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An assessment of the Colombian government's commitment to the goal of universal primary education Blown, Vivienne Nerys 1973

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AN ASSESSMENT OF THE COLOMBIAN GOVERNMENT'S COMMITMENT TO THE GOAL OF UNIVERSAL PRIMARY EDUCATION by VIVIENNE NERYS BLOWN B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1967 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of H ispanic and I t a l i a n Studies We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1973 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e ments f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l -a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e -s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed w i t h -out my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f H i s p a n i c and I t a l i a n S t u d i e s The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada September, 1973 ABSTRACT U n i v e r s a l primary education i s the goal of many developing c o u n t r i e s . I t i s a high p r i o r i t y i n the educational planning of Colombia. The law i n Colombia st a t e s that f i v e years of 'educa-c i o n p r i m a r f a ' i s f r e e and compulsory. Since 1955, Colombia has i n v e s t i g a t e d the problems and l e g i s l a t e d reforms to make t h i s law an a c t u a l f a c t . In L a t i n America, reform laws and planning s t u d i e s very o f t e n remain j u s t t h a t : the implementation of the reforms i s delayed or f o r g o t t e n i n the maze of planning boards and government o f f i c e s . This t h e s i s examines the reforms passed by the Colombian government i n the p e r i o d 1955 to 1965, and assesses t h e i r implementation i n p u b l i c primary education. The problems that were encountered i n the attempts to achieve the goal of u n i v e r s a l primary education are s t u d i e d , and the e f f e c t s of the continued emphasis on the expansion of primary education are d i s -cussed i n the c o n c l u s i o n . The i n f o r m a t i o n f o r the study was d e r i v e d p r i m a r i l y from secondary sources, as the o r i g i n a l M i n i s t r y of Education r e p o r t s were not a v a i l a b l e . The Colombian government and United Nations s t a t i s t i c s were used to make conclusions about the 1965 s i t u a t i o n of primary education. The most recent comprehensive s t a t i s t i c s were from the 1965 census. A general view of Colombia was gained from a short stay (one month) i n 1970, and, a d i s c u s s i o n w i t h a Colombian, who v i s i t e d Canada i n 1972, helped to give some i n s i g h t i n t o the country's educational problems. i i U n i v e r s a l primary e d u c a t i o n was s t i l l an i d e a l i n Colombia i n 1965. Many o f the reforms, because o f governmental bureaucracy and the economic s i t u a t i o n were o n l y p a r t i a l l y implemented. There was a percentage i n c r e a s e i n enr o l l m e n t s t a t i s t i c s and the government demonstrated i t s commitment to the go a l by i n c r e a s i n g the educa-t i o n a l budget. G e n e r a l l y , the t a r g e t s s e t by the government were too o p t i m i s t i c ; the i d e a l s expressed i n p o l i t i c a l statements were f a r from r e a l i t y . The t h e s i s conclude^ t h a t there are two op t i o n s f o r the educa-t i o n a l p l a n n e r s o f Colombia: the f i r s t , to co n t i n u e to aim f o r the go a l o f u n i v e r s a l primary e d u c a t i o n , d e v o t i n g a l a r g e percentage of the budget to the primary s e c t o r , w i t h l i t t l e hope of a c h i e v i n g t h i s g o a l i n the immediate f u t u r e , and the second, to d i s t r i b u t e the money a v a i l a b l e throughout the educ a t i o n system to enable a g r e a t e r segment o f the p o p u l a t i o n to o b t a i n secondary e d u c a t i o n and thus i n c r e a s e the middle c l a s s , but, a t the same time, accep-t i n g the f a c t t h a t a p r o p o r t i o n o f the p o p u l a t i o n would remain i l l i t e r a t e . TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE INTRODUCTION 1 U n i v e r s a l Primary Education 4 CHAPTER I . COLOMBIA - BACKGROUND 8 P o p u l a t i o n 8 P o l i t i c a l H i s t o r y 10 Economy 14 H i s t o r y of Education 15 A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of Education 17 I I . EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS AND REFORMS - 1955-1965 21 Educational Planning and Research 22 Research Programs 23 Laws to Increase Enrollment 25 Laws to Increase Finances 26 Laws to Increase School C o n s t r u c t i o n 27 Laws to Increase Teacher Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and to Standardize the Curriculum 27 A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Reforms 29 I I I . ASSESSMENT OF THE GOVERNMENT'S IMPLEMENTATION OF REFORMS 32 P i l o t Schools 33 i v PAGE Increase i n Education Expenditures 34 Increase i n School C o n s t r u c t i o n 37 Improvement of Teachers' Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s 39 S t a n d a r d i z a t i o n of Curriculum 46 Increase i n Enrollment - Urban-Rural Compari-son 48 IV. OBSTACLES TO UNIVERSAL PRIMARY EDUCATION 57 Problem of Dropouts 58 U n q u a l i f i e d Teachers and an I r r e l e v a n t C u r r i culum 60 People's A t t i t u d e s towards Education 62 F i n a n c i a l D i f f i c u l t i e s 65 V. CONCLUSION: IDEALISM VS. REALITY... 69 S i t u a t i o n s i n c e 1965 72 A l t e r n a t i v e s to U n i v e r s a l Primary Education i n Colombia 73 BIBLIOGRAPHY 79 APPENDIX 86 LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE I . P o p u l a t i o n D i v i s i o n by Age - 1964 9 I I . Expenses on E d u c a t i o n as P e r c e n t a g e o f N a t i o n a l E x p e n d i t u r e s - 1958-66 34 I I I . P r i m a r y E d u c a t i o n Expenses as P e r c e n t a g e o f T o t a l E d u c a t i o n a l Expenses 35 IV. G e n e r a l and E d u c a t i o n a l E x p e n d i t u r e s 36 V. Number o f P u b l i c P r i m a r y S c h o o l s - 1951-65 38 V I . S t u d e n t - T e a c h e r R a t i o i n P u b l i c and P r i v a t e P r i m a r y S c h o o l s - 1951-65 40 V I I . S t u d e n t - T e a c h e r R a t i o i n P u b l i c Urban and R u r a l P r i m a r y S c h o o l s - 1954-63 41 V I I I . E d u c a t i o n a l P r e p a r a t i o n o f P r i m a r y T e a c h e r s : 1961-1965 43 I X . E d u c a t i o n a l P r e p a r a t i o n o f P r i m a r y T e a c h e r s , 1965: U r b a n - R u r a l Comparison 43 X. Comparison o f T e a c h e r s ' S a l a r i e s i n Two Departments: 1965 45 X I . Range o f Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s o f Teachers i n Two Departments: 1966 46 v i PAGE XII. Enrollment in Primary Education (Public and Private) as a Percentage of Total Age Group.... 49 XIII. Urban/Rural Comparison of I l l i t e r a t e s , Aged 7-15: 1951 and 1964 51 XIV. Urban and Rural Enrollment in Public Primary Schools 52 XV. Urban/Rural Reasons for Primary School Dropout... 58 LIST OF GRAPHS GRAPHS PAGE 1. Comparison o f the P o p u l a t i o n o f 7-14 Yea r Olds and the P r i m a r y S c h o o l E n r o l l m e n t o f the R e s p e c t i v e Age Group: 1951-1965 87 2. Comparison o f the P o p u l a t i o n o f 7-11 Yea r Olds and the P r i m a r y S c h o o l E n r o l l m e n t o f the R e s p e c t i v e Age Group: 1951-1965 88 3. Comparison o f T o t a l , Urban and R u r a l E n r o l l m e n t i n P u b l i c P r i m a r y S c h o o l s o f 7-14 Year O l d s : 1951-1965 89 4. Comparison o f I l l i t e r a t e s , Aged 7-15 i n the T o t a l P o p u l a t i o n , Urban P o p u l a t i o n and R u r a l P o p u l a t i o n o f R e s p e c t i v e Age Group: 1951-1964. 90 5. Number o f P u b l i c P r i m a r y S c h o o l s i n C o l o m b i a : T o t a l , Urban and R u r a l 1951-1965 91 6. Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s o f P r i m a r y S c h o o l T e a c h e r s , 1961-1965 92 7. P r i m a r y E d u c a t i o n - U r b a n - R u r a l E n r o l l m e n t 1964. 93 - 1 -INTRODUCTION The United Nations Declaration of the Rights of Man states that: Everyone has the r i g h t to education. Elementary and fundamental education s h a l l be free and compulsory and there s h a l l be equal access on the basis of merit to higher education.1 Universal primary education i s an important goal of many developing countries i n the world today. Education i s seen as the panacea of many of the world's i l l s . Developing coun-t r i e s emphasize education as a key to s o c i a l and economic development. Colombia has set universal primary education as a top p r i o r i t y i n i t s educational planning and appears to be aware of the importance of education i n the economic progress of the country and the development of the people. The Minister of Education i n 1963 expressed the government's attitude to-wards education; "Todos nosotros vemos claramente como en l a base misma del progreso economico esta l a educacion, y como su mejoramiento y amplitud son bases necesarias del desarrollo, que a su vez es l a garantia segura de l a p o l i t i c a l i b r e de los pueblos", (ye a l l see c l e a r l y how education i s the very basis of economic progress, and how i t s improvement and extension are the necessary foundations of development, and at the same time 2 i s the safe guarantee of the free p o l i t i c s of the people.) - 2 -The law i n Colombia states that f i v e years of primary edu-cation i s free and compulsory. The government has passed a number of reforms and programs to make this law an actual f a c t . This thesis w i l l study the reforms passed i n the period 1955 to 1965, the extent to which these reforms have been implemented, the obstacles to universal primary education and f i n a l l y , the l a s t chapter w i l l discuss the d e s i r a b i l i t y and the motivation i n s t r i v i n g f o r such a goal. The period 1955 to 1965 was chosen f o r study as thi s was a time i n Colombia when many reforms were passed and planning studies were i n s t i t u t e d to increase primary enrollment and to improve the quality of primary education. Many Lat i n American countries have d i f f i c u l t y getting beyond the stage of planning studies and government l e g i s l a t i o n . The purpose of this thesis i s to assess the implementation of the educational reforms i n the public primary sector i n Colombia and to discuss the d i f f i -c u l t i e s i n aiming f o r thi s goal. The most recent comprehensive s t a t i s t i c s available on edu-cation i n Colombia were from the 1965 census. The s i t u a t i o n a f t e r 1965 i s mentioned i n some areas only to reinforce con-clusions about the 1965 educational system. The sources for the study, apart from the s t a t i s t i c s , are generally secondary because of the d i f f i c u l t y the author experienced i n trying to obtain Ministry of Education reports. Impartial observers - 3 -t e n d t o g i v e a more a c c u r a t e p i c t u r e o f the s i t u a t i o n t h a n gov-ernment r e p o r t s . The i n c o m p l e t e n e s s o f governmental s t a t i s -t i c s made i t d i f f i c u l t t o draw v a l i d c o n c l u s i o n s , but deduc-t i o n s were made w i t h t h e h e l p o f o t h e r s o u r c e s . The t a b l e s i n c l u d e a l l the a v a i l a b l e d a t a on the problem and the graphs i n the appendix h e l p t o show t h e g e n e r a l t r e n d s . The term p r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n used i n t h i s t h e s i s comes from the S p a n i s h t erm, 'educacion p r i m a r i a ' , w h i c h i s used i n Co-l o m b i a t o d e f i n e the compulsory f i v e y e a r s of e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l -i n g . The t h e s i s d e a l s w i t h t h e s i t u a t i o n of the p u b l i c p r i m -a r y s c h o o l s as i n C o l o m b i a o n l y f i f t e e n p e r c e n t o f the p r i m a r y s c h o o l s a r e p r i v a t e and the n a t i o n a l government has no d i r e c t c o n t r o l o v e r them. A l i t e r a t e i s d e f i n e d as a p e r s o n w i t h some s c h o o l i n g , no m a t t e r how l i t t l e ; t h i s tends t o i n f l a t e the l i t e r a c y p e r c e n t a g e . The co m p a r i s o n between u r b a n and r u r a l a r e a s i n f l a t e s t h e urban p o p u l a t i o n because of the d e f i n i t i o n u sed by the Departamento A d m i n i s t r a t i v o N a c i o n a l de E s t a d i s t i c a (DANE) ( N a t i o n a l A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Department o f S t a t i s t i c s ) i n C o l o m b i a ; any ' m u n i c i p i o ' ( m u n i c i p a l d i s t r i c t ) w i t h a p o p u l a -t i o n o v e r 1500 i s c l a s s e d as u r b a n . The e n r o l l m e n t i n p r i m a r y s c h o o l s i s compared to b o t h t h e seven t o f o u r t e e n y e a r o l d p o p u l a t i o n and t h e seven t o e l e v e n y e a r o l d p o p u l a t i o n because o f the l a t e s t a r t i n g age i n many a r e a s . Any q u o t a t i o n s i n S p a n i s h a r e f o l l o w e d by a f r e e t r a n s l a t i o n by t h e a u t h o r . UNIVERSAL PRIMARY EDUCATION U n i v e r s a l primary e d u c a t i o n i s an accepted f a c t i n the i n -d u s t r i a l i z e d c o u n t r i e s of the world, y e t i n Colombia, i t i s a l o n g way from r e a l i t y . In a 1958 study by a French m i s s i o n headed by Joseph L e b r e t , which analyzed f a c t o r s r e t a r d i n g edu-c a t i o n a l development, i t was estimated t h a t "Colombia n e c e s i t a r i a a l g o mas de dos s i g l o s para a l c a n z a r l a p o s i c i o n obtenida por l o s Estados Unidos o F r a n c i a . " (Colombia would need about more than two c e n t u r i e s to reach the p o s i t i o n o b t a i n e d by the U n i t e d 3 S t a t e s or France) , i f the speed of l i t e r a c y p rogress were not a c c e l e r a t e d . U n i v e r s a l primary e d u c a t i o n i s p o s s i b l e o n l y i f there are s u f f i c i e n t c l a s s r o o m p l a c e s f o r the school-age p o p u l a t i o n and i f t h i s p o p u l a t i o n d e s i r e s to a t t e n d s c h o o l . The p o p u l a t i o n growth and economic s i t u a t i o n n a t u r a l l y a f f e c t the country's a b i l i t y to p r o v i d e the schoolrooms. In order to ensure a t t e n -dance once the schools are a v a i l a b l e , the q u a l i t y of the edu-c a t i o n o f f e r e d must be good. The teachers must be s u f f i c i e n t -l y w e l l - t r a i n e d t o i n t e r e s t students i n l e a r n i n g and the c u r r i -culum must be r e l e v a n t so t h a t the c h i l d and/or h i s parents can see the b e n e f i t s of s c h o o l attendance. Furthermore, when c o u n t r i e s such as Colombia c o n c e n t r a t e on u n i v e r s a l primary edu-c a t i o n , the o t h e r l e v e l s r e c e i v e l e s s f i n a n c i a l support and are - 5 -not expanded at the same r a t e . Therefore, the people, not only the government, must see primary education as an end i n i t s e l f ; otherwise f r u s t r a t i o n w i l l i n e v i t a b l y r e s u l t among groups who are unable to continue on to secondary education. The Colombian government has expressed i t s support of the goal of u n i v e r s a l primary education and has emphasized the im-provement of r u r a l primary education as p a r t of t h i s g o a l . Since 1927, the law has s t a t e d t h a t primary education i s f r e e and compulsory i n Colombia. A r t i c l e 41 o f the r e v i s e d Colombian C o n s t i t u t i o n of 1945 sets f o r t h the b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s of educa-t i o n : "Freedom of i n s t r u c t i o n i s guaranteed. Primary education s h a l l be g r a t u i t o u s i n s t a t e s c h o o l s , and s h a l l be o b l i g a t o r y 4 to the extent t h a t the law r e q u i r e s . " I n 1962, the Colombian government signed the UNESCO agreement at a conference i n San-ti a g o which i n c l u d e d among i t s p o i n t s the goal of u n i v e r s a l primary education by 1970 ( l a t e r changed to 1975). By 1965, Colombia was f a r from reaching the goal of u n i v e r -s a l primary education. F i f t y - s i x percent of the seven to f o u r -teen year o l d p o p u l a t i o n and s i x t y - f o u r percent of the seven to eleven year o l d group were r e g i s t e r e d i n primary s c h o o l . There was s t i l l a s i g n i f i c a n t discrepancy between the a v a i l a b i l i t y and the q u a l i t y of primary education i n r u r a l schools and urban scho o l s . There was an increase i n enrollment i n the f i r s t few years of primary s c h o o l , but because of the shortage of complete - 6 -f i v e year schools i n the r u r a l areas, the enrollment i n the f i f t h grade c o n s t i t u t e d only f i v e percent of the corresponding age group p o p u l a t i o n . U n i v e r s a l primary education was more of an i d e a l than a r e a l i t y i n the r u r a l areas of Colombia. Chapter I gives the background f o r Colombia; Chapter I I o u t l i n e s the laws and reforms passed by the Colombian govern-ment i n the p e r i o d 1955 to 1965, designed to achieve the goal of u n i v e r s a l primary education; Chapter I I I assesses the im-plementation of these reforms; Chapter IV examines the obsta-c l e s a g a i n s t a c h i e v i n g such a g o a l ; and f i n a l l y Chapter V concludes the t h e s i s w i t h a d i s c u s s i o n of the d e s i r a b i l i t y of Colombia aiming f o r t h i s goal and the motivations behind i t . - 7 -NOTES 1Yearbook of the United Nations, 1947-48, A r t i c l e 23 of I n t e r n a t i o n a l D e c l a r a t i o n of Human R i g h t s , p.576. 2pedro Gomez Valderrama, Ideas sobre l a Educacion y  l a C u l t u r a , Bogota: Imprenta N a c i o n a l , 1963, p.102. •^Presidencia de l a Republica. Comite Nacional de Plane a c i o n , Estudios sobre l a s Condiciones d e l D e s a r r o l l o  de Colombia, Bogota: A e d i t a , 1958, v o l . 1 , p.16. ^ W i l l i a m Marion Gibson, The C o n s t i t u t i o n s of Colombia, Durham, North C a r o l i n a : Duke U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1948, p.412. - 8 -CHAPTER I COLOMBIA - BACKGROUND POPULATION The p o p u l a t i o n of Colombia;in 1965 was e i g h t e e n m i l l i o n ; by 1970, i t was twenty-two m i l l i o n . I t i s p r e d i c t e d t h a t , by 1980, Colombia w i l l become the t h i r d most populous country i n 1 L a t i n America. The two f a c t o r s r e g a r d i n g the p o p u l a t i o n which have a d i r e c t r e l a t i o n to the e d u c a t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n a re: 1) the r a p i d and i n c r e a s i n g r a t e o f demographic growth, which i s 3.27o a n n u a l l y . 2) the r a p i d and i n c r e a s i n g movement of people from r u r a l areas to urban areas, which i s 5.4% a n n u a l l y . In 1951, o n l y 38% o f the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n l i v e d i n the 2 urban areas, w h i l e i n 1964, t h i s f i g u r e had r i s e n to 52.8%. While t h i s percentage may be weighted on the urban areas be-cause o f the DANE d e f i n i t i o n o f urban areas as c e n t e r s w i t h 1500 or more, by the l a t e 1960fs more than o n e - t h i r d of the p o p u l a t i o n r e s i d e d i n twenty c i t i e s w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n i n ex-3 cess o f 100,000.. Because o f t h i s i n c r e a s i n g m i g r a t i o n , the c i t i e s o f Colombia are e x p e r i e n c i n g severe problems wi t h housing shortages, unemployment and l a c k o f s c h o o l s . The r a p i d p o p u l a t i o n growth i s ca u s i n g f u r t h e r d i f f i -- 9 -c u l t i e s with greater numbers dependent on a smaller labour force. In 1964, more than 46% were under the age of f i f t e e n and 56% were under the age of twenty. Consequently, there i s an ever increasing school-age population which w i l l add to the problems of educational planners i n Colombia. TABLE I 4 POPULATION DIVISION BY AGE - 1964 AGE POPULATION PERCENTAGE 0-6 4,249,623 24.3 7-11 2,578,407 14.7 12-18 2,795,289 16.0 19-24 1,715,625 9.8 25-64 5,621,303 32.1 65 & more 524,261 3.0 TOTAL 17,484,508 100,0 The class d i v i s i o n i n Colombia i s t y p i c a l of Latin America, with a small minority holding a l l the power and a large major-i t y who have l i t t l e influence i n p o l i t i c a l decisions. The e l i t e or upper class hold the government positions, generally are from established f a m i l i e s , and constitute about 3 to 5 - 10 -p e r c e n t o f the p o p u l a t i o n . T h i s group has managed to m a i n t a i n the s t a t u s quo wh i l e a t the same time a l l o w i n g s u f f i c i e n t change i n o r d e r not to s t i f l e development. The middle c l a s s , compris-i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s , t e c h n i c i a n s , a l l white*.collar workers, and some l a b o u r u n i o n people are growing s t e a d i l y and are estimated at 20% o f the p o p u l a t i o n . I t i s g e n e r a l l y agreed t h a t about seventy percent o f the p o p u l a t i o n i s i n the lower c l a s s , or working c l a s s . The c h i l d r e n of the upper c l a s s a t t e n d p r i v a t e schools and t h e i r parents tend to r e g a r d p u b l i c schools as c h a r i t a b l e i n s t i t u t i o n s . The urban middle c l a s s i s becoming more v o c a l i n pushing f o r e d u c a t i o n a l reform while the lower c l a s s g e n e r a l l y f e e l they have no power to e x e r t i n changing the system. POLITICAL HISTORY Colombia has had a r e p u t a t i o n as one o f the more p o l i t i -c a l l y s t a b l e , democratic L a t i n American r e p u b l i c s . Since the e a r l y days o f independence, Colombian p o l i t i c s have been do-minated by two p a r t i e s : the L i b e r a l s and the C o n s e r v a t i v e s . The L i b e r a l P a r t y was formed by a group of people seeking to c r e a t e a p o l i t i c a l o r d e r which embodied economic l i b e r t y , a s e c u l a r s t a t e , f e d e r a l i s m and democracy. The C o n s e r v a t i v e s - 11 -grouped together to preserve the s c h o l a s t i c t r a d i t i o n of Spain and the s t a b i l i t y of the c o l o n i a l p e r i o d . The Church was the p e r s i s t e n t i s s u e which continued to keep the p a r t i e s i n oppo-s i t i o n , and helped to e s t a b l i s h intense p a r t y l o y a l t i e s among the masses. Over the years the various c i v i l wars that erup-ted between the two groups tended to push party f o l l o w e r s i n t o homogeneous communities. In the 1930's and 40's, the L i b e r a l s edged toward s o c i a l -ism while the Conservatives opposed t h i s w i t h a l l t h e i r power. Although the masses probably had l i t t l e understanding of the i d e o l o g i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s between the two p a r t i e s , the peasants were q u i t e w i l l i n g to f i g h t to demonstrate t h e i r party l o y a l t y . The c i v i l war, termed T l a v i o l e n c i a 1 , which began i n 1948^and ended i n 1956 was a r e s u l t of the c l a s h between the two p a r t i e s . In 1953, General Rojas P i n i l l a was asked by both the L i b e r a l s and Conservatives to r e s t o r e order. Thousands of people had been k i l l e d and many others l e f t homeless during t h i s p e r i o d . Rojas succeeded i n reducing the l e v e l of v i o l e n c e but not i n e l i m i n a t i n g i t . In 1957, the L i b e r a l and Conservative p a r t i e s decided that they p r e f e r r e d an agreement between themselves r a t h e r than l e t t i n g Rojas continue i n power. The two p a r t i e s agreed to share e l e c t i o n s by a l t e r n a t i n g a L i b e r a l and Conservative - 12 -p r e s i d e n t , and a l l o w i n g each party no more than f i f t y percent of the seats i n Congress. The c o a l i t i o n was to l a s t u n t i l 1970, but was l a t e r extended to 1974. The format of the N a t i o n a l Front, as the c o a l i t i o n was named, enabled the two p a r t i e s to discourage f u r t h e r acts of p a r t i s a n v i o l e n c e and s t i l l maintain t h e i r p o s i -t i o n s i n s o c i e t y . However, p o l i c y i n n o v a t i o n and the implement-a t i o n of plans became more d i f f i c u l t . The N a t i o n a l Front e l i m i n a t e d one of the b a s i c reasons f o r l o y a l t y to a p a r t y : o p p o s i t i o n to the other p a r t y . Besides the presidency and the Congress s e a t s , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e posts and m i n i s t r i e s were a l s o d i v i d e d between the two p a r t i e s so that a q u a l i f i e d L i b e r a l would not be appointed i f the vacancy c a l l e d f o r a Conservative and v i c e - v e r s a . Because the c o a l i t i o n de-» stroyed the t r a d i t i o n a l p a r t y o p p o s i t i o n and c o m p e t i t i o n , opposing f a c t i o n s developed w i t h i n the two p a r t i e s , which f u r t h e r hindered p o l i c y f o r m u l a t i o n . The f i r s t p resident of the N a t i o n a l Front was a L i b e r a l , A l b e r t o L l e r a s Camargo, who r u l e d from 1958 to 1962. P r e s i d e n t L l e r a s Camargo introduced strong a u s t e r i t y measures to so l v e economic t r o u b l e s . He cut imports, took steps to s t a b i l i z e the peso and e s t a b l i s h e d a N a t i o n a l Planning Department. He a l s o s t a r t e d a g r a r i a n reform, but met w i t h l i m i t e d success i n t h i s area. In 1958, Colombia experienced the most favourable - I m -balance of trade i n twenty years. L l e r a s was f o l l o w e d by a Conservative, Guillermo Leon V a l e n c i a , from 1962 to 1966. His attempts at land reform ran i n t o o p p o s i t i o n of the l a r g e landholders. The peso was deva-lued and new taxes were proposed. In 1964, the congressional e l e c t i o n s only drew t h i r t y percent of the e l e c t o r a t e to v o t e , and the N a t i o n a l Front only r e c e i v e d twenty percent of the t o t a l . This f u r t h e r a f f e c t e d V a l e n c i a ' s e f f e c t i v e n e s s by r e -ducing h i s supporters i n Congress to a narrow m a j o r i t y . In 1965, because of economic d i f f i c u l t i e s , V a l e n c i a d e c l a r e d a s t a t e of siege and r u l e d by decree. He was able to introduce a number of a u s t e r i t y measures by enacting reforms by decree, and thereby improved the economic s i t u a t i o n . In 1966, another L i b e r a l , C a r l o s L l e r a s Restrepo took over and attempted to c a r r y out the economic programs of L l e r a s Ca-margo. Both p a r t i e s i n the N a t i o n a l Front have made elaborate statements about improving the q u a l i t y of l i f e , s t i m u l a t i n g economic development and moving ahead to a modern s o c i e t y , but few of these statements have been t r a n s l a t e d i n t o e f f e c t i v e programs. The N a t i o n a l Front met w i t h two b a s i c o b s t a c l e s ; 1) the resources a v a i l a b l e to the government from taxes were among the lowest i n the world. In 1967, Colombia's tax e f f o r t was r a t e d f o r t y - f i f t h out of f i f t y developing c o u n t r i e s . - 14 -2) vested i n t e r e s t s were able to block t r u l y r e v o l u t i o n a r y programs because a two-thirds m a j o r i t y was r e q u i r e d i n Congress u n t i l 1968 when a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e v i s i o n changed i t to a sim-p l e m a j o r i t y . ECONOMY Colombia's economy depends on one export, c o f f e e , as a major source of revenue. Coffee represents ten percent of the t o t a l Gross N a t i o n a l Product; seventy-four percent of Colombia's 6 f o r e i g n exchange came from coffee exports i n 1962. Colombia i s the second l a r g e s t producer-exporter of co f f e e i n the world, h o l d i n g about twelve percent of the world market. A change i n one cent i n the p r i c e of a pound of c o f f e e on the world market means a g a i n or a l o s s of U.S. $ 8.5 m i l l i o n a year to Colombia. The p r i c e of c o f f e e has f l u c t u a t e d as much as f i f t e e n cents i n a s i n g l e recent year w i t h devastating e f f e c t s on the Colombian economy. This excessive dependence on one product r e s u l t s i n the need to import l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s o f goods and m a t e r i a l s to s u s t a i n economic growth. F i f t y percent of a l l wage-earners i n Colombia earn t h e i r l i v i n g from a g r i c u l t u r e , which c o n t r i b u t e d twenty-nine percent to the G.N.P. Coffee i s farmed on many small farms as w e l l as - 15 -the b i g p l a n t a t i o n s . S i x t y percent of farmers own f o u r percent of the l a n d with three percent owning more than f i f t y percent 7 of the l a n d . However, f i f t y - s i x percent of the t o t a l area p l a n t e d i n c o f f e e i s worked by the i n d i v i d u a l owner. The G.N.P. of Colombia i n 1969 was U.S. $ 6.2 b i l l i o n , the f i f t h h i g h e s t i n L a t i n America and i t s per c a p i t a income exceeded $300 f o r the f i r s t time. I n f l a t i o n i s an ever-present problem i n Colombia: the cost o f l i v i n g rose 114% from 1961 to 1967. Colombia has p r o f i t e d from f o r e i g n a i d . From 1946 to 1967$ Colombia r e c e i v e d the e q u i v a l e n t of U.S. $ 1.6 b i l l i o n i n f o r e i g n a i d w i t h U.S. p a r t i c i p a t i o n being about f i f t y - n i n e percent of t h a t . I n 1969, Colombia ranked t h i r d among L a t i n American c o u n t r i e s i n t o t a l U.S. a s s i s t a n c e . This f l u c t u a t i n g economy n a t u r a l l y a f f e c t s a l l p u b l i c s e r v i c e s , i n c l u d i n g education. The implementation of planned programs o f t e n depends on the economic s i t u a t i o n of the country. HISTORY OF EDUCATION The h i s t o r y of education i n Colombia r e f l e c t s the d i s s e n -s i o n between the two t r a d i t i o n a l p a r t i e s . I n the eighteenth century, the Conservatives defended the ' t r a d i c i o n s a c r a ' of education, the c h u r c h - p o s i t i o n of c l a s s i c a l education f o r the e l i t e , w h i l e the L i b e r a l s propounded the ' t r a d i c i o n s e c u l a r -- 16 -t e c n i c a ' , which gave more emphasis to science and the i d e a l s 8 of democratic education. These two p o s i t i o n s were i n the f o r e f r o n t during the eighteenth century depending on which p a r t y was i n power. In 1888, the Conservative government signed a Concordat w i t h the V a t i c a n , g i v i n g the church complete c o n t r o l over education i n Colombia. This agreement l a s t e d un-t i l the L i b e r a l regime of 1934-38, when the government took over c o n t r o l of education, but i n 1942, the government signed a second agreement w i t h the V a t i c a n . This e s t a b l i s h e d the Church's r i g h t to supervise r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n i n the pub-l i c schools and admitted the State's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r i n -s t i l l i n g C h r i s t i a n morals. In 1903, Law 39, the Organic Law on P u b l i c Education, e s t a -b l i s h e d a system of n a t i o n a l school i n s p e c t i o n and set down the combined f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r education of the n a t i o n a l , departmental and municipal governments. Law 56 of 1927 gave the f i r s t p r o v i s i o n s f o r compulsory education. Parents or guardians were o b l i g e d to see that c h i l d r e n r e c e i v e a minimum education. In the 1930's, the a c t i v i t i e s of Augustin Nieto C a b a l l e r o , the n a t i o n a l i n s p e c t o r of education under Pr e s i d e n t Enrique Olaya Herrera (1930-34) provided a powerful stimulus to deve-lopments i n education. He c a l l e d f o r the i n t r o d u c t i o n of mo-dem teaching methods to r e p l a c e r o t e l e a r n i n g and f o r emphasis - 17 -on p r a c t i c a l s u b j e c t s . Many of h i s suggestions have yet to be put i n t o p r a c t i c e . ADMINISTRATION OF EDUCATION The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of Colombian education has t r a d i t i o n a l l y been c e n t r a l i z e d i n the hands of the S t a t e . A r t i c l e 41 of the r e v i s e d Colombian c o n s t i t u t i o n of 1945, a f t e r emphasizing that l i b e r t y of teaching i s guaranteed, nevertheless goes on to say that "the S t a t e s h a l l e x e r c i s e the r i g h t of general i n s p e c t i o n and care over a l l i n s t i t u t i o n s of l e a r n i n g , p u b l i c o r p r i v a t e , i n order to ensure the f u l f i l m e n t of the s o c i a l purposes of c u l t u r e and the best i n t e l l e c t u a l , moral and p h y s i c a l develop-9 ment of the students." The a u t h o r i t y extends from the Pre s i d e n t to the M i n i s t e r o f Education, and from him by d e l e g a t i o n to the Departments and the mu n i c i p a l d i s t r i c t s . Approval of n a t i o n a l p l a n s , N a t i o n a l Government takeover o f schools, and budget a l l o c a t i o n s f o r education a l l depend upon d e c i s i o n s of the N a t i o n a l Congress. The diagram on the next page shows the l i n e of a u t h o r i t y . - 18 -MINISTRY LEVEL DEPARTMENT*) LEVEL LOCAL LEVEL } PRESIDENT MINISTER OF EDUCATION 1 SECRETARY-GENERAL J ! I I I DEPARTMENTAL ASSEMBLIES I DEPARTMENTAL SECRETARIES OF EDUCATION DEPARTMENTAL SCHOOLS PRIVATE SCHOOLS NATIONAL SCHOOLS The M i n i s t r y of Education sets e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y f o r a l l but executes p o l i c y only f o r a few n a t i o n a l schools. The f e -d e r a l d i s t r i c t o f Bogota and each o f the twenty-two Depart-ments has a Secretary o f Education charged w i t h c a r r y i n g out a l l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e t a i l s of education i n h i s j u r i s d i c t i o n i n accordance w i t h standards e s t a b l i s h e d by the M i n i s t r y of N a t i o n a l Education. Since the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e reform of 1960, the f u n c t i o n s of the M i n i s t r y of Education are t o : 1) devise plans and programs of study 2) e s t a b l i s h o p e r a t i n g c o n d i t i o n s f o r schools 3) supervise and i n s p e c t schools d i r e c t l y 4) pay a l a r g e p a r t o f the s a l a r i e s of primary teachers i n Departments and municipal d i s t r i c t s 5) pay the operating expenses of n a t i o n a l l y a d m i n i s t r a t e d primary and secondary schools and u n i v e r s i t i e s - 19 -6) c o n s t r u c t the m a j o r i t y of p u b l i c school b u i l d i n g s 7) c o n t r i b u t e to the cost of c o n s t r u c t i n g educational establishments through community a c t i o n 8) finance education i n the N a t i o n a l t e r r i t o r i e s ( i n t e n d e n c i a s and comisarl'as) 9) a s s i s t p r i v a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s The Departmental s e c r e t a r i a t s have the f o l l o w i n g r e -s p o n s i b i l i t i e s : 1) name teachers i n Department schools 2) make up the d i f f e r e n c e between a v a i l a b l e National Government funds and c u r r e n t o b l i g a t i o n s 3) pay supervisory expenses 4) maintain p u b l i c school p l a n t s 5) provide some of the m a t e r i a l s needed f o r teaching. C i t i e s w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n over 100,000 have s e c r e t a r i a t s of education w i t h a s i m i l a r o r g a n i z a t i o n . Except i n the l a r g e c i t i e s , municipal government has comparatively l i t t l e respon-s i b i l i t y f o r a d m i n i s t e r i n g education. The edu c a t i o n a l respon-s i b i l i t y of the mun i c i p a l d i s t r i c t s c o n s i s t s p r i m a r i l y of pro-v i d i n g s i t e s f o r new schools and then f u r n i s h i n g and maintain-i n g them. In the p e r i o d under d i s c u s s i o n , the M i n i s t r y of Education began to take over more of the f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the schools and a l s o began to e x e r c i s e g r e a t e r s u p e r v i s i o n over the departmental sc h o o l s . - 20 -NOTES AThomas E. W e i l , Area Handbook f o r Colombia, U.S. Army P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1970, p.63. 2 U n i t e d Nations. S t a t i s t i c a l O f f i c e , S t a t i s t i c a l Year- book, 1969, p.142. •*Weil, Area Handbook, p.63. ^ A l b e r t o Alvarado and Eduardo C a r r a s q u i l l a , A n a l i s i s de l a Educacion en Colombia, Bogota: Centro de I n v e s t i g a c i o n y Acci6n S o c i a l , 1969, p.8. 5Edwin G. C o r r , The P o l i t i c a l Process i n Colombia, Den-ve r , Colorado: U n i v e r s i t y of Denver P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1972, p.119. 6 P a t M. H o l t , Colombia Today -- and Tomorrow, New York: Praeger, 1964, p.101. ^Richard R. Renner, Education i n Colombia, U.S.Department of Health and Welfare, U n i v e r s i t y of F l o r i d a , 1968, p. 11. Orlando F a l s Borda, La Educacion en Colombia, Bogota: Universidad Nacional de Colombia, 1962, pp.26-35. 9 W i l l i a m M. Gibson, The C o n s t i t u t i o n s of Colombia, Dur-ham, North C a r o l i n a : Duke U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1948, p.412. - 21 -CHAPTER I I EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS AND REFORMS - 1955-1965 In order to f u l f i l the i d e a l of u n i v e r s a l primary educa-t i o n , the Colombian government passed a number of laws and programs intended to reform the educational system. A l a r g e increase i n student enrollment could only be achieved by an increase i n the educational budget, programs to b u i l d more schoo l s , laws to improve teachers' q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and c u r r i -culum standards, and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e reforms to decrease bureau-c r a t i z a t i o n and wastage. P r i o r to 1955, there were only extravagant statements and meaningless decrees to back up the democratic i d e a l of f r e e education f o r a l l . At the conference on Free and Compulsory Education i n Lima, Peru i n 1956, Colombia j o i n e d w i t h other L a t i n American governments i n r e c o g n i z i n g the importance of educational planning as p a r t of the o v e r a l l development of a country. I n 1961, the A l l i a n c e f o r Progress i n i t s ten-year p l a n f o r economic growth set out the goals to be a t t a i n e d to make education a s e r v i c e a b l e instrument of progress. The Colom-b i a n government at that time "aimed at p r o v i d i n g schoolroom 1 space f o r every c h i l d through the f i f t h grade by 1965." The grea t e s t importance was placed on the extension of p r o v i s i o n and the improvement of the standards of primary education, par-t i c u l a r l y i n r u r a l schools "which were to be brought up to the - 22 -2 same standard as the urban schools." The following programs were intended to achieve these goals. EDUCATIONAL PLANNING AND RESEARCH Educational planners and researchers hastened to i n v e s t i -gate the problem of primary education and to study possible solutions which would lead to an increase i n enrollment and in q u a l i t y . There was a great f l u r r y of a c t i v i t y : planning boards were established, schools for experimentation were set up and lengthy accounts of the findings were submitted to the Ministry of Education. In 1957, Decrees 206 and 23351 set up an Ofic i n a de Pla-neacion to restructure c e r t a i n aspects of educational p o l i c y . In response to various studies by this group, a five-year plan was prepared which c a l l e d f o r : 1) the creation of p i l o t schools for experimentation 2) systematic training of school supervisors 3) organization of intensive courses for secondary school graduates who wanted to enter teaching 4) further t r a i n i n g for teachers who lacked nece-ssary diplomas 5) increase i n the elementary education budget 6) change i n the methods of financing - 23 -RESEARCH PROGRAMS The s c h o o l s f o r e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n and the r e s e a r c h and p l a n -n i n g c e n t e r s were q u i c k l y p u t i n t o m o t i o n . A l r e a d y i n 1956, Decree 146 had e s t a b l i s h e d s i x p i l o t s c h o o l s i n C o l o m b i a w i t h the aim o f c l a r i f y i n g the o b j e c t i v e s o f p r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n ; . o f dra w i n g up a program o f work adapted t o the development o f the c h i l d and w o r k i n g o u t p r a c t i c a l methods f o r the gui d a n c e o f the t e a c h e r . The s c h o o l s were s e t up i n the c i t i e s o f Bogota^ B a r -r a n q u i l l a , P a s t o , Bucaramanga, C a l i and M e d e l l f n . A l l were r e a s o n a b l y w e l l - e q u i p p e d and s t a f f e d : the Bogota s c h o o l w i t h t w e n t y - s i x members o f s t a f f f o r 878 p u p i l s , and the o t h e r s h a v i n g a r a t i o o f p u p i l s t o each member o f s t a f f r a n g i n g from 25 t o 39. I n 1962, an I n s t i t u t e f o r P e d a g o g i c a l R e s e a r c h was e s t a -b l i s h e d i n the Colombian N a t i o n a l P e d a g o g i c a l U n i v e r s i t y i n Bogo t a , w h i c h i n c l u d e d i n i t s t a s k s the a n a l y s i s o f t e a c h i n g methods, the e l a b o r a t i o n and e v a l u a t i o n o f c u r r i c u l a and the p r o d u c t i o n o f s c h o o l t e x t s and v i s u a l a i d s , t o g e t h e r w i t h the p u b l i c a t i o n o f the r e s u l t s o f i t s work i n s p e c i a l b u l l e t i n s and i n a r e g u l a r r e v i e w . There was a model t r a i n i n g c o l l e g e s e t up i n Pamplona as p a r t o f the UNESCO P r o j e c t which d e v e l o p e d out o f the R e g i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e o f L a t i n American S t a t e s on F r e e and Compulsory Edu-c a t i o n h e l d i n Lima i n 1956. The I n s t i t u t o S u p e r i o r de Educa-c i o n R u r a l a t Pamplona s p e c i a l i z e d i n c o u r s e s i n c o - o p e r a t i o n , - 24 -community development and a g r i c u l t u r a l techniques, but i t a l s o d i r e c t e d i t s a t t e n t i o n toward improving the r u r a l primary s c h o o l . I t had annexed to i t a s p e c i a l primary school which served as a l a b o r a t o r y f o r i n v e s t i g a t i n g and t e s t i n g methods whibh could be used i n v i l l a g e s c h o o l s , e s p e c i a l l y i n those operating w i t h only a s i n g l e teacher. In 1964, the M i n i s t r y of Education launched a group of model s i n g l e - t e a c h e r schools as a p i l o t p r o j e c t under the d i r e c t super-v i s i o n of i t s e x p e r t s , and t h e r e a f t e r attached a p r a c t i c e one-teacher school to a l l normal schools i n order to give the t r a i n -ees experience i n t h i s type of s c h o o l . The purpose of the p i l o t schools was to pioneer methods f o r a l l r u r a l s c h o o l s , which would i n d i c a t e the means of a t t a i n i n g u n i v e r s a l l i t e r a c y , the s o l u t i o n to the problem of teacher shortage, and the path to many a s s o c i a t ed advantages, such as the end of the r u r a l t r a n s p o r t problem, the disappearance of the d i s p a r i t y between r u r a l and urban s t a n -dards and the h a l t i n g of the m i g r a t i o n to the towns. Another scheme designed to improve the standard of r u r a l education was the nucleo e s c o l a r , which was d e f i n e d as a system of r u r a l schools i n o r b i t around a s u i t a b l y l o c a t e d c e n t r a l s c h o o l . Two hundred of these had been e s t a b l i s h e d by 1963. The nucleo e s c o l a r set out to improve the nature and q u a l i t y of r u r a l education as part of the process of developing the whole community. A s o c i a l , economic and c u l t u r a l survey was made of the area and the school programs were organized around - 25 -the l i f e of the r e g i o n . The Colombian government proved i t s e l f very e f f i c i e n t i n s e t t i n g up o f f i c e s f o r planning and schools f o r experimentation. A l l the st u d i e s i n d i c a t e d a s i n c e r e d e s i r e on the p a r t of the government to aim f o r u n i v e r s a l primary education and at the same time to improve the standards of the r u r a l s chools. LAWS TO INCREASE ENROLLMENT The Colombian government passed a few laws s p e c i f i c a l l y designed to increase and enforce primary enrollment. In 1958, a temporary measure to increase enrollment among r u r a l c h i l d r e n was introduced. A two-year s c h o o l , a l t e r n a t i n g boys and g i r l s and g i v i n g a t o t a l of 94 days of i n s t r u c t i o n to each group, was e s t a b l i s h e d . In 1963, Decree 1710 repeated the law r e q u i r i n g f i v e years of f r e e compulsory education and s t a t e d the purposes of elemen-3 t a r y education: - to c o n t r i b u t e to the harmonious development of the c h i l d and the optimum s t r u c t u r i n g of h i s p e r s o n a l i t y , w i t h a C h r i s t i a n a t t i t u d e toward l i f e i n a f r e e and democratic t r a d i t i o n - to provide the c h i l d w i t h a sound b a s i c education - to i n c u l c a t e h a b i t s of c l e a n l i n e s s , hygiene, and i n t e l l i g e n t use of inner resources - to prepare the c h i l d f o r a l i f e of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y - 26 -and employment i n accordance with h i s i n d i v i d u a l a ptitudes and i n t e r e s t s - to encourage a sense of c i v i c s p i r i t , n a t i o n a l iden-t i t y and s o l i d a r i t y w i t h a l l peoples of the world. A new c u r r i c u l u m was developed which was intended to f o s t e r the above q u a l i t i e s i n both r u r a l and urban c h i l d r e n . LAWS TO INCREASE FINANCES In order to increase enrollment and extend the p r o v i s i o n of primary s c h o o l s , the Colombian government increased the percent-age of the n a t i o n a l budget a l l o t t e d to e d u c a t i o n a l expenditures. The 1957 f i v e - y e a r plan s t i p u l a t e d that ten percent of the bud-get be used f o r p u b l i c education. The previous f i g u r e had been four to s i x percent. From 1955 to 1963, an average of f i f t y percent of the e d u c a t i o n a l expenditures was devoted to the p r i -mary s e c t o r . However, i t i s important to r e a l i z e the comparative s i t u a t i o n of the other l e v e l s of education i n Colombia. In 1965, e i g h t y - f i v e percent of the primary enrollment was p u b l i c ; f o r t y - . -> two percent of the secondary enrollment was p u b l i c ; and, f i f t y -4 e i g h t percent of the u n i v e r s i t y enrollment was p u b l i c . Therefore the n a t i o n a l government had a greater f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n the primary s e c t o r than i n the other l e v e l s of education, which r e c e i v e d a l a r g e amount of support from p r i v a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s . - 27 -PROGRAMS TO INCREASE SCHOOL CONSTRUCTION Much o f the a d d i t i o n a l money i n the s c h o o l budget was d i r e c t -ed towards s c h o o l c o n s t r u c t i o n . I n 1961, r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s c h o o l c o n s t r u c t i o n was assumed by the n a t i o n a l government, where-a s , p r e v i o u s l y , i t had been a m u n i c i p a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . I t was hoped t h a t t h e n a t i o n a l government would be above the p o l i t i c a l w r a n g l i n g o f the m u n i c i p a l governments and t h a t s c h o o l b u i l d i n g would p r o c e e d w i t h o u t l o c a l f a v o u r i t i s m . The A l l i a n c e f o r P r o g r e s s meeting i n 1961 e s t i m a t e d t h a t one o f the p r i n c i p a l r easons f o r low e n r o l l m e n t i n p r i m a r y educa-t i o n was the l a c k o f c l a s s r o o m s . A p l a n was drawn up whereby the d e f i c i t would be e l i m i n a t e d by 1972, by p r o v i d i n g 2800 c l a s s r o o m s a y e a r between 1961 and 1964 and 3500 each y e a r a f t e r 1965. The Colombian government l a i d out a b u i l d i n g p l a n d e s i g n e d t o r e a c h t h i s g o a l and s c h o o l c o n s t r u c t i o n became a top p r i o r i t y , e s p e c i a l l y i n the r u r a l a r e a s . LAWS TO INCREASE TEACHER QUALIFICATIONS AND TO STANDARDIZE THE  CURRICULUM Reforms d e s i g n e d t o i n c r e a s e the number o f i n s t i t u t i o n s and the e n r o l l m e n t f i g u r e s n e c e s s i t a t e d a p a r a l l e l i n c r e a s e i n t h e number o f t e a c h e r s . A t the same t i m e , the government hoped t o improve the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s o f t e a c h e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the r u r a l - 28 -a r e a s . A law passe d i n 1945 had n u l l i f i e d the appointment o f u n q u a l i f i e d t e a c h e r s , b u t i t had ne v e r been e n f o r c e d . A program was s e t up i n 1958 t o g i v e p o o r l y q u a l i f i e d t e a c h e r s i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g . I n 1960, a l a w was passe d w h i c h a l l o w e d f o r the n a t i o n -a l government t o t a k e o v e r the c o s t o f t e a c h e r s ' s a l a r i e s o v e r a p e r i o d o f f o u r y e a r s . T h i s was aimed a t e l i m i n a t i n g d e p a r t -m ental d i s c r e p a n c i e s and e n c o u r a g i n g q u a l i f i e d t e a c h e r s t o go t o r u r a l a r e a s by o f f e r i n g s a l a r y b e n e f i t s . A r e f o r m passed i n 1963 s t a n d a r d i z e d a l l normal e d u c a t i o n by e s t a b l i s h i n g a six^-year c y c l e w i t h the p r e r e q u i s i t e o f f i v e y e a r s ' e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n g . The s i x y e a r s were d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r y e a r s o f secondary e d u c a t i o n w i t h the f i n a l two of p r o f e -s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g . Decree 1710 o f 1963 r e f o r m e d the e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c u r r i -culum. The c o u r s e program a t t e m p t e d t o p r o v i d e t h i r t y - t h r e e hours o f c l a s s r o o m work p e r week f o r a l l f i v e g r a d e s . The r u r a l s c h o o l s were t o be brou g h t i n l i n e w i t h the urban s c h o o l s by making a p r i m a r y c o u r s e o f f i v e y e a r s ' d u r a t i o n from the age o f 5 seven o b l i g a t o r y f o r b o t h . The hours were t o be d i v i d e d among seven b a s i c a r e a s : - E d u c a c l o n r e l i g i o s a y m o r a l : R e l i g i o n e H i s t o r i a Sagrada. ( R e l i g i o u s and mor a l e d u c a t i o n : R e l i g i o n and H o l y H i s t o r y ) - C a s t e l l a n o : L e c t u r a y e s c r i t u r a , v o c a b u l a r i o , com-p o s i c i o n o r a l y e s c r i t a , g r a m a t i c a . ( S p a n i s h : R e a d i n g and w r i t -- 29 -i n g , vocabulary, o r a l and w r i t t e n composition, grammar: - Matematicas: A r i t r u e t i c a y Geometria i n t u i t i v a . (Mathematics: A r i t h m e t i c and I n t u i t i v e Geometry) - Estudios s o c i a l e s : H i s t o r i a , G e o g r a f i a , C i v i c a , Urbanidad y Cooperativismo. ( S o c i a l S t u d i e s : H i s t o r y , Geogra-phy, C i v i c s , C i t y and Community l i v i n g , and Cooperation) - C i e n c i a s Naturales: I n t r o d u c c i o n a l a s C i e n c i a s de l a Naturaleza y sus A p l i c a c i o n e s . ( N a t u r a l Sciences: I n t r o -d u c t i o n to the Na t u r a l Sciences and t h e i r A p p l i c a t i o n ) - Educacion e s t e t i c a y manual: Musica, Canto, Dibujo. Educacion para e l hogar y Trabajos manuales. ( E s t h e t i c and Manual Education: Music, S i n g i n g , Drawing, Domestic education and Education f o r Manual Jobs: - Educacion f i s i c a : gimnasia y juegos educativos. ( P h y s i c a l education: gymnastics and educational games).^ This reform was intended to end "the s o c i a l i n j u s t i c e of imparting a reduced education to those who are born and l i v e i n the r u r a l areas and a p r e f e r e n t i a l education to those of the c i t y and urban d i s t r i c t s . " ' ' ADMINISTRATIVE REFORMS In order to f a c i l i t a t e the enactment of the many reforms, the government reorganized the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e setup of the M i n i s - 30 -o f E d u c a t i o n . I n 1956, t h e O f f i c e o f P l a n n i n g , C o o r d i n a t i o n and E v a l u a t i o n was added t o t h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n t o c o o r d i n a t e v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f the system and t o o r g a n i z e the t e s t i n g o f new c u r r i c u l u m . Decree 1637 o f 1960 r e o r g a n i z e d the M i n i s t r y o f Edu-c a t i o n making i t r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a l l b u s i n e s s r e l a t i n g t o the development, r e g u l a t i o n and i n s p e c t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n . I t was f e l t t h a t the M i n i s t r y had p r e v i o u s l y had too l i t t l e s u p e r v i s i o n o v e r the Departments and t h e Departments had abused t h e i r a u t h o r i t y i n f a i l i n g t o s u p e r v i s e governmental r e f o r m s a d e q u a t e l y . P r i o r t o 1960, most o f the key p o s i t i o n s i n the M i n i s t r y had c u s t o m a r i l y been f i l l e d by p o l i t i c a l a p p o i n t m e n t s . I n 1960, the n a t i o n a l government d e c i d e d t o a p p o i n t a l l p e r s o n n e l e x c e p t the M i n i s t e r and the S e c r e t a r y - G e n e r a l , based on C i v i l S e r v i c e r e g u -l a t i o n s . Law 111 o f 1960 made the n a t i o n a l government r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the payment o f s a l a r i e s o f a l l p u b l i c e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l t e a c h e r s as t h i s had p r e v i o u s l y been a heavy burden on the d e p a r t m e n t a l b u d g e t s . The government was t o g r a d u a l l y assume t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y u n t i l December 31, 1964. - 31 -NOTES ^Pat M. H o l t , Colombia Today -- and Tomorrow, New York; Praeger, 1964, p.152. 2Laurence Gale, Education and Development i n L a t i n  America, London: Routledge, 1969, p.22. 3 Richard R. Renner, Education i n Colombia, U.S. Depart-ment of Health and W e l f a r e , U n i v e r s i t y of F l o r i d a , 1968, p.98. ^Alejandro B e r n a l Escobar et a l , La Educacion en  Colombia, Bogota: Centro de I n v e s t i g a c i o n e s S o c i a l e s , 1965, p.273. -*Gale, Education and Development i n L a t i n America, p.34. ^ A l b e r t o Alvarado and E d u a r d o ^ C a r r a s q u i l l a , A n a l i s i s  de l a Educacion en Colombia, Bogota: Centro de I n v e s t i g a -ciones y A c c i o n S o c i a l , 1969, p.20. ?A. Eugene Havens, Education i n R u r a l Colombia, Research paper, U n i v e r s i t y of Wisconsin, Land Tenure Center, 1965, p.189. - 32 -CHAPTER I I I ASSESSMENT OF THE GOVERNMENT'S IMPLEMENTATION OF REFORMS L e g i s l a t i n g reforms and s e t t i n g up p l a n n i n g boards i s the f i r s t s tep i n changing the e d u c a t i o n a l system. However, without the implementation of laws, the r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s and reform programs accomplish n o t h i n g . L a t i n American governments are infamous f o r t h e i r a b i l i t y t o c r e a t e e x t e n s i v e p l a n n i n g o r g a n i z -a t i o n s and to l a y out comprehensive reforms without f o l l o w i n g through w i t h the a c t u a l implementation. Communicati&n between the n a t i o n a l government and the departmental s e c r e t a r i a t s was poor. The departmental govern-ments were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s u p e r v i s i o n of reforms, y e t the pro-clamations v e r y o f t e n were passed down through a number o f o f f i -c i a l s and the departments f e l t l i t t l e need or r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p u t t i n g them i n t o p r a c t i c e . The departmental primary s c h o o l i n s p e c t o r s were g i v e n s h o r t courses on each of the e d u c a t i o n a l reforms whose implementation they were expected to v e r i f y . However, they were not g i v e n any sy s t e m a t i c t r a i n i n g as had been promised i n the 1957 f i v e - y e a r p l a n , and most i n s p e c t o r s r e c e i v e d 1 no s p e c i f i c t r a i n i n g f o r the t)ob. Many e l a b o r a t e reform programs do not proceed p a s t the p l a n n i n g stage i n L a t i n America because of governmental bureau-c r a c y . "Occure, con mucha f r e c u e n c i a , que e l estado no opera en l o n a c i o n a l , s i n o en l o for m a l , o b i e n entorpeciendo l a v i a - 33 -concreta de l a s sanas r e a l i z a c i o n e s por l a i n t e r p o s i c i o n de f o r -mulas huecas o papeleos e s t e r i l e s . " ( I t happens, very o f t e n , that the s t a t e does not operate on the n a t i o n a l l e v e l , but on a formal one, o r , i n other words, by o b s t r u c t i n g the c o n s t r u c t i v e path of c o r r e c t f u l f i l m e n t by the i n t e r p o s i t i o n of hollow f o r -mulas or f u t i l e paper s h u f f l i n g . ) 2 The f o l l o w i n g chapter analyzes the extent to which the reforms l e g i s l a t e d by the government have been put i n t o e f f e c t . PILOT SCHOOLS The f i v e - y e a r p l a n of 1957 (see page 22) was f o l l o w e d through i n some areas, but i t was never put i n t o e f f e c t system-a t i c a l l y because of " l a i n s u f i c i e n t e c o o r d i n a c i o n d e l Plan con l o s programas de d e s a r r o l l o economico y s o c i a l d e l p a i s y l a f a l t a de a r t ! c u i a c i o n entre l a O f i c i n a de Planeamiento y l a s S e c r e t a r i e s Departamentales de Educacion." (the i n s u f f i c i e n t c o o r d i n a t i o n of the P l a n w i t h the programs of s o c i a l and econo-mic development of the country and the l a c k of a r t i c u l a t i o n be-tween the Planning O f f i c e and the Departmental S e c r e t a r i a t s o f Education.) The p i l o t s c h o o l s , which i n v o l v e d l e s s than one percent of the elementary school p o p u l a t i o n , ^ were working under i d e a l c o n d i t i o n s . An eminent Ecuadorian e d i t o r has complained that L a t i n America has d i f f i c u l t y g e t t i n g beyond the 'sample' stage; the model schools have l i t t l e i n f l u e n c e on the system.^ - 34 -INCREASE IN EDUCATION EXPENDITURES A f t e r the 1957 p l e b i s c i t e which set aside ten percent of the n a t i o n a l budget to education, the f i n a n c i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n of the n a t i o n a l government increased u n t i l the f i g u r e was 18.4% 6 i n 1964. However, there are c o n f l i c t i n g s t a t i s t i c s on the a c t u a l percentage of the budget that was devoted to education. The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e shows the v a r i a t i o n i n s t a t i s t i c s . TABLE I I EXPENSES ON EDUCATION AS PERCENTAGE OF NATIONAL EXPENDITURES YEAR DANE7 MIN. OF ED. 8 UNESCO9 1958 7.6 1959 7.9 1960 8.0 9.7 1961 7.6 9.9 1962 16.5 1963 data 13.0 1964 n o t 22.6 18.4 1965 13.5 13.0 a v a i l a b l e 1966 17.3 13.6 This s t a t i s t i c a l discrepancy i s a good example of the l a c k of communication between government m i n i s t r i e s . The Department of S t a t i s t i c s quotes one f i g u r e while the M i n i s t r y of Education quotes another; UNESCO has d e r i v e d s t i l l another. UNESCO a l s o - 35 -gives the ed u c a t i o n a l expenditures as a percentage of the Gross N a t i o n a l Product (G.N.P.). From 1.1% of the G.N.P. i n 1950, the e d u c a t i o n a l budget increased to 2.8% i n 1963, and decreased again to 2.3% i n 1966. The percentage of money a l l o t t e d to primary education a l s o r e v e a l s two sets of f i g u r e s . TABLE I I I PRIMARY EDUCATION EXPENSES AS PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL EDUCATIONAL EXPENSES YEAR MINISTRY OF EDUCATION 1 0 UNESCO 1 1 1961 25.8% 49.7% 1963 46.6% 1965 41.3% 46.8% 1966 - 45.8% Of the c a p i t a l expenses alone, during the p e r i o d 1955-63, s i x t y percent went to the primary s e c t o r . The M i n i s t r y of Education s t a t e d t h a t , o f the investment budget, 48% i n 1961, 76% i n 1963 and 577. i n 1965 was spent on primary education. (See Table I V ) . Table IV shows the d i v i s i o n of edu c a t i o n a l expen-d i t u r e s by l e v e l or type of education. The general trend appears to be that the government spent almost h a l f of the t o t a l educa-t i o n a l budget on primary education w i t h more than h a l f of the investment expenses going to primary education. To what extent has t h i s a d d i t i o n a l money been put to e f f e c t i v e use? - 36 -TABLE IV 12 GENERAL AND EDUCATIONAL EXPENDITURES ( I n f l a t i o n C o r r e c t i o n to the 1958 Value of the Peso) Expressed i n M i l l i o n s of Pesos 1961 1963 1965 T o t a l n a t i o n a l expenses 2,449.3 2,058 .1 2,482.0 T o t a l educational expenses 242.6 275 .9 334.3 General a d m i n i s t r a t i o n 5.4 5 .3 5.0 Elementary and l i t e r a c y 38.2 100 .9 119.4 education Secondary education 20.2 22 .7 24.8 Normal education 13.4 10 .6 10.7 Higher education 3.1 2 .7 4.3 C u l t u r a l extension 2.6 .7 .7 Scholarships and meals 3.8 6 .6 13.8 Transfers to departments 100.4 89 .6 122.1 and I n s t i t u t i o n s Other expenses .8 .4 .8 T o t a l operating expenses 191.7 239 .5 301.6 Elementary Secondary Higher Other Investments T o t a l expenses of investment 24.3 27.8 18.7 21.8 6.4 9.9 .6 1.7 1.2 4.2 .6 2.8 50.8 36.4 32.6 - 37 -INCREASE IN SCHOOL CONSTRUCTION S c h o o l c o n s t r u c t i o n has been a top p r i o r i t y i n e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e n d i t u r e s . I n 1964, f o r t y p e r c e n t o f the money f o r p r i m a r y 13 e d u c a t i o n was spe n t on s c h o o l c o n s t r u c t i o n . However, i n s p i t e o f the emphasis p u t on s c h o o l b u i l d i n g , the g o a l t o b u i l d 2800 c l a s s r o o m s a y e a r between 1961 and 1965, f o r a t o t a l o f 11,200 c l a s s r o o m s , was n o t a c h i e v e d . "Por m u l t i p l e s l i m i t a c i o n e s no 14 f u e p o s i b l e c u m p l i r e l cometido f i j a d o en a q u e l p l a n . " (Because o f many l i m i t a t i o n s i t was n o t p o s s i b l e t o f u l f i l l t h e commitment s e t i n t h a t p l a n . ) The i n c r e a s e i n the c o s t o f i m p o r t e d m a t e r i a l s as a r e s u l t o f the d e v a l u a t i o n o f the peso i n 1962 and a g a i n i n 1964 and the f a i l u r e o f e x t e r n a l a i d o f f e r e d by the A l l i a n c e f o r P r o g r e s s t o r e a c h the e x p e c t e d l e v e l were some o f the d i f f i c u l t i e s which made i t i m p o s s i b l e t o r e a c h the t a r g e t s s e t . I n 1963, o n l y 1,521 c l a s s r o o m s were completed w i t h a f u r t h e r 661 s t i l l under 15 c o n s t r u c t i o n . There were 304,000 more s t u d e n t s r e g i s t e r e d i n 16 1963 th a n i n 1961 w i t h o n l y an a d d i t i o n a l 60,840 p l a c e s ( t a k i n g the average number o f s t u d e n t s i n each c l a s s t o be f o r t y ) . T h e r e f o r e , t h e r e were 243,160 s t u d e n t s who had t o be f i t t e d i n t o e x i s t i n g c l a s s r o o m s . T a b l e V shows the i n c r e a s e i n the number o f p u b l i c p r i m a r y s c h o o l s i n the p e r i o d 1951 t o 1965. The emphasis on c o n s t r u c t i o n o f r u r a l s c h o o l s can be seen c l e a r l y on Graph 5 . N a t u r a l l y t h e r e a r e a g r e a t e r number o f p r i m a r y s c h o o l s i n the - 38 -r u r a l a r e a s because o f the preponderance o f one room b u i l d i n g s . TABLE V 17 NUMBER OF PUBLIC PRIMARY SCHOOLS YEAR TOTAL URBAN RURAL 1951 12.022 3.440 8.582 1952 11.596 2.993 8.603 1953 12.530 3.036 9.494 1954 13.171 3.094 10.077 1955 14.230 3.339 10.891 1956 14.349 3.419 10.930 1957 14.571 3.538 11.033 1958 15.545 3.684 11.861 1959 16.217 3.733 12.484 1960 17.136 3.964 13.172 1961 18.128 4.027 13.921 1962 19.485 4.479 15.006 1963 20.214 4.485 15.729 1964 21.128 4.717 16.411 1965 21.113 4.882 16.231 I n 1964, the complete f i v e - y e a r s c h o o l was s t i l l a e n t i t y i n t he r u r a l a r e a s . A c c o r d i n g t o DANE s t a t i s t i c s 1964, o n l y 47. o f r u r a l p r i m a r y s c h o o l s had the f u l l f i v e g r a d e s , 18 w h i l e 60% of. the urban p r i m a r y s c h o o l s were c o m p l e t e . - 39 -I t has been estimated that i n the years from 1964-73, i t would be necessary to c o n s t r u c t 57,715 classrooms i n order to compensate f o r the i n i t i a l d e f i c i t , the i n c r e a s i n g p o p u l a t i o n and the replacement of classrooms i n d i s r e p a i r . Data based on the school census of 1968 show a d e f i c i t of 98,631 classrooms f o r both primary and secondary. The M i n i s t e r of Education, Octavio Arizmendi Posada announced the c r e a t i o n of 2,000 c l a s s -rooms f o r 1969.19 xhe d i f f e r e n c e here between i d e a l and r e a l i t y appears to be widening every year. IMPROVEMENT OF TEACHERS* QUALIFICATIONS From 1951 to 1966, the number of primary teachers increased 212% and from 1961 to 1965 there was an increase of 30.3%. This i n c r e a s e improved the student-teacher r a t i o somewhat; f o r a l l p u b l i c and p r i v a t e primary schools the r a t i o improved from 40:1 i n 1951 to 36:1 In 1965. (See t a b l e VI) Table V I I shows the student-teacher r a t i o f o r urban and r u r a l p u b l i c schools. The urban s i t u a t i o n was the same i n 1963 as i n 1954, while the r u r a l r a t i o showed a decided improvement, from 44:1 i n 1954 to 39:1 i n 1963. Since only 56% of the t o t a l age group were i n f a c t r e g i s t e r e d i n school and there were 63,250 teachers i n the country ( i n 1965), something i n the v i c i n i t y of f i f t y thousand a d d i t i o n a l teachers would be r e q u i r e d to make u n i v e r s a l primary - 40 -TABLE VI STUDENT-TEACHER RATIO IN PUBLIC AND PRIVATE PRIMARY SCHOOLS: 20 1951 - 1965 YEAR STUDENTS TEACHERS CALCULATED STUDENT-U n thousandsj -^ TEACHER RATIO 1951 875 21,713 40 1952 923 22,690 41 1953 1,073 25,208 41 1954 1,125 28,939 39 1955 1,236 32,197 38 1956 1,312 33,874 39 1957 1,381 35,327 40 1958 1,493 38,061 39 1959 1,569 40,175 39 1960 1,690 44,910 38 1961 1,792 48,529 37 1962 1,949 52,751 37 1963 2,096 57,814 36 1964 2,215 62,158 36 1965 2,274 63,250 36 - 41 -TABLE V I I STUDENT-TEACHER RATIO IN PUBLIC URBAN AND RURAL PRIMARY 21 SCHOOLS: 1954-1963 YEAR STUDENTS TEACHERS RATIO STUDENTS TEACHERS RATIO COrbatO ( R u r a l ) 1954 485,785 11,466 42 491,473 11,124 44 1955 529,544 12,674 42 523,518 12,009 44 1956 578,016 13,426 43 535,742 12,132 44 1957 622,934 14,477 43 545,334 12,346 44 1958 692,226 15,677 44 575,599 13,214 44 1959 736,912 16,688 44 593,975 13,969 43 1960 799,034 18,545 43 633,189 15,202 42 1961 864,573 20,234 43 658,681 16,380 40 1962 960,950 22,782 42 708,631 17,903 40 1963 1,018,774 24,406 42 767,782 19,844 39 - 42 -education p o s s i b l e , without c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the n a t u r a l increase i n p o p u l a t i o n . The M i n i s t r y of Education was concerned not only w i t h the teacher shortage but a l s o w i t h teachers' q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . I t was hoped that the compulsory s i x - y e a r normal schools would improve the standards. However, i n 1966, approximately f o r t y percent of the primary teachers employed i n p u b l i c schools d i d not meet the M i n i s t r y ' s h i r i n g s t a n d a r d s . ^ Table V I I I iwAd graph 6 show the improvement i n ' t e a c h e r s ' q u a l i f i c a t i o n s from 1961 to 1965. Teachers w i t h a degree i n c l u d e those who graduated from a secondary s c h o o l , e i t h e r g e n e r a l , t e c h n i c a l or normal and those who graduated from a u n i v e r s i t y . Teachers without a degree i n c l u d e those who attended secondary school but d i d not graduate. In r e l a t i o n to the t o t a l number of teachers, i n 1961, 44.97. of the teachers had a degree, w h i l e i n 1965, 54.3% had one. In 1961, 12.3% had only primary education themselves, compared to 8.1% i n 1965. The q u a l i f i c a t i o n of teachers i n the r u r a l schools was co n s i d e r a b l y lower than t h e i r urban counterparts i n 1965. In the primary r u r a l s c h o o l s , 19% of the teachers had primary edu-c a t i o n only w h i l e 34% had a degree from secondary school or a u n i v e r s i t y . (See t a b l e IX.) - 43 -TABLE V I I I 23 EDUCATIONAL PREPARATION OF PRIMARY TEACHERS: 1961-1965 YEAR TOTAL TEACHERS WITH A DEGREE WITHOUT A WITH PRIMARY DEGREE ONLY 1961 48,529 21,814 (44.9%) 20,734 (42.8%) 5,981 (12.3%) 1962 52,751 24,186 (45.8%) 23,263 (44.2%) 5,302 (10.0%) 1963 57,814 28,317 '(49.0%) 24,471 (42.3%) 5,026 (8.7%) 1964 62,158 31,559 (50.7%) 24,416 (39.4%) 6,183 (9.9%) 1965 63,250 34,326 (54,3%) 23,801 (37.6%) 5,123 (8.1%) TABLE IX EDUCATIONAL PREPARATION OF PRIMARY TEACHERS, 1965 24> URBAN-RURAL COMPARISON QUALIFICATIONS TOTAL No. o f Teachers W i t h P r i m a r y E d u c a t i o n W i t h Second. Educ. Normal S c h o o l U n i v e r -s i t y W i t h Diploma W i t h o u t Diploma W i t h Diploma W i t h o u t Diploma W i t h Diploma W i t h o u t Diploma TOTAL URBAN PUBLIC RURAL PUBLIC ( P u b l i c and P r i v a t e ) 63,250 5,123 8,355 15,180 24,301 7,356 1,670 1,265 28,258 797 2,965 6,231 14,815 2,788 333 329 21,189 4,055 1,844 5,867 5,260 3,287 132 243 - 44 -The reason f o r the poor q u a l i f i c a t i o n s was not the l a c k of graduates from normal schools but the poor i n c e n t i v e s givenr by the government f o r graduate teachers to enter t h e i r pro-f e s s i o n . In 1965, only 1600 of 5,000 normal school graduates entered teaching. S t a t i s t i c s show that there were 4,514 more 25 primary teachers i n 1966 than i n 1965. Therefore, there were almost 3,000 teachers who entered the p r o f e s s i o n who came from somewhere other than the normal s c h o o l . A l s o , there were 3400 graduates who chose not to enter the p r o f e s s i o n . According to one w r i t e r on e d u c a t i o n a l reform, q u a l i f i e d 26 teachers were not h i r e d f o r the f o l l o w i n g reasons: - economic reasons - not enough money i n s t a t e budgets and u n q u a l i f i e d I n d i v i d u a l s could be h i r e d at a below s c a l e r a t e , thus saving the s t a t e money. Although the n a t i o n a l government passed a law i n 1960 (See page 28) taking over the payment of elementary teachers' s a l a r i e s , the t r a n s i t i o n stage was to l a s t four years, so that the s t a t e was r e s p o n s i b l e up to 1964. - p o l i t i c a l reasons - teaching posts were f r e q u e n t l y given to the p a r t y f a i t h f u l , as the departments were d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r teacher placement. - l a c k of comfort and p r e s t i g e - q u a l i f i e d teachers d i d not want to teach i n r u r a l areas. I n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g , as p a r t of the 1957 f i v e - y e a r p l a n had been i n s t i t u t e d i n some departments, but the n a t i o n a l - 45 -government d i d not give any s a l a r y i n c e n t i v e s and g e n e r a l l y d i d l i t t l e to encourage teachers to improve t h e i r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . The normal schools were to have been standardized w i t h a s i x - y e a r course but, i n 1966, many normal schools were s t i l l o p e r a t i n g 27 on a four-year program. Although the date of 1964 had been set f o r the n a t i o n a l government to pay a l l primary teachers' s a l a r i e s and i t was expected that t h i s would e q u a l i z e s a l a r i e s throughout the country, i n 1967 there was s t i l l a great discrepancy between departments. The 'escalafon' i s the o f f i c i a l r e g i s t e r which i d e n t i f i e s and rewards teachers i n accordance w i t h t h e i r l e v e l of formal p r e p a r a t i o n and years of experience and the l e v e l on the 'escalafon' determines the r a t e of pay. The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e s show the range of s a l a r i e s and q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of teachers i n three departments, A n t i o q u i a , a wealthy area paying high s a l a r i e s and employing b e t t e r q u a l i f i e d teachers, and Narino and Tolima, poor, r u r a l departments paying the lowest w i t h p o o r l y q u a l i f i e d teachers. TABLE X 28 COMPARISON OF TEACHERS' SALARIES IN TWO DEPARTMENTS: 1965 ( i n pesos per month) LEVEL (Escalafon) ANTIOQUIA NARINO 1 1470 1000 2 1420 872 3 1370 800 4 1320 743 not e l i g i b l e 1200 500 - 46 -TABLE XI 29 RANGE OF QUALIFICATIONS OF TEACHERS IN TWO DEPARTMENTS: 1966 LEVEL (Escalafon) ANTIOQUIA TOLIMA 1 29% 10% 2 27% 11% 3 23% 11% 4 8% 9% not e l i g i b l e 12% 59% By 1966, as can be seen i n the above t a b l e s , the education i n r u r a l areas was s t i l l being d i s c r i m i n a t e d a g a i n s t w i t h p o o r l y q u a l i f i e d teachers and below average s a l a r i e s . The n a t i o n a l government had f a i l e d to enforce the h i r i n g of q u a l i -f i e d teachers. Because of budgetary d e f i c i e n c i e s , the government was a l s o l a x i n paying teachers' s a l a r i e s . In 1962, teachers' s a l a r i e s were suspended i n October, and i n 1964 they were suspended f o r r u r a l teachers because of l a c k of funds. The teachers r e s o r t e d to a s t r i k e before the n a t i o n a l government was able to pay the 30 s a l a r i e s . These incidences are i n d i c a t i v e of the g e n e r a l l y low s t a t u s of teachers. Teachers t r a d i t i o n a l l y have not formed a cohesive group i n Colombia and t h e r e f o r e have found i t d i f f i -c u l t i n presenting t h e i r demands as a u n i t e d f r o n t . STANDARDIZATION OF CURRICULUM The c u r r i c u l u m reform of 1963 (See page 28) was intended to standardize the c u r r i c u l u m throughout the country, and guarantee the same number of hours of i n s t r u c t i o n to a l l students. This - 47 -was merely a paper c u r r i c u l u m . In 1965, more than 507. of the r u r a l schools were being operated on an a l t e r n a t e d b a s i s , w i t h only n i n e t y - e i g h t days of i n s t r u c t i o n . Eight percent of the primary teachers (197. o f r u r a l teachers) i n 1965 only had p r i -mary education (See t a b l e I X ) . These teachers would undoubtedly have great d i f f i c u l t y i n teaching 'geometria i n t u i t i v a 1 or 'composicion e s c r i t a ' . F u r t h e r , among the general aims of primary education was a " C h r i s t i a n a t t i t u d e toward l i f e i n a f r e e and democratic t r a d i t i o n " and p r e p a r a t i o n f o r a l i f e of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . (See page 25) Yet i n many of the textbooks s t i l l i n use i n 1965, c e r t a i n concepts were being taught which c o n t r a d i c t e d these i d e a l s . A few quotes from the t e x t s are: E l hombre v a l e mas por su alma que por sus cualidades temporales. (Man's s o u l i s worth more than h i s temporal q u a l i t i e s . ) La autoridad viene de Dios; no puede r e s i d i r en e l pueblo, puesto que este no posee ningun derecho de a u t o r i d a d n i n a t u r a l , n i adquerido. La a u t o r i d a d d e l pueblo es d e l e z -nable, puesto que donde piensan muchos a l a vez no piensa nadie. ( A u t h o r i t y comes from God; i t cannot r e s i d e w i t h the people as the people possess no r i g h t of a u t h o r i t y , n e i t h e r n a t u r a l nor acquired. The a u t h o r i t y of the people i s weak, s i n c e where many t h i n k at one time, no one t h i n k s . ) Texts such as the above do not create an awareness i n the c h i l d of h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y towards h i m s e l f and h i s country nor do they i n s p i r e the " i n t e l l i g e n t use of inner resources." (See page 25) - 48 -Without w e l l q u a l i f i e d teachers and an adequate number of hours of i n s t r u c t i o n , the 1963 c u r r i c u l u m could never be put i n t o e f f e c t . The plans on paper aimed f o r something vague and i d e a l i s -t i c ; the r e a l i t y of the present teachers' q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and the a v a i l a b l e f a c i l i t i e s prevented these plans from being put i n t o p r a c t i c e . INCREASE IN ENROLLMENT - URBAN-RURAL COMPARISON The s t a t i s t i c s on enrollment show that the government has ma-naged to increase the percentage of school-age p o p u l a t i o n e n r o l l e d i n primary s c h o o l . I n 1951, 397» of the seven to fourteen year o l d p o p u l a t i o n were e n r o l l e d i n primary; i n 1965, 56% were e n r o l l e d . The age group of seven to fourteen years i s used as t h i s i s the age spread i n the f i v e years of primary education. Twenty-five percent of primary school students are between the age of eleven and fo u r -teen. This i s a r e s u l t of the l a t e s t a r t i n g age of an average of nine years and four months. The seven to eleven year o l d e n r o l l -ment i n t h i s p e r i o d Increased from 447» i n 1951 to 64% i n 1965. (See t a b l e XII and graphs 1 & 2 ) . The Colombian government made a commitment to the goal of u n i v e r s a l primary education and emphasized the n e c e s s i t y of con c e n t r a t i n g on the r u r a l areas. There had been a percentage i n c r e a s e i n enrollment i n the r u r a l areas, but i t must be remembered that many of these students attended only f o r two or three y e a r s , f o r v a r i o u s reasons which w i l l be mentioned i n - 49 -TABLE XII ENROLLMENT IN PRIMARY EDUCATION (PUBLIC AND PRIVATE) AS A 32 PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL AGE GROUP YEAR SCHOOL AGE POPULATION (7-14) (7-11) TOTAL (7-14) ENROLLMENT % (7-11) % 1951 2.253 1.489 875 38.83 662 44.45 1952 2.352 1.555 923 39.24 700 45.01 1953 2.455 1.623 1.073 43.70 717 44.17 1954 2.563 1.694 1.125 43.89 865 51.06 1955 2.675 1.768 1.236 46.20 957 54.12 1956 2.792 1.845 1.312 46.99 1.018 55.17 1957 2.914 1.925 1.381 47.39 1.081 56.15 1958 3.040 2.008 1.493 49.11 1.176 58.56 1959 3.171 2.094 1.569 49.47 1.228 58.64 1960 3.308 2.184 1.690 51.08 1.292 59.15 1961 3.450 2.278 1.792 51.94 1.364 59.87 1962 3.599 2.376 1.949 54.15 1.476 62.12 1963 3.752 2.477 2.096 55.86 1.974 63.54 1964 3.906 2.582 2.215 56.70 1.667 64.56 1965 4.081 2.689 2.274 55.72 1.714 63.74 - 50 -the next chapter. Graph 4 shows the improvement i n l i t e r a c y i n the seven to f i f t e e n year population i n urban and r u r a l areas. However, since anyone i n Colombia who has attended some formal s c h o o l i n g i s c l a s s e d as a l i t e r a t e , i t may not give the true p i c t u r e . (U.N. defines a l i t e r a t e as someone wit h at l e a s t f o u r years of schooling.) U n f o r t u n a t e l y , there are no s t a t i s t i c s a v a i l a b l e of the seven to f i f t e e n year o l d p o p u l a t i o n i n urban and r u r a l areas before 1964, so a compari-son of the percentage of u r b a n - r u r a l enrollment over t h i s p e r i o d i s i m p o s s i b l e . The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e and graph 4 are d e r i v e d from the UNESCO s t a t i s t i c s of the u r b a n - r u r a l d i v i s i o n of the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n i n 1951 and 1964. I t was assumed that t h i s percentage could be a p p l i e d to the seven to f i f t e e n year age group. T h i r t y - e i g h t percent l i v e d i n urban areas i n 1951, and f i f t y - t h r e e percent l i v e d i n these areas i n 1965. This percent-age was a p p l i e d to the number of seven to f i f t e e n year olds i n the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n i n 1951 and 1964, thus enabling a com-parison to be made between the u r b a n - r u r a l i l l i t e r a t e s over t h i s p e r i o d . The c h i l d r e n i n t h i s group who are c l a s s e d as l i t e r a t e were attending school or would have attended some sc h o o l . T h i r t y - s i x percent of the seven to f i f t e e n year o l d p o p u l a t i o n were i l l i t e r -ate i n 1951; twenty-four percent were i l l i t e r a t e i n 1964. Of the same age group i n the r u r a l areas, s i x t y - n i n e percent i n - 51 -1951 and f i f t y - s i x percent i n 1964 were i l l i t e r a t e . The percent-age of l i t e r a t e s i ncreased i n the r u r a l areas but by 1964, over h a l f of t h i s age group were s t i l l c l a s s e d as i l l i t e r a t e . TABLE X I I I URBAN/RURAL COMPARISON OF ILLITERATES, 33 AGED 7-15: 1951 and 1964 1951 1964 TOTAL POPULATION (7-15; 2,252,358 3,905,908 ILLITERATES 1,272,613 1,526,869 (56.5%) (39.09%) 855,912 2,062,315 TOTAL URBAN URBAN ILLITERATES TOTAL RURAL RURAL ILLITERATES 308,533 496,928 (36%) (24%) 1,396,446 1,843,593 964,080 1,029,941 • (69%) (56%) Although the percentages have decreased, i n a l l cases the number of i l l i t e r a t e s i n t h i s age group has increased, The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e shows the ur b a n / r u r a l enrollment i n p u b l i c primary schools from 1951 to 1965. In graph 3 the sharp r i s e In urban enrollment can be seen; t h i s can p a r t l y be a t t r i b u t e d to the increased p o p u l a t i o n i n the c i t i e s . - 52 -TABLE XIV URBAN AND RURAL ENROLLMENT 34 IN PUBLIC PRIMARY SCHOOLS YEAR TOTAL URBAN RURAL 1951 796.953 382.871 414.082 1952 845.767 418.768 426.999 1953 923.208 458.534 464.674 1954 977.258 485.785 491.473 1955 1.053.062 529.544 523.518 1956 1.113.758 578.016 535.742 1957 1.168.268 622.934 545.334 1958 1.267.825 692.226 575.599 1959 1.330.887 736.912 593.975 1960 1.432.223 799.034 633.189 1961 1.523.254 864.573 658.681 1962 1.669.531 960.950 708.631 1963 1.786.556 1.018.774 767.782 1964 1.900.056 1.102.249 797.807 1965 1.955.987 1.160.023 795.964 - 53 -Graph 7 gives the only s t a t i s t i c s available on urban/ r u r a l enrollment compared to the population. The s i t u a t i o n i n 1964 showed the tremendous deficiency i n the r u r a l school-ing; although the f i r s t two years show a high enrollment, the shortage of complete f i v e year r u r a l schools results i n the decreased enrollment i n the l a s t three years. The 1958 'temporary measure' (See page225) which established the two year alternating r u r a l schools was i n 1963 s t i l l servicing 53% of a l l r u r a l primary c h i l d r e n . From a f i r s t grade en-rollment i n r u r a l schools of over 100% and a second grade enrollment of 817., the enrollment percentage declined to 26% i n the t h i r d grade, 9% i n the fourth and 5% i n the f i f t h . There was a larger enrollment i n the f i r s t grade (and second grade i n urban sector) than the corresponding age group po-pulation because of the l a t e s t a r t i n g age of primary school students. There were a large number enrolled i n the f i r s t year who were over seven. In i t s statements on aims and p r i o r i t i e s of primary edu-cation, the government had placed great emphasis on the im-provement of the r u r a l s i t u a t i o n . The r u r a l c h i l d , i n 1964, was s t i l l severely disadvantaged and had very l i t t l e oppor-tunity of completing primary education. - 54 -NOTES 1Laurence Gale, Education and Development i n L a t i n  America, London: Routledge, 1969, p.19. 2 F e l i x Angel V a l l e j o , P o l l t i c a : M i s i o n y Destino, Bogota, B i b l i o t e c a de Autores Colombianos, 1§54, p.10. •^Alejandro Bernal Escobar et a l , La Educacion en Colom-b i a , Bogota: Centro de In v e s t i g a c i o n e s S o c i a l e s , 1965, pp.86-87. ^Gale, Education and Development i n L a t i n America, p.39. ^ J . L a r r e a , "Random Thoughts on the Economic B a s i s f o r Education i n L a t i n America," Comparative Education  Review, v o l . V I I , no.2 (February 1963), p.165. 6 U n i t e d Nations. S t a t i s t i c a l O f f i c e , S t a t i s t i c a l  Yearbook, 1969, p.403. ^Colombia. Departamento A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Nacional de E s t a d i s t i c a , Anuario General de E s t a d i s t i c a , Bogota, 1961, p.556. 8Colombia. M i n i s t e r i o de Educacion Nacional O f i c i n a de Planeamiento, Estudio y Proyecto de Educacion Media, Antecedentes Generales, Parte B, Tomo I I , Bogota, 1967, p.29. 9U.N., S t a t i s t i c a l Yearbook, 1969, p.403. 1 0 C o l o m b i a . M i n i s t e r i o de Educacion N a c i o n a l , Estudio  y Proyecto de Educacion Media, Parte B, Tomo I I , p.31. 1:LU.N., S t a t i s t i c a l Yearbook, 1969, p.428. • L2colombia. M i n i s t e r i o de Educacion N a c i o n a l , Proyecto  de Educacion Media, p.31. ^ G a l e , Education and Development i n L a t i n America, p.34. - 55 -^ A l b e r t o Alvarado and Eduardo C a r r a s q u i l l a , A n a l i s i s  de l a Educaci6n en Colombia, Bogota: Centro de I n v e s t i g a -c i 6 n y Accion S o c i a l , 1969, p.26. L ^ G a l e , Education and Development i n L a t i n America, p.33. l 6 C o l o m b i a . DANE, Anuario General de E s t a d i s t i c a , 1963, p.208. 1 7 A l v a r a d o , A n a l i s i s de l a Educacion en Colombia, p.70. l 8 C o l o m b i a . DANE, Anuario General de E s t a d i s t i c a , 1964, p.356. l^ A l v a r a d o , A n a l i s i s de l a Educacion en Colombia, p.26. 2 0 I M d . , p.69. 2 1 C o l o m b i a . DANE, Anuario General de E s t a d i s t i c a , 1963, p.209. 2 2 M a r k Hanson, Edu c a t i o n a l Reform i n Colombia and Vene-z u e l a , Cambridge: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1970, p.40. 2 3 A l v a r a d o , A n a l i s i s de l a Educacion en Colombia, p.70. C o l o m b i a . M i n i s t e r i o de Educacion Nacional O f i c i n a de Planeamiento, Estudio y Proyecto de Educacion Media, Antecedentes Generales, Parte B, Tomo I I , Bogota, 1967, p.80. 2 5 A l v a r a d o , A n a l i s i s de l a Educacion en Colombia, p.69. 2 6Hanson, Educational Reform, p.40. 2 7 R i c h a r d R. Renner, Education i n Colombia, U.S. Depart-ment of Health and Welfare, U n i v e r s i t y of F l o r i d a , 1968, p.263. 2 8 I b i d . , p.276. 2 9 I b i d . , p.277. 3 0A.E. Havens, Education i n Rur a l Colombia, Research paper, U n i v e r s i t y of Wisconsin, Land Tenure Center, 1965, p.175. - 56 -B e m a l Escobar, La Educacion en Colombia, pp.303-304. 32 Alvarado, A n a l i s i s de l a Educacion, p.68. 3 3U.N., S t a t i s t i c a l Yearbook, 1969, p.142, and Alvarado, A n a l i s i s de l a Educacion en Colombia, p.65. 34 ' Alvarado, A n a l i s i s de l a Educacion, p.69. - 57 -CHAPTER IV OBSTACLES TO UNIVERSAL PRIMARY EDUCATION Ac c o r d i n g to UNESCO there are three important dimensions to u n i v e r s a l primary e d u c a t i o n : 1) u n i v e r s a l p r o v i s i o n 2) u n i v e r s a l enrollment 1 3) u n i v e r s a l r e t e n t i o n The Colombian government has c o n c e n t r a t e d on the f i r s t i n i t s e d u c a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g . The major area of concern has been p r o v i s i o n of s c h o o l b u i l d i n g s and t e a c h e r s . However, a c l a s s -room space f o r each c h i l d i s not s u f f i c i e n t . The f a c t t h a t there i s a p l a c e f o r every c h i l d and a teacher f o r each c l a s s -room does not ensure the c h i l d ' s attendance i n s c h o o l . U n i v e r -s a l enrollment can be achieved o n l y through p r o v i d i n g adequate i n c e n t i v e s f o r e d u c a t i o n and making the p o p u l a t i o n aware of the b e n e f i t s of e d u c a t i o n . U n i v e r s a l r e t e n t i o n means that the c h i l d w i l l remain i n s c h o o l f o r a long enough p e r i o d to ensure r e t e n -t i o n of b a s i c l i t e r a c y . I t has been estimated t h a t at l e a s t f o u r 2 years are r e q u i r e d f o r the achievement of minimum l i t e r a c y . - 58 -PROBLEMS OF DROPOUTS In an a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l study of a small v i l l a g e i n northern Colombia, Aritama, 45% of a l l a d u l t s had attended s c h o o l , yet 3 only 25% were c l a s s e d as l i t e r a t e . This wastage i s a serious problem f o r edu c a t i o n a l planners. The M i n i s t e r of Education c a l c u l a t e d that n e a r l y one h a l f the c o s t s of p u b l i c primary education i n 1968 were i n c u r r e d f o r 4 students who f a i l e d to complete the primary c y c l e . I n 1965, only 22.7% of the students who had r e g i s t e r e d i n 1961 completed 5 the c y c l e . In the urban sch o o l s , 43.8% of the c h i l d r e n who had r e g i s t e r e d i n the f i r s t grade i n 1960 were s t i l l a t t e n d i n g i n 1964 and only 3.0% of the c h i l d r e n r e g i s t e r e d i n r u r a l areas were s t i l l a t t e n d i n g . ( I t must be remembered that about h a l f the r u r a l schools were s t i l l only o p e r a t i n g on a two year b a s i s ) . Several s t u d i e s have been conducted to determine the reasons f o r the h i g h r a t e of school dropouts. The 1963 DANE s t a t i s t i c s 6 show the f o l l o w i n g : TABLE XV URBAN-RURAL REASONS FOR PRIMARY SCHOOL DROPOUT URBAN REASONS FOR DROPOUT NO. OF RESPONSES Por cambio de d o m i c i l i o (change of residence) 57,000 Por poco interns de l o s padres ( l i t t l e p a r e n t a l i n t e r e s t ) 31,000 Por enfermedad ( i l l n e s s ) 22,000 Por t r a b a j o s dome'sticos (work at home) 10,000 Por d i s t a n c i a ( d i s t a n c e to school) 9,000 Por tr a b a j o s a g r i c o l a s (farm work) 6,000 Otras causas (other reasons) 23,000 - 59 -RURAL REASONS FOR DROPOUT NO. OF RESPONSES Por cambio de domicilio Por poco interns de los padres Por enfermedad Por trabajos agricolas Por d i s t a n c i a Por trabajos domesticos Otras causas 46,000 36,000 20,000 15,000 12,000 10,000 16,000 The change of residence appears to be the most important reason. The migration of peasants from r u r a l areas to towns and from towns to c i t i e s tends to terminate the c h i l d ' s schooling. Furthermore, the l a t e s t a r t i n g age (an average of 9 years and 4 months) makes i t d i f f i c u l t f o r a student to reach the f i f t h year of elementary school when he could be earning a leaving for his family well before that time. lated to the school: 1) a curriculum which does not adapt i t s e l f to the needs of the children 2) emphasis upon r i g i d scholastic requirements which minimize i n d i v i d u a l differences 3) poor teaching methods and poorly prepared teachers 4) lack of personal and vocational counseling 8 5) lack of alternatives to the school's formal program. These are areas where the government reforms have f a i l e d to make any impact. There w i l l continue to be a large number of drop-outs as long as students do not consider the curriculum relevant to t h e i r needs and there are not enough well-trained teachers to stimulate i n t e r e s t i n the subject matter. 7 Amongr the 'otras causas' are reasons which are d i r e c t l y re-- 60 -UNQUALIFIED TEACHERS AND AN IRRELEVANT CURRICULUM Poorly t r a i n e d teachers and an i l l - s u i t e d c u r r i c u l u m are of t e n reasons f o r a student Is withdrawal. In reforms designed to standardize the normal schools the government has attempted to upgrade the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of teachers yet i t has f a i l e d to f u r n i s h adequate i n c e n t i v e s to encourage graduates to enter teaching. Normal schools form part of the secondary r a t h e r than the higher s e c t o r of the ed u c a t i o n a l system. Many students attend them merely to o b t a i n a secondary education with l i t t l e i n t e n t i o n of becoming a teacher. Colombia i s extremely well-endowed with normal schools, but they are extremely unevenly d i s t r i b u t e d . In 1968, the Department of A n t i o q u i a had f i f t y - s i x . w hile neighbouring A t l a n t i c o had only s i x . The r e s u l t i s that some areas remain c h r o n i c a l l y short while others are unable to absorb a l l the new r e c r u i t s . With uneven d i s t r i b u t i o n and d i v i d e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y there are marked d i f f e r -ences i n s i z e , some c o l l e g e s having q u i t e inadequate resources 9 of s t a f f and equipment to be e f f e c t i v e . The v a r i a t i o n i n s a l a r i e s (See page 4 5 ) i n the country does not encourage graduates from one area to move to a poorer one. There i s l i t t l e p r e s t i g e i n v o l v e d i n becoming a primary teacher, who i s " l i t t l e more i n the eyes of the arrogant than 10 th a t of a domestic servant i n some p l a c e s . " The primary - 61 -schools have t r a d i t i o n a l l y been the preserve of women teachers; 11 i n 1963, eighty percent of primary teachers were women. This f a c t i t s e l f , i n a t r a d i t i o n a l l y male-oriented s o c i e t y such as L a t i n America, demonstrates the low p r e s t i g e of the p r o f e s s i o n . In the study on Aritama ( r e f e r r e d to on p.58), i t was found that boys g e n e r a l l y d i s l i k e d female a u t h o r i t y , and that when a male teacher was appointed at one time, the enrollment of boys rose 12 s h a r p l y . The standardized c u r r i c u l u m of the M i n i s t r y of Education (See page 28) does not a l l o w f o r the i n d i v i d u a l needs of s t u -dents i n d i f f e r e n t areas. "The primary c u r r i c u l u m tends to be designed f o r c h i l d r e n who are somewhat above average i n l e a r n i n g c a p a c i t y and i t tends to be regarded as merely the beginning of a long course of s c h o o l i n g that i s predominantly academic or bookish i n nature, emphasizing the in s t r u m e n t a l s k i l l s that w i l l f a c i l i t a t e the beginning of secondary school 13 s u b j e c t s . " I f a c u r r i c u l u m change i s d e s i r e d , teachers must see the value of i t or e l s e there i s no guarantee that i t w i l l be taught. The Aritama study discovered that the teachers s e l e c t e d from the o f f i c i a l c u r r i c u l u m "only those subjects which tend 14 to a f f i r m l o c a l v a l u e s . " Hardly any teacher i n Aritama used the government textbooks, p r e f e r r i n g to employ f o r teaching purposes t h e i r own "copybooks". The method of teaching c o n s i s t e d - 62 -of r o t e memorization of these copybooks which were handed down from one teacher to another. The Aritama teachers only had primary education themselves, l i k e so many of the r u r a l t e a -chers (See t a b l e I X ) . L e g i s l a t i o n f o r c u r r i c u l u m reform and s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n of teacher t r a i n i n g i s p o i n t l e s s unless there i s enforcement of the h i r i n g standards. PEOPLE'S ATTITUDES TOWARDS EDUCATION U n i v e r s a l enrollment can be a t t a i n e d only i f people see education as a necessary p a r t of t h e i r l i f e and are w i l l i n g to work towards changing the system. What i s the people's view of education and to what extent are the people w i l l i n g to work towards the goal of u n i v e r s a l primary education i n Colombia? One w r i t e r on educational planning has s a i d that primary education i n r u r a l areas i m p l i e s "an emergence of p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s h i p responsive to r u r a l wants and anxious to secure r u r a l support and a c e r t a i n degree of p o l i t i c a l and economic o r g a n i z a t i o n of the r u r a l people themselves." In Colombia, the people are not organized i n t o such a group. They have a tendency to look to the government f o r i n i t i a t i v e and do not see themselves as being capable of i n s t i t u t i n g change or - 63 -reforming the system i n any way. "For the mo s t l p a r t , the mem-bers of the lower c l a s s appear normally to accept t h e i r r o l e w i t h l i t t l e demand f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n decision-making or w i t h l i t t l e d e s i r e o r sense of e f f i c a c y i n a f f e c t i n g the po-16 l i t i c a l process." There i s a need f o r an e f f e c t i v e 'grass r o o t s ' o r g a n i z a t i o n to serve as a nucleus f o r indigenous educa-17 t i o n a l reforms. The average Colombian does not consider a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n n a t i o n a l development; the government i s a remote e n t i t y which passes decrees from on hig h . Education has t r a d i t i o n a l l y been considered a preserve of the upper c l a s s i n Colombia and consequently, most people view education as a v e h i c l e of s o c i a l m o b i l i t y . When the peasant i n r u r a l Colombia sees h i s c h i l d r e n attending a few years of school without r e a l i z i n g any m a t e r i a l b e n e f i t s he cannot see the value o f education. Some of the migrants to towns perceive education as the only way t h e i r c h i l d r e n can 'adelantarse' (get ahead) i n the c l a s s s t r u c t u r e . A co n v e r s a t i o n w i t h a Colombian who had migrated to Bogota during ' l a v i o l e n c i a ' and had only two years o f sc h o o l i n g h i m s e l f , revealed t h i s reverence f o r education. However, primary education was not s u f f i c i e n t and he was w i l l i n g to devote h i s savings to send at l e a s t one c h i l d to secondary s c h o o l . However general t h i s a t t i t u t e may be, i t i s c e r t a i n l y t y p i c a l of the growing awareness among the - 64 -urban working c l a s s of the importance of an education. The b e l i e f t h a t education i s a means to move out of the lower c l a s s i s undoubtedly a v a l i d one. However, t h i s view of education tends to make people see primary education as a path to secondary education and f r u s t r a t i o n i s the i n e v i t a b l e r e s u l t i f secondary education i s not a v a i l a b l e . I n 1964, there were 165,500 students e n r o l l e d i n f i f t h year (only 20% of the s t u -dents who had s t a r t e d the c y c l e i n 1960), and i n 1965, there were only 70,000 places a v a i l a b l e i n the f i r s t year of secondary 18 education. Therefore more than h a l f of the graduating primary students were unable to f i n d a p l a c e i n secondary s c h o o l . On the one hand, there i s the general i n d i f f e r e n c e of the r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n towards education; very o f t e n they consider the c u r r i c u l u m i r r e l e v a n t and s c h o o l i n g merely a waste of t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s time. On the other hand, i n the c i t i e s w i t h t h e i r r a p i d l y i n c r e a s i n g p o p u l a t i o n s , there i s a growing awareness of the need f o r education to l e a r n s k i l l s f o r the urban jobs. TMs second group does not want only a few years to o b t a i n l i t e r acy but a t r a i n i n g i n a s k i l l t hat w i l l be needed i n the job market. This group w i l l become i n c r e a s i n g l y f r u s t r a t e d i f they are provided w i t h a primary education and are thwarted i n t h e i r attempts to go on to secondary education. - 65 -FINANCIAL DIFFICULTIES Although the Colombian government increased i t s expenditures on education, the n a t i o n a l budget cannot supply an u n l i m i t e d amount of money. In 1965, the n a t i o n a l government c o n t r i b u t e d the l a r g e s t percentage (57.4%) w i t h departments second (38.9%) and m u n i c i p a l i t i e s the sma l l e s t amount (3.7%) to the education budget. The c o n t r i b u t i o n of the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i s minor. I t i s d i f f i c u l t i n Colombia to muster l o c a l resources i n support of school and other p u b l i c p r o j e c t s . Large landowners have u s u a l l y supported n a t i o n a l p r o h i b i t i o n s which prevent people i n l o c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i s t r i c t s (municipios) from l e v y i n g any 19 s i g n i f i c a n t tax on land or r e a l e s t a t e . The wealthy l a n d -owners g e n e r a l l y send t h e i r c h i l d r e n to p r i v a t e schools and the r e f o r e have l i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n supporting p u b l i c education. The v a r i a t i o n i n the expenditures of d i f f e r e n t departments perpetuates the s i t u a t i o n of the disadvantaged r u r a l s c h o o l . In 1965, A t l a n t i c o spent 43% of i t s t o t a l budget on education, w h i l e Cauca w i t h a comparable school-age p o p u l a t i o n spent 20 only 17.3%. The money spent on education i s of course dependent on the money a v a i l a b l e to the government. When the economy s u f f e r s , a l l p u b l i c s e r v i c e s s u f f e r . In 1965, the government was faced w i t h a seriou s d e f i c i t . The eq u i v a l e n t of some U.S. $ 64 m i l l i o n - 66 -i n f o r e i g n loans promised i n 1964 had been w i t h h e l d . The govern-ment enacted a number of a u s t e r i t y measures which improved the s i t u a t i o n a l i t t l e and by the end of the year the United States and other i n t e r n a t i o n a l l e n d i n g agencies agreed to make the l o a n . The drop i n the p r i c e of c o f f e e had been the main c u l p r i t f o r the d e f i c i t . In times l i k e these, the r a p i d growth i n po-p u l a t i o n does not wait f o r the economic p i c t u r e to b r i g h t e n , and p u b l i c s e r v i c e s such as education tend to s u f f e r . - 67 -NOTES ^F r e d e r i c k Harbison and C.A. Myers, Education, Manpower  and Economic Growth, New York: McGraw, 1964, p.80. 2 I b i d . , p.79. •^Gerardo and A l i c i a Reichel-Dolmatoff, The People of Aritama, London: Routledge, 1961, p.115. ^Thomas E. W e i l , Area Handbook f o r Colombia, U.S. Army P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1970, p.184. ^ A l b e r t o Alvarado and Eduardo C a r r a s q u i l l a , A n a l i s i s  de l a Educacion en Colombia, Bogota: Centro de I n v e s t i g a -c i 6 n y Accion S o c i a l , 1969, p.27. ^Cplombia. Departamento A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Nacional de E s t a d i s t i c a , Anuario General de E s t a d i s t i c a , Bogota, 1963, p.295. 7 I b i d . , p.290. ^Ri c h a r d R. Renner, Education i n Colombia, U.S. Depart-ment of Health and Welfare, U n i v e r s i t y of F l o r i d a , 1968, p.127. 9 Laurence Gale, Education and Development i n L a t i n America, London: Routledge, 1969, p.42. 1 0 I b i d . , p.45. ^ C o l o m b i a . DANE, Anuario General de E s t a d i s t i c a , 1963, p.208. 1 2 R e i c h e l - D o l m a t o f f , The People of Aritama, p. 11:9. 1 3UNESC0, World Survey of Education, v o l . V , 1971, p.58. 1 4 R e i c h e l - D o l m a t o f f , The People of Aritama, p.121. ^Raymond F. Lyons ( e d . ) , Problems and S t r a t e g i e s of  Educa t i o n a l P l a n n i n g , P a r i s : UNESCO, 1965, p.74. - 68 -16 Edwin G. C o r r , The P o l i t i c a l Process i n Colombia, Denver, Colorado: U n i v e r s i t y of Denver P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1972, p.36. ^Renner, Education i n Colombia, p.86. 18 Alvarado, A n a l i s i s de l a Educacion en Colombia, p.31. 1 9Renner, Education i n Colombia, p.75. 2 0 I b i d . , p.68. - 69 -CHAPTER V CONCLUSION : IDEALISM VS. REALITY A pesar de l a s d i f i c u l t a d e s que todavfa se l e presentan a l desenvolvimiento de l o s planes educa-c i o n l s t a s , es evidente que l a Escuela P r i m a r i a co-lombiana ha experimentado un notable d e s a r r o l l o en todas sus aVeas. ( I n s p i t e of the d i f f i c u l t i e s which are s t i l l presented to the development of the education p l a n s , i t i s evident that the Colombian primary school has experienced, a notable development i n every a r e a . ) l The above statement was made by the M i n i s t e r of Education i n 1962. By 1965, i t was evident that t h i s success was a l i m i t e d one. The programs of the p e r i o d 1955 to 1965 had been only par-t i a l l y implemented. The Colombian government had been s t r i v i n g f o r too much i n too short a time. R e a l i s t i c goals must be s e t i f the t a r g e t s are to be reached and not f a l l short of the p l a n -ners T a s p i r a t i o n s . The gap between i d e a l and r e a l i t y can be seen i n every area of education reform. The Colombian government attempted to implement the l e g i s -l a t i v e reforms passed from 1955 to l o 6 5 , but f a i l e d to achieve the e s t a b l i s h e d o b j e c t i v e s . The model schools proved s u c c e s s f u l i n t h e i r l i m i t e d c a p a c i t y , but the ideas and methods that are used i n these schools should have some i n f l u e n c e on the r e s t of the schools. I f the innovations used i n model schools are not c a r r i e d over i n t o the general s o c i e t y , research such as t h i s has no v a l u e . - 70 -The government committed i t s e l f to u n i v e r s a l primary edu-c a t i o n by channeling a good percentage of i t s n a t i o n a l budget towards t h i s g o a l . Much of the money went towards increased school c o n s t r u c t i o n . I t was i n t h i s area that the government made the g r e a t e s t s t a t i s t i c a l improvement i n r u r a l education. The number of r u r a l schools almost doubled, but many of these new schools d i d not i n c l u d e the f u l l f i v e y ears. The aims that the government set i n i t s school b u i l d i n g program were too o p t i -m i s t i c . Because of the poor economic s i t u a t i o n , the government was f o r c e d to set more r e a l i s t i c t a r g e t s . The emphasis on r u r a l education was a l s o obvious i n the teacher i n c r e a s e . The r u r a l student:teacher r a t i o decreased from 44:1 i n 1954 to 39:1 i n 1963. In both school c o n s t r u c t i o n and teacher supply, the government was c a r r y i n g out i t s promise to improve r u r a l s c h o o l i n g . However, i n 1964, teachers' qua-l i f i c a t i o n s were s t i l l very poor i n the r u r a l s c h o o l s . Nineteen percent had only primary education compared to the n a t i o n a l ave-rage of e i g h t percent. The government f a i l e d to enforce the h i r i n g standards. They d i d not attempt to encourage b e t t e r qua-l i f i e d teachers to move to the r u r a l areas by o f f e r i n g s a l a r y b e n e f i t s . In 1965, the r u l e of teacher placement was s t i l l one of p o l i t i c a l i n f l u e n c e . Those teachers who knew the r i g h t 2 people found the best jobs, no matter what t h e i r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . - 71 -The number of r u r a l school b u i l d i n g s increased but the r u r a l c h i l d i n many areas was s t i l l a t t e nding only h a l f - t i m e because of the a l t e r n a t e d schools e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1958. This measure undoubtedly increased the enrollment percentage. The f i g u r e s f a i l to mention what percentage of those e n r o l l e d were only r e c e i v i n g h a l f an education. Few r u r a l c h i l d r e n were a t t e n -ding the f u l l f i v e years because of the high dropout r a t e and the shortage of f i v e year schools. U n i v e r s a l primary education was s t i l l a myth i n the r u r a l areas of Colombia. The government d i d e f f e c t l i m i t e d changes i n the educational s i t u a t i o n , but there were a l s o other o b s t a c l e s which the govern-ment had f a i l e d to con s i d e r i n i t s plans to supply education to a l l . I n 1965, only 237» of the primary students completed the c y c l e . The reasons f o r t h i s high dropout r a t e are mentioned i n Chapter IV. The government w i l l need to make seriou s e f f o r t s to f i n d a s o l u t i o n to t h i s problem. I f b e t t e r q u a l i f i e d teachers are t r u l y d e s i r e d , the government w i l l have to c o n s t r u c t normal schools i n the poorer departments and supply s c h o l a r s h i p s to en-courage r u r a l students to enter teaching. Although the economic s i t u a t i o n of the country a f f e c t s the amount of money i n the na-t i o n a l budget, the government must l e g i s l a t e an increase i n l o c a l taxes so that the municipal governments can take over a greater share of the f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . The municipal governments are dominated by wealthy landowners who have t r a d i t i o n a l l y d i s -- 72 -couraged any increase i n l o c a l taxes; there have been attempts to pass b i l l s i n the f e d e r a l government l e g i s l a t i n g an increase i n l o c a l taxes but they have f a i l e d to pass i n Congress, again be-cause of landowner l o b b i e s . The government has e s t a b l i s h e d s u f f i c i e n t o b j e c t i v e s y e t i t has made slow progress i n i t s goal to achieve u n i v e r s a l primary education. A question that should be asked at t h i s p o i n t i s whether continued e f f o r t s to achieve t h i s goal w i l l b r i n g about a d e s i r e d r e s u l t . SITUATION SINCE 1965 Reforms and governmental statements s i n c e 1965 demonstrate the c o n t i n u i n g importance the government places on the achieve-ment of u n i v e r s a l primary education. The a d m i n i s t r a t i v e reform i n 1968, designed to give greater supervisory c o n t r o l of educa-t i o n expenditures to the n a t i o n a l government, and the Emergency Plan of 1967, designed to improve educational c o n d i t i o n s , are examples of the emphasis on t h i s s e c t o r . The e f f e c t i v e n e s s of these reforms cannot be judged u n t i l l a t e r s t a t i s t i c s are a v a i -l a b l e . The Conservative Party has s t a t e d i n i t s p l a t f o r m that " e l problema fundamental de l a mayoria de l o s parses subdesarro-l l a d o s , no es l a pobreza de l o s recursos n a t u r a l e s , s i n o e l - 73 -su b d e s a r r o l l o de sus recursos humanos, por tanto l a primera tarea de estos paises es l a formacion d e l c a p i t a l humano." (The funda-mental problem of the m a j o r i t y of the underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s i s not the poverty of the n a t u r a l resources but the underdevelopment of i t s human resources, t h e r e f o r e the f i r s t task of these coun-3 t r i e s i s the formation of human c a p i t a l . ) The Emergency Pl a n of 1967 s t a t e d that "one of the p o i n t s of the N a t i o n a l Front i s to place education on l e v e l s w i t h i n reach of the people, and i t i s there f o r e the duty of the government to b r i n g about permanent improvement i n the q u a l i t y of education and to increase the edu-4 c a t i o n a l system's c o n t r i b u t i o n to the n a t i o n a l w e l f a r e . Since 1965, the government has continued to make broad statements and to l e g i s l a t e reforms designed to make u n i v e r s a l primary education a r e a l i t y i n Colombia. ALTERNATIVES TO UNIVERSAL PRIMARY EDUCATION IN COLOMBIA Education i s a major concern i n many developing c o u n t r i e s . The United Nations considers a b a s i c education to be the democratic r i g h t of a l l . The Colombian government has repeated innumerable times i t s p o s i t i o n on u n i v e r s a l primary education. Does the em-phasis on u n i v e r s a l primary education mean tha t other areas w i l l s u f f e r and what are the consequences of Colombia's co n c e n t r a t i n g a m a j o r i t y of i t s education expenses on the primary sector? - 74 -There are c o n t r a s t i n g views on whether u n i v e r s a l primary education i s a p r a c t i c a l g o a l . According to some expe r t s , secon-dary education should have the l a r g e s t c l a i m of the e d u c a t i o n a l budget, even up to f o r t y percent, i n order to meet the needs of 5 t r a i n e d manpower. Another w r i t e r on education says that primary education i s not enough; a p o p u l a t i o n w i t h some education wants 6 more. Others continue to support the democratic i d e a l of edu-c a t i o n f o r a l l . "When the compulsory primary school has ended a l l i l l i t e r a c y and solved the problems p e r t a i n i n g to i l l i t e r a c y i t w i l l be time to extend education upwards to c r e a t e secondary and higher education." "There are two reasons f o r c o n t i n u i n g to s t r i v e f o r u n i v e r s a l primary education i n Colombia: 1) the m i g r a t i o n of peasants to towns f o r urban employment r e q u i r e s that they have at l e a s t b a s i c l i t e r a c y . 2) primary education helps i n the p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n of the people by 8 e s t a b l i s h i n g common values and a sense of n a t i o n a l i t y . " The l a s t two opinions are c e r t a i n l y v a l i d reasons f o r aiming f o r u n i -v e r s a l primary education. At what cos t w i l l u n i v e r s a l primary education be achieved i n Colombia at whatever date i n the f u t u r e that may be? The Colombian government has t r a d i t i o n a l l y been monopolized by a c l o s e d e l i t e . In the view of t h i s governing e l i t e , primary education i s an admirable goal which w i l l demonstrate the demo-c r a t i c foundations of Colombia. I t i s a l s o a good program at e l e c t i o n time. The question f o r Colombian p o l i t i c i a n s i s whether - 75 -through the backing of a popular program, such as u n i v e r s a l p r i -mary education, they may be c r e a t i n g f r u s t r a t i o n amongst those people who have a few years of sc h o o l i n g and are unable to c o n t i -nue. Emphasis on pu r e l y primary education w i l l r e s u l t i n l e s s money a v a i l a b l e f o r the secondary l e v e l . Table IV on page 36 gives the percentage of educational ex-penditures i n the v a r i o u s sectors f o r 1961, 1963 and 1965. Edu-c a t i o n a l expenses i n the primary l e v e l increased i n t h i s p e r i o d . The o p e r a t i n g expenses i n the secondary l e v e l decreased from 10.4% to 8.2%, i n the normal schools from 6.7% to 3.6%, i n higher education from 1.5% to 1.3%, while the investment expenses f o r a l l secondary education decreased from 43% to 30%. I t i s i n e v i -t a b l e that the other l e v e l s of education w i l l r e c e i v e a smaller amount of the ed u c a t i o n a l budget when the government i s concent t r a t i n g on the Improvement of primary education. In aiming f o r u n i v e r s a l primary education and g i v i n g l e s s a t t e n t i o n to the secondary and higher l e v e l s , the Colombian go-vernment i s c r e a t i n g a c l a s s of people who w i l l have a few years of education and w i l l not have the opportunity to go on to the next l e v e l . The middle c l a s s i n a country l i k e Colombia are u s u a l l y those who have secondary education; an i n c r e a s i n g middle c l a s s i s e s s e n t i a l to the f u r t h e r economic and p o l i t i c a l develop-ment of the country. Without adequate secondary education f a c i -l i t i e s , the middle c l a s s w i l l not i n c r e a s e . On the other hand, - 76 -an i n c r e a s i n g middle c l a s s would undoubtedly challenge the p o l i -t i c a l power of the Colombian e l i t e . Amongst the urban working c l a s s e s who have r e c e i v e d some of the b e n e f i t s of the government's emphasis on primary education, there i s evidence that they may not be s a t i s f i e d w i t h only a few years of s c h o o l i n g . I n the 1970 e l e c t i o n , the people expressed t h e i r d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the p o l i c i e s of the N a t i o n a l Front go-vernment. For the f i r s t time i n Colombian h i s t o r y , the t r a d i -t i o n a l p a r t i e s almost l o s t t h e i r p o s i t i o n i n a democratic e l e c t i o n . General Rojas P i n i l l a and h i s p o p u l i s t movement, A l i a n z a Nacional Popular won 39.27a of the votes with the Conservative candidate of the N a t i o n a l Front winning 40.67». ANAPO has d e r i v e d i t s s t r e n g t h from the d i s a f f e c t e d lower c l a s s e s who have s u b s t i t u t e d the t r a -d i t i o n a l L i b e r a l - C o n s e r v a t i v e s p l i t w i t h the d i v i s i o n between the haves and the have-nots. Rojas was considered by many to be "the candidate of the poor who would change t h e i r c o n d i t i o n s and edu-9 cate t h e i r c h i l d r e n . " I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that Rojas d i d w e l l where l i t e r a c y was higher, and the Conservative vote was 10 highest i n the less-devel oped areas where l i t e r a c y was low. Perhaps the supporters of Rojas P i n i l l a who d e s i r e more education f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n may be the ones who w i l l c ut o f f a segment of the p o p u l a t i o n from any education at a l l . There are two a l t e r n a t i v e s open to Colombia. The f i r s t i s to continue aiming f o r the democratic goal of u n i v e r s a l primary - 77 -education and c o n c e n t r a t i n g i t s resources i n t h i s s e c t o r . This may crea t e f r u s t r a t i o n amongst those groups who are cut o f f from the higher l e v e l s of education. Because of the r a p i d l y i n c r e a s i n g urban p o p u l a t i o n s , job t r a i n i n g i s e s s e n t i a l . The urban masses may demand more than the government's nominal p r o v i s i o n of a few years of s c h o o l i n g . The other a l t e r n a t i v e f o r the government i s to abandon a pro-p o r t i o n of the school-age p o p u l a t i o n to ignorance, which would undoubtedly a f f e c t the r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n the g r e a t e s t , and d i s t r i -bute the ed u c a t i o n a l budget through a l l l e v e l s . Without an ade-quate b a s i c education, however, peasants moving i n t o the c i t i e s w i l l f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t to cope w i t h the urban way of l i f e . On the other hand, i t would strengthen the urban middle c l a s s who at present are v o c a l i n pushing f o r educational reform and may r e s u l t i n an improved q u a l i t y of education through b e t t e r q u a l i -f i e d teachers and a g r e a t e r p u b l i c awareness. However, t h i s se-cond a l t e r n a t i v e i s not so popular as a democratic p o l i t i c a l p l a t -form. The Colombian government w i l l have to decide to what extent other l e v e l s of education should be s a c r i f i c e d to continue the emphasis on u n i v e r s a l primary education, what e f f e c t t h i s may have on the development of the country, and whether the democratic i d e a l i s a r e a l i s t i c goal i n the immediate f u t u r e . - 78 -1 Jaime Posada, Una P o l i t i c a Educativa para Colombia, Vol.0 of La Educaci6n en l o s Cuatro Arfos de l a Adm i n i s t r a-c±6rx L l e r a s , Bogota: Imprenta N a c i o n a l , 1963, p.62. 2 Richard R. Renner, Education i n Colombia, U.S. Depart-ment of Health and Welfare, U n i v e r s i t y of F l o r i d a , 1968, p.245. 3 A l v a r o H. Caicedo and ot h e r s , Una P o l i t i c a Conserva-dora para Colombia, Bogota: Centro de Estudios Colombianos, 1969, p.81. 4 Renner, Education i n Colombia, p.119 ^F r e d e r i c k Harbison and C.A. Myers, Education, Manpower  and Economic Growth, New York: McGraw, 1964, p.83. 6 P h i l i p H. Coombs, The World Educational C r i s i s , New York: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1968. 7 J . L a r r e a , "Random Thoughts on the Economic B a s i s f o r Education i n L a t i n America," Comparative Education Re-view, V o l . V I I , no.2 (February 1963), p.165. Cl a u d i o V e l i z ( e d . ) , L a t i n America and the Caribbean: a Handbook, London: Blond, 1968, p.93. 9 J u d i t h Talbot Campos and John F. McCamant, Cleavage  S h i f t i n Colombia, Beverly H i l l s , C a l i f o r n i a : Sage P u b l i c a -t i o n s , 1962, p.48. 10 I b i d . , p.52. - 79 -BIBLIOGRAPHY - 80 -BIBLIOGRAPHY Academia Colombiana de H i s t o r i a . La L e g i s l a c i o n y e l De-recho en Colombia. V o l . XIV of H i s t o r i a Extensa d"e~  Colombia^ 15 v o l s . Bogota, 19637 Adams, D.W. and A.E. Havens. 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The Caribbean: Contemporary Colombia. G a i n e s v i l l e : U n i v e r s i t y of F l o r i d a P ress, 1962. W i l l i amson, Robert C. " U n i v e r s i t y Students i n a World of Change: a Colombian Sample," Sociology and S o c i a l Re- search, v o l . 48, p a r t 4 (1964), pp.397-413. Yearbook of the United Nations, 1947-48. - 86 -APPENDIX - 87 -l»" J v -HiouttuvdO Graph I C O M P A R I S O N OF T H E P O P U L A T I ON O F 7-14 ^EAR . O L D S A/VD T H E P R I M A L S C H O O L E / V R O l l M E / V T 0 F T H E R E S P E C T I V E A G E G R O U P : I 9 S I - 19 6 5 1 Populate 7-1 «• vca tlott years o^ axje. 7-H»gears of age « « *H ft f» 3^ fro 61 4* fc3 fcf 6* - 8 8 -(in C O M P A R . I S O / Y O F T H E P O P U L A T I O N 7 - n Y 5 A H O L D S A/VO T H E P R I M A R Y S C H O O L ENROLLME/VT OF T H E R E S P E C T I V E A 6 £ G R O U P . ' I P f l - l S f e ^ 2 6»puLatU>tL 7-11 years of auje &vrolbn«*tr 7-11 tj«ara a^e l«5l 5t 5J J"? ft f? S% $i bO (.1 bl 65 <V - 89 -C O M P A R I S O N OF T O T A L , U.RBAW A N D R Tttg1 AL £ A T f l O L L W e i V T IN PU6L IC PIUMAIW SCHOOLS OF 7. |i» V£AR, OLDS (in HAousarvd*) : \Q5l-\965" - 90 -L*.u*a^0MPAR.IS0fV OF ILLITERATES, A6ED Total ^ mooo 7.15 lfl TH£ TOTAL POPULATION, llROAfV Population (7-/5utarS of a-e) POPULAT ION AND R U R A L POPULAT ION OF I 1 J RESPECT IVE A W GROUP: !951 - 1 9 6 4 4 jooo To taL. PopaLaJtl«*x years »^a^«) Uvbarv / 69 % \ 1 9 5 1 U.>bcuv R.u.va.1 / 56 \ /Z4.'/.\ - 91 -N U M B E R O F P U B L I C P R \ M / \ R V S C H O O L \hl C O L O M B I A : T O T A L , U R B A N A N D R U R A L 1951 - \<*$€ 5 TokaL luTO-l Utoc IJ5/ Si « St S5 !(, *7 St iS 1,0 W U ii ^ - 92 -Q U A L I F I C A T I O N S O F P R J M A R y S C H O O L T E A C H E R S , I 9 6 U I 9 6 5 - * Teachers |wiWv a. Degree-»leacker* Octree iTcacktrs wiHi pri-mary Wu-Icabion only P R I M A R Y E D U C A T I O N SCHOOL YfiAR. U-fbarv popaLa.bion »f linear i U s U i> S o a ^NFiVHi * f ia r Urt^»J enrolment Ilk Isb R-fcSp«cbwe. n,rbaw ' 9*«up pcpu-la-bCtfrv Rur^L p-«?pala.+ioK. II year oLds avban population. ^51^70 urban fcuT^LUweut l97,<fS" \JLrban popalatiorv 9 week «L<U in^iwr Thira wear urban. inroULmetd. Hl,LTt Urban papaUxtlon. 2ncl Seconal ueor urban enrollment ItrlbAA r«/«aSr J las tf| \\\\\\\\\N S - « 5 S J J 3 ; 5 fl&es 10, P7J of- lo tjtar oL<ii 243 rubra l efcreUiueul-Rural population-j 9 ijear oUU 435, 41 r T h i r 4 wear r u r a l enrolment fcl,©96 II 10 Rar« i p»puialu>rv •f 8ueWr' o l d * «S ,9o9 Seccni. ij«ar- rural g Writ «*«••»• rural > enroluviervt ^ J 3 £ « l \ % \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ ^ o o w Q 9 © © o > O o o 0 o o o o o o o — — — — ^* *"t*4***'*f*>««»f*l*«»«<l J-RURAL I Thou»ojML») - 94 -NOTES •"•Albert Alvarado and Eduardo C a r r a s q u i l l a , A n a l i s i s de  l a Educacion en Colombia, Bogota: Centro de I n v e s t i g a c i o n y Accion S o c i a l , 1969, p.68. 2 l b i d . 3 I b i d . , p.69. 4u.N., S t a t i s t i c a l Yearbook, 1969^ p.142 and Alvarado, A n a l i s i s de l a Educacion en Colombia, p.65. 5Alvarado, A n a l i s i s de l a Educacion en Colombia, p.70. 6 I b i d . 7 R i c h a r d R. Renner, Education i n Colombia, U.S. Depart-ment of Health and Welfare, U n i v e r s i t y of F l o r i d a , 1968, p.158. 

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