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UBC Theses and Dissertations

An assessment of the Colombian government's commitment to the goal of universal primary education Blown, Vivienne Nerys 1973

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AN ASSESSMENT OF THE COLOMBIAN GOVERNMENT'S COMMITMENT TO THE GOAL OF UNIVERSAL PRIMARY EDUCATION by VIVIENNE NERYS BLOWN B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1967 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n t h e Department of H i s p a n i c and I t a l i a n S t u d i e s  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the required  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1973  In p r e s e n t i n g ments f o r an  this  for reference  that and  the  extensive copying of  may  be  g r a n t e d by  of out  this my  the  written  for financial  thesis  and  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a  of  for scholarly  gain  copying or shall  not  Italian  Columbia  Studies  be  require  British  agree that  D e p a r t m e n t o r by  that  the  make i t f r e e l y  permission.  Department o f H i s p a n i c  1973  shall  I further  Head o f my  I t i s understood  thesis  September,  this  f u l f i l m e n t of  the U n i v e r s i t y  Library  study.  for  sentatives.  in partial  advanced degree a t  Columbia, I agree able  thesis  avail-  permission purposes  his  repre-  publication allowed  with-  ABSTRACT U n i v e r s a l p r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n i s t h e g o a l o f many d e v e l o p i n g countries. Colombia.  I t i s a high p r i o r i t y i n the e d u c a t i o n a l planning of The l a w i n Colombia  s t a t e s t h a t f i v e y e a r s o f 'educa-  c i o n p r i m a r f a ' i s f r e e and compulsory.  S i n c e 1955, Colombia has  i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e problems and l e g i s l a t e d reforms t o make t h i s law an a c t u a l f a c t .  I n L a t i n A m e r i c a , r e f o r m laws and p l a n n i n g  s t u d i e s v e r y o f t e n remain j u s t t h a t : t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e reforms i s d e l a y e d o r f o r g o t t e n i n t h e maze o f p l a n n i n g boards and government o f f i c e s . by t h e Colombian  T h i s t h e s i s examines t h e reforms  passed  government i n t h e p e r i o d 1955 t o 1965, and a s s e s s e s  t h e i r implementation i n p u b l i c primary education.  The problems  t h a t were e n c o u n t e r e d i n t h e a t t e m p t s t o a c h i e v e t h e g o a l o f u n i v e r s a l p r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n a r e s t u d i e d , and t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e c o n t i n u e d emphasis on t h e e x p a n s i o n o f p r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n a r e d i s cussed i n the c o n c l u s i o n . The i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e study was d e r i v e d p r i m a r i l y  from  secondary s o u r c e s , as t h e o r i g i n a l M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n r e p o r t s were n o t a v a i l a b l e .  The Colombian  government and U n i t e d N a t i o n s  s t a t i s t i c s were used t o make c o n c l u s i o n s about t h e 1965 s i t u a t i o n of primary education.  The most r e c e n t comprehensive  were from t h e 1965 census.  statistics  A g e n e r a l v i e w o f Colombia was g a i n e d  from a s h o r t s t a y (one month) i n 1970, and, a d i s c u s s i o n w i t h a Colombian, who v i s i t e d Canada i n 1972, h e l p e d t o g i v e some i n s i g h t i n t o t h e c o u n t r y ' s e d u c a t i o n a l problems.  ii  U n i v e r s a l p r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n was s t i l l 1965. the  Many o f t h e r e f o r m s , b e c a u s e  o f governmental  e c o n o m i c s i t u a t i o n were o n l y p a r t i a l l y  a percentage  increase  demonstrated  i t s commitment  b u r e a u c r a c y and  too  optimistic;  the i d e a l s  far  from  expressed i n p o l i t i c a l  statements  thesis  conclude^ that  planners o f Colombia:  t o the primary  t h i s g o a l i n t h e immediate  ting  were  t h e r e a r e two o p t i o n s f o r t h e e d u c a -  the f i r s t ,  to c o n t i n u e to aim f o r the  money a v a i l a b l e  thus i n c r e a s e  f u t u r e , and t h e second,  throughout  the f a c t  illiterate.  the middle  percentage  s e c t o r , w i t h l i t t l e hope o f a c h i e v i n g  the e d u c a t i o n system  g r e a t e r segment o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n t o o b t a i n and  were  reality.  the budget  the  was  the educa-  s e t b y t h e government  goal o f u n i v e r s a l primary education, devoting a large of  There  and t h e g o v e r n m e n t  t o the g o a l by i n c r e a s i n g  G e n e r a l l y , the targets  tional  i n Colombia i n  implemented.  i n enrollment s t a t i s t i c s  t i o n a l budget.  The  an i d e a l  to d i s t r i b u t e to enable a  secondary  education  c l a s s , b u t , a t t h e same t i m e ,  t h a t a p r o p o r t i o n o f the p o p u l a t i o n would  accep-  remain  TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE INTRODUCTION U n i v e r s a l Primary Education  1 4  CHAPTER I.  COLOMBIA - BACKGROUND Population  II.  8 8  P o l i t i c a l History  10  Economy  14  H i s t o r y of Education  15  Administration of Education  17  EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS AND REFORMS - 1955-1965  21  E d u c a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g and R e s e a r c h  22  R e s e a r c h Programs  23  Laws t o I n c r e a s e E n r o l l m e n t  25  Laws t o I n c r e a s e F i n a n c e s  26  Laws t o I n c r e a s e S c h o o l C o n s t r u c t i o n  27  Laws t o I n c r e a s e Teacher Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and to Standardize the C u r r i c u l u m A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Reforms III.  27 29  ASSESSMENT OF THE GOVERNMENT'S IMPLEMENTATION OF REFORMS  32  P i l o t Schools  33  iv  PAGE Increase i n Education Expenditures  34  Increase i n School C o n s t r u c t i o n  37  Improvement o f T e a c h e r s ' Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s  39  Standardization of Curriculum  46  I n c r e a s e i n E n r o l l m e n t - Urban-Rural  Compari-  son IV.  OBSTACLES TO UNIVERSAL PRIMARY EDUCATION Problem o f Dropouts  48 57 58  U n q u a l i f i e d Teachers and an I r r e l e v a n t Curriculum  V.  60  P e o p l e ' s A t t i t u d e s towards E d u c a t i o n  62  Financial Difficulties  65  CONCLUSION: IDEALISM VS. REALITY... S i t u a t i o n s i n c e 1965  69 72  A l t e r n a t i v e s t o U n i v e r s a l Primary Education i n Colombia  73  BIBLIOGRAPHY  79  APPENDIX  86  L I S T OF  TABLES  TABLE I. II.  PAGE P o p u l a t i o n D i v i s i o n by Age  - 1964  9  E x p e n s e s on E d u c a t i o n as P e r c e n t a g e  of  N a t i o n a l E x p e n d i t u r e s - 1958-66 III.  34  P r i m a r y E d u c a t i o n E x p e n s e s as P e r c e n t a g e  of  T o t a l E d u c a t i o n a l Expenses IV. V. VI.  G e n e r a l and  Educational Expenditures  Number o f P u b l i c P r i m a r y S c h o o l s Student-Teacher  Student-Teacher  36  - 1951-65  R a t i o i n P u b l i c and  Primary Schools VII.  35  Private  - 1951-65  40  R a t i o i n P u b l i c Urban  and  R u r a l P r i m a r y S c h o o l s - 1954-63  41  V I I I . Educational Preparation of Primary  Teachers:  1961-1965 IX.  X.  43  Educational P r e p a r a t i o n of Primary 1965:  Teachers,  Urban-Rural Comparison  Comparison of Teachers'  Salaries  43 in  Two  D e p a r t m e n t s : 1965 XI.  Range o f Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s o f T e a c h e r s Two  D e p a r t m e n t s : 1966  38  45 in 46  vi  PAGE XII.  Enrollment i n Primary Education (Public and Private) as a Percentage of Total Age Group.... 49  XIII.  Urban/Rural Comparison of I l l i t e r a t e s , Aged 7-15: 1951 and 1964  XIV.  Urban and Rural Enrollment i n Public Primary Schools  XV.  51  52  Urban/Rural Reasons f o r Primary School Dropout... 58  L I S T OF GRAPHS GRAPHS 1.  PAGE  C o m p a r i s o n o f t h e P o p u l a t i o n o f 7-14 Y e a r and  Olds  the Primary School Enrollment of the  R e s p e c t i v e Age G r o u p : 1951-1965 2.  87  C o m p a r i s o n o f t h e P o p u l a t i o n o f 7-11 Y e a r and  Olds  the Primary School Enrollment of the  R e s p e c t i v e Age G r o u p : 1951-1965 3.  88  Comparison o f T o t a l , Urban and R u r a l E n r o l l m e n t i n P u b l i c P r i m a r y S c h o o l s o f 7-14 Y e a r  Olds:  1951-1965 4.  Comparison o f I l l i t e r a t e s ,  89 Aged 7-15 i n t h e  T o t a l P o p u l a t i o n , Urban P o p u l a t i o n and R u r a l P o p u l a t i o n o f R e s p e c t i v e Age G r o u p : 1 9 5 1 - 1 9 6 4 . 90 5.  Number o f P u b l i c P r i m a r y S c h o o l s i n C o l o m b i a : T o t a l , U r b a n a n d R u r a l 1951-1965  6.  Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s o f P r i m a r y School Teachers, 19611965  7.  91  Primary Education - Urban-Rural  92 E n r o l l m e n t 1 9 6 4 . 93  - 1 -  INTRODUCTION The U n i t e d Nations D e c l a r a t i o n o f the R i g h t s o f Man states that: Everyone has the r i g h t to e d u c a t i o n . Elementary and fundamental e d u c a t i o n s h a l l be f r e e and compulsory and t h e r e s h a l l be equal access on the b a s i s o f m e r i t to h i g h e r education.1 U n i v e r s a l primary e d u c a t i o n i s an important g o a l o f many d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s i n the world today. as the panacea o f many o f the world's  Education i s seen  ills.  t r i e s emphasize e d u c a t i o n as a key to s o c i a l  Developing  coun-  and economic  development. Colombia has s e t u n i v e r s a l primary e d u c a t i o n as a top priority of  i n i t s e d u c a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g and appears  the importance  to be aware  o f e d u c a t i o n i n the economic progress o f  the country and the development o f the p e o p l e . of E d u c a t i o n i n 1963 expressed  The M i n i s t e r  the government's a t t i t u d e t o -  wards e d u c a t i o n ; "Todos n o s o t r o s vemos claramente  como en l a  base misma d e l progreso economico e s t a l a educacion, y como su mejoramiento y amplitud son bases n e c e s a r i a s d e l d e s a r r o l l o , que a s u v e z es l a g a r a n t i a segura de l a p o l i t i c a l i b r e de l o s pueblos",  (ye a l l see c l e a r l y  how e d u c a t i o n i s the v e r y b a s i s  of economic p r o g r e s s , and how i t s improvement and e x t e n s i o n are the n e c e s s a r y foundations o f development, i s the s a f e guarantee  and a t the same time 2 o f the f r e e p o l i t i c s o f the people.)  - 2 -  The law i n Colombia s t a t e s t h a t f i v e years o f primary educ a t i o n i s f r e e and compulsory.  The government has passed a  number o f reforms and programs to make t h i s law an a c t u a l  fact.  T h i s t h e s i s w i l l study the reforms passed i n the p e r i o d 1955 to 1965, the e x t e n t to which these reforms have been  implemented,  the o b s t a c l e s t o u n i v e r s a l primary e d u c a t i o n and f i n a l l y , the l a s t c h a p t e r w i l l d i s c u s s the d e s i r a b i l i t y and the m o t i v a t i o n i n s t r i v i n g f o r such a g o a l . The p e r i o d 1955 to 1965 was chosen f o r study as t h i s was a time i n Colombia when many reforms were passed and p l a n n i n g s t u d i e s were i n s t i t u t e d t o i n c r e a s e primary e n r o l l m e n t and to improve  the q u a l i t y of primary e d u c a t i o n .  Many L a t i n  American  c o u n t r i e s have d i f f i c u l t y g e t t i n g beyond t h e stage o f p l a n n i n g s t u d i e s and government l e g i s l a t i o n .  The purpose o f t h i s  thesis  i s to a s s e s s the implementation o f the e d u c a t i o n a l reforms i n the p u b l i c primary s e c t o r i n Colombia and to d i s c u s s the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n aiming f o r t h i s g o a l . The most r e c e n t comprehensive  s t a t i s t i c s a v a i l a b l e on edu-  c a t i o n i n Colombia were from the 1965 census. a f t e r 1965 i s mentioned  The s i t u a t i o n  i n some areas o n l y to r e i n f o r c e con-  c l u s i o n s about the 1965 e d u c a t i o n a l system.  The sources f o r  the study, a p a r t from the s t a t i s t i c s , a r e g e n e r a l l y because o f the d i f f i c u l t y  secondary  the author e x p e r i e n c e d i n t r y i n g to  obtain M i n i s t r y of Education reports.  Impartial observers  -  tend  t o g i v e a more a c c u r a t e  ernment r e p o r t s .  3  -  p i c t u r e o f the s i t u a t i o n than gov-  The i n c o m p l e t e n e s s  t i c s made i t d i f f i c u l t  o f governmental  t o draw v a l i d c o n c l u s i o n s , b u t d e d u c -  t i o n s w e r e made w i t h t h e h e l p o f o t h e r s o u r c e s . include a l l the a v a i l a b l e data  term primary  the Spanish lombia ing.  term,  to define  education  'educacion  The t a b l e s  on t h e p r o b l e m a n d t h e g r a p h s  i n t h e a p p e n d i x h e l p t o show t h e g e n e r a l The  statis-  trends.  used i n t h i s  t h e s i s comes f r o m  p r i m a r i a ' , w h i c h i s u s e d i n Co-  the compulsory f i v e years  of elementary  The t h e s i s d e a l s w i t h t h e s i t u a t i o n o f t h e p u b l i c  ary schools schools  as i n C o l o m b i a o n l y f i f t e e n p e r c e n t  schoolprim-  of the primary  a r e p r i v a t e a n d t h e n a t i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t h a s no d i r e c t  c o n t r o l o v e r them.  A literate  i s d e f i n e d as a p e r s o n w i t h  s c h o o l i n g , n o m a t t e r how l i t t l e ; l i t e r a c y percentage. areas i n f l a t e s  this  some  tends t o i n f l a t e the  The c o m p a r i s o n b e t w e e n u r b a n a n d r u r a l  t h e urban p o p u l a t i o n because o f the d e f i n i t i o n  u s e d by t h e D e p a r t a m e n t o A d m i n i s t r a t i v o N a c i o n a l  de E s t a d i s t i c a  (DANE) ( N a t i o n a l A d m i n i s t r a t i v e D e p a r t m e n t o f S t a t i s t i c s ) i n C o l o m b i a ; any ' m u n i c i p i o '  (municipal d i s t r i c t ) with a  t i o n o v e r 1500 i s c l a s s e d a s u r b a n . schools  The e n r o l l m e n t  i n primary  i s compared t o b o t h t h e seven t o f o u r t e e n y e a r o l d  p o p u l a t i o n and t h e seven t o e l e v e n y e a r o f t h e l a t e s t a r t i n g age i n many a r e a s . Spanish  popula-  old population  because  Any q u o t a t i o n s i n  a r e f o l l o w e d by a f r e e t r a n s l a t i o n by t h e a u t h o r .  UNIVERSAL PRIMARY EDUCATION  U n i v e r s a l primary dustrialized l o n g way  reality.  Joseph  I n a 1958  d e v e l o p m e n t , i t was  a l g o mas  de dos  Estados  than  two  siglos  fact  i n the i n -  y e t i n Colombia,  s t u d y by  Lebret, which analyzed  cational  los  i s an a c c e p t e d  c o u n t r i e s of the w o r l d ,  from  h e a d e d by  education  estimated  a French  factors  i t is a  mission  retarding  t h a t "Colombia  edu-  necesitaria  para alcanzar l a p o s i c i o n obtenida  Unidos o F r a n c i a . "  centuries to reach  (Colombia  the p o s i t i o n  por  w o u l d n e e d a b o u t more o b t a i n e d by  the  United  3 States  or France)  , i f the speed  of l i t e r a c y  p r o g r e s s were  not  i s p o s s i b l e only i f there  are  accelerated. Universal sufficient if  this  classroom  economic  to p r o v i d e  dance once the cation ly  the schoolrooms.  good.  to interest  r e l e v a n t so  The  such  population The  affect  In order  the  country's  to ensure of  t e a c h e r s must be  students  in learning  t h a t the c h i l d  and/or h i s  the  the  edu-  curri-  parents  Furthermore,  financial  atten-  sufficient-  and  as C o l o m b i a c o n c e n t r a t e on u n i v e r s a l  the o t h e r l e v e l s r e c e i v e l e s s  and  population  the q u a l i t y  the b e n e f i t s o f s c h o o l a t t e n d a n c e .  countries cation,  situation naturally  schools are a v a i l a b l e ,  well-trained  see  p l a c e s f o r the school-age  o f f e r e d must be  c u l u m must be can  education  p o p u l a t i o n d e s i r e s to attend s c h o o l .  g r o w t h and ability  primary  when  primary  support  and  eduare  - 5 -  not expanded a t t h e same r a t e .  Therefore, the people, not only  the government, must see p r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n as an end i n i t s e l f ; o t h e r w i s e f r u s t r a t i o n w i l l i n e v i t a b l y r e s u l t among groups who a r e unable t o c o n t i n u e on t o secondary  education.  The C o l o m b i a n government has e x p r e s s e d i t s s u p p o r t o f t h e g o a l o f u n i v e r s a l p r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n and has emphasized t h e improvement o f r u r a l p r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n as p a r t o f t h i s g o a l . S i n c e 1927, t h e l a w has s t a t e d t h a t p r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n i s f r e e and compulsory i n Colombia.  A r t i c l e 41 o f t h e r e v i s e d Colombian  C o n s t i t u t i o n o f 1945 s e t s f o r t h t h e b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s o f educat i o n : "Freedom o f i n s t r u c t i o n i s guaranteed.  Primary  education  s h a l l be g r a t u i t o u s i n s t a t e s c h o o l s , and s h a l l be o b l i g a t o r y 4 to  the extent t h a t the law r e q u i r e s . "  I n 1962, t h e Colombian  government s i g n e d t h e UNESCO agreement a t a c o n f e r e n c e  i n San-  t i a g o w h i c h i n c l u d e d among i t s p o i n t s the g o a l o f u n i v e r s a l p r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n by 1970 ( l a t e r changed t o 1975). By 1965, C o l o m b i a was f a r from r e a c h i n g t h e g o a l o f u n i v e r sal  primary education.  F i f t y - s i x p e r c e n t o f t h e seven t o f o u r -  teen y e a r o l d p o p u l a t i o n and s i x t y - f o u r p e r c e n t o f t h e seven t o e l e v e n y e a r o l d group were r e g i s t e r e d i n p r i m a r y s c h o o l .  There  was s t i l l a s i g n i f i c a n t d i s c r e p a n c y between t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y and t h e q u a l i t y o f p r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n i n r u r a l s c h o o l s and urban schools.  There was an i n c r e a s e i n e n r o l l m e n t i n t h e f i r s t few  y e a r s o f p r i m a r y s c h o o l , b u t because o f t h e s h o r t a g e o f complete  - 6 -  f i v e y e a r s c h o o l s i n t h e r u r a l a r e a s , the e n r o l l m e n t i n t h e f i f t h grade c o n s t i t u t e d o n l y f i v e p e r c e n t o f t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g age group p o p u l a t i o n .  U n i v e r s a l p r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n was more o f  an i d e a l than a r e a l i t y i n the r u r a l a r e a s o f C o l o m b i a . C h a p t e r I g i v e s t h e background  f o r Colombia; Chapter I I  o u t l i n e s t h e laws and r e f o r m s passed by t h e Colombian  govern-  ment i n t h e p e r i o d 1955 t o 1965, d e s i g n e d t o a c h i e v e the g o a l o f u n i v e r s a l p r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n ; C h a p t e r I I I a s s e s s e s t h e imp l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e s e r e f o r m s ; C h a p t e r IV examines t h e o b s t a c l e s a g a i n s t a c h i e v i n g such a g o a l ; and f i n a l l y C h a p t e r V concludes the t h e s i s w i t h a d i s c u s s i o n of the d e s i r a b i l i t y o f C o l o m b i a a i m i n g f o r t h i s g o a l and t h e m o t i v a t i o n s b e h i n d i t .  - 7 -  NOTES Y e a r b o o k o f t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s , 1947-48, A r t i c l e 23 o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l D e c l a r a t i o n o f Human R i g h t s , p.576. 1  2pedro Gomez V a l d e r r a m a , Ideas sobre l a E d u c a c i o n y l a C u l t u r a , Bogota: Imprenta N a c i o n a l , 1963, p.102. • ^ P r e s i d e n c i a de l a R e p u b l i c a . Comite N a c i o n a l de P l a n e a c i o n , E s t u d i o s sobre l a s C o n d i c i o n e s d e l D e s a r r o l l o de C o l o m b i a , Bogota: A e d i t a , 1958, v o l . 1 , p.16. ^ W i l l i a m M a r i o n G i b s o n , The C o n s t i t u t i o n s o f C o l o m b i a , Durham, N o r t h C a r o l i n a : Duke U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1948, p.412.  - 8 -  CHAPTER I COLOMBIA - BACKGROUND POPULATION  The by  1970,  1980,  population o f Colombia;in i t was t w e n t y - t w o m i l l i o n .  Colombia w i l l  1  L a t i n America.  was e i g h t e e n  million;  I t i s p r e d i c t e d t h a t , by  become t h e t h i r d most p o p u l o u s c o u n t r y i n  T h e two f a c t o r s r e g a r d i n g  which have a d i r e c t r e l a t i o n 1)  1965  the population  to the educational s i t u a t i o n a r e :  t h e r a p i d and i n c r e a s i n g r a t e o f demographic g r o w t h , w h i c h i s 3.27o a n n u a l l y .  2)  t h e r a p i d a n d i n c r e a s i n g movement o f p e o p l e rural  I n 1951,  only  areas  t o u r b a n a r e a s , w h i c h i s 5.4%  38% o f t h e t o t a l  population l i v e d  from  annually.  i n the  2 urban areas,  while  i n 1964,  this  f i g u r e had r i s e n  t o 52.8%.  W h i l e t h i s p e r c e n t a g e may be w e i g h t e d on t h e u r b a n a r e a s b e c a u s e o f t h e DANE d e f i n i t i o n o f u r b a n a r e a s 1500  o r more, b y t h e l a t e  1960 s more t h a n f  p o p u l a t i o n r e s i d e d i n twenty c i t i e s  with  as c e n t e r s  with  one-third of the  a p o p u l a t i o n i n ex-  3 cess  o f 100,000..  cities  Because o f t h i s  o f Colombia a r eexperiencing  housing The  shortages,  i n c r e a s i n g migration, the severe  problems  with  unemployment a n d l a c k o f s c h o o l s .  r a p i d p o p u l a t i o n growth i s c a u s i n g  further  diffi-  - 9 -  c u l t i e s w i t h g r e a t e r numbers dependent on a s m a l l e r force. and  labour  In 1964, more than 46% were under the age of f i f t e e n  56% were under the age o f twenty.  Consequently, there i s  an ever i n c r e a s i n g school-age p o p u l a t i o n the problems o f e d u c a t i o n a l  which w i l l add to  planners i n Colombia.  TABLE I  POPULATION DIVISION BY AGE - 1964  4  AGE  POPULATION  0-6  4,249,623  24.3  7-11  2,578,407  14.7  12-18  2,795,289  16.0  19-24  1,715,625  9.8  25-64  5,621,303  32.1  524,261  3.0  65 & more  TOTAL The  17,484,508  PERCENTAGE  100,0  c l a s s d i v i s i o n i n Colombia i s t y p i c a l of L a t i n America,  w i t h a s m a l l m i n o r i t y h o l d i n g a l l the power and a l a r g e majori t y who have l i t t l e  influence i n p o l i t i c a l  decisions.  The  e l i t e o r upper c l a s s h o l d the government p o s i t i o n s , g e n e r a l l y are from e s t a b l i s h e d f a m i l i e s , and c o n s t i t u t e about 3 to 5  - 10 -  percent the in ing  o f the p o p u l a t i o n .  s t a t u s quo w h i l e  development.  The m i d d l e c l a s s ,  change  compris-  p r o f e s s i o n a l s , t e c h n i c i a n s , a l l w h i t e * . c o l l a r workers, and people  are growing s t e a d i l y  20% o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n .  seventy  percent  working c l a s s . schools  parents  institutions.  generally feel  tend  about  attend private  to regard p u b l i c schools  The u r b a n m i d d l e c l a s s  f o r educational reform they  that  i s i n the lower c l a s s , o r  The c h i l d r e n o f t h e u p p e r c l a s s  more v o c a l i n p u s h i n g class  and a r e e s t i m a t e d  I t i s g e n e r a l l y agreed  o f the population  and t h e i r  charitable  the  a t t h e same t i m e a l l o w i n g s u f f i c i e n t  order not to s t i f l e  some l a b o u r u n i o n at  T h i s g r o u p h a s managed t o m a i n t a i n  i s becoming  while  have no power t o e x e r t  as  the lower  i n changing  system.  P O L I T I C A L HISTORY  C o l o m b i a h a s h a d a r e p u t a t i o n as one o f t h e more cally  s t a b l e , democratic  early  days o f independence, C o l o m b i a n p o l i t i c s  m i n a t e d by two p a r t i e s : The  Liberal  the L i b e r a l s  Since the  h a v e b e e n do-  and t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e s .  P a r t y was f o r m e d by a g r o u p o f p e o p l e  create a p o l i t i c a l secular  L a t i n American r e p u b l i c s .  politi-  seeking to  o r d e r w h i c h embodied e c o n o m i c l i b e r t y ,  s t a t e , f e d e r a l i s m and d e m o c r a c y .  The  a  Conservatives  - 11 -  grouped t o g e t h e r t o p r e s e r v e the s c h o l a s t i c t r a d i t i o n o f S p a i n and t h e s t a b i l i t y o f the c o l o n i a l p e r i o d .  The C h u r c h was t h e  p e r s i s t e n t i s s u e which c o n t i n u e d t o keep the p a r t i e s i n oppos i t i o n , and h e l p e d t o e s t a b l i s h i n t e n s e p a r t y l o y a l t i e s among the masses. ted  Over t h e y e a r s t h e v a r i o u s c i v i l wars t h a t erup-  between t h e two groups tended  t o push p a r t y f o l l o w e r s i n t o  homogeneous communities. In  t h e 1930's and 40's, t h e L i b e r a l s edged toward  social-  ism w h i l e t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e s opposed t h i s w i t h a l l t h e i r power. Although  the masses p r o b a b l y had l i t t l e u n d e r s t a n d i n g  o f the  i d e o l o g i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s between the two p a r t i e s , t h e peasants were q u i t e w i l l i n g t o f i g h t t o demonstrate t h e i r p a r t y l o y a l t y . The c i v i l war, termed  T  l a v i o l e n c i a , w h i c h began i n 1948^and 1  ended i n 1956 was a r e s u l t o f t h e c l a s h between t h e two p a r t i e s . In  1953, G e n e r a l Rojas P i n i l l a was asked by b o t h t h e L i b e r a l s  and C o n s e r v a t i v e s t o r e s t o r e o r d e r .  Thousands o f p e o p l e had  been k i l l e d and many o t h e r s l e f t homeless d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . Rojas succeeded i n r e d u c i n g t h e l e v e l o f v i o l e n c e b u t n o t i n eliminating i t . In  1957, the L i b e r a l and C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t i e s d e c i d e d t h a t  they p r e f e r r e d an agreement between themselves l e t t i n g Rojas c o n t i n u e i n power.  r a t h e r than  The two p a r t i e s agreed t o  share e l e c t i o n s by a l t e r n a t i n g a L i b e r a l and C o n s e r v a t i v e  - 12 -  p r e s i d e n t , and a l l o w i n g each p a r t y no more than f i f t y of the s e a t s i n C o n g r e s s . b u t was  The  l a t e r extended t o 1974.  as the c o a l i t i o n was  c o a l i t i o n was The  to l a s t u n t i l  1970,  f o r m a t of the N a t i o n a l  named, e n a b l e d the two p a r t i e s t o  f u r t h e r a c t s o f p a r t i s a n v i o l e n c e and s t i l l m a i n t a i n tions i n society.  percent  However, p o l i c y i n n o v a t i o n and  Front,  discourage  their posi-  the implement-  a t i o n o f p l a n s became more d i f f i c u l t . The  N a t i o n a l F r o n t e l i m i n a t e d one  of the b a s i c r e a s o n s f o r  l o y a l t y t o a p a r t y : o p p o s i t i o n t o the o t h e r p a r t y . presidency  and  Besides  the Congress s e a t s , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o s t s  the  and  m i n i s t r i e s were a l s o d i v i d e d between the two p a r t i e s so t h a t a q u a l i f i e d L i b e r a l would not be a p p o i n t e d for a Conservative  and v i c e - v e r s a .  i f the vacancy  called  Because the c o a l i t i o n  s t r o y e d the t r a d i t i o n a l p a r t y o p p o s i t i o n and  de-»  competition,  o p p o s i n g f a c t i o n s d e v e l o p e d w i t h i n the two p a r t i e s , w h i c h f u r t h e r hindered The  p o l i c y formulation. f i r s t p r e s i d e n t o f the N a t i o n a l F r o n t was  A l b e r t o L l e r a s Camargo, who  r u l e d from 1958  a  t o 1962.  Liberal, President  L l e r a s Camargo i n t r o d u c e d s t r o n g a u s t e r i t y measures t o s o l v e economic t r o u b l e s .  He c u t i m p o r t s , took s t e p s t o s t a b i l i z e  the peso and e s t a b l i s h e d a N a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g Department. a l s o s t a r t e d a g r a r i a n r e f o r m , but met t h i s area.  I n 1958,  He  w i t h l i m i t e d success i n  Colombia experienced  the most  favourable  -Im-  b a l a n c e o f t r a d e i n twenty y e a r s . L l e r a s was  f o l l o w e d by a C o n s e r v a t i v e , G u i l l e r m o Leon  V a l e n c i a , from 1962  t o 1966.  H i s attempts  i n t o o p p o s i t i o n o f the l a r g e l a n d h o l d e r s . l u e d and new  taxes were proposed.  at land reform ran The peso was  I n 1964,  deva-  the c o n g r e s s i o n a l  e l e c t i o n s o n l y drew t h i r t y p e r c e n t o f the e l e c t o r a t e to v o t e , and the N a t i o n a l F r o n t o n l y r e c e i v e d twenty p e r c e n t o f total.  the  T h i s f u r t h e r a f f e c t e d V a l e n c i a ' s e f f e c t i v e n e s s by r e -  d u c i n g h i s s u p p o r t e r s i n Congress t o a narrow m a j o r i t y . 1965,  In  because o f economic d i f f i c u l t i e s , V a l e n c i a d e c l a r e d a  s t a t e o f s i e g e and r u l e d by d e c r e e .  He was  a b l e to i n t r o d u c e  a number o f a u s t e r i t y measures by e n a c t i n g reforms by  decree,  and t h e r e b y improved the economic s i t u a t i o n . I n 1966, and attempted margo.  another L i b e r a l , C a r l o s L l e r a s R e s t r e p o  took  over  to c a r r y o u t the economic programs o f L l e r a s Ca-  B o t h p a r t i e s i n the N a t i o n a l F r o n t have made e l a b o r a t e  statements  about i m p r o v i n g the q u a l i t y o f l i f e , s t i m u l a t i n g  economic development and moving ahead t o a modern s o c i e t y , b u t few o f t h e s e statements programs.  have been t r a n s l a t e d i n t o e f f e c t i v e  The N a t i o n a l F r o n t met w i t h two b a s i c o b s t a c l e s ;  1) the r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e to the government from t a x e s were among the l o w e s t i n the w o r l d . e f f o r t was  rated forty-fifth  I n 1967, Colombia's t a x  out o f f i f t y d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s .  - 14 -  2) v e s t e d i n t e r e s t s were a b l e t o b l o c k t r u l y r e v o l u t i o n a r y programs because a t w o - t h i r d s m a j o r i t y was r e q u i r e d i n Congress u n t i l 1968 when a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e v i s i o n changed i t t o a simple majority.  ECONOMY  Colombia's economy depends on one e x p o r t , c o f f e e , as a major source o f revenue.  Coffee represents ten percent o f the  t o t a l Gross N a t i o n a l P r o d u c t ; s e v e n t y - f o u r p e r c e n t o f Colombia's 6 f o r e i g n exchange came from c o f f e e e x p o r t s i n 1962.  Colombia  i s t h e second l a r g e s t p r o d u c e r - e x p o r t e r o f c o f f e e i n t h e w o r l d , h o l d i n g about t w e l v e p e r c e n t o f t h e w o r l d market.  A change i n  one c e n t i n t h e p r i c e o f a pound o f c o f f e e on t h e w o r l d market means a g a i n o r a l o s s o f U.S. $ 8.5 m i l l i o n a y e a r t o C o l o m b i a . The p r i c e o f c o f f e e has f l u c t u a t e d as much as f i f t e e n c e n t s i n a s i n g l e r e c e n t y e a r w i t h d e v a s t a t i n g e f f e c t s on t h e Colombian economy.  T h i s e x c e s s i v e dependence on one p r o d u c t r e s u l t s i n  the need t o i m p o r t l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s o f goods and m a t e r i a l s t o s u s t a i n economic  growth.  F i f t y p e r c e n t o f a l l wage-earners i n C o l o m b i a  earn  l i v i n g from a g r i c u l t u r e , which c o n t r i b u t e d t w e n t y - n i n e t o t h e G.N.P.  their percent  C o f f e e i s farmed on many s m a l l farms as w e l l as  - 15 -  the b i g p l a n t a t i o n s .  S i x t y p e r c e n t o f farmers own  four percent  of  the l a n d w i t h t h r e e p e r c e n t owning more t h a n f i f t y p e r c e n t 7  of  the l a n d .  However, f i f t y - s i x p e r c e n t o f the t o t a l  area  p l a n t e d i n c o f f e e i s worked by the i n d i v i d u a l owner. The G.N.P. o f C o l o m b i a  i n 1969  was  U.S.  $ 6.2  billion,  the f i f t h h i g h e s t i n L a t i n America and i t s per c a p i t a income exceeded $300 f o r the f i r s t t i m e . problem 1967.  i n Colombia:  I n f l a t i o n i s an  the c o s t o f l i v i n g r o s e 114% from 1961  Colombia has p r o f i t e d from f o r e i g n a i d .  1967$ Colombia  r e c e i v e d the e q u i v a l e n t o f U.S.  i n f o r e i g n a i d w i t h U.S. percent of that.  ever-present  From 1946 $ 1.6  to  to  billion  p a r t i c i p a t i o n b e i n g about f i f t y - n i n e  I n 1969, Colombia r a n k e d t h i r d among L a t i n  American c o u n t r i e s i n t o t a l U.S. a s s i s t a n c e . T h i s f l u c t u a t i n g economy n a t u r a l l y a f f e c t s a l l p u b l i c services, including education.  The  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of  planned  programs o f t e n depends on the economic s i t u a t i o n o f the c o u n t r y . HISTORY OF EDUCATION  The h i s t o r y o f e d u c a t i o n i n Colombia s i o n between the two t r a d i t i o n a l p a r t i e s .  r e f l e c t s the d i s s e n I n the e i g h t e e n t h  c e n t u r y , the C o n s e r v a t i v e s defended the ' t r a d i c i o n s a c r a ' o f e d u c a t i o n , the c h u r c h - p o s i t i o n o f c l a s s i c a l e d u c a t i o n f o r the e l i t e , w h i l e the L i b e r a l s propounded the ' t r a d i c i o n s e c u l a r -  - 16 -  t e c n i c a ' , which gave more emphasis to s c i e n c e and the 8 of democratic  education.  ideals  These two p o s i t i o n s were i n the  f o r e f r o n t d u r i n g the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y depending on w h i c h p a r t y was  i n power.  I n 1888,  the C o n s e r v a t i v e  government  s i g n e d a C o n c o r d a t w i t h the V a t i c a n , g i v i n g the c h u r c h c o n t r o l over e d u c a t i o n i n C o l o m b i a . til  complete  T h i s agreement l a s t e d  un-  the L i b e r a l regime o f 1934-38, when the government took  over c o n t r o l o f e d u c a t i o n , but i n 1942, a second agreement w i t h the V a t i c a n .  the government s i g n e d  T h i s e s t a b l i s h e d the  Church's r i g h t t o s u p e r v i s e r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n i n the publ i c s c h o o l s and a d m i t t e d the S t a t e ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r i n s t i l l i n g Christian In  1903,  Law  morals. 39, the Organic  Law on P u b l i c E d u c a t i o n , e s t a -  b l i s h e d a system o f n a t i o n a l s c h o o l i n s p e c t i o n and  s e t down  the combined f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r e d u c a t i o n o f the n a t i o n a l , departmental 1927  and m u n i c i p a l governments.  Law  56 o f  gave the f i r s t p r o v i s i o n s f o r compulsory e d u c a t i o n .  Parents or guardians  were o b l i g e d t o see t h a t c h i l d r e n r e c e i v e  a minimum e d u c a t i o n . In  the 1930's, the a c t i v i t i e s o f A u g u s t i n N i e t o C a b a l l e r o ,  the n a t i o n a l i n s p e c t o r o f e d u c a t i o n under P r e s i d e n t  Enrique  O l a y a H e r r e r a (1930-34) p r o v i d e d a p o w e r f u l s t i m u l u s to developments i n e d u c a t i o n . dem  He c a l l e d f o r the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f  mo-  t e a c h i n g methods t o r e p l a c e r o t e l e a r n i n g and f o r emphasis  - 17 -  on p r a c t i c a l s u b j e c t s .  Many o f h i s s u g g e s t i o n s have y e t t o be  put i n t o p r a c t i c e .  ADMINISTRATION OF EDUCATION  The  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f Colombian e d u c a t i o n  been c e n t r a l i z e d i n t h e hands o f t h e S t a t e .  has t r a d i t i o n a l l y  A r t i c l e 41 o f t h e  r e v i s e d C o l o m b i a n c o n s t i t u t i o n o f 1945, a f t e r e m p h a s i z i n g t h a t l i b e r t y o f teaching i s guaranteed, nevertheless  goes on t o say  that "the S t a t e s h a l l e x e r c i s e the r i g h t of general  inspection  and c a r e o v e r a l l i n s t i t u t i o n s o f l e a r n i n g , p u b l i c o r p r i v a t e , i n order  t o ensure t h e f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e s o c i a l purposes o f  c u l t u r e and t h e b e s t i n t e l l e c t u a l , m o r a l and p h y s i c a l d e v e l o p 9 ment o f t h e s t u d e n t s . " The  a u t h o r i t y extends from t h e P r e s i d e n t  of Education, and  t o the M i n i s t e r  and from him by d e l e g a t i o n t o t h e Departments  the m u n i c i p a l  districts.  Approval of n a t i o n a l plans,  N a t i o n a l Government t a k e o v e r o f s c h o o l s , and budget a l l o c a t i o n s f o r education The  a l l depend upon d e c i s i o n s o f t h e N a t i o n a l C o n g r e s s .  diagram on t h e n e x t page shows t h e l i n e o f a u t h o r i t y .  - 18 -  PRESIDENT MINISTRY  MINISTER OF EDUCATION 1  LEVEL  SECRETARY-GENERAL J  DEPARTMENT*)  I  DEPARTMENTAL ASSEMBLIES I  LEVEL  DEPARTMENTAL SECRETARIES OF EDUCATION  LOCAL LEVEL  !  I I  }  DEPARTMENTAL SCHOOLS  PRIVATE SCHOOLS  NATIONAL SCHOOLS  The M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n s e t s e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y f o r a l l b u t e x e c u t e s p o l i c y o n l y f o r a few n a t i o n a l s c h o o l s .  The f e -  d e r a l d i s t r i c t o f Bogota and each o f t h e twenty-two D e p a r t ments has a S e c r e t a r y o f E d u c a t i o n c h a r g e d w i t h c a r r y i n g o u t a l l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e t a i l s of education i n h i s j u r i s d i c t i o n i n accordance w i t h s t a n d a r d s e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e M i n i s t r y o f National Education. S i n c e t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e f o r m o f 1960, the f u n c t i o n s o f the M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n a r e t o : 1) d e v i s e p l a n s and programs o f s t u d y 2) e s t a b l i s h o p e r a t i n g c o n d i t i o n s f o r s c h o o l s 3) s u p e r v i s e and i n s p e c t s c h o o l s d i r e c t l y 4) pay a l a r g e p a r t o f t h e s a l a r i e s o f p r i m a r y  teachers  i n Departments and m u n i c i p a l d i s t r i c t s 5) pay t h e o p e r a t i n g expenses o f n a t i o n a l l y a d m i n i s t r a t e d p r i m a r y and secondary  s c h o o l s and u n i v e r s i t i e s  - 19 -  6) c o n s t r u c t t h e m a j o r i t y o f p u b l i c s c h o o l b u i l d i n g s 7) c o n t r i b u t e t o the c o s t o f c o n s t r u c t i n g e d u c a t i o n a l establishments  through community a c t i o n  8) f i n a n c e e d u c a t i o n  i n the N a t i o n a l t e r r i t o r i e s  ( i n t e n d e n c i a s and comisarl'as) 9) a s s i s t p r i v a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s The D e p a r t m e n t a l s e c r e t a r i a t s have the f o l l o w i n g r e sponsibilities : 1) name t e a c h e r s i n Department s c h o o l s 2) make up the d i f f e r e n c e between a v a i l a b l e N a t i o n a l Government funds and c u r r e n t o b l i g a t i o n s 3) pay s u p e r v i s o r y expenses 4) m a i n t a i n p u b l i c s c h o o l p l a n t s 5) p r o v i d e some o f the m a t e r i a l s needed f o r t e a c h i n g . C i t i e s w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n over 100,000 have s e c r e t a r i a t s of education with a s i m i l a r o r g a n i z a t i o n .  Except i n the l a r g e  c i t i e s , m u n i c i p a l government has c o m p a r a t i v e l y s i b i l i t y f o r administering education.  little  The e d u c a t i o n a l  responrespon-  s i b i l i t y o f the m u n i c i p a l d i s t r i c t s c o n s i s t s p r i m a r i l y o f p r o v i d i n g s i t e s f o r new s c h o o l s and t h e n f u r n i s h i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g them. I n the p e r i o d under d i s c u s s i o n , the M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n began t o take o v e r more o f the f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the s c h o o l s and a l s o began t o e x e r c i s e g r e a t e r s u p e r v i s i o n over the d e p a r t m e n t a l s c h o o l s .  - 20 -  NOTES Thomas E. W e i l , A r e a Handbook f o r C o l o m b i a , U.S. P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1970, p.63. A  United Nations. book, 1969, p.142. 2  Army  S t a t i s t i c a l O f f i c e , S t a t i s t i c a l Year-  •*Weil, A r e a Handbook, p.63. ^ A l b e r t o A l v a r a d o and Eduardo C a r r a s q u i l l a , A n a l i s i s de l a E d u c a c i o n en C o l o m b i a , Bogota: C e n t r o de I n v e s t i g a c i o n y A c c i 6 n S o c i a l , 1969, p.8. E d w i n G. C o r r , The P o l i t i c a l P r o c e s s i n C o l o m b i a , DenC o l o r a d o : U n i v e r s i t y o f Denver P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1972, p.119. 5  ver,  P a t M. H o l t , Colombia Today -- and Tomorrow, New P r a e g e r , 1964, p.101. 6  York:  ^ R i c h a r d R. Renner, E d u c a t i o n i n C o l o m b i a , U.S.Department of H e a l t h and W e l f a r e , U n i v e r s i t y o f F l o r i d a , 1968, p. 11. O r l a n d o F a l s B o r d a , La E d u c a c i o n en C o l o m b i a , Bogota: U n i v e r s i d a d N a c i o n a l de C o l o m b i a , 1962, pp.26-35. W i l l i a m M. G i b s o n , The C o n s t i t u t i o n s o f C o l o m b i a , DurN o r t h C a r o l i n a : Duke U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1948, p.412.  9  ham,  - 21 -  CHAPTER I I EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS AND REFORMS - 1955-1965 In order to f u l f i l  t h e i d e a l o f u n i v e r s a l primary  educa-  t i o n , t h e C o l o m b i a n government passed a number o f laws and programs i n t e n d e d t o r e f o r m t h e e d u c a t i o n a l system.  A large  i n c r e a s e i n s t u d e n t e n r o l l m e n t c o u l d o n l y be a c h i e v e d by an i n c r e a s e i n t h e e d u c a t i o n a l budget, programs t o b u i l d more s c h o o l s , laws t o improve t e a c h e r s ' q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and c u r r i culum s t a n d a r d s , and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e reforms  t o decrease  bureau-  c r a t i z a t i o n and wastage. P r i o r t o 1955, t h e r e were o n l y e x t r a v a g a n t statements and meaningless  decrees  t o back up t h e d e m o c r a t i c  ideal of free  e d u c a t i o n f o r a l l . A t t h e c o n f e r e n c e on F r e e and Compulsory E d u c a t i o n i n Lima, P e r u i n 1956, C o l o m b i a j o i n e d w i t h o t h e r L a t i n American governments i n r e c o g n i z i n g t h e importance o f e d u c a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g as p a r t o f t h e o v e r a l l development o f a country.  I n 1961, t h e A l l i a n c e  f o r Progress i n i t s ten-year  p l a n f o r economic growth s e t o u t t h e g o a l s t o be a t t a i n e d t o make e d u c a t i o n a s e r v i c e a b l e i n s t r u m e n t o f p r o g r e s s . b i a n government a t t h a t time "aimed a t p r o v i d i n g  The Colom-  schoolroom 1  space f o r e v e r y c h i l d through t h e f i f t h grade by 1965." g r e a t e s t importance  The  was p l a c e d on t h e e x t e n s i o n o f p r o v i s i o n  and the improvement o f t h e s t a n d a r d s o f p r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n r u r a l s c h o o l s "which were t o be brought up t o t h e  - 22 -  same standard as the urban s c h o o l s . "  2  The f o l l o w i n g programs  were intended to achieve these g o a l s .  EDUCATIONAL PLANNING AND RESEARCH  E d u c a t i o n a l planners and r e s e a r c h e r s hastened  to i n v e s t i -  gate the problem o f primary education and to study p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s which would l e a d to an i n c r e a s e i n enrollment and in quality.  There was a great f l u r r y o f a c t i v i t y :  planning  boards were e s t a b l i s h e d , schools f o r experimentation up and lengthy accounts  were s e t  o f the f i n d i n g s were submitted  to the  M i n i s t r y of Education. In 1957, Decrees 206 and 23351 s e t up an O f i c i n a de P l a neacion  to r e s t r u c t u r e c e r t a i n aspects o f e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y .  In response  to v a r i o u s s t u d i e s by t h i s group, a f i v e - y e a r p l a n  was prepared which c a l l e d f o r : 1)  the c r e a t i o n o f p i l o t schools f o r experimentation  2)  systematic t r a i n i n g of school supervisors  3)  o r g a n i z a t i o n o f i n t e n s i v e courses f o r secondary s c h o o l graduates  4)  who wanted to e n t e r t e a c h i n g  f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g f o r teachers who l a c k e d neces s a r y diplomas  5)  i n c r e a s e i n the elementary  education budget  6)  change i n the methods o f f i n a n c i n g  - 23 -  RESEARCH PROGRAMS  The  schools f o r experimentation  and t h e r e s e a r c h and p l a n -  n i n g c e n t e r s were q u i c k l y p u t i n t o m o t i o n . D e c r e e 146 h a d e s t a b l i s h e d s i x p i l o t the aim o f c l a r i f y i n g  Already  schools  i n 1956,  i n Colombia w i t h  the o b j e c t i v e s o f primary  education;. of  d r a w i n g up a program o f work a d a p t e d t o t h e development o f t h e c h i l d and working teacher.  o u t p r a c t i c a l methods f o r t h e g u i d a n c e o f t h e  The s c h o o l s w e r e s e t up i n t h e c i t i e s  r a n q u i l l a , P a s t o , Bucaramanga, C a l i reasonably  well-equipped  o f Bogota^ B a r -  and M e d e l l f n .  and s t a f f e d :  A l l were  the Bogota school  with  t w e n t y - s i x members o f s t a f f f o r 878 p u p i l s , a n d t h e o t h e r s a r a t i o o f p u p i l s t o e a c h member o f s t a f f r a n g i n g I n 1962, an I n s t i t u t e f o r P e d a g o g i c a l  having  f r o m 25 t o 3 9 .  R e s e a r c h was e s t a -  b l i s h e d i n the Colombian N a t i o n a l Pedagogical  University i n  Bogota, which included i n i t s tasks the a n a l y s i s of teaching methods, t h e e l a b o r a t i o n and e v a l u a t i o n o f c u r r i c u l a and t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f s c h o o l t e x t s and v i s u a l a i d s , t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h e r e s u l t s o f i t s work i n s p e c i a l b u l l e t i n s and in a regular  review.  T h e r e was a m o d e l t r a i n i n g c o l l e g e s e t up i n P a m p l o n a a s p a r t o f t h e UNESCO P r o j e c t w h i c h d e v e l o p e d Conference o f L a t i n American S t a t e s on Free c a t i o n h e l d i n Lima i n 1956.  out of the Regional and Compulsory Edu-  The I n s t i t u t o S u p e r i o r de E d u c a -  c i o n R u r a l a t Pamplona s p e c i a l i z e d i n c o u r s e s  i n co-operation,  - 24 -  community development and a g r i c u l t u r a l t e c h n i q u e s , but i t a l s o d i r e c t e d i t s a t t e n t i o n toward  improving t h e r u r a l p r i m a r y s c h o o l .  I t had annexed t o i t a s p e c i a l p r i m a r y s c h o o l w h i c h s e r v e d as a l a b o r a t o r y f o r i n v e s t i g a t i n g and t e s t i n g methods whibh c o u l d be used i n v i l l a g e s c h o o l s , e s p e c i a l l y i n those o p e r a t i n g w i t h only a single  teacher.  I n 1964, t h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n l a u n c h e d a group o f model s i n g l e - t e a c h e r s c h o o l s as a p i l o t p r o j e c t under t h e d i r e c t  super-  v i s i o n o f i t s e x p e r t s , and t h e r e a f t e r a t t a c h e d a p r a c t i c e onet e a c h e r s c h o o l t o a l l normal s c h o o l s i n o r d e r t o g i v e t h e t r a i n ees e x p e r i e n c e i n t h i s type o f s c h o o l .  The purpose o f the p i l o t  s c h o o l s was t o p i o n e e r methods f o r a l l r u r a l s c h o o l s , which would i n d i c a t e t h e means o f a t t a i n i n g u n i v e r s a l l i t e r a c y , the s o l u t i o n t o t h e problem o f t e a c h e r s h o r t a g e , and t h e p a t h t o many a s s o c i a t ed advantages, such as t h e end o f t h e r u r a l t r a n s p o r t problem, the d i s a p p e a r a n c e  o f the d i s p a r i t y between r u r a l and urban s t a n -  dards and the h a l t i n g o f t h e m i g r a t i o n t o t h e towns. A n o t h e r scheme d e s i g n e d  t o improve t h e s t a n d a r d o f r u r a l  e d u c a t i o n was t h e n u c l e o e s c o l a r , which was d e f i n e d as a system o f r u r a l s c h o o l s i n o r b i t around a s u i t a b l y l o c a t e d c e n t r a l school.  Two hundred o f these had been e s t a b l i s h e d by 1963.  The n u c l e o e s c o l a r s e t out t o improve t h e n a t u r e and q u a l i t y o f r u r a l e d u c a t i o n as p a r t o f t h e p r o c e s s o f d e v e l o p i n g the whole community.  A s o c i a l , economic and c u l t u r a l survey was  made o f the a r e a and the s c h o o l programs were o r g a n i z e d around  - 25 -  the l i f e o f t h e r e g i o n . The C o l o m b i a n government proved i t s e l f v e r y e f f i c i e n t i n s e t t i n g up o f f i c e s f o r p l a n n i n g and s c h o o l s f o r e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n . All  t h e s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e d a s i n c e r e d e s i r e on t h e p a r t o f t h e  government t o aim f o r u n i v e r s a l p r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n and a t t h e same time t o improve t h e s t a n d a r d s o f t h e r u r a l s c h o o l s .  LAWS TO INCREASE ENROLLMENT  The C o l o m b i a n government passed a few laws s p e c i f i c a l l y designed In  t o i n c r e a s e and e n f o r c e p r i m a r y  enrollment.  1958, a temporary measure t o i n c r e a s e e n r o l l m e n t among  r u r a l c h i l d r e n was i n t r o d u c e d .  A two-year s c h o o l , a l t e r n a t i n g  boys and g i r l s and g i v i n g a t o t a l o f 94 days o f i n s t r u c t i o n t o each group, was e s t a b l i s h e d . In  1963, Decree 1710 r e p e a t e d the l a w r e q u i r i n g f i v e y e a r s  o f f r e e compulsory e d u c a t i o n and s t a t e d t h e purposes o f elemen3 tary education: - t o c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e harmonious development o f the c h i l d and t h e optimum s t r u c t u r i n g o f h i s p e r s o n a l i t y , w i t h a C h r i s t i a n a t t i t u d e toward l i f e i n a f r e e and d e m o c r a t i c  tradition  - t o p r o v i d e t h e c h i l d w i t h a sound b a s i c e d u c a t i o n - t o i n c u l c a t e h a b i t s o f c l e a n l i n e s s , h y g i e n e , and i n t e l l i g e n t use o f i n n e r resources - t o prepare the c h i l d f o r a l i f e o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  - 26 -  and employment i n accordance w i t h h i s i n d i v i d u a l a p t i t u d e s and interests - t o encourage a sense of c i v i c s p i r i t , n a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y and s o l i d a r i t y w i t h a l l peoples o f the w o r l d . A new  c u r r i c u l u m was  developed which was  i n t e n d e d to f o s t e r  the above q u a l i t i e s i n b o t h r u r a l and urban c h i l d r e n .  LAWS TO INCREASE FINANCES  In o r d e r t o i n c r e a s e e n r o l l m e n t and extend the p r o v i s i o n o f p r i m a r y s c h o o l s , the Colombian government i n c r e a s e d the p e r c e n t age of the n a t i o n a l budget a l l o t t e d to e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e n d i t u r e s . The  1957  f i v e - y e a r p l a n s t i p u l a t e d t h a t t e n p e r c e n t of the bud-  get be used f o r p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n . four to s i x percent.  From 1955  The p r e v i o u s f i g u r e had been  to 1963,  an average of f i f t y  p e r c e n t o f the e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e n d i t u r e s was mary s e c t o r .  devoted  t o the  However, i t i s i m p o r t a n t to r e a l i z e the  comparative  s i t u a t i o n of the o t h e r l e v e l s o f e d u c a t i o n i n C o l o m b i a . e i g h t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o f the p r i m a r y e n r o l l m e n t was  pri-  In  1965,  public; forty-. ->  two p e r c e n t o f the secondary  e n r o l l m e n t was  public;  e i g h t p e r c e n t o f the u n i v e r s i t y e n r o l l m e n t was  public.  and, 4  fifty-  Therefore  the n a t i o n a l government had a g r e a t e r f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n the p r i m a r y s e c t o r than i n the o t h e r l e v e l s o f e d u c a t i o n , w h i c h r e c e i v e d a l a r g e amount o f s u p p o r t from p r i v a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s .  - 27 -  PROGRAMS TO INCREASE SCHOOL CONSTRUCTION  Much o f t h e a d d i t i o n a l money ed  towards s c h o o l  school  construction.  i n the school  b u d g e t was  direct-  I n 1961, r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r  c o n s t r u c t i o n was assumed b y t h e n a t i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t , w h e r e -  as, p r e v i o u s l y ,  i t had been a m u n i c i p a l  responsibility.  I t was  h o p e d t h a t t h e n a t i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t w o u l d be a b o v e t h e p o l i t i c a l wrangling  o f the municipal  would proceed without l o c a l  g o v e r n m e n t s and t h a t s c h o o l favouritism.  The A l l i a n c e f o r P r o g r e s s m e e t i n g i n 1961 e s t i m a t e d one  building  o f the p r i n c i p a l reasons f o r low enrollment  t i o n was t h e l a c k o f c l a s s r o o m s .  that  i n primary  A p l a n was d r a w n up w h e r e b y t h e  d e f i c i t w o u l d be e l i m i n a t e d b y 1 9 7 2 , b y p r o v i d i n g  2800 c l a s s r o o m s  a y e a r b e t w e e n 1961 and 1964 a n d 3500 e a c h y e a r a f t e r 1 9 6 5 . Colombian government l a i d o u t a b u i l d i n g p l a n t h i s g o a l and s c h o o l in  the r u r a l  educa-  The  designed to reach  c o n s t r u c t i o n became a t o p p r i o r i t y , e s p e c i a l l y  areas.  LAWS TO INCREASE TEACHER QUALIFICATIONS AND TO STANDARDIZE  THE  CURRICULUM  Reforms d e s i g n e d t o i n c r e a s e the  enrollment  t h e number o f i n s t i t u t i o n s a n d  figures necessitated  number o f t e a c h e r s .  a parallel  A t t h e same t i m e ,  improve the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s o f t e a c h e r s ,  increase  i n the  t h e government hoped t o particularly  i n the r u r a l  - 28  areas.  A law passed  unqualified  -  i n 1945 h a d n u l l i f i e d  t e a c h e r s , b u t i t had never been e n f o r c e d .  was s e t up i n 1958 t o g i v e p o o r l y q u a l i f i e d training.  the appointment o f  I n 1 9 6 0 , a l a w was p a s s e d  a l government t o take over a period of four years.  in-service  which allowed f o r the n a t i o n -  the c o s t of teachers' s a l a r i e s  T h i s was a i m e d a t e l i m i n a t i n g  m e n t a l d i s c r e p a n c i e s and e n c o u r a g i n g to r u r a l areas by o f f e r i n g s a l a r y A reform passed  teachers  A program  qualified  teachers  over  departt o go  benefits.  i n 1963 s t a n d a r d i z e d a l l n o r m a l  education  by e s t a b l i s h i n g a s i x ^ - y e a r c y c l e w i t h t h e p r e r e q u i s i t e o f f i v e years' elementary four years ssional  schooling.  o f secondary  The s i x y e a r s w e r e d i v i d e d i n t o  education with the f i n a l  training.  D e c r e e 1 7 1 0 o f 1963 r e f o r m e d culum.  two o f p r o f e -  The c o u r s e  the elementary  program attempted  to provide  school  curri-  thirty-three  h o u r s o f c l a s s r o o m w o r k p e r week f o r a l l f i v e g r a d e s .  The  rural  s c h o o l s w e r e t o be b r o u g h t i n l i n e w i t h t h e u r b a n s c h o o l s b y making a p r i m a r y  course  o f f i v e y e a r s ' d u r a t i o n f r o m t h e age o f 5  seven o b l i g a t o r y f o r both. seven b a s i c  areas:  - Educaclon Sagrada.  The h o u r s w e r e t o be d i v i d e d among  r e l i g i o s a y moral: R e l i g i o n e H i s t o r i a  ( R e l i g i o u s and m o r a l e d u c a t i o n : R e l i g i o n and H o l y  History) - C a s t e l l a n o : L e c t u r a y e s c r i t u r a , v o c a b u l a r i o , composicion o r a l y e s c r i t a , gramatica.  ( S p a n i s h : Reading and w r i t -  - 29 -  i n g , v o c a b u l a r y , o r a l and w r i t t e n c o m p o s i t i o n , grammar: - Matematicas:  A r i t r u e t i c a y Geometria  intuitiva.  (Mathematics: A r i t h m e t i c and I n t u i t i v e Geometry) - Estudios sociales: H i s t o r i a , Geografia, C i v i c a , Urbanidad y Cooperativismo.  ( S o c i a l S t u d i e s : H i s t o r y , Geogra-  phy, C i v i c s , C i t y and Community l i v i n g , and C o o p e r a t i o n ) - Ciencias Naturales: Introduccion a las Ciencias de l a N a t u r a l e z a y sus A p l i c a c i o n e s . ( N a t u r a l S c i e n c e s :  Intro-  d u c t i o n t o t h e N a t u r a l S c i e n c e s and t h e i r A p p l i c a t i o n ) - E d u c a c i o n e s t e t i c a y manual: M u s i c a , C a n t o , E d u c a c i o n p a r a e l hogar y T r a b a j o s manuales.  Dibujo.  ( E s t h e t i c and  Manual E d u c a t i o n : M u s i c , S i n g i n g , Drawing, Domestic e d u c a t i o n and E d u c a t i o n f o r Manual J o b s : - E d u c a c i o n f i s i c a : g i m n a s i a y juegos e d u c a t i v o s . (Physical  e d u c a t i o n : gymnastics and e d u c a t i o n a l games).^  T h i s r e f o r m was i n t e n d e d t o end " t h e s o c i a l i n j u s t i c e o f i m p a r t i n g a reduced e d u c a t i o n t o those who a r e b o r n and l i v e i n the r u r a l a r e a s and a p r e f e r e n t i a l  e d u c a t i o n t o those o f t h e  c i t y and u r b a n d i s t r i c t s . " ' '  ADMINISTRATIVE REFORMS  I n o r d e r t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e enactment o f t h e many r e f o r m s , t h e government r e o r g a n i z e d t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e setup o f t h e M i n i s  -  30  -  of Education.  I n 1956,  the O f f i c e of P l a n n i n g , C o o r d i n a t i o n  E v a l u a t i o n was  added t o the M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n  to  and  coordinate  v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f t h e s y s t e m and  to organize  the t e s t i n g o f  curriculum.  reorganized  the M i n i s t r y of Edu-  D e c r e e 1637  o f 1960  c a t i o n making i t r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a l l business d e v e l o p m e n t , r e g u l a t i o n and t h a t t h e M i n i s t r y had t h e D e p a r t m e n t s and failing  i n s p e c t i o n of education.  p r e v i o u s l y had  too l i t t l e  the Departments had  t o 1960,  most o f the key  c u s t o m a r i l y been f i l l e d by p o l i t i c a l n a t i o n a l government d e c i d e d M i n i s t e r and  to  the  I t was  felt  s u p e r v i s i o n over  abused t h e i r a u t h o r i t y i n  to supervise governmental reforms  Prior  relating  new  adequately.  p o s i t i o n s i n the M i n i s t r y had appointments.  to appoint  I n 1960,  a l l personnel  except  t h e S e c r e t a r y - G e n e r a l , b a s e d on C i v i l S e r v i c e  the the regu-  lations . Law  111  o f 1960  made t h e n a t i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t r e s p o n s i b l e f o r  t h e payment o f s a l a r i e s o f a l l p u b l i c e l e m e n t a r y as t h i s h a d budgets.  p r e v i o u s l y b e e n a h e a v y b u r d e n on  The  g o v e r n m e n t was  u n t i l December 3 1 ,  1964.  the  school  teachers  departmental  t o g r a d u a l l y assume t h i s  responsibility  - 31 -  NOTES ^ P a t M. H o l t , C o l o m b i a Today -- and Tomorrow, New P r a e g e r , 1964, p.152.  York;  2Laurence G a l e , E d u c a t i o n and Development i n L a t i n A m e r i c a , London: R o u t l e d g e , 1969, p.22. 3  R i c h a r d R. Renner, E d u c a t i o n i n C o l o m b i a , U.S. Department o f H e a l t h and W e l f a r e , U n i v e r s i t y o f F l o r i d a , 1968, p.98. ^ A l e j a n d r o B e r n a l Escobar e t a l , L a E d u c a c i o n en C o l o m b i a , Bogota: C e n t r o de I n v e s t i g a c i o n e s S o c i a l e s , 1965, p.273. -*Gale, E d u c a t i o n and Development i n L a t i n A m e r i c a , p.34. ^ A l b e r t o A l v a r a d o and E d u a r d o ^ C a r r a s q u i l l a , A n a l i s i s de l a E d u c a c i o n en C o l o m b i a , Bogota: C e n t r o de I n v e s t i g a c i o n e s y A c c i o n S o c i a l , 1969, p.20. ?A. Eugene Havens, E d u c a t i o n i n R u r a l C o l o m b i a , R e s e a r c h p a p e r , U n i v e r s i t y o f W i s c o n s i n , Land Tenure C e n t e r , 1965, p.189.  - 32 -  CHAPTER I I I  ASSESSMENT OF THE GOVERNMENT'S IMPLEMENTATION OF REFORMS  Legislating first the  reforms  step i n changing  implementation  and s e t t i n g  the e d u c a t i o n a l system.  o f laws,  the r e s e a r c h studies  programs a c c o m p l i s h n o t h i n g . infamous ations  f o rtheir  up p l a n n i n g b o a r d s  ability  L a t i n American  was p o o r .  and t h e d e p a r t m e n t s  putting  felt  them i n t o p r a c t i c e .  i n s p e c t o r s were g i v e n s h o r t r e f o r m s whose i m p l e m e n t a t i o n  g o v e r n m e n t and t h e  no  govern-  of reforms, y e t the pro-  down t h r o u g h a number o f o f f i -  l i t t l e need  or responsibility f o r  The d e p a r t m e n t a l p r i m a r y s c h o o l c o u r s e s on each o f t h e e d u c a t i o n a l t h e y were e x p e c t e d  to verify.  However, t h e y were n o t g i v e n a n y s y s t e m a t i c t r a i n i n g promised  following  The d e p a r t m e n t a l  f o r supervision  c l a m a t i o n s v e r y o f t e n were p a s s e d cials  governments a r e  implementation.  secretariats  ments were r e s p o n s i b l e  and r e f o r m  reforms without  Communicati&n between the n a t i o n a l departmental  However, w i t h o u t  to create extensive planning organiz-  and t o l a y o u t comprehensive  through with the a c t u a l  i s the  as h a d b e e n  i n t h e 1957 f i v e - y e a r p l a n , and most i n s p e c t o r s 1  specific  training  received  f o r t h e t)ob.  Many e l a b o r a t e r e f o r m p r o g r a m s do n o t p r o c e e d p a s t t h e planning cracy. lo  stage  i n L a t i n America  "Occure,  nacional,  because  o f governmental  bureau-  c o n mucha f r e c u e n c i a , que e l e s t a d o no o p e r a e n  s i n o en l o f o r m a l , o b i e n e n t o r p e c i e n d o l a v i a  - 33  -  c o n c r e t a de l a s sanas r e a l i z a c i o n e s por l a i n t e r p o s i c i o n de f o r mulas huecas o p a p e l e o s e s t e r i l e s . " ( I t happens, v e r y  often,  t h a t the s t a t e does n o t o p e r a t e on the n a t i o n a l l e v e l , but on f o r m a l one,  o r , i n o t h e r words, by o b s t r u c t i n g  the  a  constructive  p a t h o f c o r r e c t f u l f i l m e n t by the i n t e r p o s i t i o n o f h o l l o w f o r mulas o r f u t i l e paper s h u f f l i n g . ) 2 The  f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r a n a l y z e s the e x t e n t t o which  the  r e f o r m s l e g i s l a t e d by the government have been put i n t o e f f e c t .  PILOT SCHOOLS  The  f i v e - y e a r p l a n o f 1957  (see page 22) was  through i n some a r e a s , but i t was  never put  followed  i n t o e f f e c t system-  a t i c a l l y because o f " l a i n s u f i c i e n t e c o o r d i n a c i o n  del Plan  con  l o s programas de d e s a r r o l l o economico y s o c i a l d e l p a i s y l a f a l t a de a r t ! c u i a c i o n e n t r e l a O f i c i n a de P l a n e a m i e n t o y l a s S e c r e t a r i e s Departamentales de E d u c a c i o n . " coordination mic  o f the P l a n w i t h the programs o f s o c i a l and  development o f the c o u n t r y and  tween the P l a n n i n g O f f i c e and Education.)  (the i n s u f f i c i e n t  The  the l a c k o f a r t i c u l a t i o n be-  the D e p a r t m e n t a l S e c r e t a r i a t s  p i l o t s c h o o l s , which i n v o l v e d l e s s t h a n  p e r c e n t o f the e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n , ^ ideal conditions.  of one  were w o r k i n g under  An eminent E c u a d o r i a n e d i t o r has  t h a t L a t i n A m e r i c a has  econo-  complained  d i f f i c u l t y g e t t i n g beyond the  s t a g e ; the model s c h o o l s have l i t t l e i n f l u e n c e on the  'sample' system.^  - 34 -  INCREASE IN EDUCATION EXPENDITURES  A f t e r t h e 1957 p l e b i s c i t e which s e t a s i d e t e n p e r c e n t o f the n a t i o n a l budget t o e d u c a t i o n , the f i n a n c i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n o f the n a t i o n a l government i n c r e a s e d u n t i l the f i g u r e was 18.4% 6 i n 1964.  However, t h e r e a r e c o n f l i c t i n g s t a t i s t i c s on t h e  a c t u a l p e r c e n t a g e o f the budget t h a t was devoted t o e d u c a t i o n . The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e shows t h e v a r i a t i o n i n s t a t i s t i c s . TABLE I I EXPENSES ON EDUCATION AS PERCENTAGE OF NATIONAL EXPENDITURES YEAR 1958  DANE 7.6  1959  7.9  1960  8.0  9.7  1961  7.6  9.9  7  1962 1963 1964 1965 1966  MIN. OF ED.  8  UNESCO  9  16.5 data n  o  t  available  13.0 22.6  18.4  13.5  13.0  17.3  13.6  T h i s s t a t i s t i c a l d i s c r e p a n c y i s a good example o f the l a c k o f communication between government m i n i s t r i e s .  The Department  o f S t a t i s t i c s quotes one f i g u r e w h i l e the M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n quotes a n o t h e r ; UNESCO has d e r i v e d s t i l l a n o t h e r .  UNESCO a l s o  - 35 -  g i v e s t h e e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e n d i t u r e s as a p e r c e n t a g e o f the Gross N a t i o n a l P r o d u c t (G.N.P.).  From 1.1% o f t h e G.N.P. i n 1950,  the e d u c a t i o n a l budget i n c r e a s e d t o 2.8% i n 1963, and d e c r e a s e d a g a i n t o 2.3% i n 1966. The p e r c e n t a g e o f money a l l o t t e d t o p r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n a l s o r e v e a l s two s e t s o f f i g u r e s . TABLE I I I PRIMARY EDUCATION EXPENSES AS PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL EDUCATIONAL EXPENSES YEAR  MINISTRY OF EDUCATION  UNESCO  10  1961  25.8%  1963  46.6%  1965  41.3%  46.8%  1966  -  45.8%  11  49.7%  Of t h e c a p i t a l expenses a l o n e , d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d 1955-63, s i x t y p e r c e n t went t o t h e p r i m a r y s e c t o r .  The M i n i s t r y o f  E d u c a t i o n s t a t e d t h a t , o f t h e investment budget, 48% i n 1961, 76% i n 1963 and 577. i n 1965 was spent on p r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n . (See T a b l e I V ) .  T a b l e IV shows t h e d i v i s i o n o f e d u c a t i o n a l expen-  d i t u r e s by l e v e l o r type o f e d u c a t i o n .  The g e n e r a l t r e n d appears  t o be t h a t t h e government spent a l m o s t h a l f o f t h e t o t a l  educa-  t i o n a l budget on p r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n w i t h more than h a l f o f t h e i n v e s t m e n t expenses g o i n g t o p r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n .  To what e x t e n t  has t h i s a d d i t i o n a l money been p u t t o e f f e c t i v e use?  - 36 -  TABLE IV 12 GENERAL AND EDUCATIONAL EXPENDITURES ( I n f l a t i o n C o r r e c t i o n t o the 1958 V a l u e o f the Peso) E x p r e s s e d i n M i l l i o n s o f Pesos  1961  1965  1963  2,449.3  2,058 .1  2,482.0  expenses  242.6  275 .9  334.3  General a d m i n i s t r a t i o n Elementary and l i t e r a c y education Secondary e d u c a t i o n Normal e d u c a t i o n Higher education C u l t u r a l extension S c h o l a r s h i p s and meals T r a n s f e r s t o departments and I n s t i t u t i o n s Other expenses  5.4 38.2  5 .3 100 .9  5.0 119.4  20.2 13.4 3.1 2.6 3.8 100.4  22 .7 10 .6 2 .7 .7 6 .6 89 .6  24.8 10.7 4.3 .7 13.8 122.1  .8  .4  .8  T o t a l n a t i o n a l expenses Total educational  T o t a l o p e r a t i n g expenses  Elementary Secondary Higher Other Investments T o t a l expenses o f i n v e s t m e n t  191.7  239 .5  301.6  24.3 21.8 .6 4.2  27.8 6.4 1.7 .6  18.7 9.9 1.2 2.8  50.8  36.4  32.6  - 37 -  INCREASE I N SCHOOL CONSTRUCTION  School  c o n s t r u c t i o n has been a t o p p r i o r i t y  i n educational  expenditures.  I n 1 9 6 4 , f o r t y p e r c e n t o f t h e money f o r p r i m a r y 13 e d u c a t i o n was s p e n t o n s c h o o l c o n s t r u c t i o n . However, i n s p i t e o f t h e e m p h a s i s p u t on s c h o o l b u i l d i n g , classrooms classrooms,  the goal to b u i l d  a y e a r b e t w e e n 1961 a n d 1 9 6 5 , f o r a t o t a l o f 11,200 was n o t a c h i e v e d .  "Por m u l t i p l e s l i m i t a c i o n e s 14  f u e p o s i b l e c u m p l i r e l c o m e t i d o f i j a d o en a q u e l p l a n . " o f many l i m i t a t i o n s set  i n that  2800  i t was n o t p o s s i b l e t o f u l f i l l  no  (Because  t h e commitment  plan.)  The i n c r e a s e i n t h e c o s t o f i m p o r t e d m a t e r i a l s as a r e s u l t of the devaluat ion  o f t h e p e s o i n 1962 a n d a g a i n i n 1964 a n d t h e  f a i l u r e o f e x t e r n a l a i d o f f e r e d by the A l l i a n c e f o r Progress reach  the expected  l e v e l w e r e some o f t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s  to  which  made i t i m p o s s i b l e t o r e a c h t h e t a r g e t s s e t . I n 1 9 6 3 , o n l y 1,521 c l a s s r o o m s w e r e c o m p l e t e d w i t h a f u r t h e r 661 s t i l l u n d e r 15 construction. T h e r e w e r e 304,000 more s t u d e n t s r e g i s t e r e d i n 16 1963 t h a n i n 1961 (taking  w i t h o n l y a n a d d i t i o n a l 60,840 p l a c e s  t h e a v e r a g e number o f s t u d e n t s  Therefore,  i n e a c h c l a s s t o be  t h e r e w e r e 243,160 s t u d e n t s who h a d t o be f i t t e d  e x i s t i n g classrooms. p u b l i c primary  forty). into  T a b l e V shows t h e i n c r e a s e i n t h e number o f  s c h o o l s i n t h e p e r i o d 1951 t o 1 9 6 5 .  on c o n s t r u c t i o n o f r u r a l  The e m p h a s i s  s c h o o l s c a n be s e e n c l e a r l y o n G r a p h 5 .  N a t u r a l l y t h e r e a r e a g r e a t e r number o f p r i m a r y  schools i n the  - 38 -  rural  a r e a s b e c a u s e o f t h e p r e p o n d e r a n c e o f one room  TABLE V NUMBER OF PUBLIC PRIMARY SCHOOLS YEAR  TOTAL  buildings.  17  URBAN  RURAL  1951  12.022  3.440  8.582  1952  11.596  2.993  8.603  1953  12.530  3.036  9.494  1954  13.171  3.094  10.077  1955  14.230  3.339  10.891  1956  14.349  3.419  10.930  1957  14.571  3.538  11.033  1958  15.545  3.684  11.861  1959  16.217  3.733  12.484  1960  17.136  3.964  13.172  1961  18.128  4.027  13.921  1962  19.485  4.479  15.006  1963  20.214  4.485  15.729  1964  21.128  4.717  16.411  1965  21.113  4.882  16.231  I n 1964, entity 1964,  the  c o m p l e t e f i v e - y e a r s c h o o l was s t i l l  i n the r u r a l  areas.  According  o n l y 47. o f r u r a l p r i m a r y  w h i l e 6 0 % of. t h e u r b a n p r i m a r y  a  t o DANE s t a t i s t i c s  schools had the f u l l s c h o o l s were  five 18 complete.  grades,  - 39 -  I t has been e s t i m a t e d t h a t i n the y e a r s from 1964-73, i t would be n e c e s s a r y t o c o n s t r u c t 57,715 c l a s s r o o m s  i n order to  compensate f o r the i n i t i a l d e f i c i t , the i n c r e a s i n g p o p u l a t i o n and the replacement  of classrooms  the s c h o o l census o f 1968 for  i n disrepair.  D a t a based on  show a d e f i c i t o f 98,631  b o t h p r i m a r y and secondary.  classrooms  The M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n ,  O c t a v i o A r i z m e n d i Posada announced the c r e a t i o n o f 2,000 c l a s s rooms f o r 1969.19  xhe d i f f e r e n c e here between i d e a l and  reality  appears t o be w i d e n i n g every y e a r .  IMPROVEMENT OF TEACHERS* QUALIFICATIONS  From 1951  t o 1966,  212% and from 1961  the number o f p r i m a r y t e a c h e r s i n c r e a s e d  to 1965  t h e r e was  an i n c r e a s e o f 30.3%.  This  i n c r e a s e improved the s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r r a t i o somewhat; f o r a l l p u b l i c and p r i v a t e p r i m a r y s c h o o l s the r a t i o improved from i n 1951  to 36:1  I n 1965.  (See t a b l e V I )  T a b l e V I I shows the  s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r r a t i o f o r urban and r u r a l p u b l i c s c h o o l s . u r b a n s i t u a t i o n was  the same i n 1963  as i n 1954,  r a t i o showed a d e c i d e d improvement, from 44:1 i n 1963.  40:1  The  w h i l e the r u r a l  i n 1954  to  39:1  S i n c e o n l y 56% o f the t o t a l age group were i n f a c t  r e g i s t e r e d i n s c h o o l and t h e r e were 63,250 t e a c h e r s i n the c o u n t r y ( i n 1965), something i n the v i c i n i t y o f f i f t y  thousand  a d d i t i o n a l t e a c h e r s would be r e q u i r e d to make u n i v e r s a l p r i m a r y  - 40 -  TABLE V I STUDENT-TEACHER RATIO IN PUBLIC AND PRIVATE PRIMARY  SCHOOLS:  20 1951 - 1 9 6 5 YEAR  STUDENTS TEACHERS U n thousandsj ^ -  CALCULATED STUDENTTEACHER RATIO  1951  875  21,713  40  1952  923  22,690  41  1953  1,073  25,208  41  1954  1,125  28,939  39  1955  1,236  32,197  38  1956  1,312  33,874  39  1957  1,381  35,327  40  1958  1,493  38,061  39  1959  1,569  40,175  39  1960  1,690  44,910  38  1961  1,792  48,529  37  1962  1,949  52,751  37  1963  2,096  57,814  36  1964  2,215  62,158  36  1965  2,274  63,250  36  - 41 -  TABLE V I I STUDENT-TEACHER RATIO I N PUBLIC URBAN AND RURAL PRIMARY 21 SCHOOLS: 1954-1963 YEAR  STUDENTS TEACHERS COrbatO  RATIO  STUDENTS  TEACHERS RATIO (Rural)  1954  485,785  11,466  42  491,473  11,124  44  1955  529,544  12,674  42  523,518  12,009  44  1956  578,016  13,426  43  535,742  12,132  44  1957  622,934  14,477  43  545,334  12,346  44  1958  692,226  15,677  44  575,599  13,214  44  1959  736,912  16,688  44  593,975  13,969  43  1960  799,034  18,545  43  633,189  15,202  42  1961  864,573  20,234  43  658,681  16,380  40  1962  960,950  22,782  42  708,631  17,903  40  1963  1,018,774  24,406  42  767,782  19,844  39  - 42 -  e d u c a t i o n p o s s i b l e , w i t h o u t c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the n a t u r a l i n c r e a s e in population. The M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n was concerned  not only w i t h the  teacher shortage but a l s o w i t h teachers' q u a l i f i c a t i o n s .  It  was hoped t h a t t h e compulsory s i x - y e a r normal s c h o o l s would improve t h e s t a n d a r d s .  However, i n 1966, a p p r o x i m a t e l y  forty  p e r c e n t o f t h e p r i m a r y t e a c h e r s employed i n p u b l i c s c h o o l s d i d n o t meet the M i n i s t r y ' s h i r i n g s t a n d a r d s . ^  Table V I I I  iwAd  graph  6 show the improvement i n ' t e a c h e r s ' q u a l i f i c a t i o n s from 1961 t o 1965.  Teachers w i t h a degree i n c l u d e those who g r a d u a t e d  a secondary  s c h o o l , e i t h e r g e n e r a l , t e c h n i c a l o r normal and  those who g r a d u a t e d  from a u n i v e r s i t y .  Teachers w i t h o u t a  degree i n c l u d e those who a t t e n d e d secondary graduate.  from  school but d i d not  I n r e l a t i o n t o t h e t o t a l number o f t e a c h e r s , i n  1961, 44.97. o f t h e t e a c h e r s had a d e g r e e , w h i l e i n 1965, 54.3% had one.  I n 1961, 12.3% had o n l y p r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n  themselves,  compared t o 8.1% i n 1965. The q u a l i f i c a t i o n o f t e a c h e r s i n t h e r u r a l s c h o o l s was c o n s i d e r a b l y l o w e r than t h e i r u r b a n c o u n t e r p a r t s i n 1965. I n the p r i m a r y r u r a l s c h o o l s , 19% o f t h e t e a c h e r s had p r i m a r y educ a t i o n o n l y w h i l e 34% had a degree from secondary university.  (See t a b l e I X . )  school or a  -  43  -  TABLE V I I I EDUCATIONAL PREPARATION OF PRIMARY TEACHERS: YEAR  1961-1965  23  TOTAL TEACHERS WITH A DEGREE WITHOUT A WITH PRIMARY DEGREE ONLY  1961  48,529  21,814 (44.9%)  20,734 (42.8%)  5,981 (12.3%)  1962  52,751  24,186 (45.8%)  23,263 (44.2%)  5,302 (10.0%)  1963  57,814  28,317 '(49.0%)  24,471 (42.3%)  5,026 (8.7%)  1964  62,158  31,559 (50.7%)  24,416 (39.4%)  6,183 (9.9%)  1965  63,250  34,326 (54,3%)  23,801 (37.6%)  5,123 (8.1%)  TABLE I X EDUCATIONAL PREPARATION OF PRIMARY TEACHERS, 1965 24> URBAN-RURAL COMPARISON QUALIFICATIONS  TOTAL No. o f T e a c h e r s With Primary  Education  TOTAL URBAN PUBLIC RURAL PUBLIC ( P u b l i c and Private) 63,250  28,258  21,189  5,123  797  4,055  With Second. Educ.  W i t h Diploma Without Diploma  8,355 15,180  2,965 6,231  1,844 5,867  Normal School  With Diploma Without Diploma  24,301 7,356  14,815 2,788  5,260 3,287  University  With Diploma Without Diploma  1,670 1,265  333 329  132 243  - 44 -  The r e a s o n f o r the poor q u a l i f i c a t i o n s was of graduates  from normal s c h o o l s but the p o o r i n c e n t i v e s g i v e n r  by the government f o r graduate fession.  not the l a c k  I n 1965,  entered teaching.  o n l y 1600  teachers to enter t h e i r pro-  o f 5,000 normal s c h o o l  graduates  S t a t i s t i c s show t h a t t h e r e were 4,514 25  p r i m a r y t e a c h e r s i n 1966  than i n 1965.  were almost 3,000 t e a c h e r s who  Therefore,  there  e n t e r e d the p r o f e s s i o n who  from somewhere o t h e r than the normal s c h o o l . were 3400 graduates who  more  came  A l s o , there  chose n o t t o e n t e r the p r o f e s s i o n .  A c c o r d i n g t o one w r i t e r on e d u c a t i o n a l r e f o r m , t e a c h e r s were n o t h i r e d f o r the f o l l o w i n g - economic reasons  qualified 26  reasons:  - n o t enough money i n s t a t e budgets  and u n q u a l i f i e d I n d i v i d u a l s c o u l d be h i r e d a t a below s c a l e r a t e , thus s a v i n g the s t a t e money. government passed a law i n 1960 payment of elementary  Although  the n a t i o n a l  (See page 28) t a k i n g over  t e a c h e r s ' s a l a r i e s , the t r a n s i t i o n  was  t o l a s t f o u r y e a r s , so t h a t the s t a t e was  to  1964. - p o l i t i c a l reasons  the stage  r e s p o n s i b l e up  - t e a c h i n g p o s t s were f r e q u e n t l y  g i v e n t o the p a r t y f a i t h f u l , as the departments were d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t e a c h e r placement. - l a c k o f comfort and p r e s t i g e - q u a l i f i e d  teachers  d i d n o t want t o t e a c h i n r u r a l a r e a s . I n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g , as p a r t o f the 1957  five-year plan  had been i n s t i t u t e d i n some departments, but the n a t i o n a l  - 45 -  government d i d n o t g i v e any s a l a r y i n c e n t i v e s and g e n e r a l l y d i d l i t t l e t o encourage t e a c h e r s t o improve t h e i r  qualifications.  The normal s c h o o l s were t o have been s t a n d a r d i z e d w i t h a s i x - y e a r c o u r s e b u t , i n 1966, many normal s c h o o l s were s t i l l 27  operating  on a f o u r - y e a r program. Although  t h e date o f 1964 had been s e t f o r t h e n a t i o n a l  government t o pay a l l p r i m a r y t e a c h e r s ' s a l a r i e s and i t was expected  t h a t t h i s would e q u a l i z e s a l a r i e s  throughout t h e  c o u n t r y , i n 1967 t h e r e was s t i l l a g r e a t d i s c r e p a n c y between departments.  The ' e s c a l a f o n ' i s t h e o f f i c i a l r e g i s t e r  which  i d e n t i f i e s and rewards t e a c h e r s i n accordance w i t h t h e i r l e v e l o f f o r m a l p r e p a r a t i o n and y e a r s o f e x p e r i e n c e and the l e v e l on t h e ' e s c a l a f o n ' determines  the r a t e o f pay.  The  f o l l o w i n g t a b l e s show the range o f s a l a r i e s and q u a l i f i c a t i o n s o f t e a c h e r s i n t h r e e departments, A n t i o q u i a , a wealthy p a y i n g h i g h s a l a r i e s and employing  better qualified  area  teachers,  and N a r i n o and T o l i m a , poor, r u r a l departments p a y i n g t h e lowest w i t h p o o r l y q u a l i f i e d teachers. TABLE X COMPARISON OF TEACHERS' SALARIES I N TWO DEPARTMENTS: 1965 ( i n pesos p e r month) LEVEL ( E s c a l a f o n ) ANTIOQUIA NARINO 1 2 3 4 not e l i g i b l e  1470 1420 1370 1320 1200  1000 872 800 743 500  28  - 46 -  TABLE X I RANGE OF QUALIFICATIONS OF TEACHERS IN TWO LEVEL ( E s c a l a f o n )  ANTIOQUIA  1 2 3 4 not e l i g i b l e By 1966,  DEPARTMENTS:  29  TOLIMA  29% 27% 23% 8% 12%  10% 11% 11% 9% 59%  as can be seen i n the above t a b l e s , the  i n r u r a l areas was  1966  education  s t i l l being d i s c r i m i n a t e d against with  p o o r l y q u a l i f i e d t e a c h e r s and below average s a l a r i e s .  The  n a t i o n a l government had f a i l e d t o e n f o r c e the h i r i n g o f q u a l i fied  teachers. Because o f b u d g e t a r y d e f i c i e n c i e s ,  lax i n paying teachers' s a l a r i e s .  the government was  I n 1962,  were suspended i n O c t o b e r , and i n 1964  teachers'  The  teachers r e s o r t e d  t o a s t r i k e b e f o r e the n a t i o n a l government was 30 These i n c i d e n c e s are i n d i c a t i v e  low s t a t u s o f t e a c h e r s .  salaries  they were suspended f o r  r u r a l t e a c h e r s because o f l a c k o f f u n d s .  salaries.  also  a b l e to pay  the  o f the g e n e r a l l y  Teachers t r a d i t i o n a l l y have not formed  a c o h e s i v e group i n C o l o m b i a and  t h e r e f o r e have found i t d i f f i -  c u l t i n p r e s e n t i n g t h e i r demands as a u n i t e d  front.  STANDARDIZATION OF CURRICULUM  The c u r r i c u l u m r e f o r m o f 1963  (See page 28) was  intended  s t a n d a r d i z e the c u r r i c u l u m throughout the c o u n t r y , and the same number o f hours o f i n s t r u c t i o n  to  guarantee  to a l l students.  This  - 47 -  was merely a paper c u r r i c u l u m .  I n 1965, more than 507. o f the  r u r a l s c h o o l s were b e i n g o p e r a t e d on an a l t e r n a t e d b a s i s , w i t h o n l y n i n e t y - e i g h t days o f i n s t r u c t i o n .  E i g h t p e r c e n t o f the  p r i m a r y t e a c h e r s (197. o f r u r a l t e a c h e r s ) i n 1965 mary e d u c a t i o n (See t a b l e I X ) .  These t e a c h e r s would  have g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y i n t e a c h i n g 'geometria 'composicion  o n l y had  intuitiva  undoubtedly 1  or  escrita'.  F u r t h e r , among the g e n e r a l aims o f p r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n a " C h r i s t i a n a t t i t u d e toward l i f e i n a f r e e and  was  democratic  t r a d i t i o n " and p r e p a r a t i o n f o r a l i f e o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . page 25)  pri-  (See  Yet i n many o f the t e x t b o o k s s t i l l i n use i n 1965,  c e r t a i n concepts were b e i n g t a u g h t w h i c h c o n t r a d i c t e d these ideals.  A few quotes from the t e x t s a r e :  E l hombre v a l e mas p o r su alma que p o r sus c u a l i d a d e s temporales. (Man's s o u l i s w o r t h more than h i s temporal qualities.) La a u t o r i d a d v i e n e de D i o s ; no puede r e s i d i r en e l p u e b l o , puesto que e s t e no posee n i n g u n derecho de a u t o r i d a d n i n a t u r a l , n i adquerido. La a u t o r i d a d d e l pueblo es d e l e z n a b l e , puesto que donde p i e n s a n muchos a l a vez no p i e n s a n a d i e . ( A u t h o r i t y comes from God; i t cannot r e s i d e w i t h the p e o p l e as the p e o p l e possess no r i g h t o f a u t h o r i t y , n e i t h e r n a t u r a l n o r a c q u i r e d . The a u t h o r i t y o f the p e o p l e i s weak, s i n c e where many t h i n k a t one t i m e , no one t h i n k s . ) T e x t s such as the above do n o t c r e a t e an awareness i n the c h i l d o f h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y towards h i m s e l f and h i s c o u n t r y do they i n s p i r e the " i n t e l l i g e n t use o f i n n e r r e s o u r c e s . " page  25)  nor (See  - 48 -  W i t h o u t w e l l q u a l i f i e d t e a c h e r s and an adequate number o f hours o f i n s t r u c t i o n , t h e 1963 c u r r i c u l u m c o u l d n e v e r be p u t i n t o effect.  The p l a n s on paper aimed f o r something vague and i d e a l i s -  t i c ; t h e r e a l i t y o f t h e p r e s e n t t e a c h e r s ' q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and the a v a i l a b l e f a c i l i t i e s p r e v e n t e d these p l a n s from b e i n g p u t i n t o practice. INCREASE IN ENROLLMENT - URBAN-RURAL COMPARISON The s t a t i s t i c s on e n r o l l m e n t show t h a t t h e government has managed t o i n c r e a s e the p e r c e n t a g e o f s c h o o l - a g e p o p u l a t i o n e n r o l l e d i n primary school.  I n 1951, 397» o f t h e seven t o f o u r t e e n y e a r o l d  p o p u l a t i o n were e n r o l l e d i n p r i m a r y ; i n 1965, 56% were e n r o l l e d . The age group o f seven t o f o u r t e e n y e a r s i s used as t h i s i s the age s p r e a d i n the f i v e y e a r s o f p r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n .  Twenty-five percent  of p r i m a r y s c h o o l s t u d e n t s a r e between t h e age o f e l e v e n and f o u r teen.  T h i s i s a r e s u l t o f t h e l a t e s t a r t i n g age o f an average o f  n i n e y e a r s and f o u r months.  The seven t o e l e v e n y e a r o l d e n r o l l -  ment i n t h i s p e r i o d I n c r e a s e d from 447» i n 1951 t o 64% i n 1965. (See t a b l e X I I and graphs 1 & 2 ) . The Colombian  government made a commitment t o t h e g o a l o f  u n i v e r s a l p r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n and emphasized t h e n e c e s s i t y o f c o n c e n t r a t i n g on t h e r u r a l a r e a s .  There had been a p e r c e n t a g e  i n c r e a s e i n e n r o l l m e n t i n t h e r u r a l a r e a s , b u t i t must be remembered t h a t many o f t h e s e s t u d e n t s a t t e n d e d o n l y f o r two o r t h r e e y e a r s , f o r v a r i o u s reasons which w i l l be mentioned i n  - 49 -  TABLE X I I ENROLLMENT IN PRIMARY EDUCATION (PUBLIC AND PRIVATE) AS A 32 PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL AGE GROUP  YEAR  SCHOOL AGE POPULATION (7-14) (7-11)  TOTAL (7-14)  ENROLLMENT %  (7-11)  %  1951  2.253  1.489  875  38.83  662  44.45  1952  2.352  1.555  923  39.24  700  45.01  1953  2.455  1.623  1.073  43.70  717  44.17  1954  2.563  1.694  1.125  43.89  865  51.06  1955  2.675  1.768  1.236  46.20  957  54.12  1956  2.792  1.845  1.312  46.99  1.018  55.17  1957  2.914  1.925  1.381  47.39  1.081  56.15  1958  3.040  2.008  1.493  49.11  1.176  58.56  1959  3.171  2.094  1.569  49.47  1.228  58.64  1960  3.308  2.184  1.690  51.08  1.292  59.15  1961  3.450  2.278  1.792  51.94  1.364  59.87  1962  3.599  2.376  1.949  54.15  1.476  62.12  1963  3.752  2.477  2.096  55.86  1.974  63.54  1964  3.906  2.582  2.215  56.70  1.667  64.56  1965  4.081  2.689  2.274  55.72  1.714  63.74  - 50 -  the n e x t c h a p t e r .  Graph 4 shows the improvement i n l i t e r a c y  i n the seven t o f i f t e e n y e a r p o p u l a t i o n i n urban and areas.  However, s i n c e anyone i n C o l o m b i a who  has  rural  attended  some f o r m a l s c h o o l i n g i s c l a s s e d as a l i t e r a t e , i t may g i v e the t r u e p i c t u r e .  (U.N.  not  d e f i n e s a l i t e r a t e as someone  with at l e a s t four years of schooling.)  Unfortunately,  there  are no s t a t i s t i c s a v a i l a b l e of the seven t o f i f t e e n y e a r o l d p o p u l a t i o n i n urban and r u r a l areas b e f o r e 1964,  so a c o m p a r i -  son o f the p e r c e n t a g e o f u r b a n - r u r a l e n r o l l m e n t o v e r t h i s p e r i o d i s impossible.  The  f o l l o w i n g t a b l e and g r a p h 4 are d e r i v e d  from the UNESCO s t a t i s t i c s o f the u r b a n - r u r a l d i v i s i o n o f t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n i n 1951  and 1964.  I t was  assumed t h a t t h i s  p e r c e n t a g e c o u l d be a p p l i e d to the seven to f i f t e e n y e a r group.  T h i r t y - e i g h t percent  f i f t y - t h r e e percent age was  the  age  l i v e d i n urban areas i n 1951,  l i v e d i n these a r e a s i n 1965.  This  a p p l i e d t o the number o f seven t o f i f t e e n y e a r  i n the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n i n 1951  and 1964,  and  percentolds  thus e n a b l i n g a com-  p a r i s o n to be made between the u r b a n - r u r a l i l l i t e r a t e s  over  this period. The  c h i l d r e n i n t h i s group who  are c l a s s e d as l i t e r a t e were  a t t e n d i n g s c h o o l o r would have a t t e n d e d  some s c h o o l .  Thirty-six  p e r c e n t o f the seven t o f i f t e e n y e a r o l d p o p u l a t i o n were i l l i t e r a t e i n 1951;  twenty-four  p e r c e n t were i l l i t e r a t e i n 1964.  the same age group i n the r u r a l a r e a s , s i x t y - n i n e p e r c e n t  Of in  - 51 -  1951 and f i f t y - s i x  p e r c e n t i n 1964 were i l l i t e r a t e .  The percent-  age o f l i t e r a t e s i n c r e a s e d i n t h e r u r a l areas b u t by 1964, o v e r h a l f o f t h i s age group were s t i l l c l a s s e d as i l l i t e r a t e . TABLE X I I I URBAN/RURAL COMPARISON OF ILLITERATES, 33 AGED 7-15: 1951 and 1964 1951 TOTAL POPULATION (7-15;  1964  2,252,358  3,905,908  ILLITERATES  1,272,613 (56.5%)  1,526,869 (39.09%)  TOTAL URBAN  855,912  2,062,315  URBAN ILLITERATES  308,533 (36%)  496,928 (24%)  1,396,446  1,843,593  TOTAL RURAL RURAL ILLITERATES  964,080 • (69%)  1,029,941 (56%)  A l t h o u g h t h e p e r c e n t a g e s have d e c r e a s e d , i n a l l cases the number o f i l l i t e r a t e s i n t h i s age group has i n c r e a s e d , The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e shows t h e u r b a n / r u r a l e n r o l l m e n t i n p u b l i c p r i m a r y s c h o o l s from 1951 t o 1965. I n graph 3 the sharp r i s e I n urban e n r o l l m e n t c a n be seen; t h i s c a n p a r t l y be a t t r i b u t e d t o the i n c r e a s e d p o p u l a t i o n i n t h e cities.  - 52 -  TABLE XIV URBAN AND RURAL ENROLLMENT 34 IN PUBLIC PRIMARY SCHOOLS YEAR  TOTAL  URBAN  RURAL  1951  796.953  382.871  414.082  1952  845.767  418.768  426.999  1953  923.208  458.534  464.674  1954  977.258  485.785  491.473  1955  1.053.062  529.544  523.518  1956  1.113.758  578.016  535.742  1957  1.168.268  622.934  545.334  1958  1.267.825  692.226  575.599  1959  1.330.887  736.912  593.975  1960  1.432.223  799.034  633.189  1961  1.523.254  864.573  658.681  1962  1.669.531  960.950  708.631  1963  1.786.556  1.018.774  767.782  1964  1.900.056  1.102.249  797.807  1965  1.955.987  1.160.023  795.964  - 53 -  Graph 7 g i v e s the o n l y s t a t i s t i c s a v a i l a b l e on r u r a l enrollment compared to the p o p u l a t i o n . i n 1964 ing;  The  urban/ situation  showed the tremendous d e f i c i e n c y i n the r u r a l s c h o o l -  although the f i r s t  the shortage o f complete  two years show a h i g h e n r o l l m e n t , f i v e year r u r a l s c h o o l s r e s u l t s i n  the decreased enrollment i n the l a s t three y e a r s . 'temporary  The  1958  measure' (See page225) which e s t a b l i s h e d the  y e a r a l t e r n a t i n g r u r a l schools was 53% o f a l l r u r a l primary c h i l d r e n .  i n 1963  still  two  servicing  From a f i r s t grade  r o l l m e n t i n r u r a l s c h o o l s of over 100% and a second  en-  grade  enrollment of 817., the enrollment percentage d e c l i n e d to 26% i n the t h i r d grade, 9% i n the f o u r t h and 5% i n the There was grade  a l a r g e r enrollment i n the f i r s t grade  (and  fifth. second  i n urban s e c t o r ) than the corresponding age group po-  p u l a t i o n because of the l a t e s t a r t i n g age of primary s c h o o l students. y e a r who In  There were a l a r g e number e n r o l l e d i n the were over  first  seven.  i t s statements  on aims and p r i o r i t i e s of primary edu-  c a t i o n , the government had p l a c e d g r e a t emphasis on the provement o f the r u r a l s i t u a t i o n . was  still  The r u r a l c h i l d , i n  s e v e r e l y disadvantaged and had very l i t t l e  t u n i t y of completing primary e d u c a t i o n .  im1964,  oppor-  - 54 -  NOTES L a u r e n c e G a l e , E d u c a t i o n and Development i n L a t i n A m e r i c a , London: R o u t l e d g e , 1969, p.19. 1  F e l i x Angel V a l l e j o , P o l l t i c a : M i s i o n y Destino, Bogota, B i b l i o t e c a de A u t o r e s Colombianos, 1§54, p.10. 2  •^Alejandro B e r n a l E s c o b a r e t a l , L a E d u c a c i o n en Colomb i a , Bogota: C e n t r o de I n v e s t i g a c i o n e s S o c i a l e s , 1965, pp.86-87. ^ G a l e , E d u c a t i o n and Development i n L a t i n A m e r i c a , p.39. ^ J . L a r r e a , "Random Thoughts on t h e Economic B a s i s f o r E d u c a t i o n i n L a t i n A m e r i c a , " Comparative E d u c a t i o n Review, v o l . V I I , no.2 ( F e b r u a r y 1 9 6 3 ) , p.165. U n i t e d Nations. S t a t i s t i c a l O f f i c e , Yearbook, 1969, p.403. 6  Statistical  ^Colombia. Departamento A d m i n i s t r a t i v e N a c i o n a l de E s t a d i s t i c a , A n u a r i o G e n e r a l de E s t a d i s t i c a , Bogota, 1961, p.556. C o l o m b i a . M i n i s t e r i o de E d u c a c i o n N a c i o n a l O f i c i n a de P l a n e a m i e n t o , E s t u d i o y P r o y e c t o de E d u c a c i o n Media, Antecedentes G e n e r a l e s , P a r t e B, Tomo I I , B o g o t a , 1967, p.29. 8  9  U.N., S t a t i s t i c a l Yearbook,  1969, p.403.  C o l o m b i a . M i n i s t e r i o de E d u c a c i o n N a c i o n a l , E s t u d i o y P r o y e c t o de E d u c a c i o n Media, P a r t e B, Tomo I I , p.31. 1 0  1:L  U.N., S t a t i s t i c a l Yearbook,  1969, p.428.  • 2colombia. M i n i s t e r i o de E d u c a c i o n N a c i o n a l , P r o y e c t o de E d u c a c i o n Media, p.31. L  ^ G a l e , E d u c a t i o n and Development i n L a t i n A m e r i c a , p.34.  - 55 -  ^ A l b e r t o A l v a r a d o and Eduardo C a r r a s q u i l l a , A n a l i s i s de l a E d u c a c i 6 n en C o l o m b i a , Bogota: C e n t r o de I n v e s t i g a c i 6 n y A c c i o n S o c i a l , 1969, p.26. L  ^ G a l e , E d u c a t i o n and Development i n L a t i n A m e r i c a , p.33.  Colombia. p.208. l 6  1 7  DANE, A n u a r i o G e n e r a l de E s t a d i s t i c a , 1963,  A l v a r a d o , A n a l i s i s de l a E d u c a c i o n en C o l o m b i a , p.70.  Colombia. p.356. l 8  DANE, A n u a r i o G e n e r a l de E s t a d i s t i c a , 1964,  l ^ A l v a r a d o , A n a l i s i s de l a E d u c a c i o n en C o l o m b i a , p.26. 2 0  I M d . , p.69.  Colombia. p.209. 2 1  DANE, A n u a r i o G e n e r a l de E s t a d i s t i c a , 1963,  M a r k Hanson, E d u c a t i o n a l Reform i n Colombia and Venez u e l a , Cambridge: H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1970, p.40. 2 2  2 3  A l v a r a d o , A n a l i s i s de l a E d u c a c i o n en C o l o m b i a , p.70.  Colombia. M i n i s t e r i o de E d u c a c i o n N a c i o n a l O f i c i n a de P l a n e a m i e n t o , E s t u d i o y P r o y e c t o de E d u c a c i o n M e d i a , Antecedentes G e n e r a l e s , P a r t e B, Tomo I I , Bogota, 1967, p.80. 2 5  A l v a r a d o , A n a l i s i s de l a E d u c a c i o n en C o l o m b i a , p.69.  2 6  H a n s o n , E d u c a t i o n a l Reform, p.40.  R i c h a r d R. Renner, E d u c a t i o n i n C o l o m b i a , U.S. Department o f H e a l t h and W e l f a r e , U n i v e r s i t y o f F l o r i d a , 1968, p.263. 2 7  2 8  I b i d . , p.276.  2 9  I b i d . , p.277.  A . E . Havens, E d u c a t i o n i n R u r a l C o l o m b i a , R e s e a r c h paper, U n i v e r s i t y o f W i s c o n s i n , Land Tenure C e n t e r , 1965, p.175. 3 0  - 56 -  B e m a l E s c o b a r , La E d u c a c i o n en C o l o m b i a , pp.303-304. 32  A l v a r a d o , A n a l i s i s de l a E d u c a c i o n , p.68.  U.N., S t a t i s t i c a l Yearbook, 1969, p.142, and A l v a r a d o , A n a l i s i s de l a E d u c a c i o n en C o l o m b i a , p.65. 34 ' A l v a r a d o , A n a l i s i s de l a E d u c a c i o n , p.69.  33  - 57 -  CHAPTER  OBSTACLES TO  According  IV  UNIVERSAL PRIMARY EDUCATION  t o UNESCO t h e r e a r e  to u n i v e r s a l primary  three  important  dimensions  education:  1)  universal provision  2)  universal  enrollment  1 3) The its  universal retention  C o l o m b i a n g o v e r n m e n t has  educational planning.  provision  The  is a place  room does n o t sal  enrollment  incentives benefits  i s not  f o r every  e n s u r e the can  be  child  child's  achieved  for education  of education.  and  on  the  major area of concern  o f s c h o o l b u i l d i n g s and  room s p a c e f o r e a c h c h i l d there  concentrated  teachers.  only  making  The  a teacher  attendance  has  However, a  sufficient. and  first  fact  remain i n s c h o o l  tion  of b a s i c l i t e r a c y .  that class-  i n school.  Univer-  through p r o v i d i n g adequate t h e p o p u l a t i o n aware o f the  f o r a l o n g enough p e r i o d t o e n s u r e I t has  been class-  f o r each  U n i v e r s a l r e t e n t i o n means t h a t  will  in  been e s t i m a t e d  the child  reten-  that at l e a s t  2 years  a r e r e q u i r e d f o r t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f minimum  literacy.  four  - 58 -  PROBLEMS OF DROPOUTS  I n an a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l study o f a s m a l l v i l l a g e i n n o r t h e r n Colombia, Aritama,  4 5 % o f a l l a d u l t s had a t t e n d e d s c h o o l , y e t 3 o n l y 25% were c l a s s e d as l i t e r a t e . T h i s wastage i s a s e r i o u s  problem f o r e d u c a t i o n a l  planners.  The M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n  c a l c u l a t e d t h a t n e a r l y one h a l f  the c o s t s o f p u b l i c p r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n students  i n 1968 were i n c u r r e d f o r 4 who f a i l e d t o complete the p r i m a r y c y c l e . I n 1965,  o n l y 22.7% o f t h e s t u d e n t s who had r e g i s t e r e d i n 1961 completed 5 the c y c l e . I n t h e urban s c h o o l s , 43.8% o f t h e c h i l d r e n who had r e g i s t e r e d i n t h e f i r s t grade i n 1960 were s t i l l in  attending  1964 and o n l y 3.0% o f t h e c h i l d r e n r e g i s t e r e d i n r u r a l a r e a s  were s t i l l a t t e n d i n g .  ( I t must be remembered t h a t about h a l f  the r u r a l s c h o o l s were s t i l l o n l y o p e r a t i n g on a two y e a r b a s i s ) . S e v e r a l s t u d i e s have been conducted t o determine the reasons for  the high r a t e o f school dropouts. 6 show t h e f o l l o w i n g : TABLE XV  The 1963 DANE s t a t i s t i c s  URBAN-RURAL REASONS FOR PRIMARY SCHOOL DROPOUT URBAN REASONS FOR DROPOUT  NO. OF RESPONSES  Por cambio de d o m i c i l i o (change o f r e s i d e n c e ) Por poco interns de l o s padres ( l i t t l e parental interest) Por enfermedad ( i l l n e s s ) Por t r a b a j o s dome'sticos (work a t home) Por d i s t a n c i a ( d i s t a n c e t o s c h o o l ) P o r t r a b a j o s a g r i c o l a s (farm work) O t r a s causas ( o t h e r r e a s o n s )  57,000 31,000 22,000 10,000 9,000 6,000 23,000  - 59 -  RURAL REASONS FOR DROPOUT  NO.  Por cambio de d o m i c i l i o Por poco i n t e r n s de l o s padres Por enfermedad Por t r a b a j o s a g r i c o l a s Por d i s t a n c i a Por t r a b a j o s domesticos Otras causas The change o f r e s i d e n c e appears  OF RESPONSES 46,000 36,000 20,000 15,000 12,000 10,000 16,000  to be the most important  reason.  The m i g r a t i o n o f peasants from r u r a l areas to towns and from towns to c i t i e s  tends to terminate the c h i l d ' s s c h o o l i n g .  the l a t e s t a r t i n g age  Furthermore, 7 (an average o f 9 y e a r s and 4 months) makes  i t d i f f i c u l t f o r a student t o reach the f i f t h year o f  elementary  s c h o o l when he c o u l d be e a r n i n g a l e a v i n g f o r h i s f a m i l y w e l l b e f o r e that  time.  Amongr the  'otras causas' are reasons which are d i r e c t l y r e -  l a t e d to the s c h o o l : 1) a c u r r i c u l u m which does not adapt i t s e l f to the needs of the c h i l d r e n 2) emphasis upon r i g i d s c h o l a s t i c requirements which minimize i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s 3) poor t e a c h i n g methods and p o o r l y prepared teachers 4) l a c k o f p e r s o n a l and v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l i n g 8 5) l a c k o f a l t e r n a t i v e s t o the s c h o o l ' s formal program. These are areas where the government reforms have f a i l e d make any impact.  to  There w i l l continue to be a l a r g e number o f drop-  outs as l o n g as students do not c o n s i d e r the c u r r i c u l u m r e l e v a n t to  t h e i r needs and there are not enough w e l l - t r a i n e d teachers to  s t i m u l a t e i n t e r e s t i n the s u b j e c t matter.  - 60 -  UNQUALIFIED TEACHERS AND AN IRRELEVANT CURRICULUM  P o o r l y t r a i n e d t e a c h e r s and an i l l - s u i t e d c u r r i c u l u m a r e o f t e n reasons f o r a student Is  withdrawal.  I n reforms designed  to  s t a n d a r d i z e t h e normal s c h o o l s t h e government has attempted  to  upgrade  t h e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s o f t e a c h e r s y e t i t has f a i l e d t o  f u r n i s h adequate teaching. the  i n c e n t i v e s t o encourage g r a d u a t e s t o e n t e r  Normal s c h o o l s form p a r t o f the secondary r a t h e r than  h i g h e r s e c t o r o f the e d u c a t i o n a l system.  Many s t u d e n t s a t t e n d  them m e r e l y t o o b t a i n a secondary e d u c a t i o n w i t h l i t t l e of  becoming a t e a c h e r . Colombia i s e x t r e m e l y well-endowed  w i t h normal s c h o o l s , b u t  they a r e e x t r e m e l y u n e v e n l y d i s t r i b u t e d . of six.  intention  I n 1968, the Department  A n t i o q u i a had f i f t y - s i x . w h i l e n e i g h b o u r i n g A t l a n t i c o had o n l y The r e s u l t i s t h a t some a r e a s remain c h r o n i c a l l y s h o r t w h i l e  o t h e r s a r e u n a b l e t o absorb a l l  t h e new r e c r u i t s .  With uneven  d i s t r i b u t i o n and d i v i d e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t h e r e a r e marked d i f f e r ences i n s i z e , some c o l l e g e s h a v i n g q u i t e i n a d e q u a t e r e s o u r c e s 9 of  s t a f f and equipment t o be e f f e c t i v e .  The v a r i a t i o n i n  s a l a r i e s (See page 4 5 ) i n t h e c o u n t r y does n o t encourage  graduates  from one a r e a t o move t o a p o o r e r one. There i s l i t t l e p r e s t i g e i n v o l v e d i n becoming a p r i m a r y t e a c h e r , who i s " l i t t l e more i n t h e eyes o f the a r r o g a n t than 10 t h a t o f a d o m e s t i c s e r v a n t i n some p l a c e s . " The p r i m a r y  - 61 -  s c h o o l s have t r a d i t i o n a l l y been the p r e s e r v e o f women t e a c h e r s ; 11 i n 1963, e i g h t y p e r c e n t o f p r i m a r y t e a c h e r s were women. This f a c t i t s e l f , i n a t r a d i t i o n a l l y m a l e - o r i e n t e d s o c i e t y such as L a t i n A m e r i c a , demonstrates In  the low p r e s t i g e o f the p r o f e s s i o n .  the s t u d y on A r i t a m a ( r e f e r r e d t o on p.58), i t was found t h a t  boys g e n e r a l l y d i s l i k e d female a u t h o r i t y , and t h a t when a male t e a c h e r was a p p o i n t e d a t one t i m e , the e n r o l l m e n t o f boys r o s e 12 sharply. The s t a n d a r d i z e d c u r r i c u l u m o f the M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n (See page 28) does n o t a l l o w f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l needs o f s t u dents i n d i f f e r e n t a r e a s .  "The p r i m a r y c u r r i c u l u m tends t o  be d e s i g n e d f o r c h i l d r e n who a r e somewhat above average i n l e a r n i n g c a p a c i t y and i t tends t o be r e g a r d e d as merely the beginning of a long course of s c h o o l i n g that i s predominantly academic o r b o o k i s h i n n a t u r e , e m p h a s i z i n g t h e i n s t r u m e n t a l s k i l l s t h a t w i l l f a c i l i t a t e the b e g i n n i n g o f secondary s c h o o l 13 subjects." I f a c u r r i c u l u m change i s d e s i r e d , t e a c h e r s must see the v a l u e o f i t o r e l s e t h e r e i s no guarantee taught.  that i t w i l l  The A r i t a m a s t u d y d i s c o v e r e d t h a t the t e a c h e r s s e l e c t e d  from the o f f i c i a l  c u r r i c u l u m " o n l y those s u b j e c t s w h i c h 14  to a f f i r m l o c a l v a l u e s . "  tend  H a r d l y any t e a c h e r i n A r i t a m a used  the government t e x t b o o k s , p r e f e r r i n g t o employ f o r purposes  be  teaching  t h e i r own "copybooks". The method o f t e a c h i n g c o n s i s t e d  - 62  -  o f r o t e m e m o r i z a t i o n o f t h e s e copybooks w h i c h were handed down from one t e a c h e r t o a n o t h e r .  The A r i t a m a t e a c h e r s o n l y had  p r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n t h e m s e l v e s , l i k e so many o f t h e r u r a l c h e r s (See t a b l e I X ) .  tea-  L e g i s l a t i o n f o r c u r r i c u l u m r e f o r m and  standardization o f teacher t r a i n i n g i s p o i n t l e s s unless there i s enforcement o f t h e h i r i n g s t a n d a r d s .  PEOPLE'S ATTITUDES TOWARDS EDUCATION  U n i v e r s a l e n r o l l m e n t c a n be a t t a i n e d o n l y i f p e o p l e see e d u c a t i o n as a n e c e s s a r y p a r t o f t h e i r l i f e and a r e w i l l i n g t o work towards c h a n g i n g t h e system.  What i s t h e p e o p l e ' s  v i e w o f e d u c a t i o n and t o what e x t e n t a r e t h e p e o p l e w i l l i n g t o work towards t h e g o a l o f u n i v e r s a l p r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n i n Colombia? One w r i t e r on e d u c a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g has s a i d t h a t p r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n i n r u r a l areas i m p l i e s "an emergence o f p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s h i p r e s p o n s i v e t o r u r a l wants and a n x i o u s t o s e c u r e r u r a l s u p p o r t and a c e r t a i n degree o f p o l i t i c a l and economic o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the r u r a l people themselves."  I n Colombia,  the p e o p l e a r e n o t o r g a n i z e d i n t o such a group.  They have a  tendency t o l o o k t o t h e government f o r i n i t i a t i v e and do n o t see themselves as b e i n g c a p a b l e o f i n s t i t u t i n g change o r  - 63 -  r e f o r m i n g t h e system i n any way.  "For the m o s t l p a r t , t h e mem-  b e r s o f t h e l o w e r c l a s s appear n o r m a l l y t o a c c e p t t h e i r r o l e w i t h l i t t l e demand f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g o r w i t h l i t t l e d e s i r e o r sense o f e f f i c a c y i n a f f e c t i n g t h e po16 l i t i c a l process." There i s a need f o r an e f f e c t i v e 'grass r o o t s ' o r g a n i z a t i o n t o s e r v e as a n u c l e u s f o r i n d i g e n o u s 17 t i o n a l reforms.  educa-  The average Colombian does n o t c o n s i d e r a c t i v e  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n n a t i o n a l development; the government i s a remote e n t i t y w h i c h passes decrees  from on h i g h .  E d u c a t i o n has t r a d i t i o n a l l y been c o n s i d e r e d a p r e s e r v e o f the upper c l a s s i n C o l o m b i a and c o n s e q u e n t l y , most people e d u c a t i o n as a v e h i c l e o f s o c i a l m o b i l i t y .  view  When t h e peasant  i n r u r a l C o l o m b i a sees h i s c h i l d r e n a t t e n d i n g a few y e a r s o f s c h o o l w i t h o u t r e a l i z i n g any m a t e r i a l b e n e f i t s he cannot see the v a l u e o f e d u c a t i o n .  Some o f the m i g r a n t s  t o towns p e r c e i v e  e d u c a t i o n as t h e o n l y way t h e i r c h i l d r e n c a n ' a d e l a n t a r s e ' (get  ahead) i n t h e c l a s s s t r u c t u r e .  A conversation with a  C o l o m b i a n who had m i g r a t e d t o Bogota d u r i n g ' l a v i o l e n c i a ' and had o n l y two y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g h i m s e l f , r e v e a l e d t h i s for  education.  reverence  However, p r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n was n o t s u f f i c i e n t  and he was w i l l i n g t o devote h i s s a v i n g s t o send a t l e a s t one c h i l d t o secondary  school.  However g e n e r a l t h i s a t t i t u t e may b e ,  i t i s c e r t a i n l y t y p i c a l o f t h e growing  awareness among t h e  - 64 -  urban w o r k i n g c l a s s o f the importance  o f an e d u c a t i o n .  The b e l i e f t h a t e d u c a t i o n i s a means to move out o f the l o w e r c l a s s i s undoubtedly  a v a l i d one.  However, t h i s v i e w o f  e d u c a t i o n tends t o make people see p r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n as a p a t h to secondary  e d u c a t i o n and f r u s t r a t i o n i s the i n e v i t a b l e r e s u l t  i f secondary  education i s not a v a i l a b l e .  I n 1964,  t h e r e were  165,500 s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n f i f t h y e a r ( o n l y 20% o f the s t u dents who  had s t a r t e d the c y c l e i n 1960), and i n 1965,  there  were o n l y 70,000 p l a c e s a v a i l a b l e i n the f i r s t y e a r o f 18 education.  secondary  T h e r e f o r e more than h a l f o f the g r a d u a t i n g  s t u d e n t s were unable t o f i n d a p l a c e i n secondary  primary  school.  On the one hand, t h e r e i s the g e n e r a l i n d i f f e r e n c e o f the r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n towards e d u c a t i o n ; v e r y o f t e n they c o n s i d e r the c u r r i c u l u m i r r e l e v a n t and s c h o o l i n g merely c h i l d r e n ' s time.  a waste o f t h e i r  On the o t h e r hand, i n the c i t i e s w i t h t h e i r  r a p i d l y i n c r e a s i n g p o p u l a t i o n s , t h e r e i s a growing  awareness  o f the need f o r e d u c a t i o n t o l e a r n s k i l l s f o r the urban j o b s . TMs  second group does not want o n l y a few y e a r s t o o b t a i n l i t e r  acy b u t a t r a i n i n g i n a s k i l l t h a t w i l l be needed i n the j o b market.  T h i s group w i l l become i n c r e a s i n g l y f r u s t r a t e d i f they  a r e p r o v i d e d w i t h a p r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n and a r e t h w a r t e d i n t h e i r attempts  t o go on to secondary  education.  - 65 -  FINANCIAL DIFFICULTIES  A l t h o u g h t h e Colombian government i n c r e a s e d  i t s expenditures  on e d u c a t i o n , t h e n a t i o n a l budget cannot s u p p l y an u n l i m i t e d amount o f money.  I n 1965, t h e n a t i o n a l government  contributed  the l a r g e s t p e r c e n t a g e (57.4%) w i t h departments second (38.9%) and m u n i c i p a l i t i e s t h e s m a l l e s t budget.  amount (3.7%) t o t h e e d u c a t i o n  The c o n t r i b u t i o n o f t h e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i s minor.  It  i s d i f f i c u l t i n C o l o m b i a t o muster l o c a l r e s o u r c e s i n s u p p o r t of school  and o t h e r p u b l i c p r o j e c t s .  Large landowners have  u s u a l l y s u p p o r t e d n a t i o n a l p r o h i b i t i o n s which p r e v e n t people i n local administrative  d i s t r i c t s ( m u n i c i p i o s ) from l e v y i n g any 19  s i g n i f i c a n t t a x on l a n d o r r e a l e s t a t e . owners g e n e r a l l y  The w e a l t h y  land-  send t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o p r i v a t e s c h o o l s and  t h e r e f o r e have l i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n s u p p o r t i n g p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n . The v a r i a t i o n i n t h e e x p e n d i t u r e s o f d i f f e r e n t departments perpetuates the s i t u a t i o n of the disadvantaged r u r a l s c h o o l . I n 1965, A t l a n t i c o s p e n t 4 3 % o f i t s t o t a l budget on e d u c a t i o n , w h i l e Cauca w i t h a comparable s c h o o l - a g e p o p u l a t i o n spent 20 only  17.3%. The money s p e n t on e d u c a t i o n i s o f c o u r s e dependent on  the money a v a i l a b l e t o the government. a l l public services suffer. with a serious d e f i c i t .  When t h e economy s u f f e r s ,  I n 1965, t h e government was f a c e d  The e q u i v a l e n t  o f some U.S. $ 64 m i l l i o n  - 66 -  i n f o r e i g n l o a n s p r o m i s e d i n 1964 had been w i t h h e l d .  The g o v e r n -  ment e n a c t e d a number o f a u s t e r i t y measures w h i c h improved t h e s i t u a t i o n a l i t t l e and by the end o f t h e y e a r the U n i t e d and  o t h e r i n t e r n a t i o n a l l e n d i n g a g e n c i e s agreed t o make t h e  loan. for  States  The drop i n the p r i c e o f c o f f e e had been the main  the d e f i c i t .  culprit  I n times l i k e t h e s e , t h e r a p i d growth i n po-  p u l a t i o n does n o t w a i t f o r the economic p i c t u r e t o b r i g h t e n , and p u b l i c s e r v i c e s such as e d u c a t i o n tend t o s u f f e r .  - 67 -  NOTES ^ F r e d e r i c k H a r b i s o n and C.A. Myers, E d u c a t i o n , Manpower and Economic Growth, New York: McGraw, 1964, p.80. I b i d . , p.79.  2  •^Gerardo and A l i c i a R e i c h e l - D o l m a t o f f , The P e o p l e o f A r i t a m a , London: R o u t l e d g e , 1961, p.115. ^Thomas E. W e i l , A r e a Handbook f o r C o l o m b i a , U.S. Army P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1970, p.184. ^ A l b e r t o A l v a r a d o and Eduardo C a r r a s q u i l l a , A n a l i s i s de l a E d u c a c i o n en C o l o m b i a , Bogota: C e n t r o de I n v e s t i g a c i 6 n y A c c i o n S o c i a l , 1969, p.27. ^Cplombia. Departamento A d m i n i s t r a t i v e N a c i o n a l de E s t a d i s t i c a , A n u a r i o G e n e r a l de E s t a d i s t i c a , B o g o t a , 1963, p.295. 7  I b i d . , p.290.  ^ R i c h a r d R. Renner, E d u c a t i o n i n C o l o m b i a , U.S. D e p a r t ment o f H e a l t h and W e l f a r e , U n i v e r s i t y o f F l o r i d a , 1968, p.127. 9 Laurence G a l e , E d u c a t i o n and Development i n L a t i n A m e r i c a , London: R o u t l e d g e , 1969, p.42. 1 0  I b i d . , p.45.  ^Colombia. p.208.  DANE, A n u a r i o G e n e r a l de E s t a d i s t i c a , 1963,  1 2  R e i c h e l - D o l m a t o f f , The People o f A r i t a m a , p. 11:9.  13  U N E S C 0 , World Survey o f E d u c a t i o n , v o l . V , 1971, p.58.  1 4  R e i c h e l - D o l m a t o f f , The People o f A r i t a m a , p.121.  ^Raymond F. Lyons ( e d . ) , Problems and S t r a t e g i e s o f E d u c a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g , P a r i s : UNESCO, 1965, p.74.  - 68 -  16  Edwin G. C o r r , The P o l i t i c a l P r o c e s s i n C o l o m b i a , Denver, C o l o r a d o : U n i v e r s i t y o f Denver P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1972, p.36. ^ R e n n e r , Education i n Colombia, 18  p.86.  A l v a r a d o , A n a l i s i s de l a E d u c a c i o n en C o l o m b i a , 1 9  2 0  R e n n e r , Education i n Colombia, Ibid.,  p.68.  p.75.  p.31.  - 69 -  CHAPTER V CONCLUSION : IDEALISM VS. REALITY A p e s a r de l a s d i f i c u l t a d e s que t o d a v f a se l e p r e s e n t a n a l d e s e n v o l v i m i e n t o de l o s p l a n e s educac i o n l s t a s , es e v i d e n t e que l a E s c u e l a P r i m a r i a c o lombiana ha experimentado un n o t a b l e d e s a r r o l l o en todas sus aVeas. ( I n s p i t e o f t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s which a r e s t i l l p r e s e n t e d t o t h e development o f the e d u c a t i o n p l a n s , i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t t h e Colombian p r i m a r y s c h o o l has e x p e r i e n c e d , a n o t a b l e development i n e v e r y a r e a . ) l The  above statement was made by t h e M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n  i n 1962. By 1965, i t was e v i d e n t t h a t t h i s s u c c e s s was a l i m i t e d one.  The programs o f t h e p e r i o d 1955 t o 1965 had been o n l y p a r -  t i a l l y implemented.  The Colombian government had been s t r i v i n g  f o r t o o much i n t o o s h o r t a t i m e .  R e a l i s t i c g o a l s must be s e t  i f t h e t a r g e t s a r e t o be reached and n o t f a l l s h o r t o f t h e p l a n ners  T  aspirations.  The gap between i d e a l and r e a l i t y c a n be  seen i n e v e r y a r e a o f e d u c a t i o n  reform.  The C o l o m b i a n government attempted l a t i v e r e f o r m s passed  t o implement t h e l e g i s -  from 1955 t o l o 6 5 , b u t f a i l e d t o a c h i e v e  the e s t a b l i s h e d o b j e c t i v e s . The model s c h o o l s proved s u c c e s s f u l i n t h e i r l i m i t e d c a p a c i t y , b u t t h e i d e a s and methods t h a t a r e used i n these s c h o o l s s h o u l d have some i n f l u e n c e on t h e r e s t o f the s c h o o l s .  I f t h e i n n o v a t i o n s used i n model s c h o o l s a r e n o t  c a r r i e d over i n t o the g e n e r a l s o c i e t y , r e s e a r c h such as t h i s has no v a l u e .  -  70  -  The government committed i t s e l f t o u n i v e r s a l p r i m a r y educ a t i o n by c h a n n e l i n g a good percentage towards t h i s g o a l .  o f i t s n a t i o n a l budget  Much o f the money went towards i n c r e a s e d  school c o n s t r u c t i o n .  I t was  made the g r e a t e s t s t a t i s t i c a l  i n t h i s a r e a t h a t the government improvement i n r u r a l  education.  The number o f r u r a l s c h o o l s almost d o u b l e d , b u t many o f new  s c h o o l s d i d n o t i n c l u d e the f u l l f i v e y e a r s .  these  The aims t h a t  the government s e t i n i t s s c h o o l b u i l d i n g program were too o p t i mistic. was  Because o f the poor economic s i t u a t i o n , the government  f o r c e d t o s e t more r e a l i s t i c t a r g e t s . The emphasis on r u r a l e d u c a t i o n was  teacher increase. from 44:1  i n 1954  a l s o o b v i o u s i n the  The r u r a l s t u d e n t : t e a c h e r r a t i o t o 39:1  i n 1963.  I n both s c h o o l c o n s t r u c t i o n  and t e a c h e r s u p p l y , the government was  c a r r y i n g out i t s promise  t o improve r u r a l s c h o o l i n g . However, i n 1964, lifications  decreased  t e a c h e r s ' qua-  were s t i l l v e r y poor i n the r u r a l s c h o o l s .  Nineteen  p e r c e n t had o n l y p r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n compared t o the n a t i o n a l average o f e i g h t p e r c e n t . h i r i n g standards.  The government f a i l e d t o e n f o r c e  They d i d n o t attempt  t o encourage b e t t e r qua-  l i f i e d t e a c h e r s to move t o the r u r a l areas by o f f e r i n g benefits.  I n 1965,  the  the r u l e o f t e a c h e r placement was  o f p o l i t i c a l i n f l u e n c e . Those t e a c h e r s who  knew the  p e o p l e found the b e s t j o b s , no m a t t e r what t h e i r  salary still  one  right  qualifications.  2  - 71 -  The number o f r u r a l s c h o o l b u i l d i n g s i n c r e a s e d b u t t h e r u r a l c h i l d i n many areas was s t i l l a t t e n d i n g o n l y h a l f - t i m e because o f t h e a l t e r n a t e d s c h o o l s e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1958. measure undoubtedly figures f a i l  i n c r e a s e d the enrollment percentage.  t o mention what percentage  o n l y r e c e i v i n g h a l f an e d u c a t i o n .  This The  o f those e n r o l l e d were  Few r u r a l c h i l d r e n were a t t e n -  d i n g t h e f u l l f i v e y e a r s because o f t h e h i g h dropout r a t e and the s h o r t a g e o f f i v e y e a r s c h o o l s . was  U n i v e r s a l primary  education  s t i l l a myth i n t h e r u r a l areas o f C o l o m b i a . The government d i d e f f e c t l i m i t e d changes i n t h e e d u c a t i o n a l  s i t u a t i o n , b u t t h e r e were a l s o o t h e r o b s t a c l e s which t h e government had f a i l e d t o c o n s i d e r i n i t s p l a n s t o s u p p l y e d u c a t i o n t o all.  I n 1965,  o n l y 237» o f t h e p r i m a r y s t u d e n t s completed t h e  cycle.  The reasons  f o r t h i s h i g h dropout r a t e a r e mentioned i n  Chapter  I V . The government w i l l need t o make s e r i o u s e f f o r t s t o  f i n d a s o l u t i o n t o t h i s problem.  I f better qualified  teachers  a r e t r u l y d e s i r e d , t h e government w i l l have t o c o n s t r u c t normal s c h o o l s i n t h e p o o r e r departments and s u p p l y s c h o l a r s h i p s t o encourage r u r a l s t u d e n t s t o e n t e r t e a c h i n g .  A l t h o u g h t h e economic  s i t u a t i o n o f t h e c o u n t r y a f f e c t s t h e amount o f money i n t h e nat i o n a l b u d g e t , t h e government must l e g i s l a t e an i n c r e a s e i n l o c a l t a x e s so t h a t t h e m u n i c i p a l governments can take over a g r e a t e r share o f t h e f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .  The m u n i c i p a l governments  a r e dominated by w e a l t h y landowners who have t r a d i t i o n a l l y d i s -  - 72 -  couraged any  i n c r e a s e i n l o c a l t a x e s ; t h e r e have been a t t e m p t s t o  pass b i l l s i n the f e d e r a l government l e g i s l a t i n g an i n c r e a s e i n l o c a l taxes but  they have f a i l e d to pass i n C o n g r e s s , a g a i n  be-  cause o f landowner l o b b i e s . The  government has  established s u f f i c i e n t objectives yet i t  has made slow p r o g r e s s i n i t s g o a l t o a c h i e v e u n i v e r s a l p r i m a r y education.  A question  whether c o n t i n u e d a desired  t h a t s h o u l d be asked a t t h i s p o i n t i s  e f f o r t s t o a c h i e v e t h i s g o a l w i l l b r i n g about  result.  SITUATION SINCE  Reforms and  1965  governmental statements s i n c e 1965  demonstrate  the c o n t i n u i n g importance the government p l a c e s on the ment o f u n i v e r s a l p r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n . i n 1968,  The  achieve-  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e reform  d e s i g n e d t o g i v e g r e a t e r s u p e r v i s o r y c o n t r o l o f educa-  t i o n e x p e n d i t u r e s t o the n a t i o n a l government, and P l a n o f 1967,  d e s i g n e d t o improve e d u c a t i o n a l  examples o f the emphasis on t h i s s e c t o r .  The  the Emergency  conditions,  are  e f f e c t i v e n e s s of  these r e f o r m s cannot be judged u n t i l l a t e r s t a t i s t i c s are a v a i lable. The C o n s e r v a t i v e  P a r t y has  stated i n i t s platform  that  " e l problema fundamental de l a m a y o r i a de l o s p a r s e s subdesarrol l a d o s , no es l a p o b r e z a de l o s r e c u r s o s n a t u r a l e s , s i n o e l  - 73 -  s u b d e s a r r o l l o de sus r e c u r s o s humanos, p o r t a n t o l a p r i m e r a t a r e a de e s t o s p a i s e s es l a f o r m a c i o n d e l c a p i t a l humano." mental problem o f t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e underdeveloped  (The fundacountries i s  n o t t h e p o v e r t y o f t h e n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s b u t t h e underdevelopment o f i t s human r e s o u r c e s , t h e r e f o r e the f i r s t t a s k o f these coun3 t r i e s i s t h e f o r m a t i o n o f human c a p i t a l . ) 1967  The Emergency P l a n o f  s t a t e d t h a t "one o f t h e p o i n t s o f t h e N a t i o n a l F r o n t i s t o  p l a c e e d u c a t i o n on l e v e l s w i t h i n r e a c h o f t h e p e o p l e , and i t i s t h e r e f o r e t h e duty o f t h e government t o b r i n g about permanent improvement i n t h e q u a l i t y o f e d u c a t i o n and t o i n c r e a s e t h e edu4  c a t i o n a l system's c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e n a t i o n a l w e l f a r e . 1965,  Since  t h e government has c o n t i n u e d t o make b r o a d statements and  to l e g i s l a t e reforms d e s i g n e d  t o make u n i v e r s a l p r i m a r y  education  a r e a l i t y i n Colombia. ALTERNATIVES TO UNIVERSAL PRIMARY EDUCATION IN COLOMBIA  E d u c a t i o n i s a major c o n c e r n i n many d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s . The U n i t e d N a t i o n s c o n s i d e r s a b a s i c e d u c a t i o n t o be t h e d e m o c r a t i c right of a l l .  The Colombian government has r e p e a t e d  times i t s p o s i t i o n on u n i v e r s a l p r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n .  innumerable Does t h e em-  p h a s i s on u n i v e r s a l p r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n mean t h a t o t h e r areas  will  s u f f e r and what a r e t h e consequences o f Colombia's c o n c e n t r a t i n g a m a j o r i t y o f i t s e d u c a t i o n expenses on t h e p r i m a r y s e c t o r ?  - 74 -  There are c o n t r a s t i n g views on whether u n i v e r s a l p r i m a r y education i s a p r a c t i c a l goal.  A c c o r d i n g to some e x p e r t s , secon-  d a r y e d u c a t i o n s h o u l d have the l a r g e s t c l a i m o f the e d u c a t i o n a l budget, even up t o f o r t y p e r c e n t , i n o r d e r t o meet the needs o f 5  t r a i n e d manpower.  A n o t h e r w r i t e r on e d u c a t i o n says t h a t p r i m a r y  e d u c a t i o n i s n o t enough; a p o p u l a t i o n w i t h some e d u c a t i o n wants 6  more.  Others c o n t i n u e t o s u p p o r t the d e m o c r a t i c  cation for a l l .  i d e a l o f edu-  "When the compulsory p r i m a r y s c h o o l has ended  a l l i l l i t e r a c y and s o l v e d the problems p e r t a i n i n g t o  illiteracy  i t w i l l be time to e x t e n d e d u c a t i o n upwards t o c r e a t e and h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . "  "There a r e two reasons  secondary  for continuing  to s t r i v e f o r u n i v e r s a l p r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n i n Colombia: m i g r a t i o n o f peasants  t o towns f o r urban employment r e q u i r e s  t h a t they have a t l e a s t b a s i c l i t e r a c y . h e l p s i n the p o l i t i c a l  1) the  2) p r i m a r y  education  and s o c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n o f the people  by  8  e s t a b l i s h i n g common v a l u e s and a sense o f n a t i o n a l i t y . "  The  l a s t two o p i n i o n s a r e c e r t a i n l y v a l i d reasons f o r a i m i n g f o r u n i v e r s a l primary education.  At what c o s t w i l l u n i v e r s a l p r i m a r y  e d u c a t i o n be a c h i e v e d i n Colombia a t whatever date i n the f u t u r e t h a t may  be?  The Colombian government has t r a d i t i o n a l l y been by a c l o s e d e l i t e .  monopolized  I n the v i e w o f t h i s g o v e r n i n g e l i t e ,  primary  e d u c a t i o n i s an a d m i r a b l e g o a l which w i l l demonstrate the democ r a t i c foundations of Colombia. e l e c t i o n time.  I t i s a l s o a good program a t  The q u e s t i o n f o r Colombian p o l i t i c i a n s i s whether  - 75 -  through t h e b a c k i n g o f a p o p u l a r program, such as u n i v e r s a l p r i mary e d u c a t i o n , they may be c r e a t i n g f r u s t r a t i o n amongst those p e o p l e who have a few y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g and a r e u n a b l e nue.  to conti-  Emphasis on p u r e l y p r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n w i l l r e s u l t i n l e s s  money a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e secondary  level.  T a b l e I V on page 36 g i v e s t h e percentage  o f e d u c a t i o n a l ex-  p e n d i t u r e s i n t h e v a r i o u s s e c t o r s f o r 1961, 1963 and 1965. Educ a t i o n a l expenses i n t h e p r i m a r y l e v e l i n c r e a s e d i n t h i s p e r i o d . The o p e r a t i n g expenses i n t h e secondary 10.4%  l e v e l decreased  from  t o 8.2%, i n the normal s c h o o l s from 6.7% t o 3.6%, i n h i g h e r  e d u c a t i o n from 1.5% t o 1.3%, w h i l e t h e i n v e s t m e n t expenses f o r a l l secondary  education decreased  from 4 3 % t o 30%.  I t i s inevi-  table that the other l e v e l s o f education w i l l r e c e i v e a smaller amount o f t h e e d u c a t i o n a l budget when t h e government i s concent t r a t i n g on t h e Improvement o f p r i m a r y  education.  I n a i m i n g f o r u n i v e r s a l p r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n and g i v i n g l e s s a t t e n t i o n t o t h e secondary  and h i g h e r l e v e l s , t h e C o l o m b i a n go-  vernment i s c r e a t i n g a c l a s s o f p e o p l e who w i l l have a few y e a r s o f e d u c a t i o n and w i l l n o t have t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o go on t o t h e next l e v e l .  The m i d d l e c l a s s i n a c o u n t r y l i k e C o l o m b i a a r e  u s u a l l y those who have secondary  e d u c a t i o n ; an i n c r e a s i n g m i d d l e  c l a s s i s e s s e n t i a l t o t h e f u r t h e r economic and p o l i t i c a l ment o f t h e c o u n t r y . lities,  W i t h o u t adequate secondary  the middle c l a s s w i l l not i n c r e a s e .  develop-  education  faci-  On t h e o t h e r hand,  - 76  -  an i n c r e a s i n g m i d d l e c l a s s would undoubtedly c h a l l e n g e the p o l i t i c a l power o f the Colombian  elite.  Amongst the urban working c l a s s e s who have r e c e i v e d some o f the b e n e f i t s o f t h e government's emphasis on p r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n , t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e t h a t they may n o t be s a t i s f i e d w i t h o n l y a few years of schooling.  I n t h e 1970 e l e c t i o n , t h e p e o p l e  expressed  t h e i r d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the p o l i c i e s o f t h e N a t i o n a l F r o n t government.  F o r t h e f i r s t time i n Colombian  h i s t o r y , the t r a d i -  t i o n a l p a r t i e s almost l o s t t h e i r p o s i t i o n i n a democratic  election.  G e n e r a l R o j a s P i n i l l a and h i s p o p u l i s t movement, A l i a n z a N a c i o n a l P o p u l a r won 39.27 o f t h e v o t e s w i t h the C o n s e r v a t i v e c a n d i d a t e o f a  the N a t i o n a l F r o n t w i n n i n g 40.67».  ANAPO has d e r i v e d i t s s t r e n g t h  from t h e d i s a f f e c t e d l o w e r c l a s s e s who have s u b s t i t u t e d the t r a d i t i o n a l L i b e r a l - C o n s e r v a t i v e s p l i t w i t h the d i v i s i o n between t h e haves and the h a v e - n o t s .  R o j a s was c o n s i d e r e d by many t o be " t h e  c a n d i d a t e o f the poor who would change t h e i r c o n d i t i o n s and edu9 cate t h e i r c h i l d r e n . " I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t R o j a s d i d w e l l where l i t e r a c y was h i g h e r , and the C o n s e r v a t i v e v o t e was 10 h i g h e s t i n the l e s s - d e v e l oped areas where l i t e r a c y was low. Perhaps for  t h e s u p p o r t e r s o f Rojas P i n i l l a who d e s i r e more e d u c a t i o n  t h e i r c h i l d r e n may be t h e ones who w i l l c u t o f f a segment o f  the p o p u l a t i o n from any e d u c a t i o n a t a l l . There a r e two a l t e r n a t i v e s open t o Colombia.  The f i r s t i s  to c o n t i n u e a i m i n g f o r t h e d e m o c r a t i c g o a l o f u n i v e r s a l p r i m a r y  - 77 -  e d u c a t i o n and c o n c e n t r a t i n g i t s r e s o u r c e s i n t h i s s e c t o r .  This  may c r e a t e f r u s t r a t i o n amongst those groups who a r e c u t o f f from the h i g h e r l e v e l s o f e d u c a t i o n .  Because o f the r a p i d l y i n c r e a s i n g  urban p o p u l a t i o n s , j o b t r a i n i n g i s e s s e n t i a l .  The urban masses  may demand more than t h e government's nominal p r o v i s i o n o f a few years o f s c h o o l i n g . The o t h e r a l t e r n a t i v e f o r t h e government i s t o abandon a p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e s c h o o l - a g e p o p u l a t i o n t o i g n o r a n c e , which would undoubtedly  a f f e c t t h e r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n t h e g r e a t e s t , and d i s t r i -  b u t e the e d u c a t i o n a l budget through a l l l e v e l s .  W i t h o u t an ade-  quate b a s i c e d u c a t i o n , however, p e a s a n t s moving i n t o t h e c i t i e s will find i t difficult  t o cope w i t h t h e urban way o f l i f e .  On  the o t h e r hand, i t would s t r e n g t h e n the urban m i d d l e c l a s s who at p r e s e n t a r e v o c a l i n p u s h i n g f o r e d u c a t i o n a l r e f o r m and may r e s u l t i n an improved q u a l i t y o f e d u c a t i o n through b e t t e r q u a l i f i e d t e a c h e r s and a g r e a t e r p u b l i c awareness.  However, t h i s s e -  cond a l t e r n a t i v e i s n o t so p o p u l a r as a d e m o c r a t i c p o l i t i c a l form.  plat-  The Colombian government w i l l have t o d e c i d e t o what e x t e n t  o t h e r l e v e l s o f e d u c a t i o n s h o u l d be s a c r i f i c e d t o c o n t i n u e the emphasis on u n i v e r s a l p r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n , what e f f e c t t h i s may have on t h e development o f the c o u n t r y , and whether the d e m o c r a t i c ideal i s a realistic  g o a l i n the immediate f u t u r e .  - 78 -  1  Jaime Posada, Una P o l i t i c a E d u c a t i v a p a r a C o l o m b i a , V o l . 0 o f L a E d u c a c i 6 n en l o s C u a t r o Arfos de l a A d m i n i s t r a c±6rx L l e r a s , Bogota: Imprenta N a c i o n a l , 1963, p.62. 2 R i c h a r d R. Renner, E d u c a t i o n i n C o l o m b i a , U.S. D e p a r t ment o f H e a l t h and W e l f a r e , U n i v e r s i t y o f F l o r i d a , 1968, p.245. 3  A l v a r o H. C a i c e d o and o t h e r s , Una P o l i t i c a C o n s e r v a d o r a p a r a C o l o m b i a , Bogota: C e n t r o de E s t u d i o s Colombianos, 1969, p.81. 4 Renner, E d u c a t i o n i n C o l o m b i a , p.119 ^ F r e d e r i c k H a r b i s o n and C.A. Myers, E d u c a t i o n , Manpower and Economic Growth, New Y o r k : McGraw, 1964, p.83. 6 P h i l i p H. Coombs, The World E d u c a t i o n a l C r i s i s , New Y o r k : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1968. 7  J . L a r r e a , "Random Thoughts on the Economic B a s i s f o r E d u c a t i o n i n L a t i n A m e r i c a , " Comparative E d u c a t i o n Rev i e w , V o l . V I I , no.2 ( F e b r u a r y 1963), p.165. Claudio V e l i z (ed.), a Handbook, London: B l o n d , 9 J u d i t h T a l b o t Campos S h i f t i n Colombia, Beverly t i o n s , 1962, p.48. 10 I b i d . , p.52.  L a t i n A m e r i c a and t h e C a r i b b e a n : 1968, p.93. and John F. McCamant, C l e a v a g e H i l l s , C a l i f o r n i a : Sage P u b l i c a -  - 79 -  BIBLIOGRAPHY  - 80  -  BIBLIOGRAPHY Academia Colombiana de H i s t o r i a . L a L e g i s l a c i o n y e l Der e c h o en C o l o m b i a . V o l . X I V o f H i s t o r i a E x t e n s a d"e~ Colombia^ 15 v o l s . B o g o t a , 19637 Adams, D.W. and A.E. Havens. "The Use o f Socio-Economic R e s e a r c h i n D e v e l o p i n g a S t r a t e g y o f Change f o r R u r a l Communities: a Colombian Example," Economic Development and C u l t u r a l Change, v o l . XIV ( J a n u a r y 1 9 6 6 ) , pp.204Her.  A l v a r a d o , A l b e r t o and Eduardo C a r r a s q u i l l a . A n a l i s i s de l a E d u c a c i o n en C o l o m b i a . Bogota: C e n t r o de I n v e s t i g a c i b n y A c c i 6 n S o c i a l , 1969. A r r u b l a , M a r i o . E s t u d i o s sobre e l S u b d e s a r r o l l o Colombiano. 4 t h e d . B o g o t a : E d i c i o n e s E l T i g r e de P a p e l , 1971. 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C o l o m b i a , Ecuador and V e n e z u e l a : an A n n o t a t e d Guide t o R e f e r e n c e M a t e r i a l s i n the Humani t i e s and S o c i a l S c i e n c e s . Metuchen, New J e r s e y : Scare crow P r e s s , 1971. W e i l , Thomas E. A r e a Handbook f o r C o l o m b i a . P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1970.  U.S.  Army  W i l g u s , A. C u r t i s . The C a r i b b e a n : Contemporary C o l o m b i a . G a i n e s v i l l e : U n i v e r s i t y o f F l o r i d a P r e s s , 1962. W i l l i amson, R o b e r t C. " U n i v e r s i t y S t u d e n t s i n a World o f Change: a Colombian Sample," S o c i o l o g y and S o c i a l Res e a r c h , v o l . 4 8 , p a r t 4 ( 1 9 6 4 ) , pp.397-413. Yearbook o f the U n i t e d N a t i o n s , 1947-48.  -  86 -  APPENDIX  - 87 -  Graph I COMPARISON 7-14 l»"  J  ^EAR.  SCHOOL  OF  OLDS  THE  P O P U L A T I ON  A/VD  THE  E/VROllME/VT  0F  OF  P R I M A L THE  RESPECTIVE  v  -HiouttuvdO  AGE  GROUP:  I 9SI  - 19 6 5  1  Populate tlott 7-1 «•years vca o^axje.  7-H»gears of age  «  «  *H  ft  f»  ^3 fro 61  4* fc3 fcf 6*  -  COMPAR.ISO/Y 7-n  Y 5AH  SCHOOL (in  88  OF  OLDS  -  THE A/VO  ENROLLME/VT A 6£  POPULATION THE OF  PRIMARY THE  RESPECTIVE  GROUP.'IPfl-lSfe^  2  6»puLatU>tL  7-11 years of auje  &vrolbn«*tr  7-11 tj«ara  l«5l 5t  5J  J"? ft f?  S% $i bO  (.1 bl 65 <V  a^e  - 89 -  Tttg  1  COMPARISON  OF  TOTAL,  U.RBAW  TflOLLWeiVT  IN  PU6LIC  PIUMAIW  £ A  AND  R  SCHOOLS  OF 7. |i» V£AR, OLDS (in HAousarvd*) : \Q5l-\965"  AL  - 90 -  *.u*a^0MPAR.IS0fV OF ILLITERATES, A6ED mooo 7.15 lfl TH£ TOTAL POPULATION, llROAfV  L  P O P U L A T I O N A N D R U R A L P O P U L A T I O N OF RESPECTIVE A W GROUP:!951 - 1 9 6 4 4  Total Population (7-/5utar of S  I  1  ^  a-e) J  jooo  To taL. PopaLaJtl«*x  years » ^ a ^ « )  U.>bcuv R.u.va.1  Uvbarv  / 1951  69 % \  /Z4.'/.\ /  56  \  - 91 -  N U M B E R  \hl  OF  COLOMBIA  PUBLIC  PR\M/\RV  : TOTAL, U R B A N  1 9 5 1 - \<*$€  AND  SCHOOL RURAL  5  TokaL  luTO-l  Utoc  IJ5/  Si  «  St  S5  !(,  *7  St  iS  1,0  W  U  ii  ^  - 92 -  Q U A L I F I C A T I O N S  OF  T E A C H E R S ,  P R J M A R y  I96UI965-  SCHOOL *  Teachers |wiWv a. Degree-  »leacker* Octree  iTcacktrs wiHi primary WuIcabion only  P R I M A R Y  SCHOOL YfiAR.  '  U-fbarv popaLa.bion »f linear i U  U i  s  ^NFiVHi  >  E D U C A T I O N  R-fcSp«cbwe. n,rbaw 9*«up pcpu-la-bCtfrv  fl&es R u r ^ L p-«?pala.+ioK. II year o L d s  S o a  II  *fiar  10, P7J  Urt^» enrolment J  avban population.  ^51^70  of- lo tjtar oL<ii  243  Ilk r u b r a l efcreUiueul-  urbanfcuT^LUweutl97,<fS" \JLrban popalatiorv 9 week «L<U in^iwr  Rural populationj 9 ijear oUU 435, 41 r  Thira wear  T h i r 4 wear r u r a l enrolment  urban. inroULmetd. Hl,LTt  fcl,©96  R a r « i p»puialu>rv •f 8ueWr' o l d * «S,9o9  Urban papaUxtlon. 2ncl Seconal ueor urban enrollment  ItrlbAA r«/«aSr J l a s  g  Seccni. ij«ar- rural  tf|  Isb  Writ «*«••»• rural > enroluviervt l \ % \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ ^  \\\\\\\\\N S-«5  10  S J J 3 ; 5  ^  J 3 £«  o  —  o w Q 9  © © o >  O  o  o  0  o o  o o  — — — ^* *"t*4***'*f*>««»f*l*«»«<l J RURAL I Thou»ojML»)  o  o o  -  94  -  NOTES •"•Albert A l v a r a d o and Eduardo C a r r a s q u i l l a , A n a l i s i s de l a E d u c a c i o n en C o l o m b i a , Bogota: C e n t r o de I n v e s t i g a c i o n y A c c i o n S o c i a l , 1969, p.68. 2lbid. 3  Ibid.,  p.69.  4u.N., S t a t i s t i c a l Yearbook, 1969^ p.142 and A l v a r a d o , A n a l i s i s de l a E d u c a c i o n en C o l o m b i a ,  p.65.  5 A l v a r a d o , A n a l i s i s de l a E d u c a c i o n en C o l o m b i a ,  p.70.  6  Ibid.  R i c h a r d R. Renner, E d u c a t i o n i n C o l o m b i a , U.S. Department o f H e a l t h and W e l f a r e , U n i v e r s i t y o f F l o r i d a , 1968, p.158. 7  

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