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An evaluation of patterns : a study of the out-of-house patterns of the Acadia Park clusters (University… Puni, Krishan Parkash 1973

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c\ AN EVALUATION OF PATTERNS A S t u d y o f t h e O u t - o f - H o u s e P a t t e r n s o f t h e A c a d i a P a r k C l u s t e r s ( U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ) by KRISHAN P. PUNI N . D . A r c h , S c h o o l o f A r c h i t e c t u r e , I n d i a , 1966 A THESIS SUBMITTED I N PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARCHITECTURE i n t h e S c h o o l o f A r c h i t e c t u r e We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY CF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA J a n u a r y 1973 In present ing th is thes is in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements for an advanced degree at the Un ive rs i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e for reference and study. I fu r ther agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h is representa t i ves . It is understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my wr i t ten permiss ion . Department of S c h o o l o f A r c h i t e c t u r e The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada i ABSTRACT: In his recent publications Christopher Alexander and his colleagues are mainly concerned with the description of what they c a l l patterns. In 'A Pattern Language Which Generates Multi-Service Centers', these authors have stated that such patterns are tentative and based on much conjecture. They suggest that they need c r i t i c i s m and improvement. The authors further point out that these patterns do not establish an exact geometry of relationship to one another as they are studied and described i n i s o l a t i o n . Thus the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between patterns and their geometry may vary from place to place. This thesis i s an evaluation of such patterns, and therefore can be seen as an extension of the design method i n i t i a t e d by Christopher Alexander and the Center for Environmental Structure. The author believes that when patterns (the component parts of which are pre-designed to prevent s p e c i f i c c o n f l i c t i n g tendencies from occurring) are combined to form a cohesive whole, they may not f u l -f i l the purpose for which they were i n i t i a l l y designed. i i The A c a d i a P a r k C l u s t e r s , t h e h o u s i n g f o r m a r r i e d s t u d e n t s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Campus was s e l e c t e d f o r t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f p a t t e r n s . The t h e s i s l o o k s a t t h e o u t - o f - h o u s e p a t t e r n s o f t h i s p r o j e c t . S i n c e t h i s p r o j e c t was d e s i g n e d i n t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l a r c h i t e c t u r a l way and n o t a c c o r d i n g t o t h e P a t t e r n L a n g u a g e M e t h o d , an i n v e n t o r y o f o u t - o f -h o u s e p a t t e r n s had a t f i r s t t o be a b s t r a c t e d f r o m t h e d e s i g n e l e m e n t s . The a n t i c i p a t e d b e h a v i o r o f u s e r s r e l e v a n t t o t h e s e p a t t e r n s was t h e n p o s i t e d . T h e s e p o s i t i o n s became t h e h y p o t h e s e s on w h i c h t h e c r e a t e d i n v e n t o r y o f p a t t e r n s was e v a l u a t e d . The a u t h o r h a s g a t h e r e d t h i s d a t a e m p i r i c a l l y by r e c o r d i n g o v e r a p e r i o d o f t h r e e weeks t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s and t h e i r c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s i n t h e i r n a t u r a l s e t t i n g s . The d a t a shows t h a t c e r t a i n p a t t e r n s f a i l t o a c h i e v e t h e i r i n i t i a l p u r p o s e when c o m b i n e d t o f o r m a c o h e s i v e w h o l e . The s t u d y a l s o p o i n t s o u t t h a t t h e p h y s i c a l a r r a n g e m e n t o f one p a t t e r n t o a n o t h e r i n f l u e n c e s t h e i n t e n s i t y o f u s e . I t a l s o s u g g e s t s t h a t when two p a t t e r n s o v e r l a p , new t e n d e n c i e s d e v e l o p . T h i s s t u d y c o n f i r m s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f i i i e v a l u a t i n g p a t t e r n s a f t e r t h e y a r e c o m b i n e d t o f o r m a c o h e s i v e w h o l e . I t p r o v e s t h a t t h i s i s n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e i r i m p r o v e m e n t and f o r t h e d e s i g n o f new p a t t e r n s . I f t h i s s o r t o f f o l l o w - u p d o e s n o t become a n a t u r a l p a r t o f t h e d e s i g n p r o c e s s , a c o m m u n i c a t i o n b r e a k d o w n b e t w e e n a r c h i t e c t a n d u s e r i s bound t o o c c u r . R e s e a r c h A d v i s o r i v TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter Page I INTRODUCTION 1 Selection of Site 12 II GEOGRAPHICAL SETTING 17 III PATTERNS AND ANTICIPATED BEHAVIOR 26 IV PROCEDURE 88 V RESULTS 95 Description of the Observed Population . . 96 Types of Outdoor A c t i v i t i e s 98 Description of A c t i v i t i e s by Age, Group Size, and Sex 99 Evaluation of Patterns 112 Clustering of Dwelling Units llU-Raised Sidewalk and Grass Around the Parking Area 121 Steps 128 Car Parking Area 131 Laundry F a c i l i t y 136 Entry Patio 139 Patio Attached to Liv i n g Room l*+3 Woods lk-6 Street 150 V Chapter Page Public Walkway 152 Outdoor Play Areas 155 Sandbox 160 Dry Tree . 163 Rocks and H i l l o c k s 165 Outdoor Seat . . . 167 Community Play Area 170 VI CONCLUSION 202 REFERENCES 205 APPENDIX A. Sample of Data Sheets . . . . B. Assessment of Observer's Error 208 212 v i L I S T OF TABLES T a b l e Page 1. O b s e r v e d A c t i v i t y T y p e s i n G r o u p s and O b s e r v e d Number o f P e o p l e Over t h e P e r i o d o f T h i r t y O b s e r v a t i o n s 103 2. P e r c e n t a g e o f C h i l d r e n and A d u l t s O b s e r v e d Over t h e P e r i o d o f T h i r t y O b s e r v a t i o n s . . . ICh 3 . E s t i m a t e d Age G r o u p s o f C h i l d r e n O b s e r v e d Over t h e P e r i o d o f T h i r t y O b s e r v a t i o n s . . . 105 1+. S e x o f P e o p l e O b s e r v e d Over t h e P e r i o d o f T h i r t y O b s e r v a t i o n s 106 hk. D i s t r i b u t i o n o f S e x Among t h e Age G r o u p s O b s e r v e d Over t h e P e r i o d o f T h i r t y O b s e r v a t i o n s 107 5« O b s e r v e d A c t i v i t i e s by Age G r o u p s Over t h e P e r i o d o f T h i r t y O b s e r v a t i o n s 108 6. O b s e r v e d A c t i v i t i e s by G r o u p S i z e Over t h e P e r i o d o f T h i r t y O b s e r v a t i o n s 109 7. O b s e r v e d A c t i v i t i e s b y S e x Ov e r t h e P e r i o d o f T h i r t y O b s e r v a t i o n s 110 8. - O b s e r v e d G r o u p S i z e o f V a r i o u s A c t i v i t y T y p e s Over t h e P e r i o d o f T h i r t y O b s e r v a t i o n s . . . I l l 9. R e l a t i v e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f A l l A c t i v i t y T y p e s and Number o f P e o p l e among t h e S e l e c t e d S egments O b s e r v e d Over t h e P e r i o d o f T h i r t y O b s e r v a t i o n s 173 10. Segments by A c t i v i t y T y p e s O b s e r v e d Over t h e P e r i o d o f T h i r t y O b s e r v a t i o n s 174-11. Segments b y Age G r o u p s O b s e r v e d Over t h e P e r i o d o f T h i r t y O b s e r v a t i o n s 175 v i i T a b l e Page 12. Segments b y Gr o u p S i z e O b s e r v e d Over t h e P e r i o d o f T h i r t y O b s e r v a t i o n s 176 13. D i s t r i b u t i o n o f A l l T y p e s o f A c t i v i t i e s i n G r o u p s and t h e O b s e r v e d Number o f P e o p l e among t h e V a r i o u s D e s i g n E l e m e n t s i n t h e Community P l a y A r e a (Segment 17) 177 ih. O b s e r v e d D e s i g n E l e m e n t s i n t h e Community P l a y A r e a by A c t i v i t y T y p e s 178 15. O b s e r v e d D e s i g n E l e m e n t s i n t h e Community P l a y A r e a by Age G r o u p s 179 16. O b s e r v e d D e s i g n E l e m e n t s i n t h e Community P l a y A r e a by G r o u p S i z e 180 17. O b s e r v e d D e s i g n E l e m e n t s i n t h e Community P l a y A r e a b y t h e R e l a t i v e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f S e x i n t h e E s t i m a t e d Age G r o u p s l 8 l 18. D i s t r i b u t i o n o f A l l T y p e s o f A c t i v i t i e s i n G r o u p s and O b s e r v e d Number o f P e o p l e among t h e V a r i o u s D e s i g n E l e m e n t s i n t h e C l u s t e r C o u r t y a r d s (Segment Nos. 8, 25, 27 and 33) 182 19. O b s e r v e d D e s i g n E l e m e n t s i n t h e C l u s t e r C o u r t y a r d s by A c t i v i t y T y p e s 183 2 0 . O b s e r v e d D e s i g n E l e m e n t s i n t h e C l u s t e r C o u r t y a r d s b y Age G r o u p s 184-21. O b s e r v e d D e s i g n E l e m e n t s i n t h e C l u s t e r C o u r t y a r d s by G r o u p S i z e 185 v i i i T a b l e Page 22. O b s e r v e d D e s i g n E l e m e n t s i n t h e C l u s t e r C o u r t y a r d s by t h e R e l a t i v e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f S e x i n t h e E s t i m a t e d Age G r o u p 186 2 3 . D i s t r i b u t i o n o f A l l T y p e s o f A c t i v i t i e s i n G r o u p s and O b s e r v e d Number o f P e o p l e among V a r i o u s D e s i g n E l e m e n t s i n Segment Nos. 11, 18, and 38 187 2h. O b s e r v e d D e s i g n E l e m e n t s by A c t i v i t y T y p e s . . 188 25. O b s e r v e d D e s i g n E l e m e n t s by Age G r o u p s . . . I89 26. O b s e r v e d D e s i g n E l e m e n t s by G r o u p S i z e . . . 190 27. O b s e r v e d D e s i g n E l e m e n t s by t h e R e l a t i v e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f S e x i n t h e E s t i m a t e d Age G r o u p s . . 191 2 8 . O b s e r v e d A c t i v e and G e n e r a l P l a y i n A r e a D e s i g n a t e d as Woods 192 2 9 . O b s e r v e d A c t i v e P l a y i n A r e a D e s i g n a t e d as P l a y A p p a r a t u s ' S w i n g s ' 193 3 0 . O b s e r v e d L o c o m o t i o n O c c u p a t i o n i n A r e a D e s i g n a t e d as P u b l i c Walkway 19*+ 31. A c t i v i t y T y p e s i n O u t d o o r P l a y A r e a ( L o c a t e d i n Segments 3 and lh) O b s e r v e d Over t h e P e r i o d o f T h i r t y O b s e r v a t i o n s . . 195 32. E s t i m a t e d Age G r o u p s i n O u t d o o r P l a y A r e a ( L o c a t e d i n Segments 3 and ih) O b s e r v e d Over t h e P e r i o d o f T h i r t y O b s e r v a t i o n s 196 i x LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 1. The Sequence of the Design Process Followed by Christopher Alexander and His Associates 5 2. The Sequence of the Design Process as Derived from the Study by Cooper and Hackett 6 3 . Ignored Phase of the Design Process as Indicated by the Dotted Line 8 4-. Approach of the Study 9 5. Site Plan of the Acadia Park Clusters 23 6. Floor Plans of Dwelling Units 24 7. • Map of the Study Area 25 8. Location of Clusters 28 9. Location of Raised Sidewalk and Grass around the Parking Areas 32 10. Location of Steps 37 11. Location of Car Parking Areas 40 12. Location of Laundry F a c i l i t y 4-5 13. Location of Patios 48 Figure Page •Ik. Location of Wooded Areas 5*+ 15. Location of Streets 58 16. Location of Public Walkway 62 17. Location of Outdoor Play Areas 66 18. Location of Sandboxes 70 19. Location of a Large Dry Tree 72 2 0 . Location of Rock P i t and H i l l o c k 75 21. Location of Outdoor Seats 77 22. Location of the Community Play Area 79 2 3 . A Random Sample of Size Twelve Segments as Shown by Numbered Color C i r c l e s 93 X I ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The a u t h o r w i s h e s t o e x p r e s s h i s s i n c e r e a p p r e c i a t i o n t o t h e many p e r s o n s who a s s i s t e d i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h i s t h e s i s . S p e c i a l t h a n k s t o t h e R e s e a r c h A d v i s o r s , D r . R. S e a t o n and P r o f e s s o r W o l f g a n g G e r s o n f o r t h e i r e x c e l l e n t a d v i c e and i n v a l u a b l e a s s i s t a n c e i n e x p a n d i n g c o n c e p t s . T h e i r r e a d i n e s s t o d i s c u s s e v e r y i s s u e and t h e i r e n t h u s i a s m and comments o n t h e work were i n s t r u m e n t a l i n t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e t h e s i s . The a u t h o r i s d e e p l y g r a t e f u l t o D r . R. S e a t o n and P r o f e s s o r W o l f g a n g G e r s o n f o r t h e i r p a t i e n t a n d e x c e l l e n t g u i d a n c e . C H A P T E R I INTRODUCTION: The b a s i c r e q u i s i t e f o r any d e s i g n problem i s u s e r needs. P e o p l e ' s needs are changing w i t h r a p i d l y c h anging t e c h n o l o g y , economy and s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s ; and t h e i r needs a r e dependent on a v a r i e t y o f f a c t o r s , namely, so c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s , l i f e s t y l e , stage i n the l i f e c y c l e , p e r s o n a l v a l u e s , etc."'" The t r a d i t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between an a r c h i t e c t and h i s c l i e n t i n which b o t h used t o meet f a c e t o f a c e t o i d e n t i f y the u s e r ' s needs and p r e f e r e n c e s and t o d i s c u s s t h e d e s i g n s o l u t i o n s , no l o n g e r o c c u r s . I n the case o f h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s , the p o t e n t i a l u s e r s are m o s t l y anonymous u n t i l t h e h o u s i n g p r o j e c t i s c o n s t r u c t e d and r e a d y f o r occupancy. T h i s l a c k o f communication makes i t r a t h e r d i f f i c u l t f o r the a r c h i t e c t s and the d e v e l o p e r s t o g a t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e u s e r ' s needs. I n some i n s t a n c e s the h o u s i n g d e s i g n p r o c e s s has employed one form or another o f a p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n system t o i d e n t i f y u s e r ' s needs which has proved t o be q u i t e s u c c e s s -f u l . As t h i s a u t h o r i n t e n d s t o use an o b s e r v a t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e t o i d e n t i f y the u s e r ' s needs, t h e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n system w i l l n o t be mentioned f u r t h e r . 2 I n t h e i r p a p e r , 'The Atoms o f E n v i r o n m e n t a l S t r u c t u r e ' , C h r i s t o p h e r A l e x a n d e r and B a r r y P o y n e r s t a t e t h a t u s e r n e e d s h a v e b e e n d e f i n e d by d i f f e r e n t e x p r e s s i o n s t h r o u g h d i f f e r e n t a u t h o r s : C h r i s t o p h e r J o n e s c a l l s them p e r f o r m a n c e s p e c i f i c a -t i o n ; B r u c e A r c h e r c a l l s them d e s i g n g o a l s ; i n e n g i n e e r i n g t h e y a r e o f t e n c a l l e d d e s i g n c r i t e r i a ; a t t h e B u i l d i n g ' R e s e a r c h S t a t i o n t h e y a r e c a l l e d u s e r r e q u i r e m e n t s ; a t t h e M i n i s t r y o f P u b l i c B u i l d -i n g and Works t h e y h a v e b e e n c a l l e d a c t i v i t i e s ; t h e y a r e o f t e n s i m p l y c a l l e d r e q u i r e m e n t s o r n e e d s . W h a t e v e r word i s u s e d , t h e m a i n i d e a i s a l w a y s t h i s : B e f o r e s t a r t i n g t o d e s i g n a b u i l d i n g , t h e d e s i g n e r must d e f i n e i t s p u r p o s e i n d e t a i l . T h i s d e t a i l e d d e f i n i t i o n o f p u r p o s e , g o a l s , r e q u i r e m e n t s , o r n e e d s c a n t h e n be u s e d as a c h e c k l i s t . A p r o p o s e d d e s i g n c a n be e v a l u a t e d by c h e c k i n g i t a g a i n s t t h e c h e c k -l i s t . 2 As s t a t e d p r e v i o u s l y , d e s i g n e r s h a v e e m p l o y e d t h e c o n c e p t o f u s e r n e e d s f o r d e s i g n i n g f a c i l -i t i e s , b u t h a v e f a i l e d t o i d e n t i f y t h e s e n e e d s i n t h e c a s e o f h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s , m a i n l y due t o t h e l a c k o f d i r e c t c o n t a c t w i t h t h e p o t e n t i a l u s e r . The q u e s t i o n t h e n a r i s e s as t o how t h e i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t u s e r n e e d s i s a c q u i r e d . A l e x a n d e r and P o y n e r d e f i n e d u s e r n e e d s i n t h e f o l l o w i n g o p e r a t i o n a l t e r m s : We s h a l l , i n e f f e c t , a c c e p t s o m e t h i n g as a n e e d i f we c a n show t h a t t h e p e o p l e c o n c e r n e d , when g i v e n t h e o p p o r t u n i t y , a c t i v e l y t r y t o s a t i s f y t h e n e e d . T h i s i m p l i e s t h a t e v e r y n e e d , i f v a l i d , i s a n a c t i v e f o r c e . We c a l l t h i s a c t i v e f o r c e w h i c h u n d e r l i e s t h e n e e d a ' t e n d e n c y ' . A t e n d e n c y , t h e r e -f o r e , i s a n o p e r a t i o n a l v e r s i o n o f a n e e d . I f someone s a y s t h a t a c e r t a i n t e n d e n c y e x i s t s , we c a n b e g i n t o t e s t t h e s t a t e m e n t . 3 3 ,The example given was: 'People working i n .an o f f i c e need a view'. This i s a statement of need. When replaced by the statement, 'People working i n o f f i c e s t r y to get a view from the o f f i c e s ' , this i s a statement of fact which could be tested. In other words, every statement of a tendency i s a hypothesis which could be tested empirically i n order to rule out alternative hypotheses. Since people's needs are defined opera-t i o n a l l y by active involvement i n f u l f i l l i n g t h e i r needs when they are given an opportunity, a need i n t h i s respect i s an observable behavior of people. Since any complete description of the observed behavior of numbers of people i s usually quantitative, i t follows that a need i s quantitative.-^ For example, Alexander Kira's study of the bathroom reveals that while i t i s primarily designed for bodily functions, such as, washing and grooming, i t also functions as a private telephone booth and as a refuge from family quarrels. No doubt this information pertaining to the bathroom not being designed as a telephone booth and yet being used as such i s very valuable, however, u n t i l we know how often i t functions as a telephone booth t h i s information t e l l s r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e . The studies of William Michelson,^ and Alexander K i r a \ indicate that user needs are dependent upon factors such as: c u l t u r a l backgrounds, stage i n the l i f e cycle, family composition, personal values, socio-economic conditions, etc. Thus, i n order to make the hypotheses about user needs more precise, the character-i s t i c s of the participants, the physical setting, and occupant behavior must be s p e c i f i e d . Christopher Alexander and his associates have developed a design method called 'Pattern Language' i n which they have defined user needs i n terms of user tendencies. They have applied this design method i n the following projects:9 a. A Pattern Language Which Generates M u l t i -Service Centers b. Houses Generated by Patterns c. Southwest Regional Laboratory for Educational Research and Development. A similar design method was employed i n designing the 'False Creek Proposals' by the False Creek 4- A 1 ° study group. The sequence that Alexander and his associates follow i n the design process i s : F i r s t the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of user tendencies and second the establish-ment of c o n f l i c t s among these tendencies which eventually help to develop the patterns (design features). These 5 patterns, on the basis of their functional consequences, i f synthesized, w i l l determine the form of the building. (See Figure 1). ser Tendencies ( c o n f l i c t i n g ) i . e . Designer Intentions or Objectives J Patterns Selection and Assembly of Patterns Base on Functional Consequences Form of the Building FIGURE 1 The Sequence of the Design Process Followed by Christopher Alexander and His Associates 6 The s t u d y c o n d u c t e d by C o o p e r and H a c k e t t p a r t i a l l y s u p p o r t s A l e x a n d e r ' s m o d e l . T h e y r e p o r t t h a t t h e d e s i g n e r s f o l l o w s i m i l a r s e q u e n c e s i n t h e d e s i g n p r o c e s s , t h a t i s , t h e d e s i g n e r s f i r s t o f a l l t r a n s l a t e t h e o b j e c t i v e s s e t b y t h e s p o n s o r i n t o p h y s i c a l and n o n -p h y s i c a l t e r m s and t h e n t h e y make a s s u m p t i o n s a b o u t u s e r ' s b e h a v i o r on t h e b a s i s o f f u n c t i o n a l c o n s e q u e n c e s o f t h e s e d e s i g n f e a t u r e s . 1 1 (See F i g u r e 2 ) . 1 O b j e c t i v e s D e s i g n F e a t u r e s : S e l e c t i o n and A s s e m b l y o f P a t t e r n s Based] on F u n c t i o n a l C o n s e q u e n c e s F o r m o f t h e r B u i l d i n s FIGURE 2 The S e q u e n c e o f t h e D e s i g n P r o c e s s as D e r i v e d f r o m t h e S t u d y by C o o p e r & H a c k e t t 7 M i c h a e l B r i l l a s s e r t s , . . . no a r c h i t e c t I know o f r e c o r d s h i s d e s i g n a s s u m p t i o n s ( ' i f I s h a p e t h e s p a c e t h i s way, p e o p l e w i l l b e h a v e t h a t way') and t h e n g o e s b a c k t o t h e b u i l d i n g a y e a r a f t e r o c c u p a n c y t o a s c e r -t a i n w h e t h e r o r n o t h i s a s s u m p t i o n s were c o r r e c t . Worse y e t , t h e s e u n t e s t e d a s s u m p t i o n s a r e r e - u s e d a g a i n and a g a i n as p a r t o f t h e A r c h i t e c t ' s d e s i g n r e p e r t o i r e . I n o t h e r w o r d s , e a c h b u i l d i n g i s a p o o r l y p l a n n e d ' e x p e r i m e n t ' w h o s e ' h y p o t h e s e s ' a r e n o t e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e d , n o r t e s t e d . 1 2 The s t u d y o f C o o p e r and H a c k e t t s u p p o r t s B r i l l ' s a s s e r t i o n t h a t t h e a r c h i t e c t s do n o t k e e p any r e c o r d s o f t h e a s s u m p t i o n s t h e y h a v e made a b o u t u s e r ' s b e h a v i o r . I n 'A P a t t e r n L a n g u a g e W h i c h G e n e r a t e s M u l t i - S e r v i c e C e n t e r s ' , A l e x a n d e r , e t a l . h a v e s t a t e d t h a t t h e p a t t e r n s a r e t e n t a t i v e and a r e b a s e d on much c o n j e c t u r e , and as w e l l t h e y n e e d c r i t i c i s m and i m p r o v e -ment. They h a v e a l s o m e n t i o n e d t h a t t h e p a t t e r n s t h e y a r e g e n e r a t i n g do n o t e s t a b l i s h an e x a c t g e o m e t r y o f r e l a t i o n s h i p t o one a n o t h e r . Thus t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n p a t t e r n s and g e o m e t r y may v a r y f r o m b u i l d i n g t o b u i l d i n g , l ^ 1 " The p h y s i c a l a r r a n g e m e n t o f v a r i o u s d e s i g n f e a t u r e s i n f l u e n c e s human b e h a v i o r , as r e v e a l e d i n t h e 15 If, 17 s t u d i e s o f F e s t i n g e r , e t a l . , y Whyte, and Gans. ' Now, when p a t t e r n s ( t h e component p a r t s o f w h i c h a r e p r e d e s i g n e d t o p r e v e n t s p e c i f i c c o n f l i c t i n g 8 t e n d e n c i e s from, o c c u r r i n g ) are combined t o form a c o h e s i v e whole, t h e r e i s t h e r e f o r e e v e r y r e a s o n t o b e l i e v e t h a t new t e n d e n c i e s might d e v e l o p . I n o r d e r t o be c e r t a i n t h a t the p a t t e r n s are f u l f i l l i n g the purpose f o r which t h e y were i n i t i a l l y d e s i g n e d as w e l l as t o be sure t h a t no new t e n d e n c i e s have d e v e l o p e d due t o t h e i r p h y s i c a l arrangement, the p a t t e r n s r e q u i r e e v a l u a t i o n a f t e r the occupancy of the p o t e n t i a l u s e r . The d e s i g n method suggested by A l e x a n d e r and h i s c o l l e a g u e s seems t o i g n o r e the e v a l u a t i o n a s p e c t (shown by the d o t t e d l i n e - see F i g u r e 3 ) . I f t h i s i s not i n c l u d e d i n the d e s i g n p r o c e s s , a s i t u a t i o n a k i n t o communication breakdown o c c u r s between a r c h i t e c t and u s e r . User Tendencies ( c o n f l i c t i n g ) i . e . D e s i g n e r I n t e n t i o n s or O b j e c t i v e s .--Feedback. P a t t e r n s E x p ected B e h a v i o r E v a l u a t i o n Form of the B u i l d i n g FIGURE 3 Ignored Phase of the D e s i g n P r o c e s s as I n d i c a t e d by the D o t t e d L i n e 9 Thus the present study i s an extension of the design method of Christopher Alexander, et a l . , that i s , an evaluation of patterns with a view to t h e i r improvement. The approach of t h i s study, as indicated i n Figure h, i s applicable to situations i n which a building i s designed according to pattern language or otherwise. to*** 0* User Tendencies ( c o n f l i c t i n g ) i . e . Designer Intentions or Objectives Patterns Form of the Building Expected Behavior Evaluation FIGURE h Approach of The Study 10 We know t h a t u n d e r t h e p a t t e r n l a n g u a g e method u s e r n e e d s a r e i d e n t i f i e d on t h e b a s i s o f r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s c o n d u c t e d b e f o r e t h e p a t t e r n s a r e d e s i g n e d ; and t h e s e a r e t e s t a b l e h y p o t h e s e s . As c a n be s e e n f r o m t h e w o r k o f C o o p e r & H a c k e t t , i n c a s e s where p a t t e r n l a n g u a g e i s n o t u s e d , u s e r n e e d s a r e n o t o p e r a t i o n a l l y d e f i n e d , and r e c o r d s o f t h e a s s u m p t i o n s a b o u t u s e r b e h a v i o r a r e n o t k e p t . T h i s makes i t v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o g e n e r a t e h y p o t h e s e s a b o u t u s e r n e e d s . I n o r d e r t o o v e r c o m e t h e l a c k o f r e c o r d s i n p r o j e c t s w h i c h d i d n o t f o l l o w t h e p a t t e r n l a n g u a g e m e t h o d , an i n v e n t o r y o f p a t t e r n s must f i r s t be c r e a t e d . T h e n t h e a n t i c i p a t e d b e h a v i o r o f u s e r s f r o m p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s r e l e v a n t t o t h e c r e a t e d i n v e n t o r y o f t h e p a t t e r n s i s s t u d i e d . The a n t i c i p a t e d b e h a v i o r s w i l l t h u s be t h e h y p o t h e s e s w h i c h a r e t e s t e d and t h e e v a l u a -t i o n o f t h e r e s u l t s w i l l e i t h e r c o r r o b o r a t e o r p r o v i d e new u s e r t e n d e n c i e s w h i c h w i l l r e i n f o r c e t h e p a t t e r n s o r c h a n g e them. The s t u d y by C o o p e r and H a c k e t t r e v e a l s t h a t a r c h i t e c t s and l a n d s c a p e a r c h i t e c t s h a v e e m p h a s i z e d t h e n e e d f o r more r e s e a r c h w h i c h c o u l d s u p p l y them w i t h d e f i n i t e a n s w e r s i n s u c h a r e a s a s : . . . t h e b a c k g r o u n d , ways o f l i f e , and n e e d s o f m o d e r a t e - i n c o m e f a m i l i e s ; t h e ' i d e a l ' number o f f a m i l i e s a r o u n d a c o u r t o r i n t e r i o r common o p e n s p a c e ; t h e ' i d e a l ' number o f f a m i l i e s u s i n g a 11 common e n t r a n c e or s t a i r w a y ; t h e ways i n which people o f d i f f e r e n t income groups use i n t e r i o r l i v i n g space ( i . e . whether t h e y eat meals i n k i t c h e n , need a second bathroom, e t c . ) ; the range and n a t u r e o f p e o p l e ' s needs f o r p r i v a c y ; a u t o - o w n e r s h i p r a t e s ; a t t i t u d e s towards p a r k i n g and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o d w e l l i n g u n i t . 1 8 I n o r d e r t o o b t a i n r e l e v a n t answers t o the above c i t e d q u e s t i o n s , a r c h i t e c t s have e s t a b l i s h e d an i n f o r m a l 'feedback' from t h e r e s i d e n t s so t h a t i n f u t u r e p r o j e c t s o f t h i s k i n d t h e y c o u l d f o r m u l a t e t h e i r d e s i g n d e c i s i o n s on t h e b a s i s o f t h i s d a t a . So f a r C h r i s t o p h e r A l e x a n d e r and h i s c o l l e a g u e s have concerned themselves w i t h the d e s c r i p t i o n o f p a t t e r n s i n i s o l a t i o n . They have not e v a l u a t e d p a t t e r n s a f t e r the occupancy of the p o t e n t i a l u s e r . The a u t h o r b e l i e v e s t h a t when p a t t e r n s are combined t o form a c o h e s i v e whole, t h e y may not f u l f i l t h e purpose f o r which t h e y were i n i t i a l l y d e s i g n e d . Thus the main purpose of the s t u d y i s t o e v a l u a t e p a t t e r n s a f t e r t h e y are combined t o form a c o h e s i v e whole. I t has been s t a t e d p r e v i o u s l y t h a t i n o r d e r t o make hypotheses about u s e r needs p r e c i s e , t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s , the p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g and occupant b e h a v i o r need t o be s p e c i f i e d . T h i s s t u d y c o n s i d e r s p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g s , occupant b e h a v i o r i n t h e p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g s ; c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of p a r t i c i p a n t s are not c o n s i d e r e d o t h e r t h a n age. 12 SELECTION OF SITE: Owing to the u n a v a i l a b i l i t y of f i n a n c i a l assistance, t h i s study and a l l i t involved rested s o l e l y on the author. This constraint compelled the author to r e s t r i c t the boundary of the study and to consider that project which was r e a d i l y accessible i n order to accom-p l i s h i t . Living i n campus housing offered a unique opportunity to study the 'Acadia Park Clusters, Married Student Housing, University of B r i t i s h Columbia', b u i l t i n 1966. Generally the ever increasing rate of population growth makes i t cert a i n that many dwelling units w i l l be constructed at an alarming rate i n the future which c a l l s for the immediate attention to the improvement of the design process. Realizing the problems involved i n observing people's behavior within the units, the study i s centered around people's out-of-house behavior, es p e c i a l l y children whose behavior i s least influenced even when they know they are being observed (as the study by Barker and Gump r e v e a l s ^ ) . Thus the Acadia Park Clusters, Married Student Housing, University of B r i t i s h Columbia has been selected for the purpose of t h i s study. Since the design elements of the Acadia Park Clusters were not designed according to the Pattern Language Method, an inventory of 13 t h e o u t - o f - h o u s e p a t t e r n s w i l l be a b s t r a c t e d from the elements. These w i l l be e v a l u a t e d l a t e r i n Chapter V. The e x p e c t e d b e h a v i o r o f u s e r s r e l e v a n t t o t h e s e p a t t e r n s w i l l t h e n be s t u d i e d . These e x p e c t e d b e h a v i o r s w i l l f u n c t i o n as the hypotheses on which the c r e a t e d i n v e n t o r y o f p a t t e r n s w i l l be e v a l u a t e d . The a u t h o r b e l i e v e s t h a t t h i s s t u d y w i l l a s s i s t the d e s i g n e r s and h o u s i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n making t h e i r d e s i g n d e c i s i o n s f o r ' A c a d i a , Stage I I ' . Ik B i b l i o g r a p h y 1. H o l e , W.V., & A t t e n b u r r o w , J . J . H o u s e s and P e o p l e . L o n d o n , H e r M a j e s t y ' s S t a t i o n e r y O f f i c e , 1966. 2. A l e x a n d e r , C h r i s t o p h e r , & P o y n e r , B a r r y . "The Atoms o f E n v i r o n m e n t a l S t r u c t u r e . " P a r t 9 , A r t i c l e 33 i n M o o r e , G a r y T. E m e r g i n g M e t h o d s i n  E n v i r o n m e n t a l D e s i g n and P l a n n i n g . P r o c e e d i n g s o f The D e s i g n M e t h o d s G r o u p , F i r s t I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e , C a m b r i d g e , M a s s a c h u s e t t s , J u n e 1968. 3 . I b i d . , p. 309. h. I b i d . , p. 309. 5. I t t e l s o n , W i l l i a m H., R i v l i n , L e a n n e G., & P r o s h a n s k y , H a r o l d M. "The Use o f B e h a v i o r a l Maps i n E n v i r o n m e n t a l P s y c h o l o g y . " A r t i c l e 65 i n P r o s h a n s k y , H.M., I t t e l s o n , W.H., & R i v l i n , L.G. E n v i r o n m e n t a l P s y c h o l o g y : Man and H i s  P h y s i c a l S e t t i n g . New Y o r k , H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n , I n c . , 1970. pp. 6 5 9 - 6 6 8 . 6. K i r a , A l e x a n d e r . " P r i v a c y and t h e B a t h r o o m . " A r t i c l e 28 i n P r o s h a n s k y , H.M., I t t e l s o n , W.H., & R i v l i n , L.G. E n v i r o n m e n t a l P s y c h o l o g y : Man  and H i s P h y s i c a l S e t t i n g . New Y o r k , H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n , I n c . , 1970. pp. 269-275-7- M i c h e l s o n , W i l l i a m . Man and H i s U r b a n E n v i r o n m e n t : A S o c i o l o g i c a l A p p r o a c h . M a s s a c h u s e t t s , A d d i s o n - W e s l e y P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1970. 8. K i r a , A l e x a n d e r . op c i t . , pp. 269-275-9. a . A l e x a n d e r , C h r i s t o p h e r , I s h i k a w a , S., & S i l v e r s t e i n , M. A P a t t e r n L a n g u a g e W h i c h G e n e r a t e s M u l t i - S e r v i c e C e n t e r s . B e r k e l e y , C a l i f o r n i a , C e n t e r f o r E n v i r o n m e n t a l S t r u c t u r e , 1968. 15 Alexander, Christopher, Hirshen, S., Ishikawa, S., C o f f i n , C , & Angel, S. Houses Generated  by Patterns. Berkeley, C a l i f o r n i a , Center for Environmental Structure, A p r i l 1970. Montgomery, Roger. "Pattern Language." A r t i c l e i n Forum. Jan./Feb. 1970. pp. 5 3 - 5 9 . False Creek Study Group. False Creek Proposals. Vancouver, September 1971. Cooper, Clare, & Hackett, P. Analysis of the Design Process at Two Moderate-Income Housing  Developments: Working Paper No. 8 0 . Berkeley, University of C a l i f o r n i a , June 1968. B r i l l , Michael. "Evaluating Buildings on a Performance Basis." An A r t i c l e i n Architecture  and Human Behavior: A Mini-Conference and  Exhi b i t i o n. Philadelphia, The American Institute of Architects, November 1971. pp. ^ - l - ^ . Cooper, Clare, & Hackett, P. op. c i t . Alexander, Christopher, Ishikawa, S., & S i l v e r s t e i n , M. A Pattern Language Which Generates Multi- Service Centers. Berkeley, C a l i f o r n i a , Center for Environmental Structure, 1968. p. 56. Festinger, Leon, Schachter, S., & Back, K. Social  Pressures i n Informal Groups. New York, Harper & Brothers, 1950. Whyte, William H. The Organization Man. New York, Simon and Schuster, 1956. Gans, Herbert J. The Levittowners: Way of L i f e  and P o l i t i c s i n a New Suburban Community. New York, Pantheon Books, 1967. 16 ••18. C o o p e r , C l a r e , & H a c k e t t , P. A n a l y s i s o f t h e D e s i g n P r o c e s s a t Two M o d e r a t e - I n c o m e  H o u s i n g D e v e l o p m e n t s ; W o r k i n g P a p e r No. 8 0 . B e r k e l e y , U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , J u n e 1968. 19. B a r k e r , R o g e r G., & Gump, P a u l V. B i g S c h o o l , S m a l l S c h o o l . S t a n f o r d , C a l i f o r n i a , S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1961!-. 1 7 C H A P T E R II f GEOGRAPHICAL SETTING: B u i l t i n 1 9 6 6 , Acadia Park Clusters and Acadia Park Highrise were considered as low-cost housing projects to house undergraduate, graduate and Ph.D. married student families while the head of the family i s studying at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia. It covers approximately twenty-seven acres of University of B r i t i s h Columbia Endowment Land, and has a density of approximately ten housing units per acre. This project i s within ten minutes walking distance from the university and the shopping v i l l a g e . The population of the Acadia Park Clusters could be called homogeneous i n the sense that a l l residents are young parents and have children. The heads of nearly a l l the families are students, and the dwelling units of the families are b a s i c a l l y of i d e n t i c a l design. The majority of the families have low incomes, are transient, and are under great mental pressure. E t h n i c a l l y , the population i s equally distributed through-out the project. A Survey conducted by Canadian Environmental Sciences i n 1 9 6 9 indicated that 8 0 % of the population on 18 campus was N o r t h A m e r i c a n . S i x t y - o n e p e r c e n t o f a l l f a m i l i e s had i n c o m e s l e s s t h a n $ 5 , 0 0 0 . 0 0 ( t h e m e d i a n i n c o m e o f t h i s s u b - g r o u p was a p p r o x i m a t e l y $ 3 , 5 0 0 . 0 0 ) . F i f t y p e r c e n t o f a l l w i v e s w o r k e d f u l l - t i m e and a b o u t 10% p a r t - t i m e i n o r d e r t o a s s i s t t h e f a m i l y . I t was a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e c h i l d r e n were u n d e r f i v e and v e r y f e w c h i l d r e n were above t h e age o f n i n e y e a r s . T h e r e a r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 350 t o 4-00 c h i l d -r e n and 32 5 t o 350 a d u l t s w i t h i n t h e A c a d i a P a r k C l u s t e r s . I n A c a d i a P a r k C l u s t e r s , t h e r e a r e 160 u n f u r n i s h e d ( s t o v e , r e f r i g e r a t o r and c u r t a i n s p r o v i d e d ) t w o - b e d r o o m s u i t e s and 15 t h r e e - b e d r o o m s u i t e s a t t h e r e n t a l r a t e s o f $125 and $14-0 p e r month r e s p e c t i v e l y . The u n i t s a r e a r r a n g e d i n f i v e c l u s t e r s o f t w o - s t o r e y h o u s e s . ( S e e F i g u r e 5 ) . A l t h o u g h a l l t h e c l u s t e r s a r e d e r i v e d f r o m a t y p i c a l d e s i g n , h o w e v e r , t h r e e o f t h e f i v e c l u s t e r s a r e a l m o s t s i m i l a r i n s i z e and f o r m , w h e r e -as t h e r e m a i n i n g two d i f f e r . The h o u s i n g u n i t s i n e a c h c l u s t e r ( s e e F i g u r e 5) a r e a r r a n g e d a r o u n d a common p a r k i n g l o t , and e a c h h a s i t s own s e p a r a t e u t i l i t y b u i l d -i n g e q u i p p e d w i t h a u t o m a t i c w a s h e r s , d r y e r s , c l o t h e s r a c k s , i r o n i n g b o a r d s and l a u n d r y t u b s . The a u t o m a t i c l a u n d r y u n i t s a r e o p e r a t e d by t h e T e n a n t s S o c i e t y w h i c h l e v i e s a f e e on a l l t e n a n t s f o r t h e u s e o f t h i s e q u i p m e n t . 19 B e s i d e the l a u n d r y a r e a i n the u t i l i t y b u i l d i n g i s a igarbage room i n whi c h a l a r g e c e n t r a l c o n t a i n e r f o r garbage i s p l a c e d . (See F i g u r e 5)• F i f t e e n 3-bedroom u n i t s are s i t u a t e d at c o r n e r l o c a t i o n s w i t h i n each c l u s t e r (see F i g u r e 5) and are d i s t r i b u t e d as f o l l o w s : h U n i t s i n Keremeos C o u r t 1 U n i t i n Oyama Cou r t h U n i t s i n Salmo C o u r t h U n i t s i n R e v e l s t o k e C o u r t 2 U n i t s i n M e l f a C o u r t . A l l h o u s i n g u n i t s have d i r e c t a c c e s s t o the ground f l o o r . The l i v i n g room and k i t c h e n are on the ground f l o o r , bedrooms and bathroom ( b a t h , s i n k and t o i l e t ) and a s m a l l s t o r a g e room are on t h e second f l o o r . (See F i g u r e 6 ) . C l o t h e s c l o s e t s a re b u i l t i n t o the e n t r y h a l l and i n t o a l l bedrooms. Of the f i v e c l u s t e r s ' c u l - d e - s a c p a r k i n g l o t s , f o u r a re connected t o the dead-end Osoyoos C r e s c e n t S t r e e t , whereas M e l f a C o u r t i s connected t o the dead-end M e l f a Road. The dead-end s t r e e t s are l o c a t e d on the p e r i p h e r y of the A c a d i a C l u s t e r s p r o j e c t which e v e n t u a l l y c o n n e c t s the p r o j e c t t o the main t r a f f i c a r t e r i e s , Westbrook C r e s c e n t t o the West and U n i v e r s i t y B o u l e v a r d t o t he Worth. 20 P r i v a t e s i d e w a l k s l e a d i n g t o each u n i t ,run o f f t h e p u b l i c s i d e w a l k s which are around the p e r i -meter of each p a r k i n g l o t . P u b l i c s i d e w a l k s connected t o the p a r k i n g l o t s by means of s t e p s are s i t u a t e d e i g h t e e n i n c h e s h i g h e r t h a n t h e p a r k i n g l o t s . The main s e r v i c e s t r e e t s on the p e r i p h e r y o f the s i t e h e l p t o c r e a t e a t r a f f i c - f r e e i n t e r n a l p e d e s t r i a n walkway r u n n i n g N o r t h w e s t - S o u t h e a s t , t o which the p u b l i c s i d e w a l k s of c l u s t e r s are connected. I n the c e n t e r of the p r o j e c t and t h e p e d e s t r i a n walkway are l o c a t e d the K i n d e r g a r t e n S c h o o l and the Community P l a y A r e a . The K i n d e r g a r t e n S c h o o l i s o p e r a t e d by the A c a d i a P a r k Tenant S o c i e t y and i s f o r A c a d i a Park t e n a n t s o n l y . The Community P l a y A r e a encompasses sandboxes, a l a r g e d r y t r e e , a boat w i t h i n one of the sandboxes, a r o c k p i t , benches, a l a r g e a s p h a l t a r e a and swings a d j a c e n t t o i t . The community p l a y a r e a and the k i n d e r g a r t e n s c h o o l are surrounded by wooded areas on t h r e e s i d e s . V a r i o u s , u n s u p e r v i s e d , equipped p l a y a r e a s are s c a t t e r e d a l l over the p r o j e c t i n the p u b l i c open spaces. Wooded areas o f v a r i o u s s i z e s and shapes are s i t u a t e d a l o n g Osoyoos C r e s c e n t S t r e e t and a l s o a l o n g the i n t e r n a l p e d e s t r i a n walkway. 21 The Southeast and Southwest edges of the project are bounded by wooded areas, whereas on the Northeast and Northwest edges are located Acadia Park l^-storey highrise apartment building and older units (converted army huts) for married students with or with-out children. These units vary greatly i n size and may contain one, two or three bedrooms. The Family Housing Section of the Department i s located i n the Highrise Tower of Acadia Park. The study area has been indicated by a bold red l i n e . (See Figure 7 ) . The following i s a l i s t of the various out-of-house design elements. 1. Clustering of Dwelling Units 2. Raised Sidewalk and Grass Around the Parking Area 3 . Steps h. Car Parking Area 5. Laundry F a c i l i t y 6 A . Entry Patio 6B. Patio Attached to the Living Room 7 . Woods 8. Street 9- Public Walkway 10. Outdoor Play Area 22 11. Sandbox 12. Dry Tree 13. Rocks and H i l l o c k s Ih. Outdoor Seat 15* Community P l a y A r e a (FIGURE 5 SITE PLAN OF THE ACADIA PARK CLUSTERS — • L O C A T I O N OF UT-ILITY BUILDING i > - •••LOCATION OF 3-BEDROOM UNIT n p n R f n hp, m 'ft ?« -> r\' married graduate student residences S C A L f IN r p E T ro U J 2'+ PATIO M A I N FLOOR DIAGRAM 1 ACADIA PARK CLUSTERS TYPICAL 2 BEDROOM APT. MARRIED STUDENT HOUSING SCALE: 1/16" = l'-0" NOV. 1971 LIVING t. DINING AREA l l ' -6"X 16'- 3" 38 • UP PATIO LIVING 6. DINING AREA n'-efx l9 ' -0" MAIN FLOOR DIAGRAM 2 ' ACADIA PARK CLUSTERS TYPICAL 3 BEDROOM APT. MARRIED STUDENT HOUSING SCALE: 1/16" - I'-O" NOV. 1971 S E C O N D F L O O R S E C O N D F L O O R FIGURE 6 F l o o r Plans of Dwel l i n g ' U n i t s fSrfi II inAF-FIC ANl> SECURITY B U I L D I N u FIGURE 7 Map o f t h e Study Area 26 C H A P T E R III PATTERNS AND ANTICIPATED BEHAVIOR: As has been indicated previously, the purpose of t h i s study i s to evaluate patterns i n r e l a t i o n to t h e i r potential users, i n order to develop a feedback system which would ass i s t the designers, the administrators and the developers i n making the i r design decisions. A pattern i s a three-dimensional pre-designed component encompassing a set of elements; and the geometrical arrangement of these elements helps to prevent c o n f l i c t among people's tendencies. In other words, a pattern should be congenial to people's behavior. As the patterns (on the basis of their functional consequences) are assigned a s p e c i f i c l o cation during the process of synthesis, i t i s considered v i t a l to establish the location of each pattern i n r e l a t i o n to the cohesive whole. Since the 'Acadia Park Clusters, Married Student Housing Project, University of B r i t i s h Columbia' was not designed according to the Pattern Language, i t became es s e n t i a l for the out-of-house patterns and the i r relevant expected behavior to be i d e n t i f i e d . In order to create an inventory of the 27 P a t t e r n s and t h e i r d e s c r i p t i o n s , a w a l k a r o u n d t h i s a r e a ( F i g u r e ) was c o n d u c t e d d u r i n g w h i c h a l l t h e p a t t e r n s w e r e o b s e r v e d and r e c o r d e d . The e x p e c t e d b e h a v i o r r e l e v a n t t o t h e s e p a t t e r n s were r e c o r d e d . The f o l l o w i n g i s a l i s t o f t h e P a t t e r n s and t h e i r a n t i c i p a t e d b e h a v i o r : 27a D e s i g n E l e m e n t : CLUSTERING OF DWELLING UNITS V—! . — u ' F l r * "1! *o-«/7 I j \s^~ J i f l *0«0 J .. ^ ^ , x ^ ^ ^ ' * r 1 • Mil DESIGN ELEMENT: Clustering of Dwelling Units General Remark: Alexander, et a l . stated that 'the areas which people i d e n t i f y with are extremely small - of the order between 100 and 200 meters i n diameter. '1 The studies of Festinger, et a l . , 2 Gans,3 Willmott,^ Whyte,^ and Cooper^ have shown that when people are grouped together, a primary s o c i a l group develops beyond the family i t s e l f . Most of the v i s i t i n g , s o c i a l i z i n g and mutual help takes place among the residents l i v i n g close by. PATTERN In each cluster there are two-bedroom and three-bedroom suites which are clustered around f i v e separate parking/service courts ANTICIPATED BEHAVIOR a. Whyte's study suggests.that when clusters vary i n terms of types and number of dwellings around the parking l o t s , d i f f e r e n t patterns of public behavior r e s u l t . The behavior of the family i s 7 affected by the cluster he j o i n s . ' He also establishes that i n r e n t a l courts formed around parking bays, s o c i a l l i f e i s oriented inward. 8 b. The study of public housing projects done by S a i l e , et a l . has revealed that dwelling courts arranged around parking/service f a c i l i t i e s contain more a c t i v i t i e s than the planned play areas on the s i t e . ^ 1. A l e x a n d e r , C h r i s t o p h e r , H i r s h e n , S., I s h i k a w a , S., C o f f i n , Q., & A n g e l , S. Houses Generated by P a t t e r n s . B e r k e l e y , C a l i f o r n i a , C e nter f o r E n v i r o n m e n t a l S t r u c t u r e , A p r i l 1970. pp. 56-59-2. F e s t i n g e r , Leon, S c h a c h t e r , S., & Back, K. S o c i a l P r e s s u r e s i n I n f o r m a l Groups. New York, Harper & B r o t h e r s , 1950. PP« 3 !+-59» 3 . Gans, H e r b e r t J . The L e v i t t o w n e r s : Way of L i f e and P o l i t i c s i n a New Suburban Community. New York, Pantheon Books, 1967. p. 2 8 0. W i l l m o t t , P e t e r . "Housing D e n s i t y and Town D e s i g n i n a New Town." Town P l a n n i n g Review. London, J u l y 1962, V o l . 31+- p. 125. 5. Whyte, W i l l i a m H. The O r g a n i z a t i o n Man. New Y o r k , Simon and S c h u s t e r , 1956. p. 351. 6 . Cooper, C l a r e . " S t . F r a n c i s Square: A t t i t u d e s o f i t s R e s i d e n t s . " AIA J o u r n a l . December 1971. P- 2 3 . 7. Whyte, W i l l i a m H. op. c i t . p. 332. 8 . I b i d . p. 3^3-9. S a i l e , D a v id G., Borooah, R., & W i l l i a m s , M.G. " F a m i l i e s i n P u b l i c H o u s i n g : A Study of Three L o c a l i t i e s i n R o c k f o r d , I l l i n o i s . " E n v i r o n m e n t a l  D e s i g n R e s e a r c h A s s o c i a t i o n : P r o c e e d i n g s of t h e Annual C o n f e r e n c e , 1972. p. 1 3 - 7 - 6 . H Design Element: RAISED SIDEWALK AND GRASS AROUND THE PARKING AREA FIGURE 9 LOCATION OF RAISED SIDEWALK' AND GRASS . AROUND THE PARKING AREAS SHOWN I N COLOUR j S C A i C IN FEET DESIGN ELEMENT; Raised Sidewalk and Grass Around the Parking General Remark: The p h y s i c a l arrangement of various design f e a t u r e s , such as common f a c i l i t i e s , stoops, pavements, paths, e t c . , that people use while l e a v i n g and entering t h e i r houses determines the p o s s i b i l i t y of passive contacts and subsequent f a m i l y f r i e n d s h i p s , as stated i n the studies of F e s t i n g e r , et a l . , 1 Whyte, 2 and Cooper.^ put down 50 centimeters below the pedestrian path, people f e e l c e r t a i n that the car cannot climb the curb. Thus i t consequently gives the p e d e s t r i a n world more importance.^ In the study by Alexander, et a l i t was s t a t e d that when a car i s PATTERN ANTICIPATED BEHAVIOR Within each c l u s t e r i s a. The study of Coates and Sanoff has shown that a court which encompasses c h i l d r e n between the ages of 14-18, f r e q u e n t l y p r i v a t e sidewalks, a semi i n groups of 2 to 6 persons, g e n e r a l l y engaged p u b l i c walkway, and small themselves i n passive plays such as conversa-t i o n and o b s e r v a t i o n . ^ patches of grass areas. The sidewalk i s r a i s e d 18", and i s designed around the perimeter of the parking l o t s . Whyte s t a t e s , " C h i l d r e n have a way of p l a y i n g where they f e e l l i k e p l a y i n g , t h e i r congregating areas have not turned out to be e x a c t l y where elders planned them to be. C h i l d r e n play where they can use t h e i r toy v e h i c l e s , and so they play on pave-ments." ^ White's study i n d i c a t e s that a court of a barren and unimaginative nature i s l e a s t s u i t a b l e f o r t o d d l e r s . He f u r t h e r adds that small c h i l d r e n l i k e to play with sand, dry earth and rough grass and l e a s t care f o r the smooth grass. I f such o p p o r t u n i t i e s are not th e r e , c h i l d r e n from 2 to 5 years engage themselves i n a c t i v i t i e s such as running with or without a b a l l , and c y c l i n g round on t h e i r small t r i c y c l e s i n great a r c s . They c i r c l e about the empty yards i n the morning and afternoon. His study a l s o revealed that gang -r games were most frequently played i n the court-yards by both sexes and by a l l ages ranging from •+ to Ik- years, although boys i n the age group 6 to 12 years predominated.'7 1. F e s t i n g e r , Leon, Schachter, S., & Back, K. S o c i a l Pressures i n Informal  Groups. New York, Harper & Brothers, 1950. pp. 3 4 - 5 9 -2. Whyte, W i l l i a m H. The Organization Man. New York, Simon and Schuster, 1956. p. 330. 3. Cooper, Cl a r e . "St. Francis Square: A t t i t u d e s of i t s Residents." AIA J o u r n a l . December 1971. pp. 22-27. 4 . Alexander, Christopher, Hirshen, S., Ishikawa, S., C o f f i n , C , & Angel, S. Houses Generated by P a t t e r n s . Berkeley, C a l i f o r n i a , Center f o r Environmental S t r u c t u r e , A p r i l 1970. pp. 8 2 - 8 3 . 5. Coates, Gary, & Sanoff, Henry. "Behavioral Mapping: The Ecology of C h i l d Behavior i n a Planned R e s i d e n t i a l S e t t i n g . " Environmental Design Research A s s o c i a t i o n : Proceedings of the Annual Conference, 1972. V o l . 1. p. 1 3 - 2 - 4 . 6. Whyte, W i l l i a m H. op. c i t . , p. 34-3. 7. White, L.E. "The Outdoor Play of C h i l d r e n L i v i n g i n F l a t s : An Enquiry i n t o the Use of Courtyards as Playgrounds." A r t i c l e 38 i n Environmental  Psychology: Man and His P h y s i c a l S e t t i n g . ed. Proshansky, H.M., I t t e l s o n , W.H., & R i v l i n , L.G. New York, H o l t , Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1970. p. 376. 3. DESIGN ELEMENT: Steps PATTERN Steps are provided a. to connect upper l e v e l pedestrian sidewalks to parking l o t s within the b. courtyards. c. ANTICIPATED BEHAVIOR Whyte stated that where driveways meet, they create a natural setting for baby watching and gossiping; and friendship among residents i s more apt to grow there than across the unbroken stretch of lawn."'" The study of Alexander, et a l . pointed out that when there are areas i n public places which are s l i g h t l y raised and accessible by steps surround ing the areas, people n a t u r a l l y gravitate toward them. These areas provide a vantage point from where they can see the action as a whole. They also added that changes of levels play an important role during s o c i a l gatherings i n that they provide for the people special places to s i t , a place from which to speak, and a place 2 from which to look at other people. Whyte, William H. The Organization Man. New York, Simon and Schuster, 1956. p. 3 ^ . Alexander, Christopher, Hirshen, S., Ishikawa, S., C o f f i n , C , & Angel, S. Houses Generated by Patterns. Berkeley, C a l i f o r n i a , Center for Environmental Structure, A p r i l 1970, p. 136; and Alexander, Christopher, Ishikawa, S., & S i l v e r s t e i n , M. A Pattern Language  Which Generates Multi-Service Centers. Berkeley, C a l i f o r n i a , Center for Environmental Structure, 1968. p. 21+9« D e s i g n Element: CAR PARKING AREA n5 MtLfA ROAD r M E L F t m b u >—c JILL 7 1 I r o t L 1J udd • J™-a_u_u_i;_i]_l V T . V ^ n<r>r - -^/ / _x as 3 :3 n l Ctusrr/r j SAL MO COJf T 0 S 0 ^3 r o o s ^••fscu*** C ft £ $ CENT Jl C d 0 14 * A * « t t e s i o e x c e s s i t e _ p l a n _ FIGURE 11 LOCATION OF CAR PARKING AREAS SHOWN » . • IN COLOUR : ACap.A ,-PA8K .UBC i • married graduate student residence* -. j : '. i : , , 1 SCAlC M FICT _p" »+, DESIGN ELEMENT: Car Parking Area PATTERN Two cul-de-sac parking a. lo t s for approximately hO cars are provided within the courtyard i n each cluster ( i . e . one car space per family). The parking l o t s are b. surrounded by pedestrian sidewalks raised by 18 inches. c. Alexander, et a l . state that any area which holds more than 8 cars i s i d e n t i f i e d as a 'car dominated t e r r i t o r y ' . If such an area contains a large number of cars whereby the t r a f f i c becomes unpredictable, then i t i s considered dangerous for children.- 1-The studies of Whyte and Lansing, et a l . - > have inferred that neighbourhoods based on a cul-de-sac system are considered quiet, conducive to knowing neighbours, and safe for children to play. It was stated i n the studies of Alexander, et h 1 a l . and Whyte^ that a great deal of everyday so c i a l l i f e happens where car and pedestrian d. e. meet. Children seem to enjoy playing here because of the diverse a c t i v i t i e s being performed i n t h i s locale, namely, deliverymen delivering t h e i r goods, fathers washing th e i r cars on weekends, and the conversation and discussion promoted among the men while working i n the communal parking l o t s . White observed that when mothers consider a play area to be safe for their children they allow them to play there unattended, otherwise the mothers forbid them.° The study conducted by Coates and Sanoff found that teenagers and adults were frequently engaged i n repairing or observing car repairs and general conversation i n parking l o t s . ? f. g. The studies done by White 0 and Whyte reveal that a large area of asphalt attracts children playing with their wheeled toys as t h i s area offers them a wide expanse for wheeling around on t h e i r own vehicles. The study of S a i l e , et a l . indicates that park-ing courts were very popular play areas among 10 children. Their observations also suggest that less than half of the families own automobiles, and the parking provision of 1.5 car spaces per family i s never used to more than half i t s capacity. Alexander, Christopher, Hirshen, S., Ishikawa, S., Co f f i n , C , & Angel S. Houses Generated by Patterns. Berkeley, C a l i f o r n i a , Center for Environmental Structure, A p r i l 1970. p. 70. Whyte, William H. Cluster Development. New York, American Conservation Association, 1964. p. 30. Lansing, John B., Marans, R.W., & Zehner, R.B. Planned Residential  Environmentals. Survey Research Center, Institute for Soc i a l Research, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1970. Alexander, Christopher, Hirshen, S., Ishikawa, S., C o f f i n , C. & Angel, S. op. c i t . pp. 79-81. Whyte, William H. op. c i t . p. 8 7 . White, L.E. "The Outdoor Play of Children Living i n F l a t s : An Enquiry into the Use of Courtyards as Playgrounds." A r t i c l e 38 i n Proshansky, H.M., Ittelson, W.H., & R i v l i n , L.G. Environmental  Psychology: Man and His Physical Setting. New York, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1970. p. 376. Coates, Gary & Sanoff, Henry. "Behavioral Mapping: The Ecology of Child Behavior i n a Planned Residential Setting." Environmental Design  Research Association: Proceedings of the Annual Conference, 1972. White, L.E. op. c i t . p. 377-Whyte, William H. op. c i t . p. 8 7 . S a i l e , David G., Borooah, R., & Williams, M.G. "Families i n Public Housing: A Study of Three L o c a l i t i e s i n Rockford, I l l i n o i s . " Environmental Design  Research Association: Proceedings of the Annual Conference, 1972. Vol. 1, p. 1 3 - 7 - 6 . Ibid. p. 1 3 - 7 - 7 . D e s i g n Element: LAUNDRY FACILITY * c t c • i r t * * atStOlHCCS s i t e ^ plan •FIGURE 12 LOCATION OF LAUNDRY FACILITY SHOWN ! » . - IN COLOUR W * U W a 1-i ••' « « if* W i j ^ • marrlod gradual* student residancee , -P* • ; v n DESIGN ELEMENT: Laundry F a c i l i t y General Remark: Cooper's study states that few r e s i d e n t s report meeting people through conversations i n the laundry area, and only a small f r a c t i o n of people said that they stay there while the clothes are i n the washer or dryer. The m a j o r i t y of the c h i l d r e n who use the play area adjacent to the laundry area come there on t h e i r own. 1 PATTERN Communal laundry area i n a separate b u i l d i n g i s provided w i t h i n each c l u s t e r . ANTICIPATED BEHAVIOR a. The observations of Coates and Sanoff suggest that teenagers between the ages of 14-18 years 2 were f r e q u e n t l y seen hanging wash. b. The study conducted by Canadian Environmental Sciences i n 1969 i n favour of Acadia, Stage I I Married Student Housing Program, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, proposed: There should be a play area adjoining whatever laundry f a c i l i t i e s are created, separated from the machines by a low p a r t i t i o n , large enough for a few toddlers to p u l l toys or ride kiddy cars i n . A table and a few benches, a few shelves for storage and an extra e l e c t r i c outlet would enable the mothers to have a cup of coffee together while the laundry i s wash-ing and the children are safely playing.3 1. Cooper,Clare. " AIA Journal. St. Francis Square: Attitudes of i t s Residents. December 1971. p. 25. it 2. Coates, Gary, & Sanoff, Henry. "Behavioral Mapping: The Ecology of Child Behavior i n a Planned Residential Setting." Environmental Design  Research Association: Proceedings of the Annual Conference, 1972. Vol. 1, p. 1 3 - 2 - 4 . 3 . Canadian Environmental Sciences. Acadia, Stage II: University of B r i t i s h  Columbia Married Student Housing Program. Vancouver, 1969. Appendix 1H 1, p. 2. D e s i g n Element: PATIO J U L p m y iq i j I^Hbfj 1 * e * o i * r A » * * * s i o r # c e s • s i t e _ p l a n FIGURE 13 LOCATION OF PAT-IOS SHOWN IN COLOUR n C t t iU j W •. t'ft n t i . U B . -. mirr lod graduate student residence* 3 C » l . C It. * C C T -r CO 6. DESIGN ELEMENT: Patio General Remark: Whyte states that a patio with high walls without perforation provides maximum privacy. However, i t reduces the a b i l i t y of the private and public areas to borrow space from each other."'" Whyte mentions that when a fence i s designed for the safety of 2 children, residents do not complain about i t . He also says that patios i n a cluster design are generally fenced i n order to achieve v i s u a l privacy.-^ PATTERN 6A. An entry patio 16* 3" x 81 3" enclosed within high walls i s attached to each unit. Except for a view from the ANTICIPATED BEHAVIOR a. The observation of Alexander, et a l . reveals that patios which are enclosed with high walls become claustrophobic. The patios that lack natural continuum to a c t i v i t i e s i n the house remain k unused. b. Whyte's study shows that small yards are not extensively used by the residents. 5 kitchen window, thi s patio has no other connection to the i n t e r i o r of the unit. Attached to each unit i s an unfenced patio 16 ' 3 " x 9 ' 0" over-looking which i s the l i v i n g room of the unit. Whyte, during his study of 'Cluster Develop-ment1 and Cooper i n her study of 'St. Francis Square', have found that r e s i -dents f e l t that a patio attached to the l i v i n g room makes the apartment 'seem bigger' and enables them to wander out for a l i t t l e fresh a i r , and to c a l l out to children or to watch some a c t i v i t y outside.^ 7 The studies done by Whyte, Coates and Sanoff, and Cooper^ have disclosed that items such as charcoal g r i l l s , lawn furniture, play equip-ment, bicycles, brooms, mops and p a i l s , etc. were frequently observed on patios. e. f . The study o f Coates and S a n o f f has a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e t e e n a g e r s were f r e q u e n t l y observed i n the backyards i n v o l v e d i n some s o r t o f work, whereas the young c h i l d r e n engaged themselves i n a c t i v i t i e s such as b i c y c l e ( t r i c y c l e ) r i d i n g , o b j e c t p l a y and b a l l p l a y i n t h i s a r e a . On the o t h e r hand, Cooper's s t u d y showed t h a t the c h i e f uses o f p a t i o s , i n o r d e r o f i m p o r t a n c e , were s i t t i n g o u t s i d e , g a r d e n i n g and r a i s i n g p l a n t s , b a r b e c u i n g , d o i n g s m a l l domestic r e p a i r j o b s , b u i l d i n g or r e p a i r i n g f u r n i t u r e , h a v i n g p a r t i e s and k e e p i n g c h i l d r e n i n . A study conducted by Canadian E n v i r o n m e n t a l S c i e n c e s has suggested t h a t : " t h e r e s h a l l be p a r t i a l l y c overed and e n c l o s a b l e outdoor p l a y a r e a a d j a c e n t t o the ' r e a r ' o f each u n i t , o b s e r v a b l e from the k i t c h e n a r e a (Appendix H) i n c l u d e d i n t h i s a r e a s h a l l be a s m a l l outdoor s t o r a g e u n i t ( s u i t a b l e f o r t r i c y c l e s , garden equipment, f u r n i t u r e ) . " 1. Whyte, W i l l i a m H. C l u s t e r Development. New York, American Conservation A s s o c i a t i o n , 1964-. p. 86. 2. Whyte, W i l l i a m H. The Organization Man. New York, Simon and Schuster, 1956. Chapter 27. 3. Whyte, Wi l l i a m H. op. c i t . p. 86. 4 . Alexander, Christopher, Hirshen, S., Ishikawa, S., C o f f i n , C , & Angel, S. Houses Generated by Patterns. Berkeley, C a l i f o r n i a , Center f o r Environmental S t r u c t u r e , A p r i l 1970. p. 121. 5. Whyte, W i l l i a m H. C l u s t e r Development. New York, American Conservation A s s o c i a t i o n , 1964. p. 42. . 6. I b i d . p. 31* 7. Whyte, Wi l l i a m H. C l u s t e r Development. op. c i t . p. 47. 8.. Coates, Gary, & Sanoff, Henry. "Behavioral Mapping: The Ecology of C h i l d Behavior i n a Planned R e s i d e n t i a l S e t t i n g . " Environmental Design  Research A s s o c i a t i o n : Proceedings of the Annual Conference, 1972. p. 13-2-9. 9. Cooper, Clare. op. c i t . pp. 26-27. 10. Canadian Environmental Sciences. Acadia, Stage I I : U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Married Student Housing Program. Vancouver, 1969* p. 22. BJ@J I J L MEL r A ROAD c=X\\ N /? <? ,1 0 M E L F A U i V . i — • Towe* • I Iff I ' i TI 1 mm J • L_J i | I p CO J ct.USII.lrt M T"l ~ *rvflsroK£ B f c b t L n- f — > rf T i l l 13 t f t j TJJLJT JUL } r ~ U J IT p*n taut tor TTi 3 1 is \ P R MNOfHGAFTCH TtLl n _ j i JI 0 z \npppn 1.. r ^ ^ n .i-i;Ji)l^lr?~ri ,.;/"v, V PPffPPFrB J™q] ; Q am / L 2=-TTI—i n L l t j - X 1 !" L _ J L J r r n , i ^ T T M uro uuu 2JL,rzr nnnp; //,.. i i r i X _ U Of E V J I I w f t t f ^ r r * / i F i r ' — M ^ — " - i J OVAMA U J I lg e#i/* r i — 3 ffZ ' J H J H ET~3 r far JL_ L cou»r J8D n_fc£ -tf jQQTT"H ctvsre/i j COURT - i C R £ S CENT » C A O I t r . if , KtSltlKCta • F IGURE 14- L O C A T I O N OF WOODED AREAS SHOWN I N COLOUR r site„pian. . _ !'•• ' '  :' .f-i , A (* A P I S A flA 5>Tt tiT>P • ! W w W EJ Ii-i-. I'H i\ .> 0 w u . j marrlod graduate stuiiont r'ejldene«« . i — : ; . i SCALE m »CET DESIGN ELEMENT; Woods General Remark: The study conducted by Canadian Environmental Sciences has suggested that an adventure playground should be somewhat removed from the dwelling units for children over six years of age. They wrote, "An adventure playground, by d e f i n i t i o n , challenges children to create their own environment . . . so i f the area i s treed, tree houses w i l l emerge; i f h i l l y , steps and sli d e s and perhaps water creeks might appear." 1 Whyte says that people who are unfamiliar with wooded areas con-p sider them a menace and forbid their children to go near them. PATTERN ANTICIPATED BEHAVIOR Clusters of trees a. White's study reveals that the older children, remote from the i n spite of r e s t r i c t i o n s imposed, attempt to dwelling units explore adventurous areas. They prefer those having rough areas which provide an opportunity for secrecy, undulated ground (example given: sheds, caves, hidden corners i n are scattered throughout the D development. c woods, et c . ) . The study by Coates and Sanoff found that children from 6 to 13 years of age were frequently engaged i n plays such as exploring, hunting and camping which were participated i n by groups of 2 to 3 persons. Cooper says that the adventure playgrounds tend to attra c t and absorb the interest of more children than other play-grounds, and the prime users range from 5 to 17 years of age. She stated: One of the most popular a c t i v i t i e s on a l l adventure playgrounds i s the construction of dens and houses . . . manipulating elements of the natural environ-ment - earth, water, f i r e , wood, plants - i s something that we t ry to deter children from doing in our 'neat' urban environments; but trees climbed, holes dug, 'houses' b u i l t i n the landscaped areas of housing developments bear witness to the fact that children desperately need a place where they are permitted to do these things.5 1. Canadian Environmental Sciences. Acadia, Stage I I : University of B r i t i s h  Columbia Married Student Housing Program.Vancouver, 1969. Appendix 'H' , pTT 2. Whyte, William H. Cluster Development. New York, American Conservation Association, 19@+~. pp. 42-4-4-. 3 . White, L.E. "The Outdoor Play of Children Living i n F l a t s : An Enquiry into the Use of Courtyards as Playgrounds." A r t i c l e 38 i n Proshansky, H.M., Ittelson, W.H., & R i v l i n , L.G. Environmental  Psychology: Man and His Physical Setting. New York, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1970. p. 377. 4-. Coates, Gary & Sanoff, Henry. "Behavioral Mapping: The Ecology of Child Behavior i n a Planned Residential Setting." Environmental Design Research Association: Proceedings of the Annual Conference, 1972. Vol. 1, p. 1 3 - 2 - 4 . 5. Cooper, Clare. The Adventure Playground: Creative Play i n an Urban Setting and a Potential Focus for Community Involvement. Berkeley, University of C a l i f o r n i a , Institute of Urban & Regional Development, 1970. p. 17. 6 . Ibid. p. 13. D e s i g n Element: STREET - j i f i U U | l Q j , i,n,nni i F ^ n a ^ 3 3 ^ ^ Z E R H P IS-ti ^ " ^ J ' U ^ M an 1  ists f " a j IT-' r i M r n i « «• — Ll AJh ™>-vz3 tin n rtxn • i u u u LI L: .U U L1 | fi n_r L J ' u ^r ir | 1 IL_J1 L ^ 1 LOP 2 ! ecus re R CQU*T [T 1PJ •CLUSTF* e, OTAMA COURT \ narp-" i f f I CCi/STF* J S* LMO COURT "US crnr > A C M 0 t A PARA Rtsioenees s i t e „ p l a n : FIGURE 15 LOCATION OF (DEAD-END) STREETS SHOWN j * . • IN COLOUR • . A f*Apisn .JJR o r r t ;nfi' '• narr lod graduate student residences . 8 . DESIGN ELEMENT; S t r e e t G e n e r a l Remark: W i l l i a m H. Whyte's study suggests t h a t a d u l t s p e r c e i v e s t r e e t s w i t h heavy t r a f f i c as b o u n d a r i e s and hence f o r b i d t h e i r c h i l d r e n f r o m c r o s s i n g them.''" The study conducted by A l e x a n d e r , e t a l . has deduced t h a t a l o o p e d l o c a l r o a d i s s a f e and f e e l s s a f e , as l o n g as i t s e r v e s l e s s t h a n 50 c a r s . L.E. White found t h a t c h i l d r e n do not make s u f f i c i e n t use o f the planned p l a y a r e a s i f t h e y are t o c r o s s a heavy t r a f f i c s t r e e t t o r e a c h them.3 PATTERN The main t r a f f i c s t r e e t s s e r v i n g the e n t i r e d e v e l o p -ment are l o c a t e d on i t s p e r i p h e r y . ANTICIPATED BEHAVIOR a. H e r b e r t Gans s t a t e s t h a t the road system which keeps the t h r o u g h t r a f f i c out of the development makes the s e t t i n g s a f e r f o r c h i l d r e n ' s p l a y . Cooper's study s u p p o r t s Gans' statement t h a t the r e s i d e n t s c o n s i d e r the r o a d system which keeps the t h r o u g h t r a f f i c out o f the development as a safer and better quality place for r a i s i n g children since the environment enables them to play, explore, v i s i t friends and walk to school in complete safety. Her observation indicates that children play anywhere and everywhere - not just where the designers indicated 'playground 1 on the plan. Bicycle r i d i n g and walking on the streets were frequently observed by Coates and Sanoff during their study. They found that the prime users of this area were adolescents, the majority of whom were females.^1 Whyte, W i l l i a m H. The O r g a n i z a t i o n Man. New Y o r k , Simon and S c h u s t e r , 1956. p. 3^7. A l e x a n d e r , C h r i s t o p h e r , H i r s h e n , S., I s h i k a w a , S., C o f f i n , C , & A n g e l , S. Houses Generated by P a t t e r n s . B e r k e l e y , C a l i f o r n i a , C e n t e r f o r E n v i r o n m e n t a l S t r u c t u r e , A p r i l 1970. pp. 64—65. W h i t e , L.E. "The Outdoor P l a y of C h i l d r e n L i v i n g i n F l a t s : An E n q u i r y i n t o the Use of C o u r t y a r d s as P l a y g r o u n d s . " A r t i c l e 38 i n Proshansky, H.M., I t t e l s o n , W.H., & R i v l i n , L.G. E n v i r o n m e n t a l  P s y c h o l o g y : Man and H i s P h y s i c a l S e t t i n g . New York, H o l t , R i n e h a r t and Winston, I n c . , 1970. p. 375. Gans, H e r b e r t J . The L e v i t t o w n e r s : Way of L i f e and P o l i t i c s i n a New Suburban Community. New York, Pantheon Books, 1967. p. 2 8 0 . Cooper, C l a r e . op. c i t . p. 22. C o a t e s , Gary, & S a n o f f , Henry. " B e h a v i o r a l Mapping: The E c o l o g y o f C h i l d B e h a v i o r i n a Planned R e s i d e n t i a l S e t t i n g . " E n v i r o n m e n t a l D e s i g n  R e s e a r c h A s s o c i a t i o n : P r o c e e d i n g s of the Annual C o n f e r e n c e , 1972. V o l . 1, p. 1 3 - 2 - 7 . D e s i g n Element: PUBLIC WALKWAY FIGURE. 16 LOCATION OF PUBLIC WALKWAY SHOWN ' IN COLOUR ON DESIGN ELEMENT: Public Walkway PATTERN The public sidewalks of the clusters are connected to the main t r a f f i c - f r e e pedestrian walkway which runs i n the middle of the development i n the d i r e c t i o n of Northwest-Southeast . ANTICIPATED BEHAVIOR a. The study conducted by Gans found that the newcomers who have no previous contacts i n the community frequently l o i t e r on sidewalks with the hope of meeting t h e i r neighbours.^ b. Clare Cooper's study reveals that residents f e e l that a t r a f f i c - f r e e pedestrian walkway encourages walking and casual encounters. As well i t discourages large numbers of strangers from wandering about. 2 c. People f e e l safe and comfortable when large numbers of people are i n sight, as claimed by Alexander, et al.3 d. The study done by S a i l e , et a l . has revealed that c y c l i s t s made more use of the central sidewalk (which was designed to c o l l e c t the pedestrian t r a f f i c through the s i t e towards the main road) than the pedestrians, who tended to follow shortcuts. They have also stated that i f pedestrian routes on the s i t e are not d i r e c t , residents w i l l make the i r own paths. 1. G a n s , H e r b e r t J . The L e v i t t o w n e r s : Way o f L i f e and P o l i t i c s i n a New- S u b u r b a n Community. New Y o r k , P a n t h e o n B o o k s , 1967. p. 4-6. 2. C o o p e r , C l a r e . " S t . F r a n c i s S q u a r e : A t t i t u d e s o f i t s R e s i d e n t s . " A I A J o u r n a l . December 1971. pp. 2 3 - 2 7 . 3 . A l e x a n d e r , C h r i s t o p h e r , H i r s h e n , S., I s h i k a w a , S., C o f f i n , C , & A n g e l , S, H o u s e s G e n e r a t e d by P a t t e r n s . B e r k e l e y , C a l i f o r n i a , C e n t e r f o r . E n v i r o n m e n t a l S t r u c t u r e , A p r i l 1970. p. 91. 4-. S a i l e , D a v i d G., B o r o o a h , R., & W i l l i a m s , M.G. " F a m i l i e s i n P u b l i c H o u s i n g : A S t u d y o f T h r e e L o c a l i t i e s i n R o c k f o r d , I l l i n o i s . " E n v i r o n m e n t a l D e s i g n R e s e a r c h A s s o c i a t i o n : P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e A n n u a l C o n f e r e n c e , 1972. V o l . 1, p. 1 3 - 7 - 7 . O N v n . D e s i g n Element: OUTDOOR PLAY AREA FIGURE 17 LOCATION OF OUTDOOR PLAY AREAS SHOWN s ' I N COLOUR ACADIA-.-PASK .UBC marriod graduate student residences SCAtC IN rccr 10. DESIGN ELEMENT: Outdoor Play Area PATTERN Play equipment such as, swings and a climbing net are i n s t a l l e d at various locations throughout the development. ANTICIPATED BEHAVIOR Hole's study of children's play on housing estates revealed that the percentage of children who were engaged i n a c t i v i t i e s , such as, s i t t i n g , standing, l y i n g , watching and talking was more than the percentage using apparatus on the playgrounds. 1 b. The study by Coates and Sanoff, and that of S i n c l a i r ^ found to the contrary, that more children used planned play equipment which promoted intensive a c t i v i t y . c. White's study shows that when play equip-ment i s less accessible, i t s use decreases. 4-ON d. The study by Canadian Environmental Sciences showed that swings and see-saws tend to be dangerous for children from 3 to 6 years of age unless there i s constant supervision. They have also suggested that a play area should be physically limited so as to keep older children out of the toddlers' play area. But i t should remain readily and easily-accessible to children, both v i s u a l l y and p h y s i c a l l y from home.^ 1. Hole, Vere. Children's Play on Housing Estates: National Building Studies  Research Paper 39» London, Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 1966. pp. 8-10. 2. Coates, Gary & Sanoff, Henry. "Behavioral Mapping: The Ecology of Child Behavior i n a Planned Residential Setting." Environmental Design  Research Association: Proceedings of the Annual Conference, 1972. Vol. 1, p. 1 3 - 2 - 4 . 3 . S i n c l a i r , J. A Study of Children's Play Areas i n 221-d-3 Housing. San Francisco, University of Berkeley, 1969. p. 5 (unpublished). 4-. White, L.E. "The Outdoor Play of Children Living i n F l a t s : An Enquiry into the Use of Courtyards as Playgrounds." A r t i c l e 38 i n Proshansky, H.M., Ittelson, W.H. & R i v l i n , L.G. Environmental Psychology: Man and His Physical Setting. New York, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1970. p. 375» 5. Canadian Environmental Sciences. Acadia, Stage II: University of B r i t i s h Columbia Married Student Housing Program. Vancouver, 1969• Appendix 1H' , p. 4-. ON D e s i g n Element: SANDBOX ?E3 var A ROAD r\— A M E L F A u u l| _n n n_f >-< J I Ir' CL USTER 4 V -> *f VCL 5 7OKE COURT i w \ ±3 he/**' PPPT1 O 2 PUBLIC WLKHVAY - J rL, 1 1115 KINDERGARTEN \\ \ \ tr Jti c(?(/*r iii 1 H , 1 J H * d a A: li,1 CLUSTER: I • Ij or AM* A COURT t \ bd 1 2 ^ pace 33 2 3^ £- - i ^  CLUSTEH J c t * SALMO COURT PS 0 s C * £ S CENT i e A 0 I A P 1 I K A l S I O l H C t S :FIGURE 18 LOCATION OF SANDBOXES SHOWN IN C0L.0UR . s i t e _ p l a n . _ _ . . __. married graduate student residences . 3 C * L t * TEST . 11. DESIGN ELEMENT: S a n d b o x PATTERN S a n d b o x e s a r e l o c a t e d a. a t v a r i o u s p l a c e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e d e v e l o p m e n t . ANTICIPATED BEHAVIOR The s t u d y c a r r i e d o u t by White" 1" showed t h a t c h i l d r e n l i k e t o p l a y w i t h s a n d and mud. p A l e x a n d e r , e t a l . h a v e s u g g e s t e d t h a t s m a l l c h i l d r e n n e e d s a n d l o t s , mud, e t c . w i t h w h i c h t o p l a y . 1. W h i t e , L.E. "The O u t d o o r P l a y o f C h i l d r e n L i v i n g i n F l a t s : An E n q u i r y i n t o t h e Use o f C o u r t y a r d s as P l a y g r o u n d s . " A r t i c l e 38 i n P r o s h a n s k y , H.M., I t t e l s o n , W.H. & R i v l i n , L.G. E n v i r o n m e n t a l P s y c h o l o g y : Man and H i s  P h y s i c a l S e t t i n g . New Y o r k , H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n , I n c . , 1970. PP. 376-379. 2. A l e x a n d e r , C h r i s t o p h e r , H i r s h e n , S., I s h i k a w a , S., C o f f i n , C , & A n g e l , S . H o u s e s G e n e r a t e d by P a t t e r n s . B e r k e l e y , C a l i f o r n i a , C e n t e r f o r E n v i r o n m e n t a l S t r u c t u r e , A p r i l 1 9 7 0 , p. 104-. D e s i g n Element: DRY TREE •y.i I lj X I J O R J A I t c h L - I ne ve t s r OKC f J 1 *-% COUR T _ . rtztii.l ii : 1 fi I: MTV ] PARAIft LOT u—L n r L J U L j l i l l i L i u I. U L J L i; 4—" / T _ I — . : > . ^ ' - ^ - . J i iP i — . v // » j l | CLiisrt* i } V- - i 1 Kf*0*F05 , L 1 Ii COU*T it V 0 mix** L_ ii J;:=":IZ : i L J L L u U Li i L J 0 ( A n LlxL L Z CLUSTER t f -It] 0 TM MA I l—J—i COURT n p n n i i • ——*-' —^ —1 • J ! j 1 •' . r"~1. U-'til lj ] L i " ; • r : - : : 1-{I a : CLUSTER SALMO COUR T SI I F -4.3LU-.rLJa: L X C » £ S C E N T 0 s FIGURE 19 LOCATION OF A LARGE DRY TREE SHOWN * • IN COLOUR s i t e _ p l a n . r i y i U | J Ji H » * »• W w1 l»# '« married graduate student residences . GCALt IN * £ | T 12. DESIGN ELEMENT: D r y T r e e PATTERN A l a r g e d r y t r e e a. w i t h f i r m b r a n c h e s i s p l a c e d w i t h i n t h e s a n d p i t . b. c. ANTICIPATED BEHAVIOR S i n c l a i r ' s s t u d y r e v e a l e d t h a t a n a r e a w i t h a m o u n t a i n o f l o g s w i t h i n t h e s a n d p i t was a v e r y p o p u l a r c h i l d r e n ' s p l a y a r e a . The c h i l d r e n c o u l d c l i m b on t h e s e l o g s and jump i n t o t h e sandpit."*" T r e e s , as a c l i m b i n g e q u i p m e n t f o r p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d r e n , h a v e b e e n s u g g e s t e d by A l e x a n d e r , e t a l . 2 W h i t e f o u n d t h a t c h i l d r e n c l i m b f e n c e s when t h e y do n o t h a v e a n y t h i n g e l s e t o c l i m b . 3 1. S i n c l a i r , J . The Study o f C h i l d r e n ' s P l a y Areas i n 221-d-3 Hou s i n g . U n i v e r s i t y o f B e r k e l e y , C a l i f o r n i a , March 1969. p. 3 ( u n p u b l i s h e d ) . 2. A l e x a n d e r , C h r i s t o p h e r , I s h i k a w a , S., & S i l v e r s t e i n , M. A P a t t e r n  Language Which Generates M u l t i - S e r v i c e C e n t e r s . B e r k e l e y , C a l i f o r n i a , C e n t e r f o r E n v i r o n m e n t a l S t r u c t u r e , 1968. p. 261. 3 . W h i t e , L.E. "The Outdoor P l a y of C h i l d r e n L i v i n g i n F l a t s : An E n q u i r y i n t o the Use of C o u r t y a r d s as P l a y g r o u n d s . " A r t i c l e 38 i n Proshansky, H.M., I t t e l s o n , W.H., & R i v l i n , L.G. E n v i r o n m e n t a l  P s y c h o l o g y : Man and H i s P h y s i c a l S e t t i n g . New York, H o l t , R i n e h a r t and Winston, I n c . , 1970. p. 377. D e s i g n Element: ROCKS ANE jiUS H 1 L J O ij _ ^ - i J i ^ v — = ^ ..  JJdJJ _ >-< J ' FIGURE 20 LOCATION OF ROCK PIT AND HILLOCK I s • SHOWN IN COLOUR- • s i te_p lan . _ _. married graduate student residence* . S C A L C m r t e r . so •on <v> DESIGN ELEMENT: Rocks and Hillocks PATTERN Large rocks are arranged i n a cluster on the periphery of the sandbox. ANTICIPATED BEHAVIOR a. Children are s p e c i a l l y attracted to rocks and h i l l o c k s , as indicated by Whyte's study. 1 b. White's observation shows that children l i k e to p play on construction heaps and debris. Whyte. William H. Cluster Development. New York, American Conservation A s s o c i a t i o n , 1964-. p. bb. White, L.E. "The Outdoor Play of Children Living i n F l a t s : An Enquiry into the Use of Courtyards as Playgrounds." A r t i c l e 38 i n Proshansky, H.M., Ittelson, W.H. & R i v l i n , L.G. Environmental Psychology: Man and His  Physical Setting. New York, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1970. P. 379. D e s i g n Element: OUTDOOR SEAT var A ROAO rmtt»o I nor R O A D 1 LT fjMfri/fg tor a >-< CLusrr* 4 ^ ~ -H i . H€VELSTOKE I--. counr I. U i' J. T KINDCHGtKTt* ;T~:;~T1_L1 P U B L I C W'LHW^V iliPl I; Kt*0"eOS Ij , I I, t i r 'CLUSTER ,j O YM MA ' COURT B : EC ;i:7\ CLUSTF/t J SALMO COURT TZ3 ™_n_JE ULiUL 5 0 r o o s C R E S C E N T A C A O I A AAA* A t S l d t l l C t S ! '"-FIGURE 21 LOCATION OF OUTDOOR SEATS SHOWN IN COLOUR site_plan, '!A C A QIA -.-PAB K ' .08 G .Jj morrlod graduate student residence* - , ; S C A L E m F E E T . DESIGN ELEMENT: Outdoor Seat PATTERN Any seat i n a public space. ANTICIPATED BEHAVIOR a. The observation by Alexander, et a l . conclude that when people are given a choice of benche they select those with best exposure to view, sun and wind."*" Alexander, Christopher, Ishikawa, S., & S i l v e r s t e i n , M. A Pattern Language  Which Generates Multi-Service Centers. Berkeley, C a l i f o r n i a , Center for Environmental Structure, 1968. p. 173. Design Element: COMMUNITY PLAY AREA S L. • 'JLX no*o u c L F A I I _2L n r .flKz ".U U L ll J L _ J 1 e r a tJtltT LJLT T i n I I 1 r-H H CLUSTf* 4 ^~ 4 ~ MtViLSTOKt r w 1 • b 1 LlZ3 KINDERGARTEN 3 l p-33 Hit Up rp7, . o r CLUSTER I KEROMEOS \ COURT \ 2 ^ P-P. 3 >-< r " r 1 I n r " H 7 J CLUSTER t OTAMR I l COURT \ i n n , 3iX CLUSTER J SALMO COURT H-WLI rUB iipppuu. u; ;TJT -2. C K f S CENT s o 0 s 'FIGURE .22 LOCATION OF THE.COMMUNITY PLAY AREA SHOWN. IN COLOUR r s i t e _ p l a n _ _ | hUu ^ •> J-l . it r i iT* a . y J J \ married graduate student residences DESIGN ELEMENT: Community Play Area General Remark: Gans found that the school only those children who l i v e close by. 1 PATTERN In the heart of the development i s located the community play area adjacent to the kindergarten school. This play area encompasses sandboxes, a large dry tree, a boat within one of the sandboxes, a rocky area, benches, a large asphalt area, and swings, etc. It is bounded by wooded areas on three sides. playgrounds after school hours attr a c t ANTICIPATED BEHAVIOR a. Cooper's study of St. Francis Square shows that the central landscaped squares were viewed by the residents as places for chatting, s i t t i n g , o and meeting other people. b. Alexander, et a l . i n t h e i r study have i l l u s t r a t e d that: In ex i s t i n g modern housing projects people rarely f e e l comfortable lin g e r i n g outside their houses. There are few places where i t i s ' a l l r i g h t to be'. . . . teenagers es p e c i a l l y , boys, choose special c corners too, where they hang around, waiting for their friends. . . . small children need sand l o t s , mud, plants, and water to play with i n the open; young mothers who go to watch t h e i r children, often use the children's play as an opportunity to meet and talk with other mothers. The study of Coates and Sanoff showed that the community play area was very popular among children between the ages of 10-18 years. 1. Gans, Herbert J . The Levittowners: Way of L i f e and P o l i t i c s i n a New Suburban Community. New York, Pantheon Books, 1967- P« 280. 2. Cooper, C l a r e . "St. Francis Square: A t t i t u d e s of i t s Residents." AIA J o u r n a l . December 1971. P« 23. 3. Alexander, Christopher, Hirshen, S., Ishikawa, S., C o f f i n , C , & Angel, S. Houses Generated by Patterns. Berkeley, C a l i f o r n i a , Center f o r Environmental S t r u c t u r e , A p r i l 1970. p. 104. 4-. Coates, Gary, & Sanoff, Henry. "Behavioral Mapping: The Ecology of C h i l d Behavior i n a Planned R e s i d e n t i a l S e t t i n g . " Environmental Design  Research A s s o c i a t i o n : Proceedings of the Annual Conference, 1972. V o l . 1, p. 13-2-4. ' CO (V) The following elements are evaluated: DESIGN ELEMENT 1. Clustering of Dwelling Units 2. Raised Sidewalk and Grass Around the Parking Area 3 . Steps are the abstracted expected behavior on which the design OBSERVABLE BEHAVIOR a) Different patterns of public behavior can be observed i n courts which d i f f e r i n size and shape. b) There w i l l be more a c t i v i t i e s within the courtyards than i n the planned play areas on the s i t e . a) When teenagers and adults are seen, they w i l l be frequently engaged i n passive play, such as conversation and observation. b) When children f i v e years and under are observed, they w i l l be seen cy c l i n g , running with or without a b a l l , or playing with t h e i r wheeled toys. a) The steps w i l l occasionally function as a setting for baby watching and as gossip center. CO DESIGN ELEMENT Car Parking Areas Laundry F a c i l i t y Entry Patio OBSERVABLE BEHAVIOR A variety of a c t i v i t i e s such as: deliverymen delivering the goods, residents loading or unloading t h e i r commodities, residents washing and repairing t h e i r cars, conversation and d i s -cussion among men while they are working, and the small children playing with t h e i r wheeled toys beside the adults, w i l l be frequently observed within the parking l o t s . Small children can be noticed playing beside the laundry room while mothers are laundering clothes. Since the entry patios are enclosed by high walls and lack natural continuum to a c t i v i t i e s within the house, children w i l l not play there. C O -r .DESIGN ELEMENT 6B. Patio attached to b) the"Living Room 7. Woods a) 8. Street a) OBSERVABLE BEHAVIOR Whenever t h i s patio i s used, i t w i l l be used for a c t i v i t i e s such as: s i t t i n g outside, gardening and r a i s i n g plants, barbecuing, doing small domestic repair jobs, having parties, or keeping children i n , etc. Whenever woods are explored, they w i l l be explored mostly by the older children from 6 to 13 years of age who w i l l be frequently observed engaged i n adventurous a c t i v i t i e s such as: exploring, hunting, camping, climbing trees, constructing houses, dig-ging holes, etc. Other than cars, streets w i l l be u t i l i z e d mainly for bicycle r i d i n g and walking. C O vn. DESIGN ELEMENT 9- P u b l i c Walkway 10. Outdoor P l a y Areas 11. Sandbox 12. Dry Tree OBSERVABLE BEHAVIOR a) Both p e d e s t r i a n and c y c l i s t s w i l l be f r e q u e n t l y observed on t h e p u b l i c walkway t o which a re connected the s i d e w a l k s of t h e c l u s t e r s . a) When swings a re used, s m a l l c h i l d r e n w i l l be observed u s i n g them. b) A d u l t s w i l l be seen accompanying t h e s m a l l c h i l d r e n t o the a r e a equipped w i t h p l a y a p p a r a t u s s i n c e swings, see-saws, e t c . tend t o be dangerous f o r c h i l d r e n from 3 t o 6 y e a r s o f age, as shown i n the study by Canadian E n v i r o n m e n t a l S c i e n c e s . a) S m a l l c h i l d r e n f i v e y e a r s and under engaged i n g e n e r a l p l a y w i l l be n o t i c e d i n t h e sandboxes. a) When the d r y t r e e i s used, c h i l d r e n w i l l be observed c l i m b i n g upon i t and jumping i n t o t h e s a n d p i t . DESIGN ELEMENT 13. Rocks and H i l l o c k s a) 14-. Outdoor Seat a) 15. Community P l a y Area a) OBSERVABLE BEHAVIOR Whenever r o c k s and h i l l o c k s a r e used, t h e y w i l l s t i m u l a t e such a c t i v i t i e s a s , c l i m b i n g , or, w a l k i n g s i t t i n g and r o l l i n g wheeled t o y s . Whenever a seat i s o c c u p i e d , the occupant w i l l f a c e toward t h e a c t i v i t y zone. T h i s a r e a w i l l a t t r a c t r e s i d e n t s o f a l l age groups When a d u l t s a re accompanying t h e c h i l d r e n i n t h i s a r e a t h e y w i l l be seen c o n v e r s i n g w i t h o t h e r r e s i d e n t s . 88 C H A P T E R IV PROCEDURE: The main purpose of the study was to examine the "behavioral effects of out-of-house design elements of the Acadia Park Clusters. Since design elements were scattered throughout the development and were d i f f i c u l t to keep track of, i t was considered neces-sary that a systematic observation should be conducted. The s i t e plan of the Acadia Park Clusters was divided into a series of segments, each of which was about the size of the courtyard of a c l u s t e r . Thirty-one segments excluding those having grassy areas near houses were selected according to the following major design elements: (1 ) courtyard, ( i i ) wooded area, ( i i i ) play equipment - swings, (iv) community play area, and (v) central public walkway. They were s t r a t i f i e d with respect to t h e i r major design elements. When a design element was situated i n more than one segment, a random sample of size (N = 1, 2 •.. 4-) was selected from these segments for observation. They were dis t r i b u t e d i n the sample as follows: 89 Of the nine segments (which included courtyards) four segments were randomly selected = hk% Of the twelve segments (which included wooded areas), three segments were randomly selected = "2-5% Of the f i v e segments (which included play equipment), two segments were randomly selected = k0% The community play area was the only segment of i t s kind so i t was selected = 100% Of the four segments (which included central public walkway), two segments were randomly selected = 50% Thus of the thirty-one segments (excluding those having grass areas near houses), a random sample of size twelve segments was selected for observation. (See Figure ). In order to observe people's behavior as they occur i n th e i r natural settings, i t was e s s e n t i a l that the behavioral events be kept free from intr u s i o n . This ensured that the recorded behavior was the reaction to the physical elements of the setting and not t.'o the researcher's presence. An observation route was pre-tested so that an observer could conveniently record a l l the a c t i v i t i e s occurring i n a given segment without i n t e r f e r i n g with them. As the observer v i s i t e d each segment, the behavior of the people who were there at the moment of the observation was recorded. Any change that occurred while the observer was s t i l l at a pa r t i c u l a r observation point 90 was ignored. The person and his a c t i v i t i e s were recorded again i f he appeared l a t e r i n another segment or i f he was s t i l l i n the same segment when the observer returned for the next v i s i t . Each selected segment was observed for a period of two minutes and was v i s i t e d i n s t r i c t r o t a t i o n during a walk-round. In order to eliminate the influence of the time factor on the number of persons observed and the type of a c t i v i t i e s observed, half of the walk-rounds were conducted clockwise and the rest anti-clockwise. A random sample of segments was observed twice d a i l y at 11.15 a.m. and 4 . 3 0 p.m. during the period of September 26 to October 16, 1972. At this time almost a l l the dwelling units i n the Acadia Clusters were occupied. Observations were conducted on week days (Monday to Thursday) and weekends (Saturday) for a period of three weeks. In a l l , t h i r t y observations were recorded. Before each walk-round was conducted, weather and ground conditions were noted. The data recording sheets report who performed each a c t i v i t y and where and when i t was performed. In order to i d e n t i f y the location of each a c t i v i t y , corresponding numbers were placed on the map of the s i t e and the data sheets. The s i t e plan was described i n terms of design elements. The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the participants 91 were i d e n t i f i e d i n terms of age, sex, and group size (for sample of data sheets, see Appendix A). For the purpose of analysis, the observed a c t i v i t i e s and the participants were l a t e r categorized with respect to the a c t i v i t y types, age group categories, and group size categories (as suggested by Coates and S a n o f f 1 ) . These are as follows: A c t i v i t y Types: 1. Passive Play (observing, t a l k i n g , reading) 2. Active Play ( s c u f f l i n g , gymnastic play) 3. General Play (exploring, camping, catching tadpoles) k-. Walking 5. Biking (with bicycles and/or t r i c y c l e s ) 6. Work (hanging washing, repairing car, sweeping) 7. Object Play ( s t i c k s , knives, jump rope) 8. Basketball 9. B a l l Play 10. Horseshoes If objects played a dominant role i n the a c t i v i t y , then the a c t i v i t y was defined i n terms of the object. If an object was used but was not dominant, the a c t i v i t y type was i d e n t i f i e d and the object used was noted. 92 Age Group Categories: Infant (2 years and under) Pre-school (3 years to 5 years) Young C h i l d (6 years to 9 years) Adolescent (10 years to 13 years) Teenager (1*+ years to 18 years) Adult (19 years and over) Group s i z e c ategories were defined as: one person; two to three persons; four to s i x persons; seven to twelve persons; and t h i r t e e n or more persons. r e s t r i c t i o n s on an i n d i v i d u a l ' s behavior, the a c t i v i t y was described i n terms of the group a c t i v i t y which was then the u n i t of a n a l y s i s . two observers conducted a walk-round at the same time and independently recorded the outdoor a c t i v i t i e s and the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the p a r t i c i p a n t s . The agreement between the recorded observations was as f o l l o w s : observed a c t i v i t i e s 90%, estimated age group 79% and sex 88%. (See Appendix B). Since group a c t i v i t y imposes c e r t a i n In order to assess the observer's e r r o r , ...FIGURE 23 A RANDOM SAMPLE OF S I Z E TWELVE SEGMENTS AS SHOWN BY NUMBERED COLOUR CIRCLES s i t e _ p l a n _ r l U M u S J - j - . i K i t i ' i L> i j O \ marrlod graduate student r'esldencee SC* L C m r t c r Bibliography 1. Coates, Gary, & Sanoff, Henry. "Behavioral Mapping: The Ecology of Child Behavior i n a Planned Residential Setting." Environmental Design Research Association  Proceedings of the Annual Conference. 1972. Vol. 1, pp. 13-2-2 to 1 3 - 2 - 3 . 95 C H A P T E R V RESULTS: This chapter has been divided into two parts - A and B. Part A i s a general over-view of the ch a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the observed population and th e i r a c t i v i t i e s by age, group size and sex. Part B i s a methodical discussion of a l l design elements i n terms of expected behavior and unexpected behavior as suggested i n Chapter I. 96 PART A Description of the Observed Population On the whole 1717 persons were observed i n 888 groups. This means that the author noticed on the average (lglg) or 2 persons per group. Based on the t o t a l number of people observed over the period of t h i r t y (30) observations, the author recorded on the average 57 people outdoors per observation i n a random sample of segments. Twelve segments randomly selected from 31 segments were looked at; and these excluded a l l grassy areas near houses except those having swings, wooded areas and public walkways. Table 1 shows that on the average 2.4-groups per segment per observation were seen with a standard deviation of 1.26 and c o e f f i c i e n t of v a r i a t i o n (1.26 x 100) = 5 2 . 5 $ . This implies that some of the means are almost zero while others may be as high as f i v e or more. The randomly selected sample of 12 segments was composed of a higher proportion of some types of design elements than was suggested by the r e l a t i v e frequency of occurrence of those elements among 9 7 t h e t o t a l number of segments. As t h e s e 1 2 segments were more f r e q u e n t l y o c c u p i e d t h a n the o t h e r s , i t was t h e r e f o r e assumed t h a t on the a v e r a g e , say, 2 groups per segment per o b s e r v a t i o n would be n o t i c e d . T h i s means t h a t among the ( 3 1-12) = 1 9 segments not l o o k e d a t , t h e r e were a l s o about 2 groups per segment. I f t h e r e are 31 segments ( e x c l u d i n g g r a s s y areas near houses) i n the community and on t h e average 700 p e o p l e (350 c h i l d r e n , 350 a d u l t s ) l i v i n g i n the development, i t would mean t h a t about ( 2 x 2 x 3 D = 1 2 4 persons outdoors i n t h i s s e t t l e m e n t would have been observed a t any g i v e n time on any g i v e n day. T h i s would r e p r e s e n t 1 8 % o f the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n w i t h i n the A c a d i a P a r k C l u s t e r s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l umbia. T a b l e 2 i n d i c a t e s t h a t of 57 persons on t h e average noted o u t d o o r s , 3 of e v e r y 4- persons were c h i l d r e n ( c h i l d r e n 7 4 % ; a d u l t s 2 6 % ) . I t shows t h a t of 57 p e r s o n s , 4-2 were c h i l d r e n and 15 were a d u l t s . T a b l e 3 shows t h a t of 1 2 7 2 c h i l d r e n observed i n the s e l e c t e d segments, a l a r g e m a j o r i t y of them ( 8 5 % ) ( i . e . 5 of every 6 c h i l d r e n o u t d o o r s ) were e s t i m a t e d t o be 9 y e a r s or under. The most f r e q u e n t age group observed o u t d o o r s was the p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d r e n between 3 t o 5 y e a r s of age ( 5 6 % ) . The d i s t r i b u t i o n among o t h e r age groups was 1 6 % i n f a n t s ( 2 and u n d e r ) , 98 13.0$ y o u n g c h i l d r e n ( 6 - 9 ) , 12% a d o l e s c e n t s ( 1 0 - 1 3 ) , and 2% t e e n a g e r s (14— 1 8 ) . T h e s e f i n d i n g s s u g g e s t t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n i n A c a d i a P a r k C l u s t e r s i s c o m p r i s e d o f y o u n g p a r e n t s . M i d d l e - a g e d p a r e n t s w i t h c h i l d r e n o l d e r t h a n t e n y e a r s o f age f o r m a v e r y l o w p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e r e s i d e n t s . B a s e d on t h e t o t a l number o f p e o p l e o b s e r v e d , a v e r y s m a l l d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f m a l e s and f e m a l e s was r e c o r d e d ( s e e T a b l e 4 ) . The c a t e g o r y ' U n a c c o u n t e d ' u s e d i n T a b l e 4 i s a n a c c o u n t o f t h o s e c h i l d r e n who w e re p r i m a r i l y o b s e r v e d i n s t r o l l e r s o r t h o s e whose s e x was u n a s s e s s a b l e b e c a u s e o f t h e i r way o f d r e s s . I t w i l l be n o t i c e d f r o m T a b l e 4A t h a t a l m o s t 6 0 % o f t h e c h i l d r e n o b s e r v e d o u t d o o r s were b o y s . T h i s r e m a i n e d c o n s i s t e n t f o r e a c h o f t h e f i v e age g r o u p s o f c h i l d r e n . As e x p e c t e d , i t was n o t e d t h a t t h e p a t t e r n i n t h e c a s e o f a d u l t s was t h e r e v e r s e o f c h i l d r e n , i . e . 60% f e m a l e and 4 0 % m a l e p o p u l a t i o n s were r e c o r d e d o u t -d o o r s . T y p e s o f O u t d o o r A c t i v i t i e s The a c t i v i t i e s o f p e o p l e o b s e r v e d d u r i n g t h e w a l k - r o u n d (30 o b s e r v a t i o n s ) were c l a s s i f i e d i n t o a number o f c a t e g o r i e s , as s u g g e s t e d by C o a t e s and S a n o f f ( s e e C h a p t e r I V ) . G e n e r a l l y t h e o u t d o o r a c t i v i t i e s were 99 e x p e c t e d t o be more a c t i v e t h a n p a s s i v e but the f i n d i n g s p a r t l y d i s p e l l e d t h i s n o t i o n . T a b l e 1 shows t h a t o f a l l t h e outdoor a c t i v i t i e s , w a l k i n g was most f r e q u e n t l y ob-s e r v e d . I f p a s s i v e p l a y ( o b s e r v i n g , t a l k i n g and r e a d i n g ) were added t o t h i s , i t would account f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y h a l f o f t h e outdoor a c t i v i t i e s ( w a l k i n g 31% + p a s s i v e p l a y 19%). B i c y c l i n g and a c t i v e p l a y ( s c u f f l i n g , gym-n a s t i c p l a y and r u n n i n g ) accounted f o r 37% o f t h e t o t a l a c t i v i t i e s w hich suggested t h a t a low p e r c e n t a g e of o u t -door a c t i v i t i e s was comprised of a c t i v e p l a y ( b i k i n g 25% + a c t i v e p l a y 12% = 37%). The d i s t r i b u t i o n among o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s was as f o l l o w s : 6% o b j e c t p l a y ( s t i c k s , jump r o p e , p l a y -i n g w i t h wheeled t o y s , e t c . ) , h% g e n e r a l p l a y ( e x p l o r i n g , camping), 2% work a c t i v i t i e s ( r e p a i r i n g c a r or b i c y c l e , r e p a i r i n g f u r n i t u r e , sweeping), 1% hockey game and 1% b a l l P l a y . D e s c r i p t i o n o f A c t i v i t i e s by Age, Group S i z e , and Sex From an a n a l y s i s o f a c t i v i t y t y p e s by age and group s i z e , T a b l e s 5 and 6 show t h a t of a l l a c t i v i t y t y p e s , p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d r e n most f r e q u e n t l y engaged them-s e l v e s i n p a s s i v e p l a y , b i c y c l i n g and w a l k i n g . They a l s o p a r t i c i p a t e d f r e q u e n t l y i n a c t i v e p l a y , o b j e c t p l a y , and 100 g e n e r a l p l a y . W h i l e engaged i n b i c y c l i n g , w a l k i n g and o b j e c t p l a y , t h e y were observed i n groups of 1 t o 3 p e r s o n s , whereas i n p a s s i v e p l a y , a c t i v e p l a y and g e n e r a l p l a y t h e y were i n groups of 2 t o 6 p e r s o n s . More t h a n t w o - t h i r d s (68%) o f the a c t i v i t i e s of c h i l d r e n aged 2 y e a r s and under account f o r p a s s i v e p l a y and w a l k i n g ( p a s s i v e p l a y 3*+%, w a l k i n g 3>h%). Less t h a n o n e - t h i r d of t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s was comprised of b i c y c l i n g , a c t i v e p l a y , o b j e c t p l a y and g e n e r a l p l a y . (See T a b l e 5 ) . The low p e r c e n t a g e of g e n e r a l p l a y , a c t i v e p l a y and o b j e c t p l a y c o n f i r m s t h a t the r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a l a c k s p o t e n t i a l b e h a v i o r s e t t i n g s f o r i n f a n t s . As a r e s u l t of t h i s , t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s are c o n f i n e d t o o b s e r v i n g , t a l k i n g , s i t t i n g and w a l k i n g . Almost o n e - t h i r d (3^%) o f the a c t i v i t i e s o f the young c h i l d r e n from 6 t o 9 y e a r s of age c o n s i s t e d of b i c y c l i n g i n groups of 1 t o 3 p e r s o n s ; and a l i t t l e more t h a n o n e - t h i r d (3>7%) p a r t i c i p a t e d i n p a s s i v e p l a y and a c t i v e p l a y m a i n l y i n groups of 2 t o 6 p e r s o n s . The v e r y low p e r c e n t a g e of o b j e c t p l a y , g e n e r a l p l a y and hockey suggests t h a t the r e s i d e n t i a l s e t t i n g s do not p r o v i d e enough o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t h i s age group t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s . T a b l e 5 shows t h a t a d o l e s c e n t s (10-13) do p l a y hockey games; t h i s a c c o u n t s f o r one-seventh (lk%) o f the t o t a l number of a l l t y p e s of a c t i v i t i e s . T h i s game i s p l a y e d p r i n c i p a l l y i n the 101 p a r k i n g l o t s , as t h e r e i s no o t h e r s u i t a b l e s p a c e d e s i g n e d i n t h e A c a d i a P a r k C l u s t e r s where c h i l d r e n f r o m 6 t o 13 y e a r s o f age c o u l d p l a y h o c k e y . Of a l l t h e a c t i v i t i e s , t h e most d o m i n a n t a c t i v i t i e s o f a d u l t s (19 and o v e r ) were w a l k i n g and p a s s i v e p l a y ( t a l k i n g , o b s e r v i n g , s i t t i n g and r e a d i n g ) c a r r i e d o u t i n g r o u p s o f 1 t o 3 p e r s o n s . ( See T a b l e s 5 and 6 ) . L o o k i n g a t t h e o b s e r v a t i o n s b y g r o u p s i z e , some o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s s u c h as b i c y c l i n g and w a l k i n g w ere m a i n l y s o l i t a r y . G r o u p s o f 2 t o 3 p e r s o n s p r e d o m i n a t e d i n a c t i v e p l a y , b a l l p l a y , p a s s i v e p l a y , o b j e c t p l a y and g e n e r a l p l a y . The e x c e p t i o n was o b s e r v e d i n t h e c a s e o f g e n e r a l p l a y and b a l l p l a y . T a b l e 6 i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s a r e c o n d u c t e d i n l a r g e r g r o u p s . T a b l e 7 shows t h a t b i c y c l e r i d i n g , o b j e c t p l a y and b a l l p l a y were t y p i c a l a c t i v i t i e s o f p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d r e n ( 3 -5 ) and were d o m i n a t e d by b o y s i n t h e r a t i o o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2 b o y s : l g i r l . H o c k e y was m o s t l y p l a y e d by a d o l e s c e n t s ( 6 1 . 7 % ) and y o u n g c h i l d r e n ( 1 7 . 7 % ) and was c o m p l e t e l y d o m i n a t e d by b o y s ( 1 0 0 . 0 % ) . T h i s f i n d i n g i s q u i t e s u r p r i s i n g as on many o c c a s i o n s g i r l s h a v e b e e n n o t i c e d p l a y i n g g r o u n d h o c k e y on t h e U n i v e r s i t y campus. O u t d o o r work a c t i v i t y i n w h i c h a d u l t s were t h e p r i m e p a r t i c i p a n t s was a l s o d o m i n a t e d by m a l e s i n t h e r a t i o o f 2 m a l e s : 1 f e m a l e . I n t h e r e m a i n i n g a c t i v i t y 102 t y p e s , no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between male and female p a r t i c i p a t i o n was e v i d e n t . 103 TABLE 1: OBSERVED ACTIVITY TYPES IN GROUPS AND OBSERVED NUMBER OF PEOPLE OVER THE PERIOD OF THIRTY OBSERVATIONS A c t i v i t y Types Frequency of Groups Per c e n t a g e No. of People P a s s i v e P l a y 167 18.8 378 A c t i v e P l a y 101 11.4 213 G e n e r a l P l a y 36 4-.0 109 W a l k i n g 274 3 0 . 9 4-73 B i k i n g 220 24-.8 339 Work 19 2.2 36 O b j e c t P l a y 54- 6.1 114 B a l l P l a y 5 0 . 5 21 Hockey 11 1.2 34 T o t a l 888 1 0 0 . 0 1717 Sample S i z e = 12 Segments No. of O b s e r v a t i o n s = 30 Average No. o f Groups per O b s e r v a t i o n = 888 = 2 9 . 6 30 Average No. o f People Observed per O b s e r v a t i o n 1717 = 57 30 Average No. of Groups per Segment per O b s e r v a t i o n 888 = 2 . 4 12x30 Average No. of People i n Each Group = 1717 = 2 888 104-TABLE 2: PERCENTAGE OF CHILDREN AND ADULTS OBSERVED OVER THE PERIOD OF THIRTY OBSERVATIONS C a t e g o r y Frequency P e r c e n t a g e C h i l d r e n (0 t o 18) 1272 74-. 1 A d u l t s (19 & Over) M+5 25-9 T o t a l 1717 1 0 0 . 0 105 TABLE 3 : ESTIMATED AGE GROUPS OF CHILDREN OBSERVED OVER THE PERIOD OF THIRTY OBSERVATIONS Age Groups Frequency ' Per c e n t a g e I n f a n t (2 & under) 206 16 . 2 P r e - s c h o o l ( 3 - 5 ) 711 55.9 Young C h i l d ( 6 - 9 ) 166 13-0 A d o l e s c e n t (10-13) 151 H - 9 Teenager (14 - 1 8 ) 38 3 . 0 T o t a l 1272 1 0 0 . 0 TABLE 4 : SEX OF PEOPLE OBSERVED OVER THE PERIOD OF THIRTY OBSERVATIONS Sex Frequency P e r c e n t a g e Male 936 9+ .5 Female 751 k 3 . 7 Unaccounted 30 1.8 ( G e n e r a l l y B a b i e s ) T o t a l 1717 1 0 0 . 0 TABLE If A: DISTRIBUTION OF SEX AMONG THE AGE GROUP OBSERVED OVER THE PERIOD OF THIRTY OBSERVATIONS Infant 2 & Under . Pre-3 School - 5 Young Child 6 - 9 Adolescent 10-13 Teenager 1 4 - 1 8 Adult 19 & Over Sex No. % • No. % No. % No. % No. % No. Male 1 0 6 ' 60 . 2 Lf29 6 0 . 3 102 61.4 99 6 5 - 5 20 52.6 179 4 0 . 3 Female 70 39.8 282 3 9 . 7 64- 38.6 52 3^.5 18 4-7.4- 266 5 9 . 7 T o t a l 176 100.0 711 1 0 0 . 0 166 1 0 0 . 0 151 1 0 0 . 0 38 1 0 0 . 0 4-4-5 1 0 0 . 0 H O TABLE 5: OBSERVED A C T I V I T I E S BY AGE GROUPS OVER THE PERIOD OF THIRTY OBSERVATIONS I n f a n t 2 & Under P r e -3-S c h o o l 5 Young 6 C h i l d -9 A d o l e s c e n t 10-13 T e e n a g e r 14--18 A d u l t 19 & Over A c t i v i t y T y p e s No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % P a s s i v e P l a y 69 33-5 14-6 20.6 36 21.7 27 17.9 1 2.6 99 22.2 A c t i v e P l a y 17 8.2 113 15.9 2 ^ 15.1 21 13.9 8 2 0 . 9 29 6 . 5 G e n e r a l P l a y 15 7-3 66 9.3 13 7.8 5 3 A 2 5.2 8 1.8 W a l k i n g 69 33-5 138 19.4- 20 12.0 21 13.9 16 4-1.7 209 4-6.9 B i k i n g 20 9.7 139 19-5 56 33-7 4-6 3 0 . 5 10 2 6 . 0 68 15.2 Work 0 - 11 1.5 3 1.8 1 0 . 6 - 21 h. 7 O b j e c t P l a y 16 7.8 83 11.7 7 4-.2 3 1.9 - 5 1.1 B a l l P l a y - 9 1.3 6 4-.0 - 6 1.3 H o c k e y - 6 0.8 6 3 . 7 21 13-9 1 2 .6 -T o t a l 206 1 0 0 . 0 711 100.0 166 1 0 0 . 0 151 1 0 0 . 0 38 1 0 0 . 0 4-4-5 1 0 0 . 0 H O CO TABLE 6: OBSERVED A C T I V I T I E S BY GROUP S I Z E OVER THE PERIOD OF THIRTY OBSERVATIONS P a s s i v e P l a y A c t i v e P l a y G e n e r a l P l a y W a l k i n g B i k i n g Work O b j e c t P l a y B a l l P l a y H o c k e y No. o f P e r s o n s No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. f 1 60 3 6 . 0 31 30.8 10 3 0 . 0 161 58.8 14-2 6 4 . 5 10 52.6 25 4-6.3 1 1 6 . 6 4 36.4-2-3 78 4-6.7 60 59.4 14 38.8 94 34-.3 69 31.^ 8 4 2 . 1 22 4 0 . 7 4- 6 6 . 8 3 27.2 4 - 6 24- 1^.3 10 9-8 11 3 0 . 5 18 6.6 9 4 . 1 6 11.1 1 1 6 . 6 2 18.2 7-12 5 3 - 0 1 2 . 7 1 0 . 3 - 1 5.3 1 1.9 - 2 18.2 T o t a l 167 100.0 101 100.0 36 100.0 274 100.0 220 100.0 19 1 0 0 . 0 54 I O O . O 6 1 0 0 . 0 11 100.0 O TABLE 7: OBSERVED ACTIVITIES BY SEX OVER THE PERIOD OF THIRTY OBSERVATIONS P a s s i v e P l a y A c t i v e P l a y G e n e r a l P l a y W a l k i n g B i k i n g Work Object P l a y B a l l P l a y Hockey Sex C a t e g o r y No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % Male 170 4 4 . 9 110 51.6 64 58.7 224- 4-7.4- 22H 6 6 . 1 24- 6 6 . 7 71 62 . 3 15 71.4- 34 1 0 0 . 0 Female 202 53-4- 101 4-7.5 4-4 4-0.4- 230 4-8.6 113 3 3 . 3 12 3 3 . 3 4-3 3 7 . 7 6 2 8 . 6 0 0 . 0 Unaccounted ( M o s t l y B a b i e s ) 6 1.7 2 0.9 1 0.9 19 4 . 0 2 0 . 6 - - - -T o t a l 378 100.0 213 100 . 0 109 1 0 0 . 0 ^73 100.0 339 1 0 0 . 0 36 1 0 0 . 0 114- 1 0 0 . 0 21 1 0 0 . 0 34- 1 0 0 . 0 1—' O I l l TABLE 8 : OBSERVED GROUP SIZE OF VARIOUS ACTIVITY TYPES OVER THE PERIOD OF THIRTY OBSERVATIONS Group S i z e No. o f Persons Frequency P e r c e n t a g e 1 5 0 . 0 2-3 352 3 9 . 7 M~6 81 9.1 7-12 11 1.2 13+ 0 0 . 0 T o t a l 888 1 0 0 . 0 112 PART B E v a l u a t i o n of Patterns So f a r the d i s c u s s i o n has been centered around the a c t i v i t i e s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the popula-t i o n observed outdoors over the period of t h i r t y -o bservations. There s t i l l remains the question of how the outdoor design elements are used by the r e s i d e n t s of the Acadia Park C l u s t e r s . The abstracted observable behavior (on which the design elements w i l l be evaluated) r e l e v a n t to the design elements are given i n Chapter I I I . I t was w i t h these expected behaviors i n mind that the observations of the outdoor design elements of the Acadia Park C l u s t e r s were planned. In order to evaluate i f patterns are f u l f i l l i n g the purpose f o r which they were designed, the f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a are considered: 1. Does the expected behavior (K) occur at a l l i n Design Element I? Kj 0 2. Does the expected behavior i n Design Element I occur p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y more than other un-expected behavior (M)? K I e.g. 0 . 5 K l + Mi 113 3 . Does a substantial proportion of the expected behavior (K) occur i n Design Element I? e.g. 0.2 K l - N 4-. Is the expected behavior (K), wherever i t occurs, an important a c t i v i t y ? K l - N e.g. 0.10 KI-N + MI-N 5. Does the behavior i n Design Element I, whether expected or otherwise, form a substantial part of a l l observed behaviors? Kj + M T  1 e.g. 0 . 0 5 KI-N + MI-N The following are the res u l t s of the study: 114-Design Element 1 : Clustering of Dwelling Units Court Segment Wos. 8 , 25, 27 and 33 were randomly selected as a sample for observation. These segments are similar i n terms of design elements, i . e . a parking l o t i n the middle of the court, a raised sidewalk and grass around the parking l o t connecting the parking l o t to the raised sidewalk ( 18 inches above), an entry patio attached to each unit (which i s d i r e c t l y connected to the raised sidewalk and grass around the parking area by an entry walkway), service f a c i l i t i e s housing a laundry room and garbage room, and a few planters. Ho\rever, Oyama Court (Segment 27) d i f f e r s from the other three clusters i n form and t o t a l number of dwelling units. (See Figure 2 3 ) . Expected Behavior: a. Different patterns of public behavior can be observed i n courts which d i f f e r i n size and shape. Table 1 0 shows that a l l nine a c t i v i t y types were recorded i n Court Segment 27, while at most, seven d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t y types were noticed i n Court Segments 8 , 25 and 33. In spite of the observed v a r i a t i o n i n the frequency of groups among these segments, locomotion occupation (walking, biking) ranging from 4-7% to 58% accounts for about.one-half (52%) of the t o t a l a c t i v i t i e s . 115 P a s s i v e p l a y r a n g i n g f r o m 23% t o 32% i s t h e n e x t p r e -d o m i n a n t a c t i v i t y n o t e d i n t h e s e s e g m e n t s . I f l o c o m o t i o n o c c u p a t i o n i s a d d e d t o p a s s i v e p l a y , t h e y a c c o u n t f o r 8 1 % o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s . Summary and D i s c u s s i o n : The c o n t e n t i o n t h a t d i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n s o f p u b l i c b e h a v i o r c a n be o b s e r v e d i n c o u r t s w h i c h d i f f e r i n s i z e and s h a p e i s n o t c o m p l e t e l y s u p p o r t e d . I t was e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e p a t t e r n o f b e h a v i o r i n C o u r t Segments 8, 25 and 33 [[each o f w h i c h e n c o m p a s s e s 4-0 d w e l l i n g u n i t s (36 t w o - b e d r o o m a p a r t m e n t s and 4- t h r e e - b e d r o o m a p a r t m e n t s ) , two p a r k i n g l o t s , a u t i l i t y b u i l d i n g , r a i s e d s i d e w a l k and g r a s s a r o u n d t h e p a r k i n g l o t s j w o u l d be d i f f e r e n t f r o m C o u r t Segment 27 [[which i n c l u d e s o n l y 23 d w e l l i n g u n i t s (22 t w o - b e d r o o m a p a r t m e n t s and 1 t h r e e - b e d r o o m a p a r t m e n t ) , a p a r k i n g l o t , a u t i l i t y b u i l d i n g , r a i s e d s i d e w a l k and g r a s s a r o u n d t h e p a r k i n g l o t [ ] . A d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e t o t a l number o f a c t i v i t y t y p e s was n o t i c e d among t h e c o u r t s e g m e n t s . T h i s , t h e a u t h o r b e l i e v e s , was due p r i m a r i l y t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e o b s e r v e d p o p u l a t i o n d i s t r i b u t i o n among t h e o b s e r v e d c o u r t s e g m e n t s ( s e e T a b l e 1 1 ) ; h o w e v e r , t h e p r e d o m i n a n t a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n a l l t h e o b s e r v e d c o u r t s e g m e n t s were w a l k i n g , b i k i n g and p a s s i v e p l a y . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e 116 p a t t e r n o f p u b l i c b e h a v i o r among t h e o b s e r v e d c o u r t s e g m e n t s was s i m i l a r . T h e s e r e s u l t s d i d n o t s u p p o r t Whyte's a s s e r t i o n t h a t when c l u s t e r s v a r y i n t e r m s o f t y p e s and number o f d w e l l i n g s a r o u n d t h e p a r k i n g l o t s , d i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n s o f p u b l i c b e h a v i o r r e s u l t . ( S ee C h a p t e r I I I ) . I n g e n e r a l i s i n g f r o m t h e above f i n d i n g s , one c a n s a y t h a t when a s p e c i f i c number o f i d e n t i c a l d w e l l i n g u n i t s a r e a r r a n g e d a r o u n d s p e c i f i c d e s i g n e l e m e n t s , i t g e n e r a t e s a u n i t o f d e s i g n . When t h e s e u n i t s a r e so a r r a n g e d t h a t t h e r e i s minimum v i s u a l c o n -n e c t i o n o r o v e r l a p p i n g e f f e c t b e t w e e n them, e a c h f u n c t i o n s as an i n d e p e n d e n t u n i t . T h i s p r o d u c e s a p a t t e r n o f p u b l i c b e h a v i o r s i m i l a r t o t h e o t h e r s , p r o v i d e d t h e c h a r a c t e r i s -t i c s o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n w i t h i n e a c h u n i t do n o t v a r y s i g n i f i c a n t l y . E x p e c t e d B e h a v i o r : b. T h e r e w i l l be more a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n t h e c o u r t y a r d s t h a n i n t h e p l a n n e d p l a y a r e a s on t h e s i t e . T a b l e 9 shows t h a t o f a l l t h e o b s e r v e d s e g m e n t s t h e h i g h e s t p e r c e n t a g e , 1 6 % . ( l V ? x 1 0 0 ) o f a l l t y p e s o f a c t i v i t y g r o u p s was o b s e r v e d i n Segment 17 ( c o m m u n i t y p l a y a r e a ) . On t h e a v e r a g e 1 1 % o f a l l t y p e s o f a c t i v i t y g r o u p s were r e c o r d e d i n C o u r t S e g ments 8, 25, 117 27 and 3 3 ' These courtyard areas c o l l e c t i v e l y form about one-half of the t o t a l a c t i v i t i e s observed outdoors. As can be seen from Table 10, f i v e a c t i v i t y types were n o t i c e d i n Segment 17 while i n the above court segments p r a c t i c a l l y a l l a c t i v i t y types were observed. The f r e q u e n t l y recorded a c t i v i t i e s i n Segment 17 were passive p l a y , a c t i v e play, general play, walking and b i k i n g whereas i n the above-mentioned court segments passive play, walking and b i k i n g were f r e q u e n t l y seen. Table 1 shows that the observed a c t i v i t y groups were d i s t r i b u t e d among the above a c t i v i t y types as f o l l o w s : passive play 167? a c t i v e play 101, general play 3 6 , walking 27^ and B i k i n g 220. In terms of the t o t a l groups observed i n each a c t i v i t y type, the f o l l o w i n g are the percentages observed i n Segment 17 and, i n Court Segments 8 , 2 5 , 27 and 3 3 ' The percentages f o r the l a t t e r group are represented as an average. Segment 17 Court Segments Passive P l a y 11% ( 1 2 167 X 100) 17% ( 28 167 X 100) A c t i v e P l a y ( 35 101 X 100) h% ( h 101 X 100) General Play 53% % x 100) 3% ( 1 36 X 100) Walking 11% 27^ X 100 12% ( - 3 d 27^ X 100) B i k i n g 18% ( i+0 X 100) 10% ( 20 X 100) 220 220 118 I t c a n a l s o be s e e n f r o m T a b l e 11 t h a t 318 p e r s o n s w e re n o t i c e d i n Segment 17 a n d , o n t h e a v e r a g e , 177 p e r s o n s i n t h e c o u r t s e g m e n t s were n o t i c e d . T a b l e 11 shows t h a t a l l age g r o u p s p a r t i c i -p a t e d i n Segment 17. I n t h e c o u r t s e gments a l l age g r o u p s e x c e p t t e e n a g e r s were o b s e r v e d . I n t e r m s o f t h e t o t a l number o f c h i l d r e n f r o m 6 t o 13 y e a r s o f age o b s e r v e d o u t d o o r s , 2 1 % ( 66 x 100) p a r t i c i p a t e d i n Segment 17 a n d , 317 on t h e a v e r a g e , 1 0 % ( .30 x 1 0 0 ) i n t h e c o u r t s e g m e n t s . 317 P e r c e n t a g e s i n t h e c a s e o f c h i l d r e n f i v e y e a r s and u n d e r and a d u l t s o b s e r v e d o u t d o o r s w e r e : c h i l d r e n 19% (175 x l 0 0 ) 917 i n Segment 17 and 1 1 % ( 1 0 0 x 1 0 0 ) i n t h e c o u r t s e g m e n t s ; 917 a d u l t s 13% ( 67 x 100) i n Segment 17 and 1 0 % ( 4-6 x 100) i n t h e c o u r t s e g m e n t s . Summary and D i s c u s s i o n : The a b o v e r e s u l t s c l e a r l y show t h a t t h e e x p e c t e d b e h a v i o r i s n o t s u p p o r t e d as more a c t i v i t y g r o u p s and a h i g h e r number o f p e r s o n s were o b s e r v e d i n Segment 17 ( c o m m u n i t y p l a y a r e a ) t h a n w i t h i n t h e c o u r t y a r d ( C o u r t S e g ments 8 , 2 5 , 27 and 3 3 ) . A c t i v e p l a y and g e n e r a l p l a y p r e d o m i n a t e d i n Segment 17 w h e r e a s t h e y were a l m o s t a b s e n t i n t h e c o u r t -y a r d . T h i s was m a i n l y b e c a u s e p l a y e q u i p m e n t s u c h as s a n d b o x e s , a l a r g e d r y t r e e , s w i n g s and a r o c k p i t were 119 l o c a t e d i n Segment 17 while no play equipment had been provided i n the court segments. The percentages i n Table 5 show that c h i l d r e n three years and above f r e q u e n t l y p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a c t i v e play while c h i l d r e n nine years and under were observed engaged i n general P l a y . The above r e s u l t s show that a higher percentage i n the case of a l l age groups i n Segment 17 was recorded than the court segments. These percentages suggest that c h i l d r e n 6 to 18 years of age p r e f e r the community play area (where play equipment' i s located) to the c l u s t e r courtyard since twice as many c h i l d r e n of these age groups were observed i n Segment 17 than the court segments. B i c y c l i n g was observed twice as much i n Segment 17 than i n the court segments. The l a r g e asphalt surface i n Segment 17 and the design elements, ' r a i s e d sidewalk and grass around the parking' and 'car parking area 1 i n the court segments provided an opportunity f o r t h i s a c t i v i t y . Tables 14- and 19 show that b i k i n g occurred only on the l a r g e asphalt surface i n the community play area (Segment 17) whereas i n the court segments i t was mainly observed i n the design elements ' r a i s e d sidewalk and grass around the parking' and 'car parking a r e a 1 . I t can be noted from Tables 15 and 20 that c h i l d r e n 3 to 9 120 y e a r s o f age were f r e q u e n t l y o b s e r v e d on t h e l a r g e a s p h a l t s u r f a c e i n Segment 17 w h i l e c h i l d r e n 3 t o 5 y e a r s o f age were r e c o r d e d f r e q u e n t l y i n t h e ab o v e d e s i g n e l e m e n t s i n t h e c o u r t s e g m e n t s . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e s m a l l e r c h i l d r e n b e c a u s e o f t h e i r l i m i t e d m o b i l i t y and p a r e n t -d e p e n d e n c y p r e f e r t o r i d e t h e i r b i c y c l e s i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f t h e i r d w e l l i n g u n i t . An a l m o s t e q u a l p e r c e n t a g e i n t h e c a s e o f p a s s i v e p l a y and w a l k i n g i n Segment 17 and t h e c o u r t s e g m e n t s was r e c o r d e d . T a b l e 5 shows t h a t e x c e p t t e e n a g e r s a l m o s t a l l t h e age g r o u p s p a r t i c i p a t e d e q u a l l y i n p a s s i v e p l a y , b u t o f a l l t h e age g r o u p s , a d u l t s and i n f a n t s were most f r e q u e n t l y o b s e r v e d w a l k i n g . I n t h e s e age g r o u p s a h i g h e r p e r c e n t a g e was o b s e r v e d i n Segment 17 t h a n t h e c o u r t s e g m e n t s . T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t p a r e n t s b r i n g t h e i r i n f a n t s t o p l a y i n t h e c o m m u n i t y p l a y a r e a . T h i s c o u l d be due t o t h e s a n d b o x e s w h i c h p r o m o t e i n t e n s i v e g e n e r a l p l a y among c h i l d r e n f i v e y e a r s and u n d e r . ( S e e T a b l e s 1*+ and 1 5 ) . The f i n d i n g s s u g g e s t t h a t when p l a y f a c i l -i t i e s a r e c l u s t e r e d o u t s i d e t h e c l u s t e r c o u r t y a r d , t h e y w i l l be f r e q u e n t l y u s e d by c h i l d r e n o f a l l age g r o u p s p r o v i d e d t h e r e i s no t r a f f i c s t r e e t s e p a r a t i n g t h i s p l a y a r e a f r o m t h e c l u s t e r c o u r t y a r d . 121 Design Element 2: Raised Sidewalk and Grass Around The Parking Area The raised, sidewalk and grass around the parking area occurred i n Segments 8 , 2 5 , 27 and 33• Tables 19 and 20 show that i n these segments a l l age groups were observed and that a l l a c t i v i t y types were recorded. Expected Behavior: a. When teenagers and adults are seen, they w i l l be frequently engaged i n passive play, such as conversation and observa-t i o n . Table 20 shows that adults were seen i n t h i s design element. Teenagers were wholly absent i n these court segments. This was probably due to the lim i t e d number of teenagers observed outdoors over the period of t h i r t y observations i n the selected sample of twelve segments. Table 3 shows that i n terms of the t o t a l number of children observed outdoors, teenagers accounted for only 3% ( 38 x 100) of the population. 1272 It can be seen from Table 20 that adults accounted for one-quarter ( 0 . 2 1 ) of the observed popula-t i o n i n these court segments. Of 445 adults who were observed i n the selected sample of twelve segments over the period of t h i r t y observations, 22% ( 96 x 100) were 445 noticed i n t h i s design element. 122 Table 19 shows that passive play (mostly t a l k i n g , observing and s i t t i n g ) was frequently recorded on the raised sidewalk and grass around the parking area. It accounted for more than one-quarter ( 0 . 2 7 ) of the t o t a l observed a c t i v i t i e s i n this design element. Table 10 shows that passive play was noticed i n almost a l l the segments except Segment 15 w which includes a central public walkway and public side-walks as design elements. Passive play was recorded frequently i n Segments 8 , 17, 2 5 , 27 and 33. In terms of a l l age groups engaged i n this a c t i v i t y type i n these segments, 53% ( 69 x 100) of passive play was observed 131 on the raised sidewalk and grass around the parking area. Of the t o t a l 167 a c t i v i t y groups that were observed engaged i n passive play i n a l l the segments over the period of t h i r t y observations, kl% ( 69 x 100) of 167 groups engaged i n t h i s a c t i v i t y was recorded i n t h i s design element. Summary and Discussion: As can be seen from Table 11, adults were frequently observed i n Segments 8 , l ' - i - , 15, 17, 25, 27 and 33« The design element, 'raised sidewalk and grass around the parking area', occurred i n Segments 8 , 25, 27 and 33* The common design element i n Segments lh, 15 and 17 where 123 adults were also frequently observed was the central public walkway. Table 10 shows that of a l l the observed a c t i v i t y types i n Segments 14, 15 and 17, walking and biking were most frequently observed. This suggests that adults were seen i n these segments i n migratory capacity. The results have shown that passive play was frequently observed i n Segments 8 , 17, 25, 27 and 3 3 . A l l these segments except Segment 17 (community play area) include the design element, 'raised sidewalk and grass around the parking area'. The high percentage of observed adults and the a c t i v i t y , 'passive play' i n th i s design element suggests that the expected behavior i s supported i n the case of adults. These observations suggest that the design element, 'raised sidewalk and grass around the parking area', located i n front of the dwelling units i s conducive to passive play (conversing, observing and s i t t i n g ) . Expected Behavior: b. When small children f i v e years and under are observed, they w i l l be seen cycling, running with or without a b a l l , or play-ing with t h e i r wheeled toys. Table 20 shows that children f i v e years and under were seen on the raised sidewalk and grass around 124-the parking area. They accounted for about t h r e e - f i f t h s ( 0 . 5 9 ) of the t o t a l observed population i n t h i s design element. In t o t a l 917 children f i v e years and under were observed i n the selected segments over the period of t h i r t y observations. (See Table 3 ) . Of 917 children, 29% (266 x 100) were observed i n this design element. 917 As can be seen from Table 19, b i c y c l i n g , object play and active play were noticed on the raised sidewalk and grass around the parking area. B i c y c l i n g accounted for about one-quarter (0.24-) of a l l the observed a c t i v i t i e s i n this design element. A low proportion was observed i n the case of object play and active play. In terms of the t o t a l a c t i v i t y groups that were observed i n each of these a c t i v i t y types, ( i . e . biking, object play and active play) i n the selected sample of twelve segments over the period of t h i r t y observations, 29% (_63. x 100) of biking, 39% (21 x 100) 220 W of object play, and 12% ( 12 x 100) of active play was 101 recorded i n t h i s design element. The reason for observing a low percentage i n active play was that play equipment which could stimulate active play was not located i n Court Segments 8 , 2 5 , 27 and 33* 125 Summary and Discussion: It can be seen from Table 11 that children f i v e years and under were frequently observed i n Court Segments 8 , 2 5 , 27 and 33. In these court segments was located the design element, 'raised sidewalk and grass around the parking'. Table 10 has indicated that biking was frequently observed either i n Court Segments 8 , 25, 27 and 33 or i n Segments 14-, 15 and 17. The central public walkway was the common design element i n Segments 14-, 15 and 17. The common design feature i n the above seven segments was the hard surface either asphalt or paved. This finding reveals that the hard surface provides children f i v e years and under with cues for biking. Object play was frequently noticed i n Segments 3 , 8 , 15, 25, 27 and 33• Other than the court segments, object play was frequently noticed i n Segments 3 and 15. Segment 3 includes a public sidewalk and Segment 15 the central public walkway. This r e s u l t once again shows that hard surface was perhaps the design feature which stimulated object play among small children. The record indicates that object play, when observed, usually consisted of pushing a go-cart with or without a person i n i t , playing with wheeled toys of various kinds, or walking with a s t i c k , etc. 126 A c t i v e play was observed i n Segments 3, 17 and 18 where e i t h e r play equipment was i n s t a l l e d pr a wooded area was i n close p r o x i m i t y . The reason f o r observing a low percentage of a c t i v e play i n court segments i s mainly because no play equipment or woods were lo c a t e d there. Table 5 shows that of 917 c h i l d r e n f i v e years and under who were observed outdoors, lh-% (130 xlOO) 917 of c h i l d r e n i n t h i s category p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a c t i v e play. Table 10 i n d i c a t e s that of a l l the segments, a c t i v e play was most f r e q u e n t l y observed i n Segment 17 (community play area). This was the only play area where a c l u s t e r of play f a c i l i t i e s are i n s t a l l e d . These observations support the expected behavior i n the case of b i c y c l i n g . A high percentage (39%) of object play was recorded i n t h i s design element but Table 1 shows that of 888 a c t i v i t y groups observed outdoors, only 6% (^^ x 100) of groups were engaged i n object p l a y . This i n d i c a t e s that e i t h e r object play i s not a popular a c t i v i t y among c h i l d r e n f i v e years and under or t h i s a c t i v i t y does not f r e q u e n t l y occur outdoors. The expected behavior i n the case of a c t i v e play i s not supported mainly because no play 127 equipment or woods within the courtyards are located. The results suggest that when no play equipment for children f i v e years and under i s provided i n the cluster courtyard, hard surface i n the form of asphalt or pavement should be provided. This w i l l pro-vide children f i v e years and under an opportunity to ride their t r i c y c l e s and play with t h e i r wheeled toys. 128 D e s i g n E l e m e n t 3: S t e p s E x p e c t e d B e h a v i o r : a. The s t e p s w i l l o c c a s i o n a l l y f u n c t i o n as a s e t t i n g f o r b a b y w a t c h i n g and as g o s s i p c e n t e r . The s t e p s l o c a t e d on t h e p e r i p h e r y o f t h e p a r k i n g l o t o c c u r r e d i n C o u r t Segments 8 , 25, 27 and 33. As c a n be s e e n f r o m T a b l e 19, s t e p s p r o m o t e d m a i n l y p a s s i v e p l a y ( t a l k i n g , o b s e r v i n g , s i t t i n g , e t c . ) . N i n e o f t h e t e n a c t i v i t y g r o u p s o b s e r v e d on s t e p s were e n g a g e d i n p a s s i v e p l a y . T a b l e 10 shows t h a t p a s s i v e p l a y was f r e q u e n t l y o b s e r v e d i n Segments 8 , 1 7 , 2 5 , 27 and 33• I n a l l 167 a c t i v i t y g r o u p s were o b s e r v e d o u t d o o r s e n g aged i n p a s s i v e p l a y . ( S ee T a b l e 1 ) . Of 167 g r o u p s , 5% ( 9 x 100) o f p a s s i v e p l a y was n o t i c e d 167 on t h e s t e p s . T a b l e 20 shows t h a t o n l y c h i l d r e n f i v e y e a r s and u n d e r and a d u l t s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s s e t t i n g . C h i l d r e n a c c o u n t e d f o r a b o u t t h r e e - f o u r t h s (0.74-) o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n o b s e r v e d on s t e p s . Summary and. D i s c u s s i o n : S t e p s p r o m o t e d p a s s i v e p l a y as e x p e c t e d . T a b l e 19 shows t h a t i n t h e s e c o u r t s e g m e n t s p a s s i v e p l a y 129 was frequently recorded i n the design elements, 'raised sidewalk and grass around the parking area' and 'entry patio'. In the court segments on the whole, 108 a c t i v i t y groups were observed engaged i n passive play. Of the 108 groups, 9% ( 9 x 100) of the groups engaged i n this 108" a c t i v i t y type were observed i n this design element. Table 21 shows that passive play on steps mainly occcurred i n groups of 2 to 6 persons while a c t i v i t i e s i n the design elements, 'raised sidewalk and grass around the parking area' and 'entry patio' were frequently recorded i n d i v i d u a l l y or i n groups of 2 to 3 persons. In t h i s setting adults were seen i n an approximate r a t i o of 3 children per adult. The record indicates that when children f i v e years and under were playing or r i d i n g a bicycle i n the parking l o t , adults (females) were frequently noticed to be s i t t i n g on the steps supervising them. (See Tables 20 and 22). On one occasion a family was recorded enjoying morning coffee as they sat comfortably on the steps. These findings support Whyte's statement that where driveways meet, they create a natural setting for baby watching and gossiping. These observations also support the study of Alexander, et a l . that when there are 130 areas i n public places which are s l i g h t l y raised and accessible by steps, people naturally gravitate towards them as these areas provide a vantage point from where an action as a whole can be seen. 131 Pesign Element h: Car Parking Area The car parking area occurred i n Court Segments 8 , 2 5 , 27 and 33- Table 18 shows that of a l l six outdoor design elements i n the courtyard serving as settings for courtyard behavior, the parking area ranked second highest i n the t o t a l frequency of a c t i v i t y groups. Of 390 a c t i v i t y groups observed i n these court segments, 16% ( 63 x 100) of the groups were noticed i n this design 390 element. Expected Behavior: a. A var i e t y of a c t i v i t i e s such as, delivery-men del i v e r i n g the goods, residents loading or unloading t h e i r commodities, residents washing and repairing t h e i r cars, conversation and discussion among men while they are working, and small children playing with t h e i r wheeled toys beside the adults w i l l be frequently observed within the parking l o t s . As can be seen from Tables 19 and 2 0 , a l l age groups were observed and a l l a c t i v i t y types were recorded i n th i s design element. Walking, biking, hockey and passive play frequently occurred i n the parking l o t . Walking accounted for more than one-third ( 0 . 3 5 ) of the t o t a l observed a c t i v i t i e s i n th i s setting. One-half of the t o t a l a c t i v i t i e s of this setting were equally d i s -tributed among ( i ) b i c y c l i n g , ( i i ) hockey play and ( i i i ) passive play. 132 O b j e c t p l a y and w o r k f o r m a f r a c t i o n o f a l l o b s e r v e d a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e c a r p a r k i n g a r e a . T h e y a c c o u n t e d f o r o n e - t e n t h ( 0 . 1 1 ) o f t h e t o t a l o b s e r v e d a c t i v i t i e s i n t h i s d e s i g n e l e m e n t . I n t e r m s o f t h e t o t a l number o f g r o u p s o b s e r v e d o u t d o o r s e n g a g e d i n e a c h a c t i v i t y t y p e , 7% ( 4 x 100) o f o b j e c t p l a y and 1 6 % ( 3 x 100) o f work were o b s e r v e d i n t h e c a r p a r k i n g a r e a . 19 As c a n be s e e n f r o m T a b l e 2 0 , c h i l d r e n f i v e y e a r s and u n d e r were s e e n i n t h i s s e t t i n g . T h e y a c c o u n t e d f o r a b o u t o n e - h a l f (0.4-8) o f t h e o b s e r v e d p o p u l a t i o n i n t h i s d e s i g n e l e m e n t . Of 917 c h i l d r e n f i v e y e a r s and u n d e r who were o b s e r v e d o u t d o o r s , 6% ( 58 x 100) o f t h i s 917 age c a t e g o r y were r e c o r d e d i n t h e c a r p a r k i n g a r e a . A d u l t s a c c o u n t e d f o r more t h a n o n e - q u a r t e r ( 0 . 2 8 ) o f t h e o b s e r v e d p o p u l a t i o n i n t h e p a r k i n g a r e a . Of the. t o t a l 44-5 a d u l t s o b s e r v e d o u t d o o r s , 8% ( 35 x 100) 445 o f a d u l t s were s e e n i n t h i s s e t t i n g . Summary and D i s c u s s i o n : The a b o v e r e s u l t s show t h a t a v a r i e t y o f a c t i v i t i e s t o o k p l a c e i n t h e p a r k i n g l o t . The r e c o r d shows t h a t t h e d e l i v e r y o f m i l k , n e w s p a p e r and goods were f r e q u e n t l y r e c o r d e d . On many o c c a s i o n s a d u l t s w e re n o t i c e d r e p a i r i n g t h e i r c a r s , u n l o a d i n g g r o c e r i e s , e t c . A h i g h p e r c e n t a g e ( 1 6 % ) o f o b s e r v e d a c t i v i t y t y p e 'work' i n t h i s d e s i g n e l e m e n t s u p p o r t s t h e p r e c e d i n g s t a t e m e n t . 133 It can be seen from Table 5 that adults mainly participated i n work a c t i v i t i e s . Table 5 shows that of a l l the age groups, pre-school children from 3 to 5 years were most frequently engaged i n b i c y c l i n g . In a l l , 139 children of t h i s age category participated i n biking. Of 139 children, 35% (_48 x 100) of pre-school children were seen i n the park-139 ing area. Table 1 shows that i n a l l , 54- groups were observed outdoors engaged i n object play. Of these 54 groups, 59% (^2 x 100) of object play was recorded i n the court segments. This 59% of object play was dis t r i b u t e d among the courtyard design elements as follows: ( i ) 39% Raised sidewalk and grass around the parking area ( i i ) 9% Entry patio ( i i i ) 7% Car parking area (iv) 4% In front of laundry f a c i l i t y . This re s u l t c l e a r l y reveals that object play occurred mainly i n the v i c i n i t y of the dwelling unit. Table 5 shows that object play was primarily an a c t i v i t y of children f i v e years and under. These results suggest that when parents were engaged i n work a c t i v i t i e s i n the parking area, 13^ small children 3 to 5 years of age were seen r i d i n g a bicycle or playing with t h e i r wheeled toys beside the adults. Passive play, as stated previously, was recorded frequently i n Segments 8 , 17, 25, 2 7 and. 33• These segments with the exception of Segment 17, were the court segments where the design element, 'car parking area' was located. Table 19 indicates that i n these court segments passive play was frequently observed i n the design elements, 'raised sidewalk and grass around the parking' and 'entry patio'. This means that passive play r a r e l y occurred i n the parking area. The above res u l t s p a r t i a l l y support the expected behavior. The exception arises because a low percentage of passive play (conversation and observation) was observed i n the car parking area. As can be seen from Table 10, hockey play occurred only i n the parking area. Table 5 shows that children from 10 to 13 years of age mainly participated i n t h i s sport. This sport appears to be a dominant male interest as no female participant was recorded. (See Table 7 ) . This r e s u l t suggests that when no space for hockey play i s provided i n the development, older 135 children w i l l transpose parking l o t s into hockey rinks. The hard surface of the parking area seems to provide cues to children for t h i s a c t i v i t y . On many occasions, the author has seen children playing hockey i n the tennis court located nearby i n the Acadia Camp. The observations also suggest that when a parking l o t i s located within the cluster courtyard where diverse a c t i v i t i e s take place, small children 3 to 5 years of age w i l l be observed playing with t h e i r wheeled toys. The study conducted by Alexander, et a l . revealed that any area which holds more than 8 cars i s i d e n t i f i e d as a 'car dominated t e r r i t o r y ' . If such an area contains a large number of cars whereby the t r a f f i c becomes unpredictable, then i t i s considered dangerous for children. (See Chapter I I I ) . Thus the author feels whenever a parking l o t Is designed within a clu s t e r , i t should not hold more than 8 cars i n order to make a setting safer for small children. 136 Design Element 5: Laundry F a c i l i t y Expected Behavior: a. Small children can be noticed playing beside the laundry room while mothers are laundering clothes. This design element occurred i n Court Segments 8 , 25, 27 and 33. Table 20 shows that a l l age groups except teenagers were observed beside the laundry f a c i l i t y . Children f i v e years and under were frequently seen there. They accounted for about one-half ( 0 . ^ ) of the observed population i n this setting. In a l l 917 children f i v e years and under were recorded outdoors i n the selected sample of twelve segments over the period of t h i r t y observations. Of 917 children, 2% ( 15 x 100) of t h i s age category was 917 observed beside the laundry f a c i l i t y . Adults were also frequently seen i n this s etting. They accounted for about one-half (0.4-7) of the observed population In th i s design element. Table 19 shows that of a l l the a c t i v i t i e s observed beside the laundry f a c i l i t y , walking was most frequently noticed. Passive play, biking and object play were r a r e l y observed. They accounted for more than 137 one-third ( O . 3 8 ) of the t o t a l observed a c t i v i t i e s i n th i s setting. Summary and Discussion: Table 5 shows that children f i v e years and under frequently engaged themselves i n passive play, active play, general play, walking, biking and object play. This table also indicates that adults were frequently seen engaged i n passive play and walking. The record indicates that only women were noted carrying clothes to the laundry room. (See Table 2 0 ) . This means that adults were mainly observed walking. A c h i l d was never seen accompanying his mother to t h i s s e tting. In terms of the t o t a l number of groups observed engaged i n biking, passive play and object play i n the court segments, k-% ( 3 x 100) of biking, k% 80 ( k x 100) of passive play and 6% (_2 x 100) of object iOcT 32 play were observed beside the laundry f a c i l i t y . The low percentages i n these a c t i v i t y types suggest that of the six outdoor design elements i n the court segments serving as settings for behavior, a c t i v i t i e s r a r e l y occurred beside the laundry f a c i l i t y . As can be seen from the above, a very low percentage of children f i v e years and under were recorded 138 i n t h i s setting. These res u l t s suggest just the opposite of what was expected. 139 Design Element 6A: Entry Patio Expected Behavior: a. Since the entry patios are enclosed by high walls and lack natural continuum to a c t i v i t i e s within the house, children w i l l not play there. The entry patio occurred i n Court Segments 8 , 25, 27 and 33. Table 18 shows that of a l l the six outdoor design elements of the court segments serving as settings for courtyard behavior, the entry patio ranked t h i r d i n the frequency of a c t i v i t y groups. Of the 390 a c t i v i t y groups observed i n the court segments, only 32 groups, i . e . 8% were recorded i n entry patios. Tables 18 and 20 show that of 680 persons who were observed i n these court segment settings, 4-0 persons, i . e . 6% (J+0 x 100) were noticed i n the entry patios. Of a l l the estimated age groups, children f i v e years and under and adults mainly participated i n this s e tting. Children f i v e years and under accounted for about one-half (0.4-9) of the observed population i n the entry patio. (See Table 2 0 ) . In a l l , 917 children aged f i v e years and under were recorded outdoors In the selected sample of segments over the period of t h i r t y observations. Of the 917 children only a small f r a c t i o n , i . e . 2% ( 20 x 100) 917 of children f i v e years and under were seen playing i n the 14-0 entry patio. Adults who were also frequently observed i n the entry patio accounted for approximately one-half (0.4-5) of the observed population i n this design element In terms of the t o t a l number of adults observed i n a l l the selected segments over the period of t h i r t y observations, 4-% ( 18 x 100) of adults were notic 445 In the entry patio. Table 19 shows that passive play pre-dominated i n the entry patio. This accounted for about t h r e e - f i f t h s ( 0 . 5 7 ) of the t o t a l observed a c t i v i t i e s . Passive play consisted mostly of a c t i v i t i e s such as: mothers s i t t i n g on chairs and ta l k i n g , mothers taking t h e i r lunch while supervising children playing i n the court, infant observing the happenings i n the court while holding onto the gate of the patio, etc. Table 1 shows that i n a l l 167 groups were observed engaged i n passive play. Of these groups, 11% were engaged i n passive play. Work and object play accounted for one-t h i r d (0.34-) of the t o t a l a c t i v i t i e s observed i n the work and 54- groups i n object play category. Of the 19 a c t i v i t y groups, 32% (_6 x 100) of work and of the 54-19 groups, 10% ( 5 x 100) of object play were recorded i n 5t the entry patio. 14-1 Summary and Discussion: The observation of Alexander, et a l . revealed that patios which are enclosed with high walls become claustrophobic. The patios that lack natural continuum to a c t i v i t i e s i n the house remain unused. Whyte's study also showed that small yards are not extensively used by the residents. (See Chapter I I I ) . The above res u l t s show that a low percent-age of children f i v e years and under and adults was recorded i n the entry patio. This, the author believes, was primarily due to the fact that the entry patio i s a private space. Its use depends upon the need of the i n d i v i d u a l family. It i s interesting to note that the percent-age of 'passive play', 'work' and'object play' was high. Passive play consisted of a c t i v i t i e s that a family performs i n their own private space. Table 10 shows that work a c t i v i t i e s were frequently recorded i n Segments 8 , 18 and 27. Segments 8 and 27 were the court segments where the entry patio was located. Segment 18 includes a patio attached to the l i v i n g room. Table 10 also indicates that object play frequently occurred i n Segments 3 , 8 , 15, 2 5 , 27 and 33. Again, Segments 8 , 2 5 , 27 and 33 are the court segments 11+2 where the entry patio was located, and Segment 3 includes a patio attached to the l i v i n g room. The record indicates that work a c t i v i t i e s included: repairing bicycle, f i x i n g f u r niture, cleaning rug and taking out a r t i c l e s from, the storage box which the residents of the unit have placed on the patio, etc. In object play, children f i v e years and under were often noticed playing with their wheeled toys such as, dump trucks, go-carts, bicycles, etc. Table 1 shows that a very low percentage of a c t i v i t y groups was observed engaged i n work and object play. This suggests that work and object play are a c t i v i t i e s that residents perform near th e i r dwelling units. These findings suggest just the opposite of what was expected. The results suggest that an entry patio regardless of i t s dimension, i s a useful space for a c t i v i t i e s that a family cannot conveniently perform i n -side the house. 1 ^ 3 Design Element 6B: Patio Attached to the Living Room Expected Behavior: b. Whenever this patio i s used, i t w i l l be used for a c t i v i t i e s such as: s i t t i n g outside, gardening and r a i s i n g plants, barbecuing, doing small domestic repair jobs, having parties, or keeping children i n , etc. The patio attached to the l i v i n g room occurred i n Segments 3, 11, 14, 18 and 19. The description of t h i s design element i s based on the data gathered i n Segments 11 and 18 only. Table 2h shows that passive play, work and object play were the only a c t i v i t y types observed i n this patio. Passive play, i f added to work, accounted for four-f i f t h s (0.84-) of the t o t a l a c t i v i t i e s observed i n this s etting. Passive play encompassed tal k i n g , s i t t i n g and reading; and work a c t i v i t i e s included gardening, carpentry and repairing b i c y c l e s . Table 1 shows that i n the selected sample of twelve segments over the period of t h i r t y observations, 19 a c t i v i t y groups were observed engaged i n work a c t i v i t i e s and 167 i n passive play. Of the 19 groups, 26% (_£ x 100) 19 were engaged i n work i n this design element; and of the 167 groups, 3% ( 5 x 100) as passive play were noticed. 167 Table 25 shows that a l l age groups except 14-4-teenagers participated i n th i s setting. Of the t o t a l population observed i n Segments 11 and 18, 18% (28 x 100) I F F of the people were seen i n the patios attached to the l i v i n g room. Summary and Discussion: The study of St. Francis Square done by Cooper revealed that patios attached to dwelling units are used for a var i e t y of a c t i v i t i e s . The above results show that the patio attached to the l i v i n g room was used for a c t i v i t i e s such as: s i t t i n g , reading, gardening, carpentry and repairing b i c y c l e s . Although charcoal g r i l l s were noticed i n the patios, barbecuing was not observed. This, the author believes, could be due to the fact that the observations were conducted between 4-.30 p.m. to 5..15 p.m. This i s perhaps not the time when families take t h e i r supper. It has been noted from Table 10 that work as an a c t i v i t y frequently occurred i n Segments 8 and 18. Both these segments include patios. In Segment 18 the design element, 'patio attached to l i v i n g room', was located, whereas i n Segment 8 the 'entry patio' occurred. A low percentage of passive play shows that th i s design element was r a r e l y used for the purpose of s i t t i n g out. This could be attributed to the fact that the observations were conducted between September 30 to October 16. It i s known that during this time of the year the weather becomes cooler. These findings seem to support the expected behavior. The results suggest that such a patio should be provided as i t offers a family an opportunity for gardening, doing small domestic repair jobs, s i t t i n g or cooking, and eating out on the l i v i n g room side of the house. 14-6 Design Element 7: Woods Expected Behavior: a. Whenever wooded areas are explored, they w i l l be explored mostly by the older children from 6 to 13 years of age who w i l l be frequently observed engaged i n adventurous a c t i v i t i e s such as: exploring, hunting, camping, climbing trees, con-structing houses, or digging holes, etc. The wooded area occurred i n Segments 11, 18 and 3 8 ' Table 25 shows that a l l age groups participated i n woods. Children 6 to 13 years of age accounted for more than one-third ( 0 . 3 7 ) of the t o t a l observed population i n t h i s design element. Table 3 indicates that i n the selected sample of twelve segments, 317 children aged 6 to 13 years were observed. Of 317 children, 11% (_J6 x 100) of 317 children from 6 to 13 years participated i n woods. As can be seen from Table 2 5 , active play and general play did occur i n woods. Active play accounted for more than one-half ( 0 . 5 4 ) of the t o t a l a c t i v i t i e s recorded i n th i s design element; and general play accounted for more than one-quarter ( 0 . 2 9 ) . In terms of the t o t a l a c t i v i t y groups observed i n each a c t i v i t y type (active play and general play), 20% (_20 x 100) of active play and 31% (11 x 100) 101 36 of general play were observed i n this design element. Ik 7 Summary and Discussion: As can be seen from the above, woods stimulated active and general play. Active play frequently consisted of gang games l i k e hide-and-seek, climbing f a l l e n trees or cut trees, cutting logs, etc. On many occasions children invented challenging games such as, r i d i n g a bike through a t h i c k l y wooded area. General play included mostly exploring wooded areas, searching for d i f f e r e n t kinds of grass, scratching earth around the tree roots, digging earth, etc. On occasions when a ch i l d saw an unfamiliar insect, he attracted the attention of a l l age groups. was frequently observed i n Segments 17 and 18. A wooded area was located i n Segment 18 while play equipment such as swings, a large dry tree and rock p i t were present i n Segment 17. General play was frequently recorded i n Segments 17, 18 and 38. Again i n Segments 18 and 38 wooded areas occurred, while sandboxes which were responsible for 53% (12. x 100) of the t o t a l general play and general play indicates that woods are conducive to these a c t i v i t y types. The reason why children were not observed constructing 'houses' was due primarily to the As can be noted from Table 10, active play were i n Segment 17. A high percentage of observed active play 14-8 f a c t t h a t no b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l i s s u p p l i e d t o them f o r t h i s p u r p o s e . The wooded a r e a , as s t a t e d e a r l i e r , was l o c a t e d i n Segments 11, 18 and 38. The e x a m i n a t i o n o f t o t a l f r e q u e n c y o f a c t i v e and g e n e r a l p l a y i n t h e s e s e g m e n t s r e v e a l s t h a t t h e p e r c e n t a g e i n t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s d e c r e a s e s as t h e d i s t a n c e i n c r e a s e s f r o m t h e c o m m u n i t y p l a y a r e a . T a b l e 28 shows t h a t t h e wooded a r e a l o c a t e d a d j a c e n t t o t h e c o m m u n i t y p l a y a r e a p r o m o t e d t w i c e as much a c t i v i t y as t h e wooded a r e a l o c a t e d i n Segment 38 ( b e t w e e n t h e c l u s t e r s a d j a c e n t t o t h e t r a f f i c s t r e e t ) . ( S ee F i g u r e 23 f o r j u x t a p o s i t i o n ) . T a b l e 11 shows t h a t c h i l d r e n 6 t o 13 y e a r s o f age were f r e q u e n t l y o b s e r v e d i n Segments 17, 25 and 27. Segment 17 i s t h e c o m m u n i t y p l a y a r e a where v a r i o u s p l a y e q u i p m e n t s w ere i n s t a l l e d , w h i l e Segments 25 and 27 were c o u r t s e g m e n t s . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t c h i l d r e n 6 t o 13 y e a r s o f age were c o m p a r a t i v e l y l e s s f r e q u e n t l y a t t r a c t e d by woods t h a n t o t h e p l a y e q u i p m e n t s i n t h e c o m m u n i t y p l a y a r e a . C l a r e C o o p e r s t a t e d t h a t t h e a d v e n t u r e p l a y g r o u n d s t e n d t o a t t r a c t and a b s o r b t h e i n t e r e s t o f more c h i l d r e n t h a n o t h e r p l a y g r o u n d s ; and t h e p r i m e u s e r s r a n g e f r o m 5 t o 17 y e a r s o f a g e . She goes f u r t h e r t o s a y t h a t one o f t h e most p o p u l a r a c t i v i t i e s on a l l a d v e n t u r e 14-9 playgrounds i s the construction of dens and houses. In this respect the wooded areas i n the Acadia Park Clusters are not functioning as an adventure playground. The author, during the period of observation, noted dens which he believes were constructed by parents. The author did not observe any a c t i v i t y i n these dens. These observations suggest that there i s a difference between an adventure playground and the wooded area. A wooded area functions as an adventure playground only when an opportunity for construction i s provided for children. 150 Design Element 8 : Street Expected Behavior: a. Other than cars, streets w i l l be u t i l i z e d mainly for bicycle r i d i n g and walking. Table 2k shows that the predominant a c t i v i t i e s recorded i n this setting were b i c y c l i n g and walking. They accounted for about nine-tenths ( 0 . 8 9 ) of the t o t a l a c t i v i t i e s observed i n th i s setting. Table 10 shows that b i c y c l i n g and walking were recorded i n almost a l l the observed segments. Of the k9k a c t i v i t y groups that were engaged i n walking and b i c y c l i n g , a small f r a c t i o n of i t , i . e . 3% ( 16 x 100) were recorded on the street. In the randomly selected sample of twelve segments, th i s design element was located only i n Segment 3 8 . It can be noticed from Table 1 that walking and b i c y c l i n g are the important a c t i v i t i e s since they accounted for more than one-half (56%) of the t o t a l a c t i v i t y groups observed. Of the t o t a l 888 groups that were observed, only 18 groups, i . e . 2% ( 18 x 100) were recorded on streets. Summary and Discussion: The above results indicate that the dead-end 151 service street on the periphery of the development i s rar e l y used by pedestrian and c y c l i s t s . In other words, the designer has achieved his purpose by locating a dead-end street on the periphery of the project. The author has noticed that the designer has not provided any pedestrian sidewalk along t h i s street (Osoyoos Crescent). Either t h i s i s the reason why pedestrians do not use this street or the pedestrians prefer the central t r a f f i c - f r e e public walkway. On many occasions object play such as pu l l i n g a go-cart with or without a person i n i t or dragging a s t i c k along the curb of the street was noticed. Children were extremely cautious when play-ing on the street. They usually stopped t h e i r play and moved closer to the edge of the street as soon as they saw a vehicle approaching. Older children from 6 to 13 years of age of both sexes were noticed i n this setting. (See Tables 25 and 2 6 ) . Of 1272 children who were observed i n the selected segments over the period of t h i r t y observations, only 8 children, i . e . ( 8 x 100) = 0.6% were noticed 1272 playing on the street. This information further supports the notion that the design element, 'street', has achieved i t s purpose. 152 Design Element 9 ' Public Walkway Expected Behavior: a. Both pedestrians and c y c l i s t s w i l l be frequently observed on the public walkway to which are connected the sidewalks of the c l u s t e r s . Segments 15 and 19 i n which the public walk-way was located, were randomly selected for observation. These segments were very similar with regard to the major design element, the central pedestrian walkway, to which are connected the public sidewalks of the c l u s t e r s . (See Figure 2 3 ) . Table 10 shows that of a l l the observed a c t i v i t i e s , the most dominant a c t i v i t i e s i n Segments 15 and 19 were walking and biking which res u l t i n more than three-quarter (80%) of the t o t a l a c t i v i t i e s . In examining Table 10 c l o s e l y , i t indicates that Segment 19 (almost at the dead-end of the central pedestrian walkway) pre-dominated i n walking (4-7%), but b i c y c l i n g was frequently recorded i n Segment 15 (biking 4-9%). The reason for the decrease i n percentage of bicycle r i d i n g i n Segment 19 could be that children avoid cycling toward a dead-end. Table 1 shows that of a l l the a c t i v i t y groups, walking and biking were most frequently recorded. They accounted for more than one-half (56%) of the t o t a l observed a c t i v i t y groups. 153 Of the hyh a c t i v i t y groups observed engaged i n walking and biking, 22% (110 x 100) of walking and biking were recorded i n the observed segments (15 and 1 9 ) . These a c t i v i t i e s were recorded i n almost a l l the observed segments. (See Table 1 0 ) . Summary and Discussion: The results indicate that the central public walkway designed to c o l l e c t the pedestrian t r a f f i c through the s i t e toward the university campus and shopping v i l l a g e i s well used both by pedestrians and c y c l i s t s . It has been noticed that of a l l a c t i v i t y groups engaged i n walking and biking, 22% were recorded i n Segments 15 and 19. As can be seen from Table 10, walking and biking were frequently seen i n Segments 8 , l*f, 15, 17, 19, 2 5 , 27 and 33. Segments 8 , 25, 27 and 33 were the court segments where the design elements, 'raised sidewalk and grass around the parking' and 'car parking area' were located. In the remaining Segments l ' - f , 15, 17 and 19 -the common design element was the central public walkway. In a l l the eight segments the common design feature was a hard surface. This res u l t suggests that the hard surface i s conducive to walking and biking. Table 30 indicates that Segment 15 which 154-was located towards the University campus and the shopping v i l l a g e was used twice as much as Segment 19 located towards the dead-end street. This finding suggests that the physical arrangement of one design element to another substantially influences the i n t e n s i t y of use. The author f e e l s that the pedestrian routes on the s i t e should be d i r e c t i o n a l , i . e . lead to some important f a c i l i t y (s). If they are not designed this way, residents w i l l r a r e l y use them. 155 Design Element 10: Outdoor Play Area In the randomly selected sample of segments, the outdoor play area was situated i n Segments 3 and 14-. These segments were similar with respect to the major design element, i . e . the play apparatus, 'swings'. These segments d i f f e r e d i n one respect. Segment 14- included a central public walkway, but Segment 3 had a public sidewalk connecting the community play area and eventually the central public walkway. Swings were also located i n Segment 17 (community play area). Expected Behavior: a. When swings are used, small children w i l l be observed using them. Table 32 shows that swings (outdoor play area) were used by a l l age groups. Children f i v e years and under were frequently observed on the swings. They accounted for more than one-half ( 0 . 5 2 ) of the observed population i n t h i s design element. Table 15 indicates that i n Segment 17'' (where swings were also located) children f i v e years and under also accounted for more than one-half ( 0 . 5 3 ) of the t o t a l population observed i n this design element. Thus the t o t a l number of children f i v e years and under observed using the swings were 4 6 . 156 Table 3 shows that i n a l l , 917 children f i v e years and under were observed outdoors. Of 917 children, 5% (J+6 x 100) of children i n this category 917 were observed using the swings. Summary and Discussion: Tables 15 and 3-1 indicate that swings stimulated intensive active play. As can be seen from Table 5, i n a l l , 130 children f i v e years and under were engaged i n active play. It has been indicated e a r l i e r that 4-6 children i n this category were seen on swings. This means that of 130 children 33% (J+6 x 100) of 130 children engaged i n active play were observed i n this design element. This finding reveals that children f i v e years and under are the prime users of swings which supports the expected behavior. It can be seen from Table 11, children of th i s age category ("^5) were frequently recorded i n Segments 8 , 17, 2 5 , 27 and 33. With the exception of Segment 17, the segments are a l l court segments. Segment 17 was the only area where various kinds of play equipment were i n s t a l l e d . Of these f i v e segments, children f i v e years and under were most frequently seen i n Segment 17. This re s u l t suggests that these children l i k e to engage themselves i n active play. Play equipment such as swings, 157 a rock p i t and a large dry tree seem to serve t h i s need since these equipments mostly promoted active play. (See Table lk). The design element, 'outdoor play area' (swings), as stated previously, was located i n Segments 3 , lk and 17. The examination of t o t a l frequency of groups engaged i n active play i n these segments reveals that the percentage i n t h i s a c t i v i t y decreases as the distance increases from the community play area. As can be seen from Table 2 9 , swings located i n the community play area promoted more than twice the a c t i v i t y than the one located i n Segment lk. (See Figure 23 for juxtaposition). This finding i s similar to that observed i n the case of woods (see design element, 'woods'). From these r e s u l t s , one can say that the physical arrangement of one design element to another substantially influences the i n t e n s i t y of use. Table 10 shows that active play was much more frequently observed i n Segment 3 than ih. The reason for this could be due to the'swings i n Segment 3 which are located between r e s i d e n t i a l clusters and are v i s u a l l y accessible to them; and as well they are adjacent to the public sidewalk which leads to the community play area. The swings i n Segment lk are situated at the corner of the cluster where they do not have any v i s u a l connection 158 with the cluster courtyard. This r e s u l t suggests that the outdoor play area should be accessible to small children, both v i s u a l l y and physically as indicated by the study of the Canadian Environmental Sciences group. (See Chapter I I I ) . Expected Behavior: b. Adults w i l l be seen accompanying the small children to the area equipped with play apparatus since swings tend to be dangerous for children from 3 to 5 years of age. Table 32 shows that adults (19 years and over) were frequently observed i n this setting. They accounted for about one-third ( 0 . 3 1 ) of the t o t a l observed population i n this setting. In Segment 17 (where swings were also located) adults accounted for about o n e - f i f t h ( 0 . 1 9 ) of the population recorded i n this design element. In a l l , 16 adults were noticed i n Segments 3 , 1*+ and 17. In terms of the t o t a l number of adults seen outdoors, k-% ( 1 6 x 100) of adults were observed i n W F t h i s design element. Summary and Discussion: It has been shown previously that swings were mainly used by children f i v e years and under. In a l l , k-6 children i n th i s age category participated i n this 159 design element. As can be seen from the above, 16 adults were recorded i n th i s design element. The record indicates that children f i v e years and under were frequently accompanied by an adult who either waited and supervised the child, \\rhile he was using the swing or returned to the clusters after giving him a push. This finding suggests that children f i v e years and under using swings were frequently supervised by an adult i n the approximate r a t i o of 3 children per adult. This r e s u l t supported the expected behavior. Tables lk and 31 show that swings stimulated intensive active play and occasionally passive play when an adult who accompanied a c h i l d would s i t on the swing to bide the time while the c h i l d was swinging. It i s possible that on occasions this behavior of adults might have prevented small children from using swings. This finding suggests that a bench adjacent to swings should be located where adults could s i t while supervising t h e i r children. 160 Design Element 11: Sandbox Expected Behavior: a. Small children aged f i v e years and under engaged i n general play w i l l be noticed i n sandboxes. General play was observed i n the sandbox and t h i s design element was located only i n Segment 17. As can be seen from Table 14-, i t was the only a c t i v i t y recorded i n t h i s setting. Mostly digging and shovelling sand with a p l a s t i c shovel into a bucket was noticed. Table 1 shows that of a l l 888 observed a c t i v i t y groups, only 36, i . e . k-%, were noticed engaged i n general play. Of t h i s k-%, h a l f , i . e . (^ lg x 100) = 2% occurred i n the sandboxes. This indicates that either general play i s not an important a c t i v i t y or the r e s i -d e n t i a l area lacks settings which could promote this a c t i v i t y . Table 15 shows that of a l l the age groups observed i n t h i s design element, children aged f i v e years and under accounted for about f o u r - f i f t h s ( 0 . 8 5 ) of the participants. Summary and Discussion: The studies of White and Alexander, et a l . have shown that small children l i k e to play with sand, 161 earth, mud, etc. (See Chapter I I I ) . The above results also support t h e i r statement. The reason for observing a low percentage of general play i s due to the fact that i n the randomly selected sample of twelve segments, sand-boxes were located only i n Segment 17 (community play area). The community play area has been located i n the center of the project. This makes i t rather d i f f i c u l t for small children to approach this setting by themselves since they have lim i t e d mobility and are dependent on t h e i r parents. For example, Table 15 indicates that children playing i n the sandboxes were supervised by adults i n the approximate r a t i o of 7 children per adult. It w i l l be noticed from Table 13 that of the seven design elements located i n Segment 17 serving as settings for behavior, sandboxes ranked second highest i n the frequency of observed a c t i v i t y groups. In contrast, Tables 10 and 11 show that i n Court Segments 8 , 25, 27 and 33 (where a higher percent-age of children f i v e years and under was observed) general play seldom occurred. This could possibly be due to the fact that sandboxes were not located within these court segments. Table 5 shows that children f i v e years and under frequently engaged themselves i n a c t i v i t i e s such as: passive play, active play, walking and biking. The observed 162 frequencies of these a c t i v i t y types are higher than general play because the design elements which can promote these a c t i v i t i e s are present i n most segments. Were sandboxes i n s t a l l e d at the various cluster court-yards, the above f i v e a c t i v i t y types might be more evenly d i s t r i b u t e d . Now the question arises, w i l l the i n s t a l -l a t i o n of these sandboxes affect the community play area? It has been stated previously that sand-boxes ranked second highest i n frequency of groups among a l l the design elements located i n the community play area. (See Table 13). This shows that probably the sand-boxes would be used less but the o v e r a l l use of the community play area would s t i l l be maintained because of the seven design elements i t incorporates. These results suggest that the sandbox which stimulate general play among small children should be located within the courtyards. This w i l l ease the burden on mothers having to carry small children to the community play area. 163 D e s i g n E l e m e n t 1 2 : D r y T r e e E x p e c t e d B e h a v i o r : a. When t h e d r y t r e e i s u s e d , c h i l d r e n w i l l be o b s e r v e d c l i m b i n g u p o n i t and j u m p i n g i n t o t h e . s a n d p i t . Of a l l s e v e n o u t d o o r d e s i g n e l e m e n t s i n Segment 17 ( c o m m u n i t y p l a y a r e a ) s e r v i n g as s e t t i n g s , t h e l a r g e d r y t r e e s p a n n i n g t h e s a n d b o x e s r a n k e d f o u r t h i n t h e t o t a l f r e q u e n c y o f a c t i v i t y g r o u p s . I t was o c c u p i e d more t h a n o n e - h a l f (0 . 5 1 ) o f t h e t i m e by c h i l d r e n t e n y e a r s and o v e r , i n g r o u p s o f 2 t o 6 p e r s o n s . ( See T a b l e s 15 and 1 6 ) . T h i s d e s i g n e l e m e n t seems t o s u g g e s t m o s t l y a c t i v e p l a y ( c l i m b i n g upon and b a l a n c i n g ) , and o c c a s i o n a l l y p a s s i v e p l a y i n w h i c h c h i l d r e n o f 10 t o 18 y e a r s o f age were r e c o r d e d s i t t i n g on i t s b r a n c h e s r e a d i n g c o m i c s t r i p s . T a b l e lk shows t h a t a c t i v e p l a y a c c o u n t e d f o r f o u r - f i f t h s ( 0 . 8 2 ) o f t h e t o t a l a c t i v i t i e s o b s e r v e d i n t h i s s e t t i n g . A l t h o u g h a c t i v e p l a y ( c l i m b i n g u p o n and b a l a n c i n g on t h e t r e e ) w a s . o b s e r v e d , j u m p i n g i n t o t h e s a n d p i t was n o t r e c o r d e d o n c e . T a b l e 1 shows t h a t o f t h e 888 a c t i v i t y g r o u p s t h a t were o b s e r v e d , 101 a c t i v i t y g r o u p s ( i . e . 12%) were e n g a g e d i n a c t i v e p l a y . I t h a s b e e n n o t e d f r o m T a b l e 5 t h a t a l l t h e e s t i m a t e d age g r o u p s f r e q u e n t l y 164-p a r t l c i p a t e d i n a c t i v e p l a y . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t t o t h e r e s i d e n t s o f t h e A c a d i a P a r k C l u s t e r s a c t i v e p l a y i s a n i m p o r t a n t a c t i v i t y . A c t i v e p l a y d o m i n a t e d i n Segments 3, 17 and 18 where e i t h e r p l a y e q u i p m e n t was i n s u p p l y o r wooded a r e a s were p r e s e n t . Summary and D i s c u s s i o n : The l a r g e d r y t r e e p r o m o t e d a c t i v e p l a y among c h i l d r e n , as e x p e c t e d . I t a c c o u n t e d f o r ( 1 1 x 100) = 1 1 % o f t h e t o t a l o b s e r v e d a c t i v e p l a y . TOT T h i s d e s i g n e l e m e n t was t h e o n l y one o f i t s k i n d i n t h e s e l e c t e d s a m p l e o f s e g m e n t s . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t o f a l l t h e e s t i m a t e d age g r o u p s t h i s d e s i g n e l e m e n t more f r e q u e n t l y s u g g e s t e d c u e s f o r a p p r o p r i a t e b e h a v i o r t o t h e o l d e r c h i l d r e n a ged 10 y e a r s and onward t h a n i t d i d t o s m a l l c h i l d r e n . T h i s r e s u l t s u g g e s t s t h a t i t s l o c a t i o n w i t h i n t h e c o m m u n i t y p l a y a r e a ( l o c a t e d i n t h e c e n t e r o f t h e p r o j e c t ) i s j u s t i f i e d , and t h i s d e s i g n e l e m e n t h a s a c h i e v e d i t s p u r p o s e . 165 Design Element 13; Rocks and H i l l o c k s Expected Behaivor: a. Whenever rocks and h i l l o c k s are used, they w i l l s t i m u l a t e such a c t i v i t i e s as, climb-i n g , or, walking, s i t t i n g , or r o l l i n g wheeled toys. Tables 14-, 15 and 16 show that the rock area and the mound around i t i n v i t e d a c t i v e play (mostly climbing) and a t t r a c t e d pre-school c h i l d r e n of both sexes, q u i t e commonly i n groups of 2 to 3 persons. O c c a s i o n a l l y while s u p e r v i s i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n , a d u l t s were seen s i t t i n g or l y i n g on the grassy mound. Of 101 a c t i v i t y groups that were recorded engaged i n a c t i v e p l a y , 6% ( 6 x 100) of t h i s a c t i v i t y 101 were seen on rocks. Of the 8 8 8 a c t i v i t y groups observed i n the s e l e c t e d sample of segments, only 9 groups, i . e . 1% was recorded i n t h i s s e t t i n g . Summary and D i s c u s s i o n : Though rocks and h i l l o c k s are used as expected, the very low percentage x 100) = 1% of observed a c t i v i t y groups suggests that c h i l d r e n were not p a r t i c u l a r l y drawn to t h i s area. 166 The re s u l t s have shown that this design element was mainly used by pre-school children aged 3 to 5 years. Table 15 shows that of 14-0 pre-school children who were observed i n Segment 17 (community play area) only 12, i . e . ( 1 2 x 100) = 9% were seen using rocks and Wo h i l l o c k s . This finding suggests that t h i s play equipment i s poorly designed, and i t has f a i l e d to achieve i t s purpose. The author feels that rearrangement of rocks within the rock p i t might stimulate more a c t i v i t i e s . 1 6 7 Design Element 14-: Outdoor Seat Expected Behavior: a. Whenever a seat i s occupied, the occupant w i l l face toward the a c t i v i t y zone. It i s very i n t e r e s t i n g to note that during these observations the eleven seats (without backrests) located within the community play area were used only ten times. (See Table 13). On eight of the ten occasions, the occupant(s) who was(were) generally female, was(were) facing toward the a c t i v i t y area. However, on one occasion mothers who were busy talking were facing toward the grass area where their children were playing. A seat'adjacent to the sandbox was quite often occupied by mothers who were recorded supervising t h e i r children playing i n the sandbox. It was also noticed that while supervising t h e i r children, mothers preferred to s i t on the concrete curb of the sandbox or on the child's t r i c y c l e rather than make use of the seat situated at a distance from the play area. Table 14- shows that i n nine of the ten instances the seat, as expected, promoted passive play (mostly s i t t i n g , t a l k i n g , and observing). Of the 8 8 8 a c t i v i t y groups observed, 1 6 7 groups ( i . e . 1 9 % ) were engaged i n passive play. This suggests that passive play 168 i s an important a c t i v i t y . Of 167 groups engaged i n passive play, a very small f r a c t i o n , i . e . ( 9 x 100) = 5% was 167 recorded on these eleven seats. Table 10 shows that passive play was n o t i c e d i n a l l the observed segments except Segment 15 i n which a c e n t r a l p u b l i c walkway (to which are connected the p u b l i c sidewalks of the c l u s t e r s ) i s the major design element. I t a l s o shows that two-thirds (67%) of the observed passive play occurred i n the observed Court Segments 8, 2 5, 27 and 33. Summary and D i s c u s s i o n : As can be n o t i c e d i n Figure 16, the c e n t r a l p u b l i c walkway passing through the community play area separates the seats from the play equipment. Tables 14-and 15 show that t h i s l a r g e asphalt surface was f r e q u e n t l y used by adults and c h i l d r e n (between three and nine years of age) f o r walking and b i c y c l i n g . This was probably the reason why mothers were forced to stay c l o s e r to t h e i r c h i l d r e n while they were p l a y i n g i n the sandbox. When c h i l d r e n were p l a y i n g i n the sandbox adjacent to which i s l o c a t e d a seat, mothers f r e q u e n t l y occupied the seat. I f c h i l d r e n played i n the next sandbox where there was no seat, mothers e i t h e r sat on the c h i l d ' s t r i c y c l e or the concrete curb of the sandbox. The author b e l i e v e s that 169 t h i s was perhaps the reason for observing a low percentage of passive play on seats. These observations suggest that the seats i n the community play area are not s t r a t e g i c a l l y located. The results show that when two design elements which promote c o n f l i c t i n g behavior overlap, i t i s esse n t i a l that the geometrical arrangement of design elements should a s s i s t to prevent the c o n f l i c t from occurring, otherwise a new tendency w i l l develop. The author feels that the seats i n the community play area should be located adjacent to the play equipment and they should be placed i n such a way as to look onto a c t i v i t y . 170 D e s i g n E l e m e n t 15: Community P l a y A r e a E x p e c t e d B e h a v i o r : a. The c o m m u n i t y p l a y a r e a w i l l a t t r a c t r e s i d e n t s o f a l l age g r o u p s . When a d u l t s a r e a c c o m p a n y i n g t h e c h i l d r e n i n t h i s a r e a , t h e y w i l l be s e e n c o n v e r s i n g ( p a s s i v e p l a y ) w i t h o t h e r r e s i d e n t s . I t c a n be s e e n f r o m T a b l e 9 t h a t o f a l l t h e o b s e r v e d s e g m e n t s , Segment 17 ( c o m m u n i t y p l a y a r e a ) h a s t h e h i g h e s t f r e q u e n c y o f o b s e r v e d a c t i v i t y g r o u p s . I t i s l o c a t e d i n t h e c e n t e r o f t h e h o u s i n g p r o j e c t a d j a c e n t t o t h e k i n d e r g a r t e n s c h o o l w h i c h i s o p e r a t e d by t h e A c a d i a P a r k T e n a n t S o c i e t y . The c o m m u n i t y p l a y a r e a e n c o m p a s s e s s a n d b o x e s , a l a r g e d r y t r e e , a 10 f t . wooden b o a t w i t h i n one o f t h e s a n d b o x e s , a r o c k p i t , b e n c h e s w i t h o u t b a c k -r e s t s , a l a r g e a s p h a l t a r e a and s w i n g s . T h i s was t h e o n l y segment o f i t s k i n d w i t h i n t h e s t u d y a r e a . The p r e d o m i n a n t a c t i v i t i e s n o t e d i n t h i s segment were w a l k i n g , b i k i n g and a c t i v e p l a y . W a l k i n g and b i k i n g a c c o u n t e d f o r a l m o s t o n e - h a l f (4-9%) o f t h e t o t a l a c t i v i t i e s o b s e r v e d ; and a c t i v e p l a y r e p r e s e n t s one-q u a r t e r (24-%) o f t h e t o t a l a c t i v i t i e s . ( See T a b l e 1 0 ) . P a s s i v e p l a y ( c o n v e r s i n g , s i t t i n g and o b s e r v i n g ) , as e x p e c t e d , was a l s o f r e q u e n t l y r e c o r d e d I n t h i s p l a y a r e a . I t a c c o u n t e d f o r 1 3 % o f t h e t o t a l o b s e r v e d a c t i v i t i e s i n t h i s segment ( T a b l e 1 0 ) . Of t h e 167 g r o u p s 171 that were observed engaged i n passive play, 19 groups ( i . e . 11%) were recorded i n t h i s segment only; and of the t o t a l active play observed i n the selected segments ( 35 x 100) = 34-% alone were noticed i n the community play 101 area. Table 11 shows that Segment 17 was a very popular area since the residents of a l l age groups frequented i t . Tables 3 and 11 indicate that of a l l the estimated age groups observed outdoors, teenagers 14- to 18 years of age proportionately participated more frequently than any other age group [^infant ( 35 = 0 . 1 7 ) , 206 pre-school (lJ+0 = 0 . 2 0 ) , young c h i l d = 0 . 2 1 ) , 711 166 adolescents ( 32 = 0 . 2 1 ) , teenagers (10 = 0.26) 151 38" Of the t o t a l of 1717 persons observed out-doors, 318, i . e . 18%, alone were noticed i n Segment 17 (community play area). Summary and Discussion: A high percentage (34-%) of active play suggests that the community play area stimulated intensive active play. This i s primarily due to the play equipment such as swings, a large dry tree, and a rock p i t . Again, a high percentage (18%) of the t o t a l observed population was recorded i n the community play area. This r e s u l t s u p p o r t s ( i t s central location. 172 In b r i e f , one can say that since the community play area represents the greatest single con-centration of play f a c i l i t i e s , i t f u l f i l s the intention of the designer as a "center" of a c t i v i t y for the project. The d i s t r i b u t i o n of recorded a c t i v i t y groups and number of persons suggests a congruence between design and function. 173 TABLE 9 : RELATIVE DISTRIBUTION OF ALL ACTIVITY TYPES AND NUMBER OF PEOPLE AMONG THE SELECTED SEGMENTS OBSERVED OVER THE PERIOD OF THIRTY OBSERVATIONS Segment No. Frequency i n Groups P e r c e n t a g e No. o f Peop l e 3 53 6 . 0 110 8 75 8 . 4 136 11 - .33 3 . 7 68 14 68 7.6 139 15 85 9.6 132 17 Ik 5 16.4- 318 18 33 3 . 7 87 19 1+9 5-5 104 25 114- 12.9 209 27 107 1 2 . 0 194-33 99 11.2 172 38 27 3 . 0 48 T o t a l 888 1 0 0 . 0 1717 TABLE 10: SEGMENTS BY ACTIVITY TYPEj? OBSER VED OVER THE PERIOD OR THIRTY OBSERVATIONS A c t i v i t y Types Segment No. 3 No. % Segment No. 8 No. % Segment No. 11 No. % Segment No. Ik No. % Segment No. 15 No. % Seg No. No. ment 17 Segment No. 18 No. % Segment No. 19 No. % Segment No. 25 No. % Segment No. 27 No. % Segment No. 33 No. % Segment No. 38 No. % Passive Play A c t i v e P l a y General Play Walking B i k i n g Work Object P l a y B a l l P l a y Hockey T o t a l 5 9.4-13 2k.5 2k 3 2 . 0 k 5.3 11 2 0 . 8 13 2k.5 2 3 . 8 6 11.4-3 5.6 25 3 3 . ^ 12 1 6 . 0 k 5.3 6 8.0 10 30.4-7 21.2 2 6 . 0 8 24-.3 2 6.0 1 3 . 0 3 9.1 9 13.3 6 8.6 4 4-.7 29 4-2.7 22 32.4 1 1 . 5 1 1 . 5 33 3 8 . 8 42 4-9.4-6 7.1 53 1 0 0 . 0 75 1 0 0 . 0 33 100.0 68 1 0 0 . 0 85 1 0 0 . 0 19 35 19 31 4-0 lk5 13-1 24-.1 13.1 21.4-. 2 7 . 6 5 15.2 12 36.4-4- 12.1 6 18.2 6 1 2 . 2 ' 3 6.1 2 4-.1 23 4 7 . 0 12 24^.5 4- 12.1 3 6.1 2 3 - 0 26 22.8 5 4-.4-36 31.6 25 21 .9 2 1.7 10 8.8 1 0 0 . 0 33 1 0 0 . 0 4-9 1 0 0 . 0 10 8 . 8 114- 100.0 31 2 9 . 0 2 1 .9 1 0 . 9 3^ 31.8 28 26.1 3 2 .8 6 5 .7 1 0 . 9 1 0 . 9 107 1 0 0 . 0 31 31.3 7 7.1 3 3 . 0 31 31.3 15 15.2 2 2 . 0 10 10.1 1 3 - 7 3 11.1 5 1 8 . 5 7 2 6 . 0 9 33.3 2 7.4-99 1 0 0 . 0 27 1 0 0 . 0 175 TABLE 1 1 : SEGMENTS BY AGE GROUPS OBSERVED .OVER THE PERIOD OF THIRTY OBSERVATIONS Segment No. 3 Seg No. ment 8 Segment No. 11 Segment No. 14-Seg No. ment 15 Seg No. ment 17 Segment No. 18 Seg No. ment 19 Segment No. 25 Segment No. 27 Segment No. 33 Se No gment . 38 Age G r o u p s No. of /o No. No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No . % I n f a n t (2 & U n d e r ) 11 1 0 . 0 21 15.5 7 1 0 . 3 27 19-5 6 4 . 5 35 11.0 • 5 •5.7 18 1 7 . 3 25 11.9 28 14.5 22 1 2 . 8 1 2.1 P r e - s c h o o l ( 3 - 5 ) 51 4 6 . 4 70 51.5 28 4-1.2 M-3 3 0 . 9 4-0 30.2 14-0 4-4-.0 44 5 0 . 5 4-6 4 4 . 2 92 44-.o ;70 > 36.1 74 4-3.0 13 2 7 . 1 Young C h i l d ( 6 - 9 ) 8 7.2 1 0 . 7 9 13-2 6 4-3 20 15.1 34- 1 0 . 7 21 24-.1 2 1.9 27 13-0 ! l 4 7.2 12 6 . 9 12 2 5 . 0 A d o l e s c e n t (10 - 1 3 ) 12 1 0 . 9 1 0 . 7 5 7.3 4 2 . 9 8 6 . 0 32 10.1 • 4 4-.6 12 11.6 24 11.5 38 1 9 . 6 5 3 - 0 6 1 2 . 5 T e e n a g e r ( 1 4 - 1 8 ) 3 2 . 7 - 2 3 - 0 10 7.2 7 5.3 10 3.1 • 0 - 2 1.9 3 1.4- 1 0 . 5 -A d u l t (19 & O v e r ) 25 22.8 4-3 3 1 . 6 17 2 5 . 0 4-9 35.2 51 3 8 . 9 67 2 1 . 1 •13 1 6 . 1 24 23-1 38 18 . 2 44 2 2 . 6 58 33-6 16 33-3 T o t a l 110 1 0 0 . 0 136 1 0 0 . 0 68 1 0 0 . 0 139 1 0 0 . 0 132 1 0 0 . 0 318 1 0 0 . 0 87 1 0 0 . 0 104 1 0 0 . 0 209 100.0 194 1 0 0 . 0 172 1 0 0 . 0 48 1 0 0 . 0 / TABLE 12: SEGMENTS BY GROUP S I Z E OBSERVED .OVER THE PERIOD OF THIRTY OBSERVATIONS Segment No. 3 Seg No. ment 8 Seg No. ;ment 11 Segment No. Ih Segment No. 15 Segment No. 17 _ Segment . No. 18 Segment No. 19 Segment No. 25 Seg No. ment 27 Segment No. 33 Se* No pnent . 38 Group S i z e No..of P e r s o n s No. % No. No. % No. % No. % No. % . No. % No. % No. % No. % No • % No . % 1 22 hi.5 4-0 53-3 13 3 9 . h 28 hl.2 55 6 4 . 7 60 4-1.4- . 8 24.2 20 4-0.8 58 50.9 65 6 0 . 8 58 58.6 17 6 3 . 0 2-3 27 50.9 29 3 8 . 7 15 4-5.4- 31 4 5 . 6 25 29 . 4 65 4-4-. 8 .17 51.5 23 4 6 . 9 4-6 ^ 0 . 3 32 2 9 . 9 3h 3^.3 8 2 9 . 6 4 - 6 3 5.6 6 8 . 0 5 15.2 8 11.8 5 5.9 18 12.4- _ 5 15-2 6 1 2 . 3 8 7.0 9 8.4- 6 6.1 2 7.h 7-12 1 2 . 0 - - 1 1.4- - 2 1.4 - 3 9.1 - 2 1.8 1 0 . 9 1 1.0 -T o t a l 53 1 0 0 . 0 75 1 0 0 . 0 33 1 0 0 . 0 68 1 0 0 . 0 85 I O O . O 14-5 1 0 0 . 0 -33 1 0 0 . 0 4-9 1 0 0 . 0 114- 1 0 0 . 0 107 1 0 0 . 0 99 1 0 0 . 0 27 1 0 0 . 0 177 TABLE 13: DISTRIBUTION OF ALL TYPES OF ACTIVITIES IN GROUPS AND THE OBSERVED NUMBER OF PEOPLE AMONG THE VARIOUS DESIGN ELEMENTS IN THE COMMUNITY PLAY AREA(SEGMENT NO.17) Design Element Frequency i n Groups Percentage No. of People Percentage Large Asphalt Surface 80 55.2 14-6 4 5 . 8 Sandboxes 1 9 13.1 64- 2 0 . 1 Large Dry Tree 11 7.6 24 7.6 Seats 10 6 . 9 23 7.3 Rock Area 6 4-.1 11 3 . 5 Mound around Rock Area 3 2.1 11 3 . 5 Play Equipment (Swings) 1 6 11.0 39 12.2 Total 11+5 1 0 0 . 0 318 1 0 0 . 0 Average No. of Persons Per Group Average No. of Groups Per Observation 2 4-.8 .TABLE 14-: OBSERVED DESIGN ELEMENTS I N THE COMMUNITY PLAY AREA BY A C T I V I T Y TYPES L a r g e A s p h a l t S u r f a c e S a n d -b o x e s L a r g e D r y T r e e S e a t s R o c k A r e a Mound A r o u n d R o c k A r e a P l a y E q u i p m e n t ( S w i n g s ) A c t i v i t y T y p e s P a s s i v e P l a y A c t i v e P l a y G e n e r a l P l a y W a l k i n g B i k i n g Work O b j e c t P l a y B a l l P l a y H o c k e y No. P r o p o r -t i o n 3 0.03 5 0.06 31 0.40 4 0 0 .50 1 0.01 No. P r o p o r -t i o n 19 1.00 No. P r o p o r -t i o n 2 0.18 9 0.82 No. P r o p o r -t i o n 9 0 . 9 0 1 0.10 No. P r o p o r -t i o n 6 1 .00 No. P r o p o r -t i o n 2 0.66 1 0.34 No. P r o p o r -t i o n 3 0.19 13 0.81 T o t a l 80 1.00 19 1.00 11 1.00 10 1.00 6 1.00 3 1.00 16 1 .00 h-1 oo TABLE 15: OBSERVED DESIGNED ELEMENTS IN THE COMMUNITY PLAY AREA BY AGE GROUPS Large A s p h a l t S u r f a c e Sand-boxes Large Dry Tree Seats Rock Are a Mound Around Rock Ar e a P l a y Equipment (Swings) Age Groups No. Pr o p o r -t i o n No. P r o p o r -t i o n No . P r o p o r -t i o n No. P r o p o r -t i o n No. P r o p o r -t i o n No. P r o p o r -t i o n No. P r o p o r -t i o n I n f a n t (2 & Under) 14- 0.09 11 0.17 2 0.08 6 0.26 - - 2 0 . 0 5 P r e - s c h o o l ( 3 - 5 ) 53 0.36 4-4- 0.69 6 0.25 5 0.22 9 0.82 3 0 .27 19 0 . 48 Young C h i l d ( 6 - 9 ) 27 0.18 2 0.03 1 0 . 04 - - 6 0 . 5 5 5 0.13 A d o l e s c e n t 010-13) 13 0.09 - 8 0 . 34 - - - 5 0.13 Teenager (14 - 1 8 ) 5 0.03 - 4 0.17 - - - 1 0.02 A d u l t (19 & Over) 34- 0.25 7 o . n 3 0.12 12 0.52 2 0.18 2 0.18 7 0.19 T o t a l 14-6 1.00 64- 1 .00 24- 1.00 23 1.00 11 1.00 11 1 .00 39 1.00 H TABLE 1 6 : OBSERVED DESIGNED ELEMENTS I N THE COMMUNITY PLAY AREA BY GROUP S I Z E L a r g e A s p h a l t S u r f a c e S a n d -b o x e s L a r g e D r y T r e e S e a t s R o c k A r e a Mound A r o u n d R o c k A r e a • P l a y E q u i p m e n t ( S w i n g s ) G r o u p S i z e No. o f P e r s o n s No. P r o p o r -t i o n No . P r o p o r -t i o n No . P r o p o r -t i o n No. P r o p o r -t i o n No . P r o p o r -t i o n No. P r o p o r -t i o n No. P r o p o r -t i o n 1 4 7 0 . 5 8 4 0.21 3 0 . 2 7 4- 0.4-0 2 0 . 3 ^ 2 0.66 3 0.18 2-3 28 0 . 3 5 7 0.37 7 0.64- 5 0 . 5 0 I f 0.66 1 0.34 12 0 . 7 5 4-6 4- 0 . 0 5 7 0.37 1 0.09 1 0.10 - - 1 0.07 7-12 1 0.12 1 0 . 0 5 - - - - -T o t a l 80 1.00 19 1.00 11 1.00 10 1.00 6 1.00 | 3 1.00 16 1.00 h-1 CO o TABLE 17: OBSERVED DESIGNED ELEMENTS I N THE COMMUNITY PLAY AREA BY THE RELATIVE DISTRIBUTION OF SEX I N THE ESTIMATED AGE GROUPS L a r g e A s p h a l t S u r f a c e S a n d -b o x e s L a r g e D r y T r e e S e a t s R o c k A r e a Mound A r o u n d R o c k A r e a P l a y E q u i p m e n t ( S w i n g s ) Age G r o u p s I n f a n t ( 2&Under) Se x B o y s G i r l s -No. P r o p o r -t i o n 7 2 0.77 0.22 No. P r o p o r -t i o n 8 0.80 2 0.20 No. P r o p o r -t i o n No. P r o p o r -t i o n No. P r o p o r -t i o n No. P r o p o r -t i o n 1 1 0.50 0.50 1 2 0.34-0.66 T o t a l 9 10 No. P r o p o r -t i o n 2 1.00 2 P r e - s c h o o l ( 3 - 5 ) B o y s G i r l s 36 17 0.68 0.32 27 17 0.61 0.39 4 2 0.66 O.34-3 2 0.60 0.4-0 4- 0.4-5 5 0.55 1 2 0.34-0.66 T o t a l 53 44 5 5 0.26 14- 0.74-19 Y o u n g C h i l d ( 6 - 9 ) B o y s G i r l s 18 9 0.66 0.34 1 1 0.50 0 . 5 0 6 1 .00 1 1.00 T o t a l 27 1 1 0 . 2 0 4 0 . 8 0 5 A d o l e s c e n t (10-13) B o y s G i r l s 4 9 0.31 0.69 4 0 . 5 0 4 0.50 T o t a l 13 8 2 3 0.4-0 0.60 T e e n a g e r (14-18) B o y s G i r l s 1 0.20 4 0.80 4- 1.00 T o t a l 5 4 1 1.00 1 A d u l t (19 & O v e r ) M a l e s Fern. T o t a l 16 0.47 18 0.53 7 1.99 7 3 1.00 1 1 11 12~ 0.08 0.92 1 1 0 . 5 0 0 . 5 0 2 1 .00 3 0.42 4 0.57 ~7 ~~ CO 182 TABLE 18: DISTRIBUTION OF ALL TYPES OF ACTIVITIES IN GROUPS AND OBSERVED NUMBER OF PEOPLE AMONG THE VARIOUS DESIGN ELEMENTS IN THE CLUSTER COURTYARDS (SEGMENT NOS. 8 , 25, 27 AND 33) D e s i g n Element Frequency i n Groups Percentage No. of Peop l e P e r c e n t a g e R a i s e d S i d e w a l k & Grass Around the P a r k i n g 258 66.2 h 50 6 6 . 1 P a r k i n g L o t 63 16 . 2 123 1 8 . 0 E n t r y P a t i o 32 8.2 ho 5.8 Laundry F a c i l i t y 2h 6.2 3h 5 . 0 Steps 10 2 . 5 30 h.7 Garbage F a c i l i t y 3 0 . 7 3 O.h T o t a l 390 1 0 0 . 0 680 1 0 0 . 0 Average No. o f Pe r s o n s Per Group = 680 = 2 390 Average No. o f Groups Per C o u r t y a r d P e r O b s e r v a t i o n = 390 = 3.2 303+ TABLE 19: OBSERVED DESIGN ELEMENTS IN THE CLUSTER COURTYARDS BY ACTIVITY TYPES Raised Sidewalk & Grass Around the Parking Parking Lot Entry P a t i o Laundry F a c i l i t y Steps Garbage F a c i l i t y A c t i v i t y Types No. Propor-t i o n No. Propor-t i o n No. Propor-t i o n No. Propor-t i o n No. Propor-t i o n No. Propor-t i o n Passive P l a y 69 0.27 8 0.12 18 0.57 4 0.17 9 0 . 9 0 A c t i v e Play 12 0.04 3 0 . 0 5 2 0.06 1 0.04-General Play 5 0.02 Walking 84 0.32 22 0.35 14 0.58 1 0.10 3 i . o o B i k i n g 63 0.24 13 0.20 1 0.03 3 0.12 Work 2 0.01 3 0 . 0 5 6 0.19 Object P l a y 21 0.08 4- 0.06 5 0.15 2 0 . 0 9 B a l l Play 1 0.01 Hockey 1 0.01 10 0.16 T o t a l 258 1.00 63 1.00 32 1.00 24- 1 .00 10 1.00 3 i . o o CO TABLE. 2 0 : OBSERVED DESIGN ELEMENTS IN THE CLUSTER COURTYARDS BY AGE GROUPS ' R a i s e d S i d e w a l k & Grass Around t h e P a r k i n g P a r k i n g L o t Entry-P a t i o Laundry F a c i l i t y S t e p s Garbage F a c i l i t y Age Groups No. P r o p o r -t i o n No. P r o p o r -t i o n No . P r o p o r -t i o n No. P r o p o r -t i o n No. P r o p o r -t i o n No. P r o p o r -t i o n I n f a n t (2 & Under) 59 0.13 10 0 . 0 9 5 0.12 7 0 . 2 0 6 0.21 P r e - s c h o o l ( 3 - 5 ) 207 0.46 48 0.39 15 0.37 8 0.24 16 0.53 Young C h i l d ( 6 - 9 ) 4-0 0 . 0 9 10 0.09 1 0.03 1 0.03 A d o l e s c e n t (10-13) 47 0.11 19 0.14- 2 0.06 Teenager (14-18) 1 0 . 0 0 1 0.01 l 0.03 A d u l t (19 & Over) 96 0.21 35 0.28 18 0 . 4 5 16 0 . 4 7 8 0.26 3 1.00 T o t a l 450 1.00 123 1.00 40 1.00 34 1.00 30 1 .00 3 1.00 H CO -r TABLE 2 1 : OBSERVED DESIGN ELEMENTS I N THE CLUSTER COURTYARDS BY GROUP S I Z E R a i s e d S i d e w a l k & G r a s s A r o u n d t h e P a r k i n g P a r k i n g L o t E n t r y P a t i o L a u n d r y F a c i l i t y S t e p s G a r b a g e F a c i l i t y G r o u p S i z e No. o f P e r s o n s No. P r o p o r -t i o n No . P r o p o r -t i o n No. P r o p o r -t i o n No. P r o p o r -t i o n No. P r o p o r -t i o n No. P r o p o r -t i o n 1 14-2 0.56 30 0.48 16 0.50 18 0 . 7 5 1 0 . 1 0 3 1 .00 2-3 94- 0.37 26 0.4-1 13 0.4-0 6 0 . 2 5 6 0.60 4 - 6 16 0.06 5 0.08 3 0.10 3 0 . 3 0 7-12 2 0.01 2 0.03 T o t a l 25h 1.00 63 1.00 32 1.00 24- 1 .00 10 1 .00 3 1.00 00 TABLE 22: OBSERVED DESIGN ELEMENTS IN THE CLUSTER COURTYARDS BY THE RELATIVE DISTRIBUTION OF SEX IN THE ESTIMATED AGE GROUP Raised Sidewalk & Grass Around the Parking Parking Lot Entry Patio Laundry F a c i l i t y Steps Garbage F a c i l i t y Infants (2 & Under) Sex Boys G i r l s No. Propor-tion 23 0.43 31 0.57 No. Propor-ti o n 7 0.70 3 0 . 3 0 No. Propor-ti o n 4 0 . 8 0 1 0 . 2 0 No. Propor-t i o n 3 0 . 4 3 4- 0 . 5 7 No. Propor-t i o n h 0.66 2 0.34 No. Propor-t i o n Total 54 10 5 7 6 Pre-school ( 3 - 5 ) Boys G i r l s 129 0.62 78 O.38 31 0.64-17 O.36 7 0.4-6 8 0.53 7 0 . 8 7 1 0.13 4 .0.25 12 0.75 Total 207 48 15 8 16 Young Child ( 6 - 9 ) Boys G i r l s 24 0.60 16 0.40 8 0 . 8 0 2 0 . 2 0 • 1 1.00 1 1 .00 Total 4-0 10 1 Adolescent (10-13) Boys G i r l s 31 0.66 16 0.34 19 1.00 2 1.00 Total 47 19 2 Teenager (14-18) Boys G i r l s 1 1.00 1 1.00 1 1.00 Total 1 1 1 Adult Males Females 39 0 .40 57 0.60 13 0.37 22 O.63 5 0.28 13 0.72 16 1 .00 1 0.13 7 O.87 1 0 . 3 ^ 2 0.66 Total 96 35 18 16 8 3 CO ON 187 TABLE 2 3 : DISTRIBUTION OF ALL TYPES OF ACTIVITIES IN GROUPS AND OBSERVED NUMBER OF PEOPLE AMONG VARIOUS DESIGN ELEMENTS IN SEGMENT NOS. 11, 18 AND 38 Design Element Frequency Percentage No. of Percentage i n Groups People Woods 37 4-3.0 98 51.8 P u b l i c Open Space 19 2 2 . 1 l+O 2 1 . 2 P a t i o s (Attached to L i v i n g Room) 12 ih. 0 28 l^f.8 S t r e e t 18 2 0 . 9 23 12.2 T o t a l 86 1 0 0 . 0 189 1 0 0 . 0 Average No. of Persons Per Group = 189 = 2 Average No. of Groups Per Observation Per Segment = 86 = 0 . 9 5 30x3 TABLE 24-: OBSERVED DESIGN ELEMENTS BY A C T I V I T Y TYPES Woods P u b l i c Open S p a c e P a t i o ( A t t a c h e d t o L i v i n g Room) S t r e e t A c t i v i t y T y p e s No. P r o p o r t i o n No. P r o p o r t i o n No. P r o p o r t i o n No. P r o p o r t i o n P a s s i v e P l a y 5 0.14- 5 0.26 5 0.42 A c t i v e P l a y 20 0.54 2 0.11 G e n e r a l P l a y 11 0.29 W a l k i n g 1 0.03 10 0.53 7 0.39 B i k i n g 9 0 . 5 0 Work 5 0.42 O b j e c t P l a y 1 0.05 2 0.16 2 0.11 B a l l P l a y 1 0.05 H o c k e y T o t a l 37 1.00 19 1.00 12 1 .00 18 1 .00 H CO co TABLE 25: OBSERVED DESIGN ELEMENTS BY AGE GROUPS Woods P u b l i c Open Space ( A t t a c h e d P a t i o t o L i v i n g Room) S t r e e t Age Groups No. P r o p o r t i o n No. P r o p o r t i o n No. P r o p o r t i o n No. P r o p o r t i o n I n f a n t (2 & Under) 4- 0.04- 4- 0.10 3 0 . 1 0 P r e - s c h o o l ( 3 - 5 ) 52 0 . 5 3 17 0.4-3 8 0 . 2 9 4- 0.17 Young C h i l d ( 6 - 9 ) 27 0.28 5 0.12 6 0 . 2 2 2 0 . 0 9 A d o l e s c e n t (10-13) 9 0 . 0 9 1 0.02 3 0 . 1 0 2 0 . 0 9 Teenager (14-18) 2 0.02 A d u l t (19 & Over) 4- 0.04- 13 0.33 8 0 . 2 9 15 0 . 6 5 T o t a l 98 1.00 4-0 1.00 28 1 . 0 0 23 1 .00 CO VO TABLE 26: OBSERVED DESIGN ELEMENTS BY GROUP SIZE Woods P u b l i c Open Space ( A t t a c h e d P a t i o t o L i v i n g Room) S t r e e t Group S i z e No. o f Persons No. P r o p o r t i o n No. P r o p o r t i o n No. P r o p o r t i o n No. P r o p o r t i o n 1 7 0.19 9 0.4-7 4- 0.34- 15 0.83 2-3 21 0.57 7 0.37 6 0 . 5 0 3 0.17 4 - 6 8 0.21 2 0.11 1 0.08 7-12 1 0.03 1 0 . 0 5 1 0.08 T o t a l 37 1.00 19 1.00 12 1.00 18 1.00 v O O TABLE 27: OBSERVED DESIGN ELEMENTS BY THE RELATIVE DIS-TRIBUTION OF SEX IN THE ESTIMATED AGE GROUPS Woods Public Open Space Patio Street (Attached to Living Room) Age Groups Sex No. Proportion No. Proportion No. Proportion No. Proportioi Infant Boys 3 0.75 4 1.00 1 0.34 (2 & Under) G i r l s 1 0 . 2 5 2 0.66 T o t a l 4 4 3 Pre-school Boys 3? 0.73 14 0.82 6 0.75 4 1 .00 ( 3 - 5 ) G i r l s 14- 0.27 3 0.18 2 0 . 2 5 Total 52 17 8 4-Young Child Boys 16 0.60 2 0.4-0 5 0.83 l 0 . 5 0 ( 6 - 9 ) G i r l s 11 0 . 4 0 3 0.60 1 0 . 1 7 l 0 . 5 0 Total 27 5 6 2 Adolescent Boys 6 0.66 3 1 .00 1 0 . 5 0 (10-13) G i r l s 3 0.34- l 1.00 1 0 . 5 0 Total 9 l 3 2 Teenager Boys 2 1.00 ( 1 4 - 1 8 ) G i r l s -Total 2 Adult Males 1 0.25 2 0.16 7 0.87 11 0.73 (19 & Over) Females 3 0.75 11 0.84 1 0.13 4 0.27 Total 4 13 8 15 f - 1 f - 1 192 TABLE 2 8 : OBSERVED ACTIVE AND GENERAL PLAY IN AREA DESIGNATED AS WOODS Segment No. Frequency i n Groups P r o p o r t i o n 11 9 0 .27 18 16 0.49 38 8 0.24-T o t a l 33 1.00 193 TABLE 29: OBSERVED ACTIVE PLAY IN AREA DESIGNATED AS PLAY APPARATUS 'SWINGS' Segment No. Frequency i n Groups P r o p o r t i o n 3 " 13 0 .37 14- 6 0.17 17 16 0.4-6 T o t a l 35 1.00 194-TABLE 3 0 : OBSERVED LOCOMOTION IN AREA DESIGNATED AS PUBLIC WALKWAY Segment No. Frequency i n Groups Per c e n t a g e 15 75 68.2 19 35 31.8 T o t a l 110 1 0 0 . 0 TABLE 31: ACTIVITY TYPES IN OUTDOOR PLAY AREA (LOCATED IN SEGMENTS 3 AND ih) OBSERVED OVER THE PERIOD OF THIRTY OBSERVATIONS A c t i v i t y Types Outdoor Play Area No. Proportion Passive Play 1 0.08 Active Play 12 0.92 General Play Walking Biking Work Object Play B a l l Play Hockey Total 13 1 .00 TABLE 32: ESTIMATED AGE GROUPS IN OUTDOOR PLAY AREA (LOCATED IN SEGMENTS 3 AND lk) OBSERVED OVER THE PERIOD OF THIRTY OBSERVATIONS Age Groups Outdoor Play Area No. Proportion Infant 6 0.21 (2 & Under) Pre-School 9 0.31 (3 -5) Young Child 2 0.07 ( 6 - 9 ) Adolescent 1 0.03 (10-13) Teenager 2 0 . 0 7 (14-18) Adults 9 0.31 (19 & Over) Total 29 1 . 0 0 S U M M A R Y O F R E S U L T S DESIGN ELEMENT EXPECTED BEHAVIOR RESULT 1. Clustering of Dwelling Units a) Different patterns of public behavior can be observed i n courts which d i f f e r i n size and shape. b) There w i l l be more a c t i v i t i e s within the courtyards than i n the planned play areas on the s i t e . Not Supported Not Supported 2. Raised Sidewalk and Grass Around the Parking Area a) When teenagers and adults are seen, they w i l l be frequently engaged i n passive play, such as conversation and observation. b) When children f i v e years and under are observed, they w i l l be seen cycling, running with or without a b a l l , or playing with their wheeled toys. Supported P a r t i a l l y Supported H DESIGN ELEMENT EXPECTED BEHAVIOR RESULT 3. Steps a) The steps w i l l occasionally function as a setting for baby watching and as gossip center. Supported 4-. Car Parking Areas a) A variety of a c t i v i t i e s such as: delivery-men delivering the goods, residents loading or unloading their commodities, residents washing and repairing their cars, conversa-ti o n and discussion among men while they are working, and the small children playing with their wheeled toys beside the adults, w i l l be frequently observed within the parking l o t s . P a r t i a l l y Supported 5. Laundry F a c i l i t y a) Small children can be noticed playing beside the laundry room while mothers are laundering clothes. Not Supported H OO DESIGN ELEMENT EXPECTED BEHAVIOR RESULT 6A. Entry P a t i o 6B. P a t i o Attached to the L i v i n g Room-7. Woods a) Since the entry patios are enclosed by high w a l l s and l a c k n a t u r a l continuum to a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n the house, c h i l d r e n w i l l not play there. b) Whenever t h i s p a t i o i s used, i t w i l l be used f o r a c t i v i t i e s such as: s i t t i n g out-s i d e , gardening and r a i s i n g p l a n t s , barbecuing, doing small domestic r e p a i r jobs, having p a r t i e s , or keeping c h i l d r e n i n , e t c . a) Whenever woods are explored, they w i l l be explored mostly by the older c h i l d r e n from 6 to 13 years of age who w i l l be f r e q u e n t l y observed engaged i n adventurous a c t i v i t i e s such as: e x p l o r i n g , hunting, camping, climb-ing t r e e s , c o n s t r u c t i n g houses, diggin g h o l e s , etc. Not Supported Supported Supported DESIGN ELEMENT EXPECTED BEHAVIOR RESULT 8. Street 9. Public Walkway a) Other than cars, streets w i l l be u t i l i z e d mainly for bicycle r i d i n g and walking. a) Both pedestrian and c y c l i s t s w i l l be frequently observed on the public walkway to which are connected the sidewalks of the clusters. Supported Supported 10. Outdoor Play Areas a) When swings are used, small children w i l l be observed using them. b) Adults w i l l be seen accompanying the small children to the area equipped with play apparatus since swings, see-saws, etc. tend to be dangerous for children from 3 to 6 years of age, as shown i n the study by Canadian Environmental Sciences. Supported Supported IV) o o DESIGN ELEMENT EXPECTED BEHAVIOR RESULT 1 1 . Sandbox 1 2 . Dry Tree 1 3 . Rocks and 14-. Outdoor Seat 15. Community Play Area a) Small children f i v e years and under engaged i n general play w i l l be noticed i n the sandboxes. a) When the dry tree i s used, children w i l l be observed climbing upon i t and jumping into the sand p i t . a) Whenever rocks and h i l l o c k s are used, they w i l l stimulate such a c t i v i t i e s as, climbing, or, walking, s i t t i n g and r o l l i n g wheeled toys. a) Whenever a seat i s occupied, the occupant w i l l face toward the a c t i v i t y zone. a) This area w i l l attract residents of a l l age groups. When adults are accompanying the children i n this area, they w i l l be seen conversing with other residents. Supported Supported Not Supported Not Supported Supported ro o 202 C H A P T E R VI CONCLUSION: Since t h i s thesis i s a single case study, i t s r e sults cannot he considered conclusive. The res u l t s of the study supported the assumption made i n Chapter I that when patterns are combined to form a cohesive whole, some patterns may f a i l to achieve the purpose for which they were designed. On the whole f i f t e e n out-of-house design elements of the Acadia Park Clusters, Married Student Housing, University of B r i t i s h Columbia were observed. Many of these appeared to f u l f i l the purpose for which they were designed. However, six design elements did not support the expected behavior and two p a r t i a l l y supported the expected behavior. (See Summary - Chapter V). .The author wishes to point out that i n this study out-of-house patterns were abstracted from the design elements and the i r relevant expected behaviors were abstracted from previous research studies. Since the patterns were not studied i n r e l a t i o n to the design objectives, t h i s makes i t rather d i f f i c u l t to say whether patterns have achieved t h e i r desired purpose or not. The author believes that before any conclusion could be arrived 203 at, i t i s ess e n t i a l that buildings designed by the pattern language method (or the patterns designed by Christopher Alexander and his colleagues) should be evaluated on the basis of their expected behavior. Even though some of the design elements did not support the expected behavior, the results suggest that pattern behavior forms an entity which can be used as a unit of design. The observational technique u t i l i z e d i n t h i s study proved to be a simple method of gathering a s i g n i f i c a n t amount of data and from i t I was able to obtain a useful feedback on the physical environment and the u t i l i t y of the various design elements. It would further seem practicable to t r a i n project residents to document th i s type of information and make them part of the evalua-t i o n system, although t h i s was not done i n this case. The above technique does not involve the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of a large body of researchers. It can be conducted without i n t e r f e r i n g with the d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s of the residents and with a minimum of research equipment. Thus, i t offers an economical method of data c o l l e c t i o n . The findings of this study suggest that the research technique u t i l i z e d i n data c o l l e c t i o n and analysis i s applicable for the evaluation of patterns. 204-The time allotment per observation was very short. The author believes that i f a time sampling technique i s used, i t may y i e l d better r e s u l t s . As stated previously i n Chapter I, user needs are dependent upon factors such as: c u l t u r a l back-ground, stage i n l i f e cycle, family composition, personal values, socio-economic conditions, etc. In t h i s study only one variable has been considered, i . e . age of the p a r t i c i -pants. The author f e e l s that i f other variables are con-sidered they may provide very useful information. The author believes i n the usefulness of such studies. If continued, they can c e r t a i n l y provide information to designers, developers and administrators on which design decisions can be based. The study has pointed out that the physical arrangement of one design element to another substantially influences t h e i r i n t e n s i t y of use, as can be seen i n the case of the design elements, 7 and 10, 'woods' and 'outdoor play area' respectively. The study also points out that when two design elements overlap, new tendencies seem to develop, for example, see Design Element 14-, 'outdoor seat'. This, i n p a r t i c u l a r , could be an area of further research. If many researchers would provide us with studies of t h i s kind the accumulative results could be s i g n i f i c a n t . 205 REFERENCES: Alexander, Christopher, Hirshen, S., Ishikawa, S., C o f f i n , C , & Angel, S. Houses Generated by Patterns. Berkeley, C a l i f o r n i a , Center for Environmental Structure, A p r i l 1970. Alexander, Christopher, Ishikawa, S., & S i l v e r s t e i n , M. A Pattern Language Which Generates Multi-Service Centers. Berkeley, C a l i f o r n i a , Center for Environmental Structure, 1968. Alexander, Christopher, & Poyner, Barry. "The Atoms of Environmental Structure." Part 9 , A r t i c l e 33 i n Moore, Gary T. Emerging Methods i n Environmental Design and  Planning. Proceedings of The Design Methods Group F i r s t International Conference Cambridge, Massachusetts, June 1968. Barker, Roger G., & Gump, Paul V. Big School, Small School. Stanford, C a l i f o r n i a , Stanford University Press, 1964-. B r i l l , Michael. "Evaluating Buildings on a Performance Basis." An A r t i c l e i n Architecture and Human Behavior: A Mini-Conference and Exhib i t i o n. Philadelphia, The American Institute of Architects, November 1971. Canadian Environmental Sciences. Acadia, Stage I I : University of B r i t i s h Columbia Married Student Housing  Program. Vancouver, 1969. Coates, Gary, & Sanoff, Henry. "Behavioral Mapping: The Ecology of Child Behavior i n a Planned Residential Setting." Environmental-Design Research Association: Proceedings of the Annual Conference, 1972, Vol. 1. Cooper, Clare. "St. Francis Square: Attitudes of Its Residents." AIA Journal. December 1971. Cooper, Clare. The Adventure Playground; Creative Play i n an Urban Setting and a Potential Focus for Community  Involvement. Berkeley, University of C a l i f o r n i a , Institute of Urban & Regional Development, 1970. 206 Cooper, Clare & Hackett, P. Analysis of the Design Process  at Two Moderate-Income Housing Developments: Working  Paper No. 80. Berkeley, University of C a l i f o r n i a , June 1968. Festinger, Leon, Schachter, S., & Back, K. S o c i a l Pressures  i n Informal Groups. New York, Harper & Brothers, 1950. Gans, Herbert J. The Levittowners; Way of L i f e and P o l i t i c s  i n a New Suburban Community. New York, Pantheon Books, 1967. Hole, Vere. Children's Play on Housing Estates: National  Building Studies Research Paper 39. . London, Her Majesty's "Stationery Office, 1966. Hole, W.V., & Attenburrow, J.J. Houses and People. London, Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 1966. I t t e l s o n , William H., R i v l i n , Leanne G., & Proshansky, Harold M. "The Use of Behavioral Maps i n Environmental Psychology." A r t i c l e 65 i n Proshansky, H.M., Ittelson, W.H., & R i v l i n , L.G. Environmental Psychologyv Man and  Physical Setting. New York, Holt, Rinehart and"Winston, inc., 1 9 7 0 .—ppT 6 5 9 - 6 6 8 . Kira, Alexander. "Privacy and the Bathroom." A r t i c l e 28 i n Proshansky, H.M., Ittelson, W.H., & R i v l i n , L.G. Environmental Psychology: Man and His Physical Setting. New York, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1970. pp. 269-275-Lansing, John B., Marans, R.W., & Zehner, R.B. Planned  Residential Environments. Survey Research Center, Institute for S o c i a l Research, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1970. Michelson, William. Man and His Urban Environment: A S o c i o l o g i c a l Approach. Massachusetts, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1970. Montgomery, Roger. "Pattern Language." A r t i c l e i n Forum. Jan./Feb. 1970. 207 S a i l e , David G., Borooah, R., & Williams, M.G. "Families i n Public Housing: A Study of Three L o c a l i t i e s i n Rockford, I l l i n o i s . " Environmental Design Research  Association: Proceedings of the Annual Conference, 1972, Vol. 1. S i n c l a i r , J. The Study of Children's Play Areas i n 221-d-3 Housing. University of Berkeley, C a l i f o r n i a , March 1969-White, L.E. "The Outdoor Play of Children Living i n F l a t s : An Enquiry into the Use of Courtyards as Playgrounds." A r t i c l e 38 i n Proshansky, H.M., Ittels o n , W.H. & R i v l i n , L.G. Environmental Psychology: Man and His  Physical Setting. New York, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1970. Willmott, Peter. "Housing Density and Town Design i n a New Town." Town Planning Review. London, July 1962, Vol.34-. Whyte, William H. Cluster Development. New York, American Conservation Association, 1964-. Whyte, William H. The Organization Man. - New York, Simon and Schuster, 1956. APPENDIX A. Sample of Data Sheets 208 iectArp^ : fic*^Mjv. - fyi>\K C£U*&C& — 7 XwJijc*-^ A#v*-w/o4\u^{' 1 f M-f-I f f : 5 ^"7 ' f t 2. 1 I I I 2 • • j ' A / * J t J l ^i^Cj-- ClrU-xLjL I\^J^A% *>**L< iU^r^f L\ft*A* t 23 y * r &y&6^j If ^7 40a. _ H t / f-r 3 -2 7 / S T ! / ! I ! / \ t \ l i / / it, i j / ! / i ! ( ! / 210 AH. ( I Lj, i i APPENDIX B. Assessment of Observer's E r r 212 In order to assess the observer's error, two observers conducted a walk-round at the same time and independently recorded the outdoor a c t i v i t i e s and the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the participants. The agreement between the recorded observations was as follows: observed a c t i v i t i e s 90%, estimated age group 79%> and sex 88%. 213 OBSERVATION SHEET Location: Jb>Ui* A*£ ^ £Date :£pf-il^Tirae: 3;J^v* Weather: <Uoyvt*f\j*itlf Location No. Activity- Age I f gjoup .ze 2 I 7, t to II •/> / r / / *7. / <3 / / 7 I Location: OBSERVATION SHEET Date: Time: Weather: Location A c t i v i t y Age i ! %o /»••* (Ct, *•» fL^f* —V < 7 %z • C 7 ..Uf. H i ***** '3.-r •^2. • • / * 7 215 OBSERVATION SHEET Location: Date: Time: Weather: Location No, Activity i Age} |< 9? BISS" 1 2 1, H-b n % l 0 ir i t 17 3-D Wvp-V^ --^  flM-^ (JUJx' -lLt>~-«-CcXiO A4_dL*^ 3^A^t<W J i ( 7- S 4--H- - £ 4— 6> fr - T fe- "I • < / •i 3 • 3 1 • «/ p— location: 033F:HVATT0?T ftvfHVT Date: Time: 216 v.'eather: Tiocation Ho* A c t i v i t y '^l(^i>ccj_, jft-JUf l/j ' S i ! M ! v i i r i 

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