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Exegesis of the 'Ta Tsung Shih' chapter of the Chuang Tzu Ames, Roger Thomas 1973

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AN EXEGESIS OF THE "TA TSUNG SHIH" CHAPTER OF THE CHUANG TZU by ROGER THOMAS AMES B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia,. 19?0 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN THE REQUIREMENTS MASTER PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF FOR THE DEGREE OF OF ARTS i n the Department o f A s i a n S t u d i e s We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1973 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis fo r scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s representatives. It i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of A s i a n S t u d i e s The University of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8 , Canada Date September 2 1 f 197?. i i ABSTRACT T h i s t h e s i s p r o v i d e s an e x e g e s i s o f what might be c o n s i d e r e d a " c o r e " c h a p t e r o f the Chuang Tzu t e x t . The "Ta Tsung S h i h " c h a p t e r i s " c o r e " i n t h a t i t can be demon-s t r a b l y shown t o r e p r e s e n t a s y s t e m a t i c c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n o f Chuang Tzu's p h i l o s o p h i c a l system. B a s i c a l l y , t h i s t h e s i s c o n s i s t s o f f o u r p a r t s . F i r s t , i n the I n t r o d u c t i o n , an at t e m p t i s made t o s u b s t a n t i a t e the s u g g e s t i o n t h a t the "Ta Tsung S h i h " c h a p t e r can be c o n s i d e r e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f Chuang Tzu's t h o u g h t . Second, a s e c t i o n by s e c t i o n t r a n s l a t i o n o f the e n t i r e c h a p t e r i s p r o v i d e d . I n t h i s t r a n s l a t i o n , emendations i n the t e x t a re made o n l y when abso-l u t e l y n e c e s s a r y t o make sense o f the o t h e r w i s e u n i n t e l l i g i b l e . T h i r d , e x t e n s i v e a n n o t a t i o n t o the t e x t i s p r o v i d e d i n note form, w o r k i n g on the premise t h a t p h i l o s o p h i c a l a n a l y s i s must be preceded by a r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a r e l i a b l e t e x t . I n c o m p i l i n g the a n n o t a t i o n , we have made an e f f o r t t o c o n s u l t and c o l l a t e the b u l k o f h i s t o r i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t commentary and p r o v i d e a l t e r n a t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s where t h e y a r i s e . We have been p a r t i c u l a r l y m e t i c u l o u s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t e x t u a l p roblems, a t t e m p t i n g t o employ methods o f modern t e x t u a l c r i t i c i s m where p o s s i b l e . We a l s o e x p l o r e h i s t o r i c a l i i i a l l u s i o n s i n some depth i n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e the r e a d e r w i t h the background t o u n d e r s t a n d and a p p r e c i a t e the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e s e r e f e r e n c e s . F i n a l l y , i n Appendix I an a n n o t a t e d b i b l i o g r a p h y o f Chinese commentaries i s p r o v i d e d , complete w i t h a l i s t i n g o f the t e x t used, the date o f the work, the forma t o f the t e x t , p r e j u d i c e s o f the a u t h o r s and o c c a s i o n a l l y , a s u b j e c t i v e assessment o f the i n d i v i d u a l worth o f these commentaries. T h i s t r a n s l a t i o n and a n n o t a t i o n o f t h e "Ta Tsung S h i h " c h a p t e r i s p r e s e n t e d as p r e l i m i n a r y t o a p h i l o s o p h i c a l a n a l -y s i s o f the a c t u a l c o n t e n t , which u n f o r t u n a t e l y b u t neces-s a r i l y f a l l s beyond the scope o f t h i s t h e s i s . I n t h i s a n a l -y s i s , i t i s e x p e c t e d t h a t Chuang Tzu's th o u g h t as p r e s e n t e d i n the "Ta Tsung S h i h " c h a p t e r can be shown t o be an i n t e r n a l l y c o n s i s t e n t system o f i d e a s which p r o v i d e s the r e a d e r w i t h a unique, i f n o t e x t r e m e l y , p r o f o u n d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f h i s human s i t u a t i o n . iv "They appeared i n t h e form o f a c o p i o u s r e v i e w o f a work on Chinese m e t a p h y s i c s , S i r , " s a i d P o t t . . . . "An a b s t r u s e s u b j e c t I s h o u l d c o n c e i v e , " s a i d Mr. P i c k w i c k . "Very, S i r , " responded P o t t , l o o k i n g i n t e n s e l y sage. "He crammed f o r i t , t o use a t e c h n i c a l b u t e x p r e s s i v e term; he r e a d up f o r the s u b j e c t , a t my d e s i r e , i n the E n c y c l o -p a e d i a B r i t a n n i c a . " "Indeed!" s a i d Mr. P i c k w i c k ; " I was n o t aware t h a t t h a t v a l u a b l e work c o n t a i n e d any i n f o r m a t i o n r e s p e c t i n g C hinese m e t a p h y s i c s . " "He r e a d , S i r , " r e j o i n e d P o t t , l a y i n g h i s hand on Mr. P i c k w i c k ' s knee, and l o o k i n g round w i t h a s m i l e o f i n t e l l e c t u a l s u p e r i o r -i t y , "he r e a d f o r m e t a p h y s i c s under the l e t t e r M, and f o r C h i n a under the l e t t e r C; and combined h i s i n f o r m a t i o n , S i r ! " (Posthumous Papers o f the  P i c k w i c k C l u b t C h a p t e r 50) V TABLE OF CONTENTS I n t r o d u c t i o n . 1 T n e Chuang Tzu; A Composite T e x t 2 C r i t e r i a Used t o S e l e c t the "Ta Tsung S h i h " C h apter as b e i n g R e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f Chuang Tzu's Thought 7 The T e x t and the E x e g e s i s ( I n t r o d u c t i o n ) 14 R e f e r e n c e s and A b b r e v i a t i o n s 18 Notes t o I n t r o d u c t i o n . 2 2 The T e x t and an E x e g e s i s 26 T e x t 1: 15/6/1-2 26 Te x t 2 s 15/6/2-6 29 T e x t 3» 15/6/6-7 39 T e x t 4 s 15/6/7-9 ^7 T e x t 5* 15/6/10-14 55 T e x t 6 s 15/6/14-16/6/17 74 T e x t 7 s 16/6/17-19 88 T e x t 8 s 16/6/19-20 93 Te x t 9 i 16/6/20-25 95 T e x t 10 s 16/6/25-29 103 T e x t l i s 16/6/29-31 115 T e x t 12$ 16/6/31-36 122 T e x t 13: 16/6/36-17/16/41 153 Te x t 14$ 17/6/41-45 159 Te x t 1 5 : 17/6/45-47 166 Te x t 16 s 17/6/47-53.... 171 v i T e x t 17 i 17/6/53-60 181 T e x t 18: 17/6/60-18/6/62 189 T e x t 191 18/ 6/62 - 6 5 196 Te x t 20 s 18/6/ 6 5-71 204 T e x t 21s 18/6/71-74 211 T e x t 22$ 18/6/75-76 215 T e x t 23s 18/ 6/76-82... .220 T e x t 24 s 18/ 6/82-19/ 6/89 232 T e x t 251 1 9 / 6 / 8 9 - 9 3 . . . . . 248 T e x t 26$ 19/ 6/94 - 9 7 . . . . . 2 5 4 B i b l i o g r a p h y 257 A. European Language Sources 257 B. Chinese Language Sources 261 A p p e n d i c e s . . . . . . • 266 Appendix Is An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o S e l e c t e d Commentaries 266 Appendix l i s E x t a n t T e x t s R e f e r r e d to i n the A n n o t a t i o n . . . 298 Appendix I l l s T r a n s l a t i o n o f the " T ' i e n H s i a " C h a p t e r 93/33/62-69... 299 1 INTRODUCTION The body o f t h i s t h e s i s c o n s i s t s o f an e x e g e s i s o f the "Ta Tsung S h i h " c h a p t e r o f the Chuang Tzu. I t i s o u r con-t e n t i o n t h a t t h i s one c h a p t e r c o n t a i n s a r e l a t i v e l y systema-t i c c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n o f Chuang Tzu's p h i l o s o p h i c a l system, and can s t a n d as a p o r t i o n o f the Chuang Tzu t e x t d e m o n s t r a b l y c l o s e t o Chuang Tzu i n the t r a n s m i s s i o n o f h i s t h o u g h t . The purposes o f t h i s t h e s i s are« 1) t o demonstrate w i t h as much c e r t a i n t y as p o s s i b l e t h a t the "Ta Tsung S h i h " c h a p t e r can be c o n s i d e r e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f Chuang Tzu's t h o u g h t , 2) t o ta k e under c o n s i d e r a t i o n the b u l k o f h i s t o r i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t commentary"'" i n an e f f o r t t o repro d u c e the t e x t i n as t r u e a form as p o s s i b l e , w o r k i n g on the S c h o o l o f Han L e a r n i n g c h i a o k'an hsueh jjfeJj^] ^  p r i n c i p l e t h a t s c h o l a r s h i p must be preceded by the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a r e l i a b l e t e x t , 3) t o p r o v i d e e x t e n s i v e a n n o t a t i o n o f the t e x t as a means to g i v e f u l l e r s i g n i f i c a n c e t o a l l u s i o n s and l i t e r a r y d e v i c e s as u n d e r s t o o d from the h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e o f the a u t h o r , k) and t o p r o v i d e , t h r o u g h a thorough r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e and i n t e r n a l l y c o n s i s t e n t p o r t i o n o f the Chuang Tzu t e x t , a b a s i s f o r a p h i l o s o p h i c a l e x e g e s i s o f Chuang Tzu's system o f t h o u g h t . 2 The Chuang T z u i A Composite T e x t I t i s g e n e r a l l y agreed among s c h o l a r s t h a t the Chuang Tzu i s n o t a homogeneous t e x t , hut i s r a t h e r a work o f composite n a t u r e c o n t a i n i n g an admi x t u r e o f sometimes i n t e r n a l l y i n c o n s i s -t e n t t h o u g h t . The e x t e n t t o which the Chuang Tzu can he con-s i d e r e d the p r o d u c t o f many hands i s perhaps b e s t demonstrated by b r i e f l y o u t l i n i n g the c o n c l u s i o n s r e a c h e d by two contemporary s c h o l a r s . F i r s t , Ch'en J u n g - c h i e h (W.T. Chan) s u g g e s t s t h a t the n e i and w a i - t s a c h a p t e r s ( a l s o c a l l e d " i n n e r " and " o u t e r " c h a p t e r s r e s p e c t i v e l y ) can be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d on the b a s i s o f the f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a i 1) the t i t l e s o f the n e i c h a p t e r s ( s i m i l a r t o the Mo Tzu) r e f l e c t t he g i s t o f the c h a p t e r , w h i l e the t i t l e s o f the w a i - t s a c h a p t e r s ( w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f the "Jang Wang", "Shuo C h i e n " , "Tao C h i h " and "Yti Fu" c h a p t e r s ) are composed o f the f i r s t two o r t h r e e c h a r a c t e r s o f the c h a p t e r ( s i m i l a r t o the Mencius) 2) the n e i c h a p t e r s do n o t quote Lao Tzu, w h i l e the w a i - t s a c h a p t e r s quote him q u i t e f r e q u e n t l y 3) the n e i c h a p t e r s do n o t r e f e r t o the n o t i o n o f h s i n g f'jj ("nature") w h i l e the w a i - t s a c h a p t e r s r e f e r t o i t o f t e n 4) the n e i c h a p t e r s do n o t quote o r even mention The Book  o f Documents, The Book o f Odes, The Book o f R i t e s o r The  Book o f M u s i c , w h i l e the w a i - t s a c h a p t e r s n o t o n l y quote them, but a l s o use the term l i u c h i n g / \ ("the S i x C l a s s i c s " ) i n r e f e r e n c e t o them 3 5) the thought c o n t a i n e d i n the n e i c h a p t e r s i s c o n s i s -t e n t , p r o f o u n d , and e x p r e s s e d c o n c i s e l y , whereas the t h o u g h t o f the w a i - t s a c h a p t e r s i s n e i t h e r c o n s i s t e n t s t y l i s t i c a l l y n o r q u a l i t a t i v e l y 6) the n e i c h a p t e r s can s t a n d as a p h i l o s o p h i c a l d o c t r i n e independent o f Lao Tzu, w h i l e the w a i - t s a c h a p t e r s are s i m p l y commentary and e l a b o r a t i o n on Lao Tzu's thought 7) the n e i c h a p t e r s are somewhat c r i t i c a l o f C o n f u c i u s , but i n a t a s t e f u l and decorous manner, whereas the w a i -t s a c h a p t e r s t e n d t o be a b u s i v e 8) the Emperors Yao and Shun are p o r t r a y e d d i f f e r e n t l y 9) the n e i c h a p t e r s t e n d t o encourage a s t r i v i n g f o r the l e v e l o f h s i a o yao X E ; ^ J | _ ^ J ^ ("free and u n i n h i b i t e d w a n d e r i n g " — b e y o n d the d i f f e r e n t i a t e d phenomenal dimen-s i o n ) , w h i l e the w a i - t s a c h a p t e r s are more p e s s i m i s t i c i n t e n o r 10) the s t y l e , s p i r i t and thought c o n t e n t o f the n e i c h a p t e r s are n o t o f the same c a t e g o r y as t h e s e a s p e c t s o f the w a i -t s a c h a p t e r s ( w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f the " T ' i e n H s i a " c h a p t e r , w h i c h i s g e n e r a l l y grouped w i t h the n e i p ' i e n as p r e f a t o r y m a t e r i a l ) While t h e s e c r i t e r i a a re by no means u n a s s a i l a b l e , t r a d i -t i o n a l o p i n i o n has tended t o make an a u t h e n t i c n e i and s p u r i o u s w a i - t s a d i s t i n c t i o n . T h i s b i f u r c a t i o n i s n o t unanimous, but can c e r t a i n l y c l a i m the b u l k o f s c h o l a r l y support.-^ The a c t u a l 4 scope o f the d i v e r g e n c e between the thought c o n t a i n e d i n the n e i c h a p t e r s and t h a t o f the w a i - t s a c h a p t e r s can be i l l u s t r a t e d by a c u r s o r y g l a n c e a t the c o n c l u s i o n s o f Lo K e n - t s e ' s w e l l -documented r e s e a r c h . On the b a s i s o f s t y l e , d i c t i o n , t hought c o n t e n t and a v a r i e t y o f i n t e r n a l f a c t o r s , Lo s e p a r a t e s the w a i - t s a c h a p t e r s as b e i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the f o l l o w i n g t e n -d e n c i e s i n e a r l y Chinese t h o u g h t ; C h a p t e r s 8 - 1 1 ^ ^ ^ 1% — t h e extreme l e f t - w i n g T a o i s t group ( i . e . , a n t i -C o n f u c i a n and h a r s h l y c r i t i c a l o f r i v a l c u r r e n t s o f t h o u g h t ) which f l o u r i s h e d a t the end o f the W a r r i n g S t a t e s p e r i o d C h a p t e r s 12-14 ^ ^ L ^ — t h e r i g h t - w i n g T a o i s t group ( i . e . , t endency towards compromise and c o n c i l i a t i o n r a t h e r t h a n c o n f r o n t a t i o n and d e n u n c i a t i o n ) o f e a r l y Han C h a p t e r s 15-16 J* x A | P t»£ — p o s s i b l y the O c c u l t i s t s ^ 4 i k ^ o f the Ch'in-Han t r a n s i t i o n p e r i o d C h a p t e r s 17, 19-21, 2 7 & 7 J ^ , JL^N ^ ^ * ® ^ ^ v % ^ -— l a t e r f o l l o w e r s o f the Chuang Tzu s c h o o l C h a p t e r s 18, 22 - 2 3 £ ^ v ' ^ ^ b ^ N ^ j | _ ^ — L a o Tzu s c h o o l o f the l a t e W a r r i n g S t a t e s p e r i o d C h a p t e r 26 \f/\ — T a o i s t s c h o o l o f Western Han C h a p t e r s 24, 32 ^ [ A ^ J L ^ i ^ ^ — a m i s c e l l a n e o u s c o l l e c t i o n o f anecdotes and 5 s t o r i e s w i t h o u t any c e n t r a l i d e a s — s u s p e c t s t h a t t h e s e are o f Han v i n t a g e , but has no t a n g i b l e p r o o f C h a p t e r 25 $ J f. — a s c h o o l r e p r e s e n t i n g a s y n t h e s i s between the t h o u g h t o f Lao Tzu and Chuang Tzu which took t o expounding on elements o f b o t h systems o f thought C h a p t e r s 28, 31 l 3 L £ x > A #L — T a o i s t R e c l u s e S c h o o l o f e a r l y Han C h a p t e r 29 j£r £?2-— T a o i s t i c s c h o o l o f l a t e W a r r i n g S t a t e s p e r i o d w h i c h tended towards extreme hedonism C h a p t e r 3 0 ^ ^ ] — l a t e W a r r i n g S t a t e s p e r i o d M i l i t a r y S t r a t e g i s t s C h a p t e r 33 fcjf. — C h u a n g Tzu's own A g a i n , w h i l e Lo K e n - t s e ' s arguments and c o n c l u s i o n s can i n no way be c o n s t r u e d as the f i n a l word on the s u b j e c t o f a u t h e n t i c i t y , he does q u i t e s u c c e s s f u l l y demonstrate the e x t e n t t o w hich Chuang Tzu can be c o n s i d e r e d a composite a n t h o l o g y o f T a o i s t w r i t i n g s r e p r e s e n t i n g a v e r y b road range o f i d e a s i n t e l -l e c t u a l l y and r e p r e s e n t i n g more t h a n a c e n t u r y c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y . I n a t t e m p t i n g t o d e a l w i t h t h i s k i n d o f a t e x t , we have b e f o r e us b a s i c a l l y t h r e e c h o i c e s i F i r s t , we can t r y t o r e c o n c i l e the numerous i n c o n s i s t e n c e s and d i v e r g e n t a t t i t u d e s which are so a p parent i n the t e x t as a 6 whole. The p o t e n t i a l f o r m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and d i s t o r t i o n i n the c o n t e x t o f t h i s p r o c e s s o f r e c o n c i l i a t i o n i s o b v i o u s , and y e t most s c h o l a r s , f u l l y aware o f the n a t u r e o f the t e x t , i n s i s t on randomly c i t i n g passages t o s u p p o r t t h e i r own i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s and i g n o r i n g passages which c o n t r a d i c t them. There i s a v e r y r e a l f u t i l i t y about the i n d i s c r i m i n a t e use o f the Chuang Tzu as a homogeneous s o u r c e , s i n c e a p o i n t s u p p o r t e d by a c i t a t i o n from one c h a p t e r can be i m m e d i a t e l y n e u t r a l i z e d by a q u o t a t i o n from a d i f f e r e n t c h a p t e r . As H.G. C r e e l c o r r e c t l y o b s e r v e s , " i f two passages i n the Chuang Tzu s u p p o r t a p a r t i c u l a r v i e w , i t has n o t always been c o n s i d e r e d n e c e s s a r y t o m e n t i o n the f a c t t h a t twenty passages may r e p u d i a t e i t , perhaps w i t h d e r i s i o n . " ^ S c h o l a r s who have a t t e m p t e d t o s y n t h e s i z e the c o n f l i c t i n g n o t i o n s c o n t a i n e d i n t h i s t e x t o f t e n d i s m i s s the i n c o n s i s t e n c y o f the t h o u g h t as a t t r i b u t a b l e t o the m y s t i c a l and a b s t r u s e n a t u r e o f the p h i l o s o p h y . A g a i n , o t h e r s would c l a i m t h a t "the t r u t h i s t h a t n e i t h e r c o n s i s t e n c y o f thought n o r e x a c t term-i n o l o g y can be l o o k e d f o r i n Chinese p h i l o s o p h y as a whole, and l e a s t o f a l l , p e r h a p s , i n such an a b s t r a c t system as t h a t o f e a r l y Taoism."^ Second, we can admit the f o r m i d a b l e i n c o n g r u e n c i e s , and c o n s i d e r them as s u f f i c i e n t r e a s o n f o r abandoning a l l but a v e r y s u p e r f i c i a l , a n e c d o t a l approach to the m a t e r i a l . F i n a l l y , we can r e c o g n i z e the n e c e s s i t y o f a r r i v i n g a t one r e p r e s e n t a t i v e p o r t i o n o f the t e x t w h i c h can s t a n d as f a r above s u s p i c i o n as p o s s i b l e , and w h i c h can be used as a measure f o r d e t e r m i n i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f l a t e r t e x t u a l 7 a c c r e t i o n s t o the o r i g i n a l t h o u g h t . H o p e f u l l y , t h i s approach w i l l u l t i m a t e l y e n a b l e us t o a p p r e c i a t e the thought o f Chuang Tzu, n o t as a n e b u l o u s and i l l - a r r a n g e d c o l l e c t i o n o f u n r e l a t e d and o f t e n c o n f l i c t i n g s t o r i e s , b u t as an i n t e r n a l l y c o n s i s t e n t system o f i d e a s f u l l y c a p a b l e o f e x p l a i n i n g the cosmos. C r i t e r i a Used t o S e l e c t the "Ta Tsung S h i h " C h a p t e r As B e i n g R e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f Chuang Tzu's Thought Our problem here i s t o e s t a b l i s h the c r e d i b i l i t y o f c h o o s i n g the "Ta Tsung S h i h " c h a p t e r as a p o r t i o n o f the Chuang Tzu t e x t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f Chuang Tzu's system o f thought and c l o s e t o him i n the t r a n s m i s s i o n o f h i s i d e a s . Our r e a s o n s can be enumerated as f o l l o w s : 1. As mentioned above, the t r a d i t i o n a l a t t i t u d e toward the Chuang Tzu t e x t i s to r e g a r d the n e i c h a p t e r s (and p o s s i b l y the " T ' i e n H s i a " c h a p t e r ) as t h a t p o r t i o n o f the t e x t which i s from Chuang Tzu's own hand. The "Ta Tsung S h i h " c h a p t e r n o t o n l y b e l o n g s t o the n e i c h a p t e r s , but i s f u r t h e r the l o n g e s t o f the seven c h a p t e r s , c o n s t i t u t i n g a l m o s t a q u a r t e r o f the e n t i r e s e c t i o n . (The n e i c h a p t e r s c o n t a i n a t o t a l o f 13»239 c h a r a c t e r s , and 2909 o f these c h a r a c t e r s f a l l under the "Ta Tsung S h i h " heading.) 2 . The e a r l i e s t e x t a n t d e s c r i p t i o n o f Chuang Tzu's t h o u g h t i s c o n t a i n e d i n the " T ' i e n H s i a " c h a p t e r 9 3 / 3 3 / 6 2 - 9 . 7 Q Whether t h i s was o r i g i n a l l y the p o s t f a c e t o the Chuang Tzu 8 o r whether i t was w r i t t e n subsequent t o the a u t h e n t i c p o r t i o n Q o f the Chuang Tzu t e x t , 7 the f a c t remains t h a t a l l i n d i c a t i o n s p o i n t t o i t as the e a r l i e s t a c c o u n t o f h i s p h i l o s o p h i c a l system s t i l l a v a i l a b l e . I n t h i s a c c o u n t , the d e s c r i p t i o n i s predom-i n a n t l y o f elements c o n t a i n e d i n our "Ta Tsung S h i h " c h a p t e r s " T ' i e n H s i a " D e s c i p t i o n R e l a t e d "Ta Tsung S h i h " Passages Serene and t r a n q u i l w i t h o u t form; c h a n g i n g and t r a n s f o r m i n g w i t h o u t c o n s t a n c y . ( 9 3 / 3 3/62) The tao has r e a l i t y and c r e d i b i l i t y , i s n o n - a c t i v e and w i t h o u t p h y s i c a l form. ( T e x t 11 ; 16/6/29) I n i d e n t i f y i n g you are w i t h o u t p r e d i l e c t i o n ; i n t r a n s -f o r m i n g you are w i t h o u t t h a t which remains c o n s t a n t . ( T e x t 2 5 ; 1 9 / 6 / 9 3 ) I s i t dead? Or a l i v e ? I s i t one w i t h the cosmos, p r o c e d i n g w i t h s p i r i t u a l p e r s p i c a c i t y ? ( 9 3 / 3 3 / 6 2 ) H a v i n g t r a n s c e n d e d ( t h e con c e p t o f e x t e r n a l ) phenomena, I a g a i n c o n s o l i d a t e d i t f o r n i n e days, and was t h e n a b l e t o t r a n s c e n d ( t h e concept o f ) l i f e . H a v i n g t r a n s c e n d e d ( t h e conc e p t o f ) l i f e , I was t h e n a b l e t o a t t a i n e n l i g h t e n -ment. H a v i n g a t t a i n e d e n l i g h t e n m e n t , I was t h e n a b l e t o m a n i f e s t the s i n g l e n e s s ( o f a l l e x i s t e n c e ) . I n m a n i f e s t -i n g s i n g l e n e s s , I was t h e n a b l e t o ( a t t a i n a l e v e l ) w i t h -out p a s t o r p r e s e n t . B e i n g w i t h o u t p a s t o r p r e s e n t , I was t h e n a b l e t o e n t e r ( a l e v e l ) beyond l i f e and d e a t h . ( T e x t 1 3 ; 17/6/41) They ( t r a v e l l e r s i n the r e a l m beyond) are g o i n g t o be on an e q u a l f o o t i n g w i t h change and ramble i n the o r g a n i c t o t a l i t y o f t h e cosmos. They c o n s i d e r l i f e t o be an e x t r a n v e o u s e x c r e s c e n c e , a f o r e i g n growth, and c o n s i d e r d e a t h t o be the l a n c i n g o f an a b s c e s s , t h e b u r s t i n g o f an u l c e r . A g a i n , how can men l i k e t h e s e pay any mind t o the s u c c e s s i o n o f l i f e and death? ( T e x t 2 0 ; 18 / 6 / 6 8 ) One who knows t h a t l i f e and d e a t h , e x i s t e n c e and non-e x i s t e n c e are a l l ( a s p e c t s o f ) the one t h i n g — I w i l l a s s o c i a t e w i t h him. (T e x t 15 ; 17/6/46) 9 That which t a k e s l i f e ( i . e . , the t a o ) does n o t ( i t s e l f ) d i e ; t h a t w h i c h produces l i f e does n o t ( i t s e l f ) l i v e . ( T e x t 14; 17/6/41) V a s t , where does i t go? Obscure, what i s i t s d e s t i n a t i o n ? The m y r i a d t h i n g s e n t i r e l y enmeshed, t h e r e i s n o t h i n g e l s e t o w h i c h one can r e v e r t . (93/33/63) E x t r a o r d i n a r y , these t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s ! What are you g o i n g to be made i n t o n e x t ? Where are you g o i n g t o be sent?...Now, once we t a k e the cosmos t o be a g r e a t f o r g e and t a k e change to be a g r e a t i r o n s m i t h , where c o u l d I go t h a t would be i n a d m i s s i b l e ? ( T e x t 17; 17/6/55. 60) The concourse o f the tao o f a n t i q u i t y l a y i n t h i s . (93/33/63) T h e r e f o r e , i t i s s a i d t h a t f i s h e s f o r g e t i n the r i v e r s and l a k e s and human b e i n g s f o r g e t i n the concourse o f the t a o . ( T e x t 21; 18/6/73—"the e x p r e s s i o n t a o shu ^ o c c u r s o n l y i n t h e s e two c h a p t e r s ) ; — Responding s p o n t a n e o u s l y to the o c c a s i o n , he was n o t b i a s e d and d i d n o t d i s s e m i n a t e i t from o n l y a s i n g l e p o i n t o f v i e w . (93/33/64) ...how t h e n are you g o i n g t o j o u r n e y a l o n g a c o u r s e o f f r e e and e a s y a m b l i n g , u n c o n s t r a i n e d freedom and a i m l e s s wandering? ( T e x t 2 4 ; 19/6/84) He a l o n e came and went w i t h the s p i r i t o f the cosmos, but was n o t a r r o g a n t o r haughty i n h i s a t t i t u d e t o the m y r i a d t h i n g s . (93/33/66) These e x c e p t i o n a l men are e x c e p t i o n a l i n terms o f man, b u t a r e on a common p l a n e w i t h n a t u r e . ( T e x t 21; 18/6/74) He d i d n o t r e p r o a c h on the b a s i s o f r i g h t and wrong...(93/33/66) R a t h e r t h a n p r a i s i n g Yao and condemning C h i e h , i t i s b e t t e r t o f o r g e t them b o t h and be t r a n s f o r m e d i n the t a o . ( T e x t 9; 16/6/23) S i n c e Yao has a l r e a d y b l a c k - b r a n d e d y o u r f a c e w i t h h i s "benevolence" and " r i g h t e o u s n e s s " and d i s f i g u r e d y o u r f a c e w i t h " r i g h t " and "wrong"...(Text 24; 19/6/84) ...but d w e l t amid the w o r l d l y and mundane. (93/33/66) C l o s e a t hand, he seemed t o be mundane...(Text 6; 15/6/16) . . . t a k i n g the code o f p r o p r i e t y t o be h i s a c c e s s o r y was h i s means o f f u n c t i o n i n g i n the w o r l d . ( T e x t 7? 16/6/18) 10 Meng Sun a l o n e i s awake, b u t o t h e r s w a i l , so he a l s o w a i l s . ( T e x t 2 3 ; 18/6/80) Above he j o u r n e y e d w i t h change...(9 3 / 3 3/67) Change i n t e n d s t o make me t h i s c o n t r a c t e d and g n a r l e d . ( T e x t 16; 17/6/48, 49) They a r e g o i n g t o be on an e q u a l f o o t i n g w i t h change and ramble i n the o r g a n i c t o t a l i t y o f the cosmos. (T e x t 20; 18/6/67) They s o a r , u n c o n s t r a i n e d , beyond the mundane world.and wander f r e e l y i n the a c t i v i t y o f n o n - a c t i o n . ( T e x t 20; 18/6/ 7 0 ) . . . w h i l e below he was companion w i t h those who t r a n s c e n d e d l i f e and d e a t h and who were w i t h o u t b e g i n n i n g o r end. (93/33/6?) F o r g e t t i n g t h e i r l i v e r and g a l l and d i s m i s s i n g t h e i r e a r s and eyes, t h e y t u r n b e g i n n i n g and end u p s i d e down so t h a t t h e r e can be no t e r m i n a l o r e x t r e m i t y . ( T e x t 20; 18/6/69) Who i s a b l e t o ascend t o the heavens and wander about i n the m i s t s , p r a n c i n g and gamboling i n the i n t e r m i n a b l e , f o r g e t t i n g each o t h e r i n f o s t e r i n g t h a t which i s w i t h o u t end o r e x h a u s t i o n . The t h r e e men eyed each o t h e r and la u g h e d . None c o n t r o v e r t e d the g e n e r a l mind, and as a consequence t h e y a s s o c i a t e d as f r i e n d s . ( T e x t 18; 18/6/61) These are some o f the p a r a l l e l s w h i c h can be drawn. The main p o i n t o f congruency, however, i s g e n e r a l t e n o r r a t h e r t h a n s p e c i f i c p h r a s i n g . T h i s " T ' i e n H s i a " c h a p t e r d e s c r i p t i o n o f Chuang Tzu's th o u g h t s h a r e s the f o l l o w i n g elements i n common w i t h the "Ta Tsung S h i h " c h a p t e r s 1) m e t a p h o r i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f e n l i g h t e n m e n t as the f r e e and u n i n h i b i t e d wandering o f the S u b l i m a t e d Man 2) the n o t i o n o f tao (as w e l l as synonyms f o r i t , such as penyjj>- ( " r o o t " ) and tsung'^p, ( " e s s e n c e " ) ) 3) t r a n s c e n d e n c e o v e r l i f e and de a t h t h r o u g h s u b l i m a t i o n 4) c o m p l i a n c e w i t h the t i m e s on the phenomenal l e v e l w h i l e t r a n s c e n d i n g i t on the s u b l i m a t e d l e v e l 5) e x p e d i e n t a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the mundane w o r l d 6) response t o the v i c i s s i t u d e s o f change on the phenomenal l e v e l 7) r e p u d i a t i o n o f r e l a t i v e v a l u e judgements The b r e v i t y o f the " T ' i e n H s i a " d e s c r i p t i o n o f Chuang Tzu's t h o u g h t n a t u r a l l y p r e c l u d e s a l l but an o u t l i n e o f the major t e n e t s , but even i n t h i s b r i e f o u t l i n e , most o f the p r i m a r y elements c o n t a i n e d i n the "Ta Tsung S h i h " c h a p t e r are t o u c h e d upon. 3 . F o l l o w i n g the " T ' i e n H s i a " d e s c r i p t i o n o f Chuang Tzu's t h o u g h t , i n d i c a t i o n s are t h a t the n e x t e a r l i e s t r e f e r e n c e i s the f o l l o w i n g passage from the Hsttn Tzu 7 9 / 2 1 / 2 2i "Chuang Tzu was b i a s e d towards n a t u r e , but d i d n o t know man. " T h i s passage might be i n t e r p r e t e d as a p a r o d y on t h e f i r s t l i n e o f t h i s "Ta Tsung S h i h " c h a p t e r i "To know the o p e r a t i o n s o f n a t u r e and t o know the o p e r a t i o n s o f man i s the h i g h e s t l e v e l ( o f k n o w l e d g e ) . " ( T e x t 1; 15/6/1) 4. The "Ta Tsung S h i h " c h a p t e r c o n t a i n s what seems to be the most comprehensive e x p o s i t i o n on the t a o — t h e c o r e i d e a and a c t u a l s t a r t i n g p o i n t o f Chuang Tzu's system o f t h o u g h t . 5. T h i s c h a p t e r can "be c h a r a c t e r i z e d as a r e l a t i v e l y systema-t i c and comprehensive c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n o f Chuang Tzu's t h o u g h t . I n t h i s s i n g l e c h a p t e r , we have a c l e a r s t a t e m e n t on what seem to be a l m o s t a l l o f the major elements i n h i s p h i l o s o p h i c a l system. The c h a p t e r b e g i n s w i t h a d i s c u s s i o n o f Chuang Tzu's e p i s t e -mology, f i r s t c o n t r a s t i n g i t w i t h t h e p o p u l a r c o n c e p t i o n '.arid d i s m i s s i n g d i f f e r e n t i a t e d knowledge o f the phenomenal w o r l d as r e l a t i v e and c o n d i t i o n e d knowledge ( T e x t 1-2). I t t h e n d e s c r i b e s i n g r e a t d e t a i l the i d e a l i n d i v i d u a l who i s c a p a b l e o f e x p e r i e n c i n g the l e v e l o f chen c h i h Jjj fef-("Sublimated Knowledge"), d e s i g n a t i n g him as the chen ,jen ^ } ("Sublimated Man") ( T e x t 2-8). Next i s a d i s c u s s i o n o f l i f e and d e a t h ( T e x t 9 ) , which l o g i c a l l y l e a d s i n t o a c o n c i s e statement on the mean-i n g o f "change" i n the phenomenal w o r l d (Text 1 0 ) . S i n c e the n o t i o n o f change has no a p p l i c a t i o n a t t h e l e v e l o f the uncon-d i t i o n e d t a o , t h i s c h a p t e r t h e n t u r n s t o a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n o f the i n d e s c r i b a b l e tao ( T e x t 1 1 ) , and the e f f e c t t h a t an awareness o f i t can make (Text 1 2 ) . The n e x t two s e c t i o n s are devoted t o an e l u c i d a t i o n o f t h e p r o c e s s which a p e r s o n must undergo i n o r d e r to g a i n an awareness o f the tao (Text 13-14). We are t h e n p r e s e n t e d w i t h a d i s c u s s i o n o f l i f e and d e a t h as phenomenal change i n the c o n t e x t o f those who have a t t a i n e d the tao awareness ( T e x t 1 5-18), c o n t r a s t i n g t h e i r a t t i t u d e s toward the w o r l d o f e x p e r i e n c e w i t h c o n v e n t i o n a l ones (Text 1 9 - 2 3 ) . He t h e n d i s a s s o c i a t e s r e l a t i v e v a l u e judgements from t h i s s u b l i m a t e d l e v e l o f e x i s t e n c e ( T e x t 2 4 ) . 13 F i n a l l y , we have a r e i t e r a t i o n o f t h e p r o c e s s o f s u b l i m a t i o n ( T e x t 2 5 ) , and a s e e m i n g l y s u p e r f i c i a l d i s c u s s i o n o f change r ( T e x t 2 6 ) . From t h i s b r i e f summary o f the c o n t e n t s o f the c h a p t e r , i t would appear t h a t t h i s c h a p t e r c o n t a i n s most o f the elements n e c e s s a r y t o Chuang Tzu's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the c o s m o s — f r o m a c l e a r s t a t e m e n t on the tao t o an e x p l a n a t i o n o f l i f e , d e a t h and the phenomenal w o r l d . 6. I n the "Ta Tsung S h i h " c h a p t e r , t h e r e i s the f o l l o w i n g p assage: Hsu" Yu e x c l a i m e d : "...My t e a c h e r ! My t e a c h e r ! He h a r -monizes the m y r i a d t h i n g s , y e t he does n o t c o n s i d e r i t r i g h t e o u s . H i s f a v o u r s r e a c h t e n thousand ages y e t he does n o t c o n s i d e r i t b e n e v o l e n t . He c o v e r s a l o n g e r t i m e - s p a n t h a n h i g h a n t i q u i t y y e t he does n o t c o n s i d e r h i m s e l f o l d . He e n v e l o p s and c a r r i e s the cosmos, and e t c h e s o u t and engraves the m u l t i f a r i o u s forms, and y e t does n o t c o n s i d e r h i m s e l f d e x t e r o u s . T h i s a l o n e i s where I would j o u r n e y . ( T e x t 24; 19/6/88 -9) T h i s passage i s r e p r o d u c e d a l m o s t v e r b a t i m i n the " T ' i e n Tao" c h a p t e r 3 4 / 1 3 / 1 2 - 3 , w i t h the s i g n i f i c a n t e x c e p t i o n t h a t i t i s a t t r i b u t e d t o Chuang Tzu r a t h e r t h a n to Hsu" Yu. I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the a u t h o r o f the " T ' i e n Tao" c h a p t e r (Lo Ken-tse s u g g e s t s t h a t i t d a t e s from e a r l y H a n ) , 1 0 aware t h a t he was c o p y i n g t h i s "Ta Tsung S h i h " passage from a s c r o l l a u t h o r e d by o r a t l e a s t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the man, Chuang Tzu, a t t r i b u t e d t h e s e words t o the a u t h o r r a t h e r t h a n the c h a r a c t e r chosen by the a u t h o r . On the b a s i s o f the combined w e i g h t o f the above s i x c r i t e r i a , we have s e l e c t e d the "Ta Tsung S h i h " c h a p t e r o f the 14 Chuang Tzu t e x t as a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e p o r t i o n w h i c h can be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the h i s t o r i c a l Chuang Tzu a t a r e l a t i v e l y e a r l y p o i n t i n t i m e . I n t r o d u c t i o n t o the Te x t and the E x e g e s i s The p h i l o s o p h i c a l system c o n t a i n e d i n the c h a p t e r below i s n o t a l o g i c a l l y d e v e l o p e d K a n t i a n p r o g r e s s i o n o f complex a r g u m e n t a t i o n . On the c o n t r a r y , i t i s a c o n t i n u o u s i t e r a t i o n o f a few s i m p l e y e t p r o f o u n d c a r d i n a l t e n e t s w h i c h , i f t a k e n as a whole, p r o v i d e the r e a d e r w i t h an e f f i c i e n t scheme f o r c o p i n g w i t h h i s human s i t u a t i o n . While i t i s n o t w i t h i n the scope o f t h i s t h e s i s t o p r o v i d e a p h i l o s o p h i c a l e x e g e s i s on the c h a p t e r which f o l l o w s , t h e r e i s one c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f Chuang Tzu's s t y l e o f p r e s e n t a t i o n which d e s e r v e s o u r a t t e n t i o n . The system o f thought c o n t a i n e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r r e p r e s e n t s a c o n s t a n t v a c i l l a t i o n between two p l a n e s o f experience. 1''" S i n c e these two p e r s p e c t i v e s , i f p r o p e r l y u n d e r s t o o d , w i l l do much t o r e l i e v e the p a r a d o x i c a l f o g h a n g i n g o v e r much o f the work, i t might be w e l l t o d w e l l on them b r i e f l y a t t h i s t i m e . I n Chuang Tzu's t h o u g h t , t h e r e a re b a s i c a l l y two ways o f a p p r o a c h i n g o u r s i t u a t i o n — w e can v i e w the cosmos w i t h the eyes o f the s u b j e c t i v e i n d i v i d u a l , o r we can e x p e r i e n c e i t as the S u b l i m a t e d Man. Assuming the p o s t u r e o f the s u b j e c t i v e i n d i v i d u a l , the a u t h o r i s a b l e t o p o s i t the e x i s t e n c e o f a d i f f e r e n t i a t e d phenomenal w o r l d w i t h o u t e n t e r i n g i n t o the q u e s t i o n o f i t s r e a l i t y . H i s r e a s o n f o r c h o o s i n g t o speak on 15 t h i s l e v e l i s a p p a r e n t . He i s a d d r e s s i n g h i m s e l f t o the u n s u b l i m a t e d mind, and must communicate w i t h t h i s l e v e l o f mind on i t s own ground. He as much as s t a t e s : We a r e g o i n g t o d i s c u s s , and i n o r d e r t o d i s c u s s , we are g o i n g t o have t o use words and d i s t i n c t i o n s . As e x p e d i e n t t o d i s c u s s i o n , l e t us assume the v a l i d i t y o f the w o r l d o f e x p e r i e n c e , the s u b j e c t -o b j e c t , t h i s - t h a t , r i g h t - w r o n g a n t i t h e s e s and a l l such r e l a t i v e d i s t i n c t i o n s . From the vantage p o i n t o f the phenomenal w o r l d , we can i n v e s t i g a t e v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f i t such as d i f f e r e n c e , change and d i f f e r e n t i a t e d knowledge. Through the r a t i o n a l p r o c e s s e s we can a c h i e v e i n s i g h t s i n t o the r e l a t i v i t y o f phenomenal o b j e c t s , n o n - a c t i o n , the wisdom o f compl i a n c e and we can even d i s c u s s the S u b l i m a t e d M a n — n o t as he e x p e r i e n c e s h i m s e l f , b u t r a t h e r as we e x p e r i e n c e him. C o g i t a t i o n and r e f l e x i o n , however, can o n l y g a i n us a s m a l l amount o f ground i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g and e x p l a i n i n g the cosmos. T h i s awareness l e a d s us t o o u r second p e r s p e c t i v e — w h a t we might c a l l t h e a b s o l u t e p e r s p e c t i v e o f the u n c o n d i t i o n e d t a o . The a b s o l u t e p e r s p e c t i v e i s the e x p e r i e n c e o f e x i s t e n c e from the p e r s p e c t i v e o f the S u b l i m a t e d M a n — i t i s what Chuang Tzu r e f e r s t o as chen c h i h ("Sublimated Knowledge"). Only the S u b l i m a t e d Man can e x p e r i e n c e S u b l i m a t e d Knowledge, and t h i s e x p e r i e n c e cannot be communicated t o a second p a r t y . T h i s c o g n i z a n c e , however, d i d n o t d e t e r Chuang Tzu from p o i n t i n g a t the moon. S i n c e the p r e d i c a t i o n o f any p o s i t i v e c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c would e f f e c t i v e l y s e t bounds upon and d e l i m i t t h i s 16 e x p e r i e n c e , t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by n e g a t i v e p r e d i c a t i o n ( the " n e t i , n e t i " o f the B r i h a d - A r a n y a k a U p a n i -shad, as w e l l as the v i a n e g a t i v a o f the C h r i s t i a n m y s t i c s ) . \ I t i s a t t h i s p l a n e o f e x p e r i e n c e t h a t r e l a t i v i t i e s such as l i f e , d e a t h , change and permanence l o s e t h e i r g r i p and have no a p p l i c a t i o n . I t i s a t t h i s l e v e l t h a t o r d i n a r y d i f f e r e n -t i a t e d knowledge l o s e s i t s v a l i d i t y , h a v i n g no p o i n t o f d i s t i n c t i o n . I t i s a t t h i s l e v e l t h a t the m e t a p h y s i c s , a p i s t e * mology and a l l a s p e c t s o f h i s p h i l o s o p h i c a l system f o l d i n t o a r a d i c a l l y e m p i r i c a l e x p e r i e n c e o f t o t a l i t y w hich Chuang Tzu c a l l s the t a o . Prom the p e r s p e c t i v e which assumes the r e a l i t y o f the phenomenal w o r l d , d i s c u s s i o n on mountains, people and time makes good sense. I n f a c t , i t i s the v e r y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d knowledge w h i c h makes such communication p o s s i b l e . I f we s u d d e n l y move t o the a b s o l u t e p e r s p e c t i v e , however, we are o b l i g e d t o t u r n on o u r p r e v i o u s l y a c c e p t e d r e a l i t y and r e j e c t i t s v a l i d i t y o u t o f hand. We have t o deny the d i f f e r e n c e between t h i s and t h a t , between s u b j e c t and o b j e c t . We have t o r e p u d i a t e the v e r y f o u n d a t i o n w h i c h has made communication p o s s i b l e on o u r l o w e r p l a n e . I t i s the movement between th e s e two p l a n e s w h i c h g i v e s r i s e t o the seeming c o n t r a d i c t i o n s i n ou r t e x t . Aware o f Chuang Tzu's two p e r s p e c t i v e s , we can pr o c e e d to e x p l o r e the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the c h a n g i n g phenomenal w o r l d b o t h from i t s own p e r s p e c t i v e and from the vantage p o i n t o f the a b s o l u t e and a l l - i n c l u s i v e t a o . We can u n d e r s t a n d what 17 "knowledge" o f the phenomenal w o r l d and i t s d i f f e r e n t i a t e d p a r t i c u l a r s mean as opposed t o the e x p e r i e n c e o f the t a o . To e x e m p l i f y the r a t i o n a l d i f f i c u l t i e s w hich a r i s e when Chuang Tzu v a c i l l a t e s between th e s e two p e r s p e c t i v e s i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n , we might c i t e the passage t A man l i k e t h i s c o u l d c l i m b h e i g h t s w i t h o u t c o n s t e r n a t i o n , c o u l d e n t e r w a t e r w i t h o u t f e e l i n g wet, and c o u l d e n t e r f i r e w i t h o u t f e e l i n g h o t . ( T e x t 2; 15/6/5) I n t h i s passage, Chuang Tzu i s d e s c r i b i n g h i s S u b l i m a t e d Man. T h i s man can be viewed from the p e r s p e c t i v e o f the phenomenal w o r l d ( i . e . , t h r o u g h the eyes o f the o r d i n a r y p e r s o n ) , and from the p e r s p e c t i v e o f the a b s o l u t e tao ( i . e . , as the S u b l i m a t e d Man e x p e r i e n c e s h i m s e l f ) . From the p e r s p e c t i v e o f the phenomenal w o r l d , he i s a d i f f e r e n t i a t e d p a r t i c u l a r w hich can be a s s o c i -a t e d w i t h a g i v e n p h y s i c a l and t e m p o r a l form. T h i s form can e n c o u n t e r c i r c u m s t a n c e s seen as e x t e r n a l t o i t which might i n h i b i t i t s c o n t i n u e d phenomenal e x i s t e n c e . F o r example, i t can meet w i t h the d e s t r u c t i o n o f f i r e and w a t e r . Hence, from t h i s phenomenal vantage p o i n t , the S u b l i m a t e d Man i s as v u l n e r -a b l e as any d i f f e r e n t i a t e d phenomenal o b j e c t . A g a i n , from the a b s o l u t e p e r s p e c t i v e , the S u b l i m a t e d Man i n e x p e r i e n c i n g s u b l i m a t i o n d i s p e n s e d w i t h any i n c l i n a t i o n to d i f f e r e n t i a t e , and d i s a s s o c i a t e d h i m s e l f from any s u b j e c t i v e i d e n t i t y o r space-time e x i s t e n c e . From t h i s l e v e l , w h o l l y f r e e from any p h y s i c a l o r t e m p o r a l encumbrances, t h e r e can be no s e n s a t i o n o f " h e a t " o r "wet". I d e n t i f y i n g h i m s e l f w i t h h i s e x p e r i e n c e o f the cosmic t o t a l i t y , he s t a n d s i n v u l n e r a b l e t o the a b e r r a t i o n s o f change. 18 Hence, from the p e r s p e c t i v e o f the assumed phenomenal w o r l d , i t can be s a i d o f the S u b l i m a t e d Man t h a t he e n t e r s f i r e and becomes h o t , w h i l e by i n t r o d u c i n g the a b s o l u t e p e r s p e c t i v e , i t can be s a i d t h a t he e n t e r s f i r e b ut does n o t f e e l h e a t . I n '••>-v a c i l l a t i n g between these two p e r s p e c t i v e s , Chuang Tzu e f f e c t i v e l y c h a rges h i s anecdotes w i t h a p a r a d o x i c a l f l a v o u r — b u t i t i s t h r o u g h u n d e r s t a n d i n g the paradox t h a t we can c a t c h a g l i m p s e o f h i s a b s o l u t e l e v e l o f e x p e r i e n c e . R e f e r e n c e s and A b b r e v i a t i o n s I n c i t i n g r e f e r e n c e s , we have a t t e m p t e d t o a s s i s t the r e a d e r by c o n s i d e r i n g b o t h f a c i l i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y . Wherever p r a c t i c a l , the f i r s t c h o i c e has been t o c i t e the H a r v a r d - Y e n c h i n g  I n s t i t u t e S i n o l o g i c a l Index S e r i e s . We have used t h i s source i n c i t i n g the f o l l o w i n g seven works« 1) S h i h C h i n g , 2) Tso Chuan, 3) E r h Ya, 4) Lun Yf l , 5) Chuang Tzu, 6) Meng Tzu, and 7) Hsfln Tzu The second c h o i c e i s the Ssu Pu Ts'ung K'an (2100 t s ' e ) V^-^P-^T^'J c o m p i l e d and r e p r o d u c e d i n a p h o t o l i t h o g r a p h i c e d i t i o n i n 1 9 2 0 - 2 2 by Shang Wu Y i n Shu Kuan i l j ^(9-fr , Shanghai. I f the c i t e d work i s n o t i n c l u d e d i n the Ssu Pu Ts'ung  K'an, the Ssu Pu P e i Yao (1372 t s ' e ) ffijffi , c o m p i l e d and p u b l i s h e d i n Shanghai by Chung Hua Shu Chfi ^f^T%fe\ ( 1 9 2 7 - 3 5 ) . i s c o n s u l t e d . A g a i n , i f n o t i n c l u d e d i n t h i s work, we c i t e the Han Wei Ts'ung Shu (100 t s ' e ) ; j t c o m p i l e d by Ho T'ang d u r i n g the Ming d y n a s t y . 19 I n c i t i n g Chuang Tzu commentaries, the f i r s t s ource c o n s u l t e d was the Wu C h ' i u P e i C h a i Chuang Tzu C h i Ch'eng volumes c o n t a i n s p h o t o l i t h o g r a p h i c c o p i e s o f 64 commentaries. S i n c e t h i s i s o n l y the f i r s t o f t h r e e i n s t a l m e n t s and i s by no means comprehensive, we must a l s o make f r e q u e n t use o f the Tao  Tsang t e x t s , i n d i v i d u a l r e p r i n t s o f o l d e r commentaries, and the o r i g i n a l e d i t i o n s o f more r e c e n t r e s e a r c h e s . I n p r e p a r i n g the t r a n s l a t i o n , we have had the b e n e f i t o f b e i n g a b l e t o c o n s u l t p r e v i o u s t r a n s l a t i o n s by: 1) H e r b e r t A. G i l e s , Chuang Tzu: M y s t i c , M o r a l i s t and  S o c i a l Reformer (London: 1889) 2) James Legge, The T e x t s o f Taoism I - I I (New York: 1962 r e p . — o r i g . pub. 1891) 3) James Ware, The S a y i n g s o f Chuang Chou (New York: 1963) 4) Fung Y u - l a n , Chuang Tzu (S h a n g h a i : 1933) 5) W.T. Chan, A Source Book i n Chinese P h i l o s o p h y ( P r i n c e t o n : 1963) 6) B u r t o n Watson, The Complete Works o f Chuang Tzu (New York: 1970) 7) Fukunaga M i t s u j i , S o s h i : Naihen (Tokyo: 1956) 8) Kuan Feng, Chuang Tzu N e i P ' i e n S h i h C h i e h Ho"=P?j: P'an ( P e k i n g : 1961) 9) Yeh Y f l - l i n , P a i Hua S h i h C h i e h Chuang Tzu (Hong Kong: 1967 r e p . — o r i g . pub. 1934) c o m p i l e d by Yen , T a i p e i i n 1972. T h i s c o l l e c t i o n o f 30 and p u b l i s h e d by I Wen Y i n Shu Kuan 20 The f o l l o w i n g a b b r e v i a t i o n s are used i n the body o f t h i s t h e s i s s CHC Gh'u Hstieh C h i ^ j£j — a n e n c y c l o p a e d i c work c o m p i l e d under i m p e r i a l a u s p i c e s by Hsfl C h i e n / f ^ ^ l ( 6 5 9 - 7 2 9 ) e t a l . i n 30 chtlan — T e n g and B i g g e r s t a f f , pp. 86-7 CTCC HPSL HWTS Wu C h ' i u P e i C h a i Chuang Tzu C h i Ch'eng Ch'u P i e n — s e e above p. 19 Ku C h i n Ho P i S h i h L e i P e i Yao ^7&^%$^^$k% — a n e n c y c l o p a e d i c work c o m p i l e d by H s i e h W e i - h s i n iiiffl t p r e f a c e d a t e d 1 2 5 7 , i n 366 chtlan — T e n g and B i g g e r s t a f f , pp. 91-2 Han Wei Ts'ung Shu j M * — s e e above p. 18 PKLT Po K'ung L i u T ' i e h S L / ^ 44. — a n e n c y c l o p a e d i a o f ch'eng ytt and anecdotes which i s a c o m b i n a t i o n o f the Po S h i h L i u T ' i e h S h i h  L e i C h i \<7 ^ J ^ (30 chtlan) o f Po C h f l - i (772-846), and an e a r l y Sung supplement to t h i s work i n 3 ° chtlan by K'ung Ch'uan r e o r -g a n i z e d i n t o 100 chtlan b e f o r e the end o f the Sung d y n a s t y — T e n g and B i g g e r s t a f f , pp. 87-8 21 PTSC P e i T'ang Shu Ch'ao ^ ^ j ; — a n e n c y c l o p a e d i c work c o m p i l e d by Yti S h i h - n a n (558-638) i n 160 c h j a n ; c o l l a t e d and a n n o t a t e d by K'ung K u a n g ^ t ' a o ^ ^ ^ l J^j and p u b l i s h e d i n 1888 — T e n g and B i g g e r s t a f f , p. 85 SPPY Ssu Pu P e i Yao <(B # $faS$-— s e e above p. 18 SPTK Ssu Pu Ts'ung K'an Jj^  ^ i j — s e e above p. 18 SWLC Ku C h i n S h i h Wen L e i Chfl ^ ^ — a n e n c y c l o p a e d i c work c o m p i l e d by Chu Mu ( p r e f a c e d a t e d 1246), Fu T a - y u n g 1 ^ (Yuan dyn.) and Chu Y u a n / f e ^ t S (Yuan dyn.) i n 236 chuan — T e n g and B i g g e r s t a f f , pp. 90-1 TPYL T ' a i P ' i n g Yu Lan — a n e n c y c l o p a e d i c work c o m p i l e d under i m p e r i a l a u s p i c e s by L i F a n g ^ (925-96) i n 1000 chuan — T e n g and B i g g e r s t a f f , pp. 88-9 YCCC Yun C h i C h ' i C h ' i e n ^ ^ | 22 --a Sung c o m p i l a t i o n and c o l l a t i o n o f v a r i o u s T a o i s t s e c r e t books by Chang Chun-fang ^Jo^2./^a i n 12^chuan ( c o n t a i n e d i n SPTK) NOTES TO THE INTRODUCTION 1. I t s h o u l d be made c l e a r a t the o u t s e t t h a t the scope o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n has been l i m i t e d t o European and Chinese commentary, w i t h p a r t i c u l a r e f f o r t towards comprehensiveness made i n the a r e a o f the Chinese t r a d i t i o n . P e r s o n a l language l i m i t a t i o n s have r e t a r d e d e f f o r t s t o f u l l y a p p r e c i a t e the Japanese c o n t r i b u t i o n s , a l t h o u g h a tho r o u g h s t u d y has been made o f Fukunaga M i t s u j i ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the "Ta Tsung S h i h " c h a p t e r i n S o s h i : N aihen (Tokyo, 1956) o f the Chugoku  k o t e n s e n s e r i e s . 2. Ch'en J u n g - c h i e h j ^ t <tlL "Chan Kuo Tao GhiaSpiSc tffl »" B u l l e t i n o f the I n s t i t u t e o f H i s t o r y and P h i l o l o g y , Academia  S i n i c a ^ # f $ L $ U g ^ t t t tftHtff^ H V o l . XLIV P a r t (1972), p. 29. C f . Fung Y u - l a n § 1 » "Chuang Tzu N e i Wai P ' i e n Fen P i e h C h i h P i a o C h u n ^ t ^ . ^) fi\ ^ » M  Y e n c h i n g J o u r n a l o f Chinese S t u d i e s :& & ^& XX (Dec. 1936), pp. 155-8. 3 . Fung Y u - l a n i n "Lun Chuang Tzu ^  " p. 119, and " T s a i Lun Chuang Tzu-j^- " pp. 132-3 ( b o t h r e p r i n t e d i n Chuang Tzu Che Hsueh T'ao Lun C h i jfc ^ ^ $ ^ ) d i s p u t e s the a u t h e n t i c i t y o f the "Jen C h i e n S h i h " c h a p t e r on the b a s i s t h a t the n o t i o n o f h s i n c h a i ^ o f "Jen C h i e n S h i h " i s m e n t a l s u b l i m a t i o n t h r o u g h the p r o c e s s o f a t t a i n i n g a " k n o w l e d g e l e s s " and " d e s i r e l e s s " s t a t e o f a b s o l u t e t r a n q u i l l i t y , w h i l e Chuang Tzu's own i d e a o f t s o wang fe>• ( i n "Ta Tsung S h i h " ) i s m e n t a l s u b l i m a t i o n t h r o u g h the r e p u d i a t i o n o f d i f f e r e n t i a t e d knowledge. Yeh Kuo-ch' i n g Jj£ ||| Jjj^ s u p p o r t s the n o t i o n t h a t "Jen C h i e n S h i h " i s n o t a u t h e n t i c i n h i s Chuang Tzu Yen C h i u jjfc. S - ^ f r ffi (S h a n g h a i : 1932). 23 J e n C h i - y t l e h ^ i l l l ^ ^ . i n Chuang Tzu Che Hstteh T'ao Lun  C h i pp. 1 7 8 f f . contends t h a t the n e i c h a p t e r s a r e a l l s p u r i o u s , b a s i n g h i s argument h e a v i l y upon the S h i h C h i 63 b i o g r a p h y o f Chuang Tzu which a s s o c i a t e s him w i t h the n o t i o n s e x p r e s s e d i n the "Yu" Fu," "Tao C h i h " and "Ch'ti C h ' i e h " c h a p t e r s . None o f t h e s e t h e o r i e s can be deemed t h r e a t e n i n g t o the t r a d i t i o n a l o p i n i o n t h a t t h e n e i c h a p t e r s are a u t h e n t i c . F i r s t , Chuang Tzu has many ways o f e x p r e s s i n g h i s p r o c e s s o f s u b l i m a t i o n . A l l such d e s c r i p t i o n s r e p r e s e n t one o r a n o t h e r a s p e c t o f the e x p e r i e n c e , b u t no s tatement i s i n c l u s i v e o r comprehensive to the e x t e n t t h a t i t i s c a p a b l e o f g i v i n g f u l l v a l u e t o Chuang Tzu's p r o c e s s o f e n l i g h t e n m e n t . W i t n e s s , f o r example, t h a t i n t h i s one "Ta Tsung S h i h " c h a p t e r we have two s p e c i f i c and y e t d i s t i n c t e x p o s i t i o n s on the method o f a c h i e v i n g s u b l i -m a t i o n ( T e x t 13, 2 5 ) . See Kuan Feng (pp. 314-18) f o r a c o n v i n c i n g r e f u t a t i o n o f Yeh Kuo-ch'ing's arguments a g a i n s t t h e a u t h e n t i c i t y o f the "Jen C h i e n S h i h " c h a p t e r . J e n C h i - y t l e h , i n t a k i n g the S h i h C h i 63 b i o g r a p h y o f Chuang Tzu as the b a s i s o f h i s argument, assumes the a c c u r a c y o f Ssu-ma C h ' i e n ' s d e s c r i p t i o n . The v e r y b r e v i t y o f t h i s r e l a t i v e l y u n f l a t t e r i n g a c c o u n t d i s q u a l i f i e s i t as a d e s c r i p -t i o n w h i c h can s t a n d u n s u p p o r t e d . I t d i s c u s s e s h i s t e x t as b e i n g "empty v e r b i a g e w i t h o u t f a c t u a l s u p p o r t " and s t a t e s t h a t " h i s w o r d i n g i s deep and remote, l e t t i n g h i m s e l f go i n an e f f o r t to s u i t h i m s e l f . " Because o f h i s l a c k o f r e s t r a i n t i n h i s w r i t i n g s , " k i n g s , dukes and o f f i c i a l s a r e n o t a b l e t o make use o f them." Even the most s t a r c h y C o n f u c i a n would have t o a l l o w t h a t Ssu-ma Ch ' i e n ' s d e s c r i p t i o n i s n o t a model o f o b j e c t i v i t y . 4. Lo Ken-tsef§. » "Chuang Tzu Wai Tsa P ' i e n T'an Ytian ^ ^ N l H i J I ) ." Y e n c h i n g J o u r n a l o f Chinese S t u d i e s $ ^ ^ . $ r J L X I X (1936), pp. 39-70. ( A l s o r e p r i n t e d i n h i s Chu Tzu K'ao So ^ j j ^ - ^ ^ ( P e k i n g : 1958) pp. 282-312). 24 5 . H.G. C r e e l , "What i s Taoism?", J o u r n a l o f the American  O r i e n t a l S o c i e t y 76 ( 1 9 5 6 ) , p. 1 3 9 . C f . D. Munro, Concept o f Man i n E a r l y C h i n a ( S t a n f o r d * 1 9 6 9 ) , p. 121; Fung Y u - l a n , "Lun Chuang Tzu;" Chuang Tzu Che Hsueh T'ao Lun C h i , p. 1 16 . 6 . L. G i l e s , Musings o f a Chinese M y s t i c (Londont 1 9 0 6 ) , p. 1 7 . 7 . See Appendix I I I below f o r a complete t r a n s l a t i o n o f t h i s s e c t i o n . 8. T h i s a g a i n i s the t r a d i t i o n a l p o i n t o f view. F o r example, L i n H s i - i ( C T C C V 8 p l l 7 4 ) ; Wang F u - c h i h (CTCCV19p698). Ma Hsfl-l u n (p. 898) s t a t e s t h a t t h i s i s Chuang Tzu's own e x p l a n a t i o n o f h i s t a o . F o r a c r i t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n o f p r e v a i l i n g t h e o r i e s on the a u t h e n t i c i t y o f t h i s " T ' i e n H s i a " c h a p t e r , see Chang Ch'eng-c h ' i u ' s Chuang Tzu P ' i e n Mu K'ao & ^ r / j ^ 6 ^ ( T a i p e i * 1971) pp. 165-173• He c o n c l u d e s t h a t i t might be Chuang Tzu's own, and i t might a l s o be t h a t o f a Chuang Tzu c o n v e r t . I t i s d e f i n i t e l y p r o - T a o i s t i n t e n o r and s p e c i f i c a l l y pro-Chuang Tzu. A g a i n , see Yen L i n g - f e n g ' s Lao Chuang Yen C h i u jfe-( T a i p e i * 1 9 6 6 ) pp. 169-207 where he l i s t s 27 s c h o l a r s who contend t h a t t h i s " T ' i e n H s i a " c h a p t e r i s p r e f a t o r y , w h i l e he l i s t s 9 o t h e r s who contend t h a t i t i s n o t . Yen L i n g - f e n g ' s own p o s i t i o n f a l l s w i t h the l a t t e r group. 9 . T h i s i s a f a r l e s s p o p u l a r o p i n i o n . See Hu Wen-ying (CTCC V 2 1 p 5 1 1 ) ; Kuan Feng (pp. 3 5 7 - 8 ) . A l t h o u g h Kuan Feng s u p p o r t s T'an C h i e h - f u ' s ^ - ^ r y j f | c o n t e n t i o n t h a t the " T ' i e n H s i a " c h a p t e r i s a c o m b i n a t i o n o f the ""Huai Nan Wang Chuang Tzu Ltleh Y a o M i v f l i " and "Hui S h i h ^ . # 6 / c h a p t e r s (see Appendix I under Ssu-ma P i a o ; T'an C h i e h - f u ' s h y p o t h e s i s i s p r e s e n t e d i n h i s "Hsi e n T s a i Chuang Tzu T ' i e n H s i a P ' i e n Te Yen C h i u ^ & ^ ^ ^ T ^ ify/ffi^L" p u b l i s h e d i n , Chung Kuo Che Hsueh S h i h Lun Wen Ch'u C h i \f ( g %L 0j£ >e* f ^ ) J£-Mjjjjt p u b l i s h e d by K'o Hsueh Ch'u Pan S h e ^ ^ g ^ ^ / t f / f i , 1959) 25 o f the o r i g i n a l 52 c h a p t e r s , he s t i l l m a i n t a i n s t h a t the o u t l i n e o f Chuang Tzu's thought c o i n c i d e s w i t h the m a t e r i a l i n the n e i c h a p t e r s . 10. Lo K e n - t s e , i b i d . p. 46. 11. From t h e i r e v a l u a t i o n s o f t h i s t e x t , i t would seem a p p a r e n t t h a t many o f the commentators are i m p l i c i t l y aware o f t h e s e two p e r s p e c t i v e s , and a few c r i t i c s even s t a t e q u i t e s p e c i f i c a l l y t h a t t h e y are d e a l i n g on two l e v e l s . See, f o r example, P'an C h i - c h ' i n g (CTCCV12p399) and Kuan Feng (p. 239). T h i s i d e a o f l e v e l s i s n o t p e c u l i a r to Chuang Tzu a l o n e , b u t i s c h a r a c t e r i s -t i c o f T a o i s t w r i t i n g s . H. Welch i n h i s The P a r t i n g o f the Way ( B o s t o n : 1957), p. 50 makes a s i m i l a r o b s e r v a t i o n i n d i s c u s s i n g " Lao Tzu: "...the d o c t r i n e s o f Lao Tzu have a d i f f e r e n t l o o k a t d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s ; h i s words have a d i f f e r e n t a p p l i c a t i o n a t d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s . " 26 1. TEXT To know the o p e r a t i o n s o f n a t u r e ^ and t o know the o p e r a t i o n s 2 o f man i s the h i g h e s t l e v e l ( o f , k n o w l e d g e ) . To know the 3 o p e r a t i o n s o f n a t u r e i s i n n a t e . To know the o p e r a t i o n s o f man i s t o use those elements o f knowledge which one knows to d e v e l o p those which one does n o t . And t o exhaust one's n a t u r a l span o f y e a r s w i t h o u t e x p i r i n g p r e m a t u r e l y - - t h i s i s the p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f knowledge. EXEGESIS 1. The word t ' i e n ^ , here t r a n s l a t e d as " n a t u r e " , t a k e s on a v a r i e t y o f meanings i n the Chuang Tzu, and as a consequence r e q u i r e s a r e n d e r i n g from c o n t e x t r a t h e r t h a n an a u t o m a t i c s u b s t i t u t i o n o f any one E n g l i s h word. Here we f o l l o w Ch'eng Hsuan-ying (CTCCV3p269) i n i n t e r p r e t i n g the word t ' i e n as " n a t u r e " : "The o p e r a t i o n s o f n a t u r e mean the d a r k n e s s and b r i g h t n e s s o f the t h r e e l u m i n a r i e s , the l i f e - c y c l e o f the f o u r seasons, the g a t h e r i n g and w a s t i n g o f winds and c l o u d s and the c o l d and warmth o f the t h u n d e r and r a i n s . " There has been a tendency, e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e the t z u - j a n commentators o f the Wei-Chin p e r i o d , t o d e f i n e the tao as the p r i n c i p l e o f n a t u r a l change. From the usage o f tao i n t h i s "Ta Tsung S h i h " c h a p t e r , however, i t would seem t h a t t ' i e n as an a s p e c t o f the phenomenal w o r l d has assumed t h i s f u n c t i o n . The t a o , a b s o l u t e and u n c o n d i t i o n e d , cannot be d e l i m i t e d by 27 i d e n t i f y i n g i t w i t h "change"—rather i t must r e t a i n a posture beyond any static-dynamic a n t i t h e s i s . I t i s to be noted that i n Chuang Tzu's p h i l o s o p h i c a l system, t ' i e n assumes the p r o c r e a t i v e f u n c t i o n , whereas i n Lao Tzu's thought t h i s f a l l s w i t h i n the sphere of the tao. This marks an important divergence i n t h e i r p h i l o s o p h i e s . In the Tao Te Ching, we reads There was something heterogeneously formed, Pre d a t i n g Heaven and Earth i n i t s b i r t h . ...This can be considered the mother of the universe. I do not know i t s name—constrained, I would designate i t "tao". (Chapter 25) The Great tao i s so expansive, reaching i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s . The myriad things depend on i t f o r t h e i r conception... (Chapter 34) The tao engenders them, and i t s v i r t u s c u l t i v a t e s them; The p h y s i c a l world gives form to them, and t h e i r environment completes them. Consequently, of the myriad t h i n g s , none but revere the tao and venerate i t s v i r t u s . (Chapter 51) T'ang Chtln-i makes t h i s aspect of Lao Tzu's concept very c l e a r . He suggests that the metaphysical tao i s the source of the myriad t h i n g s , and by i t s e l f , i s without any phenomenal appearance. Phenomenal appearance o n l y becomes apparent i n i t s c o n t r a s t with other t h i n g s . Thus, since the things which are produced are d i s t i n c t from t h a t which produces them, the phenomenal appearance of the tao becomes c l e a r from i t s con-t r a s t w i t h the myriad things which i t engenders. (See h i s Chung Kuo Che Hsueh Yuan Lun, V o l . I , pp. 348ff.) I f there i s one exception to the statement that the tao does not have the p r o c r e a t i v e f u n c t i o n i n the Chuang Tzu, i t 28 might be the passage» Now, the b r i l l i a n t i s engendered out of darkness) that which has structure i s engendered out of the formlessi s p i r i t u a l essence i s engendereed out of the tao. Form was o r i g i n a l l y engendered from essence, and the myriad things engender each other through form. (58/22/30) Lo Ken-tse, however, a f t e r analyzing t h i s chapter, suggests that "Chili Pei Yu" i s i n f a c t a l a t e r compilation of the Lao Tzu school. (Chu Tzu K'ao So, pp. 299ff.) In t h i s passage, t ' i e n i s used to designate one aspect of the phenomenal world held up i n contrast to a second aspect--the sphere of man. As such, i t i s the progenitor of a l l things. Cf. Text 9t 16/6/21 below. According to Lu Te-ming (CTCCV2p38), the Ts'ui Chuan and Hsiang Hsiu texts had the character shih "to lose") f o r due to the s i m i l a r i t y between the two characters shih (small was corrected i n the Kuo Hsiang and a l l subsequent versions. 2. There i s what would appear to be an amplification of t h i s passage i n the Hual Nan Tzu SPTK 18/l4lat I f one knows the operations of nature and knows the practices of man, then he w i l l have the means to make a path f o r himself i n the world. I f one knows nature but does not know man, then he w i l l be without the means to communicate with the mundane world. I f one knows man but does not know nature, then he w i l l be without the means to ramble with the tao. Again, i n the Huai Nan Tzu SPTK 2l/l60af This would appear to be a graphic error ) and t * i e n (small which To speak of the tao and not speak of r e a l i t y i s to be without the mearisTo d r i f t about i n the world. To 29 speak of r e a l i t y and not speak of the tao i s to be without the means to wander and relax with change. I t would seem that the author(s) of these passages i n the composite Huai Nan Tzu text accept t h i s f i r s t portion of the "Ta Tsung Shih" chapter as an exposition of Chuang Tzu's own epistemology. As i t were, t h i s passage i s followed by an explanation that knowledge of the phenomenal world (including both the operations of man and nature) i s conditional, and i s not the chen chih M IftQ- ("Sublimated Knowledge"). 3 . This, of course, does not r e f e r to a comprehensive knowledge of the workings of nature, but rather to a• know-ledge (or " i n s t i n c t i v e knowledge") of c e r t a i n facets of the natural order necessary f o r s u r v i v a l . 4 . Yen Ling-feng (p. 685) suggests an alt e r n a t i v e reading ast "...to use those elements of knowledge which one knows to regulate those which one does not." He reads the character yang In regulating (yang ) the mind, nothing i s better than reducing desiresT" 2. TEXT > - Even so, ( t h i s hypothesis) has i t s d i f f i c u l t i e s . Now, knowledge has that upon which i t i s c o n d i t i o n a l 1 before i t i s r i g h t l y knowledge. And that upon which i t i s conditional i s never f i x e d . (For example,) how do we know that which we ( " t o d e v e l o p " ) a s chih > ^ ( " t o r e g u l a t e " ) , f o l l o w i n g t h e Chao Ch 1 i ^ l = \ u H X j c o m m e n t a r y o n t h e Mencius 68/7B/35 passage i 30 c a l l "nature" i s not i n fac t "man," or that which we c a l l 2 "man" i s not i n fac t "nature"? Moreover, there must be •a k the "Sublimated-^ Man" before there can be "Sublimated Knowledge." What i s meant by "Sublimated Man"? The "Sublimated Man" of a n t i q u i t y did not run contrary to (even) the t r i v i a l , ^ did 6 7 8 not force accomplishments, and did not contrive a f f a i r s . A man l i k e t h i s ^ could e r r without remorse, and could do things r i g h t without becoming supercilious. A man l i k e t h i s could climb heights without consternation, could enter water without 11 12 f e e l i n g wet, and could enter f i r e without f e e l i n g hot. The (capacity of) one's knowledge to ascend to and reach 1-^ the t a o ^ i s l i k e t h i s . EXEGESIS 1. Here we follow Yen Ling-feng (p. 685) who suggests that the character t a i ^ ^ i s s i m i l a r to the modern expression "condition." This passage means that the accuracy of what we c a l l knowledge i s dependent upon c e r t a i n conditions f o r v e r i f i c a t i o n . 2. This passage i s s i m i l a r i n sty l e and content to the follow-ing passage from the "Ch*i Wu Lun" chapter i How do we know that which we c a l l "knowing" i s not "not-knowing", or that which we c a l l "hot-knowing" i s i n f a c t "knowing"? (6/2/66) The expression yung chfl ^ •gft ("how") f i r s t occurs i n t h i s passage. 31 3 . The c h a r a c t e r chenjs) ("Sublimated") does n o t appear i n any o f t h e pre-Chuang Tzu t e x t s , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f once i n the Mo Tzu (7/6 / 3 5 ) and t h r e e t i m e s i n the Lao Tzu ( C h a p t e r s 21, 41 and 5 4 ) . Lo Ken-tse i n h i s Chu Tzu K'ao So pp. I 6 7 f f . c o l l a t e s v a r i o u s t h e o r i e s r e g a r d i n g t h e a u t h e n t i c i t y o f t h i s p o r t i o n o f the Mo Tzu, and c o n c l u d e s t h a t t h i s c h a p t e r was p r o b a b l y w r i t t e n between the y e a r s 286-246 B.C. a t the end o f t h e W a r r i n g S t a t e s p e r i o d . Sun I - j a n g i n h i s p r e f a c e t o Mo Tzu C h i e n Ku p. 1 f e e l s t h a t the w o r d i n g o f t h i s c h a p t e r would date i t as l a t e Chou, and s u g g e s t s t h a t i t i s from th e hands o f Con-f u c i a n s r a t h e r t h a n from M o h i s t s . I t i s l i k e l y , t h e n , t h a t the e a r l i e s t e x t a n t t e x t t o use t h i s term chen was e i t h e r the Lao Tzu o r Chuang Tzu. I t would seem t h a t t h i s word was a t l e a s t made p o p u l a r as a s p e c i a l term i n t h e T a o i s t w r i t i n g s . T h i s c a n be a t t e s t e d t o by the Shuo Wen d e f i n i t i o n w h i c h d e f i n e s chen as "the i m m o r t a l s u n d e r g o i n g p h y s i c a l t r a n s f o r -m a t i o n s and a s c e n d i n g t o Heaven." Ts'ao Shou-k'un (CTCCV30pl26) f u r t h e r p o i n t s o u t t h a t the c h a r a c t e r chen i s c l a s s i f i e d i n the Shuo Wen under the r a d i c a l hua J( j w h i c h i s the o r i g i n a l form o f hua /\\'A " t o change"). There i s no doubt t h a t by the time o f Hstl Shen, the c h a r a c t e r chen had v e r y s t r o n g T a o i s t i c conno-t a t i o n s . Ts'ao Shou-k'un i s n o t c o n v i n c e d t h a t t h i s term chen had such s t r o n g r e l i g i o u s T a o i s t i m p l i c a t i o n s a t Chuang Tzu's t i m e , and goes t o g r e a t l e n g t h s i n c o n t e n d i n g t h a t Chuang Tzu's use o f t h i s word does n o t c a r r y w i t h i t the conno-t a t i o n s o f t h e Shuo Wen d e f i n i t i o n . He c l a i m s t h a t those 32 p a s s a g e s o f t h e C h u a n g T z u w h i c h s m a c k o f r e l i g i o u s T a o i s m , s u c h a s r e f e r e n c e s t o s y l p h i s h t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s , t w o t h o u s a n d y e a r l i f e - s p a n s , e t c . " . . . c e r t a i n l y c a n n o t b e r e l i e d u p o n a s r e p r e s e n t i n g C h u a n g T z u ' s o w n t h o u g h t . . . . I n t h e S h u o W e n  C h t t T u g f ^ ^ ^ f ^ o f W a n g YflnjL^ /j » u n d e r t h e c h a r a c t e r c h e n i t e x p l a i n s t h a t w h i l e r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e ' S u b l i m a t e d M a n ( c h e n .1en JJL/y J ' i n t h e L f l S h i h C h ' u n C h ' i u a n d H u a i N a n T z u i n d i c a t e i m m o r t a l s , C h u a n g T z u a l o n e s t a t e s t h a t ' c h e n i s t h e s u p e r l a t i v e d e g r e e o f e s s e n c e a n d i n t e g r i t y . * " ( 8 7 / 3 1 / 3 2 ) T h e r e a r e m a n y p a r t s o f e v e n t h e n e i c h a p t e r s w h i c h , i f i n t e r p r e t e d l i t e r a l l y , h a v e r e l i g i o u s T a o i s t m e a n i n g s . T h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e C h u a n g T z u r e l e c t s t h i s t r a d i t i o n i s a m a t t e r o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a n d e m p h a s i s . T h e L a o - C h u a n g p a r t n e r s h i p i n p o p u l a r i z i n g t e r m s i s n o t c o n f i n e d t o t h i s o n e t e r m c h e n . T h e t e r m t z u j a n tfj^L t f 0 r e x a m p l e , w h i c h a p p e a r s i n C h a p t e r s 1 7 » 2 3 , 2 5 , 5 1 a n d 64 o f t h e T a o T e C h i n g a n d t h e n a g a i n i n t h e C h u a n g T z u d o e s n o t a p p e a r i n a n y t e x t s a n t e r i o r t o t h e m . ( T h e r e i s o n e o c c u r a n c e i n t h e M o T z u 7 0 / 4 2 / 5 0 , b u t L o K e n - t s e i n h i s C h u T z u K ' a o S o p p . 1 8 3 - 9 4 d a t e s t h i s p a r t o f t h e M o T z u a s p o s t - C h u a n g T z u a n d p r e - H s t i n T z u . ) 4 . F r o m t h e a b o v e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e c h a r a c t e r c h e n , w e c a n b e t t e r a p p r e c i a t e h o w t e r m s l i k e c h e n j e n )fi^J^ ( " S u b l i m a t e d M a n " ) a n d c h e n c h i h j^£"V2- ( " S u b l i m a t e d K n o w l e d g e " ) w o u l d h a v e b e e n r e c e i v e d b y C h u a n g T z u ' s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s . W a n g K ' a i - y t i n ( c i t e d i n T s ' a o S h o u - k ' u n C T C C V 3 0 p l 2 8 ) 33 p o i n t s out t h a t the n o t i o n o f the " S u b l i m a t e d Man" i s the p r i m a r y theme o f the "K*o I " c h a p t e r . I n the "K'o I " c h a p t e r , the " S u b l i m a t e d Man" i s d e p i c t e d as an adhe r e n t o f . r e l i g i o u s T a o i s t p r a c t i c e s . He would seem t o be a l a t e r e l a b o r a t i o n on elements found i n t h i s "Ta Tsung S h i h " c h a p t e r such as h i s i n v i n c i b i l i t y , h i s p e c u l i a r b r e a t h i n g , a n d , h i s e x p e r i e n c e o f a h i g h e r l e v e l o f e x i s t e n c e . Lo Ken-tse ( i b i d , pp. 291-2) s u g g e s t s t h a t the "K'o I " c h a p t e r i s the p r o d u c t o f f o l l o w e r s o f the O c c u l t i s t S c h o o l o f the Ch'in-Han e r a . As the case may be, the r e f e r e n c e s t o the "S u b l i m a t e d Man" i n t h i s c h a p t e r s h o u l d n o t be c o n f u s e d w i t h the p i c t u r e p r e s e n t e d i n the "K'o I " p o r t i o n o f the t e x t . 5. The commentaries p r e s e n t us w i t h b a s i c a l l y t h r e e i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n s o f t h i s phrases 1) Lfl H u i - c h ' i n g (CTCCV5p64) and Hu Wen-ying (CTCCV21p92) would i n t e r p r e t t h i s as meaning t h a t the S u b l i m a t e d Man does n o t f o l l o w the crowd and abandon the few. L i l H u i - c h ' i n g s t a t e s t h a t s i n c e the s t a n d a r d o f r i g h t and wrong i n the w o r l d i s n o t u n i v e r s a l , p e o p l e n a t u r a l l y t e n d t o f o l l o w the m a j o r i t y . I f one f o l l o w s the crowd, however, he cannot a v o i d o f f e n d i n g the few. 2) Wang H s i e n - c h ' i e n (CTCCV26p75) and Kuo L i a n g - h a n (CTCCV13p321) suggest t h a t i n r e p u d i a t i n g h i s s u b j e c t i v i t y , the S u b l i m a t e d Man becomes vacuous and o f f e n d s n o t h i n g — n o t even the s m a l l and t r i v i a l . Wang H s i e n - c h ' i e n says t h a t the S u b l i m a t e d Man makes h i m s e l f vacuous and a c c o r d s w i t h t h i n g s . A l b e i t t h e y are t r i v i a l , he does n o t r u n c o n t r a r y 34 t o them. 3) Wu Shi h - s h a n g (CTCCV22pl4) and Ch'ti Fu (CTCCV21pl75) su g g e s t t h a t Chuang Tzu's meaning i s t h a t the S u b l i m a t e d Man i s aware o f the f a c t t h a t the l a r g e i s dependent upon the s m a l l and the i m p o r t a n t i s dependent upon the i n c i d e n t a l . Thus Wu S h i h - s h a n g s t a t e s t h a t the S u b l i m a t e d Man l o o k s upon the i n c i d e n t a l as i m p o r t a n t . T h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a l l u d e s t o Chap t e r 64 o f the Tao Te Chingt When a s i t u a t i o n i s s t a b l e , I t i s a s i m p l e m a t t e r t o m a i n t a i n i t . When symptoms have n o t y e t appeared, I t i s a s i m p l e m a t t e r t o make p l a n s . When something i s b r i t t l e , I t i s e a s i l y f r a c t u r e d ; When something i s f i n e , I t i s e a s i l y s c a t t e r e d . N e g o t i a t e a s i t u a t i o n b e f o r e i t a r i s e s ; Put a s i t u a t i o n i n p r o p e r o r d e r b e f o r e d i s o r d e r s e t s i n . A t r e e w i t h the g i r t h o f a man's embrace Germinates from the t i n i e s t s p r o u t ; A p a v i l i o n o f n i n e l e v e l s I s e r e c t e d on a b a s k e t f u l o f e a r t h ; A j o u r n e y o f one thousand l i Commences from the ground beneath one's f e e t . . . I n c a r r y i n g out t h e i r a f f a i r s , The p e o p l e a re c o n s t a n t l y t h w a r t e d on the v e r y b r i n k o f s u c c e s s . I f one i s as c o n s c i e n t i o u s a t the end as he was a t the s t a r t , Then t h e r e would be no f a i l u r e s . We f o l l o w Wang H s i e n - c h * i e n ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n f o r s e v e r a l r e a s o n s . F i r s t , the t h r e e p a r a l l e l p h r a s e s " . . . d i d n o t r u n c o n t r a r y t o (even) the t r i v i a l , d i d n o t f o r c e accomplishments and d i d n o t c o n t r i v e a f f a i r s " a l l r e f l e c t the a t t i t u d e o f the S u b l i m a t e d Man towards h i s a f f a i r s . S e c o n d l y , t h i s e n t i r e s e c t i o n d e a l s w i t h the v a c u i t y : ( i . e . , the absence o f the s u b j e c t i v e i d e n t i t y ) o f the S u b l i m a t e d Man. And t h i r d l y , the S u b l i m a t e d Man, f r e e from a l l a t t a c h m e n t s and commitments, would respond t o a l l 35 things spontaneously—the important and the t r i v i a l a l i k e . Hence, t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n also embraces the basic meaning of Wu Shih-shang's reading (3). 6. Hu Yuan-chfln (p. 49) suggests that hsiung "force") i s being used l i k e yung^j? , a l t e r i n g t h i s passage to read "...did not bravely accomplish." Kao Heng (p. 26) would read hsiung as huan |)?| because of the two passages i n 10/4/36 and 10/4/52 which contain the expression huan ch'eng ft*["gladly accomplish"). (Kao reads huan^|_ f o r ch'ttanjgj] i n 10/4/52). This would change the t r a n s l a t i o n to "...did not gladly accomplish." The character hsiung here makes good sense, and there i s no necessity f o r accepting an alternate reading. 7. Ma Hsfl-lun (p. 181) states that c h ' e n g a n d k u a ^ are contrasts, and that ch'eng should be read as sheng ("pros-p e r i t y " ) . Again, the text makes good sense as i t stands, and does not require amending. 8.. This phrase has b a s i c a l l y two interpretations! 1) Kuo Hsiang (CTCCVlpl31) and Ch feng Hstian-ying (CTCCV3 pp273-4) both interpret t h i s passage l i t e r a l l y . Kuo Hsiang states that he gives f u l l r e i n to his w i l l and moves straight ahead, and the various gentlemen accord with him of t h e i r own v o l i t i o n . He does not have to plan and scheme i n order to r e a l i z e t h i s co-operation. In t h i s interpretation, shih -£ 36 i s read l i t e r a l l y as "gentlemen" (or i n Ch'eng Hstlan-ying, as shih chung \ , "the masses"). Hence, t h i s phrase would read* "...did not scheme to win the masses (gentlemen)." 2) This second inte r p r e t a t i o n was probably f i r s t i n t r o -duced by L i n H s i - i (CTCCV7p248), and represents the consensus of subsequent commentators. Chu Kuei-yao (CTCCV26pl57)» f o r example, states that the phrase p_u mo shih i s equiv-alent to p_u mou shih ^ . The commentary to the Kuan Tzu and various other pre-Han works at t e s t to the f a c t that shih and shih ) j | were used interchangeably (see Rickett, p. 112). Again, the Shuo Wen defines the character shih as shihee . Our t r a n s l a t i o n follows t h i s emendation. Important to note here i s that according to Chuang Tzu, action whould be spontaneous—as he says below» "Compelled, he did what must be done. (Text 6)" The i d e a l Taoist attitude toward a c t i v i t y i s doing what must be done without contriving to act. We can see that i n t h i s passage the idea of "planning" i s contrary to the Taoist i d e a l , and has a pejorative conno-ta t i o n . Thus we render i t "contrive." 9. L i n H s i - i (CTCCV"7p249) observes that the expression j_o jan che ^ t ^ ^ f l originated with the Chuang Tzu. 10. E a r l y commentators f e l t some discomfort at the implication that Chuang Tzu's i d e a l man was i n f a c t capable of errors i n judgement. Kuo Hsiang (CTCCVlpl31), f o r example, dismisses i t outright, s t a t i n g that t h i s i d e a l man i s wholly beyond 37 e r r o r . Ch'eng Hsttan-ying (CTCCV3p274) i n t e r p r e t s the c h a r a c t e r kuoysj as r e f e r r i n g t o the p r o p e r t i m e , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t i f the p r o p e r time has pa s s e d , he i s always f r e e o f r e m o r s e f u l s e n t i m e n t s . The c h a r a c t e r kuo y^ ) ( " e r r " ) i s o b v i o u s l y b e i n g used a n t i t h e t i c t o the c h a r a c t e r t a n g ^ ( " r i g h t " ) , and as such, must be i n t e r p r e t e d i n terms o f Chuang Tzu's thought r a t h e r t h a n d i s m i s s e d o u t o f hand. "To e r r " and "to be r i g h t " a re judgements made on a c o n d i t i o n o f the phenomenal w o r l d , and are w h o l l y r e l a t i v e . Now, the S u b l i m a t e d Man i n becoming cog-n i z a n t o f h i s oneness w i t h a l l t h i n g s , i s i n c a p a b l e o f e n t e r -t a i n i n g such s u b j e c t i v e and r e l a t i v e v a l u e judgements. Hence, we can o n l y assume t h a t Chuang Tzu's meaning would be t h a t the S u b l i m a t e d Man, w i t h o u t c o n t r i v i n g t o a c t , does what must be done. Peo p l e around him might make v a l u e judgements on h i s a c t i o n s , s a y i n g t h i s i s r i g h t and t h a t wrong, b u t the S u b l i m a t e d Man h i m s e l f i s f r e e from any remorse o r su p e r -c i l i o u s n e s s . F o r complementary a n a l y s e s , c f . Ltl H u i - c h ' i n g (CTCCV5p64) and Yfl Yfleh ( p. 196). 11. Note t h a t t h i s sentence b e g i n s w i t h "A man l i k e t h i s c o u l d c l i m b h e i g h t s w i t h o u t c o n s t e r n a t i o n . " " C o n s t e r n a t i o n " i s an emotion, a f e e l i n g . I t i s the r e s u l t o f s u b j e c t i v e r e f l e x i o n on a g i v e n s i t u a t i o n . T h i s can be a p p l i e d t o the second and t h i r d p h r a s e s w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e t h i s s e n t e n c e — t h e S u b l i m a t e d Man can "become wet" by e n t e r i n g w a t e r , b u t cannot " f e e l wet." That i s , o t h e r p e o p l e can say o f the p h y s i c a l e x i s t e n c e which t h e y l o o k upon as the S u b l i m a t e d Man t h a t i t has "become wet," 38 b u t s i n c e the S u b l i m a t e d Man i s d e v o i d o f s u b j e c t i v e c o n s c i o u s -n e s s , t h e r e i s n o t h i n g t o r e g i s t e r o r " f e e l " t h i s wetness. From the p e r s p e c t i v e o f the phenomenal w o r l d i n which the S u b l i m a t e d Man and the w a t e r , f i r e , e t c . a re two ( i . e . from the p e r s p e c -t i v e o f the o r d i n a r y man), t h e r e i s wetness and h e a t , b u t from the a b s o l u t e p e r s p e c t i v e a t which the S u b l i m a t e d Man i s one w i t h a l l t h i n g s , a l l r e l a t i v e n o t i o n s such as wetness, d r y n e s s , h e a t , c o l d , e t c . d i s s o l v e . 12. T h i s metaphor i s used r e p e a t e d l y t h r o u g h o u t the Chuang Tzu. See 6/2/71, 44/17/49, 48/19/8 and 57/21/68. There i s a l s o a s i m i l a r passage i n the L i e h Tzu SPTK 2/5b. 13. The e x p r e s s i o n which we have t r a n s l a t e d as " t o ascend t o and r e a c h " — t e n g k o ^ ( a c c o r d i n g t o Lu Te-ming CTCCV2p39 and Yen Fu p. 18, t h e c h a r a c t e r y j j ^ s h o u l d be pronounced ko i n t h i s e x p r e s s i o n ) — a p p e a r s as a b i n o m i a l i n many o f the e a r l y t e x t s a r e u s e d i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y and have t h e same meaning. I t i s used i n t he Mo Tzu 3 9 / 2 5 / 7 9 t o mean " s p i r i t u a l a s c e n t , " and seems t o c a r r y t h i s s u p e r n a t u r a l c o n n o t a t i o n w i t h i t t h r o u g h o u t the e a r l y t e x t s ( f o r a d d i t i o n a l r e f . , see Chu Kuei - y a o CTCCV26ppl42 - 3 ) . Wen I - t o (Shen Hua Yd S h i h p. 159) contends t h a t t h e e x p r e s -s i o n s t e n g ko Jj _ JT| and sheng ko 2fr a r e b o t h a l t e r n a t e forms o f t e n g ko % -)(£$L» When the sun s h i n e s on a bank o f c l o u d s from the s i d e , t h e y appear t o be r e d and b u r n i n g . T h i s , he s t a t e s , i n one Hence, ko ^  i s used as a s u b s t i t u t e f o r i t s cognate koJ(P£_. 39 Wen I-to further suggests that the term teng k o ^ v||? was not indiginous to the Chinese, but rather originated with the barbarian Ch*iang peoples to the west. He c i t e s Mo Tzu 3 9 / 2 5 / 7 9 which has the passage! To the west of Ch'in was the state of I Ch'ixi$^<^r . When t h e i r r e l a t i v e s would die, they would gather up firewood and incinerate them. When the smoke ascended, they c a l l e d i t teng ko ^ @? • Again, he c i t e s Lfl Shih Ch'un Ch'iu SPTK l4/84a which says 1 The people of Shih and Ch'iang^ain being made captives do not grieve at being t i e d and bound, but rather grieve at dying without being cremated. It o r i g i n a l l y meant that at the time of incineration, the s p i r i t would a v a i l i t s e l f of the f i r e and smoke, and ascend to the heavens. After being introduced into the Chinese states, t h i s term came to have two usages. The death of the r u l e r was c a l l e d teng ko % ( L i Chi SPTK l / l 5 b ; Legge I 1 I O 8 ) , as was the s p i r i t u a l ascent of the hsien jen 4iU (Ch'ien Han Shu SPTK PNP 25"h / 1 5 a ) . Whereas the former usage was within the scope of the old concept, the l a t t e r usage was an extension of i t s o r i g i n a l meaning. 14. According to Ma Had-lun (p. 182), some texts are without the character c h e ^ . See the Kuo Hsiang e d i t i o n C T C C V l p l 3 1 . 3 . TEXT The Sublimated Man of antiquity did not dream i n h i s sleep and was without anxieties while awake.1 He did not r e l i s h 2 his victuals,-^ and ever so profound was his breathing. ko T h i s S u b l i m a t e d Man b r e a t h e s from h i s h e e l s , w h i l e t h e common k 1 man b r e a t h e s from h i s t h r o a t . The g a r b l e d s p e e c h ^ o f one who i s e a r l y i n a d h e r i n g ( t o the way o f the S u b l i m a t e d Man)^ i s l i k e the r e g u r g i t a t i n g ( o f an i n f a n t ) . One whose p a s s i o n s and Q d e s i r e s a r e deep i s s h a l l o w i n n a t u r a l e x p r e s s i o n . EXEGESIS 1. T h i s phrase " . . . d i d n o t dream i n h i s s l e e p and was w i t h o u t a n x i e t i e s w h i l e awake" i s r e p e a t e d v e r b a t i m i n 40/15/13* 2. Ma H s t l - l u n ( p. 182) comments t h a t the c h a r a c t e r k j i n H ^ i s b e i n g used as a s i m p l i f i e d form o f hanjjjffi w h i c h i s d e f i n e d i n the Shuo Wen as " i n t o x i c a t e d . " See note 3 below. 3 . Ts'ao Shou-k'un (CTCCV"30pl31) o b s e r v e s t h a t many commen-t a t o r s e x p l a i n the phrase "he d i d n o t r e l i s h h i s v i c t u a l s " as e x p r e s s i n g the i d e a t h a t the S u b l i m a t e d Man found h i s v i c t u a l s f l a v o u r l e s s ( e . g . Kuo H s i a n g , Ch'eng H s t t a n - y i n g ) , o r a t l e a s t e x p r e s s i n g the n o t i o n t h a t he has no a p p e t i t e ( e . g . Lu Ch'ang-keng and Hstlan Y i n g ) . He f e e l s t h a t t h e s e e x p l a n a t i o n s a r e too s u p e r f i c i a l , and s u g g e s t s t h a t s i n c e c h ' i n ^ 1 ( " s l e e p " ) and chfleh \@ , ("awake") a r e a n t i t h e t i c a l , s h i h ^ ( " v i c t u a l s " ) and h s i $j ( " b r e a t h i n g " ) s h o u l d a l s o have the same r e l a t i o n -s h i p . A c c o r d i n g t o Ma H s t l - l u n ( p. 1 8 2 ) , t h e c h a r a c t e r kan A i s s e m a n t i c a l l y r e l a t e d t o han C^ .. T h i s would i m p l y t h a t the b r e a t h i n g o f t h e S u b l i m a t e d Man i s c o m p l e t e l y f r e e from 41 o b s t r u c t i o n s , and t h u s r e l a t e s t h i s t o the subsequent phrase» "...and e v e r so p r o f o u n d was h i s b r e a t h i n g . " The g i s t o f t h e s e f o u r p h r a s e s i s a d e s c r i p t i o n o f the S u b l i m a t e d Man as b e i n g w i t h o u t c o g i t a t i o n o r r e f l e x i o n . Ts'ao Shou-k'un th e n goes on t o p o i n t o u t t h a t speech i s a c t u a l l y v e r b a l i z e d c o g i t a t i o n , and s i n c e the S u b l i m a t e d Man i s w i t h o u t c o g i t a t i o n , he i s w i t h o u t speech. Thus, he does n o t h o l d h i s f o o d i n h i s mouth (han ) i n o r d e r t o speak ( i . e . he does n o t speak w i t h h i s mouth f u l l ) i Such b e i n g the c a s e , when one b e g i n s t o t h i n k w h i l e e a t i n g , the muscles o f the t h r o a t w i l l n a t u r a l l y be a c t i v a t e d . C o n s e q u e n t l y , the f o o d w i l l be h e l d i n the mouth, he w i l l be unable t o s w a l l o w , and h i s b r e a t h i n g w i l l f o r t h i s r e a s o n be o b s t r u c t e d . The S u b l i m a t e d Man's b e i n g a b l e t o e a t w i t h o u t h o l d i n g the f o o d i n h i s mouth i s due t o h i s b e i n g w i t h o u t c o g i t a t i o n o r r e f l e x i o n . Ma H s f l - l u n i s c o r r e c t i n s u g g e s t i n g t h a t the c h a r a c t e r karrid" i s a t t i m e s used as a l o a n c h a r a c t e r f o r hanffiffi (see Morohashi 7-21643 - 7 ) , and the c h a r a c t e r kan was p r o a b l y o r i g i n a l l y a graph o f a mouth w i t h something i n i t ( K a r l g r e n , Grammata S e r i c a ) . N o n e t h e l e s s , we f o l l o w the t r a d i t i o n a l and more l i t e r a l i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n f o r two r e a s o n s . F i r s t , t h e c h a r a c t e r s kan"f^ and s h i h ^ c a r e used t o g e t h e r f r e q u e n t l y i n e a r l y t e x t s . F o r example, see Lao Tzu 80 ( r e p e a t e d i n Chuang Tzu 25/10/31) and Mencius 53/7A/27. S e c o n d l y , the n o t i o n o f c u l i n a r y p l e a s u r e s a c t i n g as a d i s t r a c t i o n i s a r e o c c u r i n g theme i n the T a o i s t t e x t s . (Lao Tzu 12: H u a i Nan Tzu SPTK 8/5O5 Chuang Tzu 33/12/97). Lao  Tzu 35 d e s c r i b e s the tao by s t a t i n g t h a t " i t i s so i n s i p i d t h a t i t i s w i t h o u t t a s t e . " Chuang Tzu's p o i n t i n t h i s passage i s t h a t s i n c e the 42 S u b l i m a t e d Man i s w i t h o u t a s u b j e c t i v e i d e n t i t y and i s w i t h o u t the v a l u e judgements which are so i n s t r u m e n t a l i n s h a p i n g the p o s t u r e o f t h i s s u b j e c t i v i t y , he i s w h o l l y f r e e from p h y s i c a l a t t a c h m e n t s . Hence, he f i n d s n e i t h e r p l e a s u r e n o r p a i n i n h i s p h y s i c a l e x i s t e n c e . 4. T h i s sentence i s o f c o u r s e m e t a p h o r i c a l . S i n c e the Sub-l i m a t e d Man has r e p u d i a t e d h i s s u b j e c t i v i t y , h i s b r e a t h i n g i s n o t hampered by p a s s i o n s , d e s i r e s o r c o g i t a t i o n . As such, he i s a b l e t o b r e a t h e w i t h h i s whole e x i s t e n c e ( i . e . down t o h i s h e e l s o r " r o o t " ) . The u n e n l i g h t e n e d masses, however, are c o n s t r a i n e d by t h e i r s e l f - d e l i m i t i n g s u b j e c t i v -i t y and the c o n d i t i o n a l n a t u r e o f t h e i r e x i s t e n c e . F o r t h i s metaphor i n the L i e h Tzu and a d i s c u s s i o n o f i t , see A.C. Graham's t r a n s l a t i o n p. 48 note 1. 5 . Commentaries are a t some v a r i a n c e w i t h r e s p e c t t o the meaning o f the e x p r e s s i o n i . yen <£_ 1 1) Chu K u e i - y a o (CTCCV26pl58), Ma H s t l - l u n (p. 182) and Ts'ao Shou-k'un ( C T C C V 3 0 p l 2 9 ) are i n agreement t h a t ix7£a_is a l o a n c h a r a c t e r f o r yeh which a c c o r d i n g t o the Shuo Wen means f o o d N l o d g e d i n the t h r o a t (=to c h o k e ) . They f u r t h e r agree t h a t yen ^ s h o u l d be r e a d as yin-^§ . Thus, t h e y would i n t e r p r e t t h i s as the sound o f c h o k i n g . 2) Ch'en C h ' i - t ' i e n ( p. 97) and L i n Shu (CTCCV27pl85) r e a d as hou'j^L ( " t h r o a t " ) , and yen ^ as yjln-^s? ("sound"). Thus, t h e y i n t e r p r e t t h i s e x p r e s s i o n as " t h r o a t n o i s e s . " 43 3) Hstlan Ying (p. 61) states that jL"<32_is the entering of sound, while yen i s the expulsion of i t . In t h i s case, t h i s expression should be rendered "the inhalation and speech..." Lu Te-ming (CTCCV2p38) i s probably correct i n suggesting that i isi-means d i f f i c u l t y i n swallowing (Shuo Wen d e f i n i t i o n ) . As such, i t i s not necessary that i t act as a loan character. Also, there seems to be no reason to a l t e r the text to read yin-gT when yen makes equally good sense. 6 . Commentators are i n disagreement over the meaning of the expression ch'fl fu che/^^1^ / ^ 31 1) Ch'en Ch'i-t'ien (p. 97) suggests that i t means "unclear" or "obstructed". Thus, t h i s phrase would read "Since (his throat) i s not c l e a r . . . " 2) L i n Shu (CTCCV27pl86) suggests that i t means "unnatural (pu tzu jan <f; j=j 3) Ma Hstl-lun (p. 182) states that f u ) ^ i s a loan character f o r pao t ) which i s the o r i g i n a l form of f u | | , meaning "to prostrate oneself on the ground." 4) Yen Ling-feng (p. 686) suggests that the expression ch'ft fu i s nonsensical here, i t being l i k e l y that i t i s a mis-taken rendering of tsao fu %^ )4|^which i s d i r e c t l y a n t i t h e t i c a l to the phrase which follows i t i "one whose passions and desires are so deep..." (In his Lao Tzu Ta Chieh pp. 243-4, Yen Ling-feng interprets t h i s expression tsao fu as "early i n adhering to.") Hence, hi s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n would make t h i s pos-i t i v e , r e f e r r i n g to the Sublimated Man rather than to the common 44 mani "The sounds i n the t h r o a t o f one who i s e a r l y i n a d h e r i n g ( t o the way o f the S u b l i m a t e d Man) a r e l i k e the r e g u r g i t a t i n g ( o f an i n f a n t ) . " S i n c e he i n t e r p r e t s t h i s p h r ase as b e i n g p a r a l l e l t o the one which f o l l o w s i t , the c h a r a c t e r c h ' i ^ P r i n the e x p r e s s i o n c h ' i c h ' i y f l d ^ - ^ l c / ^ L s h o u l d be o m i t t e d . Yen L i n g - f e n g ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n amounts t o a s u g g e s t i o n t h a t t h i s passage i s an a l l u s i o n t o i d e a s c o n t a i n e d i n the Tao  Te C h i n g . F i r s t , t he n o t i o n t h a t the h i g h e s t l e v e l o f knowledge and e x p e r i e n c e cannot be a r t i c u l a t e d i s a r e o c c u r i n g theme i n b o t h Lao Tzu and Chuang Tzu ( e . g . Lao Tzu 1, 5 6 ; Chuang Tzu 3 6 / 1 3 / 6 5 - 6 8 ) . S e c o n d l y , the metaphor of the i n f a n t as an embodiment o f the tao a l s o o c c u r s t h r o u g h o u t the Tao Te Chi n g , ( e . g . 2 0 , 5 6 ) . T h i r d l y , the i d e a o f r e d u c i n g d e s i r e s i s a major t e n e t i n the Tao Te C h i n g ( e . g . 3» 19, 3 7 , 46, 5 7 , 64). A g a i n , t h i s f i r s t s e c t i o n o f t h e "Ta Tsung S h i h " c h a p t e r has s e v e r a l passages w h i c h a re r e m i n i s c e n t o f Ch a p t e r 59 i n the Tao Te C h i n g from which the e x p r e s s i o n t s a o f u ( ^  M ^ i s taken« I n g o v e r n i n g the p e o p l e and n u r t u r i n g on£'s own p e r s o n , N o t h i n g can be compared t o f r u g a l i t y . O n l y b e i n g f r u g a l can be c a l l e d b e i n g e a r l y i n a d h e r i n g ( t s a o f u ) . B e i n g e a r l y - i n a d h e r i n g means a c c u m u l a t i n g v i r t u s i n g r e a t measure... S i n c e no one i s a b l e t o c a l c u l a t e the l i m i t s o f h i s s t r e n g t h 2 He can ta k e on the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the n a t i o n . . . T h i s i s c a l l e d the p r i n c i p l e o f h a v i n g deep r o o t s and a f i r m base.-' The phrase above marked w i t h a (1) appears v e r b a t i m i n 1 5 / 6 / 1 1 . The phrase marked ( 2 ) i s perhaps a l l u d e d t o i n 1 5 / 6 / l l s 45 Hence, the Sage i n e m p l o y i n g the m i l i t a r y i s a b l e t o d e s t r o y a n a t i o n w i t h o u t f o r f e i t i n g t he g o o d w i l l o f i t s p e o p l e . Phrase ( 3 ) compares w i t h the n o t i o n t h a t the " S u b l i m a t e d Man b r e a t h e s from h i s h e e l s ( i . e . h i s ' r o o t * ) " above. Chuang Tzu's i d e a l man i s f r e e o f c o g i t a t i o n and r e f l e x i o n ( as suggested by Ts'ao Shou-k'un C T C C V 3 0 p l 3 l ) , and s i n c e speech i s the v e r b a l i z a t i o n o f t h o u g h t , i t i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h Chuang Tzu's d e s c r i p t i o n (see T e x t 6 , 15/6/16-7 below) t h a t the speech o f the S u b l i m a t e d Man i s n o t h i n g more t h a n a g a r b l e d n o i s e . S i n c e Yen L i n g - f e n g ' s e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h i s passage i s most i n k e e p i n g w i t h the c o n t e x t o f Chuang Tzu's t h o u g h t , we have f o l l o w e d him i n o u r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . 7 . Ma H s t l - l u n ( p. 182) s u g g e s t s t h a t the c h a r a c t e r hua ^ _ b e re a d t ' u c i t i n g the f a c t t h a t Wang Ch'ung c i t e s the passage from Mencius 2 6/3B/ 1 0 : "He went o u t and vo m i t e d i t up." i n h i s Lun Heng SPPY 3 0 / l 4 b w i t h the c h a r a c t e r t ' u i n p l a c e o f h u a ? ^ . These two words a r e c l o s e enough i n meaning t o make any change i n the t e x t academic. 8. We r e a d c h ' i ^ g as s h i h ^ ^ . Wang Shu-min (1/48) p o i n t s o u t t h a t the Tao Tsang e d i t i o n s o f Ch'eng H s t l a n - y i n g ( 5 1 0 / 7 / 7 a ) , Wang Ytian-tse ( 5 0 3 / 5 / 3 a ) and Ch'u P o - h s i u (4? 0/l4 / 7 b ) a l l have s h i h . Chu Kue i - y a o (CTCCV26pl58) c i t e s an example i n Hsfln Tzu 17/6/49 where a c c o r d i n g t o the Yang C h i n g ; f | ^ ^ c o m m e n t a r y , ch' i  i s used as a l o a n c h a r a c t e r f o r s h i h . He c i t e s a second example 46 i n t h e C h ' i e n Han Shu SPTK PNP 87/l3b i n w h i c h , a c c o r d i n g t o the Yen S h i h - k u j t t l ftf vicommentary, t h i s i s a l s o the c a s e . F u r t h e r , t h e r e are passages i n the Chuang Tzu (6/2/68j 64/24/2; 64/24/3) i n w h i c h c h ' i i s used as a l o a n c h a r a c t e r f o r s h i h , whereas the c h a r a c t e r s h i h does n o t appear i n the t e x t a t a l l . 9. Ch'en Shen (CTCCVllp92) p o i n t s o u t t h a t t h i s e x p r e s s i o n t ' i e n c h i ^  ( " n a t u r a l e x p r e s s i o n " ) does n o t appear i n t e x t s a n t e r i o r t o the Chuang Tzu. I t o c c u r s n o t i n f r e q u e n t l y i n the Chuang Tzu, and t h e n r e a p p e a r s i n the L i e h Tzu and Huai Nan Tzu. I n r e f e r e n c e t o t h i s term, Ts'ao Shou-k'un ( C T C C V 3 0 p l 3 0 ) comments t h a t c h i i s the c o n t r o l o f e x p r e s s e d m o t i o n (Shuo Wen d e f i n i t i o n ) , and t h a t t 1 i e n c h i means e x p r e s s e d m o t i o n a r i s i n g o u t o f n a t u r e . Wen I - t o (p. 264) s u g g e s t s t h a t t h i s passages " T h i s S u b l i m a t e d Man b r e a t h e s from h i s h e e l s . . . i s s h a l l o w i n n a t u r a l e x p r e s s i o n " c o n s t i t u t e s a break i n the meaning and s t y l e o f the c h a p t e r , and i s e a r l y commentary e r r o n e o u s l y i n s e r t e d i n t o the o r i g i n a l t e x t . He p r o v i d e s no s u p p o r t f o r t h i s h y p o t h e s i s , n o r does the c o n t e n t o r s t y l e o f t h i s passage seem i n any way t o recommend such a t h e o r y . 4. TEXT The S u b l i m a t e d Man o f a n t i q u i t y d i d n o t know p l e a s u r e 1 f o r l i f e n o r d i s p l e a s u r e f o r d e a t h . He embarked (on l i f e ) w i t h o u t 2 3 - 4 r e j o i c i n g and passed on w i t h o u t r e s i s t e n c e . L i k e a f l a s h he came; l i k e a f l a s h he went, and t h a t was a l l . He d i d n o t 47 ponder^ hi s o r i g i n s nor question h i s f i n a l destination. He 6 7 received ( l i f e ) and enjoyed i t , then f o r f e i t e d ' i t and returned (to a primordial state). This i s what i s c a l l e d 8 9 not aiding the tao with our minds, and not a s s i s t i n g 7 nature with man. This i s what i s c a l l e d the Sublimated Man,.' EXEGESIS 1. The character ytlehS%_ i s read as ytleh vX^. The Ch'en Shen 1591 e d i t i o n (CTCCVllp92), Yeh Ping-ching 1614 e d i t i o n (CTCCV16 pl02) and Kuo Liang-han 1626 (CTCCV13p317) a l l have ytteh i f f , . 2. Chang Ping- 1in (p. 15) suggests that hsinSH i s a laon char-acter f o r hsin'jft . The Shuo Wen defines hsin f(\ as " k ' a i j l j | (to open)". He quotes Ssu-ma Fa who states that the good are those who open up (hsin fflf ) the goodness of the people and stay (p_i ) t h e i r e v i l . The character chfl^B- also means "to stay" or "to shut", and i n t h i s passage hsin and chfl|£ are a n t i t h e t i c a l . Chang P i n g - l i n i s correct i n suggesting that the ideas contained i n the two p a r a l l e l phrases of t h i s sentence are a n t i t h e t i c a l , but the character h s i n 4 ^ does not appear i n any of the pre-Han texts. Thus, i t would seem that Chu Kuei-yao (CTCCV26pl59) i s correct i n suggesting that hsin'fff i s a loan character f o r hsin ff^C . 3. Lu Te-ming (CTCCV2p38) states that one text has chtt k^g_ for chttVJ.£. . Chu Kuei-yao (CTCCV26pl59) suggests that i t 48 i s p r o b a b l e t h a t c M $ _ E - i s a l o a n c h a r a c t e r f o r c h j . ^ ^ . . 4. Of the e a r l y t e x t s , the HsU Miao, T s ' u i Chuan and Ssu-ma P i a o have shu 1§£ ' / J|f^» w h i l e the H s i a n g H s i u , Kuo H s i a n g and Lu Te-ming a l l have h s i a o , j a n ^ . W i t h r e s p e c t t o the h s i a o j a n r e a d i n g , H s i a n g H s i u ( i n Kuo H s i a n g CTCCVlpl32) s u g g e s t s t h a t i t means " n a t u r a l l y u nconcerned." Ch'eng H s t l a n - y i n g (CTCCV3p276) i n t e r p r e t s i t as "the appearance o f b e i n g u n f e t t e r e d , " w h i l e L i n H s i - i (CTCCV7p252) o f f e r s " c o m p l a i s a n c e " . Shu j a n , on the o t h e r hand, means " q u i c k l y " . Chu K u e i -yao (CTCCv26pl59) c i t e s the f o l l o w i n g t h r e e passages from the Ch'u Tz'u: 1) SPTK 33/2/40a ^ j j l ^ ^ ^ / ^ v ^ i l f . 2) SPTK 33/9/l07a j ^ ^ j ^ L 3) SPTK 33/15/l46b <4JLH % % vf) as w e l l as a passage from Lfl S h i h Ch'un C h ' i u SPPY 8/7t Cowardice and courage are w i t h o u t c o n s t a n c y . They come and go i n a f l a s h (shu hu^JI J%J), and none u n d e r s t a n d t h e i r p r i n c i p l e s . Now, t h e r e a r e two p o i n t s which a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f -i c a n t about the passages c i t e d above. F i r s t , t h r e e o f them use shu i n r e f e r e n c e t o the n o t i o n o f "coming and g o i n g , " S e c o n d l y , i n these passages ( w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f the Ltl S h i h  Ch'un C h ' i u passage) and i n many o t h e r passages w h i c h can be c i t e d from e a r l y s o u r c e s , the c h a r a c t e r shu has s t r o n g s u p e r -n a t u r a l a s s o c i a t i o n s , u s u a l l y r e f e r r i n g t o the movement o f gh o s t s and s p i r i t s . To a t t e s t the a s s o c i a t i o n o f t h i s c h a r a c t e r 49 w i t h the s u p e r n a t u r a l t h e r e i s the 21/ 7 / 3 5 passage i n t h i s t e x t i n w h ich t h e terms s h u ^ and hu &j a r e t a k e n as the r u l e r s o f the s p i r i t u a l S o u t h e r n and N o r t h e r n Seas r e s p e c t i v e l y . T h i s i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the use o f chen j i t and the e x p r e s s i o n t e n g kP-St which a l s o have s u p e r p h y s i c a l c o n n o t a t i o n s . Ma H s f l - l u n (p. 183) s u g g e s t s t h a t shu i s a l o a n . c h a r a c t e r A* f o r c h ' i u yg , which the Shuo Wen d e f i n e s as " r a p i d , " and which i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the shu j a n r e a d i n g . 5. B a s i c a l l y , Chuang Tzu's commentators o f f e r t h r e e i n t e r p r e -t a t i o n s f o r t h i s phrase i 1) Many o f the commentators f o l l o w Kuo H s i a n g and r e a d i t l i t e r a l l y as "he d i d n o t f o r g e t (wang JXjj ) h i s o r i g i n s . " Wu Sh i h - s h a n g (CTCCV22pll4) comments! "He (th e S u b l i m a t e d Man) d i d n o t r e j o i c e i n l i f e , h u t even so the p r i n c i p l e s o f l i f e a r e c e r t a i n l y something which s h o u l d be c o m p l e t e l y comprehended. Hence, he d i d n o t f o r g e t h i s o r i g i n s . " 2) Ma H s f l - l u n (p. 183) s t a t e s t h a t wang /d/ i s an i n c o r r e c t r e n d e r i n g o f c h i ;o' . He c i t e s a r e l a t e d passage i n 73/25/77 i n s u p p o r t o f h i s r e a d i n g s That which has n o t y e t been bor n cannot dread ( c h i ^ ) i t . A d d i t i o n a l e v i d e n c e t o s u p p o r t Ma H s t i - l u n ' s r e a d i n g m i g h t be the o b v i o u s g r a p h i c s i m i l a r i t y between wang^r^- and c h i 5^-.. A g a i n , a c c o r d i n g t o Wang Mu-yeh ( i n Lu Te-ming CTCCV2pl42), t h e C h ' i g e n e r a l T ' i e n C h i 1^ 1 f^t- i s T ' i e n Wang l2 3) Wang Shu-min (Chu Tzu Chiao Cheng p. 169) i n t e r p r e t s wang TcL' as a g r a p h i c d i s t o r t i o n f o r the c h a r a c t e r c h i h To' . 50 He c i t e s a s i m i l a r passage from the Huai Nan Tzu SPTK 8/ 5 0 b ; I t ( t h e government d u r i n g the e r a o f G r e a t T r a n q u i l l i t y ) d i d n o t p l a n on (mou^tlrO t h a t which began, and d i d n o t d e s i g n ( i ^ f ^ ) t he outcome. The c h a r a c t e r s mou H?^, ( "to p l a n " ) and "to d e s i g n " ) a r e p a r a l l e l i n t h i s passage, but have r e l a t e d meanings. I n o t h e r words, i t i s n o t i m p e r a t i v e t h a t t h e r e a r e o p p o s i t e s i n p a r a l l e l , as i s e v i d e n c e d by t h i s Huai Nan Tzu passage. He a l s o c i t e s a phrase from Ltt S h i h Ch'un C h ' i u SPPY 1/9« Aim ( c h i h ) a t the ( s a g a c i o u s ) p r e d e c e s s o r s w h i l e e n q u i r i n g ( c h ' i u ^ < ) o f t h o s e a f t e r you. I n t h i s passage, the two c h a r a c t e r s c h i h 7^-and c h ' i u ^JTcare used i n p a r a l l e l , s i m i l a r t o Wang Shu-min's emendation. C h ' i e n Mu (p. 48) s u p p o r t s Wang Shu-min's t h e o r y . The f a c t t h a t wang/oJ i s e r r o n e o u s l y w r i t t e n as c h i h 7? ,• i n 15/6/10 below would i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e s e two c h a r a c t e r s a r e e a s i l y c o n f u s e d , and may have even been t r a n s p o s e d . I n Chuang Tzu's t h o u g h t , the l e v e l o f the s u b l i m a t e d mind i s wu h s i n ^ - / o , and the con c e p t o f " f o r g e t t i n g " i s o f c e n t r a l importance i n the a t t a i n m e n t o f t h i s m e n t a l l e v e l . I t i s i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h Chuang Tzu's th o u g h t t h a t the S u b l i m a t e d Man would r e t a i n a n y t h i n g i n h i s mind, s i n c e a n y t h i n g r e t a i n e d i s i t s e l f a r e s t r i c t i o n t h a t would r e - e n f o r c e h i s s u b j e c t i v e s e l f w h i l e i n h i b i t i n g h i s e x p e r i e n c e o f oneness w i t h a l l t h i n g s . F o r t h i s r e a s o n , we f o l l o w Yen L i n g - f e n g , Wang Shu-min and C h ' i e n Mu i n i n t e r p r e t i n g wang To/ as a g r a p h i c d i s t o r t i o n o f c h i h A L / . The f a c t t h a t Ma H s f l - l u n (as w e l l as Ts'ao Shou-k'un CTCCV30pl33 and Ch'en T ' i e n - c h ' i p. 97) s u g g e s t s t h a t wangy^- be r e a d as c h i i s f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e i n t h a t t h e y r e c o g n i z e the i n c o n s i s t e n c y o f 51 the o r i g i n a l phrase w i t h the tho u g h t o f Chuang Tzu. 6. The Chao C h i e n I t e x t has m i s t a k e n l y c o p i e d a i V / ^ f o r shou . 7. Ma H s t i - l u n (p. 183) s u g g e s t s t h a t wang ^ be r e a d as i t s cog-nate wang "fl . I n s u p p o r t o f such a r e a d i n g , Ts'ao Shou-k'un c i t e s a passage from 4/2/18 w h i c h i s s i m i l a r b o t h i n wo r d i n g and c o n t e n t i Once a man has r e c e i v e d h i s mature form, i t i s n o t l o s t as he a w a i t s the end. I n t h i s passage we have the p a r a l l e l between " r e c e i v e d (shou ^ )" and " l o s t (wang ) . " The f a c t t h a t wang i i s f r e q u e n t l y used as a l o a n f o r wang i n e a r l y t e x t s i s a n o t h e r i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h e y might have been c o n f u s e d i n t h e t r a n s m i s s i o n o f the t e x t . A c c o r d i n g t o the t r a d i t i o n a l commentaries, t h i s phrase would read» " . . . t h e n f o r g o t about i t and gave i t back." Here, however, we f o l l o w Ma H s f l - l u n and Ts'ao Shou-k'un. 8 . There a r e s e v e r a l t e x t u a l v a r i a t i o n s f o r the c h a r a c t e r y t l a n ^ i l t 1) Yen L i n g - f e n g (p. 6 8 7 ) f o l l o w s the y t t a n ^ a r e a d i n g found i n the Kuo H s i a n g t e x t , and a f t e r c i t i n g v a r i a t i o n s on t h i s c h a r a c t e r , c o n c l u d e s t h a t t h e y a re a l l d i s t o r t i o n s o f the t e x t . L i n H s i - i ( C T C C V 7 p 2 5 2 ) s u p p o r t s t h i s r e a d i n g , i n t e r p r e t i n g pu yuan X- as "notabandoning f o r an i n s t a n t . " A g a i n , L i u Wu ( c i t e d i n Yen L i n g - f e n g p. 6 5 7 ) i n s i s t s t h a t the c h a r a c t e r yuan 52 i s n o t i n e r r o r . He s u g g e s t s t h a t t h i s p h r ase means t h a t the S u b l i m a t e d Man does n o t r e j e c t the tao w i t h h i s mind, f o l l o w i n g the Shuo Wen d e f i n i t i o n ^ o f yflan as c h ' i ^ L ("to r e j e c t " ) . He f u r t h e r s u p p o r t s t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n by c i t i n g Kuo H s i a n g ' s commentary w h i c h s t a t e s t h a t "the S u b l i m a t e d Man u n d e r s t a n d s t h a t t o employ the mind i s t o t u r n h i s back ( p e i * f i f ) on the t a o . . . " The c h a r a c t e r s p e i ffi (" t u r n t h e back on") and c h ' i ^ J r ( " r e j e c t " ) a r e v e r y c l o s e i n meaning. 2) Chang P i n g - l i n (p. 15) s u p p o r t s t h e v a r i a n t • Ac-c o r d i n g t o Lu Te-ming (CTCCV2p38), the Kuo H s i a n g t e x t had i n p l a c e o f yflan^pj . Chang P i n g - l i n f o l l o w s the Shuo Wen d e f i n -i t i o n o f i . ^ j | t o i n t e r p r e t t h i s passage as "do n o t c l a s p the t a o w i t h the ming." He f u r t h e r sees t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n as b e i n g c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the n o t i o n s o f "not r e j o i c i n g , " " w i t h o u t r e s i s -t a n c e " and "not ponder...nor q u e s t i o n " found i n t h i s passage. 3) Lu Te-ming (CTCCV2p38) quotes the T s ' u i Chuan commen-t a r y as s a y i n g t h a t some t e x t s have c h i ^ C i n p l a c e o f y f l a n . The word " o a r " i s s i m p l y n o t a p p r o p r i a t e h e r e . 4) Yfl Yfleh ( p. 196) s u g g e s t s t h a t y f l a n i s an e r r o r f o r p e i ^ffi , w h i c h i s e q u i v a l e n t t o the c h a r a c t e r p e i f f i . He bases h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n on m a i n l y the Kuo H s i a n g commentary. The S u b l i m a t e d Man u n d e r s t a n d s t h a t t o employ the mind i s t o t u r n h i s back ( p e i ffi ) on the t a o . . . Yfl Yfleh's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n would g i v e u s i " . . . i s c a l l e d n o t t u r n i n g away from the t a o w i t h o u r minds." 5) Chu K u e i - y a o (CTCCV26pl60) and Wang Shu-min ( l A 9 ) b o t h s u g g e s t t h a t y f l a n ^ i s a d i s t o r t i o n o f sun ^ 53 Wang Shu-min o f f e r s some r a t h e r f o r m i d a b l e e v i d e n c e f o r , / , r e a d i n g t h i s sun. F i r s t , the So Y i n 1 A commentary on the S h i h C h i SPTK PNP 8 4 / l 4 a quotes t h i s phrase v e r b a t i m w i t h the e x c e p t i o n t h a t i t has sun r a t h e r t h a n yuan and s z u ^ l ^ r a t h e r t h a n tao the So Y i n commentary i n the SPTK has yilanqA , b u t the SPPY 8 4 / l l a and the Takikawa S h i g e n e d i t i o n V o l . 8«3870 b o t h have s u n ^ ^ ). A g a i n , the Tun Huang t e x t o f 50/20/53« "Not a c c e p t i n g the i n j u r i e s ( s u n ^ f O 0 ; £ > n a t u r e i s easy, b u t . . . " has y f l a n ; ^ i n p l a c e o f sun ^ f ^ , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e s e c h a r a c t e r s a r e q u i t e c o n c e i v a b l y c o n f u s e d because o f the g r a p h i c s i m i l a r i t y . Chu K u e i - y a o o f f e r s f u r t h e r examples o f c o n f u s i o n between t h e s e two c h a r a c t e r s , and c o n c l u d e s t h a t t h i s passage s h o u l d be i n t e r p r e t e d as "...not i n j u r i n g the t a o w i t h t h e mind." 6) Hsu Yen-huai (CTCCV20pl04) s u g g e s t s t h a t y u a n ^ i s an e r r o r f o r the c h a r a c t e r y(lan^^< on the b a s i s o f the passage i n 6/2/ 7 4t The Sage...does n o t e n j o y s e e k i n g and does n o t pursue ( y f l a n M ) the t a o . Ma H s f l - l u n (p. 184) adds t h a t y f l a n ^ p ^ i s a l o a n c h a r a c t e r f o r yuan (which i s cognate o f yttanA|fc ) on the b a s i s t h a t t h e y rhymed i n M i d d l e C h i n e s e . S i n c e we must s e l e c t one i n t e r p r e t a t i o n from among t h e s e , we m i g h t compare the e v i d e n c e w h i c h s u p p o r t s them. The e v i d e n c e f o r (6) i s r a t h e r s c a n t — t h i s t h e o r y i s p r i m a r i l y dependent upon the f a c t t h a t the c h a r a c t e r s v t t a n ^ ^ and yuan j$i<_ rhymed i n A r c h a i c C h i n e s e . A c c o r d i n g t o K a r l g r e n ' s r e c o n s t r u c t i o n s t t h e s e two c h a r a c t e r s were homophonous i n M i d d l e C h i n e s e , b u t 54 had d i f f e r e n t i n i t i a l s i n A r c h a i c C h i n e s e . I n t e r p r e t a t i o n (5) has some c o n v i n c i n g t e x t u a l e v i d e n c e , b u t sun-^9 means " t o i n j u r e , " and the i d e a t h a t man can do i n j u r y t o the t a o w i t h h i s mind i s i n c o n g r u e n t w i t h Chuang Tzu's t h o u g h t . Man i s e i t h e r aware o f h i s synonymity w i t h the tao o r he i s n o t — b u t t h i s c e r t a i n l y has no advers e e f f e c t on the t a o . I n t e r p r e t a t i o n (3) can be d i s m i s s e d as nonsense, w h i l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n (2) i s s i m i l a r t o (5) i n t h a t i t s p u r p o r t i s n o t c o n s i s t e n t w i t h Chuang Tzu's t a o — a p e r s o n can a t t e m p t t o embrace t h e t a o w i t h h i s mind, b u t can o n l y succeed by a t t a i n i n g a l e v e l o f wu h s i n . I n o t h e r words, the mind i s an impediment t o e n l i g h t e n m e n t . I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s (1) and (4) amount t o the same t h i n g , w h i c h would c a n c e l (4) s i n c e (1) does n o t r e q u i r e any a l t e r -a t i o n o f the t e x t . Of the above i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , i t would appear t h a t (1) i s the most s a t i s f a c t o r y . However, t h e r e i s one p o i n t which e a r l i e r commentators seemed t o have o v e r l o o k e d . There a r e s t r i k i n g p a r a l l e l s c o n t a i n e d i n the s e p h r a s e s . F o r example, t e x t t o e x p e c t t h a t the word i n q u e s t i o n form a p a r a l l e l w i t h the c h a r a c t e r chuj=lt) i n the f o l l o w i n g s e n t e n c e . The most l o g -i c a l c h o i c e , b o t h p h i l o l o g i c a l l y and s e m a n t i c a l l y , would be F i r s t , a c c o r d i n g t o K a r l g r e n ' s r e c o n s t r u c t i o n s , we havet 55 These two characters were homophonous i n Archaic Chinese. Sec-ondly, although the characters y f l a n a n d chu R-h are not par a l -l e l i n the sense of being a n t i t h e t i c a l , they are p a r a l l e l i n that they can be synonymous. The character y f l a n 4 ^ h a s ^ e meaning of "to a s s i s t , " "to help" attested as early as the Chan Kuo Ts'e (see Morohashi, 12407). 9. Wang Yfl ( i n Wang Fu-chih CTCCV19pl53) advances the idea that the use of the character churjj) ("assisting") i s s i m i l a r to the expression chu c h a n g i n Mencius. He i s r e f e r r i n g to the anecdote about the man of Sung who attempts to accelerate the growing process by tugging on the stalks of his corn (Mencius 11/2A/2). Mencius says that "those i n the world who do not help the corn grow are few," entreating man not to int e r f e r e i n the natural processes of development. This phrase expresses an attitude s i m i l a r to the Tao Te  Ching 64. In order to a s s i s t the natural course of the myriad things, He (the Sage) does not dare to act. This notion also reoccurs i n the Chuang Tzui Therefore, the Sage observes nature, but does not a s s i s t i t . . . (28/17/5D Therefore I sayt Do not destroy the natural with the a r t i f i c i a l . . . (44/17/52) 5. TEXT A person l i k e t h i s forgets h i s mindi 1 h i s bearing i s tra n q u i l and his forehead-^ i s of a simple and honest mien. With coolness-* l i k e the autumn and g e n i a l i t y l i k e the spring, 56 7 h i s j o y and anger f o l l o w the f o u r seasons. He i s a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h i n g s , and none can fathom h i s consequence. Hence, the Sage i n em p l o y i n g the m i l i t a r y i s a b l e t o d e s t r o y a n a t i o n w i t h o u t f o r f e i t i n g the g o o d w i l l o f i t s p e o p l e . H i s b e n e f i t s and f a v o u r s extend t o t e n thousand g e n e r a t i o n s , but i t i s n o t f o r any l o v e o f o t h e r s . Thus, one who d e l i g h t s i n h a v i n g i n t e r c o u r s e w i t h o t h e r t h i n g s i s n o t a S a g e ; 9 one who has e m o t i o n a l a t t a c h m e n t s i s n o t b e n e v o l e n t ; one who t a k e s h i s s c h e d u l e from the h e a v e n s 1 1 i s n o t a s u p e r i o r p e r s o n ; one who cannot i d e n t i f y advantage and d i s a d v a n t a g e i s n o t an i d e a l 12 man; one who ex t e n d s h i s r e p u t a t i o n w h i l e l o s i n g s i g h t o f h i s ( t r u e ) s e l f i s n o t a gentleman; and one who d e s t r o y s h i s own p e r s o n and i s n o t t r u e ( t o h i s own n a t u r e ) 1 - ^ i s n o t a p e r s o n who can ind u c e o t h e r s t o f o l l o w him. Now, men l i k e Hu P u - h s i e h , 1 ^ Wu K u a n g , 1 5 Po I , Shu C h ' i , 1 6 the V i s c o u n t o f C h i , Hsu Y u , 1 7 C h i T * o , 1 8 and Shen-t'u T i 1 9 are a l l (examples o f men who) l a b o u r e d i n the s e r v i c e o f o t h e r s and who adapted t h e m s e l v e s t o what was a p p r o p r i a t e f o r o t h e r s w i t h o u t making the m s e l v e s a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h a t w h i c h i s appro-p r i a t e t o t h e m s e l v e s . EXEGESIS 1. T h i s phrase has s e v e r a l a l t e r n a t i v e r e a d i n g s : 1) The Kuo H s i a n g and the Ch'eng Hsuan-ying t e x t s have c h ' i h s i n c h i h )LSJ j^j ( "the mind o f a p e r s o n l i k e t h i s i s f o c u s e d . . . " ) . Wang Yu ( i n Wang F u - c h i h CTCC 57 V19pl54) comments that the character chih 7 0 means to concen-tra t e , to watch and assess rather than accumulate. Again, L i n H s i - i (CTCCV7p253) says that chih means having that which i s dominant and f i x e d — i . e . the tao. 2) Wen I-to (p. 265) sta t e s i "Of old chih ib-was written as chih . Kuo Hsiang comments that being peaceful wherein one dwells constitutes chih . But chih 7~L- does not have the meaning of 'dwelling peacefully.' The two occurences of the character chih Ti-j i n the o r i g i n a l (Kuo Hsiang) text and h i s commentary should both be written as chih Jz- . The reading chih came from chih . In the small seal s c r i p t , chih Jz-( Ahl ) and chih X- ( ) are r e l a t i v e l y close i n appearance, and chih was erroneously written as c h i h ^ . : . This was neither consistent i n terms of style nor content, and so subsequent copyists randomly altered i t to chih ^ \ . I have now corrected t h i s . " 3) L i n Ytln-ming (CTCCVl8pl36), Ch'fl Fu (CTCCV21pl78), Wang Hsien-ch'ien (CTCCV26p76) and most of the commentators a f t e r Chao I-fu and Ch'u Po-hsiu interpret t h i s passage as wang TrT- ( "forget") rather than chih ^  A "focus"). Chao I-fu ( i n Chiao Hung pv- 65) and Ch'u Po-hsiu (Tao  Tsang 470/14/16) both suggest that chih / f i i s a mistaken rendering of the character wang^: . To exemplify the pos s i -b i l i t y of t h i s confusion, Wang Shu-min (p. 49) points out the passage i n Lfl Shih Ch'un Ch'iu SPPY 1/9• Aim (chih/fe^) at the (sagacious) predecessors while enquiring of those a f t e r you. which has wang j<: rather than c h i h ^ - i n the o r i g i n a l 58 Chuang Tzu 67/24/55 passage. Yen Ling-feng (p. 687) i n support of t h i s interpre-t a t i o n states that i f passages l i k e "a man l i k e t h i s could climb heights without consternation...and could enter f i r e without f e e l i n g hot (Text 2)" and "the Sublimated Man of a n t i q u i t y did not know pleasure f o r l i f e nor displeasure fo r death (Text 4)*,' are not hsin wang / L l j T ^ ' t then what could they be? Ch'u" Fu (CTCCV21pl78), L i n Yfln-ming (CTCCVl8pl36), and P'u Ch'i-lung (CTCCV20p35) a l l mention the importance of t h i s a l t e r n a t i v e reading, considering the two characters hsin wang to be the central idea i n the entire chapter. Wen I-to's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n does not r e a l l y provide any substantiating evidence, and can be dismissed as not only a guess, but as a bad guess since as an alternative i t i s not consistent with Chuang Tzu's thought. Chuang Tzu makes frequent use of hsin/c_j> as a symbol f o r the subjective s e l f (e.g. his concept of ch'eng hsin Ac ) and recommends the repudiation rather than the p a c i f i c a t i o n of t h i s mind. This same c r i t i c i s m can be made of in t e r p r e t a t i o n (1). Since the "mind" appears to be an undesireable accessory, the Sublimated Man,would probably be more l i k e l y to forget i t than to focus i t . In our inter p r e t a t i o n , we have reversed the order of, hsin and wang so that i t reads "forgets h i s mind" rather than "mind forgets." Ch'tl Fu (CTCCV21pl78) supports such an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Further, the repeated nasal f i n a l s i n t h i s passage would 59 s u g g e s t such a r e a d i n g . 2. F o r c h i v ^ Lu Te-ming (CTCCV2p38) has c h i ! ^ , and p o i n t s o u t t h a t the T s ' u i Chuan t e x t had c h i ^  . A c c o r d i n g t o the Shuo Wen, c h i ^  i s an a r c h a i c form o f c h i , and a c c o r d i n g t o K a r l g r e n ( G S R I O 3 1 ) c h i ^  i s a s i m p l e v a r i a n t o f chi,-f:j? . 3 . A c c o r d i n g t o Wang Mou-hung (CTCCV20pl2), s a n g s h o u l d be interpreted as 9_^C^, 4 . Lu Te-ming (CTCCV2pp38 -9) s t a t e s t h a t t he H s i a n g H s i u t e x t had ch* i ^ J l ( " l a r g e " ) r a t h e r t h a n k ' u e i , and f u r t h e r , t h a t the Ssu-ma P i a o t e x t had the same v a r i a n t f o r k ' u e i i n 35/13/59. 5 . Most modern e d i t i o n s have t h e p o p u l a r form c h ' i r a t h e r t h a n the ch'V/%r which o c c u r s t h r o u g h o u t the pre-Han t e x t s . \1n 6 . Ma H s t l - l u n ( p. 185) o b s e r v e s t h a t the Wen Hsflan commentary SPTK 5 8 / l 0 8 5 b quotes t h i s passage w i t h n u a n - j ^ as a i $ , which would appear t o be a m i s r e n d e r i n g o f n u a n ^ ^ , Ma H s t l - l u n f u r t h e r n o t e s t h a t t he Chuang Tzu I L i n quotes t h i s passage w i t h nuan but the CTCCV5p6 v e r s i o n o f the Chuang Tzu I L i n has nuar^Jg — Ma H s t l - l u n i s presumably c i t i n g a d i f f e r e n t e d i t i o n . These v a r i a t i o n s on nuan^v^f a re bo t h homophonous and synonymous. 7. Here we i n t e r p r e t t ' u n g . j f j as meaning hojj?7~ ("to f o l l o w , b l e n d i n w i t h " ) r a t h e r t h a n Watson's (p. 78) " p r e v a i l t h r o u g h . " 60 The Hu a i Nan Tzu SPTK 8/53 has a passage a l m o s t i d e n t i c a l w h i c h r e a d s i H i s j o y and anger a r e harmonious w i t h (ho X&fa?-^ ) the f o u r seasons. Wang Shu-min (1/49) s u g g e s t s t h a t the o r i g i n a l t e x t had the c h a r a c t e r j r u - ^ f o l l o w i n g the t'ung jlfl on the b a s i s o f t h i s passage i n the Hua i Nan Tzu and t h e Ch'eng H s f l a n - y i n g commen-t a r y (CTCCV3p278). 8. T h i s passage i s r e m i n i s c e n t o f s i m i l a r passages i n 5/2/42t The r e a s o n why the t a o i s i n h i b i t e d i s the same as why l o v e i s f u l f i l l e d . and 65/24/20« L o v i n g the pe o p l e i s the b e g i n n i n g o f i n j u r y i n g them. Chuang Tzu i s expounding on the same p r i n c i p l e w hich i s made i n Lao Tzu 5 ' The Sage i s a m o r a l — He c o n s i d e r s the common pe o p l e t o be s t r a w dogs. Love i s p a r t i a l i t y , and p a r t i a l i t y i s the r e s u l t o f d i f f e r -e n t i a t i o n . 9. Ts'ao Shou-k'un ( C T C C V 3 0 p l 3 4 ) n o t e s t h a t the Chang Chan -JoC/tS commentary t o the L i e h Tzu SPTK 4/13 quotes t h i s passage v e r b a t i m w i t h the e x c e p t i o n t h a t i t has the c h a r a c t e r c h ' i u n g ^ f o l l o w i n g l o ^ L . Ts'ao Shou-k'un and Ma H s u - l u n (p. 186) both recommend t h a t the word c h ' i u n g be r e - i n s e r t e d , g i v i n g us a r e a d i n g * "one whose d e l i g h t i s exhausted i n the p e n e t r a t i o n o f t h i n g s i s n o t a Sage." I t would seem t h a t t h i s Chang Chan commentary on the 61 L i e h Tzu has c o n f u s e d a passage i n t h i s c h a p t e r w i t h a passage s i m i l a r i n wo r d i n g i n 79/28/67 whi c h states« Those o f a n t i q u i t y who a t t a i n e d the tao were d e l i g h t e d i n f a i l u r e ( c h 1 i u n g ( j S ) as w e l l as i n s u c c e s s (t'ungjH ). That w h i c h d e l i g h t e a them was n o t s u c c e s s o r f a i l u r e ; Ts'ao Shou-k'un and Ma Hs u - l u n s i m p l y i n c r e a s e the c o n f u s i o n . 10. T h i s i d e a i s c e n t r a l t o Chuang Tzu's t h o u g h t , and i s r e p e a t e d t h r o u g h o u t the t e x t ( e . g . 36/14/7? 63/ 2 3 / 5 1 ; 64/ 2 3/67), as w e l l as o c c u r i n g f r e q u e n t l y i n the Tao Te C h i n g ( C h a p t e r s 5. 49, 56, and 79) I t r e p r e s e n t s the e s s e n t i a l p o i n t o f d e p a r t u r e between the T a o i s t and the o p p o s i n g e t h i c a l systems. I n o p p o s i t i o n t o the C o n f u c i a n s t r u c t u r e o f g r a d u a t e d , h e t e r -ogeneous r e l a t i o n s h i p s and the M o h i s t system o f u n i v e r s a l , u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d b r o t h e r h o o d emerges the T a o i s t a l t e r n a t i v e o f r e p u d i a t i n g a l l e t h i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . I n o r d e r to e s t a b l i s h i n t r a - p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , one must f i r s t acknowledge the o b j e c t i v e e x i s t e n c e o f " p e r s o n s " e x t e r n a l t o h i m s e l f as w e l l " as h i s own s u b j e c t i v e i d e n t i t y — t h i s the T a o i s t s a r e n o t w i l l i n g t o do. 11. There a re s e v e r a l v a r i a n t r e a d i n g s f o r t h i s p h r a s e i 1) Wang K ' a i - y u n ( c i t e d i n C h ' i e n Mu p. 48) s u g g e s t s t h a t t ' i e n % ("the heavens") s h o u l d be r e a d as h s i e n ^ j r ^ ( " p r e c e d e n c e " ) — " o n e who g i v e s precedence t o the p r o p e r time i s n o t a s u p e r i o r p e r s o n . " He f u r t h e r o b s e r v e s t h a t some would r e a d t ' i e n as s h i h ^ ( " n e g l e c t " ) — " o n e who n e g l e c t s the p r o p e r t i m e . . . " 62 2) Wang Shu-min ( l / 4 9 ) n o t e s the Tao Tsang e d i t i o n s o f Ch'eng Hsuan-ying ( 5 1 0 / 7 / l l b ) and Ch'u P o - h s i u (470/14 / l 3 a ) b o t h quote the Kuo H s i a n g commentary w i t h s h i h j e n ff^. y 1^, but he c o n c l u d e s t h a t j e n / v i s a s i m p l e c o r r u p t i o n o f t ' i e n . The Ku I Ts'ung Shu e d i t i o n o f the Kuo H s i a n g commentary has s h i h t ' i e n ^^L. , w h i l e the Ho P i S h i h L e i t e x t has s h i h c h i h From t h i s , Ma H s u - l u n (p. 186) i n f e r s t h a t the o r i g i n a l t e x t o f the Chuang Tzu must have had the same o r d e r as the Kuo H s i a n g commentary ( i . e . s h i h t ' i e n r a t h e r t h a n t ' i e n s h i h ) . Wang K ' a i - y t i n o f f e r s no p r o o f f o r w a n t i n g t o a l t e r the t e x t o t h e r t h a n the o b v i o u s g r a p h i c s i m i l a r i t y between the c h a r a c t e r t ' i e n and s h i h ^ _ o r h s i e n ffij. Now, the b i n o m i a l t ' i e n s h i h appears t h r o u g h o u t the p r e - C h ' i n works ( e . g . I C h i n g , Shu C h i n g , M e n c i u s ) , g e n e r a l l y c o n n o t i n g the d e t e r -m i n a t i o n o f the a u s p i c i o u s time t o un d e r t a k e a g i v e n e v e n t . I t even r e o c c u r s i n the Chuang Tzu 56/21/40 as "the cour s e o f the heavens." Chuang Tzu's p o i n t here i s s i m p l y t h a t " s e a s o n a b l e n e s s " (which i m p l i e s p r e m e d i t a t i o n and c a l c u l a -t i o n ) i s n o t s p o n t a n e i t y . The c u r r e n c y o f t h i s b i n o m i a l i n p r e - C h ' i n t e x t s and i t s r e o c c u r r e n c e i n the Chuang Tzu are i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t the t e x t s h o u l d remain u n a l t e r e d . 12. Wu J u - l u n (CTCCV26p42) and more r e c e n t l y Wang Shu-min (1 / 4 9 - 5 0 ) b o t h s u g g e s t t h a t h s i n g ming jftshould be r e a d as hsttn ming tfty . I n s u p p o r t o f t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , Wang Shu-min c i t e s the passage i n 22/8/20: 63 I f he i s a gentleman, he w i l l p u t h i s l i f e on the l i n e (hsttn?£\ ) f o r r e p u t a t i o n . The Tao Tsang 470 e d i t i o n o f the Ch'u P o - h s i u t e x t has hsflnfa) f o r hsttn y?g] , w h i c h would change t h i s t o reads I f he i s a gentleman, he w i l l devote h i m s e l f t o e n h a n c i n g h i s r e p u t a t i o n . The c h a r a c t e r h s i n g jj^ i n the o r i g i n a l t e x t has the meaning o f " t o c a r r y i n t o a c t i o n , t o e x t e n d . " I t i s s a t i s f a c t o r y as i t i s and r e q u i r e s no emendation. 1 3 . This sentence i s very reminiscent of Tao Te Ching 5 4 , e s p e c i a l l y i n the wordings If one nurtures (this tao) i n his person ,(shen J|j ), Then hi s v i r t u s w i l l be unsullied (chen ijj ). It sounds, i n f a c t , l i k e a negative alternative to t h i s Lao Tzu passage. 14. The only other reference to t h i s man that we have i n the pre-Han texts i s a passage i n the Han Fei Tzu SPTK 17/44 where he i s l i s t e d together with eleven other worthies who "perceive advantage without f e e l i n g delighted and approach d i f f i c u l t i e s without t r e p i d a t i o n . " Hu-Pu-hsieh i s referred to as Hu Pu-c h i j ^ i n t h i s Han Fei Tzu passage, but the f a c t i s that the two c h a r a c t e r s ^ GSR599 k£-r/k^» /Mi** andfr& G S R 5 5 2 >Ki^/ Jg e i / ^ t A / constituted a perfect rhyme i n Archaic Chinese leaves l i t t l e doubt that these are references to the same man. Ch'eng Hsuan-ying (CTCCV3p281) notes that one t r a d i t i o n i d e n t i f i e s him as an ancient worthy who drowned himself i n a r i v e r rather than accepting Yao's abdication. Fukunaga M i t s u j i (p. 234) s u g g e s t s t h a t h i s name p_u h s i e h "means t h a t he does n o t walk w i t h the same g a i t as the common w o r l d . " <4/-moiA~is c l o s e . I t i s o b v i o u s from the c o n t e x t o f thes e passages t h a t t h e y a l l r e f e r t o the same p e r s o n . A c c o r d i n g t o the i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t a i n e d i n the Chuang Tzu 75/26/47: 79/28/71, 75f Wu Kuang was a worthy who l i v e d d u r i n g the H sia-Shang t r a n s i t i o n . T'ang, f o u n d e r o f the Shang, approached Wu Kuang f o r a d v i c e i n a t t a c k i n g C h i e h , l a s t r u l e r o f the H s i a . Wu Kuang t u r n e d him away. A f t e r d e s t r o y i n g C h i e h , T'ang a g a i n approached Wu Kuang and o f f e r e d him the empire on the grounds t h a t a c c o r d i n g t o the way o f the a n c i e n t s , the wise p e r s o n p l a n s s t r a t e g y , the m a r t i a l p e r s o n c a r r i e s t h e s e p l a n s o u t , and the b e n e v o l e n t p e r s o n o c c u p i e s the t h r o n e . Wu Kuang a g a i n d e c l i n e d , and admonished T'ang by s a y i n g : "Deposing the r u l e r i s n o t r i g h t e o u s ; s l a y i n g the p e o p l e i s n o t benevo-l e n t — i t i s n o t f i t t i n g f o r me t o e n j o y the b e n e f i t s when o t h e r s have p e r p e t r a t e d t h e s e c r i m e s . I have he a r d i t s a i d : ' I f i t i s n o t h i s r i g h t e o u s n e s s , do n o t a c c e p t h i s emoluments; i f i t i s a w o r l d w i t h o u t the way, do n o t walk i t s ground.' How i s i t t h a t you show d e f e r e n c e t o m e ! — t h i s I cannot endure s e e i n g f o r l o n g . " He ther e u p o n weighed h i m s e l f down w i t h a r o c k and 65 drowned h i m s e l f i n the Lu R i v e r ( p r e s e n t - d a y A n h u i ) . T h i s a c c o u n t o f Wu Kuang i s f u r t h e r a l l u d e d t o i n the Hou Han Shu SPTK PNP 2 8 ^ / 1 5 and Pao P'u Tzu SPTK 8/ 4 3 b , and on the b a s i s o f t h i s s t o r y , he i s t a k e n as a paragon o f s e l f l e s s n e s s and v i r t u e i n the S h i h Tzu "7^/12, Huai Nan Tzu SPTK 7 A 8 a - b and S h i h C h i SPTK PNP 6 l / 6 . I n t h e Han F e i Tzu SPTK 7/36 and the Kao Yu ?q zfe commentary to the Huai Nan Tzu SPTK 7/48a, a new t w i s t i s g i v e n t o t h i s s t o r y i n t h a t T'ang i s v i l l a i n o u s l y a t t e m p t i n g t o t r a n s f e r the s t i g m a o f h a v i n g c o m i t t e d r e g i c i d e onto Wu Kuang by i n v e s t i n g him as the new r u l e r . L a t e r t r a d i t i o n i n the L i e h H s i e n Ch'tian Chuan ( i n the Chung Kuo Ku T a i Pan Hua Ts'ung K'an vjz |g £ Jj^  f•] 1/2) we are t o l d t h a t h i s e a r s were 7 t s ' u n i n l e n g t h and t h a t he was f o n d o f d r e s s i n g h i m s e l f i n r u s h e s and l e e k r o o t s . I t t h e n r e p e a t s the t r a d i t i o n found i n the Chuang  Tzu, a d d i n g t h a t Wu Kuang re-emerges some f o u r hundred y e a r s l a t e r a t the time o f Wu T i n g ( r . 1324-1265). Wu T i n g wanted Wu Kuang t o be h i s prime m i n i s t e r , b u t Wu Kuang f l e d t o the Shang Fu m o u n t a i n s \ ^ ^ n e v e r to r e t u r n . 16. The account o f Po I and Shu C h ' i i s one o f t h e most f r e q u e n t l y a l l u d e d t o s t o r i e s i n the corpus o f Chinese l i t -e r a t u r e , a p p e a r i n g i n e v e r y t h i n g from The Book o f Documents to the C h ' i e n Lung Emperor's poem on the I C h ' i Miao Ik The f o l l o w i n g v e r s i o n i s based on the S h i h C h i 61 b i o g r a p h y and i t s So Y i n commentary. 66 Po I (ming , t z u /h^\%^) and Shu C h ' i (ming jftJt. t z u A J&_) — I fv? and C h ' i 3 ^ a r e a p p a r e n t l y posthumous t i t l e s ( s h i h f ^ ) , w h i l e Po and Shu.T-^ ar e d e s i g n a t i o n s f o r e l d e s t and t h i r d son r e s p e c t i v e l y — w e r e two sons o f the r u l e r ( h s i n g j | f l A m i n g ^ J , t z u 3r ) o f Ku Chu V f , the p r e s e n t -day l o c a t i o n o f which i s i n d i s p u t e . T h i s s t a t e was e n f o e f f e d upon t h e i r a n c e s t o r s by T'ang o f Shang, and b e f o r e h i s d e a t h , t h e i r f a t h e r a p p o i n t e d Shu C h ' i t o succeed him. When he d i e d , Shu C h ' i wanted t o a b d i c a t e i n f a v o u r o f Po I . Po I would no t a c c e p t the t h r o n e , i n s i s t i n g t h a t Shu C h ' i ' s appointment was a p a t e r n a l i n j u n c t i o n . He thereupon f l e d , b u t even so, Shu C h ' i was u n w i l l i n g t o take the t h r o n e , and f o l l o w e d a f t e r Po I . I n the meantime, the people o f Ku Chu i n v e s t e d the second b r o t h e r . Po I and Shu C h ' i head the H s i Po C&l/i^d « the name f o r Chou Wen Wangj|j b e f o r e the f a l l o f Shang) was v e r y d e f e r e n t i a l t o o l d men, but by the time t h e y a r r i v e d , Wen Wang had d i e d . C a r r y i n g h i s f a t h e r ' s s c a r i f i c i a l t a b l e t and h o n o u r i n g h i s f a t h e r as "Wen Wang", Wu Wang t h e n s e t out to a t t a c k Chou o f Shang. Po I and Shu C h ' i h a l t e d h i s h o r s e and admonished him, s a y i n g : "Your f a t h e r i s n o t y e t b u r i e d and you are t a k i n g up arms can t h i s be c a l l e d f i l i a l ? A s u b j e c t a s s a s s i n a t i n g h i s r u l e r — c a n t h i s be c a l l e d b e n e v o l e n t ? " Those around Wu Wang wanted t o k i l l them on the s p o t , b u t T ' a i Kung, one o f Wu Wang's m i n i s t e r s , pronounced them r i g h t e o u s and p u l l e d them away. A f t e r Wu Wang had s e t t l e d the d i s o r d e r o f Shang, everyone i n the empire p a i d homage t o Chou w i t h 67 the e x c e p t i o n o f Po I and Shu C h ' i , who l o o k e d on i t as d i s -g r a c e d . To p r e s e r v e t h e i r r i g h t e o u s n e s s t h e y r e f u s e d t o e a t the g r a i n o f Chou, and c o n s e q u e n t l y s e c l u d e d t h e m s e l v e s on Shou Yang mountain ( t h e r e are h i s t o r i c a l l y s e v e r a l mountains by t h i s name, and which o f these was the one on which Po I and Shu C h ' i d i e d i s i n d i s p u t e ) and a t e w i l d beans. Bef o r e d y i n g o f s t a r v a t i o n , t h e y r e c o r d e d t h e i r g r i e v a n c e s i n a song which has been passed on to p o s t e r i t y . 17 . T h i s a c c o u n t o f the V i s c o u n t o f C h i i s based on the Shang  Shu SPTK 5 / 3 9 , 7 A 5 and the S h i h C h i SPTK PNP 3 8 / 2 - 3 , 38/81 The V i s c o u n t o f C h i {jg. : thought t o have been a s m a l l s t a t e i n what i s now S h a n s i p r o v i n c e , e a s t o f T ' a i Ku H s i e n ) was a r e l a t i v e (the l a t e r Han Ma JungM)^)*fcj a n ^ the Three Kingdoms Wang Suj£_j|| commentaries say p a t e r n a l u n c l e , w h i l e the l a t e r Han Fu C h ' i e n ^ ^ ^ and C h i n Tu Y d c o m m e n t a r i e s have e l d e r s t e p - b r o t h e r ) o f the n o t o r i o u s Chou, l a s t r u l e r o f Shang. The V i s c o u n t o f C h i and P i Kan h e l d the p o s t s o f Grand and L e s s e r T u t o r ( a c c o r d i n g t o the K'ung Y i n g - t a commentary ) r e s p e c t i v e l y , and b o t h admonished Chou f o r h i s e x t r a v a g a n c e s and debauchery, bu t to no a v a i l . I n c o u n s e l l i n g the V i s c o u n t o f Wei t o f l e e , the V i s c o u n t o f C h i and P i Kan make i t c l e a r t h a t t h e y f e e l i t t h e i r o b l i g a t i o n to s e r v e the t h r o n e and i f n e c e s s a r y , share i n i t s d e s t r u c t i o n . People warn the V i s c o u n t o f C h i to f l y , but he d e c l i n e s on the grounds t h a t an unheeded m i n i s t e r i n f l i g h t draws a t t e n t i o n t o the w ickedness o f h i s s o v e r e i g n . He t h e n d i s h e v e l l e d h i s h a i r , 68 f e i g n e d madness ( a c c o r d i n g t o the S h i h Tzu *^C/5a a c c o u n t , he a l s o p a i n t e d h i s body and a c t e d f e r o c i o u s ) and was subse-q u e n t l y i n c a r c e r a t e d and e n s l a v e d by Chou ( f o l l o w i n g Takigawa Sh i g e n ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ) . When Wu Wang d e s t r o y e d Shang, he r e l e a s e d the V i s c o u n t o f C h i and e r e c t e d a tomb f o r the u n f o r -t u n a t e P i Kan who had i n c u r r e d the w r a t h o f Chou by the candor o f h i s r e m o n s t r a n c e s . T n e Shang Shu SPTK ?A5 a c c o u n t has Wu Wang i n h i s 1 3 t h y e a r (two y e a r s a f t e r the conquest) g o i n g t o the V i s c o u n t o f C h i , and the V i s c o u n t o f C h i i m p a r t i n g t o him the "Great P l a n /'^ JplL" o n t n e w o r k i n g o f the cosmos and the p r o p e r government o f the empire. The S h i h C h i SPTK PNP 3 8 / 3 - 8 adds t h a t Wu Wang e n f e o f f e d the V i s c o u n t o f C h i i n Chao H s i e n (*j^j 1 e x t e n d i n g i n t o p r e s e n t - d a y K o r e a ) , but he would s t i l l n o t r e c o g n i z e the Chou d y n a s t y . H i s p o s t e r i t y , however, f i n a l l y d i d . There i s some debate among commentators as to whether the f o u r c h a r a c t e r s c h i t z u hsu y&4t_ ^ ffirefer t o two p e r s o n s , o r s i m p l y one. T s ' u i Chuan and Ssu-ma P i a o ( b o t h c i t e d i n Lu Te-ming CTCC V2p39) b o t h i n t e r p r e t hsu yti ^ ^ as the name (ming ) o f the V i s c o u n t o f C h i , b a s i n g t h i s t h e o r y on a passage i n the S h i h Tzu SPPY "TV5a» The V i s c o u n t o f C h i , Hsu Yu ^ ^ r l f f l l ^ (note t h a t t h i s can a l s o be i n t e r p r e t e d as "the V i s c o u n t o f C h i and Hsu Yu) l a c q u e r e d h i s body, a c t e d f e r o c i o u s and d i s h e v e l l e d h i s h a i r , f e i g n i n g madness t o a v o i d t h i s . T h i s t r a d i t i o n o f the V i s c o u n t o f C h i i s r e f e r r e d t o time and a g a i n t h r o u g h o u t the pre-Han t e x t s , but n e v e r once 69 i n any o f the o t h e r t e x t s i s he r e f e r r e d t o by name as the " V i s c o u n t o f C h i , Hsu* Y d " — r a t h e r , always as s i m p l y the " V i s c o u n t o f C h i " . Even when mentioned a second time i n the Chuang Tzu 7 3/26/1, he i s s i m p l y the " V i s c o u n t o f C h i " . As mentioned above, the passage i n the S h i h Tzu r e f e r r e d t o by T s ' u i Chuan and Ssu-ma P i a o p r e s e n t s the same problem as the passage i n q u e s t i o n i n the Chuang T z u - - i n b o t h c a s e s , the f o u r c h a r a c t e r s can be i n t e r p r e t e d as e i t h e r one p e r s o n o r two. Lu Te-ming (CTCCV2p39) o b s e r v e s t h a t some commentators suggest t h a t t h i s passage i n the S h i h Tzu (and by i n f e r e n c e , the passage i n the Chuang Tzu) r e f e r s t o the V i s c o u n t o f C h i and P i Kan. I n t h i s c a s e , Hsfl Yd i s i n t e r p r e t e d as the name ( m i n g ) o f P i Kan. The f a c t t h a t i n the pre-Han t e x t s , more f r e q u e n t l y t h a n n o t , the V i s c o u n t o f C h i and P i Kan are mentioned t o g e t h e r would recommend such an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . A l s o , s i n c e the V i s c o u n t o f C h i and P i Kan b o t h s u f f e r e d f o r the same cause, i t i s not improbable t h a t t h e y would be l i s t e d t o g e t h e r . On the o t h e r hand, P i Kan i s nowhere e l s e r e f e r r e d t o as Hstl Y t l — n e i t h e r i n the o t h e r e a r l y t e x t s n o r i n o t h e r c h a p t e r s o f the Chuang Tzu i t s e l f . Chu I - t u n g ( c i t e d i n the Ts'ao Shou-k'un C T C C V 3 0 p l 3 4 commentary) n o t e s t h a t t h e r e i s a passage i n the Chan Kuo Ts'e SPTK 5/4b which i s v e r y s i m i l a r t o the S h i h Tzu passage c i t e d above, w i t h the one v e r y i m p o r t a n t d i f f e r e n c e t h a t i n s t e a d o f t h i s passage i n the Chuang Tzu r e f e r s t o two p e o p l e : the C h i e h He t h u s c o n c l u d e s t h a t 70 V i s c o u n t o f C h i and t h i s man, C h i e h Yti. C h i e h Yil was a contemporary o f C o n f u c i u s who l i v e d i n Ch'u, and who f e i g n e d madness i n o r d e r t o a v o i d an o f f i c i a l c a r e e r . A c c o r d i n g to the Ku L i e h M Chuan SPTK 2 / 3 3 , he was o f f e r e d c h a r i o t s and r i c h e s t o assume the g o v e r n o r s h i p o f H u a i Nan, b u t r e f u s e d . On h e a r i n g t h i s , h i s w i f e i n s i s t e d t h a t t h e y f l e e , r e c o g n i z i n g the danger o f d i s o b e y i n g t h e i r r u l e r w h i l e a t the same time b e i n g aware o f the n e c e s s i t y o f m a i n t a i n i n g h e r husband's v i r t u e ( which would be t a r n i s h e d by o f f i c i a l s e r v i c e ) . Thus, t h e y c a r r i e d o f f t h e i r p o t s and pans and changed t h e i r name. While C o n f u c i u s was t r a v e l l i n g i n Ch'u (Lun Ytt 3 7/18/ 5 ; Chuang Tzu 12 / 4 / 5 6 ; S h i h C h i SPTK PNP 4 7 / 9 ) , C h i e h Yu wandered about h i s door, s i n g i n g m e t a p h o r i c a l l y about the u t t e r f u t i l -i t y and r e a l p e r s o n a l danger o f C o n f u c i u s ' m i s s i o n . He appears i n Chuang Tzu 2 / l / 2 7 as a man o f such p r o f u n d -i t y t h a t a Yao o r Shun c o u l d be f a s h i o n e d from h i s d u s t ( i . e . , h i s most i n s i g n i f i c a n t , u n e s s e n t i a l p a r t s ) , and a g a i n i n 19 / 7 / 4 - 5 as an e x p o s i t o r o f the T a o i s t methods o f government. I t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t t h i s r e f e r e n c e i n the "Ta Tsung S h i h " c h a p t e r has any r e l a t i o n t o C h i e h Ytt, s i n c e 1) he made no p e r s o n a l s a c r i f i c e on b e h a l f o f h i s s o c i e t y , as t h i s passage would i m p l y , and 2) he i s c o n s i d e r e d elsewhere i n the Chuang  Tzu ( n o t a b l y , the n e i c h a p t e r s ) as a paragon o f the T a o i s t way. Ch'eng Hsuan-ying (CTCCV3p28l) s u g g e s t s a n o t h e r t r a d i -t i o n w hich i d e n t i f i e s t h i s r e f e r e n c e t o Hsti Ytl |^  |^rf\as one o f many a c c o u n t s ) . As a consequence o f l o y a l r emonstrances t o h i s s o v e r e i g n ( K i n g P ' i n g o f Ch'u), Wu Tzu-hsu's f a t h e r , Wu SheJ&yfe was ex e c u t e d a l o n g w i t h an e l d e r b r o t h e r , Wu ShangyfiL vo) • R a t h e r t h a n m e e t i n g a s i m i l a r f a t e w i t h o u t an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r revenge, Wu Tzu-hsu f l e d t o the s t a t e o f Wu and, f i x i n g h i m s e l f o f the purpose o f w r e a k i n g vengeance on h i s f a t h e r ' s murderer, he e v e n t u a l l y l e d t r o o p s t o a t t a c k Ch'u. H a v i n g to s e t t l e f o r exhuming K i n g P ' i n g ' s body and f l o g g i n g i t p u b l i c l y , he c o n t i n u e d i n the s e r v i c e o f Wu. F i n a l l y , s l a n d e r e d a t c o u r t , Wu Tzu-hsu was honour o f s u i c i d e . As a f i n a l g e s t u r e o f d e f i a n c e , he command-ed h i s r e t a i n e r s t o p l u c k o u t h i s eyes and hang them on the E a s t e r n Gate i n o r d e r t h a t he might watch the Ytleh b a n d i t s as t h e y come t o d e s t r o y Wu. He t h e n c u t h i s own t h r o a t and d i e d . Fu C h a i , h e a r i n g o f Wu Tzu-hsu's t r e a s o n , was enraged and o r d e r e d t h a t h i s cor p s e be s t u f f e d i n t o a l e a t h e r sack and thrown i n the r i v e r . The pe o p l e o f Wu took p i t y on him, and e r e c t e d a s h r i n e i n honour o f him on the bank o f the r i v e r . Yet a n o t h e r p o s s i b i l i t y n o t mentioned by the commentators i s t h a t Hsu Yu was an a n c i e n t w o r t h y whose s t o r y has been l o s t i n the course o f h i s t o r y . T h i s has a l l b u t happened t o the n e x t f i g u r e , C h i T'o 18. The o n l y o t h e r r e f e r e n c e i n the e a r l y t e x t s t h a t we have t o t h i s man i s i n a l a t e r c h a p t e r o f the Chuang Tzu 7 5 / 2 6 / 4 7 . He was a r e c l u s e d u r i n g the r e i g n o f T'ang, f o u n d e r o f the Shang d y n a s t y . On h e a r i n g t h a t T'ang had o f f e r e d the thron e p r e s e n t e d w i t h a sword a l l o w e d t h e 72 t o Hsu Y u ^ f vfe and Wu Kuang %p ^ L J , he was a f r a i d t h a t i t might be o f f e r e d t o him. Thus, he l e d h i s d i s c i p l e s and l e p t i n t o the K*o R i v e r i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h i s i s a r e f e r e n c e t o the k'o s h u i ^ f c A^, s i n c e k'o i s a t "••times used as a l o a n c h a r a c t e r f o r k'o^vv i n the e a r l y t e x t s (see Morohashi 25655). The K'o R i v e r ^ ^ a s d e s c r i b e d i n the S h u i  C h i n g Chu SPTK 15/212a was l o c a t e d t o the e a s t o f Lo N i n g H s i e n ^ ^ * r r J k i n p r e s e n t - d a y Honan). The v a r i o u s n o b l e s mourned him f o r t h r e e y e a r s . 19. The T s ' u i Chuan t e x t ( a c c o r d i n g t o Lu Te-ming CTCCV2p39) has S s u - t ' u T i ^ | ffejfyt i n s t e a d o f Shen-t'u T i tffejft, w h i l e the Shuo Yuan SPTK 16/75 has Shen-t'u T i ^ P / j § . A c c o r d i n g t o the Feng Su T'ung I ( I W e n s u p p l e m e n t c h. 5 ) . Shen-t'u was o r i g i n a l l y w r i t t e n as Shen-t'u , b u t due t o the s i m i l a r i t y i n p r o n u n c i a t i o n ( t h e y a r e homophonous), i t was changed t o S h e n - t ' u ^ . The Feng Su T'ung I a l s o i n d i c a t e s t h a t S s u - t ' u was o r i g i n a l l y the name o f an o f f i c e , b u t l a t e r i t came t o be used as a surname. Shen-t'u T i , a p a r t from the r e f e r e n c e i n t h i s passage, appears t w i c e more i n the Chuang Tzu. I n 82/29/42 we l e a r n t h a t when h i s r e m o n s t r a n c e s went unheeded, he weighed h i m s e l f down w i t h a r o c k and threw h i m s e l f i n t o the r i v e r , becoming f o o d f o r the f i s h e s and t u r t l e s . The 75/26/47 passage adds n o t h i n g t o t h i s , o t h e r t h a n e s t a b l i s h i n g him as a contemporary o f C h i T'o (see note 18 above) and Wu Kuang (see note 15 above) d u r i n g the r e i g n o f T'ang, v i r t u o u s k i n g and 73 f o u n d e r o f the Shang d y n a s t y . A much f u l l e r a c count o f Shen-t'u T i i s found i n the H s i n Hstl SPTK 7/44. Because the age i n which he l i v e d was n o t r i g h t f o r him, he was about t o throw h i m s e l f i n t o the r i v e r . T s ' u i Chiayf£ heard about t h i s , and stopped him, s a y i n g : I have heard t h a t a sage i s b e n e v o l e n t and t h a t w h i l e i n the w o r l d , a gentleman i s a f a t h e r and mother t o the p e o p l e . Now, can i t be t h a t g e t t i n g wet i s s u f f i c i e n t r e a s o n f o r n o t g o i n g t o the r e s c u e o f a drowning man? To t h i s Shen-t'u T i r e p l i e d t h a t t h i s was n o t the case a t a l l . I n a n c i e n t t i m e s , C h i e h ^ f L k i l l e d K uan-lun Feng and Chou k i l l e d Wang Tzu P i Kan i J , and b o t h o f them l o s t the empire. Wu ^ k i l l e d Wu T z u - h s t i ^ i ^ *\ , and C h ' e n ] ^ k i l l e d H s i e h Y e h > ^ , and b o t h brought d e s t r u c t i o n on t h e i r s t a t e s and brought i n j u r y on t h e i r fam-i l i e s . I t i s not a q u e s t i o n o f s a g e l y wisdom, bu t r a t h e r because i t i s n o t used. Thereupon, he weighed h i m s e l f down w i t h a r o c k and drowned h i m s e l f i n the r i v e r . T h i s same t r a d i t i o n appears a l m o s t v e r b a t i m i n the Han S h i h Wai Chuan SPTK 1/8 ( c f . H i g h t o w e r , pp. 34-5). There are some d i s c r e p a n c i e s i n the v a r i o u s a c c o u n t s as t o the age i n w h i c h Shen-t'u T i l i v e d . As mentioned above, t h e Chuang Tzu 75/26/47 passage i d e n t i f i e s him as a contemporary o f C h i T'o and Wu Kuang a t the end o f the H s i a and b e g i n n i n g o f the Shang. The Kao Yu commentary t o the H u a i Nan Tzu SPTK 16/119 74 p l a c e s Shen-t'u T i as a p e r s o n who l i v e d a t the end o f the Shang, and who, no l o n g e r b e i n g a b l e t o endure w a t c h i n g Chou's d i s o r d e r , drowned h i m s e l f . The Yen S h i h - k u commen-t a r y t o the C h ' i e n Han Shu SPPY 51/12/4 quotes Fu C h ' i e n ^$V^C w n 0 i d e n t i f i e s him as a r e s o l u t e s c h o l a r who l i v e d a t the end o f the Shang. The C h ' i e n Han Shu passage a l s o g i v e s the l o c a t i o n o f h i s s u i c i d e as Yung Chou (i^f£'j'l'l * one o f the n i n e chou o f a n t i q u i t y i n the r e g i o n o f p r e s e n t - d a y S h e n s i and Kansu). The So Y i n commentary t o the S h i h C h i SPTK 83/12/8 quotes Wei Chao<^ who s t a t e s t h a t Shen-t'u was a man o f the S i x S t a t e s p e r i o d d u r i n g the W a r r i n g S t a t e s e r a . The T ' a i P ' i n g Yd Lan 802/5a c i t e s a passage from Mo Tzu i n which Shen-t'u T i i s p o r t r a y e d s p e a k i n g w i t h Chou Kung $ ^ . A c c o r d i n g t o the H s i n Hsu and Han S h i h Wai Chuan a c c o u n t s c i t e d above, Shen-t'u T i would have had t o have been a r e l a t i v e l y l a t e f i g u r e , s i n c e he r e f e r s t o p e o p l e l i k e Wu Tzu-hsfl who i s 6 t h - 5 t h C. B.C. 6. TEXT I n h i s b e a r i n g , the S u b l i m a t e d Man o f a n t i q u i t y was i n phase ( w i t h t h i n g s ) , 1 b u t d i d n o t show p r e d i l e c t i o n ; Though he seemed d e f i c i e n t , he would s u f f e r no a c c r e t i o n . C o n t e n t e d , he was s o l i d and y e t n o t c o n s p i c u o u s ; V a s t , he was vacuous but n o t o s t e n t a t i o u s . E x h i l a r a t i n g , - 5 he seemed t o e n j o y ( h i s f u n ) ; 7 8 Compelled,' he d i d what must be done. 75 9 10 Aroused, t h e r e was a c o m p l e x i o n which drew us c l o s e ; C o n t e n t e d , 1 1 t h e r e was v i r t u s which won u s . 12 n C l o s e a t hand, he seemed t o be mundane; J i n e d 15 14 W h i l e l o f t i l y , he c o u l d n e v e r be r e s t r a i n e d . D i l a t o r y , he seemed t o be fon d o f r e l a x a t i o n ; 1 fs i 9 And a b s e n t l y , he f o r g o t h i s c o n v e r s a t i o n . ' EXEGESIS 1. The Wang K ' a i - y t i n ( c i t e d i n Yen L i n g - f e n g p. 688) t e x t has i 4$^ r a t h e r t h a n i _ , i n t e r p r e t i n g t h i s sentence as "the S u b l i m a t e d Man o f a n t i q u i t y matched up ( w i t h t h i n g s around h i m ) , but d i d n o t show p r e d i l e c t i o n . " T h i s i s v e r y c l o s e t o our t r a n s l a t i o n , w hich i s based on the t r a d i t i o n a l i n t e r p r e -t a t i o n . 2. T h i s passage i s one o f the most c o n t r o v e r s i a l i n t h i s chap-t e r , and has i n s p i r e d s e v e r a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s ; 1) Chu Kuei-yao (CTCCV26pl63) i n t e r p r e t s t h i s l i t e r a l l y as "...was r i g h t e o u s ( i ^ ) , but d i d n o t show p r e d i l e c t i o n (p'eng ). " To s u p p o r t t h i s , he c i t e s a v e r y s i m i l a r passage i n the Ho Kuan Tzu SPTK 1 3 / 3 7 b : I f one shows p r e d i l e c t i o n (p'eng 4m ; Tax Te-ming and Lu T i e n f>£_4u\ commentaries s t a t e / { ^ = \|[ ), t h e n . r i g h t e o u s n e s s ( i ^ ) cannot be e s t a b l i s h e d . Yil Ytteh (p. 196) s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e r e i s a fundamental c o n f l i c t i n t h i s l i t e r a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s i n c e chuang fyC. r e f e r s t o p h y s i c a l appearance r a t h e r t h a n c h a r a c t e r ( i . e . " r i g h t e o u s n e s s " ) , 76 but Chang P i n g - l i n (pp. 1 5 - 6 ) c i t e s a passage from the Kung Yang commentary on the 2nd y e a r o f Duke Huani " . . . r i g h t e o u s n e s s took form i n h i s countenance" to demonstrate t h a t h i s i s a v i a b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . 2) I n the Kuo H s i a n g (CTCCVlpl35) and Ch'eng H s t l a n - y i n g (CTCCV3p282) commentaries, the c h a r a c t e r i. ^ i s equated w i t h JL • W e f o l l o w t h i s i n our t r a n s l a t i o n above. 3) Chang P i n g - l i n (pp. 1 5 - 6 ) i n t e r p r e t s i l i t e r a l l y , but t a k e s p ' e n g ^ as a l o a n c h a r a c t e r f o r p ' i n g )j§) . To a t t e s t t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p , he c i t e s the Kuo Yfl SPTK 19/l40a« " a r o u s i n g h i s i r e " i n w h i c h p ' e n g ^ i s used as a l o a n c h a r a c t e r f o r p ' i n g . A l s o , the names p ' i n g ho))^rl / f j and p ' i n g ho )Mj >*jf are used i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y as names. To s u p p o r t h i s r e a d i n g , Chang P i n g - l i n might a l s o m e n t i o n the s i m i l a r p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f t h e s e two words i s A r c h a i c C h i n e s e i GSR886 b f ^ y /bSmj /p c ^ y% GSR899b C /(9^j/^av^/p CtVvj| A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , t h i s sentence s h o u l d reads "...was r i g h t e o u s i n h i s c o m p l e x i o n , but w i t h o u t the b e a r i n g o f a r o u s e d a r r o g a n c e . " 4) Ytl Ytleh (p. 196) s u g g e s t s t h a t i ^ i s a l o a n - c h a r a c t e r f o r and p'eng i s a l o a n c h a r a c t e r f o r peng . To s u p p o r t t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , he c i t e s a passage from 35/13/59* Your b e a r i n g i s r e c a l c i t r a n t ( j L jan|£ =0 j a n l l ^ f ^ ) l i k e a horse roped and s e c u r e d . * A g a i n , the passage i n the I C h i n g SPTK 3/ l6b« I n coming and g o i n g he i s w i t h o u t s u f f e r i n g ? i n r i s i n g and f a l l i n g (p'eng ) he i s w i t h o u t c a l a m i t y . 77 i s quoted w i t h peng j^fl i n p l a c e o f p'eng A t\ i n the Ch' i e n  Han Shu SPTK PNP 2 7 f / 3^a. Watson (p. 79) f o l l o w s t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ! " . . . h i s b e a r i n g was l o f t y and d i d n o t c rumble." 5) Ch'en C h ' i - t ' i e n (p. 99_ f o l l o w s Yu Yueh i n t a k i n g i ^ as a l o a n c h a r a c t e r f o r o i U j ^ , b u t s u g g e s t s t h a t p'eng be t a k e n more l i t e r a l l y as " e q u a l " . He c o n c l u d e s t h a t h i s passage s h o u l d be i n t e r p r e t e d a s i "the ( s p i r i t u a l ) a t t i t u d e o f the S u b l i m a t e d Man i s l o f t y and w i t h o u t ( p _ u ^ = w u ^ ) e a u a l . " G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , much o f the d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h i s passage o b v i o u s i n the commentaries i s due t o the b a s i c i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y o f " r i g h t e o u s n e s s (i %^ )" w i t h the o v e r a l l p i c t u r e o f Chuang Tzu's i d e a l man. One o f the p r i m a r y s t e p s i n the p r o c e s s o f s u b l i m a t i o n i s the r e p u d i a t i o n o f such r e l a t i v e s u b j e c t i v e v a l u e judgements ( e . g . 7/2/92, 1 9 / 6 / 9 0 ) . Hence, we can e n t e r t a i n some h e s i t a t i o n towards a l i t e r a l t r a n s l a t i o n o f t h i s c h a r a c t e r . I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s (4) and ( 5 ) suggest t h a t i j p ^ b e r e a d as o t ) i |^ p r i m a r i l y on the b a s i s o f the passage i n 35/13/59 c i t e d above, but from the c o n t e x t o f t h i s passage we can q u e s t i o n t h i s r e n d e r i n g . I t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t t h i s S u b l i m a t e d Man would be d e s c r i b e d i n the same terms as a p e r s o n who i s b e i n g b e r a t e d by Lao Tzu f o r h i s unsavoury a p p e a r a n c e — a n appearance p r e s e n t e d i n c o u n t e r d i s t i n c t i o n t o t h a t o f the S u b l i m a t e d Man. I f we a c c e p t the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f p'engj^ j ^ o f f e r e d i n 78 (5)» we are forced to read p_u ^ as wu jjjfl- , To read p'eng as a loan character f o r p' ing yt^ as sug-gested i n ( 3 ) , or to read i t as a loan character for peng flf^ suggested i n (4) involves unnecessary tampering with the text, since p'eng^lA makes p e r f e c t l y good sense as i t i s . Further, the p a r t i c l e ertw^f) as used i n these phrases marks contrast. In order f o r p'ing>{|i to be a viable a l t e r n a t i v e , i t should be p a r a l l e l e d with i . ^ ^ which i s semantically d i f f i c u l t . S i m i l a r l y , peng ^  needs odvl^which i s also questionable. In view of these various d i f f i c u l t i e s , we are l e f t with (2) as perhaps the most l i k e l y choice. The f a c t that Kuo Hsiang and Ch'eng Hsflan-ying both support such an interpre-t a t i o n adds weight to t h i s a l t e r n a t i v e . 3 . The character yfl ^ 4 -(here translated as "contented") appears a second time i n the eighth l i n e of t h i s rhymed passage. Some commentators suggest that i t i s the corruption of some other unknown character. The Lfl Shih Ch'un Ch'iu SPPY 15/7b passage discussed i n note k below and which i s probably modelled on t h i s Chuang Tzu passage would tend to support such a query, since none of the characters i n the I c x - ^ ^ sentence pattern are repeated. Wang Hsien-ch'ien (CTCCV26p78) i s of the opinion that i t might be a loan character f o r y f l / ^ ^ - which the Shuo Wen de-fines as " t r a v e l l i n g peacefully." L i Chen (c i t e d i n Chiao  Cheng Chuang Tzu Chi Shih p. 236—probably from his L i u Shu Hsi  Yfln /^.ilp suggests t h i s word among several. He also 79 considers the character yu jfe- ("wandering") since Kuo Hsiang (CTCCVlpl35) uses i t i n his commentary on t h i s passage. "Con-st a n t l y wandering i n solitude..." Also, the character ytl which according to the Shuo Wen means "walking quickly and comfortably." Chu Kuei-yao (CTCCV26pl65) suggests that i t may be a tea corruption of ch'flehi^? meaning " h i l l y and rocky t e r r a i n , " but off e r s l i t t l e to recommend such an in t e r p r e t a t i o n . Ts'ao Shou-k'un (CTCCV30pl35) suggests that y f l h e r e i s a loan character f o r y f l T % L ( " s a t i s f i e d , contented") since these two words were used interchangeably i n ancient texts. The f a c t that these words were r e l a t i v e l y close i n pronunciation lends credence to t h i s theory. Again, the commentators hold d i f f e r -ent views on variant characters, but they are i n general agree-ment on what the word means here.' 4. This portion of the text i s rhymed. I t probably o r i g i n a l l y contained s i x p a i r of sentence-end rhymes i n the twelve l i n e s e . As the text now stands, the s i x pairs are as followsi From t h i s table we can see that pairs I, I I I , IV and V con-s t i t u t e perfect rhymes, while pairs II and VI do not rhyme at a l l . From the fa c t that four pairs rhyme we cannot necessarily 8 0 i n f e r t h a t a l l s i x p a i r s o r i g i n a l l y rhymed. However, i n the Lfl S h i h Ch'un C h ' i u SPPY 15/7b t h e r e i s a passage which p a r -a l l e l s t h i s s e c t i o n o f the Chuang Tzu i n many ways, and i f we a c c e p t the t r a d i t i o n a l d a t i n g on the Lfl S h i h Ch'un C h ' i u ( l a t e r p a r t o f 3 r d C. B. C . — s e e A.C. Graham, A s i a M a jor 8 / 2t 1 5 8 ) , we might i n f e r t h a t t h i s passage was m o d e l l e d on the Chuang Tzu t e x t . There a re b a s i c a l l y t h r e e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which t h i s Lfl S h i h Ch'un C h ' i u passage s h a r e s w i t h t h i s s e c t i o n o f the Chuang Tzu8 1) sentence p a t t e r n : ... 2) the p o r t i o n o f the t e x t w i t h the sentence p a t t e r n d e s c r i b e d i n ( l ) i s f o l l o w e d by a passage which has the s t r u c t u r e : UJ\ A ^  B: U/^ C ^  D: e t c . 3) t h i s t e x t , l i k e the Chuang Tzu, c o n t a i n s sentence-end rhymes as f o l l o w s : I fa GSR995 3 J ^ / j i A » V ^ kAGSR976 2M3g/i'. / ^ I I GSR3 dSo^/X^- ^/bGSR19 /u)0L /X^*-"//wA. I I I |£| GSR49 K o /JuM)'/JiAX. £ GSR49 Jp-O / J ^ ^ ^ M X IV ^ G S R 2 5 6 3 J ; V A l ^ j ^ ^ y ^ V jfe. G S R 9 1 0 3 < " t 3 V 3 < ' | , 3 ^ / ^ G,SR9Q6^hty^vik/*^£ VI G S R 8 7 4 b t X % / l ) f j ^ t / p ^ , p i ^ G S R 8 6 6 < J U % A ' ^ ' / « K X V I I /§ GSR69 H o / | i »A1O-/1LI - ^ " G S R 8 9 2rio / i o J o - / ^ Note t h a t p a i r s I - I I I and V- V I I a l l c o n s t i t u t e p e r f e c t • r h y m e s . We have amended the t e x t f o l l o w i n g the L i S h a n ^ commentary (SPPY) w h i c h i n s e r t s the phrase e n d i n g i n chiJfy.. The f a c t t h a t yflaru;^. i s n o t p a i r e d might suggest c o r r u p t i o n i n the t e x t . Assuming t h a t o u r Chuang Tzu t e x t i s the source o f the 81 LA Shih Ch'un Ch'iu passage, and given the uniformity i n structure and the exactness of the rhyming i n the uncorrupted portions of both texts, we can safely assume that there i s something amiss i n those pairs which do not rhymes namely, pairs II and VI. Liu Shih-p'ei (p. 6) suggests that chien ^  was o r i g i n a l l y ku l&] . During the Sui dynasty the character chien was tabooed, and a l l instances of i t i n the texts were changed to ku. After the establishment of the T'ang, the altered texts were restored, and ku again became chien. Unfortunately, the T'ang scholars i n t h e i r enthusiasm also changed some texts which o r i g i n a l l y had ku to chien, and Liu Shih-p'ei c i t e s t h i s passage as a case i n point. To substantiate his theory, L i u Shih-p'ei also points out the s i m i l a r problem with Sung scholars restoring the char-acter chih ^  from l i . Again, the Kuo Hsiang commentary uses the word ku l j | i n i t s explanation of t h i s passage. Liu Shih-p'ei's theory i s an improvement i n terms of restoring the rhyme, butf&) GSR49 J^O /Jk^O'/J^K. a n d ^ " GSR44 cf^h/y^O^/WAA. have d i f f e r e n t tones. Also, the fact that Kuo Hsiang uses ku rather than chien :JL i n his commentary means l i t t l e — h e uses tu^|p rather than k u $ ^ , but we do not a l t e r the text on t h i s account. A much better adjustment i s suggested by Yao Nai (cited i n Ch'ien Mu p. 49). He feels that the two characters ku4^tV and c h i e n ^ . have been interchanged i n the transmission of the text. The charactersjMvGSR41 J t ^ o / i ^ O /OtW and ^ G S R 4 4 ^CoCk./y IM C^y KIAA. constitute a perfect rhyme. Also, the passage 82 i s a p p r o p r i a t e t o the o v e r a l l g i s t o f the c h a p t e r — t h a t i s , the S u b l i m a t e d Man i s d i f f e r e n t from o t h e r s i n terms o f comprehen-s i o n , b u t u n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from the o r d i n a r y man i n h i s appearance. There i s some debate among commentators as t o the meaning o f the word ku i 1) Ytl Ytleh (p. 196) equates i t w i t h k u $ ^ ( " b i g bone"), a metaphor f o r something r e a l l y s o l i d ( c h i e n ^ ). 2) Chu Kue i - y a o (CTCCV26ppl64-5) s u g g e s t s t h a t i t i s a l o a n c h a r a c t e r f o r ch'tleh ( "hard, s t o n y " = s o l i d ) . 3) L i Chen ( c i t e d i n Wang H s i e n - c h ' i e n ' s CTCCV26p78 commentary) s u g g e s t s t h a t i t i s a l o a n c h a r a c t e r f o r ku ( " a l o n e " ) . T h i s i s v e r y c l o s e t o Wang Mu-yeh ( i n Lu Te-ming CTCCV2p39) who s t a t e s t h a t i t means " s t a n d i n g a l o n e w i t h o u t con-tingency/," and t o Kuo H s i a n g who o f f e r s t u ^ | g ("alone") as h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . 4) T s ' u i Chuan ( i n Lu Te-ming CTCCV2p39) t a k e s i t as a l a o n c h a r a c t e r f o r l i n g ^ ^ T ("squared o r hewn t i m b e r " = l i n g chtleh j l j - — " a p r o j e c t i o n , p r o t r u s i o n , " which i s a g a i n q u i t e c l o s e t o ( 3 ) a b o v e ) . I t would appear t h a t he makes t h i s c o n n e c t i o n from t a k i n g k u j l j ^ a s a l o a n c h a r a c t e r f o r ku , and t h e Shuo  Wen d e f i n i t i o n o f ku^{\^is l i n g . A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s some o b v i o u s d i s a g r e e m e n t h e r e , the g e n e r a l consensus i s t h a t k u ^ / ^ means " s t a n d i n g a l o n e and a p a r t from o t h e r s " = " c o n s p i c u o u s . " 5. I n r e f e r e n c e t o the use o f terms l i k e p i n g p_ing$|> ("ex-h i l a r a t i n g " ), and f o r t h a t m a t t e r , i n r e f e r e n c e t o a r r i v i n g a t 83 a d e f i n i t i o n f o r any term, we must r e l y upon a c o l l o c a t i o n o f passages i n which the term i s used. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , many o f t h e s e terms found i n the Chuang T z u — e s p e c i a l l y t h e s e g e s t a l t w o r d s — cannot be a t t e s t e d i n any o t h e r e a r l y t e x t s . As a consequence, o u r t r a n s l a t i o n o f them i s n e c e s s a r i l y based on c o n t e x t and com-m e n t a r i e s p o s t d a t i n g the t e x t i t s e l f by u s u a l l y no l e s s t h a n h a l f a m e l l e n i u m . Thus, even K a r l g r e n , as good as he i s , i s s p e c u l a -t i v e i n o f f e r i n g d e f i n i t i o n s f o r t h e s e terms. 6. Yen L i n g - f e n g (p. 688) i n o r d e r t o r e t a i n the u n i f o r m i t y o f t h i s rhymed passage, s u g g e s t s t h a t the c h a r a c t e r p i n g y ^ ^ n o t be r e p e a t e d . I f we l o o k a t the Lfl S h i h Ch'un C h ' i u i m i t a t i o n passage (see note 4 above), however, t h r e e o f t h e words i n t r o -d u c i n g the rhyming s e n t e n c e s are r e p e a t e d , w h i l e the r e m a i n d e r are n o t . There does n o t appear t o be any p a t t e r n t o these r e p e t i t i o n s . We can p r o b a b l y d i s m i s s Yen L i n g - f e n g ' s o b j e c t i o n on the b a s i s o f t h i s p a r a l l e l passage. Ch'en Ching-ytlan ( I ) (CTCCV5p5) p o i n t s o u t t h a t the Ch'eng H s t l a n - y i n g , Wen J o - h a i and Chang Chtln-fang t e x t s c u r r e n t a t h i s time a l l had the p a r t i c l e yeh A a t the end o f the sentence r a t h e r t h a n h u ^ . The Lu S h i h Ch'un C h ' i u SPPY 15/7b passage w h i c h i m i t a t e s the s t y l e o f t h i s s e c t i o n would s u p p o r t t h i s amendation. A l s o , g r a m m a t i c a l l y , one would e x p e c t . . . - ^ f ..... -J^Lirather t h a n . . . ^ ^ . 7 . Ch'en Ching-yuan (I)(CTCCV5p5) o b s e r v e s t h a t the Ch'eng Hsflan-y i n g , Wen J o - h a i and Chang Chtln-fang t e x t s r e p e a t the c h a r a c t e r t s ' u i ^ , making i t u n i f o r m w i t h the r e p e a t e d p i n g i n the 84 p r e c e d i n g s e n t e n c e . Wang Shu-min ( 1 / 5 0 ) and Ts'ao Shou-k'un ( C T C C V 3 0 p l 3 5 ) b o t h s u p p o r t t h i s a l t e r a t i o n , b u t on l o o k i n g a t the Ltt S h i h Ch'un C h ' i u SPPY 15/?b passage, the r e p e a t e d c h a r a c t e r s a r e e r r a t i c . The v e r y i r r e g u l a r i t y would suggest t h a t t h e r e i s no n e c e s s i t y t o have u n i f o r m i t y i n t h i s r e s p e c t . The H s i a n g H s i u commentary ( i n Lu Te-ming CTCCV2p39) sug-g e s t s t h a t t s ' u i ^ means "the appearance o f m o t i o n . " Ch'eng Hsttan-ying (CTCCV3p283) q u a l i f i e s t h i s by i n t e r p r e t i n g i t as "compelled m o t i o n . " Ch'en C h ' i - t ' i e n ( p. 99) i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h i s s h o u l d be r e a d as i t s cognate c h a r a c t e r t s ' u i ("pressed, c o m p e l l e d " ) . Wang Yd ( i n Wang F u - c h i h CTCCV19pl56) i n t e r p r e t s t h i s c h a r a c t e r l i t e r a l l l y as " h i g h , l o f t y , " w h i l e the Emperor C h i e n Wen o f L i a n g commentary ( i n Lu Te-ming CTCCV2p39) would r e a d i t as "humble, y i e l d i n g . " G i v e n the c o n t e x t o f the s e n t e n c e , t h e t s ' u i / f / ^ ("com-p e l l e d " ) i n t e r p r e t a t i o n seems most a p p o p r i a t e . 8. The t e x t s h o u l d r e a d yeh r a t h e r t h a n hu . See note 6 above. 9. A c c o r d i n g t o Lu Te-ming (CTCCV2p39), ch'u a l s o o c c u r s as c h ' u ( " u n c o m f o r t a b l e ; 5 f l u s h e d i n r a g e " ) . The meaning o f t h i s c h a r a c t e r ch'u ^  ^  i s much debated. The Emperor C h i e n Wen o f L i a n g commentary ( i n Lu Te-ming CTCC V2p39) and Ch'eng H s u a n - y i n g (CTCCV3p283) o f f e r the meaning "to g a t h e r , c o l l e c t , " w h i l e Ssu-ma P i a o ( i n Lu Te-ming CTCC 85 V2p39), Ma H s t l - l u n (p. 189) and Chu Kuei-yao (CTCCV26pl65) i n t e r p r e t i t as a l o a n c h a r a c t e r f o r the cognate hstl ^  ("pent-up emotions, t u r n i n g c o l o u r i n r a g e " ) . L i n H s i - i (CTCCV7p258) has "the appearance o f b e i n g f u l l y happy." The c h a r a c t e r ch'U/ffi appears a g a i n i n 4 9 / 1 9 / 4 0 as "accum-u l a t e d , s t o r e d , " and the i m p l i c a t i o n i s t h a t an a c c u m u l a t i o n o f v i t a l v apours i n d i f f e r e n t p a r t s o f the body i s the sour c e o f anger, f o r g e t f u l n e s s and i l l n e s s . A g a i n , a t the d i s p e r s i o n o f t h e s e v a p o u r s , one s u f f e r s from d e f i c i e n c y . Thus, i t i s app a r e n t t h a t the a c c u m u l a t i o n o f vapours i s the source o f v a r i o u s changes i n mood, and c o n s e q u e n t l y , i n p h y s i c a l appearance. 10. L i u Feng-pao (CTCCV24p237) and a consensus o f the commen-t a t o r s would i n t e r p r e t t h e v e r b c h i n / f l ^ here as " t o cause o t h e r s t o come c l o s e . " 11. F o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f vtl , see note 3 above. 12. A c c o r d i n g t o the T s ' u i Chuan t e x t ( i n Lu Te-ming CTCCV2 p 3 9 ) , s h o u l d be kuang ^ . Among tho s e commentators who r e a d t h i s as l i / ^ j ? • Ch'eng Hs t l a n - y i n g (CTCCV2p283) i n t e r p r e t s i t as " i n e n c o u n t e r i n g p e r i l , " Kuo H s i a n g (CTCCVlpl35) as " e v i l " , Wang Ytl ( i n Wang F u - c h i h CTCCV19pl56) as " s i c k l y " , L i n Ytln-ming (CTCCVl8pl37) as " u g l y " , L i n H s i - i (CTCCV7p258) as " s e r i o u s " and Chu K u e i -yao (CTCCV26pl66) as " t r a n s c e n d i n g b o u n d a r i e s . " 86 The Ts'ui Chuan commentary, having kuang fjjj , interprets i t as "broad and enduring." The interpretation of t h i s character i s l a r g e l y dependent upon how we take the character shih f^i. i n the second portion of t h i s sentence. See note 13 below. 1 3 . Ytl Ytleh (pp. 196-7) suggests that shih -fei- i s a loan char-acter f o r t ' a i ^ ("proud"). This inte r p r e t a t i o n i s shared by Chang P i n g - l i n (p. 16), Wu Ju-lun (CTCCV26p42) and Ma Hstl-lun (p. I 8 9 ) . Chang Mo-sheng (p. 158) observes that t h i s i s possible i n terms of rhyme 1 the character GSR3l6^L^d/-iC^-/^Scu^ rhymes w i t h i i . GSR339^'^/si<Ur/sK^ and $ J GSR317?1 cJ./^iltLX'/c^L , as does the alternate formA,GSR317 d l W / d S ^ i " / ^ ^ . Chu Kuei-yao (CTCCV26pl66) suggests that shih i s a loan character f o r shih^-fet. Given our preference f o r a l i t e r a l t r a n s l a t i o n wherever possible, we in t e r p r e t shih •J&' l i t e r a l l y as "wordly, mundane." We interpret l i to mean "close at hand" i n order to form a contrast with the sentence which follows i t . Just as above where Chuang Tzu describes the Sublimated Man as " s o l i d and yet not conspicuous," here he i s r e s t a t i n g t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . At the l e v e l of the phenomenal world and physical existence ( i . e . from the point of view of those around him), there i s nothing which marks the Sublimated Man as d i s t i n c t from other people. The f i n a l p a r t i c l e hu ^ should be read yeh See note 6 above. 14. This character a o i | r ~ also appears i n 14/5/55 meaning "great". Wang Mu-yeh ( i n Lu Te-ming CTCCV2p39) interprets t h i s character 87 as " t o s u r p a s s and t r a n s c e n d the w o r l d l y , " p r o v i d i n g a needed c o n t r a s t w i t h the p r e c e d i n g s e n t e n c e . L i n H s i - i ( C T C C V 7 p 2 5 9 ) s t a t e s t h a t i t means " g r e a t — w i t h o u t t h a t w h i c h makes him condescend t o the mundane," a g a i n p r o v i d i n g c o n t r a s t . 1 5 . Yao N a i , Wang K ' a i - y f l n ( b o t h i n Kao Heng pp. 26-7) and Hstlan Y i n g (p. 62) a l l s u g g e s t t h a t £ i ^ i s a c o r r u p t i o n o f h s i e n |^ j . As we have seen i n note 4 above, the a u t h o r has been so m e t i c u l o u s i n h i s rhymes t h a t i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t t h e y would break down h e r e . On t h e o t h e r hand, fj^ GSR192 ^ ^ / ^ i v v / / u £ ^ v and i GSR251^]^^lP^^(^/[- c o n s t i t u t e a p e r f e c t rhyme. The s i m i l a r i t y o f t h e two c h a r a c t e r s p_i and h s i e n s u g g e s t s an e r r o r i n c o p y i n g . 16. Lu Te-ming ( C T C C V 2 p 3 9 ) o b s e r v e s t h a t t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s a l t e r n a t i v e l y w r i t t e n as mien >EL , but a l l p r e s e n t l y e x t a n t t e x t s have men ' f j f ^ . A l s o , the L i I and Wang Mu-yeh commen-t a r i e s w hich Lu Te-ming c i t e s seem t o be o f f e r i n g i n t e r p r e -t a t i o n s o f men t j f f i , . Here we f o l l o w Wang Mu-yeh's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n * " t o abandon and f o r g e t . " Chu Kuei-yao (CTCCV26pl67) o f f e r s t e x t u a l e v i -dence t o s u p p o r t Wang Mu-yeh's r e a d i n g . 17. L i u S h i h - p ' e i (p. 6) s u g g e s t s t h a t yen gC_ i s a m i s t a k e n r e n d e r i n g o f s h u o J K . on the b a s i s t h a t ^ G S R 4 l 2 p i ^ / p i e - l - / p J and4X^GSR324SJU)oi/S]vJ^/5KM^o rhymed, which i s p r o b a b l y n o t the c a s e . 88 Kao Heng (p. 27) comments t h a t the word o r d e r o f t h i s phrase has i n a l l l i k e l i h o o d been changed, and s u g g e s t s t h a t i t s h o u l d be r e s t o r e d t o c h ' i wang yenja- f<j from the wang c h ' i yen i n the p r e s e n t t e x t . The sentence s t r u c t u r e o f the p r e c e d i n g s e n t e n c e s i n t h i s s e c t i o n would s u p p o r t such an a l t e r a t i o n . A l s o , Kao Heng c i t e s a passage from 75/26/49 where wang y^.\ and yen "g^ are p l a c e d t o g e t h e r . We have f o l l o w e d Kao Heng i n making t h i s amendation. 7. TEXT (The S u b l i m a t e d Man) took a t t e n u a t i o n as h i s p r i m a r y 1 2 c o n c e r n , t o o k the code o f p r o p r i e t y t o be h i s a c c e s s o r y , t o o k knowledge t o be a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s , and took v i r t u s t o be 3 c o m p l i a n c e . T a k i n g a t t e n u a t i o n as h i s p r i m a r y c o n c e r n was 4 5 to f e e l easy i n h i s d i m i n u t i o n ; - ^ t a k i n g the code o f p r o -p r i e t y t o be h i s a c c e s s o r y was h i s means o f f u n c t i o n i n g i n the w o r l d ; t a k i n g knowledge t o be a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s was t o be e x p e d i e n t t o the s i t u a t i o n ; and t a k i n g v i r t u s t o be com-p l i a n c e meant c l i m b i n g a h i l l ^ w i t h those who have f e e t . And the S u b l i m a t e d Man c o n s i d e r e d t h i s t o be something 7 which s h o u l d be d i l i g e n t l y c a r r i e d i n t o p r a c t i c e . EXEGESIS 1. At f i r s t g l a n c e , t h i s e n t i r e s e c t i o n appears to c o n s t i t u t e a s t i k i n g d i v e r s i o n i n grammar and s t y l e from the c h a p t e r as a whole. T h i s has l e d s e v e r a l prominent commentators t o 89 suggest t h a t t h i s passage i s i n f a c t a l a t e r i n t e r p o l a t i o n ( e . g . Chang Mo-sheng p. 160). We have, however, the Lfl S h i h  Ch'un C h ' i u SPPY 1-5/7 b passage w h i c h seems t o be m o d e l l e d on T e x t 6 and 7 o f t h i s c h a p t e r , and which p a s s e s from the ...^ tfflj sentence s t r u c t u r e i n t o the p h r a s e s : p a r a l l e l i n g t h i s T e x t 7 e x a c t l y . From t h i s we might i n f e r t h a t t h i s i s e i t h e r p a r t o f the o r i g i n a l t e x t o r e l s e t h a t i t was i n t e r p o l a t e d v e r y e a r l y , between the c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h i s c h a p t e r and the c o m p i l a t i o n o f the Lii. S h i h Ch'un C h ' i u . Assuming t h a t t h i s s e c t i o n i s i n f a c t p a r t o f the o r i g i n a l t e x t , we are t h e n f a c e d w i t h the t a s k o f a t t e m p t i n g t o i n t e r -p r e t i t i n such a f a s h i o n as t o make i t congruent w i t h the g e n e r a l t e n o r o f Chuang Tzu's th o u g h t . O b v i o u s l y , a l i t e r a l t r a n s l a t i o n o f t h i s passage i s n o t o n l y u n s a t i f a c t o r y , but v e r y much a t odds w i t h o ur i n i t i a l p i c t u r e o f the S u b l i m a t e d Man. Thus, we must approach i t as metaphor. Kao Heng (p. 2 0 ) , aware o f the fundamental i n c o n s i s t e n c y o f t h i s s e c t i o n , s u g g e s t s t h a t t h i s passage t a k e s a " c h i c k e n " as a metaphor. Through some i n g e n i o u s i f n o t i n c r e d i b l e ; s u b s t i t u t i o n s , he a r r i v e s a t the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n : (The S u b l i m a t e d Man) took punishment as h i s body, took the code o f p r o p r i e t y as h i s wing s , took know-led g e a s , h i s , r o o s t («£ .and took v i r t u s as h i s p e r c h Jfc =|| =^ . S h i h T e - c h ' i n g (4/15) i n t e r p r e t s h s i n g^ p j as meaning "not r e t a i n i n g h i s e g o " — t a k i n g the t o t a l o b l i t e r a t i o n o f the s u b j e c t i v e s e l f as h i s body. Kuan Feng (p. 236) o b s e r v e s t h a t t h e r e a r e t h r e e s t e p s 90 i n Chuang Tzu's process of enlightenment! yu t a i ^ /\^ wu wu taij j f f - ^ , Coupling t h i s framework w i t h the Shih Te-ch*ing i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of h s i n g , we can e x p l a i n t h i s passage as a metaphor f o r the r e p u d i a t i o n of the s u b j e c t i v e s e l f . The phrase i hs i n g wei t ' i Vj^ jh^^i "• • ."took a t t e n -u a t i o n as h i s primary concern") represents the process between the mundane existence o f vu t a i ^ and the supermundane ex-ist e n c e of wu t a i j ^ x f ^ — i t i s the process of a t t a i n i n g a st a t e of wu i ^ ^ c L > through a t o t a l r e j e c t i o n of the subjec-t i v e ego. The c h a r a c t e r hsing f f i j here i s s i m i l a r i n meaning to the character sun^ffi i n the Tao Te Ching 48i In the p u r s u i t o f l e a r n i n g , One must d a i l y expand h i s sphere of a c t i v i t y , But i n the p u r s u i t o f the tao, One must d a i l y reduce ( s u n | | ) i t i Reducing i t and reducing i t l i g a i n U n t i l one a t t a i n s a s t a t e o f " n o n - a c t i v i t y " . I t i s a l s o reminiscent o f the n o t i o n of wu sang wo - ^ " ^ . 4 ^ i n 3/2/3 whe re wu ^ £ i s the Sublimated Man and wo - ^ j ^ i s h i s sub-j e c t i v e ego. The term t ' i v f l J _ i s p a r a l l e l to i i n the f o l l o w i n g sentence, and means "primary" as opposed to "accessory." Wu J u - l u n (CTCCV26p43) i n t e r p r e t s hsing^fi) as h s i n g ^ j , but o f f e r s no support f o r such a rendering. 2. We know from a l a t e r passage i n t h i s chapter ( 19/6/91) t h a t l i - f ^ ("the code of p r o p r i e t y " ) i s repudiated i n the process of s u b l i m a t i o n . At the same time, however, i t i s expedient t h a t the Sublimated Man employ t h i s code of p r o p r i e t y i n 91 d w e l l i n g among o r d i n a r y p e o p l e . I n T e x t 6 above i t s t a t e s t h a t " c l o s e a t hand, he seemed t o be mundane." The n e c e s s i t y o f c o p i n g w i t h l i f e i n t h i s w o r l d i s a l s o b r o u g h t o u t i n the Tao Te C h i n g 2 0 i But t h o s e t h i n g s which a l l men f e a r need n o t be a f f r o n t e d . T h i s p o i n t i s a g a i n i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r by the anecdote c o n c e r n i n g Meng Sun T s ' a i (18/6/75-82) i n w h i c h i t s t a t e s t h a t "Meng Sun a l o n e i s awake, b u t o t h e r s w a i l , so he a l s o w a i l s . " T h i s s u g g e s t s a c a p a c i t y o f the S u b l i m a t e d Man t o d w e l l i n and b l e n d i n t o the mundane w o r l d o f man w i t h o u t o v e r t l y v i o l a t i n g the s o c i e t y i n which he l i v e s . 3 . Lu Te-ming (CTCCV2pp39 -40) o b s e r v e s t h a t h s f l n ^ / j j i s a l s o t a k e n as h s i u ^ , and t h a t b o t h a r e p e r m i s s i b l e . Yfl Yfleh (p. 197), however, does n o t agre e . He s u g g e s t s t h a t the phrase which f o l l o w s i "...meant c l i m b i n g a h i l l w i t h t h o s e who have f e e t . " would d i s q u a l i f y h s i u ^ as a p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e , s i n c e i n the c o n t e x t i t would make l i t t l e s ense. 4. A c c o r d i n g t o Lu Te-ming (CTCCV2p40), the T s ' u i Chuan e d i t i o n has nao >5£ ("mud") f o r ch'o , b u t t h i s makes no sense. The i n t e r c h a n g e a b i l i t y o f thes e two c h a r a c t e r s i s a t t e s t e d t o by the f a c t t h a t the e x p r e s s i o n ch'o yfleh i n 2/1/29 appears a g a i n i n 26/11/17 as nao yfleh 3^. j^]* 5. Here we r e a d the c h a r a c t e r ^ ^ as s h a i — " t o r e d u c e , d i m i n i s h . " 92 6. Ch'en C h ' i - t ' i e n (p. 100) s u g g e s t s t h a t the c h a r a c t e r c h ' i u fr here i s v e r y s i m i l a r t o the same c h a r a c t e r i n the e x p r e s s i o n shou c h ' i u ^ Pr ("one's o r i g i n a l home, h i s p l a c e o f b i r t h " ) . I n t h i s sense, i t i s a metaphor f o r the t a o . Kuo L i a n g - h a n (GTCCV13p329) c o n c u r s i n t h i s o p i n i o n , p o i n t i n g o u t t h a t "mountains" and " h i l l s " a r e f r e q u e n t l y used as metaphors f o r the t a o i n the Chuang Tzu ( e . g . t h e Ku S h e ^ ^ ^ t f 2/1/28, 3 5 ; Y i n F e n & J 2 _ 57/22/1; Chfl T z ' u 3 - 6 5/24/ 2 5 , 2 7 ; K'un Lun 29/12/18; 46/18/20). Many o f the C h ' i n g t e x t s (Wang F u - c h i h CTCCV19, Hsu T ' i n g -h u a i CTCCV20; Wang Mou-hung CTCCV20) have ch' i u r a t h e r t h a n c h ' i u f i _ . The use o f the c h a r a c t e r c h ' i u v%_was p r o -h i b i t e d by i m p e r i a l o r d e r d u r i n g the C h ' i n g i n d e f e r e n c e t o C o n f u c i u s ( e x c e p t i n the term ytl an c h ' i u ijfj _^ , a c i r c u l a r mound used as the l o c a t i o n o f an i m p e r i a l s a c r i f i c e ) . See the S h i n - k o k u g y o s e i ho f^rff^&^ifx P r e p a r e d by the R i n j i T a i -wan Kyukan C h o s a k a i D a i 1-bu ( G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l o f Taiwan 1 8 9 5 -1945) p u b l i s h e d i n 1965-66, I A / 2 / 7 2 . 7 . I n terms o f b o t h word usage and c o n t e n t , i t would seem t h a t t h i s sentence i s c o r r u p t . L i t e r a l l y , i t r e a d s : "And o t h e r s r e a l l y t a k e him ( t h e S u b l i m a t e d Man) t o be d i l i g e n t i n h i s conduct." Hu Wen-ying (CTCCV21p94) and Ma H s t l - l u n (p. 192) b o t h suggest t h a t the c h a r a c t e r s j e n and chen j|L have been i n v e r t e d , i n t e r p r e t i n g i t a s : "And the S u b l i m a t e d Man con-s i d e r s i t t o be wearisome a c t i v i t y . " The l i t e r a l t r a n s l a t i o n above i s p l a u s i b l e i n terms o f c o n t e n t , s i n c e i t i s v e r y p o s s i b l e t h a t o t h e r p e o p l e might 93 judge the conduct of the Sublimated Man i n terms of i t s r e s u l t s . In t h i s case, he may seem to work at what i s i n f a c t the n a t u r a l development of the things around,him. The use of chen a d v e r b i a l l y as " r e a l l y , t r u l y " i s very uncommon i n the Chuang Tzu. In f a c t , of the onl y two such usages, one has a v a r i a n t reading (54/21/ 7 ) while the other occurs i n a chapter thought to be a l a t e r e d i t i o n ( 7 7/28/ 2 6 : Lo Ken-tse (pp. 307-9) dates t h i s "Jang Wang" chapter as e a r l y Han). The Hu Wen-ying and Ma Hsu"-lun i n t e r p r e t a t i o n above makes the Sublimated Man the su b j e c t , and i s not c o n s i s t e n t w i t h our i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h i s e n t i r e passage. In the Tao Te Ching 41 there i s a s i m i l a r passage: When the noblest l e v e l of man hears of the tao, He d i l i g e n t l y a p p l i e s h i m s e l f and c a r r i e s i t i n t o p r a c t i c e . Assuming t h a t the Tao Te Ching i s of e a r l i e r composition, t h i s may conceivably be an a l l u s i o n to t h i s chapter. Yen Ling-feng (p. 689) regards t h i s as a corrupt passage, and suggests that we should r e f r a i n from f o r c i n g an exp l a n a t i o n . 8. TEXT Therefore, h i s l i k e s are one, as are h i s d i s l i k e s . H i s "oneness" i s one, as i s h i s "not-oneness". 1 In h i s "oneness" 2 he i s the d i s c i p l e of nature, while i n h i s "not-oneness" he i s the d i s c i p l e of man. The person i n whom the n a t u r a l and the human elements do not dominate each other i s c a l l e d the 94 S u b l i m a t e d Man.-' EXEGESIS 1. T h i s s e c t i o n can b e s t be i n t e r p r e t e d as a response t o the d u a l i s m between the n a t u r a l and the c o n t r i v e d i n t r o d u c e d a t the b e g i n n i n g o f the c h a p t e r . As i s s t a t e d c l e a r l y i n the sentence w h i c h f o l l o w s t h i s one, t h a t which makes man one w i t h a l l t h i n g s i s h i s n a t u r e , w h i l e t h a t which d i f f e r e n -t i a t e s him i s h i s own s u b j e c t i v e c o n c e p t i o n o f h i m s e l f . 2. The use o f t ' i e n i n t h i s k i n d o f a " n a t u r a l — c o n t r i v e d " c o n t r a s t i s perhaps s i m i l a r t o i t s use i n the Tao Te C h i n g 59» I n g o v e r n i n g the people^ and n u r t u r i n g one's own p e r s o n ( s h i h t ' i e n ^ ^ . ), N o t h i n g can be compared t o f r u g a l i t y . Yen L i n g - f e n g (Lao Tzu Ta C h i e h pp. 242-3) i n t e r p r e t s the e x p r e s s i o n s h i h t ' i e n as " p r e s e r v i n g and n u r t u r i n g one's own n a t u r a l endowment." L i t e r a l l y , s h i h t ' i e n means "to s e r v e Heaven," b u t what i t seems t o mean i n t h i s c o n t e x t i s t o f u l f i l t h a t which has been endowed by Heaven. I n the Lu S h i h Ch'un C h ' i u SPPY l / 4 a t h e r e i s a s i m i l a r usage: The a c t i v i t y o f the Son o f Heaven t a k e s c o m p l i a n c e w i t h n a t u r e (ch'uan t ' i e n -^L^L ) as i t s m o t i v a t i o n . The Kao Yu commentary i n t e r p r e t s t ' i e n here as h s i n g ( " n a t u r e " ) . A g a i n , i n the Lu S h i h Ch'un C h ' i u SPPY l / 5 a i T h e r e f o r e , the Sage's r e g u l a t i o n o f the m y r i a d t h i n g s i s i n o r d e r t o r e a l i z e h i s p e r s o n (ch'tlan ch' i t ' i e n The Kao Yu commentary i n t e r p r e t s t ' i e n here as shen | ("person"). 95 The word t ' i e n here can be seen as standing i n c o n t r a d i s t i n c t i o n to the n o t i o n of " a r t i f i c i a l i t y " . 3. Chuang Tzu i s suggesting t h a t only when the " n a t u r a l " and the " c o n t r i v e d " c o i n c i d e can one be s a i d to have a t t a i n e d the l e v e l of Sublimated Knowledge (chen c h i h j^l ^2- ). The phrase "the person i n whom the n a t u r a l and the human elements do not dominate each other..." i s perhaps best understood as simply a negative expression of the p r i n c i p l e t h a t t 1 i e n ,jen L i f e and death are a matter of d e s t i n y . T h e i r having the constancy of day^ and n i g h t i s due to nature. Man's having those things over which he e x e r c i s e s no sway i s a r e a l i t y • which he shares with a l l t h i n g s . He alone takes nature to be h i s f a t h e r and loves i t throughout h i s l i f e — ^ o how much more should he love t h a t which supercedes i t ! Man alone takes having a r u l e r to be b e t t e r than being without^ and i s w i l l i n g to face death on h i s behalf throughout h i s l i f e — how much more should he be w i l l i n g to do the same f o r the Sublimated ( R u l e r ) . 1 0 When a s p r i n g runs dry, the f i s h e s f l o p about together on the land, breathing on each other to keep damp and wetting each other w i t h t h e i r f r o t h . 1 1 This i s not as good as f o r -12 13 g e t t i n g each other i n the r i v e r s and l a k e s . Rather than v 9 . TEXT 96 14 p r a i s i n g Yao and condemning C h i e h , i t i s b e t t e r to f o r g e t them b o t h and be t r a n s f o r m e d i n D the tao,. 17 The G r e a t C l o d encumbers me w i t h a p h y s i c a l form, f a t i g u e s me w i t h l i f e , r e t i r e s 1 8 me w i t h age and r e s t s 1 9 me 20 w i t h d e a t h . A s s u r e d l y , any r e a s o n s t h a t I have f o r a p p r o v i n g o f my l i f e a r e the v e r y r e a s o n s why I s h o u l d approve o f my d e a t h . x EXEGESIS 1. F o r s i m i l a r p a s s a g e s , see 46/18/22« " L i f e and d e a t h a r e day and n i g h t . " ? 55/21/33:"...and l i f e and d e a t h , b e g i n n i n g and end w i l l become day and n i g h t . " P'an C h i - c h ' i n g (CTCCV12p399) a s s o c i a t e s the c h a r a c t e r m i n g ^ ( " d e s t i n y " ) w i t h c h ' i n g ^ j f ( " r e a l i t y " ) and c h o ^ . ("that w h i c h supercedes i t " ) below, s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e s e a r e a l t e r n a t e d e s i g n a t i o n s f o r the t a o . Ch'en Shen ( C T C C V l l p 9 6 ) , on the o t h e r hand, i d e n t i f i e s ming ( " d e s t i n y " ) w i t h t ' i e n $j ^ ( " n a t u r e " ) . S i n c e the concept o f " d e s t i n y " i s i n e x t r i c a b l y connected w i t h change, and s i n c e Chuang Tzu chooses t o a s s o c i a t e change w i t h t ' i e n ("nature") r a t h e r t h a n the t a o , we cannot assume t h a t ming ( " d e s t i n y " ) i s an a l t e r n a t e d e s i g n a t i o n f o r the tao a t a l l . L i n H s i - i ( C T C C V 7 p 3 0 5 ) i n t e r p r e t s the concept o f " d e s t i n y " e x p r e s s e d i n t h i s passage t o be r e f l e c t e d i n t h e " L i Ming" c h a p t e r o f the L i e h Tzu, i . e . a r a d i c a l f a t a l i s m w h i c h n e g a t e s c o n s c i o u s c h o i c e and r e p u d i a t e s c o n t r i v e d o r p r e m e d i t a t e d r e s p o n s e . Cf. A.C. Graham's i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h i s c h a p t e r i n h i s The Book of L i e h Tzu pp. 118-21.' 97 2. Wu J u - l u n (CTCCV26p43), Hu Yflan-chtln (p. 52) and Ch'en C h ' i - t ' i e n (p. 102) a l l suggest that yu/^j he read as yu^ )i§ . Thi s phrase would thus be rendered! "Their being l i k e the constancy of day and n i g h t i s due to nature." 3. According to Lu Te-ming (CTCCV2p40), the Ts ' u i Chuan t e x t had ta/f-B ("soft l e a t h e r " ) as a v a r i a n t f o r tan ®L ("day"). 4. The Kuo Hsiang commentary (CTCCVlpl37) s t a t e s i "The S u b l i -mated Man enjoys daytime during the day and night-time d u r i n g the n i g h t . Taking l i f e and death as day and n i g h t , how could there be anything which he does not acq u i r e ? " From h i s com-mentary, i t i s apparent t h a t he i s i n t e r p r e t i n g the character yfl 5 ^ a s the i n t e r r o g a t i v e p a r t i c l e vjl ^ , l o a n character f o r In the Chuang Tzu, the i n t e r r o g a t i v e p a r t i c l e vjl i s w r i t t e n as yfl 5 ^ w i t h the r a d i c a l 76 (see A.C. Graham, A s i a o Major 8/2, p. 1 5 5 ) . . L i n Yfln-ming (CTCCVl8pl39) would read y f l i n ch'fl sheng, while Chu Kuei-yao ( C T C C V 2 6 p l 6 8 ) suggests t h a t yfl &d be read as yfl-f|j<J"to p a r t i c i p a t e i n " ) . 5. The character ch'ing f-rtj ( t r a n s , " r e a l i t y " ) occurs four times i n t h i s chapter. In each instance L i n H s i - i (CTCCV7p26lff.) and many of the other commentators i n t e r p r e t i t as shih—g*" ? i n our t r a n s l a t i o n we concur with t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . 9 8 6. We f o l l o w Ch'en C h ' i - t ' i e n (p. 102) i n i n t e r p r e t i n g V e 7. Hu Wen-ying ( C T C C V 2 1 p 9 5 ) i n t e r p r e t s t h i s a s i "He a l o n e t a k e s n a t u r e t o be h i s f a t h e r . I t ( n a t u r e ) l o v e s the o r d i n a r y p e o p l e (as a f a t h e r l o v e s h i s s o n s ) — h o w much more so the s u p e r i o r and eminent!" He t h e n procedes t o i n t e r p r e t t h e sentence which f o l l o w s t h i s one and which i s p a r a l l e l t o i t i n the same way t h a t we have t r a n s l a t e d i t above, b e t r a y i n g a c e r t a i n gram-m a t i c a l i n c o n s i s t e n c y . 8 . I n t h i s passage, the rank o f t ' i e n ("nature") as opposed t o the t a o i s made e v i d e n t . Whereas t ' i e n i s a s s i g n e d t h e p r o c r e a t i v e f u n c t i o n , the tao i s something which supercedes i t and i s something upon which n a t u r e depends. 9 . Yang Shu-ta ( C T C C V 3 0 p 7 ) p o i n t s o u t t h a t a l l o f the p r e v i o u s commentaries (and as a consequence, a l l o f the E n g l i s h t r a n s -l a t i o n s ) have m i s r e a d t h e c h a r a c t e r i t L as c h i , g i v i n g r i s e t o c e r t a i n g r a m m a t i c a l problems. I f we were t o r e a d t h i s as c h i , we would have t o t r a n s l a t e t h i s passage as "man a l o n e t a k e s h a v i n g a r u l e r (yu chfln ^ftfe. ) as b e i n g g r e a t e r t h a n h i m s e l f . " I n o t h e r words, the y u Tja would be s u p e r f l u o u s . I n r e a d i n g i t as i , Yang Shu - t a c i t e s a s i m i l a r passage i n the Lun Yd 3 7 / 1 7 / 2 0 (Legge I . 3 2 9 ) » "Are t h e r e n o t gamesters and c h e s s p l a y e r s ? To be one o f the s e would s t i l l be b e t t e r t h a n d o i n g n o t h i n g a t a l l ( w e i c h i h yu h s i e n hu i as t a n 99 t£j ) . " The e x p r e s s i o n ytleh hu ^ £ j i n t h i s c h a p t e r can he compared t o the e x p r e s s i o n h s i e n hu i ^ i n the Lun Ytl passage. 10. The c h a r a c t e r chen j | l ("Sublimated") r e f e r s back t o c h t o ^ ( " R u l e r " ) . Chen c h t l n J j l ^ . i s used elsewhere t o r e f e r t o the tao ( 4 / 2 / 1 7 ) , as are s i m i l a r d e s i g n a t i o n s ( e . g . chen t s a i j j . ^ i n 4/2/15). 11. T h i s passage i s c i t e d i n l a t e r works w i t h the v a r i a n t s h s t l ^ and hsu Qft f o r h s f l , and j u ^ f o r j u > $ ( s e e Wang Shu-min l / 5 0 a - b ) . A c c o r d i n g t o Wang Shu-min, the two v a r i a n t s f o r hstl l2t*) a r e s i m p l y b e i n g used as l o a n c h a r a c t e r s . The c h a r a c t e r 2U*£EJ i s a p o p u l a r form o f .1 u >>^ h . S i n c e the two c h a r a c t e r i l l GSR134 ^ u A / ^ ^ / j 1/^  and ^ GSR108 /WoL t ^\^s/h^ c o n s t i t u t e d a p e r f e c t rhyme, we can f i n d examples o f them b e i n g used i n p a r a l l e l c o n s t r u c t i o n i n o t h e r e a r l y t e x t s ( e . g . H u a i Nan Tzu SPTK 2 / l 2 a ) . 12. T h i s passage "When a s p r i n g . . . i n the r i v e r s and l a k e s . " i s r e p e a t e d as the words o f Lao Tzn i n 39/14/60 w i t h o n l y v e r y m i n o r v a r i a t i o n ( j u - ^ 7 - becomes j o . ^ ). T h i s might be i n t e r -p r e t e d as an a m p l i f i c a t i o n o f t h e thought c o n t a i n e d i n Lao Tzu 361 F i s h e s cannot be t a k e n from the d e p t h s . The use o f w a t e r ( i . e . l a k e s , streams, the s e a , e t c . ) as a metaphor f o r the magnitude and n a t u r a l n e s s o f the t a o i s common c u r r e n c y among the T a o i s t t h i n k e r s . I n Lao Tzu 32 i t s a y s i As a metaphor t o d e s c r i b e the u n i v e r s e r e t u r n i n g t o 1 0 0 the,tao, Perhaps we can say i t i s l i k e streams and creeks r o l l i n g to the r i v e r s and seas, ( f o l l o w i n g Chiang Hsi-ch'ang's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ) Wang Shu-min ( l / 5 0 b ) comments tha t t h i s passage i s c i t e d i n l a t e r works such as TPYL 9 3 5 w i t h the p a r t i c l e y e h j j ^ f o l l o w i n g h u j ^ | . In o p p o s i t i o n to t h i s v a r i a t i o n we have the two occurances of t h i s passage i n the Chuang Tzu, as w e l l as the f a c t t h a t i t would s p o i l the p a r a l l e l i s m w i t h the sentence which f o l l o w s i t . 1 3 . Ma Hstl-lun (p. 193) observes that the Shih Te T'ang and Ch'ung Te Shu Yflan t e x t s both have erh c h ' i ^ i i - f o r yfl. c h ' i For the r e p e t i t i o n of t h i s passage w i t h s l i g h t m o d i f i -c a t i o n which occurs i n 7 4 / 2 6 / 2 2 , Wang Shu-min (l / 5 0 b - 5 1 a ) p o i n t s out two t e x t s which have erh c h ' i f o r yfl c h ' i . The passage i n Huai Nan Tzu SPTK 9/58 which i s based on t h i s phrase from the Chuang Tzu has yfl c h ' i w i t h no v a r i a t i o n s . I f t h i s phrase o r i g i n a l l y began wi t h yfl c h ' i i n the sense of "rather than," i t would c o n s t i t u t e the only such usage i n the t e x t . 14. Yao ( t r . 2 3 5 6 - 2 2 5 7 ) i s a legendary r u l e r who appears throgh-out e a r l y Chinese l i t e r a t u r e as a paragon of sagely wisdom and moral v i r t u e . Chieh ( t r . I 8 I 8 - I 7 6 3 ) , on the other hand, was the l a s t r u l e r of the Hsia dynasty whose e v i l a c t i o n s are regarded as having brought about the d e c l i n e and f a l l of h i s empire. Through a process of gradual i n f l a t i o n he has become known to Chinese t r a d i t i o n as a t y r a n t of boundless v i l l a i n y . 101 1 5 . Ma H s f l - l u n ( p. 193) and Ch'en C h ' i - f i e n ( p. 103) both s u g g e s t t h a t the c h a r a c t e r c h ' i i n the e x p r e s s i o n c h ' i t a o be r e a d as c h i h /L^, f u n c t i o n i n g here s i m i l a r t o t h e p a r t i c l e v f l / ^ ( i . e . " i n " ) . I n s u p p o r t o f such an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , we might i n d i c a t e the p h o n o l o g i c a l s i m i l a r i t y b e t w e e n ^ GSR952$Li*y ffi > * and i _ GSR962?W^/4^> / c i v U . . A l s o , the f a c t t h a t the p a r a l l e l passages i n t h e Huai Nan Tzu SPTK 9/58 and i n the Chuang Tzu 74/26/22 b o t h a l t e r t h i s p o r t i o n o f the sentence might i n d i c a t e d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the common u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f hua c h ' i t a o ^ b ^ . j | _ . 16. As w e l l as f o r m i n g the b a s i s f o r the passages i n 74/26/22 and H u a i Nan Tzu SPTK 9/58 as mentioned above, t h i s p o r t i o n o f our t e x t i s a l s o c l o s e l y r e l a t e d b o t h s t y l i s t i c a l l y and i n terms o f c o n t e n t t o a S h i h Tzu passage c i t e d i n t h e TPYL 80. 17. There i s some debate among commentators as t o the a c t u a l meaning o f the e x p r e s s i o n t a k ' u a i 7^J*/^t> ( t h e "Great C l o d " ) . Kao T'ang (CTCCV23p59) and Ch'en C h ' i - t ' i e n (p. 103) b o t h c o n s i d e r t h a t i t i s a r e f e r e n c e t o t i ' t ^ ( t h e " E a r t h " ) . C h ' i e n Mu (p. 145) a g r e e s , b u t s u g g e s t s t h a t i n modern p a r l a n c e , t h i s i s e q u i v a l e n t t o t ' i e n t i ^  , ( "the cosmos"). T h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s a l s o c o n t a i n e d i n the commentary o f Kuo L i a n g - h a n (CTCCV13p334) and H s i a o Ch'un-po (p. 116). Ssu-ma P i a o ( c i t e d by Huang S h i h CTCCV23p46) and Ch'eng H s f l a n - y i n g (CTCCV3p29D both c o n s i d e r t h a t i t means t z u .jan f=J ^  ( " n a t u r a l 102 s p o n t a n e i t y " ) . T h i s e x p r e s s i o n i s used t h r e e t i m e s i n the Chuang Tzu, (see a l s o 3 / 2 / 4 , 1 7 / 6 / 5 7 ) , and from the c o n t e x t i t would seem t h a t i t i s a r e f e r e n c e t o our p h y s i c a l environment. C r e e l (What i s Taoism? p. 3 3 ) and B. Watson (p. 2 6 5 ) b o t h suggest t h a t the e x p r e s s i o n t a wei A which o c c u r s i n 6 5/24 / 2 5 , 66/24/27 and 66/24/28 i s i n f a c t a c o r r u p t i o n o f t a k ' u a i J\^*%b' From c o n t e x t , t a wei would seem t o be a m e t a p h o r i c a l a l l u s i o n t o the t a o . 18. Wang Shu-min ( l / 5 1 a ) comments t h a t i'j'fcj. " r e t i r e s " ) appears i n a p a r a l l e l passage i n the Huai Nan Tzu SPTK 2/l0b as i$L>' The Ch'eng H s f l a n - y i n g commentary (CTCCV3p291) a l s o has i ^ f o r i^'fi^j These two words were n o t o n l y homophonous, but a l s o o v e r l a p p e d i n meaning. 1 9 . The p a r a l l e l passage i n Huai Nan Tzu SPTK 2/1Ob has h s i u f o r h s i ^ , - ( " r e s t s " ) , and the Kao Yu commentary s t a t e s spec-i f i c a l l y t h a t Chuang Tzu has h s i u . The So Y i n commentary t o the S h i h C h i SPTK PNP 8 4 / l 4 a a l s o has h s i u . However, t h i s same passage o c c u r s t w i c e i n t h i s c h a p t e r , and i n b o t h c a s e s i t has the word h s i . A g a i n , the Chang Chan commentary t o the L i e h Tzu SPTK l / 4 a a t t e s t s the h s i w o r d i n g . 20. Po C h t l - i was i n s p i r e d by t h i s passage t o compose t h r e e s h o r t poems. See the f i n a l p o r t i o n o f the Chuang Tzu s e c t i o n i n t h e Ku C h i n T'u Shu C h i Ch'eng ^ i l l l A 2 1 / 4 3 5 - 3 8 . 1 0 3 2 1 . Wang Mou-hung (CTCCV20pl4) and Ts'ao Shou-k'un ( C T C C V 3 0 p l 3 8 ) both suggest that t h i s e n t i r e s e c t i o n from "When a s p r i n g runs dry..." to "...approve of my death" i s not con-tinuous with i t s context, and i s an erroneous i n t e r p o l a t i o n . Consequently, they omit i t . Yeh Ping-ching ( C T C C V l 6 p l 0 7 ) and Ma Hsu-lun (p. 1 9 3 ) would omit the passage "The Great Clod...approve of my death," as l a t e r i n t e r p o l a t i o n since i t does occur a second time l a t e r i n t h i s chapter ( 1 7 / 6 / 5 7 ) . Although r e p e t i t i o n encourages s u s p i c i o n , there i s one g l a r i n g p o i n t of f a c t which wants to support both the authen-t i c y and the order of t h i s passage which i s i n question. In the p a r a l l e l passage i n the Huai Nan Tzu SPTK 2 / l 0 b , i t repeats the Chuang Tzu almost verbatim from "The Great Clod..." to "can the number of things i n which he can f i n d pleasure thus be c a l c u l a t e d ! " i n e x a c t l y the same order. This would i n d i c a t e t h a t i f t h i s p o r t i o n of the t e x t i s a l a t e r i n t e r p o l a t i o n , i t must have occured i n the century and a h a l f between the composi-t i o n of t h i s p o r t i o n of the Chuang Tzu and the c o m p i l a t i o n of the Huai Nan Tzu. 1 0 . TEXT Now, i f one conceals a boat i n the ravine of a h i l l , 1 - -2 3 the h i l l being concealed i n a marsh --we can say that i t i s safe. But then-^ during the n i g h t one who has the s t r e n g t h 0 might shoulder i t (the boat) and abscond' w i t h i t . Those who 104 8 9 are s l e e p i n g would n o t know. To c o n c e a l the s m a l l m the l a r g e was c o r r e c t , 1 0 but t h e r e i s s t i l l t h a t which e v a n e s c e s . 1 1 12 I f we c o n c e a l the cosmos i n the cosmos, t h e r e w i l l be no evanescence. T h i s t h e n i s the g r e a t r e a l i t y o f the E t e r n a l T h i n g . W h e n 1 ^ " man i s c a s t 1 - 5 i n human form, he i s p l e a s e d w i t h i t . But t h i n g s l i k e the human form undergo innumerable m u t a t i o n s w i t h o u t e v e r r e a c h i n g a p o i n t o f e x h a u s t i o n . 1 ^ Can the number o f such t h i n g s i n which he can f i n d p l e a s u r e t h u s 17 be c a l c u l a t e d ! ' Hence, when the Sage rambles i n t h a t a s p e c t o f t h i n g s which a d m i t s o f no evanescence and i n which a l l i s •I o s u s t a i n e d , when he approves o f y o u t h i n the same way t h a t he approves o f o l d age and approves o f the b e g i n n i n g i n the same way t h a t he approves o f the end, th e n o t h e r s w i l l even i m i t a t e him. How much more, t h e n , s h o u l d t h e y ( s t r i v e t o emulate) t h a t 19 which c o n n e c t s a l l t h i n g s and upon which each t r a n s f o r m a t i o n depends!^° EXEGESIS 1. I n our t r a n s l a t i o n , we have f o l l o w e d the sense o f Ma C h ' i -ch'ang's ( 2 / 2 0 a ) i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ! I n the marsh t h e r e i s a h i l l , and i n the h i l l t h e r e i s a r a v i n e , and t h e n , the b o a t i s c o n c e a l e d i n the r a v i n e . . . I t would seem t h a t the a u t h o r has had to pay f o r h i s p a r a l l e l i s m w i t h a m b i g u i t y . Hsu T ' i n g - h u a i ( C T C C V 2 0 p l 0 7 ) would e x t e n d the p a r a l l e l i s m even f u r t h e r , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t the o r i g i n a l t e x t had the phrase " c o n c e a l the r a v i n e i n the h i l l ( t s ' a n g huo y_ti s h a n j j ^ ^ 105 between the p h r a s e s " c o n c e a l s a boat i n the r a v i n e o f a h i l l ( t s ' a n g chou yu h u o j ^ - 4 l i/z1^ )» and " c o n c e a l s the h i l l i n a marsh ( t s ' a n g shan ytl tseyfjfo d\ )". Whereas i n terms o f t he t r a d i t i o n a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , t h i s can p r o b a b l y be con-s t u e d as an improvement i n s t y l e , t h e r e i s no s u b s t a n t i a l e v i d e n c e o r even n e c e s s i t y f o r a d d i n g t o the t e x t . On the c o n t r a r y , the f a c t t h a t t h i s passage o c c u r s a l m o s t v e r b a t i m i n the Hua i Nan Tzu SPTK 2/1 Ob and a g a i n i n L i u Tzu's H s i n Lun HWTS 81 t s ' e 10/5a would i n d i c a t e a v e r y e a r l y c o r r u p t i o n o f the t e x t i f such an o m i s s i o n d i d o c c u r . A n o t h e r r e a s o n f o r r e t a i n i n g the t e x t i n i t s p r e s e n t form i s t h e occurance o f rhyme i n t h i s passage between G S R 7 6 7 X ^ / X a J c / / o o and > ^ GSR790 <k LZk. / / t i J c / M f S e , . 2. A l i t e r a l r e n d e r i n g o f t h i s passage as " i f one c o n c e a l s a boat i n the r a v i n e o f a h i l l and c o n c e a l s the h i l l i n a marsh..." has t r a d i t i o n a l l y caused commentators some c o n s t e r n a t i o n . As Ytl Ytleh (p. 197) deduces! "A h i l l cannot be c o n c e a l e d i n a marsh, and i t i s not something which a s t r o n g p e r s o n can ta k e on h i s back and abscond w i t h ! " As an a l t e r n a t i v e , he s u g g e s t s t h a t we r e a d shan (M ( " h i l l " ) as s h a n ) J j ("wicker f i s h t r a p " ) . There i s an o b v i o u s p h o n e t i c and g r a p h i c r e l a t i o n s h i p between the s e two words. Ytl Ytleh a l s o n o t e s t h a t b o t h a boat and a f i s h t r a p are i t e m s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a f i s h e r m a n , and t h e y t h e y are b o t h a t e m p t a t i o n t o those who would s t e a l . As such, i t would be l o g i c a l t h a t the f i s h e r m a n would take the p r e c a u t i o n o f c o n c e a l i n g them. (Ch'en C h ' i - t ' i e n (p.103) and C h ' i e n Mu 106 (p. 51) c r e d i t t h i s e x p l a n a t i o n t o Wu Yen-hsfl ^ j 4 ^ 3 . but h i s Chuang Tzu Cha C h i ^ l i ^5- 4L^^ d * d n o - t a P P e a r u n t i l 1916, some 46 y e a r s a f t e r Ytt Yfleh). Wang Shu-min ( l / 5 1 a - b ) o f f e r s a second a l t e r n a t i v e . He o b s e r v e s t h a t i n the a n c i e n t t e x t s , chou-ffi ("boat") and ch'e ^jL ( " c a r r i a g e " ) are f o t e n used as p a r a l l e l metaphors. F o r example, i n 38/14/35« F o r t r a v e l l i n g n o t h i n g i s as e f f i c a c i o u s as u s i n g a b o a t , w h i l e f o r t o u r i n g on l a n d , n o t h i n g i s as e f f i c a c i o u s as u s i n g a c a r r i a g e . (see a l s o 42/17 / 1 2 : 4 9 / 1 9 / 2 5 ; 5 2 / 2 0 / 1 7 ) . A l s o , the CTYH 59 c i t e s t h i s passage w i t h ch'e SJi i n s t e a d o f shan . As we have mentioned i n n o te 1 above, the p a r a l l e l passages i n the H u a i Nan Tzu and H s i n Lun would i n d i c a t e a v e r y e a r l y a l t e r -a t i o n i n t h e Chuang Tzu t e x t i f such were the c a s e , s i n c e b o t h o f t h e s e works have shan ( " h i l l " ) . I n our t r a n s l a t i o n we have f o l l o w e d Ma C h ' i - c h ' a n g (see note 1 ) , c h o o s i n g t o amend the t e x t o n l y when f a c e d , w i t h no o t h e r a l t e r n a t i v e . A p o i n t perhaps worth n o t i n g i s t h a t the C hinese c h a r a c t e r s h a n J/J w hich i s commonly t r a n s l a t e d "mountain" i n E n g l i s h a l s o embraces the meaning o f " h i l l " . I n f a c t , a c c o r d i n g t o Wang Ni e n - s u n ' s ;f f^j < ^ Kuang Ya Shu Cheng J ^ l f jL. SPPY 9B / 9 a : C h ' i n d e s i g n a t e d the grave o f the Son o f Heaven shan (J^ , w h i l e Han c a l l e d i t l i n g Thus, the n o t i o n o f a h i l l b e i n g c o n c e a l e d i n a marsh i s n o t a t a l l i n c r e d i b l e . 107 3 . Wang H s i e n - c h ' i e n (CTCCV26p80) i n t e r p r e t s t s e ; ^ as "pond" r a t h e r t h a n "marsh", and from t h i s i n f e r s t h a t a h i l l c o n c e a l e d i n a p o i n d i s i n f a c t an i s l a n d . 4 . Wang Shu-min ( l / 5 1 b ) c i t e s s e v e r a l works which have the c h a r a c t e r .Ien /\_ ("people") b e f o r e the phrase w ei c h i h ku i . Ii] ^ • T h e p a r a l l e l passage i n the Huai Nan Tzu SPTK 2/lOb a l s o has t h i s v a r i a t i o n . The Wen Hsftan commentary ( L i Chou-han ^ - ) ^ ^ ) SPTK 5 9 / l 0 9 3 a has the v a r i a t i o n j e n i wei k u , a l s o w i t h the c h a r a c t e r .ien . A g a i n , the Wen  Hstlan commentary ( L i Shan ) a l s o quotes the s t a n d a r d wei c h i h ku i ^ f f A j J ) ^ _ o n " t n e s a m e Page. The former v a r i a t i o n would t r a n s l a t e as« "...people would say t h a t i t i s s a f e , " w h i l e the l a t t e r would r e a d : "...people would c o n s i d e r i t sage." Wang Shu-min a l s o c i t e s a t e x t which has the p a r t i c l e p r e c e d i n g i /^c^. 5 . Wang Shu-min ( l / 5 1 b ) and Ma H s t l - l u n (p. 194) c i t e the TPYL and v a r i o u s l a t e r e n c y c l o p a e d i c works w h i c h quote t h i s passage as .jan t s e $ {] r a t h e r t h a n j a n e r h f^ifa , w i t h no s i g n i f i -c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n meaning. 6 . L i u S h i h - p ' e i (p. 2b) comments t h a t the L i u Chun commentary t o the S h i h Shuo H s i n Ytl c i t e s t h i s passage w i t h the c h a r a c t e r t a / v ( " g r e a t " ) p r e c e d i n g the c h a r a c t e r l i f\ ( " s t r e n g t h " ) . He f u r t h e r p o i n t s o u t t h a t i n o t h e r cases t h i s commentary has pr o v e n v e r y r e l i a b l e i n r e p r o d u c i n g the o r i g i n a l 108 t e x t o f Chuang Tzu. A l s o , the Kuo H s i a n g commentary (CTCCVlpl39) s t a t e s ! "Of those t h i n g s w i t h u n f o r c e d s t r e n g t h , n o t h i n g i s g r e a t e r ( t a t h a n change." From t h i s , L i u S h i h - p ' e i i n f e r s t h a t the t e x t on which Kuo H s i a n g wrote t h i s commentary a l s o had the c h a r a c t e r t a . The f a c t t h a t t h i s passage i s c i t e d i n s e v e r a l e a r l i e r works w i t h o u t the word t a would c a s t some doubt on t h i s emendation. 7. I t i s v e r y p r o b a b l e t h a t the o r i g i n a l t e x t has the c h a r a c t e r c h ' t t ^ H ("hasten") r a t h e r t h a n t s o u ^ _ _ ( " r u n " — t r a n s , as ''•abscond"). F i r s t , the p a r a l l e l passage i n H u a i Nan Tzu SPTK 2/lOb has t h i s v a r i a t i o n . S e c o n d l y , Wang Shu-min (l / 5 1 b - 5 2 a ) c i t e s seven a n t h o l o g i e s and e n c y c l o p a e d i c works w h i c h have ch'tt r a t h e r t h a n t s o u . A g a i n , the Ch'eng Hs t i a n - y i n g commentary (CTCC V3p292) has ch'u, i n d i c a t i n g t h a t the t e x t upon which i t i s commenting a l s o had ch'u. I n terms o f meaning, t h i s v a r i a n t i s o f l i t t l e s i g n i f i c a n c e — t h e Kao Yu commentary on the p a r a l l e l H u a i Nan Tzu SPTK 2/lOb passage s t a t e s t h a t "ch'u r£j§ means t s o u >fe_. " 8. Wang Shu-min (l/ 5 1 b - 5 2 a ) p o i n t s out t h a t s e v e r a l l a t e r t e x t s i n c i t i n g t h i s passage have e i t h e r ch' id£J o r e r h ^7 b e f o r e the c h a r a c t e r m e i ^ j ^ . The p a r a l l e l Huai Nan Tzu SPTK 2/lOb passage does n o t . Yang Shu - t a ( C T C C V 3 0 p 7 ) s u g g e s t s t h a t the c h a r a c t e r mei ("bewi l d e r e d " ) be r e a d as i t s cognate mei yfak "to s l e e p " ) . The f a c t t h a t the t h e f t o c c u r s d u r i n g the n i g h t would suggest 1 0 9 t h a t the v i c t i m s o f the t h e f t would be s l e e p i n g . F u r t h e r , the p a r a l l e l passage i n the Huai Nan Tzu SPTK 2/10b has mei ^ J L r a t h e r t h a n mei . We have adopted t h i s r e a d i n g i n o u r t r a n s l a t i o n . 9 . Wang Shu-min ( l / 5 1 b - 5 2 a ) i n d i c a t e s t h a t s e v e r a l l a t e r t e x t s i n c i t i n g t h i s passage end t h i s phrase w i t h the p a r t i c l e yeh ^  , and t h a t one t e x t has p_u chtteh <y- 4|^( "would n o t be aware") f o r pju c h i h ^ JRP'i "would n o t know"). The p a r a l l e l Huai Nan  Tzu SPTK 2/lOb passage i s the same as the Chuang Tzu i n t h i s r e s p e c t . 10. Kuo L i a n g - h a n (CTCCV13p336) s u g g e s t s t h a t the " s m a l l " and " l a r g e " a r e i n r e f e r e n c e t o the "boat" as opposed t o the " r a v i n e o f a h i l l , " and t o the " h i l l " as opposed t o the "marsh". I n o t h e r words, the magnitude o f the r a v i n e o f a h i l l i s such t h a t i t can c o n c e a l a b o a t , and the magnitude o f the marsh i s such t h a t i t can c o n c e a l a h i l l . 11. T h i s p o r t i o n o f the p a r a l l e l H u a i Nan Tzu SPTK 2/lOb i s a t v a r i a n c e w i t h the o r i g i n a l t e x t . I t ' h a s : Those who are s l e e p i n g would n o t know t h a t t h e r e ^ s t i l l i s t h a t w h i c h evanesces ( t u n r a t h e r t h a n tun^|fr0 • I f we c o n c e a l the cosmos i n the co"smos, t h e r e w i l l b~e n o t h i n g which s u f f e r s the l©ss;1 ( t u n j^j ) o f i t s p h y s i c a l form. I n s u s t i t u t i n g t he c h a r a c t e r t u n J j | f o r tun^£_, the a u t h o r o f t h i s p o r t i o n o f t h e Hua i Nan Tzu has s e l e c t e d a f a r more common c h a r a c t e r w h i c h i s b o t h homophonous and i n the sense o f 110 "evanesces", synonymous w i t h the o r i g i n a l word. Kuan Feng (p. 239) observes that t h i s e n t i r e passage about concea l i n g A i n B may be looked upon as an a m p l i f i c a t i o n of a p r i n c i p l e contained i n Lao Tzu's n o t i o n of "those who grasp i t lo s e i t (Lao Tzu 2 9 , 6 4 ) . " I t i s only when one i s able to comprehend the whole as an u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d t o t a l i t y t h a t he i s able to escape the transience of h i s world of experience. As soon as he "grasps" onto an aspect of t h i s phenomenal world, he e s t a b l i s h e s a p o i n t of reference f o r change. Hence, t h i s act of d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n causes whatever has been "grasped" to become immediately vul n e r a b l e to the v i c i s s i t u d e s of change. I f , on the other hand, one i n s i s t s upon the experience of an u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d t o t a l i t y , he remains e t e r n a l l y beyond the shadow of change., 1 2 . We have choosen to t r a n s l a t e the expression t ' i e n h s i a commonly t r a n s l a t e d as "the world" or l i t e r a l l y as " a l l under the heavens"—as "the cosmos". In t h i s passage, t h i s expression i s used l o o s e l y i n the sense of concealing " a l l - t h a t - i s " i n " a l l ^ t h a t - i s " . to the tao. By comprehending the cosmos as an u n c o n d i t i o n a l whole which does not all o w of permutation, one i s able to experience the e t e r n a l , unchanging r e a l i t y of the tao. 1 3 . The expression heng wu f^j.'fyffl ( "Et e r n a l Thing") r e f e r s 14. The p a r a l l e l passage i n the Huai Nan Tzu SPTK 2/lOb has I l l i — r a t h e r t h a n t ' e / ^ , as does the passage i n 17/6/59 below. Wu J u - l u n (CTCCV26p44) s u g g e s t s t h a t i n r e l a t i o n t o the wan  hua ^ t o ( "innumerable m u t a t i o n s " ) below, i - — " and t ' e tyzf have the same meaning. They i n d i c a t e a c o n t r a s t between the s i n g u l a r i t y o f t a k i n g on t h e human form and the p l u r a l i t y o f s i m i l a r t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s . Hence, we t r a n s l a t e t ' e here as "when" i n the sense o f "once h a v i n g been." 15. The p a r a l l e l passage i n the Hua i Nan Tzu SPTK 2/lOb has f a n ^ L , r a t h e r t h a n f a n ^ f l , . These two c h a r a c t e r s a re homo-phonous c o g a n t e s . The Kao Yu commentary t o t h i s H u a i Nan Tzu passage p r o v i d e s b a s i c a l l y two a l t e r n a t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . I t can mean "to e n c o u n t e r (yu\^? o r t s a o ^  )" o r " t o i m i t a t e , t o mould (fa>^y ) . " The Kuo H s i a n g , Ch'eng H s t l a n - y i n g and most o f the t r a d i t i o n s a l commentaries f o l l o w the f i r s t i n t e r p r e t a -t i o n . From t h e s e two i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , we can a r r i v e a t t h r e e a l t e r n a t i v e t r a n s l a t i o n s * 1) "When man e n c o u n t e r s the human form..." 2) "When man i m i t a t e s the human form..." 3) "When man i s c a s t i n human form..." The p r e f e r a b i l i t y o f the t h i r d t r a n s l a t i o n can be demonstrated by the f u n c t i o n o f t h i s c h a r a c t e r fanff)i3j l a t e r i n t h i s same c h a p t e r . I n 17/6/58-9, i t i s used d i r e c t l y p a r a l l e l t o t h e c h a r a c t e r chu^|j ip( "to c a s t m e t a l " ) . See Yang Shu-ta (CTCCV30p7) and Chu K u e i - y a o (CTCCV26ppl69-70). 16. T h i s phrase i s r e p e a t e d i n 55/21/3^» 112 Since one undergoes innumerable mutations without ever reaching a p o i n t of exhaustion, who w i l l be able to t r o u b l e h i s mind? 17. Wang Shu-min ( l / 5 2 b ) and Chang Mo-sheng (p. 164) suggest th a t we should f o l l o w a discrepancy i n the p a r a l l e l Huai Nan  Tzu SPTK 2/lOb passage and i n s e r t the phrase: p_i erh f u h s i n r e v i t a l i z e d , can the number of such t h i n g s . . . " ) . They f u r t h e r suggest t h a t the Kuo Hsiang commentary (CTCCVlpl40) on t h i s passage seems to have been w r i t t e n f o r a t e x t c o n t a i n i n g t h i s phrase. I t s t a t e s : Fundamentally he i s not a man, but i s transformed to become one. In being transformed i n t o a man, he l o s e s h i s o l d form. Losing h i s o l d form but remaining happy, he i s happy i n whatever he encounters. Wang Mou-hung (CTCCV20pl4) and Ts'ao Shou-k'un (CTCCV30pl38) consider t h a t the passage: "When man i s cast i n human form...can f i n d pleasure thus be c a l c u l a t e d ! " i s not continuous with the context and consequently represents an erroneous i n t e r p o l a t i o n . Ma Hsu-lun (p. 1 9 5 ) would i n s e r t i t below the f o l l o w i n g phrase: "...then change would c e r t a i n l y consider me an i n a u s p i c i o u s person!" i n 1 7 / 6 / 5 9 . The f a c t t h a t the p a r a l l e l passage i n the Huai Nan Tzu SPTK 2/lOb extends from "The Great Clod encumbers me w i t h a p h y s i c a l form, f a t i g u e s me w i t h l i f e . . . ( T e x t 9 ) " to "Can the number of such t h i n g s i n which he can f i n d pleasure thus be c a l c u l a t e d ! " as one continuous block of t e x t i n p r e c i s e l y the same order would tend to discourage such an emendation. ("Becoming delapidated and then again being 113 On f i r s t reading o f the t e x t , i t would seem true that t h i s s e c t i o n would be e a s i e r to cope w i t h i n terms of t r a n s l a t i o n i f we f o l l o w the advice o f these three commentators and omit the passage i n question. There i s no d i f f i c u l t y , however, i n f o l l o w i n g the author's argument i n the t e x t as i t stan d s i 1. One should s t r i v e to experience the u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d whole ( i . e . the " E t e r n a l Thing" or t a o ) , and by doing so, escape change. 2. The unsublimated man f i n d s pleasure i n being c a s t as man and t h i n k s i t s u p e r i o r to being c a s t as any other o b j e c t of the phenomenal world. In f a c t , being c a s t as man or being cast as any other t h i n g i s a l l the s a m e — d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g among them i s an i n f e r i o r way of viewing the world o f exper-ience. • 3 . The Sublimated Man ( i . e . the Sage) chooses to i d e n t -i f y h i m s e l f w i t h the t o t a l i t y o f these d i f f e r e n t i a t e d o b j e c t s , and by doing so, a t t a i n s a l e v e l of experience which admits of no permutation. From t h i s l e v e l o f experience, youth and age, beginning and end and a l l such r e l a t i v e concepts become meaningless. 18. For the c h a r a c t e r t r a n s l a t e d here as "youth", there are four v a r i a n t s i n the texts« 1) the t e x t on which the Lu Te-ming commentary (CTCCV2p40) i s based has the character yao-yA ("elegant"). 3) according to Lu Te-ming, an u n s p e c i f i e d t e x t had yao °j 2) according to Lu Te-ming, the T s ' u i Chuan t e x t had chiao ffif^("artful"). 114 ("premature death") o r y a o c ^ ("young and b e a u t i f u l " ) . 4) a c c o r d i n g t o Ch'en Ching-ytlan (CTCCV5p49), the Chang Chun-fang t e x t has shao >\) ( "few, a l i t t l e " ) o r shao 'y ("young"). I o We choose t o i n t e r p r e t t h i s as shao >X) (which i s synonymous w i t h yao fcj) because the Kuo H s i a n g commentary (CTCCVlpl40) s t a t e s t h a t "one who des n o t approve o f y o u t h (shao ) and who negates o l d age w i l l n o t be a b l e t o embody change and i d e n t i f y l i f e and d e a t h as one," i n d i c a t i n g t h a t the t e x t on whi c h t h i s commentary was w r i t t e n a l s o had shao. A g a i n , shao ("youth") and l a o " o l d age") are o p p o s i t e s , whereas t h r o u g h -out the t e x t o f Chuang Tzu, yao -^ C (as "premature death") i s . p a i r e d w i t h shou j6 ( " l o n g e v i t y " ) ( e . g . 5/2/ 5 2 ? 2 0 / 7/16; 5 9 / 2 2 / 3 7 ) . 19. Ch'en C h ' i - t ' i e n (p. 104) s t a t e s t h a t the e x p r e s s i o n i hua — r e f e r s t o a l l change, and i s s i m i l a r t o wan hua (s> i n meaning. 20. Ma H s t l - l u n (p. 1 9 5 ) and Ts'ao Shou-k'un ( C T C C V 3 0 p l 3 8 ) would b o t h omit the passage "...when he approves o f y o u t h . . . upon which each t r a n s f o r m a t i o n depends!", c h o o s i n g t o i n s e r t i t f o l l o w i n g the passage "When man i s c a s t i n human form...can f i n d p l e a s u r e t h u s be c a l c u l a t e d ! " i n 1 7 / 6 / 5 9 . See note 17.. above. T h i s emendation i s u n n e c e s s a r y . , n 5 11. TEXT 1 2 3 The tao has r e a l i t y and c r e d i b i l i t y , i s non-active-' and without physical form. It can be transmitted, but cannot be received; i t can be acquired, but cannot be perceived. I t i s i t s own root and substratum. Predating the cosmos, i t has already^ had a sustained existence from remote antiquity. I t s p i r i t u a l i z e d ' the shades of the dead and the gods, and Pi engendered the firmament and the earth. I t ex i s t s above Q the Great Ultimate, and yet i s not high; i t exists below the s i x d i r e c t i o n s , 1 0 but i s not deep. I t i s anterior to the cosmos 1 1 and yet i s not long-lived; i t covers a longer time 12 span than high antiquity and yet i s not old. EXEGESIS 1. See Text 9 note 5 above. Hsi T'ung ( i n Ts'ao Shou-k'un CTCCV30pl39) reads ch'ing f j j ("reality") as a loan character fo r i t s cognate and rhyme/character c h i n g ^ f l ("essence"), basing t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n on a s i m i l a r passage i n Lao Tzu 21: In the tao's co n s t i t u t i n g an entity, It i s nebulous and hazy; Though hazy and nebulous, In i t s midst there are shapes (hsiang Though nebulous and hazy, In i t s midst there are things; Though obscure and vague, In i t s midst there i s i t s essence (chingffiq). Its essence i s very sublime, And i n i t s midst there i s c r e d i b i l i t y (hsinA% ). Although t h i s a l t e r a t i o n i s worth considering, there i s a passage i n the Chuang Tzu i t s e l f (4/2/14) which r e f l e c t s the wording of t h i s passage: 116 I t would seem t h a t t h e r e i s a Sublime R u l e r , b u t we r e a l l y do n o t a c q u i r e any such i n d i c a t i o n . That i t can be s p r e a d abroad i s a l r e a d y c r e d i b l e ( h s i n ^ i L )» bu t I cannot p e r c e i v e i t s p h y s i c a l form ( h s i n g ). I t has r e a l i t y ( c h ' i n g t|f[ ) and y e t i s w i t h o u t p h y s i c a l form ( h s i n g ) . As Ts'ao Shou-k'un (CTCCV30pl39) p o i n t s o u t , i t i s u n d o u b t e d l y b e t t e r t o use Chuang Tzu t o e x p l a i n Chuang Tzu t h a n t o c i t e Lao Tzu. 2. Chu Kue i - y a o (CTCCV26p70) comments t h a t c h ' i n g ^ ( " r e a l i t y " ) means s h i h - ^ ( " r e a l i t y " ) , and has the same meaning as h s i n ( " c r e d i b i l i t y " ) . To s u p p o r t t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n , he c i t e s t he 4/2/15 passage t r a n s l a t e d i n note 1 above. Kuo L i a n g - h a n (CTCCV13p344) r e l a t e s t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f the t a o t o the passage which f o l l o w s , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t i t i s because the t a o has t h i s " r e a l i t y " and " c r e d i b i l i t y " t h a t i t can be " t r a n s m i t t e d " and " a c q u i r e d , " and i t i s because i t i s " n o n - a c t i v e " and i s w i t h o u t " p h y s i c a l form" t h a t i t can n e i t h e r be " r e c e i v e d " n o r " p e r c e i v e d . " 3. Wen I - t o (p. 26?) propounds the t h e s i s t h a t wei ^ 3 ( " a c t i v e " ) i s a c o r r u p t i o n o f the c h a r a c t e r h s i a n g ("shapes"). To s u p p o r t t h i s , he c i t e s examples i n a n c i e n t t e x t s i n w h i c h t h e s e two c h a r a c t e r s a r e used i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y , and f u r t h e r n o t e s t h a t i n t he l i shu s c r i p t , t h e s e two c h a r a c t e r s b e a r a s t r i k i n g s i m-i l a r i t y . I n amending t h i s t o h s i a n g , he i s t h e n a b l e t o e x t e n d the p a r a l l e l between c h ' i n g ^ ( " r e a l i t y " ) and h s i n ("cred-i b i l i t y " ) t o h s i a n g ^ _ ( " s h a p e s " ) and h s i n g ( " p h y s i c a l f o r m " ) . There a r e c e r t a i n f a c t o r s w h i c h might t e n d t o d i s c r e d i t . 117 t h i s emendation. F i r s t , i n the Lao Tzu 21 ( c i t e d i n note 1 above) i t s t a t e s s p e c i f i c a l l y t h a t i n the tao " t h e r e a r e shapes ( h s i a n g ) . " ( C f . Lao Tzu 14) To s t a t e t h a t i t i s " w i t h o u t shapes" would c o n t r a d i c t Lao Tzu d i r e c t l y . I n f a c t , Lao Tzu 41 if uses the term t a h s i a n g ^  " G r e a - t Shape") as a n o t h e r d e s i g -n a t i o n f o r the t a o . S e c o n d l y , the n o t i o n o f b e i n g " n o n - a c t i v e (wu weiJj$- fe) ) i s one o f the most fundamental T a o i s t c o n c e p t s , and i s f r e q u e n t l y used t o d e s c r i b e the a c t i v i t y o f t h e t a o . I n absence o f any s u b s t a n t i a l i n d i c a t i o n o f t e x t u a l c o r r u p t i o n , we r e t a i n the o r i g i n a l w o r d i n g . 4. On the b a s i s o f a Ch'u Tz'u SPTK 5/88b passage w h i c h i s p a r a l l e l t o t h i s i The t a o can be r e c e i v e d , b u t i t cannot be t r a n s m i t t e d . Wen I - t o (pp. 267-8) emends the Chuang Tzu t e x t by r e v e r s i n g the o r d e r o f the two c h a r a c t e r s ch'uan/(^- ( " t r a n s m i t " ) and shou i f f i ( " r e c e i v e " ) . He f u r t h e r s u g g e s t s t h a t cji^uan4^f- ( " t r a n s -m i t " ) be r e a d as p_o^^ ("grope f o r " ) , s u p p o r t i n g t h i s a l t e r a t i o n w i t h a passage from Lao Tzu 14 ( r e p e a t e d i n Chuang Tzu 60/22/66): We grope about (p_p_ ) f o r i t (the t a o ) b u t do n o t gr a s p h o l d o f i t , And c a l l i t " s u b t l e " . Ch'en C h ' i - t ' i e n (p. 104) c o n s i d e r s shou ( " r e c e i v e " ) t o be a l o a n c h a r a c t e r f o r s h o u ^ v ^ ( "to g i v e " ) . R a t h e r t h a n a l t e r i n g t he t e x t , Chu Kue i - y a o (CTCCV26pl71) and Wang Y i n g - l i n ( i n Ch'ien Mu p. 51) i n t e r p r e t t h i s p h r ase i n terms o f the c o n n o t a t i o n s o f the words. Chu Kue i - y a o o b s e r v e s t h a t the Hung H s i n g - t s u ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ J ^ c o m m e n t a r y to the 118 Ch'u Tz'u would j u s t i f y t h i s d i s c r e p a n c y by i n t e r p r e t i n g the Ch'u Tz'u passage as meaning t h a t the tao can be a c q u i r e d w i t h the mind, b u t cannot be t r a n s m i t t e d t h r o u g h c a l c u l a t i o n . The Chuang Tzu, on the o t h e r hand, means t h a t i t can be t r a n s m i t t e d w i t h the mind, b u t cannot be a c q u i r e d t h r o u g h d i s c u s s i o n . We would f o l l o w t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . 5. T h i s p h rase i s r e m i n i s c e n t o f the Lao Tzu 14t We l o o k f o r i t ( t h e t a o ) b u t do n o t p e r c e i v e i t , and c a l l i t " u n p e r t r u d i n g ; " . . . E n c o u n t e r i n g i t , we cannot p e r c e i v e i t s f r o n t ; F o l l o w i n g b e h i n d i t , we cannot p e r c e i v e i t s back. and Lao Tzu 35« But i f we speak o f the t a o , I t i s so i n s i p i d t h a t i t i s t a s t e l e s s ; I f we l o o k f o r i t , I t i s too s u b t l e t o be seen... 6. Chang Mo-sheng (p. 167) and Ch'en C h ' i - t ' i e n (p. 104) b o t h r e a d t h e c h a r a c t e r i ^ ("to use") as i t s rhyme c h a r -a c t e r and l o a n c h a r a c t e r i tL> ( " a l r e a d y " ) . 7. Chang P i n g - l i n (p. .18), s u g g e s t s t h a t the c h a r a c t e r shen^^? ( " s p i r i t u a l i z e " ) has the c o n n o t a t i o n o f sheng ("to engender"). The meaning o f t h i s passage i s a g a i n r e m i n i s c e n t o f Lao Tzu 39« The gods became s p i r i t u a l t h r o u g h a c q u i r i n g the One ( i . e . the t a o ) . . . I f the gods were w i t h o u t t h a t w h i c h s u s t a i n s t h e i r s p i r i t u a l i t y , I f e a r t h e y would become i n e r t . 119 8. The modern t e x t reads: " I t e x i s t e d before (hsien tftJ) the Great U l t i m a t e . . . , " but we have amended the t e x t by s u b s t i -t u t i n g shang fc. ("above") f o r h s i e n ^ ( " b e f o r e " ) . We have made t h i s emendation, because: 1) h s i e n ("before") i s not p a r a l l e l to the word hsia"fx ("below") i n the phrase which f o l l o w s t h i s one. 2) h s i e n ("before") does not correspond to the word kao £g ("high"), whereas h s i a ("below") does correspond to s h e n " d e e p " ) i n the next phrase. 3) the Kuo Hsiang commentary ( C T C C V l p l 4 l ) s t a t e s : Moreover, above (shang }> ) and below there i s nothing which i s not penetrated, so i t cannot be designated by terms l i k e "high" and "low". The Ch'eng Hstian-ying commentary ( C T C C V 3 p 2 9 7 ) s t a t e s : The Great Ultimate i s the f i v e vapours...The tao e x i s t s above (shang fc- ) the f i v e vapours, but i t i s not high or remote. The f a c t t h a t both of these commentaries have shang ("above") r a t h e r than h s i e n ("before") might i n d i c a t e t h a t the t e x t s on which they are commenting a l s o read shang. 4) the expression "above the Great Ultimate ( t ' a i c h i  chi h shang ^ / J ^ / Z ^ J ^ - )" al s o occurs i n the Huai Nan Tzu SPTK 6 A 0 b . For more d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s emendation, see Yu Ytleh (p. 197). Lu Te-ming (CTCCV2p40) comments tha t the Ts ' u i Chuan t e x t had c h i h h s i e n wei XJ^kj^^ , and Lu Wen-ch'ao ( C T C C V 2 3 p 6 ) notes th a t one t e x t has hs i e n c h i h ^ j ^ , but both of these t e x t u a l v a r i a n t s are obvious c o r r u p t i o n s . 120 9. I n . t h e I C h i n g SPYK ?/46b i t s t a t e s : Thus, the I ( ^  ) had the G r e a t U l t i m a t e ( t ' a i c h i - ^ ^ S g ) . T h i s engendered the two p r i m o r d i a l forms. The K'ung Y i n g - t a ^L-^fjj£ _ commentary on t h i s passage s t a t e s : The G r e a t U l t i m a t e r e f e r s t o the p r i m o r d i a l v apours which were b l e n d e d as one b e f o r e t h e i r s e p a r a t i o n i n t o the heavens and the e a r t h , and i s e q u i v a l e n t t o the G r e a t G e n e s i s ( t ' a i ch'u JS&A ) o r Great One ( t ' a i i A-Ytl Ytleh (p. 197) and C h ' i e n Mu (p. 316) choose t o i n t e r p r e t the term "Great U l t i m a t e " a c c o r d i n g t o the Lu Te-ming g l o s s o f the I C h i n g passage, which d e f i n e s i t as t ' i e n £ ( " n a t u r e " ) . In o r d e r to j u s t i f y the emendation shang J^("above") (see note 8 a b o v e ) : i n the p r e c e d i n g passage, t h e y m i s c o n s t r u e Lu Te-ming's a p p a r e n t meaning, and r e a d t ' i e n as "the heavens." I n the passage above c i t e d from the I C h i n g SPTK 7/46b, i t s t a t e s t h a t the G r e a t U l t i m a t e "engendered the two p r i m o r d i a l forms ( l i a n g i sffQ^i^)." These "two p r i m o r d i a l forms ( l i a n g i ) " a re t r a d i t i o n a l l y i d e n t i f i e d as the heavens ( t ' i e n ) and the e a r t h . Hence, Ytl Ytleh and C h ' i e n Mu are s a y i n g t h a t the G r e a t U l t i m a t e (which t h e y d e f i n e as t ' i e n ) engendered the heavens ( t ' i e n ) and e a r t h . In i n t e r p r e t i n g t h i s e x p r e s s i o n "Great U l t i m a t e " , we f o l l o w K'ung Y i n g - t a * s commentary on the I C h i n g c i t e d above. 1 0 . In r e f e r e n c e t o the e x p r e s s i o n l i u c h i ^ ^ % " s i x d i r e c t i o n s " ) , C h ' i e n Mu (pp. 3 1 5 - 6 ) n o t e s two a l t e r n a t i v e e x p l a n a t i o n s : 1) A c c o r d i n g to Ssu-ma P i a o ( s i c — t h i s i s n o t Ssu-ma P i a o ' s e x p l a n a t i o n , but i s i n f a c t Ch'eng Hs t l a n - y i n g ' s C T C C V 3 p 2 9 7 ) t h i s means the f o u r d i r e c t i o n s p l u s up and down, i . e . s i x d i r e c t i o n s . 121 2) I t i s the same as the e x p r e s s i o n l i u c h i i n the Shu Ch i n g SPTK ? A 8 a passage« wu f u l i u c h i \% A A^t ("the f i v e f o r t u n e s and the s i x e x t r e m i t i e s " ) . The Shu C h i n g s t a t e s i As t o the s i x e x t r e m i t i e s ( l i u c h i 7^ . ) a g a i n , the f i r s t i s m i s f o r t u n e , s h o r t e n i n g the l i f e j t he second i s s i c k n e s s ? the t h i r d i s sorrow; the f o u r t h i s p o v e r t y ; the f i f t h i s wickedness? the s i x t h i s weakness. (Legge I I I i 3^3) C ' i e n Mu c o r r e c t l y p o i n t s o u t t h a t w h i l e the e x p r e s s i o n l i u c h i i n t h i s passage and i n 20/7/9 d e f i n i t e l y r e f e r s t o the s i x d i r e c t i o n s , i n the wai c h a p t e r s (36/l^A; 3 7 A V 2 8 ) i t r e f e r s t o the l i u c h i o f the Shu Ch i n g ( i . e . the " s i x e x t r e m i t i e s " ) . 11. The phrase h s i e n t ' i e n t i sheng ( " i t i s a n t e r -i o r t o the cosmos") a l s o o c c u r s i n Lao Tzu 2 5 . 12. The S h i h Te T'ang t e x t does n o t have the c h a r a c t e r wei ( " i s " ) , h u t we have r e s t o r e d i t a c c o r d i n g t o the Ku I Ts'ung Shu t e x t . Ts'ao Shou-k'un (CTCCV30pl40) o b s e r v e s t h a t i t a l s o o c c u r s i n the Chiao Hun Chuang Tzu I t e x t . T h i s same passage i s r e p e a t e d below i n 19/6/89 w i t h the c h a r a c t e r wei i n c l u d e d . A l s o , the t h r e e s e n t e n c e s which precede t h i s phrase a r e p a r a l -l e l t o i t i n c o n s t r u c t i o n , and a l l t h r e e have w e i . I t would appear t h a t t h i s i s a s i m p l e o m i s s i o n . 12. TEXT H s i W e i 1 o b t a i n e d i t ( i . e . the t a o ) and t h r o u g h i t s e p a r -p 3 h, a t e d the heavens and the e a r t h . Fu H s i o b t a i n e d i t and 122 through i t penetrated to- 5 the source of the p r i m o r d i a l s t u f f . 7 The Great Bear c o n s t e l l a t i o n ' obtained i t and has been constant G i n i t s course without d e v i a t i o n . The sun and moon obtained 9 10 i t and have continued without pause. K'an P'ei obtained 11 12 i t and through i t entered the K'un Lun mountains. P'ing 13 I J obtained i t and through i t rambled about i n the Great R i v e r . • • • C h i e n (K'un??) Wu1-5 obtained i t and through i t dwelt i n the great mountains. Huang T i ' obtained i t and 18 through i t ascended to the cloudy heavens. Chuan Hstl 19 obtained i t and through i t he dwelt i n the Dark Palace. 7 20 21 Ytl Ch'iang obtained i t and occupied the northern e x t r e m i t i e s . 22 H s i Wang Mu obtained i t and abides (on the throne) i n Shao 23 Kuang. J No one knows of t h e i r beginnings or of t h e i r consequence. P'eng Tsu J obtained i t , and h i s l i f e span extended from the era of the Yu Ytl dynasty through the 27 28 era of the Five Lords. Fu Ytleh obtained i t and through 29 i t became Prime M i n i s t e r 7 to Wu Ting to h o l d sway over the 30 31 world. R i d i n g the Tung Wei s t a r c l u s t e r , and b e s t r i d i n g the S a g i t t a r i u s and Scorpio c o n s t e l l a t i o n s , he assumed h i s 32 p o s i t i o n among the assembled s t a r s . EXEGESIS 1. There are b a s i c a l l y two t h e o r i e s as to the i d e n t i t y of t h i s reference, H s i Wei Shih ^ * 1) Ssu-ma Piao ( c i t e d i n Huang Shih C T C C V 2 3 p 4 ?) s t a t e s t h a t t h i s i s the personal a p p e l a t i o n of an emperor of high a n t i q u i t y . Ch'eng Hstlan-ying ( C T C C V 3 p 2 9 7 ) elaborates on 123 t h i s l e g e n d a r y r u l e r , p l a c i n g him c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y b e f o r e the advent o f the w r i t t e n word. Because he a c q u i r e d the s p i r i t u a l l y u n i v e r s a l t a o , he was t h u s a b l e t o d r i v e out the v a r i o u s s u -s t a n c e s and l e n d a s s i s t a n c e t o t h e two p r i m o r d i a l forms. Wen I - t o (p. 268) s u g g e s t s t h a t H s i Wei i s c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y a n t e r i o r t o Fu H s i ( c f . B. K a r l g r e n , BMFEA 18«220), and i s i n f a c t i d e n -t i c a l w i t h P'an Kur^g_ ^ . He i n t e r p r e t s the phrase c h ' i e h t H e n — ^ ^ v " ^ L > a s " s e P a r a " t e d the heavens and the e a r t h " i n a c c o r d -ance w i t h the P'an Ku l e g e n d ( t h e Cheng H s u a n j j l ^ ^ commentary t o the S h i h C h i n g SPTK 16/H6a s t a t e s t h a t c h ' i e h ^ 1 means k ' a i fffi — " t o open"). 2) L i I ( i n Lu Te-ming CTCCV2p40) s t a t e s t h a t h s i s h o u l d be pronounced s h i h ^ . Ma H s f i - l u n (pp. 196-7) would f o l l o w the Shuo Wen i n w r i t i n g h s i as h s i ^ & p . A c c o r d i n g t o the Shuo Wen,'the p e o p l e o f s o u t h e r n Ch'u des-i g n a t e d the b o a r ( s h i h ) w i t h the c h a r a c t e r h s i ^ ^ . Assuming t h a t h s i wei s h i h ^ % i s an a l t e r n a t i v e form o f s h i h w e i s h i h , some commentators (see Ytl Yfleh ( I ) p. 6bj Wang Ytl CTCCV19pl63s Ts'ao Shou-k'un CTCC V30pl40) i d e n t i f y him as a descendant o f one o f the F i v e Hegemons (wu p_§.J^ f. ^ ). The P a i Hu T'ung SPTK l / l 2 a s t a t e s : What does F i v e Hegemnons (wu p_a) mean? I t r e f e r s t o K'un Wu S h i h JL=£ fa , Ta P'eng S h i h $r , S h i h Wei S h i h %K % V Duke Huan o f C h ' i ^ ^ U{ and Duke Wen o f C h i n %- iC /\ . I n a n c i e n t t i m e s the tao o f the Three True K i n g s f e l l i n t o d i s u s e , and the F i v e Hegemnons p r e s e r v e d the p o l i t i c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . They l e d the v a r i o u s n o b l e s , enthroned the Son o f Heaven, r e c t i f i e d t h e changes i n the empire, r e s t o r e d the c e n t r a l s t a t e s and r e p e l l e d the b a r b a r i a n s . T h e r e f o r e , t h e y were 124 c a l l e d p_a ("take the l e a d , have hegemony"). I n a n c i e n t t i m e s , K'un Wu S h i h was the p_a d u r i n g the H s i a d y n a s t y ; Ta P'eng S h i h and S h i h Wei S h i h were the p_a d u r i n g the Y i n ; and Duke Huan o f C h ' i and Duke Wen o f C h i n were the pa d u r i n g the Chou. ( c f . T.S. T j a n , Po Hu T'ung, p. 236") The Kuo Yu SPTK 16/I19a s t a t e s t h a t the S h i h Wei and Ta P'eng l i n e s were the L o r d s o f Shang. A l s o c f . Feng Su  T'ung I SPTK 1/lOa. a t the time o f Shun t o the Fan c l a n o f C h i n d u r i n g the Ch\'un C h ' i u p e r i o d . I n c h o o s i n g between these two t r a d i t i o n s , we would have t o l e a n t o the former f o r s e v e r a l r e a s o n s : o f the Chuang Tzu., A l t h o u g h the a u t h e n t i c i t y o f the s e l a t e r p assages i s h i g h l y s u s p e c t (see Lo K e n - t s e , pp. 297-307), t h e y a r e a l l t h r e e v e r y T a o i s t i n t e n o r and a t v e r y l e a s t r e p r e s e n t the c l o s e s t i n - d e p t h commentary t h a t we have on the Chuang Tzu. The 72/25/54 passage r e f e r s t o a h i s t o r i o g r a p h e r contem-p o r a r y w i t h C o n f u c i u s who does n o t seem t o r e l a t e t o e i t h e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . I n the 60/22/79 passage, he appears l i s t e d i n a chrono-l o g i c a l sequence w h i c h p l a c e s him as f i r s t i n the l i s t o f l e g e n d a r y s a g e - r u l e r s . The c h r o n o l o g y i s r e - e n f o r c e d by the f a c t t h a t i n t h i s passage (as B. Watson p. 246 p o i n t s o u t ) : "...the p a r k o f H s i Wei S h i h , the garden o f Huang T i , the p a l a c e o f Yu Yu S h i h and the h a l l s o f T'ang and Wu...," the p a r k , g a r d e n , p a l a c e , and h a l l s r e p r e s e n t a " d e v o l u t i o n A g a i n , i n the Tso Chuan 3 0 1/11 2 4 / l , i t t r a c e s the l i n e a g e o f S h i h Wei S h i h from the T'ao T'ang S h i h t h r e e o t h e r p o r t i o n s 125 from n a t u r a l n e s s t o i n c r e a s i n g a r t i f i c i a l i t y and e x t r a v a g a n c e . " I n the 7 4 / 2 6 / 3 6 passage, H s i Wei i s p o r t r a y e d as a symbol o f a n t i q u i t y so remote t h a t h i s p r i n c i p l e s no l o n g e r have any p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n 1 Now t o e x a l t a n t i q u i t y and be contemptuous o f t h e contemporary i s the t r a d i t i o n o f the s c h o l a r , and f u r t h e r i s t o examine the modern w o r l d from the p o i n t o f v i e w o f H s i Wei's l e g a c y . 2) To a c c e p t the l a t t e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n r e q u i r e s t h a t we a l s o a c c e p t the e q u a t i o n =lK_ . 3) I f , as Wen I - t o s u g g e s t s , H s i Wei S h i h i s a t r a d i t i o n i d e n t i c a l t o o r o v e r l a p p i n g w i t h the P'an Ku l e g e n d , t h e n t h i s m ight a c c o u n t f o r the g r a d u a l e c l i p s e o f H s i Wei from e a r l y Chinese l i t e r a t u r e . 2. The two c o g nates c h ' i ^ ^ and c h i e h / h s i e h ^ o c c u r as l o a n c h a r a c t e r s f o r c h ' i e h ^ j 1 ( " s e p a r a t e d " ) . The T s ' u i Chuan commentary ( i n Lu Te-ming CTCCV2p40) would i n t e r p r e t t h i s p h r a se as "complete (ch'eng ) the heavens and the e a r t h ? " Ssu-ma P i a o ( a l s o i n Lu Te-ming CTCCV2p40) s u g g e s t s t h a t i t means t o " a c q u i r e the essence (yao ) o f the heavens and e a r t h . " Ch'eng Hsua n - y i n g (CTCCV3p297) i n t e r p r e t s t h i s as a l o a n c h a r a c t e r f o r c h ' i , meaning "to be a b l e t o commingle the m y r i a d t h i n g s and c o n j o i n the heavens and the e a r t h . " I n o u r t r a n s l a t i o n , however, we f o l l o w Wen I - t o (see note 1 above). 3 . Passages s i m i l a r t o t h i s p o r t i o n o f the c h a p t e r i n terms o f sentence s t r u c t u r e and w i t h r e l a t e d c o n t e n t o c c u r i n Lao 1 2 6 Tzu 3 9 , Han F e i Tzu SPTK 6 / 3 2 a and Huai Nan Tzu SPTK l l / 7 8 a . Yeh Ping-ching (CTCCVl6p211) comments that Chuang Tzu i s a v a i l i n g h i m s e l f of h a l f t r u e / h a l f f i c t i t i o u s examples and i s employing h i s imagination i n t h i s passage to make the p o i n t t h a t the tao has always e x i s t e d . 4. According to the Shih Chi SPTK PNP l / l a - b , Fu H s i (/{K,jfX » a l s o known a s ^ | , & ^  ^ |; , V^^^'^^^IsP w a s conceived when h i s mother Hua Hsu 4jT^f" t r o d i n the f o o t p r i n t of a g i a n t i n the L e i marshlands, and was horn at Ch'eng C h i ^ ^ ^ j with a snakes body and a human head. He was born i n t o a world i n which "people would know t h e i r mothers but not t h e i r f a t h e r s ( P a i Hu T'ung SPTK 1/I0b: c f . T.S. Tjan, p. 2 3 2 )"--a world i n which man was l i t t l e b e t t e r than an u n c i v i l i z e d beast. To t h i s world he introduced f i r e , s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , marriage, rope w r i t i n g , f i s h i n g , husbandry, s a c r i f i c i a l animals, and a l l such b a s i c elements of e a r l y c i v i l i z a t i o n . Among other t h i n g s , he was the f i r s t to begin the drawing of the e i g h t diagrams, by means of which man could come to understand the m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of the s p i r i t s and gods and c l a s s i f y the v a r i o u s c o n d i t i o n s of the myriad t h i n g s . The f i r s t of the Three I l l u s t r i o u s Kings (san  huang J L l|L ), he made h i s c a p i t a l at Ch'enj^^and reigned f o r 111 years. ( c f . M. Granet, La Pensee Chinoise , pp. 183 - 4 ; Wen I - t o , Shen Hua Ytl Shih, p. 3 f f . ; Yuan K'o, Chung Kuo Ku  Tai Shen Hua, p. 4 0 f f . ) Wang Shu-min ( l / 5 3 a - b ) observes that s e v e r a l t e x t s have d i f f e r e n t v a r i a t i o n s on the name, Fu H s i . A l s o , s e v e r a l of 127 the e a r l y t e x t s have Fu H s i S h i h 1^ r a t h e r t h a n s i m p l y Fu H s i . A c c o r d i n g t o Lu Te-ming (CTCCV2p40), the T s ' u i Chuan t e x t a l s o had t h i s c h a r a c t e r s h i h ^K/ , making i t p a r a l l e l t o H s i Wei S h i h $ ^ i ^ (\_in the f i r s t s e n t e n c e . 5. The c h a r a c t e r h s i i s i n t e r p r e t e d by Ch'eng Hsua n - y i n g (CTCCV3p298) and L i n H s i - i (CTCCV7p270) as " t o harmonize," b u t Ssu-ma P i a o ( i n Lu Teaming CTCCV2p40) s u g g e s t s t h a t i t means j u A . ("to p e n e t r a t e " ) . The f a c t t h a t ^ G S R 6 8 9 « * ^ 3 P / &\?f/<>\ and A . GSR695 ^ j [ a p A ^ A a P / j ^ are c l o s e phonet-i c a l l y would t e n d t o s u p p o r t Ssu-ma P i a o ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . A l s o , the c h a r a c t e r h s i appears a g a i n below i n t h i s passage w i t h t h e meaning o f " t o e n t e r " . 6. The use o f the c h a r a c t e r mu-^ ( l i t e r a l l y , " m o t h e r " — " s o u r c e ) as a metaphor f o r " s o u r c e " i s common p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the Lao  Tzut Chap. 1» " B e i n g " names the mother (mu) o f the m y r a i d t h i n g s . Chap. 2 5 * . . . t h i s can be c o n s i d e r e d the mother (mu) o f the u n i v e r s e . Chap. 52s The w o r l d has i t s g e n e s i s , and t h i s g e n e s i s can be c o n s i d e r e d the mother (mu) o f the w o r l d . When we have an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the mother (mu), we can use t h i s t o u n d e r s t a n d h e r progeny. Fu H s i i s , among o t h e r t h i n g s , c r e d i t e d w i t h the c o n t r i -b u t i o n o f t h e e i g h t diagrams. When p r o p e r l y u n d e r s t o o d , t h e s e diagrams e n a b l e t h e i r u s e r t o fathom the i n i t i a t i v e s o f the s p i r i t u a l w o r l d , t o comprehend the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s o f y i n and yang, and u l t i m a t e l y , t o p r e d i c t t h e i r m a n i f e s t a t i o n s i n the 128 phenomenal world. Perhaps t h i s p e n e t r a t i o n to "the source of the p r i m o r d i a l s t u f f " i s a reference to t h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n . 7 . The term wei t o u ^ J I ^ i s an a l t e r n a t e d e s i g n a t i o n f o r p e i tou 4 k i | ("Northern Dipper, Great Bear"), which was considered the r u l i n g c o n s t e l l a t i o n of the var i o u s s t a r s . I t i s a l s o r e f e r r e d to as wei tou i n the Han F e i Tzu SPTK 6/32a i n what seems to be a r e l a t e d passage: The Great Bear c o n s t e l l a t i o n obtained i t and through i t e f f e c t e d i t s majesty. 8 . The T s ' u i Chuan t e x t ( i n Lu Te-ming CTCCV2p4l) had t & i ^ K j r a t h e r than t'e 7cAj( " d e v i a t i o n " ). Ma Hstl-lun (pp. 1 9 7 - 8 ) p o i n t s out that these two words both have the connotation of "to change." Again, they are cognate words wi t h a d e f i n i t e graphic resemblance. 9 . There are r e l a t e d passages i n 58/22/23s The sun and moon cannot but progress. and Han F e i Tzu SPTK 6 / 3 2 a : The sun and moon obtained i t and through i t have e t e r n a l l y sustained t h e i r refulgence. 1 0 . K'an P ' e i ^ ^ ^ ^ i s r a t h e r an obscure reference. F i r s t , i t occurs i n va r i o u s formsi 1 ) 4 * * T s ' u i Chuan t e x t ( i n Lu Te-ming CTCCV2p4l) 129 k)S^L^l Lu Te-ming (CTCCV2p4l) i d e n t i f i e s K'an P ' e i w i t h C h ' i n F u ^ L 1=^  who appears i n . the Hua i Nan Tzu (see (7) below) Shan H s i C h i n g SPTK 2 / l 3 b 6) £fc3& Hou Han Shu SPTK PNP 49/59/31a-b 7) ^ # j \ _ H u a i Nan Tzu SPTK 6 A l b ; l l / 7 8 a ~ i n the modern t e x t i t does n o t o c c u r as c h ' i n f u ^ _ j j ^ The two c h a r a c t e r s ^ G S R 6 5 8 J c W / X l « W / f e W a n d ^ ^ G S R 6 5 2 c o n s t i t u t e a p e r f e c t rhyme, w h i l e the c h a r a c -t e r ^ / G S R 6 0 6 g r j , ^ 3 l i ^ y J t ' ^ i s r e l a t i v e l y c l o s e . The f i v e c h a r a c t e r s ^ x / /£f /^%/§^iK appear t o be c o g n a t e s . The two c h a r a c t e r s ^ GSR999 b ^ W ^ / t ^ i / p ' ^ L and ||[ GSR1000 ^jty/ ^ X ^ ' / " f ^ " b e l o n g t o the same rhyme group b u t have d i f f e r e n t t o n e s ? w h i l e - t h e r e i s an o b v i o u s g r a p h i c s i m i l a r i t y between f u ^ and c h ' i e h ffi . The Hua i Nan Tzu SPTK 6 / 4 l b d e s c r i b e s him as p a r t n e r c h a r i o t e e r t o Ta P i n g ^ y ^ ) . They do n o t r e q u i r e the equipage such as r e i n s , b i t o r whip; n o r do t h e y have t o d r i v e the h o r s e s . R a t h e r , the c a r r i a g e and ho r s e move o f t h e i r own a c c o r d . The Kao Yu commentary says t h a t t h e y were the c h a r i o t e e r s f o r t h e Gr e a t One ( t ' a i o r as a n o t h e r t h e o r y has i t , t h e y were men o f a n t i q u i t y who by v i r t u e o f t h e i r s p i r i t u a l vapours drove the y i n and yang. A g a i n , i n H u a i Nan Tzu SPTK l l / 7 8 a , i t s t a t e s t h a t i C h ' i e n C h ' i e h ^ l i i . o b t a i n e d the t a o ( o f h s i e n immor-t a l i t y and ascended) t o d w e l l on K'un Lun mountain. I n the Shan H a i C h i n g SPTK 2 / l 3 b , i t c o n t a i n s t h e 1 3 0 passage o f C h ' i n P ' e i ^ A ' f J ] b e i n g p u n i s h e d f o r h i s c o m p l i c i t y i n the k i l l i n g o f Pao (some t e x t s have tsu4~EL ) C h i a n g o n the s o u t h e r n s l o p e s o f the K'un Lun mountain. He was t r a n s -formed i n t o a g r e a t o s p r e y , r e s e m b l i n g an e a g l e w i t h b l a c k f e a t h e r s , a w h i t e head, a r e d beak and t i g e r - l i k e t a l o n s . H i s v o i c e was l i k e t h a t o f a w i l d duck. To see him would p o r t e n d g r e a t m i l i t a r y engagements. K'an P ' e i , a c c o r d i n g t o Ssu-ma P i a o ( i n Huang-Shih CTCC V23p48), was a s p i r i t w i t h a human f a c e and a n i m a l body. As can be seen i n the passages above, he i s u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the K'un Lun mountain. 11. See note 5 above. 12. The K'un Lun mountain, s i t u a t e d i n the n o r t h w e s t e r n r e a c h e s o f C h i n a , and P'eng L a i o f f the e a s t c o a s t o f Shantung, were two p r i n c i p l e T a o i s t p a r a d i s e s . T h i s mountain range h e l d a c e n t r a l p o s i t i o n i n the mythology and r e l i g i o n o f e a r l y C h i n a as the r e s i d e n c e o f the H s i Wang Mu and a pantheon o f gods and s p i r i t s . Here, amid the s p l e n d o r s o f jade t r e e s , f r u i t s o f e t e r n a l l i f e , p h o e n i x e s and a l l such a c c o u t r e m e n t s , the a d v e n t u r e s o f the gods were c a s t . D e s c r i b e d w i t h v a r y i n g degrees o f d e t a i l , the K'un Lun m o u n t a i n ( s ) appear t h r o u g h o u t the corpus o f e a r l y Chinese l i t e r a t u r e , n o t e a b l y , Shan H a i  C h i n g SPTK 11 and the Huai Nan Tzu SPTK k. F o r a summary ac c o u n t , see Yuan K'o, Chung Kuo Ku T a i Shen Hua, pp. 9 9 f f . and M. G r a n e t , La Pensee C h i n o i s e , pp. 3 5 7-8. 131 13. P ' i n g ly% o c c u r s i n the p r e - C h ' i n and Han t e x t s under v a r i o u s r e l a t e d names! Chuang T z u i S h u i C h i n g Chu SPTK l / l 5 b , 2 ) ^ t l b _ Mu T ' i e n Tzu Chuan SPTK l / 3 b Shan H a i C h i n g SPTK 12/59a ^/%Jk K a 0 Y u commentary on H u a i Nan Tzu SPTK l / 2 b 5) > ^ / ( i ^ Chang Shou-chieh commentary t o S h i h C h i SPTK PNP 28 / l 3 b-c 6) ;'5 /C^ S h u i C h i n g Chu SPTK l / l 5 b ; Mu T ' i e n Tzu Chuan SPTK l / 3 b The two c h a r a c t e r s ' ^ GSR899k J ^ / k A ^ j / p ^ 1 ^ a n d ^ C G S R 8 9 9 p ^ y ^ ^ n y p u y ^ j a r e cognates and c o n s t i t u t e a p e r f e c t rhyme. A g a i n , the c h a r a c t e r s wujffi and p ' i n g have a c e r t a i n g r a p h i c s i m i l a r i t y . The two c h a r a c t e r s ^} G S R 5 5 1^i , 3 V V 1 / u j l a n d y ^ GSR596 dSpr/U(I / ckl\ a l s o c o n s t i t u t e a p e r f e c t rhyme. The v a r i a n t h s i u ^ l ^ " i s o f a l a t e r d a t e , and does n o t seem t o have any p h o n e t i c o r g r a p h i c r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the e a r l i e r v a r i a t i o n s . Ho £ 0 ; ^ i s o f c o u r s e a r a n k ! " L o r d o f the R i v e r . " I n Lu Te-ming's commentary (CTCCV2p89) on the Chuang  Tzu passage 42/17/1, he o b s e r v e s t h a t one t r a d i t i o n i d e n t i f i e s the "Lord o f the R i v e r " w i t h the surname l t i ^ and p e r s o n a l name kung t z u p' i n g i ^ ,^0<Sj ^ , and makes h e r the w i f e o f ( l f l g ) kung t z u '£ . There a r e b a s i c a l l y two t r a d i t i o n s r e g a r d i n g P ' i n g I i n the e a r l y l i t e r a t u r e : 1) He appears p r i m a r i l y as a r i v e r s p i r i t o f the Y e l l o w R i v e r . I n the S h u i H a i Chuan SPTK 12/59a , i t says t h a t the Ts'ung C h i ( a l s o w r i t t e n chung c h i ) ^ abyss i s 132 300 .ien deep and o n l y P i n g i > k r e s i d e s t h e r e p e r m a n e n t l y . ( c f . S h u i C h i n g Chu SPTK l / 1 5 b w h i c h c i t e s t h i s passage.) I n the S h u i C h i n g Chu SPTK l / l 5 b , the s t o r y o f Mu T ' i e n Mu T ' i e n Tzu Chuan SPTK l / 3 b ) . Mut Yang Ytl i s the l o c a t i o n o f P ' i n g I's r e s i d e n c e s . Mu T ' i e n Tzu p e r f o r m s the chen ^ j ^ j s a c r i -f i c e o f d r o p p i n g g i f t s i n t o the r i v e r f o r the L o r d o f the R i v e r , who r e c e i p r o c a t e s "by u n r o l l i n g a c h a r t o f the r i v e r f o r him on w h i c h i s r e c o r d e d the l o c a t i o n o f v a r i o u s t r e a s u r e s . Mu T ' i e n Tzu t h e n uses the c h a r t t o g u i d e h i s westward j o u r n e y . I n the H u a i Nan Tzu SPTK 11/ 78a i t s t a t e s t h a t : Of o l d , P ' i n g I o b t a i n e d the tao and t h r o u g h i t l u r k e d i n the G r e a t R i v e r . S u b s t i t u t i n g t h e c h a r a c t e r yu ffifr ("ramble about") f o r c h ' i e n \ ^ ("to l u r k " ) and c h i h ;L ( " i t " ) f o r tao j j " ( " t a o " ) . t h i s passage i s i d e n t i c a l w i t h o u r Chuang Tzu t e x t . The Kao Yu commentary on t h i s sentence s t a t e s t h a t P ' i n g I was a man o f t h e T ' i Shou d i s t r i c t j*|L^j o f T'ung H s i a n g }^J$$ i n Hua Y i n ^ j j f -( i n p r e s e n t - d a y S h e n s i p r o v i n c e ) . He weighed h i m s e l f down w i t h e i g h t r o c k s (and drowned h i m s e l f ) t o become a w a t e r i m m o r t a l . Ma H s t l - l u n (pp. 198-9) n o t e s t h a t the Pao P'u Tzu has him s i n k i n g i n t o the r i v e r on the f i r s t keng day. T ' i e n T i ( t h e Supreme d e i t y ) t h e r e u p o n made him L o r d o f t h e R i v e r . An e x t e n s i o n o f t h i s r i v e r s p i r i t t r a d i t i o n has him as a g r e a t c h a r i o t e e r . I n the H u a i Nan Tzu SPTK l / 2 b , P ' i n g I and Ta P i n g -Aj^l are p o r t r a y e d as g r e a t c h a r i o t e e r s d r i v i n g Tzu's a r r i v a l a t Mt. Yang Ytl i s e l a b o r a t e d upon ( c f . 1 3 3 a cloud c h a r i o t through i n f i n i t e d i s t a n c e s , l e a v i n g no t r a c k s and c a s t i n g no shadow. Crossing mountains and r i v e r s , they leap over K'un Lun and enter the residence of God. No c h a r i o t nor any horses can o f f e r them competition. In the Shui Hai Chuan SPTK 12 / 5 9 a he r i d e s two dragons, while the Po Wu Chih SPPY l / 2 b - 3 a has him r i d i n g on dragons and t i g e r s , and dashing o f f a myriad l i . In t h i s passage i n the Chuang Tzu, P'ing I i s depicted as having a t t a i n e d the tao and as a consequence, rambling about f r e e l y i n the depths. He i s again mentioned i n the "Ch'iu Shui" chapter q u i t e e x t e n s i v e l y i n a dialogue between h i m s e l f , Lord of the (Yellow) R i v e r , and Jo, God of the North Sea • 2) The second t r a d i t i o n i d e n t i f i e s P'ing I as a h i s t o r i c a l f e u d a l l o r d r a t h e r than as a legendary r i v e r god. The Chu Shu  Chi Nien SPTKJ^/8a s t a t e s t h a t i n the 16th year of the T i Fen r e i g n ( e r r o r f o r T i Huai^? r . 2040-2014 B.C.??), there was a c o n f l i c t between the Lord of Lo, Yung Yu ^Hr^^) $1 ^ and the Lord of Ho, P'ing Y i ' ^ ^ f e l / ^ ^ . Again, i n the Chu Shu Chi Nien SPTKj>/8b, i t says t h a t i n the 12th year of the T i Hsiehv"^ r e i g n (1996-1980 B.C.), the nobleman of Y i n , Tzu Hai ^ - w a s a guest i n Yu I , but acted i n a l i c e n t i o u s manner. The r u l e r of Yu I, Mien Ch'en k i l l e d him and disposed of him. Therefore, Shang Chia W e i % a f c ^ borrowed troops from the Lord of Ho /^/(Ic? to a t t a c k Yu I. He destroyed i t and subsequently k i l l e d i t s r u l e r , Mien Ch'en. This Middle Age p e r i o d was i n d e c l i n e , 1 3 4 and Shang C h i a Wei r e s t o r e d i t . T h e r e f o r e , the p e o p l e of Y i n were avenged. T h i s s t o r y i s r e p e a t e d w i t h some v a r i a t i o n s i n the S h u i H a i Chuan SPTK l 4 / 6 3 b . From the c o n t e x t of our r e f e r e n c e and on the b a s i s of the p a r a l l e l passage i n the Huai Nan Tzu SPTK l l / 7 8 a , i t would appear t h a t the P ' i n g I mentioned here i s an a l l u s i o n t o the r i v e r s p i r i t , the L o r d of the Y e l l o w R i v e r . ( C f . Ma H s t l - l u n , pp. 1 9 8 - 9 ; B. K a r l g r e n , BMFEA 1 8 : 3 2 0 , 3 2 5 - 6 . K a r l g r e n ' s Huai Nan Tzu r e f e r e n c e s s h o u l d r e a d " C h ' i Su?M& " f o r "Chuei h i n g f f ^ .) 14. A c c o r d i n g t o Lu Te-ming (CTCCV2p4l), the T s ' u i Chuan-text had f a i j j k f o r t a ^ . Ch'eng Hs t l a n - y i n g (CTCCV3p299) and Ch'en Ching-yuan ( C T C C V 5 p 5 0 ) suggest t h a t t a ch'uan ^ ) * \ ("Great R i v e r " ) i s a r e f e r e n c e to the Y e l l o w R i v e r . T h i s would be i n k e e p i n g w i t h the P ' i n g I t r a d i t i o n . 1 5 . T h i s r e f e r e n c e t o C h i e n W u ^ p r e s e n t s no l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y . C h i e n Wu appears i n t h r e e o t h e r passages i n the Chuang Tzu: 1) 2/1/26: C h i e n Wu d e s c r i b e s h i s c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h C h i e h Y u ^ j ^ L t o L i e n S h u ; $ fat i n r a t h e r d i s p a r a g i n g terms. L i e n Shu, aware of C h i e h Ytl's l e v e l of mind, d e s c r i b e s C h i e n Wu as "deaf" and " b l i n d " — n o t i n terms of h i s s e n s e s , but i n terms of h i s i n a b i l i t y t o u n d e r s t a n d and a p p r e c i a t e C h i e h Ytl's e x p e r i e n t i a l a t t a i n m e n t . C h i e h Ytl i s p o r t r a y e d w i t h p r e c i s e l y the same c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as the S u b l i m a t e d Man 1 3 5 i n t h i s chapter, and i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of t h i s l e v e l of mind. Chien Wu, on the other hand, i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the o r d i n -ary l e v e l of percep t i o n . 2) 1 9 / 7 / 4 J Chien Wu i s upbraided by Chieh Yu/j^|fe- f o r accepting the advice of Chung Shih on government by a r t i f i c i a l precepts. Instead, Chieh Yd advocates the T a o i s t n o t i o n of a l l o w i n g t h i n g s to f i n d t h e i r n a t u r a l course. Again, Chieh Yu i s the T a o i s t p r o t a g o n i s t , while Chien Wu i s an a r t l e s s h a l f - w i t . 3 ) 5 7 / 2 1/61; Sun Shu-ao $&h$!L i s unconcerned w i t h honour and o f f i c e . Chien Wu i s awestruck by Sun Shu ao's c a p a c i t y to a l l o w th i n g s to take t h e i r n a t u r a l course without making any d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between eminence and o b s c u r i t y . Here again, Chien Wu i s b a r e l y o r d i n a r y . In a l l three of these passages, Chien Wu i s an i n d i v i -dual who embraces p r e j u d i c e s which e f f e c t i v e l y choke o f f h i s c a p a c i t y to appreciate the tao. In t h i s "Ta Tsung Shih" passage, however, he i s conversely depicted as a f i g u r e capable of both ex p e r i e n c i n g the tao and ap p l y i n g h i s awareness. Un f o r t u n a t e l y , we have no other references i n the e a r l y l i t e r a t u r e to shed l i g h t on t h i s c o n t r a d i c t i o n . Ssu-ma Piao ( i n Lu Te-ming CTCCV2p4l) describes him as a mountain s p i r i t who d i d not d i e , but who l i v e d u n t i l Confucius' time, while L i I ( i n Lu Te-ming CTCCV2p7) simply describes him as a Sage. N e i t h e r of them, however, provide any sources. In the Shan Hai Ching SPTK 2 / l 4 b , a s p i r i t named Lu Wu f ^ ^ T i s mentioned as having dominion over the K'un Lun 136 mountains. The Kuo P'u commentary on t h i s passage i n d e n t i f i e s Lu Wu w i t h C h i e n Wii, h u t p r o v i d e s no s u p p o r t f o r t h i s hypothe-s i s . I n f a c t , t he two c h a r a c t e r s c h i e n a n d l u a r e v e r y d i f f e r e n t b o t h p h o n e t i c a l l y and g r a p h i c a l l y . A p o s s i b i l i t y n o t p r e v i o u s l y e x p l o r e d i s t h a t C h i e n Wu mi g h t be a c o r r u p t i o n o f k'un wu >b"^zl . The two c h a r a c t e r s / ! GSR240 9 C P V L / j ^ K U / K ^ U ( o n e r e a d i n g ) and %^ G S R ^ 1 7 ^ ^ V c o n s t i t u t e a p e r f e c t rhyme and a r e g r a p h i c a l l y s i m i l a r ( s m a l l s e a l t fjJ£ ^ ). I n the P a i Hu T'ung SPTK l / l 2 a , K'un Wu S h i h %3 %" ( l i k e S h i h Wei S h i h ^ C - ^ mentioned i n note 1 above) i s i d e n t i f i e d as one o f the F i v e Hegemons. He i s s p e c i f i c a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the H s i a d y n a s t y and the s t a t e o f W e i f ^ ^ , h a v i n g t h e surname c h i and the p e r s o n a l name f a n - ^ - (see Kuo Ytl SPTK 16/I19a and t h e Wei Chao jg> ^ z. commentary). A c c o r d i n g t o the Feng Su T'ung I SPTK 1/I0at He became l e a d e r o f an a l l i a n c e and e x e c u t e d those who d i d n o t f o l l o w h i s commands, t h e r e b y d e m o n s t r a t i n g r e s p e c t f o r the r o y a l house. I n h i s commentary t o the Shan H a i C h i n g SPTK 15/66b, Kuo P'u i d e n t i f i e s K'un Wu as the name o f an a n c i e n t k i n g . I t i s f u r t h e r the name o f a mountain whose v a l l e y stream produces h i g h grade m e t a l . Throughout the e a r l y l i t e r a t u r e , the name K'un Wu i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the s m e l t i n g o f ore and the a r t o f m e t a l l u r g y . I n the Mo Tzu SPTK l l / l 0 3 a , i t s t a t e s t h a t t . ( Of o l d , H s i a Hou K ' a i f [ _ f4 s e n t F e i L i e n "%ffi-to 137 g a t h e r ore from the mountains and r i v e r s and c a s t t i n g |f{^ c e r e m o n i a l v e s s e l s jffti.^ l n K ' u n These t i n g p o s s e s s s u p e r n a t u r a l q u a l i t i e s such as "being a b l e t o b o i l w i t h o u t b e i n g heated and b e i n g a b l e t o move w i t h o u t b e i n g moved. I n the Shan H a i C h i n g SPTK 5 / 3 2 b i t s t a t e s : A g a i n westward 2 0 0 l i i s c a l l e d K'un Wu mountain. On i t t h e r e i s a l o t o f copper o r e . The Kuo P'u commentary adds t h a t : T h i s mountain produces a famous m e t a l h a v i n g a c o l o u r which i s r e a d l i k e f i r e . I f one uses i t i n c a s t i n g a k n i f e , he can c u t jade w i t h i t l i k e s l i c i n g t h r o u g h mud. See a l s o Lu S h i h Ch'un C h ' i u SPTK l ? / l l 5 a and the L i e h Tzu SPTK 5 / 2 1 a . A c c o r d i n g to t r a d i t i o n , K'un Wu mountain was i n what i s now P'u Yang prefecture/1-^\-^) i n Shantung*-There are s e v e r a l p o i n t s which recommend i n t e r p r e t i n g C h i e n Wu/^j-^ as a c o r r u p t i o n o f K'un Wu : 1 ) p h o n e t i c and g r a p h i c s i m i l a r i t y between c h i e n and wu 2 ) the a s s o c i a t i o n o f K'un Wu w i t h mountains 3 ) the p r o x i m i t y o f K'un Wu mountain t o T ' a i S h a n : ^ , T ' a i Shan b e i n g l o c a t e d i n p r e s e n t - d a y T ' a i An p r e f e c t u r e ^ r ^ ? ^ A o f Shantung. 4) the a s s o c i a t i o n o f K'un Wu w i t h the a r t o f m e t a l l u r g y - -Chuang Tzu f r e q u e n t l y borrows the a r t i s a n as h i s i d e a l man 5 ) perhaps most i m p o r t a n t , the o b v i o u s i n c o n g r u e n c y ' between t h i s passage and the o t h e r r e f e r e n c e s to C h i e n Wu i n the Chuang Tzu t e x t (two o f w h i c h are s i g n i f i c a n t l y n e i c h a p t e r s ) . 6) the d e a r t h o f i n f o r m a t i o n i n contemporaneous t e x t s 138 on the f i g u r e , Chien Wu. While the s u b s t i t u t i o n "K'un Wu" i s by no means c o n c l u s i v e , t h i s "Chien Wu" reference i s c e r t a i n l y suspect. 16. The t a shan ("great mountains") here may be the not uncommon a b b r e v i a t i o n f o r t ' a i shan|y£. J^( "T ' a i Shan"). I f our "K'un Wu" s u b s t i t u t i o n i s a p p r o p r i a t e , then i t would more probably connote "great mountains," since there i s no documented r e l a t i o n s h i p between "K'un Wu" and "T'ai Shan". Again, the f a c t t h a t "K'un Wu" r e f e r s to both a person and a mountain might account f o r the l a c k of geographical s p e c i f i c a t i o n , 17. Huang T i ^ ^  , f i r s t of the Five E m p e r o r s h i p (Shih Chi t r a d i t i o n ) , i s a common f i g u r e i n e a r l y l i t e r a t u r e — p a r t i c u l a r l y t hat l i t e r a t u r e of T a o i s t persuasion. The t r a d i t i o n a l dates of h i s r e i g n are 2698-2598 B.C. From the Shih Chi SPTK 1 and i t s commentary, we have i t t h a t he was born the son of Shao Tien , w i t h the surname Kung Sun ( l a t e r changed to C h i l l i ) , and personal name Hstian Y t i a n i f ^ f i f - j ^ . He l i v e d on the Hstlan Yuan mountain, and married a g i r l of the H s i L i n g ^ f^ -T named L e i Tsu^|/j.]^. When he d i e d , he was bu r i e d on Ch'iao mountaineer? » and was succeeded by h i s grandson Kao Y a n g ^ ^ who became Emperor Chuan Hstl (one t r a d i -I ^ t i o n i n s e r t s the b r i e f r e i g n of Shao H&o'y-^ between Huang T i and Chuan Hstl). The accounts of and v a r i a t i o n s on Huang T i ' s r e i g n are numerous. The e a r l i e s reference to Huang T i i s a bronze i n -1 3 9 s c r l p t i o n from Ch'i dated from about 3 7 5 B.C. i n which he i s r e f e r r e d to as a remote ancestor by the King of C h ' i . (See Yu Y i n g - s h i h , HJAS 2 5 : 1 0 3 f o r p e r t i n e n t r e f e r e n c e s ) . The v a r i o u s legends regarding Huang T i are p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l a t e d to the s t a t e of C h ' i . The legend a l l u d e d to i n t h i s passage i s probably the ascension to heaven described i n the Shih Chi SPTK 28/ 3 1 a ( c f . Lun Heng SPTK 7 / 7 0 a ) : Huang T i gathered copper on Mt. Shou \% <-H and the_£t cast a t i n g ceremonial v e s s e l at the f o o t of Mt. Ching (J^  . When the t i n g was complete, a dragon appeared w i t h h i s dewlap hanging down. He descended to meet Huang T i . Huang T i mounted i t , and the v a r i o u s m i n i s t e r s and court l a d i e s who followed him i n mounting i t numbered over seventy. ( c f . Chavannes, Memoires 111:488) Some modern schol a r s (see Yu Y i n g - s h i h , HJAS 2 5 * 1 0 5 ) suggest th a t t h i s theme of Huang T i ' s ascent i s Han i n o r i g i n , and t h a t t h i s Chuang Tzu passage i s a l a t e r i n t e r p o l a t i o n . K a r l g r e n (BMFEA 18:281), f o r example, comments t h a t : In the Shi k i passim there are e n t r i e s which show how the t a o i s t i c c harlatans of the Han era invested Huang T i ' s person w i t h v a r i o u s features belonging to t h e i r stock i n t r a d e : Huang T i never died (Lu shu, Chav. I l l , C i t i n g the above ascent theme as a case i n p o i n t , he continues: For v a r i o u s such themes, which o b v i o u s l y have no pre-Han o r i g i n , see Chavannes passim. The primary i f not o n l y reason f o r s c e p t i c i s m regarding the pre-Han source of t h i s Huang T i ascent t r a d i t i o n i s the absence of pre-Han documentation which would a t t e s t i t . Such negative evidence casts a r a t h e r t i m i d shadow of s u s p i c i o n on our reference. The pre-Han currency of the n o t i o n of h s i e n ascent to i m m o r t a l i t y i s evidenced by the s p i r i t u a l man 3 3 0 ) . 140 on Ku I mountain i n Chuang Tzu 2/1/28. Again, the century-preceding the Han dynasty was the maturation p e r i o d of T a o i s t l o r e . I f we were simply without any pre-Han evidence to support the idea of an e a r l i e r development of t h i s theme, we would s t i l l have to consider i t a p o s s i b i l i t y . Given the f a c t of t h i s Chuang Tzu a l l u s i o n i n what i s t r a d i t i o n a l l y considered the most authentic p o r t i o n of the t e x t , i t i s perhaps unwise to c a t e g o r i c a l l y dismiss the Huang T i ascent theme as a Han a c c r e t i o n . 18. Chuan H s u ^ ) ^ - ^ (also known as Kao Yang vf) f j g ), according to the systematized Shih Chi SPTK 1 t r a d i t i o n , i s the second of the Five Emperors, and successor to h i s grandfather, Huang T i . The t r a d i t i o n a l dates of h i s r e i g n are 2 5 1 4 - 2 4 3 6 . His f a t h e r was Ch'ang I \ ^ ^ . , second l e g i t i m a t e son of Huang T i ; h i s mother was Ch'ang P'u, a g i r l of Shu Shan S h i h ^ j ^ , . His grandson was Hou Yu ^ ^ ( t r a d . r . 2 2 0 5 - 2 1 9 7 ) , founder of the Hsia dynasty. As i n the case of Huang T i , the t r a d i t i o n s shrouding t h i s legendary r u l e r are too numerous and too v a r i e d to recount. The most popular s t o r y i s the b a t t l e between Chuan Hsu" and the r e b e l , Kung Kung X- r e l a t e d i n Huai Nan Tzu SPTK 3 / l 7 a i Of o l d , Kung Kung contended with Chuan Hsu to become emperor. Enraged, he butted Pu C h o u ^ ^ mountain, breaking the p i l l a r s of the sky and severing the stays of the ea r t h . The sky was sloped to the northwest, and thus the c e l e s t i a l bodies move around i t ; the earth d i d not f i l l the southeast, and hence the waters and s i l t s r e t u r n there. ( c f . L i e h Tzu SPTK 5 / l 7 b ) 141 1 9 . This reference to the hstlan kung ^ v ^ ("Dark Palace") i s r a t h e r obscure--there i s only one other occurance i n the pre-Han t e x t s i n the Mo Tzu SPTK 5 / 4 4 a : Of o l d , the San Miao were very unruly. Heaven commanded (the emperor) to destroy them. The sun (omitting-Jc^) appeared at n i g h t , and i t rained blood on three mornings. Dragons were born i n the a n c e s t r a l temple and dogs wailed i n the marketplace. In summer i c e formed; the earth s p l i t and struck s p r i n g s . The f i v e g r a i n s were mutated and the people, were most t e r r i f i e d . Kao Yang ( * s^,descendant, Shun ) then issued h i s commands (to Ytl ^ ) i n the Dark Palace (hstlan kung -jT ). Ytl p e r s o n a l l y grasped the jade septre of Heaveri" TO go and punish the Yu Miao. ( c f . K a r l g r e n , BMFEA 18« 2 5 2 ) In t h i s Mo Tzu passage, the Dark Palace i s also a s s o c i -ated with the Chuan Hstl ( i . e . Kao Yang) l i n e a g e . R e l a t i v e l y e a r l y i n the development of a Chinese cosmogonic system, the sequence of the legendary r u l e r s of high a n t i q u i t y was made c o r r e l a t i v e to the seasons, musical notes, the c a r -d i n a l p o i n t s , the n a t u r a l elements, geographical regions and the s p i r i t s a s s o c i a t e d with these given elements and regions. The emperor Chuan Hstl was analogous with winter and the s p i r i t of the u l t i m a t e y i n , Hstlan Ming^^P , r u l e r over punish-ment and death (Ch'u Tz'u SPTK l 6 / l 6 7 a and commentary; L i Chi SPTK 5 / 5 7 a ) , w i t h the northern reaches and the note vtl ^ i n the Chinese scale ( P a i Hu T'ung SPTK 3/28b). He was a l s o a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the element water (Tso Chuan 3 9 3 / ^ ^ 1 7 / 5 ) • (Cf. K a r l g r e n , BMFEA 18 : 2 2 2 - 4 ) From these v a r i o u s a s s o c i a t i o n s , we can (and the Chinese commentators do--see Ch'eng Hstlan-ying CTCCV3p299) surmise that t h i s "Dark Palace" i s the residence of Chuan Hstl i n the darkness of the northern reaches from which he extends h i s c o n t r o l . 142 20. The s p i r i t o f the N o r t h e r n Seas, Ytl C h ' i a n g . ^ p ^ » appears i n the e a r l y t e x t s w i t h two v a r i a t i o n s ! 1) he i s r e f e r r e d t o as Ytl Ch' i a n g J f ) i n Shan H a i  C h i n g SPTK 8 / 5 3 ^ and 17/71a: L i e h Tzu SPTK 5/17h; Ltl S h i h  Ch'un C h ' i u SPTK 22 / l 6 3 a , . 2) he i s r e f e r r e d t o as Ytl C h i n g %\ ^ i n Shan H a i C h i n g SPTK 1 4 / 6 3 ° . The c h a r a c t e r ? 1 ^ GSR7133tj^ ^0C^<^^^^£M^ i s a f a m i l i a r l o a n c h a r a c t e r for£jg GSR710^Cjo^/^cu>^/Jk.iayy\j, and the t h i r d v a r i a n t GSR755 \ ^JLXTX**^)fu^ c o n s t i t u t e s a p e r f e c t rhyme w i t h them. I t would seem t h a t Ytl C h ' i a n g was o r i g i n a l l y the d e s i g n a -t i o n f o r a g e o g r a p h i c a l r e g i o n , whether h i s t o r i c a l o r o t h e r w i s e . K a r l g r e n (BMFEA 18i281-2) p o i n t s out t h a t the Ltl S h i h Ch'un C h ' i u SPTK 22/163a passage which l i s t s "the g a t h e r e d w a t e r s o f Ytl C h ' i a n g " a l o n g w i t h "the s t a t e o f Ch'tlan Jung," "the w i l d e r n e s s o f K'ua Fu," and "the mountains o f C h i S h i h " as p l a c e s which Ytl passed on h i s j o u r n e y . To. r e - e n f o r c e K a r l g r e n ' s t h e o r y , we can quote the K u e i Tsang j^? jjHsJan e a r l y work on d i v i n a t i o n o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the I C h i n g which i s now o n l y e x t a n t as fragments quoted i n o t h e r t e x t s ) which i s c i t e d i n Lu Te-ming (CTCCV2p4l)t Of o l d , Mu Wang Tzu d i v i n e d i n Ytl C h ' i a n g . A l s o , i n the Shan H a i C h i n g 1 7 / l 7 a i t says\ There i s a Tan E r h ^ ^ P s t a t e w h i c h has t h e ^ u r n a m e o f J e n i ^ who are the descendants o f Ytl HaOvM7^L and who e a t g r a i n . On an i s l e t o f the N o r t h e r n Sea inere i s a s p i r i t u a l man who has a human f a c e and a b i r d - l i k e body. He has two azure snakes as e a r pendants and he 143 treads on two red snakes. His name i s Ytl Ch'iang. (Cf. Shan Hai Ching SPTK 8/53b f o r a s i m i l a r d e s c r i p t i o n . ) In the commentary to Lu Shih Ch'un Ch'iu SPTK l ? / l l 6 a , Kao Yu describes Tan Erh as "the s t a t e of the northern ext r e m i t y . " From these passages, we can suggest t h a t where Ytl Ch'iang i s used as a d e s i g n a t i o n f o r a s t a t e of the f a r north, i t might be an a l t e r n a t e name f o r Tan Erh. With respect to Ytl Ch'iang as a s p i r i t , the Shan Hai Ching SPTK l 4 / 6 3 b t r a c e s h i s lineage to h i s f a t h e r Ytl H a o ^ ^ ^ , a s p i r i t u a l man of s i m i l a r p h y s i c a l consequence who r e s i d e s on an i s l a n d i n the Eastern Sea. Again, Ytl Hao i s described as a son of Huang T i , and both Ytl Hao and Ytl Ch'iang are c a l l e d sea s p i r i t s . In h i s commentary to Shan Hai Ching SPTK 8/53b, Kuo P'u describes Ytl Ch'iang as having a black body, hands and f e e t , and as r i d i n g two dragons. He f u r t h e r equates him with Hstlan t h i s i s probably because of t h e i r common geographical asso-c i a t i o n s . There i s a passage i n the L i e h Tzu SPTK 5/l?b which provides some a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n on the f i g u r e of Ytl Ch'iang: God was a f r a i d they (the f i v e mountains on which the immortals l i v e ) would d r i f t to the extreme west and he would lose the residences of the group of Sages. He then commanded Ytl Ch'iang to charge f i f t e e n g i a n t s e a - t u r t l e s to r a i s e t h e i r heads and c a r r y them. Our reference here i s to Ytl Ch'iang, an ocean s p i r i t who dwells on an i s l a n d i n the extreme north. , the s p i r i t of the north (see note 19 above), but 144. • 21. B. S c h l i n d l e r ( A s i a M a j o r I n t r o . 1 3 6 6 ) s u g g e s t s t h a t p e i c h i fy, jf^% ( " n o r t h e r n e x t r e m i t i e s " ) here r e f e r s t o the p o l a r s t a r , i n which Yfl C h ' i a n g makes h i s r e s i d e n c e . We can n o t , however, f i n d any e a r l y l i t e r a t u r e t o s u p p o r t t h i s i n t e r p r e -t a t i o n . 22. H s i Wang Mu v$? i . - ^ , i n a l l o f the pre-Han t e x t s , i s a t e r r i t o r y l o c a t e d i n t h e f a r west ( E r h Ya 21 / 9/7). I t i s a t t i m e s a l s o r e f e r r e d t o as H s i Wang K u o ^ j f _ l | ? j (Hsfln Tzu 9 6/27 / 1 3 ) . I t s t e r r i t o r y i n c l u d e s the K'un Lun mountain mentioned i n note 12 above (Chu Shu C h i N i e n S P T K ^ / 2 2 b - 2 3 a ) . The name H s i Wang Mu i s a l s o used i n pre-Han t e x t s as a d e s i g n a t i o n f o r the r u l e r o f the w e s t e r n s t a t e (Chu Shu C h i N i e n S P T K l V 4 b ) . By the e a r l y Han t e x t s , t h i s r u l e r has t a k e n on v a r i o u s s u p e r n a t u r a l powers, and i s d e p i c t e d as» He has a human-like appearance w i t h a l e o p a r d ' s t a i l and t i g e r ' s t e e t h . He i s adept a t w a i l i n g and wears a head ornament i n h i s d i s h e v e l l e d h a i r . He s u p e r v i s e s the c r u e l t y o f Heaven and the Wu Ts'an s t a r (Shan H a i C h i n g SPTK 2 / l 5 a ) . There i s some debate among commentators as t o the sex o f H s i Wang M u — o n the b a s i s o f the c h a r a c t e r mu-^ij? ("mother"), many have s i m p l y assumed t h a t t h i s r u l e r was fema l e . K a r l g r e n (BMFEA 181271) p o s t s h i s o b j e c t i o n s t o t h i s i n f e r e n c e on the b a s i s o f a t r a d i t i o n which makes Chfln C h ' o u ^ ^ ^ - the t e a c h e r ^ o f Yao, Wu Ch'eng Chao;^" jfj^ $Q the t e a c h e r o f Shun, and H s i Wang Kuo {gj £ the t e a c h e r o f Yfl (Hsfln Tzu 9 6/27 / 1 3 ) . K a r l g r e n f e e l s t h a t the f a c t t h a t Y f l : . . . s t u d i e d under S i Wang Kuo (the r u l e r o f ) S i Wang 145 s t a t e , j u s t as Yao and Shun had s t u d i e d under two o t h e r sage gentlemen, s u g g e s t s a male r u l e r (Ytl would n o t have had a female t e a c h e r ) . Perhaps a more s u b s t a n t i a l b i t o f e v i d e n c e t h a n o f f e r e d by K a r l g r e n i s the f a c t t h a t the two c h a r a c t e r s - ^ GSR947 **i<&j / rn^i/U/7>wL and l|3 G S R 9 2 9 ^ g ^ / ^ A ^ J ^ O are p h o n e t i c a l l y c l o s e , b e l o n g i n g t o the same S h i h C h i n g rhyme c a t e g o r y . The f a c t t h a t the c h a r a c t e r ^ G S R 7 3 9 3 ) u / ^ ^ j ) w < i i ^ / ^ ^ 1 ^ ends i n a n a s a l would f u r t h e r t e n d t o d i m i n i s h the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the d i f f e r e n t "m-" and "kw-" i n i t i a l s . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t H s i Wang Mu and H s i Wang Kuo are v a r i a t i o n s i n the t r a n s l i t e r a t i o n o f a f o r e i g n s t a t e o r region.1 F o r d i s c u s s i o n s o f H s i Wang Mu, see K a r l g r e n , BMFEA 18: 2 7 0 - 2 : M. Gr a n e t , L a Pensee C h i n o i s e pp. 357-8: Ytl Y i n g - s h i h HJAS 2 5 i 9 6 - 7 . 2 3 . The a c t u a l r e s i d e n c e o f H s i Wang Mu i s somewhat e n i g m a t i c . He i s d e s c r i b e d as b e i n g a t t i m e s on K'un Lun mountain (Chu  Shu C h i N i e n SPTK'T r/22b-23a), a t t i m e s on Jade m o u n t a i n ^ . d\ (Shan H a i Ch i n g SPTK 2 / l 5 a ) , a t t i m e s on Yen m o u n t a i n ^ \i\ (Mu T ' i e n Tzu Chuan SPTK 3/8b), and t h e n i n the Shan H a i C h i n g SPTK l 6 / 6 9 b , we f i n d him l i v i n g i n a cave. Kuo P'u, i n h i s commentary on t h i s Shan H a i C h i n g passage, o b s e r v e s t h a t H s i Wang Mu has a v a r i e t y o f a l t e r n a t i v e r e s i d e n c e s . We have no documentary p r o o f i n e a r l y t e x t s as to the l o c a t i o n o r even meaning o f shao kuang '\?0^ . Ssu-ma P i a o ( i n Lu Te-ming CTCCV2p4l) r e a d s i t as the name o f a cave, w h i l e T s ' u i Chuan ( i n Lu Te-ming CTCCV2p4l) and Ch'eng Hs t l a n - y i n g (CTCCV3 146 p300) i n t e r p r e t i t as the name of a mountain. Another t r a d i -t i o n has i t as the name of a vacuous western expanse (Lu Te-ming CTCCV2p4l and L i u Feng-pao CTCCV24p251). The sources of these commentators are, of course, a mystery. From the context, we can at l e a s t i n f e r that "Shao Kuang" i s a place name. 24. There i s some ambiguity as to the antecedent(s) of t h i s sentence: 1) i t may have a p p l i c a t i o n to H s i Wang Mu alone i n which case i t should read: "No one knows of h i s beginnings or of h i s consequence." ( c f . G i l e s , p. 78; Fung Yu-lan, p. 118; Watson, p. 82) 2) i t may r e f e r to the " i t " of "obtained i t , " i n which case i t would read: "No one knows of i t s ( i . e . the tao's) beginnings or of i t s consequence." (Legge, 1 : 2 4 5 ) 3) i t may apply back to these legendary r u l e r s , s p i r i t s , e t c . i n t o t a l i t y — a s we have i n t e r p r e t e d i t . 2 5 . In Chinese legend, P'eng T s u ^ ^ /f - j ^ i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of l o n g e v i t y , p a r a l l e l to Methusaleh i n the Western t r a d i t i o n . According to the legend, he was a descendant of Emperor Chuan Hstl (see note 18 above), and was the t h i r d son of Lu Chung (Shih Chi SPTK PNP 4 o / 2 a ) . Lu Te-ming ( C T C C V 2 p 4 ) c i t e s the Shih Pen ft" ^ (a t e x t on the inventors of var i o u s t h i n g s and the d e r i v a t i o n of names, now extant only i n those p o r t i o n s quoted i n other t e x t s ) which says t h a t h i s surname was 147 Chien>^,. and h i s personal a p p e l l a t i o n was K*eng4^£ . During the Shang dynasty he held the p o s i t i o n of Keeper of the Archive s Vt^§y?^_ a n d during the Chou he was a Palace Functionary,^."fv ^ , l i v i n g to he 800 years o l d . The Wei Chao commentary to the Kuo Ytl SPTK 16/I19a i d e n t i f i e s P'eng Tsu as the t h i r d son of Lu Chung who was enfeoffed at Ta P'eng-^"^7. The Ta P'eng c l a n were hege-mons during the Shang dynasty, along w i t h the Shih Wei ^ K ^ r (see note 1 above). The d e t a i l s of P'eng Tsu's extended l i f e span are many and v a r i e d , and are not always without c o n t r a d i c t i o n s (see Ka r l g r e n , BMFEA 18 1 2 7 4 - 5 ) . In the Chuang Tzu t e x t l / l / l 2 , he i s described as having a r e p u t a t i o n f o r l o n g e v i t y , while i n 5/2/ 5 2 and 40/ 1 5 / 6 he i s used as a symbol f o r long l i f e . 2 6 . The expression Yu Ytl can r e f e r to three r e l a t e d and yet d i f f e r e n t h i s t o r i c a l f a c t s : 1) as Kar l g r e n (BMFEA 18:217-8) e f f e c t i v e l y demonstrates, i t can r e f e r to a dynasty p a r a l l e l to the Hs i a , Shang and Chou complete with i t s own r i t e s and customs. For example, i n the Kuo Ytl SPTK 16/H8b, i t s t a t e s t h a t : The descendants of those who e f f e c t e d the great accom-plishments of the world have never been anything but g l o r i o u s . They are the Y t l ^ , H s i a , Shang and Chou. References to t h i s dynasty are p a r t i c u l a r l y common i n the L i C h i . 2) the name Yu Ytl (or Yu Ytl Shih ^\ jjj^ ^  ) can al s o r e f e r to a f e u d a l house of which Shun was a member (Chu Shu  Chi Nien SPTK k / 4 a ) and which e x i s t e d i n t o the Hsia dynasty 148 w i t h Shun's descendants (Tso Chuan 4 5 6 / ^ 1 / ^ 1 ; Ch'u Tz'u SPTK 1/I9a). 3 ) Yu Ytl Shih can r e f e r to the r u l e r Shun ( t r a d . r . 2 2 5 5 -2 2 0 7 ) , and does so i n the Chuang Tzu 19/7/2 and elsewhere. Now, w i t h respect to our reference i n t h i s passage of the Chuang Tzu, we must note that according to the Shih Chi SPTK PNP l / 2 5 a , P'eng Tsu was already i n the employ of the court .. d u r i n g the time of Yao ( t r a d . r . 2 3 5 7 - 2 2 5 7 ) . Although (as K a r l g r e n , BMFEA 18»275 suggests) t h i s might be an attempt on the p a r t of a systematizer to be s p e c i f i c about P'eng Tsu's dates, we cannot r u l e out the p o s s i b i l i t y that t r a d i -t i o n might have as s o c i a t e d P'eng Tsu with the pre-Shun court. Given t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y , we do best to i n t e r p e t t h i s reference to Yu Ytl i n the most general way—namely, as the pre-Hsia dynasty described i n a l t e r n a t i v e (1) above. 2 7 . This term wu po^^v^? ( "Five L o r d s " ) , l i k e san huang ._rL 1§_ ("Three I l l u s t r i o u s Ones") and wu t i J 2 - ^ ("Five Emperors"), r e f e r s to d i f f e r e n t persons, depending upon which t r a d i t i o n i t i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h . F i r s t , wu p_o i s o f t e n confused w i t h wu p_a ( p h o n e t i c a l l y , ^ GSR782 p K j c / p u A . / p O a n d ^ GSR772 p 1 ^ / p ' ^ j t / p ' o are very c l o s e ) . This confusion i s e x e m p l i f i e d by the Tso Chuan 214/&2/ 4 which s t a t e s t h a t : The hegemons, the Five l o r d s (wu p_o c h i h p a f f i 4& exerted themselves i n b r i n g i n g the v a r i o u s nobles i n l i n e • - • to serve the r o y a l commands. In the Kuo Ytl SPTK l 6 / l l 9 a , K'un Wu , Ta P'eng -K$_^ , and 149 S h i h W e i - ^ K ^ , a l l i n c l u d e d among the F i v e H e g e m o n s ^ . ^ , are c a l l e d the yo/\fa ("Lords") o f t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e d y n a s t i e s . I n the P a i Hu T'ung SPTK l / 1 2 a-b, £ a ( J | i s d e f i n e d as po/ f ^ . Yen S h i h - k u , i n h i s commentary on the C h ' i e n Han Shu SPTK PNP 1 3 / l b , g l o s s e s the term wu p_o ^ L.\^ i n one i n s t a n c e w i t h the sequence o f h i s t o r i c a l f i g u r e s most commonly seen as the wu M j f L ^ » a n d i - n a n o t h e r i n s t a n c e he g l o s s e s the same term w i t h a d i f f e r e n t sequence o f h i s t o r i c a l p e r s o n s more commonly c a l l e d the wu po -fL^^? . A d m i t t i n g the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t the c o n f u s i o n n o t e d above was a l r e a d y c u r r e n t i n the 4th C. B.C., the e x p r e s s i o n wu p_o mig h t w e l l r e f e r t o any o f the f o l l o w i n g groups o f h i s t o r i c a l figures» i ) S > £ ft. '* ( P a i Hu T'ung SPTK l / 1 2 a ; C h ' i e n Han Shu, Yen S h i h - k u commentary on SPTK PNP 1 3/lb) ( P a i Hu T'ung SPTK l / 1 2 a ) ( P a i Hu T'ung SPTK l / 1 2 b ) (Feng Su T'ung I SPTK l / 1 0 a ) (Hsfln Tzu 38/11/12) ( C h ' i e n Han Shu, Yen S h i h - k u commentary on SPTK PNP 1 3 / l b ) Duke Huan o f C h ' i and Duke Wen o f C h i n o c c u r i n a l l s i x o f the s e 150 a l t e r n a t i v e g r o u p s . Both o f th e s e a r e 7 t h C. B.C. f i g u r e s . Based on the t r a d i t i o n a l d a t i n g o f the l e g e n d a r y emperors, P'eng Tsu l i v e d t o a t l e a s t 1500 y e a r s o l d . I t i s r a t h e r c u r i o u s as t o the source o f the number 800 y e a r s which i s u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h i s age ( e . g . T s ' u i Chuan i n Lu Te-ming CTCCV2p4: Ch'eng H s f l a n - y i n g C T C C V 3 p 3 0 0 , e t c . ) . The Ch'ung Te Shu Yflan t e x t has wang f o r wu j f L h e r e — s e e m i n g l y a g r a p h i c e r r o r (Ma H s t l - l u n , p. 201). 28. The s t o r y o f Fu Y t l e h ^ ^ J l s o f t e n a l l u d e d t o i n the e a r l y t e x t s ( e . g . Meng Tzu 50/6B/15} Lu S h i h Ch'un C h ' i u SPTK 2 2 / l 6 2 b t Kuo Ytl SPTK 17/l28a-b» Hsfln Tzu 1 3 / 5/Hj Han  S h i h Wai Chuan SPTK 7/59*1 Shuo Yflan SPTK l l / 5 1 c , 1 7 / 7 8 c ) . A c c o r d i n g t o the s y s t e m a t i z e d a c c o u n t i n the S h i h C h i SPTK PNP 3/8b, when Emperor H s i a o I ' N Z - M t r a d . r . 1352-1324 B.C.) d i e d , Emperor Wu T i n g ^ ^ ^ f ( t r a d . r . 1324-1265 B.C.) was e n t h r o n e d . When Emperor Wu T i n g came t o the t h r o n e , he thou g h t t o r e s t o r e Y i n , b u t had n o t found adequate c o u n s e l . F o r t h r e e y e a r s he d i d n o t speak. A l l p o l i t i c a l m a t t e r s were d e c i d e d upon i n the h i g h m i n i s t r y , t h e r e b y o b s e r v i n g the s t a t e o f t h e n a t i o n . One n i g h t Wu T i n g dreamt he was g o i n g t o a c q u i r e a Sage named Y f l e h S ^ , He s c r u t i n i z e d h i s v a r i o u s m i n i s t e r s and f u n c t i o n a r i e s on the b a s i s o f what he had seen i n h i s dream, b u t i t was none o f them. T h e r e f o r e , he t h e n charged h i s a r t i s a n s t o make a l i k e n e s s and s c o u r e d the open c o u n t r y , f i n d i n g Yfleh i n Fu Hsien^)^- f % _ ( i n p r e s e n t - d a y H o p e i ) . At t h i s p o i n t i n t i m e , Yfleh v/as a c o n v i c t , w o r k i n g on a c h a i n -151 gang i n Fu H s i e n . When Wu T i n g gave him a u d i e n c e , he i d e n t -i f i e d him as the man, and a f t e r h a v i n g r e c e i v e d him and con-v e r s e d w i t h him, he remarked t h a t t h i s was i n d e e d a..Sage. He t h e n promoted him t o H i g h M i n i s t e r , and the s t a t e o f Y i n g r e c e i v e d p r o p e r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . T a k i n g t h e l o c a l i t y o f Fu H s i e n as h i s surname, he became d e s i g n a t e d Fu Ytleh. The event o f Fu Ytleh's posthumous a s c e n t t o d w e l l i n what i s now c a l l e d the "Fu Ytleh" s t a r i s a l l u d e d to i n Huai  Nan Tzu SPTK 6/40b and Ch'u Tz'u SPTK 5/87a-b. The "Fu Ytleh" s t a r i s a s m a l l s t a r i n the S c o r p i o c o n s t e l l a t i o n w h i c h , a c c o r d i n g t o l e g e n d , burns b r i g h t l y when the r u l e r e n j o y s l o y a l c o u n s e l and which i s dim when the m i n i s t e r s a r e c a u s i n g d i s -o r d e r i n t h e n a t i o n . (See the H s i n g C h i n g H W T S l V 3 b ) The S h i h Te T'ang t e x t has chuanA% f o r f u ^ — a n o b v i o u s g r a p h i c e r r o r . (Ma H s t l - l u n , p. 201) 2 9 . The Ch'ung Te Shu Ytlan t e x t has e r r o n e o u s l y o m i t t e d the two c h a r a c t e r s i . h s i a n g l \ / x ffi ("through i t became Prime M i n i s t e r t o " ) . (Ma H s t l - l u n , p. 201) 3 0 , T h i s phrase i s ambiguous i n t h a t we cannot r e a l l y be sure g r a m m a t i c a l l y whether i t i s Fu Ytleh o r Wu T i n g who " h e l d sway o v e r the w o r l d . " Legge I« 2 4 5 , G i l e s p. 78 and Fung Y u - l a n p. 118 a l l t a k e Fu Ytleh as the s u b j e c t — t h i s seems most l o g -i c a l . Watson p. 82, however, t a k e s i t as a c l a u s e m o d i f y i n g Wu T i n g . 152 31. T h i s t u n g wei ^ ^ f e ("Tung Wei s t a r c l u s t e r " ) r e f e r s t o the e a s t e r n p o r t i o n o f the M i l k y Way which f a l l s between the S c o r p i o c o n s t e l l a t i o n and t h e P o l a r S t a r . 32. Lu Te-ming (CTCCV2p42) o b s e r v e s t h a t the T s ' u i Chuan t e x t had an a d d i t i o n a l twenty-two c h a r a c t e r s f o l l o w i n g " . . . the assem-b l e d Btes.",&£&£^&£gl_jJf-$0$?M T h i s would t r a n s l a t e s " i n h i s b i r t h he was w i t h o u t f a t h e r and mother, and when he d i e d he ascended ( t o the s t a r s ) . A f t e r t h r e e y e a r s had e l a p s e d , h i s p h y s i c a l form had d i s a p p e a r e d . T h i s e x p l a i n s the i m p o s s i b i l i t y o f a s s i g n i n g a name t o a s p i r i t . " Wang Shu-min (l / 5 3 b ) o b s e r v e s t h a t the commentary on the Wen Hsuan SPTK 12/244a and the SWLC 49 c i t e t h i s passage w i t h the c h a r a c t e r c h ' i ^ - b e f o r e ssuTffc, , making i t u n i f o r m w i t h the phrase w h i c h p r e c e d e s i t . Ts'ao Shou-k'un (CTCCV30pl42) s u g g e s t s t h a t Kuo H s i a n g f e l t t h i s p o r t i o n o f the c h a p t e r t o be a s p u r i o u s i n t e r p o l a -t i o n by l a t e r s c h o l a r s , and as a consequence, o m i t t e d i t . Yen Fu (p. 18) goes somewhat f u r t h e r , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h i s e n t i r e s e c t i o n and the one w h i c h p r e c e d e s i t ( i . e . from "The tao has r e a l i t y and c r e d i b i l i t y . . . " t o the end o f t h i s passage w h i c h has been o m i t t e d i n the p o p u l a r t e x t ) a re l e a s t i n k e e p i n g w i t h Chuang Tzu, and do n o t w a r r a n t c l o s e s c r u t i n y . C h ' i e n Mu (p. 52) i s o f the o p i n i o n t h a t much o f t h i s p o r t i o n o f the t e x t c o n c e r n i n g the l e g e n d a r y r u l e r s i s d o c t r i n e 153 o f the O c c u l t i s t s d a t i n g from l a t e Chou (w h i c h presumably means t h a t i t i s n o t Chuang Tzu's own). T h i s i s , however, o n l y s p e c u l a t i o n . 13. TEXT 1 2 Nan-po T z u - K ' u e i e n q u i r e d o f N<1 Ytt; "You are advanced i n y e a r s , and y e t y o u r c o m p l e x i o n i s l i k e t h a t o f an i n f a n t . - ^ How i s t h i s ? " She r e p l i e d : " I have heard o f the t a o . " Nan-po T z u - k ' u e i a s k e d : "Can the tao- 5 be approached t h r o u g h s t u d y ? " "What! How c o u l d i t be?" she r e p l i e d . "You a r e n o t the man t o do i t anyway! Now, P u - l i a n g I was g i f t e d w i t h the a b i l i t y o f t h e Sages, b u t was w i t h o u t t h e i r t a o . I have the tao o f the Sages, but am w i t h o u t t h e i r a b i l i t y . I wanted t o t e a c h him i t , but would i t be p o s s i b l e i n the end t o make him a Sage? I t h i n k n o t — a n d y e t , i t i s ( r e l a t i v e l y ) easy t o r e l a t e the t a o o f the Sages t o one who has t h e i r a b i l i t i e s ! S t i l l , I w i l l t e l l you o f i t . I c o n s o l i d a t e d i t f o r t h r e e days, and was t h e n a b l e t o t r a n s c e n d (the c o n c e p t o f an e x t e r n a l ) w o r l d . H a v i n g t r a n s c e n d e d ( t h e concept o f an 9 e x t e r n a l ) w o r l d , I a g a i n c o n s o l i d a t e d i t f o r seven days, and was t h e n a b l e 1 0 t o t r a n s c e n d ( t h e c o n c e p t o f e x t e r n a l ) phenomena. H a v i n g t r a n s c e n d e d ( t h e con c e p t o f e x t e r n a l ) phenomena, I a g a i n c o n s o l i d a t e d i t f o r n i n e days, and was t h e n a b l e t o t r a n s c e n d ( t h e c o n c e p t o f ) l i f e . H a v i n g t r a n s -cended (the con c e p t o f ) l i f e , I was t h e n a b l e t o a t t a i n 1 5 4 e n l i g h t e n m e n t . 1 1 H a v i n g a t t a i n e d e n l i g h t e n m e n t , I was t h e n 1 2 a b l e to m a n i f e s t the s i n g l e n e s s ( o f a l l e x i s t e n c e ) . I n m a n i f e s t i n g s i n g l e n e s s , I was t h e n a b l e t o ( a t t a i n a l e v e l ) w i t h o u t p a s t o r p r e s e n t . B e i n g w i t h o u t p a s t o r p r e s e n t , I was t h e n a b l e t o e n t e r ( a l e v e l ) beyond l i f e and d e a t h . EXEGESIS 1. A l t h o u g h Na-po T z u - k ' u e i \^] ^ ^ appears o n l y i n t h i s one passage, L i I ( i n Lu Te-ming CTCCV2p42), Ch'eng Hstlan-y i n g ( C T C C V 3 p p 3 0 1-2), L i n H s i - i (CTCCV? p 2 7 3 ) and many o f the o t h e r commentators suggest t h a t he i s one and the same w i t h Nan-po T z u - c h ' i ^ ) /fa gjjjc i n 11 / 4 / 7 5 and 6 7/24/61. L i I i n t e r p r e t s t h i s as an e r r o r w h i c h has a r i s e n because o f the s i m i l a r i t y i n p r o n u n c i a t i o n between X I G S R 6 0 5 ^ juleK/^jvOx / X V i a n d ^ GSR952$C{i$/§i \ /.k}\ . Wang Shu-min ( l / 5 4 a ) p o i n t s o u t t h a t the commentary t o Wen Hstlan SPTK 20 / 3 7 6 a has c h ' i ^ t ^ i n t h i s passage r a t h e r t h a n k ' u e i ^ . C h i a Shan-h s i a n g (CTCCV5pl6) says t h a t k ' u e i ^ i s pronounced c h ' i " ^ - . Ytl Ytleh ( l i p . 4 b ) and Chang Mo-sheng (p. 172) b o t h con-s i d e r t h a t Nan-po T z u - k ' u e i ij^ ,. i s a g a i n the same as Nan-kuo T z u - c h * i ^ l ^ f 4 ^ i n 3/2/1. The two c h a r a c t e r s GSR782 p'»^ t/p^lJz_/po a n d ^ > GSR77bJfido^M^dyMuO con-s t i t u t e a p e r f e c t rhyme. I f we a t t e m p t t o i d e n t i f y t h e s e v a r i o u s r e f e r e n c e s as one man, the most o b v i o u s d i f f i c u l t y i s t h a t the p e r s o n mentioned i n 3/2/1, 11 / 4 / 7 5 and 6 7/24/61 r e p r e s e n t s the 155 S u b l i m a t e d Man, w h i l e Nan-po T z u - k ' u e i mentioned i n t h i s passage does n o t . From c o n t e x t i t i s an easy m a t t e r t o e s t a b -l i s h a l i n k between Nan-kuo T z u - c h ' i i n 3/2/1 and Nan-po Tzu-c h ' i i n 67/24/61 (and t h e n t o 11/4 / 7 5 ) . b u t o t h e r t h a n q u e s t i o n -a b l e p h o n e t i c s i m i l a r i t y , t h e r e i s r e a l l y no grounds on which t o a s s o c i a t e Nan-po T z u - k ' u e i w i t h these o t h e r p a s s a g e s . 2. Ntl Ytl-^T appears o n l y i n t h i s one passage. The Hsu Miao g l o s s ( i n Lu Te-ming CTCCV2p42) i n d i c a t e s t h a t the c h a r a c t e r '/^ s h o u l d be pronounced ytl ^  , w h i l e the L i I g l o s s ( i b i d . ) has i t pronounced chtl The f a c t t h a t t h i s name c o n t a i n s the c h a r a c t e r nfl-^T does n o t mean t h a t t h i s p e r s o n i s n e c e s s a r i l y a woman (see K a r l g r e n , BMFEA 1 8 i 2 2 9 ) , b u t most e a r l y r e f e r e n c e s w h i c h c o n t a i n ntl do r e f e r t o f e m a l e s . E.g. Ntt C h i e h - j l ^ f l , mother o f Shao Haoj Ntl Lu S h i h - y T / f j j j ^ j ^ , w i f e o f Chuan Hstli Ntl Hua^yT-^jP" , daug h t e r o f Shao T i e n : Ntl C h ' u - ^ ^ , mother o f Chuan Hsu: Ntl Huang-jt%_ , w i f e o f Yao; Ntl C h ' i ^ c J i ^ , Yao's s i s t e r - i n - l a w . 3 . A c c o r d i n g t o Ma H s u - l u n ( p. 202), the Han Fen Lou t e x t has j_u , wh i c h i s a p o p u l a r form o f .ju^f^ ( " i n f a n t " ) . Wang Mou-hung (CTCCV20pl4) s t a t e s t h a t one t e x t has , j u / / ^ as a n o t h e r v a r i a n t , but t h a t t h i s i s i n c o r r e c t . 4. Many commentators make the comparison between the e x p r e s s i o n wen tao ^ ("heard o f the t a o " ) i n t h i s passage and t h e Lun Ytl 6/4/8 usage. T h i s e x p r e s s i o n a l s o o c c u r s i n Lao Tzu 41. I t 156 would appear t h a t t h i s term means more t h a n s i m p l y " h e a r i n g " o f the t a o — p e r h a p s more l i k e " g r a s p i n g and comprehending" o r " e x p e r i e n c i n g " the t a o . 5. A c c o r d i n g t o the Chiao Cheng Chuang Tzu C h i S h i h ( V l p 2 5 2 ) , the Chao C h i e n I t e x t i s w i t h o u t the c h a r a c t e r tao jff . 6. P u - l i a n g I I ^ J ^ . / f ^ " appears i n o n l y t h i s one passage. Ch'eng Hsua n - y i n g (CTCCV3p302) i n d i c a t e s t h a t he was o f the Chi^c(5- c l a n w i t h t h e surname P u - l i a n g ^ and the p e r s o n a l name • The Wang Ytian-tse (CTCCV6pl89—Tao Tsang) has pu ^ i n s t e a d o f p_u |^  . Wang Shu-min ( l / 5 4 a ) c i t e s two l a t e r t e x t s which quote t h i s passage, one w i t h the c h a r a c t e r c h e ^ f o l l o w i n g a f t e r %/\^* and one w i t h i t f o l l o w i n g t s ' a i ^ ( " a b i l i t y " ) . C h ' i e n Mu (p. 53) quotes Ts'ao Y a o - h s i a n g ^ -^jf.>4D who says t h a t P u - l i a n g was a f o l l o w e r o f Mo Tzu. ?. Wang Shu-min ( l / 5 4 a - b ) c i t e s two l a t e r works w h i c h quote t h i s passage w i t h the f i n a l p a r t i c l e yeh ^ r a t h e r t h a n h u ^ . My i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and t r a n s l a t i o n o f t h i s p o r t i o n o f the t e x t from here t o the end o f t h i s s e c t i o n d i f f e r s c o n s i d e r a b l y from p r e v i o u s commentators. The t e x t here i s obscure i n p a r t s , making i t p a r t i c u l a r l y s u b j e c t t o i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . S t i l l , most commentators ( w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f Kuan Feng pp. 2 2 0 - 1 , p. 232 n. 7) agree^ t h a t t h i s passage i s a d e s c r i p t i o n o f Ntl Ytl i m p a r t i n g the t a o o f the Sages t o P u - l i a n g I . I f i n d t h i s i n t e r -157 p r e t a t i o n u n s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r the f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n s : 1) t h i s passage b e g i n s w i t h the statement t h a t Nd Yd has "heard" the t a o , and i s f o l l o w e d by an e x p l a n a t i o n o f where and how she a c q u i r e d t h i s "knowledge". 2) a b a s i c T a o i s t t e n e t i s t h a t the tao cannot be i m p a r t e d t o a n o t h e r p e r s o n , but must be a c q u i r e d by the i n d i v i d u a l him-s e l f , ( e . g . 5/2/43; 1 6 / 6 / 2 9 ; 36/13/64). Thus, Nd Yd s t a t e s e m p h a t i c a l l y t h a t the tao i s n o t something which can be a c q u i r e d t h r o u g h s t u d y . 3) the a c c o u n t o f the e x p e r e n t i a l p r o c e s s o f s u b l i m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d here does n o t sound second hand, but r a t h e r sounds l i k e a d e s c r i p t i o n o f one's own e x p e r i e n c e . 4) the Chinese t e x t l e n d s i t s e l f more r e a d i l y t o t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . The one phrase which o b s t r u c t s o u r i n t e r p r e -t a t i o n i s wu yu shou e r h kao c h i h -8 l<f $0 * b u t t h i s p hrase i s o b v i o u s l y c o r r u p t (see n o t e 8 b e l o w ) . A s y n o p s i s o f t h i s passage i s t h a t Nan-po T z u - k ' u e i wants Nd Yd t o " t e a c h " him h e r s e c r e t . She r e p l i e s t h a t t h i s i s i m p o s s i b l e . A t one time she attem p t e d t o t r a n s m i t i t t o someone c o n s i d e r a b l y more a b l e t h a n Nan-po T z u - k ' u e i , b u t was s t i l l u n s u c c e s s f u l . Even- so, she i s w i l l i n g t o e x p l a i n h e r own e x p e r i e n c e t o him. 8 . Wen I - t o (p. 268) r e v e r s e s the p o s i t i o n s o f shou ffi and kao fe. i n t h i s passage. He bases t h i s a l t e r a t i o n on the f a c t t h a t below i t has two would-be p a r a l l e l p h r a s e s : " I a g a i n c o n s o l i d a t e d i t f o r seven days" and " I a g a i n c o n s o l i d a t e d i t 158 f o r n i n e d a y s , " A l s o , from the sequence i n the Ch'eng Hstlan-y i n g ( C T C C V 3 p 3 0 3 ) commentary, i t would appear t h a t t h i s t e x t o r i g i n a l l y had kao b e f o r e shou. Kuan Feng (p. 232n7) a c c e p t s Wen I - t o ' s t h e o r y , b u t th e n expands upon i t , r a t h e r l o o s e l y i n t e r p r e t i n g t h i s phrase as " E x p l a i n i n g t h e tao o f the Sages t o a p e r s o n who has the a b i l i t y o f the Sages i s v e r y easy, but I s t i l l t o l d him t h a t he must u n d e r t a k e the t a s k o f c o n s o l i d a t i n g the mind. (My e x p e r i e n c e o f the tao was l i k e t h i s . . . ) (p. 220)" Kuan Feng t h e n c o n t i n u e s Nfl Ytl as the s u b j e c t , as do we. L i u Feng-pao (CTCCV24p255) s u g g e s t s t h a t the numbers t h r e e , seven and n i n e i n t h i s passage a r e the language o f t h e S c h o o l o f I n t e r n a l C u l t i v a t i o n ( n e i h s i u c h i a ), b u t L i n H s i - i (CTCCV7p273) i n t e r p r e t s t h e s e numbers as h a v i n g no p a r t i c u l a r r e l e v a n c e o t h e r t h a n i n d i c a t i n g passage from one l e v e l t o a n o t h e r . 9. The S h i h Te T'ang t e x t , a c c o r d i n g t o Ma H s t l - l u n (p. 202), i s w i t h o u t the c h a r a c t e r h s i a " f ^ i n the e x p r e s s i o n t ' i e n h s i a ( " w o r l d " ) . From c o n t e x t we can see t h a t t h i s i s a s i m p l e o m i s s i o n . 10. A c c o r d i n g t o Ma H s t l - l u n (p. 202), the S h i h Te T'ang t e x t i s w i t h o u t the c h a r a c t e r n e n g f e ( " a b l e " ) . S i n c e the p r e c e d i n g p a r a l l e l p h r a s e s a l l have t h i s word, i t would appear t o be a s i m p l e o m i s s i o n . 159 11. The e x p r e s s i o n chao c h ' e ^ ( t r a n s . " e n l i g h t e n m e n t " ) means l i t e r a l l y "dawning, b r i g h t e n i n g " and " p e n e t r a t i n g compre-hension".. T h i s - e x p r e s s i o n i s s i m i l a r i n p u r p o r t t o Lao Tzu's n o t i o n o f ming $]^| ( " n a t u r a l p e r s p i c a c i t y " ) which o c c u r s t h r o u g h -out h i s t e x t ( e . g . 16, 27, 3 6 , 5 5 ) . 12. The c h a r a c t e r s c h i e n / h s i e n t u ( t r a n s , " m a n i f e s t the s i n g l e n e s s ( o f a l l e x i s t e n c e ) " ) mean l i t e r a l l y " s e e / m a n i f e s t " and " s i n g l e , a l o n e " r e s p e c t i v e l y . To i n t e r p r e t the c h a r a c t e r j i j a s c h i e n ("to see") would i m p l y t h a t the tao has an o b j e c -t i v e e x i s t e n c e , and t h i s i s i n c o n g r u e n t w i t h Chuang Tzu's n o t i o n o f the t a o . T h i s term i n f a c t e x p r e s s e s the n o t i o n t h a t a l l t h i n g s a r e k n i t t o g e t h e r , and t h r o u g h s u b l i m a t i n g the mind we are a b l e t o e x p e r i e n c e the t o t a l i t y and m a n i f e s t t h i s r e a l i z a -t i o n i n o u r conduct. T h i s same concept i s a l s o c e n t r a l i n the Lao Tzu (see c h a p t e r s 10, 14, 19, 22, 28, 3 9 ) . Kuan Feng (pp. 342 - 3 ) i n t e r p r e t s tu^ j j p as a d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e t o the t a o , w h i l e Hsflan Y i n g (p. 66) s i m i l a r l y i n t e r p r e t s i t as a r e f e r e n c e t o i — ( " t h e One"). Ch'en C h ' i - t ' i e n (p. 107) s t a t e s t h a t s i n c e the tao i s a b s o l u t e and u n c o n d i t i o n e d , Chuang Tzu r e f e r s t o i t as t u . Ch'eng Hstlan-ying (CTCCV3p304) makes the a s s o c i a -t i o n between t h i s e x p r e s s i o n h s i e n t u and the n o t i o n o f perman-ence and unchangingness found i n the Lao Tzu 25« S o u n d l e s s , f o r m l e s s , i t s t a n d s s o l i t a r y ( t u l i 7^ ^_) and does n o t change. 14. TEXT That which t a k e s l i f e ( i . e . the t a o ) does n o t ( i t s e l f ) 160 d i e t t h a t which produces l i f e does n o t ( i t s e l f ) l i v e . 1 I n p i t s c o n s t i t u t i n g an e n t i t y , t h e r e i s n o t h i n g which i t does n o t d i s p a t c h and n o t h i n g which i t does n o t r e c e i v e ; - ' t h e r e i s n o t h i n g w h i c h i t does n o t d e s t r o y and n o t h i n g which i t h, does n o t complete. I t s name i s T u r b i d i t y - a n d - T r a n q u i l l i t y . ( T h i s T u r b i d i t y - a n d - T r a n q u i l l i t y i s c o m p l e t i o n o ut o f t u r b i d -i t y . ) 5 " Nan-po T z u - k ' u e i i n q u i r e d i "But from whom d i d you hea r o f t h i s ? " (Ntl Yu) r e p l i e d : " I he a r d o f i t from the son o f Bamboo S l i p s - a n d - M a r k i n g Thread. The son o f Bamboo S l i p s - a n d - M a r k i n g Thread h e a r d i t from the grandson o f I n t o n i n g - R e c i t a t i o n . The grandson o f I n t o n i n g - R e c i t a t i o n - h e a r d i t from E y e s - P e r s p i c a c i o u s l y -P W i t n e s s i n g . E y e s - P e r s p i c a c i o u s l y - W i t n e s s i n g heard i t from E a r s -H e a r i n g . ^ E a r s - H e a r i n g h e a r d i t from C u l t i v a t i n g - C o n d u c t . 1 0 C u l t i v a t i n g - C o n d u c t heard i t from C h a n t i n g - E u l o g i e s . 1 1 C h a n t i n g -12 E u l o g i e s h e a r d i t from B l a c k - A b s t r u s e n e s s . B l a c k - A b s t r u s e n e s s 13 h e a r d i t from D e s o l a t e - B o u n d l e s s n e s s . J D e s o l a t e - B o u n d l e s s n e s s 14 heard i t from P e r h a p s - B e g i n n i n g . EXEGESIS 1. There i s a passage s i m i l a r t o t h i s one i n the L i e h Tzu SPTK l / 2 a t T h e r e f o r e , t h a t which engenders t h i n g s i s n o t i t s e l f engendered, and t h a t which t r a n s f o r m s t h i n g s i s n o t i t s e l f t r a n s f o r m e d . A g a i n , i n the Chuang Tzu 60/22/74 t h e r e i s a n o t h e r passage* 161 Do n o t c o n s i d e r l i f e t o be the a n i m a t i o n o f t h e i n a n -imate; do n o t c o n s i d e r d e a t h t o be t h e e x t i n c t i o n o f the animate. Are l i f e and d e a t h i n t e r d e p e n d e n t ? They b o t h have t h a t which makes them one t h i n g . A c c o r d i n g t o Ch'en Ching-yttan (CTCCV5p5), the C h i a n g Nan Ku Tsang t e x t had the c h a r a c t e r k u ^ J " t h e r e f o r e " ) p r e c e d i n g t h i s s e n t e n c e , as does the L i e h Tzu passage above. There a r e b a s i c a l l y two i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f t h i s passage w h i c h are p o p u l a r w i t h the commentators! 1) T s ' u i Chuan ( i n Lu Te-ming CTCCV2p42) and Su Yfl ( i n Wang H s i e n - c h ' i e n CTCCV26p84) t a k e man as the s u b j e c t , and i n t e r p r e t t h i s as« "One who r e p u d i a t e s h i s c o n c e r n f o r l i f e does n o t d i e , w h i l e one who i s a l w a y s n o u r i s h i n g l i f e does n o t l i v e . " As such, t h i s passage i l l u s t r a t e s the c o n c e p t o f t r a n s c e n d i n g l i f e and d e a t h . 2) Kuan Feng (p. 2^3) i n t e r p r e t s the e x p r e s s i o n sha sheng  che 1%J%\ ("that which t a k e s l i f e " ) as the R u l e r (chu t s a i ^ )» change ( t s a o wu che ^ — s e e below T e x t 16 note 4 f o r t h i s t e r m ) , o r s i m p l y the t a o . Ch'en C h ' i - t ' i e n (p. 10?) i n t e r p r e t s the e x p r e s s i o n sheng sheng che ^ ^£-^3 ("that which produces l i f e " ) i n a s i m i l a r manner. T h i s amounts t o an A r i s t o t e l e a n p r o o f f o r the e x i s t e n c e o f a Prime M o v e r — t h e e x i s t e n c e o f some u l t i m a t e source beyond the shadow o f l i f e and d e a t h . A l t e r n a t i v e (2) i s more l i t e r a l and most c o n t i n u o u s w i t h the c o n t e x t . 2. Ch'en C h ' i - t ' i e n (p. 107) i n t e r p r e t s the c h a r a c t e r wei ^ 7 ( " c o n s t i t u t i n g " ) as the p a r t i c l e v f l ^ f : w h i c h i m p l i e s r e l a t i o n -162 s h i p , meaning t h a t the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f the tao t o t h i n g s i s such t h a t on the one hand t h e r e i s t h a t which i t d i s p a t c h e s and on the o t h e r t h e r e i s t h a t which i t r e c e i v e s . I t would seem t h a t Ch'en C h ' i - t ' i e n makes t h i s s u g g e s t i o n because o f h i s r e l u c -t a n c e t o c a l l t he tao a wu % 7 ( " e n t i t y " ) . Ts'ao Shou-k'un (CTCCV30pl43) p o i n t s o u t t h a t wu here i s l i k e t he modern e x p r e s -s i o n t u n g h s i ^ $fa ( " t h i n g " ) , and c i t e s a passage from Lao Tzu 25« yu wu hun c h ' e n g ^ t y / j fi\("There was an e n t i t y h e t e r o g e n e o u s l y formed..,") i n which the tao i s a l s o r e f e r r e d t o as a wu.. A b e t t e r example t h a n t h i s i s Lao Tzu 211 t a o c h i h wei wu "^j ^ 7 #^7 ("In the t a o ' s c o n s t i t u t i n g an e n t i t y . . . " ) . 3. The two c h a r a c t e r s c h i a n g j j ^ ( " t o d i s p a t c h " ) and y i n g J ? A j " t o r e c e i v e " ) a l s o appear as p a r a l l e l s i n 21/7/33* 60/22/77 and 6 0/22/81, Chang P i n g - l i n (p. 18) o b s e r v e s t h a t whenever t h e s e two c h a r a c t e r s a r e used i n p a r a l l e l c o n s t r u c t i o n , c h i a n g ffy; i s e q u i v a l e n t t o s u n g ^ ("to s e n d " ) . The use o f the double n e g a t i v e wu p u i j ^ / f ^ - i s a l s o common i n Lao Tzu (e . g . 3, 3 7 , 4 8 ) . 4. The two c h a r a c t e r s ^ GSR814 A ^ / # l ^ | / ^ j a n d ^ GSR837 yU*^ / r u ^ j /•rvc*^ i n f o r m i n g t n i s t e r m c o n s t i t u t e a p e r f e c t rhyme. Many o f the commentators attempt t o r e s o l v e the o b v i o u s c o n f l i c t o f i d e a s r e p r e s e n t e d by thes e two a n t i t h e t i -c a l words. Kuo H s i a n g ( C T C C V l p l 4 5 ) , f o r example, equates y i n g ^ j f f i ( " t u r b i d i t y " ) w i t h i t s rhyme w o r d ^ G S R 8 4 3 J H « y I U f l * v y j w A j W h i c h means "to b i n d " . (See T s ' u i Chuan i n Lu Te-ming CTCCV2p43, Chu Kuei-yao CTCCV26ppl74-5, Ma H s u - l u n p. 203 f o r s i m i l a r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s ) . 163 I n c o n s t r u c t i n g t h i s term, Chuang Tzu combines two a n t i -t h e t i c a l n o t i o n s . Fung Y u - l a n ( S p i r i t , p. 7 5 ) , i n d i s c u s s i n g t h i s e x p r e s s i o n , s t a t e s t h a t i The man who d w e l l s i n t h i s s p here, r e g a r d i n g the m a t e r i a l w o r l d from the p o i n t o f v i e w o f the G r e a t Whole, sees a l l t h i n g s as n e i t h e r b e i n g c o n s t r u c t e d n o r b e i n g d e s t r o y e d . A t the same time he can a l s o say t h a t t h e r e i s n o t h i n g w h i c h i s n o t b e i n g c o n s t r u c t e d and n o t b e i n g d e s t r o y e d . So we have the words " y i n g n i n g " , y i n g t o be i n a s t a t e o f a c t i v i t y , n i n g t o be i n a s t a t e o f t r a n q u i l l i t y . Hence y i n g n i n g means a c o n d i t i o n o f t r a n q u i l l i t y w hich i s n o t i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h the c o n f u s e d a c t i v i t y o f t h i n g s . T h i s paradox i l l u s t r a t e s the two p e r s p e c t i v e s which a r e always a p p a r e n t i n the Chuang Tzu. The word y i n g ( " t u r b i d -i t y " ) r e f l e c t s the a s s u m p t i o n o f a phenomenal w o r l d i n v i e w i n g the w o r l d o f e x p e r i e n c e . To e x p e d i t e communication w i t h t h o s e who a c c e p t the r e a l i t y o f an e x t e r n a l , o b j e c t i v e w o r l d , Chuang Tzu a l s o p o s i t s i t s e x i s t e n c e . From t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e , one i s i m m e d i a t e l y aware o f the v a r i o u s r e l a t i o n s h i p s between d i f f e r -e n t i a t e d phenomena which form the b a s i s o f a l l change. The word n i n g ( " t r a n q u i l l i t y " ) , on the o t h e r hand, r e f l e c t s the l e v e l o f the s u b l i m a t e d mind. T h i s mind has r e p u d i a t e d a l l d i s t i n c t i o n s t o the e x t e n t o f abandoning i t s own s u b j e c t i v i t y , and as such, i t i s a b l e t o e x p e r i e n c e the sum t o t a l o f a l l e x i s t e n c e . S i n c e t h i s l e v e l o f mind t r a n s c e n d s a l l r e l a t i v e d i s t i n c t i o n s such as time and space, i t n a t u r a l l y p r e c l u d e s the n o t i o n o f change. 5 . Yen L i n g - f e n g (p. 665) s u g g e s t s t h a t t h i s phrase c o n t a i n e d i n p a r e n t h e s e s i s i n f a c t a n c i e n t commentary wh i c h has been c o n f u s e d w i t h and i n t e r p o l a t e d i n t o the o r i g i n a l t e x t . T h i s would appear t o be the c a s e . 164 6. The name j f ^ i moffi] j£. ("Bamboo S l i p s - a n d - M a r k i n g Thread") and the names which f o l l o w i n t h i s passage a r e a l l v e r y o b s c u r e . Most commentators i n t e r p r e t them as f i c t i t i o u s p e r s o n s w h i c h r e p r e s e n t v a r i o u s s t a g e s i n the p r o c e s s o f coming t o an aware-ness o f the t a o . Ytl Ytleh (I» pp. 7b-8a), on the b a s i s o f hstlan ming who i s a p p a r e n t l y the son o f shao hao s h i h ']/ ^ i t ^  = ^ ) » c o n c l u d e s t h a t t h e s e names i n f a c t r e p r e -s e n t h i s t o r i c a l p e r s o n s , but t h i s i s v e r y d o u b t f u l . These names appear t o be i n a sequence b e g i n n i n g w i t h the most mundane and p r o g r e s s i n g t o the most su b l i m e and a b s t r u s e . A l t h o u g h each commentary seems t o be a t v a r i a n c e w i t h the o t h e r s , most o f them a s s o c i a t e t h i s f i r s t name p ' i mo w i t h the w r i t t e n word and w r i t i n g i n s t r u m e n t s . Ch'en C h ' i -t ' i e n ( p. 108) o b s e r v e s t h a t i n a n c i e n t t i m e s t h e y would s p l i t ( p ' i ^ 1 ^ ) bamboo t o make bamboo s l i p s , and t h e n draw on t h e s e w i t h a m a r k i n g t h r e a d ( m o j ^ _ ) . Sons and grandsons r e p r e s e n t the l i n k s between a g e n e r a t i o n and t h e ones w h i c h precede and which f o l l o w i t , and thus embody the n o t i o n o f t r a n s m i s s i o n . Thus Ch'en C h ' i - t ' i e n i n t e r p r e t s t h i s phrase as meaning t h a t he has heard the t a o from the t r a n s m i s s i o n o f words. 7. Whereas the f i r s t name p' i mo vt7lJ ^ l _ i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the w r i t t e n word, t h i s name l o sung - ^ - ^ i s commonly i n t e r p r e t e d as a r e f e r e n c e t o the spoken language. Ch'eng Hs t l a n - y i n g ( C T C C V 3 p 3 0 7 ) n o t e s t h a t on f i r s t b e i n g composed i t i s a w r i t t e n document, b u t t h a t the second s t e p i s t o memorize and r e c i t e t h i s document. 165 8. The name chan ming ( " E y e s - P e r s p i c a c i o u s l y - W i t n e s s i n g " ) r e f e r s t o the l e v e l o f becoming c l e a r l y aware t h r o u g h the e y e s . Ch'eng H s t l a n - y i n g ( C T C C V 3 p 3 0 7 ) comments t h a t i n r e a d i n g u n t i l one has memorized h i s s u b j e c t , he becomes v e r y f a m i l i a r w i t h the e s s e n t i a l g i s t . He t h u s becomes g r a d u a l l y aware o f the p r o f o u n d e s t p r i n c i p l e s , and h i s s p i r i t becomes c l e a r and b r i g h t . 9. The meaning o f t h i s name n i e h hsfljf^. ^  ("Ears H e a r i n g " ) i s n o t so c e r t a i n . Ch'en C h ' i - t ' i e n (p. 108) i n t e r p r e t s i t as a u d i o a p p r e h e n s i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o the Shuo Wen, n i e h ^ means "to w h i s p e r , " w h i l e hstt^^J' means "to h e a r words." 10. A c c o r d i n g t o Ch'eng H s t l a n - y i n g (CTCCV3p307) and LO H u i -c h ' i n g (CTCCV5p70), the c h a r a c t e r hstl ^ means " n e c e s s a r y " , w h i l e i ^ ^ means "to use, p u t i n t o p r a c t i c e . " Ch'en C h ' i -t ' i e n (p. 108) t h e n i n t e r p r e t s t h i s as " c u l t i v a t i n g i t i n o u r c o n d u c t . " 11. Ch'eng H s t l a n - y i n g (CTCCV3p308) p u t s t h i s i n t o c o n t e x t , e x p l a i n i n g t h a t because o f the t e a c h i n g s he comprehends the p r i n c i p l e s , and r e l y i n g on t h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g he c a r r i e s t h e s e p r i n c i p l e s i n t o p r a c t i c e . As a consequence he causes the h i g h e s t wisdom t o be b r i l l i a n t l y m a n i f e s t and f o l k s o n g s (ou^j^) t o f i l l the r o a d s . The c h a r a c t e r w u ^ i s commonly used as an e x p l e t i v e . I t would seem t h a t t h i s e x p r e s s i o n means i n t o n i n g e u l o g i e s as an e x p r e s s i o n o f h a v i n g e x p e r i e n c e d an awareness o f t h e t a o . 166 12. The name hsttan ming \ ^ i s a l s o found i n 45/17/78, meaning some neb u l o u s l o c a t i o n beyond the bounds o f d i r e c t i o n i n which the p e r s o n who has a t t a i n e d the l e v e l o f s u b l i m a t i o n can wander a t w i l l . 1 3 . L i I ( i n Lu Te-ming CTCCV2p42) s t a t e s t h a t the c h a r a c t e r t s ' a n ^ here has the meaning o f " l o f t y " . He c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h i s term as meaning " s o l i t a r y , v a s t and unnameable." 14. I n the name i . s h i h ( " P e r h a p s - B e g i n n i n g " ) we a r r i v e a t the l e v e l o f "not y e t b e g i n n i n g t o have t h a t which i s n o t y e t b e g i n n i n g t o have no n - b e i n g ( 5 / 2 / 5 0 ) " — i n o t h e r words, the v e r y s o u r c e o f a l l e x i s t e n c e , which i s i t s e l f i m p o s s i b l e t o d e f i n e . 15. TEXT The f o u r p e o p l e — T z u Ssu, Tzu Yu, Tzu L i , - 7 and Tzu L a i — were a l l engaged i n c o n v e r s a t i o n : 4 "Who i s a b l e t o t a k e Non-being as h i s head, t o t a k e l i f e c as h i s back and to t a k e death as h i s b u t t o c k s ? One who knows^ t h a t l i f e and d e a t h , e x i s t e n c e and n o n - e x i s t e n c e are a l l ( a s p e c t s o f ) the one t h i n g — I w i l l a s s o c i a t e w i t h him!" The f o u r men eyed each o t h e r and l a u g h e d . None c o n t r o -v e r t e d the g e n e r a l mind, and t h e r e u p o n t h e y became f r i e n d s . 167 EXEGESIS 1. The Kuo C h ' i n g - f a n t e x t (1895) has t z u yung i n p l a c e o f t z u s s u ^ / r ^ i . T h i s amendation i s p r o b a b l y based on T s ' u i Chuan's ( i n Lu Te-ming CTCCV2p43) commentary which quotes Huai Nan Tzu as h a v i n g t z u yung <^ r i n a passage about him l i v i n g t o be 54 y e a r s o f age and t h e n becoming i l l as a hunchback. T h i s passage does o c c u r i n the modern t e x t o f H u a i Nan Tzu SPTK 7/47b w i t h the e x c e p t i o n t h a t i t has t z u c h ' i u J ^ f L r a t h e r t h a n t z u yung ^ The g r a p h i c s i m i l a r i t y between c h ' i u <J^ and yung ^ j / ^ c o u l d w e l l a c c o u n t f o r t h i s c o n f u s i o n . The p e r s o n Tzu Yung i s a g a i n mentioned i n Pao P'u Tzu SPTK 38/210a. The passage i n H u a i Nan Tzu SPTK 7/47b mentioned above, a c c o r d i n g t o the T s ' u i Chuan commentary, o r i g i n a l l y had t z u yung ^ r a t h e r t h a n t z u c h ' i u ^ T h i s passage d e s c r i b e s Tzu C h ' i u (=Tzu Yung) i n much the same terms t h a t Tzu Lao i s d e s c r i b e d below ( T e x t 16). I n f a c t , the w o r d i n g i s so s i m i l a r t h a t we would have t o assume t h a t t h i s Chuang Tzu passage was the model f o r the H u a i Nan Tzu t e x t : Tzu C h ' i u (=Tzu Yung) was f i f t y - f o u r y e a r s o l d when he became i l l as a hunchback. H i s l o w e r o r i f i c e s were h i g h e r t h a n the t i p o f h i s head, and h i s abdomen p r e s s e d a g a i n s t h i s jaw. H i s two haunches were uppermost, and h i s anus p o i n t e d t o the heavens. C r a w l i n g o v e r to a w e l l , he peeped a t h i m s e l f , and e x c l a i m e d t " E x t r a o r d i n a r y ! Change (see T e x t 16 note 4) makes me t h i s c o n t r a c t e d and g n a r l e d ! " ( c f . Evan Morgan's v e r y i n a c c u r a t e t r a n s l a t i o n i n T a o i The Gr e a t Luminant, p. 69) Perhaps the most s a t i s f a c t o r y way to r e s o l v e the d i s c r e -p a n c i e s i n t h e s e t e x t s is» 1) t o change the modern H u a i Nan Tzu SPTK 7/47b t o r e a d Tzu Yung r a t h e r t h a n Tzu C h ' i u , and 168 2) t o r e c o n s t r u c t t h i s Chuang Tzu passage on the b a s i s o f the H u a i Nan Tzu passage c i t e d above and the Pao P'u Tzu SPTK 38/210a passage which s t a t e s : and which might w e l l be an a l l u s i o n t o t h i s anecdote. Such b e i n g the c a s e , t h i s passage would reads The f o u r p e o p l e — T z u L a i , Tzu Ytl, Tzu L i and Tzu Y u n g — . . . and t h e passage which f o l l o w s ( T e x t 16) would r e a d Tzu Yung f o r Tzu L a i . ( C f . Chu Kuei-yao CTCCV26ppl?9-80; Ma H s t l - l u n p. 204). Our i n f o r m a t i o n on the h i s t o r i c a l p e r s o n Tzu Ssu i s l i m i t e d t o t h i s one passage , w h i l e o u r i n f o r m a t i o n on Tzu L a i can o n l y be g l e a n e d from t h i s passage and what f o l l o w s i n T e x t 16. 2. Lu Te-ming ( C T C C V 2 p 4 3 ) o b s e r v e s t h a t i n r e f e r e n c e t o the name Tzu Ytl ^  , one t e x t has ytl tfei f o r y t l j S . The TPYL 409 a l s o c i t e s t h i s passage w i t h ytl S i n c e s e v e r a l o f the o t h e r r e f e r e n c e s i n t h i s c h a p t e r a re t o d i s c i p l e s o f C o n f u c i u s , i t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t t h i s p e r s o n Tzu Ytl i s one o f C o n f u c i u s ' most i n t i m a t e d i s c i p l e s , Tseng S h e n ^ - j k (505-436 B.C.). I n the S h i h C h i SPTK PNP 7 67 / l 4 b b i o g r a p h y o f Tseng Shen, i t i d e n t i f i e s him as a man o f Nan Wu Ch'eng V ^ ^ V ^ U n Lu V| ) whose t z u was Tzu Ytl . He was 46 y e a r s C o n f u c i u s ' j u n i o r , and was c o n s i d e r e d by Con-f u c i u s t o be a p e r s o n c a p a b l e o f f u l l y g r a s p i n g the d o c t r i n e o f f i l i a l p i e t y . The i n s t r u c t i o n s w h i c h C o n f u c i u s expounded t o Tzu Ytl on t h i s s u b j e c t , a c c o r d i n g t o p o p u l a r t r a d i t i o n , were Tzu Yung s i g h e d a t the g r e a t n e s s (wei ( t ' i e n ) p r i n c i p l e s . ) o f n a t u r e ' s 169 c o l l e c t e d as the Hs i a o C h i n g . A g a i n , t h e r e a r e the t e n books s t i l l e x t a n t which form a commentary t o the Ta Hstleh, and which are a t t r i b u t e d t o Tseng Shen. Tzu Ytl appears a g a i n i n T e x t 26 (19 / 6 / 9 4 ) i n a passage which may be c o n s t r u e d as a humorous a l l u s i o n t o h i s d e v o t i o n t o f i l i a l p i e t y . F o r a d e t a i l e d c h r o n o l o g y , see C h ' i e n Mu's H s i e n C h ' i n  Chu Tzu H s i N i e n pp. 7 4 - 5 . 3 . T h i s passage i s our o n l y source o f i n f o r m a t i o n on the p e r s o n Tzu L i J ^ . Wang Shu-min ( l / 5 4 b ) comments t h a t the TPYL 738 ; and CHC 18 have l i ^ i n s t e a d o f l i ^ j S . . The TPYL 409 c i t e s i t w i t h the v a r i a n t l i ^ • These t h r e e words are homophonous. 4. T h i s passage i s r e p e a t e d a l m o s t v e r b a t i m i n 63/23/601 We tak e Non-being as o u r head, ta k e l i f e as o u r back and take d e a t h as o u r b u t t o c k s . One who knows t h a t l i f e and d e a t h , e x i s t e n c e and n o n - e x i s t e n c e a r e a l l ( a s p e c t s o f ) the one p r i n c i p l e ( f o l l o w i n g Ch'en Ching-ytlan C T C C V 5 p 2 1 who c i t e s , the Wen J o - h a i t e x t as h a v i n g t s u n g ffi r a t h e r t h a n shou v^p . ) — I w i l l a s s o c i a t e w i t h him! T h i s word w u f f i ("Non-being") has i n s p i r e d a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount o f debate among Western s i n o l o g i s t s . I n our i n t e r p r e -t a t i o n , we would f o l l o w P r o f . L i n k ' s t e n a t i v e d e f i n i t i o n o f the n o t i o n pen w u ^ ^ i n Tao An (HR 9/2 - 3'199-200) 1 1) Pen wu i s c o n c e i v e d as the o r i g i n a l source and founda-t i o n beyond t e m p o r a l i t y o f the l a t t e r (and, t h e r e f o r e , from the Chinese p o i n t o f v i e w , i n f e r i o r ) dichotomous " e x i s t e n c e / n o n e x i s t e n c e " o f phenomenal t h i n g s and c h a r -a c t e r i s t i c s . 2) I t i s c o n t r a s t e d w i t h , and d e f i n e d as n o t to be i d e n t -i f i e d w i t h , the mere "absense o f t h i n g s . " I t i s i n no sense t o be c o n c e i v e d as the d e p r i v a t i o n o r "emptying o f e x i s t e n c e . " 3) As the p r i m a l s o u r c e from which a l l t h i n g s ( e x i s t e n t and n o n e x i s t e n t ) have sp r u n g , i t i s , i n Lao Tzu's words, 170 "empty, y e t f u l l . " The phenomenal w o r l d , i n c l u d i n g man and h i s e x p e r i e n c e , a re b u t an e x f o l i a t i o n o f t h e o r i g i n a l s o u r c e . Hence, a t l e a s t i n a l a t e n t s t a t e , pen wu i n c l u d e s a l l ( b o t h w o r l d and no n - w o r l d , i . e . , the source beyond t h e b e g i n n i n g as w e l l as man and h i s w o r l d o f e x p e r i e n c e ) i n the e n d l e s s a l t e r n a t i n g c y c l e o f b e i n g and n o n b e i n g , p a s t , p r e s e n t and f u t u r e . " We must g i v e wu/jjjl. t h i s d e f i n i t i o n h e r e , as i t i s n o t a s s i g n e d a p a r a l l e l . As P r o f . L i n k s u g g e s t s , i t r e p r e s e n t s a r e a l i t y w h i c h c a n be e x p e r i e n c e d beyond the "dichotomous e x i s t e n c e / n o n e x i s t e n c e o f phenomenal t h i n g s " — t h e Non-being which i s a t once n o t h i n g and e v e r y t h i n g , the u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d t o t a l i t y — t h e t a o . P r o f e s s o r P. Boodberg would " p r o t e s t w i t h the utmost v i g o r " (HJAS 20 (1957)» 607) the t r a n s l a t i o n o f w u ^ as "Non-being",on the grounds t h a t i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r t i m e - f r a m e , i t was used o n l y as a t r a n s i t i v e v e r b . He s t a t e s w i t h g r e a t c e r t a i n t y that'*' There i s no doubt t h a t p r i o r t o the i n v a s i o n o f C h i n a by Buddhism w i t h i t s Indo-European g l o s s o - p h i l o s o p h i c a l p a r a p h e r n a l i a which made o n t o l o g i c a l s p e c u l a t i o n , p o s s i b l e , t h e s e two Chinese terms (yu;g[ and wuj&k ), even i n T a o i s t environment, remained s e c u r e l y w i t h i n the semantic and p h i l o s o p h i c a l c a t e g o r y o f h a b i t o r p o s s e s -s i o n , b e i n g b o t h e s s e n t i a l l y t r a n s i t i v e v e r b s : " t o have ( s o m e t h i n g ) " and "not t o have ( s o m e t h i n g ) " . , . The f a c t i s t h a t y u and wu are f r e q u e n t l y used as nouns i n C hinese t e x t s which are p o s i t i v e l y a n t e r i o r t o the B u d d h i s t conquest o f C h i n a . ( C f . D. Bodde, FEQ Ik (1955)«231-2: W.T. Chan, Lao Tzu:100: A.C. Graham, AM 7/1-2 (1959)»10k). I n t h i s p assage, t h e r e i s some danger o f p r e s s i n g the metaphor too f a r . F o r example, L i u Feng-pao (CTCCV24p259) s u g g e s t s t h a t "head" r e p r e s e n t s the b e g i n n i n g , "back" r e p r e -s e n t s the m i d d l e , and " b u t t o c k s " r e p r e s e n t s the end. To 171 s u ggest t h a t t h e s e p o r t i o n s o f the anatomy r e p r e s e n t some t e m p o r a l s e q u e n t i a l o r d e r i s t o d e s t r o y Chuang Tzu's t h e s i s t h a t t h e s e a r e s i m p l y a l l a s p e c t s o f one e n t i t y . ( C f . Wang Yu CTCCV19pl68 who p o i n t s out t h a t t h e s e a r e t h r e e p o r t i o n s o f one anatomy). 5 . Wang Shu-min ( l / 5 5 a ) c i t e s t h e CKC 18 and TPYL 409 which quote t h i s passage w i t h the c h a r a c t e r nengflfe, ("able") b e f o r e c h i h %<H "knows"). The Ch'eng Hs t l a n - y i n g commentary (CTCCV3 p309) a l s o has "whoever i s a b l e (nengJ|^,) t o know t h i s — I w i l l a s s o c i a t e w i t h him," which might i m p l y t h a t the t e x t o r i g i n a l l y d i d have t h i s c h a r a c t e r neng. However, i n note k above we c i t e a p a r a l l e l passage from 6 3 / 2 3 / 6 0 which i s a l s o l a c k i n g the c h a r a c t e r neng. 16. TEXT Not l o n g t h e r e a f t e r , Tzu Y u 1 f e l l i l l , 2 and Tzu Ssu went t o e n q u i r e a f t e r him. (Tzu Y t l ) ^ said» " E x t r a o r d i n a r y ! Change i n t e n d s t o make me t h i s c o n t r a c t e d and g n a r l e d ! " - ' (Tzu Yu's body) was bent and hunched up, and he had a deformed back.^ Above were h i s f i v e v i t a l o r g a n s , w h i l e h i s n c h i n was b u r i e d i n h i s n a v e l . H i s s h o u l d e r s were h i g h e r 8 9 t h a n the crown o f h i s head, and the hooked e x c r e s c e n c e 7 ( o f h i s hunchback) p o i n t e d t o the heavens. H i s y i n and yang vapours were i n a s t a t e o f i m b a l a n c e , 1 0 b u t h i s h e a r t was t r a n q u i l and u n r u f f l e d . 172 Hobbling 1" 1" a c r o s s and m i r r o r i n g h i m s e l f i n the w e l l , he s i g h e d i "Oh! Change r e a l l y i n t e n d s t o make me t h i s c o n t r a c t e d 12 and g n a r l e d ! " Tzu Ssu asked» "Do you d i s l i k e (what has b e f a l l e n y o u ) ? " " I do n o t ! " 1 3 he r e p l i e d , "Why s h o u l d I d i s l i k e i t ? I f g r a d u a l l y i t t r a n s f o r m s my l e f t arm i n t o a cock, t h e n w i t h i t I can seek t o t e l l t he t i m e . 1 5 I f g r a d u a l l y i t t r a n s f o r m s my r i g h t arm i n t o a p e l l e t , t h e n on ac c o u n t o f i t I can seek t o have owl r o a s t i n g . I f g r a d u a l l y i t t r a n s f o r m s my b u t t o c k s i n t o (a p a i r o f ) wheels and my s p i r i t i n t o a h o r s e , t h e n on acc o u n t o f i t 1 ^ I w i l l be a b l e t o r i d e them. How a g a i n (would I have t o r e l y upon a) horse-drawn c a r r i a g e ! Now, t h a t which i s a c q u i r e d i s ( i n accordance w i t h ) t h e p r o p e r t i m e , w h i l e t h a t which i s l o s t f o l l o w s i n c o u r s e . I f one i s c o n t e n t w i t h the p r o p e r time and i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h c o m p l i a n c e , t h e n sadness and h a p p i n e s s cannot e n t e r i n t o i t . T h i s i s what was c a l l e d " e x t r i c a t i n g o n e s e l f from the bonds" i n a n c i e n t t i m e s . ^ Those who are unable t o e x t r i c a t e t h e m s e l v e s a re bound up (by phenomena), b u t the f a c t t h a t n o t h i n g can outdo n a t u r e has been l o n g - s t a n d i n g . How t h e n c o u l d I d i s l i k e i t ? " EXEGESIS 1. Ytl Ytleh (pp. 197-8) s u g g e s t s t h a t t h i s s h o u l d be Tzu L a i <5v<^ r a t h e r t h a n Tzu Y t l ^ - ^ 1 . I n T e x t 15 note 1 above we have c o n c l u d e d t h a t i t s h o u l d i n f a c t be Tzu Yung ^ /\\j> 173 2. According to Wang Shu-min (l / 5 5 a ) and L i u Wen-tien (CTCCV29 p4), (Sung) Lo Ta-ching||. y v f e i n his Ho L i n Ytl Lu ^ ^ quotes t h i s passage with c h i r a t h e r than ping^Tb ( " i l l " ) . L i u Wen-tien suggests that chi would be more i n keeping with ancient usage, but repeated use i n 17/6/54 and 19/6/94 would tend to indicate that t h i s passage at l e a s t originally-had ping. 3 . Ts'ui Chuan ( i n Lu Te-ming CTCCV2p43) comments that t h i s passage from "Extraordinary..." to "Hobbling across and mirroring himself i n the well..." i s a l l Tzu Ssu himself describing the condition of the i l l n e s s . On the contrary, i t i s obvious that e i t h e r a l l (Ma Hstl-lun pp. 204-5) or at l e a s t some (as we interpret i t ) of t h i s passage i s from the mouth of Tzu Ytl, since he uses the word vfl ^ ("me") twice. I t would seem that Ts'ui Chuan has simply confused the two. 4. The expression tsao wu che 'fa) (trans, "change") appears several times i n t h i s text, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h i s chapter. The expression tsao hua (che) J z / f ^ / t f ) also occurs several times, and i s likewise translated as "change." The Lieh Tzu and Huai Nan Tzu also use the term tsao hua (che) quite extensively. Ch'ien Mu (pp. 143-5) states emphatically t h i s term was purposely introduced i n the Chuang Tzu i n order to avoid using a term which otherwise connoted a transcendent creator with 174^ an e x i s t e n c e independent o f t h a t which i s c r e a t e d . He s u g g e s t s t h a t the t a yeh it ?^_( "Great Ironmonger") and t a l u -Aj£j|( "Great K i l n " ) i n t r o d u c e d below a r e metaphors o f the same q u a l i t y . T h e r e f o r e , a l t h o u g h t h e Chuang Tzu r e p e a t e d l y employs the terms t s a o wu che and t s a o hua che, i n Chuang Tzu's own mind, he c e r t a i n l y d i d n o t c o n s i d e r t h a t t h i s t s a o wu che o r t s a o hua che had a r e a l e x i s t e n c e , (p. 144) C h ' i e n Mu's p o i n t i s t h a t i f Chuang Tzu had wanted t o p r e s e n t the n o t i o n o f a c r e a t o r independent o f h i s c r e a t i o n , he would have more t h a n l i k e l y chosen a t r a d i t i o n a l term such as t ' i e n , t i (3? o r shen/fffi . He c r e a t e d h i s own term because he wanted t o propound a new n o t i o n — a n o t i o n i n which the c r e a t o r , the c r e a t e d and the s u b s t a n c e o f c r e a t i o n are one. C h ' i e n Mu*s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e s e two terms i s r e - e n f o r c e d by the passage i n Huai Nan Tzu SPTK l l / 7 8 a « The F i v e R u l e r s and Three K i n g s . . . above were f r i e n d s w i t h t h e gods and s p i r i t s and below were on an e q u a l f o o t i n g w i t h change ( t s a o hua 1%- /fK,). I f t s a o hua d i d i n f a c t r e f e r to a r u l i n g f o r c e o f the u n i v e r s e comparable t o the e a r l y C o n f u c i a n t ' i e n i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t i t would assume a s t a t i o n beneath t h a t o f the gods and s p i r i t s . I t would seem to me t h a t t r a n s l a t o r s have done Chuang Tzu a s e r i o u s i n j u s t i c e i n p r o j e c t i n g the n o t i o n o f " c r e a t i o n " o r " g e n e s i s " which i s so s t r o n g i n the Western t r a d i t i o n o v e r onto i t s Chinese c o u n t e r p a r t . Words l i k e " C r e a t o r (Legge, Watson)," God ( G i l e s ) " and "Maker o f t h i n g s (Fung Y u - l a n ) " o b v i o u s l y have v e r y immediate r e l i g i o u s c o n n o t a t i o n s i n the E n g l i s h language w h i c h do n o t a t a l l h o l d t r u e o f the term which t h e y are made t o r e p r e s e n t . 175 5. The e x p r e s s i o n chtl chtl jfy ( " c o n t r a c t e d and g n a r l e d " ) has s e v e r a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . As mentioned i n T e x t 15 note 1 above, t h e r e i s a p a r a l l e l passage to t h i s i n the H u a i Nan Tzu SPTK 7/47b. The Kao Yu commentary on t h a t passage i n t e r p r e t s chtl  chtl as "the appearance o f b e i n g f i n e . " The H s i a n g H s i u commen-t a r y ( i n Lu Te-ming CTCCV2p43) s t a t e s t h a t i t means " b e a u t i f u l . " T h i s k i n d o f an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n means t h a t Tzu L a i t a k e s h i s own appearance as b e i n g s k i l f u l l y wrought and i n accordance w i t h h i s f a t e , b u t i t s t i l l i m p l i e s a v a l u e judgement on h i s p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n , which i s n o t i n k e e p i n g w i t h the g e n e r a l t e n o r o f t h i s passage. Ch'en C h ' i - t ' i e n ( p. 110) r e a d s the e x p r e s s i o n ^ G S R 1 0 8 as the homophone GSR122 -MM./M^/M&IL, which has a s e c o n d a r y meaning o f " c r o o k e d . " S i n c e " c r o o k e d " i s n o t the b a s i c meaning o f the c h a r a c t e r chtl , b u t i s r a t h e r a s e c o n d a r y meaning, the c h a r a c t e r chtl ^ , a homophonous cognate o f chtl^q] w h i c h appears i n 48/19/17, 21 i s perhaps a b e t t e r c h o i c e . The Shuo Wen d e f i n e s the c h a r a c t e r chtl jfity as "hunch-back ." Ts'ao Shou-k'un ( C T C C V 3 0 p l 4 9 ) c i t e s Wang Y i n - c h i h who would change the f i n a l p a r t i c l e yeh i n t h i s sentence t o the i n t e r r o g a t i v e p a r t i c l e yeh 3^ 5 i n accordance w i t h the p a r a l l e l H u a i Nan Tzu SPTK 7 A 7 b passage. The f a c t t h a t t h i s sentence i s r e p e a t e d below (17/6/49) and a l s o has the p a r t i c l e yeh would t e n d t o c a s t doubt on t h i s emendation. 6. The e x p r e s s i o n f a p e i tgr ("deformed back") has b a s i c a l l y 176 t h r e e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . L i n H s i - i (CTCCV7p279) s u g g e s t s t h a t i t means the appearance o f u l c e r s ( i . e . a s w e l l i n g on the s u r f a c e o f the b a c k ) . Ch'eng Hsuan-ying ( C T C C V 3 p 3 1 0 ) under-s t a n d s i t t o mean t h a t the backbone becomes exposed. Wen . I - t o (pp. 268-9) r e a d s f a £ ^ as i t s cognate po^§^, which means "bent" o r " c r o o k e d " . As such, i t s t a n d s p a r a l l e l t o ch'u sit ("bent") w h i c h p r e c e d e s i t . S i n c e a l l o f t h e s e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s a r e r e l a t e d , we have s i m p l y chosen a word which w i l l c o v e r them a l l . 7. I n a d d i t i o n t o the p a r a l l e l passage i n H u a i Nan Tzu SPTK ? A 7 b mentioned above, t h e r e i s a l s o a r e l a t e d passage i n the Chuang  Tzu 12 /4/83« The c h i n o f the deformed man, Shu, was b u r i e d i n h i s n a v e l . H i s s h o u l d e r s were h i g h e r t h a n the crown o f h i s head, and h i s queue p o i n t e d t o the heavens. H i s f i v e v i t a l organs were uppermost, and h i s two haunches f l a n k e d him. T h i s r e l a t e d passage i n 12/4/83 has the c h a r a c t e r c h ' i / f f i S f o r c h ' i ^ ( " n a v e l " ) , as does Ch'eng Hs t l a n - y i n g ' s commentary ( C T C C V 3 p 3 1 0 ) and t h i s passage as c i t e d i n Lo T a - c h i n g ' s itffj^itz. Ho L i n Ytl Lu )&q § . 8. Lu Te-ming (CTCCV2p43) comments t h a t one t e x t has h s i a n g ("neck"), r a t h e r t h a n t i n g ^ ("crown o f h i s h e a d " ) , w h i l e the T s ' u i Chuan t e x t has k u n g ^ H (a name f o r a p a r t o f a w h e e l ) . Ts'ao Shou-k'un ( C T C C V 3 0 p l 5 0 ) and Ma H s t l - l u n (p. 205) b o t h amend t h i s as h s i a n g b u t the f a c t t h a t the p a r a l l e l passage i n H u a i Nan Tzu SPTK 7/47*) and t h e r e l a t e d passage i n 12/4/83 177 b o t h have t i n g j f j ^ "crown o f h i s head") would t e n d t o s u p p o r t t h i s r e a d i n g . 9. L i I ( i n Lu Te-ming CTCCV2p43) and L i n H s i - i (CTCCV7p279) both i n t e r p r e t t he e x p r e s s i o n kou c h u i &J ^  ("hooked e x c r e s c e n c e " ) as an a n c i e n t h a i r - s t y l e which resembles a wen on the head. We choose t o t r e a t i t l i t e r a l l y as t h e hump o f the hunchback. The p a r a l l e l passage i n the Huai Nan Tzu SPTK ? A ? b i s o f l i t t l e use h e r e , h a v i n g chu y i n g ^ ( " a n u s " ) i n s t e a d o f kou c h u i ^ . The r e l a t e d passage i n 12/4/83 has k ' u a i t s u i ^3 ^?|_» whi c h a c c o r d i n g t o the Ssu-ma P i a o and T s ' u i Chuan commentaries ( i n Lu Te-ming CTCCV2p32) means an a n c i e n t h a i r -s t y l e , and a c c o r d i n g t o the H s i a n g H s i u commentary ( i b i d . ) means a h u n c h i n g up o f the s h o u l d e r s . 10. Lu Te-ming (CTCCV2p43) o b s e r v e s t h a t the T s ' u i Chuan t e x t has the c h a r a c t e r ^ - i n s t e a d o f l i ^ " ( " i m b a l a n c e " ) , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t i t means " f u l l . " The c o r r e c t form o f t h i s c h a r a c t e r < ^ i s mi^Jci) which i n a b b r e v i a t e d form is/^T? or)h . I n t h i s a b b r e v i -a t e d form, t h e r e i s an o b v i o u s g r a p h i c s i m i l a r i t y between mi and li>£ . Yen L i n g - f e n g (p. 628) c i t e s H s i T'ung who p r o v i d e s an example from the Han Shu SPTK PNP 2 7 x K t / l b w hich s t a t e s : When the vapours do i n j u r y t o each o t h e r we c a l l i t imbalance ( l i $ y ) . Chu Kuei-yao (CTCCV26ppl80-l) f u r t h e r g i v e s v a r i o u s examples i n which l i a n d l o a n c h a r a c t e r s f o r i t a re a s s o c i a t e d w i t h 178 the a b e r r a t i o n s o f the v a p o u r s . A second t e x t u a l problem i n t h i s sentence i s the p u n c t u -a t i o n . The T s ' u i Chuan t e x t ( i n Lu Te-ming CTCCV2p k3) exten d s t h i s sentence t o r e a d : H i s y i n and yang vapours caused imbalance i n h i s h e a r t . We have f o l l o w e d the Kuo H s i a n g p u n c t u a t i o n i n our t r a n s l a t i o n , e n d i n g t h i s s entence a f t e r l i ) ^ . The g i s t o f t h i s passage i s t h a t a l t h o u g h Tzu Ytl has been s e v e r e l y deformed by change, he f e e l s no resentment o r r e g r e t . A r e n d e r i n g based on the T s ' u i Chuan p u n c t u a t i o n would i m p l y t h a t p h y s i c a l d e f o r m i t y has d i s t u r b e d h i s h e a r t , and t h i s i s n o t i n k e e p i n g w i t h the g e n e r a l t h r u s t o f the c o n t e n t . Wang K ' a i - y t l n ( i n C h ' i e n Mu p. 5 k ) would r e a d yu ^ as v u ^ , which would change the t r a n s l a t i o n t o r e a d : H i s y i n and yang vapours were f u r t h e r m o r e i m b a l a n c e d . 11. The T s ' u i Chuan ( i n Lu Te-ming CTCCV2p43) t e x t has the v a r i a n t p i e n h s i e n J? f o r p i e n h s i e n ^ f c " h o b b l i n g " ) . There a r e b a s i c a l l y two i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f t h i s e x p r e s s i o n . Ssu-ma P i a o ( i n Lu Te-ming CTCCV2p43), Ch'eng Hsuan-ying (CTCCV3p311) and most o f the t r a d i t i o n a l commentaries s u g g e s t t h a t i t means w a l k i n g w i t h some d i f f i c u l t y due to p h y s i c a l d e f o r m i t y . Chu Kuei-yao (CTCCV26pl81) and Kuan Feng (p. 233n9). on the o t h e r hand, suggest t h a t a l t h o u g h he i s s u f f e r i n g from p h y s i c a l d e f o r m i t y , i t i s u n a b l e to f e t t e r h i s h e a r t . Thus, he i s a b l e t o move l i g h t l y and a g i l e l y , Chu K uei-yao and Kuan Feng te n d t o p r o j e c t t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l 179 c o n t e n t o f t h i s passage onto t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the passage. I f Tzu Ytl was t h u s s t r i k e n w i t h p h y s i c a l d e f o r m i t y , and y e t was s t i l l a b l e t o s p r i n t t o the edge of. the w e l l , t h e n he would have no r e a s o n t o f e e l resentment o r d i s t r e s s . The p o i n t here i s t h a t Tzu Ytl's h e a l t h has been d e a l t a s e v e r e blow, and where most p e o p l e would e x p e r i e n c e a c e r t a i n amount o f b i t t e r n e s s , h i s l e v e l o f mind e n a b l e s him t o w h o l l y a c c e p t any change i n h i s c o n d i t i o n . The Han Fen Lou t e x t and Ch'ung Te Shu Yuan t e x t b o t h have v j l - J f o r ytl ^ 6 . 12. See note 5 above. 1 3 . The c h a r a c t e r wang ("I do n o t " ) here i s used l i k e wu/jjji^ . See A.G. Graham, AM 8/2 ( S e p t . 196l)»174-6 f o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f the use o f wang-7^ as wu<|£ c u r r e n t p r i m a r i l y i n pre-Han t i m e s . Wang i s used i n the same way i n 46/18/21 and 5 0 / 1 9 / 5 2 . 14. L i n H s i - i (CTCCV7p280) o b s e r v e s t h a t i n t h i s s e c t i o n , the most u n u s u a l t h i n g i s the use o f the two c h a r a c t e r s c h i n c h i a 5 l M ^ - ( " i f g r a d u a l l y " ) . A c c o r d i n g t o Wang Shu-min ( l / 5 5 b ) , t h e word c h i n ' ^ s h o u l d be r e a d ch'in/ftf^as i t appears i n TPYL 369 where i t c i t e s t h i s passage. The Shuo Wen d e f i n e s c h ' i n ^ as " g r a d u a l l y a d v a n c i n g . " L i n H s i - i ( i b i d . ) s u g g e s t s t h a t c h i a /fei i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h i s i s a c o n d i t i o n a l s e n t e n c e . 1 5 . T h i s passage i s r e l a t e d t o 6/2/?6 which s t a t e s * 180 You see an egg and l o o k f o r a cock; you see a p e l l e t and l o o k f o r a r o a s t o w l . The H u a i Nan Tzu SPTK 16/I22b has a v e r y s i m i l a r passage. On the b a s i s o f t h i s passage, Wang H s i e n - c h ' i e n (CTCCV26p86) s u g g e s t s t h a t c h i '^%L "cock") i s an e r r o r f o r the c h a r a c t e r l u a n ("egg"). He a l s o i n t e r p r e t s the e x p r e s s i o n s h i h yeh as "cock". Thus, a c c o r d i n g to Wang H s i e n - c h ' i e n , t h i s s entence s h o u l d r e a d ; I f g r a d u a l l y i t t r a n s f o r m s my l e f t arm i n t o an egg, t h e n w i t h i t I can seek f o r a cock. T h i s makes good sense. The e x p r e s s i o n s h i h yeh ("cock") which o c c u r s i n the 6/2/76 passage and a g a i n here i s somewhat o b s c u r e , and s h o u l d p r o b a b l y be s s u yeh |) . The two words G S R 9 6 l 3 v t ^ / S ^ and ^ GSR972 $\2Cj/S\ / sV c o n s t i t u t e a p e r f e c t rhyme. What seems t o have o c c u r e d i s t h a t a l a t e r c o p y i s t ( o r the a u t h o r ? ? ) d i d n o t u n d e r s t a n d s h i h yeh ^ as "cock", b u t r a t h e r under-s t o o d i t as r e f e r r i n g t o the c a p a c i t y o f the cock t o i n d i c a t e the t i m e , and so a l t e r e d t h e passage a c c o r d i n g l y . I n the H u a i Nan Tzu SPTK 16/I22b passage, the a u t h o r s i m p l y changed s h i h yeh t o ch'en y e h % J $ _ . A c c o r d i n g t o Lu Te-ming (CTCCV2p44), one t e x t i s w i t h o u t t h e c h a r a c t e r c h ' i u <|<l( "to s e e k " ) . Ytl Ytieh (p. 198) o b s e r v e s t h a t a cock i s a b l e t o announce the time o f i t s own a c c o r d , and c e r t a i n l y does n o t have t o "seek" t o announce i t . However, the sentence w h i c h f o l l o w s t h i s one i s p a r a l l e l i n c o n s t r u c t i o n , and i n c l u d e s the c h a r a c t e r c h ' i u ^fct as do the r e l a t e d passages i n 6/2/76 and H u a i Nan Tzu SPTK 16/I22b. 181 16. The Han Fen Lou and S h i h Te T'ang t e x t s have y i n e r h ch'eng  c h i h J^l vtp ^ >_ i n p l a c e o f y i n i ch'eng c h i h [£) L)^^ ^J"then on a c c o u n t o f i t . I w i l l he a b l e t o r i d e them"). The Ku I Ts'ung Shu has the c h a r a c t e r i\\J^ r a t h e r t h a n e r h ^ , a c c o r d i n g to Wang Shu-min ( l / 5 6 a ) . The two p h r a s e s which are p a r a l l e l t o t h i s one b o t h have i b j ^ . T h e r e f o r e , we f o l l o w t h i s v a r i a t i o n . (The H a r v a r d - Y e n c h i n g Index #20 t e x t has t z ' u r a t h e r than o r e r h ^ j ) , but t h i s would appear to be a s i m p l e p r i n t i n g e r r o r . ) 17. There i s a r e l a t e d passage i n 8/3/I81 When i t was a p p r o p r i a t e t o come, the M a s t e r (Lao Tzu) a c c o r d e d w i t h the p r o p e r t i m e . When i t was a p p r o p r i a t e to l e a v e , the M a s t e r c o m p l i e d w i t h i t . I f one i s c o n t e n t w i t h the p r o p e r time and i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h c o m p l i a n c e , t h e n sadness and h a p p i n e s s cannot e n t e r i n t o i t . I n a n c i e n t t i m e s , t h i s i s what was c a l l e d the " e x t r i c a t i n g o n e s e l f from the bonds" o f the gods. 17. TEXT Be f o r e l o n g , Tzu L a i f e l l i l l . Wheezing and p a n t i n g , 1 he was on the b r i n k o f d e a t h . H i s w i f e and c h i l d r e n g a t h e r e d 2 about him and wept. Tzu L i , h a v i n g gone t o e n q u i r e a f t e r him, r e v i l e d - ^ them, s a y i n g s "Get away! Don't impede h i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s ! " L e a n i n g a g a i n s t the door, he t a l k e d w i t h him, s a y i n g 1 " E x t r a o r d i n a r y , t h e s e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s ! What ar e you g o i n g to be made i n t o n e x t ? Where are you g o i n g t o be s e n t ? W i l l you be made i n t o a r a t ' s l i v e r , o r w i l l you be made i n t o an i n s e c t ' s a r m ? 5 " 182 Tzu L a i r e p l i e d ! "The r e l a t i o n s h i p o f c h i l d r e n t o t h e i r p a r e n t s i s one o f t o t a l d e v o t i o n , and t h e y o n l y need he commanded t o obey. But the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f man to the y i n and 6 7 yang vapours i s no l e s s than' h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o h i s p a r e n t s . I f now t h a t t h e y ( t h e y i n and yang v a p o u r s ) have drawn me n e a r t o d e a t h , I do n o t heed them, t h e n I (can o n l y be c o n s i d e r e d ) o f a v i o l e n t ( n a t u r e ) . And what form o f punishment w i l l t h e y l e v y f o r t h a t ! The Gr e a t C l o d encumbers me w i t h a p h y s i c a l form, f a t i g u e s me w i t h l i f e , r e t i r e s me w i t h age and r e s t s me w i t h d e a t h . A s s u r e d l y , any r e a s o n s t h a t I have f o r a p p r o v i n g o f my l i f e a r e t h e v e r y r e a s o n s why I s h o u l d approve o f my Q d e a t h . Now, i f the g r e a t i r o n s m i t h 1 0 were i n the p r o c e s s o f c a s t i n g m e t a l , and the m e t a l , t h r u s t i n g and b r a n d i s h i n g i t s e l f , 11 12 s a i d : " I must be f o r g e d i n t o a Mo Yeh sword!", the g r e a t i r o n s m i t h would c e r t a i n l y c o n s i d e r i t an i n a u s p i c i o u s b i t o f m e t a l . Now, i f once h a v i n g been c a s t 1 ^ i n t h e human form, I were t o whine:' "Make me i n t o a man! Make me i n t o a man!", t h e n change would c e r t a i n l y c o n s i d e r me an i n a u s p i c i o u s p e r s o n ! Now, once we ta k e the cosmos t o be a g r e a t f o r g e and t a k e l k change t o be a g r e a t i r o n s m i t h , where c o u l d I go t h a t would be i n a d m i s s i b l e ! I t r a n q u i l l y and u n c o n s t r a i n e d l y 1 - ' go t o 1 ft "I 7 s l e e p , and w i l l a b r u p t l y and a m i c a b l y awake. EXEGESIS: 1. Lu Te-ming (CTCCV2p k4) comments t h a t the T s ' u i Chuan t e x t had the cognate e x p r e s s i o n c h u i c h u i ^ ' j , ^ " a n x i o u s l y " ) f o r 183 ch'uan ch'uan "whee z i n g and p a n t i n g " ) . 2. The Ho P i S h i h L e i , Tao Tsang and Chung Tu Ssu Tzu t e x t s (and most p o p u l a r t e x t s ) omit the c h a r a c t e r t z u 5 p i n the p r o p e r name t z u l i ^ . As Wang Shu-min (l / 5 6 a ) o b s e r v e s , t h e Ch'u P o - h s i u t e x t i n the Tao Tsang and the Ku I Ts'ung Shu t e x t have t h i s c h a r a c t e r . 3. Ch'en C h ' i - t ' i e n (p. I l l ) t a k e s i s s u e w i t h the t r a d i t i o n a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f c h ' i h < L ) ^ ^ a n d yi.^$ as two s h o r t s t a t e m e n t s , t h e f i r s t b e i n g an e x p l e t i v e and t h e second a command t o go away. R a t h e r , he s u g g e s t s t h a t the p o s i t i o n o f c h ' i h ^ ^ a n d ytleh ^ 3 be r e v e r s e d , and t h a t c h ' i h be r e a d a d v e r b i a l l y as " s c o l d i n g l y ( s c o l d i n g l y s a i d = r e v i l e d ) . " We have f o l l o w e d Ch'en C h ' i - t ' i e n h e r e . 4. F o r the c h a r a c t e r t a ^ ("impede"), the T s ' u i Chuan ( i n Lu Te-ming CTCCV2p44) has the cognate t a ^ f l ( " s o f t l e a t h e r " ) , w hich makes l i t t l e sense h e r e . 5. Lu Te-ming (CTCCV2p4 k) o b s e r v e s t h a t the T s ' u i Chuan t e x t and o t h e r s have ch'ang^)J^ ( " i n t e s t i n e s " ) r a t h e r t h a n p i ' f f i ("arm"). Wen I - t o (p. 269) p o i n t s o u t t h a t t h i s v a r i a n t would make t h i s p h r ase more p a r a l l e l w i t h the one which p r e c e d e s i t , s i n c e " l i v e r " and " i n t e s t i n e s " a r e b o t h e n t r a i l s . L i n Ytln-ming (CTCCV18pl k7) n o t e s t h a t a c c o r d i n g t o the Tzu P ' i n g Yuan H a i X - ^ ; $ t l . r a t s do n o t have a l i v e r ( i n 184 f a c t , t h e y d o ) . A l s o , i n the Tzu H u i % ^ i t r e p o r t s t h a t i n s e c t s w i t h l e g s are c a l l e d ch'ung , w h i l e those w i t h o u t l e g s are c a l l e d c h ' i h ^ . I n n e i t h e r case do t h e y have arms He i n t e r p r e t s t h e s e two examples as s u g g e s t i n g t h a t change can t r a n s f o r m man i n t o a " n o n e - t h i n g (wu wuJ^j-ffi/ )" and h u r d l e him i n t o t o t a l o b l i v i o n . W h i l e L i n Yttn-ming's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s c e r t a i n l y p o s s i b l e , we would t e n d t o agree w i t h Ch'u P o - h s i u (Tao Tsang 1 7 / l 6 a ) who s u g g e s t s t h a t a " r a t ' s l i v e r " and an " i n s e c t ' s arm" a r e examples 1 o f v e r y i n s i g n i f i c a n t t h i n g s . The thought propounded here i s t h a t r e g a r d l e s s o f what he becomes, he remains an i n t e g r a l and i n s e p a r a b l e a s p e c t o f the cosmic t o t a l i t y . I f , i n f a c t , he i s r e l e g a t e d t o o b l i v i o n , t h i s would n o t i l l u s t r a t e a w i l l i n g c o m p l i a n c e w i t h the v i c i s s i t u d e s o f change, n o r would i t c h a r -a c t e r i z e him as a c o n t i n u i n g a s p e c t o f the t a o . 6. A c c o r d i n g t o L i u Feng-pao (CTCCV24p262), Wen I - t o (p. 269) and Ch'en C h ' i - t ' i e n (p. 112), the sentence s t r u c t u r e i n t h i s p h r a se and the one which p r e c e d e s i t i s i n v e r t e d . The t e x t , i f i n t e r p r e t e d l i t e r a l l y , s t a t e s "the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f the p a r e n t s t o the c h i l d r e n " and "the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f the y i n and yang vapours t o man." T h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o b v i o u s l y does v i o l e n c e t o the p o i n t b e i n g made h e r e , s i n c e i t i s the c h i l d r e n who must obey the p a r e n t s and man who must a c c e p t the c h a n g i n g c o n d i t i o n s o f the y i n and yang v a p o u r s , and n o t v i c e v e r s a . Hence, we have f o l l o w e d t h e s e commentators i n o u r t r a n s l a t i o n . 185 7. The c h a r a c t e r G S R 8 6 4 s | e ^ / s i e - / c k £ V ("no l e s s than") i s a l o a n f o r i t s homophone H GSR877 s j e g / s i e - / s k V . The Ch'eng Hs t l a n - y i n g commentary ( C T C C V 3 p 3 1 5 ) uses the c h a r a c -ter t e r s h i h 3? i n i t s e x p l a n a t i o n . Ma H s t l - l u n comments t h a t the Chuang Tzu I L i n (CTCCV5p7) and TPYL 738 quote t h i s passage w i t h w e i j ^ r a t h e r t h a n yjH^P-i n the e x p r e s s i o n c h ' i h yu x f f i j ^ * ' The Chuang Tzu I L i n a l s o has the f i n a l p a r t i c l e yeh f o l l o w i n g mu-i^ . 8. Lu Te-ming (CTCCV2pW n o t e s the v a r i a n t han^jjl f o r i t s cognate and homophone fjf- ( " v i o l e n t " ) . Among those t e x t s w i t h t h i s v a r i a n t , Wang Shu-min l i s t s the Tao Tsang e d i t i o n s o f the Ch'eng Hs t l a n - y i n g t e x t , the L i n H s i - i t e x t , the Ch'u P o - h s i u t e x t , the Ch'en Ching-yuan t e x t and the Ku I Ts'ung Shu t e x t . 9. T h i s passage i s f i r s t seen i n T e x t 9 above (see n o t e s 17-21). 10. Some t e x t s have the c h a r a c t e r c h i h f o l l o w i n g c h i n ^ ("now") (e . g . Ku I Ts'ung Shu), w h i l e most are w i t h o u t i t ( e . g . Ho P i S h i h L e i t e x t and t h e Tao Tsang e d i t i o n o f the L i n H s i - i t e x t . ) 11. A l l u s i o n s t o the l e g e n d o f t h i s famous sword, Mo Y e h J ^ J f c ^ , appear t h r o u g h o u t the e a r l y t e x t s . A c c o r d i n g t o the Wu Ytleh  Ch'un C h ' i u SPTK V 2 0 a - b , Kan C h i a n g - ^ j j ^ was commissioned by 186 K i n g Ho Lu" o f Wu ^ j£_ t o f o r g e two swords. Mo Yeh ( J ^ L / f f o r ^ R . ^ ^ w a s " f c n e n a m e 0 : f K a n Chiang's w i f e . When he attempted t o c a s t the swords, the g o l d and i r o n would n o t f u s e . Thereupon, Mo Yeh c u t h e r h a i r and c l i p p e d h e r n a i l s , and threw them i n t o the f u r n a c e . The m e t a l s t h e n commingled, and he f a s h i o n e d swords o ut o f i t . The yang sword he c a l l e d Kan C h i a n g and the y i n sword he c a l l e d Mo Yeh. Kan C h i a n g t h e n h i d the Kan Chi a n g sword and p r e s e n t e d the Mo Yeh sword t o K i n g Ho L f l . T h i s l e g e n d o c c u r s w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e V a r i a n c e i n the ( 4 t h C. A.D.) Sou Shen C h i HWTS l l / l b - 2 b . Kan C h i a n g i s commissioned t o f o r g e two swords f o r the K i n g o f Ch'u. A n t i -c i p a t i n g t h a t he has i n c u r r e d t h e K i n g ' s w r a t h , Kan C h i a n g h i d e s the male sword (Kan Chiang) f o r h i s a s - y e t - u n b o r n son to use i n a v e n g i n g h i s d e a t h . When the son comes o f age and h e a r s o f h i s f a t h e r ' s e x e c u t i o n by the K i n g o f Ch'u, he vows revenge. The K i n g h e a r s o f t h i s , and p l a c e s a p r i c e on h i s head. The son c u t s h i s own t h r o a t a f t e r making an arrangement w i t h a s t r a n g e r t h a t t h i s s t r a n g e r p r e s e n t h i s head to the K i n g o f Ch'u t o c o l l e c t the reward, and a t t h a t time avenge Kan C h i a n g , On b r i n g i n g the head t o the K i n g , the s t r a n g e r s u g g e s t s t h a t the K i n g make a b r o t h from i t ( t h i s b e i n g t h e custom i n d e a l i n g w i t h a worthy enemy). The K i n g b o i l s the head f o r t h r e e days and n i g h t s , and i t n o t o n l y f a i l s t o d i s i n t e g r a t e , b u t f u r t h e r bobs around i n the b r o t h w i t h an enraged s t a r e . The s t r a n g e r c a l l s the K i n g o v e r t o w i t n e s s t h i s u n u s u a l a f f a i r on the p r e t e x t t h a t i t can be reduced by 187 a r e g a l g l a n c e . A t t h i s p o i n t , the s t r a n g e r d i s p a t c h e s the K i n g w i t h the sword and t h e n d e c a p i t a t e s h i m s e l f , managing t o add b o t h o f t h e i r heads t o the b o i l i n g c a u l d r o n . The t h r e e heads d i s i n t e g r a t e and b l e n d t o the e x t e n t t h a t t h e y cannot be d i s t i n g u i s h e d , and a r e c o n s e q u e n t l y b u r i e d t o g e t h e r i n what i s c a l l e d the "Tomb o f the Three K i n g s . " I n l i g h t o f the s e two r e l a t e d l e g e n d s , t h e r e i s perhaps some s i g n i f i c a n c e t o the m e t a l ' s w a n t i n g t o be f o r g e d i n t o a Mo Yeh sword. Not o n l y does i t want t o be made i n t o a weapon, which i s i t s e l f an i n a u s p i c i o u s i n s t r u m e n t , b u t f u r t h e r wants t o be made i n t o the y i n sword which i s the i n a u s p i c i o u s o f the i n a u s p i c i o u s . The female sword i s p r e s e n t e d t o the k i n g , and i n h i s hands i t i s abused. The male sword, on the o t h e r hand, i s i n s t r u m e n t a l i n s e t t l i n g the s m i t h ' s v e n d e t t a . ( C f . High t o w e r , HSWC p l 2 2 n 8 ) . 12. Wang Shu-min ( l / 5 6 b ) f e e l s t h a t we s h o u l d precede t h i s s e ntence w i t h t h e p a r t i c l e f u on the b a s i s o f a v a r i a n t passage found i n CTYH 1 and 2, and the f a c t t h a t the passage which f o l l o w s and i s p a r a l l e l t o t h i s sentence has t h i s c h a r a c t e r as an i n t r o d u c t o r y p a r t i c l e . He a l s o o b s e r v e s t h a t the TPYL 810 has wu tyfl ( " t h i n g " ) r a t h e r t h a n c h i n j ^ _ ( " m e t a l " ) . 1 3 . See T e x t 10 n o t e 14 above f o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s c h a r a c t e r f a n " c a s t " ) . 188 14. Ma Hstl-lun (p. 209) notes t h a t the Shih Te T'ang t e x t i s without the two characters wu hu ("where"), but since t h i s omission leaves the sentence incomplete, i t would seem to be i n e r r o r . 15. Lu Te-ming (CTCCV2p44) i n d i c a t e s t h a t the character ch'eng i n the expression ch'eng jan f& ^ ( " t r a n q u i l l y and u n c o n s t r a i n -edly") has s e v e r a l v a r i a n t s . One t e x t has shu ("to guard"), which the Chien Wen commentary says i s an e r r o r f o r mieh >/jirV ("to d e s t r o y " ) . Another t e x t has h s i Qftx.which means "to look at w i t h a s t a r t l e d a i r . " One e d i t i o n a l s o has o / f ^ \ ( " i n a moment"). Chu Kuei-yao (CTCCV26ppl82-3) p o i n t s out some v a r i a n t s to these v a r i a n t s . We f o l l o w Ch'eng Hstlan-ying's (CTCCV3p31?) i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h i s expression. 16. The T s ' u i Chuan t e x t ( i n Lu Te-ming CTCCV2p44) had c h t l ^ / > r ("grasp") f o r ch'tl./zp ("abruptly and amicably"). Again, we f o l l o w Ch'eng Hstlan-ying's (CTCCV3p317) i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h i s expression. 17. According to Lu Te-ming (CTCCV2p44), the Hsiang Hsiu and T s ' u i Chuan t e x t s continued t h i s sentence w i t h the f o u r c h a r a c t e r s ! f a jan han ch'u I g - ( " H a v i n g been l i b e r a t e d , the sweat flows.") The Hsiang Hsiu t e x t comments t h a t i f one i s without bonds, then the s a l i v a flows f r e e l y . T s ' u i Chuan remarks t h a t when the vapours of the blood are harmonious and f r e e - f l o w i n g , one does not consider change to be something to 189 f e a r . Ma H s u - l u n (p. 209) n o t e s t h a t i n the commentary t o the Wen Hsuan SPTK 3 V 6 4 3 b , the c h a r a c t e r t z ' u 5,VK( " t o sweat") appears i n p l a c e o f f a i n t h i s s e n t e n c e . 18. TEXT 1 2 The t h r e e p e r s o n s — T z u Sang Hu, Meng Tzu Pan, and Tzu 3 k C h ' i n Chang-'—were mutual f r i e n d s . One s a i d t o the o t h e r s i "Who i s a b l e t o a s s o c i a t e i n ' n o n - a s s o c i a t i o n ' ? Who i s a b l e t o c o - o p e r a t e i n ' n o n - c o - o p e r a t i o n * ? Who i s a b l e t o ascend t o the heavens and wander about i n the m i s t s , p r a n c i n g and gamboling-' i n t h e i n t e r m i n a b l e , f o r g e t t i n g each o t h e r i n f o s t e r i n g t h a t which i s w i t h o u t end o r e x h a u s t i o n . The t h r e e men eyed each o t h e r and l a u g h e d . None c o n t r o v e r t e d the g e n e r a l mind, and as a consequence t h e y a s s o c i a t e d as f r i e n d s . ^ EXEGESIS i s pronounced h u ^ 3 . I n t h i s passage, he i s p o r t r a y e d i n s t r u c t i n g C o n f u c i u s i n the e s s e n t i a l s o f t r u e a f f e c t i o n , w h ich i n c e r t a i n r e s p e c t s appears t o be an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f o u r T e x t 18. H a v i n g spoken w i t h Tzu Sang Hu, C o n f u c i u s bandons h i s s t u d i e s and d i s p e n s e s w i t h h i s books. A l t h o u g h h i s d i s c i p l e s no l o n g e r bow and s c r a p e b e f o r e him, t h e i r a f f e c t i o n f o r him seems t o be s t r o n g e r t h a n e v e r p r e v i o u s . 190 On a n o t h e r day, Tzu Sang Hu i n s t r u c t s C o n f u c i u s on p h y s i c a l and e m o t i o n a l compliance t When one c o m p l i e s , t h e r e w i l l be no d i v e r g e n c e ; when one a c c o r d s , t h e r e w i l l be no e x h a u s t i o n . W i t h n e i t h e r d i v e r g e n c e n o r e x h a u s t i o n , you w i l l n o t need t o seek r e f i n e m e n t s i n d e a l i n g w i t h y o u r p h y s i c a l p e r s o n . I n not s e e k i n g r e f i n e m e n t s i n d e a l i n g w i t h y o u r p h y s i c a l p e r s o n , you w i l l c e r t a i n l y n o t be dependent upon ( e x t e r n a l ) phenomena. (53/20/44f f . ) T h i s passage i s i m p o r t a n t i n t h a t i t p r o v i d e s a r e a l l i n k between the Tzu Sang Hu o f the Chuang Tzu and v a r i a t i o n s on t h i s name whi c h o c c u r i n o t h e r t e x t s . I n the Ch'u Tz'u SPTK V 6 9 b , i t s t a t e s t h a t * C h i e h Ytl (see T e x t 5 note 1? above) shaved h i s head; Sang H u j j j ^ | | ^ r a n around naked. The Hung H s i n g - t s u ^ ^ [ c o m m e n t a r y i d e n t i f i e s t h i s v a r i a n t w i t h the Tzu Sang Hu i n the Chuang Tzu. A g a i n , as Wang Shu-min (1/57a) and Ma H s f l - l u n (p. 210) n o t e , the TPYL 409 and PKLT 10 and the Kuang Ytln J l ^ 3 have hu/g^ r a t h e r t h a n h u p . I n the Feng Su T"ung I SPTK 5/36a i t s t a t e s : •st- Jj (Sang) Hu ( j ^ ) / ^ ^ t r a v e l l e d naked and on f o o t . Chu H s i and o t h e r commentators on the Lun Ytl 9/6/2 i d e n t -i f y Tzu Sang Po Tzu <S-J|:/f(3 w i t h Tzu Sang Hu. He i s p o r -t r a y e d as a man who p r e f e r s s i m p l i c i t y t o pomp and r e f i n e m e n t , and a l t h o u g h he i s c o n s i d e r e d a d m i s s i b l e by C o n f u c i u s , he i s l e s s t h a n e n t h u s i a s t i c . The Shuo Yflan SPTK 19/92a i n t e r p r e t s and a m p l i f i e s t h i s r a t h e r obscure Lun Ytl passage: C o n f u c i u s s a i d : " S i m p l i c i t y i s p e r m i s s i b l e . " S i m p l i c i t y means easy and l e i s u r e l y . Easy and L e i s u r e l y means b e i n g w i t h o u t the r e f i n e m e n t s o f ceremony. C o n f u c i u s had an i n t e r v i e w w i t h Tzu Sang Po Tzu. I n 191 m e e t i n g w i t h him, Tzu Sang Po Tzu n e g l e c t e d t o wear h i s cap. The d i s c i p l e s e n q u i r e d ! "Why does the M a s t e r see t h i s man?" C o n f u c i u s r e p l i e d ; " H i s subst a n c e i s v e r y w o r t h w h i l e , b u t he i s w i t h o u t r e f i n e m e n t . I wanted t o persuade and r e f i n e him." When C o n f u c i u s had d e p a r t e d , the f o l l o w e r s o f Tzu Sang Po Tzu were n o t c o n v i n c e d , and asked: "Why d i d you see C o n f u c i u s ? " He r e p l i e d ! " H i s subst a n c e i s v e r y w o r t h w h i l e , but h i s r e f i n e m e n t s are cumbrous. I wanted t o persuade him t o d i s c a r d h i s r e f i n e m e n t s . " T h e r e f o r e , i t i s s a i d i Those who c u l t i v a t e b o t h r e f i n e -ment and subst a n c e are c a l l e d s u p e r i o r men (chtln t z u ) , w h i l e those who have substance b u t l a c k r e f i n e m e n t are known as easy and l e i s u r e l y . Tzu Sang Po Tzu was easy and l e i s u r e l y , w a n t i n g t o make the way o f man the same as t h a t o f cows and h o r s e s . Thus, Chung-kung - f f *q ( a d i s c i p l e o f C o n f u c i u s ) s a i d t h a t he (Tzu Sang Po Tzu) was " e x c e s s i v e l y s i m p l i s t i c . " I n the Chuang Tzu p a s s a g e s , Tzu Sang Hu i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by 1) a deep and a b i d i n g u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f f r i e n d s h i p , 2) a p r e f e r e n c e f o r s i m p l i c i t y and independence, and 3) an a c q u a i n -tance w i t h C o n f u c i u s . T h i s p r e f e r e n c e f o r s i m p l i c i t y and h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h C o n f u c i u s are c e r t a i n l y a p p arent i n the Lun  Ytl and Shuo Ytlan p a s s a g e s , and might be c o n s i d e r e d an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t Tzu Sang Hu and Tzu Sang Po Tzu are one and the same p e r s o n . F i n a l l y , Ytl Ytleh ( I i p p 8 a - b ) adds y e t a n o t h e r b i t o f i n f o r -m a t i o n . I n t h e C h ' i e n Han Shu SPTK PNP 20 / 3 7 a , i t l i s t s a c e r t a i n Tzu Sang Tzu but he i s p l a c e d i n a W a r r i n g S t a t e s p e r i o d time-frame. A g a i n , t h e r e i s a T s ' a i Sang Ytl ^ 4 f l l i s t e d i n the C h ' i e n Han Shu SPTK PNP 20/33a-b who i s p l a c e d i n a Ch'un C h ' i u p e r i o d time-frame contemporaneous w i t h Meng C h i h Fan j f c JL/>L« S i n c e the c h a r a c t e r s <2r GSR964 ^SY3J^/\%\ \ /^ SV and^jL GSR942+S^/4s'ai,'/4'S V{ c o n s t i t u t e a p e r f e c t rhyme and are p h o n e t i c a l l y so c l o s e , and t h e c h a r a c -t e r s j> GSR53 O^o /^j\KO\/ lviA_ andi)>l GSR98 ^ J V J O / J k A ! / U l I 192 are the same, i t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t T s ' a i Sang Yu i s y e t an o t h e r v a r i a n t f o r Tzu Sang Hu. 2. T h i s i s the o n l y r e f e r e n c e t o Meng Tzu F a n ^ _ 5 / 5 ^ i n the e a r l y t e x t s . There i s a p e r s o n Meng C h i h Fan ^ 7 £j%^who appears i n the Lun Ytl 10/6/15 and who commentators ( e . g . Chu H s i ) a s s o c i a t e w i t h the Meng Tzu Fan o f t h e Chuang Tzu. T h i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i s r e - e n f o r c e d by Meng Tzu Fan's a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h Tzu Sang Hu (see note 1 above) i n t h i s passage, who i n t u r n i s b o t h contemporary w i t h and p o r t r a y e d i n c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h C o n f u c i u s . A g a i n , the two c h a r a c t e r s <$r GSR964 4 3 l 3 a/-Hl / ' and j t . GSR962 + i ^ / - + S i / chV are p h o n e t i c a l l y c l o s e , a l t h o u g h t h e y a re i n d i f f e r e n t t o n e s . T h i s Meng C h i h Fan appears a g a i n i n the C h ' i e n Han Shu SPTK PNP 20/33a i n a Ch'un C h ' i u p e r i o d time-frame. I n t he Tso Chuan 4 8 1 / ^ 1 1 / 1 , t h e r e i s a passage w h i c h states« When the R i g h t - f l a n k Army was i n r e t r e a t , t he men o f C h ' i pursued i t . Ch'en KuanpfL-J^I and Ch'en Chuang j ^ . ^ f o r d e d the Ssu R i v e r ( g i v i n g c h a s e ) , and Meng C h i h Ts'e s £/(£M was the l a s t t o e n t e r ( t h e s a f e t y o f t h e b a t t l e m e n t s T . When i t was c o n s i d e r e d t h a t he was f o r m i n g a r e a r - g u a r d , he drew an arrow and whipped h i s ho r s e w i t h i t , s a y i n g t " I t i s t h a t my horse w i l l n o t go!" T h i s same ev e n t i s r e p e a t e d i n t h e Lun Ytl 10/6/15, e m p h a s i z i n g Meng C h i h Fan's s p i r i t o f modesty. From t h i s passage, we l e a r n t h a t h i s p e r s o n a l name was T s ' e ^ ^ l and t h a t he was an o f f i c i a l o f Lu. Ma Hsu"-lun (p. 210) i d e n t i f i e s t he p e r s o n Mu P'i/fjcA^ mentioned i n the Meng Tzu 58/7B/37 w i t h Meng Tzu Fan. T h i s 193 passage s t a t e i s s Mencius r e p l i e d i "Those l i k e C h ' i n C h a n g " ^ J ^ , Tseng KsiW^ and Mu P ' i ^ ^ a r e what C o n f u c i u s c a l l e d mad. ° Ma H s t l - l u n makes t h i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n on the b a s i s o f 1) the a s s o c i a t i o n o f Mu P * i w i t h C h ' i n Chang, 2) a r a t h e r w i s h f u l p h o n e t i c s i m i l a r i t y between the two c h a r a c t e r s J<o GSR761™a/ri§/ WKwywe^ a n d { ^ G S R 1 0 3 7 ^ d k / ^ ^ / / ? v u ^ , and 3) the g r a p h i c s i m i l a r i t y between p ' i />l and fan^ff . T h i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i s a t b e s t tenuous. 3 . T h i s p e r s o n Tzu C h ' i n Chang ^ Qj^is i d e n t i f i e d w i t h the C h ' i n Chang ^ ^ m e n t i o n e d i n the Meng Tzu 58/7B/37 passage mentioned i n note 2 above. The Chu H s i commentary on t h i s passage s t a t e s t h a t C h ' i n Chang's p e r s o n a l name (ming) was l a o y^- , and h i s style-name ( t z u ) was t z u chang ^ ^ J ^ j Chu H s i ' s a s s o c i a t i o n o f C h ' i n Chang w i t h the p e r s o n a l name l a o ^  may have s e v e r a l s o u r c e s . F i r s t , i n the Lun Ytl 16/9/7 i t s t a t e s t h a t a p e r s o n named L a o s a i d i The M a s t e r has said« " I was n o t b e i n g engaged, and t h u s f o c u s e d on l i t e r a r y a c h i e v e m e n t s . " The Cheng H s t l a n c o m m e n t a r y on t h i s passage Lun Ytl SPTK 5/37a i d e n t i f i e d t h i s man Lao as a d i s c i p l e o f C o n f u c i u s , Tzu Lao ^j-^Jp- . Tzu Lao appears a g a i n i n Chuang Tzu 71/25/38* a d d r e s s e d i n such a way as t o i m p l y t h a t he i s employed i n the government. Ssu-ma P i a o ( i n Lu Te-ming CTCCV2pl43) s t a t e s t h a t t h i s Tzu Lao i s C h ' i n L a o - ^ V£j-L , the d i s c i p l e o f C o n f u c i u s . C h ' i n Lao a l s o o c c u r s as a d i s c i p l e o f C o n f u c i u s i n K'ung Tzu 194 C h i a Yft SPTK 10/119b, where C o n f u c i u s d i s s u a d e s him from g o i n g to mourn a f r i e n d who has been k i l l e d amid i n t r i g u e . T h i s K'ung Tzu C h i a Yfl passage i s , however, s i m p l y the r e p e t i t i o n o f an occ u r a n c e r e p o r t e d i n the Tso Chuan 401/0^20/ 3 w i t h t h e i m p o r t a n t a l t e r a t i o n o f the name C h ' i n Chang ^  i n t h e Tso  Chuan a c c o u n t t o C h ' i n Lao ^  i n the K'ung Tzu C h i a Yfl v e r s i o n . What might have o c c u r e d here i s t h a t the a u t h o r o f the K'ung Tzu C h i a Ytl ( g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d t o be the 3 r d C. A.D. Wang S u j t j f J ) has f o l l o w e d the C h ' i e n Han Shu SPTK PNP 20/29a wh i c h has C h ' i n Lao l i s t e d as a f o u r t h grade i n d i v i d u a l i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y t o s e v e r a l o f C o n f u c i u s ' most well-known d i s c i p l e s , and which does n o t me n t i o n C h ' i n Chang a t a l l . A t any r a t e , i t would appear t h a t the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f C h ' i n Chang w i t h the p e r s o n a l name Lao had o c c u r e d a t a v e r y e a r l y d a t e . ( C f . R.P. Kramers ( t r a n s . ) , K'ung Tzu C h i a Yfl ( L e i d e m 1 9 5 0 ) , pp. 9 3 - 9 4 n 3 0 9 ) . The a s s o c i a t i o n o f C h ' i n Chang w i t h the style-name Tzu Chang a l s o o f v e r y e a r l y d a t e . F i r s t , the (Han) C h i a K ' u e i ^ J ^ C and Cheng GhungJ||> commentaries t o the Tso Chuan 401/ 0^20/ 3 ( i n the Yu Han Shan Fang C h i I Shu i L S| tk/*§ $$A%jj^ V o l . I I ^ / I 8 a ) i d e n t i f y C h ' i n Chang as Chuan-sun S h i h ^ ^ J ^ ^ f 1 ( t z u t Tzu Chang £gfe — S h i h C h i SPTK PNP 6 7 / l 3 b ) . The (Han) Chao C h ' i ^ J commentary t o Meng Tzu 58/7B/37 i n Meng Tzu SPTK 14/122b s t a t e s t h a t C h ' i n Chang's t z u was Tzu Chang, and t h a t he d e r i v e d the name " C h ' i n ^ " because o f h i s a b i l i t y t o 7 p l a y the s e v e n - s t r i n g z i t h e r . 195 C h ' i e n Mu i n h i s H s i e n C h ' i n Chu Tzu H s i N i e n p. 74 d i s a g r e e s w i t h the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f Tzu Chang (Chuan-sun S h i h ) w i t h C h ' i n Chang on the b a s i s o f c h r o n o l o g y . A c c o r d i n g t o t r a d i t i o n a l d a t i n g , Tzu Chang i s more t h