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Derivation and application of a model of lens meaning Emme, Michael John 1991

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Derivation and Application of a Model of Lens Meaning By Michael John Emme B . A . , The University of Victoria, 1976 M . A . , The University of British Columbia, 1986  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION  in THE F A C U L T Y OF G R A D U A T E STUDIES Curriculum and Instructional Studies: Art Education  We accept this thesis as conforming to the required  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH C O L U M B I A February 1991 © Michael John Emme, 1991  In  presenting this  degree at the  thesis  in  University of  partial  fulfilment  of  of  department  this thesis for or  by  his  or  requirements  British Columbia, I agree that the  freely available for reference and study. I further copying  the  representatives.  an advanced  Library shall make it  agree that permission for extensive  scholarly purposes may be her  for  It  is  granted  by the  understood  that  head of copying  my or  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  DE-6 (2/88)  ii  Abstract The twofold purpose of this study was to ground a model of Meaning  Lens  in the literature of the Fine Arts and Social Sciences and to use  that term as a referent in evaluating three Media Studies curricula. Lens  Meaning  is a term derived from  a variety of  sources,  particularly Peirce (1955), whose semiotic theory described three systems of signs used as terms on one axis of a matrix or model by which Meaning  Lens  can be described. These terms are: "index", "icon", and "symbol".  DeLauretis'  (1984) expanded  understanding  of another  system  of signs  described by Peirce, interpretants, is the foundation for the three terms on the other axis of the matrix. Those terms, which describe interpretation or response, are: "emotional", "energetic", and "habit changing".  These, and  other terms identified in the literature, provided a conceptual model that might be applied to the analysis and evaluation of programs of Media Studies, and similar documents. Three Western  Media  Australia,  Studies  programs  Ontario, and  were  selected  for  Scotland. Application  study: of  the  from model  permitted conclusions to be drawn on the extent to which current issues of an ideological and sociopolitical nature were addressed by these programs. It was concluded that the model achieved the purposes required of it and that it may be of further utility for educators.  iii  Table of Contents i ii iii-v vi vii  Title Page Abstract Table of Contents List of Figures Acknowledgements  CHAPTER 1 CRITICISM A N D THE C A M E R A Introduction The Problem and Key Questions Justification for the Study Summary  PAGE 1 1 2 4 8  2  THE MEANING(S) OF LENS M E A N I N G Introduction Lens Meaning Three Key Metaphors The Complexities of Lens Meaning Summary  13 13 13 1 9 24 27  3  L I V E TELEVISION: Indexicality and Lens Meaning Introduction Televisual "Reality" The Four "Realitites" of Television News The Reality of the Present The Reality of the Immediate The Reality of the "Normal" The Reality of the Contradictory Summary  31 31 32 34 35 37 42 43 46  4  T H E V I S U A L ASPECTS OF N A R R A T I V E IN F I L M : Iconic Signs and Lens Meaning Introduction The Horror Genre Nosferatu Psycho Summary  47 47 53 56 58 60  iv 5  PHOTOGRAPHY A N D C U L T U R A L INVISIBILITY: Symbolic Signs and Lens Meaning Summary  62 70  6  T H E USES OF LENS MEANING Uses in the Social Sciences Aspects of Lens Meaning Reaiism Mechanism Presentation Expression Control Representation Conceptualism Production Acculturation Curriculum Documents and the Matrix Summary  71 71 75 75 76 77 78 79 79 81 82 82 83 85  7  MEDIA STUDIES IN WESTERN A U S T R A L I A Curriculum Guidelines Media Conventions Media Workshops (Vol. 1 & 2) Meet the Media Critical Review  87 87 90 91 103 108  8  MEDIA STUDIES IN THE PROVINCE OF ONTARIO Curriculum Guidelines The Media Literacy Resource Guide Mass Media and Popular Culture Mass Media and Popular Culture Teacher's Guide Critical Review  11 3 113 114 120 13 0 13 1  9  MEDIA STUDIES IN SCOTLAND Introduction Curriculum Guidelines Picturing Women: Scottish Women in Photography Another Time Another Place Open to Question: Mary Whithouse Critical Review  1 34 134 136 142 147 1 51 15 2  V  1 0 FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS, A N D IMPLICATIONS OF LENS MEANING FOR EDUCATION Summary of Comparisons of Three Media Studies Programs The Questions Readdressed Directions for Further Research  155 15 5 160 16 3  FOOTNOTES  167  REFERENCES  171  vi List of Figures Figure one Aspects of Lens Meaning Figure two The Western Australian Media Studies Unit Map Figure three The Scottish Media Studies Unit Map  30 169 170  vii Acknowledgements  Thank you Mary-Jane, Paul and Monica, for living this with me. Thanks also to: Ron MacGregor, LeRoi Daniels, and Jeff Wall, each of whom contributed something important to my doctoral committee and to the finished work.  1  Chapter  1  Criticism and the  Camera  Introduction "It has been said that not he who is ignorant of writing but ignorant of photography will be the illiterate of the future." (Benjamin, 1980, p. 215)  The  early vision of the revolutionary impact of photography cited  above has not been shared by many of those educators whose supposed job it is to guard society against ignorance and illiteracy, but that doesn't mean that the writer was wrong. The barrage of messages about self and society conveyed to us via the lens is so vast that, like the numbing silence of white noise, it has become effectively invisible. Photo-historian and critic A . D . Coleman (1986) has gone so far as to make the suggestion that we have been a lens culture since a specific point in the 16th century, and that lens tools in various forms have metaphorically defined the way we know  ourselves  photography, film  and  our  world.  A  statistical  litany  of  instances  of  or video in our daily lives would be a monotonous  reprise of the obvious. Just try to imagine what life would be like if all the products of television, film, and photography were to vanish today. Unplug the televisions; lock up the family  photo albums; board up the movie  theatres; paint over most advertising billboards; and, of course, eliminate from  the  classroom all lens  products,  filmstrips to overhead projectors  from  pictures  in textbooks  and  and educational video. Both figuratively  and literally, the term "dark ages" comes to mind.  2  The Problem The  problem  curricula  is  to  address the  and Key Questions  determine  study of  how  existing  Media  Studies  meaning in lens imagery.  The questions which this study will consider are: 1.  Can a theoretical  Meaning  be  disciplines  understanding  supported  which  have  by  the  addressed  the  of  the  literature uses and  concept of  of  the  meanings  Lens various  of  lens  media? 2. that  Can a conceptual rendering of Lens  is  suitable  for  the  analysis  of  Meaning  Media  be  Studies  devised program  materials? 3. To what extent is Lens  Meaning  applicable  to  educational  practice? Chapter two will offer a brief survey of major positions considered in the literature on the philosophy of meaning, followed by an argument for the term Lens Meaning The  importance  schemes  will  be  and  as philosophically sound and useful for this study. difficulty  addressed  of  as  part  building  or  adopting  of this chapter.  categorization  Peirce's  tripartite  system of signs (Peirce, 1955) as expanded by DeLauretis (1984) will be used as a foundation for this research, but the study is intended, in part, to examine the literature for patterns and potential categories that make up a conception of Lens  Meaning  in the literature without promising a rigid  structure to that conception. Chapters three to six will identify and survey the literature that can address the legitimacy of the term Lens Meaning. While the array of fields surveyed may seem chaotic including, as it does, extensive writings in the arts, social sciences and education, these disciplines do represent the scope of media study. As Geertz (1980) has suggested,  3 The  properties  connecting texts  with one another,  that put  them,  ontologically anyway, on the same level, are coming to seem as important in characterizing them as those dividing them; and rather than face an array of natural kinds, fixed  types divided by sharp  qualitative differences, we more and more see ourselves surrounded by  a  vast,  diversely  almost  continuous  constructed  works  field we  of  can  variously intended order  only  and  practically,  relationally, and as our purposes prompt us. (p. 166) Chapter six also synthesizes the material in the preceding  chapters  into a conception of Lens Meaning in the form of a matrix. Chapters seven, eight and nine together represent  analysis and evaluation phases directed  toward the three Media Studies curricula considered by the study. Each specific curriculum will get a chapter of its own. The first portions of chapters seven, eight, and nine will involve the descriptive analysis of the respective Media Studies curricula with regard to their teaching of Meaning,  Lens  within the terms of the matrix. These qualitative summaries will  use what Worthen and Sanders call "informal content analysis" (1987, p. 314).  Examples of similar approaches to curriculum evaluation in the Arts  and  Media  Studies  include:  Bayer  (1983),  Bazalgette  (1986),  and  Shoemaker (1987). Quantitative methods of content analysis, as described by Weber (1985) and Dym (1985), are inappropriate for understanding the complex interrelationships under consideration in this study. The evaluation of each of the three Media Studies curricula described above will be addressed at the end of Chapters seven, eight, and nine. As Eisner (1985) suggests:  "The significance of [curriculum] content can be  determined only with criteria that flow from a set of values about what counts educationally. But whatever these criteria are, and they will for  different  differ  groups and individuals, the application of such criteria is  4 important for appraising the value of the curriculum in the first place" (p. 201). Thus, implications of the scope and focus of each curriculum will be discussed in relation to the literature  surveyed, and in relation to those  terms identified in the matrix presented in Chapter six.  Justification for the "The media" has production  and  become  distribution  Study  an inclusive term of  still  and  that covers the  moving  images  mass  presented  cinematically, electronically and in print, as well as the aural and printed mass presentation  of words,  and  the  presentation  nonverbal sounds. The media communicate via  global,  magazines,  popular computers,  communications radios,  and  other  visually, verbally, and aurally  networks  films and,  of music  such  of course,  as  newspapers,  television. Without  question, governments and giant industries which largely own or regulate the media have particular interests, such as profit and control, that are served  by these popular  means of distributing news, entertainment, and  advertising (Nelson, 1987). When viewed as a tool used in building and maintaining Hans  economic  Magnus  (Enzenberger,  and  Enzenberger  cultural hegemony, coined  the  it is understandable that  term  "consciousness  industry"  1974) in describing the institutional use of mass media.  Echoing the  optimism of theorists such  as  Brecht and  Benjamin,  recent empirical studies (Manley-Casimir, 1987; Boeckmann & Hipfl, have argued  that children are not just "passive  Instead, it is argued,  children construct  meaning  victims" of the  1987) media.  from media messages  using the tools of their life-experience. The circularity in this is that if the child's life-experience is based  in large part on the television that they  have viewed, then they may be victims of a closed system. It does not seem reasonable to expect an individual whose knowledge is mainly the  5 result of exposure to the mass media to be "naturally" able to bring a critical stance to reception of that "mediated" information, but this is not because  of a fundamental  suggestion  lack of potential for critical awareness.  that children's (and adults')  interpretations  The  of the media  are  active implies the potential for a critical consciousness that should be developed and expanded (Brecht, 1977; Hefzallah, 1987). Given the impact of the various lens media as ubiquitous tools of communication in our society, it is puzzling that so little has been done in schools to equip children with about  those  suggestion  images.  that  "some  Art  the fundamentals  educator  newer  Vincent  media can  be  for thinking critically  Lanier's  very  looked upon  tentative  as  ends in  themselves" (Lanier, 1966, p. 7), that is, as legitimate art forms, was a comment hidden in an article otherwise devoted to encouraging teachers to teach  with,  not teach  about,  newer  media. This is a long  way  recognizing the capacity to convey meaning that is a demonstrable  from aspect  of the lens images that surround us. Rogena Degge (1985), Dan Nadaner (1985) and Terry Barrett (1986) are among the very few North American art educators who teach about the pervasiveness of media images. In  a  recent  study  of  children's  television, Jaglom and Gardner comment invented  ways  of presenting  children"  (Jaglom & Gardner,  development  in  understanding  that "our culture has not  [television] or  teaching  its  yet  structure  1981, p. 35). And while Media  to  Studies  programs are in place or being developed around the world (Masterman, 1980,  1985; Dake,  pedagogical appropriately  1982; Horsfield,  and curricular questions taught  across  the  1987; Adams, 1988), such as  whether  curriculum or as  fundamental  media are  a separate  more  specialty  (Learmouth, 1985, p. 6) or, in fact, i f the media should be taught at all (Evans,  1985,  p.  1),  are  still  being  hotly  debated.  There  is  also  6 fragmentation in the field as to whether the tools of the media function neutrally,  so  that  any  meaning  found  in  a  media  text  has  been  transparently conveyed from other "meaningful" sources; or if the media function as unique visual languages with systematic codes that differ  from  natural language; or if McLuhan's aphorism (1964) about the medium itself being the message is applicable. While the structure of those parts of media messages that rely on words to communicate needs to be studied and taught, at least some of the knowledge and critical skills necessary to deal with that task are currently a part of most language arts programs. The fact that most current Media Studies programs are a part of Language Arts curricula (Duncan, 1988; Horsfield, students  1987) and that many media educators of  Literature  (Bazalgette,  1986)  took their training as  suggests  the  strength  of  representation by this field in Media Studies. The same cannot be said of the fields that concern themselves  with the visual and aural aspects of  Media Studies' interdisciplinary whole. In reviewing Making Sense of the Media  (Hartley, Goulden, & O'Sullivan,  curriculum, Bazalgette (1986) draws  1985) a British media  attention  to the principal  media studies, which he identifies as being between  studies split in  a literary/aesthetic  approach and a sociological approach. In discussing the relationship of film theory  to  instructional  television,  Degraff  (1985)  suggests  that  the  literature on television has a sociological critique, but little sense of the form and structure of the medium. This study's thesis is, in part, that a rich understanding  of the visual in the  media can and should inform  both  literary/aesthetic and sociological approaches to Media Studies. The lens image's presence and impact in our society is undeniable. What  is it then  that keeps  educators,  and  the  public generally,  from  7 recognizing these pictures as the constructed objects that they are? Why do we all too often accept them as unmediated reality? The  issue of "realism" has always been central to discussion of the  lens image. From the beginning, the camera offered a kind of "realistic" image  (Kracauer,  representation.  1960)  that  Louis Jacques  seemed  when he called  physical  gives Nature the  which  go  far  beyond  "mere"  Mande Daguerre described photography in  almost biological terms process  to  his invention "a chemical and ability  to reproduce  herself"  (Newhall, 1964, p. 17). George Bernard Shaw, one of many late nineteenth and early twentieth  century  literary figures  fascinated  by the  camera,  declared that: If you cannot see at a glance that the old game is up, that the camera has hopelessly beaten the pencil and paint brush as an instrument of artistic representation, then you will never make a true critic: you are only, like most critics, a picture fancier. (Cited in Bunnell, 1980, p. 3) More recent writers, such as Susan Sontag (1973) and Max Kozloff (1979, 1987), discuss the realism of lens images in terms of their capacity to fascinate and disarm the viewer. Film theorist Dudley Andrews (1984) sets the image in motion, suggesting that: Psychologically, phenomenon.  cinema  Viewers  does  indeed  employ their  affect  eyes  and  us ears  as to  a  natural  apprehend  visual and aural forms corresponding to things, beings, and situations in  the  world.  The full  machinery of cinema, the  cinema as an  invention of popular science, ensures that we can see  anew,  see  more, but also see in the same way. Most important, this naturalness suggests  an  attitude  for  spectators  that  involves curiosity  alertness within a "horizon" of familiarity, (p. 19)  and  8 From the field of television education, Len Masterman (1980) adds that: The study of television is vital not simply because  it is such a  pervasive and influential medium, but, as we have seen, because of its  apparent  transparency  and  naturalness.  Knowledge  of  mediated and constructed nature of the television message,  the  and of  the ways in which pictures are used selectively ought to be part of the common stock of every person's knowledge in a world communication industrialized,  at  all  levels  is  both  increasingly  where  visual  and  (p.13)  Because we perceive lens images in all their forms in a way that differs only minimally from our perception of reality, that is, because we receive them as virtually natural, we tend not to bring to those images the kind  of critical  sensibility that would  allow  us  to  form  a  reasoned  interpretation and valuation of their message. There is ample evidence of this in the successes of politicians and advertisers in persuading consumers simply to act on the basis of the careful manipulation of an image (Taylor, 1987). Part of the camera's power as a tool of communication lies in the fact that our first response to lens imagery is often uncritical. We do not readily  recognize  these  images  as  intentional objects  that  have  been  constructed by another.  Summary This study has three purposes. 1.)  To  survey  contributions Lens  the to  Meaning.  a  literature, theoretical  and  to  identify  understanding  various of  the  disciplines' concept  of  9 Part of the work of this study is to critically survey the literature of film, photography and television, in order to build a comprehensive sense of the debate about critical response  to lens imagery. This survey will  include, in addition to writings in aesthetics  and film  technology, those  areas of the social sciences which have made the understanding of lens images a central concern. Writings in education, especially as they pertain to television studies where educators  have taken critical leadership, will  also be included as an introduction to the final, evaluative portion of this study. Edmund Feldman, in Varieties of Visual Experience  (Feldman, 1972),  argues that the end of art criticism is a broadened understanding of the meaning and value of an image, and the means to that end is through talk. The  general absence of talk about lens media in the schools, as evidenced  by the continued call for the development of such programs (Jaglom, L . & Gardner, H . 1981; Finn, P., 1980; O'Rourke, B . , 1981; Boeckmann, 1985; Trend,  1988),  suggests  that  the  school  system  doesn't  consider  the  interpretation of the filmic, photographic and video images surrounding us to be a problem. I would argue that the real problem is that teachers are not in a position to teach students to understand the media because they don't understand  the media very well themselves. This may be, in part,  because the mass media cross categories. It is unusual to find a teacher who  feels competent in film, photography, video, aesthetics, anthropology,  sociology, history, and psychology. It is hoped this study will  help to  rationalize media studies through a clarification of terms and purpose, and point the  way to those  aspects of various subject  fields offering  the  greatest relevance for education in Media Studies. It is the thesis of this study that understanding lens media requires interdisciplinary activity. Furthermore, while few teachers have all these  10 competencies, Language  most teachers use the media in their classrooms. Just as  Arts educators argue that every classroom, regardless  of  the  content of the course being taught, is (for better or worse) a language class, every classroom, whether incidentally or intentionally, is a media  studies  lab. Introductory statements in existing Media Studies curricula reflect this sense of mission In modern society our view of the world is heavily dependent on our exposure to the mass media. The ways in which we see our collective selves and the global environment into which we fit are increasingly affected  by television, the press, radio, cinema, and advertising...Our  school system must pay proper attention  to the ways in which the  mass media exert influence. (Adams, 1988, p . l )  Because the media play such an important role in our culture and because they are so significant in our understanding society, it would seem essential  that the  of ourselves in  school curriculum should  make provisions for the study of the processes and mechanisms by which this occurs. (Ministry of Education, Ontario 1987, p. 20) A  curriculum that comprehensively considers  strategies for critical  viewing would play an important part in equipping teachers to recognize and direct the lessons being learned in their classrooms about the meaning of media messages.  2.) To provide a conceptual rendering of Lens be applied to  Despite  the  the  analysis of  scope  program  and seeming  Meaning that may  materials.  diversity of the disciplines being  addressed in this study, there are conceptual threads held in common. It is  11 these  interconnections  conceptual 3.)  To  that  will  function  as  the  foundation  of  the  schema. effect  educational  a  practical  practice through  connection application  between  of Lens  theory  and  Meaning.  In providing a meeting place for philosophy and education around the issue of Lens  Meaning  , this study may have relevance for the larger  issue of meaning in the media. Each  of these parties—the  something from  philosopher and  the  educator—learns  the other. The philosopher gets hints about  what  knowledge is from studying the learning and teaching process, which shows what actually counts as knowledge in the practical context. And the educator picks up suggestions about what knowledge is, but perhaps more importantly, is not, by listening to philosophers make distinctions or clarify  the relationships between knowledge, on the  one hand, and instincts or attitudes or skills or habits or feelings, on the other; and between learning on the one hand and experiencing or living or changing or trying on the other. (Scriven, 1988, p. 132) It  is not  the  purpose  of  this  study  to pass judgement  on  the  desireability of adopting these curricula that are to be evaluated. Criticism and evaluation have much in common: in purpose, process, and impact. Both can be useful. Both can injure. Both are potentially harmful  when  decision  maker,  the  critic-evaluator presumes  recommending  to  another  to what  be  a  course  surrogate to  take  without revealing the values to which he is responding. The criticevaluator can play a different role, a helpmate role (even, of course, with negative findings), enabling another to make his decisions on  12 the  grounds  measures  of additional experience,  of the  vicarious experience. Two  value of evaluation are its increment  experience and its increase in response  of added  alternatives. (Stake,  1975,  pp. 26-27) This study will analyse Media Studies curricula and evaluate them only in relation to a model of what could become a curriculum that teaches Lens  Meaning.  The ultimate aim is for media educators,  (including art  educators) to be better equipped to select or design curricula that fit their own and their students' needs and values.  13  Chapter  2  The Meaning(s) of Lens  Meaning  Introduction As a photographer and an art educator, I want to come to a better understanding  of  how  lens  images  (photographs,  film  and television)  convey meaning. This is not a trivial or purely academic concern. Recently American media educator David Trend observed that Media studies  of any kind are virtually nonexistent in elementary  and secondary schools. Yet serious studies of film, photography, and video are most needed in these latter areas, as students encounter powerful mechanisms of socialization that will follow them the rest of their lives...Without a pedagogical imperative, the broader mission of progressive culture stands in jeopardy. (Trend, 1988, p. 10). The  argument  being  attention among educators  initiated  here  is  intended  to  draw  further  to the meanings conveyed by lens media. To  this end this chapter will describe three key metaphors  drawn from  film  and photographic theory and connect them with Peirce's semiotics (1955) to build a foundation for further discussion.  Lens In his essay  Meaning  "On the Invention of Photographic Meaning" (1984),  Allen Sekula suggests that: All  photographic  communication seems to  take  place  within  the  conditions of a kind of binary folklore. That is, there is a "symbolist"  14 folk-myth form  of  and this  a "realist" folk-myth. opposition  photography."  Every  is  "art  photograph  The misleading but  photography" tends,  at  any  vs.  popular  "documentary  given moment of  reading in any given context, toward one of these two poles of meaning. The oppositions between these two poles are as photographer expression  as seer vs. photographer  vs. photography  as  follows:  as witness, photography  reportage,  theories  as  of imagination  (and inner truth) vs. theories of empirical truth, affective value vs. informative  value,  and  finally,  metaphoric  signification  vs.  metonymic signification, (pp. 20-21) Sekula refers • directly to two layers of signification (form as meaning and content as meaning) and indirectly to a third (context as meaning). His argument content  suggests that there is a constant notions  struggle  of meaning.  suggests  that  it  Sekula's  functions  tension  allusion as  an  to  between context  over-arching  form  and  outside  this  influence  on  meaning, much as the arena is the larger context in which two boxers vie for domination. Sekula's tripartite conception of photographic meaning is a useful starting point for discussion. However, in order to expand his notions to include photography, Meaning,"  film,  by which  and television, I must create a term  I mean the understanding  that results  "Lens  from  use  (whether through making or viewing) of lens images. By lens images I mean any visual representation, whether projected on a screen (including a television screen), or in the air (as in a holograph), or printed on a page or other surface, that has been created or reproduced with the aid of a lens and any chemically or electronically light sensitive matrix. I hope that I am avoiding the pitfalls that Michael Scriven attributes to redefinition in conceptual  analysis  (in Jaeger,  1988, p.  138),  simply  because  Lens  15 Meaning, one.  as far as I can tell, is a new term, not a redefinition of an older  In  one  sense  the  term  narrows  considerably  a  large  field  in  philosophy, by limiting concern to meaning only as it refers to lens images. At the same time, by combining the technologies of photography, film, and television, it runs counter to much modernist writing in the aesthetics of these media, which tries to explore the "nature" and uniqueness  of each  separately. One purpose of this study is to analyze terminology that people use to critically discuss lens media and imagery, and to suggest that the new term, Lens  Meaning,  photography,  film,  can be applied to much of what has been said about and  television. Additionally,  I want  to  argue  that  collapsing these three technologies into one larger category is both a useful and an appropriate (if not final) step when considering visual signification. Bright  (1989),  representation,  in discussing ideological issues recommends  not  related  to  mass-media  considering photography  as  a separate  category apart from television or film, or any other mode of "photographic" representation.  [She calls] the separation of objects of study by medium...a  rather dated conceit of formalist art history which tends to obscure issues of content  and history in favour of the seemingly self-evident unity of  expressive form and materials" (Bright, 1989, pp. 12-13). Coleman has applied J. David Bolter's concept of "defining technology" (Coleman, 1986, p. 10) to the lens. Bolter (1984) suggests that: A  defining technology  with  a  culture's  develops  science,  links,  philosophy  available to serve as a metaphor,  metaphorical or or  literature;  it  otherwise, is  always  example, model, or symbol. A  defining technology resembles a magnifying glass, which collects and focuses  seemingly  disparate  ideas  in a culture  into  one  bright,  sometimes piercing ray. Technology does not call forth major cultural  16 changes by itself, but it does bring ideas into new focus by explaining or exemplifying them in new ways to larger audiences, (p. 11) It is intriguing that Bolter, in discussing the computer, which  he  wants to label a defining technology because it has resulted in a "general redefinition of...mankind's [relationship] to the world of nature" (p. 9), uses the metaphor  of the lens just in the way that he suggests a defining  technology would be used. Coleman starts from this base and traces the impact of the lens from its beginnings to the 16th century. Between 1550 and 1553, Coleman argues, western civilization became a lens culture. In that three year span Girolamo Cardano built the first "modern" camera by affixing  a lens  to  the  light-admitting aperture  of a camera  obscura;  Franciscus Maurolycus first suggested that the human eye is like a lens; and two British mathematicians, Leonard and Thomas Digges, designed the first compound lens (Coleman, 1986, p. 13 ). Coleman's notion of technology's impact on the nature and rapidity of cultural change does not correspond to contemporary theories of culture (Fiske, 1989). His argument does, however, make the important point that in that short, three-year period the groundwork  was laid for the lens as a  technology to become a defining metaphor. The photographic recording of information; the generation of new visual information in the sense that a compound lens makes it possible for us to see what our eyes naturally cannot; produced  and, perhaps by  incorporated  the  lens  most as  into the mass  importantly, the being  like  what  acceptance our  eyes  of the see,  have  images been  communications network that Hans Magnus  Enzenberger has labelled "the consciousness industry" (1974). Thus...it would seem to be vital to our advancement as a culture.that we come to understand the extent to which lenses shape, filter and otherwise  alter  the  data  which  passes  [sic]  through  them—the  17 extreme degree to which the lens itself informs  our information. This  influence, though radical in many cases, often manifests itself subtly. Yet even the most blatant distortions tend to be taken for granted as a  result  of  the  trustworthiness  enduring  cultural  confidence  and impartiality of what  in  the  is in fact  essential  a technology  resonant with cultural bias and highly susceptible to manipulation. (Coleman, 1986, p. 18) Coleman's  concern  is  for  what  is  often  referred  "transparency" of lens images. There is a tendency for the  to  as  the  constructedness  of these images to go unrecognized. As Oakeshott argues, it is reasonable to speak of any human product as meaningful. A human being is the inhabitant of a world composed, not of "things", but of meanings; that is, of occurrences in some manner recognized, identified,  understood  and  responded  to  in  terms  of  this  understanding. It is a world of sentiments, beliefs, and it includes also artifacts (such as books, pictures, musical compositions, tools and utensils) for these, also, are 'expressions' which have meanings and which require to be understood in order to be used and enjoyed. (1975, p. 19) But in addition to this general sense, lens images are both systematic and institutional, with the lens providing the system, and the mass media providing the institution. This implies that talking about Lens Meaning can have much the same logic as talking about meaning and language. Brian Barry, in his discussion of three theories of meaning in Argument  Political  (Barry, 1965), suggests that the most naive notion of meaning is  what he calls, "the causal theory" (p. 17). He describes meaning in this context as being conceived in Pavlovian terms. "An utterance corresponds  18 to the dinner-bell and the effect of the utterance to the dog's salivating" (p. 17). In contrast, the "intentional" theory of meaning keys on the speaker's intention. Somehow, meaning is molded by the speaker and the listener's job is to discover that intention. Barry's own conception of meaning takes into account the linguistic forms and conventions of a language, on the one hand, and the social context of particular speech acts on the other. Just as an individual word may have different  meanings  and one  discovers which meaning is relevant by seeing which fits in with the rest of the sentence, so a sentence may have different meanings and one discovers which  is relevant by examining the  context  of its  utterance, which includes both the linguistic context (what was said before) and the non-linguistic context (when, where and by whom the sentence is spoken, etc.). (Barry, 1965, p. 24) Barry's  tripartite  division  of  meaning,  application in the consideration of Lens  as  will  Meaning.  be  seen,  has  direct  The three categories of  Lens Meaning that follow are offered not as definitive or exclusive so much as potentially plausible and useful. In Speech  Acts,  John  Searle (1970, pp.  12-13)  argues that  the  linguistic characterizations of one who is deemed to have mastery of his or her native tongue are a valid representation  of that language's  structure.  While Searle's approach has been problematic for some (Derrida, 1977), on the grounds that it side-steps  some ongoing theoretical debate regarding  structure and intention in communication, it has the advantage useful. We have overwhelming evidence that languages Similar evidence for the conventionality of Lens foundation for this thesis.  Meaning  of being  are conventional. is an important  19 Though  the  theoretical  grounding  [in Lens  Meaning]  for most  members of this culture is skimpy at best, the direct experience with lens systems and lens imagery is extensive for most of us. Thus, to borrow a concept linguistic  from  Noam Chomsky, the visual equivalent of  competence  commonplace  in the language  in western  society  and,  of lens imagery is now  increasingly, to  be  found  world-wide. (Coleman, p. 10) Material provided by Searle, Chomsky (1972), Coleman, Barry and John Wilson, who suggests that meaning is the sum of the various ways that a concept is used (Wilson, 1966, p. 26 ) allows me to claim lenticular competence Meaning.  necessary  to make valid  representations  of  the Lens  By describing the various ways in which lens images are used, I  hope to build a framework for discovering Lens  Three Three key metaphors  Meaning(s).  Key Metaphors  have  grown out  of film  and  photographic  theory which emphasize how viewers use images. Images are conceived of as windows, as frames, or as mirrors (Andrews, 1984, pp. 12-13). Perhaps the most common and most disarming way of using lens images is as a window. Film theorist Andre Bazin (1967, and photographic theorist John Szarkowski (1966) have each described this metaphor.  Lens images  are  construed to be windows on the world. What we see in the image is unmediated reality, which we can respond to (i.e., use) accordingly. It is questionable whether we can even discuss, in terms of meaning, lens images responded to as a window. There are two basic opportunities for the mediation of meaning in lens images: the first is in the production and distribution of the image, and the second is during the reception of the image by the  viewer. If the entire  filmic  or photographic  process  is  20 unmediated, then both the producer and the consumer of the image can be seen as looking through the same "window on reality". At that point lens images correspond to Peirce's (1955) notion of indexical signs (see Figure one, pg. 30), and viewing lens images is like being a hunter trying to decipher the meaning of tracks in the snow. If the viewer's response to a lens image is seen as unmediated, then Lens Meaning  may be described in  the Pavlovian terms of the causal theory discussed by Barry. The subtlety of the effect of the window metaphor can be seen any evening on the television news. We tend to respond to the various news stories as thirty second facts, without much thought  of the impact that  various framing and editing devices have had on reducing that item of news to thirty entertaining seconds. Consider the often broadcast scenes of twisted automobile wreckage, followed by the blanketed and barely visible form of a victim/survivor being whisked away on an ambulance gurney. This type of scene (subgenre?) is typically bracketed by the words of a trenchcoated  and  microphone-clutching  audience, feel that we understand  reporter.  We,  the  viewing  the reality of that accident and  yet,  based on what we have (and have not) seen, we have no conception of the ramifications of that tragedy. How painful is it to see one's family injured or killed on television? For how many months or years will the survivor of an  accident  be  dealing  with  the  physical  and  emotional  damage?  Entertainment must be "tasteful"; it isn't until we experience a tragedy like one in the news that we come to realize how much of the "reality" has been left out. The argument here is not that televisual news could or should offer a global image of an event. Considering Lens  Meaning  through the  window metaphor draws attention to the limitations that function to frame in  and frame  out  visual  information. The  window metaphor  troublesome when those limitation go unrecognized.  becomes  21 A different example can be seen in family photographs. If film and television are "windows on the present", then photography is a window on the past. Consider the boxes of family snapshots gathering dust in most households, those images judged too poor to be placed in a photo album. It is difficult  for  most  people  to  destroy  even  poorly photographed  or  duplicated images of family members. Even those visually inferior images refer strongly to personally significant people, places, and events. In this sense, photographs  take on the indexical significance of a religious relic.  Like the sliver from the "true cross", the family photo can be perceived as being one step closer to "what was" than would a drawing or another more iconic representation.  In talking about  an indexical sign, significance is  derived from the causal or physical relationship between a sign and its referent.  Virtually every writer in film, photography,  and television has  had to deal with the apparent "reality" of the lens image. The point being that, regardless  of our lenticular sophistication, we (in the  west,  and  increasingly the rest of the world) continue to use lens images as evidence of past events and even as literal emanations of them. In using a photograph or film as a framed image, we respond to the image as a construction (like a painting) by an artist. This corresponds to Barry's description of the intentional theory of meaning, but using what Peirce would have called iconic signs (see Figure one, pg. 30). Along with the indexical signs of the artist's labor in, for example, a painted portrait, iconic signs have a qualitative connection with their referent  (the  subject  of the painting) that is meaningful. Our task as viewers of this art-image is to discover the layers of meaning that the artist has intentionally (and occasionally  unintentionally) built into  the  image. Early  theorists  who  subscribed to this notion of filmic meaning include the Russian filmmaker  22 and film theorist Sergei Eisenstein (1949) and Gestalt psychologist Rudolf Arnheim (1974). A film released in the late 1980's in North America,  Commissar  (Askoldov, 1967), specifically draws attention to this tradition through the heavy  use  of  montage  fragments  for  following  three-shot  in  metaphoric  combining unlikely  effect.  sequence:  imagery  and  musical  As a specific example, consider  the  In shot one three young children squirm  naked in their bathtub with their mother in attendance. Off-stage a clatter of hoofs on cobblestone is heard. Shot two cuts to the front of the children's home where the three children, still wet and naked, are watching the road. The camera pans from eye level down to ground level as a horsedrawn caisson  carrying a cannon  pulls noisily  along the  road. As the  shot  progresses we see alternately the wheels of the wagon, which are rolling between  the camera and the children, and the three children's genitalia  effectively stop-framed by those same wheels. The third shot dissolves to ground level looking up as the caisson rolls over the camera's position. As this  final  advances  shot across  progresses the  the  screen.  huge  and  unavoidably  Indexically this  sequence  phallic  cannon  shows children  watching a noisy procession, but the shifting point of view so common in montage alerts us to an iconic level of meaning. Our task as viewers is to make sense of these images of innocence and war, sexuality and power. There is no reason why any lens image cannot be used in this way. Any time that we recognize and try to interpret (in a literary sense) the "signs of  suture"  (that is, the work of the  cinematographers,  actors,  editors,  directors, etc.) "by means of which cinematic texts confer subjectivity on their viewers" (Silverman, 1983, p. 195), we are using that image in a framed  and intentional sense.  To the  extent  that studio portraiture  or  23 family photo albums function as historical fiction presenting an ideal selfimage or an ideal family narrative, they are being used as iconic signs. The most complex of the three metaphors is that of the lens image as mirror. A mirror not only reflects a viewing subject, but also a context (the viewer's environment). A mirror is a site for self-examination and fantasy, for critical realism and narcissistic self-absorption. Like a mirror, the lens image reflects, and some would argue constructs, social conventions, and, like a mirror, is a site for viewing subjects to work out (consciously or subconsciously) metaphor  their  relationship  corresponds  to  those  to Peirce's understanding  conventions.  The  mirror  of symbolic signs  (see  Figure one, pg. 30). Drawing from psychoanalysis and Freud's appropriation of the myth of Narcissus, lens images can be seen as reflecting back on their spectators. In The Imaginary  Signifier  (1981),  Christian  Metz  combines  semiotic  theory with Freudian psychoanalysis in an analysis of film meaning. The issue becomes one of discovering the nature of spectatorship in relation to lens images. If one assumes, as Metz does, that there is a deep structure driving,  or at least  understanding  from  guiding, our relationship with this  perspective  can only  lens  imagery,  be derived through  then the  careful discovery and analysis of that structure. Whether working from a Saussurian linguistic mode, as Metz does, or a multiple systems model, such as Peirce's, arguing for the lens media's status as a symbolic language has proven to be difficult. The referential nature of lens images gets in the way of the arbitrariness that is basic to symbolic language systems. Kaja  Silverman  (1983)  uses  semiotic  analysis  and  Lacanian  psychoanalysis to discuss what she calls suture. In her sense of the term, suture is a metaphor for narrative. Just as castration creates an absence, and presumably a dissatisfaction or desire, awareness of the limited vision  24 implied by the film frame creates a dissatisfaction that can only be healed (just as literal sutures help a wound heal) by helping the spectators feel that they are a part of the filmic narrative, so that they will forget about themselves. The shot/ reverse  shot sequence,  the camera movement and  editing commonly used when filming a conversation between two people, is offered as an example of this strategy at work. By allowing the viewer to see the second person involved in the conversation, the person occupying the viewer's (the camera's) position, is nudged toward adopting that new character's  persona. Our dissatisfaction over our inability to control the  images that are being presented to us can be temporarily relinquished (or appropriated) in favour of a voyeuristic projection of ourselves into one of the characters  (See footnote 1).  The Complexities of Lens Meaning Many writers using semiotic analysis in the context of the cinema set photography outside the discussion. For them the basic unit of signification is the shot (one continuous run of a movie camera), which may literally be the result of thousands  of individual photographs. Their concern is less  with the visual, per se, and more with narrative flow and its signification. Max Kozloff (1987) argues that much advertising photography, and some art images as well, work in a narrative way. He describes the ambiguous sexual relations depicted in the bedroom scenes used by Calvin Klein to sell blue jeans and cotton underwear. Using dramatic stage lighting, young, muscular male and female models, poses that dramatize triangular (and even more complex) relationships, and various degrees of nudity, the ads create a world that is lurid and desirable and into which we are drawn as spectator/consumers.  One  approach  to criticism recognizes the  active interplay of the  conscious and unconscious within the receiver of a visual sign, that sign being a product of a signifying system at work in a cultural context. This multi-dimensional  conception  of  communication creates  problems  for  adherents to a "pure" semiotics. But, as Julia Kristeva has argued: One  phase of semiology is now over: that which runs from Saussure  and Peirce to the Prague School and structuralism...The theory of meaning now stands at a crossroads: either it will remain an attempt at formalizing  meaning-systems  by increasing sophistication of the  logico-mathematical tools which enable it to formulate models on the basis of a conception...of meaning as the act of a transcendental ego, cut off from its body, its unconscious, and also its history; or else it will attune itself to the theory of the speaking subject as a divided subject (conscious/unconscious) and go on to attempt to specify the types  of operations  characteristic  of the  two sides of this split.  (Kristeva, 1973, p. 1249) This kind of approach can imply a kind of rigorous analysis of lens images that would  have a very narrow, academic application. Semiotic  analysis of film, television or photography is simply too arduous a task to expect of a general viewing public. If, however, we relax the  metaphor  somewhat (use a larger mirror!) this critical analysis implies, in a general sense, merely that we become aware of ourselves in front of the lens image and in a social context. From the theatre of Brecht, Walter Benjamin drew much of his inspiration for his essay, "The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical lens media's  Reproduction" (Benjamin, 1935), wherein he celebrated potential to replace art  with  something  more  like  the  visual  communication, in which the audience played a conscious and critical part.  Mechanical reproduction of art changes The  reactionary  attitude  the reaction of the masses  toward  art.  toward  a  Picasso  painting  changes  into the progressive reaction toward a Chaplin movie. The  progressive reaction is characterized by the direct, intimate fusion of visual and emotional enjoyment  with the orientation of the  expert.  Such fusion is of great social significance. The greater the decrease in the social significance of an art form, the sharper between criticism and enjoyment  the distinction  by the public. The conventional is  uncritically enjoyed, and the truly new is criticized with aversion. With regard to the screen, the critical and the receptive attitudes of the public coincide. (Benjamin, 1985, p. 688) Whether the potential for a fusion of criticism and reception is often met, it is still argued that the lens media can be used for critical reflection on both self and society. DeLauretis (1984), writing on the semiotics of film from a feminist perspective,  has  argued that a more complete understanding  of Peirce's  semiotics must include a conception of a viewer or reader. Peirce describes the semiotic chain as including what he called an "interpretant"  (1955),  which is a new sign created in the mind of the reader/viewer. This new sign is a result of the original or external sign, and has three classes of effects, according to DeLauretis. 1. The first proper significate effect of a sign is a feeling produced by it. This is the emotional  interpretant.  truth" may be slight at times, often  Although its  "foundation of  this remains the only  effect  produced by a sign such as, for example, the performance of a piece of music. 2. When a further significate effect is produced, however, it is "through  the mediation of the emotional interpretant";  second type of meaning effect he calls the energetic  and  this  interpretant,  for  27 it involves an "effort" which may be muscular exertion but is more usually a mental effort, "an exertion from the inner world." 3. The third and final type of meaning effect that may be produced by the sign, through the mediation of the former two, is "a habit change": "a modification of a person's  tendencies  toward action, resulting from  previous experience and previous exertions." (DeLauretis, 1984, pp. 173-4) Figure one on page 30 incorporates DeLauretis' recognition of the role of the  viewer by introducing the  three categories  of response  (emotional,  energetic, and habit changing). This enriches Peirce's semiotic categories by including the use that viewers make of visual imagery. As DeLauretis describes them, interpretants,  the viewer's new internal signs, are  on an increasingly profound response described  as  progressing  from  a  to an external sign. The viewer is simple  and  immediate  emotional  reaction, through a more physically or intellectually engaged response  to  overlapping interpretants  the  life/culture  layers  altering  represent  level  visually  as DeLauretis describes  of a habit the  energetic  change.  progressive  quality  The of  them. The vertical and horizontal  dimensions created by these categories of signs and interpretants system of cross-references.  based  One of the functions  of the  create a  survey of the  literature in Chapters three, four, five, and six will be to discover the ways the intersection of different signs and viewer responses draw attention issues and concerns that can expand understanding of Lens  to  Meaning,  Summary The term Lens  Meaning  can be seen to involve three overlapping  sign systems and three progressively more profound degrees of A  lens image's indexical meaning is determined by the process  response. of that  28 image's manufacture, as well as our belief in its physical "truthfulness", a belief not unlike our belief in the reality of what we see through a window. The extent to which a lens image has a physical relationship with its subject determines  the image's capacity to function within  the  window  metaphor. Of significance to critical study of media is an appreciation of the limits of the indexicality or "truth value" of lens images. The extent to which a lens image has (or is perceived to have) a qualitative relationship with its subject determines "frame"  the image's capacity to function within  the  metaphor. The perception of an image's qualitative similarities  with its subject can cause the viewer to consider intention on the part of the image maker or to weigh the significance of what the image reveals about its subject. The extent to which a lens image can function as a symbolic sign that reflects  or inflects its social context determines  the  extent to which we can understand its meaning in terms of the "mirror" metaphor. It is possible and reasonable, by way of conclusion, to describe these three metaphors in combination. In the perhaps dimly lit room of our experience, we peer through our window at a darkened landscape. We are conscious of an external reality that is not entirely clear because poorly lit. We are also conscious of the window's frame and the carpenter's or architect's decision as it influences our view. Finally, because it is slightly darker outside than in, we see, mixed with the "out there", dim reflections of ourselves and our room. A l l three layers of significance function at once, though in all probability we can only focus on one of them at a time. In almost every instance of our experience with Lens Meaning, "reality" is a combination of what is being described through the metaphors of window, frame, and mirror. For the purposes of this thesis we will continue to focus on these different layers one at a time.  That the visual qualities of a lens image can all be influenced by physical contexts  such as  sequencing, accompanying words, music and  general noise, gives some sense of the further complexity of response to the mass media. Add to this the fact that each of us, as a viewer, brings a personal context of desires, beliefs, and experiences that contributes to the construction of meaning and it becomes clear why trying to come to grips with Lens  Meaning  media becomes  is a substantial task. Whether a viewer of the mass  a critical user of lens imagery, as described by Fiske  (1989), or remains simply a consumer of those images, is determined, in part, by the breadth of critical understanding that that viewer brings to the viewing experience.  UNDERSTANDING LENS MEANING SIGNS INTERPRETANTS  EMOTIONAL  ENERGETIC  HABIT CHANGE  INDEX  1) Realism  2)Mechanism  3) Presentation  ICON  4) Expression  5) Control  6) Representation  SYMBOL  7) Conceptualism  8) Production  9) Acculturation  31  Chapter  3  Live Television Indexicality and Lens Meaning Introduction It is the purpose of this chapter to survey various fields in the Fine Arts, Education and the Social Sciences which have used or considered the meaning of the  use  of lens images  as indexical  signs. Surveying the  literature that considers how we make sense of the visual media requires the assumption of what Robert Allen (1987), has called "the spirit of poststructuralist  humility,"  (p.  5),  that  is,  a recognition  that  from  this  literature's breadth and complexity one can discover a number of useful if sometimes Not  contradictory perspectives  rather  than  one law-like  structure.  every category of discourse in the literature will be described as it  applies  to each  of the  fields  of film,  photography,  television, visual  anthropology, visual sociology, visual history, and visual psychology. Such a survey would be both unwieldy and redundant. In many cases writers in these  fields  are  drawing  on  a  common  theoretical  contemporary criticism for their particular ends. Instead,  literature Chapters  of  three,  through six will explore specific visual texts and issues that each field has identified  as exemplary, and that will  reference  point for the  function as the  foundation  later analysis and evaluation of media  curriculum materials with reference to Lens  and  studies  Meaning.  Indexicality can be seen to have a denotative and a connotative level. A l l lens images, regardless of media, denote indexicality. We know that the  physics of the lens requires that a lens image's subject had to have some kind of existence in order to be recorded. It is this denotative indexicality held in common by all lens images that allows us to group them together in this discussion. Indexicality's connotations build image's truthful,  manufacture or  to  support  real. While  the  our  on the fact  understanding  denotation  of  of lens  indexicality  is  of a lens images fixed  as and  empirically measurable, its connotation slides over a range of possibilities that suggest what the indexicality  of an image can mean to a viewer.  Again, it is important to recognize that there is a distinction to be made between the indexicality of a sign, and indexicality as a sign. Where indexicality itself is the sign, the signified is often some notion of "truth". A l l of the lens images are indexical in fact as well as carrying indexicality as a sign. This double indexicality  accounts in large part for the lens  media's disturbing, delightful power over us. The remainder of this chapter will explore the connotation of indexicality because it is in exploring the connotation  of  indexicality  that  the  different  lens  media  can  be  distinguished from each other (Deleuze, 1989; Metz, 1990). Television has been selected as the most useful medium from which to explore indexicality and Lens Meaning because it is the only one of the three major forms of lens imagery that is also a broadcast medium. As such, television's supporting technology makes it possible to talk about the reality of "seeing now" as well as the reality of "seeing over time" as one can with film, and the reality of "seeing better", or gratuitious detail, as you can with photography.  Televisual  "Reality"  An advertisement broadcast in the late 1980's opens with a series of shots of various wholesome, energetic looking, "country folk" (denim pants,  plaid shirts rolled up at the sleeves, etc.) gathering around buckets of Kentucky Fried Chicken. The look and blocking of the ad borrow heavily from  the  boisterous  bonding typical  of contemporary  beer  ads.  Most  intriguing are the lyrics to the jingle accompanying these images of deepfried camaraderie, which say, "This isn't Dallas or Dynasty, This isn't a fantasy. This is reality." The viewer is, presumably, to take the images brought to the screen by Colonel Sanders as being real, in contrast  to  prime-time soap images of the characters J.R. Ewing and Alexis Carrington, which are supposed not to be. This interesting self-referentiality, which is an increasing feature within the medium of television, begs the question: Are ads more real than prime-time soaps? More generally, are there in fact more or less "real" genres in T V ? In another context, two feminist photographic exhibits (Wilkie, 1987, pp. 58-59) (Bociurkiw, 1989, pp. 18-19) each argue in different ways that "the visual history of women is an incomplete record. If we don't make a [photographic] record of our lives it's as if we didn't exist" (Wilkie, p. 59). One show is a documentary presentation of young women living in  group homes  (Wilkie);  in the  other,  lesbian sexuality is  together expressed  through erotic/ pornographic photography (Bociurkiw). In both cases the artists felt that the socially marginal subjects  of their camerawork were  given the status of "existing in society" by the images produced of them. At least in part, the message  here seems to be that to be  photographed,  filmed, or videotaped is to be real. In a curious inversion of the notion of "stealing the spirit" with a camera; the lens is seen as the avenue for giving people on the margins of the cultural mainstream an existence, or as Ann Kaplan describes it, "to structure  a community" (Kaplan,  1987, p. 152).  What can be discerned here is a collapsing together of sign as symbol and sign as index.  34 In these examples, various facets of lens media and its capacity to reveal "reality" is a central issue. Can the lens transmit, reflect, or create "reality"? From Daguerre's early pronouncements (Newhall, 1964, p. 17), to current  writing  on  the  ideology of realism in mainstream  Hollywood  cinema (Klinger, 1984, pp. 30-44) and commercial television (Fiske, 1987), lens images are often attributed a kind of truth value that Barthes (1981) called "the photographic ecstasy" (p. 119) and which he described as a kind of madness:  a madness  that Jameson (1983) sees as symptomatic of a  Lacanian kind of schizophrenia. When we speak  of the real, we may be  talking about  perceptions, cultural norms, or supposedly objective measures. use the term "realism" to refer  to any contemporary  typically assuming that such work is an aesthetic  personal When we  art form  we are  representation  of the  real. But for some, "real" may mean that the work transparently transmits some "out there" reality for our perception (Kracauer, 1985), while for others it may mean that the work constructs a self-contained reality that we accept at a conceptual level (Bazin, 1967). To argue that this range of possibilities is simple or even linear does an injustice to a centuries-old debate that continues.  The Four "Realities" of Television News Without trustworthiness  conceding to  any  television  higher than  may  degree be  of  truth  attributed  value  or  film  or  to  photography, the literature argues that television, on a number of levels, is perceived as being more "real" than either of the other two lens media (Aden,  1981; Fiske,  1987;  Rapping; 1987).  This  perception  can  be  understood, in the face of art's problematic relationship with realism, as a kind  of naivety. With  television at least  four potentially contradictory  35 understandings be understood  of "reality" may be recognised. For television, "reality" can to mean:  presentness, i m m e d i a c y , normativity  and  contradiction. Meaning is found in the way that (in this case) images are used. Thus, lens images are described as being real or realistic. This is not so much an attribute of the images as of ways in which those images are perceived by the sender and, perhaps more importantly, the receiver.  The Reality of the  Present  The literature that deals with the reality depicted by television as a universal,  to  be  technique  improve,  ever  more  requires  effectively the  captured  additional  as  study  of  technology the  and  technologies  behind the production and distribution of the television image, as well as its semiotic and psychoanalytic analysis. That part of the literature considers reality a social construction of a viewer surrounded messages  is  especially  suited  to  ideological  analysis,  that  by media  and  to  the  development of reception theory as applied to the televisual image. In a simple physical sense, the presence of television sets in the majority of North American homes places televisual imagery in a position to dominate leisure-time activity. The access that the public has to that imagery means that it may be the information source of choice or even necessity  for  whole  segments  of  the  population  economic restrictions bar many from other sources  where  illiteracy and  of media information  (Williams, 1986). While photographic print images may cycle in and out of many homes, the T . V . is constantly  there, constantly ready to relay an  ever-growing selection of broadcast signals. Where film viewing involves a decision with fairly  active consequences,  television viewing is typically  incidental to daily routine. Thus, television is more present (and more a part of daily experience) than are either photography  or film. This daily  36 presence can give television the status of being part of every-day, or "real" life. Sandy Flitterman-Lewis (1987), in linking psychoanalysis, as it has grown out of film difference  theory, with television, draws attention  between  phenomenon  how the viewer looks at film  is discussed by Metz in The  to a critical  and at television. The  Imaginary  Signifier  (1982) in  Freudian terms, and then evolved through Lacan and beyond by a number of feminist writers (Mulvey, 1975; De Lauretis, 1984; Tebbatt, 1988). The film text is built visually to demand (through editing for continuity, and the  darkened  dream-like  theatre  environment)  regression)  concentration  a  and  sustained  reward  gaze.  (through  "Th[is]  pleasurable,  gaze  implies  a  of the spectator's activity of looking" (Flitterman-Lewis, p.  187). In contrast, "the T V viewer's attention is, at best, only partial (for all kinds of reasons, from the  commercial- "interruptions"  to the  domestic  location of the T V set); there is a diffraction of the cinema's controlling gaze" (p. 187). " As John Ellis (1977) has pointed out, instead of demanding the sustained glance  in its  gaze of the cinema, T V merely requires direction" (Flitterman-Lewis, 1987, p.  that its viewers  187). Where  film  viewing elicits, through image and viewing context, the suspension of "real time" in favour of an illusory dream-reality, T V "is not Plato's cave for an hour and a half, but a privatized electronic grotto, a miniature sound and light show to distract our attention (Stam,  1983,  p.  23).  Instead  from the pressure without or within"  of  experiencing  the  pleasures  of  the  omniscient dreamer that film offers, the T V viewer functions as a blissfully irresponsible fragments  gardener,  building a  kind  of  order  out  of  the  of T V programming or letting a particular channel's  announcements, ordained plan.  and  ads  proceed  according  to  their  chaotic offerings,  institutionally pre-  37  The Reality of the Immediate Depending on whom you ask, the quintessential televisual form is the 24  hour  Rock  Video  station,  news  programming,  or  the  soap  opera  (Flitterman-Lewis, 1987). Some would argue that the latter two forms are in many ways indistinguishable. There is a phrase that has gained currency among T V folk lately: "Reality Programming." It is the industry term for the  phenomenon  signalled by the success of local news—the fact that more and more people seem to prefer nonfiction on T V . They watch local news in the same spirit that they watch soap operas—in an effort to feel some intense, ongoing human drama in which no matter how bad things may get or seem, there is always a silver lining, an upbeat ending, a hero to solve the problem or at least explain it. (Rapping, 1987, p. 59.) Rapping's conception of the news as upbeat fiction is often contradicted by the  form's  immediacy. In discussing televisual realism, this  notion of  immediacy is especially recognizable as a key to news programming. It is television's peculiar form of "presentness"—its implicit claim to be live—that founds the impression [and the fact] of immediacy: TV's electronically produced, present-tense image suggests a permanently alive  view  on  the  world;  the  generalized  fantasy  of  the  television...image is exactly that it is direct, and direct for me. A sort of "present continuous" is created, confusing the immediate time of the image with the time of the events shown, and thereby reducing the interplay of presence (where  we're  always  and absence that we find  seeing  the  present  image  in the cinema of  an  absent  object/actor). Put another way, a film is always distanced from us in  38 time (whatever we see on the screen has already occurred at a time when we weren't  there),  whereas  television, with  its capacity  to  record and display images simultaneously with our viewing, offers a quality of [immediacy] "here and now" as distinct from the cinema's "there and then." (Flitterman-Lewis, 1987, p. 189) Television news programming goes to great lengths to strengthen the technological fact and visual impression of televisual immediacy. "No other TV  genre  brings  together  such  a range  of technological  competence.  Arguably, the network news show is essentially a showcase for the latest in electronics hardware and a celebration of television itself. Over the past thirty-five years, the technological goal of television news has always been to achieve more up-to-the-minute coverage of events on location" (Nelson, 1987, p. 98 ). What does "liveness" look like, and how does this impression of immediacy influence the way we understand television news messages? The  first  question  focuses  systematic analysis of signs. F i l m  attention  on  semiotic  theorists,  among others,  analysis,  the  have drawn  heavily on the philosophical writings in structural linguistics of Saussure, (1966) and Peirce's (1955) theories of signs in efforts to come to a more systematic understanding of visual communication. The lens mediated text of a daily local news broadcast  points to those  visual qualities which  connote "live," with its concomitant connotation of "real." There are any number of examples of the semiotic analysis of television texts literature.  These  typically  involve  in the  a classification of a sequence  into  cinematic shots with the content of each shot, listed in some detail (Seiter, 1987, pp. 32-5), followed by an interpretation of the significance of each camera  movement, detail of setting, costuming, blocking,  lighting, and  dialogue. This second, interpretational stage is important because it draws attention to the bias built into, but for a time ignored in semiotic analysis.  39 The universalizing tendencies 1974) have Allen  given way to  suggests,  method  of early semiotic analysis in film more  interpretationally  "semiotics can most  based  usefully be seen  (Metz,  strategies.  As  as a descriptive  [which can be used] as a tool to ask larger questions  of the  television text" (Allen, 1987, p. 38). In British Columbia the prime 6-7 p.m. news slot is occupied by two competing programs whose offerings are visually typical of news programs across  North America.  C B C , the  Canadian national  (and  nationalized)  television network has a local news offering in this time slot, as does B C T V , the  regional  independent, graphics,  the  affiliate  of  Canadian on-screen  define a different  "the  other",  national  network.  personalities,  presence  somewhat  and  In the  each  more case,  governmentally the  camerawork  sets,  the  function  to  for each program. In both cases there are  layers of "reality" built into the programming's realism which exist at varying  distances  from  the  viewing  present.  Two  features  of  news  programming generally have been identified in the literature as key to T V news' immediacy: the anchor's visual relationship with the viewing subject, and the camera's relationship to the anchor in the context of the newsroom set. I will describe the specific visual qualitites of two Canadian T V news personalities, but I do so knowing that each represents a particular type that will be commonly recognized across North America. Both Tony Parsons of B C T V , and Kevin Evans of C B C address us (through the camera) directly, as they introduce or comment on the evening's stories. This direct mode of address is almost a universal convention in television news, and represents one of the major visual differences between most film and television. It is a convention of film (at least in the classic Hollywood mode) that actors should never look at the camera. Psychoanalytic film  theory argues that  40 such a look would break down the illusion that is central to the  film  experience. Television, set as it is in its domestic viewing context, struggles to create a filmic illusory realism, but it can claim a different and perhaps more potent reality by allowing Tony, or Kevin (we know them by their first names, like any "friend") to speak to us directly in our homes. Within this  broad  context,  subtle  visual  differences  work  to  create  different  realities for the viewer of either B C T V news or C B C news. Kevin, who has been described as having the the trimmed and wholesome look of a young R.C.M.P. officer, is consistently cheerful  regardless  of the  topic being  discussed, while Tony, who is older, is allowed to editorialize more with his face. Kevin  presents the  news  with virtually  no apparent reference  to  notes, while Tony is constantly working at and reading from a sheaf of papers. There seems to be a contrast  between  signifiers of  performance  and "real" work. Kevin keeps his comments with his fellow newscasters to a  minimum while Tony's  transitional  discussions,  whether  joking  or  serious, can occasionally take more time than the story they are leading to. B C T V also uses a wider visual vocabulary, as demonstrated  through  the camera's relationship to the anchor and the set. We are allowed to see the extent of the B C T V newsroom at various moments during the program, where the C B C cameras limit themselves to views of the set. The contrast here is between a workplace on the one hand, and a performance space on the other. Both anchors are framed in one particular way when they are introducing a story (head and shoulders close-up with room for a computer graphic  over  one  shoulder).  When Kevin  goes into  a more  extended  commentary, the C B C programmers cut to a second camera that shows a backdrop of institutional pillars and a small banner that displays the C B C logo. There is a definite impression of pulpit-like authority. Tony Parsons, on the other hand, has several avenues for commenting on a story. If he is  41 talking to us, the same camera angle is used as when he is anchoring a story; the camera just shifts slightly so that he is centered on the screen. BCTV's  second  camera is at  a right  angle  to the  first  so that  the  programmers can cut to a profile shot of Tony. This is used in varying degrees of close-up as the punctuation at the end of stories just before a commercial break. If the story is happy the profile shot is in close-up and Tony often shows a cheery smile. If the story is more serious the camera will still be in close-up but Tony will look down and shuffle papers. If the story was about a personal tragedy, especially one involving children, the camera backs off to a respectful distance so that Tony can "recompose" himself during the commercial break. Ultimately, the contrast here is between the authority and presence of the C B C as a national institution, and Tony Parsons of the B C T V as a locally recognized personality and "father figure". Not suprisingly B C T V ' s news  programming places  different  sense of the  more  emphasis  immediate than  on  does  local  the  stories,  CBC's  giving  a  more national  perspective. If reality isn't just what we see, but how we make sense of what we see, then those practices in television news which  act to interpret  the  selection and reception of the day's stories take on the hegemonic role of "helping" us to construct reality. Those  groups  with  authority  (those  that constitute  what  Barthes  [1973] calls the bourgoisie) try to prevent a struggle over meaning by naturalizing their meaning - their economic and social power is mobilized  discursively, ideologically, and culturally  to exnominate  itself beyond the realm of potential opposition...As those with social power  are,  amongst  other  things,  white, male,  middle-class, of  conservative religion, middle-aged, and living in an economically and  politically powerful region, we may expect the metadiscourse  [see  footnote 2] of television realism to originate from that social point where  these discourses  intersect,  and therefore  to naturalize that  point of view and to work toward establishing it as the commonsense consensus of the nation. (Fiske, 1987, p. 44) Visually, the lens media go to elaborate lengths to place viewers in relation to the image. This visual placing differs in television and in film. Television visually pushes us to identify with the anchor and the reporters as guides rather than as alter egos. In film,  the shot-reverse shot sequence is the  code in continuity editing that we are seeing things from character's spectator  point of view. This is seen in film identification  a particular  theory as a door into  and will be discussed in Chapter four. In news  broadcasting we spend a lot of time peeking over reporters' barred from allowed  to  identifying approach  with either reporter  or subject,  the particular newsworthy person  shoulders,  before  we  or event  are more  closely. Also, newsworthy people rarely address the camera. More often they address the reporter. It isn't until the reporter or anchor and  interprets  summarizes the story that we are returned to direct address  mode.  Thus a system of privilege and authority is defined.  The Reality of the "Normal" Two aspects of television news can be seen to present an impression of  every-day  normality.  One  visual  code  that  supports  the  news  broadcast's authority to interpret and thus construct reality is the "nothing up my sleeve" approach to set design and camera movement. Coughie (1980a)  differentiates  documentary  realism,  between revealing  dramatic the  and  technical  documentary apparatus  realism. In involved  in  creating an image is a sign of honesty. In both B C T V and C B C news, it is  43 typical, as part of a break to commercial, or closing, for the active camera to dolly or zoom back to reveal the other cameras and technicians at work. With the B C T V news, this approach is more apparent, both in terms of camerawork and set design. On the B C T V set we see, behind Tony and the other newscasters, a distant, out of focus bustle of staff people busily doing what we must assume is real "reporter-work". Television  news  also  normalizes the  disturbing contradictions of  reported news events through the figure of the news anchor. In a sense the white, middle class males who typically anchor news programs serve the same function that continuity editing does in film. That is, these news readers function to normalize and smooth _ over the jarring transitions from segment to segment, by what they say and by the simple fact of their recurring presence. So long as the newscaster keeps reappearing and using a soothing tone of voice, the "realities" of world conflict are normalized and controllable.  The Reality of the  Contradictory  Perhaps one of the most common themes running throughout literature  on television  composite  constructed  designed  to be  studies from  interrupted  programme's sponsors (the  is  the  recognition of  fragments. every  ten  to  Television  television  as  programming  twelve minutes  advertisers) can have access  the  so  to the  that  a is the  viewing  audience. Television is, after all, in the business of providing an audience for ads. The epitome of this approach is seen in music video networks such as Much Music, M T V , and the Nashville Network, where the bulk of the programming is also a form of advertising for an entertainment (records, tapes, and compact disks)(Kaplan, 1987).  product  44 Television news is also an essentially fragmented genre. It is made up of a number of sub-genres such as: hard news (international, national, provincial, local), human interest, weather, sports, economics etc. Each of these sub-genres has its own set of conventions in terms of the kinds of stories  that can  reporter's  and  be  presented,  anchor's  the  narrations,  tone as  and well  manner as  the  of the  on-scene  graphics,  camera  techniques and time allocated. Fiske (1987) points to two results of this fragmentation  that are  important  to the medium's realism and impact.  First he draws attention to the importance of surprise in television news. It is perhaps paradoxical that a convention of news should be its "surprisingness." But the tension between the predictability of the conventions and the assumed unpredictability of "the real" demands some  recognition. The  reporting  resists  whole  this  operation  unpredictability,  of  news  for  gathering  and  stories  are  news  essentially prewritten; all that the reporter does is fill in the local details.  This  conventionalization of  the  real  must  never  be  acknowledged, however, for to do so would expose the transparency fallacy.  Surprisingness  unpredictability  of the  is  therefore  valued  as  real triumphs over the  news: that it is, finally,  reality that determines  a  sign  that  the  conventionality of the news. (Fiske,  1987, p. 286) Fiske's representation of television news as a kind of prefabrication is useful as far as it goes. Without question, the institutional demands of television networks do not often allow news events to totally determine programing, but it does  happen. Events such as earthquakes  or  other  natural disasters will sometimes overtake the television network's capacity to  control  and  program  positioned between  the  news.  A fairly  recent  these two extremes is the American  (1990)  example  network, C N N ,  giving Iraqi president Saddam Hussein direct-feed access to the network's U.S. audience for 70 minutes during the political crisis between Iraq and the U.S. In that instance, the network consciously gave up direct control over the message it was sending. Natural suprise, and CNN's temporary transfer  of power contrast with the more formalized  describes. But each reveals a facet  of the  surprise that Fiske  fragmented  presentation of  television news which has been identified by Fiske and others  (Kaplan,  1987) as characterizing the medium as an agent of cultural normalization and a potential site for cultural contestation. "The semiotic and political practice of categorizing social life into neat compartments-the economy, education, crime, industry, etc.-is essentially a reactionary one, because it implies that a problem can be understood category...and discourages any critical structure"  (Fiske,  p.  287).  On the  and  solved  within  its own  interrogation of the larger social other  hand,  it  is  the  gaps,  the  contradictions, between these carefully prepared fragments and the gaps created  by network powerlessness  or unanticipated  viewer perspectives  that open a space where viewers can, i f they choose, construct "a more radical, or socially literate understanding" (p. 287). Fiske (1989) defines popular culture not as what we buy, but what we do with what we buy. In his example, when we buy blue jeans and then rip them or spatter them with bleach, we are making a consumer product conform to our culture. Similarly, strategies critical  awareness  responses  such as time-shifting, channel hopping, an ironic or of television  developed  by  content,  consumer  as  activists  well in  represent popular cultural responses to television.  as the  the  more  formal  last  decades,  all  46  Summary The connotation of indexicality, as one aspect of Lens Meaning can be seen to have spacial, temporal, and cultural aspects.  Spacially the  lens  image can be present in our lives and at the same time allow us to be present in other's. Temporally, lens images allow us to close gaps of time and,  in  the  simultaneous indexicality  case  of  passages makes  the  television, to of  "real"  models  visually  time.  experience  Culturally  of normality offered  the  multiple lens  through  media's the  media more "real", and this believability is actually strengthened contradiction contained in the lens media's fragmented form.  or  mass by the  47  Chapter  4  The Visual Aspects of Narrative in Film: Iconic Signs and Lens Meaning Introduction As  the previous chapter  suggests, television is used  regularly  as  direct or documentary evidence, in addition to its use as entertainment. In considering film's place in the lens media, especially in the context of concern  with  meaning,  contemporary  visual  it  is  useful  mass-medium  entertainment. At its most  typical,  to  recognize  most film  that  completely  film  is  the  dedicated  to  is a commercial medium that  orders spectacle, dialogue, and sound into fictional narrative presented in the specialized environment of the theatre. It is not surprising, then, that the  viewer's  conscious  and  unconscious  responses to  film  have  been  discussed at length in the film literature. This chapter will explore film as an iconic sign (see Figure one, pg. 30). As such, our concern will be with the literature that explores film as an evocative aesthetic construction. Theories of film have been around for as long as film has had a significant presence in society. Up to the late 1960's these theories could generally be classified as proposing either realist or formalist  aesthetics.  Realists, such as Bazin (1967),  (Freeburg,  1970; Sparshott,  Kracauer (1985), and others  1971; Cavell, 1979; Lewis, 1984; Jarvie, 1987) who have  looked for the aesthetic essence of film using criteria of realism, rationality or beauty  that are anchored  have found a kind of fait  in the eighteenth  accompli  and nineteenth  in cinematic  technology.  centuries, Kracauer  48 argues that, "as in photography, everything depends on the 'right' balance between  the  [expressive]  realistic tendency;  [representational]  tendency  and the two tendencies  and  the  formative  are well balanced  i f the  latter does not try to overwhelm the former but eventually follows its lead" (Kracauer, 1985, p. 19). Additionally, critics writing about film in the popular  media  have  often  dealt  devoting much of their energy plot, and simply accepting,  with  the  medium  to paraphrasing  unquestioned,  in  literary  terms,  and analyzing a movie's  the realist's  understanding  of  film as a visual medium. Formalists such as Munsterberg (1916), Eisenstein (1949) and Arnheim (1958) argue that film, as "artwork, does not provide truth in any empirically verifiable sense, but poses an environment which makes possible the experience of perfection" (Lewis, 1984, p. 50). In either case, critics identify aesthetic unity as the sign of good film. The combination of a romantic modernist valorization of the work of the artist and popular criticism's interest in commercial film can be seen in the Auteur Theory (Wollen, 1972) of the late 1950's and beyond, which designated  particular directors of popular (usually Hollywood) films to a  canon of artists. As an auteurist, a critic's job is to discover consistencies of style  (visual form)  and  theme (narrative  or  visual content)  across  a  number of films which can be attributed to the director's personal vision. This type of criticism is typically quite idiosyncratic and, like the aesthetic that is its foundation, assumes an ideal viewer, thus avoiding the issues of possible  social or institutional impact  by or on the  film.  Traditional  approaches to film criticism talk about meaning at two levels. In a literarycritical sense, meaning is found in discovering the full richness of the film's plot according to critic and convention. Visually, meaning is found through the careful analysis of the mise en scene (see footnote  3) the control of  which is attributable (at least by auteurists) to the artistry of the director.  Traditional criticism applied to film has thus been essentially realist, which means that the film medium is taken as transparent. Cinematic effects that draw attention to themselves (such as abrupt editing) are seen as aesthetic failings. Functioning as a counter to traditional aesthetics  are the works of  those writers who draw from psychoanalysis in their discussion of the role of the unconscious in looking at film (Metz, 1975; Mulvey, 1975; MacCabe, 1976).  These  more  recent  critics  have  found  meaning  described  in  psychoanalytic terms, in cinematic devices such as framing, editing and camera movement, which are seen to influence viewer identification and pleasure. Much of this kind of criticism, which is based on the Freudian concept of an unconscious that functions in sexual terms (Freud, 1953) and Lacan's  re-working of Freud in the  light of  structuralist  theories  of  language (Bar, 1974), has been developed in the literature of feminism. Laura Mulvey's pivotal essay (1975) linked the fascination experienced in film viewing with Freud's concept of scopophilia, the narcissistic pleasure to be had through looking at and recognizing the human form. Mulvey goes on to describe how film builds gender difference into its visual  structure.  The dominant look (both in terms of actors and audience) is male, sadistic, and voyeuristic. Women in film are typically passive and objectified. Many of  these relations  are coded visually through  mechanisms,  such as  the  manipulation of point-of-view, that are such a subtle part of popular film's use of continuity editing (see footnote 4). The female viewer, according to Mulvey, is put in a position of masochistic passivity. More recent feminist criticism Mulvey's  (Modleski, vision  of  1988;  Penley,  patriarchal  1988)  has  determinism  identification in women's experience of film.  tried by  to  break  positing  a  through bisexual  50 Feminist critical methodology finds significance in the film's visual text. The  major  breakthrough  in  feminist  film  theory  has  been  the  displacement of its critical focus from the issue of the positive or negative representations or images of women to the question of the very organization of vision and its effects. advantage of demonstrating specifying  This has the  decided  that processes of imaging women and  the gaze in relation to sexual difference...are  far  more  deeply ingrained than one might initially suspect. (Doane, 1987, pp. 176-177) Feminist visual analysis that draws from psychoanalysis tries, to determine who is acting and who is being acted upon; who is looking and who is being looked at; who is controlling and who is being manipulated. This analysis does not limit itself to the dialogue or the mise en scene, but considers the cinematic operations  in the film  and the viewer's relation to the  film  spectacle. Whether this analysis is specifically feminist or not, if it is considered in psychoanalytic terms it will offer an understanding  of the  film in terms of absence, desire, and pleasure. Like the traditional, aesthetic approach  to criticism, psychoanalysis  limits itself. While it recognizes both conscious and unconscious levels of response to film, psychoanalytic criticism on its own still works within a closed system. The film response,  and  the  object is still seen  social and  institutional  as dominating the mechanisms  at  play  viewer's in  the  specific film experience are of secondary importance. That part of contemporary criticism which has been loosely classified as reception  theory  (Allen,  1987, p. 74), and  perceptual  psychology, and phenomenological  the  of  area  discussion  around  meaning  which is influenced  by  literary criticism, broadens in  narrative  fiction  by  51 "foregrounding] the role of the reader  [or viewer] in understanding and  deriving pleasure from the literary [or visual] text" (Allen, 1987, p. 74) (see  also: Bordwell,  1985). Growing  out of Husserl's phenomenology,  reader-oriented criticism pays special attention to the work of the  reader  (or viewer) in filling the gaps that exist in any narrative form. Paralleling, to some extent, psychoanalytic concern with viewer identification in film, reader-oriented  criticism  concerns  itself  with  identifying  and analyzing  both implied and "characterized" (Allen, p. 93) narrators and readers. Some recent work in reader-oriented criticism (Fish, concentrated  on the  1980; Bennett, 1982) has  social conditions that have an impact on reading.  Inherent in this critical perspective is a relativism created by the reader's input into meaning. The extreme end of this relativism can be found in Derrida's deconstruction theory, where critical judgement is neither correct nor incorrect. Rather "what counts is the technical skill or verbal brilliance with which the interpretation is put forward" (Medill, 1985, p. 262). Bordwell approach  to  (1985) film  discusses  criticism  the  from  implications of a  more  a  reader-oriented  moderate,  constructivist  perspective (see note 5). He suggests that visually we complete the mental "picture" of a visual experience  by scanning and gap-filling.  In  other  words, the "picture" we have in our head of the world around us is the result of constant  ocular and mental work. Important  to this notion of  perception in experience of narrative as it is extended over time are what Bordwell identifies as four motivations based on Russian Formalist film theory.  Compositional motivation, according to Bordwell,  features  "the  spectator justifying material in terms of its relevance to story necessity" (p. 36). With realistic motivation, a story element such as a character's behavior or appearance  is interpreted as fitting with a reader's "common  sense". Transtextual motivation occurs when a reader accepts an element  52 in a story as being appropriate to its genre, which suggests that the reader is familiar with other, similar stories. Finally, artistic motivation calls for acceptance  of a story element as an aesthetic  device, regardless of its  relevance to the story. Clearly, each of these categories can be applied to visual, as well as literary or aural elements in narrative fiction film. The reader  (viewer) works constantly to discover one or several "rational"  explanations for what she or he is experiencing in the theatre. Based  on  the  expectations  implicit  in  these  four  motivations,  Bordwell goes on to cite Meir  Sternberg's  withheld  theory  [that]  the  pattern  of  story information  in the work prompts the perceiver to make hypotheses of  various sorts. A hypothesis may pertain to past action that the text refrains from specifying; Sternberg calls this a curiosity By contrast, a suspense about  hypothesis is one that sets up anticipations  forthcoming events.  probable,  hypothesis.  Hypotheses may also be more or less  ranging from the highly likely to the flatly improbable, and  more or less exclusive,  ranging from either/or choices to mixed sets.  And since hypotheses arise in the course of time, they may be held simultaneously  or  successively, as  when  one  hypothesis  simply  replaces another. (Bordwell, 1985, p. 37) Bordwell  refers  to  the  visual  elements  understood as motivated, as the film's  in a film  that  can  be  style. The work of the critic in  discussing the visual qualities of a film from a reader-oriented perspective involves identifying those visual cues and gaps (whether they are part of the mise en scene or the cinematography) which motivate the film, discussing  how  they  influence  our  narrative  hypothesis  and  building.  Presumably our interest and attention as film viewers is closely associated with the amount of involvement we bring to hypothesis building.  53 The  expectations  and  schemata  brought  experience are a critical factor in reader-oriented  to  the  film  viewing  criticism. In order to  avoid a total relativising of film meaning, some framework of standardized expectations is necessary. Genre theory  has  provided a useful  vehicle for  discussion, using both traditional and contemporary  focused  critical  models. Working out  of a particular genre can help link discussion of the critical impulses of traditional  aesthetic,  psychoanalytic,  and  reader-oriented  criticism.  As  Ryall (1978) suggests, genre theory of the 1960's and 1970's has allowed critics to include the audience (with its expectations with  the  artist/director  in  what  is  and desires) along  essentially  an  institutional  understanding of film. In general terms genre movies are those commercial films which, through repetition and variation, tell familiar stories with familiar characters in familiar situations. They also encourage expectations and experiences  similar  to those of similar films we have already seen. Genre movies have comprised beneath  the bulk of film the  visible  tip  practice, the iceberg of film  that  in  the  past  has  commonly  history been  understood as film art. They have been exceptionally significant as well  in establishing  economic  institution,  a popular  sense of cinema  particularly  in  Hollywood studios early on adopted  the  as  United  cultural and States,  where  an industrial model based on  mass production. (Grant, 1986, p. xi)  The Horror Genre A  particular  filmic  genre  that  has  been  the  subject  of  much  passionately critical debate and has been continuously commercially viable from  the  medium's  inception  is  Horror. If  genre  is,  in fact,  about  institutional and audience  awareness and use of codes  and conventions,  then Horror films, which quite commonly quote extensively from their own history and iconography, represent a critical archetype. As Brophy (1986) has argued, the Horror genre is so self-referential that it has effectively distinguished itself from the other recognized genres. The modern Horror film: is involved in a violent awareness of itself as a saturated genre. Its rebirth as such is qualified by how historical  blue-prints  have  faded,  recklessly copy and re-draw  it states itself as genre. The  and  the  their generic  new  (post-1975)  films  sketching. In this  wild  tracing, there are two major areas that affect the modern Horror film: (i)  the  growth  of  special  effects  with  cinematic  realism  and  sophisticated technology, and (ii) an historical over-exposure of the genre's iconography, mechanics modern horror film  and effects.  The textuality of  the  is integrally and intricately bound up in the  dilemma of a saturated fiction whose primary aim in its telling is to generate suspense, shock, and horror. It is a mode of fiction, a type of writing that in the fullest sense "plays" with its reader, engaging the reader in a dialogue of textual realism, cultural enlightenment  or  emotional humanism. The gratification of the contemporary Horror film is based upon tension, fear, anxiety, sadism, and masochism—a disposition that is overall both tasteless and morbid. The pleasure of the text is, in fact, getting the shit scared out of you—and loving it. (Brophy, 1986, p. 5) Jean Mitry's Esthetique  et  psychologie  du  cinema  (1963,  1965),  which Metz (1972) characterized as the end of the traditional era in film literature, was a massive attempt (in 2 volumes) to reconcile formalist and realist  film  aesthetics.  Whether  realist  or  formalist,  the  notion  of a  55 universalizing unity was important to early theories of film. Given these early attempts to impose a unified theory of aesthetics onto a field that is influenced  by so many individuals, institutions and  surprising that the Horror genre has been  cultures,  it is not  a problem for many  critics.  Horror, after all, depends for much of its impact on irrationality and the general breakdown of unifying social  structures.  In considering various critical approaches with reference to Horror, I will limit my survey to two films. Murnau's Nosferatu, Grauens  (1922), and Psycho  eine Symphonie des  (Hitchcock, 1960). I have selected each film as  being emblematic of a significant aspect of the Horror genre as well as of film aesthetics  generally. Nosferatu  evokes the genre's literary origins in  the nineteenth century Gothic novel as well as the aesthetics  of German  Expressionism which, although marginal to most contemporary film, an important and fundamental  offer  structural contrast to the classic Hollywood  model. The filmic process of adaptation from a literary source highlights the transformation element  of literary imagery into visual imagery and is a key  in our understanding  of lens imagery  prototypic vampire movie, studying Nosferatu  as  iconic  sign. As the  also allows us to consider  the visual aspects of a genre at its inception. Psycho  is  recognised  as  a  milestone  for  its  manipulation  of  psychoanalytic themes through camera work and editing, as well as for introducing an explicit blending of predatory sex and violence. When we attend to editing as meaningful, we are brought to recognize film's capacity to create a fictitious passage of time, or space, both of which are important facets of iconic signification and Lens Meaning.  Nosferatu Epitomized  in Andre Bazin's writing  (1967,  1982), early  criticism was able to admire the craft of Horror films such as  realist  Nosferatu  while maintaining a certain distance from the genre's themes. In fact, Bazin repeatedly drew attention to the realism of Nosferatu settings,  rather  than  the  specially manufactured  in its use of natural  visually  distorted  sets  (Bazin, 1967, pp. 27, 109) of other German Expressionist films. Bazin's comments  suggest an emphasis on mise en scene over  cinematography.  Other more recent writers (Manvell & Fraenkel, 1971; Barlow, 1982) have drawn attention to Murnau's use of cinematic techniques such as montage, severe  camera  expressionistic  angles, devices  negative designed  images  and  specifically  abstract  to  build  shadows  suspense  as  or  to  horrify. The apparent fragmentation in German Expressionist film, which is being revived in rock videos today, functions for the viewer as a site for both emotional and energetic response (see Figure one, pg. 30). Confronted with a montage sequence the viewer will work from a very personal level of understanding to a position where meaning is brought under control. One scene in Nosferatu  can show how a reader-oriented approach to  criticism can clarify the visual dynamics of a film. After Thomas Hutter has been  victimized  Wisborg,  Hutter's  by  Nosferatu,  home.  Both  both  he  and  are journeying  the  vampire journey  to Ellen,  Hutter's  to  wife,  although neither is aware that that is the other's goal. During the journeys of the two male lead characters we cut back and forth between the two, as well as to Ellen, who has dreamt of her husband's danger and is awaiting his return anxiously. Ellen awaits her husband by walking to the seashore to watch for ships, not realizing that Nosferatu is travelling by ship while Hutter is travelling by land. The rhythm of the edits creates a tempo that builds emotional meaning for the viewer. At the same time, viewing the  chain of shots  of the three characters  in constantly rotating  sequence  forces us to recognize that the three sets of actions are temporally parallel and  geographically  throughout  the  converging.  film  to  link  Parallel  editing  activities in  Participation in this sequence's  suspense  which we recognize and appreciate  has  Wisborg  played  a  part  and Transylvania.  is dependent  on the degree  the visual clues offered through  to the  rhythm of the cuts that create a visual impression of a closely run race, and the  horrific  realization that Ellen  is looking  to the  sea,  and  to  Nosferatu. Discussing the visual qualities of Nosferatu  in psychoanalytic terms  is, in some ways, an act of projection, in that critical consensus (Manvell & Fraenkel,  p.  32)  suggests  Murnau  was  not  explicitly  concerned  psychological issues in this film. Nonetheless, the use of the  with  subjective  camera does cause us to identify with the two "monsters" in the film far more than in most recent Dracula movies. We are Nosferatu when he is looking at Ellen, the pure and faithful  woman who is offering herself to  him in order to destroy him. We are Knock (Nosferatu's insane  assistant)  when he looks down on the citizenry of plague-ridden Wisborg, who stone him to death in the deranged belief that he is somehow responsible for the town's  horrible  fate.  It  has  been  argued  that  these  sympathetic  identifications are keys to the horror of this film. Also, Ellen's passivity (which is her weapon against Nosferatu) is accentuated by our view of her through  the  ineffectuality  use  of  many  minimally  edited  long  shots,  while  the  of Thomas Hutter, her husband, is emphasized by almost  comically choppy editing. In feminist film theory, concern with how women are represented in film  (their qualities of character,  and their appearance)  evolved into a  concern with how the filmic apparatus positions viewers in a gender. The  58 notion in psychoanalysis of identification is seen as key to film. uses fairly crude visual techniques  Nosferatu  and broadly developed characters  to  build this identification. Later variations on the  vampire theme make much more of its  psycho-sexual implications. In Psycho  we can see how visual techniques  for positioning viewers to identify with specific characters developed over a short 40 years.  Psycho The formalist politique  des auteurs, established in the late 1950's by  the editors of Cahiers du Cinema and focused on American film by Sarris (1962), first argued for the recognition of the works of certain directors of popular film. The prime example of this "scandalous" (Cook, 1985, p. 126) conferring  of artist's  status  on a director  of popular  films  is  Alfred  Hitchcock. Bazin, who struggled within Cahiers du Cinema over the editorial bias toward valorizing directorial authorship, also admired the cinematic craft  of Hitchcock. In the dozen or so articles that Bazin  devoted  to  Hitchcock, he was unswerving in his praise of the director's seamless use of editing and point of view to build narrative, but at the same time Bazin typically qualified his praise by drawing attention to Hitchcock's choice of a "minor but standard genre" (Bazin, 1982, p. 135). Hitchcock's films have been at the centre of the discourse in feminist psychoanalytic film theory. For these critics the infamous shower scene in Psycho  (1960), with its multiple stabbing murder of the female lead, is  key. Instead of admiring the wizardry and control displayed in Hitchcock's editing, they draw attention to its consequences. Kaja Silverman (1986), in discussing suture (see note 6), suggests that Psycho subject  to make abrupt  shifts  "obliges the  viewing  in identification. These identifications are  59 often in binary opposition to each other; thus the viewing subject  finds  itself inscribed into the cinematic discourse at one juncture as victim, and at the next juncture as victimizer" (Silverman, 1986, p. 223). In fact, in the shower scene, while our sympathies  may be with Marion as a victim,  visually we are positioned, through point of view editing, in two roles. Regardless of our actual gender, we become an omniscient and voyeuristic observer as we watch Janet Leigh in her character as Marion, disrobe and begin to have  a shower. This illicit  omniscient observer's awareness  pleasure  is soon marred  by  the  of an intruder. With this awareness,  our  image of Marion comes, somewhat ambiguously, through the eyes of the attacker.  During  the  40-second  duration  of the  attack,  our voyeurism  becomes murderous sadism at the expense of a woman placed before us as a  helpless,  naked  object  of our  gaze.  It  has  been  argued  stylization and allusiveness of the shower scene in Psycho critics with the rationale for lovingly  that  "the  has provided  and endlessly recounting all the  details of its signification in the very process of self-righteously deploring its signified" Psycho  (Modleski,  1988, p. 113). Silverman concludes that "what  obliges us to understand is that we want suture so badly that we'll  take it at any price, even with the fullest knowledge of what it entails" (p. 227). That is, our desire to immerse ourselves in the flow  of the  fictional narrative is so strong that we will allow ourselves to identify with abhorrent characters, even, as in the case of Psycho  (1960), when it is  blatantly obvious that that is what the film is trying to get us to do. We will accept being positioned as a murderous psychotic for the thrill of a well-told story. From films  a reader-oriented  generally, and Psycho  perspective, (1960)  the  pleasures  in particular, are  in Hitchcock's the  innumerable  visual and narrative misdirections placed in the way of our reading of the  60 film. A good example of this is the work we must do to determine existence and ultimately the significance of the mother of the Norman  Bates. Throughout  the  film,  Hitchcock leaves  often  the  murderer, misleading  clues. Hitchcock leads the viewer to assume that the fleeting glimpses of and references  to Mrs. Bates mean that she is sinister and  mysterious.  Ultimately, the discovery that Mrs. Bates is a taxidermied corpse  and  Norman is a murderous schizophrenic can function at both a factual and symbolic level in considering the  meaning of mother  son relationships.  Through Hitchcock's control of the visual and the clues it offers, we are brought to a moment of shocking realization that our first understanding of Norman is a misrepresentation.  Summary I have  suggested  that psychoanalysis and reception  parallel paths in explaining the viewer's response media texts. In both cases,  theorists  theory  follow  to the visual in lens  assume certain motivations on the  part of the viewer. The constructivist branch of reception theory treats the viewer  as consciously concerned  with  the  apparent gaps in the  visual  information presented. The viewer resorts to hypothesis building to bring a  sense  of  completeness  understands viewer response  to  the  to be  filmic  structure.  Psychoanalysis  substantially unconscious  and driven  by the desire for sexual completeness or satisfaction. In both cases certain visual operations in film are understood to be the sites where the viewer's work is the most intense. Framing functions in film to include and exclude portions of what most viewers recognize as a larger field. The viewer's response fetishizing the visual fragment  to the frame  can be understood  that is offered, or speculating about  as the  larger world outside that frame as it relates to what we can see. Camera  61 movement and lens magnification are used to build point of view, and attempt to define a position in the filmic narrative for the viewer. The viewer's response to camera position and movement can be understood as scopophilic ("If I could only see a little more") or as a kind of constructivist riddle ("Who am I?"). Editing joins disparate fragments of people, places, and  events  into what  viewers  often  perceive  continuum. Whether the viewer's response  as  a visually  seamless  to the visual construction of  narrative through editing is a product of an unconscious desire for "suture" or a conscious concern for structural completeness, that viewer's capacity to consider a film critically has to be affected by his or her ability to recognize edits. Certainly one of the functions of Media Studies must be to cause viewers to attend  to  construction in the lens media.  and  critically  analyse  this  sort  of  visual  62  Chapter Photography  and  5  Cultural  Invisibility:  Symbolic Signs and Lens Meaning  The  historical  photography's,  debate  over  the  lens  media's,  and  especially  use as either a means of artistic expression or objective  documentation has been reflected in the earlier consideration of televisual realism  and cinematic pleasure.  From  the  early and  ongoing conflicts  between straight and pictorialist photographic methods (Goldberg, 1981) to any number  of contemporary  photography  (Galassi, 1981), or that try to link  various movements literature  is  full  museum  shows that contrast  photography  of modernism (Grundberg & Gauss, of  words  and  images  painting and with  the  1987), the  art  exploring photography  as  an  expressive means of visual communication. Contemporary criticism argues that these (perhaps false) polarities of objective and subjective  meaning  are contained within a larger cultural context, with the result that the study of "visual art"—for  so long confined within  artificially  narrow intellectual and institutional limits—now ranges across broader spectrum of what [Victor Burgin has] called the specular  regime"  understood  of  our  "mass-media"  as those interdependent  society.  "integrated  "Art  forms of art history,  the  theory", aesthetics,  and criticism, which began in the Enlightenment and culminated in the recent period of "high modernism", is now at an end. In our present  so-called  "postmodern"  era  the  end of art theory now  identical with the objectives of theories of representations  is  in general:  63 a  critical  understanding  articulation of our critical  of  the  modes  and  means  of symbolic  forms of sociality and subjectivity must be  contextualized. (Burgin, 1986, p. 204) There  are  any  number  of  examples  in  film  (Andrew,  1984),  photography (Burgin, 1986), and television (Allen, 1987) of texts that trace art  criticism  from  its  traditions,  through  semiology  to  contemporary  criticism. Contemporary criticism in its various strands has developed over the past fifty years as a result of efforts to confront the subjectivity that is so  much a part  of discussions  about  meaning  in  the  artworld. The  structural linguistics of Saussure (1966) and Peirce (1955) were attempts in the first half of this century to rationalize the study of language and communication. Rosalind Krauss (1985) draws attention to the relationship between  writing  exploited constituted  and  photography as  vision "to  sign—or  in  surrealism  produce presence  and  a paradox: transformed  argues the  that  surrealists  paradox  of reality  into  absence,  into  representation, into spacing, into writing" (p. 112). Surrealist photography of the 20's and 30's can be seen as constituting the first steps towards recognizing in the lens media a language-like form of communication. In the 1960's this impulse became a more formal effort to impose semiotics on film. Two problems arose in the early film semiotics (Metz, 1974). One of the foundational assumptions of semiotics is that signs are arbitrary. For words built out of letters that represent sounds this makes sense, but lens images are referential (or as Peirce would say,"indexical")(1955, 160) in a way that makes them very different from language systems. Also, writers in semiotics have come to realize that in any given visual text a number of signifying practices (lighting, pose, costuming, set design, contained within the larger system of photography, contained within the still larger system  of periodical literature, etc.) may be at play. Further, where emphasizes criticism, viewing  the in  structure  of  addition to  the  subject.  a  particular  sign  complexity of  system,  "things",  semiotics  contemporary  reintroduces  Freudian and Lacanian psychoanalysis  has  been  the used,  most notably by feminist writers, to enlarge upon semiotics. It has been argued that "semiotics can most usefully be seen as a descriptive method [and  that]  other  approaches—feminist,  psychoanalytic, ideological—can  employ semiotics to ask larger questions" (Seiter, 1987, p. 38) of the lens media. In  many  dominate  the  ways,  traditional  artworld, but  critical  photography,  and as  economic  practices  a popular  art,  is  still  not  as  restricted by these fine art institutions. "Photography is too multiple, too useful  to  other  traditional  discourses,  definitions  of  ever art.  to  be  wholly  Photography  contained  within  the  always  exceed  the  will  institution of art, always participate in non-art practices, always threaten the insularity of art discourse" (Underhill, 1989, p. 25). One result  of [this] situation is that photography  readily accepted  has been  more  as a starting point for an interdisciplinary study  that, following the logic of its methods, is [potentially] able to move out into a radical dismantling of social relations without having to bring these discoveries back as nothing more than meanings for the hallowed [artworld] series. (Rifkin, Within  this context  popular practice on the  1988, pp. 162-163)  of photography one hand  as a radically accessible and  and a convention-bound institutional  practice on the other, I would like to discuss notions of cultural visibility and invisibility and the lens media. "Martin Heidegger once called this 'The Age of the World Picture.' To him 'the fact that the world becomes a picture at all is what distinguishes  the essence of the modern age.' Nothing in the world, he contended, exists any  longer except in and through representation" (Jussim, 1989, p. 10).  More recently, Burgin describes "a picture of a new subject for the new society of information technology—a subject (like the subject known to psycho-analysis) radically "decentered", a subject formed "in the wake of the signifier" (Burgin, 1986, p. 168). The signifiers Burgin mentions are the traces of data  scattered  when they are gathered  throughout together,  institutional computer banks  represent  the "decentered"  which,  individual's  existence in society perhaps more powerfully than does her/his body. Add to this a second layer, "spectacle"—imagery in the mass-media which works to form and define the visual subject—and it becomes clear why Burgin claims "in a (Platonic) word, upon which Jean Baudrillard has elaborated, we are a society of the simulacrum"  (p. 169). Our place in society and our  notions of what is real are defined in large part by data bases and massmedia imagery. Burgin's use of "simulacrum" represents a fairly  extreme  understanding of a slippery term. Simulacrum can mean anything from simply a representational image to something akin to and as dangerous as a mirage. In choosing to use this term I am consciously introducing a sliding  scale  of  potential  meanings.  This,  I  feel,  is  an  accurate  representation of the condition of the term "Lens Meaning" which the term "simulacrum"  addresses.  In an essay called Through the Narrative Portal (Kozloff, 1987), critic Max Kozloff opens a discussion of narrative photography by looking at a black and white ad typical of those created by Bruce Weber for Calvin Klein designer jeans and cotton underwear. The scene illustrates a possible sexual contretemps  that has been  calculated to appeal to both genders. Asking us to speculate on the fascinating pass to which the couple has been brought, the image  switches its narrative lure to an object display that conveys, in fact, the real story message. Ours not so much to wonder about the history of this tense, mysterious pair, as to acknowledge that wearers of Calvins are likely to have too...can embark  such a history. Suitably denimed, we,  on the sensual and other adventures  of the role  reversal. (Kozloff, 1987, p. 93) What he is describing is a simulacrum, or visual symbol, now common in the mass-media, that has come to be called a "lifestyle ad". The advertising industry has taken the psychoanalytic notion of identification to heart and is now, as often as not, providing imagery like that described by Kozloff for both the conscious and unconscious consumer. Because the mass-media are subsidized by business institutions that expect sales to result from support,  it is not surprising that "desirable" lifestyles dominate  their mass-  media imagery. Because the styles of life represented in the media's lens imagery exist only as simulacra, the viewing subject is brought to desire some "thing" that for all practical purposes doesn't exist. Even if the viewer of a media-generated lifestyle image could buy all the objects and re-enact the uses represented  in the image, that viewer could not reproduce  the  hermetic seal of idealization represented by the images' lack of the critical dimension  that  creates  depth.  As  Benjamin  (1985)  pointed  out,  photography is potent both because of the kind of image it can be used to produce  and  because  imagery  represents  therefore  becomes clear that people whose life or lifestyle is somehow  the  those bulk  images of  can  many  undesirable and thus not represented  be  reproduced.  people's  world  Mass-media  information.  It  in the mass-media are, in a very  significant way, invisible. This results in the "postmodern" irony of our dependence on simulacrum to anchor "reality". To illustrate the point made about cultural invisibility, the remainder of this section will be devoted to  67 the  consideration  of photographic  work by women photographers  and  other "invisible" people. Jo Spence (Dennett & Spence, 1982) and Judith Golden (Grundberg, 1987)  are  among  those  who  have  used  photography  to  explore  the  invisibility of being old, plain, female, and sick. Golden's imagery includes somewhat  comical  self-portraits  where  parts of her  face  peer  through  holes torn in the faces of media celebrities depicted on the cover of People magazine  (Grundberg,  phototherapy  through  1987). explicit  Spence  documentary  impact of her own and her mother's enactment, presented about  their fathers  practices  a  personal  photographs  form  of the  of  fleshly  surgery (Hoy, 1987), and the re-  in family photo album form, of childhood fantasies by Spence  and a male friend/collaborator  (Spence,  1987, pp. 24-5). Spence produced an autobiographical text and guidebook designed to document her explorations and suggest  how others might do  the same (Spence, 1986). Spence's images are "theoretical" (McGrath, 1987, p. 71), in the same sense that Burgin (1986) used the term with reference to painting. An expansion of the concept of "conceptual" as it was used to describe that art in the 70's that de-emphasised individual objects in favor of ideas played out through social interaction and technological mechanism can help us to understand a viewer's emotional response (see Figure one, pg. 30) to photographs at a symbolic level. Spence's work is to be taken as Art, but these images of the "unspeakable and invisible" (p. 71) are not only  offered  Spence  as challenging aesthetic  "suggests  that  the  task  at  objects  hand  for  in the any  traditional  sense.  radical photographic  practice is both to unpick the apparently seamless photographic web and simultaneously to weave new meanings" (p. 71). There is a pointed irony in Spence's work being collected in the form of a photographic how-to manual for the invisible. The text acts as a powerful antidote  to  the  68 multitude of soft-porn photographic manuals on the market, epitomized by How to Photograph illustrated  Women—Beautifully  selection of poses,  (O'Rourke, 1986), with its amply  costumes,  lighting and  make-up  tips. It  functions as a visual dictionary for creating simulacra. The technical and economic accessibility of photography explains, in part,  the  medium's  popularity  as  an  avenue  for  oppositional cultural  practice. It is still true, however, that we tend only to see the work of those (young, feminist, gay or lesbian) among the invisible who  have  gained access to the artworld. One of the great fallacies that has grown out of the age of mechanical reproduction is that the value or import of an image somehow inevitably corresponds to the size of its viewing audience. This assumes that the mass production of images, with the distance this puts between unavoidably  an original image (if it exists) and the viewing frees  that audience  from a kind  of "false  audience,  consciousness"  implicit in the extreme value placed on the uniqueness of the art object. Walter "instead  Benjamin of  being  suggested based  in on  1935  that mechanically reproduced  ritual, begins  to  be  based  on  art,  another  practice—politics" (Benjamin, 1985, p. 681). This capacity of photography to move the viewer to an energetic response (see Figure one, pg. 30) is an ideal that may not often be met. When Marcel Duchamp complained that "I threw the bottle-rack and the urinal into their faces as a challenge and now they admire them for their aesthetic beauty" (Richter, 1966, p. 207208), he pinpointed the artworld's capacity to undermine opposition by coopting it into the institutional fold. The "business" of symbol making is a precarious one that involves mounting effective social criticism within an institutional artworld that will either deny you access to an audience or market you as an "Artist". Economist and former Canada Council director of research  Harry Hillman-Chartrand has suggested  that the artworld today  69 is, in effect, the research and development arm of the advertising industry (Hillman-Chartrand,  1989).  Interest: The Avant-Garde  Richard  Self  in the 80's (Bolton, 1989, pp. 12-18) with its  images of feminist photo-artists cover-girls for ARTnews  Bolton's article, Enlightened  Cindy Sherman and Barbara Kruger as  and any number of ads depicting the desirability  of the artworld lifestyle, is explicit evidence of Hillman-Chartrand's claim. Clearly the issue is more complex than this. Use of the lens media to produce  representations  from  within  specific cultures  does not  require  mass distribution or artworld recognition to be effective. It is nonetheless arguable that institutionally supported imagery is the most widely visible. Cultures in Contention (Kahn & Neumaier, 1985) is a good example of a selection of cultural works (some  using photography  and other  lens  media) which generally side-step the artworld in favour of representing people and issues that have otherwise been absent from the mainstream media. Much of this work has used the formal presentation and context of advertising or journalistic photography to inject oppositional imagery into the mass-media. Some interesting examples of this kind of work include the Super-Bowl bus ad project (Sisco, 1987), where three artists produced a photographic work, presented in the form of poster ads displayed on the outside of city buses, intended to draw attention to San Diego's dependence on an impoverished workforce of illegal aliens, at a time of national media attention Fred  when the community was especially sensitive about its image.  Lonidier's  work  with  unions  involved  producing  documentary  photographs combined with written text that were presented to the union workers as a kind of mirror (Lonidier, 1985). The work of Hans Haacke involves the billboard form with explicitly political content in an artworld context (Haacke, 1985). Organizations have explored alternative venues for their art work like Group Material which produced a black and white  70 newspaper  insert  that contained  imagery  ranging  from the  traditionally  artistic to the overtly political (1988). What is described here is a kind of counter-acculturation  that attempts to get viewers outside of the artworld  to question appearances and to change our habits (see Figure one, pg. 30).  Summary These  are  examples  of photographic  import can be discussed with reference context input  of cultural work. Photography's into  cultural production,  as  well  works  whose  meaning  to the artworld and the potential as  its  for  key  and  broader  allowing popular role  in the  mass  production of commercial imagery, makes understanding the many uses of the medium of central importance to the individual's critical participation in contemporary society. Or, as John Berger (1974) has put it: We think of photographs as works of art, as evidence of a particular truth, as likenesses, as news items. Every photograph  is in fact a  means of testing, confirming and constructing a total view of reality. Hence the crucial role of photography in ideological struggle. Hence the necessity of our understanding  a weapon which we can use and  which can be used against us. (Berger, 1974, p. 294)  71  Chapter  6  The Uses of Lens Meaning Uses in the  Social Sciences  This section of the text will function on one level as a summary of findings resulting from the survey of the literature in Chapters three, four and  five.  At  the  same  time,  it  will  survey  briefly  the  expanding  consciousness within the social sciences of lens imagery as both a research tool and a cultural phenomenon. At both levels the aim is to show how elucidation of those constructs that make up Lens Meaning can move us to a better understanding of how we use and understand lens images. Bernard (1988) has suggested that the idea of a social science can be traced back to Locke's belief "that the rules of science applied equally to the  study  of  celestial bodies...and  human  behavior"  (Bernard,  p.17).  Historical development of the social sciences since Locke has resulted in three sometimes and  conflicting  improvement.  general  goals: understanding,  Behaviorist social  science  is  prediction  premised  on  the  assumption that we can only know that which we can see, or at least measure. Until the late 1950's, psychological and sociological research was dominated by the development of systems of measurement analysis.  Whether  naturalistically,  information  quantitative  is  approaches  gathered have  and statistical  experimentally tended  to  or  emphasize  external validity through the replicability of its experiments or findings, which . is useful  in p r e d i c t i n g  and  engineering  human  behavior.  Anthropological research, on the other hand, has emphasized description in  72 increasingly  phenomenological terms or, more recently,  hermeneutic  interpretation  research  of cultural phenomena.  methodologies  understanding  weigh  phenomena  internal  validity  that may not  has  Typically, as  a  human  condition can  be  most  interpretive function  be reproduceable.  empirical or interpretive research findings to bear on efforts the  looked to  directly observed  in  of  Bringing  to improve the  clinical  applications of psychology through psychoanalysis. A  small literature exists on the uses of photo and  video-therapy  (Krauss & Fryrear, 1983; Heilveil, 1983). Lodziak (1986) also describes a sociologically based "critical media theory [that is] steeped in emancipatory interest,  and [which has] identified the prevailing forms of exploitative  domination—imperialist, class, gender, and race—as the major obstacles in the way of the creation of a truly egalitarian and just world" (Lodziak, 1986, p. 202). Whether one is dealing with individual or social "therapy", this critical therapist  use of social  science is built on an assumption  knows or can help the  improve. It is assumed  "client" discover what  that  the  is needed  to  that lens images, as symbols, can function as  powerful instruments of change. In discussing the  increased  use  of interpretive  methodologies in  preference to empirical data over the past ten to twenty years in the social sciences, Geertz (1980) suggests that this recourse  to the  evidence  of  the  humanities  for explanatory  destabilization of  genres  analogies...is [such  at  once  as "sociology",  "anthropology", and "psychology"] and of the rise of "the interpretive turn," and their most visible outcome is a revised style of discourse in  social  studies. The instruments  society is less and less represented  of reasoning  are changing and  as an elaborate  machine or a  73 quasi-organism than as a serious game,  a sidewalk drama, or a  behavioral text. (Geertz, 1980, p. 168) My aim, in light of this blurring of the social science genres, will be to describe the  quantitative, qualitative, and therapeutic  uses of the  lens  media in the social sciences, without trying to speculate on what might make an anthropological, sociological, or psychological approach unique. The quantitative uses of lens imagery in the social sciences are grounded in a belief, discussed earlier, in the indexical nature of these images, as well as the significance found in the quantification of observable human behavior. In discussing the microanalysis of lens images, visual anthropologist  John  Collier  describes  constitute...evidence...:proxemics  "three  behavior  (measurements  (messages of body behavior); and choreometrics  patterns  of space);  that  kinesics  (patterns of behavior  through time)"(Collier, 1979, p. 168). It has, for example, been argued that: The patterning  of eye movements  is one of the  most  important  aspects of social interaction, and some of the most interesting recent advances in the study of interaction have been concerned with the role of vision. (Argyle, 1974, p. 105) A number of researchers  have concerned themselves with the reliability  and validity of video as a research tool (Lassiter & Irvine, 1986; Collins, 1986). Beattie and Bogle (1982), in their experiments with a variety of techniques for analysing gaze, conclude that the use of video allows for the most accurate analysis. The bulk of those psychological experiments that try to determine the effects  of television on children have attempted  correlate eye movement with attention, and social interaction with  to  effect  (Wober, 1988). Often, in these experiments, lens imagery performs a dual role.  Children  are  viewing,  and  presumably  interacting,  with  video  imagery, while at the same time they are being recorded as video imagery  74 for later quantitative analysis by a clinician who must assume the role of viewer in order to make observations. In this same vein, field study and survey research have been used to discover and predict the effects  of advertisements  and political messages,  as well as television generally. Williams' (1986) longitudinal study of three Western Canadian communities is perhaps one of the more comprehensive and exciting of these effects  studies.  She applied a number  of  sophisticated measures of intelligence and behavior on members  fairly  of three  similar communities: one was a non-isolated community with no television reception at the beginning of the study, the second received one Canadian television channel, and the third was on cable and therefore wide  range  of  Canadian  and  American  programming.  received a Tests  were  administered, and then repeated two years later when community one had begun receiving television, and community Williams' influence  conclusions  included  is strongest where  the  two's  important  there are  service had notion  no other  that  competitive  expanded. television's influences  available. That is, if television becomes a viewer's only avenue for gaining information  about the world and its values, then  and imagery is received far less critically  than  televisual information it might otherwise  be.  Williams emphasized the importance of studying displacement, that is, the effect of television viewing on other daily activities. The value of studies such as this are often in giving a cloak of scientific truth to ideas that were not recognized as significant when they were only "common sense". This  broader  application  of  quantitative  methods  in  measuring  aspects of lens media can also be therapeutic (or perhaps manipulative) in that it aids change by supporting the engineering of viewers' buying or voting patterns. The Neilsen ratings system and the Preview House in Los Angeles,  where  experimental  methods  are  used  to  measure  viewer  response  to  advertising  and  new  television  programming,  are  both  examples of organizations using quantitative data based on lens imagery for commercial ends (Nelson, 1987). While this methodology has also been directed  towards  the  production  of  what  has  been  called "prosocial"  television (Winett, 1986), the behaviorist assumption  that the effect of  television viewing is essentially one-way has. been challenged (ManleyCasimir,  1987). Ethical issues  concern, unfortunately  more  involved in media control are an active often  of artists  and philosophers  than of  scientists and media executives. A conception of Lens Meaning that takes into account both the social sciences  and the arts will  function as the basis for the  analysis and  evaluation of media studiescurricula that will follow this chapter. In order for  this analysis to be as focused as possible, the categories of signs and  interpretants  described in Chapter two are cross-referenced  (Figure one,  pg. 30). The remainder of this chapter will address 9 areas of inquiry that grow out of this cross-referencing and the literature surveyed in Chapters three, four and five. It is argued here that these 9 areas of inquiry, while not exhausting the concept of Lens  Meaning,  represent a balanced and  comprehensive foundation for the study of Lens Meaning  in media studies  or art programs.  Aspects of Lens Meaning Realism If indexical signs show an existential relationship between the sign and signifier,  then in analysing emotional response  to lens media, the  concept of Realism as it is understood as a visual category in the artworld (Chilvers & Osborne, 1988, p. 114-115) and as a visually induced necessity in the news media (Fiske, 1987), must be explored. A recurring theme in  76 the  literature pertained  to the relative honesty  or truthfulness  of lens  imagery and the conventions of realism. A n artworld perspective argued by Burgin (1986) and others meaningful  teaches  that realism is a style that has  conventions recognizable in the form  that the image  takes.  Essentially realism forms a category of unanalysed response. Arguably, the moment a viewer is asked to respond to an image in a public or an academic way, that viewer moves out of this category. The description that Barthes' (1981) offers of the disturbing and poignant sense of his dead mother's presence induced by a photograph is a good example of this sort of response. In another example, media studies curricula present images to student  viewers. These  are  undeniably real. These  materials  must  be  analysed for how students and teachers use those images, and indirectly, how they encourage student viewers to look critically. When this occurs, other categories of response are invoked.  Mechanism A viewer's energetic response to the indexicality of a sign may centre upon  the  issue  of  Mechanism  in  image  production.  Masterman (1984) and others, learning to operate  As argued  by  the tools of the lens  media, as well as exploring the psychology of image making (Sontag, 1973) are fundamental to a complete understanding of the visual in the mass media. Popular examples where mechanism is part of the text can be found in films about the making of special effects films like Star Wars. When we ask,"How did they do that?", we are exploring the mechanistic indexicality of a lens image. Energetic response implies thinking as well as acting, and suggests a kind of modernist exploration of the "nature" of lens apparatus. A student's experience with the mechanics of image making can increase understanding of a lens image's manufacture and meaning.  77  Presentation In analysing the habit changing or cultural impact of lens images as indexical signs, the total viewing environment, that is, the Presentation, should be investigated. Viewer positioning, a central concern of feminist critics of the lens media (Kaplan, understand  1986; Penley, 1988) can help us to  these images. At a very simple level, the environments in  which lens images are viewed (the darkened theatre, the home, through outdoor advertising forms, books, newspapers)  need to be analysed. The  significance of time as an aspect of indexicality, discussed briefly earlier (Deleauz,  1989;  Metz,  1990),  can  further  help  appreciation  of  the  differences in presentational environments in which we view lens images. The social  sciences,  and the literature  on design and advertising pay  particular attention to exploration of the meaning of presentation and the lens media. The qualitative use of lens imagery in the social sciences exploits its application as iconic sign. Instead of responding to the lens image as a fact, we see it as a representation  that must be interpreted. Anthropology is  especially full of examples where the lens media have been used in this broader, qualitative sense (Bateson & Mead, 1942; Blackman, 1981; Banta & Hensley, 1986). There is an interesting blending of the quantitative and qualitative when "natives" are used, either as producers or interpreters of lens imagery. At the quantitative end of this blended spectrum, sociologists such as Mussello (1979) and Boerdam and Martinius (1980) have brought methods  of content  analysis  to their  study  of family  photo  albums.  Through this analysis they hope to come to understand what the making, collection, and presentation  of family snapshots means. Somewhere in the  methodological middle is the visual anthropology of Sprague (1978). He  78 collected  Yoruba-made  photographic  portraits  and  placed  them  beside  portraits he had made of the same people. Sprague analysed the images he collected and the ones he created  for content  and compared  them  for  differences, but, interestingly, left much of the interpretation of the data to the viewer. At the more qualitative end of the continuum is research that uses informant or native interpretation to clarify either the content of an image, or the social situations linked to that image. Collier (1986) links this last use with other projective interview tools such as ink blots and TATs (thematic  aperception  tests).  "When...interviews  are  photographs...the focus is on what is in the photographs.  conducted  with  Such examinations  can be like a personally conducted tour through the culture depicted in the photographs.  Realistically, the interview return is a blend of precise  reading of exact graphic content and projected attitudes" (Collier, 1986, p. 124).  Expression A expressive  viewer's emotional response intention  on  the  part  to  of the  iconic image  signs maker  brings and  together  expressive  reception on the part of the viewer. With its foregrounding of authorial intention and personalized communication (Chilvers & Osborne, 1988, pp. 171-172), expression, as it is framed aesthetic  criticism,  can  offer  guidance  in traditional literary and in  understanding  this  visual  kind  of  response. Reception theory and ideological critique may suggest some of the limits. The kinds of informed critical forums  that are implied  for  classroom discussion of expressive reactions will be a challenge for both teacher and student in that they would involve open but very focused critiques of particular media artifacts. Media studies curricula that try to address  a viewer's expressive  response  to  lens  imagery  will  need  to  79 function in a creative context. This may include the use of visual media, or creative writing as a medium for critical response to the lens image under analysis. Experiments with and explorations of the lens media in the art world, whether in the obviously iconic portraits of Karsh (Borcoman, 1989) or Cindy Sherman (Hoy, 1987) or the photographic abstractions of Man Ray (Ray,  1982) are expressive works that could be studied in the context of  expression.  Control The image as icon is a blend of visual reference and convention with which  the  image  maker  links  sign  with  signifier.  When we  try  to  understand how the lens media can be brought to produce iconic signs, we are  addressing  the  issue draws  of expressive Control. attention  to the  Montage, as an early  approach  in film,  director's decisions, but  also  demands  that the viewer play a part in anchoring the meaning of the  images. From a practical perspective, students must learn about the kind of work involved  in communicating with  visual images. By studying lens  images in a fictional mode such as cartoon animation, where the indexical reference is to a drawing, students can come to understand the work that goes into creating iconic meaning. Where curricula call upon students to produce  videos or newspapers,  and particularly when they  address  the  editorial process, they are addressing control. The challenge in this will be to allow for the collaborative nature of much media work, as this group approach will be very different from what is typical in classrooms.  Representation When analysing the habit-changing impact of lens images as iconic signs, theories of Representation focus attention on the cultural meaning of  80 image content. Feminist criticism offers one perspective on this issue, but careful content  analysis followed  cultural perspectives  by interpretation from  is possible. Recent studies  Edward S. Curtis' representation  of the  any number of stereotyping in  of native Americans have explored both  the nature of Curtis' manipulation of native culture in his images, as well as the consequences of the acceptance of those images. The production of artists such as Jo Spence (1986) can act as a model for student work, since they explore the consequences  of stereotypical representation  and  suggest  strategies for breaking down those images. Projection plays a big part in the critical uses of the lens media. The critical  or  therapeutic  use  of lens  images  in representation  may  be  associated with what has been described as the symbolic use of the lens media. In  the  field  of psychology, an  understanding  of  the  nature of  metaphor has been used for years in the areas of dream analysis, hypnosis, projective work fantasy, and art therapy...A good deal of the  power  photograph's  of  the  phototherapeutic  technique  derives  from  ability to function simultaneously as both an  such as the picture of a family, and as metaphoric  the  object,  representation,  such as a symbol of all families, and/or what I am reminded of when I see a family photograph. (Krauss & Fryrear, 1983, p. 60) Video  and  still  imagery  are  used  for  a variety of purposes  in  psychotherapy (Krauss & Fryrear, 1983; Heilveil, 1983), including offering patients the opportunity to create expressive imagery, to view and discuss the behavior of others, to view and discuss their own behavior, and to desensitize  themselves  through  repeated  visual  exposure  to  particular  images or experiences that have created emotional problems in their lives.  81 At  the  level  of social  criticism,  photography,  film,  and  video's  apparent blending of the real and the symbolic have been used for socially therapeutic purposes for years. The photography of Jacob Riis and Lewis Hine drew angry attention to the abuses of industrialization in the late 19th  and early 20th centuries, as well as sensitively documenting the life  of the worker (Trachtenberg, 1988). The photo documentation of war, from the U . S . C i v i l war onward, as well as of many other natural and political disasters, has functioned as evocative evidence of problems in need of change. The art work of photographers such as Hans Haacke (1985), and Jo Spence (1986), as well as Jim Goldberg's subject-interpreted  portraits in  Rich and Poor (1985) among many others, blend social science and politics with art through the manipulation of potent visual and linguistic symbols.  Conceptualism The  sign as symbol is an abstraction that functions through social  convention. Just as the iconic aspect of a sign invokes a belief in the empirical truth of a lens image, the symbolic or culturally conventional aspect of an image carries a kind of truth value. Emotional response to symbolic signs can be understood through a study of Conceptualism in the artworld. Placing the values imbedded in symbol systems ahead of more traditional art values (Chilvers & Osborne, 1988, p. 115) such as beauty or formal  order  might move students toward the  study  of the emotional  impact of advertising images. If it is possible to teach aesthetics  in the  public schools, as some proponents of Discipline-Based Art Education in the U.S. argue, it may best be achieved through a bonding of media studies and art education. Media studies will bring its concern with cultural criticism and art education will bring its focus on the visual. In the classroom, work on  the analysis of symbols in the lens media may draw on some of the  82 approaches used in semiotics. Kozloffs essay (1987) on Calvin Klein's print ads is a good model of this sort of work. The careful analysis of visual "basic units" may pose more questions than produce answers about a lens image's meaning, but it can also foreground the image's position in culture as a meaningful artifact. Production In  exploring  how  the  visual  in  the  mass  media  becomes  conventionalized, production, and the collaborative, institutional structures that operate behind mass media images, material  for  can certainly  frustrations  of collaborative work. Genre theory can also clarify some of involved in producing imagery  discussing  Student  production  the constraints  provide  should be understood.  for  the joys  a defined  and  audience.  Following a particular genre as it evolves over time can help to clarify the institutional responses to a changing audience. Making apparent the work and workers involved in seemingly authorless  media is critical  to  full  understanding. Knowing how a lens image moves from its initial exposure, through a particular mass media institution, and out to a viewing public, can draw attention to the notion of institutional intentionality as one of the layers of meaning in a lens image.  Acculturation Lens  images  Acculturation insights replacing cultural  or  about one  habit  the  symbolic change.  mass  world  identity.  consequences  as  media  signs  function  This category as  a major  can  as  mechanisms  function  cultural  force  view with another, or of altering  Notions  of  hegemony  (Gramsci,  to  of  provide  capable  of  an individual's 1957)  and  the  of normalizing a particular world view are issues that must  be critically explored to evaluate the impact of the lens media on world  83 cultures. An interesting example of study in this vein is Carol Squiers' look at the manipulation of the media and thus public perceptions in the Reagan White House (Squier, 1990). Acculturation as defined here is a form of social  studies  intended  to  critically  analyse  the  media  as  institutions  through the careful study of their visual messages. .  Curriculum Documents and the  Matrix  The first six chapters of this study have ranged across a number of disciplines, identifying concepts of meaning as they have been applied to lens images. It has not been assumed that a single, coherent theory of Lens Meaning  exists, nor has it been assumed that this text would perform the  epic task of designing such a theory. Instead, the indexical, iconic, and symbolic 1988),  strands  matched  interpretants  of  signification  with  described  the  identified by  emotional,  Peirce (1955;  energetic,  by DeLauretis (1974),  and  have  habit  Iverson, changing  provided means  to  characterize lens imagery (see Figure one, pg. 30), and specific examples from the lens media have been discussed from a variety of perspectives within the context of this framework. The critical review of media education curriculum documents  and  texts in Chapters seven, eight and nine is offered as an example of applied media study and provides a platform by which to judge the efficacy of the model developed from the literature. Textbook publication is as much a part of the mass-media as is television, film  or newspapers.  Schroeder suggests in The Genesis of Dick and Jane,  As Fred  (Schroeder,  1977)  textbook "publishing is unquestionably a popular art in its attempts to woo its peculiar audience, an audience which is assembled under compulsion, an  audience  with  no  buying  power,  an  audience  with  scheduled  impermanence" (Schroeder, p. 84-5). But "the various attempts at winning  84 the interest  of [students] to [textbooks]  respect for children,...at  least  an  are only partially motivated by  equal  motivation is the  size of  potential market for book sales" (Schroeder, p. 84). The difference  the  between  television and a textbook can be seen to represent two sides of the role of the audience in the mass media. Concerning the motivations of the primary consumer (the student), with a textbook, clarity and substance have to be the (perhaps unwilling) concern, while a demand for "entertainment value" is the inevitable legacy of T V culture. Visual  and  verbal  codes  and  the  institutional  influence the consumption of media products  constraints  that  are important referents for  the critical consideration of textbook production. In evaluating three media studies  curricula I  will  focus  on  the  ways  traditionally printed or in visual form) teach  principal texts  (whether  students to think critically  about the visual information in the media. Media education involves more than  the  visual, but as I have argued  earlier, the visual is of central  importance to the media. In the description and evaluation of texts and curriculum documents that is to follow, the model titled "Understanding Lens  Meaning"(Figure  one, pg. 30) will be used in two ways. As an evaluator, I will analyse the curriculum documents  as visual objects  (indexical signs), as packages of  ideas (iconic signs), and as elements functioning in the context of public school educational  systems  (symbolic signs). At the  same time  I  will  assume that these three strands of signification are at least the potential content  of the curriculum (from  describe  to what  the  extent and from  students' point of view) and which theoretical  perspectives  will these  curricula teach about lens meaning. Additionally, I will be looking for what Clark  and  Zimmerman  identify  as  the  three  criteria  for  evaluating  85 curriculum  antecedents:  "Coherence,...Completeness...and  Appropriateness"  (Clark and Zimmerman, 1983, pp. 77-78). I have  chosen  to analyse  Media  Studies  curricula from  Western  Australia, Scotland, and the Province of Ontario, Canada. It had been my hope to include a U.S. curriculum in the analyses, but Media Studies has (ironically) made few inroads into the American educational system. The Australian and Canadian curricula are both mandated components of their respective school systems. The Scottish curriculum is not, but is currently working toward gaining that institutional status. The Scottish curriculum is government funded, in that much of it is produced by the Scottish F i l m Council. In each case the focus will be on those materials that constitute an introduction to the media for students in the 13-17 year age range. Special attention  has been given to curriculum guides and principal texts, those  materials which, due to availability or government prescription, constitute the foundational material for the curriculum.  Summary The first six chapters in this study have explored many facets of the meaning  we derive from the  visual  in the  mass-media.  Three  general  streams have been identified that correspond roughly to Peirce's system of signs: the indexical, the iconic, and the symbolic. The initial rigidity of the semiotic system was broadened  and personalized through the addition of  DeLauretis'  Peirce's  understanding  of  concept  of  interpretants.  The  resulting model accounts for many of the qualities of lens imagery and posits  types  demonstrated  of  viewer  responses  in this chapter,  the consideration of Lens  to  those  images.  As  has  been  bringing a multi-perspectival approach  Meaning  to  can reveal the richness, contradiction,  and power of the mass-media and the visual tools they use. The following  86  chapters will show the extent to which this conception of Lens Meaning is reflected in educational practice.  87  Chapter Media  Studies in Western Curriculum  The  first  established, regarded  7  curriculum to  be  Australia  Guidelines analysed  is  also  in terms of its duration and support.  as one of the  world  leaders  one  of  the  "Australia  most  is rightly  in Media Education. For almost  twenty years a variety of Media Education programmes, courses, curricula, texts, and associations have been produced in Australia" (Pungente,  1985,  p. 34). Included in the package of material to be discussed are: The  Unit  Curriculum [MEWA] Secondary  in Media 1987);  Studies (Ministry of Education, Western  Media  Studies  Conventions:  (Ministry  1980); Media Studies Resource Australia,  [MEWA]  A  Teachers'  Australia,  Resource  Book  of Education, Western Australia,  for  [MEWA]  Catalogue (Ministry of Education, Western  1988); Media  Workshop  Vol. 1 (McRoberts, 1987);  Media Workshop Vol. 2 (McRoberts, 1987); and Meet the Media  (McMahon  & Quin, 1988). The Western Australian rationale for Media Studies states that: Media Studies is the study of the modern mass media, namely television, radio, film, mass print and photography as it occurs in the mass print. These  communication  systems  are  seen  as  being  most  significant forms of communication in modern society. In order to understand  their impact it is necessary  to understand  of the mass media. This involves understanding  the  the links  languages between  88 the languages and the cultures which generate them, the economic factors  which  affect  the production or reception  of mass  media  messages and the ways that audiences develop understandings  from  the media messages. The latter involves audience perception of both surface media  and  deeper  (cultural) meaning  associated  with  the  mass  messages. The organising pedagogy for the study focuses upon the nature  of communication, the codes  and conventions associated  with  the  language systems, the narrative patterns that are developed and the social implications of the messages. ( M E W A , 1987, p. 3) To support this rationale, the Western Australian curriculum guide divides Media Studies into six stages with each stage consisting of between one and three units (see Figure two). The specific objectives for each unit are organised under headings of: A. The Nature of Communication B. Codes and Conventions C. Narrative D. The Social Context and sometimes, E. Skills These organising principles emerge  from  the general objectives of  the programme for years 8 to 10. These objectives are to: A. Develop an understanding of some general principles about communication and identify some models which assist in comprehension. B. Understand the codes and conventions which create the languages of the various mass media.  89 C. Understand the narrative patterns that are predominant in mass media messages. D. Understand the interaction that occurs between the society and the media messages it produces and consumes. E. Demonstrate some practical and analytical skills associated with the modern mass media. ( M E W A , 1987 , p. 8) It is the purpose of this thesis to focus on those aspects of Media Studies curricula that would be considered introductory. Stages  1 and 2  (units 1.1, 2.1, 2.2, and 2.3) are the introductory portions of the Western Australian curriculum and will thus be highlighted here. Unit 1.1 is the most global of the units, as is appropriate for a basic introduction to media studies. The (MEWA, Media  Media  Studies  Resource  Catalogue  1988) lists Part A's introduction to communication theory in Workshop  Communication?"  Vol. from  1  (McRoberts,  Meet the Media  1987);  Unit  1  "What  is  (McMahon & Quin, 1988); and  selections on the communication chain from Media  Conventions  (MEWA,  1980) as the bulk of the recommended student resources for this unit. Unit 2.1 is an introduction to film  and television. For this unit,  recommended portions of texts include: Chapters five on film and seven on television in Meet the Media (McMahon & Quin, 1988); Unit 3 on film and Unit 4 on television in Media  Workshop  Vol. 2 (McRoberts, 1988); and  selections on the construction of media images from Media  Conventions  ( M E W A , 1980). Unit 2.2 is an introduction to photography and print. For this unit, recommended includes Workshop  reading  Chapter  from  three on  Meet the Media newspapers  and  (McMahon & Quin photographs;  from  1988) Media  Vol.1 (McRoberts, 1987) Unit 2 on the history and conventions  of newspapers; from Media Workshop Vol. 2 (McRoberts, 1987) Unit 2 on  90 photography; and selections dealing with photography and mass print from Media  Conventions (MEWA, 1980). Unit 2.3, which introduces radio and music, w i l l not be evaluated  here because the visual aspects  of the media are the emphasis of this  study. Suffice it to say that the texts to be analysed do cover the aural aspects  of the media, thus completing their roles as introductory Media  Studies textbooks.  Media Media  Conventions  Conventions  ( M E W A , 1980) is the oldest of the texts to be  considered here. It is actually a teachers' resource book, which lists 121 briefs (lesson plans) in various categories. The text opens with a general introduction  for both  teachers  and students,  along with  seven  shorter  introductions for each chapter on the conventions in particular media. The book concludes with technical appendices. Media weight  Conventions  magazine  ( M E W A , 1980) is printed in black ink on light  stock. Less than  10% of the text  is made  up of  photographs, and these have been screened at the resolution of newspaper imagery. Of these photographs,  fully  working on media studies projects  two-thirds are images of students  or students  as the subject  of these  projects. The remaining third are examples from, or in the style of, the mass media that are being studied. The rest of the text is made up of about 30%  pen and ink illustrations and 60% text which has been typed rather  than  typeset. Media  film,  Conventions  ( M E W A , 1980) devotes sections to five media:  photography, radio, television, and mass print. In each section the  briefs emphasize either production skills or critical analysis. The balance between skills and analysis varies enormously from section to section. The  91 briefs for the photography and mass print sections each have at least 50% analysis lessons while in the film  section all lessons are skills oriented,  with analysis incidental to production. Even in the photography section, much of the analysis is formal. That is, design considerations such as the "busyness" of a picture are discussed, while the content and meaning of the image are left basically unexplored. It is only in the  mass  print and  television sections that issues about the social and individual consequences of an image arise, and this discussion tends to focus on representations of gender, race, or violence. There is no discussion of aesthetics and response to lens images, or of the impact of physical context on various viewing experiences possible through the mass media. While  this book is presented  visually  and textually in the  dry,  utilitarian style of a teacher's resource book, it is also intended to be used directly by the students. This is implied in the book's own introduction, but made explicit in the Media  Studies  Resource  Catalogue  (MEWA,  1988),  where it is listed as a student resource rather than for the teacher's use. It would seem that the book is intended to be used as a source for student projects, and it is suggested in the introduction that the students be given some freedom in selecting which portions they might attempt.  Media Workshop (Vol. 1 & 2) Media Workshop  Workshop  Volume  1: Words (McRoberts, 1987) and  Media  Volume 2: Images (McRoberts, 1987) are intended to be used as  a set (McRoberts, V o l . 1, p. vi). Within the two volumes five large sections may be identified. In the first, Volume 1 Part A has one unit that functions as an introduction to communication theory. The mass media are presented as extensions of basic written, aural and visual modes of communication which are explored in the units that follow. Volume 1 Part B on extensions  of writing has three units (Unit 2 Newspapers, Unit 3 Books, Unit 4 Magazines), Volume 1 Part C on extensions of the ear has two units (Unit 5 Sound Recordings and Tapes, Unit 6 Radio), and Volume 2 Part A on the extensions  of the  eye  has  4 units  (Unit  1 Images in Print, Unit  2  Photographs, Unit 3 Films, Unit 4 Television). There is also a summarizing section, Volume 2 Part B . Unit 5 in this section is on advertising and explores its subject as a cross-media issue, which is also the approach used in Unit 6 to explore the personal consequences  of media exposure. As  mentioned earlier, units 1 and 2 of Volume One and 1, 2, 3, and 4 of Volume Two are recommended  as content  material in the introductory  sections of the Western Australian curriculum and will be the the focus of this portion of this study. These books are the most heavily illustrated of the Australian texts to be considered here. Emphasis is placed on the reproduction of historic materials such as early magazine and newspaper covers as well as images of  older  forms  of the  film  and  most  photographic  equipment.  Like  the  commonly used illustrations in The  other  Australian  texts,  Media  Workshop  texts are very gestural cartoons. These are employed as how-to  diagrams, as illustrations of specific content, and as diversionary imagery. Photography is used throughout the two books, although, not suprisingly, it is more prevalent in Volume 2, which concentrates on the image. In both volumes, photographs  are most often used as documentation to show the  equipment or procedures taken from  film  used in various media studies,  or as  samples  and advertising. McRoberts employs an extended  photo  essay in Volume 1 (McRoberts, pp. 57-61) to present the stages in the production of newspapers.  He also includes a number  of snapshot-like  images as raw material for student exercises in sequencing images.  93 In each of the units in Media  Workshop  there is a progression from  historical and formal description of a medium to issues surrounding  the  selection of content. Each unit concludes with a section that explores the issue of meaning in that particular medium. Interspersed  throughout  the  unit are little clusters of curious facts about the medium in question, as well as review questions and activities. At the heart of each of these units is the notion that any medium of communication is framed by codes or systemic limitations, and that within these limitations users develop conventions  for  the  application of that  particular means of communication. Unit 1 in Part A of Volume I of Media Workshop  (McRoberts,  mechanical  codes,  1987)  while  defining  communication that accounts communication. institutional  In  this  influences  distinguishes generic  personal  structure  to  on the  portion  effectiveness  appropriate  of  the  book,  part in  societal  of communication  that the  and  effective  for both the sender and receiver's  introductory  explored. It is, however,  a  between  unit concludes  are  or not  by citing  Marshall McLuhan's aphorism about the medium being the message. This reference  is used to briefly suggest the complex interrelationship  between  form and content. The text concentrates on the mass media as extensions of personal, physical  means  of  communication.  Like  McLuhan,  McRoberts  places  emphasis on the impact that formal and mechanical elements in the mass media have on meaning. One of the consequences aspects  of  the  media  in  the  foreground  is  the  psychological and political-institutional consequences  of putting the formal de-emphasis  of  the  of the media. While  McRoberts places a welcome emphasis on the role that the visual plays in communication, it isn't clear in this first chapter if he will go far beyond an analysis of media forms.  Unit 2 in Media  Workshop  Volume  1 (McRoberts, 1987)  explores  newspapers. McRoberts' thesis in this unit is that "newspapers are first and foremost  a medium of the  emphasis  on the  structure  written word"(p. 51). His approach of the newspaper  places  as an institution and  the  structure of news stories as narrative. While making mention of the roles that photography  and typographic design play in the modern  newspaper,  McRoberts completely subordinates their impact to that of the word. The result of this will undoubtedly be some well-written student work. This unit  carries  with  it  a  variety  of  text-based  student  exercises,  but  collectively these can not possibly empower students to deal critically with the weight of visual information in today's newspapers. Proponents Australian  of  this  text  will  curriculum calls for the  justifiably argue unit on print  that  the  Western  and photography  to  include this chapter, along with the chapter in Volume 2 (McRoberts, 1987) on photography. A kind of balance can be struck between photography and its role in the print media if taught in tandem. It is essential for a unit such as this to emphasize  the  notion that visual,  typographic, and  textual  content are all immediately interactive in newspapers. Each has an impact on the meaning of the other and it is misleading to lose sight of that. Each of the units in the Media  Workshop  (McRoberts, 1987)  texts  closes with student work related to a relevant media issue. In this unit on newspapers it is both appropriate and revealing that the notion of truth, which was discussed with regard to the televisual news media in Chapter three of this dissertation, should be the topic. The fact that lens images are effectively set aside in this unit suggests that the truthfulness  or realism,  that is the indexicality, of these images is not an issue. The  introduction  and  unit  1 of Media  Workshop  Volume  2  (McRoberts, 1987) is an extended discussion of the development of visual  images into symbolic sign systems. Moving through examples from ancient cultures to more recent "whether  because  fine art and advertising, the text argues that,  they are deliberately presented  that way, or  because,  seeing them repeated often enough, we begin to see them as representing a whole class of things—pictures can become charged with extra meanings" (p. 19). In these opening pages no distinction is made between drawn images, photographic reproductions from  the media and photos taken  as  illustrations for this text. Thus the ample illustrations offered in this first unit are a mixture of types of images. The point about the potency and impact of mechanically reproduced images is narrowed down by the end of unit 1 by concentrating on the images in comic books and cartoons. By discussing comic books, McRoberts is able to introduce some of the history and issues that have led to the "effects studies" which have been such a dominating part of one branch of psychological inquiry into the mass media, and which address about  concerns  symbolic signs as emotional and acculturating forces. McRoberts  addresses describing  the the  question,  "Are comics  controversy  that has  good  for  surrounded  you?" the  (p.  more  33-34) explicit  by and  violent comics in publication since the fifties, but concludes this portion of his text by admitting that the effects studies connected with comic books have been inconclusive. Rather than leaving the unit at that, McRoberts concludes with a two page comic strip that visually re-enacts the content if not the style of the sex and violence comics under discussion. The text that accompanies the cartoons is used to draw attention  to the blatant  and  unsophisticated nature of this type of literature. This conclusion creates some real ambiguity. By appropriating the visual luridness of these comics to promote  his negative evaluation of  them, is McRoberts effectively undermining his own criticism? Why does  96 he seem critical in words while feeling free to use what are (according to his text) problematic images? He seems to be using visual illustrations of sex and violence to sell his critical observations that sex and violence are used in comic books. Part A Unit 2 in Volume 2 of Media  Workshop is divided evenly into  three portions. The introductory pages follow the history of photography from  the  1830's to the present  photographs  and  and are amply illustrated with historic  technical drawings. This  section  basically follows  a  technological version of the "great man" approach to history by presenting a chronology of inventors and their inventions. The last section in the unit concentrates  on the how-to side of the photographic process and employs  both photography and drawing for the many technical illustrations used. It is the centre portion of this unit that is of special interest. The section opens  by  asking  the  question  "How do  photographs  communicate?"  (McRoberts, 1987, p. 44). McRoberts responds to this by exploring both visually  and in writing what are called  "the codes" (p. 44) and  "the  conventions" (p. 46). According to McRoberts, the codes of photography are the formal, physical limits of the medium and include: subject, frame, light and dark, colour and monochrome, mass, pattern, texture, and composition. Although  this  section asks  students  to compare  different  versions of  photographs, the accompanying captions emphasize the changes in mood or meaning  caused  mentioning emphasis  by different  physical qualities in the  that a photographer is  oriented  toward  has  brought  reception  and  about student  those  image  without  changes.  preference  The  without  extended exploration of the conditions leading up to those preferences.  It  models a fairly uncritical approach to photographs as iconic signs. In discussing the conventions of photography McRoberts states that "what a picture means is largely a matter of what it's used for" (p. 46). He  97 then identifies four broad categories of use: social function, communication, expressive function, and persuasion. McRoberts links, through word and example, the social function of photography with family photos and the indexical (my term, not his) quality that such images are seen to possess. He argues that this connection has come to play a part in our response to the use of photographs of famous people. "Owning someone's image is not quite the same as knowing him personally, but it seems to be heading in the  same  general direction psychologically"  (p. 46). McRoberts further  extends this notion of the indexical side of photography when he briefly discusses documentary or news images. He tells but does not show us that "what is shown, and how it is shown, can be manipulated very easily" (p. 47). In discussing the expressive side of photography, McRoberts states that  from  its  invention some  photographers  have  made  art  with  the  camera. Yet he marginalizes art photography by suggesting that it is "less well known than other types" (p. 47), defining what he means photography landscape  only through  one visual  by art  example, a traditionally beautiful  photo.  McRoberts'  final  category  persuasion. Where he did not  describes specifically  photography  as  use the term  a  tool  of  "indexical"  to  describe the realism supporting the social and communicative functions of the medium, McRoberts does specifically explore the term "icon" as it has been used to describe those images of persuasion "which dominate people's thinking" (p. 48). His definition collapses icon and symbol as they have been described in Chapter two of this study. He presents images that show gender-based role models and stereotypes of cuteness and family function and then  argues that these iconic mass-media images  have a powerful  negative affect on those many viewers who cannot meet the standards  set  98 by  the icon. Although he gets close to the gender issues  discussed in  feminist contemporary criticism, McRoberts limits his brief discussion here to photography's role as a source of images of same-gender role models. He does not introduce the notion that photographic  mass-media  images  are  often meant to affect members of the opposite sex although several of the images that he offers context.  as examples could certainly be discussed in that  The general  generally  too  Photographs  impression given in this unit is that viewers  susceptible  to  the  meanings  built  into  are  photographs.  are presented as constructed objects, but issues such as how  that construction is carried out at a physical level (which would suit the orientation of the unit) and the significance of that construction (which would expand the unit beyond its apparent purpose)  are not explored at  any length. These expansions of the chapter would take the unit beyond reception theory into formal and social criticism. For  a variety  of reasons Media  Workshop  Volume  2 Unit 3  (McRoberts, 1987), on film, is one of the key chapters in these texts. It is the longest unit in the two texts, and has the greatest quantity and widest stylistic range of illustrations. The number  of photographic  students and the scope and nature of the projects  images of  assigned both suggest  that this unit is intended to be the biggest "hands-on" experience the texts have to offer. Like the previous chapter on photography, Unit 3 opens with a brief history of the medium, but in this case the emphasis is on the content and narrative of particular films, with technical history playing an  important  but secondary role. In addition, an element of cultural/institutional history is  introduced  through  a discussion of "Classic Hollywood"  cinema in  comparison with Australian cinema. In exploring the relationship  between  Australian and Hollywood cinema, issues such as economics and cultural  99 sovereignty (or what has been identified as symbolic sign as production and acculturation in this study) are introduced. These early discussions lay the groundwork for the exploration of film as a cultural construction in later exercises in critical inquiry and in student film production. Like the previous chapter  on photography,  Unit 3 offers a list of  codes and conventions of film. The codes, which correspond in form to those identified in early semiotic theories of film, include: the shot, the sequence, the soundtrack, editing and special effects. extensive  than  were those on photography,  The lists are more  and particular items in the  code, such as the synchronization of sound with image, are discussed in some detail. In addition, McRoberts is careful to point out that even this listing is far from complete. It is not clear what McRoberts means by "the conventions" of film. He divides film  into fiction  and documentary  and focuses  on fiction,  under  which he vaguely introduces the notion of genre and auteurism as "form" and "style", as well as "stars", "themes", and "production values." In the photography unit McRoberts is explicit in framing the conventions of the medium as "the ways photography  is used." In this chapter on film,  term "conventions" has come to mean the narrative structure and the an  scene of  interpretation  a  film.  This  shifts  the  emphasis  from  reception  the mise and  to construction, which suggests that a semiotic model is at  work in this chapter. Following  this theoretical portion, a number  of heavily illustrated  pages are devoted to the production of student films. This section takes students from initial conception to the final projection of a film. Included in this portion of the unit, along with a selection of stills from known movies, are a large number of technical diagrams, as well as a relatively short but complete storyboard and script. The collaborative nature of the  100 medium is detailed through a number of job descriptions included in this section. The unit closes with the issue of criticism and film. McRoberts responds to the question of what makes a "good" film by introducing very briefly  the  four  major  streams of film  theory, semiotic theory, and aesthetic response  criticism:  auteur theory,  genre  theory. McRoberts summarizes his  to these theories by suggesting that "it's safe to say there's an  element of truth in all of them, but that the whole truth is not to be found in any one" (McRoberts, 1987, p. 119). Although he avoids saying so, McRoberts'  comment  that  "all [good]  films  must  be  integrated  and  harmonious" (p. 119) suggests that he operates under a notion of aesthetic unity that would place him in the camp of the aesthetic theorists. McRoberts concludes this chapter on film by asking "Why are films important?"  (p.  122). His intriguing conclusion is that film  traditional authority  structures  (parliament,  "bypasses  education, church and  social  leaders) and goes straight to the individual viewer" (p. 122). He argues that film  offers  a non-traditional, fictitious world  view that can  make  "Chewbacca...more 'real' to most people, than the Secretary-General of the United Nations" (p. 123). What McRoberts doesn't say is that this world view is the product of another institution, the film industry, which is, while not a singular, unified corporate body, a large collection of commercially motivated corporations. Film  is somewhat  less  obviously linked  to  the  advertising industry than are the print media and television. Nonetheless, in selling entertainment, refining  and  the film industry is in the business of defining,  communicating  our  desires.  As  psychoanalytically  and  semiotically oriented criticism suggests, the institution of the film industry allows particular, powerful individuals to have a profound impact on our perception of the world and its people.  101 Without question, the emphasis placed on student production, with detailed information on the collaborative nature of film process, acts to draw attention to the mechanism as an aspect of the indexical meaning of film. No student would come through this unit believing that a film is the same as the life it may represent. At the same time, the difficult issue of discovering some critical perspective from which to respond to film is left largely unexplored. Media  Workshop Volume  2 Unit 4 is on television. As before, this  unit opens with an historical look at the medium. This unit places even greater emphasis on the local, cultural issues related to the development of television in Australia than did the previous unit with regard to film. The first third of the unit is devoted to exploring television as institutionally based sources of symbols. This unit studies the development of the various commercial  and  governmentally  funded  networks  that  fill  Australia's  airwaves. Cultural concerns such as content, and related economic concerns such  as  the  financial  viability  of  producing  original  Australian  programming, are discussed in pages framed by stills from a variety of Australian The  programs. now-familiar section  on  codes  refers  to  the  information  presented in the previous chapters and then draws attention to differences the televisual domestic viewing environment imposes on production. The technical consequences of T.V's small image size, compared to film, such as simplified  sets and greater  use of close-up shots, are presented. On the  other hand, the significance of this changed viewing environment on the viewer is not explored. Like the unit on film and unlike the unit on photography, the section on  television conventions emphasizes the form of televisual programming  rather than its use. This unit describes at some length the importance of  102 genre or format, personalities and styles. Brief mention is made of the uses of  television  in  the  contrast  made  between  entertainment  and  news  programming, but the emphasis is still on how these types of programming have come to be organized for broadcast. Advertising, and its impact on the form that television takes, is not presented as one of the conventions of the medium. The issue is confronted briefly later in the chapter but is not linked strongly to either the conventions of the medium, or its effects. Between the sections on codes and conventions early in the unit, and the brief discussion of the impact of commercials on the medium, there is an extended production  section on production. This section picks up many of the exercises  explored  in the  film  unit,  and  through  text  and  technical illustration, expands on them. Again a script is provided, but this time the project takes the form of a news broadcast. The content of the script is, however,  fiction,  so that the  students are  actually  producing  something of a hybrid in this exercise. This approach acts as an explicit critique of the apparent immediacy and realism of television news, but the significance of realism in television news is completely subverted  by not  encouraging critical exploration of visual selection and presentation, which is at the heart of the news genre. The chapter concludes effects  of the  representation  violence are discussed made of the quantity  by exploring the effects of  gender, race,  of television. The  economic  position,  with reference to psychological studies.  and  Much is  of television viewed by children as compared  to  other activities, such as reading, that provide information about the world. Once again  the unit focuses  on program  content but  does not  explore  advertising. Emphasis is placed on the world view depicted in television programming  without  considering  the  world view depicted  through  the  advertising that accompanies the program. In fairness to the text, the final,  103 cross-media units in Volume 2 do explore issues such as advertising at length. At the same time, the impact of advertising is separated from the initial discussion of the experience  of viewing television. In doing so  McRoberts would seem to be sidestepping the issue of viewer positioning discussed at such length by contemporary feminist critics.  Meet the Media Meet published  the  Media  (McMahon  & Quin,  1988) is the  most  recently  of the material in the Western Australian curriculum and is  specifically designed for use by junior secondary level students. Chapters one  and  two are  umbrella chapters,  the  first exploring communication  theory while the second deals with advertising across the media. Chapters three (Newspapers  and  Photographs)  and four  (Magazines and Comics)  focus on the print media. Chapter five is on film, six is on radio and audio, and seven is on television. This  book  reproductions student  places  emphasis  on  black  and  white  photographic  from the various media as well as media-like images  manipulation  and  analysis.  Collectively  these  photos  for  represent  approximately 25% of the book's content. Some fairly crudely done pen and ink drawings are used to illustrate student involvement in the many projects  and assignments  smattering  that the text  of charts and graphs,  sets, but these, together with a  represent less than  10% of the  book's  content. The remaining two-thirds of the book is made up of written text, the bulk of it brief introductory paragraphs followed by instructions  for  projects or activities. Portions of Meet the Media are prescribed for seven of the 16 units that make up the Western Australian curriculum at this level. The three units (1.1, 2.1, and 2.2) defined  as introductory in the Media  Studies  104 Resource  Catalogue  seven  this  in  ( M E W A , 1988) refer to Chapters one, three, five and  book.  Given  my  focus  on  introductory  material  and  understanding the visual in the media, the analysis that is to follow  will  concentrate on Chapters one, three, five and seven. Chapter one defines communication as a chain made up of sender, message, medium, and receiver (McMahon & Quin, p. 11). It is suggested that we communicate via languages  and that these languages  can  be  written, spoken or visual (p. 14). Emphasis is placed on the importance of recognising that both sender and receiver play a role in meaning to be drawn from a message. The text suggests that four questions should be asked of the media: 1. What products do the media offer us? 2. How are these messages or products constructed? What codes do they use? How do we make sense of (decode) these messages? 3. At whom are these messages directed? Do we all make the same meanings out of the messages or do the meanings vary? If there are differences, what causes them? 4. What effects  do the mass media have on us? What are the  surface and deeper meanings of the products or messages they offer us? (p. 10-11) These  questions  are  important,  not  only  because  they  represent  the  organising framework for each of the chapters to follow in Meet the Media, but also because they establish the theoretical scope of media studies in this text. Question 1 asks the student to investigate empirical questions of content  in  the  media.  understanding  of  assembled  a  in  Question  semiotics culturally  that  2  is  sees  recognizable  grounded  in  communication code  and  a  contemporary as  then  a  message  disassembled  (decoded) by the receiver. Question 3 implies that media messages  are  105 directed  at  differences  particular  groups.  This  introduces  the  possibility  that  in message receivers have an impact on their reception of a  given message. On the one hand this posits an institutional agenda on the part of the mass media (the messages are directed at particular groups), and on the other implies, as do feminist and ideological critiques of the media, categories based on culture, race, gender, age or economic status of receivers or targets for the messages. Question 4 goes one step further in the area of reception and introduces the notion that there are levels of meaning in media messages. The kind of interpretive analysis implied here can  be  found  psychoanalytic,  in psychology's interest  in the  narrative,  theories  and reception  media  as  well  discussed  in  as  the  Chapters  three, four and five of this dissertation. Chapter three in Meet the Media  concentrates  on newspapers  and  photography. It addresses only three of the four questions posed by the text, ignoring number four and its concerns with effects. The greater part of the chapter is devoted to what constitutes This exploration emphasizes various  genres  including  written content: topical,  event  the content ads  and  oriented,  of  newspapers.  news  stories of  sensational  and  ethnocentric articles (p. 51). The study of photographs is limited to several exercises portions  where  students  are  asked  of images. Presumably the  selections  are  to  be  based  on  the  to  select  newsworthy  images  or  students' criteria for making these same  notions  of  newsworthiness  discussed in the written content of the chapter. The how conventions  of  portion of the chapter devotes a brief three pages to the the  newspaper.  It  concentrates  on  formal  design  considerations as well as the conventions of writing for the newspaper. It does  not  describe  photojournalism.  or  discuss  conventions  of  photography  or  106 The for  whom section of the chapter is only one page long. It  discusses  very briefly  does  explore the idea) that newspapers  not  newspaper  circulation and tells the students (but have points of view  and  particular target audiences. Chapter  five  explores  the  film  medium. The what  question  is  answered in three pages of exercises that focus entirely on the "persistence of  vision"  phenomenon. The how question constitutes  the bulk of this  text's study of film. In thirty pages twelve exercises are offered, grouped under the headings: Scripts, Artistic Decisions, Editing, and Actors and Acting. Most of the twelve exercises function as introductions to various ways by which films are constructed, including: original ideas, framing, camera angles, camera movement, lighting, effects, props and set design, costuming, characterization, montage/narrative, and point of view. Often in these exercises reference is made, in simple terms, to the notion of viewer positioning. For example, the introduction to an exercise on selecting a point of view states: Editors have a choice of many shots of an action. Shots of the same action have been taken from different positions. The editor decides which view of the action we get to see. Do we see the action from where the hero would see it? The position from which we see the action is called the point of view. This is not done simply for variety, but to change the way we understand the action. It can make us feel part of the action or separate from it. (McMahon & Quin, p. 122) The  four  activities  that  follow  this  statement  concentrate  on  the  technicalities of editing shots and adding sound, but in no way explore the notion that our understanding of the action may have been influenced by these changes.  107  The for then  uses  whom section briefly introduces the concept of genre and  its  two  pages  to  explore  popular  film  with  reference  to  attendence and sales figures. The what effects portion of the film chapter is basically a statement to the effect that films are constructions that are important because suggest  they create a representation  that this representation  of reality. It goes on to  should be viewed critically. The chapter  then concludes with a variety of practical exercises that further  explore  the creation of a sense of place in film. One of the final exercises is a reproduction  of Russian filmmaker Lev Kuleshov's montage  experiment  where a character's expression seems to change because of the changing content of a second image that the first is paired with. This is the only exercise in the chapter that gives the student the opportunity to explicitly address the issue of meaning in the visual construction of film. Chapter seven in Meet  the  Media  looks at television. The what  section in the television chapter presents information on the demographics of television ownership and viewing, as well as introducing the concept of genre or "formats". Student exercises in this nine page section concentrate on student analysis of their own viewing patterns. The how  section of Chapter seven opens by reintroducing the issue  of symbols that was discussed very briefly in Chapter one. Students asked  to  analyse  the  visual  and  aural codes  in television news  are and  situation comedies. Also touched on are issues such as newsworthiness, point of view used to create an impression of authority, and characters as types that represent  different  social groups. Compared to other  sections  and other chapters, this section de-emphasizes original student production in favor of exercises that concentrate on student manipulation and analysis of imagery from the media.  108  The for whom section of this chapter  on television addresses two  issues: television as an economic institution, and its role in the family. In many ways, these six pages pick up the ideas introduced at the beginning of the chapter. By drawing attention to the amount of money involved in television broadcasting, and connecting that with those visual qualities of programming that make television look like a natural family  extension  of the  living room, the issue of the hegemonic power of television is  introduced, if not explored in any depth. Finally, the what  effects portion of Chapter seven in Meet the  Media picks up the exploration of characterization in television introduced earlier and links it with values. The suggestion is made that the values represented by characters  and genre on television have  an impact on  viewers' values, as well as their perception of the world. The exercises that follow  in this  section  use both  analysis and production  approaches to  consider the values implied in televisual characterization. Most of these exercises are word based rather than visual.  Critical  Review  The concluding portion of this chapter critical  overview  of a l l the Western  is intended  to establish a  Australian curriculum  materials  reviewed here. The intention is to establish a sense of the scope of the program at large rather than to focus on limitations of particular texts. Bound Australian  textbooks  curriculum  represent a significant portion foundational  material.  It  is  of the Western  therefore  fair  to  generalize on the basis of those materials about the way the lens media are used in the curriculum at large. Though all the books reviewed here have limited  themselves  to black  and white  image  reproduction,  of more  concern is the way that those images are used in the texts. The largest  109 proportion are used as documents  divisible into primary and  secondary  categories. Images such as photos of students working on media projects, and  technical  represent  illustrations  of  either  primary documentation.  media  Images  equipment  reproduced  or  from  processes  the  lens media are often photographs of photographs, and represent  various  secondary  documentation. Regardless of their origins, the majority of these images are offered  as either evidence or example, and students are not  often  called upon to analyse them to any great extent. The image sequencing exercises in Meet the Media (McMahon & Quin, 1988, p. 129-131, 185189) and the family snap-shots  in Media  Workshop  Volume  2:  Images  (McRoberts, 1987, p. 44-47) are two notable exceptions to the general use patterns of images in these texts. In these two examples, the expressive qualities of photographic imagery and the impact of the images' visual context are explored in situations where critical viewing on the part of the student is encouraged. The weight placed on the use of lens imagery as indexical signs in these texts is in some ways at odds with the critical perspectives promoted by the texts' written content. As  a package,  the  materials  reviewed  here  cover  an  enormous  amount of ground and offer some insight into the curriculum. The study of photography  tends  to  come  early  in each  text  and  emphasizes  the  mechanisms of the camera and "rules of composition". Critical or aesthetic issues that might be considered an art educator's domain, and photographs as an art form, are basically ignored. Narrative and semiotic theories that emphasize the use of visual media as icon have generally focused on film, and so it is not suprising that photography is not explored in this context. This may account for the fact that those texts that touch on newspapers and  the  other  print  media  do  not  explore  the  relationship  between  photographic images and the text that surrounds them. Issues such as the  110 realism and newsworthiness of lens images is typically left for discussions of television news. In terms of the student work required and the amount of space used in these texts, film studies seems to be the foundation of this curriculum. This is, perhaps, attributable  to the fact that this and many other media  studies programs grew out of film studies courses offered in the schools in the 1970's. Narrative and semiotic theories are at the heart of this area of inquiry. When film is being discussed as a story, notions of narrative, point of view, and character are described. When the production and sequencing of images (especially in terms of student work) is under consideration, the basic vocabulary of semiotics as it has been adapted to film is used. When students are called upon to respond critically, the approach seems to be drawn from either  a generalized  notions of representation  iconic/aesthetic  model, or from  early  that could be linked to a variety of perspectives.  Generally speaking, the text avoids identifying or using any one particular point of view in its criticism, which really means that it is following rather than resisting the status quo, or the viewer-at-large's attitude toward film. Where  this  curriculum emphasizes  photography,  and  content  in its  form  in  consideration  of  its  consideration  film,  the  study  of of  television is used to explore contextual influences such as the institutional nature of the mass-media and its effects  on individuals in society. More  than  areas  in any  of  the  other  media-based  in this  curriculum,  the  television sections are used to focus on the economic institutions driving the mass-media. The Media  Workshop  concentrates on who owns  what.  text (McRoberts, 1987), especially,  Unfortunately,  this  critique does  not  become very specific in terms of the relationship between advertising and programming.  The  reader  is  told that  more  programming tends to be more profitable,  but  popular,  less  challenging  the relationship  between  111 world views and the ideological implications presented in programming and advertising (its function as a symbolic sign system) are not explored. Meet the Media (McMahon & Quin, 1988) uses its television section to  offer  an  extended  visual study  of representation  as  an  aspect of  characterization as iconic sign. The section details the physical qualities that characterize  types, stereotypes, and symbols. Though the notion that  these symbolic characters can be used as visual shorthand  is introduced,  this information is presented more as a psychological phenomenon than as the kind of socially defining structure that various  streams of cultural  criticism see in it. The television sections do a comprehensive job of introducing the "use studies" and "psychological effects the  medium  consequences  since  the  1950's.  The  studies" that have been a part of emphasis  is  on  children and  the  of exposing them to television in general and representations  of violence in particular. The television sections do not move into the social effects  of gender and race representation  that are largely the domain of  cultural critics. Contextually,  these  curriculum  portion of the introductory content  materials  represent  a  substantial  in Western Australia's Media  Studies  program. Given their form and the fact that the curriculum is a component of  a larger  language  arts program,  it is not  suprising that  emphasis,  especially in the area of the construction of meaning, is biased toward print. This is especially evident in the way that photographs are used and critiqued, or left uncritiqued. In their use of generalized terminology from semiotics, these texts do move students toward an understanding  of the  visual as a systematic means of communication that is both effective and expressive. Psychological interpretation,  contemporary  critical thought  on  iconic signs, and ideological critique of mass mediated symbols, admittedly  112  difficult terrain for junior secondary students, as well as the lens media as aesthetic forms, are far less adequately addressed.  113  Chapter  8  Media Studies in the Province of Curriculum  Ontario  Guidelines  The media literacy curriculum in the province of Ontario is the result of some interesting changes in Canadian education, at least as it is reflected in the Ontario school system. In 1987 the Ontario Ministry of Education revised the Secondary English curriculum (Ontario Ministry of Education [MEO], 1987), and adopted a media education requirement for students in grades 7-12. For the intermediate involve  media  mandatory This  studies.  content  change  For  the  secondary  in the language  was  the  result,  grades, 10% of course content grades,  fully  33%  is to of  the  arts program is to be media related.  in part,  of  lobbying by  the provincial  Association for Media Literacy ( A M L ) whose president, Barry Duncan, has authored Mass Media and Popular Culture (1988), the classroom text which we are considering here. Media (Ingram,  1989)  are  two  Works (Anderson, 1989) and Media  secondary  level  texts  that  have  just  Focus been  published and will undoubtedly work their way into the school system. As well, a "Canadianized" version of Meet the Media (McMahon & Quin, 1988) has gone to press and is aimed specifically at the junior secondary student. The fact that Duncan's book is the only one that has been in use, and the only one, for the time being, which is mentioned in Ministry of Education text book circulars (Ontario Ministry of Education, 1989) justifies focusing on Mass Media and Popular Culture (Duncan, 1988). As well, Mass  Media  and  Media  Popular  Culture  Teachers'  Guide  (Duncan, 1989) and The  114 Literacy  Resource  Guide (Ministry of Education, Ontario [MEO] 1989) are  considered.  The Media Literacy Resource Guide The Media Literacy  Resource  Guide ( M E O , 1989), published by the  province of Ontario, is a large, expensively produced handbook on  the  conviction that teachers can  teach  "predicated  the key concepts  of media  literacy in some form to all students at all levels" (p. 3). The guide includes chapters  on  photography,  television,  film,  radio,  popular  music  and  rock  print, and cross-media studies, as well as support  on other available resources  video, chapters  and an important introductory chapter  where  key concepts and a variety of possible teaching strategies are laid out. In schools,  explaining the the  writers  rationale  of the  guide  for  media  concede  literacy that the  programs school  in  system  the is  "primarily print-oriented" (p. 6). While the guide argues for the study of the electronic media, and by implication, greater critical understanding of the visual, the format of the guide itself seems to have been influenced by the print and word biases in the system. There is not a single photograph in  the  entire  guide.  Instead, there are  dozens  of well-crafted  cartoon  illustrations, many of which reprise images from television, film or mass media  photography.  The  choice  to  go  with  one  (unnamed)  illustrations results in a unity of design which is visually quite The consequences  of weighting design  over  lens-generated  artist's  attractive.  illustrations  with a more direct visual reference to the study of the mass media will be discussed in the closing analysis. Chapter one lists eight key concepts: 1. A l l media are constructions. 2. The media construct reality.  115 3. Audiences negotiate meaning in the media. 4. Media have commercial implications. 5. Media contain ideological and value messages. 6. Media have social and political implications. 7. Form and content are closely related in the media. 8. Each medium has a unique aesthetic form. (1989, pp. 9-10) These are eight potent statements that don't necessarily fit neatly together. If, for example, the media constructs reality, is it possible for an audience to negotiate  meaning in the  media? Most of these concepts  have  the  potential to be explored in visual terms. The first chapter lists ten possible approaches  to the study of the  media, including: inquiry and critical thinking models, values education, the use of creative experiences, and semiotic analysis. Both the inquiry and critical models represent mainstream pedagogical practice in education and this is reflected in the detailed coverage given to these approaches  here.  The  with  term  semiotics,  which  is  described  in  a  brief  paragraph  bibliographic references, is used in the loose sense of "a research  strategy"  described earlier by Allen (1987, p. 1). Finally, the chapter concludes by touching on various subject areas in the public school curriculum where media studies could play an important part. Rightly, the writers  suggest  that much of the impetus for media studies has come from language arts educators.  It is not  surprising, then,  that the  sections  describing  the  application of media studies in the language arts and the social sciences are pages long while other subject areas, including the visual arts, merit only a paragraph. The brief comment on the appropriateness content  of media studies as  in the art program is reflective of the lack of input that art  educators have offered to this program.  116 Chapter two, ( M E O , 1989, pp. 27-72) which is devoted to television, is the longest of the sections on a specific medium. The first major section in this  chapter,  oriented  called  toward  "television's  content  construction  analysis.  The  of  reality",  recommended  is basically  exercises  involve  quantifying the kinds of people and activities as a means to discovering the  role  of  iconic  representation  on  television.  The  next  section  concentrates on decoding activities. In this, students are asked to break down televisual information into its components.  After  naming, but  not  explaining, the notions of storyboarding and "jolts per minute" (Wolfe, 1985), students are called upon to analyse soundtracks, sports, advertising, and stereotypical characters. There is a missed opportunity to introduce in detail some of the complexities in the indexicality of the visual in the media. Having developed some analytical skills, the students are then to be presented with the concept of genre in the sections of Chapter two called "types of programs". The emphasis narrative content  in this section is on the analysis of  or plot. Several exercises  draw attention  to the visual  content of game shows, talk shows, and sitcoms among others, but there is no extended analysis of the visual qualities of these programs. There is, for example, no exploration of the visual relationship between a talk show set and the living room of the viewer, or the importance of eye contact in news  broadcasting. The chapter closes with a section on the commercial implications of  television. In some ways this is the most technical portion of this chapter. Along with exercises that explore cereal and Christmas season advertising, this  section  introduces  terminology  and  concepts  related  to television  programming. The focus of this section is clearly economic. How economic pressures  drive  both  the  visual  and  narrative  content  of  television  117 programming  is  secondary  here to  simply laying out  the  institutional  structure of the television industry. Chapter three ( M E O , 1989, pp. 73-98) is on film and is about half the length of the chapter on television. The first section introduces terminology (such as shot, scene,  sequence, etc.)  that gives the  students words  to  describe some of the features of visual construction in a film. The meaning of various angles and points of view is discussed very briefly. Students are then asked to apply this teminology in student production work as well as in the analysis of commercial films. The last two-thirds of this focuses  on the  In this portion students  are  introduced to film reviewing, genre (in terms of narrative content),  and  filmic adaptation  literary qualities of film.  chapter  of literary sources. The chapter  includes a selection of  hands-on experiences in animation and video. This is followed by a brief introduction to avant-garde and rock video which sets interpretation  of  meaning  to  as  its  priority, with the  visual in some  ways  subsidiary  emotional expression. Given the brief attention paid to introducing visual form in film, this section would seem to be relying on students' previous exposure to the medium, and thus adopts a discovery learning approach to the visual construction of filmic imagery. Chapter four will not be discussed, since its focus on radio is outside the emphasis on visual material covered in this dissertation. Chapter five (MEO, chapter  1989, pp. 117-134) deals with popular music and rock video. This is interesting  because the  visual,  aural,  and  literary  elements  receive equal weight. In terms of the visual, the section called "decoding: content,  values,  aesthetics"  (p.  126)  is central.  discussion of montage and its importance asked  to  analyse  advertisements.  the  visual  Although there is  no  to rock videos, students  are  construction  Most of what this analysis w i l l  of  these  entertaining  entail is left  unstated.  118 Presumably  some reference  to the  terminology in the chapter  on  film  would be needed. Chapter six on photography ( M E O , pp. 135-144) is the shortest in the Media Literacy Resource Guide ( M E O , 1989). More than any other chapter, it concentrates  on visual images and our response to them. Interestingly,  having focused this chapter on the visual, the authors choose to emphasize aesthetics,  and  a fairly  traditional  artist-as-genius-creator  approach  at  that. Both Gary Winogrand and media critic John Steinbeck are quoted to emphasize  the  photographer-based photograph,  the  I/eye  of  the  photographer.  Having  established  a  notion of who is responsible for the meaning of a authors  then  ask  the  students  to  analyse  family  photographs for what they say about family life. Further exercises ask the students to use photographs as the springboard for creative writing and to analyse the environment surrounding photographic art in a gallery. This chapter  concludes with exercises involving  different  sequencing images to create  meaning, and with production assignments  where the  students  are called upon to carefully plan studio tableau or advertising images. Chapter seven on the print media ( M E O , pp. 145-170) devotes one page  to  photographs  in print.  The  authors  pose  the  question:  Are  photographs as important to newspapers as the written text? Responses to this question are drawn from the students through suggested news  photographs  with  reference  to  captioning  and  the  analysis of articles  that  accompany them. Chapter eight on cross-media studies ( M E O , pp. 171-220) covers five major themes in the media: advertising, sexuality in the media, violence and the media, Canadian identity and ownership, and reporting the news. The first section, on advertising, almost seems to have been written by a different  editorial committee.  Rather  than  offering  statements  on  the  119  media  followed  understanding,  by  this  student  exercises  meant  to  reinforce  section employs checklists to be used  their  in analysing  various sorts of ads. This analysis places approximately equal weight on the visual form and the literary content of the ads. These checklists are followed  by several pages of terminology and then a group of student  exercises  and  productions  intended  to  explore  such  issues  as  with in  the  narrowcasting, political advertising and consumer advocacy. The delicate/indelicate section  on  sexuality.  issue  Using  of pornography media  objectification  of (usually female)  pornographic  representation  determination  of  images  is dealt  advertising,  the  models and actors is described.  The  women  is  and  linked  with  the  cultural  of self image in both men and women. A number of the  student assignments  concentrate on theatrical concerns  such as blocking  (i.e., who is standing where, in what pose, and who are they looking at?). That the viewer might be part of that blocking is not discussed; important  developments  in  contemporary  feminist  film  hence,  criticism  are  ignored. Where the section on sexuality in the media tends to concentrate on its negative consequences  in our culture, the section on violence offers a  more diverse set of opinions. Where media representation "real" and thus detrimental  of sexuality is  in its stereotypicality, in the authors'  view  there seems to be some room for recognising the artifice in some media violence.  Nonetheless,  this  section,  along  with  asking  students  to  "deconstruct"  fight scenes in television, also asks them to consider  the  consequences  of stereotyping certain classes of people as irrational, violent,  or as enemies. Finally, the last section of Chapter eight, which looks at reporting the news, asks student to do a comparative analysis of print and televisual  120 news media. How this kind of exercise might be carried out is not spelled out  in great detail, but  it does  leave open  the  possibility  for  some  interesting comparisons of the different uses of the lens media in these two forms.  Mass Media and Popular Culture Mass  Media  and  Popular  Culture  introduction to key concepts followed  (Duncan, 1988) consists of an  by eight chapters.  These  chapters  deal, in order, with: Popular Culture, Television, Film, Sound and Music, Journalism, Advertising, Violence, and Gender Roles. Key  terms  introduction  are  throughout  the  "construction",  book and  which  are  presented  "deconstruction";  in  the  "ideology", and  "values", "forms", "codes", and "conventions". These dense and  difficult  terms, which are some of the foundational jargon of semiotics and critical theory, are  minimally  defined  in four  pages,  with  examples  generally  derived from television. There is an assumption on the part of the author that students will have some technical understanding of what it means to say, "that the producers of media 'construct' their product, whether it is the 6 o'clock news, a T . V . drama, your daily newspaper, a magazine ad, or a record album, to create an illusion or to make a world that is exciting and entertaining enough to keep audiences interested" (Duncan, 1988 p. 10). Such  assumptions  lead  to  a  kind  of  sweeping  generality.  Thus,  "construction" as it is described in the text implies a conspiratorial badness to  which  "deconstruction,"  whatever  that may  entail, is the  antidote.  "Ideology," "beliefs," and "values" are individual attributes that a group of "middle or upper-class white males" (p. 13)(who are probably American) are  trying to influence to their  advantage.  And Nixon  lost the  1960  121 presidential election because he sweated  too much, thus  demonstrating  McLuhan's aphorism that "the medium is the message" (p. 12). I have described this first, important portion of the book in a critical tone. While the concepts  at issue are, as Duncan implies, essential, he  adopts a simplified, banking approach in the Frierian sense (Friere, 1974) to their study that runs counter to the "more critical perspective" (Duncan, 1988, p. 7) that he claims as the cornerstone  of the  text.  Identifying  dominant groups by gender, social class and nationality as part of his very first definitional steps can make it very difficult for a student to genuinely explore notions of value and ideology as they are evidenced in the media. Media education ought to be devoted to the exploration  of the construction  and deconstruction of meaning in the media, the ideologies, beliefs and values built in to either of those first practices, and the forms, codes and conventions that are used in their expression. It seems more  appropriate  that the definition of these terms should be the end of this course rather than its beginning. Giving a list of "good guys" and "bad guys", however cautiously promoted  done, here.  seems It would  to  run  counter  be more  to  the  appropriate  critical for  method  being  students to view a  current candidates' debate and discuss the significance of the visual images that are created than to be told, with no visual support, that Richard Nixon sweated his way out of the U.S. presidency in 1960. Like the introduction, Chapter one, "Popular Culture," could be a book and a major course of studies on its own. The term, Popular Culture, is variously defined in the book as, "mainstream culture—the entertainments,  arts, artifacts,  fads, beliefs and values shared by large segments of the  society" (Duncan, 1988, p. 16); and "first and foremost, business" (p. 18). One of the real dangers involved in defining popular culture in terms of business  is the disenfranchisement  of the  students. If business  creates  122 popular culture, then studying popular culture takes on the flavor of what Len  Masterman  called "Leavisism"  (Masterman,  1984),  that is, media  education seen as a kind of innoculation against all that is tasteless and crass in the world. Herbert Gans, in Popular Culture and High Culture: An Analysis  and Evaluation  of  Taste (1974) is far more open-ended in his  discussion of popular culture. He distinguishes  between  popular  culture  and media fare. While they may at times seem interchangeable, "still, some popular culture continues to be created in the home" (Gans, p. 11). And as both Gans and Fred Schroeder (Schroeder, 1977) note, a key element in popular culture is the notion of choice. An even more recent definition of popular culture (Fiske, 1989) contrasts  the term with consumer  culture  and argues that popular culture is only those activities and objects that run counter to the pressures of mass consumption. Nonetheless, the economic component  of popular  culture  is  an  important  question  that  students  should consider from their own perspectives. By emphasizing popular culture as business, Duncan reinforces  the  myth of the overnight sensation. If celebrity (a subsection of the Popular Culture chapter) is entirely a product of astute marketing, then anyone can be a celebrity. Certainly there are plenty of examples of individuals getting the fifteen minutes of fame that Andy Warhol said would be ours. Duncan's text, both in terms of the articles he chose to print, and the questions and exercises  he asks  the  students to pursue,  is critical  of what  he calls  "celebrity worship" (p. 55). While noting the celebrity status of heroes such as Rick Hansen, Duncan spends more time on the toppling of "false gods." There is, however, a distinct contradiction between what the words in the text say and the images show. A l l the photographic images that he chooses to use to illustrate this section are attractive images of attractive successful  people.  Two contradictions are at work here.  and/or  By criticising  123 celebrity status as largely meaningless or trivial, Duncan positions himself as a critic of pop culture without accounting for the admiration we often feel for our cultural heroes beyond the imagery and the hype. At the same time, the images supplied in the text are not effectively deconstructed Duncan's  criticism.  His  words  do  not  make  the  media  stars  by look  meaningless or trivial. Like other aspects of popular culture, celebrity is often part form (marketing)  and  part content  (the  talents or personal  qualities  of  the  celebrity). Pam Cook suggests that celebrities "require an analysis capable of explaining the resilience of these images which we pay to have haunt our minds...an account which must attend to both industrial and psychic processes" (Cook, 1985, p. 50). A thoughtful approach to critically analyzing any aspect of popular culture must take the time to separate the people from  the  machinery,  the  manipulation  from  the  entertainment  and  communication; otherwise the whole project becomes nihilistic rather than educational. My general impression of Duncan's first chapter on popular culture is that the author has a sense of what is important. Unfortunately, he prefers to skim the surface concerns  in depth.  of a number of issues rather than analysing a few Building  a model for careful  analysis is far  more  important than trying to "hit all the bases" in a first text. Since most North Americans (including children) have an extensive empirical knowledge of the media and its products, media education should offer an analysis of this material that results  in a high degree of technical and  conceptual  understanding. The next three chapters can be discussed collectively because each (Television, F i l m , and Sound and Music) is a part of the entertainment industry and each depends on a form of non-verbal communication. Each  124 of these chapters moves from perceptions of a medium to its form, and ends with approaches to criticism in that medium. The strength of these chapters lies in the fact that each offers as its text a wide range of articles by  a variety  of authors.  While  these chapters  could  each  easily  be  extended, a sufficient range of opinion is presented so that students can find room to test their own values. The  chapter on music is also about sound while the chapters on  television and film have no parallel emphasis on vision. The strength of the chapter on music can be found in the fact that there is an attempt to lay a foundation  in the  technical, formal,  and perceptual qualities of sound  before discussion of lyrics and the institutional status of music gets too far along. In some circles, music is considered more abstract than the visual arts. It is seen as a purer art form which is further from our linguistic heritage and thus, perhaps, more difficult sense. It might be argued, therefore, about  a  argues  student's that  one  foundational of the  great  to understand in an analytical  that one cannot assume too much  knowledge in music. This weaknesses  in  our  dissertation  educational  system  generally and in media education in particular is that we assume too much about students' and teachers' understandings of Lens  Meaning.  Between the chapter on television and the chapter on film, five pages are devoted to technical concerns and virtually all of that is lists of vocabulary used in the industry. Knowing the word "editing" is a linguistic problem. Knowing how editing can affect the meaning of a film or video sequence  is largely a visual  "deconstruct"  television  and  problem. Most film  images  people  i f they  are  not going to  have  no practiced  understanding of how those images were constructed in the first place. As Masterman  argues:  125 The whole area of visual coding deserves  specific attention in any  consideration of how the medium constructs cover  the  hierarchy  implicit  in  meanings. This would  different  eye-contact-to-camera  patterns, but also take in the way in which the image is framed, the appearance,  dress,  and  gestures  of  communicated by the sets, and the codes  participants,  what  of geography  is  within a  studio which tells who is important and who less so. (Masterman, 1985 p. 159) An example of the direction that these chapters could take can be found in Masterman's 1984 article for U N E S C O called Theoretical and Practical  Possibilities  Issues  (Masterman, 1984), where he suggests that the  careful analysis of personal photographs can be an excellent way to learn to understand  the indexical and symbolic meaning that is a part of lens  images. He suggests further prelude  to the  study  that this sort of first step is an important  of the  more  fleeting and thus more analytically  difficult images of television and film. Barry Duncan does try to touch on some of the major concerns of film and  television studies,  such  as  genre,  auteurism,  and,  of course,  the  institutional aspects of these media. As well, he makes sure that many of his examples are from media fare that will be familiar and popular among his target audience (secondary  students),  giving more than equal time to  Canadian productions. After  these three chapters on specific media, there is a  reference  section that offers a number of inquiry models for gathering information on the media as well as information for writing scripts and another  two  brief pages on creating visual images. Following this, Duncan includes two chapters  on  Advertising.  particular Explicit  types  is used  of here  explicit to  information:  help  Journalism  distinguish these types  and of  126 information, which we know we are seeing, from that which is implicit in many media genres, such as violence and gender stereotyping. The last two chapters of the text deal with that sort of implicit information. The Journalism chapter in Mass  Media  and  Popular  Culture  is  strongest when it is dealing with the issue of truth and objectivity. The collection  of  four  articles  under  this  subcategory  include  a  "new  journalism" piece on old age homes (As Time Goes By by David MacFarlane [pp. 245-252])  which draws  attention  to the potential  in journalism for  bias to be "a good thing". Next there are a pair of articles giving two sides to  the  misadventures  Mozambique  of  (A Flagrant  Canadian  Violation  articles  combine  Barbara  Amiel,  in  of Rights by Barbara Amiel (pp. 253-  255), and Amiel: Beyond the Fringe two  journalist,  by Rick Salutin (pp. 256-257). These  to demonstrate the  contestability  of a  particular  journalist's apparent objectivity. Finally, an editorial piece by David Suzuki called Television's Electronic Curse: Views of World are Distorted 261)  draws  attention  to the  problem  of having bias  and  (pp. 259-  questionable  sources in journalism go unrecognized. The pedagogically difficult area of the institutionality of the various journalistic media is dealt with briefly in the Journalism chapter. There is a danger, in dealing with media institutionality, of either boring the students to death  or imposing a "conspiracy  mentality"  about the  media.  chapter's light coverage in combination with the information and  This  exercises  provided in earlier chapters brings sufficient attention to the role that the profit motive plays in the information that the media transmit.  Yet, the  selection process in the journalistic media is far more complex than simple economic  determinism  might  suggest. Especially in  the  case of  most  newspapers, there is no compulsion placed on the public to buy them. The problems of monopoly and editorial selection in newspapers are, of course,  127 important, but readers' buying and use habits also have an impact on the final product. This just cannot be dealt with, as it is in Duncan's book, in a page of statistics on Canadian use of the media (p. 222). Finally, the absence of any significant comment on the importance of visual information in the journalistic media cannot go unremarked. Duncan implies at one point (p. 234) that visuals are of more concern in television journalism than in the print media. While this may be true, the importance of visual information in the print media can be illustrated by Duncan's use of it in this chapter. David MacFarlane's As Time Goes By (pp. 245-252) is offered as new journalism that accepts a certain amount of bias but tries to make that bias explicit and thus "honest." The article is illustrated with seven  handsome  portrait  photographs  of the  old people  who are  the  subjects of the piece. It may have been the journalist's intention to give us a "real" sense of these people through his writing and responses to them, but there is no mention by Duncan of the fact that the accompanying photographs  are  iconic, idealizations. Rather  than  photographing  these  people in the environment that he is at such pains to describe, he has them photographed  in casual  but  posed  positions against  a seamless  studio  backdrop. This combines with strong side lighting that both emphasizes the lines of age in their faces and provides hardness in the high contrast of light and shadow, to create an image of strong, weathered nobility. They are beautiful photographs, but they also make the story far more palatable than would images of "guests" in the old folks' lodge who are beginning to lose control of themselves. These images avoid many of the problematic undercurrents  of retirement-home  life  that are an important element of  MacFarlane's text. Chapter six, on Advertising, is also concerned  with  the  explicit  attempt to transmit information to the public. In this case the information  128  preys on a material desire to have, rather than on a cognitive desire to know. This chapter touches on issues of the form, content, and context of advertising messages. In considering form, the text focuses on two sides of the same coin. The reader is first introduced to David Ogilvy, one of the "idea" men who have long  been the tradition in the ad business. He  describes how, through hard work and intuition, he makes his decisions about the direction that particular ad campaigns will take. Next we meet William Meyers and his notion of Psychographics. Advertising has moved toward a style that sells products as accoutrements to a particular lifestyle, rather  than  as  objects  that  serve  practical  purposes.  The  use  of  demographics to identify the lifestyle and desires of a target group has become important to advertising research. Moreover, as ads rely less on factual text, they begin to rely more on metaphoric language and visual constructions as symbolic signs. The  second portion of this chapter focuses even more sharply on  mental images and desire as they are played out in advertising. John Fisher's article takes a comical look at the stereotypes  that surround the  "typical family" in ads from the 1960's. Anne Steacy discusses sexuality as a selling tool. It is pointed out that advertising constructs images of "the good life" that we often passively accept, and that advertisers tap into our fears and desires in order to sell products. A follow-up to this observation must be some reflection on what we see as "the good life," as well as some honest  discussion of desire  and fear.  This  critical  self-reflection can  ultimately be a much more powerful tool against media manipulation than the examples of popular censorship described in this chapter, i f for no other  reason  than  that  value  laden  and  manipulative messages  will  continue to surround us. This is not to discount the importance of voicing  129 our opinions about our media environment, but even this sort of activism can only be as strong as the individual's convictions. In summary, the importance of visual imagery in constructing the content students'  of  advertising cannot  only  be  formal background  underestimated. to understanding  If  this  those  text  is  images,  the then  they are not equipped to do meaningful analysis. The kind of advertising analysis that Roland Barthes did on spaghetti sauce ads in Rhetoric Image  of the  (Barthes, 1977), requires an understanding of the images as both  indexical and symbolic signs. The final two chapters in Mass Media and Popular Culture deal with two of the more serious issues implicit in much of the media message: Violence, and Gender Roles. One of the real challenges in considering violence and gender roles as topics of study is that each plays itself out visually in the media, but our discussion and interpretation of them must, generally, be through words. The subtle power of the visual in media can be seen in the way violent or sexual images affect us. The chapter on violence is probably the most balanced and thoughtprovoking in the book. Nine articles are included, plus commentary and questions covering everything from cartoons to the news, wrestling to rock videos, and a large dose of Canadian content  in discussing violence in  hockey. Like most of the rest of the book there is a sense of a "right answer" in this chapter. Violence is bad, but only to a degree. Yet this is the first chapter where some of the articles suggest that there might be shades of grey to be found in the issue under discussion. Writers like Tom Englehardt in The Shortcake  Strategy (pp. 314-320 ), and Rocco Rossi in  Hype is the Key to Wrestling Mania  (pp. 336-339 ) at least explain why  violent programming is viewed as entertaining.  130 The chapter on gender roles is a disappointment. A "folk tradition" among Secondary English teachers is that they can get all the students to read action-adventure  stories but it is very difficult to get boys to read  stories that focus on relationships and "quieter" narrative. That tradition seems to have had an impact on this text. The chapter on gender roles is only half as long as the chapter on violence. The resulting brevity weakens the chapter's capacity to represent the complexities of gender as it is used in the media. Six articles express a "proper" point of view: that gender stereotyping, especially of women, is bad. There is no dissenting voice, and no explanation of why this "obviously" bad practice has such a hold on the media. The whole issue of pornography, of turning people into objects (or icons)  for  visual  consumption,  which  is  at  the  heart  of the  sexual  stereotyping of women, is not discussed. The images of man as dominator and predator, which are the other part of the pornographic formula, not to mention  the  concepts  of voyeurism and  fetishism  which  are  such  a  fundamental part of the lens media, are not discussed. Where the chapter on violence acts to open discussion, the chapter on gender roles seems to be acting to limit the range of considerations. What is offered is worth reading, but it isn't enough.  Mass Media and Popular Culture Teachers' Guide In 1989 a teachers' guide (Duncan, 1989) was published to support Mass Media  and Popular  Culture  (Duncan, 1988). Much of the text is  devoted to further analysis of the articles offered in the student textbook. It  is  not  surprising that  this  teachers'  guide  emphasizes  the  literary  interpretive mode as an approach to ideological analysis, as this is also the foundation  of the student text. Fortunately  the guide goes beyond  perspective  by referring regularly to a wide variety of visual  this  materials  131  that a particularly determined teacher  could track down and incorporate  into the curriculum. The other significant contribution of this guide is the bibliographic information at the end of each of the chapters. Cumulatively there are at least 100 annotated citations that touch on a wide range of issues and perspectives. A careful reading of writers such as Kuhn (1985) on the construction of the advertisements;  male gaze; Williamson (1978) on decoding  Flitterman-Lewis (1987) on the spectator's  relationship to  news broadcasting; Grant (1986) on film genre; and Newcomb (1982) on a variety  of critical  perspectives  on television, among many others,  can  equip a teacher to make this curriculum strongly grounded in the visual qualities of the media.  Critical Review In my original structuring of this critique I suggested that I would consider  the  teaching  of  the  visual  in  media education  through  the  indexicality and notions of realism; the iconic and the construction of narrative; and the symbolic, acculturation and social critique. The referents were to Mass Media and Popular Culture (Duncan, 1988); its accompanying teachers' guide (Duncan, 1989); and the Media  Literacy  Resource  Guide  ( M O E , 1989). Issues of indexicality have been touched on throughout this dissertation, but require further discussion at this point. The proposed curriculum that these texts embody is weakest in its handling of the indexical aspects of the visual in the media, both in terms of  how it lays the  students,  foundations  and in ways that the  visual. The Media Literacy  for visual  decoding of the  curriculum documents  Resource  media by  actually use  the  Guide (MOE, 1989) is a rich text that  must be read as an introductory survey of theory and practice in media studies for those many public school educators who will be attempting the  132 subject for the first time. If the text does function as the foundation for many teachers in their first attempts to teach media studies, then it is a real concern that the book has chosen to completely avoid any use of the lens media in its own production. It does call upon teacher and student to "decode" media messages, but without visual examples of what that means, the potential for interpretative relativism is strengthened. Mass Media and Popular  Culture (Duncan, 1988) opts for a kind of realism in its use of lens  images. Virtually screened  half the photos in this text are quite dark, coarsely  reproductions  from  the  mass-media.  Many  of the  images  are  from promotional packages originally produced for the celebrities pictured. Despite the low reproduction quality, most of these people look very good; but the text does not spend time helping students to understand how lens media were used to create these illusions. What is missing from the text are everyday images that could  be visually contrasted  with  and  draw  attention to the role of mechanism and convention in these mass-media products.  Without evidence  to the  contrary,  these mass-media  images  become what is real. In many ways this curriculum is thought-provokingly critical of the "false consciousness" (White, 1987, p. 137) resulting from naive consumption of the mass-media, but its own visual images belie the accompanying text. Not suprisingly, these curriculum materials place very little weight on guiding students through visual analysis. Lists of terms used in film Meaning.  or television do not constitute  an introduction to  Lens  Nor do they take advantage of the rich body of literature to  apprehend the power of the visual in the mass media. A Meaning,  number  of perspectives  that touch on iconic  signs and  Lens  such as psychoanalytic theory, feminist film theory and reception  theory, that offer contemporary, alternative explanations for responses  to  the  is  mass-media,  are  not  addressed  explicitly  in Duncan's  text.  It  133 understandable  that much of the work surrounding response to the media  is to be found in the exercise portions of these texts. After all, in those exercises students are called upon to respond in some sort of public form, and  to produce  visual responses to the  media theories  being  Unfortunately, much of this work is built around an unspecified and if the aesthetic remains  undefined  then  studied. aesthetic,  the media themselves  will  become the criteria against which the media is measured. This curriculum is at its strongest in the analysis of the media as symbolic sign systems. In the Althusserian sense (White, 1987, p.  139)  ideology can be understood as a complex of social, political, and economic practices that together "comprise the social  formation"  (p. 139). Much of  the exploration in these curriculum materials is devoted to decoding media products in search of the economic agenda behind them. More specifically, social  practices  such  as  response  to,  representation  i n , and  viewing  patterns of the mass media are examined in depth. The analysis of the meaning  of  these  various  psychoanalytic theory,  practices  feminist film  (which  would  be  theory, or reception  the  terrain  theory)  of  is not  explored to any great extent. Rather, using issues such as violence, and practices such as advertising as its focus, this curriculum concentrates on the more apparent consequences  of media messages.  134  Chapter  9  Media Studies in Scotland Introduction According  to  Schwab  (1971)  there  are  four  commonplaces  education: "the learner, the teacher, the milieu, and the subject  of  matter"  (Schwab, 1973, p. 508-509). In the context of curriculum development and evaluation,  the  milieu  is  dominated  by  administrative  and  political  authorities, and the subject matter is typically dominated by scholars in that  subject  approaches  area.  The  impact  of  behaviorism  and  discipline-based  to curriculum in the past thirty years can serve as evidence  that, despite  Schwab's  call  for  a balance  commonplaces in curriculum development,  (p.  508)  the process  between  the  is most  four  typically  dominated by the milieu and subject matter. As will be seen, the Scottish approach to Media Studies works from a model that shifts the away  from  curricula prescribed  and  controlled  by  emphasis  administrative  or  governmental agendas to one where the individual teacher is recognized as a dominant force in curriculum planning. In  the context of this study, this means that the reading of the  Scottish curriculum will be based on slightly different kinds of materials and will have a somewhat weaker internal validity, for the simple reason that the Scottish governmental documents are less prescriptive in terms of content.  At the  same time, analysing the effects  of this  decentralized  structure in the Scottish approach to Media Studies with reference  to the  other two curricula under consideration will offer useful insights into all three curricula.  135 The Scottish curriculum cites as one of its foundational influences the work of F.R. Leavis (1948) "not because Leavis was a proponent of a view sympathetic  to the position of contemporary  Media Studies, but because  his work established that the products of the media and the contexts in which they were produced were worthy of study, even i f it was to decry their effects" (Dick, 1987, p. 3). The current development in Scottish Media Studies is linked with the initial publication of Media Education Outline  Proposals  for  a Curriculum  in Scotland:  (Robinson, 1980) and the resulting  establishment in 1983 of the Association for Media Education for Scotland (AMES). At the same time, the Scottish Film Council appointed a Media Education Officer. Together, the classroom teachers involved with A M E S , and the Scottish Film Council, in the form of its media education officer, have been the prime advocates for Media Studies in Scotland. In  this  analysis  and  evaluation,  curriculum documentation  include: Media Education  in Scotland: Outine Proposals for a  (Robinson,  Education:  Curriculum  A Report on the Media  Education  Conference Jointly Held by the Scottish Film Council, Jordanhill  College of  Education,  1980); Media  will  and The Scottish Council for  Educational  1981); Teaching Media Studies: An Introduction  Technology  to Methods and Resources  (Cowle & Dick, 1986); Signs of Success: Report of the Media Development  Project  (Cowle  (Dick, 1987); and Media  Education  Education  Curriculum  Guidelines (Scottish Film Council [SFC], 1988). Consistent development, fundamental  its  with  a  formulators  teacher-centered are  loath  approach  laid  curriculum  to designate particular  to Media Studies. The Scottish Film Council has,  produced a limited number of audio-visual resources issues  to  out  in  materials—Picturing  the  curriculum guide.  Women: Scottish  A  texts  as  however,  designed to address  selection  of  these A - V  Women in Photography  (Dick &  136 Moffat,  1989); Another  Time Another  Place (Dick, 1987); and Open to  Question: Mary Whitehouse (Dick & McLean, 1988)—will be analysed.  Curriculum Ten  years  of papers,  Guidelines  proposals  and conferences  in conjunction  with an ever-expanding offering of locally developed courses in the schools have led only recently to the publication of the Scottish Media Curriculum  Studies  Guide (SFC, 1988). The following is an analysis of significant  points along that documentary  trail,  with  particular  attention  given to  teaching from theories of meaning as they apply to lens imagery in the mass media. Media  Education  in Scotland:  Outine  Proposals  for  a  Curriculum  (Robinson, 1980) represents the first major move toward Media Studies in Scotland. As in many other countries, pockets of teaching about the media evolved out of film  studies courses in the  1970's. Unlike both Western  Australia and Ontario, a lobby group not considered one of the principal stakeholders in the educational system, the Scottish Film Council, played a significant role in the development of Media Studies programs. Whether as the result of the Scottish F i l m  Council's input, or a  particular approach to education in Scotland, the first documents on Media Studies in Scotland adopted a global approach to Media Studies that has persisted. Media Studies is understood as a  means  of  understanding  helping  children  and  of their own experience  media messages or other  products  economic,  development  political  and  of the  in the  industries, institutions and professions the  adults  towards  a  greater  media by studying  context  of the  various  involved in their production;  constitutional  of these bodies; and the broader  background  to  the  social and cultural  137 setting  in  which  production  and  its  reception  by  a variety of  audiences operates. (Robinson, 1980, p. 6) From  the  outset, curriculum outlines were proposed  for Primary,  Early Secondary, Late Secondary, Further and Community Education, and Teacher Education. As well, it was argued that Media Studies in the public school system ought to be "situated within the subject areas of English and Modern  Studies  [geography/sociology/political science]  coordinated  one another and at least recognized (perhaps aided) by other  with  departments  such as Art" (p. 11). This  notion of Media  Studies  functioning as a discipline  across  subjects was carried further by Coughie (1981) when he suggested that "its real value would not be as a new subject but as a complicating factor for existing ones" (p. 20). These first documents saw interpretation (based on aesthetic reception theory)  theory and  ideology) students. the  narrative  theory),  institutional analysis  as the  (based  decoding on  (based  theories  three kinds of work appropriate  for  of  on  semiotic  culture  secondary  and level  While ample evidence has been offered in this dissertation for  application  interpretation Scottish  and  theory,  of  these  various  approaches  to  the  production  and  of the visual, little specific mention is made in the first  documents  of how these models would  translate  into  student  production, analysis or criticism. The next major document leading up to the 1988 curriculum guide is Teaching Media Studies: An Introduction  to Methods and Resources (Cowle  & Dick, 1986). First published in 1983 and revised twice since then, this guide serves discipline.  the  dual role of resource  Teaching  Media  Studies  guide  (1986)  and introduction to consists  the  of 32 pages of  138  unillustrated  text. The first several pages of the text  offer  a general  introduction to Media Studies with a particular focus on a. Knowledge of how broadcast programmes, newspaper articles, feature films, etc. are produced: who is involved, what kind of skills and techniques are applied, what equipment is used etc; b. Analysis of the ways in which meaning and messages are constructed; c. Information about the media institutions in terms of finance, management and social function; d. Experience of practical creative work involving selected media; e. Heightened enjoyment of media artefacts through a process of critical appreciation. (Cowle & Dick, 1986, p. 1) The visual possibilities implied above are made explicit at the bottom of the first page of Teaching Media Studies (1986). This section, in assuring teachers new to the idea of Media Studies that they don't have to teach everything,  suggests  two approaches  to  focusing the  curriculum. The  second suggestion, which relates specifically to the visual aspects of the media, is to begin with the language of images: photographs, posters, advertising designs  and graphic work. This  approach can be very useful in  examining the idea of visual meaning, and the extent to which we "read"  a photograph,  for  example,  by  interpreting  the  elements  within it, rather than simply "reading" a fixed message. (Cowle & Dick, p. 1) After version  of  this introduction, the guide goes on to advocate a clarified the  concept  "Media  Studies"  that  was  introduced  at  the  beginning of the decade. The key notions of interdisciplinary study, and of courses from kindergarten through to continuing education, are augmented  139 with an added emphasis  on the importance of production work at all  levels. The bulk of this text is devoted to lists of human and textual resources. Of significance here is the fact that almost all the resources that are recommended for use in the classroom come from three sources: The British Film Institute (BFI), The Scottish Film Council (SFC), and The (now disbanded) Society for Education through Film and Television (SEFT). A l l three of these organizations are government  funded, but none of them  would be considered principals in the public school system. Two of these organizations, the SFC and the B F I , are directly involved in the cultural work of media production and distribution as well as education. It is not surprising, then, that much of the material they offer includes video or slide artifacts with supporting guidelines and booklets. Consistent also with the general approach described thus far, Teaching Media  Studies  (1986)  does not generally suggest which material is appropriate for a particular group or grade level. This reintroduces the emphasis that is placed by the Scottish approach on the teacher's role in designing a curriculum suitable for the subject area and age of the students. Signs of Success: Report of the Media Education Development  Project  (Dick, 1987) functions both as an overview of and an advocacy statement for the development of Media Studies in Scotland. Like all the Scottish materials discussed thus far, this report is entirely text-based and aimed at teachers and governmental authorities in a position to further Studies. It is not necessary  to reiterate  here the many  Media  self-perceptions  quoted in this document. Suffice to say that the details of Media Studies' evolution  in Scotland from  1983-1986  are presented  and analysed. Of  relevance to this study are the descriptions of various teaching materials, which will be referred chapter,  and the recommendations  resource  to in more detail at the end of this at the conclusion of this report. Of  140 particular  interest  are  recommendations  for  "responsibility for  media  education within the school sectors" (Dick, 1987, p. 47), on the one hand, and the retention of the SFC's "key developmental role" (p. 47) on the other. Concern is expressed in this text over a potential narrowing of the Media Studies curriculum if the Consultative Committee on the Curriculum (CCC)  were to mold the discipline to fit a more "standard" approach to  education. At the same time the need for a definite place in the curriculum is  addressed.  We can only speculate on the resolution of this ongoing  relationship between a "cultural" institution (the SFC) and an "educational" institution (the CCC). In the general conclusions at the end of this chapter a comparison between the SFC's visual products, and those of the Western Australian  and Ontario curricula developers  will  offer  access  to these  issues as they influence the form and content of teaching materials. The Media Education [SFC], 1988) are presented  Curriculum  Guidelines  (Scottish Film Council  here as both a culmination and as a starting  point. In publishing these guidelines the SFC has formalized (to the extent that they are institutionally able) the development of Media Studies in Scotland through the presented  1980's. At the time that this dissertation is being  the SFC is about  curriculum  in  several  functioning  as the  to publish the results of field  schools,  so  this  curricuum  testing this  document  is  also  starting point for the next level of development of  Media Studies in Scotland. Much of the content of these guidelines will not be reviewed here. Of particular interest to this study is a structural chart (see Figure three) that outlines a proposal for media education at the S3 and S4 (grade 9 and 10) levels. This chart has been borrowed from Western Australia (see Figure two) and the Scottish modifications to this chart and its application are instructive. Like the Western Australians, the Scots propose  16 40-hour  141 short courses, subjects  but the courses  are presented  as extensions  to existing  such as Art, English, and Modern Studies, rather than as free-  standing Media Studies courses under the umbrella of English, Languages and Communication, as is the case in Australia. Subtle but important differences  in language create very  different  approaches to studying the media in the two curricula. In a very broad sense, the Australian chart reveals a formalist understanding of the media while  the  Scottish  chart  emphasises  an  understanding  informed  by  semiotic theory. For example: under the heading "Media Language", the Australian curriculum lists particular media such as television, film photography communication for  the  as  areas  of  study,  while  the  Scottish  chart  or  identifies  systems such as stills and words or moving images. Stage 3  Australians emphasizes  narrative  and  genre  by  studying three  categories: broadcast radio and television, film genre, and popular fiction and popular magazines. The Scottish Level 3 is organised around the idea of  narratives  (note  the plural) and also has three categories:  fact and  fiction, genre, and authorship. Throughout the Scottish chart, terms such as "narratives" and "representations" these  terms  push  the  are pluralized and the categories  curriculum  toward  cross-media  study.  under The  differences in the Scottish chart are consistent with a curriculum that has, throughout its development, moved away from Media Studies as either a free-standing subject or as the domain of one of the subjects already fixed in  the  founded  school curriculum. They are on  the  semiotically based  also consistent notion  of  with  a curriculum  multiple, intertwining  language systems functioning through the mass media.  142  Picturing Women: Scottish Women in Photography The  Scottish F i l m Council is one of the most important sources of  curriculum support material for Media Studies. In conversation in March of 1990,  the S F C Media Education officer,  Eddie Dick, was unwilling to  describe any instructional material as "foundational", as that term has been used in this dissertation. This attitude centered  approach  already  is consistent  described  in  the  with  the teacher-  Scottish  curriculum.  Nonetheless, a limited list of support materials is made generally available to teachers across Scotland. A selection of S F C materials that touch on a broad range of theoretical issues will be analysed under the assumption that they give a fair impression of the Scottish approach to Media Studies. The first of three S F C curriculum packages to be considered is: Women: Scottish  Women in Photography  Picturing  (Dick & Moffat, 1989). It is a  collection of essays and photographic portfolios exploring the photographic representation of women. The package consists of 133 unbound pages of images and text. About one third of the content portfolios Scottish  of black  and white photographic  women photographers.  That  is made up of four  reproductions  the images  created by  are the core of this  package is made clear by the fact that the essays bracket the visual work and  function as introduction or commentary. The  first 10 pages of the package introduce the people and aims of  the project. Appropriate to a collection of critical work about images, the editors suggest that this package is not intended to function in a linear or narrative  way.  "Picturing  Women  is  a  resource  rather  than  a  predetermined path which leads to a foregone conclusion." (Dick & Moffat, p. 1) The editors go on to offer suggestions for using this material in the classroom. They suggest as a starting point, the kind of image analysis that art educators  will  recognize from  the writings of Feldman (1972) and  143 others,  but  couched  in  literary  terms  such  as  "denotation"  and  "connotation". The importance of the viewer's part in meaning is discussed, and cropping exercises using the photos in the package are offered as an introduction to this aspect of reception theory. A discussion of stereotyping leads to a definition  of ideology. A l l in a l l , the introduction is quite  sweeping and open-ended in its efforts to suggest to teachers the kind of work that could be done with this package. An essay by Halla Beloff (Dick & Moffat, pp. 10-18) further explores stereotyping from and  the  male  a feminist perspective. Notions such as representation  gaze  are  introduced  in  an  essay  that  describes  the  ideologically normalizing aspects of photography. Beloff concludes with a remark  pointed  at  the  critical  community generally, which  might  be  applied to this package to some extent. She argues that the photographic representation  of males has not been critically investigated in the same  way that the photographic representation of females has. Her conclusion is that, despite the theoretical appropriateness  of the kind of investigation  carried out by this curriculum package, it still reinforces the notion that women in our culture should constantly concern themselves  with  their  appearance, while men need not. Lorna Bates' portfolio (Dick & Moffat, pp. 19-41) consists largely of family snapshots which she uses as the starting point for a short series of responding images. Many of the images involve Bates and her mother. Her introductory  comments  suggest,  with  some  bitterness,  a desire  to  re-  present the original images made by her father in a way that can offer a female  view  of  the  family.  This  section  of  the  curriculum  package  concludes with a critical essay that describes some of the sub-genres and social structuring surrounding family  photography written by Jo Spence.  Bates' images and Spence's essay walk a fine line by arguing for the  144 fundamental need to be "slyly disruptive" (Dick & Moffat, p. 34) in the face of family images that often work to idealize and rigidify family relations even in home situations that are healthy and functional. Spence's contribution includes a number of suggestions for  further  work aimed at the teachers and students using this package. These projects involve looking and image making framed by the critical issues explored by Bates. The second portfolio is of the work of Andrea Cringean (Dick & Moffat, pp. 41-64). Her images consist of a wide range of female subjects, all of whom are making use of the health and beauty industry. The images take  a documentary  stance  in that  some  of these location  shots  are  obviously posed, but most are not. Because the images sample a number of environments rather than exploring one at length, the portfolio emphasizes visual meaning and viewer response over artistically controlled narrative. This emphasis on the visual and the personal is appropriate to Cringean's concern with the fact that "the flood of health and beauty products onto the  market...carry  worried about  with  them the  some facet  ironic  implication  of your appearance  that i f you aren't  or health, there must be  something wrong with you" (p. 41). Sheena McDonald's brief response (pp. 55-56) to Cringean's portfolio consists of her own enthusiastic review of the images and a series of questions that push the reader to consider the social relations involved at the moment of image making. She asks for consideration of the artist's aesthetic and political intentions and balances them against the  subjects'.  Much of this questioning seems consonant with responding to the images as documents. The final component linked with Cringean's portfolio is the artist's notes (pp. 57-64). These consist of comments on the technical and social  145 considerations involved in each  "shoot",  frame  the  for  discussing the  way  and function as an interesting  artist's  intentionality and technical  limitations have an impact on image and meaning. Franki Raffles' portfolio (pp. 66-81) examines women working in the school environment. As described by Porter in the essay that follows the portfolio, women in this workplace are not all teachers, but they share in common the fact that they "use few tools and machines, and make no product - no visible, tangible output" (p. 82). Both the portfolio and the essay  comment  on  the  difficulty  of  portraying  work  in the  service  industries. Both the portfolio and the essay explore power relationships and the ideologies that drive different aspects of culture within schools. By showing  groupings  of  women  doing  their  separate jobs  as  teachers,  maintenance people, and cafeteria workers, Raffles draws attention to their isolation, and to the hierarchies that are part of the school system. Porter picks this up and asks us to consider how various interest groups  (the  school administration, the press,  use  pupils, teachers) might choose  to  these images; then concludes by offering a more detailed analysis and interpretation  of five images. Details such as lighting, composition and  point of view are interpreted  with reference  to Porter's knowledge and  experience in the workplace and in schools. This section on Raffles' portfolio concludes with the artist's notes (pp. 86-89). These emphasize the work involved in making meaningful images. Her most interesting comment in this section is that she "needs to have a clear idea of issues, particularly school as workplace, [sic] Danger of just documenting the school" (p. 87). The notion that some documentary (such as that produced by shopping mall surveillance cameras) can be almost meaningless from the photographer's  point of view opens up the whole  issue of the mechanical "reality" in photographic images.  146 The final portfolio in this package is Delia Matheson's images of second generation present  Asian  contemporary  Asian  women  women in Scotland (pp. 90-107). The in  Scotland  in  a  environments. The subjects  number  of  are most often  images  traditional  and  casually posed  before the camera, and the relationship between subject and photographer could be interpreted as friendly. Rowena  Arshad's brief  commentary  (pp.  108-109)  on  Matheson's  portfolio introduces two issues left untouched by the earlier work in this package. Arshad explores the importance of text in relation to images, both because it is an important aspect of the way we confront photography, and because she has problems with some of Matheson's images that she feels captions would resolve. While introducing an important issue, Arshad's critique also demonstrates the capacity to shift and control the agenda.  Several of Matheson's images  response  contain background text  that is  important to them, but generally her work is not about text commenting on imagery. This issue is an imposition of Arshad's. The imagery and commentary  in  this  portfolio demonstrate  how  quickly  criticism  can  become complicated. Here, consideration of representation is broadened to include both race and gender. Response is expanded to include images and text, and ideological analysis has to account for race, class, gender, and generational  difference.  The section on Matheson's portfolio ends with excerpts  from  the  diary she kept on her project. The dominant concerns for her were getting to the point where the Asian women she wanted to photograph  trusted  her, and learning through her contacts with these women what the issues were in their lives. There is no question that Matheson is aware of her status as an outsider. This brings us back to Arshad's critical concerns. By being more explicitly "other", the Asian women of Matheson's photographs  147 draw attention to the manipulation and the point of view that is inevitably built into all the portfolios in this package, and into the medium generally.  Another Time Another Place The Another  Time Another  Place package (Dick, 1987b) includes a  video of the film by that title (Radford, 1983) and a booklet of exercises based on the film. The film itself was produced in 16mm color in Scotland for commercial distribution, and after four years the rights to distribute it as an educational vehicle were arranged. relationships between  The film  concentrates  on the  a Scottish woman and several Italian prisoners of  war toward the end of World War II. Visually, the bleak fall and winter landscape  in Scotland is used  to parallel and accent  the  characters'  emotional worlds. Like most of the other packages offered by the S F C , the Time  Another  Place  Another  support material is aimed at older students in the  school system and in adult education. In this case, the film Another Another  Place  Time  has a 15 certificate which means that students under that  age are not to see it. Given teaching package concentrates, word-based critical  101 minutes of visual source material, the in eight sections, on different  modes of  response.  Section 1, The Opening (Dick, 1987b, pp. 4-9), applies a number of variations of semiotic analysis. Part 1 asks the students to make a detailed "denotative" (p. 2) analysis of the first 13 shots in the film. Students are then asked to predict the nature and direction of the film based on this empirical evidence. Still working from the opening 13 shots, part 2 of this section introduces the students to five codes that can be used as analytic tools. The "enigmatic code", based in reception theory, draws attention to the questions that viewers are asked to hypothesize about at the beginning  148 of  the  film.  The "action code" is a broader,  more culturally defined  interpretation of character action in the film. The "referential code" refers to a variety of visual and aural sign systems that set cultural, historic, and geographic frames in the film. The "semic code", as it is applied in this guide, seems to function to summarize the specific information derived from the referential code. The "symbolic code" has to do with the literary work of indentifying symbols generated  by the narrative and discussing  how these symbols influence each other. Section 2, Representations (Dick, 1987b, pp. 10-16), has five parts that explore racial and sexual presentation and stereotyping. The first part offers a grid system for identifying character traits in 10 of the  film's  characters. While some of the qualities listed may be presented visually in the film, the exercise is essentially a process of converting impressions into a list of terms. Part 2 focuses on gender by asking students to use their research from the last section as the basis for evaluating two female-male relationships in the film. The approach here combines visual and narrative information in bringing students to consider gender Section 1987b,  pp.  characters  2, Part 12-13),  as  an  representation.  3, Representation: (Stereo)typical Italians? uses  the  approach  representation to  discussing  of  the  principal  stereotyping.  (Dick, Italian  Details  of  characterization are at the heart of this investigation, so the text lists and explains various important features  in the three Italian characters.  This  inventory and interpretation approach to analysis is typical of approaches to film  theory concerned with representation.  With  some exceptions, it  tends to ignore motion and action in film. It is therefore appropriate that the portion of Another  Time Another  Place (Radford, 1983) discussed in  this section of the curriculum package includes images of still photographs of each Italian's "loved ones" (a movie star, a family photo, and a picture of  149 mamma). These images clearly act to set the content of each character's stereotypy. Section  2, Part 4, Representation: Nationality  and  Gender (Dick,  1987b, pp. 14-15), expands on the issue raised in parts 2 and 3. It does so by resorting to semiotically based, visual analysis of Italian and Scottish party  scenes  presented  in the  film.  This  section demands  a detailed  analysis of everything from lighting and camera angle to sound and the relationship  between  shots.  The  section  concludes  with  a  series  of  questions intended to focus students on the sense they made out of these sequences, especially as it informs their notions of nationality and gender. Section 2, Part 5, Representation: The Highlands (Dick, 1987b, p. 16), is essentially an essay question on the stereotypy of the representation of a region of Scotland. Section 3, The Main Narratives (Dick, 1987b, pp. 17-19), introduces an outline of a classic narrative structure. The two parts in this section ask the students to outline and discuss the main character, Janie's, narrative, and  the  larger, community narrative. This  is essentially a word-based  exercise, although cetainly some of the students' evidence in support of their particular ideas about these narratives will be visual information. Section 4, Else's Rape (Dick, 1987b, pp. 20-24), asks students to deal with Else, a minor character's, sexual victimization towards the end of the film. The editors' tack in this section is to present the original novel's version of the rape, along with a close analysis of the role this moment in the  book played in that narrative. This is followed  by a comparison  between the novelistic presentation and the very different presentation of the rape in the film. Issues like the commercial and formal (in terms of narrative) reasons  for this scene are addressed. The final  part in this  section is a response by Balides, a feminist film critic, to this scene. Her  150 analysis takes a more detailed look at the role the visual, and especially viewer positioning, plays in this scene. At the same time, she judges the scene to be exploitative and unnecessary to the plot. The notion of the rape having taken place and the accusations  that follow are important to the  plot, but in Balides' estimation presenting the scene rather than implying it (as the novel did) places this film firmly in the patriarchal mainstream of filmmaking. Section 5, Selling the Product (Dick, 1987b, pp. 25-26), mixes media in that it asks students to study the print advertising that accompanied the promotion of Another Time Another  Place  then  genre  called  upon  consideration  to  in film  identify  the  (Radford, 1983). Students are of  the  film,  an  important  promotion. This section is brief but asks  several  important questions about the significance of camera point-of-view in the publicity stills; the dominance of black in the design of the brochure; and the brochure's use of language. Section  6,  Report  (Dick,  1987b,  pp.  27-30),  is  not  particularly  concerned with the visual. It provides reviews and other resource material and gives fairly specific guidelines for how a student should write a report on the film. Students are instructed specifically to avoid incorporating their own opinions into this project. Section 7, Critical Essays (Dick, 1987b, p. 31), sets 5 more open-ended essay topics. Of these, one asks the student to comment on some aspect of the  visual  in  representation  the  film,  and  and  stereotype.  another The  two  ask  remaining  students two  to  discuss  questions  additional word oriented problems to do with narrative. Interestingly,  pose the  question (number 4) that most directly addresses the visual in the film, is no question at all. It sets the vaguely aesthetic task of having the student discuss the success of the film in terms of its visual elements. Obviously,  151 the students are called upon to define success in some visual terms, but given that all the other questions  identify a problem or an issue as a  starting point, this question is odd. It suggests a lack of clarity with regard to the issues at stake in a discussion of film aesthetics. Section 8, Imaginative/Discursive Essays (Dick, 1987b, p. 34), offers five essay topics that give the student the opportunity to argue around or respond creatively to some of the issues raised directly or indirectly by the film. There is no suggestion in this or any other part of this guidebook that students could or should repond using visual media.  Open to Question: Mary Whitehouse Open to Question: Mary Whitehouse (Dick, 1988) is different from the previous two packages about  the  structure  for a variety of reasons. It reveals many  and production of a television  program while giving the  things  question-and-answer  students the chance to debate the effects  of  television violence and sexual representation. The package contains a 30minute video of the program "Open to Question" on which Christian media critic  and censorship  crusader,  before  an audience  of adolescent  supplies  85 pages of unbound  understand  the processes  Mary  Whitehouse, defends  questioners.  support  her  opinions  In addition, the  package  material to help students  both  involved in the production of the program, and  to explore censorship and its effects. Along with the obvious content differences, this package also takes a very different teaching strategy. Where the first two packages took great pains to focus the students' attention on the impact of the visual in the medium being studied, Open to Question: concentrates  Mary Whitehouse (Dick, 1988)  on the ideas being debated and warns teachers against over-  exposing the students to the video. Thus, in the first portion of the printed  152  material  background, documentation  is provided on Mary  Whitehouse's  watchdog organization, the National Viewers' and Listeners' Association, and production guidelines relating to the representation  of violence and  sexuality for both the B B C and the I B A television networks. In the second portion,  the  BBC's  background  information  on  Mary  Whitehouse  is  included, as well as sheets of questions submitted by the students in the audience.  From  these questions,  a  short  list  of scripted  questions  is  developed and supplied along with the text of the actual program, which is made  up  of  spontaneous  some  of  those  supplemental  preplanned  questions  as  well  as  more  questions.  The third portion of the print material includes detailed descriptions of the various kinds of work involved in producing the final program. In this  portion  there  are  job  descriptions,  shooting  scripts,  and  studio  floorplans. The final portion of the print material includes a variety of published  responses to the  broadcast,  reproductions  of letters  sent by  viewers to the B B C , and the ratings for the program. This package offers  students the opportunity to follow  a program  from conception to completion, making it possible to analyse the twists and turns that meaning takes at each level of editing. The materials supplied certainly make it possible to look at the impact that the visual has had on the final program, but the obvious emphasis here, as mentioned earlier, is on words.  Critical This curriculum is made documents sweeping  and  resource  definitions  of  of two distinct components: curriculum  materials. Media  Review The  Studies  curriculum supported  by  documents brief  offer  theoretical  153 references.  The resource materials function as sources of original visual  material supported with critical writings. The curriculum documents  are  contemporary critical understandings  firmly  grounded  in the  kinds of  implied by the term Lens  Meaning.  As just one example, the five points in Teaching  Media  Studies  (1986)  listed earlier can be seen to address many of the topics found in Figure one (pg. 30). Referring back to page 138 and from the perspective of this study, "a's" formal and technological approach to studying the visual in the media corresponds to a concern with indexical and iconic signs; "b's" concern with the analysis touches every corner of Lens  Meaning;  "c's" institutional  concerns correspond to symbolic signs and Lens Meaning; "d's" explicit call for student production would encourage an understanding of lens images as indexical and iconic signs; and "e's" concern with aesthetic  response  combined with critical analysis opens the door for the consideration of DeLauretis' (1984) notion of interpretants. The resource  material follows  up on this critical  foundation by  building in a critical edge not only to the material's content, but to its form as well. The preceding pages demonstrate Lens  Meaning  with  real  scope.  that these materials  By avoiding the  bound  text  explore format  wherever possible, the SFC has put theory into practice by offering a very specific visual critique of the conventions of educational publishing. Art educators  will  appreciate  the fact  that most of the  original. For example, the photographic portfolio, Picturing Women in  Photography  (Dick & Moffat,  visual  material is  Women: Scottish  1989), was commissioned for  publication in this form. This is the way these images were meant to be seen and used. The idea that these images were meant to be actively used by students and teachers,  and that the physical form of the production  154 reflects  this, is important.  This sensitivity to the visual in the media is  reflected in all of the Scottish material reviewed here. Of all the critical bases, the one that the Scottish curriculum materials touch on with the competence.  least amount of conviction is the  It is assumed  in this dissertation  area of technical  that there is a correlation  between a student's experience with the tools of the media, and his or her capacity to critically discuss Lens Meaning,  especially in terms of indexical  signs. While it is listed in curriculum guidelines, the materials here assume that competence as a given.  reviewed  155  Chapter  10  Findings, Conclusions, and Implications Lens Meaning for Education  of  In the methodology designed for evaluating media studies curricula in this dissertation, certain assumptions  have been made about curricula  that have functioned both as guides and limits to the study. Specifically, I have assumed which  are  that formal curricula generally have published guidelines  accompanied  textbooks, resource the  evaluation  by  foundational  and  of this material can  particular  the  material  such  as  guides and audio-visual material. Findings based on  curriculum's direction and substance. survey  support  accompanying  students or teachers.  offer  a generalized  image  of  the  No claim has been made that this  analysis Rather,  represents the  the  findingsl  experience  represent  of  general  trends across a number of school situations. Behind these assumptions is a deeper  assumption  structural structure  unity  in  influences  that  school  their  approach  systems to  generally  strive  toward  a  curriculum planning. How that  practice in individual  teaching  situations,  while an  extremely important concern, is not within the scope of this study.  Summary of Comparisons of Three Media Studies Programs In terms of form, the Western Australian and Ontario curricula have many similarities. Both offer a range of support material that is produced largely  through  presentation  the  print  techniques  media. B y using  that offer  most  traditional production  of the  photographic  images  and as  156 information, the visual material in these two curricula is often presented uncritically. In this formal sense, the Scottish curriculum is quite Actual  teaching  materials  unconventionally designed  combine  media  artifacts  different.  with  often  publications. The "original" media material is  meant to be critically analysed, while the textual material is not. At the same  time,  that  often  unbound  print  material  is  designed  to  be  photocopied, and to be aesthetically noticed. Both of these qualities make some critical  response  to  the  visual form  of  the  printed  curriculum  material more likely. Each of these three curricula owes something of its content to the others. There is clear evidence that Scotland has borrowed from Western Australia and that Ontario has borrowed from the other two. A Canadian version of Meet The Media  (McMahon & Quin, 1988), for example,  recently been published for use in Ontario. Nonetheless, emphasizes  different  approaches  and  issues.  The  has  each curriculum  Western  Australian  curriculum is most obviously trying to strike a balance between production and criticism. In doing so, a fairly broad form of semiotic analysis seems aimed ultimately ideological  at a student response that combines  criticism. The  Ontario  curriculum, still  appreciation very  much  with in  its  formative stage, places far less emphasis than the others on the visual in the mass-media, while offering a more "literary" critical edge. Issues such as  pornography  and  violence  are  specifically  addressed  through  the  analysis of representation and ideological criticism, but these approaches do  not  operate  from  a  clearly  defined  foundation  in  feminist,  psychoanalytic, or visual semiotic analysis. The Scottish curriculum is, in some ways, much more difficult  to  frame. This is partially due to the fact that the materials and the guidelines are intentionally open-ended.  The curriculum is designed  to encourage a  157 wide range of uses by teachers in a number of subject areas. Despite this, the Scottish materials are much more specific in their reference to original media  artifacts  and primary theoretical  Media  Studies packages  surveyed,  sources.  sophisticated  In the  three Scottish  approaches  to feminist  and narrative theory, semiotics, and ideological analysis were  presented  and applied to visual qualities in the media. The contexts in which these three curricula operate are each quite different. The Western Australian curriculum is a well established part of the general curriculum. It is recognized as a distinct subject umbrella  of the Language Arts.  under  As such, it has its own budget  the and  curriculum time, as well as support in teacher education institutions. A consequence is that the Western Australian curriculum attempts to cover a lot of ground. If students are going to be both critical and productionoriented  as  timetable,  a result this  of their experiences  breadth  in  implication of the breadth  the  in this  curriculum is  not  one  space  in their  suprising. Another  and place of the Western Australian  Media  Studies curriculum is that it is intended to be taught by Media Studies specialists, which should mean instructors familiar with media and  contemporary  criticism.  Fortunately,  Australian  processes  post-secondary  education is in a position to provide these specialists. The Ontario curriculum is a unit inserted into an existing Language Arts curriculum. As such, Media Studies in Ontario is the domain of English teachers. It is therefore not suprising that this curriculum is the most textoriented in its approach to criticism. Add to this the fact that currently there are no Media Studies positions in any of the Faculties of Education in Ontario,  and  instructors  it  with  contemporary  becomes  clear  why  student-production  criticism.  there  are,  experience  today, and  a  relatively few knowledge  of  158 The  Scottish curriculum addresses the  widest age-range  and  the  largest number of existing subject areas. Lack of concern for the usual categories in the school system may be a result of the "outsider" status of the Scottish Film Council (the toehold gained by the SFC in the schools is more difficult resulted  to account for). It may be the SFC's influence that has  in this  curriculum being  the  most  attuned  of  the  three  to  contemporary visual criticism. While the curriculum does make mention of the importance of student production work, the materials reviewed don't. The materials assume a critical, visual sophistication on the part of teacher and student. Further investigation would be required to discover i f the Scottish  school  system,  perhaps  under  the  guidance  of  the  teachers'  organization, A M E S , is actually supporting this kind of visual education. At the level of government this curriculum appears the most fragmented of the three; the pieces do not fit into a tidy whole. If it ultimately gains the status  of required  decentralized  study  openness  in  may  something closer to the  the well  structured  Scottish be  school system,  questioned  and  its  present,  replaced  curricula of Western Australia  with and  Ontario. Given  the  many  approaches  that media educators  could  take in  dealing with the visual in the mass-media, it is not suprising that each curriculum has had to limit itself, and that the various strands of criticism identified  in this  dissertation  are  not  dealt  with  equally. Notions of  narrative are dealt with at length in each curriculum, but "because [critical structure,  approach] it  is  is  concerned  inescapably  with  'formalist'  general and  mappings  largely  of  this  narrative  unconcerned  with  questions about 'content' and thus with political or ideological judgements" (Kozloff, 1987, pp. 42-43). Narrative theory only makes sense in terms of visual analysis with reference  to semiotic methods  and the analysis of  159 discourse, or "how the story is told" (Kozloff, p. 45). While the analysis of narrative is a central issue in each of the three curricula, moving from simple plot recognition to the more visual level of discourse analysis is dependent  on materials and analytic methods most strongly supported by  the Scottish curriculum, where the examples are presented in depth, and understanding is achieved layer by layer. "The concept  of genre  stems from  a conception of film  as  an  industrial product. That is, the particular economic organization of the film industry led to a kind of product standardization antithetical to the literary concept of an authored  work. Thus, film  [and media] genre  study  has  always referred back to the capitalist mode of production" (Feuer, 1987, pp. 116-117). Genre theory, as it has evolved through semiotics, offers a visually-based ideology  approach  represented  to  the  through  consideration setting,  story,  of and  both  aesthetics  character.  and  Critical  approaches such as genre theory, and aesthetically-based criticism such as auteurism, that most commonly function at the level of the visual, have been handled lightly if at all in these three curricula. Various approaches to aesthetic criticism, as well as visual theories of reception and perception like those described by Gestalt psychology (Arnheim, 1969), do not play a significant role in these curricula. This means that criticism of the design of an image or the layout of a newspaper will often be based on student and teacher rather  "common sense"  built up through exposure  to the  than as the result of consciously applying any set  mass-media, of  aesthetic  criteria. Ideological analysis, if this is taken to mean the institutional analysis of the mass-media and its products, is a common theme throughout all three curricula. If, on the other  hand, ideological analysis functions  to  reveal the interactions between cultures, genders, and races, there are few  160 examples explicit in these materials. Picturing Photography  (Dick & Moffat,  curricula of non-student  Women: Scottish  Women in  1989) is the only example in all three  work that functions as a visual response to the  visual in the mass-media. This occurs despite the fact that the political left in the artworld can offer any number of examples of imagery functioning as cultural critique in this mold. These Media Studies curricula have not and cannot be expected to deal  with  criticism  all of  the  applied to the  sometimes visual  conflicting  in the  strands  mass-media.  of  contemporary  Western  Australia,  Ontario, and Scotland stand as examples of leadership in teaching children about the world of mass imagery and mass information. Nonetheless, all educators, but especially those in the Language Arts, Fine Arts, and Social Sciences, must continue to refine their efforts  to teach about the mass-  media and its images.  The  Questions  Readdressed  This study set out to address three questions. 1.  Can a  Meaning  theoretical  be  disciplines  which  supported  understanding by  the  have addressed  the  of  the  literature uses  and  concept of of  the  meanings  Lens various  of  lens  media? 2. Can a conceptual rendering of Lens that  is  suitable  for  the  analysis  of  Meaning  Media  be devised  Studies  program  materials? 3. To what extent is Lens  Meaning  applicable  to  educational  practice? Evidence provided in Chapters two, three, four, five, and six came from sources in film, television, photography and the social sciences. A  161 wide-ranging literature was concerned  with the meaning of the media as  an  mass-produced  institutionally  intended  for  based  a popular  source audience.  of  A n array  visual  of critical  information  approaches  uncovered, each having as a primary concern understanding  lens  was  media.  Rather than contribute to a simple structure, media criticism has taken a variety of approaches to understanding,  each functioning as an optional  framework with specific consequences for critical discourse. In the definition of Lens  Meaning  several contributing strands may  be discerned, varying from one situation or topic to the next. Peirce's sign systems (indexical, iconic, and symbolic) contribute to a matrix in which De Lauretis is also represented, by interpretants labelled emotional,  energetic,  and habit changing. Within this matrix, and growing out of the  literature,  nine descriptors  have been identified that, while perhaps not  exhausting  the definition of Lens Meaning, certainly offered a useful range of issues to consider in the analysis and evaluation of curriculum documents. Ample evidence was found in the literature to support a definition of Lens Meaning,  and contributed to a complex matrix incorporating Peirce's  system of signs and DeLauretis' interpretants. The matrix proved useful in analysing useful  than  media  studies  curriculum, but  some referents  more  others. Discussion of emotional response to indexical signs  played a big part in the curriculum writers' perceived studies.  proved  need  for  media  Habit-changing responses to iconic signs played a big part in  explaining the political concerns of feminist film critics. In many ways, the whole form and content of the Western Australian and Ontarian curricula are a reflection of an understanding  of energetic response to the media as  symbolic signs. In a broad sense, therefore, it is clear that the  matrix  offered not only an orderly means of talking about the visual in the media, but also a very useful tool for analyzing the underlying orientations of the  162 curricula which were examined. It is accepted that some areas of Meaning  delineated  by the matrix are under  Lens  or unrepresented by  the  curricula studied and this may point to deficiencies in the curricula or in the matrix. When the resulting conception of Lens Meaning  was applied to three  curricula, from Western Australia, Ontario, and Scotland, analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of each was accomplished. It was observed that curricula that operated  from a multi-disciplinary perspective offered  more  opportunities for understanding media messages. Of special interest to this study was the limited extent to which these curricula drew from the fine arts in considering the meaning of lens images. The Western Australian curriculum introduced some image making, and at least one instance of the analysis of a photographic art image in a Media Studies program  whose  context is the English classroom. The Scottish program offered a variety of "original" media materials intended  to be used by art teachers as well as others,  instruction prescribed  for analysis. As the Scottish curriculum was  and  student  for the  production  introductory  work  units.  seem  Of the  likely,  detailed visual but  are  not  three curricula, Ontario's  places the least emphasis on visual analysis and production. Analysis of the  visual where  it existed  qualities. The link between  tended  to  be limited  to formal  those qualities and the  various  structural notions of  meaning described in this thesis was rarely made explicit. Coming to a critical understanding of lens imagery is an unavoidable step  toward  gaining  a critical  appreciation  dissertation's  findings  regarding  the  of  the  range of critical  mass-media. thought  on  This lens  imagery, as well as the way these artifacts are currently being explored in media studies  curricula, have  implications for art education  studies, some of which are now explored.  and  media  163  Directions for A  Further  Research  recognition of the visual in the mass-media as a  source of expressive and informational meaning in the  fundamental  world  must  be  reflected in the school system. The means by which we can make the mass-media a two-way system of communication must be sought. I would argue that research that leads to the cultivation of informed critical response through education is the most obvious vehicle to bring about  that understanding  practitioners  to  make  a  It  is this  kind  fundamental  of research  shift  in  their  that can  enable  understanding  of  education. The many cross-disciplinary references in the literature make it clear that Media Studies is not another  subject  to be wedged into an  already overcrowded timetable. Rather, communication takes many  forms  and influences every corner of society, including school curricula. Not suprisingly, in a world where communication is global, rapid, and multilayered, students and teachers alike  must learn to bring a variety of  critical approaches to their part in the conversation. For teachers, taking an active part in Media Studies will mean, at the minimum, demanding information on the media well beyond the "how to plug  in a projector"  courses  that  many experienced  as  part  of  their  training. It may mean insisting that some curriculum content and teaching materials  shift  from  "testable"  to  "contestable".  Taking  Media  Studies  seriously may also involve a teacher coming to grips with what she or he doesn't know. This could involve courses team-taught Social  Studies  teachers  and  will  inevitably  by English, Art and  involve  respecting  the  contribution that students have to bring to the study of their own visual cultures.  164 With regard to the matrix, it is clear that much more research is needed  to determine  both its full  range and its limits. The matrix has  served to provide referents by which the three programs of studies might be described. Each referent is accompanied by a set or fringe of values, so that description of materials  in the  Media  Studies  curricula implicitly  invites judgement of their work. The degree of satisfaction one experiences about the adequacy referents.  of these judgements in turn  serves to validate  the  The matrix, in short, hangs together because of its conceptual  and practical This  "rightness".  sequence of identification and  reinforcement  seems at  first  glance to be circular. Closer examination shows, however, that the system is sufficiently open  to admit new, unexpected  material that may  arise  during examination of curriculum, and which may result in modification or refinement of the referents or of the matrix itself. The form taken by this sequence is not circular, but spiral, with phases of analysis and reflection alternating. The term Lens Meaning  the  viewers and  producers of lens images as well as the images themselves.  Research in  Lens  Meaning  must  take into account  might profitably explore the extent to which information  gleaned by mass viewers of the various lens media differs, in order to discover the limits of the  term's usefulness  in generalizing across  lens  media. On the other side of the camera, it would be important to explore the psychologies of camera operators.  Brief reference  has been made to  this kind of image making as predatory. Examination of that attitude as it functions  across  understanding,  the  lens  media,  might  not  only  add  to  critical  but could have implications for how the lens media  taught in the schools as well.  are  165 Art educators can make specific contributions to the consolidation of the  expanded  definition  of  media  study  that  emerges  from  this  investigation. At the very minimum, a very serious effort to incorporate contemporary critical approaches into the art classroom must occur. This in itself could reorient many art curricula toward a consideration of popular and mass-media imagery. It would also lead students and teachers toward the tools of the media as means of image production. Assuming that this shift towards next  move  contemporary is  relationships  to  cross  between  criticism occurs within the the  words  barriers and  between  images,  art context,  subject  narrative  and  the  areas,  so  that  visual  editing,  meaning and social institutions, become more apparent. In  a sense,  teaching  about  mass-media  is dangerous  in that it  encourages students to recognize the many ways in which visual symbols are used institutionally. This awareness of symbols and their  meanings  implies a potential critique of society at large and educational institutions in particular. In the final decade of the 20th century, devoting special energy to both critical Looking  retrospection  back, we can  technologies which  see  and  projection  the  furious  have resulted  in the  seems especially development  appropriate.  of communication  sense that we, as individuals,  know more about the world than our ancestors did. At the same time, it is clear that the structures  that allow this rapid and global communication  are becoming larger and more anonymous. Projecting into the future, it would  seem  that we can expect  more  and  more information. Of key  importance will be how that information is controlled both institutionally and by the individual. If we work from a somewhat model  of  specialists  and  special  knowledge,  most  cynical of  what  modernist will  be  communicated to us through the media in the future will be directive, and  166 the  visual  means  used  in  that  communication w i l l  be  beyond  our  understanding or control. If, on the other hand, we assume that individuals use whatever critical tools are at hand to understand their lives, then the hope exists that we and those who will follow us will be able to respond productively to our world. Being fully  alert to Lens  Meaning  essential for communicating adequately in that future world.  will be  167  Footnotes 1.  The peculiarly  notions explored  of  masculine qualities and metaphors  subjectivity, spectatorship,  and  desire  in  that surround the  cinema  the are  by feminist semioticians such as Teresa De Lauretis (1984).  Delauretis argues that while  semiology disregards the question of sexual difference and  subjectivity as non-pertinent to its field,  and while psychoanalysis  assumes them as its primary focus, both theories deny women the status of subjects and producers of culture. Like cinema, they posit woman as at once the object and the foundation of representation, at once telos and origin of man's desire and of his drive to represent it, at once object and sign of (his) culture and creativity. In this context subjectivity, or subject, that is to say, with man as the sole term of reference.  Hence the position of woman in language  and in the  cinema is one of non-coherence; she finds herself only in a void of meaning,  a  place  not  represented,  not  symbolized,  and  thus  preempted to subject (or self) representation. (DeLauretis, 1984, p.8) 2. McCabe (1981) describes realism as being made up of a number of contradictory universalizing  discourses  which  are  unified  or hegemonic) metadiscourse.  by an  unnamed  In television  (and  and film  thus the  "spectatorial privilege" created by lens, microphone and editing is this unifying  metadiscourse.  3. Strictly speaking, mise en scene refers to the practice of stage direction in the theatre in which things are "put into the scene", i.e., arranged on the stage. When applied to film,  it refers to whatever appears in the  film  168 frame,  including those aspects that overlap with the art of the theatre:  setting,  lighting,  costume,  and  the  behaviour  of the  figures.  By  this  definition, the term does not include specifically cinematographic qualities such  as  photographic  elements,  framing,  and  length  of  shot,  camera  position, and movement or editing. (Cook, 1985, p. 151) 4.  In  classical Hollywood  problems  involving  space,  film  practice,  authorship,  the  point  "all-purpose of  view,  answer  and  to  narration"  (Bordwell, 1985, p. 9) is continuity editing. Through the careful splicing of shots filmed at different times, with different camera angles, and possibly in different narrative particular 5.  settings,  time,  as  it is possible to create an illusion well  as  encouraging  spectator  of space  and  identification  with  of psychological activity, "descended  from  characters.  The Constructivist theory  Helmholtz  (Warren & Warren,  perceptual  and  Constructivist  1968)  cognitive psychology  theory,  perceiving and  has  been  since  the  the  thinking are  dominant  1960's. active,  view in  According  to  goal-oriented  processes. Sensory stimuli alone cannot determine a percept, since they are incompete  and  ambiguous.  The  organism  constructs  judgement on the basis of nonconscious inferences"  a  perceptual  (Bordwell, 1985, pp.  30-31). 6. For Silverman (1983) suture is the stitching over of the visual gaps created  by editing in film narrative so that we identify with  characters  rather than remaining self-conscious of the artificiality (described here in Lacanian terms as a lack) of the viewing experience.  Subject: Component  Media Studies English, Languages and Communication  Unit Map  Subject Units  STAGE 1  STAGE 2  STAGE3  EMPHASIS: Media Introduction  EMPHASIS: Media Language  EMPHASIS: Narrative and Genre  Media StudiesIntroduction 1.1  Film and TelevisionIntroduction 2.1 (1221)  Broadcast Radio and Television 3.1  (1211)  (1231)  STAGE4  EMPHASIS: Representation  Stars and Stereotypes 4.1 (1241)  STAGE 5  EMPHASIS: Australian Social Context  Film, Television & Photo Documentary 5.1 (1251)  STAGE6  EMPHASIS: Media Issues  Media Case Study 6.1  h— -  90 C  (1261)  CD Photography & PrintIntroduction (1222)  Radio, MusicIntroduction 23 (1223)  Film Genre 3.2  (1232)  Popular Fiction, Popular Magazines 3.3 (1233)  Advertising 4.2  (1242)  Popular Culture: Video Games to TV Game Shows 43 (1243)  Film, Television & Print Fiction 5.2 (1252)  Media Images of Australia 5.3 (1253)  School-based Media Project: Documentary or Fiction 6.2 (1262)  O  Community-based Media Project & Research 6.3 (1263)  ON  SCOTTISH MEDIA EDUCATION SHORT COURSES: S3 AND S4 LEVEL Organizing Idea  1 Introduction 1.1 General Introduction  2  3 Media Language 2.1 Stills and words  Narratives . 3.1 Narratives in Fact and Fiction  4  5  6  Representations  Scottish Context  Media Issues  4.1 Stars ( eg pop, 5.1 Scottish repre- 6.1 Case Study sentations: images film, politics, and industries media )  2.2 Moving Images 3.2 Narratives and 4.2 Advertising GenTes  2.3 Sound  5.2 Broadcasting  3.3 Narratives and 4.3 Youth culture 5.3 Print (eg newsAuthorship papers, magazines, comics, books )  6.2 School-based production (eg school magazine, video, tape-slide )  6.3 Communitybased production  o  References Adams, F. & others. 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