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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Air transportation and the human environment 1973

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AIR TRANSPORTATION AND THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT by RORY WILLIAM WELLINGS B.A.Sc, U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Colombia, 1967 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION i n the F a c u l t y of Commerce and Business A d m i n i s t r a t i o n We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the req u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1973 i i In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the r e q u i r e - ments f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t - f r e e l y a v a i l - able f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree that permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s represent- a t i v e s . I t i s understood th a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission. F a c u l t y o f Commerce and Business A d m i n i s t r a t i o n The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada A p r i l , 1973 ABSTRACT The o b j e c t i v e o f t h i s study i s to i n v e s t i g a t e the e x i s t i n g a i r and noise p o l l u t i o n abatement l e g i s l a t i o n i n Canada as i t r e l a t e s to the a i r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n d u s t r y , and suggest methods of improving t h i s l e g i s l a t i o n to meet the f u t u r e needs and demands of the human environment. A second o b j e c t i v e i s to provide g u i d e l i n e s f o r business and govern- ment a c t i o n i n the f u t u r e , and to acquaint the i n d i v i d u a l w i t h some of the i s s u e s of the "environmental era of a i r t r a n s - p o r t a t i o n . " Based on personal i n t e r v i e w , an extensive l i t e r a t u r e search, and the a p p l i c a t i o n of business p r i n c i p l e s , t h i s study addresses the t e c h n i c a l , economic and s o c i a l problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the f o r m u l a t i o n and implementation of e f f e c t i v e environmental l e g i s l a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , i t d i s - cusses the r o l e s of business and government i n each of these problem areas. The t h e s i s concludes that the Canadian l e g a l system must undergo s t r u c t u r a l change to accommodate environmental i s s u e s ; a 1973 Noise C o n t r o l Act should be passed; and a f e d e r a l l y supported environmental education program should be i n s t i t u t e d . Other conclusions include recommendations f o r increased research on the e f f e c t s of the sonic boom and inad v e r t e n t climate m o d i f i c a t i o n , increased i n t e r n a t i o n a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n environmental a f f a i r s , and an improved market system to r e f l e c t environmental goods as scarce i v r esources. This t h e s i s a l s o recommends increased government- i n d u s t r y cooperation i n the f o r m u l a t i o n of t e c h n i c a l and non- t e c h n i c a l standards and l e g i s l a t i o n , to ensure t h a t reason- able and s p e c i f i c c r i t e r i a are e s t a b l i s h e d f o r noise and a i r p o l l u t i o n abatement. The most important recommendation of t h i s t h e s i s i s t h a t a macro system approach be adopted i n environmental management. This approach, which recognizes i n t e r a c t i o n s and feedback i n the s o c i a l , economic and p o l i t i c a l environment, i s v i t a l to the f u t u r e of A i r T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and the Human Environment. TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I . INTRODUCTION 1.1 The Human Environment 1.2 A Conceptual Framework f o r A n a l y s i s . . . . 1.3 A i r and Noise P o l l u t i o n "by T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Mode 1.3.1 A i r P o l l u t i o n 1.3.2 Noise P o l l u t i o n 1. h C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Canadian A i r T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Industry l . ^ f . l Common C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 1.^.2 Unique C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s l . * f . 3 Summary 1.5 I n t e r n a t i o n a l I m p l i c a t i o n s of Domestic L e g i s l a t i o n 1.6 Summary I I . AIR AND NOISE POLLUTION ABATEMENT LEGISLATION IN CANADA 2.1 State of the A r t 2.2 The 1971 Clean A i r Act 2.3 Noise P o l l u t i o n and the Law 2. M- Problems of Mixed J u r i s d i c t i o n 2 .5 Law as S o c i a l P o l i c y 2.6 Landmarks i n Environmental L a w — A i r T r a n s p o r t a t i o n 2.7 I n t e r n a t i o n a l Agreement on Noise Levels and A i r P o l l u t i o n Standards . . . . 2.8 Summary I I I . THE EXISTING LEGISLATION: TECHNICAL PROBLEMS AND IMPACT 3.1 Environmental A l t e r a t i o n , Weather and Climate 3.2 Noise and A i r p o r t L o c a t i o n 3.2.1 Reducing the Exposure t o Noise . . . 3.2.2 The E x p r o p r i a t i o n Act of Canada . . 3.3 Design Problems and the Future 3.3.1 STOL/VTOL Noise and A i r P o l l u t i o n . 3.3.2 Commercial J e t A i r c r a f t (Sub-sonic) 3.3.2.1 A i r c r a f t Smoke Reduction . 3.3.2.2 A i r c r a f t Noise Reduction . 3.3.3 Supersonic J e t A i r c r a f t 3.3.3.1 The Sonic Boom 3.3.3.2 Ground L e v e l Noise . . . . 3. U- F u e l Consumption and A i r P o l l u t i o n Trends . 3.5 Summary v i CHAPTER Page IV. THE EXISTING LEGISLATION: ECONOMIC PROBLEMS AND IMPACT 9 9 Environmental Economics 9 9 * * . 1 . 1 Resource S c a r c i t y 1 0 3 * f . l . 2 E x t e r n a l i t i e s 1 0 5 • + . 2 The Environmental Market System 1 0 7 ^ . 2 . 1 Command Economy or Extended Market System 1 0 9 U - . 2 . 2 P u b l i c P o l i c y and Environmental C o n t r o l 1 1 0 ^ . 3 Economic Costs and Incentives r e : P o l l u t i o n 1 1 6 k.h Environmental Q u a l i t y and I n t e r n a t i o n a l Trade 1 2 0 h.5 Summary 1 2 6 V. THE EXISTING LEGISLATION: SOCIAL PROBLEMS AND IMPACT 1 2 8 5 . 1 Noise and Human Tolerance 1 2 9 5 . 2 P e r s p e c t i v e s and Pressure Groups 1 3 1 5 . 3 Response to S o c i a l Pressures 1 3 2 5 . H- Environmental Education 1 3 5 5 . 5 Summary 1 3 6 V I . THE ROLE OF BUSINESS 1 3 8 6 . 1 P o l l u t i o n , a New Dimension f o r Business . . 1 3 8 6 . 2 T e c h n i c a l Role—The Importance of Input . . IH-2 6 . 3 Economic Role—The P r o f i t Motive 1 ^ 2 6 . M- S o c i a l R o l e — S o c i a l R e s p o n s i b i l i t y and Business 6 . 5 S o c i a l R o l e — V o l u n t a r y A c t i o n IM-5 6 . 6 Competition and Regu l a t i o n lM-o 6 . 7 Summary 1 ^ 9 V I I . THE ROLE OF GOVERNMENT 1 5 1 7 . 1 Environmental C o n t r o l and Levels of Government 1 5 1 7 . 2 T e c h n i c a l R o l e — P l a n n i n g . 1 5 ^ 7 . 3 Economic R o l e — I n t e r n a l i z i n g E x t e r n a l i t i e s 1 5 8 7. *f Economic Role—Degree of Regulation . . . . loO 7 . 5 S o c i a l R o l e — P l a n n i n g and Education . . . . 1 6 1 7 . 6 Summary 1 6 > V I I I . SUMMARY 1 6 5 8 . 1 Linkages, Feedback, and the Human Environment 1 6 5 8 . 2 Recommendations f o r Future A c t i o n 1 6 9 8 . 3 C l o s i n g Remarks 1 7 1 BIBLIOGRAPHY 1 7 3 v i i LIST OF TABLES TABLE Page I . A Comparison of T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Modes 8 I I . A Comparison o f Noise Levels by T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Vehicle 13 I I I . Major Changes i n A v i a t i o n 1936-1973 59 IV. Proposed R e v i s i o n t o Present L e g i s l a t i v e S t r u c t u r e 61 V. C l i m a t i c Changes Produced by C i t i e s 65 VI. Estimated Annual Costs of P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l — A i r 117 v i i i LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS FIGURE Page 1 . 1 Percentage Share of World A i r l i n e T r a f f i c 1 9 7 0 by Major A i r l i n e s and Groups 1 9 1 . 2 North A t l a n t i c Route: Market Share by Major A i r l i n e s or Groups, 1 9 ^ 5 - 1 9 7 0 1 9 2 . 1 Nat ional A i r Quality Objectives 3 0 2 . 2 The Formation of S o c i a l P o l i c y 3 . 1 The Major Steps and Timing o f the CIAP Pro ject , . 6 8 3 . 2 F l i g h t P r o f i l e for Noise Abatement 7 2 3 . 3 Expropr ia t ion for A i r p o r t Expansion 8h 3 . i f The Past and Future of A v i a t i o n 9 2 3 . 5 A i r p o r t Noise Level Measurement Locations . . . . 9h *4-.l Free Goods and Economic Goods 1 0 1 k.2 Publ ic Goods and Private Goods 1 0 3 6 . 1 Pressures on a Manager Concerning an A i r P o l l u t i o n Problem I * f 0 6 . 2 H i s t o r i c a l Relat ionship between Publ ic Confidence i n Business and Government Res t r i c t ions on Business lh-7 7 . 1 Focusing Urban/Regional Planning and A i r Resource Management on A i r P o l l u t i o n Problems 1 5 5 7 . 2 An Integrated Approach to A i r P o l l u t i o n Problems 1 5 7 8 . 1 The "Unrestrained Market" Approach 1 6 6 8 . 2 The "Agency C o n t r o l " Approach 1 6 6 8 . 3 The "Economics versus Environment" Approach . . . 1 6 7 8 . ^ An "Integrated"Approach 1 6 7 ix ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS During the research phase of t h i s study I r e c e i v e d the advice and encouragement from many i n d i v i d u a l s . I was fortuna t e to have a t h e s i s committee which i n s p i r e d me to research an area i n which l i t t l e had been published u n t i l 1970. Pro f e s s o r K a r l M. Ruppenthal, my t h e s i s chairman, has been a f r i e n d , teacher, and valuable source of current i n f o r m a t i o n and guidance. P r o f e s s o r J.W.C. Tomlinson has given me d i r e c - t i o n and i n s i g h t i n t o the i n t e r n a t i o n a l business environment, an environment which i s p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t to the a i r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n d u s t r y . Professor Ian Heggie has introduced me to the economic aspects of p o l l u t i o n and has i n s p i r e d me to delve i n t o t h i s important area of research. The f i n a l product of the research undertaken, as represented i n t h i s t h e s i s , i s t o t a l l y my own and I remain s o l e l y r e s ponsible f o r any e r r o r s or omissions. I would l i k e to express my a p p r e c i a t i o n to the Trans- p o r t a t i o n Development Agency, whose f i n a n c i a l support enabled me to c a r r y out t h i s research. I would a l s o l i k e to thank my mother f o r t y p i n g t h i s t h e s i s and my w i f e , Margaret, and daughter, Paula, f o r t h e i r kindness, encouragement, and under- standing during the l a s t two years at graduate school. F i n a l l y , t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n i s r e s p e c t f u l l y dedicated to a very s p e c i a l person i n my l i f e , my l a t e grandmother, Mrs. E l i z a b e t h McClintock. CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1 . 1 The Human Environment No human a c t i v i t y i s more a f f e c t e d by i t s environment than t r a n s p o r t . Probably, a l s o , no other human a c t i v i t y , w i t h the exc e p t i o n of war, has more e f f e c t on the environment of human beings. There i s no greater challenge to t r a n s p o r t a t i o n today than the human environment. The "tragedy of the common"— the e x p l o i t a t i o n of resources t h a t everyone owns, but no one cares f o r — i s not p e c u l i a r t o Canada. I t i s an i n t e r n a t i o n a l p a t t i t u d e . Only r e c e n t l y has man begun to t h i n k i n terms of a s i n g l e complex ecosystem—spaceship e a r t h — a n d r e a l i z e t h a t "man and h i s environment" are not separate e n t i t i e s . ^ Even more r e c e n t l y man has come to the r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t h i s "... apparent dominion over the environment i s but a l i c e n s e from XH.W. Mander, "The Q u a l i t y o f B r i t i s h Transport" i n Transno ' 6 9 The Environmental Aspects of T r a n s p o r t a t i o n (London: I m p e r i a l C o l l e g e , S o c i e t y of Environmental Engineers, 1969 )> p. 1 . 2 Department of the Environment, Canada and the Human Environment (Ottawa: Information Canada, 1 9 7 2 ) , p. 2 0 . ^John A. Day, F r e d e r i c F. F o s t , and Peter Rose, Dimensions of the Environmental C r i s i s (New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1 9 7 D » 2 nature w i t h a fee yet to be pa i d . " J u s t yesterday the average c i t i z e n i n Canada was not i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e o r i e s of e n v i r o n - mental management beyond the o c c a s i o n a l l i p - s e r v i c e to conser- v a t i o n . But today, w i t h h i s water t a s t i n g bad and d i s c o l o r e d , h i s a i r s m o g - f i l l e d , and h i s countryside d i s f i g u r e d , he i s g e t t i n g the message. I t i s not only the "average c i t i z e n " who i s r e a c t i n g to environmental degradation but a l s o the heads of a i r l i n e s , governmental l e a d e r s , c i t i z e n s about to have t h e i r property e x p r o p r i a t e d and community planners. A i r l i n e s are accused of eroding the n a t u r a l environment through a i r p o l l u t i o n and n o i s e , yet when p o l l u t i o n obscures v i s i b i l i t y , no one can be more immediately concerned than the c a p t a i n o f the a i r l i n e r . S i m i l a r l y when noise reaches c e r t a i n l e v e l s , the impact i s unfavorable to the a i r l i n e ' s customers and i t s employees.^ The term "human environment" can be defined i n a number of ways, perhaps the best being simply the world we l i v e i n . V i c t o r John Yannacone, J r . and P a t r i c k F r a n g e l l a , "Environmental Concern—The Law and A v i a t i o n , " i n Master P l a n - n i n g the A v i a t i o n Environment T ed. by Angelo J . Cerchione, V i c t o r E. Rothe, and James V e r c e l l i n o (Tucson, A r i z o n a : The U n i v e r s i t y of Arizona P r e s s , 1 9 7 0 ) , p. 3 6 8 . ^ C h r i s t i a n de Laet, "The P o l l u t i o n Problem," i n Economic Thinking and P o l l u t i o n Problems, ed. by D.A.L. Auld ( T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto Press, 1 9 7 2 ) , p. 1 2 5 . ^ S t u a r t G. Ti p t o n , " A v i a t i o n ' s Three Environments," i n Master Planning the A v i a t i o n Environment T ed. by Angelo J . Cerchione, V i c t o r E. Rothe, and James V e r c e l l i n o (Tucson, A r i z o n a : The U n i v e r s i t y of Arizona Press, 1 9 7 0 ) , p. 2 3 . 3 1 . 2 A Conceptual Framework f o r A n a l y s i s A i r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems can be defined on at l e a s t three l e v e l s of complexity. The f i r s t i s defined by technology, and i n c l u d e s such v a r i a b l e s as p h y s i c a l and performance charac- t e r i s t i c s of the a i r c r a f t , c o s t , duty c y c l e , and r e l i a b i l i t y / m a i n t a i n a b i l i t y . In the e a r l i e s t days of a v i a t i o n t h i s l e v e l of complexity was a s u i t a b l e mode of opera t i o n and represented a co-alignment of the barnstorming p i l o t w i t h h i s r e l a t i v e l y u n spoiled p h y s i c a l environment and unexplored business e n v i r o n - ment. The second l e v e l i s a more complex operating system l e v e l defined i n terms of a i r c r a f t f l e e t , ground f a c i l i t i e s , and operating p o l i c i e s and procedures. An a n a l y s i s a t t h i s l e v e l would r e v e a l network schedules, c a p a c i t i e s , t r i p times, f a r e s , f l e e t s i z e o p t i m i z a t i o n , the economic aspects of c a p i - t a l i z a t i o n and revenue, and perhaps the impact of s p e c i f i c economic and s o c i a l segments of the environment. W i t h i n t h i s framework one might analyze the environment of rad a r , runways, o and t e r m i n a l s . The t h i r d l e v e l i s the s o c i a l system l e v e l of a n a l y s i s . This i s the l e v e l I s h a l l use f o r my study. In order to study the complex of a i r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s e r v i c e s w i t h i n r e g i o n a l , n a t i o n a l , and i n t e r n a t i o n a l boundaries one must look at i n t e r - ?E.S. Diamant, "Earth-Transportation Macro Systems," (one l e c t u r e i n a s e r i e s on Macro Systems, A n a l y s i s and Synthes i s of Complex Systems, presented at the U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a E x t e n s i o n , San F r a n c i s c o , C a l i f o r n i a , November, 1 9 6 8 ) , pp. 1 - 6 . ^ T i p t o n , " A v i a t i o n ' s Three Environments," p. 2 3 . 1+ a c t i o n s and feedback e f f e c t s both w i t h i n and i n the e n v i r o n - ment around the operating system. The operating system shapes and i n t u r n i s shaped by the s o c i a l , economic, and p o l i t i c a l environment w i t h i n which i t operates.^ These environmental c o m p l e x i t i e s have a d i r e c t impact on the decision-making f u n c t i o n of an a i r l i n e s o r g a n i z a t i o n and the a i r l i n e s must seek to understand them f o r s u r v i v a l . As J.D. Thompson points o u t : 1 0 S u r v i v a l r e s t s on the co-alignment of technology and task environment w i t h a v i a b l e domainj and of o r g a n i - z a t i o n a l design and s t r u c t u r e appropriate to t h a t domain. Thompson's emphasis on o r g a n i z a t i o n a l design and s t r u c t u r e i s important and, as we s h a l l see l a t e r , u n d e r l i e s a s u c c e s s f u l s t r a t e g y f o r d e a l i n g w i t h environmental problems such as noise abatement and r e d u c t i o n of a i r p o l l u t i o n . To understand a dynamic a i r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system, one must understand a l l of the elements, t h e i r f u n c t i o n s and i n t e r r e l a t i o n s . From such an understanding stems r a t i o n a l o p e r a t i o n and r e g u l a t i o n procedures which are tuned i n to the changing demands of the market and s o c i a l environment. From such understanding a l s o stems r a t i o n a l planning f o r new systems w i t h a view to meeting present needs and shaping the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of future demands. The main d i f f i c u l t y i n a c h i e v i n g such an understanding i s the higher u n c e r t a i n t y Q 7Diamant, "Ea r t h - T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Macro Systems," PP. 2-3. 1 0James D. Thompson, Organizations i n A c t i o n (New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1967), p. 1^5. 5 encountered as one progresses i n complexity from t e c h n i c a l problems to s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l problems."*"1 Obviously, the system i s too complex to provide a unique picture to a l l who are involved with i t , be i t as users ( t r a v e l l e r s or sh ippers ) , operators , p i l o t s , passive or act ive observers (e .g . res idents under the f l i g h t approach and take- off patterns at almost every major a i r p o r t ) , planners and regulators ( l o c a l or federa l agencies) , economists, or con- ces s iona i re s . From each separate viewpoint the system's elements rank d i f f e r e n t l y . So, while a l l are w i l l i n g to admit the complexity of the system, each w i l l recognize a d i f f e rent As Dr. K a r l M. Ruppenthal points out, "Technologica l problems we can so lve . A l l they require i s t e c h n i c a l s k i l l , adequate money, and a l i t t l e t ime . " K a r l M. Ruppenthal, "Some Socio economic Cons idera t ions , " i n A i r Transportat ion— A Forward Look, ed . by Kar l M. Ruppenthal (Stanford, C a l i f . : Graduate School of Business , Stanford U n i v e r s i t y , 1970), p. 160. I t i s the s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l problems which give r i se to the most d i f f i c u l t y . The relevancy of the ent i re quan- t i t a t i v e methodology used i n the exact sciences may no longer be v a l i d . It may wel l be that the primary emphasis needs to be placed on research methodologists s p e c i a l l y developed for s o c i a l system problems. See for instance Olaf Helmer, S o c i a l Technology (New York: Basic Books, 1966), and Olaf Helmer and Nicholas Rescher, "On the Epistemology of the Inexact Sc iences , " Management Science. V I , 1959. 6 1 2 set of elements as being most important. In the text that fol lows I have attempted to ob jec t ive ly present some of the t e c h n i c a l , economic, and s o c i a l factors inf luencing a i r and noise p o l l u t i o n abatement l e g i s l a t i o n i n Canada. I have also t r i e d to re late these factors to the determination of the appropriate ro les of government and the business en te rpr i s e . Throughout my thes i s I w i l l adopt a "macro" viewpoint and deal with the problems presented on a s o c i a l system l e v e l o f a n a l y s i s . * I n 1 9 6 9 , Straszheim pointed out tha t , "The various market and nonmarket consequences of in te rna t iona l a i r service include impacts on the t r a v e l l i n g p u b l i c , a i r l i n e owners and management, suppl iers of a i r c r a f t and other commodities, and governments and t h e i r const i tuent taxpayers. The formulation of an object ive funct ion which r e f l e c t s these e f fects i s a complex task invo lv ing a v a r i e t y of economic and p o l i t i c a l i s sue s . " Mahlon R. Straszheim, The Internat ional A i r l i n e Industry (Washington, D . C . : The Brookings I n s t i t u t i o n , 1 9 6 9 ) , pp. 1 6 - 1 7 . This i n t e r a c t i o n , suggested by Straszheim, i s further complicated by the complexities o f the human en- vironment, inc lud ing p o l l u t i o n , a topic which he completely ignores i n his otherwise informative book. 1.3 A i r and Noise P o l l u t i o n by Transportat ion Mode 7 Canada has a very t ransport-or iented society and economy, In 1967} the "average" Canadian t r a v e l l e d no less than 15 miles a day and generated no less than 3° ton-miles of f r e i gh t per day, the highest f igures for any nat ion i n the world. J Annual expenditures for both c a p i t a l and operating costs by private and publ ic t ranspor ta t ion , inc luding goods, amount to over 20$ o f Canada's Gross National Product. During the 1960s the number of a i r passengers i n Canada t r i p l e d , s u b s t a n t i a l l y exceeding the growths i n populat ion and .16 1 cr Gross National Product. J In t h e i r study on t ransporta t ion p o l l u t i o n Br i thwai te , C l a rke , Gunderson and Hor by stated: Present ind ica t ions are that by the year 2000, passenger t r a f f i c by road w i l l double, by r a i l and bus combined w i l l t r i p l e , and by a i r w i l l increase by a factor of 15. S i m i l a r l y f r e i gh t i s expected to double by water, t r i p l e by road, quadruple by r a i l and t ruck , and again increase by a factor of 15 for a i r ( a lbe i t s t i l l a small propor t ion) . As the a i r t r a v e l industry matures i t i s projected that i t w i l l cease to enjoy the disproportionate growth of the 1960s and that the rate of growth w i l l gradual ly decrease to approxi- mately the long-term forecast growth rate of the economy, that ^ D . J . Reynolds, The Urban Transport Problem. Urban Canada, Problems and Prospects , Research Monograph 3 (Ottawa: Cent ra l Mortgage and Housing Corporat ion, 1971) j P» 2 k . lU- E . Bra i thwai te , e t a l . , Transportat ion P o l l u t i o n (Sydney, N . S . : Canadian Coast Guard Co l l ege , 1972), p. 3 . ^Canadian A i r Transportat ion Admini s t ra t ion , P a c i f i c Region, Vancouver Internat ional A i r p o r t Proposed Expansion, Publ i c Information K i t (Vancouver, B . C . : Transport Canada, 1973), P. 3 . • ^Bra i thwai te , et a l . . Transportat ion P o l l u t i o n , p. h. 8 i s , about f i v e percent increase per annum i n G.N.P. i n r e a l 17 terms. 1 The new wide-bodied j e t s can c a r r y a considerable q u a n t i t y of a i r cargo even wi t h f u l l passenger l o a d s , and a i r - l i n e s p r e d i c t t h a t seventy percent of a l l cargo w i l l be 18 c a r r i e d i n passenger a i r c r a f t . I f t h i s p r e d i c t i o n comes true the prospects f o r increased a i r f r e i g h t are extremely b r i g h t . The t a b l e below i n d i c a t e s where a i r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ranks i n terms o f f r e i g h t and passenger miles compared to other t r a n s - p o r t a t i o n modes: TABLE I A COMPARISON OF TRANSPORTATION MODES Mode F r e i g h t (ton-miles) Passenger (miles) Road 12% "87% Pipe 23% R a i l 35% -* A i r <1% Water Source: E . B r a i t h w a i t e , et al.« T r a n s p o r t a t i o n P o l l u t i o n T T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Management Course, J u l y - August 1 9 7 2 , p. A comparison of t h i s t a b l e with data gathered i n 1 9 6 7 , 1 ^ some s i x years e a r l i e r , i n d i c a t e s an increase i n road f r e i g h t from 9 to 1 2 $ , and a decrease i n road passenger miles from 9 1 to 8 7 $ . R a i l f r e i g h t has decreased from * f l to 3 5 $ , and water f r e i g h t has increased from 2 5 to 3 0 $ . The only other s i g n i f i c a n t •^Canadian A i r T r a n s p o r t a t i o n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , P u b l i c Information K i t , p. 9 . l 8 I b l d . , p. 5 . ^ R e y n o l d s , The Urban Transport Problem T pp. 2 2 - 2 1 * - . 9 change has been an increase i n a i r passenger miles from h to 9$. With t h i s background one can analyze the a i r p o l l u t i o n and noise p o l l u t i o n produced by the various modes of transpor- t a t i o n to determine problem areas. 1.3.1. A i r P o l l u t i o n The most serious elements i n a i r p o l l u t i o n are tox i c sulphur compounds and carbon monoxide produced by automobiles and i n d u s t r i a l plants. Jet engines produce no sulphur com- pounds and very l i t t l e carbon monoxide. Jet engines, however, do produce nontoxic but highly v i s i b l e p a r t i c u l a t e s . These are the small p a r t i c l e s of unburned carbon forming the smoke plumes 20 t r a i l i n g j e t engines. A Ministry of Transport statement on February 12, 1973 said U.S. studies show on a nationwide basis ".. les s than two percent of that country's t o t a l a i r p o l l u t i o n comes from commercial a i r c r a f t and that comparable studies i n ?1 ?? Canada indicate t h i s figure to be lower." * While there i s reason to conclude that a i r transportation i s not contributing more than i t s "share" to a i r p o l l u t i o n , there i s an increasing Of) * Tipton, "Aviation's Three Environments," p. 23. 21 B i l l Bachop, "Noise no problem, a i r p o r t foes t o l d , " Vancouver Sun, February 13, 1973» p. l k°. pp U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare. Report of the Secretary to the U.S. Congress ? December 19o8 ?  on The Nature and Control of A i r c r a f t Engine Exhaust Emis- sions (Washington. D.C.: Department of Health, Education and Welfare, 1969; attributed only 1.2$ CO, 0.7$ HC, 0.1$ N i t r o - gen Oxides and 0.1$ Particulates of the t o t a l U.S. output of pollutants to U.S. c i v i l a i r c r a f t . One would expect that Canada would produce about 10$ of the U.S. t o t a l i f a direct r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between a i r p o l l u t i o n and population. 10 awareness o f the p o t e n t i a l hazard a t every major a i r p o r t i n the world due t o p o l l u t i o n caused by the op e r a t i o n of j e t a i r c r a f t . In a study conducted l a s t summer at Los Angeles I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t (LAX), f o r example, the Los Angeles County A i r P o l l u - t i o n C o n t r o l D i s t r i c t concluded t h a t : 2 ^ 1 . LAX i s a s i g n i f i c a n t area source of a i r contaminants, g e n e r a l l y upwind o f m e t r o p o l i t a n Los Angeles. The 6 , 7 tons of p a r t i c u l a t e matter emitted d a i l y i n the h.7 square mile LAX source exceeds the atmospheric l o a d i n g r a t e of p a r t i c u l a t e s from any area of comparable s i z e i n Los Angeles County. 2 . About 70$ of t o t a l j e t a i r c r a f t o p e r a t i o n time, to and from 3500 f e e t a l t i t u d e , i s spent i n the i d l e and t a x i mode, w^ich accounts f o r 55$ of t o t a l a i r c r a f t emis- s i o n s . 3 . The new "smokeless" JT9D turbofan engine, which powers the 7h7 s u p e r j e t , emits l e s s v i s i b l e emissions and about the same t o t a l weight of a i r contaminants per f l i g h t as the lower t h r u s t JTM-A t u r b o j e t and JT3D turbofan engines used on Boeing - 7 0 7 and Douglas DC-8 a i r c r a f t , and one-half of the t o t a l f o r the unmodified JT8D turbofan engine mounted on the sh o r t - h a u l Boeing- 7 2 7 , - 7 3 7 and Douglas DC-9 a i r c r a f t . T his research demonstrates f i r s t of a l l t hat a i r p o l l u t i o n must be thought of i n terms of c o n c e n t r a t i o n s , both of contaminants and of people. Urban areas p r e s e n t l y c o n t a i n about 75$ of the Canadian p o p u l a t i o n and by the year 2000 may c o n t a i n 9*f$ of the per of t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n . ? ' With the notable exception of S t e . 23R.E. George, J.S. N e v i t t . and J.A. Verssen, " J e t A i r - c r a f t Operations: Impact on the A i r Environment," J o u r n a l of the A i r P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l A s s o c i a t i o n . X X I I , No. 7 , ( J u l y 1 9 7 2 ) , 5 0 8 , 515 . oh. This c o n c l u s i o n i s supported by Sawyer who t e s t e d emis- sions f o r each operating mode f o r t u r b o j e t and automotive p i s t o n engines. R.F. Sawyer, "Reducing J e t P o l l u t i o n Before I t Becomes S e r i o u s . " A s t r o n a u t i c s and A e r o n a u t i c s T V I I I , No. h ( 1 9 7 0 ) , pp. 6 2 - 6 7 . 2^Reynolds, The Urban Transport Problem, pp. 8 5 - 8 6 . of. B r a i t h w a i t e , e t a l . . T r a n s p o r t a t i o n P o l l u t i o n , p. 7 . 11 Sc h o l a s t i q u e (the new Montreal I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t which w i l l be discussed l a t e r ) n e a r l y a l l of Canada's major a i r p o r t s are near or i n urban areas. Although j e t a i r c r a f t c o n t r i b u t e l i t t l e to the o v e r a l l a i r p o l l u t i o n on a n a t i o n a l s c a l e , they may c o n t r i b u t e a considerable amount i n a s p e c i f i c urban s e t t i n g . The other aspects of the Los Angeles a i r p o r t study which are worth n o t i n g are (1) an emphasis on the gains that could be achieved by minimizing engine running time on the ground and (2) the t e c h n o l o g i c a l advances p o s s i b l e i n a i r p o l l u t i o n reduc- 27 t i o n . Through a c t u a l f i e l d t e s t i n g and p o l l u t a n t monitoring some meaningful r e s u l t s are being obtained. The v i s i b i l i t y of a i r p o l l u t i o n from j e t a i r c r a f t cannot be ignored. I t i s as apparent to the observer as the plume of the e a r l y r a i l r o a d steam engine and the smoke from a bee-hive sawdust burner, and despite the small c o n t r i b u t i o n i t makes to o v e r a l l a i r p O l l U - pQ t i o n i t w i l l be eliminated„by p u b l i c demand. 1.3.2 Noise P o l l u t i o n S o c i a l surveys i n d i c a t e c o n s i s t e n t l y t h a t the noise from surface automotive t r a f f i c gives r i s e to more neighborhood d i s - ^The smokeless combustors mentioned not only reduce the o f f e n s i v e smoke output but a l s o decrease the t o t a l emissions by 2k percent. The j e t engines of a decade ago produced n e a r l y three times the emissions of these improved engines. I t i s a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t improvements w i l l continue even f u r t h e r . pQ The December 1968 re p o r t of the U.S. Se c r e t a r y of H e a l t h , Education and Welfare to the U.S. Congress on The Nature and C o n t r o l of A i r c r a f t Engine Exhaust Emissions i n regard to p u b l i c r e a c t i o n s t a t e s , "The s i g h t of smoke plumes from any source seems to suggest to many people t h a t o f f i c i a l s charged w i t h c o n t r o l l i n g a i r p o l l u t i o n are g u i l t y of i n a c t i o n . " 12 29 s a t i s f a c t i o n than the noise from a i r c r a f t does. 7 This i s probably because the surface automotive t r a f f i c noise i s not r e s t r i c t e d to areas near a i r p o r t s but pervades almost every spot i n our modern s o c i e t y . Future sonic booms may f o l l o w a s i m i l a r p a t t e r n . Although the a i r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n d u s t r y only handles 9$ of the passengers and l e s s than 1% o f the country's f r e i g h t , i t c e r t a i n l y c o n t r i b u t e s a great deal more to the problem of noise p o l l u t i o n i n Canada. As e a r l y as 1967, John 0. Powers of the U.S. F e d e r a l A v i a t i o n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ' s O f f i c e of Noise Abatement t o l d a meeting of the A c o u s t i c a l S o c i e t y of America:^° Noise now threatens to choke the o r d e r l y development of commercial a i r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and i f the increase i n noise i s permitted to continue unabated the a i r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system w i l l not r e a l i z e i t s f u l l p o t e n t i a l . . . t h e r e w i l l not be i n the foreseeable f u t u r e a simple, s i n g l e s o l u t i o n by which the noise problem can be reduced to acceptable dimensions. U n l i k e a i r p o l l u t i o n , noise p o l l u t i o n i n the a i r i n d u s t r y con- t r i b u t e s f a r more than i t s " f a i r share" of today's t r a n s p o r t a - t i o n p o l l u t i o n . As Theodore Berland s t a t e s ^ " I n the annals of r a c k e t , a i r p l a n e s have a chapter a l l to themselves." A comparison of the environmental sounds produced by s e v e r a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n modes i l l u s t r a t e s why the q u i e t i n g of a i r c r a f t , e s p e c i a l l y i n communities surrounding a i r p o r t s , has ^Peter A. Franken, "A Panel Discussion-Approaches t o Noise C o n t r o l " i n A Conference on Noise i n the Environment (Toronto: The Conservation C o u n c i l of Ontario, 1971), p. 71. 3°Theodore Ber l a n d , The F i g h t f o r Quiet (Englewood C l i f f s , N.J.: P r e n t i c e - H a l l Inc., 1971), p. 172. ^ I b i d . . p. 171. Berland devotes Chapter 12 of h i s book to t h i s s u b j e c t . been the focus of the most a t t e n t i o n to date. Table I I shows such a comparison: TABLE I I A COMPARISON OF NOISE LEVELS BY TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE T r a n s p o r t a t i o n V e h i c l e Sound L e v e l ( P N d B p 2 Average car (15 f e e t ) 70 dB Average t r u c k (15 f e e t ) 80 dB Sports c a r , heavy t r u c k 90 dB Subway ( i n s i d e ) 90-100 dB Snowmobile 100 dB Heavy t r a f f i c 100 dB Motorcycle 100 dB J e t a i r p l a n e 120 dB J e t a i r p l a n e (100 f e e t ) 130 dB Sources: 1. R. Murray Schafer, The Book of Noise (Vancouver, B.C.: P r i c e P r i n t i n g L t d . , 1970), p. 2. 2. Theodore Be r l a n d , The F i g h t f o r Quiet (Englewood C l i f f s , N.J.: P r e n t i c e - H a l l Inc., 1971), p. 181. 3. C l i f f o r d R. Bragdon, Noise P o l l u t i o n , the Unquiet C r i s i s ( P h i l a d e l p h i a , Pa.: U n i v e r s i t y of Pennsylvania Press, 197D, P. 52. One of the more a c t i v e c r i t i c s of the very h i g h noise o o l e v e l s from j e t and other a i r c r a f t , B e r l a n d , b e l i e v e s that:-"-* The worst noise offender of our generation, as f a r as the general p u b l i c i s concerned, the a v i a t i o n i n d u s t r y , has never t r i e d to Think Quiet. Never, that i s , u n t i l p u b l i c , r e g u l a t i v e , and l e g i s l a t i v e pressure was applied. 3 The d e c i b e l i s a u n i t f o r measuring the i n t e n s i t y of sound. I t i s used to express the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the f a i n t e s t sound man can hear and other sounds i n the e n v i r o n - ment. I t i s l o g a r i t h m i c , so that an increase of 10 d e c i b e l s means a t e n f o l d increase i n sound i n t e n s i t y , a 2 0-decibel r i s e a hundredfold i n c r e a s e , a 3 0-decibel r i s e a thousandfold i n - crease. The values i n Table I I are i n Perceived Noise D e c i b e l s (PNdB), a measure o f noise as i t i s perceived by man. 'Berland, The F i g h t f o r Quiet. p. 2 k 0. Ik This statement could equally well be applied to the r a i l r o a d industry regarding a i r p o l l u t i o n or the shipping industry regarding o i l s p i l l s . Public, regulative, and l e g i s l a t i v e pressure i s required e s p e c i a l l y i n transportation industries which do not enjoy excess p r o f i t s . The a p p l i c a t i o n of regulative (FAA) pressure has suc- ceeded i n making the new Boeing 7 k 7, Lockheed 1011, and McDonnell-Douglas DC-10 quieter than the Boeing 707 or McDonnell-Douglas DC-8.^ 1 + Estimates to " r e t r o f i t " e x i s t i n g four-engine a i r c r a f t with such "quiet" engines run i n the neighborhood of $6^0,000, per a i r c r a f t , ^ a cost many a i r l i n e s are not w i l l i n g to pay without l e g i s l a t i o n . Public pressure i s being applied i n many areas. As recently as February 27, 1973, a $0.66 per passenger noise tax was le v i e d at Paris a i r - port to enable hospitals and schools to soundproof and enable disgruntled home-owners to move away.^ The problem of the sonic boonr^ i s on the not too •^Bachop, "Noise no problem," p. l k 8 . See also Franken, "Approaches to Noise Control," p. 71. and Canadian A i r Trans- portation Administration. Public Information K i t . •^Franken, "Approaches to Noise Control," p. 71. -^Canadian T e l e v i s i o n News, Vancouver, B.C., 11:30 p.m., February 27, 1973. 3^The sonic boom i s , i n e f f e c t , the shock wave of the a i r c r a f t f l y i n g at supersonic speed, fo r c i n g i t s way through the a i r masses gathered i n front of i t . Normal atmospheric pres- sure i s l k . 7 p s i , varying s l i g h t l y with elevation above sea l e v e l . As the cone of the shock wave st r i k e s an object, the pressure increases s h a r p l y — i n about .003 second. Within approximately .02 second the pressure decreases smoothly to something less than normal, then r i s e s again to normal. This "overpressure" i s generally accompanied by the release of energy manifested i n a sharp explosion or loud clap of thunder overhead c a l l e d a "sonic boom". A t y p i c a l boom i s an over 15 distant horizon. We do not know as yet what the commercial sonic boom w i l l be l i k e , but we have reason to believe the problems associated with t h i s form of noise p o l l u t i o n w i l l be much more d i f f i c u l t to solve than those associated with a i r - port noise or a i r p o l l u t i o n . The projected damage due to the sonic boom f i r s t became a r e a l i t y to Canadians when a Canadian m i l i t a r y p i l o t flew an F-IO1* j e t f i g h t e r at supersonic speed at an al t i t u d e of 500 feet causing $300,000. damage to Ottawa a i r p o r t . C l o s e r to home, i n 1969,"a U.S. Navy F h acrobatic plane a c c i d e n t a l l y exceeded the speed of sound while f l y i n g at three hundred feet over Kelowna, B.C., and reduced 75% of the windows i n an eight-block area of downtown Kelowna to smashed shards."^^ These rather dramatic events, l i k e the Oklahoma C i t y sonic boom t e s t s , tend to over-emphasize the sonic boom by measuring the e f f e c t s of low altitude f l i g h t . On the other hand, the matter deserves detailed study before large segments of the world's population are subjected to the adverse e f f e c t s of the sonic boom. In Chapter III we w i l l take a closer look at the techn i c a l problems associated with noise p o l l u t i o n i n the a i r transportation industry. pressure of 2-3 pounds per square foot. An ea r l y paper by Roth gives more d e t a i l , see Roth, "Sonic Boom: A D e f i n i t i o n and Some Legal Implications," Journal of A i r Law and Commerce, XXV (1958), 25, 68. In addition, Theodore Berland goes into great d e t a i l on the subject on a technical l e v e l i n Berland, The Fight f o r Quiet, pp. 182-185. 3 8Robert Alex Baron, The Tyranny of Noise (New York: St. Martins Press and The MacMillan Company, 1970), p. 103. 39john Fisher, What You Can Do About P o l l u t i o n Now (Don M i l l s , Ont.: Longman Canada Ltd., 1971), P. 26'3. l.h C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Canadian A i r T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Industry This t h e s i s deals s p e c i f i c a l l y with the Canadian a i r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n d u s t r y . In areas such as p o l l u t i o n l e g i s l a - t i o n considerable d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t between Canada and other n a t i o n s . In other areas, such as operating problems and long term g o a l s , Canada's p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the i n t e r n a t i o n a l a v i a - t i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n s , the I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Asso- c i a t i o n (IATA) and the I n t e r n a t i o n a l C i v i l A v i a t i o n Organiza- t i o n (ICAO), emphasizes the common nature of the a i r t r a n s p o r - t a t i o n i n d u s t r y . In gen e r a l , I would say that the common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are based on economic and business d e c i s i o n - making aspects of operating i n the i n t e r n a t i o n a l a v i a t i o n f i e l d , whereas the unique c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are based on the environmental, p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l climate of the country under review. In order to set a course of a c t i o n f o r the Canadian a v i a t i o n i n d u s t r y one must consider both aspects, i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l . l . ^ . l Common C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Some of the common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the a i r t r a n s p o r - J+0 t a t i o n i n d u s t r y are l i s t e d below: 1. I t i s a se r v i c e i n d u s t r y w i t h high c o s t s , notably i n l a b o r , t h a t render i t s p e c i a l l y vulnerable to i n f l a t i o n . ^ A i r Transport A s s o c i a t i o n of America Economics of A i r Transport: An Overview (Washington, D.C.: A i r Transport Asso- c i a t i o n of America, 1 9 7 1 ) , p. 2 . ^ T h e breakdown of operating expenses given by the ATA Ma.ior U.S. A i r l i n e s , Economic Review and F i n a n c i a l Outlook 1 9 6 9 - 1 9 7 3 (Washington, D.C.: A i r Transport A s s o c i a t i o n of 17 kp 2. I t i s c l o s e l y regulated by the government. 3. It i s extremely competitive on an i n t e r n a t i o n a l sca le . k . I ts demand i s h igh ly seasonal. 5. I t has grown very r a p i d l y . 6. I t i s extremely sens i t ive to f luc tua t ions i n the economy.^ 7. I t has high technolog ica l turnover and i s therefore a large user of c a p i t a l . R i s ing costs are p a r t i c u l a r l y evident with the average landing fee increas ing 20$ from 1969 to 1970 (105$ greater than 1965) i n comparison to a 23$ increase i n the consumer pr ice index between 1965 and 1970. Jet fue l costs increased 15$ between 1965 and 1970. Interest costs for a i r l i n e s i n the U.S . to ta led America, 1 9 6 9 ) , s l ide 2 2 , indicates the high labor cost common i n the a v i a t i o n indus t ry , as shown below: C r i t e r i a for H i s t o r i c a l A i r l i n e In f l a t ionary Index for Cash Operating Expenses Expense Item Approx. $ of T o t a l Indicator Used Wages and Sa la r ie s **5$ Cost/Employee F u e l 15$ Cos t /Ga l . of Fue l Maintenance Mater ia l s 5$ Cost/Hour Flown Miscellaneous (Insur- 35$ GNP Def la tor ance, Communication Serv ices , e t c . ) kp One major complaint of a i r l i n e s i s that because a i r - l i n e pr ices are regulated and a i r l i n e costs are not , i n times of sustained i n f l a t i o n , costs keep going up fas ter than the regulators can get around to adjust ing fares . ^ R . E . G . Davis , A i r l i n e s of the United States Since 1 9 1 k (London: Putnam & Company L t d . , 1 9 7 2 ) , p. 5 7 6 , points out that, oddly enough, the development of each successive major genera- t i o n o f transport a i r c r a f t has occurred when e i t h e r the economic or p o l i t i c a l climate i n the world has been far from auspic ious . The Boeing 707/Douglas DC-8 jets entered service when the world a i r t r a f f i c growth curve experienced a d i s t i n c t h iccup . Now the Boeing 7 k 7 , DC-10, L-1011, and A-300B are enter ing service when experts are looking gloomily at the a i r t r a f f i c curve once again. F luctuat ions i n the economy are p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t to both a i r l i n e s companies and a i r - cra f t manufacturers. 18 $38 k m i l l i o n i n 1970—a 35.5$ increase over 1969 and s ix times kk the I960 l e v e l . Due to the nature of the industry these U.S . f igures are r e f l e c t e d i n the Canadian a i r t ransporta t ion indus t ry . Domestic competition i s not as keen i n Canada as i n the United States due i n part to a smaller t r a v e l l i n g publ ic and i n part to governmental r egu la t ion . On an i n t e r n a t i o n a l scale Canada's p o s i t i o n can be i l l u s t r a t e d by the percentage share of world a i r l i n e t r a f f i c shown i n Figure 1.1 and the market share of the North A t l a n t i c Route shown i n Figure 1.2. As can be seen from Figure 1.1, Canada has a 3-^ percent share of world a i r l i n e t r a f f i c , a f igure which w i l l l i k e l y increase with future increased p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the charter business J and increas ing a i r route miles to such locat ions as mainland China . Act ive p a r t i c i p a t i o n on the North A t l a n t i c Route i s ind ica ted by an eight percent share o f t h i s market, about twice the U.S . per capi ta market share. Common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of governmental agencies with respect to a v i a t i o n include un i f i ed ac t ion on banning SST t r a f f i c over land areas, a t t i tudes toward non-scheduled a i r c a r r i e r s , trade-offs between government owned a i r l i n e s concern- ing i n t e r n a t i o n a l routes and landing r i g h t s , and other nego- t i a t e d agreements between nations and between a i r c a r r i e r s . The s i m i l a r i t i e s i n operating methods, equipment, and proced- ures necessitate f i e rce non-price competition. (although one kk A i r Transport Assoc ia t ion of America, Major U f S . A i r - l i n e s T pp. 3-5". ^ I b i d . , p. 7. In 1963 l e s s than 5$ of the a i r l i n e s passenger market was served by "non-skeds"; by 1971 t h i s f igure rose to near ly 30$. 19 FIGURE 1.1 PERCENTAGE SHARE OF WORLD AIRLINE TRAFFIC 1970 BY MAJOR AIRLINES AND GROUPS U S . A . 3d2 MILLION! P A S S E N G E R S .ArtUktlll rCanadatfc£ 1 ie k 2 8 9 QNULAOI* P A S S E N G E R- t«A\L£S OlloH*r FIGURE 1.2 NORTH ATLANTIC ROUTE: MARKET SHARE BY MAJOR AIRLINES OR GROUPS, 19k5-1970 — gfMH — • Ao.A. '** TWA <• • Pa* ft„ 100% 4o% lot Source: R . E . G . Davis , A i r l i n e s of the United States Since 191*4- (London: Putnam and Company L t d . , 1972), pp. 672-673. could c e r t a i n l y argue the existence of price competit ion during the l a s t two years) . The economic and business decision-making aspects of the a i r t ransporta t ion industry are p a r t i c u l a r l y re levant i n the i n t e r n a t i o n a l competitive environment. l. k.2 Unique C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s With the competitiveness of the i n t e r n a t i o n a l a i r indus- t r y i n mind, one might w e l l wonder i f na t iona l standards and regulat ions could create a competitive advantage. One major a i r l i n e i n the United States , for example, spent $112 m i l l i o n over the past 10 years on a i r p o l l u t i o n and noise abatement—a f igure equivalent to k 3 percent of i t s p r o f i t during the same ? ms k 7 k-6 per iod . Another major a i r l i n e f l y i n g the same route may have spent very l i t t l e . Governmental expenditures on t ransporta t ion may r e f l e c t d i f f e rent object ives such as: (1) The objective o f e f f i c i e n t l y providing t ransporta t ion for goods which are desired by the publ ic cr which may promote reg iona l or na t iona l development. (2) An object ive of s t a b i l i z i n g the economy through manipu- l a t i o n o f government expenditures on l a rge , l abor- intens ive items such as a i r c r a f t . (3) A long-run development program with a steady path of t ransporta t ion expenditure. ^ I b l d . , p. If. 1+7 'The topic of environmental q u a l i t y and i n t e r n a t i o n a l trade i s dealt with i n Chapter Four , Sect ion 5. John B. Beare, "Investment P o l i c i e s and Economic S t a b i l i z a t i o n P o l i c i e s : A Case Study of Transport T " (paper presented at the U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto, York U n i v e r s i t y Jo int Program i n Transporta t ion , Toronto, 1 9 6 9 ) . 21 Bach object ive or development p o l i c y has a d i f f e r e n t e f fec t on the a v i a t i o n industry and may lead to a competitive-advantage-in i n t e r n a t i o n a l competit ion. I stated e a r l i e r that unique c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the a i r industry i n a p a r t i c u l a r country are based on the environmental, p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l c l imate . To expand on t h i s , most of Canada's domestic t rade , commerce, populat ion, and transporta- t i o n network has been confined to wi th in k 00 miles of the U .S . border . Recent ly , with an increased emphasis on f r o n t i e r development of na tura l resource areas such as the Beaufort Bas in and the MacKenzie D e l t a , the A r c t i c Is lands , the New- foundland-Labrador coast and the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s , the role of the reg ional c a r r i e r w i l l l i k e l y change. The use of h e l i c o p t e r s , Beaver a i r c r a f t , STOL/VTOL, and others w i l l no doubt increase . Along with th i s increase w i l l come an emphasis on environmental protec t ion and an o rder ly , planned development. The environmental climate for a v i a t i o n develop- ment i n Canada w i l l , except for the e x i s t i n g U-00 mile wide t ranspor ta t ion network, be much d i f f e rent from the United S tates . On an i n t e r n a t i o n a l b a s i s , the environmental climate f o r a v i a t i o n development w i l l be much more uniform, e s p e c i a l l y with regard to populated areas. The p o l i t i c a l climate of a p a r t i c u l a r nat ion i s another unique c h a r a c t e r i s t i c worth not ing . The degree of government c o n t r o l of a i r l i n e s var ies between nat ions , providing an i n t e r - e s t ing mix of pr ivate enterprise motivated by p r o f i t and publ ic ownership motivated to provide low cost publ ic transpor- 22 t a t i o n . The degree of f e d e r a l , p r o v i n c i a l , and municipal c o n t r o l over commercial a v i a t i o n var ies from nat ion to na t ion , compounding the problem of agreement on goals , p r i o r i t i e s , and d i r e c t i o n i n the a i r t ransportat ion indus t ry . The s o c i a l climate of a nat ion refers mainly to the "way of l i f e " o f i t s people. As mentioned i n Sect ion 1 . 3 , Canada i s a very t ransport-or iented soc ie ty . To what extent i s the "average" Canadian w i l l i n g to s a c r i f i c e quiet and clean a i r for the p r i v i l e g e of using a i r t ranspor ta t ion . This balance or "trade o f f " dec i s ion i s not e a s i l y made and, I suggest, may not be the same i n Canada as i n another na t ion . The determination of i n t e r n a t i o n a l standards by IATA, the United Nations , or any other supra-national body rests upon agreement of a l l nations invo lved . The mixed reac t ion of nations toward the SST i n d i - cates some degree of l a t i tude i n t h i s "trade o f f " d e c i s i o n . l . k . 3 Summary This sect ion b r i e f l y discussed common and unique charac- t e r i s t i c s of the a i r t ransporta t ion industry i n Canada. The agreement on i n t e r n a t i o n a l standards with respect to environ- mental q u a l i t y must recognize the i n d i v i d u a l di f ferences of each nat ion with respect to phys ica l environment, s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l systems, and at t i tude towards a desirable balance of costs and benef i t s . I t was also pointed out that a competitive advantage could be enjoyed by some nations i f i n t e r n a t i o n a l agreement was not reached on regulat ions and standards. 1 »5 International Implications of Domestic L e g i s l a t i o n In August 1 9 7 2 , Richard Nixon made the statement that, "Environmental problems do not dist i n g u i s h between national boundaries or d i f f e r i n g s o c i a l and economic systems."^ What does d i f f e r i s the way i n which nations and d i f f e r i n g s o c i a l and economic systems presently deal with environmental problems. The i n t e r n a t i o n a l implications of domestic l e g i s l a t i o n which r e f l e c t s one nation's attitudes toward appropriate environ- mental control may be the imposition of that country's goals on others.-* 0 This i s demonstrated by the achievement of nearly every goal, including nearly a l l the U.S. proposals, established for the U.N. Conference on the Human Environment i n June, 1 9 7 2 r d e s p i t e opposition from several developing 51 countries. What are some of the negative aspects of imposing one nation's domestic l e g i s l a t i o n on other nations? The f i r s t draw- back i s that very few indi v i d u a l s , or groups, or nations, can divorce themselves from "their own" problems and look at the o v e r - a l l problem of environmental degradation. Another draw- back i s that each nation has a unique combination of geograph- kq "The President's Message to Congress T August 1972, quoted i n Environmental Qualitv-1972. Third Annual Report of the Council of Environmental Quality (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Prin t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 7 2 ) . ^°Mahlon R. Straszheim states i n The International A i r - l i n e Industry, p. 17, "Various nations d i f f e r i n t h e i r a t t i - tudes with regard to international a i r transport objectives. This can be explained i n part by fundamental differences i n s o c i a l and economic i n s t i t u t i o n s and ideologies." 51 J U.S. Council on Environmental Quality, Environmental Quality—1972 (Washington, D.C.: United States Government Pri n t i n g O f f i c e , 1972;, p. 80. 2k i c a l areas with d i f f e rent e c o l o g i c a l tolerances (and even human tolerances) which w i l l be r e f l ec ted i n domestic l e g i s l a t i o n . F i n a l l y , some nations are better prepared to bear the f i n a n c i a l burden of the f i g h t against p o l l u t i o n . What are some of the pos i t ive aspects of imposing one na t ion ' s domestic l e g i s l a t i o n on other nations? One d e f i n i t e l y pos i t ive aspect i s that of saving time. , I f nations can agree to adopt p o l i c y already formulated and accepted by one or more na t ions , the speed of achieving uniform regulat ions may far out- weigh the disadvantages mentioned above. A second advantage i s that i n the case of jet engine a i r pol lutants and no i se , the degree of l a t i tude i n e s t ab l i sh ing regulat ions i s set more by safety considerat ions than by the phys i ca l environment. The t h i r d f ac tor i s that once a "spaceship E a r t h " closed system point-of-view i s adopted, i t i s the t o t a l of a l l pol lutants that i s the important cons iderat ion . Nations putt ing for th l e g i s l a t i o n for world-wide acceptance are l i k e l y to be moti- vated to do so because of t h e i r high percentage of t h i s t o t a l rather than any u l t e r i o r motive such as preserving economic d i s p a r i t y between nat ions . The lead taken by the United States Federal A v i a t i o n Admini s t ra t ion has been most fortunate fo r the i n t e r n a t i o n a l a i r indus t ry . Stuart G. Tipton reports that :-* 2 The net r e su l t o f both the new engine technology of wide-body jets and the improved burner cans developed for present jets i s that jets should be v i r t u a l l y smokeless by the mid-1970s. ^ 2 T i p t o n , " A v i a t i o n ' s Three Environments," p. 2k. Advances i n noise-suppression are slower; however, i n late 1969 the FAA announced improved noise standards and the quieter engines of the Boeing 7 L 7, Lockheed 1011 and McDonnell-Douglas DC-10 -r-rr a sign of progress. 1.6 Summary A s o c i a l system approach which recognizes interactions and feedback i n the s o c i a l , economic and p o l i t i c a l environment i s required for an understanding of a i r transportation and the human environment. Gabriel Bouladon made a technological fore- cast at the October 1968 IATA meeting which included the state- ment t h a t r J The future of avia t i o n i s bright, but on one condition: i t must be re a l i z e d that i t s l i m i t a t i o n s are human and not technical. Administrators must tackle the d i f f i - c u l t problem of airports with imagination and courage, and s c i e n t i s t s must t r y to introduce t h e i r techniques into human l i f e i n such a way as to respect man's nature and environment. Sim i l a r thoughts were conveyed by Alan S. Boyd, who stated: The future not only of aviation but of a l l transporta- t i o n w i l l depend also on how well we are able to soften the impact of transportation on a world whose people are increasingly vulnerable to noise, p o l l u t i o n and disruption of t h e i r neighborhoods and l i v e s . In t h i s chapter I have introduced the subject of A i r Transportation and the Human Environment and have related i t to the Canadian and international scenes. Many of the problems of "•°Gabriel Bouladon, "A Technological Forecast," i n Aviation's Role i n Future Transportation (Munich: Inter- national A i r Transport Association, 1968), p. 25. ^"Alan S. Boyd, "The Situ a t i o n i n North America," i n Aviation's Role i n Future Transportation (Munich: Inter- national A i r Transport Association, 1968), p. 212. 26 noise and a i r p o l l u t i o n are dealt with through municipal chan- nels at the source o f the p o l l u t i o n . Although one cannot c r i t i c i z e those involved i n the imposi t ion of c i t y bylaws and ordinances , there appears to be a d e f i n i t e need to address t h i s d i f f i c u l t problem on a n a t i o n a l , or better s t i l l on an i n t e r - n a t i o n a l , l e v e l . The next chapter introduces some of the problems met i n the human environment and reviews Canadian l e g i s l a t i v e attempts to solve these problems. 27 CHAPTER II AIR AND NOISE POLLUTION ABATEMENT LEGISLATION IN CANADA 2.1 State of the A r t This sect ion presents the e x i s t i n g a i r and noise p o l l u - t i o n laws regarding a i r t ransportat ion i n Canada. Some cla im that , " In Canada the sky i s exc lu s ive ly a federa l matter.""1" On the other hand the general l i s t of powers i n the B r i t i s h North America Act makes c lear the in ten t ion that l o c a l matters should be deal t with l o c a l l y , while na t iona l matters are dealt with p n a t i o n a l l y . It appears that the net r e s u l t has been an absence of comprehensive j u r i s d i c t i o n at e i ther l e v e l of govern- ment over a l l aspects of environmental management.-' Less than three years ago a survey conducted by Canadian Industries Limited for the Canadian Counci l of Resource Minis ters came to the conclus ion that : "*"R. Murray Schafer, The Book of Noise (Vancouver, B . C . : Pr ice P r i n t i n g L t d . , 1970), p. 17. o A good summary of propr ie tary and l e g i s l a t i v e r i gh t s of p r o v i n c i a l and federa l governmental bodies i s given i n E . Roy Tinney and J . G . Michael Parkes, "Enhancing the Quality of the Environment: Current Federal L e g i s l a t i o n and Programs," H a b i t a t « X I I I , Nos. 5 & 6 (1970), 16-18. ^Stanley S. S t e i n , "Environmental cont ro l and d i f f e rent l e v e l s o f governments," Canadian Publ ic Admini s t ra t ion . V o l . XIV, No. 2 (Spring, 1971), 1^2. LL Canadian Counc i l of Resource M i n i s t e r s , A Digest o f Environmental P o l l u t i o n L e g i s l a t i o n i n CanadaT A i r and S o i l {Montreal, P J Q . * Canadian Counci l of Resource M i n i s t e r s , 1970;, p . F - l . At t h i s time "nuisance" provided a broad avenue 28 There i s very l i t t l e f e d e r a l l e g i s l a t i o n on a i r p o l l u - t i o n . The subject has not yet been t r e a t e d i n s p e c i f i c , comprehensive l e g i s l a t i o n . Among the enactments where the problem of a i r p o l l u t i o n has been t r e a t e d i n c i d e n - t a l l y , the C r i m i n a l Code and Canada Shipping Act must be mentioned! As to the C r i m i n a l Code, i t s p r o v i s i o n s on common nuisances would appear to extend t o circum- stances amounting to a i r p o l l u t i o n . In 1970 a i r q u a l i t y was mainly under the c o n t r o l of p r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s w i t h p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l l e g i s l a t i o n i n s i x p r o v i n c e s , l i t t l e or no l e g i s l a t i o n i n four A t l a n t i c provinces and Nova S c o t i a l e a v i n g i t to the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s to make l o c a l bylaws governing a i r p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l . J The f i r s t major step toward comprehensive a i r p o l l u t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n came on October 9» 1970 vhen Prime M i n i s t e r Trudeau announced Canada's new Department of the Environment which o f f i c i a l l y came i n t o being June 11, 1971? f o l l o w i n g pro- clamation o f the Government Organization A c t . 1970. The new Department of the Environment,' 7 a l s o known by the short-form of l e g a l a c t i o n r e q u i r i n g l i g h t e r proof requirements than other common law d o c t r i n e s . The Canadian C o u n c i l of Resource M i n i s t e r s p r e d i c t e d that "nuisance" would be the b a s i s f o r b a t t l e s waged against p o l l u t i o n i n a l l i t s forms (see p. CL-1) . ^Frank Morgan, P o l l u t i o n T Canada's C r i t i c a l Challenge (Toronto, Ont.: The Ryerson Press and MacLean-Hunter L t d . , 1970), p. 2*f. t\ Department of the Environment, Environment Canada. I t s Orga n i z a t i o n and Objectives (Ottawa: Information Canada, 197D. ^According to a recent p u b l i c a t i o n of the Department of the Environment, Canada and the Human Environment, p. 33? the new Department of the Environment was b u i l t around the former Department of F i s h e r i e s and F o r e s t r y , and now in c l u d e s the M e t e o r o l o g i c a l Service from the M i n i s t r y o f Transport, the A i r P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l and P u b l i c Health Engineering D i v i s i o n s from the Department of N a t i o n a l Health and Welfare, the Water Sector from the Department of Energy, Mines and Resources, the Canadian W i l d l i f e Service from the Department of Indian A f f a i r s and Northern Development, and the Canada Land Inventory from the Department of Regional Economic Expansion. 29 Environment Canada, was t o : ...spearhead the a t t a c k on p o l l u t i o n and ensure the proper management and development o f the country's renewable n a t u r a l resources. I t has the r e s p o n s i - b i l i t y to i n i t i a t e Government-wide programs and to coordinate e f f o r t s r e l a t e d to environmental p r o t e c - t i o n . I t a l s o provides s p e c i a l i s t a d v i s o r y s e r v i c e s to other departments, both i n the f o r m u l a t i o n of pro- grams and the development of r e g u l a t i o n s under F e d e r a l Acts assigned to other M i n i s t e r s . I t i s apparent that the formation of the Department of the Environment i s not a " c u r e - a l l " $ however, the depth o f e n v i r o n - mental concern i n Canada i s r e f l e c t e d i n i t s formation. Today c e r t a i n Acts embrace many f a c e t s of environmental c o n t r o l , w h i l s t i n other cases the l e g i s l a t i o n i s d i v i d e d among many A c t s . ^ The problems of mixed j u r i s d i c t i o n are d e a l t w i t h i n S e c t i o n 2 . L . 2.2 The 1971 Clean A i r Act On June 23, 1971? Fed e r a l Parliament assented to the Clean A i r Act which e s t a b l i s h e d a i r q u a l i t y o b j e c t i v e s f o r f i v e major a i r p o l l u t a n t s : sulphur d i o x i d e , p a r t i c u l a t e matter, carbon monoxide, photochemical oxidants and hydrocarbons." 1" 0 The n a t i o n a l a i r q u a l i t y o b j e c t i v e s were developed i n coopera- Department of the Environment, Environment and the Law. A Summary of Environmental J u r i s d i c t i o n s and Recent F e d e r a l A n t i - P o l l u t i o n L e g i s l a t i o n i n Canada (Ottawa: Information Canada, 1972). ^Department of the Environment. Environment Canada, I t s Organization and Obj e c t i v e s , pp. 88-89. 1 0 C l e a n A i r and Water News. I l l , No. k 5 (1971), 687. A i r q u a l i t y o b j e c t i v e s f o r n i t r o g e n oxides, the s i x t h major a i r p o l l u t a n t were under c o n s i d e r a t i o n but not announced at t h i s time. 30 t i o n with p r o v i n c i a l au thor i t i e s and were based upon a review of current s c i e n t i f i c knowledge . 1 1 Figure 2.1 below shows how these object ives were set up. FIGURE 2.1 NATIONAL AIR QUALITY OBJECTIVES ^ - kit wtt Measurements Start* Coring XdhonSfarH (ncrmMd W»eil- •^;;-fV;.i " V . ;t; '»'Vv. 'v.l; ' .* • * * ! S * ' r * Maximum Onir-able Limit Mai'iiMum Accepted Uiwit Maximo, * Source: Department of the Environment, Environment Canada. Its Organization and Objectives (Ottawa: Information Canada, 1971). In e s t ab l i sh ing " d e s i r a b l e " , "acceptable" , and " t o l e r - able" l e v e l s for each major p o l l u t a n t , recogni t ion i s given to di f ferences between urban and r u r a l se t t ings . The use of three ranges enables the se t t ing of p r i o r i t i e s i n t ack l ing the p o l l u - t i o n problem i n Canada. Environment Canada projects that "immediate cont ro l and abatement ac t ion would be taken i n areas where the maximum to lerable l i m i t i s exceeded and high p r i o r i t y 12 would be placed on other areas i n the ' t o l e r a b l e ' range." 1 : L Canada, Clean A i r A c t . 1971, 19-20 E l i z . 2, c h . k 7 , sect ion 20 (2), O t t a w a : Q u e e n ' s P r i n t e r , 1971, p. 967. 12 Department of the Environment, Environment Canada. P. 37. 31 The main drawback with th i s scheme i s that i n those areas where information i s p l e n t i f u l , for example Hamilton, Sa rn i a , and Montreal E a s t , r e a l i s t i c standards can be set , but i n those areas such as the MacKenzie Delta and the A r c t i c Islands where information i s scarce, r e a l i s t i c standards cannot be set with any degree of c e r t a i n t y . The danger, as I see i t , i s to define a l e v e l of p o l l u t i o n as " t o l e r a b l e " only to f i n d out i n the long run t h i s l e v e l was ac tua l ly " i n t o l e r a b l e " . The Clean A i r Act may be summarized as having the f o l - 1^ lowing ob jec t ive s : J a) To ensure by def in ing various l e v e l s o f p o l l u t i o n , com- mon standards which w i l l permit a u n i f i e d response n a t i o n a l l y . b) To support and complement e x i s t i n g p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a - t i o n , but permit federa l ac t ion when necessary to protect hea l th . c) To create an inventory of source emission data, Til. e s t a b l i s h a na t iona l surve i l lance network, cont ro l the composition of f u e l s , e t c . Perhaps the most impressive factor i n the Clean A i r Act i s i t s a b i l i t i e s to order p o l l u t i n g businesses to cease opera- t ions and to levy f ines , on summary conv ic t ion up to $500,000^ 1 "3 J B r a i t h w a i t e , et a l . . Transportat ion P o l l u t i o n , p. 10. T k The na t iona l surve i l lance network t i e s n i c e l y into U . N . World Meteorologica l Organization (WMO) i n t e r n a t i o n a l sur- v e i l l a n c e program (the Earthwatch Program) set up by the United Nat ion ' s Conference on the Human Environment held June 5-16, 1972 i n Stockholm, Sweden. A rare example of coordinated a c t i o n on p o l l u t i o n abatement and c o n t r o l . 15* -"A f ine o f up to $200,000. can be l e v i e d under Sect ion 9 of the Clean A i r Act (contravention of emission standards) and up to $500,000. under Sections 17 ( f a i lure or r e fu sa l to comply with an order to cease operations) and 22 (sale and use of con- taminated fuel) of the A c t . 32 Although these a b i l i t i e s have been cre a t e d , the onus s t i l l r e s t s w i t h the p o p u l a t i o n to use the l e g i s l a t i v e framework th a t has been provided. At Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t , f o r example, there are no a i r p o l l u t i o n monitoring devices. The general a t t i t u d e i s t h a t a i r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o n t r i b u t e s l e s s than two percent to the t o t a l of a l l a i r p o l l u t a n t s emitted t o 16 the atmosphere and no problem e x i s t s . The f a l l a c y o f t h i s argument i s pointed out by Ruppenthal, who s t a t e s : 1 ^ The people i n the world are demanding a stop t o the ever i n c r e a s i n g l e v e l s of n o i s e , smog, p o l l u t i o n , and stench. Unless the a v i a t i o n i n d u s t r y recognizes t h a t f a c t , and recognizes i t squarely, i t may w e l l be faced w i t h l e g i s l a t i o n t h a t w i l l be unduly r e s t r i c t i v e and perhaps p u n i t i v e . Far b e t t e r t h a t the i n d u s t r y admit the problems of n o i s e , v i b r a t i o n , and smog f o r what they r e a l l y are and begin to a t t a c k them r e a l i s t i c a l l y . The d e t a i l s r e l e a s e d by the Los Angeles County P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l D i s t r i c t (see page 10) i l l u s t r a t e the f a c t t h a t p a r t i c - u l a t e s from j e t a i r c r a f t can be a s e r i o u s problem. The Clean A i r Act provides the f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n : " a i r p o l l u t i o n " means the c o n d i t i o n of the ambient a i r , a r i s i n g wholly or p a r t l y from the presence t h e r e i n of one or more a i r contaminants, t h a t endangers the h e a l t h , s a f e t y or welfare o f persons, t h a t i n t e r f e r e s w i t h normal enjoyment of l i f e or property, t h a t endangers the h e a l t h o f animal l i f e , or t h a t causes damage to p l a n t l i f e or to property. In the case of the Canadian a i r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n d u s t r y , c e r t a i n l y the unique c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Canadian northern 1 D a r y l l Smith, Canadian A i r T r a n s p o r t a t i o n A d m i n i s t r a - t i o n , P a c i f i c Region, telephone conversation at Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t , Vancouver, B.C., February 19, 1973. 17 ' K a r l M. Ruppenthal, "Some Socioeconomic Considera- t i o n s " i n A i r T r a n s p o r t a t i o n — A Forward Look (Stanford, C a l i f . : S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y , 1970), p. 159. l 8 C l e a n A i r A c t . Chapter k 7 , S e c t i o n 2(1)(b), p. 951. development and the dangers of upsetting the e c o l o g i c a l balance and s o c i a l patterns i n low population density areas must be considered. The inadvertent modi f ica t ion of climate and the problems of par t i cu la te concentration i n urban areas provide other challenges which may be categorized under the heading " a i r p o l l u t i o n " . The Clean A i r Act of 1971 has set up a framework for e f f ec t ive l e g i s l a t i v e ac t ion i n the cont ro l of a i r p o l l u t i o n . This represents a pos i t ive step i n the d i r e c t i o n - o f an o v e r a l l environmental management program, a step i n keeping with a s o c i a l system approach to the problem of A i r Transportat ion and the Human Environment. 2.3 Noise P o l l u t i o n and the Law At the federa l l e v e l the contro l of noise i n Canada i s covered by Chapter i h of the 2nd Supplement of the Revised Statutes o f Canada 1970. which s t a t e s : 1 ^ Sect ion 6. The Mini s ter of the Environment, i n exerc i s ing his powers and carry ing out his duties and functions under Sect ion 5» s h a l l (a) i n i t i a t e , recommend and undertake programs, and coordinate programs of the Government of Canada, that are designed to promote the establishment or adoption of object ives or standards r e l a t i n g to env i ron- mental q u a l i t y , or to cont ro l p o l l u t i o n ; and (b) promote ana encourage the i n s t i t u t i o n of prac- t i c e s and conduct leading to the better protect ion and enhancement of environmental q u a l i t y , and co- operate with p r o v i n c i a l governments or agencies thereof , or any bodies , organizations or persons, i n any programs having s imi l a r ob jects . X 7 R e v i s e d Statutes of Canada. 1970. Chapter XIV (2nd Supplement), Government Organization A c t . 1971, Part I , Department of the Environment Act (Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 197D , p . 177. Although t h i s statute gives the M i n i s t e r of the E n v i r o n - ment the power to enact laws on noise p o l l u t i o n , t h i s power has not been used and most noise p o l l u t i o n law i s i n the form of c i v i c bylaws. Mr. J.W. MacNei l l ou t l ined the federa l govern- ment cont r ibut ion to so lut ion of the noise problem i n two areas during a Conference on Noise i n the Environment held i n Toronto i n A p r i l , 1971. He s t a t e d : 2 0 Genera l ly , the work f a l l s into one of two categor ies : 1. Research on the physics or the physiology of no i se ; and the measurement of no i se . (National Research C o u n c i l , the Defence Research Board, and the Occu- pa t iona l Health D i v i s i o n of the Department of Nat ional Health and Welfare handled t h i s research u n t i l the Department of the Environment incorpo- rated i t under the Ass i s tant Deputy M i n i s t e r , Atmospheric Environment (noise p o l l u t i o n research group)).21 2. Development and a p p l i c a t i o n of regulat ions or guide- l i n e s concerning noise and i t s c o n t r o l , (now i n - corporated under the Ass i s tant Deputy M i n i s t e r , p p Environmental Protec t ion (noise cont ro l group)) , d MacNei l l a lso stated that the C i v i l Av ia t ion Branch of the Department of Transport , "has been devoting a great deal of a t t e n t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y during the past two or three years , to noise i n connection with a irports . 2 -^ The fact o f the matter i s that , at the present time, noise abatement p o l i c y for a i r - c ra f t covers take-off and landing procedures under c e r t a i n J.W. M a c N e i l l , " L e g i s l a t i o n and Adminis t ra t ion for Noise C o n t r o l , The Federal Role" i n A Conference on Noise i n the Environment (Toronto: The Conservation Counci l of Ontar io , 197D, P. 117. p] Department of the Environment, Environment Canada. 2 2 I b i d . ^MacNei l l , " L e g i s l a t i o n and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , " pp. 117-118. 35 circumstances o n l y , and there are no regulat ions governing the noise of small planes and he l icopter s o f any k i n d . R. Murray Schafer provides a picture of the s i t u a t i o n i n 1970 by s t a t i n g : At some of the larger a i rpor t s there are c e r t a i n pro- cedures f o r l a rger a i r c r a f t . . . T h e s e procedures include the use of p r e f e r e n t i a l runways, spec ia l climb and approach p r o f i l e s for jets designed to reduce engine noise as much as possible consistent with safe opera- t i o n of the a i r p l a n e , and p a r t i a l curfews of f l i g h t s between midnight and 7 a.m. . . . n o regulat ions ex i s t regarding the maximum permissible noise l e v e l s ( i n dB or some other acceptable quant i f ied system) and thus no l e g a l penal t ies for in f rac t ions could poss ib ly e x i s t . Canada i s behind many other a i rpor t au thor i t i e s where f i xed l i m i t s are in force and computerized monitoring systems e x i s t . This s i t u a t i o n has not changed appreciably i n the l a s t three years . Conversations with Mr. W.L. I n g l i s , A i r p o r t General Manager for Vancouver Internat ional A i r p o r t , and Operations Of f i ce r Mr. Ken Simpson on February 19, 1973 revealed an absence of continuous noise monitoring devices at Vancouver Internat iona l A i r p o r t and only one mobile uni t to measure 25" noise l e v e l s " i n the event of a complaint" . y A s ingle page ?6 Noise Abatement Procedures guide issued i n November 1971 by the Department of Energy, Mines and Resources provided f l i g h t procedures based on avoiding low l e v e l f l i g h t over r e s i d e n t i a l areas . A survey of noise abatement procedures for Edmonton ^ S c h a f e r , The Book of Noise , pp. 17-18. 2 ^ D a r y l l Smith, Canadian A i r Transportat ion Adminis tra- t i o n , P a c i f i c Region, telephone communication, Vancouver, B . C . , February 19, 1973. 26 Canadian A i r P i l o t P u b l i c a t i o n , Noise Abatement Pro- cedures, Vancouver Internat ional A i r p o r t , Vancouver, B . C . (Ottawa: Department of Energy, Mines and Resources, 1971), p. L-k. 36 I n t e r n a t i o n a l , Edmonton I n d u s t r i a l , Winnipeg I n t e r n a t i o n a l , Toronto I n t e r n a t i o n a l , and Montreal I n t e r n a t i o n a l airports 2'' 7 revealed an emphasis on minimum c i r c u i t h e i g h t s , p r e f e r e n t i a l runways, maximum climb r a t e s to 3,000 f t . ASL, and r e s t r i c t e d hours of non-emergency a i r p o r t use. Only i n the case of Montreal I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t was " f u l l y automatic noise monitoring" i n s t a l l e d (on the approaches to runways 06L, 06R and 2kL), although s e v e r a l a i r p o r t s had mobile equipment f o r p O monitoring a i r c r a f t noise i n any area around the a i r p o r t . The l e g i s l a t i v e power of the p r o v i n c i a l government vis-a* - v i s noise p o l l u t i o n has been i n the past and w i l l con- t i n u e to be n i l . As Cummings and Mastomatteo put i t , " A i r c r a f t noise and i t s c o n t r o l comes under the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the F e d e r a l M i n i s t r y of T r a n s p o r t . " 2 ^ Yet t h i s r e a l l y o v e r s i m p l i - f i e s the question of j u r i s d i c t i o n . C e r t a i n l y the m a j o r i t y of noise p o l l u t i o n l e g a l cases have been the r e s u l t of municipal bylaws. This method o f handling environmental disputes has been c r i t i c i z e d , by both those i n v o l v e d i n the disputes and the M u n i c i p a l judges themselves. Mr. D. Hambling, M u n i c i p a l ^ M i n i s t r y of Transport, C i v i l A v i a t i o n Branch, 1971 F l i g h t Information Manual (Ottawa: Information Canada, 1971), PP. 5-21 to 5-39. 2 8 I b i d . . p. 5-36. 29 7L.T. Cummings and E. Mastomatteo, " L e g i s l a t i o n and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n f o r Noise C o n t r o l , The P r o v i n c i a l Role," i n A Conference on Noise i n the Environment (Toronto: The Con- s e r v a t i o n C o u n c i l of Ontario, 197D, p. 126. S o l i c i t o r fo r the C i t y of Ottawa s tates : The court i s not the leas t b i t concerned with expert s c i e n t i f i c evidence that noise at a cer ta in l e v e l i s object ionable and disturbs the community, unless the evidence can be proved beyond a reasonable doubt and wi th in the p r i n c i p l e s o f law as contained i n the s t r i c t rules of evidence. In t h i s connection d i f f i - c u l t i e s are encountered with the court s , who before they w i l l r eg i s t e r a convic t ion under the ant i-noise bylaw must be s a t i s f i e d that in law the noise con- s t i tu te s a publ ic nuisance . . . what may const i tute nuisance to one person i s not neces sar i ly nuisance to another. West Vancouver's Noise Abatement Bylaw (No. 21 L1), passed i n 1967, reads as fo l lows : No hawker, huckster , pedler , petty chapman, news- vendor or other person s h a l l by his intermit tent or r e i t e r a t e d c r i e s d is turb the peace, order , qu ie t , or comfort of the p u b l i c . C l e a r l y l e g i s l a t i o n o f th i s nature cannot be the basis for a serious protect ion of our env i ronment .^ As V i c t o r Yannacone one of the foremost researchers i n the l e g a l aspects of J D. Hambling, " L e g i s l a t i o n and Adminis t ra t ion for Noise C o n t r o l , The Municipal Ro le " , i n A Conference on Noise i n the Environment (Toronto: The Conservation Counc i l of Ontar io , 1971), pp. 130-131. •^According to "Survey Blames P u b l i c , Few Anti-Noise Laws Found," Vancouver Sun. March 6,. 1973, P. 2. A recent survey ca r r i ed out on 90 communities en- t i t l e d Survey of Community Noise Bylaws i n Canada (1972) found only 3 to have e f fec t ive l e g i s l a t i o n . C i t i z e n s ' com- p l a i n t s l i s t s motor vehic les as the No. 1 noise-maker, with construct ion second, surpassing barking dogs and l a t e -n ight p a r t i e s . The survey f inds that Quebec C i t y and Calgary have the most e f fec t ive enforcement p r a c t i c e s , and Burnaby has an e x p l i c i t plan to reduce noise by reducing permitted l e v e l s over a period of time. While h munic ipa l i t i e s are enacting t h e i r f i r s t ant i-noise p o l l u t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n and 7 are r e - viewing t h e i r current bylaws, 12 are awaiting reports of s tudies , 16 are awaiting p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n , and k-Q have no plans for the future . A i r c r a f t noise has not been com- prehensively attacked i n e x i s t i n g Canadian municipal bylaws. 38 environmental p r o t e c t i o n , states:-^ And now when we look to the law for answers to many of our s o c i a l and environmental problems, we f i n d that the law i t s e l f i s the cause of many of those problems. There are three avenues of appeal to the law for protec- t i o n of the environment—judic ia l , admini s t ra t ive , and l e g i s - l a t i v e . J u d i c i a l i s b a s i c a l l y an appeal to the f e d e r a l , p rov in- c i a l , and municipal courts i n which l i t i g a t i o n i s based upon s tatutory i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , and the common law of nuisance, negl igence, and trespass . This emphasis on the "bas ic r i g h t s " of people and equity under the law does not represent a r e a l - i s t i c approach to noise and a i r p o l l u t i o n i n the a v i a t i o n f i e l d . The administrat ive approach r e l i e s upon federa l and reg iona l regulatory agencies such as the Environmental Protect ion branch of the Department of the Environment and the Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t . This approach can be p a r t i c u l a r l y useful i f the d i s t r i c t serves a complete environmental region and not just a p o l i t i c a l reg ion . P o l l u t i o n recognizes only phys ica l boundaries and should be handled wi th in these boundaries. The t h i r d avenue, l e g i s l a t i v e , i n my opinion comes c loses t to the macro-system approach required for environmental planning and c o n t r o l . Yannacone refers to th i s l e v e l as, "Developing new l e g i s l a t i o n that i s e c o l o g i c a l l y sophi s t i ca ted , environmentally re l evant , s o c i a l l y respons ib le , and p o l i t i c a l l y feas ib le . "33 3 2 V i c t o r J . Yannacone, J r . , "Environment and the Law," i n Environment—Resources, P o l l u t i o n and Safety, ed . by Wi l l i am W. Murdoch (Stamford, Conn . : Sinauer Associates , I n c . , 1971)> P. 369. 33 ib id . 39 By developing s tatutory law on the federa l l e v e l , f u l l y recog- n i z i n g reg iona l di f ferences and accomodating such d i f ferences , considerable gains can be made. The Clean A i r Act o f 1971 has started i n the l e g i s l a t i v e d i r e c t i o n concerning a i r p o l l u t i o n . On the other hand, a great deal of fores ight and planning has gone into the develop- ment of plans for Ste . Scholastique A i r p o r t (Montreal II) wi th- out the benef i ts of spec i f i c noise l e g i s l a t i o n at the federa l l e v e l . Perhaps i t i s time to put the cart back behind the horse on noise abatement l e g i s l a t i o n and pass a Noise Contro l Act of 1973J 2 » k Problems of Mixed J u r i s d i c t i o n The problems of mixed j u r i s d i c t i o n over r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s for the preservat ion and enhancement of our surroundings are most evident i n the handling of noise and a i r p o l l u t i o n from jet a i r c r a f t . Malton, Toronto's Internat ional A i r p o r t , i s the second busiest i n Canada and already overloaded. John S k e l l s , chairman of the Etobicoke Planning Board i n whose area the a i r - port l i e s , has claimed that . . . " l a r g e jets discharge 70 pounds of pol lutants each time they l and . But techniques for measur- ing the degree and kinds of p o l l u t i o n are too unsophist icated ok to be used as a basis for r e a l i s t i c cont ro l l e g i s l a t i o n . " J Although measuring techniques are , i n f a c t , ava i lab le the main problem l i e s i n j u r i s d i c t i o n . The Federa l government adopts the a t t i tude tha t , "E f fec t ive response to the challenge of 3 kFrank Morgan, P o l l u t i o n . Canada's C r i t i c a l Chal lenge. p. 50. 1*0 p o l l u t i o n depends, i n the l a s t a n a l y s i s , not simply on a f ixed j u r i s d i c t i o n a l framework, but on a f l e x i b l e cooperation between the f edera l and p r o v i n c i a l government, working together i n pro- grams o f j o i n t in tere s t and concern . "^^ To the municipal planner such phrases as " f l e x i b l e cooperation" must be synony- mous with i n e f f i c i e n c y and lack of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . J u r i s d i c - t i o n a l uncerta inty presents r e a l obstacles to the sa t i s f ac tory i n t e g r a t i o n of environmental management programs. "Canadians ," sa id Ron Harding (NDP—Kootenay West) r e c e n t l y , addressing the House of Commons, "are s ick and t i r e d of having the so lu t ion of p o l l u t i o n problems delayed because of mixed 3 7 jur i sd ic t ions . ' " 1 - " The fragmented approach used i n Canada i s inherent i n the BNA A c t , which does not f a c i l i t a t e a s o c i a l system approach to problem so lv ing . J.W. MacNei l l describes the j u r i s d i c t i o n a l problem t h u s ; ^ ® At present, a l l orders of government have subs tant ia l ro le s to play i n managing the environment—federal and p r o v i n c i a l au thor i t i e s by v i r tue of a wide va r i e ty of powers, and municipal au thor i t i e s with the powers and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s assigned them by p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a - tures . . . . There i s considerable disagreement, however about where the boundaries l i e between the j u r i s d i c - t i o n a l spheres of each government. This j u r i s d i c - t i o n a l uncertainty presents r e a l obstacles to the s a t i s - factory in tegra t ion of environmental management pro- grams. I t a lso makes i t d i f f i c u l t to describe the e x i s t i n g j u r i s d i c t i o n a l framework. Law. J-Department of the Environment, Environment and the 36-J.W. M a c N e i l l , Environmental Management, A C o n s t i t u - t i o n a l Study Prepared for the Government of Canada (Ottawa: Information Canada, 1971), p. 9. 3?The Vancouver Sun. "Clean A i r B i l l Challenged as A n t i - P o l l u t i o n Weapon," February 20, 1971. 3^J.W. M a c N e i l l , Environmental Management, pp. 8-9. The t r u l y short-s ighted and u n r e a l i s t i c approach to th i s prob- lem i s , i n my op in ion , re f l ec ted by Tinney and Parkes' recom- mendation. They state:^9 To be e f fec t ive and e f f i c i e n t , j o in t F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l consu l t a t ion , negotiat ions and cooperation are es sent ia l . In the past t h i s has sometimes meant interminable wrangling, b i cker ing and l i t t l e a c t i o n . Yet the urgency of the environmental p o l l u t i o n problem, i t s c r i s i s s i g - n i f i cance for a l l Canadians, and i t s e f fec t on the very q u a l i t y o f our way of l i v i n g provide the ca ta lys t for the cooperation missing i n the past . The d i f f i c u l t i e s with th i s approach are the f o l l o w i n g : 1) There i s no reason to bel ieve that those concerned with the "wrangling" and "b i cker ing " do, i n f a c t , e i t h e r r e a l i z e or care about environmental p ro tec t ion , except i n a very per iphera l way as a plank i n t h e i r p o l i t i c a l platforms. 2) The tremendous back-log of f a i l u r e s i n Federa l - P r o v i n c i a l negot ia t ion c e r t a i n l y argues i n favor of con- t inued f a i l u r e i n the future , e spec i a l ly on matters i n - vo lv ing governmental expenditures. 3) It deals with the e f fects of mixed j u r i s d i c t i o n and not the cause, a point I w i l l expand upon. I f Canadians are to restore and enhance the q u a l i t y of t h e i r environment the l e g i s l a t i v e structure must change. Any attempt to coordinate a program of ac t ion wi th in the e x i s t i n g l e g i s l a t i v e framework w i l l meet with i n t e r n a l , s t r u c t u r a l problems. The r e s u l t i n g i n e f f i c i e n t l e g i s l a t i o n produced by such an attempt w i l l r e f l e c t these inherent weaknesses. To chart a course of ac t ion which w i l l be responsive to a changing, dynamic environment and simultaneously respon- 3%inney and Parkes,"Enhancing the Quality o f the Environment p. 18. h2 s ib le to the people o f Canada the underlying rule-making s t ruc- t u r a l framework cannot be d iv ided . One might compare t h i s to a business organiza t ion . I f the underlying s t r u c t u r a l components —the uni ty of command, chain of command and communications network—are weak, the organizat ion ' s chances for s u r v i v a l i n the business environment are weak. In my op in ion , the best way around the problems o f mixed j u r i s d i c t i o n s i n Canada, the r e s u l t i n g i n e f f i c i e n c y , and the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n deal ing with the complexities of the human environment of the 1970s i s to s t r u c t u r a l l y upgrade the l e g i s l a t i v e framework of the 1860s. The B r i t i s h North America Act was passed by B r i t i s h Parliament i n 1867 and stands v i r t u a l l y unchanged today, 106 years later?" 0 Modern day technology creates modern day problems. In the s o c i a l sciences these problems are becoming increas ing ly com- plex and d i f f i c u l t to so lve . By s t a r t ing at the s t r u c t u r a l cause of the problem rather than b l i n d l y attempting to design around i t s e f fects perhaps these s o c i a l science problems w i l l be reduced to a reasonable s ize and eventual ly solved. 2.5 Law as S o c i a l P o l i c y The r ights of property holders near a i rpor t s to a quiet and clean environment have increas ing ly come into c o n f l i c t with whatever r ight s the publ ic has to r e l a t i v e l y unres t r i c ted a i r P r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i v e r ight s over resources (Section 92, BNA Act) and Federal l e g i s l a t i v e r ight s under the BNA A c t , Internat ional t rea t i e s and the Cr imina l Code are par- t i c u l a r l y confused. S i m i l a r l y p r o v i n c i a l propr ietary r ight s over resources (Section 92, BNA Act) overlap to some extent with Federal propr ietary r ight s over resources (Sections 108 and 117, BNA Act;) . k 3 hi t r a v e l . The a i r t r ave le r i s ent i t led—as a matter of absolute r ight—to the safest possible f l i g h t which the s tate- of - the-ar t i n modern a v i a t i o n technology i s capable of prov id- i n g . The homeowner and the man on the s treet are e n t i t l e d to protec t ion from the hazards of a i r c r a f t operations. E n v i r o n - mental law i s not new. There have been su i t s for many years , but they have usual ly revolved around damage to an i n d i v i d u a l or h i s property, and seldom have dealt with such intangibles as the desecrat ion of a community or a reg ion . J This basic issue of i n d i v i d u a l r ight s and community r ights poses a d i f f i - c u l t balancing process for the government and re su l t s i n the formation of s o c i a l p o l i c y . Figure 2 . 2 i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s pro- cess . Dudley F . Pegrum states , " I t i s the task of the law, as i t i s concerned with economic p o l i c y for private business , to develop formal control s or rules that w i l l set the l i m i t s wi th in which private enterprise can be l e f t free to use i t s own d i s c r e t i o n . " The desirable degree of d i s c r e t i o n should be Michael B. Meyer, " A i r and Noise P o l l u t i o n Surround- ing A i r p o r t s : East Haven v . Eastern A i r l i n e s . Inc . " i n Environmental A f f a i r s (Brighton. Mass. : Environmental Af f a i r s , I n c . , Boston College Law School , 1 9 7 2 ) , p. 8 6 2 . V i c t o r J . Yannacone, J r . , " A v i a t i o n and the Law" i n Master Planning the A v i a t i o n Environment (Tucson, Ar i zona : U n i v e r s i t y of Arizona Press , 1 9 7 0 ) . ^Thomas w. Wi l son , J r . , Internat ional Environmental A c t i o n , A Global Survey (Cambridge, Mass. : Dunel len, U n i - v e r s i t y Press of Cambridge, Mass. , 1 9 7 1 ) j p . 8 1 . ^ D u d l e y F . Pegrum, Transportat ion Economics and Publ ic p o l i c y (Homewood, I l l i n o i s : Richard D. I rwin , I n c . , 1 9 6 3 ) , p. 2 5 1 . FIGURE 2.2 THE FORMATION OF SOCIAL POLICY based on the concept of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of business , a topic to be discussed l a t e r . Pegrum's remarks prompt one to. invest igate several quest ions, the f i r s t being which governing body should develop the formal control s or rules he mentions. As shown i n Figure 2.2 the inputs to government cons i s t o f the vested interes t s of the t r a v e l l i n g p u b l i c , property holders (which may not be mutually exclus ive of the t r a v e l l i n g p u b l i c ) , and the remainder of the e l ec to ra te . Other input may include the recommendations of governmental agencies, pr ivate enter- p r i s e , and experience of other decision-making bodies addres- L 5 s ing environmental p o l i c y i s sues . Several factors favor a f edera l government formulation of s o c i a l p o l i c y concerning noise and a i r p o l l u t i o n associated with a i r p o r t l o c a t i o n . These factors inc lude : J 1. P r o v i n c i a l and municipal au thor i t i e s are loa th to en- force ant i -noise ordinances due to a va r i e ty of reasons inc lud ing the fear of l o s i n g an important industry to another province. On the municipal l e v e l t h i s may take the form of fear o f l o s t employment for area res idents . 2. Federa l author i ty transcends p o l i t i c a l boundaries and thus can be more objective and provide consistent p o l i c y between a i rpor t s wi th in Canada. 3. The federa l government i s i n the best p o s i t i o n to con- duct research, to obtain feedback, and to b u i l d upon the knowledge gained i n sequential i n s t a l l a t i o n . h. The federa l government must make decis ions representing Canada on the i n t e r n a t i o n a l scene i n such areas as l and- ing r ight s for the SST and should therefore have a good f e e l i n g of na t iona l purpose and development. I f the federa l government i s the body best sui ted to develop the formal controls or rules governing environmental problems i t must be prepared to consider a l l relevant input streams and perform a balancing process. How i s th i s accomplished i n fact? On August 2nd, 1968, the Federal Mini s ter of Transport announced, "plans for ea r ly discussions with p r o v i n c i a l and municipal au thor i t i e s and a i r l i n e s regarding the major expan- ^Several of these factors are discussed at greater length by James M. Kramon, "Noise C o n t r o l : T r a d i t i o n a l Remedies and a Proposal for Federal A c t i o n , " Environment Law Review—1971 (Albany, N . Y . : Sage H i l l Publ i shers , I n c . , 1971), p. 298. 1+6 s ion of a i rpor t f a c i l i t i e s to serve Toronto and Montreal and the metropolitan region surrounding each* This announcement not only brought into sharp focus the serious complaints of home owners i n the v i c i n i t y of the Toronto and Montreal a i rpor t s regarding e x i s t i n g noise and par t icu la te l e v e l s , but also made e x i s t i n g home owners rea l i ze the possible impact of future a i r t r a f f i c on thousands of home owners i n other areas. Pierre J . Levasseur out l ined the federa l government's balancing of input factors and r e s u l t i n g perception of s o c i a l l y des irable p o l i c y 1+7 with respect to Montreal ' s problems as fo l lows : ' The problem of noise can be met by three ac t ions : cont ro l of f l i g h t procedures, reduct ion at source and, most d r a s t i c a l l y , contro l of r e s i d e n t i a l development i n the immediate proximity o f the a i r p o r t . The t h i r d method i s the most e f f i c i e n t at th i s t ime, although future developments may be expected to reduce a i r c r a f t no i se . But , i t i s also c o s t l y , f i n a n c i a l l y and s o c i a l l y , i f a great number of people l i v e i n close proximity to the proposed i n s t a l l a t i o n . This course of ac t ion also requires a proper zoning system and l e g i s l a t i o n to guarantee the re su l t s des i red . Af te r considering a l l these f ac tor s , the Canadian Government decided to take a bold course o f a c t ion and expropriated 90,000 acres of l a n d , comprising an operat ional zone o f 20,000 acres and 70,000 acres of land wi th in noise zones. A second, and equa l ly important, step taken by the Canadian Government was the formation of a seven d i s c i p l i n e team to study the impact of the a i rpor t on the e c o l o g i c a l system, from i t s e f fec t s on the environment to i t s e f fect s on the population. 1+6 A . B . Rosevear, "Noise i n the V i c i n i t y o f A i r p o r t s and Sonic Boom," C h i t t y ' s Law Journal (January 1969)? 3. ' P i e r re J . Levasseur, " A v i a t i o n and the Human E n v i r o n - ment, Land-use planning protects a i r p o r t and community," ICAO B u l l e t i n ( A p r i l , 1972), 2-3. k 7 One of the major causes of environmental problems fac ing soc ie ty has been a lack of apprec iat ion and understanding of the " intimate l inkages e x i s t i n g between the p h y s i c a l and the 1+8 s o c i a l environments." Another point made by Pegrum i s that " . . . law i s r e a l l y s o c i a l p o l i c y expressed i n l e g a l r u l e s . " 7 Referr ing once more to Figure 2.2 i t i s only when the government has balanced the input components and a r r i v e d at i t s perception of a s o c i a l l y des irable p o l i c y that i t i s ready to enact laws to ensure a p a r t i c u l a r course of a c t i o n . This f i n a l step i s required to provide feedback to the publ ic and to industry . The Clean A i r Act and the Expropr i a t ion Act set up such a feedback network. From the point-of-view of the a i r l i n e s such a l e g a l framework i s necessary to provide guidance i n areas that otherwise would be d i rec ted by the p r o f i t motive. I t i s only when a complete network has been formally set up that both the a i r t r a v e l l e r and the home owner can be s a t i s - f i e d , and that private enterprise can be receptive to the wishes of government and the people. It i s only when s o c i a l p o l i c y has been expressed i n l e g a l rules that i t i s adequately expressed. Wi l l i am Baxter suggests that : - * 0 "The basic te s t of 1+8 Thomas W. Thompson, e t a l . , "B iophys ica l Environment and Human Behaviour; Linkages and Feedback Systems," i n Environmental Quality and S o c i a l R e s p o n s i b i l i t y , ed . by R.S . Khare, J.W. Kolka , and C . A . P o l l i s (Green Bay, Wisconsin: U n i v e r s i t y of Wisconsin, 1972), pp. 53-5 L . ^Pegrum, Transportat ion Economics and Publ ic P o l i c y . p. 252. ^ ° W i l l i a m Baxter, "Noise : Legal and Economic Implica- t i o n s , " i n A i r Transportation—A Forward Look, ed . by K a r l M. Ruppenthal (Stanford, C a l i f .s Stanford U n i v e r s i t y , 1970), p. 107. U-8 the soundness of any l e g a l rule i s whether i t encourages the type of behavior the community wishes to encourage." Without l e g a l ru les one may never have the opportunity to make t h i s bas ic t e s t . 2.6 Landmarks i n Environmental Law—Air Transportat ion There are very few Canadian cases reported on the subject of noise and a i r p o l l u t i o n created by a i r c r a f t . A survey of Canadian cases augmented by a few of p a r t i c u l a r in te re s t i n the United States reveals that the "landmarks" i n environmental law are scarce indeed. This sect ion out l ines a few cases to provide a framework for future environmental l e g i s l a t i o n and l i t i g a t i o n . The case of Nova Mink v . Trans-Canada A i r Lines ((1951) a D . L . R . , 2^1) was one of the e a r l i e s t cases to reach P r o v i n c i a l Supreme Court . In that case the Supreme Court of Nova Scot i a decided, on appeal , that the p i l o t of the a i r c r a f t i n quest ion, " d i d not have a duty to a scer ta in the l o c a t i o n of the p l a i n t i f f ' s mink farm and then to f l y above i t to avoid d i s turb ing the mink and thus causing them to devour t h e i r young." The case was founded on negligence and the p l a i n t i f f f a i l e d . A s i m i l a r judgment was handed down by the judge i n a United States case. East Haven v . Eas tern A i r l i n e s , Inc. (331 F . Supp. 16),^ 2 wherein the court ru led i n favor of the ' Rosevear, "Noise i n the V i c i n i t y of A i rpor t s and Sonic Boom," p. k . See also Daroway v . The Queen (1956) E x . C . R . , 3*+0. ' Reported i n Meyer, " A i r and Noise P o l l u t i o n Surround- ing A i r p o r t s , " p. 862. ±9 p u b l i c ' s r i g h t to u n r e s t r i c t e d a i r t r a v e l . Cedarhurst, New York, near I d l e w i l d A i r p o r t , was the scene of yet another con- f l i c t i n which a v i a t i o n i n t e r e s t s won.-^ On the other side of the c o i n , an i n c r e a s i n g s o c i a l awareness of the problem of noise p o l l u t i o n from j e t a i r c r a f t has more r e c e n t l y prompted a c t i o n favorable to the land-owning ck p u b l i c . Ruppenthal gives the f o l l o w i n g examplex J E a r l y i n 1970, a Superior Court i n Los Angeles r u l e d t h a t 539 property owners near the Los Angeles I n t e r - n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t were e n t i t l e d to damages because of j e t a i r c r a f t n o i s e . Damages In the amount of #7^0,000. were awarded against the Los Angeles A i r - p o r t s Department. The court found j e t noise i n t e r - rupted normal conversations, r a d i o and t e l e v i s i o n r e c e p t i o n , and sle e p ; t h a t i t i n t e r f e r e d w i t h p e r s o n a l comfort, enjoyment, and the convenience of l i v i n g . S h o r t l y a f t e r the Superior Court d e c i s i o n , the C i t y of Los Angeles announced th a t i t would appeal the d e c i s i o n . Despite a h i s t o r y of l i m i t e d success, "The courtroom i s the l a s t arena where the i n d i v i d u a l c i t i z e n can meet b i g business or government bureaucracy and hope to s u r v i v e . n J J More success has been enjoyed by c i t i z e n s ' groups and e n t i r e muni- c i p a l i t i e s whose concern i s the o v e r a l l r e g i o n i n which they l i v e than on an i n d i v i d u a l c i t i z e n b a s i s . Santa Monica, - ^ K a r l M. Ruppenthal, "Some Socioeconomic Considera- t i o n s " i n A i r T r a n s p o r t a t i o n — A Forward Look (Stanford, C a l i f . : Stanford U n i v e r s i t y , 1970), p. 158. ^ " K a r l M. Ruppenthal, "Problems of A i r c r a f t Noise and Exhaust," F a c u l t y of Commerce and Business A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., 1972. (Mimeographed.) t o r J . Yannacone, J r . , Bernard S. Cohen, and Steven G. Davison, Environmental Rights and Remedies (Rochester, New York: The Lawyers Cooperative P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1972). C a l i f o r n i a , ^ and Mbrristown, New Jersey,-^ 7 for example, have e s tab l i shed permissible noise l e v e l s for takeoff o p e r a t i o n s , J and the C i t y of Inglewood, which adjoins Los Angeles Inter- erg n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t , spec i f i e s i n t h e i r ord inance :^ 7 It s h a l l be unlawful for any person to operate, run up or test or cause to be operated, run up or test an a i r c r a f t je t engine which creates a noise l e v e l of 50 dBA or more at any place wi th in an inhabited r e s i d e n t i a l zone of the C i t y o f Inglewood between the hours of 10:00 p.m. and 7*00 a.m. Such a c t i o n may not be l e g a l l y binding from a j u r i s d i c t i o n a l p o i n t - o f - v i e w * 0 but i t does r e f l e c t the underlying " t rade- c/6 J Santa Monica and Morristown are general a v i a t i o n a i r - ports very close to populated areas. See Stagg y . Municipal Court o f Santa Monica. C a l i f o r n i a Court of Appeal , Second D i s t r i c t , December 4-, 1969, c i t e d by C l i f f o r d R. Bragdon, Noise P o l l u t i o n , the Unquiet C r i s i s (Ph i l ade lph ia : U n i v e r s i t y of Pennsylvania Press , 1971). y 'Township of Hanover v . The Town of Morristown, New Jersey Superior Court , Chancery D i v i s i o n , December 10, 1969, c i t e d by C l i f f o r d R. Bragdon, Noise P o l l u t i o n , the Unquiet C r i s i s (Ph i l ade lph ia : U n i v e r s i t y of Pennsylvania Press , (197D. ^ C l i f f o r d R. Bragdon points out , i n Noise P o l l u t i o n . The Unquiet C r i s i s (Ph i l ade lph ia : U n i v e r s i t y o f Pennsylvania Press , 1971), P. 182, that a i rpor t s have avoided e s t ab l i sh ing noise l i m i t s for landing jet a i r c r a f t due to safety considera- t i o n s . Up u n t i l 1968 a l l U .S . a i r c r a f t had federa l permission to make as much noise as they cared. The United States ' f i r s t f edera l regu la t ion l i m i t i n g the noise of new commercial and c i v i l a i r c r a f t was promulgated by the FAA i n la te 1969 (see Robert Lindsey, "FAA Acts to Cut Noise of J e t l i n e r s , " New York Times, November 13, 1969). Canada's regulat ions are yet to appear. •^Noise Regulat ion, Sect ion 1+622, Noises—Jet Engine T e s t i n g , Ordinance Number 2018, Chapter 6, C i t y of Inglewood, C a l i f o r n i a , 1969, c i t e d by C l i f f o r d R. Bragdon, Noise P o l l u - t i o n . The Unquiet C r i s i s (Ph i l ade lph ia : U n i v e r s i t y of Penn- sylvania Press , 1971). See a l s o , The Ten Point Act ion Pro- gram for the A l l e v i a t i o n of Noise P o l l u t i o n i n Inglewood. January 1, 1970, c i t e d by Bragdon, Noise P o l l u t i o n . The Unquiet C r i s i s . 60™ . , Municipal ordinances which attempt to ban excessive o f f s " acceptable to the general p u b l i c and gives c l e a r warning to the f e d e r a l government and to the a i r c r a f t i n d u s t r y t h a t the p u b l i c i s very much d i s t u r b e d by the problem and demands a s o l u t i o n . I t i s obvious from the time pe r i o d (10 p.m. to 1 a.m.) mentioned i n the C i t y of Inglewood's mu n i c i p a l o r d i n - ance that the p u b l i c i s w i l l i n g to forego any b e n e f i t s which might accrue from increased commerce during t h i s time pe r i o d f o r the b e n e f i t s of a good n i g h t ' s sleep. The i n h a b i t a n t s of Inglewood are not concerned about the problems of a i r l i n e scheduling ( i . e . a plane l e a v i n g at 10 p.m. may a r r i v e at i t s d e s t i n a t i o n at 3 a.m.), they are concerned about t h e i r own perceived s e l f - i n t e r e s t . This gets back to a point made i n the I n t r o d u c t i o n , from each separate viewpoint the system's elements rank d i f f e r e n t l y . A systems a n a l y s i s approach to the problems of a i r and noise p o l l u t i o n i n the a i r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n d u s t r y i s r e q u i r e d . A 1969 case, under the Fed e r a l A v i a t i o n Act i n the United States» reemphasizes a macro approach to environmental planning.' In P a l i s a d e s C i t i z e n s A s s o c i a t i o n v. CAB 0*20 F. 2d 188 (D.C. C i r . 1969)), c i t i z e n s concerned " ' I I ! I ! j e t noise and sonic booms caused by a i r p l a n e s f l y i n g over t h e i r t e r r i t o r y , may be i n v a l i d a t e d , as was the case i n American A i r - l i n e s , Inc. v. Hampstead. as discussed i n the New York Times, J u l y 1, 19o7, p. M-8), and i n Yannacone, J r . , Cohen, and Davison, Environmental Rights and Remedies, V o l . I I , Ch. x i , p. k 08 . 61 John Y. Pearson, "Toward a C o n s t i t u t i o n a l l y P r o tected Environment," Environment Law Review—1971, (Albany, N.Y.: Sage H i l l P u b l i s h e r s , Inc., 1971), p. 67. 52 about the "environmental impact" of a proposed h e l i - copter service attempted to intervene i n C i v i l Aero- naut ics Board hearings . Although the D i s t r i c t of Columbia C i r c u i t upheld the CAB's den ia l of i n t e r - vent ion , the court cautioned that the Federal A v i a t i o n A c t ' s standard for CAB c e r t i f i c a t i o n of c a r r i e r service —"The promotion, encouragement and development of c i v i l aeronautics" ( L9 U . S . C . £ 1302(f) (196*+)) — requires cons iderat ion of the impact of proposed a c t i v i t i e s upon the publ ic in teres t i n environmental p ro tec t ion . The court concluded that (T)he publ ic in te re s t i n the "promotion, encouragement, and development of c i v i l aeronautics" demands considera- t i o n by the Board o f the extent to which a grant w i l l a f fect persons and property on the ground below the route . A c e r t i f i c a t e to a c a r r i e r (or the i n s t i t u t i o n of a service) which would subs tant i a l ly increase the i n t e n s i t y of noise (or the) degree o f a i r p o l l u t i o n . . . would be contrary to the s p i r i t and the l e t t e r of the Federal A v i a t i o n A c t . This case, while f ind ing i n favor of the C i v i l Aeronautics Board, worded i t s cautionary notice to c l a r i f y and extend the Federa l A v i a t i o n Act and to emphasize the importance of due cons iderat ion of the publ ic af fected by i t s ac t ions . The landmarks i n environmental law vis-a*-vis a v i a t i o n are slowly being formed, but many c i t i z e n s are s t a r t ing to question the a b i l i t y of the present structure to keep up with the present rate of environmental degradation. U .S . Senator Edmund S. Muskie, Chairman of the U.S . Subcommittee on A i r and Water P o l l u t i o n expresses these doubts. He asserts Because environmental law i s inseparable from other areas of the law, notably t o r t law and t ransporta t ion law, our work cannot be l i m i t e d i n i t s scope only to p o l l u t i o n . Our environmental problems stem l a r g e l y They were s p e c i f i c a l l y concerned that he l i copter t r a f f i c above t h e i r property would cause no i se , a i r p o l l u t i o n and safety hazards. ^^Bdmund S. Muskie, " T o r t s , Transportat ion, and P o l l u - t i o n : Do the Old Shoes S t i l l F i t ? " , Environment Law Review— 1971 (Albany, N . Y . : Sage H i l l Publ i shers , I n c . , 197D, pT"?63. 53 from a pressing need to emerge from the ent i re system of l e g a l theory and precedent that guided us during the f i r s t century of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n i n t h i s country. Much of t h i s theory and precedent w i l l remain v iable i n the years ahead, but more must be reexamined and changed as we move into the f i n a l t h i r d of t h i s century. In Canada, demand for environmental impact studies and respons- ib l e a c t ion by government o f f i c i a l s i s increas ing and with such demand an increas ing emphasis on long-term strategy. Is the Canadian government accepting the challenge? On one hand the Min i s t e r of the Environment for Canada, Mr. Jack Davis , 6k shows true recogni t ion of the problem at hand. He as ser t s : Obviously, we need new at t i tudes and new laws to protect our f r a g i l e environment from our depreda- t i o n s . These laws, l i k e nature ' s laws, must be u n i v e r s a l . They must be more than l o c a l , more than r e g i o n a l , more than n a t i o n a l . They must be g l o b a l . On the other hand; however, he indicates a re fusa l of the federa l government to accept the chal lenge, s t a t i n g : J Although the federa l government w i l l play a l ead- ing role i n working toward a cleaner environment, l e g a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for preservat ion and enhance- ment o f our surroundings i s shared i n varying degrees by the governments at the f e d e r a l , p r o v i n c i a l , and municipal l e v e l s . The most s i g n i f i c a n t landmark i n environmental law, a n a t i o n a l un i f i ed approach to so lving p o l l u t i o n problems, i s yet to come. The human environment may get a l o t worse before i t gets be t t e r . 6k Department of the Environment, Canada and the Human Environment, p. 6. 6 ^ I b i d . , p . 21. 2.7 Internat ional Agreement on Noise Levels and A i r P o l l u t i o n Standards Internat iona l a i r t r a v e l has grown subs t an t i a l ly i n the l a s t decade due to a number of key, in te rac t ing cons iderat ions : (1) greater d i sc re t ionary income, (2) greater propensity to t r a v e l by a i r , (3) reduced t r a v e l cost s , (h) shorter t r a v e l times with the advent of longer range and fas ter a i r c r a f t , and 6 6 (5) improved service through extended b i l a t e r a l agreements. With t h i s increased a i r t r a v e l an in tegra t ion of business and t ranspor ta t ion on an in te rna t iona l l e v e l has developed. It i s obvious that i n t e r n a t i o n a l t rea t i e s and conventions are needed to resolve i n t e r n a t i o n a l environmental c o n f l i c t s . There i s growing concern over our g lobal environment which transcends purely n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s , and i t i s foreseeable that i n the near future a body of t ransnat ional environmental law w i l l be d e v e l o p e d . ^ To date, no survey o f noise p o l l u t i o n has been made on an i n t e r n a t i o n a l sca le , however the 22-nation Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) has announced i t s i n t e n t i o n to e s t a b l i s h in te rna t iona l tolerance l i m i t s for 6 8 environmental p o l l u t a n t s . Richard Gardner does not f e e l that 6 6 Canadian A i r Transportat ion Admini s t ra t ion , P a c i f i c Region, Publ ic Information K i t . 6 7 'Yannacone, J r . , Cohen, and Davison, Environmental Rights and Remedies. V o l . I I , Ch. x i , p. ¥+2. 6 8 Farnswor th , " O . E . C . D . W i l l Set P o l l u t i o n L i m i t s , " New York Times. February 19, 1970, p . 11. Under th i s plan countr ies who exceed the l i m i t s would pay indemnit ies . Mem- bers of OECD include Canada, the United States , Japan and 19 Western European countr ies . The major drawback i s that the organizat ion operates by voluntary compliance and there 69 t h i s i s enough. He s ta tes : 7 The United Nations i s the only framework ava i lab le for cooperation on both an Bast-West and a North-South ba s i s . While environmental cooperation through forums l i k e the North A t l a n t i c Treaty Organization (NATO) and the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Develop- ment (OECD) can be a useful supplement to United Nations e f f o r t s , i t i s no substitute for them. One would c e r t a i n l y have to agree that ac t ion at the U . N . l e v e l i s most appropriate i n a i r t ranspor ta t ion . Some work i s present ly taking place conducted by the World Meteorological Organizat ion (WMO), This work consis ts of monitoring a i r p o l l u t i o n of g lobal s igni f icance and standardizing na t iona l data (the Earthwatch program). The Internat ional C i v i l A v i a - t i o n Organization (ICAO) has held a conference at which the development of i n t e r n a t i o n a l standards and recommended prac- t i c e s for a i r c r a f t noise abatement and the study and measure- 70 ment of sonic booms were discussed. i s no way of enforcing ac t ion on the independent governments. It cannot be assumed that a l l the members w i l l adhere to the standards of environmental c o n t r o l s . 6 9 R i c h a r d N. Gardner, "The role o f the U . N . i n Env i ron- mental Problems," i n World B c o - C r i s i s . Internat ional Organiza- t ions i n Response, ed . by David A. Kay and Eugene Skoln ikof f (Madison, Wisconsin: The U n i v e r s i t y of Wisconsin Press , 1972), P. 71. ^ 0 B r i a n Johnson, "The United Nations ' I n s t i t u t i o n a l Response to Stockholm: A Cast Study i n the Internat ional P o l i t i c s of I n s t i t u t i o n a l Change," i n World E c o - C r i s i s . Internat iona l Organizations i n Response, ed . by David A . Kay and Eugene Sko ln ikof f (Madison, Wisconsin: The U n i v e r s i t y of Wisconsin Press , 1972), p. 89. 56 The p r i n c i p l e s , adopted at the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment held June 5-l6, 1972 at Stockholm, Sweden, emphasize a true concern over i n t e r n a t i o n a l agreement on environmental p ro tec t ion . P r i n c i p l e s 5 and 25 i n p a r t i c u - l a r are i d e a l i s t i c but necessary goals for the nations of the wor ld . P r i n c i p l e 5. The non-renewable resources of the earth must be employed i n such a way as to guard against the danger of t h e i r future exhaustion and to ensure that benefits-, from such employment are shared by a l l mankind.' P r i n c i p l e 25. States s h a l l ensure that i n t e r - n a t i o n a l organizations play a coordinated, e f f i - c ient and dynamic role for the protect ion and improvement of the env i ronment . ' 2 The Stockholm Conference provided three main contr ibut ions to environmental improvement:^ (1) A dec la ra t ion of p r i n c i p l e s , which was an " a s p i r a t i o n a l " document to commit government to a common d i r e c t i o n for a c t i o n . (2) An "Ac t ion Plan", which covered 109 recommenda- t ions inc lud ing 110 Earthwatch s t a t ions , a nuclear body, a spec ia l environmental fund, energy con- s idera t ions , and prel iminary ground rules for the 197 k World Population Conference. (3) The se t t ing up of an i n s t i t u t i o n a l framework for further conferences and an Environmental Secre tar ia t (phys i ca l ly located i n Nairobe, Kenya) report ing to the U . N . General Assembly. These are major steps forward as far as i n t e r n a t i o n a l ac t ion ' U . S . , Congress, Senate, Committee on Foreign Relations, Report on the United Nations Conference on the Human E n v i r o n - ment. 92nd Cong . , 2nd sess . , 1972 (Washington, D . C . : Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1972), p. 16. 7 2 I b i d . , p. 19. ^ T h i s sect ion draws i n part from Dr . Hugh Keenley- s i d e ' s January 26. 1973 Westwater Lecture presented at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, and e n t i t l e d , "The Stockholm Conference on the Environment: An Assessment." 57 i s concerned; however, there are some d i f f i c u l t problems to overcome to change general agreements into binding l e g i s l a t i o n . Among these are the problems of economic development of the 7k developing nat ions , the time factor involved i n developing 75 formal system analys i s t o o l s t h e problem of br inging our patterns of consumption into l ine with the r e a l i t i e s of 76 ecology and the world resource s i t u a t i o n ' and the tremendous amount of money required to finance an i n t e r n a t i o n a l e f f o r t of 77 t h i s magnitude. ' ' 7k ' Miguel A . Ozorio de Almeida expands upon t h i s f ac tor , c la iming tha t , "Any e f for t s i n the d i r e c t i o n of a so lu t ion of the p o l l u t i o n of poverty unconnected to the process of resource accumulation through development would be se l f -de fea t ing , because resources thus would be d iverted to compensate for e f fec t s instead o f t a c k l i n g the r e a l causes of the problem." He s ta tes , " I f the Stockholm Conference i s to tackle t h i s problem, then i t must also be an economic development con- ference . " From, Miguel A. Ozorio de Almeida, "The Confronta- t i o n Between Problems of Development and Environment," i n Environment and Development.. Carnegie Endowment for Inter- n a t i o n a l Peace, No. 586 (New York : Carnegie Endowment fo r Internat iona l Peace, 1972), pp. 37-56. ^ D e n n i s L . Meadows and Jorgen Randers, "Adding a Time Dimension to Environmental P o l i c y , " i n World B c o - C r i s i s . In ternat iona l Organizations i n Response, ed . by David A. Kay and Eugene Skoln ikof f (Madison, Wisconsin: The U n i v e r s i t y of Wisconsin Press , 1972), p. 50. ^ P a u l R. E h r l i c h and Anne H . E h r l i c h , Populat ion Resources Environment: Issues i n Human Ecology (San Franc i s co : W.H. Freeman and Company, 1970), p. 323. ^ T h e amount of money a l l o t t e d the spec ia l E n v i r o n - mental Agency of the U . N . Secretar ia t was 100 m i l l i o n d o l l a r s for f ive years , whereas estimates to clean up the United States alone range up to $ l 6 k b i l l i o n . The United States has also reduced t h e i r annual contr ibut ion from $800,000. to $250,000. Speaking only of jet a i r c r a f t for a moment, there are several factors which favor a so lu t ion to a i r and noise p o l l u - t i o n problems wi th in a r e l a t i v e l y short time hor izon . The most evident factor i s that commercial jet a i r c r a f t are produced i n large quant i t ie s by r e l a t i v e l y few manufacturers. Seven engines presently account for most of the North American noise and a i r p o l l u t i o n ; these are the J T 3 C - 6 (Boeing 707), J T 3 D (Boeing 720, Douglas D C - 8 , and Boeing 707), JT*+A (Boeing 707 and Douglas DC-8), J T 8 D (Boeing 727, Boeing 737 and Douglas DC-9), J T 9 D (Boeing 7 k 7), C J 8 0 5 (Convair 880), and 501-D (Lockheed L - 1 0 0 ) . One single engine, the J T 8 D engine, emits t o t a l a i r contaminants at a rate about twice that of the other rjQ s i x models. The major a i r c r a f t manufacturers such as Boeing, McDonnell-Douglas, Convair , Hawker-Siddley and Lockheed may hold the key to a cleaner and quieter environment. The pos i t ive e f fect s of pressure on these manufacturers has already been seen i n the i n s t a l l a t i o n of quieter engines i n the wide- bodied Boeing 7 L 7, Lockheed 1 0 1 1 and McDonnell-Douglas D C - 1 0 a i r c r a f t and the i n s t a l l a t i o n of burner cans to reduce p a r t i c - ulates on e a r l i e r models. This pressure toward quieter engines and cleaner engines has i n t e r n a t i o n a l s igni f icance because a l l of the major a i r l i n e s are f l y i n g a i r c r a f t produced by the major a i r c r a f t manufacturers. The cost of r e t r o f i t t i n g e x i s t i n g engines i s h igh , and e f fec t ive l e g i s l a t i o n i s r e - quired to enforce i t ; however, the rate of technolog ica l obsolescence i n the h igh ly competitive a i r l i n e s business 7 8 ' George, N e v i t t , and-Vers sen, "Jet A i r c r a f t Operations", P. 515. c e r t a i n l y favors the replacement of no i sy , p o l l u t i n g engines with q u i e t , c lean engines wi th in 5 y e a r s . ^ Table III i n d i - cates the major changes i n commercial a v i a t i o n from 1936 to the pre sent. TABLE III MAJOR CHANGES IN AVIATION 1936-1973 Year A i r c r a f t Passengers Speed 1936 DC 3 21 180 MPH 19L7 C o n s t e l l a t i o n 80 300 1958 B-707 189 600 1970 B-7 k7 300-^00 6k0 1973* Concorde j T U - l ^ f 128,120 1350,1550 *not included i n ATA data Source: A i r Transport Assoc ia t ion of America, Ma.jor U .S . A i r l i n e s . Economic Review and F i n a n c i a l Outlook 1969-197^ (Washington, D . C . : A i r Transport A s s o c i a t i o n , 1969), p. 7. In summary, in te rna t iona l agreements on noise l e v e l s and a i r p o l l u t i o n standards are e s s e n t i a l for the r e s o l u t i o n of i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o n f l i c t s and the care fu l monitoring of our de l i ca te environment. Rea l i z ing the time lag required to implement s p e c i f i c i n t e r n a t i o n a l r egu l a t ion , however, much can be done by the industry i t s e l f with appropriate incent ives from n a t i o n a l government bodies . In the short run, at l e a s t , the ^Improvements i n fatigue and corros ion resistance as wel l as bonding technology has allowed Boeing Co. to increase d u r a b i l i t y of i t s jet transports and extend service l i f e war- rant ie s from 30,000 hours (on new 707, 727 and 737 transports) to a f l a t 10-year p o l i c y (which the 7^7 has had from the s t a r t ) . The l i f e of a jet engine i s somewhat les s than that recogn i t ion of the problems of c lean a i r and a quiet neighbor- hood must be inputs to the designers ' considerations for new a i r c r a f t . The economic balance must be such that the add i - t i o n a l cost of designing i n these factors does not prevent t h i s from happening. The problem of who should bear the cost of p o l l u t i o n w i l l be dealt with i n Chapter V; however, i t i s c e r t a i n that th i s cost w i l l be les s i f considered o r i g i n a l l y , through na t iona l regulat ions i n the short run and i n t e r - n a t i o n a l agreement i n the long run, than i f added on to an e x i s t i n g design. 2.8 Summary In t h i s chapter I have attempted to provide a back- ground of a i r and noise p o l l u t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n i n Canada. My 80 conclus ion i s very s imi l a r to that of Joseph Brecher: I t would be an unconscionable waste of resources i f every issue of environmental p o l i c y had to be fought out i n court . What i s needed i s a new e t h i c emphasizing harmony between man and nature, and a new, workable i n s t i t u t i o n a l framework to implement such a p o l i c y . The considerat ions provided i n t h i s chapter have reempha- s ized the concern and need for a rev i sed and e f fec t ive l e g a l structure which i s consistent with the state of technology i n 1973. I see the Canadian Federal Government " car ry ing the b a l l " on environmental i s sues , not merely "p laying a leading of the major s t r u c t u r a l components under warranty. See A v i a t i o n Week and Space Technology. XCVII. No. 22 (1972), 50. 80 Joseph J . Brecher, "Environmental L i t i g a t i o n : Strengths and Weaknesses," i n Environmental A f f a i r s . I, No? 3 (1971), 575. ~ ~ 61 r o l e " . I have suggested rev i s ions to the BNA A c t , a new 1973 Noise Contro l A c t , and s t ruc tura l change at the federa l l e v e l which w i l l ensure that the law r e f l e c t s soc i e ty ' s demands and needs. The fo l lowing table summarizes changes i n the j u r i s d i c - t i o n a l pattern required to meet the challenge of p o l l u t i o n i n the human environment: TABLE IV PROPOSED REVISIONS TO PRESENT LEGISLATIVE STRUCTURE Present Proposed Future Major Problem Group Ef fec ted Leg i s l a t ive Leg i s l a t ive Structure Structure A i r P o l l u t i o n 1. Par t i cu la te s from jet a i r - c ra f t 2. Climate modi- f i c a t i o n due to jet con- t r a i l s Noise P o l l u t i o n 1. Take-off and landing of jet a i r c r a f t 2. Sonic boom from SST air- cra f t Area residents and ecology Large zones beneath f l i g h t paths (poss ibly ent i re earth) Area residents and ecology Large zones beneath f l i g h t paths Munic ipa l , P r o v i n c i a l , and Federal None Some C i t y Bylaws o-. Common Law^ of Nuisance Common Law of Nuisance Federal and Internat ional Internat iona l Federal and Internat ional Inte m a t iona l O - i Private law sui t s are usual ly based on publ ic nuisance s ta tutes , or on the common law of nuisance, or on the c o n s t i t u - t i o n a l theory of the " t ak ing " o f property, (see Juergensmeyer, "Cont ro l of A i r P o l l u t i o n Through the Asser t ion of Private R i g h t s , " Duke Law Journa l , (1967) 1126). Genera l ly , these so lu t ions , based as they are on economic and p o l i t i c a l theories developed during a period less technolog ica l and le s s complex than today, have proved inadequate to solve today's problems. The problem of par t i cu la te s from jet a i r c r a f t i s presently handled under the Clean A i r Act of 1971. Mr. J.W. MacNei l l i d e n t i f i e s four j u r i s d i c t i o n a l s i tuat ions under the e x i s t i n g O p p o l i t i c a l structure with regard to a i r p o l l u t i o n : 1. P o l l u t i o n wi th in a province which has i t s source and i t s e f fects contained wi th in the province. 2. P o l l u t i o n i n a province or t e r r i t o r y which has i t s source i n another province or t e r r i t o r y or which af fects another province or t e r r i t o r y . 3. P o l l u t i o n i n Canada which has i t s source i n another country or which affects another country. h. P o l l u t i o n wi th in a province which or ig inates on lands or from f a c i l i t i e s under federa l ownership or j u r i s d i c t i o n . I would suggest that only the t h i r d j u r i s d i c t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n i s re levant . Within the federa l j u r i s d i c t i o n suggested one could admit the necess i ty for sub-d iv i s ion by e c o l o g i c a l reg ion or water-sheds, f o r example, but a p o l i t i c a l sub- d i v i s i o n below the federa l l e v e l defeats the purpose of a systems approach to environmental planning and l e g i s l a t i o n . In ternat iona l regula t ion of a i r p o l l u t i o n i n r e l a t i v e l y un- known areas such as climate modi f i ca t ion , i s best handled by i n t e r n a t i o n a l f i a t since g lobal monitoring and evaluat ion i s r equ i red . In the f i e l d of noise p o l l u t i o n the Canadian Federa l Government has taken a pos i t ive step through planning of new a i r p o r t i n s t a l l a t i o n s (such as P icker ing and Ste . ScholastiqueX L e g i s l a t i o n r e f l e c t i n g t h i s approach i s required to el iminate noise as a var iable i n the dec i s ion making process of a i r l i n e s O p M a c N e i l l , Environmental Management, p. 175. 63 and a i r c r a f t manufacturers. Federal or i n t e r n a t i o n a l l e g i s l a - t i o n requ i r ing s p e c i f i c PNdB noise l e v e l s to be met i s f a r superior to the present approach of l i t i g a t i o n and common law i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . The sonic boom poses a d i f f i c u l t l e g a l problem. In the past t h i s problem has been handled more as a p o l i t i c a l game than as a serious threat to the future of a v i a t i o n . A number of nations have taken u n i l a t e r a l moves to serve notice that they w i l l not allow SST a i r c r a f t to f l y over t h e i r c o u n t r i e s ^ The l e g a l i t y of such a p o s i t i o n has not been tested i n any cour t . This dilemma strengthens the need for an i n t e r n a t i o n a l l e g a l system to deal with environmental i s sues . •^In Canada the only sect ion deal ing with th i s problem i s i n the A i r Regulations and Aeronautics Act (5th E d i t i o n ) . This i s a general statement tha t , "No a i r c r a f t s h a l l be flown i n such a manner as to create a hazard to other a i r c r a f t or to persons or property on the ground." In New York a b i l l i s being proposed to p roh ib i t any commercial SSTs from using e x i s t i n g a i r p o r t f a c i l i t i e s (see David B i r d , "R ick les Asks Noise L imits to Ban Jets from C i t y , " New York Times, December 30, 1970). Five European governments: Sweden, Switzer land, West Germany, Netherlands and Norway, have indicated that they intend to ban overland f l i g h t s but have not passed s p e c i f i c l e g i s l a t i o n , (see Clyde H. Farnsworth, "Conference on Sonic Boom Told Noise Can ' t Be Designed Away," New York Times. February k , 1970. 6k CHAPTER III THE EXISTING LEGISLATION: TECHNICAL PROBLEMS AND IMPACT 3.1 Environmental A l t e r a t i o n . Weather and Climate One area which i s not covered by e x i s t i n g l e g i s l a t i o n and cannot be considered p o l l u t i o n i n the normal sense i s the area of inadvertent climate modi f i ca t ion . This i s a subject which i s c r i t i c a l l y important to a i r t ransportat ion and the human environment. Evidence continues to mount showing that human a c t i v i t i e s are changing the state of the atmosphere but the mechanisms of change are not we l l known. Table V sum- marizes some e a r l y data showing the r e l a t i v e climate of c i t i e s compared with the adjacent c o u n t r y s i d e . 1 From these f ind ings , and the l a t e r extensive Study of Man's Impact on Climate (SMIC) 2 published i n 1971? a considerable amount o f conjecture and theor iz ing has ensued. For example, some f e e l that our high-speed a i r t ransporta t ion system has already begun to a l t e r our weather patterns , and c l imato lo- 1 Gordon J . F . MacDonald, " P o l l u t i o n , Weather and C l i m a t e , " i n Environment—Resources, P o l l u t i o n and Safety , ed . by W i l l i a m Murdoch (Stamford, Conn. : Sinauer Assoc ia tes , I n c . , 1971), PP. 326-27. 2 SMIC, Inadvertent Climate M o d i f i c a t i o n : Report of the Study of Man's Impact on Climate (Cambridge, M a s s . : M I T Press , 1971).. see also Man's Impact on the Global Environment. Report o f the Study o f c r i t i c a l isnvironment Problems (SL^P ; (Cam- br idge , Mass. : MIT Press , 1970). 65 TABLE V CLIMATIC CHANGES PRODUCED BY CITIES Parame te r C i t v as Compared with Rural Surroundings Temperature Annual mean 0.5 to 1.0° C higher Winter minima 1.0 to 2 .0° C higher Cloudiness Clouds 5 to 10$ more Fog, winter 100$ more Fog, summer 30$ more Dust p a r t i c l e s 10 times more Wind speed Annual mean 20 to 30$ lower Extreme gusts 10 to 20$ lower P r e c i p i t a t i o n 5 to 10$ more Sources: 1. H . Landsberg, Man's Role i n Changing the Face o f the E a r t h (Chicago, 111.: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, 1956). 2. R. Geiger , The Climate Near the Ground (Cambridge, Mass . : Harvard U n i v e r s i t y Press , 196!?). g i c a l c y c l e s . Some believe that high a l t i tude clouds from com- merc ia l je t c o n t r a i l s have begun to reduce the amount of inc ident so lar r a d i a t i o n received by green plants on the ground.^ Meterologists Dr. Reid A . Bryson and Dr. W.M. Wen- land indicate that under ce r t a in condit ions SSTs might generate •^Yannacone , J r . and F r a n g e l l a , "Environmental Concern— The Law and A v i a t i o n , " p. 122. almost t o t a l cloud cover i n t h e i r regions of operat ion. Meteorologist Dr . Louis J . Battan, on the other hand, re ject s t h i s theory f ee l ing that formation of pers i s tent SST c o n t r a i l s i s u n l i k e l y because of the low humidity of the stratosphere.^ The SST debate, p r imar i ly centered on the issues of climate modi f ica t ion and the sonic boom, has taken place on the t e c h n i c a l l e v e l , the governmental l e v e l ( inc luding U.S . Senate Subcommittee hear ings) , and the i n t e r n a t i o n a l l e v e l . U n t i l r ecent ly a stalemate has occurred with most part ies concerned po la r i zed e i t h e r for or against the SST development i n North America, without sufficient t e c h n i c a l facts to support t h e i r p o s i t i o n s . ^ The f i r s t breakthrough toward a so lu t ion of the problem and the f i r s t step toward a macro system approach has been the United States Government's C l imat ic Impact Assessment Program (CIAP). The e x p l i c i t goal of t h i s program i s to obta in , "data necessary for the Adminis t ra t ion and Congress to reach deci s ions on operating regulat ions for supersonic k F i s h e r , What You Can Do About P o l l u t i o n Now, p. 2V7. -*Ehrl ich and B h r l i c h , Issues i n Human Ecology, p. l k 7 . Information has not been ava i lab le g iv ing the humidity at which c i r r u s clouds form and the formation mechanism ( i . e . subl imation or l iquid-phase change). It i s apparent that f ac t s , rather than opinions ,are required fo r dec i s ion making and p o l i c y formation purposes. I have not mentioned the economics of the Boeing SST development which no doubt had the most s i g n i f i c a n t e f f ec t on the c a n c e l l a t i o n of t h i s project i n March, 1 9 7 1 . Whether or not the environmental issue provided a smokescreen for some congressmen to hide behind, with p r i o r i t y of government spend- ing the r e a l i s sue , i s a moot po in t . 67 t r a n s p o r t s . " ' 7 Scheduled to be complete by the end of 197 k, the CIAP program i s p r e s e n t l y underway. I t s aims are to provide o the f o l l o w i n g : 1. T e c h n i c a l f a c t s needed t o prepare the way f o r world acceptance of i t s c o n c l u s i o n s . 2. D e f i n i t i o n of s p e c i f i c problems t h a t may be revealed and development of data necessary to provide a b a s i s for t e c h n i c a l s o l u t i o n s . 3. Determination of whether adequate research programs are under way i n the U.S. or f o r e i g n c o u n t r i e s , t o cover subjects f o r which inadequate i n f o r m a t i o n e x i s t s . F igure 3.1 shows the major steps and t i m i n g o f the CIAP p r o j e c t . The t h r u s t of the CIAP p r o j e c t i s t o l e a r n immediately i f supersonic a i r c r a f t w i l l create s i g n i f i c a n t l y increased world weather and c l i m a t i c hazards. The emphasis Is d i r e c t e d toward determining i f there could be an increase i n upper a i r water content, a decrease i n upper a i r ozone (with subsequent increase i n u l t r a v i o l e t r a d i a t i o n ) and an increase i n cloud cover through j e t c o n t r a i l s . Mr. Najeeb Halaby, former president of Pan American A i r l i n e s and former head of the FAA, says f l a t l y , "The super- sonics are coming—as s u r e l y as tomorrow. You w i l l be f l y i n g one v e r s i o n or another by 1980 and be t r y i n g to remember what o the great debate was a l l about." 7 'Clarence A. Robinson, J r . , "U.S. Presses SST C l i m a t i c Impact Study," A v i a t i o n Week and Space Technology. XCVII, No. 22, p. 50. I n t e r n a t i o n a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n CIAP i s exten- siv e and c u r r e n t l y i n v o l v e s England, France, Japan, and Belgium. I t i s a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t U.S.S.R., A u s t r a l i a and I n d i a may j o i n the program. 8 I b i d . ^ F i s h e r , What You Can Do About P o l l u t i o n Now, pp. 256- 257. FIGURE 3.1 THE MAJOR STEPS AND TIMING OF THE CIAP PROJECT Calendar F i s c a l 1. NATURE OF STRATOSPHERE Atmospheric Modeling Measurements of Stratosphere Chemical Dynamics 2. NATURE OF PROPULSION EFFLUENTS Engine Emission Test ing Route Projections 3. PERTURBED STRATOSPHERE Atmospheric Modeling If. PERTURBED TROPOSPHERE Atmospheric Modeling 5. PHYSIO-BIOL-BOTAN. EFFECTS Assessment 6. ECONOMIC MEASURES Assessment 7. REPORTING Assessment 1971 72 E Calendar 1972 1973 197k I 73 I ri~J mm 1972 1973 T o i l 197k Source: Clarence A. Robinson, J r . , " U . S . Presses SST Cl imat ic Impact Study," A v i a t i o n Week and Space Technology. XCVII, No. 22, p. 50. ON C O 69 I f a systems approach can be implemented which considers the in te rac t ions between s o c i a l , economic, and technolog ica l sub- systems and the human environment, Halaby's p red ic t ion w i l l l i k e l y come t rue . S tar t ing with the facts produced by the CIAP s tudies , the United States has a much better chance of pro- ducing an a i r c r a f t with low engine noise and low sonic boom i n the next decade. An advanced supersonic transport with a i r l i n e economics may be a r e a l i t y i n the future . Mr. Charles C . T i l l i n g h a s t , c h i e f executive o f f i c e r of Trans World A i r l i n e s , suggests t h a t : 1 0 The United States ought to take a serious look at whether i t i s possible to b u i l d a super-sonic a i r c r a f t of the second generation which w i l l be desirable both economically and environmental ly . The recogni t ion of the human environment as an important var iab le i n the a i r t ransportat ion indus t ry ' s dec i s ion making process i s s i g n i f i c a n t . The future of a v i a t i o n rests upon man's a b i l i t y to understand h i s complex environment. The C l imat i c Impact Assessment Program i s a pos i t ive step i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n . 3.2 Noise and Ai rpor t Locat ion The problem of no i se , and i t s e f fec t on the human environment, i s no more evident than i n the immediate surround- ings of an a i r p o r t . Beinhaker and Elek see the problem i n Richard Cramer, "The A i r l i n e s Speak." Environmental Qua l i ty . IV, No. 2 (1973), p. 2h. terms of a cost-benef i t ana ly s i s . They s t a t e : 1 1 In terms of the a i rpor t environment there are both benef i t s and adverse e f fects that have to be taken into account. Whereas a we l l designed terminal b u i l d i n g represents a pos i t ive add i t ion to the a t t rac t ions of a r eg ion , the a i r f i e l d and the noise caused by the a i r - cra f t have a negative e f fec t which must be minimized through such means as a proper l o c a t i o n of the a i r p o r t and appropriate land management around the a i r p o r t . The p h y s i o l o g i c a l and psychologica l e f fect s of noise are a subject i n themselves. Prominent physicians and p s y c h i a t r i s t s have blamed excessive noise for such things as paranoidal de lus ions , psychoses, h a l l u c i n a t i o n s , s u i c i d a l and homicidal 12 impulses, i r r e v e r s i b l e changes i n the autonomic nervous 13 system, permanent loss o f hearing and even an upset sex l i f e . J Coupled with chronic re sp i ra tory diseases (notably bronchi t i s and emphysema) which have been traced to a i r p o l l u t i o n , the impact of je t a i r c r a f t on area residents i s indeed a serious problem. 3 .2 .1 Reducing the Exposure to Noise E a r l i e r i n my thes i s I re ferred to noise-suppression P. Beinhaker and A. E l e k , "Methods for Eva luat ing Transportat ion Investment, Montreal A i r p o r t Study—Ste. Schola s t ique , " i n Changing Times and Keeping Up (Oxford, Indiana: The Richard B. Cross Company, 1971), Proceedings o f the 12th Annual Meeting of The Transportat ion Research Forum, P. 57. 12 Barbara J . C u l l i t o n , "Noise Threatens Man ? " i n P o l l u t i o n Papers, ed . by George E . Frakes and Cur t i s B. Solberg (New York : Meredith Corporat ion, 1971), 0. 101. •^Donald Bruce, "Noise P o l l u t i o n , " B . C . Motor i s t . J an . -Feb . , 1973, P. 31. x See for example, Danie l B r i e h l , " A i r P o l l u t i o n . " America. May 17, 1969, pp. 8 k -91, and E h r l i c h and E h r l i c h , Issues i n Human Ecology , p. 118. 71 work by the a i r l i n e s and a i r c r a f t engine manufacturers to reduce ground l e v e l noise exposure. Reducing noise at t h i s source i s only part of the answer. The other part i s reducing people 's exposure to no i se . "There are four ways of doing th i s—curta i lment of f l i g h t operat ions, noise abatement pro- cedures, better i n s u l a t i o n of homes and bui ld ings near a i r c r a f t 15 departure and a r r i v a l routes , and compatible land use." ' Curtailment o f f l i g h t operat ions, e s p e c i a l l y between 10 p.m. and 7 a .m. , has been a favor i te t o o l of munic ipa l i t i e s i n close proximity to airports* , however, i t reduces the ef fect iveness of the a i r t ransportat ion system. Noise abatement procedures include reduced thrust af ter i n i t i a l take-off and two-segment approaches. Figure 3*2 i l l u s - t ra tes a p r o f i l e of these operating procedures. The two- segment approach i s b a s i c a l l y a sharper angle approach (6° ) beyond a nav iga t iona l radio beacon some 5 miles from the end of the runway, and then a 3° approach (normal) from the 5 mile 16 point to the runway. The safety r i s k factor dec i s ion i s c r i t i c a l and one of the present drawbacks of the scheme. The Canadian A i r P i l o t s Pub l i ca t ion makes the fo l lowing proclama- 17 t i o n with regard to Noise Abatement Procedures i n general : ' ^Tipton, " A v i a t i o n ' s Three Environments," p. 2k. See a lso Edward Wel l s , " A i r c r a f t Design, Goals and Problems," i n A i r Transportation—A Forward Look, ed . by K a r l M. Ruppenthal TPalo A l t o , C a l i f o r n i a : Graduate School of Business, 1970), P. 85. 16 George Spater, American A i r l i n e s , i n Cramer, "The A i r l i n e s Speak," p. 20. "^Canadian A i r P i l o t s P u b l i c a t i o n , "Noise Abatement Procedures, p. L-k. FIGURE 3.2 FLIGHT PROFILE FOR NOISE ABATEMENT 72 (•VcTrrbseMte) Source: John Hansen and Robert St t l s s i , "Noise and the Urban Environment," an Occasional Student Paper, the Center for Transportat ion Studies , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B . C . , 1972 ( rev i sed) . Caut ion : Notwithstanding the fo l lowing procedures or any in s t ruc t ions r e l a t i n g thereto issued by A i r T r a f f i c C o n t r o l , decis ions a f fec t ing the safe operation of the a i r c r a f t s h a l l remain the Captain 's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Within t h i s framework the ultimate safety r i s k factor dec i s ion res t s with the Captain of the a i r c r a f t and the future of the two-segment approach rests i n his hands. There i s , i n f a c t , some argument at present between the U .S . P i l o t s Assoc ia t ion and the Federal A v i a t i o n Adminis trat ion as to which entry 1 8 l e v e l i s safe and which i s not . The second item to note i n Figure 3.2 i s the reduced thrust a f ter i n i t i a l take-off . This maneuver has been used to a great extent i n North A m e r i c a ^ and to a greater extent i n Europe. There are two issues involved ( l ) the safety r i s k yk take-off procedure has been developed by the Federa l A v i a t i o n Agency for minimizing a i r c r a f t noise i n popu- l a t ed areas. Referred to as a standardized noise abatement 18, Cramer, "The A i r l i n e s Speak," p. 20. fac tor and (2) how consistent noise l e v e l operation i s with economic fue l usage. The safety issue i s the more c r i t i c a l 20 i tem. Yannacone and Frangela state t h i s op in ion : I t i s c r imina l that p i l o t s of commercial a i r c a r r i e r s , with loads of more than one hundred passengers, are required to reduce power during the c r i t i c a l moments of takeoff as a noise abatement procedure. I would c e r t a i n l y agree with these authors, the place for te s t ing new procedures i s not commercial av ia t ion ,and u n t i l tests prove conc lus ive ly that these procedures are 100$ safe they have no place i n everyday serv ice . Better i n s u l a t i o n of homes and bui ld ings near a i r c r a f t departure and a r r i v a l routes has been recommended i n various countr ie s . Along these l i n e s a new "staggered-stud" i n t e r i o r wal l construct ion technique i s being used i n the United 21 States . In Great B r i t a i n , the general at t i tude i s that the p r o f i l e , i t requires jet a i r c r a f t operators to fo l low these procedures af ter l i f t o f f : (1) accelerate to V2 plus 10 to 20 knots with takeoff f l ap and takeoff thrus t ; (2) at no sooner than H-OO feet , i n i t i a t e f l ap r e t r a c t i o n schedule and accelerate while maintaining pos i t ive climb gradient , achieve minimum maneuvering speed and clean conf igurat ion by 1500 f ee t ; (3) s t a b i l i z e with minimum maneuvering speed and target EPR (*+) at l+jOOO f ee t , resume en route climb schedule. Such a procedure i s being used at Washington Nat ional A i r p o r t i n cooperation with the FAA, A i r l i n e P i l o t s A s s o c i a t i o n , and the A i r Transport As soc i a t ion . Noise l e v e l s on the ground are thereby reduced by 8.8 PNdB below those under e x i s t i n g a i r p o r t procedures elsewhere. As reported by Bragdon,' Noise P o l l u - t i o n . The Unquiet C r i s i s , p. 181. 2 0 Yannacone, J r . , and F r a n g e l l a , "Environmental Concern —The Law and A v i a t i o n , " p. 128. 'Berland, The Fight for Quiet, p. 205. householder can e i ther i n s t a l l soundproofing or move. The fo l lowing l e g i s l a t i o n was proposed by the Mini s ter of A v i a t i o n 22 and enacted by the House of Commons on March 10, 1965: Grants of 50 percent, subject to a maximum of 100, of the cost of soundproofing up to 3 rooms w i l l be made ava i lab le to householders i n a defined area round Heathrow for work car r i ed out with p r i o r approval and to an approved design. The work must be completed by 31st December, 1970, when the scheme w i l l come to an end. At Paris A i r p o r t , as mentioned e a r l i e r , an a i r p o r t tax on pas- sengers i s being used to finance soundproofing. Within s ing le - family r e s i d e n t i a l s t ructures , Bishop has found that a i r c r a f t noise i s reduced by 12 to 30 d e c i b e l s . 2 ^ Compatible land use i s the most promising method of reducing human noise exposure. A basic recogni t ion that unreg- ulated urban growth and jet noise do not mix i s mandatory for the a i r p o r t planner. In the past most people have assumed that science w i l l come to t h e i r rescue and develop a qu ie t , non- 2^ p o l l u t i n g jet engine. J Residents have se t t l ed around a i rpor t s " R a l p h Turvey, "Side E f fec t s of Resource Use , " i n Environmental Quality i n a Growing Economy, ed. by Henry J a r r e t t (Balt imore, M d . : John Hopkins Press for Resources for the Future , I n c . , 1966), p. 50. ^ B r a g d o n , The Unquiet C r i s i s , p. lM-8. Wil l i am R. Sims and Angelo J . Cerchione, " In Search of an A v i a t i o n Master P l a n , " i n Master Planning the A v i a t i o n Environment, ed. by Angelo J . Cerchione, V . E . Rothe and J . V e r c e l l i n o (Tucson, Ar i zona : Un iver s i ty of Arizona Press , 1970), p. l l k . per ^"The A l l e v i a t i o n of Jet A i r c r a f t Noise near A i r p o r t s , " U . S . Office of Science and Technology, March 1966, quoted by Bernard A . Schriever and Wil l iam A. S e i f e r t , A i r Transporta- t i o n 1975 and Beyond: A Systems Approach, Report of the Transportat ion Workshop (Cambridge, Mass. : MIT Press , 1968), p. 4. " with l i t t l e regard for the dangers associated with l i v i n g i n these areas. In the United States some researchers have gone as far as to suggest that a conspiracy ex i s t s between the Federa l A v i a t i o n Adminis tra t ion and the Federal Housing Adminis t ra t ion to permit the construct ion of r e s i d e n t i a l dwel- l i n g units i n the p r i n c i p a l noise zones around major U .S . a i r - por t s , "at the request o f , and c e r t a i n l y for the p r i n c i p a l benef i t o f , major lending i n s t i t u t i o n s and r e a l estate specu- l a t o r s . " Perhaps a more credible explanation for the propensity to l i v e close to a i rpor t s i s the convenience pro- vided to people working at the a i rpor t or using a i r t r a v e l to some extent . To exp la in the pattern of population growth around a i rpor t s one need only look at a new plant or industry b u i l t i n a remote or semi-remote r u r a l area . E a r l y photo- graphs of many i n d u s t r i a l s i tes show small Indus t r i a l communi- t i e s which have " b u i l t up" around the employment center and which are now i n the center of major c i t i e s . The population density i n Hamilton, Montreal E a s t , P i t t sburg , P a . , Manchester, England, and other i n d u s t r i a l areas bears t h i s out. The large housing projects near Malton A i r p o r t i n Toronto, Vancouver 27 Internat iona l A i r p o r t and Chicago O'Hare ' Internat ional A i r - port i l l u s t r a t e the same phenomena. 2^Yannacone, J r . , and F r a n g e l l a , "Environmental Concern —The Law and A v i a t i o n , " p. 128. 2 7 C h a r l e s T i l l i n g h a s t (TWA) states that 9 0 $ of the c i t i z e n s l i v i n g under approach paths moved there , "a f ter the a i r p o r t was es tab l i shed and chose for reasons s u f f i c i e n t unto themselves to l i v e under those c o n d i t i o n s . " He c i t e s Kennedy A i r p o r t where houses are s t i l l being b u i l t under the approach 76 The e a r l y attempts at compatible land use near a i rpor t s were based on good planning but poor t e c h n i c a l knowledge of the propert ies of sound. Dulles Internat ional A i r p o r t is an pQ exce l l en t example of t h i s : Dul les Internat ional A i r p o r t serving Washington, D . C . , was designed with i t s neighbors i n mind. The a i rpor t i t s e l f i s i so l a ted from the surrounding t e r r i t o r y by land extending a mile and a h a l f beyond the runway l i m i t s . Furthermore, i t i s set o f f by a grove of trees extending 1,000 feet i n from the a i r p o r t boundary and by 1.5 m i l l i o n new seedlings that were added to the e x i s t i n g timber be l t to form a sound b a r r i e r 1,000 feet wide a l l around Dul l e s ' perimeter. In spite of a l l these precautions, which required con- siderable funds, a 100 dB noise l e v e l s t i l l penetrates a mile beyond the a i rpor t l i m i t s . In contrast to the Dul les Internat ional A i r p o r t , the new Montreal Internat ional A i r p o r t w i l l occupy 18,500 acres (30 square miles) t o t a l developed area plus a t o t a l o f 70,000 acres of per iphera l l and . In terms of D u l l e s ' boundary "a mile and a h a l f beyond the runway l i m i t s , " the distance from the end of main runway 2 kLC to the North-East boundary w i l l be 8.5 miles (and 6.5 miles for future runway 2kRC) and from main run- way 11L to the West-North-West boundary w i l l be 7.5 miles (and path and O'Hare, "which ten years ago was out i n the country" and now has "rows and rows and rows of new houses b u i l t wi th in the l a s t f ive or ten years , . . . r i g h t under the approach pa th . " Quoted i n Cramer, "The A i r l i n e s Speak," p. 23 P O ^ ° C u l l i t o n , "Noise Threatens Man," p. 10**, o r i g i n a l l y published i n Science News, October 15, i960. See also U .S . Department of Housing and Urban Development, A i r p o r t Env i rons : Land Use Controls—Environmental Planning Paper (Washington. D . C . : Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , May, 1970), p. 6, i n which they s ta te , "What i s general ly misunderstood i s the scale of the noise-af fected area. It i s not uncommon for communities e ight miles away from the a i r p o r t to experience some e f f e c t s . " 77 9.5 miles from future runway 11R). 2^ A major e c o l o g i c a l study (EZAIM) i s being undertaken by a group of s c i e n t i s t s from f ive Quebec u n i v e r s i t i e s to deter- mine the na tura l e c o l o g i c a l balance and predict what i s l i k e l y to be the balance a f ter the new Montreal Internat ional A i r p o r t i s b u i l t . 3 ° This type of work i s required not only for new a i rpor t s but also for addit ions to e x i s t i n g a i rpor t s and even increased use of e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s . Pioneer studies such as the EZAIM e c o l o g i c a l study are necessary to achieve compatible land use patterns . The continued support of the Min i s t ry of Transport and the Nat ional Research Counci l on projects d i r e c t l y concerned with a i r t ransportat ion and the human environment i s v i t a l to the future of Canadian a v i a t i o n . Be in- haker and E l e k inform us t h a t : ^ 1 The dec i s ion to b u i l d a new a i r p o r t for Montreal was consistent with the objective of the Min i s t ry of Transport to make transport f a c i l i t i e s support broad s o c i a l and economic goals i n add i t ion to serving the needs of t ranspor ta t ion . Pierre Levasseur adds his comments: .32 ^Transport Canada, "Si te Plan of New Montreal Inter- n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t " BANAIM-S1-JAN.72 i n Information Dossier 2nd E d i t i o n , New Montreal Internat iona l A i rpor t Pro jec t . Information Serv ice , Montreal , Quebec. 3 ° " E c o l o g y of the Montreal Internat ional A i r p o r t Area (EZAIM)" i n Information Dossier 2nd E d i t i o n . New Montreal In ternat iona l A i r p o r t Pro.iect. Information Serv ice , Montreal , Quebec. -^Beinhaker and E l e k , "Montreal A i rpor t Study—Ste. Scho la s t ique , " p. 59. ^^Levasseur, " A v i a t i o n and the Human Environment," p. 3. 78 We bel ieve i t (the new Montreal A i rpor t ) to be an outstanding example of the e f fo r t that must be made to integrate the a i rpor t with the metropolitan soc io- economic environment. The goal i s to protect the a i r - por t ' s prime funct ion and i t s environment. The systems analys i s approach re f l ec ted i n Beinhaker and E l e k ' s statement and Levasseur's emphasis on integra t ing the a i rpor t with the human environment indicate a true understanding of the challenge o f the environmental e r a . E a r l i e r i n t h i s thes i s I made the statement that a r e - v i sed governmental structure with increased emphasis on n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l decision-making was necessary to deal e f f e c t i v e l y with a i r p o l l u t i o n . The problems of a i r p o l l u t i o n have been compounded by overlapping f e d e r a l , p rov in- c i a l and municipal j u r i s d i c t i o n s . Noise p o l l u t i o n near a i r - ports has t r a d i t i o n a l l y been a federa l matter although there has been an increas ing amount of municipal a c t i o n . Municipal d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n has resul ted from the fact that problems asso- c ia ted with noise have not been e f f e c t i v e l y handled i n the past . J An increase i n communication between municipal and - ^ " A i r p o r t Goof D i s c l o s e d , " Vancouver Sun, January 16,/ 1973? PP. 1-3. In response to repeated questioning i n the House of Commons, the Parliamentary Secretary to the Mini s ter of Transport f i n a l l y admitted on January 16, 1973 that no s p e c i a l environmental impact study has been ca r r i ed out with respect to the proposed expansion of Vancouver Internat ional A i r p o r t . In Calgary recent e d i t o r i a l comment i n the Calgary newspapers reveals considerable d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with the run- downcondition of Calgary A i r p o r t , which has long passed i t s e f f i c i e n t passenger handling capac i ty . Edmonton Internat ional A i r p o r t , on the other hand, i s considered by many to be a "white elephant" with a very low passenger volume r e l a t i v e to i t s passenger handling capaci ty . My point here i s not to be c r i t i c a l of the Department of Transport but rather to point out an area i n which improved communication and coordinat ion would a s s i s t i n preparing for the complexities of the a i r t ranspor ta t ion industry now and i n the future . 79 f edera l l e v e l s i s required for e f fec t ive planning, even to the oh extent of formal l i n e s of communication and s t ruc tura l changer I f Canada hopes to solve the problems associated with a i r p o r t noise i t must adopt a systems analys i s approach. P o l i c y formulation and implementation must be on the na t iona l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l l e v e l with the cent ra l planning funct ion r e s i s t i n g the temptation of promoting h igh ly v i s i b l e and environmentally sophis t icated projects at the expense of neglect ing les s p o l i t i c a l l y expedient pro jec t s . A true macro approach to noise abatement near a i rpor t s c a l l s for an increase i n responsiveness to the demands of a l l Canadian a i r p o r t com- munities and an end to reg ional d i s p a r i t y . 3.2.2. The Expropr i a t ion Act of Canada In Canada, the major a i rpor t s are owned and operated by the Federal Government. The Crown sets the regu la t ions , respect ing a i r nav iga t ion , i n the airspace of Canada, inc luding those for landings and take-offs at a i r p o r t s . The Crown also sets apart the airways, f l ightways and runways, and the regula- 3kThe United States A i r p o r t and Airway Development Act of 1970, for example, requires greater c i t i z e n and l o c a l govern- ment p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a i rpor t l o c a t i o n and expansion projects p r i o r to Federal funding. At a minimum, publ ic hearings must be held to consider the "economic, s o c i a l and environmental e f fec t s of the a i r p o r t l o c a t i o n and i t s consistency v/ith the goals and object ives of such urban planning as has been c a r r i e d out by the community." When a proposed new a i rpor t does not serve a metropolitan area , the Department of Transportat ion must consider the views of affected communities around the s i te p r i o r to granting approval . t ions governing them. J The area i n which the Federal Govern- ment has not been a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d , u n t i l quite recently, i s d i r e c t ownership of the land surrounding i t s major a i r p o r t s . This i s understandable since only wi th in the l a s t few years has there been any major concern over the impact of noise on populated areas. Cer ta in areas near a i rpor t s and i n the v i c i n i t y of a i r c r a f t operations are inherent ly dangerous. In the case of m i l i t a r y a i r f i e l d s t h i s area includes an area seven and one-half miles along the l o n g i t u d i n a l axis of an act ive runway, and one and three-quarters miles on each side of that act ive runway .^ S i m i l a r l y for commercial a v i a t i o n r e s t r i c - t ions on land use can be based on psychologica l and medical grounds. As Yannacone and Frangel la s ta te , "No one should be permitted to add his disease syndrome to the community burden by b u i l d i n g a home i n a patently unsuitable locat ion."37 I t i s a "common sense" approach that no r e s i d e n t i a l housing or high-dens i ty human a c t i v i t i e s should be permitted i n these zones of maximum hazard, and yet they are . I f an a i r p o r t ex i s t s and a homeowner moves into a dangerous zone one could come to two a l ternat ive conclus ions : 1. The homeowner l i v i n g d i r e c t l y under a f l i g h t path i s not e n t i t l e d to compensation i n the event of expropr ia- t i o n (other than for the book value of hi s property) ^ C l e a n A i r and Water News, I I I , No. k 5? P. 5. •^Yannacone, J r . , and F r a n g e l l a , "Environmental Concern —The Law and A v i a t i o n , " p. 126. 3 7 I b i d . . p. 127. 81 because he knew that i t was an area of maximum ground hazard from a i r c r a f t operations when he moved there . 2. The homeowner i s e n t i t l e d to f u l l compensation i n the event o f expropr ia t ion because f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for sui table zoning and p r i o r planning for future modif ica- t ions to the a i r p o r t must be accepted by the Federal Government. I f the a i r p o r t moves into an area where homes are already present, then the burden of re loca t ing the homeowner out of the zone of maximum hazard must be borne by the Federal Government. In the f i r s t case a s i t u a t i o n wherein both par t ie s are p a r t l y to blame, the i n d i v i d u a l homeowner for lack of judgment and the Federal Government for l a ck of p lanning, a l e g i s l a t i v e vehic le was necessary to r e c t i f y the past shortcomings and to deal with the problems of the future , inc luding a i r p o r t expan- s ion and new construct ion . This vehicle would also have to incorporate the second case wherein the homeowner was c l e a r l y e n t i t l e d to f u l l compensation. The Expropr ia t ion Act of Canada, which came into force on June 11, 1970 was Canada's answer to t h i s dilemma. Set up as a model enactment and p i l o t e d through the House of Commons by the Hon. John Turner, then Mini s ter of J u s t i c e , th i s act i s a vast improvement over 38 i t s harsh and antiquated predecessor.-' The fo l lowing steps ~>g out l ine the expropr ia t ion procedure and t iming : - 1 7 3 8 A Committee of Concerned C i t i z e n s , "Save Your E n v i r o n - ment," Vancouver, B . C . , February 5? 1973? P. 2. •^Canadian A i r Transportat ion Adminis t ra t ion , P a c i f i c Region. 82 1. Min i s te r o f Transport announces s i te and a Notice of Intention to Expropriate the proposed s i te i s reg i s tered i n the l o c a l Land Registry o f f i c e . 2. T i t l e s are then searched so that a l l persons with an i n t e r e s t i n the land concerned can be properly i d e n t i f i e d and n o t i f i e d by reg i s tered l e t t e r . 3. The Notice of Intention to Expropriate i s then published i n the Canada Gazette and l o c a l area newspapers. During the ensuing 30 days, any objections to the intended ex- p r o p r i a t i o n are made i n wr i t ing to the Min i s te r of Publ ic Works who records them. k . The Attorney General o f Canada then appoints Hearing Of f icer s who conduct publ ic hearings i n the fo l lowing 30-60 days for the purpose of recording ob ject ions . (This period may be extended by the Attorney General of Canada). 5. The Hearing Off icers report to the Mini s ter of Publ ic Works who considers t h e i r report s . After due considera- t i o n the Mini s ter of Publ ic Works confirms expropr ia- t i o n and the Notice of Confirmation to Expropriate i s r e g i s t e r e d . This process takes 30-60 days. 6. The Mini s ter of Publ ic Works makes an offer to each person with an in teres t i n l and . Notices r equ i r ing possession are subsequently served. 7. Possession of the s i te i s obtained and work may commence. Arrangements are entered into with owners to lease back t h e i r property whenever poss ib le . Steps 6 and 7 take about 90 days. In a d d i t i o n to these expropr ia t ion procedures a modi f ica- t i o n was provided for residents on Sea I s land, near the pro- posed new runway for Vancouver Internat ional A i r p o r t . This was the "home for a home" plan which i s described as fo l lows : Rather than assess on property values that might have decl ined due to the a i r p o r t ' s expansion plans , s e t t l e - ment was made with a view to what i t would cost to relocate at an equivalent standard i n a s imi l a r com- munity. Af ter the acceptance of settlement, any expropriated owner has one year i n which to make further claims for compensation i f d i s s a t i s f i e d (he must show cause for further compensation, of course. The Expropr ia t ion A c t , as i t presently stands, does not recognize any difference between a homeowner who l i v e d i n the area to be expropriated before the a i rpor t was constructed or moved into the area fo l lowing construct ion . This p a r t i c u l a r A c t , therefore , does not prevent housing development i n areas surrounding e x i s t i n g a i rpor t s but deals only with current problems. The major f au l t with the Expropr ia t ion Act^from a long-term environmental planning point-of-view % i s that the settlements made under the Act encourage people to remain i n the expropriated area through lease back arrangements. This seems to be contrary to the health and welfare of the former property owners. One of the major d i f f i c u l t i e s i s deciding upon the extent of expropr ia t ion . Studies such as the one underway at Ste. Scholastique should provide some guidance. This problem i s humorously portrayed i n Figure 3.3. 1+0 I b i d . . In the case of the Vancouver Internat ional A i r p o r t , 70% of the land expropriated was by w i l l i n g sa les , accounting for 55% of the t o t a l a c q u i s i t i o n cost of $7.25 m i l l i o n . 8>f FIGURE 3 .3 EXPROPRIATION FOR AIRPORT EXPANSION "I said. . .we were one of the lucky ones . . . not expropriated for airport expansion." Source: Len N o r r i s , The Vancouver Sun. February 1, 1973> p. k. The t echn ica l problems of a i rpor t expansion and land expropr ia t ion are s imi l a r i n many ways to problems i n other areas of t ransporta t ion . The problems of rap id t r a n s i t , free- ways, and super-ports s i m i l a r l y r e f l e c t a basic need to consider i n d i v i d u a l r i ght s and freedoms and to lessen the impact of technolog ica l change. 3.3 Design Problems and the Future One of the most pressing concerns i n planning for a v i a t i o n ' s future i s that technologica l advance may not be rap id enough to prevent a serious upset i n the human environ- ment. In t h i s sect ion I w i l l look at the state of present technology i n a few selected areas and attempt to predic t any meaningful changes i n the next few years . 3 . 3 . 1 STOL/VTOL Noise and A i r P o l l u t i o n Short take-off and landing (STOL) and v e r t i c a l take-off and landing (VTOL) a i r c r a f t have been tested extens ive ly and could provide an i d e a l t ransportat ion mode for the North-East c o r r i d o r , the Toronto-Montreal area and other densely popu- l a t e d regions i f some design problems can be overcome. Much of the d i f f i c u l t y has been i n coming up with an engine design which would produce a lower noise l e v e l . L i Kryter provides a guideline for what w u l d be accept- able for STOL/VTOL a i r c r a f t i n an urban reg ion : Noise Level Comment 80 PNdB ( ~ 6 7 dBA) 1* 2 Of no concern 90 PNdB ( ~ 7 8 dBA) Acceptable 100 PNdB ( ~ 8 8 dBA) Barely acceptable 110 PNdB ( ~ 9 9 dBA) Unacceptable K.D. Kry te r , "Psycholog ica l Reactions to A i r c r a f t Noise.1'- Science. CLI (March 18, 1966) , 13 L 6-1355. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between A-weighted sound l e v e l s and perceived noise l e v e l s for 53 d i f f e rent community noise spectra was f i t by a least-squares technique to obtain the k o Another researcher , Kurt Hohenemser, J agrees with K r y t e r , s t a t i n g , "Unless the STOL/VTOL noise l eve l s can be kept below 90 PNdB, i t i s doubtful that r e s i d e n t i a l communities w i l l accept STOL/VTOL." A 1970 survey commissioned by the C i t y of New York revealed that i t s c i t i z e n s suffered regular exposure to noise l e v e l s i n excess of 85 decibels (A) and that t h i s k k threatened the wel l-being of the i n d i v i d u a l and the community. Beranek J puts t h i s f igure i n perspective by descr ibing the normal noise environment i n which we spend most of our l i v e s as i n the range of 30 to 90 dB(A) with a noisy o f f i ce at 7 5 dB(A) and s t r e e t - l e v e l noise i n an urban area at 80 dB(A). 1+6 Berland conducted a survey i n 1971 by recording c i t y noise equation PNdB = 1 . 0 2 (dBA) + 1 1 . 5 by Roy Donley, "Community Noise Regu la t ion , " Sound and V i b r a t i o n , February, 1 9 6 9 , P« 19. ^ K u r t H. Hohenemser, " A i r c r a f t i n the Ba lance , " Environment. X I I I , No. 10 ( 1 9 7 1 ) , k 8 . k k "Towards a Quieter C i t y : The Report of the Mayor's Task Force on Noise C o n t r o l , " (New York, 1 9 7 0 ) , i n E n v i r o n - mental Management, A C o n s t i t u t i o n a l Study (Ottawa: Informa- t i o n Canada, 1 9 7 1 ; , P. 9 3 . k c r <L.L. Beranek, "General A i r c r a f t No i se , " i n Noise as a Publ ic Health Hazard, ed . by W.D. Ward and J . E . Fr icke (Washington, D . C . : American Speech and Hearing As soc i a t ion , 1 9 6 9 ) , PP. 2 5 6 - 2 5 9 . k 6 B e r l a n d , The F ight for Quiet, p. l k 7 . Berland states that our world i s gett ing n o i s i e r by an average of one dec ibe l a year and that we have u n t i l 1979 to stem the t ide of noise or we w i l l be at the threshold of 85 dBA, which can mark permanent hearing l o s s . See also Ken Giebert , "Trans- por ta t ion and the Environment," Seaports and the Shipping World. J u l y , 1 9 7 2 , p. h-2. 87 l e v e l s and came up with a 21-day average of 73. k 5 dB(A), which i n terms of Kry te r ' s scale i s acceptable but i n terms of peak values may have been damaging. The conclusions for the STOL/VTOL might be: (1) The a i r c r a f t must meet a standard of les s than 78 dB(A), and by the time of actual implementation of service the background l e v e l may have approached t h i s l e v e l , and (2) based on the New York C i t y survey further inves t i ga t ion may reveal the need for reduction of the allowable STOL/VTOL noise l e v e l even more. The rate of progress toward a quiet engine for STOL/VTOL has been somewhat slower than for conventional a i r c r a f t . In the next f ive years I would predict that e i t h e r : (1) p o l i t i c a l pressure i n prospective use areas w i l l have b u i l t up to such an extent as to force the imposit ion o f u n r e a l i s t i c noise regula- t ions on the STOL/VTOL a i r c r a f t making i t economically infeas- i b l e , (2) zoning bylaws w i l l p roh ib i t i t s use i n c r i t i c a l convenience areas thus severely l i m i t i n g i t s marketab i l i ty , or (3) a technolog ica l break-through w i l l make i t a valuable addi- t i o n to the o v e r a l l a i r t ransportat ion system. Compounding the STOL/VTOL problem i s the question of acceptable a i r p o l l u t i o n l e v e l s . Hohenemser s tates : I f STOL/VTOL cra f t could be operated without the ex- tensive i d l i n g and t ax i ing periods of the conventional a i r c r a f t , a i r p o l l u t i o n from CO and hydrocarbons could be reduced to a f r a c t i o n of i t s present amount. Never- 7 John N. Cole and Robert T . England, Eva lua t ion of Noise Problems Ant ic ipa ted with Future VTOL A i r c r a f t , Aerospace Medical Research Laborator ies , Wright-Patterson A i r Force Base, Ohio, AMRL-TR-66-2 k5, May 1967. Hohenemser, " A i r c r a f t i n the Ba lance , " p. M-7. 88 the le s s , i t may be necessary to add a n t i - p o l l u t i o n devices to the a i r c r a f t turbo-engines to a l l e v i a t e a i r p o l l u t i o n . The most s i g n i f i c a n t problem area here i s not the a v a i l - able technology but the impact of a d d i t i o n a l cost on the over- a l l economic v i a b i l i t y o f the pro jec t . The d i f f i c u l t y of choosing among spec i f i c noise abatement measures w i l l stem from the r igor s o f quanti fying the s o c i a l and economic costs of a i r - c ra f t noise and attempting to "second guess" future l e g i s l a t i o n . 3.3.2 Commercial Jet A i r c r a f t (Sub-sonic) 3.3.2.1 A i r c r a f t Smoke Reduction The U.S . a i r c r a f t industry i s cut t ing smoke p o l l u t i o n ( i . e . par t i cu la te s ) under a voluntary agreement entered into with the Department of Hea l th , Education and Welfare (HEW) i n 1970 (HEW administered the a i r p o l l u t i o n cont ro l program at that time) and with the Department of Transportat ion to r e t r o - f i t the widely used JT8D jet engines with smoke reduct ion devices . As of March 31, 1972, 78 percent of the t o t a l ( i . e . 2625) engines from Boeing 727's, 737's and Douglas DC-9 Lo a i r c r a f t had been r e t r o f i t t e d . 7 The schedule set up i n 1970 c a l l e d for the program to be subs t an t i a l ly completed by the end of 1972. R e t r o f i t involves i n s t a l l i n g new combustors (commonly c a l l e d "burner cans") for more e f f i c i e n t burning of fue l i n the engines. A l l JT8D engines since February 1970 have been 7 C o u n c i l on Environmental Qual i ty , Environmental Quality—1972 (Washington, D . C . : U .S . Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1972), p. 212. 89 equipped with smokeless combustors. In t h i s case i t i s appar- ent that technology developed r a p i d l y enough to prevent serious environmental d e t e r i o r a t i o n . 3 . 3 . 2 . 2 A i r c r a f t Noise Reduction In a M.O.T . Transportat ion Management Course conducted l a s t summer, Braithwaite et a l . summarized the present s i t u a - t i o n vis-s l-vis a i r c r a f t noise reduct ion i n conventional jet a i r c r a f t . Their comments were : 7 Current narrow-body jet a i r c r a f t ( i . e . 7 0 7 , 7 2 7 , 7 3 7 , DC8 and DC9, comprising 9 0 $ of large commercial a i r c r a f t f l y i n g i n the free world) vent approximately l.h pounds/ second of a i r through by-pass for every pound of a i r passing through the combustion stream. This compares with a r a t i o of 2 . 2 to 1 on the new noise c e r t i f i c a t e d engines. The e a r l i e r engines could be converted to the same l e v e l of quietness by increas ing the fan diameter by roughly 6 inches . NASA hopes to tes t a converted engine by 1975-76 (with r e t r o f i t k i t s ava i lab le by 1976-77). Hence, complete r e t r o f i t of narrow-body jets poss ib ly could be achieved by 1980. However, the cost may be i n the order of $ 2 m i l l i o n per a i r c r a f t or a world f l e e t conversion of $ 2 . 7 b i l l i o n . James Kramer, head of the NASA Refan Pro jec t , considers that t h i s cost would have to be spread over a large sect ion of mankind and not just the a i r l i n e s and passengers. Alternate plans include an acoustic l i n i n g i n the engine nacel les which may be cheaper but les s qu ie t . The l a s t a l te rnat ive i s merely to wait for the e a r l i e r je t a i r c r a f t to phase out. Quieter engines for commercial jets are a present day r e a l i t y but the ultimate i n sound reduct ion i s s t i l l unknown. George A . Spater, chairman of the board and ch ie f executive o f f i c e r of American A i r l i n e s makes the fo l lowing comment about progress i n t h i s f i e l d as of February, 1973s^1 ^ B r a i t h w a i t e , et a l . . Transportat ion P o l l u t i o n , p. lh. ^Cramer , "The A i r l i n e s Speak," Environmental Qual i ty . IV, No. 2 ( 1 9 7 3 ) , P. 20. 90 One of the areas that offers a good deal of improvement i s the work being done by General E l e c t r i c under the NASA "Quiet Engine" program. They are quite op t imi s t i c that more research i n t h i s area w i l l produce consider- ably quieter engines. But that i s something for the future . One might expect some noise reduct ion as an added benef i t from the i n s t a l l a t i o n of new combustors to combat a i r p o l l u t i o n but cr? unfortunately t h i s i s not the c a s e . 7 The future of subsonic a i r c r a f t noise reduction i n the long run i s c l e a r : quieter engines w i l l be developed. In the short run , the degree to which a i r l i n e s are forced into spend- ing money for a complete r e t r o f i t of t h e i r narrow-body jet f l e e t s w i l l be based on such var iables as : (1) the w i l l i n g - ness of governments to finance r e t r o f i t programs, (2) the speed at which a r e t r o f i t k i t w i l l be made ava i lab le (presently estimated as 1976-77) and most importantly (3) the degree of publ ic pressure. I f publ ic pressure i s great enough, as i t was with pure foods and automobile safety, the required money w i l l be r a i s e d ; however, i f publ ic pressure i s not too great the conversion w i l l l i k e l y be completed through a gradual phase- out of noisy a i r c r a f t over the next f ive to ten years . 3.3.3 Supersonic Jet A i r c r a f t 3.3.3.1 The Sonic Boom The design problems associated with the sonic boom and inadvertent climate modi f icat ion are the most d i f f i c u l t to -^U.S . Secretary of Hea l th , Education and Welfare Report to the United States Senate, "Nature and Contro l of A i r c r a f t Engine Exhaust Emis s ions . " Sec. C—Interactions Between P o l l u t - and Contro l and Noise Abatement. 91 solve because they deal with n a t u r a l l y occurr ing phenomena— "the laws of nature . " In a sense these are " u n c o n t r o l l a b l e " , un iver sa l constants such as the sound b a r r i e r , the heat b a r r i e r and the grav i ty b a r r i e r which pose c e i l i n g s on the maximum speed at which commercial a i r c r a f t can f l y . Figure 3« k i l l u s t r a t e s these bar r i e r s to technolog ica l advance. Through the space program several " sp in-o f f s " have great ly benefited commercial a v i a t i o n . Advances i n metals (stronger, l i g h t e r , more re s i s t an t to heat and less subject to f a t i gue ) , instrumen- t a t i o n , and nav iga t ion , to mention a few. These " sp in-o f f s " have had a great impact on global a i r t r a v e l . The area i n which man has f a i l e d i s i n h i s attempt to apply "space age technology", designed to solve the problems of outer-space (an open system), to the earth macro-system (an i n t e r a c t i v e , c losed system). In outer space, the l i m i t a t i o n s are phys ica l b a r r i e r s , not human b a r r i e r s . Inner space imposes a d d i t i o n a l l i m i t a t i o n s on good des ign—limita t ions based on a sound understanding of the human environment. The t e c h n i c a l so lu t ion to supersonic t r a v e l based on phys i ca l l i m i t a t i o n s has been achieved—the Concorde and T U - l 1 ^ are f l y i n g today. The t echn ica l so lu t ion to supersonic t r a v e l based on phys ica l and human l i m i t a t i o n s i s s t i l l on the hor izon . 5oo,oo too, 7^pct - (o.oec Sooo- Zooo locc - Soo- ' 1 2oo- IOC - vn sc - FIGURE THE PAST AND FUTURE OF AVIATION CgfVVVTA kftggAgg. ///,„/, Peofefl&fc CeiUw£OF_ HAK-SPEEP (.CoMMCtLClACi B6U.X1 _ g w ^ O i S — CoMer*- . ^ vc io 82101 SST Jet W f c l S H T Source: V . J . Yannacone, J r . , Master the Av ia t ion Environment (lucson Ar izona : U. of Arizona Pre J 1 I L '5 •is •I Planning ss , 1 9 7 0 ) . I S . i * 4 o i 9 S o l98o )99o 93 3.3.3.2 Ground Level Noise A i r p o l l u t i o n from SST a i r c r a f t does not pose a serious t e c h n i c a l problem as a r e su l t of improved engine design. Ground l e v e l no i se , on the other hand, may be a serious l i m i t a - t i o n for supersonic f l i g h t . The most comprehensive measurement for noise l e v e l to date i s the U . S . Federal A v i a t i o n Administra- t i o n scheme. The maximum noise l e v e l s for subsonic transport and turbo-powered a irplanes depends upon a i r c r a f t weight, number of engines, and point of measurement with a maximum allowable noise l e v e l ranging from 93 EPNdB to 108 E P N d B . ^ A i r c r a f t not meeting these standards do not receive the government f l i g h t c e r t i f i c a t e necessary to enter s e rv i ce . Measurements occur at three stages of f l i g h t ; these are measured at three locat ions which are shown i n Figure 3.5. They are : Point A . La te ra l or S ide- l ine noise - a f ter l i f t o f f , at the po int , on a l i n e p a r a l l e l to and 0.25 n a u t i c a l miles from the extended center l ine of the runway, where the noise i s greatest , except that , for a irplanes powered by more than three turbojet engines, t h i s distance must be 0.35 n a u t i c a l mi les . Point B. Take-off noise - during take-off , 3.5 n a u t i c a l miles from the s tar t of the take-off r o l l on the extended center l ine of the runway. Point C. Apprr>flrrh noise - on approach, at a point 1 n a u t i c a l mile from the threshold on the extended c e n t e r l i n e . ^ E f f e c t i v e Perceived Noise Level i n Decibels (EPNdB) i s the value of PNdB adjusted for both the presence of d iscrete frequencies and time h i s t o r y . FIGURE 3.5 AIRPORT NOISE LEVEL MEASUREMENT LOCATIONS E a r l y estimates suggested that the SST would produce noise l e v e l s of up to 12k E P N d B . ^ In A p r i l 1970, the B r i t i s h A i r - c ra f t Corporation o f f i c i a l l y estimated the noise of the Con- corde SST at 117.5 EPNdB l a t e r a l , 116 EPNdB take-of f , and ^Horace Sutton, "Is the SST Rea l ly Necessary?" Saturday Review. August 15, 1970, p . 15. 116.2 EPNdB approach. 7 Af ter considerable design e f f o r t these f igures were reduced to 111, Ilk-, and 115 to 116, respect ively , 56 for the production vers ion of the Concorde. The difference between the present FAA maximum of 108 EPNdB and the most promising SST noise l e v e l to date, 115 EPNdB, i s s t i l l 7 d e c i - bels on a logari thmic scale, which means a h0% reduct ion i n noise i s s t i l l required . The so lu t ion to decreasing the SST noise l e v e l i s not c l e a r . I t i s c e r t a i n that any reduct ion i n the already small payload would not be economically f e a s i b l e . Engine technology appears to be the answer, but i t w i l l take time. 3 . k F u e l Consumption and Ai r P o l l u t i o n Trends A i r Canada started adver t i s ing Lockheed L 1011 service across Canada on March 15? 1973 and Boeing 7 k7s are commonplace today. Fue l consumption rates for these a i rp lanes , and the McDonnell-Douglas DC-10, w i l l be 30 to ho percent greater than 57 those for current transport a i r c r a f t . 7 ' Po l lu tant emissions are not , however, expected to increase proport ionate ly . Carbon monoxide, organic emissions, and par t i cu la te s w i l l be ^ B r i t i s h A i r c r a f t Corp. Report No. 03-22-28, repr inted i n part i n U .S . Congress, Senate Hearings, Committee on Appro- p r i a t i o n s , C i v i l Supersonic A i r c r a f t Development (SST), 92nd Congress, 1st Sess ion, March 10, 11, 1971. ^New York Times, February 2 k, 1971 and In terav ia . September 1971 c i t e d by Wi l l i am A . S h u r c l i f f , SST Handbook for 1972 (Cambridge, Mass . : C i t i z e n s League Against the Sonic Boom, 1971), P. 8 .5. 5?Air Transportat ion Assoc ia t ion and Aerospace Indus- t r i e s A s s n . , "Summary Status Report on A i r c r a f t Engine Exhaust Emis s ions , " Sept. 1968, c i t e d by K.M. Ruppenthal, Problems of A i r c r a f t Noise and Exhaust, Facul ty of Commerce, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B . C . , 1972. 96 reduced, and oxides of ni trogen w i l l increase . As mentioned e a r l i e r , oxides of n i t rogen are not present ly covered by a i r emission standards under the Clean A i r A c t , but th i s i s l i k e l y to change i n the near future . Fue l consumption i n the future i s quite d i f f i c u l t to p r e d i c t . In a survey of Canadian fue l consumption trends , E . R . M i t c h e l l 7 projects a "continued strong growth rate of 6 . 5 $ per annum" i n o v e r a l l fue l consumption to 198O with only a k.O to h.2% per annum rate of increase of a i r c r a f t gasoline and jet f u e l . Bra i thwai te , et a l . 7 7 are much more op t imi s t i c s t a t i n g : With respect to commercial a v i a t i o n , i t has been estimated that jet fue l consumption w i l l continue to double every f ive to s i x years . There are so many unknowns that predic t ions today are poor ind ica tor s of the future . Reasons for uncertainty include the f o l l o w i n g : 1. At the present rate of use, the t o t a l known reserves of c o a l , natura l gas and o i l i n Western Canada could supply our needs for 300 years . Uncertainty l i e s i n the fo l low- ing areas: a. The rate of increase i n known reserves i n Western Canada, the MacKenzie D e l t a , the A r c t i c Is lands, the east coast o f Newfoundland and Labrador, and Canadian holdings i n the North Sea, A u s t r a l i a , and other fore ign areas. b. The future rate of use and the future d i s t r i b u t i o n of the crude o i l b a r r e l . At present a small per- ,R. M i t c h e l l , Fue l Consumption and A i r P o l l u t i o n Trends i n Canada 1965-19"go (Ottawa: information Canada, 1972% pp. i i i , 1 6 . 59 2 \ , 7 7 B r a i t h w a i t e , et a l . , Transportat ion P o l l u t i o n , pp. 23- 97 centage of the crude o i l b a r r e l goes to jet fue l with a large amount to heating o i l . Red i s t r ibu- t i o n through o i l r e f i n i n g and natura l gas proces- sing may change the proport ion of usable f u e l for commercial a i r c r a f t . 2. Developments such as the Athabaska tar sands and the coa l gas projects may promote the use of d i f fe rent types of f u e l . Nuclear and matter energy w i l l d e f i n i t e l y have an impact on both f u e l consumption and a i r p o l l u t i o n trends. 3. Nat ional and in te rna t iona l o i l p o l i c i e s and the actions of such groups as O . P . E . C . a f fect the cost structure of a i r l i n e s (15$ of t o t a l operating expense i s fuel) and may determine consumption trends i n the future . h. The degree of environmental concern over a i r p o l l u t i o n as evidenced by l e g i s l a t i o n and/or l i t i g a t i o n w i l l be a fac tor once a l t e rna t ives to f o s s i l fuels are developed for commercial a i r c r a f t . A i r p o l l u t i o n , u n t i l quite r e c e n t l y , has followed the pattern of fue l consumption. What went into an engine as a f u e l contaminant came out as a po l lu t an t , and was added to by unburned hydrocarbons (due to engine i n e f f i c i e n c y ) . Recently the demands to reduce a i r p o l l u t i o n have not only increased the e f f o r t s to design a more e f f i c i e n t engine but also have i n - creased the e f fo r t s i n r e f i n i n g cleaner burning f u e l s . The pressure exerted on the o i l industry , by the m i l i t a r y , to pro- duce low contaminant JP-6 jet fue l has resul ted i n close cooperation between o i l re f iner s and the American Petroleum I n s t i t u t e . Through contaminant removal at the source and modern processing techniques the future looks br ight for i n - creased f u e l consumption and decreased a i r p o l l u t i o n . 3.5 Summary From December 17, 1903 when the Wright Brothers f i n a l l y got t h e i r a irplane into the a i r at K i t t y Hawk, North C a r o l i n a , technology has been synonymous with advance i n a i r t ransporta- t i o n . Today the human environment offers new challenge to the ingenuity of a i r c r a f t designers , a i r l i n e execut ives , p i l o t s , and members of the s c i e n t i f i c community. The U .S . Government's C l imat i c Impact Assessment Pro- gram i s the type of response to th i s challenge that i s r e - quired for the formulation of meaningful and sensible l e g i s l a - t i o n for the future . The Expropr ia t ion Act of Canada i n d i - cates a l e g i s l a t i v e attempt to implement p o l i c y concerning the e f f ec t of noise on land owners and res idents l i v i n g near a i r - por t s . This attempt, much debated i n Canada, represents progress by recognizing the present state of technology and r e l a t i n g i t to the human environment. The t e c h n i c a l considerations involved i n the reduct ion of the harmful e f fects of noise and a i r p o l l u t i o n from a i r - c ra f t challenge the most competent designer. The uncerta in- t i e s of the future , as i l l u s t r a t e d by a wide d i s p a r i t y i n fue l consumption pro jec t ions , and the vast number of in te rac t ing design var iables provide the a v i a t i o n industry with i t s greatest t e c h n i c a l challenge since 1903. 99 CHAPTER IV THE EXISTING LEGISLATION: ECONOMIC PROBLEMS AND IMPACT L . l Environmental Economics Economics i s concerned with the r a t i o n a l a l l o c a t i o n of scarce resources among a l ternat ive uses to achieve maximum u t i l i t y . Economics provides a formal basis for dec i s ion- making i n private and publ ic a f f a i r s . 1 These two q u a l i t i e s of economics indicate the importance of an economic approach to a i r t ransporta t ion and the human environment. In the f i r s t p lace , there i s de f in i te proof that a i r and water, sometimes re fer red to as environmental goods, are becoming increas ing ly P scarce, e s p e c i a l l y i n urban i n d u s t r i a l areas. In the second p lace , a formal basis for decision-making i n private and publ ic a f f a i r s v i s - a - v i s environmental expenditure has been l ack ing i n the past . In the past , economic theory has tended to separate private ( u t i l i t y = p r o f i t ) and publ ic ( u t i l i t y = s o c i a l benef i t ) dec i s ions . In r e a l i t y t h i s separation may be d i f f i c u l t to achieve. Some of the problems associated with t h i s challenge to economic th inking are discussed i n t h i s chapter. "^Roger E . Levien , "The Economic Side of Systems," (one lecture i n a ser ies on Macro Systems. Analys i s and Synthesis of Complex Systems, presented at the U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a Extens ion , San Franc i sco , C a l i f o r n i a , F a l l , 1 9 6 8 ) , p. 1 . 2 J .R. Lave, J . B . Lave and E . P . Seskin , Migrat ion and Urban Change (P i t t sburg , P a . : Carnegie Mellon U . , 1972) , p. 1 2 . 100 Branscomb out l ines two s i tuat ions which are common- place i n today's world. These i l l u s t r a t e some of the concepts and d i f f i c u l t i e s o f environmental economics. The f i r s t s i tua - t i o n i s : 3 The i n d i v i d u a l wants good transportat ion and a clean environment. But when the benef i t (clean a i r ) only follows from everyone assuming the cost (a more expen- sive c a r ) , a c o l l e c t i v e market dec i s ion or a s o c i a l dec i s ion i s required . The i n d i v i d u a l ' s market behavior w i l l not j u s t i f y any manufacturer's e f fo r t to make a more expensive non-pol lut ing car . The i n d i v i d u a l dec i s ion i s not consistent with his wants and he looks to others to provide a clean environment. Under the present system man has no choice on an i n d i v i d u a l l e v e l , . . . "but to breathe the a i r around him—polluted or n o t . " J.W. cr MacNei l l expands upon th i s point by s t a t i n g : 7 An important c h a r a c t e r i s t i c shared by many "envi ron- mental goods" i s t h e i r non-marketabi l i ty . They simply do not lend themselves to production or packaging or to a l l o c a t i o n by p r i c e . Clean a i r , c lean water and a quiet neighborhood, for example, are open to the enjoy- ment of anyone; no one can be excluded from t h e i r bene f i t s . The c o r o l l a r y of th i s i s that i t i s r a r e l y i n a s ingle i n d i v i d u a l ' s private in tere s t to supply these goods; they normally must be supplied by the people as a whole through the publ ic sector . With few except ions , t h i s i s true of the whole range of "environmental qua l i ty goods", they are "publ ic goods". Before environmental goods were considered by economists there was a d i s t i n c t i o n made between "free goods" and "economic goods". Figure k . l below i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n : -'Lewis M. Branscomb, "Taming Technology," Environmental Quality and S o c i a l R e s p o n s i b i l i t y , ed . by R.S. Khare, J.W. Kolka , and C . A . P o l l i s (Green Bay, W i s e . : Un iver s i ty of Wisconsin—Green Bay, 1972), p. 131. L. M a c N e i l l , Environmental Management. A C o n s t i t u t i o n a l Study, p. l k 9 . ^ I b i d . , p. 16 FIGURE h.l FREE GOODS AND ECONOMIC GOODS 101 GOODS No Cost Cost FREE GOODS ECONOMIC GOODS Source: Thomas Crocker and A . J . Rogers, Environmental Economics (Hinsdale, I l l i n o i s : Dryden Press I n c . , 197D. In the past , water and a i r have been treated as i f they were free goods. Termed "noneconomic" goods, they were not con- s idered scarce r e l a t i v e to the need for them and of no part icu- l a r concern to economists. The use of water by indus t r ie s and householders was based on payment for the services connected with supplying the water rather than paying for the water i t s e l f . ' S i m i l a r l y , a diver would be charged for a i r compres- s ion costs for f i l l i n g his a i r cy l inder with pure a i r . This type of economic t h i n k i n g , s t i l l prevalent to a great extent today, was based on the ancient l e g a l not ion that the ambient James M. Murray, "Toward an Environmental ly Oriented System of S o c i a l Accounts , " i n Environmental Quality and S o c i a l R e s p o n s i b i l i t y , ed . by R.S. Khare, J.W. Kolka , and C'.A. P o l l i s (Green Bay, W i s e . : U n i v e r s i t y of Wisconsin— Green Bay, 1972), p. l k . 7 ' H . J . Kolshus, "Common Property Resources and the I n v i s i b l e Hand}' i n Environmental Quality and S o c i a l Responsi- b i l i t y , ed . by R.S. Khare, J.W. Kolka, and C . A . P o l l i s (Green Bay, W i s e : U n i v e r s i t y of Wisconsin—Green Bay, 1972), P. 135. a i r i s "res n u l l i u s " , the property of no one. Today the various components of a q u a l i t y environment— open spaces, a t t r ac t ive neighborhoods, c lean a i r and water, quiet—are beginning to be regarded not only as publ ic goods, but a l so as "amenity r i g h t s " , r i ght s to be recognized i n law and guarded and protected as j ea lous ly as many other funda- Q mental r i g h t s . Branscomb1s second example involves another commonplace s i t u a t i o n i n today's world. He s t a t e s : 1 0 The chemical manufacturer i s i n the same boat. I f he makes a u n i l a t e r a l e f fo r t to take care of the problem of wastes i n the publ ic i n t e r e s t , he has no protect ion from his less c ivic-minded competit ion. Thus, uniform standards are required . Figure h.2 i l l u s t r a t e s the chemical manufacturer's dilemma. Clean a i r and water are publ ic goods and hence r e f l e c t s o c i a l cos t s . Under the present system there i s no way i n which the chemical manufacturer can bear the costs of destroying these publ ic goods i n an equitable manner. Although there i s a de f in i t e movement toward t r a d i t i o n a l property law and the standard l e g a l p r i n c i p l e , " s i c utere tuo ut alienum non laedas" —use your own property i n such a manner as not to injure that o Joseph L . Sax, "Legal Strategies Appl icable to E n v i r o n - mental Quality Management D e c i s i o n s , " i n Environmental Quality A n a l y s i s , ed . by A l l e n V. Kneese and B l a i r T . Bower (Balt imore, M d . : The John Hopkins Press, 1972), 0. 339. ^MacNe i l l , Environmental Management, A C o n s t i t u t i o n a l Study, p. 17. 1 0 L e w i s M. Branscomb, "Taming Technology," p. 131. of another—the problem i s by no means solved 103 FIGURE h.2 PUBLIC GOODS AND PRIVATE GOODS S o c i a l Costs Private Costs Two s p e c i f i c items are worth mentioning as e s s e n t i a l for an understanding of environmental goods i n the e x i s t i n g or i n a new economic framework; these are the concepts of resource s c a r c i t y and the e x t e r n a l i t i e s of environmental p o l l u t i o n . L . l . l Resource Sca rc i ty The assumption that water and a i r are scarce r e l a t i v e to the need for them is r a p i d l y becoming t rue , e s p e c i a l l y i n 12 1̂ , urban i n d u s t r i a l areas. Heggie J considers items such as t r a v e l t ime, no i se , smoke, e f f l u e n t , unpleasant working condi- t i o n s , pain and su f f e r ing , and acc identa l death as elements of a " q u a l i t y - o f - l i f e resource" . He points out that , "the s c a r c i t y of some parts of t h i s re source—rivers , a i r and countryside— only become apparent when a large part of i t has 1 1 S a x , "Legal Strategies Appl icable to Environmental Quality Management D e c i s i o n s , w p. 339. 1? Lave, Lave, and Seskin, Migrat ion and Urban Change, p . 12. " ^ i a n G. Heggie, Transport Engineering Economics (Maidenhead, Berkshi re , England: McGraw H i l l Book C o . , (UK) L t d . , 1972), p. 8. already been consumed." One of the r e a l i z a t i o n s of recent th ink ing i s that man has been consuming a scarce resource for quite some time without paying for i t i n any way or preserving i t for the future . As mentioned i n Chapter I , modern day man i s r e a l i z i n g that h i s " . . . apparent dominion over the environ- 15" ment i s but a l icence from nature with a fee yet to be p a i d . " y Kolshus describes the re su l t s of ignoring the scarce resource . 16 q u a l i t y of environmental goods and predicts future cos t s : The benefactor of i n d u s t r i a l p o l l u t i o n i s i n the short run the consumer who enjoys what economists c a l l a consumers' surplus—he i s gett ing more than he pays f o r , a gap between t o t a l u t i l i t y and t o t a l market va lue . In the long run the s i t u a t i o n i s d i f f i c u l t . . . . The cost of cleaning up the environment as an a f ter thought i s l i k e l y to prove considerably more expensive than had i t been included i n a l l facets of product ion. The greatest challenge i s how to r e f l e c t resource s c a r c i t y of non-monetary inputs i n the market p lace . For example, one might argue that the increased cost of an a i r c r a f t engine might sway an a i r l i n e s dec i s ion to expand t h e i r f l e e t . The environmental ist would say, " i f that i s the case don' t expand the f l e e t . " The industry spokesman might see i t i n a d i f f e rent l i g h t and f e e l that "expansion i s necessary for the I b i d . , pp. 7-8, Heggie asserts that his " q u a l i t y - o f l i f e resource" has c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the other scarce r e - sources ( land, labour , and c a p i t a l ) , s ince , " i t can be im- proved; i t must be maintained; i t i s exhaustible (even clean a i r can be exhausted); and i t has s ca rc i ty va lue . " l y Yannacone, J r . , and F r a n g e l l a , "Environmental Concern —The Law and A v i a t i o n , " p. 368. 16 Kolshus, "Common Property Resources and the Inv i s ib le Hand," p. 136. 105 country ' s balance-of-payments and i n d u s t r i a l growth." Without l e g i s l a t i v e guidance the dual interes t s of the human environ- ment and the a v i a t i o n industry cannot be simultaneously met. The tendency to put o f f investment on p o l l u t i o n abatement equipment i s based on the r e a l i t i e s of the market place and the time value of money, not on a lack of understanding by private e n t e r p r i s e . Environmental goods are scarce goods and s truc- t u r a l economic change i s required to r e f l e c t t h i s i n the market p lace . Unless the competitive market e x p l i c i t l y recognizes common property resources, or the government recognizes these scarce resources and drafts l e g i s l a t i o n to contro l t h e i r use, there i s no way i n which environmental q u a l i t y can become a true var iable i n the business decision-making process. In the case of publ ic investment the government must add the " q u a l i t y of l i f e " to the other scarce resources, l a n d , l abor , and 17 c a p i t a l , i n i t s eva luat ion procedure. L . 1 . 2 E x t e r n a l i t i e s From the nature of the a i r t ransporta t ion industry and the environment i t i s c lear that ( i n the economist's termino- logy) we are concerned with "side-use e f f e c t s " , " s p i l l o v e r s " , "externa l diseconomies" or more commonly " e x t e r n a l i t i e s " . These are re l a t ionsh ips other than those between buyer and s e l l e r . The a c t i v i t y of one economic unit generates " r e a l " •^Reggie, Transport Engineering Economics, p. 8. 106 ef fec t s that are external to i t . In the case of a i r t rans- por ta t ion the behavior and equipment of the a i r l i n e s r e su l t i n losses to others who are i n v o l u n t a r i l y exposed to them, but the a i r l i n e s cannot f u l l y take account of these losses i n choosing t h e i r behavior and equipment. Those who are involun- t a r i l y exposed have no d i r e c t remedy or "feedback", apart from a l i m i t e d a b i l i t y to avoid places that they f i n d to be 19 noxious. 7 A i r c r a f t no i se , f o r example, i s a u n i d i r e c t i o n a l case i n which there i s some scope for both the creator of the adverse external e f fec t and the sufferer from i t to adjust the scale and the nature of t h e i r a c t i v i t y . A i r l i n e s can, "reduce the number of night take-of f s , modify engines to reduce noise 20 and a l t e r the speed and angle of a scent—al l at a c o s t . " The householders around the a i r p o r t , on the other hand, "can 21 i n s t a l l soundproofing or move", but these s trategies serve only to lessen the impact of e x t e r n a l i t i e s and do not negate t h e i r ex i s tence . The contro l of e x t e r n a l i t i e s i s d i f f i c u l t and a number of attempts have been made to " i n t e r n a l i z e " these e x t e r n a l i - l 8 A l l e n V. Kneese and O.C. Her f indah l , "Tools for Analys ing Some Environmental Problems" i n Quality of the En- vironment? An Economic Approach to Some Problems i n Using Land. Water and A i r (Washington, D . G . : Resources for the Future , 1965)? pp. I k -15. •^Reynolds , The Urban Transport Problem i n Canada, P. 83. 2 0 T u r v e y , "Side Ef fect s of Resource Use , " pp. L 7-50. 2 1 I b i d . 107 t i e s ( i . e . br ing them within the dec i s ion maker's control ) through various instruments of f i s c a l p o l i c y such as taxes and f i n e s . Unfortunately p o l l u t i o n e x t e r n a l i t i e s can only be 22 i n t e r n a l i z e d at considerable cos t , thus reducing p r o f i t . The private goal of maximizing p r o f i t i s not consistent with the publ ic goal of maximizing good hea l th . Tinney and Parkes summarize th i s state of a f f a i r s by s t a t i n g , "Even though we desire a readjustment and r e a l l o c a t i o n of resources to achieve a bet ter environment, the normal market mechanism i s unable to r e s p o n d . " 2 3 In the next sect ion we w i l l look at some attempts fo revise the market system to make i t more responsive to environmental demands. k « 2 The Environmental Market System "Technologica l external diseconomies are not f reakish anomalies i n the processes of production and consumption but ?k an inherent and normal part of them," c la im l y r e s and Kneese. The complexity of environmental goods and t h e i r e x t e r n a l i t i e s are nowhere better shown than by the sonic boom and inadvertent climate modi f i ca t ion . These phenomena defy the price system. Richard J . Hickey, " A i r P o l l u t i o n , " i n Environment— Resources, P o l l u t i o n , and Safety, ed . by Wi l l i am Murdoch (Stamford, Conn. : Sinauer Assoc ia tes , I n c . , 1971)? p. 209. 2 3 T i n n e y and Parkes, "Enhancing the Quality of the Environment," p. 15. pk R .U . Ayres and A l l e n V. Kneese, "Product ion, Con- sumption, and E x t e r n a l i t i e s , " American Economic Review, LIX, No. 3 (June 1969), p. 287. 108 In an attempt to move from the confines of the simple cause-effect r e l a t i o n s h i p underlying the present market system several researchers have suggested a l ternat ive schemes leading to an environmental market system. Much of the d i f f i c u l t y with the e x i s t i n g economic framework i s inherent i n the s impl i fy ing assumptions introduced i n economic theory. Some of the d i f f i - c u l t i e s of est imating the value o f p o l l u t i o n abatement are 2^ i d e n t i f i e d by Lester Lave. He suggests: J Construct ing a benefit analys i s for p o l l u t i o n abatement cons i s t s of f ind ing out what consumers would pay (as a schedule) i f there were no problems with knowledge, psychologica l r e a l i z a t i o n , income d i s t r i b u t i o n , decis ion- making for others , myopia (and other problems with decis ions over t ime) , and publ ic goods. That i s , we want to know what consumers would pay for abatement i f the economic world were opt iona l except for a i r p o l l u - t i o n (and that only marginal ly i n c o r r e c t ) . From the point-of-view of the a v i a t i o n industry , the i n a b i l i t y of the present economic system to e x p l i c i t l y place a value on 26 p o l l u t i o n abatement i s described by Baxter : At the present time a l l economic incent ives to mitigate the e f fect s of noise res t on the neighboring landowner. The a v i a t i o n industry has no economic incentives to les sen noise impacts. Of course, i t does have p o l i t i c a l incent ives to lessen no i se , and i t has not been so short-s ighted as to ignore them. But p o l i t i c a l pres- sures , unlike economic c r i t e r i a , don't t e l l the industry how much expense i t would be appropriate to incur . Some have been h igh ly c r i t i c a l of these shortcomings of the present economic system. Perhaps the most accurate appra i sa l ^ L e s t e r B. Lave, " A i r P o l l u t i o n Damage: Some D i f f i - c u l t i e s i n Est imating the Value of Abatement" i n Environmental u a l i t y A n a l y s i s , ed . by A l l e n V. Kneese and B l a i r T . Bower Bal t imore , Md . : The Johns Hopkins Press , 1972), p. 213. 26 Baxter, "Noise : Legal and Economic Impl i ca t ions , " i n A i r .Transpor ta t ion—A Forward Look, ed . by K a r l M. Ruppenthal (Stanford, C a l i f o r n i a : Stanford U n i v e r s i t y , 1970), p. 106. 109 i s that of A u l d . He states quite c o n c i s e l y , 2 7 "The f ree- e n t e r p r i s e , market economy has not operated to r a t i o n the resources of a i r and water and th i s has l e d to t h e i r misuse and d e s t r u c t i o n . " Blaming two i n s t i t u t i o n s , the competitive market and our present d e f i n i t i o n of property r i g h t s , does not solve the problem of future p o l l u t i o n or suggest ways of reducing present environmental decay. Several avenues of improvement have been suggested and are discussed below. k . 2 . 1 Command Economy or Extended Market System Replacing the market economy with a command economy i s present ly not p r a c t i c a l , and "h igh ly undesirable to the majority of th i s country . " The main d i f f i c u l t y with a com- mand economy i s that i t i s not p o l i t i c a l l y acceptable to the c i t i z e n s o f our country. C e r t a i n l y the advantages are great , with cen t ra l planning and cont ro l of p o l l u t i o n expenditures a great deal could be accomplished. The main drawback i s that extensive cent ra l con t ro l would undermine the existence of the free enterpr i se system. An extended market system infers a system i n which scarce resources ( inc luding free goods as common property resources , such as a i r and water) would command a price i n the 2 7 D . A . L . A u l d , "An Economic Analys i s of Environmental P o l l u t i o n , " i n Economic Thinking and P o l l u t i o n Problems (Toronto, O n t . : U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, 1972), p. 3. p O Kolshus, "Common Property Resources and the Inv i s ib le Hand, " p . 135. 29 market p lace . Gordon 7 has shown the wastefulness of common property arrangements as has Hardin i n his t rea t i se e n t i t l e d , "The Tragedy of the Commons." 3 0 The proh ib i t ive cost of po l ic- ing i n d i v i d u a l property r ight s i n a i r i s f o r c e f u l l y brought home by Crocker and Rogers i n t h e i r book e n t i t l e d E n v i r o n - mental Economics. They introduce the concept of emission r i g h t s and ambient a i r standards. They say that t h i s " . . . scheme recognizes the trade-of f to be had between continuous opt imizing of costs and of damages and the reduct ion of un- c e r t a i n t y . " 3 1 Their conclusion i s that a choice between c e n t r a l i z e d contro l (command economy) and the free market system i s not the dec i s ion to be made. They sugges t : 3 2 In summary, the basic question i n environmental q u a l i t y cont ro l i s not of an e i t h e r / o r nature—. a choice between complete cent ra l i zed contro l and complete i n d i v i d u a l c o n t r o l . . . . I t i s a question of the mix between private and c e n t r a l dec i s ion- making powers. k . 2 . 2 Publ ic P o l i c y and Environmental Control Extending publ ic p o l i c y into the area of environmental cont ro l i s an extremely d i f f i c u l t task. Attempts to date have had l i m i t e d success, however, they have l ed to a bet ter appre- % . S . Gordon, "The Economics of a Common-Property Resource: The F i s h e r y , " Journal of P o l i t i c a l Economy. LXII ( A p r i l 1 9 5 ^ ) , PP. 1 2 k - l k 2 . 3 ° G a r r e t t Hard in , "The Tragedy of the Commons," Sc ience . CLXII ( 1 9 6 8 ) , 1 2 k 3 - 1 2 k 8 . 3 1Thomas D. Crocker and A . J . Rogers I I I , Environmental Economics (Hinsdale , 1 1 1 . : The Dryden Press , I n c . , 1 9 7 1 ) , p. 1 3 8 . 3 2 I b i d . , p. l k 5 . I l l e l a t i o n o f the problem, the f i r s t step towards i t s s o l u t i o n . Kneese,33 M i l l s , ^ and others have c l a s s i f i e d publ ic p o l i c y vis-a '-vis environmental contro l into three main areas: d i r e c t r e g u l a t i o n , payments by the government to a s s i s t i n reducing p o l l u t i o n , and e f f luent charges. These categories are described below: (1) D i rec t regu la t ion - t h i s includes l i c e n c e s , permits , compulsory standards, zoning, r e g i s t r a t i o n , and equity l i t i g a t i o n . (2) Payments - t h i s includes d i r e c t payments or subsidies and reductions i n c o l l e c t i o n s that would other- wise be made. (3) E f f luent charges - t h i s includes schedules of charges, or fees f o r the discharge of d i f f e rent amounts of spec i - f i e d pol lutants or l e v e l s of noise and excise or other taxes on s p e c i f i c sources of p o l l u t i o n . I t i s easy to state the p r i n c i p l e by which the s o c i a l l y des irable amount of p o l l u t i o n abatement should be determined:-' 7 Any given p o l l u t i o n l e v e l should be reached by the l ea s t c o s t l y combination of means a v a i l a b l e : the l e v e l of p o l l u t i o n should be achieved at which the cost of a fur ther reduct ion would exceed the bene f i t s . A review of the three main areas of publ ic p o l i c y i d e n t i f i e d above w i l l show that t h i s i s considerably more d i f f i c u l t i n pract ice than i n theory. 33D.A.L. A u l d , Economic Thinking and P o l l u t i o n Problems (Toronto, O n t . : U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press , 1972), p. 70. 3^ Ib id . , p. 67, based on Edwin M i l l s , The Economics of A i r P o l l u t i o n (New York: W.W. Norton, 1966). 3^Auld, Economic Thinking and P o l l u t i o n Problems, p. 69. 112 The use of d i r e c t regula t ion i s recogni t ion by the governing body that the market mechanism i s not a workable system for environmental c o n t r o l . This a t t i tude i s expressed by C h r i s t i a n de Laet , Di rec tor o f the Canadian Counci l of Resource M i n i s t e r s , who s t a t e s " N o man can arrogate to him- s e l f the r i g h t to a l t e r the common environment. Such acts must be subject to publ ic regula t ion and c o n t r o l . " Edwin M i l l s , on the other hand, i s c r i t i c a l of t h i s a t t i tude of g iv ing up the free market system. He fee l s t h a t , 3 7 "Most people . . . think e n t i r e l y i n terms o f d i r e c t regulat ion—permits , r e g i s t r a t i o n , l i c e n c e s , enforcement of standards, and so o n " , and suggests, " that t h i s i s rather l i k e abandoning a car because i t has a f l a t t i r e . " Most c r i t i c s f e e l that d i r e c t regula t ion i s too r i g i d and i n f l e x i b l e and hence i s unable to respond to a dynamic environment. Payments include subs id iza t ion of p a r t i c u l a r contro l devices , forgiveness of l o c a l property taxes on p o l l u t i o n - cont ro l equipment, accelerated depreciat ion on contro l equip- ment, payments for decreases i n the discharge of po l lu t an t s , and tax c red i t s for investment i n cont ro l equipment. This type of s o c i a l p o l i c y has been used i n Canada to a c e r t a i n extent to help business finance p o l l u t i o n equipment. The major drawback i s that i t tends to attack the e f fects of p o l l u t i o n rather than the causes. For example, i t encourages the con- 3 6 d e Laet , "The P o l l u t i o n Problem," p. 127. 3 7 M i l l s , The Economics of A i r P o l l u t i o n . 113 s t r u c t i o n of equipment to t reat e f f luent rather than encourag- ing means of reducing the amount and concentrat ion of the e f f luent d i s c h a r g e d . ^ This type of p o l i c y would promote burner cans for jet a i r c r a f t rather than a modified o r i g i n a l design or cleaner burning turbo f u e l . I t appears that a d i r e c t payment to firms for decreasing the discharge of po l lutants would be a better long-range approach to p o l l u t i o n abatement. E f f l u e n t charges on s p e c i f i c sources of p o l l u t i o n have one great advantage over other tools of publ ic p o l i c y , th i s i s that they are s e l f - en forc ing . The greater the amount of e f f l u e n t , the greater the cost to the producer and the greater the economic pressure to reduce the absolute q u a l i t y discharged. Kneese and Bower^ s e e "e f f luent charges or taxes as the most e f f e c t i v e and e f f i c i e n t " elements of publ ic p o l i c y "from a domestic economy point of view." The main d i f f i c u l t y remains i n the implementation of such p o l i c y . Joseph Sax describes the 3Cannaeone, Cohen, and Davison f e e l that " p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l should no longer be viewed as an o u t - o f - p r o f i t item f o r i n d u s t r i a l corporat ions , rather i t must be recognized as a cost of product ion. Therefore, a corporat ion might be given the opt ion to t reat expenditures for noise p o l l u t i o n abatement as a business expense i n order to receive an immediate tax w r i t e - o f f without having to depreciate such expenditures over severa l yea r s . " Unfortunately t h i s does not improve the s i t u a t i o n mentioned. See Yannacone, Cohen, and Davison, E n - vironmental Rights , and Remedies, V o l . I I , Ch. x i , p. kh-1. ^ ^ A l l e n V. Kneese and B l a i r T . Bower, Managing Water Qual i ty ; Economies, Technology. In s t i tu t ions (Balt imore. M d . : Johns Hopkins Press , 1969), Ch. 5, 6. ilk ko most c r u c i a l i s sue , assert ing that : While i t may be true that c e r t a i n resources—like clean a i r and water—are not pr iced e f f e c t i v e l y by ordinary market t ransact ions , or while i t may be true that we have tended too long to t reat them as free goods (which may be to say the same t h i n g ) , I th ink i t i s a l so true that simply to impose a price on them by f i a t (as by enacting e f f luent charge laws) w i l l by no means neces- s a r i l y make a substant ia l difference i n r e s u l t . I f those who administer e f f luent tax laws are too com- p l i a n t , nothing much i s l i k e l y to change, except our theory. Although they are " e s s en t i a l elements i n a more systematic and kl coherent program of environmental q u a l i t y management", i s o l a t e d and ad hoc taxes and other r e s t r i c t i o n s are not the sole determinants of such a program. One of the bas ic assumptions underlying the concept of e f f luent charges or "user pays" charges i s that the benef i t gained by the user of the f a c i l i t y , or the benef i t gained by the pr ivate en te rpr i s e , outweighs the benef i t gained by soc iety i n general . This type of th inking has been a p p l i e d , for instance, k2 i n the new Montreal Internat ional A i r p o r t study: The object ive of making the major a i rpor t s s e l f - supporting i s consistent with the objective of making the passengers who use the f a c i l i t i e s pay, d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y , for the f a c i l i t y instead of the tax- payers. S i m i l a r l y , i n rapid t r a n s i t some attempts have been made to make the system bear a l l the costs associated with i t s opera- t i o n . In most cases these attempts have f a i l e d . There i s a ko Sax, "Legal Strategies Appl icable to Environmental Quality Management D e c i s i o n s , " pp. 337-338. k l Ayres and Kneese, "Product ion, Consumption, and E x t e r n a l i t i e s , " p. 287. ko Beinhaker and E l e k , "Montreal A i r p o r t Study—Ste. Schola s t ique , " p. 57. 115 de f in i t e l ack of agreement on whether "user pay" charges are *+3 j u s t . For example, Baxter s ta tes : J I t ' s popular i n some economic c i r c l e s to say that noise i s a cost of a v i a t i o n and a v i a t i o n should bear a l l that cos t . I don't think tha t ' s sound. The lack of agreement as to which area of publ ic p o l i c y (d i rec t r e g u l a t i o n , payments, or e f f luent charges) i s the best for environmental issues cannot be resolved because there i s no one p o l i c y which w i l l s a t i s fy a l l s i tua t ions . Ralph Turvey suggests that:**1** Administrators should consider a l te rnat ives to d i r e c t r e g u l a t i o n , economists should not exaggerate the a p p l i c a b i l i t y of tax devices , and both should remember tha t , i n a democratic country, questions of fa i rness require l e g a l or p o l i t i c a l dec i s ions . I agree with t h i s approach because i t recognizes the importance of looking at publ ic p o l i c y i n environmental cont ro l from a macro-system point of view. The recogni t ion of in terac t ing cause-effect re l a t ionsh ips gives the f i r s t guidance i n what the magnitude of e f f luent charges or taxes should be i n order to "induce behavior that would lead to acceptable l e v e l s of p o l l u - t i o n . " J Some of the novel approaches out l ined below recognize the need for obtaining a f i t between publ ic environmental p o l i c y and the r e a l i t i e s of private costs . A Canadian economist, J . H . Dales , suggests the formation of p o l l u t i o n au thor i t i e s i n reg ional a i r and water-sheds. 1+3 J B a x t e r , "Noise : Legal and Economic Impl ica t ions , " p . 105. ).,)• Turvey, "Side E f fec t s of Resource Use, " p. 60. k y , R . G . Ridker , Economic Costs o f A i r P o l l u t i o n (New York : Freder ick Praeger, 1967), Ch. 1. These au thor i t i e s would determine the maximum l e v e l of p o l l u - t i o n that a region would t o l e r a t e , and then market p o l l u t i o n r i g h t s , c e r t i f i c a t e s a l lowing a ce r t a in amount of p o l l u t i o n . The market would determine the price o f these c e r t i f i c a t e s which would be traded as stocks and bonds. Industry would have the choice of developing abatement remedies or purchasing p o l l u t i o n r i g h t s . Spec ia l in teres t groups l i k e conservation groups might purchase r ight s and destroy them, thus lowering 1+6 the amount of p o l l u t i o n i n that area . This in tegra t ion of the market system and the ecosystem i s based on a minimum 1+7 amount of government interference ' a f ter the to lerable l e v e l of p o l l u t i o n for any p a r t i c u l a r region has been determined. Other suggestions see the government playing more of a role i n the balance between regula t ion and free market c o n t r o l consis tent with t h e i r perception of the best s o c i a l p o l i c y . Present ly these suggestions are unsophist icated and open to attack but they represent a new approach to the problems of environmental c o n t r o l , an approach that i s v i t a l to our country ' s future . k.3 Economic Costs and Incentives r e : P o l l u t i o n In t h i s sect ion I w i l l b r i e f l y out l ine some of the economic costs of p o l l u t i o n i n Canada and look at the incen- t i v e s for the reduct ion of p o l l u t i o n . In a 1971 study, Hedl in 1+6 J . H . Dales , P o l l u t i o n , Property and Pr ices (Toronto, O n t . : U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press , 1968). ^ S o n j a S i n c l a i r , "The New Economics of P o l l u t i o n , " Canadian Business . November, 1971? P« 37. 117 Menzies and Associates estimated the annual costs of p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l under current p o l i c i e s i n Canada during the next f i f t e e n years . This survey estimated a t o t a l annual cost of $935 m i l l i o n d iv ided into k 5.2$ water p o l l u t i o n , 31.6$ a i r . K g p o l l u t i o n , and 23.2$ s o l i d waste d i sposa l . Table VI below i l l u s t r a t e s the breakdown for a i r p o l l u t i o n : TABLE VI ESTIMATED ANNUAL COSTS OF POLLUTION CONTROL—AIR C a p i t a l Operating T o t a l Percentage of To ta l (Annual Cost i n f m i l l i o n s ) Automobile emission c o n t r o l 130 15 lh-5 k 9.1 SOp removal from stack gases >+0 30 70 23.8 I n d u s t r i a l contro l equipment 50 17 67 22.7 Jet engine exhaust contro l s 9 h 13 229 66 295 100.0 Source: From a study by Hedl in Menzies and Associates L t d . i n Sonja S i n c l a i r , "The New Economics of P o l l u t i o n , " Canadian Business . November, 1971? P. 32. M i t c h e l l reports that by applying t e c h n i c a l l y feas ib le abatement measures i n 1975? about 6.9 m i l l i o n net tons of harm- f u l p o l l u t i o n can be avoided i n 1980. To accomplish t h i s s i g n i f i c a n t fea t , i t i s roughly estimated that a c a p i t a l expenditure of $1.6 b i l l i o n w i l l be needed by 1980 plus 1+8 I b i d . . p. 32, Values ca lcula ted from a study by Hedl in Menzies and Associates L t d . , p. 32. $300 m i l l i o n per year f o r automobile p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l devices s t a r t i n g i n 1975. R e l a t i n g t h i s to the H e d l i n Menzies and Ass o c i a t e s f o r e c a s t an expenditure of j u s t over twice the annual c a p i t a l expenditure ($696 m i l l i o n ) and twice the annual automobile emission c o n t r o l expenditure ( $ l k 5 m i l l i o n ) would a l l o w us to decrease the 1980 p o l l u t i o n burden by 33$.^° L e s t e r Lave gives some I n d i c a t i o n of how a decrease i n p o l l u - 51 t i o n of t h i s magnitude would a f f e c t Canadians. He s t a t e s : 7 As best I can t e l l , abating p o l l u t i o n by 50 percent throughout the n a t i o n would add three t o f i v e years to the l i f e expectancy of a c h i l d born i n 1970. Another way of s t a t i n g the e f f e c t i s to estimate t h a t a 50 percent abatement would lower the economic cost of a l l i l l h e a l t h by j u s t under 5 percent. ... Recent "miracles of medical care" have had a much smaller Impact on the nation's h e a l t h . For example, e r a d i c a t - in g p o l i o by vaccine i s much l e s s important than the 5 percent r e d u c t i o n that would be gained by abating p o l l u t i o n . In the case of decreasing 1980 p o l l u t i o n by 33$ we would be lo o k i n g a t a 3.3$ decrease i n the economic cost of a l l i l l h e a l t h . In Canada i n 1965 h o s p i t a l costs for r e s p i r a t o r y i l l - ness amounted to $123 m i l l i o n and wages l o s t $1.5 b i l l i o n . 7 " 2 S t a t i s t i c s show without doubt t h a t the incidence of such diseases i s greater i n p o l l u t e d urban centers than i n r u r a l areas and w i t h increased u r b a n i z a t i o n , the incidence o f such disease has increased i n the l a s t 20 years. Based on the ko 7 M i t c h e l l . F u e l Consumption and A i r P o l l u t i o n Trends i n Canada 1965-1980 f p. i i i . ? Q I b i d , ^ L a v e , " A i r P o l l u t i o n Damage," pp. 2 lf0-2 I+l. ^ B r a i t h w a i t e , e t a l . . T r a n s p o r t a t i o n P o l l u t i o n , p. 8. 119 f i g u r e s given above, one might conclude t h a t p o l l u t i o n abate- rs ment i s a good p u b l i c investment. 7-* Noise p o l l u t i o n costs are high. The estimate to modify the world*s commercial j e t f l e e t a n t i c i p a t e d by 1980 i s an investment of $860 m i l l i o n to $2.7 b i l l i o n . ^ Considering Canada's 3*7$ share of the world market t h i s would be roughly $32 to $100 m i l l i o n or two to seven times the present $13 m i l - l i o n annual cost o f a i r p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l f o r j e t engines (of which very l i t t l e goes to noise abatement equipment). The i n c e n t i v e s t o reduce noise would have to be somewhat greater than those to reduce a i r p o l l u t i o n i n terms of economics. In view of the economic cos t s of p o l l u t i o n and the p o s s i b i l i t y of a s i g n i f i c a n t p u b l i c b e n e f i t by spending money now to c l e a n up the environment, there appears to be s u f f i c i e n t i n c e n t i v e f o r government a c t i o n t o achieve t h i s end. Weighed again s t a l t e r n a t i v e uses of funds i t i s u n l i k e l y that,even i n economic terms, the government w i l l have b e t t e r investment o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r the p u b l i c . The question remains whether or not f e d e r a l i n t e r v e n t i o n i n t o the p u b l i c sector I s warranted. 7 J M i n i s t e r of the Environment f o r Canada, Mr. Jack Davis, s t a t e s t h a t the e x t e r n a l costs (costs which must now be i n t e r n a l i z e d by b e t t e r environmental c o n t r o l ) are not large f o r most i n d u s t r i e s ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 percent of gross income and averaging about 1 percent f o r most manufacturers. This estimate i s based on present standards r a t h e r than a major a t t a c k on p o l l u t i o n funded by the government. Cost data from Environment Canada, Canada and the Human Environment (Ottawa: Information Canada, 1972), p. 31. 7 U.S. C o u n c i l on Environmental Q u a l i t y , Environmental Q u a l i t y — 1 9 7 2 . p. 2 7 k . 120 A U.S . Senate Committee report gives some guidance here. I t reads In deal ing with matters of t ransportat ion regu la t ion and promotion, government actions at a l l l e v e l s are taken with the j u s t i f i c a t i o n of broad publ ic i n t e r e s t . T h i s , i n f a c t , i s the only l e g a l basis for the extent of Federal in tervent ion i n private en te rpr i s e . In the case of increased governmental spending on p o l l u t i o n abatement f a c i l i t i e s , the broad publ ic in tere s t i s served and federa l in tervent ion i s j u s t i f i e d . h.h Environmental Quality and Internat ional T rade In Chapter I I , Sect ion 7, I spoke b r i e f l y about i n t e r - n a t i o n a l agreements on noise l e v e l s and a i r p o l l u t i o n stand- ards . In t h i s sect ion I w i l l extend my in te rna t iona l considera- t ions of the a i r t ransportat ion industry to look at the impact o f environmental q u a l i t y on in te rna t iona l t rade . A i r transpor- t a t i o n not only contributes to the flow of good between countries but a lso transports entrepreneurs, government trade commissioners, and representatives of every nat ion to meet face- to-face over matters of i n t e r n a t i o n a l importance. The manner i n which environmental q u a l i t y i s handled on an i n t e r n a t i o n a l scale w i l l have a profound impact on the a i r t ransporta t ion indus t ry . Recognizing that environmental measures can have important economic impl i ca t ions , the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)— composed of Japan, A u s t r a l i a , and the i n d u s t r i a l - 7 7 U . S . Congress, Senate, Nat ional Transportat ion P o l i c y . Pre l iminary Draft of a Report for the Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce (Washington, D . C . : U .S . Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1961), p. 32. 121 i zed nations of Western Europe and North America— asked the Environment Committee that i t formed i n 1970 to suggest ways to minimize the impacts of env i ron- mental protec t ion measures on in te rna t iona l t rade . Based on committee recommendations, the OECD Counc i l at i t s m i n i s t e r i a l meeting i n May 1972 adopted a set of guiding p r i n c i p l e s on the i n t e r n a t i o n a l economic aspects o f environmental p o l i c i e s . • p D The OECD guide l ines , re ferred to above, espouse the " p o l l u t e r pays" p r i n c i p l e , which states that "the cost of p o l l u t i o n controls should be r e f l ec ted i n the costs of making products the use or production of which causes p o l l u t i o n . " 7 ' Under the " p o l l u t e r pays" p r i n c i p l e some por t ion of the environmental protec t ion cost i s u l t imate ly borne by the con- sumer of the product as re f l ec ted i n the s e l l i n g p r i c e . The OECD guidel ines include another important p r i n c i p l e — " t h a t governments should frame t h e i r environmental protect ion measures i n a way that avoids creat ing n o n t a r i f f b a r r i e r s to t r a d e . " ^ The s p i r i t of the OECD guidel ines are r e f l ec ted by 59 d'Arge and Kneese, who a s s e r t : 7 7 We hope that in te rna t iona l negot ia t ion and the harmonizing of environmental cont ro l programs can proceed unhindered by u n j u s t i f i e d u n i l a t e r a l decis ions for protect ion of domestic industr ies which w i l l r e s u l t i n i n e f f i c i e n c i e s i n production that are i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n scope. 56 7 U . S . Counc i l on Environmental Qual i ty , Environmental Quality—1972. p. 80. 57 58 ? 7 I b l d . . p. 81. I b i d . ^ R a l p h C. d'Arge and A l l e n V. Kneese, "Environmental Quality and Internat iona l Trade , " i n World E c o - C r l s i s ed . by David A . Kay and Eugene Skoln ikof f (Madison, W i s e : U n i v e r s i t y of Wisconsin Press , 1972), pp. 293-29^. The OECD guidel ines were o p t i m i s t i c ; however, the r e a l - i t y of the s i t u a t i o n was deanonstrated when the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment adopted a recommendation c a l l i n g for compensation by the developed countries to the less-developed countries for trade damages stemming from 60 environmental f a c to r s . The coolness of developing countries 61 toward U . N . involvement with the environment i s not without reason. B r a z i l ' s p o s i t i o n , as described by Dr . Hugh Keenley- s i d e , i s that , "the developed countries want to climb the ladder of success and p u l l i t up a f ter them," r e f l e c t i n g the general a t t i tude that , "you've had your development, now you 62 want to keep us from doing the same." The greatest in te rna t iona l concern i s that environmental p o l i c i e s of na t iona l governments w i l l not be the same. This fear i s p a r t i c u l a r l y well-founded when one considers that , " P o l l u t i o n or defacement of a phys ica l landscape can only be measured against a human pre ference , "^ 3 and that agreement on An David A. Kay and Eugene B. Sko ln iko f f , " In terna t iona l I n s t i t u t i o n s and the Environmental C r i s i s : A Look Ahead" i n World E c o - C r l s l s ed . by D.A. Kay and E . Skolnikof f (Madison, W i s e : U n i v e r s i t y of Wisconsin Press , 1972), pp. 305-311*-. 6 l The United States voted against t h i s proposal , po int - ing out that many forces a f fect export earnings and that to s ingle out any of these, such as environmental ac t ions , for compensatory treatment i s wrong i n p r i n c i p l e and would create a d i s incent ive fo r environmental improvement. 62 Hugh Keenleyside, "The Stockholm Conference on the Environment: An Assessment." ^ G i l b e r t F . White. "Formation and Role of Publ ic At t i tudes , " ' i n Environmental Quality i n a Growing Economy ed. by Henry J a r r e t t (Balt imore, M d . : Johns Hopkins Press , 1966), p. 105. 123 human preference, even on a na t iona l s ca le , i s extremely d i f f i - c u l t to achieve. The consequences of unequal na t iona l t r e a t - ment of environmental q u a l i t y are re f l ec ted i n the fear 6k described by d'Arge and Kneese: One fear i s that cost increases which home industr ie s may have to susta in because of environmental controls w i l l adversely af fect both the indus t ry ' s and the s ta te ' s i n t e r n a t i o n a l trade p o s i t i o n , the l e v e l of r e a l n a t i o n a l income, and long-term comparative advantage. This fear becomes p a r t i c u l a r l y acute when i t i s suggested that one trading country move to curb environmental degradation without coordinate ac t ion by others or when i t i s thought that other countries w i l l subsidize the environmental controls i n s t i t u t e d by industry while the country i n question w i l l not sub- s id ize but perhaps even charge or tax them for any environmental d i s rupt ions . A ser ies of r e t a l i a t o r y trade act ions could be t r iggered by three mechanisms. F i r s t , firms subject to s t r i c t env i ron- mental standards may be put at a competitive disadvantage with fore ign competitors that are not , and seek to equalize th i s by 65 imposing trade b a r r i e r s on non-environmental goods. J Second, n o n t a r i f f b a r r i e r s , such as f r o n t i e r charges and export sub- s i d i e s , may be es tab l i shed by nations with high environmental standards to equal ize environmental costs with trade competitors. F i n a l l y , those nations with high environmental standards may discr iminate against nations producing "environmentally i n f e r i o r goods". A d i f f i c u l t y d i r e c t l y caused by an i n t e r n a t i o n a l d'Arge and Kneese, "Environmental Quality and Inter- n a t i o n a l Trade , " pp. 257-258. y U . S . Counci l on Environmental Qual i ty , Environmental Quality—1972. p. 92. 12k emphasis on environmental q u a l i t y develops out of the "env i ron- mentally i n f e r i o r good" concept. For a number of years the United States has been sending mono-degradable detergent to underdeveloped countries and producing bio-degradable detergent for domestic use. S i m i l a r l y Canada exports high-sulphur coking coa l to Japan. This flow of eventual pol lutants between nations has been the by-product o f demand for low price goods i n the i n t e r n a t i o n a l market. I t a l so r e f l e c t s the former a t t i t u d e , on an i n t e r n a t i o n a l sca le , that c lean a i r and fresh water were "free goods". Another example of a po ten t i a l upset o f i n t e r - n a t i o n a l trade patterns i s the s i t u a t i o n facing the exporters of lead and sulphur ( inc luding Canada). Already our p r a i r i e s are being s tockpi led with sulphur as the price decl ines even further (1971 ~ $23/ton, 1972 ^ $8 / ton). As lead i s phased out of gasolines and paints and as sulphur i s recovered from indus- 66 t r y , the worldwide demand for these materials w i l l d e c l i n e , a f f ec t ing the i n t e r n a t i o n a l balance of t rade . A t h i r d area i n which environmental q u a l i t y considera- t ions may af fect i n t e r n a t i o n a l trade flows i s i n the deter- mination of the l o c a t i o n of production f a c i l i t i e s . One of the major components i n l o c a t i o n decis ions i s the cost of t rans- 67 p o r t a t i o n . As John Munro points out : ' With in the involved eva luat ion of the cost and revenue c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a l te rnat ive l o c a t i o n s , transport 6 6 M . , P. 93. ^ 7 John M. Munro, Trade L i b e r a l i z a t i o n and Transportat ion i n Internat iona l Trade (Toronto, O n t . : U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press , 1969), PP. 5-6. 125 costs are a key cons iderat ion . They influence the de l ivered cost of raw materials and f u e l , and they a f fect the market a t t r ibutes of d i f f e rent l o c a t i o n s . R e l a t i v e l y high transport costs mean expensive pro- duction and r e s t r i c t e d markets and, unless of f set by some major l o c a t i o n a l advantage, can act as an abso- lute b a r r i e r to the establishment of economic a c t i v i t y at a c e r t a i n l o c a t i o n or i n a c e r t a i n reg ion . Changes i n t ransportat ion costs can have s i m i l a r e f fect s on firms already es tab l i shed at given l o c a t i o n s . From the point-of-view of the i n t e r n a t i o n a l f i rm contemplating investment i n a p a r t i c u l a r country, the environmental controls imposed by d i f f e rent countries i s going to enter into his d e c i s i o n . The low cost operation of L i b e r i a n and Greek tramp steamers may be upset by environmental control s which, r e f l e c t e d i n crude p r i c e s , may a l t e r the in te rna t iona l flow of o i l and the l o c a t i o n of r e f i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s . On a l e s ser s ca l e , unequal na t iona l considerat ion of the SST may af fect the l o c a t i o n of business abroad. In the 1970s, the United Nations w i l l , i n i t s non- p o l i t i c a l work, be concerned with " q u a l i t y of l i f e " issues as we l l as Gross Nat ional Product—and with problems of developed as we l l as les s developed countr ies . Environmental issues may come to exercise a growing influence on i n t e r n a t i o n a l 69 economic r e l a t i o n s . 7 The problems are not unlike the prob- lems faced on the na t iona l l e v e l and the need for an i n t e - Gardner, "The Role of the U.N. i n Environmental Problems," p. 69. 69 7k report submitted by a panel of experts convened by the Secretary-General of the U . N . Conference on the Human Environment, Founex, Switzer land, "Development and E n v i r o n - ment" i n Environment Law Review—1972 ed . by H. Floyd Sherrod, J r . (Albany, N . Y . : Sage H i l l Publishers I n c . , 1972), P. 698. 126 grated approach which i s r e c e p t i v e to the demands of the human environment i s even more apparent. 5 Summary Before summarizing t h i s chapter I would l i k e to record the conclusions of A l l e n V. Kneese w i t h regard to economic s t u d i e s o f environmental q u a l i t y . H i s c o n t r i b u t i o n to t h i s area has without doubt been of major impact. He o f f e r s three 70 c o n c l u s i o n s : 1 1. Optimum r u l e s , standards, or other techniques f o r c o n t r o l l i n g environmental q u a l i t y must r e s u l t from a n a l y s i s of va l u e s , c o n t r a r y to the usual approach which i s s t i l l narrowly focused on p h y s i c a l e f f e c t s and o b j e c t i v e s . Research i n the economics values a s s o c i a t e d w i t h environmental management has made s i g n i f i c a n t progress along some l i n e s , but has b a r e l y begun to shed l i g h t on many d i f f i c u l t prob- lems. 2. Even c a r e f u l l y determined value-based r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s governing i n d i v i d u a l , i n d u s t r i a l , and l o c a l government d e c i s i o n s o f t e n cannot achieve optimal environmental q u a l i t y management; more d i r e c t and e x p l i c i t c o l l e c t i v e a c t i n g on a r e g i o n a l scale i s o f t e n i n d i c a t e d . 3. We are i l l - e q u i p p e d i n s t i t u t i o n a l l y t o implement those management systems and procedures which economic and engineering a n a l y s i s suggests; and appropriate research on how to design s u i t a b l e i n - s t i t u t i o n a l and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l arrangements has ha r d l y begun. A study of A i r T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and the Human Environment would not be complete without some mention of the r e l a t i v e l y new f i e l d o f environmental economics. New problems demand new approaches, and, although s i m p l i f y i n g assumptions must be made, ' A l l e n V. Kneese, "Research Goals and Progress Toward Them" i n Environmental Q u a l i t y i n a Growing Economy, ed. by Henry J a r r e t t ( B a l t i m o r e , Md.: Johns Hopkins Press, 1966), p. 87. 127 important var iables cannot be ignored. Recent ly , new th inking has been d irected toward environmental goods, goods such as a i r and water that have always been with us but have not been recognized i n an economic sense. With t h i s new approach some attempts have been made to incorporate the human environment in to an economic frame-of-referenee. These attempts have not a l l been success fu l ; however, they have provided a beginning for a more coherent environmental q u a l i t y management system. The problems of the human environment are complex and the so lut ions are not e a s i l y determined. On a na t iona l l e v e l much can be accomplished by increased governmental expendi- ture to r e a l i z e the benefi ts of a healthy populat ion. On an i n t e r n a t i o n a l s ca le , an understanding of the impact of env i ron- mental controls on world trade patterns i s v i t a l to both m u l t i - n a t i o n a l corporat ion dec i s ion makers and government represent- a t i v e s . 1 2 8 CHAPTER V THE EXISTING LEGISLATION: SOCIAL PROBLEMS AND IMPACT A v i a t i o n has had a major impact on the s o c i a l patterns of man. From a modest beginning i n passenger and mai l service i n the 1 9 2 0 s to the large-scale i n t e r n a t i o n a l passenger and a i r cargo service of today, the a i r t ransportat ion industry has inf luenced human settlement patterns , the adoption of parts of one culture by another, and the spread of various ideologies throughout the world. A v i a t i o n has a lso promoted a general widening o f i n d i v i d u a l perception from a reg ional to a g lobal s ca le . In the f i r s t seventy years of th i s century man ruled the a i r . In the l a s t few years i t appears as i f the a i r i s r u l i n g man. The damaging e f fect s of a i r and noise p o l l u t i o n are causing a revo lu t ion i n man's a t t i tudes toward t ransporta t ion . In 1 9 7 0 , Halaby s t a t e d , 1 "The race between technology and sociology i s on, and that i s where the ac t ion i s . " In the l i g h t of recent developments i t i s less of a "race" between technology and sociology and more of a challenge for technology to accommodate s o c i a l demands and p r i o r i t i e s . Halaby, " Introduct ion to the Symposium" i n A i r Transportation—A Forward Look, ed . by K.M. Ruppenthal (Stan- f o r d , C a l i f . : Stanford U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 7 0 ) . 129 5.1 Noise and Human Tolerance I have long held the opinion that the amount of noise which anyone can bear undisturbed stands i n inverse proport ion to his mental capac i ty , and may therefore be regarded as a pret ty f a i r measure of i t . . . . Noise i s a torture to a l l i n t e l l e c t u a l people. P So wrote Schopenhauer i n 1&V+, long before the f i r s t a irplane ever f lew. The p h y s i o l o g i c a l , psychologica l and behavioral e f fec t s of no i se , as mentioned e a r l i e r i n t h i s t h e s i s , are items of major impact on the a i r t ransportat ion industry . The community's concern i s being brought more and more urgently to the a t t ent ion of government o f f i c i a l s . U .S . General Wil l i am F . McKee, while he was FAA d i r e c t o r , said ,3"Noise means i r r i t a t e d c i t i z e n s whose growing protests are blocking needed a i r p o r t expansion even when such money i s a v a i l a b l e . " Former U.S . Ass i s tant Secretary of Transpor ta t ion ,Cec i l M. Mackey went fur ther , saying that the c i t i z e n ' s ins is tence on less degrada- t i o n of h i s environment, " i s the s ingle most outstanding L, c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of s o c i e t y . " What are the facts about noise and human tolerance? How much noise can we stand? E h r l i c h and E h r l i c h give the 2 A r t h u r Schopenhauer, "On Noise" i n The World as W i l l and Idea (H. Haldane and J . Kemp, t r a n s . , l&VO , c i t e d by V . J . Yannacone, J r . , B .S . Cohen, and S .G. Davison, E n v i r o n- mental Rights and Remedies (Rochester, New York: The Lawyers Co-operative Publ i shing C o . , 1972), p. 37 k . ^Evert C l a r k , "Noise Ca l l ed Bar to New A i r p o r t s , " New York Times. October 5, 1967. * * Ib id . 130 fo l lowing g u i d e l i n e s : 7 Permanent loss of hearing follows chronic exposure to high noise l e v e l s . Noise l eve l s as low as 50-55 decibels may delay or inter fere with sleep and re su l t i n a f e e l i n g of fatigue on awakening. Recently there has been growing evidence that noise i n the 90-decibel range may cause i r r e v e r s i b l e changes i n the autonomic nervous system. In terms of common, everyday noise l e v e l s these l e v e l s can be re l a ted to the fo l lowing sca le : 35 decibels - classroom 55 decibels - restaurant 60 decibels - sports arena (use of telephone d i f f i c u l t ) 80 decibels - use of telephone v i r t u a l l y impossible 90 decibels - to lera ted only i n short periods 100 decibels - acute discomfort 130 decibels - jet revving engines at take-off (maximum allowable for humans) These are facts based on human tolerances not on human prefer- ences. They are absolute quant i t ies based on the b i o l o g i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s of man. The s o c i a l problems are inherent i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of these l i m i t a t i o n s . How close to approach the l i m i t s of discomfort var ies with i n d i v i d u a l , group or employer preference and i s based on human judgment rather than f a c t . In t h i s sect ion I have deal t s p e c i f i c a l l y with noise p o l l u t i o n . There are human tolerances to other forms of p o l l u - t i o n , such as a i r p o l l u t i o n , and the conclusions reached would apply equa l ly w e l l . In the fo l lowing sections a more general approach w i l l be used i n discuss ing the s o c i a l problems o f the human environment. ' E h r l i c h and E h r l i c h , Issues i n Human Ecology, p. l k 0 . 6 These l eve l s are based on information given i n the proposed U.S . Noise Control Act of 1966 as quoted by C u l l i t o n , "Noise Threatens Man," p. 101. 131 5.2 Perspectives and Pressure Groups The s o c i a l problems associated with the human environment involve a hierarchy of needs. Ind iv idua l needs for a spec i f i c l e v e l of environmental c leanl iness contribute to group needs, group needs help to form nat iona l or c u l t u r a l needs, and n a t i o n a l needs form g lobal requirements. As one progresses up such a hierarchy there i s increas ing pressure on the higher l e v e l s to s a t i s fy c o n f l i c t i n g needs of the various l e v e l s below. This s o c i a l pressure i s the motivating force for change. S o c i a l pressure associated with i n d i v i d u a l and group con- cern over environmental issues has been strongest from so-ca l led "pressure groups". The theory behind t h i s attempt to influence 7 s o c i a l p o l i c y i s described by Towler and Nonken:' I f a sense of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y can be developed wi th in those who cont ro l the major sources of p o l l u t i o n , and i f pressure groups can be formed and maintained to watch them, we may see some balance. The environmental problem i s one of values i n c o n f l i c t . The assumption made by Towler and Nonken i s that those who cont ro l the major sources of p o l l u t i o n have d i f fe rent values than those who suffer i t s e f f e c t s . Edward Car l son , president of United A i r l i n e s , takes exception to t h i s assump- o t i o n by s t a t i n g : I guess one of the things that bothers me with those that are environmental i s t s , and the environment t h i n g , i s that they are not the only ones interested i n environmental problems. I happen to be, I t h i n k , a pret ty good c i t i z e n of t h i s country, and I'm interes ted i n the environment. But I am also interested i n i t as 7 John Towler and Harold Nonken, "Education for Sur- v i v a l , " Environmental Qual i ty . February 1973, p. 38. o ° C r a m e r , "The A i r l i n e s Speak," p. 21. 132 the p r i n c i p l e o f f i c e r of t h i s company. So anything we can do i n the t o t a l f i e l d of environmental programs we are going to endorse. The c o n f l i c t of corporate r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s faced by such men as Q Car l son i s described by Learned, et a l . Learned suggests that the business decision-maker must formulate and implement strategy capable of balancing economic opportunity, corporate resources , personal and organizat iona l a sp i r a t ions , and the leg i t imate in teres t s of other segments i n soc ie ty . A code of pro fes s iona l business conduct, such as that out l ined by A u s t i n , may c a l l on the executive to p lace , "the interes t s of soc iety before h i s own and his company's i n t e r e s t s " . 1 0 Inherent i n t h i s code i s an assumption of d iver se , competing goals . The main d i f f e rence , as I see i t , i s that the "pressure group" has one goal—the preservat ion and enhancement of the environment— whereas the business decision-maker has many. 5.3 Response to S o c i a l Pressures The s o c i a l problems associated with the human envi ron- ment have become p o l i t i c a l issues at the na t iona l l e v e l . An example of s o c i a l pressure causing p o l i t i c a l ac t ion i s provided by Howes. She s t a t e s : 1 1 %!dmund P. Learned, et a l . , Business P o l i c y . T e x t and Cases, rev i sed e d i t i o n , (Homewood, I l l i n o i s : Richard D. Irwin I n c . , 1969), PP. k 85- k 93. 1 0 R o b e r t W. A u s t i n , "Code of Conduct for Execut ive s , " Harvard Business Review, September-October 1961, P. 53« x l H e l e n C . Howes, " P o l l u t i o n : Careful Plans and Firm A c t i o n , " Canadian Business . A p r i l 1971, p. 30. 133 The Swedes' ins is tence on h e a l t h f u l , a t t r ac t ive environ- ment and safe recreat ion f a c i l i t i e s has forced a sp i r ing p o l i t i c i a n s to make a n t i - p o l l u t i o n measures and conserva- t i o n important planks i n t h e i r platforms. V a l f r i d Paulson states i n Scandinavian Times. "When our new laws were under debate, p o l i t i c a l par t ies t r i e d to outdo each other i n devotion to the oause." Today Sweden leads the Western world i n th i s f i e l d . In the a i r l i n e s indus t ry , Scandinavian A i r l i n e s and t h e i r Swedish subs id iary , L i n j e f l y g , are g iv ing the matter serious 12 study, consistent with t h i s na t iona l movement. In Canada, the response of soc iety to environmental degradation has been d i rec ted toward each l e v e l of government. On the l o c a l l e v e l , c i t i z e n s ' groups have exerted pressure on industry and government i n such wel l pub l i c i zed events as the "Arrow" inc ident and West Coast o i l s p i l l s , a i r p o l l u t i o n damage i n the Windsor/Detroit area , environmental arsenic at Ye l lowkni fe , lung cancer i n Newfoundland f luorspar miners, and community i n t r u s i o n due to je t a i r c r a f t noise i n several of Canada's major populat ion centers . On the reg ional l e v e l , s o c i a l pressure has been instrumental i n the Canada-United States Agreement on Great Lakes Water Qual i ty , the Saint John River Bas in Agrement, a marine reserve for the S t r a i t of Georgia , and the preservat ion o f the Canadian North. On the n a t i o n a l l e v e l , s o c i a l pressure has re su l ted i n p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n and has contr ibuted to the formation of the Department of the Environment, the Clean A i r A c t , studies on mercury and phosphates, and motor vehic le emission standards. Federal government in tervent ion causing the eventual c ance l l a t ion of Imperial O i l ' s Lake Louise V i l l a g e development was the r e s u l t 1 2 I b i d . . p. 36. I 3 k of s o c i a l pressures from conservat ioni s t s . In ternat iona l response to the s o c i a l problems of the human environment has been formal and informal , sometimes based on r a t i o n a l argument and sometimes on emotional appeal . Agree- ment on i n t e r n a t i o n a l environmental p o l i c y has been slow due to a lack of knowledge and disparate na t iona l goals . The needs of the developed nations vis-^i-vis environmental q u a l i t y are not the needs of the developing nations, due to d i f f e r i n g p r i o r i t i e s . Although agreement on spec i f i c p o l i c y has been slow, the p r i n c i p l e s of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment r e f l e c t an in te rna t iona l s o c i a l demand for the pre- 13 servat ion of our ecosystem. P r i n c i p l e 5 reads as fo l lows : J The non-renewable resources of the earth must be employed i n such a way as to guard against the danger of t h e i r future exhaustion and to ensure that the benef i ts from such employment are shared by a l l man- k i n d . Environmental ly or iented groups such as the Friends of the E a r t h , the Greenpeace Foundation, the Environmental Forum, the S i e r r a Club and the Family of Man, are appealing to mankind on an i n t e r n a t i o n a l scale and, through wide media coverage, are get t ing t h e i r message to decision-makers at a l l l e v e l s . The co-alignment of soc i e ty ' s needs and goals with the needs and goals of business i s e s s e n t i a l for s u r v i v a l . Pres- sure groups, concerned c i t i z e n s , and civic-minded i n d i v i d u a l s perform a necessary funct ion by providing feedback to govern- x 3 U . S . Committee on Foreign Re la t ions , "Report to the Senate on the United Nations Conference on the Human E n v i r o n - ment," p. 16. 135 raent and industry, and by a s s i s t i n g i n the formation of na t iona l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l s o c i a l p o l i c y . 5 . k Environmental Education The need for i n s t i t u t i n g a nation-wide environmental education program at the elementary school l e v e l i s v i t a l to Canada's future . I f we hope to understand and protect the com- plex human environment, we must l earn the facts about i t . This i s f o r c e f u l l y brought out by John H. Shaffer with respect to a i r c r a f t no i se . He s ta tes : In the long run , the so lu t ion to the noise problem w i l l probably be par t ly t e c h n i c a l , p a r t l y procedural , and p a r t l y env i ronmenta l—. . . In no i se , as i n so many of a v i a t i o n ' s problems, greater publ ic under- standing i s not only necessary, but may a c t u a l l y be h a l f the so lu t ion we're seeking. Our educat ional system has f a i l e d to provide publ ic understand- ing and a sound basis for evaluat ing environmental i s sues . Present and future leaders need f ac tua l information to make 15* r a t i o n a l dec i s ions . J On an i n t e r n a t i o n a l s ca le , Caldwel l comments on t h i s problem: -^ Ik x John H. Shaffer , " A v i a t i o n ' s Hour for A c t i o n " i n A i r Transportation—A Forward Look, ed. by K.M. Ruppenthal (Stan- f o r d , C a l i f . : Standford U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 7 0 ) , p. 195 15T ^Canada has taken some steps i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n , as evidenced by a two-week course to acquaint industry and govern- ment leaders with the s o c i a l , economic, and technica l aspects of northern development. This course i s j o i n t l y sponsored by industry and the Government of the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s . 16 Lynton K. C a l d w e l l , "An E c o l o g i c a l Approach to Inter- n a t i o n a l Development: Problems of P o l i c y and Adminis t ra t ion" i n The Careless Technology-Ecology and Internat ional Develop- ment, ed . by M. Taghi Farvar and John P. M i l t o n (New York, N . Y . : Doubleday and Co. I n c . , 1 9 7 2 ) , pp. 9 2 7 - 9 2 8 , 9hl. 1 3 6 The pressure of people upon resources and l i v i n g space i s neces s i ta t ing new at t i tudes and behavior patterns i n the in tere s t of human c i v i l i z a t i o n and s u r v i v a l . The i n c u l c a t i o n of these a t t i tudes and behaviors w i l l require new instruments of in te rna t iona l education and new interpreta t ions of the r ight s o f nat ions . A body of doctrine i s slowly emerging that could form a basis for in te rna t iona l environmental p o l i c y and admin- i s t r a t i o n . The formulation of th i s p o l i c y and the establishment o f feas ible and e f fec t ive i n s t i t u t i o n s to administer i t i s one of the major tasks of na t iona l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c s i n our time. . . . But the machinery of i n t e r n a t i o n a l negotiat ions moves s lowly, and measures now i n gestat ion may not be born i n time to prevent e c o l o g i c a l c r i se s i n one or more areas of the ea r th . Decis ions based on i n s u f f i c i e n t information are high r i s k dec i s ions . Environmental education emphasizing f ac tua l mater ia l i s the answer to reducing r i s k and uncertainty i n a complex world. The p r o b a b i l i t y of na t iona l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l agreement on environmental issues i s much higher i f i n d i v i d u a l b e l i e f s and at t i tudes are formed e a r l y i n l i f e and are based on complete information. 5.5 Summary The most complex, d i f f i c u l t , and time-consuming problems i n the human environment are s o c i a l problems. Just as with t e c h n i c a l and economic problems there i s a need for a more integrated macro-system approach to s o c i a l problem-solving. Environmental i s t s make demands based on t h e i r narrow percep- t i o n of human needs and wants, often depic t ing industry as d i s - passionate and unconcerned with publ ic welfare. Industry, on the other hand, t r i e s to make r a t i o n a l judgments on s o c i a l matters with i n s u f f i c i e n t Information. Individuals f a i l to include the e f fect s of t ransportat ion on the na t iona l economy 137 and world trade i n t h e i r decision-making framework. These incomplete views are often thought of as c o n f l i c t - ing values rather than contr ibut ing values i n an o v e r a l l environmental management program. S o c i a l demands for a c leaner , quieter atmosphere cannot go unanswered and a reassessment of p r i o r i t i e s i s e s s e n t i a l . Much of the d i f f i c u l t y manifested i n diverse s o c i a l a t t i - tudes can be a t t r ibuted to a lack of knowledge about our environment. A nationwide or even worldwide program of environ- mental education would provide important f ac tua l information, enhance the p o s s i b i l i t y of communication between segments of soc ie ty , and promote a de-po la r i za t ion of b e l i e f s and a t t i tudes . The eventual goa l , an integrated g lobal environmental manage- ment system, w i l l take time to achieve, but an increase i n environmental awareness can be achieved today. 1 3 8 CHAPTER VI THE ROLE OF BUSINESS An understanding of the problems of the human environ- ment as new input to the decision-making process of both govern- ment and business i s required for s u r v i v a l i n the future . A government that i s not receptive to change, as perceived by the e l e c t o r a t e , Is u n l i k e l y to remain i n power. A business that i s not receptive to change, as perceived by the market, i s u n l i k e l y to survive i n a competitive environment. A l i m i t e d amount of change i s possible through "organi - z a t i o n a l s lack" wi th in the organizat ion , however some s t ruc- t u r a l change w i l l be required to f i t the organizat ion (be i t pr ivate enterprise or government) and i t s c a p a b i l i t i e s , to the task environment. The f i n a l product of such s t r u c t u r a l change i s an e f f i c i e n t operating system with low uncertainty—an organizat ion attuned to the environment i n which i t funct ions . 6 . 1 P o l l u t i o n , a New Dimension for Business Just what e f fect s w i l l legi t imate concern for p o l l u t i o n have on business operations and what i s business doing to combat i t ? O i l s p i l l s , waste gases and e f f l u e n t s , no i se , a l l have created a new dimension for business—the need to con- s ider i n advance whether any of i t s a c t i v i t i e s w i l l contribute 1 3 9 to p o l l u t i o n . 1 Duncan McLeod describes th i s new dimension as f o l l o w s : 2 A year ago i t was doubtful i f complaints by conserva- t i o n i s t s about a new business project would have been deemed of s u f f i c i e n t importance to merit serious men- t i o n by newspapers. But i n the past few months news- papers throughout the western world have devoted increased space to conservat ioni s t s . Eminent s c i e n t i s t s have joined them i n questioning p u b l i c l y the wisdom of a var i e ty of such business projects as t ransport ing Alaskan o i l through the A r c t i c Ocean by supertankers; bu i ld ing the supersonic a i r l i n e r ; and manufacturing no-deposi t , non-returnable b o t t l e s . I t i s in te re s t ing to note , for example, that the press coverage of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment was greater than that of the 1 9 7 2 Olympic Games i n M u n i c h . 3 In general , business i s more v i s i b l e i n i t s p o l l u t i o n than other i n s t i t u t i o n s and thus more vulnerable to publ ic c r i t i c i s m . It i s eas ier to see the black or yel low smoke com- ing from a factory smokestack or a jet engine than the wastes from thousands of home o i l furnaces which a c t u a l l y may be p o l - l u t i n g the a i r to a greater extent. The small s p i l l s , f i r e s , and exhaust streams s i m i l a r l y go unnoticed but contribute a major amount to the t o t a l p o l l u t i o n of the environment. I t took a great amount of s c i e n t i f i c research to i d e n t i f y auto- mobile exhaust (aided by photo-chemical a c t ion from sunlight) as the primary source of Los Angeles ' smog. Once i d e n t i f i e d , a major p u b l i c i t y campaign was necessary to convince people that Duncan McLeod, " P o l l u t i o n : Its New Dimensions for Bus iness , " Canadian Business . March 1 9 7 1 , p. 3 3 . 2 I b i d . J Keen leys ide , "The Stockholm Conference on the Environ ment: An Assessment." iko the extremely v i s i b l e f ac tor ie s and r e f i n e r i e s were not the major causes of smog. By 1969? with normal regu la t ion , com- bined indus t r i a l - re s ident i a l -commerc ia l sources caused only ten percent of a i r p o l l u t i o n i n Los Angeles County; the remaining LL ninety percent came from motor v e h i c l e s . The various pressures on the business managers are increased with the added dimension of p o l l u t i o n ; Figure 6.1 diagrammatically i l l u s t r a t e s th i s point . FIGURE 6.1 PRESSURES ON A MANAGER CONCERNING AN AIR POLLUTION PROBLEM His OWA/ VALUES VAiMESCfZ, DECISION MADE o/?4sts WtftCrffe V*"0" SOCAL6ATOUP Source: Ke i th Davis and Robert L . Blomstrom, Business , Soc ie ty , and Environment: S o c i a l Power and S o c i a l Response (New York. N . Y . : McGraw-Hill ponse I n c . , 1971?TP7-77. Besides deal ing with groups having diverse goals and a t t i tudes (such as labor unions, customers, members of the community, and k Louis J . F u l l e r , "As I See I t , " Forbes. December 15, 1969, P. 55. stockholders), the manager must balance c o n f l i c t i n g values i n the decision-making process. Walton i d e n t i f i e s some of these occasionally c o n f l i c t i n g values: 7 1. Technical - based on physical f a c t s , science and l o g i c 2. Economic - based on market values determined by supply and demand 3. S o c i a l - based on group and i n s t i t u t i o n a l needs h. Psychological - based on personal needs of i n d i v i d - uals 5. P o l i t i c a l - based on general welfare needs of the state 6. Aesthetic - based on beauty 7. E t h i c a l - based on what i s r i g h t 8. S p i r i t u a l - based on what God revealed H i s t o r i c a l l y , the f i r s t two value systems, technical and economic, have dominated business decision-making and the p o l i t i c a l value system has dominated governmental decisions. Today's business and governmental decisions must recognize a l l of these value systems: Learned et a l . state that, "... a business firm, as an organic e n t i t y meaningfully related to i t s environment, must be adaptive to demands fo r responsible behavior as for economic service." Acting responsibly thus be- comes one of the shared goals of the corporation. The answer to p o l l u t i o n , a new dimension f o r business, i s corporate r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Clarence C. Walton, Ethos and the Executives: Value i n Managerial Decision Making (Englewood C l i f f s , N.J.: Prentice- H a l l Inc., 1969), p. 2h.Edward Spranger s i m i l a r l y classes a l l individuals as f a l l i n g into one or another of: (1) Theoretical, (2) Economic, (3) Aesthetic, (h) S o c i a l , (5) P o l i t i c a l or (6) Religious value orientations. See Learned et al.« Business P o l i c y , Text and Cases, p. 32 k . Learned et a l . , Business Policy, Text and Cases, p. k87. Ih2 6.2 Technica l Role—The Importance of Input Corporate r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n a t echn ica l sense must i n - clude act ive p a r t i c i p a t i o n in the formation of r e a l i s t i c , a t ta inable environmental standards. The role of business i n the f i gh t against noise and a i r p o l l u t i o n i n the a i r industry i s to provide input into an o v e r a l l reasonable scheme of en- vironmental management. Industry p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n j o in t pro- grams with the government (such as the CIAP and REFAN projects) i n such areas as engine t e s t i n g , safety , and f l i g h t procedures, i s v i t a l i f controls and regulat ions are to be e f fec t ive and accepted. The operating a i r l i n e s have the most experience and expertise necessary to assess the long run t echn ica l c a p a b i l i - t i e s of t h e i r f l e e t s . Together with the a i r c r a f t manufacturers they can supply the best estimate of the impact of spec i f i c t e c h n i c a l modif icat ions and changes i n operating procedures on the a i r indus t ry . The formulation of standards should r e f l e c t t h i s input and the responsible corporat ion should be w i l l i n g to supply i t . 6.3 Economic Role—The P r o f i t Motive Peter Drucker emphasizes that the f i r s t duty of the corporat ion i s to survive and that p r o f i t , not phi lanthropy, i s the te s t of performance. He stresses that s o c i a l respons i- b i l i t i e s could never j u s t i f y actions contrary to the corpora- t i o n ' s best i n t e r e s t s , although he does concede that a corpora t ion , "should be so organized as to f u l f i l l automati- l k 3 c a l l y i t s s o c i a l ob l iga t ions i n the very act of seeking i t s own best s e l f - i n t e r e s t . " 7 Inherent i n th i s socio-economic approach i s the underlying assumption that elements of the human environ- ment can be incorporated into the market system i n an e f fect ive manner. Mr. Ronald R i t c h i e , v ice-pres ident and d i rec tor of Imperial O i l , looks to a change i n the rules of the market place to get "d i f f e rent re su l t s from the economic process" and o "des i red new behavior from business e n t e r p r i s e s . " This type of change i s required to make business and publ ic in teres t s c o i n c i d e . R i tch ie a lso out l ines business en te rpr i s e ' s major demand on government—polit ical decis ions which modify the forces of the market place i n such a way as to promote s o c i a l l y Q desirable environmental q u a l i t y . He s t a t e s : 7 I f we mean that merely to meet consumer demands as cheaply as possible i s no longer enough, but that i t must be done without the use of c h i l d labour , we need to say so i n spec i f i c terms and make i t apply general ly (as we have done for many decades). I f we wish to add to that i n today's world , the a i r and the water and the s o i l must be kept to c e r t a i n l e v e l s of p u r i t y or beauty or safety for human hea l th , then we must not only e s t a b l i s h the standards but we must devise r u l e s , incent ives , and penalt ies which al low a l l of those concerned, which indeed force them, to behave i n ways, both as producers and as consumers, that are consistent with these goals . We cannot be content simply with point ing accusing f inger s , pas- sing moral judgments , and urging good behaviour without def in ing how i t s h a l l be known what good behaviour i s . 7 P e t e r F . Drucker, The Pract ice o f Management quoted i n M o r r e l l Heald , The S o c i a l R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of Business (Cleve- l a n d , Ohio: The Press of Case Western Reserve U n i v e r s i t y , 1970), p. 283. 8 Ronald S. R i t c h i e , "The Corporation i n the World-To-Be" ( I n d u s t r i a l Relat ions Management Assoc ia t ion paper, Harr i son Hot Spr ings , B . C . , February 19, 197D , p. 10. 9 I b i d . . p . 11 Businessmen f e e l that the r e a l key to br ing ing corporate re - sources to bear i n s o c i a l problems i s the p r o f i t m o t i v e . 1 0 Few, i f any, corporations can af ford to channel large portions of t h e i r resources toward solving s o c i a l and economic problems without being paid for t h e i r involvment. 6.h S o c i a l Role—Socia l R e s p o n s i b i l i t y and Business In comparison with the c l a s s i c a l economic theory model of perfect competition and a free market, business organizations are frequently very powerful and operate i n a mixed economy. The degree to which these corporations are s o c i a l l y "respon- s i b l e " depends upon the d e f i n i t i o n of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Davis and Blomstrom define s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to be, " . . . a person's o b l i g a t i o n to evaluate i n the decision-making process the e f fect s of both his personal and i n s t i t u t i o n a l decisions and act ions on the whole s o c i a l s y s t e m . " 1 1 They c l a r i f y t h i s 12 further i n terms of interes t s as fo l lows : Businessmen apply s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y when they con- s ider the needs and interes t s of others who may be af fected by business ac t ions . In so doing, they look beyond t h e i r own personal interes t s and also beyond t h e i r f i rm ' s narrow economic and t echn ica l i n t e r e s t s . Although s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y recognizes the needs of other groups and ind iv idua l s i t does not imply i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n of 1 0 K e i t h Davis and Robert L . Blomstrom, Business , Soc ie ty , and Environment: S o c i a l Power and S o c i a l Response (New York, N . Y . : McGraw-Hill I n c . , 1971), p. 178. i : L I b i d . , p . 85. 1 2 I b i d . , p. 86. i*+5 these needs. For example, Richard E e l l s s t a t e s : 1 3 The s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of a corporat ion do not demand responses to a l l publ ic expectat ions. The publ ic may demand too much. Its desires may be t r a n s i t o r y . . . The s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of a corporat ion , therefore , cannot be defined i n terms of merely passive adaptation to the publ ic demands on business . An example of t h i s from the a i r t ransportat ion industry i s the demand that a i r l i n e s immediately i n s t a l l r e t r o f i t k i t s to le s sen noise l e v e l s . This may be worth considering by the a i r - l i n e s , but i s d e f i n i t e l y not a c r i t e r i o n of corporate s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . The true test o f s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s whether issues of publ ic in tere s t are considered at the time a dec i s ion i s made. Careful cons iderat ion of key issues rather than adoption of an i n f l e x i b l e point-of-view should be the s o c i a l ro le of business. 6.5 S o c i a l Role—Voluntary Ac t ion Hundreds of m i l l i o n s of do l l a r s are being spent annually i n North America as voluntary business ac t ion to prevent and e l iminate p o l l u t i o n . Business i s s t a r t ing to in te rna l i ze en- vironmental costs and recognize p o l l u t i o n contro l as one more cost of doing business i n a p a r t i c u l a r environment. The term "voluntary" i s a l i t t l e misleading because, " i t can be argued quite properly that . . . business i s responding to counterva i l - ing pressures" . The in te re s t ing facet of voluntary ac t ion i s that i t i s based on the corporat ion ' s own perception of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . The la te John F . Kennedy expressed the 1 3 R i c h a r d E e l l s , The Corporation and the Arts (New York, N . Y . : The MacMillan Company, 1967), p. 175. I b i d . , p.3 k3. lU-6 view tha t , " In the l a s t ana ly s i s , high e t h i c a l standards can be achieved only through voluntary e f f o r t . 7 From one point-of- view much of business ac t ion i s voluntary. Even when regula- t ions e x i s t there can be a considerable difference between the s p i r i t of the law and the l e t t e r of the law. An improvement of the market system to r e f l e c t s o c i a l r e a l i t y would not preclude voluntary a c t i o n , i t would only reconfirm i t s purpose. 6.6 Competition and Regulation A i r t ransporta t ion provides a unique mix of competition 16 and regu la t ion . Transportat ion i s a publ ic u t i l i t y . I t does have a publ ic purpose and does serve the general p u b l i c . The re su l t s of t h i s publ ic r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and accountab i l i ty i s seen i n p o l i c y formation within the industry . John A l l e n , J r . suggests t h a t : 1 7 Object ive , e x p l i c i t p o l i c y standards are e s p e c i a l l y appropriate i n those areas i n which the publ ic i s immediately a f fected . This i s e s p e c i a l l y true i n those great industr ies affected with a publ ic i n t e r e s t . Of the i n d u s t r i e s , t ransporta t ion i s perhaps the l a rge s t . Transportat ion i s regulated today, i n fact very s t r i c t l y , i n the name of publ ic i n t e r e s t . . . Because the industry i s so c l o s e l y connected with the publ ic i n t e r e s t , industry policy-making may be considered i n much the same way as i n publ ic p o l i c y . 'John F . Kennedy, "A Statement on Business E t h i c s and a C a l l to A c t i o n " (Statement at a meeting of the Business E t h i c s Advisory C o u n c i l , January 16, 1962), U .S . Department of Commerce, 1963? p. 9. X ^ A . P . Heiner , "The Transport Revolution and Regulation," i n Revolut ion i n Transportat ion, ed . by K.M. Ruppenthal (Stan- f o r d , C a l i f . : Stanford U n i v e r s i t y , I960), p. 115. 1 7 J o h n J . A l l e n , J r . , "Transportat ion Planning i n the Decade Ahead," i n Challenge to Transportat ion, ed . by K.M. Ruppenthal (Stanford, C a l i f . : Stanford U n i v e r s i t y , 1961), p. 2. Ruppenthal notes tha t , "From the very beginnings of commercial a v i a t i o n , the federa l government has played an important 1 8 r o l e , " but also tha t , " . . . the fact of the matter i s that almost a l l government regu la t ion has come about because the industry has asked for r e g u l a t i o n . " 1 ^ The h i s t o r i c a l balance between r e s t r i c t i v e publ ic p o l i c y and publ ic confidence i n business i s shown i n Figure 6.2: FIGURE 6.2 HISTORICAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PUBLIC CONFIDENCE IN BUSINESS AND GOVERNMENT RESTRICTIONS ON BUSINESS PVSL/C COt//T/0£*tC£ / Y Lovi \ /\ — • emsre/c7i\/E PUBLIC POLICY CIVIL OOO k/a#u> ce 1930s WA£JL Source: K. Davis and R . L . Blomstrom, Business . Soc ie ty . and Environment: S o c i a l Power and S o c i a l Response (New York, N . Y . : McGraw-Hill I n c . , 1971), p. 173. In a i r t ransporta t ion s p e c i f i c a l l y , Richmond sees t h i s balance 20 as somewhat les s pred ic tab le . He s ta tes : l 8 K a r l M. Ruppenthal, A i r Line Management (Stanford, C a l i f . : Stanford U n i v e r s i t y , 1967), p. 6. 1 9 I b i d . . p . 82 20 Samuel B. Richmond, Regulation and Competition i n A i r Transportat ion (New York, N . Y . : Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press , 1961), pp. 256-257. IhQ The optimum blend of competition and regula t ion i s a dynamic quant i ty . Its movement through the t r a n s i t i o n from rec iproca t ing engine to jet to supersonic equipment as we l l as to short and v e r t i c a l take-off equipment with i t s repercussions on a l ternat ive modes of surface t r a v e l cannot be pred ic ted . However i t i s hoped that the C i v i l Aeronautics Board . . . w i l l as a general p o l i c y and when- ever f e a s i b l e , act to preserve and strengthen rather than weaken competition i n the a i r t ransportat ion industry . S e l f - r e g u l a t i o n has taken place through the Internat ional A i r Transportat ion Assoc ia t ion (LATA) which, " . . . i s concerned with governmental p o l i c i e s that a f fect a v i a t i o n and with many 21 economic matters that a f fect the health of the industry . The pp most d i s t i n c t i v e work of IATA i s as fo l lows : 1. In ter l ine agreements: s tandardisat ion of forms, pro- cedures, landing agreements, and other f ac tor s , making possible the quick and easy exchange of t r a f - f i c between a i r l i n e s . 2. The negot ia t ion of in te rna t iona l t a r i f f s and ra tes . 3. The prov i s ion of a c l ea r ing house for the settlement of a i r l i n e s ' accounts with each other . The Internat iona l C i v i l A v i a t i o n Organization (ICAO), on the other hand, i s an arm of the various na t iona l governments and es tab l i shes i n t e r n a t i o n a l standards of nav iga t ion , e t c . The role of IATA v i s - a - v i s s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y w i l l become important i f environmental q u a l i t y i s i n t e r n a l i z e d into the costs of operating an a i r l i n e or i f the market i s improved to r e f l e c t environmental goods as scarce resources. The role of ICAO i s presently an act ive one i n e s t ab l i sh ing i n t e r n a t i o n a l p o l i c y on a i r t ransporta t ion and the human environment. Ruppenthal, A i r Line Management, p. 19. 22 W.S. Barry , A i r l i n e Management (London: George A l l e n and Unwin L t d . , 1965), p. 77. Ik9 Through s e l f - r e g u l a t i o n the a i r l i n e s can have a considerable input into the formation o f in te rna t iona l standards rather than ad just ing to rules e s tab l i shed by groups funct ioning outside the industry . One normally thinks of competition and regu la t ion as being mutually e x c l u s i v e , with each serving a separate purpose i n soc ie ty . Samuel Richmond disagrees, i n the case of a i r t r anspor ta t ion , providing ins ight into the d i f f i c u l t y of d e f i n - ing a unique role of business . He s t a t e s : 2 3 I t i s c l ea r that both competition and d i r e c t regula t ion can, i n the appropriate circumstances, be subst i tuted one for the other , as mechanisms for seeking to serve the publ ic good i n the economic phases of the a i r t ransporta t ion industry . Whether or not competition and d i r e c t regu la t ion are equal ly e f f ec t ive i n deal ing with the non-economic problems of the human environment depends, to a great extent , on the r e l a t i v e a b i l i t y of industry and government to perceive the needs and values of the p u b l i c . The pressure of the human environment w i l l l i k e l y a l t e r the optimum balance between d i r e c t regula- t i o n and competi t ion; however, the basic goals of business and government w i l l remain the same, 6.7 Summary The role o f the a i r l i n e s i n the e x i s t i n g l e g i s l a t i v e framework i s narrowly def ined. In the past much of the a i r industry decision-making has been dominated by only t e c h n i c a l and economic cons iderat ions . In order to meet the challenge 23 -'Richmond, Regulations and Competition i n A i r Trans- p o r t a t i o n , p. 256. of the human environment, the a i r l i n e s have had to expand and redefine t h e i r role to accommodate publ ic duties i n add i t ion to providing e f f i c i e n t t ransporta t ion se rv ice . These publ ic duties include cooperation with the government i n t e c h n i c a l areas to provide industry input to the formulation of stand- ards and r e a l i s t i c l e g i s l a t i o n . With the impact of p o l l u t i o n and concern over the human environment, a new dimension for business has been added. In the past , government regula t ion and intervent ion has been e i t h e r at the request o f industry or r e s t r i c t e d to ensuring that the a i r t ransporta t ion needs o f the general publ ic were adequately served. Present ly , business i s demanding p o l i t i c a l decis ions which w i l l modify the forces of the market place to make i t r e f l e c t other s o c i a l demands. The balance between competition and regu la t ion i n a i r t ransporta t ion has also been ef fected by environmental issues and w i l l l i k e l y vary as a funct ion of government and business a b i l i t y to perceive s o c i a l needs and expectat ions . The emphasis on increased corporate s o c i a l responsi- b i l i t y has been met with voluntary ac t ion by many; however, the p r o f i t motive remains the underlying incentive for business . The e x i s t i n g market and l e g i s l a t i v e structures must be revi sed to r e f l e c t t h i s f a c t . Recognition of the s o c i a l needs and goals of soc iety through a revised structure w i l l permit the co-alignment of business and government purpose necessary to deal with the human environment. 151 CHAPTER VII THE ROLE OF GOVERNMENT 7.1 Environmental Contro l and Levels o f Government There appears to be a general f e e l i n g among the business community that , "the proper role of government i s rule maker and re feree , and that i t should not , at the same time, attempt a l so to be a p l a y e r " . 1 According to Peter Drucker, the proper ro le of government i s to formulate s o c i a l object ives so that they can become opportunit ies for other i n s t i t u t i o n s to serve soc i e ty . The chairman of the board of one company commented, J "Government must l ead . But i t cannot be the sole problem so lver . Its role i s to define problems, a r t i c u l a t e desired r e s u l t s , organize, d i r e c t l y and i n d i r e c t l y , the whole po ten t i a l of the soc ie ty , i n a coordinated e f f o r t to remake the society and save i t from destroying i t s e l f . " This general f e e l i n g to- ward the role o f government i s not without mer i t , but i t does neglect the fact that government must be a player i f i t i s to represent the publ ic sector i n a responsible manner. I f the government assumes a passive r o l e , i n which p o l i t i c a l expedi- t e i t h Davis and Robert L . Blomstrom, Business . Soc ie ty , and Environment: S o c i a l Power and S o c i a l Response (New York, N . Y . : McGraw-Hill I n c . , 197V 9 P. 177. p Peter F . Drucker, The Age of D i s c o n t i n u i t y : Guide-lines to Our Changing Society (New York , N . Y . : Harper and Row I n c . , 1968), pp. 22 5, 2k2. o. J I r w i n M i l l e r , "Business Has a War to W i n , " Harvard Business Review. March-Apr i l 1969, p. 8. 152 ency outweighs sound environmental q u a l i t y management, the Li. publ ic i s not w e l l served. Stanley S te in out l ines the present cr role of government as f o l l o w s : ' In more recent years , there has been a mounting wave of publ ic concern for both the e c o l o g i c a l and aesthetic impacts of man's a c t i v i t i e s on his environment. Govern- ments have responded by assuming an array of postures. . . . But even where government a c t i v i t y does e x i s t , i t i s often fragmented and uncoordinated, r e f l e c t i n g the absence of a comprehensive approach to environmental q u a l i t y management. The reason for t h i s fragmented approach i s the governmental s t ruc ture , as mentioned e a r l i e r i n t h i s t h e s i s . S te in reviews t h i s major b a r r i e r to a united and e f fec t ive governmental r o l e . He s ta tes : The general l i s t of powers of the BNA Act makes c l ea r the i n t e n t i o n that l o c a l matters should be dealt with l o c a l l y while na t iona l matters are dealt with na t ion- a l l y . However, the net r e su l t i s the absence of com- prehensive j u r i s d i c t i o n at e i t h e r l e v e l of government over a l l aspects of environmental management. There are several ro les that government could adopt i f these c o n s t i t u t i o n a l constra ints were removed. At one extreme, considerat ions o f environmental q u a l i t y might be l e f t e n t i r e l y to private enterpr i se . At the other extreme, governmental in tervent ion would approach cent ra l planning or l i c e n s i n g of v i r t u a l l y a l l a c t i v i t i e s . S te in suggests t h a t , 7 "The f i n a l P o l i t i c a l expediency i s demonstrated on the p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l when au thor i t i e s prefer to encourage technolog ica l i n - novation rather than r i s k offending i n d u s t r i a l po l lu ter s through prosecut ion, i f the l a t t e r i s more s o c i a l l y de s i rab le . ' S tanley B. S t e i n , "Environmental Contro l and Di f ferent Levels of Governments," Canadian Business Admini s t ra t ion , l M l ) , Spring 1971, p. 129. 6 I b i d . , p. l k 2 . 7 I b i d . , p. 133. 153 range of government programs for environmental management requires varying degrees of d i r e c t government influence on the a c t i v i t i e s of private enterprise and i n d i v i d u a l s . " With vary- ing degrees of three l e v e l s o f d i r e c t government influence t h i s would prove rather d i f f i c u l t ; however, Duprl suggests a "problem shed" concept of governmental j u r i s d i c t i o n which would be more d i r e c t . The "problem shed" concept, one of a number of sugges- t ions based on e c o l o g i c a l or geographical zones, would redefine the role of government i n terms of phys ica l rather than p o l i t i c a l boundaries. In th i s concept publ ic goods are only considered appropriate ly a l loca ted or "packaged" i f " . . . the boundaries of the unit of government providing that good are such that the e x t e r n a l i t i e s of the good are i n t e r n a l i z e d to the o publ ic served. " According to t h i s new framework, a i r p o l l u - t i o n c o n t r o l , for example, could be provided with f u l l e f fec- t iveness only by a government agency whose t e r r i t o r i a l j u r i s - d i c t i o n coincided with the area required to in te rna l i ze the benef i t s of that c o n t r o l . 9 This type of re s t ruc tur ing would el iminate c r o s s - j u r i s d i c t i o n a l d i f f i c u l t i e s and contribute to a more responsive governmental r o l e . The problems of the a v i a t i o n industry are c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to governmental structure and degree of r egu la t ion . o J . S . D u p r l , "Intergovernmental Relat ions and the Metro- p o l i t a n Area" i n P o l i t i c s and Government i n Urban Canada, ed . by L . D . Feldman and M.D. Goldrick (Toronto, O n t . : Methuen P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1969), PP. l 8 3 - l 8 L . 9 I b i d . 19+ Oscar Bakke has sa id that probably the most d i f f i c u l t problem the a v i a t i o n industry faces i n the next decade i s the structure of government i n a f e d e r a l / s t a t e / l o c a l s e n s e . 1 0 Cerchione et a l . state t h a t , 1 1 " A v i a t i o n , more than any other form of t rans- p o r t a t i o n , has the c leares t opportunity to el iminate completely i t s environmental problems, but only i f i t deals with i t s shortcomings f o r t h r i g h t l y . " The major problem for the a i r t ransporta t ion industry i s that i t s shortcomings may be inherent i n the role of government rather than present wi th in i t s own organizat iona l boundaries. 7.2 Technica l Role—Planning The role of government i n a t echnica l sense involves p lanning. Enactment of l e g i s l a t i o n to remove j u r i s d i c t i o n a l problems would a s s i s t i n the establishment of reg iona l planning groups. Implementation of p o l i c y w i l l require t e c h n i c a l knowl- 12 edge. Figure 7.1 shows some of the e x i s t i n g i n t e r r e l a t i o n - ships between planning and design processes and a i r p o l l u t i o n problems. A d d i t i o n a l elements of an o v e r a l l management pro- gram, not shown i n Figure 7.1, include a i r q u a l i t y monitoring, Franci s Keppel , "Human Resources and the Transporta- t i o n Industry" i n Master Planning the Av ia t ion Environment, ed . by A . J . Cerchione, V . E . Rothe and J . V e r c e l i i n o (Tucson, A r i z o n a : U n i v e r s i t y of Arizona Press , 1970), p. 20. 1 1 A n g e l o J . Cerchione, V i c t o r E . Rothe and James V e r c e l i i n o , e d i t o r s , Master Planning the A v i a t i o n Environment (T ucson, Ar i zona : U n i v e r s i t y of Arizona Press , 1970), p"! i i i . 12 Edward Wel l s , " A i r c r a f t Design, Goals and Problems," i n A i r Transportation—A Forward Look, ed . by K.M. Ruppenthal (Stanford, C a l i f . : Stanford U n i v e r s i t y , 1970), p. 11M-. 155 FIGURE 7.1 FOCUSING URBAN/REGIONAL PLANNING AND AIR RESOURCE MANAGEMENT ON AIR POLLUTION PROBLEMS URBAN & REGIONAL PLANNING AIR RESOURCE MANAGEMENT 6Mt9&u>NS AIR POLLUTION PROBLEMS (toutttAPT T«A*J$Pte«T DATA AM&16HT Ate Atf. Ut£ PbAj4 POSUC POUCY Source: Edwin W. Hauser, Leonard B. West, J r . , and A . Richard Sch le i cher , "Fundamental A i r P o l l u t i o n Considerat ion for Urban and Transportat ion Planners , " T r a f f i c Quarterly. January 1972, p. 77. estimates of future condi t ions , information and education pro- grams, and t echn ica l f i e l d serv ices . This type of o v e r a l l planning and management role for government can be equa l ly wel l appl ied to noise p o l l u t i o n problems. Hauser, West, and Schle icher stress the importance of an "out l ine o f current technology i n a i r resource manage me n l ^ as the bas is for d i s - cuss ion of a i r p o l l u t i o n problems. The type of approach to planning and management i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure 7.1 i s t y p i c a l •^Edwin W. Hauser, Leonard B. West, J r . , and A. Richard Sch le i cher , "Fundamental A i r P o l l u t i o n Considerations for Urban and Transportat ion P lanners , " T r a f f i c Quarterly, January 1972, p. 77. 156 of the various urban and r e g i o n a l planning d i s t r i c t s i n Canada (e.g. the Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t ) and the a i r resource management o f the Department of the Environment. Whereas t h i s approach has the b e n e f i t s of " l o c a l knowledge" I t s u f f e r s from j u r i s d i c t i o n a l d i f f i c u l t i e s and poor communication. The economies of scale of a more i n t e g r a t e d approach are apparent i n a i r p o r t p l a n n i n g , f o r example, where the knowledge gained i n one area can be used i n another. Figure 7»2 r e - arranges the components of Figure 7.1 to present a more i n t e g r a t e d approach t o a i r p o l l u t i o n problems. The t e c h n i c a l r o l e of government, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the data c o l l e c t i o n phase, u n d e r l i e s the s u c c e s s f u l f o r m u l a t i o n and implementation of en- vironmental p o l i c y . S p e c i f i c recommendations on the t e c h n i c a l r o l e of the Canadian government w i t h respect to environmental q u a l i t y and the a i r i n d u s t r y would include the f o l l o w i n g : 1. Through research grants and l i a i s o n w i t h i n d u s t r y e s t a b l i s h a sound t e c h n i c a l b a s i s f o r a Noise C o n t r o l Act of 1973 and a i r p o l l u t i o n standards f o r new types o f a i r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . 2. Increase involvement w i t h the community to determine the t e c h n i c a l f e a s i b i l i t y o f STOL/VTOL a i r c r a f t , as part of a long-range e v a l u a t i o n program. 3. P a r t i c i p a t e a c t i v e l y i n areas such as compatible land use near a i r p o r t s , two-segment l a n d i n g and reduced t h r u s t t a k e - o f f procedures f o r a i r c r a f t , and a p p l i c a - t i o n of s t a t e - o f - t h e - a r t technology f o r noise and a i r p o l l u t i o n abatement a s s o c i a t e d w i t h j e t engines. FIGURE 7.2 AN INTEGRATED APPROACH TO AIR POLLUTION PROBLEMS PHASE I - DATA COLLECTION PHASE II - FORMULATION PHASE III - IMPLEMENTATION PUBLIC POLICY P£SP\aNS£ & suppoer £N$/NeeA?/NG &4ISS/OA/S /NV£Mro*lY TXANSPOAfT GATA LoN$-gAN6E PLANNING POLICY PLAMlNQ AMBlCNT AtP QUALITY 6OALS loN6-PAN6£ Al* VS£ PLANS PLANNING EIHJCA T/ON *HottT-#AN6£ PSMGPfAL. MeAsuees 158 k. Continue e f for t s along the l i n e s of EZAIM (Ecology of the new Montreal Internat ional A i r p o r t area) to gather t echn ica l input to long-range planning. 5. Increased involvement i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y i n data c o l l e c t i o n and studies of long-term environmental e f fects of a i r t r a f f i c to insure that in te rna t iona l standards r e f l e c t environmental r e a l i t y rather than p o l i t i c a l power. 6. The i n s t i t u t i o n of a nationwide environmental education program based on t echn ica l f a c t s . 7.3 Economic Ro le—Interna l i z ing E x t e r n a l i t i e s The most important contr ibut ion the government could make to sound environmental qua l i ty management would be the e s t ab l i sh- ment of governmental p o l i c y d i rec ted toward an environmentally sophi s t i ca ted , responsive market system that would simultane- ous ly , and by d e f i n i t i o n , serve the diverse needs and goals of business and soc ie ty . The accomplishment of such a goal would require compensating government a c t i o n , " to in te rna l i ze the costs of environmental d e t e r i o r a t i o n . " In Chapter VI Mr. Ronald R i tch ie of Imperial O i l stressed the importance of " r u l e s , incent ive s , and pena l t ie s " which w i l l force producers and consumers to behave i n ways that are consistent with en- vironmental goals . J These rules and incentives need not imply a command economy approach; i n fact they can be appl ied Irv ing K. Fox, " P o l i c y Problems i n the F i e l d o f Water Resources" i n Water Research, ed . by A . V . Kneese and Stephen C. Smith (Balt imore, M d . : Johns Hopkins Press , 1966), p. 280. •^Ronald S. R i t c h i e , "The Corporation i n the World-To- Be" ( Indus t r i a l Relat ions Management Assoc ia t ion paper, Harr i son Hot Springs , B . C . , February 19, 197D , P. 11. 159 to the e x i s t i n g market system. By recognizing the f a i l i n g s of the market system v i s - a - v i s environmental goods, and working towards a so lu t ion based on i n t e r n a l change, the government can exert pressure to upgrade the system rather than abandoning i t . P o l i c i e s such as the issuance of p o l l u t i o n r ight s or other p r i c i n g schemes for environmental f a c t o r s 1 ^ are not without t h e i r problems, but they do indicate a d i r e c t i o n for govern- ment a c t i o n . Leonard Waverman reviews government's role as f o l l o w s : 1 7 The federa l and p r o v i n c i a l governments have introduced a multitude of f i s c a l p o l i c i e s — f i n e s , subs id ies , loans and tax incent ives—to induce firms and i n d i v i d - uals to l i m i t t h e i r p o l l u t i o n . Economists consider such instruments to be both less e f fec t ive and more c o s t l y than a system of pr ices for environmental f a c t o r s . The federa l government, appearing to heed economists' advice , incorporated into the Canada Water Act an e f f luent charge system—which was loud ly con- demned by p r o v i n c i a l governments and many c i v i c a n t i - p o l l u t i o n groups as a scheme of " l i cences to p o l l u t e " . In t h i s regard, " l i cences to p o l l u t e " remain, whether e x p l i c - i t l y recognized through an e f f luent charge system or t a c i t l y recognized by al lowing business and industry to operate equip- Much academic l i t e r a t u r e has discussed the benef i ts of i n s t i t u t i n g a p r i c i n g scheme for the environmental f ac tor s . See for example J . H . Dales, P o l l u t i o n . Property and Pr ices (Toronto, O n t . : U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press , 1968); A . V . Kneese and B . T . Bower, Managing Water Qual i ty : Economics, Technology, In s t i tu t ions (Baltimore, M d . : J o h n s Hopkins Press , 1968); and L . Waverman, " P o l l u t i o n : A Problem i n Economics" i n Canadian Economic Problems and P o l i c i e s , ed . by L . H . Of f i ce r and L . B . Smith (Toronto, O n t . : McGraw-Hill o f Canada L t d . , 1970). 1 7 L e o n a r d Waverman, " F i s c a l Instruments and P o l l u t i o n : An Eva lua t ion of Canadian L e g i s l a t i o n , " Canadian Tax Journa l . V o l . XVII I , No. 6, November-December 1970, p. 505. 160 ment that contributes to p o l l u t i o n . The establishment of r e a l - i s t i c e f f luent charges has two major advantages over tax -i o i n c e n t i v e s . They are d i r e c t and they are a pos i t ive step toward i n t e r n a l i z i n g e x t e r n a l i t i e s . 7 * k Economic Role—Degree of Regulation In Chapter VI the subject of regu la t ion was discussed from the point-of-view of business . A balance between regula- t i o n and competition was stressed as the best way of deal ing with the human environment. A r e a l i s t i c view of the process of governmental contro l i n the publ ic in teres t i s given by Berns te in , who s t a t e s : 1 9 The publ ic in te re s t i s served best when regu la t ion i s conceived as a v i t a l element i n the comprehensive r e l a - t ionsh ip between government and economy. It i s served worst when regu la t ion i s treated as a phenomenon which i s separable from the context of society and therefore unrelated to general notions about the proper re l a t ions between government and economic l i f e . The a t t i tude toward regu la t ion , as Bernste in points out , r e f l e c t s the degree to which i t i s accepted and the degree to which i t i s e f f e c t i v e . -] o The l i m i t a t i o n s of tax schemes are discussed by a number of economists. See for example: F . T . Dolbear, J r . , "On the Theory of Optimum E x t e r n a l i t y , " American Economic Review. V o l . LVI I , No. 1 , March 1967, PP. 90-103; and Paul R. McDaniel and Alan S. Kapl insky, "The Use of the Federal Income Tax System to Combat A i r and Water P o l l u t i o n : A Case Study i n Tax Expenditures ," i n Environmental A f f a i r s — 1 9 7 1 (Brighton, Mass. : Boston College Law School , 1 9 7 1 ) , p. 29. The benef i ts of a na t iona l p o l l u t i o n tax are d i s - cussed by Norman F . Ramsey, "We Need a P o l l u t i o n T a x i , " Science and Publ ic A f f a i r s . V o l . XXVI, No. k, A p r i l 1 9 7 0 , PP. 3 - 5 . 1 9 M a r v e r H . Berns te in , Regulating Business bv Inde- pendent Commission (Pr inceton, N . J . : Princeton U n i v e r s i t y Press , 1 9 6 6 ) , p. 2 8 1 . Some i n d i c a t i o n of the ro le of government v i s - a - v i s degree of regula t ion i s provided by a Fortune magazine survey conducted i n 1970. In t h i s survey 270 ch ie f executives of companies l i s t e d i n Fortune 1 s top 500 U .S . companies were in te r viewed on various aspects of the environment problem as i t af fected them as business leaders . The answers to the question "Would you l i k e to see federa l government step up i t s regula- tory a c t i v i t i e s , maintain them at present l e v e l s or cut them back?", were 57$ for "step up" , 29$ for "mainta in" , and 8$ for "cut back". In the t ransporta t ion sector there was a greater percentage i n favor of "cut back" due to present r egu la t ion ; however, the survey i s in te re s t ing as a guide. In Canada, one would estimate that the general trend would be quite s i m i l a r , and that a i r l i n e companies would seek regu la t ion to provide consis tent standards concerning allowable a i r and noise p o l l u - t i o n l e v e l s . 7.5 S o c i a l Role—Planning and Educat ion In Chapter I I , I re ferred to Yannacone's "fundamental statements of f a c t " , which were: 20 R.S. Diamond, "The Environment—What Business Thinks About I t s , " Fortune. 1970, pp. 55-60. 2 1 M . Ways, "The Environment—How to Think About the Environment," Fortune. 1970, p. 211. 22 V i c t o r J . Yannacone, J r . , " A v i a t i o n and the Law" i n Master Planning the A v i a t i o n Environment (Tucson, Ar i zona : U n i v e r s i t y of Arizona Press , 1970). 162 The a i r t r ave le r i s ent i t led—as a matter of absolute r i ght—to the safest possible f l i g h t which the s tate- of- the-ar t i n modern a v i a t i o n technology i s capable of p rov id ing . The homeowner and the man on the s treet are e n t i t l e d to protect ion from the hazards of a i r c r a f t operations. One of government's ro les i s to meet the c o n f l i c t i n g needs of s o c i e t y . In the case c i t e d above, Yannacone suggests an " e c o l o g i c a l l y sophi s t i ca ted , s o c i a l l y re levant , p o l i t i c a l l y 23 f e a s i b l e , l e g a l l y supportable a i rpor t zoning law." J The comprehensive plan i s the essence of zoning. As soon as one thinks of zoning, one n a t u r a l l y thinks of the s o c i a l needs of the people l i v i n g , or to be l i v i n g , i n a p a r t i c u l a r area . Un- l i k e most p o l l u t i o n abatement p o l i c i e s such as taxat ion and e f f luent charges, zoning i s s p e c i f i c to l o c a t i o n . A general o v e r a l l view i s not acceptable; cons iderat ion of spec i f i c areas , s i t u a t i o n s , and people i s necessary as input to noise zoning laws. Although zoning i s not the complete answer to a i r p o r t planning i t does point out the role of government as a planner. One of the most recent examples of poor planning was the f edera l handling of the proposed runway expansion at Vancouver Internat iona l A i r p o r t . Mr. Alex F i s h e r , expropr ia t ion o f f i c e r at the Sea Island hearings under the federa l Expropr ia t ion Act summarized the complaints voiced by the objectors who attended 2k the hear ing. They inc luded : 2 3 I b i d . 2k- B i l l Bachop, "The Government hasn't done i t s homework: Why Ottawa has shunned a i rpor t hear ing , " The Vancouver Sun. February 15, 1973, P. 6. 163 1. The government's f a i l u r e to appear at the hear ing. 2. A lack of communication. Nothing of consequence was supplied by the government as to i t s plans u n t i l three days before the hearings began. 3. F a i l u r e of the government to present long-term plans or studies r e l a t i n g to the p h y s i c a l , s o c i o l o g i c a l or en- vironmental e f fec t s of the expansion. k. Piece-meal a c q u i s i t i o n of property and a f a i l u r e to maintain acquired proper t ie s , leading to a breakdown of community values . There appears to be j u s t i f i c a t i o n for a l l of these object ions . On the other hand, the federa l government's planning e f for t s at Ste . Scholastique have been e x c e l l e n t . I t appears that a s o c i a l role for government i s to give equal and responsible treatment to a l l projects under i t s j u r i s d i c t i o n . F i n a l l y , one of the most important s o c i a l ro le s for government i s i n the f i e l d of environmental education. Although some sectors of industry have provided t e l e v i s i o n pro- grams and other mass media exposure to the problems of the en- vironmental p lanning, a more integrated approach i s required . As mentioned e a r l i e r , present and future leaders i n government and industry need environmental facts to make dec i s ions . Soc ie ty , i n general , needs these facts to understand the reasons why c e r t a i n p o l i c i e s are adopted. Education underl ies the ent i re problem of understanding the human environment and i s the most c r i t i c a l factor i n planning for the future . I6h 7.6 Summary A s t r u c t u r a l reworking of the l e g i s l a t i v e framework i n Canada i s long overdue. Due i n part to the l i m i t a t i o n s of j u r i s d i c t i o n imposed by the outdated B r i t i s h North America A c t , the role of government i n the problems of the human environment has been extremely weak. In add i t ion to s t r u c t u r a l change, the role of government could be v a s t l y improved through an o v e r a l l environmental management program. A structure based on phys i ca l rather than p o l i t i c a l boundaries i s suggested, with t e c h n i c a l involvement i n areas of research, community planning, environmental education and in te rna t iona l environmental pro- grams. The new role of government should a lso include a system- a t i c plan for i n t e r n a l i z i n g e x t e r n a l i t i e s associated with noise and a i r p o l l u t i o n , and an emphasis on e c o l o g i c a l l y s o p h i s t i - cated zoning near a i r p o r t s . Environmental education i s the key to the future and the government must dominate t h i s f i e l d . The task of meeting the demands of the human environment necess i tates strong publ ic p o l i c y and increased publ ic r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of government. 165 CHAPTER VIII CONCLUSIONS 8.1 Linkages, Feedback, and the Human Environment The re l a t ionsh ip between a i r t ransporta t ion and the human environment can best be described as a complex system. Thomas W. Thompson et a l . suggest tha t , "The basic cause of the environmental problems facing society today i s a lack of appre- c i a t i o n and understanding of the l inkages e x i s t i n g between the phys i ca l and the s o c i a l environments."'' ' In t h e i r exce l l ent a r t i c l e , "B iophys ica l Environment and Human Behavior : L ink- ages and Feedback Systems", they show a progression from an "unrestra ined market" model (Figure 8.1), to an "agency c o n t r o l " model (Figure 8.2), to an "economics versus environment" model (Figure 8.3), and f i n a l l y to an " integrated" model (Figure 8.h). In terms of progress we are somewhere between the "agency c o n t r o l " model (with great power i n the hands of regulatory agencies) and the "economics versus environment" model (which e n t a i l s balancing the value of economic a c t i v i t y against environmental q u a l i t y ) . Thompson et a l . indicate the "'"Thomas W. Thompson, A l l e n E . Bedrosian, James E . B e r r y , and James W. Kolka , "B iophys ica l Environment and Human Behavior : Linkages and Feedback Systems," i n Environmental Quality and S o c i a l R e s p o n s i b i l i t y , ed . by R.S. Khare, J .W. Kolka , and C . A . P o l l i s (Green Bay, W i s e . : U n i v e r s i t y of Wisconsin , 1972), pp. 53-9+. 2 I b i d . , pp. 53-57. FIGURE 8.1 THE "UNRESTRAINED MARKET" APPROACH 166 wtoee GOOOS * s e r v i c e s -VM6« F e w e e 6000s * FIGURE 8.2 THE "AGENCY CONTROL" APPROACH LE6AL OIAN66 QUAurY AGency * | 0IOLO6t\ N ' - 4cr/t<4/-y Source: T.W. Thompson, A . E . Bedrosian, J . E . Berry and J.W. Kolka , "B iophys ica l Environment and Human Behavior: Linkages and Feedback Systems," i n Environmental Quality and S o c i a l R e s p o n s i b i l i t y , ed. by R.S. Khare, J.W. Kolka, and C . A . P o l l i s (Green Bay, W i s e : Un iver s i ty of Wisconsin, 1972),pp.51"-, 55. 167 FIGURE 8.3 THE "ECONOMICS VERSUS ENVIRONMENT" APPROACH FIGURE 8 . k AN "INTEGRATED" APPROACH Source: T.W. Thompson, A . E . Bedrosian, J . E . Berry and J.W. Kolka , "B iophys ica l Environment and Human Behavior : Linkages and Feedback Systems," i n Environmental Quality and S o c i a l R e s p o n s i b i l i t y , ed . by R.S. Khare, J.W. Kolka , and C.A. P o l l i s (Green Bay, W i s e . : U n i v e r s i t y of Wisconsin, 1972), pp. 56, 57. 1 6 8 major drawbacks of the "economics versus environment" approach as f o l l o w s : 3 1 . The model . . . puts economic wel l-being against en- vironmental q u a l i t y . The model f a i l s to recognize that negative l inkages ex i s t between long-range economic health and de ter iora t ing environmental q u a l i t y . 2 . I t f a i l s to in te rna l i ze many c r u c i a l economic d i s - services and externa l costs which tend to appear a f ter the elapse of t ime, or at locat ions remote from the o r i g i n of the environmental i n s u l t . 3. The model . . . regards p o l i t i c a l and l e g a l factors as r i g i d constra ints rather than i n t e g r a l , h ighly mutable parts of a un i f i ed system, i t s e l f regulated by environmental cons t ra int s . k. The model views the dec i s ion as being a yes-no type . . . By f a i l i n g to take into account the i n f i n i t e v a r i e t y of management a l t e rna t ives that e x i s t respecting the use of a given resource, the model, while i t allows society to react to s i t u a t i o n s , f a i l s to provide the tool s necessary for planning the future . The proposal which Thompson et a l . make, shown i n Figure 8.H-, i i s a model which recognizes that , " re l a t ionsh ips . . . can and do e x i s t between the natura l environment, economic a c t i v i t y and l e g a l / p o l i t i c a l f o r c e s . " The " integrated" model d i f f e r s from the other models shown i n Figures 8 . 1 , 8 , 2 , and 8 . 3 i n the fo l lowing respects : 1 . Legal and p o l i t i c a l forces are i n t e g r a l parts of a t o t a l system. 2 . The model i n s i s t s that economic e x t e r n a l i t i e s and d i s - services can be measured and that environmental degra- dat ion can be defined i n concrete terms rather than on the vague basis of aes thet ic s . I b i d . , p . 5 6 . I b i d . 169 3. By integra t ing the e f for t s of economics, l e g a l / p o l i t i c a l and b io-phys ica l /chemica l inves t i ga tor s , the model pro- duces a v a r i e t y of management a l te rnat ives rather than a s ingle yes-no dec i s ion . The in terac t ions shown i n Thompson et a l . ' s " integrated" model are complex and even more var iables are l i k e l y to be added i n the future ; however, t h e i r conclusion i s sound. They conclude tha t , "Without a model which considers the re l a t ionsh ips and feedback loops . . . def ined, i t w i l l be impossible to ask the questions necessary to the formulation of meaningful management s t rategies based on sound and complete predic t ive informat ion . " In Chapter I , I out l ined a conceptual framework for ana lys i s and stressed the importance of a "macro" or s o c i a l system approach to a i r t ransporta t ion and the human environ- ment. In some areas we have progressed toward th i s goa l , and have incorporated some of the feedback loops suggested by Thompson et a l . into our approach to environmental management and planning. In other areas we are unquestionably slow. The s o l u t i o n to the problem of accommodating the human environment i n our decision-making process, e i ther business or government, i s the a b i l i t y to move away from the narrow i n s t i t u t i o n a l framework and question basic premises rather than accepting them as l i m i t a t i o n s or cont ro l s . 8.2 Recommendations for Future Act ion The fo l lowing recommendations are intended as guide- l i n e s for future industry and government a c t i o n . They sum- marize the major points made i n t h i s t h e s i s : 1. A s o c i a l system approach, which recognizes in terac t ions and feedback i n the s o c i a l , economic, and p o l i t i c a l environment, i s required for an understanding of a i r t ransporta t ion and the human environment. 2. A revised and e f fect ive l e g a l structure consistent with the state of technology i n 1973. This would inc lude : (a) A 1973 Noise Contro l A c t . (b) Revis ion of the B r i t i s h North America A c t . (c) S t ruc tura l changes i n environmental j u r i s d i c t i o n based on e c o l o g i c a l , rather than p o l i t i c a l , boundaries. (d) The Federa l Government "carry ing the b a l l " on environmental i s sues . 3. Increased e f for t s on an in te rna t iona l l e v e l concerning environmental q u a l i t y , inc luding a leading role i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l p o l l u t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n . h. Government/industry cooperation i n the formation of reasonable standards and i n t echnica l programs. 5. Increased research grants for environmental studies on compatible land use, inner space technology, and environmental monitoring. 6. Increased governmental spending on p o l l u t i o n abatement to r ea l i ze the benefits o f better na t iona l hea l th . 7. A revised market system which would in te rna l i ze p o l l u - t i o n costs and recognize environmental goods as scarce resources. 8. A program of environmentale ducation at the elementary school l e v e l to increase environmental awareness and understanding. 9. S t r u c t u r a l change to f i t the organizat ion and i t s c a p a b i l i t i e s to the task environment. Spec i f i c recog- n i t i o n of the human environment as a var iable i n de c i s ion-making. 10. Broader publ ic duties for industry . Cooperation with government i n the formation of non-technical standards and l e g i s l a t i o n . 11. A f e d e r a l l y coordinated environmental management program that f i t s i t s structure to the task, i s responsive to the human environment, and i s responsible to soc ie ty . 8.3 C los ing Remarks The answer as to whether or not a i r t ransporta t ion and the human environment can co-exis t i n the future i s based on man's ingenuity and a b i l i t y to adapt. Resolut ion of the environmental issues of the sonic boom and inadvertent climate mod i f i ca t ion , i n p a r t i c u l a r , must precede large-scale commer- c i a l SST t r a f f i c . The l e v e l of technology exhib i ted i n man's conquest of the Moon indicates that properly channeled e f f o r t , w i t h i n a closed system rather than an open system, could solve a i r t ranspor ta t ion ' s t echnica l problems. The s o c i a l problems, which involve in tegra t ion of the needs of various groups into a common d i r e c t i o n , are the most d i f f i c u l t but are not insur- mountable. The economic problems can be solved provided that the market system can be adapted to r e f l e c t the true value of environmental goods. The a i r t ransporta t ion industry can be compatible with the l i m i t a t i o n s of the human environment; however, only through considerable e f for t s by business , industry , and the p u b l i c . 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" Journal of A i r Law and Commerce. XXV (1958). Sawyer, R . F . "Reducing Jet P o l l u t i o n Before I t Becomes Se r ious . " Astronaut ics and Aeronaut ics . V I I I , No. k (1970), 62-^71 S t e i n , Stanley S. "Environmental Control and Di f ferent Levels of Governments." Canadian Publ ic Admini s t ra t ion . XIV, No. 2 (Spring 197l), 129-lM^. Tinney, E . Roy and Parkes, J . G . Michael . "Enhancing the Quality of the Environment: Current Federa l L e g i s l a - t i o n and Programs." Habi ta t , V I I I , No. 5 & 6 (1970), l k - 2 k . 1&+ Waverman, Leonard. " F i s c a l Instruments and P o l l u t i o n : An Eva lua t ion of Canadian L e g i s l a t i o n . " Canadian Tax Journa l . XVIII (1970), 505-513. E . Magazines A u s t i n , Robert W. "Code of Conduct for Execut ives . " Harvard Business Review. September-October, 1961, pp. 53-61. B r i e h i , D a n i e l . " A i r P o l l u t i o n . " America. May 17, 1969, pp. 8 k-91. Bruce, Donald. "Noise P o l l u t i o n . " B . C . Motor i s t , January- February, 1973, P. 31. Cramer, R ichard . "The A i r l i n e s Speak." Environmental Qual i ty , February, 1973, pp. 19-26,73. Diamond, R.S. "The Environment—What Business Thinks About I t s . " Fortune. 1970, pp. 55-6 k. Donley, Roy. "Community Noise Regula t ion . " Sound and V i b r a - t i o n , February, 1969. "~ F u l l e r , L o u i s . "As I See I t . " Forbes . December 15, 1969. Gieber t , Ken. "Transportat ion and the Environment." Seaports and the Shipping World. J u l y , 1972, pp. k 2 - k 9 . Hauser, Edwin W. ; West, Leonard B . , J r . ; and Sch le icher , A. Richard . "The Fundamental A i r P o l l u t i o n Considerations for Urban and Transportat ion Planners . " T r a f f i c Quarterly, January, 1972, pp. 71-8 k . Howes, Helen C. " P o l l u t i o n : Carefu l Plans and Firm A c t i o n . " Canadian Business . A p r i l , 1971, PP. 30-36,55. Levasseur, P ierre J . " A v i a t i o n and the Human Environment, Land-Use Planning Protects A i r p o r t and Community." ICAO B u l l e t i n . A p r i l , 1972. McLeod, Duncan. " P o l l u t i o n : Its New Dimensions for Bus iness . " Canadian Business . March, 1971, pp. 32-36. M i l l e r , I rwin. "Business Has a War to W i n . " Harvard Business Review, M a r c h - A p r i l , 1969, p . 8. S i n c l a i r , Sonja. "The New Economics of P o l l u t i o n . " Canadian Business . November, 1971. 185 Sutton, Horace. "Is the SST Rea l ly Necessary?" Saturday Review, August 15, 1970. Towler, John and Nonken, Haro ld . "Education for S u r v i v a l . " Environmental Qual i ty , February, 1973, pp. 36-38,7 k . Ways, M. "The Environment—How to Think About the Env i ron- ment." Fortune, 1970, pp. 195-220. F . Newspapers Bachop, B i l l . "Noise No Problem, A i r p o r t Foes T o l d . " Vancouver Sun. February 13, 1973. "The Government Hasn't Done Its Homework: Why Ottawa Has Shunned A i r p o r t Hear ing . " Vancouver SunT February 15, 1973. B i r d , David . "Rick les Asks Noise Limits to Ban Jets from C i t y . " New York Times. December 30, 1970. C l a r k , E v e r t . "Noise C a l l e d Bar to New A i r p o r t s . " New York Times. October 5, 1967. Committee of Concerned C i t i z e n s . "Save Your Environment." Vancouver, B . C . , February 5, 1973 (Mimeographed). Fainsworth, Clyde H. "Conference on Sonic Boom Told Noise Can ' t Be Designed Away." New York Times. February k , 1970. Farnsworth, " O . E . C . D . W i l l Set P o l l u t i o n L i m i t s . " New York Times, February 19, 1970. Lindsey, Robert. "FAA Acts to Cut Noise of J e t l i n e r s . " New York Times. November 13, 1969. Vancouver Sun. " A i r p o r t Goof D i s c l o s e d . " January 16, 1973. . "Clean A i r B i l l Challenged as A n t i - P o l l u t i o n Weapon." February 20, 1971. . "Surrey Blames P u b l i c , Few Anti-Noise Laws Found." March 6, 1973. 186 G. Lectures and Papers Beare, John B. "Investment P o l i c i e s and Economic S t a b i l i z a t i o n P o l i c i e s : A Case Study of Transport.*" Paper presented at the U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto, York U n i v e r s i t y Jo int Program i n Transportat ion, Toronto, 1969. Diamant, E . S . "Ear th Transportat ion Macro Systems." One lec ture i n a ser ies on Macro Systems, Analys i s and Synthesis of Complex Systems, presented at the U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a Extens ion, San Franc i sco , C a l i f o r n i a , F a l l 1968. Hansen, John and S t u s s i , Robert. "Noise and the Urban E n v i r o n - ment . " An Occasional Student Paper. The Center for Trans- por ta t ion Studies , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B . C . , 1972. Keenleyside, Hugh. "The Stockholm Conference on the E n v i r o n - ment: An Assessment." One i n a ser ies of Westwater lec tures presented at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B . C . , January 26, 1973. Lev ien , Roger E . "The Economic Side of Systems." One lecture i n a ser ies on Macro Systems, Analvs ig and Synthesis of Complex Systems, presented at the U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a Extens ion , San Franc i sco , C a l i f o r n i a , F a l l 1968. R i t c h i e , Ronald S. "The Corporation i n the World-To-Be." Paper presented to the I n d u s t r i a l Relat ions Manage- ment As soc i a t ion , Harr i son Hot Springs , B . C . , February 19, 1971. Ruppenthal, K a r l M. "Problems of A i r c r a f t Noise and Exhaust . " Facu l ty of Commerce and Business Admini s t ra t ion , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B . C . , 1972 (Mimeographed).

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