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The concerns and coping behaviours of the single mother with a child ages six months to eight years Anderson, Joan Madge 1973

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THE CONCERNS AND COPING BEHAVIOURS OF THE  SINGLE MOTHER WITH A CHILD AGED SIX MONTHS TO EIGHT YEARS  by JOAN MADGE ANDERSON B.N., M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y , 1969  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF  MASTER OF SCIENCE IN NURSING  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming required  t o the  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1973  In presenting  t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l fulfilment of the requirements for  an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t freely available for reference  and  study.  I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may by his representatives.  be granted by the Head of my Department or  It i s understood that copying or publication  of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of  Applied  Science,  The University of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada  Date  A p r i l 11.  1973  ABSTRACT T h i s study was designed t o e l i c i t i n f o r m a t i o n about the concerns and coping behaviours o f the unmarried mother.  A  convenient sample o f 20 unmarried mothers was i n t e r v i e w e d , u t i l i z i n g a semi-structured questionnaire.  Extensive  f a c e - t o - f a c e i n t e r v i e w s were conducted with the mothers i n t h e i r homes. The d a t a were analyzed by the use o f frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n t a b l e s and percentages.  Pearson  product-moment  c o r r e l a t i o n was used t o examine the a s s o c i a t i o n between  selected  variables. The f i n d i n g s o f the study r e v e a l e d t h a t the mothers ranged  from 20 t o 36 years o f age, with an average  years.  age o f 27.1  T h e i r e d u c a t i o n l e v e l s v a r i e d from Grade 7 to 12, w i t h  the m a j o r i t y o f them r e a c h i n g Grade 10, 11 o r 12. F i f t e e n mothers had 1 c h i l d and 5 mothers had between 2 and 3 c h i l d r e n . and 4 months.  The average  age o f the c h i l d r e n was 3 years  T h e i r ages ranged  from 2 months t o 8 y e a r s .  The  c h i l d r e n under 6 months of age a l l had o l d e r s i b l i n g s . The mothers e x h i b i t e d a v a r i e t y o f l i f e s t y l e s . 20 mothers, 5 were employed f u l l - t i m e , and 4 were students.  Fourteen r e c e i v e d f i n a n c i a l a i d through  full-time Social  A s s i s t a n c e , and 1 mother, a f u l l - t i m e student, supported h e r s e l f and h e r c h i l d on a student l o a n .  ii  Of the  iii Incomes v a r i e d among the mothers. on w e l f a r e l i v e d on annual  incomes below $3,000.  mothers had  annual  to  Those mothers who  $7,500.  The m a j o r i t y o f The  incomes ranging from approximately  those  working $4,000  d e r i v e d t h e i r incomes from employ-  ment had 1 c h i l d , with o n l y 1 mother h a v i n g a c h i l d under 3 years of  age.  Those who  d e r i v e d incomes from S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e had  from 1 to 3 c h i l d r e n .  Ten o f the 14 mothers i n t h i s group had  a c h i l d o r c h i l d r e n under 3 years o f  age.  Concerns a r t i c u l a t e d by the mothers were r e l a t e d to finances; childcare f a c i l i t i e s ,  e s p e c i a l l y f o r those mothers with  c h i l d r e n under 3 years o f age; housing;  job t r a i n i n g ; and  adequate  i n f o r m a t i o n from agencies concerning s e r v i c e s a v a i l a b l e to mothers on S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e .  In c o n t r a s t to p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s  done i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , the mothers expressed  few  r e g a r d i n g the a v a i l a b i l i t y of p h y s i c a l h e a l t h c a r e .  concerns A l l had  access t o a p h y s i c i a n . F o r t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o f the mothers scored h i g h on emotional h e a l t h s t a t u s s c a l e , i n d i c a t i n g some degree o f impairment.  Many o f those who  socio-economic  In c o n f i r m a t i o n of t h i s f i n d i n g , Pearson  product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n r e v e a l e d a v e r y h i g h p o s i t i v e s h i p o f r = +.837 between these v a r i a b l e s . with annual  emotional  scored h i g h on t h i s s c a l e a l s o  p e r c e i v e d themselves as h a v i n g a h i g h number of problems.  an  None o f the mothers  incomes between $4,000 to $7,500 scored h i g h  e i t h e r o f these two  relation-  on  scales.  F o r t y - s e v e n percent of the mothers who c o n s u l t a t i o n about a s p e c i f i c concern,  felt  a need f o r  sought p r o f e s s i o n a l  iv assistance. relatives  However, many p r e f e r r e d to t a l k w i t h f r i e n d s  about t h e i r c o n c e r n s .  and/or  I t was o n l y among 15 p e r c e n t of  the mothers t h a t the c h i l d ' s f a t h e r p r o v i d e d any emotional  support.  A d e t e r r e n t t o the use of community agencies was a t t r i b u t e d the mothers' l a c k of knowledge about a v a i l a b l e s e r v i c e s , t h e i r negative perception of p r o f e s s i o n a l  to  or  workers.  Of those mothers who were n e i t h e r employed nor going to s c h o o l , many a s p i r e d to jobs and f i n a n c i a l s e c u r i t y . f i n d i n g s o f t h i s study,  From the  i t seemed t h a t the mothers e x h i b i t e d  d i f f e r e n t methods o f adapting t o s o l o parenthood.  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page LIST OF TABLES . .  viii  LIST OF FIGURES  ix  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  X  Chapter 1.  INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY  1  Conceptual Framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  2  STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM  4  The Problem  4  Significance of the Problem  4  SPECIFICS OF THE STUDY  •  General Aims of the Study  6  S p e c i f i c Objectives of the Study  7  D e f i n i t i o n of Terms  7  Assumptions  8  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  Limitation of the Study  . . . . . . . . . . . .  Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.  6  8 9  RESUME OF THE PRESENT KNOWLEDGE  10  CONCERNS OF THE SINGLE MOTHER  11  Socio-Economic Concerns. . . . . . . . . . . . . Societal Implications  . . . . . . . . . . . .  11 11  Financial and Employment  14  Housing  20  Education  22  v  vi Chapter  Page Concerns Related to Health  3.  24  Physical  24  Emotional  27  THE PROCESS OP COPING  29  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION  37  METHODOLOGY  39  The Questionnaire  39  Pretest  40  The Population  41  The Procedure  ..  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  Analysis of the Data 4.  41 42  ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF THE DATA  43  ANALYSIS OF THE DATA  43  DISCUSSION OF THE DATA  44  Socio-Economic  Concerns  . . . .  . . . . 45  Ages of Mothers and Children Level and Source of Income  45 ••  48  Employment Experience  53  Education  59  Housing Conditions  62  Concerns Related to Health . . . . .  ..  66  Physical  66  Emotional  67  Coping Behaviours  70  Relationship with Parents  70  Relationship with Friends  71  vii Chapter  Page Relationship with the C h i l d ' s Father  72  Community Agencies U t i l i z e d  73  . . .  Mother's Perception of Help that Could have been Given by a Community Agency  75  Childcare  76  Education and job t r a i n i n g  76  Finances  76  Housing  77  Anything else Satisfactions and Problems Attitude Towards Marriage SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS,  5.  SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY Summary and Conclusions Findings  .77 28 80 82 82 82  Implications f o r P r a c t i t i o n e r s . . . .  87  Recommendations to Agencies  88  Speculations of the Researcher  89  Suggestions f o r Further Study  90  Recommended Revision of Methodology  91  BIBLIOGRAPHY  92  APPENDIXES . . . .  95  A.  Letter of Request  95  B.  Consent Form  96  C.  Letter of Thanks  97  D.  Questionnaire  98  E.  Index of Emotional Health Status  129  F.  Perceived Problem Rating Scale  130  LIST OF TABLES Table I II  p AGE DISTRIBUTION OF MOTHERS  IV  VI VII  AMOUNT OF INCOME IN RELATION TO SOURCE OF 50  MOTHERS' INCOME VERSUS NUMBER OF DEPENDENTS . . . .  52  ASSOCIATION BETWEEN INCOME AND PERCEIVED PROBLEM RATING SCORE CHILD CARE FACILITIES UTILIZED BY MOTHERS  54  EMPLOYED FULL-TIME AND PART-TIME VIII IX X XI XII  47  AGE CATEGORIES OF CHILDREN AT TIME OF STUDY . . . . 49  INCOME V  46  AGE OF MOTHERS AT BIRTH OF OLDEST CHILD PRESENTLY IN THE HOME . . . „  III  a g e  57  AGE OF MOTHERS VERSUS EMPLOYMENT STATUS  58  GRADE LEVEL OF EDUCATION  61  LENGTH OF OCCUPANCY IN PREVIOUS HOUSING  63  LENGTH OF OCCUPANCY IN HOUSING AT THE TIME OF THE STUDY 64 ASSOCIATION BETWEEN INCOME AND EMOTIONAL STATUS . . 69  viii  LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1 2 3  Page THE CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM WITHIN THE UNIVERSE OF NURSING  3  ILLEGITIMATE BIRTHS EXPRESSED AS A PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL LIVE BIRTHS 1960 - 1970  5  SCHEMATIC REPRESENTATION OF THE COPING PROCESS  ix  30  AC KNOWLEDGMENTS The contributions of Mrs. Sharon Ogden and Mrs. Barbara Lee who r e s p e c t f u l l y supervised the research and writing of t h i s thesis and Mrs. Lynne Reynolds who typed the manuscript, are g r a t e f u l l y acknowledged.  The assistance of the health  and s o c i a l agencies who made the c o l l e c t i o n of the data possible i s much appreciated.  F i n a l l y , the author i s indebted to the  women who aided t h i s research with much kindness.  x  Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION TO THE T h i s study was  STUDY  concerned w i t h unmarried mothers  had kept t h e i r c h i l d r e n .  who  In r e c e n t years an i n c r e a s i n g number  o f unmarried mothers have chosen than p l a c e them f o r adoption.^*  t o keep t h e i r c h i l d r e n r a t h e r A l i m i t e d , but growing  body  o f l i t e r a t u r e r e f l e c t s the i n t e r e s t o f community h e a l t h workers i n these mothers and t h e i r B e f o r e the area was  children. r e s e a r c h e d , there appeared  to have  been many m i s c o n c e p t i o n s about the a b i l i t y o f the s i n g l e mother t o r e a r a c h i l d i n the absence of a f a t h e r .  In  1963,  Reed and Latimer researched the s u b j e c t o f the s i n g l e mother. In t h e i r study based i n Ohio, they c i t e d t h a t keeping a baby usually  meant d i m i n i s h e d e d u c a t i o n a l , s o c i a l and economic  o p p o r t u n i t y f o r the mother. study showed t h a t i t was  However, on the o t h e r hand, the  not s a f e to g e n e r a l i z e t h a t a l l  unmarried mothers should r e l e a s e t h e i r b a b i e s f o r a d o p t i o n . some cases, the s t r o n g maternal f e e l i n g and c o n s c i e n c e o f the mother, and the group c u l t u r e t o which she belonged would be v i o l a t e d by h e r g i v i n g up the b a b y .  2  In h e r study i n Vancouver i n 1969,  Poulos  identified  D o r i s E. Guyatt, The One-Parent F a m i l y i n Canada (Ottawa: The V a n i e r I n s t i t u t e o f the F a m i l y , 1971), p. 69. x  E l l e r y Reed and Ruth Latimer, A Study o f Unmarried Mothers Who Kept T h e i r Babies ( C i n c i n n a t i : S o c i a l Welfare Research Inc., 1963), p. 109. 2  1  In  2 the problems of s i n g l e mothers. o f mothers who  3  Due  to the i n c r e a s i n g number  have kept t h e i r c h i l d r e n , t h i s author f e l t  need f o r f u r t h e r e x p l o r a t i o n o f the a r e a .  the  T h i s study e x p l o r e d  the coping behaviours o f the mothers, t h e r e f o r e g l e a n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n about the nature and extent of p e r s o n a l T h i s was  adjustment.  i d e n t i f i e d as an area f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n the  1969  4 study. T h i s t o p i c was  o f i n t e r e s t to the author because o f her  experience i n working w i t h s i n g l e mothers and t h e i r  children.  During the time t h a t she worked i n community n u r s i n g , the o b s e r v a t i o n was  made t h a t an i n c r e a s i n g number o f s i n g l e mothers  were keeping t h e i r c h i l d r e n .  She was  i n contact with  these  c l i e n t s f o r v a r y i n g l e n g t h s o f time, depending upon the h e a l t h needs of the f a m i l y . encountered  However, to determine  i f these mothers  concerns t h a t were not e v i d e n t i n the e a r l y months  o f the c h i l d ' s l i f e ,  the need f o r more prolonged c o n t a c t  was  often recognized. Conceptual Framework The  conceptual framework o f the r e s e a r c h problem w i t h i n  the U n i v e r s e of N u r s i n g was The area o f r e s e a r c h was  i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 1, page 3.  concerned  with i d e n t i f y i n g the  and coping b e h a v i o u r s o f s i n g l e mothers.  I t was  also  w i t h d e v e l o p i n g an assessment t o o l to i d e n t i f y these and coping b e h a v i o u r s .  concerns  concerned concerns  From the r e s u l t s , p r a c t i c e g u i d e l i n e s  Susan Poulos, A Problem Inventory of S i n g l e Mothers ( C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y o f Vancouver, 1969). I b i d . , p.  16.  Evaluation  Physical**" *S y Health ^^ '1. Concerns o f What Single ^ concerns? Mothers 2.  Coping Behaviours of Single Mothers  What c o p i n g behaviours?  Nursing Intervention \ N  \  How and Why? \ \  Practice Guidelines  \  Psycho-social  Wellbeing \  Assessment ' tool  Area o f Research  FIGURE 1 THE CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM WITHIN THE UNIVERSE OF NURSING  4 c o u l d be formulated, and s k i l l f u l n u r s i n g care p r o v i d e d to the client. STATEMENT OF THE The  PROBLEM  Problem What were the concerns o f the s i n g l e mother;  specifically,  the unmarried mother w i t h a c h i l d aged s i x months  to e i g h t years? What were the coping behaviours o f the s i n g l e mother; s p e c i f i c a l l y the unmarried mother with a c h i l d aged s i x months to e i g h t years? S i g n i f i c a n c e o f the Problem The apparent need f o r t h i s study was  supported by the  s t a t i s t i c s o f the i n c r e a s i n g numbers o f s i n g l e mothers who kept t h e i r c h i l d r e n .  had  S t a t i s t i c s o b t a i n e d from the C i t y o f  Vancouver r e v e a l e d the i l l e g i t i m a t e b i r t h r a t e expressed as a percentage of the t o t a l l i v e b i r t h s . b i r t h s were 8.6 p e r c e n t i n Vancouver.  In 1961, the i l l e g i t i m a t e There was  a steady  i n c r e a s e u n t i l 1968, when a peak o f 17 p e r c e n t was In 1969, the f i g u r e dropped 16.6 p e r c e n t .  T h i s was  reached.  to 16.7 p e r c e n t , and i n 1970 to  i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 2, page 5.  In 1969, the comparable r a t e s o f i l l e g i t i m a t e b i r t h s expressed as a percentage o f t o t a l l i v e b i r t h s was i n B r i t i s h Columbia, o f Canada.  5  13.8 p e r c e n t  as compared t o 9.2 p e r c e n t f o r the r e s t  Claman, W i l l i a m s and Wogan s t a t e d t h a t the  Live Births  ( C i t y o f Vancouver, 1943-1970).  5  17.0% 1 6  16.4%  -  7 0 /  fl6.6%  16.0% 15.4%  12.4%  10.8% 9.6% 8.7%  I960  1  8.6%  61  1  62  63  64  65  66  67  68  FIGURE 2 ILLEGITIMATE BIRTHS EXPRESSED AS A PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL LIVE BIRTHS 1960 - 1970  69  70  6 a b s o l u t e number o f unmarried mothers has doubled i n Canada and 6 t r i p l e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia between 1945 and 1964. Knowles, i n an i n t e r v i e w with Bodlak i n Vancouver, stated that, There seems t o have been a change from most o f the work b e i n g done b e f o r e the c h i l d i s born t o more work i n v o l v e d a f t e r the c h i l d ' s b i r t h i n f o l l o w - u p and p r e v e n t i v e s e r v i c e s . From January to A p r i l , 1970, 62 b a b i e s were born and 25 (40 percent) o f these were kept by the mother. F o r the same p e r i o d i n 1971, 38 b a b i e s were born o f which 20 (52.6 percent) were k e p t . 7  These f i g u r e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t although the b i r t h s had decreased, the number o f mothers who children increased.  illegitimate  kept  their  T h i s f a c t supported the need f o r f u r t h e r  i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o the concerns of these mothers. SPECIFICS OF THE General Aims o f the  STUDY  Study  The g e n e r a l aims of t h i s study were: 1.  To determine who  the p e r c e i v e d concerns o f s i n g l e mothers  l i v e d alone with t h e i r c h i l d aged s i x months to e i g h t  years. 2.  To study the s t a t e d coping b e h a v i o u r s o f s i n g l e mothers who  l i v e d alone with t h e i r c h i l d , aged s i x months t o e i g h t  years.  David Claman, B a r r y W i l l i a m s and L. Wogan, "Reaction o f Unmarried G i r l s t o Pregnancy", Canadian M e d i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n J o u r n a l , 101 (September 20, 1969), 328. S t a n Bodlak, "Serving C h i l d r e n and T h e i r F a m i l i e s " , News, 7:5 (June, 1971), 4. 7  CAS  7 S p e c i f i c O b j e c t i v e s o f the Study The 1.  s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e s o f t h i s study were:  To i d e n t i f y the socio-economic s i n g l e mothers who  concerns as s t a t e d by  l i v e d alone w i t h t h e i r c h i l d aged  s i x months to e i g h t y e a r s .  2.  a)  To i d e n t i f y t h e i r concerns with f i n a n c e  b)  To i d e n t i f y t h e i r concerns w i t h employment  c)  To i d e n t i f y t h e i r concerns w i t h housing  d)  To i d e n t i f y t h e i r concerns with e d u c a t i o n .  To i d e n t i f y the s p e c i f i c concerns r e l a t e d t o h e a l t h as s t a t e d by s i n g l e mothers who  l i v e d alone with t h e i r  child  aged s i x months t o e i g h t y e a r s .  3.  a)  To i d e n t i f y t h e i r concerns w i t h p h y s i c a l h e a l t h .  b)  To i d e n t i f y t h e i r emotional h e a l t h s t a t u s .  To i d e n t i f y the coping behaviours employed by s i n g l e mothers who  l i v e d alone w i t h t h e i r c h i l d aged s i x months to e i g h t  years. Definition  o f Terms  The S i n g l e Mother. a woman who  The  s i n g l e mother was  d e f i n e d as  gave b i r t h t o a c h i l d to whose f a t h e r she was  l e g a l l y married.  not  I t f u r t h e r i m p l i e d t h a t she had not entered  i n t o a l e g a l union w i t h another man  and l i v e d alone w i t h h e r  child. The C h i l d .  The c h i l d was  d e f i n e d as aged s i x months  to e i g h t y e a r s , born t o p a r e n t s who  were not l e g a l l y m a r r i e d .  8 Only* c h i l d r e n were i n c l u d e d who were n o t under h o s p i t a l o r medical care f o r p h y s i c a l o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l Coping Behaviour.  impairment.  Coping behaviour was d e f i n e d as  s t r a t e g i e s used b y t h e s i n g l e mother t o d e a l w i t h h e r concerns. A c c o r d i n g t o L a z a r u s , the coping p r o c e s s may c o n s t i t u t e d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f a c t i o n t e n d e n c i e s , namely t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s r e s o u r c e s a g a i n s t the a n t i c i p a t e d harm, o r a c t i o n aimed a t avoidance o f the s i t u a t i o n . Concern.  P  A concern was d e f i n e d as a s i t u a t i o n  which  the mothers p e r c e i v e d as s t r e s s f u l . Assumptions Two b a s i c assumptions were made i n t h i s study.  They  were: 1.  That t h e mothers were a b l e to i d e n t i f y t h e i r concerns and coping b e h a v i o u r s t o the i n v e s t i g a t o r i n the i n t e r v i e w situation.  2.  That the mothers gave d i r e c t and honest r e p l i e s t o the q u e s t i o n s posed by t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r .  L i m i t a t i o n o f the Study The sample was one o f convenience drawn from agencies and p r i v a t e v o l u n t e e r s . made t o the l a r g e r  T h e r e f o r e , g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s cannot be  society.  " R i c h a r d L a z a r u s , P s y c h o l o g i c a l S t r e s s and t h e Coping Process (Toronto: McGraw H i l l , 1966), pp. 151-153.  9 Overview L i t e r a t u r e r e l a t i n g to the concerns and c o p i n g b e h a v i o u r s o f the s i n g l e mother was reviewed i n Chapter  2.  The methodology employed i n t h i s study was d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter 3.  The a n a l y s i s and d i s c u s s i o n o f the d a t a were p r e s e n t e d i n  Chapter 4 .  In Chapter 5 , the f i n d i n g s were summarized,  i m p l i c a t i o n s were i d e n t i f i e d , recommendations were made, and suggestions f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h were enumerated.  Chapter 2 RESUME OF THE In 1966, culties  Kronick  PRESENT KNOWLEDGE  s t a t e d t h a t the problems and  diffi-  t h a t were unique to the unmarried mother were  being questioned.  Despite  still  a t t e n t i o n g i v e n to the s u b j e c t o f  unmarried motherhood, r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e o f the w r i t i n g based on knowledge d e r i v e d from r e s e a r c h .  was  Most o f the w r i t e r s  d i s c u s s e d the problem from the p o i n t of view o f popular Unquestionably,  concern.  p a r t o f the e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the l a c k of  r e s e a r c h knowledge about the unwed mother d e r i v e s from the nature of the problem.  C o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the g e n e r a l problem of  the unwed mother, with r e f e r e n c e t o i n d i v i d u a l case s t u d i e s , but without  r e f e r e n c e to the s o c i a l  r e l a t i v e l y meager return.''"  structure w i l l yield  However, i n r e c e n t years,  has been a growing body o f r e s e a r c h about the  a  there  unmarried mother.  These s t u d i e s were c i t e d when a p p r o p r i a t e . The  review o f the l i t e r a t u r e was  d i v i d e d i n t o the  concerns o f the s i n g l e mother, s p e c i f i c a l l y concerns,  and concerns r e l a t e d to h e a l t h .  socio-economic F u r t h e r to t h i s ,  t h e o r i e s o f the process o f coping were reviewed.  •••Jane C o l l i e r Kronick, "An Assessment o f Research Knowledge Concerning the Unmarried Mother", The Unwed Mother, ed. R.W. Roberts (New York: Harper and Row, 1966), p. 235. 10  11 CONCERNS OF THE  SINGLE MOTHER  Socio-Economic Concerns Societal Implications.  In viewing  the concept o f  the  s i n g l e mother i n a s o c i a l framework, S c h l e s i n g e r advanced c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the s i n g l e parent.  three  F i r s t , t h e r e i s the  absence o f one  parent.  Second, the s i n g l e parent  a m i n o r i t y one  i n s o c i e t y and d e v i a t e s from s t a t i s t i c a l norm.  T h i r d , s t i g m a t i z a t i o n of the s i n g l e parent o f s i n g l e parents  does o c c u r .  by s o c i e t y to be m o r a l l y The unmarried one position in society.  f a m i l y and e s p e c i a l l y  The unwed mother i s c o n s i d e r e d  deviant. parent  f a m i l y i s i n a most p e c u l i a r  Most s o c i a l agencies s t i l l work towards  the r e l e a s e o f the c h i l d f o r adoption, i s h e a l t h y and w h i t e .  structure i s  e s p e c i a l l y i f the  Thus s o c i e t y o v e r t l y admits t h a t  child the o  unmarried one T h i s viewpoint  parent was  f a m i l y i s d y s f u n c t i o n a l as a f a m i l y u n i t .  supported by S i g n e l l and B e r n s t e i n who  t h a t agencies i n s o c i e t y are l a r g e l y o r i e n t e d toward the  cited girl  who  r e l i n q u i s h e s h e r c h i l d , r a t h e r than t o the m a j o r i t y who 3 4 keep t h e i r c h i l d r e n . ' In 1962, the C h i l d W e l f a r e League o f America i s s u e d a  •^Benjamin S c h l e s i n g e r , The One Parent F a m i l y P e r s p e c t i v e s and Annotated B i b l i o g r a p h y (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, 1969), pp. 10-15. ^Karen S i g n e l l , "The C r i s i s o f Unwed Motherhood: A C o n s u l t a t i o n Approach", Community Mental H e a l t h J o u r n a l , 5 (1969), 304-305. ^Rose B e r n s t e i n , "Gaps i n S e r v i c e to Unmarried Mothers", C h i l d r e n , 10: 2 ( M a r c h - A p r i l , 1963), 49-54.  12 statement r e g a r d i n g  standards f o r s e r v i c e s t o unmarried  parents.  They r e f l e c t e d t h a t i n our s o c i e t y parenthood without marriage i s a d e v i a t i o n from the accepted c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n s o f b e a r i n g and  rearing children.  The l e g a l f a m i l y i s the approved  social  i n s t i t u t i o n to ensure sound r e a r i n g and development o f c h i l d r e n , and  t o p r o t e c t the c h i l d  - parent r e l a t i o n s h i p .  The out o f  wedlock c h i l d and h i s p a r e n t s do not have the same l e g a l p r o t e c t i o n s which a r e o r d i n a r i l y p r o v i d e d  through marriage t o  c h i l d r e n and p a r e n t s . The mother l e g a l l y i s p l a c e d  i n the p o s i t i o n o f c a r r y i n g  the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f both mother and f a t h e r , and i s i n a disadvantaged p o s i t i o n because o f s o c i e t y ' s d i s a p p r o v a l . sanctions m i l i t a t e against her,  Social  and c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f normal  l i f e a r e denied to h e r as an unwed p a r e n t , i n c l u d i n g acceptance in  the community.  separated  She d i f f e r s from a widowed, d i v o r c e d o r  mother, who may have had a complete f a m i l y a t one  p o i n t , and thus a t l e a s t has the image o f a f a m i l y . The for  woman who attempts t o s e t up an independent household  h e r s e l f and h e r c h i l d f a c e s a v a r i e t y o f problems.  f a c t o r s a r e h e r f i n a n c i a l needs, working and supporting  Realistic a child,  the e f f e c t o f t h i s k i n d o f e x i s t e n c e upon h e r c a p a c i t y t o provide  a warm, happy l i f e f o r h e r c h i l d , and the e f f e c t s on  the c h i l d o f the mother's problems and a one-parent f a m i l y . Whether she works o r r e c e i v e s f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , a c e r t a i n p o r t i o n o f normal l i f e may be denied h e r , acceptance i n the community.  i n c l u d i n g normal  She may be denied school  employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s , p u b l i c housing o r p u b l i c  attendance,  13 5 assistance. Hallam argued t h a t unmarried mothers have been  subjected  to b i t t e r c r i t i c i s m , and have been condemned and r e j e c t e d as u n f i t mothers o r members o f f a m i l y and s o c i e t y , and censured as a d r a i n on our economy.  Our s o c i e t y i s a m a r r i e d s o c i e t y ,  with the f a m i l y as t h e b a s i c u n i t .  The concept o f l e g i t i m a c y  i s based on m a r r i e d p a r e n t s and d e v i a t i o n from t h i s represents  structure  a problem.^  D i f f e r e n t authors advanced  the t h e s i s t h a t unmarried  mothers show a wide range o f s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and r e v e a l no p a t t e r n o f an average unmarried mother.  Although the middle  c l a s s b e l i e f t h a t i l l e g i t i m a c y was something t h a t happened o n l y t o the young, the poor, the uneducated, mentally i l l  was always o v e r s t a t e d ,  p r e v i o u s l y was. schools  the immoral  and the  i t i s l e s s t r u e than i t  I l l e g i t i m a c y has invaded middle c l a s s h i g h  and c o l l e g e s , the white c o l l a r o c c u p a t i o n s and t h e  adult population  w i t h a f o r c e t h a t has n o t been known b e f o r e .  I t i s a phenomenon among middle income,  educated and o l d e r 7,8,9  women from e s t a b l i s h e d middle c l a s s f a m i l i e s . 5 C h i l d W e l f a r e League o f America Standards f o r S e r v i c e s to unmarried Parents (New York: C h i l d W e l f a r e League o f America, 1962), pp. 1-39. ^Mabel Hallam, " A t t i t u d e s Toward the Unwed Mother," N u r s i n g C l i n i c s o f North America, 2 (December, 1967), 776-777. C l a r k V i n c e n t , "The Unwed Mother and Sampling B i a s " , The Unwed Mother, ed. Robert Roberts (New York: Harper and Row, 1966), pp. 252-255. R o b e r t Roberts (ed.), The Unwed Mother (New York: Harper and Row, 1966), pp. 3-8. 7  8  ^ W i l l i a m Rashbaum e t a l , "Use o f S o c i a l S e r v i c e s b y Unmarried Mothers" C h i l d r e n . 10: 1 (January-February, 1963), 12.  14 In summary, t h e m a j o r i t y  o f the l i t e r a t u r e r e f l e c t e d  t h a t the s i n g l e mother s u f f e r s severe s o c i a l s a n c t i o n s . contrast, Bernstein's  observations  A f t e r reviewing research  In  i n 1971 add another dimension.  on the s o c i a l problems o f the s i n g l e  parent, she s t a t e d t h a t one o f the most c o n s i s t e n t f i n d i n g s was t h a t f o r most o f the women i n t e r v i e w e d ,  h a v i n g an out-of-wedlock  c h i l d d i d not e n t a i l severe s o c i a l p e n a l t i e s .  I t d i d not r e s u l t  i n poor f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s o r b r i n g censure from f r i e n d s , neighbours o r c o l l e a g u e s However, as B e r n s t e i n due  who knew about t h e i r c i r c u m s t a n c e s .  pointed  out, these r e s u l t s were p o s s i b l y 10 t o the nature o f the sample. F i n a n c i a l and employment.  Due t o the r e l a t i o n s h i p  between these areas, the l i t e r a t u r e concerning f i n a n c i a l and employment s t a t u s were reviewed t o g e t h e r .  In many  instances,  the mothers' f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s r e s u l t e d from t h e i r i n a b i l i t y t o procure and keep permanent w e l l - p a i d Bernstein  jobs.  s t a t e d t h a t the unmarried mother who k e p t h e r  baby had t o e s t a b l i s h h e r s e l f and h e r c h i l d i n the community as a family unit. material  She had t o p r o v i d e f o r the c h i l d ' s economic and  sustenance.^ Many s i n g l e parent f a m i l i e s l i v e d i n poverty, o r near  poverty.  Supplementary a s s i s t a n c e was sometimes n o t a p p l i e d f o r 12 as the mothers wished t o avoid f o r m a l i t y o r embarrassment.  ^ R o s e B e r n s t e i n , H e l p i n g Unmarried Mothers (New York: A s s o c i a t i o n Press, 1971), pp. 96-97. 11  12 I b i d . , pp. 95-100  Ibid.  K r e i s b e r g argued t h a t the mother of the p r e s c h o o l was  l e s s able to seek employment than the mother of the  in school. was  child  child  A woman without r e l a t i v e s l i v i n g i n the same c i t y  not a b l e t o have h e r  f a m i l y s u b s t i t u t e f o r the  father's  c o n t r i b u t i o n to c h i l d care, nor c o u l d a r e l a t i v e f r e e h e r f o r 13 employment.  A l l these added up t o a d i m i n i s h e d  income.  Pochin c i t e d t h a t the s i n g l e mother's most important problem was o f support  economic.  She  and  o r t h e i r l i f e together  Sheer economic p r e s s u r e  t h e i r babies  c o u l d not become a r e a l i t y .  o f t e n precluded  about the c h i l d ' s u p b r i n g i n g ,  done was  the c h i l d must have adequate means  f o r adoption.  and  realistic  choice  compelled many mothers to o f f e r  T h i s was  bad  enough, but the harm  i n f i n i t e l y worse when the mother made an  attempt t o keep her baby and  l a t e r had  the i n t e r v e n i n g p e r i o d , the c h i l d had and  any  to accept  unsuccessful failure.  In  s e v e r a l changes o f home  a number o f d i f f e r e n t people l o o k i n g a f t e r him w h i l e h i s 14  mother was  at work.  In many i n s t a n c e s , the p u t a t i v e f a t h e r was  excluded from  p l a n n i n g with the unmarried mother f o r f i n a n c i a l support  of h i s  offspring.  agencies  Pannor suggested t h a t i n r e c e n t years, a few  have been p i o n e e r i n g  i n e f f o r t s to i n v o l v e the f a t h e r i n p l a n n i n g ,  thereby g i v i n g some f i n a n c i a l h e l p to the s i n g l e mother.  Such  • L o u i s K r i e s b e r g , Mothers i n Poverty: A Study o f F a t h e r l e s s F a m i l i e s (Chicago: A l d i n e P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1970), pp. 30-31, 292. LJ  *4jean Pochin, Without a Wedding Ring Press L t d . , 1969), pp. 132-144.  (Essex: The  Anchor  work r e v e a l e d t h a t these men had c o n s i d e r a b l y more f e e l i n g s about 15 the  mothers and c h i l d r e n than had been r e c o g n i z e d .  By  solicit-  ing  economic support from the f a t h e r , the economic burden o f the  mother was somewhat a l l e v i a t e d . Reed and Latimer, i n t h e i r 1963 study, found t h a t o f the  118 unmarried mothers i n the study, l e s s than 30 p e r c e n t  worked.  A l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n , n e a r l y h a l f o f the group not  r e c e i v i n g s e r v i c e o r a s s i s t a n c e from any s o c i a l agency, were employed.  Weekly e a r n i n g s ranged from between  $35 to $50.  Mothers were employed i n f a c t o r i e s , o f f i c e s o r r e s t a u r a n t s . Due t o a v a r i e t y o f reasons, o n l y a s m a l l number o f the women r e t u r n e d t o jobs h e l d p r i o r t o pregnancy.  Some mothers  unable t o f a c e t h e i r employer and co-workers.  felt  On the whole,  however, mothers m o s t l y d i d not r e t u r n because o f l i t t l e  job  seniority. Forty-one p e r c e n t o f the mothers were s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g , 19 p e r c e n t were dependent on r e l a t i v e s and a l i t t l e 40 p e r c e n t were dependent on p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e .  This l a t t e r  noteworthy, f o r the common i m p r e s s i o n had been t h a t all  l e s s than was  practically  unmarried mothers and t h e i r c h i l d r e n were dependent on the  taxpayer.  Among the s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g were counted some who were 16 17 m a r r i e d and were r e c e i v i n g support from t h e i r husbands. ' •^Reuben pannor, "Casework S e r v i c e f o r Unmarried F a t h e r s " , C h i l d r e n . 10: 2 (March-April, 1963), 65-70. l ^ E l l e r y Reed and Ruth Latimer, A Study o f Unmarried Mothers Who Kept T h e i r B a b i e s ( C i n c i n n a t i : S o c i a l W e l f a r e Research Inc., 1963), pp. 32-39. Children.  E l l e r y Reed, "Unmarried Mothers Who 12': (May-June, 1965), 116-119.  Kept T h e i r B a b i e s " ,  17 T h i s f i n d i n g was and J a c o b z i n e r i n New  supported by the 1966  York, who  study of Crumidy  r e l a t e d t h a t t w o - t h i r d s of the  mothers i n t h e i r study r e c e i v e d support from sources o t h e r than the Department o f W e l f a r e . employment.  The young mothers were motivated  However, employment p o t e n t i a l s were a f f e c t e d  to  by  v a r i o u s c o n d i t i o n s i n c l u d i n g degree o f e d u c a t i o n and o t h e r t r a i n i n g , o v e r a l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r the baby, f a m i l y ' s a b i l i t y to h e l p , and o t h e r environmental of  obstacles, including a lack  community r e s o u r c e s and o p p o r t u n i t i e s , e s p e c i a l l y job  training.  1 8  Wright's  study i n C a l i f o r n i a r e f l e c t e d a s i m i l a r  finding.  F o r t y percent o f the mothers had had p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e a t some time, and  j u s t under 25 p e r c e n t were s t i l l dependent on  ance a t the time of the The mothers who  assist-  study. were s u p p o r t i n g themselves  and were not  married were h e l p e d by t h e i r r e l a t i v e s and the mother's e a r n i n g s . Twenty-five p e r c e n t o f the mothers were l i v i n g i n p o v e r t y , while an a d d i t i o n a l 15 percent were l i v i n g above the p o v e r t y but showed evidence o f h a r d s h i p .  line,  Mothers on p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e  were l i v i n g below the p o v e r t y l i n e .  Although  the r e l a t i o n of  economic s t a t u s t o source o f support i s i n t e r e s t i n g , the more s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g i n judging the adequacy o f the income i s t h a t h a l f o f the t o t a l group were c l e a r l y l i v i n g above the p o v e r t y  P e a r l Menter Crumidy and H a r o l d J a c o b z i n e r , "A Study of Young Unmarried Mothers Who Kept T h e i r B a b i e s , " American J o u r n a l of P u b l i c H e a l t h , 56: 8 (August, 1966), 1245-1247. i a  18 l i n e and were a b l e t o l i v e without any evidence o f the type o f deprivation that constitutes a s o c i a l  problem.^  I t appeared t h a t t h e mothers who l i v e d i n p o v e r t y r e f l e c t e d a major s o c i a l and economic problem i n s o c i e t y . Sauber and R u b i n s t e i n , i n t h e i r 1965 study i n New York, s t a t e d t h a t t h e unmarried  mother f a c e d the overwhelming q u e s t i o n o f  f e e d i n g , c l o t h i n g and housing h e r s e l f and h e r baby without the support o f a breadwinner. h e r s o l e source o f support.  Income from employment was r a r e l y Twice as many women r e l i e d  entirely  upon t h e i r e a r n i n g s to meet expenses when t h e b a b i e s were 18 months o l d than when they were 5 months o l d , b u t even a t 18 months, o n l y f o r 8 p e r c e n t were e a r n i n g s from employment the o n l y source o f income.  The average weekly income f o r most o f the  women who were working was between $50 t o $74. N i n e t y - s i x p e r c e n t o f the women s t u d i e d expressed a d e s i r e t o work a t some time s i n c e t h e i r i n f a n t ' s b i r t h , y e t o n l y 50 p e r c e n t worked.  One o f the most common problems i n o b t a i n i n g  employment was t h e i r l a c k o f experience, e d u c a t i o n o r t r a i n i n g . The  second most common o b s t a c l e was care o f the baby.  they f e l t i t n e c e s s a r y t o care f o r the baby themselves unable  Either o r were  t o make s a t i s f a c t o r y baby c a r e arrangements. A p p a r e n t l y , d e s i r e to take care p e r s o n a l l y o f the baby  and the i n a b i l i t y t o make adequate baby c a r e arrangements were g r e a t e r d e t e r r e n t s t o u n d e r t a k i n g employment than was l a c k o f  Helen Wright, 80 Unmarried Mothers Who Kept T h e i r Babies ( S t a t e o f C a l i f o r n i a : Department o f S o c i a l W e l f a r e , May, 1965), pp. 20-27.  experience, e d u c a t i o n o r t r a i n i n g .  Many more women who gave the  l a t t e r reasons as o b s t a c l e s to employment a c t u a l l y d i d work a t one time o r another d u r i n g the e i g h t e e n month study p e r i o d than did  women who mentioned c h i l d care arrangements as o b s t a c l e s .  P r o p o r t i o n a t e l y more o f the mothers who l i v e d on t h e i r own w i t h the baby r e q u i r e d p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e , than o f the women i n any 20 o t h e r type o f l i v i n g arrangement. Sauber and C o r r i g a n continued the study i n 1970, t o i n c l u d e the same s i n g l e parents who had kept t h e i r c h i l d r e n up t o the age o f s i x y e a r s . of  They c i t e d t h a t f o r a s u b s t a n t i a l number  mothers and c h i l d r e n , l i f e was a t o r near the p o v e r t y  line.  More than 42 p e r c e n t o f the mothers r e p o r t e d monthly incomes o f l e s s than $300, o r $3,600 a n n u a l l y . of  T h i s p l a c e d them i n a segment  the p o p u l a t i o n who c o u l d be c l a s s i f i e d , on the b a s i s o f  c r i t e r i a developed by the S o c i a l S e c u r i t y A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , as i n 'poverty' o r 'near  poor'.  A s u b s t a n t i a l m a j o r i t y o f these women, 77 p e r c e n t , had worked a t some time s i n c e the b i r t h o f t h e i r f i r s t  child.  T h i r t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t were employed a t t h e time o f the study.  The  p r o p o r t i o n o f the mothers employed a t the time o f the i n t e r v i e w was  somewhat s i m i l a r t o t h a t r e p o r t e d f o r working mothers with  young p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n throughout  the U n i t e d S t a t e s ; n a t i o n a l l y ,  29 p e r c e n t o f mothers w i t h c h i l d r e n under s i x years o f age were  ^^Mignon Sauber and E l a i n e R u b i n s t e i n , E x p e r i e n c e s o f the Unwed Mother as a Parent: A L o n g i t u d i n a l Study o f Unmarried Mothers Who Keep T h e i r F i r s t b o r n (New York: Community C o u n c i l of G r e a t e r New York, 1965), pp. 80-107.  20 reported to be employed i n 1968.  21  In summary, i t became obvious from the review of the l i t e r a t u r e that a large number of single mothers l i v e d below the poverty l i n e .  Contrary to popular b e l i e f , research indicated  that not a l l single mothers were on public assistance.  Some  mothers who wanted to work were confronted with the d i f f i c u l t i e s of adequate c h i l d care and lack of education and job t r a i n i n g . Housing.  The review of the l i t e r a t u r e revealed a v a r i e t y  of housing conditions among single mothers.  Reed and Latimer  observed that housing conditions of the mothers varied, better than might be expected f o r many, but poor f o r others.  Among  those who had problems, lack of adequate f a c i l i t i e s were evident. Over one-third were l i v i n g i n the same house as before the b i r t h of the baby.  Most of those not l i v i n g i n the same  house moved after returning from the maternity home or h o s p i t a l . Approximately h a l f continued to l i v e i n the same neighbourhood as before the b i r t h of the baby.  For many, getting away from 22  neighbourhoods and friends was not an overriding consideration. Sauber and Rubinstein reported poor housing conditions among single mothers.  Many of the mothers l i v e d i n the slum or  near slum areas of New York C i t y .  They put up with, or moved to  Mignon Sauber and E i l e e n Corrigan, The Six Year Experience of Unwed Mothers as Parents. A Continuing Study of These Mothers and Their Children (New York: Community Council of Greater New York, 1970), pp. 38-44. 22  E l l e r y Reed and Ruth Latimer, A Study of Unmarried Mothers Who Kept Their Babies (Cincinnati: Social Welfare Research Inc., 1963), pp. 49-50.  21 p l a c e s with inadequate f a c i l i t i e s ,  g r o s s overcrowding  o r other  such c o n d i t i o n s , more as the r e s u l t o f n e c e s s i t y than o f c h o i c e . The housing o c c u p i e d b y these mothers should be viewed w i t h i n two c o n t e x t s : one, as an i n d i c a t i o n o f the socio-economic l e v e l o f the group;  and two, as t h e s e t t i n g i n which these women  cared f o r t h e i r i n f a n t s . were overcrowding, facilities.  The most p e r s i s t i n g housing problems  i n f e s t a t i o n with r a t s , roaches, and inadequate  Many mothers were d i s t u r b e d b y the d e p l o r a b l e  c o n d i t i o n s o f the neighbourhood  i n which they l i v e d .  In a l l ,  o n l y 21 p e r c e n t o f the women s t u d i e d expressed no problems w i t h t h e i r housing a t any o f the f o l l o w - u p i n t e r v i e w s . t h e i r unmarried  F o r some,  s t a t u s was a handicap when they t r i e d t o a c q u i r e 23  h o u s i n g i n p u b l i c housing p r o j e c t s .  Discrimination against  the s i n g l e mother i n these p r o j e c t s was supported by K r e i s b e r g 24  i n h i s 1970 study i n the E a s t e r n U n i t e d S t a t e s . In  1970,  Sauber and C o r r i g a n d i d a f o l l o w - u p study i n New  York on the mothers who had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the 1965 study. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e i r poor housing c o n d i t i o n s had not changed. There was a h i g h r a t e o f m o b i l i t y among the mothers.  Half of  those who moved i n the p a s t year s a i d they d i d so because t h e 25 housing was inadequate and overcrowded. 23 Sauber and R u b i n s t e i n , op c i t . , pp. 41-75. 24 L o u i s K r e i s b e r g , Mothers i n Poverty. A Study o f F a t h e r l e s s F a m i l i e s (Chicago: A l d i n e P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1970), pp. 85, 121. 25 Mignon Sauber and E i l e e n C o r r i g a n , The S i x Year E x p e r i e n c e o f Unwed Mothers as P a r e n t s . A C o n t i n u i n g Study o f These Mothers and T h e i r C h i l d r e n (New York: Community C o u n c i l o f G r e a t e r New York, 1970), p. 78.  22 Wright in California. i n New York,  reviewed the problem o f housing i n h e r 1965 study U n l i k e the s i t u a t i o n found by Sauber and R u b i n s t e i n  she found t h a t o n l y three o u t o f e i g h t y mothers  r e p o r t e d d i f f i c u l t y i n f i n d i n g l i v i n g q u a r t e r s t h a t they  thought  26 c o u l d be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e i r unmarried  status.  Poulos, i n h e r study i n B r i t i s h Columbia t h a t l i v i n g arrangements presented a problem 27 the s i n g l e p a r e n t s i n t e r v i e w e d .  i n 1969, found  to the m a j o r i t y o f  B e r n s t e i n a l s o supported the  t h e s i s t h a t s i n g l e mothers were o f t e n plagued b y poor housing conditions. ° Education.  I n 1962, V i n c e n t s t a t e d t h a t s i n g l e mothers  who kept t h e i r i n f a n t s had l e s s e d u c a t i o n as shown b y mean years of  s c h o o l i n g completed,  c o l l e g e attendance  and h i g h s c h o o l  completion, i n comparison 29  t o mothers who surrendered t h e i r  c h i l d r e n f o r adoption.  K e l l e y o f f e r e d an e x p l a n a t i o n t o t h i s  phenomenon.  He c i t e d t h a t i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s i n 1963, some  s t a t e s denied t h e r i g h t o f e d u c a t i o n t o the pregnant, girl, for  o r the g i r l who had a c h i l d .  unmarried  T h i s r e p r e s e n t e d an avenue  t r a n s m i t t i n g s o c i e t y ' s standards o f moral b e h a v i o u r .  When  an unmarried mother was denied e d u c a t i o n , the chances f o r h e r H e l e n Wright, 80 Unmarried Mothers Who Kept T h e i r Babies ( S t a t e o f C a l i f o r n i a : Department o f S o c i a l W e l f a r e , May, 1965), p. 30. 2 6  S u s a n Poulos, A Problem I n v e n t o r y o f S i n g l e Mothers ( C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y o f Vancouver, 1969), pp. 10-13. 2 7  2^Rose B e r n s t e i n , H e l p i n g Unmarried A s s o c i a t i o n P r e s s , 1971), p. 98.  Mothers (New York:  C l a r k V i n c e n t , Unmarried Mothers (New York: The F r e e Press o f Glencoe, 1962), pp. 185-190. 2 9  s o c i a l improvement  were d i m i n i s h e d .  Other r e s e a r c h e r s found a d e f i c i e n c y o f e d u c a t i o n i n young unmarried mothers, w i t h the m a j o r i t y not completing h i g h s c h o o l . :,Lack o f e d u c a t i o n was a l s o found to be a v o c a t i o n a l handicap. ' 3 1  3 2  In 1965, Sauber and R u b i n s t e i n noted t h a t the New  York  Board o f E d u c a t i o n r e q u i r e d pregnant g i r l s t o withdraw from r e g u l a r s c h o o l attendance.  They were p e r m i t t e d t o r e t u r n to  s c h o o l a f t e r the b i r t h o f the c h i l d . three o f those who had r e t u r n e d had graduating.  However, about one out o f "dropped b u t " again b e f o r e  These women encountered problems w i t h f i n a n c e s , and 33  adequate baby care arrangements. In summary, some s i n g l e mothers, depending on t h e i r p l a c e of r e s i d e n c e , had to withdraw from s c h o o l d u r i n g pregnancy. l a r g e number o f them had not completed h i g h s c h o o l .  A  Deterrents  t o c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n were l a c k o f f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e and d i f f i c u l t y i n arranging c h i l d  care.  30  J e r r y K e l l e y , "The School and Unmarried Mothers", C h i l d r e n . 10: 2 ( M a r c h - A p r i l , 1963), 60-64. 31Pearl Menter Crumidy and H a r o l d J a c o b z i n e r , "A Study o f Young Unmarried Mothers Who Kept T h e i r B a b i e s , " American J o u r n a l o f P u b l i c H e a l t h . 56: 8 (August, 1966) 1244-1245. 32 E l l e r y Reed and Ruth L a t i m e r , A Study o f Unmarried Mothers Who Kept T h e i r B a b i e s ( C i n c i n n a t i : S o c i a l W e l f a r e Research Inc., 1963), pp. 9-12. Mignon Sauber and E l a i n e R u b i n s t e i n , E x p e r i e n c e s o f the Unwed Mother as a P a r e n t . A L o n g i t u d i n a l Study o f Unmarried Mothers Who Keep T h e i r F i r s t b o r n (New York: Community C o u n c i l o f G r e a t e r New York, Research Department, 1965), pp. 110-116.  Concerns R e l a t e d to H e a l t h In 1967, Chaskel  argued t h a t s p e c i f i c p r o v i s i o n s were  needed i n s o c i e t y f o r the care o f the unmarried child.  mother and h e r  These mothers make up a v u l n e r a b l e h i g h r i s k group  o f t e n n o t attuned t o f i n d i n g t h e i r way through  the c o n f u s i n g  34 maze o f our s o c i a l s e r v i c e i n s t i t u t i o n s . Physical•  In r e v i e w i n g the p h y s i c a l h e a l t h concerns o f  s i n g l e mothers, Crumidy and J a c o b z i n e r i n t h e i r 1966 study, found  that at i n i t i a l  apparent  c o n t a c t the young mothers were g e n e r a l l y i n  good h e a l t h , although a few needed d e n t a l c a r e .  However, the m a j o r i t y r e p o r t e d t h a t p r e n a t a l care p r i o r t o the b i r t h o f t h e i r present c h i l d s t a r t e d e i t h e r l a t e i n the second t r i m e s t e r o r i n the t h i r d t r i m e s t e r .  Some g i r l s , pregnant i n  t h e i r second and t h i r d t r i m e s t e r s a t the time o f the study, had 35 not sought p r e n a t a l c a r e , b u t d i d so when r e f e r r e d . Although  the f o l l o w i n g study was concerned  p r e v i o u s l y married  with  s i n g l e mothers, the f i n d i n g s might have  i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r unmarried  mothers.  Berkman's study i n 1969  focused on the d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e p o r t e d p h y s i c a l h e a l t h between two groups o f mothers who were c u r r e n t l y r a i s i n g c h i l d r e n , the spouseless and the m a r r i e d .  He p o s t u l a t e d t h a t o t h e r t h i n g s  b e i n g e q u a l , p o t e n t i a l l y s t r e s s f u l circumstances, c o n d i t i o n s , 34  Ruth C h a s k e l , "The Unmarried Mother: I s She D i f f e r e n t ? " C h i l d Welfare, 46 (February, 1967), 74. 3->Pearl Menter Crumidy and H a r o l d J a c o b z i n e r , "A Study of Young Unmarried Mothers Who Kept T h e i r B a b i e s , " American J o u r n a l o f P u b l i c H e a l t h , 56: 8 (August, 1966), 1244.  25  episodes and events were conducive  to p h y s i c a l i l l h e a l t h .  C o n s i d e r i n g the d i f f e r e n t ways of l i v i n g i n h e r e n t i n the two  s t a t e s , there seemed no q u e s t i o n b u t t h a t the  spouseless  as a group were more f r e q u e n t l y and p e r s i s t e n t l y c o n f r o n t e d w i t h events and s i t u a t i o n s t h a t threatened such common motives  as  a f f i l i a t i o n and a p p r o v a l , s o c i a l esteem, achievement, a f f e c t i o n and sexual g r a t i f i c a t i o n and adequate parenthood. to  In c o n t r a s t  t h e i r married c o u n t e r p a r t s , the spouseless mothers had  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c h i l d r e a r i n g , with e v e r y t h i n g t h i s  sole  entailed.  At the same time, they were d a i l y d e p r i v e d of a l l the psychol o g i c a l and  s o c i a l exchanges and s a t i s f a c t i o n s t h a t o n l y a husband  c o u l d supply.  F i n a l l y , they were s o c i a l l y m a r g i n a l .  If,  t h e r e f o r e , poor h e a l t h was more p r e v a l e n t among the s p o u s e l e s s than among the married mothers, i t c o u l d be r e l a t e d a t l e a s t i n p a r t t o the i n h e r e n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n s t r e s s between the  two  groups. As a n t i c i p a t e d , Berkman found t h a t the i n c i d e n c e o f p h y s i c a l m o r b i d i t y was h i g h e r among spouseless mothers than among t h e i r m a r r i e d c o u n t e r p a r t s .  The h i g h e r i n c i d e n c e o f  m o r b i d i t y among s p o u s e l e s s mothers was socio-economic  not due  simply to  d i f f e r e n c e s between them and married mothers, as  m o r b i d i t y d i f f e r e n c e s p e r s i s t e d r e g a r d l e s s of  socio-economic  status. A t the same time, however, s y s t e m a t i c m o r b i d i t y v a r i a t i o n s tended  t o occur w i t h i n both comparison groups,  in  the d i r e c t i o n o f g r e a t e r p r e v a l e n c e among the e c o n o m i c a l l y d i s advantaged, than among the advantaged, congruent with  the  26 p o s t u l a t e t h a t both economic d e p r i v a t i o n and s p o u s e l e s s motherhood were i n h e r e n t l y s t r e s s f u l , each c o n t r i b u t i n g  independently  36 to the l i k e l i h o o d of  illness.  Sauber and R u b i n s t e i n found t h a t s i n g l e mothers were l e s s thorough  about seeking medical care f o r themselves,  they were i n seeking i t f o r t h e i r i n f a n t s . study had  than  E v e r y woman i n the  a t l e a s t one c o n t a c t with a medical agency o r a p r i v a t e  d o c t o r i n the 18 month study p e r i o d .  However, many women ex-  pressed a need f o r more adequate f a c i l i t i e s and care f o r low income p e o p l e . ^  7  In the f o l l o w - u p study on the same mothers i n  1970,  Sauber and C o r r i g a n s t a t e d t h a t most of them were i n r e l a t i v e l y good p h y s i c a l h e a l t h , with more than h a l f r e p o r t i n g no h e a l t h problems.  The l a r g e s t s p e c i f i c complaint was g y n a e c o l o g i c a l ,  r e p o r t e d by 21 percent o f the mothers. r e g u l a r source o f medical c a r e .  Only 3 p e r c e n t had  no  Some of the problems c i t e d i n  o b t a i n i n g m e d i c a l care were l o n g w a i t s at c l i n i c s o r 38 impersonal treatment by h o s p i t a l p e r s o n n e l . The C h i l d Welfare League o f America  rough  suggested i n  1962  t h a t P u b l i c H e a l t h Agencies c a r r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r adequate •^Paul Berkman, "Spouseless Motherhood, P s y c h o l o g i c a l S t r e s s and P h y s i c a l M o r b i d i t y " , J o u r n a l of H e a l t h and S o c i a l Behaviour. 10: 4 (December, 1969), 323-334. M i g n o n Sauber and E l a i n e R u b i n s t e i n , E x p e r i e n c e s o f the Unwed Mother as a Parent. A L o n g i t u d i n a l Study of Unmarried Mothers Who Keep T h e i r F i r s t b o r n (New York: Community C o u n c i l of G r e a t e r New York, 1965), pp. 123-134. 37  M i g n o n Sauber and E i l e e n C o r r i g a n , The S i x Year E x p e r i e n c e o f Unwed Mothers as Parents. A C o n t i n u i n g Study o f These Mothers and T h e i r C h i l d r e n (New York: Community C o u n c i l of G r e a t e r New York, 1970), pp. 82-83. 38  27 f o l l o w - u p of mothers known to them.  Community H e a l t h Agencies  such as the C h i l d H e a l t h Conferences,  School H e a l t h S e r v i c e s o r  a P u b l i c H e a l t h Department should be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i d e n t i f y i n g unwed mothers and c h i l d r e n who  may  need h e l p , f o r r e f e r r a l t o  s o c i a l agencies where i n d i c a t e d , and f o r f o l l o w - u p s e r v i c e s f o r the h e a l t h o f mothers and i n f a n t s .  I t was  f e l t that public  h e a l t h agencies have a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o the mother who  may  not  39 consult a social  agency.  From the review o f the l i t e r a t u r e ,  i t was  evident that  h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s should work with s i n g l e mothers both b e f o r e and a f t e r the b i r t h of the c h i l d .  Although many mothers r e c e i v e d  p h y s i c a l c a r e , o t h e r s expressed a need f o r more adequate  facil-  ities. Emotional.  The area of emotional h e a l t h as reviewed i n  the l i t e r a t u r e presented a p i c t u r e f o r concern.  In 1965,  Sauber  and R u b i n s t e i n c i t e d some of the expressed needs o f the mothers as a y e a r n i n g to be c o n s i d e r e d with d i g n i t y and p e r s o n a l worth, and a l o n g i n g f o r f r i e n d s h i p .  These were the i n t a n g i b l e s  f r e q u e n t l y evidenced i n the statements o f these mothers, and p o i g n a n t l y a r t i c u l a t e d by them. The mothers expressed a need t o f e e l s e l f and independent.  sufficient  C l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d with t h i s , was  the need  to be t r e a t e d w i t h r e s p e c t and to be r e c e i v e d c o u r t e o u s l y and s y m p a t h e t i c a l l y by those from whom they sought h e l p .  They  C h i l d Welfare League of America Standards f o r S e r v i c e s to Unmarried Parents (New York: C h i l d Welfare League o f America, 1962), pp. 33-39.  28 needed t o have a sense o r a f e e l i n g o f p e r s o n a l worth.  However,  many o f these mothers r e p o r t e d t h a t the treatment t h e y r e c e i v e d wherever they went f o r a s s i s t a n c e or h e l p tended t o degrade them. Both among the mothers who  were burdened w i t h the  t a n g i b l e problems o f l i v i n g w i t h an i n f a n t i n v e r y housing and o f s u p p o r t i n g themselves those who  substandard  and the c h i l d , and among  were a b l e t o manage adequately i n these areas, were  some mothers who conflict.  expressed unhappiness,  a n x i e t y and  internal  In the view o f the i n t e r v i e w e r s , w e l l over a t h i r d o f  the group would have b e n e f i t e d from casework or c o u n s e l l i n g 40 services. In s t u d y i n g the same p o p u l a t i o n f i v e years l a t e r ,  Sauber  and C o r r i g a n found t h a t 30 p e r c e n t o f a l l study mothers were impaired i n t h e i r emotional h e a l t h .  An a s s o c i a t i o n between  income l e v e l and emotional h e a l t h s t a t u s was  evident.  Among  mothers w i t h f a m i l y incomes o f l e s s than $3,600, 41 p e r c e n t scored as impaired. when income was  Impairment r a t i n g s decreased  t o 27 p e r c e n t  $3,600 o r more, but l e s s than $6,000.  Among  those w i t h incomes of a t l e a s t $6,000, o n l y 10 p e r c e n t had score i n d i c a t i n g impairment.  a  More than twice as many mothers  showed no symptoms when income was $6,000 or more than when i t 41 was under $3,600. B e r n s t e i n , i n r e v i e w i n g the problems of s i n g l e  152-153.  4°Sauber and R u b i n s t e i n , op. c i t . , pp. 135-136, 41 Sauber and C o r r i g a n , op. c i t . , pp. 83-89.  29 parenthood, s t a t e d t h a t many mothers complained  of b e i n g  tied  down, w i t h accompanying d e p r e s s i o n , l o n e l i n e s s and boredom. There were problems i n p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and adjustment.  Some expressed  social  the need to t a l k to someone  concerning the care of t h e i r c h i l d .  Some were p u z z l e d about what  42 to  t e l l him  about h i s f a t h e r .  Wright a l s o found t h a t t h i r t y -  t h r e e of the e i g h t y mothers s t u d i e d showed s i g n s of  emotional  43 maladjustment. Resume o f the present knowledge demonstrated t h a t a l a r g e number o f mothers manifested  emotional problems, o f t e n  a s s o c i a t e d with economic d e p r i v a t i o n . e x i s t i n g community f a c i l i t i e s these women, who from  In many i n s t a n c e s , the  were not geared  to the needs o f  o f t e n f e l t unwelcome when they sought h e l p  agencies. THE The  PROCESS OF COPING  review of t h i s area of the l i t e r a t u r e i n t r o d u c e d  the author's c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of the process o f coping, gave a t h e o r e t i c a l framework f o r understanding coping behaviour. process was responses  A schematic  stress  and  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the coping  o u t l i n e d i n F i g u r e 3, page 30.  It illustrated  the  of the organism to s t r e s s .  Lazarus  advanced the t h e o r y t h a t s t r e s s , as a u n i v e r s a l  R o s e B e r n s t e i n , H e l p i n g Unmarried Mothers (New A s s o c i a t i o n Press, 1971), pp. 98-99. 4 2  and  York:  % e l e n Wright, 80 Unmarried Mothers Who Kept T h e i r Babies (State o f C a l i f o r n i a : Department o f S o c i a l W e l f a r e , May, 1965), pp. 35-71. 4  30 Human Organism  i Stress-  Stress  State of E q u i l i b r i u m  i State o f D i s e q u i l i b r i u m >f  F e l t Need t o Restore E q u i l i b r i u m  COPING PROCESS Strategies f o r Dealing with  Stress  i  B  Realistic Perception of Event  Distorted Perception of Event  i  1  Adequate Situational Support  No adequate Situational Support  Action Against A n t i c i p a t e d Harm  inaction Withdrawal/ Avoidance  Resolution o f Problem  Disequilibrium Continues  Equilibrium Regained  I Crisis  No C r i s i s Regain S t a t e of E q u i l i b r i u m  ~T; Dysfunction  FIGURE 3 SCHEMATIC REPRESENTATION OF THE COPING PROCESS  31  human and animal phenomenon, r e s u l t s i n i n t e n s e experiences, behaviour.  and appears to be o f tremendous i n f l u e n c e i n The p r o v i n c e  o f s t r e s s i s most c l e a r l y demarcated  when one d e a l s w i t h the extremes o f d i s t u r b a n c e and  psychological functioning, disturbance  unusually  and d i s t r e s s i n g  threatening,  of b i o l o g i c a l  brought about b y  damaging o r demanding l i f e  conditions.  Four main c l a s s e s o f r e a c t i o n have t y p i c a l l y been used to index s t r e s s , namely, d i s t u r b e d a f f e c t s , motor-behavioural r e a c t i o n s , changes i n adequacy o f c o g n i t i v e f u n c t i o n i n g and p h y s i o l o g i c a l changes. anxiety,  Disturbed  anger, d e p r e s s i o n  a f f e c t s may i n c l u d e f e a r o r  or g u i l t .  Motor b e h a v i o u r s c i t e d are i n c r e a s e d muscle speech d i s t u r b a n c e s ,  tension,  p a r t i c u l a r l y f a c i a l expression.  d i r e c t i o n a l i t y o f the behaviour, f o r example, a t t a c k ,  The approach  o r avoidance, as w e l l as i t s i n t e n s i t y c o n t r i b u t e s t o the i n f e r e n c e t h a t i t i s a form o f s t r e s s response. Changes i n t h e adequacy o f c o g n i t i v e f u n c t i o n i n g sents a t h i r d c a t e g o r y o f s t r e s s response.  repre-  T h i s i m p l i e s change  r a t h e r than impairment, as experimental evidence suggests t h a t s t r e s s can f a c i l i t a t e as w e l l as impair cognitive activity.  s k i l l e d performance and  S t r e s s may a f f e c t p e r c e p t i o n ,  judgment, problem s o l v i n g , p e r c e p t u a l  thought,  and motor s k i l l s and s o c i a l  adaptation. P h y s i o l o g i c a l change i s one o f the most w i d e l y used classes of indicators of stress reaction. r e a c t i o n s o f both the adrenal  This  includes  autonomous nervous system, and o f the  glands which s e c r e t e v a r i o u s hormones under s t r e s s .  32 " S t r e s s " as a term, encourages one t o t h i n k o f disturbances and  of adaptation,  psychopathology.  buffeted  the p r o d u c t i o n  of bodily  disease  The term suggests the image o f a person  about b y d e s t r u c t i v e f o r c e s and s t r u g g l i n g t o s u r v i v e 44  or  flourish. Martin  and Prange c i t e d t h a t i t i s now p e r t i n e n t t o  examine the concepts o f h e a l t h , i l l n e s s and s t r e s s . represents adjustment.  Health  a " s u c c e s s f u l " adjustment, and i l l n e s s a f a i l u r e o f According  t o the above authors, s t r e s s a r i s e s from  i n t e r f e r e n c e o r a s s a u l t s , t h r e a t s o f a s s a u l t s , r e a l o r supposed from without and from w i t h i n the organism. Meeting h i s needs, and adapting c o n f r o n t s him i n l i f e ,  t o the s t r e s s which  the i n d i v i d u a l r e s o r t s t o v a r i o u s  measures, p h y s i o l o g i c a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l and s o c i a l , which tend t o m a i n t a i n a r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e b a l a n c e w i t h i n and among the v a r i o u s systemic p a r t s . As  T h i s b a l a n c e i s r e f e r r e d t o as e q u i l i b r i u m .  i n d i v i d u a l s move through the l i f e c y c l e , they are  faced w i t h a s e r i e s o f changing c o n d i t i o n s and p s y c h o l o g i c a l . be  - physical, social  New d e f i n i t i o n s and concepts o f s e l f must  a c q u i r e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o one's age, sex and o t h e r  s p e c i f y i n g expectations  o f the i n d i v i d u a l .  tend t o be f o c a l i z e d around o u t s t a n d i n g  Such adjustments  l i f e events.  these nodal p o i n t s , a t these times o f adaptive adaptation  factors  crises,  i s most l i k e l y t o f a i l and i l l n e s s o c c u r .  I t i s at that Under  u s u a l c o n d i t i o n s , each nodal p o i n t i n the l i f e c y c l e i s the  ^Richard Process (Toronto:  Lazarus, P s y c h o l o g i c a l S t r e s s and the Coping McGraw H i l l , 1966), pp. 2-10.  33 occasion life.  f o r growth and development and f o r the enrichment o f  I t i s when the i n d i v i d u a l i s unprepared o r unable t o accept  the change t h a t adaptive sudden, too severe,  f a i l u r e o c c u r s ; when the change i s too  or i l l - t i m e d , i l l n e s s i s l i k e l y to r e s u l t . 45  Parenthood r e p r e s e n t s  a nodal p o i n t xn the l i f e  Lazarus s t a t e d t h a t coping dealing with threat.  cycle.  refers to strategies f o r  Observable t h r e a t s and s t r e s s r e a c t i o n s a r e  r e a c t i o n s o r consequences o f coping  p r o c e s s e s intended  t o reduce  threat. When the i n d i v i d u a l i s threatened, m o t o r i c a c t i o n s and p s y c h o l o g i c a l a c t i v i t y w i l l be aroused t o ward o f f the a n t i c i p a t e d harm. psychological  U n l e s s something i s done t o p r o t e c t the  system, a damaging s t a t e o f a f f a i r s w i l l  (by the d e f i n i t i o n o f the t h r e a t ) . for  occur  The i n d i v i d u a l may attempt,  example, t o a v o i d the danger, overcome i t b y a t t a c k on the  harmful agent, o r engage i n a r i c h v a r i e t y o f s e l f - d e c e p t i v e defensive  a c t i v i t i e s , r e a p p r a i s i n g the danger even i n the 46 defiance of r e a l i t y . In r e f e r r i n g t o F i g u r e coping  according  3 on page 30, the concept o f  to Lazarus was i n c l u d e d w i t h f u r t h e r  c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n b y the author, based upon the assumption t h a t withdrawal o r avoidance used as a coping  strategy i n a s t r e s s f u l  s i t u a t i o n , without adequate s i t u a t i o n a l support, may have a 45 H a r r y M a r t i n and A r t h u r Prange, "Human A d a p t a t i o n A Conceptual Approach t o Understanding P a t i e n t s " , Canadian Nurse, 58: 3 (March, 1962), 234-243. 46 Lazarus, op. c i t . , pp. 151-154.  34 d i f f e r e n t end  r e s u l t to a c t i o n aimed a t s t r e n g t h e n i n g  a g a i n s t a n t i c i p a t e d harm.  A g u i l e r a , Messick and  c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f the e f f e c t o f b a l a n c i n g 47 s t r e s s f u l event was  incorporated,  but  the conceptual  framework t o the extent  conceptualized  as p a r t of the coping  resources  Farrell's  factors in a  some change was  made i n  t h a t withdrawal  process.  was  I f the organism  withdraws from the s t r e s s f u l event, the problem remains unsolved, and  a s t a t e o f d i s e q u i l i b r i u m p e r s i s t s , which may  crisis  result in a  state. C a p i a n , i n d i s c u s s i n g problem s o l v i n g , advanced  i d e a t h a t the person may  r e a c t t o s t r e s s i n such a way  i s e f f e c t i v e i n the world o f r e a l i t y . w i t h problems i s by p a s s i v e to as a l i e n a t i o n . world, and  The  that  he  of dealing  or d i s i n t e g r a t i o n , referred  person cuts h i m s e l f o f f from the whole  goes back to h i s p r i m i t i v e n o n - t h i n k i n g  i s not an e f f e c t i v e way way  surrender  Another way  the  state.  of d e a l i n g with the problem.  The  This other  o f d e a l i n g with i t , s h o r t o f complete unconsciousness", i s  complete o r p a r t i a l d i s i n t e g r a t i o n o f p e r s o n a l i t y f u n c t i o n i n g , 48 which i s c a l l e d a psychosxs. In r e l a t i n g t h i s t h e o r e t i c a l framework o f coping  to  s i n g l e mothers, each woman w i l l experience her unwed motherhood according  to h e r p e r c e p t i o n  o f the events.  For each, the  crisis  Donna A g u i l e r a , J a n i c e Messick and Marlene F a r r e l , C r i s i s I n t e r v e n t i o n Theory and Methodology (St. L o u i s : C.V. MosbyCo., 1970), p. 52.  Health  G e r a l d Caplan, An Approach t o Community Mental (New York: Grune and S t r a t t o n , 1961), pp. 38-39.  35 p r e c i p i t a t i n g f a c t o r may be d i f f e r e n t a t d i f f e r e n t t i m e s . B e r n s t e i n c i t e d o u t o f wedlock pregnancy  49  as an extended  emotional and s o c i a l c r i s i s t h a t r e s u l t s when t h e b i o l o g i c and p h y s i o l o g i c s t r e s s e s o f pregnancy  are i n t e n s i f i e d by the s o c i a l  s t r e s s e s o f the o u t o f wedlock s t a t u s . The primary c r i s i s f o r an unmarried mother s t a r t s when she f i r s t r e a l i z e s she i s pregnant. I t extends f o r an undetermined time a f t e r t h e b i r t h o f the baby, depending upon the e x t e n t t o which subsequent events p e r p e t u a t e o r r e a c t i v a t e r e s i d u a l s from the pregnancy and from the immediate p o s t p a r t a l period. The primary c r i s i s i s punctuated with a s e r i e s o f subc r i s e s t h a t may be p r e c i p i t a t e d by changes i n the woman's b i o logical,  physiological,  s o c i a l or i n t e r p e r s o n a l circumstances.  Whatever the t r i g g e r i n g event, the p o i n t a t which a woman f e e l s unable t o cope adequately with h e r circumstances i s the p o i n t a t which she w i l l  show symptoms o f c r i s i s .  forms, d e n i a l , h o s t i l i t y , guilt,  Symptoms can take many  suspicion, excessive g u i l t ,  insufficient  d e p r e s s i o n , an absence o f o b s e r v a b l e a f f e c t , and even,  on o c c a s i o n , i n a p p r o p r i a t e e u p h o r i a . The many p r e s s u r e s i n the l i v e s o f these women may a l l be conducive to c r i s i s .  In r e v i e w i n g the  concerns o f s i n g l e  mothers, many s t r e s s f u l events were c i t e d such as economic d e p r i v a t i o n and poor h o u s i n g .  Pochin s t a t e d t h a t a c r i s i s  point  may be reached anything between s i x months and as many years o f f r e q u e n t moves and i n c r e a s i n g d i f f i c u l t y ,  which e m b i t t e r the  49 Rose B e r n s t e i n , "Are We S t i l l S t e r e o t y p i n g the Unm a r r i e d Mother", The Unwed Mother, ed. Robert Roberts (New York: Harper and Row, 1966), p . 109. 50 Rose B e r n s t e i n , H e l p i n g Unmarried Mothers (New York: A s s o c i a t i o n P r e s s , 1971), pp. 19, 30-31.  mother. In  r e l a t i n g t h i s t h e o r e t i c a l framework t o the U n i v e r s e  of Nursing, n u r s i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n i s aimed a t h e l p i n g the c l i e n t r e s t o r e h i s s t a t e o f e q u i l i b r i u m and h e l p i n g him adapt t o h i s environment.  A c c o r d i n g t o L e v i n e , the nurse p a r t i c i p a t e s  a c t i v e l y i n every p a t i e n t ' s environment,  and much o f what she  does supports the p a t i e n t ' s adjustment. N u r s i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n must be founded scientific  knowledge b u t s p e c i f i c a l l y on r e c o g n i t i o n o f the  i n d i v i d u a l ' s b e h a v i o u r a l responses which of  not o n l y on  the a d a p t a t i o n t a k i n g p l a c e " .  " i n d i c a t e t h e nature  Such assessments  p r o v i d e the  o n l y r a t i o n a l b a s i s f o r j u d i c i o u s decision-making b y t h e nurse on the p a t i e n t ' s b e h a l f .  Furthermore,  n u r s i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n must  be designed so t h a t i t f o s t e r s s u c c e s s f u l a d a p t a t i o n . When n u r s i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n i n f l u e n c e s a d a p t a t i o n f a v o u r a b l y , o r toward renewed s o c i a l w e l l - b e i n g , then the nurse i s a c t i n g i n a t h e r a p e u t i c sense. When n u r s i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n cannot a l t e r the course of the a d a p t a t i o n - when h e r b e s t e f f o r t s o n l y m a i n t a i n t h e s t a t u s quo o r f a i l t o h a l t a d o w n h i l l course - then the nurse i s a c t i n g i n a supportive sense.^ 2  The  review o f the l i t e r a t u r e p r o v i d e d a t h e o r e t i c a l  framework f o r understanding t h e coping behaviours employed b y the i n d i v i d u a l , when c o n f r o n t e d with a s t r e s s f u l s i t u a t i o n .  In  the event t h a t the coping b e h a v i o u r s are inadequate, the i n d i v i d u a l may e x p e r i e n c e a c r i s i s s t a t e .  I f the c r i s i s i s  51 Jean Pochin, Without a Wedding Ring Anchor P r e s s L t d . , 1969), p. 133.  (Essex: The  ^^Myra L e v i n e , "Adaptation and Assessment A Rationale f o r N u r s i n g I n t e r v e n t i o n " , American J o u r n a l o f Nursing, 66: 11 (November, 1966), 2452.  37 e f f e c t u a l l y d e a l t with the i n d i v i d u a l w i l l r e g a i n a s t a t e of e q u i l i b r i u m and adapt e f f e c t i v e l y t o h i s environment.  However,  i f no r e s o l u t i o n can be found, r e g r e s s i o n and d y s f u n c t i o n  may  result. SUMMARY AND  CONCLUSION  From the review o f the l i t e r a t u r e , i t became e v i d e n t t h a t no s t e r e o t y p e o f the s i n g l e mother can be made. advanced the argument t h a t t h e r e i s a new of  Gill  p a t t e r n i n the t r e n d  i l l e g i t i m a t e b i r t h s a s s o c i a t e d with youth, urban l i v i n g  sophistication.  and  T h i s change has been accompanied by a g r a d u a l  r e d e f i n i t i o n of m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  More women from the 53  h i g h e r socio-economic  groups are becoming s i n g l e mothers.  C a h i l l noted the need f o r more r e s e a r c h with parents.  single  To date, much of the r e s e a r c h and a n a l y t i c a l t h i n k i n g  about i l l e g i t i m a c y has been done on women from a c i r c u m s c r i b e d segment o f the p o p u l a t i o n ; f o r example, those i n m a t e r n i t y homes o r those who  are a l r e a d y known t o h e a l t h or s o c i a l agencies which  g i v e care to unmarried mothers.  The many s t e r e o t y p e s  concerning  i l l e g i t i m a c y have been based upon t r u t h s , h a l f - t r u t h s , p r e j u d i c e s o r ignorance, i  , •  population. The  o r upon s t u d i e s done on a t y p i c a l segments o f  the  54 review o f the l i t e r a t u r e r e v e a l e d t h a t many mothers  D. G. G i l l , "Changing Trends i n I l l e g i t i m a c y and Changing Modes o f E x p l a n a t i o n " , Royal S o c i e t y o f H e a l t h J o u r n a l . 90 (May - June, 1970), 154-158. Imogene C a h i l l , "Facts and F a l l a c i e s About I l l e g i t i m a c y " , N u r s i n g Forum, 4: 1 (1965), 39-55.  38  l i v e d i n poverty.  Their meager incomes confined them to un-  suitable housing.  These factors appeared to be associated with  the high degree of stress experienced by many single mothers.  Chapter 3 METHODOLOGY T h i s study was conducted b y u t i l i z i n g a planned q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n the i n t e r v i e w s w i t h the s e l e c t e d mothers. A l l i n t e r v i e w s were conducted b y the r e s e a r c h e r .  The i n f o r m a t i o n  needed t o i d e n t i f y the concerns and coping b e h a v i o u r s o f the mothers was o b t a i n e d by a n a l y z i n g t h e i r responses t o the q u e s t i o n s i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The Q u e s t i o n n a i r e o r Assessment T o o l The q u e s t i o n n a i r e u t i l i z e d i n t h i s study  (see Appendix  D, page 98 ) , was a m o d i f i c a t i o n o f the instrument developed b y Sauber and C o r r i g a n i n t h e i r 1970 study i n New Y o r k .  1  Their  t o o l was a m o d i f i e d v e r s i o n o f a v a l i d a t e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e used 2 i n the 1965 study o f Sauber and Rubinstexn. The q u e s t i o n n a i r e covered the mothers'  socio-economic  concerns, and t h e i r concerns w i t h p h y s i c a l and emotional h e a l t h . The means t h e mothers used t o cope with these concerns were a l s o identified.  Mignon Sauber and E i l e e n C o r r i g a n , The S i x Year E x p e r i e n c e o f Unwed Mothers as Parents (New York: Community C o u n c i l o f G r e a t e r New York, 1970), Q u e s t i o n n a i r e o b t a i n e d on request. 2 Mignon Sauber and E l a i n e R u b i n s t e i n , E x p e r i e n c e s o f the Unwed Mother as a Parent (New York: Community C o u n c i l o f G r e a t e r New York, 1965). 39  40 In an e f f o r t t o i d e n t i f y the emotional h e a l t h s t a t u s o f the mothers, "A Twenty-two Item Screening Score o f P s y c h i a t r i c Symptoms I n d i c a t i n g Impairment" was i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the questionnaire.  T h i s instrument was developed and v a l i d a t e d  d u r i n g the course o f t h e Midtown Manhattan Study o f mental  3 d i s o r d e r i n Manhattan, New York C i t y , 4  and l a t e r used b y Sauber  and C o r r i g a n . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e was submitted t o the F a c u l t y S c r e e n i n g Committee,  School o f N u r s i n g , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia.  The committee ensured t h a t t h e r e s e a r c h would not impinge on the r i g h t s o f human  subjects.  Pretest The q u e s t i o n n a i r e was p r e t e s t e d w i t h t h r e e p r e v i o u s l y m a r r i e d s i n g l e mothers.  In t h i s way, the l i m i t e d  available  p o p u l a t i o n o f s i n g l e mothers who had never m a r r i e d was conserved. The reasons f o r the p r e t e s t were: 1.  To f a m i l i a r i z e the r e s e a r c h e r with the use o f the questionnaire,  2.  To determine whether the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i d e n t i f i e d the r e a l concerns o f s i n g l e mothers,  3.  To i d e n t i f y i f the mothers appeared t o be i n h i b i t e d by the p e r s o n a l n a t u r e o f some q u e s t i o n s .  Thomas S. Langner, "A Twenty-two Item Screening Score o f P s y c h i a t r i c Symptoms I n d i c a t i n g Impairment", J o u r n a l o f H e a l t h and S o c i a l Behaviour. 3 (1962), 269-276. 4 Mignon Sauber and E i l e e n C o r r i g a n , The S i x Year E x p e r i e n c e o f Unwed Mothers as Parents (New York: Community C o u n c i l o f G r e a t e r New York, 1970).  41 As a r e s u l t of the p r e t e s t , d a t a i d e n t i f y i n g the respondents were d e l e t e d .  Data, a l l u d e d t o by one  as b e i n g too p e r s o n a l , were removed.  One  participant  q u e s t i o n was  added,  to i d e n t i f y i n more s p e c i f i c terms the mothers' l i v i n g and whether t h e i r incomes c o u l d meet t h e i r l i v i n g In a d d i t i o n , the term " s i n g l e mother". not i d e n t i f y  One  " s i n g l e p a r e n t " was  p a r t i c i p a n t remarked t h a t  expenses,  expenses. r e p l a c e d by  "parent" d i d  sex.  The P o p u l a t i o n Due  t o the u n a v a i l a b i l i t y of i n f o r m a t i o n about the t o t a l  p o p u l a t i o n o f unmarried mothers r e s i d i n g i n B r i t i s h Columbia, random s e l e c t i o n o f names c o u l d be made. t h e r e f o r e , one o f convenience.  The sample  was,  Twenty mothers were c o n t a c t e d  through agencies and p r i v a t e s o u r c e s .  The  sample was  to mothers l i v i n g alone w i t h t h e i r c h i l d or c h i l d r e n ,  restricted as  d i f f e r e n t concerns may be experienced by the mother who w i t h another  no  lives  adult.  No mother was three c h i l d r e n .  i n c l u d e d i n the study who had more than  The c h i l d r e n were aged s i x months t o e i g h t  years. The  Procedure The  1.  s t e p s f o l l o w e d i n the p r o c e s s o f t h i s study were:  S i n g l e mothers were c o n t a c t e d through agencies and sources.  Of those who  private  agreed to p a r t i c i p a t e , the r e f e r r i n g  person o b t a i n e d t h e i r p e r m i s s i o n to g i v e t h e i r names and telephone numbers to the r e s e a r c h e r .  The r e s e a r c h e r then  42 contacted the mothers by telephone, explained the study i n d e t a i l , answered t h e i r i n q u i r i e s and set up a time for the interview. 2.  The interviews were conducted i n the mothers' homes. Prior to the administration of the questionnaire by the interviewer, the mothers were given two consent forms, reaffirming the protection of t h e i r i d e n t i t y , and freedom to withdraw at any time.  I f the contents met with t h e i r  approval, they were requested to sign both forms, return one to the researcher, and r e t a i n the other. Analysis of the Data A d e s c r i p t i v e analysis of the data was presented, u t i l i z i n g frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n tables and percentages.  Pearson  product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n was used to examine the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a selected set of v a r i a b l e s . The purpose of t h i s was to give d e s c r i p t i v e depth to the study. In summary, 20 single mothers were interviewed by the researcher i n t h e i r homes.  The purpose of the interviews was  to e l i c i t information about t h e i r concerns and coping A semi-structured questionnaire was used.  The data were analyzed  using frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n tables, percentages product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n .  behaviours.  and Pearson  Chapter 4 ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF DATA The  THE  d a t a were analyzed i n a d e s c r i p t i v e way,  frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n t a b l e s , percentages and On  correlations.  the b a s i s o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s i d e n t i f i e d i n the literature,"'"and  o b s e r v a t i o n s o f the raw s e t o f v a r i a b l e s were  data, r e l a t i o n s h i p s between a  The  following  THE  DATA  f a c t o r s were i s o l a t e d and  described:  Demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n c l u s i v e o f ages o f mothers and per  t h e i r c h i l d r e n , and  the number of  the  children  family.  2.  Monthly f a m i l y income.  3.  Employment s t a t u s o f the mothers.  4.  Length of time i n t h e i r p r e s e n t and most r e c e n t  5.  The  mothers' l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n .  6.  The  mothers' h e a l t h  a)  Physical health. health  b)  selected  described.  ANALYSIS OF  1.  using  housing.  status: Number o f mothers w i t h p h y s i c a l  problems,  Emotional h e a l t h .  The  number o f mothers w i t h  impaired  Mignon Sauber and E i l e e n C o r r i g a n , The S i x Year E x p e r i e n c e o f Unwed Mothers as Parents (New York: Community C o u n c i l o f G r e a t e r New York, 1970), pp. 83-84. 43  44 emotional h e a l t h . (Refer to Appendix E, page 129). 7.  A P e r c e i v e d Problem R a t i n g S c a l e was  computed by  a s s i g n i n g a score of 0 - 3 to each o f e l e v e n c a t e g o r i e s , a c c o r d i n g to how t h a t problem was  f o r them.  socio-economic  s e r i o u s the mothers thought (Refer to Appendix F  f  page 130). In a d d i t i o n to simple d e s c r i p t i o n s , c o r r e l a t i o n s were computed f o r s e l e c t e d p a i r s o f v a r i a b l e s . c o r r e l a t i o n was a)  Pearson product-moment  u t i l i z e d to examine the f o l l o w i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s :  P e r c e i v e d Problem R a t i n g and Emotional  Health  Status, b)  Income and Emotional H e a l t h  c)  Income and P e r c e i v e d Problem R a t i n g ,  d)  L o n e l i n e s s and P e r c e i v e d Problem R a t i n g . I t was  Status,  a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t these c o r r e l a t i o n s would  depth to the d e s c r i p t i v e a n a l y s i s .  No  add  c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s were  sought or i m p l i e d . In a d d i t i o n to t h i s q u a n t i t a t i v e data, q u a l i t a t i v e were o b t a i n e d , which h e l p e d o f the mothers.  to d e s c r i b e the coping  data  behaviours  T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n p e r t a i n e d t o the mothers'  r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o f a m i l y , f r i e n d s , and the c h i l d ' s f a t h e r ; t h e i r s a t i s f a c t i o n s and problems; and t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s o f h e l p t h a t c o u l d have been g i v e n by a community agency. DISCUSSION OF THE The d i s c u s s i o n of the following 1.  d a t a was  DATA presented  i n the  order:  A d e s c r i p t i o n o f the socio-economic  concerns o f the  mothers•:  2.  3.  a)  L e v e l and source o f income,  b)  Employment experience,  c)  Educational  d)  Housing c o n d i t i o n s .  level,  The mothers' concerns r e l a t e d t o h e a l t h : a)  Physical health,  b)  Emotional h e a l t h .  The mothers' coping b e h a v i o u r s .  This included a  description of their relationships to friends,  relatives,  the baby's f a t h e r , and t h e e x t e n t t o which these r e l a t i o n s h i p s were s u p p o r t i v e . Socio-Economic Concerns Ages o f Mothers and C h i l d r e n .  There were 20 mothers  i n t h e study, 3 o f whom had 2 c h i l d r e n , and 2 o f whom had 3 children.  The remaining 15 mothers each had 1 c h i l d .  The average age o f t h e mothers was 27.1 y e a r s , and t h e i r ages ranged from 20 - 36 y e a r s .  TABLE I , page 46, i l l u s t r a t e d  the number and percentage o f mothers i n each age group. The ages o f t h e mothers a t t h e b i r t h o f t h e o l d e s t c h i l d p r e s e n t l y i n the home, were computed.  No mother i n t h e  study gave b i r t h t o h e r c h i l d p r e s e n t l y i n the home b e f o r e 17 y e a r s o f age, and 3 o f t h e mothers had t h e i r c h i l d r e n a t age 30 or o v e r .  TABLE I I , page 47, i l l u s t r a t e d t h e age o f t h e mothers  a t t h e b i r t h o f the o l d e s t c h i l d p r e s e n t l y i n t h e home. There were 27 c h i l d r e n i n t h e study. c h i l d r e n were t h e s o l e c h i l d o f t h e i r mothers.  F i f t e e n o f the The average age  46 TABLE I AGE DISTRIBUTION OF MOTHERS  Age  Number  Percentage  Under 19  -  -  20 - 24  6  30  25 - 29  9  45  30 - 36  5  25  20  100  Total:  47  TABLE I I AGE OF MOTHERS AT BIRTH OF OLDEST CHILD PRESENTLY IN THE HOME  Age  Number  Percentage  17 - 19  5  25  20 - 24  8  40  25 - 29  4  20  30 - 36  3  15  20  100  Total:  48 o f a l l the c h i l d r e n was approximately t h r e e ?years and  four  months. Some f a m i l i e s w i t h more than one c h i l d i n c l u d e d who were aged two months to e i g h t y e a r s . included,  children  These f a m i l i e s were  as a t l e a s t one c h i l d was aged s i x months o r o v e r .  TABLE I I I , page 49, i d e n t i f i e d the age c a t e g o r i e s Level  and Source o f Income.  o f the c h i l d r e n .  One o f the major f a c t o r s  t h a t d i f f e r e n t i a t e s the s p o u s e l e s s mother, i s h e r r o l e as s o l e breadwinner f o r h e r f a m i l y .  I t was t h e r e f o r e  o f g r e a t concern  how the mothers supported themselves and t h e i r c h i l d r e n . Of the 20 mothers i n t e r v i e w e d , 14 depended on s o c i a l assistance  f o r f i n a n c i a l support.  One mother, a f u l l - t i m e  student, supported h e r s e l f and h e r c h i l d through a l o a n . of the mothers supported themselves and t h e i r c h i l d r e n  Five  through  employment. Of the 14 mothers r e c e i v i n g S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e , monthly incomes, i n c l u d i n g p a r t - t i m e employment, $256.  regular  d i d not exceed  The m a j o r i t y o f the mothers l i v e d on l e s s than $3,000 per  year. The employed mothers had monthly incomes r a n g i n g from approximately $330 t o $625. included  contributions  T h i s amount, i n some  from the c h i l d ' s f a t h e r .  20 mothers i n the study, o n l y 20 p e r c e n t were assistance father.  instances,  However,  o f the  receiving  e i t h e r r e g u l a r l y o r s p o r a d i c a l l y from the c h i l d ' s  TABLE IV, page 50, i l l u s t r a t e d t h e amount o f the mother's  income i n r e l a t i o n t o h e r source o f income.  49  TABLE I I I AGE CATEGORIES OF CHILDREN AT TIME OF STUDY  Age C a t e g o r y  Number  3  Percentage  Infant  13  48  Preschool  10  37  4  15  27  100  School Age Total  l n f a n t - B i r t h t o 36 months; P r e s c h o o l e r - 37 t o 71 months; Schoolage - 72 t o 96 months. a  50  TABLE IV AMOUNT OF INCOME IN RELATION TO SOURCE OF INCOME*-* Source Amount o f Income  Social Assistance  Social Assistance and part-time job  Employment  Loan  $189-220  6  -  -  1  221-300  7  1  -  301-450  -  451-625  -  -  2  -  13  1  5  1  Totals:  3  Row Total  Percentage  7  35  8  40  3  15  2  10  20  100  One mother r e c e i v e d $157 monthly. However, h e r r e n t was p a i d b y S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e . She i s i n c l u d e d i n t h e income c a t e g o r y o f $221 - $300. Her r e n t c o u l d n o t have been l e s s than $64 monthly.  51 The mothers were asked i f they were a b l e t o manage t h e i r l i v i n g expenses on t h e i r present  incomes.  Although  a few r e p l i e d  i n the a f f i r m a t i v e , the m a j o r i t y on S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e s a i d t h a t they c o u l d b a r e l y make ends meet. illustrative.  One mother's statement was  She s t a t e d :  E x i s t i n g i s a l l you can do on t h a t , j u s t barely existing. I have t o t h i n k twice b e f o r e I spend a n i c k e l . Two o f the employed mothers found t h a t t h e i r e a r n i n g s  were  b a r e l y enough to manage. A l l mothers who d e r i v e d t h e i r incomes from employment had o n l y one c h i l d .  These c h i l d r e n f e l l  i n t o the age c a t e g o r i e s  o f one i n f a n t , two p r e s c h o o l e r s and two school aged c h i l d r e n . The i n f a n t was cared f o r i n a p r i v a t e home, w h i l e the p r e s c h o o l e r s were cared f o r i n daycare.  Arrangements f o r  b a b y s i t t i n g were made f o r the school aged c h i l d r e n a f t e r r e g u l a r school hours.  TABLE V, page 52, presented  the amount o f income  of each mother i n r e l a t i o n t o h e r number o f dependents. There seemed to be a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the mothers' incomes and t h e i r score on the P e r c e i v e d Problem R a t i n g Scale  (see Appendix F, page 130).  Income was  arbitrarily  d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s , low, medium and h i g h .  Sixty  percent o f the mothers who were c l a s s i f i e d i n the h i g h income c a t e g o r y o f $301 - $625 monthly scored low on t h i s s c a l e , compared t o 14 percent  i n the low income c a t e g o r y o f $189 - $220  monthly, and 12.5 p e r c e n t i n the medium income c a t e g o r y o f $221 - $300 monthly.  None o f the h i g h income mothers had a  h i g h s c o r e , whereas 43 percent o f those with low incomes, and  52  TABLE V NOTHERS' INCOME VERSUS NUMBER OF DEPENDENTS  Number o f Dependents  Number o f Mothers i n Income Categories <  $189 220  $221 300  1 child  6  4  2 children  1  2  3 children  -  Totals:  7  $301 450  $451 625  3  2  2  -  -  8  3  2  Row Totals  Percentage  15  75  3  15  2  10  20  100  53 62.5 percent o f those with medium incomes had a h i g h  score.  A l l mothers i n c l u d e d i n the h i g h income c a t e g o r y were employed.  None o f the mothers i n the low or medium income  c a t e g o r y had f u l l - t i m e employment.  TABLE V I , page 54, i d e n t i f i e d  the a s s o c i a t i o n between the mothers' incomes and t h e i r p e r c e i v e d problem r a t i n g s c o r e .  Pearson product-moment  correlation  r e v e a l e d a low p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p of r = +.387 between  these  variables. In summary, the mothers* incomes were d e r i v e d from S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e , employment,  and one student l o a n .  whose incomes were not d e r i v e d from employment than $3,000 a n n u a l l y .  Mothers  l i v e d on l e s s  Only mothers with one dependent had  incomes from employment.  None o f the employed mothers i n the  h i g h income c a t e g o r y had a h i g h problem r a t i n g score, whereas 43 percent o f the mothers with low incomes, and 62.5 p e r c e n t o f those with medium incomes had a h i g h problem r a t i n g s c o r e .  None  of the mothers i n the low and medium income c a t e g o r i e s had full-time  employment.  Employment  Experience.  A t the time o f the i n t e r v i e w s ,  5 o f the 20 mothers were employed f u l l - t i m e , and 1 mother was employed p a r t - t i m e .  In a d d i t i o n , 10 o f the mothers had worked  e i t h e r f u l l - t i m e o r p a r t - t i m e a t some time s i n c e the b i r t h o f their child.  Three o f the mothers who had been employed were  attending school f u l l - t i m e .  To determine i f the c h i l d had made  a d i f f e r e n c e to the employment  s t a t u s o f the mothers, the  r e s e a r c h e r posed the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n : Has the f a c t t h a t you have a c h i l d ( c h i l d r e n ) made any d i f f e r e n c e i n your (working, not working)  TABLE VI ASSOCIATION BETWEEN INCOME AND PERCEIVED PROBLEM RATING SCOREC  P e r c e i v e d Problem R a t i n g Score  Income Category  Low  Amount  Low 0-5  Percentage i n Category  Medium 6-12  Percentage i n Category  High 13-22  Percentage i n Category  Total Category Percentage  Row Row T o t a l s Percent age  $189220  1  14  3  43  3  43  100  7  35  Medium $221300  1  12.5  2  25  5  62.5  100  8  40  3  60  2  40  0  0  100  5  25  5  25  7  35  8  40  100  20  100  High  $301625  Totals  :  data).  U s i n g Pearson product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n r = +. 387.. ( c a l c u l a t e d from the raw  55 at the p r e s e n t time? E i g h t o f the 10 mothers who had been employed t h a t the c h i l d had made some d i f f e r e n c e t o t h e i r status.  replied  employment  Seven o f the 8 i d e n t i f i e d b a b y s i t t i n g f a c i l i t i e s as a  difficulty,  and 1 mother responded that she d i d n o t want t o go  out t o work again u n t i l the c h i l d had a c q u i r e d v e r b a l language. One o f t h e 2 mothers who was a f u l l - t i m e student and responded t h a t the c h i l d had made a d i f f e r e n c e to h e r employment r e s i g n e d from h e r job because o f t h i s d i f f i c u l t y .  status  Making  s u i t a b l e c h i l d c a r e arrangements continued t o be a concern t o her.  The o t h e r student who s t a t e d t h a t c h i l d c a r e was a problem,  arranged t o have h e r c h i l d cared f o r i n a p r i v a t e home. had terminated h e r employment Of t h e remaining  She  to return to school.  5 mothers who had experienced  d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h c h i l d c a r e arrangements, 2 gave up t h e i r s p e c i f i c a l l y because o f these d i f f i c u l t i e s .  jobs  The o t h e r s  terminated t h e i r jobs because o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l problems with t h e i r employers o r because the job had been temporary. There were 4 mothers who had never been employed, and were not employed at the time o f the study.  One mother was a  f u l l - t i m e student, 1 gave l a c k o f c h i l d care f a c i l i t i e s as t h e reason f o r h e r unemployment,  1 was unable t o work because o f  h e a l t h problems, and t h e o t h e r expressed the d e s i r e t o care f o r h e r c h i l d r e n h e r s e l f - "When k i d s a r e small the mother should look a f t e r them". Of the 8 mothers who had been employed and p e r c e i v e d t h a t t h e c h i l d had made some d i f f e r e n c e t o t h e i r  employment  56 s t a t u s , 3 had more than 1 c h i l d , w i t h at l e a s t  1 c h i l d under  3 years o f age. Of the 5 mothers who had 1 c h i l d , 4 o f these c h i l d r e n were under 3 years o f age. Only 1 mother who expressed d i f f i c u l t y with c h i l d c a r e had a c h i l d over 3 years o f age. None o f the mothers employed f u l l - t i m e  or part-time,  p e r c e i v e d c h i l d - c a r e f a c i l i t i e s as a concern.  These  facilities  were i n p a r t p a i d f o r b y the mother, depending upon h e r income, and the type o f f a c i l i t y t h a t she u t i l i z e d f o r the c a r e o f h e r child.  Mothers w i t h incomes below a c e r t a i n l e v e l were  completely s u b s i d i z e d .  E i g h t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t o f the working  mothers had c h i l d r e n aged 3 years o r over. In  summary, a t o t a l o f 10 mothers i n the study p e r c e i v e d  t h a t t h e c h i l d had made a d i f f e r e n c e t o t h e i r employment  status.  E i g h t o f these mothers had problems with c h i l d c a r e , and 2 wanted t o take c a r e o f t h e i r  c h i l d r e n themselves.  Of t h e 8  mothers who were p r e v i o u s l y employed, and responded t h a t the c h i l d had made a d i f f e r e n c e t o t h e i r  employment  s t a t u s , 37.5  p e r c e n t had more than 1 c h i l d , and 87.5 p e r c e n t had a t l e a s t 1 c h i l d under 3 years o f age. None o f the employed mothers expressed concern with c h i l d care.  E i g h t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t o f these mothers had c h i l d r e n  aged 3 years o r over.  TABLE V I I , page 57, c i t e d  the c h i l d  care  f a c i l i t i e s u t i l i z e d b y t h e working mothers. The ages o f the employed mothers were computed.  The  f i n d i n g s presented i n TABLE V I I I , page 58, i n d i c a t e d t h a t 1 mother was i n t h e 20 - 24 years age category, 4 were between  57  TABLE V I I CHILD CARE FACILITIES UTILIZED BY MOTHERS EMPLOYED FULL-TIME AND PART-TIME  Age C a t e g o r y of C h i l d  Facilities Day Care  Private Home  Infant  -  Preschooler  3  School Age  -  -  Totals:  3  1  1  School and o t h e r Arrangements  -  Utilized Row Total  Row Percentage  1  17  3  50  2  2  33  2  6  100  58  TABLE V I I I AGE OF MOTHERS VERSUS EMPLOYMENT STATUS  Age Category  Employed full-time or p a r t time  Unemployed  1  3  25 - 29  4  30 - 36  20 - 24  Totals:  Attending school full-time  Row Totals  Row Percentages  2  6  30  4  1  9  45  1  3  1  5  25  6  10  4  20  100  59 the ages o f 25 - 29 y e a r s , and 1 was over 30 years o f age.  In  TABLE V I I I , a d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n was made between those mothers who were employed, unemployed and a t t e n d i n g s c h o o l  full-time.  The employed mothers were i n white c o l l a r i n h o s p i t a l s and o f f i c e s . occupations  occupations  A l l mothers were s a l a r i e d .  Previous  among the mothers who were unemployed at the time o f  the study were more d i v e r s e , and i n c l u d e d both white c o l l a r and blue c o l l a r  occupations.  The mothers' p e r c e p t i o n s o f problems with job t r a i n i n g were i d e n t i f i e d on the P e r c e i v e d Problem R a t i n g S c a l e . percent o f the mothers i d e n t i f i e d  Fifty  job t r a i n i n g as a problem..  Of the mothers who were n e i t h e r employed nor going t o s c h o o l f u l l - t i m e , 73 percent p e r c e i v e d t h a t job t r a i n i n g was a problem. In summary, o f the 20 mothers, 5 were employed and 1 was employed p a r t - t i m e .  In a d d i t i o n , 10 o f the mothers  had been employed a t some time s i n c e the b i r t h o f t h e i r The reasons  full-time  f o r t e r m i n a t i o n o f employment  child.  were d i v e r s e , r a n g i n g  from b a b y s i t t i n g problems t o temporary employment.  Four of  the women had never been employed s i n c e the b i r t h o f t h e i r c h i l d or c h i l d r e n .  T h e i r reasons  f o r unemployment  included  l a c k of b a b y s i t t i n g s e r v i c e s , h e a l t h problems, and the d e s i r e to s t a y home to mind t h e i r c h i l d o r c h i l d r e n . Education.  The 20 mothers i n the study had achieved  d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f e d u c a t i o n , with 60 percent r e a c h i n g Grade 12 standing.  T h i r t y percent o f the mothers had reached Grade 10 o r  11, and 10 percent had reached Grade 7 o r 9 l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n . Ten p e r c e n t o f the mothers had attended u n i v e r s i t y , b u t none had  60 completed a degree. Twenty p e r c e n t o f the mothers were a t t e n d i n g s c h o o l full-time  and 10 p e r c e n t p a r t - t i m e .  In a d d i t i o n , 15 p e r c e n t o f  the mothers had r e t u r n e d t o s c h o o l s i n c e the b i r t h o f t h e i r child.  T h e r e f o r e , a t o t a l o f 45 p e r c e n t o f the mothers had had  some s c h o o l i n g s i n c e the b i r t h o f t h e i r c h i l d . 61, presented the  TABLE IX, page  the mothers * l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n at the time o f  study. The mothers w i t h 1 c h i l d had e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s  from Grade 10 to Grade 12. education.  Two o f them had some u n i v e r s i t y  Those w i t h 2 o r more c h i l d r e n had e d u c a t i o n a l  r a n g i n g from Grade 7 t o Grade 12.  s c h o o l s i n c e the b i r t h o f the  c h i l d , but b e f o r e the b i r t h o f the second c h i l d ,  to 53.3 p e r c e n t o f the mothers w i t h 1 c h i l d .  completing  compared  None o f the  mothers w i t h more than 1 c h i l d was a t t e n d i n g s c h o o l or part-time.  levels  Only 20 percent o f the mothers  with more than 1 c h i l d had attended first  ranging  full-time  The mothers a t t e n d i n g s c h o o l were e i t h e r  the grade year, t a k i n g c r e d i t s  towards u n i v e r s i t y o r  pursuing a career. E i g h t y p e r c e n t o f the employed mothers had Grade 12, and 20 p e r c e n t Grade 11 e d u c a t i o n .  Twenty p e r c e n t o f the  employed mothers were a t t e n d i n g s c h o o l p a r t - t i m e . In summary, 60 p e r c e n t o f the mothers had  reached  Grade 12 education, 30 percent had reached Grade 10 o r 11, and 10 percent had reached Grade 7 o r 9.  The m a j o r i t y o f the  employed mothers had Grade 12 e d u c a t i o n .  TABLE IX GRADE LEVEL OF EDUCATION  Grade Year  Number o f Women  7-9  2  10  10 - 11  6  30  12  60  20  100  12  Total:  Percentage o f Women  62 Housing C o n d i t i o n s . had  Of the 20 mothers i n the study, a l l  moved at l e a s t once s i n c e the b i r t h o f t h e i r f i r s t  T h i r t e e n mothers had birth.  moved at l e a s t twice s i n c e t h e i r c h i l d ' s  The mothers had  h o u s i n g occupied  spent an average o f 9.3  a t the time o f the study, and  t h e i r previous housing.  months i n 16.2  months i n  In TABLES X and XI, page 63 and  the l e n g t h o f occupancy i n h o u s i n g both p r i o r to and o f the  group.  study was  child.  64,  at the  time  computed.  The  data revealed  t h a t the mothers were a h i g h l y mobile  Why  d i d they move so o f t e n ?  Although a v a r i e t y o f  reasons were g i v e n f o r moving, the m a j o r i t y o f the mothers wanted t o escape poor l i v i n g q u a r t e r s . ance u s u a l l y c o n t r i b u t e d instances,  Small q u a r t e r s  and poor mainten-  t o t h e i r d e c i s i o n s t o move.  In some  c h i l d r e n were not welcome i n the b u i l d i n g s i n which  the mothers had  l i v e d , and  l a n d l o r d s imposed s t r i n g e n t r u l e s on  the c h i l d , r e f l e c t e d i n t h i s mother's statement: The l a n d l o r d was always a f t e r to s t a y i n the s u i t e . He d i d n ' t l i k e c h i l d r e n p l a y i n g around. Some mothers who t o l i v e on t h e i r  had  l i v e d w i t h f r i e n d s or r e l a t i v e s decided  own.  The mothers p a i d an average o f $127 Monthly r e n t s averaged $143 unemployed mothers.  f o r the employed, and  Twenty percent  s i n g l e occupancy d w e l l i n g s .  monthly f o r r e n t .  The  $121  f o r the  o f the mothers l i v e d i n  others  l i v e d i n apartments,  o r s u i t e s i n p r i v a t e homes. In response to present  place?",  the q u e s t i o n ,  40 percent  "Any  problems w i t h  responded i n the a f f i r m a t i v e .  this Eighty  TABLE X LENGTH OF OCCUPANCY IN PREVIOUS HOUSING  Length o f Time  Number o f Women  Percentage o f Women  Row Total  1-3  months  3  15  3  4-6  months  6  30  6  7 - 1 2 months  3  15  3  1 3 - 2 4 months  2  10  2  2 5 - 4 8 months  5  25  5  No i n f o r m a t i o n  1  5  1  20  100  20  Total:  64  TABLE X I LENGTH OF OCCUPANCY IN HOUSING AT THE TIME OF THE STUDY  Length o f Time  Number o f Women  Percentage of Women  Row Total  1-3  months  4  20  4  4-6  months  6  30  6  7  35  7  13 - 24 months  2  10  2  2 5 - 4 8 months  1  5  1  20  100  20  7-12  months  Total:  65 p e r c e n t o f the mothers w i t h at l e a s t 2 c h i l d r e n were experi e n c i n g housing problems, 1  compared t o 27 percent o f those with  child. The nature o f t h e i r housing problems v a r i e d .  The maj-  o r i t y found t h e i r l i v i n g q u a r t e r s too s m a l l , o t h e r s expressed concerns with s a f e t y and/or maintenance. The mothers who had an average o f 1.05 bathroom.  expressed a concern with  overcrowding  rooms per person, e x c l u d i n g k i t c h e n and  Everyone had a bathroom, but 2 mothers l a c k e d  adequate k i t c h e n f a c i l i t i e s .  One mother d i d not have a  telephone. Among those employed f u l l - t i m e , o n l y 1 expressed a concern with h o u s i n g .  She had made p l a n s t o move.  In a d d i t i o n ,  o n l y 1 o t h e r mother had planned t o move, as h e r p r e s e n t arrangements were  living  temporary.  O n l y 5 p e r c e n t o f the mothers l i v e d permanently housing p r o j e c t .  Twenty p e r c e n t had  t h e r e were no v a c a n c i e s .  a p p l i e d , but were t o l d  A f u r t h e r 10 p e r c e n t expressed  d e s i r e to l i v e i n a p r o j e c t , but had never a p p l i e d .  a p p l i e d , o r expressed a d e s i r e to l i v e i n one.  that  the  In a l l , 35  percent o f the mothers were e i t h e r l i v i n g i n a p r o j e c t had  in a  permanently,  Sixty-five  p e r c e n t o f the mothers p r e f e r r e d t o l i v e i n an apartment or a p r i v a t e house. In  summary, 40 p e r c e n t o f the mothers were  with t h e i r h o u s i n g .  concerned  Of those with 2 o r more c h i l d r e n ,  80  p e r c e n t had concerns, compared t o 27 p e r c e n t with 1 c h i l d .  66 The m a j o r i t y of the mothers p r e f e r r e d p r i v a t e i n s t e a d of p u b l i c housing.  Due  to the l a c k of v a c a n c i e s , those who  p u b l i c housing  applied for  were r e f u s e d .  Concerns R e l a t e d to H e a l t h Physical.  The m a j o r i t y o f the mothers r e p o r t e d a s t a t e  o f good p h y s i c a l h e a l t h i n the past year, with o n l y 20  percent  e x p e r i e n c i n g any h e a l t h problems.  access to  A l l the mothers had  a physician. In response to the q u e s t i o n ,  "Any problem i n g e t t i n g the  h e l p you need...?" 19 o f the 20 mothers r e p l i e d i n the Only 1 of the 19 mothers was She  not s a t i s f i e d with medical  s t a t e d , "The d o c t o r doesn't spend much time.  He  negative. care.  t r i e s to  get through the v i s i t i n f i v e minutes". Most of the mothers had p o s i t i v e comments about t h e i r p h y s i c i a n s , i l l u s t r a t i v e i n such statements as, fantastic".  The  1 mother who  All  doctor i s  had problems i n g e t t i n g the h e l p  she needed, summed up her problem thus, r e a l l y don't  "My  "Sometimes I f e e l  doctors  listen". the mothers had had p r e n a t a l care i n pregnancy.  Among those with more than one about t h e i r most r e c e n t .  pregnancy, i n f o r m a t i o n was  gleaned  F o r t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o f the mothers  s t a r t e d p r e n a t a l care i n the second t r i m e s t e r o f t h e i r pregnancy, and  5 percent i n the t h i r d t r i m e s t e r . D i f f e r e n t reasons were g i v e n f o r s t a r t i n g p r e n a t a l care  i n the second and t h i r d t r i m e s t e r s , r e f l e c t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g  67 statements, by d i f f e r e n t mothers: I felt  fine.  I d i d n ' t want t o c o n f i r m the pregnancy. I suppose I was s c a r e d . One  respondent  d i d not have access t o m e d i c a l c a r e u n t i l  her  a r r i v a l i n B r i t i s h Columbia d u r i n g the second t r i m e s t e r o f h e r pregnancy. The mothers who  experienced concerns w i t h h e a l t h i n the  l a s t year were unemployed.  F i f t y p e r c e n t o f those mothers  a t t r i b u t e d t h e i r unemployment t o impaired h e a l t h s t a t u s . I n f e c t i o n s , c i r c u l a t o r y and t h y r o i d problems were among the h e a l t h problems mentioned.  The mothers with h e a l t h problems  i n t o the income c a t e g o r y o f $189 25 years o f age.  fell  - $300 monthly, and were over  F i f t y p e r c e n t had  a h i g h s c o r e , and  50 p e r c e n t  a medium s c o r e on the P e r c e i v e d Problem R a t i n g S c a l e . In  summary, a l l the mothers had  access t o medical c a r e ,  w i t h 90 p e r c e n t b e i n g s a t i s f i e d with t h e i r c a r e . p e r c e n t o f the mothers were d i s s a t i s f i e d .  Only  10  A l l the mothers with  p h y s i c a l h e a l t h problems i n the p a s t year were unemployed, w i t h monthly incomes i n the $189 mothers had  - $300 c a t e g o r y .  None o f these  a low s c o r e on the P e r c e i v e d Problem R a t i n g S c a l e .  Emotional.  The mothers were assigned a n u m e r i c a l  on each item on the 22 item s c a l e t o a s s e s s t h e i r h e a l t h s t a t u s (See Appendix E, page 1 2 9 ) . c l a s s i f i e d i n t o two groups.  emotional  They were then  The mothers with a s c o r e o f 0 - 7  were c l a s s i f i e d i n t o a low r a t i n g group, i n d i c a t i n g l i t t l e no impairment.  score  or  Those w i t h a s c o r e o f 12 - 16 were c l a s s i f i e d  68 i n t o a h i g h r a t i n g group i n d i c a t i n g a g r e a t e r degree o f i m p a i r ment. one  The mothers f e l l n a t u r a l l y i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s , w i t h no  r e c e i v i n g s c o r e s between 8 - 11, o r over 16. F i f t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o f t h e mothers f e l l  i n t o the low  r a t i n g group, and 45 p e r c e n t i n t o t h e h i g h r a t i n g group.  Since  Sauber and C o r r i g a n * s study showed some a s s o c i a t i o n between 2 income l e v e l and emotional h e a l t h s t a t u s ,  t h e r e s e a r c h e r sought  t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n . A l l t h e mothers i n t h e h i g h income c a t e g o r y of  $301 - $625 monthly had a low s c o r e .  gory were a l l employed. of  The mothers i n t h i s c a t e -  Of those mothers w i t h monthly incomes  $189 - $300, 60 p e r c e n t had a h i g h s c o r e , and 40 p e r c e n t  a low s c o r e .  TABLE X I I , page 69, i l l u s t r a t e d t h e p o s i t i v e  r e l a t i o n s h i p between income and emotional s t a t u s . An a s s o c i a t i o n was sought between t h e mothers•  emotional  s t a t u s and t h e i r p e r c e i v e d problems, as computed on t h e P e r c e i v e d Problem R a t i n g S c a l e , w i t h the l i s t o f 11 categories.  socio-economic  U s i n g Pearson product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n , r = +.837,  which i n d i c a t e d a h i g h p o s i t i v e  correlation.  Sauber and C o r r i g a n ' s study i d e n t i f i e d an a s s o c i a t i o n between e d u c a t i o n and emotional h e a l t h s t a t u s , showing t h a t a h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n o f the women w i t h l e s s e d u c a t i o n had a h i g h e r 3 score.  In agreement w i t h t h a t study, t h i s r e s e a r c h e r  found  t h a t a l l the mothers w i t h l e s s than Grade 10 e d u c a t i o n had a  ^ l i g n o n Sauber and E i l e e n C o r r i g a n , The S i x Year E x p e r i e n c e o f Unwed Mothers as Parents (New York: Community C o u n c i l o f G r e a t e r New York, 1970), p . 83. I b i d . , p . 84.  TABLE X I I ASSOCIATION BETWEEN INCOME AND EMOTIONAL STATUS^  Emotional  Income Low Rating 0-7  Percentage i n Category  High Rating 12-16  Status  Percentage i n Category  Total Percentage i n Category  Row Totals  Row Percentages  Low: $189-220  3  43  4  57  100  7  35  Medium: $221-300  3  37.5  5  62.5  100  8  40  High: $301-625  5  100  0  0  100  5  25  Totals:  11  55  9  45  100  20  100  U s i n g Pearson product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n r = +.41 ( c a l c u l a t e d raw d a t a ) .  from the  70 h i g h s c o r e , compared t o 38 p e r c e n t o f the women with e d u c a t i o n at or above the Grade 10  level.  In summary, a l l the employed mothers w i t h monthly incomes exceeding  $300 scored low on emotional impairment, as  compared t o 40 p e r c e n t o f the mothers w i t h monthly incomes o f $189  - 300.  Of the 45 p e r c e n t o f the respondents  with a h i g h  s c o r e , a l l were i n the monthly income c a t e g o r y o f $189 Coping  - $300.  Behaviours In an attempt  t o determine  the coping b e h a v i o u r s o f the  mothers, the people i n t h e i r s o c i a l o r b i t were i d e n t i f i e d . R e l a t i o n s h i p s with p a r e n t s , f r i e n d s and the c h i l d ' s f a t h e r were examined. R e l a t i o n s h i p With P a r e n t s .  Twenty-five p e r c e n t o f the  mothers r e p o r t e d a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p with both p a r e n t s . the remaining  75 p e r c e n t , 5 p e r c e n t had  Of  a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p with  t h e i r f a t h e r s , and 40 p e r c e n t were c l o s e to t h e i r mothers. Seventy p e r c e n t o f the respondents parents.  were c l o s e t o one or both  Of the twenty p a r t i c i p a n t s , 65 p e r c e n t had  a close  r e l a t i o n s h i p with t h e i r mothers, compared t o 30 p e r c e n t who  had  a s i m i l a r r e l a t i o n s h i p with t h e i r f a t h e r s . R e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h parents was scale. two  A t the time o f computation,  categories,  " c l o s e " and  computed on a s i x - p o i n t  the s c a l e was  "not c l o s e " .  collapsed into  That meant t h a t mothers  were c l a s s i f i e d as h a v i n g a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p i f t h e i r ranged  from  "very c l o s e " t o "somewhat c l o s e " .  c a t e g o r y i n c l u d e d p a r e n t s who o f the respondents'  were deceased.  The  responses  "not c l o s e "  Twenty p e r c e n t  f a t h e r s and mothers were deceased.  Only  71 5 p e r c e n t o f t h e respondents had l o s t both p a r e n t s . In summary, the m a j o r i t y o f t h e respondents to t h e i r mothers.  In c o n t r a s t ,  o n l y 30 p e r c e n t had a s i m i l a r  r e l a t i o n s h i p with t h e i r f a t h e r s . respondents  Twenty-five p e r c e n t o f t h e  were c l o s e t o both p a r e n t s .  Relationship  With F r i e n d s .  i f t h e mothers had r e t a i n e d Their  were c l o s e  An attempt was made t o i d e n t i f y  f r i e n d s p r i o r t o t h e i r pregnancy.  responses were r e c o r d e d on a f i v e - p o i n t s c a l e , which was  collapsed  i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s o f " c l o s e " and "not c l o s e " , a t the  time o f computation. retained  F o r t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o f t h e mothers had  c l o s e t i e s w i t h former f r i e n d s .  By comparison,  50  p e r c e n t had severed p r e v i o u s r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and 5 p e r c e n t r e p o r t e d no c l o s e f r i e n d s h i p s  i n the past.  Some mothers who had  severed p a s t r e l a t i o n s h i p s , had changed t h e i r p r o v i n c e o f residence. Ninety-five acquaintances.  p e r c e n t o f t h e mothers had made new  F i v e p e r c e n t maintained  had not made new f r i e n d s . with o t h e r s i n g l e p a r e n t s .  Many new r e l a t i o n s h i p s were formed However, many had made f r i e n d s w i t h  people o t h e r than s i n g l e p a r e n t s . t h e i r unmarried  status  o l d friendships, but  They d i d n o t t r y t o c o n c e a l  from t h e i r new acquaintances.  No mother l i v e d i n complete i s o l a t i o n from f a m i l y o r friends.  However, t h e i n t e n s i t y o f t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h new  f r i e n d s was n o t determined.  D e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t a l l the  mothers mentioned some type o f r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h f r i e n d s o r family,  55 p e r c e n t p e r c e i v e d l o n e l i n e s s as a problem i n v a r y i n g  degrees on the P e r c e i v e d Problem R a t i n g S c a l e .  From t h e  o b s e r v a t i o n o f the data, t h e r e appeared  t o be some r e l a t i o n s h i p  between l o n e l i n e s s and P e r c e i v e d Problem R a t i n g .  To f u r t h e r  d e s c r i b e t h a t r e l a t i o n s h i p , Pearson product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n was used t o examine t h e a s s o c i a t i o n between these v a r i a b l e s . The r e s u l t was r = +.44, i n d i c a t i n g a p o s i t i v e  relationship  between these v a r i a b l e s . The m a j o r i t y o f t h e mothers went o u t s o c i a l l y on an average o f once v e r y f o r t n i g h t .  Some mothers went o u t i n the  company o f f r i e n d s , o t h e r s went o u t alone, o r w i t h t h e i r  child.  A few o f the mothers s t a t e d t h a t s o c i a l o u t i n g s were extremely rare. In summary, a l l the mothers responded acquaintances.  t h a t t h e y had  However, the degree o f these r e l a t i o n s h i p s was  not a s c e r t a i n e d .  Despite t h e i r a s s o c i a t i o n with f r i e n d s o r  r e l a t i v e s , 55 p e r c e n t o f t h e mothers p e r c e i v e d l o n e l i n e s s as a problem.  Of those mothers who p e r c e i v e d t h i s problem, many  p e r c e i v e d t h a t t h e y had o t h e r socio-economic  problems.  R e l a t i o n s h i p With t h e C h i l d ' s F a t h e r .  O n l y 15 p e r c e n t  o f the mothers were i n c o n t a c t w i t h t h e i r c h i l d ' s f a t h e r , t h e r e f o r e i t was o n l y among t h i s s m a l l group t h a t t h e f a t h e r p r o v i d e d any emotional  support.  T h i r t y p e r c e n t o f the men had  d e f i n i t e l y wanted t h e mother t o keep t h e c h i l d . were s t i l l  i n c o n t a c t w i t h t h e mothers f e l l  The men who  into this  category.  A t t h e time o f t h e i r pregnancy, 15 p e r c e n t o f the mothers had not informed the men o f t h e i r pregnancy.  T h e r e f o r e , they were  unable t o i d e n t i f y the men's r e a c t i o n s towards  involvement.  D e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t 80 p e r c e n t o f t h e mothers had no  73 f i n a n c i a l support from the f a t h e r s o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n , 56 p e r c e n t o f t h i s group had n o t attempted t o g e t f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e from him.  T h e i r reasons f o r n o t attempting  the f o l l o w i n g statements  t o g e t h e l p v a r i e d , and  were i l l u s t r a t i v e :  He c o u l d n ' t a f f o r d t o h e l p . I t ' s n o t worth t h e h a s s l e . I would r a t h e r n o t because i t would be reason f o r him t o come around. Some mothers t r i e d t o g e t support f o r t h e i r c h i l d , b u t were u n s u c c e s s f u l i n t h e i r attempts.  Some had t r i e d f o r the f i r s t  time a f t e r t h e c h i l d was a year o l d , o n l y t o r e a l i z e t h a t  support  c o u l d not be claimed then, i f no p r e v i o u s attempts had been made. Of the 20 p e r c e n t o f t h e men c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e i r  child's  support, e i t h e r r e g u l a r l y o r s p o r a d i c a l l y , 15 p e r c e n t d i d so voluntarily. In summary, the c h i l d ' s f a t h e r had not p l a y e d any s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t , e i t h e r f i n a n c i a l l y o r e m o t i o n a l l y , i n the m a j o r i t y o f t h e mothers' l i v e s .  O n l y 20 p e r c e n t r e c e i v e d  f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , and 15 p e r c e n t had a r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t p r o v i d e d emotional  support.  Community Agencies U t i l i z e d .  Some i n d i c a t i o n was d e r i v e d  from t h e f o r e g o i n g d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e types o f c o n t a c t s the mothers had with community s e r v i c e s .  There were no mothers i n the study  who had no access t o medical c a r e .  Seventy percent o f the mothers  were i n c o n t a c t with the W e l f a r e Department.  However, i n an  e f f o r t t o o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n i f community s e r v i c e s were u t i l i z e d i n times o f s t r e s s , a s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n was aimed a t t h a t type o f  74 information.  T h i s question  was:  Sometimes people need to t a l k with someone about t h e i r w o r r i e s - they may go to someone (aside from f a m i l y or f r i e n d s ) l i k e t h e i r m i n i s t e r , o r a lawyer, or a community worker, or a s o c i a l worker, or a d o c t o r and the l i k e . In the l a s t year, d i d you want to t a l k with someone about your p l a n s f o r y o u r s e l f or your c h i l d r e n ? The q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n q u i r e d i n t o the types o f s e r v i c e s t h a t were u t i l i z e d , the k i n d s o f problems the mother had  experienced,  and the h e l p she o b t a i n e d . E i g h t y - f i v e percent o f the mothers had f e l t the need t o t a l k w i t h someone about t h e i r concerns.  Twelve p e r c e n t of the  mothers i n t h i s group were not aware t h a t community s e r v i c e s c o u l d be u t i l i z e d i n times of s t r e s s .  Of the remaining  88  p e r c e n t , o n l y 29 p e r c e n t c o n s u l t e d a community agency about some s p e c i f i c problems, 24 p e r c e n t c o n s u l t e d t h e i r p h y s i c i a n , with 6 p e r c e n t c o n s u l t i n g both agency and p h y s i c i a n . Of the 17 mothers who  felt  a need to t a l k w i t h someone  about a s p e c i f i c concern, a t o t a l of 47 p e r c e n t sought p r o f e s s i o n a l s e r v i c e s . Of the remaining  53 p e r c e n t , 78 p e r c e n t went to  f r i e n d s or r e l a t i v e s , and 22 p e r c e n t d i d not seek h e l p . Twenty-two percent of the mothers who to  went to f r i e n d s a l s o went  an agency. The mothers gave d i f f e r e n t reasons f o r not c o n s u l t i n g  professionals.  T h e i r statements were i l l u s t r a t i v e :  I t a l k t h i n g s through with f r i e n d s . I don't go t o agencies - they are too impersonal. They t r y t o be n i c e , b u t r e a l concern i s not t h e r e . and Most o f the people I have met from agencies don't seem i n t e r e s t e d i n small problems.  75 One  o f the mothers who needed h e l p , b u t had not contacted  anyone s t a t e d ,  "I thought you c o u l d o n l y go t o a p s y c h i a t r i s t " .  The m a j o r i t y o f those mothers who u t i l i z e d agencies were s a t i s f i e d with t h e s e r v i c e s that t h e y r e c e i v e d . replied,  "Yes, j u s t l i s t e n i n g h e l p s " .  people from agencies,  Some mothers t a l k e d with  b u t p r e f e r r e d t o work t h i n g s out themselves.  Some mothers r e l a t e d how they had l e a r n e d limited finances.  One woman  t o manage  One respondent d e s c r i b e d h e r shopping h a b i t s .  V e g e t a b l e s , f r u i t s and meat were the p r i o r i t y on h e r shopping list.  She bought inexpensive  v a r i e t y o f ways.  meats, and cooked them i n a  These d i s h e s were used over a couple o f days,  and  t h e a d d i t i o n o f a few i n g r e d i e n t s c r e a t e d  something new.  One  o f h e r sources o f r e c r e a t i o n was f r e e c o n c e r t s .  her  l o n g hours a t home, a b r i g h t c h e e r f u l apartment was another  Because o f  priority. In summary, the m a j o r i t y o f the mothers  consulted  p r o f e s s i o n a l s , f r i e n d s o r r e l a t i v e s i n times o f s t r e s s .  Of those  mothers who d i d n o t c o n t a c t p r o f e s s i o n a l s , a v a r i e t y o f reasons were g i v e n f o r t h e i r d e c i s i o n . were too impersonal.  Some s t a t e d t h a t p r o f e s s i o n a l s  Most o f the mothers who u t i l i z e d  p r o f e s s i o n a l s e r v i c e s expressed s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h those s e r v i c e s . Mother's P e r c e p t i o n o f Help t h a t C o u l d Have Been Given b y a Community Agency An  e f f o r t was made t o determine the mother's  perception  o f h e l p t h a t c o u l d have been g i v e n by a community agency. derive that information,  the q u e s t i o n was posed:  Looking back s i n c e your f i r s t c h i l d was born, what would you say a community agency, o r a c i t y agency, c o u l d have done to h e l p make t h i n g s e a s i e r f o r you?  To  76 S p e c i f i c a l l y , what k i n d o f h e l p d i d you need in:' A c h e c k l i s t o f seven socio-economic the mothers some d i r e c t i o n .  c a t e g o r i e s was  In a d d i t i o n , there was  used, to g i v e one  category,  "anything e l s e " , to g i v e the mothers scope to e l a b o r a t e on u n i d e n t i f i e d areas i n the c h e c k l i s t .  The  areas presented i n the  c h e c k l i s t e l i c i t e d the f o l l o w i n g d a t a . Childcare.  Seventy percent o f the mothers s t a t e d t h a t  more a s s i s t a n c e c o u l d have been g i v e n with c h i l d c a r e . f r e q u e n t l y mentioned a r e a o f need was t h r e e y e a r s o f age,  daycare  The most  f o r c h i l d r e n under  and more f l e x i b l e hours to f a c i l i t a t e  mothers on s h i f t work. E d u c a t i o n and  job t r a i n i n g .  Twenty p e r c e n t o f the  mothers c i t e d the need f o r more a s s i s t a n c e with e d u c a t i o n , 40 p e r c e n t mentioned job t r a i n i n g . were not r e c e p t i v e t o people who mother r e p o r t e d t h a t she was  Some f e l t t h a t  and  agencies  needed job t r a i n i n g .  One  r e f u s e d v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g because  she could not c a r r y a f u l l course l o a d .  Those mothers without  v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g s t r e s s e d the need f o r such t r a i n i n g t o make them employable. O n l y 5 p e r c e n t of the mothers p e r c e i v e d t h a t more h e l p c o u l d have been g i v e n with employment. upgrading  Concern was  r e l a t e d to  of educational d e f i c i e n c y .  Finances.  F i n a n c e s loomed l a r g e as an area i n which  agencies c o u l d have been more h e l p f u l . mothers who  Of the 70 percent o f the  mentioned f i n a n c e s , many suggested  t h a t incomes from  77  Social Assistance should keep up with the cost of l i v i n g . mothers would have likedcounselling on budgeting,  Some  r e f l e c t e d by  one respondent: "In the beginning, I could have used some f i n a n c i a l counselling". Housing.  Eighty percent of the mothers perceived that  they needed more help i n the area of housing.  The mothers'  statements r e f l e c t e d the kinds of help that they needed.  One  mother stated: I wish i f there were more apartment houses or private houses that were more available to single parents. One of the most frequently voiced needs was more information about low cost housing, where children were accepted.  One mother  t y p i f i e d the f e e l i n g s of many respondents i n her statement, It would help i f the community agency had a l i s t of houses available - low rental that would take c h i l d r e n . and another, I n i t i a l l y , I didn't know how much money I could have spent on housing. Welfare didn't say what I was e n t i t l e d t o . Most mothers had d i f f i c u l t i e s with transportation, which was a deterrent to finding suitable housing. In essence, the mothers perceived that agencies could have been more h e l p f u l i n dispensing information about low cost housing.  Many were not given information about the amount that  could have been spent on housing. Anything e l s e .  A v a r i e t y of topics were introduced i n  t h i s area, the most s a l i e n t being the need f o r more information.  In p a r t i c u l a r , more i n f o r m a t i o n was needed about a v a i l a b l e community r e s o u r c e s , was  i l l u s t r a t e d i n one mother's statement:  I c o u l d have been made more aware o f what a v a i l a b l e . More i n f o r m a t i o n .  Another noted: Agencies don't t e l l you what you can g e t . They don't t e l l you t h a t you can go t o s c h o o l . Welfare should g i v e more i n f o r m a t i o n . One  respondent c i t e d t h a t agencies  should make more  l i t e r a t u r e a v a i l a b l e t o c l i e n t s , o u t l i n i n g the s e r v i c e s t h a t they provide.  More h e l p was needed with l e g a l c o u n s e l l i n g ,  i l l u s t r a t i v e i n one mother's statement: W e l f a r e should g i v e more l e g a l c o u n s e l l i n g t e l l people what t h e i r l e g a l r i g h t s a r e . Another mother p e r c e i v e d t h a t agencies more i n v o l v e d i n p l a n n i n g  c o u l d become  s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s f o r a l l age groups,  i n c l u d i n g mothers and t h e i r c h i l d r e n , o t h e r young people, and senior c i t i z e n s .  She thought t h a t such an experience  would be  s a t i s f y i n g t o both a d u l t s and c h i l d r e n . In summary, a m a j o r i t y o f the mothers p e r c e i v e d agencies and  c o u l d have g i v e n more h e l p with housing,  childcare.  Information  that  finances  g i v i n g seemed t o loom l a r g e i n the  women's p e r c e p t i o n o f h e l p t h a t c o u l d have been made a v a i l a b l e . S a t i s f a c t i o n s and Problems In an e f f o r t t o determine t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n s and problems experienced  b y t h e mothers, a s e r i e s o f open-ended  questions  were posed t o g l e a n i n f o r m a t i o n about t h i n g s t h a t made them happy o r w o r r i e d .  The m a j o r i t y o f t h e women i n d i c a t e d t h a t  c h i l d r e n had been a source o f happiness t o them.  their  The mothers'  79 r e p l i e s i n c l u d e d statements l i k e . A c t i v i t i e s related to when he l e a r n s something new and shows p r o g r e s s and my success at s c h o o l . Other mothers were not as d e f i n i t e . I r e a l l y don't know. ends meet.  One s t a t e d :  I guess j u s t making  and another: C o u l d be simple t h i n g s . Peace o f mind when t h i n g s go smoothly from day t o day. F o r some, a n t i c i p a t i o n o f t h e f u t u r e brought contentment, r e f l e c t e d i n one mother's statement: P l a n n i n g f o r the f u t u r e . s a v i n g money t o buy a house.  G e t t i n g a job and  That mother had g i v e n up a p a r t - t i m e job t o r e t u r n t o s c h o o l t o improve h e r c a r e e r . When asked i f t h e y would r a t h e r be doing something e l s e , 60 p e r c e n t o f the women r e p l i e d i n t h e a f f i r m a t i v e .  The samples  o f r e p l i e s which gave t h e nature o f what t h e women a s p i r e d t o , were: Yes, I would l i k e t o go and work. o f s i t t i n g a t home.  I get tired  Yes, I would l i k e a j o b and a good s a l a r y . would l i k e t o be m a r r i e d and have a f a t h e r f o r He i s a t an age when he needs someone.  I  .  Those women who were going t o s c h o o l o r were employed a l s o had h i g h e r a s p i r a t i o n s , r e f l e c t e d i n t h e i r statements: Yes, I would l i k e t o be i n s c i e n c e (going t o school). Employment wise, something more s t i m u l a t i n g . When asked i f t h e y were e s p e c i a l l y w o r r i e d about anything, many expressed concerns about t h e i r own f u t u r e and t h a t o f t h e i r  80 children.  These quotes were i l l u s t r a t i v e :  I am l i v i n g day t o day, week to week. I worry what's going t o become o f u s . The o l d e r they g e t the more money you have to be p u t t i n g out on them, and the f u r t h e r they get away from you. I am concerned t h a t i f a n y t h i n g should happen to me, what would happen t o . Yes, not g e t t i n g m a r r i e d . I need companionship. I don't want t o be on w e l f a r e f o r the r e s t o f my l i f e . I would l i k e t o g i v e h e r education.  ( c h i l d ) a good  Some women were concerned about the type of treatment they r e c e i v e d when d e a l i n g w i t h a g e n c i e s .  The responses which summed  up some of t h e i r f e e l i n g s were: I don't l i k e the way t h e y (Welfare) t r e a t the p e o p l e . They l o o k down on you. They degrade you and you are supposed t o g r o v e l . We are apprehensive. Agencies are d e f e n s i v e . They i n t e r p r e t our apprehension as a g g r e s s i o n or demand. We don't want t o g r o v e l . In summary, the mothers were m o s t l y concerned with f u t u r e s e c u r i t y f o r themselves and t h e i r c h i l d r e n . concerned about who  would care f o r t h e i r c h i l d  Many were  i f anything  happened t o them. A t t i t u d e Towards M a r r i a g e The mothers were asked i f t h e y p e r c e i v e d h a v i n g a had delayed marriage.  Only 10 p e r c e n t responded  child  i n the a f f i r m -  a t i v e , and a f u r t h e r 10 p e r c e n t s a i d they d i d not know.  One  mother who  stated,  f e l t t h a t h a v i n g a c h i l d had delayed marriage  Yes, because I have him boys don't go out with me. Boys don't l i k e k i d s . They say they can't a f f o r d a baby s i t t e r .  81  Some who perceived that the c h i l d had not delayed marriage stated that they were not interested i n marriage. According to one mother: I don't want to get married. with having a c h i l d .  I feel satisfied  When asked i f they thought there were any advantages i n marriage, 60 percent r e p l i e d "yes".  Companionship and security  were seen as advantageous by the majority of the mothers.  Some  of those who f e l t that there were no advantages to marriage, said that they could have the same relationship remaining s i n g l e . Other viewpoints included statements as: Because of my type of personality. I am r e a l l y ambitious. I would not l i k e to be s i t t i n g home f o r the rest of my l i f e . In summary, the mothers r e f l e c t e d mixed feelings towards marriage.  Although the majority perceived some advantages i n  matrimony, 40 percent preferred to remain single. This chapter presented the analysis and discussion of the findings i n t h i s study.  The data were analyzed by u t i l i z i n g  frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n tables, percentages and c o r r e l a t i o n s . The findings i n the areas of socio-economic concerns, health, and the mothers' coping behaviours were presented.  Chapter  5  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS, SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY Summary and C o n c l u s i o n s T h i s study was designed t o e l i c i t i n f o r m a t i o n about the concerns and coping b e h a v i o u r s o f t h e unmarried mother.  A  convenient sample o f 20 unmarried mothers was i n t e r v i e w e d , u t i l i z i n g a semi-structured questionnaire.  Extensive face-to-face  i n t e r v i e w s were conducted with the mothers i n t h e i r homes. I n f o r m a t i o n was gleaned c o n c e r n i n g t h e i r  socio-economic  and h e a l t h concerns, and the coping behaviours t h a t t h e y used i n d e a l i n g with these concerns.  In an attempt  to identify  emotional h e a l t h s t a t u s , a 22 item s c a l e was used, designed f o r t h i s  their  specifically  purpose.  The d a t a were analyzed b y the t a b u l a t i o n and use o f frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n t a b l e s and percentages.  Pearson product -  moment c o r r e l a t i o n was used to examine t h e a s s o c i a t i o n between selected sets of variables.  The purpose was t o add depth t o t h e  d e s c r i p t i v e information, not t o t e s t a causal r e l a t i o n s h i p . Findings. the mothers.  The f i n d i n g s r e v e a l e d v a r i e d l i f e s t y l e s among  F i v e were employed f u l l - t i m e w h i l e o t h e r s needed 82  83 social assistance.  One f u l l - t i m e student had a l o a n .  Some were,  o r had been, f u l l - t i m e o r p a r t - t i m e students, w h i l e o t h e r s had not r e t u r n e d t o s c h o o l s i n c e t h e b i r t h o f t h e i r  child.  An examination o f t h e demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the group r e v e a l e d t h a t o f t h e 20 mothers, 3 had 2 c h i l d r e n , and 2 had 3 c h i l d r e n .  The remaining 15 mothers each had 1 c h i l d .  The average age o f the mothers was 27.1 y e a r s . ages ranged from 20 t o 36 y e a r s .  Their  No mother gave b i r t h t o h e r  o l d e s t c h i l d , p r e s e n t l y i n t h e home, b e f o r e the age o f 17 y e a r s , and 3 mothers had t h e i r c h i l d r e n a t age 30 o r o v e r . Of the 27 c h i l d r e n i n t h e study, 15 were the s o l e o f t h e i r mothers. and 4 months.  child  The average age o f the c h i l d r e n was 3 y e a r s  T h e i r ages ranged from 2 months t o 8 y e a r s .  The c h i l d r e n under 6 months o f age a l l had o l d e r The mothers * incomes were found t o v a r y .  siblings. The m a j o r i t y o f  those on w e l f a r e l i v e d on annual incomes below $3,000.  The f i v e  f u l l - t i m e working mothers were b e t t e r o f f f i n a n c i a l l y , w i t h annual incomes ranging from approximately $4,000 to $7,500. one mother had p a r t - t i m e employment  Only  which s l i g h t l y i n c r e a s e d h e r  income from S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e . The mothers who d e r i v e d t h e i r incomes from  employment  were white c o l l a r , s a l a r i e d workers, i n o f f i c e s and h o s p i t a l s . They had achieved Grade 11 o r 12 e d u c a t i o n . child.  They a l l had one  O n l y one mother i n t h i s group had a c h i l d under t h r e e  y e a r s o f age. The mothers who d e r i v e d t h e i r incomes from S o c i a l  84 A s s i s t a n c e had between 1 to 3 c h i l d r e n . t h i s group had  Ten of the 14 mothers i n  a c h i l d or c h i l d r e n under 3 years of age.  Their  grade l e v e l s of education v a r i e d from Grade 7 to 12, with m a j o r i t y p o s s e s s i n g Grade 10 o r h i g h e r The m a j o r i t y of the mothers had education.  Some mothers had  o f t h e i r c h i l d , and who  education. Grade 10,  11 or  12  r e t u r n e d to school s i n c e the b i r t h  f o u r were f u l l - t i m e s t u d e n t s .  were f u l l - t i m e students had  o n l y one  Those mothers  child.  From the above f i n d i n g s , i t would appear t h a t e m p l o y a b i l i t y of the mother was increased.  the  the  lower as h e r number of c h i l d r e n  O p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r f u r t h e r education  decreased, with  an i n c r e a s e i n the number of c h i l d r e n . Many mothers a s p i r e d t o jobs, and  c i t e d t h a t agencies  not r e c e p t i v e to t h e i r demands f o r f u r t h e r education training.  or  were  job  In p a r t i c u l a r , many mothers were concerned t h a t  inadequate i n f o r m a t i o n was s c h o o l i n g and  g i v e n , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the areas  job t r a i n i n g .  o f some agencies  of  Many p e r c e i v e d r e l u c t a n c e on the p a r t  to g i v e i n f o r m a t i o n to c l i e n t s about the scope  of s e r v i c e s a v a i l a b l e to people on S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e . Other concerns a r t i c u l a t e d by the mothers i n c l u d e d childcare f a c i l i t i e s , 3 years of age. some mothers.  e s p e c i a l l y f o r those with c h i l d r e n under  T h i s was  o f t e n a d e t e r r e n t to the employment of  Many p e r c e i v e d the need f o r s e r v i c e s with more  f l e x i b l e hours, t h a t f a c i l i t a t e d D i f f i c u l t i e s with housing mothers.  s h i f t work. were experienced  by many  They were a h i g h l y mobile group, u s u a l l y i n search  of  85 b e t t e r housing.  Lack o f i n f o r m a t i o n about low c o s t housing  a major concern.  Inadequate  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n reduced t h e i r m o b i l -  i t y t o seek out r e a s o n a b l y p r i c e d housing t h a t accepted The mothers expressed few concerns about the of p h y s i c a l h e a l t h care.  was  A l l had  children.  availability  access t o a p h y s i c i a n .  F o r t y - f i v e p e r c e n t of the mothers scored h i g h on the 22 item emotional h e a l t h s t a t u s s c a l e , i n d i c a t i n g some degree emotional impairment. p e r c e i v e d themselves problems, gories.  Many who  scored h i g h on t h i s s c a l e  as h a v i n g a h i g h number o f  of  also  socio-economic  as computed on a s c a l e with 11 socio-economic  cate-  In c o n f i r m a t i o n of t h i s , Pearson product-moment  c o r r e l a t i o n r e v e a l e d a h i g h p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p of r = +.837 between these v a r i a b l e s . None o f the mothers w i t h annual incomes i n the $4,000 t o $7,500 range had  a h i g h s c o r e on e i t h e r o f these s c a l e s .  In  c o n t r a s t , many mothers w i t h annual incomes below $3,000 had h i g h score on both  a  scales.  I t i s open t o q u e s t i o n i n g i f these two t e s t i n g the same v a r i a b l e s .  s c a l e s were  However, upon examination,  the  r e s e a r c h e r concluded t h a t o n l y one item on the 22 item s c a l e had some s i m i l a r i t y t o any o f the items on the 11 item P e r c e i v e d Problem R a t i n g S c a l e . In an e f f o r t t o i d e n t i f y the coping b e h a v i o u r s used  by  the mothers, t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h f r i e n d s , r e l a t i v e s ,  the  c h i l d ' s f a t h e r , and p r o f e s s i o n a l s e r v i c e s were examined.  The  d a t a r e v e a l e d t h a t o f the 17 mothers who  f e l t a need t o t a l k  86 w i t h someone about a s p e c i f i c concern, 47 percent professional services.  sought  Many p r e f e r r e d to d i s c u s s t h e i r concerns  with f r i e n d s and/or r e l a t i v e s .  I t was  o n l y among 15 percent  the mothers t h a t the c h i l d ' s f a t h e r p r o v i d e d  emotional support.  Some mothers were not aware of the types o f provided  by community agencies.  The  F a i l u r e to  mothers who  perception  of p r o f e s s i o n a l  u t i l i z e d professional services i n  times o f s t r e s s were u s u a l l y s a t i s f i e d w i t h the h e l p received.  use  a t t r i b u t e d e i t h e r to l a c k of knowledge  about a v a i l a b l e s e r v i c e s , o r n e g a t i v e workers.  services  Others f e l t t h a t p r o f e s s i o n a l  workers were not i n t e r e s t e d i n small problems. community agencies was  of  The m a j o r i t y o f the mothers p e r c e i v e d  they  t h a t agencies  c o u l d have been more h e l p f u l , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the areas o f f i n a n c e s , c h i l d c a r e , h o u s i n g and  job t r a i n i n g .  responded t h a t agencies d i d not p r o v i d e  The  majority  s u f f i c i e n t information  to  clients. The mothers d e r i v e d  s a t i s f a c t i o n from v a r i o u s  Many found t h e i r c h i l d a source o f h a p p i n e s s .  sources.=  Others found t h a t  t h e i r jobs, schoolwork, o r a n t i c i p a t i o n o f the f u t u r e were satisfying. those who  Many unemployed mothers a n t i c i p a t e d f i n d i n g jobs;  were employed o r going t o s c h o o l a s p i r e d to move  upwards i n t h e i r  careers.  Mixed f e e l i n g s about marriage were expressed. majority perceived  t h a t t h e r e were some advantages to  m a r r i e d , but 40 percent  The being  p r e f e r r e d to remain s i n g l e .  In summary, a study t o i d e n t i f y the concerns and s t r a t e g i e s o f unmarried mothers was  conducted.  A  coping  semi-structured  87  questionnaire was used i n face-to-face interviews with 20 mothers, A d e s c r i p t i v e analysis of the data was presented, by the tabulat i o n and use of frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n tables and percentages. Pearson product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n was used to examine the association between selected sets of v a r i a b l e s . The findings revealed varying l i f e s t y l e s among the mothers.  Some were employed; others were unemployed.  Some were  f u l l - t i m e students; others had not returned to school since the b i r t h of t h e i r c h i l d . The mothers expressed  a v a r i e t y of concerns i n the areas  of finances, childcare, housing,  job t r a i n i n g and inadequate  information from community agencies.  Many sought professional  help i n times of stress, others preferred to consult friends and/or r e l a t i v e s .  The majority l i v e d i n a n t i c i p a t i o n of a better  l i f e s t y l e , e i t h e r by finding a job, or moving upwards i n t h e i r present  jobs.  Implications f o r P r a c t i t i o n e r s Although the sample was one of convenience which limited the generalizations from the research, one of the strengths i n the study was the s i m i l a r i t y that the findings bore with research.  previous  Accepting t h i s , there are some implications:  1.  The mothers exhibited a v a r i e t y of l i f e s t y l e s i n adapting to single parenthood, many exhibiting strength and=:the desire for independence from s o c i a l assistance. This implies that there i s need to reappraise the stereotyping of unmarried mothers. P r a c t i t i o n e r s should concentrate on t h e i r strengths, not t h e i r weaknesses, and b u i l d on these.  2.  A majority of the mothers perceived that p r a c t i t i o n e r s did not give s u f f i c i e n t information to the c l i e n t .  88 This implies that: a)  P r a c t i t i o n e r s should endeavour to p e r c e i v e the needs o f t h e i r c l i e n t s , and g i v e i n f o r m a t i o n that i s appropriate;  b)  P r a c t i t i o n e r s should e s t a b l i s h i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y c o n t a c t with o t h e r workers i n the h e a l t h and l e g a l f i e l d s , t o ensure proper r e f e r r a l to more informed sources when they are unable t o meet the c l i e n t s ' needs. P r a c t i t i o n e r s must respond to t h e i r c l i e n t s ' needs.  T h i s response can o n l y be a p p r o p r i a t e when the c l i e n t ' s needs are c o n s i s t e n t l y assessed  on an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s , u t i l i z i n g  v a l i d a t e d assessment t o o l s . Recommendations t o A g e n c i e s Based on the f i n d i n g s o f t h i s study,  i t i s recommended  that: 1.  More i n f o r m a t i o n be p r o v i d e d  to the c l i e n t  concerning,  a)  The d i f f e r e n t s e r v i c e s t h a t are a v a i l a b l e i n the community through d i f f e r e n t a g e n c i e s .  b)  The b e n e f i t s t h a t are a v a i l a b l e to the c l i e n t w h i l e she i s a r e c i p i e n t o f S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e , i . e . c l o t h i n g allowance, food vouchers, i n f o r m a t i o n about s c h o o l i n g and job t r a i n i n g .  These c o u l d be compiled by a c e n t r a l agency, and pamphlets d i s t r i b u t e d to c l i e n t s who seek S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e . 2.  People on S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e should be g i v e n enough to m a i n t a i n an adequate standard o f l i v i n g . Social A s s i s t a n c e should be commensurate with the c o s t o f living.  3.  The p r o v i s i o n o f more comprehensive daycare f a c i l i t i e s with more f l e x i b l e hours f o r c h i l d r e n o f a l l age groups appears urgent.  4.  Given the l a c k o f c o o r d i n a t i o n c i t e d by the mothers, i t i s recommended t h a t m u l t i d i s c i p l i n a r y teams be e s t a b l i s h e d at the community l e v e l , with n u r s i n g a member o f t h i s team. Nursing's focus should be to m a i n t a i n h e a l t h , and prevent i l l n e s s .  89 5.  A g e n c i e s should v a l i d a t e with t h e c l i e n t t h e s e r v i c e s t h a t she needs, and p l a n s e r v i c e s based on t h e needs a r t i c u l a t e d by the c l i e n t . These recommendations a r e d i r e c t e d t o the p o l i c y  in different  level  agencies.  S p e c u l a t i o n s o f t h e Researcher Observations  made b y t h e r e s e a r c h e r r e s u l t e d i n c e r t a i n  s p e c u l a t i o n s b e i n g made. to be h i g h l y motivated.  The m a j o r i t y o f the mothers appeared Those who were unemployed a s p i r e d  towards jobs; those who were i n jobs planned t o move upwards i n t h e i r careers.  There were f o u r f u l l - t i m e students  A l l were l o o k i n g forward  to a career.  i n t h e study.  The mothers appeared t o  be a f f e c t i o n a t e and devoted t o t h e i r c h i l d r e n .  However, many  f e l t t h e need f o r a c a r e e r , i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e i r r o l e as mother. One c o u l d s p e c u l a t e t h a t t h e f i n d i n g s r e f l e c t e d changes.  societal  Women are examining t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s , and  a s p i r i n g t o c a r e e r s o u t s i d e o f the home.  The s p e c u l a t i o n c o u l d  a l s o be made t h a t t h e mothers, i n t h e i r r o l e as s o l o parent, f e l t a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o g i v e t h e i r c h i l d a good home and education.  T h i s c o u l d be a m o t i v a t i n g  upward m o b i l i t y .  factor i n their drive f o r  Although some mothers f i r m l y b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e i r  p l a c e was with t h e c h i l d i n the home, more mothers were i n t e n t on f i n d i n g a w e l l - p a i d , s a t i s f y i n g job, t h a t would one day enable them t o g i v e t h e i r c h i l d a good  education.  The mothers a r t i c u l a t e d t h e i r need f o r more i n f o r m a t i o n i n a v a r i e t y o f areas, i n c l u d i n g l e g a l c o u n s e l l i n g . to  This  seemed  i n d i c a t e a h i g h l e v e l o f consumer demand f o r more knowledge  from t h e p r o v i d e r s o f s e r v i c e .  90  The f i n d i n g s o f t h i s study suggested t h a t the m a j o r i t y of  the mothers were h i g h l y motivated, a r t i c u l a t e women.  C o n s i d e r i n g the many d i f f i c u l t i e s with money, h o u s i n g and c h i l d c a r e , i t would appear t h a t t h e mothers had coped remarkably w e l l , and were making every attempt  t o b e t t e r them-  selves. Suggestions f o r F u r t h e r Study In view o f the f i n d i n g s from t h i s study, some i n t e r e s t i n g questions arose.  These q u e s t i o n s were formulated i n t o  suggestions  for  f u r t h e r study.  The areas suggested were:  1.  A comparative a n a l y s i s o f the concerns o f o t h e r low income groups i n the community ( i . e . r e c i p i e n t s o f S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e ) w i t h s i n g l e mothers, t o determine the e x t e n t t o which these groups experience s i m i l a r concerns.  2.  A comparative mothers:  a n a l y s i s between t h r e e groups o f s i n g l e  i ) mothers who have never been m a r r i e d , i i ) mothers who a r e separated o r d i v o r c e d , i i i ) mothers who are widowed, to determine a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) 3.  their:  Income and Housing Education Age Childrearing patterns P h y s i c a l and emotional h e a l t h s t a t u s S p e c i f i c coping b e h a v i o u r s R e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h p a r e n t s and f r i e n d s Employment and o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s  A study t o determine of: i) ii) iii)  the coping behaviours o f c h i l d r e n  mothers who have never been m a r r i e d , mothers who are separated o r d i v o r c e d , mothers who a r e widowed. These s t u d i e s would determine  the e x t e n t t o which f i n d i n g s  from t h i s study c o u l d be g e n e r a l i z e d t o o t h e r low income groups, and s i n g l e mothers.  91 Recommended R e v i s i o n o f Methodology In an e f f o r t t o i d e n t i f y the coping behaviours mothers, i t i s recommended t h a t a coping s c a l e be  of single  developed.  T h i s should i n c l u d e a c h e c k l i s t with a wide range o f s p e c i f i c behaviours  from which the mothers c o u l d chose.  T h i s would g i v e  more d i r e c t i o n t o t h e mothers, and more c o n c r e t e i n f o r m a t i o n t o the r e s e a r c h e r about what mothers do i n s p e c i f i c The chapter.  situations.  c o n c l u s i o n s from t h e study were presented  i n this  I m p l i c a t i o n s were c i t e d to guide p r a c t i t i o n e r s .  More  g e n e r a l recommendations were d i r e c t e d t o the f o r m u l a t i o n o f policies within The  agencies.  r e s e a r c h e r made s p e c u l a t i o n s , based on the f i n d i n g s  o f t h e study.  Further to t h i s ,  suggestions were made f o r f u r t h e r  study, and recommendations made f o r the r e v i s i o n o f the methodology.  BIBLIOGRAPHY 1.  Books  A g u i l e r a , Donna, J a n i c e Messick and Marlene F a r r e l . Crisis I n t e r v e n t i o n Theory and Methodology. S t . L o u i s : C.V. Mosby Co., 1970. B e r n s t e i n , Rose. H e l p i n g Unmarried Mothers. A s s o c i a t i o n Press, 1971.  New  York:  Caplan, G e r a l d . An Approach to Community Mental H e a l t h . York: Grune and S t r a t t o n , 1961.  New  K r i e s b e r g , L o u i s . Mothers i n Poverty A Study o f F a t h e r l e s s F a m i l i e s . Chicago: A l d i n e P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1970. Lazarus, R i c h a r d S. P s y c h o l o g i c a l S t r e s s and the Coping Toronto: McGraw H i l l , 1966. Pochin, Jean. Without a Wedding R i n g . Ltd., 1969. Roberts, Robert W. (ed.). and Row, 1966.  The  Process.  Essex: The Anchor  Unwed Mother.  New  Press  York: Harper  S c h l e s i n g e r , Benjamin. The One Parent F a m i l y P e r s p e c t i v e s and Annotated B i b l i o g r a p h y . Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto Press, 1969. V i n c e n t , C l a r k E. Unmarried Mothers. of Glencoe, 1962. 2.  New  York: The Free  Press  Periodicals  Adams, Hannah, and U r s u l a G a l l a g h e r . "Some F a c t s and Observ a t i o n s about I l l e g i t i m a c y . " C h i l d r e n , 10:2 (March - A p r i l , 1963), 43-48. Berkman, P a u l . "Spouseless Motherhood, P s y c h o l o g i c a l S t r e s s and P h y s i c a l M o r b i d i t y , " J o u r n a l o f H e a l t h and S o c i a l Behaviour, 10:4 (December, 1969), 323-334. B e r n s t e i n , Rose. "Gaps i n S e r v i c e s t o Unmarried Mothers," C h i l d r e n , 10:2 (March - A p r i l , 1963), 49-54.  92  93 Bodlak, S t a n . "Serving C h i l d r e n and T h e i r F a m i l i e s , " CAS News. 7:5 (June, 1971), 4-5. C a h i l l , Imogene. "Facts and F a l l a c i e s about I l l e g i t i m a c y , " N u r s i n g Forum. 4:1 (1965), 39-55. C h a s k e l , Ruth. "The Unmarried Mother: I s She D i f f e r e n t ? " C h i l d W e l f a r e . 46 (February, 1967), 65-74. Claman, D a v i d A., B a r r y J . W i l l i a m s , and L. Wogan. "Reaction o f Unmarried G i r l s t o Pregnancy," Canadian M e d i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n J o u r n a l . 101 (September 20, 1969), 328-334). Crumidy, P e a r l Menter, and H a r o l d J a c o b z i n e r , "A Study of Young Unmarried Mothers who Kept T h e i r B a b i e s , " American J o u r n a l o f P u b l i c H e a l t h . 56:8 (August, 1966), 1242-1251. G i l l , D. G. "Changing Sirends i n I l l e g i t i m a c y and Changing Modes o f E x p l a n a t i o n , " Royal S o c i e t y o f H e a l t h J o u r n a l . 90 (May - June, 1970), 154-158. Hallam, Mabel. " A t t i t u d e s Toward the Unwed Mother", N u r s i n g C l i n i c s o f North America. 2 (December, 1967), 775+. Kelley, Jerry. "The School and Unmarried Mothers," C h i l d r e n . 10:2 (March - A p r i l , 1963), 60-64. Langner, Thomas S. "A Twenty-Two Item S c r e e n i n g Score o f P s y c h i a t r i c Symptoms I n d i c a t i n g Impairment," J o u r n a l o f H e a l t h and S o c i a l Behaviour. 3 (1962), 269-276. L e v i n e , Myra. "Adaptation and Assessment A R a t i o n a l e f o r N u r s i n g I n t e r v e n t i o n , " American J o u r n a l o f N u r s i n g , 66:11 (November, 1966), 2450-2453. M a r t i n , H a r r y W., and A r t h u r Prange. "Human A d a p t a t i o n A C o n c e p t u a l Approach t o Understanding P a t i e n t s , " Canadian Nurse. 58:3 (March, 1962), 234-243. Pannor, Reuben. "Casework S e r v i c e f o r Unmarried F a t h e r s , " C h i l d r e n . 10:2 (March - A p r i l , 1963), 65-70. Rashbaum, William,, e t a l . "Use o f S o c i a l S e r v i c e s by Unmarried Mothers," C h i l d r e n , 10:1 (January-February, 1963), 11-16. Reed, E l l e r y . "Unmarried Mothers Who Kept T h e i r B a b i e s , " C h i l d r e n . 12 (May - June, 1965), 118-119. S i g n e l l , Karen. "The C r i s i s o f Unwed Motherhood: A C o n s u l t a t i o n Approach," Community Mental H e a l t h J o u r n a l , 5 (1969), 304-313.  94 3.  Reports  C h i l d W e l f a r e League o f America - Standards f o r S e r v i c e s t o Unmarried P a r e n t s . New York: C h i l d W e l f a r e League o f America, 1962. Guyatt, D o r i s E . The One-Parent F a m i l y i n Canada. V a n i e r I n s t i t u t e o f The F a m i l y , 1971. Live Births.  Ottawa: The  C i t y o f Vancouver, 1943 - 1970.  Poulos, Susan. A Problem I n v e n t o r y o f S i n g l e Mothers. A i d S o c i e t y o f Vancouver, 1969.  Children's  Reed, E l l e r y , and Ruth L a t i m e r . A Study o f Unmarried Mothers Who Kept T h e i r B a b i e s . C i n c i n n a t i : S o c i a l Welfare Research Inc., 1963. Sauber, Mignon, and E i l e e n M. C o r r i g a n . The S i x Year E x p e r i e n c e o f Unwed Mothers as P a r e n t s A C o n t i n u i n g Study of These Mothers and T h e i r C h i l d r e n . New York: Community C o u n c i l o f G r e a t e r New York, 1970. Sauber, Mignon, and E l a i n e Mother as a P a r e n t . A Mothers who Keep T h e i r C o u n c i l o f G r e a t e r New  R u b i n s t e i n . E x p e r i e n c e s o f t h e Unwed L o n g i t u d i n a l Study o f Unmarried F i r s t - B o r n . New York: Community York, 1965.  Wright, H e l e n R. 80 Unmarried Mothers Who Kept T h e i r B a b i e s . S t a t e o f C a l i f o r n i a : Department o f S o c i a l W e l f a r e , 1965.  95 APPENDIX A L e t t e r o f Request  c/o The School o f N u r s i n g University of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, B.C. Dear Madam: I am a R e g i s t e r e d Nurse, p r e s e n t l y working towards a Master's degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. As p a r t o f the programme, I am d o i n g a study t o i d e n t i f y the concerns t h a t the s i n g l e mother h a s , and the ways i n which she d e a l s w i t h these concerns. I t i s hoped t h a t the r e s u l t s from t h i s study w i l l h e l p nurses t o be o f g r e a t e r a s s i s t a n c e t o the s i n g l e mother i n the f u t u r e . I would g r e a t l y a p p r e c i a t e your c o - o p e r a t i o n i n t h i s study. T h i s would b e n e f i t o t h e r s i n g l e mothers, who may l e a r n new ways o f d e a l i n g w i t h t h e i r concerns through your experience. Your i d e n t i t y w i l l not be d i s c l o s e d under any c i r c u m s t a n c e s . The i n f o r m a t i o n gathered w i l l be c o n f i d e n t i a l and w i l l be grouped so t h a t your i n d i v i d u a l c o n t r i b u t i o n w i l l not be i d e n t i f i a b l e . I f you consent t o p a r t i c i p a t e , k i n d l y s i g n the e n c l o s e d consent forms and g i v e one copy t o the P u b l i c H e a l t h Nurse who w i l l r e t u r n i t t o me. You may wish t o keep the other. I would then v i s i t you f o r an i n t e r v i e w a t a time t h a t i s convenient t o you. Thank you f o r your c o - o p e r a t i o n . Yours s i n c e r e l y .  Joan Anderson  96 APPENDIX B Consent Form CONSENT FORM In o r d e r t o be o f g r e a t e r a s s i s t a n c e t o s i n g l e mothers, nurses need more i n f o r m a t i o n t o i d e n t i f y the concerns t h a t these mothers have, and t o l e a r n how they d e a l with these concerns. A study which i s proposed t o o b t a i n this, k i n d o f i n f o r m a t i o n i s e n t i t l e d "The Concerns and Coping P a t t e r n s o f the S i n g l e Mother". I understand t h a t some o f the q u e s t i o n s asked w i l l be o f a p e r s o n a l nature, c o n c e r n i n g my income, h o u s i n g , e d u c a t i o n , j o b , my s o c i a l l i f e , and t h e h e a l t h o f my c h i l d and m y s e l f . I f u r t h e r understand t h a t my name w i l l not appear on any o f t h e m a t e r i a l s . I do understand, however, t h a t the o v e r a l l r e s u l t s w i l l be u t i l i z e d b y nurses and p r o b a b l y p u b l i s h e d t o promote an understanding o f the concerns o f the s i n g l e mother. I understand t h a t I s h a l l be i n t e r v i e w e d b y Mrs. Joan Anderson, a u t h o r i z e d b y t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia School o f N u r s i n g . I s h a l l f u r t h e r be requested t o complete a q u e s t i o n n a i r e . I understand t h a t t h e i n t e r v i e w and the time f o r completing the q u e s t i o n n a i r e w i l l take about an hour and a h a l f . I understand t h a t I am f r e e t o withdraw from the study a t any t i m e . Having read the need f o r t h i s study, and t h e l e n g t h of time t h a t i t w i l l take, I hereby g i v e my consent t o participate. SIGNED: WITNESS: DATE:  97 APPENDIX C Letter of Thanks  c/o The School of Nursing University of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, B.C. Dear Madam: I would l i k e to thank you f o r your p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the study, "The Concerns and Coping Patterns of the Single Mother". The interview has been completed and your co-operation was greatly appreciated. Yours sincerely,  Joan Anderson  98 APPENDIX D Questionnaire  PART A - HOUSING A-l  HOUSING FACILITIES Suppose we s t a r t with where you are l i v i n g . How long have you been l i v i n g at t h i s address? (Get approximate date moved in)  Any problems with t h i s present place? If  yes  (1) What problems? (2) Do you think there i s anything that can be done about these problems? (Discuss each i f more than one) (3) Have you t r i e d to do anything about thera? What? I f move to present address within l a s t 12 months, ask 2 You say you have been l i v i n g here since Where d i d you l i v e just p r i o r to moving here?  How long d i d you there?  live  Why d i d you move when you did?  99 A-I  HOUSING FACILITIES (continued) ASK EVERYONE 3.  Would you t e l l me a l i t t l e about the place you are l i v i n g i n now? (Interviewer: check type of l i v i n g quarters): Apartment i n B.C. housing project Apartment not i n B.C. housing p r o j e c t or not ascertainable r e : p r o j e c t Private house - s i n g l e family occupancy Private house - two or more family occupancy ( i f more than three-family occupancy, code apartment) Private house - occupancy not ascertainable  A. do you have: (1) (2) (3)  kitchen? kitchen p r i v i l e g e s ? Other arrangements? (Specify) • ,  B. Do you have a bathroom i n your l i v i n g quarters? Yes _No How many people use the b a t h room? (Include a l l children)  Room(s) i n rooming house or h o t e l ( i f room i n two-family house, code as room i n apartment) Room(s) i n apartment Room(s) i n p r i v a t e house single family occupancy Room(s) l o c a t i o n not ascertainable Other (specify)  C. How many rooms besides the bathroom do you have (Count kitchen i f a separate room) D. Do you have a telephone? Yes No  -I HOUSING FACILITIES  100  (continued)  If l i v i n g i n B.C. housing p r o j e c t , ask 4a If not l i v i n g i n housing p r o j e c t , ask 4b 4a. How d i d you go about g e t t i n g into t h i s project?  LIVING IN PROJECT A.  Did you have any problems? What?  NOT LIVING IN PROJECT 4b. Did you ever l i v e i n a p u b l i c housing project since your f i r s t c h i l d was born?  - I f yes to 4b B. When was that? C. Why d i d you move out? - I f no to 4b D. D i d you ever t r y to get an apartment i n a p u b l i c housing p r o j e c t since your f i r s t c h i l d was born? If  tried  (1) When was that? (2) Why didn't you get one? If  refused  a. What reason d i d the Housing Authority give you? If didn't t r y (3) Would you l i k e to l i v e i n a p r o j e c t now? I f yes a. What stands i n your way?  101 A-II  HOUSEHOLD COMPOSITION 1. Would you t e l l me the names of a l l persons who l i v e i n the household?  L i s t a l l occupants (including mother)  Name (First) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.  Relationship to Mother  Birth Date  PART B B-II  EDUCATION  102  Are you going to school at the present time - or attending any c l a s s e s or s p e c i a l courses or job t r a i n i n g programs? Yes No  IF YES, ASK A IF NO, ASK B AND C ATTENDING SCHOOL NOW A. What kind of school or c l a s s e s or program? (Get d e t a i l s day, night, part or f u l l time) (1) When d i d you s t a r t going? (2) Have there been any problems i n connection with your going there? What? NOT ATTENDING SCHOOL NOW B. Have you attended school or gone to any c l a s s e s or had any job t r a i n i n g since your f i r s t c h i l d was born? If yes (1) T e l l me about the l a s t time you d i d . When d i d you s t a r t going then? (2) What kind of school or class or program d i d you go to? (3) When d i d you stop? (4) Why d i d you stop? C. Would you l i k e to be attending school a t the present time? If yes (1) What kind of courses speci f i c a l l y would you be i n t e r e s t e d in? (2) Why? F o r what purpose? (3) What stands i n your way?  What i s the highest grade you attended i n school?  A. Did you f i n i s h the grade year?  103 B-III  EMPLOYMENT Are you working at the present time (during the l a s t week or so)? Working Not working (Skip to question 2, page 7)  FOR THOSE WORKING NOW A. When d i d you begin t h i s job? B. What kind of work are you doing? (occupation and industry) C. Is i t f u l l time or part time? D. Is the job steady? E. V/hat do you make a week on the average? F. You say you began your present job on . Did you work at a l l between the time your f i r s t c h i l d was born and when you began your present job? If yes (1) How o l d was when you f i r s t began to work? (2) When d i d your most recent job begin - the one you had just before your present job? (3) What kind of work d i d you do? (occupation and industry) (4) Was i t f u l l or p a r t time? (5) Was i t steady work? (6) What d i d you make a week on the average? (7) When d i d you stop that job? (8) Why d i d you stop work at that job? (Probe f o r e f f o r t s , i f any, to continue to work at that time)  SKIP TO PAGE QUESTION 4  9  104 EMPLOYMENT  (continued)  For those not working now, ask 2 Have you worked a t a l l s i n c e y o u r f i r s t c h i l d was b o r n ?  HAS WORKED A.  Has worked Never worked ( s k i p t o q u e s t i o n 3, page 9)  How o l d was when you f i r s t began t o work?  B. What k i n d o f work d i d you do? ( o c c u p a t i o n and i n d u s t r y ) C. Was i t f u l l  time or p a r t  time?  D. How l o n g d i d you work a t t h a t j o b ? When d i d you stop?. E . Why d i d you s t o p w o r k i n g when you d i d ? (Probe f o r - e f f o r t s , i f any, t o c o n t i n u e w o r k i n g a t t h a t time) F . Have you h a d any o t h e r since? •If If  jobs  y e s , ask (1) - (9) no, ask (10)  (1) About how many j o b s have you h a d s i n c e t h e n ? jobs. (2) T e l l me about y o u r l a s t j o b , when d i d you s t a r t t h a t job? (3) What k i n d  o f work d i d you dc  (occupation (4) Was i t f u l l  and i n d u s t r y ) . or part  time?  (5) Was i t s t e a d y work? (6) What d i d you make a week on the average? (7) How l o n g d i d you work at that job? When d i d you s t o p ?  105 EMPLOYMENT (continued) (continued) (S) Why d i d you stop working when you did? (Probe f o r e f f o r t s , i f any, to continue working at that time). (9) Would you l i k e to be working now? If yes a. What stands i n your way? ( i f answer i s "baby" or "children", c l a r i f y what t h i s means). If no to F, ask (10) (10) Would you l i k e to be working now? I f yes a. What stands i n your way? (If ans wer i s "baby" or "children", c l a r i f y what t h i s means).  106 B - I I I  E M P L O Y M E N T  (continued)  If never worked since baby was born, ask 3 3.  Have you ever t r i e d t o get a job since your f i r s t c h i l d was born?  I E  Y E S ,  I F  N O ,  A S K  A S K  D  A  - C  TRIED A .  B.  When was that? What happened? (get d e t a i l s )  C. Would you l i k e t o be working now? If yes (1) What stands i n your way? (If answer i s "baby" o r " c h i l d r e n " c l a r i f y what t h i s means) I F  N E V E R  T R I E D  D o Would you l i k e to be working now? If yes (1) What stands i n your way? (If answer i s "baby" or " c h i l d r e n " c l a r i f y what t h i s means)  A S K  E V E R Y O N E  4. Has the f a c t that you have a c h i l d (children) made any d i f f e r e n c e i n your (working, not working) at the present time?  1  If yes A- In what way?  B-III  EMPLOYMENT  (continued)  5. What arrangements do (did) you have f o r 's care? (Ask about most recent arrangements) Check i f answer a p p l i e s to F i r s t born Other c h i l d  107  A. Is (was) cared f o r at home o r away from home? At home (ASK B - D) Not at home (ASK E-I) IF CARED FOR AT HOME B. Who i s (was) taking care o f ? What was c h i l d c a r i n g person's age on l a s t birthday? Age l a s t Check one birthday Father Relative Non-relative C„ Does (did) c h i l d - c a r i n g person l i v e with you or come in? D. Do you pay f o r care?  's  I f yes (1) How much? IF CARED FOR AWAY FROM HOME E. Who takes E.  (took) care o f  Is (v/as) t h i s i n a p r i v a t e home or some other place? I f i n p r i v a t e home (1) R e l a t i o n s h i p t o mother? Relative Non-relative (2) Does (did) take care o f other c h i l d r e n ? If i n group care (3) Name o f f a c i l i t y :  Address Sponsorship  "  B-III  EMPLOYMENT (continued)  5. (continued)  108 G. Is (was) t h i s within walking distance? Yes No (1) Who takes (took) there? (2) Who p i c k s (picked) up? (3) Must be picked up at a p a r t i c u l a r time? What happens i f i s picked up l a t e r ? (4) What do (did) you do i f your c h i l d i s sick? Has t h i s happened? H. How much time i s (was) away from home (hours per day, days per week)? Is (v/as) ever away from home at night?' I. How  6. Are (were) you s a t i s f i e d with these arrangements?  Ask only mothers now  much do  (did) you pay f o r 's care?  A. What i s (was) the trouble?  working  ever had to Has look a f t e r himself (herself) i n the past month while you worked?  A. In the past month have you cared f o r while you worked?  I f more than one c h i l d l i v i n g at home, ask B 8. Are (were) these the same arrangements.you have f o r (your other c h i l d r e n ) ?  I f no A. What arrangements do (did) you have? Repeat A - F under question 5, as appropriate  Have you encountered any other problems with employment that I have not mentioned? If so, hov; did you deal with them?  B  - IV  FINANCIAL Now  109  SUPPORT  I'd l i k e  t o ask you about  y >ur l i v i n g  1. W o u l d y o u g i v e me a g e n e r a l i d e a o f how y o u h a v e b e e n m e e t i n g your l i v i n g expenses i n the l a s t week o r s o ? T h a t i s , f r o m e a r n i n g s , h e l p from your f r i e n d s , f a m i l y , etc.? ASK  If  earnings  mentioned  A. Whose? (1) R e l a t i o n s h i p t o m o t h e r IF IF  EVERYONE  2. I s a n y o n e f r o m y o u r own f a m i l y (or r e l a t i v e s ) h e l p i n g w i t h your d a i l y l i v i n g expenses a t the p r e s e n t time?  expenses.  YES, ASK A NO, A S K D  - C  GETTING HELP  NOW  A . Who i n y o u r f a m i l y i s h e l p i n g ? (If l i v i n g with, f i n d out source of t h e i r income, wages, p u b l i c assistance, etc.) B. A b o u t h o w l o n g h a v e y o u b e e n g e t t i n g t h i s h e l p from (Month and y e a r s t a r t e d )  ?  If started i n last 12 m o n t h s , a s k (1) D i d t h e y e v e r h e l p y o u b e f o r e ? If yes a . When w a s  that?  b . Why d i d t h e y s t o p ? C.  I s anyone e l s e i n y o u r f a m i l y h e l p i n g now? ( I f y e s , r e p e a t A a n d B) IF  NOT  GETTING HELP  NOW  D. H a v e y o u h a d a n y h e l p w i t h y o u r d a i l y l i v i n g expenses from your family (or r e l a t i v e s ) i n the past year? If (1) Who  y e s , a s k (1) - (4) helped?  ( 2 ) When w a s t h a t ? start?  When d i d i t  (3) When w a s t h e l a s t t i m e y o u h a d t h i s h e l p ? (Month and year stopped) (4) Why  d i d they  stop?  B-IV 3.  F I N A N C I A L SUPPORT  (continued)  110  I s your f i r s t - b o r n c h i l d ' s f a t h e r h e l p i n g you w i t h your everyday l i v i n g expenses at the present time?  IF YES, ASK A - C I F NO, A S K D HELPING A.  NOW  When d i d h e s t a r t (Month and y e a r )  to help?  If started i n last 12 m o n t h s , a s k (1) H a d h e e v e r h e l p e d  before?  If yes a . When w a s t h a t ? ( m o n t h a n d y e a r s t a r t e d and stopped) b.  Why d i d h e s t o p  then?  c. D i d you t r y t o do anyt h i n g about t h i s ? What? What happened? B.  D i d he o f f e r t h e h e l p he i s g i v i n g y o u now v o l u n t a r i l y , o r d i d y o u get i t by l e g a l action? Voluntarily Court action...  C. I s t h e h e l p y o u a r e g e t t i n g f a i r l y steady and r e g u l a r ? NOT H E L P I N G  now  NOW  D. D i d h e e v e r c o n t r i b u t e s i n c e h i s c h i l d was b o r n ? I f y e s , a s k (1) t o ( 5 ) I f n o , a s k (6) (1) When d i d h e  start?  (2) Was i t v o l u n t a r y - o r b y court action? (3) When d i d h e (4) Why d i d h e  stop? stop?  B-IV  FINANCIAL SUPPORT (continued) 3.(continued)  111 (5) Has he ever contributed since then? If yes a. When d i d he l a s t cont r i b u t e ? (month and year started and stopped) b. Why d i d he stop then? c. Did you do anything about i t ? What? (Get d e t a i l s ) If no d. Have you t r i e d to get help from him i n the l a s t year? (If yes, what did you do? With what results?) If never contributed (6) Have you ever t r i e d to get help from him? If t r i e d a. When? (dates) b. What d i d you do? (Go t o court?) c. What happened? If d i d not t r y d. Any reason you didn't?  112  B-IV. FINANCIAL SUPPORT (continued) IF YES, ASK A AND IF NO, ASK C  4. Is your f i r s t c h i l d ' s father's family helping you with your everyday l i v i n g expenses at the present time?  HELPING A. Who  B  NOW  i n h i s f a m i l y i s h e l p i n g now?  B. When d i d they s t a r t to help? If h e l p started i n l a s t 12 months, ask (1) Had they ever helped before? If yes a. When was that? (get dates started and stopped). IF NO HELP AT PRESENT C . Have they helped you at a l l i n the past year?  5. Are you r e c e i v i n g help f o r your l i v i n g expenses from the Department of S o c i a l Services at the present time? Receiving assistance now Not r e c e i v i n g assistance now (skip to question 9, page 19)  IF YES, ASK A IF NO, ASK E A. When was the a p p l i c a t i o n f o r t h i s help made? (Obtain date of most recent a p p l i c a t i o n ) . B. Was there any delay i n g e t t i n g t h i s help? If yes (1) About how  long d i d you wait?  (2) What was the problem? (3) How d i d you manage while you waited? C . Was there ever a time since these payments started that the cheques were discontinued? If not continuous (1) When d i d they stop and again?  start  (2) Why did they stop? (Get d e t a i l s how r e i n s t a t e d ) .  t  B-IV  5.  FINANCIAL SUPPORT  113  (continued)  (continued)  y  (3) How d i d you s u p p o r t y o u r s e l f d u r i n g t h a t time?  D. Have you had any s p e c i a l e x p e n s e s d u r i n g t h e l a s t y e a r ( s i n c e you began t o r e c e i v e p u b l i c a s s i s t ance) f o r which you needed e x t r a money a s i d e from y o u r r e g u l a r cheque? If yes,  ask (1) and (2)  (1) What were  they?  (2) D i d you a s k y o u r worker f o r a s p e c i a l cheque f o r t h e s e expenses? If yes a. What happened? NOT RECEIVING HELP NOW E.  S i n c e t h e b i r t h o f your f i r s t c h i l d , d i d you e v e r r e c e i v e a s s i s t a n c e from t h e Department of S o c i a l S e r v i c e s (Welfare)? I f y e s , ask (1) - (4) I f no, ask (5) (1) T e l l me about t h e l a s t time you d i d . When d i d i t s t a r t ? (2) When d i d t h a t h e l p  stop?  (3) Why d i d i t s t o p ? (4) What d i d you do about  this?  I f no, ask (5) (5)  D i d you e v e r t r y t o g e t h e l p s i n c e y o u r f i r s t c h i l d was born? If yes a. When d i d you l a s t  apply?  b . What happened t o t h a t request? c. What was t h e r e a s o n you were t u r n e d down?  B-IV 5.  FINANCIAL SUPPORT (continued)  114  (continued)  d. What d i d you do this? e. How  about  d i d you manage?  ASK EVERYONE At the present time do you have any source(s) of support other than the ones we have discussed?  A. How  about:  Yes  Fathers (or t h e i r families) of other children Unemployment compensation.  7. As I understand i t , you now have sources of support. (Interviewer: Recapitulate the current support p i c t u r e and write i n box below a l l current sources of support).  CURRENT INCOME Indicate a l l current sources of support and amounts (amount earned before deductions i s to be shown) Source  1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  6.  Amount (Specify i f weekly or monthly)  No  115 FINANCIAL SUPPORT (continued)  If more than one source of support, ask 8 80 What would you say i s your main source of support at the present time?  ASK EVERYONE 9 „ Are you able to manage your l i v i n g expenses on what you are r e c e i v i n g nov/?  If not able to manage and not r e c e i v i n g p u b l i c assistance A„ Is there any reason why you haven't applied to DSS to see i f they could help you out?  CURRENT EXPENDITURE Amount (Specify i f weekly or monthly) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5=  Rent Gas  o o . . . . . .  Electricity Telephone . . Food .«...<, . 6. C l o t h i n g ... 7. Recreation.. 8„ Medical care Other . 9 c  B-V  116  MOTHER'S HEALTH Now I would l i k e to ask you some questions e s p e c i a l l y about your h e a l t h .  1. What about your health in general? Have you had any major or serious health problems i n the l a s t year or so?  - just about yourself  yes A. What was (were) the trouble(s)? B. When was t h i s ? (How long d i d i t last?) C. Were you treated f o r t h i s ? If  treated  (1) Where? If  not treated  (2) Why not? D. Does t h i s s t i l l If  still  trouble you?  troubled  (1) Are you s t i l l being  treated?  If yes a. Where? If no b. Why not? E . Do you have any other health problems now? (If yes, get details)  2. Where do you u s u a l l y go f o r care when you are sick?  A. When d i d you l a s t go there? B. Any problems i n g e t t i n g the help you need there? What?  »  B-V  MOTHER'S HEALTH  117  (continued)  If mother has more than one c h i l d 3. When you had your l a s t baby, where d i d you go f o r care?  A. Did you go f o r medical care during pregnancy? If yes, ask (1) - ( 3 ) If no, ask (4)  /  (1) Where? (2) What month of pregnancy did you s t a r t ? If started 4th month or l a t e r , ask a. Why d i d you wait u n t i l then? (3) How o f t e n d i d you go? I:c no care (4) Why didn't you go? B. Did you go f o r a medical check-up a f t e r that baby was born? If no, ask (1) (1) Why didn't you go?  B-V  MOTHER'S HEALTH  (continued)  118  Now we would l i k e t o ask you some q u e s t i o n s about how you f e e l . I'm g o i n g t o r e a d some s t a t e m e n t s t o you and ask you t o t e l l me w h i c h o f t h e answers a p p l y t o y o u . 1. I f e e l time.  weak a l l o v e r much o f t h e  I've h a d p e r i o d s o f days, weeks o r months when I c o u l d n ' t t a k e care o f t h i n g s because I c o u l d n ' t "get g o i n g " . 3. I n g e n e r a l , would you s a y t h a t most o f t h e time you a r e i n h i g h ( v e r y good) s p i r i t s , good s p i r i t s or v e r y low s p i r i t s ? 4. E v e r y so o f t e n a l l over.  I suddenly f e e l h o t  5. Have you e v e r b e e n b o t h e r e d b y y o u r h e a r t b e a t i n g h a r d ? Would you s a y : o f t e n , sometimes o r never? 6. Would you s a y y o u r a p p e t i t e f a i r , good o r t o o good?  i s poor,  1. Y e s 2. No 1. 2. 3. 4.  Yes Yes Yes No  1. 2. 3. 4.  High Good Low V e r y low  1. Y e s 2. No 1. O f t e n 2. Sometimes 3. N e v e r 1. 2. 3. 4.  Poor Fair Good Too good  7. I have p e r i o d s o f such g r e a t r e s t l e s s n e s s t h a t I cannot s i t l o n g i n a c h a i r (cannot s i t s t i l l v e r y long).  1. Y e s 2. No  8. A r e you t h e w o r r y i n g (a w o r r i e r ? )  1. Y e s 2. No  type  days weeks months  9. Have you e v e r been b o t h e r e d b y s h o r t n e s s o f b r e a t h when you were not e x e r c i s i n g o r working hard? o u l d you- say: o f t e n , sometimes, or never?  1. O f t e n 2. Sometimes 3. N e v e r  10. A r e you e v e r b o t h e r e d b y n e r v o u s ness ( i r r i t a b l e , f i d g e t y , tense)? Would you s a y : o f t e n , sometimes, or never?  1. O f t e n 2. Sometimes 3. N e v e r  w  B-V  MOTHER'S HEALTH  (continued)  119 11. Have you e v e r had any f a i n t i n g s p e l l s (lost consciousness)? Would you s a y : n e v e r , a few t i m e s , o r more t h a n a few t i m e s ?  1. N e v e r 2. A few t i m e s 3. More t h a n a few  12.  Do you e v e r have any t r o u b l e i n g e t t i n g to s l e e p or s t a y i n g a s l e e p ? would you s a y : o f t e n , sometimes, o r n e v e r ?  Often Sometimes Never  13.  I am b o t h e r e d b y a c i d ( s o u r ) stomach s e v e r a l - t i m e s a week  Yes No  14. My memory seems t o be (good)  a l l right,  Yes No.  15. Have you e v e r been b o t h e r e d b y " c o l d sweats"? Would you s a y : o f t e n , sometimes o r n e v e r ?  Often Sometimes Never  16. Do y o u r hands e v e r t r e m b l e enough t o b o t h e r you? Would you s a y o f t e n , sometimes, o r n e v e r  Often Sometimes Never  17. There seems t o be a f u l l n e s s ( c l o g g i n g ) i n my h e a d o r nose much o f t h e t i m e  Yes No  18.  I have p e r s o n a l w o r r i e s t h a t me down p h y s i c a l l y (make me physically i l l ) .  get  19. Do you f e e l somewhat a p a r t even among f r i e n d s ( a p a r t , i s o l a t e d , alone)? 20. N o t h i n g e v e r t u r n s o u t f o r me the way I want i t t o ( t u r n s o u t , happens, comes about, i .e. my w i s h e s a r e n ' t fulfilled). 21. A r e you e v e r t r o u b l e d v / i t h h e a d a c h e s o r p a i n s i n t h e head? Would you s a y : o f t e n , sometimes o r n e v e r ? 22. You sometimes c a n ' t h e l p w o n d e r i n g i f a n y t h i n g i s w o r t h w h i l e any more.  Yes No 1. Yes 2. No Yes No  1. O f t e n 2. Sometimes 3. N e v e r Yes No  times  B-VI  COMMUNITY SERVICES  1. Sometimes people need to t a l k with someone about t h e i r worries - they may go to someone (aside from family or friends) l i k e t h e i r m i n i s t e r , or a lawyer, or E community worker, or a s o c i a l worker, or a doctor and the like. In the l a s t year, did you want to t a l k v/ith someone about your plans f o r y o u r s e l f or your children?  120  IF YES, ASK A IF NO, ASK B WANTED HELP OR ADVICE A. Did you a c t u a l l y go some place f o r help or t a l k to anyone ? If yes, ask (1) - (4) If no, ask (5) (1) Where d i d you go? (With whom d i d you talk?) (2) when exactly, v/as that? (3) What did you t a l k about?  What are some of the things that you do about things that worry you that have not been mentioned here?  (4) What help or advice d i d you get? If no (5) Why didn't you? DID NOT WANT HELP OR ADVICE B. Did you know that there were places that you could go to t a l k over your plans and problems and get advice? If knows places (1) Which ones have you heard about? (2) I f you had problems would you hve gone there? If not a. Why not? If does not; know places (3) Would you have gone i f you knew of such places? (If not, why not?)  •VI  COMMUNITY SERVICES  (continued)  2. Since your f i r s t c h i l d was born, have you ever gone to any (other) kind of s o c i a l welfare agency (other than DSS) f o r help of any kind?  121  If yes A. Where? B. When? C. What for? D. What happened?  3. During the past year, have you been to court or the p o l i c e or have you t a l k e d to a probation o f f i c e r or any other o f f i c i a l l i k e that? If yes A. With whom d i d you t a l k ? B. When was t h i s ? C. What d i d you see him about? D. Anyone else? (If yes, get details).  122 PART C  -  FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS  Did the baby's father want you to keep the baby? Definitely Probably Probably not D e f i n i t e l y not Does not know The baby's father's r e a c t i o n towards involvement was? Strongly refused involvement Refused involvement but l e f t door open Do you ever have doubts of having a successful marriage? A l l the time Frequently Occasionally Rarely Never Do you see your f i r s t baby's father? A. When d i d you l a s t see (or hear from) father? If contact  :_' ? s  i n l a s t year  (1) How often do you see (hear from) him? B. Do you know i f he i s working now?  123 (continued)  If yes (1) What does he do now? (occupation and industry) (2) Is i t steady, i r r e g u l a r , or spot jobs? Do you know the highest he attended i n school?  grade  If knows (1) What? (2) Did he f i n i s h the grade year?  Can you t e l l me i f you think having a c h i l d when you d i d has delayed your g e t t i n g married?  A. Why do you say that? B. Do you think there are any advantages i n g e t t i n g married? What?  What i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p with your parents at the present time:  With your father very close close somewhat close not close distant , father not l i v i n g Comments: With your mother very close close somewhat close - not close distant mother not l i v i n g Comments:  124 8. What i s your r e l a t i o n s h i p with the f r i e n d s you had p r i o r to becoming pregnant? s t i l l very close close not close distant have not seen them since the b i r t ' of the baby 9.  Have you made nev; friends since the b i r t h of the baby?  If_yes: A. Have these people been other s i n g l e parents? B. Neighbours? C. Where d i d you meet them? D. Do they know that you are single? If no: A. What i s the mother's perceptior of the cause of her i n a b i l i t y to meet new friends?  10. How often do you go out i n a week?  11. Do you go out alone, o r with someone? alone friend relative  A. Where do you u s u a l l y go? to v i s i t f r i e n d s to a movie shopping clinic other r e c r e a t i o n  125 12. Who looks a f t e r the baby when you go out? baby's father friend relative sitter leaves baby alone  13. Do you pay f o r t h i s Yes No /  If yes, how much?  service?  PART D - SATISFACTIONS AND PROBLEMS D-I  126  MOTHER'S PERCEPTION Before we f i n i s h , I'd l i k e to talk some more about yourself. 1. At t h i s time i n your l i f e , can you t e l l me what e s p e c i a l l y makes you happy?  2. Have you ever f e l t you'd rather be doing something else than what you are doing now? If yes A. What would t h i s be?  3. At t h i s time i n your l i f e , i s there anything you are e s p e c i a l l y worried about?  How about A. i n r e l a t i o n to yourself? What? B. In r e l a t i o n to the children? What? C. In r e l a t i o n to others? What?  4. Do you encounter any other concerns that have not been included i n t h i s questionnaire? I f so, What action do you u s u a l l y take t o deal with these concerns? L i s t concerns  L i s t actions  D-I  MOTHER'S PERCEPTION  (continued)  127  5. I'm g o i n g t o r e a d a l i s t o f p o s s i b l e p r o b l e m s t h a t a mother m i g h t have. T e l l me i f you c o n s i d e r any o f t h e s e a p r o b l e m f o r you a t t h i s time? V7HERE YES: HOW SERIOUS DO YOU CONSIDER THIS: A L I T T L E , SOMEWHAT, VERY, V?fIY? (RECORD RESPONSE BELOW  F o r each " y e s " r e c o r d response Money Housing Medical  care f o r y o u r s e l f  Medical  care  Education Finding  for child(ren)  f o r yourself  aiob  Lack o f i o b t r a i n i n g Taking care o f the c h i l d (ren) y o u r s e l f F i n d i n q someone t o t a k e care o f c h i l d ( r e n ) Havinq with Being  someone t o t a l k  lonely  No  Yes  A  (1) Little  Seriousness (2) (3) Somewhat Very  128 D-I 6.  MOTHER'S PERCEPTION  (continued)  Looking back since your f i r s t c h i l d was born, what would you say a community agency, or a c i t y agency, could have done to help make things e a s i e r f o r you? S p e c i f i c a l l y , what kind o f help d i d you need i n : Housing Finances Education Medical care Job T r a i n i n g C h i l d care Employment Anything  else  7.  C l o s i n g comments. We would l i k e to thank you f o r g i v i n g us your time. We know the information you have given us has been and w i l l be h e l p f u l i n planning s e r v i c e s f o r mothers.  8.  Do. you have any questions you wish to ask? (Here interviewer could i n t e r p r e t study f u r t h e r i f a l l of i n t r o d u c t o r y remarks are not covered).  APPENDIX E Index o f Emotional H e a l t h  Status  "A Twenty-two Item S c r e e n i n g Score o f P s y c h i a t r i c Symptoms I n d i c a t i n g Impairment" developed Midtown Manhattan Study o f Mental  d u r i n g the course o f the  D i s o r d e r i n Manhattan, New  York City,""'and u t i l i z e d b y Sauber and C o r r i g a n i n t h e i r 1970 2 study i n New York, was used i n t h i s study. T h i s researcher assigned a numerical t o each item impairment). respondent  r a t i n g o f 0-1  (1 = v a r y i n g degrees o f impairment, 0 = no The minimum s c o r e t h a t c o u l d be o b t a i n e d b y each  was 0, and t h e maximum score 22.  The p a r t i c i p a n t s  were then c l a s s i f i e d i n t o two groups, a low r a t i n g and a h i g h r a t i n g group.  The women w i t h a low r a t i n g scored from 0 - 7 ,  t h o s e w i t h a h i g h r a t i n g scored from 12 - 16.  These d i v i s i o n s  were made as t h e women f e l l n a t u r a l l y i n t o these two c a t e gories.  None o f t h e women scored between 8 - 12, o r over 16  points.  Thomas S. Langner, "A Twenty-two Item S c r e e n i n g Score o f P s y c h i a t r i c Symptoms I n d i c a t i n g Impairment," J o u r n a l o f H e a l t h and S o c i a l Behaviour, 3 (1962), 269-276. 2 Mignon Sauber and E i l e e n C o r r i g a n , The S i x Year E x p e r i e n c e o f Unwed Mothers as Parents (New York: Community C o u n c i l o f G r e a t e r New York, 1970). Q u e s t i o n n a i r e o b t a i n e d on r e q u e s t .  130 APPENDIX F P e r c e i v e d Problem R a t i n g  Scale  A P e r c e i v e d Problem R a t i n g S c a l e was computed bya s s i g n i n g a s c o r e o f 0 - 3 f o r each o f 11 socio-economic c a t e g o r i e s a c c o r d i n g to how s e r i o u s t h e mother thought t h a t problem was f o r h e r .  Although the maximum p o s s i b l e score was  33, no woman scored more than 22 p o i n t s . The women were a r b i t r a r i l y c l a s s i f i e d groups: 1.  0 - 5 Low problem  rating,  2.  6 - 1 2 Medium problem  3.  1 3 - 2 2 High problem  rating, rating.  into  three  

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