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Canada, Roosevelt and the New Deal : Canadian attitudes to reform in relation to the American reform… McAndrew, William James 1973

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; 7 -2- o 3 CANADA, ROOSEVELT AND THE NEW DEAL: CANADIAN ATTITUDES TO REFORM IN RELATION TO THE AMERICAN REFORM EXPERIMENTS OF THE 1930's By WILLIAM JAMES McANDREW B.A., York U n i v e r s i t y , 1967 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY i n the Department of HISTORY We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA O c t o b e r , 1973 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make i t freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of British Columbia Vancouver 8 , Canada ABSTRACT The decade o f the 1930's was one o f d i s l o c a t i o n , u n c e r t a i n t y and change. Examples o f r e v o l u t i o n and r e a c t i o n were much i n e v i d e n c e . The d i s r u p t i o n o f t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l economic system engendered by the G r e a t D e p r e s s i o n b r o u g h t i n t o q u e s t i o n the v a l i d i t y of the p r e m i s e s and assumptions on which l i b e r a l c a p i t a l i s m was based. Throughout t h e w o r l d s o c i e t i e s a t t e m p t e d t o d e v i s e a p p r o p r i a t e p o l i c i e s t o cope w i t h the s o c i a l , economic and p o l i t i c a l c r i s i s o f t h e d e p r e s -s i o n . The c o r e o f the problem l a y i n the need t o l o c a t e a new b a l a n c e between t r a d i t i o n a l l i b e r a l i n d i v i d u a l i s t v a l u e s and the c o l l e c t i v e needs o f s o c i e t i e s . E s t a b l i s h i n g a more e f f i c i e n t and e q u i t a b l e b a l a n c e between i n d i v i d u a l i s t and c o l l e c t i v i s t s o c i a l norms e n t a i l e d d e f i n i n g new r o l e s f o r government. The e x e r c i s e o f p o s i t i v e government, however, posed problems. They were e s p e c i a l l y a c u t e when the a u t h o r i t y o f the s t a t e was employed t o r e s t r i c t economic b e h a v i o u r i n the f a m i l i a r open m a r k e t - p l a c e . Taken t o l o g i c a l e xtremes, government d i r e c t i o n , r e g u l a t i o n and c o n t r o l o f economic a f f a i r s l e d t o f a s c i s m o r communism. However between the extremes of l a i s s e z - f a i r e i n d i v i d u a l i s m and f u l l s t a t e c o n t r o l l a y a number of more moderate a l t e r -n a t i v e s w h i c h c a l l e d f o r fundamental i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e f o r m s of the c a p i t a l i s t economic system. One of the most n o t a b l e i i i a t t e m p t s t o d e v i s e a m i d d l e , ' t h i r d way 1 between the extremes was t h a t of F r a n k l i n Delano R o o s e v e l t ' s New D e a l . The American New D e a l e x p e r i m e n t s were of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t t o Canada. Because of the i n c r e a s i n g c l o s e n e s s and c o m p l e x i t y o f Canada's American r e l a t i o n s h i p by the 1930's, d e c i s i o n s t a k e n i n Washington, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e economic s p h e r e , a f f e c t e d Canada i n a v a r i e t y o f ways. M o r e o v e r , th e r e f o r m a s p e c t s of the New D e a l p r o v i d e d a model of change w h i c h c o n c e i v a b l y c o u l d prove r e l e v a n t t o Canada. Conse-q u e n t l y Canadians were c l o s e o b s e r v e r s o f the New D e a l as i t e v o l v e d a f t e r R o o s e v e l t ' s e l e c t i o n i n 1932. However much Canadians were i n t e r e s t e d i n R o o s e v e l t ' s New D e a l , h i s r e f o r m model was n o t g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d i n Canada. A l t h o u g h some p r o v i n c e s d i d i n t r o d u c e l e g i s l a t i o n s i m i l a r t o some New D e a l measures, t h e r e was no n a t i o n a l r e s ponse comparable t o the American r e f o r m program. I n Canada the dominant r e a c t i o n t o t h e problems p r e s e n t e d by t h e d e p r e s s i o n was t o r e j e c t r e f o r m and a v o i d change. The need f o r p o s i t i v e government a c t i o n a t the n a t i o n a l l e v e l was n o t a c c e p t e d . R a t h e r , the p r i m a r y Canadian r e a c t i o n was t o emphasize the need t o promote economic r e c o v e r y t h r o u g h t r a -d i t i o n a l means, r e j e c t c o n c e p t s of economic p l a n n i n g , and a v o i d the e x e r c i s e o f p o s i t i v e government i n t e r v e n t i o n i n t h e economy. C a n a d i a n s , a t l e a s t t h o s e i n l e a d e r s h i p r o l e s , l o o k e d t o p a s t e x p e r i e n c e , t o customary l a i s s e z - f a i r e methods , r a t h e r t h a n towards r e f o r m and change. Two p r i n c i p a l r e a s o n s were advanced t o j u s t i f y the e x c l u s i o n o f t h e need f o r change. i v The f i r s t was t h a t the v u l n e r a b i l i t y of t h e Canadian economy, stemming from i t s dependence on f o r e i g n markets and c a p i t a l , e f f e c t i v e l y p r e c l u d e d the p o s s i b i l i t y of p r o m o t i n g major r e f o r m s . B u t t r e s s i n g t h i s t a n g i b l e r e a s o n was a s t r u c t u r e of t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s w h i c h r e j e c t e d r e f o r m because i t s c o l l e c t i v i s t i m p l i c a t i o n s v i o l a t e d f a m i l i a r s t a n d a r d s o f l i b e r a l , i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c , l a i s s e z - f a i r e c a p i t a l i s m . V TABLE OF CONTENTS Cha p t e r Page I INTRODUCTION 1 I I THE INITIAL RESPONSES TO THE NEW DEAL . . . . 25 I I I THE CANADIAN BUSINESS COMMUNITY: RECOVERY v s REFORM 80 IV THE INTELLECTUAL DEBATE ON ECONOMIC PLANNING 140 V POLITICS AND REFORM 201 VI POLITICS: CONSERVATIVES 240 V I I POLITICS: LIBERALS 290 V I I I CONCLUSION 343 BIBLIOGRAPHY 365 v i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would l i k e t o e x p r e s s my a p p r e c i a t i o n t o a number o f p e o p l e who a s s i s t e d i n the p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s d i s s e r t a -t i o n . My a d v i s e r , P r o f e s s o r M a r g a r e t E. P r a n g , bore the t r i b u l a t i o n s of s u p e r v i s i o n from a c r o s s t h e c o n t i n e n t w i t h u n f l a g g i n g p a t i e n c e and good humour and f o r t h i s I am d e e p l y g r a t e f u l . My c o l l e a g u e s a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f Maine a t Orono a s s i s t e d i n many ways. I am p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p r e c i a t i v e t o P r o f e s s o r s Edgar B. McKay, A l i c e R. S t e w a r t and the s t a f f of the New E n g l a n d - A t l a n t i c P rovinces-Quebec C e n t e r f o r t h e i r c o n t i n u a l encouragement and h e l p . I w i s h t o thank Mr. Roy H. Monroe f o r b o t h h i s e d i t o r i a l a s s i s t a n c e and f o r t y p i n g the d i s s e r t a t i o n . Above a l l I cannot f u l l y e x p r e s s my appr e -c i a t i o n f o r the c o l l e c t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n s of my f a m i l y . My c h i l d r e n , R o b in and I a n , p r o v i d e d i nnumerable welcome d i v e r -s i o n s w h i c h c o n s i d e r a b l y l i g h t e n e d t h e burden o f r e s e a r c h and w r i t i n g . My w i f e , C a r o l y n , endured t h e demands on time w h i c h t h i s work e n t a i l e d , t y p e d v a r i o u s d r a f t s and, most impor-t a n t l y , has been a source of s u p p o r t w i t h o u t w h i c h I c o u l d n ot have f i n i s h e d . Whatever m e r i t t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n p o s s e s s e s i s due t o my f a m i l y . 1 C h a p t e r I INTRODUCTION The e r a o f the G r e a t D e p r e s s i o n o f t h e 1930's i s one o f the l e a s t s t u d i e d p e r i o d s i n r e c e n t Canadian h i s t o r y . I t i s c u r i o u s t h a t t h i s s h o u l d be so because i t p l a y e d such a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n s h a p i n g l a t e r C a nadian h i s t o r y . The t h i r t i e s were y e a r s o f f l u x and change. They d e s e r v e a more c o n c e r t e d h i s t o r i c a l e f f o r t t o i n t e r p r e t them and t o p l a c e them i n t h e broad c o n t e x t of Canadian h i s t o r y . But f o r what-ever r e a s o n s t h e r e i s a d e a r t h o f a n a l y t i c a l works on the p e r i o d . Some b i o g r a p h i c a l s t u d i e s of p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s a r e a v a i l a b l e but even here the o f f i c i a l b i o g r a p h y o f MacKenzie K i n g has n o t , as y e t , been c a r r i e d p a s t 1932, and t h e r e i s no s a t i s f a c t o r y l i f e o f R. B. Be n n e t t i n p r i n t . ^ O ther s t u d i e s a r e f r a g m e n t a r y ; t h e r e a r e a few s o l i d monographs on t h e economy, e x c e l l e n t works on t h i r d p a r t y p o l i t i c a l movements, some p e r c e p t i v e n o v e l s , s c a t t e r e d memoirs and r e m i n i s c e n c e s , and more r e c e n t l y some c o l l e c t i o n s o f documentary m a t e r i a l s . However d e s p i t e t h e s e e x c e p t i o n s the e r a l a c k s thorough h i s -t o r i c a l t r e a t m e n t . P a r t i c u l a r l y l a c k i n g i s an e f f e c t i v e s y n t h e s i s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n w hich s a t i s f a c t o r i l y d e a l s w i t h the innumerable c u r r e n t s and c o u n t e r - c u r r e n t s w h i c h b e s e t Canada d u r i n g the d e p r e s s i o n e r a . 2 The r e l a t i v e l a c k of Canadian h i s t o r i c a l i n t e r e s t i n the t h i r t i e s c o n t r a s t s s h a r p l y w i t h the i n t e r e s t i n the e r a shown i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . Whether t h e y be p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l , economic or whatever,, the number o f f u l l s c a l e s t u d i e s , monographs, a r t i c l e s and p o p u l a r a c c o u n t s on the t h i r t i e s i s s t a g g e r i n g . ^ B i o g r a p h i e s o f many major and minor i n d i v i d u a l s a r e a v a i l a b l e , as w e l l as a g r e a t number o f p u b l i s h e d memoirs, i n a d d i t i o n t o a wide range o f s p e c i f i c s t u d i e s on an even w i d e r range of t o p i c s . ^ Perhaps more i m p o r t a n t l y , b e g i n n i n g i n the t h i r t i e s and c o n t i n u i n g t o the p r e s e n t , i n t e r p r e t a t i v e t r e a t m e n t of the e r a has been wide-r a n g i n g , d i v e r g e n t , a c r i m o n i o u s and i n t e l l e c t u a l l y s t i m u -l a t i n g . The n a t u r e of the p e r i o d l e n t t o the t h i r t i e s a range o f c o n t r a d i c t o r y i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s emerging from d i f f e r i n g p r e m i s e s on m a t t e r s o f i d e o l o g y , p o l i t i c a l p h i l o s o p h y , s o c i a l w e l l - b e i n g , economic wor t h and the e x e r c i s e o f power. The r e a s o n s f o r the d i f f e r e n c e i n a t t e n t i o n a r e numerous. Perhaps the most i m p o r t a n t , as w e l l as the most o b v i o u s , r e a s o n i s the f a c t t h a t Canada produced n e i t h e r a F r a n k l i n R o o s e v e l t nor a "New D e a l . " R o o s e v e l t , and the sum t o t a l o f h i s p o l i c i e s w hich have come t o be c a l l e d the New D e a l , provoked an immediate contemporary debate i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s which has been t a k e n up and e l a b o r a t e d upon s i n c e then by s c h o l a r s o f many d i s c i p l i n e s . T h i s v i g o r o u s debate over whether p o l i c i e s were c o n t i n u o u s o r d i s c o n t i n u o u s i n terms o f the broad sweep o f American h i s t o r y ; whether R o o s e v e l t was a c o n s e r v a t i v e o r r a d i c a l ; whether the New D e a l r e p r e s e n t e d a 3 fundamental s h i f t i n American s o c i e t y o r whether i t was m e r e l y a l i m i t e d p o l i t i c a l r esponse t o immediate p r o b l e m s , has had l a s t i n g e f f e c t s on the U n i t e d S t a t e s . L i k e t h e American C i v i l War, R o o s e v e l t and h i s New D e a l have been i n t e r p r e t e d , r e v i s e d , and r e v i s e d a g a i n . ^ I n Canada, on the o t h e r hand, t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r a s i m i l a r debate i s n o t so r e a d i l y a p p a r e n t . The p r i n c i p a l con-t i n u o u s t h r e a d s o f Canadian h i s t o r y were n o t i n t e r r u p t e d i n the t h i r t i e s ; t h e y shaped p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l r e s p o n s e s t h r o u g h o u t the p e r i o d . P o l i t i c a l movements, wh i c h c h a l l e n g e d the s t a t u s quo, The C o o p e r a t i v e Commonwealth F e d e r a t i o n , (CCF), S o c i a l C r e d i t , and o t h e r s , d i d emerge but none was e f f e c t i v e on a n a t i o n a l s c a l e . E x c e p t f o r the CCF, p r o t e s t p o l i t i c a l movements i n the t h i r t i e s were, i n the main, mani-f e s t a t i o n s o f r e g i o n a l r e a c t i o n s which had l o n g p l a y e d a p a r t i n Canada's h i s t o r y . L i b e r a l s and C o n s e r v a t i v e s c o n t i n u e d t o d i f f e r o v e r t a r i f f p o l i c y , b u t l i t t l e e l s e . Even R. B. B e n n e t t ' s a b o r t i v e "New D e a l " program of 1934-35 can be viewed as b e i n g w i t h i n the Canadian t r a d i t i o n ; as can i t s r e j e c t i o n by b o t h the L i b e r a l P a r t y and the J u d i c i a l Committee of the P r i v y C o u n c i l . I n the t h i r t i e s , Canadians c o n t i n u e d the a r i d and n o t n o t a b l y p r o d u c t i v e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l debate between. Ottawa and the p r o v i n c e s , completed the s e p a r a t i o n o f the Dominion from the B r i t i s h E m p i r e , and a t t e m p t e d by a form of b e n i g n n e g l e c t t o i g n o r e many of the i m p l i c a t i o n s b o t h of the F r e n c h - E n g l i s h e t h n i c dichotomy and the i n c r e a s i n g American i n v o l v e m e n t i n the Canadian economy. I f the American New D e a l 4 r e p r e s e n t e d a fundamental c h a l l e n g e t o e s t a b l i s h e d ways, Canadian p o l i c i e s and r e s p o n s e s t o somewhat s i m i l a r s o c i a l and economic d i s l o c a t i o n cannot be so i n t e r p r e t e d . I n Canada the boat remained r e l a t i v e l y u nrocked and w r i t i n g s on the p e r i o d r e f l e c t t h i s i n t h e i r a v o i d a n c e of the c o n t e n t i o u s s o c i a l problems w h i c h were r a i s e d by the G r e a t D e p r e s s i o n . 7 T h i s i s n o t t o say t h a t Canadians i n the t h i r t i e s were n o t i n t e n s e l y i n t e r e s t e d i n what was g o i n g on i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s a t the t i m e . From the time of the coming of the L o y a l -i s t s Canadians have obse r v e d e v e n t s i n the R e p u b l i c , u s u a l l y a p p r e h e n s i v e l y and w i t h some s k e p t i c i s m . ^ I n the t h i r t i e s the f a b r i c o f t r a d i t i o n a l Canadian a t t i t u d e s towards the U n i t e d S t a t e s was made more complex by the i d e o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s i m p l i c i t i n the American a t t e m p t s t o r e a r r a n g e t h e i r s o c i a l and economic i n s t i t u t i o n s and r e d e f i n e the s t r u c t u r e of r e l a -t i o n s h i p s between the i n d i v i d u a l and the s t a t e . S o c i a l . d i s l o -c a t i o n caused by the d e p r e s s i o n brought i n t o q u e s t i o n the e f f i c a c y o f f a m i l i a r and t r a d i t i o n a l l i b e r a l c a p i t a l i s t v a l u e s upon w h i c h b o t h American and Canadian s o c i e t i e s had l a r g e l y been based. T h i s was an extrememly d i s q u i e t i n g p r o c e s s and few Canadians were sur e j u s t where F r a n k l i n R o o s e v e l t s t o o d on the i s s u e . L o o k i n g back from a contemporary p e r s p e c t i v e Canad-i a n s , g e n e r a l l y , p r o b a b l y approve of R o o s e v e l t and h i s New D e a l . The view which p r e v a i l s i s o f a n a t i o n a l l e a d e r who overcame or i g n o r e d p r o f o u n d p h y s i c a l d i s a b i l i t y t o appear on the scene a t a c r i t i c a l j u n c t u r e and p r o v i d e much needed 5 l e a d e r s h i p f o r the U n i t e d S t a t e s and the w o r l d . He was a b l e t o i n t r o d u c e change w h i l e a v o i d i n g p o l i t i c a l extremes. F u r t h e r m o r e he was a l e a d e r who was a b l e t o b r i n g the i s o l a -t i o n i s t U n i t e d S t a t e s i n t o the Second War on the s i d e o f the A l l i e s . D u r i n g t h e t h i r t i e s h o w e v e r , r e a c t i o n s t o R o o s e v e l t and h i s New D e a l were more complex. On one l e v e l , Canadians had t o r e a c t d i r e c t l y t h r o u g h t h e i r government and i n a r e a s o f the p r i v a t e s e c t o r t o p o l i c y i n i t i a t i v e s t a k e n by the American government. These i n i t i a t i v e s were p r i m a r i l y concerned w i t h commercial r e l a t i o n s and the most immediate and i m p o r t a n t e f f e c t s were tho s e which emanated from the i n i t i a l , economic n a t i o n a l i s t phase of the New D e a l . Canadian t r a d e r e l a t i o n s w i t h the U n i t e d S t a t e s had always been a con-t e n t i o u s i s s u e between the two c o u n t r i e s and t h e e r a o f the t h i r t i e s was no e x c e p t i o n . As i n e a r l i e r p e r i o d s Canada's prime i n t e r e s t l a y i n g a i n i n g a more open a c c e s s t o American m a r k e t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r p r i m a r y p r o d u c t s . When i n h i s f i r s t y e a r s i n o f f i c e R o o s e v e l t appeared t o commit h i m s e l f t o f o l -l o w i n g the commercial e x c l u s i o n p r a c t i s e d by h i s R e p u b l i c a n p r e d e c e s s o r s , the Canadian government was f o r c e d t o adapt i t s own p o l i c i e s t o meet the t h r e a t o f h i g h e r American t a r i f f s . I t d i d so by i m m e d i a t e l y p r e s s i n g the R o o s e v e l t government t o e n t e r i n t o n e g o t i a t i o n s l e a d i n g t o a b i l a t e r a l t r a d e p a c t . W h i l e i t took some time t o complete the n e g o t i a t i o n s , by 1935 the f i r s t c o n c r e t e s t e p had been t a k e n and t h e f u t u r e p a t t e r n o f Canada's c o n t i n e n t a l commercial r e l a t i o n s h i p had been 6 q e s t a b l i s h e d . ^ On an o t h e r l e v e l the e v o l u t i o n of t h e New D e a l h e l d an a t t r a c t i o n f o r C a n a d i a n s , as i n d e e d i t provoked i n t e r e s t and comment i n many o t h e r countries.^® The New D e a l r e p r e -s e n t e d an attempt t o cope w i t h the a p p a l l i n g e f f e c t s of the breakdown o f a l i b e r a l c a p i t a l i s t i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y , w h i l e m a i n t a i n i n g d e m o c r a t i c i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s and p r o c e s s e s . R o o s e v e l t ' s e f f o r t s t o f i n d a ' t h i r d way' between the extremes o f r e v o l u t i o n and r e a c t i o n , by u s i n g the a u t h o r i t y of the f e d e r a l government t o p r o v i d e d i r e c t i o n and promote d o m e s t i c r e f o r m , was bound t o i n v i t e e x a m i n a t i o n and comment by Canad-i a n s . Faced w i t h many s i m i l a r problems o f economic and s o c i a l t u r m o i l C a n a d i a n s , t o o , a c t i v e l y debated whether economic r e -c o v e r y c o u l d be i n d u c e d w h i l e r e f o r m s were b e i n g i n t r o d u c e d . P r o p o s a l s t o r e p l a c e open market economic r e l a t i o n s w i t h some v e r s i o n o f a p l a n n e d economy were i n the a i r i n b o t h c o u n t r i e s . Whether i t was f e a s i b l e o r a d v i s a b l e t o c h a l l e n g e e n t r e n c h e d i n t e r e s t groups and promote p o l i c i e s d e s i g n e d t o r e d i s t r i b u t e power and w e a l t h on a more e g a l i t a r i a n b a s i s became a key and germane t o p i c f o r Canadians as w e l l as A m e r i c a n s . Some Canadians a c c e p t e d R o o s e v e l t ' s r e f o r m model as b e i n g a p p l i c a b l e t o Canada's problems and they e x p r e s s e d t h e i r a p p r o v a l . I t i s a l s o u n d o u b t e d l y t r u e t h a t c o u n t l e s s o t h e r s l i s t e n e d t o , and were h e a r t e n e d by, R o o s e v e l t ' s ' f i r e s i d e c h a t s ' . R o o s e v e l t ' s m o r a l l e a d e r s h i p and championing o f the downtrodden and have-nots i n American s o c i e t y p r o v i d e d an a p p e a l i n g example o f p o l i t i c a l compassion. I t i s i m p o s s i b l e 7 t o gauge R o o s e v e l t ' s p e r s o n a l p o p u l a r i t y a c c u r a t e l y b u t i t p r o b a b l y was c o n s i d e r a b l e . I t a l s o seems c l e a r , however, t h a t t h o s e who a c c e p t e d R o o s e v e l t ' s New D e a l programs as models r e p r e s e n t e d a d i s t i n c t l y m i n o r i t y view i n Canada. The dominant r e a c t i o n i n Canada was t o r e j e c t the New D e a l model as b e i n g i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r Canada. The most i n f l u -e n t i a l theme i n Canadian comment and p o l i c y d u r i n g the time the New D e a l e v o l v e d i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s was t o r e j e c t major change, on the R o o s e v e l t i a n or any o t h e r model, and t o t r y t o m a i n t a i n the s o c i a l and economic s t a t u s quo. Canada's p o l i t -i c a l c u l t u r e d i d n o t produce a n a t i o n a l r e f o r m a d m i n i s t r a t i o n on the R o o s e v e l t i a n p a t t e r n ; nor was i t c o n d u c i v e t o p r o m o t i n g a n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c a l consensus w h i c h i n s i s t e d on change. F o r a v a r i e t y of r e a s o n s ; p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l , t r a d i t i o n a l , c o n s t i -t u t i o n a l , h i s t o r i c a l and a c c i d e n t a l , Canada f a i l e d t o f i n d a new b a l a n c e more c o m p a t i b l e w i t h the fundamental problems posed by a modern i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y t u r n e d u p s i d e down by d e p r e s s i o n . Canadian o b j e c t i o n s t o the New D e a l model emerged th r o u g h o u t the i d e o l o g i c a l and p o l i t i c a l spectrum. To the o r t h o d o x , R o o s e v e l t appeared as a r e v o l u t i o n a r y and they r e j e c t e d b o t h the ends and the c o n f u s e d means o f New D e a l r e f o r m s , c o n s i d e r i n g them b o t h u n d e s i r a b l e and i m p r a c t i c a l . To the r a d i c a l u northodox, who a c c e p t e d the assumption t h a t the e x i s t i n g c a p i t a l i s t system was n o t s u s c e p t i b l e t o mean-i n g f u l r e f o r m , R o o s e v e l t i a n change was a t b e s t p a l l i a t i v e and a t w o r s t h a r m f u l because i t d e l a y e d a t r u e s o l u t i o n w h i c h c o u l d o n l y come about through s o c i a l i s m . Of the two, the 8 former was the most i n f l u e n t i a l i n Canadian s o c i e t y , a t l e a s t as judged by e l e c t o r a l r e s u l t s and p o l i t i c a l p o l i c i e s . Two s p e c i f i c l i n e s o f argument were advanced by the o r t h o d o x who o b j e c t e d t o a New D e a l type of s o l u t i o n f o r Canada's problems. F i r s t was a range o f t a n g i b l e o b j e c t i o n s w h i c h c o n s i d e r e d the New D e a l approach t o be i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r the q u i t e d i f f e r e n t Canadian economic s t r u c t u r e . W h i l e t h e s e o b j e c t i o n s were many-sided, they f o c u s e d on the propo-s i t i o n t h a t a l t h o u g h the U n i t e d S t a t e s p o s s i b l y c o u l d a f f o r d t o t i n k e r w i t h h e r e t i c a l e x p e r i m e n t s , Canada c o u l d n o t . The v u l n e r a b i l i t y o f the Canadian economy, i t s dependence on i n t e r n a t i o n a l commercial r e l a t i o n s h i p s and f o r e i g n c a p i t a l m a r k e t s , and i t s l a c k o f economic s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y , a l l p r e -c l u d e d the p o s s i b i l i t y o f t a m p e r i n g w i t h the c o u n t r y ' s t r a d i -t i o n a l economic system. To do s o , p a r t i c u l a r l y by p r o m o t i n g r e f o r m s , i t was h e l d , would n o t o n l y f a i l t o open up the f o r e i g n markets on which the economy r e l i e d , b u t would a n t a g -o n i z e f o r e i g n bankers and i n v e s t o r s and d r i v e the c o u n t r y even f u r t h e r i n t o d e p r e s s i o n . W h i l e the U n i t e d S t a t e s was s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t t o the p o i n t where i t was a b l e t o f o r m u l a t e n a t i o n a l p o l i c i e s w i t h o u t r e f e r e n c e t o i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e s t r i c -t i o n s , Canada was not so f o r t u n a t e . Thus economic v u l n e r -a b i l i t y , i t was argued, s e t s e v e r e l i m i t s on Canada's a b i l i t y t o adopt any broad economic i n i t i a t i v e s , e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e which promoted u n s e t t l i n g change. B u t t r e s s i n g t h e s e t a n g i b l e r e a s o n s f o r a v o i d i n g r a d i c a l d e p a r t u r e s was a s t r u c t u r e o f c o n s e r v a t i v e s o c i a l 9 a t t i t u d e s which i n h i b i t e d Canadian r e s p o n s e s and d i s c o u r a g e d what were viewed as dangerous s o c i a l and economic e x p e r i m e n t s . I n the p r e - K e y n e s i a n e r a o f the e a r l y t h i r t i e s i t i s n o t s u r -p r i s i n g t h a t Canadian economic t h o u g h t , e s p e c i a l l y i n i n f l u -e n t i a l e l i t e g r o u p s , remained committed t o c l a s s i c a l t e n e t s o f l i b e r a l c a p i t a l i s m . The i n e x o r a b l e laws o f s u p p l y and demand and the f r e e market economy remained, however much they were c o n t r a v e n e d by s p e c i f i c a c t i o n s , the dominant l e n s through w h i c h the worth of s o c i e t y and i t s i n s t i t u t i o n s were judged. These views were e p i t o m i z e d and most v o c i f e r o u s l y a r t i c u l a t e d by b u s i n e s s , i n d u s t r i a l and f i n a n c i a l l e a d e r s b u t were n o t c o n f i n e d t o them. Most i n f l u e n t i a l p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s i n b o t h major p a r t i e s s h a red them as d i d , a p p a r e n t l y , a l a r g e segment o f the p o p u l a t i o n . D e s p i t e the c o l l e c t i v i s t f a c t o r w h i c h h i s t o r i c a l l y has been an a c t i v e element i n Canada's p o l i t i c a l c u l t u r e the dominant, o r a t l e a s t the most i n f l u -e n t i a l , v a l u e s i n the Canada of the t h i r t i e s were th o s e w h i c h emphasized an a p p e a l t o l i b e r a l i n d i v i d u a l i s m . I n a d i r e c t p o l i t i c a l s e n s e , i n d i v i d u a l i s m r e c e i v e d i t s c l e a r e s t e x p r e s -s i o n t h r o u g h the L i b e r a l P a r t y , and r e c e i v e d i t s e l e c t o r a l mandate i n the 1935 e l e c t i o n . I t was n a t u r a l t h a t an a p p e a l would be made t o t r a d i -t i o n a l v a l u e s when the d e p r e s s i o n s t r u c k . The f a m i l i a r and known, however i n e f f e c t i v e , was p r e f e r r e d t o the unknown and l e a d e r s h i p e l i t e s i n b o t h Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s r e a c t e d i n a s i m i l a r manner. Whether the emphasis on i n d i v i d u a l i s m was more or l e s s pronounced i n Canada t h a n i n the U n i t e d 10 S t a t e s i s a moot p o i n t . What i s r e l e v a n t i s t h a t t h i s empha-s i s was more i n f l u e n t i a l i n Canada d u r i n g t h e d e p r e s s i o n . I n the U n i t e d S t a t e s t h o s e who a p p e a l e d t o t r a d i t i o n a l , l a i s s e z -f a i r e methods were p l a c e d on the d e f e n s i v e when R o o s e v e l t was e l e c t e d and the New D e a l s e t i n m o t i o n . They a r t i c u l a t e d t h e i r v iews i n o p p o s i t i o n t o an a d m i n i s t r a t i o n w h i c h a c t i v e l y c h a l l e n g e d f a m i l i a r ways. And i n the c o n t e x t of the d e p r e s -s i o n i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c a p p e a l s l a r g e l y meant o p p o s i t i o n t o r e f o r m and change produced by p o s i t i v e government measures meant t o l i m i t the i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c b a s i s o f the o l d o r d e r . I n Canada, on the o t h e r hand, c h a l l e n g e s t o the t r a d i t i o n a l l a i s s e z - f a i r e b a s i s of s o c i e t y remained weak. The CCF p r o v i d e d the most i n t e l l e c t u a l l y comprehensive c h a l l e n g e , b u t i t was n o t n o t a b l y e f f e c t i v e . The C o n s e r v a t i v e B e n n e t t government d i d i n i t i a t e some l i m i t e d r e f o r m programs b u t the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f i t s own v e r s i o n o f a New D e a l s p l i t the p a r t y and was i n any case n u l l i f i e d a f t e r the p a r t y ' s d e f e a t i n 1935. I n f o r m u l a t i n g i t s p o l i c y , t h e L i b e r a l P a r t y concen-t r a t e d on o p p o s i n g the p o s i t i v e government a l t e r n a t i v e s p r e -s e n t e d by the CCF and C o n s e r v a t i v e s . T h i s o p p o s i t i o n , r e i n -f o r c e d by p o l i t i c a l f r a g m e n t a t i o n and the l a c k o f a consensus which s u p p o r t e d r e f o r m and change, p e r m i t t e d the L i b e r a l s t o g a i n power al m o s t by d e f a u l t . Thus the d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e of the New D e a l r e f o r m model on d o m e s t i c Canadian p o l i c i e s was m i n i m a l . W h i l e some p r o v i n c e s i m i t a t e d s p e c i f i c New D e a l l e g i s l a t i o n and some i n d u s t r i e s found themselves f o r c e d t o adapt t h e i r o p e r a t i o n s 11 t o New D e a l r e g u l a t i o n s , t h e r e was no g e n e r a l a c c e p t a n c e of the New D e a l example of e x e r c i s i n g p o s i t i v e government on a n a t i o n a l s c a l e . Canada went i t s own way and f a i l e d t o c o n c e i v e o f and implement a n a t i o n a l r e f o r m p o l i c y d u r i n g the d e p r e s s i o n . The d u a l f a c t o r s o f economic v u l n e r a b i l i t y and the dominant i n f l u e n c e o f c o n s e r v a t i v e s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s r e i n -f o r c e d one a n o t h e r and d e l a y e d m e a n i n g f u l change. D e s p i t e the apparent need f o r fundamental a d j u s t m e n t s i n n a t i o n a l economic and s o c i a l p o l i c i e s , w hich was s t a r k l y r e v e a l e d by the d e p r e s s i o n , the s i g n i f i c a n t r e a c t i o n i n Canada was t o m a i n t a i n the s t a t u s quo. But d e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t the New D e a l had o n l y a m a r g i n a l i m p a c t , and however l i t t l e i t s p o l i c i e s were emulated i n Canada, the New D e a l r e t a i n s an i m p o r t a n c e i n t h e s t u d y of Canada d u r i n g the t h i r t i e s . A l t h o u g h the American economy was more mature t h a n Canada's, b o t h s h a r e d s i m i l a r p r oblems. The t r a n s i t i o n from a f r e e - w h e e l i n g l a i s s e z - f a i r e market economy t o modern i n d u s t r i a l c a p i t a l i s m , c h a r a c t e r i z e d by combina-t i o n s , mergers and c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of economic power i n the p r i v a t e s e c t o r , was a phenomonon which o c c u r r e d i n b o t h c o u n t r i e s . The s o c i a l e f f e c t s i n v o l v e d i n the t r a n s i t i o n were a l s o s i m i l a r . Fundamental q u e s t i o n s concerned w i t h t h e c o n t r o l of p r i v a t e economic power and the r o l e of government i n the p r o c e s s were r a i s e d i n b o t h Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s . When the d e p r e s s i o n s h a t t e r e d the o l d o r d e r , the importance of the q u e s t i o n s was enhanced. The New D e a l r e p -r e s e n t e d one attempt t o answer the q u e s t i o n s by d e v i s i n g more 12 e f f e c t i v e mechanisms t o make the c a p i t a l i s t system f u n c t i o n more e f f i c i e n t l y and w i t h more s o c i a l j u s t i c e . By f o c u s i n g on what Canadians t h o u g h t , and how they r e a c t e d , t o the New D e a l much can be l e a r n e d about how Canadians viewed t h e i r own s o c i e t y . Canada's pr o b l e m s , v a l u e s , and views on economic a f f a i r s , s o c i a l j u s t i c e and the e x e r c i s e o f power can be i l l u m i n a t e d t h r o u g h the l e n s o f the a t t i t u d e s w h i c h Canadians e x p r e s s e d towards R o o s e v e l t ' s attempt t o cope w i t h s i m i l a r e v e n t s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . The American e x p e r i m e n t p r e -s e n t e d a model w h i c h c o n c e i v a b l y c o u l d be adopted by Canada, adapted t o Canada's needs, or a l t e r n a t i v e l y v i g o r o u s l y r e j e c t e d . C o n s e q u e n t l y c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f Canadian a t t i t u d e s towards the U n i t e d S t a t e s d u r i n g the e r a o f the New D e a l i n d i c a t e s n o t o n l y something of Canadian p e r s p e c t i v e s o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s . More i m p o r t a n t l y i t r e v e a l s much about how Canadians p e r c e i v e d t h e m s e l v e s , t h e i r own s o c i e t y and the v a l u e s w h i c h they c o n s i d e r e d e s s e n t i a l t o t h e maintenance o r enhancement of s o c i a l w e l l - b e i n g . * * * A h o s t o f problems c h a l l e n g e s the s t u d e n t i n any s t u d y o f Canada i n the t h i r t i e s . The r e l a t i v e l a c k of secondary s o u r c e s f o r c e s the r e s e a r c h e r t o c o n s i d e r an immense v a r i e t y o f unworked, s c a t t e r e d and d i f f u s e m a t e r i a l s . The sheer volume o f m a t e r i a l makes some s o r t of s e l e c t i o n p r o c e s s p a r a -mount. I n c o n s i d e r i n g the c o m p a r a t i v e l y vague and i m p r e c i s e s u b j e c t o f a t t i t u d e s — " t h e i m p l i c i t m e n t a l r e s e r v o i r from which o p i n i o n s d e r i v e " X J — t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s a r e even more e v i -d e n t. The problem i s f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t e d when c o n s i d e r i n g Canadian a t t i t u d e s towards the U n i t e d S t a t e s d u r i n g the g r e a t d e p r e s s i o n because o f the d u a l n a t u r e o f the a t t i t u d e s t h e m s e l v e s . On one l e v e l one can i d e n t i f y C a nadian r e s p o n s e s t o the U n i t e d S t a t e s i t s e l f o r t o s p e c i f i c A m e r ican p o l i c i e s . On a n o t h e r l e v e l one can d i s c e r n i n the r e s p o n s e s Canadian a t t i t u d e s t o the c o n d i t i o n s imposed by the d e p r e s s i o n and t o the fundamental problems o f s o c i a l change. The m a t t e r o f s e l e c t i o n poses two major s o u r c e s of d i f f i c u l t y . F i r s t t h e r e i s the problem o f d e c i d i n g whether i t i s a t a l l m e a n i n g f u l t o t h i n k i n terms o f "Canadian" a t t i -t udes w i t h o u t the u s u a l a r r a y o f r e g i o n a l , e t h n i c and l i n g u i s -t i c q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . The q u a l i f i c a t i o n s can be i g n o r e d o n l y a t g r e a t p e r i l because i t i s d e b a t a b l e whether one can r e f e r t o p u r e l y Canadian a t t i t u d e s , r e s p o n s e s , o p i n i o n s w i t h o u t a c k n o w l e d g i n g the d i f f e r e n c e s i n o u t l o o k and i n t e r e s t s o f , say Nova S c o t i a n s and A l b e r t a n s , l e t a l o n e t h o s e o f F r e n c h and E n g l i s h C a n a d i a n s . One of the many gaps i n the h i s t o r i c a l l i t e r a t u r e i s t h a t o f d e t a i l e d s t u d i e s o f r e g i o n a l r e s p o n s e s e i t h e r t o the U n i t e d S t a t e s o r t o the d e p r e s s i o n i t s e l f . I d e a l l y , r e g i o n a l a t t i t u d i n a l s t u d i e s s h o u l d precede a n a t i o n a l a p p r o a c h , which then c o u l d s y n t h e s i z e t h e i r m a t e r i a l s . But however v a l i d and n e c e s s a r y the r e g i o n a l s t u d i e s , a g r e a t many s o u r c e s i n d i c a t e t h a t a n a t i o n a l approach i s e q u a l l y . v a l i d and d e f e n s i b l e because, w h i l e r e g i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s a r e a p p a r e n t , a sense o f "Canadianism" was a l s o v e r y much t a k e n 14 f o r g r a n t e d . A number of f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h i s . The l e g a c y o f the G r e a t War was s t i l l f e l t d u r i n g t h e t h i r t i e s and i t f e d a n a t i o n a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n E n g l i s h Canada, because of the major Canadian e f f o r t and s a c r i f i c e d u r i n g t h e war. I n a d d i t i o n the N a t i o n a l P o l i c y was s t i l l f e l t t o be a m e a n i n g f u l economic r e a l i t y w hich formed the b a s i s o f t h e C anadian n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t . A l t h o u g h t h e r e was a growing awareness t h a t the f o c u s of economic development was s h i f t i n g t o the p r o v i n c e s and i n t o newer i n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t i e s , the n a t i o n a l c o n n e c t i o n s of wheat, p o p u l a t i o n and r a i l w a y s s t i l l o c c u p i e d a v e r y l a r g e p a r t o f , a t l e a s t , the n a t i o n a l r h e t o r i c . F i n a l l y , as the t r a n s i t i o n from c o l o n y t o something e l s e was i n p r o c e s s , i t was t a k e n as g i v e n t h a t Canada was a l e g i t i m a t e n a t i o n a l e n t i t y . W i t h i n the e n t i t y , r e g i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s were o b v i o u s l y a p p a r e n t ; b u t , a l s o , t h e r e was a sense of n a t i o n a l i s m which made Canada something more th a n s i m p l y a d i s p a r a t e c o l l e c t i o n o f competing r e g i o n s . The c o m b i n a t i o n o f t a n g i b l e s , f o r example, the economic i n t e r e s t s e n c r u s t e d around the N a t i o n a l P o l i c y , and the awareness of a n a t i o n a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s , produced a s e t o f r e s p o n s e s and a t t i t u d e s which can be c o n s i d e r e d C a nadian. The problem of F r e n c h and E n g l i s h a t t i t u d e s i s more d i f f i c u l t . F o r a number o f r e a s o n s i t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t the F r e nch-Canadian m i l i e u i n the t h i r t i e s was s u f f i c i e n t l y d i f -f e r e n t t o w a r r a n t a s e p a r a t e s t u d y . The complex o f a t t i t u d e s i n F r e n c h Canada towards the U n i t e d S t a t e s and towards the 15 problems of s o c i a l and economic change i n t h e t h i r t i e s makes i t u n i q u e . However, even t h i s o b v i o u s gap does n o t i n v a l i d a t e a n a t i o n a l approach. The d e p r e s s i o n c r e a t e d problems i n Canada w h i c h were n a t i o n a l i n scope and f o r which n a t i o n a l s o l u t i o n s were sought. Canadians l o o k e d t o the n a t i o n a l e x p e r i m e n t s of the U n i t e d S t a t e s (as w e l l as t o R u s s i a , Germany, I t a l y and o t h e r s ) , and, on one l e v e l , debated them i n terms of whether Canada s h o u l d adopt s i m i l a r n a t i o n a l p o l i c i e s t o cope w i t h the d e p r e s s i o n . The o t h e r major problem i s i n the n a t u r e of the s o u r c e s t h e m s e l v e s . Because d a t a from p u b l i c o p i n i o n p o l l i n g t e c h n i q u e s i s n o t a v a i l a b l e f o r the p e r i o d , i t i s n o t p o s s i b l e t o q u a n t i f y o r measure the s t r e n g t h o f a t t i t u d e s , o r t h e i r e x t e n t , i n Canada on p a r t i c u l a r i s s u e s a t any p o i n t i n t i m e . As one A m e rican h i s t o r i a n has commented i n a n o t h e r c o n t e x t , the r e s e a r c h e r i n t h i s p e r i o d , . . . must r e s i g n h i m s e l f t o d e a l i n g w i t h p r i n t e d m a t t e r (or the r e m i n i s c e n c e s o f s u r v i v o r s ) and t h e r e f o r e w i t h the a t t i t u d e s o f those who a r e most p o w e r f u l , o r n o i s y , o r e d u c a t e d , o r f a n a t i c , r a t h e r t h a n most r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . He cannot f o r s a k e the a r c h i v e s i n o r d e r t o i n t e r v i e w c a r e f u l l y s e l e c t e d samples of the p u b l i c . I n s t e a d he i s c o n f i n e d t o the mute, u n m a l l e a b l e m a t e r i a l s bequeathed t o him by a d e p a r t e d g e n e r a t i o n . R e l i a n c e on the p r i n t e d word i s n e c e s s a r i l y hazardous but an attempt can be made t o t r y t o r e l a t e e x p r e s s e d o p i n i o n s and a t t i t u d e s t o the s o c i e t y as a whole. The a t t e m p t must i n c l u d e judgement on i d e n t i f y i n g the most a p p a r e n t and pos-s i b l y most s i g n i f i c a n t a t t i t u d e s , e v a l u a t i n g how w i d e l y t h e y were h e l d , and d e t e r m i n i n g whether they can be c o n s i d e r e d t o 16 be i n any way t y p i c a l and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . F o r example, a l t h o u g h i t i s an undetermined q u e s t i o n whether newspapers r e f l e c t o r c r e a t e p u b l i c o p i n i o n , o r whether e d i t o r i a l w r i t e r s o r o p i n i o n commentators r e f l e c t j u s t t h e i r own v i e w s or b o d i e s o f o p i n i o n s h a r e d w i t h i n a l a r g e r community, a judgement can be made t o a s s e s s and a s s i g n a r e l a t i v e w e i g h t i n g t o s p e c i f i c r e c u r r i n g themes, which i n t u r n r e f l e c t u n d e r l y i n g a t t i t u d e s p r e s e n t i n s o c i e t y . I t i s e n t i r e l y p r o b a b l e t h a t some news-p a p e r s , p e r i o d i c a l s , and j o u r n a l s o f o p i n i o n a r e n o t o n l y more t y p i c a l t han o t h e r s b u t t h a t some ar e much more i n f l u e n t i a l i n a f f e c t i n g the d i r e c t i o n i n w h i c h p u b l i c p o l i c y , and t h e r e -f o r e l a t e r a t t i t u d e s , w i l l be d e v e l o p e d . But r e l i a n c e on t h e p r i n t e d word means, of c o u r s e , r e l i a n c e on the views of t h a t s m a l l p a r t o f the p o p u l a t i o n which has a c c e s s t o i t , and i n the Canada of the t h i r t i e s t h i s was a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l segment o f the p o p u l a t i o n . C o n s e q u e n t l y any a t t i t u d i n a l s t u d y must o f n e c e s s i t y be c o n s i d e r e d i n c o m p l e t e i n i t s e l f . W i t h i n the v a r i e t y o f p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s some l e n d themselves more r e a d i l y than o t h e r s t o a judgement of t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s . F o r example i t can perhaps be assumed t h a t comment i n a t r a d e j o u r n a l l i k e The Canadian G r o c e r r e f l e c t s many of the s h a red i n t e r e s t s o f t h o s e Canadians i n v o l v e d i n the g r o c e r y t r a d e , as w e l l as a l e v e l o f i n t e r e s t s w h i c h g r o c e r s , as businessmen, s h a r e d w i t h o t h e r s e c t o r s o f the C anadian b u s i n e s s community. S i m i l a r l y , t h e w r i t i n g s i n I n d u s t r i a l Canada no doubt r e f l e c t , t o some e x t e n t , some o f the s h a red views of Canadian m a n u f a c t u r e r s , The Canadian 17 Congress J o u r n a l and The Canadian U n i o n i s t t h o s e o f o r g a n i z e d l a b o u r , The C o u n t r y Guide and The F a m i l y H e r a l d t h o s e of f a r m e r s , and so on. W i t h some degree of c o n f i d e n c e one can deduce and draw c e r t a i n c o n c l u s i o n s about the i n t e r e s t s , p r e -o c c u p a t i o n s , f e a r s , hopes and p o l i c i e s of o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p s , from the m a t e r i a l s c o n t a i n e d i n t h e i r t r a d e and i n t e r e s t group j o u r n a l s . J o u r n a l s of o p i n i o n and p e r i o d i c a l s w i t h a w i d e r range of i n t e r e s t s , d e s i g n e d f o r a more g e n e r a l r e a d e r s h i p , a r e more d i f f i c u l t t o e v a l u a t e , a s s e s s and judge. F o r example, The  Canadian Forum can be c o n s i d e r e d t o have been the p r i n c i p a l j o u r n a l o f the moderate s o c i a l i s t l e f t i n Canada, e s p e c i a l l y d u r i n g the f i r s t y e a r s of the t h i r t i e s . The group of p e o p l e who c o n t r i b u t e d most of t h e e d i t o r i a l comment and many of t h e a r t i c l e s was a s m a l l one. Most were a l s o i n v o l v e d w i t h the League F o r S o c i a l R e c o n s t r u c t i o n and the CCF, and most wrote e l s e w h e r e so t h a t t h e i r views can be f a i r l y c l e a r l y c a t e -g o r i z e d . But how t y p i c a l t h e i r v i e w s , or how wide a spectrum o f the C anadian p o p u l a t i o n they r e p r e s e n t e d , i s i m p o s s i b l e t o judge. The Forum's c i r c u l a t i o n remained s m a l l , b u t i t s i n f l u e n c e p r o b a b l y exceeded i t s l i m i t e d d i s t r i b u t i o n by a g r e a t d e a l . W h i l e the degree o f i t s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s i s i n c a l c u l a b l e , the Forum can be c o n s i d e r e d t y p i c a l o f the body o f i d e a s and a t t i t u d e s h e l d w i t h i n the moderate s o c i a l i s t l e f t i n Canada. As s u c h , and w i t h some q u a l i f i c a t i o n , the w r i t i n g s i n the Forum can be a t l e a s t p a r t i a l l y c a t e g o r i z e d . J o u r n a l s and p e r i o d i c a l s w i t h a l e s s i d e n t i f i a b l e 18 p o l i t i c a l base a re more d i f f i c u l t t o c a t e g o r i z e . S a t u r d a y  N i g h t i s one o f t h e s e . I n the t h i r t i e s , under t h e e d i t o r s h i p o f B. K. S a n d w e l l , S a t u r d a y N i g h t was not o n l y a l i v e l y and w e l l w r i t t e n forum o f o p i n i o n , i t was a l s o r e m a r k a b l y e c l e c t i c and s u r p r i s i n g l y t o l e r a n t . S a n d w e l l ' s e d i t o r i a l s , q u o t a b l e and p r o v o c a t i v e , were m o d e r a t e l y c o n s e r v a t i v e b u t h i s comments and c r i t i c i s m s s p a r e d few i n p o l i t i c a l l i f e . On the o t h e r hand the f i n a n c i a l e d i t o r , P. M. R i c h a r d s , was an o r t h o d o x economic c o n s e r v a t i v e whose e d i t o r i a l comment c o u l d have been c o m f o r t a b l e i n the F i n a n c i a l P o s t . C o n t r i b u t o r s t o the p e r i -o d i c a l r e p r e s e n t e d a wide range o f p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l v i e w -p o i n t s , from o r t h o d o x bankers t o s o c i a l a c t i v i s t s . Conse-q u e n t l y , i t would be m i s l e a d i n g t o l a b e l S a t u r d a y N i g h t as e n t i r e l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f any s e t of vi e w s and a t t i t u d e s o r any set. p e r c e n t a g e o f the Canadian p o p u l a t i o n . R a t h e r , i t s v a l u e as a sou r c e f o r i d e n t i f y i n g a t t i t u d e s i n Canada l i e s s i m p l y i n the f a c t t h a t i t was a medium i n w h i c h i d e a s and themes were e x p r e s s e d , from w h i c h u n d e r l y i n g a t t i t u d e s can be d i s c e r n e d and i d e n t i f i e d . From the w e l t e r of i t s w r i t i n g s , p a r a d o x i c a l and c o n t r a d i c t o r y i n t h e m s e l v e s , emerges a v a r i e t y of themes, and a t t i t u d e s , w h i c h can be i d e n t i f i e d as b e i n g of c o n c e r n t o , a t l e a s t , some Can a d i a n s . C o l l e c t i o n s of p r i v a t e papers can be used t o s u p p l e -ment more p u b l i c m a t e r i a l s . P o i n t s o f v i e w can be a m p l i f i e d and o t h e r w i s e i n d i s t i n c t e v e n t s c l a r i f i e d i n l e t t e r s w r i t t e n f o r p r i v a t e use. A t t i t u d e s r e f l e c t e d i n p r i v a t e l e t t e r s can be r e l a t e d t o and compared w i t h those w h i c h found more p u b l i c e x p r e s s i o n . As w i t h the p u b l i c p r i n t e d word, p r i v a t e c o r r e s -pondence cannot t e l l the whole s t o r y . F o r one t h i n g t h e r e a r e r e l a t i v e l y few c o l l e c t i o n s of p r i v a t e papers concerned w i t h the t h i r t i e s . Moreover, most of t h o s e w h i c h a r e a v a i l a b l e a r e papers of i n d i v i d u a l s o f means, subst a n c e and i n f l u e n c e i n p o l i t i c s , economic a c t i v i t i e s , the a r t s and academe, and t h i s means a f a i r l y s m a l l segment of the o v e r a l l p o p u l a t i o n . One can d e v e l o p a v i e w of the c o ncerns of t h e upper l a y e r s o f s o c i e t y b u t v e r y l i t t l e i m p r e s s i o n o f the q u a l i t y o f the soup i n the soup k i t c h e n . Here a g a i n the absence o f p o l l i n g d a t a makes i m p o s s i b l e the t a s k of o b t a i n i n g a t r u l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e c r o s s s e c t i o n of Canadian o p i n i o n . But i t i s s t i l l p o s s i b l e t o e x t r a c t comment i n p r i v a t e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e , b o t h t h a t d i r e c t l y on the U n i t e d S t a t e s and t h a t on more g e n e r a l s o c i a l i s s u e s r a i s e d by the d e p r e s s i o n , and by r e l a t i n g i t t o o t h e r s o u r c e s t o b u i l d up a mosaic of how some C a n a d i a n s , i n d i v i d -u a l l y and i n g r o u p s , p e r c e i v e d themselves d u r i n g the t h i r t i e s . And by f o c u s i n g on comment on the U n i t e d S t a t e s the mosaic can be c r e a t e d out of the many v a r i e d , c o n f u s e d , c o n t r a d i c t o r y and p a r a d o x i c a l a t t i t u d e s which u n d e r l a y the comment. F i n a l l y , t h e r e a r e two major a l t e r n a t i v e approaches t o an a t t i t u d i n a l s t u d y o f t h i s k i n d . The f i r s t i s t o a p p l y the m e t h o d o l o g i c a l t e c h n i q u e s o f c o n t e n t a n a l y s e s t o a r e s t r i c t e d s e l e c t i o n of m a t e r i a l s i n o r d e r t o measure and q u a n t i f y the s t r e n g t h , p e r s i s t e n c e and e x t e n t o f a t t i t u d e s e x p r e s s e d i n t h o s e s e l e c t e d m a t e r i a l s . The second, as d e s c r i b e d v i v i d l y by P r o f e s s o r W a i t e , i s t o immerse o n e s e l f 20 i n the p e r i o d b e i n g s t u d i e d , t o ta k e the arguments as tho s e who e x p r e s s e d them d i d , t o l o o k a t as wide a v a r i e t y o f m a t e r i a l s as p o s s i b l e , and t o l e t the s o u r c e s r a t h e r than t h e methodology l e a d . 1 6 P o s s i b l y b o t h methods would l e a d t o many of the same c o n c l u s i o n s , but f o r t h i s s t u d y the second approach seemed t o be the most e f f e c t i v e . 21 NOTES—CHAPTER I 1. F o r K i n g see, R. 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