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Frankish psalmody : the evidence of the commemoratio brevis Kitson, John Richard 1973

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PRANKISH PSAUDDY: THE EVIDENCE OF THE COMMEMQRATIO BREVIS by John Richard K i t son B. Mus., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1971 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF MUSIC i n the Department of Music t h i s the s i s as conforming to the required Advisor We accept standard. THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1973 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make i t freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Music The University of British Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date A p r i l 19, 1973 ABSTRACT This the s i s i s a study of the Frankish psalmody of the ear ly medieval p e r i o d . The most important source of t h i s prac t i ce i n existence today i s the tenth-century t r e a t i s e , the Commemoratio Brev i s de Tonis et Psalmis  Modulandis. During the l a s t f i f t y years there have been several attempts by musicologis ts to come to terms with the evidence of t h i s source but these, unfortunate ly , were based on a f au l ty eighteenth-century e d i t i o n of an incomplete manuscript. The present study, however, i s based on a new e d i t i o n of the only complete source: the Wolfenbuttel Ms.Gud. l a t . 2 ° 72 (4376). The method has been to reconstruct the evidence of t h i s t rea t i se—the musical examples of psalm tones and the commentary of the text—and to compare i t to the standard prac t i ce of the l a te Middle Ages. E r ror s perpetuated unwit t ing ly by the eighteenth-century e d i t i o n have been cor rec ted . The in t roduc t ion summarizes the methods and o r i g i n s of psalmody; the ro le of the Franks i n the formation of the Gregorian r e p e r t o i r e ; the subsequent decay and reform of the chant; and the r o l e of the psalms i n the l i t u r g y . The f i r s t four chapters consider the many i n f l e c t i o n s of the psalm tone i n d i v i d u a l l y : the f i r s t i n t o n a t i o n , the terminat ion, the tenor and the mediant melody. The f i n a l chapter i s devoted to a study of the spec ia l tones which were probably the remains of a pract ice even e a r l i e r than that of the tenth century. The Gregorian psalm tones appear at f i r s t sight to be s t e r i l e ground for h i s t o r i c a l invest igat ion—almost featureless i n t h e i r s i m p l i c i t y . Closer inspec t ion revea l s , however, a number of discernable s trata belonging to quite d i f f e rent epochs. The e a r l i e s t por t ion of the psalm tone i s the tenor . There can be l i t t l e argument that the most p r i m i t i v e usage involved the r e c i t a t i o n of l i t u r g i c a l texts on a s ingle p i t c h (hardly a musical phenomenon, more properly described as a method of publ ic address) . The next stage involved—for the purpose of a r t i c u l a t i n g the verses of psalms—the a f f i x i n g of intonat ions and terminat ions . In the e a r l i e s t epoch, before the C a r o l i n g i a n reforms, i t would seem that a psalmody of in tona t ions , tenors and terminations was not yet formed into a coherent system. It i s genera l ly bel ieved that the system of the eight modes was i t s e l f only introduced in to the West at the time of the great Emperor. It would be d i f f i c u l t therefore to argue that the pract ice p r i o r to t h i s in t roduct ion had any connection with the eight-mode system. It would seem, r a ther , that l o c a l usages invo lv ing many pat terns , some of them made venerable by great a n t i q u i t y , were i n f o r c e . The next stage i n the evolut ion was to provide a c o r r e l a t i o n between the new system of the octo&chos and the psalmody. At t h i s point most of the older free prac t ice was abandoned. Some remnants, however, have remained—we have suggested that t h i s i s an explanation for the spec ia l tones i n the Commemoratio B r e v i s - - e i t h e r owing to the force of t r a d i t i o n or the d i f f i c u l t y of making indisputable modal assignments. The a t t i tude to the text of the psalm did not remain unchanged throughout t h i s long period of e v o l u t i o n . In the e a r l i e s t period the text accent was treated quite c a sua l ly , as an examination of the intonat ions and the terminations shows c l e a r l y . At a l a t e r stage, however,--and here the mediant port ions of the psalms with t h e i r quite d i f f e rent a t t i tude toward text accent are in s t ruc t ive—the musicians approached the problem quite d i f f e r e n t l y , taking extraordinary care that the correct i n f l e c t i o n s of the words were pro jec ted . I t i s tempting to associate t h i s new approach, which reminds one so much of the Renaissance, with the wel l known Caro l ing i an r e b i r t h of knowledge. The h i s t o r y of the psalm tones subsequent to the Commemoratio Brevi s i s one of progressive refinement: a reduct ion to a prac t i ce both supple and l o g i c a l , the l a s t stage of which i s represented by the Vat i can E d i t i o n of 1908. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page LIST OF TABLES i i i LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS i v INTRODUCTION 1 CHAPTER I . FIRST INTONATIONS 33 I I . TERMINATIONS 59 I I I . TENORS 77 IV. THE MEDIANT MELODY 93 V . SPECIAL TONES 141 AN HISTORICAL CONCLUSION . 153 BIBLIOGRAPHY 155 i i TABLE Page Psalm Tone Tenors Determined by Three Systems . . 79 i i i LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Figure Page 1. Psalm tones with daseian notat ion from Commemoratio Brev i s . Wolfenbuttel Ms. Gud. l a t . 2 ° 72(4376) ( f o l i o 85v). . . . 45 2. The Eight Regular Psalm Tones from the Commemoratio Brev i s . Wolfenbuttel Ms. Gud. l a t . 2 ° 72(4376) ( f o l i o 84) . . . . 57 3. The Fourth Regular Psalm Tone from the Commemoratio Brev i s . Wolfenbuttel Ms. Gjjd J__Lai. 2 ° 7214376) ( f o l i o 84) . . . . 91 4 . The Fourth Regular Psalm Tone from the Commemoratio Brev i s . S t . Paul i n C a r i n t h i a Ms. 29.4.2 ( f o l i o 3v) 91 5. The S i x t h Regular Psalm Tone from the Commemoratio Brev i s . Wolfenbuttel Ms. Gud. l a t . 2 ° 72(4376) ( f o l i o 84) . . . . 129 6. The S i x t h Regular Psalm Tone from the Commemoratio Brev i s . S t . Paul i n C a r i n t h i a Ms. 29.4.2 ( f o l i o 3v) . . . . . . 129 7. The S ix th Regular Psalm Tone from the Commemoratio, B r e v i s . Gerber t , Scr ip tores I , p. 217 130 i v INTRODUCTION METHODS OF PSALMODY The long h i s to ry of psalmody i n the C h r i s t i a n c u l t reveal s three methods of psalm s ing ing . What would seem to be the most ancient of these was the r e c i t a t i o n of the psalm by a " s ing le s o l o i s t , who monotoned the greater part of the psalm, but inserted var ious cadences or i n f l e c t i o n s at c e r t a i n points of d i s t i n c t i o n i n the ver se . "^ This method i s u sua l ly known as d i r e c t psalmody, as the i n t e r -j e c t i o n of r e f r a i n s by the congregation or a choir was not pract iced t h e r e i n . The opinion that d i r e c t psalmody was not an ancient prac t ice has been put forward by Peter o Wagner, but more recent i n v e s t i g a t i o n has es tabl i shed proof that d i r e c t psalmody i n C h r i s t i a n worship exis ted as ear ly as the fourth century.^ It i s , however, reasonable to assume that such a method of psalm singing which favoured s o l o i s t i c "^Walter H . Frere , "Responsorial Psalmody," Grove 1 s Dic t ionary of Music and Music ians . 5th e d . , V I I , 130. 2 Peter Wagner, Introduct ion to the Gregorian  Melodies : A Handbook of P la insong . t r ans . Agnes Orme and E . G . P . Wyatt (London: The Plainsong & Medieval Soc. [JL907J ) » p . 23. i 3 * ' Paolo F e r r e t t i , Esthetique greoorienne (Tournai , 1938), p . 138. 2 performance--and thus excluded much p a r t i c i p a t i o n of a l l those i n v o l v e d i n p u b l i c w o r s h i p — h a d l i t t l e appeal f o r the crowds which populated the b a s i l i c a s of the e a r l y C h r i s t i a n Church. A remedy which provided a p a r t i c i p a t i n g r o l e f o r the congregation was g r a d u a l l y evolved. I n t e r j e c t i o n s of short responses by the congregation were added at the co n c l u s i o n of each verse of the psalm. This second method of psalm s i n g i n g i s known as r e s p o n s o r i a l psalmody. In a n c i e n t times the t e x t s of the responses or r e f r a i n s seem t o have been extremely s h o r t . They c o n s i s t e d of a s i n g l e word such as "amen" or " a l l e l u i a , " "or some pregnant sentence drawn from the psalm which was being sung."4 Walter H. F r e r e ^ c o n s i d e r s t h a t such a simple form of r e s p o n s o r i a l psalmody d i d not endure f o r any le n g t h of time since l i t t l e or nothing s u r v i v e s of t h i s simple p r a c t i c e . What does remain i s an elaborate form which F r e r e b e l i e v e s t o be "the r e s u l t of the growing a r t i s t i c f e e l i n g , [and] i n consequence of the exist e n c e of t r a i n e d s i n g e r s i n the great song school of Rome. . . . " This elaborate form of r e s p o n s o r i a l psalmody i s performed by a s o l o i s t who sings the verses of the psalm i n 4 F r e r e , "Responsorial," p. 130. 5 Ibj,d,. 3 a l t e r n a t i o n with a choir who respond with the r e f r a i n . In h i s d i scus s ion of t h i s form, Frere points out tha t : . . . i t was impossible to sing the whole psalm to a h ighly ornate chant h a b i t u a l l y , Cand thus] c e r t a i n verses were selected from the psalm for t h i s elaborate treatment; and there grew up, there fore , the musical form c a l l e d the Respond, which consis ted i n i t s s implest shape of a chora l melody ( ca l l ed the Respond proper) a l t e r n a t i n g with one or more verses sung by the s o l o i s t . " This type of re sponsor ia l psalmody, although e x h i b i t i n g signs of subsequent e l abora t ion , i s to be found i n the music of the Mass and the Divine Of f i ce where i t serves "as an inter lude between the reading of the l e s sons . " At the Mass i t i s c a l l e d Responsorium Graduale or simply the Gradual , while at the Of f i ce i t i s c a l l e d Responsorium. In a d d i t i o n , simpler forms of re sponsor ia l music "modelled on the elaborate responds of Matins" are employed at the l e s ser o f f i ce s (Prime, Terce, e t c . ) . Such shortened forms are c a l l e d Responsorium breve.' - 7 Examples of the Responsorium Graduale and the simpler Responsprium are a l so to be found i n F r e r e 1 s a r t i c l e . The t h i r d method of psalm singing (the one which w i l l be our main concern) i s ant iphonal psalmody. For t h i s type the choi r i s d iv ided " in to two groups which sing the verses 6 J J a i d . . 7 ibid. i n a l t e r n a t i o n , one group echoing the o ther . "^ The bas is of t h i s s ty le i s c e r t a i n l y the Hebrew verse form i n which each verse of the psalm-text " i s d iv ided in to two members that balance each other as antecedent and consequent. A r e f r a i n c a l l e d the antiphon was o r i g i n a l l y used between a l l verses and, as w e l l , by way of an i n t r o d u c t i o n and a conclus ion to the s inging of a psalm. This great amount of r e p e t i t i o n made the f u l l performance of a Psalm an unduly protracted a f f a i r , and i n the 9th or 10th century the singing of the antiphon was normally r e s t r i c t e d to a s ingle r e p e t i t i o n at the end of the psalm. Today, the f i r s t appearance of the antiphon i s further reduced to an I p g i p A t . 1 0 THE ORIGINS OF PSALMODY A study of the h i s t o r y of psalm singing y i e l d s evidence that antiphonal psalmody was prac t i ced i n very ancient t imes . Peter Wagner^ was able to e s t a b l i s h the "prominent use" of a l t e r n a t i n g cho i r s as e a r l y as the 4th century: 8 Gustave Reese, Music i n t]ie Middle Ages (New York: W. W. Norton and Company, 1940), p . 172. 9 I b i d . . p . 170. 1 0 I b i d . . p . 172. 1 1 Wagner, I n t r o d . U c U Q P » p. 18ff . 5 From Ant ioch psalmody i n a l t e rna t ing chorus spread over the whole C h r i s t i a n world, both i n the Greek and the L a t i n Churches . . • • The merit of making the West acquainted with the antiphonal chant belongs to S. Ambrose of Mi lan , who at the time of h i s persecution by the Empress Jus t ina (386) ins t ruc ted those who were f a i t h f u l to him . . . i n the singing of antiphons and hymns. A source of useful information concerning ear ly psalmodic prac t i ce i s the d e t a i l e d account of the service 12 as i t was "celebrated i n Jerusalem about A . D . 385. • • . " In t h i s ea r ly document e n t i t l e d Peregr inat io E ther i ae . i t i s often remarked that "Hymns are sa id , and Psalms are sung with responses, and a l so Ant iphons , " or that " re sponsor ia l Psalms are s a i d , i n a l t e r n a t i o n with Ant iphons . " Ape l and other scholars consider that the use of the word antiphon fantiphona^] as used i n t h i s document "means f u l l 13 Psalms sung ant iphona l ly . . . . " I t was, perhaps, the gradual establishment of a t ra ined body of s ingers as a permanent and v i t a l l y important member of the L a t i n Church i n Rome that f i n a l l y es tab l i shed 12 Peregr ina t io E ther i ae . c i t e d by W i l l i A p e l , Gregorian Chant (Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana U n i v e r s i t y Press , 1958), p . 43. 13 Ib id . . , p . 46. 6 antiphonal psalmody ( th i s p o s i t i o n w i l l be taken up l a t e r ) as the very generator of the o f f i c i a l chant. Although the foundation of a song-school i n Rome by Pope S i l v e s t e r (314-336) lacks h i s t o r i c a l proof, Peter Wagner be l ieves i t s existence to have been most probable . The in t roduc t ion by Pope Ce les t ine I of antiphonal chanting for the I n t r o i t of the Mass presupposes a choi r of ins t ructed s ingers . • . . Such were the beginnings from which the Roman song-school descended, which l a t e r became so f l o u r i s h i n g and i n f l u e n t i a l . i 4 CHANT - GREGORIAN OR FRANKISH? The Gregorian prac t i ce as i t has been known for centur ies i s not purely Roman. The formation of the chant occupied many musicians i n diverse regions for the f i r s t mil lenium of the C h r i s t i a n c i v i l i z a t i o n . The loose appelat ion of the r e s u l t i n g reper to i re as Gregorian Chant has led to a state of confusion regarding the true sources of the music as i t survives today. In e a r l i e r times i t was considered that a dec i s ive r o l e had been played by Pope Gregory I (590-604) i n the c rea t ion of the chant. In f a c t , during the Middle Ages a number of legends were perpetuated to surround the memory of t h i s famous S a i n t . These include a l l e g a t i o n s "that Gregory added four p laga l tones to the four authentic 14 Wagner, Introduct ion , pp. 25-26. 7 tones supposedly introduced by S t . Ambrose, and that he received h i s melodies by i n s p i r a t i o n from the Holy Ghost. . . ."15 Countless medieval a r t i s t s p ic tured Gregory r e c e i v i n g the melodies of the chant from a dove (the symbolic representat ion of the Holy Ghost) s inging in to h i s ear . But t h i s hazy evidence and the fact that there are i n existence no manuscripts which contain musical signs or notat ion from Gregory 's times impugns the c r e d i b i l i t y of these legends. The problems of the a u t h e n t i c i t y of such ancient t r a d i t i o n s are i n t e n s i f i e d by the wide gap between the dates of Gregory ' s a c t i v i t i e s and those of the most important documents for the support of the Gregorian p o s i t i o n . John the Deacon's biography of Gregory's l i f e was wr i t t en about three centur ie s a f ter Gregory 's death—c. 8 7 0 . 1 6 As ea r ly as the l a s t quarter of the 17th century the Gregorian t r a d i t i o n came under considerable ques t ioning . In the l a s t decade of the 19th century i t was thoroughly 1 7 re-questioned by Gevaert . Today, most scholars agree that Gregorian Chant i s the fus ion of a number of r i t e s or 15 * Gustave Reese, Middle Ages, p . 121. 16 Wagner, Introduct ion , p . 371 f . A . Gevaert , La Melopee Antique dans le Chant de  l ' E g l i s e L a t i n (1895), ix f f . 8 pract ices—the old reper to i re of Rome i t s e l f , with G a l l i c a n "and even Ambrosian elements, . . . a product of the Franconian renaissance . "^^ At the beginning of the 8th century there were, i t can be shown, a great many vers ions of the l i t u r g y of the Church i n use i n the various centres of Western Europe. Among others , these included the G a l l i c a n , Milanese and V i s i g o t h i c r i t e s . But c e r t a i n p o l i t i c a l manoeuvers were to r e s u l t i n an eventual u n i f i c a t i o n of a l l aspects of l i t u r g i c a l matters i n the West. This was the formation of a t h r i v i n g empire on the border lands of present-day France and Germany, the C a r o l i n g i a n c i v i l i z a t i o n . A f u l l recounting of the rami f i ca t ions of these p o l i t i c a l matters i s too d e t a i l e d to be included i n the present study. I t i s u se fu l , however, to r e c a l l the close connection that ex i s ted between the Frankish kingdom and the papal court i n Rome. Pope Leo III (795-816) had been accused of "scandalous c r imes , " and had been forced to f l ee from Rome to secure the help of Charlemagne. The l a t t e r supported the p o s i t i o n of the Pope, and Leo was tr iumphantly re ins ta ted i n Rome. In r e t u r n , for so i t must seem, Charlemagne was crowned by Leo as Emperor of the Romans on Christmas Day i n the year 800. By t h i s r i t u a l , and through numerous other p o l i t i c a l moves i n successive years , the 18 Egon Wel lesz , "Recent Studies i n Western Chant , " Musical Quarter ly . XLI ( A p r i l , 1955), 177-190. 9 Roman Empire i n the West was r e - e s t a b l i s h e d . Thus a curious in terming l ing of temporal and r e l i g i o u s power was ins t iga ted and propel led toward a p o s i t i o n of ascendancy over a great part of Western Europe. This union was a lso to become a serious r i v a l to the author i ty claimed by the r u l e r s of the Byzantine Empire i n the Eas t . The f i r s t attempt to introduce the papal or Roman r i t e in to the Frankish lands seems to have been undertaken by Charlemagne's father Pepin, who, i n 754, declared the r i t e s of the incumbent G a l l i c a n Church to be outlawed by r o y a l d e c r e e . ^ Owing to the fact that Roman service books were not r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e , and that much of the d i f f u s i o n of the Roman chant must have depended on o ra l t ransmiss ion, t h i s move met with l i t t l e ac tua l success. La te r , Charlemagne pressed matters more urgent ly . A l l books of the older r i t e s were commanded to be destroyed, and "a new Sacramentary . • . w a s introduced, a mixture of Roman and G a l l i c a n r i t e s . This new Sacramentary was henceforth regarded as representing the authentic Roman l i t u r g y . " 2 0 As i s common with a r t i s t i c importat ions , the Roman r i t e began to be subtly impregnated with G a l l i c a n 19 I b i d . , p . 184. 20 Ibid. . 10 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Feasts p e c u l i a r t o the G a l l i c a n Church were introduced i n t o the imported l i t u r g y . Wellesz suggests t h a t the l a t t e r part of the n i n t h century i s an appropriate "date f o r t h i s new Roman-Gallican Antiphonary, because the f u s i o n of the Roman and G a l l i c a n f e a s t s and prayers i n the Sacramentaries took place at t h a t d a t e . " ^ DECAY AND REFORM OF THE CHANT The subsequent h i s t o r y of Gregorian chant, from the per i o d of establishment i n the 9th century t o the present day, r e q u i r e s a l s o some c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Rembert Weakland c o n s i d e r s t h a t Gregorian chant "has continued i n pp unbroken use i n the Roman r i t e . . • . I t must be pointed out, however, t h a t the p r a c t i c e of the chant was subjected to both c o n s i d e r a b l e abuse and numerous attempts a t reform during the c e n t u r i e s t h a t intervene the formation of the chant and the most recent r e s t o r a t i o n i n s t i t u t e d i n the l a t e 19th century. In order to r e c o n s t r u c t a c l e a r view of the many i s s u e s and events which c o n s t i t u t e t h i s h i s t o r y , i t i s convenient t o d i v i d e the long p e r i o d i n t o two s e c t i o n s . The l i n e of demarcation between these p e r i o d s i s the C o u n c i l of Trent (1545-1563). 21 22 Rembert Weakland, "Gregorian Chant," New C a t h o l i c Encyclopedia, X (1967), 106-109. 11 The establishment of a un iver sa l p rac t i ce i n which the t r a d i t i o n a l chant of the church would remain i n a state of preservat ion was the concern of the l e g i s l a t i o n s of a number of counc i l s i n the pre-Tr ident ine p e r i o d . 23 P. Pe l l egr ino Maria E r n e t t i be l ieves that these e f fo r t s against abuses and decadence begin with the C o n c i l i o Romano i n 853, and goes on to l i s t e ight important counc i l s between 1257 and 1317 which were " f e r o c i c o n t r i t u t t i i generi d i a b u s i . " The same wr i te r considers that these ear ly struggles toward reform culminate i n the celebrated A p o s t o l i c Cons t i tu t ions of John XXII , the Docta Sanctorum Patrum. which 24 date from 1324-1325. The f i r s t and t h i r d parts of these c o n s t i t u t i o n s were concerned with the problems that arose owing to the i n t r u s i o n of polyphony into the mater ia l s of the monophonic chant. A f u l l d i scus s ion of the attempted reforms i s contained i n E r n e t t i ' s volume. An i n t e r e s t i n g view of the general state of a f f a i r s concerning the l i t u r g y of the church i n the 13th century has been provided by S . J . P . Van D i j k and J . Hazelden Walker . *^ 23 P. P e l l e g r i n o Maria E r n e t t i , Quadro S t o r i c o de l  Canto Gregoriano, V p l . IV: II Canto Gregoriano (Venice: In s t i tu to per l a Col laborazione C u l t u r a l e , 1964), p . 190. 24 i b i d . , p . 174. 25 I b i d . , pp. 175-192. 26 S . J . P . Van D i j k and Joan Hazelden Walker, The O r i g i n s of the Modern Roman L i t u r g y . (London: Darton, Longman and Todd, 1960). 12 The prac t i ce s of the l i t u r g y i n Rome i t s e l f were hardly to be c a l l e d uniform. Considerable d i f ferences were to be found between the Of f i ce of the papal court and the var ious churches of Rome. S o c i a l and economic problems were a l so to exert a degree of inf luence on the d i f f i c u l t i e s which beset the establishment of a un iver sa l p r a c t i c e . The enormous task of performing the Hours of the D a i l y O f f i c e , i t seems, was l e s s the r e s u l t of pious devotion than of a system inaugurated to combat id leness i n the monasteries. Lack of opportunity for manual labour i n diverse regions was often the source of a sharp increase i n o f f i c i a l prayer . As a matter of course, there was much c r i t i c i s m voiced against the burden of the O f f i c e , and res i s tance was often openly expressed. Lack of space prevents us from pursuing the r ami f i ca t ions of these problems to a greater degree. I t need only be said that the r e s u l t s were a v a r i e t y of p rac t i ce s which tended to weaken a l l e f f o r t s d i rec ted toward the establishment of a un iver sa l l i t u r g i c a l p r a c t i c e . A number of factors were eventual ly to combine and thus br ing about an urgent demand for a number of reforms i n church matters. The threat of the Protestant Reformation had become an overwhelming r e a l i t y during the 16th century and had shaken the Mother Church to her very foundations . The ensuing Counter-Reformation brought to the Roman Church an enormous in fu s ion of new v i t a l i t y which c r i e d out for a re-order ing of a l l aspects of church a f f a i r s . As a r e s u l t , 13 a lengthy ser ies of de l ibera t ions and l e g i s l a t i o n s were undertaken by the var ious committees of the famous Counc i l of Trent . The musical reforms were deal t with at the twenty-second and the twenty-fourth general sessions of the C o u n c i l of Trent i n 1562 and 1563. 2 > 7 A further cons idera t ion of musical problems was delegated to a Commission of Card ina l s which sat i n Rome during the fo l lowing two years (1564-1565). The r e s u l t s , however, were rather feeble and n e g l i g i b l e . "The f i n a l recommendations of the Counc i l were negative rather than p o s i t i v e . • . . The Counc i l of Trent simply forbade p a r t i c u l a r prac t i ce s and i n s i s t e d that c e r t a i n r e s u l t s be obtained, without speci fying the means." Although a r e turn to monophonic music was i n i t i a l l y - s t rongly advocated, the r e t e n t i o n of polyphonic music was i n s i s t e d upon by a number of i n f l u e n t i a l persons connected with the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l c i r c l e s — t h e Emperor Ferdinand I , and Duke A l b e r t V of Bavar ia , the patron of Lassus. Indeed, a disparaging a t t i tude had a r i s en toward chant which further a s s i s ted i n i t s d e c l i n e . The L a t i n accentuation of the Medieval times was thoroughly misunderstood by Renaissance 27 Gustave Reese, Music i n the Renaissance. Revised e d . , (New York : W.W. Norton & Co . I n c . , 1959), p . 448. 28 I b i d . . pp. 448-449. 14 musicians. The l a t t e r were of the opinion that the manuscripts of the Middle Ages were "defect ive and sought to correct them. . . ,"29 The aforementioned important p o s i t i o n of polyphonic music was, i n d i r e c t l y , a further blow to the chant. In the large churches elaborate polyphonic set t ings of the Masses were performed at important se rv ices . The smaller churches.had formerly adhered to plainsong as they were not equipped to execute the more complex music. But now, they e lected to abandon plainsong and "to emulate the larger churches as far as pos s ib l e ; they consequently c a l l e d for Masses wr i t ten as part-music, yet not too d i f f i c u l t . " ^ 0 The demand for such short Masses led to the composition of a new and ubiquitous type i n a simple musical s ty le known as the Missa b r e y i g . Immediately fol lowing the decrees of the Counc i l of Trent , a stand was made toward the univer sa l adoption of a standard form of the l i t u r g y . Pius V declared i n 1568 and i n 1570 the use of the Roman Breviary and Mis sa l as ob l i ga to ry . The only exceptions were to be those r i t e s which had been i n existence for more than two-hundred years . 29 I b i d . , p. 450. 30 I b i d . 31 P. Salmon, "Divine O f f i c e , Roman," New Ca tho l i c encyclopedia, IV (1967), 912-920. 15 The wider employment of a uniformity of the l i t u r g y had at l a s t been rendered p r a c t i c a l through the invent ion of p r i n t i n g and the wide dissemination of pr inted mater i a l s . It was during t h i s same period that several " e d i t i o n s " of the t r a d i t i o n a l melodic formulas of the chant were prepared and u l t imate ly publ i shed . Pa l e s t r ina was o r i g i n a l l y appointed to d i r e c t the preparat ion of a new e d i t i o n , but soon r e t i r e d from the commission. These e d i t i o n s were p r i n c i p a l l y concerned with a reformation of the melodic formulas i n which the melismas on unaccented s y l l a b l e s were to be e l imina ted . Needless to say, the r e s u l t s were le s s than success fu l . The E d i t i o Medicea. which was eventual ly prepared by Aner io and Suriano and published i n Rome i n 1614, i s considered to be a " d r a s t i c " ver s ion of the chant and i s d e f i n i t e l y not r e l i a b l e . 3 2 Unfortunately the Medicean e d i t i o n that re su l ted from an attempt at reform was not founded on scho lar ly p r i n c i p l e s and r e f l e c t e d more the e s the t i c s of the la te Renaissance than the ear ly Middle Ages. This e d i t i o n , however, remained the source of a l l subsequent ed i t ions u n t i l the 19th century.33 It i s not our i n t e n t i o n to create the impression that the pos t -Tr ident ine period was one of v i r t u a l complaisance with regard to l i t u r g i c a l l e g i s l a t i o n and reform. On the contrary , R. G. Hayburn l i s t s no l e s s than eleven such 32 W i l l i A p e l , " L i t u r g i c a l Books, I . , " Harvard  Dic t ionary of Music (1969), 486-487. 33 R. G . Weakland, "Gregorian Chant , " New Ca tho l i c  Encyclopedia . XI (1967), 756-761. 16 l e g i s l a t i o n s between the Piae S o l l i c i t u d i n i s of Alexander VII which was issued i n 1657 and the Dec lara t ion of C a r d i n a l P a t r i z i of 1842 and 1846 . 3 4 A step that would u l t imate ly lead to the standardiza-t i o n of a un iver sa l l i t u r g y was taken by Pope Sixtus V . On January 22, 1588, the Congregation of Sacred Ri te s and 35 Ceremonies was created . "Moderation of the L i t u r g y " was the prime r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the Congregation, but i n ac tua l pract ice i t "has been c h i e f l y concerned with the causes of b e a t i f i c a t i o n and canonizat ion of s a i n t s . " As soon as the author izat ions of the Counc i l of Trent had received pub l i ca t ion i n the form of l i t u r g i c a l books, the Congregation simply l i m i t e d i t s a c t i v i t i e s to "decrees and responses to d i f f i c u l t y . " Attempts and e f fo r t s toward l i t u r g i c a l reform and r e v i s i o n d id not take place u n t i l the l a te 19th century. It was at t h i s time that Pope Leo XIII appointed two add i t iona l commissions i n order to create a measure of balance with the Congregation's "preoccupation with b e a t i f i c a t i o n and c a n o n i z a t i o n . " In 1891 a L i t u r g i c a l Commission was es tabl i shed "to codi fy past decrees and to advise the Congregation on l i t u r g i c a l quest ions . . . . " 34 R . F . Hayburn, "Music Sacred, L e g i s l a t i o n O n , " New Catho l i c Encyclopedia . X , (1967), 129-131. 35 F .R . McManus, "R i t e s , Congregation o f , " New  Catho l i c Encyclopedia . XII (1967), 518-519. The information which fol lows i n t h i s paragraph has been drawn e n t i r e l y from t h i s a r t i c l e . 17 A l i t t l e more than a decade l a t e r the H i s t o r i c o - l i t u r g i c a l Commission was formed to deliberate on " h i s t o r i c a l questions, with special reference to the eventual reform of the l i t u r g i c a l books," The l i t u r g i c a l reforms of the twentieth century continue with the Motu proprio of Pius X which was issued on November 22, 1903. This pronouncement decreed upon the "norms of music" to be employed at the services, and c a l l e d for "holiness, true art and u n i v e r s a l i t y . " The l i s t of recommended music was headed by Gregorian chant. Somewhat e a r l i e r a changing attitude on the part of music his t o r i a n s and a new in t e r e s t i n l i t u r g i c a l h istory had merged to become prime fact o r s i n a movement which sought to restore Gregorian chant to i t s Urform. According to W i l l i A p e l , 3 7 "the f i r s t tangible r e s u l t s " were P. Lambi l l o t t e 1 s Antiphonare de Saint Gregoire (Brussels, 1851) and Antiphonarium Romantim (Paris, 1854). Edmonde de 38 Coussemaker 1s contributions i n the form of r e p r i n t s of medieval t h e o r e t i c a l t r e a t i s e s followed between 1864 and 1876. 36 Hayburn, "Music Sacred," p. 131. 37 Apel, " L i t u r g i c a l Books," p. 487. 38 Edmond de Coussemaker, Scriptorum de musical medii  aevi novam seriem a Gerbertina alteram c o l l e g i t nuncquae Piiuni, 4 vo l s . , (Paris: A . Durand, 1864-1876). 18 The cont r ibu t ion of the justly-famous Benedictines of Solesmes must be considered to be the most dec i s ive factor involved i n the r e s t o r a t i o n of a correc t text for the chant during the l a s t hundred years . This work was ins t iga ted by Dom Gueranger and c a r r i e d on by a number of dedicated scholars inc luding Dom Pothier and Dom Mocquereau. The r e s u l t s of t h e i r research manifested i t s e l f i n the E d i t i o Vat i cana . and the Paleographie Musica le . In 1948 Pius XII appointed a new commission to continue the work i n i t i a t e d by Pius X. Named the " P o n t i f i c a l Commission for the General Restorat ion of the L i t u r g y , " t h i s group was entrusted with "a p a r t i a l r e v i s i o n of the Roman M i s s a l , Breviary and P o n t i f i c a l . " 3 9 For the purpose of a complete reform of a l l the l i t u r g i c a l books, Paul VI created a new commission, the Consi l ium for the Implementa-t i o n of the C o n s t i t u t i o n of the Sacred L i t u r g y . This was the decree of the Vat ican Counc i l II on December 4, 1963 and the motu proprio Sacram l i t u r g i c a m . January 25, 1964. It i s c l e a r from t h i s d i scuss ion that a study of Gregorian chant from i t s modern ed i t ions only would be most p e r i l o u s . THE PSALMS The s tructure of the texts of the psalms i s pecu l i a r to the Jewish Synagogue and by inheri tance to the C h r i s t i a n 39 McManus, " R i t e s , " 518-519 19 Church. "The psalm-text i s composed of a number of non-m e t r i c a l verses, each of which i s d i v i d e d i n t o two members that balance each other as antecedent and consequent." 4^ This important aspect of the psalm-text was based on the Hebraic penchant f o r p a r a l l e l i s m . Reese 4 -^ notes t h a t "the psalms are r i c h i n more i n t r i c a t e , h i g h l y p o e t i c uses of i t , as C f o r example! i n the verse: Purge me w i t h hyssop, and I  s h a l l be c l e a n : wash me, and I s h a l l be whiter than snow." E r i c Werner, i n h i s d e f i n i t i v e study of the l i t u r g i c a l and musical connections t h a t e x i s t between the Synagogue and the Church, considers the p a r a l l e l i s m u s memborium as the very foundation of psalmody. He s t a t e s t h a t "poetic dichotomy of b i b l i c a l d i c t i o n , has been c a r e f u l l y preserved i n a l l t r a n s l a t i o n s . . . . I t was, moreover, the c r e a t i v e and d i s t i n c t i v e element which..-. . caused such v a r i e g a t e d forms of expression as the Response, the Antiphon, the Refrain-psalm, the Gradual, the L i t a n y , and many others." THE ROLE OF PSALMS IN THE LITURGY Before t u r n i n g our a t t e n t i o n t o the melodic formulas of C h r i s t i a n psalmody and t o the c o m p l e x i t i e s of t h e i r 4 <^Reese, Middle Ages, p. 170. 41 I b i d . . p. 10. 4 ^ E r i c Werner, The Sacred Bridge (London: Dennis Dobson, 1959), p. 129. 20 eventual systematizat ion, we must review the main uses of psalmody i n the l i t u r g y of the Church. "The great majority of the chants of the Mass and Of f i ce are cast i n the form of psalmody. Their texts are furnished l a r g e l y by the 150 Psalms and the C a n t i c l e s C b i b l i c a l songs of a psalm-like structure drawn from parts of the Scr ip tures other than the Psa l ter of DavicO of the Old and New Tes taments . 1 , 4 3 The psalms occupy a p o s i t i o n of enormous importance i n the Da i ly O f f i c e . In f a c t , the prime cons iderat ion of the Of f ice Hours appears to have been the s inging of the cyc le of 150 Psalms once each week. A preponderant number of Psalms were designated for use at the major Hours of Matins and Vespers, while the remainder were relegated to the les ser O f f i c e Hours, Prime, T i e r c e , e t c . An explanation of the d i s t r i b u t i o n i s too d e t a i l e d for the present study. The reader i s re ferred to A p e l ' s Gregorian C h a n t 4 4 for a f u l l d e s c r i p t i o n . The use of the Psalms i s not l e s s important i n the Mass, but " t h e i r presence i s l e s s o b v i o u s . " 4 ^ Here the psalms serve as the source of the text , u sua l ly a s ingle verse or l i n e , for the Mass Antiphons, I n t r o i t s , Graduals , 43 Reese, Middle Ages, p. 172. 44 A p e l , Gregorian Chant, pp. 87-95. 45 I b i d . . p . 87. 21 A l l e l u i a s , O f f e r t o r i e s and Communions. The Mass Psalms are not (or ra ther , no longer) sung i n t h e i r complete form as they are employed to accompany or to underl ine a gesture or an act performed by the ce lebrant . A most i n t e r e s t i n g example of such abbreviated texts i s the I n t r o i t . This was used to accompany the entrance of the p r i e s t as he made h i s way from the vestry at the west end of the church to the a l t a r at the east end. The length of the I n t r o i t was thus prescribed by the actual distance between these ex t remi t ie s . (Unfortunately the o r i g i n of these acts was often forgotten and the l i t u r g i c a l texts were replaced with meaningless and sometimes t a s te le s s musical accompaniments on the part of organis t s . ) Since the subsequent study i s to be p r i m a r i l y concerned with the s inging of complete Psalms further d i scuss ion of fragmentary psalm-texts i s not appropriate at t h i s p o i n t . The more ornate type of psalmody of the Mass, however, w i l l not be ignored when i t becomes necessary to include i t . THE STRUCTURE OF THE PSALM TONES The melodic formulas of the Psalms are known genera l ly as psalm tones. The general p r i n c i p l e s of the present-day pract ice are the same as those of ancient t imes . The basic construct ion of a psalm tone i s that of a monotone r e c i t i n g note (the tenor) which i s introduced, brought to a semi-cadence and concluded by three main i n f l e c t i o n s . These are 22 known as "the intonat ion ( i n t o n a t i o . i n i t i u m ) . the mediant (mediatio) i n the middle and the terminat ion (terminatio) at the e n d . " 4 ^ The intonat ion introduces the f i r s t s y l l a b l e s of the f i r s t word while the mediant and the termination are the c lo s ing s y l l a b l e s of the f i r s t and second halves of the psalm verse r e s p e c t i v e l y . The other words (and sy l l ab le s ) are sung on the monotone tenor . Because a l l verses of a psalm are not of equal l ength , a small i n f l e c t i o n known as a f lex i s often interpola ted between the tenor and the mediant or the f i n a l . This prac t i ce appears, however, to be a l a t e r a d d i t i o n . It i s not prescr ibed by the most ancient tonar ies or service books. A succinct resume of the modern use of the f lex i s to be found i n A p e l ' s Gregorian C h a n t . 4 7 PSALMODY AND MODALITY In present prac t ice the psalm tones are systematized into nine ca tegor ies , eight of which are "regular and normal" and are associated with the eight modes. The ninth psalm tone i s known as the Tonus peregr inus r l i t e r a l l y "strange, f o r e i g n , " unusual because i t has two r e c i t i n g tones or tenors , "on a for the f i r s t h a l f of the verse and on g_ for 4 6 I b i d . , p . 2 1 0 . 4 7 I b i d . , pp. 2 1 4 - 2 1 7 . 23 the second. . . . 1 , 4 8 The "normal" eight psalm tones are equipped with one tenor on ly . In a d d i t i o n , some "medieval books contain several other ' i r r e g u l a r ' psalm tones, which apparently were used only for c e r t a i n occasions and i n c e r t a i n l o c a l i t i e s . " 4 ^ These i r r e g u l a r psalm tones are r a r e l y prescribed i n modern books. The tenor notes of the normal modes are i n most cases a f i f t h above the f i n a l i n the authentic modes and a t h i r d above the f i n a l i n the p laga l modes. The exceptions are modes I II and VII I i n which the tenor i s c and mode IV i n which the tenor i s a , One of the most perplexing and d i f f i c u l t problems that faces musical scholars concerned with chant i s that of a sa t i s fac tory and workable connection between the systematization of the psalm tones and the c rea t ion of a scalar system, that i s , the medieval church or e c c l e s i a s t i c a l modes. As we have seen, the psalm tones were melodic formulas which decorated the tenor or r e c i t i n g note, and i t must be granted that the tenor of the psalm tone was the most important note of the psalm-chant. On the other hand, i t i s wel l known that i n the c o d i f i c a t i o n of a modal system the supremacy of the f i n a l was very ear ly e s t ab l i shed . A c lear account of the numerous r ami f i ca t ions of modes i n a l l 50 cul tures has been prepared by E r i c Werner. 48 I b i d . , p . 212. 4 9 I b _ M . , p. 213. 50 Werner, Sacred, pp. 373-409. 24 Present ly i t i s only poss ible to hypothesize about the necess i ty to reduce a musical r eper to i re such as the 51 Psalms to a workable system of modes. Gustave Reese suggests that the fol lowing steps may have been the basis of t h i s development: 1. "Melody types of antiphons, responds, e t c . [ a r e ! c l a s s i f i e d , but are assigned the rank for symbolical or other non-musical reasons. . . . " 2. "The melodies are recognized as e n t i t i e s aside from t h e i r symbolical s ign i f i cance and are assigned a s p e c i f i c a l l y musical s tatus . . . . " 3. "An attempt i s made to analyze the melodies . " 4 . The i n t e r v a l l i c combinations of d i f f e r e n t scales are inves t igated and c o d i f i e d i n theory. THE SOURCES The sources required for a study of the psalmodic aspect of Gregorian chant are numerous and d i v e r s e . These may be c l a s s i f i e d i n three important groups: tonar ie s , t h e o r e t i c a l t r e a t i s e s and service books—Antiphonals and Graduals , e tc .—which contain musical no ta t ion . Only those sources which per ta in to the period of the formation of the Frankish-Roman chant w i l l be considered useful for the subsequent study which i s to be l i m i t e d to a wel l -def ined chronolog ica l span. 51 Reese, Middle Ages, p . 163. 25 Ternaries often contain examples of the var ious melodies assigned to each mode, and some further information concerning " d i s t i n c t i o n s w i t h i n each modal c a t e g o r y . A s w e l l , the chants of the l i t u r g y are c l a s s i f i e d and spec i f i ed according to the mode^3 to which they are to be sung and to t h e i r p o s i t i o n i n the var ious r i t e s with which they are associated . Invaluable i n regard to the content of the tonaries i s the recent p u b l i c a t i o n by the well-known scholar Michel Huglo e n t i t l e d Les Tonaires : Inventa i re . Analyse . Compara i son . 5 4 Huglo places great stress upon the value of the tonar ies i n ancient times for s ingers . A une epoque ou l a nota-t i o n musicale n ' ava i t pas encore ete inventee pour noter 1'ensemble des In an epoch when the musical notat ion had not yet been invented to notate the c o l l e c t i o n of melodies of me'lodies de 1'Antiphonaire the Gregorian Antiphoner et du Graduel gre'gorien, l e tonaire est un l i v r e eminemment practique destine a f a i r e apprendre methodiquement au chantre l e s Elements va r i ab le s d'une psalmodie t res evolue'e. 55 and Gradual , the tonary was an eminently p r a c t i c a l book destined to make known methodical ly to the singer the var iab le elements of a rather evolut ionary psalmody. 52 W i l l i A p e l , Gregorian Chant, p. 52. 5 3 In medieval times the words modus and tonus were interchangeable. Proof of t h i s statement i s to be found i n the text of the Commemoratio Brevis (See Chapter I , p . J35f_.). 54 Michel Huglo, Les Tonaires : Inventa i re . Analyse . Comparaison (Par i s : Societe' Francaise de Musico log ie , 1971). 55 I b i d . , p . 12. 26 There are several important t h e o r e t i c a l t r e a t i s e s of Frankish o r i g i n dating from medieval times which contain a considerable d i scuss ion and demonstration of matters pecul iar to the psalm tones and to the modes. The t r e a t i s e s of A l c u i n and Amalarius of Metz date from the C a r o l i n g i a n era , but t h e i r content i s so b r i e f and tenta t ive with regard to musical matters that t h e i r value i s not paramount i n a de ta i l ed study such as ours . The most useful t r ea t i s e s date from the tenth century. At t h i s time a d e f i n i t e d i scuss ion of psalmody was included as one of the c e n t r a l problems considered i n the t r e a t i s e s . For tunate ly , a l l are e a s i l y access ib le i n the e d i t i o n of Mart in Gerbert which has been 56 reissued i n f a c s i m i l e . Spec ia l mention must be made of the Commemoratio Brevis de Tonis et Psalmis Modulandis. Several manuscripts i n fragments are a v a i l a b l e . For a complete l i s t of these see The Theory of Music: From the Caro l ing i an Era up to 57 1400. An e d i t i o n has existed since 1784 i n Martin Gerber t ' s Scr ip tores e c c l e s i a s t i c i de mus ica . 5 ^ It has since come to l i g h t , however, that t h i s scholar published an incomplete manuscript copy. For the purposes of t h i s study, the author 56 Mart in Gerbert , Sc r ip tore s e c c l e s i a s t i c i de musica, 3 v o l s . , (St . B l a s i e n , 1784). CFacsimile e d i t i o n , Mi lan , 19317] 57 The Theory of Music: From the C a r o l i n g i a n Era up to  1400. V o l . I , p. j.44, Joseph Smits Van Waesberghe, Peter F i s cher , C h r i s t i a n Maas, eds . , (Munich: G . Henle, 1961). 58 Mart in Gerbert , S c r i p t o r e s . I, pp. 213f. 27 has been provided with an e d i t i o n based on the only complete manuscript—Wolfenbuttel , Herzog August B i b l i o t h e k , Ms. Gud. l a t . 2 ° 72 (4376).^ 9 This i s an except iona l ly important t r ea t i s e owing to the fact that the melodic formulas of the psalm tones and antiphons are i n daseian symbols and are thus e a s i l y t ranscr ibed into modern nota t ion . Since the Commemoratio Brevis was the product of the ear ly decades of the tenth century i t must be considered to predate readable neumes by about a century. In a d d i t i o n , i t appears to be the e a r l i e s t account of psalm tones and modal c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . Indeed, Michel Huglo places t h i s t r e a t i s e i n a p o s i t i o n of front rank importance: . . . c ' e s t l a premiere f o i s que nous trouvons par e c r i t l 'expose complet des regies de psalmodie qu'on cherchera i t en va in dans l e s antiphonaires ou dans le s tonaires plus anciens Plus t a r d , l e s redacteurs de tonar ies prendront 1'habitude de noter , en neumes ou sur l i g n e s , un verset psalmodique pour chaque t o n . Pleut^tre cet element nouveau dans le tonaire e s t - i l du a l 'expose de psalmodie de l a Commemoratio B r e v i s . . . . t h i s i s the f i r s t occasion that we discover i n wr i t ing the complete. out l ine of the ru le s of psalmody for which one would search i n va in i n the antiphoners or i n the most ancient t o n a r i e s . La te r , the wr i t e r s of tonaries grasped the habit of nota t ing , i n neumes or on the l i n e s , a psalm verse for each tone. Perhaps that new element i n the tonary i s owing to the out l ine of psalmody of the Commemoratio B r e v i s . 59 Commemoratio Brevis de Tonis et Psalmis Modulandis. e d i t i o n and t r a n s l a t i o n by Terence Ba i l ey , to appear 1974, (Publ icat ions Medievales de l ' u n i v e r s i t e d'Ottawa.) 60 Huglo, Les Tonaires . p . 65. 28 In add i t ion to the t r e a t i s e s and tonar ie s which are r e a d i l y ava i l ab le for scrut iny and study, a number of important manuscripts of service books have been issued i n photographic facs imi le by the Benedictines of Solesmes. Each manuscript i n facs imi le i s provided with an accompanying study which contains considerable d i scuss ion of some aspect of the chant. A general i n t r o d u c t i o n to the wide scope of the ent i re top ic i s included i n the f i r s t volume. Other aspects such as nota t ion , rhythm, text and musical s tructure are considered at appropriate po in t s . A complete and up-to-date volume conta in ing information about a l l known manuscripts i n existence has recent ly been published by the same group. This i s the second ser ies of a c r i t i c a l e d i t i o n of Le Graduel, Romain e n t i t l e d Les S o u r c e s . ^ The content i s most conveniently set up i n several c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s such as the date of the manuscript, the loca l e of the o r i g i n a l source and the content . As w e l l , a concise d e s c r i p t i o n of the var ious chant types i n each manuscript i s inc luded . 61 Paleooraphie Musica le : Fac-S imi le s Phototypiques  des Principaux Manuscrifr.s. de, Cfrant. 2 s e r i e s , 17 v o l s . , (Solesmes: 1 8 8 9 - ) . 62 Le Graduel Romain. E d i t i o n C r i t i q u e par les Moines  de Solesmes. II Les Sources . (Abbage S a i n t - P i e r r e de Solesmes, 1957?). 29 MODERN EDITIONS The volumes of Gregorian chant i n use i n our own times have a lso been the c o n t r i b u t i o n of the Benedictines of Solesmes i n a s soc ia t ion with the Sacred Congregation of Ri tes of Rome. Important volumes are the Graduale Sacrosanctae Romanae E c c l e s i a e , the Antiphonale Sacrosanctae Romanae E c c l e s i a e . 6 4 and a general compendium of selected 65 chants, the L i b e r u s u a l i s . The appearance of these books i s one of the rami f i ca t ions of the r e s t o r a t i o n of the medieval t r a d i t i o n s of the chant during the l a s t hundred years . The Solesmes vers ions of the var ious chants may not be absolute ly f i n a l , but they do af ford the student and the scholar a useful and r e l a t i v e l y r e l i a b l e source for a comparison of the r e s u l t s of t r a n s c r i p t i o n s . It must be pointed out, however, that the r e s u l t s of t h i s r e s t o r a t i o n were a compromise between mus ico log ica l scholarship and the ob l iga t ions of the Benedictines to the Church of Rome. For t h i s reason, these volumes must be considered to be a p r a c t i c a l e d i t i o n of the chant rather than an authentic Ur tex t . 63 Graduale Sacrosanctae Romanae Ecc le s iae (Par i s : Desclee & S o c i i , 1961). 64 Antiphonale Sacrosanctae Romanae Ecc le s iae (Par i s : Desclee & S o c i i , 1949). 65 The L iber U s u a l i s . ed . by the Benedictines of Solesmes ( T o u r n a i : 1 9 6 3 ) . 30 F i n a l l y , some d i scuss ion of the e x i s t i n g l i t e r a t u r e i s necessary. Although an enormous amount has been wr i t ten on Gregorian chant i n genera l , very l i t t l e spec i f i c and thus useful mater ia l i s ava i l ab le about psalmody. What has been done appears to be a r e i t e r a t i o n of the same vague ser ies of g e n e r a l i t i e s from volume to volume. Even the usual ly dependable Gustave Reese i s hard pressed to a r r ive at any sa t i s f ac tory conclusions i n h i s chapters perta ining to chant i n Music i n the Middle A g e s . 6 6 Indeed, h i s presentat ion i s d i sappo int ing ly l ack ing i n au thor i t a t ive 67 op in ion . The aforementioned Gregorian Chant by W i l l i Ape l i s thorough but, as w i l l be seen, tends to r e i t e r a t e a number of c o n f l i c t i n g opinions of many other scholar s . Extremely problematical are the contr ibut ions of some Belgian scholars such as Auda 6 ^ and G e v a e r t . 6 ^ These wr i t e r s are at pains to convince the reader of the existence of an intimate l i n k between the modal theor ies of the ancients of c l a s s i c a l times and those of the medieval chant. Auda's book, i n p a r t i c u l a r , i s a profusion of scales and diagrams a l l equipped with a complicated terminology based on the ancient Eastern modes. 6 6 Reese, Middle Ages. 6 7 A p e l , Gregorian Chant. 6 8 ^ A . Auda, Les Modes et les Tons de l a Musique et specialement de l a Musigue MedieVale (Brusse l s : 1930). 6 9 / A . Gevaert , La Melopee. 31 It i s by now accepted—regret ful ly by some—that such a connection i s extremely d i f f i c u l t to demonstrate. This the s i s i s a study of the Frankish psalmody of the ear ly tenth century. The i n v e s t i g a t i o n focuses i n p a r t i c u l a r on the simple psalmody of the D a i l y Of f ice—the c e n t r a l concern of the Commemoratio Brevis—but references by the author of the t r e a t i s e to other elements of the chant (antiphons and solemn tones) have not been overlooked. This ear ly prac t ice has been compared, whenever pos s ib le , to the late "standard" psalmody, and as a r e s u l t of t h i s comparison i t has been poss ible to discuss c e r t a i n of the steps i n i t s e v o l u t i o n . A few words about the musical examples are necessary. Owing to the fact that the notated examples i n the manuscripts of the Commemoratio Brevis employ daseian symbols to indicate the p i t ches , i t would have been an a r b i t r a r y exercise to have t ranscr ibed them i n the neumes of Gregorian nota t ion . In t h i s study, the examples from the source are given i n modern nota t ion . Black notes without stems—to give the notes propert ies of durat ion and rhythm would only complicate the examples unnecessar i ly—indicate p i t che s . The t reb le c l e f has been used to avoid the in t roduc t ion of leger l i n e s . But i t i s to be understood that the pi tches a c t u a l l y sound one octave lower than w r i t t e n . The grouping of notes under s lurs ind ica tes that two or more notes are to be sung to a s ingle s y l l a b l e . In many examples i t has 32 been necessary to consider the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the tenor of the psalm tone with e i ther the in tonat ion formula or the mediant cadence. In these examples the tenor has been wr i t ten as a breve: . To f a c i l i t a t e a comparison of other sources with our examples from the Commemoratio Br_eyj_L» the former have a l so been t ranscr ibed into modern nota t ion . Thi s i s not the case, however, when the actual neumes of the Gregorian notat ion are under cons idera t ion . In such examples the ancient notat ion has been preserved. To ind ica te pi tches i n the t ex t , c_, d , e_, e t c . have been used for the octave below middle C ; and c. 1 , d. 1» 1 , d 1 1 , e t c . for the octave above. Upper case, G , A , e t c . has been used for the notes i n the second octave below middle C . The wording for the psalms i n the Commemoratin Breyis var ie s i n many instances from the Vulga te . No attempt has been made to correc t the d i screpancies since t h i s would d i s t o r t the examples. In keeping with recent prac t i ce a l l L a t i n and French passages have been provided with t r a n s l a t i o n s , the only exceptions being i so l a ted phrases where the meaning i s obvious. CHAPTER I FIRST INTONATIONS The f i r s t i n f l e c t i o n of a psalm tone i s an ascending f igure of two, three or four notes. This por t ion i s set to the i n i t i a l s y l l a b l e s of each verse of the psalm to introduce the r e c i t a t i o n note (or t enor ) . Example 1 The Intonation I n f l e c t i o n of the F i r s t Psalm Tone from the Commemoratio P r e v i s . 1 1 4 \ c *> ) f V, o Beat i immaculati Properly speaking the l a s t note of the in tonat ion f igure i n our example i s the beginning of the r e c i t a t i o n . This demarcation i s not , however, u n i v e r s a l . Some scholars , Apel among them, i n s i s t that the f i r s t in tonat ion i s 1 Commemoratio Brev i s , Wolfenbuttel manuscript (see note 4, below), f 84. 2 A p e l , Gregorian, p. 210. 34 comprised only of those notes which appear p r i o r to the r e c i t a t i o . We prefer to consider the matter d i f f e r e n t l y , adopting the author i ty of the Vat ican E d i t i o n which includes the f i r s t r e c i t i n g note as a member of the in tonat ion 3 i n f l e c t i o n . Psalm tones are the c e n t r a l concern of the ear ly tenth-century Frankish t r e a t i s e the Commemoratio Brevis de  Tonis et Psalmis Modulandis . 4 The author of t h i s document, a witness to the ear ly p r a c t i c e , sets out a system of eight psalm tones each of which i s associated with one of eight modes. But before we go on to discuss the information of t h i s source, i t i s important—since the t r e a t i s e has d i f f i c u l t i e s on t h i s point—to make c lear the d i s t i n c t i o n s that ex i s t between the words "aodiis." and " tonus . " The confusion surrounding these words i s not l i m i t e d to the document at hand, but has been endemic to the problem i n both ancient and modern t imes. This misunderstanding i s exact ly p a r a l l e l e d by the perplexed state of a f f a i r s which surrounds the Greek words tono i and harmoniai . To our present understanding, psalm tone re fer s e x c l u s i v e l y to the 3 Liber u s u a l i s . pp. 113-117. 4 , Wolfenbutte l , Herzog August B i b l i o t h e k , Ms. Gud. l a t . 2 ° 72 (4376). S t . Paul i n C a r i n t h i a (Lavanthal) , S t i f t s b i b l i o t h e k , Ms. 2 9 „ 4 .2 . 35 ent i re musical formula—the complete melody, not merely i t s r ec i t a t io—which i s employed i n the chanting of a s ingle psalm verse . Not to venture too far into t h i s d i f f i c u l t subject, mode denotes, among other th ings , an organized system of d i f f e r e n t pi tches arranged i n scalar order for the convenience of t h e o r e t i c a l and h i s t o r i c a l d i s cu s s ion . The author of the Commemoratio Brevis evinces some carelessness or confusion about these d i s t i n c t i o n s . In the f i r s t part of h i s t ex t , "modulatio psalmi"^ quite c l e a r l y s i g n i f i e s "psalm tone . " P i tches or tones i n the context of the ambitus of a melody are denoted by the use of the word " s p n i . " 6 When "mode"—here considered i n i t s wider sense of a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of chants—is intended, the word "tonus"^ i s employed. In the opening por t ion of the t r e a t i s e , for h i s d i scuss ion of the standard formulas (neumae regu la re s ) . that i s , melody types considered to embody the e s sent i a l features of t h e i r respect ive modes, the author i s precise 5 The Wolfenbuttel manuscript, the only complete source 9 has been used as the basis of t h i s study. A l l f o l i o numbers re fer to t h i s manuscript unless otherwise i n d i c a t e d . Commemoratio Brev i s . f 83. 6 I b i d . , f 83. 7 8 I b i d . 36 and regular i n h i s choice of words. La te r , however, when he embarks upon an explanation of the considerable v a r i a b i l i t y found i n psalm tones, a matter with which we w i l l deal at a more appropriate po int , confusion ar i se s over the use of "modus" and " tonus" . "Modus" has a s p e c i f i c a l l y musical meaning which we have already discussed. However, i t a l so has a more general Q meaning: "manner, mode, fa shion, way or method." It i s c lear from the context of the sentences, which at t h i s point are concerned with the " d i v e r s i t y of the antiphons sung with psalms (d ive r s i t a t e antiphonarum quae psalmis  a d i u n q u n t u r ) , " ^ that the author ' s a t t ent ion i s d i rec ted to matters concerning the manner ("modus") i n which var i ab le psalm tones are sung. However, i n the f i r s t four examples associated with t h i s d i s cus s ion , the use of the word "tonus" (mode) i s inadver tent ly c o n t i n u e d . T h e author u l t imate ly perceived t h i s error i n nomenclature; the subsequent i l l u s t r a t i o n s are c o r r e c t l y e n t i t l e d "modus." This blunder, found i n both manuscript sources, was perpetuated by G e r b e r t . J ' 2 9 C a s s e l ' s L a t i n D i c t i o n a r y . New York: 1957. 10 Commemoratio Brev i s . f 84 v . 11 U2M. 12 Gerbert , Scr ip tores I , p . 219. 37 The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e , g i v e n as Example 2 , c o n t a i n s the f i r s t i n t o n a t i o n s as t h e y appear i n t h e e i g h t normal psalm t o n e s i n t h e Commemoratio B r e v i s . 13 Example 2 Commemoratio B r e v i s : F i r s t I n t o n a t i o n s of the E i g h t Normal Psalm Tones Primus Tonus Secundus Tonus l e r t i u s Tonus Q u a r t u s Tonus Q u i n t u s Tonus S e x t u s Tonus Qc t a v u s l o n u s 0 -9-B e a t i i m m a c u l a t i J B e a t i q u i s c r u t a n t u s 1 Non enim q u i o p e r a n t i u ± Tu m a n d a s t i mandata Utinam d i r i g a n t i u a Tunc non c o n f u n d a r ± Septimus Tonus ^ C o n f i t e b o r t i b i domine ^ J u s t i f i c a t i o n e s t u a s 13 Commemoratio B r e y i s . f 84< 38 The standard and uniform vers ions of the psalm tones—the vers ions more or l e s s as we know them today—were the product of refinement subsequent to the compilat ion of the C _ r a t l o B r e v i s . 1 4 The l a t e r rcedieval system except for c e r t a i n f i n a l touches (of no consequence to medieval is ts and not invo lv ing intonations) added i n recent t imes, was es tabl i shed by the eleventh century. This standard prac t i ce could be e a s i l y demonstrated from ear ly sources. It i s more convenient, however, to take advantage of the scholarship of the learned Monks of Solesmes who edited t h i s mater ia l and published i t i n t h e i r many service books. Example 3 i s a table of the f i r s t intonat ions of the l a t e r standard p r a c t i c e . ^ 14 F e r r e t t i , Esthet ique, p . 302. 15 L i b e r u s u a l i s . pp. 113-117. 39 Example 3 Vat ican E d i t i o n : The F i r s t Intonations of the  Eight Normal Psalm Tones F i r s t Tone F i f t h Tone —/L _ «* \~i »—s-H— ^ Second Tone S ix th Tone 7 / r M \ ( , ^ *> * ) Third Tone Seventh Tone —/L ^ * M 1 «» a * * )=< 1 -j ® 1 ^ Fourth Tone Eighth Tone — \ \ s g * * H A comparison of the ancient prac t i ce of the Commemoratio Brevis with that of the Vat ican E d i t i o n reveal s complete agreement i n the formulas of the f i r s t intonat ions with the exception of Tones III and I V . ^ As the problem of the fourth tone i s more r e a d i l y expla ined, we w i l l begin with the l a t t e r . 16 The di f ference between the intonat ions of the t h i r d psalm tone i n the ancient and the l a t e r prac t i ce s involves the tenor . This w i l l be considered i n Chapter I I I (pp. 80-85). 40 There i s an extremely i n t e r e s t i n g v a r i a n t of the 1 7 f o u r t h tone i n t o n a t i o n i n the manuscript. This c o n t a i n s a most s t r i k i n g s u b s t i t u t i o n f o r the second note of the formula: Example 4 Commemoratio B r e v i s : V a r i a n t of the Fourth  Tone I n t o n a t i o n Formula Deus Deus I t would seem c l e a r t h a t t h i s p a r t i c u l a r e r r o r i s i n f a c t owing t o a c o p y i s t ' s mistake. I t w i l l be noted t h a t t h i s i n t o n a t i o n i s based on a melodic p r i n c i p l e which i s e n t i r e l y opposed t o the one which u n d e r l i e s the i n t o n a t i o n s of the eight normal psalm tones. Of the f i v e d i s j u n c t i n t e r v a l s contained i n the l a t t e r , none i s l a r g e r than a minor t h i r d . In the suspect example there are two changes of d i r e c t i o n embodying leaps both of which exceed the minor t h i r d i n t e r v a l of the normal i n t o n a t i o n . Indeed, the second leap of the suspect v e r s i o n i s a major s i x t h . This i n t e r v a l i s v i r t u a l l y unknown i n the Gregorian r e p e r t o i r e . 17 Commemoratio B r e v i s . f 85 v. 41 The state of the text i n the two complete manuscripts of the Commemoratio Brevis does not in sp i re complete confidence on the part of the reader . This i s not, of course, a problem confined to the present sources. Copyis t s i n the Middle Ages were very frequently unacquainted with the subject matter of t h e i r l a b o u r s . ^ Neither of the ex i s t ing copies of our t r e a t i s e i s an autograph; both contain errors no musician could have made. Moreover, the c o p y i s t — i f not the compiler of the t r e a t i s e h imse l f—is by no means wel l informed. The oldest surviving source of the t r e a t i s e , the Wolfenbiittel manuscript, appears to be a digest (perhaps the lec ture notes?) derived from the work of another better informed musician. The d i f f i c u l t y over "modus." and "1Q.DU_S" already re ferred t o , and other s imi la r e r r o r s , w i l l a t tes t to t h i s . The same ambiguit ies are repeated with few exceptions i n the S t . Paul i n C a r i n t h i a manuscript which i t could e a s i l y be shown i s a copy of the Wolfenbuttel manuscript of the source. As no independent errors appear i n the second source, the descent of the manuscripts seems quite c l e a r : the S t . Paul manuscript i s a d i r e c t copy of the Wolfenbuttel source. 18 There i s an exce l lent example of t h i s lack of understanding by copyis t s of the mater ia l at hand i n another source of the Commemoratio Brev i s . The Ms. l a t . 7211 of the Bibl iotheque Nat ionale , P a r i s , contains some materia l from a medieval mathematics t r e a t i s e interspersed with the musical examples of our source. 42 To re turn to the problem at hand, i t i s e n t i r e l y l i k e l y that the use of c for the second note of the suspect example—the actual cause of the problematical divergence—was the r e su l t of simple carelessness on the part of the c o p y i s t . The pi tches of the psalm tones i n the Commemoratio Brevis are represented by the so-ca l led daseian symbols .^ 9 The gamut or range of eighteen poss ible notes employed i n t h i s system i s notated through the use of four basic s igns . These are repos i t ioned-- that i s , reversed, inver ted , reversed i n inver s ion and inc l ined—so as to represent the four notes of four d i s junc t tetrachords of s imi lar cons t ruc t ion . For example, the s ign ( _£ ) i s e, but when reversed ( !JL ) i s G , when inverted { ^ ) i s f ' sharp, when reversed and inverted ( " J " ) i s b_ and when i n c l i n e d i n reversed inver s ion ( ^ ) i s c ! ! sharp. reads: With respect to the case at hand, the manuscript 20 Example 5 Commemoratip B r e v i s : Facs imile of the Var iant  of the Fourth Psalm Tone n 33 Deus Deus 19 A complete d i scuss ion of daseian notat ion i s to be found i n E . J . G r u t c h f i e l d ' s "Hucbald: A M i l l e n a r y Commemoration," The Musical Times, l x x i , 704-708. Commemoratio B r e v i s . f 85 v . 43 The sign jj[ for the problematical note c i s the fourth note of the lowest t e t r achord . When reversed to j f t h i s sign represents the fourth note of the next higher te trachord, namely g_. This emendation brings the var iant formula into l i n e with the in tona t ion of the fourth normal psalm tone. We suggest that the manuscript should read: Deus Deus Example 6 Corrected Vers ion of the Var iant Formula Deus Deus It i s s i g n i f i c a n t that the copyis t of the S t . Paul 21 manuscript perceived and corrected the e r r o r . In t h i s source the fourth psalm tone reads as i n our Example 6. It i s not so easy to dispose of another discrepancy between the ancient and the modern p r a c t i c e . In four cases the fourth psalm tone i n the Commemoratio Brev i s i s seen to 22 begin as fo l lows : 21 Commemoratio B r e v i s . Ms. S t . Pau l , f 6 v . 22 Commemoratio Brev i s . Ms. Wolfenbutte l , f 85 v . 44 Example 7 Commemoratio Brevis: Four Similar Variants  of the Fourth Regular Psalm Tone ^ S i mei non f u e r i n t *9> *B» / •• -V 1 C a e l i enar(rant) o Nam et servus Non sunt loquelae It should be noted that the commentary of the Commemoratio Brevis becomes e s p e c i a l l y untrustworthy at t h i s p a r t i c u l a r point. The discussion at hand i s concerned with textual declamation: " . . . euphony, when a r t i c u l a t i n g vowels ( . . . pro euphonie causa, ut i b i i n distinquendo  vocales coeunt)."^ 3 Such matters do not i n any way involve intonations. It i s e n t i r e l y u n l i k e l y that the author would choose t h i s moment to introduce a new intonation without so much as a passing reference to the novelty. This i s not, however, a simple s c r i b a l error, for the fig u r e i s repeated a number of times. But i t must be observed that at t h i s place i n the manuscript the discussion i s i l l u s t r a t e d densely with notated examples of psalms (See Figure 1 p. 4 5 ) , It i s noticeable that the plethora of symbols has caused the number of errors on t h i s p a r t i c u l a r page to be increased appreciably. It i s c e r t a i n l y conceivable that the Ibid,*, f 85. 45 • J PS-? , V.^ _ / rfc-Tvs, MM M« J »V> NonfmiT l o o u r t * i^WiKi /fi-menC? ouf>r.'-.1 no>itu««U . onhrflipr- -njri»s^'t»f omntf mrff UJ'T yaitfnuw Qixonjjim.n4jj»Hi^  filri^C tra'T' ,ujvniteptrn ma>r-ur» acrt^aef rn^nujv ?UA™ 6yr«t*' |j'fe/f-t; , j ocilirer T^-r^ UwnS+f-'y Watef err «.»£i.r» wtirtuAi <Au/ tufheLyH 6/u ~i.uj.ujn F i g u r e 1 . — P s a l m tones w i t h daseian n o t a t i o n from Commemoratio B r e v i s . W o l f e n b u t t e l Ms. Gud,t l a t . 2 ° 72 1 4 3 7 6 ) U o l i o 85v). 46 scr ibe might confuse the daseian symbols (the d i f ferences between the signs for e and g_ ( Jr and j f ' ) are s l i ght ) and continue i n h i s confusion for some time before cor rec t ing h imse l f . A simple subs t i tu t ion of one daseian symbol res tores the four suspect vers ions to that of the normal fourth psalm tone: Example 8 Restorat ion of the Fourth Psalm Tone Var iant s S i mei non fuer int But i t must remain a p o s s i b i l i t y that i n e a r l y times there may have been more than one in tonat ion formula for the fourth tone. There i s , as noted e a r l i e r , a lack of agreement between the i n i t i a l note i n the regular in tonat ions of the Commemoratio Brev i s and the Vat i can E d i t i o n . At f i r s t glance t h i s d i f ference might be reasoned and explained as a simple c o p y i s t ' s e r r o r . 47 Example 9 Comparison of the Fourth Psalm Tone Intonation Commemoratio Brevis Vat ican E d i t i o n X —fh. * * • H d) Tu mandasti mandata Tu mandasti mandata As we have already seen with regard to f au l ty nomenclature and the foregoing examples concerned with the suspect va r i an t s of the fourth psalm tone, the manuscripts of the Commemoratio Brevis do contain a number of obvious e r ror s (which, however, Gerbert d id not emend). But i n the case of several examples of the fourth tone, the d i screpancies between the ancient Frankish prac t i ce and the l a t e r medieval system cannot be reconc i l ed as mere s c r i b a l e r r o r s . For one t h i n g , there are f ive further examples of the psalm tone i n the text of the Commemoratio Brevis which are i d e n t i c a l to the ver s ion given i n our Example 4 . 2 4 24 I b i d . , f 85 v . 48 Example 10 Commemoratio B r e v i s : Intonation Formulas  for the Fourth Regular Psalm Tone - 4 , ^ 4 _-_=/ _ - W ^ Dies d i e i Magr la est g l o r i a • 1 — • » — Hie a c c i p i e t n r i ^ H V . ) « s — " L Quoniam a l i e n i J u s t i c i a e domine As t h i s in tona t ion appears a number of times i n the text of the source, i t cannot be dismissed as the r e s u l t of an er ror on the part of a s c r i b e . Rather i t would appear to be the standard pract ice for the fourth tone i n the region of the author of the Commemoratio Brev i s . The in tonat ions of psalm tones I and II are completely uniform. The examples proper to these tones appear mainly i n the f i r s t h a l f of the manuscript where the c o p y i s t ' s e r ror s are le s s frequent and where no other d i f f i c u l t i e s are encountered. The intonat ions of the f i f t h , seventh and e ighth psalm tones do not give r i s e to much d i scus s ion on our part since they have not been demonstrated i n the generous manner that the author of the source considered necessary for the others . In f a c t , the seventh and eighth psalm tones are set out i n the t r e a t i s e only once. The f i f t h reappears near the end of the manuscript i n connection 49 with the presentat ion of complete psalms.^ 0 But here the in tonat ion formulas are i n complete agreement with t h e i r f i r s t appearances i n the t r e a t i s e . It must not be assumed, however, that a l l other examples of f i r s t intonat ions contained i n the Commemoratio  Brevis are as regular as those we have been d i s c u s s i n g . An examination of the t h i r d tone does revea l a number of e l i s i o n s and e l abora t ions . Three complete examples , 2 6 contiguous to one another i n the manuscript, d i sp l ay considerable confus ion. In several cases the examples have dispensed a l together with the in tonat ion formula, and begin d i r e c t l y with the r e c i t a t i o of the psalm tone: Example 11 Commemoratio B r e v i s : Third Tone Intonation  Formulas 0 Deus judicium Hie a c c i p i e t H E lit Coram i l l o Parcet(pauperi) 25 I b i d . . f 86 r and v. 26 I b i d . , f 85 r and v. 50 A change of s ty le or p r i n c i p l e of t h i s kind would not bewilder those engaged i n the chanting of psalms i n l a t e r t imes. The la te standard pract ice d r a s t i c a l l y c u r t a i l e d the use of the f i r s t i n t o n a t i o n . The d i scus s ion of the eight psalm tones contained i n the L i b e r u sua l i s 27 commences with the fo l lowing r u b r i c : The f i r s t verse of a psalm i s always intoned by the Cantor with the formula of the intona-t i o n proper to each tone. The fo l lowing verses begin on the dominant. Thi s ru le i s to be observed at a l l the Hours. As w i l l be seen, the modern prac t i ce permits the r e p e t i t i o n of the in tona t ion for a l l verses of a psalm only i n the case of the Gospel C a n t i c l e s or at Mass. I t can be shown, however, that the prac t i ce of the aforementioned r u b r i c was not usual i n e a r l i e r t imes . The majority of the examples i n the Commemoratio Brevis are equipped with in tonat ion formulas even though the d i scus s ion i n the commentary may be d i rec ted at other aspects of psalmody. On two occasions the author has seen f i t to incorporate the complete text of a psalm or psalms i n a ser ies of contiguous examples. One appearance of a psalm tone (the f i f t h tone i n t h i s case) occurs near the end of the t r e a t i s e , and u t i l i z e s a l l eight verses of Psalm 137 and a l l e ight verses of Psalm 9 6 . 2 8 We are not 27 L i b e r usyaljs, p . 112. 28 Commemoratio B r e v i s . f 86 r and v . 51 given the f i r s t intonat ions for each of the verses i n daseian s igns ; the d i scus s ion at hand does not per t a in to in tonat ions . However, the spec i f i c occurrence of the in tonat ion for the l a s t verse of Psalm 137 makes i t c e r t a i n that they were to be repeated for the intervening verses . Nevertheless , one can see the four examples sine in tona t io (Ex. l l ) i n our t r e a t i s e , as an ear ly appearance of what was to become the normal prac t i ce for p sa l te r antiphons i n the l a t e r Middle Ages, even i f i t i s c lear from the evidence we have already presented that t h i s was not the usual ear ly p r a c t i c e . Here again , the evidence of a d i f f e r e n t i n f l e c t i o n appears more than once. Apparently i t i s safer to assume that the ancient prac t i ce offered more freedom than that of the l a t e r medieval s t y l e . The same ser ies of apparently corrupted examples of the t h i r d psalm tone contain other d i f f e r i n g vers ions of the f i r s t i n t o n a t i o n . One of these commences with the r e c i t i n g note, drops to the second note of the normal in tonat ion and repeats the f igure before beginning the usual r e i t e r a t i o n of the tenor 29 I b i d . , f 85 v . 52 Example 12 Commemoratio B r e v i s : Intonation Formula of the Third Psalm Tone J I f • *» w «s> J—I \S o Et humi l i ab i t Two others omit the second note of the i n f l e c t i o n al together : 3 < ^ Example 13 Commemoratio B r e v i s : Intonation, Formulas  of the Third Psalm Tone / (fl V o Susc ipiant montes In sua i u s t i t i a Here again, there are two poss ib le explanations of these d i f f e rent in tona t ions . It w i l l be noted that these intonat ions remain w i t h i n the usual out l ine of the regular in tona t ions . For t h i s reason, they may we l l be acceptable var i ant s of the normal t h i r d tone i n t o n a t i o n . C a n t i c l e s as we l l as psalms are employed i n three of the Of f i ce Hours. There are seventeen C a n t i c l e s i n a l l , 30 I b i d . , f 85 r and v . 53 each of which has a psalm-l ike text that has been drawn from a poetic sect ion of the B i b l e . Three from the New Testament, s p e c i f i c a l l y the Gospel of S t . Luke, are known 31 as the major or Gospel C a n t i c l e s . These form part of the c l o s i n g sect ion of the Of f i ce to which they belong and are preceded and followed by an appropriate antiphon: Vespers: Magnif icat anima mea; Luke 1: 46-55 Compline: Nunc d i m i t t i s servum tuum; Luke 2: 29-32 Lauds: Benedictus Dominus Deus I s r a e l ; Luke 1: 68-79 In l a t e r p r a c t i c e , the psalmody of the Gospel C a n t i c l e s (as for the psalmody of the Mass) i s considerably more elaborate than that of the simple psalmody of the D a i l y O f f i c e . The explanatory text given i n the L iber  u sua l i s d i r e c t s that the f i r s t in tonat ion formula i s to be repeated for each successive verse o f . the Gospel C a n t i c l e "even i n the O f f i c e for the D e a d . " 3 2 Embellished formulas known as the Solemn Tones are used for the Gospel C a n t i c l e s . The quest ion of the Solemn Tones i s not d i r e c t l y broached by the author of the Commemoratio B r e v i s . However, c e r t a i n f ac tor s suggest that some a t tent ion was being given to matters concerning the Gospel C a n t i c l e s at the outset of the source. The f i r s t s ixteen musical examples are comprised of antiphon text s and formulas of the psalm tones set to the 31 Considerable d i s cus s ion of the Gospel C a n t i c l e s and the l e s ser C a n t i c l e s w i l l be found i n A p e l , Gregorian, pp. 20-22. 32 L i b e r u s u a l i s , p . 113. 54 words of the le s ser doxology. It i s to be noted that the texts of a l l these antiphons are those which are employed for the two p r i n c i p a l Gospel C a n t i c l e s : the Benedictus and the Magnif icat .33 Therefore i t i s c lear that the author, i n f a c t , was d i r e c t l y concerned with antiphons which would have received Solemn Tones i n a l a t e r p r a c t i c e . Example 8 i s a table of the in tonat ion formulas of the psalm tones associated with the Gospel antiphons from 34 the Commemoratio Brevis and the Solemn Tones of the l a t e r 35 p r a c t i c e . The intonat ions of the simpler psalmody of both prac t ices has a l so been included to f a c i l i t a t e comparison. 33 In a d d i t i o n , three of the examples have marginal references to antiphons not associated with the Gospel C a n t i c l e s . Commemoratio B r e v i s . f 83 v . 34 Commemoratio B r e v i s . Solemn Tones, f 83 r and v and f 84; Regular psalm tones, f 84. 35 L iber u s u a l i s . pp. 207-213. 55 Example 14 Intonation Formulas Commemoratio Brevis Vat ican E d i t i o n Solemn Tones Psalm Tones Solemn Tones Psalm Tones 0 i 1 i 1 1-<» V—( ; ^ ** to' 1 G l o r i a . . . P 1 1 ; 1 i j >=H : -a—W- i —,—5 \, ( — ' U J - ^ / i 0 m 1 ^ * ^ i ; i i i 1. IV 3=£ VI 3 = t 3=t d 4>rr> f) V I 1 1 -U : ; • r—14 A «* ** — ^ ^ ~ ~ ]={'• ^ ^ > * • ^ r «» >=f : t r j 1 J) V I I I j **> 1 - A : - - ^ * • ^ *» y=4\ J T ^ r—c f \ 3 y^ -T p « » — = — — _ — —«•» *^ **• »* *^ j -1 1 56 It w i l l be immediately noted that the basic framework of a l l these in tonat ion formulas i s quite s i m i l a r . In f a c t , the e s s en t i a l out l ines of the solemn and the simple i n f l e c t i o n s of the l a t e r medieval pract ice (with the exception of the seventh tone) are i d e n t i c a l . The main d i f ference i s the e labora t ion by means of the add i t ion of two-note groups i n the Solemn Tones. On the other hand, the in tonat ion formulas of the Gospel C a n t i c l e tones presented i n the Commemoratio Brevis have not been elaborated at a l l . Indeed, they are i n most cases comprised of the same number of notes as the normal psalm tones . In c e r t a i n cases, however, they have d i f f e r e n t o u t l i n e s . The subtle d i f ferences i n the out l ine of Gospel Tones I I , V , VII and VIII found i n these examples from the Commemoratio Brevig require some d i s c u s s i o n . An unusually high degree of c l a r i t y with respect to the notat ion has been atta ined i n t h i s sec t ion of the manuscript. Rather than simply ass ign a daseian symbol to each s y l l a b l e of the textj, the author has seen f i t to employ a diastematic system i n which the daseian signs are ind ica ted at the side of the page i n ascending order complete with tone and semitone markings (see Figure 2, p . 57 ) . The appropriate s y l l a b l e s of the chant text are heightened and lowered to the pos i t ions of t h e i r assigned p i t che s . (This i n c i d e n t a l l y must be regarded as one of the f i r s t appearances of an emergent s taf f nota t ion . ) The ca re fu l d i l i n e a t i o n of the melodies of these psalm tones i n t h i s manner removes any susp ic ion that the 57 i 17 I i * • T Tcfu/rr m ^ u ! ^ " < « ^ ^ p ^ ^ ^ l P < ^ - ^ f r u Jul ertTwe . it » '^f,-,^ u«p«T-u'^ - ^ " ^ " ^ r a n o n l fir-Turn wflcrtrfru ^ T - . U T , moduLtfW flin-^ifupa-iafexp^'" eft^'^merv-(olrr^ I<>rr» anwdii tfdtmt\!ti <C f^ «p«fitwr»k mdoitifuum- qiaTmUilonun. vthu fahieca. narxnent fijri /T^ M"*-cur-am' N«jweu wnfrrrru^*4i^««Ji7gm^ AJI»TU<$I 1 'MO* gctauirriAUiim laujA <ju; ATOuI-UTr inlt^r e^> mint j . r -S</J-«-li;.IWH lunundam tn.uiclvei. xu-t cuffiMin m m i f V L f <1 * $ ' — »J* - r V o f r// < — _ « / £ o,>> •^*J,1 Vjtiruun •sirr^tntur' uie- mac ad cuftoJitJifLvf mftfi«n« i£7 -ru-if j'\«Ta^TX'^ — f ^ V V / / / / ' June rionccmfiiTSxuqr 'otx'npfytao mommx mxndJta-OUL. a* Sfj </v's> If ex eyrpra ueeKxii fiLum m*J A^i^utf hifftmiUf- tpttftttp TXrpiran. • • kL'L Figure 2.--The Eight Regular Psalm Tones from the Commemoratio Brevi<;T V/olfenbuttel Ms. Gud. l a t . 2° 72 (4376) ( f o l i o 84). 58 d i f ferences i n the pi tches are mere s c r i b a l e r r o r s . I t appears more reasonable to conclude again that there was greater freedom i n the ancient psalmody than i n the more t i g h t l y organized system of the l a t e r p r a c t i c e . Although i t would seem that the Gospel C a n t i c l e s were not yet at t h i s time d i s t ingu i shed by an elaborate psalmody, they were being t reated i n a spec ia l manner. On at leas t two occasions i n the course of the commentary the author d i r e c t s h i s a t t en t ion to the Gospel C a n t i c l e s : These in tona t ions , as was ind ica ted e a r l i e r , are used where the performance of a chant i s slower, as for instance for the Gospel C a n t i c l e s . The Gospel C a n t i c l e s , however, are to be sung at a higher p i t c h than the others and more s lowly . Such d i s t i n c t i o n s , however, belong more proper ly to questions concerning performance p rac t i ce s and cannot be considered as part of t h i s study. Quas tamen modulationes ubi moros ior i cantu est opus, utpote ad cant ica evangeliorum cum ad hoc vacat , secundum quod superius expressum est , assumere solemus.^ 0 and Cant ica quoque evange l i i a l t i u s e t „ m o r o s i u s c e t e r i s . ^ 36 Commemoratio B r e v i s . f 83 v . 37 UaidL., f 87. CHAPTER II TERMINATIONS The concluding i n f l e c t i o n of a psalm tone i s a descending f igure of three or more notes. This por t ion i s set to the l a s t s y l l a b l e s of each verse of the psalm and thus f u l f i l l s an important r o l e . Thi s i s to funct ion as a decorat ive cadence for the ent i re psalm tone, and to a r t i c u l a t e the unending flow of the psalrnodic c y c l e . It must be emphasized that the f i n a l of a mode has nothing to do with the terminat ion of a psalm tone. In almost a l l cases the psalms are sung i n associa-t i o n with an ant iphon.I However, a gradual change i n a t t i tude was evidenced with respect to the number of r e p e t i t i o n s and the por t ion of the antiphon to be employed. In very ancient times i t appears that the antiphon was sung before and a f ter each verse of the psalm. Thi s prac t i ce was to be twice c u r t a i l e d . In the standard medieval p r a c t i c e , the i n t e r n a l r e p e t i t i o n s were omitted—the antiphon was sung only twice : before and a f ter the ent i re psalm. A fur ther pruning i n the l a te Middle Ages reduced 1 D i r e c t psalmody i s employed for a few psalms at the L i t t l e Hours. See A p e l , Gregor ian , p . 1 7 9 . 60 the i n i t i a l antiphon to an i n c i p i t of one or two words. Thi s l a s t curtai lment i s i n use today. It has been bel ieved genera l ly that the p r i n c i p l e which governs the construct ion of the psalmodie pract ice was one which would provide an a s soc ia t ion between psalm and antiphon and implement the smoothest poss ible t r a n s i t i o n from one to the other . To accomplish the f i r s t , two corresponding systems were evolved. Antiphons were assigned to one of eight modes, psalms to one of e ight regular tones. However, the connection between the terminat ion of a psalm tone and the i n c i p i t of the antiphon i s somewhat problematical owing to the fact that the f i r s t notes of the antiphon are quite v a r i a b l e . The so lu t ion to t h i s was to provide a number of terminations for each psalm tone. Thus an appropriate psalm terminat ion would be chosen to accommodate the beginning of the antiphon. But t h i s (the usual) explanation i s an over-s i m p l i f i c a t i o n . For one t h i n g , under c loser in spec t ion , the junctures would often appear to be anything but smooth. Apel has observed that the i n t e r v a l s at the point of connection range from the unison to the perfect f i f t h . 2 As we have 2 I b i d . , pp. 221-222. 61 already pointed out, the very nature of the Gregorian melodies i s one of a predominantly conjunct motion* It would be d i f f i c u l t to argue that ascending leaps of fourths and descending leaps of f i f t h s s a t i s fy the p r e s c r i p t i o n for smoothness. There i s another important i n d i c a t i o n that the explanation based on the necess i ty for smoothness was not a simple matter of two adjacent notes. Almost a l l medieval service books provide several psalm-tone terminations to accommodate antiphons which begin on the same p i t c h . That i s to say, there i s often more than one psalm terminat ion which concludes on the same note. S i m i l a r i t y of melodic c o n t o u r — s u i t a b i l i t y of one melodic design to the other—would appear to exp la in the coupling of psalm terminat ion and antiphon i n c i p i t to a far greater degree than the mere nearness of two notes. Terminations ending on the same note were often structured i n a manner e n t i r e l y unl ike one another. Thi s melodic independence w i l l be e a s i l y seen i n the fo l lowing table drawn from the Commemoratio B r e v i s . 4 Example 1 shows two d i f f e rent psalm terminations of the fourth tone, each of 3 The connections between psalm tone and antiphon demonstrated i n the Commemoratio Brevis are , as w i l l be seen, extremely smooth i n t h i s re spect . 4 Commemoratio Brev i$ . f 85 v . 62 which ends on g : the d i f ference i n structure i s notable . The notes i n brackets are the i n i t i a l p i tches of the antiphons which f o l l o w . Example 1 Commemoratjo B r e v i s : Terminations of the The research which made poss ible t h i s f u l l e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the connection between the psalm and the antiphon was made by Geveart i n h i s well-known study of Gregorian melodies, La Mllopee a n t i q u e . 5 This scholar was able to c l a s s i f y approximately two-thousand antiphon melodies in to about forty-seven family groups which he c a l l s themes. Each group comprises antiphons which have a subs tant ia l l ikenes s with respect to t h e i r openings. It has recent ly been noted that groups of antiphons which share a th£me_ are very often assigned to the same terminat ion Fourth Psalm Tone seculorum amen 5 Geveart , Melopee. 63 and that the melodic structure of the i n c i p i t of the antiphon i s s i m i l a r to that of the psalm tone t e r m i n a t i o n . 0 With t h i s i n mind, i t may be reasoned that the connection between antiphon and psalm tone was based on a thematic s i m i l a r i t y rather than the simple correspondance of two tones at the juncture . Apel has undertaken to demonstrate t h i s theory by comparing terminat ions of the seventh psalm tone (from the Intonarium of Oddo ) with antiphon i n c i p i t s of the same mode. Example 2, drawn from A p e l ' s Gregorian Chant, "shows Oddo's six terminat ions (with t h e i r present-day designations) as we l l as the i n c i p i t s associated with t h e m . " 8 6 A p e l , Gregor ian, p . 222. 7 Gerber t , Sc r ip tore s I I , p . 117. 8 A p e l , Gregor ian , pp. 224-225. 64 Example 2 A p e l ' s Comparison of Terminations and  I n c i p i t s . Mode 7 Terminations I 7.b I n c i p i t s Th . 23 v a r . ** * M* -** beculorum Amen II 7.c T h . 23 b T h « 2 4 c T h * 2 2 <g> . » <9»— ^ **- t0 »*-I I I 7 . C Th . 21 —A* 49-IV 7.a -4B> 49 SE— a Th.19 , v a r . b Th.27 ^-c Th.25 IT T .«* 4* . u V 7.d T h . 26 d Th.21 + 4* VI 7.c' Th . 20 <s> » ** ** & I E a The r e s u l t s of the comparison are e f f ec t ive i n that they r e v e a l , for him, a d e f i n i t e l ikeness of thematic out l ine between the two. Apel says: One cannot help f e e l i n g that i n every instance the terminat ion i s we l l adapted to the ensuing I n c i p i t , somehow a n t i c i p a t i n g i t s out l ine and indeed p rov id-ing a "smooth t r a n s i t i o n " between the Psalm and the subsequent Ant iphon.? 9 I b i d . 65 One might conclude at leas t that the whole quest ion of the d i f f e r e n t i a e i s more complex than the s i m p l i s t i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n based on the proximity of two notes at the juncture . The author of the Commemoratio Brevis cannot be said to have been e n t i r e l y i n d i f f e r e n t to the problems associated with the connection of psalms and antiphons. In f a c t , on one occasion i n the course of the commentary, the reader i s advised to consider the matter.^" 0 Preterea pro d i v e r s i t a t e Now because of the antiphonarum quae psalmis d i v e r s i t y of the adiunguntur, per omnes antiphons associated pene octo tonarum with psalms, the verse melodias f i n i s endings of nearly a l l versum v a r i a t u r . the eight regular intonat ions are v a r i a b l e . Never the les s , . the Commemoratio Brevis i s not at a l l complete with respect to terminat ions . The i n c l u s i o n or the omission of these d i f f e r e n t i a e va r i e s rather a r b i t r a r i l y from example to example. While he provides two or three endings for the f i r s t tone, to accommodate antiphons beginning on d_ and f_, he does not provide at a l l for others beginning on other notes . There i s an explanation for t h i s casual a t t i t u d e . The wording of the t r e a t i s e seems to show that i t was intended as an i n s t r u c t i v e manual for an area much larger than the immediate loca le of the author. In h i s f i r s t examples of psalm tones, the author notes that he 10 Commemoratio B r e v i s . f 83 v . 66 i s presenting the "standard formula as i t i s known i n h i s r eg ion , (neuma r e g u l a r i s , quae i t a se apud nos habet.) ^ From t h i s statement we may r e a d i l y perceive that terminat ions—indeed, ent i re psalm tones—were var iab le from place to p l ace . In f a c t , a comparison of the medieval manuscripts shows a great v a r i e t y i n t h i s matter, i n many cases exaggerated. As we have noted i n our i n t r o d u c t i o n , the h i s t o r y of the Gregorian reper to i re subjected the chant inc rea s ing ly to change during the centur ies which followed i t s o r i g i n a l formation. I t may wel l be that t h i s decay was apparent at the time the Commemoratio Brev i s was w r i t t e n . I t i s c l e a r , at any r a t e , that the o r i g i n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p of f ami l i e s of psalm tone terminat ions and antiphon i n c i p i t s had been forgotten by t h i s t ime. And for t h i s reason there were widely divergent l o c a l p rac t i ce s i n use—pract ices rather 12 a r b i t r a r y i n fea ture . F e r r e t t i has noted t h i s : Les Ant iphonaires et l e s The Antiphoners and the Tonaires du moyen Sge ne Tonaries of the Middle sont pas d 'accord sur l e Ages do not agree on the nombre de ces d i f f e r e n t - number of these d i f ferent- i ae ; i l s en offrent. plus i ae ; they offer many or ou moins. L 'Ant iphonaire few. The Hartker A n t i -d 'Hartker en donne 41 . . . . phoner gives 41 . . . . We have already establ i shed that our author meant the t r e a t i s e for general consumption: to have i n s i s t e d too l l ; I b i d . , f 83. 1 2 F e r r e t t i , Es thet ique . p . 322. 67 f o r c i b l y on a set number of terminations for each tone would have been inappropriate on h i s par t . There can be no doubt that t h i s confused s i t u a t i o n of widely d i f f e r i n g prac t i ce s i n v i t e d reforms. An often ruthles s pruning of the chant was to be ef fected from time to t ime. These continued unabated u n t i l un iver sa l standards were es tabl i shed i n the ear ly decades of the twentieth century. The employment of one or many terminat ions d i f f e r e d from community to community. The s t r i c t e r r e l i g i o u s orders , such as the C i s t e r c i a n s , permit the use of only one terminat ion for each psalm tone, while others , e s p e c i a l l y the Benedict ines , permit the use of a great many. It must be kept i n mind that the terminations i n present use i n the Vat ican E d i t i o n were chosen, i n the l a s t a n a l y s i s , a r b i t r a r i l y , from a vast r e p e r t o i r e . For the purpose of our comparison of the ear ly Frankish psalmody with the standard p r a c t i c e , the fo l lowing examples show the e s s e n t i a l s i m i l a r i t i e s of both. The notes i n square brackets at the conclus ion of each example from the Commemoratio Brevi s indica te the note upon which the succeed-ing antiphon commences. The omission of t h i s note ind ica te s that the example i n the source was not equipped with a corresponding ant iphon. The l e t t e r s i n upper and lower case which have been placed i n the beginning of each example taken from the Vat i can E d i t i o n ind ica te the f i n a l note of the terminat ion . When t h i s l e t t e r i s wr i t ten i n upper case, the 68 f i n a l note i s the f i n a l of the corresponding antiphon mode. In the examples of the same e d i t i o n , the black bar l i n e s denote one, two or three preparatory s y l l a b l e s before the accent, while the bar l i n e s comprised of spaced dashes denote the s y l l a b i c a t i o n af ter the f i n a l accent i n the t e x t . The square white notes accommodate extra s y l l a b l e s . Example 3 Terminations of the F i r s t Regular Psalm Tone Commgmoratio B r e v i s 1 3 V a t i c a n E d i t i o n 1 4 mT~ • '• „ — — : n — — * **"^ [»]— seculorum a-men r 9 i — i i 1 p ( 4 s w « £ — , *> m m  i 1 « — ^ i n lege domini _ ^ r - 1 — * L«J seculorum a-men =£ • mm- ^^ "S J^mmL. Z~m — V 4 G seculorum a-men a y • • • J'T -—' — (n -s W » m — *> r ~1 1 ! _ _ CT] e». il ^ seculorum a-men 13 Commemoratio B r e v i s , f 84 v ; f 84; f 84 v . The terminations of the Vat ican E d i t i o n i n our examples have been drawn from the L iber u s u a l i s . pp. 113-117. 6 9 We include here the terminat ion of the so-ca l l ed solemn tone. This melody i s i d e n t i c a l to the f i r s t terminat ion i n t h i s t a b l e . 1 5 4 5 seculorum a-men Example 4 Terminations of the Second Regular Psalm Tone  and the Solemn Tone Commemoratio Brevis "^ Vat i can E d i t i o n sole ending m ex quirunt eium seculorum amen 15 Commemoratio B r e v i s . f 83. 16 I b i d . , f 84 r and v . 70 Example 5 Terminations of the Third Regular Psalm Tone Commemoratio Brevis 1 7 Vat ican E d i t i o n X 1 f L rf ** mm mm mt mm MT mW tn • m V v • sole et ante lunam f i l i o r e g i s f i l i o s pauperum ambulaverunt -E3-seculorum amen 1 7 I b i d . , f 85 v ; £ 85; f 85 v ; f 84; f 84 v . 71 Example 6 Terminations of the Fourth Regular Psalm Tone Commemoratio Brevis 18 Vat ican E d i t i o n WW CJ seculorum amen PL nimis V f 3b seculorum amen verba u r i s mei seculorum amen 18 I b i d . , f 85 v ; f 84; f 85 v . 72 Example 7 Terminations of the F i f t h Regular Psalm Tone 19 Commemoratio Brevis Vat ican E d i t i o n TJ seculorum amen Example 8 Terminations of the S ix th Regular Psalm Tone  and the Solemn Tone 20 Commemoratio Brevis Vat ican E d i t i o n sole ending ^ ^ \-mandata tua seculorum amen 19 I b i d . . f 85 v. 20 I b i d . , f 84; f 83 v. 73 Example 9 Terminations of the Seventh Regular Psalm  Tone and the Solemn Tone Commemoratio Brevis 21 Vat ican E d i t i o n =5= -o-i n d i c i a tua i s : seculorum amen seculorum amen tZ3 I <*• seculorum amen 21 I b i d . , f 84; f 83 v ; f 86. 74 Example 10 Terminations of the Eighth Regular Psalm Tone and the Solemn Tone 22 Commemoratio Brevis Vat ican E d i t i o n a -t9-usquequaque -E3-13 m> ^ 9> seculorum amen 7 1 seculorum amen As would be expected, a number of terminat ions are given i n the Commemoratio Brevi s which are not represented i n the service books and e d i t i o n s of the Monks of Solesmes. The appearance of d i f f e r e n t terminations i s , of course, a demonstration of the l o c a l p r a c t i c e . Example 11 i s a table of these d i f f e r e n t concluding i n f l e c t i o n s . I t w i l l be noted that the author of the source has assigned each one to a spec i f i c ant iphon, each intended, doubtless , to represent a family of chants represented by theme. 22 I b i d . , f 84; f 86. 75 Example 11 Commemoratio B r e v i s : Terminations Pecul iar  to the Region of the Author 23 Tone III seculorum amen seculorum amen Tone IV 24 \) H - - -r r seculorum amen 0. seculorum amen ° seculorum amen 23 I b i d . , f 83; f 85. 24 I b i d . , f 85 v; f 83 v; f 85 v, 76 (Example 11 continued) Tone V 25 (J seculorum amen j u s t i f i c a t i o n e s tuas Tone VII 26 a ^ seculorum amen 25 I b i d . , f 83 v; f 84. 26 I b i d . , f 86. CHAPTER I I I TENORS The most ancient part of a psalm tone i s the r e c i t i n g note or tenor . This r e i t e r a t i o n of a s ingle note appears twice i n a psalm tone owing to the binary structure of each psalm verse , ( i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n to the present study, the p a r a l l e l i s m which under l ie s the texts of most psalm verses has been pointed out . ) A l l the s y l l a b l e s of the psalm text other than those assigned to the other three i n f l e c t i o n s — t h e i n t o n a t i o n , the mediant, the termination—are sung on the tenor r e c i t a t i o n . Thus i t may be said that the r e c i t a t i o i s the very centre of the psalm tone, framed as i t were by the other members. A need to re l a te the ac tua l prac t ice of psalmody with a concise and regular system of modal theory seems to have pervaded much of the th ink ing of many Western musicians. The r e s u l t s of t h i s coupling have led to some rather confusing conc lus ions . As has been pointed out i n the chapter concerned with terminat ions , the f i n a l of a mode has nothing to do with the conclus ion of a psalm tone. On the other hand, the p o s i t i o n of the tenor i n r e l a t i o n to the other notes of the tone (and mode) has given r i s e to c e r t a i n theor i e s , according to which, the > I 78 tenor i s to be considered the "dominant" of the tone or mode. This "dominant" i s seen to appear r e g u l a r l y on the f i f t h above the f i n a l i n the authentic modes and the t h i r d above the f i n a l i n the p laga l modes. Indeed, although he i s elsewhere forced to abandon t h i s theory, Apel has featured t h i s concept i n h i s w r i t i n g s : The dec i s ive element of the psalm tones i s not the f i n a l , but the tenor , which i s determined by the ru le that i t f a l l s on the f i f t h above the f i n a l i n the authentic modes, and on the t h i r d above the f i n a l i n the p laga l modes . • . . T h i s , as w i l l be seen, app l ie s ( imperfect ly) to the music of a much l a t e r age, and i n the case of the psalm tones appears to be more a r e su l t of coincidence than of underlying s t ruc ture . The fo l lowing i s a table of the tenors of three systems: 1) The most ancient psalmody represented by the pract ice 2 of the Commemoratio B r e v i s . 2) The tenor (or "dominant") as i t would appear according to the p r e s c r i p t i o n s of the aforementioned t h e o r e t i c a l . 3 system. 1 A p e l , Gregor ian, p . 210. 2 These were deduced from an examination of a l l the tenors given i n the source. 3 Reese, Middle Ages, p. 152. 79 3) The standard medieval prac t ice as given i n the Vat ican E d i t i o n . ^ Table 1 Psalm Tone Tenors Determined by Three Systems Commemoratio Brevis Dominant Theory Vat ican Ed. Tone I II I I I IV V VI VII VII I I t w i l l be noted that there are disagreements as to the p i t c h of the tenor i n tones I I I , IV and V I I I . It i s easy to dispose of the tenors prescr ibed i n the c a l c u l a t i o n s of the "dominant" theory. While t h i s system appears to be tenable for f i ve of the eight tones, the fact that i t does not agree with e i ther the Commemoratio  Brevis or the Vat i can E d i t i o n i n the other three tones r e a d i l y supports our b e l i e f that t h i s theory i s a r e s u l t of mere co inc idence . In t h i s respect , i t i s noteworthy that the tenor of the eighth psalm tone (b_) prescr ibed i n the "dominant" theory i s d i f f e r e n t from those of the other two a a a f 1 i k b_ a a a. c • c* a a a. d ' b_ c' Liber u s u a l i s , pp. 113-117, 80 ver s ions . (The l a t t e r do agree.) It has been claimed that t h i s b was ra i sed one hal f- tone to c_' to avoid the 5 t r i t o n e impl i ca t ions which surround b. However, an examination of the ent i re melody of many psalm tones of both vers ions f a i l s to support t h i s a l l e g a t i o n ; the note £ , (the lower element of the t r i t o n e ) does not appear i n t h i s tone • It would be po int le s s to question the tenors of the Vat ican E d i t i o n . Thi s book i s an e d i t i o n (for modern use) of standard prac t i ce which, e s tabl i shed i n the eleventh century, has continued i n uninterrupted use to the present d a y . ° The r e c i t i n g tones found i n the Commemoratio B r e v i s . however, have had an i n t e r e s t i n g and i n t r i g u i n g h i s t o r y , and i n the case of the fourth tone have given r i s e to a ser ies of puzzled explanations on the part of some of the most eminent musicologists, F e r r e t t i and Ape l among them. The d i f ference between the r e c i t a t i o of Tone III i n the ancient and the standard pract ice involves the heightening of t h i s note one h a l f - s t e p . It has been suggested that t h i s a l t e r a t i o n was effected for the same reason we have jus t c i t e d with respect to the three vers ions 5 A p e l , Gregorian, p . 210. 6 I b i d . . See p. 210 fo r further d e t a i l s . \ \ 81 of the eighth psalm tone. The note b has the problematical and suspect r e l a t i o n s h i p of the t r i t o n e b u i l t above the f i n a l i s £. This r e l a t i o n s h i p , however, i s e n t i r e l y hypothetical when i t i s considered as a factor of the early medieval system of psalm tones. The gamut consisted, i n those times, of four disjunct symmetrical tetrachords: 1. The tetrachord of the Graves, (c a l l e d by the author of the Commemoratio Breyis) tetrardum gravium (the lowest tetrachord): G A B f l a t c_ 2. The tetrachord of the F i n a l e s , tetrardum terminalem. (lower t e t r a c h o r d ) : 8 d e f g_ 3. The tetrachord of the Superiores, tetrardum superiorum. (upper t e t r a c h o r d ) : 9 a b_ c» d.' 4. The tetrachord of the Excellentes, tetrardum excellentum. (highest tetrachord) e» £' g_f a' 7 Commemoratio Brevis. f 83. 8 I b i d . 9 I b i d . 10 Ibi d . , f 83 v. 82 The author of the Commemoratio Brevis makes i t very c lear at the outset of the t r e a t i s e that the underlying concept of the gamut of four tetrachords i s the basis of the chant. The ambitus and the d i s p o s i t i o n of the notes of the var ious melodies for each of the standard formulas (neumae  r e g u l a r e s ) 1 1 are descr ibed—in terms of these structures—as ascending or descending to c e r t a i n degrees of one of the four fundamental te t rachords . ( i t i s a l so noteworthy that the bas i s of the daseian notat ion was the employment of the same four signs i n each of the four te t rachords . The r e p o s i t i o n i n g of these s igns , which we have already discussed indica ted the ac tua l te trachord to which a s ign belonged.) The reader w i l l note at once that none of the symmetrical tetrachords contains a t r i t o n e . I t i s only when one consider two notes of d i f f e r e n t tetrachords that the question of a t r i t o n e r e l a t i o n s h i p i s evidenced at a l l . It i s not d i f f i c u l t to deduce at t h i s point that the whole quest ion of a t r i t o n e (and thus a chromat ica l ly i n f l e c t e d bj was prompted by the c u l t i v a t i o n of polyphony i n a l a t e r age when the range of the melodies was grea t ly expanded and one part was juxtaposed against another. The ins i s tence on the use of c.1 as the r e c i t i n g note of the t h i r d tone may wel l have been the r e s u l t of l a t e r considera-11 1 I b i d . , f 83. 83 t i o n s . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that the Monks of Solesmes have come to r e a l i z e that they too l i b e r a l l y appl ied b f l a t to t h e i r e a r l i e r ed i t ions of the Gregorian r e p e r t o i r e . In recent times they have reconsidered and c u r t a i l e d t h e i r z e a l ; there are fewer b_ f l a t s i n the more recent volumes of the Paleographie, Musicale and i n l a t e r p r a c t i c a l e d i t i o n s of the chant. In spite of t h i s t r i t o n e r a t i o n a l e , so eagerly postulated by many, the much vaunted "diabplus i n musica" does not appear to have concerned the ancients at the time of the Commemoratio B r e v i s . The dozen or so examples of the t h i r d psalm tone given i n the source c l e a r l y r e c i t e on the note b_. And, i n f a c t , the inherent t r i t o n e structure of the t h i r d tone—as envisaged by l a t e r t h e o r i s t s (the f i n a l i s i s e., the r e c i t a t i o i s b)—appears only once i n the melodies given i n the source. Thi s rare appearance of an impl ied t r i t o n e i s to be found i n a terminat ion formula near the end of the t r e a t i s e . In t h i s , the penultimate note i s f_ and thus a t r i t o n e r e l a t i o n s h i p i s formed with the 12 repi frat io . 12 I f eM. . f 85. 84 Example 1 Commemoratio Brevis: Termination for Psalm  Tone III seculorum amen The significance of t h i s example, however, i s open to question. The note f_ i s simply a passing note. The same formula i s presented ( i n association with the solemn tones) at the beginning of the t r e a t i s e and does not contain the problematical note. This normal appearance i s as follows: Example 2 Commemoratio Breyis: Termination f o r Solemn Tone H I 1 3 7 -4 b ~ * V r J secula seculorum amen Moreover, there are numerous places i n the manuscript where unmistakable examples of the t r i t o n e appear. These are both d i r e c t and implied t r i t o n e s . 13 X b i d . , f 83. I 85 Example 3 Commemoratio Brev i s : Mediant Cadence (Tone V) containing a D i r e c t Tritone-*-4 3=t dirigantum viae mee, * ad custodiendas Example 4 Commemoratio B r e v i s : Mediant Cadence (Tone I) containing an Implied Tri tone i -^y^ St CtL-^m. — mm *> H mansuetudinem et j u s t i t i a m : * et d e d i s t i The r e c i t a t i o of the fourth psalm tone found i n the Commemoratio Brev i s has been a serious problem to mus ico log i s t s . For many years i t was bel ieved that t h i s tone had two d i f f e r i n g tenors : g. for the f i r s t h a l f of the verse , a for the second h a l f . Th i s misapprehension can e a s i l y be traced back to Gerbert,-*- 0 who i n h i s e d i t i o n of the 14 I b i d . . , f 84 . 15 I b i d . , f 84 v . 16 Gerbert , Scr ip tores I, p . 217. 86 Commemoratio Brevi s continued to use the daseian nota t ion . Thi s l a s t scholar represented the fourth psalm tone by the fo l lowing : Example 5 Gerbert . Scr ip tores It The Fourth Regular Psalm Tone f n — z w m w f Tu mandasti, mandata tua c u s t o d i r i n i mis. Th i s reads i n modern notat ion as : Example 6 G e r b e r t ' s Vers ion of the, Fourth Regular  Psalm Tone i n Modern Notat ion 2 . , =7* " \ 1 — 1 1 — *9— Z • t -Ml 0 - E=l J 0 «9—« ** «g» = cr- f c Tu mandasti, mandata tua c u s t o d i r i n i -mi s . Thi s v e r s i o n , rather than the manuscript of the source, has been used as the bas is of study for centur ies and, 87 as a r e s u l t , has been the basis of a considerable d i s c u s s i o n . Faolo F e r r e t t i appears to have found both the tenor and the terminat ion of t h i s tone to be quite except ional and i n t e r e s t i n g , for he devotes considerable space to the p r o b l e m . ^ It i s strange, however, that he was concerned more by the b r e v i t y of the second h a l f of the text than by the appearance of two d i f f e r e n t r e c i t i n g notes. To the former he gave the fo l lowing explanat ion: Un f a i t remarquable et de A remarkable fact and of grande importance au point great importance to an de vue h i s tor ique et h i s t o r i c a l point of view, es thet ique, c ' e s t dans l e t h i s i s i n the 4th tone, 4 e i on , l a double ieneur the double tenor g_ and a, so l et la., t i e r c e et quarte t h i r d and fourth above the au-dessus de l a f i n a l e . f i n a l . In the example i n Dans l 1 example de l a Co mm- / the Commemoratio Brevis,, emoratio Brey i$ . l a br ievete the shortness of the text du texte ne permet pas de does not al low a c l ea r v o i r clairement l a seconde view of the second tenor ; Teneur; mais avec un texte but with a longer t ex t , plus l o n g , toute l a d i f f - a l l d i f f i c u l t y disappears , i c u l t e d i s p a r a i t . F e r e t t i ' s concern for the b rev i ty of the text i n t h i s psalm tone prompted him to create a subst i tute v e r s i o n . He has obviously paraphrased the text and appl ied the ru le s he thought to be i n operation i n the o r i g i n a l example i n the 18 Commemoratio B r e v i s . 1 7 F e r r e t t i , Esthetique. p. 308. 18 I b i d . \ 88 Example 7 F e r r e t t i 1 s Vers ion of the Fourth Regular  Psalm Tone from the Commemoratio Brevis J , e r Teneur 2 Teneur — — s s — f E 1— Co 55—E9—» 85- B  «• S 3 H I £3 £3 B3 In manda-tis t u - i s exercebor: * r — B B — B - f i — B H 8 E S — H — 8£ M " f a et conside-rabo v i - a s tu-as . In h i s attempt to t i d y up what to him was an embarrassing s i t u a t i o n , F e r r e t t i equates the double tenor with a more solemn psalmody:^-9 Ces Teneurs sont p a r f a i t -ment normales, ca r , comme nous l ' avons vu p lus ieur s f o i s , dans l a Psalmodie c lass ique p laga l a p lus-i eur s Teneurs, C e l l e s - c i son a l a t i e r c e et a l a quarte au-dessus de l a f i n a l e du Mode, et dans l a Psalmodie so lennel le et ornee, a ces deux Teneurs, ou a l ' une des deux, s 'a joute toujours auss i c e l l e sur l a f i n a l e du Mode, These tenors are perfect-l y normal, because as we have seen many times, i n the c l a s s i c p laga l psalm-ody of many tenors , they are a t h i r d and a fourth above the f i n a l of the mode, and i n the solemn and ornate psalmody, to these two tenors , or to one of the two, they are always jo ined to the f i n a l of the mode. As r e c e n t l y as 1958, Apel saw f i t to worry about the same problem but without any apparent change of v i e w . 2 ^ The fourth psalm tone of the f i r s t ser ies has a tenor on a; but for that of the second ser ies a r e c i t a t i o n on g i s c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d , at leas t for the f i r s t ha l f 19 Ibid.. 20 A p e l , Gregor ian, p . 211. 89 of the v e r s e , w h i l e a s i m i l a r i n d i c a t i o n f o r the second h a l f i s u n f o r t u n a t e l y m i s s i n g because o f t h e s h o r t n e s s of t h e t e x t , so t h a t i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o d e c i d e whether, f o r a more p r o t r a c t e d t e x t , the r e c i t a t i o n would have been made on g or a. A p e l goes on t o r e p r o d u c e t h e s l i g h t l y d i f f e r i n g v e r s i o n s of t h e t e r m i n a t i o n of t h i s psalm tone as g i v e n by W a g n e r 2 1 and F e r r e t t i and c o n t i n u e s t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e s h o r t 22 t e x t of t h e t e r m i n a t i o n . He f i n a l l y c o n c l u d e s : A t any r a t e , i t a p p e a r s t h a t a t the ti m e of t h e Commemoratio B r e v i s t h e t e n o r of t h e f o u r t h psalm t o n e was e i t h e r g or g-a. I t a l s o a p p e a r s t h a t t h e change t o a, adumbrated here and e s t a b l i s h e d not l o n g t h e r e a f t e r , c o u l d not p o s s i b l y have been made i n consequence of the r a i s e of t h e t e n o r i n t h e t h i r d psalm t o n e , s i n c e t h i s t e n o r had not y e t changed. I n t h i s l a s t s t a t e m e n t , A p e l i s r e f e r r i n g t o an o p i n i o n w h i c h has been put f o r w a r d t o e x p l a i n t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e r e c i t i n g note p r e s c r i b e d by t h e "dominant" t h e o r y {g) and t h a t of t h e a n c i e n t and the l a t e r p r a c t i c e s ( a ) . W h i l e i t i s not i m p o s s i b l e t o b e l i e v e t h a t m u s i c i a n s i n a n c i e n t t i m e s would have seen f i t t o a l t e r f o r t h e o r e t i c a l r e a s o n s t h e m e l o d i c c o n f i g u r a t i o n of a p e r f e c t l y a c c e p t a b l e p salm melody, i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o b e l i e v e t h a t the a n c i e n t s c o u l d have o b l i g i n g l y changed t o conform t o a t h e o r y w h i c h was not p o s t u l a t e d f o r a n o t h e r thousand y e a r s . 21 Wagner, Ur s p r u n g und E n t w i c k l u n g . I l l , p. 90. 22 A p e l , G r e g o r i a n , p. 2 1 2 . 9 0 It i s only when we re turn to the manuscript of the source that we are able to perceive that the whole problem was caused by the care less copying of a s ingle daseian symbol. Apparently Gerbert confused the daseian signs for the notes g_ and a — ^ and '\jT . As we have seen, s c r i b a l e r ror s such as these are easy to make i n t h i s notat ion system. (Gerbert*s ver s ion i s our example 5.) In t h i s case only (the other psalm tones on t h i s f o l i o are abso lute ly c lear ) the daseian signs i n the Wolfen-b u t t e l manuscript have been pos i t ioned rather ca re l e s s ly and do not r e g u l a r l y coincide with t h e i r assigned s y l l a b l e s . Thi s i s e s p e c i a l l y not icable i n the second ha l f of the verse . (This may have been the cause of the uproar concerning the awkward terminat ion . ) In a d d i t i o n , the d i r e c t —~~~ ~~ ) which impl ies a cont inuat ion of the r e c i t i n g note i n the f i r s t ha l f of the verse has been omitted a l toge ther . The fo l lowing f igure i s a f ac s imi le of the Wolfenbuttel m a n u s c r i p t : 2 3 23 Commemoratio B r e v i s . Wolfenbuttel Ms. f 84, 91 Figure 3 Wn1f enbu1t fi 1 Manusc r ip t : The Fourth Regular Psalm Tone The S t . Paul i n C a r i n t h i a manuscript, however, i s p e r f e c t l y c l e a r and leaves no doubt as to the correc t placement of any of the s igns . Nor i s the " d i r e c t " for the cont inuat ion of a. as the r e c i t i n g note of the f i r s t 24 ha l f of the verse mis s ing . Figure 4 i s a f ac s imi le of the S t . Paul manuscript: Figure 4 S t . Paul i n C a r i n t h i a Manuscript : The Fourth  Regular Psalm Tone I b i d . , S t . Paul Ms. f 3 v . 92 T h i s , i n modern t r a n s c r i p t i o n , i s as fo l lows : Example 8 Commemoratio B r e v i s : The Fourth Regular  Psalm Tone D , -A 4» & X O Tu mandasti mandata tua , * c u s t o d i r i n imis . I t i s most pecu l i a r that Gerbert d id not not ice t h i s c o r r e c t i o n since i t can be shown that he used the S t . Paul i n C a r i n t h i a manuscript as the bas is of h i s e d i t i o n — h i s p r i n t e r s proofs have been reta ined i n the S t . Paul l i b r a r y . Thi s l a s t point seems to imply that the error was the r e s u l t of undue haste or was a simple overs ight . At any r a t e , as a r e s u l t of t h i s s l i p , much unnecessary e f f o r t has been expended on the part of o thers . In the l i g h t of t h i s evidence there can be no doubt tha t , at the time of the Commemoratio B r e v i s . the sole tenor of the fourth psalm tone was a . I CHAPTER IV THE MEDIANT MELODY It i s customary i n present times to consider the connection between the f i r s t and second halves of the psalm verse as being comprised of two separate musical e n t i t i e s — a mediant cadence leading to a f ixed stop at the end of the f i r s t verse , followed by a second and unprepared in tonat ion of the tenor . We s h a l l l a t e r show that t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of a r i g i d c e n t r a l formula was not current i n Frankish t imes, but r a ther , was the impos i t ion of a subsequent age. Thi s was ef fected i n order that the complexity and the great v a r i a b i l i t y of the ent i re psalm melody be reduced to a more simple and u n i v e r s a l l y under-stood p r i n c i p l e . Indeed, i t i s e n t i r e l y poss ib le that t h i s standard prac t i ce i s the product of very recent t imes. I t has been pointed out that the texts of the Psalms i n the Vat ican E d i t i o n are " f i t t e d " to the melodies of t h e i r corresponding tones "according to d e f i n i t e r u l e s , so that i t i s not necessary for the books to p r i n t out music for each psalm." - 1 An e f for t of t h i s sort—to regulate the 1 Reese, Middle Ages, p . 174. 94 multitudinous array of texts and chant melodies which const i tute the vast Gregorian reper to i re for the f a i t h f u l of the ent i re modern wor ld—is per fec t ly understandable and cannot be questioned. However, when these modern s i m p l i f i c a t i o n s are held to be the only poss ib le so lut ions to the correct set t ing of the c e n t r a l p o r t i o n , indeed, any por t ion of the psalm, serious d i f f i c u l t i e s and misunder-standings a r i s e . The expectat ion of t h i s l a t e r system has created some insurmountable problems for some scholars attempting to unravel the complexi t ies of the mediant melodies given i n the text of the Commemoratio B r e v i s . Before commencing a d i s cus s ion of the mediant melodies i n the source, i t w i l l be useful to consider for a moment the concept of t h i s i n f l e c t i o n put fo r th i n the modern l i t u r g i c a l books. At the present t ime, as already noted, the mediant cadence i s c l e a r l y assigned to the f i r s t ha l f of the psalm verse . The s i m p l i c i t y or the e labora t ion of t h i s f igure i s condit ioned by a cons idera t ion of the number of s y l l a b l e s i n the text and the accentual s i t u a t i o n of the f i n a l word or words. Thus, when there i s one accented word, the preparatory s y l l a b l e s preceding t h i s are f i t t e d to the f i r s t or second notes of the cadent ia l melody. When there are two accented words, "the d a c t y l i c cadence i s ant ic ipa ted with the accented s y l l a b l e and precedes the c l i v i s . " 2 ; L i b e r u s u a l i s . p. 1 1 4 . 95 Example 1 Vat i can E d i t i o n : Mediant Cadence with Two  Accented Words. Third Tone E S— m—B-W B—5 8^ 1 1—N g is Memento Domine David, * et omnis Spec i a l cases ( i t i s not intended to discuss the Vat ican E d i t i o n at greater length than i s necessary) have been deal t with i n a copious manner by Apel i n Gregorian Chant. Those responsible for the content of the modern e d i t i o n appear to have selected the melodies most c a r e f u l l y and to have pruned them and shaped them to conform to the ent i re r eper to i re of psalms. C e r t a i n l y they have contr ived to conclude the mediant cadence on the tenor or on a note very near to the tenor p i t c h , and thus have removed the necess i ty for a second i n t o n a t i o n . The fo l lowing table (Example 2) shows the mediant cadences of the modern p r a c t i c e . 4 The notes i n square brackets at the beginning and at the end of each cadence i n the table ind ica te the p i t c h of the preceding and succeeding r e c i t a t i o . The "white" notes i n these melodies are not sung for most verses but are intended for spec ia l cases . These are when the text contains extra syllables—more than i s normal—or when the A p e l , Gregor ian , pp. 216-217. L i b e r u s u a l i s . pp. 113-117. 96 accentual s i t u a t i o n i s e s p e c i a l l y complicated. The whole question of such var iant s w i l l be discussed l a t e r i n t h i s chapter at a more appropriate po in t . But i t i s not inappropriate on our part to remark at t h i s point that t h i s l a s t system of providing for spec ia l cases was wel l known to musicians i n ancient t imes. I t would be incor rec t to assume that the s t r i c t and ordered mediant cadences i n use today are the exclus ive product of modern t h i n k i n g . Thi s however, i s but one of two methods of providing a workable connection between the two members of the psalm verse . Example 2 Va t i can E d i t i o n : Mediant Cadences for the  Eight Regular Psalm Tones Tone I 0 to 1 I 1 I 1 Tone II Tone III g g 7T~1 1 _ —1 ,—- — <Z> I mw O * 1 I l _ J i • Tone IV 4& ~= 1 r " ! -P—i 4t*— & — — 2 3 1—m9T~> Q S P Fj^=| Tone V fe 6 97 Tone VI Tone VII Tone VII I There i s a strong undertone of f ru s t ra t ion—indeed , perplexed amazement—pervading the text of F e r r e t t i * s Esthe*tique Greaorienne at the point at which the eminent musicologist t r i e s to come to terms with the mediant melodies contained i n the Commemoratio B r e v i s . 5 In f a c t , i t i s soon evident--the tone of h i s wr i t ing changes—that he threw up h i s hands i n desperation seeing only disorder and confus ion. He was so thoroughly steeped i n the (then) recent reassembling of the chant by the learned Monks of 5 F e r r e t t i , EstfrqUque, pp. 315-316. 9 8 Solesmes that he was unable to relax h i s point of view to admit the more f l e x i b l e prac t i ce of the anc ient s . For him, the per fec t ion of the chant.was an e x h i b i t i o n of s c i e n t i f i c r i g i d i t y ( a lbe i t coupled with d iv ine grace) . Of the mediant melodies i n the Commemoratio, Brevjg , he wrote: Le procede' que nous reVele l a Commemoratio Brevis est absolument empirique et a r b i t r a i r e . Des textes , identiques par l e nombre des s y l l a b l e s et l a place des accents , sont t r a i t e s differemment sans qu'on sache pourquoi . Pour assures l ' a c c o r d entre l e s psalmodiants, i l aura i t f a l l u noter chaque Verse t , ce qui e t a i t pratiquement imposs ib le . Comment done l e s Maitres de Choeur s 'y p r e n a i e n t - i l s pour obtenir 1'ensemble indispensable entre l e s Chanteurs, cet ensemble tant recommande par l ' a u t e u r de l a Commem-oratio Brevis . . . ? Mystere! Dans l a Psalm-odie ornee de l ' I n t r o i t , des T r a i t s et des Repons de Matines , l a s t y l i s a t i o n e t a i t et est encore, ce la ne f a i t pas de doute, p a r f a i t e . La Psalmodie obe i s sa i t a des l o i s f i x e s , r igoureuses , i n f l e x i b l e s et log iques . Les Maitres de Choeur et l e s The'oreti-c iens du Moyen Sge connais-s a i e n t - i l s ces l o i s ? Et s ' i l s l e s connaissaient pourquoi ne l e s appl iquer-e n t - i l s pas a l a Psalmodie The procedure which i s revealed to us i n the Commemoratio Brevi$ i s absolutely empiric and a r b i t r a r y . Texts , which are i d e n t i c a l i n the number of s y l l a b l e s and the place of accents , are treated d i f f e r e n t l y wi th-out one knowing why. To be c e r t a i n of the agree-ment between the singers of the psalms, i t would have been necessary to notate each verse , which i s p r a c t i c a l l y imposs ib le . How then were the choi r masters able to achieve t h i s indispensable ensemble between the s ingers , an ensemble emphasized so much by the author of the Commemoratio Brevis . . . ? Mystery! In the ornate psalmody of the I n t r o i t , the Tracts and the Responds of Matins , the s t y l i z a t i o n was and i s y e t , of that there i s no doubt, per fec t . The psalmody obeys f ixed laws, r i gorous , i n f l e x i b l e and l o g i c a l . Did the masters of the cho i r s and the theore t i c i ans of the Middle Ages understand these laws? And i f they d id under-stand them, why d id they not 6 I b i d . 99 simple? D i r a - t - o n que le s ty le simple se prete mal a l a s t y l i s a t i o n ? Pas du tout ! Et justement parce q u ' i l est simple et destine a un choeur forme d'elements d i v e r s , l a s t y l i s a t i o n est d'une absolue neces s i te . C ' e s t s i v r a i que, plus t a r d , tout le monde en sent i t le beso in . Aus s i s ' imposa-t - e l l e peu a peu. Ce fut l 'oeuvre des s i e c l e s , de l a r e f l e x i o n , et d'une longue pratique quot idienne. Tres probablement, dans l ' a n c i e n temps, on procedait par i n s t i n c t , on se f i a i t a l ' o r e i l l e , ce qui explique cer ta ines incer t i tudes et o s c i l l a t i o n s dans le maniere d'adapter le s textes , l o r s q u ' i l s present-ent des cas embarrassants et d i f f i c i l e s a resoudre. II en va tout autrement a u j o u r d ' h u i . apply them to the simple psalmody? Is i t that the simple s ty le lends i t s e l f badly to the s t y l i z a t i o n ? Not at a l l ! I t i s j u s t , because i t i s simple and destined for a choir formed of diverse elements, that the s t y l i z a -t i o n i s abso lute ly neces-sary. It i s very true that at a l a t e r date everybody f e l t the need of i t . And thus i t was imposed l i t t l e by l i t t l e . This was the work of centur i e s , c a r e f u l , thorough and of many years of d a i l y p r a c t i c e . Very probably, i n the ancient t imes, one proceeded by i n s t i n c t , one t rusted the ear, that which expla ins c e r t a i n uncer ta in t i e s and o s c i l l a t i o n s i n the manner of adapting the t ex t s , when they presented embarrassing cases and d i f f i c u l t i e s to be re so lved . I t i s quite d i f f e rent today. I t i s soon apparent, when we turn to the evidence found i n the Commemoratio B r e v i s . that the ancient p rac t i ce was considerably more f l e x i b l e with respect to the set t ing of the mediant melodies than was that of the standard medieval p r a c t i c e . Instead of a l l o t t i n g the ent i re cadent i a l formula to the conclus ion of the f i r s t ha l f of the verse and beginning the second ha l f abrupt ly , sine in tona t io on the tenor , the ancient prac t ice employed a quite d i f f e rent but l o g i c a l so lu t ion for t h i s c e n t r a l por t ion of the psalm ver se . Thi s was to use the same basic melodic out l ine for a l l mediant cadences of the same psalm tone. The vest iges of 100 t h i s prac t ice are s t i l l d i s c e r n i b l e today. The caesura, however, i n the ancient prac t i ce was sh i f ted depending upon the number of sy l l ab le s and on the p o s i t i o n of important accents i n the tex t s of d i f f e r e n t psalm verses . At the same t ime, care appears to have been taken to ensure that ( i n most cases) the second ha l f of the psalm verse was begun with an in tonat ion f igure and was smoothly connected to the f i r s t ha l f of the psalm without an abrupt break i n the continuous flow of the psalmodie c y c l e . For the sake of convenience we w i l l c a l l t h i s technique the "moveable caesura . " Although we w i l l demonstrate copious ly the evidence of such treatment for a l l the mediant melodies of the source l a t e r i n t h i s chapter, we include here—in order to make c l ea r t h i s ra ther complicated matter—a table of mediants. Example 3a contains a reduct ion of the basic formula for the mediant melody of the f i r s t psalm tone. Appended are two d i f f e rent examples (Examples 3b and 3c) from the t r e a t i s e of the moveable caesura appl ied to the 7 same melodic formula. 7 Commemoratio Brev i s . f 83 vj f 84 v . 101 Example 3 Commemoratio B r e v i s : The Moveable Caesura a) -4f> m f -4B 3=t Vermis et non homo, * opprobium homi ommum Qj deus i n eternum, * accingere In a d d i t i o n to the moveable caesura, the author of the Commemoratio Brevis has demonstrated another manner by which the cor rec t placement of the accent may be achieved. This involves the i n t e r p o l a t i o n of an extra note or notes in to the basic shape of the melody i n order that a correct set t ing of the word accents be maintained. Thi s procedure i s known as a pros thet ic v a r i a n t . While the l a t e r standard pract ice abandoned the use of the moveable caesura, the employment of pros thet ic v a r i a n t s was cont inued. Thi s i s indicated today by the "white" notes included i n the mediant melodies of the Vat i can E d i t i o n (See Example l ) . The fo l lowing example, verses 1 and 4 of Psalm 71 set to the t h i r d tone, demonstrate t h i s p r i n c i p l e quite c l e a r l y . 8 8 Liber u s u a l i s . p . 379. 102 Example 4 The Prosthet ic V a r i a n t : Vat ican E d i t i o n —X y - v-( flb tytK—Mt——r™\ as^ - u (h — 9* gp *tm — 1 . Deus, judicum tuum r e g i da: * et j u s t i t i a m 1, / — 6 b — o ^ p —' m> m» mm _ — s . « * > . - R — W — w*9 4 . Jud icab i t . . . f i l i o s pauperum: * et humi l i ab i t The same psalm verses set to the same tone are to be found i n the text of the Commemoratio B r e v i s . It i s in te re s t ing to note that the same p r i n c i p l e of pros thet ic v a r i a t i o n was employed i n ancient t imes . The e l abora t ion , however, i s not iceably more ornate i n the case of the fourth verse . Example 5 The Prosthet ic V a r i a n t : Commemoratio Brevi s ft = N — H mm ** m cm mm mm mm ^ # 3 — ^ mw c, 1 . Deus, judic ium tuum r e g i da, * y L et j u s t i c i a m -A ; 1 = • = « — » » j ^ — « m m* ** m> • m> ** mm t=X 4. Juducabit . . . f i l i o s pauperum, * et humi l i ab i t 9 Commemoratio Brev i s , f 85; f 85 v . 103 The fo l lowing series of examples i s a compilat ion of a l l the mediant melodies found i n the text of the source. The f i r s t example accompanying each tone i s a reduct ion of the basic out l ine of the melody to a simple formula. The successive examples have been arranged according to the placement of the caesura, the use of preparatory s y l l a b l e s and the number of accents i n the t e x t . The f i n a l examples for each tone, as w i l l be i n d i c a t e d , are demonstrations of the use of pros thet ic v a r i a n t s . Tone I The basic out l ine of the mediant melody for the f i r s t psalm tone i s a formula of four notes which ascends one tone above the tenor and descends three tones below the t e n o r : 1 0 Example 6 The Basic Formula: Tone I 10 This basic formula (and the others for tones 2 to 8 which fol low) has been determined through a comparison of a l l mediant melodies given i n the source. \ 104 In two examples the caesura i s placed af ter the second tone below the tenor , namely g_. Two preparatory s y l l a b l e s and one accent Example 7 / JL U tm — = w / vermis et non homo, •* **—•* m* ** — * opprobium hominum te=f —M ) f—\ *W ^ —<*»—^ •* F=\ precepto quod mandasti, * et synagoga In two examples the caesura i s placed between g and f, Two Preparatory s y l l a b l e s and one a c c e n t : ! 2 Example 8 a deus i n eternum, * accingere 1 1 Commemoratio B r e v i s . f 85. 1 2 I b i d . , f 84 v . 105 Two accents : 13 Example 9 meum verbum bonum, * d ico ego In three examples the caesura i s placed a f ter the lowest note below the tenor , namely f . Two preparatory s y l l a b l e s and one a c c e n t : * 4 Example 10 3=t mansuetudinem, et j u s t i t i a m : * et d e d i s t i 13 Ibid. 14 Ibid. 106 Two preparatory s y l l a b l e s , the preparation i s e laborated, and one a c c e n t : 1 5 Example 11 —A s"—\ (h M • o \ m H -immaculati i n v i a , * qui ambulant Three preparatory s y l l a b l e s and one accent: Example 12 ) —y D H 1 — o S I a d i s t i in iqu i ta tem, * • propte'rea Two accents : Example 13 1 =5? ( mea calamus s c r ibe , * v e l o c i t e r 15 I b i d . , f 84. 16 I b i d . . f 84 v . 17 Ibid. . 107 In two examples the caesura i s placed a f ter f_ and i s followed by the tenor . Two accents , the penultimate note i s e l i d e d : Example 14 .18 rt v domine v i r t u s mea, * dominus quoniam d e f e c i t sanctus, * quoniam The employment of pros thet ic var i ant s to enhance the correct accent must not be considered a mere subs t i tu t ion for the moveable caesura. The examples which fo l low a l l conta in the use of pros thes i s and, i n a d d i t i o n , d i f f e r as to the p o s i t i o n of the caesura. I t i s a l so evident that i n these mediant melodies an e f for t has been made to effect the correc t accentual stress near the beginning of the second ha l f of the ver se . 18 I b i d . , f 85. 1 0 8 In two examples there i s a pros thet ic v a r i a n t , the melody s h i f t s up a step to the note a . The caesura i s made between 1 9 the notes f_ and g_: Example 1 5 tt pre f i l i u s hominum, * d i f fusa *> m> 4+, / i n seculum s e c u l i , * v i rga The prosthes i s i s s imi l a r i n the next example but the caesura l i e s between f and a and continues by the leap of a t h i r d Example 1 6 -*9-i n altum regredere, * domine 1 9 I b i d . . f 84 v . 20 I b i d . , f 85. 109 In one example the prosthes is i s achieved by returning to the highest note of the basic formula, while the caesura i s placed between the notes a. and g_:2 J -Example 17 pulchri tudiam tuam, * intende The aforementioned use of pros thet ic v a r i a t i o n i n the second ha l f of the psalm verse i s demonstrated i n the next two examples. In the f i r s t , the caesura l i e s between g and f : 2 2 i n the second, between a r e p e t i t i o n of the note g : 2 3 Example 18 / / k I—/ m* -m, m \=1 ' 14) R ^ - * * — — m R e f fod i t eium, * et i n c i d i t 21 I b i d . , f 84 v . 22 I b i d . , f 85. 23 I b i d . 1 110 Example 19 ^ - v c 3 - * — " " * — * / mihi mela, * m* ^ •» f decidam merito For the sake of completeness, appended to the d i scuss ion of the mediant melody of most tones i s the vers ion of the c e n t r a l i n f l e c t i o n given i n the text of the Commemoratio Breyi s for the Solemn Tones. It w i l l be noted that i n most cases the mediant melody of the Solemn Tone out l ines that of the regular psalm tone. 24 Example 20 Mediant Melodyt Solemn Tone I — y ) -¥ c ~ ± ~— j N ±~y=i et nunc et semper, * et i n secula Tone II The basic out l ine for the mediant melody of the second psalm tone i s a formula of three d i f f e r e n t notes which ascends one tone above the tenor, re turns to the tenor , drops a minor t h i r d and resumes the r e i t e r a t i o n of the r e c i t a t i o : 24 Ibid.., f 83. | I l l Example 21 The Basic Formula: Tone II In three examples the caesura the second and t h i r d notes of Two a c c e n t s : 2 5 Example 22 i s placed between f_ and g, the formula. ! ? CJ test imonia e i u s , * . tW-^ -In toto ( (T\ \ 1 mt mn Mt l jn j -^ <m *» convertens animas, ^ ^ H ™ f testimonium f / T \ , 1 am mt Mm W M — *"—1 l e t i f i c a n t e s corda, * 1 mm H :  f precepturn 25 I b i d . , f 84; f 85. 112 In ten examples the caesura i s placed between a r e p e t i t i o n of the note f , the second note of the f o r m u l a . 2 6 One accent: Example 23 -LL J J= *t> *» *&* l a e t a b i t u r rex , * et semper Two preparatory sy l l ab le s and one accent: PS altum regredere, * domine 26 I b i d . , f 85. 113 (Example 23 continued) Two accents : preciosum multam, * et d u l c i o r a 4=t -69-inmaculatus ero , * et emundabor e loquia o r i s mei, * et meditatio enarrant glo'riam d e i , * et o'pera custodiet ea, * custodiendo d ie s e ius pauc i , * et espiscopatum *=fc s a l u t a r i tuo , * g loriam ) -fj ~ N \ / -rrt jr. v. j \( c p * : * 1 i n i m i c i s t u i s , " *• dextera 114 Two examples, both of which have a d i f f e rent caesura, contain 27 prosthet ic va r i an t s i n the second ha l f of the verse : Example 24 0. neque sermones, * quorum non audientur Example 25 y -v J H — * * — ^ — ^ — \ \ \ \ \ \ ~ i u s t i t i a m e i u s , * et psallam Example 26 Mediant Melody. Solemn Tone II 28 et nunc et semper, * et i n secula 27 I b i d . , f 85. 28 I b i d . , f 83. Tone III It i s d i f f i c u l t to decide upon the number of notes which comprise the basic formula of the mediant melody for the t h i r d tone. These melodies are extremely f l o r i d and span i n t h e i r d i v e r s i t y the i n t e r v a l of a perfect f o u r t h . Example 27 shows the l i m i t s of the formula: Example 27 The Basic Formula: Tone III 3 The caesura i s placed i n two d i f f e rent pos i t ions wi th in the formula. F i r s t between a r e p e t i t i o n of the r e c i t a t i o b. One accent: Example 28 29 operantum in iqu i ta tem, * i n v i i s e ius huias p o p u l i , * et salvos f a c i e t calumniatorem, * et permanebit 29 I b i d . , f 84; f 85 v . 116 Two a c c e n t s : 3 0 Example 29 —A—> , ^  O u ^  — M ^ *9 tuum r e g i da, * et ju s t i c i am The next two examples continue with the same p o s i t i o n for the caesura but include the i n t e r p o l a t i o n of a new note— that i s , the pros thet ic v a r i a n t . It w i l l be noted that i n these two cases and the next three s imi l a r cases the number of accents and s y l l a b l e s has increased cons iderab ly . Two accents, the caesura i s between the r e p e t i t i o n of the r e c i t a t i o b : Example 30 31 s icut p luv ia i n v e l l u s , * et s icut s t i l l i c i d i a 1 -A mm \ i ± M — c / s de auro A r a b i e , * et aborabunt 30 I b i d . , f 85. 31 I b i d . . f 85 v . 117 Two accents , the caesura i s between g and a: Example 31 32 -49-i l l o procident Ethiopeo, * et i n i m i c i — * * * * , ( 9 P _ & —= *9> *9 «s> \—{ t < i j 1 w incule munera o f ferent , * reges air a bum )—( ^ ' A. ' . ' • parcet pauperI et m o p i , * et animas F i n a l l y , the fo l lowing i s the Solemn Tone: Example 32 Mediant Melody. Solemn Tone I I I 3 3 <1 4 - K-j et nunc et semper, * et i n seculc 32 Ibid. 33 I b i d . , f 83. 118 Tone IV The basic out l ine of the mediant melody of the fourth tone comprises three notes: the r e c i t a t i o and the notes a whole step above and below: Example 33 In one example the caesura appears between the notes b_ 34 and a . Two accents : Example 34 mandata tua , * c u s t o d i r i mm—| -• \ 34 Ibid f 84. 119 In seven examples the caesura i s posi t ioned between two appearances of the r e c i t a t i o . Two accents : Example 35 35 tt erucat verbum, * et nox n o c t i - t 9 ~ pretiosum multam, * et d u l c i o r a — f ) — c V-N * » — m ~ * ~ ' . , . y . - . - «» H enarrant gloriam d e i , * et opera te* 3 * ft salutare tuo, * gldriam tt i n i m i c i s t u i s , * dextera tt neque sermones, * quorum non audxantus 2 ^ *** WW u benedictioem a domino, * et misericordiam 35 I b i d . . f 85 v . 120 In two other examples the caesura i s i n the same p o s i t i o n but a pros thet ic var iant i s interpola ted in to the second ha l f of the v e r s e . 3 6 Two accents : Example 36 J( • mm* \ — : r 6b H £ * m m -^ immaculatus e r o , * et emundabor fhH - ~ " ~ ~ -=d t u i s custodiet ea, * i n custodiendo i l i a In one example the caesura i s pos i t ioned between a and g_, 37 the lowest notes of the basic formula. Two accents: Example 3 7 l e t i f i c a n t e s corda, * praceptum domini 3 6 I M d . 3 7 Ibid. 121 38 Example 38 The Mediant Melody. Solemn Tone I V 4 a 3! et nunc et semper, * et i n s secula Tone V The basic out l ine of the mediant melody of the f i f t h tone comprises four notes which span a perfect four th : Example 39 Thi s agrees with the melody of the Solemn Tone associated with the Gospel C a n t i c l e s given at the outset of the t r e a t i s e and with a c l o s e l y organized group of examples 38 Ib id . . , f 83 v. 1 122 (to which reference w i l l be made below) given at the end of the t r e a t i s e . Example 40 The Mediant Melody. Solemn Tone V 3 9 —H ~ * * — i — ~ - 4 4 ^—^ -et nunc et semper, * f et i n secula It does not, however, agree with the mediant melody given for the f i f t h regular psalm tone. The main d i f ference l i e s i n the conclus ion of the f i r s t ha l f of the psalm ver se . Example 41 Mediant Melody of the F i f t h Regular Psalm T o n e 4 0 tt tt ° ^ dirigantum viae mee, * ad custodiendas Thi s i s not a s c r i b a l e r r o r ; the Wolfenbuttel and the S t . Paul manuscripts are i n complete agreement; the notat ion i s p e r f e c t l y c lear at t h i s point i n the t r ea t i s e , Nor i s i t l i k e l y that the scr ibe became confused with the 39 Ibid.. 40 I b i d . , f 84. 123 symbols of the daseian nota t ion . The signs for c.1 ( ) , a ) , £ ( / ) and b ( ( J ^ ) , i n t h i s exact order, are so unl ike that a careless subs t i tu t ion i s almost imposs ible . The reader, sens i t ive to the d i s p o s i t i o n of the i n t e r v a l s i n these melodies, w i l l have noted the naked appearance of the diabolus i n musica at the caesura of t h i s example. Musicians of a l a t e r age, as we have already seen and w i l l see again with respect to t h i s very psalm tone, would have made haste to correct the ancients by i n f l e c t i n g the suspect b_ or by rearranging the melody to sui t t h e i r preconceived notions about the t r i t o n e . But, as has been pointed out a number of times i n t h i s study, there was considerably more va r i e ty i n the psalmody of the ancient prac t ice than i n that of the present p r a c t i c e . Examples of the f i f t h psalm tone are not d i s t r i b u t e d quite as f r e e l y throughout the t r e a t i s e as are those of the f i r s t and second tones . There i s , however, a rather unique s i t u a t i o n connected with the demonstration of the f i f t h tone i n the t e x t . As we have observed with respect to another aspect of the psalm tones (Chapter I , page 49), two complete psalms—numbers 137 and 56—are given with music toward the end of the t r e a t i s e . ^ - 1 A l l the verses of these psalms are set to the f i f t h tone. Although the music i s not complete for a l l the examples, i t i s e s p e c i a l l y r e l i a b l e for the 41 I b i d . . f 85 v and f 86. 124 mediant melody and enough i s given to af ford us more than a glimpse of a ca re fu l cons iderat ion of the textua l accent i n the c e n t r a l i n f l e c t i o n of the psalm tone. The caesura i s pos i t ioned i n three d i f f e r e n t places (between b_ and b_, c 1 and b, and b and a) owing to the d i f f e r i n g pos i t ions of accents and the number of s y l l a b l e s . We quote the main d i f fe rences : to have included a l l the verses would have been to merely r e i t e r a t e the same formula a number of t imes . Example 4 2 Four Vers ions of the Mediant Melody. Tone V Verse 1, three accents ; Verse 4 , one accent . — — y - — 1. . . . i n to to corde meo, * quoniam — J > - Q ~ 1 N - 4 o 4 . . . . te exaudi me, •* * m u l t i p l i c a b i s Verse 2 , two accents ; Verse 4 , two accents.. —f h n s 1 o . 2 . . . . i n c i r c u i t u e ius , 4 • * j u s t i c i am Hrs H » * m * - * 1 1 4 . . . . e ius o r d i i t e r r e , * *• ud i t 4 2 I b i d . , f 85 v . 125 Examples of pros thet ic va r i an t s do not appear i n connection with Tone V i n the Commemoratio B r e v i s . The d i s p o s i t i o n of the mediant melody does a l low, however, i n some instances , a heightening of the note for the accented s y l l a b l e i n the second ha l f of the verse (Psalm 137, Verse 1; Psalm 95, Verse 2 ) . Tone VI There are very few examples of the s i x t h tone i n the text of the source. In f a c t , there i s only one which w i l l i n t e r e s t us here—the regular s ix th tone. Three others are g iven, but these are except ional psalm tones—with ornate melodies quite unl ike the regular tones—and w i l l be dealt with i n our chapter on spec ia l tones . Nevertheless , the s i x th tone i s i n t e r e s t i n g , for the s ingle example of a regular psalm tone d i s p l a y s c h a r a c t e r i s t -i c s which we have not seen before i n a mediant cadence derived from the source. In t h i s , the f i r s t h a l f of the psalm verse (Psalm 118, Verse 6) i s brought to a rather abrupt ha l t on the tenor without the usual cadent ia l f i g u r e , while the melodic por t ion of the c e n t r a l i n f l e c t i o n i s employed e n t i r e l y i n the second ha l f of the verse . This i s surely the most extreme displacement we have seen. 126 Example 43 Commemoratio Brev i s : S ix th Regular Psalm T o n e 4 3 ~7~ Tunc non confundar, * dum per sp i c io i n omnia mandata tua . The reader w i l l note without d i f f i c u l t y that t h i s unusual d i s p o s i t i o n of the mediant melody was doubtless the r e s u l t of the d i f f e rent construct ion of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r psalm verse—the f i r s t member i s except iona l ly short . Thi s v a r i e t y i n t ex tua l balance i s not, however, r e s t r i c t e d to the ver s ion given i n the Commemoratio B r e v i s . The caesura i n the Vat i can E d i t i o n (the Vulgate) i s c l e a r l y placed at the same p o i n t . 4 4 Indeed, i t must be so i f the text i s to make any sense at a l l : Tunc non confundar , * cum perspexero i n omnibus mandatis t u i s . Then I s h a l l not be ashamed,* when I have respect unto a l l thy commandments.4 5 I b i d . , f 84. 44 L i b e r u s u a l i s . p. 226. 4 5 P s a l m 119:6. 127 It i s unfortunate for us that the sole example of the s i x th psalm tone i n the source should have been set to a d i f f i c u l t psalm verse . The f i r s t demonstration of the eight regular psalm tones involves Psalm 118, a choice prompted, no doubt, by the fact that t h i s psalm has eight verses . Thus we must accept i t as the regular melody for the s i x th psalm tone i n the ancient Frankish p r a c t i c e . In the l i g h t of what we have already seen with respect to the moveable caesura, i t i s not d i f f i c u l t to imagine that t h i s melody would adapt most e a s i l y to another psalm verse . The fact remains, however, that the caesura i n verse 6 of Psalm 118 was so placed as to accord with the l o g i c of the sentence, and to a l t e r i t would be f o o l i s h . Another scholar , however, d id not bel ieve t h i s to be so. Although he does not make an outr ight statement about t h i s tone i n the text of h i s commentary, i t i s quite apparent that F e r r e t t i could not r e a d i l y accept the ver s ion given i n the Commemoratio B r e v i s . In h i s table of psalm tones drawn from the source, the fo l lowing ver s ion of the s i x th psalm tone a p p e a r s : 4 6 46 F e r r e t t i , Es thet ique . p. 307. 128 Example 44 F e r r e t t i * s Vers ion of the S ix th Psalm Tone a. <-^J Tunc non confundar dum p e r s p i c i o , * H i n omnia mandata tua, I t w i l l be noted that F e r r e t t i has a r b i t r a r i l y shi f ted the caesura so tha t , for him, the melody (and the psalm verse) would be more evenly balanced i n two equal ha lves . He has, i n a d d i t i o n , chromat ica l ly i n f l e c t e d the b . Th i s does not appear i n the text of the Commemoratio  Brevis—we have already discussed t h i s most d i f f i c u l t problem—but does appear i n the mediant cadence for the A *7 s ix th tone i n the Vat ican E d i t i o n . F e r r e t t i seems to have wholeheartedly adopted the zea l of the Monks of Solesmes i n such matters. Thi s i s a p i t y , for i t obscures the true state of a f f a i r s found i n the manuscript and undermines one*s confidence i n F e r r e t t i ' s scholar sh ip . 47 L iber u s u a l i s . p. 116 129 I t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t i n g to observe i n t h i s connection t h a t the " c o r r e c t i o n " of the Commemoratio B r e v i s i s i n no way founded on the e a r l y sources and i s a b s o l u t e l y personal to F e r r e t t i 1 s own concept. The two complete sources are d e f i n i t e and c l e a r as t o the d i s p o s i t i o n of the daseian symbols i n t h i s part of the t e x t and agree w i t h one another. Figure 5 V/plfenbuttel "anu.s,cr jLpt; Ihe S i x t h Regular Psalm T o n e 4 8 Figure 6 S t . Paul i n C a r i n t h i a Manuscript: The S i x t h  Regular Psalm Tone 4^ 48 Commemoratio B r e v i s . W o l f e n b u t t e l M s . , f 84. 49 I b i d . . S t . Paul Ms . , f 2 v. 130 Nor can any of the blame be attached to Gerber t , the usual scapegoat. He i s prec i se and f a i t h f u l to both manuscript sources at t h i s p o i n t . His t e x t , as w e l l , contains accurate punctuation so as to leave no doubt as to the C 4 - U 50 p o s i t i o n of the caesura. Figure 7 Gerbert . , Scr iptpres , I : The S i x t h Regular  Psalm Tpne VI. TONUS. Tunc non confundar, dum perfpicio in omnia mandata tua. Since he was l i m i t e d by h i s own preconceived not ion of a r i g i d mediant cadence i n the modern manner, F e r r e t t i was stopped short at t h i s p o i n t . The only so lu t ion i s to apply the concept of the moveable caesura—this i s , i n r e a l i t y , what F e r r e t t i has done—to another more balanced psalm ver se . Example 34 i s a r econs t ruc t ion of t h i s type . The melody of the s i x th psalm tone i s set to the f i r s t verse of the same psalm. 50 Gerber t , Sc r ip tore s I , p. 217. i 131 Example 45 The S ix th Regular Psalm Tone i n Reconstruc-t i o n Psalm 118f Verse 1 1. Beat i immaculati i n v i a , * 9--ms—- «fc m*1 qui ambulant i n lege Domini, Example 46 The Mediant Melody of the S ix th Solemn T o n e 5 1 et nunc et semper, * et i n secula Tones VII and VIII It i s not poss ib le to undertake a thorough d i scuss ion of the mediant melodies for the seventh and the e ighth psalm tones . As has been noted with respect to terminat ions , these tones are only represented twice each i n the text of the Commemoratio B r e v i s . The f i r s t of these 51 Commemoratio Breves, f 83 v . 132 i n each case i s the mediant melody for the Solemn Tones associated with the Gospel C a n t i c l e s . The second i s that of the regular psalm tones. Although they do not af ford us with much mater ia l for comparison, i t w i l l be evident that the p o s i t i o n of the caesura i s d i f f e r e n t i n the case of the two examples of the eighth psalm tone. Example 47 a) The Mediant Melody of the Seventh Regular Psalm Tone"*2 -£=f-5 O d i rec t ione c o r d i s , * quod d i d i c i Example 47 b) The Mediant Melody of the Seventh Solemn Tone 53 ~m~^ V—f r — et nunc et semper, * et i n secula 52 I b i d . , f 84. 53 I b i d . , f 83 v . 133 Example 48 a) The Mediant Melody of the Eighth Regular Psalm T o n e 5 4 —J ) J — m ~ H =  = tuas custodiam, * non ne derel inquas Example 48 b) The Mediant Melody of the Eighth Solemn T 55 Tone l y et nunc et sem-per, * et i n secula It would be mistaken, however, to conclude that the s ca rc i ty of examples for these tones i n the text of the source impl ies l e s s f l e x i b i l i t y i n t h e i r mediant melodies. Because the author does not deal with them d i r e c t l y does not mean that there was any l e s s v a r i e t y i n the treatment of these tones . Enough has already been said i n the text of the source to equip an a t tent ive musician with the s k i l l 54 I b i d . , f 84. 55 Ibid.. 134 necessary to set a v a r i e t y of psalm tex t s , lhe author 56 himself was sure of t h i s , for at one point he says: Haec itaque propter For the sake of the t a rd iore s f r a t re s slower-witted bretheren exempli causa congesta these i l l u s t r a t i v e sunt, abundantiore examples have been fortasse copia quam amassed here more decuer i t . abundantly and at greater length than w i l l be necessary. There i s another aspect of the psalm text which requires spec ia l cons iderat ion with respect to the placement of the caesura i n the psalm melody. In a great number of cases, the texts of i n d i v i d u a l psalm verses are so long that they would be unwieldy i f they were simply d iv ided in to two members. The f i f t e e n t h verse of Psalm 71 57 i s an exce l lent example of t h i s : Et v i v e t , et dabitus e i de auro A r a b i e , et adorabunt de ipso semper: tota die bene-dicent e i . And he s h a l l l i v e , and to him sha l l be given the gold of Sheba: prayer a l so s h a l l be made for him c o n t i n u a l l y : and d a i l y s h a l l he be p r a i s e d . 5 8 56 I b i d . . f 85 v . 57 Psalm 71: 15, L i b e r u s u a l i s . p. 379. 58 Psalm 72: 15. 135 It i s quite obvious that a verse such as t h i s , containing as i t does several re la ted but d i s t i n c t thoughts, would require more than one i n t e r n a l cadence for the sake of textua l c l a r i t y . In t h i s respect , i t i s e s p e c i a l l y important that i t be understood that length alone does not prompt the add i t ion of an extra cadence i n the psalm tone. Apel has noted that verses 7 and 8 of Psalm 115 are both except iona l ly long . Verse 7, l o g i c a l l y d i v i s i b l e , has three i n f l e c t i o n s . Verse 8, the longer of the two, i s not, however, e a s i l y d i v i s i b l e into three d i s t i n c t phrases. As a r e s u l t , 59 i t i s not i n f l e c t e d before the usual mediant cadence. The so lu t ion to the three-member psalm text i n the l a t e r standard pract ice i s to d iv ide the f i r s t ha l f of the verse into two l o g i c a l parts and to provide a spec ia l i n f l e c t i o n or a semi-cadence at the point where the text i s d i v i s i b l e . In the basic examples of the psalm tones i n the l i t u r g i c a l service books i n use today, t h i s i s indicated by a f lex—a pa i r of notes which are pos i t ioned i n the centre of the r e c i t a t i o . In the text proper of the L iber u s u a l i s . the f lex i s a l so indicated when i t i s r e q u i r e d . Here i t i s placed a f ter the ent i re melody of the psalm tone, set to one of the words with which i t w i l l be appropr ia te ly sung. According to the commentary given i n the L iber u s u a l i s . The f lex i s made by lowering the voice a second or a t h i r d , according to the tone, on the l a s t s y l l a b l e A p e l , Gregorian, p . 216. 136 before the s ign or even on the second l a s t s y l l a b l e , i f t h i s s y l l a b l e be not accented.60 In most psalm tones the f lex i s a whole tone below the tenor . When the notes c.1 or £ are the tenor notes, the f lex i s a t h i r d below i n order that the inference of a ha l f tone—not, apparently , a s a t i s f ac tory i n t e r v a l i n a semi-cadence—be avoided. In add i t ion to the f l e x , there i s another manner by which the e f fect of a cadence i s achieved: The i n f l e c t i o n of the voice may be replaced by a simple prolongat ion of the dominant (tenor) and a s l i gh t pause.61 Example 49 i s a se t t ing of the aforementioned f i f t e e n t h verse 69 of Psalm 71 according to the present prac t i ce of the f l e x . ^ Example 49 Vat i can E d i t i o n : Psalm Tone III a 15. Et v i v e t , et dabitur e i de auro Arable,t 3 CJ et adorabunt de ipso semper: * 4 . ' tota die benedicent e i . 60 L i b e r u s u a l i s . p. 113. 61 I b i d . 62 " I b i d . , p. 379-380. 137 The prac t i ce s just out l ined were not, however, i n use i n ancient t imes . Although there are a host of examples of psalm tones given i n the Commemoratio Brev i s . there are none which so much as suggest the use of a f l e x . Instead, the ancients appear to have preferred to use two mediant cadences (or , r a ther , mediant melodies) when the psalm text c a l l e d for more than one i n t e r n a l i n f l e c t i o n . The author of the Commemoratio Brevi s does not openly broach the subject of the three member psalm verse . He does, however, include ( a lbe i t i n c i d e n t a l l y ) severa l examples which provide so lut ions to the performance of long psalm verses . " I n c i d e n t a l l y " requires some explanat ion. By t h i s " i s meant that the ent i re psalm tone with two i n t e r n a l i n f l e c t i o n s i s never found c l e a r l y set out i n one example. Rather, var ious segments—one-half or two-thirds of a verse—are to be found at d i f f e r e n t points i n the manuscript. They are , f o r tuna te ly , contiguous or quite close to one another. The f i r s t of these appears at the point i n the text at which the author i s d i scuss ing " d i f f e r i n g median cadences (or ' d i s t i n c t i o n s 1 ) , w i th in the verses , owing to the varying placement of the words (mediates seu d i s t i n c t i o n e s i n  vers ibus pro d iversa pos i t ione varborum diverse) . . . Thi s part of the t r e a t i s e has already been commented on at l ength ; t h i s s ec t ion concerns "manner" ("modus"). that i s , the d i v e r s i t y of ways i n which psalms are sung (see Chapter I , 'Commemoratio B r e v i s . f 84 v 138 page 36). It i s e n t i r e l y poss ib le that the author i s r e f e r r i n g to a number of d i f f e r e n t cons idera t ions , inc lud ing three-member psalm verses , at t h i s po in t . At any r a te , verse 3 of Psalm 44 i s employed with other verses of the 64 same psalm for several consecutive examples i n the t e x t . A l l are connected with further demonstrations of the f i r s t psalm tone. Example 2 i s a recons t ruct ion from two separate examples i n the source of the ent i re three-member 65 t h i r d verse of t h i s psalm. The two i n t e r n a l i n f l e c t i o n s are to be noted. Example 50 Reconstruction of a Three-Member Psalm Verse  from the Commemoratio Brevis D - r j — — — — — _ — j -9- mm. •* ^ ** *** m%> \ 3. Speciosus forma pre f i l i u s hominum J «, «, W m>—= _ o ) 49 mm " } \ * * " ^—49 di f fusa est g r a t i a i n l a b i i s t u i s : ( \ " \ mm mm mW—mm MB 5B~~ j mm •* 09 F\ mt> proptera b e n e d i x i t te Deus i n Aeternum. 64 I b i d . 65 I b i d . 139 The next example i s a p a r t i a l r econs t ruc t ion ; only the terminat ion was omitted from the example i n the text of the Commemoratio Brevis * Thi s i n f l e c t i o n has been supplied by simply se lect ing the standard terminat ion supplied for t h i s tone i n the source. The reader w i l l note that t h i s i s the same psalm verse that we demonstrated (as Example 49) according to the p r i n c i p l e s of the Vat ican E d i t i o n . I t i s i n s t r u c t i v e to note the great di f ference between the musical set t ings of the two v e r s i o n s . There can be l i t t l e doubt that the ancient se t t ing has the greater var ie ty—the mediant melodies are quite ornamental — and, i n a d d i t i o n , the d i f f e r i n g accentual condi t ions of the two c e n t r a l cadences are more c a r e f u l l y d e t a i l e d i n the older v e r s i o n . Example 51 P a r t i a l Reconstruct ion of a Three-Member Psalm  Verse from the Commemoratio B r e v i s 6 6 i «, " - - ^ = ^-J 15. Et v i v e t , et dabitus e i de auro A r a b i e , /L ^ t=i. - ^ — " «* —MB et adorabunt de ipso semper: * tota die benedicent e i . 66 i b i d . , f 85 v . 140 There are one or two other examples i n the text of the source which suggest a three-member text and appropriate treatment. To quote them at length , however, would be p o i n t l e s s . For one t h i n g , t h e i r texts are rather confused and often d i f f e r grea t ly from the order given i n the Vulgate . Some examples are seen to begin with the second ha l f of the psalm verse , while others conclude with the f i r s t h a l f of the same verse or with another verse . To correct them would be use les s . Secondly, the music for some examples has been omitted a l together . It would be easy to f i t these texts to e i ther of the two c lear three-member examples which we have already demonstrated. The r e s u l t s , however, would be e n t i r e l y without meaning, as they would not revea l to us anything that we do not already know. It i s better to conclude that i n ancient times the psalm texts were used rather ca sua l ly , but there i s d e f i n i t e evidence that mediant melodies with d i f f e r i n g caesuras were used to a r t i c u l a t e the longer psalm verses of three members. CHAPTER V SPECIAL TONES In addition to the eight regular tones of the ancient psalmodie practice, there are a number of other psalm melodies which cannot be e a s i l y c l a s s i f i e d i n the system. At l e a s t three of these d i f f e r e n t psalm tones were considered important enough to be included, a l b e i t b r i e f l y , i n the Commemora;tip Brevis. Two are es p e c i a l l y noteworthy owing to the fac t that they employ a d i f f e r e n t r e c i t a t i o for the two p a r a l l e l halves of the psalm verse. The author of the source associates these sp e c i a l tones with antiphons of c e r t a i n modes. Example 1 shows what the author c a l l s "another manner of singing the psalm . . . for antiphons of the sixth mode (tono sexto hoc quoque modo  psalmi ad antiphonas modulantur)." * Example 1 Commemoratio Brevis: Special Tone I cJ Cantate domino canticum novum, ^ ^ 9 V—( a—**—ar-*-* quia m i r a b i l i a f e c i t dominus. 1 Commemoratio Brevis. f 84 v„ 142 Example 2 shows a spec ia l psalm tone " for the l a s t mode (ad tonum novissimum)." 2 Example 2 Commemoratio B r e v i s : Spec ia l Tone II Af fe r te domino f i l i i d e i , l < p *  m * * w * a f fer te domino f i l i o s ar ietum. On account of the double tenor , t h i s spec ia l tone i s known as the tonus peregrinus . that i s , " s t range , " " fo re ign (or wandering) tone . " I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that a tone l i k e that of our Example 2 has survived for use i n the present day. In the service books of the Vat ican E d i t i o n t h i s tone i s appended to the eight regular psalm tones. Example 3 i s the topus peregrinus of the standard medieval p r a c t i c e . 2 I b i d . 3 Liber u s u a l i s , p. 117. 143 Example 3 Vat ican E d i t i o n : Tonus Peregrinus In ex i tu I s r a e l de Aegypto, 3 * domus Jacob de populo barbaro. There i s yet another i r r e g u l a r psalm tone included i n the Commemoratio BrevjLs. This one i s t r u l y noteworthy, for i t i s r e s t r i c t e d to a very narrow range—an ambitus of only four notes, B, c_, d and e.—while i t s r e c i t a t i o i s d_, a tenor used i n no other tone. Concerning t h i s , the author of the source d e c l a r e s : 4 Sunt etiam proprie ad quasdam antiphonas modulationes suae, s icut i n hac secundi t o n i antiphona . . . . There are , as w e l l , in tonat ions pecu l i a r to c e r t a i n antiphons, as for the fo l lowing antiphon of the second mode . . . . Example 4 Commemoratio B r e v i s : Spec ia l Tone III Iudica domine nocentes me, ^ m* ~ — O mf*—aP~ * expugna inpugnantes me. Commemoratio Brev i s . f 84 v . 144 One might wonder why one of these, the tonus peregrinus . i s found i n the accommodating and f l e x i b l e system of the l a t e r standard medieval p r a c t i c e . It i s by no means more necessary i n the psalmody of the Commemoratio Brevis which must be described as even more l e n i e n t . One might at f i r s t suppose that the tonus peregrinus and the other i r r e g u l a r tones were associated with c e r t a i n psalms for use on spec ia l occasions i n the l i t u r g i c a l year . A perusal of the use of the tonus peregrinus i n the l i t u r g i c a l service books, however, does not r e a d i l y support such an explanat ion. In the Vat ican E d i t i o n , for ins tance , the tonus peregrinus i s associated with Psalms 112 and 113 for use on occasions such as the Vespers of Sunday,^ the Vespers of the Common of Two or More M a r t y r s , 0 and the Dedicat ion of the Church of S t . 7 Michae l . These, however, cannot be considered to be l i t u r g i c a l events which would occasion spec ia l musical set t ings (as would those occasions which are not repeated at any other time during the Church year, for example, spec ia l services held during Holy Week.) A second explanation proves to be much more acceptable . There i s evidence that the use of spec ia l tones was neces-5 L iber u s u a l i s . p. 254. 6 I b i d . , p . 1154. 7 I b i d . . p . 1660. 145 s i ta ted by the nature of the antiphons connected with c e r t a i n psalms. The several antiphons sung with the aforementioned Psalms 112 and 113 cannot be e a s i l y c l a s s i f i e d i n the standard modal system. It has been pointed out that i n a number of t r ea t i s e s the basic melody of these and other r e l a t ed chants (Gevaert 1 s theme 28) was v a r i o u s l y assigned to one of four modes, i . e . , 1, 2, 4 or 7.^ This f ac t c e r t a i n l y demonstrates that such antiphons possessed extreme modal uncer ta inty . Although they end on g_, t h e i r range i s not c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the te trardus maneria: they begin and end i n d i f f e rent te t rachords . Moreover, they open with a formula very c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of mode 2. Example 5 shows three of f ive antiphons associated with spec ia l tones which are given i n the text of the Commemoratio B r e v i s . A l l three , c l o s e l y r e l a t ed as to melodic d i s p o s i t i o n , are demonstrated i n the text of Gevaert ' s La Melopee antique as prime examples containing modal a m b i g u i t i e s . * 0 8 A p e l , Gregor ian, p . 213. 9 Gevaert , La Melopee,. pp. 320-321, 10 ' Commemoratio B r e v i s . f 84 v . 146 Example 5 Commemoratio B r e v i s : Antiphons, for Spec ia l Tones _ p p U « , — * » * o> — i ] O W t*m mm*' ( | Nos qui vivimus benedicimus dominum * + ** «*• & ** 49 & & 49 X j ^ & ^ O ^ = * *> 49 " 1 ~ Martyres domini dominum benedici te i n aeternum mm •*— *" m*} ****** In templo domini omnes dicent g lor iam One of the f i ve antiphons associated with the spec ia l tones i n the Commemoratio Brevis does not resemble these three unusual specimens, but e x h i b i t s another t r a i t which creates ambiguity as to the mode to which i t i s to be ass igned. It has been noted that the most important c h a r a c t e r i s t i c (except, of course, for i t s f i n a l ) to be considered i n the determining of the mode of a melody i s i t s ambitus. The author of the t r e a t i s e Quomodo de Ar i thmet ica  Procedit Mus ica * * i n s t r u c t s accordingly that a melody i n which the range i s r e s t r i c t e d to a fourth cannot be r e a d i l y 11 Gerbert , Scr ip tores I I , p . 55ff. 147 c l a s s i f i e d i n a p a r t i c u l a r mode—authentic or p l a g a l . Although, as has been noted elsewhere (see page 141), the author of the Commemoratio Brevis d e f i n i t e l y assigns t h i s melody to the s ix th mode. But t h i s i s doubtless an a r b i t r a r y d e c i s i o n , for the melody does not end on the regular f i n a l i s . Th i s i s probably what necess i tated i t s connection with a spec ia l tone, or prevented i t s being assigned i n one of the regular tones. Example 6 Commemoratio Brev i s : Antiphon for a. Spec ia l T o n e 1 2 Notum f e c i t dominus ( a l l e l u i a ) From evidence such as t h i s i t would seem c lear to us that these antiphons and spec ia l tones must represent the remnants of a layer of the chant much older than the organized system of regular psalm tones given i n the Commemoratio B r e y i s . But the r e l a t i v e a n t i q u i t y of the spec ia l tones and the tonus peregrinus of the Vat ican E d i t i o n has been questioned. 12 Commemoratio B r e v i s . f 84 v 148 It i s not my in ten t ion to enter into a prolonged d i scuss ion of the several c o l o u r f u l and (to say the leas t ) exotic in te rpre t a t ions of the o r i g i n of the spec ia l tones. But the great v a r i e t y of explanations i s i n t e r e s t i n g i n that i t revea l s an e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y wide divergence of op in ion . Hugues Ga'isser, for instance, be l ieves that the 13 tonus peregrinus was derived from Byzantine models. C o l e s t i n V i v e l l , on the other hand, considers that i t was of Hebrew o r i g i n . 1 4 This b e l i e f i s i n keeping with the opinions of Idelsohn and Werner which we have mentioned i n the in t roduc t ion to the present study. A p e l , too , although he cont rad ic t s t h i s opinion elsewhere (as we s h a l l see d i r e c t l y ) , puts f o r th the opinion that the tonus peregrinus and other tones are "a heritage from p r e - C h r i s t i a n d a y s . " 1 5 While i t i s not our i n t e n t i o n to deny any credence to these t h e o r i e s , i t must be admitted that they are supported by very slender evidence. More in te re s t ing to t h i s study i s the information found i n the tonar ies contemporary to the Commemoratio B r e v i s . In h i s d i scus s ion of the ancient Frankish psalmody, Paolo F e r r e t t i br ings to our a t t ent ion several references 13 Hugues Ga i s se r , " L ' O r i g i n e du tonus peregr inus . " La Tribune de Sa int-Gerva i s , 1901, 129-135. 14 C o l e s t i n V i v e l l , "Le tonus peregr inus , " Revue du  chant gregorienne. XVII , XIX. 15 A p e l , Gregor ian, p . 509. 149 to the tonus, peregrinus—he uses the term to refer to any ir r e g u l a r psalm tone--which he has found i n a number of sources. 1^ 1 A ce r t a i n Berno, a monk of St. G a l l , r efers to the " d i f f e r e n t i a octava (8th termination)" which serves for antiphons associated with the tonus peregrinus. The l a t t e r describes t h i s termination—by association the tonus peregrinus i t s e l f — a s being "quasi - r a r a et harhara i n ultimo ponitur extraordinaria ( i n the l a s t place because i t i s rather rare, extraordinary, barbarous)." F e r r e t t i i s of the opinion that barbarous means "exotique, a l a maniere des Crecs qui appelaient barbares l e s Modes provenant des pays limitrophes (exotic, i n the manner of the Greeks who ca l l e d the modes origi n a t i n g i n neighbouring countries barbarous)." 1^ F e r r e t t i has also noted that Aurelianus of Reome c a l l e d the tonus peregrinus "new (nepphytus)."-18 A rather s i m i l a r appellation might appear to be found i n the text of the Commemoratio Brevis, where the author speaks of a "tonum novissimum."-19 I t i s clear that F e r r e t t i understood the words "neophytus" and "novissimum" to refer to "recent" or "contemporaneous" additions to the chant at the time of the compilation of the two t r e a t i s e s : " i l ressort assez clairment que 1 1 introduction de ce Ton doit se placer entre les V I I I e et " ^ F e r r e t t i , Esthdtique. p. 324 f f . 17.,., I b i d . 18 Gerbert, Scriptores I, p. 52. 19 Commemoratio Brevis. f 84 v. 150 X I e s i ec le s ( i t seems c lear enough that the in t roduct ion of t h i s tone took place between the eighth and the eleventh c e n t u r i e s ) . " 2 ^ There can be no doubt that Apel seized upon t h i s l a s t op in ion , for he has somewhat expanded i t as the main top ic of 21 h i s cons idera t ion of the tonus peregrinus. He notes that Aurel ianus grouped the aforementioned u n c l a s s i f i e d antiphons "under the e ighth mode as an 'e leventh d i v i s i o n which i n a l l respects stands apart from the normal track ( o r b i t a . wheel-rut) of the e ighth m o d e . ' " 2 2 It i s quite apparent that Apel bel ieves that Aure l ianus disapproved of the "neophytus tonus" for he t rans la te s t h i s as "new-fangled tone"--biased language which strengthens h i s argument. In a d d i t i o n , Apel gives the "tonus, novissimus" of the Cpmmemoratio, Brevi s as added support for h i s opinion that the tonus peregrinus types of psalm tones were l a te addi t ions to the chant r e p e r t o i r e . Now a l l t h i s i s strong evidence wel l taken. And i t i s c e r t a i n l y d i f f i c u l t to refute the conclusions of F e r r e t t i and A p e l . There are , however, d e f i n i t e weaknesses i n t h e i r t h e o r i e s . In the f i r s t p lace , "tonus novissimum" i s not so e a s i l y t rans la ted as these two might have wished. "Novissimus" does indeed mean "newest" but t h i s t rans la t ion—and in te rpre-20 F e r r e t t i , Es thet ique . p. 324. 21 A p e l , Gregorian, p . 213. 22 IhM.. 151 pretat ion--has been somewhat stretched to suit the purpose of the argument. It i s c l ea r from the context of the sentences which accompany the examples of spec ia l tones i n the Commemoratio Brevis that the author i s not r e f e r r i n g d i r e c t l y to a psalm tone by the words "novissimum." but to 23 an antiphon of the l a s t , that i s , the e ighth mode: Sunt etiam proprie ad There are , as wel l i n t o -quasdam antiphonas nations pecu l i a r to cer-modulationes suae, s icut t a i n antiphons, as for the i n hac secundi t o n i fo l lowing antiphon of the antiphona . . . . second mode . . . . Item ad tonum noviss- S i m i l a r l y for the l a s t imum . . . . mode . . . . The author has, i n f a c t , introduced the whole question of the spec ia l tones and unusual antiphons at a point cons ider-ably e a r l i e r than the words i n quest ion. It i s doubtful that he would have chosen t h i s l a te occasion to br ing the matter up aga in . Secondly, i t would be d i f f i c u l t to show that the spec ia l tones and t h e i r corresponding antiphons exh ib i t any traces of the new refinement—the growing "modernity" and order—that was being infused in to the psalmody during Frankish t imes . This study has amply demonstrated through-out i t s course the underlying order that ex i s t s i n the system of the eight regular psalm tones. The spec i a l tones, to the contrary , are anything but re f ined and ordered, and t h e i r antiphons, as we have seen, are a r b i t r a r y to a high degree. I t would be better to conclude that our evidence, 23 Commemoratio B r e v i s . f 84 v . 152 a point of view which compares two d i s t i n c t s ty l e s , i s surely more revea l ing than the stretched i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of chance remarks made by two medieval t h e o r i s t s . At any r a t e , although i t i s probable that we s h a l l never know the t r u t h about the a n t i q u i t y of the spec ia l tones, t h e i r own, indeed pecul iar and i r r e g u l a r s tyle seems to us the strongest evidence i n favour of t h e i r ancient o r i g i n . The unmistakable trend i n the development of Gregorian chant was to s impl i fy— to bring the disparate parts of a vast t r a d i t i o n into the order of a r a t i o n a l system. AN HISTORICAL CONCLUSION The Gregorian psalm tones appear at f i r s t sight to be s t e r i l e ground for h i s t o r i c a l invest igat ion—almost featureless i n t h e i r s i m p l i c i t y . Closer inspect ion revea l s , however, a number of discernable strata belonging to quite d i f f e rent epochs. The e a r l i e s t por t ion of the psalm tones i s the tenor . There can be l i t t l e argument that the most p r imi t ive usage involved the r e c i t a t i o n of l i t u r g i c a l texts on a s ingle p i t c h (hardly a musical phenomenon, more properly described as a method of publ ic address) . The next stage involved—for the purpose of a r t i c u l a t i n g the verses of psalms—the a f f i x i n g of intonat ions and terminat ions . In the e a r l i e s t epoch, before the C a r o l i n g i a n reforms, i t would seem that a psalmody of in tonat ions , tenors and terminations was not yet formed in to a coherent system. It i s genera l ly bel ieved that the system of the eight modes was i t s e l f only introduced into the West at the time of the great Emperor. It would be d i f f i c u l t 9 there fore , to argue that the pract ice p r i o r to t h i s introduc-t i o n had any connection with the eight-mode system. It would seem, r a ther , that l o c a l usages invo lv ing many patterns , some of them made venerable by a great a n t i q u i t y , were i n f o r c e . The next stage i n the evolut ion was to provide a c o r r e l a t i o n between the new system of the octoechos and the 154 psalmody. At t h i s point most of the older free pract ice was abandoned. Some remnants, however, have remained—it has been suggested that t h i s i s an explanation for the spec ia l tones i n the Commemoratio Brev i s—ei ther owing to the force of t r a d i t i o n or the d i f f i c u l t y of making indisputable modal assignments. The a t t i tude to the text of the psalm d id not remain unchanged throughout t h i s long period of e v o l u t i o n . In the e a r l i e s t period the text accent was treated quite c a sua l ly , as an examination of the intonat ions and the terminations shows c l e a r l y . At a l a t e r stage, however— and here the mediant port ions of the psalms with t h e i r quite d i f f e r e n t a t t i tude toward text accent are i n s t r u c t i v e -the musicians approached the problem quite d i f f e r e n t l y , taking extraordinary care that the correct i n f l e c t i o n s of the words were pro jec ted . I t i s tempting to associate t h i s new approach, which reminds one so much of the Renaissance, with the well-known Caro l ing i an r e b i r t h of knowledge. The h i s t o r y of the psalm tones subsequent to the Commemoratio Brevis i s one of progressive refinement: a reduct ion to a prac t ice both supple and l o g i c a l , the l a s t stage of which i s represented by the Vat ican E d i t i o n of 1908. ITA SUNT PSALMI AD GLORIAM DEI ET A EDIFICATIONEM HOMINUM BIBLIOGRAPHY Agustoni , L u i g i . Gregorianischer C h o r a l . F re iburg : Herder, 1963. Aherne, C M . "Caro l ing ian Renaissance." New Ca tho l i c  Encyclopedia . 1967. V o l . 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J . P . Van. "Medieval Terminology and Methods of Psalm S i n g i n g . " Musica D i s c i p l i n a . V I , 1961, 7-21. and Walker, Joan Hazelden. The O r i g i n s of the Modern Roman L i t u r g y . London: Darton, Longman and Todd, 1960. Dohmes, A . "La psalmodie du peuple dans l a l i t u r g i e eucharis t ique des premiers s i e c l e s . " Revue gregor-ienne. XLI I , 1938, 186 f f . 157 Duchesne, L . C h r i s t i a n Worship: I t s O r i g i n and E v o l u t i o n . Translated by M.L . iVicClure. 5th ed . London: S . P . C . K . , 1956. E r n e t t i , P. Pe l l eg r ino Maria . E l Canto Gregoriano. V o l . IV of Quadro S tor i co de l Canto Gregoriano. Venice : I n s t i t u t o per l a Col laborazione C u l t u r a l e , 1964. F e r r e t t i , Paulo. E s te t i ca Gregoriana Dei R e c i t a t i v i L i t u r -g i c i . Venice : In s t i tu to per l a Col laborazione C u l t u r a l e , 1964. Esthefrique gregprienne. Tourna i : Desclee et C i e , 1938. F re re , Walter H, "Psalmody." Grove ' s D ic t ionary of Music  and Music ians . 5th e d . , V I I , 953-957. "Responsorial Psalmody." Grove ' s D ic t ionary of Music and Music ians . 5th E d i t i o n , V I I , 130. Ga'isser, Dom Hugues. " L ' O r i g i n e du 'Tonus P e r e g r i n u s ' , " La Tribune de Saint Gerva i s . V , (May, 1901), 129-135. . "La Reforme Romaine du Plain-Chant Apres le Conc i l e de Trente . " Tribune de S t . Gerva i s . VII 1902, 219-229. Ga jard , J . "Les r e c i t a t i o n s modales des 3 e et 4ey modes et l e s manuscrits beneventains." Etudes Gregoriennes. I l l , 1959, 9-46. Gastoue, A . , "Le Chant g a l l i c a n . " Revue du chant gregor ien . XLI (1937), 101-106, 131-133, 167-176; XLII (1938), 5-12, 57-62, 76-80, 107-112, 146-151; XLIII (1939), 5-12, 44-46. "Chant j u i f et chant gregorien, I I I Psaumes et Cant iques . " Revue greoorienne. XXXV, 1931, 70 f f . Gerbert , M a r t i n . Scr ip tores e c c l e s i a s t i c e de musica sacra  pot i s s ium. Hildesheim: G . Olms, 1963. Gevaert , A . La Melopee Antique dans le Chant de L ' E g l i s e  L a t i n e . 1895. Graduel Romain, L e . V o l . II Les Sources. Edited by the Monks of Solesmes. Abbaye S a i n t - P i e r r e de Solesmes, 1957. G r u t c h f i e l d , E . J . "Hucbald: A Mi l lenary Commemoration." The Musical Times. LXXI, 704-708. 158 Hayburn, R . F . "Music , Sacred, L e g i s l a t i o n O n . " New  Ca tho l i c Encyclopedia . 1967. V o l . X . Homan, Freder ic Warren. "Cadence i n Gregorian Chant . " Unpublished Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Indiana, 1961. . " F i n a l and Internal Cadent ia l Patterns i n Gregorian Chant . " Journal of the American, Musico-l o g i c a l Spc ie ty . XVII fSpr ing) , 1964, 66-77. Hood, Mantle. "The R e l i a b i l i t y of O r a l T r a d i t i o n . " Journal of the American Mus ico log ica l Soc ie ty . XI I , 1959, 201-209. Hucke, Helmut. "Die Einfuhrung des Gregorianischen Gesangs im F r a n k r e i c h . " Romische Quaitel s chr j f c t , XLIX, 1954, 172-187. "Improvisat ion im Gregorianischen Gesang." Kirchenmusikal isches Jahrbuch. XXXVIII, 1954, 5-8. Huglo, M i c h e l . "Le Chant 1 vieux-Romain. 1 L i s t e des manu-s c r i t s et temoins i n d i r e c t . " Sacr i s E r u d i r i , VI 1954, 96-124. . Les Tonar ies : Inventa i re . Analyse . Comparaison. P a r i s : Societe Fran9aise de Musico log ie , 1971. Idelsohn, A . Z . Jewish Music i n i t s H i s t o r i c a l Development. New York: 1929. Jungman, Joseph A . The Mass of %he Roman R i t e . London: Burns and Gates, 1959. L i b e r U s u a l i s . Edi ted by the Monks of Solesmes. Tournai : Desclee and C o . , 1963. Lipphardt , W. "Gregor der Grosse und se in A n t e i l am romischen Ant iphonar . " A t t i de l Congresso Inter-nazionale d i Musica Sacra . 1950, Tourna i : 1958, 248. McManus, F .R. " R i t e s , Congregation o f . " New Catho l i c  Encyclopedia . 1967. V o l . X I I . Paleographie Mus ica le . Edited by the Benedictines of Solesmes. Rome: 1889-Peacock, Peter . "The Problem of the Old-Roman Chant . " Essays Presented to Egon Wellesz . ed. by Jack Westrup. Oxford: Clarendon Press , 1966, 43-7. 159 Planner, John H. "The E c c l e s i a s t i c a l Modes i n the Late Eighth Century: A Study i n C u l t u r a l T r a n s f e r . " Unpublished Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Michigan, 1970. . "The Pre-History of the Western Psalm Tones." Paper presented to the American Mus ico log ica l Soc ie ty , Chapel H i l l , November, 1972. Por ter , W.S. The G a l l i c a n R i t e . London: A . R . Mowbray & Co. L i m i t e d , 1958. Quasten, J . " G a l l i c a n R i t e . " New Ca tho l i c Encyclopedia . 1967. V o l . V I . Reese, Gustave. Music i n the Middle Aoes. New York: W.W. Norton and Co. I n c . , 1968. . Music i n the Renaissance. 1st r e v . ed. New York: W. W. Norton & Co. I n c . , 1959. Salmon, P. "Div ine O f f i c e , Roman." New C a t h o l i c Encyclo-pedia . 1967. V o l . IV. Schuler , Richard J . "The Roman Chant . " C a e c i l i a : A Review of Ca tho l i c Church Music. 86 (#4), 1959, 129-137. S u l l i v a n , R . E . "Caro l ing i an Reform." New C a t h o l i c  Encyclopedia . 1967. V o l . I I I . . "Leo I I I , Pope, S t . " New C a t h o l i c Encyclopedia . 1967. V o l . V I I I . Sunol , G . Introduct ion a l a Paleoaraphie Musicale Gregprienne. Tournai : Descle'e et C i e . , 1935. S t a b l e i n , Bruno. " C h o r a l . " Die Musik i n Geschicte und  Gegenwart. V o l . I I . . "Ga l l ikan i s che L i t u r g i e . " Die Musik i n Geschicte und Gegenwart. V o l . IV. Strunk, O l i v e r . "The Antiphons of the Oktoechos." Journal  of the American Mus ico log ica l Soc ie ty . X I I I , 1960, 50-67. The Theory of Music : From the Caro l ing i an Era up to 1400. 2 v o l s . Joseph Smits von Waesberghe, Peter F i s c h e r , C h r i s t i a n Maas eds. Munich: G . Henle , 1961. 160 V i v e l , Cb ' l e s t in . "Le tonus peregr inus . " Revue du chant  qregorienne, XVII , XIX. Wagner, Peter . Introduct ion to the Gregorian Melodies : A Handbook of Pla insong. Translated by Agnes Orme and E . G . P . Wyatt. London: Medieval and Plainsong Soc ie ty , 190?. . LJJLSprung und Entwicklung der LiturgJLschen Gesangsformen b i s zum Ausqanqe des M i t t e l a l t e r s . 3 v o l s . 4th ed. Wiesbaden: Brei tkopf & H a r t e l , 1962. Waesberghe, J . Smits van. " L ' e v o l u t i o n des Tons psalmodiques au Moyen Age. " A t t i de l Congressp Internat ionale d i Musica Sacra (Romel 1950), Tourna i : 1952, 267 f f . Weakland, Rembert. "Gregorian Chant . " New C a t h o l i c  Encyclopedia . 1967. V o l . V I . . "Huchbald as Musician and T h e o r i s t . " Musical Quarter ly . X L I I , 66-84. . "Monophonic Music to 1200." New Ca tho l i c Encyclopedia . 1967. V o l . X . Wel lesz , E . Eastern Elements i n We stern Chant. Oxford: 1947. . H i s to ry of Byzantine Music and Cfrant. Oxford: Clarendon Press , 1961, 461 pp. . "Recent Studies i n Western Chant . " The Musical Quarter ly . X L I , 1955, 177-190. Werner, E. "The Common Ground i n the Synagogue and Church . " A t t i de l Congresso. Rome: 1951. . The Sacred Br idge . London: Dennis Dobson, 1959. * Bruno S tab le in and Ludwig F inscher . "Psalm." Die Musik i n Geschichte und Geqenwart. V o l . X . Wortman, J . " G a l l i c a n R i t e s , Chants o f . " New Ca tho l i c  Encyclopedia . 1967. V o l . V I . 

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