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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Robert Creeley : a writing biography and inventory Novik, Geraldine Mary 1973

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^IMC ROBERT C R E E L E Y : A W R I T I N G B I O G R A P H Y AND I N V E N T O R Y by G E R A L D I N E MARY N O V I K B . A . , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 6 6 A T H E S I S S U B M I T T E D I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L M E N T OF THE R E Q U I R E M E N T S FOR THE D E G R E E OF DOCTOR OF P H I L O S O P H Y i n t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f E n g l i s h We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A F e b r u a r y , 1 9 7 3 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I agr e e t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f E N G L I S H  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date February 7, 1973 A B S T R A C T N o w , i n 1 9 7 3 , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o s a y t h a t R o b e r t C r e e l e y i s a m a j o r A m e r i c a n p o e t . T h e I n v e n t o r y o f w o r k s b y a n d a b o u t C r e e l e y w h i c h c o m p r i s e s m o r e t h a n h a l f o f t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n d o c u m e n t s t h e p u b l i c a t i o n p r o c e s s t h a t b r o u g h t h i m t o t h i s s t a t u r e . T h e c o m p a n i o n W r i t i n g B i o g r a p h y e s t a b l i s h e s C r e e l e y a d d i t i o n a l l y a s t h e k e y i m p u l s e i n t h e new A m e r i c a n w r i t i n g m o v e m e n t t h a t f o u n d i t s f i r s t o u t l e t i n O r i g i n , B l a c k M o u n t a i n  R e v i e w , D i v e r s B o o k s , J a r g o n B o o k s , a n d o t h e r a l t e r n a t i v e l i t t l e m a g a z i n e s a n d p r e s s e s i n t h e f i f t i e s . A f t e r t h e s e c o n d w o r l d w a r a new g e n e r a t i o n o f w r i t e r s b e g a n t o d e f i n e t h e m s e l v e s i n o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e New C r i t i c i s m a n d a c a d e m i c p o e t r y t h e n p r e v a l e n t a n d i n s u p p o r t o f P o u n d a n d W i l l i a m s , a n d a s t h e s e w r i t e r s s t a r t e d t o a p p e a r i n t e n t a t i v e l i t t l e m a g a z i n e s a f u r t h e r d e f i n i t i o n t o o k p l a c e . S o m e , s u c h a s R o b e r t C r e e l e y a n d C h a r l e s O l s o n , w o r k e d t o w a r d a new p o e t i c w h i c h r e q u i r e d a s t r i c t e r a t t e n t i o n o n t h e p a r t o f t h e w r i t e r t o h i s c o n t e n t t h a n e i t h e r m e t e r e d v e r s e o r t h e l o o s e f r e e v e r s e t h a t r e b e l l e d a g a i n s t i t . E a r l y i n 1 9 5 0 C r e e l e y b e g a n t o c o r r e s p o n d w i t h P o u n d , W i l l i a m s , O l s o n , C i d C o r m a n , D e n i s e L e v e r t o v , P a u l B l a c k b u r n a n d o t h e r s r e g a r d i n g a m a g a z i n e h e w i s h e d t o s t a r t . O u t o f h i s c o r r e s p o n d e n c e w i t h O l s o n c a m e t h e t w o f o r e m o s t s t a t e m e n t s o f t h e new w r i t i n g , O l s o n ' s " P r o j e c t i v e V e r s e " a n d C r e e l e y ' s " N o t e s f o r a New P r o s e " . O u t o f t h e p i e c e s o f t h e c o l l a p s e d m a g a z i n e c a m e O r i g i n ( 1 9 5 1 - 1 9 5 7 ) w h i c h , w i t h i i i C o r m a n a s e d i t o r a n d C r e e l e y a s i n f o r m a l a g e n t , g a v e t h e O r i g i n -B l a c k M o u n t a i n - p o e t s t h e i r f i r s t s y m p a t h e t i c p u b l i c a t i o n . T h e W r i t i n g B i o g r a p h y d e m o n s t r a t e s t h a t s i n c e 1 9 5 0 w r i t i n g h a s b e e n t h e p r i m a r y c o n t e n t o f C r e e l e y ' s l i f e a n d s i n c e 1 9 5 2 h i s l i f e t h e p r i m a r y c o n t e n t o f h i s w r i t i n g . U s i n g a b i o g r a p h -i c a l o r d e r , t h i s e s s a y c l o s e l y f o l l o w s C r e e l e y ' s p o e t r y , p r o s e , a n d w r i t i n g t h e o r y a s t h e y d e v e l o p c o i n c i d e n t a l l y w i t h a n a l t e r n a t i v e w r i t i n g a n d p u b l i s h i n g s y s t e m i n t h e e a r l y f i f t i e s , a n d r e c o r d s t h e t r a n s i t i o n o f h i s own i n t e r e s t f r o m O r i g i n a n d l i k e m a g a z i n e s , t h r o u g h h i s D i v e r s P r e s s , t o B l a c k M o u n t a i n  R e v i e w — t h e m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t l i t t l e m a g a z i n e o f t h e d e c a d e — w h i c h C r e e l e y e d i t e d f r o m 1 9 5 4 t o 1 9 5 7 . C a r e f u l d o c u m e n t a t i o n i s g i v e n f o r t h e m a t u r i n g o f h i s b e l i e f t h a t t h e c o n t e n t ( a n d t h u s t h e f o r m ) o f t h e w r i t i n g m u s t b e t h e s p e c i f i c i s s u e o f t h e l i f e m o m e n t l y t o h a n d , a n d a t t e n t i o n i s p a i d t o t h e c h a n g e s i n h i s l i f e w h i c h c h a n g e d t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f t h e w r i t i n g . A b o v e a l l , t h i s i s C r e e l e y ' s s t o r y , a n d m u c h i s t o l d i n h i s o w n w o r d s b y u s i n g u n p u b l i s h e d l e t t e r s a n d o t h e r w o r k s w r i t t e n a t t h e t i m e . T h e I n v e n t o r y — a b i b l i o g r a p h i c a l c a t a l o g i n t y p e — r e c o r d s , a s s e s s e s , i n t e r r e l a t e s , a n d o t h e r w i s e t a k e s s t o c k o f t h e m a s s o f C r e e l e y p u b l i c a t i o n s s c a t t e r e d w o r l d - w i d e . I t i s c o m p r e h e n s i v e f o r C r e e l e y ' s w o r k s p u b l i s h e d f r o m 1 9 4 5 t o 1 9 7 0 a n d s e l e c t i v e f o r w r i t i n g s a b o u t h i m . I n a d d i t i o n , i t l i s t s a u d i o - v i s u a l m a t e r i a l a n d many u n p u b l i s h e d w o r k s . T h e v a r i o u s e d i t i o n s o f C r e e l e y ' s o w n b o o k s , p a m p h l e t s , a n d b r o a d s i d e s a r e d e s c r i b e d i n d e t a i l a n d t h e c o n t e n t s i t e m i z e d . T h e r e i s a v a l u a b l e l i s t o f a s - y e t - u n c o l l e c t e d p u b l i c a t i o n s a n d i n f o r m a t i o n o n h i s e d i t i n g , I V t r a n s l a t i n g , a n d p u b l i s h i n g a c t i v i t i e s . A s e p a r a t e s e c t i o n g i v e s a p u b l i c a t i o n h i s t o r y ( w i t h d a t e s o f c o m p o s i t i o n w h e n k n o w n ) f o r e a c h o f C r e e l e y ' . s p o e m s , s t o r i e s , a n d c r i t i c a l n o t e s i n t h e o r d e r t h e y a p p e a r i n h i s c o l l e c t e d w o r k s . T h e w r i t i n g s a b o u t C r e e l e y w e r e s e l e c t e d f o r t h e i r u s e f u l n e s s a n d c h r o n o -l o g i c a l l y a r r a n g e d w i t h i n c r i t i c a l g r o u p i n g s . A f i n a l s e c t i o n d e s c r i b e s l e t t e r s , m a n u s c r i p t s , a n d o t h e r u n p u b l i s h e d w o r k s w h i c h h a v e f o u n d t h e i r way i n t o u n i v e r s i t y l i b r a r i e s . S i n c e t h e I n v e n t o r y w a s c o m p i l e d w i t h t h e n e e d s o f t h e l i t e r a r y c r i t i c a n d s t u d e n t i n m i n d , c r o s s - r e f e r e n c e s a n d r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n p u b l i c a t i o n s ( a n d b e t w e e n p u b l i c a t i o n s a n d m a n u s c r i p t s ) h a v e b e e n g i v e n f r e e l y . T h e r e i s a f o r e w o r d by R o b e r t C r e e l e y , a n i n t r o d u c t i o n , a n d i n d e x e s t o n a m e s , t o p o e m s , a n d t o p e r i o d i c a l s . C O N T E N T S P a g e ACKNOWLEDGMENT v i A W R I T I N G B I O G R A P H Y TO 1 9 5 7 C h r o n o l o g y 2 W r i t i n g B i o g r a p h y . 4 AN I N V E N T O R Y 1 9 4 5 - 1 9 7 0 F o r e w o r d b y R o b e r t C r e e l e y 1 1 8 D e t a i l e d T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s 1 2 0 I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 2 2 I W o r k s b y R o b e r t C r e e l e y . . . . . 1 2 8 I I S e l e c t e d W r i t i n g s A b o u t R o b e r t C r e e l e y . . . . 1 6 5 I I I P u b l i c a t i o n H i s t o r y o f I n d i v i d u a l W r i t i n g s b y R o b e r t C r e e l e y 1 9 0 I V M a n u s c r i p t s , L e t t e r s , R e c o r d i n g s , a n d P r o o f s . 2 3 2 A d d i t i o n s 2 5 7 I n d e x t o N a m e s 2 6 1 I n d e x t o P o e m s 2 7 1 I n d e x t o P e r i o d i c a l s 2 8 4 ACKNOWLEDGMENT I w o u l d l i k e t o t h a n k R o b e r t C r e e l e y , W a r r e n T a l l m a n , a n d O r e s t N o v i k f o r e n c o u r a g i n g me i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n . R o b e r t C r e e l e y g e n e r o u s l y a n s w e r e d q u e s t i o n s i n l e t t e r s a n d i n p e r s o n a n d p r o v i d e d a f o r e w o r d f o r t h e I n v e n t o r y . W a r r e n T a l l m a n f i r s t i n t r o d u c e d me t o C r e e l e y ' s p o e m s i n h i s p o e t r y c l a s s i n 1 9 6 5 . H i s c o n v e r s a t i o n a n d w r i t i n g , a b o v e a l l h i s e x c e p t i o n a l e s s a y s o n C r e e l e y , h a v e b e e n a n i n f l u e n c e a n d i n s p i r a t i o n s i n c e t h a t t i m e . I am g r a t e f u l f o r t h e a s s i s t a n c e g i v e n by M a c M i l l a n F a m i l y F e l l o w s h i p s a n d a C a n a d a C o u n c i l D o c t o r a l F e l l o w s h i p . I h a v e q u o t e d f r o m u n p u b l i s h e d l e t t e r s a n d m a n u s c r i p t s i n t h e W r i t i n g B i o g r a p h y w i t h t h e k i n d p e r m i s s i o n o f R o b e r t C r e e l e y , I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y , W a s h i n g t o n U n i v e r s i t y , S i m o n F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y , U n i v e r s i t y o f T e x a s a t A u s t i n , S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y o f New Y o r k a t B u f f a l o , a n d t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f C o n n e c t i c u t . I n o r d e r t o v e r i f y e n t r i e s a n d e x p a n d t h e I n v e n t o r y I s e a r c h e d f o r e l u s i v e b o o k s , l i t t l e m a g a z i n e s , a n d m a n u s c r i p t s a t a n u m b e r o f C a n a d i a n , A m e r i c a n , B r i t i s h , a n d G e r m a n l i b r a r i e s . W i t h o u t e x c e p t i o n , t h e l i b r a r y s t a f f w a s r e c e p t i v e a n d h e l p f u l . I owe m o s t t o t h o s e l i b r a r i e s a c k n o w l e d g e d i n t h e m a n u s c r i p t s e c t i o n o f t h e I n v e n t o r y f o r t h e i r h e l p w i t h b o o k s a n d p e r i o d i c a l s a s w e l l a s m a n u s c r i p t s . T h e l a r g e C r e e l e y c o l l e c t i o n a t W a s h i n g t o n U n i v e r s i t y , w h i c h i n c l u d e s many l i t t l e m a g a z i n e s , m o s t o f C r e e l e y ' s b o o k s , a n d a v a s t a r r a y o f h i s v i i m a n u s c r i p t s , w a s b y f a r t h e m o s t u s e f u l . S i n c e 1967 I h a v e b e e n i n a l m o s t c o n t i n u o u s c o r r e s p o n d e n c e w i t h E l s i e F r e i v o g e l a n d h e r s u c c e s s o r H o l l y H a l l , H e a d • o f t h e M a n u s c r i p t D i v i s i o n . T h e i r a s s i s t a n c e h a s b e e n i n v a l u a b l e , e s p e c i a l l y d u r i n g my v i s i t t o t h e l i b r a r y i n 1969. L o c a l l y , I h a v e m a d e g o o d u s e o f t h e f i n e c o n t e m p o r a r y l i t e r a t u r e c o l l e c t i o n a t S i m o n F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y a n d t h e g e n e r a l c o l l e c t i o n a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w h e r e t h e I n t e r - L i b r a r y L o a n s t a f f p a t i e n t l y s o u g h t o u t p u b l i c a t i o n s w h e n t h e l o c a t i o n s w e r e u n k n o w n t o m e . K i n d a n s w e r s t o my l e t t e r s w e r e r e c e i v e d f r o m s o many i n d i v i d u a l s t h a t a c k n o w l e d g m e n t i s u n f o r t u n a t e l y i m p r a c t i c a l . S m a l l p u b l i s h e r s and l i t t l e m a g a z i n e e d i t o r s w e r e e s p e c i a l l y h e l p f u l a n d l a r g e p u b l i s h e r s w e r e g e n e r o u s w i t h d a t e s a n d f i g u r e s . S e c t i o n I I o f t h e I n v e n t o r y w a s p u b l i s h e d i n a n e a r l i e r v e r s i o n , w i t h a n i n t r o d u c t i o n t o C r e e l e y c r i t i c i s m 1950-197D, i n W e s t C o a s t R e v i e w , W I , i i i ( J a n u a r y 1972). T h e I n v e n t o r y w i l l b e p u b l i s h e d i n 1973 b y K e n t S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h M c G i 1 1 - Q u e e n ' s U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , w i t h t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f a p u b l i c a t i o n g r a n t f r o m t h e H u m a n i t i e s R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l o f C a n a d a - - w h i c h I g r a t e f u l l y a c k n o w l e d g e . W R I T I N G B I O G R A P H Y TO 1 9 5 7 T h i s i s t h e o n l y way t h a t o c c u r s t o m e : m y s e l f , a n d t h e v a r i a t i o n s p o s s i b l e u p o n my e x p e r i e n c e . . . . I a s k o n l y t h i s e x a c t n e s s . . . t o h a v e no h e s i t a n c e b e t w e e n w h a t t h e h e a d i s t h i n k i n g a n d w h a t t h e h a n d i s p u t t i n g d o w n - - R o b e r t C r e e l e y , 1 9 5 0 CHRONOLOGY 1926 R o b e r t W h i t e C r e e l e y b o r n u n t i l 1940. May 21, l i v e d i n M a s s a c h u s e t t s 1940-1943 1943-1947 1948-1949 1950-1953 1953-1955 1956-1957 A t t e n d e d H o l d e r n e s s S c h o o l , P l y m o u t h , New H a m p s h i r e , a n d c o n t r i b u t e d s t o r i e s a n d a r t i c l e s t o t w o s c h o o l m a g a z i n e s w h i c h h e e d i t e d i n h i s f i n a l y e a r . S t u d i e s a t H a r v a r d , i n t e r r u p t e d l a t e 1944 t o l a t e 1945 f o r s e r v i c e i n t h e I n d i a - B u r m a t h e a t e r , a n d a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e H a r v a r d W a k e . M a r r i e d A n n i n 1946 a n d mas-s u p p o r t e d b y h e r t r u s t f u n d i n c o m e ( u n t i l 1955) . D r o p p e d o u t o f H a r v a r d s h o r t o f a d e g r e e . D a v i d b o r n . L i v e d o n a s u s t e n a n c e f a r m n e a r L i t t l e t o n , New H a m p s h i r e . R e a d i n t e n s i v e l y . P o e m s i n W a k e a n d A c c e n t , u n p u b l i s h e d s t o r i e s a n d c r i t i c a l p r o s e . I n D e c e m b e r 1949 h e a r d C i d G o r m a n ' s r a d i o p r o g r a m a n d b e g a n t o c o r r e s p o n d . A t t e m p t e d t o s t a r t a m a g a z i n e w h i c h w a s a b s o r b e d b y O r i g i n (1951-1957) . O r i g i n I I , " f e a t u r i n g R o b e r t C r e e l e y " , o u t Summer 1951. C o r r e s -p o n d e n c e w i t h W i l l i a m s , P o u n d , F e r r i n i , O l s o n , B l a c k b u r n , a n d L e v e r t o v . M o v e d t o A i x - e n - P r o v e n c e , F r a n c e , May 1951 a n d t o M a l l o r c a , S p a i n , O c t o b e r 1952. Tom a n d C h a r l o t t e b o r n . A c t e d a s i n f o r m a l a g e n t f o r O r i g i n , A m e r i c a n E d i t o r f o r F r a g m e n t e . S i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o G o l d e n G o o s e , New D i r e c t i o n s X I I I , G o a d , V o u , C o n t a c t , C I W / n , New M e x T c o Q u a r t e r l y . W r o t e t h e s t o r i e s i n T h e  G o l d D i g g e r s (1954) a n d p o e m s i n L e F g u (1952) , T h e K i n d O f A c t O f (1953) , a n d T h e I m m o r a l P r o p o s i t i o n (1953) . D i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h A n n a s d o c u m e n t e d b y t h e n o v e l T h e  I s l a n d (1963) . T h e i r D i v e r s P r e s s p u b l i s h e d b e t w e e n S p r i n g 1953 a n d F a l l 1955 s i x t e e n b o o k s b y C r e e l e y , O l s o n , D u n c a n , B l a c k b u r n , E i g n e r , L a y t o n , e t c . E d i t e d ' f o u r i s s u e s o f B l a c k M o u n t a i n R e v i e w i n 1954. I n v o l v e d i n i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p o f C o n t a c t , C I V / n , O r i g i n , BMR, a n d C o n t a c t , D i v e r s , a n d J a r g o n P r e s s e s . A s s o c i a t i o n w i t h M e r l i n , c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o F e r r i n i & O t h e r s , N i n e A m e r i c a n  P o e t s . W r o t e t h r e e new s t o r i e s a n d p o e m s i n A S n a r l i n g  G a r l a n d (1954) , A l l T h a t I s L o v e l y i n Men (1955) , a n d ( f r o m 1955-56) I f Y o u (1956) . T a u g h t a t B l a c k M o u n t a i n C o l l e g e M a r c h t o J u l y 1954, r e t u r n e d t o M a l l o r c a u n t i l J u l y 1955 w h e n h e l e f t t o t e a c h t h e F a l l t e r m a t t h e c o l l e g e . BMR o u t s t r i p p e d e a r l i e r m a g a z i n e s w i t h 1955, 56, a n d a n n u a l s i n w h i c h O r i g i n p o e t s i n c r e a s e d t o " B l a c k M o u n t a i n " w r i t e r s . D i v o r c e f r o m A n n J a n u a r y 1956 a n d 57 3 l e s s e n i n g of a c t i v e invo lvement wi th l i t t l e magazines and p r e s s e s . Spent S p r i n g 1956 i n San F r a n c i s c o where he met G i n s b e r g , S n y d e r , R e x r o t h , et a l . and c o l l e c t e d m a t e r i a l f o r BMR No. 7 (1957) which , as the f i n a l i s s u e , demonstrated the movement outward toward a broader w r i t i n g and p u b l i s h i n g system. 1957- Taught grades 7 to 9 at s m a l l boys s c h o o l i n A l b u q u e r q u e , 1959 New M e x i c o , from F a l l 1956 to S p r i n g 1959. In January 1957 met and m a r r i e d Bobbie L o u i s e H a l l , thus a c q u i r i n g two new d a u g h t e r s , K i r s t e n and L e s l i e . Sarah born 1957, Kate 1959. The Whip, a s e l e c t i o n of poems w r i t t e n 1950-54, p u b l i s h e d Summer 1957. F i r s t poem i n Poetry August 1957. From 1956 to 1959 wrote the poems c o l l e c t e d i n A Form of Women (1959) and c o n t r i b u t e d to the new magazines Hearse , Measure, Texas Q u a r t e r l y , E v e r g r e e n  Review, Neon, Yuqen", B i g T a b l e , as w e l l as to O r i g i n , P o e t r y , New Mexico Q u a r t e r l y , and The N a t i o n . I On N o v e m b e r 3 , 1 9 6 3 a s a r e s u l t o f r e a d i n g a r e v i e w o f h i s j u s t - p u b l i s h e d n o v e l T h e I s l a n d i n h i s h o m e s t a t e B e l m o n t C i t i z e n , R o b e r t C r e e l e y w r o t e a n e x p l i c i t l y a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l p o e m t i t l e d " I " . T h e p o e m , w h i c h q u o t e s d i r e c t l y f r o m t h e r e v i e w , t a k e s u s b a c k t o 1 8 8 0 i n t h e C r e e l e y f a m i l y : I " i s t h e g r a n d s o n o f T h o m a s L . C r e e l e y , who a c q u i r e d e i g h t a c r e s o f B e l m o n t l a n d a r o u n d 1 8 8 0 a n d c o n t i n u e d " H i s h o u s e w a s n u m b e r e d 3 7 5 Common s t . a n d h i s f a r m l a n d s , t h r o u g h t h e h e a r t o f w h i c h t h e p r e s e n t C r e e l e y r d . r u n s , a d j o i n e d t h e C h e n e r y h o l d i n g s a n d e x t e n d e d t o w a r d W a v e r l y f r o m u p p e r Common s t . T h e a u t h o r ' s f a t h e r , t h e l a t e D r . O s c a r C r e e l e y , w a s a p r o m i n e n t W a t e r t o w n p h y s i c i a n f o r m a n y y e a r s a n d h e a d e d t h e s t a f f o f S y m m e s H o s p i t a l i n A r l i n g t o n . " I, i s l a t e B u t I s a w a p i c t u r e o f h i m o n c e , T . L . i n a c h a i r i n B e l m o n t , o r i t w a s h i s i n v a l i d a n d p a t i e n t w i f e t h e y t o l d me s a t t h e r e , h e w a s s t a n d i n g , l o n g a n d s t e a d y f a c e d , a b u r d e n t o h i m s h e w a s , a n d t h e s o n . T h e o t h e r c h i l d h a d d i e d T h e y w a i t e d , s o my f a t h e r who a l s o d i e d w h e n I i s f o u r g a v e a l l t o s o m e t h i n g l i k e t h e w o r d " a d j o i n e d " , " e x t e n d e d " s o I f e e l s 5 I s e e s t h e t i m e a s l o n g a n d w a v e r i n g g r a s s i n a l l a b o u t t h e l o t i n a l l t h a t c e m e t e r y a g a i n t h e o l d man o w n e d a p a r t o f s o t h e y c o u l d n ' t d i g h i m up.-*-C r e e l e y m e n t i o n e d h i s f a m i l y ' s n a t i o n a l o r i g i n i n a l e t t e r t o I a n H a m i l t o n F i n l a y i n 1 9 6 1 : I t i s v e r y c u r i o u s y o u a s k me i f I h a v e a n y S c o t s i n my s o -c a l l e d f a m i l y e t c . A s i t h a p p e n s , t h e r e a r e s o m e 2 0 o d d L a u r i e s , o f my f a m i l y , b u r i e d i n a l o t i n C a m b r i d g e , M a s s a c h u -s e t t s , t h a t I h o l d t i t l e t o , no l e s s , i . e . , t h e o w n e r s h i p o f i t r e v e r t e d t o me w i t h t h e e x p e c t a t i o n I w o u l d p a y t h e c o s t s o f " p e r p e t u a l c a r e " - - w h i c h o f c o u r s e I n e i t h e r w o u l d n o r c a n , w i t h a l l r e s p e c t f o r a l l . I d o n ' t t h i n k t h e y w i l l m i n d , i n s h o r t . B u t a n y h o w I am S c o t s t o t h a t e x t e n t - - m y f a t h e r ' s f a m i l y w e r e m o s t l y S c o t , I d o n ' t k n o w q u i t e w h e r e t h e C r e e l e y c a m e i n - - I r i s h I t h i n k . My m o t h e r ' s f a m i l y w e r e h a l f a n d h a l f E n g l i s h a n d F r e n c h C a n a d i a n ( f r o m N o v a S c o t i a ) . I n e v e r r e a l l y k n e w a n y o f t h i s p a r t o f my f a m i l y - - t h e S c o t t i s h — s i n c e my f a t h e r d i e d w h e n I w a s a b o u t f o u r , b u t m a y b e t h e w h o l e t h i n g c a r r i e d no m a t t e r . I ' l l s u p p o s e i t a n y h o w . 2 I n 1 9 6 6 C r e e l e y d e s c r i b e d h i s own c h i l d h o o d i n a n a u t o b i o g r a p h i -c a l s k e t c h w h i c h h a s n o t b e e n p u b l i s h e d : I w a s r a i s e d i n M a s s a c h u s e t t s f o r t h e m o s t p a r t , h a v i n g b e e n b o r n i n A r l i n g t o n , May 2 1 , 1 9 2 6 , s o n o f a p h y s i c i a n who d i e d w h e n I w a s f o u r . T h a t a n d t h e l o s s o f my l e f t e y e w h e n I w a s l i t t l e y o u n g e r m a r k f o r me t w o ' c o n d i t i o n s I h a v e u n e q u i v o c a l l y a s c o n t e n t , b u t w h i c h I h a v e n e i t h e r m u c h b i t t e r n e s s a b o u t n o r o t h e r s p e c i f i c f e e l i n g . I d i d m i s s my f a t h e r c e r t a i n l y . W i t h h i m w e n t n o t o n l y t h e p a r t i c u l a r w a r m t h he m i g h t h a v e f e l t f o r m e , b u t a l s o t h e w h o l e s i t u a t i o n o f o u r l i f e a s we h a d a p p a r e n t l y k n o w n i t . He h a d g o t a h o u s e i n t h e c o u n t r y , i n W e s t A c t o n , w h i l e h e c o n t i n u e d h i s p r a c t i c e i n W a t e r t o w n , a n d s o we w e r e l e f t t h e r e , w h e n he d i e d , t o m a n a g e a s we c o u l d . My m o t h e r b e c a m e , f i r s t , t o w n n u r s e f o r S t o w , t h e n l a t e r f o r t h e A c t o n s , W e s t , E a s t , N o r t h , S o u t h , a n d C e n t e r . B u t C o n c o r d w a s a l w a y s a q u a l i f i c a t i o n , i n t e r m s o f s o p h i s t i c a t i o n s o f a l l k i n d s . I r e m e m b e r b e i n g v e r y p l e a s e d t h a t C a p t a i n I s a a c D a v i s w a s a m o n g t h o s e p r e s e n t a t t h e b a t t l e i n C o n c o r d , h a v i n g b r o u g h t t h e r e a c o n t i n g e n t o f A c t o n f a r m e r s . 1 W o r d s (New Y o r k : S c r i b n e r ' s , C 1 9 6 7 ) , p p . 3 3 - 3 4 . T h i s p o e m i s e n t r y 6 2 0 i n t h e I n v e n t o r y . T h r o u g h o u t t h i s B i o g r a p h y , I n v e n t o r y e n t r y n u m b e r s w i l l b e g i v e n i n p a r e n t h e s e s t o i d e n t i f y w o r k s a n d t o d i r e c t t h e r e a d e r t o f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e m . L e t t e r o f O c t o b e r 1 6 , 1 9 6 1 a t T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f T e x a s , A u s t i n ( 1 0 5 1 ) . 6 B u t my u p b r i n g i n g i n t h a t r e s p e c t w a s s m a l l p i c k i n g s , h a p p i l y s o . H a v i n g no f a t h e r , I w a s d e p e n d e n t u p o n a n u n c l e w h o s e n e r v o u s a m b i t i o n s f o r h i s own c h i l d r e n I n e v e r r e a l l y t r u s t e d , a n d a g r a n d f a t h e r , my m o t h e r ' s f a t h e r , a N o v a S c o t i a n , F r e n c h , who h a d g o n e t o s e a a t t h e a g e o f t w e l v e t o s u p p o r t f i v e y o u n g e r b r o t h e r s a f t e r t h e d e a t h o f h i s f a t h e r . He d i d n ' t l i k e g i r l s , a n d s o my s i s t e r g o t l i t t l e f r o m h i m , b u t f o r me h e was t h e o n e . m e a s u r e o f l i t e r a l man I h a d f o r t h o s e e a r l y y e a r s . We l i v e d f i r s t o n w h a t h a d b e e n a f a r m , t h o u g h we n e v e r u s e d i t a s s u c h , b u t i t s u p k e e p a n d g e n e r a l c o s t s b e c a m e t o o m u c h f o r my m o t h e r t o m a n a g e . So we l e f t i t , h a p p i l y h a v i n g f o u n d a b u y e r , a n d m o v e d t o a s m a l l e r p l a c e b u t t h e r e w e r e s t i l l w o o d s a n d a s e n s e o f m u c h s p a c e . I u s e d t o l i k e a n i m a l s v e r y m u c h . I w a n t e d t o b e a v e t e r i n a r i a n u n t i l I w e n t t o c o l l e g e , a t w h i c h t i m e I d i s p o s e d m y s e l f t o w a r d w r i t i n g , w i t h m u c h h o p e , d u e t o s y m p a t h e -t i c t e a c h e r s a t t h e s c h o o l t o w h i c h I h a d g o n e . So my c h i l d h o o d w a s h a p p y , a s I r e m e m b e r i t . I l o v e d t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f t h e w o o d s , a n d w e n t w i t h f r i e n d s i n t o t h e m c o n s t a n t l y . We h a d t r a i l s i t s e e m e d h a l f w a y t o C a n a d a . I c a n r e m e m b e r l i t e r a l b a t t l e s e m p l o y i n g e v e r y t h i n g f r o m s l i n g s h o t s up t o B.B. g u n s a n d a n o c c a s i o n a l , 2 2 - - o n e t i m e my c o u s i n t o o k my s t o c k i n g - c a p o f f w i t h a s p e a r a s I w e n t r u n n i n g t h r o u g h a c l e a r i n g . S o m e h o w i t w a s a l o v e l y m o m e n t o f p r e c i s i o n f o r a l l c o n c e r n e d . T h e n , w h e n i t c a m e t i m e f o r me t o s t a r t my f r e s h m a n y e a r i n h i g h -s c h o o l , my s i s t e r who h a d g o t a s c h o l a r s h i p t o N o r t h f i e l d , h a v i n g a f r i e n d who h a d a b r o t h e r a t H o l d e r n e s s i n New H a m p s h i r e , p e r s u a d e d my m o t h e r t o a p p l y f o r my e n t r a n c e t h e r e . I g o t a s c h o l a r s h i p a n d s o w e n t o f f , v e r y t e n t a t i v e l y - - i n f a c t , I b r o u g h t my p i g e o n s w i t h me s o g e n e r o u s w a s t h a t s c h o o l t h e n i n i t s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f b o y s a s m y s e l f . Y e t I h a d m u c h i n d e e d t o l e a r n . T h e " s p o r t s c o a t " b o u g h t a t G r o v e r C r o n i n ' s i n W a l t h a m t u r n e d o u t t o h a v e c a r d b o a r d b u t t o n s s o t h a t t h e y d i s s o l v e d t h e f i r s t t i m e I s e n t t h a t c o a t t o t h e c l e a n e r s . I t w a s a l l a new w o r l d f o r m e , b u t I w a s d e c e n t l y t r e a t e d — v e r y m u c h s o , i n f a c t , a n d c o u n t t h e m o s t r e l e v a n t p a r t o f my s c h o o l i n g t o be t h e f o u r y e a r s s p e n t t h e r e . T h e y d i d n o t m i s u s e my i d e a l i s m . 3 R e c e n t l y C r e e l e y h a s w r i t t e n t w o d a y b o o k s w h i c h c o n t a i n r e f e r e n c e s t o h i s c h i l d h o o d t h o u g h e l s e w h e r e h e h a s a d d e d l i t t l e t o t h i s a c c o u n t . ^ H i s y o u t h h a s s o m e t i m e s f i g u r e d i n h i s p o e t r y A u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l n o t e o f J u n e 2 6 , 1 9 6 6 a t W a s h i n g t o n U n i v e r s i t y ( 1 1 2 9 ) . P 4 A Day B o o k (New Y o r k : S c r i b n e r ' s , C 1 9 7 2 ) ; " P r e s e n c e s ; A T e x t f o r M a r i s o l " ( a s y e t u n p u b l i s h e d a s a w h o l e ) . a n d f i c t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e s t o r y " I n t h e S u m m e r " ( 4 6 2 ) a n d a s b a c k g r o u n d t o t h e n o v e l T h e I s l a n d ( 1 2 ) . B e c a u s e o f h i s f a t h e r ' s e a r l y d e a t h , C r e e l e y w a s b r o u g h t up b y h i s m o t h e r a n d a n e x t e n d e d f a m i l y c o n s i s t i n g o f s i s t e r , a u n t s , u n c l e s , c o u s i n s , g r a n d p a r e n t s , a n d t h e h o u s e k e e p e r T h e r e s a . C e r t a i n l y h i s a t t i t u d e t o w a r d women a n d t h e c e n t r a l p o s i t i o n t h a t h o l d s i n h i s w r i t i n g h a s b e e n m u c h a f f e c t e d b y h i s m a t e r n a l r e a r i n g . I t h a s s o m e t i m e s b e e n a b u r d e n a s t h e p o e m " T h e H e r o " ( 5 2 4 ) m a k e s c l e a r . C r e e l e y ' s r e a d i n g b e g a n , a s h e r e m e m b e r s , w h e n h e w a s a b o u t t w e l v e a n d h i s s i s t e r H e l e n , f o u r y e a r s o l d e r , g a v e h i m C o n r a d a n d D o s t o e v s k i t o r e a d . He a t t e n d e d H o l d e r n e s s S c h o o l i n P l y m o u t h , New H a m p s h i r e , f r o m F a l l 1 9 4 0 t o J u n e 1 9 4 3 . " I h a d s e v e r a l e x c e p t i o n a l t e a c h e r s , a l l o f whom i n c r e a s e d my a r t i c u l a -t i o n a n d a l s o my p e r c e p t i o n o f w h a t ' s a y i n g t h i n g s ' c o u l d a c c o m p l i s h " . " 1 W h i l e t h e r e he w r o t e a n u m b e r o f b r i e f s t o r i e s a n d s e v e r a l w e r e p u b l i s h e d i n . t h e o f f i c i a l s c h o o l m a g a z i n e , T h e  D i a l . ^ T h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e t h a t h e w r o t e a n y p o e m s d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . D u r i n g h i s f i n a l y e a r h e w a s a c t i v e l y e n g a g e d i n o c c a s i o n a l w r i t i n g a s e d i t o r o f T h e D i a l a n d a s o n e o f t h e e d i t o r s o f t h e s c h o o l y e a r b o o k . T h e B u l l , a m i m e o n e w s l e t t e r , w a s a p p a r e n t l y s t a r t e d b y t h e s t u d e n t s t o a v o i d t h e f a c u l t y s u p e r v i s i o n o f T h e D i a l i n 1 9 4 2 - 4 3 w i t h C r e e l e y a s t h e f i r s t e d i t o r . A n a r t i c l e i n T h e B u l l i n 1 9 6 1 s t a t e s t h a t h e w r o t e m a n y b l a s t i n g e d i t o r i a l s i n t h i s c a p a c i t y . One o f t h e s e q F o r e w o r d b y R o b e r t C r e e l e y t o t h e I n v e n t o r y , p . 1 1 8 . 6 " T h o u S h a l t N o t K i l l " , F a l l 1 9 4 0 i s s u e , p . 5 ; " T h e P a s s i o n a t e P e r c i v a l P a p p i t " , W i n t e r 1 9 4 3 , p p . 7 - 8 ; " H o w S h o u l d I T h e n R e p l y " , S u m m e r 1 9 4 3 , p . 6 . I am i n d e b t e d t o B a r b a r a P. S e a r l e s , L i b r a r i a n o f H o l d e r n e s s S c h o o l , f o r p r o v i d i n g m u c h o f t h e a b o v e i n f o r m a t i o n . 8 a d v o c a t e d " t h e a m e l i o r a t i o n o f t h e m e n u " . " I n i t h e m a d e s u c h p o i n t s a s M r s . J u d g e a l l o w e d t h a t p r o b a b l y p r u n e w h i p f o r d e s s e r t t o o o f t e n w a s u n w i s e . U p o n p u b l i c a t i o n t h e c h e f i m m e d i a t e l y r e s i g n e d . I n o r d e r t o r e t a i n h i s s e r v i c e s , R e v . W e l d , t h e n h e a d m a s t e r , h a d ' e a c h b o y s h a k e t h e c h e f ' s h a n d a n d a p o l o g i z e , o n e b y s t r i c k e n o n e ' . C r e e l e y a s s e r t s t h a t t h i s 7 i n c i d e n t b r o u g h t h i m t o s e e t h e p o w e r o f l a n g u a g e " . C r e e l e y w a s a c c e p t e d i n t o H a r v a r d i n 1 9 4 3 , t h u s d e t e r m i n i n g a c a r e e r i n w r i t i n g , " n o m a t t e r t h a t I w a s p r o b a b l y n o t t h a t c e r t a i n o f i t a t t h e t i m e " , o v e r v e t e r i n a r y m e d i c i n e , h i s 8 e a r l i e r c h o i c e . A t H a r v a r d , " I f o u n d l i t t l e p l a c e d e s p i t e t h e v a r i o u s f r i e n d s h i p s I m a d e . O n l y o n e t e a c h e r , G o r d o n M c C r e a r y , g a v e me a n y s e n s e t h a t I m i g h t h a v e p o s s i b i l i t y a s a w r i t e r " ( 1 1 2 9 ) . A m o n g h i s c l a s s m a t e s a t H a r v a r d w e r e J a c o b L e e d , J o h n H a l l , S e y m o u r L a w r e n c e , J o h n H a w k e s , a n d M i t c h e l l G o o d m a n ( w h o m a r r i e d D e n i s e L e v e r t o v i n D e c e m b e r 1 9 4 7 ) . T h e w a r y e a r s a t H a r v a r d w e r e c o n f u s e d o n e s , t h e s t u d e n t s b e i n g r u s h e d t h r o u g h b e f o r e t h e y w e r e c a l l e d u p . C r e e l e y ' s s c h o o l i n g w a s i n t e r r u p t e d f r o m l a t e 1 9 4 4 t o l a t e 1 9 4 5 w h i l e h e d r o v e a n a m b u l a n c e f o r t h e A m e r i c a n F ^ e l d S e r v i c e i n t h e I n d i a - B u r m a t h e a t e r . T h e w i l d a w k w a r d n e s s o f t h i s t i m e a n d o f t h e r e t u r n t o t h e U . S . v i a E n g l a n d a r e d e l i g h t f u l l y r e c o u n t e d i n t h e P a r i s R e v i e w i n t e r v i e w ( 1 3 6 ) a n d i n h i s u n p u b l i s h e d s t o r y " T h e C o n v e r s a t i o n " ( 1 1 0 6 ) . T h e W a k e , s t a r t e d b y H a r v a r d u n d e r g r a d u a t e s i n 1 9 4 4 , h a d 7 T h e B u l l , X V , i v ( F e b r u a r y 2 , 1 9 6 1 ) , 2 . F o r e w o r d t o t h e I n v e n t o r y , p . 1 1 8 . 9 i n C r e e l e y ' s a b s e n c e b e g u n t o p r o v i d e a n a l t e r n a t i v e t o t h e H a r v a r d A d v o c a t e , a n d h i s f r i e n d s o n t h e m a g a z i n e o f f e r e d h i m t h e p o s i t i o n o f A s s o c i a t e E d i t o r f o r t h e C u m m i n g s i s s u e , N u m b e r 5 ( S p r i n g 1946). 5 C r e e l e y ' s f i r s t p u b l i s h e d p o e m , w r i t t e n o n h i s r e t u r n t o H a r v a r d l a t e 1945, a p p e a r e d i n t h i s i s s u e : R e t u r n Q u i e t a s i s p r o p e r f o r s u c h p l a c e s ; T h e s t r e e t , s u b d u e d , h a l f - s n o w , h a l f - r a i n , E n d l e s s , b u t e n d i n g i n t h e d a r k e n e d d o o r s . I n s i d e , t h e y who w i l l b e t h e r e a l w a y s , Q u i e t a s i s p r o p e r f o r s u c h p e o p l e - -E n o u g h f o r now t o b e h e r e , a n d T o k n o w my d o o r i s o n e o f t h e s e . I t w a s t o b e t w o y e a r s b e f o r e m o r e o f h i s p o e m s w e r e p u b l i s h e d , a g a i n t h r o u g h f r i e n d s h i p s a t W a k e . T h i s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e e d i t o r s o f W a k e , w i t h whom he c a m e t o s h a r e a n a n t i p a t h y t o t h e New C r i t i c i s m , w a s s i g n i f i c a n t f o r C r e e l e y . D u r i n g h i s f i n a l y e a r s a t H a r v a r d 1945-47 h e b e g a n t o r e a d m o r e i n t e n s i v e l y , w o r k i n g o u t f r o m C u m m i n g s , H a r t C r a n e , a n d t h e i r f e l l o w w r i t e r s a n d e v e n t u a l l y a n d d e c i s i v e l y t o P o u n d a n d W i l l i a m s . He r e a d i n W a k e t h e w o r k o f new w r i t e r s s u c h a s D e n i s e L e v e r t o v a n d K e n n e t h L a s h ( l a t e r t h e e d i t o r o f New M e x i c o Q u a r t e r l y ) . F r o m 1944 t o 1950, t h o u g h m a i n l y f r o m t h e S p r i n g 1948 i s s u e , W a k e w a s f o r C r e e l e y v i r t u a l l y t h e o n l y e x a m p l e o f a n a l t e r n a t i v e l i t t l e m a g a z i n e d e d i c a t e d t o t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f new w r i t i n g , h o w e v e r e p h e m e r a l . I t w a s w i t h t h i s a u d i e n c e i n m i n d t h a t h e f i r s t ' i b e g a n s e r i o u s l y t o w r i t e a n d t o i d e n t i f y h i m s e l f a s a w r i t e r . F r o m h i s r e t u r n f r o m t h e w a r up t o 1948 o r s o , C r e e l e y w a s ^ C r e e l e y r e v i e w e d o n e o f C u m m i n g s 1 " b o o k s f o r t h e i s s u e b u t t h e r e v i e w , a p p a r e n t l y n e g a t i v e , w a s r e f u s e d . L a t e r h e b r i e f l y b e c a m e " a v e r y s u s p e c t m e m b e r " o f t h e H a r v a r d A d v o c a t e w h e n W a k e w a s s u s p e n d e d b e t w e e n S p r i n g 1946 a n d S p r i n g 1948. T h e p o e m i s q u o t e d f r o m T h e C h a r m : E a r l y a n d U n c o l l e c t e d P o e m s ( S a n F r a n c i s c o : F o u r S e a s o n s F o u n d a t i o n , 1969), p . 3 C 4 1 , 765). 1 0 l a r g e l y o c c u p i e d , s i n c e o t h e r w i s e u n e m p l o y e d , w i t h e x p l o r i n g w h a t s e e m e d t o be a l t e r n a t i v e s t o t h e k i n d o f f r u s t r a t i n g d i s c i p l i n e t h e n d o m i n a n t i n t h e a r t s . T h i s a c t i v i t y w a s s h a r e d b y m a n y o f h i s f r i e n d s a n d H a r v a r d c l a s s m a t e s : T h i s w a s t h e t i m e o f t h e w h o l e c u l t o f t h e h i p s t e r . . . i t w a s a t i m e o n e w a n t e d d e s p e r a t e l y a n i n t e n s i v e a n d a n a b s o l u t e l y f u l l e x p e r i e n c e o f w h a t e v e r i t w a s y o u w e r e e n g a g e d w i t h . . . . E v e r y -o n e w a s l o o k i n g f o r w h e r e i t w a s h a p p e n i n g & d e s p e r a t e l y w a n t e d t o b e a c c e p t e d b y i t , b e c a u s e f r a n k l y t h e s o c i e t y a s i t t h e n w a s , c o m i n g b a c k f r o m t h e w a r a n d r e a l i z i n g home a n d m o t h e r j u s t w a s n ' t , no m a t t e r how l o v e l y , w a s n o t a n y g r e a t p o s s i b i l i t y . A n d e q u a l l y t h e w h o l e s e n s e o f p r o f e s s i o n a l : b e c o m e a d o c t o r , a l a w y e r , t h e v a l u e o f o n e ' s l i f e a s a p r o g r e s s i o n t o w a r d s o m e a t t e n t i o n w a s g o n e b e c a u s e t h e w a r d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t no m a t t e r how m u c h y o u t r i e d , a s M o r g e n t h a l s a i d i n h i s t e a c h i n g : f a c t s h a v e t h e i r own d y n a m i c s a n d t h i s c o u l d n e v e r b e a n t i c i p a t e d b y a n y f o r m o f a d j u s t m e n t . - ' - ' - ' C r e e l e y w a s i n t e r e s t e d m a i n l y i n m u s i c a n d l i t e r a t u r e a t t h i s t i m e , h i s i n t e r e s t i n a r t c o m i n g l a t e r , i n t h e e a r l y 1 9 5 0 ' s . He w a s o b s e s s e d w i t h j a z z , g o i n g t o c l u b s a r o u n d B o s t o n w h i l e a t H a r v a r d , l i s t e n i n g t o r e c o r d s m u c h o f t h e t i m e a t h o m e . "I w a s f a s c i n a t e d b y w h a t t h e s e p e o p l e d i d w i t h t i m e . . . t h i s w a s w h e r e I w a s h e a r i n g t h i n g s s a i d i n t e r m s o f r h y t h m i c a n d s o u n d p o s s i -b i l i t i e s " ( 1 3 3 ) . C h a r l i e P a r k e r w a s t h e b i g g e s t i n f l u e n c e , i n h i s r h y t h m a n d u s e o f s i l e n c e , b u t a l s o M i l e s D a v i s , T h e l o n i u s M o n k , D i z z y G i l l e s p i e , a n d many o t h e r j a z z m u s i c i a n s . P a r t i a l l y a s a r e s u l t o f h i s c o n t i n u e d f a s c i n a t i o n w i t h j a z z , C r e e l e y e x p e r i m e n t e d w i t h new s e n s e s o f r h y t h m i n h i s e a r l y p o e m s , r o u g h l y t h o s e w r i t t e n f r o m 1 9 4 8 u n t i l 1 9 5 4 . I n t h e p r e f a c e - -w h i c h a p p l i e s a s w e l l t o h i s t h r e e e a r l i e r b o o k s o f p o e t r y - - t o A l l T h a t I s L o v e l y i n Men ( 1 9 5 5 ) h e a c k n o w l e d g e s t h i s d e b t : " I n t e r v i e w : R o b e r t C r e e l e y " , W h e ' r e , N o . 1 ( S u m m e r 1 9 6 6 ) , p p . 4 7 - 5 8 ( 1 3 3 ) . T h i s i n t e r v i e w c o n t a i n s a w e a l t h o f i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h i s p e r i o d i n C r e e l e y ' s l i f e . 11 " L i n e - w i s e , t h e m o s t c o m p l e m e n t a r y s e n s e I h a v e f o u n d i s t h a t o f m u s i c i a n s l i k e C h a r l i e P a r k e r , a n d M i l e s D a v i s . I am i n t e r e s t e d i n h o w t h a t i s d o n e , how ' t i m e ' t h e r e i s h e l d t o a m e a s u r e p e c u l i a r l y a n e v i d e n c e ( a h a n d ) o f t h e e m o t i o n w h i c h p r o m p t s ( d r i v e s ) t h e p o e m i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e " . " ' " " ' " W h i l e i n m u s i c t h e j a z z m u s i c i a n s w e r e t h e h e r o s o f t h e p o s t - w a r c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s , i n l i t e r a t u r e H e n r y M i l l e r , K e n n e t h P a t c h e n , D . H . L a w r e n c e , a n d H a r t C r a n e " w e r e t h e p e o p l e who k e p t s a y i n g t h a t s o m e t h i n g i s p o s s i b l e , i t ' s p o s s i b l e t o s a y s o m e -t h i n g , y o u r e a l l y h a v e a c c e s s t o y o u r f e e l i n g s a n d c a n r e a l l y u s e t h e m a s a d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f y o u r own r e a l i t y " ( 1 3 3 ) . T h i s w a s h a r d t o b e l i e v e i n t h e " g o l d e n a g e f o r c r i t i c i s m " . T h e New C r i t i c i s m , t h e n p r e v a i l i n g i n u n i v e r s i t y E n g l i s h d e p a r t m e n t s , f a v o r e d t h e s o c i a l l y - o r i e n t e d p o e t r y o f t h e 1 9 3 0 ' s a n d 4 0 ' s , s u c h a s E l i o t , A u d e n , R a n s o m , T a t e , a n d t h e i r f o l l o w e r s . C r e e l e y ' s t h e n - f o r m i n g a t t i t u d e , a n d t h a t o f t h e g r o u p o f p o e t s l a t e r r e p r e s e n t e d i n New A m e r i c a n P o e t r y : 1 9 4 5 - 1 9 6 0 ( 5 6 ) a n d T h e New W r i t i n g i n t h e U . S . A . , i s w e l l e x p r e s s e d i n C r e e l e y ' s i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e l a t t e r a n t h o l o g y : ^ A s h e v i l l e [ N o r t h C a r o l i n a ] : J o n a t h a n W i l l i a m s , 1 9 5 5 ( 6 , 9 1 6 ) . A s F r e d e r i c k E c k m a n p o i n t e d o u t i n h i s r e v i e w o f A l l T h a t  I s L o v e l y i n M e n , t w o p o e m s , " B r o k e n B a c k B l u e s " ( 8 2 l ) a n d " S t o m p i n g w i t h C a t u l l u s " ( 8 2 4 ) , a r e " f r e e - s w i n g i n g v a r i a t i o n s " i n f l u e n c e d d i r e c t l y b y j a z z ( 2 8 2 ) . I n o t h e r p o e m s , s u c h a s "I K n o w a M a n " ( 4 9 4 ) , i t i s t h e p h i l o s o p h y o f t h e h i p s t e r w h i c h a f f e c t s t h e s t y l e . 12 I n t h e e a r l y f i f t i e s C r e e l e y d e f e n d e d t h e w o r k o f C r a n e , P a t c h e n , a n d L a w r e n c e a m o n g o t h e r s . T h e s e w r i t i n g s a r e c o l l e c t e d i n A Q u i c k G r a p h : C o l l e c t e d N o t e s & E s s a y s ( 1 0 4 ) . T h i s b o o k d o c u m e n t s m a n y o f C r e e l e y ' s c o n c e r n s o v e r t h e y e a r s . M o s t o f t h e w r i t i n g s w e r e a n a t t e m p t t o e n c o u r a g e r e c o g n i t i o n o f w r i t e r s whom C r e e l e y a d m i r e d a n d f e l t w e r e n e g l e c t e d , f o r e x a m p l e L o u i s Z u k o f s k y a n d B a s i l B u n t i n g , o r whom h e f e l t w e r e n o t c e l e b r a t e d a s t h e y s h o u l d b e , a s W i l l i a m C a r l o s W i l l i a m s a n d C h a r l e s O l s o n . 12 T h e f o r t i e s w e r e a h o s t i l e t i m e f o r t h e w r i t e r s h e r e i n c l u d e d . T h e c o l l e g e s a n d u n i v e r s i t i e s w e r e d o m i n a n t i n t h e i r i n s i s t e n c e u p o n a n i d e a o f f o r m e x t r i n s i c t o t h e g i v e n i n s t a n c e . P o e m s w e r e e q u i v a l e n t t o c a r s i n s o f a r a s m a n y c o u l d o c c u r o f s i m i l a r p a t t e r n — a l t h o u g h e a c h w a s , o f c o u r s e , " s i n g u l a r " . B u t i t w a s t h i s a s s u m p t i o n o f a m o l d , o f a m e a n s t h a t c o u l d b e g a i n e d b e y o n d t h e l i t e r a l f a c t o f t h e w r i t i n g h e r e a n d n o w , t h a t h a d a u t h o r i t y . I t i s t h e m o r e i r o n i c t o t h i n k o f i t , r e m e m b e r i n g t h e i n c r e d i b l e p r e s s u r e o f f e e l i n g a l s o p r e s e n t i n t h e s e y e a r s - . - o f a l l t h a t d i d w a n t " t o b e s a i d " , o f s o m u c h c o n f u s i o n a n d p a i n w a n t i n g s t a t e -m e n t i n i t s own t e r m s . B u t a g a i n , i t i s K a r l S h a p i r o ' s E s s a y o n  R i m e ( w r i t t e n i n t h e S o u t h P a c i f i c a t a m i l i t a r y b a s e , " w i t h o u t a c c e s s t o b o o k s " , i n i a m b i c p e n t a m e t e r ) w h i c h i s s u c c e s s f u l , a n d A u d e n i s t h e m e a s u r e o f c o m p e t e n c e . I n c o n t r a s t E z r a P o u n d , H . D . , W i l l i a m C a r l o s W i l l i a m s ( d e s p i t e t h e t o k e n i n t e r e s t a s P a t e r s o n b e g i n s t o b e p u b l i s h e d ) , H a r t C r a n e , a n d e s p e c i a l l y W a l t W h i t m a n a r e l a r g e l y d i s r e g a r d e d . T h e s i t u a t i o n o f p r o s e I r e m e m b e r a s m u c h t h e s a m e . D e s p i t e t h e a p p a r e n t i n s i s t e n c e o f d i g r e s s i o n i n t h e w o r k o f J o y c e , F a u l k n e r , C e l i n e a n d o t h e r s who a r e v a l u e d , t h e r e i s n o n e t h e l e s s t h e a t t e m p t t o s h a p e a l l d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e i r " f o r m " t o t h e c o n t e x t o f a n o v e r t p a t t e r n , a s y m b o l i s m , a n e x p l a n a n t i o n a g a i n a n t e r i o r t o t h e i n s t a n c e . I n s h o r t , i t i s a p e r i o d w h e n c r i t i c i s m e n j o y s c o n t r o l o f l i t e r a r y r e f e r e n c e - - s o m u c h s o , t h a t i t c a n p r o p o s e i t s e l f t o b e o f p r i m a r y v a l u e q u i t e a p a r t f r o m i t s " s u b j e c t s " . T h e s e n s e o f f o r m w h i c h c o m e s o f t h i s i n s i s t e n c e i s d e f i n e d b y R o b e r t D u n c a n i n a n e s s a y , " I d e a s o f t h e M e a n i n g , o f F o r m " . . . . C o n f r o n t i n g s u c h r u l e , men w e r e d r i v e n b a c k u p o n t h e p a r t i c u l a r s o f t h e i r o w n e x p e r i e n c e , t h e l i t e r a l t h i n g s o f a n i m m e d i a t e e n v i r o n m e n t , w h e r e w i t h t o a c k n o w l e d g e t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f t h e i r o w n l i v e s . 1 3 T h o u g h i t w a s h a r d l y t h u s f o r m u l a t e d i n t h e l a t e f o r t i e s , C r e e l e y a n d t h e o t h e r n e w w r i t e r s w e r e b e g i n n i n g t o f e e l p a r t o f a n u n d e r g r o u n d c o n t i n u i t y i n p o e t r y w h i c h , r u n n i n g f r o m P o u n d , ' W i l l i a m s , a n d t h e I m a g i s t s o f t h e 1 9 1 0 ' s t h r o u g h Z u k o f s k y , t h e D b j e c t i v i s t s , a n d o t h e r n e g l e c t e d w r i t e r s o f t h e 2 0 ' s a n d 3 Q ' s , 14 s h o r t - c i r c u i t e d t h e a b o v e - g r o u n d p o e t r y o f t h e 3 0 ' s a n d 4 0 ' s . E d . D o n a l d A l l e n a n d R o b e r t C r e e l e y ( H a r m o n d s w o r t h , M i d d l e s e x , E n g l a n d : P e n g u i n , 1 9 6 7 ) , p p . 1 7 - 1 8 ( 1 7 2 , 9 3 2 ) . * 4 F o r C r e e l e y ' s t e s t i m o n y t o t h i s e f f e c t s e e " R o b e r t C r e e l e y i n C o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h C h a r l e s T o m l i n s o n " ( 1 3 1 ) a n d " O l s o n & O t h e r s : S ome O r t s f o r t h e S p o r t s " ( 9 5 5 ) . T h e I m a g i s t s i n c l u d e d 1 3 T h i s a l t e r n a t e t r a d i t i o n w a s f i r s t e n c o u n t e r e d b y C r e e l e y i n t h e w o r k o f P o u n d a n d W i l l i a m s , t h o u g h i t w a s s ome t i m e b e f o r e h e m a d e a c t i v e u s e o f i t i n ' h i s own w r i t i n g . S o o n a f t e r i t w a s p u b l i s h e d i n 1 9 4 4 C r e e l e y r e a d W i l l i a m s ' T h e W e d g e . T h i s p a r a g r a p h i n t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n h a s p r o v e d a n a n c h o r f o r h i m : T h e r e f o r e e a c h s p e e c h h a v i n g i t s own c h a r a c t e r t h e p o e t r y i t e n g e n d e r s w i l l be p e c u l i a r t o t h a t s p e e c h a l s o i n i t s o w n i n t r i n s i c f o r m . . . . When a man m a k e s a p o e m , m a k e s i t , m i n d y o u , h e t a k e s w o r d s a s he f i n d s t h e m i n t e r r e l a t e d a b o u t h i m a n d c o m p o s e s t h e m - - w i t h o u t d i s t o r t i o n w h i c h w o u l d m a r t h e i r e x a c t s i g n i f i c a n c e s - - i n t o a n i n t e n s e e x p r e s s i o n o f h i s p e r c e p t i o n s a n d a r d o r s t h a t t h e y may c o n s t i t u t e a r e v e l a t i o n i n t h e s p e e c h t h a t h e u s e s . 1 5 C r e e l e y h a s h e l d t o W i l l i a m s ' e x a m p l e t h r o u g h o u t t h e y e a r s , t h o u g h h e h a s n e v e r i m i t a t e d h i s p o e t r y . W h a t h e i s i n d e b t e d t o i s W i l l i a m s ' s e n s e o f p o e t r y a s b a s e d o n t h e s p e e c h o f o n e i n d i v i d u a l , i n o n e p l a c e , a t o n e t i m e - - a s a p a r t i c u l a r r e s p o n s e t o a n i m m e d i a t e e n v i r o n m e n t . C r e e l e y s a i d i n a n i n t e r v i e w : We a r e b o t h d o i n g s o m e t h i n g g u i t e a k i n : w e ' r e t h i n k i n g , w e ' r e g a i n i n g a h a r t i c u l a t i o n f o r o u r s e l v e s i n t h e a c t i v i t y o f t h e p o e m . A s h e s a y s , , f I n o u r f a m i l y we s t a m m e r u n t i l , h a l f m a d , we c o m e t o s p e e c h " . O r h e s a y s , " t h e w o r d s m a d e s o l e l y o f a i r " . T h i s c o n t e x t f o r p o e t r y i s o n e v e r y i n t i m a t e a n d i m m e d i a t e l y r e c o g n i z a b l e t o m y s e l f . S o I d o n ' t t h i n k t h a t y o u c a n s a y , " W e l l , t h i s man t a l k s a b o u t g r e e n b o t t l e s a n d t h i s man t a l k s a b o u t h i s w i f e ; t h e r e f o r e , t h e y a r e n o t i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e s a m e t h i n g s " . I t ' s t h e w a y t h e s e t h i n g s a r e p e r c e i v e d i n t h e p o e m a n d how t h e y a r e a r t i c u l a t e d t h a t i s s i g n i f i c a n t ; a n d i n t h a t r e s p e c t I w o u l d f e e l a g r e a t d e b t t o W i l l i a m s a n d w o u l d f e e l t h a t I h a d l e a r n e d m u c h f r o m h i m i n d e e d . x & P o u n d , W i l l i a m s , H . D . , T . ' E . H u l m e , D . H . L a w r e n c e , R i c h a r d A l d i n g t o n , F . S . F l i n t , a n d Amy L o w e l l . W a l l a c e S t e v e n s h a s w r i t t e n I m a g i s t p o e m s . T h e O b j e c t i v i s t s w e r e Z u k o f s k y , W i l l i a m s , G e o r g e O p p e n , C h a r l e s R e z n i k o f f , a n d L o r i n e N i e d e c k e r . 1 5 C u m m i n g t o n , M a s s a c h u s e t t s : T h e C u m m i n g t o n P r e s s , 1 9 4 4 . 1 6 " T h e A r t o f P o e t r y X " , P a r i s R e v i e w , X I , N o . 4 4 ( F a l l 1 9 6 8 ) , 1 8 2 - 1 8 3 ( 1 3 6 ) . 14 I t i s t h e W i l l i a m s o f I n t h e A m e r i c a n G r a i n ( 1 9 2 5 ) , o f t h e e a r l y a n d l a t e s h o r t p o e m s , o f T h e D e s e r t M u s i c ( 1 9 5 4 ) a n d J o u r n e y t o L o v e ( 1 9 5 . 5 ) , a n d f i n a l l y o f P i c t u r e s f r o m B r u e g h e l ( 1 9 6 2 ) t h a t C r e e l e y h a s a d m i r e d , r a t h e r t h a n t h e W i l l i a m s o f P a t e r s o n , t h o u g h h e f o l l o w e d t h i s w o r k a s i t a p p e a r e d f r o m B o o k I ( 1 9 4 6 ) t o B o o k V ( 1 9 5 8 ) . P o u n d ' s i n f l u e n c e c a m e i n t h r o u g h t h e e a r l y p o e m s i n P e r s o n a e , t h r o u g h M a k e I t New w h i c h C r e e l e y o b t a i n e d a b o u t 1 9 4 6 , a n d t h r o u g h P o l i t e E s s a y s , P a v a n n e s a n d D i v i s i o n s , G u i d e t o K u l c h u r , a n d ABC o f R e a d i n g ( t h e l a s t n o t a c g u i r e d u n t i l 1 9 5 2 ) . O f P o u n d ' s c r i t i c i s m , C r e e l e y w a s m o s t i n f l u e n c e d b y M a k e I t New - - " a b o o k I u s e d p r a c t i c a l l y a s a b i b l e w h e n I wa s y o u n g e r " - - a n d b y t h e e s s a y s " A R e t r o s p e c t " , " H o w t o R e a d " , a n d " T h e S e r i o u s 1 7 A r t i s t " . I n " A R e t r o s p e c t " C r e e l e y d i s c o v e r e d t h e t h r e e d o ' s o f I m a g i s m , a c l a r i t y l o s t i n t h e s o c i a l p o e t r y o f t h e 1 9 3 0 ' s a n d 4 0 ' s : 1 . D i r e c t t r e a t m e n t o f t h e " t h i n g " w h e t h e r s u b j e c t i v e o r o b j e c t i v e . 2. T o u s e a b s o l u t e l y no w o r d t h a t d o e s n o t c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n . 3 . A s r e g a r d i n g r h y t h m : t o c o m p o s e i n t h e s e q u e n c e o f t h e m u s i c a l p h r a s e , n o t i n s e q u e n c e o f a m e t r o n o m e . - ^ P o u n d t a u g h t i n a l l h i s p o e t r y a n d p r o s e how t o r e a d , b y " s h a r p e n i n g o n e ' s p e r c e p t i o n s " , a n d how t o w r i t e , b y " c h a r g i n g l a n g u a g e w i t h m e a n i n g t o t h e u t m o s t p o s s i b l e d e g r e e " . I n t h e 1 7 C r e e l e y m a d e h i s own r e a d i n g o f P o u n d c l e a r i n h i s " L e t t e r t o t h e E d i t o r o f G o a d " ( 9 3 9 ) , w r i t t e n i n P o u n d ' s d e f e n s e i n 1 9 5 1 . T h e q u o t a t i o n i s f r o m t h e u s e f u l i n t e r v i e w w i t h C r e e l e y i n T h e U n m u z z l e d O x , I, i ( N o v e m b e r 1 9 7 1 ) , 4 2 . 18 L i t e r a r y E s s a y s o f E z r a P o u n d ( L o n d o n : F a b e r , 1 9 5 4 ) , p . 3 . 15 p a c k i n g o f t h e p o e t i c l i n e t h e m e d i u m w a s t h e s y l l a b l e ( w i t h a n e a r f o r i t s w e i g h t a n d d u r a t i o n ) a n d t h e m e a n s p h a n o p o e i a , m e l o p o e i a , a n d l o g o p o e i a . C r e e l e y r e c a l l e d ; P o u n d , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , b r o u g h t u s i m m e d i a t e l y t o t h e c o n t e x t o f how t o w r i t e . I t w a s i m p o s s i b l e t o a v o i d t h e i n s i s t e n c e h e p u t o n p r e c i s e i y how t h e l i n e g o e s , how t h e w o r d i _ s , i n i t s c o n t e x t , w h a t h a s b e e n d o n e , i n t h e p r a c t i c e o f v e r s e - - a n d w h a t now s e e m s p o s s i b l e . t o d o . I t w a s , t h e n , a m e a s u r e h e t a u g h t - -a n d a m e a s u r e i n j u s t t h a t s e n s e W i l l i a m C a r l o s W i l l i a m s i n s i s t e d u p o n . . . . R a t h e r t h a n t e l l me a b o u t some c h a r a c t e r o f v e r s e , h e w o u l d g i v e t h e l i t e r a l i n s t a n c e s i d e b y s i d e w i t h t h a t w h i c h g a v e i t c o n t e x t . T h i s m e t h o d i s , o f c o u r s e , a n d a s p e c t o f w h a t h e c a l l s t h e i d e o q r a m m i c - - i t p r e s e n t s , r a t h e r t h a n c o m m e n t s u p o n . T h e e m p h a s i s I f e e l t o b e p r e s e n t i n a l l h i s w o r k , f r o m t h e r a t i o n a l e o f i m a g i s m , t o t h e l a t e s t C a n t o s . ^ P o u n d a c t e d a s a g e n e r a l f o r c e f o r C r e e l e y r a t h e r t h a n a p e r s o n a l e x a m p l e ( a s d i d W i l l i a m s ) ; h i s C a n t o s w e r e f a r r e m o v e d f r o m w h a t C r e e l e y c o u l d o r w o u l d w r i t e . B u t t h e p r e s s u r e o f P o u n d ' s c r i t i c i s m a n d p r i v a t e l e t t e r s t o C r e e l e y , t h e n e c e s s i t y he p r e s e n t e d o f d e a l i n g w i t h t h e d e a d l o c k i n w r i t i n g a n d p u b l i s h i n g c i r c a 1 9 5 0 , i m p e l l e d C r e e l e y t o b e c o m e a p r i m e a g e n t i n t h e r e s u r f a c i n g o f t h e u n d e r g r o u n d c o n t i n u i t y w h i c h h a d b e g u n w i t h I m a g i s m . II C r e e l e y h a d m a r r i e d i n t h e S p r i n g o f 1 9 4 6 a f t e r r e n e w i n g h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h A n n o n h i s r e t u r n f r o m t h e A m e r i c a n F i e l d S e r v i c e . He c o n t i n u e d a t H a r v a r d u n t i l t h e f o l l o w i n g w i n t e r , d r o p p i n g o u t s h o r t o f a d e g r e e i n t h e m i d d l e o f h i s f i n a l y e a r . He a n d A n n h a d b y t h i s t i m e m o v e d t o P r o v i n c e t o w n , M a s s a c h u s e t t s , 1 9 " A N o t e o n E z r a P o u n d " , A Q u i c k ' G r a p h ( S a n F r a n c i s c o : F o u r S e a s o n s F o u n d a t i o n , 1 9 7 0 ) , p p . 9 6 - 9 7 ( 1 0 4 , 9 4 0 ) . T h i s n o t e w a s w r i t t e n i n 1 9 6 4 t o i n t r o d u c e a s e l e c t i o n o f l e t t e r s C r e e l e y h a d r e c e i v e d f r o m P o u n d 1 9 5 0 - 5 1 . T h e P o u n d q u o t a t i o n s a b o v e a r e f o u n d t i m e a n d a g a i n i n P o u n d ' s w r i t i n g s . 16 " o n t h e s t r e n g t h o f a f r i e n d s h i p w i t h t h e f i r s t w r i t e r I e v e r k n e w , a man n a m e d S l a t e r B r o w n " who h a d b e e n a f r i e n d o f C u m m i n g s a n d H a r t C r a n e ( 1 3 3 ) . B u t t h e c o m m u t i n g b y f e r r y t o B o s t o n , p l u s t h e s e n s e o f h a v i n g o u t l i v e d t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f t h e v a r i o u s c o u r s e s , p r o v e d t o o m u c h f o r h i m . A b o u t 1 9 4 8 t h e y m o v e d t o a s u b s i s t e n c e f a r m n e a r L i t t l e t o n , New H a m p s h i r e . T h e r e , w i t h a r u n d o w n h o u s e , a s m a l l g a r d e n , s o m e l i v e s t o c k , a n d a y o u n g s o n , t h e y s e t up home a n d C r e e l e y s e t o u t t o w r i t e . D u r i n g t h e i r s t a y o n t h e f a r m , r o u g h l y 1 9 4 8 t o May 1 9 5 1 , C r e e l e y b e c a m e a s e r i o u s b r e e d e r o f p i g e o n s a n d c h i c k e n s w h i c h h e e x h i b i t e d i n a n u m b e r o f s h o w s i n B o s t o n . He w a s f a s c i n a t e d b y t h e t i m e a n d c a r e r e q u i r e d t o p r o d u c e a s h o w b i r d . T h i s i n t e r e s t , o n e h e h a d h a d s i n c e b o y h o o d , t a u g h t h i m h a b i t s o f a t t e n t i o n m o r e u s e f u l i n w r i t i n g p o e t r y , h e h a s s a i d , t h a n a n y u n i v e r s i t y c o u r s e . D u r i n g t h e i r m a r r i a g e t h e C r e e l e y s l i v e d o n a s m a l l i n c o m e w h i c h A n n r e c e i v e d f r o m a t r u s t f u n d . A s h e p u t i t i n a l e t t e r t o W i l l i a m s i n 1 9 5 7 : "I w a s g o i n g t o b e a w r i t e r , a n d we l i v e d o n 2 1 5 a m o n t h s h e g o t f r o m a t r u s t f u n d . . . . E m b a r r a s s e d c o n t i n u a l l y , t h a t I d i d n o t ' s u p p o r t ' h e r a n d t h e c h i l d r e n - - b u t 20" e q u a l l y e n d l e s s l y c o v e t o u s & a n x i o u s o f t h e t i m e i t g a v e m e " . C r e e l e y ' s d e p e n d e n c e u p o n A n n f o r t h e s u p p o r t o f t h e f a m i l y a n d h i s l a c k o f o u t w a r d s u c c e s s a s a w r i t e r c o n t r i b u t e d t o a c o n s t a n t t e n s i o n i n t h e m a r r i a g e a n d t o a k i n d o f m o c k i n g o f f e n s i v e n e s s o n A n n ' s p a r t a n d d e f e n s i v e n e s s o n C r e e l e y ' s p a r t a b o u t h i s u s e f u l n e s s , a s a w r i t e r a n d o t h e r w i s e . M a n y o f h i s 2 D L e t t e r o f J a n u a r y 1 , 1 9 5 7 a t Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y ( 1 0 4 0 ) . ' 1 7 e a r l y w r i t i n g s came o u t o f t h i s t e n s i o n , a s h i s f i r s t p u b l i s h e d s t o r y " T h e U n s u c c e s s f u l H u s b a n d " ( 4 5 6 ) , w r i t t e n a b o u t 1 9 4 8 " i n a p i q u e , a g a i n s t A n n " , d e m o n s t r a t e s . T h e " b u s i n e s s e s " t h e h u s b a n d " s o c a r e f u l l y g u i d e d i n t o f a i l u r e " a r e o b v i o u s l y C r e e l e y ' s e a r l y w r i t i n g s a n d o t h e r e n t e r p r i s e s . T h i s s t o r y r e v e a l s t h e c a t h a r t i c f u n c t i o n w r i t i n g h a d f o r C r e e l e y w h i c h A n n h a d t o do w i t h o u t i n t h o s e y e a r s . T h e w i f e i s k i l l e d o f f a t t h e e n d ( a s s h e w a s l a t e r i n T h e I s l a n d w h i c h t e l l s t h e s t o r y o f t h e m a r r i a g e i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l ) . On J a n u a r y 1 , 1 9 5 0 C r e e l e y b e g a n a j o u r n a l w i t h t h e a v o w e d p u r p o s e : " L e t i t b e h e r e t h a t I s h a k e l o o s e o f s o m e o f t h i s , t h a t I c a n g e t i n t o a n d a t t h e s a m e t i m e a w a y f r o m , w h a t b o t h e r s " . F u r t h e r d o w n t h e p a g e h e n o t e d t h e m o t i v a t i o n : ' " H e r 2 1 l a u g h t e r i s t h e m o s t s u b t l e c r u e l t y I k n o w " . D u r i n g t h e f i r s t y e a r s o n t h e f a r m i n New H a m p s h i r e C r e e l e y h a d " n o r e a l s e n s e o f b e i n g a w r i t e r " e x c e p t a s a n " i m a g i n a t i v e p o s s i b i l i t y " h e d e s p e r a t e l y w a n t e d t o g e t t o ( 1 3 3 . ) . He r e a d i n t e n s i v e l y , l e a r n i n g h i s c r a f t . A s h e l a t e r p u t i t , " o n e c o m e s i n t o t h e a c t i v i t y b y r e a d i n g , a n d t h e n s l o w l y g a i n s t h e a r t i c u l a -t i o n t h a t p e r m i t s h i m t o w r i t e " . He r e m e m b e r s : I r e a d a s m u c h a s I c o u l d . . . r e a d t o s e e w h a t i t w a s t h a t w a s h a p p e n i n g i n p r o s e t h a t I r e s p e c t e d ; n o t s o m u c h how t o g e t t h e t r i c k s o f t h e w r i t i n g , b u t how i t w a s t o g e t t h e k i n d s o f e x p e r i e n c e : how d i d L a w r e n c e g a i n t h a t d e n s i t y o f e m o t i o n ? How d i d D o s t o e v s k i p o i s e t h a t k i n d o f d i l e m m a o f t h e s i n g u l a r i t y o f p e r s o n ? How d i d S t e n d h a l e f f e c t t h a t c r a z y s e q u e n c e o f r e f e r e n c e t h a t l e d y o u i n s u c h a n i n c i s i v e a n d q u i c k m a n n e r t o a l l k i n d s o f r a m i f i c a t i o n s o f t h o u g h t ? How do p e o p l e t h i n k ? How do t h e y f e e l i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r c i r c u m s t a n c e ? How do t h e y m a n a g e t o m a k e i t e v i d e n t i n t h e i r w r i t i n g ? 2 2 2 1 T y p e s c r i p t j o u r n a l J a n u a r y 1 , 1 9 5 0 t o O c t o b e r 1 8 , 1 9 5 1 a t I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y ( 1 0 9 7 ) . 2 2 " R o b e r t C r e e l e y I n t e r v i e w " , T h e C o t t o n w o o d R e v i e w , I, i v ( 1 9 6 8 ) ( 1 3 5 ) . 18 W h a t h e w a s a t t e n d i n g t o w a s n o t t h e v a r i o u s u s e s o f f o r m p e r s e b u t t h e m e t h o d s o f c o n v e y i n g c o n t e n t : how t o s a y w h a t o n e h a s t o s a y w h e n o n e i s p r i v i l e g e d t o h a v e s o m e t h i n g tjo s a y . T h o u g h C r e e l e y d o e s n o t u s e t h e w o r d " i n s p i r a t i o n " , r a t h e r s p e a k s o f t h e " g i v e n " , e v e n a t t h i s t i m e h e f e l t t h a t w r i t i n g s h o u l d b e i n s p i r e d n o t o c c a s i o n e d . L i k e P o u n d , C r e e l e y t h o u g h t t h a t t h e w r i t e r m u s t l e a r n h i s c r a f t c a r e f u l l y i n o r d e r t o b e p r e p a r e d f o r t h e e v e n t . U n h a p p i l y , d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d i t w a s m o s t l y u n e v e n t f u l p r e p a r a t i o n . D u r i n g t h e l a t e f o r t i e s C r e e l e y w a s w r i t i n g m o s t l y s t o r i e s a n d c r i t i c a l n o t e s w h i c h h e w a s t r y i n g t o g e t p u b l i s h e d i n m a g a z i n e s , t h o u g h l i t t l e o f t h i s w o r k h a s s u r v i v e d — o n l y t w o 2 3 s t o r i e s , i n f a c t , n e i t h e r o f w h i c h w a s p u b l i s h e d b e f o r e 1 9 5 1 . T h e i n f l u e n c e o f D o s t o e v s k i , L a w r e n c e , a n d S t e n d h a l , a s w e l l a s o f C o c t e a u , G i d e , a n d o t h e r p r o s e w r i t e r s , w a s a c t i v e up u n t i l l a t e 1 9 5 1 . T h e D o s t o e v s k i i n f l u e n c e i s a p p a r e n t i n " T h e U n s u c c e s s f u l H u s b a n d ' " , t h e t i t l e m a d e i r o n i c a l b y t h e f a c t t h a t t h i s w a s p r o b a b l y C r e e l e y ' s f i r s t s u c c e s s a s h u s b a n d o r w r i t e r . " I n t h e S u m m e r " ( 4 6 2 ) , a n o t h e r a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l s t o r y , w a s w r i t t e n d u r i n g t h e s a m e p e r i o d ( c a . 1 9 4 8 ) . T h e y w e r e " t r u e s t o r i e s " n o t f i c t i o n a n d C r e e l e y w a s i n t e n t o n d e v e l o p i n g a s t y l e t h a t w o u l d m a k e t h i s t r u t h s e e m c r e d i b l e . T h e q u e s t i o n i s w h i c h c a m e f i r s t , t h e n e e d f o r c a t h a r s i s o r t h e d e s i r e t o a c h i e v e c r e d i b i l i t y t h r o u g h t h e u s e o f b e l i e v a b l e ( i . e . r e a l ) m a t e r i a l , o r w e r e t h e y c o n c e i v e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y i n t h e w r i t i n g ? 23 " T h e U n s u c c e s s f u l H u s b a n d " a p p e a r e d i n T h e K e n y o n R e v i e w , X I I I , i ( W i n t e r 1 9 5 1 ) a n d " I n t h e S u m m e r " i n O r i g i n I I ( S u m m e r 1 9 5 1 ) . S e v e r a l s t o r i e s w e r e s u b m i t t e d t o A c c e n t a r o u n d 1 9 4 9 - 5 0 b u t w e r e r e j e c t e d a n d o n e w h i c h C r e e l e y h a d l i k e d a t t h e t i m e w a s l o s t . 19 I n " T h e U n s u c c e s s f u l H u s b a n d " t h e n e e d f o r p e r s o n a l r e l e a s e w a s t h e s t i m u l u s b u t i n " I n t h e S u m m e r " t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f c r e d i b i l -i t y w a s a m o r e c o n s c i o u s m o t i v e . I n t h e s e e a r l y s t o r i e s C r e e l e y r e m e m b e r s : "I w a n t e d a k i n d o f a n ' I - n e s s ' o r s i n g u l a r i t y i n t h e p r o s e , b u t I w a n t e d i t t o b e s t a t e d a g a i n i n a l l i t s a c t i v i t y r a t h e r t h a n i n s o m e p s y c h o l o g i c a l a s s u m p t i o n s " ( 1 3 5 ) . T h e d e m a n d s h e made o n h i s s t y l e a n d t h e s t r i n g e n c y o f h i s s e l f -c r i t i c i s m c a u s e d h i m t o d i s c a r d many a t t e m p t s . C r e e l e y w a s a l s o w r i t i n g p o e m s , h a d b e e n o c c a s i o n a l l y i n f a c t s i n c e h i s r e t u r n f r o m t h e w a r l a t e i n 1 9 4 5 , t h o u g h f e w w e r e p u b l i s h e d . A s a r e s u l t o f H a r v a r d f r i e n d s h i p s w i t h S e y m o u r L a w r e n c e a n d J o h n H a w k e s , s e v e n p o e m s b y C r e e l e y a p p e a r e d i n 2 4 W a k e f r o m 1 9 4 8 t o 1 9 5 0 . T h e s e p o e m s a n d t h o s e p u b l i s h e d i n A c c e n t i n 1 9 4 9 a n d G r y p h o n i n 1 9 5 0 w e r e a n e m b a r r a s s m e n t t o C r e e l e y b y e a r l y 1 9 5 1 a n d t h e i r a w k w a r d n e s s i s s t i l l v e r y e v i d e n t . I f t h e y h a d n o t b e e n p u b l i s h e d C r e e l e y w o u l d no d o u b t h a v e d i s c a r d e d t h e m a s h e d i d t h e r e s t o f h i s e a r l y p o e m s . 2 4 " G r e e n d o o n ' s S o n g " ( 7 6 6 ) , W a k e , N o . 6 ( S p r i n g 1 9 4 8 ) , p . 1 7 ; " P o e m f o r D . H . L a w r e n c e " ( 7 6 7 ) , N o . 6 , p p . 1 6 - 1 7 ; " P o e m f o r B e g i n n e r s " ( 7 6 8 ) , N o . 7 ( 1 9 4 8 ) , p p . 8 4 - 8 5 ; " S a n i n e t o L e d a " ( 7 6 9 ) , N o . 7 , p . 8 5 ; " F r o m P i c o & t h e W o m e n : A L i f e " ( 7 7 3 ) , N o . 9 ( 1 9 5 0 ) , p p . 8 8 - 8 9 ; " T o t h e One i n t h e G r a y C o a t " ( 7 7 4 ) , ' N o . 9 , p . 8 7 ; " S t i l l L i f e o r " ( 7 7 7 ) , N o . 9 , p . 8 8 . C r e e l e y r e p a i d t h e f a v o r i n p a r t by r e v i e w i n g H a w k e s ' n o v e l s . T h e  B e e t l e L e g h e c o n s i d e r e d a n e x a m p l e o f " H o w t o W r i t e a N o v e l " i n 1 9 5 2 ( 9 2 3 ) . By 1 9 5 4 , H a w k e s ' t e c h n i q u e d i d n o t s e e m s o p r o m i s i n g ( 9 8 0 ; . 2 5 " T h e L a t e C o m e r " ( 7 7 0 ) , A c c e n t , I X , i v ( S u m m e r 1 9 4 9 ) , 2 2 1 ; " G a n g s t e r " ( 7 7 1 ) , A c c e n t , X , i ( A u t u m n 1 9 4 9 ) , 2 8 ; " P o e m f o r B o b L e e d " ( 7 7 2 ) , G r y p h o n , N o . 2 ( F a l l 1 9 5 0 ) , p . 1 8 . I n 1 9 6 7 C r e e l e y t h o u g h t m o r e k i n d l y o f t h e s e e a r l y p o e m s a n d t h e o n e s i n W a k e ^ n d i n c l u d e d t h e m i n T h e C h a r m : E a r l y a n d U n c o l l e c t e d P o e m s ( 3 2 , 4 1 ) . " G a n g s t e r " w a s i n a m o r e c o l l o q u i a l v e i n t h a n t h e o t h e r s . " S t i l l L i f e o r " , a n e x c e p t i o n , w i l l b e d i s c u s s e d l a t e r . 2 0 E v e n t h e p u b l i s h e d o n e s w e r e c o m p e t e n t b u t u n w i e l d y p o e m s w h i c h d e a l t w i t h " s u b j e c t s " i n a l i t e r a r y t o n e . H e r e i s a s h o r t e x a m p l e : S a n i n e t o L e d a B e y o n d t h i s r o a d t h e b l a c k n e s s b e n d s i n w a r m t h . T w o , t h e n t h r e e o r f o u r , l o v e r s w i t h w i s d o m f o r t h e m s e l v e s e n o u g h a r e s i t t i n g t h e r e i n v a g u e , u n b e n d i n g p o s e s . T h e y s i t . T h e q u i e t g r a s s h o l d s r o s e s . B e g i n w i t h t h a t . T h e b e a u t i f u l c o m e s l a t e r . L o v e , t h e s e v e r a l r o s e s , l o v e r s w i t h w i s d o m f o r t h e m s e l v e s , v a g u e , u n b e n d i n g p o s e s . L o o k . E a c h l o s e s w h a t h e c h o o s e s . ^ D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d C r e e l e y W a s a t t e m p t i n g t o w r i t e i n t h e m a n n e r o f W a l l a c e S t e v e n s a n d h i s own v o i c e w a s n o t c o m i n g t h r o u g h . H i s i n t e r e s t w a s i n t h e s e n s e s o f m o d e w h i c h S t e v e n s p r e s e n t e d i n h i s p o e t r y a n d i n S t e v e n s ' b e l i e f t h a t p o e t i c f o r m w a s n o t " a d e r i v a t i v e o f p l a s t i c s h a p e " . I t w a s s o m e t i m e b e f o r e C r e e l e y c a m e t o r e a l i z e t h a t S t e v e n s ' " u s e o f p o e t r y h a d f a l l e n t o t h e 2 7 q u e s t i o n a b l e f a c t o f a d e v i c e " . I l l One S a t u r d a y e v e n i n g i n D e c e m b e r 1 9 4 9 C r e e l e y t u n e d i n t o t h e B o s t o n r a d i o s t a t i o n WfYlEX a n d h e a r d C i d C o r m a n ' s " T h i s I s ^ b T h e C h a r m ( 1 9 6 9 ) , p . 9 ( 4 1 , 7 6 9 ) . 2 7 " A N o t e o n E z r a P o u n d " , A Q u i c k G r a p h , p . 9 5 ( 1 0 4 , 9 4 0 ) . O r i g i n V ( S p r i n g 1 9 5 2 ) w a s d e v o t e d t o S a m u e l F r e n c h M o r s e ' s e s s a y o n S t e v e n s , A M o t i v e f o r M e t a p h o r . I n a l e t t e r t o t h e e d i t o r , C i d C a r m a n , C r e e l e y c r i t i c i z e . s t h e e s s a y a s " n o t O r i g i n m a t e r i a l " a n d s a y s t h a t i t c o n v i n c e s h i m t h a t S t e v e n s a n d M a r i a n n e M o o r e - - p o e t s G e r m a n l i k e ' d - - w e r e o f " NO u s e " [ L e t t e r o f M a y 2 3 , 1 9 5 2 a t I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y ( 1 0 5 6 ) ] . 2 1 2 8 P o e t r y " p r o g r a m f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e . T h i s w a s a p o p u l a r f i f t e e n m i n u t e s w e e k l y o f m o d e r n v e r s e , r e a d b y G o r m a n o r t h e p o e t w h o s e w o r k w a s b e i n g f e a t u r e d . C r e e l e y r e m e m b e r s t h i s o c c a s i o n w e l l : T h e g u e s t w a s R i c h a r d W i l b u r , who r e a d w i t h s u c h g r a c e f u l a c c e n t s I w a s f i l l e d w i t h e n v i o u s a m b i t i o n t o r e a d a l s o , a l t h o u g h I h a d n o n e o f h i s q u a l i f i c a t i o n s ; a n d s o m e w e e k s l a t e r , a f t e r c o r r e s p o n d e n c e w i t h - C i d w h i c h t h a t n i g h t b e g a n , I c o n v i n c e d h i m I w a s g o o d e n o u g h , o r he w a s t o l e r a n t e n o u g h , a n d s o I r e a d o n e S a t u r d a y n i g h t w h i l e I w a s i n B o s t o n s h o w i n g c h i c k e n s a t t h e B o s t o n P o u l t r y S h o w . 2 9 T h e r e a d i n g t o o k p l a c e i n J a n u a r y 1 9 5 0 . I t w a s C r e e l e y ' s f i r s t p u b l i c r e a d i n g a n d w a s a r e a s s u r a n c e f o r h i m a s h e w r o t e i n h i s j o u r n a l : " S t i l l t h e p r o o f t h a t f r i g h t e n e d a s I w a s I h a d m a d e s o m e t h i n g s t r o n g e n o u g h t o h i d e m e , w h i c h w o u l d b e a r my w e i g h t " ( 1 0 9 7 ) . I t l e d t o a n o t h e r r e a d i n g o n t h e s a m e p r o g r a m a n d t o o n e i n w h i c h C o r m a n r e a d f r o m C r e e l e y ' s s t o r i e s . M o r e i m p o r -t a n t l y , i t g a v e C r e e l e y a new r e s o l v e t o c o n t i n u e w r i t i n g . A f t e r t h e f i r s t l e t t e r w h i c h C r e e l e y w r o t e t o C o r m a n o n D e c e m b e r 1 4 , 1 9 4 9 , t h e y w r o t e l e n g t h y l e t t e r s s e v e r a l t i m e s a w e e k u n t i l 1 9 5 5 a n d t h e i r c o n c e r n w i t h t h e s t a t e o f c o n t e m p o r a r y w r i t i n g a n d c r o s s - c r i t i c i s m o f t h e i r o w n w o r k w a s a c o n s t a n t s t i m u l u s t o o n e a n o t h e r , t h o u g h C r e e l e y ' s t r u s t i n C o r m a n ' s j u d g m e n t w a s n e v e r i m p l i c i t . ^ T h e p r o g r a m w a s a i r e d f o r t h r e e y e a r s , 1 9 4 9 - 5 2 . C o r m a n w r o t e a b o u t i t f o r t h e D e c e m b e r 1 9 5 2 i s s u e o f P o e t r y ( L X X X I , 2 1 2 - 2 1 5 ) a n d i n " A N o t e o n t h e F o u n d i n g o f O r i g i n " , S e r i f , V , i M a r c h 1 9 6 8 ) , 2 9 - 3 0 . 2 9 " 0 1 s o n & O t h e r s : Some O r t s f o r t h e S p o r t s " , A Q u i c k G r a p h , p . 1 6 1 ( 1 0 4 , 9 5 5 ) . One o f t h e p o e m s r e a d w a s " F r o m P i c o & t h e W o m e n : A. L i f e " ( 7 7 3 ) . a r e 3 5 4 l e t t e r s f r o m C r e e l e y t o C o r m a n a t I n d i a n a ( 1 0 5 6 ) a n d s e v e n a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f T e x a s , A u s t i n T h e r e U n i v e r s i t y ( 1 0 5 0 ) . 22 I n 1 9 5 0 t h e r e w e r e f e w m a g a z i n e s a n d e v e n f e w e r p r e s s e s w h i c h w o u l d v e n t u r e t o p u b l i s h e x p e r i m e n t a l new w r i t i n g , e s p e c i a l l y t h a t o f w r i t e r s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h W i l l i a m s a n d P o u n d , who w a s m u c h d e c r i e d a s a f a s c i s t a t t h e t i m e . 3 1 M o s t w e r e d e s u l t o r y i n n a t u r e a n d t h o s e w h i c h h a d c o n t i n u i t y h a d l i t e r a r y p r e t e n s i o n s a s w e l l . C r e e l e y w a s f e d up w i t h t h e " f l a b b i n e s s " o f l i t e r a r y q u a r t e r l i e s s u c h a s P a r t i s a n R e v i e w a n d H u d s o n R e v i e w a n d t h e b i a s o f new c r i t i c i s m j o u r n a l s l i k e K e n y o n R e v i e w . "We f e l t , a l l o f u s , a g r e a t d i s t a n c e f r o m t h e m o r e c o n v e n t i o n a l m a g a z i n e s o f t h a t t i m e . E i t h e r t h e y w e r e d o m i n a t e d b y t h e New C r i t i c s , w i t h whom we c o u l d h a v e no r e l a t i o n , o r e l s e t h e y w e r e s o g e n e r a l i n c h a r a c t e r , t h a t no a c t i v e c e n t e r o f c o h e r e n c e w a s 32 p o s s i b l e " . B y now d i s a p p o i n t e d i n W a k e w h i c h t h o u g h c r i t i c a l o f c u r r e n t l i t e r a t u r e w a s f a i l i n g t o p r o v i d e a v i a b l e a l t e r n a -t i v e , C r e e l e y d e c i d e d e a r l y i n 1 9 5 0 t o s t a r t h i s own m a g a z i n e w i t h t h e h e l p o f a f r i e n d , J a c o b L e e d , who h a d t h e u se . o f a p r i n t i n g p r e s s . I-n t h e p r o c e s s o f s e a r c h i n g f o r a c t i v e c o n t r i b u t o r s C r e e l e y f o r m u l a t e d t h e p r o g r a m f o r t h e m a g a z i n e a n d e s t a b l i s h e d h i s o w n i d e n t i t y a s a w r i t e r a s r e f l e c t e d b a c k t o h i m b y t h e c i r c l e o f w r i t e r s t h u s c o n t a c t e d . S e v e r a l o f 31 T h e m i m e o m a g a z i n e s w h i c h w e r e o p e n t o e x p e r i m e n t a l w o r k w e r e f u l l o f w h a t C r e e l e y c a l l e d " b a d a r t " : v e r y l o o s e f r e e v e r s e . S o t h e y d i d n o t , i n s p i t e o f t h e i r a n t i p a t h y t o t h e a c a d e m i c q u a r t e r l i e s , o f f e r a s y m p a t h e t i c o u t l e t f o r new w r i t i n g s o m e w h e r e i n b e t w e e n . G o l d e n G o o s e ( s u p e r s e d i n g C r o n o s , S i b y l l i n e , a n d B r i a r c l i f f Q u a r t e r l y ) h a d s h o w n p r o m i s e i n t h r e e i s s u e s f o c u s s i n g o n W i l l i a m s b e t w e e n S ummer 1 9 4 8 a n d J u n e 1 9 4 9 a n d t h e e d i t o r s , R i c h a r d W i r t z E m e r s o n a n d F r e d e r i c k E c k m a n , w e r e p l a n n i n g t o r e v i v e i t f o r a n o t h e r s e r i e s . 3 2 I n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e AMS R e p r i n t o f B l a c k M o u n t a i n R e v i e w , V o l . I ( N e w Y o r k , J u n e 1 9 6 9 ) ( 1 1 4 ) . T h i s i s a u s e f u l i n t r o d u c -t i o n a s w e l l t o C r e e l e y ' s e d i t i n g a n d p u b l i s h i n g a c t i v i t y i n t h e f i f t i e s . K e n v o n R e v i e w p u b l i s h e d t w o o f C r e e l e y ' s s t o n e s 1 9 5 1 -1 9 5 3 . 2 3 t h e s e c o n t a c t s w e r e t o b e a d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e o n h i s w r i t i n g a n d s o m e w e r e s u b s e q u e n t l y t o f o r m t h e c o r e o f w h a t h a s b e e n c a l l e d t h e B l a c k M o u n t a i n g r o u p . I n f a c t , i t w a s C r e e l e y ' s d e c i s i o n t o s t a r t a m a g a z i n e t h a t p u t t h e new w r i t i n g m o v e m e n t o n t h e r o a d . C r e e l e y b e g a n s e a r c h i n g f o r c o n t r i b u t o r s t o h i s m a g a z i n e i n F e b r u a r y 1 9 5 0 . He o u t l i n e d h i s p r o g r a m i n a l e t t e r t o E u g e n e M a g n e r , t h e e d i t o r o f G l a s s H i l l : M r . C o r m a n h a s g i v e n me y o u r name a s o n e who m i g h t b e i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g p l a n . B r i e f l y , I h a v e j u s t b e e n o f f e r e d t h e u s e o f a p r i n t i n g p r e s s , p a p e r , i n k " & t y p e t o b e s u p p l i e d a s w e l l , a n d s o f i n d m y s e l f i n a n e x c e l l e n t p o s i t i o n t o p r i n t a m a g a z i n e f r e e o f t h e u s u a l p r e s s u r e s . I n c o n s e q u e n c e , I ' d l i k e t o m a k e i t ( l ) a n o u t l e t f o r a n y a n d a l l w o r k t h a t d e s e r v e s a t t e n t i o n , ( 2 ) a n o u t l e t f r e e o f t h e c u r r e n t i m p o s i t i o n s o f t h e l i t e r a r y h e i r a r c h y , ( 3 ) a n o u t l e t f o r c r t i c a l w o r k , p r o s e & p o e t r y , e a c h s e c t i o n t o a c t a s r e i n f o r c e m e n t o f t h e o t h e r s . T h e s e a r e , o f c o u r s e , v e r y g e n e r a l s t a t e m e n t s a n d w i l l d e p e n d o n d e m o n s t r a t i o n f o r a n y m e a n i n g t h e y may h a v e . B u t b e c a u s e I am n o t s a t i s f i e d w i t h w h a t m a g a z i n e s e x i s t , b e c a u s e I t h i n k a c o h e r e n t a n d o p e n l y m a i n t a i n e d e d i t o r i a l p o l i c y i s , a t l e a s t , o n e o f t h e p o i n t s a m a g a z i n e s h o u l d b e c o n c e r n e d w i t h , b e c a u s e I am s i c k t o d e a t h o f v e r b i a g e a n d e v a s i o n i n c u r r e n t c r i t i c a l w r i t i n g , p r o s e & p o e t r y , i t s e e m s t o t h e p o i n t t o m a k e a n e f f o r t t o p r i n t a m a g a z i n e c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e c l a r i t y a n d a b i l i t y o f t h e w o r k w h i c h i t p r i n t s . S o , w i t h a n e y e t o t h i s , I ' d be g r a t e f u l f o r w h a t e v e r w o r k y o u m i ' g h t b e k i n d e n o u g h t o s e n d f o r a f i r s t i s s u e . I w i s h t h a t I m i g h t o f f e r p a y m e n t b u t p r o f i t s , i f a n y , w i l l h a v e t o g o b a c k i n t o t h e p r e s s . I h o p e t o h a v e a f i r s t i s s u e r e a d y b y t h i s s u m m e r . I n a n y e v e n t , I s h o u l d l i k e t o h e a r f r o m y o u . 3 3 W h a t i s u n i q u e a b o u t t h i s p r o p o s a l i s t h e s u g g e s t e d u s e o f c r i t i c i s m t o c o m m e n t o n t h e p o e t r y a n d p r o s e i n e a c h i s s u e , b y ' w h i c h t h e t a s t e o f t h e e d i t o r a c t s a s a t o u c h s t o n e f o r t h e r e a d e r a s he g o e s t h r o u g h t h e p r i m a r y m a t e r i a l . T h i s u s e o f c r i t i c i s m C r e e l e y f o u n d s a d l y l a c k i n g i n c o n t e m p o r a r y m a g a z i n e s . He m a k e s t h i s c l e a r i n a l e t t e r o f A p r i l 1 5 , 1 9 5 0 t o M a g n e r , i n L e t t e r o f F e b r u a r y 2 8 , 1 9 5 0 a t S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y o f New Y o r k a t B u f f a l o ( 1 0 3 3 ) ; t r a n s c r i b e d w i t h c o r r e c t i o n s . When l a t e r o f f e r e d s o m e o f C h a r l e s O l s o n ' s p o e m s f o r h i s own m a g a z i n e , M a g n e r r e f u s e d t h e m . . A n i d e n t i c a l l e t t e r w a s s e n t t o V i n c e n t F e r r i n i ( L e t t e r o f F e b r u a r y 2 7 , 1 9 5 0 a t U n i v e r s i t y o f C o n n e c t i -c u t ) a n d p r o b a b l y t o o t h e r s w h o s e n a m e s C r e e l e y h a d r e c e i v e d f r o m C o r m a n - a s w e l l . 2 4 w h i c h h e c r i t i c i z e s G l a s s H i l l f o r l a c k o f " e d i t o r i a l p o l i c y " : " I t s e e m s t o me i f we a r e e v e r t o c o m e o u t o f t h i s n i g h t m a r e o f v e r b i a g e a n d w o r d - m u d d l i n g , we m u s t f i r s t t r y t o m a k e s e n s e o u r s e l v e s , m a k e s o m e t h i n g o p e n a n d a v a i l a b l e , s o m e t h i n g w h i c h r e a d e r s c a n r e a c t f o r o r a g a i n s t , a s t h e y w i l l " . ^ 4 F o r t h e f i r s t i s s u e o f t h e m a g a z i n e C r e e l e y w r o t e a p o l e m i -c a l i n t r o d u c t i o n w h i c h s t a t e d h i s o w n p o s i t i o n a s e d i t o r . I n i t h e a d v a n c e d W i l l i a m C a r l o s W i l l i a m s a s a n e x a m p l e o f t h e c l a r i t y w h i c h m u s t b e g o t t o : I n p o e t r y , i n p r o s e , i n c r i t i c i s m - - i n e a c h o f t h e s e g e n e r a l c a t e g o r i e s a n d w h a t now f a l l s i n t o t h e m b y way o f t h e p u b l i s h i n g h o u s e s , t h e p e r i o d i c a l s , e t c . , c a n b e f o u n d t h i s u s u a l m e t h o d o f e v a s i o n . M a k e I t D l d - - a s we c o m e a g a i n t o t h e New C l a s s i c i s m , o r a t l e a s t m a k e i t l i k e s o m e t h i n g e l s e . A c c e p t t h e t r a d i t i o n . T h e t r a d i t i o n , a s s o m e h a v e i t , a s M r . E l i o t , f o r e x a m p l e , h a s h a d i t f o r s ome t i m e , i s n ' t s o m e t h i n g t h a t c a n b e t a k e n o t h e r t h a n i n t h a t w a y . N o t t o b e a n y t h i n g b u t m e m o r i z e d . A r o t e . N o t h i n g m o r e d e a d . N o t h i n g l e s s o f u s e . T o f i g h t t h i s k i n d o f m e s m e r i s m t a k e s : c l a r i t y . C l a r i t y o f i n t e n t i o n , c l a r i t y i n t h e w o r d s u s e d t o m a k e t h a t i n t e n t i o n a c c e s s i b l e . T o m e a n t o m a k e s e n s e . . . . D r . W i l l i a m s ' p r o g r a m ( f o r t h o s e who h a v e m a n a g e d t o m i s s i t , t h e s e p a s t 4 0 y e a r s ) : 'My own ( m o r a l ) p r o g r a m c a n be b r i e f l y s t a t e d . . . : T o w r i t e b a d l y i s a n o f f e n c e t o t h e s t a t e s i n c e t h e g o v e r n m e n t c a n n e v e r b e m o r e t h a n t h e g o v e r n m e n t o f t h e w o r d s . . . . ' B a d a r t i s t h e n t h a t w h i c h d o e s n o t s e r v e i n t h e c o n t i n u a l s e r v i c e o f c l e a n s i n g t h e l a n g u a g e o f a l l f i x a t i o n s u p o n t h e d e a d , t h e s t i n k i n g d e a d , u s a g e s o f t h e p a s t . S a n i t a t i o n a n d h y g i e n e o r s a n i t a t i o n t h a t we may h a v e h y g i e n i c w r i t i n g " . 3 5 " ^ l e t t e r a t S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y o f New Y o r k a t B u f f a l o ( 1 0 3 3 ) . 3 5 T h i s . d r a f t o f t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n w a s s e n t i n t h e l e t t e r o f A p r i l 7 , 1 9 5 0 t o W i l l i a m s w h i c h i s i n t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f l e t t e r s f r o m C r e e l e y t o W i l l i a m s , F e b r u a r y 1 1 , 1 9 5 0 t o S e p t e m b e r 2 3 , 1 9 6 2 , a t Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y ( 1 0 4 0 ) . I n t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n C r e e l e y q u o t e s f r o m a l e t t e r W i l l i a m s h a d w r i t t e n t o h i m o n M a r c h 3 , 1 9 5 0 . I h a v e a b b r e v i a t e d b o t h t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n a n d t h e 2 5 I n o r d e r t o m a k e t h i s a n t i p a t h y t o E l i o t m o r e e v i d e n t C r e e l e y o b t a i n e d W i l l i a m s ' p e r m i s s i o n t o r e p r i n t " W i t h R u d e F i n g e r s F o r c e d " , i n w h i c h W i l l i a m s c r i t i c i z e d E l i o t ' s t u r n a b o u t ( e n d i n g i n f a v o r ) o n M i l t o n . C r e e l e y h a d f i r s t w r i t t e n t o W i l l i a m s F e b r u a r y 1 1 , 1 9 5 0 r e q u e s t i n g a c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e new m a g a z i n e . A b o u t t h e s a m e t i m e h e w r o t e t o E z r a P o u n d i n S t . E l i z a b e t h ' s H o s p i t a l i n W a s h i n g t o n w i t h a s i m i l a r r e q u e s t . P o u n d ' s l e t t e r s w e r e v e r y d i f f e r e n t f r o m W i l l i a m s ' w h i c h r e v e a l e d a k e e n p r a c t i c a l i n t e r -e s t i n C r e e l e y ' s w r i t i n g a n d c o n c e r n s . A s C r e e l e y p u t i t i n a l e t t e r t o R i c h a r d E m e r s o n c a . May 1 9 5 0 : " L e t t e r s f r o m t h e D r . t h e s e p a s t w e e k s & l e t t e r s f r o m P. T h e 1 s t : m a k i n g me s e e my w a y , t h e 2 n d : m a k i n g me s e e h i s . Two k i n d s o f p o e t r y , e v e n t h e r e " . 3 ^ L a t e r C r e e l e y r e c a l l e d : P o u n d v e r y q u i c k l y s e i z e d o n t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f o u r m a g a z i n e ' s b e c o m i n g i n s o m e s e n s e a f e e d e r f o r h i s own c o m m i t m e n t s , b u t w a s c l e a r l y a l i t t l e q u e s t i o n i n g o f o u r m o d u s o p e r a n d i . W h a t he d i d g i v e m e , w i t h q u i c k g e n e r o s i t y a n d c l a r i t y , w a s a k i n d o f r u l e  b o o k f o r t h e e d i t i n g o f a n y m a g a z i n e . F o r e x a m p l e , h e s u g g e s t e d I t h i n k o f t h e m a g a z i n e a s a c e n t e r a r o u n d w h i c h , " n o t a b o x w i t h i n w h i c h / a n y i t e m " . He p r o p o s e d t h a t v e r s e c o n s i s t e d o f a c o n s t a n t a n d a v a r i a n t , a n d t h e n t o l d me t o t h i n k f r o m t h a t t o t h e c o n t e x t o f a m a g a z i n e . He s u g g e s t e d I g e t a t l e a s t f o u r o t h e r s , o n whom I c o u l d d e p e n d u n e q u i v o c a l l y f o r m a t e r i a l , a n d t o m a k e t h e i r w o r k t h e m a i n s t a y o f t h e m a g a z i n e ' s f o r m . B u t t h e n , he s a i d , l e t t h e r e s t o f i t , r o u g h l y h a l f , b e a s v a r i o u s , a n d h o g w i l d a s p o s s i b l e , " s o t h a t a n y i d i o t t h i n k s h e h a s a c h a n c e o f g e t t i n g i n " . 3 ' l e t t e r . T h e l e t t e r w a s p u b l i s h e d i n f u l l i n O r i g i n I ( S p r i n g 1 9 5 1 ) , p . 34 ( 4 3 1 ) . I n M a r c h a n d A p r i l 1 9 5 0 C r e e l e y b r o a d c a s t f i v e p r o g r a m s o n t h e S t . J o h n s b u r y , V e r m o n t , r a d i o s t a t i o n WTWIM. T h e f i r s t t w o p r o g r a m s w e r e o n W i l l i a m s , " w i t h a n a t t e m p t t o g e t t o t h e b a s i c t e n e t - - ' t h e g o v e r n m e n t o f t h e w o r d s ' " , t h e l a s t - t w o w e r e o n J o y c e [ l e t t e r f r o m C r e e l e y t o W i l l i a m s A p r i l 1 7 , 1 9 5 0 ( 1 0 4 0 ) ] . L e t t e r a t S i m o n F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y ( 1 0 4 1 ) . I n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e r e p r i n t e d i t i o n o f B l a c k M o u n t a i n 2 6 T h r o u g h P o u n d , C r e e l e y g o t i n t o u c h w i t h m a n y y o u n g w r i t e r s , e d i t o r s , a n d p u b l i s h e r s , a m o n g t h e m R e n e L a u b i e s , R a i n e r G e r h a r d t o f F r a q m e n t e , K a t u e K i t a s o n o o f V o u , P e t e r R u s s e l l o f N i n e , D a l l a m S i m p s o n o f F o u r P a g e s , T . D . H o r t o n ( S q u a r e D o l l a r S e r i e s ) , a n d P a u l B l a c k b u r n - - w h o s e n t C r e e l e y some p o e m s f o r t h e 3 8 m a g a z i n e . T h e f i r s t i s s u e w a s b e g i n n i n g t o t a k e s h a p e . T h r o u g h C i d C o r m a n ' s a g e n c y , C r e e l e y w a s i n t o u c h w i t h V i n c e n t F e r r i n i who s u b m i t t e d s o m e p o e m s , o n e o f w h i c h C r e e l e y a c c e p t e d . F e r r i n i h a d g a t h e r e d s o m e p o e m s b y C h a r l e s O l s o n f o r a m a g a z i n e h e h a d w a n t e d t o s t a r t i n G l o u c e s t e r , M a s s a c h u s e t t s , a n d w a s p e r s u a d e d b y O l s o n , who h a d b e e n t o l d by W i l l i a m s o f C r e e l e y ' s m a g a z i n e , t o f o r w a r d " L o s t A b o a r d " a n d " T h e L a u g h i n g O n e s " . On M a r c h 2 9 , a f t e r l o o k i n g t h e m o v e r , C r e e l e y r e p l i e d t o F e r r i n i : " T o t e l l t h e t r u t h , I ' m r a t h e r p u t o f f b y M r . O l s e n ' s l a n g u a g e w h i c h d o e s n ' t s e e m t o c o m e [ t o ] ] a n y k i n d o f p o s i t i v e d i c t i o n . . . . [ H o w e v e r ] I d o l i k e m a n y t h i n g s i n t h e s e p o e m s . THE L A U G H I N G ONES i s m u c h b e t t e r , b u t s t i l l t h e r e ' s t h e l o o k i n g a r o u n d f o r a l a n g u a g e , a n d t h e r e s u l t i s a l o s s o f f o r c e . S t i l l , i f a f t e r a l l t h i s , h e ' d l i k e t o s u b m i t o t h e r s , I ' d b e v e r y g r a t e f u l t o 3 9 h a v e t h a t c h a n c e t o l o o k a t t h e m " . C r e e l e y r e c e i v e d a R e v i e w ( 1 1 4 ) . A s e l e c t i o n o f l e t t e r s f r o m P o u n d M a r c h 1 9 5 0 t o O c t o b e r 1 9 5 1 w a s p u b l i s h e d , w i t h a n i n t r o d u c t i o n b y C r e e l e y , i n A g e n d a , I V , i i ( O c t o b e r - N o v e m b e r 1 9 6 5 ) ( 9 4 0 ) . 3 8 B l a c k b u r n w a s t h e n f i n i s h i n g h i s s t u d i e s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f W i s c o n s i n . When C o r m a n t o o k o v e r C r e e l e y ' s m a t e r i a l f o r O r i g i n h e b a l k e d a t t h e " l o o s e n e s s " o f t h e B l a c k b u r n p o e m s u n t i l C r e e l e y e x p l a i n e d B l a c k b u r n ' s u s e o f e a r , o f c o n v e r s a t i o n a l r h y t h m s [ L e t t e r t o C o r m a n M a r c h 9 , 1 9 5 1 a t I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y ( 1 0 5 6 ) ] . T h r e e o f B l a c k b u r n ' s p o e m s w e r e p u b l i s h e d i n O r i q i n I I ( S u m m e r 1 9 5 1 ) . L e t t e r a t U n i v e r s i t y o f C o n n e c t i c u t . 2 7 ' d e l i g h t f u l l y a g g r i e v e d l e t t e r f r o m O l s o n a s a r e s u l t : my d e a r r o b e r t c r e e l e y : s o B i l l UI. t o o s e z , w r i t e c r e e l e y , h e h a s i d e a s a n d w a n t s t o USE ' e m s o w h a t d o i d o ? s o i w r i t e s o f e r r i n i s e n d s c r e e l e y a l o v e l y l i q u i d t h i n g , a n d c r e e l e y s a y s , h e ' s a b o l l w e e v i l , o l s o n , j u s t a l o o k i n ' f o r a l a n g , j u s t a l o o k i n n u t s , a n d i s a y s , c r e e l e y , y o u ' r e o f f y r t r o l l e y : a man g o d d a m n w e l l h a s t o c o m e up w i t h h i s o w n l a n g . , s y n t a x a n d s o n g b o t h , b u t a l s o e a c h p o e m u n d e r h a n d h a s i t s o w n l a n g u a g e , w h i c h i s v a r i a n t o f s a m e 4 0 O l s o n s e n t m o r e p o e t r y f o r C r e e l e y ' s c o n s i d e r a t i o n a n d a c o p y o f Y & X . N e e d l e s s t o s a y , C r e e l e y g a v e b o t h a c a r e f u l r e a d i n g t h i s t i m e . He w a s s o i m p r e s s e d t h a t a s w e l l a s a c c e p t i n g O l s o n ' s " M o r n i n g N e w s " ( a n d p l a n n i n g t o p r i n t m o r e p o e m s l a t e r ) h e w r o t e a r e v i e w o f Y & X f o r t h e m a g a z i n e , i n w h i c h he s t a t e d t h a t O l s o n ' s w o r k w a s t h e f i r s t b i g p u s h f o r w a r d f r o m P o u n d a n d W i l l i a m s ' a c h i e v e m e n t . ^ ' ' " I n a l e t t e r o f A p r i l 2 8 , 1 9 5 0 t o E m e r s o n , C r e e l e y - m e n t i o n e d t h a t t h e f i r s t i s s u e _ w o u l d b e o u t i n >a m o n t h o r t w o . A t t h a t p o i n t t h e l i n e - u p w a s : t h e W i l l i a m s ' p r o g r a m , O l s o n ' s p o e m , w o r k b y P a u l G o o d m a n , D o n a l d P a q u e t t e , V i n c e n t F e r r i n i , S a m u e l F r e n c h M o r s e , J a c q u e s P r e v e r t , B y r o n V a z a k a s , W i l l i a m B r o n k , W . J . S m i t h , a s w e l l a s r e v i e w s e t c . C r e e l e y a l s o h a d p o e m s by C i d C o r m a n a n d D e n i s e L e v e r t o v o n h a n d . A s e c o n d i s s u e , a n a n t i - u n i v e r s i t y n u m b e r , w a s a l r e a d y p l a n n e d . B y J u l y 2 4 , h o w e v e r , t h e m a g a z i n e w a s i n d i f f i c u l t y . T h e y h a d f o u n d i t i m p o s s i b l e t o p r i n t o n J a c o b L e e d ' s G e o r g e W a s h i n g t o n h a n d p r e s s i n L i t i t z , P e n n s y l v a n i a . 4 D T h e c o m p l e t e l e t t e r , d a t e d A p r i l 2 1 , 1 9 5 0 , w a s p u b l i s h e d i n M a p s , N o . 4 ( 1 9 7 1 ) , p . 8 . ^ T h e r e v i e w w a s p u b l i s h e d i n t h e S u m m e r 1 9 5 1 i s s u e o f M o n t e v a l l o R e v i e w ( 9 5 1 ) . 2 8 C r e e l e y r e m e m b e r s : " A t a n u n h a p p i l y c r i t i c a l m o m e n t , h e b r o k e h i s a r m , I c a m e r u n n i n g f r o m New H a m p s h i r e — b u t a f t e r a f u l l d a y ' s l a b o r we f o u n d we h a d s e t t w o p a g e s o n l y , e a c h w i t h a 4 2 s i n g l e p o e m " . A h a s t y t r i p b y C r e e l e y t o New Y o r k t o r a i s e m o n e y w a s u n s u c c e s s f u l a n d t h e m a g a z i n e c o l l a p s e d . C r e e l e y h a d b e e n i n t o u c h w i t h C i d C o r m a n t h r o u g h o u t , a n d C o r m a n , a s w e l l a s a c t i n g a s a s t r o n g s u p p o r t f o r t h e v e n t u r e , h a d p r o v i d e d a n u m b e r o f c o n t a c t s . B y l a t e A u g u s t 1 9 5 0 C o r m a n h a d d e c i d e d t o " p i c k up t h e p i e c e s " o f C r e e l e y ' s m a g a z i n e a n d w a s a b l e t o f i n d b a c k i n g f o r t h e f i r s t t w o i s s u e s o f O r i g i n . B y t h i s t i m e h e h a d p r o b a b l y h e a r d t h r o u g h C r e e l e y o f C h a r l e s O l s o n ' s e s s a y " P r o j e c t i v e V e r s e " w h i c h w a s t o b e p u b l i s h e d t h a t F a l l i n P o e t r y , New Y o r k f ^ T h i s s e m i n a l w o r k c o n f i r m e d O l s o n ' s a n d C r e e l e y ' s s e n s e o f b e i n g p a r t o f a m a j o r p u s h f o r w a r d i n c o n t e m p o r a r y w r i t i n g a n d r e - c o n f i r m e d t h e n e e d f o r a s y m p a t h e t i c new m a g a z i n e . T h o u g h C o r m a n a s t h e p r o v i d e r o f t h e i r f i r s t c o h e r e n t p u b l i s h i n g o u t l e t w a s a k e y s t i m u l u s t o t h e new w r i t i n g m o v e m e n t , he w a s c u r i o u s l y r e s i s t a n t t o m u c h new w o r k t h a t C r e e l e y a n d O l s o n p r a i s e d i n t h e i r l e t t e r s t o h i m . I n t h e S u m m e r o f 1 9 5 0 h e s t i l l t h o u g h t t h a t b o t h P o u n d a n d O l s o n w e r e u n s o u n d ( h i s o w n t a s t e s l a y i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f M a r i a n n e M o o r e a n d W a l l a c e S t e v e n s ) . E v e n w h e n c o n v i n c e d b y C r e e l e y o f O l s o n ' s w o r t h h e w a s h e s i t a n t a b o u t a c c e p t i n g h i s p o e m s . T h o u g h a t 4 2 I n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e r e p r i n t e d i t i o n o f B l a c k M o u n t a i n R e v i e w ( 1 1 4 ) . 4 ^ 0 1 s o n d e v e l o p e d t h i s e s s a y i n d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h P o u n d a n d l e t t e r s t o C r e e l e y . W i l l i a m s w r o t e t o C r e e l e y a f t e r r e a d i n g i t : " I s h a r e y o u r e x c i t e m e n t , i t i s a s i f t h e w h o l e a r e a l i f t e d . I t ' s t h e s o r t o f t h i n g we a r e a f t e r a n d m u s t h a v e " [ Q u o t e d b y C r e e l e y i n h i s I n t r o d u c t i o n t o O l s o n ' s S e l e c t e d W r i t i n g s (New. Y o r k : New D i r e c t i o n s , c 1 9 6 6 ) , p . 6 ( 1 7 1 , 9 5 8 ) ] . 2 9 f i r s t C o r m a n w a n t e d t o p u b l i s h O l s o n a n d C r e e l e y f o r t h e i r f u t u r e n o t p r e s e n t v a l u e , b y D e c e m b e r 1 9 5 0 he h a d d e c i d e d t o s t a k e O r i g i n I a n d I I o n t h e i r w o r k . O f t h e w r i t e r s C r e e l e y h a d l i n e d up f o r h i s o w n m a g a z i n e , O r i g i n p u b l i s h e d W i l l i a m s , O l s o n , C r e e l e y , L e v e r t o v , B l a c k b u r n , E m e r s o n , F e r r i n i , M o r s e , a n d B r o n k . I n a l e t t e r t o C o r m a n F e b r u a r y 1 7 , 1 9 5 1 , C r e e l e y a c c l a i m e d t h e l i s t i n g o f c o n t e n t s f o r O r i g i n I: "I D O N ' T s e e who E L S E t h e y c a n l i n e u p b e h i n d , BUT y r s e l f . . . . Y o u o f f e r t h e o n l y m a g a z i n e w h i c h i s w i l l i n g t o l ) p r i n t o n a s t r i c t b a s i s o f m e r i t ; 2 ) a t t e m p t t o e m p h a s i z e t h e y n g e r b y a n y m e a n s o t h e r t h a n : " n e w w r i t e r s " . . . 3 ) g i v e a n y man a n y w h e r e ROOM t o m a k e h i s c a s e , f r e e ' & c l e a r o f A L L c o n c e r n s . . . " ( 1 0 5 6 ) . O r i g i n I, " f e a t u r i n g C h a r l e s O l s o n " , a p p e a r e d l a t e i n A p r i l 1 9 5 1 . C r e e l e y w r o t e t o C o r m a n : " S h e d a m n w e l l F L O A T S . . . i t s e e m s t h e m o s t s u b s t a n t i a l s t e p t h a t y r l a d , i n h i s f e w y r s , h a s y e t w i t n e s s e d " ( 1 0 5 6 ) . O l s o n , t o o , w a s e n t h u s i a s t i c : " I t i s v e r y w o n d e r f u l , d a m n e d m u c h o b , j e c t ( t h u s , d i s c l o s u r e , w i t h o u t , s t a t e m e n t s ) " . 4 4 O r i g i n I I w a s o u t b y J u l y 1 9 5 1 a n d f e a t u r e d p o e m s , l e t t e r s , s t o r i e s , a n d a n e s s a y o n p r o s e , by R o b e r t C r e e l e y . C r e e l e y ' s i n f l u e n c e ( h i s r e m a r k a b l e , l e t t e r s t o C o r m a n c o n t i n u e d ) a n d O l s o n ' s , w h i c h h a d b e g u n e v e n B e f o r e h i s f i r s t l e t t e r t o C o r m a n O c t o b e r 1 8 , 1 9 5 0 , w e r e m o s t f e l t o n t h e s e f i r s t t w o i s s u e s — a n d t h e y w e r e t h e m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t i s s u e s o f t h e 4 4 L e t t e r t o C o r m a n A p r i l 2 7 , 1 9 5 1 , L e t t e r s f o r O r i g i n 1 9 5 0 - 1 9 5 6 , e d . A l b e r t G l o v e r ( L o n d o n : C a p e G o l i a r d P r e s s , u 1 9 6 9 ) , p . 4 5 . T h e c o m p l e t e t e x t o f O l s o n ' s l e t t e r s t o C o r m a n O c t o b e r 1 8 , 1 9 5 0 t o D e c e m b e r 7 , 1 9 6 0 a p p e a r s i n G l o v e r ' s d i s s e r t a t i o n , " C h a r l e s O l s o n : L e t t e r s f o r O r i g i n " ( P h . D . : S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y o f New Y o r k a t B u f f a l o , 1 9 6 8 ) [ T h i s w o r k h a s a u s e f u l i n t r o d u c t i o n a n d a n n o t a t e d i n d e x a s w e l l a s a l i s t i n g o f t h e c o n t e n t s o f O r i g i n b y i s s u e a n d o t h e r a p p e n d i x e s ] . 3D m a g a z i n e . C o r m a n , C r e e l e y , a n d O l s o n w e r e e c s t a t i c a t t h e p r o s p e c t s o f t h e m a g a z i n e a n d a t t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r new e x p r e s s i o n — f o r a l i f t o u t . o f t h e v e r y a c t u a l v a c u u m i n c o n t e m -p o r a r y w r i t i n g a n d p u b l i s h i n g — t h r o u g h s u c h a n o r g a n . I n a l e t t e r o f J u l y 2 0 t o C o r m a n a s s e s s i n g t h e f u t u r e o f O r i g i n , C r e e l e y s u g g e s t e d d e p e n d i n g o n f o u r w r i t e r s — O l s o n , B l a c k b u r n , B r o n k , M o r s e — a n d u n q u e s t i o n a b l y C r e e l e y h i m s e l f , f o r a c o r e o f m a t e r i a l , t h r o u g h w h i c h , " O R I G I N w i l l e f f e c t p r e c i s e l y t h i s t h i n g i t m u s t : a NEW s e e i n g o f w h a t t h e h e l l i s NOW, w h a t o u r h a n d s MUST be o n , MUST b e , n o w , h o l d i n g " ( 1 0 5 6 ) . O l s o n s u m m e d i t u p f o r b o t h o f t h e m i n a l e t t e r t o C o r m a n S e p t e m b e r 8 , 1 9 5 1 : " T h e t h i n g i s , b e c a u s e O r i g i n e x i s t s , I w r i t e b e t t e r , I w r i t e 4 5 m o r e ' . T h o u g h C r e e l e y ' s a n d O l s o n ' s e n t h u s i a s m c o o l e d w i t h t i m e — C o r m a n a s e d i t o r p r o v i n g l e s s t r a c t a b l e t h a n e i t h e r a n t i c i p a t e d — t h e m a g a z i n e r e m a i n e d a f o r c e t o b e r e c k o n e d w i t h t h r o u g h t w e n t y i s s u e s . T h o u g h O r i g i n o f t e n f e l l b e n e a t h t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s a f t e r t h e f i r s t t w o i s s u e s , b o t h O l s o n a n d C r e e l e y f o u n d C o r m a n ' s r e c e p t i v e n e s s t o t h e i r own w o r k a n a c t u a l s t i m u l u s u n t i l l a t e 1 9 5 3 a t l e a s t w h e n B l a c k M o u n t a i n R e v i e w b e c a m e a p o s s i b i l i t y . IV When C r e e l e y r e c e i v e d h i s f i r s t l e t t e r f r o m C h a r l e s O l s o n o n A p r i l 2 4 , 1 9 5 0 he w a s j u s t g o i n g i n t o an e x t e n s i v e p r o s e w r i t i n g p e r i o d ( w h i c h l a s t e d u n t i l F a l l 1 9 5 1 ) i n w h i c h O l s o n w a s 31 t o a c t a s c a t a l y s t . S h o r t l y a f t e r t h e y b e g a n t o c o r r e s p o n d C r e e l e y a n d O l s o n w e r e w r i t i n g t o e a c h o t h e r a l m o s t d a i l y , a n d . t h i s w a s o n l y o ne o f many c o r r e s p o n d e n c e s — a n o t h e r w a s w i t h C i d 4 6 C a r m a n — f o r t h e m b o t h . I n t h e e a r l y f i f t i e s C r e e l e y w r o t e l e t t e r s f o r s e v e r a l h o u r s a d a y a n d d e v e l o p e d i n t h i s a c t i v i t y a f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h t h e p o s s i b l e r a n g e o f h i s own s p e e c h w h i c h he w a s a b l e t o d r a w u p o n f i r s t i n h i s s t o r i e s , t h e n i n h i s p o e t r y . A t t h i s p o i n t , S p r i n g 1 9 5 0 , C r e e l e y h a d w r i t t e n ( i n 1 9 4 8 o r 4 9 ) " T h e U n s u c c e s s f u l H u s b a n d " a n d " I n t h e S u m m e r " , b o t h a u t o b i o -g r a p h i c a l s t o r i e s w h i c h a t t e m p t e d t o e s t a b l i s h a " c r e d i b i l i t y " b y w a y o f t h e n a r r a t o r , i n t h e f i r s t c r e a t i n g an i r o n i c t o n e , a n d i n t h e s e c o n d , a t o n e o f n a i v e s i n c e r i t y . " T h e L o v e r " ( 4 6 1 ) , a n o f f b e a t i r o n y w i t h a n u p d a t e d u n s u c c e s s f u l h u s b a n d a s " h e r o " , w a s w r i t t e n S p r i n g 1 9 5 0 . " T h e S e a n c e " ( 4 6 3 ) , w r i t t e n b y S u m m e r 1 9 5 0 , w a s a n e x p e r i m e n t i n s t y l e p e r h a p s b e s t e x p l a i n e d by n o t e s C r e e l e y m a d e i n h i s j o u r n a l May 2 6 , 1 9 5 0 , r e g a r d i n g t h e n e e d t o b r e a k a w a y f r o m s t a t i c m e t h o d i n o r d e r t o g e t t o s u b j e c t ( d e f i n e d a s " w h a t C H A N G E S , s h i f t s , & h a s m o v e m e n t : O N L Y " ) . T h e new m e t h o d w a s t o be " c o n s i s t e n t ( n e v e r d r o p p e d ) a t t e n t i o n t o t h e C H A N G E : a r o u n d & i n : a n d a l w a y s a m o d u l a t i o n , v a r i a n t , s h i f t o n : t h e C E N T E R : t h e h e a d : & H E A R T : w h i c h CANNOT c h a n g e " . 4 7 B o t h s t o r y a n d j o u r n a l n o t e s w e r e i n f l u e n c e d b y O l s o n ' s l e t t e r s i n w h i c h h e no d o u b t h a d a l r e a d y e x p o u n d e d h i s t h e o r y t h a t " o n e p e r c e p t i o n 4 ^ T h e r e a r e o v e r 7 5 0 l e t t e r s f r o m C r e e l e y t o O l s o n i n t h e O l s o n p a p e r s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f C o n n e c t i c u t . A f e w o f t h e l e t t e r s O l s o n w r o t e t o C r e e l e y f r o m L e r m a d u r i n g h i s s t a y t h e r e D e c e m b e r . 1 9 5 0 t o J u l y 1 9 5 1 w e r e p u b l i s h e d a s M a y a n L e t t e r s ( 1 6 9 ) . 4 7 T y p e s c r i p t j o u r n a l a t I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y ( 1 0 9 7 ) . 3 2 4 8 m u s t i m m e d i a t e l y a n d d i r e c t l y l e a d t o a f u r t h e r p e r c e p t i o n " . A c o p y o f " T h e S e a n c e " w a s s e n t t o O l s o n who s u g g e s t e d t w o s m a l l c h a n g e s a n d p r o n o u n c e d i t o t h e r w i s e i m p e c c a b l e . 4 9 C r e e l e y s e n t O l s o n c o p i e s o f h i s o t h e r s t o r i e s a s w e l l , p r o b a b l y a t t h e s a m e t i m e . A t a n y r a t e , f r o m t h e m o m e n t t h a t h e r e a d C r e e l e y ' s h i g h l y o r i g i n a l s t o r i e s O l s o n s e t o u t t o p r o m o t e C r e e l e y a s t h e 5 0 p u s h b e y o n d L a w r e n c e i n t o a new p r o s e n a r r a t i v e . On J u n e 1 2 , 1 9 5 0 , s t i m u l a t e d by t h e new s t o r i e s a n d b y h i s c o n t i n u i n g d i s c u s s i o n w i t h O l s o n , C r e e l e y w r o t e " N o t e s f o r a New 5 1 P r o s e " . T h i s e s s a y , t h o u g h n o t n e a r l y a s e f f e c t i v e , w a s f o r p r o s e w h a t O l s o n ' s " P r o j e c t i v e V e r s e " w a s f o r p o e t r y . ( I t w a s no c o i n c i d e n c e t h a t t h e e s s e n t i a l p a r t s o f b o t h e s s a y s c a m e o u t o f t h e O l s o n - C r e e l e y c o r r e s p o n d e n c e o f t h e S p r i n g a n d S u m m e r o f 5 2 1 9 5 0 . ) C r e e l e y a r g u e s f o r a new p r o s e t a k i n g n o t J o y c e who u s e d w o r d s f o r t h e s a k e o f c o n t e n t , b u t S t e n d h a l a n d D o s t o e v s k y , who u s e d w o r d s f o r t h e s a k e o f w o r d s , a s m o d e l . " F r e e l y t o w r i t e w h a t o n e c h o o s e s i s t h e s o l e p l e a s u r e o f a w r i t e r " ( d e G o u r m o n t v i a P o u n d ) w a s t h e c r e d o , a n d C r e e l e y ' s f i r s t r u l e w a s 4 8 " P r o j e c t i v e V e r s e " , Human U n i v e r s e a n d O t h e r E s s a y s (New Y o r k : G r o v e , 1 9 6 7 ) , p . 5 2 . 4 9 T h e t y p e s c r i p t w i t h O l s o n ' s c o m m e n t s i s a t I n d i a n a U n i v e r -s i t y ( 1 0 9 8 ) . 5 0 O l s o n a p p r o a c h e d H a r c o u r t r e g a r d i n g a b o o k o f C r e e l e y ' s p o e m s a n d s t o r i e s c a . S e p t e m b e r 1 9 5 0 , b u t n o t h i n g c a m e o f i t . He i n f l u e n c e d C o r m a n ' s d e c i s i o n t o p u b l i s h C r e e l e y ' s w o r k i n O r i q i n b y s p e a k i n g h i g h l y o f C r e e l e y i n h i s l e t t e r s f r o m t h e f i r s t , O c t o b e r 1 8 , 1 9 5 0 . 5 1 A c o p y w a s s e n t t o R o b e r t P a y n e o f M o n t e v a l l o R e v i e w t h e f o l l o w i n g d a y , t o n o . a v a i l . A l s o t o O l s o n , who r e t u r n e d t h e c o p y w i t h a f e w s u g g e s t i o n s , m o s t o f w h i c h C r e e l e y a c c e p t e d [ T y p e s c r i p t a t W a s h i n g t o n U n i v e r s i t y ( 1 1 3 2 ) ] . T h e e s s a y w a s p u b l i s h e d i n O r i g i n . I I ( S u m m e r 1 9 5 1 ) ( 9 2 1 ) . 5 2 T h e h e a d i n g s i n C r e e l e y ' s e s s a y w e r e t a k e n d i r e c t l y f r o m O l s o n ' s l e t t e r s . 3 3 " f o r m i s t h e e x t e n s i o n o f c o n t e n t " . He s a w . t h e new p r o s e a s a c o m i n g a n d g o i n g , w i t h o u t a r b i t r a r y b e g i n n i n g a n d e n d , u n t i l t h e c o n t e n t e x h a u s t e d i t s i n h e r e n t p o s s i b i l i t i e s . T h e c o n t e n t w a s t o b e no l e s s t h a n r e a l i t y , d e f i n e d a s " j u s t t h a t w h i c h i s b e l i e v e d , j u s t a s l o n g a s i t i s , b e l i e v e d " . " P r o s e i s t h e p r o j e c t i o n o f i d e a s , i n t i m e . T h i s d o e s n o t mean t h a t t h e p r o -j e c t i o n m u s t b e a n ' a c t u a l ' o n e , d a t e b y d a t e , e t c . T h e w o r d i s l a w , i s t h e c r e a t o r , a n d w h a t i t c a n d o , i s w h a t a n y p r o s e c a n d o . T h e r e i s n o t h i n g m o r e r e a l , i n e s s e n c e , a b o u t a p o s s i b l e p r o s e t h a n t h e r e i s a b o u t a n y p o s s i b l e p o e t r y . T h e o r d e r i n g o f c o n j e c t u r e w i l l r e m a i n a s ' r e a l ' a s t h e o r d e r i n g o f f a c t , g i v e n 5 3 t h e r i g h t h a n d " . T h o u g h O l s o n a n d C r e e l e y s h a r e d t h e b e l i e f t h a t p o e t r y w a s a h e a d o f p r o s e m i d - 1 9 5 0 , C r e e l e y ' s own t a l e s h a d i n f a c t s u r -p a s s e d h i s p o e t r y i n t h e i r a b i l i t y " ( l ) t o c o m p r e s s , a n d ( 2 ) t o p r o j e c t s u p p o s i t i o n , a s f a c t " b y w h i c h t h e new p r o s e w a s t o l e a d o u t o f c o n n o t a t i o n b a c k i n t o d e n o t a t i o n ( 9 2 1 ) . T h i s new p r o s e t h e o r y , t o b e f u r t h e r d e v e l o p e d b y C r e e l e y d u r i n g t h e c o m i n g y e a r , a r o u s e d h i m t o w r i t e a n u m b e r o f o r i g i n a l new s t o r i e s a n d t o m o v e t o w a r d a m o r e p e r s o n a l p o e t r y . T h e f o r m o f C r e e l e y ' s n a r r a t i v e s i s t h e p r o g r e s s i v e u n r a v e l l i n g o f t h e c o n t e n t a c c o r d -i n g t o i t s o w n d i c t a t e s , i . e . t h e s p e e d , t o n e , e m p h a s e s o f t h e g i v e n t a l e . S i n c e t h e w r i t e r ' s t a s k i s t o b r i n g o u t , b y t h e c h o i c e a n d o r d e r i n g o f t h e w o r d s , t h e n a t u r a l l i f e o f t h e s t o r y , t h i s i s b e s t a c c o m p l i s h e d i n o n e s i t t i n g ( a s m o s t o f C r e e l e y ' s s t o r i e s w e r e w r i t t e n ) a n d r e v i s i o n s h o u l d o n l y c l a r i f y t h e 5 3 " N o t e s f o r a New P r o s e " , A Q u i c k G r a p h , p . 1 3 ( 9 2 1 ) . 34 i n t e n d e d t o n e o r n a t u r e o f t h e " g i v e n " , n o t r e w o r k i t . T h e c o n t e n t s h o u l d come o f i t s own a c c o r d n o t by i n v e n t i o n o r a n a c t o f w i l l , a n d i t w o u l d t h u s .be l i k e l y t o c o m e o u t o f t h e w r i t e r ' s o w n e x p e r i e n c e , i n h i s o w n w o r d s , e i t h e r a s a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l f a c t o r a s a n e x t e n s i o n o f t h a t f a c t i n t o f i c t i o n o r f a n t a s y . T h i s t h e o r y , i m p l i c i t i n " N o t e s f o r a New P r o s e " , w a s h i t u p o n , w i t h r e g a r d t o a s t o r y C r e e l e y h a d w r i t t e n , i n a l e t t e r t o O l s o n A u g u s t 30, 1950: B u t a s n o t h i n g i s t h e e n d , i n p r o s e , i t ' s t h a t I ' m a f t e r , t r y i n g t o p i c k up t h e t h r e a d o f , a n d t h i s i s t h e o n l y w a y t h a t o c c u r s t o m e : m y s e l f , a n d t h e v a r i a t i o n s p o s s i b l e u p o n my e x p e r i e n c e . My w i f e t h i n k s t h a t e v e r y t h i n g I w r i t e i s t r u e o r t h a t i t t r i e s t o f o r c e i t s way t h r u t o t h a t q u a l i t y . I am n o t i n a n y s e n s e a m o r a l i s t , o r n o t m o r e t h a n I c a n b e - - a t r a n s m i t t o r , t h r u w h i c h w o r k f o r c e s , m o r a l o r o t h e r w i s e . I a s k o n l y t h i s e x a c t n e s s : t h a t t h e ' w o r d s k e e p w i t h t h e h e a d a s t h a t c a r r i e s t h r u t o c o n s c i o u s -n e s s w h a t e v e r c h a r g e s t h e e m o t i o n s a r e c a p a b l e o f . The c o m p l e x . I t i s t o h a v e no h e s i t a n c e b e t w e e n w h a t t h e h e a d i s t h i n k i n g a n d w h a t t h e h a n d i s p u t t i n g d o w n .54 On A u g u s t 28, 1950 C r e e l e y m a d e t h e f o l l o w i n g e n t r y i n h i s j o u r n a l : P e r c e p t i o n : 1/ t h a t d w a r f s / g n o m e s / m i d g e t s a r e , b y t h e f a c t o f t h e i r S I Z E ( n o t a : a l l S I Z E t e n d s t o w a r d B I G / BUT i n t h i s c a s e ) : i n t e n s e . 2/ t h a t d w a r f s / g n o m e s / m i d g e t s c a u s e p e o p l e L A R G E R t h a n t h e m s e l v e s t o a p p e a r : w h i s p y / i n s u b s t a n t i a l / c a r d b o a r d . I n c i d e n t a l : a c h i l d ' s n e r v e s a r e C L O S E R t o e a c h o t h e r , t h a n a r e a n a d u l t ' s . 55 T h e e y e s o f a m a d m a n a r e B L U E . A f e w d a y s l a t e r h e w r o t e " M r B l u e " (457), i n w h i c h t h e n a r r a t o r ' s f e a r o f t h e m i d g e t , a n d t h e m a n n e r i n w h i c h t h e i n c i d e n t i s f o r c e d T h e s t o r y w a s j o u r n a l a t I n d i a n a ^ L e t t e r a t I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y (1054). d i s c a r d e d a n d t h e l e t t e r w a s n o t s e n t . 55 T r a n s c r i b e d w i t h c o r r e c t i o n s f r o m t h e U n i v e r s i t y (1097). 35 h o m e t o u s , w o r d b y w o r d , a s i t w a s t o h i m , i_s t h e s t o r y . O l s o n l i k e d t h e f i r s t h a l f o f t h e d r a f t s e n t h i m v e r y m u c h , b u t t h o u g h t t h a t t h e s e c o n d h a l f n e e d e d " s a l t i n t h e b e e r " : " T h e p r i n c i p l e . . . w l d s e e m t o b e , h e r e , s p e c i f i c a l l y , t h a t w h e r e t h e e x p e r i e n c e i s , e s s e n t i a l l y , o u t o f n o r m a l r a n g e , t h e p r o s e m u s t 56 a l s o b e " . R e t h i n k i n g t h e s t o r y i n t h i s l i g h t , C r e e l e y c a m e t o r e a l i z e t h a t t h e woman w a s n o t i n d i v i d u a l i z e d a n d t h a t s h e m u s t b e m a d e t o e x e r t a " r e a l , o r a p p r e h e n s i b l e f o r c e i n t e r m s o f t h e n a r r a t o r " s o t h a t t h e r e w o u l d b e s o m e t h i n g f o r t h e m i d g e t t o 57 b r e a k i n t o . S o , i n t h e f i n a l d r a f t , t h e woman a n d h e r c l o s e -n e s s t o t h e n a r r a t o r a r e b u i l t u p a n d t h e m i d g e t i s m a d e m o r e p o w e r f u l b y e m p h a s i z i n g h i s e y e s and b y m a k i n g t h e e n d i n g m o r e d r a m a t i c . O l s o n ' s h e l p w a s c o n s i d e r a b l e — h i s p e p p e r y c o m m e n t s a r e s c a t t e r e d o v e r t h e d r a f t s — b u t c o n s i s t e d m a i n l y o f p u s h i n g C r e e l e y t o b r i n g o u t t h e p o t e n t i a l o f t h e s t o r y l a t e n t i n t h e f i r s t d r a f t . O l s o n w a s q u i c k t o s e i z e u p o n t h e f u n c t i o n o f t h e n a r r a t o r i n c r e a t i n g t h e p e c u l i a r w o r l d v i e w o f C r e e l e y ' s s t o r i e s , a n d a l w a y s k e p t i n m i n d t h e e m e r g i n g t o n e a n d w h a t w a s r e q u i r e d t o b r i n g i t o u t . A c a s e i n p o i n t i s "3 F a t e T a l e s " (459), a s t o r y w r i t t e n S p r i n g 1949. A t t h a t t i m e t h e s e c o n d a n d t h i r d t a l e s w e r e e s s e n t i a l l y t h e same a s t h e y w o u l d b e i n t h e f i n a l v e r s i o n b u t t h e f i r s t t a l e w a s t o l d d i r e c t l y w i t h o u t t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n o f t h e n a r r a t o r w h i c h o c c u r s i n t h e f i r s t f i v e p a r a g r a p h s o f t h e ^ T h e d r a f t s o f t h e s t o r y w i t h O l s o n ' s c o m m e n t s a r e a t I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y (1098). 57 F r o m a l e t t e r C r e e l e y w r o t e t o O l s o n a t t h e t i m e , now a t I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y (1054). The l e t t e r w a s n o t s e n t , a p p a r e n t l y b e c a u s e C r e e l e y r e v i s e d t h e s t o r y i n s t e a d . 36 f i n a l v e r s i o n . When O l s o n s a w t h e o r i g i n a l h e c o m m e n t e d t h a t t h e f i r s t t a l e n e e d e d t o b e c h a n g e d , s t r i p p e d , t i g h t e n e d . C r e e l e y r e w r o t e t h e s t o r y s o t h a t i t b e c a m e e s s e n t i a l l y t h e f i n a l d r a f t w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e l a s t t w o p a r a g r a p h s o f t h e f i r s t t a l e . T h e n a r r a t o r w a s a l l o w e d t o i n t e r v e n e i n a l l t h e a m b i v a l e n c e o f h i s s t a n c e a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e f i r s t and s e c o n d t a l e s . T h e n e w d r a f t w a s s e n t t o O l s o n who m a d e a n u m b e r o f s u g g e s t i o n s , e n d i n g : T h i s m a k e s i t , f o r me , a l l t h e w a y from t h e b e g i n n i n g ( e x c e p t , t h i n k , s ome a d v a n t a g e t o r e s t o r e t h e l i f t - o u t o f - - s o m e w h e r e , 1 s t p a g e — t h a t b i z , t h e s e l f a s m e a n s , e v e n t h o e n d f i n e — 1 s t p a g e ) A N D , s t i l l , e n d , t h e e v e n t , y o u d o n ' t d i g e n u f , r i g h t t h e r e , t o p , t h i s p a g e [ l a s t p a r a g r a p h o f t h e f i r s t t a l e ] F o r i s i t , s o m u c h , " h o w " i t s h o u l d b e t o l d , a s " h o w c a n I f e e l i t " , i t h a p p e n i n g t o t h e m — w h i c h i s ( o r s o I t a k e i t ) w h a t y o u a r e d i s t i n g u i s h i n g — s p e c t a t o r v s . p a r t i c i p a t i n g m e . ^ 8 C r e e l e y r e v i s e d t h e e n d i n g o f t h e f i r s t t a l e , p u t t i n g t h e e q u i v o -c a l n a r r a t o r f u l l y I N , o n D e c e m b e r 2 , 1 9 5 0 . T h e t a l e s , p r e v i o u s -l y s e p a r a t e e x e m p l a , a r e c o n n e c t e d i n t h e f i n a l d r a f t b y t h e q u a l i f y i n g p r e s e n c e o f t h e n a r r a t o r . O l s o n ' s v i r t u e a s a r e a d e r w a s h i s a b i l i t y t o p u l l i n a n d o u t , t o h e a r i n s t a n t l y w h e n t h e t h r e a d w a s l o s t o r n o t w o u n d t h i c k l y e n o u g h . I n a l e t t e r t o C o r m a n S e p t e m b e r 1 9 , 1 9 5 1 . C r e e l e y s p o k e o f h i s o w n u s e o f O l s o n ' s " i n c r e d i b l e c l a r i t y : o n v e r s e , o n p r o s e , o n a n y t h i n g I h a v e e v e r r e a d h i m o n " . " C h a s / s a v e d me g o d k n o w s how m u c h t i m e , b y s p o t t i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s f o r me t h a t I wd h a v e f u m b l e d w i t h f o r y r s , l a c k i n g h i m . He h a s n e v e r so 1 v e d o n e o f my o w n p r o b l e m s ; b u t h e h a s p o i n t e d t h e m o u t , w i t h s u c h e x a c t f i n e n e s s , t h a t i t a m ' t s t o t h e s a m e t h i n g " ( 1 0 5 6 ) . T h i s w a s a p p a r e n t l y a s t r u e o f C r e e l e y ' s CD T h e t h r e e d r a f t s w i t h O l s o n ' s c o m m e n t s a r e a t I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y ( 1 0 9 8 ) . 3 7 p o e t r y a s i t w a s o f h i s s t o r i e s a n d c r i t i c a l p r o s e , b u t a s y e t no m a n u s c r i p t s o f p o e m s w i t h O l s o n ' s c o m m e n t s h a v e b e e n made p u b l i c . I n 1 9 5 0 a n d 1 9 5 1 C r e e l e y w a s m u c h c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e w r i t e r ' s r e l a t i o n t o h i s m a t e r i a l . I n l a t e N o v e m b e r o r e a r l y 5 9 D e c e m b e r 1 9 5 0 h e w r o t e " A N o t e o n O b j e c t i v i t y " . P r e v i o u s l y , C r e e l e y h a d w r i t t e n i n h i s j o u r n a l w i t h r e g a r d t o h i s a t t e m p t t o b e " i n t e n t i o n a l l y f u n n y " i n h i s e a r l y s t o r i e s : I n a n y e v e n t , w i l l s a y t h a t o n c e I f e e l e i t h e r a d e s p a i r o r a s u p e r i o r i t y s u f f i c i e n t t o a s s u m e f o r me a o u t s i d e p o s i t i o n t o my-m a t e r i a l , I f a i l i n p o i n t o f i n t e n t , a l w a y s . . . . A n d w h e n I p r o v i d e r o o m [ " t h e ' g i v e n ' w o n d e r i s o n e s e l f " ] i n my own s t o r i e s f o r m y s e l f , f o r my own m o v e m e n t , o w n i n t e n t i o n , I h a v e t h e s u s t a i n i n g f e a t u r e a n d / o r a s p e c t o f b e l i e f . ' T h a t i s , t h e k i n d o f a s s u m p t i o n i n G i d e ' s L a f c a d i o , t h e t o l e r a n c e f o r t h e p o s s i b l e . I n t e r e s t i n g t h a t I s h o u l d t h i n k i t n e c e s s a r y t o b e f u n n y i n t h e e v e n t t h a t I c a n n o t b e i n v o l v e d . H e n c e my b a t t l e a g a i n s t " o b j e c t i v i s m " s i n c e I c a n n o t b e l i e v e t h a t s u c h a n a t t i t u d e c o u l d b e a n y t h i n g b u t i r o n i c , e v e n i n s a n e , t o q u o t e a p l a t i t u d e . I n a n y e v e n t m u s t i n c l u d e e v e r y t h i n g i n s t o r i e s , c a n n o t c u t o r d i m i n i s h t h e l e a s t e c h o ; t h i s i s n o t t o s a y t h a t I m u s t i n c l u d e a l l d e t a i l s , e t c . O n l y t h a t I w i l l c h o o s e t h a t w h i c h i s t o b e i n t h e s t o r i e s ; b u t t h a t g i v e n , c a n n o t c r a m p o r c u t o r h i n d e r a l l t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s a t t a c h e d t o t h e s e w o n d e r s . I w r i t e a b o u t w o n d e r s o n l y . T h e r e i s n o t h i n g e l s e t o s e e . ( 1 0 9 7 ) I n o n e s e n s e " A N o t e o n O b j e c t i v i t y " w a s a r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f a n a p p a r e n t d i f f e r e n c e f r o m O l s o n who h a d p r o c l a i m e d o b j e c t i s m , " t h e g e t t i n g r i d o f t h e l y r i c a l i n t e r f e r e n c e o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l a s e g o " , i n t h e s e c o n d p a r t o f " P r o j e c t i v e V e r s e " . ^ C r e e l e y s e n t h i s " n o t e " t o O l s o n w i t h t h e c o m m e n t t h a t " t o b e o b j e c t i v e , a s f a r a s I c a n s e e , MEANS t o b e s o s u b j e c t i v e t h a t t h e p o s s e s s i o n o f I t w a s w r i t t e n a s a n a n s w e r t o a n e d i t o r i a l i n N i n e , N o . 2 , r e f u s e d b y t h e m , s e n t t o G o l d e n G o o s e , a n d f i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d i n G o a d , I, i ( S u m m e r 1 9 5 1 ) a s " A N o t e o n t h e O b j e c t i v e " ( 9 2 2 ) . 38 c o n t e n t . . . i s complete enough f o r the .poet to hand o u e r " . ^ But t h i s was s t r e t c h i n g i t too f a r ; the ends would not j o i n to form a c i r c l e , In h i s " I n t r o d u c t i o n to Robert C r e e l e y " , w r i t t e n about the same t i m e , Olson o f f e r e d a s o l u t i o n by s t a t i n g tha t t h e r e were two p o s s i b l e methods of r e - e n a c t i n g e x p e r i e n c e i n prose n a r r a t i v e , t h a t i s of p r o j e c t i n g r e a l i t i e s as opposed to p l o t ( f i c t i o n ) : one i n which the n a r r a t o r i s o u t s i d e and t h i n g s are i n c o n t r o l i n the s t o r y , the o ther i n which the n a r r a t o r i s i n s i d e and t h i n g s p u l l to him as to the cen ter of a magnet ic f i e l d . A c c o r d i n g to O l s o n , C r e e l e y ' s s t o r i e s were the second way, "the n a r r a t o r t a k i n g on h i m s e l f the job of making c l e a r by way of h i s own person that l i f e i s p r e o c c u p a t i o n wi th i t s e l f " . The feedback C r e e l e y r e c e i v e d from O l s o n ( i n t h i s essay and i n l e t t e r s ) i s r e f l e c t e d i n the few r e v i s i o n s made to "A Note on O b j e c t i v i t y " and the f i n a l p a r a g r a p h added A p r i l 11, 1951. The r e v i s e d v e r s i o n ends: "A man and h i s o b j e c t s must both be 6 3 presences i n t h i s f i e l d of f o r c e we c a l l a poem". But t h i s s i m p l y c l a r i f i e d ; t h e essence of C r e e l e y ' s thought , t h a t o b j e c t i v i t y must be ba lanced by s u b j e c t i v i t y , was i n the f i r s t d r a f t . H i s i d e a was t h a t the man h i m s e l f (not mere ego) shou ld be the c e n t e r i n the p l a y i n g out of o b j e c t i v e f o r c e s which e x i s t ( f o r him) on ly i n h i s " s u b j e c t i v e r e a l i z a t i o n " of them. The ^ T h e f i r s t d r a f t wi th note to Ol son i s at Washington U n i v e r -s i t y (1133) . Human U n i v e r s e , p. 127. The o r i g i n a l t i t l e was "OUTSIDE, INSIDE". T h i s essay remains one of the best i n s i g h t s i n t o C r e e l e y ' s prose and owed much to h i s own s tatements at the t ime and the l i t e r a l re -enactment tha t was "Mr B l u e " . 5 3 A Quick G r a p h , p. 19 (922) . 39 s e n t i m e n t a l i t y o f p u r e s u b j e c t i v i t y w a s s o m e t h i n g C r e e l e y h a d no s y m p a t h y w i t h , e s p e c i a l l y w h e n , l o o k i n g b a c k f r o m a m o r e o b j e c t i v e d i s t a n c e , h e d i s c o v e r e d i t i n h i s o w n w r i t i n g , a s h a p p e n e d n o t i n f r e q u e n t l y i n t h e e a r l y y e a r s . I n h i s own b e s t w o r k t h e c o n t e n t w a s s u b j e c t i v e a n d t h e h a n d l i n g o b j e c t i v e . In N o v e m b e r o r e a r l y D e c e m b e r 1 9 5 0 , O l s o n s u g g e s t e d a b o o k of f i v e s t o r i e s t o C r e e l e y : - - M r B l u e — T h e L o v e r — I n t h e S u m m e r — 3 Fate T a l e s — T h e S e a n c e . T h e t i t l e w a s t o b e " M r B l u e " a f t e r O l s o n ' s f a v o r i t e s t o r y , a n d C r e e l e y ' s o w n . I t w a s f o r t h i s c o l l e c t i o n t h a t O l s o n w r o t e h i s b r i e f , d e n s e i n t r o d u c t i o n , s u m -ming up h i s s e n s e o f t w o p r o s e s . I n a l e t t e r o f D e c e m b e r 8 t o C o r m a n , O l s o n s u g g e s t e d i n t r o d u c t i o n a n d s t o r i e s f o r O r i g i n I I . The c o l l e c t i o n w a s o f f e r e d t o G"61 d e n G o o s e a s w e l l a n d l a t e i n D e c e m b e r i t w a s s e n t t o J a m e s L a u g h l i n o f New D i r e c t i o n s o n 6 4 Jack H a w k e s ' s u g g e s t i o n . B y t h i s t i m e C o r m a n h a d o f f e r e d C r e e l e y " s u b s t a n t i a l r o o m " i n O r i g i n I I , i n f a c t b y J a n u a r y 5 , 1951 had t a l k e d C r e e l e y i n t o p u t t i n g a l l h i s new w o r k i n t o t h e i s s u e . On J a n u a r y 7 C r e e l e y f o r w a r d e d t h e f i v e s t o r i e s — f r a m which C o r m a n c h o s e "In t h e S u m m e r " , " 3 F a t e T a l e s " , a n d " M r B l u e " --and c o n t i n u e d the d i s c u s s i o n on t h e new p r o s e : But n ow we g e t t o s o m e t h i n g s o m e w h a t m o r e c o m p r e h e n s i v e . . . . w h a t IS t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n a m a n , w r i t i n g a n o v e l , & o n e w r i t i n g s l e t t e r . We k n o w , f r o m f a c t s , e t c . , t h a t m a n y men h a v e w r i t t e n both w i t h t h e s a m e i n t e n t , o r m e t h o d ; a s S t e n d h a l , G i d e , D o s / , L a w r e n c e , e t c . Who " a d d r e s s e d " t h e m s e l v e s i n a l i t e r a l s e n s e , who w r o t e o u t i n t h e s a m e way a man w r i t e s a l e t t e r , who k e p t i n , the c o n j e c t u r e , t h e f l u x , t h e i n d e c i s i o n , t h e h e s i t a n c y , a l l o f t h o s e c h a r a c t e r s u s u a l l y s u p p r e s s e d i n t h e s u p p o s e d a r t i f a c t . ^ 4 T h e f i v e s t o r i e s a n d p r e f a c e w e r e a c c e p t e d f o r New  D i r e c t i o n s X I I I , 1 9 5 1 ( 5 1 ) , t h o u g h L a u g h l i n f o u n d t h e m " a w f u l l y d r y a n d d u l l r e a d i n g " . 40 W e l l , I j u m p a b o u t h e r e , b u t w o u l d l i k e t o s u g g e s t t h a t t h e w r i t i n g o f a s t o r y , n o v e l , h a s a n e n e r g y i t r a r e l y t a p s , w h i c h i s , p r e c i s e l y : t h e d i r e c t r a p p o r t b e t w e e n w r i t e r & c o n t e n t , m i n u s g l o s s , o r a r t i f i c e , o r f i x i n g . T h i s NOT t o i n t e n d o r s u g g e s t — a w r i t e r b e " a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l " s i n c e w h a t i s r e a l — i s o n l y w h a t ' s e n o u g h t o s e t i n m o t i o n : c o n j e c t u r e . O r t o s u g g e s t , h e b e a l w a y s " I " , o r a n y t h i n g o f t h a t s o r t . T h e n a r r a t o r may b e , p r e c i s e l y , o f f s e t , o r v a r i a t i o n o n t h e w r i t e r ' s own a p p r e -h e n s i o n o f c o n t e n t , p u t t h e r e t o g i v e h i m a f o r c e t o w o r k w i t h , a s o f f s e t , a s t h a t c a t a l y s t n e c e s s a r y t o b r i n g o u t t h e c h a r a c t e r o f w h a t c o n c e r n s h i m . B u t w h a t I d o h e r e i n t e n d t o a t t a c k — i s t h a t a n " o u t l i n e " o r a p r e c i s e d i a g r a m i s o f u s e i n w r i t i n g a n o v e l , o r a n y t h i n g e l s e . I r e a d w i t h s o m e s h u d d e r i n g J a m e s ' n o t e s o n t h e n o v e l ; o r t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h he h a d " a r r a n g e d " . W h a t , t o me , i s o f p r i m e i m p o r t a n c e , w h a t m u s t h a p p e n , d i r e c t l y , i s t h e e f f e c t o f w r i t i n g o n c o n t e n t & w r i t e r ; — t h o t h a t ' s v a g u e , b u t l i k e t h i s : w h a t ' s o f l i f e , w h a t ' s m o v e m e n t i n w r i t i n g , c o m e s t o b e , p r e c i s e l y , t h e f l u x , c o n s t a n t , w h i c h i s p r e s e n t i n t h e a p p r e h e n s i o n o f c o n t e n t , e v e n a s i t ' s b r o u g h t o u t , t r a n s f e r r e d , i n t h e a c t o f w r i t i n g . I m e a n , t h e n , t h a t p r e s e n t i n p r o s e i s g o t t o , n o t by a r t i f i c e , o r b y d e v i c e , b u t c o m e s , o f i t s e l f , c o m e s i n e v i t a b l y i n t o t h a t w r i t i n g w h e r e t h e a p p r e h e n s i o n o f c o n t e n t , t h e u n c o v e r i n g , OCCURS i n t h e a c t o f w r i t i n g — i t m a k e s n o t a damn b i t o f d i f f e r e n c e w h e t h e r i t ' s " p a s t " o r w h a t e v e r . (1056) T h i s i s w h a t h a p p e n s i n " M r B l u e " a n d f r o m t h e s e q u e n c e o f a p p r e h e n s i o n c o m e s t h e f o r c e o f t h e s t o r y . T h i s m e t h o d , o f t h i n g s l e a d i n g t o o t h e r t h i n g s , i s w h a t C r e e l e y m e a n t b y d i g r e s s i o n , " t h e s e q u e n c e o f t h o u g h t " . C r e e l e y ' s c o m m e n t s o n p r o s e c o n t i n u e d i n s u b s e q u e n t l e t t e r s t o C o r m a n , b e c o m i n g m o r e d e f e n s i v e i n t o n e a s C o r m a n q u e s t i o n e d t h e h a l t i n g s t y l e o f t h e s t o r i e s , t h o u g h h e w a n t e d t o p u b l i s h t h e m a g a i n s t C r e e l e y ' s f u t u r e v a l u e . On J a n u a r y 30, 1951 C r e e l e y w r o t e : " I n t h e c a s e o f t h e s t o r i e s , t h e s t y l e , t h e f o r m I S t h e e x t e n s i o n o f t h e c o n t e n t , i s s o m a d e , & i f i t s e e m s u n n e c e s s a r i l y r o u g h , c r a m p e d , m u s t s u g g e s t y o u r e a d t h e m a g a i n t o u n d e r s t a n d , m o r e c o m p l e t e l y , t h e n a t u r e o f t h e c o n t e n t , b e i n g , t r y i n g t o b e , g i v e n , & s o : t h e r e a s o n f o r t h e s t y l e " (1056). O l s o n m e a n w h i l e w a s c o n t i n u i n g t o p r o m o t e C r e e l e y ' s p r o s e . I n a l e t t e r o f J u n e 10, 1951 he c o u n s e l e d C o r m a n t o w a i t f o r m o r e new p r o s e u n t i l 41 O r i g i n I I h a d b e e n p u b l i s h e d . " G i v e - t h a t i s s u e a w h i l e t o g e t a r o u n d , a n d s o m e c h a r a c t e r s s o m e w h e r e w i l l s e e w h a t h e ' s up t o w i t h h i s c o n j e c t u r e . F o r C r e e l e y i s t h e p u s h b e y o n d L a w r e n c e . A n d L a w r e n c e i s t h e o n l y p r e d e c e s s o r who c a n c a r r y n a r r a t i v e 6 5 a h e a d " . O r i g i n I I , " f e a t u r i n g R o b e r t C r e e l e y " , w a s p u b l i s h e d b y J u l y 1 9 5 1 . I t . w a s C r e e l e y ' s f i r s t s u b s t a n t i a l p u b l i c a t i o n a n d - - w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e s i n g l e p o e m i n O r i g i n I - - t h e f i r s t p u b l i c a t i o n o f h i s new w o r k . I t i n c l u d e d t h e s t o r i e s " I n t h e S u m m e r " , " 3 F a t e T a l e s " , a n d " M r B l u e " , h i s c r i t i c a l e s s a y " N o t e s f o r a New P r o s e " , f o u r p o e m s , a n d e x c e r p t s f r o m h i s l e t t e r s t o C o r m a n . C r e e l e y t h a n k e d C o r m a n , s a y i n g t h a t h i s b e s t w o r k w a s i n t h e i s s u e . O l s o n , t o o , w a s e x ' c i t e d , c a l l i n g C o r m a n " t h e g o d damn b e s t e d i t o r " s i n c e . F o r d ( w h o e d i t e d t h e E n g l i s h R e v i e w w h e n P o u n d , L a w r e n c e , a n d H a r d y c o n t r i b u t e d ) . A t t h e t i m e , O l s o n w a s a t B l a c k M o u n t a i n C o l l e g e w h e r e J o e l O p p e n h e i m e r r e m e m b e r s h i m r e a d i n g " a r e m a r k a b l e s t o r y " t o h i s w r i t i n g c l a s s t h a t s u m m e r : " T h e s t o r y w a s M r . B l u e , a n d i t s t u n n e d u s a l l . I s e e m t o r e m e m b e r t h a t we w a t c h e d O l s o n ' s m a i l m o r e c l o s e l y t h a n he h i m -s e l f d i d f o r t h e n e x t s e v e r a l m o n t h s . A n d t h e s t o r i e s k e p t c o m i n g , a n d a n o c c a s i o n a l p o e m a l s o " . ^ T h o u g ' h i t t o o k t h e m s o m e t i m e t o s i n k i n , t h e t w o f i r s t i s s u e s o f O r i g i n m a d e an i m p a c t s t i l l t o be f e l t o n t h e new A m e r i c a n w r i t i n g . B y t h i s t i m e t h e C r e e l e y s ( w i t h a n o t h e r s o n b o r n D e c e m b e r 1 9 5 0 ) w e r e l i v i n g i n F r a n c e , i n a s m a l l f a r m i n g t o w n o f s i x o r s o ^ L e t t e r s f o r O r i g i n , p . 6 0 . 6 6 " T h e I n n e r T i g h t r g p e : A n A p p r e c i a t i o n o f R o b e r t C r e e l e y " , L i l l a b u l e r o , N o . 8 ( W i n t e r 1 9 7 0 ) , p . 5 1 ( 2 5 2 A ) . 42 f a m i l i e s c a l l e d F o n t r o u s s e , near A i x - e n - P r o v e n c e . They had moved there May 1951 on the a d v i c e of Denise L e v e r t o v and her husband M i t c h e l l Goodman who were l i v i n g t h e r e cheap ly on the 6 7 G . I . B i l l . The c i r c u m s t a n c e s of the C r e e l e y s ' l i f e i n F o n t r o u s s e were not happy s i n c e there was no r u n n i n g water , no e l e c t r i c i t y , poor h e a t i n g , and a p e r v a s i v e pos t -war atmosphere of d e p r e s s i o n which seemed to have sapped the energy of the French townspeople . They l i v e d there a year then moved to nearby Lambesc where they l i v e d from May to October 1952. C r e e l e y was i n t e n t on w r i t i n g prose the f i r s t of h i s time i n F r a n c e . He was s t i m u l a t e d by the acceptance i n June 1951 of the f i v e s t o r i e s and O l s o n ' s p r e f a c e f o r New D i r e c t i o n s XIII and by the a p p e a r -ance of h i s work i n O r i q i n II the f o l l o w i n g month. F u r t h e r m o r e , he had a c o n c r e t e reason to w r i t e : an e d i t o r at Morrow had expres sed i n t e r e s t i n a p r o j e c t e d n o v e l . ( T h i s was C r e e l e y ' s second such p l a n . A nove l begun e a r l i e r , i n 1948 or 49, had been d i s c a r d e d . ) D i s c u s s i o n s wi th L e v e r t o v and Goodman, a n o v e l i s t , on h i s a r r i v a l i n France he lped C r e e l e y to extend h i s e a r l i e r prose C r e e l e y and M i t c h e l l Goodman had been c l a s s m a t e s at H a r v a r d . I t was through t h e i r l e t t e r s tha t L e v e r t o v encountered the w r i t i n g of the O r i o i n poets i n 1950 and C r e e l e y encountered an i n t e l l i g e n c e as i n c i s i v e as h i s own, which he has s a i d he l e a r n e d much from. C r e e l e y , h a v i n g ga thered some for h i s c o l l a p s e d magazine , forwarded L e v e r t o v ' s poems to Corman wi th h i s p r a i s e i n 1951. As a r e s u l t her poem "The Bereaved" appeared i n O r i g i n II and "The S h i f t i n g " i n O r i g i n WI. On August 30, 1952, C r e e l e y wrote Corman tha t he l i k e d L e v e r t o v ' s two new poems, "Zest" and " C o n t i n u i n g " , commenting tha t she was making a "breakover from her o l d s t y l e " (1055) . " C o n t i n u i n g " was p u b l i s h e d i n a group of f o u r poems i n O r i g i n IX which e s t a b l i s h e d L e v e r t o v as an O r i g i n poe t . C r e e l e y , f i r s t i n h i s l e t t e r s , l a t e r d i r e c t l y i n F r a n c e , had been an i m p o r t a n t i n f l u e n c e i n her changeover . 4 3 t h e o r i e s t o t h e n o v e l . Qn J u n e 1 9 , 1 9 5 1 h e w r o t e t w o v e r y s o l i d p a g e s i n h i s j o u r n a l , b e g i n n i n g w i t h t h e c e n t r a l a s s u m p t i o n : N o v e l : r e a l i t y a s a ) t h e p r o g r e s s i o n o f p a r t i c u l a r s ( m a n , t r e e , r a i n ) t o c o n s t i t u t e , t o c r y s t a l l i z e a s , t o d e m a n d t h e r e a l i z a t i o n o f , r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t h i n g s ( m a n , t r e e , r a i n ) ; b ) t h e i m p r e s s i o r i l t h e i m p i n g e m e n t ( " M i t c h ' s w o r d ) , t h e p r e s s u r e d e f f e c t , o f t h a t " w o r l d " w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e s , w h i c h f r a m e s , w h i c h m a k e s , t h e c o l l e c t i v e c o n d i t i o n o f t h e p e o p l e , man o r m e n , w h i c h i n h a b i t i t . T h e n o v e l h e s a w m u s t be a n " a u t o n o m o u s e n t i t y " i n w h i c h t h e s e t w o r e a l i t i e s p l a y e d o u t t h e i r r e l a t i o n . I n f a c t , t h e n o v e l i s t s h o u l d p i t a_ a g a i n s t b. a s a " c h e m i s t c o n f r o n t i n g o n e c h e m i c a l w i t h a n o t h e r i n o r d e r t o e s t a b l i s h t h e f a c t & p o s s i b i l i t y o f r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e m " : V i z : a n o v e l i s t m a k e s t h e a t t e m p t t o d e t a c h h i m s e l f f r o m t h e g i v e n b i a s e s o f h i s own p e r s o n a l r e a l i t y n o t t h r u a n y m e a n s o f d e n i a l b u t a l t o g e t h e r o n t h e o t h e r h a n d - - b y p i t t i n g t h e m a g a i n s t w h a t e v e r p r e s e n c e s o f t h e e x t e r n a l r e a l i t y h e i s a b l e t o c o n f r o n t b y m e a n s o f t h e t h i ng s , a l s o e x t e r n a l , h e c o m e s t o bump up a g a i n s t . He a r g u e d a g a i n s t t h e u s e o f p l a c e a n d t i m e i n t h e n o v e l , i n f a c t a g a i n s t a n y m a t t e r w h i c h r e f e r r e d b e y o n d t h e g i v e n c o n t e n t : I t ' s my own b e l i e f — a n y i n s t a n c e o f t h e A S S U M P T I Q N A L k n o w l e d g e o f r e f e r e n t s , w h i c h i s t o s a y , a n y c a s e w h e r e i n t h e r e a d e r i s r e f e r r e d t o a r e a l i t y n o t l i t e r a l l y made a p r e s e n c e , g i v e n a c t u a t i o n , i n t h e c o n t e n t , i s a d i r e c t s a p p i n g o f t h a t w r i t i n g ' s t o - b e - r e s p e c t e d DEMAND o n t h e r e a d e r ' s a t t e n t i o n . I n o t e t h i s , h e r e , b e c a u s e i t a l s o i s my b e l i e f : t h e b u l k o f p r o s e w r i t i n g , 1 9 3 Q t o 5 0 , i s o f no c o n s e q u e n c e . . . i n t h a t i t a s s u m e s , a r b i t r a r i l y , a k n o w l e d g e o f e v e n t , o f s i g n i f i c a n c e , w h i c h i t d o e s n o t m a k e a m e a n s t o i n i t s own s u b s t a n c e . ^ 8 T h e s a m e d a y C r e e l e y s e t o u t o n h i s b i c y c l e t o t e s t t h e s e t h e o r i e s o n h i s f r i e n d s . He f o u n d G o o d m a n a g r e e a b l e b u t L e v e r t o v a r g u e d s t r o n g l y f o r a n o v e l c o m m i t t e d t o a s o c i a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s w h i c h t o T y p e s c r i p t j o u r n a l a t I n d i a n a 1 9 5 1 C r e e l e y c o l l e c t e d h i s j o u r n a l 3 0 , 1 9 5 0 l e t t e r ( u n s e n t ) t o O l s o n , w h i c h w a s n e v e r p u b l i s h e d ( 1 0 9 7 ) . U n i v e r s i t y ( 1 0 9 7 ) . On J u n e 2 1 , n o t e s o n p r o s e , a n d h i s A u g u s t i n t o a n a r t i c l e , " N o t e b o o k " , 44 C r e e l e y c o u l d o n l y be e x t e r n a l t o t h e - c o n t e n t , a s i n C a m u s ' T h e  P l a q u e . T h e f o l l o w i n g d a y C r e e l e y w r o t e i n h i s j o u r n a l t h a t h e w a s c o n v i n c e d t h a t L e v e r t o v d i d n o t k n o w t h i n g s ( w h i c h t o C r e e l e y w a s t h e o n l y v a l i d way t o m o v e t o t h e c o l l e c t i v e , t h e a b s t r a c t i o n o f p a r t i c u l a r s ) , b u t t h a t s h e l i v e d i n a c o m p a r a t i v e w o r l d b a s e d o n i n t u i t i o n , e m o t i o n , a n d m e m o r y . ( i t w a s t h i s e m o t i o n a l a p p r o a c h t o w r i t i n g t h a t h e c o m p l i m e n t e d L e v e r t o v i n A u g u s t 1 9 5 2 f o r p u t t i n g a s i d e i n h e r new p o e m s . ) T h e f r i e n d s h i p w a s s o o n p a t c h e d , b u t t h e d i f f e r e n c e r e m a i n s t o d a y , t h o u g h L e v e r t o v ' s s o c i a l c o n c e r n s a r e s o p e r s o n a l t h a t t h e y a r e h a r d l y e x t e r n a l t o h e r w o r k i n t h e s e n s e t h a t C r e e l e y c r i t i c i z e d i n 1 9 5 1 . C e r t a i n l y , t h e i r a r g u m e n t c o n t r i b u t e d t o h e r a s s u m p t i o n o f a b e l i e f t h a t f o r m c o u l d n o t b e m o r e t h a n t h e e x t e n s i o n o f c o n t e n t , w h i c h w a s t h e m a i n p o i n t o f d i s a g r e e m e n t . H o w e v e r u n n e r v i n g t h i s a r g u m e n t w a s a t t h e t i m e - - " u n h i n g i n g " w a s C r e e l e y ' s w o r d - - i t w a s f i n e s t i m u l a t i o n f o r a w o u l d - b e n o v e l -i s t . On J u l y 1 C r e e l e y w r o t e t h e f i r s t t w e n t y p a g e s . He t o l d C o r m a n t h a t he f o u n d i t m u c h m o r e d i f f i c u l t , a n d v e r y d i f f e r e n t i n t e r m s o f t h e a t t e n t i o n r e q u i r e d , t h a n s h o r t - s t o r y w r i t i n g : I g e t t o s e e t h a t t h e p r e m i s e , t h e b e l i e f , t h a t f o r m i s n e v e r m o r e t h a n a n e x t e n s i o n o f c o n t e n t m e a n s , m o r e t h a n a l a x i t y a s s o m e t a k e i t o f m e t h o d , q u i t e t h e d a m n r e v e r s e . I t m e a n s t h i s : t h a t t h e a r t i s t e q u i p h i m s e l f a s c o m p l e t e l y a s h e c a n , t h a t h e k n o w h i s c r a f t f u l l y — t o a l l o w t h e f u l l p a s s a g e o f w h a t e v e r c o n t e n t h e c o m e s t o p o s s e s s . H i s m e t h o d i n t h e n o v e l w a s p r i m a r i l y t o a t t e n d a c t i v e l y t o t h e n a t u r a l u n r a v e l l i n g o r d i g r e s s i n g o f t h e c o n t e n t a n d i t s " a t t e n d a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s " : D i g r e s s i o n , i n p r o s e , b e c o m e s , f i n a l l y , a p o s s i b l e " l a w " i n t h a t i t p r o v i d e s a m e t h o d f o r c o n t i n u i t y . . . . [ T h e w r i t e r ] d i v o r c e s h i m s e l f f r o m t h e f i n a l i t y o f , " s u b j e c t " , &, i n s t e a d , f o l l o w s a l l t h e l i n e s l e a d i n g f r o m i t , a l l t h e p o s s i b l e s u g g e s t i o n s , a n d f r o m 4 5 t h e s e p o s s i b l e s u g g e s t i o n s , h e m a k e s , , e a c h t i m e , a " c h o i c e " , m o v i n g o n , t h e n , f r o m e a c h " c h o i c e " i n l i k e m a n n e r . C o n t i n u i t y b e c o m e s , i n t h i s w a y , t h e p r o d u c t o f t w o t h i n g s : l ) d i g r e s s i o n ( a s t h e t a k i n g up o f , i m p l i c a t i o n ) ; 2 ) e n e r g y ( a s t h e l o c a t i o n o f e m p h a s e s , i n t h e s e n s e t h a t , o n c e t h e e n e r g y g o e s s l a c k , o n e s h i f t s o n t o s o m e t h i n g e l s e , e t c . ) ( 1 0 5 6 ) T h e i n t e l l i g e n c e o f t h e n o v e l i s t , g i v e n n o r m a l p r e o c c u p a t i o n s , " w i l l d r a w h i s d i g r e s s i o n i n t o a l o o p " b u t h e m u s t b e g i n w i t h t h e p a r t i c u l a r t h e n m o v e t o w a r d t h e g e n e r a l , n e v e r t h e r e v e r s e ( 1 0 5 6 ) . L a t e i n J u l y 1 9 5 1 C r e e l e y s e n t t h e f i r s t h a l f o f t h e n o v e l t o t h e e d i t o r a t M o r r o w b u t i t w a s r e f u s e d a n d h e p u t i t a s i d e . H o w e v e r , o u t o f t h e e n t h u s i a s m f o r p r o s e t h a t t h e n o v e l h a d g e n e r a t e d a n d h i s g a i n i n t h e o r y a n d t e c h n i g u e c a m e a n u m b e r o f new s t o r i e s ( t h r e e o f w h i c h d i d n o t s u r v i v e ) . " T h e P a r t y " ( 4 6 0 ) , w r i t t e n A u g u s t 5 , w a s t h e f i r s t s t o r y t o a t t e m p t a new h a n d l i n g a n d m o v e b e y o n d t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f t h e t h r e e s t o r i e s i n O r i g i n I I . T h e s t o r y c a n b e r e a d a s a n e x t e n d e d m e t a p h o r f o r c o i t u s . I t w a s s e n t t o O l s o n who f o r w a r d e d i t t o C o r m a n , c a l l i n g i t " a s u b t l e , l o v e l y , l i g h t r u n n i n g t h i n g , a n d f u l l o f f a t e & p o w e r " . ^ 9 On A u g u s t 3 0 , t h e s e c o n d new s t o r y , " T h e G r a c e " ( 4 6 4 ) , w a s w r i t t e n a n d s e n t t o C o r m a n t h e f o l l o w i n g d a y w i t h C r e e l e y ' s c o m m e n t : " T h e n o v e l g o t me o f f i n t o a n o t h e r a s p e c t o f s t y l e s -m o r e s t r i p p e d , i f a n y t h i n g , a n d m o v i n g o n a b a r e r s u r f a c e . I t -a l l o w s t h e s a m e f l u x , b u t m a k e s f o r a q u i c k e r p a s s a g e " ( 1 0 5 6 ) . He s p o k e o f t h e d i f f i c u l t y ( i n " M r B l u e " , " 3 F a t e T a l e s " , a n d " I n t h e S u m m e r " ) o f " r e g i s t e r i n g i m m e d i a t e c h a n g e b e c a u s e o f t h e ^ L e t t e r s f o r O r i g i n , p . 7 4 . T h e c o m m e n t s h a d b e g u n t o c o m e i n , m i x e d t h o u g h t h e y w e r e , a b o u t O r i g i n I I , a l o n g w i t h e n c o u r -a g i n g l e t t e r s f r o m C o r m a n , O l s o n , a n d o t h e r f r i e n d s , a n d C r e e l e y w a n t e d h i s new w o r k t o go i n t o s u b s e g u e n t i s s u e s o f t h e m a g a z i n e . " T h e G r a c e " a n d a p o e m w e r e p u b l i s h e d i n O r i g i n I I I ( F a l l 1 9 5 1 ) ; o n e p o e m i n II/; t w o p o e m s i n V I ; " T h e P a r t y " , a p o e m , a n d a t r a n s -l a t i o n i n V I I ; n o t e i n X I I ; r e v i e w s i n X I I I ; a s t o r y i n X V I I ; a n d p o e m s i n I X , X, X I I , X I I I , X I V , X V I , X V I I I , X I X . 4 6 d e n s e n e s s ( l i t e r a l w e i g h t & p r e s s u r e ) . o f t h e n a r r a t o r ' s ( o r p r o t a g o n i s t ' s ) p r e s e n c e " a n d t h e f a c t t h a t t h i s l i m i t e d t h e a v a i l a b l e m e a n s o f t h e s t o r y u n d e r h a n d . He w a s t r y i n g i n t h e new s t o r i e s t o : K E E P t h a t d e n s e n e s s , i . e . , t h a t f u l l w t / o f s d n a r r a t o r o r p r o -t a g o n i s t , b u t t o g e t i t i n t o a m e t h o d t h a t c a n a l l o w o f i m m e d i a t e r e g i s t e r i n g o f a n y & a l l a c t i o n ( p h e n o m e n o n ) . . . . B u t I w a n t t o w o r k i n t o a q u i c k e r , m o r e f l e x i b l e s t y l e . N o t n e c e s s a r i l y m o r e b a r e . . . b u t h a r d e r , o r l e a n e r , a n d a b l e t o s h a p e r o u n d t h e a c t i o n , a t q u i c k e r s p e e d . ( 1 0 5 6 ) A d r a f t o f a n o t h e r s t o r y , " J a r d o u " ( 4 6 5 ) , w a s w r i t t e n O c t o b e r 2 2 , 7 0 1 9 5 1 . I n a l e t t e r o f O c t o b e r 3 0 t o C o r m a n , C r e e l e y c o m m e n t e d o n t h e t h r e e new s t o r i e s : H e r e t o f o r e : p l u n g e on t h e s i n g l e p e r c e p t i o n , t h a t d e p t h - - n o w t o , m a n a g e t h e m o s t q u i c k m o v e m e n t p o s s i b l e b e t w e e n a l l p e r c e p t i o n s , b e i n g , f i n a l l y , w h a t a n y p o e t h a s t o w a k e up t o v e r y e a r l y i n t h e j o b . T h e 2 t h i n g s , a n y h o w : l ) d e p t h , t h e p l u n g e o n a n y o n e p e r c e p t i o n , w h i c h i s t h e f i r s t m a r k o f t h e c o n j e c t u r a l . . . 2 ) p a s s a g e , how t o g a i n a m o v e m e n t t h a t w i l l n o t c a t c h o n a n y a n t e r i o r o r p r i o r p o i n t . . . w i l l m o v e w i t h a l l p o s s i b l e s p e e d . . . t h i s p a s s a g e i s t h e " e x t e r n a l w o r l d " , I s u p p o s e . T h e " d e p t h " i s u s u a l l y s i n g l e . ( 1 0 5 6 ) C o r m a n ' s r e s p o n s e t h a t h e e n c o u n t e r e d a " l a n g u a g e - b l o c k " i n " J a r d o u " a n d h i s c o n c e r n f o r t h e r e a d i n g p u b l i c ( w h i c h c o n c e r n C r e e l e y c a l l e d " p r o v i n c i a l " ) e l i c i t e d C r e e l e y ' s a n g e r i n a l e t t e r o f N o v e m b e r 1 1 , 1 9 5 1 a n d h i s i n s i s t e n c e t h a t h e d i d n o t w r i t e f o r t h e q u i c k b u t f o r t h e c a r e f u l r e a d e r . I t s e e m e d a n i m p o s s i b l e s p l i t b u t w a s h e a l e d b y O l s o n who w r o t e m o v i n g l y t o C r e e l e y , a n d a l s o t o C o r m a n : T h a t i s , C r e e l e y i s a s u b t l e & b e a u t i f u l m a n , w o r t h m o r e t h a n a l l t h e r e s t o f u s y o u h a v e p u b l i s h e d — a n d t h e n s o m e : y o u r m a g a z i n e s h a l l b e k n o w n i n t h e h i s t o r y o f w r i t i n g b e c a u s e y o u t h e r e f i r s t P u b l i s h e d i n New M e x i c o Q u a r t e r l y , X X I I , i i i ( A u t u m n 1 9 5 2 ) . 47 p u b l i s h e d the s t o r i e s and l e t t e r s of t h i s m a n . . . . So do not argue i f what e l s e you might t h i n k to g ive — c r i t i c i s m , of mss, or of problems he or I , say, g ive a l l the a t t e n t i o n of our waking & s l e e p i n g hours t o , - - r u b s him wrong. I ' d say , l e a r n from him, and i n s a y i n g i t , can t e l l you tha t I have l e a r n e d more from him than from any l i v i n g man: he i s of t h a t s o r t of d imen-s i o n t h a t you can w e l l a l l o w —and g a i n thereby — t h a t you do l e a r n , and modest ly l e a r n from h i m . ^ l T h i s group of s t o r i e s — however promi s i ng — was not f o l l o w e d by more. From November 1951 to May 1953 C r e e l e y wrote no s t o r i e s , at l e a s t none t h a t he saved . In f a c t , the Winter of 1951-52 was a dry one f o r w r i t i n g of any k i n d . In F a l l 1951 C r e e l e y was much f u r t h e r ahead i n h i s s t o r i e s than i n h i s poems but the p r a c t i s e g i v e n by the prose w r i t i n g ( n o v e l , s t o r i e s , c r i t i c i s m , and l e t t e r s ) gave him a s o l i d base of c r a f t s m a n s h i p from which to w r i t e h i s new p o e t r y . I t was not j u s t c o i n c i d e n c e t h a t the poems wai ted to c a t c h up to the s t o r i e s u n t i l C r e e l e y ' s t h e o r y of prose had been f u l l y d e v e l o p e d , l a t e i n 1951. By tha t time i t was, i n f a c t , a very i n d i v i d u a l theory of wr i t i n g . As such i t has served C r e e l e y , i n i t s e s s e n t i a l a s p e c t s , u n t i l t oday . In the l a t e f o r t i e s and e a r l y f i f t i e s C r e e l e y was much l e s s a r t i c u l a t e i n p o e t r y than i n p r o s e . T h i s was to remain t r u e u n t i l the S p r i n g of 1952. In 1949 and e a r l y 1950 C r e e l e y was s t i l l w r i t i n g p o e t r y i n the mode of W a l l a c e S t e v e n s . Though the poems were becoming l e s s d i s c u r s i v e and more s u r e , they were s t i l l w r i t t e n i n long r h e t o r i c a l l i n e s with l i t t l e pause at the 71 L e t t e r t o Corman November 24, 1951, L e t t e r s for O r i g i n , p . 87. 48 e n d - - j u s t e n o u g h f o r t h e e y e t o d r o p d o w n a n d p i c k up t h e n e x t l i n e . T h e y w e r e s m o o t h - r u n n i n g p o e m s i n w h i c h t h e a c c e n t u a l p a t t e r n o f t h e w o r d s a n d o f t h e l i n e s w e r e s u b m e r g e d i n t h e r h y t h m o f t h e p e r i o d o r s t a n z a . T h e y w e r e p o e m s w r i t t e n f o r t h e e y e a n d i n n e r v o i c e r a t h e r t h a n w i t h t h e a c t u a l s p o k e n v o i c e ' i n m i n d . T h e y w o u l d h a v e b e e n a w k w a r d f o r C r e e l e y t o r e a d a l o u d s i n c e h i s b r e a t h i s v e r y s h o r t and h i s s p e e c h s o m e t i m e s s t u m b l i n g , 72 a s r e v e a l e d b y l a t e r p o e t r y r e a d i n g s . When C r e e l e y r e c e i v e d O l s o n ' s f i r s t l e t t e r o n A p r i l 24, 1950, t h e a d m o n i t i o n t h a t " a man g o d d a m n w e l l h a s t o c o m e up w i t h h i s o w n l a n g . " m u s t h a v e h i t h i m h a r d , e s p e c i a l l y w h e n he r e a d t h e v e r y i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c 73 p o e m s O l s o n h a d s e n t . T h r o u g h o u t t h e S p r i n g and S u m m e r o f 1950, O l s o n b o m b a r d e d C r e e l e y w i t h h i s t h e o r y o f t h e p h y s i o l o g i c b a s i s o f o p e n p o e t r y , a n d t a u g h t h i m how t o p u t h i s own b r e a t h i n t o t h e a l l - i m p o r t a n t l i n e , o r r a t h e r , t o make t h e l i n e r e c o r d t h e e x i g e n c i e s o f h i s b r e a t h . 7 4 W h e n O l s o n f i r s t w r o t e t o C r e e l e y h e h a d a d r a f t i n h a n d o f t h e s e c o n d p a r t o f " P r o j e c t i v e V e r s e " . He w o r k e d o u t m o s t o f t h e f i r s t p a r t o f t h a t p h e n o m e n a l e s s a y i n h i s l e t t e r s t o C r e e l e y . ( C r e e l e y r e m e m b e r s s e n d i n g t h e s e l e t t e r s 72 T o u n d e r s t a n d C r e e l e y ' s p o e t r y i t i s a l m o s t a n e c e s s i t y t o h e a r h i m r e a d . Two e a s i l y a v a i l a b l e r e c o r d s a r e l i s t e d a s 164 a n d 165 i n t h e I n v e n t o r y , b u t p e r h a p s t h e f i n e s t - - b e c a u s e i t g i v e s t h e e m o t i o n a l c o n t e n t a s w e l l — i s t h e r e a d i n g a t B e r k e l e y (162) . 7 3 C r e e l e y d i d n o t h e a r O l s o n ' s v o i c e u n t i l J a n u a r y 7, 1951, uhen a s he t o l d Counan , " a f t e r w r i t i n g h i m , a s i t ' s b e e n , 5 t i m e s a w e e k , f o r t h e p a s t 6 m o n t h s — h a v i ng t h a t c h a n c e t o ' t a l k ' I c a n ' t , c o u l d n ' t t h i n k o f a n y t h i n g b u t p l a t i t u d e s , e m p t i n e s s e s " (1056) . He h a d t h e " f a n t a s t i c e x p e r i e n c e " o f h e a r i n g O l s o n r e a d o n C o r m a n 1 s r a d i o p r o g r a m a b o u t t w o w e e k s a f t e r t h e p h o n e c a l l . He t o l d W i l l i a m s : " I ' v e n e v e r h e a r d a t h i n g l i k e i t j j u s t : f o r c e / n a k e d " [ L e t t e r o f J a n u a r y 1951 a t Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y ( 1040 ) ] . 7 4 H o w m u c h d i r e c t c r i t i c i s m C r e e l e y ' s p o e m s r e c e i v e d w i l l b e r e v e a l e d w h e n t h e O l s o n - C r e e l e y c o r r e s p o n d e n c e i s m a d e p u b l i c . 49 b a c k t o O l s o n f o r h i s u s e i n e n l a r g i n g i t . ) S o , p a r t o n e , w i t h i t s l e s s o n " t h a t v e r s e w i l l o n l y d o i n w h i c h a p o e t m a n a g e s t o r e g i s t e r b o t h t h e a c q u i s i t i o n s o f h i s e a r a n d t h e p r e s s u r e s o f 75 h i s b r e a t h " , w a s h a m m e r e d i n t o C r e e l e y ' s h e a d b y m i d - 1 9 5 0 . C r e e l e y h a d a l r e a d y r e f i n e d h i s e a r ( b y p r a c t i c i n g h i s c r a f t 1 9 4 5 - 1 9 5 0 ) e n o u g h t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e s y l l a b l e , a n d w a s q u i c k t o s e i z e u p o n O l s o n ' s i n j u n c t i o n t h a t t h e b r e a t h m u s t b e r e c o r d e d by t h e s h a p e a n d l e n g t h o f t h e l i n e . C r e e l e y t h r e s h e d o u t h i s s e n s e o f O l s o n ' s a c h i e v e m e n t i n h i s r e v i e w o f Y & X , w r i t t e n d u r i n g May o r J u n e 1 9 5 0 . O l s o n ' s t h e o r y w a s f o r C r e e l e y a n e x t e n s i o n o f W i l l i a m s ' a s s e r t i o n t h a t t h e l i n e m u s t b e o p e n e d u p , m a d e o f m o r e a c t i v e u s e . . I n Y & X C r e e l e y f o u n d t h a t O l s o n ' s l i n e b e c o m e s : a w a y t o a m o v e m e n t b e y o n d t h e s i n g l e i m p a c t o f t h e w o r d s w h i c h g o t o m a k e i t u p , a n d b r i n g s t o t h e i r l o g i c a f o r c e o f i t s o w n . I n s t e a d o f t h e s i m p l e w a g o n w h i c h c a r r i e s t h e l o a d , h e m a k e s i t t h a t w h i c h d r i v e s t o o , t o t h e c o m m o n l o g i c , t h e s e n s e o f t h e p o e m . . . . T h e l i n e i s t h e m e a n s t o f o c u s , i s t h a t w h i c h s a y s " h o w " we a r e t o w e i g h t t h e v a r i o u s t h i n g s we a r e t o l d . A n d a s i t i s t h e r e , t o d o t h i s w o r k , s o t h e w o r d s b r e a k t h r o u g h t o t h e i r s e n s e . I n a l e t t e r o f J u n e 2 6 t o E m e r s o n C r e e l e y i n t e r p r e t s t h i s < a c h i e v e m e n t f o r h i s own u s e : I ' d p u t r i g h t t h e r e [ i n t h e l i n e ] : t h e m a i n p r o b l e m w i t h c u r r e n t f r e e v e r s e , t h e f a c t t h a t s o f e w g r i p i t s p o s s i b l e l o g i c & s t r e n g t h . . . . I t h i n k , t h o , we g o t a f i e l d o r s o m e o f u s , w h e n we t o o k t h e e y e t o b e t h e m a k e r o f t h e l i n e . I t w a s , m o s t o b v i o u s l y , n e v e r s o . I t w a s t h e b r e a t h t h a t w a s m a k i n g t h e l i n e / a s f o r a n a n a l o g y , b r e a t h i s m a k i n g t h e l i n e i n a p h r a s e , f i g u r e , p l a y e d by C. P a r k e r 7 5 Human U n i v e r s e , p . 5 3 . 7 6 " C h a r l e s O l s o n : Y & X " , A Q u i c k G r a p h , p p . 1 5 1 - 1 5 2 ( 9 5 1 ) . F i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n l Y l o n t e v a T l l o R e v i e w , I , i i ( S u m m e r 1 9 5 1 ) . 50 e t a l . S o , t h e n , t h e l i n e i s t h a t w h i c h c a n s t r e s s , b r i n g s t r e n g t h t o : t h e s y l l a b l e , a s s t r e s s e s , a s p u t t o u s e : i n p o e t r y . We h a d , i n s o m e s e n s e , p u t i t i n a s u b o r d i n a t e p o s i t i o n , u s i n g i t f o r a c o n t a i n e r , o r a r a n d o m l e n g t h f o r o u r s e n s e . 7 7 T h i s l i n e o f t h i n k i n g b r o u g h t C r e e l e y t o a new u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f P o u n d ' s a n d W i l l i a m s ' p o s i t i o n , s t i m u l a t e d by t h e i r l e t t e r s t o h i m . I n t h e i r w o r k C r e e l e y h e a r d t h e l i n e b e g i n " t o u s u r p t h e 7 8 p l a c e o f t h e s t a n z a , t h e v e r s e " . P o u n d ' s C a n t o s , t h o u g h , w i t h t h e i r b r e a d t h a n d s u s t e n t i o n w e r e a s d i s t a n t f r o m C r e e l e y ' s p o s s i b i l i t i e s i n p o e t r y a s P o u n d ' s v o i c e w a s f r o m C r e e l e y ' s o w n . S i m i l a r l y , t h e f o r c e a n d s c o p e o f O l s o n ' s w o r k — h i s b r e a t h a n d c o n c e r n s w e r e s e e m i n g l y e x h a u s t l e s s - - w e r e n o t t o b e o f d i r e c t u s e . W i l l i a m s ' i n t i m a t e w a y o f s p e a k i n g f r o m p e r s o n a l g r o u n d i n t h e b r i e f " c o m m o n s p e e c h " l y r i c w a s , h o w e v e r , a n e x a m p l e i n b o t h s u b j e c t a n d m e t h o d . W i l l i a m s ' i n t r o d u c t i o n t o T h e W e d g e now h e l d a v e r y p e r s o n a l l e s s o n f o r C r e e l e y : When a man m a k e s a p o e m , m a k e s i t , m i n d y o u , h e t a k e s w o r d s a s h e f i n d s t h e m i n t e r r e l a t e d a b o u t h i m and c o m p o s e s t h e m . . . i n t o a n i n t e n s e e x p r e s s i o n o f h i s p e r c e p t i o n s a n d a r d o r s t h a t t h e y may c o n s t i t u t e a r e v e l a t i o n i n t h e s p e e c h t h a t h e u s e s . W i l l i a m s ' l e t t e r s , w h i c h b e g a n i n r e s p o n s e t o C r e e l e y ' s F e b r u a r y 1950, h e l p e d C r e e l e y " s e e h i s w a y " i n h i s p o e t r y a s w e l l a s i n t h e p o l i c y f o r t h e p r o j e c t e d m a g a z i n e . W i t h h i s u s e o f W i l l i a m s ' " c l a r i t y " t o h e a d t h e m a g a z i n e , C r e e l e y d i s c o v e r e d W i l l i a m s a s e x a m p 1 e and b e g a n — n o t i n a n y s e n s e o f i m i t a t i o n - - t o w o r k t o w a r d s a b r i e f l y r i c f o r m w h i c h , w o u l d r e c o r d h i s o w n t h o u g h t a n d s p e e c h . T h e p o e m s now t o b e w r i t t e n w o u l d u s e t h e l i n e a s t h e r h y t h m i c o *J L e t t e r a t S i m o n F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y ( 1 0 4 1 ) . 7 8 T y p e s c r i p t j o u r n a l a t I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y ( 1 0 9 7 ) . 51 u n i t , p a r t l y o u t o f C r e e l e y ' s m i s t a k e n b e l i e f t h a t W i l l i a m s ' 79 p o e t i c l i n e s e n d e d w i t h t e r m i n a l j u n c t u r e s . I n t h e S u m m e r o f 1950 C r e e l e y w a s m a k i n g g r e a t s t r i d e s f o r w a r d i n h i s s t o r i e s a n d i n h i s p r o s e t h e o r y , a n d t h e f u r t h e r d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h i s p r o s e t h e o r y , up t o F a l l 1951, w a s c o i n c i d e n t w i t h h i s e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n i n p o e t r y . T h e f i r s t t h i n g t o go w a s t h e d e n s e , s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t s t a n z a . C r e e l e y b e g a n t o u s e s c a t t e r e d l i n e s o f v a r i e d l e n g t h , p r o b a b l y i n d i r e c t a d m i r a t i o n o f t h e q u i c k n e s s a n d f o r c e t h a t O l s o n g o t f r o m t h i s f o r m . One o f t h e f i r s t p o e m s w r i t t e n (1950) i n t h i s l i g h t e r a n d m o r e e m p h a t i c f o r m w a s " S t i l l L i f e o r " (777) w h i c h , h o w e v e r , s t i l l s u f f e r e d f r o m a r h e t o r i c a l a t t i t u d e.. ° M o s t o f t h e p o e m s w r i t t e n f r o m 1950 t o 1952 w e r e a w k w a r d e x p e r i m e n t s i n f o r m w h i c h d i d n ' t m a k e i t b e c a u s e o f t h e r h e t o r i c a l c o n t e n t . C r e e l e y h a d n o t y e t l e a r n e d P o u n d ' s c a u t i o n w h i c h h e l a t e r l i k e d t o q u o t e f r e q u e n t l y : " A n y t e n d e n c y t o g e n e r a l s t a t e m e n t i s a g r e a s e d s l i d e " . S ome o f t h e s e p o e m s ( t h o s e w h i c h s u r v i v e d ) c a n b e r e a d i n T h e C h a r m : E a r l y a n d U n c o l l e c t e d P o e m s (41) . W i t h f e w e x c e p t i o n s t h e s e w e r e p o e m s w h i c h C r e e l e y f e l t w e r e o f f . W h e n t h e l i s t o f c o n t e n t s f o r h i s f i r s t b o o k w a s f i n a l l y s e t t l e d , f e w o f t h e e a r l y p o e m s w e r e i n c l u d e d , a n d w h e n C r e e l e y c o m p i l e d h i s s e l e c t e d p o e m s , T h e W h i p ( E ) , i n l a t e 1956 o r e a r l y 1957, h e 79 T h e y d i d n o t , a s C r e e l e y l a t e r r e a l i z e d , b u t W i l l i a m s c a m e t o u s e t h i s f o r m i n p o e m s w r i t t e n i n t h e t r i a d i c l i n e i n t h e f i f t i e s a n d s i x t i e s . P o e ' s s t r e s s o n t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e l i n e w a s a l s o a n i n f l u e n c e o n C r e e l e y . Q |-| T h i s p o e m w a s p u b l i s h e d a l o n g w i t h t w o i n t h e o l d s t y l e i n W a k e , N o . 9 ( 1 9 5 0 ) . 52 h a l v e d t h i s s e l e c t i o n a g a i n . T h e f i r s t p o e m w h i c h C r e e l e y f e l t w o r t h s a v i n g f o r T h e W h i p w a s " H a r t C r a n e " ( 4 7 2 ) . T h i s p o e m , t h e n t i t l e d " O t t o R a n k & O t h e r s " , c a n b e d a t e d b e f o r e S e p t e m b e r 7 , 1 9 5 0 ( t h o u g h a f e w c h a n g e s may d a t e l a t e r ) a n d w a s a c u t - d o w n o f 81 a J u n e 1 9 5 0 d r a f t w h i c h i t s e l f h a d s e e n s e v e r a l r e v i s i o n s . " H a r t C r a n e " w a s C r e e l e y ' s c h o s e n c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e s i g n i f i c a n t f i r s t i s s u e o f O r i g i n a n d i n a l e t t e r o f A p r i l 2 0 , 1 9 5 1 t o C o r m a n , f u l l o f p r a i s e f o r t h e i s s u e , C r e e l e y c a l l e d t h e p o e m h i s " f i n e s t p r i n t i n g o f a n y t h i n g t o d a t e " ( 1 0 5 6 ) . T h o u g h e v e n i n t h e f i n a l v e r s i o n t h e c o n t e n t i s s t i l l e x t e r n a l t o t h e s p e a k e r , s t i l l a " s u b j e c t " , i t i s o n e w h i c h a f f e c t e d C r e e l e y d e e p l y , a n d i n t h e t h r e e p a r e n t h e t i c a l s t a n z a s b e g i n n i n g " S l a t e r , l e t me c o m e h o m e " - - C r e e l e y h a d k n o w n S l a t e r B r o w n p e r s o n a l l y - - a v e r y i n t i m a t e v e i n i s t o u c h e d . T h e s e s t a n z a s w e r e a p p a r e n t l y w r i t t e n b y J u n e 1 9 5 0 . T h e y w e r e t h e f i r s t d i r e c t p u s h i n t o t h e p e r s o n a l c o n t e n t f r o m w h i c h t h e b e s t e a r l y p o e m s w o u l d s p r i n g . B u t i n t h e m e a n t i m e t h e s e l i n e s w e r e f e w a n d t h e s p a c e s l a r g e b e t w e e n . D u r i n g 1 9 5 0 C r e e l e y c o r r e s p o n d e d c l o s e l y w i t h R i c h a r d E m e r s o n who w i t h F r e d e r i c k E c k m a n w a s a b o u t t o r e v i v e G o l d e n  G o o s e , a m a g a z i n e r e c e p t i v e t o W i l l i a m s a n d h i s f o l l o w e r s . B y F a l l 1 9 5 0 , h o w e v e r , C r e e l e y h a d b e g u n t o d i f f e r w i t h E m e r s o n ' s t h e o r i e s o f p o e t r y e s p e c i a l l y a s t h e s e w e r e s e t o u t i n h i s p a m p h -l e t , P r i n c i p l e s o f V / j t a l i s t P o e t r y , a p p a r e n t l y p u b l i s h e d e a r l y i n 1 9 5 1 . C r e e l e y o b j e c t e d t o a c o n f u s i o n i n t h i s w o r k b e t w e e n a s e n s e o f f o r m a s e x t e r n a l c o n s t r u c t a n d a s e n s e o f f o r m a s a n 8 1 T h e m a n u s c r i p t s a r e a t S i m o n F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y ( 1 0 9 4 ) , O l s o n p r a i s e d t h i s -poem i n 1 9 5 0 , p e r h a p s h a d made s u g g e s t i o n s f o r i t s r e v i s i o n . T h e p o e m s s e l e c t e d f o r T h e W h i p may b e r e a d i n t h e f i r s t s e c t i o n o f F o r L o v e : P o e m s 1 9 5 0 - 1 9 6 0 t,New Y o r k : S c r i b n e r ' s , C1962) ( 1 1 ) . 5 3 e x t e n s i o n o f c o n t e n t ( w h i c h E m e r s o n h a d d e r i v e d f r o m C r e e l e y ) . He a l s o d i s a g r e e d w i t h t h e d i s t i n c t i o n E m e r s o n made b e t w e e n t h e r h y t h m s o f p r o s e a n d t h e r h y t h m s o f p o e t r y : S p o k e n s p e e c h i s t h e n o r m , a g a i n s t w h i c h & f r o m w h i c h a l l o ther forms o f s p e e c h m o v e . . . . I d o n ' t a g r e e t h a t i t ' s n e c e s s a r y , e v e n t r u e , a s i t h a p p e n s , t o a s s e r t a d i f f e r e n c e , a t r o o t , b e t w e e n p r o s e r h y t h m s & t h o s e o f p o e t r y . W e l l , t a k e i t t h i s w a y . L i s t e n t o a man s p e a k , t u r n o n t h e r a d i o . A f e w m i n u t e s , & y o u ' l l f i n d t h e t h i n g s f l o w i n g , m o v i n g i n c l e a r p a t t e r n s o f e m p h a s i s , s e n s e & b r e a t h . W h a t p o e t r y d o e s , co n s c i o u - s l y , o r o t h e r w i s e , i s i n t e n s i f y t h i s p r o c e s s , f i n d & i s o l a t e , m a i n w a y s t o i n t e n s i f y , t o c o n c e n -t r a t i o n . . . . P o e t r y , t h e n , i s i n o n e s e n s e , t h i s s l o w i n g , & a t t h e s a m e t i m e , s p e e d i n g UP o f r e a c t i o n , t o t h e b a s e p a t t e r n s o f s p e e c h . F o r w h a t U SE S i t c a n f i n d . T h e l i n e . . . w e l l , I am o f a m i n d w i t h O l s o n , t h a t t h e l i n e i s t h e m a n ' s b r e a t h i n g , a t b e s t . T h e e a r i s t h e s y l l a b l e . I s t h a t p a r t o f i t , t h e b r e a t h i s w h a t f i n d s a r e a s o n a b l e c o n t i n u u m : p l a c e d a s l i n e . 8 2 T h r o u g h C r e e l e y ' s c o n n e c t i o n w i t h E m e r s o n , a g r o u p o f h i s p o e m s w e r e p u b l i s h e d i n t h e f i r s t i s s u e o f t h e new s e r i e s o f G o l d e m G o o s e i n J u l y 1 9 5 1 . T h e i s s u e h a d a p p a r e n t l y b e e n d e l a y e d s o m e t i m e a n d C r e e l e y ' s p o e m s d a t e d b a c k c o n s i d e r a b l y . " T h e E p i c E x p a n d s " ( 7 7 5 ) h a d b e e n w r i t t e n b y J u n e 1 6 , 1 9 5 0 ; " L i t t l e t o n , N . H . " ( 7 3 1 ) b y S e p t e m b e r 7 , 1 9 5 0 ; a n d " G u i d e - . . . " ( 7 7 9 ) b y 8 3 D e c e m b e r 3 0 , 1 9 5 0 . O r i g i n I I , a l s o o u t i n J u l y , c o n t a i n e d t h e m o r e r e c e n t p o e m s " L o v e " ( 7 7 6 ) , " H e l a s " ( 7 7 8 ) , " L e F o u " ( 4 7 3 ) , ' a n d a n o t h e r " H a r t C r a n e " ( 7 8 0 ) , a l l w r i t t e n i n s c a t t e r e d l i n e s , a l l f i n i s h e d b y F e b r u a r y 1 2 , 1 9 5 1 . " L o v e " i s p e r h a p s t h e f i r s t o f C r e e l e y ' s p o e m s t o s h a k e t h e r h e t o r i c a l a t t i t u d e c o m p l e t e l y . C O L e t t e r t o E m e r s o n F a l l 1 9 5 0 a t S i m o n F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y ( 1 0 4 1 ) . O l s o n l i k e d " G u i d o " e n o u g h t o s e c o n d b r o a d s i d e i n B l a c k M o u n t a i n w i t h O l s o n ' s T h i s 1 9 5 2 b u t d i d n o t s u g g e s t i t s p u b l i c a t i o n C o l l e g e ' s s e r i e s ( w h i c h c o n t i n u e ) . a s t h e b e g a n 5 4 T h e s u b j e c t , v e r y l i k e t h a t o f some o f W i l l i a m s ' s h o r t p o e m s , i s c o n c r e t e a n d t h e f o r m a b s o l u t e l y f u n c t i o n a l : L o v e T h e t h i n g c o m e s o f i t s e l f ( L o o k up t o s e e t h e c a t & t h e s q u i r r e l , t h e o n e t o r n , a r e d t h i n g , & t h e o t h e r s o m e h o w i m m a c u l a t e 8 4 C o m p a r e i t t o " S a n i n e t o L e d a " q u o t e d a b o v e ( p . 2 0 ) , w h i c h a l s o h a s t o do w i t h " l o v e " , t o • s e e how f a r C r e e l e y h a d c o m e i n t h r e e y e a r s . " L e F o u " i s a l i g h t t r i b u t e t o O l s o n ' s i n f l u e n c e a n d w a s t h e o n l y p o e m o f t h i s g r o u p t o b e i n c l u d e d i n T h e W h i p . N o n e o f t h e p o e m s made u s e o f t h e p e r s o n a l v e i n t o u c h e d i n t h e f i r s t " H a r t C r a n e " . T h e C r e e l e y s h a d m o v e d i n May 1 9 5 1 t o F r a n c e a n d C r e e l e y w a s k e p t b u s y w r i t i n g a n o v e l a n d s e v e r a l s t o r i e s u n t i l t h e e n d o f O c t o b e r . He w r o t e f e w p o e m s d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . On A u g u s t 2 , 85 " i n a m o m e n t o f a m o s t c e r t a i n i n s a n i t y " , C r e e l e y m a i l e d t h i r t e e n p o e m s t o E m e r s o n " f o r a p o s s i b l e p a m p h l e t o f p o e m s , i f y o u h a v e e y e s f o r a n y s u c h a t t h i s j u n c t u r e o f t i m e " . T h e p o e m s w e r e a l l t h a t h e w i s h e d t o s a v e a t t h a t t i m e f r o m h i s p r e -v i o u s w o r k : - - S t i l l L i f e o r - - H a r t C r a n e ( 4 7 2 ) - - L e F o u - - L o v e ( 7 7 6 ) - - L i t t l e t o n , N . H . - - H e l a s - - H a r t C r a n e ( 7 8 0 ) - - D i v i s i o n s ( 7 9 0 ) - - T h e E p i c E x p a n d s - - G u i d o - - C r . n z o n e ( 7 3 2 ) - - L o v e ( 7 6 3 ) - - T h e S e a ( 7 E 7 ) . 8 4 T h e C h a r m ( 1 9 6 9 ) , p.. 18 ( 4 1 ) . 8 5 L e t t e r t o C o r m a n A u g u s t 3, 1 9 5 1 a t I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y ( 1 0 5 6 ) . 5 5 I n t h e a c c o m p a n y i n g l e t t e r h e m e n t i o n e d h a v i n g d i s c a r d e d " a b t 10 8 6 t i m e s t h i s p r e s e n t n u m b e r i n t h e p a s t 2 y r s " . On A u g u s t 3 , 1 9 5 1 C r e e l e y w r o t e " A S o n g " , h i s f i r s t g o o d p o e m . I n i t h e m a d e u s e f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e o f t h e s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t e n t o f h i s own l i f e , h i s t r o u b l e d r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h A n n , s o m e t h i n g h e h a d b e e n a b l e t o d o a s e a r l y a s 1 9 4 8 i n h i s s t o r i e s . H e r e , e v e n t h o u g h t h e m i d s e c t i o n i s t h i c k a n d w o r d y , t h e c h a r a c -t e r i s t i c r h y t h m o f C r e e l e y ' s s p e e c h b r e a k s t h r o u g h . A p p a r e n t l y t h e l a s t s e v e n l i n e s o f t h e p o e m c a m e t o h i m i n o n e m e a s u r e a n d t h e n , w i t h t h i s r h y t h m i n h i s e a r , h e w r o t e t h e b e g i n n i n g o f a p i e c e . I t w a s p r o b a b l y t h e f i r s t p o e m t o b e s o g i v e n t o h i m : A S o n g f o r A n n I h a d w a n t e d a q u i e t t e s t a m e n t a n d I h a d w a n t e d , a m o n g o t h e r t h i n g s , a s o n g . T h a t w a s t o b e o f a l i k e m o n o t o n y . (A g r a c e S i m p l y . V e r y v e r y q u i e t . A m u r m u r o f s o m e l o s t t h r u s h , t h o u g h I h a v e n e v e r s e e n o n e . W h i c h w a s y o u t h e n . S i t t i n g a n d s o , a t p e a c e , s o v e r y m u c h now t h i s s a m e q u i e t . A s o n g . A n d o f y o u t h e s i g n n o w , s u r e l y , o f a g r o s s p e r p e t u i t y ( w h i c h i s n o t r e l u c t a n t , o r i f i t i s , i t i s no l o n g e r i m p o r t a n t . A S o n g . W h i c h o n e s i n g s , i f h e s i n g s i t , w i t h c a r e . ^ 7 L e t t e r a t S i m o n F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y ( 1 0 4 1 ) . C r e e l e y h a d e a r l i e r s e n t a s i m i l a r p a c k a g e t o S w a l l o w P r e s s b u t h a d r e c e i v e d no a n s w e r b y t h i s t i m e . E m e r s o n a n d E c k m a n p u b l i s h e d " a n t h o l o -g i e s " o f p o e m s a s a s e p a r a t e s e c t i o n o f G o l d e n G o o s e a n d a l s o 5 6 T h e l a s t s e v e n l i n e s a r e i n f a c t t h e s o n g s o w a n t e d . C r e e l e y l a t e r s p o k e o f t h i s p o e m a s o n e i n w h i c h h e w a s " t r y i n g t o m a k e u s e o f w h a t C h a r l e s O l s o n h a d . . . s h o w n me t h a t t h e l i n e i t s e l f c o u l d be a n a r t i c u l a t i o n o f t h e f e e l i n g s t h a t w e r e i n h e r e n t i n t h e s t a t e m e n t . . . t h e l i n e c o u l d b e a r e g i s t e r o f t h a t f l u x o r 8 8 i m p r e s s o f e m o t i o n " . L a t e i n S e p t e m b e r 1 9 5 1 E m e r s o n r e p l i e d t h a t h e c o u l d p u b l i s h t h e b o o k l e t o f p o e m s i n 1 9 5 2 a n d C r e e l e y , v e r y p l e a s e d , s e n t o f f " A S o n g " a n d " T h e L e t t e r " t o r e p l a c e / \ p 9 " L o v e " ( 7 7 6 ; a n d " D i v i s i o n s " . " " He s u g g e s t e d t h e t i t l e L e F o u a f t e r t h e p o e m w r i t t e n i n t r i b u t e t o O l s o n . On N o v e m b e r 3 0 C r e e l e y s i g n e d t h e c o n t r a c t a n d a s k e d E m e r s o n t o r e m o v e " T h e S e a " a n d " T h e L e t t e r " . T h o u g h h e " f e l t t h e p i n c h " i n t h e c o n t e n t s , h e w a n t e d o n l y t h e p o e m s t h a t made i t f o r h i m . B y F a l l 1 9 5 1 C r e e l e y ' s p r o s e t h e o r y w a s w e l l d e v e l o p e d a n d h a d b e e n i n s t r u m e n t a l i n d i r e c t i n g h i m t o w a r d s a f u l l e r u s e o f p e r s o n a l c o n t e n t i n h i s p o e t r y a s w e l l . T h e F a l l o f 1 9 5 1 a n d t h e W i n t e r o f 1 9 5 1 - 5 2 w e r e e v e n l e s s p r o d u c t i v e o f p o e m s t h a n t h e y e a r s p r e c e d i n g . C r e e l e y ' s s t o r y - w r i t i n g ( h e w a s s t i l l w r i t i n g p r o s e b u t n o n e w a s s u c c e s s f u l ) , ' d r i e d up i n N o v e m b e r a s w e l l . A f e w o l d p o e m s w e r e r e v i s e d a n d a f e w p o e m s w r i t t e n w h i c h w e r e n o t o p e r a t e d t h e G o l d e n G o o s e P r e s s w h i c h p u b l i s h e d c h a p b o o k s o f p o e t r y . F o r L o v e , p . 18 ( l l , 4 7 4 ) . ' T h e p o e m w a s f i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n O r i g i n I\l ( W i n t e r 1 9 5 1 - 5 2 ) . T h e t w o d r a f t s w e r e s e n t i n a l e t t e r o f A u g u s t 3 , 1 9 5 1 t o C o r m a n a t I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y ( 1 0 5 6 ) . 8 8 T r a n s c r i b e d f r o m t h e t a p e made a t C r e e l e y ' s r e a d i n g May 3 , 1 9 6 5 a t W a s h i n g t o n U n i v e r s i t y ( 1 0 2 5 ) . 8 9 " T h e L e t t e r " w a s n e v e r p u b l i s h e d . T h e r e a r e m a n u s c r i p t s o f t h e p o e m a t S i m o n F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y ( 1 0 9 5 ) a n d I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y ( 1 0 9 9 ) . 5 7 c o n s i d e r e d g o o d e n o u g h t o k e e p . " F o r R a i n e r G e r h a r d t " ( 4 7 6 ) , 9 0 p r o b a b l y w r i t t e n e a r l y i n 1 9 5 2 , s t i l l s e e m e d p r o m i s i n g w h e n C r e e l e y w r o t e t o C o r m a n M a r c h 2 9 , 1 9 5 2 : "I d o f e e l d a m n g o o d , a s f a r a s w r i t i n g g o e s , I t h i n k s o m e t h i n g w i l l g e t o u t n o w . . . . On t h e p o e m f o r R / - - t a k e y o u r t i m e . . . I l i k e i t , - - i n f a c t , i t i s , f o r m e , t h e s a m e l i n e a s A S O N G , t h o s e t w o m a k i n g t h e m o s t y e t . . . . T h a t t h e r e i s t h a t TONE i n t h e m , - - i t c h e e r s me a l o t . O t h e r w i s e , t h e s e l i t t l e o n e s . . . . M a i n l y t h e i m m e d i a t e , how t o g e t i n t o t h a t " ( 1 0 5 6 ) . T h e p o e m s s e n t w e r e " E r o s " ( B v l l ) , " T h e P e n i t e n t " ( 8 1 0 ) , a n d " I t I s a t T i m e s " ( 8 0 8 ) . T h e y w e r e p u b l i s h e d w i t h o n e w r i t t e n a b o u t t h e s a m e t i m e , " T h e E u r o p e a n s " ( 6 0 9 ) , i n F e r r i n i & O t h e r s , a n a n t h o l o g y o f a n o n y m o u s p o e m s b y C r e e l e y , C o r m a n , O l s o n 91 ' a n d F e r r i n i , w h i c h a p p e a r e d e a r l y i n 1 9 5 3 . D u r i n g t h e f i r s t t w o w e e k s o f A p r i l 1 9 5 2 , a p e r i o d o f g r e a t b i t t e r n e s s a g a i n s t A n n , C r e e l e y b r o k e h i s d r y s p e l l a n d w r o t e a b o u t f i f t e e n new p o e m s . S o m e h o w , p e r h a p s i n a n a t t e m p t t o u s e t h e p o e t r y a s a c a t h a r s i s , h e h a d m a n a g e d t o g e t a w a y f r o m r h e t o r i c a n d t o w r i t e q u i c k l y , c l e a n l y f r o m t h e s e l f . F o u r o f t h e p o e m s - - " T h e I n n o c e n c e " ( 4 8 0 ) , " T h e C r i s i s " ( 4 7 5 ) , " T h e R h y m e " 9 2 ( 4 7 9 ) , a n d " T h e R i d d l e " ( 4 7 7 ) - - w e r e s u p e r b . T h e m a n u s c r i p t s o f 9 0 C r e e l e y f o u n d i t l a c k i n g b y May 1 3 , 1 9 5 2 . T h e p o e m w a s p u b l i s h e d i n O r i g i n V I ( S u m m e r 1 9 5 2 ) . 9 1 V i n c e n t F e r r i n i c o m p i l e d i t , C r e e l e y a c t e d a s g o - b e t w e e n i n E u r o p e , a n d 3 0 0 c o p i e s w e r e p r i n t e d i n K a r l s r u h e , G e r m a n y t h r o u g h R a i n e r G e r h a r d t . C r e e l e y ' s p o e m s w e r e a m o n g t h o s e s e l e c t e d o u t o f T h e W h i p . A l s o w r i t t e n i n t h e b a t c h w e r e " S o m e t h i n g f o r E a s t e r " ( 7 8 9 ) , w r i t t e n d i r e c t l y a s w a s " T h e C r i s i s " o u t o f t h e b i t t e r c o n t e n t o f t h e m a r r i a g e ; " T h e C a n t o s " ( 7 6 8 ) , a " p u s h t e c h n i c a l l y " b u t o t h e r w i s e o f f ; a n d f o u r u n p u b l i s h e d p o e m s w h i c h d i d n ' t m a k e i t . T h e t i t l e s o f t h e o t h e r s h a v e b e e n l o s t b u t t h e y w e r e p r o b a b l y a m o n g t h e new p o e m s l i s t e d May 2 9 f o r L e F o u . 5 8 " T h e R h y m e " g i v e u s a n i n s i g h t i n t o t h e w r i t i n g o f t h e p o e m s . " T h e R h y m e " a p p e a r s t o h a v e b e e n w r i t t e n s t r a i g h t o f f i n t h r e e s t a n z a s , b u t i n t h e s e c o n d s t a n z a t h e r h y t h m o f t h e p o e m i s o b s c u r e d b y a n a w k w a r d w o r d i n e s s : T h e r e i s t h e s i g n o f t h e f l o w e r - -t o . b o r r o w t h e t h e m e . B u t o t h e r w i s e w h a t o r w h e r e t o r e c o v e r e v e n a p a r t o f w h a t i s n o t l o v e t o o s i m p l y . I s a w h e r a n d b e h i n d h e r t h e r e w e r e f l o w e r s , a n d b e h i n d t h e m n o t h i n g . I n r e v i s i n g , t h e s t a n z a i s f i r s t c u t d o w n . . . B u t w h a t o r w h e r e t o r e c o v e r w h a t i s n o t l o v e t o o s i m p l y . . . . t h e n r e l i n e d s o t h a t t h e f i r s t l i n e r u n s m o r e q u i c k l y t h a n t h e l a s t t w o a n d t h e r h y t h m i s c l e a r l y r e v e a l e d : T h e r e i s t h e s i g n o f t h e f l o w e r - -t o b o r r o w t h e t h e m e . B u t w h a t o r w h e r e t o r e c o v e r w h a t i s n o t l o v e t o o s i m p l y . I s aw h e r a n d b e h i n d h e r t h e r e w e r e f l o w e r s , a n d b e h i n d t h e m n o t h i n g . 9 3 C r e e l e y t o l d C o r m a n t h a t t h i s p o e m i l l u s t r a t e d P o u n d ' s l a w o f d i s c o u r s e ( D i c h t e n : C o n d e n s a r e ) : " S a y w h a t y o u h a v e t o s a y a n d t h e n s h u t Op" ( 1 0 5 6 ) . T h e f i n a l v e r s i o n d o e s n o t h a v e a s i n g l e 9 3 F r o m t h e m a n u s c r i p t s a t S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y o f New Y o r k a t B u f f a l o ( 1 0 8 7 ) . 5 9 i n a c t i v e w o r d . F o r m a n d c o n t e n t w e r e o r g a n i c a l l y c o n c e i v e d a n d d e l i v e r e d . T h e f u n c t i o n o f r e v i s i o n i s t o r e v e a l t h e r h y t h m t h a t i s t h e r e i n t h e d r a f t , t h o u g h i m p e r f e c t l y t r a n s c r i b e d b y t h e w o r d s , n o t t o r e c a s t t h e p o e m . I n " T h e I n n o c e n c e " , " T h e R h y m e " , " T h e C r i s i s " , a n d " T h e R i d d l e " , t h e d i s t r a c t i o n ( i n t h e e a r l i e r p o e m s ) o f h a v i n g t h e l i n e s s c a t t e r e d a l l o v e r t h e p a g e i s r e d u c e d , a n d t h e l i n e s c l e a r l y r e c o r d t h e s t r u c t u r a l r h y t h m o f • i 9 4 t h e p o e m s . C r e e l e y d i s c u s s e d t h e new b a t c h o f p o e m s i n a l o n g l e t t e r o f may 1 3 , 1 9 5 2 t o C o r m a n : F i n a l l y , I ' d l i k e t o be a b l e t o s a y a n y t h i n g , e i t h e r w i t h a p o e m , o r p r o s e , o r w h a t e v e r . . . . M u c h o f t h e w o r k , t h e n , o f t h i s l a s t g r o u p , i s o f t h a t a t t e m p t ; I w r o t e , n o t t o o q u i c k l y , b u t a t l e a s t o n w h a t e v e r t h i n g w a s t h e n t o h a n d . . . . I t h i n k t h e a t t e n t i o n s a r e t h e o n l y l e a d e r s , w h a t , s a y , c a n b e f a s t e n e d o n . I am a l i t t l e s i c k o f " g r e a t t h o u g h t s " . . . . W e l l , we g e t now t o t h o s e t w o I l i k e m o s t , o f t h i s b u n c h ( b u t t o a d d , p o s s i b l y , R h y m e " ^ ) t i . e . , T h e I n n o c e n c e a n d T h e C r i s i s . I t ' s d a m n h a r d t o b a l a n c e a n a c t u a l h u m o r , a s I w a s t h e n g e t t i n g i t , a n d s o m e t h i n g u n d e r t h a t , w h i c h i s n o t a t a l l s o . I m e a n , i n s h o r t , n o t a k i n d o f h u m o r t h a t w i l l , b y v i r t u e o f i t s g e n e r o u s l a u g h t e r , s l i p i n t h e p h i l o s o p h i c k n i f e s a n s p a i n , e t c . I d i d n ' t w a n t t h a t ; I w a s a n g r y , I w a n t e d t h a t . . . . o n e w o u l d h a v e t o b e m a r r i e d t o d i g t h i s o n e u l t i m a t e l y . . . . T h e I n n o c e n c e m a k e s me v e r y , v e r y h a p p y . I ' v e n e v e r w r i t t e n o n e l i k e i t b e f o r e . I do f e e l i t a n a c c o m p l i s h m e n t , a n d I h o n e s t l y d o n o t f e e l v e r y m u c h t h a t I w r i t e i s t h a t . I w a n t e d t o s a y s o m e -t h i n g q u i e t l y ; r e a l l y , i n t h a t w a y , i t h a r k s b a c k t o A S o n g , i t ' i s p r e c i s e l y t h a t s t a t e m e n t t h e n w a n t e d , a n d t h o u g h s u g g e s t e d , i n t h e l a s t l i n e s , o f c o u r s e n o t a c t u a l l y t h e i s s u e t h e n t o h a n d . 94 C r e e l e y c o n f i r m e d h i s u s e o f t h e p a g e t o s c o r e t h e l a n g u a g e o f t h e p o e m , " i n t h e s e n s e t h a t [ t h e w o r d s ' ] s p a t i a l p o s i t i o n s t h e r e w i l l a l l o w a r e a d e r t o r e a d t h e m , w i t h h i s own v o i c e , t o t h a t e n d t h e p o e t i s a f t e r - - i . e . , t h e p o e m i n i t s f u l l i m p a c t o f s p e e c h " , i n a l e t t e r o f J u l y 1 5 , 1 9 5 2 t o R a y m o n d S o u s t e r , t h e e d i t o r o f C o n t a c t . T h e l e t t e r w a s p u b l i s h e d i n C o n t a c t , I I , i i ( F e b r u a r y - A p r i l 1 9 5 3 ) , 1 4 - 1 6 ( 9 2 5 ) . A t t h e t i m e o f w r i t i n g R h y m e " , l i k e t h e s t o r y " T h e i t r e c o r d e d a n u g l y p a r t o f t h e l e t t e r C r e e l e y f e l t t h a t " T h e G r a c e " ( 4 6 4 ) , w a s a n u g l y p o e m b e c a u s e h i s e x p e r i e n c e . 6 0 Two t h i n g s : c o n c i s i o n , o f s t a t e m e n t ; q u i e t , o f s t a t e m e n t . I d o n ' t g e t a t e i t h e r v e r y s i m p l y , I d o n ' t s e e how o n e c a n . I w a n t e d t o p u t i t a l l i n , a " s t a t e m e n t " ( b u t h a r d l y a n " a d d r e s s " e t c . ) , a s t a t e m e n t e v e n , o r j u s t t o , m y s e l f , t h a t w o u l d s a y my own s e n s e o f t h a t c o n f r o n t i n g m e . . . . T h e r e i t i s , f l a t l y , - - s k y / g r o u n d . W e , - - o n i t . I c o u l d n ' t c o n d e n s e b e y o n d t h a t , I c o u l d n ' t s a y i t m o r e c o m p l e t e l y . W h e r e I a m , - - w h e r e , m o r e , I t h i n k we a r e . . . . A n y h o w , I l i k e i t , I l i k e t h i s o n e v e r y , v e r y m u c h . I t i s m y s e l f a s a c t u a l l y a s I ' v e e v e r b e e n a b l e t o s a y i t , i t i s m y s e l f t a l k i n g , o r s p e a k i n g , i n my o w n t o n g u e . Y o u d o n ' t d o t h a t v e r y o f t e n i n a p o e m , no o n e d o e s . . . . T h e t w o w a y s l i f e i s , - - e i t h e r " l e a v e s " , o r " r o c k " , a n d w h a t i s , o f e i t h e r k i n d , a l s o i n i t s e l f a l i v i n g . N o t a t a l l m e t a p h y s i c a l . One a c t s a n y h o w , o n e t r i e s t o , a n d i f d a m n d a m n l u c k y s e e s t h a t s o m e t h i n g i s k e p t , t h a t o n e c a n k e e p s o m e t h i n g . ( 1 0 5 6 ) A t t h e e n d o f May 1 9 5 2 , E m e r s o n a d v i s e d C r e e l e y t h a t he w a s c o m m i t t e d t o a 2 8 - p a g e l e n g t h f o r L e F o u a n d w o u l d n e e d m o r e p o e m s t o f i l l t h e s p a c e . On May 2 9 C r e e l e y s e n t E m e r s o n t h e f i n a l l i s t o f t i t l e s : - - S t i l l L i f e o r - - H a r t C r a n e ( 4 7 2 ) — H e l a s — L e F o u - - L i t t l e t o n , N . H . - - H a r t C r a n e ( 7 8 0 ) - - C a n z o n e - - T h e E p i c E x p a n d s - - G u i d o - - A S o n g - - L o v e ( 7 8 3 ) - - T h e C r i s i s - - F o r R a i n e r G e r h a r d t - - T h e R i d d l e - - T h e S u r f ( 7 8 5 ) - - T h e D r u m s ( 7 8 6 ) - - T h e R i t e s ( 4 7 8 ) - - T h e S e a - - T h e C a n t o s - - T h e B a l l Game ( 4 8 1 ) — T h e R h y m e - - T h e I n n o c e n c e — S o m e t h i n g f o r E a s t e r . He p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e o r d e r w a s i m p o r t a n t - - " 1 1 ' s t h e o n l y o n e t h a t s e e m s t o l e t t h e p o e m s k e e p t o g e t h e r w i t h o u t t o o damn m u c h f i g h t i n g " - - a n d t h a t t h e p o e m s 96 w e r e t h e b e s t he h a d . T h e d e d i c a t i o n w a s t o b e " F o r H e l e n " , h i s s i s t e r . C r e e l e y w a s n o t h a p p y t h a t h i s l a t e s t p o e m s h a d t o b e c o m b i n e d w i t h t h e e a r l i e r o n e s . He h a d o r i g i n a l l y w a n t e d t h e b o o k t o e n d w i t h " A S o n g " , t h e c u l m i n a t i o n o f h i s e a r l y s t y l e . L e t t e r a t S i m o n F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y ( 1 0 4 1 ) . T h e m a n u s c r i p t s o f t h e p o e m s , s e n t s e v e r a l l y i n l e t t e r s t o E m e r s o n , a r e a t S i m o n F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y a s w e l l ( 1 0 9 5 ) . 61 T h e p o e m s w e r e p u b l i s h e d , w i t h a f e w c h a n g e s i n o r d e r , a s L e F o u ( l ) b y t h e G o l d e n G o o s e P r e s s , C o l u m b u s , O h i o i n O c t o b e r 1 9 5 2 . N i n e o f t h e p o e m s w e r e p u b l i s h e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y a s " A n t h o l o g y : L e F o u " i n G o l d e n G o o s e , S e r i e s 4 , N o . 5 ( 5 2 ) . T h e f r o n t i s p i e c e d r a w i n g o f C r e e l e y i n t h e b o o k w a s b y A s h l e y B r y a n , a y o u n g p a i n t e r who l i v e d n e x t t o t h e C r e e l e y s i n F r a n c e f o r a t i m e . By m i d - N o v e m b e r C r e e l e y h a d r e c e i v e d c o p i e s a n d w a s i m m e n s e l y p l e a s e d w i t h t h i s h i s f i r s t b o o k . C o r m a n p r a i s e d i t a s w e l l , a n d i n f a c t g a v e t h e b o o k t h e o n l y " r e v i e w " i t w o u l d h a v e , i n h i s a r t i c l e " T h e V o i c e a s t h e I n s t r u m e n t o f V e r s e " i n O r i g i n I X ( S p r i n g 1 9 5 3 ) w h i c h b e g a n , " T o d a y , p e r h a p s t h e m o s t e x p r e s s i v e u s e o f t h e o p e n l i n e i s f o u n d i n t h e v e r s e o f R o b e r t C r e e l e y " . He q u o t e d " T h e C r i s i s " i n f u l l , c o m m e n t i n g s u c c i n c t l y t h a t " m u c h o f t h e b e a u t y o f t h i s s h o r t p o e m o c c u r s t h r o u g h t h e s t r i c t u s a g e o f l a n g u a g e a n d a c l e a r r e g a r d o f t h e p o e t f o r t h e e x a c t p r o g r e s s i o n s o f h i s v o i c e " ( 2 5 5 ) . C r e e l e y l i k e d C o r m a n ' s w h o l e e s s a y a n d t h o u g h t t h a t t h e c o m m e n t s o n h i s p o e m w e r e t h e b e s t he h a d y e t r e c e i v e d . V I I n O c t o b e r 1 9 5 2 , t h e m o n t h t h a t C r e e l e y ' s f i r s t b o o k w a s p u b l i s h e d , t h e f a m i l y m o v e d t o t h e S p a n i s h i s l a n d o f M a l l o r c a . A f e w m o n t h s e a r l i e r , C r e e l e y h a d w r i t t e n t o a y o u n g E n g l i s h w r i t e r , M a r t i n S e y m o u r - S m i t h , o n l y t o d i s c o v e r t h a t he w a s t u t o r i n g R o b e r t G r a v e s ' s o n W i l l i a m o n M a l l o r c a . W i t h p r i n t i n g c h e a p o n t h e i s l a n d S e y m o u r - S m i t h w a s a b o u t t o s e t up a p r e s s t o i s s u e p a m p h l e t s o f A m e r i c a n a n d B r i t i s h a u t h o r s a n d a s k e d C r e e l e y 62 t o h e l p w i t h t h e A m e r i c a n e n d . T h e C r e e l e y s v i s i t e d t h e i s l a n d a n d f i n d i n g i t m o r e p l e a s a n t t h a n F r a n c e , s c o u t e d a r o u n d d u r i n g O c t o b e r a n d m o v e d i n N o v e m b e r t o B a n y a l b u f a r , a s m a l l t o w n o n t h e m o u n t a i n o u s n o r t h - w e s t c o a s t . T h o u g h c u t o f f f r o m t h e t o w n ' s p e o p l e b y v i r t u e o f t h e i r u n i q u e l a n g u a g e a n d c u s t o m s a n d t h r o w n b a c k o n h i s now t e n u o u s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h A n n , C r e e l e y f o u n d i t a b e a u t i f u l s e t t i n g a n d o n e c o n d u c i v e t o w r i t i n g . H i s f r i e n d s h i p w i t h S e y m o u r - S m i t h b e c a m e m o r e s t r a i n e d a s t h e f i r s t R o e b u c k P r e s s p a m p h l e t w e n t t o p r e s s i n N o v e m b e r , a n d b e c o m e s t h e s t o r y o f h i s own D i v e r s P r e s s , t o b e t a k e n up l a t e r . T h e C r e e l e y s ' l i f e i n B a n y a l b u f a r f r o m N o v e m b e r 1 9 5 2 t o M a r c h 1 9 5 4 i s t h e s u b j e c t o f C r e e l e y ' s o n l y . n o v e l T h e I s l a n d , i n w h i c h M a r t i n a n d J a n e t S e y m o u r - S m i t h a p p e a r a s A r t i e a n d M a r g e - - a s u b - t a l e t h a t C r e e l e y f o u n d h a r d t o k e e p d o w n . L i k e C r e e l e y ' s s t o r i e s t h e n o v e l i s p r o s e n a r r a t i v e n o t f i c t i o n ( p l o t ) t h o u g h u n l i k e t h e s t o r i e s t h e r e i s a d i s t a n c i n g — i t w a s w r i t t e n f r o m F a l l 1 9 6 0 t o F e b r u a r y 1 9 6 3 — f r o m t h e e v e n t s n a r r a t e d . T h e i s l a n d i s a c t u a l l y r e l i v e d a u t o b i o g r a p h y a n d t h e f a c t s w e r e s o m e t i m e s e x t e n d e d i n t o f i c t i o n o r f a n t a s y i n C r e e l e y ' s r e l i v i n g o f t h e m . T h i s p r o c e s s t o o k p l a c e n a t u r a l l y i n t h e t e l l i n g o n c e C r e e l e y g a v e e a c h c h a p t e r o f t h e s t o r y ( e a c h w r i t t e n o n a s i n g l e d a y ) i t s h e a d a n d f o l l o w e d i t s d i g r e s s i o n . I t i s t h u s J o h n ' s s i d e ( o r d i s t o r t i o n ) o f t h e s t o r y , i n s p i t e o f t h e u s e o f t h e t h i r d p e r s o n , a n d b e c o m e s m o r e s o a s t h e n a r r a t i o n p r o g r e s s e s . I n h i s d e s i r e t o g e t t h e s t o r y r i g h t ( i n f a i r n e s s t o a l l c o n c e r n e d ) , C r e e l e y m a k e s J o h n a d u l l e d a l t e r e g o — a s i f h e w e r e t r y i n g t o b e T i r e s i a s t h r o u g h h i s own e y e s . J o h n i s t h e v i c t i m o f h i s own l a c k o f s u c c e s s a s a w r i t e r , h i s d e p e n d e n c e o n h i s w i f e J o a n f i n a n c i a l l y 6 3 a n d o t h e r w i s e a n d , m o r e d i r e c t l y , a v i c t i m o f A r t i e who e x p l o i t s J o h n by e x a g g e r a t i n g h i s own d i f f i c u l t i e s w h i c h J o h n i s t o o s y m p a t h e t i c t o d i s c r e d i t . T h e n o v e l d e t a i l s J o a n ' s p r o g r e s s i v e d i s t a n c i n g f r o m J o h n t h r o u g h t h e i r s e x u a l a n d o t h e r d i f f e r e n c e s , h e r i l l n e s s a n d o p e r a t i o n w h i c h e x p o s e h i s s e x u a l g u i l t , a n d h i s p e r s i s t a n t f o r c i n g o f t h e d e a t h o f t h e m a r r i a g e b y w a y o f h e r p e r s o n . F i n a l l y , J o a n i s t h e v i c t i m o f J o h n ' s d i s t o r t e d v i e w o f t h i n g s . H i s a t t e m p t t o g e t t o t h e s o u r c e o f h i s t r o u b l e i s a b o u t a s e f f e c t i v e a s H a m l e t ' s : h e l o s e s a l l i n t h e f i n d i n g . I n t h e t e l l i n g , C r e e l e y b r i n g s i n t o p l a y a r e m a r k a b l e s e n s e o f h u m o r a n d c o m p a s s i o n w h i c h , t h o u g h e x a g g e r a t i n g t h e p a t h o s o f J o h n ' s o b s e s s i o n , i n c r e a s e s o u r e n j o y m e n t o f t h e n a r r a t i o n . I t i s , a b o v e a l l , a w e l l - t o l d s t o r y . I n [Ylay 1 9 5 3 , b e t w e e n A n n ' s a t t a c k a n d h e r o p e r a t i o n , t h e C r e e l e y s w e r e v i s i t e d i n B a n y a l b u f a r b y t h e a r t i s t R e n e L a u b i e s a n d b y t h e B r i t i s h w r i t e r a n d e d i t o r R o b e r t C o o p e r , who a p p e a r i n T h e I s l a n d a s L e l y a n d W i l l i s r e s p e c t i v e l y . L a u b i e s q u i c k l y b e c a m e a c l o s e f r i e n d a n d s e e m e d u n d e n i a b l y a t t r a c t i v e t o A n n w h o s e h i d d e n f e e l i n g s w e r e d i s c o v e r e d a c c i d e n t a l l y b y C r e e l e y i n 9 7 t h e p r o c e s s o f w r i t i n g t h e f a n t a s y " T h e B o a t " . T h i s s t o r y , w h i c h i s o p e n l y d e a l t w i t h i n T h e I s l a n d , w a s w r i t t e n J u n e 2 , 1 9 5 3 o u t o f t h e a c t u a l c o n f u s i o n o f t h a t t i m e . I t w a s t h e f i r s t s t o r y w r i t t e n s i n c e t h e b a t c h o f t h r e e - - " . T h e P a r t y " , " T h e G r a c e " , a n d " J a r d o u " - - a y e a r a n d a h a l f e a r l i e r . L i k e t h o s e s t o r i e s , " T h e B o a t " m a k e s u s e o f t h e e x t e n s i v e p r o s e t h e o r y C r e e l e y h a d d e v e l o p e d b y F a l l 1 9 5 1 . T h e n a r r a t o r i s d i s p e n s e d w i t h a n d a 9 7 P u b l i s h e d i n T h e K e n y o n R e v i e w , X V , i v ( A u t u m n 1 9 5 3 ) ( 4 6 6 ) . 64 m o r e o b j e c t i v e h a n d l i n g r e s u l t s . A s e c o n d s t o r y , " T h e G o l d D i g g e r s " ( 4 6 7 ) , w a s w r i t t e n A u g u s t 1 9 , 1 9 5 3 d u r i n g a v i s i t b y J o n a t h a n W i l l i a m s ( w h o w a s w i t h t h e U . S . A r m y i n G e r m a n y a t t h e t i m e ) a n d h a d a p p a r e n t l y b e e n s u g g e s t e d b y a c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h h i m . I t i s C r e e l e y ' s o n l y " f i c t i o n a l " s t o r y . " A D e a t h " ( 4 5 8 ) w a s w r i t t e n S e p t e m b e r 2 7 a n d b e c o m e s p a r t o f T h e I s l a n d i n a d i f f e r e n t f o r m . I t i s b a s e d o n a n i n c i d e n t w h i c h t o o k p l a c e i n t h e t o w n o f B a n y a l b u f a r w h i l e t h e C r e e l e y s l i v e d t h e r e . A l l t h r e e s t o r i e s w e r e w r i t t e n i n a " q u i c k e r , m o r e f l e x i b l e s t y l e . N o t n e c e s s a r i l y m o r e b a r e . . . b u t h a r d e r , o r l e a n e r , a n d a b l e t o 9 8 s h a p e r o u n d t h e a c t i o n , a t q u i c k e r s p e e d " . T h e t h r e e new s t o r i e s w e r e a d d e d t o t h e s m a l l c o l l e c t i o n o f C r e e l e y ' s p r e v i o u s s t o r i e s w h i c h G r o v e P r e s s h a d c o n s i d e r e d a n d t u r n e d d o w n o v e r t h e p a s t w i n t e r . C o r m a n h a d c o n s i d e r e d a new s e l e c t i o n o f C r e e l e y ' s s t o r i e s f o r P r i g i n X I I b u t t h i s d i d n o t w o r k o u t a n d J o n a t h a n W i l l i a m s , a b o u t t o p u b l i s h a b o o k o f C r e e l e y ' s p o e m s , w a s n o t i n t e r e s t e d i n p u b l i s h i n g t h e m i n h i s J a r g o n s e r i e s . A l e x a n d e r T r o c c h i , o n e o f t h e e d i t o r s o f M e r l i n , v i s i t e d C r e e l e y i n O c t o b e r 1 9 5 3 w i t h t h e s u g g e s t i o n t h a t t h e s t o r i e s m i g h t m a k e a b o o k i n t h e C o l l e c t i o n M e r l i n s e r i e s , p u b l i s h e d b y t h e O l y m p i a P r e s s i n P a r i s . C r e e l e y ' s r e a c t i o n t o t h i s g e n e r o u s o f f e r i s e x a g g e r a t e d a m u s i n g l y i n T h e I s 1 a n d i i n w h i c h T r o c c h i a p p e a r s a s M a n u s . T h e b o o k w a s c o n s i d e r e d a n d M e r l i n w a s t o p u b l i s h s ome o f C r e e l e y ' s p o e m s a n d " T h e G o l d D i g g e r s " , b u t p l a n s f o r t h e b o o k f e l l t h r o u g h a n d C r e e l e y 9 8 L e t t e r f r o m C r e e l e y t o C o r m a n O c t o b e r 3 0 , 1 9 5 1 ( 1 0 5 6 ) . 6 5 r e t r a c t e d t h e w o r k s u b m i t t e d t o t h e m a g a z i n e , w a n t i n g t o k e e p t h e t i t l e s t o r y c l e a r . T h e s t o r i e s w e r e f i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d by C r e e l e y ' s o w n D i v e r s P r e s s . i n M a r c h 1 9 5 4 a s T h e G o l d D i g g e r s ( 4 ) . He h a d g i v e n up h o p e o f a n y o n e e l s e d o i n g i t . T h e p r e f a c e , w r i t t e n D e c e m b e r 1 4 , 1 9 5 3 , s u m s up h i s t h e o r y o f f o r m i n p r o s e n a r r a t i v e : T h e s t o r y h a s n o t i m e f i n a l l y . O r i t h a s n ' t h e r e . I t s s h a p e , i f f o r m c a n b e s o t h o u g h t o f , i s a s p h e r e , a n e g g o f o b d u r a t e k i n d . T h e o n l y p o s s i b l e r e a s o n f o r i t s e x i s t e n c e i s t h a t i t h a s , i n i t s e l f , t h e f a c t o f r e a l i t y a n d t h e p r e s s u r e . T h e r e , i n s h o r t , i s i t s f o r m - - n o m a t t e r how r a n d o m a n d b r o k e n t h a t w i l l s e e m . T h e o l d a s s u m p t i o n s o f b e g i n n i n g a n d e n d — t h o s e v e r y n e a t a s s e r t i o n s — h a v e f a l l e n way c o m p l e t e l y i n a p l a c e w h e r e t h e o n l y a c t u a l i t y i s l i f e , t h e o n l y e n d ( n e v e r r e a l i s e d ) d e a t h , a n d t h e o n l y v a l u e , w h a t l o v e o n e c a n m a n a g e . I t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o t h i n k o t h e r w i s e , o r a t l e a s t I h a v e f o u n d i t s o . I b e g i n w h e r e I c a n , a n d e n d w h e n I s e e t h e w h o l e t h i n g r e t u r n i n g . P e r h a p s t h a t i s an o b s e s s i o n . T h e s e p e o p l e , a n d w h a t h a p p e n s t o t h e m h e r e , h a v e n e v e r b e e n c o m p l e t e l y my d e c i s i o n — b e c a u s e i f y o u o n c e s a y s o m e t h i n g , i t w i l l l e a d y o u t o s a y m o r e t h a n y o u h a d m e a n t t o . " 9 T h e s t o r i e s c o l l e c t e d w e r e : - - M r B l u e — A D e a t h — 3 F a t e T a l e s — T h e P a r t y — T h e L o v e r — I n t h e S ummer — T h e S e a n c e — T h e G r a c e - - J a r d o u — T h e B o a t — T h e G o l d D i g g e r s . T h e t w o m o s t r e c e n t , " A D e a t h " a n d " T h e G o l d D i g g e r s " , h a d n o t b e e n p r e v i o u s l y p u b l i s h e d . I n s p i t e o f t h e p o r t r a y a l o f J o h n a s a n u n s u c c e s s f u l w r i t e r i n T h e I s l a n d t h e B a n y a l b u f a r p e r i o d w a s m a r k e d by t h e b e g i n n i n g s o f s u c c e s s f o r C r e e l e y . H i s f i r s t f o u r b o o k s a p p e a r e d b e t w e e n O c t o b e r 1 9 5 2 a n d M a r c h 1 9 5 4 w h e n h e l e f t t h e i s l a n d t o t e a c h a t B l a c k M o u n t a i n C o l l e g e , N o r t h C a r o l i n a , o n C h a r l e s O l s o n ' s i n v i t a t i o n . A f t e r L e F o u t h e y w e r e T h e K i n d O f A c t O f ( a b o o k o f p o e m s p u b l i s h e d J u l y 1 9 5 3 by D i v e r s P r e s s ) , T h e I m m o r a l 9 9 T h e G o l d D i g g e r s ( N e w Y o r k : S c r i b n e r ' s , C 1 9 6 5 ) , p p . 7 - 8 ( 1 9 , 9 1 5 7 ^ 66 P r o p o s i t i o n ( p o e m s p u b l i s h e d b y J o n a t h a n W i l l i a m s ' J a r g o n P r e s s i n A u t u m n 1 9 5 3 ) , a n d T h e G o l d D i g g e r s . H i s e a r l i e r p u b l i c a t i o n i n O r i g i n I I , New D i r e c t i o n s X I I I , G o l d e n G o o s e S e r i e s 4 N o . 5 , v a r i o u s a p p e a r a n c e s i n o t h e r m a g a z i n e s , a n d t h e g r a d u a l d i s t r i -b u t i o n o f t h e s e f o u r b o o k s b e g a n t o b r i n g C r e e l e y ' s w o r k t o t h e a t t e n t i o n o f f e l l o w w r i t e r s , i f n o t y e t c r i t i c s , f i r s t i n t h e c i r c l e o f c o n t r i b u t o r s t o G o l d e n G o o s e , O r i g i n , a n d t h e f e w o t h e r m a g a z i n e s p u b l i s h i n g new w r i t i n g . D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d C r e e l e y c o r r e s p o n d e d s e v e r a l t i m e s a w e e k w i t h C o r m a n a n d O l s o n , a n d r e g u l a r l y w i t h W i l l i a m s , P o u n d , B l a c k b u r n , L e v e r t o v , F e r r i n i , T r o c c h i , R a y m o n d S o u s t e r , I r v i n g L a y t o n , a n d a n u m b e r o f o t h e r s . A s w e l l , h e w a s c o n t i n u a l l y d a s h i n g o f f l e t t e r s t o new c o n t a c t s , p r i m a r i l y w r i t e r s w h o s e w o r k h e a d m i r e d . He h a s s a i d t h a t h e w r o t e l e t t e r s up t o e i g h t h o u r s a d a y w h i l e l i v i n g o n M a l l o r c a . D u r i n g t h e B a n y a l b u f a r p e r i o d C r e e l e y ' s a c t i v e s u p p o r t o f O r i g i n a n d o t h e r new m a g a z i n e s c o n t i n u e d , S i n - c e ' e a r l y 1 9 5 0 w h e n h e a t t e m p t e d t o s t a r t a m a g a z i n e i n L i t t l e t o n , New H a m p s h i r e , C r e e l e y ' s d e s p a i r a t t h e m a g a z i n e a n d b o o k p u b l i s h i n g s y s t e m h a d i n v o l v e d h i m i n a n o f t e n f u l l - t i m e s t r u g g l e t o e s t a b l i s h a n a l t e r n a t e s y s t e m r e s p o n s i v e t o t h e b e s t e x p e r i m e n t a l new w r i t i n g . He w a s j o i n e d i n t h i s s t r u g g l e b y C o r m a n , O l s o n , a n d l a t e r o t h e r s . C r e e l e y w a s , i n f a c t , a n i n f o r m a l a g e n t f o r O r i g i n f r o m i t s b e g i n n i n g a n d a s A m e r i c a n E d i t o r w a s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e a p p e a r -a n c e o f W i l l i a m s a n d t h e new A m e r i c a n w r i t i n g i n t h e G e r m a n m a g a z i n e F r a q m e n t e ( 1 9 5 1 - 5 2 ) . A s w e l l h e w a s a s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t o r t o G o l d e n G o o s e , New D i r e c t i o n s , G o a d , W o u , New  M e x i c o Q u a r t e r l y , C o n t a c t , C I U / n , a n d o t h e r l i t t l e m a g a z i n e s . F r o m 1 9 5 0 t o 1 9 5 7 h i s o w n c o n c e r n s , l e t t e r s , a n d c r i t i c a l p r o s e 67 were l a r g e l y caught up i n the h i s t o r y of the l i t t l e magazines which opened to new w r i t i n g i n the e a r l y f i f t i e s and h i s p o e t r y and f i c t i o n was w r i t t e n with t h i s audience i n m i n d . ^ C r e e l e y was one of the m a j o r . i m p u l s e s of t h i s movement, though he d i d not a c t u a l l y e d i t a magazine u n t i l B lack Mountain Review began S p r i n g 1954. His own D i v e r s Press had begun to p u b l i s h works by the best new w r i t e r s a year e a r l i e r . In 1950 the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a new w r i t e r i n the Pound and W i l l i a m s underground to p u b l i s h through e x i s t i n g magazines or p r e s s e s was s e v e r e l y l i m i t e d . From 1950 to 1952 the p u b l i s h i n g scene opened up c o n s i d e r a b l y wi th O r i g i n encourag ing and pub-l i s h i n g new w r i t e r s and Golden Goose c o n t i n u i n g r e c e p t i v e to W i l l i a m s ' f o l l o w e r s . O l s o n ' s f r i e n d Robert Payne p u b l i s h e d a number of works by Olson (and a rev iew of O l s o n ' s Y & X by "'"'^Creeley 1 s p o e t r y and f i c t i o n are d i s c u s s e d s e p a r a t e l y . The f o l l o w i n g i s a l i s t of s u r v i v i n g c r i t i c i s m w r i t t e n d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . D u r i n g 1952 C r e e l e y wrote a review of Jack Hawkes' n o v e l The  B e e t l e Leg f o r the Summer 1952 i s s u e of New Mexico Q u a r t e r l y (923) . Hi s review of I n t r o d u c t i o n to A S c i e n c e of Mythology by C . J . Jung and C. K e r e n y i , w r i t t e n June 29, 1952, was never pub-l i s h e d (1118) . L e t t e r s to the e.ditor were p u b l i s h e d i n the Winter 1951-52 i s s u e of Goad (939) and the F e b r u a r y - A p r i l 1953 i s s u e of Contac t (925) . Whi le i n B a n y a l b u f a r C r e e l e y wrote a number of rev iews f o r O r i g i n , C o n t a c t , and New Mexico Q u a r t e r l y . ' Books rev iewed were W i l l i a m s ' A u t o b i o g r a p h y , O l s o n ' s In Co ld H e l l , Lawrence ' s S t u d i e s i n C l a s s i c American L i t e r a t u r e , and The L e t t e r s  of Hart C r a n e , e d i t e d by Brom Weber. As w e l l , he wrote "A Note on Canadian Poe try" f o r the September-December 1953 i s s u e of Contac t (967) and two e s s a y s , never p u b l i s h e d - - " A Statement" and "The L i m i t s of C r i t i c i s m " ( l 0 9 9 ) - - f o r O r i g i n . Another e s say , "Hart Crane and the P r i v a t e Judgment", w r i t t e n i n 1953, was f i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d i n The Free Lance i n 1960. In 1953 a l s o he wrote a p r e f a c e (954) f o r O l s o n ' s Mayan L e t t e r s (Palma de M a l l o r c a : D i v e r s P r e s s , 1953) and a p r o s p e c t u s (953) for O l s o n ' s Maximus Poems 1-10 ( S t u t t g a r t : Jonathan W i l l i a m s , 1953). A s ta tement , " D i v e r s Sent iments" , was w r i t t e n for a 1953 or 1954 e x h i b i t i o n i n P a r i s by Rene L a u b i e s (991) . "To D e f i n e " , a s i g n i f i c a n t e a r l y note , was p u b l i s h e d i n Nine American Poets and r e p r i n t e d i n CIW/n No. 5 (1953-54) and Vou, November 1954 (924) . 68 C r e e l e y ) i n M o n t e v a l l o Review from 1950 to 1951, though he r e f u s e d C r e e l e y ' s s t o r y "In the Summer", "because of the theme". Though Wake was c l e a r l y a n t i - N e w - C r i t i c i s m and wi th Accent had p u b l i s h e d C r e e l e y ' s poems i n the l a t e f o r t i e s , n e i t h e r was open to the o ther new w r i t e r s . In f a c t , C r e e l e y ' s f r i e n d Seymour Lawrence of Wake t u r n e d down work by O l s o n , B l a c k b u r n , and Corman which C r e e l e y forwarded 1950-51. Another f r i e n d , Horace Schwartz of Goad, p u b l i s h e d poems and c r i t i c i s m by C r e e l e y and a poem by Olson from 1951 to 52. Hi s f r i e n d s h i p wi th C r e e l e y p r o b a b l y ended a b r u p t l y when he p u b l i s h e d the f i r s t a t t a c k on C r e e l e y i n p r i n t , by L e s l i e Woolf Hedley i n the Summer 1952 i s s u e . Work by both C r e e l e y and Olson appeared p e r i o d i c a l l y i n New Mexico  Q u a r t e r l y which was e d i t e d by Kenneth Lash from Winter 1951 to Summer 1955. V i n c e n t F e r r i n i ' s Four Winds (1952-53) p u b l i s h e d poems by O l s o n and C r e e l e y but was never an a c t i v e c e n t e r . D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d as w e l l o c c a s i o n a l works by the new w r i t e r s appeared i n Gryphon, Imaqi , P o e t r y , New Y o r k , I n t r o , and New D i r e c t i o n s a n n u a l s , though t h i s was more by chance than by e d i t o r i a l d i r e c t i o n . Through Pound i n S t . E l i z a b e t h ' s C r e e l e y got i n touch i n 1950 with Katue K i t a s o n o and Ra iner G e r h a r d t , e d i t o r s of two s i g n i f i c a n t f o r e i g n magazines . K i t a s o n o , the e d i t o r of Vou ( J a p a n ) , p u b l i s h e d poems, a s t o r y , and c r i t i c a l notes by C r e e l e y from 1951 to 1954. G e r h a r d t e d i t e d Fraqmente i n F r e i b u r g im B r e i s g a u , Germany, from 1951 to 1952. When he f i r s t c o n t a c t e d , Cr.eeley he had t r a n s l a t e d Pound and E l i o t ( h i s p r e s s , V e r l a g de Fragmente , p u b l i s h e d t r a n s l a t i o n s of two P 0 u n d b o o k s ) , but wanted to move i n t o new American w r i t i n g . With C r e e l e y as 69 American E d i t o r , the f i r s t i s sue (Summer 1951) p u b l i s h e d German t r a n s l a t i o n s of Pound, W i l l i a m s , O l s o n , and o t h e r s . No. 2 ( l a t e 1952) c o n t a i n e d t r a n s l a t i o n s of C r e e l e y ' s s t o r i e s "The L o v e r " and "The Seance". C r e e l e y had e d i t e d an American i s s u e , to i n c l u d e O l s o n , Bronk, Morse, B l a c k b u r n , and Emerson, but i t d i d not come o u t . To i n t r o d u c e h i s s e l e c t i o n of younger p o e t s , he wrote "Notes on American P o e t r y : 1951" i n which he s t a t e d h i s d i s l i k e of the academic poe try then p r e v a l e n t and o f f e r e d an a l t e r n a t i v e , something between "loose thought i n l oose m e t r i c " and the s l a c k n e s s of contemporary f r e e v e r s e . ^ ' ' ' Though G e r h a r d t ' s sudden death i n J u l y 1954 cut s h o r t t h i s a c t i v i t y , the example of what one pres s c o u l d a c c o m p l i s h i n a t t e m p t i n g to change a n a t i o n a l a t t i t u d e toward l i t e r a t u r e i s one C r e e l e y has c o n t i n u e d to a d m i r e . By 1952 Golden Goose had f a i l e d to l i v e up to i t s e a r l i e r promise though i t made up i n i t s c o n t i n u e d support of W i l l i a m s (whose work f i r s t appeared i n No. 1, Summer 1948) what i t l a c k e d i n the p u b l i c a t i o n of new w r i t e r s . Even so i t d i d p r i n t f i f t e e n poems by C r e e l e y between J u l y 1951 and A p r i l 1954 and p u b l i s h e d an a n t h o l o g y of O l s o n ' s poems (which came out j u s t a f t e r h i s spread i n O r i g i n i ) . Golden Goose Press was one of the very few of tha t t ime p u b l i s h i n g new chapbooks of p o e t r y , i s s u i n g . W i l l i a m s ' The Pink Church i n 1949, C r e e l e y ' s Le Fou i n October 1952, and p r e p a r i n g O l s o n ' s The P r a i s e s i n 1951 when a d i s a g r e e -ment a r o s e . C r e e l e y was unhappy wi th Emerson's i n s i s t e n c e on the impor tance of past l i t e r a t u r e and f e l t i t t ime to "make our own ^ ^ T h e r e are two d r a f t s of t h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n wi th the j o u r n a l at I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y (1097) . 70 b e g i n n i n g s " . Though he c o n t i n u e d to c o n t r i b u t e , he t u r n e d f o r t h i s renewal to O r i g i n r a t h e r than Golden Goose. By the n i n t h i s s u e , S p r i n g 1953, not on ly had O r i g i n proved i t s e l f to be a v i a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e , but the d i v e r s e c o n t r i b u t o r s were themse lves c o n s c i o u s of forming a group (the core of which was the " O r i g i n " poe t s ) which was a c t i v e l y pr o duc i ng t h i s a l t e r -n a t i v e . The w r i t e r s Corman depended upon f o r m a t e r i a l - - 0 1 s o n , C r e e l e y , F e r r i n i , Bronk, and M o r s e - - h a d grown to i n c l u d e B l a c k b u r n , L e v e r t o v , Robert Duncan (who f i r s t appear ed i n V I ) , and o t h e r s . T h e i r d e s i r e to generate a new w r i t i n g and pub-l i s h i n g system was p r o b a b l y s t r e n g t h e n e d by a t t a c k s , l e d by the young academic p o e t s , a g a i n s t the O r i g i n poets as an i n b r e d group d e r i v a t i v e of Pound and W i l l i a m s which was incompetent to p u b l i s h e l s ewhere . W i t h i n two years the O r i g i n poets had become w e l l enough known so t h a t Le J o u r n a l des Poetes (Belg ium) asked Corman to w r i t e about them f o r the European p u b l i c . The a r t i c l e appeared i n the December 1953 i s sue a long with the f i r s t French 102 t r a n s l a t i o n s of poems by C r e e l e y , O l s o n , Corman, and L e v e r t o v . The t i t l e , "The V o i c e s of the I n d i v i d u a l " , i s e x p l a i n e d i n the t e x t : The poets around whom O r i g i n grows are each of them d i s t i n c t p e r s o n a l i t i e s , v o i c e s . However, what they have openly acknow-ledged i n t h e i r o r g a n i c honesty from which t h e i r p o e t r y can f i n d u s e f u l i n c r e a s e , i n c r e m e n t , i s i n the v o i c e , t h e i r own v o i c e s . C h a r l e s O l s o n , who may c o n v e n i e n t l y stand as the guide i n t h i s push , i n an essay c a l l e d " P r o j e c t i v e V e r s e " . . . puts i t t h u s : " . . . A n d the l i n e [ the l i n e of v e r s e ] comes (I swear i t ) from the b r e a t h i n g of the man who w r i t e s , at the moment tha t he w r i t e s , and thus i s , i t i s here t h a t , 1 0 2 T h : e poems were C r e e l e y ' s "The ' C r i s i s " and' "The Innocence", O l s o n ' s "La Chute" , Gorman's "La P a s s e r e l l e " , and L e v e r t o v ' s " K r e s c h ' s S t u d i o " . C r e e l e y thought the t r a n s l a t i o n s of h i s poems very f i n e . The essay was p u b l i s h e d i n E n g l i s h , wi thout the poems, i n S e r i f , V I , i i i (September 1969), from which I quote (256) . 71 the d a i l y work, the WORK, gets i n , for on ly he, the man who w r i t e s , can d e c l a r e , at every moment, the l i n e , i t s m e t r i c and i t s ending — where i t s b r e a t h -i n g s s h a l l come t o , t e r m i n a t i o n . " o r , as he adds: "the HEAD, by way of the EAR, to the SYLLABLE the HEART, by way of the BREATH, to the L I N E . " Corman was h a r d l y the f o r c e Ol son was but he o f f e r e d , i n a s e r i e s of e ssays from O r i q i n IV (Winter 1951-52) to XX (Winter 1957) , h i s own e l o q u e n t l y argued t h e o r y that p o e t r y i s a v o c a l a r t and t h a t the new p o e t r y must be based on the v o i c e of the i n d i v i d u a l poe t . Corman, though a d i l u t e r ( i n Pound's sense) of O l s o n ' s d e n s e l y c o d i f i e d p r o s o d y , was the f i r s t to g ive both t h e o r y and exempla (new poems) an o u t l e t . Though Corman's own p o e t r y and p o s i t i o n i n the new p o e t i c h i e r a r c h y has been down-graded, h i s i n f l u e n c e as an e d i t o r - p u b l i s h e r on the new w r i t i n g has not been s u r p a s s e d , though l a t e r r i v a l l e d by C r e e l e y ( D i v e r s P r e s s , B l a c k Mountain Review, e t c . ) , Jonathan W i l l i a m s ( J a r g o n B o o k s ) , and Donald A l l e n ( E v e r g r e e n Review, The New American  P o e t r y 1945-1960, e t c . ) The impact of the w r i t e r s who appeared • i n the f i r s t s e r i e s of O r i g i n i s s t i l l being f e l t . I t " d i s c o v e r e d " and p u b l i s h e d the company of w r i t e r s who came to be known as the Black Mountain Poe t s : O l s o n , C r e e l e y , L e v e r t o v , B l a c k b u r n , Duncan, and Edward Dorn . Among o ther w r i t i n g s i t pub-l i s h e d a body of work by Corman, F e r r i n i , Bronk, , Morse , Pau l C a r r o l l , L a r r y E i g n e r , Theodore E n s l i n , Gae l T u r n b u l l ; by the Canad ian poets Raymond S o u s t e r , I r v i n g L a y t o n , and L o u i s Dudek; 103 and works b y / a b o u t W i l l i a m C a r l o s W i l l i a m s and W a l l a c e S t e v e n s . 10 3 The c o n t e n t s of O r i g i n have been indexed by i s s u e and by author i n A l b e r t G l o v e r , " C h a r l e s O l s o n : L e t t e r s for O r i g i n " and by a u t h o r and s u b j e c t i n "An Index to O r i g i n " by Martha Lane G o o l d , S e r i f , I I I , i i i (September 1966) (234) . 72 Though they s u p p o r t e d O r i g i n from b e g i n n i n g to end of the f i r s t s e r i e s , o n l y the f i r s t two i s s u e s c l e a r l y r e s p e c t e d O l s o n ' s and C r e e l e y ' s t a s t e , as expressed i n t h e i r c o n t i n u i n g l e t t e r s to Corman. From the s t a r t they were c o n v i n c e d of the impact on contemporary w r i t i n g O r i g i n c o u l d have and pres sed upon Corman both t h e i r sense of h i s m i s s i o n as e d i t o r and i n d i v i d u a l w r i t e r s they admired . As Corman b u i l t on the c o n f i d e n c e of the f i r s t i s s u e s , however, h i s own more c o n s e r v a t i v e and l i t e r a r y t a s t e began to p r e v a i l . He c o n c u r r e d with C r e e l e y and Olson i n s e e i n g O r i g i n p r i m a r i l y as a c o n t i n u i n g o u t l e t for new w r i t i n g , and f e a t u r e d one or more new w r i t e r s i n every i s s u e — which c h a r a c t e r -i z e d the magazine from the b e g i n n i n g . However h i s s t a n d a r d s were o f t e n l e s s than r i g o r o u s , a l l o w i n g w r i t e r s such as K a t h e r i n e Hosk ins to s l i p t h r o u g h . As w e l l he had a c h r o n i c weakness f o r Bronk, Morse , and o ther p e r i p h e r a l w r i t e r s . I t was Corman's i d e a that the magazine become more i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n content and t r a n s -l a t i o n s and f o r e i g n w r i t i n g appeared f r e q u e n t l y a f t e r the f i r s t i s s u e . What t h i s meant i n p r a c t i c e was that v a l u a b l e space for new North American w r i t i n g was o t h e r w i s e taken up. C r e e l e y and Olson were f i r m i n t h e i r b e l i e f , and i n t h e i r l e t t e r s , tha t O r i gin shou ld p u b l i s h gnly the best e x p e r i m e n t a l new work and s h o u l d i n an a c t i v e c r i t i c a l s e c t i o n p r o t e s t a g a i n s t some of the very academics , such as W i l b u r and M e r r i l l , who Corman a l l o w e d i n . But O r i g i n was s u c c e s s f u l under Corman's e d i t o r i a l p o l i c y s i n c e i t s pr imary f u n c t i o n (as we see i t now) was to g ive new w r i t e r s such as C r e e l e y , Duncan, L e v e r t o v , B l a c k b u r n , E i g n e r , L a y t o n , and C a r r o l l , a company of e n t h u s i a s t i c f e l l o w w r i t e r s and a r e s p o n s i v e ( i f not always a c c l a i m i n g ) audience for the f i r s t t ime . I t was 73 not to be a w i d e - r a n g i n g , c r i t i c a l j o u r n a l l i k e B lack Mountain  Review, e d i t e d by C r e e l e y from 1954 to 1957, which , b u i l d i n g on the achievement of O r i q i n , c o u l d a f f o r d to knock about v a r i o u s e s t a b l i s h e d w r i t e r s i n an e f f o r t to p r o g r a m m a t i c a l l y change p r e v a l e n t t a s t e . In s p i t e of h i s a d m i r a t i o n f o r t h e i r work and p a t i e n c e wi th t h e i r w e l l - i n t e n t i o n e d a s s a u l t s , Corman proved f i n a l l y r e s i s t a n t to O l s o n ' s e x p a n s i o n i s t v i s i o n s for the magazine and many of C r e e l e y ' s s p e c i f i c s u g g e s t i o n s , and O r i g i n t h e r e f o r e w i t h h e l d some of i t s very a c t u a l p o t e n t i a l . That O r i g i n a c c o m p l i s h e d what i t d i d i s to the c r e d i t of Corman who brought out twenty i s s u e s between S p r i n g 1951 and Winter 1957 even when the funds were h i s own. A f t e r f o r w a r d i n g the m a t e r i a l he had ga thered f o r h i s own magazine i n 1950, C r e e l e y a c t e d as f r i e n d , c o n t r i b u t o r , c r i t i c , and i n f o r m a l agent for O r i g i n . W r i t i n g by C r e e l e y appeared i n f i f t e e n out of twenty i s s u e s . He p r a i s e d the work of O l s o n , B l a c k b u r n , L e v e r t o v , Duncan, and E i g n e r to Corman, and was thus l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e for the f i r s t appearance of each i n the magaz ine . I t was a p p a r e n t l y t h r o u g h C r e e l e y tha t Corman got i n touch with Emerson, Eckman, K i t a s o n o , G e r h a r d t , L a u b i e s , Seymour-S m i t h , Ash ley B r y a n , Robert Cooper , J o e l Oppenheimer, and p o s s i b l y a number of o t h e r s p u b l i s h e d i n the f i r s t s e r i e s of O r i q i n. By i s s u e s I I I ( f e a t u r i n g Bronk and Morse) and IV ( f ea t u r i n g Mew F o r e i g n P o e t r y ) , however, C r e e l e y had begun to c r i t i c i z e O r i g i n ' s c o n t e n t s p r i v a t e l y to Corman: "I suggest l ) a t i g h t e r c r i t i c a l s t a n d a r d for the p o e t r y . . . . 2) a r e t u r n to some of t h a t i n f o r m a l i t y you had i n the 1st two i s s u e s , i . e . , what you got by p r i n t i n g those l e t t e r s , e t c . ; 3) a more a c t i v e 74 c o n t a c t w i t h o ther m a q a z i n e s " , ^ ^ O r i g i n V, taken over by M o r s e ' s long essay on S t e v e n s , c o m p l e t e l y d i s p l e a s e d C r e e l e y as i t d i d O l s o n . U J A f t e r I and I I , C r e e l e y l i k e d VI ( f e a t u r i n g W i l l i a m s and Duncan) , Mill ( O l s o n ' s In C o l d H e l l , i n T h i c k e t ) , and XII ( f e a t u r i n g E i g n e r and C a r r o l l ) though he d i s l i k e d the C a r r o l l . He " r e s p e c t e d the r i s k s " t h a t L e v e r t o v had taken i n e d i t i n g XIII ( f e a t u r i n g David G a l l e r ) and thought that XIV ( f e a t u r i n g Layton) was Corman's best i s s u e i n some t i m e . I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t i n the i s s u e s C r e e l e y l i k e d much work by W i l l i a m s , O l s o n , C r e e l e y , B l a c k b u r n , L e v e r t o v , Duncan, L a y t o n , and E i g n e r a p p e a r e d . By i s s u e s X (Summer 1953) and XI (out S p r i n g 1954) C r e e l e y and O l s o n had r e s i g n e d themse lves to Corman's i nt er na t i o n a l i sm--both i s s u e s f e a t u r e d European w r i t i n g — and to the consequent postponement of new American work. Though they c o n t i n u e d to r e s p e c t Corman for the new w r i t i n g he d i d p r i n t , from l a t e 1953 they looked to t h e i r own magazine , B l a c k Mountain Review, to r e a l i z e O r i g i n ' s f u l l p o t e n t i a l . U n t i l B lack Mountain Review began to appear , C r e e l e y ' s major invo lvement was wi th O r i g i n and w i t h his own D i v e r s Press which began i s s u i n g c a r e f u l l y des igned and p r i n t e d books of new w r i t i n g S p r i n g 1953. From 1952 to 1954 the s m a l l pre s s and magazine s i t u a t i o n c o n t i n u e d to improve with many new w r i t e r s and r e a d e r s , e s p e c i a l l y i n Canada. In January 1952 the f i r s t i s s u e of Raymond " ^ ^ L e t t e r from C r e e l e y to Corman A p r i l 27, 1952 at I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y (1056) . 105 Olson wrote two long l e t t e r s to Corman i n June 1952 q u e s t i o n i n g h i s a e s t h e t i c i s m and e c l e c t i c i s m and e x h o r t i n g him to r e v i v e the e d i t o r i a l good sense e x h i b i t e d i n I and I I . L e t t e r s  f o r O r i g i n , pp. 94-102. 75 S o u s t e r ' s mimeographed magazine Contac t appeared i n T o r o n t o , and both Corman and C r e e l e y f r e e l y o f f e r e d a d v i c e , e s p e c i a l l y as to the n e c e s s i t y , as they saw i t , of b r i n g i n g the new American and European w r i t e r s i n t o Canada. L a r g e l y as a r e s u l t of t h i s i n f l u e n c e C o n t a c t p u b l i s h e d work by O l s o n , C r e e l e y , B l a c k b u r n , L e v e r t o v , Corman, F e r r i n i , Bronk, Morse, Eigner, Emerson, Jonathan W i l l i a m s , and European w r i t e r s such as G e r h a r d t , A p o l l i n a i r e , Jean C o c t e a u , Jacques P r e v e r t , and G o t t f r i e d Benn, i n a d d i t i o n to the work by L a y t o n , Dudek, and o ther Canadians t h a t Sous ter had o r i g i n a l l y wanted to p u b l i s h . S ix poems by C r e e l e y appeared between the f i f t h and the t e n t h i s s u e , a s w e l l as "A Note on Poe try" (925) , "A Note on Canadian Poe try" (967) , and a rev iew of W i l l i a m s ' A u t o b i o g r a p h y (941) . M i c h a e l Gnarowski summed up C r e e l e y ' s i n f l u e n c e i n h i s h i s t o r y of Cont a c t : "His concern was not so much with the mechanics and the p u b l i s h i n g p o l i c i e s of the magazine, r a t h e r , he became for C o n t a c t , a c o n t r i b u t o r and an a c t i v e t h e o r e t i c i a n of a s c h o o l of l i t e r a r y thought to which he be longed t o g e t h e r with C i d Corman and C h a r l e s O l s o n . In a d d i t i o n , h e . . . g a v e S o u s t e r , p r i v a t e l y , the b e n e f i t of h i s c r i t i c a l o p i n i o n of some of the e a r l i e s t i m p r i n t s of Contac t Press" . "'"^ In A p r i l 1952 Contac t P r e s s , founded by S o u s t e r , L a y t o n , and Dudek to p u b l i s h t h e i r own and other Canadian works not r e a d i l y accepted by e s t a b l i s h e d p u b l i s h e r s , i s s u e d i t s . f i r s t book, C e r b e r u s , by the three f o u n d e r s . I t was soon f o l l o w e d by Twenty- four Poems by Dudek, The B lack Huntsmen and Love the Conqueror  Worm by L a y t o n , and Canadian Poems 1350-1952, e d i t e d by Dudek and 1 0 6 C o n t a c t 1952-1954 ( M o n t r e a l : D e l t a , 1966), p. 8 (210) . I n c l u d e s an index to C o n t a c t . 76 i i 107 L a y t o n . The t e n t h and l a s t i s s u e of Contac t appeared i n March 1954 wi th the f i r s t i s s u e of C r e e l e y ' s own B l a c k Mountain Review. About a year e a r l i e r CI l / /n began, e d i t e d by A i l e e n C o l l i n s w i t h a d v i c e from L o u i s Dudek. I t c o n t i n u e d for seven i s s u e s i n t o 1954 p u b l i s h i n g many o f - t h e same a u t h o r s as C o n t a c t . S o u s t e r , L a y t o n , and Dudek were i n t i m a t e to both magazines , and C r e e l e y and Corman c o n t i n u e d to o f f e r a d v i c e and c o n t r i b u t i o n s . (Ten poems and "A Note on Poe try" by C r e e l e y appeared i n i s s u e s f o u r to seven of C I V / n . ) From 1952 to 1954, O r i g i n , C o n t a c t , C I V / n , B l a c k Mountain  Revi ew, Contact P r e s s , and D i v e r s Pres s were of common a s s i s t a n c e by p u b l i s h i n g each o t h e r ' s a u t h o r s and o f t e n i n the case of books by a d v e r t i s i n g , r e v i e w i n g , and d i s t r i b u t i n g them as w e l l . I t seemed that an a l t e r n a t i v e p u b l i s h i n g system had f i n a l l y been e s t a b l i s h e d . S t i l l , though t h i s phase was e g u a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n the h i s t o r y of both Canadian and American w r i t i n g , subsequent magazines and events have proved that t h e r e were always two d i s t i n c t groups . Of the Contac t w r i t e r s , L a y t o n was the o n l y one d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d with B lack Mountain Review as t h a t magazine ( to be d i s c u s s e d at l e n g t h l a t e r ) advanced the p o s i t i o n tha t O r i g i n had o c c u p i e d i n American w r i t i n g . A few s m a l l p r e s s e s bes ide those mentioned above had s t a r t e d up i n the e a r l y f i f t i e s , i n c l u d i n g Sparrow Press and the Black Mountain C o l l e g e p r e s s , though none had much c o n t i n u i t y . The O r i g i n w r i t e r s have been c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d s i n c e 1953 wi th the most s i g n i f i c a n t l i t t l e p r e s s of the f i f t i e s , Jonathan W i l l i a m s ' 107 C r e e l e y rev iewed these books and Contac t Nos. 4-8 i n B l a c k  Mounta in Review, No. 1 ( S p r i n g 1954) (968) . 77 J a r g o n P r e s s . I t was founded i n 1951 and by 1960 had p u b l i s h e d poems by J o e l Oppenheimer, Jonathan W i l l i a m s , V i c t o r K a l o s , L e v e r t o v , M i c h a e l M c C l u r e , Kenneth Pa tchen , Mina Loy , Paul Goodman, L a y t o n , Bob Brown, Wal ter L o w e n f e l s , as w e l l as prose by Henry M i l l e r and Patchen and o ther works. I t s most i m p o r t a n t p u b l i c a t i o n s have been C h a r l e s O l s o n ' s Maximus Poems (1-10 i n 1953, 11-22 i n 1956, and f i r s t t h r e e volumes complete i n I960) and C r e e l e y ' s The Immoral P r o p o s i t i o n (1953) , A l l That Is L o v e l y  i n Men (1955) , The Whip ( imported from the Migrant P r e s s ' s E n g l i s h e d i t i o n , 1957) , and A Form of Women ( i n a s s o c i a t i o n with C o r i n t h Books, 1959) . A number of B r i t i s h p r e s s e s and magazines began p u b l i c a t i o n i n the e a r l y f i f t i e s though w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of The Window, M e r l i n , . Ar t i san (ed . Robert C o o p e r ) , and Nine ( e d . Peter R u s s e l l ) , t h e r e was l i t t l e correspondence wi th new American or Canad ian magazines or p r e s s e s . M e r l i n was e d i t e d i n P a r i s from 1952-to 1955 by a group of American and B r i t i s h e x p a t r i a t e s , headed by A lexander T r o c c h i , who attempted to change the course of contemporary w r i t i n g by p u b l i s h i n g ( through t h e i r C o l l e c t i o n M e r l i n books as w e l l ) a v a n t - g a r d e works, s i g n i f i c a n t l y Genet and B e c k e t t . C r e e l e y admired t h e i r p u b l i s h i n g program and was b r i e f l y connected wi th t h i s a c t i v i t y through T r o c c h i . C r e e l e y was a Committee Member for M e r l i n I I , i v (Spring-Summer 1955), but the magazine had by then l o s t i t s b a c k i n g and. cou ld not c o n t i n u e . By l a t e November 1952 M a r t i n Seymour-Smi th ' s Roebuck Press on M a l l o r c a had a p o r t f o l i o of four l i t h o g r a p h s by Rene L a u b i e s and four s t o r i e s by C r e e l e y ("Mr B l u e " , "The P a r t y " , "3 Fate T a l e s " , and "The Grace") ready for p r e s s , though i t was never p u b l i s h e d , p r o b a b l y because Grove Press c o i n c i d e n t a l l y expres sed 7£ an i n t e r e s t i n the s t o r i e s . The l i t h o g r a p h s had a l r e a d y been l no p r i n t e d i n an e d i t i o n of twenty c o p i e s . At work on the American end, C r e e l e y o f f e r e d to p r i n t O l s o n ' s In C o l d H e l l , i n T h i c k e t for Corman as an O r i g i n e d i t i o n not an i s s u e of the magazine, i n the hope of g i v i n g Olson a b e a u t i f u l book, "not at 109 a l l a k i n d of s l e a z y pamphlet" . By the end of 1952 C r e e l e y had set up the American p u b l i c a t i o n s of Roebuck Press f o r the next s i x months to i n c l u d e O l s o n ' s Mayan l e t t e r s , a b o o k l e t by L a r r y E i g n e r , Pau l B l a c k b u r n ' s P r o v e n c a l t r a n s l a t i o n s , and a c o l l e c t i o n of h i s own poems s i n c e Le Fou . By January 1953 however, C r e e l e y had s e p a r a t e d from Seymour-Smith and he and Ann set up The D i v e r s Press to i s s u e the American works on t h e i r own. The f a l l i n g - o u t occurred because Seymour-Smith p lanned to p u b l i s h Donald H a l l who had a t t a c k e d W i l l i a m s , O l s o n , and C r e e l e y i n the December 1952 i s s u e of The World Review. T h i s quote from the a r t i c l e (with C r e e l e y ' s note) i s taken from a January I S , 1953 l e t t e r " t o Corman: The on ly major wr i t er who a t t a c k s the contemporary movement ( i . e . , t h i s "movement" i s Roethke , L o w e l l , Merwin, e t c . , and W i l b u r ) i s W i l l i a m C a r l o s W i l l i a m s , and he i s too i n t e l l i g e n t a man not to d i s c e r n the e x c e l l e n c e of the best young p o e t s . Hi s a t t a c k s are t h e o r i e s , and read l i k e a n a t i o n a l i s t i m a g i s t m a n i f e s t o . W i l l i a m s compla ins that Americans w r i t i n g verse do not use the American language; the iamb i s o l d - f a s h i o n e d , and B r i t i s h ; r e p e t i t i v e metres , and the sonnet , above a l l , are the s u b j e c t of h i s s c o r n . Only a s m a l l group of p o e t s , C h a r l e s Olson and Robert C r e e l e y among them, c o n t i n u e to f i g h t W i l l i a m s ' s b a t t l e s — b a t t l e s fought and won twenty years ago. (1056) In a l e t t e r to the e d i t o r of The World Review, C r e e l e y r e p l i e d : i n -I t was p r o b a b l y one of these l i t h o g r a p h s which was to have been p u b l i s h e d s e p a r a t e l y wi th "The P a r t y " by Black Mountain C o l l e g e i n 1952, though the p u b l i c a t i o n f e l l through and t h e s t o r y came out i n O r i g i n i n s t e a d . 1 D 9 L e t t e r to Corman December 4, 1952 at I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y (1056) . 79 I would suggest tha t p o e t r y , now, i n e i t h e r the U n i t e d S t a t e s or England s tands i n a great and p a r t i c u l a r need of men who w i l l , w i th c o n s t a n c y , de termine t h e i r m a t e r i a l s from what l i e s d i r e c t l y to t h e i r hand, and i s t h e i r g i v e n r e a l i t y - - a n d who w i l l make t h e i r forms the d i r e c t i s s u e of t h e i r speech and of t h e m s e l v e s . H O It was the purpose of h i s D i v e r s Press to p u b l i s h such w r i t e r s . Roebuck Press c o n t i n u e d i n d e p e n d e n t l y and Seymour-Smith was commissioned to p r i n t s e v e r a l magazines , i n c l u d i n g F e r r i n i ' s Four Winds and T r o c c h i ' s M e r l i n , both of which he muddled. A p p a r e n t l y he p r i n t e d a number of s l e a z y pamphlets as w e l l . Only through C r e e l e y ' s i n t e r v e n t i o n on Corman's b e h a l f i n the S p r i n g of 1954 was O r i g i n XI r e s c u e d from the same f a t e , though the A r t a u d m a t e r i a l had to be cut i n h a l f . I t made a n i ce s t o r y i n The j -j , 111 I s l a n d . The f i r s t D i v e r s Press book was O l s o n ' s In C o l d H e l l , i n 112 T h i c k e t which was i s s u e d as O r i g i n V I I I , Winter 1953. I t was p r i n t e d and. ma i l ed by March 20, 1953 and was p r o b a b l y the f i n e s t p r i n t i n g tha t O r i g i n ever r e c e i v e d . O l s o n , p r e s s e d for t i m e , had asked C r e e l e y to e d i t the m a n u s c r i p t (too l o n g , i t had to be cut down), s e l e c t the t y p e , and so on. However the f i n a l book was as c a r e f u l l y d e s i g n e d , with a wide page and s m a l l , t h i c k t y p e , as O l s o n cou ld have wished . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , i t was, a c c o r d i n g to Corman, the l e a s t popu lar i s s u e of O r i g i n ' s f i r s t s e r i e s . Subsequent D i v e r s Press books were des igned and p r i n t e d with 1 1 0 L e t t e r of January 16, 1953 at Washington U n i v e r s i t y (1064) . ^"''lYlore r e c e n t l y Seymour-Smith has w r i t t e n the b l u f f e r ' s g u i d e , B l u f f Your Way i n L i t e r a t u r e (London: Wol f e , c 1 9 6 6 ) , and s e r i o u s works of l i t e r a t u r e and c r i t i c i s m , i n c l u d i n g a rev iew of C r e e l e y ' s Poems 1950-1965 (381) . 1 1 ? In 1951 t h i s book, then c a l l e d "The P r a i s e s " , had been i n p r o o f at Golden Goose Press when t h e r e was a d isagreement and O l s o n withdrew i t . 80 e q u a l c a r e . The second book and the f i r s t p u b l i s h e d under t h e i r own i m p r i n t was Paul B l a c k b u r n ' s P r o e n s a , a book of t r a n s l a t i o n s from P r o v e n c a l p o e t r y . I t was p u b l i s h e d by June 1953 and was f o l l o w e d i n J u l y by C r e e l e y ' s second book of poems, The Kind Of  Act Of and L a r r y E i g n e r ' s From the S u s t a i n i n g A i r , the f i r s t c o l l e c t i o n o f h i s poems. C h a r l e s O l s o n ' s Mayan L e t t e r s , e d i t e d by C r e e l e y from l e t t e r s w r i t t e n to him from Lerma December 1950 to J u l y 1951, p lanned f o r 1953 but d e l a y e d u n t i l January 1954, completed the f i r s t s e r i e s of D i v e r s Pres s books. These four books were a p p a r e n t l y a d v e r t i s e d i n a l o o s e i n s e r t i n O r i g i n IX ( S p r i n g 1953). D i s t r i b u t i o n , however, was slow s i n c e b o o k s e l l e r s were r e l u c t a n t to order a few t i t l e s from such a s m a l l p r e s s . Without the he lp of f r i e n d s the books would not have been advertis-ed and few c o p i e s would have been d i s t r i b u t e d . Paul B l a c k b u r n he lped get c o p i e s i n t o Mew York b o o k s t o r e s and Jonathan W i l l i a m s s o l d D i v e r s books a long with h i s own. Jargon p u b l i c a t i o n s . C o n t a c t Pres s was an e n c o u r a g i n g example, and Raymond Sous ter acted as D i v e r s ' agent i n T o r o n t o . Contac t and C I V / n rev iewed D i v e r s Press books . Even so, w i thout a l a r g e d i s t r i b u t o r and wi thout f i n a n c i a l b a c k i n g the Press was l i m i t e d to p u b l i s h i n g books one at a time i n s m a l l e d i t i o n s w i th l i t t l e hope of o b t a i n -i n g the neces sary r e v i e w s . An ad i n M e r l i n Autumn 1953 and a brochure i s s u e d by the Press announced new books for 1954. I r v i n g L a y t o n ' s In the Mids t  of My Fever was p u b l i s h e d i n F e b r u a r y 1954 and d i s t r i b u t e d by C o n t a c t P r e s s . C r e e l e y ' s c o l l e c t i o n of s t o r i e s , The Gold Diggers , was i s s u e d i n March . I t was f o l l o w e d by the f i r s t American e d i t i o n o f poems by M a r t i n Seymour-Smith , A l l D e v i l s F a d i n g , and 81 A Handbook of Fancy Pigeons by H . P . M a c k l i n which was bought out and s o l d by American Pigeon J o u r n a l , a magazine C r e e l e y used to read c a r e f u l l y . B lack R a i n , the f i r s t E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n of Katue K i t a s o n o ' s poems, was p u b l i s h e d i n August . A b o o k l e t of f i v e new poems by C r e e l e y , A S n a r l i n g G a r l a n d of Xmas V e r s e s , was p u b l i s h e d anonymously as a g i f t f o r f r i e n d s , C h r i s t m a s 1954. In 1955 D i v e r s p u b l i s h e d Douglas U loo l f ' s f i r s t n o v e l , The H y p o c r - i t i c  Days ( J a n u a r y ) , the f i r s t book of Paul B l a c k b u r n ' s own poems, The  D i s s o l v i n g F a b r i c ( M a r c h ) , and Robert Duncan's C a e s a r ' s Gate (September) . The l a s t two were rev iewed i n Poetry October 1956 by a f r i e n d , F r e d e r i c k Eckman. D i v e r s a l s o des igned and p r i n t e d C i d Corman's The P r e c i s i o n s for Sparrow Press (March 1955) and I r v i n g L a y t o n ' s The Blue P r o p e l l e r for Contac t Press (1955) . There were hopes the Press c o u l d c o n t i n u e wi th arrangements for b e t t e r d i s t r i b u t i o n , perhaps i n c o n j u n c t i o n with a s m a l l p r e s s Robert Duncan wanted to s t a r t when he a r r i v e d i n Palma. S p r i n g 1955. However, by Summer 1955 C r e e l e y ' s own c i r c u m s t a n c e s were too u n s e t t l e d to a l l ow him to c o n t i n u e p u b l i s h i n g . S i n c e p r i n t i n g was cheap on M a l l o r c a and the books s m a l l , a l l the D i v e r s Press p u b l i c a t i o n s s o l d for about a d o l l a r . They were c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the s o f t covers and heavy mercedes, f u t u r a , and bodoni types of Mossen A l c o v e r ' s p r i n t shop i n Palma. Cree ley c a l l e d A l c o v e r , who p r i n t e d B l a c k Mountain Review as w e l l , a "book maker" not j u s t a p r i n t e r . Speaking of the b a r g a i n Mayan  L e t t e r s was f o r a d o l l a r , C r e e l e y wrote to Corman January 17, 1954: "It may even be too much of a one, except t h a t I want to keep to t h i s premise of as low p r i c e s as are p o s s i b l e . Perhaps I overdo i t , and perhaps too i t has no f i n a l l y e f f e c t u a l r e l a t i o n 82 to p o s s i b l e s a l e s — but , at t h a t , the p r i c e i s a r e a s o n a b l e p r o p o r t i o n or r a t i o to c o s t s , g r a n t e d we have not f i g u r e d to make p r o f i t s " (1056) . C r e e l e y ' s p r i m a r y concern was to i s s u e c a r e f u l l y des igned and p r i n t e d works which he admired f i r s t of a l l as w r i t i n g and which p r o b a b l y would not have been p u b l i s h e d through e s t a b l i s h e d c h a n n e l s . The books were u s u a l l y f i r s t or second works by l i t t l e known a u t h o r s most of whom are d e s e r v e d l y w e l l known t o d a y . L i k e the O b j e c t i v i s t Press of W i l l i a m s , Pound, Z u k o f s k y , B u n t i n g , and f r i e n d s , the D i v e r s Press was a f i n e example of " w r i t e r s p u b l i s h i n g t h e i r own work". In an i n t e r v i e w May 1961 C r e e l e y s a i d : I t h i n k many w r i t e r s beg in by t a k i n g on the problem of g e t t i n g t h e i r work p r i n t e d . I wanted a pres s t h a t would be of use to s p e c i f i c p e o p l e , i n c l u d i n g m y s e l f . . . . We had to have the d i g n i t y of our own s ta tement . We had to have i t i n a form that cou ld be a v a i l a b l e to o ther p e o p l e . . . . You cannot get your poems out where they ought to be i f you d o n ' t do something about i t . So we put our books out . God, we were laughed a t , but that was p a r t of i t t o o . 1 1 3 Though D i v e r s Press p r i n t e d on ly s i x t e e n books i t made a v a l u a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n not on ly to contemporary w r i t i n g but to the s m a l l p r e s s movement (which f l owered i n North Amer ica and England i n the \ 114 f i f t i e s ) i t s e l f . For the new American w r i t e r s i t was, wi th the more d u r a b l e Jargon Books, v i r t u a l l y the on ly f i f t i e s p r e s s w i l l i n g to p u b l i s h f o r the advancement of w r i t i n g not p r o f i t s . The S u l l e n A r t : I n t e r v i e w s by David Ossman wi th Modern Amer- i c a n Poets (New Y o r k : C o r i n t h , 1963), p. 64 (107) . ^ 4 T h e D i v e r s Press was r e p r e s e n t e d by t h r e e books i n an e x h i b i t i o n h e l d at the American Embassy i n London A p r i l 24 to May 24, 1968. The c a t a l o g was p u b l i s h e d as The L i t t l e Pres s  Movement i n England and America (London: T u r r e t Books |_1968j), w i th an i n t r o d u c t i o n by Edward L u c i e - S m i t h . 83 VII By October 1952 when Le Fou , h i s f i r s t book of poems, was p u b l i s h e d , C r e e l e y had become more a r t i c u l a t e i n p o e t r y than i n f i c t i o n . In the poems w r i t t e n i n the few years a f t e r Le Fou he a c h i e v e d a deeper use of h i s own more t r o u b l e d p e r s o n a l content and moved beyond h i s i n t e r i m sense tha t the l i n e must be a f r e e sweep, u n c o n s t r a i n e d by rhyme, c o u n t e r p o i n t , or r e p e t i t i o n . He came to see that such d e v i c e s c o u l d have p l a c e i n an a u t h e n t i c w o r k i n g - o u t of t e n s i o n s . In f a c t , a s t r i c t e r l i n e c o u l d r e v e a l the t e n s i o n and though the poem was not to be a f a c i l e c a t h a r t i c i t c o u l d h e l p p r o v i d e an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of what might o t h e r w i s e ' b e at t h a t time an almost hope le s s f e a r or d e p r e s s i o n . In the p r e f a c e to A l l That Is L o v e l y i n Men (1955) C r e e l e y acknowledges that he i s f i r s t of a l l a poet of human r e l a t i o n s h i p : I have been c a l l e d a "domestic" p o e t , which c e l e b r a t i o n Robert Graves somewhere suggests i s the death of the Muse a l t o g e t h e r . But such i s my " w o r l d " , l i k e they say- -what space I can r e c o g n i z - - a n d wi th no conf inement of a n y t h i n g whatsoever . At one t ime i must have been, a woman was t h i s i n s i s t e n c e , i . e . , a f a c t i n h e r s e l f so v a r i a b l e her very presence was a wonder. W e l l , now where i s she? I t h i n k I have been there now and a g a i n , - - s i m p l y t h e r e . A poe t , c a l l him what you w i l l , knows h i s Muse, "domesti drudge" or not . - ' -^ In a l e t t e r of J u l y 19, 1953 to Corman, C r e e l e y admi t ted that "I should not be w r i t i n g the poems I now am, good or b a d . . . i f I ' d l i m i t e d myse l f to a s t r i c t sense of the f o r m a l i s m I ' d got to i n LE FOU" (1056) . T h i s f o r m a l i s m was broken i n "The R i d d l e " "The Innocence", "The Rhyme", and "The C r i s i s " i n A p r i l 1952 but - 1 1 5 A Q u i C K G r a p h , p. 4 (916) . ' 84 not c a s t o f f u n t i l a poem such as "The C o n s p i r a c y " (1954) which uses rhyme and r e p e t i t i o n f r e e l y to r e v e a l a mood of mocking d e s p e r a t i o n . In h i s l e c t u r e , "I'm g i v e n to w r i t e poems", C r e e l e y spoke of a r e c o g n i t i o n of l i m i t s , both p e r s o n a l and p o e t i c , which came to him about t h i s t ime: However, i t i s r e a l l y C h a r l e s Olson I must thank f o r whatever freedom I have as a p o e t . . . . Freedom has always been f o r me a d i f f i c u l t e x p e r i e n c e i n t h a t , when younger , I f e l t i t had to propose senses of e x p e r i e n c e and of the wor ld I was n e c e s s a r i l y not i n p o s s e s s i o n o f - - s o m e t h i n g i n t h a t way one might escape t o . I m i s t o o k , I t h i n k , the meaning of " f r e e l y to w r i t e what one chooses" , which both de Gourmont and Pound may w e l l have had i n mind, because I took " f r e e l y " to mean "without s i g n i f i c a n t l i m i t " and "chooses" to be an act of w i l l . I t h e r e f o r e was slow i n r e a l i z i n g the nature of O l s o n ' s p r o p o s a l , t h a t " L i m i t s / are what any of us / are i n s i d e of", j u s t t h a t I had taken such " l i m i t s " to be a f r u s t r a t i o n of p o s s i b i l i t y r a t h e r than the l i t e r a l p o s s i b i l i t y they i n f a c t must p r o v o k e . . . . However best i t might be p u t , what Olson made e v i d e n t to me was tha t w r i t i n g c o u l d be an i n t e n s e l y s p e c i f i c r e v e l a t i o n of one ' s own c o n t e n t , and of the world the f a c t of any l i f e must engage. I t has n o t h i n g to do wi th " p e r s o n a l i s m " - - w h i c h , l i k e p e r s o n a l i t y , i s a m i r r o r or r e f l e c t i v e image sense , a cosmet i c of i n t e n t i o n s . To the c o n t r a r y , what emerges i n the w r i t i n g I most va lue i s a c o n t e n t which cannot be a n t i c i p a t e d , which " t e l l s you what you d o n ' t know", which you s u b v e r t , t w i s t , or m i s r e p r e s e n t on ly on p e r i l o f c e a t h . What I have w r i t t e n I knew l i t t l e of u n t i l I had w r i t t e n i t . I f at t imes I have s a i d that I enjoy what I w r i t e , I mean t h a t w r i t i n g i s f o r me the most v i a b l e and open c o n d i t i o n of p o s s i b i l -i t y i n the w o r l d . Th ings have happened t h e r e , as they have happened nowhere e l s e - - a n d I am not s p e a k i n g of " m a k e - b e l i e v e " , which , be i t s a i d , i s "as r e a l as r e a l can be". In poems I have both d i s c o v e r e d and born testament to my l i f e i n ways no o ther p o s s i b i l i t y has g i v e n me. Can I l i k e a l l tha t I may prove to be , or does i t mat ter? Am I merely l i v i n g f o r my own a p p r o v a l ? In w r i t i n g i t has seemed to me that such s m a l l senses of e x i s t e n c e were a l t o g e t h e r gone, a d t h a t , at l a s t , the world "came t r u e " . Far from be ing i t s l i m i t or d i r e c t o r , the wonder i s that I have found myse l f to be there a l s o . 1 1 ^ T h i s passage argues an honesty i n content which has been the b a s i s of C r e e l e y ' s poe try s i n c e he wrote "The Rhyme", the f i r s t 1 1 6 A Quick Graph, ' pp. 70-72 (936) . L e c t u r e composed Winter 1966. 85 poem to d e a l d i r e c t l y wi th the s u s p i c i o n tha t Ann's l o v e might not be r e c o v e r a b l e . Yet C r e e l e y has never e x p l o i t e d p e r s o n a l m a t e r i a l to p r o j e c t a p a r t i c u l a r s e l f - i m a g e . Even i n the n o v e l The I s l a n d t h e r e i s no s e 1 f - j u s t i f i c a t i o n , o n l y a s i n c e r e attempt to examine the a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l f a c t s . The s e l f - i m a g e , however i n c r e a s e d or l e s s e n e d , comes out of an i n t e n s i v e w r i t i n g p r o c e s s which a more e g o i s t i c poet c o u l d not w i t h s t a n d . The unsure e g o i s t probes r e l e n t l e s s l y u n t i l he ho lds to the l i g h t the l i v i n g t i s s u e s of h i s own s e l f , though he may be as r e p u l s e d or as p l e a s e d at the s i g h t — t h e poem —as any r e a d e r . The poem i t s e l f , i f good, i s a p l e a s u r e r e g a r d l e s s . C r e e l e y admits that h i s 'Method i s not a / t e n d e r n e s s , but h o p e / d e f i n e d " and even i n poems of ug ly content t h e r e i s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c hope which i s at t h i s t ime o f t e n expressed as d e f i a n c e . The D i shones t Mailmen They are t a k i n g a l l my l e t t e r s , and they put them i n t o a f i r e . I see the f l a m e s , e t c . But do not c a r e , e t c . They burn e v e r y t h i n g I have, or what l i t t l e I have. I d o n ' t c a r e , e t c . The poem supreme, addressed to empti ness — t h i s i s the courage n e c e s s a r y . T h i s i s something q u i t e d i f f e r e n t . 1 1 ? In such ways l a u g h t e r r e l e a s e s r a n c o r . In an i n t e r v i e w with David Ossman i n May 1961 C r e e l e y r e p l i e d to the comment t h a t h i s e a r l y poems sometin.es moved towards "macabre l i g h t ver se" : For Love , p. 29 (485) . The q u o t a t i o n above i s from "The C a r n i v a l " , For Love , p. 26 (482) . 86 W e l l t h a t ' s a New England temper you must remember. When t h i n g s are r e a l l y i m p o s s i b l e , you s t a r t l a u g h i n g - - n o t weakly , the l o u d e r the b e t t e r . In the e a r l i e r poems you ment ion , the e m o t i o n a l terms are very d i f f i c u l t . The poems corne from a c o n t e x t t h a t was d i f f i c u l t to l i v e i n , and so I wanted the l i n e to be used to r e g i s t e r t h a t k i n d of p r o b l e m , o r tha t k i n d of c o n t e n t . E l sewhere I remember I d i d say that "Form i s never more than an e x t e n s i o n of c o n t e n t " , and by tha t I meant t h a t the t h i n g to be s a i d w i l l , i n that way, de termine how i t w i l l be s a i d . . . . Now the t r u n c a t e d l i n e , or the s h o r t , seemingly broken l i n e I was u s i n g i n my f i r s t poems, comes from the somewhat broken emotions that were i n v o l v e d i n t h e m . 1 1 8 I t i s an e m o t i o n a l i n t e n s i t y , a need and c a p a c i t y f o r l o v e , which m o t i v a t e s C r e e l e y ' s w r i t i n g , though he may f e a r what the p r o c e s s w i l l r e v e a l once set i n mot ion . T h i s i s movingly shown i n The I s l a n d , i n which C r e e l e y i s both w r i t e r us ing p e r s o n a l content and s u b j e c t ( J o h n ) , so t h a t he must attempt an o b j e c t i v e d r a m a t i z a t i o n of the i n t e r a c t i o n of the c h a r a c t e r s w h i l e a c t u a l l y r e l i v i n g an e m o t i o n - c h a r g e d r e l a t i o n s h i p . The c l imax to the nove l (and to the w r i t i n g p r o c e s s ) i s J o h n ' s d i s c o v e r y of J o a n ' s " s u i c i d e " , which d i s c o v e r y - - a t the time C r e e l e y thought he saw h i s w i f e ' s b o d y - - i s an u n c o n s c i o u s murder, an attempt to g a i n r e l e a s e from the r a n c o r which had s p i l l e d obscene ly from the i n c i s i o n of J o a n ' s abdomen. John has d e s p e r a t e l y pushed the f o r c e s at work, the h ideous s e c r e t s un loosed by the o p e r a t i o n , to t h e i r perhaps o therwi se e sc apab le c o n c l u s i o n , the "death" (by d i s t o r t i o n ) of the m a r r i a g e . Because John, l i k e C r e e l e y w r i t i n g the nove l years l a t e r , wanted ( i f s u b c o n s c i o u s l y ) t h i s p r o v i n g of h i s own worst s u s p i c i o n s , he f e r r e t s out the l o c a t i o n of a l o s t e r a s e r w i t h the same r i g o r , and d i s r e g a r d f o r h i s son ' s f e e l i n g s , as he t o r t u r e s Joan to "confess the t r u t h " about her i n n o c e n t 118 The S u l l e n A r t , p. 59 (107) . 87 meet ings wi th A r t i e . The pathos i s t h a t he both does and doesn' t want the d e b t , as A r t i e ' s own r e a l debt to him, to be p a i d o f f , s i n c e t h i s w i l l r e l e a s e him from his i n v o l v e m e n t , however g u i l t -p r o d u c i n g . The moments of compassion i n the n o v e l , as when John r e s c u e s W i l l i s , r e v e a l J o h n ' s m o t i v a t i o n , h i s now d e s p e r a t e need for l o v e and f r i e n d s h i p which makes him a w i l l i n g f o i l f o r A r t i e and the v i c t i m of numerous p r a c t i c a l f i a s c o s tha t he d o e s n ' t have the i n f l a t e d sense of ego to e x t r i c a t e h i m s e l f f rom. I t i s t h i s e n o t i o n a l v u l n e r a b i l i t y which e l i c i t s J o h n ' s g u i l t f o r hav ing hurt o t h e r s , e s p e c i a l l y f o r h i s s e x u a l "cr imes" a g a i n s t Joan, ' and which causes h i s m e r c i l e s s d i s t o r t i o n when he t u r n s upon h i m s e l f . The f a c t that o t h e r s are hur t a long the .way i s not i n t e n t i o n a l . The w r i t i n g of t h e . n o v e l was at t imes a d i s t u r b i n g re -enactment of r e l a t i o n s h i p s for C r e e l e y and he has spoken of a f e e l i n g of r e l i e f when i t was done. T h i s r e l e n t l e s s s e l f - e x a m i n a t i o n i s a p r o c e s s which took p l a c e i n the w r i t i n g of many of C r e e l e y ' s s t o r i e s and most of the poems a f t e r S p r i n g 1952. From t h i s d a t e , as The I s l a n d - - w h i c h d e a l s wi th the B a n y a l b u f a r p e r i o d , November 1952 to March 1954--t e s t i f i e s , C r e e l e y ' s marr iage began to f a l t e r and g i v e n h i s s e n s i t i v i t y and e x t r a o r d i n a r y a b i l i t y to t h i n k through h i s w r i t i n g t h i s provoked some very b i t t e r poems, most of which may be found i n ' the f i r s t and second s e c t i o n s of For Love . I t has o f t e n been assumed tha t these poems proceed from an e x i s t e n t i a l i m a g i n a t i o n , but C r e e l e y has c a l l e d e x i s t e n t i a l i s m "an a w f u l l y sad way to t h i n k " . C h a r l e s A l t i e r i accused him of s o l i p s i s m ("the t h e o r y t h a t n o t h i n g e x i s t s or i s r e a l but the s e l f " ) which i s a f a r cry 88 . from C r e e l e y ' s s t a t e d need for c l o s e p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . 1 1 9 Even the poems i n which l o v e i s absent were w r i t t e n for l o v e , i n the hope that a p l a c e be kept open to r e c e i v e l ove when i t should be g i v e n . C r e e l e y ' s poems w r i t t e n between June 1952 and August 1954 were p u b l i s h e d i n Goad, Golden Goose, C o n t a c t , CIW/n, and B lack  Mountain Review, but main ly i n O r i g i n V/11 (Autumn 1952) to XIV (Aut umn 1954). These poems and o t h e r s w r i t t e n at the same time were c o l l e c t e d i n the f o u r books of p o e t r y p u b l i s h e d from J u l y 1953 to F a l l 1955. With the e x c e p t i o n of A l l That Is L o v e l y i n  Men (1955) these were s m a l l books p u b l i s h e d more because the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p u b l i c a t i o n arose than because a b o o k - f u l l of poems had been w r i t t e n . Even so, there were some very f i n e poems among them. Those which C r e e l e y c o n s i d e r e d worthwhi l e when The Whip (1957) was assembled can be found i n tha t book and i n the f i r s t s e c t i o n of For Love , and t h o s e which were s e l e c t e d out can be found i n The Charm: E a r l y and U n c o l l e c t e d Poems. (The o r d e r of the poems i n these books i s on ly r o u g h l y c h r o n o l o g i c a l . ) Two s i g n i f i c a n t though l i t t l e known a n t h o l o g i e s which c o n t a i n e d work by C r e e l e y were p u b l i s h e d S p r i n g 1953. One, F e r r i n i &  O t h e r s , has been d i s c u s s e d b r i e f l y above (p. 57) . Nine American  Poets was e d i t e d by Robert Cooper, who i s g i v e n an u n f l a t t e r i n g p o r t r a y a l as W i l l i s i n The I s l a n d , and i n c l u d e d poems by O l s o n , Duncan, C r e e l e y , and B l a c k b u r n . I t was i s s u e d as the second 119 "The Unsure E g o i s t : Robert C r e e l e y and the Theme of Noth ingness" , Contemporary L i t e r a t u r e , X I I I , i i ( S p r i n g 1972), 162-185. Warren T a l l m a n k i n d l y a l lowed me to read the m a n u s c r i p t o f h i s note on C r e e l e y , "Sunny S ide Up", which e f f e c t i v e l y -answers A l t i e r i . 89 number of A r t i s a n , an E n g l i s h magazine e d i t e d by Cooper , and p r o b a b l y r e f l e c t s c o n t a c t s made through C r e e l e y j u s t be fore C o o p e r ' s v i s i t to B a n y a l b u f a r . The antho logy r e p r i n t e d three of C r e e l e y ' s poems from Le Fou and p u b l i s h e d a new poem, "The Kind o f Act of" (484) as w e l l as C r e e l e y ' s s i g n i f i c a n t essay "To Def ine" which has been r e p r i n t e d a number of t imes s i n c e (924) . From June 1952 to March 1953 C r e e l e y was at work on the poems that were to be p u b l i s h e d as h i s second book, The Kind Of  Act Of