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The influence of Paul Verlaine and other French poets of the second half off the nineteenth century on… Gayton, Gillian Margaret 1973

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THE IKPLUEWCE OP PAUL VERLAINE AND OTHER FRENCH POETS OF THE SECOND HALF OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY ON MANUEL MACHADO GILLIAN MARGARET GAYTON B.A. Newnham Co l l e g e , Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y , 1963 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFID.'JENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY i n the Department o f His p a n i c and I t a l i a n S t u d i e s We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d standards THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBTA September, 1 9 7 3 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements for an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree th a t permission for extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada i ABSTRACT The extent t o which the po e t r y o f Manuel Machado was i n f l u e n c e d by th a t of V e r l a i n e has been noted by many c r i t i c s s ince the p u b l i c a t i o n o f Alma i n 1 9 0 1 , and i t i s g e n e r a l l y agreed t h a t the two years Machado spent i n P a r i s p r i o r t o the p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h a t c o l l e c t i o n were res p o n s i b l e f o r French elements i n h i s work. Never t h e l e s s , no close t e x t u a l examination o f Machado*s poetry f o r d i r e c t V e r l a i n i a n i n f l u e n c e had been made u n t i l now, p o s s i b l y because h i s contemporary Darfo i s f r e q u e n t l y considered t o have been the f i r s t to introduce V e r l a i n e * s themes and techniques i n t o Spanish verse. Recent s t u d i e s o f V e r l a i n e ' s i n f l u e n c e on t h e work o f Antonio Machado, however, have shown t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e to demonstrate such i n f l u e n c e w ithout o t i o s e reference t o D a r f o , s i n c e i t i s c l e a r t h a t b o t h the Machado b r o t h e r s were c l o s e l y acquainted w i t h the p o e t r y of V e r l a i n e at f i r s t hand. This study c o n s i s t s of a t e x t u a l a n a l y s i s o f Manuel Machado's best p o e t r y , t h a t p u b l i s h e d between 1 9 0 1 and 1 9 1 9 » i n d i c a t i n g French i n f l u e n c e i n themes, images and technique. Where there appears t o be an e a r l i e r Spanish borrowing from the French t h i s i s i n d i c a t e d , but closeness t o the o r i g i n a l French i s accepted as showing d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e . I n the course of the i n v e s t i g a t i o n so much evidence was found of i n f l u e n c e s from other French poets of the l a t t e r h a l f o f the nineteenth century that the scope o f the d i s s e r t a t i o n was widened to i n c l u d e d i s c u s s i o n o f these. They i n d i c a t e the depth o f Machado's knowledge o f French p o e t r y , and are a d d i t i o n a l p r o o f t h a t he was able t o draw d i r e c t l y from French sources. The examination o f V e r l a i n e ' s i n f l u e n c e was f a c i l i t a t e d by computer concordances. Machado's t r a n s l a t i o n s o f V e r l a i n e ' s poetry together w i t h the P l e n i t u d e d i t i o n of h i s own work (Madrid, I 9 6 7 ) were used t o make computerised a l p h a b e t i c a l word-count d i c t i o n a r i e s . These were compared f o r s i m i l a r i t i e s of image and theme, and the words thus s e l e c t e d were p r i n t e d out i i i n concordances t o the work o f both poets. A p a r a l l e l examination of the l a t t e r enabled, the study t o explore i n much g r e a t e r d e t a i l than has been p o s s i b l e t o previous c r i t i c s the a f f i n i t i e s between V e r l a i n e and Machado i n terms of theme and mood. The f i r s t chapter gives an account of Machado's l i f e i n P a r i s at the t u r n o f the century and of the l i t e r a r y scene he encountered t h e r e , and the f i n a l chapter examines h i s use of French, and p a r t i c u l a r l y V e r l a i n i a n , techniques of metre and rhyme. The overwhelming evidence found o f d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e from V e r l a i n e and other French poets, e s p e c i a l l y Samain and B a u d e l a i r e , proves c o n c l u s i v e l y t h a t Machado d i d not need the help o f i n t e r m e d i a r i e s such as D a r i b i n adapting French themes and techniques t o Spanish v e r s e , although i t i s i n d e n i a b l e t h a t Darfo preceded him i n the use of some o f them. The study a l s o i n d i c a t e s t h a t much of Machado 1 s most o r i g i n a l work owed i t s genesis to the l i t e r a r y and a r t i s t i c ambiance he found i n P a r i s between 1899 and 1909* The two genres o f poetry a t which he e x c e l l e d , the P a r n a s s i a n sonnet and the b i t t e r , p r o s a i c verse o f the mal poema c y c l e , were Spanish v e r s i o n s of s t y l e s o r i g i n a t i n g i n France which Machado was the f i r s t to introduce i n t o Spain. I t i s hoped t h a t t h i s study w i l l c o n t r i b u t e i n some measure towards r e d r e s s i n g the balance of c r i t i c a l o p i n i o n , which has tended t o regard Machado as p r i m a r i l y a w r i t e r of, popular Andalusian verse. H i s r e a l achievement, as t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n has sought t o prove, i s t o be found, not i n the cantares. but i n the c o l l e c t i o n s p u b l i s h e d between 1901 and 1909 when he was i n clo s e contact w i t h French poetry and a r t . i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION 1 CHAPTER 1 MAGHADO AND PARIS 9 CHAPTER 2 STUDY OF THEMES AND IMAGES IN AIMA 35 CHAPTER 3 STUDY OF THEMES AND IMAGES IN CAPRICHOS 72 CHAPTER 4 STUDY OF THEMES AND IMAGES IN ALMA. MUSEO. IPS CANT ARES AND ASSESSMENT OF FIESTAS GALANTES 93 CHAPTER 5 STUDY OF THEMES AND IMAGES IN EL ML POEMA 115 CHAPTER 6 STUDY OF THEMES AND IMAGES IN MACHADO'S POETRY BEFORE 1919 134 CHAPTER 7 STUDY OF MACHADO1S TECHNICAL DEBT TO FRENCH POETRY 149 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION 169 LIST OF WORKS CONSULTED 182 1 Works by Machado 2 Works by other Spanish and French poets consulted 3 C r i t i c a l studies and background material APPENDIX 1 POEMS BY MACHADO NOT IN OBRAS COMPIETAS 195 "Madrigal" (Alma) "Neurastenia" (Caprichos) "Paisaje de arrabal" (Alma. Museo. Los cantares) "Sombra" (El mal poema) "La Vie" (El mal poema) "Minuit" . (El mal poema) "Fin" (El mal poema) APPENDIX. 2 SUMMARY OF SR. RAFAEL FERRERES'S CHAPTER "MANUEL MACHADO" FROM HIS UNPUBLISHED BOOK VERLAINE EN ESPANA 203 INDEX POEMS BY MACHADO AND VERLAINE REFERRED TO 204 i v A NOTE ON EDITIONS AND CONCORDANCES The e d i t i o n s used f o r constant reference i n the t h e s i s are: Obras completas  de Manuel y Antonio Machado (5th ed. Madrid, 1967); Verlaine., Oeuvres  poe*tiques completes, ed. Y.G. LeDantec ( P a r i s , 1968); A l b e r t Samain, Oeuvres ( P a r i s , 1949-50); B a u d e l a i r e , Les F l e u r s du M a i , ed. A. Adam ( P a r i s , 1959); and Jose' M a r i a de Here'dia, Les Trophees (Cambridge, 1942). Poems by Manuel Machado not i n c l u d e d i n Obras completas are contained i n Appendix 1. This study of the i n f l u e n c e o f P a u l V e r l a i n e and other French poets on Manuel Machado has been f a c i l i t a t e d by s e l e c t i v e computer concordances t o the po e t r y o f V e r l a i n e and that of Machado. These were drawn up a f t e r an a l p h a b e t i c a l word-frequency d i c t i o n a r y f o r each poet had been manually compared f o r dominant images and themes. The e d i t i o n of V e r l a i n e ' s p o e t r y used f o r t h i s purpose was Machado"s t r a n s l a t i o n , F i e s t a s galantes. Poemas saturnianos . La buena cancicfa. Romanzas s i n p a l a b r a s . Sabidurxa. Amor. Parabolas y o t r a s  poesias (Madrid, 1908). Acknowledgements I would l i k e t o express my thanks t o Dr. Marian G.R. Coope, my t h e s i s d i r e c t o r , Mrs. Helen F. Grant o f Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y , S r . Ismael G a r c i a Ra'mila o f the I n s t i t u t o Fernan Gonzalez, Burgos, M e r r i c k Bryan-Kinns and J i l l Hughes of the T a y l o r I n s t i t u t i o n L i b r a r y , Oxford, and S r . R a f a e l F e r r e r e s . A f t e r the f i r s t d r a f t of t h i s t h e s i s had been completed S r . F e r r e r e s k i n d l y sent me a copy o f the chapter on Manuel Machado from h i s forthcoming book V e r l a i n e en  Bspana. An appendix d i s c u s s i n g h i s conclusions has been added. My thanks are a l s o due t o Dr. J . I i . L e i g h o f t h e Computing Centre, U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, and t o t h e Canada C o u n c i l . V A b b r e v i a t i o n s used. T i t l e s o f p e r i o d i c a l s are g i v e n i n f u l l on the f i r s t reference and t h e r e a f t e r abbreviated as below. GHA Cuadernos Hispanoamerlcanos E P i l R e v i s t a de P i l o l o g f a BHS B u l l e t i n o f H i s p a n i c Studies RP Romanische Porschungen 1 IMTRODTJCglON. The importance of Verlaine to the Modernist movement i n poetry has been widely commented on. Guillermo Diaz-Plaja points to Verlaine as "mentor que atrae y senala el carnino" for a l l Modernists."*" Luis Granjel suggests that, through Da r i o , the influence of Verlaine determined the course of modern 2 Spanish poetry. A f u l l account of how Verlaine1 s work came to be known i n Spain between 1893 and 1905 has been given by Rafael Ferreres,^ and Geoffrey L Ribbans has examined i t s influence on Antonio Machado. Of Manuel Machado's work, Dario said i n 1905 "Nutrido de l a ma's flamante savia francesq, sus versos parecen escritos en franee's, y desde luego puedo asegurar que son pensados en franee's• Es en muchas de sus poesias. . . un verleniano de l a ma's legitima procedencia. Con los elementos fone"ticos del castellano ha llegado a hacer l o que en f ranee's no han logrado muchos 5 seguidores del prodigioso Fauno." Juan Ramon Jimenez stresses repeatedly the great influence that French Symbolist poetry had on him and the Machado brothers,^ and like Dario emphasises the extent to which Verlaine influenced 1. Modemismo sgrente a 98 (Madrid, 195l), p.178. 2. Panorama de la generacion del 98 (Madrid, 1959), i.178 3. "Introduccion de Paul Verlaine en Espana", Cuadernos Hispanoamericanos 260 (Feb. 1972), pp.244-57. if. "La influencia de Verlaine en Antonio Machado", CHA, 91-2 (1957,)pp.180-201, and "Nuevas precisiones sobre la influencia de Verlaine en Antonio Machado", Revista de Filologia. (1968-9) pp.295-303. 5. "Nuevos poetas de Espana", Opiniones (1906); published in Obras completas l(Madrid, 1950), p.414. 6. El modemismo. Notas de un curso (1953) (Mexico, 1962), pp.157-8, 227; La corriente infinita (Madrid, 19olj, pp.70 and 94; R. Gulldh, Conversaciones con Juan Ramon (Madrid, 1958), p.56; Direcciones del modemismo (Madrid, 1971), p.227. 2 Manuel, "Manuel Machado es el poeta espanol que tiene ma's infTuencia de Verlaine, a quien tradujo. Alma esta llena de combinaciones a lo Verlaine."^ Later critics have confirmed these judgements, and indeed the influence of Verlaine on Machado has become a commonplace of literary criticism. Diaz-Q Plaja speaks of him as being "transido de la influencia verleniana", and Ribbans gives a concise account of those qualities in Machado1s work that Q critics agree to be Verlainian. And of course even the most cursory reading of Machado's poetry reveals a large number of direct references to Verlaine, Poems such as "La mujer de Verlaine", "Cordura", "Prdlogo-epilogo", and "Invierno" mention the poet by name, "La lluvia" is prefaced by a quotation from Verlaine, and "La buena cancion", "Otono", 'Romanzas sin palabras* and "Oraciones a ella" are direct translations of titles from Verlaine's poetry. There is then widespread agreement among critics on the predominance of Verlaine's influence on the poetry of Manuel Machado. But at the same time i t is often stated that Darfo was solely responsible for intr.oducing the themes and techniques of French Parnassian and Symbolist poetry into Spanish, 10 Dr. Gordon Brotherston gives an account of this contradiction. He shows that the direct influence of He're'dia and Leconte de Lisle on Machado in Alma can be proven, but concludes that in the case of Verlaine it is difficult to decide whether before 1903 Machado leqrned about him through Darib's poetry or not, 7, E l Modernismo. p.158. 8, Modernismo, p,l82, 9. "La influencia," CHA 91-2 (1957) pp.181-2. 10. In Manuel Machado. A Revaluation (Cambridge, 1968), pp.94-106. 3 However, since Manuel Machado l i v e d i n P a r i s before meeting D a r i o , there i s l i t t l e reason to suppose that he f i r s t encountered Verlaine's work through the poetry of D a r i o . I t i s c e r t a i n that he must have heard of the l a t t e r before going t o P a r i s , but i t cannot be established that he had then read much o f Dario's work, most of which was at that time a v a i l a b l e only i n the Latin-American ed i t i o n s passed around among other w r i t e r s . ^ " Dario 12 a r r i v e d i n Madrid i n January 1899* Manuel Machado l e f t f o r P a r i s i n March 13 of that y e a r , and Antonio i n June. Despite Darfo's a s s e r t i o n i n his autobiography that he met the Machado brothers i n Madrid i n 1899,^" i t seems reasonable to accept the testimony of both the Machados t h a t the meetings 15 took place i n P a r i s . E a r l y i n 1900 Dario l e f t Madrid for P a r i s , where Manuel Machado, who had already l i v e d there f o r t e n months, met him f o r the f i r s t t i ™ , .1 6 11. I t i s worth noting that Jimenez, when he met Darfo i n Madrid i n 1900, had read only those three or four of his poems that had been published i n Spanish magazines. See La corriente i n f i n i t a , pp.47 and 63. 12. La vida de Ruben Dario e s c r i t a por 41 mismo, i n Obras completas XV (Madrid, 1920), pp.168-9. 13. Miguel Pe'rez F e r r e r o , Vida de Antonio Machado y Manuel (2nd ed. Buenos A i r e s , 1953), P-54. 14. La vida de Ruben D a r i o , p.170. 15. La vida de Ruben D a r i o , p.177. 16. Pe'rez F e r r e r o , La vida de Antonio Machado, p.177. J u l i o Ce'sar Chaves, i n h i s I t i n e r a r i o de don Antonio Machado (Madrid, 1968), p.105, suggests that i t i s odd that the Machados, despite t h e i r close friendship with V i l l a e s p e s a , had not met Dario i n Madrid. But there i s some confusion i n S r . Chaves's d a t i n g . He s t a t e s , apparently on the evidence of Pe'rez Ferrero's V i d a . his only reference for the p e r i o d , that Manuel Machado returned t o Madrid i n December 1899 (pp. x v i i i and 72). Pe'rez F e r r e r o , however, makes i t c l e a r that Manuel remained i n P a r i s f o r over a year a f t e r Antonio l e f t (p.59), although he too confuses matters by s t a t i n g that both brothers met Darfo i n P a r i s i n 1899. (p»56). In f a c t , Antonio d i d not meet Darfo u n t i l his second v i s i t to P a r i s i n 1902 (see h i s autobiography i n Gerardo Diego's Poesia espanola. Antologia 1915-1931 (Madrid, 1932), p.76.) A l s o , Manuel did not meet V i l l a e s p e s a u n t i l 1901, although he had corresponded with him from P a r i s (see Fco. V i l l a e s p e s a , Obras completas I (Madrid, 1954), pp. l x x i v - l x x v ) . A l s o , as Dr.Brotherston points out, there i s evidence from Dario i n d Amado Nervo that Manuel Machado shared a f l a t with them i n P a r i s i n 1900 (see Manue 1 Machado, p.17). 4 It is possible, therefore, that Manuel Machado knew the poetry of Verlaine even before he became closely acquainted with that of Darfo, since 17 his own edition of Verlaine*s complete works is that of 1899. But as his intimate association with Darfo in Paris and in Madrid antedated the publication of the poems of Alma, the only conclusion that can be drawn from the available data is that between 1899 and 1902 Machado learned a great deal from both Verlaine and Darfo. However, there is no reason to suppose, 18 as does Granjel, that Machado learned about Verlaine from Darfo, To the best of my knowledge, no close textual examination of Machado's work for direct Verlainian influence has yet been made, although a number of 19 critics have pointed to specific examples. It was the original purpose of this thesis to make such a textual analysis. In the course of the study, however, so much evidence was found of direct influence from Baudelaire, Leconte de Lisle, Samain and the minor French Symbolist poets, and indeed painters, that the scope of the dissertation was widened to include a discussion of these other influences. Such an amplification seemed justified on the grounds that i t indicated Machado* s thorough knowledge of French poetry, and thus served to strengthen the original contention that he was able to draw directly on French sources without the help of Darfo or other intermediaries. This is not to deny the role of Darfo as prime mover in the renovation1, of Spanish poetry through French techniques. Furthermore, Machado undoubt-edly became acquainted through Darfo with the work of other Latin-American poets inspired by French sources, and i t is also clear that he learned from 17. In the Biblioteca Machado, Burgos• 18. See above, p. 1 n.2. 19. See Damaso Alonso, "Ligereza y gravedad en la poesfa de Manuel Machado", in Poetas espanoles contemporaneos (Madrid, 1952), pp.54-5 and 58-9; Gerhard Lepiorz, Themen und Ausdrucksformen des Spanischen Symbolismus (Dusseldorf, 1938}, pp.21-3 and 49-50; Dr. Br others ton, pp..97-8; and Alfredo Carballo Picazo, Alma. Apolo (Madrid, 1967), pp.76-80. 5 the example of Prancisoo Villaespesa, a Spanish Modernist who drew on Latin-American, and occasionally French Symbolist, poetry for his themes 20 and images. Since a l l these influences were brought to bear on Machado before the publication of Alma, i t is sometimes difficult to determine whether Machado was the f i r s t to be inspired by any one French poet or poem. What this thesis attempts to demonstrate, therefore, is simply the extent to which Manuel Machado was directly influenced by French poetry of the second half of the nineteenth century, and in particular by that of Verlaine, in terms of themes, images, mood and technique. Where there appears to be an earlier Spanish borrowing from the French this i s indicated, but closeness to the original French is accepted as showing direct influence. The study will consist of an examination, in chronological order, of the books of verse published by Machado between 1901 and 1918. The juvenilia are not included, as they show no French influence. My decision to exclude poetry published after 1919 was caused by two considerations. The first was that Macnado's poetry after that date shows relatively l i t t l e clear French influence. The second was that I do not feel that Machado1 s later verse merits a detailed study. ( T ^ only edition of his poems that is s t i l l reprinteds contains l i t t l e that was written after 1921.) I agree with his brother Antonio that "Manuel Machado es un inmenso poeta; pero, para mf, el verdadero, el insuperable . . . es . . .el de Alma.Caprichos, E l mai 21 •poema." The poems considered here f a l l under those three headings and represent his best work. The verse written in the Andalusian popular style is also omitted, since i t springs from a source other than that of the poetry 20. See Dr., Brotherston pp.99-104. 21. Quoted by Jose' Machado in Ultimas soledades del poeta Antonio Machado (Chile, 1957), p.41. 6 discussed here. As Dr. Brothers tan points out (pp. 125-138) Machado* s reputation as an original poet has suffered from the fact that he is better known as "el poeta de los cantares" than as "el de todo lo demas", in Antonio's words. When the circumstances of Machado*s l i f e changed after his marriage, and he had exhausted the poetic possibilities of adapting French themes and styles, t(k> Spanish, he turned again to another source of inspiration, that of popular verse. Much of his poetry in the styje of the latter is original and of great worth, but it has no uniquely personal poetic voice as does his afrancesado poetry. It is undeniable that Manuel Machado never succeeded, as did his brother and Jimenez, in creating for himself an enduring style. The nearest he came to finding one was in his city poetry, but the style was as evanescent as the l i f e that inspired i t r - Like Verlaine, Machado became a "poeta de antologfa", memorable for a number of remarkable poems but not for the integrity of his work as a whole. It is one of the purposes of this study to redress the balance somewhat by showing that a great part of the work for which Machado deserves to be remembered was produced by a combination of two factors, his immersion in French culture at the turn of the century and his l i f e as an impecunious writer in Madrid. A study of the poetry of Machado together with that of Verlaine .'.indicates that the greater part of the latter's work which influenced Machado most profoundly is included in his translations from Verlaine in the book Fiestas galantes. Poemas satumianos. La buena oancibn. Somanzas sin palabras, Sabidurfa. Para*bolas y otras poesfas (Madrid, 1908), as wi l l be explained 22 in chapter IV. For this reason, a computerised alphabetical word-count 22. Although this work was. probably begun during Machado's first or second stay in Paris, that i s , between 1899 and. 1901 or in 1902, there is no proof of the fact. Discussion of the book is therefore deferred until the chapter dealing with works published in 1908. 7 dictionary of the translations of Verlaine 1 s poetry was made, and the same process applied to the Plenitud edition of Machado's work (Madrid, I967). These l i s t s were compared for similarities of image and theme and the words selected printed out i n concordances to the work of both poets. A p a r a l l e l examination of these concordances has enabled me to explore i n much greater detail than has been possible to previous c r i t i c s the a f f i n i t i e s between Verlaine and Machado i n terms of theme and mood, Machado's choice of Spanish words to translate Verlaine's original French can be compared with his own poetic vocabulary i n Spanish, and clear parallels of usage occur. Indeed, as w i l l be shown i n the course of this study, there are cases where Machado's original poetry incorporates whole phrases from his translations of Verlaine. Examples of cases where computer evidence has been particularly useful w i l l 23 be indicated throughout the thesis. Nevertheless, this study has not been limited exclusively to those poems of Verlaine translated i n Fiestas galantes but has taken into account a l l of Verlaine's work that may have been known to Machado, as well as that of other French poets. Chapter I w i l l treat of Machado'a l i f e in Paris between 1899 and 1900, and w i l l seek to establish the influences that were brought to bear on him in those years. Chapter II w i l l examine the collection Alma i n terms of French influence on i t s themes and images. Chapters III and IV w i l l make similar analyses of Caprichos (1905) and Alma.Maseo. Los cantares (1907), together with an assessment of the importance of Fiestas galantes (1908),. Machado's translations of Verlaine. Chapter V w i l l study the themes and images of E l mai poema (1909) and chapter VI those of Machado*s poetry u n t i l 23. Nevertheless, i t should be emphasised that the computer concordances are highly selective, being composed of words that previous knowledge of the poetry had shown to be of possible significance. That is to say, mechanical aids of this sort are as competent or as f a l l i b l e as the l i t e r a r y judgement of the person using them, and can be regarded only as tools, not as oracles. 8 1 9 1 8 . In these chapters, the poems will be discussed in the order in which they appear in the first editions of the books cited. The seventh and last chapter will be devoted to an analysis of Machado1 s technical debt to Verlaine and other French poets in terms of versification, metre, rhyme and assonance. The thesis will conclude with an assessment of the extent of Machado1 s debt to Verlaine and to French poetry in general, and of the importance of that debt to the enduring worth of his poetry. 9 CHAPTER I MACHADO AND PARIS I t i s c l e a r from h i s poetry that Machado's two years i n P a r i s at the turn of the century changed him greatly as a w r i t e r . The verse of T r i s t e s y alegres ( 1 8 9 4 ) and Et c e t e r a ( 1 8 9 5 ) , and the sonnets " E l l a " ( 1 8 9 8 ) and "Lo que dicen l a s cosas" ( 1 8 9 9 ) a r e , as he put i t , "rimas becquerianas, 2 romances c l a s i c o s , . . . octavas r e a l e s . . . y odas elocuentes." The poems eventually published i n Alma are quite d i f f e r e n t and show decided French , i n f l u e n c e . I t i s therefore necessary t o examine what happened to Machado i n those y e a r s . T h i s chapter w i l l t r y t o i n d i c a t e Machado's know ledge of French poetry before 1 8 9 9 , the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the l i t e r a r y scene he encountered i n P a r i s , and i t s e f f e c t on him. In 1 8 9 7 or 1 8 9 8 Machado had met i n Madrid Alejandro Sawa, the n o v e l i s t and j o u r n a l i s t , who had been resident i n P a r i s f o r many years and was an intimate of V e r l a i n e . ^ He possessed a manuscript o f Verlaine's poem "Fe'roce"^" and was known f o r r e c i t i n g h i s poetry, as w%s A l b e r t Cornuty, 5 an expatriate Frenchman l i v i n g i n Madrid, who had been at the poet's deathbed. I t i s almost c e r t a i n , therefore, that Machado had heard of V e r l a i n e ' s poetry 6 before he l e f t f o r P a r i s . I t i s a l s o probable that Machado knew something of the work of the Parnassians and Baudelaire. Manuel Reina knew the poetry 1 . Mentioned by Dr. Brotherston p.14. 2 . Unos versos, un alma y una e'poca. Discursos leiMos en l a Real Academia  Espanola con motivo de l a recepcion de Manuel Machado (Madrid, 1 9 4 0 ) . P.3 7 . 3 . Manuel Machado, La guerra l i t e r a r i a . 1 8 9 8 - 1 9 1 4 /sic/ C r x t i c a y ensayos (Madrid, 1 9 1 3 ) , p p . 2 7 - 8 . 4 . V e r l a i n e , Oeuvres, ed. LeDantec, p . 1 3 4 8 . 5 . See Ricardo Baroja,G-ente d e l 9 8 (Madrid, 1 9 5 3 ) , p . 3 0 ; LeDantec, p . x l i i i : and F.A. Cazals and Gustave LeRouge, Les derniers .jours de Paul Verlaine ( P a r i s , 1 9 2 3 ) , p p . 6 - 1 3 . ' ? B 6 . Such i s also the opinion of F e r r e r e s , "Intreduceion de Verlaine" p . 2 5 5 , and of Juan Chaba's, Vuelo y e s t i l o j l (Madrid, 1 9 3 4 ) , p . 6 4 . 10 of Baudelaire and in his magazine La Diana (1882-3) had published translations 7 of him and of Gautier. "Clarlh" had written in 1887 a series of much-admired essays on Baudelaire, Valera in his prologue to Azul (1888) had demonstrated close acquaintance with the work of Baudelaire and the Parnassians, and "Azorin",s Bohemia (1897) is f u l l of enthusiasm for Verlaine. "Azoriri" also records in Charivari in 1897 that "la bohemia de cafe discute l a poesia Q parnasiana: se habla de Mallarme^', so i t is not surprising that echoes of Symbolism and Parnassianism had reached the ears of the Machado brothers and made them eager to go to Paris.^ Manuel* s description of the Paris he discovered in 1899 begins "El Parfs . . . del simbolismo en pleno triunfo".^ The term Symbolism is also used 12 by Jimenez to describe what he and the Machados discovered in Prance , and under that heading he cites Verlaine, Mallarme*, Laforgue, Samain, Moreas and Baudelaire. It is not the purpose of this chapter to trace in detail the history of the French Symbolist movement, but a summary of it will be necessary in order to establish what kind of poetry Machado and his contemporaries found in France at the turn of the century. Jimenez's definition i s the following: "El simbolismo toma del parnasianismo l a forma bella y breve, la forma precisa, pero no expresa una 13 precision objetiva, sino una imprecision subjetiva". For Juan Ramon, then, 7. See Fco. Aguilar Pinal, La obra poe'tica de Manuel Reina (Madrid, I968), p.26. 8. In La Ilustracion Ibe*rica (Barcelona). Republished as a chapter of Mezolilla (Madrid,1889). See also W.F. Aggeler, Baudelaire judged by- Spanish critics 1857-1957 (Athens, U.S.A.), pp.9-15. 9. See Guillermo de Torre, Del 98 al barroco (Madrid, I969), p.28. 10. Miguel Pe"rez Ferrero, Vida de Antonio Machado y Manuel (Buenos Aires, 1953), p.53. 11. Unos versos, p.52. 12. La corriente :'.infjnita p.94. 13. E l modernismo. p.228. 11 Symbolism was a kind of poetry and not a school of poets, a return to subjective, intimate verse in reaction against Parnassian objectivity. In fact, Symbolism did not follow Parnassianism: both sorts of poetry overlapped chronologically• Baudelaire, the greatest precursor of Symbolism, died in l 8 6 7 r while Here'dia's Les Trophe'es. the last word in Parnassianism, was not published until 1894. Verlaine's best work appeared between I869 and 1880, Laforgue first published in 1885 and died in 1887, and Sana in's f i r s t book of verse did not appear until 1893• More*as "invented" Symbolism in 1885 and repudiated i t in 1890. What then does Machado mean by the Symbolism of 1899? French critics agree in assigning Symbolism to the decade 1885 to 1895. As a conscious movement i t grew out of Decadentism,, a school which Verlaine 14 at first hailed with delight, and which derived, among other sources, from his sonnet "Langueur", published in Le Ghat Noir on May 26, 1883, which begins "Je suis 1*Empire a la fin de la decadence". Baudelaire's Les Fleurs du Mai, the prose poems of Lautreamont, the stories of Villiers de L'Isle Adam, the influences of Poe, de Quincey and the Marquis de Sade, and the legend of Rimbaud inspired Huysmans' A Rebours (1884), the manual of Decadentism which also reestablished the reputations of Baudelaire and Verlaine. The latter's book Les Poetes maudits. published in the same year and treating of Corbiere, Rimbaud and Mallarme', was also influential in reviving an interest in neglected poets. The first book of verse to be hailed as "de*cadent" was Jean More*as' Les Syrtes. also published in 1884» More'as, a Greek whose real name was Papadiamantopoulos, had come to Paris in 1879, and was already a friend of 14. See his panegyric on the word decadent, quoted by Ernest Raynaud, La Mele'e Symboliste (1870-1910). Portraits et souvenirs (Paris, 1 9 7 l ) , pp.64-5. 12 Verlaine's i n 1883. His admiration f o r Verlaine, Baudelaire and Mallarms' i s demonstrated i n Les Syrtes by elaborate im i t a t i o n amounting to pastiche. By 1885 Decadence was s u f f i c i e n t l y fashionable amongst the young to have provoked a good deal of adverse c r i t i c i s m , mostly directed at i t s morbid images and elaborate and obscure vocabulary. I t was i n answer t o these c r i t i c i s m s that More*as published his famous "Manifest e du Symbolisme" i n Le Figaro on September 18, 1886. Except f o r the fact that tidy-minded French c r i t i c s have assigned i t an h i s t o r i c importance as the inauguration of a l i t e r a r y "era", i t i s uninteresting. Written i n a convoluted s t y l e , i t r e a l l y expresses nothing more than Moreas' own idiosyn c r a t i c opinions about poetry, and i t i s doubtful whether many of his contemporaries subscribed to his enthusiasm f o r the medieval poets or to such refinements as "les pleonasmes s i g n i f i c a t i f s " or "l'anacoluthe en suspens". But i t gave a name to a very r e a l movement of new poetry and raised a banner for the young men to f i g h t under. From 1886 on, MoTd'as' own poetry diverged from the main current of Symbolism. Lets :Gantilenes (1886) i s a c o l l e c t i o n of poems on medieval themes based on the old fabliaux, chansons. and l a i s . He reverted to classicism with Le P£lerin Passionne' (1891). In his preface t o this book he proclaims a new school of poetry, L'Ecole Romane. based on the French classicism of Ronsard and the Fle"iade. Symbolism, he declared, was dead. But although Mordas had a d r o i t l y proclaimed himself leader of the new school i n 1885, his authority was not unquestioned. Gustave Kahn, the vers l i b r e poet and editor of La Vogue, was outraged by the manifesto and asked Mallarme''s permission to proclaim him "maltre absolu" of the movement. (LaForgue might w e l l have been another candidate f o r t h i s t i t l e , but he was i n B e r l i n at the time.) And then, whilst the feuding went on and the cliques 15. LeDantec, p.309. 1 3 wrangled among themselves, "un poeta prematuramente envejecido volvfa, nadie sabe de ddhde,. trayendo divinos poemas de amor de Dios. Los jdvenes que le oyeron escogieronle como unico maestro. Era el maestro Verlaine.""*"^ In fact, Verlaine's best poetry had already been written, and in the last ten years of his l i f e after 1886, his work had become a monotonous alternation between the gross sensuality of Parallelement and Chans ens pour Elle and the sentimental piety of Bonheur and Amour. But the young men were reading the newly published second editions of Fetes Galantes and Romances sans Paroles, and Sagesse, first printed in 1881. Raynaud, Dubus, Samain, Barbusse, Fleury, and Gregh were some of the young poets who were profoundly influenced by Verlaine (Gregh even wrote a poem, "Minuet", which Gaston Deschamps, literary c r i t i c of Le Temps, published under the impression that 17 i t was by Verlaine). So a Verlainian intimacy of tone became one of the recognisable Symbolist traits, although Verlaine himself was averse to the idea of literary schools and labels, and was quite rude about them: "Le Symbolisme? Comp rends pas. Ce doit etre un mot allemand, he in? Qu'est-ce que ca peut bien vouloir dire? Moi, d'ailleurs, je m'en fiche. Quand je scuffre, quand 18 je jouis ou quand je pleure, je sais bien que ce n'est pas du symbole," From 1 8 8 5 , the progress of decadentism, Symbolism, and free verse continued unabated, and literary magazines proliferated. Some of importance, which were s t i l l extant when Machado arrived in Paris and which were the main organs of the new poetry, were La Plume ( 1 8 8 9 - 1 9 0 5 ) , Le Mercure de France ( 1 8 8 9 - 1 9 6 5 ) , L'Ermitage ( 1 8 9 0 - 1 9 0 6 ) . La Revue Blanche (1891 - 1 9 0 3 ) and La Vogue ( 1 8 9 9 - 1 9 0 0 ) . 1 6 . E. Gomez Carrillo, E l Modernismo (Madrid, 1 9 0 6 ) , pp.181-182. 1 7 . Carrillo, E l Modernismo, p . 1 7 6 . 18. In an interview with Jules Huret, quoted by A. Billy, L'epoque 1 9 0 0 (Paris, 1 9 5 1 ) , p . 7 6 . 14 The poetry that they published i s described by Ernest Raynaud, himself a poet o f V e r l a i n i a n descent, as follows: " S ' i l evoque un paysage melancholique d'automne, e t , dans l e b a s s i n , oCTle c i e l se r e f l e t e , un j e t d'eau soupirant vers l ' a z u r , c' est pour t r a d u i r e un etat p a r t i c u l i e r de t r i s t e s s e , un e*tat * * 19 de l ' E t r e en instance de l'Au-dela, un appel de I'Ame." This i s indeed the most i d e n t i f i a b l e element of Symbolist p o e t r y , the describing of a state of mind or heart i n d i r e c t l y through a symbol from contingent r e a l i t y . I t d i f f e r s from the p a t h e t i c f a l l a c y of t h e Romantics i n that the l a t t e r saw only a p a r a l l e l or a r e f l e c t i o n of themselves i n nature, where the Symbolists saw a deeper r e l a t i o n s h i p , a hidden r e a l i t y o r correspondence» The theory of corresponds.rices. suggested by Baudelaire's famous poem, was bandied about a good deal at the time, and i f not always taken s e r i o u s l y as a philosophic concept, i t r e s u l t e d i n an enriching of p o e t i c imagery. Mallarme'' s well-known s t r i c t u r e s on the a r t of suggestion i n poetry, the technique of not naming the other h a l f of the implied metaphor so as to u n v e i l the mystery slowly, were very i n f l u e n t i a l . But much of the poetry which was w r i t t e n i n l o y a l admiration of Mallarme' was open to parody of i t s vocabulary and obscurity. Raynaud c i t e s the invention of the apocryphal poet Mitrophane Crapoussin, "dont l e chant de cygne perspicace, affame du 20 n o n -§ t r e , sur l'etang des Luxures, lamentait l e lotus a b o l i . " Swans and l i l i e s representing a search f o r the i d e a l , legendary and medieval backgrounds, princesses and knights, deserted gardens, moonlight and a tone of dream-like melancholy were t y p i c a l of much Symbolist poetry, together with an ins i s t e n c e on the musical q u a l i t i e s of v e r s e . Dr. Anna Balakian i n The Symbolist Movement defines the three main c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the movement as ambiguity, o r 21 i n d i r e c t communication, an a f f i l i a t i o n with music, and a decadent s p i r i t , 19. La M e l e * e p . 108. 20. La Melee. pp.93-94. 2 1 . (New York, 1967), p.101. 15 The emphasis on music, characteristic of both Mallarme' and Verlaine, led to experimentation with both metre and rhyme and culminated in the vers libre of Kahn and Laforgue, which Verlaine disliked so much. The latter's "Un Mot sur la Rime", published in Le De'cadent on March 1, 1888, was a condemnation of the new blank verse on the grounds that French, being weakly accented, needs rhyme of some sort. "Rimez faiblement, assonez s i vous voulez, 22 mais rimez, ou assonez, pas de vers francais sans cela." Following Verlaine's "Art Poetique" „ the new poets reacted against the rime riche. which had been abused by Banville and the Parnassians, and returned to simple rhyme, assonance, and to a verse of uneven numbers of syllables, 1' impair. But most important of a l l , they chose to ignore the mute 'e' and consequently to write verse scanned for the ear and not for the eye, that i s , the 'e', even before a consonant,could be elided in verse as i t normally is in speech. As a consequence of this, the singular could rhyme with the plural, and hiatus was frequently accepted where it was euphonious. The position of the caesura was also freed. Much of this innovation had originated with Verlaine, but he did not take i t as far as did his disciples. Raynaud makes the interesting observation that i t was because so many of the Symbolists were foreigners that they lacked respect for traditional French metrics, and it i s true that many of them were not French by birth. Laforgue, although French, was born in Montevideo, Stuart Merrill and Francois Viele'-Griffin were American, Moreas was Greek, Verhaeren, Rodenbach and Maeterlinck were Belgians and Marie Krysinska, who claimed to have written the very first vers libre poems, was Polish. The question of cosmopolitanism as a Symbolist characteristic wi l l be touched on later in this chapter. Other characteristic traits of the epoch were a bond between literature and pai&ting, a cult of the pantomime and its traditional figures, especially Pierrot, and an enthusiasm for the music of Wagner. 22. Raynaud, La Melee, p.121. 16 The i n t e r e s t of writers i n contemporary p a i n t i n g may he s a i d t o have begun with Baudelaire's essays on the Salons of 1845 and 1846. The two main trends i n a r t that f l o u r i s h e d i n Prance from i860 on are g e n e r a l l y termed Impressionism and Symbolism, although Gauguin belonged i n a sense t o both schools, just as Verlaine was both Parnassian and Symbolist. Impressionism, which had i t s great decade i n the 1870s, emphasised s t y l e r ather than i d e a , and was more concerned with the way the eye perceives the l i g h t radiated by an object than with the object i t s e l f : Manet declared 23 that they wished to be freed from the tyranny of subject matter. In a sense, Impressionism derived from Naturalism. And just as Symbolist poetry was opposed to the N a t u r a l i s t i c novel and t o Parnassianism, so the Symbolist a r t i s t s r ejected Impressionism as s u p e r f i c i a l . Symbolism as a school of p a i n t i n g took i t s i n s p i r a t i o n from l i t e r a t u r e : indeed, i t c o u l d be s a i d that Symbolist wr i t e r s created the school by s i n g l i n g out t h e i r favourite-.'artists: f o r p r a i s e , as Huysmans d i d f o r Gustave Moreau and Odilon Redon. E . Lucie-Smith remarks that "Symbolist syntheticism made i t both p o s s i b l e and acceptable f o r one a r t to borrow ideas and concepts pi from another, f o r a l l a r t s a s p i r e d to be one." But Impressionism too had i t s l i t e r a r y f o l l o w i n g . Mallarme numbered both Impressionist and Symbolist painters among his f r i e n d s , who included Redon, W h i s t l e r , Gauguin, Munch and Manet. Verlaine too knew Manet, and c r i t i c s have frequently remarked on the Impressionist technique of his Romances sans. P a r o l e s , w r i t t e n during the same y e a r s , 1870 to 1874, that the Impressionist painters were beginning to be known. There seems l i t t l e doubt that V e r l a i n e was consciously influenced by the new techniques i n art which produced on canvas the same e f f e c t s of d e l i c a c y and suggestiveness that he was seeking t o achieve i n 23. Edward Lucie-Smith, Symbolist Art (London, 1972), p.56. 24. Symbolist A r t . p.6l. 25. LeDantec, pp.183-4. 17 However, Symbolism was the dominant school of painting from 1890 to 1910,, and unlike Impressionism was accepted in the salons and academies. Among the most important influences on i t were those of Botticelli, the English pre-Raphaelites especially Edward Bume-Jones, and of course Symbolist poetry. It was an intellectual art movement of poetic painting, and as such attracted considerable cr i t i c a l attention. In 1891 La Plume published articles on "Le Symbolisme des feints" and "Les Impressionistes Symbolistes", while in the same year Albert Aurier's influential article on Gauguin, "Le Symbolisme en Beinture M, appeared in the Mercure de France II. This literary preoccupation with the visual arts will be shown in due course to have had considerable influence on Machado's poetry. The cult of the pantomime will be discussed in later chapters on Machado*s vise of pantomime figures, but i t should be noted here that it constituted a continuous theme for French poetry, plays and art throughout the second half of the century. Popularised by Charles Nodier, Gautier, Nerval, Maurice and George Sand in the 1840s and 1850s, the pantomime became less 26 boisterous and more sentimental. A brilliant Pierrot, Paul Legrand, changed the character from a cowardly and hypocritical paillasse into something new: "complied el alma de Pierrot,, preparandola para que los poetas encarnaran 27 en ella toda la sensibilidad moderna". After Banville's Odes Funambulescru.es and the Goncourts* popularisation of Watteau's commedia dell'arte paintings which inspired Verlaine, there developed a new, melancholy Pierrot, used by Laforgue, Richepin and Catulle Mendds. The painter AdolphftWillette dressed up as Pierrot at a Montmartre festival in I896 to incarnate the spirit of the 26.. T. Re*my, Jean-G-aspard Debureau (Paris, 1954). 27. Gomez Carrillo, E l teatro de Pierrot (Paris, 1909), p.121. 18 Butte, " a r t i a t a funambulesco, h i j o de Watteau, P i e r r o t prestigloso y 28 bohemio". His paintings, l i k e so many of the era, are f u l l of pale P i e r r o t s a l l f o r l o r n . When Moreas declared, i n Le Figaro on September 14-, 1891, that Symbolism was dead, he was, as usual, ahead of the crowd i n a n t i c i p a t i n g the changes of fashion., By 1895, according t o B i l l y , there was "une reaction syste*imtique et deT.ibe're'e contre l e Symbolisme... l e s jeunes commence rent a s'insurger contre l e Symbolisme triomphant et b e t i f i a n t . " (p.207) In I896 Paul Fort published his f i r s t anti-Symbolist ballades and i n the same year LeBlond published an essay "Sur l e Naturisme", attacking the a r t i f i c i a l i t y and pessimism of Symbolism. By 1897 the inevitable manifesto was published i n Le Figaro proclaiming the new school of Naturism. Verlaine had died i n I896' and Mallarme' followed him i n I898. Their respective funerals, attended by the l i t e r a r y world of P a r i s , are commonly described by French c r i t i c s as marking the end of an epoch, which conveniently closes with Tolstoy's famous attack on Symbolism, "What i s Art?", and Zola's defence of Dreyfus. The l a t t e r event and the ensuing furore diverted the attention of many i n t e l l e c t u a l s from the l i t e r a r y to the p o l i t i c a l stage, and the heroic age of Symbolism was over. What, then, does Machado mean by describing Symbolism as triumphant on his a r r i v a l i n Paris i n 1899? I t i s necessary at this point to return to the difference between what Symbolism meant to the French and what i t meant to foreigners. Dr. BaTakian makes a useful d i s t i n c t i o n between Symbolism wi t h a c a p i t a l 's', which was a French phenomenon of cen&cles. manifestoes and periodicals l a s t i n g from 1885 to 1895, and symbolism, of which cosmopolitanism was the main a t t r i b u t e . "The major significance o f 28. Gomez C a r r i l l o , E l alma encantadora de Paris (Barcelona, 1902) pp.102-8. 19 the Symbolist school in relation to the study of symbolism in its vaster / s i c / context is that i t created a particular climate in which those poets and critics of England, Germany, Italy, Spain and the U.S. who f i r s t shared the experiences and memories of the ce'nacle convened with French writers and then took back with them their own evolved versions of the attitudes and conventions developed in Paris". (p.9) Dr. Balakian quotes Darfo and the Machados among other writers who came to Paris after 1890 and who eventually turned symbolism into an international movement. It is often forgotten by literary historians that a school of writing may have become vieux jeu for its originators whilst s t i l l inspiring newcomers in an entirely valid way, for just as an emotion is new to one who experiences i t for the first time, so a kind of poetry may be a revelation to a reader who is unaware that i t is out of fashion in the literary world. And literary fashions change more slowly than is sometimes supposed. It is interesting that in 1897, two years after Symbolism's official demise, the Paris-Paris ien almanack of bon ton declared that i t was indispensable for the man or woman of fashion to know a few Symbolist poets. The same poets were s t i l l writing and publishing and new members joined their ranks every year. And there were s t i l l those among the old guard of critics who had not even yet accepted 29 the new metric flexibility, or indeed any of the innovations of this school. 29. H.E. Berthon, in his Specimens of Modern French Verse (Oxford, I899)> ignores the Symbolists completely, save for a contemptuous reference in passing: "Paul Verlaine . . . is claimed by the group of the Symbolistes as their chief; nor can i t be denied that he too often exhibits the morbid sentimentality and the curious obscurity of style which are the characteristics of that school." In the second edition (1903), Berthon says he feels that he can no longer ignore the Symbolists'"efforts at Reform and Renovation", and he appends four poems by Henri de Regnier, together with notes expressing only qualified approval of the new metric freedoms and a stern warning against the dangers of hermeticism. Even in 1903 the fight was not yet won. 20 Thus the Paris that Manuel Machado came to know from 1899 t i l l the end of 1900 was s t i l l f u l l of poetic activity, of successful magazines publishing the work of Symbolist poets, and above a l l , of the influence and the legend of Paul Verlaine, even more potent after his death. In many of the poets publishing for the fi r s t time after 1890, Dubus, Samain, Barbusse, Gregh, Pleury, the Verlainian tone is the most noticeable characteristic. Baroja noted that in 1899 autographs of Verlaine were being sold in shops and restaurants. The aristocracy of Paris was trying to recreate the atmosphere of the eighteenth century as i t is evoked in FStes Galantes. and Count Robert de Montesquieu gave a banquet at Versailles in honour of Verlaine attended by le tout-Paris.^ A cult was being born. So by 1899 Symbolism had become Verlainianism.^ Scores of minor poets 32 continued to imitate "le pauvre Le*lian", and many of the people with whom Machado was to be most closely associated had been intimates of Verlaine. In later l i f e Manuel Machado was wont to claim that he had gone to Paris 33 to study, and that he had had private means. But it is plain from the accounts given by two of the younger Machado brothers^4" and corroborated by Pe'rez Ferrero, that the Machado family was desperately poor at the time and that in March 1899 Manuel left Madrid for Paris to find work for himself 30. See Phillipe Jullian, Un prince 1900 (Paris, I965). 31. Andre's Gonzalez Blanco, in Los grandes maestros;, Salvador Rue da y Ruben  Darfo (Madrid, 1908), p.152, uses the terms interchangeably. 32. Dr. Balakian points out that Verlaine was the major influence on the poetry of many countries of western Europe at the turn of the century. (pp.6l and 183). 33* See Rafael Narbona, "El gran poeta Manuel Machado", La Voz (1933), and Machado's brief autobiography in Gerardo Diego, Poesfa espanola. Antologfa 1912-1931 (Madrid, 1934), p.135. 34. Joaqufn Machado, Relampagos del recuerdo (Chile, 195l); and Jose'Machac Ultimas soledades del poeta Antonio Machado (Chile, 1957), p.25„ 21 and for Antonio as translators with Gamier publishers. It is probable that he had heard of available posts there from Sawa, who had worked as a translator. It was the obvious job for impecunious foreigners, as Darfo makes clear in his reference to Gomez Carrillo's having worked for the 35 " inevitable casa Gamier" on his arrival in Paris • The documentary evidence for this period of Machado's l i f e is very-slim, and one has to rely mainly on Pe'rez Ferrero's Vida. which is frequently inaccurate or vague. It was written from interviews with the Machado brothers between 1934 and 1947, and i t seems that Manuel at least cannot have had a very reliable memory, since in other published memoirs and interviews he often contradicts himself on dates. Despite his assertion in Diego's anthology that he was in Paris from 1898 to 1901, i t seems probable from Antonio's account and his own version in his Academy speech that Pe'rez Ferrero* s dating is right on this occasion. Manuel found jobs for himself and Antonio, who joined him in J u n e , and 36 they stayed in the hotel Me'dicis on the Boulevard St. Michel. They met Pio Baroja, who came to Paris in the early summer of 1899 and who recounts some anecdotes of their l i f e in his autobiography.^ Nothing in his account sheds any light on the poetic activity of either of the brothers, (it is interesting that during this f i r s t of many visits to Paris, Baroja discovered the poetry of Verlaine,. for which he conceived an admiration expressed throughout his work, although he detested Mallarme' and the Decadents, and 35. Carrillo, 30 anbs de mi vida (Madrid, 1918), p.240, quoting an article by Darfo in an unnamed Parisian magazine of that year. 36. Pe'rez Ferrero, p.54. 37. Desde la uTbima vuelta del camino III (Madrid, 1949). Obras Completas VII pp.714 and 720-21. 22 was a devout francophobe in other ways. J Antonio left for Spain after only three months. In a letter to Unamuno a few years later he says that Paris is bad for art and only good for drinking and conversation, and i t is clear that he shared with Unamuno and Baroja a distaste for the frivolity of the 39 Paris of la belle epoque. Manuel remained for over a year longer until December 1900, and although he completed a long translation for Garnier 40 brothers, his real l i f e and interests lay among the literary cafes and the conversations of other writers, and i t is clear from the few accounts we possess that he considered his time in Paris one of the most important periods of his l i f e . In order to attempt a reconstruction of Machado's Paris i t will be necessary to draw from other sources to supplement Pe'rez Perrero's biography and the meagre first hand evidence i f t by Machado himself. This evidence consists mainly of the reminiscences in his speech to the Academy and in La guerra literaria (1914), a few references in his diary for 1918 and a number of newspaper interviews, most of which,save the one by Narbona,date from the Civil War or the post-war period. The short stories and essays in his book E l amor y la muerte. published in 1913 hut written at various times from 1903 onwards, give few facts about his l i f e in Paris but, what is perhaps more important, they demonstrate his feelings about the city and evoke the atmosphere he lived in. I propose to set down his own reminiscences in more or less chronological order as they were written or recorded, and then, to discuss them at greater length together with material on his contemporaries and friends in order to establish what was the ambiance he moved in. Later 38. See Jose Cbrrales Egea, Baroja y Francia (Madrid, 1969);$'. pp.204 and 210-11. 39• Quoted by Ribbans, "Unamuno and Antonio Machado" , Bulletin of Hispanic  Studies XXXEV (1957), 10-28. 40. Dr. Brotherston, p.^ -9. 23 chapters on the poetry itself will examine how this Parisian experience was transmuted into poetic form in terms of both content and technique. Probably the first of Machado*s adventures in Paris to be described in 41 prose was his meeting with Oscar Wilde, which took place in 1899» \ which in he describes in "La ultima balada de Oscar Wilde" . It is a sympathetic account of Wilde's last lonely year in Paris, neglected by those who had adulated him a few years previously when Salome* was a l l the rage. For the purposes of this study the interesting thing about the story is Machado's description of the bar Calisaya where he met Wilde. He portrays his own circle, "Nosotros los parisienses apuramos los lentos ajenjos—que duran toda la tarde . . .Nosotros los parisienses—Jean More'as el griego, el ingle's de Irlanda Oscar Wilde, y yo, nacido en l a Macarena. Porque en Parx*s no hay extranjeros, o, s i se quiere, lo que no hay en Paris son parisienses," Further on he describes the reunion at the Napolitain: "Halle* chistosfsimo a Courteline, sutil y terrible a LaJeunesse, magnifico asMendes." In Dfa por diet de mi calendario. published in Madrid in 1918, Machado records his feelings on seeing Vazquez Diaz's portraits of Darfo, Amado Nervo and Gomez Carrillo, painted when they were a l l young together in Paris. "^os cuadros7 me han hablado de unos divinos dias de juventud,, de alegria y de amor...de los mejores anos de nuestra vida en Paris...cuando las obras completas de los tres maestros cabfan en un tomo de bolsillo; cuando, habiendo oxdo que yo era poeta, More'as me preguntaba ddhde estaban mis poemas, y yo le respondia muy tranquilo que...que ya los escribiria ma's tarde; cuando lo mejor del alma estaba aun a l i i , antes de volar en ritmicas prosas o versos atrevidos.. .Me han hablado de las tardes del Luxemburgo y las fuliginosas noches de Montmartre y de aquel ambiente de gracia y de encanto que dulcified nuestro agrio espiritu de exaltados meridionales". (p..l60). In the interview with Rafael Narbona, Machado gives a more detailed account of his l i f e in Paris. 41. See Antonio's autobiography in Diego's Poesfa, and Pe'rez Ferrero, p.57» 42. E l amor y la muerte pp.71-84. 24 "Me relacione* con grandes escritores, como Jean More'as, George / s l c p Courteline, Laurent Tailhade etc. Represente* en el Grand Guignol de Paris, con Lola Noir, una pieza en un acto de Courteline que yo mismo traduje y que dirigi<5 el propio Courteline. En medio de aquella existencia de estudiante, llegue* a adentrarme de tal manera en la vida parisie'n, que ma's que un ciudadano de Paris fuf un ciudadano de Montmartre. . . En aquel tiempo pase' los mejores anos de mi juventud: tuve aventures galantes, algunas de ellas aludidas en mi libro El amor y la muerte. Vivimos una temporada juntos en una casa del Faubourg Montmartre—en el numero 29—abierta a l amor y a la bohemia, Gomez Carrillo, Rube*n Darfo y yo. En ella tuvimos como hue'sped una temporada a Amado Nervo." ("El gran poeta Manuel Machado.. Lo que eran los autores a los veinte anos,") La Ifoz (Madrid), October 9 1933. He tells humorously of the g i r l friends that he and Gomez Carrillo would frequently lose to richer men, and of how proud they both were that their love-lives cost them nothing. And he finishes the interview by saying that Alma, written in Paris and published in Madrid, "contenia en embrion toda mi obra poe*tica» iTodo lo escrito despue*s en poesia no ha hecho sino aumentar las paginas de aquel libro de mis veinte anos' "Como lo vividol" In 1934, in his autobiographical sketch for Diego's anthology, he confirms that almost a l l the poems in Alma were written in Paris, (although 43 \ here he gives the date of publication as 1900 ) and names the same three 44 French writers, More'as, Courteline and Tailhade, as his friends. In the same year Pe'rez Ferrero began interviewing the Machado brothers for his biography of them, and he published the chapter on their l i f e in Paris in 45 Sur of Buenos Aires in March 1938. Pe'rez Ferrero describes their friendship with Gomez Carrillo and their acquaintance with Oscar Wilde, and states that the two brothers met Darfo 43. See Dr. Brotherston (p.139) on the difficulty of dating Alma. Late 1901 seems the most likely date. 44. Poesfa espanbla. Antologia 1915-1931 (Madrid, 1932), p.76. 45. This article, unchanged, is the one published in Insula in March 1947 under the ti t l e of "El Paris de Manuel Machado" and later incorporated in the biography published in 1952. 25 i n P a r i s i n 1899 and r e c i t e d t h e i r poems to him (p.57). But Antonio states i n Diego's anthology that he met Darfo i n P a r i s i n 1902 (on a l a t e r v i s i t ) and i t seems more probable from the evidence of Darfo and Nervo that i t was i n 1900 when Manuel Machado went to stay i n C a r r i l l o ' s f l a t that he f i r s t 46 met Darfo. Machado i n an interview with Juan Sampelayo published i n A r r i b a i n 1941 confirms t h i s date. Pe'rez Perrero a l s o states that both the Machado brothers were enthusiastic connoisseurs of the night-club songs of Bruant and P r i v a s , and a French radio 47 interview with Manuel i n 1939 says that he was f r i e n d l y with both men. The chapter ends with Manuel's r e t u r n t o Madrid i n December 1900, a date there seems no reason to d i s p u t e . In February 1938, i n the midst of the C i v i l War, Manuel Machado became a member of the Academy, and the speech he made on that occasion was p r i n t e d as Unos versos, un alma y una epoca i n 1940. He r e f e r s t o his l i f e i n P a r i s as "una bohemia sentimental y p i n t o r e s c a , r i c a de i l u s i o n e s " and almost i n the same breath as "una pesima vida de Arlequfn" , g e t t i n g drunk and f a l l i n g i n love l i k e a l l the other young students and a r t i s t s from a l l over the world. But he excuses t h i s l i f e by saying that he a l s o frequented the l i t e r a r y m i l i e u x , which were no l e s s Bohemian but d i g n i f i e d by a r t and by the f a c t that there were great w r i t e r s among them. He mentions that Tailhade some years l a t e r t r a n s l a t e d part of La f i e s t a n a c i o n a l , h i s poem about the b u l l f i g h t . "Recuerdos muy vagos de Andre' Gide y muy v i v o s , en cambio, del malogrado Ernest Lajeunesse. . . Pero mi gran amigo era More*as." His room i n the h o t e l Vaugirard overlooked the Luxembourg gardens, "una celda t r a n q u i l a y c l a r a " . One afternoon he gave up the d a i l y a p e r i t i f i n the cafe' 46. See Dr. Brotherston, footnote p.l7> and i n t r o . p.3• 47. "Personnalites espagnoles'. Les de*buts de Manuel Machado". Undated newspaper c l i p p i n g i n the B i b l i o t e c a Machado, Burgos. 26 Cyrano and went to h i s room f e e l i n g as though someone were waiting f o r him. There, a f t e r a long p e r i o d o f s p i r i t u a l a r i d i t y , he began to w r i t e . "Sentado a l a mesa, ante l a ventana que encuadraba l a fronda d e l Luxemburgo, a una l u z crepuscular. . . me puse a e s c r i b i r , a e s c r i b i r , como s i r e a l i z a r a una cosa s e n c i l l a , f a t a l y suave. No exenta, empero, de d o l o r . Y a q u e l l o , por l a primera vez, no se asemejaba a nada de cuanto yo habia hecho antes. . . Lo que escribo ahora . . . soy yo, mi propia alma. Y me digo todo, t a l como era entonces, en unos versos que se t i t u l a n "Adelfos" I t i s worth noting here that he declines to speculate on whether o r not h i s work i n P a r i s was influenced by Symbolism o r Parnassianism, and he i n s i s t s that none of h i s P a r i s i a n l i f e went i n t o h i s poetry. This ambivalent a t t i t u d e towards his l i f e i n P a r i s and the p o s s i b i l i t y of French influence i n h i s work i s repeated i n an interview with Jose* Maria Zugazaga published i n S o l i d a r i d a d Nacional i n December 1943, although he says o f h i s years i n P a r i s "guardo de e l l o s un sabor agridulce pero persistente." The reasons Machado had during and a f t e r the C i v i l War f o r 49 i n s i s t i n g on the purely Spanish bas i s of h i s i n s p i r a t i o n are obvious. I t was remarkable under those circumstances that he s t i l l chose t o speak at a l l o f his time i n P a r i s , and may be taken as demonstrating i n a negative way his c onviction o f i t s unique importance to him as a poet. In examining these statements by Machado and attempting to supplement them with data from other sources, i t w i l l be necessary t o r e l y on some hypotheses i n order to suggest what influences were brought to bear on the poet i n those years. In the l i t e r a r y h i s t o r i e s of the p e r i o d Machado himself i s nowhere mentioned, but the names of h i s f r i e n d s appear frequently and thu3 i t i s possible to surmise what h i s l i f e was l i k e . 48. Unos versos, pp.58-9. 49. As a supporter of the N a t i o n a l i s t s , who were int o l e r a n t of f o r e i g n influence i n culture as i n p o l i t i c s , Machado had become the N a t i o n a l i s t poet. 27 The f i r s t of these friends mentioned by Machado i s More'as, whom he 50 describes as P a r i s ' s most dis t i n g u i s h e d poet and h i s best f r i e n d . Machado's admiration f o r t h i s accomplished p l a g i a r i s t , who f l i r t e d with every conceivable p o e t i c s t y l e before f i n d i n g one o f his own, i s something of a mystery. Tailhade and Laforgue d i s l i k e d h i s work (the l a t t e r c a l l e d i t "pure rhe'torique') , and Kahn, Re'ne' G-hil and Mendes denied his r i g h t to set himself up as a chef  d'e^cole.. Edouard Dujardin s a i d that h i s a p p a l l i n g pronunciation o f French was the reason why t h i s " i m i t a t e u r de tous nos s t y l e s " was s t i l l a stranger 51 52 i n t h e i r midst. His posturing and h i s arrogance were a byword, and much of h i s poetry i s d e r i v a t i v e and a f f e c t e d . I t i s apparent that Moreas, who l i k e d an audience, found i t mainly among newcomers to the P a r i s i a n scene, e s p e c i a l l y f o r e i g n e r s . R.A, Jouanny records that i n I896 he was to be seen surrounded by "une foule d'anonymes. . . Parmi lesquels de nombreux e'trangers, aupres desquels i l b r i l l e d'un extraordinaire p r e s t i g e . I I f a u d r a i t c i t e r 53 a. ce propos l e s temoignages de R. Darfo, E . Gomez C a r r i l l o et Amado Nervo". I t may be surmised that as a foreigner who had succeeded i n carving out f o r himself a place i n the French world o f l e t t e r s , More'as was f o r Machado and hi s f r i e n d s at once more approachable and more imitable than any French w r i t e r . A l s o h i s dedication t o poetry and h i s deep involvement with and knowledge of the schools of the day, and his kindness to Machado, may go f a r 54 t o explain the l a t t e r * s devotion to him. 50. Unos versos, pp.52-4. 51. B i l l y , L'Epoque 1900. p.204. 52. See numerous anecdotes i n L . Thomas, Souvenirs sur Jean Moreas ( P a r i s , 1941). 53• In Jean Moreas. e c r i v a i n f r a n c a i s ( P a r i s , I969), p.157. 54. Machado's f i r s t t r a n s l a t i o n from French poetry was h i s v e r s i o n o f More'as's "Le R u f f i a n " , published i n Electrauon A p r i l 13, 1901. 2 8 Machado had probably been introduced to Moreas by the j o u r n a l i s t Enrique Gomez C a r r i l l o , one of the few foreigners who had succeeded i n making any kind of an impression on the t i g h t l y k n i t and self-absorbed l i t e r a r y cliques o f the time. I t was almost c e r t a i n l y through him that Machado was enabled to penetrate as f a r as he d i d i n t o the l i f e of P a r i s , and h i s importance as an intermediary between France and Spain before the 55 f i r s t world war was considerable. Born i n Guatemala of a French mother, C a r r i l l o had come t o P a r i s i n I89I on the advice of Dari<5. More'as recounts how C a r r i l l o came to see him i n h i s room, an unheard-of l i b e r t y , t o speak o f his admiration f o r Le P e l e r i n passionne'. More'as found him charming, " t r e s 56 moderne, boulevardier et cosmopolite". He was a close f r i e n d o f V e r l a i n e . Ernest Raynaud remembers him, a l b e i t confusedly, as an habitue" of the reunions of La Plume at the S o l e i l d'Or, c a l l i n g him " l e PortugJii&is Enrique r "7 57 C a r i l l o / _ s i c / " . V e r l a i n e1 s f r i e n d Cazals speaks of him as an habitue' o f the cafe* Francois I e r ; "Henrique Gomez C a r i l l o / a l c p p a r l a i t assez haut.. . 58 de son prochain l i v r e ou de son d e r n i e r d u e l " . He wrote chronicles of P a r i s f o r La Vida L i t e r a r i a and La Vida Nueva of Madrid, some of which Machado may have read before he went t o P a r i s , as he too was a co n t r i b u t o r to La Vida  L i t e r a r i a . He may also have heard of C a r r i l l o through Sawa. Both men had worked as t r a n s l a t o r s f o r G a r n i e r , and they used to l i v e together i n the 5 5 * See J.W. Kronik, "Enrique Gomez C a r r i l l o , Francophile propagandist" Symposium XXI ( 1 9 6 7 ) , p p . 5 0 - 6 0 . 5 6 . More'as, Variations s u r l a v i e et l e s l i v r e s ( P a r i s , 1 9 2 3 ) , p . 2 1 6 . 5 7 * La M§le<,e I . p . 1 4 0 . I t i s possible that Raynaud confused him w i t h Euge'nio de Castro, the Portuguese Symbolist poet who had come to Paris and met Verlaine i n 1889, and f o r whom a banquet was given i n P a r i s i n I896 to celebrate h i s support of the Symbolist cause i n h i s magazine A r t e . The mi s s p e l l i n g of C a r r i l l o ' s name i s common t o a l l the French c r i t i c s except Jouanny. 5 8 . Les derniers j o u r s , p . 1 3 7 . 29 Hotel de Me'dicis, where they were often visited by Verlaine, (it seems likely that Machado heard of the hotel through Carrillo.) Carrillo records his first meeting with Machado in his book Sensaciones  de Paris y de Madrid (1900), which went to press in September 1899 but consists of reprinted material written from 1898 onwards. It is impossible, therefore, to assign a specific date to the meeting, except that i t must have taken place between March and September 1899• There is no record of precisely when in 1900 Machado went to stay in Carrillo's flat in Montmartre where he met Darfo and Nervo. He made great friends with Dario, but in none of the references to that period does he mention Dario's poetry or his own. Although Machado does not say so, i t seems likely that Carrillo introduced him and Antonio to Wilde in 1899. Carrillo had met Wilde in 1891 during the latter 1 s first visit to Paris.^ And since Carrillo was an intimate of La^Teunesse, Courteline, Mendesmnd Moreas, i t is also probable that it was he who introduced Machado into those circles. It is curious that Machado, although mentioning Carrillo in the context of the shared apartment and as a boon companion with whom to pursue flirtations, does not give him any credit for being his sponsor. This may have been due to. an understandable wish to appear to have succeeded on his own in becoming intimate with the great names of the day, and is consistent with his assertions in later l i f e that his purpose in going to Paris was to stud^r, not to work. But when Pe'rez Ferrero says of the Machado brothers "en Paris se saben ciudadanos de la reputada • capital del espiritu 1. No se les oculta que ellos cuentan en ese mundo" (p.57), this cannot be taken very literally. There is no mention of Manuel 59» See I. Lopez Lapuya, La bohemia espanbla en Paris a fines del siglo pasado (Paris, 1927), pp.53-4j and Carrillo, Almas y cerebros. Historias  sentimentales, intimidades parisienses. etc. (Paris, I 8 9 8 ) , p.185. 60. 30 anas, p.40. See also Baroja, Desde la ultima vuelta III, p.714. 30 Machado i n the memoirs of any of the French writers he c i t e s as f r i e n d s , and i t seems u n l i k e l y that without the help o f C a r r i l l o , who was widely known, he would have succeeded i n penetrating that b r i l l i a n t and s e l f - s a t i s f i e d w o rld. However, Machado i s quite j u s t i f i e d i n saying that a f o r e i g n e r could c a l l himself a P a r i s i a n . Jouanny remarks that " l e cosmopolitisme est meme l'un des t r a i t s c a r a c t e r i s t i q u e s de l a v i e l i t t e ' r a i r e frangaise a l a f i n 6 l du dix-neuvieme s i e c l e . " The r i t u a l consumption of absinthe at dusk was one of the shibboleths of P a r i s i a n l i t e r a r y l i f e . More than just places f o r s o c i a l reunions, the cafe's were a l s o f o r some w r i t e r s , l i k e Courteline and Lajeunesse, the source of t h e i r i n s p i r a t i o n and t h e i r place of work too. The reference t o the group at the N a p o l i t a i n , C o u r t e l i n e , Lajeunesse and Mendes, should be a m p l i f i e d . Catulle Mendes, the Parnassian poet, was a l s o a dramatist and, l i k e almost a l l the other writers i n P a r i s , a j o u r n a l i s t . He had met V e r l a i n e i n I864, and the poet had dedicated one of the Poemes Saturniens and years l a t e r 62 one of the poems from J a d i s et Naguere to him* At Verlaine's f u n e r a l he had been one o f the pall-bearers and had made a moving funeral o r a t i o n . Georges C o u r t e l i n e , h i s protege and close f r i e n d , had a l s o known Verlaine.^ .-who dedicated to him i n 1883 the famous sonnet "Langueur". He was a humorous journaTi?s-t--and w r i t e r of f a r c e s . Ernest Lajeunesse was a l s o a s a t i r i s t , with a mordant wit that impressed Machado deeply. He held court n i g h t l y i n the N a p o l i t a i n . Gomez C a r r i l l o used to meet him r e g u l a r l y i n the V e t z e l , whence they would go on t o Wilde's Calisaya and f i n a l l y to the N a p o l i t a i n , where 61.. Jean More'as. e c r i v a i n f r a n c a i s , p.751. 62. LeDantec, p . x v i i . 63. B i l l y , L'epopfr., 1900 p.379. 3 1 the company u s u a l l y included Mendes and C o u r t e l i n e , and from time to time 6 4 Moreas. Laurent Tailhade was, together with Moreas, one of tha t small group of Verlaine's f r i e n d s who, according t o Cazals, were responsible f o r rescuing the poet and h i s work from obscurity (pp.209-10). Ver l a i n e had dedicated to him two poems, "Le clown" and "Laurent Tailhade". The second poem i s i n t e r e s t i n g f o r i t s Spanish r e f e r e n c e s . Tailhade i s described i n terms of a Spanish medieval knight, " t e l j a d i s B i v a r , Sanche et Gomez." The question of a general i n t e r e s t i n things Spanish at the time w i l l be touched on l a t e r i n t h i s chapter, but i t may be noted that i n the 1880s Tailhade used to wear a sombrero and was often "enveloppe* d'une cape espagnole, double'e d* e'carlate", 65 and that he was in t e r e s t e d i n the b u l l - f i g h t . Machado probably met him through Lajeunesse, with whom he was often to be seen at the Vachette. Like 6 6 More'as, he was one of the f i r s t t o be c a l l e d to Verlaine's deathbed. The only common f a c t o r l i n k i n g these w r i t e r s , c i t e d by Machado as h i s clo s e s t f r i e n d s , i s an intimate acquaintance with Paul V e r l a i n e . They had a l l known him w e l l and had had poems dedicated to them by him; Moreas and MendSs had spoken at h i s f u n e r a l . The P a r i s that Machado frequented was the same c i t y that V e r l a i n e had l e f t only three years b e f o r e , the same cafe's, night-clubs and a l l the atmosphere o f the f i n - d e - s i e c l e . I t i s important t o emphasise that Machado was leading a kind o f l i f e that had already been celebrated i n verse, an a r t i s t ' s l i f e . He could have read the work o f the Symbolist poets anywhere, as Jime'nez d i d i n h i s sanatorium i n Bordeaux. But to l i v e i n the P a r i s o f the poets and to see the raw material from which they had drawn t h e i r verse was f o r him a doubly enriching experience. 6 4 . B i l l y , p p . 3 7 5 - 9 . 6 5 . Raynaud, En marge de l a melee symboliste ( P a r i s , 1 9 3 6 ) , p.117. 6 6 . C a z a l s , p . l l . 32 We have already stated that there was i n P a r i s at the turn of the century a great i n t e r e s t i n the v i s u a l a r t s , and that Impressionist and Symbolist p a i n t e r s were much admired by w r i t e r s . I t i s c e r t a i n from the evidence of h i s poems on paintings that Manuel Machado was an assiduous v i s i t o r to the a r t g a l l e r i e s and museums of P a r i s . Dr. Brotherston explains how t h i s l i f e - l o n g habit was f i r s t encouraged by Machado* s teachers at the 67 I n s t i t u c i o n L i b r e de Ensenanza (p.119). I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g that Pfo B a r o j a , who has been shown to have shared with the Machados a love f o r Verlaine's 68 poetry f i r s t awakened i n P a r i s i n 1899» learned also i n that year to appreciate B o t t i c e l l i and the I t a l i a n pre-Raphaelites, then so much i n vogue, as w e l l as the contemporary Impressionists, although he d i s l i k e d the Symbolist 69 p a i n t e r s . We may assume that Machado, l i k e B a roja, made frequent pilgrimages to the Louvre, and that he discovered there paintings which eventually became the subjects of the poems i n Apolo» Even the night-clubs were a source o f i n s p i r a t i o n . Gazals claims that i t was Verlaine with h i s slang poem "L'Ami de l a N a t u r e " ^ who began the whole vogue of " l a chanson argotique et montmartroise" l a t e r popularised by Bruant, P r i v a s and others. We know from Pe'rez Perrero that Machado, l i k e V e r l a i n e before him, loved the night-club songs, and i t w i l l be shown i n a l a t e r chapter that some of h i s poetic techniques may have developed equally from them and from V e r l a i n e . C e r t a i n l y the songs sung i n the cabarets of Montmartre used themes common to the poetry of the time, l i k e P r i v a s1 P i e r r o t songs "Le Testament de P i e r r o t " and "Caprice d'amant". 67« We know from the evidence o f h i s brother Jose' (Ultimas soledades, p.46) that Antonio too was a frequent v i s i t o r to the Prado. 68. See above, p.<21 69. Desde l a tfltima v u e l t a I I I , pp.701 and 717. 70. Les d e m i e r s j o u r s . p. 224. 33 Another aspect of French l i t e r a r y l i f e by 1899 was a r e v i v a l of i n t e r e s t i n Spain, which may have a bearing on some of the poems i n Alma, E a r l i e r i n the century Hugo's Hernani and Buy B i a s , Merimee's Carmen and then Gautier's Voyage en Espagne and the Parnassian c u l t of the exotic had made Spain 71 fashionable and a source of i n s p i r a t i o n f o r poets, Verlaine himself was an enthusiastic Hispanophile who admired Gongora and planned to t r a n s l a t e 72 Calde'ron into French* In the l a s t decade of the century two serious p e r i o d i c a l s concerned with Spanish culture came i n t o b e i n g , the Revue Hispanique i n 1894 and the B u l l e t i n Hispanique i n 1897* A f t e r 1900 the Mercure de France began to p u b l i s h regular three-monthly reports on contemporary Spanish material i n the a r t s . Tailhade's i n t e r e s t i n things Spanish has already been mentioned, and he i s reputed to have r e c i t e d the Golden Age speech from the Qui.jote at a Montmartre banquet. The Symbolist poet Emile Verhaeren t r a v e l l e d through Spain at the turn o f the century with Darfo Regoyos and wrote a book i l l u s -t r a t e d by Regoyos c a l l e d L1 Espagne n o i r e . That Machado was w e l l aware o f the glamour attaching to a Spaniard i n French eyes i s manifest i n two of the s t o r i e s from E l amor y l a muerte, the t i t l e s t o r y and "Carta de Montmartre", and there seems l i t t l e doubt that he d i d h i s best t o l i v e up to the concept of the Spaniard as Don Juan which existed i n the minds of French women. A f t e r over a year of spending h i s free time leading the Bohemian l i f e here described, Manuel Machado went to l i v e by himself i n the Hotel Vaugirard, overlooking the Luxembourg gardens, and began t o write again. I t i s a curious coincidence that V e r l a i n e had l i v e d at various times between I889 and 71. Rafael F e r r e r e s , i n h i s a r t i c l e " E l hispanismo de Paul V e r l a i n e " , CHA 241 (Jan.197l), pp.87-105, a l s o c i t e s Musset and Baudelaire among French poets who were i n s p i r e d by Spain. 72. See F e r r e r e s , i b i d . , f o r a f u l l account o f h i s knowledge of Spanish. 3 4 1 8 9 4 i n the Hotel Lisbonne, "ou. i l y a une b e l l e vue sur l e Luxembourg", and 7 3 that they were the quietest and most productive times of h i s l a s t ten years. One wonders i f Machado was aware of the p a r a l l e l . L i t t l e needs to be added to h i s account of how he came to write his poems. I t i s apparent from the poetry i t s e l f that much o f i t was written out of h i s P a r i s i a n experience. How r i c h that experience must have been t h i s chapter has attempted t o i n d i c a t e . H i s friends represented a l l aspects of l i t e r a r y l i f e from poetry and the theatre to journalism. And he must have read V e r l a i r B w i t h care and passion. His copy of the poet's works, o f which unfortunately the f i r s t volume i s missing, i s Le"on Vanier's e d i t i o n of 1 8 9 9 ^ and i t i s c a r e f u l l y marked. We may suppose that i t was one o f h i s f i r s t purchases i n P a r i s . The end product of those two years was Alma t which as he himself s a i d , was h i s f i r s t and i n a sense his only book. A l l the r e s t of his work was simply more experience and more t e c h n i c a l assurance a p p l i e d t o the same themes. Machado returned to P a r i s f o r nearly a year i n 1 9 0 2 and again i n 7 5 1 9 0 8 - 9 * These f u r t h e r v i s i t s must have r e i n f o r c e d h i s knowledge of and love f o r French c u l t u r e , but as almost nothing i s known about h i s l a t e r l i f e i n P a r i s , i t w i l l not be re f e r r e d to again i n t h i s study. I t can, however, be assumed that through h i s l a t e r v i s i t s Machado maintained a constant contact w i t h French l i t e r a t u r e and a r t . 7 3 • LeDantec, p p . x x x v i i - x l i i ; and C a z a l s , p p » 1 0 3 - 1 1 3 . 7 4 . In the B i b l i o t e c a Machado, Burgos. 7 5 * Perez F e r r e r o , p . 6 6 and Dr. Brotherston, p p . 2 5 and 3 1 3 5 CHAPTER 2 A STUDY OP THE THEMES AND IMAGES IN ALMA Before discussing the poems themselves, i t w i l l be useful to examine the significance of the ti t l e of this book. Machado uses the word alma fifteen times in the collection"^ and he had clearly thought carefully about using i t as the t i t l e . The sonnet "Lo que dicen las cosas", written before he left Spain and published in La Vida Literaria on March 18 1899, is said 2 to be "del libro en prensa Alma". After his return to Madrid, Machado 3 considered calling his book Estatuas de sombra, but i t was eventually published under the original t i t l e . The word 'soul* is of course a common-place of a l l lyric poetry, and occurs in almost every poem of Be'cquer, whose influence on Machado1 s generation is well-known. But in Symbolist poetry it had come to be a leitmotif, with a special meaning. A sentence from Amiel's Journal Intime, published in 1884, indicates the significance of the concept to the Symbolist generation - "Un paysage, c1 est un e'tat d'ame"-and is echoed by Verlaine in the famous first line of Fetes Galantes, "Votre ame est un paysage choisi" ( p » 1 0 7 ) . This interpenetration of the poet's emotion and the landscape, ideally demonstrated in poem's like Baudelaire's "Harmonie du soir" ( p . 5 2 ) and Verlaine's "Soleils couchants" ( p . 6 9 ) ^ i s to be found in a number of the poems in Alma and is usually melancholy. In a book entitled Alma contemporanea: Estudio de estetica, published in Huesca in 1899, Jose* Wiaria Lianas Aguilaniedo, a Sevillian whom Machado may 1. In the alphabetical word-frequency dictionary of Machado's poems referred to in the preface to this study, alma appears 7 5 times. 2. It did not appear in Alma and shows no French influence. 3 . See Dr. Brotherston, p.108, n.2. 4. Cited by Raynaud, La m§lee p.108; by Jimenez in El modemismo, p.208; and by Carrillo in Como se pasa la vida (Paris, 1907) P«85, who says of Darfo,. "sus paisajes, chal los de Amiel, son estados de alma". 3 6 have met and whom C a r r i l l o knew i n Madrid before 1 8 9 9 , quotes V e r l a i n e on the contemporary s o u l . "No obstante s e r e l s o l tan b e l l o a l s a l i r como a l ponerse, e l alma contemporahea. . . comprende mejor l a b e l l e z a de l a puesta que l a de l a aurora" ( p . l l ) . He r e f e r s to an "enfermedad de l a voluntad" common to young a r t i s t s of the time, c a l l i n g them "poetas de l a vida i n t e r i o r " ( p . 6 0 ) , and speaking of t h e i r a r i s t o c r a t i c , d e l i c a t e a i r s and t h e i r "torturada alma contemporanea" (p.218). Aguilaniedo*s references to V e r l a i n e , the Symbolist poets and contemporary P a r i s i a n l i t e r a r y magazines are another i n d i c a t i o n that Machado too must have been aware of the p r e v a i l i n g l i t e r a r y currents i n Prance before h i s departure. His choice o f Alma as the t i t l e f o r an as yet unwritten book was an a p r i o r i gesture of s o l i d a r i t y with the new poetry. In the f i r s t e d i t i o n o f Alma, the arrangement of the poems d i f f e r s from that o f succeeding c o l l e c t i o n s i n that "Adelfos", one of Machado* s most famous poems, dated P a r i s 1 8 9 9 , i s not the f i r s t poem i n the book but appears l a t e r under the sub-heading 'Secretos'. Under the same heading i s t o be found a poem c a l l e d "Madrigal" which i s not included i n l a t e r e d i t i o n s although i t appears i n a l l the c o l l e c t i o n s based on Alma u n t i l 1 9 1 0 . Although using the P l e n i t u d e d i t i o n f o r page references I propose t o examine the poems i n the order i n which they appear i n the f i r s t e d i t i o n . Under the heading of ' E l reino i n t e r i o r * there appear s i x poems which are l i n k e d by an atmosphere of profound melancholy and despair. Although Darfo had published, i n Prosas p r o f anas ( I 8 9 6 ) , a poem e n t i t l e d " E l reino 5 i n t e r i o r " i n s p i r e d by Dante G a b r i e l R o s s e t t i and the Symbolists, there i s no apparent connection between h i s poem and Machado's sub-heading. The concept of "my mind to me a kingdom i s " i s a hallowed one and the i n t e r i o r 5 . Ruben Darfo. Poesfas completas I (Madrid, I 9 6 7 ) , p . 6 0 3 . A l l references i n t h i s study to Dano's work w i l l c i t e t h i s e d i t i o n . 37 l i f e was, as has been established, an essential topic of late nineteenth century poetry. The first poem, "Los dfas sin sol" (p.14) is an extended metaphor on the theme of threatening nature and man's only bulwark against i t , the warm intimacy of human relations. The white wolf is not only winter but also old age, sterility and ultimately death, against which the warm hearth, the lamplight and the beloved woman are the only, i f temporary, refuge. The theme of "la douceur du foyer" and "les soirs illumines par l'ardeur du charbon" are to be found in Baudelaire's "Le Balcon" (p.40) and are echoed in number XIV of Verlaine's La Bonne Chanson (p.151). The lamplight, the fireplace and the books are a l l to be found there, together with the presence of the woman. But in Baudelaire and Verlaine, as in Darib's "Invernal",7 which clearly derives from them, the intimacy of the scene is merely a stimulus to eroticism, whereas the love described in "Los dfas sin sol" is a desperate gesture, a grasping at reassurance. Another parallel to "Los dfas sin sol" is to be found in Samain's "Automne" under the sub-heading 'Interieur' in Le Chariot d'Or (p.95)» In Samain's poem the cold winds and lugubrious nights of winter are threatening, but the home is a refuge. The lines "et que ton reve,, ainsi qu'une rose dans l'eau,/S'entr'ouvre au doux soleil intime de la lampe", and "C'est le refuge e*lu, c'est la bonne demeure,/.. ./Ou s'elabore.. ,/L'essence fine de la g vie inte'rieure" are very close to the sense of Machado's poem. 6. Dr. Helena Valentf, The Poetic Language of Antonio and Manuel Machado Diss. Cambridge, 1971, p.147, shows similarities between Baudelaire's "Le Crepuscule du soir" (p.105) and "Los dfas sin sol", in particular the image of the wolf. 7. Poesfas I. p.524. 8. They are also very like Machado's description, referred to by Dr. Brotherston in this connection (p.ll6), in the short story "La convalecencia" from E l amor y la muerte. of "el reinado del hogar. . . La vida interior, que preside la la*mpara". 38 "Los d £ a s s i n s o l " a l s o r e c a l l s Verlaine*s "A une femme" (p.64) where not one but a pack of nightmare wolves pursues the l o v e r , and the woman i s h i s only s h e l t e r from them. There i s another i n t e r e s t i n g p a r a l l e l i n 9 Maeterlinck's "De'sirs d'hiver". I n t h i s poem too there i s snow outside and wolves i n the poet's h e a r t . The twin themes of the wolf and the warm and lo v i n g refuge may w e l l have been suggested by any or a l l of the poems c i t e d , but the urgent tone and abrupt rhythms o f Machado'3 poem make i t completely o r i g i n a l . The second poem, " E l jarcLfn g r i s " (p.15) i s a study i n despair and s t e r i l i t y . "1^ I t f i r s t appeared i n E l e c t r a I . March 30 1901, as " E l j a r d i n vie jo" and i s described by G u l l on as another example of the theme of " e l parque v i e jo" dear to the Modernists.^' But Dr. Brotherston points out t h a t , \inlike the poems with s i m i l a r backgrounds by Antonio Machado and Juan Ramon, t h i s poem i s not melancholy nor n o s t a l g i c , but d e l i b e r a t e l y harsh and n i h i l i s t i c (pp.104.-5). " E l j a r d i n g r i s " i s i n f a c t a deliberate and i r o n i c i n v e r s i o n of the melancholy garden topos. I t contains trees and a l a k e , l i k e a l l Verlaine's gardens, but the t r e e s are motionless and the lake i s stagnant; no b i r d s i n g s . I t s sadness and i t s s o l i t u d e are so overpowering that there i s no p o e t r y , no hope nor memories to be evoked by i t . The f i n a l r e p e t i t i o n of the phrase " v i e j o j a r d f h s i n alma" sums up the poem. The garden has no soul because i t has no memories. When one remembers that the o r i g i n a l t i t l e of the work was " E l j a r d i n vie jo" the f i r s t l i n e of Verlaine's "Colloque sentim-12 entale" (p , 1 2 l ) , "Dans l e vieux pare s o l i t a i r e et glace*", comes t o mind. 9. From Serres Chaudes ( B r u s s e l s , 1890), p.59. 10. Dr. Brotherston discusses i t i n some d e t a i l , pp.105-6 and 114-15. 11. In "Relaciones entre Juan Ramon Jimenez y Manuel Machado", Direcciones  de l modemismo (Madrid, 1971), p.215. 12. This i s a case where analysis of the words v i e j o . muerto and esperanza, and the synonyms! f o r memory i n the concordances helped t o e s t a b l i s h a l i n k between the two poems. 3 9 Verlaine*s park i s o l d , l o n e l y and f r o z e n , that i s , s t e r i l e , because the two ghosts who pass through i t have forgotten t h e i r o l d ecst a s y , and, as i n Machado*s poem, hope has f l e d and memory i s dead. The ghosts' eyes are dead: i n the grey garden "se muere l a mirada". I f the garden i s the la n d -1 3 scape o f the poet's sou l then the s t e r i l i t y , the emptiness are h i s . Such a b i t t e r use of the garden theme was not unknown at the time. O.V. de L . M i l o s z , a minor Decadent poet immensely popular when Machado a r r i v e d i n P a r i s , returns to i t frequently.^*" I n "Alienor" we f i n d " l e s e'tangs aveugles, jonches de lueurs mortes,/Sur un j a r d i n d'automne et e r n e l l e et d'oubli" (p.18), while i n "Chanson d'automne", o f V e r l a i n i a n t i t l e and provenance, there are more l e a f l e s s gardens without memories or hopes, where " 1 * i m p l a c a b l e o u b l i neige sinistrement/Sur l e s tombes des amis et des amants." And Edouard Dubus, i n a poem c a l l e d "Le j a r d i n mort", comes even c l o s e r to Machado w i t h the l i n e s "l'e'tang. B r i s e ou bise,/Le vent n'y r8de jamais 1 5 plus"• But Machado's poem has a s i m p l i c i t y and irony quite absent from the s e l f - p i t y i n g tones of Milosz and Dubus. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g that Antonio Machado wrote three poems very close i n concept to " E l j a r d f n g r i s " : number XIII of 'Del camino' (p.686) and numbers V I I I and IX of 'Galerfas' (p.722).1^ In the f i r s t o f these poems, the water i n the fountain l i e s dead, and the garden i s s i l e n t and shadowy. The two 1 3 . There i s a curious mistake i n Machado1s t r a n s l a t i o n of "Colloque sentimentale" from F i e s t a s galantes . "Leurs l e v r e s molles" i s t r a n s l a t e d by'feus, l a b i o s blancos". I n "Los dfas s i n s o l " the only two notes o f colour are the whiteness of winter, the wolf, and the cont r a s t i n g warmth o f the red f i r e and the red l i p s of the woman. In " E l j a r d f n g r i s " there i s only black i v y and the sad whiteness of empty paths. The colour white appears i n a number of Machado's poems as a symbol of s t e r i l i t y and the death of d e s i r e , which may explain his m i s t r a n s l a t i o n here. 1 4 . In Le Poeme des Decadences. Feiimes et FantSmes.(Paris, 1899). E d i t i o n used f o r quotations Poe*sies I ( P a r i s , I960;. 15. In Quand l e s violons sont p a r t i s ( P a r i s , I 8 9 I ) . Ed. used 1905, p.59. 16. A l l references t o Antonio's poetry w i l l be t o the Plen i t u d e d i t i o n a l s o used f o r Manuel's poems. 40 poems from 'Galerfas' express the same thought as "El jardin gris" in a more explicit way. In number VIII a l l the flowers in the garden are dead and the poet asks "Alma, <jque has hecho de tu pobre huerto?" where Manuel in effect ask& "Garden, where is your soul?" In the following poem, which is its sequel, the fountain is dumb and the garden withered.. There is no comfort to be found and the poem ends on the stern injunction "No hay que llorar, 17 isilenciol" "Mariposa negra" (p»l6) has been shown to be strongly influenced by 18 Villaespesa1 s "Cancion de la esperanza". It i s an immensely visual poem, and its colours and similes are very reminiscent of the atmosphere of Symbolist painting where, as Octave Mirbeau remarked in his scathing article "Des lysl. des lysl "published in Le Journal in 1895, everything looks like 1 9 something else and the trees in the forests have vaguely human shapes, as do Machado's trees. It also shows how Machado was able to bring to the medievalising tendency of Symbolism an ear and an eye trained from an early age in the Spanish ballad tradition through the Romancero of his great-great-uncle Agustin Duran. The last stanza of "Mariposa negra", culled from Machado1 s earlier ballad "Oriental" in Tristes y alegres (1894), is a perfect example of the romance style, and its obliquely stated implication of tragedy ends the poem on a note that is reminiscent at once of the best Spanish ballads ("El conde Arnaldos" or "Romance del prisionero") and of the mjisterious and doomed atmosphere of much Symbolist poetry and painting. The symbol of the butterfly is undoubtedly taken from the Spanish 20 popular superstition that a black butterfly augurs disaster, although as 17. Dr. Valenti' remarks some of these parallels, p. 157. 18. See Dr. Brotherston, p.101. 19. Quoted by Phillipe Jullian, Dreamers of Decadence (London, 1971), p.83. 20. I am indebted to Dr. Arsenio Pacheco for this information.. 41 Dr. Brotherston indicates, i t may also have been suggested by Villaespesa's constant use of the symbol (p,10l). I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g that Verlaine depicts a black b u t t e r f l y as a sign of g r i e f on Satan's forehead i n "Crimen Amoris" (p.378), and Antonio describes his sorrows as "mariposas negras" i n 'Galerfas' XXVI (p.73l). The phrase "celajes violados" i n the penultimate stanza of "Mariposa negra" i s also used by Machado t o translate "un rideau lourd de pourpres" i n Verlaine's "A V i l l i e r s de l ' I s l e Adam" (p.559)• "Otono" (p.17) has been noted by Machado's c r i t i c s as being obviously based on Verlaine's "Chanson d'automne" (p.72). The image of the dead, l e a f blown about w i l l y - n i l l y i s common to both poems, as i s the b r i e f , l i g h t l i n e . The other elements i n the poem might be traced to several possible sources i n Verlaine. The old park has already been mentioned as a frequent theme associated with melancholy, as i n "L'Amour par t e r r e " or "Colloque sentimentale" (pp.119 and 121). The "nada se",, nada quieipo" r e c a l l s the "coeur qui s'enniiie . . . qui s'e'coeure . . . sans raison" of 'Ariettes oubliees' number I I I (p.192).. "Indolent" i s a word beloved of Verlaine, who uses i t t o describe the .je m'en foutisme of his languid lovers. Machado uses i t obliquely, r e f e r r i n g to the l e a f which represents his state of mind, and l i k e a l l good Symbolists, leaving i t to the reader to connect the two halves of the s i m i l e . "Oasis" (p.18) i s the f i r s t of Machado's Parnassian poems, an important category of h i s work that w i l l be referred to throughout t h i s study. I t has been noted i n chapter I that although Symbolism was the dominant school of poetry when Machado l i v e d i n P a r i s , Parnassianism was s t i l l extant, and poets l i k e Samain and Re'gnier were i n some respects Parnassian as w e l l as Symbolist. I t should also be remembered that Verlaine 1 s Poemes Saturniens and FStes  galantes are Parnassian c o l l e c t i o n s . For the purpose of t h i s study i t w i l l be necessary to define what i s meant by Parnassianism as i t applies to Machado. Pi e r r e Martino describes the Parnassian ideal as poetry i n which " l a forme et l e t r a v a i l de l'ouvrier etaient superieurs si l'ide*e et £L l a 4-2 matiere." As p r a c t i s e d by Leconte de L i s l e and He're'dia, i t was a kind o f verse that described the v i s i b l e world i n poems of rigorously s y m e t r i c a l , c l a s s i c construction and c l e a r , simple images. There was a l a c k of i n t e l l e c t u a l content and an i n s i s t e n c e on " l1 e'rudition pittoresque et l1 exactitude p l a s t i q u e " (p.73). The emphasis on o b j e c t i v i t y and l a c k of passion r e s u l t e d i n a poetry that often gives the impression o f immobility and even of s t i f f n e s s . A search f o r subjects outside the poet's own emotions l e d to a cult of the exotic and the picturesque: distant lands, h i s t o r y , legends", pa i n t i n g s and even animal l i f e became material f o r poetry. The sonnet, because of the p r e c i s i o n o f i t s s t r u c t u r e , was a form admirably s u i t e d t o the Parnassian s t y l e . The Parnassian sonnet i s seen at i t s best i n He're'dia's Les Trophees, most of which are glosses on h i s t o r y , legend and works of a r t . Martino's d e s c r i p t i o n of them i s p a r t i c u l a r l y relevant here, f o r the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s he emphasises as p e c u l i a r l y Parnassian are those t h a t , as w i l l be seen, are to be found i n many of Machado*s sonnets. "De tout p e t i t s tableaux . . . Des c o n t r a s t e s , des mouvements, des couleurs, des moments, un e f f e t de lumiere, une surprise de 1'ombre . . . le d e r n i e r  vers du sonnet, qui f i x e ce c o n t r a s t e , cette a t t i t u d e , cette nuance, prend  une importance extreme (p.87). /JThe underlining i s mlneS? If- i s , of course, a necessary c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of any sonnet that i t s l a s t l i n e should have an epigrammatic q u a l i t y and should reveal the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the whole poem, but what Martino c a l l s " l e sonnet parnassien" often reveals a new aspect of the poem's subject,, i n the l a s t l i n e and ends on a change of note which may be s u r p r i s i n g o r b a t h e t i c . "Oasis", (p.18) with i t s objective treatment of an e x o t i c subject, i s a purely Parnassian poem which Dr. Brotherston finds very c l o s e to Leconte de L i s l e ' s "L'Oasis" and "Le Desert", although he suggests that Machado may 21. Parnasse et Symbolisme (1850-1900) ( P a r i s , 194-7), p.88. 43 f i r s t have come across the theme i n Darfo (p.95). But the exuberant v u l g a r i t y o f Darfo1 s " E s t i v a l " from Azul (p.,518), which contains a l l of de L i s l e ' s r i c h l y d e t a i l e d observation but none of hi s r e s t r a i n t and d i g n i t y , i s very f a r from the c o n t r o l l e d menace of "Oasis". Indeed, Machado's s t y l e i s a lso very d i f f e r e n t from that of the French poet, the l a t t e r being sonorous and r h e t o r i c a l where the former i s understated, with a c e r t a i n tenderness —"Y Dios deja un momento/que l o s pobres camellos se a r r o d i l l e n " . But i t i s true that the theme must have come from Leconte de L i s l e , although n o t , i n my o p i n i o n , v i a Dario', but d i r e c t l y . I t should be noticed that "Oasis", although not a sonnet, has the same s u r p r i s e ending, the s t i n g i n the t a i l , that was c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of He're'dia*s sonnets. In f a c t , t h i s poem could very w e l l be put i n t o the 'Museo' s e c t i o n o f Machado* s work with the other Parnassian poems. I t s i n t e n s e l y v i s u a l e f f e c t i s r a t h e r l i k e that of Le Douanier Rousseau's "Le Bohe'mien endormi". "Melancolfa" (p,l8), the l a s t of the poems under the heading of " E l Reino I n t e r i o r ' , i s l i k e much o f the mournful poetry i n Verlaine's Poemes  Saturniens. The l a t t e r contains a sub-section 'Melancholia' (p.60), i n which there are two poems describing the sad memories of l o s t l o v e , "Nevermore" (p.6l),. and "Voeu" (p.62), But the memories i n "Melancolfa" are u n s p e c i f i e d , though we may guess that the sad s t o r i e s Machado mentions are indeed love-s t o r i e s . The poet's h a i r i s nearly white with these old g r i e f s , just as V e r l a i n e i n "Voeu" fi n d s himself l i k e a frozen old grandfather. But two other poems of sad memories i n Poemes Saturniens are much c l o s e r to "Melancolfa". Under the s u b - t i t l e 'Paysages T r i s t e s ' (p.69), they are "Promenade sentimentale" (p,70) and "Le Rossignol" (p,73). In the former the poet takes h i s wound, h i s heartache, f o r a walk among the willow t r e e s , just as Machado's thought wanders among the willows and cypresses of an o l d 22 graveyard. The second poem, "Le Rossignol", i s even more l i k e "Melancolfa" 22. The words Vagar and sauce i n the concordances i n d i c a t e d t h i s p a r a l l e l . 44 i n that i t i s vaguer and more i n d i r e c t , that i s , more Symbolist ? The poet i n the Spanish poem f e e l s l i k e an afternoon of o l d autumn: Verlaine speaks of memories f l o c k i n g i n t o the yellow, that i s , autumnal, fo l i a g e of h i s h e a r t . This interpenetration of the poet's s o u l with a landscape, so t y p i c a l of V e r l a i n e , had become a commonplace, and i n Milosz one finds l i n e s l i k e "Je s u i s un grand j a r d i n de novembre, un j a r d i n eplore^1 ( p . 2 9 ) and "Tu souffres comme l e s j a r d i n s macabres d'hiver" ( p . 2 3 ) . Antonio uses the device i n poems l i k e number XVII of 'Galerfas* ( p . 7 2 6 ) — "Es una tarde c e n i c i e n t a y mustia,/destartalada, como e l alma mfa" — i n which the cause of h i s sadness i s a l o s t l o v e . But both Machados are c l o s e r to Verlaine than to M i l o s z , with t h e i r simple generalised vocabulary. The second s e c t i o n of Alma i s 'Secretos', i n which the f i r s t poem i s "Adelfos" ( p . 1 3 ) , Machado* s most famous poem together with "Felipe IV" and commonly thought of as the most Spanish of poems. Damaso Alonso speaks of 2 3 i t s "pereza heredada" and Pedro Salinas considers i t the p e r f e c t example of Spanish Modernist defeatism, of the a b u l i a and c r i s i s of the w i l l 2 4 described by Unamuno, Azorxn and Baroja. But Unamuno recognises that there are also i n "Adelfos" echoes of the f a t a l i s m of the French Romantics and Decadents. "Pero es que l a raza mora de este Machado es una raza mora que 2 5 se ha bautizado en Parfs y ha ofdo a Musset y a Verlaine." That i s t o say, Machado's philosophy i n "Adelfos" i s h i s heritage as a Spaniard and a lover of Spanish Romantic poetry, but the terms i n which he expresses i t owe some-thing t o French l i t e r a t u r e also..The notion of aristocracy l i n k e d with boredom and re s i g n a t i o n was popular with the Decadents, and had always been c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the Romantic hero. Huyrsmans's Des Esseintes and V i l l i e r s 2 3 . See "Ligereza y gravedad", Poetas espanoles, p . 5 1 » 2 4 . In L i t e r a t u r a espanola s i g l o v e i n t e (Mexico, 1 9 4 4 ) , p . 2 3 . 2 5 . In " E l Alma de Manuel Machado", Heraldo de Madrid (March 1 9 , 1 9 0 2 ) . Also to be found i n Obras ocmpletas V (Madrid, 1 9 5 0 ) , p . 2 9 3 . 4 5 de l'Isle Adam's AxSl are the Decadent heroes, and the 'yo' of "Adelfos" has much in common with them, as well as with the Romantic heroes of Espronceda and Zorrilla. However, i t is naive to take the persona of the poem as Machado1 s sincere self-portrait, as some critics have done: I think one can glimpse in i t a trace of the self-mockery more apparent in his later autorretratos. The t i t l e is intriguing. Machado himself said of i t "unos versos que 2 6 se titulan "Adelfos", nunca he sabido por que*" , although Unamuno states 27 that he himself suggested the t i t l e . Dr. Brotherston associates it with the oleanders or adelfas referred to by Machado in other poems (pp. 1 1 2 - 3 ) . But in that case there would be no explanation for the change of gender. An alternative and more comprehensible explanation is that adelfos is the Greek word for 'brother'. This would explain why the suggestion might have come from Unamuno, a classicist, and may have something to do with the pen-name "Geminis" under which Machado published a translation of Moreas's "Le Ruffian" in Electra on April 1 3 , 1 9 0 1 . It is only possible to surmise what this concept of the 'brother' may have meant to Machado. Perhaps the 'yo' of "Adelfos" is his other self, a sort of doppelganger, like his shadow in "A mi sombra" ( p . 1 0 9 ) , and the 28 pilgrim figure found throughout his poetry and that of Antonio. Musset, in "La Nuit de dScembre" describes a pilgrim whose name is Solitude, "qui 29 me ressemblait comme un frere". It may also be that Machado's 'brother' is his soul. 2 6 . In Unos versos, p . 5 9 « 2 7 . In "El Alma de Manuel Machado", p.288. 28. See ch. I l l p. 90 . Antonio also speaks of "el hombre que siempre va conmigo", his other half, in "Retrato" ( p . 7 4 3 ) , and of "el otro que va contigo" in 'Proverbios y cantares' IV ( p . 8 9 6 ) . 2 9 . Alfred de Musset, Potfsies Obmpletes (Paris, 1 9 3 3 ) , p p . 3 1 7 - 2 3 . 46 The i d e a , expressed i n the f i r s t stanza of "Adelfos", o f being a s u r v i v o r of an older and more sensual r a c e , r e c a l l s that i n V e r l a i n e1s "Langueur" ^ (p.370). Verlaine*s "Je suis l*Empire a l a f i n de l a decadence" i s equivalent to "soy de l a raza mora . . ./que todo l o ganaron y todo l o perdieron." Both poets i d e n t i f y themselves with an empire that has declined and f a l l e n . In the second stanza the lo s s of a l l power of w i l l and de c i s i o n i s an obssession of the 'nineties and indeed forms the main theme of Maeterlinck*s Serres Chaudes. expressed i n l i n e s l i k e t h i s from "Oraison", "mon ame est pale d'impuissance" (p.172). The same mixture o f a r i s t o c r a t i c d i s d a i n and f a t a l i s m as that i n "Adelfos" can be found i n Samain's "Mon ame est une infante" (p.9), which influenced Machado i n several ways. Samain's p r i n c e s s , f u l l of "de'dain n a t a l " , i s nevertheless bored and resigned, "sachant trop pour l u t t e r comme tout est f a t a l " (p.10). I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g that Samain's poem i s r e a l l y about h i s s o u l , portrayed as a princess of a decadent age: i t i s possible that Machado*s poem i s a l s o a long s i m i l e describing h i s s o u l , "hermana de l a tarde" . The symbolic rose of stanza three i s " l a rose mystique" which the..devotees of l a Rosej-Croix looked to as the f i n a l r e v e l a t i o n of the Beauty which i s God and which became Yeqts's "Rose of a l l the world". By the time Machado a r r i v e d i n P a r i s i t had become a common image. Dubus uses i t i n "In Memoriam" (p.90) and Rachilde's heroes yearn a f t e r " f l e u r s i m p o s s i b l e s " . ^ Darfo gives a f u l l account of i t i n h i s prologue to the second e d i t i o n o f C a r r i l l o ' s Del amor, d e l d o l o r y d e l v i c i o (1901). " A l l f , en l a serre extrana, junto a l o s c u l t i v o s de f l o r e s raras ^ a r r i l l o 7 piensa a menudo en una f l o r inaccesible que no se encuentra sino entre los asfodelos de l a prdxima e x i s t e n c i a . Es l a rosa de Dios, l a rosa de Verdad, l a rosa que solamente uno mismo puede reconocer y c o r t a r , ardiente de un fuego bianco, y talismanica ente l a hoguera divine." 30. Already mentioned (ch.I p. 11 ) as being one of the key works of the Decadent movement. 31. Les Hors Nature ( P a r i s , 1897), pp.7-8. 4-7 Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , C a r r i l l o too uses the image. Dr. A.E. Carter describes t h i s craving f o r the impossible as one of the d i s t i n g u i s h i n g marks of Decadent s e n s i b i l i t y , l i n k e d to the c u l t s of "impuissance" and dandyisms^ Machado contrasts t h i s scentless i d e a l flower w i t h the spikenard, which i s the symbol of the senses i n both "Adelfos" and "G-erineldos e l pa j e " . (The spikenard i s of course remarkable c h i e f l y f o r i t s almost overpowering scent.) In the fourth stanza the image of being tossed w i l l y - n i l l y by the waves echoes that i n V e r l a i n e1 s "L'Angoisse" (p.64-): "Lasse de v i v r e , ayant peur de mourir, p a r e i l l e Au b r i c k perdu, jouet du f l u x et du r e f l u x Mon §me pour d*affreux naufrages a p p a r e i l l e . " A s i m i l a r note, p o s s i b l y suggested by Baudelaire's "Don Juan aux enfers" (p.22), i s to be found i n Milosz's "Chant de l a Lointaine" - "Et mon i n d i f f e r -ence abandonne l e s rames/A l'onde letheenne ou je me reconnais." The r e j e c t i o n of a r t , ambition and love i n the f i f t h stanza o f "Adelfos" i s a l s o s t r i k i n g l y s i m i l a r to sentiments i n "L'Angoisse". "Je r i s de l'Art , je r i s de l'homme aussi Je ne c r o i s pas en Dieu, j'abjure et je renie Toute pense'e, et quant a l a v i e i l l e i r o n i e , L'Amour, je voudrais bien qu'on ne m'en p a r l a t plus." Verlaine's "et je vois du meme o e i l l e s bons et l e s me'chants" i s echoed by Machado's " n i e l v i c i o me seduce n i adoro l a v i r t u d " . The s i x t h stanza o f "Adelfos" and the l i n e s "pero e l lema de casa, e l mote d e l escudo,/es una nube vaga que e c l i p s a un vano s o l " r e c a l l Nerval's l i n e s from " E l Desdichado", 32. In Como se pasa l a v i d a , p.217, and elsewhere. 33. The Idea of Decadence i n French L i t e r a t u r e 1830-1900 (Toronto, 1958) p.38. 48 "ma seule Etoile est morte - et mon luth constelleVPorte le Soleil noir de la MeT.anch.olie", and Hugo's black sun i n "Ce que dit l a Bouche d'Ombre".^ In the penultimate stanza of "Adelfos" Machado's lines " i . Que la vida se tome la pena de matarme,/ya que yo no me tomo la pena de v i v i r l " are like Verlaine's "0 n'y vouloir, 6 n'y pouvoir mourir un peui" from "Langueur". The ironic attitude, the self-dramatisation with the hint of a smile, is common to "Adelfos" and both "Langueur" and "L'Angoisse". To sum up, then, "Adelfos" is clearly a Romantic poem, and its Byronic attitudes may well derive from Espronceda and Zorrilla. The abulia too was characteristic of Machado* s generation in Spain, as Salinas notes. But the same obsession with spiritual impotence was also typical of French Decadent and Symbolist literature, as was the pose of aristocratic disdain. The symbols of the mystic rose and the sun in eclipse, as well as the image of the poet abandoning himself to the waves, have been shown to be common in French literature, and the close parallels with Verlaine's "Langueur" and "L'Angoisse" cannot be ignored. It is worth noting that Machado claimed to 35 have written "Adelfos" in Paris in 1899, where he was, as Unamuno said, "baptised" with the current of French poetry. "Adelfos" i s , then, a poem on a typically Spanish subject, the choice of which may have been dictated partly by French influences on Machado at the time i t was written, and the treatment of the subject is largely, although not entirely, French. 34. The origin of the black sun in Nerval and Hugo is the sun entering on an eclipse, such as is to be seen in the background of Durer's "Melancholia" a painting that was very popular with both Romantics and Decadents. 35* In Unos versos. p.59, and in Obras completas I (Madrid, 1922). "Antifona" (p.19) i s perhaps the most old-fashioned poem i n Alma, with i t s r h e t o r i c a l Romantic s t y l e and elaborate s i m i l e . Jose* Moreno V i l l a pointed out i t s resemblance t o Espronceda's "A J a r i f a , en una orgf a " . There i s another p a r a l l e l i n Manuel Reina's "Reina de l a orgi a " , which was 37 influenced by Espronceda's poem and al s o by Baudelaire* I t i s possible that the phrase "tu hermosura podrida" was suggested to Machado by Baudelaire's "Une Charogne" (p.34). Sentimentality about p r o s t i t u t e s was a phenomenon o f Romanticism that had been revived by the Decadents, who chose t o consider the demi-mondaine as a p o e t i c and t r a g i c f i g u r e i n the l i n e descending from Dumas's La Dame aux  camelias. I t should be remembered that the young women with whom Machado, C a r r i l l o and t h e i r f r i e n d s consorted would have been mostly a r t i s t s ' models or g i r l s o f dubious r e s p e c t a b i l i t y , since virtuous g i r l s did not associate with penniless young Bohemians. C a r r i l l o ' s Bohemia sentimental (1898) contains numerous references t o the li k e n e s s between g r i s e t t e s and po e t s , s u f f i c i e n t to make one suspect that i t was a hackneyed comparison. "Las consideramos como s i fuesen nuestras hermanas . . . Viven como nosotros, vendiendo b e l l e z a , haciendo s e n t i r . . . Sus cuerpos proporcionan tantas sensaciones este'ticas como nuestros l i b ros" (.68). ":J E l alma de l a cortesanal . . . Es un alma de poeta." (p.124). "Cantares" (p.20), the only poem on an Andalusian t o p i c i n Alma, i s considered by Dr. Brotherston to be one o f Machado's poems that absorbed t r a d i t i o n a l elements and made out of them something new (p.132). But i t shares with "La guit a r r a habla" those f a u l t s which Dr. Brotherston himself pointed out, that i s , the poet remains a l o o f from h i s subject and t r i v i a l i s e s i t by considering i t e x o t i c . There are l i n e s of great beauty i n "Cantares" -36. Prologue to Espronceda's Obras poeticas I (Madrid, I 9 2 3 ) , p.18. 37. Pco. A g u i l a r P i n a l , La obra poe'tica de Manuel Reina (Madrid, I 9 6 8 ) , p.89. 50 "Algo que acaricia y algo que desgarra./La prima que canta y el bordon que llora./Y el tiempo callado se va hora tras hora" - which show real knowledge and love of flamenco music. But the line "son dejos fatales de la raza mora" betray a romanticising attitude resulting in an objectivity and distancing which lessen the impact of the poem. Another element from Spanish Romantic poetry was noted by Jose* Moreno Vi l l a in the prologue to Espronceda's Obras  completas, (p.19), where he equates Machado*s lines "No importa la vida, que ya esvta perdida./Y, despues de todo, cque* es eso, l a vida?" with Espronceda's "Y s i caigo/ <; que es la vida?/Por perdida ya la df." from "La cancion del pirata" (p.132). The light, Impressionistic technique of "Encajes" (p.2l) make i t one of the most Verlainian of Machado's poems. It is very like the Romances sans. Paroles which are ful l of short lines and phrases linked without verbs in a stream of images. "Walcourt" (p.197) is an obvious precedent with its gaiety and insouciance and its puntos suspensivos. The cynicism of "| Siempre amoresl j Nunca amori" is to be found more in Verlaine's later work. "Conseil Falot" (p.372) is similar in tone." "Brule aux yeux des femmes,/ Mais garde ton coeur/Et crains la langueur/ Des epithalames!" or "Chante dans le vent/Et cueille la rosel" No one poem by Verlaine can be said to be the forerunner of "Encajes"yet i t is nevertheless a most Verlainian poem. "Madrigal" (appended here p. 196), the poem which follows "Encajes" in a l l editions of Alma until 1910, is in metre and rhyme highly irregular and original. It seems to be the ironic reverse of the end of Verlaine's "L'Angoisse" (p.64), "mon ame pour d'affreux naufrages appareille". The image of the sea as death is a common one in poetry; the most famous example, is , of course, from Jorge Manrique's Cop las. But this image of the soul as a l i t t l e boat Machado shares most notably with his brother Antonio. Number II of "Preludio" from 'Del camino' (p.680) has a similar image of death, although a gentler one without shipwreck or bitterness - "y encontraras una manana 51 pura/amarrada t u barca a o t r a r i b e r a . " The s i m i l a r i t y between the two poems l i e s i n the image of the l i t t l e boat and the death by d a y l i g h t . But Antonio i s resigned and g r a t e f u l , Manuel savage and i r o n i c a l . Nature i s , i f not fearsome as i n "Los dfas s i n s o l " , i n d i f f e r e n t and death i s not a s p l e n d i d and t r a g i c venture, as i t i s i n B a u d e l a i r e ' s "Le Voyage" (p . l 6 o ) , o r V e r l a i n e ' s "L'Angoisse" (p.64) but a s t u p i d and unavoidable a n t i c l i m a x . A d i f f e r e n t use of the image i s to be found i n Dari'o's "La d u l z u r a d e l sCngelus" from Cantos de Vida y esperanza (p.655) i n the l i n e s "mientras e l pobre esquife en l a noche cerrada/va en l a s h o s t i l e s o las huerfano de l a aurora," which c l e a r l y d e r i v e s from V e r l a i n e ' s "Birds i n the n i g h t " (p.204), " j e s u i s l e Pauvre Navire/Qui court dem&te parmi l a tempete/Et. . . /Pour l'engouffre-ment en p r i a n t s'apprSte." This i s a more t r a d i t i o n a l and dramatic v e r s i o n of the t o p i c , which Machado d e l i b e r a t e l y r e j e c t s . As i n " E l j a r d i n g r i s " he has taken a p o e t i c commonplace and i n v e r t e d i t i r o n i c a l l y . " C a s t i l l a " (p.22) describes one of the most moving i n c i d e n t s i n E l Poema de  Mao C i d . Dr. Brotherston has demonstrated how some of t h e d e s c r i p t i o n was i n f l u e n c e d by Leconte de L i s l e ' s poem on the C i d "L'Accident de don I f l i g o " , and has i n d i c a t e d the p a r a l l e l between D a r f o 1 s "Cosas d e l C i d " from Prosas  profanas (p.606) and " C a s t i l l a " . C e r t a i n l y Machado's l i n e s d e s c r i b i n g the g i r l , "muy de*bil y muy blanca",. i s s t r i k i n g l y s i m i l a r to Darfo's "muy dulce y muy blanca." But i t should be emphasised t h a t Machado f o l l o w s the Poema very c l o s e l y , and h i s "nina" i s a young c h i l d , as i n the e p i c , whereas D a r f o 1 s poem, i n s p i r e d by Barbey d ' A u r e v i l l y , has nothing t o do w i t h the Poema and p o r t r a y s a g i r l who i s n e a r l y a woman encountering the C i d i n a meadow. The c l e a r i n f l u e n c e o f Leconte de L i s l e i n " C a s t i l l a " , and the f a c t t h a t Heredia a l s o wrote a 'Romancero' on the C i d , may i n d i c a t e that France taught Machado t o look a f r e s h at h i s own h e r i t a g e . However, i t must be remembered t h a t the Duque de R i v a s and Z o r r i l l a , whom Machado admired so much, had also w r i t t e n poems about the C i d , so that Machado had Spanish precedents f o r 5 2 "Castilla". The closeness of his poem to the epic seems to indicate that the latter was indeed the original inspiration for "Castilla", which is in its total effect entirely Spanish. The next poem, "Felipe IV" ( p . 2 3 ) , which opens the section of Alma entitled 'Museo', i s , together with "Adelfos", Machado's best known poem and has been much commented on. DsCmaso Alonso speaks of its "ultima elegancia •ZQ inmovil de lo espanol", and i t has much in common with sonnets of the 39 // Spanish Golden Age. (( For example, Argensola's "Su cabello en holanda generosa" shows a similar classic simplicity and richness of pictorial detail.) The subject of "Felipe IV" is clearly one of the many Vela'zxjuez portraits of the king. Valbuena Prat calls the picture described "un posible Vela*zquez de Felipe IV",^ while Dr. Brotherston observes that in none of Vela"zquez*s known portraits of Philip IV does the king hold a glove: he suggests that Machado invented this detail to focus our attention on the hands (p.18). No c r i t i c , to my knowledge, has noted the source of the glove. However, in the main Velazquez room in the Prado there ard two portraits which together provide the composite picture described by Machado. "Felipe IV vestido de negro", number 1.182, is obviously the main source of the poem. The king is dressed in black from head to foot, but holds in his limp right hand a folded paper...The other painting, number 1.188, is of the Infante don Carlos, brother to Philip and extraordinarily like him, who in this picture holds a suede 4 - 1 glove in exactly the way described in Machado* s poem. A comparison of 3 8 . "Ligereza y gravedad", p . 5 1 . 3 9 . I am indebted for this insight to Dr. Arsenio Pacheco Ransanz. 40.. In Historia de l a literatura espanola III (Barcelona, 1 9 5 0 ) , p . 3 9 0 . 4 1 . F.J. Sanchez Canton, in his Guide to the Prado Museum (Madrid, 1 9 6 7 ) , P . 3 9 states that Velazquez's original design for thfe portrait of the prince c. 1 6 2 7 , shows him in the same stance as that of the king, whose portrait was painted c. 1 6 2 5 . This shows how similar were the two subjects, even to the painter. 53 the two portraits, which are of approximately the same size and have been in the Prado since 1827, shows how easy it was for Machado to put the glove in the king's hand. Both men are pale,, with remarkably similar faces and hands, and golden hair of exactly the same colour, length and style. The paintings differ in that the king wears unrelieved black, has a gentler expression and holds a paper, while the prince wears a gold chain, looks rather more arrogant, and is carrying a hat and the glove. It has already been remarked in this study that Machado loved paintings and was an assiduous frequenter of museums.^ "Felipe IV" is based on the Vela'zquez portraits in the Prado, which he obviously knew and loved, and in that sense is a truly Spanish poem, quite aside from its clear descendance from sonnets of the siglo de oro. But there is also an element of French influence, both in the choice of subject and in the treatment of i t , which cannot be ignored. Diez-Canedo pointed out the closeness of "FelipelV" to Verlaine's "Cesar Borgia" (p.88) J*"^ and confirming this view Dr. Brotherston shows the similarity between Machado's prose translation of "Ce*sar Borgia" and"Felipe IV", especially in the lines "cabellos negros y el negro terciopelo/contrastan, entre el oro suntuoso de la tarde,/con la palidez bella y mate de su rostro." "Ce'sar Borgia" comes from Verlaine* s most Parnassian collection, Poemes Saturniens, and is really a pastiche of Parnassian models. We have shbwr! that paintings were a favourite subject with the Parnassians, and Dr. Brotherston notes that before Machado the Spanish-American Modernists Guillermo Valencia and Julian del Casal had written sonnets on paintings in the Parnassian manner. He're'dia, Samain and Re'gnier wrote a number of poems 42. In ch. I. p.32 43. In "Poesxas escogidas" Revista de libros (1913), PP«5-6, and Brotherston P.98. 54-" F e l i p e IV v e s t i d o de negro", by Velazquez, number 1.182, i n the Prado Museum. 55 "El Infante Don Carlos", by Velazquez, number 1.188, in the Prado Museum. 5 6 i n t h i s genre. Machado1s treatment o f h i s subject oould also be c a l l e d Parnassian i n i t s c l a s s i c a l d i s t a n c i n g , serene mood and c l e a r , powerful 44 imagery. There i s another element i n "Felipe IV" which i s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of French Symbolist l i t e r a t u r e , and that i s the preoccupation with empires i n d e c l i n e . (This topic has been mentioned i n connection with "Adelfos" ( p . 4 6 ) . One of the most i n f l u e n t i a l poems of th e Decadent era was Samain's "Mon ame est une infante" (Au J a r d i n p . 1 5 ) , which describes a Spanish princess i n the E s c o r i a l . She too i s pale with blue eyes: "Rien n'emeut d'un f r i s s o n l'eau pale de ses yeux." The f o l l o w i n g l i n e s from Samain's poem may have r e c a l l e d t o Machado the black v e l v e t , tones of o l d gold and b e a u t i f u l hands i n Velazquez1 ,s p o r t r a i t of P h i l i p IV, as w e l l as the dream of l o s t empires i m p l i c i t i n any study of that king of Spain's decadence: "Les p o r t r a i t s de Van Dyck aux beaux doigts longs et p u r s , PSles en velours n o i r s u r l ' o r v i e i l l i des murs, En leurs grands a i r s de'funts l a font rever d'empire." In con c l u s i o n , the t o p i c of "Felipe IV" i s Spanish, but the choice of that topic and Machado's treatment of i t may w e l l have been p a r t i a l l y suggested by French models. "O l i v e r e t t o de Fermo" (p.24), s u b t i t l e d 'Del tiempo de l o s M e d i c i ' , i s a fashionably decadent and rather t r i v i a l poem. In structure i t i s very l i k e Heredia's "Me'daille" (p.40), which i s a l s o about a Renaissance I t a l i a n of many g i f t s , Sigismondo Pandolpho Malatesta. Heredia's poem i s also d i v i d e d i n t o groups of three verbs: "Son p r o f i l d'epervier v i t , s'accuse ou r e c u l e " , and "B'ttit un temple, f i t 1'amour et le chanta". Here'dia celebrates the Malatesta as " l e m e i l l e u r " , capable of l a y i n g waste a whole countryside, making love and composing poems, just as Machado admires O l i v e r e t t o f o r being 44. See Martino, Parnasse. p.73» 57 at the same time an excellent assassin, a handsome man who inspired love and a sonneteer. "la Corte" (p.24), a sonnet of impeccable Parnassian antecedents, has been cited by Carlos Bousono as an example of "el arte de la sugerencia en el modemismo". He equates i t , quite rightly, with Rimbaud's "Le Dormeur du val" , but goes on to say that this technique of suggesting things without saying them outright is a Symbolist technique developed in Prance "alrededor 45 de la e*poca verlainiana". But, ini fact, although Rimbaud is called a precursor of the Symbolist movement, the poem in question, written in 1870 when he was sixteen and Parnassianism was at its zenith, is very untypical of his later verse, and is an accomplished example of the genre perfected by Heredia, the Parnassian sonnet with a surprise ending, already discussed (p. 42 ). So in "Le Dormeur du val" we discover in the last line that the young man sleeping so peacefully with a smile on his face has two red holes in his breast, that i s , he is dead. In He're'dia's most famous sonnet "Antoine et Cleopatre" (p.33), the last line shows Antony seeing in Cleopatra's eyes a vision of the future disaster of Actium. This technique is more Parnassian than Symbolist, and Machado uses i t brilliantly in "La corte", where i t dawns upon us in the last line that i t is the queen who has summoned the count to an assignation. Like "Antoine et Cle'opatre", "La corte", which was originally published in Eleotra on April 13 1901 under the title "Villamediana (Retrato dd la v epoca)", gains in irony i f the reader knows the story of the courtiers. The count of Villamediana was a poet, gambler and duellist at the court of Philip IV, who was murdered at the age of forty, probably on suspicion of making love to the queen. So, as in that of He're'dia's sonnet, the last line carries a presage of disaster. 45. In TeorJa de la expresioh poe'tica (Madrid, 1962), pp.92, and 97. 58 "Oriente" (p.25), e n t i t l e d " ^ l o r e s " i n the f i r s t e d i t i o n , could, as Brotherston remarks, f i t e a s i l y i f t r a n s l a t e d i n t o the s e c t i o n on Antony and Cleopatra of Heredia's Les Trophees. (p.96). Machado1s i s another sonnet with the v i t a l information withheld u n t i l the l a s t l i n e , and again i t i s on a topic dear to French poets. Samain too wrote several of these sonnets, four of which are about b e a u t i f u l , destructive queens - Medea, Cleopatra and Helen - who i n the paintings and poetry of the Decadent era were with Salome the type o f female beauty most celebrated. The c r u e l t y and implied sensuality of Machado's queen i s much c l o s e r t o Samain's Medea and Cleopatra (pp.83 and 85 of Au .jardin) than to He'redia, although both Machado and Samain had learned the form from him. Verlaine too had essayed t h i s genre i n two c l e v e r p a s t i c h e s , "La Princesse Berenice" (p.370) and the famous "Langueur" (p.370). Two i n t e r e s t i n g p a r a l l e l s to Machado's image of Cleopajjra s t r i p p i n g the pet a l s from flowers are to be found i n Dubus's "Le Sang des roses" (p.69) i n the l i n e s "en des nonchaloirs c r u e l s d'orientales,/Bien v i t e , e l l e s en ont arrache' l e s p e t a l e s " , and i n Darfo's "Era un a i r e suave..." from Prosas  profanas (p.54-9), "La d i v i n a E u l a l i a . . ./ una f l o r destroza con sus tersas manos." The f i r s t poem under the sub-heading 'Estatuas de sombra', " E l e u s i s " (p.26) i s considered by Dr. Brotherston to be Machado* s profoundest poem. He compares i t to Darfo's "Divagacidn" i n i t s c u l t u r a l c a t h o l i c i t y (pp.78-9)• The t i t l e he takes t o r e f e r to the pilgrimage of b e l i e v e r s to the shrine of Ceres /J3ic7 a t E l e u s i s , there to be comforted and f i n d peace (pp.112-113) . Such an i n t e r e s t i n o l d r e l i g i o n s and legends i s t y p i c a l of the Symbolist p e r i o d , and Michaud describes i t i n a way which i s very applicable to " E l e u s i s " : "the r e t u r n to the fabulous s e t t i n g s , p r i m i t i v e legends and ancient t r a d i t i o n s o f f o l k l o r e marks a deliberate e f f o r t towards deeper t r u t h s , a surer awareness of hidden r e a l i t i e s . I t i s no longer a recourse to the i n d i v i d u a l subconscious but to the c o l l e c t i v e un-conscious, t o the race memory and the legends i n which i t f i n d s expression. . . In the depths of the f o r e s t s , i n which our reason seems to lose i t s way, there l i e s the Sleeping Beauty, i n other words, our s o u l . 4-6. Guy Michaud, Le Symbolisme, quoted by J u l l i a n , Dreamers o f Decadence, p.56. 59 It i s noteworthy that the mysteries of Eleusis, which had a sexual s i g n i f i cance,^ were referred to by Gomez Ca r r i l l o i n a t o t a l l y unspiritual context: "en l a colina sagrada. . . l a Eleusis moderna de los misterios carnalesi Montmartre". This is not to imply that Machado was using the symbol of Eleusis i n the same way, but i t indicates that i t was a commonly used image at the time. Paul Serusier, a Symbolist painter who lived i n Paris then and was one of the Nabis, a group of painters concerned mainly with mystical and religious images, painted i n 1895 a canvas called "Les Mysteres d'Eleusis" which shows a dim robed figure at the portico of a temple at night, beckoning to crowds of women holding torches. It i s a mysterious and impressive picture. The distant figure of the priestess could be Demeter herself calling the believers to follow her, as Machado* s soul does i n the poem. This guiding figure plays a similar part to the angel i n Antonio's 'Galerias' number IV (p.718), the good angel who asks him "£Vendras conmigo a ver e l alma?" and leads him into the "secretas galerias del alma, los caminos de los suenos". And i n "Renacimiento", number XXVTI of 'Galerias' (p.732), the hand that leads him through dreams i s a mother's hand. In Manuel's poem his soul follows the mother goddess back into the past, to find out where he came from and what he i s . In Antonio's the angel, a mother figure, takes him to find his soul. But really the search is the same and 4-9 both poets state f a i r l y unequivocally i n their other poetry that the search w i l l only end i n death, which w i l l perhaps show the answer. 4-7. As far as i s known, these consisted partly i n a re-enactment of the Demeter/Persephone/Pluto story, and were connected with f e r t i l i t y r ites for the harvest and therefore with a notion of rebirth. Antonio Machado in "Olivo del camino" from Nuevas canciones, refers at length to Demeter and the harvest. 4-8. In Sensaciones de Paris y de Madrid (Paris, 1900), p.24-9. 4-9. See Manuel's Ars moriendi, nos. I, III and VI (pp.185-6). 60 Manuel, like Hugo and Baudelaire, is not sure that there is an answer. "Eleusis" is in some ways like Hugo's "Horror" and "0e que dit la Bouche d'Ombre", poems popular with the Symbolists. The goddess figure in "Eleusis" resembles the white lady, Hugo's guiding spirit who leads him to the abyss, and Machado's journey with its ambiguous ending recalls the end of "Horror": "Toujours la nuitl Jamais l'azurl Jamais l'aurorei Nous marchons. Mous n'avons point fait un pas encore I . . . Nous distinguons dans 1'ombre une immense statue, Et nous l u i disons: Jehovahi" Hugo's reference to the statue in the shadows may also have some bearing on the sub-heading 'Estatuas de sombra', although Dr. Brotherston cites a passage from RodcJ's Ariel which could equally well be the source of the image (pp.107-8). I find "Eleusis" an unsuccessfully ambitious, even pretentious, poem, rather than a profound one. The connection between the poem and the ^leusinian cult is tenuous and difficult to establish. The historical references are trite and unsatisfying, and the poem does not succeed in conveying the sense of mystery achieved by Be*cquer and Antonio Machado in similar poems about the 50 ^ soul and its search. The next poem, "Lirio" (p.28), is with "Gerineldos, el paje", which has the same theme, one of the most accomplished poems in Alma. Dr. Brotherston has pointed out that the source is the ballad in Duran's Romancero about the Infanta Enildas and the king's page Gerineldos (p.111). This ballad has always been one of the most widely known, and is s t i l l sung in popular versions 51 throughout Spain. In a l l versions of the ballad, the Infanta invites 50. In Rimas XIV, LXVI, LXXI, LXXEV, and LXXHI, and in "El rayo de luna": and in Antonio's poems mentioned above. 51. See R. Menendez Pidal, Flor nueva de romances viejos (Buenos Aires, 1938), p.72; Manuel Alvar, E l romancero viejo y tradicional (Mexico, 1 9 7 l ) , pp.83 and 197-204; and Jose' Maria de Cossfo, Romances de tradicion oral (Buenos Aires, 1947), pp.47-9. 61 Gerineldos to her bed, and he at f i r s t demurs, thinking she mocks him,, for he i s only a servitor. He comes to her at night and the king, discovering them asleep, puts a sword between them. The princess awakes and,, realising that they have been discovered, sends Gerineldos out into the gardens to bide from the king. But the latte r encounters the page and asks him why he looks so sad and pale. Gerineldos answers that he has been picking roses and l i l i e s , and that the fragrance of one of the roses has taken away his colour. In " L i r i o " Gerineldos is seen wandering i n the gardens. Dr. Brotherston shows, i n a parallel too convincing to ignore, how Teodoro i n Lope's E l perro del hortelano, a play Machado loved and which he adapted for the stage, wanders seeking peace (pp.111-112). It is also possible that, as Brotherston 52 states, " L i r i o " i s based on the c a r r e r i l l a appended to the ballad by Duran, i n which Gerineldos i s seen roajiiing the gardens before the Infanta approaches him. But as "L i r i o " speaks of Gerineldos's shadowed eyes being the result of the queen's kisses, i t seems to me more li k e l y that the ballads, not the c a r r e r i l l a , are the source, and that in " L i r i o " Gerineldos is wandering i n the garden to escape from the king. The adjective mustio, used by Machado to describe the page's eyes, i s to be found i n a version of the ballad from Segovia, recorded by Mene'ndez Pidal i n Flor nueva de romances viejos (p.7l) ;"<"Ddnde vienes, Gerineldo,/tan mustio y descolorido?" The sexual symbolism i n the ballad version i s obvious: the rose is Enildas herself, who has made him pale. But i n " L i r i o " Machado has made two changes from the ballads: the Infanta has become a queen, and Gerineldos i s the l i l y of the t i t l e . These variations are significant, for 53 both the predatory queen and the symbol of the l i l y were leitmotifs of Symbolist and Decadent poetry. 52. Biblioteca de autores espanoles X (Madrid, 1859), p.177. 53« See this ch. p. 58 on Medea, Cleopatra, Helen and Salome. 6 2 By making Enildas a queen, Machado suggests that the page i s her v i c t i m , whom she has worn out-with her d e s i r e s . The paintings o f Moreau, Bume-Jones, and Alma-Tadema were f u l l of ephebes, b e a u t i f u l youths, slaves and v i c t i m s a l l of them, abused by f a t a l queens. The medieval theme too was much i n vogue, and almost t r i t e : i n C a r r i l l o1 s Bohemia sentimental the poet Ble'mont writes about s e n s i t i v e troubadours, daring pages and chatelaines dying of love (p.94-). The l i l y symbolised the s o u l , and was the most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c image of 54-Symbolist and Decadent poetry and p a i n t i n g . Dr. Brotherston quotes Villaespesa's "Neuro'ticas", but i t i s just as probable t h a t Machado's use of the symbol was suggested by the French poets, notably Samain, whose use of the image w i l l be mentioned i n connection with "Gerineldos, e l p a j e " . There are l i l i e s i n the b a l l a d sources, where they have aspecJCfcaTjf sexual connotation, but i n " L i r i o " the flower i s d i r e c t l y equated wi t h Gerineldos, who i s " c a s i todo alma." The notion that the soul can wear out the f l e s h i s of course common i n l y r i c poetry - as i n Byron's "The soul outwears the breast" - and i t was a favou r i t e concept with the Decadents. V e r l a i n e , a l b e i t i n an i r o n i c poem, "Lettre" ( p . 1 1 7 ) , makes a l o v e r say "mon corps fai s a n t place a mon ame,/Je deviendrai fant&me". Arthur Symons,. discussing the drawings o f Simeon Solomon the Decadent p a i n t e r , says "they have brooded among ghosts of passions 5 5 u n t i l they have become the ghosts themselves", and Octave Mirbeau commented 5 6 s a r c a s t i c a l l y on the b r u i s e d eyes i n Burne-Jones's p i c t u r e s . An a r t i c l e 54-. See J u l l i a n , Dreamers. pp.4-2 and 1 7 3 - 4 - . The l i l y symbolises the soul i n the paintings of the pre-Raphaelites, Puvis de Chavannes and Moreau, and i n the poetry of V i e l e - G r i f f i n , Vale'ry, Lafargue and countless other writers.. 5 5 » In From Toulouse-Lautrec to Rodin (London 1 9 2 9 ) ; c i t e d by John Milner Symbolists and Decadents (London. 1 9 7 1 ) , p . 2 0 . 5 6 . C i t e d i n J u l l i a n , Esthetes et Magicians ( P a r i s , 1 9 6 9 ) , P . 5 3 . 63 on the Symbolist e x h i b i t i o n of 1893, p u b l i s h e d in L'Academie F r a n g a i s e , speaks of faces frozen in ecstasy, where t h e s o u l murders the f l e s h . The l a b y r i n t h of myrtles i n which Gerineldos loses h i m s e l f i s the web of love i n which he i s enmeshed, f o r the myrtle i s the f l o w e r s a c r e d to 57 Venus. He i s l o s t i n t h i s l a b y r i n t h from which there i s no escape. " L i r i o " was o r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d (in E l e c t r a 190l) as "Humo", and the o r i g i n a l t i t l e suggests to me a connection w i t h number IX of V e r l a i n e ' s ' A r i e t t e s Oublie'es' (p»196). The images of smoke, mist and the p a l e t r a v e l l e r whose hopes are dead are s i m i l a r , and the s o f t 'm' and 'b' sounds of "1'ombre des arbres dans l a r i v i e r e embrumeeAfeurt ccmme de l a fumee" are echoed i n the l i n e s " l o s morados cercos/de sus ojos mustios/dos i d i l i o s muertos" and the 'b's of "besos" and " l a b e r i n t o " . I n i t s d e l i c a c y and suggestiveness, w i t h the a r r e s t i n g f i n a l image, " L i r i o " i s one of Machado's most p e r f e c t achievements. I t i s c l e a r that the romances are the source of the poem, and provide i t s main f e a t u r e s . But i t i s undeniable t h a t the t o p i c of a page beloved of a queen was one popular i n France at the t u r n of the century, and t h a t Machado uses some of the symbols and conventions o f Decadent l i t e r a j t u r e and p a i n t i n g i n h i s treatment of an e s s e n t i a l l y Spanish theme. Dr. B r o t h e r s t o n has p o i n t e d out t h a t the precedent f o r " E l j a r d i n negro" (p..29) i s V i l l a e s p e s a ' s "Los murcielagos" (p.100), and the s i m i l a r i t y between the two poems i s too obvious to i g n o r e . But a number of elements i n the poem may a l s o be V e r l a i n i a n . The conversation between the two l o v e r s w i t h i t s d i s j o i n t e d phrases - "c.Te acuerdas?" - i s reminiscent of t h a t in "Colloque sentimentale" (p,12l)• The image of two c h i l d r e n huddled together r e c a l l s number IV of ' A r i e t t e s o u b l i e e s ' (p..l93): "Soyons deux enfan t s , soyons deux 57.. Dr. B r o t h e r s t o n s t a t e s t h a t Gerineldos escapes from the garden (p,112); I do not t h i n k the poem i m p l i e s t h i s . 64 jeunes f i l l e s / E p r i s e s de r i e n et de t o u t etonne'es/Qui s'en vont p§lir sous l e s chastes c h a r m i l l e s . " The s i n i s t e r evening i n "Nocturne p a r i s i e n " (p.83) contains three of t h e elements of " E l j a r d i n negro" i n s u c c e s s i v e l i n e s : the sun, i n s t e a d o f the moon, k i s s e s the s t a t u e , the dark bat wheels, and a l l sound ceases. The poetry of Samain, who took so much from V e r l a i n e , may have suggested the bat to both Machado and V i l l a e s p e s a . I n number VI o f "Heures d' ete'" (Au J a r d i n p.20) two l o v e r s are f r i g h t e n e d by a premonition: "Quelle est done, Ghere, sur nous deux,/Cette a i l e en s i l e n c e q u i passe?" Samain's poetry i s f u l l o f l o v e r s a t night-time. " E l e g i e " (Au J a r d i n p.30) has the same s e t t i n g as " E l j a r d i n negro".. "Les l i g n e s , l e s c o u l e u r s , l e s sons deviennent vagues" corresponds to " e l sonido duerme, e l c o l o r se ha muerto." The whole atmosphere of Machado 1 s poem, d e s p i t e Gonzalez Blanco's a s s e r t i o n 58 that i t resembles M a e t e r l i n c k , i s V e r l a i n i a n , w i t h i t s gardens, t r e e s , f o u n t a i n s , s t a t u e s , the s i l e n c e and the mystery of f o l i a g e a t n i g h t . "Fantasia, de Puck" (p.30) evinces the l a t e nineteenth century penchant 59 f o r f a i r i e s , who l i v e d i n " s e l v a s i d e a l e s " such as Jean L o r r a i n ' s La Foret  bleue. Puck i s of course an E n g l i s h f a i r y , and i t was the p r e - E a p h a e l i t e s , Wilde and i l l u s t r a t o r s l i k e W a l t e r Crane who made f a i r i e s f a s h i o n a b l e . Puck, Queen Mab and her t r a i n are t o be found i n the short s t o r i e s of C a t u l l e Mendes before those o f D a r f d . But the phrases "una marcha t r i u n f a l " and " c o r t e j o " probably i n d i c a t e a debt to Dario's "Marcha t r i u n f a l " i n the t e c h n i c a l sense, and t o some o f the s t o r i e s i n A z u l . 58. I n Los contemporaneos ( P a r i s , 1908), p.114. 59. See M a r t i n o , Parnasse. p.163. "Les fees et l e s magiciens se repandirent en troupe dans l e s r e c u e i l s de poemes et dans l e s pieces de t h e S t r e . M e r l i n et V i v i a n e menerent l a sarabande, entrainant l e u r s u i t e l e cortege fantomatique des s o r c i e r s , des mages, des n a i n s , des geants, des gnomes, des e l f e s . " 65 V e r l a i n e d i d not w r i t e about f a i r i e s , but " F a n t a s i a de Puck" i s more reminiscent o f h i s "Nuit de Walpurgis c l a s s i q u e " (p.7l) and the prologue t o J a d i s (p.319) than of any o f the f a i r y s t o r i e s . The former i s a d e s c r i p t i o n o f a witches' Sabbath of ghosts t a k i n g p l a c e i n a Watteau garden. V e r l a i n e asks "Ces spectres a g i t e s , sont-ce done l a pensee/bu poete i v r e , ou son r e g r e t , ou son remords?" Puck's t r a i n i s made up of doubts and s u s p i c i o n s , memories, thoughts and dreams. V e r l a i n e ' s phantoms disappear at dawn as do Machado's: "Et s'evaporant a. 1 ' i n s t a n t / . . . ou l'aube e t e i n t l ' u n apres l ' a u t r e / L e s c o r s , en s o r t e q u ' i l ne r e s t e absoluement/Plus r i e n - absoluement - qu'un j a r d i n de Len&tre." Machado's breaking dawn sees only a bubble on the sea and a face v a n i s h i n g . The idea o f the p r o c e s s i o n o f wickednesses may have been suggested by the prologue t o V e r l a i n e ' s J a d i s (p.319) 5 "En r o u t e , mauvaise t r o u p e i / . . . P a r t e z , p e t i t s d e s e s p o i r s , / P e t i t s : ' e s p o i r s , douleurs, j o i e s , / . . . A l l e z , . „60 a e g n somma." " G e r i n e l d o s , e l p a j e " i s , l i k e " L i r i o " , based on the b a l l a d s o f E n i l d a s and G e r i n e l d o s . I n t h i s poem t h e page i s seen wandering near t o the c a s t l e , and t h i s can be i n t e r p r e t e d i n s e v e r a l ways. I f "Gerineldos, e l pa j e " i s based on the c a r r e r i l l a r e f e r r e d t o e a r l i e r , t h en Machado i n t e r p r e t s i t as meaning that G e r i n e l d o s , a l r e a d y enamoured of the p r i n c e s s , was wandering l o v e -s i c k i n the gardens when she saw him and i n v i t e d him t o h e r bed. An a l t e r n a t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s from the b a l l a d s themselves, and i n that case the poem may be d e s c r i b i n g Gerineldos keeping the rendezvous the i n f a n t a has made w i t h him f o r the n i g h t : "Tres v u e l t a s da a su p a l a c i o / y o t r a s tantas a l C a s t i l l o " . But 60. There i s a l s o a p o s s i b l e p a r a l l e l i n the Spanish b e l i e f i n the hueste a n t i g u a , and i n the myth, common t o many European c o u n t r i e s , o f the troops of f a i r i e s o r demons who s t e a l people away. An E n g l i s h v e r s i o n o f t h i s i s "Thomas the Rhymer" and a Scandinavian one Peer Gynt. See a r t i c l e by Leo S p i t z e r , i n H i s p a n i c Review 23 ( J u l y , 1955), no. 3, pp.773-187. 66 i f the ballads are the origin, there is no explanation for the page's shadowed eyes before he keeps his tryst with the queen, and so the carerilla seems the more likely source. In "Gerineldos, el pa je", then, the page is dying of love for the queen before she notices him, whereas "Lirio" is a description of Gerineldos 6l afterwards, worn out by her love. The same elements are to be found in this second poem - the rings round the page's eyes and the myrtles - but this time the shadowed eyes and the lily-like pallor are the result of un-fulf i l l e d desire, and the idyll in his eyes is not yet dead. The queen sees him and, i t is implied, falls in love with his lil y - l i k e form in silk clothes, unarmed. Samain too describes in "Une" (Au Jardin p.79) a predatory queen who "brule d'un regard lourd, ou couvent des luxures/L'Ume vierge du lys qui se meurt dans ses doigts." And in "Ele'gie" (p.35) the lover says to his beloved "que mon fime soit. . . Comme un lys fidele et pale a ta ceinture". The "alma de nardo" is an echo of "Adelfos", where i t also implies sensuality. Plucking flowers in gardens and olives inc:orchards is the common symbol for sexual conquest in ballads, and the "rosas y li r i o s " of the romance are certainly used here by Machado to suggest this. But the parallels with Decadent poetry are also clear, as they are in "Lirio". Machado's achievement in "Gerineldos, el paje" is to have combined the symbolism and style of the old ballads with the more refined and decadent taste of his own time. The sonnet "Wagner" (p.32), is another poem that would be more appropriately placed in the sub-section 'Museo' , for i t too is a piece of Parnassian description. The moonlight, the fountain and the silence are 61. Dr. Brotherston dismisses "Gerineldos, el paje" because of its overt sensuality, which he finds coarse (pp.110-11). It i s certainly not as haunting a poem as "Lirio", but it is far from coarse, and sexual desire is a perfectly legitimate subject for a poem, as for any work of art. 67 p o s s i b l y V e r l a i n i a n but the r e s t of t h e poem i s merely the v e r b a l equivalent o f the Wagnerian p a i n t i n g s o f H e n r i de Groux, Beardsley and Redon i n a p e r i o d which worshipped Wagner. The next sub-heading i s " M i n i a t u r a s " . I t s f i r s t poem, " F i g u l i n a s " 62 (p.3k-), about a l i t t l e p r i n c e s s i n a Watteau p i c t u r e , i s a t t r i b u t a b l e t o the i n f l u e n c e o f Darfo's Prosas profanas according to Valbuena P r a t (p.389). Dr. B r o t h e r s t o n says i t c o u l d be suggested by V e r l a i n e or by Darfo, and p o i n t s t o the s i m i l a r i t y o f l i n e s from "Era un a i r e suave..." t o l i n e s from " F i g u l i n a s " (p.97, n . i ) . The p r i n c e s s might a l s o have been suggested by Da r f o 1 s "Sonatina". There i s no s i n g l e poem by V e r l a i n e t h a t might have i n s p i r e d " F i g u l i n a s " , but the l a d i e s i n " L ' A l l e e " (p.108) or "A l a promenade" (p.109), the marquise (Dsine i n "L'lmpe'nitence f i n a l e " (p.385) o r the coquettes i n Les Uns et l e s  Autres (p.334) c o u l d a l l have c o n t r i b u t e d . The l a s t l i n e s o f " F i g u l i n a s " are c u r i o u s l y s i m i l a r t o those by C a r r i l l o on another c u l t f i g u r e of t h e Symbolist epoch: " P i e r r o t ama, s u f r e , o d i a , goza y esperi, como todo e l mundo." I t i s p o s s i b l e that Machado 1 s p r i n c e s s " t r a v i e s a " i s , l i k e Darfo's E u l a l i a "maligna", another m a n i f e s t a t i o n of naughty"- Columbine and so a re p r e s e n t a t i v e o f a l l women, as P i e r r o t i s of a l l men. " V e r s a i l l e s " (p.33) derives e q u a l l y from V e r l a i n e , Darfo and Samain. M e t r i c a l l y i t stems from "Marcha t r i u n f a l " , and the second and t h i r d stanzas r e c a l l Darfcbpoem i n t h e i r s t a t e l y rhythm. But n e i t h e r "Era un a i r e suave..." nor anything e l s e i n Darfo p o r t r a y s the g e n t l y melancholy f a l l i n g of dusk on the f e t e galante as Machado le a r n e d i t from V e r l a i n e and Samain. 62. I have been unable t o f i n d any p a i n t i n g of a p r i n c e s s by Watteau. 63. I n Sensaciones p.65. 68 V e r s a i l l e s had become fashionable as a setting f o r poems since Robert de Montesquiou and Henri de Re'gnier s e t t l e d there and were inspired by i t s perspectives. The l a t t e r wrote a whole book of poems on V e r s a i l l e s , La Cite' desJSaux. Samain too wrote some of his best work on t h i s theme, and since he also learned from Verlaine, i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o be sure which of the two poets most influenced Machado's " V e r s a i l l e s " . Samain's " L ' l l e fortunee" (Au Jardin p.6l) portrays dusk f a l l i n g on Watteau!.s lovers i n much the same terms, while the four poems i n his 'Versailles' (Le Chariot pp.15-18) also describe the courtiers of Louis XIV. "Watteau" from the same book (p.52) shows the moon r i s i n g above the groups of lovers, and i t s f i r s t and l a s t stanzas are s i m i l a r i n technique to Machado's " V e r s a i l l e s " , especially i n the use of puntos suspensb/os. "Au-dessus des grands bois profonds L ' ^ t o i l e du berger s'allume... Croupes sur l'herbe dans l a brume... P i z z i c a t i des violons... Entre l e s mains, les mains s'attardent." Even Machado's rimes riches - galanteos, discreteos, camafeos - are also para l l e l e d by Samain's indecise, id e a l i s e and Cydalise. Verlaine's "A l a promenade" (p.109) and "Mandoline" (p.115) are also l i k e Machado's poem i n the descriptions of f l i r t i n g , the dresses, the soft colours and the fading day, and the fe e l i n g f o r sunset and dusk throughout Fe'tes galantes i s p e r f e c t l y captured i n " V e r s a i l l e s " . Luis Cernuda, i n his examination of Modernism, states that no Modernist succeeded i n writing l i k e Verlaine. "Basta comparar los poemillos de Fetes  galantes donde. . . todo es sugerencia y matiz, con l a exageracidh y f a l t a de gusto de "Era un aire suave..."; los temas podra*n ser equivalentes, pero l o s resultados . . . son bien desiguales."^ 4* Cernuda does not consider 64. Estudios sobre poesia espanola contempora'nea (Madrid, 1957), p.81. 69 i n t h i s context the poetry of Machado, which he thinks i n s u b s t a n t i a l and a f f e c t e d (p.l55)« But i t i s my opinion that i n " V e r s a i l l e s " Machado came as near as any Spanish poet could t o the delicacy o f V e r l a i n e1 s s t y l e . "La noche blanca" (p.35) and "Copo de nieve" (p.36), which Dr. Brotherston suggests could have been influenced by Darfo*s "Caneion de carnaval" and " E l f aisan" (p.97), have l i t t l e i n common with e i t h e r of these poems. The only s i m i l a r elements are the names P i e r r o t and Columbine, the f a c t that P i e r r o t i s melancholy and that the moon i s i n love with him. These were themes of the period so ocommon as t o have become hackneyed, and n e i t h e r Darfo nor Machado had any monopoly of them. Darfo himself s a i d that "Cancicfn de carnaval'! was i n s p i r e d by B a n v i l l e , as too was " E l f a i s a n " . The vulgar cheerfulness of the former could not be f a r t h e r from Machado's w i s t f u l l i t t l e poems. The s t y l e and shape o f the poems are l i k e those of Verlaine i n "Pantomime" (p.107), "Pantoches" (p.114) and "Colombine" (p.118) of Fetes  galantes. Of these three i t i s the l a s t that shows Columbine as f a i t h l e s s , "une b e l l e enfant/Me'chante" leading her band o f dupes to d e s t r u c t i o n . The genesis of the melancholy P i e r r o t has already been described (p.17 )• Verlaine's sonnet " P i e r r o t " (p.320) was an i n f l u e n t i a l example of the genre and a n t i c i p a t e d Laforgue, who however i n i t i a t e d the love a f f a i r between P i e r r o t and the moon i n L' I m i t a t i o n de Notre Dame l a Lune. In "La noche blanca" the reference to the marquis and the.jewels with which he buys Columbine's love must have been to a commonplace of the pantomime. In C a r r i l l o * s Bohemia sentimental L u i s the poet writes pantomimes with P i e r r o t , Columbine and the Marquis, (not 'a' marquis), as stock f i g u r e s (p.63) and i n one of them P i e r r o t t r i e s to win Columbine with a s t o l e n necklace (pp. 102-3). L u i s , who plays P i e r r o t , t a l k s to the moon: "{Buenas noches, lunai . . . <£No me reconoces?. . . Soy yo, t u P i e r r o t , e l amante de Colombina". Columbine as painted by W i l l e t t e was "mala y buena, desinteresada y c o d i c i o s a , amorosa 70 y f r f a . . . y por encima de todo, caprichosa." That i s why, i n both Machado's poems, she betrays P i e r r o t but loves him a l l the same. The phrase " l a senora luna" i s from Laforgue but had become a commonplace.^ To sum up, i n Alma, therefore, there can be seen the influence o f other French poets besides V e r l a i n e , e s p e c i a l l y that o f Samain and He're'dia, both of whom were Parnassian i n form, although Samain was very much a Symbolist/ Decadent i n content. Jimenez, who comments on the influence of Samain on Machado i n d i c t i o n and c o n s t r u c t i o n ^ nevertheless i n s i s t s on the Symbolist, 68 as opposed t o the Parnassian, character of Alma. I t would seem that h i s motives f o r so doing were to emphasise that he and the Machados owed r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e t o the Parnassianism o f Darfo and the Latin-American Modernists but took t h e i r themes a n d i s t y j e f d i r e c t l y from Symbolism. In f a c t , Alma partakes of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of both schools. The V e r l a i n i a n poems which most a f f e c t e d Machado at t h i s time were the Poemes  Saturniens, as can be seen from the poems quoted. A number of these are s t i l l Parnassian i n s t r u c t u r e , i f not i n a t t i t u d e . But other Symbolist influences are c l e a r l y to be seen. A c a r e f u l reading of the poems has shown that the d i r e c t influence of Verlaine and o f Samain i s evident i n Alma, e s p e c i a l l y i n "Otono", "Melancolfa", 65. C a r r i l l o , E l alma encantadora de P a r f s , pp. 105-6. 66. I t should be noted that the P i e r r o t and Columbine theme occurs throughout the work o f Machado's f r i e n d C a r r i l l o i n both novels and essays. In 1899 he published Mara v i l l a s : Nove l a funambulesca which t e l l s the s t o r y of a P i e r r o t and a Columbine. In Sensaciones de Parfs y de Madrid (1900) he notes that "en Parfs no hay un teatro que no tenga una pantcmima en su r e p e r t o r i o , n i poeta drama'tico que no haya e s c r i t o una pantomima." A few years l a t e r appeared h i s h i s t o r y of French pantomime, E l teatro de  P i e r r o t ( P a r i s , I9O9). I t seems O t i o s e , t h e r e f o r e , t o seek i n two poems by Darfo precedents f o r t h i s theme i n Machado, who had l i v e d f o r two years i n P a r i s i n close a s s o c i a t i o n with C a r r i l l o and at a time when pantomime was at the height of f a s h i o n . 67. G u l l d n , Direcciones d e l modernismo, p.194. 68. La c o r r i e n t e . p.41. 71 " A d e l f o s " , "Encajes",, " F e l i p e IV" and " V e r s a i l l e s " . . Machado d i d not have to wait u n t i l 1902, as Dr. Brotherston suggests (p.-98) f o r Jimenez to introduce him to the poetry of Samain. Alma a l s o indicates that Machado was able to capture i n h i s poetry the hesitant and melancholy tone of Verlaine much more s u c c e s s f u l l y than Darxo, whose r i c h , a u t h o r i t a t i v e verse i s quite u n l i k e that of V e r l a i n e , although he a l s o took themes from him. I t i s possible that during h i s stay i n P a r i s Machado absorbed ideas from Darlo and learned about French poetry from him, although he could equally w e l l have learned from C a r r i l l o and h i s French acquaintance. But i t seems c l e a r that Machado, apart from one or two borrowings, developed independently of Dario and took h i s i n s p i r a t i o n from the o r i g i n a l sources o f French poetry, with no need o f intermediaries. 72 CHAPTER 3 ANALYSIS OP THEMES AND IMAGES IN CAPRICHOS The c o l l e c t i o n Caprichos was published i n 1905 and dedicated to Ruben Darfo. The l a t t e r repaid the compliment with an enthusiastic review of the book, published i n Opiniones (1906). "Sus versos parecen e s c r i t o s en franee's y desde luego puedo asegurar que son pensados en franco's. Es en muchos de sus poesfas - por ejemplo en Caprichos, de t i t u l o goyesco - un verleniano de l a ma's legftima procedencia. Con l o s elementos foneticos del c a s t e l l a n o ha llegado a hacer l o que en france's no han logrado muchos seguidores d e l prodigioso Fauno.""*" Of course by 1905 Machado was by no means alone i n using French techniques nor i n i m i t a t i n g V e r l a i n e . I have in d i c a t e d i n the in t r o d u c t i o n t o this study (p.1* ) that by 1903 Verlaine was well-known i n Spanish l i t e r a r y c i r c l e s . I t i s s u f f i c i e n t to glance at the correspondence between Jime'nez and the Martfnez S i e r r a s to see how much a l l three of them admired V e r l a i n e . They read h i s 2 poems aloud and presented copies of h i s books t o each other. Martinez S i e r r a ' s Teatro de ensueno (1905) contains a p l a y l e t c a l l e d "Saltimbanquis" w i t h a Puck, a P i e r r o t and a Columbine. Other plays of t h e i r s were e n t i t l e d Sueno de carnaval and Pantomima. Jime'nez i n a l e t t e r o f 1904- t o Darfo says "voy a hacer un l i b r o sobre V e r l a i n e , con un estudio de cada aspecto d e l gran poeta y traducciones en verso c a s t e l l a n o . " ^ The book was never w r i t t e n , but 1. In "Nuevos poetas de Espana", Obras I , p.415« 2. G u l l o n , Relaciones amistosas y l i t e r a r i a s entre Juan Ramon Jimenez y los  Martfnez S i e r r a (Puerto R i c o . 196l), pp.80 and 86. 3. Antonio O l i v e r Belmas, "Ausencia y presencia de Juan Ramon Jimenez en e l archivo de Ruben Darfo", Revista de a r c h i v o s , b i b l i o t e c a s ye museos LXTV (1958), 1, p.66. 73 Juan Ramon's debt to Verlaine can be seen c l e a r l y i n much of the e a r l y poetry and was f r e e l y admitted by him. Machado seems to owe nothing to h i s Spanish contemporaries i n t h i s respect. He was a forerunner and prime mover of the V e r l a i n e c u l t i n Spain and i t i s more l i k e l y that they learned from him. But i t was the prevalence of the themes and moods introduced from Prance by Darfo and Machado that must have provoked the f e r o c i t y of Andre's Gonzalez Blanco's review of Caprichos, and the p a t r o n i s i n g tone of Manuel A b r i l . Both ca s t i g a t e the very aspect of the book that Darfo most admired, that i s , i t s Prenchness. Blanco describes Machado's poetry as " b a n v i l l e s c o , f r f v o l o , p a r i s i e n " , and equates him s c o r n -f u l l y with Gomez C a r r i l l o i n h i s s u p e r f i c i a l eroticism (pp.93-4-)• He objects to the t i t l e Caprichos "por no c r e e r que e l arte sea un juego", and quotes with approval Unamuno's devastating comments on " l a voluptuosidad c e r e b r a l y e l erotismo morboso que se r e f l e j a n en buena parte de esa insoportable l i t e r a t u r a p a r i s i e n . " (pp.95-6) A b r i l reminds h i s readers that Alma "podfa pecar de reminiscencias francesas" and says that Caprichos s i n s even more i n this r e s p e c t , being f u l l of " i m i t a c i o n multiple" (pp.668-9). Even, and most i n e x p l i c a b l y , Antonio de Zayas, duke of Amalfi and Machado's oldest f r i e n d , who i s quoted by Jime'nez as being one of the f i r s t to introduce modern French poetry into S pain, added his voice t o the storm of protest against afrancesamiento i n an a r t i c l e on "^1 modemismo" (1906) i n which he thunders against those w r i t e r s who are too soaked i n Verlaine to think i n anything but French.^ He d i s l i k e s the 4. In Los contempdraneos, p.93; and La Lectura V (1905)3, pp.667-70. 5. See G u l l d n , Direcciones p.225: and Conversaciones p.64. 6. In Ensayos de c r f t i c a h i s t d r i c a y l i t e r a r i a (Madrid, 1907), p.403. 74 symbols of the commedia d e l l ' a r t e and the tendency t o d e s c r i b e Spanish h i s t o r y and customs i n "pa'ginas sentidas a l a f r a n c e s a " ( p . 4 1 l ) . A number of these c r i t i c i s m s could be l e v e l l e d at Machado, whose devotion t o V e r l a i n e , use of t h e f i g u r e s of I t a l i a n comedy and P a r n a s s i a n a t t i t u d e t o Spanish f o l k l o r e have already been remarked on and w i l l be f u r t h e r demonstrated i n t h i s chapter. A study of themes and images i n Caprichos f o l l o w i n g the sequence o f the f i r s t e d i t i o n w i l l confirm t h e French i n f l u e n c e noted by the c r i t i c s a l r e a d y quoted, without s u b s c r i b i n g t o t h e i r condemnation of i t . The very t i t l e Caprichos. the f r i v o l i t y o f which so annoyed B l a n c o , i s not of oourse "goyesco", as Darfo a s s e r t s , but V e r l a i n i a n , taken from a sub-t i t l e 'Caprices' i n Poemes Satumiens (p.74)> the e a r l y c o l l e c t i o n which, as has been shown, so i n f l u e n c e d Machado.^ Three of V e r l a i n e ' s f i v e poems under t h i s heading are l i g h t e r o t i c sketches i n the sams genre and the same i r o n i c v e i n as much o f Caprichos. The f i r s t poem i n the c o l l e c t i o n , " P i e r r o t y A r l e q u f n " (p.37), i s t e c h n i c a l l y a t o u r de f o r c e . I t c l e a r l y d e r i v e s from V e r l a i n e ' s "Colombine" (p.118),. as many c r i t i c s have p o i n t e d out, i n i t s metre and rhyme scheme, and o f course i n i t s use of commedia c h a r a c t e r s . The commonplace about the moon being P i e r r o t ' s l o v e r has a l r e a d y been discussed (ch.2, p.69 ) and Harlequin's a t t i t u d e t o women i s t r a d i t i o n a l . The c o n s o l i n g e f f e c t s o f food on P i e r r o t ' s melancholy were a pantomime stand-by, r e f e r r e d t o by V e r l a i n e i n "Pantomime" (p.107). The ending of " P i e r r o t y A r l e q u f n " i s remarkably l i k e t h a t of "Sur l'herbe" (p. 108) - "He'l B o n s o i r , l a l u n e i " - and has the same e f f e c t of f a n t a s t i c g a i e t y . " F l o r e n c i a " (p.37) i s one of many poems based on themes so f r e q u e n t l y found i n turn-of-the-century v e r s e that i t would be impossible t o a s s i g n i t 7. Goya';s "Caprichos" c o n t a i n a few h o r r i f i c c a r n i v a l p i c t u r e s but nothing t h a t could have had any b e a r i n g on the poems. 75 t o any one antecedent. Darfo's "Divagacidn" contains a stanza w i t h a mandoline and a F l o r e n t i n e page dressed i n red. But both instrument and page are to be found i n the other a r t s o f the epoch too. Dante G a b r i e l R o s s e t t i ' s p a i n t i n g s of Florence and Ruskin's books had s t a r t e d a vogue f o r 8 the c i t y and i t was a major theme of Decadent a r t . One of Samain's e r o t i c sonnets, number I I of 'Heures d 1 ete'' (Au J a r d i n p . 2 0 ) c o n t a i n s these l i n e s : "Dans l e s o i r de magnificence,/Les r i c h e s s e s de t a presence/EVoquent l'age F l o r e n t i n . " Jean L o r r a i n i n L o i e F u l l e r c a l l e d Florence a p l a c e where one f e l t a c e r t a i n regret at not dying, and t h i s sentiment i s echoed i n Machado's "hermosura de l a muerte". The beauty o f death i s a l s o a common Decadent theme and i s o f t e n l i n k e d w i t h s e n s u a l i t y , as i t i s i n B a u d e l a i r e ' s "Les Deux Bonnes Soeurs" (p. 1 3 2 ) , La De*bauche w i t h her myrtles and Death w i t h her cypresses. "La alcoba" ( p . 3 8 ) seems l i n k e d t o " F l o r e n c i a " , f o r i t i s , as i t were, a "close-up"of the serenaded woman i n her "bianco lecho" o f which t h e page s i n g s . As i n the previous poem, her re d mouth i s the only note o f c o l o u r . And again Samin's 'Heures d'ete'1 provide a p a r a l l e l . 'Heures d'e'te* I I I "La alcoba" "Parfums l o u r d s . . . "vaho'-. . . d'dtouffants aromes. . . de f l o r e s y aroma de t u carne suave. Les f l e u r s dorment dans l e velours.. Duermen l o s colores de l a s f l o r e s . S e u l e , ta' l e v r e e c l a t e , rouge.- . ." Las rosas purpureas 'Heures d'e'te'' V de t u cara duermen. "La bouche bru l a n t e de carmin. . ." Solo v e l a e l r o j o carmfn de tus l a b i o s " 8. See J u l l i a n , Dreamers, pp. 140-143 76 But Samain's perfumes are not those of f l e s h . A c l e a r e r antecedent f o r these i s to he found i n Verlaine's "Marco" (p.86); "Quand Marco dormait, ohi quels parfums d'ambre/Et de chairs mile's opprimaient l a chambrel" The r e p e t i t i o n o f the phrases "en e l cuartd1 and "duermen" i s a Symbolist technique, seen i n poems l i k e Baudelaire's "Harmonie du s o i r " o r Verlaine's "Grepuscule du s o i r mystique", which produces a soothing and hynotic e f f e c t . I t may derive from the French pantoum genre, which repeats l i n e s i n a r e g u l a r order, so that the second and fourth l i n e s of the f i r s t ; stanza become the f i r s t and t h i r d of the second stanza and so on. Dubus*s "Pantoums" I I (p.22) depicts a scene very s i m i l a r to that i n "La alcoba". The repeated l i n e s "un vague demi-jour sommeille dans l a chambre", " l e grand l i t dans 1' alc3ve est nimhe" de* mystere", " l e v r e s , f l e u r de p&cher f o l § . t r e , i l faut vous t a i r e " and " l ' a i r est tout languissant d'un parfum de paresse" are echoed by Machado's shadowed room where colours s l e e p , the a i r i s scented and only the woman's red mouth seems awake. The next poem, " E l viento" (p.39), i s one o f Machado's most accomplished and i s often quoted to show how V e r l a i n i a n he could be. Once again, as i n "Otono", the metre and the loose syntax derive from "Chanson d'automne" (p.72), as do the images of the v i o l i n s and the wind. The s i m i l e of smoke d i s s o l v i n g i s frequently encountered i n Machado's poetry and may be reminiscent o f 'Ariettes oubliees' IX (p.196), "1*ombre. . . meurt comme de l a fumee", where i t c a r r i e s the same implidation of transience and melancholy. "Charleroi" (p.197) t o o , with i t s short l i n e s and telegraphic s t y l e , may have influenced " E l v i e n t o " . I t describes the wind br i n g i n g breaths of perfume and sounds 9 i n much the same way. 9. Dr. V a l e n t f has noted the frequency of wind images i n both Verlaine and Machado ( p;- . 66 ). 77 "Rojo y negro", the fi r s t part of "La fiesta naoional", is not relevant to this study, as i t cannot be said to have any French antecedents in theme. "Pantomima" (p.39), another exercise in the commedia dell'arte convention, is much the most original of Machado's poems in this genre. Despite the words "funambulesco" and "Carnaval", (which were common currency), there is l i t t l e trace in i t of what G-onzaxez Blanco calls "banvillismo". (p.122). Banville's Mascarades are regular in metre and rhyme and cheerful in outlook."*"^  The haunted nightmare atmosphere of "Pantomima" is Machado's own, although a number of elements from Verlaine, Samain and Dubus may be noticed. The "complot" may well have been suggested by Verlaine's "Fantoches" (p.114), in which "Scaramouche et Pulcinella,/Qu'un mauvais dessein rassembla,/ G-esticulent, noirs sur la lune." The puppet^like movements of Pierrot and Margot, indicated by the jerky, uneven lines, are very reminiscent of ' "Fantoches" and "Pantomime1" (p.107). The masks and disguises were of course a carnival tradition: the sadness hidden by them had been most perfectly expressed by Verlaine in the famous first poem of Fetes galantes (p.107): "masques et bergamasques,/. . . quasi/Tristes sous leurs ddguis ements fantasques." The use of the symbol of Folly shaking his bells in Antonio's "La muerte" is ascribed by Rib bans to Verlaine's "Nevermore" (p.8l) and to 11 Baudelaire's "La Mort des artistes" (p.152): a similar ancestry may be postulated for Manuel's use of the image. (Banville uses i t too, but without the bitterness of the Machados.) The "serenata gemebunda" may derive from Verlaine's "Serenade" (p. 80), but his "En 17..." (p. 54-3), a relatively l i t t l e -known poem, provides a more striking parallel. It describes a masked ball of 10. Same of the characteristics that Max Puchs (Theodore de Banville (Paris 1910), pp.182-197) notes as typical of Banville's rimes funambulesques are nevertheless to be seen in "Pantomima", as in Darfo's "Cancidh de carnaval". These are rimes riches, clownish changes of mood verging on farce, and a tendency to parody and dehumanise the characters portrayed. 11. "La influencia" pp.194-5. 78 s i m i l a r richness and gaiety to the one i n "Pantomima", upon which f a l l s an in e x p l i c a b l e melancholy and then a f r e n e t i c abandon. "0 1* incroyable me*lancholie Tombant soudain sur l a noble fete*. De 1'orage? o non, c'est l a tempetei L1e n n u i , l e souci? - - C'est l a f o l i e l " Dubus took up the theme of a b a l l ending mournfully i n two poems, "Aurore" (p-35) ami "Chanson" (p37). The following l i n e s from the l a t t e r show the same melancholy as /Pantomima". "Mais l a fete se f a i t l a s s e , L'ame au vent p l a i n t i f se g l a c e , Les sourires se vont mourant. L'amour est un jeu morose: Tout est v i d e , tout est vain." The s i l e n t f a l l i n g of the snow, s t i f l i n g a l l l i f e and g a i e t y , i s l i n k e d by Brotherston with other uses of whiteness i n Machado* s verse t o express nothingness and o b l i v i o n (p.115). I t i s also very s i m i l a r t o an image i n Verlaine's "Voix de l'Orgueuil" (p.258): "neige l e n t e . I I f a i t s i froid'. Lourde, affadie,/La v i e a peur et court follement sur l e q u a i l " , and to a l i n e from Samain's /Extreme Orient" I I I (Au J a r d i n p.118), "et l'Ennui dans nos coeurs neige silencieux." "Milosz's "Chanson d'automne" contains a s i m i l a r image: "1*implacable o u b l i neige sinistrement". The a s s o c i a t i o n of the figures of pantomime with the c a r n i v a l i s of course t r a d i t i o n a l , f o r at Mardi Gras people wear fancy dress and are often disguised as pantomime characters. Dario also describes a c a r n i v a l peopled with P i e r r o t s and Columbines i n "Cancidh de carnaval" (p.,561) and " E l f a i s a n " (p«5£>5)» The c a r n i v a l on Shrove Tuesday i s a period of w i l d enjoyment followed by Ash Wednesday and the sobriety of Lent. So the f a l l i n g of the snow on 79 Machado's carnival is possibly also a symbol of Lenten gravity and of the reminder of mortality in the Ash Wednesday service. And snow is also appropriate to the season in which Lent falls . Machado's achievement in "Pantomima" is to have combined the topos of the melancholy revellers with the technique of the rime funambulesque in a poem of grotesque pathos which is very original. ''Mujeres',. the second section of the book, is a series of sketches (in the 1908 edition this section was called 'Bocetos') of women from literature, history and contemporary l i f e . The first, "La hija del ventero" (p.49)> was suggested by alline from the Qui.jote which standmat the head of the poem. It is a work of purely Spanish inspiration in theme, and a knowledge of the Qui.iote is necessary to appreciate its f u l l resonance. In this respect and in its remote and rather fey atmosphere the poem resembles number XI of 'Lucien Le'tinois' from Amour (p.450). In Verlaine's poem i t is sunset and Cinderella is dozing, while other characters from fairy stories pursue their various activities. In the end everyone meets together in the welcoming inn. This poem, like Machado's, relies on the connotations of names known from books, a common heritage, to work its magic. "Mimf,. la modelo" (p.50) is a piece of commonplace". Parisian sentimentality put into verse and thereby refined. Mimi was of course the sanctified name for a l l grisettes, models and open-hearted girls of slender means ever since Murger's Scenes de la vie de BohJme and Puccini's opera. Carrillo's Parisian heroines tend to be fair-haired, under-nourished and to love artists. Le'andre 12 here has nothing to do with "Le'andre le sot", the stock character of the commedia, but is a romantic name for a lover, like the Leqndre in Samain's "Watteau",(Le Chariot, p.67). However, i t should be noted that there was a Montmartre painter of the turn of the century called Le'andre. Long flowing 12. Verlaine, "Colombine", p.118. 80 h a i r l i k e Mimi's was a f e t i s h of the age, from Baudelaire's "La Chevelure" to M i l l a i s ' s "Ophelia". The rather t r i t e notion that her h a i r was the only gold she possessed may w e l l have been suggested by a l i n e i n Verlaine's "Grotesques" (p.68), which i s also about Bohemians, "pour tous biens l ' o r de l e u r s regards." But despite the hackneyed theme, Machado makes o f the poem, as Damaso Alonso points out, an Impressionist p a i n t i n g of d e l i c a t e colour and great tenderness. Dr. Brotherston has shown how "Rosa" (p.5l) echoes Darfo's "Alaba l o s ojos negros de J u l i a " ( p . 9 l ) . I t may a l s o have been influenced by his " E l f a i s a n " , with i t s i n v e r s i o n of " l a l o c a boca. . . l a boca l o c a " , and i s c l e a r l y a t r i b u t e to Darib.. The l a t t e r may have been i n s p i r e d by number X of Verlaine's Chansons pour e l l e , w i t h i t s l i n e " t a bouche . . . trop ruseV' (p.717). We know that Machado read h i s copy of that c o l l e c t i o n with great c a r e , even marking i t , so that Rosa's "arte peregrina" could also have been suggested by Verlaine's d e s c r i p t i o n i n number I (p.709) o f Eugenie Kraintz's knowledgeable ways. "Rosa" i s a t r i f l e of a poem, a mere exercise i n technique. "Una e s t r e l l a " (p.5l) i s the verbal equivalent o f a p a i n t i n g by J u l i o Romero de T o r r e s , which i s to say that i t i s a sentimentalised view of Andalusian womanhood painted, or w r i t t e n , $n a once fashionable s t y l e that has dated very much. The v u l g a r i t y of expressions l i k e " e l loco deseo" and "una hurf espanola" are the f i r s t i n d i c a t i o n s i n Machado's work o f the tendency to cheapen h i s Andalusian heritage which mars so much of h i s l a t e r p oetry. There i s a l s o i n "Una e s t r e l l a " , apart from the p o p u l a r i s i n g element, a trace of f i n - d e - s i e c l e e r o t i c blasphemy rather reminiscent of Baudelaire. The l a t t e r , i n "A une Madone" (p.63) s u b - t i t l e d 'Ex-voto dans l e gout espagnol' , a l s o c a l l s h i s mistress a statue and speaks of her " r o l e de Marie". "Tout en moi te che*rit et t'admire" corresponds to "creo/en Maria, y l a admiro/y adoro". 81 The proximity of the words "statue" and "vers", and of "desir" and "onduleux" i n Baudelaire's poem may have suggested those of "copla" and "estatua", and "ondulante" and "deseo" i n Machado*s. Whereas Mimi i s the t r a d i t i o n a l name f o r the a r t i s t s ' m o d e l , Marguerite i s the equivalent f o r the t r a g i c courtesan - the one i s cante c h i c o , the other cante grande. The o r i g i n o f the name i n Machado's "Margarita" i s of course Dumas*s La Dame aux camelias, which i s the reference i n Dario's "Margarita", There i s no connection between Dario*s poem and Machado*s save the name, and Lopez Lapuya shows how commonly used that was i n his remark "en cualquiera vendedora de amor veiamos una sensible Margarita","^ T h i s view of woman as v i c t i m , down-trodden innocence, the flower beneath the f o o t , was c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of much nineteenth century l i t e r a t u r e , and was exemplified i n such novels as Eugene Sue's F l e u r de Marie. Machado's poem does not 14 transcend the l i m i t a t i o n s o f the c u l t . The l a s t poem under the heading 'Mujeres' i s "Ruth" (p.53). I t i s a simple poem, rather Parnassian i n technique and of course i n i t s B i b l i c a l subject matter. Apart from the l a t t e r , i t seems to owe nothing to Hugo's "Booz endormi", A contemporary influence might be Rossetti's p a i n t i n g "Ruth and Booz", which depicts her much as Machado does, with her cloak f u l l of wheat and Booz bending s o l i c i t o u s l y over her. The next s e c t i o n of the book, 'Cadencias de cadencias', contains s i x poems on Spanish subjects and one very French poem, "J a r d i n neo-clasico," 13, La bohemia espanola en P a r i s , p.170. See also ch, 2"', p. 49 on sentimentality about p r o s t i t u t e s , 14. One of Levy-Dhurmer1 s best-known p a i n t i n g s , a l s o c a l l e d "Marguerite" represents a g i r l with a rather farouche look holding d a i s i e s . Another p i c t u r e that could have suggested t h i s poem i s Janmot's "Fleur des champs", which also shows a b e a u t i f u l , sad g i r l with d a i s i e s i n her lap and hands. Baudelaire wrote about i t i n Le Salon de 1845 ( P a r i s , 1962), p.152. 82 which i n l a t e r e d i t i o n s appears with other afrancesado poetry under the heading ' P i g u l i n a s ' . The f i r s t poem, "Alvar-Fanez" ( p . l O l ) , reminded Unamuno 15 of Leconte de L i s l e despite i t s s o l i d background of references to the Cantar de Mfo C i d . I t i s true that i t i s rather too a r t i f i c i a l l y terse and pit h y i n expression, betraying once again the detached Parnassian a t t i t u d e of poems l i k e de L i s l e ' s "L'Accident de Don Inigo2 or He'redia's "Romancero". But I do not think that the same c r i t e r i a apply to "Glosa" ( p . l O l ) . There i s no French antecedent f o r the theme, as there are f o r poems on the C i d and h i s men. The poem shows a r e a l warmth of f e e l i n g f o r Berceo, who was one of the poets most beloved of Machado's generation. Darfo also wrote "A Maestre Gonzalo de Berceo" i n Prosas profanas. congratulating himself on improving on Berceo's alexandrine, and he also r e f e r s to the "vaso de bon vino " . I t i s noteworthy that Machado follows Darfo i n the inconsistency of using the modern s p e l l i n g f o r Goncalvo, although the rest of the vocabulary i s a r c haic"^ Machado's t i t l e was also used by Antonio f o r a poem on Manrique. "Don Carnaval" (p.102), despite the odd use o f the French word sage i n the second l i n e , i s another poem o f purely Spanish i n s p i r a t i o n i n theme i f not i n technique, and shows a close acquaintance with the Libr o de buen amor, the tone of which i t reproduces mag n i f i c e n t l y , e s p e c i a l l y i n the l a s t three stanzas. "Madrid v i e j o " (p.104), s u b - t i t l e d 'Acotacion' or ' s t a g e - d i r e c t i o n s1, i s s t y l i s t i c a l l y very s i m i l a r to Verlaine's " E f f e t de n u i t " (p.67)# a poem indicated by Ribbans as having also influenced Antonio's "Invierno" (p,19l). This aspect of i t w i l l be discussed i n chapter 7. I t i s a l s o very close i n theme to a poem by Antonio, number XII of 'Del camino' (p.686). In both there i s an o l d , b l i n d beggar. In Manuel's poem he sees pass " l a s horas y l a s horas", 15. In prologue t o Alma.Museo, Los cantares, p.l99« 16. Cernuda, Estudios p.84, points out t h i s i l l o g i c a l i t y i n Darfo. 83 i n Antonio's " l a blancas sombras de l a s horas santas". I n "Madrid v i e j o " "vana h i e r b a entre l a s p i e d r a s crece": i n number X I I "crece en l a p l a z a . . . e l musgo, y entre l a p i e d r a " . Both poems use puntos suspensivos to give slowness to t h e i r l i n e s . The vocabulary - p l a z a , p i e d r a , b i a n c o , v i e j o , h oras, santo, mendigo, pasar - i s the same, and b o t h poems are examples of the concern f e l t f o r Spain by the Machados' generation. "Don M i g u e l de Manara" (p. 104) i s on a S e v i l l i a n theme, the prototype of Don Juan who was a l i b e r t i n e and became a s a i n t , founding a convent c a l l e d La Caridad. The e r o t i c i s m of the f i r s t s e x t e t , the piquant . j u x t a p o s i t i o n of l o v e and death, i s q u i t e decadent i n tone but c o u l d e q u a l l y have come from Spanish Romantic sources. The only t r u l y f i n - d e - s i e c l e note i n the poem i s s t r u c k by the l i n e " l a e l e g a n c i a suprema d e l arrepentamiento", which smacks of the dandy t u r n e d mystic and of the b e l a t e d C a t h o l i c i s m of so many of the Decadents. "Un h i d a l g o " (p.105) i s the only example i n Caprichos of what we c a l l e d 17 i n chapter 2 (p. 42 ) the Heredian sonnet. The i r o n y o f i t s l a s t l i n e i s masterly.. This sonnet may have been one of the poems which provoked Zayas's complaint t h a t Modernists were debunking Spanish h i s t o r y and the g l o r i e s of F l a n d e r s , P o r t u g a l and I t a l y (pp.414-5). But although the form i s French, the content i s p u r e l y Spanish and shows once again a generation o f '98 preoccupation w i t h the causes o f Spain's decadence. "Un h i d a l g o " i s of course, l i k e "La c o r t e " and F e l i p e IV", about the p e r i o d of Spanish h i s t o r y the 18 Machado brothers knew w e l l , t h a t i s , the seventeenth c e n t u r y . 17. I t should be noted t h a t a l a t e but i n f l u e n t i a l c o l l e c t i o n of P a r n a s s i a n sonnets was H e n r i de Regnier's Les M e d a i l l e s d ' A r g i l e (1900) which i s f u l l of d e s c r i p t i o n s of p a i n t i n g s and people. I n the s e c t i o n 'Les Passants du passe', "Le C o u r t i s a n " and "Le S o l d a t " (pp.229 and 242) a r e a l s o very s i m i l a r to Machado's sonnets i n t h i s genre, (ed. c i t e d P a r i s , 1921). 18. See Dr. B r o t h e r s t o n , pp.120-121, and t h e i r p l a y J u l i a n i l l o V a l c s f r c e l . 84 "Jardin neo-clasico" (p.106) is another of Machado's elegant sonnets, completely Verlainian in inspiration this time. It takes its images mainly from "Nuit de Walpurgis classique" (p.71) and the FStes galantes. The Oupid bending his bow is from "L'Amour par terre" (p.H9)while the description of the garden is nearly a l l from "Nuit de Walpurgis classique" - the rigid cypresses, the classical groups of statues, the fountain and the topiary work, everything clipped and trimmed and in its place. Only the wandering white paths and the clumps of myrtle are not French and they are, as has been seen, constant images with Manuel. It is possible that the masked face and the statues were suggested by Darib's "Era un aire suave..." but i t is just as likely that Machado found them where Darib did, that is, in the poems of Verlaine and the paintings of Watteau. The next sub-heading of Caprichos is 'El mal poema', which was to be the t i t l e of Machado*s new collection of poems in 1909. It has been suggested that the t i t l e is an ironic inversion of La Bonne Chanson or a variation on Les Fleurs du Mal. The seven poems under this title are sad, even morbid, and deal with the seamy side of l i f e . The f i r s t poem "Serenata" (p. 88) was originally published in Helios VI (1903) as "Serenade", which would seem to indicate a French source of inspiration and is also the title of one of the Poenes Satumiens (p.80). But a l l that the two poems have in common is that the mistress is indifferent and that the lover spends sleepless nights thinking of her. The notion of lovers' souls approaching each other in dreams may come from Verlaine's "Colloque sentimentale" (p.l2l), - "Toujours vois-tu mon fime en reve"? - but is also expressed by Becquer in Rimas XXVIII and LXXXV. The vocabulary of "Serenata" is also Becquerian. In one of Antonio's poems, number XV of Soledades, a man in love walks the streets where his beloved lives, and his footsteps are the only sound in the street. 85 "Neurastenia", which was never r e p r i n t e d i n any c o l l e c t i o n a f t e r Caprichos and a copy of which i s appended (p. 19"^ , i s yet another poem which seems to have been i n s p i r e d by "Nuit de Walpurgis c l a s s i q u e " (p.7l). Machado's "son d o l i e n t e " which passes through the n i g h t a i r r e c a l l s the " a i r mdlancholique, un sourd, l e n t et doux a i r " from that work and a l s o perhaps, f o r i t too i s " b u r l d n " , the "doux chant/Badin" of number V of ' A r i e t t e s o ubliees' (p»193)» which a l s o d i e s away i n t o a garden a t n i g h t and i s heard from w i t h i n the room. The " c l a r i d a d e s . . . tenuidades s i n v i d a " t h a t f l i t through Machado's garden are very l i k e the "formes toutes blanches,/Diaphanes. . . Ces s p e c t r e s . . . ou b i e n des morts" of " N u i t de Walpurgis". 19 Gregh's V e r l a i n i a n "Minuet", r e f e r r e d t o above, i s a l s o very l i k e "Neurastenia". I t should be noted t h a t the t i t l e word was another l e i t m o t i f 20 o f Decadent l i t e r a t u r e , "Nocturno madrileno" (p.89) c l e a r l y takes i t s t i t l e and some of i t s images from V e r l a i n e ' s "Nocturne P a r i s i e n " (p.83). The "cantar con.notas mondtonas, t r i s t e s " t h a t speaks of crime and misery r e f l e c t s V e r l a i n e ' s l i n e s "La v i l l e e s t l a q u i chante sa chanson. . . E t c'est l'aube des v o l s , des amours et des crimes. . . Son c r i qui se lamente, et se prolonge, e t c r i e . . . C'est ecorche, c'est faux, c'est h o r r i b l e , c'est dur." This i s t h e f i r s t o f Machado's c i t y poems, a genre which he was the f i r s t t o introduce i n t o Spain and t h e germ of which he found i n B a u d e l a i r e and V e r l a i n e . The l a t t e r ' s "L'Aube a l'envers" (p.375) i s s i m i l a r to "Nocturno madrileno" i n i t s p i c t u r e o f drunkenness and murder, "d'affreux b a i s e r s et d'immondes p a r i s " . The t h i r d stanza of Machado's poem i n p a r t i c u l a r describes the c i t y woman i n the same terms as the French Decadents l i k e Jean L o r r a i n , "des 19. See c h . l , p.13 , and C a r r i l l o , E l modemismo, p. 173* 20. See C a r t e r , The Idea o f Decadence, pp.62-8. 86 21 chloroses farde'es et des paleurs" with c i r c l e s under t h e i r eyes. Words l i k e "anemia", "perversos" and "malsano" emphasise the P a r i s i a n Decadent connotations. "Prosa" (p.9l) i s another v a r i a t i o n on the same theme, r e c a l l i n g Baudelaire's Tableaux P a r i s i e n s . I t i s a d e l i b e r a t e l y hypnotic poem with a monotonous rhythm, a " l e t a n i a " of human misery, which s t r i k e s a new and o r i g i n a l note i n Spanish poetry. The technique i s l i k e that o f number I I I of 'Ariettes oublie'es' (p.192). The "ians; amour et sans haine" ennui of Verlaine*s poem corresponds t o the " s i n gracia y s i n deseo" of Machado*s,and both end on a strong l i n e of sadness: "Mon coeur a tant de peine1." and "'como una mala vida'." "Alcohol" (p.90) i s very l i k e Samain's "Luxure" (Au J a r d i n pp.137-143), e s p e c i a l l y i n i t s Villonesque c o n t r a d i c t i o n s , l i k e a ballade o f opposites. XLuxure" "Alcohol" ' Baume du mal amour. ''Mal placer.. C o r d i a l de rancoeur. Agua de p e r d i c i d n . Paiblesse du puissant et puissance Palso f u e r t e . du mievre. . . . mortal como e l pecado. Appetit du peche mortel. Mentira, qufmica, muerte. . . . acide de l'acide.. Ultime amour damnd qui se s u i c i d e . P h i l t r e d ' o u b l i . "Mutis" (p.92) i s one o f the s e l f - p o r t r a i t poems i n the l i n e that s t a r t s with "Adelfos" and i s at i t s best i n "Prdlogo-epflogo". I t i s reminiscent of the fanner i n i t s dramatic tone, and of " L i r i o " i n i t s imagery of smoke evaporating. The l i n e "mas l l e v o p r i s a " w i l l be used l a t e r t o much more t e l l i n g e f f e c t i n "Retrato". 21. Poussieres de P a r i s (1902), p.33. 87 "Escena ultima" (p.4l), the last poem in the 'mai poema' cycle, is very clearly ihspired by Verlaine's sonnet "Pierrot" (p.320). In Verlaine's poem Pierrot's white shirt is like a shroud blowing in a cold wind, and he is dying. In Machado's he is s t i f f with cold, and dies. "Pierrot" "Et la farine rend plus effroyable encore Sa face exsangue au nez pointu de moribond. "Escena tfltima" "blanca la faz de harina , y las manos exangiies, ha cafdo muerto." /^ The underlining is mine_./ The last section of the book is 'Vfsperas', in a more elegiac mood, although two of the poems are serenely happy. The tit l e poem (p.53) has been shown by Brotherston to be very close to a poem of Antonio's originally published under the same t i t l e and now number X of Soledades (p.103). Number XIV of 'Galerias' has a similar opening - "Tarde tranquila, casi/con placidez de alma" - and many of Antonio's poems have this setting of the square and the (church It has not to my knowledge been remarked that "Vfsperas" is dedicated to Antonio in the f i r s t edition of Caprichos. The use of the word alrno is a clear borrowing from Verlaine, who uses 22 the word, a neologism in French as in Spanish, three times in his poetry. 23 It means "nourissant, bienfaisant, doux". There is in "Vfsperas" a possible echo of a sunset poem by Samain, "E*le*gie" (Au Jardin p.35) where the last rays of light die on the woman's rings as they do on the church tower in Machado's poem. But the atmosphere of "Vfsperas" is very clearly Verlainian, even 22. See Valentf p.46, who notes that Antonio also uses it once in "Nocturno" from Soledades (1903). 23. See Claude Cuenot, Le Style de Paul Verlaine (Paris, 1962), p.51. 88 though i t i s d i f f i c u l t to c i t e any one poem by Verlaine that might have influenced i t . The l a s t stanza of Sagesse I I I , IX (p.382) i s s i m i l a r i n mood. The vocabulary i s a l s o l i k e that o f Verlaine - q u i e t a , paz. s o l i t a r i o . almo, p l e g a r i a . bueno, c a l l a d a - and r e c a l l s the tone of many of the poems of Sagesse and Amour. "Abel" (p.54) i s one of the best poems Machado ever wrote. Dr. Brotherston has shown i t s closeness to Samain's "La Peau de bete" (p.99). But there i s a l s o i n the poem a strong f e e l i n g o f V e r l a i n e . The l i n e s "en l a pa*lida esfera/no hay una s o l a nube" are to me reminiscent of the sad emptiness of number VII o f ' A r i e t t e s oubliees' (p.195) i n the l i n e s "Dans 1'interminable/ Ennui de l a p l a i n e " and "Le c i e l est de cuivre/San& lueur aucune". The second stanza i s completely V e r l a i n i a n , i t s i n s p i r a t i o n coming mainly from 24 ' A r i e t t e s ' numbers I and IX (pp.191 and 196), as the following schema shows. 'A r i e t t e s oublie'es' " c r i doux, que l'herbe agitee expire" (no. I) "L'humble antienne" (no. i ) "vers l e s ramures grises l e choeur des p e t i t s voix" (no. i ) "Et que t r i s t e s pleuraient dans l e s hautes feuille'es tes espe'rances" (no. IX) " l e s ramures chanteuses" (Mandoline") "une voix sous l a ramee" (La Bonne Chanson V i ) "Abel" "La t r i s t e z a i n f i n i t a efluye de l a humilde hierba d e l su e l o . I n v i t a a l l o r a r e l rumor de l a arboleda." 24. The establishment of these p a r a l l e l s was f a c i l i t a t e d by use of the computer concordances. 89 A l s o the "pa'lida esfera" and the smoke of the f i r s t stanza may he a reminiscence of the "paysage blSme" and the l i n e "meurt/Comme de l a fumeV' of number IX. The r e p e t i t i o n of l i n e s i s a Symbolist technique. I t i s used by Verlaine i n poems l i k e " S o l e i l s couchants" (p.69) and "Crdpuscule du s o i r mystique" (p.70) and by Baudelaire, e s p e c i a l l y i n the famous "Harmonie du s o i r " (p.52), which may a l s o have given Machado an image that recurs throughout h i s work i n the l i n e "Le s o l e i l s'est noye* dans son sang qui se f i g e . " We f i n d i t i n "Abel" i n " l a primera/Sangre v e r t i d a seca e l s o l poniente, and at the end of "La F i e s t a n a c i o n a l " . Unamuno saw the " p r e c i s i o n p i c t o r i c a " of Leconte 25 de L i s l e i n "Abel" but I f i n d i t more Symbolist than Parnassian i n i t s int e r p e n e t r a t i o n of mood and landscape. There i s an i n t e r e s t i n g p a r a l l e l i n Antonio's "Campo", number XX of 'Galerfas' (p.728). "La tarde esta* muriendo como un hogar humilde que se apaga. Alia", sobre l o s montes, quedan algunas brasas. Y ese a*rbol roto en e l camino bianco hace l l o r a r de la*stima." "Puente-Genil" (p.55) i s an o b j e c t i v e , c o l o u r i s t poem very l i k e those of Manuel Reina, and i n theme and mood completely Spanish. The l a s t three poems i n Caprichos are very accomplished. Gonzaxez Blanco, whose review of the book i s not on the whole notable f o r i t s generosity, c a l l s them "J&efinitivas, acabadas, que consagran a un poeta y que senalan una evolucion i d e o l d g i c a en l a poesfa espanola contemporahea." (p.,122). 25. Prologue, p.199. 90 "Se dice lentamente" (p.56), which Blanco c a l l s an o r i g i n a l note i n Spanish poetry, i s , as Dr. Brotherston has shown, very l i k e Antonio's •Soledades* VIII (p.668) "Yo escucho las coplas", especially i n i t s use of the theme of the monotonous fountain (pp.102-3). But i t i s also very close to Sages se I , l 6 , "Ecoutez l a chanson bien douce" (p.256), which may have been i t s o r i g i n a l i n s p i r a t i o n . Sagesse I , 16 "Se dice lentamente" "Ecoutez l a chanson bien douce "Yo no se ma's que una vagufsima oracidn; Qui ne pleure que pour vous p l a i r e . . . . . De pena estsi y de encanto l l e n a ; y tiene l l a n t o y r i s a , . . . l a g l o i r e y l a calma sumisa D'etre simple sans plus attendre... de l a renunciacidn... l a voix qui persiste repetidas, muy ofdas. . . son nai f epithalame." No l a saben l o s sabios." Even " e l l a es dulce a los labios" echoes Verlaine*s "chanson bien douce". The li n e s "Bonnez-lui l'oraison. . . l a p a i s i b l e Oraison" from "La Priefre du matin" (p.405), a poem which i s c a r e f u l l y marked i n Machado* s copy, could w e l l have suggested " l a oracidn" to him. But despite i t s V e r lainian anteced-ents "Se dice lentamente" i s castizo both i n i t s emotion and i n i t s vocabulary, that simple generalised vocabulary which Verlaine bequeathed to a whole generation of poets from a l l nations. "La voz que dice" (p.57) i s very Decadent i n both vocabulary and attitude. 26 The use of the vocative, which Zayas referred to as a cheap French t r i c k , can be very moving. Baudelaire used i t f o r dialogues with himself, "pauvre ame s o l i t a i r e " , and Verlaine learned i t from him. The p i l g r i m soul, the t r a v e l l e r , appears i n many of the l a t t e r ' s best poems, "Le faune" (p.115), 'Ariette' IX (p.196), the second "Nevermore" of Poemes Saturniens (p.8l) and 27 Sagesse 1,7 and I I I , 3 (pp.248 and 278). 26. " E l modernismo", p.410. 27. I t i s interesting that Antonio too used this concept of the p i l g r i m soul throughout h i s work. An example i s no. VIII of 'Del camino' , p.683. 91 The p l a i n t i v e tone of "La voz que dice" and the images of the temple of sad joy and the v i o l e t evening are very f i n - d e - s i e c l e and r e c a l l Samaih, who i n "Soir" (Le Chariot p.26) speaks of "des couchants v i o l e t s " and "des s o i r s d i v i n s " . The voice i s l i k e that of Death i n h i s "Tentation" (Au J a r d i n p . l 8 l ) who c a l l s the l o v e r , saying: "Ma voix g l i s s e et penetre aux plus secrets r e p l i s . Viens, je suis l a Mort douce, et l'amante attendue, E t je te v e r s e r a i . . . L o i n du mai et des p l e u r s , du doute et des sanglots Le sil e n c e et l ' o u b l i dans l ' d t e r n e l repos." "Kyrie e l e i s o n " (p.57) which i s also a sonnet, i s the f i r s t and best of Machado1 s r e l i g i o u s v e r s e . I t s famous f i r s t l i n e i s s a i d by Dr. Brotherston to have been taken from Dario's "Sor Maria" (p.89), but GonzSflez Blanco points out that "me'tricamente t i e n e toda l a l i b e r t a d r i t m i c a y e l encanto discordante de l a hermosa e s t r o f a de Verlaine 'De l a douceur, de l a douceur, de l a douceurI'" (p»122). Verlaine's L i t u r g i e s Intimes contains a "Kyrie eleison" (p»740), which although altogether d i f f e r e n t i n form contains a prayer f o r happiness through l o v e , just as Machado's poem asks f o r " a l e g r i a " » But Ver l a i n e ' s " P r i e r e du matin" (p.405), which has already been mentioned as well-known to Machado, seems to have provided much of the imagery. In his t r a n s l a t i o n of "Pr i e r e du matin" Machado renders " l e s a f f r e s du Calvaire" as " l o s clavos d e l C a l v a r i o " , a m i s t r a n s l a t i o n which may have some bearing on the l i n e i n "Kyrie e l e i s o n " , " e l clavo de l a impiedad." The second quartet i n Machado's sonnet, with i t s image of the r i v e r of prayer,was c l e a r l y i n s p i r e d by Verlaine's "Donnez-lui l'oraison . . . d' oft 'de'coule Un ruisseau toujours c l a i r d'austeres verite*s." 92 The notion o f weeping away s i n i s also to be found i n "Priere du matin", as are the words " c h a r i t d " and " j o i e " , rendered by Machado i n h i s t r a n s l a t i o n , and i n "Kyrie e l e i s o n " , by "caridad" and " a l e g r f a " . Both Gonzstlez Blanco 2 8 (p.123) and Lepiorz speak of "Kyrie E l e i s o n " i n terms of Sagesse, and i t has the same tone of j o y f u l s i m p l i c i t y that i s so remarkable i n V e r l a i n e1 s work. A thematic a n a l y s i s of Caprichos, then, has shown that the influence of Ve r l a i n e i s almost all-pervading and that the Parnassian element o f Alma has lessened. There i s also more thematic influence apparent from Baudelaire 29 and Samain. But the r e a l achievement of Caprichos i s t e c h n i c a l , and i t w i l l be shown i n chapter 7 how s k i l l e d Machado had become i n t h i s r e s p e c t . Much o f Caprichos i s not subjective poetry, and i t betrays l e s s of Machado himself than any other o f h i s c o l l e c t i o n s except Apolo. I t i s r e a l l y an assembly of c a p r i c e s , sketches, e x e r c i s e s , some so f l i m s y as to be nothing but a pretext f o r a demonstration of po e t i c expertise. But the best of the poems are among the best that Machado ever wrote, and i t i s i n these, " E l v i e n t o " , "Madrid v i e j o " , "Prosa", "Vfsperas", "Abel", "Se d i c e lentamente" and "Kyrie e l e i s o n " , that the voice o f Ve r l a i n e can be heard most c l e a r l y . 28. Themen, p.23. 29. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g that whereas Jimenez r e f e r s to Baudelaire as one of the most important influences on himself and the Machados ( i n La corriente p.94), Qernuda i n s i s t s that " n i Darfo n i e l modemismo l o tuvieron entre sus penates." (Estudios, pp.81 and 124). This i s c l e a r l y a case of a French influence that was not i n i t i a t e d by Darfo. 93 CHAPTER h-THEMATIC ANALYSIS OP AIMA.MUSBO..L0S CANTARES, AND ASSESSMENT OP FIESTAS: SALANTES L i k e the f i r s t e d i t i o n of Alma, Alma. Museo. Los cantares c a r r i e d a prologue by Unamuno when i t appeared i n 1907* This was appropriate, f o r the new hook was i n f a c t an expanded v e r s i o n of Alma containing a number of the poems from Caprichos together with twenty seven new poems not pr e v i o u s l y published i n book form. There are four new s u b - t i t l e s . ' F i g u l i n a s ' , a l s o the t i t l e of one of the poems, replaces 'Miniaturas' f o r the V e r l a i n i a n fete  fealante poems. 'Hablado' i s the heading f o r poems of urban despair, instead of ' E l mal poema' • Then there are two new and important headings which i n d i c a t e very c l e a r l y t h e i r d i s t i n c t sources; 'Los cantares' and 'La buena cancion'. The former includes eight poems i n the copla s t y l e , and takes i t s t i t l e from the si n g l e flamenco-inspired poem i n Alma, "Cantares".^ The l a t t e r describes nine poems, three of which were previously headed 'Vfsperas', i n s p i r e d by Verlaine's La bonne chanson. In his prologue Unamuno stresses the e s s e n t i a l Spanishness of Machado's i n s p i r a t i o n , although admitting "que algtfn impulso. . . l e haya venida de l a l i t e r a t u r a francesa es indudable. . . Ciertos de sus cantos l e v e s , vagos, todo matiz y s u s p i r o , nos recuerdan a V e r l a i n e " . As has been explained i n the introduction ( p p » 5 - 6 ) , i t i s not relevant to t h i s study t o examine the flamenco p o e t r y , except where that poetry derives from other than Andalusian r o o t s . This chapter, then, w i l l consider i n terms of theme and mood a l l the new poems i n Alma .Museo.los cantares i n the order 1. The f r o n t i s p i e c e , by Juan G r i s who also designed Machado's bookplate with i t s melancholy P i e r r o t , c l e a r l y i ndicates 'Los cantares' as an important s e c t i o n of the new book. I t shows a black-haired gypsy g i r l wearing a manton, and carnations i n her h a i r , standing under orange t r e e s . 94 i n which they appear i n that book, with the exception of those poems under the heading 'Cantares' w r i t t e n i n the popular form. I t w i l l a l s o examine the book F i e s t a s galantes, Machado1s prose t r a n s l a t i o n s o f V e r l a i n e , which appeared a year l a t e r i n 1908, and w i l l explain how t h i s book has been used as the b a s i s f o r the present study of Machado's debt t o Verlaine.. "Paisaje de a r r a b a l " , the f i r s t poem i n the c o l l e c t i o n , i s almost c e r t a i n l y , l i k e "Remember" and " E l r e s c a t e " , one of Machado's j u v e n i l i a which he r e s u s c i t a t e d to pad out the book. I t was not prin t e d i n T r i s t e s y alegres (1894) but may have been i n the c o l l e c t i o n E t c e t e r a (1895) of which only a mutilated copy remains i n the B i b l i o t e c a Machado. (A copy i s appended p. 198.) I t i s an old-fashioned poem, Romantic i n tone, and does not merit d i s c u s s i o n . "La l l u v i a " , (p.58) the next poem under the o l d s u b - t i t l e ' E l reino i n t e r i o r ' , i s prefaced by a quotation from Verlaine's famous " I I pleure dans mon coeur" from 'Ariettes oublie"es',! I I I , (p.192), and i t s t h r e e - l i n e stanza i s a lso V e r l a i n i a n . The question "iQue' me ha quedado?" could be an echo of Baudelaire's "Le p o r t r a i t " (p.44) - "Que r e s t e - t - i l ? " - which i s a l s o about l o s t love and dwells on the woman's eyes. But the most unmistakably French note i n the poem i s the correspondance between sound and s m e l l , " e l aroma de su nombre". In Baudelaire's "Toute entiere" (p.46) we f i n d the l i n e s "0 metamorphose mystique De tous mes sens fondus en unl Son haleine f a i t l a musique, Comme sa voix f a i t l e parfuml" Obviously i n s p i r e d by t h i s , Verlaine wrote h i s "A Clymene" ( p . l l 6 ) , using the word correspondance invented by Baudelaire and speaking of the "arome insigne/ De t a paleur" and " l e candeur de ton/Odeur". In number VIII o f La Bonne  Chanson ( p . 147), he repeats t h i s theme with many of the same words, and f i n d s sounds, colours and p i c t u r e s i n her name. The mysterious lady i n "Mon reve f a m i l i e r " (p.63) has a sweet and sonorous name, as does Mathilde i n number VII 95 of La Bonne Chanson (p.14-6). I t seems c l e a r , then, that the l i n e " e l aroma de su nombre" was suggested by V e r l a i n e , as t h e whole poem, w i t h i t s r e p e t i t i o n l i k e the monotony o f f a l l i n g r a i n , was i n f l u e n c e d by h i s most famous poem. There i s a p o s s i b l e antecedent too i n V e r l a i n e ' s " S t r e e t s " I (p.206),, which i s al s o composed i n t h r e e - l i n e stanzas of o c t o s y l l a b i c l i n e s . I t a l s o speaks o f a l o s t l o v e , and the l a s t s t a n z a , "Je me souviens, j e me souviens/ Des heures et des e n t r e t i e n s , / E t c'est l e m e i l l e u r de mes biens" i s l i k e "La l l u v i a " . "Balada m a t i n a l " (p.173) i s another o l d piece from T r i s t e s y Ale g r e s , where i t was a l s o e n t i t l e d "Colores". I t shows that the morning theme was used by Machado before the poems of 'La buena cancidn' , but an examination of the l a t t e r w i l l show how h i s knowledge o f V e r l a i n e changed h i s treatment o f 2 the theme. " E l p r i n c i p e " (p..27) i s ob v i o u s l y not meant to be taken v e r y s e r i o u s l y . I t i s reminiscent of nothing so much as V e r l a i n e ' s "Cauchemar" (p.66) from Poemes S a t u r n i e n s , which i s a p a s t i c h e l i k e o t h e r poems i n th a t book. V e r l a i n e ' s poem de p i c t s a kni g h t who r i d e s l i k e a thunderstorm. H i s eyes too are i n shadow, but f l a s h out l i k e , l i g h t n i n g . "Cauchemar" ends on a note o f s p l e n d i d bathos w i t h h i s t h i r t y two t e e t h gleaming i n the darkness. (The poem i s probably a p a s t i c h e of B a u d e l a i r e , whose "Danse macabre" (p.108) contains a l i n e ending i n p e r f e c t seriousness "trente-deux dents".) The r e v e r s a l of verb and subject i n the l a s t stanza and the exclamatory ending of "Cauchemar" are s i m i l a r i n " E l p r i n c i p e , " and both poems are melodramatic i n tone. I t i s hard t o understand why Machado should have i n c l u d e d "Remember" i n t h i s c o l l e c t i o n . Under the t i t l e of " j Y a no'." i t appeared o r i g i n a l l y i n T r i s t e s y a l e g r e s . Machado's f i r s t c o l l e c t i o n of verse, p u b l i s h e d i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n 2. See t h i s ch. p,106. 96 with Enrique Paradas. I t i s an undistinguished poem, a mixture of r h e t o r i c a l s t y l e and Becquerian sentiments, and derives most obviously from the l a t t e r ' s number LIII of Rimas, "Volveran l a s oscuras golondrinas". Under the s u b - t i t l e 'Primitivos' i s included another piece of j u v e n i l i a from T r i s t e s v a l e g r e s , the b a l l a d " E l r e s c a t e " . The sub-heading ' F i g u l i n a s ' contains a new poem., " F i n de s i g l o " ( p . 4 l ) . I t i s , as Dr. Brotherston remarks, a c a r i c a t u r e d view of the French eighteenth century (p,75). G-erhard L e p i o r z ^ compares i t with Verlaine's "Mandoline" (p.115), which c l e a r l y influenced i t . The names T i r s i s and Aminta, the e i g h t -s y l l a b l e l i n e and the reference to c o u r t l y poetry are common t o both. But other poems by Verlaine a l s o contributed t o the genesis of " F i n de s i g l o " . G l o r i s and Aminta are a l s o to be found i n Les uns et l e s a u t r e s , (p.334) while there are references to the pastoral- mode i n "Sur l'herbe" and " L ' a l l e e " (p.108). Indeed, as L e p i o r z notes, the whole world of Fetes galantes r e l i v e s i n Machado. C l o r i s reappears i n "En bateau" (p.114) and T i r s i s i n "Les indolents" (p.118). I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g that where Ve r l a i n e puts an objective distance between himself and h i s c o u r t i e r s by d e s c r i b i n g them i n terms of Watteau's paintings and thus immobilising them, Machado c l e a r l y thinks of them i n terms o f china f i g u r i n e s , as h i s s u b - t i t l e suggests. His p o r c e l a i n (shepherdesses show no r e a l emotion, and so the a c t i v i t i e s of p a i n t i n g miniatures and inventing the g u i l l o t i n e are shown to be not as incongruent as they appear at f i r s t s i g h t . The g u i l l o t i n e i s a neat and elegant way of being b r u t a l , and shows the same preoccupation with the mechanics of s t y l e as does the t u r n i n g of a compliment or the dancing of a minuet. Everything i s reduced to a miniature, f r i v o l o u s s c a l e - smiling i s a r e l i g i o n , the law, courtesy - and the whole poem has the t i n k l i n g sound of a c l a v i c h o r d i n a museum f u l l o f china p i e c e s . 3* Themen und Ausdrucksformen p.22. 4. Themen, p.22. 97 Another very l i k e l y antecedent f o r " F i n de s i g l o " i s Samain*s sonnet " V e r s a i l l e s " I I (Le Chariot p.l6). Stanzas two and three e s p e c i a l l y of Machado*s poem may derive from these l i n e s : "Urbanite* des facons anciennes. Mains royales sur les e*pinettes. Gestes de menuet et coeurs de b i s c u i t f i n . Grands seigneurs paillete's d ' e s p r i t . Marquis de sevres. Tout un monde galant, v i f , brave, exquis et fou." Samain's spinets and minuets correspond to Machado's clavichords and minuets, and "Marquis de sevres" i s unmistakably echoed by "pastoras de porcelana." But the b r u t a l b a t h e t i c ending of " F i n de s i g l o " redresses the balance, and shows the r e a l i t y under the facade, just as the l a s t l i n e s of Verlaine's "Lettre" (p.117)> a f t e r the hyperbole of passion, betray the i n v i n c i b l e ennui 5 of the erst-while devoted l o v e r . "Aqui en Espana" i s a continuation of "Rojo y negro" from Alma, the poem which when eventually completed was published as "La f i e s t a n a c i o n a l " , a study of the b u l l - f i g h t (p.69). I t i s not relevant t o t h i s study. 'Los cantares* i s Machado's f i r s t c o l l e c t i o n of ooplas and poems i n the Andalusian manner since those o f T r i s t e s y a l e g r e s . although the f i r s t poem, "Cantares", had appeared i n Alma. Included under the same heading are four poems which are not coplas nor s p e c i f i c a l l y on Andalusian themes. Three of them have the word madrigal i n t h e i r t i t l e s and may have formed part of the "plaquette" of f i f t e e n or twenty "madrigalitos s i n pensamiento n i profundidad" about which Machado wrote to Juan Ramon Jimenez i n 1903. He describes them as "musica y c o l o r i n e s a l a aguada, distracciones i n o f e n s i v a s " . The f i r s t of 5. A poem i n T r i s t e s y alegres a l s o c a l l e d " F i n de s i g l o " r e f e r s t o the pleasure of watching the querida weep. This hint o f p e r v e r s i t y may have been the reason f o r the t i t l e , with i t s connotations, i n French at l e a s t , of decadence, and corresponds to the p e r v e r s i t y of F l o r i a n a century e a r l i e r . 6.. In Gullo'n, "Relaciones amistosas y l i t e r a r i a s entre Juan Ramon Jimenez y Manuel Machado". CHA (Madrid), 127 ( J u l y , i960) p.127. 98 them, "Madrigales", (p.4-3) contains the g a l l i c i s m "reseda" noted by Damaso 7 Alonso. The word occurs too i n Verlaine*s "Apres t r o i s ans" (p.62), where i t i s also associated with dew and morning. The scent of flowers i s a reminder of love, as i t i s i n Verlaine's poem, but i n the l a t t e r i t i s much more w i s t f u l . The l i n k between morning dew and the g i f t of bouquets of flowers i s to be found i n "Green" (p..205), from Romances sans paroles, which resembles "Madrigales" somewhat i n i t s l i g h t , a i r y tone. "Aleluyas madrigalescas" (p.44), i s even more of a t r i f l e , as i t s t i t l e suggests. Aleluyas were the comic s t r i p s of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, broadsheets with a series of cartoons i l l u s t r a t i n g coplas printed beneath. The term consequently came to mean "doggerel", and t h i s series of rhyming couplets celebrating the charms of the f a i r L o l i l l a i s , as Machado said , inoffensive and nothing more. "La dio.sa" (p.4-5) reverts to the theme, mentioned e a r l i e r , of the Columbine f i g u r e , the woman who i s both good and e v i l . This angel/demon idea of fe n i i n i n i t y was common to Baudelaire and Verlaine and had become vulgarised. The notion i s a commonplace i n a l l Gomez C a r r i l l o * s work and i t i s his influence that i s most apparent here. But there are echoes of Verlaine too, not of the gentle, melancholy "pauvre L e l i a n " best-known to Machado*s contempdraries but the satyr, the unrepentant sensualist of the l a t e r books l i k e Parallelement and Chansons pour e l l e . These books influenced Machado alone of his generation and t h e i r effect can be seen i n much of his e r o t i c verse. The idea of young g i r l s capable of depravity appears early i n Verlaine's work, i n "Chanson des ingenues" (p.75) from Poemes saturniens, where the g i r l s have f a i r h a i r i n smooth bands l i k e Machado's "diosa". Numbers V (p.713) and VIII (p.715) of Chansons pour e l l e express the same sensual and untrustworthy 7. "Ligereza y gravedad" p..81 8. See ch.2, p. 69 99 side of woman: "pervers nonchaloirs de ces yeux", "menterie, bouche f l e u r i e " , "perverse/ou non, que f a i t ? " , "Aimons, ma p e t i t e me'chante". ( i t should be noted that number V i s emphatically marked i n Machado's edition.) The other side of the c o i n , youth and innocence, i s described i n much the same terms as i s Mathilde i n numbers I I and I I I (pp.142-3) of La bonne chanson. She too i s unpredictable, "Ldgere et grave, ironique, a t t e n d r i e " . The d u a l i t y of Verlaine's feelings towards women i s expressed i n "Serenade" (p..80) from Poemes saturniens i n the l i n e "-Mon Angel -ma Gougel" which Machado t r a n s l a t e s "Picara mia,imi angeli" This same d u a l i t y i s to be found i n the next poem, "Madrigal a una c h i c a . . . que no entiende de madrigales"(p.46) But here the influence i s more c l e a r l y Baudelaire, f o r t h i s use of night as a symbol f o r woman occurs i n "Les yeux de Berthe" (p.186) and "L*Ideal" (p.25), I n Baudelaire's "Madrigal t r i s t e " (p.179) too there are s i m i l a r images of voluptousness and the burning heart. The only poem by Verlaine at a l l s i m i l a r i s "Marco" (p.86) from Poemes saturniens, which shows the influence of Baudelaire i n i t s vocabulary, t e r r i b l e , mystere, crime, luxure, feux, comparable to Machado's t e r r i b l e , m i s t e r i o s a , muertes, voluptuosa and candente. Baudelaire also uses the term madrigal to mean a complimentary poem to a woman, as i n "Madrigal t r i s t e " or the prose poem "L'horloge"; Verlaine only uses i t once. The next sub-heading, 'Hablado', i s i n t e r e s t i n g . The word seems to indi c a t e that the poetry should be spoken rather than sung, reminding one o f the medieval d i s t i n c t i o n between degires and canciones. In fact the four poems which come under t h i s heading are s i m i l a r t o those i n *E1 mai poema* from Caprichos. i n p a r t i c u l a r t o "Prosa", from which the new s u b - t i t l e may deri v e . This i s a new genre of poetry f o r Machado, that of d e l i b e r a t e l y b a n a l , prosaic verse, poetry of the c i t y and i s , as Rafae l Ferreres s t a t e s , p o s s i b l y 9 the f i r s t attempt i n Spanish to w r i t e such poems. 9. In Los l i m i t e s d e l modemismo y d e l 98, (Madrid, 1964), p.35 note 18. 100 "Ultima" (p.86), the f i r s t o f them, i s r e a l l y another i n the s e r i e s of s e l f - p o r t r a i t s t h a t s t r e t c h from "Inmoral" i n T r i s t e s y alegres t o the "Nuevo a u t o r r e t r a t o " of Phoenix i n 1935* L i k e "Adelfos" i t has a l o f t y s e l f - d r a m a t i s i n g tone, b u t u n l i k e i t "Ultima" i s o f t e n punctuated by l i n e s of sharp ddgonflage. T h i s a l t e r n a t i o n between morbid s e l f - p i t y and i r o n i c .je m' en foutisme gives the poem f l e x i b i l i t y and range. The. s e l f - p i t y i s very l i k e t h a t i n B a u d e l a i r e ' s "L'Ennemi", (p. 18) i n which the l i n e s "Ma jeunesse ne f u t qu'un tehebreux orage" are s i m i l a r to Machado's " juventud p o d r i d a " . Again, i r r e m e d i a b l e i s a very B a u d e l a i r i a n word, and Machado's "Tu", c a l l a . J Tu boca es sd l o para besar'." i s reminiscent o f "Sois charmanteet t a i s - t o i " from "Sonnet d'automne" ( p . 7 l ) . V e r l a i n e 1 s P a r a l l e l e m e n t i s f u l l o f verses i n a s i m i l a r v e i n , weary, c y n i c a l and ending i n bathos. I n " A l l e g o r i e " (p.4-85) > f o r example: "Sujet n a i f et fade q u i m ' a t t r i s t e s . . . T a p i s s e r i e usde et suranne'e, Banale comme un decor d'opera, P a c t i c e , h e l a s l comme ma destinee?" I n "Prologue a un l i v r e . . . "(p.497) we f i n d "Je compte parmi l e s m a l a d r o i t s , / j * a i perdu ma v i e " ; "Invraisemblable mais v r a i " (p.50l) and "A l a maniere de P a u l V e r l a i n e " (p.503) show the same a t t i t u d e . But Darfo had a l s o p u b l i s h e d , i n Los lunes d e l I m p a r c i a l (1907), a s e l f -p o r t r a i t , the " E p f s t o l a " to l a senbra de Lugones (p.746), which may have i n f l u e n -' 10 ced "Ultima", f i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n the same j o u r n a l i n the same ye a r . Machado's use of the word "admirable" i n the t h i r d stanza seems to i n d i c a t e a reference t o Dario*, whose f a v o u r i t e a d j e c t i v e t h i s was."*"*" The l i n e "en mitad d e l camLno" 10. I t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t h a t Machado*s poem i n f l u e n c e d D a r f o ' s , as I have been unable t o date " E p f s t o l a " e x a c t l y . Or i t may have been a p a r a l l e l i n f l u e n c e , as the poets were good f r i e n d s . 11. I am indebted f o r t h i s suggestion t o Dr. Coope. On Darfo and "admirable" see Pe'rez P e r r e r o , V i d a . p.56; and Jimenez, La c o r r i e n t e , p.92. 101 may r e c a l l Darfo1s "Thanatos" from Cantos de vida y esperanza (1905). .The l i n e i s of course from Dante,, and i s also quoted by Antonio, i n l i n e s s i m i l a r to Manuel's and to D a r i o1s "Cancfon de otono en primavera" (p.657), i n number XXV of 'Galerfas* ( p . 7 3 l ) : "Hoy, en mitad de l a v i d a , me he parado a meditar... i Juventud nunca v i v i d a , quien te v o l v i e r a a sonarI" Jose' Machado has commented on the s i m i l a r i t y between the s e l f - p o r t r a i t s of the two brothers (pp.36-7). In " E p f s t o l a " Darfo too speaks of his "Neurastenia", as does Manuel Machado i n "Ultima". The word was, as we have s a i d , i n common use at the time. Exacerbated nerves and quivering s e n s i b i l i t i e s , the resu l t of Rimbaud's "long derangement de tous l e s sens", were considered a desirable state f o r an a r t i s t . (Machado uses the term i n the most complimentary way i n his review of 12 * Jimenez.'s Rimaa,. ) But i n "Ultima" he seems t o be using the word i r o n i c a l l y , as he does i n the poem "Neurastenia" from Caprichos. The l i n e s "de l o que dicen que valgo/no me he crefdo jama's" are c l e a r l y a paraphrase of Z o r r i l l a ' s "ya no valgo/lo que han dicho que v a l f a " . ^ The next of these poems, "Invierno" (p.84-), i s one o f Machado's best i n the genre. I t i s a cry of rage and protest against the Bohemian l i f e and against the P h i l i s t i n i s m of Spanish society that forces a r t i s t s i n t o i t , and i t i s a r e j e c t i o n of the sentimental view of Bohemia. As Dr. Brotherston 12. In E l Pafs (Madrid, 1902). Quoted by G u l l o n , "Relaciones amistosas y l i t e r a r i a s entre Juan Ramon Jimenez y Manuel Machado", CHA ( J u l y i960) 127,, pp.i34.-6. 13. See Dr. Brotherston, p.34-, on the other version of t h i s l i n e i n "Yo, poeta. decadente", which runs "ya no bebo/lo que 'han dicho que bebia." 102 points out, the poverty and squalor of that l i f e were an unavoidable reality for Maohado and his contemporaries (p.35)» N i l o Fabra quofes Darfo as saying "estoy enfermo, muy enfermo . . . yces l a bohemia, l a inquerida bohemia.""^ Darfo repeats this phrase in "Nocturno" from Cantos de vida (p.656): " e l falso azul nocturno de inquerida bohemia". A l i k e l y antecedent for Machado's lines on the poverty of great writers i s also to be found in D a r f o , i n number XI of Cantos (p.643) '• " - 1 oh Shakespeare pobre, y oh Cervantes mancoi" The notion of the world's h o s t i l i t y to a r t i s t s i s also there: " l a pasio'n del vulgo que condena." But Darfo*s poem i s a cry of hope and faith i n the future,. whereas Machado's i s t o t a l l y despairing. The barrel-organ, with i t s mournful music, is the symbol of the streets and cafe's of literary Bohemia, and of the romanticising of that l i f e . Machado was of course aware of the organ in "Nocturne Parisien" (p.83), a poem that 15 has already been shown to have influenced him. Verlaine's organ grinds out old, well-known songs which "font vibrer l'Sme aux proscrits, aux femmes, aux artistes.""^ Machado must also have known Laforgue's "Complainte de 1*orgue de Barbarie", with i t s lines "Orgue, orgue de Barbarie, Don Quichotte, Souffre-Douleur, Vidasse, vidasse ton coeur, Ma pauvre rosse endolorie." But Machado e x p l i c i t l y rejects this literary cliche" with i t s melancholy sentimentality, and states clearly that the artis-tfs'life i s not only sad but 14. I n " E l fntimo", Ofrenda de Espana a Ruben D a r f o , pp.42-3. Quoted by D. Alvarez, Cartas de_Ruben Darfo (Madrid, 1963), p.20. 15. See ch.2, pp.64 and 65 ,. and ch.3, p. 85 16. Jimenez, i n "Pablo Verlaine y su novia l a luna", Helios X (Oct.1903), pp.301-4, speaks of Verlaine's "organillo de l a nostalgia, 2fque7lloraba susraires antiguos" (p.302). 103 r i d i c u l o u s and h u m i l i a t i n g . The f l a t , jerky s t y l e , the unfi n i s h e d sentences and puntos suspensivcs give the poem the a i r of a spoken monologue i n prose, as does the use of a proverb i n f a m i l i a r s t y l e - "Suerte/te de D i o s , h i j o , que e l saber no v a l e " . Verlaine too comments wryly on the de s t i t u t e l i f e of the poet, i n "Caprice" (p.527) from Parallelement, and uses the same image of wounds• "La lune pour chauffer l e s sans femmes n i t o i t s , La mort, ah, pour bercer l e s coeurs malechanceux, Pauvres coeurs mai tombe's, trop bons et tr e s f i e r s , c e r t e s l Car 1' i r o n i e e'clate aux levres b e l l e s , c a r t e s , De vos blessures... Va, poete, l e seul des hommes v e r i t a b l e s , Meurs sauve', meurs de faim pourtant l e moins possible." And of course, Verlaine's own poverty i s mentioned i n "Invierno", so that h i s influence can be seen i n the poem both by precept and example. " f P a z l " (p.85) i s a prayer f o r innocence and f a i t h a f t e r the d i s i l l u s i o n of c i t y l i f e . Like "Ultima" i t speaks o f a l l e g o r i c a l wounds i n f l i c t e d i n desperate struggles. Baudelaire uses the same images to express man's capacity f o r e v i l i n "Au l e c t e u r " , (p.5), " l e p o i s o n , l e p&ignard", and i n "Madrigal t r i s t e " (p.179), "de poison, et de g l a i v e s " , corresponding to Machado1s "punal" and "veneno". But the main i n s p i r a t i o n s of the poem are c l e a r l y Sagesse and Amour. The image of pure water found i n " P r i l r e du matin" (p.4-05) and "Un conte" (p.4-10) i s associated with innocence, as i t i s here: " I I faut un coeur pur comme l'eau qui j a i l l i t des roches", "eau c l a i r e du coeur". A l i n e fromi Sagesse I I , 7 (p.27l), "La paix du coeur, 1'amour d'&tre pauvre" i s extended i n Machado's t r a n s l a t i o n to read " l a paz y de s e r pobre l o s s e n c i l l o s p l a c e r e s " , and i s c l e a r l y the source of " f P a z l " " ^ The i n t e r e s t i n g use of the word 17 This i s another example of the usefulness of the t r a n s l a t i o n s to in d i c a t e h i t h e r t o unnoticed p a r a l l e l s between the work o f Verlaine and Machado. 104 " s u t i l e z a " i n t h i s context of c h i l d i s h f a i t h i s p a r a l l e l e d by a s i m i l a r use i n Sagesse. I , 5 (p.247): "Ah! que du moins, l o i n des b a i s e r s et des combats, Quelquechose demeure un peu s u r l a montagne, Quelquechose du coeur e n f a n t i n et s u b t i l , Bonte, r e s p e c t I " Dr. V a l e n t f has demonstrated how Machado 1 s use o f the word cosa, as here i n 18 "cosas i n m o r t a l e s " , d e r i v e s from V e r l a i n e . Samain a l s o took up t h i s theme from V e r l a i n e i n t h e s e r i e s 'La Tour' (Au J a r d i n . pp.131-2), and i n 'Paysages' IV (Le Chariot f p.29). L i n e s from the l a t t e r , "Ahl v i v r e i c i parmi 1'innocence des choses", and "0 songe d'une v i e heureuse et monotone!" may have suggested Machado*s "?Y l a s e n c i l l a paz de l o s d i a s i g u a l e s i " The next poem i n 'Hablado', "Peregrino" (p.84), i s a s h o r t j i n g l e on the theme o f the p i l g r i m , which has a l r e a d y been mentioned as an important image 19 both f o r Manuel and Antonio Machado. I t expresses once a g a i n the idea t h a t l i f e i s a journey w i t h an unknown d e s t i n a t i o n and man a t r a v e l l e r who must l i v e i n the present. The l a s t s e c t i o n o f t h e book, 'La buena cancidh", i s d i r e c t l y i n s p i r e d 20 by V e r l a i n e ' s La Bonne Chanson. The f i r s t poem, "La buena cancidh" (p.59) i s very c l o s e t o La Bonne Chanson I (p.142). The elements of morning, sun, sky and r i v e r are the same, and the thoughts o f love t h a t they evoke. Machado use of the word " l u c e r o " t o d e s c r i b e h i s f i r s t l o v e i s p a r a l l e l e d by V e r l a i n e ' 18. "The p o e t i c language", pp.67-8. The word occurs 44 times i n her concordance o f Machado's work, and 13 times i n V e r l a i n e , a c c o r d i n g to Cuenot, Le S t y l e de P a u l V e r l a i n e ( P a r i s , I963), p.138. 19. See ch.2, p. 45 , and ch.3, p. 90 20. See Chabas, Vuelo y e s t i l o I (Madrid, 1934), p.108; and L e p i o r z , Themen, p.22. 105 number IV; (p.144),, ". • .un E t r e de lumiere/a dans ma n u i t profonde e'mis ce t t e clarte'/d'une amour a l a f o i s immortelle et premiere", and by the "lumiere s a i n t e " of number X I I (p.149). The same symbol, "lucero/de l a manana", i s the " e t o i l e du matin" of number V (p. 145). And the image of t h e sky as s i l k may w e l l have been suggested by these l i n e s i n number XIX: (p.153): "Le grand s o l e i l , complice de ma j o i e , F e r a , parmi l e s a t i n et l a s o i e , P l u s b e l l e encore votre chere beaute; Le c i e l tout b l e u , comme une haute t e n t e , F r i s s o n e r a somptueux." ^The u n d e r l i n i n g i s mine/' The next poem, "Intermezzo" (p.59), uses once again the image of the r i v e r as s p i r i t u a l h e a l i n g , the " r u i s s e a u t o u j o u r s c l a i r " o f " P r i e r e du matin" (p.405). The reference t o s p r i n g i n h i s s o u l i s l i k e that i n number XXI o f La bonne chanson, " j ' a i depuis un an l e printemps dans l e coeur" (p.154). Machado's use of the word cosas, i n "dulces cosas y p a l a b r a s " , i s once a g a i n V e r l a i n i a n , as remarked e a r l i e r i n t h i s chapter (p.104n. 18 ). But Machado has not y e t a t t a i n e d t h i s peace and l o v e : t h e poems o f h i s "buena cancidn" are an e x p e c t a t i o n of joy soon t o come, V e r l a i n e * s are i n a n t i c i p a t i o n o f h i s coming marriage. L i k e numbers IV (p.144) and XVII (p.152) of La bonne chanson, "Intermezzo" f o r e c a s t s the l i f e of love and peace that w i l l be p o s s i b l e w i t h the beloved woman. "Despedida a l a luna" (p.60) i s a very unpoetic poem i n p l a c e s , an auto-b i o g r a p h i c a l confession r a t h e r l i k e V e r l a i n e ' s i n "Un conte" (p.410) from Amour. I t d e s c r i b e s i n s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d terms what the b e t t e r poems of t h i s p e r i o d i n t i m a t e , t h a t i s , Machado's d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t w i t h f a c i l e love a f f a i r s and c i t y l i f e , represented by P a r i s . The images he uses t o d e s c r i b e t h i s l i f e are very l i k e those of "Madrigal a una chica...que no entiende de madrigales". The poet of t h e f i r s t stanza c o u l d w e l l be B a u d e l a i r e , f o r the hope of "amor a p a c i b l e " and the r e j e c t i o n of p a s s i o n are s i m i l a r to "Sonnet d'automne" ( p . 7 l ) : 106 "Je hais l a passion et 1'esprit me f a i t m a l l . . . Aimons-nous doucement. L'amour... Je connais les engins de son v i e i l arsenal: Crime, horreur et folie.1" But there i s a l s o a p a r a l l e l with D a r i b , whose " E p i s t o l a " , mentioned above (p. 100 )> contains the l i n e s "Y me vol v i a P a r i s . Me volvi" a l enemigo t e r r i b l e , centro de l a neurosis, ombligo de l a locura." Machado*s second, f i f t h and s i x t h stanzas are also very l i k e Darib* s "Cancion de otono en primavera", a s i m i l a r autobiography of the emotions, and there seems l i t t l e doubt that the f i r s t part of "Despedida a l a luna" was mainly i n s p i r e d by Darib. But the second h a l f o f the poem i s decidedly V e r l a i n i a n . The tones of red and black represent sexual passion and s i n , and are probably derived from Verlaine's "There" (p.415) i n Amour, "un regret rouge et n o i r " . In the same stanza the countryside r e f l e c t e d i n h i s eyes may have been suggested by the l i n e s i n La bonne chanson number V (p. 145) which juxtapose a d e s c r i p t i o n of the morning landscape with that o f the lover's eyes. The same poem contains the l i n e s "Quelle j o i e Parmi l e s champs de b i d murl... - La rose*e Gaiment b r i l l e sur l e f o i n , " which correspond to "...se tienden de r i s a l a s mieses bajo l a b r i s a alegre de l a manana." One of the most i n t e r e s t i n g things about "Despedida a l a luna" i s i t s reference to "mi joven esposa" at a time when Machado was s t i l l l i v i n g the Bohemian l i f e , three years before h i s marriage to E u l a l i a . I t makes cl e a r to 107 what extent Machado thought o f h i s own l i f e i n terms of V e r l a i n e ' s , f o r there i s no doubting the s i n c e r e tone o f the poem. Cle a r l y . E u l a l i a came t o represent f o r him, even at a d i s t a n c e , both E l i s a and M a t h i l d e , the two women i n V e r l a i n e ' s l i f e . (The former was h i s c o u s i n and f i r s t l o v e , as E u l a l i a was to Machado; the l a t t e r h i s w i f e , t o whom La bonne chanson was dedicated.) "Es l a manana" (p.62) i s another poem on a morning landscape as an image of the p e a c e f u l and innocent l i f e . The short l i n e s and rhyme scheme r e c a l l 21 number VI of La bonne chanson^ (p.145), a s L e p i o r z p o i n t s out. The i n t e r n a l rhymes and a l l i t e r a t i o n , " d o r a y c o l o r a " , " e l r i o , r i e " , "balsamo amable", give the poem a s o f t , l i q u i d sound t h a t i s more French than Spanish, c o r r e s -ponding t o l i n e s l i k e 5ma mie endormie" i n number V (p. 145). The n o t i o n of the sky as a symbol o f s a l v a t i o n , not simply i n the hackneyed sense o f 'heaven' but as l i g h t and p u r i t y , occurs i n Sagesse I , <Q (p.248) "Le c i e l t o u t b l e u , l e c i e l chanteur q u i t e re'clame". T h i s s i n g i n g sky corresponds t o Machado's laughing sky. The p l e a f o r goodness and f a i t h repeats again the theme o f " J P a z l " . The use of the word i n e n a r r a b l e may have been suggested by the l i n e " v o l u p t e ' n o n p a r e i l l e , i v r e s s e i n e n a r r a b l e " from V e r l a i n e ' s " I I B a c i o " (p.82), which Machado t r a n s l a t e s as "embriaguez i n e n a r r a b l e " , "Vagamente" (p.63) seems out of p l a c e i n 'La buena cancidn', being a poem o f melancholy f o u n t a i n s reminiscent o f some of the p o e t r y i n Alma and Caprichos. The h o l i n e s s of water harks back again t o " P r i e r e du matin", (p.405) but as a whole the poem i s more l i k e that p a r t o f Antonio's work which d e r i v e s from "Apres t r o i s ans" and h i s c h i l d h o o d memories o f the f o u n t a i n and the lemon 22 t r e e . The two sonnets of "Se' buena" (p,64) are the culmination of these poems of 'La buena cancidn' i n the sense t h a t they d e s c r i b e at l e n g t h , i n the very 21. Themen, p.49, 22. See Ribbans, "La i n f l u e n c i a de V e r l a i n e en Antonio Machado" CHA 91-2 (1957), pp.186-7. 108 terms t h a t V e r l a i n e used, the v i s i o n o f a good and l o v i n g woman who w i l l be the poet's s a l v a t i o n . V e r l a i n e f i r s t expressed t h i s t r e a s u r e d hope i n Poemes  sa t u r n i e n s . "A une femme" (p.64) r e f e r s to such a woman and her t e a r s and l a u g h t e r as does "Mon reve f a m i l i e r " (p.63). But c u r i o u s l y the poem most l i k e "Se buena" i s the sensual " L a s s i t u d e " (p.63). I t i s a sonnet, where "Se buena" c o n s i s t s o f two l i n k e d sonnets. I t too i s a s e r i e s of commands couched i n an i n t i m a t e , n o n - r h e t o r i c a l language, and contains one l i n e which c o u l d w e l l have been the main i n s p i r a t i o n f o r "Se' buena", " V o i s - t u , l'amante/doit a v o i r 1'abandon p a i s i b l e de l a soeur" , which Machado expresses as "se' mi amante y mi hermana". Ba u d e l a i r e too o f t e n expressed t h i s i d e a , as i n "Mon e n f a n t , ma soeur" from " L ' i n v i t a t i o n au voyage" (p.58) or i n these l i n e s from "Chant d'automne" (p.62), "Et pourtant aimez-moi, tenure coeur! Soyez mere... Amante ou soeur, soyez l a douceur". The l i n e "ccmo a l sediento un sorbo de agua pura en l a mano" i s reminiscent of the "eau du p u i t s g lace" and i t s a s s o c i a t i o n s of tender care i n Sagesse I I I , 3. I n the second sonnet of "Se* buena" the images o f t h e woman's blue eyes and o f the pale moon at morning are c l e a r l y taken from "ton regard que noie/L'aurore dans son azur" and the "pale e'toile du matin" of La Bonne Chanson V (p . 145). Sagesse I 16 (p.256) contains l i n e s very l i k e those o f Machado's second stanza: " E l l e p a r l e a u s s i de l a g l o i r e "Pascaremos l a g l o r i a - dulce D'etre simple sans p l u s a t t e n d r e , paz s i n v i c t o r i a -E t des noces d'or du tendre de nuestro amor...' 23 Bonheur d'une p a i x sans v i c t o i r e . " ...nuestra s e n c i l l a h i s t o r i a " "Se* buena," too,, i s a kind of epithalamium, of a human k i n d but i n s i s t i n g on the same s p i r i t u a l values as t h i s poem of V e r l a i n e . 23. A comparison of the uses of the words paz and s e n c i l l e ) by means of the computer concordances e s t a b l i s h e d the c l o s e l i n k between these poems. 109 The strange l i n e ajbout the l o v e r s ' weak shadows on the e a r t h i s c u r i o u s l y l i k e a l i n e i n Vigny's "La Maison du B e r g e r " , a poem Machado probably knew and w h i c h a l s o casts a woman, Eva, as man's sav i o u r and speaks of a refuge i n the c o u n t r y s i d e : "Nous marcherons a i n s i , ne l a i s s a n t que notre ombre/Sur c e t t e t e r r e " . "Domingo" (p.65), the l a s t poem i n t h e book, should probably have been in c l u d e d i n t h e s e c t i o n 'Hablado*. I t expresses the same weariness as "Ultima" and " I n v i e r n o " , together w i t h a prayer f o r s i m p l i c i t y l i k e t h a t i n "IPazI",. but i s a much f i n e r poem i n i t s t o t a l e f f e c t than any of these. I t i s a sonnet, and both L e p i o r z and B r o t h e r s t o n have commented on Machado's s k i l f u l m anipulation o f the caesura t o make a t r a n s i t i o n from the f i r s t to the second t e r c e t , from the j e r k y , broken l i n e s e x p r e s s i n g the hubbub of the crowd to 24 the l o n g , eloquent a l e x a n d r i n e s of the f i n a l p rayer. The d e s c r i p t i o n o f l i f e as a tumult o f n o i s e and f a t i g u e i s to be found i n poems by B a u d e l a i r e , V e r l a i n e and Samain. The f i r s t d e s c r i b e s i n terms s i m i l a r t o Machado*s the scene of poor people's Sunday evening i n "Le V i n des c h i f f o n i e r s " (p.120): "Au coeur d'un v i e u x faubourg, l a b y r i n t h e fangeux/Ou l'humanite* g r o u i l l e en ferments orageux." Obviously i n s p i r e d by B a u d e l a i r e , Samain took up t h i s theme i n 'La Tour 1 I I (Au J a r d i n . p , 1 3 l ) . I t begins w i t h the word " l i f e " , as does "Domingo": "La Vie est comme un grand v i o l o n q ui sanglote,/Et l e peuple obstine', qui g r o u i l l e aux c a r r e f o u r s . . . f o u r m i l l e et c l a p o t e . " Machado's f i r s t t e r c e t i s v e r y s i m i l a r , both i n technique and content, t o V e r l a i n e ' s Sagesse I , 19 (p.258): 24. See B r o t h e r s t o n , p.90; and Themen, p.50. 110 "Voix de l a C h a i r . Un gros tapage fatigue". 25 Des gens ont bu. L'endroit f a i t semblant d'Stre g a i . " But where V e r l a i n e and Samain condemn these m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of the d e v i l , the world and t h e f l e s h , Machado prays f o r the a b i l i t y t o throw o f f h i s a c c i d i e . the equivalent of B a u d e l a i r e ' s "ennui, f r u i t de l a morne i n c u r i o s i t e " and j o i n the simple-hearted i n t h e i r g a i e t y . H i s i s the s p i r i t u a l a r i d i t y of B a u d e l a i r e ' s "Le Mauvais Moine" (p.18) or the poems of the 'Spleen' c y c l e (pp.79-80), and h i s c r y f o r help i n t h e l a s t t e r c e t i s s i m i l a r to t h e monk's: "Quand s a u r a i - j e done f a i r e Du s p e c t a c l e vivant de ma t r i s t e misere Le t r a v a i l de mes mains e t 1'amour de mes yeux?" A s i m i l a r p l e a ends "Un Voyage a Cythere" (p.136):' "Ah! Seigneur! donnez-moi l a force et l e courage/De contempler mon coeur et mon corps sans degouti" Machado's envy o f the pleasures of the populace i s p a r a l l e l e d by l i n e s of B a u d e l a i r e ' s "Le Jeu" (p.107): "Je me v i s accoude',, f r o i d , muet, e n v i a n t , E n v i a n t de ces gens l a p a s s i o n tenace. . . E t mon coeur s ' e f f r a y a d'envier maint pauvre homme." Indeed, almost a l l of the themes of "^omingo" can a l s o be found i n Les F l e u r s du Mal. I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g that Machado should have been i n f l u e n c e d by B a u d e l a i r e i n h i s poetry of urban l i f e . The French poet was the f i r s t and g r e a t e s t s i n g e r of the c i t y and a master of the sonnet, the form i n which Machado a l s o e x c e l l e d . I t has been observed that Antonio Machado knew h i s 26 B a u d e l a i r e , and the two brothers shared a common fund of l i t e r a r y knowledge and reference. 25. T h i s poem was probably i n s p i r e d by Baudelaire's "La F i n de l a journe*e" (p.153): "Sous une lumiere b l a f a r d e / C o u r t . , danse et se t o r d sans r a i s o n / La v i e , impudente et c r i a r d e . " T w i l i g h t , the w i s h t o r e s t and the noises of l i f e o u t s i de are a l s o t o be found i n B a u d e l a i r e ' s poem, as w e l l as Machado's. 26. See Ribbans, "La i n f l u e n c i a " CHA 91-92 (1957), pp.195-6. I l l Alma.Museo.Los c a n t a r e s , then, despite i t s flamenco f r o n t i s p i e c e and Andalusian poems, s t i l l c ontains a s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n of new work w i t h unmistakeably French antecedents, mainly from V e r l a i n e , B a u d e l a i r e and Samain. Of t h i s work, "La l l u v i a " , " I n v i e r n o " , "'Paz!", "La Buena cancion", "Es l a maHana" and "-Domingo" show c l e a r l y that French i n f l u e n c e on Machado produced some of h i s best poetry. A y e a r l a t e r , i n 1908, appeared F i e s t a s galantes. Poemas sa t u r n i a n o s . La buena cancion. Romanzas s i n p a l a b r a s . S a b i d u r i a . Amor. Parabolas y otras p o e s i a s . a c o l l e c t i o n of prose t r a n s l a t i o n s of V e r l a i n e ' s poems, based on F a s q u e l l e ' s 27 famous Choix de poe*sies w i t h some v a r i a t i o n s . A comparison of Machado's 28 t r a n s l a t i o n w i t h the F a s q u e l l e e d i t i o n i s a s i g n i f i c a n t p o i n t e r to Machado's prefe r e n c e s . He adds t e n poems t o t h e s e c t i o n Poemes S a t u r n i e n s , making i t almost complete save f o r three poems. He a l s o adds the only two poems which were mi s s i n g from Fetes g a l a n t e s , "En p a t i n a n t " and "Dans l a g r o t t e . " He omits number VI of ' A r i e t t e s oubliees* probably because of the d i f f i c u l t y of t r a n s l a t i n g i t s s t r e e t argot and obscurely French r e f e r e n c e s , but adds "0 la r d v i e r e dans la rue!" t o Romances sans P a r o l e s . I t i s c u r i o u s t h a t he leaves out o f e i g h t o f the best poems of Sagesse, among them numbers I I I , 6 , 9 and 13. None o f them n e c e s s a r i l y presented any great d i f f i c u l t i e s f o r a t r a n s l a t o r , except perhaps number 13. But presumably something had t o be omitted i f Machado was t o in c l u d e the e r o t i c poems fromry.,0hansons pour e l l e . The verse 27. Ribbans, i n h i s a r t i c l e "Nuevas p r e c i s i o n e s sobre l a i n f l u e n c i a de V e r l a i n e en Antonio Machado", RF X I I (1968-9), pp.297-8, d i s c u s s e s the importance o f t h i s 1891 e d i t i o n f o r Antonio Machado and Juan Ramon Jimenez. To t h i s may be added that i t was a l s o t h e e d i t i o n i n which B a r o j a , i n P a r i s a t t h e same time as the Machados and a f r i e n d of t h e i r s , l e a r n e d to love/.Verlaine's p o e t r y . (See Egea, B a r o j a y F r a n c i a , p.4-10). 28. I n the r e p r i n t of I96I by Club des L i b r a i r i e s de France, Saverne. 112 p l a y l e t Les Una et l e s A u t r e s i s a l s o , understandably, l e f t out, as i s " J ' a i l a f u r e u r d'aimer" from Amour, but s i x o f Dddicaces are added, and twelve of Chansons pour e l l e . C l e a r l y , then, Machado had a d e f i n i t e penchant f o r V e r l a i n e 1 s e r o t i c p o e t r y . This c o n c l u s i o n i s a l s o bo me out by the evidence of h i s copy of V e r l a i n e ' s Oeuvres Completes I I ( P a r i s 1899), h e l d i n the B i b l i o t e c a Machado, Burgos. I have assumed th a t the p e n c i l marks i n t h i s book were made by Machado, s i n c e the poems s i n g l e d out, p a r t i c u l a r l y " P r i e r e du matin" and 29 Chansons pour e l l e , can be shown t o have i n f l u e n c e d Machado i n h i s own p o e t r y , and a l s o because i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t Machado's w i f e would have a p p r e c i a t e d the l a t t e r poems. I t i s almost c e r t a i n t h a t t h i s e d i t i o n o f V e r l a i n e ' s works, i n c l u d i n g the two m i s s i n g volumes, was t h a t used by Machado f o r h i s t r a n s l a t i o n s t o supplement the Choix de p o e s i e s , as i t was the only c o l l e c t i v e e d i t i o n a v a i l a b l e a t that time. The t r a n s l a t i o n s themselves are e x c e l l e n t , b o t h accurate and e l e g a n t , although Machado takes the o c c a s i o n a l l i b e r t y i n order t o c l a r i f y a poem o r t o achieve more p o l i s h e d Spanish. G-eorges Tournoux, V e r l a i n e ' s b i b l i o g r a p h e r , s a i d that they were among the best t r a n s l a t i o n s ever made of V e r l a i n e ' s w o r k . ^ Enrique Diez-Canedo, hims e l f a p r o f e s s o r of French who had t r a n s l a t e d poems by V e r l a i n e as e a r l y as 1900, s t a t e d u n e q u i v o c a l l y i n h i s review of F i e s t a s galantes Machado's cl a i m to be Spain's i n t e r p r e t e r of V e r l a i n e . " S i entre l o s poetas a c t u a l e s buscamos uno b i e n posesionado de l a s cualidades necesarias para t a n a l t a empresa, conocimiento, hasta en sus mas f u g i t i v e s mat i c e s , de ambos idiomas, f l e x i b i l i d a d elegante de r i t m o , g r a c i a vaporosa y l a r g a f a m i l i a r i d a d con e l poeta franee's, nadie como Manuel Machado para s a l i r a i r o s o . 31?. e l e s p i r i t u de V e r l a i n e se ha d i f u n d i d o en nuestra poesfa moderna. . . l a forma de V e r l a i n e , i n m a t e r i a l , exquisitamente melddica, ha venido a Espana, principalmente,. por Manuel Machado.. En l a obra 29. Machado shows a c e r t a i n circumspection i n h i s choice of these f o r t r a n s l a t i o n . Of the eleven marked i n h i s copy, e i g h t are omitted from F i e s t a s g a l a n t e s , and those the most f l a g r a n t l y e r o t i c . 30. I n a l e t t e r t o Machado i n the B i b l i o t e c a Machado. A l s o c i t e d by Dr. B r o t h e r s t o n , p.143. 113 de este poeta, i n f l u i d a de un modo sano por l o s Poemes ^ a t u r n i e n s y l o s Fetes galantes £n l o que t i e n e n de p i c t d r i c o y acaso mas intensamente p o r l o s l i b r o s p o s t e r i o r e s a Sagesse, hay ritmos y e s t r o f a s que reproducen con g e n t i l e x a c t ! t u d ritmos y e s t r o f a s d e l "pauvre L e l i a n " The v i r t u e s of Machado's t r a n s l a t i o n can be seen i n t h i s example, number VI o f La Bonne Chanson. Machado V e r l a i n e La lune blanche L u i t dans l e s b o i s ; De chaque branche P a r t une v o i x Sous l a ramee... La luna blanca Luce en e l bos que; De cada rama P a r t e una voz So l a enramada... 6* b i e n aime'e. I Oh b i e n amada*. L'etang r e f l e t e , P rofond m i r o i r , La s i l h o u e t t e Du saule n o i r e Ou l e vent p l e u r e . . . R e f l e j a e l la.go, Profundo espejo, La s i l h u e t a D e l sauce negro Do e l v i e n t o l l o r a . Revons, c'est l'heure. Suena, es l a hora. Un vaste et tendre Apaisement Semble descendre Du firmament Que l ' a s t r e i r i s e . Un t i e r n o y vasto Recogindento B a j a r parece D e l firmamento Qhe e l a s t r o i r i s a , C'est l'heure exquise. La hora e x q u i s i t a . 3 1 . I n " P o e s i a " , La L e c t u r a V I I I ( A p r i l , 1908), 88, pp.437-9. 114 T h i s s e l e c t i o n was c l e a r l y Machado's p e r s o n a l c h o i c e , and was based on a knowledge of V e r l a i n e w i d e r than that of most o f h i s contemporaries i n Spain. I t i s a d d i t i o n a l evidence, i f more were needed, t h a t Machado knew, understood and loved the po e t r y o f V e r l a i n e , f o r t h i s i s no hack job but a l o v i n g l y p o l i s h e d s e r i e s o f t r a n s l a t i o n s t h a t must have occupied him f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s . Even i f he had not known the French poet's work w e l l when he began, as we 32 know that he d i d , he must have become deeply imbued w i t h i t i n the course o f such a lengthy task. I t has been expl a i n e d i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h i s study (pp. 6 - 7 ) t h a t a comparison o f these t r a n s l a t i o n s of V e r l a i n e w i t h Machado's own po e t r y through computer concordances has made i t p o s s i b l e to analyse i n great d e t a i l the V e r l a i n i a n i n f l u e n c e on Machado i n terms of theme and image. There could be no b e t t e r evidence o f Machado's c l o s e knowledge o f V e r l a i n e ' s work tfoan t h i s book, which was c l e a r l y a l a b o u r o f l o v e . 32. I am assuming that Machado began the t r a n s l a t i o n s during h i s f i r s t two v i s i t s t o P a r i s , s i n c e he obtained V e r l a i n e ' s complete works i n 1899 and the t r a n s l a t i o n s are so elegant as t o i n d i c a t e t h a t they must have taken a number of years t o complete. However, I have been unable t o f i n d any evidence o f when they were begun. 115 CHAPTER 3  THEMATIC ANALYSIS OF EL MAL POEMA In some ways E l mai poema (1909) represents Machado's highest achievement, and contains much of h i s most o r i g i n a l v e r s e . I t s s t y l e , described by Jose' Moreno V i l l a as "hablar v e r s i f i c a d o , ese sentido para l a poe*tica l i a n a y con fondo de distinguido a l t a n e r f a " ^ i s unique i n Spanish poetry. I t s cynicism derives p a r t l y , as Moreno V i l l a points out, from Espronceda, but i t s p r o s a i c tone and c i t y subject matter have French antecedents. In 1908 Machado had been 2 working i n P a r i s as a t r a n s l a t o r once more, which may explain the two poems i n French contained i n t h i s c o l l e c t i o n . In h i s speech to the Academy i n 1938 3 he apologised profusely f o r E l mai poema. c a l l i n g i t " a g r i o , duro, detestable" but pointed out that such was h i s l i f e at the time, " l a pasada bohemia, r o t a 4 y descoyuntada". Even at the time of p u b l i c a t i o n , i n an open l e t t e r t o Jimenez, Machado makes an i r o n i c apology f o r the s o r d i d subject matter of the 5 book, speaking of i t s " t r i v i a l i d a d e s y malsonancias". But h i s awareness of i t s r e a l importance i s apparent through the ir o n y . "Hay una apar i e n c i a y quizas una substancia t a l de vida en algunos de mis malos poemas...reflejando, en e f e c t o , l a v i d a de muchos jdvenes de mi tiempo", and he goes on to quote Poe, Heine, Verlaine and Becquer as his antecedents, "aventureros del i d e a l a t r a v e l de l a s pasiones amargas y de l a vida r o t a " . In an interview with Juan Sampelayo i n A r r i b a , September 28, 1941, he c a l l s E l mai poema his favourite book. 1. Los autores como actores (Mexico, 1951), p.112. 2. Dr. Brotherston, pp.35-6, and ch. 1 p.34 3. Unos versos, p.85. 4. Quoted by G u l l o n , "Relaciones amistosas y l i t e r a r i a s entre Juan Ramon Jimenez y Manuel Machado", p.130. 5. See Dr. Brotherston, pp.36-7 and " s u t o c r f t i c a " , La gaerra l i t e r a r i a (Madrid, 1913), pp.117-20. 116 Juan Chabas suggests t h a t the t i t l e E l mal poema i s a d e l i b e r a t e a n t i t h e s i s of 'La buena cancibn'^ w h i l e Damaso Alonso t h i n k s that i t may have more i n common w i t h Les F l e u r s du Mal than j u s t i t s t i t l e . ^ Both of these su p p o s i t i o n s may be c o r r e c t , f o r the book shows c l e a r i n f l u e n c e s from both V e r l a i n e and B a u d e l a i r e , as t h i s chapter w i l l demonstrate. The f i r s t and most important sub-heading i n the book i s that which, already used i n Caprichos. gave i t s name t o the whole c o l l e c t i o n , ' E l mal poema'. But preceding i t are two key poems, "Retrato" (p.75) and "Prdlogo-epxlogo" (p.76). The f i r s t of these i s an i r o n i c v e r s i o n of an accepted l i t e r a r y form which can be seen at i t s most se r i o u s and s e l f - i m p o r t a n t i n V i l l a e s p e s a ' s " A u t o r r e t r a t o " from E l p a t i o de l o s arrayanes (19O8). I n the l a t t e r the author congratulates h i m s e l f on h i s a r i s t o c r a t i c hands, t h i n k e r ' s forehead and d'Annunzian neck. Machado's "ojos de h a s t i b " and "boca de sed" are more s u b t l e , though a f a i n t l y melodramatic f l a v o u r i s s t i l l d e t e c t a b l e . The s t y l e , f l u c t u a t i n g between Esproncedan swagger and French degonflage, i s Machado's own. L i k e E l estudiante de Salamanca he has "en l o s l a b i o s l a i r o n i a " and " e l corazo'n gastado": l i k e him too he admires " g g i l i d a d y bravura" and i s "hastiado de amores". But the tone i s c o n v e r s a t i o n a l , f l a t , w i t h broken l i n e s and c o n v e n t i o n a l phrases, "Nada...Vida...Cosas", "Nada grave". Both tone and a t t i t u d e t o l i f e are t o be found i n V e r l a i n e . I n Sagesse I , 3 (p«-243) > the voyageur. who i s V e r l a i n e h i m s e l f , i s addressed thus; "Du moins a s - t u c u e i l l i 1 'ennui..,/Tes yeux sont a u s s i morts depuis l e s aventures." I n the "Prologue supprimd a un L i v r e d'Invectives" (p.513) we f i n d a j o c u l a r c o n f e s s i o n s i m i l a r t o Machado's: 6.. I n Vuelo y e s t i l o I (Madrid, 1934), p.109. 7. I n " L i g e r e z a y gravedad", pp.83-4. 117 "Mes femmes, t o u t e s 1 et ce n'est pas e f f r a y a n t : A peu p r e s , en t r e n t e ans'. neuf, a i n s i que l e s Muses, Neuf environ! Sans m'occuper du c a s u e l , Des amours de r a c c r o c , des b a i s e r s de rencontre." And i n "A G a b r i e l V i c a i r e " from Dedicaces (p.574) t h e tone o f the whole poem i s the same mixture o f f l i p p a n c y and h i s t r i o n i c s : "Moi pas mal sombre, un Dante imperceptible e t p i r e Avec un r e s t e , au fond, de pecheur mal t r a n s i . Je s u i s un sensuel. . . Plaignez-moi, c a r j e s u i s mauvais et non mechant. P u i s , t e l vous, j'aime l a danse et j'aime l e chant, Toutes r a i s o n s pour ne p l u s m1 en v o u l o i r qu'a pei n e , E t p u i s j'aime!" I n "A A d r i e n Remade" (p.57l) he c a l l s h i m s e l f , "Moi l e lasse" q u i reve d' e t r e un i r o n i q u e . . . / . . .Moi l e blase'". A very s i m i l a r s t y l e , c o l l o q u i a l and embittered, can be found i n T r i s t a n Corbidre's few poems on P a r i s i n Les amours jaunes; the broken Igines and puntos suspensivos are very s i m i l a r to Machado 1s s t y l e . "C'est l a Boheme, enfant... Chanson usee et b i e n f i n i e , Ta jeunesse... Eh, c'est bon un j o u r l . . . T i e n s - c ' e s t -Boujours neuf - calomnie Tes pauvres amours... et 1'amour." "Tu r i s . - Bi e n ! - P a i s de l'amertume, Prends l e p l i , Mephisto blagueur, De 1'absinthe'." 8 8. " P a r i s " , from Ca, i n T r i s t a n C o r b i e r e , ed. Jeap. Rousselot ( P a r i s , 1951), pp.93-4. 118 And Dubus in "Vaine joie" (p.lOl), an autobiographical poem similar to "Retrato" but without the redeeming irony of the latter, claims to keep his spleen to himself, for fear of ridicule: "J*ai des filles a prendre et des vins a. cuver/ comme vous tous: je r i s , et i l me deplait qu'on voie/Toute 1'inanite' cruelle de ma joie." Francisco Vian declares that " i l 'Retrato' non e che una serie di 'agudezas' barocche, come ne fioriscono de continuo sulle labbra dei 'senoritos' andalusi, Q specie quando s i trgvano all 1estero e s i compiacciono di forzare i termini." There is certainly in the poem this element of Andalusian braggadocio, but M. Vian does not remark the originality of using i t in poetry nor the ironic use to which i t is put. Machado is satirising much of Spain in laughing at himself. He is also indirectly making a plea for realistic poetry, a plea he will make again in "Internacional". He insists that he is not the traditional Romantic idea of a poet, not a gamester, a toper nor a Don Juan. Like most people, he admires s k i l l and agility, prefers gaiety and sunshine to gloomy high-mindedness and classical modes. Rather than be such a poet, that i s , a melancholy phil-Hellene, he would prefer to be a good banderillero. But the implication of these lines is not, as most critics have assumed, that Machado would rather be a bullfighter than a poet, but that he would rather be a bullfighter than "un tal poeta". And clearly, Machado knows his own worth, knows that he is nof'un t a l poeta" but an innovator of considerable s k i l l . The mention of Montmartre and the Macarena is significant. The slang music-hall songs of Montmartre, like those of Aristide Bruant and Xavier Privas, and the words of flamenco songs are alike in their concern with the l i f e of the poor, with crime, passion and death, and this is the world that Machado describes in E l mal poema. Bruant's Chansons des rues cannot be shown 9» In II "Modernismo" nella poesia ispanica (Milan, 1955), P»237. 1 1 9 to have had any demonstrable influence on these poems, but the s l a n g , the toughness and the carpe diem a t t i t u d e of a poem l i k e "Internacional" c e r t a i n l y derive from the same t r a d i t i o n o f s t r e e t songs. "Prologo-epilogo" (p.76) continues i n the same s t r a i n of mock-apology which i s , as Dr. Brotherston points out, not to be taken s e r i o u s l y ( p . 3 4 ) . Machado1 s claim that he i s g i v i n g up poetry i s simply a pretext f o r c a s t i g a t i n g the system that condemns Spanish a r t i s t s to penury, the same P h i l i s t i n i s m he attacked i n "Invierno". The self-deprecating manner and the humility are once again i r o n i c . V e rlaine i n the f i r s t poem o f Elegies (p.787) adopts the same s t y l e : "A mon age, je s a i s , i l faut r e s t e r t r a n q u i l l e , D e t e l e r , c u l t i v e r l ' a r t p e u t -§ t r e imbe'cile, DXStre un bourgeois, poete honnete et chaste epoux". But he continued to be a Bohemian and a poet, as d i d Machado, despite h i s protestations o f age and i l l n e s s . The second stanza of the poem i s no longer i r o n i c but savagely eloquent. The Muse weeps, abandoned. Like Baudelaire's "Muse malade" (p.l6), she has shadows under her eyes: l i k e h i s "Muse venale" (p.17), she i s cold and hungry. She f i n d s , as does Verlaine's "voyageur" i n Sagesse 1 , 3 , ( p . 2 4 3 ) , "Du mai toujours, du:liaid partout sur l e s chemins". The prosaic s t y l e p e r s i s t s , with i n t e r -jections l i k e " Ique' demonioi" and "mejor dicho". The long l i n e s of emphatic words l i n k e d by a r e p e t i t i v e 'and' have the emotional e f f e c t of an angry man banging w i t h h i s f i s t on a cafe t a b l e . Indeed much of the poem i s l i k e a dramatic monologue of the kind r e c i t e d i n nineteenth century music-halls. The use of a popular expression i n the l i n e s " e l Arte,/mendigo, emigra con l a musica a otra p a r t e " , i s a b r i l l i a n t s t r o k e . This combination of r h e t o r i c a l f i g u r e s o f speech, " l a Musa", " e l Arte" w i t h everyday speech gives a freshness to the former. (The image of Art leaving Spain i s reminiscent o f two other poems i n Spanish, Garcf Perrandes de Jerena's cantiga from the Cancionero de 1 2 0 Baena where Love leaves Spain with a l l h i s t r a i n , and Darfo's " E l campo"ffrom Prosas profanas, of which these are the l a s t l i n e s : "Yo soy l a Poesfa que un tiemppaquf reino": Yo soy e l p o s t r e r gaucho que parte para siempre De nuestra v i e j a p a t r i a llevando e l corazoni" The t h i r d stanza of "Prdlogo-epflogo" i s on women and derives from number III of Verlaine's 'Lucien L e t i n o i s ' from Amour, (p.4Vt-) , which has the same de s c r i p t i o n of woman as the e t e r n a l enemy who never quite wins, the bewildering mixture of c r u e l t y and kindness. " 0 l a femme'. Prudent, sage, calme ennemi, N'exage'rant jamais t a v i c t o i r e a. demi... ..,ou bon ami... Et doux, trop doux souvent... " Machado expresses the same idea i n the l i n e s "JOh l a celebre lucha con l a dulce enemigal/La mujer. . . e l unico enemigo que no quiere veneer." The other references such as "gata y angel", are probably from Verlaine's "Femme et chatte" (p.lh) 9 "Serenade" (p.80), and the c l i c h e s of the period already r e f e r r e d t o . ^ In the fourth stanza he speaks o f h i s loves as past and refers humorously to h i s age. (Machado was only t h i r t y f i v e at the time,another reason f o r taking these confessions w i t h a g r a i n o f s a l t . ) Again, V e r l a i n e provides an obvious s t a r t i n g p o i n t . In De'dicaces, "A Charles de S i v r y " ( p . 5 7 3 ) , we f i n d "Poete, moi, jusqu'a\ }a b&tise,/.. . l a barbe a. moitie g r i s e . . ./.lurs pour l a g l o i r e et ses echafauds." (The reference to glory i s i n the previous stanza of "Prc51ogo-epflogo".) I n Chansons pour e l l e I ( p . 7 0 9 ) there i s the l i n e "Rein? 9 a . Cancionero de Baena I I I ed. Jose* Marfa Azaceta (Madrid, 1 9 6 6 ) , p . 1 1 1 9 . See a l s o v o l . 1 , p p . 9 8 - 9 . 1 0 . See p. 9 9 above on "La diosa " . 121 Passe* l e temps des prouesses!" and the reference t o Go*ngora i s t o be found a l s o a t the head of "Lassitude" from Poemes s a t u r n i e n s - (p.63). v.. The f i n a l sfanza i s s e r i o u s i n tone, a summary of Machado*s o s t e n s i b l e reasons f o r c e a s i n g t o w r i t e . The s t r i k i n g image o f the blood f l o w i n g from h i s pen has two p o s s i b l e sources. Sagesse I , 3(p»24-3) contains the l i n e "Avec du sang deshonore* d' encre a l e u r s mains", w h i l e Darfo i n " E p f s t o l a " I I I from E l canto errante speaks o f " l o amargo d e l jugo de mis sesos,/del sudor de mi alma, de mi sangre y mi t i n t a " . The sub-heading ' E l mal poema' covers the next f i v e poems i n the book, the f i r s t of which i s "Yo, poeta decadente.. ."(p.78), another pseudo-apology. The l i s t o f t o p i c s of h i s p o e t r y , b u l l f i g h t s , p r o s t i t u t e s , l i q u o r , the dark corners and darker v i c e s of Madrid i s , except f o r the b u l l f i g h t s , an account of the commonplaces of a l l French c i t y p o e t r y , from B a u d e l a i r e t o C o r b i e r e , and the a d j e c t i v e "decadente" emphasises t h i s connection although the context i s Spanish. The word, c a n a i l l e i s f r e q u e n t l y used i n t h e work of w r i t e r s l i k e Jean L o r r a i n t o describe the dubious glamour of the a r t i s t e s and p r o s t i t u t e s o f P a r i s n i g h t l i f e . C u r i o u s l y the e x p r e s s i o n " b i s n i e t o s d e l C i d " , used here f o r i t s i r o n y , f i n d s an exact echo i n a d e s c r i p t i o n by L o r r a i n o f a Spanish dancer, M a r i a l a B o n i t a : " P l e u r d'Espagne et danseuse des rues...et peut-etre a r r i d r e - p e t i t e - f i l l e du C i d Campeador"."1"^ The l a s t l i n e s o f t h e f i r s t stanza a r e , as Dr. B r o t h e r s t o n has shown,a paraphrase of Z o r r i l l a (p.34-). They are a l s o v e r y reminiscent o f the l a s t l i n e s o f V e r l a i n e ' s "A F r a n c o i s Coppee" a poem i n which he i r o n i c a l l y compares h i s own l o w l y s t a t e as a poet w i t h that o f Coppee enthroned among the "immortals": "Moi, ma g l o i r e n'est qu'une humble absinthe e*phemere P r i s e en c a t i m i n i , c r a i n t e des t r a h i s o n s , Et s i je n'en b o i s pas p l u s c'est pour des r a i s o n s j 11. I n Femroes de 1900, ( P a r i s , 1932), p.112. 122 The second stanza r u e f u l l y questions the value of Machado's poetry ( i m p l i c i t l y including t h i s one) and implies that the public ought not to judge him from h i s poetry nor i t s contents, the l i s t of the previous stanza. This same insistence on his own privacy, "una cosa es l a Poesia,/y otra cosa l o que estef/grabado en e l alma mia" can be seen i n Verlaine's "Prologue d'un Livre dont i l ne p a r a i t r a que les e x t r a i t s ci-apres" from Parallelement (p.497): "Vous n' aurez n i mes t r a i t s n i mon age, N i l e v r a i mai secret de mon coeur." The French poem i s a si m i l a r pseudo-apology to a prejudiced and ignorant p u b l i c , who may be shocked t o f i n d that his poems were written i n prison. The l a s t stan za of ",¥o, poeta decadente...", a technical tour-de-force, recapitulates and rejects the poetic expression of the previous stanza as commonplace and inadequate. I t ends on a note of weary impotence with another conversational phrase, "Todo es conforme y segdn", which, l i k e the meaningless "Bueno, pues 0 nada" i s used to bring a Spanish conversation to a close. A s i m i l a r cry of helplessness i s found at the end of Verlaine's 'Lucien Le'tinois' V, (p.446): "Qu'y f a i r e ? Ah, l a i s s e r faire!," "Mi Phrine'" (p»78) i s the most technically accomplished poem i n the c o l l e c t i o n , though not the most important. l € vises the conversational, prosaic st y l e i n a masterly way. The t i t l e refers to the great courtesan of ancient Greece, the model for Praxiteles's>''3nidian Venus. By using i t Machado exploits the i r o n i c p o s s i b i l i t i e s of comparing his own beloved c t i t t l e "de'classe'e" with the most b e a u t i f u l woman of antiquity, and also perhaps implies that she too can inspire a poet just as Phryne inspired the great orator Hyperides. I t would seem that Phryne, l i k e Medea and Helen, was one of the women commonly invoked by the Decadents, f o r Lorrain uses her name without explanation i n a description of a pantomime: "Phrynette, cette petite soeur cadette et decadente 12 de Phryne'" i s a "mousseuse hetaire". The fashion for being i n love w i t h 12. "Phryne"', i n "Femmes de 1900 ( P a r i s , 1932), pp.73-4. 1 2 3 h a r l o t s has a l r e a d y been discussed i n t h i s study. The p r i m a r i l y French i n s p i r a t i o n o f "Mi Phrind 1' i s shown a l s o by the g a l l i c i s m of "de'classeV, but the language i s spoken Spanish w i t h i t s proverbs and p o l i t e arrogance. " I n t e r n a c i o n a l " (p.79) begins i n a s t y l e v e r y much l i k e t h a t of the m u s i c - h a l l songs o f 1900. (indeed, h a l f a century l a t e r , Mme. E d i t h P i a f , l i n e a r descendent, m u s i c a l l y speaking, of Bruant and Yvette G u i l b e r t , used to s i n g a song not d i s s i m i l a r t h a t began "C'est a Hambourg ou Montmartre, A Whitechapel..." and went on t o t e l l of the g i r l s and t h e i r pimps i n much the same terms.) The expression " b i s n i e t o s d e l C i d " from "Yo, poeta decadente..." i s repeated and t h e i r o n y r e i n f o r c e d by "sobrinos de D i d e r o t " . A f a t a l i s t i c c y n i c i s m , very much o f the s t r e e t s , i s expressed i n the language of the s t r e e t s , Madrid chulo w i t h a f l a v o u r of Montmartre argot. Once again Machado i s p r o f f e r i n g the idea of a new k i n d of p o e t r y . " E l argot" i s as r e a l a language as " e l cal<5", the speech of h i s A n d a l u s i a n gypsies which i s accepted i n the poetry o f the coplas. The next stanza expresses t h i s n o t i o n more c l e a r l y . "Poesi*a de germania." i s s t i l l d i s d a i n e d , but t h i s i s what he chooses t o w r i t e , i n the t r a d i t i o n o f V i l l o n , Cervantes, Quevedo and V e r l a i n e . The last-mentioned a l s o expressed a camaraderie w i t h the s o c i e t y of the s t r e e t s i n "Autre" from P a r a l l e l e m e n t (p.499): "•Allons, f r e r e s , bon v i e u x v o l e u r s , Doux vagabonds, P i l o u s en f l e u r s , Mes c h e r s , mes bons" as w e l l as i n "Grotesques" (p.68) and "Caprice" (p.527). The phrase "crepusculo v e s p e r t i n o " could r e f e r t o "Le crepuscule du s o i r " (p.105) i n which B a u d e l a i r e d e s c r i b e s the evening as beloved of c r i m i n a l s , 13. See p. 49 above. 124 roue's, writers and the hard-working poor. Machado clearly speaks of the same people in "Internacional". His evening i s a g i f t for a l l men, belonging to no one, and bequeathing the twilight with i t s lovely nuances of colour. Verlaine too, i n "Nocturne Parisien" (p.84), describes the evening as a blessing to city dwellers. The line "padre del matiz divino" may refer both to the evening and to Verlaine and his nuances. The dawn, i n contrast, i s bright and fai n t l y i l l - s m e l l i n g . Baudelaire's "Le cre'puscule de matin" (p.ll6) expresses the same horror of the morning and w i l l be shown later to have i n -fluenced "La cancion del alba". A l l this i s not to say that Machado had not experienced evening and dawn 14 i n the c i t y for himself: we know from Pe'rez Perrero that he had, frequently. But i t i s clear that his experience was affected by his reading, so that he saw the city i n the same terms as the French poets he admired. The f i f t h stanza, with i t s reference to thirst as l i f e ' s main preoccupation, recalls Verlaine's use of the image in "Priere du matin" (p.406), which w i l l w 15 be discussed in relation to "•Bin la muerte de Julio Ruelas" • The carpe diem motif recalls once again number VIII of Chansons pour elle (p.715), heavily marked i n Machado's copy with i t s lines "Seulement, nous sommes au monde Or, ici-bas, faut qu'on profite Du p l a i s i r qui passe s i vi t e . . . Aimons." But what i s not French i n this poetry is wholly original, the use of a swaggering, chulo turn of phrase to describe a chulo1 s world. The end of the poem with i t s impertinent last l i n e is one of Machado's most accomplished. 14. Vida. pp.91-5. 15. See this ch. p. 131 125 "La cancion d e l presente" (p.81), another poem on the same carpe diem theme, r e c a l l s V e r l a i n e ' s number V of 'Lucien Le'tinois' (p.445) from Amour; " J ' a i l a f u r e u r d 1aimer. Mon coeur s i f a i b l e est fou". I t s c y n i c a l a t t i t u d e i s again l i k e Chansons pour e l l e V I I I , which i s s i m i l a r l y couched i n f a m i l i a r language w i t h expressions l i k e "Que f a i t ? " and "et que done bien'.". The r e j e c t i o n of the future,whether i t be on e a r t h or elsewhere, i s common t o b o t h poems. Machado's "es absurdo c o m p l i c a r l a /^La v i d a / /con un a n s i a de verdad/ duradera y expectante./ <:Luego? ... i Y a l /La verdad sera* c u a l q u i e r a " i s eq u i v a l e n t t o V e r l a i n e ' s "'Quant a nos §mes . . . Nous en moquons nous? Que non pasl/Seulement, nous sommes au monde/ . . . /Et non au c i e l , mais i c i - b a s . " L i k e "Madrigales" and " E l v i e n t o " , "La cancio'n d e l presente" expresses i n l i g h t short l i n e s and a V e r l a i n i a n technique an a t t i t u d e t o l i f e which was perhaps the most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t h i n g about Manuel Machado and h i s poetry. His b r o t h e r Jose* says " . . . l o que ma's l e i n t e r e s a es aduenarse d e l momento a c t u a l , d e l que esta* pasando. Retener e l i n s t a n t e que se y a y no o t r o . N i ayer n i manana. Hoy,""^ and i t s h o u l d be noted t h a t the s u b t i t l e o f the poem i s ' L e i v motiv', a m o t i f to l i v e by. The next poem, "gombra", (appended p. 199 ) , i s r a t h e r l i k e V e r l a i n e ' s "Le r o s s i g n o l " i n i t s use of t h e image of ihe wind i n a t r e e ' s branches. The idea o f a poem o r song wandering i n the a i r i s t o be found i n two of the ' A r i e t t e s o u b l i e e s ' . Machado's "vago rumor de agua c o r r i e n t e " i s l i k e "sous l'eau q u i v i r e , / L e r o u l i s sourd des c a i l l o u x " a i n no.I (p,19l), w h i l e the " a i r e entre l a s ramas" i s l i k e "tous l e s f r i s s o n s des bois/Parmi l ' e t r e i n t e des b r i s e s " i n the same poem. I n number V (p.193), "un a i r bien v i e u x , b i e n f a i b l e et b i e n charmant/Rode d i s c r e t " and d i e s away through an open window i n t o the garden. The o l d benches, the faun, the park and the f o u n t a i n are of course the t r a d i t i o n a l decor o f the V e r l a i n i a n garden of "Apres t r o i s ans" and Fetes  galantes r e f e r r e d t o i n previous chapters. But the a n t i c l i m a x produced by the 16. U l t i m a s p.43« 126 word "torpemente" recalls the banal sensuality of "Alle'gorie" (p.328) i n which Verlaine also mocks the conventions of faun and park. After 'Canciones y coplas 1 which do not concern lis here, comes the next sub-section 'Horas', containing eight poems, two of which are in French. "Ohouette" (p.8l) indicates by i t s very t i t l e that i t is French in inspiration, and once again the subject i s a grisette. The "batalla de amor" reference echoes that i n "Prologo-epflogo" and Verlaine's 'Lassitude". The poem i s extraordinarily like one on the same theme, "Rondeau" by Musset, who was one of the favourite poets of Machado's generation."^ "Mais le jour vient... Le peigne en main... A son miroir Manon court m'oublier. Helasl L'amour sans lendemain n i ve i l l e F u t - i l jamais?" Manon too, of course, was a courtesan. "Marina" ( p . l 8 l ) , is an autobiographical poem dated "Barcelona-julio-1909". Pe'rez Ferrero (pp.95-104-) and Dr. Brotherston (p.38) provide rather contradictory accounts of the circumstances i n which the poem was written. The one thing that seems clear i s that when Machado embarked on his uncle's boat for Marseilles he was escaping from a love a f f a i r . Jose' Machado compares the poem v/ith 18 Antonio's boat leaving the harbour i n "Retrato" (p.744-) and the use of this 19 image of the boat and the sea has already been discussed. The mood i n "Marina" i s exalted and has much i n common with Baudelaire's "Le voyage" (p.155) and Mallarme'' s "Brise marine". 17. See Jimenez's dedication to "Nocturnos", quoted by Darfo, i n his review of Arias Tristes, Helios X I I I (1904-): cited by Ribbans, "La influencia" p.182. 18. Ultimas p.4-2. 19. See p. 50 above. 127 The use of the c o l o u r v e r m i l i o n i n the f i r s t stanza i s l i k e t h a t i n V e r l a i n e ' s Sagesse I I I , 7 (p»28l), " I v r e de s o l e i l / E t de l i b e r t e * . . ./La b r i s e d'e'te'/Sur le f l o t v e r m e i l " w h i l e Sagesse I I I , 2 (p.275), speaks o f the g r e a t -hearted sea washing away rancour. But the adventurous aspects o f the voyage, des c r i b e d i n the t h i r d , f o u r t h and seventh stanzas, o b v i o u s l y d e r i v e from Mallarme* and B a u d e l a i r e . I n " B r i s e marine" we f i n d the same references t o the unknown and t o escape: "£uiri la-bas f u i r l Je sens que l e s oiseaux sont i v r e s D'etre parmi l'e*cume inconnue et l e s c i e u x l % e n . . . Ne r e t i e n d r a ce coeur qui dans l a mer se trempe... J e p a r t i r a i l " I n "Le voyage", "Mais l e s v r a i s voyageurs sont ceux-la seuls qui p a r t e n t  Pour p a r t i r . . . De l e u r f a t a l i t e * jamais i l s ne s ' d c a r t e n t , E t sans, s a v o i r pour quoi, d i s e n t toujours: A l l o n s I ... Au fond de l'lnconnu pour t r o u v e r du nouveau?," And i n "Marina", "Gran pa l a b r a : navegar. D e j a r l a p l a y a segura; I r s e , c o r r e r . . . Marinero de l a v i d a , Los nuevos p e l i g r o s quiero Con que e l a z a r me convida. Y apresto a nueva p a r t i d a M i barco... ...va a p a r t i r Puesta en l o ignoto l a f e . . . No se* donde voy a i r , E ignoro s i volve*re." /JFhe u n d e r l i n i n g s are m±n.e^/ 128 The l i n e i n the e i g h t h s t a n z a , "Mi alma no es mas que un espejo", may w e l l have been suggested by one i n B a u d e l a i r e ' s "L'Homme et l a Mer" (p.2l), "La mer est t o n m i r o i r : t u contemples ton ame". And the image o f the p i l l o w i n the n i n t h s t a n z a i s l i k e one i n number V of 'Lucien L e t i n o i s ' (p.445), " I I l e s aime.../Leur memoire est son cher o r e i l l e r " . The two poems i n French, (appended pp.200 and 201 ) , are u n d i s t i n g u i s h e d and clumsy.. Darfo too had attempted t o w r i t e poems i n French, i n A z u l , w i t h no greater success. The f i r s t , "La v i e . . ." repeats the "Adelfos" theme and i s e l a b o r a t e l y Decadent. The c a r e f u l aphorisms "-Un r e g r e t de ne r i e n r e g r e t t e r " and "ma peine sans peine"- are a mixture o f B a u d e l a i r e and Oorbiere. The word "maudit" i s o f course the hackneyed V e r l a i n i a n r e f e r e n c e . The f a d i n g l i l y i s from 20 Samain and the homelessness l i k e GorbiSre's " P a r i a " from Cal "Mon h o r i z o n , 1* imprevu-E t l e mal du pays me ronge-Du pays que je n ' a i pas vu". The poem does not merit a prolonged study, but i t maybe observed that Dubus's "Le mauvais chemin" (p.20) c o n t a i n s very s i m i l a r sentiments about " l e chemin.../ f^que7 nous avons parcouru t a n t de f o i s " which must, s a d l y , be r e t r a c e d . " M i n u i t " i s even more i n e p t . The "ombre malsaine" seems t o have been i n s p i r e d by "des demons malsains dans 1'atmosphere" from Ba u d e l a i r e ' s "Le crdpuscule du s o i r " (p.105), while the conspicuous use o f the a d j e c t i v e "charmant" may come from the same poem, " l e s o i r charmant, ami du c r i m i n e l " . The "ombre malsaine" i s a l s o reminiscent o f the "vapeur malsaine" of V e r l a i n e ' s "Nocturne p a r i s i e n " (p.83). The inonde/profonde rhyme r e c a l l s onde/profonde i n "Dans l e s b o i s " (p.82) from the same c o l l e c t i o n , which a l s o d e s c ribes n i g h t , shadows, f e a r , f r i s s o n s and mo i t s . I n Sagesse I I I , 2, (p.275) there i s a stanza which comes v e r y c l o s e t o " M i n u i t " which i t a l s o resembles i n metre: 20. Pp.93-4. 129 "Cette v i l l e sombreI Tout est c r a i n t e i c i . . . Le c i e l e s t t r a n s i D ' e ^ l a i r e r t a n t d*ombre. Les pas que t u f a i s . . . Levent des poussi e r e s Au s o u f f l e mauvais... Voyageur s i t r i s t e , Tu s u i s q u e l l e p i s t e ? " " E l camino" (p.82) i n i t s vocabulary and probably i n i t s i n i t i a l , i n s p i r a t i o n i s very l i k e D a r i o . I t i s another v a r i a t i o n on the same theme as "La voz que d i c e " and "P e r e g r i n o " , a theme t h a t D a r i o probably l e a r n e d from V e r l a i n e t o o 0 The f i r s t two l i n e s o f Machado's poem correspond t o l i n e s from "Thanatos" from Cantos de v i d a y esperanza (p.683): "En medio d e l camino de l a v i d a . . . D i j o Dante. Su verso se c o n v i e r t e : En medio d e l camino de l a muerte." D a r i o had touched on t h i s t o p i c i n "Alma mfa" from Prosas profanas ( p . 6 2 l ) , and continues i t i n "M e l a n c o l i a " from Cantos de v i d a , (p<>675), w h i l e Antonio 21 Machado, as has been observed, made i t one of h i s seminal metaphors. The r h e t o r i c a l vocabulary of " E l camino",-"frescura de l a s rosas", " l i n d a s adolescentes", "tardes t i b i a s " , " t a l l e s e s b e l t o s " , "embriaguez d i v i n a " , "musica dulce" - i s i n i t s commonplace s e n s u a l i t y t y p i c a l o f t h a t p a r t o f Machado's poe t r y i n s p i r e d by D a r i o , l i k e "Rosa" o r "Despedida a l a l u n a " . "A mi sombra" (pe83) seems a l s o t o be based on a poem by a f r i e n d of Machado 1s, i n t h i s case V i l l a e s p e s a , whose poem "La hermana negra", d e s c r i b i n g h i s shadow, was p u b l i s h e d i n La musa ^ en ferma (1900)„ The l i n e s 21. See chapter I I I , p. 90 and chapter IV, p. 104 u 130 "Camino sin rumbos y por mi camino una hermana negra siempre me acompana, mi soiribra, tan muda como mi destine .. Sombra, de mi mismo misterio surgiste, y tambien conmigo iras al misterio, al volver al seno de la tierra triste..." are very close to Machado's poem. The rhyming of "luna" with " oportuna", which also occurs in "Retrato", is probably an echo from Verlaine's "Votre Sme est un paysage choisi" from Fetes galantes (p.107). "Fin", appended here (p. 202 ), is another of the Becquerian coplas Machado wrote as an adolescent. It was not published in Tristes y alegres but clearly dates from that time, like a number of other poems in E l mal poema. Machado obviously rescued i t from deserved oblivion in order to f i l l out the volume. His poetic output was always painfully slow, as he explains in his 22 speech to the Academy, and a l l his volumes of collected verse after Caprichos contain poems that were not worth preserving. "Distico'j in the next section, falls into the same category, and its two lines do not.warrant discussion. The last sub-title in the book is 'Dedicatorias', which corresponds to Verlaine's Dedicaces. It consists of eight poems, only four of which I propose to discuss. The last three are purely occasional verse - one to the Queen, one to Gdmez Carrillo on the publication of his book Grecia and one on an horchatera written for a calendar of Spanish girls in El Heraldo. The fi r s t poem, "A Santiago Iglesias" ( p . l Q 8 ) , is a Parnassian poem couched in the form of the ballades that Verlaine imitated from Villon, a number of which are to be found in Dedicaces. Machado's poem is in fact a Parnassian sonnet with an envib. The elaborate metaphor on the goldsmith's art likened to poetry is a commonplace of Parnassian theory. Gautier's "La 22. Unos versos, pp.72-3. 131 forme au travail/Rebelle" from "L'Art" corresponds to Machado1 s "el difxcil oro". Heredia's sonnets on the medieval and Renaissance goldsmiths (pp.39, 4-3-6), and perhaps Verlaine's epilogue to Poemes Saturniens (p.96), a pastiche of Parnassian theory, have a l l contributed to i t . Verlaine's "ciseaux des Pensees" become "el pensamiento en fuego" that melts and moulds the gold. This is not a notable poem but interesting in its use of the conventions of Parnassianism and of the ballade form. The next three poems are a l l epitaphs. The f i r s t , "En la muerte de Julio Ruelas" (p.206) begins with the first half of an octet as though i t were going to be a sonnet like most of Verlaine's Dedicaces but then ends in thirteen lines. The opening thought is reminiscent of the first line of Mallarme's epitaph onPoe, "Tel qu'en lui-meme enfin l'Eternite' le change." The description of Ruelas's l i f e recalls the lines in Verlaine's "Priere du matin" (p„406); "la mort des sens et de leurs mil ivresses" corresponds to "un matarse de embriagueces de mil suertes". The image of thirst and water occurs in the same poem. This hidden water is like that in Sagesse II,iv,3 (p.269), "0 ce l i t de lumiere et d'eau parmi la brume'.", and throughout Verlaine's religious poetry i t represents the divine love that alone can slake the thirst of man, who is prey, like Ruelas, to "la soif inapaisable" ("Priere du matin"). Faith in an afterlife is expressed by Verlaine, too, in "A Edmond Lepelletier", (p.599), 11 i l ne faut plus penser aux morts/Que pour les plaindre... /Gar n'allons-nous pas les rejoindre?" and in "A Villiers de l'Isle Adam" (p.559). 23. This line in Machado's poem is very close to his translation of the Verlainian line quoted; "La muerte de los sentidos que mil embriagueces", and is another example of how a study of Machado*s translation was useful. 132 "A Jose Nogales, muerto" (p.206) i s an e p i t a p h i n a d i f f e r e n t t o n e , one of b i t t e r anger a t h i s death. The sentiments of brotherhood i n a r t are l i k e those i n V e r l a i n e ' s "A V i H i e r s de l ' I s l e Adam (p.559)' " V i l l i e r s , s o i s envie* comme i l a u r a i t f a l l u P a r t e s f r e r e s i mpatients du j o u r supreme Ou s a l u e r en t o i l a g l o i r e d'un e'lu." But the images of the b u l l e t , and the psychology o f the b u l l f i g h t and o f war, are t o t a l l y o r i g i n a l and the l a s t two l i n e s , a reworking of those ending the second stanza of • "Prdlogo-epflogo", are v e r y e f f e c t i v e . "A A l e j a n d r o Sawa" (p.205) i s i n my o p i n i o n the best poem Machado ever wrote. Sawa was of course a f r i e n d o f h i s , and Sawa'a death was a t r a g i c one. The b i t t e r c o n t r a d i c t i o n s i n the poem are reminiscent o f no t h i n g so much as the epitaphs t h a t T r i s t a n Gorbiere wrote f o r h i m s e l f , which a r e f u l l of the same s o r t of t e n s i o n between opposites. The c l o s e s t i s "Epitaphe" from Ca (pp.97-9): " S ' i l v i t , c'est p a r l ' b u b l i . . . I I ne n a q u i t p ar aucun bout, Put toujours pousse* vent-de-bout, Melange adultere de t o u t , E t f u t un arlequin-ragout . . . Sans a v o i r et£ - revenu: Se retrouvant p a r t o u t perdu . . . P i n i , mais ne sachant f i n i r , I I mourut en s'attendant v i v r e Et vecut s'attendant mourir." Machado's l i n e 11 su v i d a . . . fue perdida" could r e f e r t o V e r l a i n e ' s " J ' a i perdu ma v i e " from "Prologue d'un l i v r e . . . "(p.498). " R e v e r s i b i l i t e s " (p.500) i s a l s o somewhat l i k e "A A l e j a n d r o Sawa" i n metre and s t r o p h i c scheme, and speaks 133 o f an obscure and l o n e l y death. But Machado's poem has a Spanish s t o i c i s m and l a p i d a r y quality very d i f f e r e n t from Corbiere's savage humour or Verlaine's mournfulness. T h i s short book i s , i n my opinion, the l a s t c o l l e c t i o n of good and important poetry by Machado, although u n t i l 1918 he continued t o produce occasional poems o f great m e r i t . When i n 1941 he c a l l e d E l mal poema h i s favourite book Machado was probably thinking of the s e r i e s of "bad" poetry-brought together i n h i s c o l l e c t i v e e d i t i o n , which includes poems of the same genre from Caprichos. Alma .Museo.Los cantares and Canciones y dedicatorias (1915), which w i l l be discussed i n the next chapter. Taken as a whole c y c l e , these poems represent the best and most o r i g i n a l of Machado's work, i n which he f i n d s h i s own authentic voice as a poet, a singer of the s t r e e t s of Madrid who had learned h i s trade frcm the singers of the s t r e e t s of P a r i s . 24. See above p. 115. 134 CHAPTER 6 A THEMATIC ANALYSIS OP THE BEST OF MACHADO'S POETRY UNTIL 1918 I n 1911 there appeared ApolotTeatro p i c t d r i c o . T h i s book contains twenty-f i v e P a r n a s s i a n sonnets d e s c r i b i n g famous p a i n t i n g s and i s dedicated, as was the s e c t i o n 'Museo' i n Alma, t o G i n e r de l o s R i b s , who taught Machado t o appreciate pictures.'*' The main c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Parnassianism have a l r e a d y 2 been di s c u s s e d i n t h i s study, and i t has been remarked that t o choose a p a i n t i n g as a t o p i c f o r a poem was a p a r t i c u l a r l y P a r n a s s i a n t r a i t (p. 53 )• I propose to examine o n l y eight o f these poems, those which show French i n f l u e n c e i n t h e i r subject matter and thosd which seem t o me p a r t i c u l a r l y accomplished. The sonnet on B o t t i c e l l i ' s "La Primavera" (p.108), i s f u l l of a very-French e r o t i c i s m . Machado himself gives the e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s i n La guerra  l i t e r a r i a , saying t h a t the poem i s more l y r i c a l and p e r s o n a l than the o t h e r sonnets because he got t o know the p i c t u r e i n P a r i s and so i t i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h P a r i s i a n memories (p.50). I t was of course the most famous and beloved p a i n t i n g of the Decadent e r a . Young women t r i e d t o l o o k l i k e B o t t i c e l l i ' s f i g u r e s - " C e s Primaveras truqudes...des a t e l i e r s et des cafe's d ' a r t i s t e s " , says Jean L o r r a i n i n G i l B l a s ^ -and Gomez C a r r i l l o ' s heroine i n La Bohemia sentimental was one o f them.^ L o r r a i n a l s o wrote an e r o t i c poem on a B o t t i c e l l i p a i n t i n g , where he speaks o f v i r g i n a l charms. L i b e r t y ' s of London copied the f l o r a l m o t i f s of B o t t i c e l l i i n t h e i r p r i n t s which were the h e i g h t of f a s h i o n when 1. See Dr. B r o t h e r s t o n , pp.119-120. 2. C h . I I , pp. 42 3. ( P a r i s , 1899). 4. ( P a r i s , 1902), p.29. 135 Machado was i n P a r i s . So the Decadent tone and expressions l i k e " d i v i n a enfermedad" are understandable. The f i r s t stanza i s c l e a r l y an echo o f th a t from V e r l a i n e ' s "Voeu" (p.62), which i s a l s o a sonnet. The exclamatory s t y l e i s the same and V e r l a i n e ' s "Ahi l e s o a r i s t y s l l e s premieres m a l t r e s s e s l " corresponds to Machado's " J Oh e l s o t t o voce b a l b u c i e n t e , oscuro,/de l a primera l u j u r i a i " (The Greek word o a r i s t y s means 'a co n v e r s a t i o n between l o v e r s . ' ) The "spontane'ite" c r a i n t i v e des caresses" becomes " e l no saber de l a primera c a r i c i a " . The " f l e u r des c h a i r s " i s echoed by the " f l o r e s " of Machado's l a s t s t a n z a , w h i l e the ambiguity o f " e l beso adolescente, casiypuro" i s very V e r l a i n i a n , l i k e the "senteurs presque innocentes" o f s p r i n g flowers i n "En p a t i n a n t " (p.111). The use o f flowers as e r o t i c symbols i s t y p i c a l o f Samain, t o o , who wrote a sonnet on a "Dame du Printemps" (Le Cha r i o t p.134) w i t h s i m i l a r references t o v i r g i n i t y , d e s i r e and " l a langueur d'aimer". "Printemps" from the same' book (p.30) a l s o resembles "La Primavera" i n i t s images of flowers and l o v e . A number of antecedents f o r Machado's sonnets on p a i n t i n g s have been suggested, among them J u l i a n d e l C a s a l , D a r i o and G u i l i e r m o V a l e n c i a , but no c r i t i c seems to have remarked a much c l o s e r precedent: the sonnets of Samain. He wrote f o u r on t o p i c s from He'redia, o f which "Cleopatre" has been mentioned above as a p o s s i b l e source f o r "Oriente" ; he a l s o wrote three sonnets and two other poems on p a i n t i n g s by Moreau, Watteau and Boucher. The yearning f o r a p a r a d i s e o f i n f a n t i l e love i n "La Primavera" r e c a l l s a l s o B a u d e l a i r e ' s "Moesta et errabunda" (rp.69) and i t s l i n e s " l e v e r t p a r a d i s des amours enfantins,/L'innocent p a r a d i s , p l e i n de p l a i s i r s f u r t i f s " . Machado's l i n e "angel, n i n o , mujer" i s s i m i l a r t o t h e d e s c r i p t i o n i n L o r r a i n ' s poem, reminding one of the ambiguity of B o t t i c e l l i ' s women, so p l e a s i n g to 5. See c h . I I , p. 58 And, as we have noted ( c h . I I , p . 53 ) , Samain was e s s e n t i a l l y a P a r n a s s i a n i n form. 136 the f i n - d e - s i e c l e . As an attempt t o convey the essence o f the p i c t u r e "La Primavera" i s c l e a r l y a f a i l u r e , h u t i t i s valuable as an i n d i c a t i o n o f how deeply the atmosphere o f P a r i s i n 1900 a f f e c t e d Machado. The f o l l o w i n g sonnet,"La Gioconda" (p.109), i s , o f course, a l s o on a p a i n t i n g i n the Louvre. The c u l t o f Florence i n t h e ' n i n e t i e s has already been mentioned."^ Ever s i n c e W a l t e r P a t e r ' s exegesis of the Mona L i s a i n Stu d i e s i n  the H i s t o r y o f the Renaissance (1873) she had become an obsession w i t h the Decadents, r e c r e a t e d by D'Annunzio i n "El p i a c e r e . Jean de Tinan and others. P a t e r s a i d t h a t she was "o l d e r than t h e rocks among which she s i t s " and speculated on the "strange thoughts and f a n t a s t i c r e v e r i e s " i n her mind. Machado's v e r s i o n a l s o emphasises her age and wonders what i t i s that makes her s m i l e . The "palabra f a t a l " i s a very Decadent note. The sonnet i t s e l f i s q uite u n d i s t i n g u i s h e d , but demonstrates once more Machado's t y p i c a l l y f i n - d e - s i e c l e s e n s i b i l i t y . " C a r l o s V" (p„109), a f t e r the p a i n t i n g by T i t i a n , i s , l i k e " F e l i p e 17", c l e a r l y i n s p i r e d not only by the p i c t u r e but a l s o by V e r l a i n e ' s "Ce"sar B o r g i a " . I n Apolo t he f i r s t l i n e reads "damasauind' de oro" and the t w e l f t h " e l mundo entero", which are both o b v i o u s l y p r e f e r a b l e t o l a t e r v e r s i o n s . The t h r e e notes o f c o l o u r i n V e r l a i n e ' s poem are gold , b l a c k and r e d : those i n "Carlos V" are g o l d , s t e e l - g r e y , b l a c k and p u r p l e . The purpl e f e a t h e r i n the l a t t e r corresponds t o the f e a t h e r and r u b i e s i n the former, t h a t i s , both p r o v i d e the s i n g l e note o f b r i g h t c o l o u r . Cesar's eyes, which f o l l o w the onlooker, gleam w i t h p r o j e c t s o f adventures, as Charles's are hard and w o l f - l i k e . The mouths of both p r i n c e s are s i n g l e d out f o r comment. The Olympian tone of both poems i s the same, and indeed T i t i a n ' s p o r t r a i t i s very l i k e that d e s c r i b e d by 6. See J u l l i a n , Dreamers p. 1+2, 7. See above, p. 75. 137 V e r l a i n e i n t h a t i t too i s "vu de t r o i s quarts et t r e s ombre'" i n the s t y l e of the Spanish and Venetian masters. The p a i n t i n g Machado describes i s , of course, o f Charles before the b a t t l e o f Miihlberg, and i s i n the Prado. The s p i r i t e d b l a c k horse, the famous armour, the f e a t h e r and the l a n c e , are a l l t h e r e . The "resonantes pasos y seguros" are reminiscent of those i n another H i s p a n i c i s i n g P a r n a s s i a n poem by V e r l a i n e , "La mort de P h i l l i p e I I " , (p.88), "Son pas est de p i e r r e . / . .Son p i e d ferme et pesant e t l o u r d , comme l a l o i , / Sonne s u r l e s t a p i s " . Vela'zquez's "La i n f a n t a M a r g a r i t a " i n the Louvre i n f l u e n c e d Machado's sonnet on her (p. 114), although t h e l a t t e r i s mainly based on t h a t p a i n t i n g i n the Prado, number 1.192, which was i n Machado's time thought t o be o f t h e g p r i n c e s s M a r i a Teresa, her s i s t e r . The handkerchief and the guardainfante are t h e r e . But the p i n k bow i n her h a i r i s t h a t of the LouVre p o r t r a i t . The VelaCzquez i n f a n t a s i n the Louvre had i n s p i r e d Hugo and Samain, as has al r e a d y 9 been noted. The yea r 1899 w a s the t r i c e n t e n a r y of t h e p a i n t e r and a number of new books on him were p u b l i s h e d . Mesonero Romanos remarks on the " l a z o r o s a " and reminds us t h a t G a u t i e r l o v e d t h i s painting.'''^ Berruete's book, p u b l i s h e d i n French i n P a r i s , a l s o admired the "adorable Infante aux yeux b l e u s . " 1 1 Gomez C a r i l l o describes the fashi o n a b l e a t t i t u d e t o Velsfzquez i n P a r i s from 1899 t o 1900. " E l genio de l a decadencia . . . e l creador de aquel t i p o 8. Machado admits t h i s i n La guerra l i t e r a r i a p.44. I t was c l e a r l y one of the " i n e x a c t i t u d e s . . . n e c e s a r i a s a mi i n t e n t o " . B e s i d e s , he may w e l l have n o t i c e d the p a i n t i n g ' s resemblance to p o r t r a i t s of the l i t t l e M a r g a r i t a and concluded c o r r e c t l y that i t was indeed of her and not o f her s i s t e r . 9. See above, p. 56. 10. Velazquez f u e r a d e l museo d e l Prado (Madrid, I 8 9 9 ) , p.155. 11.. Velazquez ( P a r i s , I 8 9 8 ) . 138 i n o l v i d a b l e de paxidos reyes anemicos y c l o r d t i c a s i n f a n t a s que miran asustadas h a c l a e l p o r v e n i r . . . y que l i e van entre l a s exangiles manos una 12 rosa simboxica." This t u b e r c u l a r l o o k was beloved of poets: Dubus's " S o l i t a i r e " was "blanche . . . sa c h a i r exsangue de c h l o r o s e " (p.104-). There i s another very c l o s e p a r a l l e l t o Machado's poem i n Jean L o r r a i n ' s sonnet "Anemie" from Modernitds ( 1 8 8 5 ) . I t too describes a p r i n c e s s , " t r o p f i n e , t r o p nerveuse, exsangue et deja lasse/De v i v r e " , who has " l a f r a g i l i t d de l a f i n d'une r a c e . " ^ The " f l o r c l o r d t i c a " o f the f i r s t l i n e of Machado's "La i n f a n t a M a r g a r i t a " i s t h e r e f o r e a commonplace of the f i n - d e - s i e c l e i n P a r i s , the vocabulary of a l a t e r decadence a p p l i e d to the v i c t i m o f an e a r l i e r one. So even i n t h i s most apparently Spanish o f t o p i c s Machado i s f o l l o w i n g a French f a s h i o n . "Don Juan de A u s t r i a " (p.115) i s another poem on the Spanish court of P h i l i p IV. The Prado p o r t r a i t d e s c r i b e d by Machado shows the buffoon dressed i n the a r c h a i c f a s h i o n , w i t h a p a i n t i n g of the b a t t l e cf Lepanto behind him and armour a t h i s f e e t , emphasising the i r o n y of h i s nickname. The anecdote about the money, which makes such a f i n e Heredian ending, demands from the reader some pr e v i o u s knowledge f o r i t s f u l l i r o n y t o be f e l t . I n f a c t , Don Juan l e n t the k i n g two r e a l e s to buy comfits f o r the queen. "Un p r i n c i p e de l a Casa de Orange" ( p . l l 6 ) takes up once more the theme of decadent p r i n c e s . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t i n Samain's "Au J a r d i n de 1'Infante" he speaks of " l e s p o r t r a i t s de Van Dyck aux beaux d o i g t s longs et p u r s " . This 12. Sensaciones de P a r i s y de Madrid ( P a r i s , 1 9 0 0 ) , pp.182-3. 13. I n t h i s context i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o r e c a l l G a u t i e r ' s "Notice" t o the 2nd ed. of Les F l e u r s du Mal ( I 8 6 9 ) i n which he describes B a u d e l a i r e ' s s t y l e . "Ces roses de p h t i s i e , ces blancs de c h l o r o s e . . . et toute c e t t e gamme de couleurs . . . qui correspondent a . . . l a derniere heure des c i v i l i s a t i o n s " ( p . 2 9 ) . The "Notice" vra.s p r i n t e d a t the head of a l l e d i t i o n s of Les F l e u r s du Mal u n t i l 1 9 1 7 , and had great i n f l u e n c e ( C f . Aggeler, Baudelaire p p . x i - x i v ) . 14-. J.A. P i c d n , V i d a y obra de Don Diego Velazquez (Madrid, 1 8 9 9 ) , p.7« 139 i s one of those p o r t r a i t s . The s e t t i n g sun, the white s k i n , the h a i r of o l d g o l d are a l l t o he found i n " F e l i p e IV" and "La i n f a n t a M a r g a r i t a " . I n the second stanza the word "podridas" emphasises the t h e s i s o f decadence. A s t r i k i n g l y s i m i l a r p r i n c e , d escribed as "Kigne enfant de ces races p o u r r i e s " , i s t o be found i n L o r r a i n 1 s "Prince h e r i t i e r " from Mode mite's* The white hand of Machado's p r i n c e i s again b l o o d l e s s , l i k e those o f C a r r i l l o ' s , or Vela*zquez's, I n f a n t a s . The words "desden" and " f a t a l " r e c a l l once more Samain's p r i n c e s s (Au J a r d i n , p.10). Her "dedain n a t a l " i s the same and she too i s i n d i f f e r e n t , "sachant trop pour l u t t e r comme tout e s t f a t a l . " More t h a n any other poem i n Apolo t h i s sonnet embodies the Decadent s p i r i t , a lthough i n a P a r n a s s i a n form, as does the p o e t r y o f Samain. " S i g l o X V I I I " (p.117) i s not i l l u s t r a t e d i n Apolo, and i t s s u b t i t l e , 'Escuela f r a n c e s a ' , seems t o i n d i c a t e that the s u b j e c t i s not one p a i n t i n g but a whole p e r i o d . The poem describes scenes that could be from Watteau, Fragonard, Boucher o r V e r l a i n e ' s Fetes g a l a n t e s . The loquacious abbe* i s t o be found i n the last-mentioned c o l l e c t i o n i n "Sur l'herbe" (p.108), i n Darlo's "Era un a i r e suave..." and i n Dubus's "Madrigal" (p.19), which i s a l s o a sonnet. Some o f the vocabulary, bosca.je, .encajes, v i o l i n e s , i s t o be found i n Dario,. as are the references t o Greece and paganism. The "nobles past ores" are l i k e t h e "marquises bocageres" of Samain's " L ' l l e Fortunee" (Au J a r d i n p.6l), but the " e x q u i s i t a pena" i s pure V e r l a i n e . The l a s t stanza of " S i g l o XVTII" resembles two French poems, V e r l a i n e ' s " L ' A l l e e " (p.108) and More'as's " V i g n e t t e " , a sonnet from Les C a n t i l e n e s . I n the l a t t e r an eighteenth century l a d y at her t o i l e t bears a s t r i k i n g resemblance t o Machado's C l o r i . " E l l e mire au m i r o i r son visage ou neigea La poudre odorante et que re l e v e une mouche... . . . e l l e pique avec un geste sec Des asphodeles dans sa chevelure b e l l e , B e l l e et bleue et parfumee e t qui se r e b e l l e . " 1 4 0 "L'Allee 1 i s a l s o a sonnet, although stood on i t s head i n the V e r l a i n i a n manner, beginning w i t h the t e r c e t s and ending on the octave. I t too has an i r o n i c ending, a s l i g h t degonflage i n the l a s t l i n e , as do "A l a promenade", (p.119), "Cythere" (p.114), and " L e t t r e " , ( p . 1 1 7 ) . Machado's d i s d a i n f u l O l o r i w i t h her patches i s l i k e the l a d y i n " L ' A l l e e " w i t h her mouche, as w e l l as l i k e More'as' b e l l e . The f a l s e n e s s o f the h a i r powder and patches, which emphasises the s i l l i n e s s of the epoch as does the blue h a i r i n " V i g n e t t e " , i s p a r a l l e l e d by the a d j e c t i v e " n i a i s " a p p l i e d t o V e r l a i n e ' s l a d y . " L ' I n d i f f e r e n t " (p.118), on a p i c t u r e by Watteau i n the Louvre, i s r a t h e r l i k e a sonnet by Samain on the same t o p i c ( i n Au j a r d i n p . 6 8 ) « The use o f the a d j e c t i v e s g r a c i l e and grsTcil imply t h a t Machado knew Samain's poem. I n the l a t t e r the i n d i f f e r e n t youth i s " l a s d'Agnes ou.de L u c i l e " , j u s t as i n Machado's poem he i s f l e e i n g the j e a l o u s y and entanglements o f F i l l s and A m a r i l i s . The background sound of the f o u n t a i n OCCUBES i n b o t h poems. Samain's " s o l i t a i r e et moqueur" i s l i k e Machado's "desmemoriado y elegante": both s e t s of a d j e c t i v e s imply h e a r t l e s s n e s s , grace and p o i s e . " P i e r r o t " ( p . 1 1 9 ) , the l a s t of the sonnets we are examining, r e f e r s , as the second t e r c e t shows, t o a p a i n t i n g by Watteau, although l i k e " L ' I n d i f f e r e n t " i t i s concerned w i t h the background s t o r y t o the p i c t u r e . The references t o P i e r r o t weeping, the extreme whiteness of h i s garb and t o the " p a i s a j e recortado" a l l make i t extremely l i k e l y t hat i t was the " G i l l e s " o f t h e Louvre that i n s p i r e d Machado. Th i s p a i n t i n g i s Watteau's best P i e r r o t ( G i l l e s was the o l d French name f o r the p a i l l a s s e who e v e n t u a l l y merged w i t h the commedia d e l l ' a r t e P i e r r o t ) and h i s t r a g i c face undoubtedly i n f l u e n c e d the l a t e r 15 c r e a t o r s of th e melancholy P i e r r o t . T h i s poem does no more than repeat the commonplaces about h i s sadness, h i s lady the Moon and the treacherous 1 6 Columbine t h a t have a l r e a d y been di s c u s s e d here. But the p e r s i s t e n c e of the 15. See A.G. Lehmann, " P i e r r o t and f i n - d e - s i e c l e " , Romantic Mythologies (London, I967). 16. See pp.69 and 74 above. 141 theme throughout Machado's work ( i t even reappears i n ' C o n f e t t i ' (p.32l), from Phoenix (1936),), shows how deeply imbued he was w i t h the symbolism o f t h i s l e i t m o t i f of the 1890s. So once again i t i s a p a i n t i n g i n the Louvre t h a t Machado has chosen t o d e s c r i b e . Of the twenty f i v e sonnets i n the book n e a r l y a t h i r d are i n s p i r e d by French sources, and a l l are based on the P a r n a s s i a n sonnet, p e r f e c t e d by Here'dia and continued by Samain and Regnier, t h a t has been d i s c u s s e d i n c h . I I , P. 42. The l a s t book of poems by Machado to be considered i n t h i s study i s Canciones y d e d i c a t o r i a s . p u b l i s h e d i n 1915. Between i t and Apolo were p u b l i s h e d two other c o l l e c t i o n s o f v e r s e , but n e i t h e r o f them concern us. Trofeos (19H) i s an u n t i d y mixture of poor j u v e n i l i a from T r i s t e s y alegres and an assortment of other p o e t r y o r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d before 1909, w h i l e Cante hondo (1912) although very good, c o n s i s t s e n t i r e l y o f Andalusian poetry and so i s not r e l e v a n t here. Canciones y d e d i c a t o r i a s can be d i v i d e d roughly i n t o the two p a r t s dorresponding t o i t s t i t l e , although there are three other s u b t i t l e s . A l l of these poems f a l l i n t o the category of what Machado c a l l s " l o s cantares, p o e s i a de l a v i d a s e n t i m e n t a l l y aun s e n s u a l , p o e s i a de l a v i d a r o t a que culmina en 17 E l mal poema." Indeed the f i r s t and t h i r d 'canciones', "La cancio'n d e l a l b a " and "La cancio'n d e l i n v i e m o " were o r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d i n E l I m p a r c i a l i n 1910 and express the same mood as E l mal poema the y e a r before. Of the 'canciones', I propose to d i s c u s s only the f o u r that show c l e a r French i n f l u e n c e .. The f i r s t o f these, "La cancio'n d e l a l b a " (p.93), i s one o f t h e best poems i n t h i s genre by Machado. The harsh imagery i s completely o r i g i n a l and p e r s o n a l , but there i s one echo of B a u d e l a i r e . "Le crepuscule du matin" (p.ll6) i s the 17.- Unos versos p.79. 14-2 most obvious antecedent f o r any t w e n t i e t h century poem on a c i t y dawn. I t desc r i b e s weariness, d i s g u s t , i l l n e s s and "Les debauches qui r e n t r a i e n t , b r i s e s par l e u r s travaux". Machado's image o f the dawn, s m i l i n g and s t u p i d l i k e a pregnant woman, i s l i k e B a u d e l a i r e ' s "Les femmes de p l a i s i r , l a paupiere l i v i d e , / Bouche ouverte, dozmaient de l e u r sommeil s t u p i d e " . The "transacciones lamentables" r e c a l l too V e r l a i n e ' s "L'aube a l'e n v e r s " (p.375), - " d ' a f f r e u x b a i s e r s et d'immondes p a r i s . " The v i o l e n t r e v e r s a l o f the order o f t h i n g s - women are u g l y , f r i e n d s h a t e f u l , monsters r e a l , the nightmare ends i n s l e e p - gives the poem an h a l l u c i n a t o r y q u a l i t y not u n l i k e V e r l a i n e ' s "Kaleidoscope" (p.32l) from J a d i s . "L'aube a l'envers" i s a l s o about a dawn, dreaming and waking and not knowing the d i f f e r e n c e . "La cancion d e l i n v i e r n o " (p.20l) i s another poem o f c i t y sadness, but a l s o r e c a l l s "Los dxas s i n s o l " and the n o t i o n o f the h e a r t h as a p l a c e of refuge from the i l l s of l i f e . The i n f l u e n c e s of Ba u d e l a i r e and V e r l a i n e 18 have a l r e a d y been noted i n t h i s regard. "La cancion d e l i n v i e r n o " i s even more o v e r t l y V e r l a i n i a n . "Gae l a l l u v i a . . . e l pobre corazdh no sabe l o que quiere" harks back t o ' A r i e t t e ' I I I (p.192), " i l p l e u t s u r l a v i l l e ... . C'est b i e n l a p i r e peine/De ne s a v o i r pourquoi . . . Mon coeur a ta n t de peine'." The " l u z pobre" and " c i e l o de cobre" are l i k e the " c i e l . . . de c u i v r e / sans l u e u r aucune" from ' A r i e t t e s o u b l i e e s ' V I I I , (p.195), w h i l e the lamp, the r e v e r i e , the book, the f i r e p l a c e and the woman are again from La bonne chanson number XIV (p.15l). Samain took up the same theme i n "Automne" from Le c h a r i o t d' or (p»97) - "doux s o l e i l i n t i m e de l a lampe...C'est l e refuge e'lu, c'est l a bonne demeure...Ou s' e l a b o r e . . . / L* essence f i n e de l a v i e i n t e r i e u r e " - and he too describes wind and w i n t e r o u t s i d e . Machado's "p r o p r i o s a l t a r e s " are p a r a l l e l e d by Samain's "tes v r a i s dieux", so that the s i m i l a r i t y appears more than c o i n c i d e n t a l . The opening l i n e o f "La cancion d e l i n v i e r n o " r e c a l l s too th a t 18. See p. 37 above. 143 o f Mallarme''s " B r i s e marine", "La c h a i r est t r i s t e , h e l a s l et j ' a i l u tous l e s l i v r e s . " "La cancio'n d e l primer amor" (p.46), e n t i t l e d "Primer amor" i n l a t e r e d i t i o n s , i s another v a r i a t i o n on the same theme as "La Primavera" i n Apolo, e s p e c i a l l y i n the t h i r d and s i x t h s t a n z a s , where the exclamations c l e a r l y d e r i v e from the same sources, V e r l a i n e ' s "Voeu" (p.62), and " I I b a c i o " (p.82). F o r the r e s t , the poem i s a t r i f l e , p l a y i n g on names as do "Rosa" and "Aleluyas madrigalescas", and u s i n g the same technique as "Madrigales". The exclamatory e r o t i c i s m reminds one o f D a r i b , whose "Heraldos" from Prosas Profanas ennumerates g i r l s ' names, i n c l u d i n g Aurora. I t co n t a i n s the l i n e s " c E l l a ? / (no l a anuncian: no l l e g a aun.)" which c e r t a i n l y correspond t o " y E l l a * . / -que no es e l l a t o d a v i a . " "Oraciones a e l l a " (p.66) , probably d e r i v e s i t s t i t l e , as L e p i o r z has 19 p o i n t e d out, t o V e r l a i n e ' s Chansons pour e l l e . L i k e the poems i n 'La buena cancidn', o f which cycle i t forms p a r t i n l a t e r e d i t i o n s , i t sees the woman as a h e a l i n g s t r e n g t h , and l i k e the other poems i n that c y c l e , i t takes i n s p i r a t i o n a l s o from much o f V e r l a i n e ' s work. The French poet, as Jean R i c h e r has observed "toutesa v i e r e s t a s e n s i b l e a. ces marques e x t e r i e u r e s de sante' / j f u l l r ed l i p s -> 20 and b r i g h t eyes/ et rechercha l e s temperaments sanguins" and Machado describes E u l a l i a i n the same terms. The sad, bad poet redeemed by a good and generous woman has been a commonplace since t h e Romantic era: Faust and Tannhauser s p r i n g t o mind. Ba u d e l a i r e uses i t i n " R e v e r s i b i l i t e " (p.48), "Causerie" ( p . 6 l ) , and "Chant d'automne" (p.62), V e r l a i n e i n "Voeu" (p.62), "Mon reve f a m i l i e r " , (p.63), "A une ferrme" and a l l the poems o f La Bonne  Chanson." I n "A une femme" (p.64), the l i n e s " l a grace consolante/De vos grands yeux ou. r i t et pleure un reve doux" are probably the source o f Machado's 19. Themen, p.23. 20. I n P a u l V e r l a i n e ( P a r i s , i960), p.12. 144 "ciirame con t u s ojos . . . con t u r i s a . . . jCon e l s o l y l a s a l que hay en t u l l a n t o i " These h e a l i n g t e a r s are a l s o t o he found i n "Mon reve f a m i l i e r " (p.63): "Les moiteurs de mon f r o n t bleme,/Elle seule l e s s a i t r a f r a l c h i r , en p l e u r a n t " . But c u r i o u s l y much of Machado's imagery comes from the l e a s t s p i r i t u a l of V e r l a i n e ' s books, Chansons pour E l l e and P a r a l l e l e m e n t , which c e l e b r a t e the robust charms o f Eugenie Krantz . The country image i s l i k e t h a t i n number V of ' P i l l e s ' (p.494-) , "Rustique beaute'/.. .Tu sens bon l e s f o i n s , / L a c h a i r et l'ete'". I n number I o f Chansons pour e l l e (p.709), we f i n d "o.../tes yeux r i a n t s " , i n number I I (p.710), she i s c a l l e d "compagne savoureuse et bonne", i n number VTII (p.715), " E l l e sent bon, t a c h a i r " , i n number X (p.717), " t a bouche...d'une f r a i s e " and i n number XIX (p.723), "Ton r i r e e c l a i r e mon v i e u x coeur". The references t o the poet's f e v e r and taedium v i t a e seem again a t o p i c copied from B a u d e l a i r e and V e r l a i n e , although i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t Machado r e a l l y was i l l , as he s t a t e s i n "Prdlogo-epxlogo" and i n 21 l e t t e r s t o Jimenez. "La mujer de V e r l a i n e " (p.94) i s a poem about the p o s s i b i l i t y o f happiness t h a t V e r l a i n e once glimpsed w i t h Mathilde and then l o s t . Dr. B r o t h e r s t o n i m p l i e s that Machado has f a l s i f i e d the s t o r y i n order t o make i t s u i t h i s equation of Mathilde w i t h E u l a l i a (p.39); t h i s i s not at a l l the case. The poems o f La Bonne Chanson, which V e r l a i n e wrote i n P a r i s and Fampoux and sent t o M a t h i l d e , who was on h o l i d a y i n Normandy, express j u s t t h i s dream o f a good and beloved woman i n an i d e a l landscape. And t h e r e i s no doubt that a l l h i s l i f e V e r l a i n e looked back w i s t f u l l y t o t h e countryside as a p l a c e of peace and innocence, and t h a t despite h i s v i o l e n t d i a t r i b e s against h i s w i f e , he r e g r e t t e d 22 t h a t l o s t dream. The countryside of h i s childhood h o l i d a y s and h i s y o u t h f u l 21. G u l l o n , "Relaciones", pp.127-8. 22i. I n c o n f i r m a t i o n o f the l a t t e r statement, see LeDantec pp.179, 187, 229, 468, 652, and the poems ' A r i e t t e s ' I I , IV, and V I I (pp.191-5), " B i r d s i n the n i g h t " p.202, " C h i l d w i f e " p.207, Sagesse I , 17, p.257, "Ballade en reve p.423, and Bonheur V I , p.662. 145 l o v e f o r h i s c o u s i n E l i s a may e x p l a i n the emotional connection. I t i s a l s o t r u e , as Machado s t a t e s o b l i q u e l y i n stanza seven, that i t was V e r l a i n e who destroyed the marriage. But he d i d continue t o seek a r e c o n c i l i a t i o n , so Machado's assumptions o f h i s n o s t a l g i a f o r h i s w i f e are j u s t i f i e d . I n "Paysages" from Amour (p.44l) V e r l a i n e describes the landscapes o f P a l i s e u l and A r r a s , where h i s parents were born, w i t h great a f f e c t i o n and a naive i n s i s t e n c e on the goodness, s t r e n g t h and happiness o f country people. The landscape d e s c r i b e d by Machado i n the second s t a n z a , " l e j a n o campo, sobre e l que f l o t a / l a n i e b l a , apenas p o r l a s l u c e s rota/de un t i b i o s o l " , i s l i k e the f i r s t three l i n e s of number I o f La Bonne Chanson (p.142), the morning scene o f sun and mist seen by the "songeur", who i s V e r l a i n e , dreaming o f M a t h i l d e . Machado p i c t u r e s V e r l a i n e w r i t i n g these poems, as indeed he d i d , i n the " P a r i s maussade et malade" d e s c r i b e d so v i v i d l y i n numbers XVI and XVII (pp.152 and 154). The image of water and aguardiente from "La cancio'n d e l a l b a " i s used again here, w i t h a double meaning, f o r a b s i n t h e , the French l i q u o r here synonymous w i t h aguardiente. was V e r l a i n e ' s weakness and d o w n f a l l , the main reason, apart from h i s p o t e n t i a l homosexuality, f o r the c o l l a p s e of h i s marriage. Stanzas f o u r and f i v e describe V e r l a i n e i n p r i s o n and i n h o s p i t a l , s t i l l r e g r e t t i n g the l o s t home he never possessed. An examination o f s e c t i o n three of Sagesse w i l l show t h i s t o be t r u e . I n number I (p.273) " l e Sage", who speaks f o r V e r l a i n e , r e j e c t s " l a f e r o c i t e * des v i l l e s " and goes back t o the p a s t , the childhood landscape o f goodness, order and harmony. Numbers XI and X I I I (pp.283-4) are a l s o country scenes and number XX (p.289) i s a parable c o n t r a s t i n g the peace o f the country w i t h the s t i n k o f the c i t y . The dream of the two l o v e r s alone i n a landscape i s f r e q u e n t l y found i n V e r l a i n e ' s work, e s p e c i a l l y i n La Bonne Chanson XVII (p.152), i n " B r u x e l l e s " I I (p.199) and i n ' A r i e t t e s o u b l i e e s ' IV (p.193). Machado i n d i c a t e s g e n t l y and w i t h p i t y t h a t V e r l a i n e ' s f a t a l temperament, which was what made him a 146 great poet, destroyed t h i s dream of happiness, although i t brought him l i t e r a r y g l o r y . There seems a l s o to be some sympathy expressed f o r Mathilde and a t a c i t condemnation of V e r l a i n e ' s behaviour towards her, an a t t i t u d e perhaps t o be exp l a i n e d by Machado 1s recent marriage but a l s o f u l l y j u s t i f i e d by the f a c t s i n V e r l a i n e * s b i o g r a p h i e s . Machado has not f a l s i f i e d V e r l a i n e * s a t t i t u d e towards M a t h i l d e . What he has done i s i m a g i n a t i v e l y to synthesise V e r l a i n e ' s ( v e r y r e a l ) hope o f love and peace w i t h Mathilde as i t i s expressed i n La bonne  chanson w i t h h i s continued equation o f the good l i f e and the b u c o l i c d e s c r i b e d i n many poems i n Sagesse and Amour. V e r l a i n e ' s own p o e t r y , as we have seen, o f f e r s ample m a t e r i a l f o r such an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . "Carnavalina" (p.99) i s another v a r i a t i o n on the theme o f "Pantomima" but i s much l e s s s u c c e s s f u l . L i k e the l a t t e r i t takes seme images from V e r l a i n e ' s " P i e r r o t " (p.320), but i t i s b a n a l . The emphasis on Golombina's l a u g h t e r - " l a d i v i n a . . l a que r f e " - i s c l e a r l y another echo of Darib's " l a d i v i n a E u l a l i a r i e , r i b , r f e " from "Era un a i r e suave." E u l a l i a , l i k e Colombina, i s f a i t h l e s s - " ' A y de quien d e l canto de su amor se ffe*." The obscure l o g a r i t h m of l o v e hidden w i t h i n her body, l i k e the " c i f r a segura" of " P l o r e n c i a " , may have been suggested by V e r l a i n e ' s " l e p e n t a c l e de tes sens" i n Chansons pour  e l l e (p.717), (which Machado m i s t r a n s l a t e s as "pentagrama de tus senos" reading " s e i n s " f o r sens".) "En l a muerte de Jose* Palomo Anaya" (p.210) conveys great emotion, as Da^naso Alonso p o i n t s out (p.86), w i t h concrete p r o s a i c words and an almost t o t a l l a c k o f imagery. I t could be regarded as the apotheosis o f Machado's "mal poema" s t y l e , and although i t s use o f verbs-"Y he v i s t o " , "Y rememoro"-and i t s d e l i b e r a t e l y banal images may seem commonplace now, i t must be remembered 23 t h a t i n Spain i n 1915 i t was remarkably modern. The technique o f understatement 23. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g that t o an E n g l i s h e a r , the second and t h i r d stanzas have much the same r i n g as T.S. E l i o t ' s e a r l y v e r s e , which was a l s o i n f l u e n c e d by Laforgue and other French Symbolists. (See "The Love Song of A l f r e d J . P r u f rock", 1917). 147 was then s t i l l new t o Spanish e a r s , attuned t o e l a b o r a t i o n and r h e t o r i c : even D a r f o , f o r a l l h i s Symbolist p r e t e n s i o n s , uses always the eloquent and l o f t y s t y l e . The new c o l l o q u i a l s t y l e vas the h e r i t a g e of C o r b i e r e , Laforgue and those who f o l l o w e d them, and o r i g i n a t e d i n a r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t eloquent emotion-a l i s m i n poetry. Machado absorbed b o t h these c u r r e n t s . H i s l a s t poem i n t h i s s t y l e was not p u b l i s h e d u n t i l 1918 i n S e v i l l a y otr o s  poemas but c l e a r l y belongs t o the "mai poema" group. "Gordura" (p.90), i t s t i t l e , i s the word he uses here, although not i n F i e s t a s g a l a n t e s , to t r a n s l a t e V e r l a i n e ' s Sagesse, and des p i t e Dfez Ganedo's i n s i s t e n c e t h a t s a b i d u r f a would pi have been more c o r r e c t , I agree w i t h Machado. V e r l a i n e ' s sagesse i s innocence, goodness, kindness, as when one says t o a c h i l d , " S o i s sage!" Gordura expresses t h i s p e r f e c t l y . A l s o , the word s a b i d u r f a c l e a r l y had f o r Machado the connotation o f w o r l d l y knowledge, knowingness, as i t s use in'Be* buena" (p.64) i n d i c a t es. "Cordura" expresses the q u a l i t y o f s i m p l i c i t y and c h i l d i s h n e s s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of V e r l a i n e i n h i s l i f e and i n h i s poetry. The bewildered v i c t i m o f l i f e ' s harshness who begs f o r understanding was one aspect of V e r l a i n e : e q u a l l y t y p i c a l was the r e t r e a t t o c h i l d i s h abuse, t o " l e mot de Cambronne". (Shis indeed was the one word t h a t V e r l a i n e deigned t o u t t e r t o Darfo when the l a t t e r was introduced t o him i n 1893).^ L i k e V e r l a i n e ' s own work, the poem swoops from 26 gentleness t o d e f i a n c e , t o that French desgarro p o i n t e d out by Damaso Alonso. The envoi i s l i k e t h a t i n the e p i t a p h f o r Alejandro Sawa, and has the same u n c e r t a i n t y as the endings o f " I n t e r n a c i o n a l " , "Yo, poeta decadente" and the 24. Review of F i e s t a s g a l a n t e s , i n "Poesfa", La l e c t u r a ( A p r i l , 1908), p.437. Machado a l s o uses the word t o t r a n s l a t e Sagesse i n "La mujer de V e r l a i n e " . 25. See A u t o b i o g r a f i a , Obras completas XV (Madrid, 1920), p.115. 26. " L i g e r e z a " , pp. 80-81. 148 much e a r l i e r "Gopo de nieve". T h i s short poem that ends on a dying f a l l i s the l a s t good poem Machado wrote t h a t shows c l e a r l y the i n f l u e n c e of V e r l a i n e . I n Phoenix (1936), poems l i k e "Dice l a fuente" (p.228), "Rima" (p.246) and those under the heading • C o n f e t t i ' (p.233) show t h a t the i n f l u e n c e s o f h i s e a r l y years stayed w i t h him, but i n r e a l i t y h i s p o e t i c v e i n was exhausted a f t e r 1915* Indeed, as has been i n d i c a t e d i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n to t h i s study (p. 6 ) , i t c o u l d be s a i d t h a t Machado's worth as an innovator was a d i r e c t r e s u l t o f h i s Bohemian leanings and f r a n c o p h i l i a , which ended w i t h h i s marriage and s p i r i t u a l r e t u r n t o Spain. I t i s undeniable t h a t h i s work i n the Andalusian manner i s o f t e n superb, but as other poets before him - P e r r a n , Paradas and Montoto, t o name only a few - had a l s o w r i t t e n poetry i n the popular idiom, Machado cannot be s a i d to have been a pioneer i n that f i e l d . H i s r e a l c o n t r i b u t i o n t o Spanish poetry was t o have introduced i n t o Spain two new genres from Prance, the Pa r n a s s i a n sonnet and the c i t y p o e t r y o f the mai poema c y c l e , and these were the genres i n which he e x c e l l e d . 149 CHAPTER 7 AN ANALYSIS: OP MACHADO1S TECHNICAL DEBT TO FRENCH POETRY Before embarking on an examination of French technique i n Machado 1 s v e r s e , i t w i l l be u s e f u l t o i n d i c a t e the opinions he and other w r i t e r s expressed on the need f o r r e j u v e n a t i n g t h e Spanish language by means of j u d i c i o u s i n j e c t i o n s of French syntax and g a l l i c i s m s . Remy de Gourmont, i n h i s preface t o Leopoldo D i a z ' s Sombras de H e l l a s (1903), claimed t h a t the new L a t i n American w r i t e r s were f o l l o w i n g French syntax. C a r r i l l o , i n h i s s e r i e s " L e t t r e s Espagnoles" f o r the Mercure de France, quotes Manuel Ugarte, the A r g e n t i n i a n author then r e s i d e n t i n P a r i s , as saying "Le mouvement qui a pour objet de moderniser l e c a s t i l l a n v i e n t de source f r a n c a i s e . Tous ne v e u l e n t pas l'avouer en Espagne... Abandonnant l a s o l o n n e l l e et vague verbosite' de 1'ancien c a s t i l l a n , tous / l e s nouveaux e c r i v a i n s / commencent £ ceder aux exigences de l'epoque, en s ' e f f o r c a n t de donner un peu p l u s de p r e c i s i o n a l e u r s phrases".^ An almost i d e n t i c a l statement comes from Manuel Machado h i m s e l f a year l a t e r , quoted by C a r r i l l o i n the same s e r i e s o f a r t i c l e s . "Les idees et l e s sentiments modernes ont s u r p r i s l a v i e i l l e langue espagnole ankylosee dans l e s comportiments du d i c t i o n n a i r e et dans l e s pompeux modeles c l a s s i q u e s . I I e t a i t nebessaire de penser en f r a n c a i s au moins pour penser avec a c t u a l i t e , parce que l e c a s t i l l a n 2 dormait et r e f u s a i t l e s expressions." Darib had s t a t e d the case f o r the use of appropriate g a l l i c i s m s i n H i s t o r i a de mis l i b r o s ^ . and Machado makes h i s own o p i n i o n on t h i s quite c l e a r i n La guerra l i t e r a r i a (1913). 1. Mercure de France X L V I I I , no.. 167, (November 1903), p.549. 2. Mercure de France L ( A p r i l 4, 1904), p.276. 3. (Madrid, n.d.), p.171. 150 "cSe me d i r a ? . . . i G a l i c i s m o i En e f e c t o - aunque l o s que s u e l e n h a b l a r de g a l i c i s m o no suelen saber f r a n e e s - yo cometo muchos... seguire cometiendo galicismos siempre que me acomode para s e r ma's expresivo y c l a r o , es d e c i r , siempre que me encuentre con que l a expresidn espanola esta" gastada y v i e j a , y no responde ya a l matiz a c t u a l de una cosa o de una i d e a " (p.12). Throughout h i s p o e t r y and prose, Machado makes use o f s y n t a c t i c a l g a l l i c i s m s , l i t e r a l t r a n s l a t i o n s from the French and H i s p a n i c i s e d French words: Damaso Alonso has noted some of these uses/*" and a d d i t i o n a l ones, l i k e the superfluous use of the subject pronoun, can be found i n poems l i k e "Se d i c e lentamente" (p.56), and "La voz que d i c e " (p.57). A number of c r i t i c s , e s p e c i a l l y Unamuno and C l a r i n , showed a v i o l e n t l y 5 c h a u v i n i s t i c r e a c t i o n to French i n f l u e n c e , and Antonio de Zayas, whose r e j e c t i o n o f afrancesamiento has a l r e a d y been noted, speaks o f the f r a n c o p h i l e poets i n these terms. "Saben Ids modernos v e r s i f i c a d o r e s que l o s poetas franceses a c i e r t a n a s e r fugaces, efimeros, toma"tiles,/sic7 a l a d o s , p o r medio de una a r t i f i c i o s a c o n c i s i o n que despuds d e l todo se reduce, ya a s u p r i m i r en l a o r a c i d n e l verbo, y a u s a r y a abusar d e l voc a t i v o y a d i s l o c a r a r b i t r a r i a m e n t e l a s i n t a x i s . " ^ But Machado, i n h i s speech t o the Academy, i m p l i e s , a l b e i t a p o l o g e t i c a l l y , that these were p r e c i s e l y the techniques t h a t he had l e a r n e d from the French. " S i yo habia aprovechado para mi obra l o mejor d e l simbolismo y parnasianismo . . . l a s notaciones ra'pidas y epigra'f i c a s , s i n nexos a r t i c u l a d o s . . . es cosa que no sabrxa a f i r m a r , n i menos e x p l i c a r s a t i f a c t o r i a m e n t e . N i s i f u d eso precisamente en cuanto a l a forma, algo de l o que yo t r a j e a Espana para enriquecer l o s capxtulos de l a nueva R e t d r i c a y P o e s l a " (p.7l). 4-. " L i g e r e z a " , p.81. See a l s o J . Ldpez M o r i l l a s , " E l A z u l de Ruben Dario. cGalicismo mental o l i n g u i s t i c o ? " R e v i s t a H i s p a n i c a Moderna X (1944), pp.9-14, f o r a study of such uses i n D a r i o 1 s work. 5. See Ribbans, "Unamuno and the younger w r i t e r s i n 1904", BHS XXXV (1958), pp.83-100: and G l a r i n ' s prologue t o C a r r i l l o ' s Almas y cerebros (Paipis, I 8 9 8 ) . 6. See c h . I I I p. 73• 7. Ensayos p.387. 151 Most of these techniques, however, had been u t i l i s e d by other Modernists, notably by Darfo,. who had a l s o learned them from the French. I t i s t h e r e f o r e impossible t o prove c o n c l u s i v e l y t h a t Machado was the f i r s t t o adapt any one g French technique t o Spanish verse. What I propose t o do i n t h i s chapter i s simply t o show where and how w e l l he used French techniques, and t o i n d i c a t e French p a r a l l e l s . I t i s a commonplace of c r i t i c i s m t h a t Machado 1s form d e r i v e s from V e r l a i n e . A summary of the c h i e f formal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f V e r l a i n e ' s poetry w i l l show how they c o i n c i d e w i t h those of Machado's work. According t o Cuenot they are a tendency to break the alexandrine by means o f f o r c e d enjambements and d i s p l a c e d caesuras, and a l o v e of assonance, a l l i t e r a t i o n , i n t e r n a l rhyme and short metres; one of h i s f a v o u r i t e forms i s the sonnet. I propose t h e r e f o r e t o examine Machado's verse i n terms of the broken a l e x a n d r i n e , the sonnet and short v e r s e s , t o g e t h e r w i t h the techniques o f enjambement, assonance and a l l i t e r a t i o n used i n each form. Before d i s c u s s i n g Machado's use o f the a l e x a n d r i n e , i t w i l l be necessary t o give a b r i e f summary of the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the broken alexandrine i n t o Spanish poetry. During the Romantic e r a the alexandrine had come back i n t o f a v o ur a f t e r c e n t u r i e s o f r e l a t i v e n e g l e c t . Z o r r i l l a i n p a r t i c u l a r used i t a great d e a l , but wrote almost e x c l u s i v e l y iambic hemistichs w i t h r e g u l a r caesura. However, d u r i n g the e i g h t e e n t h century a t h i r t e e n s y l l a b l e a l e x a n d r i n e , w r i t t e n 8. See B r o t h e r s t o n pp.80-00; and Alonso, " L i g e r e z a " pp.52-6 and 58-9. 9. See i n t e r a l i a L e p i o r z , Themen pp.90-91, and "Manuel Machado" Romanische  Forschungen 61 (194-8), p.389; Alonso, " L i g e r e z a " pp.58-9; F . Henrxquez: Ureria, Breve h i s t o r i a d e l modernismo (Mexico, 1954), p.508; G. Diego, "Los poetas de l a generacidn d e l 98", Arbor 36 (Dec. 194-8), p.445; J . Chabas, Vuelo y e s t i l o I (Madrid, 1934-), pp.64- and 108; E. Dfez Canedo, "P o e s i a " , La Leotura V I I I ( A p r i l , 1908), pp.4-37-9. 10. Le S t y l e de P a u l V e r l a i n e ( P a r i s , 1963), passim. 152 i n i m i t a t i o n of the French c l a s s i c l i n e , had been introduced by I r i a r t e and M o r a t i n , among oth e r s . I n t h i s verse the f i r s t h e m i s t i c h terminated e i t h e r i n an acute s y l l a b l e o r i n a vowel making synaloepha w i t h t h e f i r s t s y l l a b l e of the second h e m i s t i c h . Examples of these two procedures can be seen i n the l i n e s "en c i e r t a c a t e d r a l | una campana habfa/que s o l o se tocaba aquel 11 solemne d i a . " But t h i s new alexa n d r i n e was not much used u n t i l the end o f the nineteenth century. I n 1883 F r a n c i s c o G a v i d i a o f E l Salvador, having s t u d i e d Hugo, began to use more f r e e l y accented alexandrines than the s t r i c t l y iambic ones p o p u l a r i s e d by Z o r r i l l a . The ac c e n t u a t i o n of the l a t t e r i s seen i n a l i n e l i k e " £ Que* quieren esas nubes que con f u r o r se agrupan?", and of G a v i d i a f s f r e e r l i n e , "Desperte". V I l a e s t r e l l a de l a manana. j A r d x a i " I n s p i r e d by Ga v i d i a and by h i s r e a d i n g of French p o e t r y , Dario began t o essay a l e x a n d r i n e s of d i f f e r e n t rhythms, anapestic as w e l l as iambic, and to use i n t e r n a l pauses and secondary accents. I n "Gaupolican" from A z u l (1888) he wrote the f i r s t alexandrine 12 sonnet i n Spanish s i n c e the seventeenth century. F i n a l l y , i n Prosas Profanas (1896) he began t o use the t h i r t e e n s y l l a b l e alexandrine w i t h a weakened caesura, and th a t of t h r e e h e m i s t i c h s , o r t e r n a r y a l e x a n d r i n e . An example of the former i s t h e l i n e "Mi alma f r a g i l se asomaj^ a l a ventana obscura" from " E l Reino I n t e r i o r " , and o f the l a t t e r "Dichoso e l a'rbol, que eslapenas s e n s i t i v o " from "Lo f a t a l " . Henrfquez Urena p o i n t s out th a t Dario probably learned both the alexa n d r i n e without caesura and the ter n a r y a l e x a n d r i n e from V e r l a i n e , ^ who was a great 11. I r i a r t e , "Fa*bula" V I : quoted by P. Henriquez Urena, "Sobre l a h i s t o r i a d e l a l e j a n d r i n o " Estudios de v e r s i f i c a c i o n espanola (Buenos A i r e s , I961), p.358. See a l s o Tomas Navarro Tomas, M e t r i c a espanola. Resena h i s t o ' r i c a y  d e s c r i p t i v a (New Yorg, 1956), p.309. 12. See Henriquez Urena, E s t u d i o s , p.236. 13. E s t u d i o s p.357. 153 demolisher o f the c l a s s i c a l a l e x a n d r i n e . I t cannot t h e r e f o r e be proved t h a t Machado learned d i r e c t l y from the French t o use t h e broken a l e x a n d r i n e , since Darfo had attempted a l l the p o s s i b l e v a r i a t i o n s before him.^" But a study of h i s use of the a l e x a n d r i n e , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n sonnets, w i l l demonstrate Machado's s k i l l i n adopting the new forms of the metre. The sonnets of Alma are a l l M odernist, t h a t i s , i n alexandrines r a t h e r than hendecasyliable v e r s e . The sonnet was of course one o f Machado's f a v o u r i t e forms and the one i n which he e x c e l l e d . He experimented w i t h i t , and d e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t Darfo hadatbanpted some of these v a r i a t i o n s b e f o r e him, Machado needed no precedent other than h i s French masters t o vary i t s form. The other three French poets shown i n t h i s study t o have i n f l u e n c e d Machado were a l l great sonneteers. F o r t y - f i v e percent of B a u d e l a i r e ' s work was i n sonnet form, and he was the f i r s t French poet t o change i t s form r a d i c a l l y . Almost a l l of Heredia's poems are of course sonnets, and the same i s t r u e of Samain. The l a t t e r wrote r e g u l a r sonnets l i k e Here'dia, but w i t h a marked d e l i g h t i n enjambements and i n b r e a k i n g the caesura. No c r i t i c has observed t h a t Machado's often-quoted remark t o Eduardo Benot 15 that an a l e x a n d r i n e sonnet was a s o n i t e i s i n f a c t a paraphrase of Malherbe's famous l i n e on the i r r e g u l a r sonnet, " S i ce n'est un sonnet, c'est une sonnette." There are only three sonnets i n Alma. "La c o r t e " (p.24), "Oriente" (p.25) and "Wagner" (p.32). I n "La c o r t e " (p.20), syoaloepha between t h e f i r s t and second hemistichs o f the a l e x a n d r i n e occurs three t i m e s , i n the seventh, n i n t h and t e n t h l i n e s . I n the l a t t e r two l i n e s there i s a n a t u r a l break and i t c o u l d be argued t h a t the caesura remains, but i n l i n e seven, "mas a oscuras e l s i t i o J e s t a ' donde se os l l a m a " , the caesura i s d e f i n i t e l y b l u r r e d . 14. See B r o t h e r s t o n , pp.87-90* 15. La guerra, p.34. D i a r i o de Huelva, 20 January 1944, quoted by Dr. Brother-ston, p.81. 154 I n "Wagner" (p.32), l i n e s one and f o u r c o n t a i n an acute ending t o the f i r s t h e m i s t i c h , thus making the " a l e j a n d r i n o a l a f r a n c e s a " described e a r l i e r . Gonza'lez Blanco c a l l s t h i s technique V e r l a i n i a n and says of "Wagner" " e s t a fue' una de l a s composiciones que ma's ensenaron en Espana con respecto a l a s tendencias metricas de l a p o e s i a moderna: en e l l a l a cesura se liace aguda y 16 hasta se d u p l i c a . " I n l i n e s one and n i n e there are a l s o secondary pauses that break the l i n e : " e l s i l e n c i o y l a sombralse abrazan: han cesado." L i n e s twom t e n and t h i r t e e n can be read e i t h e r as r e g u l a r alexandrines w i t h a caesura and h i a t u s between two vowels - " e l cantar de l a f u e n t e l y e l s u s p i r a r d e l v i e n t o " - or as t h i r t e e n s y l l a b l e l i n e s w i t h synaloepha and weakened caesura - " e l momento p r e c i o s o j e n que e l he'roe d e l cuento." Damaso Alonso says of t h i s s o r t of a l e x a n d r i n e " que . . . viene transplantado d e l franee's, es indudable . . . va a e s t a b l e c e r con mucha f r e c u e n c i a extranos puentes, v i n c u l o s entre l o s dos h e m i s t i q u i o s . En estos casos, e l s e n t i d o pide unidad de todo e l verso. Extraria c r i a t u r a este metro, . J . es como un querer y un no querer, romper y no romper, l i g a r y no ligar."^'"'' The l i n e "mientras f o r j a n un escudolma'gico a l a a l t a empresa" from "Wagner" demonstrates what Alonso means by the sense o f the verse l i n k i n g the two h e m i s t i c h s . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t these techniques were f i r s t used by Machado a f t e r h i s time i n P a r i s . The sonnets he wrote b e f o r e going t h e r e , although they post-date the innovations of Dario*s Prosas profanas, were, as Dr. B r o t h e r s t o n p o i n t s out (pp.14 and 82), p e r f e c t l y r e g u l a r . The sonnets of Caprichos c o n t a i n even f r e e r alexandrines. "Madrid v i e j o " (p.104) was one o f the two f i r s t examples i n Spanish o f a sonnet w i t h mixed 18 a l e x a n d r i n e and hendecasyllable l i n e s . The mixing o f l i n e s of d i f f e r e n t 16. I n Los contemporaneos I I , p.111. 17. " L i g e r e z a " , p.60. Alonso argues c o n v i n c i n g l y f o r the r e t e n t i o n of the caesura when r e c i t i n g these modernist al e x a n d r i n e s , to give r i c h e r expressiveness t o the l i n e , which was undoubtedly the poets' i n t e n t i o n . 18. See Dr. B r o t h e r s t o n , p.82. 155 l e n g t h s i n the sonnet began i n French p o e t r y w i t h B a u d e l a i r e ' s "Le chat" (p.39) and "La musique" (p.74-), although he used the l i n e s i n a r e g u l a r p a t t e r n . " ^ The technique of "Madrid v i e j o " has been noted by Dr. B r o t h e r s t o n (p.83). Machado uses enjarabements l i k e "uha/facbada" and "Suena/una campana" t o throw i n t o r e l i e f the nouns and a l s o t o lengthen the l i n e s , i n a very V e r l a i n i a n way. An example o f t h e f i r s t e f f e c t i n the French poet's work i s "a. l a / f e u i l l e morte" from "^hanson d'automne" (p.72), and of the second "Le s o i r . S i l e n c e et calme. A peine 20 Un vague moribond. . . " ("Les Loups", p.359) The l a c k o f verbs i n the f i r s t three l i n e s of Machado's sonnet make the poem resemble stage d i r e c t i o n s , as the s u b - t i t l e 'acotacion' suggests. V e r l a i n e uses a s i m i l a r technique i n " E f f e t de n u i t " (p.67). "La n u i t . La p l u i e . Un c i e l b l a f a r d que de'chiquette De f l e c h e s et de t o u r s - a - j o u r l a s i l h o u e t t e D'une v i l l e gothique e t e i n t e au l o i n t a i n g r i s . La p l a i n e . " The enjarabements i n t h i s poem are a l s o l i k e those i n the second quatrain of "Madrid v i e j o . " Gonza'lez Blanco remarks t h a t "Un hi d a l g o " (p.105) i s m e t r i c a l l y V e r l a i n i a n . By t h i s he undoubtedly means the weakened caesuras and t h i r t e e n s y l l a b l e l i n e s . The former, as i n "cuarentalanos" and "magnified Iejemplar", were c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f V e r l a i n e . L i n e eleven a l s o has p o s s i b l e synaloepha between the vowels a t the caesura, w h i l e l i n e s f o u r and twelve end the f i r s t h e m i s t i c h on an acute s y l l a b l e and can t h e r e f o r e be c a l l e d " a l e j a n d r i n o s a l a francesa." L i n e f i v e breaks a word, "descansar", w i t h the caesura, and almost none of the l i n e s are r e g u l a r a l e x a n d r i n e s . 19. See Cueriot, p.4-66. 20. Examples from Cue'not pp.314 and 319. 156 Another V e r l a i n i a n technique i n "Un h i d a l g o " i s t h a t o f lengthening the 21 l i n e s "by c o n t i n u a l enjambement. The e f f e c t of t h i s i s to express the o l d s o l d i e r ' s slow and s t a t e l y walk and h i s l e i s u r e l y c o nversation. The abrupt r e t u r n t o r e a l i t y i n the l a s t l i n e , a p a r t i c u l a r l y Heredian t o u r - d e - f o r c e , i s accentuated by the p o s i t i o n of the emotive word "ducados" j u s t a f t e r a weak caesura, which emphasises i t . " J a r d i n neocla'sico" (p.106) uses weak caesuras, although there i s no synaloepha, and contains one t h i r t e e n s y l l a b l e l i n e , number f i v e : again there i s c o n t i n u a l enjambement, e s p e c i a l l y i n the f i r s t t e r c e t . "La voz que d i c e " (p.57) contains f o u r "cesuras agudas" and a number weakened by a s y n t a c t i c a l l i n k , as i n l i n e f o u r . " K y r i e e l e i s o n " (p.57) i s a triumph of l i b e r a t e d v e r s i f i c a t i o n i n the French manner, even i f the m e t r i c a l form of i t s f i r s t l i n e d e r i v e s as Dr. B r o t h e r s t o n s t a t e s (p.89), from Darfo's "JOh Sor Maria'." i n "Retratos" r a t h e r than from V e r l a i n e ' s "De l a douceur', de l a douceur! de l a douceur'." from 22 "Langueur". Here too Machado uses weak caesuras or f o r c e d accents to throw i n t o r e l i e f important words: "espinas" i n l i n e three and " o l v i d o " i n l i n e seven are s t r e s s e d by t h i s means. Cuenot observes s i m i l a r uses of broken caesura i n V e r l a i n e (pp.34-2-1+). Enjambement i s a l s o used f o r the same purpose by both poets. The type i n " K y r i e e l e i s o n " i s that which Cuenot c a l l s " o r a t o i r e " , where the poem r o l l s on sonorously without a break. He c i t e s " P r i e r e du matin" (p.405) as a prime example o f t h i s s t y l e i n V e r l a i n e . I t has already been shown t h a t the water imagery of that poem i n f l u e n c e d " K y r i e e l e i s o n " and i t 21. See Cuenot, pp.341-7. 22. But as Alonso p o i n t s out (p.64), Machado's l i n e , l i k e V e r l a i n e ' s , f o r c e s a secondary accent, whereas Dario's does not. Of course, Darfo had a n t i c i p a t e d Machado i n f o r c i n g accents w i t h the caesura. 23. See pp.320-321. 24. See c h . I I I . p. 91. 157 seems c l e a r t h a t i t s form d i d a l s o . Most s i g n i f i c a n t l y , i n h i s copy of V e r l a i n e f s p o e t r y Machado u n d e r l i n e d i n " P r i e r e du matin" p r e c i s e l y those s o r t s of enjambement that he uses i n " K y r i e e l e i s o n " : "a vous c o n n a i t r e / Tous ceux que vous voudrez de t a n t de pauvres fous" and " l e s coins/D 1 ombre et  d 1 or". I n " K y r i e e l e i s o n " the same technique i s used t o emphasise the important words l l o r a r , s a t i s f a c e . esperanza and amor. S i m i l a r eloquent enjambements are a l s o t o be found i n V e r l a i n e * s Sagesse sonnets, which " K y r i e e l e i s o n " a l s o resembles i n form and subject matter. Alma.Museo.Los cantares c o n t a i n s f o u r new sonnets, of which "La buena cancion" (p.59) i s Machado*s f i r s t t r a d i t i o n a l l y h e n d e c a s y l l a b i c sonnet since 1899. But these hendecasyllables are Modernist, polyrhythmic ones, and the constant enjambement i s once again V e r l a i n i a n . The second p a r t of "Se* buena" (p,64) uses mixed hendecasyliable and alexandrine l i n e s . "Domingo" (p.65) has been s t u d i e d by b o t h Dr. B r o t h e r s t o n and L e p i o r z f o r i t s broken l i n e s and weakened caesuras. I would l i k e t o draw a t t e n t i o n t o the f a c t that i t s enjambements correspond t o those Cuenot has c a l l e d "prosaique ou de d e m o l i t i o n " i n V e r l a i n e * s poetry (pp.325-6). Those i n Machado*s f i r s t t e r c e t resemble the broken phrases of the unhappy s o u l i n Sagesse I I , 4-(p.269). The swing back t o a balanced, c l a s s i c a l l i n e i n the f i n a l t e r c e t o f "Domingo" i s e q uivalent t o the calm, c e r t a i n tones of C h r i s t i n Sagesse I I , 7 (p.27l): "Et t u b o i r a s l e v i n de l a vigne immuable Dont l a f o r c e , dont l a douceur, dont l a bonte" Peront germer ton sang a 1' immortalite'." The P a r n a s s i an sonnets of Apolo are a l l h e n d e c a s y l l a b i c , w i t h consonant rhyme i n s t e a d of Machado's more u s u a l assonance. T h e i r rhyme scheme i s as f r e e as he permits h i m s e l f elsewhere: the two q u a t r a i n s rhyme independently, the t e r c e t s i n t e r se. The sonnets a r e , l i k e He're'dia's, r e g u l a r . However, u n l i k e Here'dia but l i k e Samain and V e r l a i n e , Machado continues t o use enjambement to g i ve a l o n g arabesque, as i n " L ' i n d i f f e r e n t " , (p.118), a technique used by 158 Samain, or to throw a word i n t o r e l i e f , as i n "duros/ ojos de lobo audaz" from "Carlos V" (p.109). "La Primavera" (p.108) contains no f i n i t e verbs at a l l , 25 a technique Machado may w e l l have learned from V e r l a i n e . " S i g l o X V I I I " (p.117) uses the same technique of I m p r e s s i o n i s t s k e t c h i n g , without verbs i n the q u a t r a i n s , as " E f f e t de n u i t " (p.67), and number XVI o f La bonne chanson (p.152). The strong i n t e r n a l rhymes and r e p e t i t i o n o f " P i e r r o t " (p.119) are a l s o a V e r l a i n i a n technique, although one Darfo made very much h i s own too. The o b t r u s i v e q u a l i t y of the echoes i n t h i s sonnet are c l o s e r t o Darfo than V e r l a i n e . The sonnets of Canciones y d e d i c a t o r i a s r e t u r n t o the alexandrine form. "Oraciones a e l l a " (p.66), V e r l a i n i a n i n t i t l e , i s a l s o V e r l a i n i a n i n v e r s i f i c a t i o n . The t e r c e t s are l i n k e d by enjambement, a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l s o of those sonnets by V e r l a i n e which, as does t h i s poem, l e a d up to a crescendo (what Cuenot c a l l s an "amplitude c r o i s s a n t e " ) . An example o f t h i s type i s Sagesse I I , v i i . Such a sonnet i s c a l l e d a major, as opposed to a minor, where 26 the ending i s a de*gonflage. "Oraciones a e l l a " i s composed o f mixed hendecasyllable and alexandrine l i n e s , and although the caesuras of l i n e s two, f i v e , seven and t e n are weak, they are not broken. 27 "La cancion d e l i n v i e r n o " (p.20l), already discussed above as f u l l of themes from V e r l a i n e , uses the enjambement arabesque described by Cuenot (pp.323-4) t o show an interminable and wearying round, of people f o l l o w i n g i n endless p r o c e s s i o n . "Oscuro t u h e l , humedo e n c i e r r o , / p o r donde marcha, a t i e n t a s , nuestro pobre convoy./ Y nos t i e n e amarrados a l a v i d a de hoy,/ como un amo que t i r a de su cadena a l p e r r o " i s l i k e the "troupeau de dupes" f o l l o w i n g Columbine (p.119), and the p r i s o n e r s going round the courtyard i n "Autre" 25. See Cuenot, p.205. 26. Cuenot, p.480. 27. See p. 142. 159 (p.4-99)» But the c l o s e s t e q u i v a l e n t i n V e r l a i n e i s the round o f phantoms i n "Nuit de Walpurgis c l a s s i q u e " , " I l s vont t o u j o u r s , l e s f e b r i l e s fant&mes,/ Menant l e u r ronde vaste et morne et t r e s s a u t a n t / comme dans un rayon de s o l e i l l e s atomes", which uses enjambement i n the same way t o g i v e an e f f e c t of sad and monotonous pr o c e s s i o n . The t e r c e t s i n t e r r u p t a b r u p t l y , l i k e the drawn c u r t a i n , t h i s w i n t e r monotony. T r a d i t i o n a l l i n e s and l a c k o f enjambement e s t a b l i s h the peace and order of the l a s t t e r c e t . Of the other sonnets i n Canciones y d e d i c a t o r i a s , " l a Primavera" I (p.48) and "Las concepciones de M u r i l l o " (p. 105) & r e h e n d e c a s y l l a b i c , while "La Primavera" I I (p.49) mixes hendecasyllables and a l e x a n d r i n e s . A l l o f Machado*s sonnets use enjambement and weakened or o b l i t e r a t e d caesuras i n a l e x a n d r i n e s , as has been demonstrated. I n h i s c u l t i v a t i o n o f the sonnet, Machado a l s o used the rhyme freedom of Baud e l a i r e and V e r l a i n e . The former had been the f i r s t French poet to rhyme the quatrains independently, and the t e r c e t s a l s o , and to vary the p o s i t i o n of rhymes, as w e l l as mixing l i n e s o f d i f f e r e n t m e t r i c lengths i n the same sonnet.' V e r l a i n e had f o l l o w e d B audelaire i n these i n n o v a t i o n s , and f r e q u e n t l y used enjambement between the t e r c e t s . Darfo had used independently rhymed t e r c e t s and quatrains once, i n "Caupolica'n" from A z u l , but none of h i s o t h e r sonnets 29 show such l i b e r t y of rhyme, w h i l e most of Machado*s sonnets from Alma onwards are very f r e e l y rhymed. I t seems reasonable t o suppose, t h e r e f o r e , that Machado le a r n e d t h i s t e c h n i c a l l i b e r t y from B a u d e l a i r e and V e r l a i n e . 28. See Cuenot pp.465-6. 29. W i t h regard t o Antonio Machado's statement that Darfo wrote no sonnet worth mentioning (Obras, p.1220), I would except "Yo p e r s i g o una forma" of Prosas p r o f a n a s , and "La d u l z u r a d e l angelus","Un soneto a Cervantes" and "Soneto autumnal a l Marque's de Bradomfn" of Cantos de v i d a y esperanza from t h i s g e n e r a l i s a t i o n . But I agree w i t h Machado th a t h i s b r o t h e r was a b e t t e r sonneteer than Darfo. 160 " F e l i p e IV" (p.23), t h a t P a r n a s s i a n poem i n t e r z a r i n a which Moreno V i l l a s a i d was n e a r l y a s o n n e t , ^ should now he disc u s s e d . Damaso Alonso has p o i n t e d out how Machado avoided the d i f f i c u l t y o f having no l a s t l i n e t o h i s t e r c e t s 31 by i n c l u d i n g an i n t e r n a l rhyme i n the penultimate. Terza rima i s not a common form i n Spanish, but was much used i n France i n the nineteenth century, p a r t i c u l a r l y by Leconte de L i s l e and G a u t i e r ( i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t t h e l a t t e r used i t i n one of h i s poems i n s p i r e d by a Spanish p a i n t e r , "A Zurbara'n", which contains the l i n e s "Deux t e i n t e s seulement, c l a i r l i v i d e , ombre n o i r / ...A 1 ' a r t i s t e ont s u f f i pour peindre votre h i s t o i r e " ) . V e r l a i n e used i t f i f t e e n 32 times, n o t a b l y i n "La mort de P h i l i p p e I I " . This d e s c r i p t i v e , h i s t o r i c a l P a r n a s s i a n poem on a Spanish to p i c may have suggested t h e use of t e r z a rima t o Machado, e s p e c i a l l y as i t f o l l o w s "Cesar B o r g i a " i n Poemes Sat u r n i e n s , 33 which has been shown t o have i n f l u e n c e d " F e l i p e IV". " F e l i p e IV" has been analysed by Alonso and Dr. B r o t h e r s t o n (pp.117-19) among others. But I would l i k e to draw a t t e n t i o n t o a technique i n i t which was much used by V e r l a i n e , t h a t o f detachment. I t c o n s i s t s of an i n s e r t i o n between a 34 noun and i t s complement, which serves t o throw i n t o r e l i e f a word or phrase. I n " F e l i p e IV" i t has the e f f e c t o f p r e c i o s i t y o r icony. The i n t e r p o l a t i o n o f a phrase o f s t y l i s e d , meaningless courtesy between the subj e c t of the sentence, the k i n g , and the a d j e c t i v a l clause d e s c r i b i n g him, 30. "La Manolerfa...", p.121. 31. " L i g e r e z a . . . " , pp.66-7. 32. Cuenot, p.485 no.19. 33« See above p. 53• 34. Cue'not, pp.206-9. 161 "Nadie mas cortesano n i p u l i d o que nuestro rey F e l i p e , que Dios guarde, siempre de negro hasta l o s p i e s v e s t i d o " , produce's the same e f f e c t o f off-handed, and t h e r e f o r e i r o n i c , p o l i t e n e s s , as i t were an a f t e r t h o u g h t , as does V e r l a i n e ' s "Eloigne' de vos yeux, Madame, par des soins/lmperieux" from " L e t t r e " (p.117), and a l s o serves t o throw i n t o g r e a t e r r e l i e f the d e s c r i p t i v e phrase f o l l o w i n g the i n t e r p o l a t i o n . A s i m i l a r i r o n y i s achieved by the i n s e r t i o n of "con desmayo gala'n" before "un guante de ante", making the glove appear even more b a t h e t i c i n a p p o s i t i o n t o " c e t r o r e a l " . Many of Machado's most V e r l a i n i a n poems are couched i n short l i n e s , t h a t i s , i n metres o f eight s y l l a b l e s and l e s s . I n h i s speech t o the Academy he r e f e r s t o the v i r t u o s i t y , i n the book Caprichos, of " c i e r t a s a r i e t a s muy d i f i c i l e s de l o g r a r en c a s t e l l a n o " ( p . 7 6 ) . That these were derived from 35 V e r l a i n e i s suggested a l s o by D a r i o , who g r e a t l y admired them. There does e x i s t i n Spanish a type o f poem c a l l e d a r i e t a . I t i s a poem of s h o r t , l i g h t l i n e s meant f o r s i n g i n g , and can c o n s i s t o f one o r two s t a n z a s , each composed of not l e s s than two and not more than seven l i n e s . Each l i n e may c o n s i s t of between three and t e n s y l l a b l e s , and the l a s t l i n e s o f the stanzas must rhyme 3 6 a c u t e l y . Such a d e s c r i p t i o n i s too r i g i d t o apply to any of Machado 1 s poems i n Caprichos. An examination o f V e r l a i n e ' s ' A r i e t t e s oublie'es', however, shows a great v a r i a t i o n i n metres, from t h i r t e e n s y l l a b l e s t o f i v e , and i n strophes, which v a r y between d i s t i c h s , quatrains and s e x t e t s . What they have i n common i s t h e i r m u s i c a l i t y . LeDantec's account o f them could apply e q u a l l y to Machado's a r i e t a s . He c a l l s them m u s i c a l games, pure poetry, without a r c h i t e c t u r e or l o g i c , songs without w o r d s . F e m i n i n e rhymes, a l l i t e r a t i o n , echoes and i n t e r n a l 35. I n "Nuevos poetas de Espana", Opiniones (1906), p.4-15. 36. D.C. C l a r k e , V e r s i f i c a t i o n , p.322. 37. LeDantec, Preface t o V e r l a i n e . Oeuvres poetiques completes, pp.178-180. 162 rhymes c h a r a c t e r i s e them and they l a c k verbs and grammatical sequence. Many of them have a l r e a d y been shown t o have i n f l u e n c e d Machado i n terms of content, e s p e c i a l l y numbers I , I I I , and V I I I . Such a d e s c r i p t i o n c o u l d be a p p l i e d t o " P i e r r o t y Arlequxh", (pi37)-,-'-~ " F l o r e n c i a " , (p.37), " E l v i e n t o " , (p.39), "Neurastenia", "Prosa" (p.9l), and "Se dice lentamente" (p.56), i n Caprichos, and a l s o t o "Otonb" (p.17), "Encajes!* ( p . 2 l ) , and "Copo de niev e " (p.36) i n Alma. "Otonb" (p.17), p a t e n t l y i n s p i r e d by "^hanson d'automne" (p.12) , i s made up of a repeated t r o c h a i c f o o t , that i s , a rhythmic group of f o u r , i n l i n e s of two, f o u r , seven and e i g h t s y l l a b l e s . I t s rhyme scheme i s l o o s e r than anything i n V e r l a i n e , as i s the s t r o p h i c form, f i v e , e i g h t , and then f o u r l i n e s . But the mood, vocabulary, and echoes are V e r l a i n i a n . Apart from the obvious r e p e t i t i o n s o f words i n the f i r s t and l a s t s tanzas, l i k e those i n " S o l e i l s Couchants" (p.69), there are s u b t l e r v o c a l i c rhymes such as the echoes between "parque v i e j o " , "{ioja seca", and the 'o' sounds o f " s o l o " , " i n d o l e n t e " and " r o z a " . "Encajes" ( p . 2 l ) i s based on the same rhythmic u n i t . I t s weak verbs, such as "son" i n "y son copas", and i t s I m p r e s s i o n i s t t e l e g r a p h i c s t y l e are l i k e t h e verbs i n ' A r i e t t e ' I ( p , 1 9 l ) , "C'est l ' e x t a s e " . Cuehot's d e s c r i p t i o n of the h e p t a s y l l a b l e f i t s Machado's po e t r y p e r f e c t l y , i f one considers the t e t r a s y l l a b l e s as the equivalent o f the p i e s quebrados of the o c t o s y l l a b l e . "Metre r a p i d e , l ' h e p t a s y l l a b e rend heureusement l a l e g e r e t e , l a purete', l a candeur, 1 ' a l l e g r e s s e , l ' i r o n i e , l e s sentiments q u i manquent de profondeur... Ve^s chantant, c'est l e vers du l y r i s m e pur, sans r h e t o r i q u e n i tache de prose" (p.398), and he quotes as an example "Mandoline" (p.115), which has the same l o n g , sinuous l i n e as "Encajes". "Copo de nieve" (p.36), w i t h i t s abrupt rhythm of s i x and three s y l l a b l e s , i s very l i k e "Golombine" (p.118). The French f i v e s y l l a b l e verse gives the 163 same impression as the Spanish h e x a s y l l a b l e , and the u n c e r t a i n d i s y l l a b i c endings are very a l i k e . Both poems create the e f f e c t of j e r k y , p u p p e t - l i k e movements, a technique Machado p e r f e c t e d i n "Pantomima" (p.39). " P i e r r o t y A r l e q u f n " (p.37) has been recognised by a l l the c r i t i c s as so p a t e n t l y V e r l a i n i a n t h a t there i s no need to t r e a t of i t at any l e n g t h here. I t i s an accomplished copy of "Colombine" (p.118) f o r which "Copo de niev e " had doubtless been a sketch. " E l v i e n t o " (p.39) uses the t e l e g r a p h i c s t y l e a g a i n , l i k e "Encajes". Although t h e s e t t i n g i s d i f f e r e n t , the metre and s t y l e o f " C h a r l e r o i " (p.197) are very s i m i l a r t o i t : "Parfums s i n i s t r e s l Qu*est-ce que c ' e s t ? . . . Le vent profond P l e u r e , on veut c r o i r e . " "Neurastenia" (p. 197 ) has the same metre and rhyme scheme as V e r l a i n e 1 s "La lune blanche" (p.14-5). I t i s not a very good poem but c l e a r l y served as a r e h e a r s a l f o r "Es l a manana" w i t h i t s r e p e t i t i o n s and i n t e r n a l rhyme. "Prosa" (p.9l) i s another poem i n h e p t a s y l l a b i c s e x t e t s . The metre, although not the s t r o p h i c form, i s l i k e t h a t o f ' A r i e t t e ' I I I (p.192), which has a l s o the same r e p e t i t i o n of two rhymes. T h i s has the e f f e c t o f g i v i n g a monotonous, obsessive sound t o the poem. Machado's rhymes, poesfa. armonfa. cansada, l e t a n f a  desterrada, a l e g r f a , correspond t o the repetiveness of V e r l a i n e ' s coeur, v i l l e , langueur, and coeur. "Se d i c e lentamente" (p.56) has the same hypnotic q u a l i t y as ' A r i e t t e ' I (p.19l), "C'est l ' e x t a s e langoureuse". The vocabulary i s markedly V e r l a i n i a n - vagufsima. pena, o r a c i d n , mondtono- as i s the use of i n t e r n a l rhyme, "Encanto . . . l l a n t o " , corresponding t o " l e r o u l i s sourd des c a i l l o u x " i n ' A r i e t t e ' I , and " . . . mienne . . . t i e n n e " . The marked use of a l l i t e r a t i o n i n "Se dice lentamente" - l l e n a and l l a n t o ; b r o t a , l a b i o s , saben and s a b i o s ; saben, s a b i o s , su and son; mondtono and lentamente - i s t o be found i n 164 ' A r i e t t e ' I , " f r e l e et f r a i s " , and a l s o i n Sagesse I , 16 (p.256) - p l e u r e and p l a i r e ; v o i x , v o i l e e and veuve; peine and passage. I t has heen remarked i n chapter I I I (p. 90 ) that the l a t t e r poem was probably the o r i g i n a l i n s p i r a t i o n f o r "Se d i c e lentamente", so the use o f a l l i t e r a t i o n may have the same source. "La l l u v i a " (p.58), "Madrigales" (p.43) and "Es. l a manana11 (p.62) from Alma.Museo. l o s cantares c o u l d a l s o be c a l l e d a r i e t a s , "La l l u v i a " uses the technique o f monotonous rhyme t o express sadness. The rimes p l a t e s o f the f i r s t three stanzas o f V e r l a i n e ' s "Colloque sentimentale" (p,12l) have a s i m i l a r e f f e c t . But the rhyme scheme of "La l l u v i a " i s even more l i k e that of ' A r i e t t e ' I I I (p.192), the poem Machado quotes as h i s i n s p i r a t i o n , although Machado's stanzas c o n t a i n one l i n e l e s s than V e r l a i n e ' s . A not d i s s i m i l a r poem, although i t s three l i n e strophes are monorhyme and i t has a r e f r a i n , i s number I of ' S t r e e t s ' (p.206), which has much the same metre, rhythm and theme, "Es l a manana" (p.62) i s one of the most s u c c e s s f u l o f Machado's a r i e t a s . The complexity o f i t s i n t e r n a l rhyme i s remarkable, r e s u l t i n g i n a gay m u s i c a l i t y such that the meaning i s subservient t o the sound. The rhyme scheme i s that o f La Bonne Chanson VI (p,145)> although the e f f e c t i s v e r y d i f f e r e n t because Machado uses c l e a r , hard consonants, n's, p's, d's and c's, and s h o r t words t o g i v e a c r i s p , c l e a n e f f e c t , whereas V e r l a i n e uses s o f t sounds,1's, b's, s's m's and r ' s . Other poems o f short l i n e s by Machado which do not q u a l i f y as a r i e t a s n e v e r t h e l e s s use the same techniques as Romances sans p a r o l e s . " L i r i o " (p.28) and " E l j a r d i n negro" (p.29) from Alma, both h e x a s y l l a b i c , use much i n t e r n a l rhyme and a l l i t e r a t i o n t o compensate f o r the looseness of romance assonant rhyme on the even v e r s e s . I n " L i r i o " p a r t i c u l a r l y , the echoed words and the s o f t c e t a , e r r e , s and m sounds give the poem i t s dream-like q u a l i t y . V e r l a i n e uses a s i m i l a r procedure i n number IX of ' A r i e t t e s oublie'es' (p.196), and Gerineldos fades away "como una humareda" as do the r e f l e c t i o n s of the t r e e s i n the misty r i v e r i n V e r l a i n e ' s poem. 165 "Vfsperas" (p.53) i s yet another poem which e x p l o i t s the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of i n t e r n a l rhyme-paz, p l a z o l e t a , c a l l a d a , ensimismada-and of a l l i t e r a t i o n , l i k e "suspenso, un son de salmo". These techniques, together w i t h t h a t of enjambement, are t o be found throughout Machado 1s p o e t r y and are p a r t i c u l a r l y s u c c e s s f u l i n poems l i k e "Vfsperas" (p.53), " l a voz que d i c e " (p.57), "Madrid v i e j o " (p.104), and "Abel" (p.54) where the y achieve a V e r l a i n i a n gentleness and melancholy. Most of Machado 1s poems use romance assonance on even l i n e s , and so an examination of h i s use of rhyme would not be very f r u i t f u l . But some cases may be mentioned. " F a n t a s i a de Puck" (p.30), although i t c o u l d be c a l l e d a s e s t i n a i t a l i a n a , has the same rhyme scheme as V e r l a i n e 's "Colombine" (p.118), a poem which a l s o describes a t r a i n o f people i n a r a t h e r s i n i s t e r way. I n both poems the l o n g enjambements and the s t r o n g consonant rhymes give t h e e f f e c t o f broken rhythm, of an i r r e g u l a r march. And although i t s l i n e s are lo n g e r , the Spanish h e p t a s y l l a b l e s w i t h the t h i r d and s i x t h l i n e s rhyming on an acute s y l l a b l e are not u n l i k e the couplets o f French p e n t a s y l l a b l e s d i v i d e d by rhyming d i s s y l l a b l e s o f masculine rhyme. These same techniques of rhyme and enjambement are a l s o used i n " V e r s a i l l e s " (p.33), which however derives m e t r i c a l l y from D a r f o 1 s "Marcha t r i u n f a l " . Machado 1s reference i n t h e second stanza acknowledges the debt.. The verse of E l mal poema employs consonant rhyme t o give a harsh e f f e c t , as opposed t o t h e nuance of assonance. V e r l a i n e uses the technique of p u r e l y masculine rhymes t o achieve the same e f f e c t i n "Groquis p a r i s i e n " , (p.65), "Autre" (p.499), and " R e v e r s i b i l i t e ' s " , (p.500), which are a l l poems o f b i t t e r i r o n y l i k e E l mal poema. I t i s n o t i c e a b l e t h a t a poem such as "A A l e j a n d r o Sawa" (p.205), has a s t r o n g p r o p o r t i o n of agudo rhymes ( t e n agudo t o s i x l l a n o } the e q uivalent o f the French masculine rhyme. Indeed the rhythm between t h e seven and f o u r s y l l a b l e l i n e s i n " R e v e r s i b i l i t e s " i s not u n l i k e t h a t between eig h t and f o u r i n Sawa's epitaph: 166 "Que de sanglots repe'te's, Pous ou d o l e n t s l Ah, dans ces p i t e u x r e t r a i t s Les Toujours sont l e s Jamais V Tu meurs doucereusement, Obscurement, Sans qu"on v e i l l e , o coeur aimant, Sans testament!" Returning to a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f Machado's use o f the a l e x a n d r i n e , i t should be noted t h a t although most of h i s alexandrines are to be found i n ttie sonnets, three o f h i s s e l f - p o r t r a i t poems, "Adelfos" (p.13), "Pr6logo-epilogo." and "Reiaratd' use t h i s metre too. I n the f i r s t of these he i s u s i n g the a l e x a n d r i n e i n the c l a s s i c manner, as " l e metre r o y a l " , f o r a l o f t y and sonorous tone, and so, l i k e V e r l a i n e i n the "Prologue" t o Poemes Saturniens (p.58), or i n the sonnets o f Sagesse spoken by C h r i s t , he uses r e g u l a r a l e x a n d r i n e s . One of the two i r r e g u l a r l i n e s i s "Un vago afan de a r t e l t u v e . . . Ya l o he perdido," where the e f f e c t of the caesura before the verb i s t o imply a h e s i t a t i o n i n the statement, a r e g r e t . The rimes embrassees are consonantal but not o b t r u s i v e . I n the second two poems the rhymes are couplets, t h e l e a s t l y r i c a l , most p r o s a i c of rhymes. I n French poetry i t i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the alexandrine f o r e p i c , n a r r a t i v e and d i d a c t i c verse: i n V e r l a i n e ' s p o e t r y i t i s reserved f o r the alexandrine. Darfo had used alexandrine couplets i n "Cosas d e l C i d " and "Coloquio de l o s centauros", but i t i s not a common use i n Spanish v e r s e . Machado uses i t here as V e r l a i n e had used i t i n "Ce'sar B o r g i a " and the 'Contes d i a b o l i q u e s 1 , that i s , as an o b j e c t i v e l y d e s c r i p t i v e , P a r n a s s i a n mode. Such an approach serves t o d i s t a n c e and make i r o n i c the angry, s u b j e c t i v e content and a l s o s t r e s s e s the p r o s a i c tone. 167 I n "Retrato" (p.75) Machado a g a i n uses the V e r l a i n i a n I m p r e s s i o n i s t technique t o break the rhythm of the alexandrine. The change from the r a t h e r pompous, r e g u l a r rhythm of "Unos ojos de h a s t i b y una boca de sed" t o the broken l i n e "Lo demas.. .Nada.. .Vida...Cosas.. . l o que se sabe" i s an i r o n i c p i e c e of a n t i c l i m a x . I n both poems Machado uses t h e long s e r i e s of enjambements t h a t are t o be found throughout h i s work and i n a l l V e r l a i n e ' s a l e x a n d r i n e s : "En nuestra buena t i e r r a , l a pobre Musa l l o r a P o r l o s rincones, como|una antigua querida Abandonada, y ojerosa y mai c e n i d a , Rodeada de cosas I feats y de t r i s t e z a Que hacen h u i r l a rima y e l ritmo y l a b e l l e z a . " The en.jambements throw i n t o r e l i e f "por l o s rincones" and "abandonada", w h i l e the weak caesuras s t r e s s "antigua" and " f e a s " . T h i s i s a good example of how w e l l Machado had l e a r n e d from V e r l a i n e the techniques of "1'enjambement prosaique ou de d e m o l i t i o n " and of the broken caesura t o express emotion. I t i s c l e a r then that i f Machado was n e i t h e r the f i r s t nor the only f o l l o w e r o f V e r l a i n e i n Spanish, he was one o f the most accomplished: "Otono", " P i e r r o t y A r l e q u i h " , " E l v i e n t o " , "Se d i c e lentamente" and "Es l a manana" are proof o f t h a t , i n terms of V e r l a i n i a n metres and rhythms, while the p e r f e c t i o n of many o f h i s sonnets, u n p a r a l l e l e d i n modern Spanish p o e t r y , i s comparable t o that of B a u d e l a i r e and V e r l a i n e . "Otono" and " P i e r r o t y A r l e q u f n " have f r e q u e n t l y been compared w i t h t h e i r V e r l a i n i a n models, but an e q u a l l y good example o f Machado's s k i l l i n reproducing the French poet's s t y l e can be seen i n a j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f l i n e s from " E l v i e n t o " and "Charleroi"» " E l v i e n t o " " C h a r l e r o i " "Es e l v i e n t o Quien l o t r a e . . "Quoi done se sent? L*avoine- s i f f l e . G-oce sumo, Pasa, Cae . « » Como humo Se desvae... Pensamiento l.. y es e l viento 1." Un buisson g i f l e L * o e i l en passant. Parfums s i n i s t r e s ' . Qu'est-ce que c'est? Quoi b r u i s s a i t Comme des s i s t r e s ? Le vent profond P l e u r e , on veut c r o i r e . " 169 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION I propose t o conclude t h i s a n a l y s i s of the i n f l u e n c e of V e r l a i n e and other French poets on Manuel Machado w i t h a review of Machado's references to V e r l a i n e i n h i s prose work, before d i s c u s s i n g the extent of h i s debt to French i n f l u e n c e s and t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the enduring worth of h i s poetry. The c o l l e c t i o n of s t o r i e s and essays E l amor y l a muerte (1913) contains p i e c e s t h a t were f i r s t p u b l i s h e d as e a r l y as 1903. The t i t l e s t o r y "Nuestro P a r i s . . . E l amor y l a muerte" appeared then, i n H e l i o s 10. The t i t l e i s a commonplace of the epoch that appears i n poems by He're'dia, B a u d e l a i r e and Samain, and i n the prose work of Jean L o r r a i n and Gomez Ca r r i l l o . " ' " The second s t o r y , "Alma p a r i s i e h " , i s based on a quotation from V e r l a i n e ' s "Mon reve f a m i l i e r " , and i n the t e x t Machado r e f e r s t o him sirnply as " e l maestro" (p. 32). "Solos" i s a duologue between P i e r r o t and Colombine of the k i n d d e s c r i b e d by Gdmez C a r r i l l o i n Bohemia sentimental (pp.102-6.) " E l alma d e l a j e n j o " i s a B a u d e l a i r i a n prose poem on the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f absinthe to the a r t i s t i c l i f e i n P a r i s , which ends "Tu r e i n o es P a r i s , l a c a p i t a l de nuestro s i g l o . . .Tu* o f i c i a s en l a misa-orgia de todos sus amores...en l a borrachera sagrada de l o s poetas... J Verlaine'.". There i s no o t h e r d i r e c t reference to V e r l a i n e nor to any other French poet, but the themes of the s t o r i e s , such as i r o n i c l o v e r s t a l k i n g o f s u i c i d e , and the t o p i c s o f gardens, s t a t u e s , p a s t e l tones, the monot of r a i n , have c l e a r antecedents i n the French w r i t e r s who i n f l u e n c e d Machado 1 s poetry. The s t o r i e s are of the genre c a l l e d l e conte p a r i s i e n , p r a c t i s e d by Ca t u l l e Mendes and J e a n L o r r a i n , and i m i t a t e d by Darfo and C a r r i l l o before Machado. They are mediocre, but i n t e r e s t i n g i n that they show Machado's enthusiasm f o r t h i n g s French between t h e years 1903 and 1913. 1. See "Le Cydnus" , p.32; "Les Deux Bonnes.Soeurs" , p.132; "Bacchante" from Le c h a r i o t d'or, p.119; "L'Heroine" from P o u s s i e r e s de P a r i s , pp.31-2; and Sensaciones de P a r f s , p.286. 170 That t h i s i n t e r e s t d i d not abate i n l a t e r years i s borne out by a number of h i s newspaper a r t i c l e s p u b l i s h e d between 1921 and 1944. I n a number of these, w r i t t e n f o r La L i b e r t a d i n 1921, he confirms h i s a d m i r a t i o n f o r "Verlaine. The most i n t e r e s t i n g i s a generous review of a new verse t r a n s l a t i o n of V e r l a i n e ' s poetry by E m i l i o Garrere, p u b l i s h e d i n Madrid by E d i t o r i a l Mundo L a t i n o . I t c o n t a i n s an account of V e r l a i n e which i s a summary o f a l l h i s other statements on the poet: " V e r l a i n e es t o d a v i a e l uTtimo gran poeta que ha producido e l mundo. En l a admirable f l o r a c i o n l i r i c a de F r a n c i a en e l u l t i m o t e r c i o d e l s i g l o pasado, V e r l a i n e culmina y se nos aparece - l o s d i a s agrandan su f i g u r a - como e l ma's complejo y f u e r t e de a q u e l l a epoca fecunda, en que parnasianos y s i m b o l i s t a s se disputaban e l c e t r o de l a p o e s i a . . . <j.Fue* V e r l a i n e parnasiano o s i m b o l i s t a ? Fue* en todo caso V e r l a i n e . Amd l a forma, l a c u l t i v d y l a complied hasta l a s ma's s u t i l e s m a r a v i l l a s . Pero su alma, l l e n a de ensueno y de i n t u i c i o n e s , no c a b i a en ninguna e s c u e l a n i c o n f e s i d n a r t x s t i c a . Es ma's que parnasiano y ma's que s i m b o l i s t a . Y es, sobre todo, paradojicamente mxstico y decadente. c,'Decadente? S i . Con f r e c u e n c i a l a s e n s u a l i d a d predomina sobre su e s p x r i t u , sobre su v o l u n t a d . Y nadie como e l , a l par, e s p i r i t u a l i z a l o sensual . . . Y sobre todo, nadie como V e r l a i n e ha cantado e l m i s t e r i o c o t i d i a n o , l a m a r a v i l l a frecuente de nuestros deseos y nuestros ensuenos, n i tenido l a s a b i d u r f a s u t i l de l a v i d a - p l a c e r , d o l o r , amor -j n i nadie ha dicho mejor que e l , con sus versos, l o que todos sabemos...y nadie sabe. Por eso es e l ma's humano y e l ma's d i v i n o de l o s poetas. Y sobre todo, e l poeta de hoy, e l de ' t o d a v i a ' , e l de siempre, t a l vez." I n another, undated a r t i c l e i n the B i b l i o t e c a Machado, Manuel speaks of him s e l f as one of " l o s que somos f r a n c d f i l o s s i n r e s e r v a y adoramos a F r a n c i a como al g o p o r encima de todo l o c a l i s m o , como p a t r i a e s p i r i t u a l . " And as l a t e as 1944, i n an i n t e r v i e w w i t h Ledesma Miranda, he says " P r e f i e r o l a poesxa que va a l sentimiento, con o s i n ima'genes. La que e n t r a por e l oxdo. "De l a musique avant toute chose", que decla. e l gran V e r l a i n e . Desde V e r l a i n e a 2 nosotros se han dado pocos pasos, y estos fuera del camino verdadero." U n t i l the end of h i s l i f e , t h e r e f o r e , Machado continued t o express h i s passionate devotion t o V e r l a i n e . He demonstrated i t i n the t i t l e s o f h i s poems, 2. " E l angel de Manuel Machado'>,. A r r i b a , 18 June. 171 i n quotations, d i r e c t references and unabashed i m i t a t i o n . !ghat he took a •great deal from V e r l a i n e i n terms of form has been observed by many c r i t i c s , and has been corroborated i n chapter V I I . But the extent o f V e r l a i n e ' s i n f l u e n c e on Machado's themes and images has a l s o been demonstrated i n t h i s study. Other c r i t i c s have n o t i c e d the V e r l a i n i a n antecedents of "Otono", " P i e r r o t y A r l e q u i n " , " F e l i p e l V " , " K y r i e e l e i s o n " , and the poems of 'La buena cancion' , and the references t o V e r l a i n e i n "La l l u v i a " , "La mujer de V e r l a i n e " and"Cordura". But many more p a r a l l e l s have been noted here. I t has been p o s s i b l e i n t h i s study to show more co n c l u s i v e evidence of V e r l a i n i a n i n f l u e n c e i n Machado's work than has been a v a i l a b l e t o previous c r i t i c s . The usefulness o f mechanical a i d s i n t h i s respect has already been i n d i c a t e d i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n (p. 7 ). I t w i l l be u s e f u l to r e c a p i t u l a t e b r i e f l y here seme examples o f c l e a r cases o f i n f l u e n c e t h a t were e s t a b l i s h e d by comparing Machado's t r a n s l a t i o n s of V e r l a i n e w i t h h i s own poetry by means of the computer concordances. I n Alma, the s i m i l a r i t y between "Melancolia." and "Promenadesentimentale" was e s t a b l i s h e d by checking p a r a l l e l uses of the words vagar and sauce. and the same process w i t h the words v i e .jo, muerto, esperanza and recuerdos revealed the connection between " E l jardi'n g r i s " and "Colloque sentimentale". The provenance o f p a r t s of "Abel" i n Caprichos from ' A r i e t t e s oublie'es' was proved by the use o f the v/ords h i e r b a , l l o r a r and the Spanish synonyms f o r f o l i a g e . "Se d i c e lentamente" provides one of the most s t r i k i n g p a r a l l e l s w i t h V e r l a i n e i n a l l Machado's work, i n i t s closeness t o Sagesse I , 16, which was shown by a comparison o f t h e words pena and the synonyms f o r t e a r s and weeping. The V e r l a i n i a n provenance of " |PazI" and "Se buena", i n Alma.Museo.Los cantares, was able t o be c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h e d by means of the concordances. E I mai poema provides fewer obvious p a r a l l e l s w i t h V e r l a i n e than do other books, but even so the s t r i k i n g example o f the closeness of the t h i r d stanza o f "Pr6logo-epxlogo" 172 t o number I I I o f 'Lucien Le"tinois' was d i s c o v e r e d through the concordances, as was the s i m i l a r i t y between images i n "En l a muerte de J u l i o Ruelas" and " P r i e r e du matin". The i n f l u e n c e on Machado's work of other French poets o f t h e second h a l f of the nineteenth century has a l s o been c l e a r l y demonstrated here. That of Samain had been i n d i c a t e d by Jimenez and corroborated, w i t h one example, by Dr. Brotherston (pp.98-9), who has a l s o noted some s t r i k i n g p a r a l l e l s w i t h Leconte de L i s l e and He're'dia (pp.-95-6). But no previous c r i t i c , as f a r as I have been ab l e t o a s c e r t a i n , has shown the extent of these i n f l u e n c e s and those o f B a u d e l a i r e , M i l o s z and Dubus throughout Machado's best poetry. The poet who most i n f l u e n c e d Machado, asi d e from V e r l a i n e , was as Jimenez noted, Samain. "Los dfas s i n s o l " , "La a l c o b a " , " F i n de s i g l o " , " A l c o h o l " , " L ' I n d i f f e r e n t " and "La primavera" show d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e , and i n many other poems, l i k e " A d e l f o s " , "Gerineldos e l paje" "La i n f a n t a M a r g a r i t a " , "La voz que d i c e " and "Un p r f n c i p e de l a Casa de Orange"^ there are d e f i n i t e t r a c e s of h i s s t y l e and language together w i t h those of other p o e t s . Samain f a i t h f u l l y i m i t a t e d Baudelaire as w e l l as V e r l a i n e , although the l a t t e r ' s i n f l u e n c e i s more n o t i c e a b l e i n h i s work, and so i t i s sometimes d i f f i c u l t to be sure whether Machado learned from him o r from h i s predecessors. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t Jimenez was capable o f confusing Samain's work w i t h t h a t of V e r l a i n e . He a t t r i b u t e s to the l a t t e r the l i n e " e l desprecio a l a muerte como u n a f l o r en l o s l a b i o s " , whiclh i s i n f a c t the l a s t l i n e of Samain's ' V e r s a i l l e s ' I I I i n Le Chariot d'Or.^ Jimenez's statement i n the same essay, w r i t t e n about 1905, that Machado had been i n f l u e n c e d by Samain's d i c t i o n and c o n s t r u c t i o n could r e f e r t o " V e r s a i l l e s " from Alma o r t o poems i n the newly-published Caprichos. "La a l c o b a " , " A l c o h o l " and "La voz que d i c e " from t h a t c o l l e c t i o n have a l r e a d y been shown t o c o n t a i n obvious p a r a l l e l s w i t h •Heures d'e'te'1 I I I , "Luxure" and "La Mort". 3. I n "Alma y capricho de Manuel Machado", La c o r r i e n t e , p.4-1. 173 An idea o f how much Machado's s t y l e on occasion resembles that o f Samain can be obtained from a comparison o f t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e poems on V/atteau's " L ' I n d i f f e r e n t " . The sonnets are d i f f e r e n t i n some r e s p e c t s , but Samain's e x e m p l i f i e s h i s t y p i c a l s t y l e , a dreamy Symbolist melancholy d e r i v e d from V e r l a i n e , which so i n f l u e n c e d Machado. Samain "Dans l e pare vapoureux ou l'heure s'enamoure, Les robes de s a t i n et l e s s v e l t e s manteaux Se melent, re'fletes au c i e l calme des eaux; E t c'est l a f i n d'un s o i r i n f i n i qu'on savoure. Les e v e n t a i l s sont c l o s ; dans l ' a i r s i l e n c i e u x Un andante suave agonise en sourdine, E t , comme l'eau q u i tombe dans l a vasque v o i s i n e , L'amour tombe dans l'ame et de*borde des yeux. Les grands c i l s allonge's p a l p i t e n t l e u r s tendresses; P l u i d e s sous l e s mains s'arpegent l e s caresses; E t l a - b a s , s ' e f f i l a n t , s o l i t a i r e et moqueur, "_':':•. ;1 Lf Indifferent, ohl l a s d'Agnes ou de L u c i l e , Sur l a scene, d'un geste adorable et g r a c i l e , Du bout de ses d o i g t s f i n s seme un peu de son coeur." Machado Galan desmemoriado y elegante, Surge en un gra ' c i l paso de gavota, Mientras l a fuente f r i v o l a borbota E l soso y f r i b madrigal constante. 174 A l a senora de T o u r v e l - su F i l i s -E n v i d , en un b i l l e t e perfumado, Un a c r d s t i c o - i oh c e l o s l - dedicado A l a s l e t r a s d e l nombre de A m a r i l i s . Y e l l a , f u r i o s a con l a M a r i s c a l a , Rompid, indignada, dos p r e c i o s o s Sevres Y una p r e c i o s a t u n i c a de encaje... E l d i j o b i e n una d i s c u l p a mala... S a l i d ; y, huyendo l a s celosas f i e b r e s , Gorre l a s gratas frondas d e l p a i s a j e . " The i n f l u e n c e o f B a u d e l a i r e on Machado i s c l e a r l y demonstrable i n poems such as "Domingo", " U l t i m a " , "La cancion d e l a l b a " and "Prologo-epllogo". I n the l a s t , Machado's " l a pobre Musa l l o r a / . . . como una a n t i g u a querida/ abandonada" i s p l a i n l y from Ba u d e l a i r e ' s "La Muse malade" - "Ma pauvre muse, he'lasi qu'as-tu done. . . ?" - and "La Muse ve'nale", "trempe'^/^.deJpleurs*" L i k e those o f Samain, t r a c e s of h i s tone and images can be glimpsed i n many of Machado*s poems.^ "Antxfona", "Una e s t r e l l a " , "La d i o s a " , "Marina", ".Paz 1.", "La l l u v i a " , "Despedida a l a l u n a " and " I n t e r n a c i o n a l " are some examples. The i n f l u e n c e o f Leconte de L i s l e on "Oasis" and " C a s t i l l a " has been remarked by Dr. B r o t h e r s t o n , as has t h a t of h i s d i s c i p l e Herddia on " O r i e n t e " . This study has added " O l i v e r e t t o de Permo" and "A Santiago I g l e s i a s , poeta" 6 0 the l i s t of poems which take themes from Herddia, and has shown how t h e P a r n a s s i a n sonnet form, o f which he was the master, was t r a n s l a t e d i n t o Spanish by Machado. 4 . Gdsar GonzaT.ez-R.uano, i n B a u d e l a i r e (Madrid 1958), pp.225-6, notes i n Machado " i n f l u e n c i a s de un B a u d e l a i r e pasado por V e r l a i n e " Damaso Alonso mentions the p o s s i b i l i t y of such i n f l u e n c e but does not elaborate on i t ("Ligereza", pp.83-4). Dr. Helena V a l ent a", "The p o e t i c language," remarks the i n f l u e n c e of Baudelaire i n "Los d£as s i n s o l " (see ch.II p. 37 ) . 175 The p a r a l l e l s noted here w i t h Dubus, M i l o s z , More'as, de Vigny, Musset and G a u t i e r c o u l d doubtless be added t o . Machado was c l e a r l y a voracious reader and steeped i n French l i t e r a t u r e . I t i s probably s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t the French poets who most i n f l u e n c e d him, a s i d e from V e r l a i n e , were e i t h e r p r e c u r s o r s o r f o l l o w e r s o f the V e r l a i n i a n s t y l e . B a u d e l a i r e wajs of course V e r l a i n e ' s master, who bequeathed t o him the themes of the c i t y , e r o t i c melancholy and i n d o l e n t s e n s u a l i t y . Samain, Dubus and M i l o s z were notable f i g u r e s i n the generation of S y m b o l i s t s , r e f e r r e d t o i n chapter I (p. 20 ) , who f a i t h f u l l y copied V e r l a i h e , and the p o e t r y o f a l l t hree was very f a s h i o n a b l e during Machado's f i r s t two periods i n P a r i s between 1899 and 1903. ( I have been able t o f i n d r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e of Laforgue, Corbie're, and Mallarme i n Machado's p o e t r y , and none from Rimbaud. T h i s maybe because the work o f these f o u r poets i s i n f i n i t e l y more complex and d i f f i c u l t t o grasp than t h a t o f V e r l a i n e and h i s i m i t a t o r s , although l i n g u i s t i c a l l y t h i s should have presented no problem t o Machado, whose French was e x c e l l e n t . I n t h e case of Laforgue and C o r b i e r e , I t h i n k i t would be true t o say t h a t Machado probably absorbed from them the s l a n g language and i r o n i c a t t i t u d e of h i s c i t y p o e t r y , without t r y i n g , o r indeed b e i n g a b l e , t o t r a n s l a t e t h e i r e s s e n t i a l l y French puns and f l i g h t s of fancy.) Any l i s t of Machado's best p o e t r y , then, excepting h i s work i n the Andalusian v e i n , which stands outside time scope of t h i s study, would includ e a great number o f the poems t h a t have been proved here t o c o n t a i n a t l e a s t some, and o f t e n preponderant, French i n f l u e n c e . My own choice of h i s best work would be " A d e l f o s " , "Otonb", " F e l i p e IV", " L i r i o " , "Es l a manana", "V i s p e r a s " , " A b e l " , "Se d i c e lentamente", "Domffingo", "La h i j a d e l ventero", "Madrid v i e j o " , "Yo, poeta decadente", • " I n t e r n a c i o n a l " , " I n v i e r n o " , "La cancidn d e l al b a " and "A A l e j a n d r o Sawa". Almost a l l of these poems show overwhelming French i n f l u e n c e , whether i n technique o r i n theme, and most of that i n f l u e n c e i s 176 from V e r l a i n e . The c o n c l u s i o n i s inescapable that Machado owed the genesis of a l a r g e p a r t o f h i s best work t o h i s knowledge, and l o v e o f , the poetry o f V e r l a i n e . That Machado himse l f was probably aware o f t h i s has been demonstrated by quotations from h i s own prose w r i t i n g s on V e r l a i n e , as w e l l as by h i s use o f V e r l a i n i a n t i t l e s and references i n h i s poetry. I t i s a moot p o i n t whether a l l o f h i s borrowings from the French were conscious or unconscious. L e p i o r z t h i n k s t h a t Machado d e l i b e r a t e l y used French themes f o r the sake o f a t e c h n i c a l r e n o v a t i o n o f Spanish verse, and t h a t h i s assumption o f V e r l a i n e ' s 5 dualism between s e n s u a l i t y and mysticism was only a pose. I b e l i e v e t h a t Machado's use o f V e r l a i n i a n technique, as i n " P i e r r o t y A r l e q u f n " o r "Es l a manana", was c e r t a i n l y d e l i b e r a t e , as was t h a t o f the f e t e galante and pantomime t o p o i and the themes of t h e 'buena cancion' poems. But the V e r l a i n i a n note i n many poems may w e l l have been almost unconscious on Machado's p a r t , and simply a r e s u l t o f h i s bein g so deeply imbued w i t h the themes and images o f the French poet. Indeed I t h i n k t h a t one can glimpse the t r a c e of a p e r s o n a l , as w e l l as an a r t i s t i c , obsession w i t h V e r l a i n e . Both poets l e d d i s s o l u t e l i v e s , Machado u n t i l h i s marriage, V e r l a i n e u n t i l h i s death, and looked f o r s a l v a t i o n i n the l o v e o f a good woman. And both poets demonstrated i n t h e i r work a r e l i g i o u s f e r v o u r that increased w i t h age. I n 'La buena cancio'n' Machado draws an obvious p a r a l l e l between h i s own f u t u r e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h h i s wife-to-be E u l a l i a Ca'ceres and V e r l a i n e ' s hopes of Mathilde Maute* as they were expressed i n La Bonne Chanson. I n "Proxogo-epflogo" he claims t o renounce the hope of bein g a V e r l a i n e , i m p l y i n g that i t had been a t r e a s u r e d a s p i r a t i o n . I n the other semi-autobiographical poems of E l mal poema t e s p e c i a l l y "La cancion d e l presente", " I n t e r n a c i o n a l " , "Yo, poeta 5. See "Manuel Machado", EF 6 l (1948), p.389; and Themen, p.91. 177 decadente", " ' P a z I " and "Cordura", he seems to i d e n t i f y h i m s e l f as one o f the "aventureros d e l i d e a l a t r a v e s de l a s pasiones humanas y de l a v i d a r o t a " , l i k e V e r l a i n e . I n h i s r e l i g i o u s p o e t r y , from the sonnets " K y r i e e l e i s o n " and "Domingo" t o the s e r i e s "Domine, ut videam" i n Horas de oro (1938), t h e r e can be heard the unmistakable tone of V e r l a i n e ' s Sagesse sonnets. I t i s hard to r e s i s t concluding that Machado thought of h i m s e l f as "paraddjicamente mxstico y decadente"^ l i k e t h e French poet. Jime'nez t o o , i n h i s p e n - p o r t r a i t of Machado, notes such a p o l a r i t y between t h e r e l i g i o u s and the sensual s i d e s 8 of h i s nature. Another i n t e r e s t i n g p a r a l l e l can a l s o be noted i n the l i v e s of V e r l a i n e and Machado. Bot h men reached a t u r n i n g p o i n t i n t h e i r p o e t i c careers i n t h e i r middle t h i r t i e s , V e r l a i n e a f t e r the p u b l i c a t i o n o f Sagesse (1880) and Machado a f t e r t h a t of E l mai poema ( 1 9 0 9 ) . A f t e r 1880 V e r l a i n e , who had l o s t h i s wife and l o v e r s and become a c h r o n i c a l c o h o l i c , t u r ned t o s e n s u a l i t y and r e l i g i o n f o r i n s p i r a t i o n , and save f o r some good poems i n J a d i s et Maguere h i s work degenerated i n t o gross argot or sentimental p i e t y . Machado, who had w r i t t e n most of h i s best work out of the experience of a d i s o r d e r e d and Bohemian l i f e , r e j e c t e d the l a t t e r once he was married and turned a g a i n f o r i n s p i r a t i o n t o the Andalusian popular poetry he had l o v e d when younger. ^Popular" p o e t r y and poems on r e l i g i o u s o r n a t i o n a l i s t themes form the b u l k of h i s verse a f t e r h i s marriage, and despite some good poems, which have been discussed i n chapter V I , l i t t l e of i t i s of enduring worth. I t would be f o o l i s h to assume th a t Machado t r i e d t o copy V e r l a i n e i n h i s l i f e as w e l l as i n h i s p o e t r y , or that he t r i e d t o be l i k e V e r l a i n e i n order t o w r i t e l i k e him. Machado's s u s c e p t i b i l i t y to women and h i s r e l i g i o u s f e e l i n g s 6. I n h i s " A u t o c r i t i c a " l e t t e r to Jimenez, already c i t e d (ch.VT,, p. 115 ) The whole l e t t e r i m p l i e s such an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , p u r p o r t e d l y u n w i l l i n g . 7. See p. 170 above. 8. La c o r r i e n t e p.43» 178 were both p e r f e c t l y genuine, and both stayed w i t h him u n t i l the end of h i s l i f e . I t would be t r u e r to say that i n these respects he was l i k e V e r l a i n e , and that he was aware of the p a r a l l e l . Since he a l s o admired Ve r l a i n e as a poet, i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g that there should be such d u p l i c a t i o n of experience transmuted i n t o poetry. Such an assumption would also account f o r Machado's otherwise i n e x p l i c a b l e admiration o f Verlaine's e r o t i c verse. During the course o f t h i s study a number of p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n became apparent which, although p e r i p h e r a l to the c e n t r a l theme of the d i s s e r t a t i o n , warrant mentioning here. A p a r a l l e l study of p o s s i b l e French influence on the Machados and t h e i r f r i e n d s , Jime'nez, V a l l e - I n c l a h , V i l l a e s p e s a , Benavente and the Martinez-Sierras, who collaborated on magazines l i k e E l e c t r a , Juventud. Alma espanola, H e l i o s . and Renacimiento between 1900 and 1906 might be f r u i t f u l i n determining the 9 o r i g i n s of many themes common t o these w r i t e r s . Work also remains to be done on the influence of Samain, i n p a r t i c u l a r on Jime'nez, who as l a t e as 1 9 1 1 dedicated Foemas ma'.jicos y dolientes "a Albert Samain en e l c i e l o de Giteres." The traces of More'as, Regnier, Jammes, P i e r r e Louys and other French wr i t e r s i n Jime'nez's work has not yet been comprehensively studied. Another p r o f i t a b l e f i e l d f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s the use o f the French pantomime convention by Spaniards, e s p e c i a l l y by Benavente, the Martinez S i e r r a s and Valle-Incla'n.''"^ Further study could also be made of the treatment of paintings i n poetry and of how Machado p r o f i t e d by the example of Gautier, V e r l a i n e , Samain, Here'dia and p o s s i b l y Regnier i n w r i t i n g h i s Apolo sonnets. 9 . A comprehensive study of the influence of Verlaine i n Spain has already been undertaken by Rafael Ferreres and i s about to be published. 10.. Robert Lima's "The commedia d e l l ' a r t e and La marquesa Rosalinda" describes Valle-Inclan's use of pantomime r o l e s but does not explore how t h i s French genre came t o S/pain. 179 Luis Gernuda has remarked on the tendency of Modernists to utilise as sources "materia expresada por otros autores, fueran poetas, novelistas, pintores o musicos""'"^  and this was particularly true of Machado. It has already been noted in this study (p. 15 above) that this tendency was a characteristic of Symbolist poetry, and that Machado shared with his French contemporaries a love of paintings. Finally i t is interesting to note, in relation to the influence of Verlaine on Manuel Machado, that the opinions which he and Antonio expressed about each other's poetry, as well as their own, seem to indicate a mutual recognition of a debt to Verlaine. Manuel described himself as "poeta "di 12 camera'; poeta del siesnoes y del gesto inacabado." Such a description could equally well be of Verlaine, with his nuances and intimate, hesitant style. Antonio sums up his own poetic gift as "intimismo", which has always been recognised as Verlaine's unique and most characteristic style."*"^ Manuel's poetry he calls "impresionismo lfrico". This too is a phrase frequently used to describe Verlaine's work.^4" (it is interesting to note that "neobarroquismo", a quality quite alien to Verlainian Symbolism or Impressionism, is the word Antonio uses to describe Dario's work.) But an even more significant remark is to be found in Manuel Machado's review of the translations of Verlaine by Carrere, of whom he says "seri'a el Verlaine espanol, s i ya de antes y ma's no lo fuera otro." He does not indicate who this "other" may be, but I believe that he was referring to his brother Antonio, of whom he says elsewhere "lo tengo por el mas fuerte y hondo poeta 11. Modemismo, p.82. 12. Unos versos, p.l9« 13. Obras, Plenitud, p.1232. 14» See LeDantec, p.182; Octave Nadal, "L'Impressionnisme verlainien", Mercure de France (May 1 1952); and Cuenot, p.54-1. 15. "Leyendo", La Libertad (Madrid), June 19, 1921. 180 1 6 espanol." Jose Machado describes how Manuel's eyes used to f i l l with tears when he read Antonio's poetry."^ I t is hard to escape the conclusion that the Machado brothers recognised in each other's poetry qualities that both had learned from Verlaine. But Jose Machado, whilst speaking of Antonio and Manuel as "raices del mismo a'rbol" and stressing their s i m i l a r i t i e s , sums up succinctly t h e i r differences. Antonio, he sayS> never loses his poetic identity and his voice i s always characteris-t i c a l l y his own, whereas Manuel, through his a b i l i t y to adapt himself to any theme, always fuses himself absolutely with his subject and so speaks with many voices, (p.30). A strikingly similar criticism i s made of Verlaine* s work by Cuehot. "Quand un poete s'est cree* un style bien precis . . . i l est soutenu par son style et i l arrive ainsi a combler les lacunes de 1'inspiration . . . I I n'en est pas ainsi chez Verlaine . . . c'est 1'inspiration du moment qui cree chez Verlaine un certain sityle, quasi instantane* . . . Des que 1'inspiration f a i b l i t , l a forme f a i b l i t . " (pp.54-7-8) Like Machado, Verlaine was capable of writing atrocious poetry. In Cuenot's devastating phrase, " i l . . . n'a pas eu l a pudeur de se taire et . . . a ose* se survivre a lui-meme quand i l n'avait rien a dire." (p.547) This i s as true of Machado's poetry after 1921 as i t was of Verlaine's after 1885. There are further clear parallels between Verlaine and Machado. Both attempted to "rajeunir le style poetique, de l u i conferer plus de force et de souplesse, en introduisant les toumures de l a syntaxe familiere . . . en recourant aux mots familiers et meme vulgaires." (p.543) Both were inspired by popular songs, disliked rhetoric and eloquence, and had recourse to allusion, slang and "reminiscences a des choses tres connues". (p.542) Both subscribed 16. La guerra, p.37. 17. Ultimas, p.30. 181 t o an "esthetique de l'ephemere" and were b a s i c a l l y n o n - i n t e l l e c t u a l . Cuenot remarks o f V e r l a i n e that he was "un des epigones du romantisme" (p.54-2): the same i s t r u e o f Machado, w i t h h i s a d m i r a t i o n f o r Z o r r i l l a and Espronceda. And f i n a l l y , although admiring Romances sang P a r o l e s and Sagesse. Cuenot considers them as t e n t a t i v e beginnings, never f u l l y r e a l i s e d , of a new k i n d of p o e t r y and i n s i s t s t h a t the only p a r t o f V e r l a i n e ' s work which i s t r u l y p e r f e c t i s the Fetes G-alantes, i n the P a r n a s s i a n mode. T h i s c o u l d a l s o be s a i d of Machado's work as a whole. H i s e a u x - f o r t e s , h i s a r i e t t e s : and the c i t y p oetry of the 'mai poema' cy c l e are magnificent experiments i n genres new to Spanish poetry but he f a i l e d t o create out of them a t o t a l p o e t i c s t y l e o f h i s own. And so h i s most f u l l y r e a l i s e d p o e t i c achievement, l i k e V e r l a i n e ' s , i s P a r n a s s i a n . " F e l i p e IV", l i k e "Cesar B o r g i a " , i s a p e r f e c t example o f " l a t r a n s p o s i t i o n d ' a r t , l a grande p l a s t i q u e . " I n c o n c l u s i o n , i t i s as t r u e of Machado as i t was o f V e r l a i n e that he had no r e a l l i t e r a r y p o s t e r i t y . H i s e f f o r t s towards lo o s e n i n g and modernising Spanish verse may have been i n f l u e n t i a l , but D a r f o 1 s were f a r more so. The next great g e n e r a t i o n of Spanish poets, t h a t o f 1927, owed almost nothing t o Machado, d e s p i t e Moreno V i l l a ' s l o y a l t y t o him as an Andalusian popular poet. Gerardo Diego wrote Machado's p o e t i c epitaph. "Maestro incomparable de l a l i g e r e z a , de l a g r a c i a y de l a a b u l i a modernistas, mas directamente aprendidas 18 de un V e r l a i n e que de un Darfo." Lest the f o r e - g o i n g account of Machado's sources should seem to imply a concomitant d e n i a l o f h i s p o e t i c worth and o r i g i n a l i t y , I would l i k e t o end by quoting from Amado Alonso's M a t e r i a y forma en poesfa (Madrid, 1955), p.383. "Todo l o que nos s i r v a para conocer e l acto de p o e s f a , e l momento de l a c r e a c i o n , nos l l e v a h a c i a una i n t e g r a l comprension de l a obra: conduce a que se l o g r e plenamente su s e n t i d o o b j e t i v o . Las fuentes l i t e r a r i a s deben s e r r e f e r i d a s a l a c t o de c r e a c i o n como i n c i t a c i o n e s y como motivos de r e a c c i d n . E l poeta no r e p i t e ; r e p l i c a . " 18. I n "Los poetas de l a generacion d e l 98", Arbor 36 (Dec. 1948), p.445. 182 LIST OF WORKS CONSULTED 1 WORKS BY MACHADO 1 Alma. Madrid, 1901. 2 Alma.Museo.Los cantares. Proxogo de Miguel de Unamuno. Madrid, 1907. 3 Alma: (Opera selecta). Estudio crxtico de Claudio Santos Gonzaxez. Paris,1910. 4 Antologia. Madrid. 5 Antologia podtica. Burgos, 1938. 6 Apolo. Teatro pictdrico., Madrid, 1911. 7 Ars moriendi. Madrid, 1921. 8 Cadencias de cadencias. Nuevas dedicatorias. Madrid, 1943. 9 Canciones y dedicatorias. Madrid, 1915. 10 Cante hondo. Cantares, canciones y coplas. compuestas a l es t i l o popular de  Andalucia. Madrid, 1912. 11 Cante hondo. Cantares, etc. 2nd ed. Madrid, 1916. 12 Cante hondo-Sevilla. San Sebastian, 1938. 13 Cante hondo-Sevilla. Madrid, 1939. +^ Caprichos. Madrid, 1905. 15 Caprichos. 2nd ed. Madrid, 1908. 16 Dxa por dxa de mi calendario: memorandum de la vida esparfola en 1918. Madrid, 1918. 17 E l amor y l a muerte. (Capxtulos de novela). Madrid, 1913. 18 E l mal poema. Madrid, 1909. ^ Etcetera (with Enrique Paradas). Barcelona, I895. 20 Fiestas galantes. Poemas saturnianos. La buena cancion. Romanzas sin palabras. Sabidurxa. Amor. Parabolas y otras poesfas. Prdlogo de Enrique Gomez Ca r r i l l o . Madrid, 1908. 21 Horario. Poemas religiosos. Madrid, 1947. 22 Horas de oro. Devocionario poetico. Valladolid, 1938. 23 La guerra l i t e r a r i a . 1898-1914. (Crxtica y ensayos). Madrid, 1913. 183 24 Obras completas. Madrid. Volume I I , Museo.Apolo, 1922. Volume V, D e d i c a t o r i a s . 1924. 25 Obras completas de Manuel y Antonio Machado. Ma d r i d , I967. 5th ed. 26 Phoenix. Nuevas canciones. Madrid, 1936. 27 Poesfas. (Opera omnia l y r i c a ) . M a drid, 1924. 28 Poesfa. (Opera omnia l y r i c a ) . B a r c e l o n a , 1940. 29 Poesfa. (Opera l y r i c a p e r f e c t a ) . Madrid, n.d. 30 S e v i l l a y o t r o s poemas. Madrid, 1918. 31 T r i s t e s y a l e g r e s ( w i t h Enrique P a r a d a s ) , Madrid, 1894. 32 Trofeos. B a r c e l o n a , 1911. 33 Unos vers o s , un alma y una epoca. Discursos l e f d o s en l a R e a l Academia  Espanola con motivo de l a recepcidn de Manuel Machado. TWith J.M. Pema'n). Madrid, 1940. 2 WORKS BY OTHER SPANISH AND FRENCH POETS CONSULTED . 34 B a n v i l l e , Theodore de. Odes Funambulesqu.es. P a r i s , 1892. 35 B a u d e l a i r e , Charles. Les F l e u r s du Mai. P a r i s , 1959. 36 Becquer, Gustavo A d o l f o . Rimas y leyendas. Buenos A i r e s , I969. 26th ed. 37 Bruant, A r i s t i d e . Chansons des Rues: Chansons et Monologues. P a r i s , n.d. ( c . 1895). 38 Casero, Antonio. E l pueblo de l o s ma.jos: Poesfas madrilenas. Madrid, 1912. 39 La musa de l o s m a d r i l e s : Poesfas madrilenas. Madrid, 1914. 40 C o r b i e r e , T r i s t a n . Oeuvres completes. P a r i s , 1970. 41 Darfo, Ruben/ Poesfas completas. I n two volumes. Madrid, 1967* 42 Dubus, Edouard. Quand l e s V i o l o n s sont P a r t i s . P a r i s , 1905. 43 Espronceda, Jose* de.Obras p o d t i c a s . E d i c i o n y notas de Jose' Moreno V i l l a . Madrid, 1923. 44 G a u t i e r , The'ophile. Poe'sies completes. P u b l i e e s par Rene J a s i n s k i . P a r i s , 1970. 45 He'redia, Jose M a r i a de. Les Trophe'es. Cambridge, 1942. 46 Hugo, V i c t o r . Les Contemplations. P a r i s , I969. 184 47 Jimenez, Juan Ramon. Segunda antolo.jfa poe'tica (1898-1918). M a d r i d , 1959. 48 L i b r o s de p o e s i a . Madrid, I967. 3rd ed. 49 Laforgue, J u l e s . Poesies completes. P r e s e n t a t i o n , notes et v a r i a n t e s de P a s c a l P i a . P a r i s , 1970. 50 Leconte de L i s l e . C h arles. Poemes anti q u e s . P a r i s , 1858. 51 Poemes barbares. P a r i s , 1947. 52 Poemes t r a g i q u e s . P a r i s , 1884. 53 L o r r a i n , Jean. Modern!tes. P a r i s , 1885. 54 M a e t e r l i n c k , Maurice. Sdrres chaudes. B r u s s e l s , 1890. 55 Mallarme', Stephane. Poe'sies. P a r i s , 1956. 56 Mendds, C a t u l l e . Poe'sies. P a r i s , 1885. 57 M i l o s z , O.V. de L, Le Poeme des Decadences. Femmes et Pantomes. P i r s t ed. P a r i s , 1899• Reprinted i n Poesies I . P a r i s , i960, 58 More'as, Jean. Oeuvres. Volume I P a r i s , 1923. Volume I I P a r i s , 1926. 59 Musset, A l f r e d de. Oeuvres completes I : Poe'sies. P a r i s , 1958. 60 Regnier, H e n r i de. Les Me'dailles d ' A r g i l e . P a r i s , 1900. 61 La Cite* des Eaux. P a r i s , 1902. 62 Samain, A l b e r t . Oeuvres. 3 v o l s . P a r i s , 1949-50. 63 T a i l h a d e , Laurent. Poemes eldgiaques. P a r i s , 1907. 64 V e r l a i n e , P a u l . Choix de P o e s i e s . Saverne, I96I. 65 Oeuvres poetiques completes. Ed. Y.G. LeDantec. Revised, completed and presented by Jaques B o r e l . P a r i s , I968. 66 V i l l a e s p e s a , F r a n c i s c o . Poesxas completas. Prdlogo, ordenacidn y notas p o r Pederico de Mendizabal. Madrid, 1954. 67 Z o r r i l l a , J ose. Poesxas. E d i c i o n y notas de N.A. Cortes. Madrid, I925. 185 3 CRITICAL STUDIES AND BACKGROUND MATERIAL 68 A b r i l , Manuel. "Caprichos". La L e c t u r a V (1905), 3, pp.667-70. 69 Aggeler, W i l l i a m P. B a u d e l a i r e Judged by Spanish C r i t i c s . 1857-1957* Athens, U.S.A., 1971. 70 A g u i l a r P i n a l . F r a n c i s c o . La obra p o e t i c a de Manuel Reina. Madrid, 1968. 71 A l b e r t i , R a f a e l . "Imagen s u c e s i v a de Antonio Machado". Sur 108 (194-3), pp.7-16. 72 Alonso, Amado. M a t e r i a y forma en p o e s i a . Madrid, 1955* 73 Alonso, Dajnaso. " L i g e r e z a y gravedad en l a p o e s i a de Manuel Machado", Poetas espanoles contemporaheos. Madrid, 1952, pp.50-102. 74- A l v a r , Manuel. E l romancero v i e j o y t r a d i c i o n a l . Mexico, 1971* 75 A l v a r e z , D i c t i n o . Cartas de Ruben Darfo. Madrid, I963. 76 Anon. P a u l V e r l a i n e et ses Contemporains, par un temoin i m p a r t i a l . Paris,1897* 77 Armas A y a l a , A. " E p i s t o l a r i o de Manuel Machado". I n d i c e de A r t e s y L e t r a s V I I (1952), 4-9, PP. 1 and 4-5. 78 'Azorfn'. Entre l'Espagne et l a France. P a r i s , 1918. 79 B a l a k i a n , Anna. The Symbolist Movement. New York, 1967. 80 B a l b o n t f n , Jose Antonio. Tres poetas de Espana. Mexico, 1957* 81 B a r o j a , P i o . Desde l a uxtima v u e l t a d e l camino I I I . I n Obras completas 7. Madrid, 1949. 82 B a r o j a , Ricardo. Gente d e l 98. Madrid, 1953. 83 B a u d e l a i r e , C h a r l e s . Le Salon de 1845. P a r i s , I962. 84 B e l l , A.F.G. Contemporary Spanish L i t e r a t u r e . London, 1926. 85 B e r r u e t e , A u r e l i a n o . Velazquez. P a r i s , 1898. 86 Berthon, H.E. 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London, 1918. 265 Taupin, S i d o n i a C. " P o s i b l e s fuentes o simples c o i n c i d e n c i a s : l a "Margarita" de Darfo". R e v i s t a h i s p a h i c a moderna XXIX ( A p r i l I963), 2, pp,158-60o 266 Thomas, L o u i s . Souvenirs s u r Jean More'as. P a r i s , 1941. 267 T o r r e , Guillermo de. D e l 98 a l b a r r o c o . Madrid, I969. 268 Torrente B a l l e s t e r . "La generacioh d e l 98 e Hispano-ame'rica". Arbor 36 (Dec. 1948) pp.508-9, ""' " ~ " 269 Torres Rioseco, A r t u r o . Precursores d e l modernismo. Madrid, 1925. 194 270 Tournoux, Georges A. B i b l i o g r a p h i e v e r l a i n i e n n e . L e i p z i g , 1912. 271 Trend, J.B.. "The Brothers Machado", I n A l f o n s o the Sage, London 1926, pp.135-46. 272 Unamuno, Mig u e l de. " E l Alma de Manuel Machado". I n Obras completas V (Madrid, 1951), pp.194-203. 273 Prologue t o Alma.Museo.Los cantares (1907). 274 Valbuena P r a t , Angel. "Manuel Machado". I n H i s t o r i a de l a l i t e r a t u r a  espanola I I I , pp.389-91, B a r c e l o n a , 1950. 275 V a l e n t f , Helena. "The P o e t i c Language o f Antonio and Manuel Machado". D i s s . Cambridge 1971. 276 Verhaeren, Emile. Espana negra. Madrid, 1963* 277 V i a n , Francesco. I I "Modernismo" n e l l a p o e s i a i s p a n i c a . M i l a n , 1955. 278 Vicuna C i f u e n t e s , J o s e . E s t u d i o s de m e t r i c a espanola. Santiago de C h i l e , 1929. 279 Warren, L.A. Modern Spanish L i t e r a t u r e . London 1929. I I 5 pp.453-60. 280 Y/elsford, E n i d . The F o o l : h i s s o c i a l and l i t e r a r y h i s t o r y . London, 1968. 281 Zayas, Antonio de. Ensayos de c r l t i c a h i s t o r i c a y l i t e r a r i a . Madrid, 1907. 282 Zerega Fombona, A. Le Symbolisme f r a n c a i s e t l a P o e s i e espagnole moderne. P a r i s , 1919. 283 Zugazaga, Jose* M a r i a . "Conversacion con Manuel Machado". S o l i d a r i d a d n a c i o n a l ( B a r c e l o n a ) , 17 December 1943. 195 A P P E N D I X I A c r i t i c a l e d i t i o n of poems by Machado not in c l u d e d i n Obras completas, w i t h f i r s t known sources. "Madrigal" (Alma). L a s t p u b l i s h e d i n AlmatOpera s e l e c t a ( P a r i s , 1910). p. 196 "Neurastenia" ( C a p r i c h o s ) . Never r e p u b l i s h e d . p. 197 " P a i s a j e de a r r a b a l " (Alma. Museo. Los c a n t a r e s ) . L a s t p u b l i s h e d i n p. 198 Trofeos (Barcelona, 1911). "Sombra" ( E l mai poema). Last p u b l i s h e d i n Alma: (Opera s e l e c t a ) p. 199 ( P a r i s , 19l5"7T "La V i e " ( E l mai poema). Last p u b l i s h e d i n AlmatOpera s e l e c t a ) p. 200 ( P a r i s , 1910). " M i n u i t " ( E l mai poema). Last p u b l i s h e d i n Alma: (Opera s e l e c t a ) p. 201 ( P a r i s , 19l67T " F i n " ( E l mai poema). Last p u b l i s h e d i n Alma:(Opera s e l e c t a ) p. 202 ( P a r i s , 1910). "MADRIGAL" Y no sera* una noche sublime de huracah, en que l a s o l a s toquen l o s c i e l o s . . . T u b a r q u i l l a l e v e naufragara' de d i a , un dfa c l a r o en que e l mar este* a l e g r e . Te matarah jugando. Es e l d e s t i n o t e r r i b l e de l o s d e b i l e s . . . Mientras un s o l esplendido sube a l c e n i t hermoso como siempre. "NEURASTENIA" Un son d o l i e n t e , unico son, por e l ambiente pasa b u r l o n , como un s i l b i d o , ...como un gemido. Van c l a r i d a d e s por e l j a r d i n , de tenuidades s i n v i d a , s i n nada que sea, . . . n i que se crea. Entre l a s ramas de algdh r o s a l . . . voces de damas. Y en e l c r i s t a l d e l l ago un vago r o s t r o . . . J Cuan vago! - Pero t i f , hermano no l o v e r a s . . . Dame t u mano. Mas... cdo'nde estas Eso es...Sonaba... Nadie aqux estaba. Un mueble: " J^has "PAISAJE DE AHRABAL" (HABLA UM ARBOL) La ciudad ha avanzado...Como l e p r a , l a s s u c i a s cases g r i s e s i n v a d i e r o n e l campo. Y mis hermanos a l a i r e v i e r o n v u e l t a s sus raxces. Solo a mf me han dejado. Pardos muros aT-zanse en torno; y a mirarme, h o r r i b l e s ojos r o j i z o s , se abren l a s ventanas d e s t i l a n d o su hedor de v i d a t r i s t e . Yo he v i s t o , s i n pbder h u i r , l o s i n t e r i o r e s donde e l odio se f o r j a y nace e l crimen, y he v i s t o esas atroces bocas que nunca r i e n , puertas negras d e l a n t r o , desahuciadas d e l s o l , horriblemente h o r r i b l e s . i A y i mis ramas a l v i e n t o doy siempre, en lasesperanza de que firme arrebate mis p l a n t a s encrustadas en este suelo infame, donde e r i g e n estas h o r r i b l e s c a r c e l e s y de l a s a v i a e l curso a r d i e n t e y l i b r e quieren torcer...Yo quiero h u l r , h u i r , h u i r . Y e l v i e n t o s i g u e agitando mis ramas, mientras l o c a s desgarran este s u e l o mis rai'ces. Solo t u hacha, lenador, aguardo. Ven: yo ardere' en t u hogar para s e r l i b r e . "SOMBHA" Hoy d e s t i l a mi plurna -un verso caprichoso que se a r r a s t r a por t i e r r a s i n f i n n i rumbo, un vago rumor de agua c o r r i e n t e , r e s p i r a c i d n confusa d e l a i r e entre l a s ramas de un v i e j o , v i e j o a r b o l . Y quiero d a r i o a l v i e n t o t r a n q u i l o de e s t a tarde para que este* en e l parque melancoTico un r a t o l a r g o , y, lamiendo e l muro, escondido en l a h i e d r a , e l muro s i l e n c i o s o transmine. Y en e l campo se quede entre e l t o m i l l o y e l romero, e l s e c r e t o de l a s germinaciones o c u l t a s escuchando... Un verso decadente, cadente, sinuoso. Un verso de rincones y s i t i o s o l v i d a d o s , sensual torpemente. Un verso para e s c r i t o en l a hoja de un helecho, o en l a lengua de un s a t i r o "LA. VIE" N i v i c e n i v e r t u dans ma course i n c e r t a i n e . Ma v i e est un r e g r e t de ne r i e n r e g r e t t e r . E t , promenant l ' h o r r e u r de ma peine sans p e i n e , Je v a i s maudit du C i e l a i n s i que de l ' E n f e r . Des ebauches d'amour, de l a haine pour r i r e . . . Des b i e n s , des maux, sans t r o p de"meler l a saveur, De p l a i s i r s aigre-doux, des l y r i q u e s martyres... Gar j ' a i peur de l a j o i e ccmme de l a douleur. Je me s u i s a r r e t e a toutes l e s f r o n t i e r e s E t j e n ' a i pas goute' l a p a i x d'un s e u l pays, La t e r r e qui delasse n i l'eau qui de'saltere. A attendre l e s o l e i l i l s'est fane* mon l y s . J ' a r r i v e ou l ' o n ne s a i t . . . E t , s ur l e f i n , j e v o i s Q u ' i l f a u d r a i t p a r c o u r i r l a route une autre f o i s . "MINUET" Une ombre malsaine Tombe sur les lieux Que je vols a peine... Sur l a v i l l e ancienne S'abbattent les cieux. Des clarte's fuyantes Passent un instant... Une peur charmante B l o t t i t les amantes Contre les amants. Quelquechose inonde L'air d'ombres de mort Planant sur le monde. Dans l a nuit profonde La v i l l e s'endort. La v i l l e s'endort, Melant jusqu'au jour Dans son pauvre corps Les frissons de l a mort Aux fris /s /ons d'amour. "FIN" A l f i n se impuso l a razoh y nuestro i d i l i o deshicimos, y todo nos l o devolvimos... Todo...menos e l corazdn. 203 APPENDIX 2 A f t e r s u b m i t t i n g the f i r s t d r a f t of t h i s t h e s i s , I learned that S r . R a f a e l F e r r e r e s was on the p o i n t o f p u b l i s h i n g a study e n t i t l e d V e r l a i n e en Bsparia. He very k i n d l y sent me a manuscript o f h i s chapter on Manuel Machado, f o r which I am most g r a t e f u l , and has allowed me t o include the f o l l o w i n g b r i e f summary of i t i n t h i s appendix. S r . F e r r e r e s c a l l s Machado the most f a i t h f u l V e r l a i n i a n of a l l modern Spanish p o e t s , and r e f e r s t o h i s statements on V e r l a i n e i n La L i b e r t a d i n 1921, i n A r r i b a i n 1944 and t o the t r a n s l a t i o n s F i e s t a s Galantes i n support of t h i s statement. He quotes Jimenez, Henriquez Urena, Damaso Alo n s o , C a r b a l l o P i c a z o and B r o t h e r s t o n on V e r l a i n i a n i n f l u e n c e i n Machado's work, but a l s o p o i n t s out that Dario and V i l l a e s p e s a preceded Machado i n the use o f some V e r l a i n i a n t o p i c s . He a l s o notes s i m i l a r i t i e s i n t h i s respect between Antonio and Manuel Machado, c i t i n g " J a r d i n neo-cla'sico" and number XXXII of Soledades, g a l e r i a s  y o t r e s poemas (1907). I n a t e x t u a l d i s c u s s i o n of p a r a l l e l s between Machado and V e r l a i n e S r . Fe r r e r e s p o i n t s t o the resemblances between "La l l u v i a " and "Mon reve f a m i l i e r " , "Otono" and "Chanson d'automne". He comments on the use of V e r l a i n i a n techniques of a l l i t e r a t i o n , i n t e r n a l accents and enjambement i n "Don Carnaval", "Madrid v i e j o " , " S i g l o X V I I I " and " P i e r r o t " , and c i t e s Machado's use of V e r l a i n e ' s t i t l e s i n "M e l a n c o l f a " , " P i e r r o t " , "Pantomima", Caprichos and 'La buena cancion'. As an example of V e r l a i n i a n i n f l u e n c e i n theme as w e l l as i n technique he discusses the i n f l u e n c e of Chansons pour e l l e . " L assitude" and "Voeu" on "Se* buena" . Sr. F e r r e r e s concludes by equating Machado 1s a t t i t u d e t o V e r l a i n e w i t h t h a t of G a r c i l a s o de l a Vega towards P e t r a r c h i n i t s j o y f u l l y admitted debt to a great p r e c u r s o r , and s t r e s s e s t h a t Machado's debt t o V e r l a i n e i n no way diminishes h i s own p o e t i c p e r s o n a l i t y . INDEX Off POEMS REFERRED TO 1 POEMS BY MACHADO "A Al e j a n d r o Sawa". ( 1 3 2 - 3 , 1 6 5 - 6 , 1 7 5 ) " A b e l " . ( 8 8 - 9 , 9 2 , 1 6 5 , 1 7 1 , 1 7 5 ) " A d e l f o s " . ( 2 6 , 3 6 , 4 4 - 8 , 5 2 , 7 1 , 8 6 , 1 0 0 , 1 6 6 , 1 7 2 , "A Jose? Nogales, muerto". ( 1 3 2 ) "Alcoba, l a " . ( 7 5 - 6 , 1 7 2 ) " A l c o h o l " . ( 8 6 , 1 7 2 ) " A l e l u y a s madrigalescas". ( 9 8 , 1 4 3 ) "Alvar-Fanez". (82) "A mi sombra". ( 1 2 9 - 3 0 ) " A n t i f o n a " . ( 4 9 , 1 7 4 ) Ars moriendi I . ( 5 9 ) I I I . . ( 5 9 ) - ' " " V I . ( 5 9 ) "A Santiago I g l e s i a s , poeta". ( 1 3 0 - 3 1 , 1 7 4 ) "Balada m a t i n a l " ("Colores"). ( 9 5 ) "Buena cancion, l a " . ( 2 , 1 0 4 - 5 , 1 1 1 , 1 5 7 , 1 7 1 , 1 7 6 ) "Camino, e l " . . ( 1 2 9 ) "Cancion d e l a l b a , l a " . ( 1 4 1 - 2 , 1 4 5 , 1 7 4 , 1 7 5 ) "Cancion d e l i n v i e r n o , l a " . ( 1 4 2 - 3 , 1 5 8 - 9 ) "Cancion d e l presente, l a " . ( 1 2 5 , 1 7 6 ) "Cancion d e l primer amor" ("Primear amor"). (143) "Cantares". ( 4 9 , 9 3 ) " C a r l o s V". ( 1 3 6 - 7 , 1 5 8 ) "Carnavalina". ( 1 4 6 ) " C a s t i l l a " . ( 5 1 - 2 , 1 7 4 ) "Chouette". ( 1 2 6 ) 2 0 5 "Colores" ("Balada m a t i n a l " ) . ( 9 5 ) "Concepciones de M u r i l l o , l a s " . ( 1 5 9 ) ' C o n f e t t i ' . ( 1 4 1 , 148) "C o po de n i e v e " . ( 6 9 - 7 0 , 1 4 8 , 162-3) "Cordura". ( 2 , 1 4 7 - 8 , 1 7 1 , 1 7 6 ) "Corte, l a " . ( 5 7 , 8 3 „ 1 5 3 ) "Despedida a l a l u n a " . ( 1 0 5 - 7 , = 1 7 4 ) "Dfas s i n s o l , l o s " . ( 3 7 , 1 4 2 , 1 7 2 ) "Dice l a fuente". (148) "Diosa, l a " . ( 9 8 - 9 , 1 7 4 ) " D f s t i c o " . ( 1 3 0 ) 'Donrlne, u t videam'. (177) "^omingo". ( 1 0 9 - 1 1 , 1 5 7 , 1 7 4 - 5 , 177) "Don Carnaval".. (82) "Don Juan de A u s t r i a " . ( 1 3 8 ) "Don Miguel de Manara". ( 8 3 ) " E l e u s i s " . (58-60) " E l l a " . ( 9 ) "Encajes". ( 5 0 , 7 1 , 1 6 2 - 3 ) "En l a muerte de Jose'Palomo Anaya". (1 4 6-7) "En l a muerte de J u l i o Ruelas". ( 1 2 4 , 131, 1 7 2 ) "Escena ultima".. (87) "Es l a mariana". ( 1 0 7 , 1 1 , 1 6 3 - 4 , 1 6 7 , 1 7 5 - 6 ) " E s t r e l l a , una". ( 8 0 - 8 1 , 1 7 4 ) "Fantasia de Puck". ( 6 4 , I 6 5 ) " F e l i p e IV".. ( 4 4 , 5 2 - 6 , 7 1 , 8 3 , 1 3 9 , 160-161, 1 7 1 , 1 7 5 , 181) " F i g u l i n a s " . ( 6 7 ) " P i n " . ( 1 3 0 ) " F i n de s i g l o " . ( 9 6 - 7 , 1 7 2 ) " F l o r e n o i a " . (74, 1 6 2 ) " F l o r e s " ("Oriente").. ( 5 8 ) "Gerineldos, e l paje". ( 4 7 , 6 0 , 62, 6 5 - 6 , 172) "Gioconda, l a " . ( 1 3 6 ) "Glosa". (82) " G u i t a r r a h a b l a , l a " . (49) "Hidalgo, un". ( 8 3 , 1 5 5 - 6 ) " H i j a d e l ve n t e r o , l a " . ( 7 9 , 175) " I n d i f f e r e n t , 1'". (140, 1 5 7 , 172-4) " I n f a n t a M a r g a r i t a , l a " . ( 1 3 7 - 9 , 172) "Intermezzo". ( 1 0 5 ) " I n t e r n a c i o n a l " . ( 1 1 9 , 1 2 3 - 4 , 147, 174 - 6 ) " I n v i e r n o " . ( 2 , 1 0 1 - 1 0 3 , , 1 0 9 , H I , 119, 175) 11 J a r d i n g r i s , e l " . ( 3 8 , 171) " J a r d i n negro, e l " . ( 6 3 , 1 6 4 ) " J a r d i n neo-olafsico". (81-2, 84, I f * ) "Kyrie e l e i s o n " . ( 9 1 - 2 , 1 5 6 - 7 , 171, 177) " L i r i o " . ( 6 0 - 6 3 , . 6 5 - 6 , 8 6 , 164, 175) " L l u v i a , l a " . ( 2 , 9 4 - 5 , 111, 1 6 4 , 1 7 1 , 1 7 4 ) "Lo que d i c e n l a s cosas". ( 9 , 3 5 ) "Madrid v i e j o " . ( 8 2 - 3 , 9 2 , 1 5 4 - 5 , 1 6 5 , 175) "Madrigal". ( 5 0 - 5 1 ) "Madrigal a una c h i c a que...no entiende de madrigales" " Madrigales". ( 9 8 , 1 2 5 , 143, 1 6 4 ) " M a r g a r i t a " . ( 8 l ) "Marina". ( 1 2 6 - 8 , 1 7 4 ) "Mariposa negra".. (40) "Melancolxa". ( 4 3 , 70, 17l) "Mimf, l a modelo". ( 7 9 - 8 0 ) " M i n u i t " . ( 1 2 8 - 1 2 9 ) 207 "Mi Phrine*". (122-123) "Mujer de V e r l a i n e , l a " . (2, 144-146, 17l) " M u t i s " . (86) "Neurastenia". (85, 101, 162-163) "Noche b l a n c a , l a " . (69-70) "Nocturno madrileno". (85-86) "Nuevo a u t o r r e t r a t o " . (100) "Oasis". (41, 174) " O l i v e r e t t o de Permo". (56, 174) "Oraciones a e l l a " . ( 2 , 143, 158) " O r i e n t a l " . (40) "Ori e n t e " . (58, 153, 174) "Otono". ( 2 , 41-43, 70, 162, 167, 171, 175) " P a i s a j e de a r r a b a l " . (94) "Pantomima". (77-79, I63) " i P a z i " (103-104, 107, 109, 111, 171, 174, 176) "Peregrino". (104, 129) " P i e r r o t " . (140-141, 158) " P i e r r o t y A r l e q u i n " . (74, 162-3, 167, 171, 176) "Primavera, l a " ( B o t t i c e l l i ) . (134 -6 , , 143, 158, 172) •Primavera, l a ' , I . (159) " I I . (159) "Primer amor" (La cancion d e l primer amor). (143) " P r i n c i p e , e l " . (95) " P r i n c i p e de l a Casa de Orange, un". (138 - 9 , 172) "Prc51ogo-ep£Logo". (2 , 86, 116, 119-121, 126, 132, 144, 166, 171-2, 174, 176) "Prosa". (86, 92, 99, 162-3) "Puente-Genii". (89) "Remember". ( 9 4 - 6 ) "Rescate, e l " . ( 9 4 - , 9 6 ) ""Retrato". (86, 1 1 6 - 1 1 9 , 1 3 0 , 1 6 6 - 7 ) "Rima". (148) "Rosa". (80, 143) "Ruth". (81) "Se* buena". ( 1 0 7 - 1 0 9 , 1 5 7 , . 1 7 1 ) "Se d i c e lentamente". ( 9 0 , 9 2 , 1 6 2 - 3 , 1 6 7 , 1 7 1 , 1 7 5 ) "Serenata". ( 8 4 ) " S i g l o m i l " . - ( 1 3 9 * 1 4 0 , 1 5 8 ) "Sombra". ( 1 2 5 - 6 ) "Ultima". ( 1 0 0 - 1 0 1 , 1 0 3 , 1 0 9 , 1 7 4 ) "Vagamente". ( 1 0 7 ) " V e r s a i l l e s " . ( 6 7 - 9 , 7 1 , 1 6 5 ) " V i e , l a " . (128) "Viento, e l " . ( 7 6 , 9 2 , 1 2 5 , 1 6 2 - 3 , 1 6 7 - 8 ) "Visperas". ( 8 7 , 9 2 „ 1 6 5 , , 1 7 5 ) "Voz que dice,, l a " . ( 9 0 - 9 1 , . 1 2 9 , 1 5 6 , . 1 6 5 , 1 7 2 ) "Wagner". ( 6 6 r 1 5 3 - 4 ) "Yo, poeta decadente". ( 1 2 1 - 1 2 2 , 1 4 7 , 1 7 5 - 6 ) 2 POEMS BY VERLAINE "A Ad r i e n Remade".. (117) "A Charles de S i v r y " . (120) "A Clymene". (94-) "A Edmond L e p e l l e t i e r " . (131) "A Francois CoppeV'. ( I 2 l ) "A G a b r i e l V i c a i r e " . (117) "A l a Promenade". (67-68, 140 ) "Alle'e, 1«". (67, 96, 139-140) "Aliegorie". (100, 126) "A l a maniere de P a u l V e r l a i n e " . (100) "Ami de l a Nature, 1'". (32) "Amour p a r T e r r e , 1'". (41, 84) "Angoisse, 1 , M. (47-48, 50-51) "Apres T r o i s Ans". (98, 107, 125) • A r i e t t e s Oublie'es'. I (88, 125, I62-I64) I I (144) I I I ( 41, 86, 94,, 142, 162-164) IV (63, 144,, 145) V (85, 125) VI ( i l l ) V I I (88, 144) V I I I (88, 142, 162) IX (63, 76, 88-89, 90, 164) "Aube a l'E n v e r s , 1'". (85, 142) "A Une Femme". (38, 108, 143-144) "Autre". (123, 158,, I65) "A V i l l i e r s de 1'Isle-Adam". (41, 131-132) "Ballade en Reve". (144) " B i r d s i n the Night". (51, 144) Bonheur V I . (144) Bonne Chanson, La. I ( 1 0 4 - 1 0 5 , 1 4 5 ) I I ( 9 9 ) I I I ( 9 9 ) IV ( 1 0 5 ) V ( 1 0 5 - 1 0 8 ) VI (88, 107, 113, 163-164) V I I ( 9 4 - 9 5 ) V I I I ( 9 4 ) X I I (105) XIV ( 3 7 , 142) XVI (145, 158) XVII (105, 145) XIX (105) XXI (105) • B r u x e l l e s 1 I I . (145) " C a p r i c e " . (103,. 123) "Cauchemar". ( 9 5 ) "Cesar B o r g i a " . ( 5 3 , 1 3 6 - 1 3 7 , 166, I8l) "Chanson d'Automne". ( 4 1 , 7 6 , 1 5 5 , . 162) "Chanson des Ingenus". (98) Chansons Pour E l l e . I (120-121, 144) I I ( 1 4 4 ) V ( 9 8 ) v i n (98, 124-125, 144) X (80, 144, 146) XIX (144) " C h a r l e r o i " . ( 7 6 , 163, 167-168) " C h i l d Wife". ( 1 4 4 ) " C l a i r de Lune". ( 3 5 , 130) "Clown, l e " . (31) "Colloque Sentimentale". (38, 41, 6 3 , 84„ 164, 171) "Colombine". ( 6 9 , 7 4 , 7 9 , 158, 162-163, 1 6 5 ) " C o n s e i l F a l o t " . ( 5 0 ) "Conte, Un". ( 1 0 3 , 1 0 5 ) ' Gontes D i a b o l i q u e s 1 . (l66) "Crepuscule du S o i r Mystique". ( 7 6 , 8 9 ) "Crimen Amoris". ( 4 l ) "Croquis P a r i s i e n " . (165) "Cythere". (140) "Dans l a G-rotte". ( i l l ) "Dans l e s B o i s " (128) " E f f e t de N u i t " . (82,. 155, 158) E l e g i e s I . ( 1 1 9 ) "En 17...". ( 7 7 - 7 8 ) "En Bateau". ( 9 6 ) "En P a t i n a n t " . ( i l l , 135) "Epilogue" (Poemes Satumiens).. ( l 3 l ) "Fantoches". ( 6 9 , 7 7 ) "Paune, l e " . ( 9 0 ) "Femme et Chatte". (120) "Fe'roce". ( 9 ) F i l l e s V. (144) "Green", ( 9 8 ) "Grotesques". (80, 1 2 3 ) "11 B a c i o " . (107, 143) "Impenitence F i n a l e , 1'". ( 6 7 ) " I n d o l e n t s , l e s " . ( 9 6 ) "Invraisemblable mais V r a i " . (100) 212 "Kaleidoscope". (142) " K y r i e E l e i s o n " . ( 9 l ) "Langueur". ( l l , 30, 4-6, 4-8, 58) " L a s s i t u d e " . (91, 108, 121, 126, 156) "Laurent T a i l h a d e " . (31) " L e t t r e " . (62, 97, 14-0, l 6 l ) "Loups, l e s " . (155) 'Lucien Le'tinois'. I l l (120,. 171-172) V (112, 122, 125, 128) XI (79) "Mandoline". (68, 88, 96, 162) "Marco". (76, 99) "Mon Reve F a m i l i e r " . (94, 108, 143-144) "Mort de P h i l i p e I I , l a " . (137) "Nevermore". (43,. 77 , 90) "Nocturne P a r i s i e n " . (64, 85, 102, 124, 128) "Nuit de Walpurgis C l a s s i q u e " . (65, 84-85, 159) "Pantomime".. (69, 74, 77) "Paysages".. (145) " P i e r r o t " . (69,,. 87, 146) " P r i e r e du Matin". (90-92, 103, 105, 107, 112, 124, 131, 156^7, 172) " P r i n c e s s e B e r e n i c e , l a " . (58) "Prologue" ( J a d i s ) . . (65) "Prologue" (Poemes S a t u r n i e n s ) . (l66) "Prologue d'un L i v r e dont i l ne p a r a i t r a que l e s e x t r a i t s c i - a p r e s " . (100, 122, 132 "Prologue supprime' a un L i v r e d ' I n v e c t i v e s " . (116-117) "Promenade Sentimentale". (43, 17l) " R e v e r s i b i l i t e ' s " . (132-133, 165-166) " R o s s i g n o l , l e " . (43-4, 125) Sagesse. I , 3. ( l l 6 , 119, 12l) 5. (104) 7. (90) 8.. (107) 16. (90, 108, 164, 171) 17. (144) 19.. (78, 109-110) Sagesse. I I , i v , 3. (131, 157) 7. (103, 157-158) I I I , 1. (145) 2. (127, 128-129) 3. (90, 108) 6. ( I l l ) 7. (127) 9. (88, 111) 11. (145) 13. (11, 145) 20. (145) "Se'rehade" . (84, 99, 120) " S o l e i l s Couchants". (35, 89, 162) ' S t r e e t s ' I . (95, 164) I I . ( i l l ) "Sur L'Herbe". (74, 96, 139) "There", (106) "Voeu". (43, 135,, 143) "Walcourt". (50) 

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