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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Rudy Wiebe and the historicity of the word Van Toorn, Penelope 1991

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RUDY WIEBE AND  THE H I S T O R I C I T Y OF THE WORD By  PENELOPE VAN TOORN B.A. M.A.  H o n s . , U n i v e r s i t y o f S y d n e y , 1980 H o n s . , U n i v e r s i t y o f S y d n e y , 1984  A THESIS. SUBMITTED I N P A R T I A L FULFILLMENT THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE (Department of  We  STUDIES  English)  a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g to the required  standard  THE U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA April  1991  © Penelope van Toorn,  1991  OF  In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department  or  by  his  or  her  representatives.  It  is  understood  that  copying  or  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of  g>0 g^u-l S 11 -  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date  DE-6 (2/88)  ' 9 9 I  ABSTRACT  "Rudy Wiebe a n d t h e H i s t o r i c i t y  o f t h e Word" a n a l y z e s  Wiebe's s i x major n o v e l s p u b l i s h e d t o d a t e : Peace D e s t r o y Many ( 1 9 6 2 ) , F i r s t Mountains 1973),  of China  Candle  ( 1 9 7 0 ) , The T e m p t a t i o n s  The S c o r c h e d - W o o d P e o p l e  (1983). T r a d i t i o n a l prove  and V i t a l  literary  ( 1 9 6 6 ) , The B l u e o f B i g Bear  ( 1 9 7 7 ) , a n d My L o v e l y Enemy  critical  terms and concepts  i n a p p r o p r i a t e t o Wiebe's work because t h e y  reinstate  the ideological  Shall  p o s t u l a t e s Wiebe c a l l s  implicitly into  q u e s t i o n . T h i s s t u d y t h e r e f o r e employs t h e t h e o r e t i c a l framework d e v e l o p e d  The  by M i k h a i l  B a k h t i n a n d V. N.  i n t r o d u c t o r y chapter provides a s y n o p t i c view of  the s i x novels, r e l a t e s practices  Wiebe's a u t h o r i a l  the central Chapters  surveys  d i s c u s s i o n s o f Wiebe's work, and d e f i n e s  theoretical  principles  o f B a k h t i n and V o l o s i n o v .  2 a n d 3 d i s c u s s P e a c e S h a l l D e s t r o y Many a n d F i r s t  and V i t a l Candle  respectively,  establishing  W i e b e shows c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r e s t principle"  at a thematic  intentions  prevent  narrative  o b j e c t i v e s and  t o h i s c u l t u r a l and r e l i g i o u s background,  relevant c r i t i c a l  writing.  Voloiinov.  Chapters  level,  that although  i n "the d i a l o g i c  h i s overt  rhetorical  him from r e a l i z i n g t h i s p r i n c i p l e i n h i s 4 and 5 examine Wiebe's use o f p o l y p h o n i c  f o r m s i n The B l u e M o u n t a i n s  o f C h i n a a n d The  Temptations o f B i g Bear. A n a l y s i s of t h e i n t e r textual politics  o f t h e s e two n o v e l s  and i n t r a -  demonstrates  o v e r t l y d i a l o g i c n a r r a t i v e f o r m s may r e m a i n  that  functionally  m o n o l o g i c . C h a p t e r 6 c o n s i d e r s The S c o r c h e d - W o o d P e o p l e a n d Wiebe's s t r a t e g y o f embedding v o i c e s w i t h i n o t h e r v o i c e s , a p r a c t i c e w h i c h compounds t h e " i n t e r n a l d i a l o g i z a t i o n " prose.  of the  C h a p t e r 7 d i s c u s s e s My L o v e l y Enemy a s a c h a l l e n g e t o  v a r i o u s forms o f a n t i - i m a g i n a t i v e d i s c o u r s e , and t o p r e v a i l i n g notions of a r t i s t i c focusses  creativity.  on t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e provenance  concludes that although  Wiebe's n o v e l s  h i s t o r i c i t y of the Word—indeed,  Chapter 8 o f " v o i c e " and  exploit the  of a l l words—they  bear the legacy of a monologic C h r i s t i a n  also  fundamentalist  m o d e l o f l a n g u a g e . An A p p e n d i x  entitled  "The E a r l y H i s t o r y  and D o c t r i n e s o f t h e M e n n o n i t e  Church" d e s c r i b e s  Wiebe's  d i a l o g u e w i t h Menno S i m o n s ' d o c t r i n e s o f t h e Word.  TABLE OF  CONTENTS  Abstract L i s t of Tables L i s t of A b b r e v i a t i o n s C h a p t e r 1: I n t r o d u c t i o n Notes t o Chapter 1 C h a p t e r 2: P e a c e S h a l l D e s t r o y Many Notes t o Chapter 2 C h a p t e r 3: F i r s t a n d V i t a l Notes t o Chapter 3  Candle  C h a p t e r 4: The B l u e M o u n t a i n s Notes t o Chapter 4 C h a p t e r 5: The T e m p t a t i o n s Notes t o Chapter 5  of China  of B i g Bear  C h a p t e r 6: The S c o r c h e d - W o o d P e o p l e Notes t o Chapter 6 C h a p t e r 7: My L o v e l y Enemy Notes t o Chapter 7 C h a p t e r 8: C o n c l u s i o n Notes t o Chapter 8 Appendix Notes t o  Appendix  Bibliography:  L i s t o f Works C i t e d A d d i t i o n a l References  V  L I S T OF  TABLES  Table I: Bakhtin's C l a s s i f i c a t o r y  System  29-30.  L I S T OF  ABBREVIATIONS  PPM  P e a c e S h a l l D e s t r o y Many  FVC  F i r s t and V i t a l  BMC  The B l u e M o u n t a i n s o f C h i n a  TBB  The T e m p t a t i o n s o f B i g B e a r  WVCF  Where I s The V o i c e C o m i n g From?  SWP  The  AC  Alberta: A  MLE  My L o v e l y Enemy  RWP  The Rudy W i e b e P a p e r s  MBH  The M e n n o n i t e B r e t h r e n H e r a l d  VL  A V o i c e i n t h e Land: Essays Wiebe. Ed. W. J . K e i t h .  Candle  Scorched-Wood P e o p l e Celebration  By  and  About  Rudy  1  INTRODUCTION  I  T h i s s t u d y examines t h e s i x major novels o f t h e Canadian Mennonite w r i t e r , theoretical  principles  Rudy W i e b e , i n t h e l i g h t o f  derived primarily  B a k h t i n a n d V. N. V o l o s i n o v . considered—Peace Shall Candle  from  I n each o f t h e s i x  experiences of h i s t o r i c a l where i n d i v i d u a l s  competing v e r b a l social dialects  (1983)—Wiebe  explores between  a r e exposed t o a m u l t i p l i c i t y of  and i d e o l o g i c a l and n a t i o n a l  of voices,  People  t r a n s i t i o n on a t h r e s h o l d  minds o f a l l Wiebe's c e n t r a l plurality  and V i t a l  ( 1 9 7 0 ) , The  ( 1 9 7 3 ) , The S c o r c h e d - W o o d  ( 1 9 7 7 ) a n d Mv L o v e l y Enemy  cultures  texts  D e s t r o y Many ( 1 9 6 2 ) , F i r s t  ( 1 9 6 6 ) , The B l u e M o u n t a i n s o f C h i n a  Temptations o f B i g Bear  Mikhail  dialects  influences.  Many  languages i n t e r s e c t  voices, i nthe  c h a r a c t e r s . More i m p o r t a n t , a and languages  engage  c o m b a t i v e l y w i t h one a n o t h e r i n t h e a r e n a o f t h e t e x t . Verisimilitude  r e q u i r e s t h a t Wiebe's t e x t s  mixed. However, m i m e t i c t h e o r y o f f e r s  be l i n g u i s t i c a l l y  only l i m i t e d  i n t o t h e complex f u n c t i o n s o f , and r e l a t i o n s  insights  between, t h e  languages Wiebe employs. B a k h t i n and V o l o S i n o v o f f e r  a  2  framework o f i d e a s t h a t  facilitates  analysis  of the multi-  v o i c e d n e s s o f Wiebe's n o v e l s and i l l u m i n a t e s between Wiebe's a u t h o r i a l  strategies  the correlation  and h i s r e l i g i o u s  b e l i e f s and s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l v a l u e s . P r i n c i p l e s f o r m u l a t e d by B a k h t i n a n d Volo§inov make i t p o s s i b l e  t o demonstrate  a l t h o u g h Wiebe r e c o r d s h i s t o r y f r o m t h e p o i n t societies  of view of  s u b j u g a t e d by v a r i o u s forms o f i m p e r i a l i s m ,  adopts the s t r a t e g i e s  verbal-ideological  the  authority  the  social intentions  struggle  participates i n  he d e p i c t s .  and semantic wealth d i s c o u r s e s of others"  (Bakhtin  He a p p r o p r i a t e s "populated  and i d e o l o g i c a l  with  1981, 3 0 0 ) , and  e n d e a v o u r s t o s u b o r d i n a t e them t o h i s own m o r a l , political  he  o f a n i m p e r i a l i s t i c p o w e r when i t  comes t o u s i n g l a n g u a g e . Wiebe c o n s c i o u s l y the  that  socio-  objectives.  II  Wiebe's a r t i s t i c  development i s c h a r a c t e r i s e d  dramatic s h i f t s of narrative with the  by  f o c u s , and by e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n  a v a r i e t y o f s t y l e s and i n n o v a t i v e  narrative  forms. At  same t i m e , h o w e v e r , W i e b e ' s t h e m a t i c i n t e r e s t s , h i s  c h a r a c t e r - t y p e s and h i s u n d e r l y i n g very l i t t l e .  plot-structures  alter  When W i e b e r e f l e c t s i n P e a c e S h a l l D e s t r o y Many  on t h e i n v i o l a b i l i t y  o f Thorn W i e n s ' b a s i c b e l i e f s ,  he m i g h t  w e l l be d e s c r i b i n g h i m s e l f a n d h i s own o e u v r e ; E v e n i f t h e a n s w e r g r e w more c o m p l i c a t e d , . . . i t c o u l d never b a s i c a l l y change, f o r t h e b a s i c answers were known.... D e s p i t e t h e v a r y i n g p a t h s he c h o s e , he always a r r i v e d a t t h e same u l t i m a t e p o i n t . ( 1 6 , 18) Bakhtin's "polyglossic"  d i s t i n c t i o n between "monoglossic" (or "heteroglossic") societies  p o s s i b l e t o v i e w t h e p l o t s o f Wiebe's n o v e l s a s i n g l e paradigm. Bakhtin single-tongued  1  and  makes i t as v a r i a n t s o f  d i f f e r e n t i a t e s between c l o s e d ,  s o c i e t i e s , w h i c h p e r c e i v e t h e i r own  as t h e o n l y one c a p a b l e about t h e w o r l d "  of r e a l i z i n g  (Bakhtin  "all  language i s  nor that i to f f e r s the only v a l i d  of v e r b a l l y r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e w o r l d . matter o r content  t h e r e i s t o know  1981, 4 5 ) ; and open, many-tongued  s o c i e t i e s w h i c h presume n e i t h e r t h a t t h e i r internally unified  language  Although  o f Wiebe's s t o r i e s d i f f e r s  the. s u b j e c t greatly at a  superficial  level,  the s i n g l e ,  u n d e r l y i n g p a t t e r n t o w h i c h Wiebe's p l o t s  invariably  Bakhtin's  d i s t i n c t i o n brings  into  focus  conform.  Whether w r i t i n g about Mennonites o r M e t i s , Native  means  Innuit or  I n d i a n s , W i e b e i s i n t r i g u e d b y t h a t c r u c i a l moment  when t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f a c l o s e d c o m m u n i t y d i s a p p e a r , monoglossic s o c i e t y f i n d s i t s e l f  and a  suddenly exposed t o t h e  p l u r a l i t y of a u t h o r i t a t i v e "other"  voices which v i e f o r  dominance i n t h e w i d e r s o c i a l w o r l d .  Wiebe e s t a b l i s h e s t h e  p a r a d i g m i n C h a p t e r One  of Peace  S h a l l D e s t r o y Many, as t h e  Canadian war-planes p e n e t r a t e the narrow h o r i z o n of W a p i t i . In F i r s t and V i t a l  C a n d l e , t h e I n n u i t o f T y r e l Bay,  Ojibwa of F r o z e n Lake reflects  t h a t o f Abe  (whose s p i r i t u a l R o s s , who  and  the  disorientation  has f l e d  from h i s  a u t h o r i t a r i a n f a t h e r ) a r e a l s o v i s i t e d by t h e C a n a d i a n a i r f o r c e , a s w e l l as b y o t h e r W h i t e C a n a d i a n . c u l t u r a l institutions,  s u c h as s c h o o l s , b a n k s , a n d m i s s i o n s .  J a k o b F r i e s e n V i n The  For  Blue Mountains of China, the  Communist r e v o l u t i o n o b l i t e r a t e s  all  m o r a l and  religious  f o r m u l a e i m p o s e d b y h i s p a r e n t s , w h i l e i n The T e m p t a t i o n s o f B i g B e a r a n d The  S c o r c h e d - W o o d P e o p l e , numerous  m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f t h e "White Grandmother's"  voice invade the  l i v e s o f t h e N a t i v e I n d i a n s and M e t i s o f t h e C a n a d i a n West. I n My  L o v e l y Enemy. W i e b e ' s s o c i a l p u r v i e w n a r r o w s , b u t t h e  p a t t e r n - ' ' r e m a i n s f u n d a m e n t a l l y i n t a c t : when G i l l i a n invades t h e body-space  Overton  o f t h e monogamous James D y c k , t h e  boundaries of the nuclear f a m i l y disappear, together with t h e myth o f any  "single simplicity"  (MLE  133)  The b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e c l o s e d m o n o g l o s s i c d i s a p p e a r i n Wiebe's s t o r i e s colonization.  i n language.  society  as a r e s u l t o f v a r i o u s forms  B e c a u s e W i e b e v i e w s l a n g u a g e as  "an a c t u a l  way  o f l o o k i n g a t t h e w o r l d " (Neuman 2 3 6 ) , he d r a w s a t t e n t i o n t h e r o l e p l a y e d by l a n g u a g e i n a l l and p o l i t i c a l  colonization.  processes of  of  to  ideological  Images o f s i g n s — v e r b a l  and  non-  5 verbal—crowd  a l l o f Wiebe's t e x t s . Language f u n c t i o n s n o t  o n l y a s a medium b u t a l s o a s a n o b j e c t o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . I n each o f t h e s i x t e x t s c o n s i d e r e d ,  Wiebe d r a m a t i s e s  i m p e r i a l i s m a s a wave o f a l i e n v o i c e s penetrating geographical  territories  and l a n g u a g e s a n d human m i n d s ,  e r a d i c a t i n g o r a p p r o p r i a t i n g whatever d i s c o u r s e s h i t h e r t o e n j o y e d d o m i n a n c e . The i n v a d i n g its  a r r i v a l by making " d r e a d f u l  heard before"  have  s o c i e t y announces  s o u n d s w h i c h no one h a s e v e r  (MLE 1 5 8 ) , a n d b y i n s c r i b i n g c o n s p i c u o u s  signs  o f i t s p r e s e n c e e v e r y w h e r e on t h e p h y s i c a l l a n d s c a p e . A t crucial,  highly symbolic  narratives, familiar  a loud,  local  i m p e r i a l moments i n W i e b e ' s  f o r e i g n v o i c e o r sound drowns o u t a  sound, o r an a l i e n form o f w r i t i n g e f f a c e s  script traditional  to a p a r t i c u l a r place.  f i g h t e r planes blocks  a  The r o a r o f  o u t t h e s o u n d o f Thorn W i e n s '  plough  s c r a p i n g t h r o u g h t h e e a r t h ; t h e m e t a l l i c c l a n g i n g and screeching ancestors  o f t h e CPR d r o w n s o u t t h e v o i c e s  o f B i g Bear's  a t O l d Wives Lake; Canadian A i r Force j e t s l a y  vapour t r a i l s  on t h e c l e a r s k y a b o v e F r o z e n L a k e ; a n d  government s u r v e y o r s  carve  imaginary  grid  lines  across  houses and g a r d e n s a t Red R i v e r . Through c o n c r e t e visual  images s u c h as t h e s e ,  undeclared,  "other  truth against  official  over o r ignore.  a u r a l and  an o n g o i n g ,  w a r " — a b a t t l e of voice against  truth—which  strategically gloss  Wiebe r e i f i e s  Metis  historical  voice,  accounts  Without exception,  Wiebe's p r o t a g o n i s t s  r e l i v e an  a r c h e t y p a l moment o f c o l o n i z a t i o n , o r ( t o s w i t c h t o a B i b l i c a l metaphor) e x p u l s i o n simplicity  [ o f ] Eden"  from t h e monologic  (MLE 1 3 3 ) .  Wiebe does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y  d r a m a t i s e t h i s moment a t t h e b e g i n n i n g does h e . e j e c t characters the  every character  often continue  a d u l t s have l o s t .  show how c h i l d r e n p l a y ,  absorbed i n t h e immediacies  fear—of  knowledge—and world-  e v e n t s s w i r l i n g a r o u n d t h e m . The c h i l d r e n h a v e socio-historical  a n d h e n c e no k n o w l e d g e o f a p o s s i b l e l a r g e r m e a n i n g  of t h e i n c i d e n t s t h e y  witness.  Wiebe's p r o t a g o n i s t s For  without  t h e dangerous n a t i o n a l - a n d  o r no k n o w l e d g e o f a n y b r o a d e r  context,  paradise  Wiebe's d e p i c t i o n s o f H a l Wiens,  of adventure and p h y s i c a l s e n s a t i o n ,  little  2  t o i n h a b i t t h e monologic  q u a r r e l , e a t and s l e e p , t o t a l l y  historical  o f each t e x t . Nor  from Eden. Wiebe's j u v e n i l e  L i e s e l D r i e d i g e r , and H o r s e c h i l d ,  hence w i t h o u t  "single  them, h i s t o r i c a l  e n j o y no s u c h b l i s s f u l  change i n s t i g a t e s r a d i c a l  oblivion.  psychic  c h a n g e . The s e c o n d p h a s e o f a l l W i e b e ' s p l o t s d r a m a t i s e s t h e experiences  of people forced t o recognize  many v o i c e s  a n d l a n g u a g e s r a t h e r t h a n o n e . Thorn W i e n s , Abe  Ross, t h e Jakob F r i e s e n s and  the existence of  I V and V , B i g Bear, R i e l ,  Dumont,  James D y c k m u s t a l l e n d u r e p h a s e s o f c o n f u s i o n a n d  s p i r i t u a l d i s o r i e n t a t i o n , as a r e s u l t o f t h e p l u r a l i t y o f authoritative voices  which penetrate  their  respective  psyches. M a r g i n a l i s e d suddenly sphere,  they  people's  within a larger social  s t r u g g l e t o a v o i d becoming trapped  " t r u e " s t o r i e s a b o u t them. D i s c o u r s e s  t h o u g h t t o be  other  traditionally  i n v i o l a b l e become l o s t i n a c a c o p h o n y o f  d i s c o u r s e s , which devalue beliefs,  in  the  c o l o n i z e d people's  a x i o m a t i c v a l u e s , and  time-honoured  T h i s p h a s e o f c a c o p h o n y and  most  alien sacred  customs.  i s followed  by  a t h i r d p h a s e : t h e p h a s e o f r e - o r i e n t a t i o n . N e a r t h e end  of  e a c h n o v e l , Wiebe d r a m a t i z e s boundary. This time, verbal  Sign invades  an  palimpsests  a second b r e a c h i n g  the p o l y g l o s s i c / h e t e r o g l o s s i c two  non-  world  novels,  Wiebe  t h i s moment o f r e v e l a t i o n somewhat a w k w a r d l y :  Wiens d i s c o v e r s brightest  "Truth"  (PPM  231)  s t a r i n the heavens"  i n the  (PPM  239);  image o f Abe  v o i c e " w h i c h seems t o come f r o m nowhere (FVC subsequent works, Wiebe d r a m a t i z e s  penultimate  chapter  o f The  V i e t n a m C a l l o f S a m u e l U.  "a  353) . I n of  Blue Mountains of China  reThe  ("The  Reimer") n a r r a t e s a h a l f - p a r o d i c ,  i n t h e n i g h t . A t t h e end  a g a i n s t h i s s o u l (TBB  Ross hears  sophistication.  h a l f - s e r i o u s s t o r y o f a l a p s e d M e n n o n i t e who  Bear, B i g Bear f e e l s the  Tom  "the  the experience  o r i e n t a t i o n w i t h g r e a t e r d e x t e r i t y and  call  social  a u t h o r i t a t i v e , d i v i n e Word o r  i n h a b i t e d by a l l h u m a n i t y . I n h i s f i r s t handles  of a  o f The  Temptations of  "warm w e i g h t "  415);  and  h e a r s God's  i n The  Big  o f C h i e f ' s Son's Hand Scorched-Wood  Louis R i e l d i e s w h i l e r e c i t i n g the Lord's  Prayer  (SWP  People, 346).  James D y c k ' s s p i r i t u a l  r e o r i e n t a t i o n occurs  Enemy a t a moment o f d i a l o g i c h o l y s o n n e t s and  i n My  Lovely  c o n t a c t b e t w e e n one  a p a s s a g e f r o m t h e New  of  Testament  Donne's  (MLE  250-  51).  Whether the t r a n s c e n d e n t l y i n v e r b a l or non-verbal direct quotation  r o l e i n the  S c r i p t u r e s , o r s o u n d s as  echo o r a l l u s i o n ,  i t performs a  Word o r S i g n q u e l l s t h e  tumult  of v o i c e s and  the p r o t a g o n i s t ' s consciousness,  by o f f e r i n g an  and  ultimate authority  e f f e c t i v e l y monoglossic l i n g u i s t i c  t h e d i v i n e Word o r S i g n . W i e b e ' s  discover  ( o r , i n some c a s e s , any  know a b o u t t h e w o r l d "  rediscover) t h a t the  (Bakhtin  1981,  order,  divine  comprises  for "realizing a l l there  Because Wiebe's p r i n c i p a l  the  i s to  45).  characters  a l l live  same s t o r y , o t h e r members o f t h e  p e r s o n a e a r e c o n f i n e d t o a l i m i t e d number o f example, the v i l l a i n y  the  protagonists  s i n g l e human u t t e r a n c e ,  f u l l y adequate t o o l  v a r i a n t s of the  divine  languages cohere i n t o a s i n g l e  r u l e d by  sole,  a  In t h e minds of Wiebe's p r o t a g o n i s t s ,  w o r l d ' s many human v o i c e s  Word o r S i g n , n o t  a  languages i n  c r i t e r i o n a g a i n s t w h i c h t o gauge t h e m e a n i n g and  h i e r a r c h y , a new,  as  pivotal  l i v e s o f a l l W i e b e ' s p r o t a g o n i s t s . The  of a l l u t t e r a n c e s .  appears  form, whether i t c r y s t a l l i s e s  from the  fleeting Biblical  a u t h o r i t a t i v e Sign  of Wiebe's v i l l a i n s  through dramatis  roles..For  almost  invariably  9  consists  in their  i n t e r v e n t i o n between the p r o t a g o n i s t  t h e d i v i n e Word o r S i g n . i n c l u d e Deacon B l o c k  and  Wiebe's " i n t e r v e n i n g - f i g u r e s "  i n Peace S h a l l Destroy  Many; Adam R o s s  i n F i r s t and  V i t a l C a n d l e ; t h e m i n i s t e r of Samuel Reimer's  local  i n The  who  church  blocks  out  p r i e s t s and Dyck a n d these  the  Riel  Blue Mountains of China; sun  i n The  i n My  Scorched-Wood P e o p l e ; L o v e l y Enemy. The  i n t e r v e n i n g c h a r a c t e r s may  monologic community, o r t h e y of e q u a l l y v a l i d protagonist.  dominate the  may  they  d i r e c t a p p r e h e n s i o n o f t h e d i v i n e Word o r  Each n o v e l  also contains  "teacher-figure," S a l l y Howell, Jesus,  and  funeral.  The  a vital  plurality the  protagonist's  Sign.  a mystical, other-worldly  John Reimer, B i g Bear, Louis R i e l presides  characters.  guiding the  text in  a l s o perform reader  t h e t e x t t o w a r d s e m a n t i c g o a l s p r e d e t e r m i n e d by  the  The  i n Thorn  r e a d e r - f i g u r e combines w i t h the p r o t a g o n i s t  W i e n s , Abe  Ross, Louis R i e l ,  and  James D y c k , w h i l e  M a c L e a n , W i e b e ' s most f a m o u s r e a d e r - s u r r o g a t e , relatively  and  (at times),  the  "Reader-figures"  f u n c t i o n i n Wiebe's n o v e l s ,  Bishop  at Ruth Dyck's  d i v i n e Word o r S i g n o f t e n e n t e r s  t h e mouth o f t h e s e  of  closed  f o r e x a m p l e , J o s e p h Dueck, J o s h  t h e m o r t i c i a n who  Aaron  the awareness of  block the  the  voices  s o u n d amongst t h e  voices which invade  In e i t h e r case,  Morris  Temptations of B i g Bear;  h i m s e l f i n The  Old Hildebrandt  Governor  minor player i n the dramatic  author.  Kitty  remains  historical  of  a  events  10  depicted  As  i n the novel.  3  w e l l as o b s e r v i n g  certain set patterns  in his  p l o t t i n g and c h a r a c t e r i s a t i o n , Wiebe's n o v e l s  all, in  v a r i o u s ways, c o u n t e r p o s e two models o f t i m e :  one l i n e a r and  t i e d to h i s t o r y , the other references  circular or cyclic.  t o the unprecedented, i r r e v e r s i b l e  Dates and nature of  e v e n t s c o n s t r u c t t i m e i n t h e l i n e a r manner c o n v e n t i o n a l l y employed i n h i s t o r i c a l manifests  itself  d i s c o u r s e . The c i r c u l a r  most c l e a r l y  model  i n Wiebe's r e f e r e n c e s  to the  c y c l e o f t h e seasons, and t o t h e a n n u a l l y r e c u r r i n g f e s t i v a l s of the C h r i s t i a n calendar. these  occurrences  The r e g u l a r r h y t h m o f  s u g g e s t s t h a t some t h i n g s n e v e r  change,  d e s p i t e s u p e r f i c i a l a p p e a r a n c e s t o t h e c o n t r a r y . As w e l l a s pointing to the possibility historical end-point  t r u t h s and v a l u e s , Wiebe's n o v e l s  a l l p o s i t an  o f human h i s t o r y , a moment b e y o n d w h i c h t h e s o c i o -  h i s t o r i c a l processes The  o f c e r t a i n permanent, e x t r a -  of d i s c o v e r i n g Truth  protagonist's epiphanic  experience  Word o r S i g n w o r k s a s a c l o s i n g d e v i c e n a r r a t i v e s examined i n t h i s  study.  4  does n o t c o n t i n u e .  o f t h e super-human i n each o f t h e s i x  By r e s o r t i n g r e p e a t e d l y  t o t h i s p a r t i c u l a r c l o s i n g s t r a t e g y , Wiebe i m p a r t s apocalyptic quality to the f i n a l  pages o f h i s n o v e l s .  ending i m p l i c i t l y p r e f i g u r e s the f i n a l in the Bible.  an  Revelation  Each  predicted  11  III  Does t h i s  extraordinary  consistency  m e t h o d i n d i c a t e t h a t Rudy W i e b e r e m a i n s  o f v i s i o n 'and complacently  e n s c o n c e d i n a c l o s e d m o n o g l o s s i c C h r i s t i a n c o m m u n i t y ? I s he locked,  as i t were, i n t h e f i r s t  s t a g e o f one o f h i s own  p l o t s ? From s t a t e m e n t s W i e b e h a s made i n many i n t e r v i e w s a n d essays,  and from t h e v e r y  f a c t t h a t he w r i t e s a n d p u b l i s h e s  novels,  i t would c e r t a i n l y appear t h a t h i s i n t e n t i o n i s  p r e c i s e l y not t o remain aloof historical  hislife  Brethren  socio-  world.  Wiebe engages w i t h "into"  from t h e wider  that wider world  b u t by v e n t u r i n g  "out"  n o t by l e t t i n g i t  from t h e Mennonite  community. Wiebe v e h e m e n t l y a n d c o n s i s t e n t l y ,  opposes t h a t p a r t o f t h e Mennonite c h u r c h which a t t e m p t s t o separate i t s e l f from secular' s o c i e t y o r from other  Christian  churches: Are you g o i n g t o c u t o f f any p o s s i b l e e f f e c t you c o u l d have on o t h e r p e o p l e , i n an a t t e m p t t o p r e s e r v e y o u r own i n t e g r i t y ? When y o u do t h a t , do w o r s e t h i n g s s t a r t h a p p e n i n g t o y o u ? They p r o b a b l y d o — I t h i n k t h e y d o - So I m y s e l f w a n t t o l i v e i n t h e w o r l d t h a t i s now, b e c a u s e t h a t ' s where everybody e l s e i t ' s h u r t i n g i s l i v i n g . (Cameron 1 4 9 ) . Mennonites who-attempt t o b a r r i c a d e  t h e non-Mennonite  world  12 out  5  threaten  to barricade  the v o i c e of Jesus i n , a  p r a c t i c e contrary to Jesus' world,  and  preach the  1 6 : 1 5 ) , and  command, "Go  gospel  ye  to every creature"  t o Menno S i m o n s ' u n d e r s t a n d i n g  universal/Catholic/ecumenical provincial spirit"  f o r c e , not  ( L i t t e l l 16).  6  When  M e n n o n i t e g r o u p s e r e c t p h y s i c a l and between t h e m s e l v e s and  i n t o a l l the  the.outside  o f t h e Word as a parochial  F i x e d c u s t o m s and  cultural traditions  they enclose  historical c a r r y the  t h r o u g h t i m e i n a c o c o o n , i t s a u t h o r i t y and  alien  a s i n g l e , fixed context  cultural  to l i m i t  B i b l e down  semantic  influences.  editorial  published 1963,  t h i s p o i n t • i n the  context  securing to  discourses,  Mennonite  Brethren  "Church P r o s p e c t  1963:  "the w r i t t e n word i s s t i l l the  gospel"  ( 3 ) . He  the makes  o f a b r o a d e r a r g u m e n t f o r more  a c t i v e p r o s e l y t i z i n g i n the the Mennonite Brethren  i n The  spreading  and  diversity.  entitled  W r i t i n g , " Wiebe s t a t e s t h a t m o s t e f f e c t i v e means o f  By  7  a s s a u l t of a l i e n  i t s p o t e n t i a l semantic  on J a n u a r y 11,  E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e on  Church. Recognizing  M e n n o n i t e s ' message must compete w i t h clamouring  field.  f o r t h e Word, t h e y a t t e m p t  p r o t e c t i t s a u t h o r i t y from the  Herald  the  s h i e l d e d both from the v i c i s s i t u d e s of h i s t o r y  from u n p r e d i c t a b l e  I n an  or  conservative  world,  u n i t a r y c u l t u r a l and  and  "a  linguistic barriers  Word i n a s t a t i c ,  stability  (Mark  f o r a t t e n t i o n " (Wiebe 1963,  that  the part the  "thousands of 3) and  of  with  voices radio,  t e l e v i s i o n and  other.forms  o f modern e n t e r t a i n m e n t ,  Wiebe  sees a p a r t i c u l a r need t o implement e v a n g e l i c a l " o u t r e a c h " (Wiebe 1963,  3) u s i n g d i s c u r s i v e f o r m s w h i c h  repel the unconverted. a r t i s t i c motives proselytize,  Without  do  not bore  s u g g e s t i n g t h a t Wiebe's  stem e x c l u s i v e l y from a d e s i r e t o  i t remains v a l i d t o say t h a t Wiebe's n o v e l s  short stories  or  f u n c t i o n as v e h i c l e s c a r r y i n g J e s u s '  and  teachings  i n t o the l i v e s of h i s r e a d e r s .  U n l i k e a sermon o r r e l i g i o u s t r e a t i s e , not p r e a c h  only t o the converted or address  readership of t h e o l o g i a n s . I t s u t i l i t y  lies  t o s c a t t e r t h e Word i n t o t h e t e r r i t o r y  of  "average Canadians" traditional  ( W i e b e 1963,  forms of r e l i g i o u s  t h e n o v e l does a  specialised  i n i t s capacity  "others,"  3) n o t a d d r e s s e d  literature.  d i s c u r s i v e and  historical  usual  of  Wiebe's n o v e l s l i b e r a t e t h e B i b l e from ( B a k h t i n 1981,  However, Wiebe s t i p u l a t e s  and  boundaries  " o t h e r " w o r d s d i s a p p e a r s . By  v e r y e x i s t e n c e , as w e l l as t h r o u g h t h e s t o r i e s  single context"  novels  c o n t e x t s , where i t s meaning  a u t h o r i t y become o p e n t o n e g o t i a t i o n . The i n s u l a t i n g t h e Word f r o m  by more  Wiebe's  t r a n s m i t t h e Word i n t o an u n f o r e s e e a b l e v a r i e t y  the  they  their  tell,  "the dungeon of  a  247).  repeatedly that  n o v e l i s t ' s C h r i s t i a n w i t n e s s must be  the  indirect:  The more c o n s c i o u s l y a n d d i r e c t l y t h e n o v e l i s t t r i e s h i s n o v e l t o p r e a c h a c e r t a i n t r u t h he h o l d s t o be  in  14 v a l i d , the l e s s i t w i l l a r i s e out of the s t u f f of the n o v e l i t s e l f , t h e p o o r e r t h e n o v e l w i l l be, and t h e l e s s l i k e l y he i s t o c o n v i n c e a n y o n e . . . . T h i s i s a f u n d a m e n t a l p r i n c i p l e o f a l l a r t , t h a t some o f t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t t h i n g s we a s human b e i n g s must u n d e r s t a n d c a n n o t be g o t t e n a t d i r e c t l y . They c a n be s e e n a n d shown o n l y b y t h e i n d i r e c t i o n o f a r t — b y m e t a p h o r ; by s y m b o l , i f y o u l i k e . T h a t i s why f i c t i o n i s s o i m p o r t a n t . (VL 42, 44) In  "Giant F i c t i o n s  attention itself  and  L a r g e M e a n i n g s , " Sam  Solecki  t o Wiebe's i n d i r e c t p r o s e l y t i z i n g as  i n " c h a r a c t e r s and  s t o r i e s . . . f o r m and  draws  i t manifests  content"  (7):  he has s o u g h t c h a r a c t e r s and s t o r i e s t o c o m m u n i c a t e , o r even t o get a h e a r i n g f o r h i s b a s i c a l l y C h r i s t i a n v i s i o n . . . . We c a n s p e a k o f W i e b e ' s v i s i o n a s s e a r c h i n g , n o v e l by n o v e l , f o r t h e a p p r o p r i a t e e c u m e n i c a l mode ( a n d t h i s i s a m a t t e r o f b o t h f o r m and c o n t e n t ) w i t h i n w h i c h i t w i l l be g i v e n a s y m p a t h e t i c . h e a r i n g b y an a u d i e n c e w i d e r t h a n t h e one a l r e a d y r e c e p t i v e t o an e x p l i c i t l y and d o g m a t i c a l l y C h r i s t i a n f i c t i o n . ( 7 ) 8  S o l e c k i ' s p o i n t c a n be language capable  e x t e n d e d : Wiebe s e a r c h e s  o f commanding t h e a t t e n t i o n  Christian  readers,  a l i e n and  yet a u t h o r i t a t i v e .  directly  to  a language they w i l l Wiebe can  also for a  of  non-  find palatable, and  f e l l o w members o f h i s c h u r c h .  does The  speak tone  s t y l e of h i s E d i t o r i a l s i n the Mennonite Brethren o f a r t i c l e s he  has  non-  published i n other Christian  and  Herald,  or  journals,  d i f f e r s m a r k e d l y f r o m h i s manner o f h a n d l i n g l a n g u a g e i n h i s novels he  and  s h o r t s t o r i e s . But Wiebe c l e a r l y r e c o g n i z e s  c a n n o t p r o s e l e t y z e d i r e c t l y t o t h o s e who  read  his  that  novels:  The m o s t i m p o r t a n t t h i n g s he [ t h e n o v e l i s t ] w o u l d s a y s i m p l y d i s a p p e a r i f he a t t a c k s t h e m h e a d on a n d b l u r t s t h e m o u t . T h e y c a n be s a i d o n l y by i n d i r e c t i o n . (VL 44) Bakhtin, and  like  Wiebe, r e c o g n i z e s  c u l t u r a l circumstances,  that i n certain h i s t o r i c a l  t h e n o v e l i s t must t r a n s m i t  the  15 a u t h o r i t a t i v e Word  indirectly:  By no means a l l h i s t o r i c a l s i t u a t i o n s p e r m i t t h e ultimate semantic a u t h o r i t y of the c r e a t o r [ a r t i s t i c or d i v i n e ] t o be e x p r e s s e d w i t h o u t m e d i a t i o n i n d i r e c t , u n r e f r a c t e d , u n c o n d i t i o n a l a u t h o r i a l d i s c o u r s e . When t h e r e i s no a c c e s s t o o n e ' s own p e r s o n a l " u l t i m a t e " w o r d , t h e n e v e r y t h o u g h t , f e e l i n g , e x p e r i e n c e must be r e f r a c t e d t h r o u g h t h e medium.of someone e l s e ' s d i s c o u r s e , someone e l s e ' s s t y l e , someone e l s e ' e manner, w i t h w h i c h i t c a n n o t i m m e d i a t e l y be m e r g e d w i t h o u t reservation, without distance, without r e f r a c t i o n . . . . The d i r e c t , u n c o n d i t i o n a l , u n r e f r a c t e d w o r d a p p e a r s b a r b a r i c , raw, w i l d . C u l t u r e d d i s c o u r s e i s d i s c o u r s e r e f r a c t e d t h r o u g h an a u t h o r i t a t i v e and s t a b l i z e d medium. ( 1 9 8 4 , 2 0 2 - 3 ) In Wiebe's c a s e ,  New C r i t i c a l  Mennonites' t r a d i t i o n to  aesthetics  9  collude with the  of respecting i n d i v i d u a l  conscience,  condemn c o e r c i v e C h r i s t i a n p r o s e l y t i z i n g i n t h e n o v e l .  Across  the course  of h i s career  as a n o v e l i s t , Wiebe  devises  new, i n d i r e c t v o i c i n g s o f , a n d f a v o u r a b l e  contexts  S c r i p t u r a l Word.  and i n t h e f i n a l  chapter  In h i s f i r s t  two n o v e l s ,  o f The B l u e M o u n t a i n s o f C h i n a ,  e n t i r e l y r e s i s t the temptation  Wiebe does not  to assert  u n c o n d i t i o n a l , u n r e f r a c t e d word" ( B a k h t i n time,  h o w e v e r , he d e v i s e s  ways o f s p e a k i n g  "the d i r e c t , 1984, 2 0 4 ) . A c r o s s  more e l a b o r a t e a n d more  indirectly,  Temptations o f B i g B e a r and t h e f i r s t  utterances  twelve  I n The  chapters  o f The  Wiebe h a r n e s s e s t h e documented  and t h e s o c i a l d i a l e c t s o f numerous " o t h e r s , " t o  c r e a t e a u t h o r i t a t i v e v e h i c l e s and f a v o u r a b l e contexts  subtle  and o f r e f r a c t i n g h i s  r h e t o r i c a l message t h r o u g h t h e v o i c e s o f " o t h e r s . "  Blue Mountains of China,  f o r the  f o r t h e Word.  framing  I n The S c o r c h e d - W o o d P e o p l e a n d My  L o v e l y Enemy. W i e b e ' s i n d i r e c t i o n becomes s o c o m p l e x a n d  16 obscure t h a t the Word' breaks  i n t o fragments whose meaning  and r e l a t i v e a u t h o r i t y depend g r e a t l y on the reader's existing verbal-ideological  predilections.  Throughout h i s w r i t i n g c a r e e r , Wiebe's r h e t o r i c a l purpose remains the same: he never i n i t i a l assumption  l o s e s s i g h t of h i s  t h a t "the w r i t t e n word i s s t i l l  the most  e f f e c t i v e means of s p r e a d i n g the g o s p e l " (Wiebe 1963,  3).  However, h i s manner of a c c o m p l i s h i n g t h i s o b j e c t i v e s t e a d i l y evolves over time. He begins i n Peace S h a l l Destroy Many by a d d r e s s i n g h i s readers much i n the same way  as a t e a c h e r  speaks t o a p u p i l , but as h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the  socio-  p o l i t i c a l dynamics of v e r b a l communication develops,  he  begins t o eschew the r o l e of a u t h o r i t a t i v e p o s s e s s o r of the a b s o l u t e t r u t h , and t o i n v i t e h i s readers t o j o i n him i n a d i a l o g i c search f o r that t r u t h .  1 0  More and more, Wiebe's  r h e t o r i c i m p l i c i t l y concedes t o V o l o S i n o v ' s view t h a t i t i s not a mute, wordless c r e a t u r e t h a t r e c e i v e s such an u t t e r a n c e , but a human b e i n g f u l l of i n n e r words. A l l h i s e x p e r i e n c e s — h i s s o - c a l l e d apperceptive b a c k g r o u n d — e x i s t encoded i n h i s i n n e r speech, and o n l y to t h a t e x t e n t do they come i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h speech r e c e i v e d from o u t s i d e . Word comes i n t o c o n t a c t with word. The context of t h i s i n n e r speech i s the l o c a l e i n which another's u t t e r a n c e i s r e c e i v e d , comprehended and e v a l u a t e d ; i t i s where the speaker's a c t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n takes p l a c e . ( V o l o s i n o v 118) From F i r s t and V i t a l Candle  onwards, Wiebe attempts  h y p o t h e s i z e the n o n - C h r i s t i a n r e a d e r ' s i n n e r speech,  to but  u n t i l The Blue Mountains of China, he does not succeed i n s t i m u l a t i n g h i s audience  i n t o a c t i v e d i a l o g u e with h i s  t e x t s . To t h e m i d d l e and readers assent  may  extent  t h a t he  l a t e r novels,  he  interlocutor's which invades  interlocutors,  world,  assent  his  of the  Such  reader-  e x i s t i n g i n n e r s p e e c h as o f W i e b e ' s the psyche from  "other."  The  text,  without.  the responses of h i s  he m u s t e n v i s a g e  of t e s t i n g the  powerful  objective i n his  e n s u r e s t h a t any  as much a p r o d u c t  As Wiebe h y p o t h e s i z e s  process  this  g i v e t o h i s message a r i s e s v o l u n t a r i l y .  w o u l d be  v i e w o f an  achieves  process  reader-  t h e Word f r o m t h e p o i n t  of  of w r i t i n g thus a c t i v a t e s a  a u t h o r i t a t i v e Word a g a i n s t c e r t a i n  hegemonic d i s c o u r s e s  which sound i n the  social  and w h i c h d o m i n a t e t h e p o s i t e d r e a d e r - i n t e r l o c u t o r ' s  a w a r e n e s s . To  the  extent  with his s o c i a l l y - a l i e n  t h a t Wiebe i d e n t i f i e s interlocutors,  imaginatively  he d o e s n o t  confined i n a c l o s e d , monologic, narrow church I n s t e a d of l o c k i n g h i m s e l f own  plots,  he  oscillates  and  three, repeatedly  t h e meaning of t h e  i n the  b a c k and  first  stage  remain  society. o f one  of  f o r t h between stages  t e s t i n g t h e a u t h o r i t y and  his two  renovating  Word.  IV  The a search  e v o l u t i o n o f Rudy W i e b e ' s s t y l e may f o r s u i t a b l e v o i c e s and  be  described  languages through which  as to  18 r e f r a c t and  r e f l e c t u p o n t h e a u t h o r i t a t i v e Word. To  analyse  more p r e c i s e l y t h e i n d i r e c t means by w h i c h W i e b e a t t e m p t s  to  realize his evangelical authorial objectives, i t i s necessary  t o e l a b o r a t e f u r t h e r on t h e r e l e v a n t t h e o r e t i c a l  p a r a d i g m s . B a k h t i n and of terms and  concepts  V o l o s i n o v have each d e v i s e d a w h i c h can  six texts considered i n this  study.  to d e f i n e every t h e o r e t i c a l term particularly  u s e f u l l y be  system  applied to  I t w o u l d be  the  cumbersome  i n the a b s t r a c t i n advance,  s i n c e t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e m e a n i n g s emerge m o s t  c l e a r l y w i t h i n the c o n t e x t of c o n c r e t e d i s c u s s i o n s of specific texts. entered and  However, b e f o r e  i n t o w i t h any  such d i s c u s s i o n s can  degree of r i g o u r , the main  t e r m i n o l o g i c a l framework of the l a r g e r  s y s t e m s h o u l d be connects  surveyed,  conceptual  theoretical  n o t i n g t h e p o i n t s where i t  w i t h Wiebe's a u t h o r i a l  practices.  B a k h t i n g r o u n d s h i s t h e o r y o f t h e n o v e l on an paradigm of language.  He  be  maintains  oral  that  language i s r e a l i z e d i n the form of i n d i v i d u a l concrete u t t e r a n c e s ( o r a l and w r i t t e n ) . . . . Each s e p a r a t e u t t e r a n c e i s i n d i v i d u a l , of course, but each sphere i n w h i c h l a n g u a g e i s u s e d d e v e l o p s i t s own r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e t y p e s o f t h e s e u t t e r a n c e s . T h e s e we may call s p e e c h g e n r e s . ( B a k h t i n 1986, 60) F o r B a k h t i n and concrete  VoloSinov,  words e x i s t o n l y i n the form  of  sayings or v o i c i n g s , i n the p a r t i c u l a r contexts  w h i c h human b e i n g s B a k h t i n and  e n g a g e i n d i a l o g u e w i t h one  Volosinov both  oppose Saussure's  another.  theory  language which they c l a i m d i v o r c e s language from  of  "the  1 1  in  19 h i s t o r i c a l process to Saussure, privileges  of Becoming"  (Volo§inov 1 0 5 ) .  whose s y n c h r o n i c a p p r o a c h t o  l a langue  over p a r o l e ,  1 2  In c o n t r a s t  language  Bakhtin's  and  VoloSinov's  t h e o r i e s of the utterance give precedence  parole  hence t o t h e d i a c h r o n i c i t y of  f  and  VoloSinov  to  language.  argues vehemently t h a t  the very essence of language i s r e v e a l e d i n i t s • h i s t o r y ; the l o g i c of language i s not a t a l l a matter of reproducing a n o r m a t i v e l y i d e n t i c a l form but of c o n t i n u o u s r e n o v a t i o n and i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n o f t h a t f o r m v i a t h e . . . u t t e r a n c e . The r e a l i t y o f l a n g u a g e i s , i n f a c t , i t s g e n e r a t i o n . (56)  B a k h t i n and the p o l i t i c a l  V o l o i i n o v b o t h p l a c e tremendous emphasis  struggle implicit  h i s t o r i c a l process language. invokes  i n t h i s ongoing  o f r e n o v a t i n g and  socio-  individualizing  Bakhtin's d e s c r i p t i o n of t h i s process  a m e t a p h o r o f t h e u t t e r a n c e as a  political  on  tacitly  micro-cosmic  empire:  The w o r d d o e s n o t e x i s t i n a n e u t r a l i m p e r s o n a l language ( i t i s , n o t , a f t e r a l l , out of a d i c t i o n a r y t h a t the speaker gets h i s words!), but r a t h e r i t e x i s t s i n o t h e r people's mouths, i n o t h e r p e o p l e ' s c o n t e x t s , s e r v i n g other people's i n t e n t i o n s : i t i s from t h e r e t h a t one m u s t t a k e t h e w o r d and make i t o n e ' s own.... L a n g u a g e i s n o t a n e u t r a l medium t h a t p a s s e s f r e e l y and e a s i l y i n t o the p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y of the speaker's intentions; i t i s populated—overpopulated—with the i n t e n t i o n s of o t h e r s . E x p r o p r i a t i n g i t , f o r c i n g i t to s u b m i t t o o n e ' s own i n t e n t i o n s and a c c e n t s , i s a d i f f i c u l t and c o m p l i c a t e d p r o c e s s . ( 1 9 8 1 , 294) This itself  "difficult  most c l e a r l y  and  complicated process"  manifests  i n the novel. Bakhtin d i s t i n g u i s h e s the  novel from a l l other l i t e r a r y  g e n r e s on t h e b a s i s o f i t s  openness t o h i s t o r i c a l stylistically  change.  heterogeneous,  that.continues t o develop,  Mutable,  1 3  "the novel  capacious, i s t h e s o l e genre  t h a t i s as y e t u n c o m p l e t e d "  ( B a k h t i n 1981, 3 ) . B a k h t i n argues t h a t w h i l e o t h e r resist historical forms, t h e novel process  change by o s s i f y i n g i n t o f i x e d  genres  canonical  c e l e b r a t e s i t s own h i s t o r i c i t y — i t s  ongoing  of becoming—by perpetually reinventing i t s e l f .  Bakhtin c a l l s  t h e novel a "secondary  (1986, 6 1 ) , because i t r e n o v a t e s appropriating other v a r i e t i e s  (complex) speech genre"  i t s e l f by absorbing o r  of utterance:  During the process of t h e i r formation, they [novels] absorb and d i g e s t v a r i o u s primary ( s i m p l e ) genres t h a t h a v e t a k e n f o r m i n u n m e d i a t e d s p e e c h communion. T h e s e p r i m a r y g e n r e s a r e a l t e r e d a n d assume a s p e c i a l c h a r a c t e r when t h e y e n t e r i n t o c o m p l e x o n e s . They l o s e t h e i r immediate r e l a t i o n t o a c t u a l r e a l i t y and t o t h e r e a l u t t e r a n c e s o f o t h e r s . . . . They e n t e r i n t o a c t u a l r e a l i t y o n l y v i a t h e n o v e l a s a w h o l e . ( B a k h t i n 1986, 62) The  novel can extend  absorbing  i t s boundaries  o t h e r speech genres,  i m p e r i a l nations extend territories.  But t e x t u a l  their  much i n t h e same way a s sphere of i n f l u e n c e i n t o  empires,  become i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f f i c u l t  like political  the n o v e l i s t takes  c e n t r e cannot h o l d , and semantic  readers  Primary  directly,  grow measures  p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e a u t h o r i t y and  meaning o f t h e a p p r o p r i a t e d genres,  reading public.  alien  ones,  t o a d m i n i s t e r as t h e y  l a r g e r a n d more c o m p l e x . U n l e s s to c o n t r o l the reader's  "outward" by  things f a l l  apart, the  a n a r c h y i s l o o s e d upon t h e  s p e e c h g e n r e s may s t r i v e t o a d d r e s s  by-passing  the mediating  i n f l u e n c e of the  21 author.  Thus, the n o v e l ' s  expansionary,  decentring,  g r a s p i n g c o l o n i s a t i o n o f o t h e r g e n r e s c r e a t e s an  outward-  equal  o p p o s i t e need t o c o n s o l i d a t e power c e n t r i p e t a l l y and meaning from a s i n g l e a u t h o r i a l  centre.  As  1 4  and  control  Bakhtin  explains, The l a n g u a g e o f t h e n o v e l i s a s y s t e m o f l a n g u a g e s t h a t m u t u a l l y and i d e o l o g i c a l l y i n t e r a n i m a t e e a c h o t h e r . I t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o d e s c r i b e and a n a l y z e i t as a s i n g l e u n i t a r y l a n g u a g e . . . . B u t a t t h e same t i m e t h e r e d o e s e x i s t a c e n t r e of language (a v e r b a l - i d e o l o g i c a l c e n t r e ) f o r t h e n o v e l . The a u t h o r ( a s c r e a t o r o f t h e n o v e l i s t i c w h o l e ) c a n n o t be f o u n d i n any one o f t h e n o v e l ' s l a n g u a g e l e v e l s : he i s t o be f o u n d a t t h e c e n t r e o f o r g a n i s a t i o n w h e r e a l l l e v e l s i n t e r s e c t . The d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s are to v a r y i n g degrees d i s t a n t from t h i s a u t h o r i a l c e n t r e . ( 1 9 8 1 , 47, 48-9) Two  opposed t e n d e n c i e s  centripetal stylistic forces and  forces  thus  (which  semantic  foster  language p a r t i c i p a t e  semantic  fragmentation,  plurality).  i n the  novel:  promote s t r u c t u r a l  h o m o g e n e i t y and  (which  collide  coherence,  u n i t y ) and  centrifugal  stylistic  heterogeneity,  A l l concrete manifestations  1 5  i n , and  may  also re-enact,  this  " c o n t r a d i c t i o n - r i d d e n , t e n s i o n - f i l l e d u n i t y o f two tendencies"  ( B a k h t i n 1981,  272).  form of a s t r u g g l e between the ( a c t i v a t e d by  novel  "monologic"  a s s e r t i n g the  l a n g u a g e and  i t s concomitant  "dialogic" principle  embattled  i t takes  s o v e r e i g n t y o f one  semantic  unitary  unitary belief-system  ( a c t i v a t e d by  plurality  1 6  ) , and  authorial practices  which r e l e a s e " h e t e r o g l o s s i a , " the multi-voicedness semantic  the  principle  a u t h o r i a l p r a c t i c e s which suppress  p l u r a l i t y by  the  In the  of  latent i n a l l concrete  and  utterances ) . 1 7  22 A brief  c h r o n o l o g i c a l s u r v e y o f Wiebe's s i x m a j o r  n o v e l s r e v e a l s t h a t from Peace  S h a l l D e s t r o y Many i n 1962 t o  My L o v e l y Enemy i n 1983 t h e "two e m b a t t l e d t e n d e n c i e s " s t r u g g l e more a n d more v i o l e n t l y .  Initially,  t h e monologic  p r i n c i p l e dominates, but never e n t i r e l y e l i m i n a t e s  stylistic  heterogeneity o r semantic d i v e r s i t y  Except  for  from t h e t e x t .  i t s f o u r P r e l u d e s , Wiebe's f i r s t n o v e l , Peace  D e s t r o y Many, a p p e a r s  largely devoid of the l i n g u i s t i c  d i v e r s i t y c e l e b r a t e d b y B a k h t i n . The o r t h o d o x format of t h e t e x t ,  Shall  i t s unremarkable  typographical  layout i n paragraphs of  n a r r a t i o n i n t e r s p e r s e d w i t h d i a l o g u e , g i v e s Peace D e s t r o y Many t h e a p p e a r a n c e  Shall  of a monologic n a r r a t i v e i n the  a u t h o r ' s own v o i c e . A n y f i s s u r e s  i n t h e language o f t h e t e x t  s e r v e W i e b e ' s r h e t o r i c a l p u r p o s e s a n d .are t h u s s u b o r d i n a t e d to  the general monologic t h r u s t of the novel.  In  h i s second n o v e l , F i r s t  and V i t a l  C a n d l e , Wiebe  extends h i s s o c i a l and i d e o l o g i c a l p u r v i e w beyond  t h e bounds  of  i n Peace  t h e t i g h t - k n i t Mennonite  community s c r u t i n i z e d  S h a l l D e s t r o y Many. The l a n g u a g e o f F i r s t a n d V i t a l reflects this  expanded  h o r i z o n : Wiebe t a k e s  Candle  several  hegemonic s p e e c h g e n r e s o f t h e c o l d war e r a i n t o h i s a u t h o r i a l c u s t o d y , w h e r e he s u b j e c t s them t o r i g o r o u s i n t e r r o g a t i o n . Wiebe c l e a r l y languages d i s c e r n i b l e  moral  h i e r a r c h i z e s t h e v o i c e s and  i n t h e t e x t . None e s c a p e s t h e o v e r t  c o n t r o l of h i s a u t h o r i a l w i l l . At t h i s  early stage i n h i s  23  c a r e e r , Wiebe d o e s n o t e n t i r e l y  exclude speech  f r o m h i s w r i t i n g , b u t he n e v e r a l l o w s jeopardize the reader's r e l i g i o u s and m o r a l  perception  diversity  i t seriously to  of h i s monologic  vision.  I n t h e two n o v e l s  w h i c h f o l l o w , however, Wiebe  shifts  i n t o a m u l t i - v o i c e d n a r r a t i v e mode, a n d t h e t e n s i o n b e t w e e n c e n t r i f u g a l and c e n t r i p e t a l f o r c e s i n t e n s i f i e s W i t h The B l u e M o u n t a i n s o f C h i n a , b r e a k away f r o m a n y t h i n g mixing  W i e b e makes a v e r y  by c h a r a c t e r s  life,  political,  r e v o l u t i o n , war,  the p h y s i c a l hardships  and t h e s p i r i t u a l  c r i s e s of r e l i g i o u s  secular social contexts.  Several  ages, b e l i e f s and c u l t u r a l  The  the turmoils  l o c a t e d on many  p s y c h o l o g i c a l and c u l t u r a l t h r e s h o l d s : captivity, migration,  obvious  that resembles a u n i t a r y s t y l e .  of languages i n the t e x t r e f l e c t s  experienced  dramatically.  of  pioneer  sensibilities in  narrators of d i f f e r e n t  affiliations  a r t i c u l a t e the  Mennonites' s p l i n t e r e d experience  of h i s t o r y ranging  over  four continents  a hundred years of  time.  In the f i n a l  and a p p r o x i m a t e l y  chapter  of the novel,  however, Wiebe  abruptly  r e a s s e r t s h i s a u t h o r i a l c o n t r o l by d e f i n i n g a s i n g l e m o r a l criterion  f o r e v a l u a t i n g a l l speech and a c t i o n i n t h e t e x t .  I n The T e m p t a t i o n s o f B i g B e a r , W i e b e c r e a t e s i n t r i c a t e mosaic of v o i c e the  zones.  1 8  h i s most  Linguistic decentring  n a r r a t i v e r e a c h e s i t s apogee i n t h i s  t e x t , where any  of  semblance o f s t y l i s t i c  uniformity i s totally  Wiebe s h a t t e r s u n i t i e s  of n a r r a t i v e ,  of view a n d — m o s t  c h a r a c t e r , tone, p o i n t  important—language, to place h i s readers  i n the midst of a v i o l e n t encodings  of t r u t h .  s t r u g g l e between c o n t e n d i n g  The T e m p t a t i o n s  o f B i g Bear works as a  t e x t u a l microcosm of the tumultuous, Canadian  obliterated.  culturally  plural  West b e t w e e n 1876 a n d 1888. W i e b e e x t e n d s h i s  a u t h o r i a l d o m i n a t i o n o v e r v a s t e r , more d i v e r s e a n d m i n u t e l y discriminated subsequent  linguistic  domains t h a n i n any p r e c e d i n g o r  work. But a g a i n , t h e f i n a l  remains monologic  thrust of the novel  b e c a u s e Wiebe o f f e r s a s i n g l e  f o r h i e r a r c h i z i n g t h e v o i c e s o f t h e t e x t . Wiebe  criterion counters  e v e r y a d d i t i o n a l d i a l o g i z i n g d e v i c e he i n t r o d u c e s w i t h a n e q u a l l y e f f e c t i v e means o f r e p r e s s i n g d i a l o g u e .  A l t h o u g h The S c o r c h e d - W o o d P e o p l e a n d My L o v e l y Enemy mark W i e b e ' s r e t u r n t o m o n o l o g i c c o n t a i n many embedded criterion  n a r r a t i v e forms, both  v o i c e s . T h e y a l s o a l l o w more t h a n  Riel,  one  f o r g a u g i n g t h e a u t h o r i t y and meaning o f t h e  c h a r a c t e r s ' u t t e r a n c e s . I n The S c o r c h e d - W o o d P e o p l e , appears  texts  t o i n d u l g e i n a s t r i d e n t r h e t o r i c a l defence  yet closer  i n s p e c t i o n o f t h e manner  i n which  Wiebe of Louis  Wiebe  refracts, h i s a u t h o r i a l v o i c e through a l a b y r i n t h of other voices reveals a profound ambivalence semantic coherence  which d i s r u p t s the  o f t h e t e x t . Wiebe a t t e m p t s t o r e s t o r e  s e m a n t i c o r d e r a t t h e end o f t h e n o v e l , b u t t h e s u c c e s s o f  25  this  endeavour remains open t o q u e s t i o n .  S e m a n t i c c o h e r e n c e a l s o b r e a k s down p e r i o d i c a l l y i n My Lovely  Enemy, a s W i e b e t e m p o r a r i l y  the.centre the on  abdicates  hisposition at  of a u t h o r i a l c o n t r o l . In s u b s t a n t i a l portions of  t e x t , Wiebe r e l e a s e s  h e t e r o g l o s s i a b y p l a c i n g t h e onus  readers t o p a r t i c i p a t e a c t i v e l y i n the process of  c r e a t i n g i t s meaning. Wiebe e x p l o r e s issues with  the notion  that  meaning  f r o m t h e d i a l o g i c engagement o f t h e words on t h e page  the various,  ever-changing contexts  i n t e r p r e t t h o s e words. Meaning t h e r e f o r e openendedness, a l i v i n g  contact  e v o l v i n g contemporary r e a l i t y (Bakhtin  readers  r e t a i n s "a c e r t a i n  with unfinished,  ( t h e openended  still-  present"  1981, 7 ) . However, Wiebe c o u n t e r s t h e p o t e n t i a l  h e t e r o g l o s s i a o f t h e t e x t o f My L o v e l y  Enemy f i r s t ,  i n t r o d u c i n g an o m n i s c i e n t n a r r a t i v e v o i c e sections  i n which  of the novel;  by  i n the latter  s e c o n d , by b r i n g i n g i n an  authoritative teacher-figure;  and t h i r d ,  a u t h o r i t y o f the B i b l e t o e f f e c t semantic  by i n v o k i n g t h e closure.  By d i f f e r e n t means ( a n d p e r h a p s n o t e n t i r e l y d e l i b e r a t e l y ) W i e b e may p e r i o d i c a l l y r e l i n q u i s h s e m a n t i c c o n t r o l t o t h e many a n d v a r i o u s engage w i t h ,  "others"  h i s t e x t s . But without f a i l ,  v i o l e n t l y and a b r u p t l y  at  who s p e a k i n , a n d he a l s o  c e r t a i n key points  from t h e l o g i c a l consequences o f s u r r e n d e r i n g  recoils  i n each authorial  novel  26  control.  I n a l l o f Wiebe's n o v e l s , h i s d e s i r e f o r democratic  freedom and open-minded d i a l o g u e c o n f l i c t s w i t h h i s y e a r n i n g f o r the monologic c e r t a i n t i e s metaphysical,  and l i n g u i s t i c  of a u n i t a r y moral, order. This c o n f l i c t  between  d i a l o g i c and m o n o l o g i c i m p u l s e s  not only i n t e n s i f i e s  over  time, but a l s o manifests  i n a wider  variety  itself  and wider  o f w a y s . The c o n t e s t e r u p t s on an i n c r e a s i n g l y l a r g e number of planes  or b a t t l e f i e l d s  i n the text,  a n d t h e outcome i s  n o t n e c e s s a r i l y t h e same o n e a c h o n e . W i e b e ' s t e x t s become i n c r e a s i n g l y d e s t a b i l i s e d by t h e f l u c t u a t i n g c e n t r i f u g a l and c e n t r i p e t a l f o r c e s W i e b e a c t i v a t e s ; a t a n y g i v e n moment, one o r t h e o t h e r might, p r e v a i l .  S h i f t i n g t o a c l a s s i c a l m e t a p h o r , o n e may s a y t h a t his f i r s t  novel t o h i s s i x t h ,  increasingly treacherous  from  Wiebe n a v i g a t e s a n  course between S c y l l a ,  t h e many-  headed, many-voiced m o n s t e r o f u n b r i d l e d d i a l o g i s m ; and Charybdis, Critics  t h e i n w a r d - p u l l i n g w h i r l p o o l o f monologue.  have a l r e a d y t o u c h e d  on t h i s t e n s i o n b e t w e e n  c e n t r i p e t a l and c e n t r i f u g a l t e n d e n c i e s no one h a s y e t a t t e m p t e d systematic, detailed K r o e t s c h have b o t h Word/word" aspect  t o use i t as a b a s i s f o r a  study.  1 9  Sam S o l e c k i a n d  n o t i c e d Wiebe's  ( K r o e t s c h 1978,  i n Wiebe's work, b u t  Robert  "confrontation with  1 4 ) , b u t have n o t e x p l o r e d  o f Wiebe's w r i t i n g o t h e r than i n a b r i e f ,  c u r s o r y way.  20  this  rather  Ina F e r r i s '  article,  Form: Rudy W i e b e ' s The shrewd and  " R e l i g i o u s V i s i o n and  Fictional  B l u e M o u n t a i n s o f C h i n a , " makes a  r i g o r o u s a n a l y s i s of the c o n f l i c t between Wiebe's  urge t o a r t i c u l a t e h i s "transcendent, his a r t i s t i c  timeless vision"  commitment t o "mundane r e a l i t y  concreteness,  c o n f u s i o n and  complexity"  in a l l its  (Ferris  89).  c e r t a i n l y r e g i s t e r s t h e t e n s i o n between monologic d i a l o g i c v i s i o n i n The  Blue Mountains of China.  Wiebe's heavy-handed a t t e m p t  Ferris  and  She  condemns  t o b e s t o w supreme a u t h o r i t y  the language of John Reimer i n Chapter  13, a r g u i n g t h a t  authentic v o i c e of the chapter belongs  to a fugitive  another m o d e — t o o l d Jakob F r i e s e n " (96). Although not use  Bakhtin's terminology, Ferris's  corresponds  she  "the  does  " o t h e r mode"  t o t h e d i a l o g i c mode.  t h e f e a t u r e F e r r i s m o s t v e h e m e n t l y condemns: W i e b e ' s from  on  from  David L.Jeffrey places a p o s i t i v e value p r e c i s e l y  shift  and  d i a l o g i c to monologic  language.  on  abrupt  I n "A S e a r c h  for  P e a c e : P r o p h e c y and P a r a b l e i n t h e F i c t i o n o f Rudy W i e b e , " J e f f r e y comes t o g r i p s w i t h s e v e r a l o f t h e same q u e s t i o n s this  study addresses,  and  he  c e r t a i n l y makes many  i l l u m i n a t i n g o b s e r v a t i o n s . However, J e f f r e y does not B a k h t i n i a n t h e o r y beyond p o i n t i n g t o the d i s t i n c t i o n between monologic article  attempts  internal politics  and  invoke  fundamental  d i a l o g i c discourse. His  no r i g o r o u s a n a l y s i s o f t h e of Wiebe's  as  texts.  complex  28  Similarly,  Pierre  Blue Mountains of L o n e l y V o i c e of and  mutability  speak i n the as  "the  China: the  the  of  emphasises the  "Rudy W i e b e ' s  Polyphony of  Fringe?,"  Spriet  the  a People or  underestimates the  r e a d s The  dispersion  centrifugal  a s p e c t s of both the Spriet  article,  of Wiebe's r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e  text.  story  Spriet's  story  and  voices  Blue Mountains of  than the  the  i n v o k e s B a k h t i n i a n t e r m s s u c h as  postulates.  "dialogic" (63),  Spriet  follows  "dialogic"  e x t e n t of  of  Dorrit  narrative  their  Cohn i n p o s i t i n g  third-person omniscient narration  chapters. Spriet W i e b e "makes no  can  t h u s make t h e  comment o f  but  " c l e a r l y f e e l s w i t h the  not  even t r y t o  hide his  any  narrative  employed i n the  (63)  sympathy"  (60).  claim  in Frieda's  A l t h o u g h he  grounds h i s society.  the  text  [ o t h e r ] p r o t a g o n i s t s and  m o n o l o g i c m o d e l s o f d i s c o u r s e and  case  fast and other  that story, does uses  on  2 1  present study endeavours to r e f i n e u n d e r s t a n d i n g  Wiebe's l i n g u i s t i c p r a c t i c e s the  literary  a h a r d and  astonishing  kind"  some o f B a k h t i n ' s t e r m s , S p r i e t  The  and  voices i n the  d i v i d i n g l i n e between F r i e d a ' s f i r s t - p e r s o n the  text.  A l t h o u g h aware, f o r example, o f  interspersal  China  He  the  i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y w i t h h i s o t h e r , more t r a d i t i o n a l critical  which  centripetal  language of  "polyphony" w i t h o u t r e a l i z i n g the  the  ambiguity  of a t r i b e " (59).  rather  The  by  m a k i n g e x t e n s i v e use  c l a s s i f i c a t o r y s y s t e m d e v e l o p e d by  Bakhtin i n  of of  Problems  of Dostoevsky's P o e t i c s . B a k h t i n d i v i d e s d i s c o u r s e  into  t h r e e m a i n s p e c i e s . e a c h o f w h i c h may b e s u b d i v i d e d types, which i n t u r n submit t o f u r t h e r d i v i s i o n varieties,  2 2  Because Wiebe's t e x t s w i l l  reference to t h i s  classificatory  synoptic form Table  1.  into  into  be a n a l y z e d  with  system, i t i s reproduced  in  23  TABLE I ; B a k h t i n ' s  Classificatory  System  I.  D i r e c t , unmediated d i s c o u r s e d i r e c t e d e x c l u s i v e l y toward i t s r e f e r e n t i a l o b j e c t , as an e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e speaker's u l t i m a t e semantic a u t h o r i t y .  II.  O b j e c t i f i e d discourse (discourse of a represented person) 1. W i t h a p r e d o m i n a n c e o f s o c i o - t y p i c a l " ^ V a r i o u s determining factors /degrees 2. W i t h a p r e d o m i n a n c e o f i n d i v i d u a l l y v o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c determining factors Jobjectification  III.  D i s c o u r s e w i t h a n o r i e n t a t i o n t o w a r d someone e l s e ' s discourse (double-voiced discourse): 1. U n i d i r e c t i o n a l d o u b l e - v o i c e d d i s c o u r s e : when o b j e c t i f i c a t i o n i s reduced, these tend toward a f u s i o n of v o i c e d , i . e . , toward d i s c o u r s e of the f i r s t type. a. S t y l i z a t i o n ; b. N a r r a t o r ' s n a r r a t i o n ; c. U n o b j e c t i f i e d d i s c o u r s e o f a c h a r a c t e r who c a r r i e s out ( i n part) the author's i n t e n t i o n s ; d. I c h - E r z a h l u n g . 2 . V a r i - d i r e c t i o n a l d o u b l e - v o i c e d d i s c o u r s e : when o b j e c t i f i c a t i o n i s reduced and t h e o t h e r ' s i d e a i s a c t i v a t e d , t h e s e become i n t e r n a l l y d i a l o g i z e d a n d t e n d t o d i s i n t e g r a t e i n t o two d i s c o u r s e s ( t w o voices) of the f i r s t type. a. P a r o d y w i t h a l l i t s n u a n c e s ; b. P a r o d i s t i c I c h - E r z a h l u n g ; c. D i s c o u r s e o f a c h a r a c t e r who i s p a r o d i c a l l y . represented; d. A n y t r a n s m i s s i o n o f someone e l s e ' s w o r d s w i t h a s h i f t i n accent.  30 3. The a c t i v e t y p e ( r e f l e c t e d d i s c o u r s e o f a n o t h e r ) : the other d i s c o u r s e e x e r t s i n f l u e n c e from w i t h o u t ; d i v e r s e forms o f i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h a n o t h e r ' s d i s c o u r s e , as w e l l as v a r i o u s d e g r e e s o f d e f o r m i n g i n f l u e n c e e x e r t e d b y one d i s c o u r s e on the other. a. H i d d e n i n t e r n a l p o l e m i c ; b. P o l e m i c a l l y c o l o u r e d a u t o b i o g r a p h y a n d confession; c. A n y d i s c o u r s e w i t h a s i d e w a r d g l a n c e a t someone e l s e ' s word; d. A r e j o i n d e r o f a d i a l o g u e ; e. H i d d e n d i a l o g u e . While Bakhtin's explanatory,  Species  I I corresponds  criticism calls  c h a r a c t e r s . " From t i m e Species  I i s self-  t h e o t h e r two s p e c i e s r e q u i r e f u r t h e r  clarification. literary  d e s c r i p t i o n of the Species  t o what  conventional  "dialogue" or "the d i r e c t  t o time,  speech of  Bakhtin also refers to  I I as " c o m p o s i t i o n a l l y marked d i a l o g u e , " t o i n d i c a t e  that punctuation  and o t h e r t y p o g r a p h i c a l markers d e l i n e a t e  t h e words o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s from t h o s e  of the author  or the  n a r r a t o r . B a k h t i n views t h e d i r e c t speech of c h a r a c t e r s objectified  "bounded o b j e c t s " w h i c h e x i s t  j u r i s d i c t i o n of author's to the author's  inside the  utterance, i n a state of subjection  " h i g h e r a u t h o r i t y " ( B a k h t i n 1984,  C o m p o s i t i o n a l l y marked d i a l o g u e p l a y s a v i t a l Wiebe's n o v e l s , and d e s e r v e s In h i s f i r s t important,  two n o v e l s ,  as  t o be a n a l y s e d  such d i a l o g u e  role  187).  2 A  i na l l  i n some d e t a i l .  i s particularly  b e i n g h i s p r i n c i p a l means o f o b j e c t i f y i n g t h e  language of o t h e r s .  31 From The  Blue Mountains of China onwards, Wiebe  e x p l o r e s more and more r i g o r o u s l y the a r t i s t i c  and  r h e t o r i c a l p o t e n t i a l of the types and v a r i e t i e s of v o i c e d d i s c o u r s e b e l o n g i n g to Species  double-  I I I . To understand  a p p r o p r i a t i v e s t r a t e g i e s Wiebe employs i n h i s middle l a t e r phases, i t i s e s s e n t i a l t o grasp the concept " h y b r i d i t y " or " i n t e r n a l d i a l o g i c i t y , " which d e s c r i b e s a b s t r a c t l y as f o l l o w s :  the  and  of  Bakhtin  2 5  What we are c a l l i n g a h y b r i d c o n s t r u c t i o n i s an u t t e r a n c e t h a t belongs, by i t s grammatical ( s y n t a c t i c ) and c o m p o s i t i o n a l markers, t o a s i n g l e speaker/ but t h a t a c t u a l l y c o n t a i n s mixed w i t h i n i t two u t t e r a n c e s , two speech genres, two s t y l e s , two "languages," two semantic and a x i o l o g i c a l b e l i e f systems.... There i s no f o r m a l — c o m p o s i t i o n a l and s y n t a c t i c — b o u n d a r y between these u t t e r a n c e s , s t y l e s , languages, b e l i e f systems; the d i v i s i o n of v o i c e s and languages takes p l a c e w i t h i n the l i m i t s of a s i n g l e s y n t a c t i c whole, o f t e n w i t h i n the l i m i t s of a simple sentence. I t f r e q u e n t l y happens t h a t the same word w i l l belong s i m u l t a n e o u s l y t o two languages, two b e l i e f systems t h a t i n t e r s e c t i n a h y b r i d c o n s t r u c t i o n — a n d , consequently, the word has two c o n t r a d i c t o r y meanings, two a c c e n t s . (1981, 304-5) Bakhtin d i f f e r e n t i a t e s between " u n i d i r e c t i o n a l " and d i r e c t i o n a l " double-voiced Species angle"  discourses  (Types 1 and  I I I ) on the b a s i s of what he c a l l s the ( B a k h t i n 1984,  182).  degree t o which the author's the o t h e r who  "vari2 within  "dialogic  The d i a l o g i c angle d e f i n e s the i n t e n t i o n s d i f f e r from those  of  speaks i n the u t t e r a n c e i n q u e s t i o n . In Type  1 ( s t y l i z a t i o n ) , there i s an i n t e n t i o n on the p a r t of the author t o make use of someone e l s e ' s d i s c o u r s e i n the d i r e c t i o n of i t s own p a r t i c u l a r a s p i r a t i o n s . S t y l i z a t i o n s t y l i z e s another's s t y l e i n the d i r e c t i o n of t h a t s t y l e ' s own p a r t i c u l a r t a s k s . I t merely renders those t a s k s c o n v e n t i o n a l . ( B a k h t i n 1984, 193)  32 I n Type 2 ( p a r o d y ) , t h e d i a l o g i c a n g l e w i d e n s ,  as i t were:  The a u t h o r a g a i n s p e a k s i n someone e l s e ' s d i s c o u r s e , but i n c o n t r a s t t o s t y l i z a t i o n , parody i n t r o d u c e s i n t o that d i s c o u r s e a semantic i n t e n t i o n that i s d i r e c t l y o p p o s e d t o t h e o r i g i n a l o n e . The s e c o n d v o i c e , o n c e h a v i n g made i t s home i n t h e o t h e r ' s d i s c o u r s e , c l a s h e s h o s t i l e l y w i t h i t s p r i m o r d i a l h o s t and f o r c e s him t o s e r v e d i r e c t l y o p p o s i n g a i m s . D i s c o u r s e becomes a n a r e n a o f b a t t l e b e t w e e n two v o i c e s . ( B a k h t i n 1 9 8 4 , 193) Bakhtin's concepts of s t y l i z a t i o n ,  parody  and t h e d i a l o g i c  a n g l e prove i n d i s p e n s a b l e t o a n a l y s i s o f Wiebe's p r a c t i c e s i n The B l u e M o u n t a i n s  authorial  o f C h i n a , The T e m p t a t i o n s o f  B i g B e a r , The S c o r c h e d - W o o d P e o p l e , a n d My L o v e l y Enemy.  In a l l parody  and s t y l i z a t i o n ,  the author  "refracts"  h i s o r h e r i n t e n t i o n s t h r o u g h t h e words o f an o t h e r . Bakhtin's d e s c r i p t i o n of " r e f r a c t i o n "  clarifies  o f t h e " d i a l o g i c a n g l e , " w h i l e a t t h e same t i m e the i m p e r i a l i s m i m p l i c i t  the concept highlighting  i n a l l s t y l i z a t i o n and parody:  The a u t h o r d o e s n o t s p e a k i n a g i v e n l a n g u a g e ( f r o m w h i c h he d i s t a n c e s h i m s e l f t o a g r e a t e r o r l e s s e r d e g r e e ) , b u t he s p e a k s , a s i t w e r e , t h r o u g h l a n g u a g e , a l a n g u a g e t h a t h a s somehow more o r l e s s m a t e r i a l i z e d , become o b j e c t i v i z e d , t h a t he m e r e l y v e n t r i l o q u a t e s . The p r o s e w r i t e r a s a n o v e l i s t d o e s n o t s t r i p away the i n t e n t i o n s o f o t h e r s from t h e ' h e t e r o g l o t language o f h i s w o r k s . . . r a t h e r he w e l c o m e s t h e m i n t o h i s w o r k . The p r o s e w r i t e r makes u s e o f w o r d s t h a t a r e a l r e a d y p o p u l a t e d w i t h t h e s o c i a l i n t e n t i o n s o f o t h e r s and c o m p e l s t h e m t o s e r v e h i s own new i n t e n t i o n s , t o s e r v e a second master. T h e r e f o r e t h e i n t e n t i o n s of t h e p r o s e w r i t e r a r e r e f r a c t e d , and r e f r a c t e d a t d i f f e r e n t a n g l e s . d e p e n d i n g on t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h t h e r e f r a c t e d , h e t e r o g l o t l a n g u a g e s he d e a l s w i t h a r e s o c i o i d e o l o g i c a l l y a l i e n . . . . (1981, 299-300) 2 6  V o l o s i n o v ' s t h e o r y o f t h e u t t e r a n c e a s "an a r e n a o f t h e class  struggle"  (23 )  2 7  i m p l i e s t h a t elements  of s t y l i z a t i o n  and  parody c h a r a c t e r i s e a l l language use. I n Marxism and t h e  Philosophy  o f Language. V o l o s i n o v  a space o r f i e l d where r i v a l  describes  accentual  the utterance  systems c l a s h , as  speakers a p p r o p r i a t e words " a l r e a d y p o p u l a t e d social  intentions of others"  (Bakhtin  with the  1 9 8 1 , 3 0 0 ) . I f one  s o c i a l group s e i z e s a monopoly o v e r l a n g u a g e , so t h a t set of standards  o r norms e n t i r e l y p r e v a i l s ,  system o s s i f i e s .  I t becomes " u n i a c c e n t u a l "  and  "inevitably  social sign,  loses force"  struggle continues  one  the verbal  sign  (Volosinov 23),  ( V o l o s i n o v 2 3 ) . B u t as l o n g as  w i t h i n the arena of the v e r b a l  language "maintains  its vitality  c a p a c i t y f o r f u r t h e r development"  In the process  as  and dynamism and t h e  (Volosinov 23).  o f r e - w r i t i n g h i s t o r y and  r e c o n t e x t u a l i z i n g passages from t h e S c r i p t u r e s i n h i s n o v e l s , Wiebe c o n s t r u c t s v e r b a l and n o n - v e r b a l s i t e s where r i v a l  social  s i g n s as  f a c t i o n s contend t o a s s e r t  rival  m e a n i n g s . He r e d e e m s f r o m s e m a n t i c d e a t h t h e c l i c h e d w o r d o r phrase, the stock dramatic historical  event.  situation,  By p u l l i n g t h e s e  the too-familiar  exhausted,  ossified  s i g n i f i e r s back i n t o t h e a r e n a o f p u b l i c d e b a t e , Wiebe r e s u s c i t a t e s them and r e s t o r e s t h e i r power t o t r o u b l e t h e mind. Wiebe t h u s e x p l o i t s t h e h i s t o r i c i t y o f w o r d s — b u t up t o a p o i n t ! A t a c e r t a i n moment n e a r t h e e n d o f e a c h n o v e l , he makes a n a b r u p t t u r n - a r o u n d , social  attempts t o q u e l l  s t r u g g l e w i t h i n the arena of the utterance,  and  only  34 endeavours to subjugate  a l l verbal signs to  authoritative Scriptural  Wiebe's attempts always succeed, Authors  Word.  t o r e a s s e r t a u t h o r i a l c o n t r o l do  either r h e t o r i c a l l y or  might succeed  i n t e n t i o n s through  the  aesthetically.  i n .refracting their  t h e v o i c e s and  as M i c h a e l H o l q u i s t p o i n t s  not  authorial  languages of o t h e r s ,  but  out,  t h e r e a r e o t h e r r e f r a c t i n g m e d i a as w e l l , i n c l u d i n g t h a t mass o f a l i e n w o r d s ' p r e s e n t n o t i n t h e o b j e c t b u t i n t h e c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f t h e l i s t e n e r . (1981, 432) The  meaning of a t e x t can  author's  never remain e n t i r e l y i n the  c o n t r o l , as W i e b e f o u n d  community e r u p t e d  o u t when t h e  Mennonite  i n t o a f u r o r e a f t e r the p u b l i c a t i o n  Peace S h a l l D e s t r o y Many.  28  None o f W i e b e ' s n o v e l s  lacks  d e v i c e s f o r l i m i t i n g h e t e r o g l o s s i a : such d e v i c e s are in  t h e q u i v e r o f a l l r h e t o r i c i a n s . O n l y i n My  does Wiebe's r h e t o r i c  c r e a t o r s of the meanings  delegate  e n c o u r a g e t h e m t o a c t as  " i n " t h e t e x t . E v e n s o , My  Enemy i s a r g u a b l y m a r r e d b y  t h e measures Wiebe t a k e s  r e p r e s s h e t e r o g l o s s i a a t t h e end.  arrows  L o v e l y Enemy  s e l f - c o n s c i o u s l y begin to  a u t h o r - i t y t o r e a d e r s , and  of  Wiebe c a n n o t y e t  coLovely to fully  allow the primacy of c o n t e x t over t e x t [which ensures t h a t ] a t any g i v e n t i m e , i n any g i v e n p l a c e , t h e r e w i l l be a set of c o n d i t i o n s — s o c i a l , h i s t o r i c a l , m e t e o r o l o g i c a l , p h y s i o l o g i c a l — t h a t w i l l ensure t h a t a word u t t e r e d i n t h a t p l a c e and i n t h a t t i m e w i l l h a v e a m e a n i n g d i f f e r e n t t h a n i t w o u l d h a v e u n d e r any o t h e r c o n d i t i o n s ; a l l utterances are h e t e r o g l o t i n that they are f u n c t i o n s of a m a t r i x of forces p r a c t i c a l l y  35 i m p o s s i b l e t o r e c o u p , and t h e r e f o r e i m p o s s i b l e r e s o l v e . ( H o l q u i s t 1981, 428) Despite his  Wiebe's i n t e n s e  interest  r h e t o r i c a l p u r p o s e s f o r c e him  h e t e r o g l o s s i a o f h i s own  Nor defines  has  ( B a k h t i n 1984,  34).  He  to repress  "a p l u r a l i t y o f  novel"  fully  novel. valid  uses the term to d e s c r i b e  e q u a l l y - v a l i d consciousnesses,  polyphonic  the  "polyphonic"  a u t h o r i a l p r a c t i c e of g i v i n g v o i c e t o  (1984, 7 ) . B a k h t i n  principle,  texts.  Wiebe y e t w r i t t e n a  " p o l y p h o n y " as  i n the d i a l o g i c  to  hails (19 84,  voices"  the  "a p l u r a l i t y  e a c h w i t h i t s own  D o s t o e v s k y as  "the  Bakhtin  of  world"  c r e a t o r of  7), a d i s t i n c t v a r i e t y of  the  secondary  utterance which n e i t h e r h i e r a c h i z e s the  heteroglot voices i t  c o n t a i n s , nor  voices to that  the  subordinates  any  of these  of  author: A c h a r a c t e r ' s word a b o u t h i m s e l f and h i s w o r l d i s j u s t as f u l l y w e i g h t e d as t h e a u t h o r ' s w o r d u s u a l l y i s ; i t i s not s u b o r d i n a t e d t o the c h a r a c t e r ' s o b j e c t i f i e d image as m e r e l y one o f h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , n o r d o e s i t s e r v e as a m o u t h p i e c e f o r t h e a u t h o r ' s v o i c e . I t possesses e x t r a o r d i n a r y independence i n the s t r u c t u r e o f t h e w o r k ; i t s o u n d s , as i t w e r e , a l o n g s i d e t h e a u t h o r ' s w o r d a n d i n a s p e c i a l way c o m b i n e s b o t h w i t h i t and w i t h t h e f u l l and e q u a l l y v a l i d v o i c e s o f o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s . ( B a k h t i n 1984, 7)  Although  Wiebe uses p o l y p h o n i c  M o u n t a i n s o f C h i n a and novel  The  n a r r a t i v e f o r m s i n The  Temptations of B i g Bear,  Blue  neither  functions polyphonically.  I t must be  e m p h a s i s e d t h a t Wiebe and  Bakhtin  attach  36 e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t values to polyphony. For B a k h t i n , polyphonic  novel i s a micro-cosmic  model o f a p o l i t i c a l  democracy, a  u t o p i a . Polyphony brings  from the o p p r e s s i o n of c l o s e d , n a i v e consciousness.  liberation  In Wiebe's n o v e l s , however, p o l y p h o n y chaos,  carries  insanity,  a t e r r i f y i n g d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of meaning. For  polyphony gives v o i c e to the (PPM  textual  monologic  negative a s s o c i a t i o n s . I t evokes anarchy, nihilism,  the  " v o i d of s p l i n t e r e d  Wiebe,  dogmas"  235).  In a d d i t i o n , a l t h o u g h  Bakhtin a p p l i e s the  "polyphony" o n l y t o d i s c o u r s e , i t proves describing other f i e l d s voices"  c a n be  heard.  i n which  i n the space of a t e x t , but character  useful also for  "a p l u r a l i t y  P o l y p h o n y may  manifest  of f u l l y itself  a l s o i n the psyche of  (polyphonic consciousness), or i n a  space o c c u p i e d by heterogeneous  term  a c u l t u r a l l y and  positive connotations  i n t o new  only  a  linguistically  society.  Bakhtin's d e f i n i t i o n of  " p o l y p h o n y , " and  new  v a l u e s t o words i n t h e p r o c e s s  standards  Strictly semantic  of i n s e r t i n g  c o n t e x t s . However, i n a s t u d y o f t h i s  must c o n f o r m t o p r e d e t e r m i n e d  extending  r e v e r s i n g the  he a t t a c h e s t o t h e w o r d .  i t i s i m p o s s i b l e not t o impart  nuances and  not  geographical  Wiebe's d i s t i n c t i v e v i s i o n and method w a r r a n t  speaking,  valid  them  k i n d , which  of c l a r i t y  and  conceptual  precision,  i t i s necessary  tendencies  i n check by d e f i n i n g and s t a b i l i z i n g t e r m i n o l o g y .  By n o t i n g a l l d e p a r t u r e s  study  from, but r a t h e r t o p a r t i c i p a t e  i n the ongoing process  i n d i v i d u a l i z i n g words " a l r e a d y p o p u l a t e d i n t e n t i o n s of others"  dialogizing  from B a k h t i n i a n usage, t h i s  s e e k s n o t t o exempt i t s e l f self-consciously  to hold  (Bakhtin  of renovating  and  with the s o c i a l  1981, 3 0 0 ) .  38 NOTES TO CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1. I n The D i a l o g i c I m a g i n a t i o n , B a k h t i n i n d i c a t e s t h a t " p o l y g l o s s i a " d e n o t e s more t h a n one n a t i o n a l l a n g u a g e , w h i l e "heteroglossia" refers to the "internal differentiation, the s t r a t i f i c a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f any n a t i o n a l language" (61). B a k h t i n a p p l i e s these terms both t o t h e a c t u a l s t a t e of language ( i t s homogeneity o r d i v e r s i t y ) t h a t p e r t a i n s i n a s o c i e t y , and t o t h e myths t h a t s o c i e t y h o l d s a b o u t i t s language. 2. I n F i r s t a n d V i t a l C a n d l e , f o r e x a m p l e , W i e b e p o s t p o n e s h i s p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h i s moment u n t i l C h a p t e r 16. 3. T h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f W i e b e ' s c h a r a c t e r s i n t o f o u r m a i n groups d i f f e r s from, b u t i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h , George H i l d e b r a n d ' s g r o u p i n g s i n "Rudy W i e b e : t h e A n a b a p t i s t V i s i o n and t h e U s a b l e P a s t " ( 1 9 7 7 ) . H i l d e b r a n d d i v i d e s W i e b e ' s c h a r a c t e r s i n t o t h o s e who l i v e " i n a s t a t e o f n a t u r e , " t h o s e who l i v e " i n a s t a t e o f s i n , " t h e " s e a r c h i n g p i l g r i m [ s ] , " and " t h e r e d e e m e d " ( 3 4 - 5 ) . T h e s e f o u r g r o u p s c o r r e s p o n d r e s p e c t i v e l y w i t h t h o s e d e s c r i b e d i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y as "the n a i v e , monologic u n f a l l e n ( c h i l d r e n ) , " " t h e i n t e r v e n i n g c h a r a c t e r s , " " t h e t e a c h e r - f i g u r e s , " and " t h e r e a d e r figures . " 4 . I n F a r As t h e E y e C a n See ( E d m o n t o n : N e w e s t P r e s s , 1977) 123-5, Wiebe p a r o d i e s t h e u s e o f t h e deus ex m a c h i n a d e v i c e , b u t a t t h e same t i m e q u e s t i o n s i t s a b i l i t y t o e f f e c t t o t a l n a r r a t i v e c l o s u r e . P r e m i e r P e t e r Lougheed, " t h e p e r f e c t deus ex m a c h i n a " "(123), d e s c e n d s o n t o t h e s t a g e i n a n immense c o a l scoop, t o t h e sound o f c r e a k i n g machinery. H i s speech seems a t f i r s t t o p u t a n e n d t o t h e s t r u g g l e b e t w e e n t h e f a r m e r s s e e k i n g t o p r e s e r v e t h e i r l a n d a n d C a l g a r y P o w e r who want t o s t r i p - m i n e i t f o r c o a l : " T h i s p r o j e c t w o u l d d i s t u r b t o o much p r i m e a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d . T h e r e f o r e , a t t h i s t i m e my government w i l l n o t g i v e a p p r o v a l t o Dodds-Round H i l l d e v e l o p m e n t " ( 1 2 4 ) . The f a r m e r s t h i n k t h e y h a v e won. W i e b e a p p e a r s t o have c l o s e d t h e s t o r y . However, J o h n Siemens r e opens t h e n a r r a t i v e by r e a c c e n t i n g Lougheed's s p e e c h , and drawing a t t e n t i o n t o t h e l o o p h o l e i t c o n t a i n s : "Can't you s e e ? He's g i v e n y o u t h r e e y e a r s , a t m o s t " ( 1 2 5 ) . L o u g h e e d ' s s t r e s s on " n o t " d e f l e c t s a t t e n t i o n f r o m h i s q u a l i f i e r " a t t h i s t i m e " ( 1 2 4 ) . The s t r u g g l e h a s n o t b y a n y means e n d e d . 5. A s W i e b e p o i n t s o u t i n h i s P r e f a c e t o P e a c e S h a l l D e s t r o y Many, t h e e a r l y M e n n o n i t e s w e r e " r e s t r a i n e d f r o m o p e n p r o s e l y t i s i n g " ( 8 ) . E . K . F r a n c i s d e s c r i b e s how a t r a d i t i o n o f w i t h d r a w a l grew o u t o f — b u t o u t l a s t e d — t h e l e g a l a n d p h y s i c a l r e s t r a i n t s t o w h i c h Wiebe r e f e r s ; see I n Search o f U t o p i a : t h e M e n n o n i t e s i n M a n i t o b a ( A l t o n a , M a n i t o b a : D. W.  39 Friesen,  1955).  6. The t e r m " C a t h o l i c " i n t h i s i n s t a n c e d o e s n o t r e f e r s p e c i f i c a l l y t o t h e Roman C a t h o l i c C h u r c h , b u t d e n o t e s broadness, universality. 7. I n " U n e a r t h i n g L a n g u a g e , " W i e b e r e m a r k s on t h e i s o l a t i o n o f t h e P a r a g u a y a n M e n n o n i t e s e t t l e m e n t s , and t h e i r a t t e m p t to l i v e i n the p a t t e r n s of the o l d Russian Mennonite v i l l a g e s s t i l l : t h e y ' r e e x a c t l y t h e same a n d t h e v i l l a g e s a r e named t h e s a m e . . . — t h e y t r y t o r e c r e a t e as much a s t h e y c a n i n t h e S o u t h A m e r i c a n d e s e r t t h e l i f e o f R u s s i a and i t s s o c i a l p a t t e r n s . I suppose coming t o them was f o r me r e a l l y l i k e b e i n g a b l e t o go b a c k t o t h e R u s s i a t h a t my p a r e n t s h a d l o s t f o r e v e r , and j u s t t a l k w i t h t h e p e o p l e t h e way t h e y t a l k e d t h e n . (Neuman 228-9). 8. See a l s o G e o r g e H i l d e b r a n d : W i e b e " s e e k s c u l t u r a l l y more r e c o g n i z a b l e means b y w h i c h t o s p e a k t o an a u d i e n c e b e y o n d the h e r m e t i c w o r l d of e v a n g e l i c a l P r o t e s t a n t i s m " (1977, 1 ) . 9. I n "The A r t i s t a s a C r i t i c a n d a W i t n e s s , " W i e b e a d h e r e s t o t h e New C r i t i c a l a s s u m p t i o n t h a t a w o r k o f a r t s h o u l d n o t mean b u t b e , a n d t h a t b e c a u s e f o r m a n d c o n t e n t a r e i n s e p a r a b l e , a l i t e r a r y w o r k c a n n o t be p a r a p h r a s e d : "A w o r k of a r t is.: i t i s s i m p l y too complex t o paraphrase and e x p l a i n f u l l y , s a t i s f a c t o r i l y " (VL 4 0 ) . 10. T h i s p r o g r e s s i v e s h i f t i n Wiebe's r h e t o r i c a l s t r a t e g y c a n be e x p l a i n e d i n p a r t by t h e e v o l u t i o n o f h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f how h u m a n k i n d m i g h t e n g a g e w i t h t h e S c r i p t u r e s . B e t w e e n 1963 and 1967, when he t a u g h t a t t h e M e n n o n i t e C o l l e g e a t Goshen, I n d i a n a , Wiebe e x p e r i e n c e d t h e Word f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e i n a c r e a t i v e , i n t e l l e c t u a l l y a d v e n t u r o u s c o n t e x t — a c o n t e x t w h i c h m i g h t be d e s c r i b e d as a u t h e n t i c a l l y d i a l o g i c . R e f l e c t i n g on t h i s c r u c i a l p e r i o d some f i f t e e n y e a r s l a t e r , i n an i n t e r v i e w w i t h S h i r l e y Neuman a n d R o b e r t K r o e t s c h , W i e b e ' s l a n g u a g e e v o k e s t h e excitement of t h i s f i r s t glimpse of the d i a l o g i c p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f t h e Word; [When I p u b l i s h e d my f i r s t n o v e l ] my p a t t e r n o f t h i n k i n g was s t i l l p r e t t y . . . f u n d a m e n t a l i s t o r C h r i s t i a n i n t h e s e n s e t h a t my m a j o r s t o r i e s came f r o m a c e r t a i n k i n d o f f a i r l y narrow u n d e r s t a n d i n g of what t h e B i b l e was t a l k i n g a b o u t , w h i c h i s how I g r e w up. In.some w a y s , I ' v e s i m p l y n e v e r f o u n d a b e t t e r way o f t h i n k i n g  40 about the w o r l d . I t h i n k p a r t of what you see i n The Blue Mountains of China, S h i r l e y , i s a wider way of understanding the world-views the B i b l e p r e s e n t s t o us. That i s d u e — I wouldn't want t o underestimate i t — t o the time I was i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s t e a c h i n g a t a s m a l l Mennonite c o l l e g e . There, f o r the f i r s t time and over an extended p e r i o d , I encountered men and women of r e a l p e r c e p t i o n who had thought through a l o t of these t h i n g s , r e a l l y l i t e r a t e C h r i s t i a n s who saw themselves as Jesus' f o l l o w e r s and a t the same time were acquainted w i t h the thoughts of o t h e r s and had brought t h a t k i n d of u n d e r s t a n d i n g t o bear on what i t means t o be a C h r i s t i a n . The b e s t t h i n g t h a t ever happened t o me was the meetings we had every two or t h r e e weeks i n one home o r a n o t h e r — s e v e n o r e i g h t of us, a p s y c h i a t r i s t , a couple of t h e o l o g i a n s , a couple of l i t e r a r y people. (Neuman 242-3) 11. The term " d i a l o g u e " embraces a f a r g r e a t e r range of i n t e r l o c u t o r y s i t u a t i o n s than two people speaking t o one another f a c e t o f a c e . For B a k h t i n , the term " d i a l o g u e " i n c l u d e s a l l forms of v e r b a l i n t e r a c t i o n , a i d e d o r unaided by technology. 12. Synchronic s t u d i e s concern themselves with the l i n g u i s t i c system as i t s stands a t a p a r t i c u l a r p o i n t i n time; d i a c h r o n i c s t u d i e s examine the e v o l u t i o n of language a c r o s s time. "La langue i s the system of a language, the language as a system of forms, whereas p a r o l e i s a c t u a l speech, the speech a c t s which are made p o s s i b l e by the language" ( C u l l e r 29). C u l l e r argues t h a t Saussure never "deceived h i m s e l f i n t o t h i n k i n g t h a t language e x i s t s as a s e r i e s of t o t a l l y homogenous s y n c h r o n i c s t a t e s " (37), but r a t h e r r e c o g n i z e d f u l l y t h a t "because i t i s a r b i t r a r y the s i g n i s t o t a l l y s u b j e c t t o h i s t o r y , and the combination a t a p a r t i c u l a r moment of a g i v e n s i g n i f i e r and s i g n i f i e d i s a c o n t i n g e n t r e s u l t of the h i s t o r i c a l p r o c e s s " (36). In r e a c t i o n t o t h i s r e c o g n i t i o n , Saussure adopted the s y n c h r o n i c model as "a m e t h o d o l o g i c a l f i c t i o n " ( C u l l e r 37). 13. See 40.  "Epic and the Novel," The D i a l o g i c Imagination,  3-  14. The "polyphonic n o v e l " i s an e x c e p t i o n t o t h i s r u l e , b e i n g a form of secondary u t t e r a n c e whose i n t e r n a l p o l i t i c s are democratic. See B a k h t i n 1984, 5-46, f o r d e f i n i t i o n s and a n a l y s i s of the p o l y p h o n i c n o v e l . Wiebe's p a r t i c u l a r manner of d r a m a t i z i n g and e v a l u a t i n g polyphony i s d i s c u s s e d l a t e r i n the p r e s e n t c h a p t e r , and i n Chapter 3.  41 15. F o r f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n o f c e n t r i p e t a l a n d c e n t r i f u g a l f o r c e s , s e e M i c h a e l H o l q u i s t , I n t r o d u c t i o n t o The D i a l o g i c I m a g i n a t i o n , x v i i i , a n d H o l q u i s t ' s G l o s s a r y i n t h e same work, 425. 16. See The D i a l o g i c I m a g i n a t i o n , p p . 3 8 5 - 6 , 425 f o r e x p l a n a t i o n s o f t h e term " b e l i e f system." 17. I n C a r y l E m e r s o n a n d M i c h a e l H o l q u i s t ' s E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n o f The D i a l o g i c I m a g i n a t i o n , t h e t e r m " h e t e r o g l o s s i a " t a k e s on d i f f e r e n t meanings i n d i f f e r e n t c o n t e x t s (thus i l l u s t r a t i n g t h e d i a l o g i c p r i n c i p l e ) . I t a p p e a r s t w i c e i n t h e G l o s s a r y a n d many t i m e s i n t h e b o d y o f B a k h t i n ' s t e x t . Emerson and H o l q u i s t t r a n s l a t e " r a z n o r e C i e , " " r a z n o r e C i v o s t , " and " r a z n o j a z y f i i e " as " h e t e r o g l o s s i a . " "RaznoreCie" appears i n t h e G l o s s a r y under t h e heading " H e t e r o g l o s s i a " and r e f e r s t o t h e p o t e n t i a l l y i n f i n i t e semantic p l u r a l i t y o f any a g i v e n s e t o f words, which e x i s t s as a r e s u l t o f t h e i n f i n i t e a r r a y o f c o n t e x t s i n t o w h i c h i t m i g h t b e i n c o r p o r a t e d : ( " H e t e r o g l o s s i a : The b a s e c o n d i t i o n g o v e r n i n g t h e o p e r a t i o n o f meaning i n any u t t e r a n c e . . . . A l l utterances are h e t e r o g l o t i n t h a t they a r e functions of matrix of forces p r a c t i c a l l y impossible t o resolve" [428]). "RaznoreCivost" a l s o appears under t h e heading " H e t e r o g l o s s i a " i n t h e G l o s s a r y , but i s d e f i n e d elsewhere by B a k h t i n a s a "mix o f v a r i e d a n d o p p o s i n g v o i c e s " ( 4 9 ) . "Raznojazygie" appears i n t h e G l o s s a r y under t h e heading " l a n g u a g e [ i a z y k ] " a n d d e n o t e s "many l a n g u a g e s , " o r , i n L o t m a n ' s t e r m s , many " c o m m u n i c a t i o n s y s t e m [ s ] e m p l o y i n g s i g n s t h a t a r e o r d e r e d i n a p a r t i c u l a r manner" ( H o l q u i s t 430). " H e t e r o g l o s s i a " may t h e r e f o r e v a l i d l y b e u s e d t o d e n o t e many v o i c e s , many l a n g u a g e s , o r many m e a n i n g s (voicings, i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s ) of a given utterance. Bakhtin's c l e a r e s t d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e s e d i f f e r e n t s e n s e s o f t h e w o r d " h e t e r o g l o s s i a " o c c u r s i n The D i a l o g i c I m a g i n a t i o n , p . 3 2 4 - 2 5 . To a v o i d p o s s i b l e c o n f u s i o n , t h e word " h e t e r o g l o s s i a " r e f e r s i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y t o semantic p l u r a l i t y ( " r a z n o r e C i e " ) ; and terms such as " m u l t i - v o i c e d n e s s , " "speech d i v e r s i t y , " o r " s t y l i s t i c h e t e r o g e n e i t y " w i l l denote t h e m i x i n g o f v o i c e s and languages manifest i n t h e t e x t ("raznoreCivost," "raznoiazyCie"). 18. "A z o n e i s a l o c u s f o r h e a r i n g a v o i c e , " ( B a k h t i n 1 9 8 1 , 4 3 4 ) . V o i c e z o n e s a r e d i s c u s s e d i n more d e t a i l i n r e l a t i o n t o F i r s t a n d V i t a l C a n d l e i n C h a p t e r 3. 19. Numerous c r i t i c s h a v e p o i n t e d t o t h e p r e s e n c e o f e i t h e r c e n t r i p e t a l o r c e n t r i f u g a l t e n d e n c i e s , b u t v e r y few have d i s c u s s e d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e two. Most r e v i e w e r s and c r i t i c s m e n t i o n t h e d i d a c t i c i s m o f Peace S h a l l D e s t r o y Many a n d F i r s t a n d V i t a l C a n d l e , a n d t h e f r a g m e n t a t i o n o f  42 The B l u e M o u n t a i n s  o f C h i n a a n d The T e m p t a t i o n s o f B i g B e a r .  20. See R o b e r t K r o e t s c h , " M i r r o r , m i r r o r , show u s a l l , " Rev. o f The S c o r c h e d - W o o d P e o p l e , B o o k s i n C a n a d a 7/1 ( J a n . 1 9 7 8 ) , 14; a n d K r o e t s c h ' s r e m a r k s on W i e b e ' s b e l i e f i n t h e " ' C a p i t a l - W ' Word" (Neuman 2 3 6 ) . See a l s o Sam S o l e c k i , " G i a n t F i c t i o n s a n d L a r g e M e a n i n g s : t h e N o v e l s o f Rudy W i e b e , " C a n a d i a n Forum 60 ( M a r c h 1 9 8 1 ) , 5-8, 1 3 . 2 1 . J e f f r e y a n d S p r i e t a r e t h e o n l y two c r i t i c s who h a v e a p p l i e d B a k h t i n i a n t h e o r y i n a more t h a n p a s s i n g way t o Wiebe's w r i t i n g . O t h e r c r i t i c s have a d d r e s s e d t h e q u e s t i o n of Wiebe's d o u b l e - v o i c e d n e s s u s i n g t h e o r e t i c a l models o t h e r t h a n B a k h t i n ' s . See S h e r r i l l E. G r a c e , " S t r u c t u r i n g V i o l e n c e : 'The E t h i c s o f L i n g u i s t i c s ' i n 'The T e m p t a t i o n s o f B i g B e a r ' , " C a n a d i a n L i t e r a t u r e 104 ( S p r i n g 1 9 8 5 ) , 7-23; G e o r g e H i l d e b r a n d "The A n a b a p t i s t V i s i o n o f Rudy W i e b e : a Study i n T h e o l o g i c a l A l l e g o r e s i s , " d i s s . M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y , 1982. 22. See B a k h t i n 1984, 1 8 5 - 1 9 9 , f o r e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e s e s p e c i e s , t y p e s and v a r i e t i e s . 23. T a k e n f r o m B a k h t i n 1 9 8 4 ,  199.  24. F o r f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e o t h e r ' s s p e e c h a s a b o u n d e d o b j e c t , s e e B a k h t i n 1 9 8 1 , 41-50; B a k h t i n 1984, 189.  186-  2 5 . See a l s o B a k h t i n 1 9 8 1 , 4 2 9 . 26.  See a l s o B a k h t i n 1 9 8 1 , 4 3 2 .  27. A l t h o u g h Volo§inov d i v i d e s t h e s o c i a l w o r l d on t h e b a s i s o f c l a s s , one may v a l i d l y v i e w t h e v e r b a l s i g n a s a n a r e n a of s t r u g g l e between s o c i a l groups d i f f e r e n t i a t e d a c c o r d i n g to o t h e r c r i t e r i a . 28. See W i e b e ' s r e m a r k s t o t h e p u b l i c r e s p o n s e t o P e a c e S h a l l D e s t r o y Many, i n "The S k u l l i n t h e Swamp," J o u r n a l o f M e n n o n i t e S t u d i e s 5 ( 1 9 8 7 ) , 8-20.  43  CHAPTER 2: PEACE SHALL DESTROY MANY  B r e a k i n g Open t h e  Capsule  I  Rudy W i e b e o p e n s C h a p t e r  One  of h i s f i r s t  n o v e l , Peace  S h a l l D e s t r o y Many, w i t h a s y m b o l i c b r e a c h i n g o f t h e horizon of a closed, monologic Thorn W i e n s p l o u g h s  world. In the s p r i n g of  h i s w h e a t f i e l d i n the i s o l a t e d  f a r m i n g community o f W a p i t i i n N o r t h e r n Suddenly,  a group  of Canadian  out o f t h e s o u t h . They pass h o r s e s and  overhead,  I I has  Saskatchewan. roaring  t e r r i f y i n g the  plough  e n g u l f i n g Thorn's w o r l d i n . t h e i r n o i s e . The  t h r e a t t o Thorn. What t h e y s i g n i f y , arrived.  Thorn c a n no  b y o t h e r p e o p l e somewhere e l s e .  T h e y p o s e no  now.  No  community d i s a p p e a r "  1  one  physical  however, i s t h a t  a far-away The  escapes  turmoil  planes are  i r r e f u t a b l e evidence that the w a r — w o r l d f o r everyone,  planes  World  l o n g e r d i s m i s s t h e war  j u s t a n o t h e r s t o r y on t h e r a d i o ,  it!  1944,  Mennonite  f i g h t e r p l a n e s comes  a r e engaged i n a t r a i n i n g e x e r c i s e .  War  narrow  fought  tangible,  history--is  "The  as  here,  boundaries of  the  f o r Thorn, a n d w i t h them, t h e m y t h o f  i t s monovocality.  H i s mind opens t o o t h e r v o i c e s  languages, other universe  c o n s t r u c t i o n s of the  than that u n i t a r y t r u t h  v o i c e of Deacon P e t e r  Block,  s o c i a l ' a n d moral  imposed by  who  and  the t y r a n n i c a l  attempts to reproduce i n  W a p i t i the a l l e g e d l y simple,  monologic, Edenic  behind  h o l d o v e r Thorn's m i n d  i n R u s s i a . As  diminishes,  he  Block's  finds himself  spiritually  m o r a l l y d i s o r i e n t e d , u n s u r e o f how Canada's " c a l l "  he  world  liberated  should  left  but  respond  to  t o ' j o i n t h e armed f o r c e s .  Wiebe t e l l s  the  s t o r y p r i m a r i l y , but  not e x c l u s i v e l y ,  f r o m Thorn W i e n s ' p o i n t o f v i e w . Thorn's c o n s c i o u s n e s s  serves  as a f i e l d w h e r e r i v a l  forces  v o i c e s and  conflicting social  s t r u g g l e f o r d o m i n a n c e . W i e b e b r i n g s two onto 3):  2  "life's  real battle-field:  Deacon B l o c k ,  cultural tradition world;  and  and  s o u l o f man"  advocates a r i g i d a total  contestants (PPM  adherence  s e p a r a t i o n from the  J o s e p h D u e c k , W i e b e ' s m o u t h p i e c e , who  the p o s s i b i l i t y historical  who  the  main  s o c i a l world.  T h e s e two  m o n o l o g i c and  dialogic  o f f from the  to secular  advances  of p r a c t i s i n g C h r i s t i a n i t y without  change o r c u t t i n g o n e s e l f  denying broader  figures respectively personify principles.  162-  the  45  II  As  h i s name s u g g e s t s ,  Mennonite f a m i l i e s  Block  cements t h e s e p a r a t e  and i n d i v i d u a l s o f W a p i t i  m o n o l i t h i c c o m m u n i t y . He i n s i s t s  that they  an u n b l e m i s h e d f r o n t t o t h e w o r l d "  (205).  into a  always  "present  Denying,  speaking  over o r p h y s i c a l l y removing any v o i c e which dares n o t say "amen", t o h i s own, D e a c o n B l o c k  so dominates t h e people o f  W a p i t i t h a t i t comes c l o s e t o b e i n g Church p o l i c y  " o r i g i n a t e d almost e x c l u s i v e l y with  (68), h i s " b i g voice covering" of Jove, Deacon B l o c k meeting:  a monovocal community.  (36) a l l .  Block"  I n a tantrum worthy  s h o u t s down a l l d i s s e n t a t a  " t h e Deacon's v o i c e overwhelmed a l l ,  f l a m i n g . J o s e p h ' s v o i c e was s n u f f e d ;  steel  church eyes  t h e sound and t h e l o o k  a b o l t t o b l a s t everyone" ( 6 0 ) .  Against  Deacon B l o c k ' s  i d e a l o f a monovocal church  h i m s e l f as t h e s o l e spokesman, Wiebe's i d e a l community p e r m i t s  multi-voicedness.  When B l o c k  with  church challenges  Joseph's Dueck's r i g h t t o v o i c e d i s a g r e e m e n t on t h e grounds t h a t he h a s o n l y b e e n i n W a p i t i n i n e m o n t h s , "Thorn s u r g e d t o his feet.  'He i s a member o f t h i s  church  and can speak!'"  (61).  It i s v i t a l  t o n o t i c e t h a t Thorn's w o r d s do n o t  n e c e s s a r i l y condemn m o n o v o c a l i t y b e t w e e n two  per  kinds of monovocality,  to the circumstances  se. Wiebe d i s c r i m i n a t e s  differentiated  u n d e r w h i c h t h e y come a b o u t .  according If  t y r a n n i c a l v o i c e drowns out a l l o t h e r v o i c e s , t h e n c o m m u n i t y becomes a m i c r o c o s m i c monovocality individuals social  totalitarian  one  the  state.  But i f  a r i s e s out of a genuine consensus between a l l speaking  harmony and  freely,  political  i t signifies equality.  group  solidarity,  This i d e a l  comes  c l o s e s t t o b e i n g r e a l i s e d when t h e members o f t h e s i n g t o g e t h e r : Thorn " f e l t  church  t h a t everyone i n ' t h e b u i l d i n g  s t o o d s e p a r a t e y e t u n i t e d , one  b o d y c r y i n g w i t h one  t h e g r e a t known w o r t h y o f w o r s h i p "  voice to  ( 5 0 ) . Wiebe here  offers  an i m a g e o f a g r e e m e n t w h i c h r e t a i n s i t s d i a l o g i c character.  3  Deacon B l o c k m a i n t a i n s W a p i t i not o n l y by  of  s h o u t i n g l o u d e s t , b u t a l s o by i n t e r v e n i n g  i n t h e i r d i a l o g u e w i t h God. mediator  h i s power o v e r t h e p e o p l e  B l o c k assumes t h e r o l e o f  b e t w e e n t h e S c r i p t u r e s and  the  sole  congregation:  He shows us how t o l i v e t h e B i b l e . . . . On e v e r y s u b j e c t he must p l a c e t h e o n l y w o r d i n e v e r y man's m o u t h a n d t h e y go home and r e - c h e w i t f o r t h e i r f a m i l y . (218) Block a l s o c o n t r o l s Wapiti's dialogue w i t h the w o r l d . He  is invariably  Mennonite General who  e l e c t e d as a d e l e g a t e t o t h e  C o n g r e s s , and  speak E n g l i s h f l u e n t l y ,  radio,  a s one  travel  o f t h e few  outside annual  senior  f a r a f i e l d o r own  he c l a i m s a s u p e r i o r a b i l i t y t o i n t e r p r e t t h e  men  a larger  w o r l d t o W a p i t i . As  a  result,  The men a g r e e d on a l l m a t t e r s , t h e i r o p i n i o n s on any o c c u r r e n c e o u t s i d e t h e i r own c o m m u n i t y b e i n g f o r m e d b y g e n e r a l s u r v e y s o f one M e n n o n i t e German w e e k l y a n d b y what Deacon B l o c k t o l d them. (29) . Deacon B l o c k w i s h e s t o keep i n p l a c e t h e b a r r i e r which separates the wider,  mainly  from the Cree-,  language  the German-speaking Mennonites  E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g Canadian s o c i e t y ,  French-,  t h e W a p i t i a r e a . By  and  Russian-speaking  i n h a b i t a n t s of  linguistic diversity  i n the  Mennonite community, t h i n k i n g t o p r o t e c t h i s p e o p l e "other's" language.  J o s e p h D u e c k f o r a d d r e s s i n g an young p e o p l e  and  s t a u n c h l y r e s i s t i n g the encroachment of  English, Block represses  hegemony o f t h e  from  Block thunders  ethnically  from  against  mixed audience  i n the E n g l i s h language i n s t e a d of i n the  German l a n g u a g e t r a d i t i o n a l l y r e s e r v e d f o r  religious  Dueck's c h o i c e of E n g l i s h s i g n i f i e s t h e v a l u e  p l a c e s on  evangelism.  he a t t e m p t s  addressing h i s audience  German-speaking community. F o r B l o c k , however, t h e  He p l a c e s more w e i g h t cultural  of  the  church  l i m i t s of t h e e t h n i c community.  on r e i t e r a t i n g  d i f f e r e n c e s from  he  in English,  t o reach o u t s i d e the narrow circumference  community c a n n o t exceed t h e  of High  matters.  By  the  the  Mennonites'  " o t h e r s " t h a n on  disseminating  J e s u s ' t e a c h i n g s t o f e l l o w human b e i n g s .  By another,  choosing  t o s p e a k one  a speaker  n a t i o n a l language i n s t e a d of  s i g n i f i e s h i s or her  membership--or  48  desired membership—in  a particular  s o c i a l g r o u p . To  B l o c k , t h e M e n n o n i t e s ' use o f E n g l i s h s i g n i f i e s blending i n t o Anglo-Canadian c u l t u r e . Dueck, W i e b e i n s e r t s an a l t e r n a t i v e  the s i g n i f i e r  system of meaning,  their  Yet through Joseph  " E n g l i s h language"  In Peace  Wiebe a r g u e s t h a t by s p r e a d i n g  the Gospel to others,  segregating oneself converts.  English  S h a l l D e s t r o y Many, one  f a r more e f f e c t i v e l y t h a n b y  linguistically  Spiritual belief,  the b a s i s of Mennonite  into  where i t p o i n t s t o t h e  speaker's e v a n g e l i s t i c v a l u e s .  imitates Jesus' Apostles  Deacon  from p r o s p e c t i v e  not a s p e c i a l language,  social  forms  i d e n t i t y . Wiebe e n v i s a g e s t h e  l a n g u a g e a s a f o r m o f common g r o u n d , a s h a r e d  linguistic  s p a c e w h e r e t h e d i v e r s e e t h n i c g r o u p s m i g h t meet  a n d e n t e r i n t o d i a l o g u e . One  of the h i s t o r i c a l  n o v e l d r a m a t i s e s — a n d , most i m p o r t a n t ,  stories  participates  the  i n — i s  the Mennonites' a p p r o p r i a t i o n of the E n g l i s h language f o r t h e i r own  e v a n g e l i c a l p u r p o s e s . Wiebe h i m s e l f spoke  German u n t i l  he e n t e r e d  s c h o o l a t t h e age o f s i x .  c h o i c e t o use E n g l i s h i n Peace  S h a l l D e s t r o y Many  r e p u d i a t e s Deacon's B l o c k ' s p o l i c y o f l i n g u i s t i c and s i g n i f i e s Wiebe's d e t e r m i n a t i o n a u d i e n c e as p o s s i b l e .  Block's  A  only His  implicitly apartheid,  t o r e a c h as w i d e  an  5  r e p r e s s i o n o f d i s s e n t i n g v o i c e s and h i s  r e s i s t a n c e t o the E n g l i s h language form part of h i s campaign  t o promote  m o n o l o g i c v i s i o n and language i n t h e  49  M e n n o n i t e community. As B l o c k ' s v i s i o n M e n n o n i t e s a s "a p e o p l e  of the Wapiti  a p a r t " c o l l a p s e s , so'does h i s myth  o f M e n n o n i t e s o l i d a r i t y . W h e t h e r t h e y s t a y a t home o r l e a v e to  fight  abroad,  experience their  members o f W a p i t i ' s M e n n o n i t e p o p u l a t i o n  t h e W o r l d War a s a c a u s e o f b i t t e r d i v i s i o n i n  own c o m m u n i t y . Some d i s c o v e r t h e i r m a i n l o y a l t i e s l i e  w i t h t h e n a t i o n o f Canada, w h i l e o t h e r s more e n t r e n c h e d is—or  should be—separate.  avoidance two  i n their belief  that t h e Mennonite  I r o n i c a l l y , Block's  become community  staunch  o f t h e w a r a b r o a d i n v o l v e s h i m i n a w a r a t home o n  fronts,  service,  l i k e Block  a g a i n s t t h e C a n a d i a n laws c o n c e r n i n g  a n d a g a i n s t t h e more l i b e r a l M e n n o n i t e  military factions  w h i c h no l o n g e r a u t o m a t i c a l l y o b j e c t t o p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n war.  Despite Block's e f f o r t s  opinion, Wapiti experiences evaluation of the c r i t e r i a Concealed  t o repress d i v e r s i t y of a group i d e n t i t y  of their  intra-group conflicts  social  crisis, identity.  emerge i n t o  culminating i n the v i o l e n c e which erupts night of t h e c h i l d r e n ' s Christmas  view,  i n t h e barn  principle traditions  groups,  on t h e  play.  As w e l l a s r e p r e s s i n g t h e M e n n o n i t e s ' d i a l o g u e other s o c i a l  ar e -  B l o c k a l s o upholds  with  t h e monologic  o n t h e d i a c h r o n i c p l a n e . By r i g i d l y  upholding the  of the fathers, Block disallows the p o s s i b i l i t y  t h a t v o i c e s i n t h e p r e s e n t m i g h t have a r i g h t the t r a d i t i o n a l moral code. B l o c k e l e v a t e s  t o re-evaluate  cultural  ^ 7  50 t r a d i t i o n s t o the s t a t u s of denies  the c u l t u r a l  h i s own  absolute moral laws.  relativity  and  historical  He  bluntly  contingency  of  moral absolutes:  The g r e a t m a t t e r s o f m o r a l and s p i r i t u a l d i s c i p l i n e h a v e b e e n l a i d down o n c e a n d f o r a l l i n t h e B i b l e a n d o u r f a t h e r s h a v e t o l d us how we s h o u l d a c t a c c o r d i n g t o them. T h e y c a n n o t c h a n g e . . . . M o s t do n o t c a r e i f t h e y b r e a k t h e t r a d i t i o n b e c a u s e t o them i t i s n o t an a b s o l u t e s t a n d a r d o f r i g h t and w r o n g . I n Rome, t h e y s h e e p i s h l y f o l l o w t h e Romans. B u t o u r f a t h e r s f o u n d t h e c o r r e c t way o f a c t i n g . T h r o u g h t h e y e a r s , t h i s a c t i o n has d e v e l o p e d i n t o o u r c u l t u r e . I f we do n o t f o l l o w t h e m i n t h e i r way, t h e n we s t a n d i n g r a v e d a n g e r o f l o s i n g o u r e t e r n a l s a l v a t i o n . T h a t i s why we a r e so r i g i d a b o u t c e r t a i n m a t t e r s i n t h e c h u r c h . The R u s s i a n s a r o u n d o u r v i l l a g e s i n R u s s i a had t r a d i t i o n a l ways o f a c t i n g t o o , b u t when t h e y came t o C a n a d a a n d o n c e knew a b o u t a c t i n g d i f f e r e n t l y , t h e y l e t t h e o l d way s l i d e b e c a u s e t h e new way s u i t e d them b e t t e r h e r e . B u t we h o l d t h a t our a c t i o n s are e t e r n a l l y i m p o r t a n t ; our f a t h e r s f o u n d t h e r i g h t m o r a l and s p i r i t u a l a c t i o n . (202-3) Wiebe o f f e r s g l i m p s e s  of t h i s m y t h i c a l world of  f a t h e r s " t o show t h e s p u r i o u s n a t u r e Block invokes.  6  Furthermore.,  found  t h e i r code of b e h a v i o u r  a m o r a l l y c o r r e c t mode o f was  r i g h t and  i n other h i s t o r i c a l  a c t i o n s m i g h t n o t be  The  standard  "the f a t h e r s " i n n i n e t e e n t h  p a r t i c u l a r c o n t e x t . Under d i f f e r e n t circumstances,  of the moral  J o s e p h Dueck g i v e s v o i c e t o  the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t even i f the c e n t u r y R u s s i a had  "the  r i g h t at  S e c o n d W o r l d War  living,  good o n l y i n t h a t socio-political  contexts, the  same  all.  poses a seemingly  unprecedented  m o r a l dilemma f o r t h e M e n n o n i t e community. S t r i c t M e n n o n i t e s t r a d i t i o n a l l y a v o i d p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n war  pacifists, at a l l  costs.  In t h e past, i n t h e Russian Mennonite  villages,  farming  " r i g h t was r i g h t a n d w r o n g was w r o n g . A n y  s i t u a t i o n c o u l d b e . q u i c k l y p l a c e d i n t o one o r t h e o t h e r category"  ( 2 1 ) . B u t i n Canada i n 1944, " t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s  a r e more i n v o l v e d " ( 4 7 ) , b o t h sense. age  7  i n a l e g a l and a moral  Canadian law r e q u i r e s each a d u l t male o f m i l i t a r y  i n W a p i t i t o make a p e r s o n a l m o r a l c h o i c e w h e t h e r t o  t a k e up arms a g a i n s t C a n a d a ' s e n e m i e s , p r j o i n t h e R e s t r i c t e d M e d i c a l Corps,  o r a v o i d any form o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n  by p r o c l a i m i n g t h e i r c o n s c i e n t i o u s o b j e c t i o n . D e a c o n and  h i s son, Pete,  Block  i n v o k e t h e ways o f t h e f a t h e r s , b u t a b u s e  the Mennonite i d e a l o f p a c i f i s m , by u s i n g i t as a  convenient  e x c u s e t o s t a y s a f e l y a t home o n t h e f a r m  (as i f  incidentally) the considerable financial  t o reap  rewards o f  growing  f o o d u n d e r f a v o u r a b l e w a r t i m e m a r k e t c o n d i t i o n s . The B l o c k s r e f u s e t o concede t o t h e e f f e c t o f c o n t e x t on t h e meaning o f a given action; historicity  t h a t i s , they  or the dialogicity  r e f u s e t o concede t o t h e of signs. Their  adherence t o t h e Mennonites' t r a d i t i o n a l denies  the p o s s i b i l i t y  or p h y s i c a l ,  signifies  mechanical  response  t o war  that' a g i v e n a c t i o n , whether v e r b a l different things i n different  circumstances.  D e a c o n B l o c k ' s manner o f s p e a k i n g adherence t o t h e monologic p r i n c i p l e .  confirms h i s I n p r i v a t e d i a l o g u e as  w e l l a s o n p u b l i c o c c a s i o n s , B l o c k makes l o n g , f o r m a l ,  52 didactic  speeches, i n w h i c h a r c h a i c d i c t i o n and sonorous  rhythms invoke past.  t h e d i g n i t y and i r r e f u t a b l e a u t h o r i t y o f t h e  In dialogue,  Block  i n t e r r u p t s and speaks over h i s  interlocutors, monopolizing dialogue  t h e f l o o r t o s u c h an e x t e n t  becomes m o n o l o g u e . B l o c k ' s  aptly describes  h i s speech: uniform  name, f o r t h e most p a r t , i n style,  and w i t h  t e x t u r e f r e e o f t h e d i s j u n c t i o n s w h i c h commonly hesitation, deceit or uncertainty, Block's weighty, monolithic  that  a  betray  utterances  have a  quality.  However, n e a r t h e end o f t h e n o v e l , Wiebe opens a gap between B l o c k ' s  i n n e r and o u t e r  same t i m e t h a t B l o c k himself. Block's  represses  s p e e c h , a n d shows a t t h e the voice of the "other" i n  monologue b e g i n s  s p e a k s t o Thorn o f h i s own p a s t  t o b r e a k a p a r t when he  i n C h a p t e r 15. D a s h e s  i n t e r r u p t t h e smooth f l o w o f h i s s y n t a x , conceals  the " t e r r i b l e thing"  and a l o n g  (203) t h a t happened l o n g i n  h i s p a s t . When W i e b e i n c o r p o r a t e s D e a c o n B l o c k ' s speech i n t o the t e x t , doubts, accusations, Block's  i t becomes evasions  silence  f i s s u r e d by  inner  questions,  and c o n f e s s i o n s .  The s t y l e o f  i n n e r m o n o l o g u e , w h i c h may more a c c u r a t e l y be  d e s c r i b e d as a d i a l o g u e with the sure,  w i t h himself, c o n t r a s t s markedly  serene equanimity  of h i s monologic  outer  speech: O n l y when he [ B l o c k ] was t h r o u g h t h e b u r s t o f h i s e m o t i o n s d i d h i s f a l s i t y s t r i k e home. Had he p r o t e c t e d  53  E l i z a b e t h ? — f r o m a bad m a r r i a g e b u t not a shameful d e a t h . . . . As he t h r e w a f o r k f u l o f hay on t h e l o a d , he was p r a y i n g , F a t h e r g i v e me g r a c e t o k e e p q u i e t — t h a t I do n o t l i e o u t w a r d l y more t h a n i s n e c e s s a r y — f o r t h e s a k e o f p e o p l e s u c h as t h i s . S i n k i n g l y , he knew he n e e d s a y n o t h i n g , e v e r , and y e t h i s w h o l e l i f e w o u l d be one long-drawn p e r j u r y . But h i s a c t i o n had been r i g h t ! E l i z a b e t h had w e a k e n e d , m i s e r a b l y ; w h a t g o o d c o u l d now come o f e x p o s i n g h e r s i n ? (204) Wiebe s i g n i f i e s his outer  the  c o l l a p s e of Block's  a u t h o r i t y by  speech d i s i n t e g r a t e i n t o i n c o h e r e n t  letting  fragments:  B l o c k s t a r e d l i f e l e s s , h i s mouth f o r m i n g , i n a n e l y , t h e w o r d s , " E l i z a b e t h — L o u i s — w h a t do y o u k n o w — " .... He s a i d h o a r s e l y , "God f o r g i v e h e r — a n d y o u — " And me, he a d d e d , i n t h e c l a m o u r i n g s i l e n c e o f h i s h e a r t . (208) I n a number o f r e s p e c t s , W i e b e ' s h a n d l i n g o f i n Peace S h a l l Destroy own As his  Many c r e a t e s a d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n h i s  n a r r a t i v e v o i c e and Wiebe t e l l s  language  t h e m o n o l o g i c v o i c e o f Deacon  of the o u t s i d e world  language l o s e s i t s monologic  breaking  into  Block.  Wapiti,  quality:  The w h o l e y a r d b u r s t i n t o a c h a o s o f s q u e a l i n g p i g s , f l y i n g , squawking chickens, C a r l o b a r k i n g , Hal s c r e a m i n g "Bang! B a n g ! " and t h e c a t t l e s t a m p e d i n g , m i l k j e t t i n g from swinging udders, towards the s a f e t y of the barn to crash against i t s closed door i n a convulsion o f b o d i e s . . . . F r o m w h e r e Thorn s t o o d , one cow l o o k e d v e r y b a d . . . . H e r c a l f w o u l d be d e a d a f t e r t h a t . (22) The  d i s c o u r s e o f war  invades  of the p a s t o r a l : "burst," "jetting,"  "crash,"  the normally  "chaos,"  "convulsion,"  tranquil  "screaming," "bodies,"  and  s c a t t e r e d amongst " y a r d , "  "pigs," "chickens,"  "milk,"  "udders,"  "cow," and  syntax,  too,  simple,  unadorned opening p r i n c i p a l  "barn,"  reflects  "calf"  a c o l l i s i o n o f two  discourse  "safety," "dead"  are  "cattle,"  ( 2 2 ) . Wiebe's  styles. After a  c l a u s e , the  first  54 sentence fragments s y n t a c t i c a l l y , spaced present tableau  of  participles  into i t s diverse  images. Through Wiebe's m i x i n g the t e x t of the  the  of the  novel  s e c l u s i o n of  r a t h e r , an  the  the  linguistic  j u s t as t h e  says,  out"  " I t ' d be  the  and  opening  elements invade  f i g h t e r planes  the  violate  nice to j u s t stay i n  (28). Wapiti  i s behind a bush,  the  or  sparsely-populated  p h y s i c a l b a r r i e r s cannot s h i e l d W a p i t i  k n o w l e d g e o f t h e war.  t h e war  re-enacts  immense e x p a n s e o f b u s h and  d i s t a n c e . But  constituent  Wapiti.  Pete Block b u s h — n e v e r go  pastoral  of d i f f e r e n t s t y l e s  novel  process i t depicts. Diverse discourse  irregularly-  s h a t t e r the u n i f i e d  "the whole y a r d "  discourses,  as e i g h t  The  radio brings  from  the discourse  i n t o p r i v a t e homes, e f f e c t i v e l y a n n e x i n g W a p i t i  l a r g e r context  of world  of into  history:  I t seemed b e y o n d c o m p r e h e n s i o n t o s i t a t s u p p e r i n a l o g f a r m h o u s e i n C a n a d a and l i s t e n w h i l e men, a t t h a t v e r y moment, t o r e e a c h o t h e r f o r r e a s o n s none r e a l l y knew: t o l i s t e n w h i l e a l a n d i n g c r a f t e x p l o d e d , and t h e v o i c e of the announcer choked, " — o u t of the sky—parts o f b o d i e s f a l l i n g - - m a s s e s o f w a t e r . . . " ...A w h o l e w o r l d l i s t e n i n g t o men k i l l i n g t h e m s e l v e s s a v a g e l y . (42-3) Again, penetration in  Wiebe's t e x t r e - e n a c t s and  C h a p t e r 8,  intrusively  fragmentation  the  CBC  i n t o the  Wiebe's n o v e l , i n the  the processes  i t describes.  of  H e r e , and  radio broadcast i n s e r t s  itself  n a r r a t i v e . I t invades the t e x t same way  as t h e  breaks through the b a r r i e r s Block  radio  again  of  repeatedly  erects around  Wapiti.  55  Peace S h a l l uniform  Destroy  Many i s W i e b e ' s most  n o v e l , y e t i t s homogeneity i s not  m i g h t seem. E v e n a t t h i s  early  stage  Wiebe i n c o r p o r a t e s what B a k h t i n genres"  ( 1 9 8 1 , 33)  into  languages w h i c h speak i n t h e t e x t Many i m p l i c i t l y monovocality  c o m p l e t e as i t  The  career,  "extra-literary different  voices  of Peace S h a l l  s i g n i f y Wiebe's r e j e c t i o n  u r g e d by  as  in his writing  calls  his text.  stylistically  of  and  Destroy  the  Block.  Ill  As  Block's  name c o n n o t e s t h e m o n o l o g i c  J o s e p h Dueck's evokes t h e d i a l o g i c . community t o c o n t e n d w i t h t h e and  that they  no  longer  fact  By  principle,  urging the  that times  have changed,  have e x c l u s i v e c o n t r o l  over  meaning of t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l code of b e h a v i o u r , attention and  to dialogic  the d i a c h r o n i c  possibilities  Mennonite  on b o t h t h e  the  Dueck d r a w s synchronic  planes.  Dueck c a u s e s Thorn a n d  o t h e r young p e o p l e i n  the  community of W a p i t i t o u n d e r s t a n d t h a t even t h e most s i n c e r e conscientious objectors war  involuntarily.  exists,  The  as A n n a r a a r i e  f i n d themselves p a r t i c i p a t i n g o p t i o n of not p a r t i c i p a t i n g  no  in  longer  Lepp e x p l a i n s :  i t was f i n e t o s a y , "We c a n h a v e n o t h i n g t o do war" when...wars w e r e s k i r m i s h e s on t h e n e x t  the  with  56 q u a r t e r a n d t h e k i n g who l e d h i s t r o o p s t o a d a y ' s v i c t o r y won. Then i t was p o s s i b l e — [ n o t t o j o i n i n . B u t ] t h e w h o l e w o r l d i s now i n i t . We c a n ' t a v o i d i t . F a t h e r r a i s e s p i g s b e c a u s e t h e p r i c e i s h i g h : some men c h a r g e d up t h e Normandy b e a c h e s l a s t T u e s d a y w i t h o u r b a c o n i n t h e i r s t o m a c h s . (47) J o s e p h Dueck p u s h e s A n n a m a r i e ' s a r g u m e n t t o i t s m o r a l conclusion: G i v e n a war s i t u a t i o n , we M e n n o n i t e s c a n p r a c t i s e o u r b e l i e f i n Canada o n l y b e c a u s e o t h e r C a n a d i a n s a r e k i n d enough t o f i g h t f o r o u r r i g h t t o o u r b e l i e f . The g o d l e s s man t h e n d i e s f o r t h e b e l i e f o f t h e C h r i s t i a n ! (60) An u n p r e c e d e n t e d h i s t o r i c a l —makes ambivalent  situation—the  the m o r a l i t y of the  Second World  Mennonites'  traditional  refusal to f i g h t ,  w h i c h p r e v i o u s l y had  only right.  The  does not change, but i t s  action itself  been  m e a n i n g becomes s u b j e c t t o r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n e a c h  new  historical  he  c o n t e x t . As  should take the  f r o m t h e C a n a d i a n war might c a l l process course  Thorn v a c i l l a t e s o v e r w h e t h e r  measures n e c e s s a r y  to gain legal  exemption  e f f o r t , Wiebe e x p l o r e s what B a k h t i n  diachronic dialogicity,  o f r e i n t e r p r e t i n g any of  War  the ongoing  known e v e n t  or  social traditional  action.  D u e c k a l s o a r g u e s t h a t no c e n t u r y can  live  s o c i e t y i n the  twentieth  i t s h i s t o r y e n t i r e l y alone. Despite  i n s u l a t e d f r o m t h e o u t s i d e w o r l d by v a s t t r a c t s uninhabited bushland, but bound i n t o t h e C a n a d i a n n a t i o n and  W a p i t i ' s h i s t o r y i s not  being  of  autonomous,  l a r g e r context of the h i s t o r y of  the  t h e w o r l d . Under Joseph's i n f l u e n c e , t h e  57  Mennonites of W a p i t i contend not with  the  only with  shock of  b e h a v i o u r . The "other," if  not  The with  begin to understand that "the  socially  the  an  brings "other"  r i g h t to confer  l e g a l a u t h o r i t y of the  participation"  fits  a powerful, who  claims  m e a n i n g on  i n t o two as  also  invasive an  equal,  t h e i r actions. conflict  Bible, transforming  i n t o a n o n - v e r b a l pun.  meaning, each r e c o g n i z e d  but  8  s t a t e comes i n t o d i r e c t  moral a u t h o r i t y of the  of n o n - p a r t i c i p a t i o n  new,"- new  a l i e n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of t h e i r  S e c o n d W o r l d War  into their lives,  superior  shock of the  t h e y must  the  act  "Non-  c o m p l e t e l y s e p a r a t e systems s u p r e m e l y a u t h o r i t a t i v e by  of  the  s o c i e t y which propounds i t .  Dueck d r a w s a t t e n t i o n a l s o t o t h e linguistic  sign  plurality  of  systems which operate i n a l l s o c i e t i e s . His  l e t t e r t o Thorn h i g h l i g h t s t h e many l a n g u a g e s s p o k e n i n Wapiti: "Dear Thomas: "You a s k e d me why I w r o t e 'Thomas' t o y o u when I n e v e r s p o k e so f o r m a l l y . W e l l , t o t e l l y o u t h e t r u t h I r e a l l y d i d n o t know how t o w r i t e y o u r name, s i n c e i n W a p i t i i t ' s s p o k e n 'Tom' i n E n g l i s h and 'Thorn' i n Low German and 'Thomas' i n H i g h German. You c a n assume t h e r e f o r e t h a t I am w r i t i n g i n none o f t h e s e l a n g u a g e s b u t t h e c o r r e c t B i b l i c a l f o r m o f t h e name as g i v e n i n t h e K i n g James v e r s i o n : t h e name o f t h e man whose e y e s were open but c o u l d not see." (160) It i s v i t a l Wapiti's  to notice that  linguistic plurality,  languages equal s t a t u s , but t h e New  a l t h o u g h Dueck draws a t t e n t i o n he  does not  p r i v i l e g e s an  grant English  T e s t a m e n t as m o s t a u t h o r i t a t i v e and  to  the version  paradigmatic.  of  58 A s i m i l a r p a t t e r n emerges w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e f o r m a l p r o p e r t i e s o f Dueck's u t t e r a n c e s . H i s c o n t r o v e r s i a l t a l k t o the youth meeting takes  a dialogic,  question-and-answer  form: " I o u t l i n e d my i d e a s i n t h e f o r m o f q u e s t i o n s . . F i r s t : what i s t h e b a s i c f o r c e o f t h e C h r i s t i a n ' s l i f e ? U s i n g S c r i p t u r e , T t r i e d t o g i v e t h e answer as L o v e . . . " (60) J o s e p h e n g a g e s i n d i a l o g u e w i t h t h e S c r i p t u r e s . The Christian formulates  t h e q u e s t i o n s ; t h e B i b l e a n s w e r s them.  However, D u e c k ' s d i a l o g u e w i t h h i s a u d i e n c e — a n d dialogue with h i s readers--remains s t r i c t l y "someone who who  pedagogical:  knows, a n d p o s s e s s e s t h e t r u t h i n s t r u c t s  i s i g n o r a n t o f i t and i n e r r o r ; . . . i t  of a teacher  Wiebe's  and a p u p i l "  someone  i s the interaction  ( B a k h t i n 1984, 8 1 ) .  A l t h o u g h J o s e p h Dueck f u n c t i o n s a s W i e b e ' s m a i n proponent  o f t h e d i a l o g i c p r i n c i p l e , Wiebe n e v e r  r e a l i z e s t h a t p r i n c i p l e ' i n Dueck's u t t e r a n c e s . l e t t e r t o Thorn i n C h a p t e r 12 p r o v i d e s of t h i s in  c o n t r a d i c t i o n . The l e t t e r  a dialogic context:  entirely  Dueck's  t h e c l e a r e s t example  o p e n s by s i t u a t i n g  "you a s k e d me why  I wrote..."  itself (160).  Dueck o b v i o u s l y a n s w e r s a q u e s t i o n p o s e d e a r l i e r b y Thorn. The l e t t e r  identifies  itself  an o n g o i n g i n t e r l o c u t o r y  as a r e j o i n d e r , an u t t e r a n c e i n  exchange. Dueck's l e t t e r  also  performs the v i t a l  work o f d i a l o g i z i n g t h e word "peace,"  such d i a l o g i z a t i o n  has t h e u l t i m a t e a i m n o t o f a b o l i s h i n g  t h e s e m a n t i c / l i n g u i s t i c h i e r a r c h y , b u t o f r e p l a c i n g one  but  59 p r i v i l e g e d meaning/language w i t h another. i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f " p e a c e " i n Canada to p h y s i c a l warfare  The d o m i n a n t  i n 1944 o p p o s e s  between n a t i o n s . Wiebe d i a l o g i z e s  "peace" by s e t t i n g a g a i n s t t h i s dominant s e c u l a r a number o f common C h r i s t i a n a l t e r n a t i v e s : "Blessed  a r e t h e peacemakers"  one's peace" of Old  (162);  (162);  (162);  definition,  Matthew's  the expression  t h e peace o f s o c i a l  s a f e t y and b l e s s e d n e s s " Testament  "peace"  harmony;  "to hold  the "state  p r o m i s e d b y God t o I s r a e l i n t h e  and t h e " h o r r i b l e joke" o f t h e angels'  " P e a c e o n e a r t h " w h i c h was f o l l o w e d b y t h e s l a u g h t e r o f t h e babes o f Bethlehem (162). o b j e c t p u l l e d between different  contexts,  The w o r d  "peace" r e s e m b l e s an  several gravitational  i n different  f i e l d s . In  speech genres o r  d i s c o u r s e s , t h e m e a n i n g o f t h e w o r d c h a n g e s . However, does n o t l e t "peace" f l o a t between d i s c o u r s e s semantic n o n - f i x i t y .  He c l o s e s t h e d i a l o g u e  Wiebe  i n a state of  between t h e  d i f f e r i n g v o i c i n g s o f "peace" by i n s e r t i n g t h e word i n t o t h e context  of Jesus's  teachings:  "According t o C h r i s t ' s t e a c h i n g , peace i s not a c i r c u m s t a n c e b u t a s t a t e o f b e i n g . The C h r i s t - f o l l o w e r h a s t h e p e a c e o f r e c o n c i l i a t i o n w i t h God a n d t h e r e f o r e t h e p e a c e o f c o n s c i o u s f e l l o w s h i p w i t h God t h r o u g h God i n C h r i s t . Peace i s n o t a t h i n g s t a t i c and unchanging: r a t h e r a m i g h t y i n n e r r i v e r ( r e a d I s a i a h 48:18) t h a t c a r r i e s a l l o u t w a r d c i r c u m s t a n c e s b e f o r e i t as i f they w e r e d r i f t w o o d . T h i s was t h e p e a c e C h r i s t b r o u g h t ; he n e v e r c o m p r o m i s e d w i t h a sham s l o t h f u l p e a c e , a s we w a n t t o . He s a i d , 'Do n o t t h i n k t h a t I h a v e come t o b r i n g p e a c e o n e a r t h ; I h a v e n o t come t o b r i n g p e a c e , b u t a s w o r d . ' He b r o u g h t no o u t w a r d q u i e t a n d c o m f o r t s u c h a s we a r e e v e r p r a y i n g f o r . R a t h e r , he b r o u g h t i n w a r d p e a c e t h a t i s i n no way a f f e c t e d b y o u t w a r d w a r . . . . But I must s t o p p r e a c h i n g ! " (162-3)  60  As t h e K i n g James v e r s i o n o f t h e B i b l e p r o v i d e s " t h e c o r r e c t Biblical  f o r m " o f Thorn's name, t h e t e a c h i n g s o f J e s u s ,  supported by I s i a h , p r o v i d e s t h e p r i v i l e g e d d e f i n i t i o n o f "peace."  Only w i t h t h e a i do f t h i s d e f i n i t i o n can the  paradox i m p l i c i t i n t h e t i t l e  The  o f t h e n o v e l be r e s o l v e d .  s t y l e o f Dueck's l e t t e r ,  a n d many o f h i s o t h e r  extended u t t e r a n c e s , has a m o n o l o g i c , s e r m o n - l i k e q u a l i t y . Despite p r o c l a i m i n g themselves rejoinders taking  t h e form o f a s e r i e s  i n dialogue, or  o f q u e s t i o n s and answers,  Dueck's u t t e r a n c e b e a r a l l t h e marks o f a u t h o r i t a t i v e discourse, a v a r i e t y of monologic  language which B a k h t i n  d e s c r i b e s as f o l l o w s : A u t h o r i t a t i v e d i s c o u r s e . . . remains s h a r p l y demarcated, c o m p a c t a n d i n e r t : i t demands, s o t o s p e a k , n o t o n l y q u o t a t i o n m a r k s b u t a d e m a r c a t i o n e v e n more m a g i s t e r i a l . . . . I t ssemantic s t r u c t u r e i s s t a t i c and dead, f o r i t i s f u l l y c o m p l e t e , i t has b u t a s i n g l e meaning, t h e l e t t e r i s f u l l y s u f f i c i e n t t o t h e sense a n d c a l c i f i e s i t . ( 1 9 8 1 , 343) Wiebe p r e s e n t s h i s c e n t r a l message i n t h e f o r m o f Dueck's letter, the  thus s e t t i n g i t o f f from t h e " o r d i n a r y language" o f  rest of the t e x t . This special demarcation helps impart  a monologic, a u t h o r i t a t i v e l e t t e r ceases t o f u n c t i o n  q u a l i t y t o D u e c k ' s d i s c o u r s e . The as a r e j o i n d e r  i n a dialogue  b e t w e e n t w o c h a r a c t e r s , a n d t a k e s on t h e q u a l i t i e s o f e x p l i c i t moral i n s t r u c t i o n addressed d i r e c t l y t o the reader. In B a k h t i n ' s terms, Dueck's l e t t e r unmediated  authorial  discourse.  9  sounds  as d i r e c t ,  Perhaps Dueck's "But I  must s t o p p r e a c h i n g ! " that the  (163)  h i s p r o s e l y t i z i n g has  b e t r a y s W i e b e ' s own become t o o  awareness  overt at t h i s point  in  text.  IV  The  monologic aspects of  Wiebe's i n a b i l i t y  to  J o s e p h Dueck's speech r e f l e c t  embrace a l l the  ramifications  of  the  d i a l o g i c p r i n c i p l e , d e s p i t e h i s m i s g i v i n g s about monologic v i s i o n and  l a n g u a g e . As  o f God's r e v e l a t i o n " splintered  dogmas"  ( 2 3 7 ) , he  (235)  misguided i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  Thorn f e a r s fathers  a d v o c a t e d by  l i k e Hank a n d of  that  Wiebe's hero s e a r c h e s f o r  by  polyphonic  l e s s repugnant than  of  tradition"  deviating  "void  "one  of  man's  will  ways o f  the  inevitably  fall,  H e r b U n g e r , i n t o m o r a l n i h i l i s m . Hank b o a s t s  Interestingly,  strictly  for fun;  Herb i s  o p e n l y contemptuous of the  Unger's speech i s i t s e l u s i v e  pertinent  q u a l i t y of  a m b i g u i t y and  Herb  semantic  neutral  Herb r e f u s e s t o  s i n g l e meaning,  commit h i m s e l f t o any  t h u s e v a d e s Thorn's e f f o r t s t o d e f e a t him  lazy,  his  o p e n n e s s . T h r o u g h d o u b l e - e n t e n d r e and  spoke i n t h a t  path  (237).  from the  D e a c o n B l o c k , he  u n c o - o p e r a t i v e and  neighbours.  the  no  s h o o t i n g down " N a z i p i g s "  bitter,  finds  "the  intonation, .  i n debate:  p e c u l i a r l y expressionless voice that  and "He  he  could  62 e m p l o y o f s u c h o c c a s i o n s ; t o e a c h o f t h e m h i s w o r d s meant something q u i t e the  d i f f e r e n t " (99).I f Block's voice  epitomises  o p p r e s s i v e e f f e c t s o f monologic v i s i o n , Herb Unger's  utterances point  t o t h e danger which l i e s  at the opposite  extreme.  The  p l u r a l i t y o f a c c e n t s l a t e n t i n Herb's  discourse  unaccented  h i n t s a t t h e consequences of a p p l y i n g  the dialogic  p r i n c i p l e t o t h e B i b l e . What h a p p e n s t o t h e m e a n i n g a n d authority  of the Scriptures  accentuality, all  verbal  i f one c o n c e d e s t o t h e m u l t i -  t h e h i s t o r i c i t y and c u l t u r a l c o n t i n g e n c y o f  signs?  I n t h e o r y , God's Word c o u l d  a cacophony o f c o n f l i c t i n g r e l a t i v e t r u t h s P a s t o r L e p p c o n v i n c e s Thorn t h a t rightly applied"  dissolve  and moral  (87) o f f e r t h e s o l u t i o n t o a l l moral "teachings"  down t h r o u g h  h i s t o r y . B u t i f t h e B i b l e c a n be r e - i n t e r p r e t e d  i n each  context o f re-reading--by r e i n f l e c t i n g i t s words,  historical not  i n t o new h i e r a r c h i e s , and v e r b a l  he a p p l i e s  principle,  laws.  "the teachings o f C h r i s t ,  problems; t h e B i b l e c a r r i e s these  i t s parts  into  and a n n e x i n g i t i n t o  taken t o i t s f u r t h e s t  " r i g h t l y " ? The d i a l o g i c extreme, contends that a l l  a u t h o r i t a t i v e and s e m a n t i c a l l y  Wiebe g l i m p s e s , b u t does n o t r i g o r o u s l y these questions i n  new  c o n t e x t — h o w may Thorn know w h e t h e r o r  Jesus' teachings  readings are equally  ranking  "right."  investigate  P e a c e S h a l l D e s t r o y Many. He  retreats  from a v i s i o n of a p o l y p h o n i c B i b l e v i a the n o t i o n of the "literal"  reading.  In Peace  S h a l l D e s t r o y Many, a  r e a d i n g of the B i b l e r e l e a s e s whichever meaning most " n a t u r a l "  i n t h a t p a r t i c u l a r c u l t u r a l and  c o n t e x t . F o r example,  Thorn a r g u e s t h a t  'Love y o u r n e i g h b o u r a s y o u r s e l f . ' c o n c e r n e d a b o u t y o u r own too"  appears  historical  "the B i b l e  teaches  T h a t means, i f y o u ' r e  s a l v a t i o n , be c o n c e r n e d a b o u t h i s  ( 1 9 5 ) . Thorn i n t e r p r e t s  metonymical  literal  "neighbour" not i n t h e  s e n s e o f " h u m a n i t y - i n - g e n e r a l . " He r e f u s e s t o be  f o r c e d , as was  h i s o l d e r b r o t h e r , D a v i d , t o go t o f a r away  p l a c e s s u c h as I n d i a i n o r d e r t o l o v e h i s n e i g h b o u r . I n Thorn's m i n d " n e i g h b o u r " d e n o t e s t h e p a r t i c u l a r n e i g h b o u r s f i n d s a b o u t h i m i n h i s own  historic  and c u l t u r a l l y  he  specific  c o n t e x t : namely t h e Moosomins and t h e M a c k e n z i e s and  the  Labrets.  By i n t r o d u c i n g t h e B i b l e t o n e i g h b o u r s whose and c u l t u r e d i f f e r B i b l e i n a new  radically  f r o m h i s own,  context of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .  Thorn p l a c e s t h e Thorn c o n d u c t s  B i b l e c l a s s e s on h i s n e i g h b o u r s ' "home g r o u n d , " in  rather  the church or school b u i l d i n g s which, i n t h e i r  signify  "foreign t e r r i t o r y . "  c h i l d r e n annex t h e s t o r i e s historically-determined  I n t h e i r own  i n t o t h e i r own  systems  history  the than  minds,  homes, t h e M e t i s culturally-  and  of meaning, r e l e a s i n g i n the  p r o c e s s , h i t h e r t o s u p p r e s s e d meanings of t h e  text:  As he [Thorn] was d r a w i n g n e a r t h e c l o s e , n e a r l y d i s c o u r a g e d , some s t r a n g e b i b l i c a l d e t a i l c a u g h t  at  64  s m a l l Judy M a c k e n z i e and she, tongue l o o s e n e d a p p a r e n t l y b y t h e home s u r r o u n d i n g s , f o r she had never b e f o r e s p o k e n e v e n when q u e s t i o n e d d i r e c t l y , a s k e d w i t h w i d e e y e s , "Mr W i e n s , y o u e v e r e a t g r a s s h o p p e r s ? " " W h y — n o — I — " nonplussed P r o u d l y , " I d i d o n e , l a s t summer. P h o o e y ! T h e y ' r e t e r r i b l e s a l t y ! " . . . . B u t s t r a n g e l y , when t h e l a u g h t e r e a s e d a n d he e x p l a i n e d t h a t P a l e s t i n i a n l o c u s t s w e r e q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from Canadian grasshoppers and t h a t t h e d i e t o f " l o c u s t s a n d honey" meant t h a t J o h n , l i v i n g i n the w i l d e r n e s s , a t e o n l y such food as t h e r e g i o n n a t u r a l l y provided, Jackie Labret asked q u i e t l y , " D i d he l i v e l i k e u s when we go h u n t i n ' i n summer — b e r r i e s a n d f i s h a n d s t u f f ? " The u n e x p e c t e d p a r a l l e l amazed Thorn. "Why y e s , J a c k i e . John t h e B a p t i s t l i v e d l i k e t h a t , simply, e a t i n g w h a t God p r o v i d e d . He was t o o b u s y d o i n g h i s j o b t o be c o n c e r n e d w i t h n i c e l y c o o k e d m e a l s As he s p o k e , Thorn s e n s e d a new e l e m e n t o f c o n t a c t w i t h t h e c h i l d r e n w h i c h he h a d n o t b r u s h e d b e f o r e . He c o u l d e x p l a i n J o h n ' s g r e a t u r g e n c y a s he w a i t e d a n d t a u g h t i n t h e J o r d a n i a n w i l d e r n e s s , p r e p a r i n g a way f o r t h e Redeemer, a n d t h e c h i l d r e n f o u n d a k e r n e l o f t r u t h i n h i s s t o r y . Thorn c o u l d b u t m a r v e l a t t h e a t t e n t i o n on the f a c e s b e f o r e him, and t h e s t r a n g e p a t h by which i t had a r r i v e d t h e r e . ( 1 8 9 ) The  Metis  c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s have v a l u e  because they p r o v i d e  Thorn w i t h  monologic " r i g h t reading" article  primarily  an o p e n i n g t o e x p l a i n t h e  o f t h e S c r i p t u r e s . The  i n "a k e r n e l o f t r u t h " i m p l i c i t l y  indefinite  concedes t h a t a  s t o r y m i g h t h o l d more t h a n one v a l i d m e a n i n g . A n d y e t , b y invoking the notion the  of "arrival,"  Wiebe i m p l i e s t h a t  c h i l d r e n f i n d t h e same k e r n e l o f t r u t h a s Thorn  until  already  p o s s e s s e s , t h e i r C h r i s t i a n i t y must r e m a i n n o t q u i t e authentic. Block's  A l t h o u g h Wiebe cannot t o l e r a t e t h e monologism o f  B i b l e , which  remains s e m a n t i c a l l y  dungeon o f a s i n g l e c u l t u r a l and h i s t o r i c a l can  locked  context,  he f u l l y a l l o w t h e B i b l e ' s h e t e r o g l o s s i a .  D e s t r o y Many  r  only pedagogical dialogue  i nthe neither  I n Peace S h a l l  takes place  between  65  different  s o c i a l g r o u p s on t h e s y n c h r o n i c  Nor,  as t h e n o v e l ' s d u a l t i m e  plane.  scheme d e m o n s t r a t e s ,  W i e b e g i v e f r e e r e i n t o t h e d i a l o g i c p r i n c i p l e on d i a c h r o n i c p l a n e . The Destroy  other c i r c u l a r or c y c l i c a l . in historical day,  m o d e l s o f t i m e : one The  t i m e , b e t w e e n s p r i n g and  o f a war feeds  fought  on  happen n e x t ;  understand  a new  the meaning of events  1944.  The such  no  dialogic  Each  as t h e  main  Many p r e s e n t s . context  precedent  principle  Each  i n which  to  and w o r d s . H o w e v e r , Wiebe  s t r u c t u r e s h i s n a r r a t i v e i n a manner w h i c h c r e a t e s c o u n t e r p o i n t between t e m p o r a l  place  foresee  history offers  on a l i n e a r m o d e l o f h i s t o r y  n a r r a t i v e of Peace S h a l l D e s t r o y  the  l a t e s t d i s a s t e r s and  so huge a s c a l e .  u n p r e c e d e n t e d moment o f f e r s  linear,  Christmas,  on t h e E u r o p e a n f r o n t . No-one c a n  p r e c i s e l y what w i l l  Shall  main n a r r a t i v e t a k e s  t h e r a d i o b r i n g s news o f t h e  victories  the  n a r r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e of Peace  Many e s t a b l i s h e s two  does  linearity  and  a  circularity.  The  c i r c u l a r model does not deny t h e d i a l o g i c p r i n c i p l e but i t does r e p r e s s h e t e r o g l o s s i a ( o r r e a l i z e d d i a l o g i c i t y )  by  d i m i n i s h i n g the importance  of the unprecedented elements i n  context of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .  The  correspond  four Preludes,  t o the f o u r seasons of the year, t o g e t h e r  the annually r e c u r r i n g C h r i s t i a n and  which  Easter, envisage  festivals  such  as  h i s t o r y as a s e r i e s o f c i r c l e s ,  s e r i e s of r e p e t i t i o n s of the  same p a r a d i g m a t i c  with Christmas a  events.  This  66  c i r c u l a r model, by emphasising t h e r e s p e c t s repeats  itself,  creates  d i f f e r e n t generations conclusions, and  the theoretical p o s s i b i l i t y  will  and t h a t  character"  of truth, value,  morality  Wiebe acknowledges t h e p o s s i b i l i t y  many v o i c e s may i n d e p e n d e n t l y truth,  that  a r r i v e a t t h e same f u n d a m e n t a l  t h e same p e r c e p t i o n s  meaning. A g a i n ,  i n which h i s t o r y  that  a r r i v e a t t h e same u n i t a r y  " a g r e e m e n t [may] r e t a i n i t s d i a l o g i c  (Bakhtin  1 9 8 4 , 9 5 ) . By c o n s t r u c t i n g t i m e a s b o t h  l i n e a r and c i r c u l a r ,  Wiebe a t t e m p t s t o r e c o n c i l e t h e  d i a l o g i c p r i n c i p l e w i t h t h e e t e r n a l t r u t h s and v a l u e s o f Christianity.  And  1 0  a t t h e end o f t h e n o v e l , Wiebe r e a f f i r m s t h e  existence  of a timeless Truth-with-a-capital-T.  As t h e  f i g h t e r p l a n e s b r e a c h e d Thorn's n a r r o w s o c i a l h o r i z o n novel's  opening scene, t h e concept o f e t e r n a l , e x t r a -  historical  Truth  b r e a k s i n t o Thorn's f i e l d  of v i s i o n ,  form o f t h e s t a r which, i n t h e c h i l d r e n ' s Christmas appears i n t h e n i g h t limited vision twice,  s k y . Wiebe b r e a k s t h e c a p s u l e i n other  boundaries of the Wapiti and  i nthe  i n the play,  of  w o r d s : o n c e when t h e  c h u r c h community a r e b r o k e n open,  a s e c o n d t i m e when t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e m u l t i - v o i c e d  secular h i s t o r i c a l world  suddenly v a n i s h — " t h e  opening"  (231)—to  context,  i n which u l t i m a t e , monologic Truth,  M e a n i n g come i n t o  reveal a transcendent,  being.  c u r t a i n was  extra-historical V a l u e and  A s i m i l a r r e c o i l from the d i a l o g i c w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e Word. D r i v i n g from the v i o l e n t  principle  home f r o m t h e p l a y ,  t r a v e s t y of the p l a y which  a f t e r w a r d s i n t h e b a r n , Thorn y e a r n s go b a c k t o t h e d i s t a n t  p a s t , and  occurs and  erupts  t o undo l i n e a r  recover the l o s t  history, original  m e a n i n g o f t h e Word: Christ's teachings stood c l e a r i n the Scriptures; could he b u t s c r a p e t h e m b a r e o f a l l t h e i r a c q u i r e d m e a n i n g s and see t h e m a s t h o s e f i r s t d i s c i p l e s has d o n e , t h e i r feet i n the dust of G a l i l e e . (237) Wiebe e n v i s a g e s t h e o n g o i n g d i a l o g i c a l l y as a n e t e r n a l original authoritative  process of renewing approach  or  to this postulated  Word. T h i s p r o v i s o t h a t  p r o c e s s e s of d i s c o v e r y must a l w a y s  t h e Word  dialogic  have a p o s t u l a t e d a n c h o r  g o a l s i g n i f i e s Wiebe's r e l u c t a n c e t o r e l i n q u i s h  monologic  vision.  V  A l t h o u g h Wiebe b e g i n s t o e x p l o r e t h e d i a l o g i c a t a t h e m a t i c l e v e l i n P e a c e S h a l l D e s t r o y Many, he little  interest  activating own  principle shows  a t t h i s s t a g e i n d e v i s i n g e f f e c t i v e means o f  i t i n his text.  W i e b e d o e s n o t as y e t h e e d h i s  a d v i c e a b o u t s p e a k i n g i n d i r e c t l y : on many o c c a s i o n s i n  P e a c e S h a l l D e s t r o y Many, t h e h i s t o r i c a l l y c o n c r e t e offers  too t h i n a camouflage  socio-political  rhetoric.  f o r Wiebe's monologic  Almost  story moral  and  a l l the dialogue manifest  68 i n the novel takes dialogue, "  11  t h e form o f " c o m p o s i t i o n a l l y marked  and Wiebe a l l o w s  w h e r e he s t a n d s  little  o r no d o u b t a s t o  i n r e l a t i o n t o each o f t h e v o i c e s  speak i n t h e t e x t .  Peace S h a l l Destroy  Many c o n t a i n s no  "'great d i a l o g u e ' i n which c h a r a c t e r s and author w i t h egual  rights"  which  participate  ( B a k h t i n 1984, 7 1 ) . W i e b e e n d e a v o u r s t o  d o m i n a t e t h e v o i c e s w h i c h s p e a k i n t h e t e x t no l e s s Deacon B l o c k to  endeavours t o r u l e W a p i t i . And as B l o c k  mediate between W a p i t i and t h e o u t s i d e w o r l d ,  attempts  t o mediate between t h e c h a r a c t e r s '  utterances  and h i s r e a d e r s . Any d i a l o g i c  e n t e r Peace S h a l l D e s t r o y  than tries  Wiebe  primary  elements which  Many do so n o t t h r o u g h  Wiebe's  d e l i b e r a t e a u t h o r i z a t i o n , b u t as a r e s u l t o f t h e m o r a l , i d e o l o g i c a l and l i n g u i s t i c  p r e d i s p o s i t i o n s of h i s readers.  69 NOTES TO  CHAPTER 2: PEACE SHALL DESTROY MANY  1. W i e b e u s e s t h i s e x p r e s s i o n when d e s c r i b i n g h i s own e x p e r i e n c e o f s u d d e n l y e x p a n d e d h o r i z o n s i n Neuman 232. 2. U n l e s s o t h e r w i s e i n d i c a t e d , a l l p a g e numbers a p p e a r i n g p a r e n t h e t i c a l l y i n Chapter 2 r e f e r t o Peace S h a l l D e s t r o y Many ( T o r o n t o : M c C l e l l a n d a n d S t e w a r t , 1 9 6 2 ) . 3. B a k h t i n d i s c u s s e s D o s t o e v s k y ' s p r e s e n t a t i o n o f which r e t a i n s i t s d i a l o g i c c h a r a c t e r " i n Problems D o s t o e v s k y ' s P o e t i c s , 95.  "agreement of  4. J . M. K e r t z e r , " B i o c r i t i c a l E s s a y , " The Rudy W i e b e P a p e r s F i r s t A c c e s s i o n : An I n v e n t o r y o f t h e A r c h i v e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l g a r y L i b r a r i e s , e d . J e a n F. T e n e r a n d A p p o l l o n i a S t e e l e (Calgary: U n i v e r s i t y of Calgary Press, 1986) i x . 5. C f . W. J . K e i t h ' s d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e q u e s t i o n o f W i e b e ' s s e n s e o f a u d i e n c e i n "Where I s t h e V o i c e G o i n g To? W i e b e and H i s R e a d e r s , " p a p e r d e l i v e r e d a t t h e c o n f e r e n c e on " M e n n o n i t e / s W r i t i n g i n C a n a d a , " May 1990. 6. Herman P a e k t a u ' s i l l e g i t i m a c y , and D e a c o n B l o c k ' s l a c k o f g u i d a n c e d u r i n g c h i l d h o o d show t h e s p u r i o u s n a t u r e o f B l o c k ' s myth'of t h e wisdom o f t h e f a t h e r s . 7. I n t h e F i r s t W o r l d War, a l l M e n n o n i t e s l i v i n g i n C a n a d a were a u t o m a t i c a l l y exempted from m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e under t h e terms of t h e M e n n o n i t e s ' o r i g i n a l i m m i g r a t i o n agreement w i t h t h e D o m i n i o n G o v e r n m e n t . B u t t h o s e who e n t e r e d C a n a d a b e t w e e n 1923 and 1930, i n t h e s e c o n d g r e a t m i g r a t i o n f r o m R u s s i a , w e r e a d m i t t e d on t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t t h e y w e r e l e g a l l y o b l i g e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e l i k e any o t h e r C a n a d i a n c i t i z e n s i n t h e d e f e n c e o f t h e i r c o u n t r y . Wiebe e s t a b l i s h e s t h a t t h e M e n n o n i t e s o f W a p i t i came t o C a n a d a i n t h e s e c o n d wave o f m i g r a t i o n . F o r a more d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f t h e c o m p l e x i t i e s o f t h e R u s s l a n d e r s ' l e g a l and m o r a l p o s i t i o n , see E . K . F r a n c i s , In S e a r c h o f U t o p i a : t h e M e n n o n i t e s i n M a n i t o b a ( G l e n c o e : The F r e e P r e s s , 1955) 2 3 2 - 4 2 . 8. T h i s t e r m was c o i n e d b y t h e a r t c r i t i c , R o b e r t H u g h e s , whose b o o k a n d t e l e v i s i o n s e r i e s on m o d e r n i s t p a i n t i n g w e r e e n t i t l e d The S h o c k o f t h e New. 9.  Species  I i n Bakhtin's  classificatory  scheme.  10. W i e b e c r e a t e s a s i m i l a r t e n s i o n b e t w e e n sameness a n d d i f f e r e n c e b y g i v i n g B i b l i c a l names t o h i s c h a r a c t e r s . As J o s e p h D u e c k p o i n t s o u t i n h i s l e t t e r t o Thorn, t h e  i n d i v i d u a l s c o n c e r n e d may i n some r e s p e c t s be s t r i k i n g l y s i m i l a r t o t h e i r B i b l i c a l n a m e s a k e s , b u t be s t r i k i n g l y d i f f e r e n t i n other respects. 11. S p e c i e s  I I i n Bakhtin's  classificatory  system.  71  CHAPTER 3 :  F I R S T AND V I T A L CANDLE  How S h a l l We S p e a k A b o u t H i s t o r y ?  I  First a popular  and V i t a l  Candle contains  a d v e n t u r e romance: a s t r o n g ,  protagonist, a diabolical wilderness and  their  a l l the ingredients of  scenery,  self-sufficient  antagonist, pristine  northern-  colourful' depictions of Native  customs, a s u s p e n s e f u l  peoples  p l o t punctuated by scenes  o f v i o l e n c e , a n d a l o v e a f f a i r w h i c h ends w i t h t h e d e a t h o f the main female c h a r a c t e r Wiebe s e a r c h e s  i n a spectacular natural disaster.  f o rcharacters  and s t o r i e s which might  command t h e a t t e n t i o n o f a w i d e r ,  more d i v e r s e  readership,  an a u d i e n c e n o t ( c o n s c i o u s l y ) i n t e r e s t e d i n m o r a l o r s p i r i t u a l matters.  W i e b e ' s p r o t a g o n i s t , Abe R o s s ,  not t o be i n t e r e s t e d i n s u c h m a t t e r s .  professes  Compared w i t h Thorn  W i e n s , a d e v o u t M e n n o n i t e , A b e R o s s i s a c h a r a c t e r w i t h whom a wider v a r i e t y of readers F i r s t and V i t a l  might i m a g i n a t i v e l y  Candle t r a c e s Abe's g r a d u a l  deep need f o r l o v e and a f i x e d  spiritual  the f e a r , g r e e d and a l i e n a t i o n o f North  identify.  discovery of h i s  o r i e n t a t i o n amidst American  capitalist  s o c i e t y d u r i n g t h e C o l d War e r a . By f o c u s s i n g o n a "modern  Everyman"  (Keith  1981a, 3 3 ) , Wiebe d r a m a t i s e s  i s n o n - r e l i g i o u s . . . can  possible experience"  (Cameron,  say, Yes,  the addressee  "an a c u t e  that  that i s a  Ross, Wiebe  awareness of the  t o whom i t i s d i r e c t e d "  demonstrates  interlocutor,  ( B a k h t i n 1984,  L i k e a l l r h e t o r i c i a n s , Wiebe " t a k e s i n t o a c c o u n t possible r e a c t i o n s , the other's p o s s i b l e reply" 1984,  205).  In f a c t ,  on one  level,  First  the  and V i t a l  i n t i m i d a t e d b y any  t h e f a c t t h a t many r e a d e r s d i s c o u r s e t h a t resembles  f o c u s e s d i r e c t l y on t h i s p r o b l e m .  He  205). other's  (Bakhtin  p r e c i s e l y a b o u t t h e r e a c t i o n s o f an i n t e r l o c u t o r . ignoring or denying  "the  157).  I n h i s c h a r a c t e r i s a t i o n o f Abe what B a k h t i n c a l l s  relevance  p e a c e i n s u c h a way  o f J e s u s ' message o f l o v e and p e r s o n who  the  Candle  is  I n s t e a d of  feel  a sermon, Wiebe  pre-empts, p a r r i e s ,  and  explains the non-Christian reader's p o s s i b l e objections to Christian rhetoric,  indeed t o a n y t h i n g t h a t resembles  an  o v e r t message i n a work o f a r t . N o n - C h r i s t i a n r e a d e r s reflected  i n Abe  t h e w o r d o f God. behind  such  t h e i r own  hostility  However, as Wiebe e x p l o r e s t h e  hostility,  he  all  who  towards  reasons  intimates that i t conceals  deeper ambivalence.  T h r o u g h Abe,  or i n d i f f e r e n c e  see  a  ^  Wiebe d r a m a t i s e s  t h e c o n f l i c t i n g needs o f  s e a r c h f o r meaning, whether they s e a r c h i n the  of v e r b a l or non-verbal  s i g n s . Abe's s i t u a t i o n  is  world  analogous  73  to  t h e p r e d i c a m e n t o f r e a d e r s , as t h e y a t t e m p t t o  themselves amidst t h e p o s s i b l e systems p e r t a i n i n t h e t e x t . Abe  of meaning t h a t  runs from t h e t y r a n n i c a l  v o i c e o f t h e p r e a c h e r , y e t he c a n n o t t o l e r a t e d i s s i p a t i o n of meaning which polyphony, heteroglossia, of  orient  u l t i m a t e l y i m p l i e s . He  monologic  the  unhierarchised  r e s i s t s the  authority  any s i n g l e p e r m a n e n t l y s o v e r e i g n v o i c e , y e t y e a r n s t o  f i n d some s o r t o f l i n g u i s t i c hierarchy of languages  c e n t r e , o r some s t a b l e  f o r c o n f e r r i n g m e a n i n g on t h e w o r l d .  S i m i l a r l y , Wiebe's h y p o t h e t i c a l n o n - C h r i s t i a n r e a d e r f r o m any work, o f a r t t h a t p a r a d e s yet  i t s message t o o  overtly,  c a n n o t q u i t e s u p p r e s s t h e l i n g e r i n g hope o f f i n d i n g  spiritually  s u s t a i n i n g k e r n e l of meaning i n the  L i k e P e a c e S h a l l D e s t r o y Many, F i r s t presents a t h e s i s , than the e a r l i e r  novel.  In F i r s t  Christians  such as h i m s e l f .  n o v e l , t h e Word o f God  Candle  self-consciously  and V i t a l  C a n d l e , Wiebe  which f a c e e v a n g e l i s t i c I n s e c u l a r g e n r e s s u c h as  e n j o y s no i n s u l a t i o n  human w o r d s . O u t s i d e t h e p r o t e c t i v e c o c o o n s  from  of s o c i o - h i s t o r i c a l  of r i t u a l  c o n t e x t s where i t  t h e w i d e r w o r l d ' s s o v e r e i g n d i s c o u r s e s . An and V i t a l  and  t o an  must s t a n d up a g a i n s t , o r be v a n q u i s h e d b y , t h e f u l l  image i n F i r s t  the  ordinary  s a c r e d s p a c e , t h e n o v e l t r a n s m i t s t h e w o r d o f God unforeseeable v a r i e t y  some  text.  and V i t a l  b u t i t d o e s so f a r more  d r a m a t i s e s t h e many p i t f a l l s  of  recoils  Candle i s the s i g n  force  emblematic  "Jesus  Saves,"  squeezed between Clothing" 20).  1  How  and  " B i g A u c t i o n E v e r y Day.  " S c h n i t z l e r Good S a u s a g e s  2 pm  New  and  and Meats"  Used  (FVC  m i g h t W i e b e make " J e s u s S a v e s " s t a n d o u t f r o m a l l  o t h e r t r u t h s which a s s a u l t h i s readers' awareness, w i t h o u t r e s o r t i n g t o the s t r i d e n t ,  t y r a n n i c a l r h e t o r i c o f Adam R o s s ,  who  L o r d had s t o m p e d  "thunder[s] what...the  Having a r t i c u l a t e d  h i s commitment t o t h e i d e a l o f  a g g r e s s i o n i n Peace b e g i n t o implement who  i n t o him"  S h a l l D e s t r o y Many, how that ideal  (299)?  non-  m i g h t Wiebe  i n his r e l a t i o n s h i p with those  read h i s novels?  I n F i r s t and V i t a l t h i s dilemma  C a n d l e , Wiebe e n d e a v o u r s  to  solve  by r e - a t t u n i n g t h e e a r o f t h e r e a d e r . I n s t e a d  o f s p e a k i n g more s t r i d e n t l y a n d d i r e c t l y , v o l u m e as i t w e r e ,  t u r n i n g up t h e  he a t t e m p t s t o r e - s e n s i t i z e h i s r e a d e r s '  r e c e i v i n g a p p a r a t u s . Wiebe " p o s i t i o n s "  readers c a r e f u l l y i n  t h e hope t h a t t h e y m i g h t h e a r an o l d m e s s a g e f r o m a a n g l e . He b r e a k s t h e E n g l i s h  new  l a n g u a g e i n t o i t s component  s p e e c h g e n r e s , w h i c h he s o r t s a n d e v a l u a t e s a g a i n s t t h e moral c r i t e r i a  articulated  i n Jesus' utterances.  A l t h o u g h F i r s t and V i t a l  Candle l a c k s the conspicuous  i n t e r n a l b o r d e r l i n e s w h i c h g i v e The B l u e M o u n t a i n s o f C h i n a a n d The  Temptations of B i g Bear t h e i r  appearance,  collage-like  i t c o n t a i n s a network of i n t e r s e c t i n g  linguistic  b o u n d a r i e s , some t y p o g r a p h i c a l l y m a r k e d , o t h e r s h a l f - h i d d e n  or concealed w i t h i n a s i n g l e utterance. Extended  passages  of  c o m p o s i t i o n a l l y marked d i a l o g u e appear a t r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s i n t h e t e x t , and W i e b e ' s i n t e r e s t words c o n t i n u e s t o d e v e l o p .  in internally  In f i f t e e n of the  e i g h t e e n c h a p t e r s , t h e v o i c e o f Abe  dialogized  novel's  Ross b l e n d s  and  i n t e r w e a v e s w i t h t h e v o i c e o f an o m n i s c i e n t t h i r d n a r r a t o r ; Abe's v o i c e a l o n e n a r r a t e s t h e t h r e e c h a p t e r s . F i r s t and V i t a l of speech  diversity  remaining  Candle m a n i f e s t s a g r e a t e r degree  t h a n P e a c e S h a l l D e s t r o y Many. However  that d i v e r s i t y continues to serve r h e t o r i c a l exploratory  person  r a t h e r than  purposes.  II  The  s t o r y o f Abe  Ross conforms t o t h e  archetype of the p r o d i g a l  son. Both  p a t h o f e x i l e and  l o s s and  return,  Biblical  sons walk  a  circular  r e d i s c o v e r y . Abe  also  t r a v e l s a c i r c u l a r p a t h w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e w o r d o f God. t h e age  of seventeen,  he  o f God's w o r d s ; a t f o r t y , reaccentuated Bishop.  2  leaves behind h i s father's Abe  I n t h e i n t e r v e n i n g p e r i o d , Abe  w i l d e r n e s s of v o i c e s , l o n e l y , despairing at l i f e ' s  voicing  r e d i s c o v e r s t h e word of  i n t h e mouths of S a l l y H o w e l l  Josh  wanders i n a  spiritually  meaninglessness  and  and  empty  and  futility.  At  God  Wiebe's t e x t t a k e s up Abe's s t o r y i n m e d i a s r e s . I n t h e C h a p t e r s 1, 2, 3 a n d 5, i n w h i c h Abe " r e s t s " Wiebe uses Abe's f i e l d  o f awareness  i n Winnipeg,  as a d e v i c e t o r e g i s t e r  t h e c o n f u s i n g m u l t i t u d e o f speech genres w h i c h crowd fracture,  and f i n a l l y  into,  numb c o n s c i o u s n e s s i n m i d - t w e n t i e t h  c e n t u r y c i t y e n v i r o n m e n t s . The W i n n i p e g s e c t i o n o f F i r s t a n d Vital  Candle demonstrates  t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h Wiebe  from B a k h t i n i n h i s a t t i t u d e towards a l l  manifestations of  polyphony. Through Abe, f r e s h from t h e v e r b a l  sparseness of  t h e A r c t i c , Wiebe d e - n a t u r a l i s e s t h e c i t y d w e l l e r s ' adjustment"  differs  "normal  ( 5 7 ) t o t h e i r p o l y p h o n i c e n v i r o n m e n t . He  d r a m a t i s e s t h e d e b i l i t a t i n g e f f e c t o f t h a t e n v i r o n m e n t on t h o u g h t , f e e l i n g , and s p i r i t u a l b e l i e f . Wiebe does n o t e m p l o y p o l y p h o n y i n t h e e x u b e r a n t c e l e b r a t o r y mode o f p o s t m o d e r n i s t c o n t e m p o r a r i e s such as Robert K r o e t s c h o r George B o w e r i n g . On t h e c o n t r a r y , he s u g g e s t s t h a t a p l u r a l i t y o f f u l l y v a l i d voices t h r e a t e n s coherent thought, emotion, and undermines  spiritual  paralyses  belief.  W i e b e s t y l i z e s p o l y p h o n y most c o n c r e t e l y i n C h a p t e r s 2 and 3 o f F i r s t and V i t a l  Candle, i n t h e scenes o ft h e  K i n c o n n e l l s ' p a r t y a n d t h e Red V i n e C l u b . i n crowded,  3  By p l a c i n g Abe  n o i s y , c l a u s t r o p h o b i c rooms, w h e r e v o i c e s become  e n s n a r l e d a n d b r o k e n a n d no s i n g l e t h r e a d o f d i s c o u r s e c a n be f o l l o w e d t o i t s e n d , W i e b e g u i d e s h i s r e a d e r s t o w a r d a n understanding of t h e i r  own l i n g u i s t i c m i l i e u a n d i t s e f f e c t s  77 on t h e p s y c h e . cannot t o l e r a t e "incredible  In both of these  t h e n o i s e . To s h i e l d h i m s e l f  clacking  b a s e m e n t , he f i r s t (33) Club,  s c e n e s o f c a c o p h o n y , Abe  racket"  h i s behaviour  (33) i n t h e K i n c o n n e l l s '  "deliberately  and t h e n d r i n k s h i m s e l f  from the  shut[s] out h i s hearing"  i n t o o b l i v i o n . A t t h e Red V i n e  follows a similar pattern:  ...as he now s a t , b e a t e n b y c l a m o u r , w a i l s , shouts, barks, foot-stomping, and t h e low-toned w h i s p e r s from t h e a d j a c e n t t a b l e s a l l r a n t o g e t h e r i n one g r i n d i n g c a c o p h o n y h a l l e l u j a h amen when my b a b y s m i l e s a t me...o j e s u s j e s u s j e s u s how i l o v e y o u j e s u s s a f e i n y o u r arms o d a r l i n g s a f e o n y o u r g e n t l e b r e a s t t h e r e b y y o u r l o v e i g o t j u s t what i w a n t e d i g o t j u s t what i needed As i f d r o p p e d i n t o a v o i d , s u d d e n l y a l l was gone. A f t e r a moment Abe r e a l i z e d he was s l u m p e d down o n a r e d - l e a t h e r s e a t , h e a d i n h i s arms a s i f t o s h i e l d s o m e t h i n g v i t a l f r o m a n n i h i l a t i o n . He s a t up t h e n , l o o k e d a c r o s s t h e room a n d w i t h o u t a b r e a k o f movement r o s e a n d w e n t t o t h e t a b l e w h e r e J i m was l e a n i n g b a c k , p i c k i n g up t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h t h e t h r e e g i r l s . " J i m , I'm s o r r y t o i n t e r r u p t , b u t i t ' s l a t e a n d I'm g o i n g . " (62) Far  from f e e l i n g enriched  experiences out.  o r l i b e r a t e d by h i s  o f polyphony, Abe's o v e r l o a d e d  awareness  Swamped b y r e l e n t l e s s w a v e s o f p r e s e n t  past verbal d i n , consciousness  During  some s i n g l e  a n d remembered  d o e s n o t r i s e t o new  p i n n a c l e s o f freedom and enlightenment; oblivion.  blacks  i tsinks  into  h i s t i m e i n W i n n i p e g , Abe s t r a i n s  v o i c e he c a n f o l l o w .  Fleetingly,  t o hear  amidst the  c a c o p h o n y , he h e a r s w o r d s w h i c h seem t o s p e a k t o h i m i n a s p e c i a l way. B u t t h e y  are audible only i n fragments, i n  s n a t c h e s o f memory, s c r a p s heightened  of g r a f f i t i ,  moments o f  awareness l i s t e n i n g t o Bach. B e f o r e  Abe c a n e v e n  78 name h i s f l i c k e r i n g besiege  his f i e l d  i n t i m a t i o n s , o t h e r languages and  of awareness, c l a s h i n g v i o l e n t l y  b r e a k i n g a g a i n s t one  and  another.  Abe's e x p e r i e n c e s exhausting  voices  dramatise  the unanchored mind's  futile  and  search f o r meaning i n p o l y p h o n i c  space.  They a l s o a l l o w W i e b e t o d r a m a t i s e s  his  own  p r o b l e m a t i c p o s i t i o n as an e v a n g e l i c a l C h r i s t i a n w r i t e r complex, cacophonous, h e t e r o g l o t w o r l d , where h a b i t u a l l y b l o c k o u t a l l u t t e r a n c e s w h i c h do s a t i s f y t h e i r most p r e s s i n g needs. F i r s t  people not  immediately  and V i t a l . C a n d l e  takes  i n t o account  1981,  76), the m a n i f o l d e x i s t i n g utterances to which i t  r e p l i e s and public  i t s own  in a  " d i a l o g i z i n g background"  a g a i n s t w h i c h i t must d e f i n e i t s e l f  (Bakhtin  i n the  domain.  A number o f c h a r a c t e r s i n t h e n o v e l e x e m p l i f y t h e W i e b e d o e s n o t w a n t t o s o u n d . The of S h e r r i s K i n c o n n e l l r e i f y  over-emphatic  way  utterances  s p e e c h a d a p t e d t o t h a t most  dense of p o l y p h o n i c m i l i e u x , t h e crowded p a r t y . Wiebe's italics  i n d i c a t e S h e r r i s ' s exaggerated  so u n h a p p y b u t  he  had  "he  to catch a plane tonight" (24).  i n f l a t e d verbal currency, or semantic  intonation:  v a l u e . Her  upwards i n t o t h e r e a l m "absolutely delightful"  her words c a r r y l i t t l e  was An  sincerity  over-abundant a d j e c t i v e s s t r a i n o f s u p e r l a t i v e s and (23), "completely  empty  hyperbole:  intrigued"  (23),  79  "so d r e a d f u l l y n a r r o w " h a p p y y o u came!"  (23), "absolutely years"  (23), "absolutely prostrate"  speech of t h e s o c i e t y hostess bears t h e scars constant  ( 2 4 ) . The of her  b a t t l e t o command a t t e n t i o n a m i d s t a c r o w d o f  competing v o i c e s . preacher" singing  ( 2 3 ) , "so  Similarly,  the "strident voice  (61) and t h e " r o c k - c r u s h e r  [above] h e r e l e c t r i c  guitar"  of the  tones of the g i r l (61-2) i l l u s t r a t e  t h e Word o f God becomes d i s t o r t e d a n d u n r e c o g n i s a b l e evangelists  t r y more a n d more d e s p e r a t e l y  how  as  to amplify i t  above t h e c o m p e t i n g d i n .  The t e x t o f F i r s t only to r e i f y object  and V i t a l  Candle manifests  polyphony  a n d d e n o u n c e i t . P o l y p h o n y becomes a b o u n d e d  i n t h e t e x t , an u n p l e a s a n t b u t n e c e s s a r y s t a g e i n a  psychological  and s o c i o - l i n g u i s t i c  counter-revolution  r e s t o r e t h e l o s t o r u n r e c o g n i s e d a u t h o r i t y o f God's F o r Wiebe, p o l y p h o n y f u n c t i o n s end,  n o t as an end i n i t s e l f .  He c o n d u c t s Abe t h r o u g h o r goal.  Because Wiebe h a r n e s s e s h i s r e a d e r ' s p e r c e p t i o n s t o o , must endure a  p l u r a l i t y of equally v a l i d voices, before e x p e r i e n c e t o r e a c h a new p e r c e p t i o n meaning. L i k e t h e p r o d i g a l he  voice.  a s a means t o a m o n o l o g i c  b e y o n d an e x p e r i e n c e o f p o l y p h o n y t o w a r d s a n o t h e r  t h o s e o f Abe R o s s , t h e r e a d e r ,  to  to  confusing  moving beyond  of order  that  and coherent  s o n , who h a d t o g e t l o s t  before  c o u l d be f o u n d , . W i e b e ' s r e a d e r s e x p e r i e n c e c y c l e s o f  80  o r i e n t a t i o n , d i s o r i e n t a t i o n and negotiate a path through  In the opening  they  a t e x t w h i c h moves r e p e a t e d l y  m o n o l o g u e i n t o p o l y p h o n y and voices.  r e o r i e n t a t i o n as  on t o w a r d s a new  paragraphs,  as Abe  from  h i e r a r c h y of  wanders  the  crowded n i g h t - t i m e s t r e e t s of Winnipeg, Wiebe d r a m a t i s e s mind " l o o k i n g i n t e n s e l y "  ( 9 ) but  a  s e e i n g n o t h i n g , a mind  t r y i n g t o c a t c h h o l d o f s o m e t h i n g , y e t o p e n t o t o o many impressions  t o h o l d f a s t t o any  order or rank meaningless  one  o f t h e m . Abe  h i s perceptions. His world resembles  to participate  subverting the process weight  a  t e x t i n w h i c h e v e r y e l e m e n t c a r r i e s an  a c c e n t . W i e b e ' s grammar, p u n c t u a t i o n a n d readers  cannot  t o t h e words and  syntax  i n Abe's d i s o r i e n t a t i o n , of  "voicing,"  force by  or according  s y l l a b l e s of the  equal  relative  text:  He had b e e n w a l k i n g a l o n g P o r t a g e A v e n u e f o r more t h a n an h o u r , g l a n c e s e a r c h i n g o u t f i r s t a s t o r e window, t h e n a c a r g l i d i n g by u n d e r t h r o t t l e d p o w e r , l o o k i n g i n t e n s e l y t h o u g h come t h e e v e n i n g ' s e n d a n d d r o p p i n g i n t o b e d he w o u l d remember n o t one d e t a i l o f t h e m a s s , c o u p l e s c h a t t i n g a s t h e y p a s s e d o b l i v i o u s , when l o o k i n g down i n t o a r e s t a u r a n t b e l o w s t r e e t l e v e l Abe R o s s saw the g i r l seated alone at the t a b l e . ...He was b y , t h e w h i t e i m a g e o f t h e g i r l d r i f t i n g p a s t h i s memory l i k e any m y r i a d o f s h a p e s p a s s e d a n d f o r g o t t e n i n who c o u l d r e c o l l e c t how may t o w n s and t e n t s and c i t i e s a n d f a r m h o u s e s , a n d he s t o p p e d . ( 9 ) The  d i s o r i e n t i n g e f f e c t of t h i s passage a r i s e s  not  Wiebe p r o b l e m a t i z e t h e n a r r a t i v e v o i c e of t h e t e x t , through  because 4  but  Wiebe's momentary p l u r a l i z a t i o n o f t h e a c c e n t s  the r e a d i n g v o i c e . Each sentence  establishes a  particular  s y n t a c t i c d i r e c t i o n or n a r r a t i v e l i n e i n i t s i n i t i a l l o s e s i t s way  of  clause,  i n a t a n g l e of r i g h t - b r a n c h i n g subordinate  81 phrases  and c l a u s e s , and then  recovers  i t s o r i g i n a l path i n  a second main c l a u s e w h i c h t e r m i n a t e s t h e sentence. sentences  become s u b t l y m u l t i - a c c e n t u a l i n t h e i r  middle  5  s e c t i o n s , w h e r e t h e more t h a n  Both  one p o s s i b l e . s y n t a c t i c  s t r u c t u r e c a n b e d i s c e r n e d . How, f o r e x a m p l e , s h o u l d  readers  v o i c e t h e embedded q u e s t i o n i n t h e s e c o n d s e n t e n c e ?  Should  "who c o u l d r e c o l l e c t how many t o w n s a n d t e n t s a n d c i t i e s a n d f a r m h o u s e s " be spoken w i t h a r i s i n g i n t e r r o g a t i v e p i t c h ? Or with the f a l l i n g pitch of a r h e t o r i c a l question? level pitch  i n d i c a t e d by t h e very subordinate  Or w i t h t h e  grammatical  f u n c t i o n o f t h i s c l a u s e i n l a r g e r context o f t h e sentence? Wiebe's t e x t p e r m i t s readings  t h e mind's e a r t o hear s e v e r a l p o s s i b l e  o r "voicings" of these  Inconsistent punctuation  words.  a l s o confounds t h e r e a d i n g  v o i c e . By o m i t t i n g a comma b e t w e e n "when" a n d " l o o k i n g " a n d between " l e v e l "  a n d "Abe" i n t h e f i r s t  sentence,  confronts readers with c o n f l i c t i n g signals s t r e s s . On o c c a s i o n s , s y n t a x  f o r pausing and  and p u n c t u a t i o n  issue  c o n t r a d i c t o r y commands. T h e ' s y n t a x o f t h e f i r s t tells  t h e v o i c e t o pause between "passed"  Wiebe  sentence  and " o b l i v i o u s , "  b u t t h e a b s e n c e o f a comma i m p l i e s t h a t " o b l i v i o u s " o b j e c t o f " p a s s e d , " . a n d t h a t no p a u s e s h o u l d two  separate  w o r d s . U n o r t h o d o x p u n c t u a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y when  with convoluted  syntax,  creates grammatical  i s the these coupled  and semantic  ambiguities which f u r t h e r b a f f l e t h e reading v o i c e . F o r  e x a m p l e , "a c a r g l i d i n g by intensely," e a c h be  and  "dropping  articulated  participles  "dropping,"  i n t o bed  e i t h e