h r a t i o n a s shown i n T a b l e VIII.  7,  STUDY I  TABLE V I I I AVERAGE DRY MATTER  Ration No.  Major Constituents %  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20  10LS/78B 10S/78B  25S/60B  40S/42B 10S/6lB/l5Be 25S/47B/llBe 40S/33B/8Be 10S/82W 25S/63W 40S/44W 10LH/81B 10H/81B 25H/69B 40H/56B 10H/64B/l6Be 25H/51B/l3Be 40H/44B/llBe 10H/86W 25H/73W 40H/60W  DIGESTIBILITIES  Animal 1 82.9 79.2 75.2 69.9 73.12 73.37 75.98 ,72.09 #64.27 75.65 74.41 71.61 72.04 69.09 74.95 72.45 70.92 79.43 ,,80.52 ^64.91  Animal 2  Average Dry Matter Digestibility %  77.3 69.4 74.2  80.35 74.3 74.7 69.9 73.64 72.45 78.87 72.09 69.97 75.67 74.32 71.50 66.82 69.49 75.09 72.45 71.76 80.35 80.52 70.49  74.16 71.04 31.76 75.67 75.70 74.24 ,71.39 #61.61 69.90 75.24 72.60 81.28 76.08  Poor c o l l e c t i o n L B S  -  denotes long form as against chopped Barley Straw  H W Be  Hay Wheat Beet Pulp  STUDY I I  THE EFFECT OF VARIOUS  ON THE GROWTH  FEED GRAINS  PATTERNS  OF GROWING AND FATTENING STEERS  A.  INTRODUCTION  Study I I i n v o l v e d Hereford with  s t e e r s and  of the  corn,  particular  example,  corn  lower F r a s e r  area  in local  not  ignored  because of  expensive  make up  feed  point  of world trade  Canada i s t o t a k e f u l l markets, r e s e a r c h b o t h h e r e and  and  For in  the  used to  any  However, i t c a n of view  simply  must be  can  be  i s changing r a p i d l y  advantage of these done w i t h  grains  the  ability  of a feed g r a i n to  gains.  On  and  produced  relative  intake  value  determine  p r o d u c e r a p i d and  part  Therefore,  of t h i s  study,  energy e v a l u a t i o n  i n the  discussion  a close look  of the  will  six rations  the  economical feed  p r o d u c e more b e e f a t l o w e r c o s t s t h a n  low-energy f e e d s .  of  accurately.  a pound f o r pound b a s i s , h i g h - e n e r g y  grains w i l l  If  expanding  e s t a b l i s h e d reasonably  Energy c o n c e n t r a t i o n  the  cost.  in  ever-expanding markets.  e l s e w h e r e so t h a t  Canadian g r a i n s  at  a concentrate  cost. T  results  deter-  constituent  commercial f e e d l o t s .  Canada s grain s i t u a t i o n because  in  i s , t h e r e f o r e , not  from a r e s e a r c h  content,  compared.  e c o n o m i c s and  V a l l e y and  extent be  are  i s an  being  using  in  major c o n s i d e r a t i o n s  m i n i n g what c o n s t i t u e n t s w i l l any  trial  r a t i o n s which v a r i e d  b a r l e y , wheat, and Two  a feeding  do  and  be  used.  taken  Also, the  geographical  completely of  i t i s recognized  these  study  setting  was  of t h i s  a l t e r o r change t h e  results. to  value  wheat as b a s a l g r a i n s , and possible  value  proportions.  of mixing The  to  the  criteria  study  gain, feed efficiency,  gain,  c a r c a s s g r a d e , and  would  primary of corn,  aim  barley  grains  the  were,  pared was  t o the  the  others.  carcass  consumer.  Also  and  average  cost per kilogram  dressing  economic f e a s i b i l i t y  this  i n various  o f any  of  percentage.  A secondary c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n the was  of  i n v e s t i g a t e the  considered  daily  in  economic a p p r a i s a l  However, t h e  compare t h e  that a s h i f t  one  considered  study  ration  in this  e v a l u a t i o n i n t e r m s o f use  to  comstudy the  B.  LITERATURE REVIEW  When c o m p a r i n g different to  grains,  the feeding values of  one v e r y i m p o r t a n t  examine i s t h e e n e r g y  content.  and wheat, a r e a l l r e l a t i v e l y However, b a r l e y  t h a n d o e s wheat o r c o r n . o f average is  given  Corn,  high  c o n t a i n s about  characteristic  i n energy c o n t e n t .  5% l e s s n e t e n e r g y  The g e n e r a l i z e d  energy u t i l i z a t i o n  barley,  breakdown  i n a feed f o r ruminants  i n Figure I I . There a r e s e v e r a l  systems  f o r evaluating  f e e d s on an e n e r g y b a s i s , w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g b e i n g most w i d e l y u s e d i n N o r t h Digestible  2.  T.D.N, o r T o t a l D i g e s t i b l e  3.  Net Energy-Maintenance  Energy  the  Nutrient  t h e most common was  system  (TDN).  The N e t  s y s t e m was a r e f i n e m e n t o f t h e TDN s y s t e m .  i t s definition,  n e t energy r e f e r s t o t h a t  energy o f t h e f e e d which  maintenance, improvement mitted  Nutrients  and P r o d u c t i o n  i n the past  Total Digestible  Energy By  America:  1.  Of t h e s y s t e m s u s e d the  systems  m i l k p r o d u c t i o n o r growth.  t o support I t was an  o v e r t h e TDN s y s t e m a n d i t s u s e h a s p e r -  improvement  ruminants.  i s available  part of  i n t h e f e e d i n g management o f  42. STUDY  I I  FIGURE  ENERGY  -FEED  GROSS  I I  RELATIONSHIPS  ENERGY  -FECAL  D I G E S T I B L E RUMEN  GAS  URINE  ENERGY  £  LOSS  -METABOLIZABLE  ENERGY  RUMEN HEAT  FERMENTATION OF  NUTRIENT  METABOLISM  NET  GROWTH  OR  FAT  MILK  ENERGY  •MAINTENANCE  HEAT OF MAINTENANCE  WT. MILK  GAIN  c<<<<-  ENERGY  —  GROSS  —  D I G E S T I B L E  —  METABOLIZABLE  —  NET  Source  FERMEN-  LOSS  URINE FECES  LOSS  >  ENERGY ->  NMT ET m  _.  NEp  -  Net Energy  Production  NE  -  Net Energy  Maintenance  m  METHANE  TATION  ENERGY  ENERGY - > <S.—  J  METAB.  RUMEN  ENERGY  v  N E np  NUT.  Cardon  (1970)  >  Net tions  energy w i l l  throughout t h i s  used i n the growing  be u s e d f o r a l l c a l c u l a -  paper.  T h i s n e t energy  and f i n i s h i n g  phases  was i n t r o d u c e d b y L o f g r e e n e t a l i n  of beef  I963.  s e p a r a t e s the requirements f o r maintenance f o r body w e i g h t  gain,  system cattle  This  system  from  that  and e x p r e s s e s a n e t e n e r g y v a l u e  o f t h e f e e d f o r t h e s e two f u n c t i o n s .  NE  represents  m  t h e n e t e n e r g y r e q u i r e m e n t and t h e n e t e n e r g y c o n t e n t o f t h e f e e d when u s e d f o r m a i n t e n a n c e .  NEg r e p r e s e n t s  the n e t energy used f o r p r o d u c t i o n o f weight Net that  energy f o r maintenance NE  m  requirement f o r both s t e e r s  equal to approximately body s i z e  i s established  (wO«75kg).  gain of steers  0.077  Meals  gain.  on t h e b a s i s  and h e i f e r s i s  per unit  The e n e r g y d e p o s i t e d  of metabolic i n weight  ( t h e NEg r e q u i r e m e n t ) i s r e p r e s e n t e d by  the equation NEg  =  (52.72  NE v a l u e s a r e a l s o u s e f u l have g a i n e d w e i g h t  gain +  6.84  gain ) 2  (W°-  i n d e t e r m i n i n g whether  i n accordance with  7 5  cattle  expectations.  When NE r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e s e p a r a t e d i n t o m a i n t e n a n c e body w e i g h t  g a i n , t h e y do n o t v a r y when  roughage/concentrate r a t i o s  kg).  and  different  a r e f e d , a s do ME and TDN  requirements. The 1959,  s t a n d a r d t a b l e s o f F e e d C o m p o s i t i o n NRC  M o r r i s o n , 1956,  indicated  that  c o r n was  slightly  superior basis. gains  to barley  on a TDN o r a c a l c u l a t e d n e t e n e r g y  Many r e s e a r c h e r s and f e e d  Hale et a l  noticed,  e f f i c i e n c y were o b t a i n e d  (I962),  reported  in daily  required  when compared t o c o r n .  results  gain,  that  increase  re-evaluated  barley  with  and c o r n  indicated that  better  barley.  showed a  decrease  Garrett  i n feed  et a l  (1964)  n e t energy v a l u e s . and c o r n ,  5%  Their  50-50  or a  are approximately equal i n  t h e i r n e t energy content. reason f o r feeders  with  barley  a 8.7%  barley  mixture of these grains,  no  however, t h a t  Therefore,  to discriminate  there  should  against  corn  be as  a s o u r c e o f e n e r g y when f e d i n a b a l a n c e d r a t i o n . The available as  that  energy value  The w o r t h o f a f e e d  acid  of the proteins  and t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f  many d i f f e r e n t p r o t e i n s  r e l a t i o n s , the usefulness  part,  Since  than f o r r a p i d growth.  t h e body  h a v i n g d i f f e r e n t amino  of a feed  grain  on t h e p u r p o s e f o r w h i c h i t i s f e d .  e x a m p l e , f e w e r amino a c i d s  of  g r a i n as a s o u r c e o f  amino a c i d s m a k i n g up t h e p r o t e i n s .  contains  in  worth o f t h e p r o t e i n  q u a l i t y i s d e p e n d e n t on two f a c t o r s , t h e t o t a l  concentration the  o f f e e d s i s somewhat t h e same  of describing the n u t r i t i v e  complex. protein  problem o f d e s c r i b i n g the o v e r a l l  depends, For  a r e needed f o r maintenance  The u s e f u l n e s s  of the protein  a p a r t i c u l a r r a t i o n i n meeting the animals'  (nitrogen)  needs i s o f t e n  protein  r e f e r r e d t o as i t s q u a l i t y .  Although been e s t i m a t e d considerable theorized  n e t energy v a l u e s  at several stations,  variation  i n c l u d i n g temperature  (Garrett  et a l 1964),  method o f d e t e r m i n i n g still of  controversy  individual  (1964)  mined by a d d i n g but  the breed  o r sex o f c a t t l e  e t a l 1968), and t h e  net energy.  Also, there i s  i n mixed r a t i o n s .  Blaxter eta l  "that the n e t energy o f a food i tto a basal diet  v a r i e s with the l e v e l  nature  o r environment  regarding the a s s o c i a t i v e e f f e c t s  feeds  concluded  i s still  i s due t o a number o f  factors,  ( H a l l e t a l 196$, Klosterman  there  have  Vance e t a l ( 1 9 7 2 )  l a c k o f agreement.  that this  f o r corn  of the basal  deter  i s not constant  o f f e e d i n g adapted  and t h e  diet".  G r i n d i n g h a s l o n g been recommended f o r c o r n grain has  i n finishing  suggested  factorily  rations.  Recent f e e d l o t  t h a t whole s h e l l e d  f e d (Hixon  corn  research  c a n be  e t a l 1969, Burkhardt  satis-  e t a l 1969  McLaren e t a l 1 9 7 0 , Gerken e t a l 1 9 7 1 ) . C o r n and b a r l e y were u s e d and compared i n this and  feeding t r i a l  research  t h e world-wide r e c o g n i t i o n o f c o r n o r maize as a  grain will  crop.  Although  i t appears  be l e s s wheat a v a i l a b l e  f e e d i n g o r beef in  because o f t h e i n d i c a t e d  this t r i a l  production,  (FAO 1 9 7 1 )  there  i n the f u t u r e f o r animal i t was u s e d a n d compared  because o f i t s u s e and r e c o g n i t i o n  throughout  the world While  as an  c a r c a s s d a t a were g a t h e r e d  study f o r comparison also notable that currently  important g r a i n  purposes  used.  i n Canada d u r i n g t h i s  o f b e e f t o t h e consumer. accurately  The  predict  system  predict  more a c c u r a t e l y  The  grading  merchandising  current grading  the  quantity or  o f t h e l e a n meat w i t h i n a c a r c a s s . grading  with  study c o n t a i n s  a g r e a t d e a l o f m y t h o l o g y as does t h e  does not  i t is  a great deal of research i s  b e i n g done i n Canada, e s p e c i a l l y  i n use  in this  between r a t i o n s ,  r e g a r d to the beef g r a d i n g system system  crop.  (September 1972)  The  will  system  quality  proposed  attempt  new  to  carcass value i n l i g h t  of  recent research. One  example o f t h e  q u e s t i o n of beef tenderness (1966) showed t h a t  t o the a c c e p t a b i l i t y  finish, was  and  related  importance basic  single  meat.  Pearson  i s generally  accepted  bull  attribute  of beef.  fatness, both  I t has  external  contributing l o n g been  i n the form  of  i n t r a - m u s c u l a r i n the form of marbling, to tenderness. was  The  question of  w h e t h e r m a r b l i n g and  requisites  tenderness  and  tenderness  a s t h e most i m p o r t a n t  assumed t h a t  c a r c a s s r e s e a r c h i s the  prime  carcass f a t are  f o r meat t e n d e r n e s s , o r w h e t h e r  i s primarily  a function  o f a n i m a l age  and  47.  other  factors.  I n a d d i t i o n t o a n i m a l age, t h e  degree o f c a r c a s s Martin  ageing  requires  specification.  e t a l (1970) s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e e n t i r e  t i o n s h i p between t e n d e r n e s s and o t h e r factors, sex,  ageing  hensive to  and m a r b l i n g  cattle  period, maturity,  evaluation.  current  and f a t n e s s  trends  toward  quality-  i n r e l a t i o n to  requires  They t h o u g h t  compre-  this  slaughtering  timely  "Insofar  Martin  as t h e p o p u l a t i o n  concerned, f i n i s h were u n r e l a t e d marbling  e t a l (1970)  only  grading f o r  concluded  i n the present fatness  to tenderness, while  explained  tenderness".  or other  due  o f younger  and i n c r e a s i n g i n t e r e s t i n y i e l d  beef carcasses.  rela-  study  measurements variation i n  9% o f t h e v a r i a t i o n i n  was  MATERIALS AND METHODS (a)  Feeding T r i a l Experimental Design The e x p e r i m e n t a l a n i m a l s were randomly a l l o c a t e d t o t w e l v e pens, f i v e a n i m a l s i n each.  Two pens were a s s i g n e d t o one o f each  of t h e s i x r a t i o n s .  The a n i m a l s were  s l a u g h t e r e d when t h e y reached a l i v e weight of 454-477 k i l o g r a m s . E x p e r i m e n t a l Animals The e x p e r i m e n t a l a n i m a l s ( 6 3  Hereford  s t e e r c a l v e s ) were o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e B.C. Livestock Producers' Co-operative A s s o c i a t i o n at M e r r i t t , B.C. and were s e l e c t e d on t h e b a s i s o f u n i f o r m body w e i g h t s and tion. day  6  conforma-  The average weight o f t h e a n i m a l s on was  2 2 3 . 6  kilograms.  The s t e e r s were  a l l e a r - t a g g e d and a l l o c a t e d a t random t o pens, f i v e a n i m a l s i n each. Housing Housing was t h e same as t h a t d e s c r i b e d i n Study I .  49.  Initial  Treatment  On a r r i v a l (day  hay  (long form).  injections  of P r o v i t e  E ) , t o prevent  deficiencies, vention  assigned the  was  with was feed  Source:  and R e a - P l e x  37.  until  (2 c c . ) f o r p r e rhinotracheitis. and r a n d o m l y  and t h e r o u g h a g e at the r a t i o n  through was  proportion  formulas  f o r m u l a s were met  of D i e t h y l s t i l b e s t r o l .  used because l i t e r a t u r e  1  2  vitamin  A l l s t e e r s were s u b c u t a n e o u s l y  efficiencies  D  The g r a i n p r o p o r t i o n  These r a t i o n  36 m i l l i g r a m s  A,  The hay d i e t s c o n t i n u e d  increased  IX).  given  (1 c c . ) ( V i t a m i n s  a n i m a l s were e a r - t a g g e d  decreased  (Table day  1  adjustment p e r i o d .  gradually  alfalfa-bermuda  o r c o r r e c t any  t o pens.  facilities  The a n i m a l s were  of i n f e c t i o u s bovine  The  Procedure  at the experimental  1 ) , t h e a n i m a l s were f e d  grass  and  and F e e d i n g  on  implanted DES  has i n d i c a t e d i m p r o v e d  and r a t e s o f g a i n .  Ayerst Laboratories D i v i s i o n of Ayerst, McKenna & H a r r i s o n L i m i t e d , M o n t r e a l , Quebec. F o r t Dodge L a b o r a t o r i e s Dodge, Iowa.  Inc., Fort  STUDY I I  TABLE I X  RATION COMPOSITION AND COSTS (air dry basis)  Ration No.  Cost/ Percentage  of  Composition  1000  kg  Cost/ ton  $67.87  $61.70  90 Barley/10 Hay  57.97  52.70  3  90 Corn/10 Hay  94.60  86.00  4  74 B a r l e y / l 6 Wheat/10 Hay  59.73  54.30  5  45 Barley/45 Wheat/lO Hay  62.92  57.20  6  74 Wheat/16 Barley/10 Hay  66.11  60.10  1  90 Wheat/10 Hay  2  Note:  A l l hay f e d i n chopped R a t i o n c o s t s p l u s $ .04 day f o r V i t a m i n - M i n e r a l  form. p e r head p e r supplement.  In a d d i t i o n t o t h e i n d i c a t e d r a t i o n e a c h a n i m a l r e c e i v e d .45 k g p e r day of the experimental Vitamin-Mineral supplement.  The  daily  experiment  feed procedure  i n v o l v e d f e e d i n g once p e r d a y ,  each morning. to  during the  On d a y s when t h e a n i m a l s  be w e i g h e d , f e e d was w i t h h e l d  until  weighing  was  completed.  were f e d a s much a s t h e y  were  one h o u r  The  animals  c o u l d consume  i n 24  hours. Rations Ration data  compositions  are given  i n Tables  Vitamin-Mineral in  and p r o x i m a t e a n a l y s i s IX and X.  Premix composition  P r o t e i n and are given  Table XI. Weighing  Procedure  W e i g h i n g was  done b i - w e e k l y .  w e i g h e d a few t i m e s ,  the animals  accustomed t o the procedure was  done w i t h  After  being  became  and t h e o p e r a t i o n  a minimum o f d i s t u r b a n c e  to the  steers. Ration Costs in  Flaked  constituent at largely  were a g a i n and  of a l l ration  Table X I I .  sive was  Costs  size  constituents are given  c o r n was  # 9 2 . 0 0  t h e most  per ton.  due t o a v a i l a b i l i t y . reasonably  of experimental  also gives other  This  Ration  low c o n s i d e r i n g facilities.  expencost costs  location Table X I I  costs i n v o l v e d i n the experiment.  STUDY I I  TABLE  X  PROXIMATE ANALYSES OF FEEDSTUFFS  Feedstuff  Crude Moisture Protein Fibre  %  %  1°  Ash Fat Energy % Kcal/gm  Barley-  13.0  11.3  8.4  2.7 3.1  4.228  Wheat  12.0  12.9  3.4  1.8 2.9  4.478  Corn  13.0  9.7  4.4  1.1 3.3  4.250  Hay  10.0  11.1  39.8  5.5 4.4  4.292  VitaminMineral Supplement  10.0  10.7  7.0  19.0 4.5  3.331  STUDY I I TABLE XI  COMPOSITION OF EXPERIMENTAL PREMIX  Vitamin--Mineral Supplement Vitamin A  -  1 4 0 gm  (325,000  Vitamin D  -  1 2 0 gm  (80 m i l l i o n I.U. per l b )  CuSO^  4 0 gm  C0SO4  4 0 gm  MnS04  -  ZnS0  - 1 0 0 0 gm  4  -  Prodine  I.U. per  600 gm  36 gm ( 1 7 0 mg Iodine per gm)  Experimental Premix (fed at . 4 5 kg per head per day) V i t a m i n Mix as above -  4 . 5 kg  Limestone  63.6 kg  D i c a l c i u m Phosphate  4 5 . 4 kg  Salt  7 2 . 7 kg  Barley  618.1 kg  Shorts  90.8 kg  Tallow  13.6 kg  Total  gm)  909  kg  54. STUDY I I TABLE X I I  COSTS OF MATERIALS  Steam R o l l e d Barley  |  60.50/ton (metric) 101.20  "  Dry R o l l e d Wheat  71.50  »  Experimental Premix  91.30  G r a s s Hay  35.20  Flaked  Other Salt  Corn  ($55.00/ton  (Short))  ($92.00  »  "  )  tt  ($65.00  "  "  )  "  TT  ($83.00  »  »  )  «  TT  ($32.00  "  "  )  Costs Blocks  Diethylstilbestrol implants  83.60/ton  (metric)  ($76.00/ton  (Short))  32.00 150.00  Drugs Shavings 4 units  12.00  Ear  Re-usable  Tags  Cattle 63  head  $12,255.15.  (b)  Management  Procedures  Adaption The  animals  adapted  t h e r a t i o n s and t h e  experimental  A l l were s h i p p e d d i r e c t l y tions  and,  immediately  solid  food.  A f t e r an  10-14  days,  t h e r e was  fever  effectively  an  t h e s e were  antibiotics.  steer died  29)  to bloat.  o t h e r major  However, t h i s malignant all  time  only  the death  The  edema.  remaining  The  was  cause  o f a second  o f d e a t h was  At t h i s  time,  of "Clostridium  treatment  the e n t i r e  :  1  was  approximately  steer  unknown.  the s u s p e c t e d cause  septicum p a s t e u r e l l a bacterin"^-. this  (Nov.  was 16th,  on M a r c h  5 cc  s t e e r s were t r e a t e d w i t h  intramuscularly  e  of the  t o t h e r a t i o n s , one  due  of  o c c u r r e n c e o f some  animals  on M a r c h 13th.  c  on  Health  h e a l t h ^problem  r  the  period  During the i n i t i a l adjustment  u  condi-  were s t a r t e d  symptoms b u t  treated with  Animal  f r o m range  incubation  to  environment.  upon a r r i v a l a t  experimental f a c i l i t i e s ,  shipping  exceedingly well  chauveiThe  cost  $10.00  of  for  group.  Norden L a b o r a t o r i e s ,  Lincoln,  Nebraska.  Ration All various  Preparation  h a y was f e d i n t h e c h o p p e d f o r m a n d t h e c o n s t i t u e n t s o f t h e r a t i o n were n o t m i x e d  prior to feeding in the  but simply  the feed trough. rations aside  w e i g h e d o u t and p l a c e d  No a d j u s t m e n t s were made i n  f r o m minor changes w i t h i n  batche  of g r a i n .  Carcass  Trial  The  a n i m a l s were s l a u g h t e r e d  reached a l i v e  weight  of  following  d a t a were  1.  Shipping  2.  Hot C a r c a s s  3.  Government  The  s h i p p i n g weight  when  454-477 k i l o g r a m s .  The  collected: Weight Weight Grade.  o f e a c h a n i m a l was  p r i o r t o i t l e a v i n g the experimental Both t h e h o t c a r c a s s  they  weight  obtained  facilities.  and t h e government  grade a r e a matter o f procedure.  The o n l y  arrange  ment t h a t h a d t o be made was f o r t h e e a r - t a g t o remain with  the carcass.  RESULTS AND (a)  DISCUSSION  Feeding  Trial  Average D a i l y Average d a i l y  Gains g a i n s were c a l c u l a t e d on  a b a s i s o f 14-day i n t e r v a l s  throughout  151  average  day t r i a l .  The l a r g e s t  (74% Wheat/16% B a r l e y / 1 0 %  is  Hay) i n Pen No.  However, s i n c e d u p l i c a t e s were r u n ,  pens o f s t e e r s on e a c h r a t i o n .  average r e s u l t s interesting  are given i n Table that both  R a t i o n No. 6 o b t a i n e d gains o f 1.32 Feed  recorded  The  XIII.  It  R a t i o n No. 1 and  o v e r - a l l average  daily  kilograms.  Consumption  Daily  f e e d c o n s u m p t i o n p e r pen was  throughout  the experiment t o a l l o w  calculation of over-all  feed e f f i c i e n c i e s  shown i n T a b l e s XIV and XV. it  i t  p o s s i b l e t o o b t a i n an a v e r a g e o f two  separate  is  daily  R a t i o n No. 6  g a i n s were o b t a i n e d w i t h  11.  the  In Table  as  XIII  c a n be s e e n t h a t R a t i o n No. 1 was t h e most  efficient  ration  (90% Wheat,  10% Chopped H a y ) .  58.  Ration Cost In No. 2  per Kilogram o f Gain  T a b l e X I I I i t c a n be s e e n t h a t  (90$  Ration  B a r l e y / l 0 $ Hay) h a d t h e l o w e s t  cost  p e r 45.45 k i l o g r a m o f g a i n a t #16.50. Growth D a t a Growth c u r v e s a r e n o t p r e s e n t e d  because  u n i f o r m g r o w t h c u r v e s were o b t a i n e d on a l l r a t i o n s . However, g r o w t h d a t a f o r t h e e n t i r e t r i a l in  Table XIV.  efficiencies Ration  T a b l e XV a l s o calculated  i s given  presents the feed  f o r the entire  trial.  Analyses  Proximate analyses data f o r the r a t i o n s is  g i v e n i n Table XVI.  used  59.  STUDY I I TABLE X I I I  AVERAGE DAILY GAINS AND FEED EFFICIENCIES  Ration No.  Major Cons t i t u e n t s fo  O v e r a l l A.D.G. (lbs) (kg)  1  O v e r a l l Average Feed F.E.2 Cost per 45.45 kg g a i n  H7.13  1  90W/10H  1.32  2.92  5.55  2  90B/10H  1.27  2.81  6.26  16.50  3  90C/10H  1.20  2.65  6.01  25.88  4  74B/16W/10H  1.30  2.88  6.33  17.20  5  45B/45W/10H  1.16  2.56  6.24  17.86  6  74W/16B/10H  1.32  2.92  5.83  17.54  A.D.G. - Average D a i l y Gain - F i n a l Wt. - I n i t i a l Wt. 151 days F.E. W H B C  - Feed E f f i c i e n c y (kg feed/kg o f g a i n ) -  Wheat Hay Barley Corn  STUDY I I  TABLE XIV GROWTH  DATA  AVERAGE DAILY GAINS IN PERIODS OF TWO WEEKS (kilograms)  Period 1 Pen  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  1  .82  1.50  1.63  1.48  1.38  1.44  1.53  1.50  1.00  1.58  1.23  2  .72  1.51  1.59  1.90  .57  1.20  1.16  1.62  1.38  1.12  1.27  3  .52  1.59  1.96  1.46  1.06  1.07  1.45  1.55  1.08  1.30  1.03  4  .80  1.65  1.42  1.57  .97  1.12  1.73  1.40  .89  1.51  1.08  5  .38  1.32  1.51  1.55  1.39  .09  1.25  1.27  1.29  1.41  1.27  6  .62  1.63  1.90  1.56  1.22  1.24  -  1.18  .92  1.00  .52  7  .55  1.73  1.74  1.80  1.12  1.62  .84  1.40  1.35  1.35  1.06  8  .90  1.72  1.73  1.68  1.02  1.03  1.29  1.27  1.50  1.23  0.0  9  .80  1.62  1.35  1.41  1.06  1.36  .80  1.59  1.06  1.13  .52  10  .81  1.64  1.47  1.35  1.15  1.33  .89  1.09  1.08  1.25  .40  11  .79  1.75  1.85  2.00  1.00  1.63  .90  1.42  1.50  1.51  1.28  12  .79  1.84  1.50  1.23  1.23  1.22  1.13  1.10  1.12  1.12  1.18  STUDY I I  TABLE XV  GROWTH  Feed E f f i c i e n c y  Period  2  1  DATA  - Kilograms o f Feed/Kilograms o f Gain  3  4  5  6  7  5.84  5.69  5.48  6.39  8  9  10  5.80  8.86  5.73  7.1  6.33  4.85  5.96  7.07  6.07  11  s  1  5.43  3.74  4.14  4.80  2  6.16  3.69  4.24  3.61  3  9.38  3.80  3.82  5.46  7.66  7.59  6.07  6.06  8.65  7.63  10.1  4  6.12  3.65  5.06  4.74  8.38  7.24  5.62  6.13  9.38  6.11  9.2  3.92  4.27  4.71  5.80  7.85  6.15  6.16  6.02  6.6  7.91  3.71  3.80  4.81  6.83  6.49  -  5.89  5.21  8.35  8.04  13-4  7  8.94  3.48  4.33  4.69  8.27  6.49 10.26  6.14  6.85  7.37  9.8  8  5.42  3.51  4.19  4.77  8.35  8.37  7.0  7.46  6.45  8.06  _  9  6.12  3.72  5.26  4.96  7.01  5.58  9.4  4.90  7.25  7.34  15.0  10  6.03  3.68  4.80  5.30  6.47  5.66  8.58  7.26  7.04  6.49  -  11  6.22  3.46  3.92  4.0  8.80  5.27  8.96  5.72  5.88  5.98  12  7.4  6.22  3.29  4.80  6.38  6.95  6.83  6.91  7.14  7.13  7.08  6.9  Pen  5  6  11.5  13.8  STUDY I I  TABLE XVI PROXIMATE ANALYSES OF RATIONS  Major Constituents  Ration No.  %  Moisture of  Crude Protein  %  Crude Fat  Ash  fo  fo  fo  Gross Energy Kcal/gm  7.04  3.05  2.17  4.45  11.27  11.54  3.23  2.98  4.23  9.83  7.94  3.41  1.54.  4.25  12.54  11.52  10.73  3.19  2.82  4.27  45B/45W/10H  12.25  11.98  9.29  3.13  2.57  4.34  74W/16B/10H  11.96  12.44  7.83  3.07  2.31  4.41  1  90W/10H  11.8  12.7  2  90B/10H  12.7  3  90C/10H  12.7  4  74B/16W/10H  5 6  W H B C  Crude Fibre  -  Wheat Hay Barley Corn  Energy. As d i s c u s s e d i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h i s study,  i t i s possible t h e o r e t i c a l l y to predict  weight gains i f energy i n t a k e i s known. and  The N E  m  NEg f o r growing and f i n i s h i n g s t e e r s are  g i v e n i n Table XVII.  The net energy  concentration  r e q u i r e d o f beef c a t t l e r a t i o n s (dry matter b a s i s ) f o r f i n i s h i n g c a l v e s (250-450 kg body weight) i s 1.17 Mcal/kg o f r a t i o n .  Table XVIII shows the  component p a r t s of those  feeds used i n the v a r i o u s  rations tested. The  t h e o r e t i c a l f e e d consumption o f a 300 kg  and 400 kg s t e e r are g i v e n i n Table XIX. p r o j e c t e d i n t a k e s and f e e d compositions  By u s i n g from  N u t r i e n t Requirements o f Beef C a t t l e (1970), the t h e o r e t i c a l weight gains were c a l c u l a t e d . shows the r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d .  I t can be seen i n t h i s  Table t h a t the a c t u a l r e s u l t s were very predicted.  Table XX  accurately  I t was noted, however, t h a t the amounts  of f e e d consumed by each animal were g r e a t e r than the t h e o r e t i c a l value  used.  STUDY I I TABLE X V I I  NET ENERGY REQUIREMENTS OF GROWING AND  FINISHING  BEEF CATTLE ( M c a l / a n i m a l / d a y )  Body W e i g h t NE  (kg)  required  m  Daily  G a i n (kg)  100  200  300# 350  400  450#  2.43  4.10  5.55  6.24  6.89  7.52  NE g a i n  500 8.14  required  Steers  0.39  0.43  0.48  0.6  0.17 0.28 0.34 0.57 0.52 0 . 8 7 0.70 1.18 0 . 8 9 1.49 1.08 1.81  0.7  1.27  2.14  2.90  3.26  3.6O  3.93  4.25  0.8  1.47  2.47  3.36  3-77  4.17  4.55  4-92  0.9  1.67  2.81  3.82  4.29  4.74  5.18  5.60  1.0  1.88  3.16  4.29  4.82  5.33  5.82  6.29  1.1  2.09  3.52  4.78  5.37  5.93  6.47  7.00  1.2  2.31  3.88  5.27  5.92  6.55  7.14  7.73  1.3  2.53  4.26  5.77  6.49  7.17  7.82  8.46  1.4  2.76  4.63  6.29  7.06  7.81  8.52  9.22  1.5  2.99  5.02  6.81  7.65  8.46  9.23  9.98  0.1 0.2  0.3 0.4 0.5  Source:  Nutrient  0.52 0.56 0 . 7 8 0 . 8 8 0.97 1.06 1.14 1.18 1.33 1 . 4 7 1.61 1 . 8 4 1 . 6 0 1.80 1.99 2.17 2.34 2 . 0 2 2.27 2 . 5 1 2 . 7 4 2.97 2 . 4 6 2 . 7 6 3.05 3.33 3 . 6 0  Requirements o f Beef C a t t l e  (1970)  STUDY I I TABLE X V I I I  NET ENERGY AND DIGESTIBLE PROTEIN VALUES OF FEEDS USED IN RATIONS  NE (Mcal/kg)  NE (Mcal7kg)  Digestible Protein %  Wheat  2.16  1.42  9.2  Barley-  1.93  1.29  8.2  corn  2.28  1.48  7.6  Grass Hay  1.26  .62  5.7  Experimental Premix  1.40  .81  7.0  m  Source:  e  N u t r i e n t Requirements o f Beef C a t t l e (1970)  STUDY I I TABLE X I X  THEORETICAL FEED  300 k g s t e e r  -  requires  CONSUMPTION  5.55 Meal f o r N E  m  consumes 2 . 4 k g d r y m a t t e r / 1 0 0 k g o f body w e i g h t , o r i n t h i s c a s e , 7.2 kg d r y matter/day of 6.07  400 k g s t e e r  kg - c o n c e n t r a t e  .67  k g - roughage  .45  kg - E x p e r i m e n t a l Premix 7.52 Meal f o r N E  -  requires  -  consumes 2 . 1 k g d r y m a t t e r / 1 0 0 k g o f body w e i g h t o r 9 . 4 k g d r y matter/day  m  of 8.05  Source:  Nutrient  kg - c o n c e n t r a t e  .89  k g - roughage  .45  kg - E x p e r i m e n t a l Premix  Requirements o f Beef C a t t l e  (1970)  STUDY I I TABLE XX THEORETICAL VERSUS ACTUAL GAINS  Ration No.  Major Cons t i t u e n t s fo  Theoretical Actual Gain (kg) Gain (kg)  Difference A c t u a l from Theoretical Gains (kg)  1  90W/10H  1.25  1.24  + .01  2  90B/10H  1.29  1.39  - .10  3  90C/10H  1.53  1.42  + .11  4  74B/16W/10H  1.47  1.57  - .10  5  45B/45W/10H  1.28  1.20  + .08  6  74W/16B/10H  1.51  1.61  - .10  W H B C  -  Wheat Hay Barley Corn  The well  need o f  every l i v i n g  established.  protein  are  quickly  and  be  t o have a l o w e r a b i l i t y  nourished  animals.  enzymes w h i c h d i g e s t t h e utilization  i n the  in  nature.  The  s u c h f a c t o r s as ibility,  and  to  In a d d i t i o n ,  feed  and  recover  diseases,  help  body, as w e l l as  hormones w h i c h r e g u l a t e  in  l e s s r e s i s t a n t t o a number  o r t o d e v e l o p immunity t o  properly  for protein is  Thus, a n i m a l s d e p l e t e d  known t o  of diseases,  cell  than  the  in its  the  vital  body r e a c t i o n s , a r e  protein  q u a l i t y o f a p r o t e i n depends amino a c i d make-up, i t s  the  amount o f n o n - p r o t e i n  do  on  digest-  nitrogen i t  contains. The are on  those f o r f i n i s h i n g  i n Table  steer calves  and  are  m i n i m a l n e e d s f o r optimum p r o d u c t i o n .  research and  p r o t e i n requirements given  has  indicated that  feed  intake  XXI based  Some increases  o v e r a l l p e r f o r m a n c e i m p r o v e s when p r e f o r m e d  supplemental p r o t e i n replaces protein nitrogen more t h a n t h e  in cattle  s u p p l e m e n t a l non-  rations.  recommended l e v e l  may  Thus be  feeding  economically  feasible. Protein of both t o t a l gestible  requirements are and  e x p r e s s e d on  digestible protein.  p r o t e i n percent  the  basis  Ration d i -  (y) i s e x p r e s s e d  as  a  f u n c t i o n o f r a t i o n t o t a l p r o t e i n percent  (x)  by the e q u a t i o n : y  Carcass The i n Table  =  0.877  x  minus  2.64  Trial r e s u l t s of the c a r c a s s t r i a l are g i v e n XXII.  When compared with the c a r c a s s t r i a l  from  Study I, i t can be seen t h a t w h i l e the d r e s s i n g percentage was  e s s e n t i a l l y the same, the  s h i p p i n g weight was  lighter.  average  T h i s can be  p a r t i a l l y e x p l a i n e d by the dropping market at s h i p p i n g time, combined w i t h the f a c t t h a t the c a t t l e were one month behind the c y c l e of the previous year.  Those c a r c a s s e s t h a t were graded  down were done so on a conformation b a s i s . was  This  a r e f l e c t i o n of the g e n e r a l conformation  u n i f o r m i t y of the e n t i r e group as compared t o Study I.  and  STUDY I I  TABLE X X I  PROTEIN REQUIREMENTS FOR FINISHING  Body Weight kg  A.D.G. kg  Daily Dry M a t t e r kg  Total Protein kg  STEERS  PhosDig. C a l c i u m p horus Protein gm gm kg  Carotene mg  Vit. A (thousands) I.U.  150  .90  3.5  .45  .30  21  15  19.5  7.8  200  1.00  5.0  .61  .41  23  17  27.5  11.0  300  1.10  7.1  .87  .58  26  19  39.5  15.8  400  1.10  8.8  .98  .62  25  20  49.0  19.6  450  1.05  9.4  1.04  .67  21  21  52.0  20.8  Source:  N u t r i e n t Requirements  o f Beef C a t t l e  (1970)  STUDY I I TABLE X X I I  RATION AVERAGE  Ration No.  M a j o r Constituents %  DRESSING  Shipping Wt. kg  PERCENTAGES  Dressed Wt. kg  Dressing  %  1  90W/10H  461  265  57.5  2  90B/10H  440  253  57.4  3  90C/10H  433  249  57.6  4  74B/16W/10H  453  260  57.4  5  45B/45W/10H  448  258  57.6  6  74W/16B/10H  457  263  57.4  W H B C  -  Wheat Hay Barley Corn  72.  •>.SUMMARY AND  CONCLUSIONS  STUDY I  The concentrate conversion by  rating  effects  sources  on t h e d a i l y w e i g h t  efficiencies  gains,  feed  and c o s t s , c a n be summarized  the e f f i c i e n c y  All applied  o f t h e roughage l e v e l s w i t h t h e  o f e a c h r a t i o n when b a s e d o n :  1.  Average d a i l y  2.  Feed  conversion  3.  Cost  per kilogram  4.  Cost  per ton o f feed.  gains efficiencies  r a t i o n s used i n t h i s  t o commercial f e e d l o t  of gain  study  c o u l d be  operations.  Gains  were  g o o d on a l l r a t i o n s and c o s t s were l o w enough t o r e s u l t i n medium t o e x c e l l e n t g a i n s digestible  age  study  illustrated  to finishing  terms o f average d a i l y efficiency, high  concentrates  beef  i n production  t o rough-  Performance i n  g a i n , r a t e o f g a i n , and f e e d  t o roughage r a t i o  decreased  concentrate  steers.  was s u p e r i o r i n t h o s e  concentrate  decrease  t h e advantage i n  rations containing a high  ratio  p r i c e s with  d i s t u r b a n c e s a t a minimum. This  feeding  a t reasonable  steers receiving and d e c r e a s e d  and r o u g h a g e s i n c r e a s e d . c a n be a t t r i b u t e d  a  as This  to a lowering  of d i g e s t i b l e content,  energy content,  an i n c r e a s e  an i n c r e a s e i n b u l k ,  reduction  and c o n s e q u e n t l y ,  a  i n t h e r a t e o f passage o f f e e d through t h e  animal as roughage percentage In t h e f i n a l centrates  increased.  a n a l y s i s , the p r i c e s o f con-  and r o u g h a g e s i n r e l a t i o n  ance e x p e c t e d proportions commercial  f r o m them w i l l  to use.  t o the perform-  d e t e r m i n e what t y p e s and  However, i t a p p e a r s t h a t i n  f e e d l o t s roughage l e v e l s would  above 10%. further  i n fibre  This generalization w i l l  i n this  seldom  be d e a l t  rise  with  summary.  STUDY I I The d a i l y weight costs,  effects gains,  o f t h e c e r e a l content  feed  c a n be summarized  conversion by r a t i n g  on t h e  e f f i c i e n c i e s and the e f f i c i e n c y of  e a c h r a t i o n when b a s e d o n : 1.  Average d a i l y  2.  Feed c o n v e r s i o n  3.  Cost  per kilogram  4.  Cost  per ton of feed.  All  r a t i o n s used  gains efficiencies of gain  i n this  study  a p p l i e d t o commercial f e e d l o t o p e r a t i o n s by the  average d a i l y corn  g a i n and f e e d  c o u l d be when  efficiency.  r a t i o n must be e x c l u d e d  when one  judged  However, considers  cost/kg  of gain.  As  cost  s i t u a t i o n may  corn  i n other  barley or  mentioned  be,  areas  e a r l i e r however,  in fact,  and  a c t as  to the  p r i c e s of the  a detriment  final  the  various  and  proportions  cereals i n relation  to use.  be  as  b a s e d on  to  the  d e t e r m i n e what  corn  economically  would a b a r l e y - o r i e n t a t e d r a t i o n . i n the  the  I t appears t h a t  F r a s e r V a l l e y , however, t h e  r a t i o n s would not  lot  of  to e i t h e r  a n a l y s i s o f Study I I ,  p e r f o r m a n c e e x p e c t e d f r o m them w i l l  in  advantage  wheat. In the  types  this  and  wheat  feasible  The  amounts, d e p e n d i n g on  corn  silage  stage  as  largest  Fraser Valley i s currently feeding  barley with  here  feeda  ration  added i n v a r y i n g  of f i n i s h  of  animals.  GENERAL  CONCLUSIONS  Many v e r y  important  changed f e e d l o t o p e r a t i o n s course  o f these As  the  Food  Nations,  i n Canada d u r i n g t h e  studies.  pointed  o u t by s u c h o r g a n i z a t i o n s a s  and A g r i c u l t u r e O r g a n i z a t i o n our world  Accompanying t h i s intake  d e v e l o p m e n t s have  o f beef.  population  i s increasing rapidly.  i s an i n c r e a s e An e a r l i e r  of the United  i n the per c a p i t a  generalization that  most c o m m e r c i a l f e e d l o t s w o u l d n o t f e e d more t h a n 10% r o u g h a g e may n o t be t r u e future. cattle  i n the not too d i s t a n t  A t t h a t t i m e we may have t o change o u r so t h e y  can u t i l i z e  t o market w e i g h t .  This  waste m a t e r i a l r i g h t  i s assuming t h a t  have t o be u s e d more e f f i c i e n t l y and,  therefore, w i l l  quantities  beef  September o f 1972, t h e b e e f  s y s t e m i n Canada was c h a n g e d .  benefit  o f t h e new g r a d i n g  point give  carcass  The main  s y s t e m , w h i c h came i n t o  on September 5 t h , i s t h a t  a more a c c u r a t e  great  cattle.  grading  effect  will  animals  n o t be a v a i l a b l e i n s u c h  for finishing In  by o t h e r  grains  up  i tw i l l  d e s c r i p t i o n of carcasses  make p o s s i b l from the  o f v i e w o f b o t h q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y .  It will  consumers a c h a n c e t o i n d i c a t e t h e t y p e o f  carcass result  t h a t i s most i n demand, and i n leaner carcasses.  the  new  old  b e c a u s e by  grader  system w i l l  be  k n i f e - r i b b i n g the  Quantity  accurate.  shown a c l o s e  of  an  priate  measure t h e  i n c h and  quality  grade.  grade.  97$  This ambiquity  grading  of  more t h a n  one-tenth approLooking  not  inches  fell  to  within  1.3 one  happen w i t h i n  b e n e f i t from the  the  that they  are  able to  new produce  c a r c a s s w h i c h commands a premium  will  identifying  should  extent  the market.  retailer  carcass.  system.  system to the type  carcasses will  and  i n Study I, i t i s  ranged from 0.5  of the  Producers  on  entire  f a t l e v e l w i t h i n the  inches, yet  the  rib  i n the  seen t h a t f a t cover  new  11th  f a t thickness to  information  more  correlation  carcass  carcass  the  a l s o be  the  back t o the  classify  the  the  a c r o s s - s e c t i o n of  p e r c e n t a g e o f l e a n meat i n t h e  Graders w i l l  under  under  carcass,  between the t h i c k n e s s o f f a t at the the  than  measurements w i l l  R e s e a r c h has  could  Quality grading  more a c c u r a t e  i s able to appraise  l e a n meat.  this  Everyone from the  to  the  have a much more p r e c i s e s y s t e m f o r  and  two  producer  price  s e r v i n g consumer demand.  months t h e  d o i n g what i t s e t o u t  new  grading  to d o — t h e  In  little  system i s  carcasses  with  high r e t a i l  yield  through  the  marketing  require  a l o t of trimming  discounted  right  a r e b r i n g i n g more money  tall  s t r o n g demand.  big  be  Exotic  breeding  are  i n both  this will  be  both  Study  find  ready  Cattle  I and  and  bred  II will  were i n t h e  past.  f e e d e r has  from the  list  a l s o had  i n c r e a s e the  gainability  f o r great  the  expensive  and  not  be  f o r some  suitable  not  as  obtained  were  for  acceptable  system w i l l  in  hormone DES  as a  on  allow  the  crossbreeding. removed  This w i l l  i n g e n e r a l and,  and  f e d as t h e y  T h i s new  cost of producing  in  changes  of c a t t l e ,  of drugs allowed.  efficiencies  animals.  to a greater extent  o f h y b r i d v i g o u r as  bulls.  markets.  breeding  difficult  There  auctions f o r  slaughter  grades c a l l  a feeder to c a p i t a l i z e  feed  and  tall  at the  f u t u r e market, or at l e a s t  as t h e y  The  into feedlots.  selling  f e e d i n g and  to learn.  both  values  more o f a demand f o r  documented g r o w t h and  stock w i l l  the  being  o f a l l c l a s s e s are  i s now  as f e e d e r s  T h e s e new  the  ones w h i c h  throw-away a r e  cattle  There  cross-breds  Anyone w i t h  people  the  a s t r o n g demand f o r l o n g and  premiums b o t h  in  and  g r o w t h y y e a r l i n g s t o go  will  and  through.  Long and in  train,  right  lower  result,  a pound o f b e e f .  The  pollution-conscious of  aside  from  removal o f s y n t h e t i c s from food,  applying ing  public,  pressure  environmental Recent  e d l y be h e l p f u l ever,  t o the commercial pollution research  i s also feeder  and waste  t o the commercial feeder. list  regard-  disposal.  i n feeding w i l l  i t i s only, one o f a l o n g  confronting  approving  undoubtHow-  o f changes  him new b e e f g r a d i n g s t a n d a r d s , r i s e i n beef consumption, new b e e f m a r k e t i n g systems, pollution controls, management r e s e a r c h , l a r g e s e l e c t i o n o f new b r e e d s , hybrid vigour, better transportation facilities and methods, changing world markets, s y n t h e t i c meat.  While discussed  here  many o f t h e g e n e r a l  do n o t s e e m r e l e v a n t t o t h e s e  studies,  a l l changes  industry  must be c o n s i d e r e d  further cattle  research  currently  being  interesting.  made  because they  i n the future.  feeding research  complex and  conclusions  i s daily  The f i e l d becoming  i nthe affect o f beef more  A s s o c i a t i o n of O f f i c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Chemists (I960). O f f i c i a l Methods o f A n a l y s i s . 9th e d i t i o n . Washington, D.C. Beeson, W.M. and P e r r y , T.W. (1952). B a l a n c i n g the N u t r i t i o n D e f i c i e n c i e s of Roughages f o r Beef S t e e r s . J . Anim. S c i . 11:501-515. B l a x t e r , K.L. and Wainman, F.W. (1964). The U t i l i z a t i o n o f the Energy o f D i f f e r e n t Rations by Sheep and C a t t l e f o r Maintenance and f o r F a t t e n i n g . J . Agr. Res. 63 : 1 1 3 « B r a d l e y , N.W. (1958). 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On the Importance o f the P h y s i o l o g i c a l Requirements o f the Animal Body; R e s u l t s o f an Attempt t o Grow C a t t l e Without Coarse Feed. I l l i n o i s Agr. Exp. S t a . B u l l . 4^:362.  80.  10.  E l l e n b e r g e r , H.B. and Schneider, B.H. ( 1 9 2 7 ) . E x e r c i s e as a F a c t o r i n D i g e s t i o n T r i a l s with D a i r y Cows. Vermont Agr. Exp. S t a . Bull. 262.  11.  Food and A g r i c u l t u r e O r g a n i z a t i o n o f the U n i t e d Nations ( 1 9 7 1 ) . Agriculture Commodity P r o j e c t i o n s 1970-1980. F.A.O. Rome, I t a l y .  12.  G a r r e t t , W.N., Lofgreen, G.P. and Meyer, J.H. (1964). A Net Energy Comparison o f B a r l e y and M i l o f o r F a t t e n i n g C a t t l e . J . Anim. S c i . 2 ? : 4 7 0 .  13.  Gerken, H.J., Wise, M.B. Harvey, R.W., and B a r r i c k E.R. ( 1 9 7 1 ) . Whole Corn, L i q u i d Supplements and P o l y e t h y l e n e f o r Beef C a t t l e . J . Anim. S c i . 3 2 : 3 7 9 . (Abstr.)  14.  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