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Data administration and control : a framework for design Finley, Brian LeRoy 1973

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DATA ADMINISTRATION AND  CONTROL:  A FRAMEWORK FOR DESIGN by BRIAN L. FINLEY B.Sc,  U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1965  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION i n the F a c u l t y of Commerce and Business  Administration  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1973  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  the  requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y  of  B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e for reference  and  study.  I f u r t h e r agree  t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may  be granted by the Head of my  or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  I t i s understood t h a t copying or  p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n allowed without my  written  Department of Commerce and  September 15th,  s h a l l not  permission.  Business  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada.  Date:  Department  1973.  Administration  be  ii  ABSTRACT Data i s an important of  resource of an o r g a n i z a t i o n and  the fundamental b u i l d i n g b l o c k s of  system.  The  an e f f e c t i v e  i s one  information  f a i l u r e of t o p - l e v e l management to d e f i n e a frame-  work f o r i n f o r m a t i o n systems and to r e c o g n i s e the p o t e n t i a l of the data r e s o u r c e has a s e r i o u s impact on i n f o r m a t i o n systems c o s t s and  development.  T h i s t h e s i s attempts to i d e n t i f y some of the problem areas a s s o c i a t e d with unmanaged data and proposes a framework f o r the d e s i g n of a Data A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and C o n t r o l System E x i s t i n g data a n a l y s i s techniques found to be inadequate  (DACS).  have been reviewed and were  to meet the g e n e r a l requirements  d e f i n i t i o n and documentation.  DACS, when implemented,  a s s i s t i n the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and d e f i n i t i o n of the data how  f o r data will resource,  i t i s used and where i t i s s t o r e d throughout the o r g a n i z a t i o n .  I t p r o v i d e s a t o o l to monitor and c o n t r o l the data and to a s s i s t i n the d e s i g n of i n f o r m a t i o n systems. DACS has a p p l i c a b i l i t y i n the growing f i e l d of computera i d e d i n f o r m a t i o n systems a n a l y s i s and d e s i g n .  DACS i t s e l f i s  an automated approach to the d e f i n i t i o n of data and Extensions  i t s uses.  to the b a s i c d e s i g n are d i s c u s s e d which would f u r t h e r  c o n t r i b u t e to the development o f computer-aided d e s i g n  tools.  iii  TABLE OF CONTENTS  CHAPTER  PAGE  I  INTRODUCTION  1  II  INFORMATION, DATA AND MANAGEMENT  7  2.1  7  ,2.2  III  IV  Information  Systems Development  The Management o f Data  12  2.3  The Problems o f Data Mismanagement  15  2.4  I n t e g r a t e d Data Banks  22  2.5  Automated  26  Systems Design  ELEMENTS OF A DATA ADMINISTRATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM  29  3.1  O b j e c t i v e s o f DACS  32  3.2  Questions t o be Answered  34  3.3  Requirements o f DACS  36  DATA ADMINISTRATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM  39  4.1  Definitions  40  4.2  Data S p e c i f i c a t i o n Methodology  42  4.3  Record S p e c i f i c a t i o n  54  4.4  Document S p e c i f i c a t i o n  59  4.5  Data Element S p e c i f i c a t i o n  65  4.6  F i l e Considerations  71  4.7  System Output Reports  76  iv  CHAPTER  PAGE  V  THE IMPLEMENTATION AND USE OF DACS  84  5.1  The Data A d m i n i s t r a t o r  84  5.2  Standards Concerning Data  89  5.3  C o l l e c t i o n o f the Data Information  91  5.4  The Users o f DACS  94  VI  SUMMARY  99  BIBLIOGRAPHY  102  APPENDIX I  104  V  LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE  PAGE  2.1  Information Systems Requirements  10  3.1  Data Element I d e n t i f i c a t i o n  29  4.1  Data S p e c i f i c a t i o n Sheet  43  4.2  Supplementary S p e c i f i c a t i o n Sheet  44  4.3  T i t l e Statement f o r Record and Segment Specifications  56  4.4  T i t l e Statement f o r Document S p e c i f i c a t i o n  4.5  T i t l e Statement f o r Element/Group/Array  ..  61  Specification  66  4.6  Element F u n c t i o n D e f i n i t i o n s  68  4.7  L o g i c a l DACS Record S t r u c t u r e  72  4.8  Data D i c t i o n a r y / D i r e c t o r y  78  4.9  Keyword Index  80  4.10 Data Requirements A n a l y s i s 5.1  Report  Information Systems O r g a n i z a t i o n  81 85  1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION "Data c o n s t i t u t e the s i n e qua non o f i n f o r m a t i o n  processing".'*'  Throughout o r g a n i z a t i o n s people depend on i n f o r m a t i o n t o a s s i s t them i n performing  their functions.  They use inform-  a t i o n o f v a r i o u s forms and i n v a r i o u s ways i n s t r a t e g i c  planning,  2 management c o n t r o l and o p e r a t i o n s  control.  Information  from  i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l sources, h i s t o r i c a l , c u r r e n t and p r o j e c t i v e , i s employed i n g o a l f o r m u l a t i o n by the s t r a t e g i c  planners.  I t i s used i n the management c o n t r o l f u n c t i o n t o assure resources  that  are used e f f e c t i v e l y and e f f i c i e n t l y i n the accomplish-  ment o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s o b j e c t i v e s and i t i s used by o p e r a t i o n s c o n t r o l i n the day-to-day o p e r a t i o n o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n . I t can be, and has been, argued, t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n systems o f an o r g a n i z a t i o n are analogous t o the nervous system i n a human. It consists of s t i m u l i i (output and a c t i o n ) .  ( i n p u t s ) , p r o c e s s i n g and responses Formal and i n f o r m a l i n f o r m a t i o n and  communication channels are v i t a l t o the success an o r g a n i z a t i o n . cohesive  and h e a l t h o f  The i n f o r m a t i o n and c o n t r o l systems are a  network t h a t b i n d the o r g a n i z a t i o n together  fora  common purpose. C.J. Bontempo, "Data Resource Management", Data Management, February 1973, p.31. 2 R.N. Anthony, P l a n n i n g and C o n t r o l Systems, A Framework f o r A n a l y s i s , D i v i s i o n o f Research, Graduate School of Business A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , Harvard U n i v e r s i t y , 1965.  2  An e f f e c t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n system i s one of the requirements f o r a s u c c e s s f u l o r g a n i z a t i o n and  f o r t h i s reason,  the f i e l d  of  i n f o r m a t i o n systems has been r e c e i v i n g c o n s i d e r a b l e a t t e n t i o n at the present  time and d u r i n g the l a s t decade.  However, i f i n f o r m a t i o n i s analyzed  i t i s apparent t h a t one  the b u i l d i n g blocks c o n s i s t s of data elements.  Close  of  examination  w i l l r e v e a l t h a t most i n f o r m a t i o n and c o n t r o l systems are based on a r e l a t i v e l y small c o l l e c t i o n of these data elements without  these elements t h e r e would be no way  and  to meet the  information  requirements of s t r a t e g i c management, management c o n t r o l or operations c o n t r o l . C o n s i d e r i n g the importance of i n f o r m a t i o n t o an o r g a n i z a t i o n , it  could be assumed t h a t the data elements which c o n s t i t u t e  i n f o r m a t i o n would be a h i g h l y valued  and managed r e s o u r c e ;  one  t h a t i s considered with the same degree of a t t e n t i o n t h a t i s g i v e n to the other resources  such as people and  capital.  I t i s e v i d e n t , however, from p e r s o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n s  and  p e r u s a l s of the l i t e r a t u r e , t h a t too few  companies c o n s i d e r data  a valued resource of the o r g a n i z a t i o n .  Often, they have no e s t a b l i s h e d  philosophy  towards the data t h a t e x i s t s w i t h i n t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n  and they have few  s t r u c t u r e s , standards  ensure t h a t the data resource throughout the company. data resource  or c o n t r o l mechanisms to  i s used e f f e c t i v e l y and  efficiently  In f a c t , i t i s o f t e n apparent t h a t the  s u f f e r s from management n e g l e c t .  T h i s apparent n e g l e c t can cause severe problems f o r an organization.  The  i n f o r m a t i o n systems may  s u f f e r from a  as  l a c k o f i n t e g r i t y and c o n s i s t e n c y , c o n s i d e r a b l e c o s t can be i n c u r r e d i n d u p l i c a t e d e f f o r t s , o p p o r t u n i t i e s may be l o s t when data i s thought t o be u n a v a i l a b l e and i n c r e a s e d burdens a r e p l a c e d on i n f o r m a t i o n systems a r c h i t e c t s and a n a l y s t s who are t r y i n g t o d e s i g n and implement systems f o r use a c r o s s  functiona  areas o f an o r g a n i z a t i o n . The  s u b j e c t o f "management i n f o r m a t i o n systems" has been  r e c e i v i n g s i g n i f i c a n t a t t e n t i o n by management and systems professionals.  As a fundamental requirement i n the d e s i g n and  implementation o f MIS, there a r e t h r e e major tasks which must  3 be  accomplished: the i n f o r m a t i o n requirements o f management have t o be identified. the data elements which are p o t e n t i a l l y a v a i l a b l e must be d e f i n e d as t o t e c h n i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n , meaning, storage  l o c a t i o n and r e t r i e v a l .  - the data r e l a t i o n s h i p s among the v a r i o u s data elements must be i d e n t i f i e d . The  f i r s t o f these requirements,  t h a t management must be  a b l e t o i d e n t i f y i t s i n f o r m a t i o n needs, i s a b a s i c component of an e f f e c t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n system.  An i n f o r m a t i o n system  can o n l y be meaningful i f i t r e f l e c t s and supports the o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s o b j e c t i v e s , s t r a t e g i e s , p o l i c i e s , and procedures I t i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f management t o determine and d e f i n e the framework f o r the development o f i n f o r m a t i o n  systems.  R.V. Head, "Management Information Systems; A C r i t i c a l A p p r a i s a l " , Datamation, May 1967, p. 23.  4  In the context of t h i s t h e s i s , i t i s assumed t h a t u p p e r - l e v e l management can and  i s w i l l i n g to d e f i n e t h i s requirement frame-  work and t o r e c o g n i z e the p o t e n t i a l of i n f o r m a t i o n and i t s u n d e r l y i n g data  resource.  I t i s the undertaking that w i l l  and  completion  of the l a t t e r two  tasks  s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o n t r i b u t e to b e t t e r data management and  c o n t r o l o f the e x i s t i n g data r e s o u r c e .  I f the d e f i n i t i o n  r e l a t i o n s h i p s are accomplished i n a d i s c i p l i n e d ,  and  standardized  manner, a s t r o n g foundation w i l l have been e s t a b l i s h e d on which to b u i l d an e f f e c t i v e management i n f o r m a t i o n system. I t i s the purpose of t h i s t h e s i s to examine the r o l e o f data as a resource of an o r g a n i z a t i o n ;  t o t r a c e the development  of i n f o r m a t i o n systems with the e f f e c t t h i s has had on data  and  to d i s c u s s the problems encountered as a r e s u l t of data mismanagement. resource, will  In order t o b e t t e r manage and  c o n t r o l the  data  i t i s contended t h a t a formal system i s r e q u i r e d which  i d e n t i f y data elements, where and how  they are used  and  s t o r e d i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n and with whom the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y data i n t e g r i t y r e s i d e s .  For t h i s purpose the requirements f o r  a Data A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and C o n t r o l System and  of  (DACS) are examined  a p r o p o s a l f o r the design of such a system i s forwarded. The  scope o f t h i s work i n c l u d e s the input and  requirements and conceptual  output  f i l e o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r the Data  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and C o n t r o l System but does not i n c l u d e the w r i t i n g o f the support  programs to make i t o p e r a t i o n a l .  It  i s f e l t t h a t an in-depth a n a l y s i s of what i s r e q u i r e d of a system f o r the management of the data resource w i l l to  the s t a t e - o f - t h e - a r t i n the ever growing f i e l d of  contribute information  5 system a n a l y s i s and It  design.  i s emphasized t h a t the Data A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and  System i s not a f i l e o r g a n i z a t i o n technique  f o r the  a n a l y z i n g and d i s p l a y i n g of data i n a data bank. to  Control  retrieving, T h i s belongs  the area of data management systems whose i n t e g r a l f u n c t i o n  i s the storage and r e t r i e v a l o f data i n support system.  of an  information  The Data A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and C o n t r o l System i s con-  cerned with i d e n t i f y i n g the unique data elements themselves, where they are l o c a t e d i n the v a r i o u s f i l e s ,  and where and  how  they are used. Chapter I I examines the development of i n f o r m a t i o n systems and the e f f e c t on data elements, how  data i s managed  (or mis-  managed) i n many o r g a n i z a t i o n s , the problems encountered because of management n e g l e c t of the data resource and the need f o r b e t t e r management and  control.  The  philosophy  of i n t e g r a t e d  data banks i s a l s o d i s c u s s e d i n p e r s p e c t i v e with data Chapter I I I analyzes  control.  the o b j e c t i v e s f o r a Data C o n t r o l  System, what i n f o r m a t i o n i t should p r o v i d e to i t s users and what requirements are needed f o r i t s implementation. Chapter IV d i s c u s s e s the proposed Data A d m i n i s t r a t i o n C o n t r o l System.  and  Through a Data S p e c i f i c a t i o n Methodology the  r e q u i r e d i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g data elements i s captured. The v a r i o u s types of i n f o r m a t i o n a l output which must be by the system i s d e s c r i b e d as w e l l as a conceptual  a n a l y s i s of  a permanent f i l e o r g a n i z a t i o n to s t o r e and r e t r i e v e the information.  provided  data  6  In Chapter V, the r o l e of the Data A d m i n i s t r a t o r , the standards which must be developed c o l l e c t i o n are d i s c u s s e d . and how  and the approach to data  The p o t e n t i a l users of the system  they can employ and i n t e r f a c e with the system are a l s o  described.  7  CHAPTER I I INFORMATION, DATA AND MANAGEMENT 2.1 INFORMATION SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT The  requirement f o r data p r o c e s s i n g and the need f o r  r e l e v e n t i n f o r m a t i o n , both i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l , has always been a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f an e n t e r p r i s e .  Before the growth o f  the p r e s e n t l y l a r g e and complex o r g a n i z a t i o n s a business was composed o f r e l a t i v e l y  few people and operated  s t a t i c and s t r u c t u r e d environment.  i n a rather  Each businessman conducted  most o f h i s own a f f a i r s and through p e r s o n a l involvement and o b s e r v a t i o n i n t i m a t e l y knew the r e q u i r e d i n f o r m a t i o n about h i s business  and i t s environment.  H i s i n f o r m a t i o n system was  composed o f h i s f i r s t - h a n d knowledge and p e r s o n a l d i s c u s s i o n w i t h h i s employees and people i n h i s market.  Each o f h i s  d e c i s i o n s was based on a f a i r l y complete knowledge o f the s i t u a t i o n from the environment, market, economic c o n d i t i o n and s t a t e o f p r o d u c t i o n and he c o u l d q u i t e a c c u r a t e l y p r e d i c t the i n t e r r e l a t i n g e f f e c t s h i s d e c i s i o n s would have on these components. As o r g a n i z a t i o n s became l a r g e r and more complex, communication l i n e s l o n g e r , slower and more d i f f i c u l t  to maintain,  began t o fragment along f u n c t i o n a l l i n e s .  the e n t e r p r i s e  A t the same time,  the q u a n t i t y o f data and i n f o r m a t i o n requirements i n c r e a s e d a t a seemingly e x p o n e n t i a l and  rate.  Data c o l l e c t i o n , data  processing  i n f o r m a t i o n d i s s e m i n a t i o n became a very r e a l and c o s t l y  concern.  Many manual systems and procedures were developed t o  8  meet these i n c r e a s i n g problems.  The f i r s t  systems were  based on accounting t r a n s a c t i o n s and the data base c o n s i s t e d of  j o u r n a l s , l e d g e r s and accounts  r e c o r d i n g and f i l i n g  organized i n s p e c i a l i z e d  systems t o serve s e l e c t e d purposes.  A d d i t i o n a l systems began t o develop areas such as marketing,  i n the other  functional  p r o d u c t i o n , and p e r s o n n e l .  A  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f these manual systems was t h a t they g e n e r a l l y served one f u n c t i o n a l area and one l e v e l i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n . I t was very d i f f i c u l t  t o o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n which c r o s s e d  f u n c t i o n a l o r v e r t i c a l l i n e s from these subsystems. The advent o f computers i n the e a r l y 1950's was c o n s i d e r e d by many t o be the panacea f o r the data p r o c e s s i n g and i n f o r m a t i o n problems which had a r i s e n . The  f i r s t systems t o be automated when computers were  i n t r o d u c e d i n t o business were those o f high volume and high clerical activity.  Such a c t i v i t i e s as p a y r o l l , i n v o i c i n g , order  p r o c e s s i n g and g e n e r a l l e d g e r were systems t h a t c o u l d e a s i l y be i d e n t i f i e d as t o t h e i r requirements a cost-benefit basis.  and c o u l d be j u s t i f i e d on  These systems were designed t o r e p l a c e  the manual systems and i n scope d i d not o f f e r much more than the manual systems except Each system was s t i l l  f a s t e r p r o c e s s i n g and lower c o s t .  independent unto i t s e l f  s i n g l e f u n c t i o n and s i n g l e purpose.  and served a  These systems were  implemented a t the o p e r a t i o n a l l e v e l o f the f i r m and d i d not have i n c l u d e d i n t h e i r d e s i g n any i n t e g r a t i o n w i t h o t h e r  oper-  a t i o n a l systems h o r i z o n t a l i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n , nor d i d they  9  p r o v i d e any s i g n i f i c a n t amount of v e r t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n t o h i g h e r l e v e l s o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n . t h e i r own  Each o f these systems had  input, f i l e s and output and the data these systems  captured and processed were used e x c l u s i v e l y f o r t h a t system. With the i n c r e a s i n g c a p a b i l i t y of hardware and  software,  systems d e s i g n e r s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t the p r o l i f e r a t i o n of s i n g l e f u n c t i o n systems might be p r o f i t a b l y c o - o r d i n a t e d i n t o more comprehensive systems.  For example, i t was  d e s i r a b l e to  i n t e g r a t e the p a y r o l l f u n c t i o n , the employee b e n e f i t s f u n c t i o n , the d i s t r i b u t i o n of c o s t s to the accounting systems and  the  personnel r e c o r d s keeping f u n c t i o n i n t o a cohesive manpower system. of  The c o - o r d i n a t e d systems o f t e n , however, f e l l  their objectives.  T h i s r e s u l t e d mainly due t o the  t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l systems maintained approach and uniqueness  and data was  and processed where i t was own  passed through each system  required.  Each system r e t a i n e d i t s In a d d i t i o n ,  the systems were u s u a l l y agreed t o and developed  t h e i r impact was  involvement  by,  functional  by top management and  p r i m a r i l y a t the o p e r a t i o n a l l e v e l .  Today, the g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f computerized  systems m a i n t a i n  the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the e a r l i e r manual systems. systems were developed of  fact  their single function  f i l e s w i t h the data o r g a n i z e d as r e q u i r e d .  area management w i t h l i t t l e  short  time, have l i t t l e  These  independently over an e x t e n s i v e p e r i o d  regard f o r f u t u r e developments and  concentrate  on l i m i t e d f u n c t i o n a l areas of the company c o n t r o l l e d by the  10  same management t h a t had c o n t r o l l e d the non-mechanized system. The context and s t r u c t u r e o f a s p e c i f i c system and i t s data i s w e l l understood  by i t s users and system support p e r s o n n e l .  However, these data g e n e r a l l y e x i s t i s o l a t e d from the r e s t o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n and knowledge about them i s very  limited.  Other u s e r s a r e i g n o r a n t o f t h e i r e x i s t e n c e , l o c a t i o n o r the f a c t t h a t the data may be e x p l o i t e d by them.  The bottom  p o r t i o n o f f i g u r e 2.1, i l l u s t r a t e s some o f these c l o s e d f u n c t i o n a l systems which have been  developed.  INDIVIDUAL SYSTEMS AND DATA FILES F i g u r e 2.1 Information Systems Requirements  11  At the present systems approach";  time there i s great appeal t o t h e " i n t e g r a t e d t o develop i n f o r m a t i o n  systems which would  serve not o n l y t h e f u n c t i o n a l areas but would have the c a p a b i l i t y t o c r o s s t h e v e r t i c a l and h o r i z o n t a l l i n e s o f f i g u r e 2.1, and serve t h e e n t i r e o r g a n i z a t i o n . There i s a r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t the data elements e x i s t i n g i n various  subsystems can be p r o f i t a b l y e x p l o i t e d t o meet the inform-  a t i o n requirements o f management c o n t r o l and a t a higher  l e v e l , to  a i d i n the p o l i c y s e t t i n g and d e c i s i o n making f u n c t i o n s o f s t r a t e g i c management.  O f t e n the higher  l e v e l information  requirements a r e  of an "undefined" and demand nature which r e q u i r e as one component, a c l e a r , d e f i n i t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n o f the a v a i l a b l e data Therefore,  resources.  a common means f o r d e s c r i b i n g data t h a t would l e n d  i t s e l f t o a common understanding across d i v i s i o n a l , f u n c t i o n a l and  v e r t i c a l lines i s required.  The problem o f u n i f o r m l y  defining  the meaning, s t r u c t u r e and use o f data l o c a t e d w i t h i n i n d i v i d u a l data banks o r f i l e s o f v a r i o u s  information  systems and o f p r o v i d i n g  a v e h i c l e t o f a c i l i t a t e common understanding becomes apparent. The  d e s i r e t o develop i n t e g r a t e d systems must be based on sound  understanding o f what i s r e q u i r e d , what i s p r e s e n t l y a v a i l a b l e , what the r e a l problems are and t h e economies i n v o l v e d . One  o f the f i r s t  better information  steps t h a t i s r e q u i r e d  i n the quest f o r  systems i s the a d o p t i o n by t o p management o f  a concern and philosophy  towards t h e data i n t h e i r  t h e i r r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t data i s a very v a l u a b l e a means i s r e q u i r e d  for i t s administration  organization,  resource  and c o n t r o l .  and t h a t  12  2.2 THE MANAGEMENT OF DATA When data i s viewed as a primary of  and very v a l u a b l e resource  an o r g a n i z a t i o n , i t i s r e a d i l y apparent  a l a c k o f a t t e n t i o n and proper management.  t h a t i t s u f f e r s from This i s highlighted  when the a t t i t u d e towards the other v a l u a b l e r e s o u r c e s - people and c a p i t a l , i s c o n s i d e r e d . to  With these r e s o u r c e s , t h e i r v a l u e  the o r g a n i z a t i o n i s i l l u s t r a t e d by the concern  management a f f o r d e d t o them. and procedures utilize their  and c o n s t r u c t i v e  Well e s t a b l i s h e d t o o l s ,  techniques  are implemented i n an e f f o r t t o o b t a i n , a l l o c a t e ,  and monitor  these r e s o u r c e s i n such a way as t o maximize  utility. I t i s easy t o assume t h a t once the c r u c i a l r o l e t h a t data  serves i s r e c o g n i z e d , s i m i l a r management p r a c t i c e s and a t t e n t i o n would be d i r e c t e d towards data as i t i s g i v e n t o people and capital.  However, data resources are l e f t v i r t u a l l y unmanaged.  I t i s a r a r e manager who has ever g i v e n s e r i o u s thought o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n t o the data r e s o u r c e s .  He i s concerned  with  i n f o r m a t i o n a l content i n the form o f r e p o r t s and d i s p l a y s and n e g l e c t s the fundamental requirement l y i n g data elements.  o f a d m i n i s t e r i n g the under-  T h i s task i s l e f t t o the a n a l y s t s and  programmers who g e n e r a l l y a r e concerned i n separate f u n c t i o n a l areas.  with i n d i v i d u a l a p p l i c a t i o n s  F r e q u e n t l y , t h e r e i s very  little  communication between a n a l y s t s when i d e n t i f y i n g data elements i n order to a v o i d unnecessary  redundancy and d u p l i c a t i o n and t o  ensure the data resource i s u t i l i z e d f o r the optimum b e n e f i t o f  13  the e n t i r e o r g a n i z a t i o n . No c o n s c i e n t i o u s manager would a l l o w h i s personnel or c a p i t a l r e s o u r c e s to go unmanaged, y e t the dangers and problems i n v o l v e d i n a l l o w i n g data t o s u f f e r n e g l e c t have not been p r o p e r l y recognized.  The c o m p l e x i t i e s of modern data p r o c e s s i n g and  i n f o r m a t i o n systems, m u l t i - f u n c t i o n a l systems, o n - l i n e p r o c e s s i n g and dynamic user requirements,  a l l compound the f a r r e a c h i n g  problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the unmanaged use of the data r e s o u r c e . The q u a n t i t a t i v e v a l u e of i n f o r m a t i o n and decision-making difficult  i s very d i f f i c u l t  t o determine.  i t s contribution to I t i s even more  t o a l l o c a t e a v a l u e t o the data element components of  i n f o r m a t i o n s i n c e a l l o c a t i o n s must a l s o be made t o other components such as programs and p r o c e s s e s . the c o s t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h data may  However, the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of be l e s s d i f f i c u l t  to quantify.  Jarvinen"*" has analyzed these c o s t f a c t o r s and summarizes them a s : d e s i g n of f i l e s programming of f i l e m a n i p u l a t i o n programs g e n e r a t i o n of f i l e s maintenance of f i l e s data p r o c e s s i n g r e q u i r e d or r e s e r v e d space outer p r o p e r t i e s i.e. frequency o f input and output s e c u r i t y and p r o t e c t i o n query c a p a b i l i t y equipment  P. J a r v i n e n , "Design of Information Systems", Computer-Aided Information Systems A n a l y s i s and Design, Bubenko, Langefors and S o l v b e r g (eds.), p.83.  14  No attempt i s made i n t h i s t h e s i s t o q u a n t i f y e i t h e r the c o s t o r the value a s s o c i a t e d w i t h data.  G e n e r a l i t i e s can not  be made as each s i t u a t i o n must be evaluated environment.  However, c e r t a i n problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h data  can be h i g h l i g h t e d .  These problems have f r e q u e n t l y been  observed i n t h e a u t h o r s p e r s o n a l 1  discussed  i n i t s respective  on a general  experience and they a r e  l e v e l t o avoid presenting  may be i n t e r p r e t e d as a f a b r i c a t i o n .  examples which  15  2.3 THE PROBLEMS OF DATA MISMANAGEMENT The mechanization  o f p r e v i o u s manual systems, the continuance  of the f u n c t i o n a l and s i n g l e a p p l i c a t i o n approach t o new systems d e s i g n and the f a i l u r e o f management t o p r o v i d e d i r e c t i o n and g u i d e l i n e s has had s e r i o u s impact on the data r e s o u r c e .  I t has  f r e q u e n t l y l e d t o an u n c o n t r o l l e d data environment which has a s s o c i a t e d problems and c o s t s . Data  Fragmentation A severe problem a r i s i n g from the development o f  independent  i n f o r m a t i o n systems t o meet the l i m i t e d f u n c t i o n a l areas o f an o r g a n i z a t i o n i s the fragmentation o f data r e s o u r c e s .  Data i s  i n t r o d u c e d on an "ad hoc" b a s i s t o meet the requirement of the a p p l i c a t i o n areas.  o f each  The primary m i s s i o n o f each a p p l i c a t i o n  i s t o c o l l e c t , process and d i s b u r s e the data r e s o u r c e s to s a t i s f y the i n f o r m a t i o n needs i n i t s own area.  necessary  Thus, each  of these a p p l i c a t i o n areas o r systems tend t o i n t r o d u c e , process and m a i n t a i n data i n t h e i r own s e t s o f f i l e s without regard f o r the needs o f the o t h e r systems.  These o t h e r systems, o f course,  must meet the p r e s s u r e s e x e r c i s e d by t h e i r users and w i l l f o l l o w s u i t i n t h e i r data u t i l i z a t i o n p r a c t i c e s .  Applications w i l l  a l s o sometimes i n t r o d u c e data without determining f i r s t whether they can c a p i t a l i z e on the f a c t t h a t other systems may be u s i n g the same data and have i t a l r e a d y i n a form which may be u s e f u l . Once t h i s c y c l e o f fragmentation, d u p l i c a t i o n and p r o l i f e r a t i o n  16  of data throughout  the v a r i o u s systems has begun, t h e r e i s a  l a c k o f c o n t r o l over the data resource which leads t o s e v e r a l problems. Data D u p l i c a t i o n With each a p p l i c a t i o n area o r system p r o c e s s i n g and maint a i n i n g i t s own data i n i s o l a t i o n from the other systems, i d e n t i c a l data elements become d i s t r i b u t e d over many  files.  T h i s not o n l y leads t o a d d i t i o n a l c o s t s o f storage f o r the data elements but more important, i t r e s u l t s i n the d u p l i c a t i o n o f e f f o r t i n the c a p t u r e , p r o c e s s i n g and maintenance o f the data elements.  The degree o f d u p l i c a t i o n i s o f t e n not known and  management i s unaware o f any data o r p r o c e s s i n g redundancy. However, t h e r e a r e circumstances  i n which i t i s d e s i r a b l e t o  m a i n t a i n and process d u p l i c a t e d a t a .  T h i s i s the case when the  e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the i n f o r m a t i o n system would be impaired o r the p r o c e s s i n g c o s t would be i n c r e a s e d i n an e f f o r t t o e l i m i n a t e the duplication.  What i s r e q u i r e d i n order t o determine  when  d u p l i c a t e data i s , i n f a c t , redundant, i s a c l e a r d e s c r i p t i o n of the data r e s o u r c e s , the uses t o which these data a r e put and the c o s t o f c a p t u r i n g , s t o r i n g and p r o c e s s i n g these data.  Only  then  can an i n t e l l i g e n t d e c i s i o n be made on the c o s t s and b e n e f i t s o f d u p l i c a t e data. In a d d i t i o n t o the c o s t s involved, the maintenance o f d u p l i c a t e data a l s o g i v e s r i s e t o the problem o f data i n c o n s i s t e n c y .  17  Data I n c o n s i s t e n c y Since the same data elements may e x i s t i n s e v e r a l  systems,  these data elements are s u b j e c t t o the p r o c e s s i n g requirements of each r e s p e c t i v e system.  A p a r t i c u l a r data element i n one  system may be updated on a d a i l y b a s i s w h i l e the same element i n another system may be updated on a monthly c y c l e .  The  data elements thus become out o f phase w i t h each o t h e r and although each p u r p o r t s t o be the same t h i n g they r e p r e s e n t the situation  a t d i f f e r e n t p e r i o d s i n time.  T h i s may p r e s e n t no  problem when the i n f o r m a t i o n generated i s used e x a c t l y f o r the purpose i t was intended and designed.  However, t h e r e i s a  tendency f o r i n f o r m a t i o n to migrate o u t s i d e these i n t e n d e d boundaries.  The problem o f t e n r e a r s i t s head when p e r s o n n e l  from two o r more d i f f e r e n t  areas d i s c u s s a problem o r d e c i s i o n  area and d i s c o v e r t h a t t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n , although supposedly the same, i n f a c t , d i f f e r s i n time. When the same data i s c a r r i e d  i n s e v e r a l systems the problem  of m a i n t a i n i n g the data so i t i s c o n s i s t e n t becomes very d i f f i c u l t . There i s always the chance t h a t a t r a n s a c t i o n which updates the data element i n one system does not f i n d i t s way through a l l the subsystems t o update them a c c o r d i n g l y . entire it  i n f o r m a t i o n system s u f f e r s  i s often d i f f i c u l t  I f t h i s happens, the  an i n t e g r i t y problem from which  to recover.  In these cases, management develops an uneasy f e e l i n g the  i n t e g r i t y o f the i n f o r m a t i o n they r e c e i v e and about the  about  18  i n f o r m a t i o n systems themselves. control  There has become a l a c k o f  over the c o n s i s t e n c y o f data t h a t i s used by v a r i o u s  areas and i n e v i t a b l y  i n f o r m a t i o n i s generated which s u f f e r s an  i n t e g r i t y problem whose source  i s the same data  inconsistency.  Communications Every o r g a n i z a t i o n develops i t s own vocabulary which i t uses i n day-to-day communications.  o f terms  S i m i l a r l y , the  v a r i o u s f u n c t i o n s and aspects w i t h i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n develop v o c a b u l a r i e s and t e c h n i c a l  languages.  If effective  communication  i s t o take p l a c e , i n f o r m a t i o n systems must employ a common language and produce a common understanding.  There i s a danger  with segmented and independent systems t h a t the same terms are used t o r e p r e s e n t d i f f e r e n t e n t i t i e s o r d i f f e r e n t e n t i t i e s are r e f e r e n c e d by the same names.  T h i s leads t o misunderstanding,  m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and poor communications between e s p e c i a l l y those  people,  from d i f f e r e n t areas o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n .  A s e r i o u s concern a r i s e s when i n f o r m a t i o n coming from d i f f e r e n t sources, although  i d e n t i f i e d s i m i l a r l y , has a d i f f e r e n t  meaning and context. For an i n f o r m a t i o n system t o be e f f e c t i v e there must be a common vocabulary  o f data and i n f o r m a t i o n d e f i n i t i o n which i s  understood and provides data and i n f o r m a t i o n .  a non-ambiguous frame o f r e f e r e n c e f o r  19  Data I s o l a t i o n i s m The  f a c t t h a t the data r e s i d e s i n separate f i l e s ,  serving  unique purposes w i t h no c e n t r a l c o n t r o l , makes i t d i f f i c u l t f o r knowledge of the data r e s o u r c e to be communicated throughout organization. requirements  the  S i t u a t i o n s o f t e n occur when new i n f o r m a t i o n i n one area may  demand data t h a t i s c u r r e n t l y  u n f a m i l i a r t o t h i s area, even though the data may  be, i n f a c t ,  r e s i d e n t and a v a i l a b l e f o r p r o c e s s i n g i n the f i l e s o f o t h e r e x i s t ing a p p l i c a t i o n areas. unknown t h e r e may new  information.  Since the a v a i l a b i l i t y of t h i s data i s  be misguided  responses to the request f o r the  The p r o s p e c t i v e user may  be t o l d t h a t h i s  request cannot be s a t i s f i e d s i n c e the data i s not a v a i l a b l e or erroneous  estimates may  be made r e g a r d i n g the c o s t of o b t a i n i n g  the data and s a t i s f y i n g the new i s worth the c o s t , a new  requirements.  system may  I f the i n f o r m a t i o n  be b u i l t d u p l i c a t i n g the data  c o l l e c t i o n and storage and f u r t h e r c o n t r i b u t i n g t o data  isolationism.  I f the content and l o c a t i o n of the data r e s o u r c e were c e n t r a l i z e d , the f i r s t step i n responding t o new  requirements  would be t o determine whether or not the data a l r e a d y e x i s t s i n a form t h a t w i l l s a t i s f y the  requirements.  The a b i l i t y of an i n f o r m a t i o n system t o respond t o random r e q u e s t s and changing requirements i s o l a t e d data. languages  New  i s s e r i o u s l y hampered by  techniques such as RPG  and s p e c i a l  retrieval  have done much t o lower the i n t e r f a c e b a r r i e r s between  the data and the end-users.  However, these languages  still  r e q u i r e knowledge and understanding of the a v a i l a b l e data and  20  much e f f o r t i s i n v o l v e d i n these t a s k s .  I f the data r e s o u r c e  i s c l e a r l y d e f i n e d these techniques would be much more v a l u a b l e . The time r e q u i r e d t o respond t o u n a n t i c i p a t e d r e q u e s t s would be a p p r e c i a b l y shortened s i n c e the e f f o r t to d e f i n e and l o c a t e the r e q u i r e d data would be reduced. Design and Implementation The  o f New Systems  fragmentation and i s o l a t i o n i s m  o f d a t a elements  a n a l y s t s and programmers t o expend much e f f o r t and time i z i n g themselves  causes familiar-  w i t h the data r e s o u r c e s t h a t a r e r e q u i r e d t o  meet t h e i r own program s p e c i f i c a t i o n .  I t may be e a s i e r f o r an  a n a l y s t t o d e s i g n a new system with data c o l l e c t i o n , f i l e s and output, than i t i s t o t r y t o determine Even i f he does attempt  i f the data a l r e a d y e x i s t s .  t o accomplish t h i s through i n f o r m a l  communication and a n a l y s i s , data element d e f i n i t i o n i s so nons t a n d a r d i z e d , t h a t the may not succeed. The difficult  i n f o r m a t i o n systems a r c h i t e c t  faces an extremely  task when he analyzes the o r g a n i z a t i o n t o determine  what i n f o r m a t i o n i s r e q u i r e d where, and who uses what d a t a . Since he i s viewing the i n f o r m a t i o n system requirements  from an  o v e r a l l v i e w p o i n t , the fragmentation o f data throughout the existing  systems may seem l i k e a g i a n t jigsaw p u z z l e .  He would  welcome a technique t o l e n d some o r d e r t o the maze o f the data r e s o u r c e , t o p r o v i d e some s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n i n the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the elements  and t o shed i n s i g h t  d a t a , i n f o r m a t i o n and u s e r s .  i n t o the r e l a t i o n between  21  I n c r e a s i n g Data P r o c e s s i n g  Costs  T o t a l data p r o c e s s i n g c o s t s have continued  to increase i n  s p i t e of gains i n computer hardware e f f i c i e n c i e s with the of people  c o s t s t o equipment c o s t s c o n t i n u a l l y  Much of t h i s i s due  to i n c r e a s e d personnel  growing  costs.  a s i g n i f i c a n t amount of d a t a p r o c e s s i n g d o l l a r s are inefficiently  The  fragmentation  of data elements, the  duplication  of e f f o r t s , the data redundancy and the  larger.  However, spent  i d e n t i f y i n g , m a i n t a i n i n g and c o n t r o l l i n g  resource.  ratio  the  data  resulting inflexibility  of the systems a l l c o n t r i b u t e t o the c o s t s of i n f o r m a t i o n systems. A n a l y s t s and programmers spend too much of t h e i r time and d e f i n i n g data requirements  to s a t i s f y i n f o r m a t i o n a l needs.  They c o u l d be more p r o d u c t i v e and e f f e c t i v e system such as DACS.  identifying  i f supported  by a  22  2.4 INTEGRATED DATA BANKS The r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t one o r more o f the above problems e x i s t s w i t h regard t o data has o f t e n l e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o c o n s i d e r , or  t o adopt, the concept o f an " i n t e g r a t e d c o r p o r a t e data bank" as  a panacea f o r the problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h data management and control.  A l l too o f t e n data resource management i s viewed simply  as a t e c h n i c a l matter r e q u i r i n g a t e c h n i c a l s o l u t i o n . approach i s understandable tendency  This  enough, s i n c e there i s a s t r o n g  f o r people i n the data p r o c e s s i n g f i e l d t o s o l v e data  p r o c e s s i n g problems w i t h more and f a s t e r hardware o r more complex software. R e c o g n i t i o n o f data problems o f t e n causes an o v e r - r e a c t i o n by the personnel i n v o l v e d and they may h a s t i l y agree t h a t t h e i r problems can be s o l v e d by e l i m i n a t i n g data redundancy and c r e a t i n g program independent  data banks.  F r e q u e n t l y , t h e approach c o n s i d e r e d  i s t o i n c o r p o r a t e a l l data r e s o u r c e s w i t h i n the framework o f a s i n g l e "data base management system"  (DBMS) which e l i m i n a t e s data  redundancy and l o c a t e s a l l the data i n a c e n t r a l r e p o s i t o r y . 2 Bontempo  h i g h l i g h t s the danger o f viewing redundant data  as the main problem and warns t h a t d u p l i c a t e data does not i n itself  c o n s t i t u t e c o n c l u s i v e evidence o f redundancy.  He  suggests  t h a t the view t h a t i t does so i s based on one o f two non-sequiturs i n the a n a l y s i s o f data problems:  "that any two occurrences o f  the same data c o n s t i t u t e a g r a t u i t o u s d u p l i c a t i o n o r redundancy C.J. Bontempo, "Data Resource Management", Data Management, Vol 11, No.2, February 1973, pp.33-34.  23  of data". He continues by s a y i n g : "There a r e circumstances it  i n which  i s d e s i r a b l e t o m a i n t a i n and process d u p l i c a t e d a t a .  i s r e q u i r e d i n order t o determine  What  when d u p l i c a t e data i s , i n  f a c t , redundant, i s an u n e q u i v o c a l , c l e a r d e s c r i p t i o n o f data r e s o u r c e s and o f the uses t o which these data a r e put.  Without  t h i s evidence, any remedies invoked t o e l i m i n a t e redundancy can serve merely t o compound the o r i g i n a l e r r o r which i s the f a i l u r e t o monitor  and c o n t r o l data u t i l i z a t i o n i n a systematic  and d e l i b e r a t e way - i n the same way we monitor  and c o n t r o l the  use o f o t h e r r e s o u r c e s " . The view t h a t a s i n g l e data base management system i s the only s o l u t i o n o r the best s o l u t i o n t o data c o n t r o l , i s based on h i s second non-sequitur:  "data r e s o u r c e fragmentation i m p l i e s  a need f o r a c t u a l data i n t e g r a t i o n a c h i e v a b l e o n l y by means o f a c e n t r a l i z e d r e p o s i t o r y o f d a t a , i . e . a data base, managed by a complex and e l a b o r a t e s e t o f programs". Once t h i s d e c i s i o n i s made, management has committed, perhaps u n c o n s c i o u s l y , t o i n t e g r a t i o n and c e n t r a l i z a t i o n as t h e i r data p r o c e s s i n g goals and the c o s t i n v o l v e d i s h i g h . In a d d i t i o n t o the c o s t s o f the software, they must  re-educate  a n a l y s t s , programmers and u s e r s , add new systems support, r e s t r u c t u r e and convert data and r e o r g a n i z e the e n t i r e systems flow. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the approach t o a DBMS i s o f t e n taken very i r r a t i o n a l l y and without  the r e q u i r e d concern f o r p l a n n i n g ,  a n a l y s i s , s e l e c t i o n and implementation.  There i s no doubt t h a t  24  the data base management system approach  and the investment i t  r e q u i r e s can w e l l be worth i t s c o s t and e f f o r t when implemented in  the proper manner, i n the r i g h t environment  necessary management involvement.  and with the  Very o f t e n , however, data  banks are c o n s t r u c t e d with the goal of data p r o c e s s i n g e f f i c i e n c y and the models s t r e s s i n p u t data format, flows and f i l e s w i t h little  a t t e n t i o n t o the s p e c i f i c output requirements of the u s e r s .  There i s a tendency,  as w e l l , t o approach  same p h i l o s o p h y as w i t h p r e v i o u s d e s i g n s ; in  the DBMS with the that i s to concentrate  f u n c t i o n a l areas w i t h l i m i t e d scope without c o n s i d e r a t i o n a t  the o u t s e t f o r the requirements organization.  and g e n e r a l needs of the e n t i r e  The c o n c e n t r a t i o n i s o f t e n on the techniques  s t r u c t u r i n g the data i n h i e r a r c h i e s , networks, c h a i n s , r i n g s e t c , and too l i t t l e  lists,  a t t e n t i o n i s p a i d t o the i n f o r m a t i o n  content of the d a t a , where i t i s used, and the need f o r c o n t r o l . It  i s o f t e n i n such cases t h a t the data r e s i d i n g i n data  banks i s no b e t t e r understood,  i s not b e t t e r managed or c o n t r o l l e d  3  and as Dearden  observed, does not p r o v i d e f o r the expected  i n c r e a s e i n the q u a l i t y and v a l u e o f i n f o r m a t i o n . The d e c i s i o n t o implement c o r p o r a t e data banks, c e n t r a l i z e d 4 or  d i s t r i b u t e d , i s not one t o be c o n s i d e r e d l i g h t l y or n a i v e l y .  A c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of e f f o r t , p l a n n i n g and c o n t r o l must be J . Dearden, "MIS January-February,  i s a Mirage", Harvard Business Review, 197 2, p.96.  C H . K r i e b e l , "The Future MIS", June 1972, p.42.  Business  Automation,  25  undertaken  by a l l l e v e l s o f management t o ensure  implementation  meets the requirements,  produces  t h a t the economical  r e t u r n s and i s j u s t i f i e d through b e t t e r and more t i m e l y i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h reduced  c o s t s o f new systems.  Management, when c o n s i d e r i n g s o l u t i o n s t o i t s data problems, should regard i t s primary o b j e c t i v e as the need t o monitor  and c o n t r o l i t s data r e s o u r c e r a t h e r than the " i n t e -  g r a t i o n o f the data v i a a DBMS. What i s needed i s a t o o l by which management can analyze the d a t a , determine  if,  i n f a c t , problems do e x i s t and thus  develop evidence on t h e b a s i s o f which r a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s can be made w i t h regard t o the remedies r e q u i r e d and the approach most s u i t e d t o i t s p a r t i c u l a r environment. In the succeeding chapters o f t h i s t h e s i s a p r o p o s a l i s forwarded  f o r a Data A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and C o n t r o l System (DACS)  which serves as such a t o o l .  The implementation  of t h i s  system can p r o v i d e management w i t h a v e h i c l e which serves n o t o n l y as an a i d i n i d e n t i f y i n g data, i t s uses and a s s o c i a t e d problems, but which, by i t s e l f , may be adequate t o meet the o b j e c t i v e s o f sound data management and c o n t r o l . I f , on the b a s i s o f r i g o r o u s a n a l y s i s and p l a n n i n g , a DBMS i s c o n s i d e r e d as an economical  approach t o data management,  DACS w i l l p r o v i d e v a l u a b l e a s s i s t a n c e i n d e f i n i n g e x i s t i n g data as t o l o c a t i o n , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , r e l a t i o n s h i p s and use.  It  may be used t o advantage i n improving the o r d e r , u n i f o r m i t y and d i s c i p l i n e o f the data b e f o r e and d u r i n g the implementation o f the Data Base Management System.  26  2.5 AUTOMATED SYSTEMS DESIGN The a n a l y s i s and d e s i g n of computer-based i n f o r m a t i o n systems i s g e n e r a l l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d as a manual process. the time of an i n i t i a l to  request f o r a new  or m o d i f i e d system,  the completion of a set o f d e t a i l e d s p e c i f i c a t i o n s f o r programs,  hardware, output and p r o c e s s i n g requirements, or  From  t h e r e are few  tools  automated processes to a s s i s t the a n a l y s t s and d e s i g n e r s .  R e c e n t l y , however, t h e r e i s i n c r e a s i n g r e s e a r c h under study to 5 develop automated procedures One  to a s s i s t i n the v a r i o u s d e s i g n phases.'  o f the most ambitious p r o j e c t s i n t h i s f i e l d  i s the  development of the Information System Design and O p t i m a t i z a t i o n System  (ISDOS) by Teichroew.  T h i s system i s envisaged  encompassing the e n t i r e d e s i g n process from the i n i t i a l  as specification  of  the requirements  to  the s t r u c t u r i n g o f the data and the p r o d u c t i o n of the o b j e c t  programs.  One  v i a a Problem Statement Language (PSL),  through  of the modules of ISDOS i s the "Data Re-organizer"  which accepts s p e c i f i c a t i o n s from v a r i o u s o t h e r modules to s t r u c t u r e the data i n the form r e q u i r e d .  In order t o accomplish t h i s phase,  a "meta-databank" i s needed which d e s c r i b e s and d e f i n e s data as they e x i s t i n the v a r i o u s data banks and f i l e s of the i n f o r m a t i o n systems.  The Data Re-organizer then i n t e r r o g a t e s t h i s meta-  databank or d i r e c t o r y to map  the l o g i c a l data requirements  on the  R.V. Head, "Automated System A n a l y s i s " , Datamation, August 15, p.22. 6 D."Teichroew and H. Sayani, "Automation of System B u i l d i n g " , Datamation, August 15, 1971, p.25.  1971,  27  e x i s t i n g data base and to i n d i c a t e any m i s s i n g or  incomplete  requirements. CODASYL and Guide-Share**have p u b l i s h e d p r o p o s a l s d e s c r i b i n g 7  the requirements  f o r such a d i r e c t o r y as a means to d e f i n e the  p h y s i c a l and l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a data base and t o a c t as an i n t e r f a c e between the a c t u a l d a t a a n d f  which employ these data.  the users and programs  T h i s i n t e r f a c e , although designed t o  f a c i l i t a t e the d e f i n i t i o n and r e t r i e v a l of d a t a , c o u l d a l s o serve as the data d i r e c t o r y r e q u i r e d i n techniques f o r automated systems design. The Data A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and C o n t r o l System i n t h i s t h e s i s c o u l d be extended  (DACS) as presented  to provide a f a c i l i t y  to meet the  requirements of Codasyl's Data D e s c r i p t i o n Language and Data Base D e s c r i p t i v e Language  Guide-Share s 1  (DBDL).  As DACS goes beyond the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and d e f i n i t i o n of the data as they e x i s t i n the data s t r u c t u r e s i n the v a r i o u s systems and a l s o i n c l u d e s the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of data elements captured and employed throughout extended design.  t o p r o v i d e automation  as they are  the o r g a n i z a t i o n , i t may  be  t o the process of f i l e and data base  The automated a n a l y s i s o f the data elements,  how  they are  used, t h e i r time and r e t r i e v a l requirements, c o u l d c o n c e p t u a l l y r e s u l t i n the d e f i n i t i o n and s t r u c t u r i n g o f the data base  itself.  CODASYL Systems Committee, "Feature A n a l y s i s of G e n e r a l i z e d Data Base Management Systems", May 1971. p  J o i n t Guide-Share Data Base Requirements Group, "Data Base Management System Requirements", November 11, 197 0.  28  A system such as DACS c o u l d serve as the nucleus o f one of the components o f Automated Management Information Systems^.  It  would accept the data s p e c i f i c a t i o n s from the Problem Statement Language, scan the data d i r e c t o r y f o r the r e q u i r e d data and c o n s t r u c t l o g i c a l and p h y s i c a l data  structures.  I f the d e s i g n of the data base can be automated and t h e r e i s no reason why  i t can or w i l l not be done, a s i g n i f i c a n t step towards  automated MIS w i l l have been taken.  %.J.  Will,  "A System o f MIS Concepts",  p.12, June 1973.  29  CHAPTER I I I ELEMENTS OF A DATA ADMINISTRATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM A data p r o c e s s i n g o r i n f o r m a t i o n system c o n c e p t u a l l y c o n s i s t s of input data being c o l l e c t e d  and maintained  in files  and t h i s  data i n t u r n being manipulated by procedures t o produce the r e q u i r e d output  and i n f o r m a t i o n .  The b u i l d i n g b l o c k o r raw  m a t e r i a l o f these systems a r e data elements. input, f i l e s  and output  They e x i s t i n the  phases w i t h the data c o l l e c t i o n and  p r o c e s s i n g programs massaging and o r g a n i z i n g them t o meet v a r i o u s requirements.  (Figure 3.1).  I t i s with these  data  elements t h a t the Data A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and C o n t r o l System i s concerned.  F i g u r e 3.1 Data Element  Identification  30  In  c o n s i d e r i n g the d e s i g n f o r DACS, o t h e r data a n a l y s i s  techniques were reviewed. (see  Appendix I ) .  These i n c l u d e d AUTOSATE and  AUTOSATE was  one of e a r l i e r  developed and i t s primary emphasis was  TAG  techniques  on the documents e x i s t i n g  i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n and the flow o f these documents between the various stations. data elements  Secondary  importance was  which comprised  which they were s t o r e d .  g i v e n t o the a c t u a l  these documents and the f i l e s i n >  AUTOSATE s emphasis makes i t d i f f i c u l t 1  to  analyze the data elements  i n order to i d e n t i f y  to  g a i n i n s i g h t i n t o the uses of these data and t o s t r u c t u r e them  i n t o more e f f e c t i v e data o r g a n i z a t i o n s . DACS i s on the data elements; determine where and how The TAG  employing  redundancies,  The main emphasis of document a n a l y s i s to  the data are used.  technique uses the i n p u t and output documents o f  an a p p l i c a t i o n i n o r d e r t o develop data requirements s t r u c t u r e s f o r each of the a p p l i c a t i o n s .  TAG,  and  file  however, does not  have a f a c i l i t y t o d e s c r i b e data as they c u r r e n t l y e x i s t  and,  moreover, has l i m i t e d a b i l i t y t o analyze data as they are used across a p p l i c a t i o n  boundaries.  For these reasons, i t was  determined  t h a t a system c o u l d be  developed which would c o n c e n t r a t e on the data elements  as they  c u r r e n t l y e x i s t , c o u l d have the g e n e r a l i t y of a n a l y z i n g these data i n a l l t h e i r l o c a t i o n s and use and c o u l d a l s o have the of  being a b l e t o determine  e x i s t i n g data s t r u c t u r e s .  the impact of new  flexibility  requirements  on  31 I t i s r e c o g n i s e d t h a t the p r o c e s s i n g programs,  procedures,  models, and the data c o l l e c t i o n and maintenance processes  are  an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f the i n f o r m a t i o n system ( f i g u r e 3.1). They must be i n c l u d e d i n a comprehensive t o o l f o r the design and documentation o f i n f o r m a t i o n systems.  The emphasis  of t h i s  t h e s i s and the design of DACS are on the data elements and f o r these reasons the d e f i n i t i o n s of the processes present scope.  are beyond the  However, i t would be f e a s i b l e to extend the  f a c i l i t i e s and i n c o r p o r a t e the a b i l i t y to i n c l u d e process program d e f i n i t i o n s as w e l l .  I f t h i s were done, the d e f i n i t i o n  of the t o t a l i n f o r m a t i o n system c o u l d be r i g o r o u s l y and automated.  and  documented  32  3.1 OBJECTIVES OF DACS The b a s i c o b j e c t i v e o f DACS i s t o p r o v i d e a t o o l t o a s s i s t management i n the p l a n n i n g , m o n i t o r i n g and c o n t r o l l i n g o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s data r e s o u r c e .  I t accomplishes  t h i s by i d e n t i -  f y i n g t h e data elements as they e x i s t i n t h e present systems, where they o r i g i n a t e , where they a r e s t o r e d and how and by whom they a r e used.  I t p r o v i d e s a knowledge about the data resource  as i t i s employed throughout  the o r g a n i z a t i o n .  Where data i s  shared among v a r i o u s systems and across o r g a n i z a t i o n a l o r f u n c t i o n a l l i n e s , DACS serves as a c e n t r a l r e p o s i t o r y o f informa t i o n about business and o p e r a t i n g data f o r a l l persons  i n the  organization. DACS u n i f o r m l y d e f i n e s the meaning, s t r u c t u r e and use o f d a t a , p r o v i d e s a v e h i c l e f o r common c o n t r o l , communication and understanding  and a s s i s t s i n improving  the o r d e r , u n i f o r m i t y and  d i s c i p l i n e o f the data r e s o u r c e . The c e n t r a l i z e d c o n t r o l o f data element d e f i n i t i o n s , l o c a t i o n s and uses does not imply the i n t e g r a t i o n and c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f the data elements themselves.  Instead, i n f o r m a t i o n  on data i s i n t e g r a t e d and c e n t r a l i z e d and i s a v a i l a b l e  through  data resource r e p o r t s t o a l l i n t e r e s t e d people i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n . I t may be d e s i r a b l e f o r e f f e c t i v e n e s s and e f f i c i e n c y t o r e t a i n d e c e n t r a l i z e d f i l e s and t o employ the d i s t r i b u t e d data p r o c e s s i n g (DDP)  approach as suggested by Kriebel"l  \;.H. K r i e b e l , "The Future MIS", Business Automation, June 1972, p.42.  33  DACS w i l l p r o v i d e a t o o l by which management can d e f i n e the data r e s o u r c e , i d e n t i f y e x i s t i n g problems and p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n which can be used t o make more e f f e c t i v e and e f f i c i e n t use o f t h i s r e s o u r c e .  34  3.2 QUESTIONS TO BE ANSWERED To meet the o b j e c t i v e s as o u t l i n e d , DACS must p r o v i d e answers t o key q u e s t i o n s about the data f o r management, o p e r a t i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l p e r s o n n e l . I d e n t i f i c a t i o n and D e f i n i t i o n 1.  Is the data element c u r r e n t l y a v a i l a b l e i n our system?  2.  What i s the element's formal name and d e s c r i p t i o n ?  3.  Is i t d e r i v e d from o t h e r data elements?  4.  What a r e i t s t e c h n i c a l  5.  Where i s i t l o c a t e d f o r r e t r i e v a l and use?  characteristics?  Usage 1.  What r e p o r t s use which data?  2.  Who a r e the users and where are they l o c a t e d ?  3.  What i s the frequency of use?  4.  How i s the data used?  Source 1.  Where does t h i s data o r i g i n a t e ?  2.  How o f t e n i s i t r e c e i v e d ?  3.  How o f t e n i s i t processed?  R e s p o n s i b i l i t y and C o n t r o l 1.  Who i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the s p e c i f i c a t i o n o f the data?  2.  Who i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i t s i n t e g r i t y and c o n s i s t e n c y ?  3.  Who has a u t h o r i t y t o update the data?  35  Processing 1.  How  i s the data s t r u c t u r e d and accessed f o r p r o c e s s i n g ?  2.  What programs o r procedures use what data?  Redundancy 1.  Is t h e r e unnecessary data element  redundancy?  2.  Is t h e r e unnecessary document or r e p o r t  3.  Is t h e r e unnecessary f i l e or r e c o r d  redundancy?  redundancy?  36  3.3 REQUIREMENTS OF DACS In d e f i n i n g DACS, the f o l l o w i n g requirements  have been  considered. I d e n t i f i c a t i o n and D e f i n i t i o n Each data element, r e p o r t , document and r e c o r d must have a l a b e l , a name, a t e x t u a l and a t e c h n i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n . The l a b e l i s a s h o r t and unique  i d e n t i f i e r used t o r e f e r  to the data item and t o c r o s s - r e f e r e n c e i t t o o t h e r data  items  o  i n the system. The name i s a s t r i n g o f key words which m e a n i n g f u l l y i d e n t i f i e s the data items and can be used t o prepare indexes t o facilitate  retrieval.  The d e s c r i p t i o n i s a f r e e - f o r m E n g l i s h t e x t which allows the data t o be d e s c r i b e d i n as much d e t a i l as r e q u i r e d so as t o be non-ambiguous and convey a c l e a r meaning and understanding. The t e c h n i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the data p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n such as l e n g t h , format and p r e c i s i o n . Location The permanent l o c a t i o n o f the data element and how i t can be accessed must be s p e c i f i e d . one  I f data r e s i d e s i n more than  l o c a t i o n , a l l l o c a t i o n s must be s p e c i f i e d .  T h i s allows  the a n a l y s t t o draw upon data t h a t a l r e a d y e x i s t s i n p r o c e s s a b l e form and not t o propose r e c a p t u r i n g the data which may r e s u l t i n p o s s i b l e d u p l i c a t i o n and redundancy.  37  R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r S p e c i f i c a t i o n and I t must be determined  Integrity  e x a c t l y who  i s responsible for  s p e c i f y i n g the data possessed i n the v a r i o u s areas of the organization for,  ( i . e who  "owns" the data) and who  or has the a u t h o r i t y t o , update,  i s responsible  change or d e l e t e the d a t a .  I f one area has the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r m a i n t a i n i n g the i n t e g r i t y of a data element and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p s , the of  problem  i n c o n s i s t e n c y i s reduced.  Determination of Data  Users  The system must i n c l u d e the c a p a b i l i t y of r e g i s t e r i n g a l l the users of each data item.  T h i s p r o v i d e s i n s i g h t i n t o the  data flows i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n , how time requirements  for i t .  the data i s used and  the  I t a l s o prevents the change or  d e l e t i o n of data items u n t i l the impact on a l l users has been considered. Determination of Data  Source  In order t o e f f i c i e n t l y unnecessary  capture source data and t o a v o i d  d u p l i c a t i o n i t i s r e q u i r e d t o know i n what manner  and from what source the data items  originate.  Data D u p l i c a t i o n and Redundancy I d e n t i c a l or very s i m i l a r items of data o c c u r r i n g i n d i f f e r e n t p a r t s of the o r g a n i z a t i o n i n d i c a t e p o t e n t i a l areas f o r concern.  There may  be d u p l i c a t i o n i n f i l e s ,  source  38  documents or output i n f o r m a t i o n . necessary so each may  D e t e c t i o n of these cases i s  be s t u d i e d i n d e t a i l .  Those r e s p o n s i b l e  f o r the data items i n v o l v e d must have a t o o l t o enable them to determine  i f i n c o n s i s t e n c y or d u p l i c a t i o n a c t u a l l y  I f such cases are found, t h e r e must be an a b i l i t y t o  exists. determine  whether such c o n s t i t u t e s redundancy or i s d e s i r a b l e . R e t r i e v a l o f Data  Information  Users must be a b l e t o s e l e c t i v e l y r e t r i e v e the items of data t h a t are of i n t e r e s t t o them and review or analyze o n l y the s p e c i f i c a t i o n s or r e l a t i o n s h i p s of those i n d i v i d u a l  items.  T h i s r e q u i r e s the support of an a p p r o p r i a t e data p r o c e s s i n g facility  so t h a t the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of each item may  be simply  and s e l e c t i v e l y analyzed. I f the above requirements  are s a t i s f i e d through the Data  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and C o n t r o l System, the framework f o r c o n t r o l l i n g the data r e s o u r c e has been b u i l t .  E f f o r t s must be made to  review the system output, d e f i n e cases of i n c o n s i s t e n c y and redundancy and determine where e f f e c t i v e n e s s and e f f i c i e n c y be  improved.  can  CHAPTER IV DATA ADMINISTRATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM The Data A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and C o n t r o l System  (DACS) i s  designed t o s a t i s f y the requirements which have been i d e n t i f i e d i n the p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r .  I t i s c o n c e p t u a l i z e d as a computer  supported system which has the f o l l o w i n g components: A Data S p e c i f i c a t i o n Methodology  (DSM) which  facilitates  the d e f i n i t i o n and s p e c i f i c a t i o n o f the i d e n t i t y , t e c h n i c a l and r e l a t i o n a l a t t r i b u t e s o f documents, r e c o r d s and data A file  elements.  s t r u c t u r e t o f a c i l i t a t e the storage and r e t r i e v a l  o f the data s p e c i f i c a t i o n s and t h e i r r e l a t e d i n f o r m a t i o n . A s e r i e s o f output d i s p l a y s o r r e p o r t s which enable the user t o analyze and c o n t r o l the data r e s o u r c e as t o i t s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , terminology, usage and r e l a t i o n s h i p s . In d e v e l o p i n g DACS, the u n d e r l y i n g concept i s t h a t the b a s i c u n i t s of i n f o r m a t i o n a r e data elements  and i t i s on these  and how they a r e combined and used t h a t the system The d e f i n i t i o n s used throughout and c l o s e l y correspond t o Guide-Share  elements  i s built.  DACS a r e common IBM d e f i n i t i o n s requirements.  As t h e r e i s  no u n i v e r s a l l y accepted terminology a t the present time f o r data d e f i n i t i o n , the author has attempted  t o p r o v i d e keywords which  w i l l best r e p r e s e n t data concepts.  CODASYL has attempted  l i n e a data d e f i n i t i o n language  t o out-  and s e v e r a l o f t h e i r terms correspond  40  to  DACS d e f i n i t i o n s .  E x p l i c i t l y , DACS d e f i n i t i o n s f o r element,  group, segment, r e c o r d and f i l e  correspond t o CODASYL's data  item, group, e n t r y , r e c o r d and f i l e .  CODASYL d e f i n i t i o n s do not  i n c l u d e document s p e c i f i c a t i o n s and, t h e r e f o r e , t h e r e i s no correspondence  4.1  i n t h i s area.  DEFINITIONS The b a s i c l e v e l s o f data d e f i n i t i o n are the element, group and a r r a y . The  element i s the s m a l l e s t u n i t of data s p e c i f i c a t i o n  and  cannot be separated i n t o s m a l l e r components, i . e . month. A group c o n s i s t s of two  or more data elements which can  be  c o n s i d e r e d as one l o g i c a l e n t i t y or u n i t , i . e . date i s a group made up of the data elements day, month and  year.  An a r r a y i s a s e r i e s of r e c u r r e n c e s of data elements or groups which are i d e n t i c a l i n t h e i r meaning or a t t r i b u t e s , i.e.  a s e r i e s of amounts showing s a l e s of products by month i s  an a r r a y . Elements,  groups and a r r a y s can be combined i n t o segments  and r e c o r d s f o r storage i n an automated f i l e or i n t o documents f o r o p e r a t i o n a l or i n f o r m a t i o n a l purposes. A segment i s a p o r t i o n of a data r e c o r d c o n t a i n i n g one or  more l o g i c a l l y r e l a t e d d a t a elements,  arrays.  groups or  A segment i s t y p i c a l l y the s m a l l e s t p o r t i o n of  data which can be p h y s i c a l l y r e t r i e v e d from a  file.  41  A r e c o r d c o n s i s t s of one  or more l o g i c a l l y r e l a t e d  segments, elements, groups or a r r a y s , i . e . an employee r e c o r d c o n t a i n s a l l data p e r t i n e n t t o t h a t employee. A f i l e or data  set i s a c o l l e c t i o n of l o g i c a l l y r e l a t e d  r e c o r d s , i . e . an employee f i l e would c o n t a i n a l l records for  a l l employees.  A document i s a combination o f data elements, groups  and  a r r a y s put i n t o such a form as to be humanly understood and usable i.e.  f o r i n f o r m a t i o n a l or o p e r a t i o n a l purposes,  i n v o i c e s , purchase orders and  r e p o r t s are documents.  42  4.2 DATA SPECIFICATION METHODOLOGY In o r d e r t o c a p t u r e i n f o r m a t i o n about d a t a , i t s a t t r i b u t e s and i t s use, DACS uses S p e c i f i c a t i o n Sheets and S p e c i f i c a t i o n Statements t o d e s c r i b e the d a t a .  Information about the data  being a n a l y z e d i s entered onto the p r e p r i n t e d  Specification  Sheets by completing the a p p r o p r i a t e S p e c i f i c a t i o n  Statements.  There a r e two S p e c i f i c a t i o n Sheets t h a t a r e used t o gather i n f o r m a t i o n about d a t a ; the Data S p e c i f i c a t i o n Sheet and the Supplementary  S p e c i f i c a t i o n Sheet.  The l a t t e r i s used when  t h e r e i s not s u f f i c i e n t room on the f i r s t sheet t o complete the data s p e c i f i c a t i o n . figures  Sample S p e c i f i c a t i o n Sheets a r e shown i n  4.1 and 4.2.  Specification  Statements  The s p e c i f i c a t i o n o r d e s c r i p t i o n  o f data t o be i n c l u d e d i n  DACS i s accomplished by means o f S p e c i f i c a t i o n  Statements.  Each s h o r t , c o n c i s e statement communicates s p e c i f i c of t h e s p e c i f i e d data item.  characteristics  The Data S p e c i f i c a t i o n Methodology  p r o v i d e s t h r e e sets o f S p e c i f i c a t i o n Statements; one s e t i s designed f o r elements, groups and a r r a y s  (E/G/A), one f o r documents  and t h e o t h e r f o r records and segments (R/S). The S p e c i f i c a t i o n Statements f o r each o f the data e n t r i e s fall  i n t o f i v e general c l a s s e s :  1.  Label:  The l a b e l , a s h o r t and unique tagf. a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  each item o f data i n DACS, i s intended p r i m a r i l y f o r computer m a n i p u l a t i o n and r e t r i e v a l .  >  I—  DATA . LABEL  ro <  DATA SPECIFICATION SHEET  1  2  3  <  5  6  7  8  9  10 11  FILE LABEL  Q cc < 13  15  16 17  18 19 20 21  PAGE  12  1  -  /ER  of  Columns 1-12 to be punched i n t o each card. PREP. DATE  PREPARED BY  22 23 24 25 26 27  28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42  43 44  CERT, DATE  CERTIFIED BY 45 46 47  49 50 51  52 53 S4 55 56  57 58 59 60  61 52  S3 64 65 56  57 58 59 60  61 62  63 64  i  • CD  o  DATA ADMINISTRATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM  SEQ.  13 14  ENTER SPECIFICATION STATEMENTS AND TEXT BELOW  t  15  16 17  i8  19 20 21  22 23 24 25  26 27  28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42  43 44  45 46 47 4e 49 50 51  52 53 54 55 56  65 66  67 68 69  05  01 OJT  -  —  OS  —  -  ii3  ii  &~ 15 — —  IS 1<S  —  —  -  _  —  — —-  F i g u r e 4.1  Data S p e c i f i c a t i o n  Sheet  —  70 71  72  73 74 75 76 77  78 79  CARD 1  DATA  DATA.. ' LABEL  ADMINISTRATION  SUPPLEMENTARY 2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  c  E \'T EI  <_>  16 17  18 19  CONTROL  SYSTEM  20 21  SPECIFICATION  PAGE  SHEET  of  10 11 12  Columns 1-12 to into each card.  13 14 15  AND  SEQ.  22 23 24 a  26 27  be  SPECIFICATION  28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37  punched  STATEMENTS 38 39 40  41 42  43 44  AND  TEXT  45 46 47 48 49 50 51  BELOW 52 53 54 55 56  57 58 59 60  61 62  64  65 66 67 68 69 70 71  72 73 74 75 76 77  -  --  -  — —  —  -  F i g u r e 4.2  Supplementary S p e c i f i c a t i o n Sheet  78 79  45  2.  Name:  The name c o n s i s t s o f a number o f keywords assigned  to p r o v i d e d e s c r i p t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n about the data.  It is  the human i d e n t i f i e r f o r a p i e c e o f data and must be unique. The  name appears i n the Keyword Index r e p o r t and p r o v i d e s  a means f o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and r e t r i e v a l . 3.  Description:  The d e s c r i p t i o n i n c l u d e s a f r e e - f o r m t e x t  which unambiguously d e s c r i b e s each item o f data and p r o v i d e s  4.  a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n deemed necessary  for clarity.  T e c h n i c a l Data:  o f i n t e r e s t t o the  T e c h n i c a l data, mainly  programmers and a n a l y s t s , i n c l u d e s such i n f o r m a t i o n as t h e l e n g t h , p r e c i s i o n and mode o f a data element.  I t also  i n c l u d e s access method and language p r o c e s s o r i n the case of a mechanized r e c o r d . 5.  R e l a t i o n a l Data:  R e l a t i o n a l data r e f e r s t o such i n f o r m a t i o n  as t h e o r d e r i n g o f a data element w i t h i n a r e c o r d , the use of a u n i t o f data such as an element by another  entity  such  as a r e c o r d o r a document, the source and d e s t i n a t i o n o f the data and the use o f the data i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n The DSM uses the name and l a b e l i n c o n j u n c t i o n t o achieve selective retrieval capability.  I f an a n a l y s t knows the l a b e l  of a p a r t i c u l a r item o f d a t a , an element, r e c o r d o r document, he may r e f e r e n c e the l a b e l f o r i n f o r m a t i o n on t h a t item.  If  he does not know the l a b e l a s s o c i a t e d with the item o f data, he may c o n s u l t the Keyword Index which i s ordered by the keywords of the name, t o f i n d the data items and l a b e l s he i s i n t e r e s t e d i n .  46  He may then use the l a b e l t o r e f e r t o the data s p e c i f i c a t i o n he wishes t o study. The T i t l e Statement,  the f i r s t  statement on t h e S p e c i f i c a t i o n  Sheets, i s r e q u i r e d on every s p e c i f i c a t i o n and i s the o n l y one which has a f i x e d p o s i t i o n a l format. for  I t must always be completed  every data s p e c i f i c a t i o n . The remaining s p e c i f i c a t i o n statements a r e e s s e n t i a l l y  free-  form and a r e designed t o permit as much f l e x i b i l i t y as p o s s i b l e to the person d e s c r i b i n g t h e d a t a . components: T  ^  e  These statements have t h r e e  the o p e r a t o r , the d e l i m i t e r and the operand.  o p e r a t o r i s a keyword which i d e n t i f i e s a s i n g l e  attribute  of the data such as the mode, the frequency o r the access method. F u l l words a r e used as the o p e r a t o r s i n the S p e c i f i c a t i o n S t a t e ments, however, the f i r s t The d e l i m i t e r sign  f o u r l e t t e r s may be used f o r b r e v i t y .  f o l l o w s the o p e r a t o r and i s always  an equal  (=:)'. The operand  i s the a c t u a l may c o n s i s t  i s t h e i n f o r m a t i o n s u p p l i e d by the a n a l y s t and  data which w i l l be entered i n t o DACS.  The operand  of one o r more v a l u e s and the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  v a l u e s i s determined by t h e i r p o s i t i o n w i t h i n the l i s t .  o f the Commas  (,) a r e used t o separate the v a l u e s i n a m u l t i - v a l u e operand A S p e c i f i c a t i o n Statement colon  list.  i s always terminated by a semi-  (;) . Other than the T i t l e Statement,  may be completed  the S p e c i f i c a t i o n  Statements  i n any d e s i r e d sequence on the S p e c i f i c a t i o n  Sheets.  47  Title  Statement The  T i t l e Statement, t h e f i r s t l i n e o f the S p e c i f i c a t i o n  Sheet, i d e n t i f i e s t o DACS the l a b e l o f the data item t o be submitted t o the system and the type o f p r o c e s s i n g t o be performed.  Data items can be added t o DACS, have e x i s t i n g  specifications the  changed o r be d e l e t e d .  i n c l u s i o n o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n such as the name  of the a n a l y s t s p e c i f y i n g The  I t also provides f o r  Title  the data and the date o f s p e c i f i c a t i o n .  statement i s recorded on the S p e c i f i c a t i o n  Sheet i n  a f i x e d format and must always be completed f o r the data s p e c i f i c a t i o n t o be accepted. 1.  A c t i v i t y Type This f i e l d  (positions  indicates  1-2)  whether t h e s p e c i f i c a t i o n i s f o r a  document, r e c o r d o r element/group/array and how the s p e c i f i c a t i o n i s t o be processed. Position  1 can c o n t a i n one o f :  E - to indicate  the s p e c i f i c a t i o n i s f o r an E/G/A.  R - to indicate  the s p e c i f i c a t i o n i s f o r a r e c o r d .  D - to indicate  the s p e c i f i c a t i o n i s f o r a document.  Position  2 c o n t a i n s one o f :  B - to indicate  a new s p e c i f i c a t i o n i s being entered.  C - to indicate  an e x i s t i n g s p e c i f i c a t i o n i s being changed  D - to indicate  a s p e c i f i c a t i o n i s being d e l e t e d .  In b u i l d i n g  a s p e c i f i c a t i o n , t h e T i t l e Statement i s f o l l o w e d  48  by the remaining S p e c i f i c a t i o n Statements r e q u i r e d t o s p e c i f y the data item. To change a s p e c i f i c a t i o n , the T i t l e Statement need only be  f o l l o w e d by those statements r e q u i r e d t o e f f e c t the d e s i r e d  changes. In d e l e t i n g a s p e c i f i c a t i o n , only the T i t l e Statement i s r e q u i r e d t o remove the e n t i r e s p e c i f i c a t i o n o f the data  item  from the system. 2.  Data L a b e l The  ( p o s i t i o n s 3-9)  l a b e l i s c r e a t e d by t h e a n a l y s t a t the time the  s p e c i f i c a t i o n i s prepared. characters  and serves  I t may c o n t a i n up t o seven alphameric  as the unique i d e n t i f i e r f o r the p a r t i c u l a r  E/G/A, r e c o r d o r document.  I t i s used f o r machine  manipulation,  r e t r i e v a l and appears i n s e v e r a l r e p o r t s . 3.  Sequence Number The  and  ( p o s i t i o n s 10-13)  sequence number c o n s i s t s o f t h r e e numeric  characters  i s used when completing E/G/A s p e c i f i c a t i o n s and i n d i c a t e s  the r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n o f the E/G/A w i t h i n the r e c o r d o r document. 4.  Card Number The  ( p o s i t i o n s 13-14)  card number i s p r i n t e d on the S p e c i f i c a t i o n , . Sheets.  I t s purpose i s t o s e q u e n t i a l l y number the statements f o r a g i v e n data s p e c i f i c a t i o n .  49  5.  Record or F i l e L a b e l  ( p o s i t i o n s 15-21)  This f i e l d  of two  serves one  purposes depending i f an  E/G/A, a r e c o r d or a document i s being s p e c i f i e d . an E/G/A  When s p e c i f y i n g  t h i s f i e l d c o n t a i n s the l a b e l of the r e c o r d or document  on which the E/G/A  appears.  When s p e c i f y i n g a r e c o r d , the  or data s e t t o which the r e c o r d belongs i s p l a c e d i n t h i s For a document t h i s f i e l d  V e r s i o n Number The  field.  i s l e f t blank, or i f a manual f i l e i s  used to s t o r e the documents, i t s name can be p l a c e d 6.  file  here.  ( p o s i t i o n s 22-23)  v e r s i o n number c o n s i s t s of two  numeric c h a r a c t e r s  and  i s r e q u i r e d when s p e c i f i c a t i o n s d i f f e r f o r the same item.  It  i s used when m u l t i p l e usages c r e a t e a need to show d i f f e r e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of 7.  Status  data.  (position  This f i e l d  24)  shows the s t a t u s of the item a t v a r i o u s phases.  P - i n d i c a t e s a Proposed s t a t u s and means t h a t the a d d i t i o n , change or d e l e t i o n of a data s p e c i f i c a t i o n i s being proposed to meet a requirement.  The proposed s p e c i f i c a t i o n i s reviewed by  the data a d m i n i s t r a t o r f o r accuracy system.  Any  and  i s entered i n t o the  a f f e c t e d users must be n o t i f i e d of the  s p e c i f i c a t i o n and t h e i r agreement obtained.  Any  new  conflicts  other items i n the system must a l s o be i d e n t i f i e d and  corrected.  A - i n d i c a t e s an Approved s t a t u s where the proposed t i o n has been agreed to by a l l concerned.  The  with  specifica-  specification is  50  now f o r m a l l y entered i n t o the system and i s a v a i l a b l e f o r t e s t i n g but not f o r formal use. E - i n d i c a t e s E f f e c t i v e s t a t u s and the item i s now a v a i l a b l e for  use.  A l l changes a f f e c t i n g v a r i o u s systems throughout the  o r g a n i z a t i o n have been made and the new s p e c i f i c a t i o n i s permanently r e s i d e n t i n the system. 8.  Prepared By This f i e l d  ( p o s i t i o n s 25-39)  c o n t a i n s the i n i t i a l s  and l a s t name o f the  a n a l y s t p r e p a r i n g the s p e c i f i c a t i o n . 9.  Date Prepared This f i e l d  10.  ( p o s i t i o n s 4 0-4 5)  i n d i c a t e s the date t h e s p e c i f i c a t i o n was prepared.  C e r t i f i e d By  ( p o s i t i o n s 45-60)  T h i s f i e l d c o n t a i n s the name o f the manager o f the department who i s p r i m a r i l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the d a t a . s p e c i f i c a t i o n s must be approved 11.  E f f e c t i v e Date  New o r changed  by him b e f o r e e n t r y i n t o DACS.  ( p o s i t i o n s 61-66)  T h i s date i n d i c a t e s the date a t which the s t a t u s o f the item becomes e f f e c t i v e . Name Statement NAME = keyword s t r i n g ; The Name Statement p r o v i d e s a humanly s e n s i b l e i d e n t i f i e r for  the data item, E/G/A, r e c o r d o r document.  Each item must  51  then have two i d e n t i f i e r s ;  the L a b e l and the Name.  The Name  g i v e s the data item an i d e n t i f i e r which i n d i c a t e s the use o f the item.  I t p r o v i d e s a r e t r i e v a l mechanism f o r the user who  i s able t o d e s c r i b e the d e f i n i t i o n being sought but does not know i t s L a b e l . The  s t r u c t u r e o f the Name c o n s i s t s o f a s e r i e s o f keywords,  chosen by t h e a n a l y s t , which w i l l d e s c r i b e the item a t the time of s p e c i f i c a t i o n .  Each o f the keywords used must be h i g h l y  d e f i n i t i v e and e a s i l y understood  t o i n s u r e e f f e c t i v e usage.  When b u i l d i n g the Name, the a n a l y s t should c o n s i d e r which i s t h e prime word, i . e . the most g e n e r a l term t h a t can be used to d e s c r i b e the item.  He then should c o n s i d e r the m o d i f i e r s  or next g e n e r a l terms e t c , u n t i l he has completed  the l e a s t  g e n e r a l o r most s p e c i f i c term. The Name i s the data s p e c i f i c a t i o n which i s i n p u t t o the Keyword Index.  In order t o make t h i s r e p o r t as complete and  u s e f u l as p o s s i b l e , the a n a l y s t should be very c o n s c i e n t i o u s when he c o n s t r u c t s the Name f o r the d a t a . The Name Statement should be the l a s t statement by t h e a n a l y s t .  completed  The c r e a t i o n o f an e f f e c t i v e Name i s dependent  on how w e l l he knows the data and can i d e n t i f y t h e most d e s c r i p t i v e keywords.  During the process o f completing the o t h e r  Specification  Statements he w i l l g a i n i n s i g h t i n t o the data and i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which may be h e l p f u l i n i d e n t i f y i n g keywords f o r the Name.  52  D e s c r i p t i o n Statement The  D e s c r i p t i o n Statement s u p p l i e s DACS with the t e x t u a l  d e s c r i p t i o n which unambiguously d e s c r i b e s the E/G/A, r e c o r d or document.  The  a n a l y s t should compose a complete, c l e a r and  c o n c i s e D e s c r i p t i o n Statement.  He  mnemonics or obscure phraseology  which may  i s not f a m i l i a r with the data.  He may  D e s c r i p t i o n Statement, any r e l e v e n t and  should a v o i d a b b r e v i a t i o n s ,  The  who  i n c l u d e i n the  i n f o r m a t i o n which he judges to be  i s not i n c l u d e d i n any of the  Statements.  confuse a user  Specification  s t r u c t u r e of the D e s c r i p t i o n Statements  takes  the form: DESC = t e x t ; The  statement i s begun i n column f i f t e e n and,  can be continued any  on succeeding  lines.  The  i f required,  f i r s t c h a r a c t e r of  c o n t i n u a t i o n l i n e must s t a r t i n column s i x t e e n or a f t e r .  Reference D e f i n i t i o n Before proceeding  to i d e n t i f y a data element, i t should  always be determined i f the element a l r e a d y e x i s t s i n the system. T h i s i s done by checking any  the Keyword Index to see i f there  s i m i l a r elements u s i n g the a s s o c i a t e d L a b e l s and  i f the element has been d e f i n e d .  I f i t has,  determining  a Reference  D e f i n i t i o n can be used t o s i m p l i f y the repeated the data.  are  s p e c i f i c a t i o n of  I f the element to be s p e c i f i e d i s i d e n t i c a l to an  e x i s t i n g one,  only the T i t l e Statement need be completed g i v i n g  the same L a b e l and V e r s i o n number.  I f the element d i f f e r s i n  53  some of i t s a t t r i b u t e s , a new V e r s i o n number i s a s s i g n e d and only the a t t r i b u t e s which d i f f e r from the o r i g i n a l e n t r y need to be  supplied.  O r i g i n , User and R e s p o n s i b i l i t y Codes In completing the Source, User and R e s p o n s i b i l i t y it  Statements,  i s r e q u i r e d t o i d e n t i f y a person, f u n c t i o n or department  the o r g a n i z a t i o n .  The Source Statement  o f a document, the User Statement and the R e s p o n s i b i l i t y Statement  in  i d e n t i f i e s the o r i g i n a t o r  i d e n t i f i e s who determines who  uses the document i s responsible  f o r the content and i n t e g r i t y o f the data. The code may  be s t r u c t u r e d t o s u i t the requirements of the  specific organization.  The s t r u c t u r e of the code,  therefore,  must a l l o w f o r the c l e a r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the l o c a t i o n and user o f the document or the person r e p o n s i b l e A p o s s i b l e s t r u c t u r e may l o c a t i o n , department may  f o r the data  c o n s i s t of d i v i s i o n ,  and p o s i t i o n numbers.  integrity.  function,  An o r g a n i z a t i o n  chart  be h e l p f u l i n determining the code and, i n f a c t , a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  s t r u c t u r e may  a l r e a d y be i n e x i s t e n c e .  Schruben^  suggests t h a t  this  code can be s i m i l a r t o an accountant's c h a r t o f accounts or budgetary system. Although the f o r m a l i z a t i o n of these codes may e f f o r t i n s p e c i f i c organizations,  entail  considerable  they are a necessary requirement f o r  a s u c c e s s f u l implementation of DACS i n each case.  L. Schruben, "The Information System Model", Vol.15, No.7, J u l y 1969, p.93.  Datamation,  54  Data S p e c i f i c a t i o n Sheets The methodology f o l l o w e d t o complete the data c o n s i s t s o f f i r s t completing and then completing  specifications  r e c o r d o r document s p e c i f i c a t i o n s  a S p e c i f i c a t i o n Sheet f o r each o f the data  elements which appear on the document o r i s contained record.  i n the  In t h i s way l i n k a g e i s s e t up between r e c o r d s ,  documents and E/G/A's which i s l a t e r used i n the output  reports.  .3 RECORD SPECIFICATION The  Data S p e c i f i c a t i o n Sheet  the machine p r o c e s s a b l e system.  ( f i g . 4.1) i s used t o d e f i n e  records t h a t e x i s t i n the i n f o r m a t i o n  These records a r e s t o r e d i n f i l e s o r data s e t s on cards  magnetic tape o r magnetic d i s c and are p r o c e s s a b l e or business machine.  by a computer  A d i s t i n c t i o n between documents and r e c o r d  as d e f i n e d here, can be made by determining  i f they can be used  as they a r e ( i . e . are humanly i n t e l l i g i b l e ) o r i f they  require  machine p r o c e s s i n g i n order t o r e v e a l the data o r i n f o r m a t i o n captured  on them.  I f they a r e humanly i n t e l l i g i b l e , they are  documents, i f not, they are r e c o r d s . The  s p e c i f i c a t i o n o f a r e c o r d i n c l u d e s i d e n t i f y i n g i t by a  L a b e l , Name and D e s c r i p t i o n and p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n as t o where the r e c o r d i s l o c a t e d and how t o access i t . A d i s t i n c t i o n must be made between records and segments. A segment i s a p o r t i o n o f a data r e c o r d c o n t a i n i n g one o r more l o g i c a l l y r e l a t e d elements, groups o r a r r a y s .  A record  then,  55  i s d e f i n e d as a l o g i c a l c o l l e c t i o n of one or more elements, groups or a r r a y s . d e f i n i t i o n of records  segments,  Segments are i n c l u d e d i n the  s i n c e they are the b a s i s on which many  Data Management Systems are b u i l t and may  be the s m a l l e s t  p o r t i o n s o f a data s e t or f i l e which can be s e p a r a t e l y  accessed  and s t o r e d . Title  Statement T h i s statement takes the g e n e r a l  for  form as the T i t l e  documents o r elements; i s d e s c r i b e d i n s e c t i o n 4.2  i l l u s t r a t e d i n figure  Statement and  4.3.  Name Statement The Name Statement i s d e s c r i b e d i n s e c t i o n  4.2.  D e s c r i p t i o n Statement The D e s c r i p t i o n Statement, p r o v i d i n g t e x t u a l about the r e c o r d , i s d e s c r i b e d i n s e c t i o n  information  4.2.  Type Statement TYPE =  Record/Segment;  The Type Statement s p e c i f i e s i f the s p e c i f i c a t i o n i s f o r a r e c o r d or a segment. C l a s s Statement CLASS = Perm/Temp; The C l a s s Statement i d e n t i f i e s the record/segment as being a member of a permanent  f i l e or a member o f a temporary  file  56  FIELD Activity  POSITION 1-2  DESCRIPTION RB: RC:  t o c r e a t e a new r e c o r d t o change an e x i s t i n g r e c o r d specification t o d e l e t e an e x i s t i n g r e c o r d specification  RD: Record/Segment/ L a b e l  3-9  Up t o seven alphameric c h a r a c t e r s g i v i n g a unique l a b e l t o the record/segment  10-12  Blank  Card Code  13-14  Card Code  F i l e Label  15-21  Up t o seven alphameric c h a r a c t e r s i d e n t i f y i n g the f i l e o r data s e t i n which t h e record/segment r e s i d e s  22-23  Two numeric c h a r a c t e r s which i n d i c a t e the v e r s i o n number o f the record/segment  Version  Status  24  The the P: A: E:  s t a t u s o f the s p e c i f i c a t i o n i n system proposed approved effective  Prepared by  25-39  The name o f the person p r e p a r i n g the s p e c i f i c a t i o n  P r e p a r a t i o n date  4 0-4 5  The date the s p e c i f i c a t i o n was prepared  C e r t i f i e d by  46-60  The name o f the manager o f the prime user department  Effective  61-66  The date t h e s p e c i f i c a t i o n becomes effective.  date  F i g u r e 4.3 T i t l e Statement f o r Record and Segment S p e c i f i c a t i o n s  57  which e x i s t s f o r only a l i m i t e d d u r a t i o n . Access Statement ACCESS = ISAM/BDAM/SAM/ e t c : T h i s statement provides data o r g a n i z a t i o n and access method f o r a record/segment.  Any access method p e r t i n e n t t o the  i n s t a l l a t i o n i s acceptable. Language Statement LANGUAGE = COBOL/ALGOL/FORTRAN/ e t c ; The Language Statement i n d i c a t e s the language used when the record/segment was used  ( i . e . DOS  initially  created.  The o p e r a t i n g system  or OS) should a l s o be i n d i c a t e d .  Media Statement MEDIA = TAPE/DISC/CARD; The Media Statement d e s c r i b e s the media on which the r e c o r d / segment i s s t o r e d . Format  Statement FORMAT = F/V/U/FB/VB/FS/VS;  The Format Statement i d e n t i f i e s t h a t the r e c o r d i s e i t h e r f i x e d l e n g t h or v a r i a b l e , blocked o r unblocked, undefined consists of f i x e d or v a r i a b l e length  or  segments.  Computer Statement COMPUTER = IBM360/UNIV94 00/ e t c ; The Computer Statement i d e n t i f i e s the system used t o c r e a t e the record/segment.  58  Count Statement COUNT = number; The Count Statement, i n r e f e r e n c e t o a record, i n d i c a t e s the number o f records i n the f i l e o r data s e t .  I f a segment  i s being s p e c i f i e d , the count r e f e r s t o the number of o c c u r r e n c e s of the segment i n the r e c o r d . R e t e n t i o n Statement RETENTION = number o f p e r i o d s ; The R e t e n t i o n Statement p r o v i d e s the l e n g t h o f time t h a t the  data i n a record/segment i s maintained, i . e . two months  would be i n d i c a t e d  by 2M.  End Statement This indicates  the end o f the Record/Segment S p e c i f i c a t i o n .  A f t e r completing the Record/Segment S p e c i f i c a t i o n each of the i n d i v i d u a l data elements are d e f i n e d by means o f the Data Element  Specification.  59  4.4 DOCUMENT SPECIFICATION The Data S p e c i f i c a t i o n Sheet shown i n f i g u r e 4.1, i s a l s o used t o i d e n t i f y data and i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t appears on v a r i o u s forms, documents, r e p o r t s and d i s p l a y s throughout the o r g a n i z a t i o n . I t s main purpose i s t o r e c o r d each document by l a b e l , name, d e s c r i p t i o n , volume, frequency  o f p r e p a r a t i o n o r use, source and  i d e n t i t y of users. ; A document can be d e f i n e d as a medium c a r r y i n g i n f o r m a t i o n i n the form o f a c o l l e c t i o n o f one o r more data elements.  The  medium i n t h i s context not only i n c l u d e s paper but a l s o c a r d s , machine p r o c e s s a b l e displays, etc.  forms, micro f i l m , t e l e x messages, video  Any document t h a t e x i s t s i n the i n f o r m a t i o n  system, which serves a purpose and p r o v i d e s data o f i n f o r m a t i o n a l o r o p e r a t i o n a l content  t o a user or p r o c e s s , must be i d e n t i f i e d  by means o f the Document S p e c i f i c a t i o n Statements. 2 ARDI  c l a s s i f i e s documents a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r  characteristics:  A source document i s a document which i n t r o d u c e s new to the system. be necessary  G e n e r a l l y , data c o l l e c t i o n and c o n v e r s i o n  data will  when a source document i s used i n c o n j u n c t i o n with  computers. A work o r i n t e r m e d i a t e document i s a document such as a worksheet or a summary c a r d , used mainly  t o summarize a l a r g e  q u a n t i t y o f source data or t o f a c i l i t a t e the e d i t i n g o f t r a n s a c t i o n s or r e p o r t s . W. Hartman, H, Matthes and A. Proeme, Management Information Systems Handbook, McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1968, s e c t . 3.2, p.31.  60  A record  i s a document c a r r y i n g r e c o r d i n g s  r e l a t e d data elements.  of a set of  I t i s u s u a l l y p a r t o f a manual  file  which i s r e g u l a r l y updated t o permit the supply o f c u r r e n t information  f o r use i n the p r e p a r a t i o n  A report  i s a document c a r r y i n g managerial o r o p e r a t i o n a l  information.  Such a document may c a l l f o r a managerial d e c i s i o n  or may serve t o i n i t i a t e a necessary Title  of reports.  operation.  Statement The T i t l e Statement has the same format as d e s c r i b e d  and  earlier  i s shown i n f i g u r e 4.4.  Name Statement The Name Statement, as d e s c r i b e d  e a r l i e r , consists of a  s e r i e s o f key words which unambiguously i d e n t i f i e s the document. Description  Statement  The D e s c r i p t i o n Statement p r o v i d e s t e x t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n and a d e s c r i p t i o n o f the document. Type Statement TYPE = source/work/record/report; The Type Statement i d e n t i f i e s the document according  t o the  d e s c r i p t i o n o u t l i n e d i n s e c t i o n 4.4. Class  Statement CLASS - s t a t u s / a c t i v i t y / t r a n s a c t i o n ; Status i n d i c a t e s a r e p o r t r e c o r d i n g  s t a t u s a t - a given  date,  61  FIELD Activity  POSITION 1-2  DESCRIPTION DB: DC: DD:  Document L a b e l  3-9  t o e n t e r a new document specification t o change an e x i s t i n g document s p e c i f i c a t i o n t o d e l e t e an e x i s t i n g document s p e c i f i c a t i o n  Up t o seven alphameric c h a r a c t e r s g i v i n g a unique l a b e l t o the document  10-12  Blank  Card Code  13-14  Card Code  F i l e Label  15-21  I f a p p l i c a b l e , up t o seven alphameric c h a r a c t e r s d e f i n i n g the f i l e where the document i s s t o r e d f o r r e f e r e n c e ; otherwise blank  Version  22-23  Status  Two numeric c h a r a c t e r s which i n d i c a t e s the v e r s i o n number o f the document The s t a t u s o f the document i n t h e system P: proposed A: approved E: effective  24  Prepared by  25-39  The name of the person p r e p a r i n g the s p e c i f i c a t i o n  P r e p a r a t i o n Date  40-45  The date t h e s p e c i f i c a t i o n was prepared  C e r t i f i e d by  46-60  The name o f the manager o f the prime user department  Effective  61-66  The date the s p e c i f i c a t i o n effective.  date  F i g u r e 4.4. T i t l e Statement  f o r Document  Specification  becomes  62 i . e . a balance sheet.  A c t i v i t y indicates a report recording  a c t i v i t y over a given p e r i o d , i . e . a P r o f i t and Loss  Statement.  T r a n s a c t i o n i n d i c a t e s a document r e c o r d i n g some a c t i o n o r event, i . e . a purchase  order.  Form Statement FORM = paper/card/video/micro; The Form Statement  f u r t h e r d e f i n e s the document by d e s c r i b i n g  the type of media on which the document appears. Count  Statement COUNT = number; The Count Statement r e p r e s e n t s t h e q u a n t i t y o f the documents  r e c e i v e d , processed o r used i n the time i n t e r v a l d e f i n e d by the Frequency and P e r i o d Preparation  Statements.  Statement PREPARATION = manual/computer;  The P r e p a r a t i o n Statement  i n d i c a t e s whether the document i s  manually o r computer produced. Frequency  Statement FREQUENCY = number;  Frequency r e p r e s e n t s  the number o f times t h i s document i s  r e c e i v e d , p r o c e s s e d o r used i n the p e r i o d d e f i n e d by the P e r i o d Statement.  63  Period  Statement PERIOD = SS/MM/HH/DD/WW/BW/SM/MO/QQ/SY/YY/RR;  The p e r i o d i s the s h o r t e s t time p e r i o d i n which  this  document i s r e c e i v e d , processed o r used. SS MM HH DD WW BW Origin  seconds minutes hours days weeks bi-weekly  SM MO QQ SY YY RR  semi-monthly monthly quarterly semi-yearly yearly as r e q u i r e d  Statement ORIGIN  source-code;  T h i s statement d e s c r i b e s from whom o r where the document originates.  The source-code s p e c i f i e s the department  who  submits the document t o the system.  initially  o r person  I t can be  e i t h e r i n t e r n a l l y generated by the o r g a n i z a t i o n , o r come from an e x t e r n a l source such as a customer. code conforms  The format o f the source-  t o the s t r u c t u r e e s t a b l i s h e d f o r the source and  user s p e c i f i c a t i o n d e s c r i b e d i n s e c t i o n 4.2. Users  Statement USERS = u s e r l , user2, user3, . . . , user n; T h i s statement d e f i n e s a l l the users o f a p a r t i c u l a r  document.  As t h e r e may be more than one user, i t i s important  to a s c e r t a i n the i d e n t i t y o f a l l the users even though they may only use c e r t a i n p i e c e s o f data on the document. the user code i s d e s c r i b e d i n s e c t i o n 4.2.  The format f o r  64  Retention  Statement RETENTION = number o f p e r i o d s ;  The  Retention  Statement i n d i c a t e s the number of time  p e r i o d s the document i s s t o r e d , o r r e t a i n e d , between i t s i n i t i a l p r o c e s s i n g and eventual d e s t r u c t i o n .  P e r i o d s are  i n d i c a t e d by: D - days  M - months  W - weeks  Y - years  For example, a document t h a t i s kept f o r s i x months would be d e s c r i b e d a s : RETENTION = 6M; End  Statement The  End Statement i n d i c a t e s the end o f the document  specification.  When the document s p e c i f i c a t i o n has been  completed, the data elements appearing each be s e p a r a t e l y  specified.  on the document must  65  4.5 DATA ELEMENT SPECIFICATION A Data S p e c i f i c a t i o n Sheet i s completed f o r every data element on the document o r r e c o r d a f t e r the document o r r e c o r d i t s e l f has been s p e c i f i e d .  The data elements a r e l i n k e d t o  the c o r r e s p o n d i n g documents o r r e c o r d s through the Document/ Record l a b e l i n the T i t l e Statement.  The use o f r e f e r e n c e  d e f i n i t i o n and t h e v e r s i o n number can be used t o s i m p l i f y the s p e c i f i c a t i o n o f a data element i f i t a l r e a d y e x i s t s i n the system.  As d e s c r i b e d i n s e c t i o n 4.2, only the T i t l e  Statement  and those statements needed t o s p e c i f y a t t r i b u t e s which  differ  from the i n i t i a l e n t r y , need t o be s u p p l i e d . Title  Statement The T i t l e Statement i s s i m i l a r t o the d e s c r i p t i o n i n  s e c t i o n 4.2, and i s shown i n f i g u r e 4.5. Name Statement The Name Statement i s d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r i n s e c t i o n 4.2. D e s c r i p t i o n Statement The D e s c r i p t i o n Statement i s d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r i n s e c t i o n 4.2. Type Statement TYPE = element/group/array; T h i s statement s p e c i f i e s the data item as an element, group or a r r a y .  66  FIELD Activity  POSITION 1-2  DESCRIPTION EB:  t o enter a new element specification t o change an e x i s t i n g specification t o d e l e t e an e x i s t i n g specification  EC: ED: Element L a b e l  3-9  A seven c h a r a c t e r alphameric l a b e l g i v i n g a unique i d e n t i f i e r t o the element  Sequence Number  10-12  Three numeric c h a r a c t e r s t h a t i n d i c a t e the r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n o f the element w i t h i n the document o r r e c o r d  Card Number  13-14  Card number  Document/Record Label  15-21  An e i g h t c h a r a c t e r alphameric l a b e l i d e n t i f y i n g the document/ r e c o r d on which t h e element appears  V e r s i o n Number  Status  22-23  24  Two numeric c h a r a c t e r s t h a t i n d i c a t e the v e r s i o n o f t h e element P: A: E:  proposed appeared effective  Prepared by  25-39  Name o f person p r e p a r i n g the specification  P r e p a r a t i o n Date  40-45  Date the s p e c i f i c a t i o n was prepared  C e r t i f i e d by  46-60  Name o f the manager r e s p o n s i b l e for specification  E f f e c t i v e Date  61-66  Date the s p e c i f i c a t i o n becomes effective.  F i g u r e 4.5 T i t l e Statement f o r Element/Group/Array  Specification  67  C l a s s Statement CLASS = name/code/amount/date/text/quantity/f  lag/control;  -V"'  The C l a s s Statement i d e n t i f i e s the g e n e r a l use of the d a t a . The c l a s s e s have been chosen t o p o r t r a y i n f o r m a t i o n t o a user or analyst.  They are an e x t e n s i o n to the o b j e c t ( e n t i t y ) , p r o p e r t y 3  and time concepts as d i s c u s s e d by Langefors  and r e q u i r e d f o r  automated d e s i g n . Name - data which i d e n t i f i e s s p e c i f i c e n t i t i e s Code - data which i d e n t i f i e s a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f an e n t i t y Q u a n t i t y - the number or q u a n t i t y of anything (excluding monetary units) Amount - the q u a n t i t y of monetary amounts Date - c a l e n d a r date Text - data having undefined content Flag - an i n d i c a t o r showing a yes-no c o n d i t i o n F u n c t i o n Statement FUNCTION = FI/FF/VF/VR; T h i s statement  f u r t h e r d e f i n e s the f u n c t i o n of the data  element.  4  The F u n c t i o n Statement i s a p p l i c a b l e t o Solvberg's r e l a t i o n s which i d e n t i f y the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between data The d e f i n i t i o n s are determined  by f i g u r e  process elements.  5 4.6.  J . Bubenko, B. Langefors and A. S o l v b e r g , Computer-Aid Information Systems A n a l y s i s and Design, S t u d e n t l i t t e r a t u r , Lund, 1971, p.22. 4  Ibid,  p.98.  ^J.F. K e l l y , Computerized Management^Information Systems, The M a c M i l l a n Company, New York, N.Y., 1970, p.372.  68  F i g u r e 4.6 Element F u n c t i o n D e f i n i t i o n s Count Statement COUNT = number, number, number, ...; The Count Statement, used when d e f i n i n g groups o r a r r a y s , p r o v i d e s a n u m e r i c a l count o f the number o f data elements w i t h i n the group o r a r r a y . it  I f one number appears i n the count statement,  i n d i c a t e s the number o f elements i n t h e a r r a y o r group.  If  more than one number appears, they express the number o f planes i n a multidimensional array. i.e  COUNT = 3, 2, 4;  i s a t h r e e dimensional a r r a y having  3 p l a n e s , 2 rows and 4 columns.  69  Responsibility  Statement RESPONSIBILITY = code;  The R e s p o n s i b i l i t y Statement i n d i c a t e s the person r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the content and i n t e g r i t y o f a given element, group and a r r a y and who i s a u t h o r i z e d  t o update o r d e l e t e the element.  This  statement, i n f a c t , determines who "owns" the data and i s d e f i n e d i n s e c t i o n 4.2. Mode Statement MODE = format, l e n g t h , s c a l e ; The Mode Statement d e s c r i b e s the format o f the data as i t appears on a document o r i s c o n t a i n e d  i n a record.  The format  operand i d e n t i f i e s the element a s : CH BI FD PD BD DF  -  a a a a a a  s t r i n g o f a l p h a b e t i c or numeric s t r i n g of binary b i t s zoned decimal number packed decimal number b i n a r y f i x e d p o i n t number decimal f l o a t i n g p o i n t number  characters  BF - a b i n a r y f l o a t i n g p o i n t number The l e n g t h operand s p e c i f i e s the number o f c h a r a c t e r s , o r i n the case o f b i n a r y numbers, the number o f b i t s , i n the element. The s c a l e operand, s p e c i f i e s  the number o f f r a c t i o n a l d i g i t s f o r  f i x e d p o i n t numbers. Edit  Statement EDIT = p i c t u r e ; The E d i t Statement f u r n i s h e s an e d i t mask f o r use when  d i s p l a y i n g the element on a r e p o r t o r video d i s p l a y . PL/I e d i t words may be used f o r the operand.  COBOL o r  70  Key Statement KEY = d i g i t ; The Key Statement i s used t o i d e n t i f y a data element as an access key. the  In a d d i t i o n ,  i t p r o v i d e s a means o f i n d i c a t i n g  r e l a t i v e importance of the element as a key i n r e l a t i o n t o  other keys.  The d i g i t i n the operand i n d i c a t i n g  this  relative  importance may be from 1 (major) t o 9 (minor). Code Statement CODE = symbol, meaning, symbol, meaning ...; The Code Statement i s used t o s p e c i f y  coded d a t a .  It  should appear i n the s p e c i f i c a t i o n whenever CODE appears i n the  C l a s s Statement.  Example:  CODE = 01, E a s t e r n Region, 02, Western Region; End Statement This indicates  the end o f the data element  specification.  71  4.6 FILE CONSIDERATIONS Permanent computer f i l e s must be designed, organized and s t r u c t u r e d i n order t o s t o r e the data i n f o r m a t i o n c o l l e c t e d and allow a means f o r m a n i p u l a t i n g and r e t r i e v i n g t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n . The p h y s i c a l format o f these f i l e s w i l l  depend on the implement-  a t i o n o f DACS and on the computer hardware and software the user has a t h i s d i s p o s a l .  I f the user has a Data Management  System a v a i l a b l e , the s t r u c t u r e o f the DACS f i l e s w i l l  undoubtedly  be p h y s i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t from a user who has only the more c o n v e n t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s and access methods, such as Indexed Sequential, at h i s disposal. on f i l e d e s i g n here w i l l l e v e l and w i l l  F o r these reasons, the d i s c u s s i o n  be a t a r a t h e r g e n e r a l and conceptual  concentrate on the l o g i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and  content o f t h e f i l e s r a t h e r than on t h e a c t u a l p h y s i c a l s t r u c t u r e . T h i s conceptual d e s i g n , however, does make the assumption t h a t a d i r e c t access storage d e v i c e i s used t o s t o r e the informa t i o n and t h a t some type o f indexed o r d i r e c t f i l e o r g a n i z a t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e t o a l l o w f o r the s e l e c t i v e r e t r i e v a l o f i n f o r m a t i o n by data  labels.  The conceptual r e c o r d s t r u c t u r e f o r the DACS f i l e i s shown i n f i g u r e 4.7.  The L a b e l o f t h e r e c o r d , document o r E/G/A  serves as the primary access key t o the i n d i v i d u a l r e c o r d s . The r e c o r d s can be c o n s i d e r e d t o be made o f a number o f segments, each c o n t a i n i n g some o f the i n f o r m a t i o n provided by the S p e c i f i c a t i o n Sheets.  These segments may be f i x e d o r v a r i a b l e l e n g t h  Data Label  Ver T e c h n i c a l Desc Ver T e c h n i c a l Desc L_Ver T e c h n i c a l Desc  Data Name  Textual  Description  1 i  Elements  Documents  Records  i  Element  Labels  User Codes  Codes Def.  Record  Labels  Figure  4.7  Document Labels  L o g i c a l DACS Record S t r u c t u r e  Element  Labels  73  depending on the c a p a b i l i t i e s o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n and access method employed. For a l l data items t h e r e i s the Name, D e s c r i p t i o n and t e c h n i c a l data segments. Data Name Segment T h i s segment c o n t a i n s the Keyword name o f the data item and i s the i n p u t t o the Keyword Index. Description  Segment  T h i s segment c o n t a i n s t h e t e x t u a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f the data. I t may be necessary  t o have one o r more o f these segments i n  order t o c o n t a i n the complete d e s c r i p t i o n . Technical  Segment  T h i s segment c o n t a i n s the V e r s i o n number and s t a t u s f o r each data item as w e l l as the t e c h n i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n .  Since the  s p e c i f i c a t i o n s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s vary f o r d i f f e r e n t v e r s i o n s o f the data, t h e r e may be s e v e r a l o f these segments. For each v e r s i o n t h i s segment w i l l i n c l u d e :  -  Status E f f e c t i v e Date Type Class  In a d d i t i o n i t w i l l Access Language Media Format Computer Count Retention  i n c l u d e f o r Records:  74  For Documents: Form Count FrequencyPeriod Source Retention For Elements: Function Count Responsibility Mode Edit For each v e r s i o n o f the data item t h e r e w i l l a l s o be a s s o c i a t e d o t h e r segments.  These segments w i l l d i f f e r  depending  upon whether the item i s a r e c o r d , document or E/G/A. For documents the f o l l o w i n g segments  are d e f i n e d :  Element Segments These segments  c o n t a i n the L a b e l s , V e r s i o n numbers and  sequence numbers o f the elements which appear on the document. User Segments These segments persons, who  c o n t a i n the user codes of the departments, o r  use the document e i t h e r as g e n e r a t o r s , p r o c e s s o r s or  recipients. For r e c o r d s , the element segments the elements which make up the r e c o r d .  are d e f i n e d t o i n d i c a t e These segments w i l l c o n t a i n  the element L a b e l , V e r s i o n and sequence number and the key  indicat-  i n g the r e l a t i v e importance of the element i n the r e c o r d . For elements t h e r e are three more segment types. Record Segment Each of these segments  c o n t a i n s the L a b e l o f the records  where t h i s element can be found.  75  Codes Segment If  the element i s c l a s s e d as a code, segments  which i d e n t i f y the v a r i o u s codes and t h e i r  should  exist  definitions.  Document Segment The L a b e l s o f the v a r i o u s documents i n which the element appears i s contained i n these segments.  An i n d i c a t o r  showing  t h a t the document i s source, work or r e p o r t c o u l d a l s o be i n c l u d e d . These v a r i o u s segments c o u l d be combined i n t o p h y s i c a l r e c o r d s i n v a r y i n g ways.  They may  a l l be grouped t o g e t h e r t o form one  v a r i a b l e l e n g t h r e c o r d w i t h the L a b e l as the key; or each segment may  be t r e a t e d as a separate r e c o r d u s i n g the L a b e l and a s u f f i x  code as the key. If  a h i e r a r c h i c a l - o r i e n t e d Data Management System such as  4  IMS  i s a v a i l a b l e , t h i s conceptual segmented  utilized  approach c o u l d be  directly.  Two o t h e r f i l e s may processing.  be c o n s i d e r e d t o s i m p l i f y r e t r i e v a l and  One would be a User F i l e o r g a n i z e d by user codes  and f o r each user, would c o n t a i n a l i s t o f documents which t h a t p a r t i c u l a r user employed.  T h i s c o u l d be a separate f i l e or  could' be an i n v e r t e d index f i l e maintained  by the f i l e o r g a n i z a t i o n  method. The second f i l e would be the Name F i l e which would be i n sequence by each Keyword of the data names and would be u t i l i z e d to  produce the Keyword Index Report.  IBM CORPORATION, Information Management System V2, Information Manual, GH20-0765, 1972.  General  76  4.7 SYSTEM OUTPUT REPORTS The two  output r e p o r t s o r d i s p l a y s produced by DACS f a l l  general  into  categories: V e r i f i c a t i o n and E d i t Reports Usage Reports.  V e r i f i c a t i o n and_Edit  Reports  These r e p o r t s a r e produced when the S p e c i f i c a t i o n s f o r the data a r e processed They p r o v i d e Errors:  by the system as a d d i t i o n s , changes o r d e l e t i o n s .  the f o l l o w i n g  information:  Any e r r o r s found i n p r o c e s s i n g  Statements o r u n s u c c e s s f u l  the S p e c i f i c a t i o n  update t r a n s a c t i o n s are i d e n t i f i e d .  T h i s c o u l d i n c l u d e format e r r o r s , d u p l i c a t e l a b e l s o r references  t o l a b e l s which do not e x i s t i n the system.  Ommissions:  Any m i s s i n g  s p e c i f i c a t i o n s or c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  t h a t have not been s u p p l i e d should be i d e n t i f i e d . Statistics:  Show the c u r r e n t content  o f the system by number  of e n t r i e s and i n d i c a t e t h e a d d i t i o n s , d e l e t i o n s and changes t h a t have o c c u r r e d d u r i n g the l a s t p r o c e s s i n g c y c l e . The  V e r i f i c a t i o n and E d i t r e p o r t s are used mainly by the  Data A d m i n i s t r a t o r the contents  to maintain  o f DACS.  t h e completeness and i n t e g r i t y o f  I t i s h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o check these  r e p o r t s and ensure t h a t any e r r o r s o r  ommissions a r e r e c t i f i e d .  Usage Reports These a r e the s i g n i f i c a n t r e p o r t s produced by DACS and are  77  used t o answer the questions  t h a t were r a i s e d i n s e c t i o n 3.2.  Data D i c t i o n a r y and D i r e c t o r y :  T h i s l i s t s a l l the  s p e c i f i c a t i o n s f o r a given r e c o r d , document o r element; provides  information  as t o the content o f a r e c o r d o r  document and the l o c a t i o n and use o f the data elements. Keyword Index: keywords  T h i s i s an a l p h a b e t i c  l i s t i n g by the  o f the Name Statement and d i s p l a y s the complete  data name and i t s a s s o c i a t e d  label.  Data Requirements A n a l y s i s :  T h i s r e p o r t shows, by user,  the source, work and r e p o r t documents employed by them. Data D i c t i o n a r y / D i r e c t o r y The Data D i c t i o n a r y / D i r e c t o r y reference  ( f i g u r e 4.8) p r o v i d e s a  f o r a l l data elements, documents and records  that  been s p e c i f i e d t o the system.  I t i s d i v i d e d i n t o three  one s e c t i o n each f o r documents,  records  have  sections;  and E/G/A's with the  data l a b e l s i n a l p h a b e t i c a l order w i t h i n each s e c t i o n . The d i c t i o n a r y s e c t i o n o f the r e p o r t shows f o r each data item, the l a b e l , name, d e s c r i p t i o n and t e c h n i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The d i r e c t o r y p o r t i o n o f t h e r e p o r t shows: For Documents - the elements which appear on the document and the users o f the document. For Records  - the elements which a r e contained  For Elements  - t h e documents on which t h e elements appear and the records  i n the record.  that c o n t a i n t h e elements.  I f the  element i s c l a s s e d as a code element then the code i n f o r m a t i o n  i s also  included.  DATA ADMINISTRATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM DATA DICTIONARY/DIRECTORY  PAGE 1 07/01/73  DATA ELEMENTS CUSTNO  CUSTOMER NUMBER  ) L a b e l and Name  A NUMERIC IDENTIFIER ASSIGNED TO ANY COMPANY OR PERSON PURCHASING PRODUCTS OR SERVICES.  Description )  VER 01  STATUS E  LOCATION LABEL  VER  SEQ  01 01  01 01  VER  SEQ  01 01  01 03  CUSTMST ACCREC USAGE LABEL  TYPE ELEM  CUSTORD INVOICE  CLASS NAME KEY 1 1  FUNC Fl  COUNT 1600  MODE CH,6  EDIT  RESPONS EFFECT 02160903 01/01/69  )Technical )Characteristics  NAME )Records c o n t a i n i n g ) t h i s element  CUSTOMER NAME AND ADDRESS RECORD ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE STATUS RECORD NAME  )Documents c o n t a i n i n g ) t h i s element  CUSTOMER PURCHASE ORDER CUSTOMER INVOICE  DATA RECORDS ACCREC  CUSTOMER ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE STATUS RECORD CONTAINING CUSTOMER INFORMATION SHOWING OUTSTANDING ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE STATUS BY CURRENT, 30-60, 60-90, AND OVER-90 CATEGORIES VER 01  STAT E  TYPE REC  CLASS PERM  COUNT 1600  FILE ARFIL  ACCESS SAM  LANG MEDIA COBOL TAPE  FORMAT COMP RETENT EFFEC FB IBM360 01/01/68  CONTENTS LABEL CUSTNO CURAMT ETC.  VER  SEQ  01 01  01 02  KEY 1  NAME CUSTOMER NUMBER CURRENT AMOUNT OUTSTANDING  F i g u r e 4.8 DATA DICTIONARY/DIRECTORY  CO  79  The D i c t i o n a r y / D i r e c t o r y serves as the main source o f r e f e r e n c e f o r t h e data r e s o u r c e .  I t i s used f o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n ,  d e f i n i t i o n and c l a r i f i c a t i o n purposes  f o r anyone r e q u i r i n g  i n f o r m a t i o n about a p a r t i c u l a r data item.  I t a l s o serves t o  h i g h l i g h t d u p l i c a t i o n and redundancy i n documents and r e c o r d s and can be used by an a n a l y s t t o improve t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f data use and s t o r a g e . When new i n f o r m a t i o n requirements  a r i s e , the D i c t i o n a r y /  D i r e c t o r y can be r e f e r e n c e d t o determine  i f the data elements  a l r e a d y e x i s t i n the system and i f t h e r e a r e source documents and r e p o r t s which can be u t i l i z e d t o s a t i s f y the new need. I f not, t h e r e p o r t w i l l be h e l p f u l i n determining how the new i n f o r m a t i o n can most e f f e c t i v e l y be produced. Keyword Index The Keyword Index ( f i g u r e 4 . 9 ) and t h e i r corresponding names. or data element appears keyword i n the name.  i s a l i s t i n g o f data  labels  The name o f each document, r e p o r t  i n the Index by a l p h a b e t i c a l order o f each T h i s enables t h e user t o l o c a t e any DACS  e n t r i e s , l i s t e d i n a l p h a b e t i c a l o r d e r , through a knowledge o f any word i n the data name.  Once having found the c o r r e c t name, he  can, by the a s s o c i a t e d L a b e l , l o c a t e the data item and any informa t i o n he r e q u i r e s i n the o t h e r r e p o r t s o f the system. Data Requirements A n a l y s i s T h i s r e p o r t ( f i g u r e 4 . 1 0 ) shows, by user o r department code,  DATA ADMINISTRATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM  PAGE 1 01/07/73  KEYWORD INDEX  LABEL E/R/D CUST002 CUST020 CUST030 SAOOl AROOl CUST002 CUST002 CUST005 CUST020 CUSTOOl CUST004 SAOOl EMPOOl EMP002 EMP003 SA002 INVOOl INV003 INV002 INVOIO CUST005 CUST020  E R E D D E E D R E E D E E E D E E E D D R  NAME  LABEL E/R/D  ADDRESS *CUSTOMER BILLING ADDRESS MASTER *CUSTOMER NAME AND ADDRESS *CUSTOMER SHIPPING ANALYSIS BY PRODUCT BY CUSTOMER *SALES ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE STATUS BILLING ADDRESS *CUSTOMER CUSTOMER BILLING ADDRESS CUSTOMER INVOICE CUSTOMER NAME AND ADDRESS MASTER CUSTOMER NUMBER CUSTOMER PURCHASE ORDER NUMBER CUSTOMER *SALES ANALYSIS BY-PRODUCT BY EMPLOYEE NAME EMPLOYEE NUMBER EMPLOYEE SALARY HISTORY BY PRODUCT BY YEAR *SALES INVENTORY NUMBER INVENTORY QUANTITY ON ORDER INVENTORY QUANTITY IN STOCK INVENTORY STATUS INVOICE CUSTOMER MASTER CUSTOMER NAME AND ADDRESS  CUST020 EMPOOl CUSTOOl CUST004 EMP002 INVOOl INV003 CUST004 SAOOl SA002 INV003 INV002 AROOl EMP003 CUST003 SAOOl SA002 AROOl INVOIO INV002 INVOIO SA002  R E E E E E E E D D E E D E E D D D D E E D  NAME NAME AND ADDRESS MASTER *CUSTOMER NAME *EMPLOYEE NUMBER *CUSTOMER NUMBER *CUSTOMER PURCHASE ORDER NUMBER ^EMPLOYEE NUMBER *INVENTORY ORDER *INVENTORY QUANTITY ON ORDER NUMBER *CUSTOMER PURCHASE PRODUCT BY CUSTOMER *SALES ANALYSIS BY PRODUCT BY YEAR *SALES HISTORY BY QUANTITY ON ORDER *INVENTORY QUANTITY IN STOCK *INVENTORY RECEIVABLE STATUS *ACCOUNTS SALARY EMPLOYEE SHIPPING ADDRESS *CUSTOMER SALES ANALYSIS BY PRODUCT BY CUSTOMER SALES HISTORY BY PRODUCT BY YEAR STATUS *ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE STATUS *INVENTORY STOCK STOCK *INVENTORY QUANTITY IN STOCK STATUS *INVENTORY YEAR *SALES ANALYSIS BY PRODUCT BY  F i g u r e 4.9 Keyword Index CO  o  DATA ADMINISTRATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM DATA REQUIREMENTS ANALYSIS  USER 02061301  01071312  LABEL  VER  STAT  PAGE 1 01/07/73  NAME  Origin  INV001 INV002  01 01  E E  INVENTORY RECEIPT NOTICE INVENTORY SHIPPING TRANSMITTAL  Report  INV010 INV020  01 01  E E  INVENTORY STOCK STATUS INVENTORY WAREHOUSE ORDERS  Origin  PAY001 PAY004 PAY010  01 01 01  E E E  EMPLOYEE PAYROLL CHEQUE EMPLOYEE PAYROLL REGISTER EMPLOYEE F-4 FORMS  Work  PAY020  01  E  PAYROLL FILE UPDATE AND EDIT LIST  Report  PAY050 PAY055  01 01  E E  EMPLOYEE TIME TICKETS EMPLOYEE PAYROLL CHANGE NOTIFICATION  F i g u r e 4.10 Data Requirements  Analysis  Report  82  the documents and data t h a t they generate, process or r e c e i v e . I t can be used, when a n a l y z i n g a p a r t i c u l a r a r e a , t o the data requirements  determine  f o r t h a t area and i f any redundancy,  d u p l i c a t i o n or i n e f f i c i e n c y e x i s t s .  T h i s r e p o r t would a l s o  be  of v a l u e t o the Information Systems A r c h i t e c t when determining what data and i n f o r m a t i o n i s being employed by v a r i o u s f u n c t i o n s or departments w i t h i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n .  C o n c e n t r a t i o n on a  p a r t i c u l a r subsystem of the t o t a l i n f o r m a t i o n system may  be  achieved by a n a l y z i n g the data elements and documents which serve t h i s p a r t i c u l a r subsystem. system may marketing  For example, the marketing  information  be analyzed by o b t a i n i n g a r e p o r t r e t r i e v e d by the f u n c t i o n code, which shows the data r e q u i r e d by  this  function. 5  I f , as Langefors  suggests, l i s t s c o u l d be c o n s t r u c t e d  showing the f u n c t i o n s of f i r m s of d i f f e r e n t types and t h e i r  direct  i n f o r m a t i o n needs, the Data Requirements A n a l y s i s Report c o u l d be compared t o a standard f o r data requirements. c o u l d be determined  In t h i s way i t  as t o whether c e r t a i n f u n c t i o n s are above or  below t h i s standard w i t h r e s p e c t t o the i n f o r m a t i o n they r e c e i v e .  B. L a n g e f o r s , T h e o r e t i c a l A n a l y s i s of Information Systems, S t u d e n t l i t t e r a t u r , Lund, Sweden, 1966, V o l . 2 , p.225.  83  Redundancy  and S i m i l a r i t y Reports  AUTOSATE  6  and Schruben s 1  7  model c o n t a i n r e p o r t s which  identify  i d e n t i c a l or s i m i l a r documents and f i l e s by the commonality o f data elements. AUTOSATE determines d u p l i c a t i o n by comparing a c a l c u l a t e d v a l u e f o r each f i l e w i t h the values f o r other f i l e s and r e p o r t i n g the  f i l e s which have i d e n t i c a l o r s i m i l a r v a l u e s . Schruben, when a n a l y z i n g each document i n the system, a l s o  i d e n t i f i e s s i m i l a r documents by l i s t i n g a  the documents which  " p r e s p e c i f i e d c r i t e r i o n of s i m i l a r i t y " .  was t o l i s t  satisfy  The c r i t e r i o n he used  the t e n r e p o r t s which were m i s s i n g the l e a s t number o f  data elements on the r e p o r t under study.  He suggests t h a t other  c r i t e r i a c o u l d i n c l u d e percent o f i d e n t i c a l data elements o r frequency o f g e n e r a t i o n . Such r e p o r t s showing s i m i l a r i t y would be very u s e f u l t o the a n a l y s t s but may be d i f f i c u l t  t o program and produce.  A more  r e a l i s t i c approach may be t o d e f i n e a s e t o f data elements and then t o scan the documents and f i l e s t o determine which ones c o n t a i n a c e r t a i n percentage o f the s p e c i f i e d s e t . These examples c i t e d do i n d i c a t e t h a t d u p l i c a t i o n and s i m i l a r i t y can be i d e n t i f i e d through automated a n a l y s i s and do p r o v i d e a v a l u a b l e t o o l i n a n a l y z i n g the data r e s o u r c e .  O.T. Gatto, "AUTOSATE", Communications No.7, J u l y 1964, p.430.  o f the ACM, V o l . 7 ,  L. Schruben, "The Information System Model", Datamation, Vol.15, No.7, J u l y 1969, p.99.  84  CHAPTER V THE THE  IMPLEMENTATION AND USE OF DACS  DATA ADMINISTRATOR The Data A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and C o n t r o l System cannot  achieve  i t s p o t e n t i a l i n e f f e c t i v e l y and e f f i c i e n t l y m o n i t o r i n g the data resource u n l e s s c e r t a i n o t h e r requirements Management must be informed and educated as a c o r p o r a t e resource and t o understand  are met.  t o r e g a r d data the v a l u e and  p o t e n t i a l o f DACS as a t o o l i n data management. DACS must be a s s i d u o u s l y maintained content and i n t e g r i t y . if  and updated as t o  I t w i l l q u i c k l y l o s e i t s value  allowed t o become outdated o r n e g l e c t e d .  DACS must be made a v a i l a b l e t o a l l people concerned and must be used r e g u l a r l y i n i d e n t i f y i n g problem areas and d e f i n i n g new data The requirements  requirements. and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f the above f u n c t i o n s  make i t necessary t o e s t a b l i s h a s p e c i f i c o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p o s i t i o n i d e n t i f i e d as the Data A d m i n i s t r a t o r . The Data A d m i n i s t r a t o r should be c o n s i d e r e d as a s t a f f f u n c t i o n r e p o r t i n g d i r e c t l y t o the person r e s p o n s i b l e f o r Information Systems and Data P r o c e s s i n g as shown i n f i g u r e 5.1. One o f the a t t r a c t i v e f e a t u r e s o f a system such as DACS, i s t h a t once i t has been s e t up, i t i s r e l a t i v e l y e a s i l y by a s i n g l e person.  administered  Such may not be the case w i t h more complex  Director of Information Systems I n f o r m a t i o n Systems A r c h i t e c t Data A d m i n i s t r a t o r Hardware Systems A r c h i t e c t Software Systems A r c h i t e c t  Systems & Procedures  Maintenance Programmers >.  Systems Analysts  CO  Data Processing Manager  Systems Development Manager  Systems Maintenance Manager  Application Programmers  ^  Systems Programmers  Computer Operations  J  Some may be a s s o c i a t e d with user departments  Figure  5.1  Information Systems O r g a n i z a t i o n  Quality Control  U l  Data Entry  86  Data Base Management Systems and t h e i r requirements f o r d e f i n i t i o n , o r g a n i z a t i o n and s t r u c t u r e , access and r e t r i e v a l , s e c u r i t y and recovery  procedures.  The Data A d m i n i s t r a t o r i s concerned w i t h the data t h a t p r e s e n t l y e x i s t w i t h i n the company and a n a l y z i n g problems t h a t may be i n h e r e n t i n t h e i r present o r g a n i z a t i o n and use. not the owner o f the data but o n l y t h e c u s t o d i a n .  He i s  He i s  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r e n s u r i n g t h a t the data resource i s u t i l i z e d a c c o r d i n g t o c e r t a i n standards and o b j e c t i v e s which have been developed.  He may, i n f a c t , be deeply i n v o l v e d i n d e f i n i n g  these standards and o b j e c t i v e s . Supported  by a system such as DACS, the Data A d m i n i s t r a t o r  i s the f o c a l p o i n t f o r the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and c o n t r o l o f the data r e s o u r c e and w i l l have unique knowledge on t h e o v e r a l l e x t e n t , content and l o c a t i o n o f t h i s r e s o u r c e . His f u n c t i o n s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s w i l l i n c l u d e : To inform and educate management on the extent and v a l u e of  the data r e s o u r c e .  To a s s i s t i n t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f data r e s o u r c e o b j e c t i v e s and  standards.  To analyze and d e f i n e e x i s t i n g data elements as t o name, source, use, l o c a t i o n and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . To implement a system  ( i . e . DACS) by which the above a n a l y s i s  and d e f i n i t i o n may be f o r m a l i z e d .  87  To analyze the data f o r u n j u s t i f i e d i n c o n s i s t e n c y and redundancy and t o make recommendations f o r i t s r e c t i f i c a t i o n . To ensure t h a t he i s informed o f a l l new and changed data requirements. To monitor  and concur w i t h new data element d e f i n i t i o n s  and the source, f i l e and output requirements  f o r new  applications. To have continuous  l i a s o n w i t h the Information Systems  A r c h i t e c t and h i s o b j e c t i v e s , plans and requirements. To keep aware o f data users'needs  and requirements.  To make recommendations r e g a r d i n g f i l e o r g a n i z a t i o n and r e t r i e v a l techniques i n c l u d i n g G e n e r a l i z e d Data Base Management Systems. To e v a l u a t e the data resource from an o v e r a l l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l viewpoint, c o n s i d e r i n g e f f e c t i v e and e f f i c i e n t  utilization.  The Data A d m i n i s t r a t o r w i l l h o l d a very r e s p o n s i b l e and demanding p o s i t i o n i n the realm o f Information Systems and Data Management and may perhaps be c o n s i d e r e d analogous comptroller''" i n t h e f i n a n c i a l area.  t o the  C e r t a i n l y he has the same  m i s s i o n o f d e v e l o p i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g a c o n t r o l system f o r d e f i n i t i o n and r e c o r d i n g , measuring o f e f f e c t i v e n e s s and e f f i c i e n c y , a u d i t i n g f o r accuracy and c o n s i s t e n c y and d i s s e m i n a t i n g o f s t a t i s t i c s and i n f o r m a t i o n concerning the r e s o u r c e .  M.J. Gordon and G. S h i l l i n g l a w , Accounting and Management Approach, T h i r d E d i t i o n , Richard D. Irwin Inc., Homewood, I l l i n o i s , 1964, pp.527-529.  88  The data a d m i n i s t r a t o r has the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  of ensuring  t h a t the data r e s o u r c e i s maintained and o r g a n i z e d t o support the i n f o r m a t i o n framework t h a t i s d e f i n e d by the higher l e v e l management and t h a t i t meets t h e i r requirements, and standards.  objectives  I t i s management who must develop the standards  and c o n t r o l s f o r the data r e s o u r c e , and i t i s on these  standards  and t h e a b i l i t y o f the data t o f u l f i l the i n f o r m a t i o n framework, t h a t the data a d m i n i s t r a t o r w i l l be e v a l u a t e d .  89  5.2 STANDARDS CONCERNING DATA Many o f the r e q u i r e d standards a s s o c i a t e d with data a r e i n h e r e n t l y i m p l i e d i n the d e s i g n and s t r u c t u r e o f the Data A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and C o n t r o l System and are d i s c u s s e d i n S e c t i o n 3.3,  under Requirements f o r a Data C o n t r o l System. I t i s through the implementation  and use o f DACS, t h a t the  standards f o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , d e f i n i t i o n , source, use and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f data a r e s a t i s f i e d .  The data  specifications  must be complete and a c c u r a t e and any c o n f l i c t s r e s o l v e d b e f o r e e n t r y i s made i n t o the f o r m a l i z e d system.  The Data A d m i n i s t r a t o r  may be r e q u i r e d t o a c t as an a r b i t r a t o r i n d i s p u t e s over the ownership o r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f c e r t a i n data t h a t may be shared across f u n c t i o n a l Any  boundaries.  data d u p l i c a t i o n o r apparent  examined t o determine  redundancy must be c l o s e l y  i f i t i s j u s t i f i e d on the b a s i s o f c o s t ,  t i m e l i n e s s o r e f f e c t i v e n e s s and i f not, the redundancy must be c o r r e c t e d through the c o n s o l i d a t i o n o f f i l e s and t h e r e d e s i g n or e l i m i n a t i o n o f source o r r e p o r t documents. r e s i s t a n c e may be encountered p e r s o n n e l , an examination  Although some  from user groups o r data p r o c e s s i n g  o f the c o s t s and problems r e s u l t i n g  from unmanaged data and i t s e f f e c t on the o p e r a t i o n a l and informa t i o n a l content, should j u s t i f y t h e need f o r r e d e s i g n and a more d i s c i p l i n e d approach t o d a t a . I t must be s t r e s s e d t o u s e r s , a n a l y s t s and programmers, t h a t DACS serves as a c e n t r a l r e p o s i t o r y f o r d a t a and t h a t i t s  90  output should be examined f i r s t when new o r changing requirements  data  arise.  DACS p r o v i d e s a c o n t r o l mechanism t o p r e c l u d e the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f redundant  o r i n c o n s i s t e n t data elements.  be coupled w i t h procedures which r e q u i r e t h a t new data be checked  I t should elements  a g a i n s t DACS t o ensure t h a t they do not d u p l i c a t e  e x i s t i n g elements  u n n e c e s s a r i l y and t h a t they are not i n c o n s i s t -  ent w i t h these e x i s t i n g  elements  I t i s o n l y through the f o r m a l i z e d use o f t h i s t o o l t h a t i t s v a l u e can be r e a l i z e d and i t s o b j e c t i v e s be a t t a i n e d .  91  5.3  COLLECTION OF THE  DATA INFORMATION  A most important of  and demanding task i n the  implementation  DACS, i s the c o l l e c t i o n of the i n f o r m a t i o n about the data  itself.  Most of t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n probably  e x i s t s i n some  f a s h i o n i n v a r i o u s areas of the company but i t w i l l have to be searched  f o r and c o l l e c t e d i n an o r g a n i z e d manner.  U s e f u l approaches to t h i s task are suggested  by Kelly"*" and  2 i n ARDI  m  the d i s c u s s i o n s on s t a r t i n g p o i n t s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n  system a n a l y s i s and d e s i g n .  One  approach i s to s t a r t with  o p e r a t i n g system or p r o d u c t i o n flow. a n a l y s i s of the manufacturing  I t i s based on an  and p r o d u c t i o n processes  the  in-depth  involved  i n the company s o p e r a t i o n s and the data r e q u i r e d to perform  and  1  control this function. The other approach i s t o s t a r t with the i n f o r m a t i o n  flows  and  systems and analyze the order p r o c e s s i n g , s a l e s , marketing  and  f i n a n c i a l f u n c t i o n s , with emphasis on the documents and  data  t h a t are used i n the o p e r a t i o n , p l a n n i n g and decision-making The of  c h o i c e between the two  approaches w i l l depend on the  o r g a n i z a t i o n - whether i t has a manufacturing  orientation.  roles. type  or s e r v i c e  However, as K e l l y makes c l e a r , the study  should  begin a t the o p e r a t i o n a l l e v e l r a t h e r than at the management c o n t r o l , or s t r a t e g i c p l a n n i n g l e v e l s .  T h i s i s the l e v e l at  which a m a j o r i t y of the data elements can be i d e n t i f i e d most J.F. K e l l y , Computerized Management and Information The MacMillan Company, New York, 1970, pp.73-75.  Systems,  2 W. Hartman, H. Matthes and A. Proeme, Systems Handbook, McGraw H i l l Book Co., 3-2.3.  Management Information 1968, S e c t s . 3-2.2. and  92  c l e a r l y as t o d e f i n i t i o n , source, r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and use. I f the elements a t t h i s l e v e l a r e r i g o r o u s l y d e f i n e d , i t w i l l s i m p l i f y the task o f i d e n t i f y i n g them as they appear i n i n f o r m a t i o n a l content, a t h i g h e r l e v e l s i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n . The d e t e r m i n a t i o n of the p o i n t a t which t o begin t h e study should be the most l o g i c a l system i n p u t and the one t h a t a l a r g e p a r t o f the company would be dependent upon.  F o r example, the  s e r v i c e - o r d e r would be a l o g i c a l s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r a u t i l i t y such as a Telephone Company. Once a s t a r t i n g p o i n t has been determined,  the v a r i o u s  departments are analyzed as t o t h e i r data use and requirements. An o r g a n i z a t i o n c h a r t may be u s e f u l to d e f i n e the data as t o user, source and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and t o determine  the i n t e r f a c e s  and r e l a t i o n s h i p s between other departments. The data c o l l e c t i o n c y c l e w i l l proceed through i n t e r v i e w s w i t h department managers, a n a l y s i s o f the documents and informa t i o n used and review o f any documentation which e x i s t s i n the data p r o c e s s i n g department, i n c l u d i n g input forms, r e c o r d s p e c i f i c a t i o n s and output r e p o r t s . Care must be taken t o i d e n t i f y both manual and computer prepared r e p o r t s .  D i s c u s s i o n s w i t h people i n the departments  and w i t h a n a l y s t s w i l l h e l p i d e n t i f y the i n f o r m a t i o n a l r e q u i r e ment and s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the data  elements.  As data items a r e i d e n t i f i e d and submitted t o DACS, i n c r e a s i n g use i s made o f the output r e p o r t s t o determine  i f the data  93  elements have a l r e a d y been d e f i n e d and i f so, r e f e r e n c e d e f i n i t i o n can be employed. Once the o p e r a t i o n a l l e v e l s have been reviewed,  the a n a l y s i s  should proceed up the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l h i e r a r c h y , n o t i n g new  source  data t h a t e n t e r s the system and the v a r y i n g employment of the data elements.  Higher l e v e l s of management w i l l be c h a r a c t e r i z e d  as i n f o r m a t i o n consumers and there may developed  t o s u i t t h e i r needs.  be s p e c i a l  These systems are important  they are o f t e n a s i g n i f i c a n t cause o f data The data c o l l e c t i o n process may time-consuming endeavour.  purpose systems  fragmentation.  be a complex, t e d i o u s and  However, the s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n and  d i s c i p l i n e of the Data S p e c i f i c a t i o n  Methodology and the automated  a b i l i t y of DACS, should make t h i s process simpler and more complete.  as  94  5.4  THE USERS OF DACS The Data A d m i n i s t r a t o r has p r e v i o u s l y been d i s c u s s e d as' t o h i s use and i n t e r f a c e w i t h DACS and the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s he has concerning the Data r e s o u r c e .  However, Management,  Information  Systems A r c h i t e c t s , A n a l y s t s and Programmers can a l l make beneficial  use o f DACS.  Management One o f the e a r l i e s t b e n e f i t s o f DACS t o the management o f a company.comes d u r i n g the data c o l l e c t i o n phase.  As management  personnel should be i n v o l v e d i n the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f the data i n t h e i r department o r area, they w i l l become aware o f the data r e s o u r c e s t h a t they p r o v i d e , process o r consume. specification  requires responsibility  elements, the i n d i v i d u a l  As the data  t o be assigned t o the data  managers assume t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r  the c o n s i s t e n c y and i n t e g r i t y o f the data w i t h i n t h e i r  control.  With t h i s i n c r e a s e d awareness and concern f o r the data r e s o u r c e , they w i l l pay more a t t e n t i o n t o i t and be conscious o f problems a s s o c i a t e d with data n e g l e c t . the data i s r e a l i z e d ,  Once the content and extent o f  management w i l l be able t o p r o v i d e a  s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n i n the a n a l y s i s o f data problems and their solutions.  They w i l l be more aware o f data  redundancies,  i n e f f i c i e n c i e s and misuse and should draw a t t e n t i o n t o p o s s i b l e areas o f concern. A f t e r DACS has been implemented, s e v e r a l o f i t s uses w i l l  95  furnish tangible benefits.  The i n t e r f a c e t o DACS can be d i r e c t  c o n s u l t a t i o n with the output  r e p o r t s but probably  w i l l be through  the Data A d m i n i s t r a t o r . When new data o r i n f o r m a t i o n requirements a r i s e , DACS can be c o n s u l t e d t o determine the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f the data elements and t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n can be f a c t o r e d i n t o development l e a d times and c o s t and manpower requirements t o meet the new need.  This  p r a c t i c e w i l l e l i m i n a t e the problem o f r e f u s a l o f i n f o r m a t i o n demands when the data may already e x i s t i n a usable The  form.  a b i l i t y o f a manager t o d e f i n e h i s requirements e x p l i c i t l y  i n the form o f s t a n d a r d i z e d data elements, w i l l narrow the communic a t i o n s gap t h a t sometimes e x i s t s between users and data personnel.  processing  As a r e s u l t o f b e t t e r communications and data  identifi-  c a t i o n , h i s requirements should be met more q u i c k l y and with a b e t t e r q u a l i t y product.  As i n c o n s i s t e n c y and d u p l i c a t i o n are  reduced, management w i l l have more confidence  i n the i n f o r m a t i o n  they r e c e i v e and i n the data and systems which u n d e r l i e i t . Information  Systems A r c h i t e c t  A fundamental problem c o n f r o n t i n g the designers o f i n f o r m a t i o n systems, i s the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f the i n f o r m a t i o n requirements of the h o r i z o n t a l and v e r t i c a l s t r u c t u r e s i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n . T h e i r concern i s whether d i f f e r e n t f u n c t i o n a l p o r t i o n s o f the company can share a common data base o r whether the data base must be separated  i n t o v e r t i c a l and h o r i z o n t a l segments.  A major  96  c h a l l e n g e l i e s i n the i n t e g r a t i o n of the data resource so t h a t i t can be u t i l i z e d The  by a l l l e v e l s and components.  Information Systems a r c h i t e c t i s a l s o f a c e d w i t h d e t e r -  mining management's " i n f o r m a t i o n t h r e s h o l d " ; which a g i v e n person may Although concerned  the l e v e l of d e t a i l  r e q u i r e or expect.  the Information Systems a r c h i t e c t may  be more  w i t h the eventual d e s i g n o f the i n f o r m a t i o n system  r a t h e r than i t s present s t r u c t u r e , he can e x t r a c t a l a r g e amount of  u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n from DACS. DACS w i l l p r o v i d e him with the i d e n t i t y of the data elements  which are used by the v a r i o u s segments of the o r g a n i z a t i o n and the context and r e l a t i o n s h i p s among them. clarification segments.  I t can a l s o p r o v i d e  of the i n f o r m a t i o n a l i n t e r f a c e s between these  During a n a l y s i s of the r e p o r t s , weaknesses i n the  e x i s t i n g systems may  become apparent  i n t o more e f f e c t i v e design  and may  provide i n s i g h t s  approaches.  Whether he takes a "top-down" or "bottom-up" approach t o i n f o r m a t i o n systems d e s i g n , a t some phase he must document, analyze and s t r u c t u r e the data elements and d e f i n e models or w i t h which t o manipulate  procedures  the elements i n t o i n f o r m a t i o n .  t o o l such as DACS, t h i s task may  be g r e a t l y s i m p l i f i e d .  e x i s t i n g systems have grown and developed  The  over many years  a n a l y s i s of the present s t a t u s can help i n i d e n t i f y i n g determining f u t u r e  With a  and  and  requirements.  DACS r e l i e v e s from the a r c h i t e c t , the n e c e s s i t y of determining  97  "here i s what e x i s t s " and allows him t o concentrate on "what is  r e a l l y needed of an i n f o r m a t i o n system".  Analysts A n a l y s t s g e n e r a l l y c o n c e n t r a t e i n a more l i m i t e d  and  d e t a i l e d environment than Information Systems a r c h i t e c t s . l a t t e r i s concerned  The  w i t h the o v e r a l l view and p h i l o s o p h y of the  i n f o r m a t i o n system w h i l e the former, g i v e n the g e n e r a l r e q u i r e ments and d e s i g n , d i r e c t s h i s e f f o r t s t o more s p e c i f i c or  functional applications.  formats, f i l e requirements,  I t i s the a n a l y s t who  subsystems  d e t a i l s input  output s p e c i f i c a t i o n s and user  inter-  faces . For a n a l y s t s working on new  requirements  or extensions t o  e x i s t i n g a p p l i c a t i o n s , DACS p r o v i d e s a c e n t r a l source of data information.  Once the data output and requirements  d e f i n e d , the a n a l y s t should c o n s u l t DACS t o determine or  have been whether  not e x i s t i n g documents can s a t i s f y h i s needs and whether the  data elements a l r e a d y e x i s t somewhere i n the system. data requirements  I f the  do e x i s t i n some form, the a n a l y s t should  e x p l o i t them i n a manner c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the e s t a b l i s h e d data objectives. or  He must preclude the i n t r o d u c t i o n of redundant  i n c o n s i s t e n t data elements.  I f new  elements are t o be  i n t r o d u c e d i n t o the system, he should f i r s t Data A d m i n i s t r a t o r and determine  c o n s u l t w i t h the  i f any users w i l l be  affected.  The a n a l y s t , by drawing on e x i s t i n g data resources w h i l e  98  meeting the o b j e c t i v e s o f the Information Systems a r c h i t e c t s , p l a y s an important r o l e i n m a i n t a i n i n g  the i n t e g r i t y , c o n s i s t -  ency and c o n t r o l o f the d a t a . Programmers The  a p p l i c a t i o n programmer's f u n c t i o n c o n s i s t s o f t r a n s -  l a t i n g the analyst's design i n t e l l i g e n t language.  s p e c i f i c a t i o n s i n t o a computer  He can u t i l i z e DACS t o g a i n more knowledge  of t h e data he i s t o employ and t o f a m i l i a r i z e h i m s e l f with the way t h i s data i s s t o r e d and accessed i n the computer f i l e s .  By  u t i l i z i n g DACS l a b e l s and names i n t h e source programs, standardi z a t i o n and communication can be enhanced. An  i n t e r f a c e t o DACS c o u l d f e a s i b l y be i n c o r p o r a t e d  to place  r e c o r d d e f i n i t i o n s from the DACS f i l e i n t o a source l i b r a r y which c o u l d then be " c a l l e d " o r " i n c l u d e d " by COBOL o r PL/I source programs.  T h i s ensures s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n o f d a t a usage and  minimizes programmer time r e q u i r e d i n making up these statements whenever a data f i l e extension  i s used i n an a p p l i c a t i o n .  A further  o f t h i s i n t e r f a c e would enhance DACS by i n c o r p o r a t i n g  the Data D e s c r i p t i o n Language o f CODASYL and s a t i s f y i n g the GuideShare requirements.  99  CHAPTER VI SUMMARY In the quest  f o r b e t t e r i n f o r m a t i o n systems, numerous  problems are encountered by management and systems p e r s o n n e l . Some o f the e a r l i e s t questions t o a r i s e are expressed as follows: Where i s the l o g i c a l s t a r t i n g p o i n t i f r e l a t i v e l y  little  i s known about the data t h a t are p r e s e n t l y i n use i n the v a r i o u s systems throughout the company? How can the data, which should c o n s t i t u t e the nucleus o f the i n f o r m a t i o n system, be determined? There i s a tremendous investment Can  i n the present  these systems be improved without  systems.  a complete r e d e s i g n  and reprogramming e f f o r t ? In the preceding chapters o f t h i s t h e s i s , i t has been emphasized t h a t a fundamental requirement  i n developing  effective  i n f o r m a t i o n systems, i s t o i n t r o d u c e d i s c i p l i n e and c o n t r o l t o the data r e s o u r c e .  Once t h i s i s accomplished,  melding the i n f o r m a t i o n requirements  the task o f  and the data elements i n t o  a management i n f o r m a t i o n system w i l l become a l e s s  formidable  endeavour. A review o f the development o f i n f o r m a t i o n systems and the management o f data has i n d i c a t e d t h a t the data resource  suffers  from management n e g l e c t , has become s e v e r e l y fragmented and i s o f t e n not recognized as a v a l u a b l e c o r p o r a t e r e s o u r c e .  In  100  order t o a l l e v i a t e these problems, a Data A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and C o n t r o l System has been proposed t o i n t r o d u c e s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n and d i s c i p l i n e t o the e x i s t i n g  data elements.  DACS, by i t s e l f , does not promise t o p r o v i d e more or improved i n f o r m a t i o n .  effective  I t i s a t o o l by which management and  systems personnel can b e t t e r manage, c o n t r o l and u t i l i z e the data resource.  Through t h i s t o o l the data elements a r e d e f i n e d  and d e s c r i b e d and data r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e i d e n t i f i e d . d e f i n i t i o n and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i s a primary i n f o r m a t i o n systems development. requirements  This  requirement i n  In c o n j u n c t i o n with i n f o r m a t i o n  d e t e r m i n a t i o n , data base d e s i g n , f i l e c r e a t i o n  and maintenance, model development and i n f o r m a t i o n r e t r i e v a l techniques, i t c o n s t i t u t e s one component o f the complete  develop-  ment e f f o r t . DACS can be considered t o serve two purposes: I t w i l l p r o v i d e a method by which the data resource can be b e t t e r managed and c o n t r o l l e d on a c o n t i n u i n g b a s i s . I t can p r o v i d e a s t a r t i n g p o i n t i n the development of a comprehensive management i n f o r m a t i o n system. The implementation  o f DACS w i l l h i g h l i g h t the extent o f  the data resource and make management more aware o f the importance of c o n s i s t e n t , r e l i a b l e data t o c o r p o r a t e w e l l - b e i n g . o n l y through  the r e a l i z a t i o n o f the value o f the data  It is resource  and i t s e f f e c t i v e management t h a t t h i s resource can be e x p l o i t e d to achieve i t s p o t e n t i a l o f meeting the i n f o r m a t i o n a l of an o r g a n i z a t i o n .  requirements  101 In the realm of Management Information  System d e s i g n , DACS  p r o v i d e s a method by which the data elements can be i n a d i s c i p l i n e d manner.  identified  Through the Data D i c t i o n a r y / D i r e c t o r y ,  redundancy and d u p l i c a t i o n are i d e n t i f i e d and r e c t i f i e d .  Stand-  a r d i z e d data d e f i n i t i o n s are developed to be employed throughout the o r g a n i z a t i o n with DACS s e r v i n g as a c e n t r a l r e p o s i t o r y f o r data i n f o r m a t i o n .  With the Data D i c t i o n a r y / D i r e c t o r y and  the Data Requirements A n a l y s i s r e p o r t s , designers can determine how  each data element i s employed and what the u s e r s  requirements are. knowledge and are  Through t h i s f a c i l i t y ,  i n s i g h t of the data when new  1  data  he w i l l have more data base s t r u c t u r e s  designed. As computer-aided system design becomes more developed,  DACS could be extended to c o n s t r u c t model data banks to meet the MIS  requirements.  T h i s model data bank c o u l d then  as input to a s i m u l a t i o n model c o n s t r u c t e d to evaluate  serve the  performance o f v a r i o u s g e n e r a l i z e d data management systems. Another necessary  t a s k , i f automated d e s i g n i s to become a  r e a l i t y , i s the development of techniques programs and process  to d e f i n e the models,  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between v a r i o u s data elements  and r e s u l t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n .  I n c o r p o r a t i n g t h i s technique  into  DACS w i l l f u r t h e r c o n t r i b u t e t o i n f o r m a t i o n system documentation and  design. Computer-aided system d e s i g n i s c e r t a i n l y a development of  the near f u t u r e and DACS would r e q u i r e many extensions m o d i f i c a t i o n s to c o n t r i b u t e to t h i s f i e l d .  and  However, as an i n t e r i m  step, DACS, as d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s t h e s i s , c o u l d be programmed with l e s s than s i x man-months of e f f o r t and would p r o v i d e a much needed and d e s i r e d t o o l .  102  BIBLIOGRAPHY A c k o f f , Russel L., "Management M i s i n f o r m a t i o n Systems", Management S c i e n c e , Vol.14, No.4, p.Bl47. Anthony, Robert N., P l a n n i n g and C o n t r o l Systems, A Framework f o r A n a l y s i s , D i v i s i o n o f Research, Harvard School o f Business A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , Harvard U n i v e r s i t y , 1965. Blumenthal, Sherman C., Management Information Systems; A Framework f o r P l a n n i n g and Development, P r e n t i c e - H a l l I n c . , Englewood C l i f f s , New J e r s e y , 1969. Bontempo, C h a r l e s J . , "Data Resource Management", Data Management, Vol.11, No.2, February 197 3. Bubenko, J . , Langefors, B., Solveberg, A. (eds.), Computer-Aided Information Systems A n a l y s i s and Design, S t u d e n t l i t t e r a t u r , Lund, Sweden, 1971. CODASYL Systems Committee, "Feature A n a l y s i s o f G e n e r a l i z e d Data Base Management Systems", May 1971, A v a i l a b l e from A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Computing Machinery, New York, N.Y. Dearden, John, "MIS i s a Mirage", Harvard Business Review, January-February, 1972, p.90. Dodd, George G., "Elements o f Data Management Systems", Computing Surveys, V o l . 1 , No.2, June 1969, p.118. Gatto, O.T., "AUTOSATE", Communications o f the ACM, Vol.7 No.7, J u l y 1964, p.425. Gordon, M.J. and S h i l l i n g l a w , G., Accounting: A Management Approach, Richard D. I r w i n , I n c . , Homewood, I l l i n o i s , T h i r d E d i t i o n , 1964. Hanold, Terrance, "A P r e s i d e n t ' s View o f MIS", Vol.14, No.11, November 1968. Hanold, Terrance, "An E x e c u t i v e View o f MIS", Vol.18, No.11, November 1972.  Datamation, Datamation,  Hartman, W., Matthes, H. and Proeme, A., Management Information Systems Handbook, McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1968. Head, Robert V., "Automated System A n a l y s i s " , August 15, 1971.  Datamation,  Head, Robert V., "Management Information Systems: A p p r a i s a l " , Datamation, May 1967, p.22.  A Critical  103  IBM C o r p o r a t i o n , "Information Management System V2", General Information Manual, GH20-0765, 1972. J o i n t Guide-Share Data Base Requirements Group, "Data Base Management System Requirements", November 11, 1970, A v a i l a b l e from SHARE Inc., New York, N.Y. K e l l y , Joseph F., Computerized Management I n f o r m a t i o n Systems, The MacMillan Company, New York, 1970. K r i e b e l , C h a r l e s H., "The Future MIS", Business Automation, June 1972, p.18. Langefors, Borge, T h e o r e t i c a l A n a l y s i s o f I n f o r m a t i o n Systems, S t u d e n t l i t t e r a t u r , Lund, Sweden, 1966. Morton, M i c h a e l , S . S c o t t , Management D e c i s i o n Systems, D i v i s i o n of Research, Graduate School o f Business A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , Harvard U n i v e r s i t y , 1971. Nolan, Richard L., "Systems A n a l y s i s o f Computer Based I n f o r m a t i o n Systems Design", Data Base, Vo.3, No.4, Winter 1971, p . l . P a u l , Norman L., "MIS .... Are You Ready?", Data Management, October 1972, p.26. P r i c e , Gerald F., "The Ten Commandments o f Data Base", Data Management, May 1972, p.14. Sage, David M., "Information Systems: A B r i e f Look i n t o H i s t o r y " , Datamation, Vol.14, No.11, November 1968. Schruben, Lee, "The Information System Model", Datamation, Vol.15, No.7, J u l y 1969, p.93. Teichroew, D a n i e l , and Sayani, Hasan, "Automation o f System B u i l d i n g " , Datamation, August 15, 1971, p.25. W i l l , Hartmut J . , "A System o f MIS Concepts", condensed from H.J. W i l l , "Towards a System o f MIS Concepts", Working Paper No.194, F a c u l t y of Commerce and Business A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, June 1973. W i l l , Hartmut J . , "Management I n f o r m a t i o n Systems as a S c i e n t i f i c Endeavour; The S t a t e o f the A r t " , Working Paper No.84A, U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B.C. W i l l , Hartmut J . , "MIS: Mirage o r M i r r o r Image?", Working Paper No.14 6, U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B.C. Z a n i , W i l l i a m M., " B l u e p r i n t f o r MIS", Harvard Business Review, Vol.48, No.6, November-December, 197 0, p.95.  104  APPENDIX I EXISTING DATA ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES There have been s e v e r a l approaches, c i t e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e , which have attempted t o analyze the data and i n f o r m a t i o n r e s o u r c e , e s t a b l i s h r e l a t i o n s h i p s and b r i n g more c o n t r o l and d i s c i p l i n e t o the area o f i n f o r m a t i o n system a n a l y s i s and d e s i g n . these techniques  Most o f  have been concerned with automating p a r t s o f  the d e s i g n process  i n the development o f data p r o c e s s i n g systems  which r e p l a c e e x i s t i n g manual ones.  A common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  of each, i s t h a t a t some phase they analyze the present as i t c u r r e n t l y e x i s t s . techniques  Some of the concepts  system  employed i h these  have been adopted i n the f o r m u l a t i o n o f the.Data  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and C o n t r o l System and a b r i e f comment about them i s warranted  here.  AUTOSATE One o f the f i r s t attempts a t automated systems design was AUTOSATE developed  by O.T. GATTO, o f The Rand C o r p o r a t i o n , f o r  the United States A i r Force. determining  The technique  " i s geared t o  workload, r e l a t i o n s h i p s and storage  characteristics  of documents i n the i n f o r m a t i o n network automatically""'". AUTOSATE examines " s t a t i o n s " as nodes i n the i n f o r m a t i o n network and i d e n t i f i e s data a c t i v i t y i n and o u t , and i n f o r m a t i o n s t o r e d i n these s t a t i o n s .  S t a t i o n s are d e f i n e d as a person,  a group  O.T. Gatto, "AUTOSATE", Communications o f The ACM, V o l 7, No. 7, J u l y 1964.  105  of people, a work c e n t r e or a s p e c i f i c t h i n g .  Through i n t e r v i e w s  with s t a t i o n p e r s o n n e l , i n f o r m a t i o n used, processed or s t o r e d at each s t a t i o n i s i d e n t i f i e d on document s p e c i f i c a t i o n sheets. The  s p e c i f i c a t i o n s are t r a n s l a t e d i n t o machine readable  and a s e r i e s of a n a l y s i s r e p o r t s are produced.  form  These i n d i c a t e  by s t a t i o n , document a c t i v i t y as t o i n p u t , p r o c e s s i n g , output and storage.  Other r e p o r t s t r a c e the flow of documents  through the v a r i o u s s t a t i o n s and the a c t i v i t i e s which are with them.  A s e r i e s o f "redundancy" r e p o r t s i s a l s o  performed  produced  to show i d e n t i c a l and s i m i l a r documents. AUTOSATE's main emphasis i s on the document flow  through  a manual i n f o r m a t i o n system and p r o v i d e s the a n a l y s t with more i n s i g h t and knowledge on which t o base h i s d e s i g n of a system.  Although  i t s major c o n t r i b u t i o n was  i n the design of new  new  intended t o a s s i s t  computer systems, s e v e r a l of the  concepts  are a p p l i c a b l e and have been used i n the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and o f data elements i n DACS.  use  The use of data s p e c i f i c a t i o n sheets,  the removal of a r t i f i c i a l boundaries o f the data by f u n c t i o n or a p p l i c a t i o n and the i n s i g h t s p r o v i d e d by the redundancy r e p o r t s , have a l l c o n t r i b u t e d to the d e s i g n of DACS. 2  Schruben's "Information System Model"  i s s i m i l a r t o AUTOSATE  i n t h a t i t uses e x i s t i n g documents t o t r a c e the i n f o r m a t i o n flow through a system.  "Document a n a l y s i s " , "where used",  and  L. Schruben, "The Information System Model", Datamation, V o l 15, No 7, J u l y 1969.  "data-  106  flow" r e p o r t s , a s s i s t i n the a n a l y s i s and d e s i g n o f new i n f o r m a t i o n systems. ARDI 3 ARDI to  i s a technique developed t o p r o v i d e a d e t a i l e d guide  the A n a l y s i s , Requirements d e t e r m i n a t i o n , Design and develop-  ment, and Implementation and e v a l u a t i o n phases o f the system design e f f o r t .  In one phase, i d e n t i f y i n g the i n f o r m a t i o n flow,  d e s c r i p t i o n sheets are used t o document forms, f i l e s e x i s t i n g i n the system. the  While automated  and f i e l d s  a n a l y s i s i s not used,  techniques used t o i d e n t i f y the data elements and i l l u s t r a t e  r e l a t i o n s h i p s have been u s e f u l i n d e t e r m i n i n g DACS requirements. TAG 4 The Time Automated  Grid  technique developed by IBM i s  intended t o a i d the systems a n a l y s t i n the d e s i g n o f i n f o r m a t i o n systems.  Data t o be analyzed i s recorded on "input/output  a n a l y s i s forms" t h a t d e s c r i b e the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the inputS7 outputs o r f i l e s " . of  The use o f TAG begins w i t h a d e s c r i p t i o n  r e q u i r e d outputs and then works backwards t o determine what  i n p u t s a r e necessary a t what p e r i o d s o f time.  When i n p u t s  and outputs have been d e f i n e d , the next i t e r a t i o n of the program produces f i l e and system flow d e s c r i p t i o n s . W. Hartman, W.H. Matthes, A. Proeme, Management I n f o r m a t i o n Systems Handbook, McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1969. J . K e l l y , Computerized Management Information Systems, The MacMillan Co., New York, 1970, Chapter 8.  107  Although  time i s o b v i o u s l y one o f the f a c t o r s i n f i l e  d e s i g n , a study o f the example p r o v i d e d i n the r e f e r e n c e i n d i c a t e s t h a t a p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f f i l e s r e s u l t from TAG a n a l y s i s .  These  f i l e s a r e c o n s t r u c t e d t o meet very s t r u c t u r e d requirements and do not appear t o c o n s i d e r redundancy o r commonality o f use o f data items.  The technique seems t o c r e a t e very f u n c t i o n a l and  a p p l i c a t i o n o r i e n t e d f i l e s , c o n t r i b u t e s t o the problems o f common data base d e f i n i t i o n and d e f e a t s the d e s i r e t o make the data r e s o u r c e f l e x i b l e i n order t o meet v a r i o u s , and perhaps, seen  unfore-  requirements. Although the techniques d e s c r i b e d above do not d i r e c t l y  focus on the problems o f data r e s o u r c e management, they a l l have the common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f attempting t o i d e n t i f y the data r e s o u r c e i n a d i s c i p l i n e d s t a n d a r d i z e d manner so t h a t i t may more r e a d i l y be analyzed.  However, none o f these systems  answer a l l the q u e s t i o n s o r s a t i s f y the requirements  t h a t have  been i d e n t i f i e d t o achieve the d e s i r e d l e v e l o f c o n t r o l but the c o n t r i b u t i o n o f each t o the development o f DACS i s acknowledged.  

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