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The concerns and coping behaviours of the single mother with a child ages six months to eight years Anderson, Joan Madge 1973

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THE CONCERNS AND COPING BEHAVIOURS OF THE SINGLE MOTHER WITH A CHILD AGED SIX MONTHS TO EIGHT YEARS by JOAN MADGE ANDERSON B.N., McGi l l University, 1969 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN NURSING We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1973 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make i t freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Applied Science, The University of British Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date A p r i l 11. 1973 ABSTRACT This study was designed to e l i c i t information about the concerns and coping behaviours of the unmarried mother. A convenient sample of 20 unmarried mothers was interviewed, u t i l i z i n g a semi-structured questionnaire. Extensive face-to-face interviews were conducted with the mothers i n t h e i r homes. The data were analyzed by the use of frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n tables and percentages. Pearson product-moment co r r e l a t i o n was used to examine the association between selected v a r i a b l e s . The findings of the study revealed that the mothers ranged from 20 to 36 years of age, with an average age of 27.1 years. Their education l e v e l s varied from Grade 7 to 12, with the majority of them reaching Grade 10, 11 or 12. F i f t e e n mothers had 1 c h i l d and 5 mothers had between 2 and 3 children. The average age of the children was 3 years and 4 months. Their ages ranged from 2 months to 8 years. The children under 6 months of age a l l had older s i b l i n g s . The mothers exhibited a v a r i e t y of l i f e s t y l e s . Of the 20 mothers, 5 were employed f u l l - t i m e , and 4 were f u l l - t i m e students. Fourteen received f i n a n c i a l aid through Social Assistance, and 1 mother, a f u l l - t i m e student, supported h e r s e l f and her c h i l d on a student loan. i i i i i Incomes varied among the mothers. The majority of those on welfare l i v e d on annual incomes below $3,000. The working mothers had annual incomes ranging from approximately $4,000 to $7,500. Those mothers who derived t h e i r incomes from employ-ment had 1 c h i l d , with only 1 mother having a c h i l d under 3 years of age. Those who derived incomes from Social Assistance had from 1 to 3 children. Ten of the 14 mothers i n t h i s group had a c h i l d or children under 3 years of age. Concerns a r t i c u l a t e d by the mothers were related to finances; childcare f a c i l i t i e s , e s p e c i a l l y for those mothers with children under 3 years of age; housing; job t r a i n i n g ; and adequate information from agencies concerning services available to mothers on Social Assistance. In contrast to previous studies done i n the United States, the mothers expressed few concerns regarding the a v a i l a b i l i t y of physical health care. A l l had access to a physician. F o r t y - f i v e percent of the mothers scored high on an emotional health status scale, i n d i c a t i n g some degree of emotional impairment. Many of those who scored high on t h i s scale also perceived themselves as having a high number of socio-economic problems. In confirmation of t h i s finding, Pearson product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n revealed a very high p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n -ship of r = +.837 between these vari a b l e s . None of the mothers with annual incomes between $4,000 to $7,500 scored high on either of these two scales. Forty-seven percent of the mothers who f e l t a need for consultation about a s p e c i f i c concern, sought professional i v a s s i s tance . However, many preferred to t a l k with f r iends and/or r e l a t i v e s about t h e i r concerns. I t was only among 15 percent of the mothers that the c h i l d ' s father provided any emotional support. A deterrent to the use of community agencies was a t t r ibuted to the mothers' lack of knowledge about ava i l ab le serv ices , or t h e i r negative perception of profes s iona l workers. Of those mothers who were ne i ther employed nor going to school , many aspired to jobs and f i n a n c i a l s e c u r i t y . From the f indings of t h i s study, i t seemed that the mothers exhibi ted d i f f e r e n t methods of adapting to solo parenthood. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page LIST OF TABLES . . v i i i LIST OF FIGURES ix ACKNOWLEDGMENTS X Chapter 1. INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY 1 Conceptual Framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 4 The Problem 4 Significance of the Problem 4 SPECIFICS OF THE STUDY • 6 General Aims of the Study 6 Specific Objectives of the Study 7 Definition of Terms 7 Assumptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Limitation of the Study . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2. RESUME OF THE PRESENT KNOWLEDGE 10 CONCERNS OF THE SINGLE MOTHER 11 Socio-Economic Concerns. . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Societal Implications . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Financial and Employment 14 Housing 20 Education 22 v v i Chapter Page Concerns Related to Health 24 Physical 24 Emotional 27 THE PROCESS OP COPING 29 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION 37 3. METHODOLOGY 39 The Questionnaire 39 Pretest 40 The Population 41 The Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Analysis of the Data 42 4. ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF THE DATA 43 ANALYSIS OF THE DATA 43 DISCUSSION OF THE DATA 44 Socio-Economic Concerns . . . . . . . . 45 Ages of Mothers and Children 45 Level and Source of Income • • 48 Employment Experience 53 Education 59 Housing Conditions 62 Concerns Related to Health . . . . . . . 66 Physical 66 Emotional 67 Coping Behaviours 70 Relationship with Parents 70 Relationship with Friends 71 v i i Chapter Page Relationship with the Child's Father 72 Community Agencies Utilized . . . 73 Mother's Perception of Help that Could have been Given by a Community Agency 75 Childcare 76 Education and job training 76 Finances 76 Housing 77 Anything else .77 Satisfactions and Problems 28 Attitude Towards Marriage 80 5. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS, SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY 82 Summary and Conclusions 82 Findings 82 Implications for Practitioners . . . . 87 Recommendations to Agencies 88 Speculations of the Researcher 89 Suggestions for Further Study 90 Recommended Revision of Methodology 91 BIBLIOGRAPHY 92 APPENDIXES . . . . 95 A. Letter of Request 95 B. Consent Form 96 C. Letter of Thanks 97 D. Questionnaire 98 E. Index of Emotional Health Status 129 F. Perceived Problem Rating Scale 130 LIST OF TABLES Table p a g e I AGE DISTRIBUTION OF MOTHERS 46 II AGE OF MOTHERS AT BIRTH OF OLDEST CHILD PRESENTLY IN THE HOME . . . „ 47 III AGE CATEGORIES OF CHILDREN AT TIME OF STUDY . . . . 49 IV AMOUNT OF INCOME IN RELATION TO SOURCE OF INCOME 50 V MOTHERS' INCOME VERSUS NUMBER OF DEPENDENTS . . . . 52 VI ASSOCIATION BETWEEN INCOME AND PERCEIVED PROBLEM RATING SCORE 54 VII CHILD CARE FACILITIES UTILIZED BY MOTHERS EMPLOYED FULL-TIME AND PART-TIME 57 VIII AGE OF MOTHERS VERSUS EMPLOYMENT STATUS 58 IX GRADE LEVEL OF EDUCATION 61 X LENGTH OF OCCUPANCY IN PREVIOUS HOUSING 63 XI LENGTH OF OCCUPANCY IN HOUSING AT THE TIME OF THE STUDY 64 XII ASSOCIATION BETWEEN INCOME AND EMOTIONAL STATUS . . 69 v i i i LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 1 THE CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM WITHIN THE UNIVERSE OF NURSING 3 2 ILLEGITIMATE BIRTHS EXPRESSED AS A PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL LIVE BIRTHS 1960 - 1970 5 3 SCHEMATIC REPRESENTATION OF THE COPING PROCESS 30 ix AC KNOWLEDGMENTS The contributions of Mrs. Sharon Ogden and Mrs. Barbara Lee who respectfully supervised the research and writing of this thesis and Mrs. Lynne Reynolds who typed the manuscript, are gratefully acknowledged. The assistance of the health and social agencies who made the collection of the data possible i s much appreciated. Finally, the author i s indebted to the women who aided this research with much kindness. x Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY This study was concerned with unmarried mothers who had kept t h e i r children. In recent years an increasing number of unmarried mothers have chosen to keep t h e i r children rather than place them fo r adoption.^* A l i m i t e d , but growing body of l i t e r a t u r e r e f l e c t s the i n t e r e s t of community health workers i n these mothers and t h e i r children. Before the area was researched, there appeared to have been many misconceptions about the a b i l i t y of the single mother to rear a c h i l d i n the absence of a father. In 1963, Reed and Latimer researched the subject of the single mother. In t h e i r study based i n Ohio, they c i t e d that keeping a baby usu a l l y meant diminished educational, s o c i a l and economic opportunity f o r the mother. However, on the other hand, the study showed that i t was not safe to generalize that a l l unmarried mothers should release t h e i r babies for adoption. In some cases, the strong maternal f e e l i n g and conscience of the mother, and the group culture to which she belonged would be v i o l a t e d by her giving up the baby. 2 In her study i n Vancouver i n 1969, Poulos i d e n t i f i e d x D o r i s E. Guyatt, The One-Parent Family i n Canada (Ottawa: The Vanier I n s t i t u t e of the Family, 1971), p. 69. 2 E l l e r y Reed and Ruth Latimer, A Study of Unmarried Mothers Who Kept Their Babies Research Inc., 1963), p. 109. (Cincinnati: S o c i a l Welfare 1 2 3 the problems of single mothers. Due to the increasing number of mothers who have kept t h e i r children, t h i s author f e l t the need for further exploration of the area. This study explored the coping behaviours of the mothers, therefore gleaning information about the nature and extent of personal adjustment. This was i d e n t i f i e d as an area f o r further research i n the 1969 4 study. This topic was of i n t e r e s t to the author because of her experience i n working with single mothers and t h e i r children. During the time that she worked i n community nursing, the observation was made that an increasing number of single mothers were keeping t h e i r children. She was i n contact with these c l i e n t s for varying lengths of time, depending upon the health needs of the family. However, to determine i f these mothers encountered concerns that were not evident i n the e a r l y months of the c h i l d ' s l i f e , the need for more prolonged contact was often recognized. Conceptual Framework The conceptual framework of the research problem within the Universe of Nursing was i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure 1, page 3. The area of research was concerned with i d e n t i f y i n g the concerns and coping behaviours of single mothers. I t was also concerned with developing an assessment tool to i d e n t i f y these concerns and coping behaviours. From the r e s u l t s , practice guidelines Susan Poulos, A Problem Inventory of Single Mothers (Children's Aid Society of Vancouver, 1969). Ibid., p. 16. Evaluation Physical**" *-S y Health ^ ^  '1. Concerns of Single Mothers What \ ^ concerns? N Nursing Intervention 2. Coping Behaviours of Single Mothers \ How and Why? What coping \ behaviours? \ \ P r a c t i c e Guidelines Psycho-social Wellbeing \ Assessment ' tool Area of Research FIGURE 1 THE CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM WITHIN THE UNIVERSE OF NURSING 4 could be formulated, and s k i l l f u l nursing care provided to the c l i e n t . STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The Problem What were the concerns of the single mother; s p e c i f i c a l l y , the unmarried mother with a c h i l d aged s i x months to eight years? What were the coping behaviours of the single mother; s p e c i f i c a l l y the unmarried mother with a c h i l d aged s i x months to eight years? Significance of the Problem The apparent need for t h i s study was supported by the s t a t i s t i c s of the increasing numbers of single mothers who had kept t h e i r children. S t a t i s t i c s obtained from the C i t y of Vancouver revealed the i l l e g i t i m a t e b i r t h rate expressed as a percentage of the t o t a l l i v e b i r t h s . In 1961, the i l l e g i t i m a t e b i r t h s were 8.6 percent i n Vancouver. There was a steady increase u n t i l 1968, when a peak of 17 percent was reached. In 1969, the figure dropped to 16.7 percent, and i n 1970 to 16.6 percent. This was i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure 2, page 5. In 1969, the comparable rates of i l l e g i t i m a t e b i r t h s expressed as a percentage of t o t a l l i v e b i r t h s was 13.8 percent i n B r i t i s h Columbia, as compared to 9.2 percent for the re s t 5 of Canada. Claman, Williams and Wogan stated that the Live B i r t h s (City of Vancouver, 1943-1970). 5 17.0% 16.0% 16.4% 1 6 - 7 0 / f l 6 . 6 % 15.4% 12.4% 10.8% 9.6% 8.7% 8.6% I9601 61 1 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 FIGURE 2 ILLEGITIMATE BIRTHS EXPRESSED AS A PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL LIVE BIRTHS 1960 - 1970 6 absolute number of unmarried mothers has doubled i n Canada and 6 t r i p l e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia between 1945 and 1964. Knowles, i n an interview with Bodlak i n Vancouver, stated that, There seems to have been a change from most of the work being done before the c h i l d i s born to more work involved a f t e r the c h i l d ' s b i r t h i n follow-up and preventive services. From January to A p r i l , 1970, 62 babies were born and 25 (40 percent) of these were kept by the mother. For the same period i n 1971, 38 babies were born of which 20 (52.6 percent) were kept. 7 These figures indicated that although the i l l e g i t i m a t e b i r t h s had decreased, the number of mothers who kept t h e i r c h i l d r e n increased. This fact supported the need f o r further investigation into the concerns of these mothers. SPECIFICS OF THE STUDY General Aims of the Study The general aims of t h i s study were: 1. To determine the perceived concerns of single mothers who l i v e d alone with t h e i r c h i l d aged six months to eight years. 2. To study the stated coping behaviours of single mothers who l i v e d alone with t h e i r c h i l d , aged six months to eight years. David Claman, Barry Williams and L. Wogan, "Reaction of Unmarried G i r l s to Pregnancy", Canadian Medical Association  Journal, 101 (September 20, 1969), 328. 7Stan Bodlak, "Serving Children and Their Families", CAS News, 7:5 (June, 1971), 4. 7 S p e c i f i c Objectives of the Study The s p e c i f i c objectives of t h i s study were: 1. To i d e n t i f y the socio-economic concerns as stated by single mothers who l i v e d alone with t h e i r c h i l d aged si x months to eight years. a) To i d e n t i f y t h e i r concerns with finance b) To i d e n t i f y t h e i r concerns with employment c) To i d e n t i f y t h e i r concerns with housing d) To i d e n t i f y t h e i r concerns with education. 2. To i d e n t i f y the s p e c i f i c concerns related to health as stated by single mothers who l i v e d alone with t h e i r c h i l d aged s i x months to eight years. a) To i d e n t i f y t h e i r concerns with physical health. b) To i d e n t i f y t h e i r emotional health status. 3. To i d e n t i f y the coping behaviours employed by single mothers who l i v e d alone with t h e i r c h i l d aged s i x months to eight years. D e f i n i t i o n of Terms The Single Mother. The single mother was defined as a woman who gave b i r t h to a c h i l d to whose father she was not l e g a l l y married. I t further implied that she had not entered into a l e g a l union with another man and l i v e d alone with her c h i l d . The C h i l d . The c h i l d was defined as aged s i x months to eight years, born to parents who were not l e g a l l y married. 8 Only* children were included who were not under h o s p i t a l or medical care for physical or psychological impairment. Coping Behaviour. Coping behaviour was defined as strategies used by the single mother to deal with her concerns. According to Lazarus, the coping process may constitute d i f f e r e n t kinds of action tendencies, namely the ind i v i d u a l ' s resources against the anticipated harm, or action aimed at P avoidance of the s i t u a t i o n . Concern. A concern was defined as a s i t u a t i o n which the mothers perceived as s t r e s s f u l . Assumptions Two basic assumptions were made i n t h i s study. They were: 1. That the mothers were able to i d e n t i f y t h e i r concerns and coping behaviours to the investigator i n the interview s i t u a t i o n . 2. That the mothers gave d i r e c t and honest r e p l i e s to the questions posed by the investigator. Limitation of the Study The sample was one of convenience drawn from agencies and private volunteers. Therefore, generalizations cannot be made to the larger society. "Richard Lazarus, Psychological Stress and the Coping  Process (Toronto: McGraw H i l l , 1966), pp. 151-153. 9 Overview Li t e r a t u r e r e l a t i n g to the concerns and coping behaviours of the single mother was reviewed i n Chapter 2 . The methodology employed i n t h i s study was described i n Chapter 3 . The analysis and discussion of the data were presented i n Chapter 4 . In Chapter 5 , the findings were summarized, implications were i d e n t i f i e d , recommendations were made, and suggestions f o r further research were enumerated. Chapter 2 RESUME OF THE PRESENT KNOWLEDGE In 1966, Kronick stated that the problems and d i f f i -c u l t i e s that were unique to the unmarried mother were s t i l l being questioned. Despite attention given to the subject of unmarried motherhood, r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e of the writing was based on knowledge derived from research. Most of the writers discussed the problem from the point of view of popular concern. Unquestionably, part of the explanation f o r the lack of research knowledge about the unwed mother derives from the nature of the problem. Consideration of the general problem of the unwed mother, with reference to i n d i v i d u a l case studies, but without reference to the s o c i a l structure w i l l y i e l d a r e l a t i v e l y meager return.''" However, i n recent years, there has been a growing body of research about the unmarried mother. These studies were c i t e d when appropriate. The review of the l i t e r a t u r e was divided into the concerns of the single mother, s p e c i f i c a l l y socio-economic concerns, and concerns related to health. Further to t h i s , theories of the process of coping were reviewed. •••Jane C o l l i e r Kronick, "An Assessment of Research Knowledge Concerning the Unmarried Mother", The Unwed Mother, ed. R.W. Roberts (New York: Harper and Row, 1966), p. 235. 10 11 CONCERNS OF THE SINGLE MOTHER Socio-Economic Concerns Societal Implications. In viewing the concept of the single mother i n a s o c i a l framework, Schlesinger advanced three c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the single parent. F i r s t , there i s the absence of one parent. Second, the single parent structure i s a minority one i n society and deviates from s t a t i s t i c a l norm. Third, stigmatization of the single parent family and e s p e c i a l l y of single parents does occur. The unwed mother i s considered by society to be morally deviant. The unmarried one parent family i s i n a most peculiar p o s i t i o n i n society. Most s o c i a l agencies s t i l l work towards the release of the c h i l d for adoption, e s p e c i a l l y i f the c h i l d i s healthy and white. Thus society o v e r t l y admits that the o unmarried one parent family i s dysfunctional as a family u n i t . This viewpoint was supported by S i g n e l l and Bernstein who c i t e d that agencies i n society are l a r g e l y oriented toward the g i r l who relinquishes her c h i l d , rather than to the majority who 3 4 keep t h e i r c h i l d r e n . ' In 1962, the C h i l d Welfare League of America issued a •^Benjamin Schlesinger, The One Parent Family Perspectives  and Annotated Bibliography (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, 1969), pp. 10-15. ^Karen S i g n e l l , "The C r i s i s of Unwed Motherhood: A Consultation Approach", Community Mental Health Journal, 5 (1969), 304-305. ^Rose Bernstein, "Gaps i n Service to Unmarried Mothers", Children, 10: 2 (March-April, 1963), 49-54. 12 statement regarding standards for services to unmarried parents. They r e f l e c t e d that i n our society parenthood without marriage i s a deviation from the accepted c u l t u r a l patterns of bearing and rearing children. The l e g a l family i s the approved s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n to ensure sound rearing and development of children, and to protect the c h i l d - parent r e l a t i o n s h i p . The out of wedlock c h i l d and h i s parents do not have the same l e g a l protections which are o r d i n a r i l y provided through marriage to children and parents. The mother l e g a l l y i s placed i n the p o s i t i o n of carrying the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of both mother and father, and i s i n a disadvantaged p o s i t i o n because of society's disapproval. Social sanctions m i l i t a t e against her, and certa i n aspects of normal l i f e are denied to her as an unwed parent, including acceptance i n the community. She d i f f e r s from a widowed, divorced or separated mother, who may have had a complete family at one point, and thus at le a s t has the image of a family. The woman who attempts to set up an independent household for h e r s e l f and her c h i l d faces a v a r i e t y of problems. R e a l i s t i c factors are her f i n a n c i a l needs, working and supporting a c h i l d , the e f f e c t of t h i s kind of existence upon her capacity to provide a warm, happy l i f e for her c h i l d , and the e f f e c t s on the c h i l d of the mother's problems and a one-parent family. Whether she works or receives f i n a n c i a l assistance, a c e r t a i n portion of normal l i f e may be denied her, including normal acceptance i n the community. She may be denied school attendance, employment opportunities, public housing or public 13 5 assistance. Hallam argued that unmarried mothers have been subjected to b i t t e r c r i t i c i s m , and have been condemned and rejected as u n f i t mothers or members of family and society, and censured as a drain on our economy. Our society i s a married society, with the family as the basic u n i t . The concept of legitimacy i s based on married parents and deviation from t h i s structure represents a problem.^ D i f f e r e n t authors advanced the thesis that unmarried mothers show a wide range of s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and reveal no pattern of an average unmarried mother. Although the middle class b e l i e f that i l l e g i t i m a c y was something that happened only to the young, the poor, the uneducated, the immoral and the mentally i l l was always overstated, i t i s less true than i t previously was. Il l e g i t i m a c y has invaded middle class high schools and colleges, the white c o l l a r occupations and the adult population with a force that has not been known before. It i s a phenomenon among middle income, educated and older 7,8,9 women from established middle class f a m i l i e s . 5 C h i l d Welfare League of America Standards f o r Services  to unmarried Parents (New York: C h i l d Welfare League of America, 1962), pp. 1-39. ^Mabel Hallam, "Attitudes Toward the Unwed Mother," Nursing C l i n i c s of North America, 2 (December, 1967), 776-777. 7 C l a r k Vincent, "The Unwed Mother and Sampling Bias", The  Unwed Mother, ed. Robert Roberts (New York: Harper and Row, 1966), pp. 252-255. 8Robert Roberts (ed.), The Unwed Mother (New York: Harper and Row, 1966), pp. 3-8. ^William Rashbaum et a l , "Use of Social Services by Unmarried Mothers" Children. 10: 1 (January-February, 1963), 12. 14 In summary, the majority of the l i t e r a t u r e r e f l e c t e d that the single mother suffers severe s o c i a l sanctions. In contrast, Bernstein's observations i n 1971 add another dimension. A f t e r reviewing research on the s o c i a l problems of the single parent, she stated that one of the most consistent findings was that for most of the women interviewed, having an out-of-wedlock c h i l d did not e n t a i l severe s o c i a l penalties. I t did not r e s u l t i n poor family relationships or bring censure from friends, neighbours or colleagues who knew about t h e i r circumstances. However, as Bernstein pointed out, these r e s u l t s were possibly 10 due to the nature of the sample. F i n a n c i a l and employment. Due to the re l a t i o n s h i p between these areas, the l i t e r a t u r e concerning f i n a n c i a l and employment status were reviewed together. In many instances, the mothers' f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s resulted from t h e i r i n a b i l i t y to procure and keep permanent well-paid jobs. Bernstein stated that the unmarried mother who kept her baby had to esta b l i s h h e r s e l f and her c h i l d i n the community as a family u n i t . She had to provide f o r the c h i l d ' s economic and material sustenance.^ Many single parent families l i v e d i n poverty, or near poverty. Supplementary assistance was sometimes not applied f o r 12 as the mothers wished to avoid formality or embarrassment. ^Rose Bernstein, Helping Unmarried Mothers (New York: Association Press, 1971), pp. 96-97. 11 12 Ibid., pp. 95-100 Ibid. Kreisberg argued that the mother of the preschool c h i l d was l e s s able to seek employment than the mother of the c h i l d i n school. A woman without r e l a t i v e s l i v i n g i n the same c i t y was not able to have her family substitute for the father's contribution to c h i l d care, nor could a r e l a t i v e free her f o r 13 employment. A l l these added up to a diminished income. Pochin c i t e d that the single mother's most important problem was economic. She and the c h i l d must have adequate means of support or t h e i r l i f e together could not become a r e a l i t y . Sheer economic pressure often precluded any r e a l i s t i c choice about the c h i l d ' s upbringing, and compelled many mothers to o f f e r t h e i r babies for adoption. This was bad enough, but the harm done was i n f i n i t e l y worse when the mother made an unsuccessful attempt to keep her baby and l a t e r had to accept f a i l u r e . In the intervening period, the c h i l d had several changes of home and a number of d i f f e r e n t people looking a f t e r him while h i s 14 mother was at work. In many instances, the putative father was excluded from planning with the unmarried mother fo r f i n a n c i a l support of h i s o f f s p r i n g . Pannor suggested that i n recent years, a few agencies have been pioneering i n e f f o r t s to involve the father i n planning, thereby giving some f i n a n c i a l help to the single mother. Such • L JLouis Kriesberg, Mothers i n Poverty: A Study of  Fatherless Families (Chicago: Aldine Publishing Co., 1970), pp. 30-31, 292. *4jean Pochin, Without a Wedding Ring (Essex: The Anchor Press Ltd., 1969), pp. 132-144. work revealed that these men had considerably more feelings about 15 the mothers and children than had been recognized. By s o l i c i t -ing economic support from the father, the economic burden of the mother was somewhat a l l e v i a t e d . Reed and Latimer, i n t h e i r 1963 study, found that of the 118 unmarried mothers i n the study, le s s than 30 percent worked. A large proportion, nearly h a l f of the group not receiving service or assistance from any s o c i a l agency, were employed. Weekly earnings ranged from between $35 to $50. Mothers were employed i n f a c t o r i e s , o f f i c e s or restaurants. Due to a v a r i e t y of reasons, only a small number of the women returned to jobs held p r i o r to pregnancy. Some mothers f e l t unable to face t h e i r employer and co-workers. On the whole, however, mothers mostly d i d not return because of l i t t l e job s e n i o r i t y . Forty-one percent of the mothers were self-supporting, 19 percent were dependent on r e l a t i v e s and a l i t t l e l e s s than 40 percent were dependent on public assistance. This l a t t e r was noteworthy, for the common impression had been that p r a c t i c a l l y a l l unmarried mothers and t h e i r children were dependent on the taxpayer. Among the self-supporting were counted some who were 16 17 married and were receiving support from t h e i r husbands. ' •^Reuben pannor, "Casework Service f o r Unmarried Fathers", Children. 10: 2 (March-April, 1963), 65-70. l ^ E l l e r y Reed and Ruth Latimer, A Study of Unmarried  Mothers Who Kept Their Babies (Cincinnati: Social Welfare Research Inc., 1963), pp. 32-39. E l l e r y Reed, "Unmarried Mothers Who Kept Their Babies", Children. 12': (May-June, 1965), 116-119. 17 This finding was supported by the 1966 study of Crumidy and Jacobziner i n New York, who related that two-thirds of the mothers i n t h e i r study received support from sources other than the Department of Welfare. The young mothers were motivated to employment. However, employment potentials were affected by various conditions including degree of education and other t r a i n i n g , o v e r a l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s for the baby, family's a b i l i t y to help, and other environmental obstacles, including a lack of community resources and opportunities, e s p e c i a l l y job t r a i n i n g . 1 8 Wright's study i n C a l i f o r n i a r e f l e c t e d a s i m i l a r f inding. Forty percent of the mothers had had public assistance at some time, and just under 25 percent were s t i l l dependent on a s s i s t -ance at the time of the study. The mothers who were supporting themselves and were not married were helped by t h e i r r e l a t i v e s and the mother's earnings. Twenty-five percent of the mothers were l i v i n g i n poverty, while an additional 15 percent were l i v i n g above the poverty l i n e , but showed evidence of hardship. Mothers on public assistance were l i v i n g below the poverty l i n e . Although the r e l a t i o n of economic status to source of support i s i n t e r e s t i n g , the more s i g n i f i c a n t finding i n judging the adequacy of the income i s that h a l f of the t o t a l group were c l e a r l y l i v i n g above the poverty i a P e a r l Menter Crumidy and Harold Jacobziner, "A Study of Young Unmarried Mothers Who Kept Their Babies," American  Journal of Public Health, 56: 8 (August, 1966), 1245-1247. 18 l i n e and were able to l i v e without any evidence of the type of deprivation that constitutes a s o c i a l problem.^ I t appeared that the mothers who l i v e d i n poverty r e f l e c t e d a major s o c i a l and economic problem i n society. Sauber and Rubinstein, i n t h e i r 1965 study i n New York, stated that the unmarried mother faced the overwhelming question of feeding, clothing and housing h e r s e l f and her baby without the support of a breadwinner. Income from employment was r a r e l y her sole source of support. Twice as many women r e l i e d e n t i r e l y upon t h e i r earnings to meet expenses when the babies were 18 months old than when they were 5 months old, but even at 18 months, only f o r 8 percent were earnings from employment the only source of income. The average weekly income for most of the women who were working was between $50 to $74. Ninety-six percent of the women studied expressed a desire to work at some time since t h e i r infant's b i r t h , yet only 50 percent worked. One of the most common problems i n obtaining employment was t h e i r lack of experience, education or t r a i n i n g . The second most common obstacle was care of the baby. Ei t h e r they f e l t i t necessary to care f o r the baby themselves or were unable to make s a t i s f a c t o r y baby care arrangements. Apparently, desire to take care personally of the baby and the i n a b i l i t y to make adequate baby care arrangements were greater deterrents to undertaking employment than was lack of Helen Wright, 80 Unmarried Mothers Who Kept Their  Babies (State of C a l i f o r n i a : Department of Social Welfare, May, 1965), pp. 20-27. experience, education or t r a i n i n g . Many more women who gave the l a t t e r reasons as obstacles to employment a c t u a l l y did work at one time or another during the eighteen month study period than did women who mentioned c h i l d care arrangements as obstacles. Proportionately more of the mothers who l i v e d on t h e i r own with the baby required public assistance, than of the women i n any 20 other type of l i v i n g arrangement. Sauber and Corrigan continued the study i n 1970, to include the same single parents who had kept t h e i r children up to the age of six years. They c i t e d that for a substantial number of mothers and children, l i f e was at or near the poverty l i n e . More than 42 percent of the mothers reported monthly incomes of less than $300, or $3,600 annually. This placed them i n a segment of the population who could be c l a s s i f i e d , on the basis of c r i t e r i a developed by the Social Security Administration, as i n 'poverty' or 'near poor'. A substantial majority of these women, 77 percent, had worked at some time since the b i r t h of t h e i r f i r s t c h i l d . Thirty-three percent were employed at the time of the study. The proportion of the mothers employed at the time of the interview was somewhat si m i l a r to that reported for working mothers with young preschool children throughout the United States; n a t i o n a l l y , 29 percent of mothers with children under s i x years of age were ^^Mignon Sauber and Elaine Rubinstein, Experiences of the  Unwed Mother as a Parent: A Longitudinal Study of Unmarried  Mothers Who Keep Their F i r s t b o r n (New York: Community Council of Greater New York, 1965), pp. 80-107. 20 21 reported to be employed in 1968. In summary, i t became obvious from the review of the literature that a large number of single mothers lived below the poverty line. Contrary to popular belief, research indicated that not a l l single mothers were on public assistance. Some mothers who wanted to work were confronted with the d i f f i c u l t i e s of adequate child care and lack of education and job training. Housing. The review of the literature revealed a variety of housing conditions among single mothers. Reed and Latimer observed that housing conditions of the mothers varied, better than might be expected for many, but poor for others. Among those who had problems, lack of adequate f a c i l i t i e s were evident. Over one-third were livin g in the same house as before the birth of the baby. Most of those not li v i n g in the same house moved after returning from the maternity home or hospital. Approximately half continued to liv e in the same neighbourhood as before the birth of the baby. For many, getting away from 22 neighbourhoods and friends was not an overriding consideration. Sauber and Rubinstein reported poor housing conditions among single mothers. Many of the mothers lived in the slum or near slum areas of New York City. They put up with, or moved to Mignon Sauber and Eileen Corrigan, The Six Year  Experience of Unwed Mothers as Parents. A Continuing Study of  These Mothers and Their Children (New York: Community Council of Greater New York, 1970), pp. 38-44. 22 Ellery Reed and Ruth Latimer, A Study of Unmarried  Mothers Who Kept Their Babies (Cincinnati: Social Welfare Research Inc., 1963), pp. 49-50. 21 places with inadequate f a c i l i t i e s , gross overcrowding or other such conditions, more as the re s u l t of necessity than of choice. The housing occupied by these mothers should be viewed within two contexts: one, as an i n d i c a t i o n of the socio-economic l e v e l of the group; and two, as the setting i n which these women cared for t h e i r infants. The most p e r s i s t i n g housing problems were overcrowding, i n f e s t a t i o n with rats, roaches, and inadequate f a c i l i t i e s . Many mothers were disturbed by the deplorable conditions of the neighbourhood i n which they l i v e d . In a l l , only 21 percent of the women studied expressed no problems with t h e i r housing at any of the follow-up interviews. For some, t h e i r unmarried status was a handicap when they t r i e d to acquire 23 housing i n public housing projects. Discrimination against the single mother i n these projects was supported by Kreisberg 24 i n h i s 1970 study i n the Eastern United States. In 1970, Sauber and Corrigan did a follow-up study i n New York on the mothers who had participated i n the 1965 study. Unfortunately, t h e i r poor housing conditions had not changed. There was a high rate of mobility among the mothers. Half of those who moved i n the past year said they did so because the 25 housing was inadequate and overcrowded. 23 Sauber and Rubinstein, op c i t . , pp. 41-75. 24 Louis Kreisberg, Mothers i n Poverty. A Study of  Fatherless Families (Chicago: Aldine Publishing Co., 1970), pp. 85, 121. 25 Mignon Sauber and Ei l e e n Corrigan, The Six Year  Experience of Unwed Mothers as Parents. A Continuing Study of  These Mothers and Their Children (New York: Community Council of Greater New York, 1970), p. 78. 22 Wright reviewed the problem of housing i n her 1965 study i n C a l i f o r n i a . Unlike the s i t u a t i o n found by Sauber and Rubinstein i n New York, she found that only three out of eighty mothers reported d i f f i c u l t y i n finding l i v i n g quarters that they thought 2 6 could be attributed to t h e i r unmarried status. Poulos, i n her study i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1969, found that l i v i n g arrangements presented a problem to the majority of 27 the single parents interviewed. Bernstein also supported the thesis that single mothers were often plagued by poor housing conditions. ° Education. In 1962, Vincent stated that single mothers who kept t h e i r infants had l e s s education as shown by mean years of schooling completed, college attendance and high school completion, i n comparison to mothers who surrendered t h e i r 29 children for adoption. Ke l l e y offered an explanation to t h i s phenomenon. He c i t e d that i n the United States i n 1963, some states denied the r i g h t of education to the pregnant, unmarried g i r l , or the g i r l who had a c h i l d . This represented an avenue for transmitting society's standards of moral behaviour. When an unmarried mother was denied education, the chances for her 2 6 H e l e n Wright, 80 Unmarried Mothers Who Kept Their  Babies (State of C a l i f o r n i a : Department of Social Welfare, May, 1965), p. 30. 2 7Susan Poulos, A Problem Inventory of Single Mothers (Children's Aid Society of Vancouver, 1969), pp. 10-13. 2^Rose Bernstein, Helping Unmarried Mothers (New York: Association Press, 1971), p. 98. 2 9 C l a r k Vincent, Unmarried Mothers (New York: The Free Press of Glencoe, 1962), pp. 185-190. s o c i a l improvement were diminished. Other researchers found a deficiency of education i n young unmarried mothers, with the majority not completing high school. :,Lack of education was also found to be a vocational h a n d i c a p . 3 1 ' 3 2 In 1965, Sauber and Rubinstein noted that the New York Board of Education required pregnant g i r l s to withdraw from regular school attendance. They were permitted to return to school a f t e r the b i r t h of the c h i l d . However, about one out of three of those who had returned had "dropped but" again before graduating. These women encountered problems with finances, and 33 adequate baby care arrangements. In summary, some single mothers, depending on t h e i r place of residence, had to withdraw from school during pregnancy. A large number of them had not completed high school. Deterrents to continuing education were lack of f i n a n c i a l assistance and d i f f i c u l t y i n arranging c h i l d care. 30 J e r r y Kelley, "The School and Unmarried Mothers", Children. 10: 2 (March-April, 1963), 60-64. 31Pearl Menter Crumidy and Harold Jacobziner, "A Study of Young Unmarried Mothers Who Kept Their Babies," American  Journal of Public Health. 56: 8 (August, 1966) 1244-1245. 32 E l l e r y Reed and Ruth Latimer, A Study of Unmarried  Mothers Who Kept Their Babies (Cincinnati: Social Welfare Research Inc., 1963), pp. 9-12. Mignon Sauber and Elaine Rubinstein, Experiences of  the Unwed Mother as a Parent. A Longitudinal Study of Unmarried Mothers Who Keep Their F i r s t b o r n (New York: Community Council of Greater New York, Research Department, 1965), pp. 110-116. Concerns Related to Health In 1967, Chaskel argued that s p e c i f i c provisions were needed i n society for the care of the unmarried mother and her c h i l d . These mothers make up a vulnerable high r i s k group often not attuned to finding t h e i r way through the confusing 34 maze of our s o c i a l service i n s t i t u t i o n s . Physical• In reviewing the physical health concerns of single mothers, Crumidy and Jacobziner i n t h e i r 1966 study, found that at i n i t i a l contact the young mothers were generally i n apparent good health, although a few needed dental care. However, the majority reported that prenatal care p r i o r to the b i r t h of t h e i r present c h i l d started either l a t e i n the second trimester or i n the t h i r d trimester. Some g i r l s , pregnant i n t h e i r second and t h i r d trimesters at the time of the study, had 35 not sought prenatal care, but did so when referred. Although the following study was concerned with previously married single mothers, the findings might have implications f o r unmarried mothers. Berkman's study i n 1969 focused on the differences i n reported physical health between two groups of mothers who were currently r a i s i n g children, the spouseless and the married. He postulated that other things being equal, p o t e n t i a l l y s t r e s s f u l circumstances, conditions, 34 Ruth Chaskel, "The Unmarried Mother: Is She D i f f e r e n t ? " C h i l d Welfare, 46 (February, 1967), 74. 3->Pearl Menter Crumidy and Harold Jacobziner, "A Study of Young Unmarried Mothers Who Kept Their Babies," American  Journal of Public Health, 56: 8 (August, 1966), 1244. 25 episodes and events were conducive to physical i l l health. Considering the d i f f e r e n t ways of l i v i n g inherent i n the two states, there seemed no question but that the spouseless as a group were more frequently and p e r s i s t e n t l y confronted with events and situations that threatened such common motives as a f f i l i a t i o n and approval, s o c i a l esteem, achievement, a f f e c t i o n and sexual g r a t i f i c a t i o n and adequate parenthood. In contrast to t h e i r married counterparts, the spouseless mothers had sole r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for c h i l d r e a r i n g , with everything t h i s e ntailed. At the same time, they were d a i l y deprived of a l l the psycho-l o g i c a l and s o c i a l exchanges and s a t i s f a c t i o n s that only a husband could supply. F i n a l l y , they were s o c i a l l y marginal. I f , therefore, poor health was more prevalent among the spouseless than among the married mothers, i t could be related at l e a s t i n part to the inherent differences i n stress between the two groups. As anticipated, Berkman found that the incidence of physical morbidity was higher among spouseless mothers than among t h e i r married counterparts. The higher incidence of morbidity among spouseless mothers was not due simply to socio-economic differences between them and married mothers, as morbidity differences persisted regardless of socio-economic status. At the same time, however, systematic morbidity va r i a t i o n s tended to occur within both comparison groups, i n the d i r e c t i o n of greater prevalence among the economically d i s -advantaged, than among the advantaged, congruent with the 26 postulate that both economic deprivation and spouseless mother-hood were inherently s t r e s s f u l , each contributing independently 3 6 to the l i k e l i h o o d of i l l n e s s . Sauber and Rubinstein found that single mothers were less thorough about seeking medical care for themselves, than they were i n seeking i t for t h e i r infants. Every woman i n the study had at least one contact with a medical agency or a private doctor i n the 18 month study period. However, many women ex-pressed a need for more adequate f a c i l i t i e s and care for low income people.^ 7 In the follow-up study on the same mothers i n 1970, Sauber and Corrigan stated that most of them were i n r e l a t i v e l y good physical health, with more than h a l f reporting no health problems. The largest s p e c i f i c complaint was gynaecological, reported by 21 percent of the mothers. Only 3 percent had no regular source of medical care. Some of the problems c i t e d i n obtaining medical care were long waits at c l i n i c s or rough 38 impersonal treatment by h o s p i t a l personnel. The C h i l d Welfare League of America suggested i n 1962 that Public Health Agencies carry r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for adequate •^Paul Berkman, "Spouseless Motherhood, Psychological Stress and Physical Morbidity", Journal of Health and Social  Behaviour. 10: 4 (December, 1969), 323-334. 3 7Mignon Sauber and Elaine Rubinstein, Experiences of  the Unwed Mother as a Parent. A Longitudinal Study of Unmarried  Mothers Who Keep Their F i r s t b o r n (New York: Community Council of Greater New York, 1965), pp. 123-134. 3 8Mignon Sauber and E i l e e n Corrigan, The Six Year  Experience of Unwed Mothers as Parents. A Continuing Study of These Mothers and Their Children (New York: Community Council of Greater New York, 1970), pp. 82-83. 27 follow-up of mothers known to them. Community Health Agencies such as the C h i l d Health Conferences, School Health Services or a Public Health Department should be responsible for i d e n t i f y i n g unwed mothers and children who may need help, f o r r e f e r r a l to s o c i a l agencies where indicated, and for follow-up services for the health of mothers and infants. I t was f e l t that public health agencies have a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to the mother who may not 39 consult a s o c i a l agency. From the review of the l i t e r a t u r e , i t was evident that health professionals should work with single mothers both before and a f t e r the b i r t h of the c h i l d . Although many mothers received physical care, others expressed a need f o r more adequate f a c i l -i t i e s . Emotional. The area of emotional health as reviewed i n the l i t e r a t u r e presented a picture f o r concern. In 1965, Sauber and Rubinstein c i t e d some of the expressed needs of the mothers as a yearning to be considered with d i g n i t y and personal worth, and a longing f o r friendship. These were the intangibles frequently evidenced i n the statements of these mothers, and poignantly a r t i c u l a t e d by them. The mothers expressed a need to f e e l s e l f s u f f i c i e n t and independent. C l o s e l y associated with t h i s , was the need to be treated with respect and to be received courteously and sympathetically by those from whom they sought help. They C h i l d Welfare League of America Standards f o r Services to Unmarried Parents (New York: C h i l d Welfare League of America, 1962), pp. 33-39. 28 needed to have a sense or a f e e l i n g of personal worth. However, many of these mothers reported that the treatment they received wherever they went for assistance or help tended to degrade them. Both among the mothers who were burdened with the tangible problems of l i v i n g with an infant i n very substandard housing and of supporting themselves and the c h i l d , and among those who were able to manage adequately i n these areas, were some mothers who expressed unhappiness, anxiety and i n t e r n a l c o n f l i c t . In the view of the interviewers, well over a t h i r d of the group would have benefited from casework or counselling 40 services. In studying the same population f i v e years l a t e r , Sauber and Corrigan found that 30 percent of a l l study mothers were impaired i n t h e i r emotional health. An association between income l e v e l and emotional health status was evident. Among mothers with family incomes of less than $3,600, 41 percent scored as impaired. Impairment ratings decreased to 27 percent when income was $3,600 or more, but less than $6,000. Among those with incomes of at l e a s t $6,000, only 10 percent had a score i n d i c a t i n g impairment. More than twice as many mothers showed no symptoms when income was $6,000 or more than when i t 41 was under $3,600. Bernstein, i n reviewing the problems of single 152-153. 41 4°Sauber and Rubinstein, op. c i t . , pp. 135-136, Sauber and Corrigan, op. c i t . , pp. 83-89. 29 parenthood, stated that many mothers complained of being t i e d down, with accompanying depression, loneliness and boredom. There were problems i n personal relationships and s o c i a l adjustment. Some expressed the need to talk to someone concerning the care of t h e i r c h i l d . Some were puzzled about what 42 to t e l l him about h i s father. Wright also found that t h i r t y -three of the eighty mothers studied showed signs of emotional 43 maladjustment. Resume of the present knowledge demonstrated that a large number of mothers manifested emotional problems, often associated with economic deprivation. In many instances, the e x i s t i n g community f a c i l i t i e s were not geared to the needs of these women, who often f e l t unwelcome when they sought help from agencies. THE PROCESS OF COPING The review of t h i s area of the l i t e r a t u r e introduced the author's conceptualization of the process of coping, and gave a t h e o r e t i c a l framework for understanding stress and coping behaviour. A schematic representation of the coping process was outlined i n Figure 3, page 30. I t i l l u s t r a t e d the responses of the organism to stress. Lazarus advanced the theory that stress, as a universal 4 2Rose Bernstein, Helping Unmarried Mothers (New York: Association Press, 1971), pp. 98-99. 4 % e l e n Wright, 80 Unmarried Mothers Who Kept Their  Babies (State of C a l i f o r n i a : Department of Social Welfare, May, 1965), pp. 35-71. Human Organism 30 i Stress- State of Equilibrium Stress i State of Disequilibrium > f F e l t Need to Restore Equilibrium COPING Strategies f o r PROCESS Dealing with Stress i R e a l i s t i c Perception of Event i Adequate S i t u a t i o n a l Support Action Against Anticipated Harm Resolution of Problem Equilibrium Regained No C r i s i s Distorted Perception of Event 1 No adequate Si t u a t i o n a l Support inaction Withdrawal/ Avoidance B Disequilibrium Continues I C r i s i s Regain State of Equilibrium ~T; Dysfunction FIGURE 3 SCHEMATIC REPRESENTATION OF THE COPING PROCESS 31 human and animal phenomenon, r e s u l t s i n intense and d i s t r e s s i n g experiences, and appears to be of tremendous influence i n behaviour. The province of stress i s most c l e a r l y demarcated when one deals with the extremes of disturbance of b i o l o g i c a l and psychological functioning, disturbance brought about by unusually threatening, damaging or demanding l i f e conditions. Four main classes of reaction have t y p i c a l l y been used to index stress, namely, disturbed a f f e c t s , motor-behavioural reactions, changes i n adequacy of cognitive functioning and physiological changes. Disturbed a f f e c t s may include fear or anxiety, anger, depression or g u i l t . Motor behaviours c i t e d are increased muscle tension, speech disturbances, p a r t i c u l a r l y f a c i a l expression. The d i r e c t i o n a l i t y of the behaviour, for example, attack, approach or avoidance, as well as i t s i n t e n s i t y contributes to the inference that i t i s a form of stress response. Changes i n the adequacy of cognitive functioning repre-sents a t h i r d category of stress response. This implies change rather than impairment, as experimental evidence suggests that stress can f a c i l i t a t e as well as impair s k i l l e d performance and cognitive a c t i v i t y . Stress may a f f e c t perception, thought, judgment, problem solving, perceptual and motor s k i l l s and s o c i a l adaptation. Physiological change i s one of the most widely used classes of indicators of stress reaction. This includes reactions of both the autonomous nervous system, and of the adrenal glands which secrete various hormones under stress. 32 "Stress" as a term, encourages one to think of disturbances of adaptation, the production of b o d i l y disease and psychopathology. The term suggests the image of a person buffeted about by destructive forces and struggling to survive 44 or f l o u r i s h . Martin and Prange c i t e d that i t i s now pertinent to examine the concepts of health, i l l n e s s and stress. Health represents a "successful" adjustment, and i l l n e s s a f a i l u r e of adjustment. According to the above authors, stress arises from interference or assaults, threats of assaults, r e a l or supposed from without and from within the organism. Meeting h i s needs, and adapting to the stress which confronts him i n l i f e , the i n d i v i d u a l resorts to various measures, p h y s i o l o g i c a l , psychological and s o c i a l , which tend to maintain a r e l a t i v e l y stable balance within and among the various systemic parts. This balance i s referred to as equilibrium. As i n d i v i d u a l s move through the l i f e cycle, they are faced with a series of changing conditions - physical, s o c i a l and psychological. New d e f i n i t i o n s and concepts of s e l f must be acquired with respect to one's age, sex and other factors specifying expectations of the i n d i v i d u a l . Such adjustments tend to be f o c a l i z e d around outstanding l i f e events. I t i s at these nodal points, at these times of adaptive c r i s e s , that adaptation i s most l i k e l y to f a i l and i l l n e s s occur. Under usual conditions, each nodal point i n the l i f e cycle i s the ^ R i c h a r d Lazarus, Psychological Stress and the Coping  Process (Toronto: McGraw H i l l , 1966), pp. 2-10. 33 occasion f o r growth and development and f o r the enrichment of l i f e . I t i s when the i n d i v i d u a l i s unprepared or unable to accept the change that adaptive f a i l u r e occurs; when the change i s too sudden, too severe, or i l l - t i m e d , i l l n e s s i s l i k e l y to r e s u l t . 45 Parenthood represents a nodal point xn the l i f e cycle. Lazarus stated that coping r e f e r s to strategies f o r dealing with threat. Observable threats and stress reactions are reactions or consequences of coping processes intended to reduce threat. When the i n d i v i d u a l i s threatened, motoric actions and psychological a c t i v i t y w i l l be aroused to ward o f f the anticipated harm. Unless something i s done to protect the psychological system, a damaging state of a f f a i r s w i l l occur (by the d e f i n i t i o n of the threat). The i n d i v i d u a l may attempt, for example, to avoid the danger, overcome i t by attack on the harmful agent, or engage i n a r i c h v a r i e t y of self-deceptive defensive a c t i v i t i e s , reappraising the danger even i n the 46 defiance of r e a l i t y . In r e f e r r i n g to Figure 3 on page 30, the concept of coping according to Lazarus was included with further conceptualization by the author, based upon the assumption that withdrawal or avoidance used as a coping strategy i n a s t r e s s f u l s i t u a t i o n , without adequate s i t u a t i o n a l support, may have a 45 Harry Martin and Arthur Prange, "Human Adaptation A Conceptual Approach to Understanding Patients", Canadian  Nurse, 58: 3 (March, 1962), 234-243. 46 Lazarus, op. c i t . , pp. 151-154. 34 d i f f e r e n t end r e s u l t to action aimed at strengthening resources against anticipated harm. Aguilera, Messick and F a r r e l l ' s conceptualization of the e f f e c t of balancing factors i n a 47 s t r e s s f u l event was incorporated, but some change was made i n the conceptual framework to the extent that withdrawal was conceptualized as part of the coping process. If the organism withdraws from the s t r e s s f u l event, the problem remains unsolved, and a state of disequilibrium p e r s i s t s , which may r e s u l t i n a c r i s i s state. Capian, i n discussing problem solving, advanced the idea that the person may react to stress i n such a way that he i s e f f e c t i v e i n the world of r e a l i t y . Another way of dealing with problems i s by passive surrender or d i s i n t e g r a t i o n , referred to as a l i e n a t i o n . The person cuts himself o f f from the whole world, and goes back to h i s p r i m i t i v e non-thinking state. This i s not an e f f e c t i v e way of dealing with the problem. The other way of dealing with i t , short of complete unconsciousness", i s complete or p a r t i a l d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of personality functioning, 48 which i s c a l l e d a psychosxs. In r e l a t i n g t h i s t h e o r e t i c a l framework of coping to single mothers, each woman w i l l experience her unwed motherhood according to her perception of the events. For each, the c r i s i s Donna Aguilera, Janice Messick and Marlene F a r r e l , C r i s i s Intervention Theory and Methodology (St. Louis: C.V. MosbyCo., 1970), p. 52. Gerald Caplan, An Approach to Community Mental  Health (New York: Grune and Stratton, 1961), pp. 38-39. 35 49 p r e c i p i t a t i n g factor may be d i f f e r e n t at d i f f e r e n t times. Bernstein c i t e d out of wedlock pregnancy as an extended emotional and s o c i a l c r i s i s that r e s u l t s when the b i o l o g i c and physiologic stresses of pregnancy are i n t e n s i f i e d by the s o c i a l stresses of the out of wedlock status. The primary c r i s i s f o r an unmarried mother st a r t s when she f i r s t r e a l i z e s she i s pregnant. I t extends for an undetermined time aft e r the b i r t h of the baby, depending upon the extent to which subsequent events perpetuate or reactivate residuals from the pregnancy and from the immediate post p a r t a l period. The primary c r i s i s i s punctuated with a series of sub-c r i s e s that may be pre c i p i t a t e d by changes i n the woman's b i o -l o g i c a l , p h y s i o l o g i c a l , s o c i a l or interpersonal circumstances. Whatever the t r i g g e r i n g event, the point at which a woman f e e l s unable to cope adequately with her circumstances i s the point at which she w i l l show symptoms of c r i s i s . Symptoms can take many forms, de n i a l , h o s t i l i t y , suspicion, excessive g u i l t , i n s u f f i c i e n t g u i l t , depression, an absence of observable a f f e c t , and even, on occasion, inappropriate euphoria. The many pressures i n the l i v e s of these women may a l l be conducive to c r i s i s . In reviewing the concerns of single mothers, many s t r e s s f u l events were c i t e d such as economic deprivation and poor housing. Pochin stated that a c r i s i s point may be reached anything between s i x months and as many years of frequent moves and increasing d i f f i c u l t y , which embitter the 49 Rose Bernstein, "Are We S t i l l Stereotyping the Un-married Mother", The Unwed Mother, ed. Robert Roberts (New York: Harper and Row, 1966), p. 109. 50 Rose Bernstein, Helping Unmarried Mothers (New York: Association Press, 1971), pp. 19, 30-31. mother. In r e l a t i n g t h i s t h e o r e t i c a l framework to the Universe of Nursing, nursing intervention i s aimed at helping the c l i e n t restore h i s state of equilibrium and helping him adapt to h i s environment. According to Levine, the nurse p a r t i c i p a t e s a c t i v e l y i n every patient's environment, and much of what she does supports the patient's adjustment. Nursing intervention must be founded not only on s c i e n t i f i c knowledge but s p e c i f i c a l l y on recognition of the ind i v i d u a l ' s behavioural responses which "indicate the nature of the adaptation taking place". Such assessments provide the only r a t i o n a l basis for judicious decision-making by the nurse on the patient's behalf. Furthermore, nursing intervention must be designed so that i t fosters successful adaptation. When nursing intervention influences adaptation favourably, or toward renewed s o c i a l well-being, then the nurse i s acting i n a therapeutic sense. When nursing intervention cannot a l t e r the course of the adaptation - when her best e f f o r t s only maintain the status quo or f a i l to h a l t a downhill course - then the nurse i s acting i n a supportive sense.^ 2 The review of the l i t e r a t u r e provided a t h e o r e t i c a l framework for understanding the coping behaviours employed by the i n d i v i d u a l , when confronted with a s t r e s s f u l s i t u a t i o n . In the event that the coping behaviours are inadequate, the ind i v i d u a l may experience a c r i s i s state. If the c r i s i s i s 51 Jean Pochin, Without a Wedding Ring (Essex: The Anchor Press Ltd., 1969), p. 133. ^^Myra Levine, "Adaptation and Assessment A Rationale for Nursing Intervention", American Journal of Nursing, 66: 11 (November, 1966), 2452. 37 e f f e c t u a l l y dealt with the i n d i v i d u a l w i l l regain a state of equilibrium and adapt e f f e c t i v e l y to h i s environment. However, i f no resolution can be found, regression and dysfunction may r e s u l t . SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION From the review of the l i t e r a t u r e , i t became evident that no stereotype of the single mother can be made. G i l l advanced the argument that there i s a new pattern i n the trend of i l l e g i t i m a t e b i r t h s associated with youth, urban l i v i n g and s o p h i s t i c a t i o n . This change has been accompanied by a gradual r e d e f i n i t i o n of marital r e l a t i o n s h i p s . More women from the 53 higher socio-economic groups are becoming single mothers. C a h i l l noted the need f o r more research with single parents. To date, much of the research and a n a l y t i c a l thinking about i l l e g i t i m a c y has been done on women from a circumscribed segment of the population; f o r example, those i n maternity homes or those who are already known to health or s o c i a l agencies which give care to unmarried mothers. The many stereotypes concerning i l l e g i t i m a c y have been based upon truths, h a l f - t r u t h s , prejudices or ignorance, or upon studies done on a t y p i c a l segments of the i , • 54 population. The review of the l i t e r a t u r e revealed that many mothers D. G. G i l l , "Changing Trends i n I l l e g i t i m a c y and Changing Modes of Explanation", Royal Society of Health  Journal. 90 (May - June, 1970), 154-158. Imogene C a h i l l , "Facts and F a l l a c i e s About Illegitimacy", Nursing Forum, 4: 1 (1965), 39-55. 38 lived in poverty. Their meager incomes confined them to un-suitable housing. These factors appeared to be associated with the high degree of stress experienced by many single mothers. Chapter 3 METHODOLOGY This study was conducted by u t i l i z i n g a planned questionnaire i n the interviews with the selected mothers. A l l interviews were conducted by the researcher. The information needed to i d e n t i f y the concerns and coping behaviours of the mothers was obtained by analyzing t h e i r responses to the questions i n the questionnaire. The Questionnaire or Assessment Tool The questionnaire u t i l i z e d i n t h i s study (see Appendix D, page 98 ), was a modification of the instrument developed by Sauber and Corrigan i n t h e i r 1970 study i n New York. 1 Their tool was a modified version of a validated questionnaire used 2 i n the 1965 study of Sauber and Rubinstexn. The questionnaire covered the mothers' socio-economic concerns, and t h e i r concerns with physical and emotional health. The means the mothers used to cope with these concerns were also i d e n t i f i e d . Mignon Sauber and Ei l e e n Corrigan, The Six Year  Experience of Unwed Mothers as Parents (New York: Community Council of Greater New York, 1970), Questionnaire obtained on request. 2 Mignon Sauber and Elaine Rubinstein, Experiences of  the Unwed Mother as a Parent (New York: Community Council of Greater New York, 1965). 39 40 In an e f f o r t to i d e n t i f y the emotional health status of the mothers, "A Twenty-two Item Screening Score of Psy c h i a t r i c Symptoms Indicating Impairment" was integrated into the questionnaire. This instrument was developed and validated during the course of the Midtown Manhattan Study of mental 3 disorder i n Manhattan, New York C i t y , and l a t e r used by Sauber 4 and Corrigan. The questionnaire was submitted to the Faculty Screening Committee, School of Nursing, University of B r i t i s h Columbia. The committee ensured that the research would not impinge on the r i g h t s of human subjects. Pretest The questionnaire was pretested with three previously married single mothers. In t h i s way, the li m i t e d available population of single mothers who had never married was conserved. The reasons f o r the pretest were: 1. To f a m i l i a r i z e the researcher with the use of the questionnaire, 2. To determine whether the questionnaire i d e n t i f i e d the re a l concerns of single mothers, 3. To i d e n t i f y i f the mothers appeared to be i n h i b i t e d by the personal nature of some questions. Thomas S. Langner, "A Twenty-two Item Screening Score of Psyc h i a t r i c Symptoms Indicating Impairment", Journal of  Health and Social Behaviour. 3 (1962), 269-276. 4 Mignon Sauber and E i l e e n Corrigan, The Six Year Experience of Unwed Mothers as Parents (New York: Community Council of Greater New York, 1970). 41 As a r e s u l t of the pretest, data i d e n t i f y i n g the respondents were deleted. Data, alluded to by one p a r t i c i p a n t as being too personal, were removed. One question was added, to i d e n t i f y i n more s p e c i f i c terms the mothers' l i v i n g expenses, and whether t h e i r incomes could meet t h e i r l i v i n g expenses. In addition, the term "single parent" was replaced by "single mother". One p a r t i c i p a n t remarked that "parent" did not i d e n t i f y sex. The Population Due to the u n a v a i l a b i l i t y of information about the t o t a l population of unmarried mothers residing i n B r i t i s h Columbia, no random sel e c t i o n of names could be made. The sample was, therefore, one of convenience. Twenty mothers were contacted through agencies and private sources. The sample was r e s t r i c t e d to mothers l i v i n g alone with t h e i r c h i l d or children, as d i f f e r e n t concerns may be experienced by the mother who l i v e s with another adult. No mother was included i n the study who had more than three children. The children were aged s i x months to eight years. The Procedure The steps followed i n the process of t h i s study were: 1. Single mothers were contacted through agencies and private sources. Of those who agreed to p a r t i c i p a t e , the r e f e r r i n g person obtained t h e i r permission to give t h e i r names and telephone numbers to the researcher. The researcher then 42 contacted the mothers by telephone, explained the study in detail, answered their inquiries and set up a time for the interview. 2. The interviews were conducted in the mothers' homes. Prior to the administration of the questionnaire by the interviewer, the mothers were given two consent forms, reaffirming the protection of their identity, and freedom to withdraw at any time. If the contents met with their approval, they were requested to sign both forms, return one to the researcher, and retain the other. Analysis of the Data A descriptive analysis of the data was presented, u t i l i z i n g frequency distribution tables and percentages. Pearson product-moment correlation was used to examine the relationship between a selected set of variables. The purpose of this was to give descriptive depth to the study. In summary, 20 single mothers were interviewed by the researcher in their homes. The purpose of the interviews was to e l i c i t information about their concerns and coping behaviours. A semi-structured questionnaire was used. The data were analyzed using frequency distribution tables, percentages and Pearson product-moment correlation. Chapter 4 ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF THE DATA The data were analyzed i n a d e s c r i p t i v e way, using frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n tables, percentages and c o r r e l a t i o n s . On the basis of r e l a t i o n s h i p s i d e n t i f i e d i n the literature,"'"and observations of the raw data, re l a t i o n s h i p s between a selected set of variables were described. ANALYSIS OF THE DATA The following factors were i s o l a t e d and described: 1. Demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n c l u s i v e of ages of the mothers and t h e i r children, and the number of children per family. 2. Monthly family income. 3. Employment status of the mothers. 4. Length of time i n t h e i r present and most recent housing. 5. The mothers' l e v e l of education. 6. The mothers' health status: a) Physical health. Number of mothers with physical health problems, b) Emotional health. The number of mothers with impaired Mignon Sauber and E i l e e n Corrigan, The Six Year  Experience of Unwed Mothers as Parents (New York: Community Council of Greater New York, 1970), pp. 83-84. 43 44 emotional health. (Refer to Appendix E, page 129). 7. A Perceived Problem Rating Scale was computed by assigning a score of 0 - 3 to each of eleven socio-economic categories, according to how serious the mothers thought that problem was f o r them. (Refer to Appendix F f page 130). In addition to simple descriptions, correlations were computed for selected p a i r s of v a r i a b l e s . Pearson product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n was u t i l i z e d to examine the following r e l a t i o n s h i p s : a) Perceived Problem Rating and Emotional Health Status, b) Income and Emotional Health Status, c) Income and Perceived Problem Rating, d) Loneliness and Perceived Problem Rating. I t was anticipated that these correlations would add depth to the d e s c r i p t i v e analysis. No causal relationships were sought or implied. In addition to t h i s quantitative data, q u a l i t a t i v e data were obtained, which helped to describe the coping behaviours of the mothers. This information pertained to the mothers' rela t i o n s h i p s to family, friends, and the c h i l d ' s father; t h e i r s a t i s f a c t i o n s and problems; and t h e i r perceptions of help that could have been given by a community agency. DISCUSSION OF THE DATA The discussion of the data was presented i n the following order: 1. A description of the socio-economic concerns of the mothers•: a) Level and source of income, b) Employment experience, c) Educational l e v e l , d) Housing conditions. 2. The mothers' concerns related to health: a) Physical health, b) Emotional health. 3. The mothers' coping behaviours. This included a descri p t i o n of t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s to friends, r e l a t i v e s , the baby's father, and the extent to which these relationships were supportive. Socio-Economic Concerns Ages of Mothers and Children. There were 20 mothers i n the study, 3 of whom had 2 children, and 2 of whom had 3 chil d r e n . The remaining 15 mothers each had 1 c h i l d . The average age of the mothers was 27.1 years, and t h e i r ages ranged from 20 - 36 years. TABLE I, page 46, i l l u s t r a t e d the number and percentage of mothers i n each age group. The ages of the mothers at the b i r t h of the oldest c h i l d presently i n the home, were computed. No mother i n the study gave b i r t h to her c h i l d presently i n the home before 17 years of age, and 3 of the mothers had t h e i r children at age 30 or over. TABLE I I , page 47, i l l u s t r a t e d the age of the mothers at the b i r t h of the oldest c h i l d presently i n the home. There were 27 children i n the study. F i f t e e n of the children were the sole c h i l d of t h e i r mothers. The average age 46 TABLE I AGE DISTRIBUTION OF MOTHERS Age Number Percentage Under 19 - -20 - 24 6 30 25 - 29 9 45 30 - 36 5 25 To t a l : 20 100 47 TABLE II AGE OF MOTHERS AT BIRTH OF OLDEST CHILD PRESENTLY IN THE HOME Age Number Percentage 17 - 19 5 25 20 - 24 8 40 25 - 29 4 20 30 - 36 3 15 T o t a l : 20 100 48 of a l l the children was approximately three ?years and four months. Some families with more than one c h i l d included children who were aged two months to eight years. These fa m i l i e s were included, as at l e a s t one c h i l d was aged s i x months or over. TABLE I I I , page 49, i d e n t i f i e d the age categories of the ch i l d r e n . Level and Source of Income. One of the major factors that d i f f e r e n t i a t e s the spouseless mother, i s her r o l e as sole breadwinner for her family. I t was therefore of great concern how the mothers supported themselves and t h e i r children. Of the 20 mothers interviewed, 14 depended on s o c i a l assistance for f i n a n c i a l support. One mother, a f u l l - t i m e student, supported h e r s e l f and her c h i l d through a loan. Five of the mothers supported themselves and t h e i r children through employment. Of the 14 mothers receiving Social Assistance, regular monthly incomes, including part-time employment, d i d not exceed $256. The majority of the mothers l i v e d on l e s s than $3,000 per year. The employed mothers had monthly incomes ranging from approximately $330 to $625. This amount, i n some instances, included contributions from the c h i l d ' s father. However, of the 20 mothers i n the study, only 20 percent were receiving assistance either r e g u l a r l y or spo r a d i c a l l y from the c h i l d ' s father. TABLE IV, page 50, i l l u s t r a t e d the amount of the mother's income i n r e l a t i o n to her source of income. 49 TABLE III AGE CATEGORIES OF CHILDREN AT TIME OF STUDY3 Age Category Number Percentage Infant 13 48 Preschool 10 37 School Age 4 15 Total 27 100 a l n f a n t - B i r t h to 36 months; Preschooler - 37 to 71 months; Schoolage - 72 to 96 months. 50 TABLE IV AMOUNT OF INCOME IN RELATION TO SOURCE OF INCOME*-* Amount of Source Income Social A s s i s t -ance Social A s s i s t -ance and part-time job Employ-ment Loan Row Total Percent-age $189-220 6 - - 1 7 35 221-300 7 1 - - 8 40 301-450 - - 3 - 3 15 451-625 - - 2 - 2 10 Totals: 13 1 5 1 20 100 One mother received $157 monthly. However, her rent was paid by Soc i a l Assistance. She i s included i n the income category of $221 - $300. Her rent could not have been l e s s than $64 monthly. 51 The mothers were asked i f they were able to manage t h e i r l i v i n g expenses on t h e i r present incomes. Although a few r e p l i e d i n the affirmative, the majority on Social Assistance said that they could barely make ends meet. One mother's statement was i l l u s t r a t i v e . She stated: E x i s t i n g i s a l l you can do on that, just barely e x i s t i n g . I have to think twice before I spend a n i c k e l . Two of the employed mothers found that t h e i r earnings were barely enough to manage. A l l mothers who derived t h e i r incomes from employment had only one c h i l d . These children f e l l into the age categories of one infant, two preschoolers and two school aged ch i l d r e n . The infant was cared for i n a private home, while the pre-schoolers were cared for i n daycare. Arrangements f o r babysitting were made fo r the school aged children a f t e r regular school hours. TABLE V, page 52, presented the amount of income of each mother i n r e l a t i o n to her number of dependents. There seemed to be a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the mothers' incomes and t h e i r score on the Perceived Problem Rating Scale (see Appendix F, page 130). Income was a r b i t r a r i l y divided into three categories, low, medium and high. Sixty percent of the mothers who were c l a s s i f i e d i n the high income category of $301 - $625 monthly scored low on t h i s scale, compared to 14 percent i n the low income category of $189 - $220 monthly, and 12.5 percent i n the medium income category of $221 - $300 monthly. None of the high income mothers had a high score, whereas 43 percent of those with low incomes, and 52 TABLE V NOTHERS' INCOME VERSUS NUMBER OF DEPENDENTS Number of Dependents Number of Mothers i n Income Categories < $189 -220 $221 -300 $301 -450 $451 -625 Row Totals Per-centage 1 c h i l d 6 4 3 2 15 75 2 children 1 2 - - 3 15 3 children - 2 - - 2 10 Totals: 7 8 3 2 20 100 53 62.5 percent of those with medium incomes had a high score. A l l mothers included i n the high income category were employed. None of the mothers i n the low or medium income category had f u l l - t i m e employment. TABLE VI, page 54, i d e n t i f i e d the association between the mothers' incomes and t h e i r perceived problem rating score. Pearson product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n revealed a low p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p of r = +.387 between these varia b l e s . In summary, the mothers* incomes were derived from Social Assistance, employment, and one student loan. Mothers whose incomes were not derived from employment l i v e d on less than $3,000 annually. Only mothers with one dependent had incomes from employment. None of the employed mothers i n the high income category had a high problem rating score, whereas 43 percent of the mothers with low incomes, and 62.5 percent of those with medium incomes had a high problem rating score. None of the mothers i n the low and medium income categories had f u l l - t i m e employment. Employment Experience. At the time of the interviews, 5 of the 20 mothers were employed f u l l - t i m e , and 1 mother was employed part-time. In addition, 10 of the mothers had worked either f u l l - t i m e or part-time at some time since the b i r t h of t h e i r c h i l d . Three of the mothers who had been employed were attending school f u l l - t i m e . To determine i f the c h i l d had made a difference to the employment status of the mothers, the researcher posed the following question: Has the fa c t that you have a c h i l d (children) made any difference i n your (working, not working) TABLE VI ASSOCIATION BETWEEN INCOME AND PERCEIVED PROBLEM RATING SCOREC Income Perceived Problem Rating Score Cate-gory Amount Low 0-5 Percent-age i n Category Medium 6-12 Percent-age i n Category High 13-22 Percent-age i n Category Total Cate-gory Per-centage Row Totals Row Percent age Low $189-220 1 14 3 43 3 43 100 7 35 Medium $221-300 1 12.5 2 25 5 62.5 100 8 40 High $301-625 3 60 2 40 0 0 100 5 25 Totals 5 25 7 35 8 40 100 20 100 data). :Using Pearson product-moment cor r e l a t i o n r = +. 387.. (calculated from the raw 55 at the present time? Eight of the 10 mothers who had been employed r e p l i e d that the c h i l d had made some difference to t h e i r employment status. Seven of the 8 i d e n t i f i e d babysitting f a c i l i t i e s as a d i f f i c u l t y , and 1 mother responded that she did not want to go out to work again u n t i l the c h i l d had acquired verbal language. One of the 2 mothers who was a f u l l - t i m e student and responded that the c h i l d had made a difference to her employment status resigned from her job because of t h i s d i f f i c u l t y . Making suitable c h i l d care arrangements continued to be a concern to her. The other student who stated that c h i l d care was a problem, arranged to have her c h i l d cared for i n a private home. She had terminated her employment to return to school. Of the remaining 5 mothers who had experienced d i f f i c u l t i e s with childcare arrangements, 2 gave up t h e i r jobs s p e c i f i c a l l y because of these d i f f i c u l t i e s . The others terminated t h e i r jobs because of interpersonal problems with t h e i r employers or because the job had been temporary. There were 4 mothers who had never been employed, and were not employed at the time of the study. One mother was a f u l l - t i m e student, 1 gave lack of c h i l d care f a c i l i t i e s as the reason for her unemployment, 1 was unable to work because of health problems, and the other expressed the desire to care f o r her children h e r s e l f - "When kids are small the mother should look aft e r them". Of the 8 mothers who had been employed and perceived that the c h i l d had made some difference to t h e i r employment 56 status, 3 had more than 1 c h i l d , with at lea s t 1 c h i l d under 3 years of age. Of the 5 mothers who had 1 c h i l d , 4 of these children were under 3 years of age. Only 1 mother who expressed d i f f i c u l t y with c h i l d care had a c h i l d over 3 years of age. None of the mothers employed f u l l - t i m e or part-time, perceived child-care f a c i l i t i e s as a concern. These f a c i l i t i e s were i n part paid for by the mother, depending upon her income, and the type of f a c i l i t y that she u t i l i z e d for the care of her c h i l d . Mothers with incomes below a c e r t a i n l e v e l were completely subsidized. Eighty-three percent of the working mothers had children aged 3 years or over. In summary, a t o t a l of 10 mothers i n the study perceived that the c h i l d had made a difference to t h e i r employment status. Eight of these mothers had problems with c h i l d care, and 2 wanted to take care of t h e i r children themselves. Of the 8 mothers who were previously employed, and responded that the c h i l d had made a difference to th e i r employment status, 37.5 percent had more than 1 c h i l d , and 87.5 percent had at lea s t 1 c h i l d under 3 years of age. None of the employed mothers expressed concern with c h i l d care. Eighty-three percent of these mothers had children aged 3 years or over. TABLE VII, page 57, c i t e d the c h i l d care f a c i l i t i e s u t i l i z e d by the working mothers. The ages of the employed mothers were computed. The findings presented i n TABLE VIII, page 58, indicated that 1 mother was i n the 20 - 24 years age category, 4 were between 57 TABLE VII CHILD CARE FACILITIES UTILIZED BY MOTHERS EMPLOYED FULL-TIME AND PART-TIME Age Category of C h i l d F a c i l i t i e s U t i l i z e d Day Care Private Home School and other Arrange-ments Row Total Row Percent-age Infant - 1 - 1 17 Preschooler 3 - - 3 50 School Age - - 2 2 33 Totals: 3 1 2 6 100 58 TABLE VIII AGE OF MOTHERS VERSUS EMPLOYMENT STATUS Age Category Employed f u l l - t i m e or p a r t -time Unemployed Attending school f u l l - t i m e Row Totals Row Percent-ages 20 - 24 1 3 2 6 30 25 - 29 4 4 1 9 45 30 - 36 1 3 1 5 25 Totals: 6 10 4 20 100 59 the ages of 25 - 29 years, and 1 was over 30 years of age. In TABLE VIII, a d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n was made between those mothers who were employed, unemployed and attending school f u l l - t i m e . The employed mothers were i n white c o l l a r occupations i n h o s p i t a l s and o f f i c e s . A l l mothers were s a l a r i e d . Previous occupations among the mothers who were unemployed at the time of the study were more diverse, and included both white c o l l a r and blue c o l l a r occupations. The mothers' perceptions of problems with job t r a i n i n g were i d e n t i f i e d on the Perceived Problem Rating Scale. F i f t y percent of the mothers i d e n t i f i e d job t r a i n i n g as a problem.. Of the mothers who were neither employed nor going to school f u l l - t i m e , 73 percent perceived that job t r a i n i n g was a problem. In summary, of the 20 mothers, 5 were employed f u l l - t i m e and 1 was employed part-time. In addition, 10 of the mothers had been employed at some time since the b i r t h of t h e i r c h i l d . The reasons for termination of employment were diverse, ranging from babysitting problems to temporary employment. Four of the women had never been employed since the b i r t h of t h e i r c h i l d or ch i l d r e n . Their reasons for unemployment included lack of babysitting services, health problems, and the desire to stay home to mind t h e i r c h i l d or children. Education. The 20 mothers i n the study had achieved d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of education, with 60 percent reaching Grade 12 standing. T h i r t y percent of the mothers had reached Grade 10 or 11, and 10 percent had reached Grade 7 or 9 l e v e l of education. Ten percent of the mothers had attended un i v e r s i t y , but none had 60 completed a degree. Twenty percent of the mothers were attending school f u l l - t i m e and 10 percent part-time. In addition, 15 percent of the mothers had returned to school since the b i r t h of t h e i r c h i l d . Therefore, a t o t a l of 45 percent of the mothers had had some schooling since the b i r t h of t h e i r c h i l d . TABLE IX, page 61, presented the mothers * l e v e l of education at the time of the study. The mothers with 1 c h i l d had educational l e v e l s ranging from Grade 10 to Grade 12. Two of them had some u n i v e r s i t y education. Those with 2 or more children had educational l e v e l s ranging from Grade 7 to Grade 12. Only 20 percent of the mothers with more than 1 c h i l d had attended school since the b i r t h of the f i r s t c h i l d , but before the b i r t h of the second c h i l d , compared to 53.3 percent of the mothers with 1 c h i l d . None of the mothers with more than 1 c h i l d was attending school f u l l - t i m e or part-time. The mothers attending school were either completing the grade year, taking c r e d i t s towards u n i v e r s i t y or pursuing a career. Eighty percent of the employed mothers had Grade 12, and 20 percent Grade 11 education. Twenty percent of the employed mothers were attending school part-time. In summary, 60 percent of the mothers had reached Grade 12 education, 30 percent had reached Grade 10 or 11, and 10 percent had reached Grade 7 or 9. The majority of the employed mothers had Grade 12 education. TABLE IX GRADE LEVEL OF EDUCATION Grade Number of Percentage Year Women of Women 7 - 9 2 10 10 - 11 6 30 12 12 60 Tot a l : 20 100 62 Housing Conditions. Of the 20 mothers i n the study, a l l had moved at l e a s t once since the b i r t h of t h e i r f i r s t c h i l d . Thirteen mothers had moved at l e a s t twice since t h e i r c h i l d ' s b i r t h . The mothers had spent an average of 9.3 months i n housing occupied at the time of the study, and 16.2 months i n t h e i r previous housing. In TABLES X and XI, page 63 and 64, the length of occupancy i n housing both p r i o r to and at the time of the study was computed. The data revealed that the mothers were a h i g h l y mobile group. Why d i d they move so often? Although a v a r i e t y of reasons were given for moving, the majority of the mothers wanted to escape poor l i v i n g quarters. Small quarters and poor mainten-ance u s u a l l y contributed to t h e i r decisions to move. In some instances, children were not welcome i n the buildings i n which the mothers had l i v e d , and landlords imposed stringent rules on the c h i l d , r e f l e c t e d i n t h i s mother's statement: The landlord was always a f t e r to stay i n the s u i t e . He didn't l i k e children playing around. Some mothers who had l i v e d with friends or r e l a t i v e s decided to l i v e on t h e i r own. The mothers paid an average of $127 monthly for rent. Monthly rents averaged $143 f o r the employed, and $121 for the unemployed mothers. Twenty percent of the mothers l i v e d i n single occupancy dwellings. The others l i v e d i n apartments, or suites i n private homes. In response to the question, "Any problems with t h i s present place?", 40 percent responded i n the affirmative. Eighty TABLE X LENGTH OF OCCUPANCY IN PREVIOUS HOUSING Length of Number of Percentage Row Time Women of Women Total 1 - 3 months 3 15 3 4 - 6 months 6 30 6 7 - 1 2 months 3 15 3 1 3 - 2 4 months 2 10 2 2 5 - 4 8 months 5 25 5 No information 1 5 1 Total: 20 100 20 64 TABLE XI LENGTH OF OCCUPANCY IN HOUSING AT THE TIME OF THE STUDY Length of Number of Percentage Row Time Women of Women Total 1 - 3 months 4 20 4 4 - 6 months 6 30 6 7 - 1 2 months 7 35 7 13 - 24 months 2 10 2 2 5 - 4 8 months 1 5 1 Total: 20 100 20 65 percent of the mothers with at l e a s t 2 children were exper-iencing housing problems, compared to 27 percent of those with 1 c h i l d . The nature of t h e i r housing problems varied. The maj-o r i t y found t h e i r l i v i n g quarters too small, others expressed concerns with safety and/or maintenance. The mothers who expressed a concern with overcrowding had an average of 1.05 rooms per person, excluding kitchen and bathroom. Everyone had a bathroom, but 2 mothers lacked adequate kitchen f a c i l i t i e s . One mother did not have a telephone. Among those employed f u l l - t i m e , only 1 expressed a concern with housing. She had made plans to move. In addition, only 1 other mother had planned to move, as her present l i v i n g arrangements were temporary. Only 5 percent of the mothers l i v e d permanently i n a housing project. Twenty percent had applied, but were t o l d that there were no vacancies. A further 10 percent expressed the desire to l i v e i n a project, but had never applied. In a l l , 35 percent of the mothers were either l i v i n g i n a project permanently, had applied, or expressed a desire to l i v e i n one. S i x t y - f i v e percent of the mothers preferred to l i v e i n an apartment or a private house. In summary, 40 percent of the mothers were concerned with t h e i r housing. Of those with 2 or more children, 80 percent had concerns, compared to 27 percent with 1 c h i l d . 66 The majority of the mothers preferred private instead of public housing. Due to the lack of vacancies, those who applied for public housing were refused. Concerns Related to Health Physi c a l . The majority of the mothers reported a state of good physical health i n the past year, with only 20 percent experiencing any health problems. A l l the mothers had access to a physician. In response to the question, "Any problem i n getting the help you need...?" 19 of the 20 mothers r e p l i e d i n the negative. Only 1 of the 19 mothers was not s a t i s f i e d with medical care. She stated, "The doctor doesn't spend much time. He t r i e s to get through the v i s i t i n f i v e minutes". Most of the mothers had p o s i t i v e comments about t h e i r physicians, i l l u s t r a t i v e i n such statements as, "My doctor i s f a n t a s t i c " . The 1 mother who had problems i n getting the help she needed, summed up her problem thus, "Sometimes I f e e l doctors r e a l l y don't l i s t e n " . A l l the mothers had had prenatal care i n pregnancy. Among those with more than one pregnancy, information was gleaned about t h e i r most recent. F o r t y - f i v e percent of the mothers started prenatal care i n the second trimester of t h e i r pregnancy, and 5 percent i n the t h i r d trimester. D i f f e r e n t reasons were given for s t a r t i n g prenatal care i n the second and t h i r d trimesters, r e f l e c t e d i n the following 67 statements, by d i f f e r e n t mothers: I f e l t f i n e . I didn't want to confirm the pregnancy. I suppose I was scared. One respondent did not have access to medical care u n t i l her a r r i v a l i n B r i t i s h Columbia during the second trimester of her pregnancy. The mothers who experienced concerns with health i n the l a s t year were unemployed. F i f t y percent of those mothers attributed t h e i r unemployment to impaired health status. Infections, c i r c u l a t o r y and thyroid problems were among the health problems mentioned. The mothers with health problems f e l l i n t o the income category of $189 - $300 monthly, and were over 25 years of age. F i f t y percent had a high score, and 50 percent a medium score on the Perceived Problem Rating Scale. In summary, a l l the mothers had access to medical care, with 90 percent being s a t i s f i e d with t h e i r care. Only 10 percent of the mothers were d i s s a t i s f i e d . A l l the mothers with physical health problems i n the past year were unemployed, with monthly incomes i n the $189 - $300 category. None of these mothers had a low score on the Perceived Problem Rating Scale. Emotional. The mothers were assigned a numerical score on each item on the 22 item scale to assess t h e i r emotional health status (See Appendix E, page 129). They were then c l a s s i f i e d into two groups. The mothers with a score of 0 - 7 were c l a s s i f i e d into a low rating group, i n d i c a t i n g l i t t l e or no impairment. Those with a score of 12 - 16 were c l a s s i f i e d 68 into a high r a t i n g group i n d i c a t i n g a greater degree of impair-ment. The mothers f e l l n a t u r a l l y into two categories, with no one receiving scores between 8 - 11, or over 16. F i f t y - f i v e percent of the mothers f e l l into the low rati n g group, and 45 percent into the high r a t i n g group. Since Sauber and Corrigan*s study showed some association between 2 income l e v e l and emotional health status, the researcher sought t h i s association. A l l the mothers i n the high income category of $301 - $625 monthly had a low score. The mothers i n t h i s cate-gory were a l l employed. Of those mothers with monthly incomes of $189 - $300, 60 percent had a high score, and 40 percent a low score. TABLE XII, page 69, i l l u s t r a t e d the p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between income and emotional status. An association was sought between the mothers• emotional status and t h e i r perceived problems, as computed on the Perceived Problem Rating Scale, with the l i s t of 11 socio-economic categories. Using Pearson product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n , r = +.837, which indicated a high p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n . Sauber and Corrigan's study i d e n t i f i e d an association between education and emotional health status, showing that a higher proportion of the women with l e s s education had a higher 3 score. In agreement with that study, t h i s researcher found that a l l the mothers with l e s s than Grade 10 education had a ^lignon Sauber and E i l e e n Corrigan, The Six Year  Experience of Unwed Mothers as Parents (New York: Community Council of Greater New York, 1970), p. 83. Ibid., p. 84. TABLE XII ASSOCIATION BETWEEN INCOME AND EMOTIONAL STATUS^ Income Emotional Status Low Rating 0-7 Percent-age i n Category High Rating 12-16 Percent-age i n Category Total Percent-age i n Category Row Totals Row Percent-ages Low: $189-220 3 43 4 57 100 7 35 Medium: $221-300 3 37.5 5 62.5 100 8 40 High: $301-625 5 100 0 0 100 5 25 Totals: 11 55 9 45 100 20 100 Using Pearson product-moment correlation r = +.41 (calculated from the raw data). 70 high score, compared to 38 percent of the women with education at or above the Grade 10 l e v e l . In summary, a l l the employed mothers with monthly incomes exceeding $300 scored low on emotional impairment, as compared to 40 percent of the mothers with monthly incomes of $189 - 300. Of the 45 percent of the respondents with a high score, a l l were i n the monthly income category of $189 - $300. Coping Behaviours In an attempt to determine the coping behaviours of the mothers, the people i n t h e i r s o c i a l o r b i t were i d e n t i f i e d . Relationships with parents, friends and the c h i l d ' s father were examined. Relationship With Parents. Twenty-five percent of the mothers reported a close r e l a t i o n s h i p with both parents. Of the remaining 75 percent, 5 percent had a close r e l a t i o n s h i p with t h e i r fathers, and 40 percent were close to t h e i r mothers. Seventy percent of the respondents were close to one or both parents. Of the twenty p a r t i c i p a n t s , 65 percent had a close r e l a t i o n s h i p with t h e i r mothers, compared to 30 percent who had a s i m i l a r r e l a t i o n s h i p with t h e i r fathers. Relationship with parents was computed on a six-point scale. At the time of computation, the scale was collapsed into two categories, "close" and "not close". That meant that mothers were c l a s s i f i e d as having a close r e l a t i o n s h i p i f t h e i r responses ranged from "very c l o s e " to "somewhat close". The "not close" category included parents who were deceased. Twenty percent of the respondents' fathers and mothers were deceased. Only 71 5 percent of the respondents had l o s t both parents. In summary, the majority of the respondents were close to t h e i r mothers. In contrast, only 30 percent had a si m i l a r r e l a t i o n s h i p with t h e i r fathers. Twenty-five percent of the respondents were close to both parents. Relationship With Friends. An attempt was made to i d e n t i f y i f the mothers had retained friends p r i o r to t h e i r pregnancy. Their responses were recorded on a fi v e - p o i n t scale, which was collapsed into two categories of "close" and "not close", at the time of computation. F o r t y - f i v e percent of the mothers had retained close t i e s with former f r i e n d s . By comparison, 50 percent had severed previous relationships, and 5 percent reported no close friendships i n the past. Some mothers who had severed past r e l a t i o n s h i p s , had changed t h e i r province of residence. Ninety-five percent of the mothers had made new acquaintances. Five percent maintained old friendships, but had not made new fr i e n d s . Many new relationships were formed with other single parents. However, many had made friends with people other than single parents. They did not t r y to conceal t h e i r unmarried status from t h e i r new acquaintances. No mother l i v e d i n complete i s o l a t i o n from family or fr i e n d s . However, the i n t e n s i t y of t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s with new friends was not determined. Despite the f a c t that a l l the mothers mentioned some type of r e l a t i o n s h i p with friends or family, 55 percent perceived loneliness as a problem i n varying degrees on the Perceived Problem Rating Scale. From the observation of the data, there appeared to be some re l a t i o n s h i p between loneliness and Perceived Problem Rating. To further describe that r e l a t i o n s h i p , Pearson product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n was used to examine the association between these v a r i a b l e s . The r e s u l t was r = +.44, in d i c a t i n g a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between these v a r i a b l e s . The majority of the mothers went out s o c i a l l y on an average of once very f o r t n i g h t . Some mothers went out i n the company of friends, others went out alone, or with t h e i r c h i l d . A few of the mothers stated that s o c i a l outings were extremely rare. In summary, a l l the mothers responded that they had acquaintances. However, the degree of these relationships was not ascertained. Despite t h e i r association with friends or r e l a t i v e s , 55 percent of the mothers perceived loneliness as a problem. Of those mothers who perceived t h i s problem, many perceived that they had other socio-economic problems. Relationship With the Child's Father. Only 15 percent of the mothers were i n contact with t h e i r c h i l d ' s father, therefore i t was only among t h i s small group that the father provided any emotional support. T h i r t y percent of the men had d e f i n i t e l y wanted the mother to keep the c h i l d . The men who were s t i l l i n contact with the mothers f e l l into t h i s category. At the time of t h e i r pregnancy, 15 percent of the mothers had not informed the men of t h e i r pregnancy. Therefore, they were unable to i d e n t i f y the men's reactions towards involvement. Despite the f a c t that 80 percent of the mothers had no 73 f i n a n c i a l support from the fathers of t h e i r children, 56 percent of t h i s group had not attempted to get f i n a n c i a l assistance from him. Their reasons for not attempting to get help varied, and the following statements were i l l u s t r a t i v e : He couldn't afford to help. I t ' s not worth the hassle. I would rather not because i t would be reason for him to come around. Some mothers t r i e d to get support f o r t h e i r c h i l d , but were unsuccessful i n t h e i r attempts. Some had t r i e d f o r the f i r s t time af t e r the c h i l d was a year old, only to r e a l i z e that support could not be claimed then, i f no previous attempts had been made. Of the 20 percent of the men contributing to t h e i r c h i l d ' s support, eit h e r r e g u l a r l y or sporadically, 15 percent did so v o l u n t a r i l y . In summary, the c h i l d ' s father had not played any s i g n i f i c a n t part, either f i n a n c i a l l y or emotionally, i n the majority of the mothers' l i v e s . Only 20 percent received f i n a n c i a l assistance, and 15 percent had a re l a t i o n s h i p that provided emotional support. Community Agencies U t i l i z e d . Some i n d i c a t i o n was derived from the foregoing discussion of the types of contacts the mothers had with community services. There were no mothers i n the study who had no access to medical care. Seventy percent of the mothers were i n contact with the Welfare Department. However, i n an e f f o r t to obtain information i f community services were u t i l i z e d i n times of stress, a s p e c i f i c question was aimed at that type of 74 information. T h i s question was: Sometimes people need to t a l k with someone about t h e i r worries - they may go to someone (aside from family or friends) l i k e t h e i r minister, or a lawyer, or a community worker, or a s o c i a l worker, or a doctor and the l i k e . In the l a s t year, did you want to talk with someone about your plans for yourself or your children? The questionnaire inquired into the types of services that were u t i l i z e d , the kinds of problems the mother had experienced, and the help she obtained. Eighty-five percent of the mothers had f e l t the need to ta l k with someone about t h e i r concerns. Twelve percent of the mothers i n t h i s group were not aware that community services could be u t i l i z e d i n times of stress. Of the remaining 88 percent, only 29 percent consulted a community agency about some s p e c i f i c problems, 24 percent consulted t h e i r physician, with 6 percent consulting both agency and physician. Of the 17 mothers who f e l t a need to t a l k with someone about a s p e c i f i c concern, a t o t a l of 47 percent sought profess-ional services. Of the remaining 53 percent, 78 percent went to friends or r e l a t i v e s , and 22 percent did not seek help. Twenty-two percent of the mothers who went to friends also went to an agency. The mothers gave d i f f e r e n t reasons for not consulting professionals. Their statements were i l l u s t r a t i v e : I talk things through with fr i e n d s . I don't go to agencies - they are too impersonal. They t r y to be nice, but r e a l concern i s not there. and Most of the people I have met from agencies don't seem interested i n small problems. 75 One of the mothers who needed help, but had not contacted anyone stated, "I thought you could only go to a p s y c h i a t r i s t " . The majority of those mothers who u t i l i z e d agencies were s a t i s f i e d with the services that they received. One woman rep l i e d , "Yes, just l i s t e n i n g helps". Some mothers talked with people from agencies, but preferred to work things out themselves. Some mothers related how they had learned to manage lim i t e d finances. One respondent described her shopping habits. Vegetables, f r u i t s and meat were the p r i o r i t y on her shopping l i s t . She bought inexpensive meats, and cooked them i n a v a r i e t y of ways. These dishes were used over a couple of days, and the addition of a few ingredients created something new. One of her sources of recreation was free concerts. Because of her long hours at home, a bright cheerful apartment was another p r i o r i t y . In summary, the majority of the mothers consulted professionals, friends or r e l a t i v e s i n times of stress. Of those mothers who did not contact professionals, a v a r i e t y of reasons were given f o r t h e i r d e c i s i o n . Some stated that professionals were too impersonal. Most of the mothers who u t i l i z e d professional services expressed s a t i s f a c t i o n with those services. Mother's Perception of Help that Could Have Been Given by a  Community Agency An e f f o r t was made to determine the mother's perception of help that could have been given by a community agency. To derive that information, the question was posed: Looking back since your f i r s t c h i l d was born, what would you say a community agency, or a c i t y agency, could have done to help make things easier for you? 76 S p e c i f i c a l l y , what kind of help did you need in:' A c h e c k l i s t of seven socio-economic categories was used, to give the mothers some d i r e c t i o n . In addition, there was one category, "anything else", to give the mothers scope to elaborate on un i d e n t i f i e d areas i n the c h e c k l i s t . The areas presented i n the c h e c k l i s t e l i c i t e d the following data. Childcare. Seventy percent of the mothers stated that more assistance could have been given with childcare. The most frequently mentioned area of need was daycare for children under three years of age, and more f l e x i b l e hours to f a c i l i t a t e mothers on s h i f t work. Education and job t r a i n i n g . Twenty percent of the mothers c i t e d the need f o r more assistance with education, and 40 percent mentioned job t r a i n i n g . Some f e l t that agencies were not receptive to people who needed job t r a i n i n g . One mother reported that she was refused vocational t r a i n i n g because she could not carry a f u l l course load. Those mothers without vocational t r a i n i n g stressed the need for such t r a i n i n g to make them employable. Only 5 percent of the mothers perceived that more help could have been given with employment. Concern was related to upgrading of educational deficiency. Finances. Finances loomed large as an area i n which agencies could have been more h e l p f u l . Of the 70 percent of the mothers who mentioned finances, many suggested that incomes from 77 Social Assistance should keep up with the cost of l i v i n g . Some mothers would have likedcounselling on budgeting, reflected by one respondent: "In the beginning, I could have used some financial counselling". Housing. Eighty percent of the mothers perceived that they needed more help in the area of housing. The mothers' statements reflected the kinds of help that they needed. One mother stated: I wish i f there were more apartment houses or private houses that were more available to single parents. One of the most frequently voiced needs was more information about low cost housing, where children were accepted. One mother typified the feelings of many respondents in her statement, It would help i f the community agency had a l i s t of houses available - low rental that would take children. and another, I n i t i a l l y , I didn't know how much money I could have spent on housing. Welfare didn't say what I was entitled to. Most mothers had d i f f i c u l t i e s with transportation, which was a deterrent to finding suitable housing. In essence, the mothers perceived that agencies could have been more helpful in dispensing information about low cost housing. Many were not given information about the amount that could have been spent on housing. Anything else. A variety of topics were introduced in this area, the most salient being the need for more information. In p a r t i c u l a r , more information was needed about available community resources, i l l u s t r a t e d i n one mother's statement: I could have been made more aware of what was a v a i l a b l e . More information. Another noted: Agencies don't t e l l you what you can get. They don't t e l l you that you can go to school. Welfare should give more information. One respondent c i t e d that agencies should make more l i t e r a t u r e available to c l i e n t s , o u t l i n i n g the services that they provide. More help was needed with l e g a l counselling, i l l u s t r a t i v e i n one mother's statement: Welfare should give more l e g a l counselling -t e l l people what t h e i r l e g a l r i g h t s are. Another mother perceived that agencies could become more involved i n planning s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s f o r a l l age groups, including mothers and t h e i r children, other young people, and senior c i t i z e n s . She thought that such an experience would be s a t i s f y i n g to both adults and children. In summary, a majority of the mothers perceived that agencies could have given more help with housing, finances and childcare. Information giving seemed to loom large i n the women's perception of help that could have been made avai l a b l e . S a t i s f a c t i o n s and Problems In an e f f o r t to determine the s a t i s f a c t i o n s and problems experienced by the mothers, a serie s of open-ended questions were posed to glean information about things that made them happy or worried. The majority of the women indicated that t h e i r children had been a source of happiness to them. The mothers' 79 r e p l i e s included statements l i k e . A c t i v i t i e s related to when he learns something new and shows progress and my success at school. Other mothers were not as d e f i n i t e . One stated: I r e a l l y don't know. I guess just making ends meet. and another: Could be simple things. Peace of mind when things go smoothly from day to day. For some, a n t i c i p a t i o n of the future brought contentment, r e f l e c t e d i n one mother's statement: Planning for the future. Getting a job and saving money to buy a house. That mother had given up a part-time job to return to school to improve her career. When asked i f they would rather be doing something else, 60 percent of the women re p l i e d i n the affirmative. The samples o f r e p l i e s which gave the nature of what the women aspired to, were: Yes, I would l i k e to go and work. I get t i r e d of s i t t i n g at home. Yes, I would l i k e a job and a good salary. I would l i k e to be married and have a father f o r . He i s at an age when he needs someone. Those women who were going to school or were employed also had higher aspirations, r e f l e c t e d i n t h e i r statements: Yes, I would l i k e to be i n science (going to school). Employment wise, something more stimulating. When asked i f they were e s p e c i a l l y worried about anything, many expressed concerns about t h e i r own future and that of t h e i r 80 children. These quotes were i l l u s t r a t i v e : I am l i v i n g day to day, week to week. I worry what's going to become of us. The older they get the more money you have to be putting out on them, and the further they get away from you. I am concerned that i f anything should happen to me, what would happen to . Yes, not getting married. I need companion-ship. I don't want to be on welfare f o r the rest of my l i f e . I would l i k e to give her (child) a good education. Some women were concerned about the type of treatment they received when dealing with agencies. The responses which summed up some of t h e i r f e e l i n g s were: I don't l i k e the way they (Welfare) treat the people. They look down on you. They degrade you and you are supposed to grovel. We are apprehensive. Agencies are defensive. They i n t e r p r e t our apprehension as aggression or demand. We don't want to grovel. In summary, the mothers were mostly concerned with future security for themselves and t h e i r children. Many were concerned about who would care for t h e i r c h i l d i f anything happened to them. Attitude Towards Marriage The mothers were asked i f they perceived having a c h i l d had delayed marriage. Only 10 percent responded i n the a f f i r m -ative, and a further 10 percent said they did not know. One mother who f e l t that having a c h i l d had delayed marriage stated, Yes, because I have him boys don't go out with me. Boys don't l i k e k i d s . They say they can't afford a baby s i t t e r . 81 Some who perceived that the child had not delayed marriage stated that they were not interested in marriage. According to one mother: I don't want to get married. I feel satisfied with having a child. When asked i f they thought there were any advantages in marriage, 60 percent replied "yes". Companionship and security were seen as advantageous by the majority of the mothers. Some of those who f e l t that there were no advantages to marriage, said that they could have the same relationship remaining single. Other viewpoints included statements as: Because of my type of personality. I am really ambitious. I would not lik e to be sitting home for the rest of my l i f e . In summary, the mothers reflected mixed feelings towards marriage. Although the majority perceived some advantages in matrimony, 40 percent preferred to remain single. This chapter presented the analysis and discussion of the findings in this study. The data were analyzed by u t i l i z i n g frequency distribution tables, percentages and correlations. The findings in the areas of socio-economic concerns, health, and the mothers' coping behaviours were presented. Chapter 5 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS, SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY Summary and Conclusions This study was designed to e l i c i t information about the concerns and coping behaviours of the unmarried mother. A convenient sample of 20 unmarried mothers was interviewed, u t i l i z i n g a semi-structured questionnaire. Extensive face-to-face interviews were conducted with the mothers i n t h e i r homes. Information was gleaned concerning t h e i r socio-economic and health concerns, and the coping behaviours that they used i n dealing with these concerns. In an attempt to i d e n t i f y t h e i r emotional health status, a 22 item scale was used, s p e c i f i c a l l y designed for t h i s purpose. The data were analyzed by the tabulation and use of frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n tables and percentages. Pearson product -moment c o r r e l a t i o n was used to examine the association between selected sets of v a r i a b l e s . The purpose was to add depth to the des c r i p t i v e information, not to tes t a causal r e l a t i o n s h i p . Findings. The findings revealed varied l i f e s t y l e s among the mothers. Five were employed f u l l - t i m e while others needed 82 83 s o c i a l assistance. One f u l l - t i m e student had a loan. Some were, or had been, f u l l - t i m e or part-time students, while others had not returned to school since the b i r t h of t h e i r c h i l d . An examination of the demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the group revealed that of the 20 mothers, 3 had 2 children, and 2 had 3 ch i l d r e n . The remaining 15 mothers each had 1 c h i l d . The average age of the mothers was 27.1 years. Their ages ranged from 20 to 36 years. No mother gave b i r t h to her oldest c h i l d , presently i n the home, before the age of 17 years, and 3 mothers had t h e i r children at age 30 or over. Of the 27 children i n the study, 15 were the sole c h i l d of t h e i r mothers. The average age of the children was 3 years and 4 months. Their ages ranged from 2 months to 8 years. The children under 6 months of age a l l had older s i b l i n g s . The mothers * incomes were found to vary. The majority of those on welfare l i v e d on annual incomes below $3,000. The f i v e f u l l - t i m e working mothers were better o f f f i n a n c i a l l y , with annual incomes ranging from approximately $4,000 to $7,500. Only one mother had part-time employment which s l i g h t l y increased her income from Social Assistance. The mothers who derived t h e i r incomes from employment were white c o l l a r , s a l a r i e d workers, i n o f f i c e s and h o s p i t a l s . They had achieved Grade 11 or 12 education. They a l l had one c h i l d . Only one mother i n t h i s group had a c h i l d under three years of age. The mothers who derived t h e i r incomes from Social 84 Assistance had between 1 to 3 children. Ten of the 14 mothers i n t h i s group had a c h i l d or children under 3 years of age. Their grade l e v e l s of education varied from Grade 7 to 12, with the majority possessing Grade 10 or higher education. The majority of the mothers had Grade 10, 11 or 12 education. Some mothers had returned to school since the b i r t h of t h e i r c h i l d , and four were f u l l - t i m e students. Those mothers who were f u l l - t i m e students had only one c h i l d . From the above findings, i t would appear that the employability of the mother was lower as her number of children increased. Opportunities for further education decreased, with an increase i n the number of children. Many mothers aspired to jobs, and c i t e d that agencies were not receptive to t h e i r demands for further education or job t r a i n i n g . In p a r t i c u l a r , many mothers were concerned that inadequate information was given, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the areas of schooling and job t r a i n i n g . Many perceived reluctance on the part of some agencies to give information to c l i e n t s about the scope of services available to people on Social Assistance. Other concerns a r t i c u l a t e d by the mothers included childcare f a c i l i t i e s , e s p e c i a l l y for those with children under 3 years of age. This was often a deterrent to the employment of some mothers. Many perceived the need for services with more f l e x i b l e hours, that f a c i l i t a t e d s h i f t work. D i f f i c u l t i e s with housing were experienced by many mothers. They were a h i g h l y mobile group, usually i n search of 85 better housing. Lack of information about low cost housing was a major concern. Inadequate transportation reduced t h e i r mobil-i t y to seek out reasonably priced housing that accepted children. The mothers expressed few concerns about the a v a i l a b i l i t y of physical health care. A l l had access to a physician. F o r t y - f i v e percent of the mothers scored high on the 22 item emotional health status scale, i n d i c a t i n g some degree of emotional impairment. Many who scored high on t h i s scale also perceived themselves as having a high number of socio-economic problems, as computed on a scale with 11 socio-economic cate-gories. In confirmation of t h i s , Pearson product-moment co r r e l a t i o n revealed a high p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p of r = +.837 between these v a r i a b l e s . None of the mothers with annual incomes i n the $4,000 to $7,500 range had a high score on either of these scales. In contrast, many mothers with annual incomes below $3,000 had a high score on both scales. I t i s open to questioning i f these two scales were test i n g the same va r i a b l e s . However, upon examination, the researcher concluded that only one item on the 22 item scale had some s i m i l a r i t y to any of the items on the 11 item Perceived Problem Rating Scale. In an e f f o r t to i d e n t i f y the coping behaviours used by the mothers, t h e i r r elationships with friends, r e l a t i v e s , the c h i l d ' s father, and professional services were examined. The data revealed that of the 17 mothers who f e l t a need to talk 86 with someone about a s p e c i f i c concern, 47 percent sought professional services. Many preferred to discuss t h e i r concerns with friends and/or r e l a t i v e s . I t was only among 15 percent of the mothers that the c h i l d ' s father provided emotional support. Some mothers were not aware of the types of services provided by community agencies. Others f e l t that professional workers were not interested i n small problems. F a i l u r e to use community agencies was attributed e i t h e r to lack of knowledge about available services, or negative perception of professional workers. The mothers who u t i l i z e d professional services i n times of stress were usually s a t i s f i e d with the help they received. The majority of the mothers perceived that agencies could have been more h e l p f u l , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the areas of finances, childcare, housing and job t r a i n i n g . The majority responded that agencies did not provide s u f f i c i e n t information to c l i e n t s . The mothers derived s a t i s f a c t i o n from various sources.= Many found t h e i r c h i l d a source of happiness. Others found that t h e i r jobs, schoolwork, or a n t i c i p a t i o n of the future were s a t i s f y i n g . Many unemployed mothers anticipated f i n d i n g jobs; those who were employed or going to school aspired to move upwards i n t h e i r careers. Mixed fee l i n g s about marriage were expressed. The majority perceived that there were some advantages to being married, but 40 percent preferred to remain single. In summary, a study to i d e n t i f y the concerns and coping strategies of unmarried mothers was conducted. A semi-structured 87 questionnaire was used in face-to-face interviews with 20 mothers, A descriptive analysis of the data was presented, by the tabula-tion and use of frequency distribution tables and percentages. Pearson product-moment correlation was used to examine the association between selected sets of variables. The findings revealed varying l i f e s t y l e s among the mothers. Some were employed; others were unemployed. Some were full-time students; others had not returned to school since the birth of their child. The mothers expressed a variety of concerns in the areas of finances, childcare, housing, job training and inadequate information from community agencies. Many sought professional help i n times of stress, others preferred to consult friends and/or relatives. The majority lived in anticipation of a better l i f e s t y l e , either by finding a job, or moving upwards in their present jobs. Implications for Practitioners Although the sample was one of convenience which limited the generalizations from the research, one of the strengths in the study was the similarity that the findings bore with previous research. Accepting this, there are some implications: 1. The mothers exhibited a variety of l i f e s t y l e s in adapting to single parenthood, many exhibiting strength and=:the desire for independence from social assistance. This implies that there i s need to reappraise the stereo-typing of unmarried mothers. Practitioners should concentrate on their strengths, not their weaknesses, and build on these. 2. A majority of the mothers perceived that practitioners did not give sufficient information to the client. 88 This implies that: a) P r a c t i t i o n e r s should endeavour to perceive the needs of t h e i r c l i e n t s , and give information that i s appropriate; b) P r a c t i t i o n e r s should e s t a b l i s h i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y contact with other workers i n the health and l e g a l f i e l d s , to ensure proper r e f e r r a l to more informed sources when they are unable to meet the c l i e n t s ' needs. Pr a c t i t i o n e r s must respond to t h e i r c l i e n t s ' needs. This response can only be appropriate when the c l i e n t ' s needs are c o n s i s t e n t l y assessed on an i n d i v i d u a l basis, u t i l i z i n g validated assessment t o o l s . Recommendations to Agencies Based on the findings of t h i s study, i t i s recommended that: 1. More information be provided to the c l i e n t concerning, a) The d i f f e r e n t services that are available i n the community through d i f f e r e n t agencies. b) The benefits that are available to the c l i e n t while she i s a r e c i p i e n t of Social Assistance, i . e . clothing allowance, food vouchers, information about schooling and job t r a i n i n g . These could be compiled by a central agency, and pamphlets d i s t r i b u t e d to c l i e n t s who seek So c i a l Assistance. 2. People on Social Assistance should be given enough to maintain an adequate standard of l i v i n g . Social Assistance should be commensurate with the cost of l i v i n g . 3. The provision of more comprehensive daycare f a c i l i t i e s with more f l e x i b l e hours for children of a l l age groups appears urgent. 4. Given the lack of coordination c i t e d by the mothers, i t i s recommended that m u l t i d i s c i p l i n a r y teams be established at the community l e v e l , with nursing a member of t h i s team. Nursing's focus should be to maintain health, and prevent i l l n e s s . 89 5. Agencies should validate with the c l i e n t the services that she needs, and plan services based on the needs a r t i c u l a t e d by the c l i e n t . These recommendations are directed to the p o l i c y l e v e l i n d i f f e r e n t agencies. Speculations of the Researcher Observations made by the researcher resulted i n certa i n speculations being made. The majority of the mothers appeared to be hi g h l y motivated. Those who were unemployed aspired towards jobs; those who were i n jobs planned to move upwards i n t h e i r careers. There were four f u l l - t i m e students i n the study. A l l were looking forward to a career. The mothers appeared to be affectionate and devoted to t h e i r c h i l d r e n . However, many f e l t the need f o r a career, i n addition to t h e i r r o l e as mother. One could speculate that the findings r e f l e c t e d s o c i e t a l changes. Women are examining t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s , and aspiring to careers outside of the home. The speculation could also be made that the mothers, i n t h e i r r o l e as solo parent, f e l t a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to give t h e i r c h i l d a good home and education. This could be a motivating factor i n t h e i r drive for upward mobility. Although some mothers f i r m l y believed that t h e i r place was with the c h i l d i n the home, more mothers were intent on finding a well-paid, s a t i s f y i n g job, that would one day enable them to give t h e i r c h i l d a good education. The mothers a r t i c u l a t e d t h e i r need f o r more information i n a v a r i e t y of areas, including l e g a l counselling. This seemed to indicate a high l e v e l of consumer demand for more knowledge from the providers of service. 90 The findings of t h i s study suggested that the majority of the mothers were h i g h l y motivated, a r t i c u l a t e women. Considering the many d i f f i c u l t i e s with money, housing and childcare, i t would appear that the mothers had coped remarkably well, and were making every attempt to better them-selves. Suggestions for Further Study In view of the findings from t h i s study, some in t e r e s t i n g questions arose. These questions were formulated into suggestions for further study. The areas suggested were: 1. A comparative analysis of the concerns of other low income groups i n the community ( i . e . r e c i p i e n t s of Social Assistance) with single mothers, to determine the extent to which these groups experience similar concerns. 2. A comparative analysis between three groups of single mothers: i ) mothers who have never been married, i i ) mothers who are separated or divorced, i i i ) mothers who are widowed, to determine t h e i r : a) Income and Housing b) Education c) Age d) Childrearing patterns e) Physical and emotional health status f) S p e c i f i c coping behaviours g) Relationship with parents and friends h) Employment and occupational status 3. A study to determine the coping behaviours of children of: i) mothers who have never been married, i i ) mothers who are separated or divorced, i i i ) mothers who are widowed. These studies would determine the extent to which findings from t h i s study could be generalized to other low income groups, and single mothers. 91 Recommended Revision of Methodology In an e f f o r t to i d e n t i f y the coping behaviours of single mothers, i t i s recommended that a coping scale be developed. This should include a ch e c k l i s t with a wide range of s p e c i f i c behaviours from which the mothers could chose. This would give more d i r e c t i o n to the mothers, and more concrete information to the researcher about what mothers do i n s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n s . The conclusions from the study were presented i n t h i s chapter. Implications were c i t e d to guide p r a c t i t i o n e r s . More general recommendations were directed to the formulation of p o l i c i e s within agencies. The researcher made speculations, based on the findings of the study. Further to t h i s , suggestions were made f o r further study, and recommendations made f o r the r e v i s i o n of the methodology. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Books Aguilera, Donna, Janice Messick and Marlene F a r r e l . C r i s i s Intervention Theory and Methodology. St. Louis: C.V. Mosby Co., 1970. Bernstein, Rose. Helping Unmarried Mothers. New York: Association Press, 1971. Caplan, Gerald. An Approach to Community Mental Health. New York: Grune and Stratton, 1961. Kriesberg, Louis. Mothers i n Poverty A Study of Fatherless  Families. Chicago: Aldine Publishing Co., 1970. Lazarus, Richard S. Psychological Stress and the Coping Process. Toronto: McGraw H i l l , 1966. Pochin, Jean. Without a Wedding Ring. Essex: The Anchor Press Ltd., 1969. Roberts, Robert W. (ed.). The Unwed Mother. New York: Harper and Row, 1966. Schlesinger, Benjamin. The One Parent Family Perspectives and  Annotated Bibliography. Toronto: Uni v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, 1969. Vincent, Clark E. Unmarried Mothers. New York: The Free Press of Glencoe, 1962. 2. P e r i o d i c a l s Adams, Hannah, and Ursula Gallagher. "Some Facts and Obser-vations about I l l e g i t i m a c y . " Children, 10:2 (March - A p r i l , 1963), 43-48. Berkman, Paul. "Spouseless Motherhood, Psychological Stress and Physical Morbidity," Journal of Health and S o c i a l  Behaviour, 10:4 (December, 1969), 323-334. Bernstein, Rose. "Gaps i n Services to Unmarried Mothers," Children, 10:2 (March - A p r i l , 1963), 49-54. 92 93 Bodlak, Stan. "Serving Children and Their Families," CAS  News. 7:5 (June, 1971), 4-5. C a h i l l , Imogene. "Facts and F a l l a c i e s about I l l e g i t i m a c y , " Nursing Forum. 4:1 (1965), 39-55. Chaskel, Ruth. "The Unmarried Mother: Is She D i f f e r e n t ? " C h i l d Welfare. 46 (February, 1967), 65-74. Claman, David A., Barry J . Williams, and L. Wogan. "Reaction of Unmarried G i r l s to Pregnancy," Canadian Medical Association  Journal. 101 (September 20, 1969), 328-334). Crumidy, Pearl Menter, and Harold Jacobziner, "A Study of Young Unmarried Mothers who Kept Their Babies," American Journal  of Public Health. 56:8 (August, 1966), 1242-1251. G i l l , D. G. "Changing Sirends i n I l l e g i t i m a c y and Changing Modes of Explanation," Royal Society of Health Journal. 90 (May - June, 1970), 154-158. Hallam, Mabel. "Attitudes Toward the Unwed Mother", Nursing  C l i n i c s of North America. 2 (December, 1967), 775+. Kelley, Jerry. "The School and Unmarried Mothers," Children. 10:2 (March - A p r i l , 1963), 60-64. Langner, Thomas S. "A Twenty-Two Item Screening Score of Ps y c h i a t r i c Symptoms Indicating Impairment," Journal of Health  and Social Behaviour. 3 (1962), 269-276. Levine, Myra. "Adaptation and Assessment A Rationale f o r Nursing Intervention," American Journal of Nursing, 66:11 (November, 1966), 2450-2453. Martin, Harry W., and Arthur Prange. "Human Adaptation A Conceptual Approach to Understanding Patients," Canadian  Nurse. 58:3 (March, 1962), 234-243. Pannor, Reuben. "Casework Service for Unmarried Fathers, " Children. 10:2 (March - A p r i l , 1963), 65-70. Rashbaum, William,, et a l . "Use of Social Services by Unmarried Mothers," Children, 10:1 (January-February, 1963), 11-16. Reed, E l l e r y . "Unmarried Mothers Who Kept Their Babies," Children. 12 (May - June, 1965), 118-119. S i g n e l l , Karen. "The C r i s i s of Unwed Motherhood: A Consultation Approach," Community Mental Health Journal, 5 (1969), 304-313. 94 3. Reports C h i l d Welfare League of America - Standards for Services to Unmarried Parents. New York: C h i l d Welfare League of America, 1962. Guyatt, Doris E. The One-Parent Family i n Canada. Ottawa: The Vanier I n s t i t u t e of The Family, 1971. Live B i r t h s . C i t y of Vancouver, 1943 - 1970. Poulos, Susan. A Problem Inventory of Single Mothers. Children's Aid Society of Vancouver, 1969. Reed, E l l e r y , and Ruth Latimer. A Study of Unmarried Mothers  Who Kept Their Babies. C i n c i n n a t i : Social Welfare Research Inc., 1963. Sauber, Mignon, and E i l e e n M. Corrigan. The Six Year Experience  of Unwed Mothers as Parents A Continuing Study of These  Mothers and Their Children. New York: Community Council of Greater New York, 1970. Sauber, Mignon, and Elaine Rubinstein. Experiences of the Unwed Mother as a Parent. A Longitudinal Study of Unmarried Mothers who Keep Their F i r s t - B o r n . New York: Community Council of Greater New York, 1965. Wright, Helen R. 80 Unmarried Mothers Who Kept Their Babies. State of C a l i f o r n i a : Department of Soc i a l Welfare, 1965. 95 APPENDIX A Letter of Request c/o The School of Nursing Unive r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, B.C. Dear Madam: I am a Registered Nurse, presently working towards a Master's degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia. As part of the programme, I am doing a study to i d e n t i f y the concerns that the single mother has, and the ways i n which she deals with these concerns. It i s hoped that the res u l t s from t h i s study w i l l help nurses to be of greater assistance to the single mother i n the future. I would gre a t l y appreciate your co-operation i n t h i s study. This would benefit other single mothers, who may learn new ways of dealing with t h e i r concerns through your experience. Your i d e n t i t y w i l l not be disclosed under any circumstances. The information gathered w i l l be co n f i d e n t i a l and w i l l be grouped so that your i n d i v i d u a l contribution w i l l not be i d e n t i f i a b l e . If you consent to p a r t i c i p a t e , k i n d l y sign the enclosed consent forms and give one copy to the Public Health Nurse who w i l l return i t to me. You may wish to keep the other. I would then v i s i t you f o r an interview at a time that i s convenient to you. Thank you for your co-operation. Yours sincerely. Joan Anderson 96 APPENDIX B Consent Form CONSENT FORM In order to be of greater assistance to single mothers, nurses need more information to i d e n t i f y the concerns that these mothers have, and to learn how they deal with these concerns. A study which i s proposed to obtain this, kind of information i s e n t i t l e d "The Concerns and Coping Patterns of the Single Mother". I understand that some of the questions asked w i l l be of a personal nature, concerning my income, housing, education, job, my s o c i a l l i f e , and the health of my c h i l d and myself. I further understand that my name w i l l not appear on any of the materials. I do understand, however, that the o v e r a l l r e s u l t s w i l l be u t i l i z e d by nurses and probably published to promote an understanding of the concerns of the single mother. I understand that I s h a l l be interviewed by Mrs. Joan Anderson, authorized by the Un i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia School of Nursing. I s h a l l further be requested to complete a questionnaire. I understand that the interview and the time f o r completing the questionnaire w i l l take about an hour and a h a l f . I understand that I am free to withdraw from the study at any time. Having read the need f o r t h i s study, and the length of time that i t w i l l take, I hereby give my consent to p a r t i c i p a t e . SIGNED: WITNESS: DATE: 97 APPENDIX C Letter of Thanks c/o The School of Nursing University of British Columbia Vancouver 8, B.C. Dear Madam: I would like to thank you for your participation i n the study, "The Concerns and Coping Patterns of the Single Mother". The interview has been completed and your co-operation was greatly appreciated. Yours sincerely, Joan Anderson 98 APPENDIX D Questionnaire PART A - HOUSING A-l HOUSING FACILITIES Suppose we start with where you are l i v i n g . How long have you been l i v i n g at this address? (Get approximate date moved in) If move to present address within l a s t 12 months, ask 2 You say you have been l i v i n g here since Where did you l i v e just prior to moving here? Any problems with this present place? If yes (1) What problems? (2) Do you think there i s anything that can be done about these problems? (Discuss each i f more than one) (3) Have you tried to do anything about thera? What? How long did you l i v e there? Why did you move when you did? 99 A-I HOUSING FACILITIES (continued) ASK EVERYONE 3. Would you t e l l me a l i t t l e about the place you are l i v i n g in now? (Interviewer: check type of l i v i n g quarters): Apartment in B.C. housing project Apartment not in B.C. housing project or not ascertainable re: project Private house - single family occupancy Private house - two or more family occupancy ( i f more than three-family occupancy, code apartment) Private house - occupancy not ascertainable Room(s) in rooming house or hotel (if room in two-family house, code as room i n apartment) Room(s) in apartment Room(s) in private house -single family occupancy Room(s) location not ascertainable Other (specify) A. do you have: (1) kitchen? (2) kitchen privileges? (3) Other arrangements? (Specify) • , B. Do you have a bathroom i n your l i v i n g quarters? Yes _No How many people use the bath-room? (Include a l l children) C. How many rooms besides the bathroom do you have (Count kitchen i f a separate room) D. Do you have a telephone? Yes No -I HOUSING FACILITIES (continued) 100 If l i v i n g in B.C. housing project, ask 4a If not l i v i n g in housing project, ask 4b 4a. How did you go about getting into this project? 4b. Did you ever live in a public housing project since your f i r s t child was born? LIVING IN PROJECT A. Did you have any problems? What? NOT LIVING IN PROJECT - If yes to 4b B. When was that? C. Why did you move out? - If no to 4b D. Did you ever try to get an apartment i n a public housing project since your f i r s t c h i l d was born? If t r i e d (1) When was that? (2) Why didn't you get one? If refused a. What reason did the Housing Authority give you? If didn't try (3) Would you li k e to l i v e in a project now? If yes a. What stands in your way? 101 A-II HOUSEHOLD COMPOSITION 1. Would you t e l l me the names of a l l persons who l i v e in the household? L i s t a l l occupants (including mother) Name (First) Relationship to Mother Birth Date 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. B-II EDUCATION PART B 102 Are you going to school at the present time - or attending any classes or special courses or job training programs? Yes No What i s the highest grade you attended i n school? IF YES, ASK A IF NO, ASK B AND C ATTENDING SCHOOL NOW A. What kind of school or classes or program? (Get details -day, night, part or f u l l time) (1) When did you start going? (2) Have there been any prob-lems in connection with your going there? What? NOT ATTENDING SCHOOL NOW B. Have you attended school or gone to any classes or had any job training since your f i r s t c hild was born? If yes (1) T e l l me about the last time you did. When did you start going then? (2) What kind of school or class or program did you go to? (3) When did you stop? (4) Why did you stop? C. Would you li k e to be attending school at the present time? If yes (1) What kind of courses spec-i f i c a l l y would you be interested in? (2) Why? For what purpose? (3) What stands in your way? A. Did you fi n i s h the grade year? 103 B-III EMPLOYMENT Are you working at the present time (during the last week or so)? Working Not working (Skip to question 2, page 7) FOR THOSE WORKING NOW A. When did you begin this job? B. What kind of work are you doing? (occupation and industry) C. Is i t f u l l time or part time? D. Is the job steady? E. V/hat do you make a week on the average? F. You say you began your present job on . Did you work at a l l between the time your f i r s t child was born and when you began your present job? If yes (1) How old was when you f i r s t began to work? (2) When did your most recent job begin - the one you had just before your present job? (3) What kind of work did you do? (occupation and industry) (4) Was i t f u l l or part time? (5) Was i t steady work? (6) What did you make a week on the average? (7) When did you stop that job? (8) Why did you stop work at that job? (Probe for efforts, i f any, to continue to work at that time) SKIP TO PAGE 9 QUESTION 4 EMPLOYMENT (continued) For those not working now, ask 2  Have you worked at a l l since your f i r s t c h i l d was born? Has worked Never worked (skip to question 3, page 9) 104 HAS WORKED A. How o l d was when you f i r s t began to work? B. What k i n d of work d i d you do? (occupation and industry) C. Was i t f u l l time or p a r t time? D. How long d i d you work at t h a t job? When d i d you stop?. E. Why d i d you stop working when you did? (Probe for- e f f o r t s , i f any, to continue working at that time) F. Have you had any other jobs since? •If yes, ask (1) - (9)  I f no, ask (10) (1) About how many jobs have you had since then? jobs. (2) T e l l me about your l a s t job, when d i d you s t a r t that job? (3) What k i n d of work d i d you dc (occupation and i n d u s t r y ) . (4) Was i t f u l l or p a r t time? (5) Was i t steady work? (6) What d i d you make a week on the average? (7) How long d i d you work at that job? When d i d you stop? 105 EMPLOYMENT (continued) (continued) (S) Why did you stop working when you did? (Probe for efforts, i f any, to continue working at that time). (9) Would you l i k e to be working now? If yes a. What stands in your way? (i f answer i s "baby" or "children", c l a r i f y what this means). If no to F, ask (10) (10) Would you like to be working now? If yes a. What stands in your way? (If ans wer i s "baby" or "children", c l a r i f y what this means). 106 B - I I I E M P L O Y M E N T (continued) If never worked since baby was born, ask 3 I E Y E S , A S K A I F N O , A S K D - C 3. Have you ever tried to get a job since your f i r s t child was born? TRIED A . When was that? B . What happened? (get details) C. Would you li k e to be working now? If yes (1) What stands in your way? (If answer i s "baby" or "children" c l a r i f y what this means) I F N E V E R T R I E D D o Would you li k e to be working now? If yes (1) What stands in your way? (If answer i s "baby" or "children" c l a r i f y what this means) A S K E V E R Y O N E 4. Has the fact that you have a child (children) made any difference in your (working, not working) at the present time? A- In what way? If yes 1 B-III EMPLOYMENT (continued) 107 5. What arrangements do (did) you have for 's care? (Ask about most recent arrangements) Check i f answer applies to F i r s t born Other child A. Is (was) cared for at home or away from home? At home (ASK B - D) Not at home (ASK E-I) IF CARED FOR AT HOME B. Who i s (was) taking care of ? What was c h i l d -caring person's age on last birthday? Age l a s t Check one birthday Father Relative Non-relative C„ Does (did) child-caring person l i v e with you or come in? D. Do you pay for 's care? If yes (1) How much? IF CARED FOR AWAY FROM HOME E. Who takes (took) care of E . Is (v/as) this in a private home or some other place? If in private home (1) Relationship to mother? Relative Non-relative (2) Does (did) take care of other children? If in group care (3) Name of f a c i l i t y : Address "  Sponsorship B-III EMPLOYMENT (continued) 5. (continued) 6. Are (were) you satisfied with these arrangements? Ask only mothers now working Has ever had to look after himself (herself) in the past month while you worked? If more than one child l i v i n g at home, ask B 8. Are (were) these the same arrangements.you have for (your other children)? Have you encountered any other problems with employment that I have not mentioned? If so, hov; did you deal with them? 108 G. Is (was) this within walking distance? Yes No (1) Who takes (took) there? (2) Who picks (picked) up? (3) Must be picked up at a particular time? What happens i f i s picked up later? (4) What do (did) you do i f your child i s sick? Has this happened? H. How much time i s (was) away from home (hours per day, days per week)? Is (v/as) ever away from home at night?' I. How much do (did) you pay for 's care? A. What i s (was) the trouble? A. In the past month have you cared for while you worked? If no A. What arrangements do (did) you have? Repeat A - F under question 5, as appropriate  B - IV FINANCIAL SUPPORT 109 Now I ' d l i k e t o a s k you a b o u t y 1. Would you g i v e me a g e n e r a l i d e a o f how you have been m e e t i n g y o u r l i v i n g e x p e n s e s i n t h e l a s t week o r so? T h a t i s , f r o m e a r n i n g s , h e l p f r o m y o u r f r i e n d s , f a m i l y , e t c . ? ASK EVERYONE 2. I s anyone f r o m y o u r own f a m i l y ( o r r e l a t i v e s ) h e l p i n g w i t h y o u r d a i l y l i v i n g e x p e n s e s a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e ? >ur l i v i n g e x p e n s e s . I f e a r n i n g s m e n t i o n e d A. Whose? (1) R e l a t i o n s h i p t o m o t h e r I F YES, ASK A - C I F NO, ASK D GETTING HELP NOW A. Who i n y o u r f a m i l y i s h e l p i n g ? ( I f l i v i n g w i t h , f i n d o u t s o u r c e o f t h e i r i n c o m e , wages, p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e , e t c . ) B. A b o u t how l o n g h a v e you b e e n g e t t i n g t h i s h e l p f r o m ? (Month and y e a r s t a r t e d ) I f s t a r t e d i n l a s t  12 months, a s k (1) D i d t h e y e v e r h e l p you b e f o r e ? I f y e s a. When was t h a t ? b . Why d i d t h e y s t o p ? C. I s anyone e l s e i n y o u r f a m i l y h e l p i n g now? ( I f y e s , r e p e a t A and B) IF NOT GETTING HELP NOW D. Have you h a d any h e l p w i t h y o u r d a i l y l i v i n g e x p e n s e s f r o m y o u r f a m i l y ( o r r e l a t i v e s ) i n t h e p a s t y e a r ? I f y e s , ask (1) - (4) (1) Who h e l p e d ? (2) When was t h a t ? When d i d i t s t a r t ? (3) When was t h e l a s t t i m e you h a d t h i s h e l p ? (Month and y e a r s t o p p e d ) (4) Why d i d t h e y s t o p ? B - I V FINANCIAL SUPPORT ( c o n t i n u e d ) 110 3. I s y o u r f i r s t - b o r n c h i l d ' s f a t h e r h e l p i n g you w i t h y o u r e v e r y d a y l i v i n g e x p e n s e s a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e ? I F YES, ASK A - C I F NO, ASK D  HELPING NOW A. When d i d he s t a r t t o h e l p ? (Month and y e a r ) I f s t a r t e d i n l a s t  12 months, ask (1) Had he e v e r h e l p e d b e f o r e ? I f y e s a. When was t h a t ? (month and y e a r s t a r t e d and s t o p p e d ) b . Why d i d he s t o p t h e n ? c . D i d you t r y t o do a n y -t h i n g a b o u t t h i s ? What? What happened? B. D i d he o f f e r t h e h e l p he i s g i v i n g you now v o l u n t a r i l y , o r d i d y o u g e t i t b y l e g a l a c t i o n ? V o l u n t a r i l y C o u r t a c t i o n . . . C. I s t h e h e l p you a r e g e t t i n g now f a i r l y s t e a d y and r e g u l a r ? NOT HELPING NOW D. D i d he e v e r c o n t r i b u t e s i n c e h i s c h i l d was b o r n ? I f y e s , ask (1) t o (5)  I f no, a s k (6) (1) When d i d he s t a r t ? (2) Was i t v o l u n t a r y - o r b y c o u r t a c t i o n ? (3) When d i d h e s t o p ? (4) Why d i d h e s t o p ? B-IV FINANCIAL SUPPORT (continued) 3.(continued) 111 (5) Has he ever contributed since then? If yes a. When did he last con-tribute? (month and year started and stopped) b. Why did he stop then? c. Did you do anything about it ? What? (Get details) If no d. Have you tried to get help from him in the las t year? (If yes, what did you do? With what results?) If never contributed (6) Have you ever tr i e d to get help from him? If t r i e d a. When? (dates) b. What did you do? (Go to court?) c. What happened? If did not try d. Any reason you didn't? B-IV. FINANCIAL SUPPORT (continued) 4. Is your f i r s t child's father's  family helping you with your everyday l i v i n g expenses at the  present time? 112 5. Are you receiving help for your l i v i n g expenses from the Department of Social Services at the present time? Receiving assistance now Not receiving assistance now (skip to question 9, page 19) IF YES, ASK A AND B IF NO, ASK C  HELPING NOW A. Who in his family i s helping now? B. When did they start to help? If help started in  last 12 months, ask (1) Had they ever helped before? If yes a. When was that? (get dates started and stopped). IF NO HELP AT PRESENT C . Have they helped you at a l l in the past year? IF YES, ASK A IF NO, ASK E A. When was the application for this help made? (Obtain date of most recent application). B. Was there any delay in getting this help? If yes (1) About how long did you wait? (2) What was the problem? (3) How did you manage while you waited? C . Was there ever a time since these payments started that the cheques were discontinued? If not continuous (1) When did they stop and start again? (2) Why did they stop? (Get details how reinstated). t B-IV FINANCIAL SUPPORT (continued) 5. (continued) 113 y(3) How d i d you support your-s e l f during that time? D. Have you had any s p e c i a l expenses during the l a s t year (since you began to r e c e i v e p u b l i c a s s i s t -ance) f o r which you needed e x t r a money aside from your r e g u l a r cheque? I f yes, ask (1) and (2) (1) What were they? (2) Did you ask your worker f o r a s p e c i a l cheque f o r these expenses? I f yes a. What happened? NOT RECEIVING HELP NOW E. Since the b i r t h of your f i r s t c h i l d , d i d you ever r e c e i v e a s s i s t a n c e from the Department of S o c i a l S e r v i c e s (Welfare)? I f yes, ask (1) - (4)  If no, ask (5) (1) T e l l me about the l a s t time you d i d . When d i d i t s t a r t ? (2) When d i d tha t h e l p stop? (3) Why d i d i t stop? (4) What d i d you do about t h i s ? I f no, ask (5) (5) Did you ever t r y to get h e l p since your f i r s t c h i l d was born? I f yes a. When d i d you l a s t apply? b. What happened to that request? c. What was the reason you were turned down? B-IV FINANCIAL SUPPORT (continued) 5. (continued) ASK EVERYONE At the present time do you have any source(s) of support other than the ones we have discussed? 114 d. What did you do about this? e. How did you manage? A. How about: Fathers (or their families) of other children Yes No Unemployment compensation. 7. As I understand i t , you now have sources of support. (Interviewer: Recapitulate the current support picture and write in box below a l l current sources of support). CURRENT INCOME Indicate a l l current sources of support and amounts (amount earned before deductions i s to be shown) Source Amount (Specify i f weekly or monthly) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 115 FINANCIAL SUPPORT (continued) If more than one source of support, ask 8  80 What would you say i s your main source of support at the present time? ASK EVERYONE 9 „ Are you able to manage your l i v i n g expenses on what you are receiving nov/? CURRENT EXPENDITURE Amount (Specify i f weekly or monthly) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5 = 6. 7. 8„ 9 c Rent Gas o o . . . . . . E l e c t r i c i t y Telephone . . Food .«...<, . Clothing ... Recreation.. Medical care Other . If not able to manage and not  receiving public assistance A„ Is there any reason why you haven't applied to DSS to see i f they could help you out? B-V MOTHER'S HEALTH 116 Now I would l i k e to ask you some questions - just about yourself especially about your health. 1. What about your health in general? Have you had any major or serious health problems in the last year or so? 2. Where do you usually go for care when you are sick? yes A. What was (were) the trouble(s)? B. When was this? (How long did i t last?) C. Were you treated for this? If treated (1) Where? If not treated (2) Why not? D. Does this s t i l l trouble you? If s t i l l troubled (1) Are you s t i l l being treated? If yes a. Where? If no b. Why not? E. Do you have any other health problems now? (If yes, get details) A. When did you last go there? B. Any problems in getting the help you need there? What? » B-V MOTHER'S HEALTH (continued) 117 If mother has more than one child 3. When you had your last baby, where did you go for care? A. Did you go for medical care during pregnancy? If yes, ask (1) - (3)  If no, ask (4) / (1) Where? (2) What month of pregnancy did you start? If started 4th month  or later, ask a. Why did you wait u n t i l then? (3) How often did you go? I:c no care (4) Why didn't you go? B. Did you go for a medical check-up after that baby was born? If no, ask (1) (1) Why didn't you go? B-V MOTHER'S HEALTH (continued) Now we would l i k e to ask you some questions about how you f e e l . I'm going to read some statements to you and ask you to t e l l me which of the answers apply to you. 118 1. I f e e l weak a l l over much of the time. 1. Yes 2. No I've had periods of days, weeks or months when I couldn't take care of things because I couldn't "get going". 1. Yes 2. Yes 3. Yes 4. No days weeks months 3. In general, would you say t h a t most of the time you are i n h i g h (very good) s p i r i t s , good s p i r i t s or very low s p i r i t s ? 1. High 2. Good 3. Low 4. Very low 4. Every so o f t e n I suddenly f e e l h ot a l l over. 1. Yes 2. No 5. Have you ever been bothered by your heart beating hard? Would you say: o f t e n , sometimes o r never? 6. Would you say your a p p e t i t e i s poor, f a i r , good or too good? 1. Often 2. Sometimes 3. Never 1. Poor 2. F a i r 3. Good 4. Too good 7. I have periods of such great r e s t -l e s s n e s s t h a t I cannot s i t long i n a c h a i r (cannot s i t s t i l l v ery l o n g ) . 8. Are you the worrying type (a worrier?) 1. Yes 2. No 1. Yes 2. No 9. Have you ever been bothered by shortness of breath when you were not e x e r c i s i n g or working hard? w o u l d you- say: o f t e n , sometimes, or never? 1. Often 2. Sometimes 3. Never 10. Are you ever bothered by nervous-ness ( i r r i t a b l e , f i d g e t y , tense)? Would you say: o f t e n , sometimes, or never? 1. Often 2. Sometimes 3. Never B-V MOTHER'S HEALTH (continued) 119 11. Have you ever had any f a i n t i n g s p e l l s ( l o s t consciousness)? Would you say: never, a few times, or more than a few times? 1. Never 2. A few times 3. More than a few times 12. Do you ever have any t r o u b l e i n g e t t i n g to sleep or s t a y i n g asleep? would you say: o f t e n , sometimes, or never? 13. I am bothered by a c i d (sour) stomach s e v e r a l - times a week Often Sometimes Never Yes No 14. My memory seems to be a l l r i g h t , (good) 15. Have you ever been bothered by "cold sweats"? Would you say: o f t e n , sometimes or never? 16. Do your hands ever tremble enough to bother you? Would you say o f t e n , sometimes, or never Yes No. Often Sometimes Never Often Sometimes Never 17. There seems to be a f u l l n e s s (clogging) i n my head or nose much of the time Yes No 18. I have personal worries t h a t get me down p h y s i c a l l y (make me p h y s i c a l l y i l l ) . 19. Do you f e e l somewhat apart even among f r i e n d s (apart, i s o l a t e d , alone)? 1. 2. Yes No Yes No 20. Nothing ever turns out f o r me the way I want i t to (turns out, happens, comes about, i .e. my wishes aren't f u l f i l l e d ) . Yes No 21. Are you ever troubled v/ith headaches 1. Often or pains i n the head? Would you say: 2. Sometimes o f t e n , sometimes or never? 3. Never 22. You sometimes can't h e l p wondering i f anything i s worthwhile any more. Yes No B-VI COMMUNITY SERVICES 120 1. Sometimes people need to talk with someone about their worries - they may go to someone (aside from family or friends) like their minister, or a lawyer, or E community worker, or a social worker, or a doctor and the l i k e . In the last year, did you want to talk v/ith someone about your plans for yourself or your children? What are some of the things that you do about things that worry you that have not been mentioned here? IF YES, ASK A IF NO, ASK B WANTED HELP OR ADVICE A. Did you actually go some place for help or talk to anyone ? If yes, ask (1) - (4)  If no, ask (5) (1) Where did you go? (With whom did you talk?) (2) when exactly, v/as that? (3) What did you talk about? (4) What help or advice did you get? If no (5) Why didn't you? DID NOT WANT HELP OR ADVICE B. Did you know that there were places that you could go to talk over your plans and problems and get advice? If knows places (1) Which ones have you heard about? (2) If you had problems would you hve gone there? If not a. Why not? If does not; know places (3) Would you have gone i f you knew of such places? (If not, why not?) •VI COMMUNITY SERVICES (continued) 121 2. Since your f i r s t child was born, have you ever gone to any (other) kind of social welfare agency (other than DSS) for help of any kind? 3. During the past year, have you been to court or the police or have you talked to a probation o f f i c e r or any other o f f i c i a l l i k e that? If yes A. Where? B. When? C. What for? D. What happened? If yes A. With whom did you talk? B. When was this? C. What did you see him about? D. Anyone else? (If yes, get de t a i l s ) . 122 PART C - FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Did the baby's father want you to keep the baby? Definitely Probably Probably not Definitely not Does not know The baby's father's reaction towards involvement was? Strongly refused involvement Refused involvement but l e f t door open Do you ever have doubts of having a successful marriage? A l l the time Frequently Occasionally Rarely Never Do you see your f i r s t baby's father? A. When did you l a s t see (or hear from) :_'s? father? If contact in last year (1) How often do you see (hear from) him? B. Do you know i f he i s working now? 123 (continued) Can you t e l l me i f you think having a child when you did has delayed your getting married? What i s the relationship with your parents at the present time: If yes (1) What does he do now? (occupation and industry) (2) Is i t steady, irregular, or spot jobs? Do you know the highest grade he attended in school? If knows (1) What? (2) Did he f i n i s h the grade year? A. Why do you say that? B. Do you think there are any advantages in getting married? What? With your father very close close somewhat close not close distant , father not l i v i n g Comments: With your mother very close close somewhat close - not close distant mother not l i v i n g Comments: 124 8. What i s your relationship with the friends you had prior to becoming pregnant? s t i l l very close close not close distant have not seen them since the birt' of the baby 9 . Have you made nev; friends since the bir t h of the baby? 10. How often do you go out in a week? 11. Do you go out alone, or with someone? alone friend relative If_yes: A. Have these people been other single parents? B. Neighbours? C. Where did you meet them? D. Do they know that you are single? If no: A. What i s the mother's perceptior of the cause of her i n a b i l i t y to meet new friends? A. Where do you usually go? to v i s i t friends to a movie shopping c l i n i c other recreation 125 12. Who looks after the baby when you go out? baby's father friend relative s i t t e r leaves baby alone 13. Do you pay for this service? Yes / No If yes, how much? PART D - SATISFACTIONS AND PROBLEMS 126 D-I MOTHER'S PERCEPTION Before we f i n i s h , I'd li k e to talk some more about yourself. 1. At this time in your l i f e , can you t e l l me what especially makes you happy? 2. Have you ever f e l t you'd rather be doing something else than what you are doing now? 3. At this time in your l i f e , i s there anything you are especially worried about? If yes A. What would this be? How about A. in relation to yourself? What? B. In relation to the children? What? C. In relation to others? What? 4. Do you encounter any other concerns that have not been included in this questionnaire? If so, What action do you usually take to deal with these concerns? L i s t concerns L i s t actions D-I MOTHER'S PERCEPTION (continued) 127 5. I'm going to read a l i s t of p o s s i b l e problems that a mother might have. T e l l me i f you consider any of these a problem f o r you at t h i s time? V7HERE YES: HOW SERIOUS DO YOU CON-SIDER THIS: A LITTLE, SOMEWHAT, VERY, V?fIY? (RECORD RESPONSE BELOW Seriousness For each "yes" record response No Yes (1) A L i t t l e (2) Somewhat (3) Very Money Housing Medical care f o r y o u r s e l f Medical care f o r c h i l d ( r e n ) Education f o r y o u r s e l f F i n d i n g a iob Lack of iob t r a i n i n g Taking care of the c h i l d (ren) y o u r s e l f F i n d i n q someone to take care of c h i l d ( r e n ) Havinq someone to t a l k with Being l o n e l y 128 D-I MOTHER'S PERCEPTION (continued) 6. Looking back since your f i r s t child was born, what would you say a community agency, or a c i t y agency, could have done to help make things easier for you? Specifically, what kind of help did you need i n : Housing Finances Education Medical care Job Training Child care Employment Anything else 7 . Closing comments. We would l i k e to thank you for giving us your time. We know the information you have given us has been and w i l l be helpful i n planning services for mothers. 8. Do. you have any questions you wish to ask? (Here interviewer could interpret study further i f a l l of introductory remarks are not covered). APPENDIX E Index of Emotional Health Status "A Twenty-two Item Screening Score of Ps y c h i a t r i c Symptoms Indicating Impairment" developed during the course of the Midtown Manhattan Study of Mental Disorder i n Manhattan, New York City,""'and u t i l i z e d by Sauber and Corrigan i n t h e i r 1970 2 study i n New York, was used i n t h i s study. This researcher assigned a numerical rating of 0-1 to each item (1 = varying degrees of impairment, 0 = no impairment). The minimum score that could be obtained by each respondent was 0, and the maximum score 22. The par t i c i p a n t s were then c l a s s i f i e d into two groups, a low r a t i n g and a high r a t i n g group. The women with a low rat i n g scored from 0 - 7 , those with a high r a t i n g scored from 12 - 16. These d i v i s i o n s were made as the women f e l l n a t u r a l l y into these two cate-gories. None of the women scored between 8 - 12, or over 16 points. Thomas S. Langner, "A Twenty-two Item Screening Score of P s y c h i a t r i c Symptoms Indicating Impairment," Journal of  Health and Soc i a l Behaviour, 3 (1962), 269-276. 2 Mignon Sauber and E i l e e n Corrigan, The Six Year  Experience of Unwed Mothers as Parents (New York: Community Council of Greater New York, 1970). Questionnaire obtained on request. 130 APPENDIX F Perceived Problem Rating Scale A Perceived Problem Rating Scale was computed by-assigning a score of 0 - 3 f o r each of 11 socio-economic categories according to how serious the mother thought that problem was f o r her. Although the maximum possible score was 33, no woman scored more than 22 points. The women were a r b i t r a r i l y c l a s s i f i e d into three groups: 1. 0 - 5 Low problem r a t i n g , 2. 6 - 1 2 Medium problem r a t i n g , 3. 1 3 - 2 2 High problem r a t i n g . 

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