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Intra-metropolitan office location : an examination of land and building costs as criteria in the decision… Greenwood, David 1973

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INTRA-METROPOLITAN OFFICE LOCATION -AN EXAMINATION OF LAND AND BUILDING COSTS AS CRITERIA IN THE DECISION TO LOCATE OFFICES by DAVID GREENWOOD Diploma i n General Surveying, Portsmouth Polytechnic, 1970 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION (URBAN LAND ECONOMICS) i n the Department of Commerce and Business Administration We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA July, 1973 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree tha t permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission. David Greenwood Department of COMMERCE AND BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date J u l y , 1973 ( i ) THESIS ABSTRACT Thi s t h e s i s reviews o f f i c e l o c a t i o n as a f a c e t of urban s p a t i a l arrangements. An a n a l y t i c a l framework i s presented w i t h i n which o f f i c e l o c a t o r s may assess the s u i t -a b i l i t y of a l t e r n a t i v e l o c a t i o n s f o r the f u r t h e r a n c e of o f f i c e a c t i v i t y . P a r t i c u l a r l y , t h i s t h e s i s i s concerned with o f f i c e l o c a t i o n c r i t e r i a i n v o l v e d i n the d e c i s i o n to l o c a t e o f f i c e s i n an i n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n c o n t e x t . L o c a t i o n f a c t o r s are made e x p l i c i t w i t h l a n d and b u i l d i n g c o s t s subjected to extensive a n a l y s i s . R e l a t i o n s h i p s are hypothesized between land values and c o n s t r u c t i o n c o s t s of o f f i c e premises and the l o c a t i o n of those premises across the m e t r o p o l i t a n r e g i o n . Regression and comparative analyses are u t i l i z e d to t e s t and determine the s i g n i f i c a n c e of these hypotheses. A l l data r e l a t e t o the Greater Vancouver Region. T h i s study concludes f i r s t l y t h a t there i s no l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t adequately d e s c r i b e s or p r e d i c t s changes i n assessed land values and c o n s t r u c t i o n c o s t s per u n i t area of net r e n t a b l e o f f i c e f l o o r space. Secondly, c o n s t r -u c t i o n c o s t s per square f o o t of net r e n t a b l e f l o o r space are s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r a t c e n t r a l c i t y l o c a t i o n s as op-posed to suburban l o c a t i o n s . T h i r d l y , t h a t there i s an i n s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n assessed l a n d values per ( i i ) square foot of net rentable o f f i c e f l o o r space as between c e n t r a l c i t y and suburban s i t e s . I f assessed land values are a f a i r i n d i c a t o r of r e l a t i v e market value of o f f i c e s i t e s then i t i s implied that there i s an i n s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n t i a l i n market values, and subsequently the cost of land, per.square foot of net rentable o f f i c e f l o o r space. ( i i i ) TABLE OF CONTENTS Page THESIS ABSTRACT ( i ) LIST OF TABLES (v) LIST OF FIGURES ( v i ) ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ( v i i ) CHAPTER 1 1.1 OBJECTIVE OF THESIS 1 1.2 STRUCTURE OF THESIS 2 1.3 MOTIVATION FOR AND SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY OF OFFICE LOCATION PRACTICES 3 1.4 PURPOSE OF STUDYING URBAN SPATIAL ARRAN GEMENTS 8 1.5 LITERATURE REVIEW 10 CHAPTER 2 2.1 APPROACH TO THE STUDY OF OFFICE LOCATION PRACTICE 15 2.2 BASIC POSTULATION 15 2.3 DEFINITIONS.. • 16 2.4 STATEMENT AND DISCOURSE ON OFFICE LOCATION RATIONALE 19 2.5 DELINEATION OF LOCATION VARIABLES FOR FURTHER ANALYSIS 25 2.6 SUB-HYPOTHESES 28 CHAPTER 3 3.1 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 44 .2 DATA MANIPULATI N 52 ( i v ) Page 3.3 TENTATIVE CONCLUSIONS 60 3 A AREAS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH 65 CHAPTER 4 CONCLUSIONS 67 FOOTNOTES 72 BIBLIOGRAPHY 76 APPENDIX A 78 APPENDIX B 86 APPENDIX C 90 (v) LIST OF TABLES Page TABLE I TABLE SHOWING INTERTRADE WAGE DIFFERENTIALS IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY FOR THE VANCOUVER REGION FOR THE YEARS 1963 AND 1971 32 TABLE II TABLE SHOWING BUILDING HEIGHTS AND NET RENTABLE SQUARE FOOTAGE OF OFFICES BY LOCATION 36 TABLE III TABLE SHOWING COMPOSITION OF SAMPLE BY LOCATION 45 TABLE IV COMPARATIVE CONSTRUCTION COST STATISTICS FOR SUBURBAN AND CENTRAL CITY OFFICE LOCATIONS.... 56 TABLE V COMPARATIVE ASSESSED LAND VALUE STATISTICS FOR SUBURBAN AND CENTRAL CITY OFFICE LOCATIONS 57 TABLE VI CONSTRUCTION COSTS BY METHOD OF CONSTRUCTION AND STOREY HEIGHT FOR THE GREATER VANCOUVER REGION 63 ( v i ) LIST OF FIGURES Pag FIGURE 1. SCHEMATIC OF THESIS STRUCTURE... FIGURE 2. GRAPH SHOWING LOG OF FLOOR SPACE RATIO REGRESSED AGAINST DISTANCE FOR OFFICES ACROSS THE GREATER VANCOUVER REGION FIGURE 3. GRAPH SHOWING COMMERCIAL LAND VALUES - DOWNTOWN VANCOUVER FIGURE 4. GRAPH SHOWING UNIT CONSTRUCTION COSTS REGRESSED AGAINST DISTANCE FROM THE URBAN CENTRE FIGURE 5. GRAPH SHOWING UNIT ASSESSED LAND VALUES REGRESSED AGAINST DISTANCE FROM THE URBAN CENTRE FIGURE 6. GRAPH SHOWING FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF CONSTRUCTION COSTS PER SQUARE FOOT OF NET RENTABLE FLOOR SPACE FIGURE 7. GRAPH SHOWING FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF ASSESSED LAND VALUES PER SQUARE FOOT OF NET RENTABLE FLOOR SPACE ( v i i ) ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I wish to acknowledge the a s s i s t a n c e of Dr. M.A. Goldberg, as my committee chairman, f o r h i s encouragement i n t h i s t a s k . My g r a t i t u d e and thanks go a l s o t o Dr. S.W. Hamilton f o r h i s c o n s t r u c t i v e advice and a s s i s t a n c e over the y e a r s , to David Lach f o r h i s a i d i n programming data, to David Baxter f o r t a k i n g the t r o u b l e to read and comment upon the d r a f t and t o John and Marian Buckley who made i t a l l p o s s i b l e . A l l e r r o r s and omissions remain my r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . -1-CHAPTER 1 1.1 OBJECTIVE OF THESIS: A primary o b j e c t i v e of t h i s t h e s i s i s to present an a n a l y t i c a l framework w i t h i n which the l o c a t o r s of o f f i c e s may assess the d e s i r a b i l i t y and s u i t a b i l i t y of a l t e r n a t i v e l o c a t i o n s f o r o f f i c e a c t i v i t y . The paper d e l i n e a t e s those f a c t o r s which i n f l u e n c e the d e c i s i o n to l o c a t e o f f i c e s i n an i n t r a - m e t r o p o l i t a n context. I t i s a f u r t h e r o b j e c t i v e to t e s t the s i g n i f i c a n c e of c e r t a i n c r i t e r i a perceived to be contained i n the d e c i s i o n to l o c a t e o f f i c e s . Data f o r the Greater Vancouver Region i s presented to t e s t hypotheses r e l a t e d to s e l e c t e d l o c a t i o n v a r i a b l e s . In a d d i t i o n to the above primary o b j e c t i v e s i t i s a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t t h i s t h e s i s w i l l provide an improved under-standing of the d e c i s i o n process i n v o l v e d i n the l o c a t i o n of o f f i c e s together w i t h an a p p r e c i a t i o n of the s i g n i f i c a n c e of o f f i c e a c t i v i t y as a user of urban l a n d . F u r t h e r i t i s hoped t h a t a b e t t e r understanding of the urban s t r u c t u r e r e s u l t s together w i t h an a p p r e c i a t i o n of those f a c t o r s t h a t may or may not induce the d i s p e r s a l of o f f i c e a c t i v i t y w i t h i n a m e t r o p o l i t a n area. -2-1.2 STRUCTURE OF THESIS The f o l l o w i n g schematic i n d i c a t e s the s t r u c t u r e of t h i s t h e s i s . FURTHER RESEARCH THESIS OBJECTIVE T MAJOR HYPOTHESIS I V l =9 V 2 OFFICE LOCATION VARIABLES I V n SUB HYPOTHESIS RE. CONSTRUC-TION COSTS SUB HYPOTHESIS RE. LAND COSTS MEASURE - TEST- INFERENCE MENT ING INFERENCE TEST- —^ MEASURE-ING MENT TENTATIVE CONCLUSIONS FIGURE 1 - SCHEMATIC OF THESIS STRUCTURE -3 -1.3 MOTIVATION FOR AND SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY OF OFFICE LOCATION PRACTICES! I t i s evide n t , when stu d y i n g urban s p a t i a l arrange-ments, t h a t o f f i c e a c t i v i t y has been s e r i o u s l y neglected as a user of urban l a n d . Other land uses w i t h i n the metrop o l i t a n area have r e c e i v e d p a r t i a l , i f s t i l l inadequate, treatment through a n a l y s i s and the propagation of t h e o r i e s t h a t seek to e x p l a i n and presumably guide the l o c a t i o n of those a c t i v i t i e s . I n d u s t r i a l l o c a t i o n has been subjected to a n a l y s i s d a t i n g from Weber ( 1 ) , S i m i l a r l y , r e t a i l a c t i v i t y has been s t u d i e d from the p r e c i s e geometry of Losch (2) and C h r i s t a l l e r (3) through t o Huff ( 4 ) , The t h i r d branch of the economic t r i n i t y i n v o l v e d i n the p r o d u c t i o n of goods and s e r v i c e s , o f f i c e s , has y et t o be s e r i o u s l y explored. I t i s suggested t h a t the dearth of l i t e r a t u r e d e a l i n g w i t h o f f i c e l o c a t i o n may be a t t r i b u t e d to the i n a b i l i t y of ' t h e o r i s t s ' to submit to l e s s s o p h i s t i c a t e d t o o l s of a n a l y s i s i n p r o v i d i n g an approach to o f f i c e l o c a t i o n p r a c t i c e s . The i n a b i l i t y t o u t i l i z e complex mathematical and economic t o o l s t o understand t h i s l a nd use and subsequently to misunderstand the importance of the area as a f a c e t of urban s p a t i a l arrange-ments, i s no doubt a r e f l e c t i o n of the complex nature of o f f i c e a c t i v i t y . O f f i c e use i s not r e a d i l y capable of being l i n k e d to c o s t s of f a c t o r i n p u t s , p r o d u c t i o n processes and f a c t o r outputs. The nature of work undertaken i n o f f i c e s d e f i e s such neat c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . I t i s extremely d i f f i c u l t to impute d o l l a r values and subsequent ' s o p h i s t i c a t e d * f o r m u l a t i o n s to the q u a l i t y of d e c i s i o n s and ideas t h a t emanate from o f f i c e a c t i v i t y . The s u i t a b i l i t y of such i n p u t s as i d e a s , innova-t i o n s and d e c i s i o n s are measured, a t the b e s t , by the continued e x i s t e n c e and s u r v i v a l of the i n d i v i d u a l f i r m . F u r t h e r i t i s d i f f i c u l t to guage the d i f f e r e n c e i n q u a l i t y of such processes a t a l t e r n a t i v e l o c a t i o n s . I n a d d i t i o n to the d e s i r e t o see t h i s area of study advanced f o r academic s a t i s f a c t i o n there i s the f u r t h e r d e s i r e to a p p r e c i a t e the e f f e c t of o f f i c e a c t i v i t y upon the p h y s i c a l urban environment. Although o f f i c e a c t i v i t y does not, i n i t s e l f , occupy a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of the t o t a l a v a i l -a b l e urban land s u r f a c e , the a n c i l l i a r y problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the p r o v i s i o n of t h a t space are e x t e n s i v e , w i t h i m p l i c a -t i o n s f o r many other aspects of urban e x i s t e n c e . The problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the c e n t r a l i z i n g of economic a c t i v i t y i n urban areas are p a r t i c u l a r l y important. I t i s contended t h a t time should be taken to consider the d e s i r a b i l i t y of agglomerating o f f i c e users w i t h i n c e n t r a l areas of c i t i e s and to assess the s u i t a b i l i t y of a l t e r n a t i v e s o l u t i o n s t o the l o c a t i o n of o f f i c e a c t i v i t y w i t h i n the metro-p o l i t a n area. U n t i l the present time, an a t t i t u d e of ' l a i s s e z f a i r e ' appears to have been the aphorism employed by those agencies vested w i t h power of d i r e c t i n g o f f i c e -5-l o c a t i o n . A l a c k of understanding of the l o c a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of i n d i v i d u a l o f f i c e users has probably-tended to r e i n f o r c e t h i s a t t i t u d e . The d e c i s i o n s of those employed i n the a c t u a l l o c a t i o n of o f f i c e s are oft e n no b e t t e r . Although l o c a t o r s may consider themselves adept i n d e c i d i n g the l o c a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l o f f i c e b u i l d i n g s they appear t o t a l l y i n e p t at understanding and a p p r e c i a t i n g the conse-quences of t h e i r d e c i s i o n s elsewhere upon the urban system. The c u r r e n t approach to c e n t r a l c i t y problems r e f l e c t s no more than delayed r e a c t i o n s to u n d e r l y i n g economic f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n the c r e a t i o n of urban areas. As l o n g as the r e a c t i o n s are a f t e r the p r o v e r b i a l horse has b o l t e d t h e r e w i l l be a m a g n i f i c a t i o n and compounding of problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c e n t r a l c i t y areas. In ' s o l v i n g * c u r r e n t problems of the urban core, s o c i e t y i s i n d u c i n g f u r t h e r prob-lems, w h i l e a t the same time o b l i t e r a t i n g any remaining options a v a i l a b l e , t h a t would a l l o w l o n g term s o l u t i o n s f o r the advancement of our urbanized s o c i e t y . In order to reduce the a b s t r a c t i o n s o f the problems i n v o l v e d i n l o c a t i n g o f f i c e s at the centre of c i t i e s , i t i s necessary t o punctuate t h i s d i s c u s s i o n w i t h examples of the types of problems encountered. Two b a s i c types of problems, a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c o n c e n t r a t i n g economic a c t i v i t y a t the centre o f c i t i e s , are i d e n t i f i e d ! those problems of an economic order -6-and those of a s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l nature. Economic problems centre f i r s t l y upon the p u b l i c t r e a s u r y and secondly upon t h a t group of s o c i e t y employed i n c e n t r a l areas. In support of c e n t r a l i z e d a c t i v i t y , a f t e r acknowledging i t s e x i s t e n c e and growth, s o c i e t y i s c o n s t a n t l y engaged i n f o r a y s i n t o the p u b l i c f i s c to provide improved access to those c e n t r a l areas, to provide i n f r a s t r u c t u r e and to maintain i t . For t h a t group of persons employed i n the downtown area there i s the economic cost of commuting from p l a c e of d o m i c i l e , t y p i c a l l y the suburbs, to place of employ-ment. Although some i n d i v i d u a l s may d e r i v e a psychic income from s i t t i n g i n t h e i r cars on s i x lane freeways, i t i s suggested t h a t the m a j o r i t y would p r e f e r a reduced working day. Those problems of a s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l nature r e v o l v e around environmental problems of p o l l u t i o n and the decay assoc-i a t e d w i t h intense a c t i v i t y w i t h i n c e n t r a l c i t y cores. P r o p e r t y taxes d e r i v e d from in t e n s e commercial a c t i v i t y i n c e n t r a l c i t y cores are a p o l i t i c a l stumbling blocks m u n i c i p a l i t i e s enjoy the revenues obtained from commercial a c t i v i t y to s u b s i d i z e the r e s i d e n t i a l t ax burden. In a d d i t i o n to those known consequences of l o c a t i n g economic a c t i v i t y , n o t a b l y o f f i c e s , at the centre of c i t i e s , there are the unknown, yet a p p r e c i a b l e consequences of the e f f e c t of such l o c a t i o n s on the s p a t i a l arrangement of other -7-land u s e r s . One i s p a r t i c u l a r l y concerned w i t h r e s i d e n t i a l , r e t a i l and perhaps r e c r e a t i o n a l users. I f urban areas experience growth i n o f f i c e a c t i v i t y , t h a t growth i m p l i e s i n c r e a s e d employment. Employees i n t u r n r e q u i r e accommodation. S o l u t i o n s to the problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the c e n t r a l i z i n g of o f f i c e f u n c t i o n s i n urban areas are not e v i -dent. In seeking a l t e r n a t i v e s to c o n c e n t r a t i n g a c t i v i t y i n c e n t r a l areas, to a l l e v i a t e the problems o u t l i n e d above, two approaches are d e l i n e a t e d . The f i r s t approach, which i s c o n c e p t u a l l y f e a s i b l e , i n v o l v e s a l l o c a t i n g and charging s o c i a l c o s t s i n v o l v e d a t downtown l o c a t i o n s to the users of such l o c a t i o n s . To induce d i s p e r s a l such s o c i a l c o s t s would need to be g r e a t e r than any s o c i a l c o s t s determined a t a l t e r n a t i v e l o c a t i o n s . T h i s approach i s considered i m p r a c t i c a b l e u n t i l an a p p r o p r i a t i o n of c o s t s , other than by a r b i t r a t i o n , i s found to e q u i t a b l y r e f l e c t the i n d i v i d u a l f i r m ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n to the t o t a l c o s t s of agglomeration. The second approach, and t h a t pursued i n t h i s t h e s i s , i s to provide an a n a l y t i c a l framework to enable the l o c a t o r of o f f i c e s to assess a l t e r n a t i v e s i t e s f o r o f f i c e use. The approach i n v o l v e s making e x p l i c i t the l o c a t i o n a l c r i t e r i a r e q u i r e d by the i n d i v i d u a l l o c a t o r , measuring those c r i t e r i a , -8-i n d o l l a r terms where p o s s i b l e , a t a l t e r n a t i v e l o c a t i o n s and d e c i d i n g on the b a s i s of c o s t advantage which s i t e to accept to l o c a t e an o f f i c e p r o j e c t . An i n d i v i d u a l l o c a t o r w i l l d e f i n e those l o c a t i o n a l a t t r i b u t e s r e q u i r e d of a s i t e to s u s t a i n a s p e c i f i c o f f i c e a c t i v i t y and weigh the advantages or disadvantages a c c o r d i n g l y . I n summary, i t i s evident t h a t c o n c e n t r a t i o n of economic a c t i v i t y at the downtown core o f c i t i e s present problems to s o c i e t y . Such problems, i t i s submitted, have been compounded by recent ' s o l u t i o n s * , I t i s time t o ques-t i o n the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of such s o l u t i o n s w h i l e at the same time suggesting a l t e r n a t i v e approaches to s o l v i n g core area problems. 1.4 PURPOSE OF STUDYING URBAN SPATIAL ARRANGEMENTSi O f f i c e use i s one of s e v e r a l land uses t h a t c o n s t i -t u t e urban areas. By understanding the way i n which a l l urban l a n d uses l o c a t e , s o c i e t y may e x e r c i s e a degree of e f f e c t i v e and e f f i c i e n t c o n t r o l over the s p a t i a l a l l o c a t i o n of uses w i t h i n an urban area. That such c o n t r o l might be r e q u i r e d i s a p o l i t i c a l d e c i s i o n . However, three degrees o f c o n t r o l t h a t may be e x e r c i s e d are discussed below. F i r s t l y , should an urban a c t i v i t y , f o r example an i n d u s t r y such as an a b a t t o i r , be considered an obnoxious and non-conforming user o f urban space, then through an - 9 -understanding of i t s and other users l o c a t i o n a l requirements that obnoxious use may then be harmoniously re-located. Secondly, by understanding the l o c a t i o n processes, e f f e c t i v e control may be exercised on the basis of analysis and p r e d i c t i o n of probable future states of urban s p a t i a l arrangements. Knowing those future states would then allow the d i r e c t i o n of energies and resources i n a t t a i n i n g those states e f f e c t i v e l y . Should a predicted state be considered unpalatable, then society may take steps to avoid that pre-dicted s i t u a t i o n . For example, knowing the l o c a t i o n a l pre-r e q u i s i t e s of land users, i f a transportation improvement i s effected, one should be able to predict the probable future s p a t i a l demands fo r residences. I f society could tole r a t e that future state then i t would be able to d i r e c t resources to phasing such items as municipal financing and u t i l i t i e s more e f f i c i e n t l y . I f the development were considered undesirable then society would avert the undesirable state by perhaps r e -routing the transportation system. T h i r d l y , given an optimal s p a t i a l arrangement, again knowing the mechanics of l o c a t i n g s p e c i f i c land uses, one should be able to provide for that arrangement. This l a t t e r suggestion requires absolute control over land arrange-ments and would probably require t o t a l i t a r i a n d i r e c t i v e to ensure i t s success. -10-Substantial p o l i t i c a l arguments can be proffered f o r and against exercising control of urban s p a t i a l arrange-ments through an understanding of the l o c a t i o n r a t i o n a l e of d i f f e r e n t users. However the merits and demerits of any of the above reasons f o r acquiring a degree of control over urban s p a t i a l configurations are beyond the scope of t h i s t h e s i s . In summary, an understanding of the s i g n i f i c a n c e of various l o c a t i o n c r i t e r i a used i n l o c a t i n g o f f i c e s w i l l bring about an enhanced understanding of the t o t a l s p a t i a l arrangement of urban land users and thus f a c i l i t a t e a degree of control over the t o t a l urban environment. 1.5 LITERATURE REVIEW» I t i s important to note at t h i s point that no major t h e o r e t i c a l work i s av a i l a b l e on the l o c a t i o n of o f f i c e s . Scholarly work with respect to o f f i c e l o c a t i o n i s sadly lack-ing. Reasons for such a dearth of writings on the subject were alluded to e a r l i e r . A review of the bibliography con-tained i n Appendix (C) indicates that the vast majority of work, dealing with o f f i c e s i n general, has been carried out i n the United Kingdom. Despite the paucity of l i t e r a t u r e on o f f i c e l o c a t i o n c r i t e r i a , i t i s necessary to expose that which has been written and to determine the s i g n i f i c a n c e of that l i t e r a t u r e . -11-W r i t i n g s of a documentary nature commenting upon the s t a t e of o f f i c e l o c a t i o n p r a c t i c e s are to he found i n popular j o u r n a l s such as 'Fortune' (5)» 'Business Week' (6), and 'The Economist' (7). Although of l i m i t e d t h e o r e t i c a l v a l u e , such a r t i c l e s provide an awareness of the problems c o n f r o n t i n g the l o c a t o r s o f o f f i c e s and s o c i e t y i n g e n e r a l . The c o n t i n u a l o b t r u s i o n of such phenomena, as contained i n those a r t i c l e s , a s s i s t s i n r e i n f o r c i n g the s t i m u l u s to t h e o r i z e on the l o c a t i o n of o f f i c e s . T h i s review need not concern i t -s e l f w i t h i n t r i c a t e c r i t i c i s m of such documentation as those commentaries do not provide academic food f o r thought. Those w r i t i n g s t h a t excuse a t t a i n i n g a r a t i o n a l theory of o f f i c e l o c a t i o n deserve c r i t i c i s m . Vernon suggests t h a t i -"to t r y and account f o r the l o c a t i o n of the n a t i o n s o f f i c e workers i n any c o n c l u s i v e way i s an e x e r c i s e i n acute f r u s t r a t i o n . " (8) He continues i n p y r r h o n i c f a s h i o n i -M t h e chances of a r a t i o n a l l o c a t i o n of o f f i c e s p a t t e r n are not t h a t good." (9) Vernon not o n l y excuses h i m s e l f from a d i s c u s s i o n of the com-p l e x nature of o f f i c e l o c a t i o n but a l s o i m p l i e s t h a t the p u r s u i t by others i n determining a r a t i o n a l approach to the l o c a t i o n of o f f i c e s w i l l y i e l d l i t t l e success. Only a f t e r s e r i o u s and r i g o r o u s work i n d e f i n i n g and v e r i f y i n g l o c a t i o n c r i t e r i a w i l l there emerge an understanding o f the o f f i c e -12-f u n c t i o n w i t h i n m e t r o p o l i t a n areas. With respect to t h i s l a t t e r p o i n t the w r i t e r i s i n agreement w i t h H a r r i s . In m o d e l l i n g urban systems H a r r i s has written»-" I t i s evident t h a t c o n s i d e r a b l e r e s e a r c h , r e g a r d i n g the c e n t r a l o f f i c e f u n c t i o n , i t s f u t u r e growth p o t e n t i a l and i t s l o c a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i l l be r e q u i r e d before t h i s a c t i v i t y can be ade-q u a t e l y modelled and before i t s needs and i n f l u e n c e s can be adequately d e a l t w i t h i n p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t i e s , " (10) H a r r i s r e c o g n i z e s the problem and a t l e a s t suggests t h a t extensive work be c a r r i e d out on the l o c a t i o n of o f f i c e s . Meanwhile urban areas are modelled i r r e s p e c t i v e of the importance of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t y and without knowledge of i t s impact upon the t o t a l urban system. (11) Hoover has been suggestive o f the n e c e s s i t y o f understanding urban s p a t i a l arrangements by w r i t i n g t -"the f i r s t step i n b u i l d i n g a u s e f u l conceptual framework f o r understanding urban s p a t i a l p a t t e r n s i s to s o r t out the m u l t i f a r i o u s l o c a t i o n f a c t o r s t h a t i n f l u e n c e the preferences and placement of s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s i n types of d e c i s i o n u n i t s . " (12) Despite Vernon's pessimism i n determining a r a t i o n a l p a t t e r n of o f f i c e l o c a t i o n , the l a t t e r together w i t h Hoover has -13-attempted to describe, i n an i n t u i t i v e fashion, the - r a t i o n a l e f o r the l o c a t i o n of o f f i c e buildings. The reader i s directed to Anatomy of a Metropolis (13) for an extensive review of t h e i r propositions. Many of the suggestions r e l a t i n g to external economies, communications and journey to work are considered more f u l l y when presenting an e x p l i c i t statement of the r a t i o n a l e f o r o f f i c e l o c a t i o n i n Chapter 2 of t h i s t h e s i s . A s i g n i f i c a n t piece of North American l i t e r a t u r e dealing with the variables involved i n l o c a t i n g o f f i c e s was written by Foley (14). The l a t t e r ' s work attempts to provide evidence of the c r i t e r i a to be considered by firms when l o c a t i n g o f f i c e s . The c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n of l o c a t i o n prac-t i c e s i s purely d e s c r i p t i v e i n so f a r as Foley's study of the San Francisco Bay area only describes those factors that should be considered i n the l o c a t i o n of o f f i c e s . Foley o f f e r s neither analysis nor v e r i f i c a t i o n of his suppositions. F i n a l l y , the major piece of a n a l y t i c a l work ca r r i e d out, as f a r as t h i s writer has been able to ascertain, i s a B r i t i s h study commissioned by the Location of O f f i c e s Bureau (LOB) (15)• The LOB study i s an extensive work covering major o f f i c e users located i n the Greater London Conurbation Centre and up to 30 miles from Charing Cross. Although i t i s tenuous to impute the findings of the LOB study to other metropolitan regions, i t i s regarded as an important empirical -14-work on o f f i c e l o c a t i o n practices . With respect to l o c a t i o n c r i t e r i a , the LOB study provides an e x p l i c i t statement of o f f i c e l o c a t i o n practices (16). The study, however, does not attempt to determine i f there i s any r e a l or f a c t u a l s i g n i f i -cance i n the c r i t e r i a c i t e d . An extensive bibliography on various facets of o f f i c e l o c a t i o n and r e l a t e d topics i s included as Appendix (C) to t h i s t h e s i s . In summary, t h i s overview of the l i t e r a t u r e on the l o c a t i o n of o f f i c e s intimates that there has been l i t t l e a n alysis and consequently no theory avai l a b l e with which an understanding of urban s p a t i a l arrangements may be furthered. These s o l i t a r y works that have been completed, although a step i n the correct d i r e c t i o n , need to be v e r i f i e d and r e i n -forced. The remainder of t h i s thesis i s devoted to an examination of o f f i c e l o c a t i o n c r i t e r i a i n general, and more s p e c i f i c a l l y to land and b u i l d i n g costs as component variables i n the decision to locate o f f i c e s . -15-CHAPTER 2 2.1 APPROACH TO THE STUDY OF OFFICE LOCATION PRACTICEi T h i s s e c t i o n o u t l i n e s the ba s i c approach to be taken i n a c h i e v i n g the o b j e c t i v e s of t h i s t h e s i s . The approach i n v o l v e s the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a ba s i c hypothesis t h a t forms a s p a t i a l framework w i t h i n which an o r d e r l y and systematic examination of the problem may proceed. The p o s t u l a t i o n i s formed to provide a c o s t / b e n e f i t s i t u a t i o n w i t h i n which a l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n may be formulated. I d e n t i f i e d . w i t h such c o s t s and b e n e f i t s are the advantages or disadvantages t h a t a l l a l t e r n a t i v e l o c a t i o n s possess w i t h r e s p e c t to c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s contained i n the l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n . F o l l o w i n g a gen e r a l d i s c u s s i o n on o f f i c e l o c a t i o n c r i t e r i a , l a n d and o f f i c e c o s t s , are s e l e c t e d f o r f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s . Such a n a l y s i s i n v o l v e s the p o s t u l a t i o n of r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h those s p e c i f i c v a r i a b l e s and t h e i r l o c a t i o n across the me t r o p o l i t a n r e g i o n . The hypotheses are subjected to measurement, s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t i n g , i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and i n f e r e n c e . By determining the s i g n i f i -cance of such r e l a t i o n s h i p s , one i s then, c e t e r i s p a r i b u s , capable of t e n t a t i v e l y pronouncing the soundness of co n s i d e r -i n g such c r i t e r i a as elements i n the d e c i s i o n t o l o c a t e o f f i c e s . 2.2 BASIC POSTULATIONJ The c o n f i n e s o f t h i s study are found w i t h i n the -16-bounds of the underlying basic hypothesis of t h i s thesis which states t h a t i -THE DESIRE TO LOCATE OFFICES IN SUBURBIA WILL ONLY OCCUR WHEN THE NET BENEFITS, TO A SPECIFIC LOCATOR, OF SUCH A LOCATION ARE GREATER THAN THE NET BENEFITS ACCRUING AT A MORE CENTRALIZED LOCATION. 2.3 DEFINITIONS t Before proceeding with the implications of the major hypothesis of t h i s thesis the following terms are defined to obviate d i f f i c u l t i e s of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . (a) ' o f f i c e s ' are those premises used i n the furtherance of o f f i c e a c t i v i t y . Such a c t i v i t i e s , derived from the Standard I n d u s t r i a l C l a s s i f i -cation (SIC) code, are tabulated i n Appendix (A). (1) (b) 'suburbia' The following discussion regarding suburbia allows for an understanding of the urban-suburban dichotomy together with a cognizance of what constitutes the continuous metropolitan region. Suburbia i s a nebulous concept and thus d i f f i c u l t to define p r e c i s e l y . Suburbia i s t y p i f i e d i n any of the behavioural, geographic or demographic respects i l l u s t r a t e d below. Although vague and d e f i c i e n t , such an appreciation i s considered s u f f i c i e n t f o r the purposes of t h i s paper i n - 17 -determining an understanding of suburbia. Whyte, i n determining a d e f i n i t i o n of suburbia was at a loss i s writings -" I t i s true the c i t y and suburb together make up the metropolitan area Geographically speaking the decision i s d i f f i c u l t to make."(2) In d i s t i n g u i s h i n g the c e n t r a l c i t y from the suburbs, Whyte draws the following dichotomiess heterogeneity and homogeneity, concentration and d i s p e r s a l and s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and middle range.(3) Gans has described the suburbs ast-....... the l a t e s t and most modern r i n g to the outer c i t y , distinguished from i t only • by lower d e n s i t i e s , and by the often i r r e l e -vant f a c t of the r i n g s ' l o c a t i o n outside the c i t y l i m i t s . " (4) Writh, the Chicago urban s o c i o l o g i s t distinguishes areas of a c i t y byt-.place and nature of work, income, r a c i a l and ethnic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , s o c i a l status, custom, habit, taste, preference and prejudice."(5) Greer concluded that:-". .the 'ideal type' approach to central city-suburban differences i s l e s s than adequate. I t represents a dichotomy supported only at the l e v e l of government. For the most part the two halves of the metropolis represent d i f f e r e n t configurations, of the same a t t r i b u t e s , d i f f e r e n t 'mixes of the same population types'." (6) C h i n i t z , i n introducing 'City and Suburb' ( 7 )» -18-distinguishes urban and metropolitan areas. Such d i s t i n c t i o n s may be considered synonymous with central c i t y and suburbs. Chinitz observes that the c e n t r a l c i t y , " implies high density s p a t i a l arrange-ments - a l o t of people and a l o t of business clustered i n a small area...." (8) Chinitz suggests that metropolitan or suburban regions are contiguous to the urban area with r e l a t i v e l y low densities compared to the central c i t y yet high compared with r u r a l areas. (9) (c) 'net b e n e f i t s ' are the p o s i t i v e r e s i d u a l , i n d o l l a r terms, of benefits over costs at a given l o c a t i o n . This d e f i n i t i o n i s to include discounted tangible and intang-i b l e , measurable and imputed costs and benefits to the locator of o f f i c e premises. S o c i a l costs and benefits, although recog-nized, are s p e c i f i c a l l y excluded from t h i s t h e s i s . The hypothesis contained i n section 2.2 provides the springboard from which the remainder of t h i s thesis i s derived. In essence, the hypothesis allows a s p a t i a l frame-work within which the merits and demerits of a l t e r n a t i v e o f f i c e l o c a tions may be assessed. The costs and benefits implied i n the hypothesis encompass the advantages that one s i t e holds over another with respect to the l o c a t i o n charac-t e r i s t i c s desired by an i n d i v i d u a l o f f i c e l o c a t o r . Following an exposition of those l o c a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , t h i s thesis -19-attempts to discover the si g n i f i c a n c e of land and bu i l d i n g costs as s p e c i f i c l o c a t i o n v a r i a b l e s . 2.4 STATEMENT AND DISCOURSE ON OFFICE LOCATION RATIONALE: This section delineates those l o c a t i o n factors considered i n the decision to locate o f f i c e s . The l i s t i s as complete as i s possible to adjudge, but does not preclude a d d i t i o n a l c r i t e r i a i n the pursuit of exhaustiveness. The arguments l i s t e d are not applicable to the same extent, i f at a l l , f or each and every decision to locate o f f i c e s . Individual locators w i l l consider those e s s e n t i a l points with respect to the p e c u l i a r nature of t h e i r l o c a t i o n requirements. Many of the factors l i s t e d below appear i n t u i t i v e l y sound c r i t e r i a f or l o c a t i n g o f f i c e s : actual consideration given to any one reason i s l a r g e l y unresearched. To ascertain the c r e d i b i l i t y of such fa c t o r s , i t would be necessary to s o l i c i t information and opinions from those persons a c t u a l l y involved i n the l o c a t i o n of o f f i c e s . This t h e s i s , because of time constraints has not attempted to procure such information. (a) A c c e s s i b i l i t y to consumer markets. The desire of o f f i c e users to be i n propinquity to a consumer market w i l l vary with the nature of the a c t i v i t y executed. Those a c t i v i t i e s that s o l e l y process information, such as data processing centres, do not need to be close to -20-a consumer market. However those o f f i c e f u n c t i o n s t h a t s e l l s e r v i c e s to the general p u b l i c , f o r example, banks, r e a l e s t a t e o f f i c e s , medical and d e n t a l o f f i c e s , w i l l have t h e i r l o c a t i o n determined to a c o n s i d e r a b l e extent by the a v a i l -a b i l i t y of a consumer market s u f f i c i e n t l y l a r g e , i n d o l l a r terms, to support the s e r v i c e s provided by those o f f i c e s . In many cases the p r i n c i p l e s i n v o l v e d i n r e t a i l l o c a t i o n w i l l be a p p l i c a b l e to o f f i c e s p r o v i d i n g s e r v i c e s to the p u b l i c (10), (b) A c c e s s i b i l i t y to e x t e r n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s ! T h i s f a c t o r i s important to those f u n c t i o n s i n c a p -able of i n t e r n a l i z i n g a l l of the a c t i v i t i e s necessary f o r the e x i s t e n c e of an o r g a n i z a t i o n . F i n a n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s are examples whereby, because of the d i v e r s i t y of a c t i v i t y under-taken, i t i s u n r e a l i s t i c to employ experts i n each and every f i e l d where t h e i r advice i s r e q u i r e d . The a b i l i t y of f i r m s to u t i l i z e s p e c i a l i s t s from r e l a t e d i n s t i t u t i o n s ensures the success of the f i r m . For example a stock broker t h a t i s an expert on mining stocks may need t o seek f u r t h e r advice on government s e c u r i t i e s . Those i n s t i t u t i o n s capable of i n t e r n a l i z i n g func-t i o n s necessary f o r continued o p e r a t i o n w i l l be l e s s prone to count t h i s f a c t o r as a s i g n i f i c a n t l o c a t i o n v a r i a b l e . I n s u r -ance o f f i c e s r e q u i r i n g o n l y p r o c e s s i n g and f i l i n g space w i l l be able to l o c a t e t h e i r a c t i v i t y independently and without -21-regard to external organizations as t h e i r s u r v i v a l i s not a function of close proximity to other organizations. Goddard (11) has researched i n t e r - o r g a n i z a t i o n a l linkages f o r the C i t y of London and concluded that there are d i s t i n c t i n t e r o f f i c e type linkages. In addition to proximity to other work organiza-tions, a locator of o f f i c e s may give consideration to proximity to non work rel a t e d a c t i v i t i e s such as dining, shopping and r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s . Such a consideration would be concerned d i r e c t l y with employee welfare and i n d i r e c t l y with the a b i l i t y of an organization to maintain a stable labour force. (c) A c c e s s i b i l i t y to labour markets i In determining the importance of t h i s c r i t e r i o n i n the decision to locate o f f i c e s , a firm w i l l have regard to the absolute s i z e , educational or s k i l l l e v e l , the s t a b i l i t y and cost of labour required to complement i t s a c t i v i t y . Firms with d i f f e r e n t requirements w i l l weigh the importance of these fac t o r s according to the s p e c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s required by the i n d i v i d u a l firm. In addition to the above factors the a v a i l a b i l i t y of adequate transportation networks and methods of conveying employees to work w i l l be considered. (d) Inter-personal communicationi The c l u s t e r i n g e f f e c t s evidenced on Wall Street i n -22-New York, Threadneedle Street i n the C i t y of London and Howe Street i n Vancouver a l l r e f l e c t the desire of f i n a n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s to be i n a p o s i t i o n where inter-personal communi-cation i s f a c i l i t a t e d . Such i n s t i t u t i o n s w i l l be involved i n 'bush telegraph' communications whereby personal contact i s e s s e n t i a l due to the nature of the operations undertaken. Reliance upon rapid, o r a l , e f f e c t i v e and often c o n f i d e n t i a l information i n order to obtain a competitive edge i n business i s the hallmark of such organizations. Despite the ubiquitous growth and use of computers i n communication networks i t i s suspected that such organiza-t i o n s , with an ear to the ground, w i l l desire to locate where personal contact with others i s f a c i l i t a t e d . (e) Location of parent uses The desire for o f f i c e functions to be integrated with the parent use i s evidenced i n such a c t i v i t i e s as down-town department store accounts. In such instances the l o c a -t i o n requirements of the parent use w i l l determine the para-s i t i c o f f i c e ' s l o c a t i o n . However i t may be possible to segregate functions within a complex development. In consid-ering such a p o s s i b i l i t y the i n d i v i d u a l organization w i l l evaluate the inconvenience caused by divorcing the l o c a t i o n of i n t e r n a l functions. -23-(f) Prestige and traditions Prestige may convey s o l i d i t y , leadership, address, s t a b i l i t y , wealth or eminence to the users of a p a r t i c u l a r o f f i c e function. Prestige, as a f a c t o r , i s an impression that the firm believes society possesses with respect to a l o c a t i o n or firms associated with a l o c a t i o n . Such an impres-sion may be more apparent than r e a l . From the LOB study (12) i t i s evident that many locators consider prestige as a formid- • able component i n the o f f i c e l o c a t i o n decision. T r a d i t i o n i s used synonymously with prestige to impart s i m i l a r confidences. T r a d i t i o n or 'we have always located here' i s a much c i t e d l o c a t i o n factor. (13) (g) Managerial u t i l i t y > The decision to locate o f f i c e s need not be made by reasoned thinking of other variables contained i n t h i s section. Dominant members within an organization may exert considerable influence on the l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n . Such i n d i -viduals may prefer short commutes, restaurant f a c i l i t i e s , views, g o l f courses and the l i k e . The r a t i o n a l e for the l o c a t i o n of o f f i c e s then becomes d i f f i c u l t as subjective u t i l i t i e s are involved i n the decision process. (h) Physical c a p a b i l i t i e s f o r expansiont In determining the s u i t a b i l i t y of t h i s c r i t e r i o n -24-as a l o c a t i o n f a c t o r , the l o c a t o r should possess a cognizance of f u t u r e growth p o t e n t i a l w i t h i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n . To p l a n f o r p h y s i c a l expansion the l o c a t o r w i l l r e q u i r e estimates of when and i n what q u a n t i t i e s t h a t growth w i l l be manifested. For those f i r m s where a d d i t i o n a l p h y s i c a l c a p a c i t y i s l i t t l e o t her than a pipe dream t h i s f a c t o r w i l l be r e l a t i v e l y i n s i g -n i f i c a n t i n the l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n . ( i ) Employee welfare t Those f a r s i g h t e d employers capable of adapting a w e l l worn adage w i l l r e a l i z e t h a t what i s good f o r t h e i r employees i s a l s o good f o r the f i r m , A f i r m w i l l concern i t s e l f w i t h employee e f f i c i e n c y . Should a reduced commute improve the employees* w e l f a r e then there i s every chance t h a t i t w i l l a l s o improve t h e i r e f f i c i e n c y . Firms i n d u l g i n g i n such a l t r u i s m s are l i k e l y to weight t h i s f a c t o r more h e a v i l y i n d e c i d i n g an o f f i c e ' s l o c a t i o n than more malevolent employers. ( j ) Land costs t The l o c a t o r of o f f i c e s concerned w i t h land c o s t s w i l l be i n t e r e s t e d i n land c o s t s a t t r i b u t a b l e to a u n i t a r e a of usable f l o o r space and w i l l evaluate such c o s t s a t a l t e r -n a t i v e l o c a t i o n s . -25-(k) Building costs: In considering construction costs the locator of o f f i c e s w i l l account for the cost a t t r i b u t a b l e to a unit area of usable f l o o r space i n providing an o f f i c e structure at al t e r n a t i v e l o c a t i o n s . The foregoing represents a comprehensive l i s t of those va r i a b l e s to be considered i n the l o c a t i o n of o f f i c e s . The l i s t i n g provides a convenient framework whereby each of those variables may be selected i n an orderly and systematic fashion and subjected to further a n a l y s i s . The following section reviews the s i g n i f i c a n c e of two of the above fa c t o r s , land and b u i l d i n g costs, considered i n the decision to locate o f f i c e b u i ldings. 2.5 DELINEATION OF LOCATION VARIABLES FOR FURTHER ANALYSIS For the purposes of t h i s t h e s i s , land and construc-t i o n costs f o r o f f i c e s have been selected f o r further a n a l y s i s ; the reasons are threefold. F i r s t l y , both l o c a t i o n c r i t e r i a are capable of meaningful measurement. Secondly, both elements are r e a d i l y i d e n t i f i a b l e as e n t i t i e s with l i t t l e ambiguity. T h i r d l y , data are available i n r e l a t i v e l y consistent form that allows for s t a t i s t i c a l measurement and inference. -26-Few advantages are gained through c o n s i d e r i n g v a r i a b l e s i f those v a r i a b l e s are u n j u s t i f i a b l e l o c a t i o n c r i t e r i a . In a s s e s s i n g the relevance of l a n d and b u i l d i n g c o s t s as l o c a t i o n f a c t o r s , i t has been necessary to determine those p a r t i e s i n v o l v e d i n the l o c a t i o n o f o f f i c e s , and to de-c i d e whether or not the costs of p r o v i d i n g land and s t r u c -t u r e s , f o r o f f i c e premises, are indeed r e l e v a n t to the l o c a -t i o n d e c i s i o n . There are f i v e i d e n t i f i a b l e groups concerned w i t h o f f i c e l o c a t i o n c r i t e r i a i n g e n e r a l . T h e i r i n t e r e s t s w i l l v ary w i t h r e s p e c t t o d i f f e r e n t l o c a t i o n v a r i a b l e s depend-i n g upon i n d i v i d u a l requirements. S, F i r s t l y , i n v e s t o r s week a r e t u r n on in v e s t e d e q u i t y c a p i t a l i n the form of c u r r e n t income, f u t u r e c a p i t a l gains or some combination of the two. In a s s e s s i n g the p o t e n t i a l of an investment, commensurate w i t h a given degree of r i s k , the i n v e s t o r w i l l evaluate the l o c a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a s i t e as they a f f e c t the f i n a l user; the l e s s e e . The i n v e s t o r , as i s the l e s s e e , i s concerned w i t h a s i t e ' s e x i s t i n g and p o t e n t i a l p r o f i t a b i l i t y and i t s a b i l i t y to pay r e n t . T h i s a b i l i t y w i l l b e - i n f l u e n c e d by l o c a t i o n f a c t o r s other than land and b u i l d i n g c o s t s . I n v e s t o r s , however, are concerned w i t h l a n d a p p r e c i a t i o n a t some l a t e r date as w e l l as the a l l o c a t i o n o f land and improvements f o r t a x purposes. I n v e s t o r s are thus i n t e r e s t e d i n land and b u i l d i n g c o s t s as l o c a t i o n c r i t e r i a . The second group of persons concerned w i t h l o c a t i o n c r i t e r i a f o r o f f i c e s are s p e c u l a t o r developers. The o f f i c e developers f u n c t i o n i s to provide p h y s i c a l o f f i c e space i n -27-the c o r r e c t q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y , a t the c o r r e c t place and a t the c o r r e c t time such t h a t the created value i s g r e a t e r than the p r o j e c t c o s t . In maximizing the r e t u r n on e q u i t y funds, the developer attempts to maximize the p o s i t i v e spread between value and cost.. Value i s p a r t i a l l y determined by the l o c a t i o n a l a t t r i b u t e s t h a t a s i t e possesses w i t h regard t o the f i n a l user. In maximizing the spread between value and c o s t , c e t e r i s p a r i b u s , the developer attempts to minimize c o s t s . As the major p o r t i o n of development c o s t s are accounted f o r by land and b u i l d i n g c o s t s , the developer i s concerned about such c o s t s a t a l t e r n a t i v e l o c a t i o n s . He thus t r e a t s land and b u i l d i n g c o s t s as l o c a t i o n c r i t e r i a . The t h i r d i d e n t i f i a b l e group are owner occupier developers. T h i s group has regard to l o c a t i o n c r i t e r i a as they a f f e c t the i n d i v i d u a l f i r m ' s requirements. Land and b u i l d i n g c o s t s , i n the case of t h i s group, are t r e a t e d as accounting i d e n t i t i e s i n the f i r m ' s o p e r a t i o n s as are subsequent o p e r a t i n g expenses based upon o r i g i n a l c a p i t a l expenditures e.g. p r o p e r t y t a x e s . I n i t i a l c a p i t a l c o s t s f o r land and b u i l d i n g s are thus considered by t h i s group of o f f i c e l o c a t o r s . D i f f e r -e n t i a l s between a l t e r n a t i v e s i t e s should be evaluated. I t i s suspected t h a t owner occupiers are l e s s concerned, w i t h land and c o n s t r u c t i o n c o s t s , than s p e c u l a t i v e developers as such c o s t s are a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l c o n s i d e r a t i o n when taken i n the context of the f i r m s o v e r a l l o p e r a t i o n . -28-The f o u r t h category of i n d i v i d u a l s concerned w i t h o f f i c e l o c a t i o n c r i t e r i a are the f i n a l users or l e s s e e s . They have no regard f o r the i n i t i a l c a p i t a l c o s t s of p r o v i d i n g an o f f i c e "building. The l e s s e e s * prime c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s the a b i l i t y to pay r e n t , given a c e r t a i n degree of p r o f i t a b i l i t y , which i s determined by l o c a t i o n a l a t t r i b u t e s other than the c o s t s of p r o v i d i n g l a n d and s t r u c t u r e s to be used f o r o f f i c e s . F i n a l l y , the f i f t h body i n v o l v e d or r e q u i r e d to be knowledgeable of l o c a t i o n f a c t o r s are m u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g a u t h o r i t i e s . The i n t e r e s t t h a t t h i s group should d i s p l a y i n v o l v e s a comprehension of a l l l o c a t i o n v a r i a b l e s as they impinge upon the a c t i v i t i e s of the f o u r groups described above. T h e i r f u n c t i o n i s to r e c o n c i l e the requirements of i n v e s t o r s , developers, owner occupier developers and f i n a l u s e r s , w i t h the i n t e r e s t s of s o c i e t y a t l a r g e . From the above d i s c u s s i o n and a n a l y s i s i t i s evident t h a t l a n d and b u i l d i n g c o s t s are j u s t i f i a b l e c r i t e r i a to be examined as f a r as i n v e s t o r s , developers and owner occ u p i e r developers are concerned, 2.6 SUB HYPOTHESES Thi s s e c t i o n presents hypotheses r e l a t e d to land and b u i l d i n g c o s t s as component v a r i a b l e s i n the d e c i s i o n to l o c a t e o f f i c e s together w i t h the r a t i o n a l e f o r such p r o p o s i -t i o n s . -29-(A) B u i l d i n g c o s t s For the purpose of t h i s t h e s i s b u i l d i n g costs are def i n e d a s i -those estimated c o s t s , i d e n t i f i e d on b u i l d i n g permits, lodged w i t h m u n i c i p a l b u i l d i n g permit o f f i c e s , as ' t o t a l c o s t s to completion', N.B. Unit c o n s t r u c t i o n c o s t s d e r i v e d from b u i l d i n g permits are s t r o n g l y comparable to r e l i a b l e estimates of a c t u a l c o s t s given by i n d u s t r y - see Table ( V I ) , I t i s hypothesized that»-( i ) OFFICE BUILDING COSTS PER SQUARE FOOT OF NET RENTABLE OFFICE FLOOR SPACE ARE INVARIANT ACROSS THE URBAN REGION The above hypothesis ( i ) f u r t h e r i m p l i e s that s i n c e u n i t c o s t s are i n v a r i a n t across the urban r e g i o n t h a t there i s no d i f f e r e n c e i n u n i t c o n s t r u c t i o n c o s t s as between c e n t r a l and suburban l o c a t i o n s . The l a t t e r l o c a t i o n s are e x c l u s i v e sub s e t s comprising the t o t a l s e t of a l l o f f i c e l o c a t i o n s . I t i s thus hypothesized t h a t t -( i i ) THERE IS NO SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCE IN COSTS OF CONSTRUCTION PER SQUARE FOOT OF NET RENTABLE OFFICE FLOOR SPACE AS BETWEEN CENTRAL CITY AND SUBURBAN LOCATIONS The r a t i o n a l e f o r the above hypotheses i s t h a t c o n s t r u c t i o n c o s t s are presumed to be a f u n c t i o n of labour c o s t s , m a t e r i a l c o s t s , t e c h n o l o g i c a l forms and s c a l e economies. Other f a c t o r s t h a t were considered to have a p o s s i b l e a f f e c t upon c o n s t r u c t i o n c o s t s i n c l u d e d the use of union or non-union labour and l o g i s t i c a l problems i n v o l v e d i n su p p l y i n g and o p e r a t i n g congested and r e s t r i c t e d s i t e s . F i n a n c i n g c o s t -30-d i f f e r e n t i a l s are a f u r t h e r p o s s i b l e v a r i a b l e . With r e s p e c t t o the type of labour i n v o l v e d i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n of o f f i c e s , any d i f f e r e n t i a l s between union and non union wage r a t e s are d i f f i c u l t to determine. L o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s appeared unable to d i s c e r n d i s c r e p a n c i e s due to t h i s f a c t o r when contemplating submitted estimated p r o j e c t c o s t s . With r e s p e c t to p o s s i b l e d i f f e r e n t i a l s due to l o g i s t i c d i f f i c u l t i e s i n supp l y i n g r e -s t r i c t e d s i t e s i t was found, on c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h industry," t h a t although r e c o g n i z i n g a p o s s i b l e c o s t d i f f e r e n t i a l , i t was d i f f i c u l t to f a c t o r out of t o t a l p r o j e c t c o s t . Higher c o s t s of s u p p l y i n g m a t e r i a l s and p r o v i d i n g a d d i t i o n a l work e.g. s t r e e t c l o s u r e s , were a p p l i c a b l e to l a r g e s c a l e p r o j e c t s . I n such cases any a d d i t i o n a l c o s t s were minimized by e f f e c t i v e work phasing and pl a n n i n g . Although p o s s i b l e additional costs p e r t a i n to l a r g e s c a l e p r o j e c t s , when a l l o c a t e d on a square f o o t of r e n t a b l e f l o o r space, such c o s t s would be minimal. With r e s p e c t t o f i n a n c i n g c o s t s i t i s d i f f i c u l t to g e n e r a l i z e . Spec-i f i c o p erations and operators w i l l experience d i f f e r e n t advan-tages or disadvantages i n the s e c u r i n g of fi n a n c e to c a r r y through an o f f i c e p r o j e c t . I n r e v i e w i n g the arguments of the c o n s t r u c t i o n c o s t f u n c t i o n , i t can be seen t h a t the f u n c t i o n c o n t a i n s c o s t elements of labour and m a t e r i a l s together -with 'non-cost' elements of t e c h n o l o g i c a l form and s c a l e economies, t h a t a f f e c t the t o t a l p r o j e c t c o s t . The f o l l o w i n g a n a l y s i s i s intended to determine the e f f e c t of the above f o u r elements upon the co s t s a t t r i b u -t a b l e to a square f o o t of usable o f f i c e f l o o r space. -31 -(1) Labour costs Labour costs, within a metropolitan region, are l i k e l y to be homogeneous for a given input of labour required to produce a given unit of o f f i c e space. Trade union prac-t i c e s w i l l equalize labour rates within a given metropolitan region p a r t i c u l a r l y where information i s r e l a t i v e l y perfect and i s disseminated e f f e c t i v e l y . The hourly rates of an e l e c t r i c i a n w i l l be the same i n North Vancouver as they are i n Burnaby. The l o c a t i o n of a s p e c i f i c o f f i c e project w i l l thus have no bearing on labour rates charged to produce a unit area of net rentable f l o o r space, Anomolies aris e where d i f f e r e n t mixes of labour inputs are required. In assuming, s t r i c t comparability between buildings t h i s does not present problems. In r e a l i t y i t i s d i f f i c u l t to discover buildings i d e n t i c a l i n a l l respects. A review of labour rates f o r craftsmen involved i n the construction industry, Table (1), indicates only marginal intertrade wage d i f f e r e n t i a l s . (2) Material costs The d o l l a r cost of providing b u i l d i n g materials f o r a unit area of rentable o f f i c e f l o o r space i s l i k e l y to be invariant across a metropolitan region. Suppliers, a l -though d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g costs as between intermetropolitan locations are l i k e l y to develop f l a t rate charges f o r i n t r a -metropolitan l o c a t i o n s . -32-TABLE I TABLE SHOWING INTERTRADE WAGE DIFFERENTIALS IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY FOR THE VANCOUVER REGION OCCUPATION YEAR Brick l a y e r 3.17 1971 $ 5.18 Carpenter 3.14 5.86 Cement F i n i s h e r 3.04 5.25 E l e c t r i c i a n 3.53 6.55 Labourer 2.37 4.54 Lather 3.00 6.01 Painter 2.96 5.52 P l a s t e r e r 3.15 5.95 Plumber 3.39 6.4o Reinforcing Rodman 2.96 6.15 S t r u c t u r a l Steelworker 3.37 6.15 Sheetmetal Worker 3.17 6.25 Source: Concost Services Ltd. published i n 'Real Estate Trends  i n Metropolitan Vancouver 1971'» Real Estate Board of Greater Vancouver, S t a t i s t i c a l & Survey Committee 1971. p. D-8. - 3 3 -(3) Technological forms and scale economies Technological form involves the use of an appro-pr i a t e technology to cope with d i f f e r e n t construction projects. With respect to o f f i c e s , the technology involved may involve anything from the elementary wood frame techniques f o r low r i s e buildings to highly complex reinforced concrete techniques necessary to ensure the s t r u c t u r a l f e a s i b i l i t y of high r i s e tower blocks. In addition to the superstructure of a b u i l d i n g d i f f e r e n t buildings require varying degrees of complex -infra-structure. A three storey block uses r e l a t i v e l y simple methods of s e r v i c i n g when compared to larger scale projects e.g. use of elevators, water pumps. Scale economies e x i s t where there i s a reduction i n cost of a marginal unit increase i n the amount of o f f i c e space provided. Economies of scale w i l l be derived from more e f f i c i e n t use of labour and machinery and bulk orders that secure s p e c i a l rates. In general larger scale projects w i l l reap the benefit of such economies. V/ith respect to the two non-cost elements of technological forms employed and scale economies, concern i s with project scale. The size of a project may be viewed in terms of b u i l d i n g height or square footage of o f f i c e f l o o r space. The l a t t e r two aspects of project scale may be combined to achieve any of the following four s i t u a t i o n s ! -34-(a) low r i s e and large square footage (b) low r i s e and small square footage (c) high r i s e and large square footage (d) high r i s e and small square footage The implications of the four s i t u a t i o n s above give r i s e to the l i n k between the technology employed and scale economies ;together with the r e l a t i v e a f f e c t s upon the t o t a l project cost. Those l i n k s together with the r e l a t i v e e f f e c t on cost (+ or -) are as follows:-(a) simple form (-) and economies of scale (-) (b) simple form (-) and diseconomies of scale (+) (c) advanced form (+) and economies of scale (-) (d) advanced form (+) and diseconomies of scale (+) From the foregoing analysis i t i s evident, given constant labour and material costs that the most advantageous form of o f f i c e project, from a construction cost point of view, i s low r i s e and large square footage while the most disadvan-tageous forms are high r i s e and low square footage e.g. space needle. A further observation i s that the r e l a t i v e unit cost advantage/disadvantage of low r i s e and small square footage (b) over high r i s e and large square footage (c) depends upon the r e l a t i v e o f f s e t t i n g e f f e c t s on t o t a l project cost of technological form and economies of scale. In r e a l i t y the most advantageous project cost -35-combination i s not i n evidence i n the Greater Vancouver Region. S i m i l a r l y the most disadvantageous combination i s not evidenced. From Table ( I I ) i t can be seen t h a t the compromise s i t u a t i o n s of (b) and (c) are the types of o f f i c e p r o j e c t undertaken. The i n t e r e s t i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c being t h a t c e n t r a l c i t y l o c a t i o n s , on average, employ hig h r i s e and l a r g e square footage r e l a t i v e to the low r i s e and small square footage o f f i c e s found a t suburban l o c a t i o n s . j I n c o n c l u s i o n the most advantageous cost combina- \ t i o n f o r o f f i c e s t r u c t u r e s i s not evidenced i n the c e n t r a l c i t y because a c c e s s i b i l i t y d e s i r e d by a l a r g e number of c e n t r a l l o c a t o r s l i m i t s the ground area a v a i l a b l e ? low r i s e , l a r g e square footage consumes a c c e s s i b i l i t y . The most advantageous c o s t combination i s not i n evidence i n the suburbs as o f f i c e use i s s m a l l s c a l e and l o c a l market o r i e n t a t e d . The most d i s -advantageous c o s t combination i s i l l o g i c a l and thus not observed. The compromise s i t u a t i o n s r e p r e s e n t , f i r s t l y , c e n t r a l c i t y areas w i t h h i g h r i s e and l a r g e square footage as a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the centre i s the o v e r r i d i n g f a c t o r f o r l a r g e numbers w i t h l a r g e space requirements? ground area i s s e v e r e l y r e s t r i c t e d . Secondly suburban areas u t i l i z e low r i s e , s m a l l square footage as the market t h r e s h o l d l i m i t s the o f f i c e f u n c t i o n and i t s space requirements. (B) Land Costs T h i s t h e s i s , i n determining a measure of land c o s t s , -36-TABLE II GREATER VANCOUVER REGION - 1971 TABLE SHOWING BUILDING HEIGHTS AND NET RENTABLE SQUARE FOOTAGE (NRSF) BY LOCATION CENTRAL SUBURBAN BUILDING HEIGHTS _# # 0 - 3 6 16.6 32 94 4 - 5 5 13.9 1 3 6 - 1 0 9 25.0 1 3 1 1 - 1 5 6 16.6 1 6 - 2 0 2 5.6 - -2 1 - 2 5 2 5.6 - -2 6 - 3 0 5 13.9 31 + 1 2.8 TOTAL 36 100. 34 100. NRSF 0 - 5000 - - 6 18.2 5001- 10,000 - - 14 42.5 10001 - 15.000 1 2.9 8 24.2 15001 - 20,000 1 2.9 4 12.1 20001 - 40,000 7 20.0 1 3.0 40001 - 60,000 4 11.4 60001 - 80,000 6 17.1 80001 -100,000 4 11.4 100001 -150,000 3 8.6 - -150001 -200,000 1 2.9 200,000 + 8 22.8 - -TOTAL 35 100. 33 100. Source - Research Data -37-u t i l i z e s assessed land values f o r property tax purposes. The r a t i o n a l e for such an approach i s discussed i n section 3 t l when dealing with research methodology. Although not e n t i r e l y s a t i s f a c t o r y such a measure i s a reasonably good proxy of r e l a t i v e market values of o f f i c e s i t e s . - see Appendix To f a c i l i t a t e the analysis of land costs i t i s necessary to i s o l a t e those factors that determine the value of land, and consequently the price paid, for o f f i c e s i t e s . The analysis assumes that the locator of o f f i c e s i s v/orking under a competitive market. Those forces that a f f e c t the market value of o f f i c e s i t e s , may be termed market (economic) and non-market (s o c i a l ) forces. The combination of both forces sets market value. Market forces are those of the i n t e r - a c t i o n of demand and supply operating through the p r i c e mechanism. Non market forces, or s o c i a l forces, such as zoning are exogenously determined by planning a u t h o r i t i e s . To analyse the r e l a t i v e e f f e c t s of both forces upon the value of o f f i c e s i t e s and hence the cost of land a t t r i b u -table to a unit area of net rentable f l o o r space,it i s useful to s p l i t the analysis into two parts: f i r s t l y , to examine the e f f e c t s of market forces i n the absence of non market forces and secondly to examine the combined e f f e c t s of both forces. - 3 8 -(1) E f f e c t on price i n the absence of zoning. In the absence of a r t i f i c i a l constraints the in t e r a c t i o n of demand and supply, operating through the pric e mechanism w i l l determine the value of s i t e s for o f f i c e use. C l a s s i c a l analysis suggests that a c c e s s i b i l i t y to the centre of an urban area i s the c r i t e r i o n f o r a high degree of competition between d i f f e r e n t users,and that the use cap-able of sustaining the highest p r o f i t w i l l e f f e c t i v e l y compete the more accessible and ce n t r a l s i t e away from the less pro-f i t a b l e use. On the demand side of the equation, those users d e s i r i n g a ce n t r a l l o c a t i o n w i l l compete with each other such that the more e f f i c i e n t i n terms of p r o f i t a b i l i t y w i l l b i d "the s i t e away from the les s p r o f i t a b l e use. This process w i l l continue such that a l l but the most e f f i c i e n t user d e s i r i n g c e n t r a l a c c e s s i b i l i t y w i l l be removed from the most accessible l o c a t i o n . The e f f e c t on s i t e costs i s such that as one moves away from the centre unit s i t e costs decrease. On the supply side of the equation there i s a fixe d supply of ce n t r a l and highly accessible s i t e s . As one moves from the centre there i s an increasing supply of sub-s t i t u t a b l e s i t e s . The r e l a t i v e e f f e c t upon the unit s i t e cost i s thus to depress unit s i t e costs the further one moves from the c e n t r a l and more accessible s i t e . -39-The i n t e r a c t i o n of demand and supply works such that as one moves away from the centre of an urban area there i s an increasing supply of available o f f i c e s i t e s with a decreasing demand for those s i t e s as o f f i c e users occupy the more accessible s i t e s before the les s accessible s i t e s . However, a l l o f f i c e functions do not thrive on central urban a c c e s s i b i l i t y . Other l o c a t i o n c r i t e r i a such as proximity to l o c a l markets may be an overriding l o c a t i o n f a c t o r . In such cases i t i s d i f f i c u l t and misleading to apply, per se, the c l a s s i c a l notion of a c c e s s i b i l i t y to an urban centre. As f a r as o f f i c e s a r e concerned, a c c e s s i b i l i t y to Ideational a t t r i b u t e s necessary to support the p a r t i c u l a r o f f i c e function i s a more meaningful approach when determin-ing s i t e costs f o r o f f i c e users. Just as there are physical l i m i t a t i o n s to highly geographically central locations^so there are i n s t i t u t i o n a l l i m i t a t i o n s on les s central, yet none-theless desirable, locations as f a r as some o f f i c e users are concerned. The same competitive forces are observed but the ra t i o n a l e i s not a c c e s s i b i l i t y to an urban centre but acces-s i b i l i t y to other l o c a t i o n f a c t o r s . (2) E f f e c t on price due to market and non market forces. From the above i t was seen that the market or competitive forces operating through the pr i c e mechanism ensured that, as one moved away from an accessible centre -40-th ere i s a reduction i n unit s i t e costs. In r e a l i t y market forces are a r t i f i c i a l l y constrained by i n s t i t u t i o n a l i n t e r -vention. (14) Zoning determines both the permitted use of s i t e together with i n t e n s i t y of use. With respect to the former, zoning ensures that o f f i c e s i t e s only occur at pockets across an urban region. With respect to i n t e n s i t y of use, the more intensely a given s i t e area i s developed the lower w i l l be the costs of land a t t r i b u t a b l e to a unit area of net rentable f l o o r space, although unit s i t e costs w i l l be r e l a t i v e l y greater. From Figure (2) i t can be seen that as one moves away from the centre of an urban area i n t e n s i t y of use de-creases. The sample used i n t h i s thesis indicates that such a decrease approximates an exponential decay function. The e f f e c t being that s i t e s are used l e s s e f f i c i e n t l y the further one moves from the centre with a resultant increase, c e t e r i s paribus, i n the cost of land a t t r i b u t a b l e to a unit area of usable o f f i c e f l o o r space. The combined i n t e r a c t i o n of pure market forces with i n s t i t u t i o n a l constraints, as they a f f e c t the cost of land per unit area of net rentable f l o o r space, are seen to be o f f s e t t i n g e f f e c t s . Competition ensures that land prices decrease as one moves from the centre of an accessible area while zoning ensures that s i t e s are used l e s s e f f i c i e n t l y the further one moves from the centre with a resultant increase i n unit costs. FIGURE 2. LOG FSR 2.4. 1.5-GRAPH SHOWING LOG FLOOR SPACE RATIO REGRESSED AGAINST DISTANCE FOR OFFICES ACROSS THE GREATER VANCOUVER REGION. CONSTANT A COEFFICIENT B F RATIO F PROBABILITY STD. ERROR (A) STD. ERROR (B) STD. ERROR (Y) COEFF. OF DET. (R 2) t STATISTIC I. 568 -0.00004418 139-8 0-000 0.125 0*000003736 0.6531 .69 I I . 8 5 0.6_ I 0.3 1.2_ 2.1 0 52*000 58500 65000 6500 13000 GEOR GIA/GRANVILLE 19500 26000 32500 39000 45500 DISTANCE (FEET) -42-In r e a l i t y the market i s imperfect with o f f i c e users competing f o r s i t e s with knowledge of zoning constraints. The bidding process described e a r l i e r operates within the i n s t i t u -t i o n a l l i m i t a t i o n . From the above analysis i t i s possible to suggest three a l t e r n a t i v e s i t u a t i o n s that might occur with respect to land costs a t t r i b u t a b l e to a square foot of net rentable f l o o r space. F i r s t l y that such costs are invariant across the metro-p o l i t a n regions secondly that costs decrease the further one moves away from the centre of an urban area or t h i r d l y that costs increase with distance. Competition for o f f i c e s i t e s i s not between a l l o f f i c e users f o r a l l s i t e s but between some users f o r some locations; c e n t r a l a c c e s s i b i l i t y i s not the dominant l o c a t i o n variable f o r a l l o f f i c e functions. There i s no reason to suppose that a suburban o f f i c e function i s l e s s p r o f i t a b l e i n terms of space e f f i c i e n c y than a ce n t r a l o f f i c e function. For the purpose of t h i s thesis i t i s thus hypothe-sized thats-( i i i ) THE COST OF LAND PER SQUARE FOOT OF NET RENTABLE OFFICE FLOOR SPACE IS INVARIANT ACROSS THE METROPOLITAN REGION. The above hypothesis ( i i i ) implies, that since unit costs of land per net rentable square foot are inva r i a n t across the - 4 3 -urban region, that there i s no difference between suburban and central c i t y unit costs. Again the cen t r a l c i t y and sub-urbia are exclusive subsets c o n s t i t u t i n g the t o t a l set of a l l o f f i c e l o c a t i o n s . I t i s thus further hypothesized that:-(iv) THE COST OF LAND PER SQUARE FOOT OF NET RENTABLE OFFICE FLOOR SPACE IS INVARIANT AS BETWEEN CENTRAL AND SUBURBAN LOCATIONS. -44-CHAPTER 3 3.1 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY From those hypotheses i t was necessary to c o n s t r u c t a sample of o f f i c e b u i l d i n g s , determine a p o i n t i n the urban r e g i o n from which those o f f i c e s were s p a t i a l l y r e l a t e d , c o l l e c t l a n d and b u i l d i n g c o s t d a t a on i n d i v i d u a l o f f i c e p r o j e c t s and ensure t h a t such data were comparable f o r s t a t i s t i c a l measurement. ( i ) Sample I d e n t i f i c a t i o n T h i s t h e s i s reviews o n l y p r i n c i p a l non-government o f f i c e b u i l d i n g s constructed i n the C i t y of Vancouver and the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s of Burnaby, New Westminster, Coquitlam, North Vancouver C i t y , and North Vancouver D i s t r i c t . Major o f f i c e b u i l d i n g s i n D e l t a , Richmond and Surrey were not i n evidence. Government b u i l d i n g s were excluded on the grounds that c r i t e r i a o ther than economic probably determined t h e i r l o c a t i o n s . The p r i n c i p a l source c o n s u l t e d , i n d e r i v i n g a sample o f o f f i c e b u i l d i n g s , was found i n 'Real E s t a t e Trends i n M e t r o p o l i t a n  Vancouver 1?71' (VRET) (1) supplemented w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n ob-t a i n e d from d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h m u n i c i p a l a u t h o r i t i e s . The sample obtained i s not a complete sample of a l l o f f i c e space i n the Greater Vancouver Region (GVR) but from Table I I I i t can be -45-TABLE I I I (1) (2) (3) (4) AREA EXISTING OFFICE (3) as % (2) OFFICE SPACE SPACE IN (SQ. FT) SAMPLE (SQ. FT) CITY OF VANCOUVER 12,587,000 4,605,000 36.7 D°P1™LA 9,625,000 4,096,000 42.5 SUBURBS 712,000 320,869 45.8 SOURCE: ' O f f i c e Space Survey, 1971' - Real E s t a t e Board of Greater Vancouver 1971 and t h e s i s data. -46-seen to represent 42.5/6 of the downtown peninsula space, 36.7$ of the C i t y of Vancouver space and 45^ of suburban o f f i c e space the t o t a l sample represents approximately 3^.4^ of a l l non-government o f f i c e space i n the Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t . Much of the remaining o f f i c e space i s contained i n small units i n multi-purpose developments. Complex develop-ments were excluded where apportioning of u n i t costs would have been grossly inadequate. Unfortunately such complex developments often included large scale o f f i c e projects. The information obtained from VRET was s c r u t i n i z e d by cross check-ing municipal records to determine anomalous reporting. The sample includes a t o t a l of 71 o f f i c e buildings across the GVR of which 36 are c l a s s i f i e d c e n t r a l locations and 35 are c l a s s i f i e d suburban l o c a t i o n s . A l l o f f i c e s i t e s c l a s s i f i e d as c e n t r a l are within the C i t y of Vancouver; a l l others are defined as suburban s i t e s . Higher place o f f i c e functions such as those located along Broadway have been included i n the c e n t r a l sample. The sample used to t e s t u n i t b u i l d i n g costs includes 34 buildings at c e n t r a l locations and 32 at suburban l o c a t i o n s . The sample used to consider land assessment data comprises 32 and 27 s i t e s r e s p e c t i v e l y . Dis-crepancies between sample sizes are due to missing data. ( i i ) Research process O r i g i n a l l y i t was intended to obtain b u i l d i n g cost -47-data from municipal b u i l d i n g permit o f f i c e s and land cost data from land r e g i s t r y f i l e s . The former proved s a t i s f a c t o r y while the l a t t e r proved highly unsatisfactory. In t r a c i n g and searching land r e g i s t r y deeds of the subject s i t e s , to ascertain the price paid for a s i t e immediately p r i o r to de-velopment, i t was evident that reported sales p r i c e s , where obtainable, were anomalous. In the absence of access to con-f i d e n t i a l land r e g i s t r y c e r t i f i c a t e s i t was impossible to v e r i f y the accuracy of reported f i g u r e s . Property exchanges, non arms length transactions and l o t consolidations a l l com-pounded the d i f f i c u l t y of obtaining data that might be consid-ered acceptable f o r t h i s t h e s i s . Unable to obtain r e l i a b l e data i n d i c a t i v e of market value from land r e g i s t r y f i l e s , i t was decided to use current assessed land values f o r property tax purposes when consider-ing land costs per square foot of net rentable f l o o r space. Such a measure, although not i n d i c a t i v e of true market value i s considered acceptable as representative of r e l a t i v e market values across the metropolitan region. The l i m i t a t i o n s of such data w i l l be discussed below. VRET provided information necessary to test the hypotheses concerning b u i l d i n g costs. Such data included c i v i c addresses, net rentable square footage, year of project completion and storey height. A d d i t i o n a l information was abstracted from municipal b u i l d i n g permits. That data included -48-permit a p p l i c a t i o n data, gross b u i l d i n g area, t o t a l estimated p r o j e c t c o s t s to completion and s i t e areas. B u i l d i n g permits were l o c a t e d by c i v i c address from f i l e s lodged i n mu n i c i p a l o f f i c e s . To s a t i s f y the hypotheses concerning land c o s t s per square f o o t o f net r e n t a b l e f l o o r space, assessment f i l e s lodged w i t h m u n i c i p a l assessment o f f i c e s were searched u s i n g the c i v i c addresses from VRET to determine the r o l l numbers of s u b j e c t p r o p e r t i e s . From the r o l l numbers, assessed land values f o r pro p e r t y t a x purposes were determined. Checks on past assessment r o l l s were c a r r i e d out to d i s c o v e r i f there had been r a d i c a l permitted changes i n use t h a t might d i s t o r t assessed v a l u e s a f t e r a p r o j e c t ' s i n c e p t i o n . Conversions by an a p p r o p r i a t e f a c t o r were made to e l i m i n a t e d i s c r e p a n c i e s due to s i n g l e and d u a l r o l l r e p o r t i n g methods employed by d i f f e r e n t m u n i c i p a l i t i e s • The l o c a t i o n of o f f i c e s i t e s sampled were p l o t t e d on a s c a l e map and measured from a predetermined c e n t r a l point? the j u n c t i o n of Georgia and G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t s on the downtown p e n i n s u l a . F i g u r e (3) i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t Vancouver's h i g h e s t land v a l u e s f o r o f f i c e s are found at t h i s l o c a t i o n r e f l e c t i n g h i g h competition f o r the h i g h l y c e n t r a l and a c c e s s i b l e l o c a t i o n . A l l d i s t a n c e s are s t r a i g h t l i n e d i s t a n c e s w i t h obvious t o p o g r a p h i c a l b a r r i e r s accounted f o r . Time d i s t a n c e contours were considered as an a l t e r n a t i v e method of measurement but the f i n e g r a i n i n f o r m a t i o n FIGURE 3 $/SQ.FT. OF SITE Hastings Robson Burrard Seymour i I Hastings Robson Seymour Cambie golden tr i a n g l f Burrard -West Georgia-Water Front-S. of Robson Burrard Cambie 1970 Source» 'Office Space Survey 1971', Real Estate Board of Greater Vancouver 1971 -50 -required was unobtainable from the coarse grain data a v a i l a b l e . Data with respect to construction costs and land values were subjected to two processes to make i t comparable, and manageable, i n dealing with the above sub hypotheses. F i r s t l y a l l data v/as transformed into a comparable unit measurement of area. That unit area was determined as a net rentable square foot of o f f i c e f l o o r space. Where VRET did not supply such information, gross b u i l d i n g areas were reduced by 10% to ar r i v e at the net f i g u r e . The reduction i s a r b i t r a r y , but municipal o f f i c i a l s agreed that such a reduction accounts for the major variance between gross and net f l o o r space. Rentable square footage i s a good measure for two reasons. F i r s t l y a l l other cost information such as taxes, maintenance and rents are based on rentable square footage. Secondly, i t i s meaningful to use when comparing alt e r n a t i v e l o c a t i o n s . Land costs are t y p i c a l l y measured i n terms of unit s i t e area which i s meaningless when comparing a l t e r n a t i v e s i t e s with d i f f e r e n t i n s t i t u t i o n a l constraints. Secondly a l l construction cost data was transformed to common 1971 d o l l a r s using the Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s ' (DBS) composite non r e s i d e n t i a l construction cost index (2). A l l land data i s i n current 1973 assessed values. The two types of data are not capable of aggregation. -51-( i i i ) L i m i t a t i o n s of data (a) B u i l d i n g Costst With r e s p e c t t o b u i l d i n g c o s t s there are three l i m i t a t i o n s t h a t must be noted. F i r s t l y , estimated c o n s t r u c t i o n c o s t s are s u b j e c t to muni c i p a l t a x e s . The gr e a t e r the rep o r t e d f i g u r e the g r e a t e r are the taxes payable. However taxes as a p r o p o r t i o n of t o t a l p r o j e c t c o s t are l i k e l y to be m a r g i n a l l y i n s i g n i f i c a n t when d e a l i n g w i t h o f f i c e p r o j e c t s . D i l i g e n t m u n i c i p a l o f f i c i a l s are l i k e l y to recognize any m i s r e p o r t i n g o f p r o j e c t c o s t s . Secondly reported f i g u r e s a r e estimates and not a c t u a l c o s t s . Estimates on a s i n g l e p r o j e c t may d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y between any two es t i m a t o r s . T h i r d l y , when comparing c o s t s between m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o account f o r d i f f e r e n c e s i n m u n i c i p a l standards which may or may not s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t p r o j e c t c o s t s , (b) Assessed land v a l u e s i In l o o k i n g a t the cost of land to a l o c a t o r of o f -f i c e s t h i s t h e s i s has attempted to a s c e r t a i n the market value of s i t e s c l e a r e d of b u i l d i n g s and a v a i l a b l e f o r development as o f f i c e s . I t i s assumed t h a t market value i s the p r i c e t h a t would be p a i d , necessary to secure a s i t e and thus a development c o s t . As noted e a r l i e r , a c t u a l a c q u i s i t i o n c o s t s were unobtain-able i n any meaningful form. Assessed land values f o r p r o p e r t y -52-tax purposes were considered a reasonably good measure of r e l a t i v e market values. Assessed values, however, exhibit the following disadvantages. F i r s t l y , the d o l l a r a l l o c a t i o n of value between land and buildings i s a r b i t r a r y . I t i s d i f f i c u l t to s p l i t t o t a l value of a s i t e between land and improvements. Secondly assessment procedures are l i k e l y to be inconsistent, not only between mu n i c i p a l i t i e s but also within a single municipality over time. The disadvantages of using assessed land values are considered important but are an improvement over the anomalous reporting found i n land r e g i s t r y f i l e s . Assessment data i s advantageous from the points of view that i t i s conveniently defined on plans and records, that such records are continuously updated and that any major change i n permitted use i s quickly i d e n t i f i e d throu changes i n assessed value. .2 DATA .ANALYSIS:;:..? ( i ) S t a t i s t i c a l t e s t i n g Tests were constructed to s a t i s f y the requirements of sub hypotheses contained i n section 2.6. With respect to both assessed land values and construction costs the purpose of such tests were twofold; f i r s t l y , through regression analysis, to determine whether or not such values and costs could be expressed as l i n e a r functions of distance from the urban centre and secondly, through comparative analysis, to -53-determine any s i g n i f i c a n t differences between suburban and ce n t r a l unit costs and values. Scatter diagrams were constructed to determine whether or not regression techniques would prove a suitable t o o l of an a l y s i s . I t was evident that no l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p existed f o r either dependant variable as a function of distance from the urban centre. To substantiate the observations, re-gression analyses were performed on the data. The resultant s t a t i s t i c s are shown i n Figures (4) and (5). Comparative s t a t i s t i c a l analyses were performed to determine whether or not there were any s i g n i f i c a n t differences between c e n t r a l and suburban average construction costs and c e n t r a l and suburban average assessed land values per square foot of net rentable f l o o r space. The resultant s t a t i s t i c s are tabulated i n tables (IV) and (V). Frequency polygons f o r construction costs and assessed land values per square foot of net rentable f l o o r space are shown i n Figures (6) and ( 7 ) . ( i i ) S t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n Figures (4) and.(5) indicate that distance from the urban centre does very l i t t l e to explain v a r i a t i o n s i n the dependant variables at points across the metropolitan region. I t i s concluded that assessed land values and construction costs per square foot of net rentable f l o o r space cannot be FIGURE 4 CONSTRUCTION COST/SQ.FT. NRFS 1.0. 1.0. 1.0 1.0_ GRAPH SHOWING UNIT CONSTRUCTION COSTS REGRESSED AGAINST DISTANCE FROM THE URBAN CENTRE CONSTANT A 27-04 COEFFICIENT B 0«0002312 F RATIO (B) 13.98 F PROBABILITY (B) 0*0005 STD ERROR (A) 1-97 STD ERROR (B) 0»00006l8 STD ERROR (Y) 10.56 COEFF. OF DETERM. (R ) 0«184 t STATISTIC 3.73 -IT I L U C L.00 6500 13000 26', 000 "3 9boo 52600 65OOO DISTANCE (FEET) FIGURE 5 $(1973)/SQ.FT.NRFS 13.0. 10.6_ 3.2 _ 5.8 J 3*4 _ 1.00 1 . . 6500 13000' GEORGIA/GRANVILLE GRAPH SHOWING UNIT ASSESSED LAND VALUES REGRESSED AGAINST DISTANCE FROM THE URBAN CENTRE CONSTANT A 5*9 COEFFICIENT B 0-0000314 F RATIO (B) 5*18 F PROBABILITY (fl) 0*025 STD ERROR (A) 0*437 STD ERROR (B) 0*0000138 STD ERROR (Y) 2*275 COEFF. OF DETERM.(R2) 0*08 t STATISTIC 2.277 1 I 26000* 32500 39000 45500 520001 58500 65000 DISTANCE (FEET) TABLE IV CONSTRUCTION COSTS A l l Locations C e n t r a l Suburban $/SQ. FT. NRFS (1971 D o l l a r s ) Mean Co n s t r u c t i o n Cost 21.5 26.5 16.3 Standard D e v i a t i o n 11.6 10.4 10.5 Ho: u c - u s = 0 n c = 33 Ha: u c > u s n g = 31 n + n-2= 62 c s C r i t i c a l r a t i o C a l c u l a t e d ' t ' score i f o r t O10, 62 1.29 4.86 f o r t 0*01, 62 2.3 4.86 i ON Conclusion - r e j e c t the n u l l hypothesis t h a t there i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the mean c o n s t r u c t i o n c o s t s between c e n t r a l and suburban l o c a t i o n s a t Q.Qlfo l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e . TABLE V ASSESSED LAND VALUES (ALV) A l l Locations C e n t r a l Suburban $/SQ. FT. NRFS (1973) D o l l a r s Mean ALV 571 575 4T8 Standard D e v i a t i o n 2 . 3 2 . 5 2 . 1 Ho: - u s = 0 n c = 32 Hat Uc - u s ^ 0 n s = 2? n c + n s - 2 = 57 C r i t i c a l r a t i o C a l c u l a t e d ' t ' score f o r t 0-10, 57 1.6 1 . 3 3 f o r t O'Ol, 57 2 . 6 1 . 3 3 Conclusion - cannot r e j e c t the n u l l hypothesis t h a t there i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between c e n t r a l and suburban ALV's at 0 . 1 0 $ l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e . FIGURE 6 - 5 8 -N o . o f p b s e r v a t i o n s l 5 GRAPH SHOWING FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF CONSTRUCTION COSTS PER SQ. FT. OF NRFS FOR « (a) Central locations (b) Suburban locations (c) A l l locations . $/SQ.FT. NRFS Source - Research Data FIGURE ? No. of Observa-tions GRAPH SHOWING FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF ASSESSED LAND VALUES/SQ. FT. OF NRFS (a) Central locations (b) suburban locations (c) a l l locations "$/SQ. FT. OF NRFS Source - Research Data -60-expressed as a l i n e a r function of distance from the urban centre i n any meaningful fashion. From table (IV), with respect to differences i n mean unit construction costs, i t can be i n f e r r e d from sample data that the hypothesis that there i s no s i g n i f i c a n t difference between c e n t r a l and suburban mean construction costs be re j e c -ted at the 0.01 percent l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e i . e . there i s a s i g n i f i c a n t difference i n central and suburban mean costs per square foot of net rentable f l o o r space. With respect to mean assessed land values per square foot of net rentable f l o o r space, Table (V) indicates that the hypothesis that there i s no difference i n such values between central and suburban locations cannot be rejected at the 0,10 percent l e v e l of s i g -n i f i c a n c e i . e . there i s an i n s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n t i a l between central and suburban mean assessed land values per square foot of NRFS. 3.3 TENTATIVE CONCLUSIONS From the foregoing analysis the following major points emerge:-(1) that between ce n t r a l and suburban locations there i s a s i g n i f i c a n t difference i n the average construction cost per square foot of net rentable o f f i c e f l o o r space; central costs are s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than suburban costs. -61-(2) that between central and suburban locations there i s an i n s i g n i f i c a n t difference i n the mean assessed land values per square foot of net rentable o f f i c e f l o o r space. (3) that distance from the urban centre i s an inappropriate variable with which to describe and predict changes i n unit construction costs at points across the metropolitan region; and (4) that distance from the urban centre i s not an appropriate variable with which to describe and predict changes i n assessed land values per square foot of net rentable o f f i c e f l o o r space at points across the metropolitan region. Relating the four main findings of t h i s thesis back through the sub-hypotheses of section 2.6, the following rep-resent probable causes of the above observations. With respect to the statement that there are s i g n i -f i c a n t differences between suburban and ce n t r a l mean unit construction costs, i t was noted e a r l i e r , when deriving a ra t i o n a l e f o r sub hypothesis ( i i ) , that construction costs were a function of labour costs, material costs, technological forms and economies of scale. I t was suggested that technolo-g i c a l form and scale economies were o f f s e t t i n g e f f e c t s upon the costs of construction. I t was further noted that advanced technological forms were applied to high r i s e buildings mani-fested at c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n s . Advanced technological forms increase unit construction costs r e l a t i v e to l e s s e r forms of -62-construction technology - see table (VI). I t i s thus concluded that the higher central unit construction costs are caused by more advanced construction techniques to b u i l d high r i s e buildings evidenced at central l o c a t i o n s . In order to accom-modate large numbers of o f f i c e users seeking the a t t r i b u t e s of highly c e n t r a l and accessible s i t e s high r i s e structures are used to surmount the consumption of a l i m i t e d supply of such s i t e s . I t i s further implied that cost economies of scale, derived from large scale c e n t r a l projects are i n s u f f i c i e n t to o f f s e t a d d i t i o n a l costs necessitated by advanced construction forms required to carry out high r i s e , large scale c e n t r a l projects. With respect to i n s i g n i f i c a n t differences between ce n t r a l and suburban mean assessed land values per square foot of net rentable f l o o r space, i t was noted, when deriving a r a t i o n a l e f o r sub hypothesis ( i v ) , that competition for a l l o f f i c e s i t e s was not between a l l o f f i c e users but competition f o r some s i t e s by some users. There i s no reason to believe that central o f f i c e users, seeking c e n t r a l a c c e s s i b i l i t y for s u r v i v a l are more or l e s s e f f i c i e n t or p r o f i t a b l e i n terms of unit f l o o r area than suburban o f f i c e users d e s i r i n g l o c a t i o n a l a t t r i b u t e s other than c e n t r a l a c c e s s i b i l i t y . As there are a l i m i t e d number of highly c e n t r a l i z e d and accessible s i t e s so there are a l i m i t e d number of suburban s i t e s with other l o c a t i o n -a l features desired by some lo c a t o r s . - 6 3 -TABLE VI METHOD OF CONSTRUCTION WOOD FRAME CONCRETE STOREY HEIGHT OFFICE CONSTRUCTION COST PER SQUARE FOOT (mid year) 1-2 1-8 1967 12.50-15.00 16.00-23.00 1970 15.00-18.00 22.00-27.00 9-20 18.00-25.00 27.00-30.00 21+ 22.00-32.00 27.00-35.00 Source* Concost Services Ltd. published i n 'Real Estate  Trends i n Metropolitan Vancouver 1971', Real Estate Board of Greater Vancouver, S t a t i s t i c a l and Survey Committee,1971 p.C-17. -64-With respect to the expression of construction costs and assessed land values per square foot of net rentable f l o o r space as l i n e a r functions of distance from the urban centre, zoning ensures that o f f i c e development only occurs at pockets across the urban surface thus d i s t o r t i n g any possible function that might otherwise e x i s t . Distance from the centre does not explain changes i n unit construction costs and asses-sed land values per square foot of net rentable f l o o r space for o f f i c e s at points across the metropolitan region. Figure (1) i l l u s t r a t e s that land and b u i l d i n g costs were two l o c a t i o n variables abstracted from the t o t a l set of o f f i c e l o c a t i o n c r i t e r i a . The l o c a t o r of o f f i c e s when review-ing land and construction costs, would on the basis of t h i s t h e s i s , conclude t h a t i -(1) with respect to construction costs, that there are s i g n i -f i c a n t cost advantages i n providing a unit area of o f f i c e f l o o r space at suburban locations as opposed to c e n t r a l locations? and (2) that there i s no s i g n i f i c a n t cost benefit to be gained., on the basis of assessed land values per square foot of net rentable f l o o r space, from l o c a t i n g at either central or suburban l o c a t i o n s . With respect to (2), i f assessed land values f a i r l y r e f l e c t r e l a t i v e market values, then the conclusion that there i s no s i g n i f i c a n t difference i n assessed land values can - 6 5 -r e a d i l y be applied to market values. I f the p r i c e paid for an o f f i c e s i t e , and consequently the developers cost, i s market value, the locator would conclude that there i s an i n s i g n i f i -cant difference i n the cost of land per square foot of net rentable f l o o r space f o r o f f i c e s between central and suburban l o c a t i o n s . 3.4 AREAS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH The subject of o f f i c e l o c a t i o n requires to be researched i n i t s e n t i r e t y . As a follow up to t h i s thesis a number of s p e c i f i c areas require refinement. Construction cost data i s based upon estimated project costs, A more r e a l i s t i c approach would be to obtain f i n a l audited cost accounts. Assessed land values have serious drawbacks. Although an improvement on the anomolous, non c l a s s i f i e d land r e g i s t r y data, i t i s considered nothing more than the better of two e v i l s . A l t e r n a t i v e methods of determining actual market value must be found i f improved conclusions are to be drawn regard-ing s i t e costs to a locator of o f f i c e s . This thesis focused on, and analysed two s p e c i f i c l o c a t i o n c r i t e r i a contained in the t o t a l set of l o c a t i o n v a r i a b l e s . Before other c r i t e r i a are evaluated i t i s deemed necessary to obtain a statement of opinion and practice from those par t i e s a c t u a l l y involved i n the l o c a t i o n decision. Such a statement might be obtained by s o l i c i t i n g information - 6 6 -through questionaires and interviews. The LOB study-would prove of valuable assistance i n t h i s regard. Further suggested areas of work include the deter-mination of the l o c a t i o n of s p e c i f i c types of o f f i c e use. In addition to l o c a t i o n by type of o f f i c e a c t i v i t y i t would prove useful to determine the l o c a t i o n a l requirements of such types. -67-CHAPTER k CONCLUSIONS J In r e l a t i n g the general c o n c l u s i o n s to t h i s t h e s i s ' s o b j e c t i v e s i t i s s t a t e d t h a t i -(a) an a n a l y t i c a l framework f o r the understanding of o f f i c e l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n s has been e s t a b l i s h e d . (b) the v a r i o u s c r i t e r i a p e r c e i v e d to be contained i n the l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n have been made e x p l i c i t . (c) two l o c a t i o n a l c r i t e r i a were analysed and t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e determined) and (d) although the study does not d e t a i l the s i g n i f i c a n c e of o f f i c e use as a user of urban space, i t does p o i n t to areas where o f f i c e use i s of v i t a l i n t e r e s t . The s p e c i f i c c o n c l u s i o n s of t h i s t h e s i s are documented i n the previous s e c t i o n . The s i g n i f i c a n c e of those f i n d i n g s may, i n i t s e l f , be considered meagre; t o t a l a n a l y s i s of a l l l o c a t i o n c r i t e r i a , h o p e f u l l y i n a more r e f i n e d f a s h i o n , may a s s i s t i n understanding the o f f i c e l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n . I t i s f e l t t h a t time spent i n a n a l y s i n g and understanding the cause of urban dilemmas i s more important than attempting to juggle the e f f e c t s . As a d e r i v i t i v e of the above d i s c u s s i o n , t h i s s e c t i o n p l a c e s the co n c l u s i o n s of t h i s t h e s i s i n the context of e a r l i e r f i n d i n g s concerned w i t h o f f i c e l o c a t i o n c r i t e r i a and attempts -68-to recommend p o l i c y g u i d e l i n e s . As a l l u d e d to s e v e r a l times, r e s e a r c h w i t h r e s p e c t to the o f f i c e l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n i s v i r t u a l l y non e x i s t e n t j work on the s i g n i f i c a n c e of v a r i o u s c r i t e r i a i n v o l v e d i n l o c a t i n g o f f i c e s i s non e x i s t e n t . The need to develop r e s e a r c h i n t h i s area, i n order to formulate a p o l i c y g u i d i n g t o o l , w i l l be s h a r p l y focused on when p r e s e n t i n g p o l i c y recommendations. That work c a r r i e d out on o f f i c e s c o n s i s t s mainly of s t u d i e s documenting post l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n s . In t h i s r e s p e c t most re s e a r c h appears p o s i t i v e i n outlook. A more normative approach to r e s e a r c h i s r e q u i r e d i f the l o c a t i o n of o f f i c e s i s to be understood i n any one of the areas th a t o f f i c e a c t i v i t y impinges upon. The s p e c i f i c c o n c l u s i o n s of t h i s t h e s i s concerning land c o s t s n e i t h e r confirm nor c o n f l i c t w i t h e a r l i e r f i n d i n g s * s i m i l a r approaches are not d i s c e r n i b l e . C l a s s i c a l a n a l y s i s w i t h r e s p e c t to u n i t s i t e c o s t s bears no r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the approach taken i n t h i s t h e s i s . At the outset of t h i s study two d i s t i n c t i o n s were recognized. F i r s t l y , that t h i s t h e s i s focused on a s p e c i f i c land use as opposed to s e v e r a l uses. Secondly, to s a t i s f y the major o b j e c t i v e of t h i s t h e s i s , a meaningful comparative method of measurement was mandatory* u n i t s i t e c o s t s do not adequately account f o r i n s t i t u t i o n a l l i m i t a t i o n s at a l t e r n a t i v e s i t e s i n any meaningful f a s h i o n . -69-The s p e c i f i c f i n d i n g s , w i t h r e s p e c t to b u i l d i n g c o s t s , besides c o n f i r m i n g , i n a l o g i c a l manner, t h a t high r i s e forms of c o n s t r u c t i o n are s i g n i f i c a n t l y more expensive than low r i s e forms, determines t h a t suburban c o s t s of con-s t r u c t i o n are cheaper than c e n t r a l c i t y c o s t s . The i n t e r e s t i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c b e i n g , not t h a t one form of c o n s t r u c t i o n i s cheaper than another, but th a t high r i s e forms predominantly occur at c e n t r a l c i t y l o c a t i o n s , w h i l e low r i s e forms occur a t suburban l o c a t i o n s . In a r r i v i n g a t a s e t of p o l i c y g u i d e l i n e s based upon t h i s t h e s i s , care i s taken not to impart a grand scheme of s p e c i f i c recommendations; i t i s f e l t t h a t the i s o l a t e d c o n c l u s i o n s of t h i s study do not warrant such confidences. However, some t e n t a t i v e proposals are given t h a t are a r e s u l t of immersion i n the subject of o f f i c e l o c a t i o n . P o l i c y guide-l i n e s are immediately r e q u i r e d f o r those persons r e s e a r c h i n g o f f i c e l o c a t i o n . I t i s suggested t h a t u n t i l an adequate com-prehension i s gained of the processes i n v o l v e d i n the o f f i c e l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o f o l l o w through p o l i c y recommendations i n other areas. E f f o r t s should be made to determine the l o c a t i o n a l requirements of d i f f e r e n t users and t o develop methods of comparing l o c a t i o n a l a t t r i b u t e s a t a l t e r n a t i v e s i t e s . The t h r u s t of such enquiry should be t w o f o l d . F i r s t l y , d e f i n i n g the l o c a t i o n a l requirements of d i f f e r e n t users through s o l i c i t i n g -70-i n f o r m a t i o n from i n d u s t r y , and secondly, t o develop f e a s i b l e methods of measuring the s i g n i f i c a n c e of l o c a t i o n a l a t t r i b u t e s f o r d i f f e r e n t users a t d i f f e r e n t s i t e s . I n developing a comprehension of o f f i c e l o c a t i o n c r i t e r i a i n v o l v e d i n the l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n , b e n e f i t s accrue to both p u b l i c and p r i v a t e i n t e r e s t s . The b e n e f i t d e r i v e d from understanding o f f i c e use, and u t i l i z i n g t h a t understanding as a p o l i c y g u i d i n g t o o l , would a s s i s t i n the r e c o n c i l i a t i o n of p u b l i c and p r i v a t e i n t e r e s t through the e l i m i n a t i o n of p o s s i b l e misunderstandings of r e s p e c t i v e requirements. The use of a mutually acceptable standard of l o c a t i o n a l r e q u i r e -ments would circumvent such d i f f e r e n c e s . I n the p u b l i c s e c t o r , the e f f i c i e n t and e f f e c t i v e phasing of resources and energies would be f a c i l i t a t e d . P l a n n i n g of p h y s i c a l and f i n a n c i a l r e -sources f a l l w i t h i n the ambit of t h i s d i s c u s s i o n . I f a f u l l comprehension i s gained of the f o r c e s i n v o l v e d i n the l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n , then t h a t knowledge, coupled w i t h an understanding of other l a n d uses, may be a p p l i e d i n determining land use a l l o c a t i o n , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and i n f r a s t r u c t u r e p o l i c i e s : o f f i c e use impinges s i g n i f i c a n t l y on such areas. The p l a n n i n g of more e f f i c i e n t and e f f e c t i v e f i n a n c i a l p o l i c i e s , such as c a p i t a l investment and revenue producing schemes, stems d i r e c t l y from a t t a i n i n g a more e f f i c i e n t and e f f e c t i v e use o f p h y s i c a l r e s o u r c e s . I n the p r i v a t e s e c t o r , a degree of u n c e r t a i n t y i s removed from both the development and investment f u n c t i o n s . -71-Private enterprise, i n the absence of h i t and miss ( i n t u i t i v e ) methods or p o l i c i e s , would function more e f f i c i e n t l y . The following discussion i s designed to provide an argument f o r using the present study of o f f i c e l o c a t i o n as a p o l i c y t o o l i n the s o l u t i o n of urban problems. The discussion incorporates a number of subjective philosophies that were the o r i g i n a l food f o r thought i n pursuing the subject of o f f i c e l o c a t i o n . With the scarce physical, f i n a n c i a l and human resources available to society, i t was a basic subjective philosophy that such resources be used e f f e c t i v e l y and e f f i c i e n t l y . As central c i t y land i s fi x e d i n supply i t seems l o g i c a l to use that which exists i n the most e f f i c i e n t manner. Advocates of the economic order, arguing through the price mechanism, would suggest that such land _is being used e f f i c i e n t l y . The economic system i s not a panacea f o r urban problems; i t merely provides a conven-ient, contemporary t o o l with which to t r y and explain some facets of urban existence. Other aspects, such as congestion, p o l l u t i o n , welfare, crime and poverty are not so e a s i l y delimited with the a p p l i c a t i o n of economic theory i . e . they are not priced in the markett t h e i r importance tends to be subjugated to the e x i s t i n g economic order of things. In following the economic argument, adversaries of such a demi-god would posit the fact that such theory should -71a-not only account f o r the economic e f f i c i e n c y of the i n d i v i d u a l firm but f o r the t o t a l economic e f f i c i e n c y of the entire urban system as well. With respect to o f f i c e s , the i n c l u s i o n of factors, other than the a l l o c a t i o n of space, that contribute to the functioning of o f f i c e s , remain unaccounted f o r . The external by-products of o f f i c e use, such as congestion, p o l l u -t i o n and excess expenditure of human and physical resources i n t r a v e l l i n g to work are i d e n t i f i a b l e , p a r t i a l l y accountable f o r yet not included in the t o t a l concept of economic e f f i c i e n c y to the i n d i v i d u a l firm; why?. Such e x t e r n a l i t i e s are not priced i n the market place and are thus incapable, other than in an a r b i t r a r y fashion, of being apportioned to i n d i v i d u a l users. It i s suspected that such by-products, i f at t r i b u t e d to the in d i v i d u a l firm, would lead to a s p a t i a l r e d i s t r i b u t i o n of o f f i c e users. In maximizing e f f i c i e n c y , and presumably p r o f i t s , the i n d i v i d u a l firm, in the event, would attempt to minimize the i n e f f i c i e n t elements such as those described above. The common denominator of a l l such elements i s i n t e n s i t y and excess agglomeration of use i currently at the central core. To minimize the e f f e c t s of the i n e f f i c i e n t factors, the l o g i c a l s t a r t i n g point would be the elimination of the cause of i n e f f i c i e n c y ; central i n t e n s i t y and excess agglomeration of o f f i c e use. For the express purpose of brevity, p r e c i s i o n and relevance t h i s discussion i s now constrained to apply s p e c i f i c a l l y to the conclusions of t h i s study. -71b-A method which determines t o t a l urban economic e f f i c i e n c y through the i n c l u s i o n of e x t e r n a l i t i e s i s absent. To achieve the same objective of eliminating i n e f f i c i e n t urban phenomena i t i s necessary, through the current 'modus operandi' of l o c a t i n g o f f i c e s , to concentrate upon the simple economic argument to the i n d i v i d u a l firm. To a t t a i n the objective i t needs to be shown that the firm i s capable of l o c a t i n g more e f f i c i e n t l y at one s i t e as opposed to another. On the basis of t h i s thesis, firms, that could operate independently of a cen-t r a l l o c a t i o n , would operate more e f f i c i e n t l y at suburban l o c a -t i o n s : f i n a n c i a l resources would not be devoted to providing r e l a t i v e l y more expensive accommodation. In l o c a t i n g at the centre, besides operating i n e f f i c i e n t l y , a l b e i t e f f e c t i v e l y , such firms contribute to i n e f f i c i e n c y i n the t o t a l urban system through compounding ce n t r a l agglomeration and i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n of use. Types of p o l i c y that may be developed to eliminate i n e f f i c i e n c i e s i n the urban system are c l a s s i f i e d passive, r e s t r i c t i v e and a c t i v e . Passive p o l i c i e s allow f o r the perpet-uation of the status quo. In the l i g h t of current experience such p o l i c i e s do nothing to eliminate i n e f f i c i e n t elements i n the urban system. R e s t r i c t i v e p o l i c i e s , such as those adopted i n the c i t y of London, are by f a r the easiest to implement; the consequences of the London o f f i c e experience were not so e a s i l y forseeable. Active p o l i c i e s , using incentives or disincentives, -71c-appear appealing i n r e l i e v i n g the cause of i n e f f i c i e n t urban elements. The problem with such a p o l i c y being that the onus f o r curing i n e f f i c i e n c i e s , created by i n d i v i d u a l firms, vest s o l e l y with society at large. A r e a l i s t i c p o l i c y method would involve the combina-t i o n of r e s t r i c t i o n s and incentives or disincentives as applied to o f f i c e use. For such a p o l i c y to be operative, the economic lo c a t i o n argument to the i n d i v i d u a l firm must be understood f o r two basic reasons. With respect to r e s t r i c t i o n s i t i s necessary to evaluate an i n d i v i d u a l firm's need to be at a c e n t r a l l o c a -t i o n : to r e s t r i c t a l l users would eliminate the p o s s i b i l i t y of l o c a t i n g functions which are s o l e l y dependant upon urban c e n t r a l i t y . With respect to incentives a s i m i l a r decision rule i s required such that any incentives offered to lure users away from the urban core are s u f f i c i e n t l y strong to defeat the i n d i -vidual firm's economic argument. Types of r e s t r i c t i o n s , incen-t i v e s or disincentives are d e t a i l s that must be p o l i t i c a l l y and p r a c t i c a l l y f e a s i b l e . Research into the economic argument of l o c a t i n g o f f i c e s , as f a r as the i n d i v i d u a l firm i s concerned, appears to be the datum from which any r a t i o n a l p o l i c y , designed to eliminate i n e f f i c i e n t elements in the urban system may proceed. -72-FOOTNOTES CHAPTER 1 1. A l f r e d Weber'* Theory of the Location of Industries, Trans. C.J. F r i e d r i c h (Chicago, I l l i n o i s : University of Chicago Press, 1929). 2. August Losch, The Economics of Location, Trans. W.H. Woglom and W.F. Stolper (New Haven: Yale University, 1954). 3. Walter C h r i s t a l l e r , The Central Places of Southern Germany, trans. C. Baskin (Englewood C l i f f s : Prentice H a l l , 1966). 4. David L. Huff, "A P r o b a b i l i t y Analysis of Shopping Centre Trading Areas", Land Economics, v o l . 531 February, 1963 • pp. 81-90. 5. P h i l l i p Herrera, "That Manhattan Exodus", Fortune, June 1967, p. 106. 6. "Wooing White C o l l a r s to Suburbia", Business Week, July 8, 1967, p. 97. 7. "Outlook for O f f i c e s " , The Economist, A p r i l 4, 1964, p. 56. 8. Raymond Vernon, Metropolis 1985» (New York: Doubleday Anchor 1963) p. H I . 9. Loc. c i t . 10. B r i t t o n Harris, "Quantitative Models of Urban Development: Their Role i n Metropolitan P o l i c y Making", Issues i n Urban  Economics, ed. Harvey S. P e r l o f f and Lowden Wingo, J r . , (Washington D.C.: Resources for the Future Inc. I969) p. 404, 11 Centre for Real Estate and Urban Economics, Jobs, People and  Land: Bay Area Simulation Study (3AS5), (Berkeley: Univer-s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a 1968), see p. 189. 12. Edgar M. Hoover, "The Evolving Form of the Metropolis", Issues i n Urban Economics, ed. Harvey S. P e r l o f f and Lowden Wingo, J r . , op. c i t . , p. 239, 13. Edgar M. Hoover and Raymond Vernon, Anatomy of a Metropolis, (New York: Doubleday Anchor 1962). - 7 3 -Donald L. Foley, The Suburbanization of Administrative  Off i c e s i n the San Francisco Bay Area, Real Estate Resource Program Report No. 10, (Berkeley: University of C a l i f o r n i a 1957). Location of Offices Bureau, A Survey of Factors Governing the Location of O f f i c e s in the London Area, 1964. op. c i t . p.6. -74-CHAPTER 2 1. For f u l l e r exposition on the derivation of o f f i c e s to be included i n d e f i n i t i o n see D.L. Takahashi, C3D O f f i c e  Location Patterns: A Vancouver Case Study (unpublished K.A. Thesis), University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1 9 7 2 . p. 118. 2 . William H. Whyte, J r . , "The Anti C i t y " , Metropolis; Values  i n C o n f l i c t , ed., C.E. E l i a s , J r . , James G i l i e s and Stfend Riemer, (Belmont: Wadsworth 1964) p. 69. v 3. Loc. c i t . 4. Herbert J. Gans, "Urbanism and Suburbanism as Ways of L i f e " , Urbanism i n World Persoective, ed. S y l v i a F. FaHba, (New York: Crowell 1968) p. 65. fa.™*-. 5. Louis Writh, "Urbanism as a V/ay of L i f e " , American Journal of Soct&logy, V o l . 44 (July 1938), pp. 1-24. Reprinted i n Paul Hath and Albert J. Reiss, J r . (eds), C i t i e s and  Society (Glencoe, I l l . i The Free Press, 1957) p. 56, 6. Scott Greer, The Emerging Cit y: Myth and R e a l i t y , (New York: Free Press 1962), p. 85. 7. Benjamin C h i n i t z , C i t y and Suburb: The Economics of  Metropolitan Growth, (Englewood C l i f f s : Prentice H a l l 1964) 8. I b i d . , p. 3. 9. Loc. c i t . 1 0 . see Brian J. Berry, Geography of Market Centers and R e t a i l  D i s t r i b u t i o n , (Englewood C l i f f s : Prentice H a l l 1967) 11. J. Goddard, "Multi-variate Analysis of O f f i c e Patterns in the C i t y Centre: a London Example"., Regional Studies, v o l . 2, no. 1, 1968. 12. Loc. c i t . 13. Loc. c i t . 14. note that other factors such as topographical or geological constraints w i l l also a f f e c t the l o c a t i o n of o f f i c e s . -75-CHAPTSR 3 1. Real Estate Board of Greater Vancouver, Real Estate  Trends i n Metropolitan Vancouver 1971, pp. C-19-21. 2. Canada, Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , P rices and Price  Indexes, Cat. 62-002, v o l . 48, no. M. (Ottawa: Queen's"" Prin t e r 1970). * - 7 6 -BIBLIOGRAPHY Alonso, W., L o c a t i o n and Land Use, Cambridge, Mass., Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 4 . B e r r y , B.J., Geography of Market Centers and R e t a i l D i s t r i -b u t i o n , Englewood C l i f f s i P r e n t i c e H a l l , 1 9 6 7 . Canada, Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , P r i c e s and P r i c e  Indexes, Cat. 6 2 - 0 0 2 , v o l 4 8 , no 5t Ottawa* Queen's P r i n t e r , 1 9 7 0 . C h i n i t z , B., C i t y and Suburb* The Economics of M e t r o p o l i t a n  Growth, Englewood C l i f f s i P r i n t i c e H a l l , 1 9 6 4 . C h r i s t a l l e r , W., The C e n t r a l P l a c e s of Southern Germany, t r a n s , C. B a s k i n , Englewood C l i f f s i P r e n t i c e H a l l , 1 9 6 6 . Centre f o r Real E s t a t e and Urban Economics, Jobs, People and Land* Bay Area S i m u l a t i o n Study (BASS), Berkeley* U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 6 8 , p.189 . E l i a s , C.E., J n r . , G i l i e s , J . and Riemer, S., eds, M e t r o p o l i s t Values i n C o n f l i c t . Belmonti Wadsworth, 1 9 6 4 , p.69 . F a r a , S.F., Urbanism i n World P e r s p e c t i v e , New Y o r k i C r o w e l l 1 9 6 8 , p.6 5 . F o l e y , D.L., The Suburbanization of A d m i n i s t r a t i v e O f f i c e s i n the San F r a n c i s c o Bay Area, Real E s t a t e Resource Program Report No. 1 0 , Berkeley* U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 5 7 . Goddard, J . , " M u l t i - v a r i a t e A n a l y s i s of O f f i c e P a t t e r n s i n the C i t y Centret a London Example", Regional  S t u d i e s , v o l 2 , no 1 , 1 9 6 8 . Greer, S., The Emerging C i t y t Myth and R e a l i t y , New York Free P r e s s , 1 9 6 2 , p 8 5 . H a r r i s , B., " Q u a n t i t a t i v e Model of Urban Development* T h e i r r o l e i n M e t r o p o l i t a n P o l i c y Making", Conference on  Urban Economics* A n a l y t i c a l and P o l i c y I s s u e s , sponsored by the Committee on Urban Economics of Resources f o r the Future, I nc., January 26-28, 1967 Washington, D.C. - 7 7 -Hoover, E.M. "The E v o l v i n g Form of the M e t r o p o l i s " , Conference on Urban Economics: A n a l y t i c a l and  P o l i c y I s s u e s , sponsored by the Committee on Urban Economics of Resources f o r the Future, i n c . , January 26 -28 , 1967. Washington, D.C. The L o c a t i o n of Economic A c t i v i t y . New York The McGraw-Hill Book Company, 19487 and Vernon, R., Anatomy of a M e t r o p o l i s 1 New York: Doubleday Anchor, 1 9 6 2 J Huff, D.L., "A P r o b a b i l i t y A n a l y s i s of Shopping Centre Trad i n g Areas", Land Economics, v o l . 5 3 , February 1 9 6 3 . P P 81 - 90 . L o c a t i o n of O f f i c e s Bureau, A Survey of F a c t o r s Governing  the L o c a t i o n of O f f i c e s i n the London Area. 1 9 6 4 . Losch, A., The Economics of L o c a t i o n , t r a n s . Woglom, W.H. and S t o l p e r , W.F., New Havent Yale U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 5 4 . M a r s h a l l , A., P r i n c i p l e s of Economics, Londoni Macmillan, P P . 3 6 5 - 3 7 6 . R e a l E s t a t e Board of Greater Vancouver, O f f i c e Space Survey  1 ? 7 1 t Vancouver! S t a t i s t i c a l and Survey Committee, 1 9 7 1 . • Real E s t a t e Trends m M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver 1 9 7 1 t Vancouver: S t a t i s t i c a l and Survey Committee, 1 9 7 1 Richardson, H.W. Urban Economics, Bungay: Penguin Books, 1 9 7 1 , pp 4 1 - 4 4 . Takahashi, D.L., CBD O f f i c e L o c a t i o n P a t t e r n s : A Vancouver  Case Study, unpublished M.A. T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 1 9 7 2 . Vernon, R,t M e t r o p o l i s 1 9 8 5 . New York: Doubleday Anchor 1 9 6 3 , p . l l l . Weber, A., Theory of the L o c a t i o n of I n d u s t r i e s , t r a n s , F r i e d r i c h , c . j . , Chicago, I l l i n o i s 1 U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s , 1 9 2 9 . W r i t h , L. "Urbanism as a Way of L i f e " , American J o u r n a l of S o c i o l o g y , v o l . 4 4 , J u l y 1 9 3 8 , pp 1 - 2 4 . -78-APPENDIX A S.I.C. Code AGRICULTURE, FORESTRY & FISHERIES Maior Group 01.--Agriculture Production *011 F i e l d Crops *013 Livestock Ma.jor Group 0 7 . — A g r i c u l t u r a l Services & Hunting & Trapping -071 A g r i c u l t u r a l Services, Except Animal Husbandry and H o r t i c u l t u r a l Services *073 H o r t i c u l t u r a l Services Major Group 08 . — F o r e s t r y *085 Forestry Services *086 Gathering of Forest Products, Not Elsewhere C l a s s i f i e d *089 Miscellaneous Forestry Services Ma.jor Group 0 9 . — F i s h e r i e s *098 F i s h Hatcheries, Farms & Preserves MINING Major Group 10.—Metal Mining *101 Iron Ores *102 Copper Ores *104 Gold and S i l v e r Ores *106 F e r r o a l l o y Ores, Except Vanadium *108 Metal Mining Services *109 Miscellaneous Metal Ores Major Group 13.--Crude Petroleum and Natural Gas *131 Crude Petroleum and Natural Gas *138 O i l and Gas F i e l d Services Major Group 14.—Mining and Quarrying of Non-Metallic Minerals, Except Fuels * l 4 l Dimension Stone *142 Crushed & Broken Stone, Including Riprap *148 Non-Metallic Minerals (except Fuel) Services *149 Miscellaneous Non-Metallic Minerals, Except Fuels CONTRACT CONSTRUCTION Major Group 1 5 . — B u i l d i n g Construction—General_Contractors *151 General Building Contractors -79-3.1.G. Code (cont'd) Major Group l6r-Construction Other Than Building; C o n s t r u c t i o n — General Contractors *l62 Heavy Construction, Except Highway & Street Construction Major Group 17.—Construction - Special Trade Contractors *171 Plumbing, Heating, and A i r Conditioning *173 E l e c t r i c a l Work . MANUFACTURING Major Group 20.—Food & Kindred Products *:204 Grain M i l l Products *208 Beverages *209 Miscellaneous Food Preparations and Kindred Products Major Group 2 2 . — T e x t i l e M i l l Products •-225 K n i t t i n g M i l l s *229 Miscellaneous T e x t i l e Goods Major Group 23.—Apparal & Other Finished Products Made from Fabrics & Similar Materials -"-231 Men's, Youths' & Boys' Suit s , Coats, and Overcoats *233 Women's, Misses', and Juniors' Outerwear *238 Miscellaneous Apparal and Accessories *239 Miscellaneous Fabricated T e x t i l e Products Major Group 24.—Lumber & Wood Products, Except Furniture *24l Logging Camps and Logging Contractors #242 Sawmills and Planing M i l l s *249 Miscellaneous Wood Products Major Group 25.—Furniture and Fixtures 252 O f f i c e Furniture 254 P a r t i t i o n s , Shelving, Lockers, and Of f i c e & Store Fixtures 259 Miscellaneous Furniture and Fixtures Major Group 26.--Paper & A l l i e d Products -2o2 Paper M i l l s , Except 3 u i l d i n g Paper M i l l s *264 Converted Paper & Paperboard Products, Except Containers and Boxes Major Group 2 7 . — P r i n t i n g , Publishing, and A l l i e d Industries *271 Newspapers: Publishing, Publishing and P r i n t i n g 273 Books #274 Miscellaneous Publishing *275 Commercial P r i n t i n g 276 Manifold Business Forms 278 Blankbooks, Loose Leaf Binders, and Bookbinding & Related Work *2?9 Service Industries for the P r i n t i n g Trade -80-S.I.C. Code (cont'd.) Major Group 28.--Chemicals and A l l i e d Products 289 Miscellaneous Chemical Products Major Group 29 .—Petroleum Refining and Related Industries 291 Petroleum Refining Major Group 3 1 .—Leather and Leather Products 314 Footwear, Except Rubber Major Group 3 3 .—Primary Metal Industries 331 31ast Furnaces, Steel Works, and R o l l i n g and F i n i s h i n g M i l l s Major Group 34.--Fabricated Metal Products, Except Ordnance, Machinery & Transportation Equipment 347 Coating, Engraving, and A l l i e d Services Major Group 3 6 . — E l e c t r i c a l Machinery, Equipment, and Supplies 3o4 E l e c t r i c L i ghting and Wiring Equipment *366 Communication Equipment *369 Miscellaneous E l e c t r i c a l Machinery, Equipment, and Supplies Major Group 3 3 . — P r o f e s s i o n a l , S c i e n t i f i c , and C o n t r o l l i n g Instruments: Photographic & Optical Goods,  Watches & Clocks 381 Engineering, Laboratory, & S c i e n t i f i c & Research Instruments & Associated Equipment *384 S u r g i c a l , Medical, and Dental Instruments and Supplies *387 Watches, Clocks, Clockwork Operated Devices, and Parts Major Group 3 9 .—Miscellaneous Manufacturing Industries *391 Jewelry, Silverware, and Plated Ware 395 Pens, Pencils, and Other O f f i c e and A r t i s t s ' Materials *396 Costume Jewelry, Costume Novelties, Buttons, and Miscellaneous Notions, Except Precious Metal *399 Miscellaneous Manufacturing Industries TRANSPORTATION, COMMUNICATIONS, ELECTRIC, GAS AND SANITARY  SERVICES Major Group 40. — R a i l r o a d Transportation *401 Railroads *4o4 Railways Express Service Major Group 42.—Motor Freight Transportation and Warehousing 421 Trucking, Local and Long Distance ' 422 Public Warehousing -81-S.I.C. Code (cont'd.) Major Group 44.--Water Transportation * 441 Deep Sea Foreign Transportation *445 Local Water Transportation *446 Services Incidental to Water Transportation Major Group 45.--Transportation by A i r 451 A i r Transportation, C e r t i f i c a t e d C a r r i e r s 458 Fixed F a c i l i t i e s and Services Related to A i r Transportation Major Group 46.--Pipe Line Transportation 461 Gas Pipe Lines, except Natural Gas Major Group 4 7 .—Transportation Services *471 Freight Forwarding *472 Arrangement of Transportation Major Group 48.—Communications *481 Telephone Communication (Wire or Radio) --482 Telegraph Communication (Wire or Radio) *483 Radio Broadcasting and T e l e v i s i o n *48° Communication Services, Not Elsewhere C l a s s i f i e d Major Group 4 9 . — E i e c t r i c , Gas & Sanitary Services *492 Gas Companies and Systems *493 Combination Companies and Systems -'495 Sanitary Services WHOLESALE & RETAIL TRADE Major Group 50»—Wholesale Trade "•502 Drugs, Chemicals, & A l l i e d Products *503 Piece Goods, Notions, Apparel *504 Groceries and Related Products *505 Farm Products-Raw Materials *506 E l e c t r i c a l Goods *507 Hardware, and Plumbing & Heating Equipment & Supplies *508 Machinery, Equipment, and Supplies *509 Miscellaneous Wholesalers Major Group 5 2 . — R e t a i l T r a d e — B u i l d i n g Materials, Hardware, & Farm Equipment Dealers 522 Plumbing, Heating & A i r Conditioning Equipment Dealers 523 Paint, Glass, and Wallpaper Stores 524 E l e c t r i c a l Supply Stores 525 Hardware and Farm Equipment -82-S.I.C. Code (cont'd.) Major Group 53 • - - R e t a i l Trade—General Merchandise 531 Department Stores 532 Mail Order Houses 533 Variety Stores 539 Miscellaneous R e t a i l Stores Major Group 54.—Retail Trade—Food Stores 541 Grocery Stores 542 Meat and F i s h (Sea Food) Markets 543 F r u i t Stores and Vegetable Markets 544 Candy, Nut, and Confectionery Stores 546 R e t a i l Bakeries 549 Miscellaneous Food Stores Major Group 55.—Automotive Dealers & Gasoline Service Stations 551 Motor Vehicle Dealers (New and Used Cars) 55^ Gasoline Service Stations 559 Miscellaneous A i r c r a f t , Marine, & Automotive Dealers Major Group 56.—Retail Trade—Apparel & Accessory Stores 561 Men's and Boys' Clothing & Furnishings Stores 562 Women's Ready-to-Wear Stores 563 Women's Accessory and Specialty Stores 564 Children's and Infants' Wear Stores .566 Shoe Stores 567 Custom T a i l o r s 568 F u r r i e r s and Fur Shops 569 Miscellaneous Apparel & Accessory Stores Major Group 57.—Retail T r a d e — F u r n i t u r e , Home Furnishings, and Equipment Stores 571 Furniture, Home Furnishings, and Equipment Stores, except Appliances 572 Household Appliance Stores 573 Radio, T e l e v i s i o n , and Music Stores Major Group 58.—Retail T r a d e — E a t i n g and Drinking Places 581 Eating and Drinking Places Major Group 59.—Retail Trade—Miscellaneous R e t a i l Stores 591 Drug Stores and Proprietory Stores 592 Liquor Stores 593 Antique Stores and Second-Hand Stores 594 Book and Stationery Stores 595 Sporting Goods Stores and Bicycle Shops 597 Jewelry Stores 599 R e t a i l Stores, Not Elsewhere C l a s s i f i e d -83-S.I.C. Code (cont'd,) FINANCE, INSURANCE & REAL ESTATE Major Group 60.--Banking #602 Commercial and Stock Saving Banks *605 Establishments Performing Functions Closely Related To Banking #609 Banks, A l l Kinds and Establishments Performing Functions Closely Related to Banking Major Group 6 l . — C r e d i t Agencies Other Than Banks #611 Rediscount & Financing I n s t i t u t i o n s f o r Credit Agencies Other than Banks #614 Personal Credit I n s t i t u t i o n s #615 Business Credit I n s t i t u t i o n s #6l6 Loan Correspondents and Brokers #619 Mortgage Companies, Agents and Brokers Major Group 6 2 . — S e c u r i t y & Commodity Brokers, Dealers, Exchanges & Services #621 Security Brokers, Dealers & F l o t a t i o n Companies #622 Commodity Contracts Broker's & Dealers #623 Security and Commodity Exchanges #624 #628 Services A l l i e d with the Exchange of S e c u r i t i e s or Commodities #629 Security and Commodity Brokers, Dealers and Exchanges Major Group 63.--Insurance Ca r r i e r s #631 L i f e Insurance #632 Accident and Health Insurance #636 T i t l e Insurance Major Group 64.—Insurance Agents, Brokers and Service #641 Insurance Agents, Brokers and Service #649 Insurance Companies, Agents, Brokers and Services Including Adjusters Major Group 65 . .—Real Estate #651 Real Estate Operators (Except Developers) and Lessors #653 Agents, Brokers and Developers #655 Subdividers and Developers #659 Real Estate Agents, Broker Managers, T i t l e Abstractor's Sub Dividers, Developers and Operative Builders Major Group 66 .—Combinations of Real Estate, Insurance, Loans, Law O f f i c e s #661 Combinations of Real Estate, Insurance, Loans, Law O f f i c e s -84-S.I.G. Code (cont'd.) Major Group 6 7 .—Holding and Other Investment Companies *671 Holding Companies •;f672 Investment Companies •"•679 Miscellaneous Investing I n s t i t u t i o n s SERVICES Major Group 7 0 .—Hotels, Rooming Houses, Camps, and Other Lodging Places 701 Hotels, Tourist Courts and Motels Major Group 7 2 .—Personal Services 721 Laundries, Laundry Services & Cleaning and Dyeing Plants 722 Photographic Studios, Including Commercial Photography 723 Beauty Shops 724 Barber Shops 725 Shoe Repair Shops, Shoe Shine Parl o r s , & Hat Cleaning Shops 729 Miscellaneous Personal Services Major Group 7 3 .—Miscellaneous Business Services "-731 Advertising *732 Consumer Credit Reporting Agencies, Mercantile Reporting *733 Duplicating, Addressing, Blueprinting, Photocopying, Mailing, Mailing L i s t & Stenographic Services *734 Services to Dwellings and Other Buildings •""735 News Syndicates *736 Private Employment Agencies """739 Business Services, Not Elsewhere C l a s s i f i e d Major Group 75.—Automobile Repair, Automobile Services and Garages 751 Automobile Rentals, without Drivers 752 Automobile Parking 753 Automobile Repair Shops Major Group 7 6 .—Miscellaneous Repair Services 762 E l e c t r i c a l Repair Shops 763 Watch, Clock and Jewelry Repair 769 Miscellaneous Repair Shoes and Related. Services Major Group 78.--Motion Pictures 781 Motion Picture Production & D i s t r i b u t i o n Major Group 79.--Amusement & Recreation Services, Except Motion Pictures 791 Dance H a l l s , Studios and Schools 792 T h e a t r i c a l Producers (except Motion P i c t u r e s ) , Bands, Orchestras and Entertainers -85-S.I.C. Code (cont'd.) 793 Bowling A l l e y s & B i l l i a r d & Pool Establishments 794 Sports Promoters & Commercial Operators & Miscellaneous Amusement & Recreation Services Ma.jor Group 8 0 .—Medical & Other Health Services •:'801 O f f i c e s of Physicians and Surgeons •"•802 O f f i c e s of Dentists and Dental Surgeons -"803 O f f i c e s of Osteopathic Physicians *804 O f f i c e s of Chiropractors *807 Medical and Dental Laboratories -"-809 Health & A l l i e d Services, not Elsewhere C l a s s i f i e d Major Group 81—Legal Services * 8 l l Legal Services Ma.jor Group 82.--Educational Services 823 L i b r a r i e s & Information Centers 824 Correspondence Schools & Vocational Schools 829 Schools & Educational Services, Not Elsewhere C l a s s i f i e d Major Group 84.—Museums, Art G a l l e r i e s , Botanical & Zoological Gardens 841 Museums and Art G a l l e r i e s Major Group 86.—Nonprofit Membership Organizations 861 Business Associations *862 Professional Membership Organizations *863 Labour Unions & Similar Labour Organizations 864 C i v i c , S o c i a l and Fraternal Associations 865 P o l i t i c a l Organizations 866 Religious Organizations 867 Charitable Organizations 869 Nonprofit Membership Organizations, Not Elsewhere C l a s s i f i e d Major Group 89.--Miscellaneous Services *891 Engineering and A r c h i t e c t u r a l Services *893 Accounting, Auditing and Bookkeeping Services VACANT *991 Commercial O f f i c e 992 Commercial R e t a i l 993 Commercial V/holesale 994 I n d u s t r i a l 996 R e s i d e n t i a l 999 Vacant Land OTHER 990 Non-Classifiable Establishment * Denotes included i n d e f i n i t i o n of o f f i c e a c t i v i t i e s u t i l i z e d i n t h i s study. -86-Appendix B R e l i a b i l i t y check on the use of assessed land values (ALV) as an i n d i c a t o r of r e l a t i v e market value of land f o r o f f i c e  premises Two methods are considered s u i t a b l e * -(1) A c t u a l s a l e s data (2) R e s i d u a l v a l u a t i o n of land through income c a p i t a l i z a t i o n . I n the absence of (1), income c a p i t a l i z a t i o n i s u t i l i z e d to check the r e l i a b i l i t y of ALV as a measure of r e l a t i v e market v a l u e . Method* R e s i d u a l value o f land = (Income, c a p i t a l i z a t i o n r a t e ) -( c o n s t r u e t i o n c o s t ) L o c a t i o n C e n t r a l Suburban Rent l e v e l / s q . f t . ( l ) $6.00 $5.00 # s q 0 f t . 1000 1000 Annual income (gross) $6000 $5000 C o n s t r u c t i o n cost/sq.ft. ( 2 ) $26.5 $16.3 Assumption* (1) o p e r a t i n g expenses f o r c e n t r a l and suburban o f f i c e s are s i m i l a r (3) Schedule ( I ) , given below i s based upon a h y p o t h e t i c a l example u s i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n c o s t s and r e n t a l l e v e l s considered a p p r o p r i a t e -87-f o r c e n t r a l and suburban o f f i c e b u i l d i n g s a t mid 1971. The schedule i s cons t r u c t e d to avoid i l l u s t r a t i n g c e n t r a l and suburban r e s i d u a l land v a l u e s through the use of a r b i t r a r y y i e l d s . The schedule makes use of a range of income c a p i t a l i z a t i o n f a c t o r s to obviate t h i s s i t u a t i o n . I t i s d i f f i c u l t to s p e c i f y a y i e l d t h a t r e f l e c t s average i n v e s t o r requirements. The o b j e c t i v e s and s i t u a t i o n s of i n v e s t o r s may va r y r a d i c a l l y . Current y i e l d s versus f u t u r e c a p i t a l gains coupled, as i n 1971* w i t h t a x r a m i f i c a t i o n s compound the d i f f i c u l t y i n determining s u i t a b l e c a p i t a l i z a t i o n r a t e s . Schedule (I) i n d i c a t e s , assuming a 1% spread i n y i e l d s between c e n t r a l and suburban l o c a t i o n s , t h a t f o r y i e l d s between 10% - 15?°* land r e s i d u a l s are c o n s i s t e n t l y d i f f e r e n t by approximately 10% as between c e n t r a l and suburban l o c a t i o n s . Comparative r e s i d u a l s o u t s i d e of the above range are i n c o n s i s t -e n t l y d i f f e r e n t by more than 10%, For the purpose of t h i s t h e s i s assessed land values may only be considered good measures of r e l a t i v e market values f o r o f f i c e s i t e s i f the r e q u i r e d c a p i t a l i z a t i o n r a t e i s between 10-15%» Such a range i s not i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h r a t e s a p p l i e d i n c a p i t a l i z i n g income de r i v e d from o f f i c e a c t i v i t y . (1) - r e n t a l l e v e l s are those found i n ' O f f i c e Space Survey 1971' (2) - c o n s t r u c t i o n c o s t s are those deri v e d from t h i s study. -88-Such c o s t s are s t r o n g l y comparable to Concost S e r v i c e s r e p o r t i n g i n *Real E s t a t e Trends i n M e t r o p o l i t a n Van- couver 1971' R e a l E s t a t e trends i n M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver 1971, i l l u s -t r a t e s such expenses f o r h i g h r i s e o f f i c e s . In the absence of low r i s e i n f o r m a t i o n , and i t i s suspected t h a t such expenses are lower, the use of gross income i s s u i t a b l e when determining r e l a t i v e r e s i d u a l v a l u e s . SCHEDULE I CENTRAL (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) # y i e l d c a p i t - = Market -r e q u i r e d a l i z a t i o n f a c t o r Constr-u c t i o n = R e s i d u a l 5 20.0 120,000 26,500 93,500 6 16.7 100,000 26,500 73,500 7 14 .3 • 85,800 26,500 59,300 8 12.5 75.000 26,500 48,500 9 11.1 66,600 26,500 40,100 10 10.0 60,000 26,500 33,500 11 9.1 55.600 26,500 29,100 12 8.3 49,800 26,500 23,300 13 7.7 46,200 26,500 19,700 14 7.1 42,600 26,500 16,100 15 6.7 40,200 26,500 13,700 16 6.1 36,600 26,500 10,100 17 5.9 35.^00 26,500 8,900 SUBURBAN (6) (7) (8) Market - Construe- = R e s i d u a l t i o n 100,000 16300 83700 83,500 16300 67200 71,500 16300 55200 62,500 I6300 46200 55,500 16300 39200 50,000 16300 33700 45,500 16300 29200 41,500 16300 25200 38,500 16300 22200 35.500 16300 19200 33,500 16300 17200 30,500 16300 14200 29,500 16300 13200 -90-APPENDIX G OFFICES i A BIBLIOGRAPHY CONTENTS Page A b b r e v i a t i o n s used •*.* 91 General ............. 0 • . . . . . . . . 92 Law R e l a t i n g To O f f i c e s 93 Employment i n O f f i c e s . 94 O f f i c e b u i l d i n g s , l a y o u t and o r g a n i s a t i o n 96 Communications and technology . ..... 98 O f f i c e development..... • 100 O f f i c e l o c a t i o n 102 D e c e n t r a l i s a t i o n c • 10? O f f i c e p l a n n i n g p o l i c i e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 Transport and the journey to work... 116 O f f i c e l o c a t i o n i n the United States and Canada., 118 O f f i c e l o c a t i o n i n other c o u n t r i e s 121 Miscellaneous J o u r n a l & P e r i o d i c a l A r t i c l e s . . . . . . 124 - 9 1 -ABBREVIATIONS C.S.G., J.U.P.R. Communications Study Group, J o i n t U n i t f o r P l a n n i n g Research. J.T.P.I. J o u r n a l of the Town P l a n n i n g I n s t i t u t e O.A.P. O f f i c i a l A r c h i t e c t u r e and P l a n n i n g (now c a l l e d B u i l t Environment) T.C.P. Town and Country P l a n n i n g T.C.P.A. Town and Country P l a n n i n g A s s o c i a t i o n U.C.I.C. I n Urban Core and Inner C i t y ed, U n i v e r s i t y of Amsterdam S o c i o g r a p h i c a l Department. Proceedings of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Study Week, 1 1 - 1 7 September 1 9 6 6 . B r i l l , 1 9 6 7 . -92-GENERAL Cowan P. and others. The O f f i c e : a facet of urban growth London: Heinemann, 1969. H a l l , P.G. The o f f i c e industry, New Society, no 286, 1968, p 419. Hawkes, D. O f f i c e s : A digest of data, Working Paper No 10, Centre f o r Land Use and B u i l t Form Studies, Un i v e r s i t y of Cambridge, 1968. Hayes, IVi.C. & Wilson, A.G. S p a t i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . Centre for Environmental Studies, Working Paper no. 57. 1970. Gottman, J . "Urban c e n t r a l i t y and the interweaving of quaternary a c t i v i t i e s " . E k i s t i c s , v o l 29 no 174, 1970. "The new geography of transactions and"its consequences f o r planning" i n The a p p l i c a t i o n of  geographical techniques to physical planning. Dublin: An Foras Forbartha, 1971. Jandy, G. The l o c a t i o n problems of given and i n d i v i s i b l e d i f f e r e n t u n i t s . Environment and Planning,, v o l . 2, no. 3. 1970, p.341-356. Kristenssohn, F. "Impact of changing economic and organisa-t i o n a l structure on urban core development". U.C.I.C. Losch, A. The economics of l o c a t i o n . Wiley. 1967. Massey, D. Some simple models for d i s t r i b u t i n g changes of employment within regions. Centre for Environmental Studies, Working Paper no. 24, 1969. Meier, R.L. A communications theory of urban growth. Harvard: M.I.T. Press, 1962. Propst, R. The o f f i c e : a f a c i l i t y based on change. Richardson, H.W. Elements of regional economics. Penguin. 1969. Thorngren, E. "External economies of the urban core". U.C.I.C. Warneryd, 0. Interdependence i n urban systems Goteborg: Regionkonsult Aktiebolag, 1968, -93-Wilson, A.G. Metropolitan growth models. Centre for Environmental Studies, Working Paper no. 55i 1969. The integration of accounting and loc a t i o n theory-frameworks i n urban modelling. Centre for Environ-mental Studies, Working Paper no. 11, 1963. LAW RELATING TO OFFICES CONTROL of o f f i c e b u i l d i n g . P o l i t i c a l Quarterly, v o l . 36, Jan./Mar. 1965. p.1-4. CONTROL of o f f i c e and I n d u s t r i a l Development Act. HMSO. 1965. CONTROL of o f f i c e and. I n d u s t r i a l Development Act. Journal of  Planning; & Property Law, Jan., 1966, p.23-29. -94-EftffLOYMENT IN OFFICES Al f r e d Marks Bureau. Survey of c l e r i c a l and s e c r e t a r i a l s a l a r i e s • quarterly. Each issue contains a survey on some rel a t e d t o p i c . Bolton, H. The f l e x i b l e time-clock, Management Today, January 1973. pp29-38. Crozier, M. The world of the o f f i c e worker. Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1971. Economic Consultants Limited. Demand and supply for o f f i c e workers and the l o c a l impact of o f f i c e development. LOB, 1971. Gordon I.R. " A c t i v i t y rates: regional and subregional d i f -f e r e n t i a l s " . Regional Studies, v o l 4, no 4, 1970. Hammond, B. End of the l i n e for those old nine o'clock buses. Engineer, v o l 235, October 1972. Harris A.I. and Clausen, R. "Labour M o b i l i t y i n B r i t a i n , 1953-1963". Government S o c i a l Survey, March 1966. H i l l , J.M.M. A study of labour turnover i n the food processing  industry. London: Tavistock I n s t i t u t e of Human Relations, 1967. I n s t i t u t e of Administrative Management. C l e r i c a l S a l a r i e s A nalysis. London 1964, 1966, 1968, 1970, 1972. I n s t i t u t e of Manpower Studies. A study of comparative labour  wastage, Univ e r s i t y of Sussex and LSE, 1972. An occupational c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , University of Sussex and LSE, 1972. Lockwood, D. The black-coated worker: a study i n class consciousness. London, 1958. Ministry of Labour "Growth of o f f i c e employment". Manpower  Studies no. 7. London: HMSO, 1968. Mortlock D. 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L o c a l A u t h o r i t y o f f i c e s * areas and c o s t s . Londoni Department of the Environment, 1 9 7 1 . Langdon, F.J. Modern o f f i c e s ! a user survey. N a t i o n a l B u i l d i n g Research Paper ho 4 1 , London! M i n i s t r y of Technology, 1 9 6 6 . L o r d , P. "Up the o f f i c e . " Management Today. August 1 9 7 2 . Manning, P. (ed) O f f i c e design* a study of environment. P i l k i n g t o n Research U n i t , U n i v e r s i t y of L i v e r p o o l , 1 9 6 5 . -97-Osborne, R.M. An o f f i c e landscape experiment i n the Post O f f i c e , Commonwealth Government Management Services  Journal, 1971. P i l e , J . Clearing the mystery of the o f f i c e landscape or burolandschaft, I n t e r i o r s Second Book of O f f i c e s , Whitney Publications, January 1968. Rock, D. The architecture of compromise, B u i l t Environment, v o l 1, no 7. October 1972, ppM+8-453. Skelton, S.J. Landscaped O f f i c e s , Engineers Journal, August I960. Sloan, S.A. 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