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Ability of yard trimmings compost to mitigate environmental impacts of over-winter field stored poultry.. 2007

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A B I L I T Y O F Y A R D T R I M M I N G S C O M P O S T T O M I T I G A T E E N V I R O N M E N T A L I M P A C T S O F O V E R - W I N T E R F I E L D S T O R E D P O U L T R Y L I T T E R by E R I C A E L A I N E M I L L I G A N B . S c , The Un ive rs i t y o f V i c to r i a , 2002 A T H E S I S S U B M I T T E D I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T O F T H E R E Q U I R E M E N T S F O R T H E D E G R E E O F M A S T E R O F S C I E N C E in T H E F A C U L T Y O F G R A D U A T E S T U D I E S (So i l Science) T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A A p r i l 2007 © Erica Elaine Milligan, 2007 Abstract Incorporat ion o f poultry litter ( PL ) into crop product ion on B r i t i sh C o l u m b i a ' s Fraser R i v e r delta is an important means o f recyc l ing this over-abundant agricultural waste product. However , environmental and eco log ica l concerns associated w i th over- winter f i e ld storage o f P L should be addressed. T o mitigate these concerns some farmers have been storing the P L on a 30 c m thick base pad o f C i t y o f Vancouve r yard t r immings compost ( Y T C ) and further cover ing the pi le w i th a 15 c m thick layer o f Y T C . A c o l u m n study was conducted on the U B C , Vancouver campus to assess the effects o f the Y T C base pad and cover on the qual i ty o f leachate emanating f r o m the P L . The Y T C layer under the P L decreased (P<0.05) the cumulat ive C u , Z n and P leached as compared to the P L alone by 5 0 % , 5 4 % and 3 0 % , but had litt le abi l i ty to retain N or soluble salts. Concentrat ions i n the first f lush o f leachate out o f the P L were reduced by the Y T C pad f r om 25 to 1.3 m g C u L"1, 11 to 0.95 m g Z n L"1, and 430 to 40 m g P L"1. A key f ind ing was that the Y T C cover increased (P<0.05) the leaching o f N , C u and Z n f r om the under ly ing P L . A complementary f ie ld study was conducted over the same winter i n De l ta , B C . Three P L storage pi les were constructed w i th and without an Y T C pad and/or Y T C cover. S o i l samples f r om under and around the pi les (0-15 and 15-30cm depths) as we l l as samples f r om the Y T C base pad were analyzed. C r o p development the f o l l o w i n g spr ing was negat ively impacted under a l l pi les. The Y T C pad protected the so i l be low the core o f the p i le f r om leaching due to water table rise however it was less effective under the h igh l y leached outer regions o f the pi les. De l ta farmers are advised to not store P L direct ly on the so i l and to consider the use o f an Y T C base pad thicker than 30cm. The Y T C cover apparently increases leaching, l i k e l y due to increased inf i l t rat ion o f precipitat ion, yet it reduces run-off, and isolates the P L f r o m w i ld l i f e . Table of Contents Abstract ii Table of Contents iv List of Tables v i i List of Figures ix List of Abbreviations x i Acknowledgements x i i 1. General introduction and literature review 1.1 I N T R O D U C T I O N 1 1.2 B A C K G R O U N D 1.2.1 Poul t ry litter resource and nutrient management 3 1.2.2 Water qual i ty standards for B r i t i sh C o l u m b i a 5 1.2.3 Y a r d t r immings compost resource 5 1.3 L I T E R A T U R E S T U D Y 1.3.1 Poul t ry litter storage 7 1.3.2 Compos t as a f i l ter 1.3.2.1 Compos t def ined 9 1.3.2.2 Chemis t ry and sorpt ion capacity of compost 9 1.3.2.3 Current appl icat ions of compost as a f i l ter 10 1.4 O B J E C T I V E S 12 1.5 H Y P O T H E S E S T O B E T E S T E D 13 1.6 T H E S I S O R G A N I Z A T I O N 14 2. Compost layering effects on poultry litter leaching: A column study 15 2.1 M A T E R I A L S A N D M E T H O D S 2.1.1 Exper imenta l design 15 2.1.2 T i m e doma in ref lectrometry 17 2.1.3 Leachate co l lec t ion and analysis 18 2.1.4 Phys ica l and chemica l analyses o f in i t ia l and f ina l c o l u m n materials. 19 2.1.5 Statistical analysis 23 2.2 R E S U L T S A N D D I S C U S S I O N 2.2.1 Weather 23 2.2.2 Phys i ca l and chemica l properties o f yard t r immings compost and poultry litter 24 2.2.3 E lec t r i ca l conduct iv i ty 29 iv 2.2.4 N i t rogen 29 2.2.5 Phosphorus 32 2.2.6 C a l c i u m 36 2.2.7 Copper and Z i n c 37 2.3 C O N C L U S I O N S 40 3. Use of yard trimmings compost to mitigate effects of over-winter field storage of poultry litter on soil quality 42 3.1 M A T E R I A L S A N D M E T H O D S 3.1.1 Site and pi le descriptions 42 3.1.2 So i l sampl ing and analysis 43 3.1.3 Poul t ry litter and yard t r immings compost sampl ing and analysis 45 3.1.4 Statist ical analysis 47 3.2 R E S U L T S A N D D I S C U S S I O N 3.2.1 C l imate 47 3.2.2 F i e l d Observat ions 3.2.2.1 Winter 48 3.2.2.2 Summer 50 3.2.3 S o i l qual ity under and around piles 3.23.1 All piles 51 3.2.3.2 Pile 1 53 3.2.3.3 Pile 2 58 3.2.3.4 Pile 3 60 3.2.4 Assessment of yard t r immings compost base pad and cover ing 64 3.3 C O N C L U S I O N S 67 4. General discussion and conclusions 4.1 I N T R O D U C T I O N 69 4.2 C O M P A R I S O N S A N D I N T E R P R E T A T I O N S O F C O L U M N A N D F I E L D S T U D I E S 69 4.3 P O T E N T I A L O F Y T C B A S E P A D A N D A S S E S S M E N T O F A P P R O P R I A T E T H I C K N E S S F O R O V E R - W I N T E R F I E L D S T O R A G E O F P O U L T R Y L I T T E R 72 4.4 F U R T H E R A P P L I C A T I O N S O F Y T C A S A F I L T E R A N D / O R A N E N V I R O N M E N T A L B U F F E R 76 4.5 B R O A D E R P E R S P E C T I V E 4.5.1 Poul t ry litter storage options 77 4.5.2 U s e of poultry litter in crop product ion on B C ' s Fraser De l ta 79 4.6 R I S K A S S E S S M E N T 80 4.6.1 Benef i c i a l management practices 81 4.7 A S S E S S M E N T O F T H E S I S R E S E A R C H 4.7.1 Strengths o f research 82 4.7.2 Weaknesses of research 83 4.7.3 Status o f hypotheses and current state o f knowledge 84 4.8 S U G G E S T I O N S F O R F U T U R E R E S E A R C H 85 v References 87 Appendices A P P E N D I X A - C o l u m n construct ion 93 A P P E N D I X B - T i m e doma in ref lectrometry data 95 A P P E N D I X C - C o l u m n study data 96 A P P E N D I X D - F i e l d study sampl ing 108 A P P E N D I X E - F i e l d study so i l data 110 A P P E N D I X F - F i e l d study Y T C and P L data 118 v i List of Tables Table Page 1.1 B r i t i sh C o l u m b i a water qual i ty guidel ines for some leachable nutrients present in poultry litter 5 2.1 C o l u m n treatments 16 2.2 C h e m i c a l properties o f in i t ia l co lumn materials 24 2.3 Concentrat ions o f metals i n poultry litter and Y T C pr ior to leaching 25 2.4 Part ic le size distr ibut ion of in i t ia l co lumn materials 25 2.5 Phys ica l properties o f in i t ia l co lumn materials 25 2.6 Ca t ion exchange capacity and % base saturation corrected for soluble salts of Y T C 26 2.7 Leach ing losses o f major nutrients f rom Y T C and P L alone co lumns 28 3.1 Descr ipt ions o f experimental poultry litter f ie ld storage pi les 42 3.2 F i e l d observations o f the effects on crop development the summer f o l l o w i n g over-winter storage o f poultry litter 51 3.3 Init ial fa l l nutrient concentrations o f the stored poultry litter 52 3.4 So i l p H and concentrations o f avai lable nutrients under and around P i l e 1 at the end o f the storage per iod 57 3.5 So i l p H and concentrations o f avai lable nutrients under and around P i l e 3 at the end o f the storage per iod 63 4.1 Compar i son o f Y T C qual i ty w i th U S E P A standards for compost used in erosion control f i l ter berms 71 4.2 Compar i son of Y T C base pad effects (P < 0.05) in co lumn and f ie ld studies 71 4.3 P, C u and Z n retention capacities of Y T C base pad determined through co lumn study 73 4.4 Potentia l P, C u , and Z n retention capacities o f a cy l indr i ca l sect ion o f an Y T C base pad o f 30 c m diameter and increasing thickness 73 4.5 Cumula t i ve masses o f P, C u and Z n leached f r om P L alone c o l u m n over study per iod 74 B . l Descr ipt ions o f locations o f T D R probes in co lumns 95 B. 2 R a w data f rom T D R measurements over c o l u m n study 95 C . 1 Tota l sol ids content, E C and p H o f leachates 96 C.2 Concentrat ions o f nutrients in leachates 100 C.3 Concentrat ions o f metals in leachates 105 C.4 M a c r o and mic ro nutrient concentrations of in i t ia l Y T C packed into co lumns and Y T C layers after leaching 106 C.5 M a c r o and m ic ro nutrient concentrations of in i t ia l P L packed into co lumns and P L layers after leaching 107 E. l M a c r o and mic ro nutrients concentrations o f soi ls col lected under and around f i e ld pi les 110 F. 1 M a c r o and m ic ro nutrient concentrations o f in i t ia l Y T C sampled i n the fa l l and Y T C sampled f r om various locations w i th in P i l e 1 after storage ... 118 F.2 M a c r o and m ic ro nutrient concentrations o f in i t ia l poultry litter sampled in the fa l l and poultry litter after storage sampled f r o m various locat ions w i th in P i les 1 and 2 119 v i i i List of Figures Figure Page # 1.1 M a p o f the Fraser V a l l e y 2 2.1 E lect r ica l conduct iv i t ies o f leachates 29 2.2 Cumula t i ve masses o f (a) total N , (b) N H 4 , and (c) organic N leached dur ing c o l u m n experiment 30 2.3 Ava i l ab l e NH4-N and NO3-N in in i t ia l Y T C material packed into co lumns and in Y T C layers after leaching 32 2.4 Cumu la t i ve masses o f (a) total P, (b) d isso lved P, and (c) ortho-P leached dur ing c o l u m n experiment 33 2.5 Var iat ions i n concentrat ion of total P i n leachates over exper iment 34 2.6 Compar i son o f (a) total P and (b) avai lable P i n the in i t ia l Y T C material packed into the co lumns and Y T C layers after leaching 35 2.7 Cumula t i ve masses o f C a leached f r om co lumns 37 2.8 Var iat ions in concentrations o f (a) C u and (b) Z n in leachates over study per iod 38 2.9 Cumula t i ve masses o f (a) C u and (b) Z n leached f r o m co lumns 39 3.1 M o n t h l y precipi tat ion at Vancouver international A i rpo r t 2005-2006 compared to Env i ronment Canada normals 48 3.2 Average temperatures measured i n pi les over the winter storage per iod .... 50 3.3 Ef fect o f P i l e 1 on so i l (a) E C , (b) N H 4 - N , and (c) avai lable P at 0-15 c m depth, sampled A p r i l 2006 53 3.4 Ef fect o f P i l e 2 on so i l (a) E C , (b) N H 4 - N , and (c) avai lable P at 0-15 c m depth sampled A p r i l 2006 59 3.5 Ef fect o f P i l e 3 on so i l (a) E C , (b) N H 4 - N , and (c) avai lable P, sampled A p r i l 2006 61 3.6 So i l N H 4 - N concentrations under h igh l y leached wet regions o f a l l pi les at end o f storage per iod, sampled A p r i l 2006 65 3.7 So i l E C s measured under the cores o f the pi les at the end of the storage per iod, sampled A p r i l 2006 65 A . 1 Photo o f upside d o w n c o l u m n show ing the amber tubing used for leachate co l lec t ion , and the air inlet loop inside the j u g 93 A . 2 Photo o f pack ing the co lumns 93 A . 3 Photo o f the top o f the c o l u m n table at To tem f i e ld , U B C , Vancouver 94 A . 4 Photo o f the two co lumns used for T D R data co l lec t ion 94 D . l Photograph o f excavator cut made for sampl ing at P i l e 1 in the Y T C covered sect ion 108 D.2 Samp l ing spots i n the wet outer reg ion o f the Y T C covered sect ion of P i l e 1 108 D.3 Samp l ing spots f r o m the dry core o f P i l e 1 109 Abbreviations P L - Poul t ry litter Y T C - Y a r d t r immings compost Y / P L - C o l u m n treatment: yard t r immings compost over poultry litter P L / Y - C o l u m n treatment: poul t ry litter over yard t r immings compost S - C o l u m n treatment: " s a n d w i c h " ie. yard t r immings compost over poul t ry litter over yard t r immings compost 1U - P i l e 1 uncovered sect ion I C - P i l e 1 Y T C covered sect ion 2U - P i l e 2 uncovered sect ion 2C - P i l e 2 Y T C covered sect ion E C - E lec t r i ca l conduct iv i ty Db - D r y bu lk density Dp - Part ic le density W H C - Water ho ld ing capacity C E C - Ca t ion exchange capacity Acknowledgements First and foremost I'd l i ke to thank Drs . A r t B o m k e and Wayne Temp le for taking me on and g i v ing me the opportunity to participate i n a port ion o f their ongo ing research w i th the De l ta farmers. The i r longstanding relat ionship w i th the De l ta farmers was an asset to the success o f this thesis. B y a l low ing me to participate in col laborat ive meetings w i th industry and government representatives and to present m y research in a variety o f settings they gave me the chance to see m y career options as we l l as to meet many people w i th in the so i l science and agricultural communit ies . Wa tch ing A r t ca lm ly juggle his passion for teaching wi th his many pub l i c service posit ions, basketbal l games, workshops, seminars, and protests a l l wh i le r id ing f rom place to place on his b i cyc l e was truly insp i r ing . Wha t I have learned f r o m A r t and W a y n e is immeasurable. I'd l ike to thank Y o k o Hayakawa , M e l i s s a Iverson, and W i l l A r n u p for their help w i th the hours o f tedious lab work. The i r help and company were much appreciated. I'd l ike to also thank R i c k Ket le r and Jurgen Pehlke for their support in the construct ion o f the co lumns. R i c k also lent us s ix T D R probes mak ing that port ion o f the c o l u m n experiment possible. I'd also l i ke to thank Dr . M i c h a e l N o v a k for lending me the T D R instrument. The c o l u m n experiment cou ld not have taken place without the support o f Seane Trehearne at the To tem f i e ld site. Seane was always extremely he lp fu l , and w i l l i n g to lend us his tools, shop, hose, or wheel barrow. Thanks to George Rushwor th o f the M in i s t r y o f Env i ronment for his advice regarding water sampl ing and analysis. I'd also l ike to thank the Wh i t e Springs Water C o m p a n y i n Surrey for generously g i v ing us 20 water jugs to be used in the co lumn study. Sietan Ch ieng was a fountain of in format ion regarding c o l u m n studies and I thank h i m for taking the t ime to share his expertise w i th me. Th i s thesis w o u l d not have been possible without my supervisory committee. I thank Drs . R o y a n n Petrel l and M i c h a e l N o v a k for their support and guidance through this intense learning process. The i r unique perspectives were an asset. I'd l i ke to g ive a specia l thank you to D r . Les L a v k u l i c h for a l l o f his explanat ions, edi t ing, advice, and overa l l support. Wi thout Les I might st i l l be t ry ing to f igure out how to get started on wr i t ing m y results section. Last but not least I'd l i ke to thank m y fami l y and friends for their ongo ing support, and for putt ing up w i th me through the stressful t imes. W i thout you I 'm sure I w o u l d not be f in i sh ing this thesis today. 1. General introduction and literature review 1.1 Introduction The lower Fraser V a l l e y extends f r om Hope to the estuary o f the Fraser R i ve r . It is characterized by a r iver delta to the West , a l ow land p la in to the Southeast, and a f l ood p la in extending a long the length of the r iver to the Eastern end o f the va l l ey (F igure 1.1). The Fraser V a l l e y consists of diverse w i ld l i f e , i nc lud ing many species o f migratory birds, and an economica l l y and cul tura l ly important sa lmon run, increasing urban settlement, and some o f Br i t i sh C o l u m b i a ' s most product ive agricultural land. The Fraser V a l l e y accounts for more than ha l f o f the prov ince 's gross farm receipts on a smal l port ion o f the total agricultural land (Fraser Bas in C o u n c i l ( F B C ) 2001). Po int sources o f pollutants i n the region are general ly we l l constrained, however it is the non-point sources, such as nutrient over loading in agricultural f ie lds that have become a greater concern. In 2001 the F B C released a document entit led "Nut r ient Management P lann ing Strategies for the Fraser V a l l e y " . Th i s document out l ined the need to control nutrient inputs (nitrogen (N) , phosphorus (P), and potass ium (K) ) to agricultural f ie lds. These inputs come in the forms o f animal manures and chemica l fert i l izers, and need to be contro l led i n terms o f both quantity and t im ing o f appl icat ion. 1 Figure 1.1 Map of the Fraser Valley (Fraser Basin Council, 2004) Due to the increased intensity o f l ivestock fa rming in the Surrey to C h i l l i w a c k region over the past twenty years, the incorporat ion of animal manures into crop product ion throughout the entire Fraser V a l l e y has become a necessary means o f disposal o f an abundant agricultural waste. However , this raises questions as to the appl icat ion rates and t im ing , food safety and w i ld l i f e safety wi th regards to the spread o f pathogens, as we l l as environmental concerns related to over-winter f ie ld storage o f the manure. The Corporat ion of De l ta receives on average 712 m m of precipitat ion f rom October 1 s t to A p r i l 1 s t (Env ironment Canada 2004). These h igh levels of precipitat ion can lead to leaching, run-off and over land f l ow o f nutrients, salts, and heavy metals f r om the stored litter. Furthermore, agricultural f ie lds in De l ta are subject to a f luctuat ing water table wh i ch common l y causes so i l saturation. In the spring there is often an area o f stunted or non - existent crop growth where the poultry litter was stored over-winter. In order to mitigate these concerns some farmers have been bu i ld ing a 30 c m thick base pad out o f C i t y o f Vancouver yard t r immings compost ( Y T C ) on w h i c h the manure is stored, and addi t ional ly cover ing the pi le w i th a 15 c m thick layer o f Y T C . Pre l iminary observations indicate that this pad and cover ing protect the soi l be low f rom excessive nutrients and sal inity ( Bomke and 2 Temp le 2004) . In the spr ing, the compost base pad and cover ing are thoroughly m i x e d w i th the poultry litter and spread evenly over the f i e ld . Thus any nutrients lost f r om the manure and trapped in the Y T C remain avai lable for crop growth. 1.2 Background 1.2.1 Poultry litter resource and nutrient management S ince the mid-1980s the intensity o f poultry fa rming in the lower Fraser Va l l e y , part icular ly the Surrey to C h i l l i w a c k region, has increased dramatical ly . F r o m 1986 to 1996 the ch i cken and hen product ion increased f r om 6.9 m i l l i o n to 10.7 m i l l i o n birds, wh i l e the number o f these farms decreased b y 5% f r om 1454 to 1380 ( F B C 2001) . F r o m 1991 to 1996 the turkey product ion increased f r om 646 000 to 795 000 birds (Schreier et al. 2000). Th i s increase i n the number o f poultry i n the reg ion has forced farmers to import more feed f r om A lbe r t a and Saskatchewan, thus increasing the reg ion 's nutrient surplus. Furthermore, i n the Abbo ts fo rd reg ion, where crop cu l t ivat ion occurs over the Abbotsford-Sumas aquifer there has been a shift away f r o m the product ion o f h igh N demanding forage crops to l ow nutrient requir ing raspberries. The combinat ion o f the over appl icat ion of poul t ry manure and the cu l t i vat ion o f l o w nutrient requir ing crops has led to very h igh N levels in the Abbots ford- Sumas aquifer, and nitrate (NO3) concentrations w h i c h are c o m m o n l y above dr ink ing water standards (Table 1.1) ( F B C 2001). Th i s has also led to aquatic habitat degradation, thus putt ing at r isk economica l l y and soc ia l l y important sa lmon runs ( F B C 2001). Because o f this, over the past 10 years there has been a concerted effort to control the amount o f manure appl ied to agricultural f ie lds , and to move excess poultry manure to more manure poor regions (i.e. less l ivestock product ion) of the Fraser Va l l e y , such as the Fraser R i v e r delta. 3 In 2000-2001 the Fraser V a l l e y produced approximate ly 240 000 tonnes o f poul t ry manure, 17 175 tonnes o f wh i ch were moved v i a the Sustainable Poul t ry Fa rming G roup to markets distant f rom the poultry produc ing regions o f the Fraser V a l l e y (T immenga and Associates Inc 2003). Forty-nine percent of this was shipped to the Corporat ion o f De l ta . In 2004-2005 the total manure product ion in the Fraser V a l l e y had cont inued to increase however the amount shipped to De l ta had decreased to 2330 tonnes (Ch ipper f ie ld 2005) . The ma in reasons for this decl ine in poultry litter use cited by De l ta farmers were the environmental regulations (discussed in the literature study) associated w i th the storage o f the manure, and increasing food safety concerns related to pathogens (Ch ipper f ie ld 2005) . Poul t ry litter is a mixture o f poultry manure, feathers, and bedding mater ia l , usua l ly w o o d shavings or sawdust, wh i ch is removed f rom poultry barns upon clean-out. It is general ly h igh in N , P and salts, as compared to other manures. The exact nutrient content depends on the type o f poultry litter (i.e. ch icken broi ler , commerc ia l egg, hatching egg, or turkey), however in general on a dry weight basis the P2O5 equivalent is 2.5 - 3 . 0 % or 11-13 g P k g " 1 poultry litter, the K 2 0 content is 1.2 - 1.6% or 10-13 g K k g " 1 poultry litter, and the ammon ium-N ( N H 4 - N ) content is 0.4 - 0 . 7 % or 3-6 g N H 4 - N k g " 1 poultry litter ( S P F G 1996). The major environmental concerns surrounding the use o f poultry litter are vo la t i l i za t ion o f ammon ia and nitrous oxides wh i ch are harmful atmospheric pol lutants, nitrate leaching especia l ly into groundwater used for d r ink ing wh i ch can cause methaemoglobinaemia or blue baby syndrome, P bu i l d up in soi ls , unpleasant odors, and the spread of pathogens. In 2004 av ian inf luenza broke out in the Fraser Va l l e y . S ince then, pub l i c perception surrounding the use and storage of poultry manure has become increas ingly important. . 4 In addit ion to h igh levels o f nutrients poultry litter contains heavy metals (on average 35 m g k g " 1 Pb , 150-390 m g k g " 1 C u , 400-850 mg kg " 1 Z n on a dry weight basis) , ant ibiot ics, antioxidants, m o u l d inhibitors, hormones, and other organic compounds (Gupta et al. 1992; Gupta et al . 2005 ; B ro ck et al. 2006). Poul t ry litter leachate at concentrations of 2.9 g L"1 aqueous extract has been shown to be tox ic to many organisms. Th i s toxic i ty has been largely attributed to the presence of ammon ia and heavy metals (Gupta et al. 1992). Fo r these reasons it is extremely important that poultry litter is stored in such a way as to prevent any leachate f rom f l ow ing direct ly into nearby waterways or seeping into groundwater. 1.2.2 Water quality standards for British Columbia The B r i t i sh C o l u m b i a M in i s t r y o f Env i ronment water qual i ty guidel ines for some nutrients and metals present in poultry litter leachate are l isted in Tab le 1.1. The acceptable l imits for d r ink ing water for human consumpt ion, freshwater aquatic organisms, marine aquatic organisms, and w i ld l i f e are tabulated. TABLE 1.1 Br i t i sh C o l u m b i a water qual i ty guidel ines for some leachable nutrients present i n poultry litter Water NO3-N NO2-N N H 3 - N Z C u Z n Type ( m g L 1 ) ( p g L 1 ) D r i n k i n g 10 1 None 500 5000 water Freshwater 40 0.02 1.84 2 7.5-240 y aquatic l i fe Ma r i ne l i fe None None 1.0 3 10 W i l d l i f e 100 10 None 300 None (Government o f B r i t i sh C o l u m b i a 2006) z A t p H 7.0 and 10.0°C; y Depends upon hardness of water. 1.2.3 Yard trimmings compost resource In 1995 the C i t y o f Vancouver L and f i l l began co l lec t ing yard t r immings f r om residents of Vancouver , De l ta , R i c h m o n d , Wh i te R o c k and parts of Surrey. Ove r 37 , 000 5 tonnes o f yard t r immings , inc lud ing grass c l ipp ings , leaves, plant remains, trees and branches are col lected and composted each year (C i ty of Vancouver L a n d f i l l 2005). The compost ing process begins w i th gr ind ing the yard t r immings into m a x i m u m 7 c m long pieces. These are w indrowed and turned by a front end loader approximate ly 5 t imes over a per iod o f 3 months. Th i s turning of the p i le ensures that aeration is complete, and that a l l port ions o f the w ind row reach temperatures o f 55-60°C. A f te r the 5 turns are complete, the compost is fo rmed into a new w ind row wh i ch is left to cure for 9 months. A f te r the 9 months have passed, the compost is passed through a 1.25 c m screen. The coarse f ract ion is re-composted w i th poultry litter, and the f ine fract ion is the f in ished yard t r immings compost ( Y T C ) . The f in ished Y T C is much lower in N , P, salts and heavy metals than poul t ry litter (Refer to Tables 2.2 and 2.3 for analysis o f the materials used in this study). Furthermore, the levels o f organochlor ine, carbamate, and organonitrogen pesticides were al l be low the detection l imi ts according to analyses performed by Cantest L t d . in Burnaby , B C for the C i t y of Vancouve r L a n d f i l l in M a r c h 2006. In order to foster good relations between the C i t y o f Vancouve r and the De l t a farmers, the C i t y has funded some research into the incorporat ion o f Y T C into agricultural practices. It has been used as a carbon (C) source i n the compost ing o f poultry litter for organic agricultural uses, as a f i l l e r in the spreading o f manure for l ow N requi r ing crops, and as a base pad and cover material for the over winter storage o f poultry litter in agricultural f ie lds ( Bomke and Temp le 2004). Th is thesis is focused on a more detai led study o f this last appl icat ion. 6 1.3 Literature study The literature study w i l l cover the issues and regulations surrounding the f i e ld storage o f poultry litter, as we l l as the capacity o f compost to act as a fi lter. 1.3.1 Poultry litter storage There are many concerns associated w i th the storage o f l ivestock manures i n agricultural f ie lds. A m o n g these are the leaching o f nutrients, such as N O 3 and PO4 wh i ch are responsible for the eutrophicat ion o f streams and r ivers, vo la t i l i za t ion o f N compounds especia l ly N H 3 , and the spread o f pathogens such as Escherichia Coli, Campylobacter, and Salmonella. These concerns are exacerbated b y h igh levels o f precipitat ion. Ideally an imal manures in regions of h igh precipi tat ion should be stored on an impermeable surface far f r om any water ways, complete ly covered w i th a roof, and surrounded by a leachate co l lec t ion d i tch f o l l owed by some level o f treatment. Prec ip i tat ion running o f f o f the roof should be managed in such a way that it does not come into contact w i th the manure (Government o f Br i t i sh C o l u m b i a 1995). Unfortunately , this is not always possible due to the huge amounts of manure being produced in certain regions coupled w i th the h igh cost o f such manure storage fac i l i t ies. On-farm storage o f poultry litter is regulated by the B r i t i sh C o l u m b i a "Ag r i cu l t u r a l Waste Cont ro l Regu l a t i on " ( B C reg. 131/92) (Government of B r i t i sh C o l u m b i a 1992). Th i s regulat ion states that an imal manures, inc lud ing poultry litter, can be stored in an agricultural f i e ld g iven that certain condit ions are met. F irst , the material must not be stored on the f i e ld for more than 9 months. Second, the material must be located at least 30 meters f r om any water way or any source o f water used for domest ic purposes in a manner w h i c h prevents the escape o f agricultural waste that causes po l lu t ion . Th i s might require dykes , berms, or other 7 measures wh i ch isolate the material f r om nearby water ways. F i na l l y , in regions that receive more than 600 m m of precipi tat ion f r om October 1 s t to A p r i l 1st, such as the Fraser R i ve r delta, the regulat ion requires that the material be covered for this t ime per iod, however , there is no indicat ion as to what the cover material should be (Government o f B r i t i sh C o l u m b i a 1992). In the Fraser V a l l e y it is c o m m o n practice to make late summer and early fa l l del iveries o f poultry litter wh i ch w i l l be f ie ld appl ied the f o l l ow ing spr ing. Th i s removes the poultry litter f r om the poultry produc ing region and transfers the storage responsibi l i t ies to the crop producer. Fo r over-winter f i e ld storage, the B r i t i sh C o l u m b i a M in i s t r y o f Agr i cu l ture and Lands factsheet suggests shaping the poultry litter p i le into a w ind row (ie. tr iangular cross-section), and cover ing w i th a tarpaul in weighted down us ing tires (Government o f B r i t i sh C o l u m b i a 1995). The goal o f the cover is to prevent prec ip i tat ion f r om entering into the p i le , thus preventing leaching and run-off f r om the manure. Converse ly , the Ontar io M in i s t r y o f Agr i cu l ture , F o o d and Rura l A f f a i r s suggests p i l i ng the manure w i th a broad, flat top, to encourage inf i l t rat ion o f precipitat ion, and thus d iscouraging run-off (Government o f Ontar io 2005). They further suggest cover ing the pi le w i th a breathable or partial tarpaul in cover, although this is not legislated. A wide range of options for cover ing manure pi les exist. These inc lude impermeable covers, such as tarpaulins and roofs, and permeable covers such as geotexti le fabrics, straw, peat moss, and cornstalks. Permeable covers act as biof i l ters , and a im to decrease NH3 vo la t i l iza t ion , prov ide thermal insulat ion, control run-off, and essential ly isolate the manure f rom the surrounding environment. In f ie ld experiments, Be rg et al. (2005) found that a 7 c m thick layer o f straw over p ig slurry decreased NH3 vo la t i l i za t ion by up to 7 5 % . Howeve r , 8 Rodhe and Ka r l s son (2002) found that a straw cover on stored poultry litter had no effect on N H 3 losses due to vo la t i l izat ion, and that the posi t ive effects o f the straw cover were thermal insulat ion and control o f run-off and leaching. Puuma la (2001) found that a peat cover on stored poultry litter decreased N H 3 vo la t i l i za t ion by 80 - 9 0 % . In i t ia l ly , De l ta farmers attempted to cover their poultry litter w indrows w i th tarpaulins. However , these were expensive, b l ew o f f dur ing frequent winter w i n d storms, and were stolen. Th i s led them to the unique idea o f us ing the C i t y o f Vancouver Y T C as a cover. 1.3.2 Compost as a filter 1 .3 .2.1 Compost defined Compos t is def ined as " a so l id mature product result ing f r om compost ing , w h i c h is a managed process o f b io-oxidat ion o f a so l id heterogeneous organic substrate inc lud ing a thermophi l i c phase" (Compost ing C o u n c i l o f Canada 2000). A c c o r d i n g to the Compos t i ng C o u n c i l o f Canada, the compost should be left to cure for at least 21 days, and it is deemed mature once the f o l l o w i n g condit ions are met: C : N is <25, upon standing the p i le does not heat up to more than 20° C above ambient temperature, the reduct ion in organic matter is greater than 6 0 % b y weight, and the oxygen uptake rate is less than 125 m g O2 k g " 1 vo lat i le sol ids per hour. 1.3.2.2 Chemistry and sorption capacity of compost Compos t consists ma in ly o f humus-l ike organic materials result ing f rom aerobic decompos i t ion (Brady and W e i l 2002). H u m u s can be d iv ided into humic and non-humic substances, w i th the humic substances be ing further d iv ided into humin , humic acids and fu l v i c acids. H u m i c substances are complex , resistant, po lymer i c compounds w i th many 9 funct ional groups (Brady and W e i l 2002). These funct ional groups can lose or gain protons, and thus have the capacity to sorb other compounds. Due to the complex chemica l structure of organic matter, the p H dependent cat ion exchange capacity ( C E C ) is h igh , w i th C E C increasing w i th increasing p H (Lax et al. 1986). Saharinen et al. (1998) have shown that C E C increases w i th compost ing because as compost ing progresses the degree o f humi f i ca t ion increases, thus produc ing a greater number o f funct ional groups for cat ion adsorption and exchange. In this study, the elevated p H o f the poultry l itter leachate should serve to increase the C E C of the Y T C base pad in both the co lumn and f i e ld experiments, thus improv ing the C E C and overa l l retention capacity o f the Y T C material . B rewer and Su l l i v an (2003) found that mature, cured Y T C had a C E C o f 400 c m o l c k g " 1 o f compost C at p H 7.0. The minera l f ract ion o f compost also possesses negat ively charged sites, e.g. O H " , wh i ch can b ind metals and nutrients (Gr imes et al. 1999). In this study, cations such as NH4, Z n and C u should be attracted to the negat ively charged sites present in the Y T C base pad, wh i l e anions such as NO3, PO4, and sulphate (SO4) should f l ow through freely. However , other P compounds cou ld be retained through react ion w i th C a and M g under a lkal ine condit ions. The p H o f the Y T C is about 7.0 wh i l e the p H o f the leachate emanating f r o m the poultry litter is 8.0. Fo r this reason it is to be expected that C a complexat ion w i l l be an important mechan ism for P retention i n the Y T C base pad. 1.3.2.3 Current applications of compost as a filter Since the 1950s, compost has c o m m o n l y been used as the f i l ter m e d i u m in the b iof i l t rat ion o f gas streams containing low concentrations of volat i le organic compounds, pol lutants, reduced N and sulfur (S) compounds, and odorous compounds (Haug 1993). 10 Furthermore, there is a w ide body o f literature on the use of peat, wetlands and constructed wetlands for the remova l o f heavy metals f r o m wastewaters (Karathanasis and T h o m p s o n 1993; Cou i l l a rd 1994; Man ios et al. 2003). The mechanisms by wh i ch metals are removed f rom wastewaters in wetlands inc lude ion exchange, and adsorption onto c lay, organic and inorganic compounds (Man ios et al. 2003). M e t a l remova l eff ic iencies o f these systems have been found to increase w i th increasing organic matter content, and substrates h igh i n C a , M g , and fu l v i c acids were shown to retain heavy metals most ef f ic ient ly (Karathanasis and T h o m p s o n 1993). It fo l lows then that compost , w i th its h igh organic matter content, should behave in a s imi lar manner as peat i n the uptake o f metals. T o examine this M a n i o s et al. (2003) used mature sewage sludge compost m i x e d wi th straw as the substrate i n pot experiments, irr igated w i th solutions of increasing metal concentrations. They found that the compost retained up to 1 0 0 % o f the added C u and Z n , and that the percent retention o f the metal increased as the metal concentrat ion in solut ion increased f r om 10 m g L"1 up to 80 m g L 1 . Recent ly , there has been some research into the abi l i ty of compost to act as a f i l ter for storm and waste waters. Mature compost storm water f i l ter systems have been shown to be effective at treating non-point source po l lu t ion by remov ing P, nutrients, solvents, pesticides, herbic ides, si lt , Z n , Pb , C d and C u (Gar land 1995). One system uses h igh grade mature leaf compost as the f i l ter material (Conrad 1995). The leaf compost acts as a phys ica l f i l ter to sediment, it b inds ion ic pollutants (main ly metals) through cat ion exchange, and it adsorbs and degrades organic compounds such as o i l and grease. The properties o f the leaf compost inc lude h igh permeabi l i ty , h igh humic ac id content, l ow nutrient levels, and h igh stabil i ty. 11 Compos t f i l ter berms as we l l as compost blankets are be ing appl ied to roadsides, construct ion sites, and other disturbed sites in the Un i ted States to prevent so i l erosion (Un i ted States Env i ronmenta l Protect ion A g e n c y ( U S E P A ) 2006). Compos t blankets, wh i ch are comparable to the Y T C cover ing layer on f i e ld stored poultry litter w indrows , focus first on reduc ing erosion through improved inf i l t rat ion rates and thus reduced run-off. Faucette et al. (2005) found that compost blankets o f 3.75 c m thickness delayed the onset o f run-off by 15 minutes under intense ra infa l l (i.e. 77.5 m m h"1) condi t ions, and reduced the total sol ids i n the run-off b y up to 9 9 % as compared to bare so i l . However , compost blankets h igh in inorganic forms o f N and P were found to release s ignif icant quantities o f these nutrients i n run-off waters. These were greatly reduced in composts w i th a h igh percentage o f organic N , organic C and C a (Faucette et al. 2005). Compos t f i l ter berms are general ly p laced across a h i l l s ide , and serve to retain and f i l ter run-off water m o v i n g downs lope. A c c o r d i n g to an U S E P A fact sheet, these f i l ter berms have been shown to remove sediment, motor o i l , and other pollutants f r om stormwater ( U S E P A 2006). A study commiss ioned by the Department o f Env i ronmenta l Qua l i t y for the State o f Oregon found that yard waste compost f i l ter berms reduced total sol ids and turbidity in run-off waters by 8 3 % and 6 7 % , respect ively (Jurries 2004). Th i s is an important f i nd ing , as most pollutants enter waterways sorbed onto the surfaces o f suspended particles such as clays and organic matter. 1.4 Objectives Th is thesis is a port ion o f a larger project. The broad goal o f the entire project is to faci l itate the use o f poul t ry litter as an organic fert i l izer in crop rotations o f both convent ional 12 and organic producers in the more nutrient poor reg ion o f the Fraser Va l l e y , namely the Fraser R i v e r delta, in a precise manner w i th m in ima l harm to the surrounding environment. The objective o f this thesis was to examine the capacity o f the C i t y o f Vancouver yard t r immings compost to mitigate the environmental impacts of over-winter f i e ld stored poultry litter. A co lumn study, inc lud ing a detai led laboratory characterization o f the Y T C and poultry litter materials, and a f ie ld study o f three poultry litter storage pi les were conducted in order to answer the f o l l ow ing questions (sub-objectives): 1) Wha t are the phys ica l characteristics o f the Y T C and poul t ry litter? 2) What effect do the Y T C base pad and/or cover have on the qual i ty o f leachate emanating f r om the poultry litter and how does this change over the storage period? 3) If the Y T C base pad is improv ing the qual i ty of leachate c o m i n g f r om the poul t ry litter, through what mechanisms is this occurr ing? 4) What are the so i l characteristics d i rect ly under and surrounding poul t ry litter f i e ld storage piles in the presence or absence o f the Y T C base pad and/or cover as compared to the rest of the agricultural f i e ld after over-winter storage? 1.5 Hypotheses to be tested 1) In the experimental pi les and co lumns , the Y T C base pad w i l l sorb metals, salts, and nutrients being leached f r om the poultry litter layers above, thus improv ing the qual i ty o f the leachate reaching the surrounding environment. The cat ion exchange capacity o f the Y T C material w i l l be an integral part o f this sorption. 2) The so i l qual i ty direct ly underneath the poultry litter storage pi les l ack ing an Y T C base pad w i l l be degraded and crop growth the f o l l o w i n g spr ing w i l l be stunted, as 13 compared to the rest o f the f ie ld and to the site where the poultry litter storage pi le was bu i l t on an Y T C base pad. 3) The so i l surrounding the stored poultry litter wh i ch is covered by the Y T C w i l l be less affected by run-off f r om the poultry litter storage pi le (i.e. lower in salts and ammon ium) as compared to the so i l surrounding the uncovered poul t ry litter storage pi les. 1.6 Thesis organization The thesis describes two experiments; a co lumn study and a f ie ld study. Chapters 2 and 3 address the methods, results, discussions and conclus ions o f the two experiments separately. Th i s was done for c lar i ty as the two experiments were performed entirely separately. Chapter 2 spec i f i ca l l y addresses sub-objectives one through three, wh i le Chapter 3 addresses sub-objectives two and four. Chapter 4 synthesizes the results f r om the two experiments, discusses the broader perspective, draws conclus ions and suggests future work. T h e thesis and citations are formatted accord ing to the journa l Compos t Sc ience and U t i l i z a t i on , as the co lumn study chapter w i l l be submitted to this journa l in the future. 14 2. Compost layering effects on poultry litter leaching; A column study In order to assess the effectiveness of the Y T C base pad and cover ing in protecting so i l and water qual i ty f r om f ie ld stored poultry litter, an outdoor co lumn experiment was init iated at the Un ivers i t y of B r i t i sh C o l u m b i a - Vancouver . The object ive was to moni tor the leachate qual i ty emanating f rom the Y T C , P L , and combinat ions thereof in a contro l led manner wh i ch m i m i c k e d manure storage condit ions in the f i e ld . 2.1 Materials and Methods 2.1.1 Experimental design The experiment was set up at the To tem F i e l d site on the Un ive rs i t y o f B r i t i sh C o l u m b i a , Vancouver campus. S ixteen co lumns constructed out o f tapered 12 L and 19 L food grade r ig id plast ic pai ls , measuring 30 c m across the top and 26 c m across the bot tom, were p laced into a wooden table. It has been proven that i f the ratio o f the c o l u m n diameter to the effective particle diameter is greater than eight, then the channel ing effect near the co lumn wa l l is negl ig ib le (Sheikhzadeh et al. 2004). It is further recommended that a ratio of 15:1 be used for precautionary reasons. A s the particle size in the poultry litter and Y T C is var iable and sometimes quite large (>25 mm) , a c o l u m n diameter o f 30 c m was chosen for this experiment. The co lumns were cut and packed so that the materials were f lush w i th the top o f the pa i l . Fo r drainage purposes the bottom surface o f each co lumn had thirty-one 6.35 m m holes dr i l l ed i n three concentr ic c ircles radiat ing out at 3, 6 and 12 c m f rom a central hole. The bot tom o f each pa i l was l ined w i th a piece o f 18 x 16 mesh fiberglass w i n d o w screen, covered w i th a 2 c m th ick layer of 1.3 c m diameter gravel , and another piece o f w i n d o w screen. The Y T C and poultry litter were packed on top o f this drainage layer, w h i c h was 15 based on the design used by D r . Sietan C h i e n g in his co lumn experiments used to study so i l water movement (Ch ieng, 2003). Each layer o f Y T C or poultry litter was 14 c m thick, as this was deemed to be the m a x i m u m amount wh i ch cou ld be supported by the pai ls and table without any breakage once saturated w i th rain water, part icular ly in the three layered treatments. F i e l d bu lk density (Db) measurements were made on the Y T C base pad, Y T C cover material and poultry litter in an experimental f i e ld storage pi le us ing a mod i f i ed rubber ba l loon method w i th four repl icat ions. Th i s method consists o f remov ing and we igh ing a vo lume o f mater ia l , p lac ing a plastic bag in the hole and f i l l i ng it w i th water in order to determine the mass per unit vo lume (B lake 1965). The masses o f poultry litter and Y T C were packed into the co lumns in an attempt to replicate the f i e ld D b . Va lues were 279, 477 , and 300 k g m" 3 for the poultry litter, Y T C base pad, and Y T C cover ing layers. The co lumn treatments are l isted in Tab le 2.1. TABLE 2.1 Column treatments. Treatment descr ipt ion Abbrev i a t i on 14 c m Y T C Y T C 14 c m poultry litter P L 14 c m Y T C over 14 c m poul t ry litter Y / P L 14 c m poultry litter over 14 c m Y T C P I T Y 14 c m Y T C over 14 c m poul t ry litter over 14 c m Y T C S There were f ive ma in treatments w i th three replicates each for a total o f 15 experimental units. Add i t i ona l l y , there was an empty co lumn wh i ch served as a ra in gauge. The treatments, inc lud ing the ra in gauge were randomly assigned to posit ions on the table. The co lumns were set up on November 8, 2005 and were left exposed to the weather unt i l M a r c h 29 , 2006. T o catch the leachate, 19 L inverted water jugs w i th their bottoms sawn o f f were attached f lush to the bot tom o f the pai ls . Numbe r 10 rubber bungs were used to p lug the 16 spout. T w o holes were dr i l l ed into each bung, one for drainage and one as an air inlet. A 10 c m long piece o f r ig id P V C pipe was inserted into one o f the holes. A 10 c m piece o f amber latex tubing (9.5 m m o.d. x 6.4 m m i.d.) was attached to the pipe and c losed wi th a hose c lamp. T o prevent an a i r lock dur ing drainage another piece o f r ig id P V C pipe was inserted into the second hole i n the bung po int ing up into the water j ug . A st i f f port ion o f food grade P V C tubing (11.1 m m o.d. x 7.9 m m i.d.) was attached to the p ipe inside the water j u g and looped around. Th i s a l lowed for air to enter, wh i l e preventing the leakage o f any leachate (Refer to A p p e n d i x A for photographs o f co lumn construction). The Y T C used in the co lumns was obtained direct ly f rom the C i t y o f Vancouve r L a n d f i l l i n c lean plast ic garbage pai ls . The poultry litter was also co l lected i n plast ic garbage pails f rom a pi le o f freshly del ivered turkey litter. These pails were sealed w i th plast ic l ids and stored outside under cover at the To tem F i e l d site unt i l the co lumns were ready for pack ing (approximately 2 weeks). 2.1.2 Time domain reflectometry In two o f the co lumns t ime doma in ref lectometry ( T D R ) was used to moni tor the moisture content o f different layers, and thus the movement o f water through the co lumns . The two selected co lumns were a P L co lumn and an S co lumn. The T D R probes consisted o f three steel we ld ing rods, 2 6 c m in length, passed through three para l le l holes d r i l l ed into a number nine rubber bung wh i ch was inserted into a hole cut into the side o f the pa i l . Th i s insured that the rods remained paral le l and in one single plane in the med ium. T w o probes were inserted hor izonta l ly at two depths i n the P L co lumn , and four probes were inserted hor izonta l l y into the different layers in the S co lumn. Due to the h igh sal in i ty o f the poul t ry litter and subsequent h igh electr ical conduct iv i ty ( EC ) o f the media , there was often no s ignal 17 ref lect ion and thus no moisture content cou ld be obtained. Th i s was a p rob lem in a l l layers at some point throughout the experiment and thus these data have been omitted f r om this paper. (These data are tabulated i n A p p e n d i x B.) 2.1.3 Leachate Collection and Analysis The leachate was col lected f r o m the co lumns on a week l y or b i-weekly basis contingent on the amount o f precipi tat ion received. U p o n co l lec t ion , the vo lume , p H and E C were determined. These were the on l y determinations made on the samples col lected f r om the rain gauge. E C was determined direct ly on a B e c k m a n Solu-Br idge conduct iv i ty meter, wh i l e p H was measured us ing an O r i o n Research analogue p H meter mode l 300. Depend ing on the co lour o f the leachate, 20 to 100 m L f r om each co lumn was dr ied at 60°C for 72 hours to determine the total sol ids (TS) . The sol ids were subsequently heated in a muf f le furnace at 425°C for 3 hours i n order to determine the ash content and the volat i le f ract ion o f the sol ids. The rest o f the analyses were carr ied out by M a x x a m Ana l y t i c s Inc. i n Burnaby , B C . Qua l i t y assurance reports were issued w i th each batch o f samples w h i c h inc luded data on matr ix spikes, spikes, and blanks. The first leachate sample col lected f rom each treatment was composi ted and analyzed for total metals, and nutrients (NH4, NO3, nitrite (NO2), dissolved-P, ortho-P, total N , and total P). E a ch subsequent leachate sample was analyzed ind i v idua l l y (three replicates for each treatment) for nutrients and total metals unt i l the eighth co l lec t ion date b y wh i ch t ime the metal concentrations had become very l o w (near zero). A f t e r this co l lec t ion date leachates were analyzed on ly for nutrients. Samples to be analyzed for nutrients were stored on ice packs in a cooler w i th in one hour o f co l lec t ion. Samples to be analyzed for total metals were preserved w i th 2 m L o f 18 HNO3 and then stored on ice packs. A l l samples were taken to M a x x a m Ana ly t i c s in a cooler on ice packs and analyzed w i th in 48 hours o f co l lec t ion. M a x x a m Ana ly t i c s determined the total metals us ing induct ive ly coupled p lasma mass spectrometry ( I C P M S ) f o l l ow ing E P A S W 8 4 6 M e t h o d 6 0 2 0 A (Uni ted States Env i ronmenta l Protect ion A g e n c y 2006). A l l nutrients were analyzed us ing automated co lor imetr ic techniques, f o l l ow ing the Standard Methods for the Examina t i on o f Water and Wastewater 1 9 t h and 2 0 t h edit ions (Amer i can Pub l i c Hea l th Assoc i a t i on 1995 and 1998). 2.1.4 Physical and Chemical Analyses of Initial and Final Column Materials The properties determined for both the Y T C and poultry litter were grav imetr ic moisture content, particle size d istr ibut ion, percent ash and organic matter ( O M ) , p H , E C , particle density (D p ) , Db, total porosity, water ho ld ing capacity ( W H C ) , C E C , water extractable P and metals, and total and avai lable nutrients. These properties were determined for the starting materials used to pack the co lumns. Tota l and avai lable nutrients, O M , and ash content were also determined on each layer in each o f the co lumns at the comple t ion o f the leaching experiment. The gravimetr ic moisture content was determined on four replicate samples used in the c o l u m n experiment immediate ly upon co l lec t ion o f the materials. These were dr ied in moisture cans at 60°C for 72 hours due to their organic natures. The moisture content, 9, was then calculated us ing the f o l l ow ing equation, where W w is the wet weight and W d is the dry weight: 9 = ( W w - Wd) W w 1 x 1 0 0 % E q . (1) Part ic le size analysis was carr ied out on four replicate 200 g samples o f air dr ied material . S ieve sizes used were 25 , 16, 9.5, 6.3, 4.75, and 2 m m , s imi lar to what was 19 suggested by the Test Methods for the Examina t i on o f Compos t i ng and Compos t ( T M E C C ) manual method 02.02 (Thompson et al. 2001) . The 2 m m sieve was added due to the large fract ion o f smal l particles in both the poultry litter and Y T C . S ieves were shaken on an Eberbach shaker for 2 minutes, and the size fractions weighed. S ize fractions were determined as fo l l ows , where f is a part icular size f ract ion, M f is the weight o f the size fract ion, and M 0 is the in i t ia l weight o f the total sample: % f = ( M f ) M 0 " 1 x 1 0 0 % E q . (2) A s h and O M were determined in a muff le furnace on four replicates of a 5 g oven dr ied sample f o l l o w i n g the T M E C C manual method 03.02B (Thompson et al. 2001) . Th i s method suggested a temperature o f 550°C for 2 hours. Percent loss on ign i t ion or percent O M was calculated as fo l l ows : % O M = (Initial weight - F ina l weight) ( Initial weight)" 1 x 1 0 0 % E q . (3) % A s h = 100 - % O M Eq . (4) E C and p H o f the Y T C and P L samples were determined in accordance w i th the T M E C C manual method 0 4 . 1 0 A (Thompson et al. 2001). Th i s method recommended extracting a 9.5 m m sieved moist sample, however on ly air dr ied material was avai lable. The extract ion ratio was 1:5 compost : water (mass basis) w i th twenty minutes of shaking on an Eberbach shaker. The s lurry was decanted pr ior to measurement o f E C and p H . A B e c k m a n Solu-Br idge conduct iv i ty meter was used to measure E C , wh i l e an O r i o n Research analogue p H meter mode l 300 was used for determinat ion o f p H . Part ic le density i n k g m" 3 (D p ) was calculated us ing percent ash and O M as descr ibed by A g n e w , et al (2003). Dp = [% OM(1550 ) " ' + %Ash (2650 ) " ' ] " ' E q . (5) 20 Th is equation assumes a speci f ic gravity o f 1.55 for volat i le sol ids or O M , and 2.65 for ash. Tota l porosity (TP) was calculated based on the D D packed into the co lumn , and the particle density (D p ) calculated above. T P = [1 - D b D p - ' ] x 1 0 0 % E q . (6) Water ho ld ing capacity ( W H C ) was determined by pack ing a sample at k n o w n density into a pa i l w i th a perforated bottom. The pa i l was then placed into a tub o f water and the level o f the water was s l ow l y raised up over a per iod o f four hours. Once the sample was saturated the pa i l was removed f r o m the tub and a l lowed to dra in freely for a per iod o f 24 hours, as recommended by the T M E C C method 03 .01C (Thompson et al. 2001) . A t the end o f the dra in ing per iod the samples were weighed again and the W H C on a weight basis (kg water k g " 1 material) was calculated as fo l l ows : W H C = (Wt. wet material after drain 24h - Wt . dry) (Wt. dry)" 1 E q . (7) The C E C was determined for the Y T C on l y us ing the a m m o n i u m acetate method, buffered to p H 7.0 as descr ibed by Chapman (1965) i n Methods o f S o i l Ana l y s i s . Th i s method was selected because the p H values of both the Y T C and the leachate emanating f r om the Y T C material were approximate ly seven. A sample of air-dried Y T C material was ground us ing a W i l e y M i l l w i th a 1 m m screen. Three replicates o f a 5 g sample were shaken wi th a m m o n i u m acetate (buffered to p H 7.0) and f i l tered. The exchangeable cations C a , M g , K, and N a were determined in the fi ltrate us ing atomic absorption spectroscopy ( A A S ) . The sample was then washed w i th iso-propanol, leached w i th 1 M K C 1 , and re-filtered. The fi ltrate was analyzed for N H 4 us ing a semi-micro K je ldah l digest on a Lachat Q u i k C h e m F I A 8000 series. 21 In order to correct the exchangeable cations for soluble salts a method for the determinat ion o f water extractable P and metals was adapted f r om W o l f et al. (2005). Th i s method consisted o f shaking a 1:200 moist as received manure or compost to d is t i l led water slurry for 60 minutes and then f i l ter ing through a Wha tman no. 40 f i l ter paper. Th i s method was carr ied out on an air-dried sample ground to pass a 1 m m sieve, as was used for the C E C determinat ion. A l l extracts were analyzed for P, C a , M g , N a , K, C u and Z n by ICP . Ava i l ab l e NH4-N, N O 3-N, B ray-P i , K, C a , M g , N a , C u , Z n , Fe , and M n , as we l l as total C , S, N , P, K, C a , M g , N a , C u , Z n , Fe , M n , and B were determined by Pac i f i c So i l Ana l y s i s Inc, in R i c h m o n d , B C for the in i t ia l Y T C and P L materials, as we l l as for each layer f rom each o f the co lumn treatments after leaching. Ava i l ab l e N H 4 - N and NO3-N were determined us ing a K2SO4 extract. The NH4-N was determined co lor imetr ica l l y on a Techn i con Autoana lyzer , and the NO3-N was determined by the C T A co lour development method and measured on a Turner color imeter ( L a vku l i ch 1978). Ava i l ab l e P (Bray-Pi) was determined co lor imet r i ca l l y us ing the ascorbic ac id co lour development method on a 1:10 Y T C or P L to Bray-P! (0.03 N N H 4 F in 0.025 N HC1) extract ( M c K e a g u e 1978). Ava i l ab l e C a , M g , N a , and K were determined on a Perk in-E lmer A A S us ing a 1:5 Y T C or P L to 1 M a m m o n i u m acetate extract buffered to p H 7.0 ( M c K e a g u e 1978). Ava i l ab l e C u , Z n , Fe , and M n were determined by Perk in-E lmer A A S on a 1:5 Y T C or P L to 0 .1N HC1 extract ( M c K e a g u e 1978). Ava i l ab l e S 0 4 - S was determined us ing the H i-B i smuth Reduc ib le method on a 1:2 Y T C or P L to C a C l 2 extract ( Kowa l enko 1993). Tota l C was determined direct ly on a L E C O C R 12 Ca rbon A n a l y z e r ( M c K e a g u e 1978). Tota l S was determined direct ly on a L E C O Su l fur A n a l y z e r ( L a vku l i ch 1978). Tota l N , P, K, C a , M g , and N a were determined us ing the Park inson and A l l e n digest analyzed on a Perk in-E lmer A A S ( L avku l i ch 1978). 22 Tota l C u , Z n , Fe , M n , and B were determined b y dry-ashing the sample for four hours at 480°C, d i sso l v ing the ash in 5.0N H C I and ana lyz ing on a Perk in-E lmer A A S ( L avku l i ch 1978). 2.1.5 Statistical Analysis A l l data were subjected to a one-way Ana l y s i s of Var iance ( A N O V A ) us ing S A S Institute Inc. " J M P I N " statistical package, vers ion 4.0.4 ( J M P 2001). U p o n a signif icant F- value for treatment, mean comparisons were performed using Tukey ' s Honest ly S igni f icant D i f ference at an alpha leve l o f 0.05. 2.2 R e s u l t s a n d D i s c u s s i o n 2.2.1 Weather November 2005 was drier than average, and the first ha l f o f December was very dry, w i th the C i t y o f Vancouve r rece iv ing on l y 7.8 m m o f precipitat ion pr ior to December 1 9 t h (Env i ronment Canada 2005-2006). January 2006 was extremely wet, rece iv ing 284 m m o f precipi tat ion compared to the average o f 154 m m (Environment Canada 2004). In contrast February was a part icular ly dry month rece iv ing less than ha l f o f that month 's average precipi tat ion (57 m m compared to 123 mm) . The result o f this was that most of the nutrients and metals were leached out by the end o f January. These unusual weather patterns raise questions as to the leachabi l i ty o f nutrients and metals in both the poultry litter and Y T C , and h o w this is affected b y the t ime between p i l i ng these materials in the f ie ld and the first notable precipi tat ion event, as w e l l as the intensity of those precipi tat ion events. The series o f intense ra infa l l events wh i ch occurred over a short per iod o f t ime in January resulted i n short contact t imes between the leachate emanating f r om the poultry litter and the Y T C base pad material through wh i ch it f l owed . M o r e evenly distr ibuted ra infa l l events w o u l d have l i k e l y 23 led to s lower f l ow of leachate through the Y T C base pad, and consequently longer contact t imes result ing in an increased l i ke l i hood o f retention o f nutrients and metals. 2.2.2 Physical and Chemical Properties of Y T C and P L The phys ica l and chemica l properties of the Y T C and P L materials pr ior to leaching are l isted i n Tables 2.2 through 2.6. T h e Y T C f r o m the C i t y o f Vancouve r L a n d f i l l t yp ica l l y has a much lower N H 4 - N (average 500-600 m g kg" 1) and total N (average 10-15 g kg" 1 ) content than the Y T C obtained for this study (C i ty o f Vancouver 2005). The h igh N H 4 - N values in the Y T C used in this study probably resulted f rom an insuff ic ient cur ing t ime after compost ing. B rewer and Su l l i v an (2003) found that an N H 4 - N : N O 3 -N ratio of less than four indicated that yard waste compost was mature. The ratio of N H 4 - N : N O 3 -N in the in i t ia l Y T C used in this study was 4.2, thus s ignal ing that it was not complete ly mature or stabi l ized. A l l other properties o f the Y T C compared we l l w i th average values reported by the C i t y o f Vancouve r L a n d f i l l . T A B L E 2.2 Chemica l properties o f in i t ia l co lumn materials. D r y weight basis; n = 3 Property Y T C P L E C (dS m"1) 2.9 ±0.1 12 ±0.01 P H 7.1 ±0.1 7.2 ± 0.06 C / N (mass basis) 13 ± 2 10 ±0.6 Tota l C ( g k g 1 ) 263 ± 20 360 ±6 Tota l N ( g kg" 1 ) 21 ±4 35 ± 2 Tota l P ( g kg" 1 ) 3.1 ±0.2 22 ± 2 Tota l S ( g kg" 1 ) 3.0 ±0.3 5.0 ±0.9 N H 4 - N - avai lable (mg kg" 1 ) 1250±130 4950 ± 340 NO3-N- avai lable (mg kg" 1 ) P - avai lable (mg kg " ) 295 ± 13 710 ±37 1490 ± 103 10 390 ± 530 P - water extractable (mg kg" 1 ) 380 ±7 7240 ± 110 Error bars indicate one standard deviation from the mean. 24 T A B L E 2.3 Concentrat ions of metals in poultry litter and Y T C pr ior to leaching. D r y weight basis; n = 3 Me ta l (mg kg ' 1 ) Y T C P L C u - avai lable 3 ± 1 110 ± 5 C u - total 47 ±3 390 ± 20 Z n - avai lable 76 ± 4 380 ±31 Z n - total 190 ± 12 470 ± 19 K - avai lable 10 940 ±315 15 000 ±410 K - total 12 030 ± 1180 16 880 ± 620 C a - avai lable 4830 ±134 875 ±158 C a - total 18 300 ±600 35 700 ± 2500 M g - avai lable 1560 ± 72 750 ± 35 M g - total 2800 ± 330 4900 ± 360 N a - avai lable 425 ± 20 2860 ±180 N a - total 930 ± 50 3300 ±160 Fe - avai lable 1240 ± 214 170 ± 18 Fe - total 9830 ± 849 1160 ±64 M n - avai lable 185 ± 13 380 ±23 M n - total 280 ±3 440 ± 13 T A B L E 2.4 Part ic le size distr ibut ion of in i t ia l co lumn materials, n = 4 Fract ion o f material w i th in size interval Sample >25 m m 25-16 16-9.5 m m 9.5-6.3 6.3-4.75 4.75-2 < 2 m m m m m m m m m m (%) Y T C 0.3 ±0.3 0.9 ± 0.5 9.1 ±5.3 9.9 ±3.7 4.3 ± 1.2 52 ± 7.4 24 ± 1.0 P L 17 ± 11 4.3 ±2.9 3.7 ±0.6 4.1 ±1.1 3.1 ±0.8 19 ±4.3 49 ± 8.7 T A B L E 2.5 Phys i ca l properties o f in i t ia l co lumn materials, n = 4 Sample Mass D b O M A s h Z f p W H C (kg) ( k g r n 3 ) (%) (%) (kg m"3) (%) (kg k g 1 ) Y T C p y 3.82 477 48.8 ±1.8 51.3 ± 1.8 1970 ± 19 75.8 ±0.2 0.4 ± 0.007 Y T C c y 2.80 300 48.8 ± 1.8 51.3 ±1.8 1970 ±19 84.8 ±0.1 - P L 2.32 279 79.2 ±0.6 20.8 ±0.6 1700 ± 5 83.6 ±0.04 1.7 ±0.09 z tp indicates total porosity. y p - indicates base pad, c-indicates cover. 25 T A B L E 2.6 Ca t i on exchange capacity and % base saturation corrected for soluble salts o f Y T C . n = 3 C a M g K N a C E C C E C Z % Base cmo l c k g " 1 dry Y T C (cmolc k g " 1 C ) Saturation Y T C avg 51.4 17.2 24.9 1.28 57.5 220 94.8 Std dev. 2.2 0.01 3.3 0.07 1.6 2.3 1.1 Z C E C calculated based on the total carbon content of the Y T C . The nutrient analysis o f the poultry litter used in this study was characteristic o f turkey litter produced in the Fraser V a l l e y (Ch ipper f ie ld 1996). A n important characteristic of turkey litter is its variable particle size wh i ch includes large c lumps , f ine dust, and feathers. Th is fact makes obtaining a representative sample for analysis cha l lenging. The density o f the Y T C base pad measured on the experimental storage p i le i n the f ie ld was extremely h igh (711 ± 30 k g m" 3), because it had been dr iven on several t imes b y a front end loader. It was very cha l lenging to re-create this density in the co lumns . It was deemed to be not cr i t ica l and a lower density was used. The D D o f the Y T C base pad layer i n the co lumns was 1.6 times higher than the Y T C cover ing layer. In the f i e ld the Db o f the Y T C base pad was actual ly 2.4 t imes higher than the Y T C cover ing layer. The result o f this w o u l d be a decrease in total porosi ty and an increase in W H C , and nutrient and metal retention potentials per unit vo lume by the Y T C base pad layer in the f i e ld as compared to the experimental co lumns. The Db values o f each o f the poultry litter layers i n the various co lumn treatments were the same as was measured in the f ie ld . The C E C o f the Y T C was 57.5 ± 1.6 cmo l c kg " 1 dry matter, or 220 ± 2.3 c m o l c k g " 1 C. Th i s value is much lower than the 400 cmo lc kg" 1 C measured by B rewer and Su l l i v an (2003) on Wash ington State yard waste compost. However , it fits we l l into the range reported by Ga r c i a et al (1992) o f 41.4 - 123 cmo l c kg" 1 dry matter for mature mun i c ipa l waste compost. Nonetheless, the measured C E C o f the C i t y of Vancouver Y T C suggests a 26 signif icant capacity for cat ion exchange in the Y T C base pad, w i th C a be ing the dominant exchangeable cation. The leaching losses o f the major plant nutrients f rom the Y T C and P L alone co lumns are l isted in Table 2.7. These values are considered to be the m a x i m u m leaching losses w h i c h cou ld occur in the f i e ld over the winter storage per iod i n the outermost wet regions o f the f i e ld storage pi les. Potass ium losses were notable f r om both the Y T C and P L , due to the h igh mob i l i t y o f this cat ion, wh i ch is not t ight ly bound by either material . S o d i u m was also h igh l y leachable, especia l ly f rom the P L . Ex t reme ly h igh amounts o f N were leached f r o m the P L , ma in ly i n the NH4 fo rm. Th i s is a ref lect ion o f the h igh levels o f organic-N present ma in l y as urea and proteins in P L (Ke l leher et al 2001) . The percentage o f NH4 leached f rom the P L indicates that convers ion o f organic-N to N H 4 - N was occurr ing and thus the P L was mic rob ia l l y act ive. The lack o f NO3 leaching indicates that NO3 was either taken up by microbes in the P L , or it underwent denitr i f icat ion. The water saturated condit ions in the co lumns w o u l d have been conduc ive to denitr i f icat ion (Brady and W e i l 2002) . The P L experienced much higher losses o f N , P and S (P < 0.05) than d id the Y T C . Th i s was l i ke l y because the Y T C had prev ious ly undergone compost ing dur ing w h i c h these elements were converted into more stable and thus less avai lable forms. 27 TABLE 2.7 Leaching losses of major nutrients from YTC and PL alone columns z n = 3 Nutrient Total leached % of initial Total leached 1 Jo of initial from YTC nutrient from PL nutrient (mg kg 1 dry YTC) leached from (mgkg- dry PL) leached from YTC PL NH4 730 ± 30a 59 ± 12 12 300 ± 2450b 250 ± 70 NO3 95 ± 40b 33 ±20 2.5 ± 0.9a 0.4 ±0.1 Total N 1430 ± 50a 7.2 ±2.1 16 430 ± 2940b 48 ± 16 Ortho-Py 120 ± 10a N/A 2460 ± 340b N/A Total P 160 ± 4 a 5.2 ±0.6 2810±250 b 13 ±3 Total K 6850 ± 70a 58 ±9 13 050 ± 780b 78 + 11 Total Na 220 ± 4a 24 ±2 2620 ±160 b 80 ± 10 Total Ca 750 ± 8b 4.1 ±0.3 640 ± 40a 1.8 ±0.3 Total Mg 330 ± 4b 12 ±2 150 ± 9a 3.1 ±0.6 Total S 150 ± 5a 6.3 ±0.8 2080 ±120 b 43 ± 10 Total Cu 0.5±0.01 a 1.0 ±0.1 4 0 ± 2 b 10 ± 2 Total Zn 1.5±0.04 a 0.8 ±0.1 19 ± l b 4.1 ±0.6 Total Fe 17±0.2 a 0.2 ± 0.02 4 0 ± 2 b 3.4 ±0.5 Total Mn 3 ± 0.04a 1.1 ±0.04 2 0 ± 2 b 4.5 ±0.7 zMean separations performed using a t-test at a = 0.05. y Percent initial ortho-P leached calculation was not possible because ortho-P was not measured in the intial Y T C and P L materials. Based on the initial Ca and Mg concentrations in the materials, the YTC leached 2.3 and 3.1 times more of its total Ca and Mg, than did the PL. This may be attributed to the high initial P concentration of the PL, which served to immobilize Ca and Mg. Leaching losses of the heavy metals Cu, Zn, and Mn were almost negligible from the YTC. This is consistent with the work of Grimes et al. (1999), who found that the maximum leachability of metals from household waste compost in distilled water, 1 M KC1, and acetic acid at pH 5 was 1%, 2% and 1% of the total for Cu, and 1% of the total for each treatment for Zn. Conversely, leaching losses of these heavy metals from the PL were significantly higher (P < 0.05) with 40 mg Cu kg"' dry PL (i.e. 10% of initial) and 19 mg Zn kg"1 dry PL (i.e. 4% of initial) being lost to leaching. This is a concern given that PL is high in these metals as a result of poultry feed supplementation (Leeson and Summers 2005). Leachate and run-off waters from field stored poultry litter that reach ditches and other waterways via overland or subsurface flow 28 can negatively impact aquatic life i f they are high in N , P and/or heavy metals. (See Appendix C for all data). 2.2.3 Electrical Conductivity A l l treatments containing poultry litter had initially very high ECs (Figure 2.1). The Y T C base pad in the P L / Y treatment served to decrease the E C of the first sample collected by 50% as compared to the P L alone, from 41 dS m"1 to 21 dS m 1 . However, the E C of the PITY treatment remained elevated for longer than the P L or Y / P L treatments. It appears that the Y T C base pad serves to regulate the E C in the leachate by decreasing the initial very high dissolved salt levels and releasing them more slowly over time. It does not appear that the Y T C base pad retains any significant portion of these salts. 45 Figure 2.1 Electrical conductivities of leachates. 2.2.4 Nitrogen Organic-N and NH4 leached readily from all poultry litter containing treatments until after approximately 275 mm of precipitation had occurred (Figure 2.2). Beyond this point there was very little N of any species in the leachate. The levels of N O 3 and N O 2 in the leachates were below the detection limits for all treatments, except for the last two sampling dates, at which time N O 3 was detected in the Y T C , P L / Y and S leachates, and N O 2 was detected in the P L / Y and S leachates. The last two sampling events took place in the middle 29 of March and beginning of April. By this time the constant rains had tapered off and temperatures had increased. This led to the warming, drying, and re-oxygenation of the column materials, which allowed for nitrification to proceed. 55 Figure 2.2 Cumulative masses of (a) total N, (b) N H 4 , and (c) organic-N leached during column experiment. There were no differences observed in the cumulative amounts of NH 4 leached from the treatments except the YTC alone. The two treatments with the YTC base pad (i.e. PL/Y 30 and S) leached N H 4 in an approximate ly continuous manner over the entire per iod o f study. Converse ly , the two treatments l ack ing the Y T C base pad (i.e. Y / P L and P L ) leached in i t i a l l y very h igh concentrations o f N H 4 unt i l approximate ly 275 m m of precipitat ion occurred, after wh i ch t ime the N H 4 concentrations o f the leachates decreased to almost zero. The Y / P L and S treatments lost the largest amounts o f total N . It appears that the Y T C cover increases the leaching o f N f rom the P L layer be low. Th is was conf i rmed upon examin ing the total N concentrations o f the poultry litter materials after leaching as compared to the in i t ia l materials packed into the co lumns. The poultry litter in the P L alone c o l u m n showed a decrease i n total N o f 10 g N k g " 1 dry poul t ry litter after leaching, wh i l e the poul t ry l itter layers i n the two treatments w i th the Y T C cover, namely Y / P L and S lost 14 and 17 g k g " 1 o f their in i t ia l total N , respect ively (P < 0.05). A s the poul t ry litter wetted and dr ied over the study a crust was observed o n the surface. It was moderately imperv ious and l i ke l y l imi ted gas exchange. It appears that the Y T C cover protected the surface o f the poul t ry litter layer be low f r om fo rm ing this crust and thus helped to mainta in aeration and consequently the m ic rob ia l act iv i ty i n the poultry litter layer, result ing in increased minera l izat ion and leaching o f N . In addi t ion, s ignif icant quantities o f C a were leached f r om the Y T C material . These C a cations cou ld have displaced NH4 ions on exchange sites in the poul t ry litter layer be low, thus increasing N leaching. The forms o f avai lable N i n the in i t ia l Y T C material compared to each o f the Y T C layers after leaching are shown in F igure 2.3. The base pads in the S and P L / Y treatments contained elevated concentrations of both NH4-N and NO3-N as compared to the other leached layers. However , there were no overal l losses or gains o f total N i n any o f the Y T C layers in any of the treatments as compared to the in i t ia l Y T C , wh i ch had a total N 31 concentrat ion o f 22.2 ± 0.8 g k g " 1 . Therefore, the Y T C base pad d id not retain or immob i l i z e any s igni f icant amount o f N leached f r om the P L layer above. These elevated levels o f NH4- N and NO3-N in the S and P I T Y base pads are leachate species wh i ch came f rom the poultry litter layers above and were not complete ly f lushed out at the comple t ion o f the study. 1.6 ^ 1.4 01 01 1.2 1 o 0.8 z 0 0.6 z 1 0.4 X Z 0.2-I 0 rfi • NH4-N B N03-N r ' rtTrl—.—I ~ H~T~H Treatment Differences (a = 0.05) in total cumulative masses leached N H 4 - N N O 3 - N Initial c c Y T C a a Y / P L cover a a P L / Y pad ab b S cover a a Spad be c Initial YTC only Y/PL cover PL/Y pad S cover S pad YTC layer Figure 2.3 Available N H 4 - N and N0 3-N in initial Y T C material packed into columns and in Y T C layers after leaching. Note: Y / P L cover indicates the Y T C covering layer from the Y / P L treatment; S pad indicates the Y T C pad from the S treatment. 2.2.5 Phosphorus The cumulat ive masses o f total P, d isso lved P, and ortho-P leached f r om the co lumns showed the same trends over t ime (F igure 2.4). Ortho-P and d isso lved P were pos i t ive ly correlated (P < 0.01, R 2 = 0.88). Tota l P and d isso lved P were s imi l a r l y correlated (P < 0.01, R = 0.97). Th i s indicates that the majori ty o f the total P leached out of the co lumns was i n the inorganic fo rm. The in i t ia l poultry litter packed into the co lumns had seven times more total P than the Y T C (Table 2.2). Therefore, the majority o f the P contained in the leachates or iginated i n the poultry litter, for a l l treatments except the Y T C alone. 32 7-1 6 YTC —X— PL A-— Y/PL - PL/Y • S 200 300 400 Precipitation (mm) (a) 300 400 Precipitation (mm) (b) Treatment Differences (a = 0.05) in total cumulative masses leached Total P Diss. P Ortho-P Y T C a a a P L cd c c Y / P L d c c P L / Y be be be S b b b 200 300 400 500 Precipitation (mm) 600 700 (c) Figure 2.4 Cumulative masses of (a) total P, (b) dissolved P, and (c) ortho-P leached during column experiment. The PL alone and Y/PL columns leached P very quickly and at high concentrations, until approximately 350 mm of cumulative precipitation had occurred, at which time the concentrations dropped off. These two treatments exhibited no significant differences over the length of the experiment beyond the first sampling date. There is a clear inflection point 33 at 350 m m precipi tat ion for a l l treatments (except the Y T C alone) i n the graphs o f cumulat ive masses (F igure 2.4), wh i ch corresponds to the point on the graph o f concentrat ion (F igure 2.5) where the slopes of the two curves containing the Y T C base pad (i.e. P L / Y and S) steepen wh i l e the slopes o f the two curves l ack ing the Y T C base pad (i.e. P L and Y / P L ) flatten. Th i s can be expla ined by the Y T C base pad retaining P leached f r om the poul t ry litter layers above, unt i l the accumulat ion o f 350 m m o f precipi tat ion, at w h i c h t ime the P retention capacity o f the Y T C apparently became saturated and leachate P concentrat ion increased. 500 400 4 O ) 300 E o 1- 100 YTC X PL — - A — - Y/PL PL/Y O S 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 Precipitation (mm) Figure 2.5 Variations in concentration of total P in leachates over experiment. A t the end o f the exper iment the P L alone treatment leached 1975 ± 1120 m g more total P than d i d the S treatment (P < 0.05). Add i t i ona l l y , the P L / Y c o l u m n leached 2275 ± 500 m g less total P than the Y / P L c o l u m n (P < 0.05), thus indicat ing that the Y T C base pad was retaining P. Tota l P increased by an average o f 1280 ± 660 m g P kg " 1 dry Y T C in the Y T C base pad materials present in the P L / Y and S treatments as compared to the in i t ia l Y T C total P concentrat ion (P < 0.05) (F igure 2.6). Converse ly , the Y T C alone and Y T C cover ing layers showed no signif icant changes in total P concentration over the leaching per iod. F r o m the leachate data it has been calculated that the Y T C base pad has the capacity to retain at 34 least 375 ± 339 m g P k g " 1 dry Y T C . The above suggests a s ignif icant capacity for P sorpt ion by the Y T C base pad. Treatment Differences (a = 0.05) in total cumulative masses leached Total P Available P Initial YTC only Y/PL cover PL/Y pad S cover YTC layer S pad Initial Y T C Y / P L cover P L / Y pad S cover Spad Initial YTC only Y/PL cover PL/Y pad S cover S pad YTC layer (b) Figure 2.6 Comparison of (a) total P, and (b) available P in the initial Y T C material packed into the columns and Y T C layers after leaching. The poss ib le mechanisms of P retention in the Y T C base pad are cat ion br idg ing w i th organic matter, m ic rob ia l uptake and immob i l i za t i on (Reddy et al. 1999), and complexat ion w i th hydroxyox ides o f Fe and a luminum (A l ) at ac id ic p H , and C a and M g compounds at alkal ine p H (Beauchemin et al. 2003 ; M o o r e and M i l l e r 1994; K h a l i d et al. 1977). Ca t i on br idg ing occurs when H2PO4" b inds to a metal cat ion, often C a , wh i ch itself is bound to humic or fu l v i c acids. A s compost is b io log i ca l l y active there is the opportunity for m ic rob ia l P uptake and immob i l i z a t i on of the P species present in the poultry litter leachate. However , h igh levels o f prec ip i tat ion, rapid leaching, and co ld temperatures l i ke l y reduced the s igni f icance o f this pathway. Due to the neutral to basic p H o f the Y T C and P L leachates, 35 complexat ion w i th C a and M g rather than Fe or A l was probably the dominant f o rm o f chemica l immob i l i z a t i on o f P in this system. 2.2.6 Calcium The two treatments w i th an Y T C base pad (i.e. S and P L /Y ) both leached s igni f icant ly higher (P < 0.05) concentrations of C a than the other three treatments throughout the leaching per iod (Figure 2.7). U p o n subtracting the cumulat ive C a leached f rom the Y T C and P L alone treatments f rom the P L / Y treatment there was an extra 778 m g o f C a leached when the poultry litter was p laced over top of the Y T C . Th i s was l i ke l y caused by cat ion exchange occurr ing in the Y T C base pad stimulated by cations in the leachate f l o w i n g f r o m the poultry litter layer above. A m m o n i u m and K were l i ke l y the most dominant such cations, w i th Z n and C u hav ing a smal ler impact. G r imes et al. (1999), in contro l led batch sorpt ion experiments us ing household waste compost, found that C a was most l i ke l y be ing replaced by metals in both the organic and inorganic fractions o f the compost . Add i t i ona l l y , the C a leached f rom the Y / P L treatment d id not prove to be s imp l y the sum o f the C a leached f r om the Y T C and P L treatments. In fact it was 1860 ± 160 m g C a or 4 3 % lower than expected. One possible explanat ion for this cou ld be the very h igh concentrat ion of P contained in the poultry litter. C a l c i u m forms insoluble precipitates w i th P under a lkal ine condit ions. Thus , as C a leached out o f the Y T C cover ing layer it was i m m o b i l i z e d through reaction w i th P in the poultry litter layer be low. The C a concentrat ion in the P L under the Y T C in the Y / P L treatment at the end o f the study was s igni f icant ly higher than the C a concentrat ion in the in i t ia l P L packed into the co lumns (P < 0.1). Furthermore, the ratio o f total to avai lable C a i n the poultry litter pr ior to leaching was 33 , wh i l e this same ratio for the Y T C was about three. 36 100 200 300 400 Precipitation (mm) 500 Treatment Differences (a = 0.05) in total cumulative masses leached Ca Y T C b P L a Y / P L b P L / Y c S c Figure 2.7 Cumulative masses of Ca leached from columns. 2.2.7 C o p p e r a n d Z i n c A f te r the first major ra infa l l event, the concentrations o f C u and Z n in the leachates emanating f rom the P L and Y / P L treatments were 25 and 17 m g C u L' 1 , and 11 and 7 m g Z n L"1, respectively. In compar ison, the B C M i n i s t r y o f Env i ronment d r ink ing water qual i ty standards are 0.5 m g C u L"1 and 5 m g Z n L"1 (Refer to Tab le 1.1) (Government o f B r i t i sh C o l u m b i a 2006) . These h igh leachate concentrations are a ref lect ion o f the h igh concentrations o f these two metals in the in i t ia l poultry litter packed into the co lumns (Table 2.3). The Y T C base pad was very effective at retaining both C u and Z n throughout the entire leaching per iod. The extreme C u and Z n concentrations in the first f lush o f leachate f rom the P L alone treatment were reduced f rom 25 to 1.3 m g C u L"1 and f r om 11 to 0.95 m g Z n L _ 1 (P < 0.05), equal to over 9 0 % for both metals when the Y T C base pad was present in the P L / Y treatment (F igure 2.8). 37 YTC —X— PL Y/PL —©— PL7Y —a— S 200 300 400 Precipitation (mm) (a) 100 200 300 400 Precipitation (mm) 500 600 (b) Figure 2.8 Variations in concentrations of (a) Cu and (b) Zn in leachates over study period. The cumulat ive masses o f C u and Z n leached f r om the P L alone c o l u m n were reduced by 46 ± 6 m g C u and 24 ± 3 m g Z n (P < 0.05) when the Y T C base pad was present in the P L / Y treatment (F igure 2.9). The total C u concentrations o f the Y T C base pads in the S and P L / Y treatments had increased by an average o f 53 ± 10 m g C u (P < 0.05), equal to 1 0 2 % over the in i t ia l C u concentrat ion i n the Y T C material packed into the co lumns. N o signif icant increases in Z n concentrat ion were observed i n the Y T C base pad material . Th i s was poss ib ly because the in i t ia l concentration o f Z n i n the Y T C was h igh (470 m g Z n kg " 1 dry Y T C ) and thus the added 20-30 m g o f Z n to the Y T C material was not detectable w i th in error. 38 200 300 400 Precipitation (mm) 600 (a) Treatment Differences (a = 0.05) in total cumulative masses leached Cu Zn Y T C a a P L c c Y / P L d d P L / Y b b S b b 200 300 400 Precipitation (mm) (b) Figure 2.9 Cumulative masses of (a) Cu and (b) Zn leached from columns. The Y T C cover i n the Y / P L treatment increased the C u and Z n leaching f r om the poul t ry l itter be low b y 13 ± 6 m g C u o r l 2 % and by 11 ± 3 m g Z n or 2 0 % (P < 0.05) over the P L alone treatment. T w o possible explanations for this exist. F irst , C a in the leachate f r o m the Y T C cover ing layer cou ld have d isp laced C u and Z n f r om the exchange sites i n the poul t ry litter. Second, d isso lved organic matter i n the leachate emanat ing f r o m the Y T C layer above cou ld have been chelat ing the metals in the poul t ry litter layer be low, thus increasing their so lubi l i ty . L i ndsay (1979) found that for a variety o f organic molecules Zn-l igand chelates were more soluble than Cu-l igand chelates. Therefore the relative increase in Z n leached f r om the poul t ry litter layer due to the Y T C cover was greater than the increase i n C u . The S treatment, wh i ch also had an Y T C cover, d id not show an increase i n cumulat ive 39 masses o f Z n or C u leached as compared to the P L / Y treatment. Th i s cou ld be due to the Y T C base pad in the S treatment retaining the extra metals leached f r om the poul t ry litter layer above. Three mechanisms for the retention o f C u and Z n by the Y T C base pad are cat ion exchange, sorpt ion, and precipitat ion. The elevated p H o f the poultry litter leachate (approximately 8.0) w o u l d have served to increase the negative charge on the Y T C , thus increasing the sorpt ion capacity. These elevated pHs w o u l d have also led to the precipi tat ion o f C u and Z n , as these metals are most soluble be low p H 7.0 (Brady and W e i l 2002) . A t the end of the study the overa l l cumulat ive masses o f C u and Z n leached f rom the co lumns were both negatively correlated w i th the cumulat ive mass of C a leached (P < 0.1). Th i s negative relat ionship was even stronger when C u or Z n was correlated w i th the cumulat ive mass o f C a plus M g (P < 0.05). Th i s suggests that C a and M g were being displaced f r om the exchange sites on the hum i c substances i n the Y T C base pad by C u and Z n ions. The overa l l effect o f sorpt ion, cat ion exchange, and precipi tat ion i n the Y T C base pad resulted i n 12 ± 3 m g o f C u and 6 ± 2 m g o f Z n be ing retained per k g o f dry Y T C material . 2.3 Conclusions Ni t rogen, N a , K, S, and P leached readi ly f r om the poultry litter. The Y T C was more stable in terms o f leachable nutrients however notable quantities o f K, N a , M g , N , and S were lost due to leaching. The Y T C base pad in the P L / Y treatment decreased the cumulat ive C u , Z n and P leached as compared to the P L alone by 46 ± 6 mg C u , 24 ± 3 m g Z n , and 1975 ± 1120 m g P (P < 0.05), but appeared to have l itt le abi l i ty to retain N or so luble salts. Furthermore, the Y T C base pad materials in the P L / Y and S treatments contained on average an extra 1280 ± 660 m g P k g 1 dry Y T C than the in i t ia l Y T C pr ior to leaching (P < 0.05). 40 Cation exchange, mainly via Ca displacement was credited for much of the metal retention, while complexation with Ca and Mg was credited with much of the retention of P. An important scientific finding was that the Y T C cover served to increase the leaching of metals and N from the poultry litter layers below. 41 3. Use of yard trimmings compost to mitigate effects of over-winter field storage of poultry litter on soil quality The objective of this study was to determine the effects of the Y T C base pad, Y T C covering, and combinations of the two on selected soil properties under and around three poultry litter field storage piles. Additionally, observational data was collected to assess the overall effects of the piles on run-off quality, and crop development. 3.1 Materials and Methods 3.1.1 Site and pile descriptions Three experimental poultry litter storage piles were located at two farms near Ladner, B C . The soils are medium to moderately fine textured deltaic deposits of the Gleysolic order. The fields are flat, poorly drained, and there is a fluctuating water table. Piles 1 and 2 were located on a Guichon soil while Pile 3 was located on a Delta soil (Luttmerding 1980). The exact locations and characteristics of the piles are listed in Table 3.1. TABLE 3.1 Descriptions of experimental poultry litter field storage piles Pile Location Height Width Length Mass Y T C Y T C # (m) (tonnes) base pad cover 1 49° 02' 39.1 N 4 . 5 - 5 10 70 450 Yes 2/3 123° 03' 17.8 W covered 2 49° 02' 56.1 N 3 - 3 . 5 10 40 600 z No 1/3 123° 03' 14.4W covered 3 49° 04' 34.5 N 3 7 20 100 No Ful l 123° 02' 50.5 W cover Estimated by assuming a 60% reduction in volume after composting a combined mass of poultry litter and horse manure of 1480 tonnes (60:40 mix poultry litter: horse manure). A l l piles were formed into windrows for the storage period. A windrow is a long pile of triangular cross-sectional area. This shape allows precipitation to be shed, thus preventing pooling, and the creation of saturated, anoxic zones which give off unpleasant odors. 42 The experimental Piles 1 and 2 were located at opposite ends of the same field on 64 th Street, near Ladner, and were located approximately 50 m and 100 m, respectively from the nearest ditch. Pile 1 had a mass of 450 tonnes and was a mixture of broiler litter and turkey litter. The entire windrow was stored on a 30 cm thick base pad of YTC (dry bulk density, D D = 711 kg/m ). The manure was covered at both ends by a 15-20 cm thick layer of YTC ( D b = 290 kg/m ), while a 30 m long section of the middle was left uncovered. The result was that there were two treatments at Pile 1: 1) Uncovered with a base pad (i.e. 1U) and 2) Covered with a base pad (i.e. IC). Pile 2 was made up of a composted mixture of 60% poultry litter and 40% barnyard horse manure (volume basis), with a total final mass of 600 tonnes. This mixture was actively composted off site, with four turns to ensure that the entire pile reached temperatures of 55 - 60°C. The middle portion of this windrow (18 m long) had a 15-30 cm thick YTC cover while the two end sections had no cover. This pile had no YTC base pad and was thus stored directly on the soil. The two treatments at this pile were: 1) Uncovered with no base pad (i.e. 2U), and 2) Covered with no base pad (i.e. 2C). Pile 3 was located further north on 64 th Street on a different field. This pile was made up of approximately 100 tonnes of straight poultry litter, had no YTC base pad, was completely covered with a 15-20 cm thick layer of YTC, and was located about 35 m from the nearest ditch. The treatment at this pile was; Covered with no base pad. 3.1.2 Soil sampling and analysis Soil sampling was carried out in the fall to determine background levels of nutrients at all four sites. Ten soil samples were collected at two depths (0-15 cm and 15-30 cm) from each site at 5 m intervals along a transect 5 m away from the pile and parallel to it. The ten 43 samples f rom each depth were composi ted for each particular site, and analyzed by the methods descr ibed be low for electr ical conduct iv i ty ( EC ) , p H , and the f o l l ow ing avai lable nutrients: N H 4 - N , N 0 3 - N , P, K, C a , M g , N a , C u , Z n , Fe, M n , and SO4-S. In the spr ing, when the f ie lds had dr ied and pr ior to spreading o f the manure, so i l samples were col lected at two depths f rom the regions around and under the pi les . So i l samples were col lected f r om three locations around the p i le , namely 0 m or direct ly beside the p i le , 2.5 m, and 5 m away f rom the p i le . Three replicates of these samples were col lected for each treatment at each p i le . The so i l under the pi les was sampled in two or three regions depending on the presence or absence o f the Y T C base pad. Samples were col lected f r o m under the wet outer edges and dry inner cores o f a l l three pi les. Samples were also col lected f rom under the wet midd le region (i.e. wet mid ) o f P i le 1. Each sample site was repl icated three t imes for each treatment. So i l samples were also col lected at the end o f Ju ly 2006 under where P i les 1 and 2 had been, as we l l as f r o m the bu lk f i e ld around these pi les. So i l samples were col lected f r om areas former ly under the uncovered and covered sections of P i l e 1 where the wet edge and dry core had been. A l s o , a composi te o f ten samples f r o m the bu lk f i e ld surrounding P i l e 1 was col lected. Fo r P i l e 2 composites o f ten samples were col lected f r om both under the former p i le locat ion and f r o m the f i e ld surrounding it. These samples were analyzed on l y for p H , E C , and avai lable N H 4 - N and NO3-N. A l l so i l samples were col lected us ing an Oak f i e ld Probe at 0-15 c m and 15-30 c m depths. F i ve cores were col lected at each site and composi ted. U p o n co l lec t ion the samples were transferred to plast ic bags, sealed and stored on ice packs i n a cooler for transport to the laboratory. The N H 4 - N and NO3-N were extracted w i th in 24 hours w i th a 1 M K C 1 extract ion 44 solut ion us ing a 10:1 K C 1 : so i l extract as descr ibed by M c K e a g u e (1978). Extracts were analyzed us ing a Lachat Q u i k C h e m F I A , 8000 series. The remainder o f the sample was air dr ied at r oom temperature, and ground us ing a hammer m i l l w i th a 2 m m sieve. E C and p H were determined us ing a 2:1 water to so i l extract, on a mass basis. A B e c k m a n So lu-Br idge conduct iv i ty meter was used to analyze the E C , wh i l e an O r i o n Research analogue p H meter mode l 300 was used for determination o f p H . The E C results were converted to saturation paste values us ing the f o l l ow ing relat ionship determined on a Westham Island so i l by Wo l t e r son (1993 ) : y = 2.61x + 0.030 R 2 = 0.97 E q . (8) For the remainder o f the chemica l analyses samples were sent to Pac i f i c S o i l Ana l y s i s Inc ( P SA I ) in R i c h m o n d , B C . Ava i l ab l e P (Bray-P|) was determined co lor imetr i ca l l y us ing the ascorbic ac id co lor development method on a 1:10 so i l to B ray (0 .03N NH4F i n 0 .025N HC I ) extract ( M c K e a g u e 1978). Ava i l ab l e C a , M g , N a , and K were determined on a Perkin- E lme r A t o m i c Abso rp t i on Spectrophotometer ( A A S ) using a 1:5 so i l to 1 M a m m o n i u m acetate extract buffered to p H 7.0 ( M c K e a g u e 1978). Ava i l ab l e C u , Z n , Fe, and M n were determined by Perk in-E lmer A A S on a 1:5 so i l to 0 .1N H C I extract ( M c K e a g u e 1978). Ava i l ab l e SO4-S was determined using the H i-B i smuth Reduc ib le method on a 1:2 so i l to C a C l 2 extract ( Kowa l enko 1993). 3.1.3 Poultry litter and yard trimmings compost sampling and analysis Temperature measurements w i th in each pi le were taken several times throughout the storage per iod, as an indicator of compost ing and pathogen reduct ion. These measurements were taken a long a hor izonta l transect at 1.5 m above the so i l surface, at f i ve depths w i t h i n the p i le : 20, 40 , 60 , 100, and 140 c m f rom the poul t ry litter surface. 45 Samples of the poultry litter and Y T C f r om each p i le were col lected i n the fa l l as a reference for in i t ia l nutrient, moisture, and salt contents. These samples were air dr ied at r oom temperature for a m i n i m u m of 120 h and then stored in sealed plast ic bags unt i l analysis. In early A p r i l 2006, samples o f the poultry litter and Y T C materials were col lected f rom several locat ions w i th in each pi le . F irst , an excavator was used to make two large cuts in each treatment at each p i le (Refer to A p p e n d i x D ) . The cuts were approximate ly 2 m wide and they extended f r om the apex of the p i le , straight d o w n to the so i l surface and out to one edge. Th i s resulted i n complete prof i les on four wa l ls f r om wh i ch to col lect three replicate samples. The Y T C cover was sampled at the apex, the midd le and bottom, and the base pad was sampled at the wet outer edge, wet midd le reg ion, and dry core. The poul t ry litter was sampled f r om the dry inner core, as we l l as f rom the wet outer layer at the bot tom, midd le , and top o f the pi le . App rox ima te l y 10 L o f sample f r om each locat ion were scraped into a pa i l and thoroughly m i x e d wi th a t rowel . Samples o f 0.5-1 k g were transferred to plast ic bags and transported to the laboratory. Samples were l a id out to air-dry at r oom temperature for a m i n i m u m of 120 h. Mo is tu re content, E C , and p H were determined on a l l samples as descr ibed i n Chapter 2 (p. 20-21). The Y T C and P L materials sampled f rom each o f the regions in P i l e 1 on ly were subjected to a detai led chemica l analysis by P S A I . Th i s inc luded ash, avai lable N H 4 - N , N 0 3 - N , and B ray-P i , as w e l l as total C , N , P, K, C a , M g , N a , C u , Z n , Fe , M n , and S. The methods are the same as those described i n Chapter 2 (p. 23-24). 46 3.1.4 Statistical analysis Due to the chal lenges of on-farm research there was no true repl icat ion i n this study. Samples were col lected f r om three locat ions w i th in each treatment at each p i le as pseudo- replicates. Fo r each ind iv idua l p i le the pseudo-replicates were subjected to a one-way Ana l ys i s o f Var iance ( A N O V A ) us ing S A S Institute Inc. " J M P I N " statistical package, vers ion 4.0.4 ( S A S , 2001). U p o n a signif icant F-value for treatment, mean compar isons were performed us ing Tukey ' s Honest ly S igni f icant Di f ference at an a lpha leve l o f 0.05. Qual i tat ive comparisons on l y were made between pi les. 3.2 Results and Discussion 3.2.1 Climate The month ly precipi tat ion received at the Vancouve r International A i rpo r t located approximate ly 14 k m northwest o f the study sites is compared to the month ly c l imate normals calculated f r om 1971 to 2000 in F igure 3.1 (Env i ronment Canada 2004). The elevat ion and weather patterns at the airport are comparable to those o f the study sites. Th i s f igure indicates that January 2006 was an unusual ly wet month wh i l e February was a very dry month. The result o f this was that the agricultural f ie lds in De l ta i n January were complete ly saturated, there was standing water cover ing much o f the f ie lds , and there was considerable over land f low. 47 300 • 2005/06 250 j Q 1971-2000 E E 200 - Q . $ 100 \ % 15° I Q. C O 50 4 04 Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Month Figure 3.1 Monthly precipitation at Vancouver International Airport 2005-2006 compared to Environment Canada normals. 3.2.2.1 Winter The effects o f the Y T C cover ing and base pad on manure storage P i les 1 and 2 were evident in January 2006. There was standing and f l o w i n g water surrounding both pi les due to the intense levels o f precipi tat ion, water table r ise, and result ing so i l saturation. D i r ec t l y beside P i l e 1 the puddles were a transparent dark b rown color. A r o u n d P i l e 2 (i.e. no Y T C base pad) the puddles were opaque and had a b lack tarry appearance. It was poss ib le to observe this leachate and run-off f l o w i n g direct ly f rom P i l e 2, across the f i e ld and into the d i tch, despite the fact that this p i le was located approximate ly 100 m away, we l l in accordance w i th the Government of B r i t i sh C o l u m b i a ' s Agr i cu l tu ra l Waste Con t ro l Regula t ion (Government o f B r i t i sh C o l u m b i a 1992). W h e n compar ing Pi les 1 and 2 it appeared that the Y T C base pad under P i l e 1 helped to regulate the water running-off o f and leaching through the P L layers above, acting l ike a sponge and result ing in less overal l water accumulat ion around the pi le . The leachate wh i ch d id accumulate around P i l e 1 was cleaner and clearer l ook ing than the leachate poo l ing around P i l e 2. 3.2.2 Field Observations 48 A r o u n d P i l e 2 there were two black, tarry puddles direct ly beside the two uncovered portions o f the p i le . Th i s suggested that the Y T C cover ing layer was reduc ing the leaching and run-off f rom the wet outer layer o f the stored P L . Th is was not observed around P i l e 1 l i ke l y because the Y T C base pad decreased the effect. Despite the lack o f Y T C base pad under P i l e 3, the standing water around this p i l e was a l ight b rown co lour comparable to what was observed around P i l e 1. Th i s suggests that the Y T C cover was inh ib i t ing the leaching and run-off f r o m the outer layers o f the P L . P i l e 3 seemed to be located in a sl ight depression, as there was a considerable amount o f water poo l ing around it, but l itt le f l o w i n g over land. The temperatures measured in the pi les over the winter indicate that the Y T C cover insulates the poultry litter and helps to mainta in elevated temperatures (F igure 3.2). P i l e 2, wh i ch was composted off-site, remained the warmest over the storage per iod i n both the covered and uncovered sections indicat ing that compost ing was cont inu ing. The uncovered section o f P i l e 1 coo led o f f qu i ck l y and remained coo l . P i l e 3 and the covered section o f P i l e 1 remained relat ively wa rm indicat ing that m ic rob ia l act iv i ty was occur r ing , wh i ch cou ld have led to increased rates o f minera l izat ion o f nutrients result ing in higher levels o f leachable nutrients, as we l l as possible pathogen reduct ion. 49 31-Aug 20-Oct 9-Dec 28-Jan 19-Mar Sample Date Figure 3.2 Average temperatures measured in piles over the winter storage period. Temperatures are averages of measurements taken at 5 depths within each pile. 3.2.2.2 Summer Impacts o f the manure storage pi les on crops were evident in Augus t 2006. The effects o f each p i le on the subsequent crop at that site are descr ibed in Tab le 3.2. Genera l l y , the negative impacts on crop development are l i ke l y attributable to a combinat ion o f ammon ia tox ic i ty and excessive sal inity on seed germinat ion. The symptoms observed on the crops g row ing under where P i l e 2 had been stored, are characteristic o f plants g row ing under excess ive ly h i g h N condit ions. These inc lude v igorous dark green vegetative growth, coupled w i th delayed or absent f l ower ing , fruit set and fruit development ( M i l l s and Jones, 1979). Tota l avai lable so i l N levels measured where P i l e 2 had been in Augus t 2006 were approximate ly 1200 m g k g " 1 . 50 TABLE 3.2 F i e l d observations of the effects on crop development the summer f o l l ow ing over-winter storage o f poultry litter P i l e - Treatment C rop Observat ions 1 Cove red , Y T C C o r n pad 1 Uncove red , Y T C C o r n pad 2 Cove red , no pad Potatoes 2 Uncove red , no pad Potatoes 3 Cove red , no pad Peas Approx ima te l y ha l f the plants appeared unaffected, ha l f were stunted and showed purp l ing and cur l ing o f the leaves; effects v is ib le under the pi le only . Plants g rowing beside the pi le were healthy. Large area of no crop (20 m x 5 m) , strip o f healthy plants down centre (under core o f p i le ) , stunted plants m i x e d w i th no plants extended out to 3 m away f r om pi le . Comple te plant cover, fo l iage dark green, no tubers; effects covered area under the p i le and out to approximately 1 m away. Comple te plant cover, fol iage dark green, no tubers; effects covered area under the p i le and out to approximate ly 1 m away. N o crop product ion under p i le or around pi le to a distance o f approximately 1 m away in a l l direct ions. 3.2.3 Soil Quality Under and Around Piles 3.2.3.1 All Piles Pos i t i ve correlations (P < 0.01) existed under a l l pi les at the 0-15 c m depth between E C and p H , p H and N H 4 - N , and N H 4 -N and E C . Th i s indicates that leached NFLf1" was cont ro l l ing the so i l p H under the p i le , and that the majority o f the leached salts were NH4- salts. These same posi t ive correlations existed under the pi les at the 15-30 c m depth however they were not as strong (P < 0.1). (See A p p e n d i x E for raw data). E lec t r i ca l conduct iv i ty , p H and NH4-N were not correlated for the so i l samples taken at 2.5 m and 5 m away f r o m the pi les suggesting that the stored manure had l i tt le effect o n the surrounding f i e ld . However , the so i l d irect ly beside the piles (i.e. 0 m) exhib i ted posit ive correlations (P < 0.05) between E C and NH4-N, as we l l as between p H and NH4-N. There 51 was no correlat ion between E C and p H . Thus , direct ly beside the pi les run-off o f NH4-N was dr i v ing the so i l p H , however leaching o f salts was not a s ignif icant factor. There was a negative correlat ion (P < 0.05) between avai lable P and E C for the soi ls under and around P i l e 1. Th i s was l i ke l y an indicat ion that the Y T C base pad was retaining P, wh i le the salts were leaching through. The soi ls be low P i l e 3 showed a posi t ive correlat ion (P < 0.01) between avai lable P and E C . Th i s substantiates the fact that the Y T C base pad in P i l e 1 was retaining P, whereas P i l e 3 lacked an Y T C base pad and thus impacted both so i l avai lable P and E C levels. The soi ls under P i l e 2 showed no correlat ion between E C and avai lable P despite the lack o f Y T C base pad. Th i s was l i ke l y due to the d i lu t ion o f the poultry litter w i th barnyard horse manure and pre-composting o f P i l e 2 offsite, w h i c h resulted in less avai lable P for leaching (Table 3.3). TABLE 3.3 Init ial f a l l nutrient concentrations of the stored poultry litter, n = 4 Init ial concentrat ion o f P i les 1 and 3 P i l e 2 - poultry litter nutrient - dry weight basis - poultry l i t ter 2 composted w i th horse manure E C 1 0 ± l a 13±0.4 b p H 6.2 ± 0 .2 a 6 . 4 ± 0 . 1 a % C 39 ± 0 .7 b 33 ± 2 a % A s h 15±0.7 a 2 7 ± 4 b Tota l N (g kg" 1 ) . 5 1 ± 2 b 3 7 ± 3 a Tota l P (g kg" 1 ) 22 ± 0 .6 a 2 2 ± 5 a Tota l K ( g k g 1 ) 1 6 ± l a 16 ± 2 a Tota l C a (g kg" 1 ) 24 ± 0 .9 a 42 ± l b Ava i l ab l e N (mg kg" 1 ) 5160±620 a 5310±510 a Ava i l ab l e P (mg kg" 1 ) 5850 ± 5 2 0 b 4630 ±130 a Ava i l ab l e K (mg kg" 1 ) 12 380 ± 6 0 0 a 13 940 ± 2 2 0 0 a Ava i l ab l e C a (mg kg" 1 ) 531±120 a 531 ±290 a Ava i l ab l e N a (mg kg" 1 ) 3420 ± 2 5 0 b 2640 ± 2 4 0 a Ava i l ab l e C u (mg kg" ' ) 65 ± 2 0 b 17 ± 13 a Ava i l ab l e Z n (mg kg" 1 ) 380 ± 1 3 b 250 ± 3 5 a zPiles 1 and 3 were made up of the same type of poultry litter. 52 3.2.3.2 Pile 1 P i l e 1 (i.e. f u l l Y T C base pad ; part ial Y T C cover) increased soluble salt levels at the 0-15 c m depth on ly under the p i le ' s two wet regions, namely the wet midd le and wet edge as compared to the background E C of 2 dS m" 1 measured in the fa l l 2005 (F igure 3.3a). However , the on l y s igni f icant ly h igh E C (P < 0.05) was measured under the Y T C covered section o f the wet midd le region, suggesting that the Y T C cover increased leaching f r om the stored poultry litter. So lub le salts under the dry core, as we l l as at 0 m, 2.5 m and 5 m away f r om the p i le were a l l be low the background leve l . There was no signif icant effect at 15-30 c m depth. 12 10 — 8 S 6 o UJ 4 2 0 • Covered • Uncovered rh P *U Dry core Wet mid Wet edge Sample 0m location 2.5m 5m (a) 2400 « 1800 O) O) .§, 1200 600 • Covered • Uncovered Dry core Wet mid Wet edge Sample 0m Location 2.5m 5m (b) Sample Location Differences at a = 0.05 EC N H 4 - N P C z Dry core a ab ab U " Dry core a ab a C Wet mid b c ab U Wet mid a be ab C Wet edge a ab abed U Wet edge a ab be C O m a ab abed U O m a a d C2.5 m a a d U2.5 m a a bed C 5 m a a cd U 5 m a a abed Z Y T C covered section; "Uncovered section 53 250 - T— 200 - I 150 • Q . 0 S 100 • ra '5 < 50 • o • Covered • Uncovered l i i nil | ! i  I •- i i nh- | I I •- Dry core Wet mid Wet edge 0m 2.5m 5m Sample Location Figure 3.3 Effect of Pile 1 on soil (a) EC, (b) NH4 -N, and (c) available P at 0-15 cm depth, sampled April 2006. The highest so i l NH4-N concentrations were detected in the wet midd le region fo l l owed by the wet edge (Figure 3.3b). However , elevated so i l NH4-N levels were also detected at the 0-15 c m depth under the covered and uncovered sections o f the dry core, d i rect ly beside the covered sect ion o f the p i le (i.e. 0 m) , and 2.5 m away f r o m the uncovered section o f the p i le . A s imi lar pattern was observed at the 15-30 c m depth w i th reduced concentrations. The 0-15 c m depth samples taken f r om the covered wet midd le reg ion apparently exhib i ted the highest NH4-N, poss ib ly indicat ing that the Y T C cover increases leaching f r o m the poultry litter although this was not s igni f icant ly higher than the uncovered wet midd le and wet edge samples. So i l NH4-N levels detected at 2.5 m away f r om the uncovered sect ion were apparently higher than those 2.5 m away f r om the covered sect ion o f the p i le , a l though these differences were not signif icant. Nonetheless this data suggests that the Y T C cover increases leaching and decreases run-off. A s poultry litter wets and dries a crust forms on the surface, wh i ch l imi ts the inf i l trat ion o f precipitat ion. Th i s was observed in the uncovered poultry litter sections o f both P i les 1 and 2. The Y T C layer appears to protect the poul t ry litter surface f r om fo rm ing this crust, and thus a l lows improved inf i l t rat ion o f precipi tat ion and consequent ly more leaching and less run-off. 54 The elevated N H 4 - N levels under the dry core of P i l e 1 are a ref lect ion o f the f luctuat ing water table and so i l saturation wh i ch c o m m o n l y occur over-winter in this region. Once there was water under the pi le it w o u l d have moved up into the Y T C base pad through capi l lary r ise, a l l ow ing for leaching or lateral d i f fus ion to occur. It is un l i ke l y that this water cou ld have r isen up as h igh as the P L , as the Y T C base pad was 30 c m thick. A l s o , upon sampl ing in the spr ing the upper port ion of the Y T C base pad and over l y ing poul t ry litter i n this region were both very dry. Therefore, the elevated N H 4 -N detected under the dry cores is hypothesized to have originated in the Y T C base pad itself. S o i l avai lable P concentrations under the dry core and wet midd le regions o f P i l e 1 were unaffected by the over l y ing P L (F igure 3.3c). Background levels o f so i l avai lable P measured i n the fa l l o f 2005 were 129 m g k g " 1 at 0-15 c m depth and 71 m g k g " 1 at 15-30 c m depth. Th i s suggests that the Y T C base pad under the wet midd le reg ion was effective at retaining P leached f rom the poultry litter above. Some P leaching apparently occurred under the covered wet edge, though this was not s igni f icant ly higher than any other sample locat ion. L i t t le leaching was expected under the wet edge because this region o f the pi le most ly consisted o f the Y T C base pad and cover, w i th on ly a smal l amount o f poultry litter, and the m a x i m u m leachabi l i ty o f P f r om the Y T C over the entire study per iod was found through the c o l u m n study to be on ly 160 ± 4 m g P k g " 1 dry Y T C . The h i g h avai lable P levels detected i n the so i l under the covered wet edge might be attributable to f i e ld var iabi l i ty . A l l so i l avai lable P concentrations determined on the 0-15 c m depth samples f r om this site were in the very h igh r isk of P po l lu t ion potential as proposed by in the Fraser V a l l e y So i l Nutr ient Study 2005 (Kowa l enko et al. 2007). 55 Phosphorus run-off f rom the covered section o f P i l e 1 had an effect out to 5 m away f rom the p i le at the 0-15 c m depth, but no signif icant effect at 15-30 c m . The effect o f P run - o f f f r om the uncovered sect ion extended out to 2.5 m away f r om the p i le at both the 0-15 c m and 15-30 c m depths. The concentrations o f other so i l avai lable macro and m ic ro nutrients as w e l l as the p H at the 0-15 c m so i l depth under and around P i l e 1 after over-winter storage are l isted i n Tab le 3.4. Ava i l ab l e K and N a concentrations correlated posi t ive ly w i th E C (P < 0.01) indicat ing that these species are the dominant salt f o rming cations present in the P L , they are h igh l y soluble, and loosely sorbed to the poultry litter. S o d i u m concentrations under the covered wet midd le reg ion were s igni f icant ly higher (P < 0.05) than a l l other N a levels, indicat ing that the Y T C cover increased N a leaching f r om the poultry litter be low. 56 TABLE 3.4 S o i l p H and concentrations o f avai lable nutrients under and around P i le 1 at the end o f the storage per iod, n = 3 Sample P H C a M g z K N a C u Z n z Fe M n S 0 4 - S Loca t i on (mg k g d r y weight basis C D r y Co re 5 . 9±0 .1 d 1350±50b c 483 ±3 1040±96bc 62 ± 3 a b 6.8±l b c 12 ± 2 533±29 a b c d 48±4 e 26±7 b c d U D r y Co re 5 .2±0 .1 c 1150±0 a b 393 ± 23 1030±76bc 82 ± 8 a b c 8.9±0.2C 12 ±3 673±21 c d 37±l e 30±6 b c d C We t m i d 7.1 ±0 .5 d 1280±225 b c 410±132 1810±1120bc 360 ± 2 0 d 4.1±l b c 14 ±3 717±58d 48±3 e 55±3 c d U Wet m i d 6.4 ± 0 .4 d 1120±29 a b 355 ± 13 1920±987c 188±127bc 6.8±0.9ab 15 ±3 660±26 c d 39±2 e 35±29 b c d C Wet edge 6.3±0.8 d 1300±132 b c 413 ±48 960±476 b c 198±78 c 7.3±3b c 13 ± 1 443±179 a b c d 41± l e 49±20 c d U We t edge 6.3 ± 0 . 5 d 1130±126 a b 368 ± 74 1530±306bc 132 ± 3 8 a b c 5.6±0.4bc 14 ±4 492 ±74 a b c d 3 6 ± 2 a b c d 29±17 b c d C O m 5.3 ± 0.4 C 1320±29b c 403 ± 25 645±196 b c 58 ± 3 a b 4.9±2 b c 12 ±3 402 ±178 b c 33±8 a b c d 29±9 b c d U O m 4.6±0.1 a b c 1270±104b c 348 ± 39 633±57 a b 2 8 ± 3 a 4.3±0.8b c 17 ± 2 328 ± 2 5 a b 30±4 a b c l l ± 3 b c C 2 . 5 m 5.6 ± 1.2 d 1550±260c 392 ±7 687±42 b c 3 5 ± 5 a 3.9±2 a b 16 ± 1 222 ±84 a b 33±3 a b c d 7 ± 2 a b U 2 . 5 m 5.3±0.3 C 1330±29b c 428 ±8 849±306b c 57 ± 1 3 a b 6±2 b c 16 ±3 428 ±149 b c 44±3 d e 30±12 b c d C 5 m 4.8 0 . 1 a b c 1250±173 b c 357 ± 60 623±40 a b 3 5 ± 9 a 5.9±2b c 14 ±2 312 ±39 a b 28±4 a b 2 2 ± 7 b c d U 5 m 4.9±0.2 b c 1220 ± 2 9 b c 365 ± 20 903±194 b c 65 ± 9 a b 4.6±2 b c 15 ±4 350 ±83 a b 27±7a 30±17 b c d zF-test not s igni f icant at a = 0.05 Ul Ava i l ab l e C a concentrations away f r om the pi le were general ly higher than those detected under the pi le . Th i s is most l i ke l y due to C a run-off f rom the Y T C cover and base pad materials. N o s ignif icant effects on so i l M g or Z n were detected. The on ly elevated C u concentrations were detected under one core sample where leaching was due to water table rise contact ing the Y T C base pad. Th rough the c o l u m n study the leachabi l i ty o f C u f r o m Y T C was determined to be 0.5 ± 0.01 m g C u k g 1 dry Y T C , thus it is un l i ke l y that the Y T C base pad w o u l d have s igni f icant ly impacted so i l avai lable C u levels , and this anomalous concentrat ion is probably due to f i e ld var iabi l i ty . Iron and M n showed elevated concentrations s imi l a r l y under the h igh l y leached covered and. uncovered wet m idd le regions o f the p i le as we l l as under some o f the dry core samples. The Y T C base pad does not appear to retain either of these metals. 3.2.3.3 P i l e 2 P i l e 2 (i.e. no Y T C base pad; partial Y T C cover) caused elevated soluble salt and N H 4 - N levels in the so i l under the wet edge and dry core d o w n to 30 c m depth (F igure 3.4). The elevated so i l E C and N H 4 - N concentrations under the dry core o f the p i le suggest that dur ing the winter storage season the water table rose up to the so i l surface and drew d o w n salts and nutrients f r om the manure p i le above. B o t h E C and N H 4 - N concentrations direct ly beside the uncovered sect ion o f the p i le were higher than beside the Y T C covered sect ion, though these differences were not s ignif icant. Th i s nonetheless suggests that the Y T C cover prevents run-off thus l im i t i ng the effect o f the stored manure on the surrounding f i e ld . 58 7 -, 6 - 5 - 4 - (/) 2, 3 - o LU 2 - 1 - 0 - i l l MS • Covered • Uncovered Dry core Wet edge Om 2.5m Sample Location 5m 2700 1800 O) E 900 I Tl • Covered • Uncovered Dry core Wet edge 0m 2.5m Sample Location 5m 210 -, 180 - 150 - O) E, 120 - a a> 90 - n ra '5 60 - > < 30 - 0 - i ii • Covered • Uncovered Dry core Wet edge 0m 2.5m Sample Location 5m (a) (b) (c) Sample Location Differences at a = 0.05 EC N H 4 - N P C Dry core be abc a U Dry core be be ab C Wet edge c c a U Wet edge c c be C O m a a ab U O m ab ab c C 2.5 m a a ab U2.5 m a a ab C 5 m a a ab U 5 m a a ab Figure 3.4 Effect of Pile 2 on soil (a) EC, (b) N H 4 - N , and (c) available P at 0-15 cm depth, sampled April 2006. P i l e 2 had l i tt le effect on so i l avai lable P levels at the 0-15 c m depth, and no measurable effect at 15-30 c m . A t 0 m away f r om the uncovered sect ion o f the pi le the avai lable P concentrations were the highest reaching up to almost 200 m g k g " 1 , whereas the soi l at 0 m away f r om the Y T C covered sect ion had s igni f icant ly lower so i l avai lable P levels of on ly 121 m g k g " 1 (P < 0.05), equal to the background levels measured the previous f a l l . 59 This further substantiates the fact that the Y T C cover prevents run-off f rom the stored poultry litter. The on ly other elevated avai lable so i l P levels measured near P i l e 2 were under the uncovered wet edge. A poss ib le explanat ion why there was more P leaching f r om the uncovered poul t ry litter than there was f rom the Y T C covered poul t ry litter (P < 0.05), is that the Y T C is re lat ively h igh in C a . C a l c i u m leached at a rate o f 750 ±11 m g C a k g - 1 dry Y T C in the c o l u m n experiment conducted over the same winter. A s C a leached out o f P i l e 2's Y T C cover ing layer it cou ld have reacted w i th some o f the P present in the poultry litter, i m m o b i l i z i n g it and thus reducing the leachabi l i ty o f the P. 3.2.3.4 P i l e 3 P i l e 3 (i.e. no Y T C base pad; complete Y T C cover) had a severe effect on soluble salt and NFL-.-N levels under the entire p i le down to 30 c m depth (F igure 3.5). Th i s p i le was much smal ler than P i les 1 and 2, thus leaching wh i ch occurred under the core o f the p i le might have come f r om lateral movement o f water under the pi le as we l l as through water table rise. There was no effect on so i l E C around the pi le however N H 4 - N concentrations were apparently elevated out to 2.5 m away at both 0-15 c m and 15-30 c m depths. Th is NH4-N run-off l i ke l y or iginated most ly in the Y T C cover itself. 60 27 i 24 - 21 - 18 - 'E 15 - (A 2, 12 - o UJ 9 - a 0 • 3 - 0 - • 0-15cm • 15-30cm I Dry core Wet edge Om 2.5m Sample Location 5m 6000 5000 -I v a i 4000 • 1 3000 z £ 2000 z 1000 0 • 0-15 cm • 15-30 cm 1 Dry core Wet edge 0m 2.5m Sample Location 5m 800 O) E, O- 400 .o <8 P 0 0-15cm • 15-30cm Dry core Wet edge Om 2.5m Sample Location 5m (a) (b) (c) Sample Location Differences at a = 0.05 0-15 cm EC NH4 -N P Dry core ab b a Wet edge b b a 0m a a a 2.5 m a a a 5 m a a a Sample Location Differences at a = 0.05 15-30 cm EC NH4 -N P Dry core ab a a Wet edge b b a 0m a a a 2.5 m a a a 5 m a a a Figure 3.5 Effect of Pile 3 on soil (a) EC, (b) NH4 -N, and (c) available P, sampled April 2006. The 0-15 c m soi l depth under the wet edge apparently experienced the most P leaching however there were no s ignif icant differences between sample locations. Ava i l ab l e P levels for a l l samples at the 0-15 c m depth appeared to be above the background level o f 181 m g k g " 1 , and al l values exceeded the 100 m g P kg " 1 ( K e l owna extractable P) l im i t 61 proposed by the Fraser V a l l e y So i l Nutr ient Survey 2005 putt ing these soi ls i n the very h igh environmental r isk class for P po l lu t ion (Kowa l enko et al. 2007) . The concentrations o f other so i l avai lable macro and m ic ro nutrients as w e l l as the p H at the 0-15 c m so i l depth under and around P i l e 3 after over-winter storage are l isted in Tab le 3.5. S im i l a r to P i l e 1 E C was pos i t ive ly correlated w i th K and N a (P < 0.05) indicat ing that these are the dominant salt fo rming cations i n the poultry litter. Ava i l ab l e C a concentrations under the core and edge o f P i l e 3 were s igni f icant ly lower (P < 0.05) than at 5 m away. Th i s cou ld be the result o f h igh levels o f P leaching out of the stored poul t ry litter and fo rm ing insoluble precipitates w i th C a thus reduc ing its ava i lab i l i ty under the pi le . A l s o C a run-off f rom the Y T C cover cou ld have increased the concentrations at 5 m away. Concentrat ions o f C u , Fe and SO4-S were a l l s igni f icant ly higher (P < 0.05) under the wet edge o f the p i le than at 5 m away, ind icat ing that these species leached out o f the poul t ry litter but d i d not run-off and re-enforcing the not ion that the Y T C cover protects the surrounding f i e ld f r om poult ry litter run-off. Z i n c concentrations under the wet edge were h igh but due to large var iab i l i ty no s ignif icant differences were observed. So i l avai lable M n and M g levels were apparently unaffected by the stored poultry litter. 62 TABLE 3.5 So i l p H and concentrations o f avai lable nutrients under and around P i le 3 at the end o f the storage per iod, n = 3 Sample P H C a M g z K N a C u Z n z Fe M n z SO4-S Loca t i on (mg k g " ' ) D r y Co re 6 . 9 ± 0 . 1 d 1200 ± 2 2 0 a 303 ± 78 2470 ± 1 2 4 0 a b 510 ±215" 5.3±0.9 b 9.7 ± 1 740 ± 3 2 b 37 ± 2 55 ± 2 1 a b Wet edge 6.1 ± 0 . 1 c 1130±210 a 375 ± 18 3020 ± 9 3 0 b 520±160 b 4 .9±0.7 a b 13 ± 5 700 ± 2 3 b 33 ± 5 120 ± 5 4 b O m 5.2±0.2 b N D y N D N D N D N D N D N D N D N D 2.5 m 4 .8±0.2 b N D N D N D N D N D N D N D N D N D 5 m 4 . 4 ± 0 . 1 a 1900 ± 130 b 440 ± 42 303 ±13 a 62 ± 13 a 3 .5±0 .1 a 8 ±0.6 180 ±15 a 32 ±0.6 20 ± l l a zF-test not s ignif icant at a = 0.05. y N D - no data avai lable. ON 3.2.4 Assessment of YTC base pad and covering Despite the obvious differences between each o f the three pi les , such as p i le size and type o f poul t ry litter/prior compost ing , qualitative comparisons were made w i th the broader goal o f determining on-farm best management practices regarding over-winter f ie ld storage o f poultry litter on Br i t i sh C o l u m b i a ' s Fraser R i ve r delta. The intensity o f leaching and run-off wh i ch occurred under and around the pi les was used to assess the effectiveness o f the Y T C base pad and cover ing layer at protecting so i l qual i ty and mit igat ing other environmental concerns. Leach ing was most severe everywhere under P i l e 3 as compared to the other pi les. P i l e 3 was made up of less than one quarter and one s ixth o f the vo lumes o f poultry litter present i n P i l es 1 and 2, respectively, yet it had up to thirteen times the impact on so i l qual i ty based on E C s and avai lable N levels. So lub le salt and NH4-N concentrations under the wet regions o f P i les 1 and 2 were very s imi la r (Figure 3.6). H i g h levels o f leaching under P i l e 1 were expected due to its large size compared to P i l e 3, as we l l as its compos i t ion , spec i f i ca l l y fresh poul t ry litter. However , the hypothesis was that the Y T C base pad w o u l d protect the so i l be low. P i l e 2, though very large, was made up of a pre-composted mixture o f P L and barnyard horse manure. A s horse manure is much lower in N and salts than poultry litter and due to the s tab i l iz ing effect of compost ing , a reduced amount o f leaching f r om this pi le was expected (Table 3.3). 64 7000 6000 ~ 5000 OI J £ OI 4000 E, Z 3000 § 2000 1000 0 a 0-15cm • 15-30cm P PP w m M L 1 1C 1U 2C Treatment 2U Figure 3.6 Soil NH4 -N concentrations under highly leached wet regions of all piles at end of storage period, sampled April 2006. Qualitative comparisons only. A m m o n i u m and soluble salt concentrations under the dry cores of the pi les c lear ly indicate that the Y T C base pad in P i l e 1 was effective at protecting the so i l f r om leaching caused by water table rise (F igure 3.7). P i l e 3 had the biggest effect on soi l sal in i ty under its core compared to the soi ls under the cores o f the other pi les. The smal ler impact on soi l qual i ty o f P i l e 2 as compared to P i l e 3 was l i ke l y a result of the pre-composting o f the poultry litter w i th horse manure in P i l e 2, wh i ch resulted i n s igni f icant ly lower total N concentrations as compared to the straight poultry litter in P i l e 3 (Table 3.3). Furthermore, P i l e 3 appeared to be in a l ow spot on the f i e ld , thus water was unable to run-off and more leaching occurred. 1 0 •E 6^ co •o O 4 LU • 0-15cm • 15-30cm 1C 111 P 2C Treatment 2U Figure 3.7 Soil ECs measured under the cores of the piles at the end of the storage period, sampled April 2006. 6 5 The Y T C cover on P i l e 1 appeared to increase leaching of salts in the wet midd le region, wh i le it had no effect on leaching in P i l e 2. A g a i n this cou ld be a result o f the pre- compost ing o f the poultry litter in P i l e 2. W h e n uncovered poultry litter wets and dries it tends to fo rm a crust, wh i ch l imi ts gas exchange. Perhaps the compost ing o f the poultry litter w i th horse manure in P i l e 2 improved the staicture of the manure, thus improv ing the aeration and inf i l t rat ion o f precipitat ion. The Y T C cover in P i l e 1 apparently protected the poul t ry litter surface be low f r om seal ing off , thus a l l ow ing for increased inf i l t rat ion and leaching as compared to the uncovered port ion. A t both P i les 1 and 2 the Y T C cover appeared to protect the surrounding so i l by decreasing run-off. The Y T C cover has added benefits apart f rom the mit igat ion o f nutrient run-off. These are pathogen reduct ion w i th in the poultry litter as a result o f increased temperatures caused by the Y T C insulat ion, as w e l l as the iso lat ion o f the poul t ry litter f r om w i ld l i f e . B i rds are often seen on f ie ld stored poultry litter p i les , feeding on insects l i v i ng inside the pi le . Th i s is a possible pathway for disease t ransmiss ion f r om caged l ivestock to w i l d b i rd populat ions, wh i ch is apparently mit igated w i th a layer o f Y T C . A n analysis o f the nutrient content of the Y T C base pad materials after storage compared to the in i t ia l f a l l nutrient content revealed that the Y T C base pad retained to some degree C u , K, N a , P and NFL-."1" leached f rom the poultry litter. Howeve r due to large var iab i l i ty these increases were not a lways signif icant (See A p p e n d i x F for complete data set). The wet midd le reg ion under the Y T C covered and uncovered sections of the p i le , where leaching was most intense, contained elevated levels o f N a and K (P < 0.01), as we l l as NH4-N and P (not s ignif icant at a= 0.05 due to extreme var iabi l i ty ) . The wet m idd le region under the uncovered section showed elevated levels o f C u (P < 0.1). 66 The 30 c m thickness o f the Y T C base pad was appropriate under the core o f P i l e 1, however the so i l under the h igh l y leached wet edges o f the pi le w o u l d have l i k e l y benefited f r om a thicker base pad. 3.3 Conclusions C r o p development the spr ing f o l l ow ing over-winter poul t ry litter storage was negat ively impacted at a l l sites. The crop g row ing where P i l e 1 had been stored showed the fewest negative effects, wh i le no crop development occurred where P i l e 3 had been stored. P i l e 3 had the largest impact on so i l qual i ty under and around the p i le . Th i s was attributed to the lack o f Y T C base pad, and the uncomposted nature o f the stored poul t ry litter. The Y T C base pad i n P i l e 1 protected the so i l be low f r om leaching due to water table r ise under the core o f the p i le , and to a lesser extent under the intensely leached wet outer regions o f the p i le . The Y T C base pad was found to contain s ign i f i cant ly elevated levels o f C u (P < 0.1), and N a and K (P < 0.05). The Y T C cover on P i les 1 and 2 reduced run-off o f nutrients b y increasing inf i l t rat ion o f precipitat ion, and consequently increasing leaching. The off-site pre-composting o f the poultry litter w i th barnyard horse manure in P i l e 2 resulted in a more stable, less leachable product w h i c h appeared to have a smal ler effect on so i l qual i ty over the storage per iod than the fresh poul t ry litter i n P i les 1 and 3. De l ta farmers should not store poultry litter direct ly on the so i l , and w o u l d be we l l advised to examine the potential o f an Y T C base pad o f greater than 30 c m thickness. The Y T C base pad is not perfectly effective at mit igat ing environmental impacts o f f i e ld stored poul t ry litter, and thus requires some modi f i ca t ion . 6 7 The Y T C cover plays the important role of isolat ing the poultry litter f r om w i ld l i f e whereby mit igat ing the spread o f pathogens f rom caged l ivestock to w i l d b i rd and other an imal populat ions. Regard ing nutrients the Y T C cover decreases run-off, and increases inf i l t rat ion and consequently leaching. Pre-compost ing the manure off-site also protects so i l qual ity. 68 4. General discussion and conclusions 4.1 Introduction Th is thesis employed a contro l led c o l u m n experiment and a f i e ld study to examine the abi l i ty o f the C i t y o f Vancouver Y T C to act as a f i l ter and to mitigate env i ronmenta l impacts o f over-winter f i e ld stored poultry litter. The c o l u m n study prov ided a contro l led setting i n wh i ch to examine the qual i ty o f leachate emanating f rom the poul t ry litter and Y T C materials alone, as we l l as the effects o f the Y T C cover and base pad on the qual i ty o f the poul t ry l itter leachate. In conjunct ion w i th the laboratory character izat ion o f the materials, the c o l u m n study prov ided an arena in wh i ch to f o rm hypotheses regarding the retention o f species b y the Y T C base pad, and increased so lubi l i ty o f certain species b y the Y T C cover. U p o n sca l ing up to the f i e ld study where the challenges o f on-farm research were present and true rep l icat ion was absent, many o f the processes observed i n the c o l u m n study were apparent, although often obscured b y var iabi l i ty . Th is chapter seeks to make the connect ions between the c o l u m n study and the f i e ld study in order to assess the Y T C i n its ab i l i ty to mitigate env i ronmenta l impacts o f poultry litter f ie ld storage, and to suggest benef ic ia l management practices ( B M P s ) for the over-winter f i e ld storage o f poul t ry litter on B r i t i sh C o l u m b i a ' s Fraser R i ve r delta. S ign i f i cance , potential appl icat ions, strengths and weaknesses o f the research, and suggestions for future work w i l l also be discussed. 4.2 Comparisons and interpretations of column and field studies The leachabi l i t ies o f nutrients, metals and total sol ids f rom the Y T C and P L materials determined through the c o l u m n study are a useful indicator o f the potential impacts that these materials cou ld have on the environment i n wh i ch they are stored over-winter. T h e poul t ry litter leached extremely h igh concentrations o f NH4, P, K and N a , as we l l as moderately h igh 69 concentrations o f C u , Z n , Fe , M n and S. Th i s data conf i rmed the necessity o f isolat ing the poultry litter f r om the surrounding environment dur ing over-winter f ie ld storage in regions o f h igh precipi tat ion. In order for the Y T C base pad to be an effect ive filter/barrier between the poul t ry litter and the surrounding environment the Y T C itself must not be a s igni f icant source o f potential ly harmfu l leachate species, such as N , P, and heavy metals. Th i s was the case for C u , Z n , M n and P however 1430 m g of total N were leached per k i l og r am o f dry Y T C material over the entire storage per iod. Th i s is a moderate amount that had l itt le effect on the so i l under the core o f P i l e 1 i n the f i e ld study, but cou ld have negative effects i f the leachate were to f l o w direct ly into a water body. The Un i t ed States Env i ronmenta l Protect ion A g e n c y ( U S E P A ) outl ines qual i ty standards for compost used in f i l ter berms for erosion control ( U S E P A 2006). The U S E P A parameters are compared wi th the C i t y o f Vancouve r Y T C used in this study i n Tab le 4 .1. The Y T C meets the cr i ter ia for p H , E C and organic matter content however the percentage o f smal l s ized particles is considerably higher than recommended. Th i s smal l part ic le s ize was reflected in the 25 g total sol ids per k i l og ram dry Y T C leached over the c o l u m n study. Leach ing and run-off o f sol ids is a concern due to nutrients and metals wh i ch are sorbed onto the particle surfaces. Th i s w o u l d l i ke l y not be a substantial p rob lem for the Y T C base pad as it l ies flat on the so i l surface. So l ids run-off f r om the Y T C cover cou ld be a moderate concern however the f i e ld study showed that due to increased inf i l t rat ion rates caused by the Y T C cover run-off d id not have a s ignif icant impact on the so i l surrounding the covered poultry litter pi les. 70 TABLE 4.1 Compar i son o f Y T C qual i ty w i th U S E P A standards for compost used in erosion control f i l ter berms Parameter U S E P A standard Y T C (n = 4) p H M a x i m u m E C (dS m"1) Organ ic matter (%) Part ic le s ize 5 . 0 - 8 . 5 5.0 2 5 - 6 5 N o more than 5 0 % passing a 6.5 m m sieve 7.1 ±0.1 2.9 ±0.1 49 ± 0.8 8 0 % passing a 6.5 m m sieve ( U S E P A 2006) The effects o f the Y T C base pad in the co lumn and f i e ld studies are compared i n Tab le 4.2. A t t imes in the c o l u m n study nutrient reductions in the leachate by the Y T C base pad were observed whi le enrichments of the same nutrient were not detected i n the Y T C base pad mater ia l . Th i s cou ld be attributable to the increased sensit iv ity o f leachate analysis as compared to analysis of the Y T C material . H i g h in i t ia l levels o f a g iven nutrient i n the Y T C material cou ld have obscured smal l increases in concentration o f these nutrients measured at the end o f the study. TABLE 4.2 Compar i son of Y T C base pad effects (P < 0.05) in co lumn and f ie ld studies, n = 3 C o l u m n study F i e l d Study Nutr ient Concentrat ion i n base Cumula t i ve mass Concentrat ion i n base pad under pad at complet ion o f detected in h igh l y leached wet regions at study leachate comple t ion o f study E C Enr i ched N/A N o effect NH4 Enr iched N o effect N o effect P Enr i ched Reduced N o effect K Enr i ched N o effect Enr i ched C a Depleted Increased Depleted N a Enr i ched N o effect Enr i ched C u Enr i ched Reduced Enr i ched Z n N o effect Reduced N o effect Copper was consistently retained and ca l c i um (Ca) was consistently depleted in the Y T C base pads. These were the on ly consistencies observed across the three methods o f analysis i n the two studies. In the c o l u m n study P was c lear ly reduced in the leachate and 71 enriched in the Y T C base pad, however due to large var iabi l i ty i n P concentrations o f the P i l e 1 Y T C base pad no s igni f icant retention o f P was detected in the f i e ld study. The E C , K, N a and N H 4 were enr iched in the Y T C base pad after leaching in the c o l u m n study however the leachate samples d id not indicate s ignif icant reductions o f these species i n the treatments conta in ing the Y T C base pad. The Y T C base pad in the f i e ld study was enriched in K and N a , whereas the var iab i l i ty in the NH4 and E C measurements was very large wh i ch obscured any s igni f icant enrichment of these species. Overa l l the data indicates that the Y T C base pad sorbs soluble salts and releases them s low l y over t ime, w i th no permanent immob i l i z a t i on o f the ions. The quantity o f these loosely he ld ions present in the base pad at the end o f the storage per iod depends largely on the thickness and density o f the Y T C base pad as w e l l as the amount and intensity o f precipi tat ion received. The Y T C c lear ly i m m o b i l i z e d C u in both experiments, and l i ke l y retained P and Z n as we l l . The Y T C cover in the c o l u m n study increased the leaching o f C u , Z n , and N f r om the poultry litter be low. In the h igh l y leached wet regions of the f i e ld stored poultry litter the Y T C cover s igni f icant ly (P < 0.05) increased the leaching o f salts and appeared to increase the leaching o f NH4-N. Furthermore, i n the f ie ld study the Y T C cover increased inf i l t rat ion o f precipi tat ion into the stored poul t ry litter, thus increasing leaching overa l l and decreasing run-off. The result o f this was a larger impact on the so i l direct ly be low the pi le w i th a smal ler overa l l footprint o f the stored manure o n the surrounding f i e ld . 4.3 Potential of Y T C base pad and assessment of appropriate thickness for over-winter field storage of poultry litter G i v e n the metal and P retention capabi l i t ies o f the Y T C base pad determined through the c o l u m n study us ing the leachate data (Table 4.3), potential retention capacit ies were calculated to be used for assessment o f the required Y T C base pad thickness i n the f i e ld 72 (Table 4.4). These calculat ions were performed assuming the same Y T C base pad dry bu lk density as was used in the c o l u m n study although this density is typ ica l l y 1.5 times higher i n the f i e ld . The higher density in the f i e ld wou ld lead to longer contact times between the leachate and the Y T C , as we l l as an increased mass o f Y T C material w i th in a g iven base pad thickness, and thus w o u l d l i ke l y result in increased retention capacities. TABLE 4.3 E lement Y T C Retent ion Capac i ty (mg element kg " 1 dry Y T C ) P 375 ±339 C u 12 ±3 Z n 6 ± 2 TABLE 4.4 Potentia l P, C u , and Z n retention capacities o f a cy l indr ica l section o f an Y T C base pad o f 30 c m diameter and increasing thickness E lement Mass retained i n 14 c m Mass to be retained by 30 Mass to be retained b y 45 thickness c m thickness c m thickness (mg) P M a x 2350 5040 7550 M i n 520 1110 1670 C u M a x 55 117 175 M i n 38 80 121 Z n M a x 28 60 90 M i n 20 43 64 *AI1 calculations assume an Y T C base pad dry bulk density of 477 kg m"J, as was used in the column study. The amount o f P retained by the Y T C base pad was substantial yet h igh l y variable. The amounts o f C u and Z n retained were more consistent however the total masses were much lower. These values are the m a x i m a achieved in the co lumn study but are not necessari ly the absolute max ima , as the Y T C was only subjected to the concentrations of these elements present in the leachate emanating f rom a 14 c m thick layer o f poultry litter leached w i th 660 m m o f precipitat ion. The calculated range o f C u and Z n retention capacit ies for the 30 c m thick Y T C base pad w o u l d have been suff icient to retain the total cumulat ive 73 masses o f these metals leached f r om the P L over the co lumn study (Table 4.5). The h igh concentrat ion o f P leached f r om the P L coupled w i th the large var iab i l i ty in the Y T C retention capacity of this element suggest that an Y T C base pad o f 45 c m thickness might not have been suff ic ient to retain the cumulat ive mass o f P leached f r om the P L over the c o l u m n study. However , there w o u l d have been a s igni f icant reduct ion i n the extreme P concentrations i n the poultry litter leachate w h i c h cou ld serve to protect surrounding fresh and coastal waters f r om eutrophicat ion caused by over land or subsurface f l o w o f this leachate. TABLE 4.5 E lement Cumula t i ve mass leached f r om 2.32 k g dry P L over c o l u m n study (mg) P 6510 ±570 C u 92 ± 5 Z n 44 ±3 Sca l ing up the thickness of the Y T C base pad f r om the c o l u m n study to f i e ld situations is very d i f f i cu l t due to the tr iangular shape o f the w indrows compared to the s imple flat layered, gravity dr iven geometry o f the co lumns. Regard ing elements such as N , K, and N a , w h i c h were not conc lus ive ly retained by the Y T C material , yet were enr iched in the Y T C base pads i n the co lumn and/or the f i e ld study, it wou ld seem that a thicker base pad w o u l d prov ide a greater barrier to the leaching o f these elements. De te rmin ing the appropriate depth w o u l d be h igh l y subjective as the results for these elements were variable between treatments and exper iments. Another important factor i n the f i l ter ing capacity o f the Y T C base pad is the amount and intensity o f cumulat ive precipi tat ion to wh i ch the materials are exposed over the storage per iod, and the t im ing o f these events. The c o l u m n study indicated extremely h igh 74 concentrations o f nutrients, metals and salts leaching f r om the P L alone and Y / P L co lumns unt i l approximate ly 350 m m of precipitat ion had occurred. The co lumns wi th the Y T C base pad converse ly leached l ow to moderate concentrations unt i l 350 m m of precipitat ion at wh i ch t ime three different effects occurred. F irst , as was the case for C u and Z n , the concentrations remained low and then decreased to nearly zero. Second, as in the case of P, the concentrat ion in the leachate increased, indicat ing the probable saturation o f the Y T C retention capacity for this element. Th i rd , as i n the cases o f N and soluble salts, the concentrations remained moderate and cont inued to decrease s l ow l y over t ime. In a l l cases the Y T C base pad was effect ive at improv ing the leachate qual i ty emanating f r o m the poul t ry litter unt i l 350 m m of precipitat ion. Therefore, whether the Y T C is retaining the leachate species or s imp ly acting as a phys ica l barrier to them, one can hypothesize that the 30 c m thick base pad used in the f ie ld study, compared to the 14 c m thick base pad present i n the co lumn study, w o u l d be an effective barrier for more than 350 m m of cumulat ive precipi tat ion and a 45 c m thick base pad wou ld be even better. The s igni f icant ly larger vo lume o f manure stored on the Y T C base pad in the f i e ld relative to the c o l u m n study clear ly puts greater pressure on the Y T C f i l ter ing capacity, however the tr iangular shape o f the w ind row a l lows for some run-off. A l s o , the internal heating o f the poultry litter p i le gives rise to evaporation, wh i ch acts to counter leaching. The effect o f this is most ly felt i n the centre o f the p i le , thus leaching is kept to the bottom wet outer r im . In this region the m a x i m u m depth o f saturated poultry litter over l y ing the Y T C base pad observed in the f i e ld study was less than 1 m. The 30 c m thick base pad currently used in De l ta proved to be deep enough to keep the manure raised o f f the so i l surface and prevent leaching due to water table rise under the 75 core o f the pi le . In terms o f leaching in the wet outer regions however this 30 c m thickness was not enough. T a k i n g into account the metal and P retention capacities o f the Y T C , a long w i th the buffer ing effect the Y T C provides by acting as a phys ica l barrier to soluble salts and N H 4 ,1 propose that a 45 c m thick Y T C base pad wou ld be a more appropriate thickness under f i e ld stored poul t ry litter for protecting so i l and water qual i ty i n the De l ta region wh i l e not exceeding a pract ical quantity o f Y T C in terms o f sh ipping and handl ing . 4.4 Further applications of YTC material as a filter and/or environmental buffer M a n y De l ta farmers have smal l dedicated manure storage areas consist ing of a cement base pad wi th three cement wal ls . Genera l ly , the manure is left uncovered in these fac i l i t ies, and thus the leachate is free to run-off due to the lack o f absorpt ion by the cement pad. Essent ia l ly the leachate is funneled in one d i rect ion by the three wal ls , concentrat ing it and potent ia l ly leading to over land f l ow or seepage into groundwater. A densely packed berm o f Y T C across the open side o f such manure storage faci l i t ies cou ld f i l ter this leachate, r emov ing heavy metals, some P, and moderat ing the soluble salt levels. A s prev ious ly ment ioned, s imi la r be rm type appl icat ions are currently be ing endorsed for use in erosion control by the U S E P A . Compos t is credited w i th retaining large vo lumes o f water, sediment, heavy metals and other pollutants, p rov id ing a med ium for vegetation establishment, and containing benef ic ia l organisms wh i ch can degrade pollutants ( U S E P A 2006). The U S E P A also recommends us ing a series o f f i l ter berms for m a x i m u m performance. Th i s idea cou ld be appl ied to f ie ld stored manure in wh i ch a w ind row of poultry litter is stored on a base pad o f Y T C , and then at a distance away (e.g. 1 m) a berm o f Y T C cou ld be bui l t surrounding the pi le . Th i s cou ld f i l ter the leachate and run-off emanating f rom the stored manure wh i ch is f l ow ing over land due to so i l saturation. 76 A s reaction w i th C a and M g was credited w i th much o f the P retention by the Y T C in the c o l u m n study, it is hypothesized that a layer of ca l c ium carbonate l ime spread over the top surface o f the Y T C base pad pr ior to w ind row ing the poultry litter cou ld improve this retention. M o o r e and M i l l e r (1994) found that the addit ion o f s laked l ime (Ca(OH ) 2 ) to poultry litter at a rate o f 43 g C a k g " 1 l itter decreased soluble P levels f r om 2000 m g P k g " 1 to < 1 m g P k g " 1 . M i x i n g l ime into the poultry litter pr ior to w i n d r o w i n g w o u l d have the negative impact o f encouraging N H 3 vo la t i l i za t ion due to the increased p H , and it w o u l d l i ke l y be too expensive and labour intensive to be pract ical . Converse ly , spreading a layer o f l ime over the surface o f the Y T C base pad w o u l d be re lat ively s imple and inexpensive. Furthermore, the soi ls in the De l ta region are ac id ic ( p H range for the two f ie lds used i n this study was 4.4 to 4.7) and w o u l d thus be pos i t ive ly impacted by the addit ion o f a l i m i n g material . The p H o f the Y T C base pad w o u l d l i ke l y increase as leachate f l owed through the l ime layer, wh i ch w o u l d serve to increase the p H dependent C E C o f the Y T C material and thus also improve the metal retention capacity. 4.5 Broader perspective 4.5.1 Poultry litter storage options The De l ta farmers have been shaping manure pi les into w indrows (i.e. tr iangular cross-sectional area) for the storage per iod at the recommendat ion o f the Government o f B r i t i sh C o l u m b i a (1995). Th i s shape helps to mainta in elevated temperatures w i th in the p i le , and it encourages run-off, thereby reducing poo l ing and the creation o f saturated anoxic zones wh i ch produce offensive odors. Converse ly , the Government o f Ontar io recommends bu i ld ing a pi le wh i ch is "as flat as poss ib le " on top in order to encourage inf i l t rat ion and decrease run-off (Government o f Ontar io 2005). Th i s appears to be a reasonable method o f 77 reducing the impact o f nutrient run-off on the surrounding so i l . A layer o f Y T C over a flat topped p i le cou ld help to reduce odors and improve inf i l t rat ion, thus decreasing run-off as we l l as leaching in the wet bot tom region o f the pi le . Ideally, manure pi les should be covered w i th tarpaulins, however the De l t a farmers found that these were expensive, b l ew o f f in the w i n d , and were stolen. Thus , they tried cover ing the piles w i th Y T C . Tarpaul ins are impermeable and thus prevent leaching and run - of f i f they complete ly cover the pi le and remain in place, but they prov ide no thermal insulat ion, and they contribute to the waste stream. Converse ly , Y T C is permeable and thus leaching is a factor. However , the Y T C helps to insulate the poultry litter p i le , w h i c h keeps the temperatures h igh , deact ivat ing pathogens, and thus increasing food safety ( B o m k e and Temple 2004) . Manure storage responsib i l i ty is another important issue. Current ly , f ew poul t ry producers in the Fraser V a l l e y have the capacity to store their poultry litter beyond one product ion cyc le . Thus , the manure is shipped at a l l t imes of the year to crop producers who must then bear the storage burden. Th is shifts the potential ly negative eco log ica l impacts o f manure storage f r om the region wh i ch is exper ienc ing the economic benefits o f poul t ry product ion, to a separate region wh i ch receives no compensat ion f rom the intensive poul t ry industry. In the Netherlands it is legislated that l ivestock producers have the capacity to store al l manure produced in the fa l l and winter, wh i l e in Denmark s imi lar legis lat ion states that l ivestock producers must have suff ic ient storage capacity for a l l the manure produced annual ly (Brandjes et al. 1996). S im i l a r legis lat ion i n B r i t i sh C o l u m b i a w o u l d serve to protect the eco logy o f the Fraser R i v e r delta f rom the harmful effects o f over-winter poultry litter f i e ld storage. 78 4.5.2 Use of poultry litter in crop production on BC's Fraser delta F i e l d appl icat ion o f poul t ry litter is an important means o f nutrient recyc l ing for this over-abundant agricultural waste product. A report prepared for the Sustainable Pou l t ry Fa rm ing G roup ( S PFG ) found that i n 2001 the poultry industry was the largest producer o f manure based N and P in B C ' s lower Fraser Va l l e y , where there was a manure nutrient surplus o f 4 000 tonnes o f N and 5 700 tonnes o f P (T immenga and Associates Inc. 2003) . A report put out by Agr i cu l tu re and Agr i - food Canada and the B C M i n i s t r y o f Agr i cu l tu re and Lands on the so i l nutrient status o f agricultural f ie lds i n the L o w e r Fraser V a l l e y i n 2005 found that 3 1 % o f the 172 f ie lds sampled had fa l l residual so i l N levels o f greater than 99 k g ha" 1 ( Kowa l enko et al. 2007). Furthermore, 9 1 % o f the f ields sampled in De l t a were i n the h igh to very h igh r isk category o f P po l lu t ion potential . A s most farmers apply poul t ry litter based o n crop N requirements, P is typ ica l l y over-applied and thus bu i lds up i n the so i l . In the Un i t ed States the P-index is used to ident i fy f ie lds vulnerable to P losses and to l im i t the appl icat ion o f manure once a threshold is reached ( Lemunyon and Gi lber t 1993). B r o c k et al. (2006) studied C u and Z n accumulat ions in soi ls rece iv ing repeated appl icat ions o f l ivestock manures. They conc luded that although C u and Z n d id accumulate s igni f icant ly i n soi ls , the P-index w o u l d l imi t manure appl icat ions before C u and Z n reached tox ic levels. N o such index exists in B C , thus the repeated appl icat ion o f poultry litter to agricultural f ie lds in De l ta is cause for concern, especia l ly g i ven the already common l y h igh P levels. Several studies have found that the most effective way to control odors and nutrient run-off/leaching f r om stored manure is through dietary adjustments ( M i k e s e l l 2 0 0 2 ; Brandjes et al. 1996). In intensive l ivestock product ion animals are fed an excess o f nutrients, as we l l as metals, ant imicrobia ls , and hormones (Gupta et al. 2005) much o f wh i ch are excreted 79 undigested. N i c h o l s o n et al. (1999) found that the concentrations o f C u and Z n i n poul t ry litter were up to f ive t imes higher than those in poultry feeds, indicat ing a l o w ef f i c iency o f ut i l izat ion o f these metals by the birds. The necessity o f such feed supplementat ion is questionable, though the impact on the ecosystem when such poultry litter is used in crop product ion is c lear ly negative. There are also food safety concerns related to the uptake o f these heavy metals and ant imicrobia ls by crops for human consumpt ion , as we l l as eco log ica l concerns related to ant i-microbial resistant bacteria. The above concerns suggest a need for better regulat ion o f the use o f poul t ry litter in crop product ion in eco log ica l l y sensit ive regions subject to intensive winter leaching, such as Del ta . 4.6 Risk Assessment The effects o f f i e ld stored poultry litter on the so i l are dramatic. T o wa lk onto an agricultural f i e ld i n Augus t wh i ch is fu l l y covered in a healthy pea crop and then to see a 150 m~ ba ld patch is startl ing. But the larger quest ion remains; what percentage o f the total cult ivated land area in De l t a is affected by excessive nutrients and sal in i ty f r om f i e ld stored poultry litter? In this research the three stored manure pi les were located on two f ie lds w i th a total area o f approximate ly 36 ha. The m a x i m u m footprint of these pi les, i nc lud ing a i m halo o f run-off around each p i le , totaled 0.19 ha, wh i ch is equivalent to 0 . 5 % o f the cult ivated land area over wh i ch the stored manure was spread. F r o m the above assessment it is clear that though the v isua l affects o f the stored manure on the so i l are dramatic, the overa l l affects in terms o f crop product ion are sma l l . It is l i ke l y then, that the most s ignif icant impact that these piles have on the surrounding environment is through direct contact w i th w i l d l i f e , and run-off and leachate waters wh i ch travel either over-land or as subsurface f l ow eventual ly reaching groundwater, ditches, 80 streams, and coastal waters. O n the south and west sides of the Fraser De l ta l ies an international ly important estuary. It is the largest estuary on the Pac i f i c coast o f Nor th A m e r i c a , home to m i l l i ons of water fowl , shore birds, and birds o f prey, and it is an important crossroads on the Pac i f i c f l yway where migratory birds f r om three continents converge (Br i t ish C o l u m b i a Wate r fow l Society 2006) . Protect ing these waters f r om pollutants f r om agricultural practices is o f the utmost importance. Furthermore, ensur ing that w i l d birds do not congregate on manure pi les for warmth or feeding purposes is cr i t i ca l . 4.6.1 Beneficial management practices • Store poultry litter in a different locat ion on a g iven f ie ld each year to avo id long term damage to so i l qual i ty, and to avo id saturation o f the so i l P and heavy metal retention capacities as we l l as the capacity to retain other chemicals such as ant i-microbial compounds and hormones. • If possible, store poultry litter on a s l ight ly elevated place on the f i e ld to avo id poo l i ng o f water. L o w spots should be avo ided. • Store poul t ry litter on an Y T C base pad o f at least 30 c m , or preferably 45 c m thickness, in order to protect so i l and water qual ity f r om leaching due to water table rise, as we l l as to mit igate some o f the negative effects on the so i l under the h igh l y leached wet outer regions of the pi le . • Thorough l y m i x the Y T C base pad and cover in w i th the poultry litter pr ior to f i e ld appl icat ion i n order to ensure even appl icat ion of the nutrients retained by the Y T C base pad for crop product ion, and also to amend the so i l w i th organic matter. • C o v e r f i e l d stored poultry litter w i th a 15 c m th ick layer o f Y T C to protect w i l d l i f e such as, migratory birds, coyotes, and rodents f r om pathogens and ant i-microbia l 81 compounds present in the poultry litter. The cover also insulates the p i le , thus leading to pathogen reduct ion and increased food safety. • If possib le , pre-compost the poultry litter off-site to create a more stable product for over-winter storage. 4.7 Assessment of thesis research 4.7.1 Strengths of research One o f the clear strengths o f this thesis was the combinat ion o f a contro l led exper iment and an on-farm f i e ld study. A l t h o u g h the exper imental des ign i n the f i e ld study d id not permit a precise statistical mode l for compar ing the pi les, the study was nonetheless very informat ive in terms o f compar ing the processes observed i n the c o l u m n study to a practical situation. The c o l u m n study prov ided a contro l led setting in w h i c h to examine precise concentrations o f nutrients and metals present i n the leachate. Th i s a l lowed for detai led analysis o f the effects of the Y T C cover and base pad on the qual i ty o f leachate emanating f r om the poultry litter. Detect ing increases in metal or P concentrations in soi ls under poul t ry litter pi les was troublesome due to the variable background levels of these elements. The var iab i l i ty o f nutrients measured w i th in the Y T C base pad at the end o f the storage per iod was also very large. Therefore, determining i f the Y T C base pad retained metals or P based on the f i e ld stored poultry litter pi les was inconc lus ive . However , f r om the co lumn study it is log ica l to assume that the leachate and run-off waters leav ing P i l e 1, wh i ch was bui l t on an Y T C base pad, had lower P, C u and Z n concentrations than those leav ing the other two pi les wh i ch lacked Y T C base pads. 82 4.7.2 Weaknesses of research The most obvious weakness o f this research was the lack of repl icat ion in the f ie ld p i le treatments. Ideal ly P i les 1 and 2 w o u l d have been compr ised o f the same poultry litter materials. F u l l y ha l f o f both pi les w o u l d have been covered w i th Y T C and the other ha l f w o u l d have been left uncovered. Th i s w o u l d have prov ided four dist inct yet comparable treatments. T w o repl ications each o f these pi les on other f ie lds wou ld have prov ided four clear treatments w i th three repl icat ions. Th i s however was not possible due to the quantity o f manure required by the part ic ipat ing farmer, the variable sizes o f his f ie lds, and the requirement to compost some o f the manure due to certain f ie lds being under cert i f ied organic product ion. Sample repl icat ion was useful for indicat ing the var iab i l i ty w i th in each p i le . Th i s var iabi l i ty was often very large, especia l ly when sampl ing the Y T C base pad material . Th i s indicated that true repl icat ion was needed i n order to make broad conc lus ions . Some o f the var iabi l i ty in sampl ing the Y T C base pad might have been mit igated through a different sampl ing protocol . Fo r sampl ing , an excavator made a large cut in the p i le f rom the apex to the so i l surface and out to one side. Th i s prov ided two wal ls f rom wh i ch to scrape the desired layer. The Y T C base pad was extremely compacted and d i f f i cu l t to sample, and thus the actual sample col lected might have been biased towards the more easi ly removed sections. Fo r sampl ing the Y T C base pad, it w o u l d have been preferable to have the excavator scrape o f f the stored poultry litter, leav ing the base pad exposed. Then a 30 c m deep core o f the Y T C base pad cou ld have been col lected in each o f the desired sampl ing locations. Th i s w o u l d have been a more precise sampl ing method. Another weakness of the research was the lack o f so i l m ic rob ia l analyses. It w o u l d have been useful to k n o w whether the so i l m ic rob ia l ecosystem was affected by the stored 83 poultry litter, and i f these effects were mit igated by the presence o f the Y T C base pad and/or cover. 4.7.3 Status of hypotheses and current state knowledge The first hypothesis l isted i n the introductory chapter regarding the Y T C base pad " sorb ing metals, salts, and nutrients being leached f r om the poultry litter layers above " has been conf i rmed to some degree. The c o l u m n study proved that the Y T C base pad retains C u , Z n and some P. The determination o f the C E C o f the Y T C material in the laboratory (equal to 57.5 cmo l c k g " 1 dry Y T C ) , combined wi th the C a and M g leaching dynamics in the c o l u m n study proved that cat ion exchange was an integral part o f the metal retention. Salts and N were not retained by the Y T C base pad, however the base pad d i d serve to moderate their concentrations in the leachate by decreasing the in i t ia l ly very h igh concentrations and releasing them more s l ow l y over t ime. The second hypothesis stated that "the so i l direct ly underneath the poultry litter storage pi les l ack ing an Y T C base pad w i l l be degraded and crop growth the f o l l o w i n g spr ing w i l l be stunted, as compared to the rest o f the f ie ld and to the site where the poultry litter storage p i le was bui l t on an Y T C base pad " . Th is was part ia l ly incorrect. The so i l be low each of the pi les was degraded and crop growth was affected the f o l l ow ing summer, inc lud ing under P i l e 1 wh i ch was bui l t entirely on a 30 c m thick Y T C base pad. However , the crop health under P i l e 1 was more variable than under the other pi les, w i th some regions showing negative effects and other regions showing lush growth. The f ina l hypothesis referred to the so i l surrounding the Y T C covered sections being less affected by nutrients and sal inity than the so i l surrounding the uncovered sections. Th i s was observed i n both P i les 1 and 2 however the increases in soi l nutrients beside the 8 4 uncovered sections were not a lways s igni f icant ly higher than those beside the covered sections. C r o p development around the covered sections of P i l e 1 was c lear ly improved as compared to the crop development around the uncovered sections of that p i le . The increased inf i l t rat ion and thus leaching caused by the Y T C cover was not predicted, but it served to decrease run-off and thus protect the so i l surrounding the pi les. 4.8 Suggestions for future research The suggestions for future research can be grouped into f i ve sections: 1) assessment of a thicker Y T C base pad, 2) assessment o f an Y T C berm, 3) assessment of a flat-topped pi le , 4) appl icat ion o f a l ime layer to the Y T C base pad, and 5) effects o f f i e ld stored poul t ry litter on the so i l m ic rob ia l communi ty . The assessment o f a thicker Y T C base pad w o u l d be best accompl ished in the f i e ld , through the compar ison of a few pi les w i th no base pad, 30 c m th ick and 45 c m thick pads. The assessment o f the Y T C be rm cou ld be carr ied out around a cement manure storage pad as we l l as around a f i e ld stored poultry litter p i le w i th or wi thout an Y T C base pad. Co l l e c t i on o f leachate and run-off samples i n the f i e ld w o u l d be required. The assessment o f a flat-topped pi le w o u l d need to be carried out i n the f i e ld . T w o flat-topped treatments, one w i th an Y T C cover and one w i th no cover , as w e l l as two pi les o f triangular cross-section, one w i th an Y T C cover and one w i th no cover, cou ld be compared. P i les o f equal mass wou ld be a necessity. Nutrients found in so i l samples under and around the pi les cou ld be used as indicators o f leaching and run-off. The appl icat ion o f l ime to the Y T C base pad cou ld be studied in a c o l u m n experiment in order to c lose ly observe the leaching dynamics . Th i s might also g ive indicat ions as to the quantity o f l ime required to be effective. A compl imentary or subsequent f ie ld study wou ld also be required. 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Prepared for the Sustainable Poul t ry Fa rming G roup , Vancouver , B C . Un i ted States Env i ronmenta l Protect ion Agency . 2006. Nat iona l pollutant discharge e l iminat ion system: S torm water fact sheets. [Onl ine] Ava i l ab l e : http://cfpub.epa.gov/npdes/stonnwater/menuofbmps/index.cfm. [8 August 2006] . Un i ted States Env i ronmenta l Protect ion Agency . 2006. Test Methods . [Onl ine] Ava i l ab l e : http://www.epa.gov/sw-846/main.htm. [22 November 2006] . W o l f , A . M . , P.J.A. K l e i n m a n , A . N . Sharpley and D.B . Beegle. 2005. Deve lopment of a water-extractable phosphorus test for manure: A n interlaboratory study. Soil. Sci. Soc. Am. J. 69:695-700. Wo l te rson , E. 1993. The Re la t ionship Between E lect r ica l Conduc t i v i t y Measured on a Saturated Paste Extract and E lect r ica l Conduc t i v i t y Measured on a 2:1 Extract in C . G . K o w a l e n k o , ed. S o i l test analysis methods for B r i t i sh C o l u m b i a agr icultural crops. B r i t i sh C o l u m b i a M in i s t r y of Agr i cu l tu re , F isheries, and F o o d , V i c to r i a , B C . 92 Appendix A: Column construction Figure A . l Photo o f upside down co lumn showing the amber tubing used for leachate co l lec t ion , and the air inlet loop inside the j ug . Figure A.2 Photo o f pack ing the co lumns. The l ight b rown layer is the poultry litter and the dark b rown is the Y T C . 93 F i g u r e A .3 Photo of the top o f the co lumn table at To tem f ie ld , U B C , Vancouver . Dark b rown circles are treatments in wh i ch the Y T C is on top. L igh t b rown circles are treatments where the poultry litter is on top. The two green l ids are sandwich treatments that were covered for the duration of the experiment. The data was not used in this thesis. F i g u r e A.4 Photo o f the two co lumns used for T D R data co l lec t ion. The probes were left in place for the durat ion o f the experiment and the T D R instrument was brought out regularly for readings. The treatment on the far left was a sandwich treatment, and the treatment on the right was a P L alone treatment. 94 Appendix B : Time domain reflectrometry data Table B . l Descr ipt ions o f locations o f T D R probes in co lumns Probe no. Column Description 1 S 34 c m be low co lumn surface, i.e. 6 c m into Y T C base pad layer 2 S 26 c m be low co lumn surface, i.e. 12 c m into P L layer 3 s 16 c m be low c o l u m n surface, i.e. 2 c m into P L layer 4 s 8 c m be low c o l u m n surface, i.e. 8 c m into Y T C cover layer 5 P L 12 c m into P L 6 P L 5 c m into P L Tab le B.2 R a w data f r om T D R measurements over c o l u m n study Date Probe 1 Probe 2 Probe 3 Probe 4 Probe 5 Probe 6 Ka z 11/8/2005 12.66 3.94 3.1 5.22 2.36 2.36 11/10/2005 11.36 4.09 4.09 6.11 2.03 2.2 11/15/2005 11.36 3.94 5.04 9.2 2.13 7.07 11/18/2005 12.13 4.56 10.62 9.66 2.24 N/A 11/24/2005 14.9 4.4 N/A 10.9 2.02 N/A 12/1/2005 16.97 9.66 N/A 12.66 N/A N/A 12/5/2005 20.2 16.97 N/A 14.03 N/A N/A 12/12/2005 N/A 16.97 N/A 10.9 N/A N/A 1/3/2006 N/A N/A 23.7 8.98 N/A N/A 1/18/2006 N/A N/A 25.56 16.97 N/A 17.91 2/1/2006 N/A 18.55 23.7 8.43 31.56 14.88 2/14/2006 N/A 17.28 20.2 14.03 27.49 14.03 2/24/2006 N/A 16.36 18.55 6.49 20.2 13.47 z K a - apparent dielectr ic constant, no units. 95 Appendix C: Column study data Table C . l Tota l sol ids content, E C and p H o f leachates. Treatment Sample Leachate Volatile Name Date Precipitation Replicate Volume TSS Ash DOM Ash Fraction EC PH (mm) (mL) (mg L 1 ) (%) (dS m"1) YTC Nov-15 41.4 1 582 12500 9000 3500 64 36 10 7.2 YTC Nov-15 41.4 2 613 14000 8500 5500 61 39 11 7.1 YTC Nov-15 41.4 3 454 14000 8500 5500 55 45 11 7.1 YTC Dec-05 77.2 1 1150 12000 4500 7500 38 62 10 7.2 YTC Dec-05 77.2 2 1300 13500 5000 8500 37 63 12 7.2 YTC Dec-05 77.2 3 1220 13500 5500 8000 41 59 12 7.1 PL Dec-05 77.2 1 712 38000 20500 17500 54 46 48 8.1 PL Dec-05 77.2 2 720 20500 11500 9000 56 44 32 8.2 PL Dec-05 77.2 3 460 29500 16500 13000 56 44 42 8.1 YTC Dec-20 106.2 1 1680 6333 4333 2000 68 32 6.5 7.7 YTC Dec-20 106.2 2 1655 7667 5000 2667 65 35 6.4 7.8 YTC Dec-20 106.2 3 1650 9000 6000 3000 67 33 6.8 7.6 YTC /PL Dec-20 106.2 1 1795 19500 10000 9500 58 42 35 7.7 YTC /PL Dec-20 106.2 2 1443 21000 11000 10000 63 37 37 7.7 YTC/PL Dec-20 106.2 3 1520 30000 14500 15500 57 43 42 7.7 PL/YTC Dec-20 106.2 1 597 16500 10500 6000 51 49 21 7.0 PL/YTC Dec-20 106.2 2 1024 15000 10000 5000 52 48 21 7.0 PL/YTC Dec-20 106.2 3 928 18000 11000 7000 48 52 21 7.0 YTC/PL/YTC Dec-20 106.2 1 1223 25000 14500 10500 64 36 34 7.6 YTC/PL/YTC Dec-20 106.2 2 1022 20000 12500 7500 67 33 27 7.6 YTC/PL/YTC Dec-20 106.2 3 1210 21000 12000 9000 61 39 30 7.7 YTC Jan 3/4 245 1 10600 3333 1667 1666 50 50 2.9 7.2 YTC Jan 3/4 245 2 10260 4000 2333 1667 58 42 2.7 7.2 YTC Jan 3/4 245 3 10450 3333 2000 1333 60 40 3.0 7.0 PL Jan 3/4 245 1 9775 8500 4000 4500 61 39 20 7.4 PL Jan 3/4 245 2 8415 16500 8000 8500 68 32 21 7.8 ON Treatment Sample Leachate Volatile Name Date Precipitation Replicate Volume TSS Ash DOM Ash Fraction EC pH (mm) (mL) (mg L"1) (%) (dS m"1) PL Jan 3/4 245 3 9500 12500 6500 6000 68 32 25 7.6 YTC/PL Jan 3/4 245 1 8355 17000 7500 9500 47 53 25 7.2 YTC /PL Jan 3/4 245 2 10400 17000 8000 9000 49 52 24 7.1 YTC /PL Jan 3/4 245 3 9080 12000 6000 6000 52 48 24 7.2 PL/YTC Jan 3/4 245 1 8220 17000 11000 6000 65 35 21 7.4 PL/YTC Jan 3/4 245 2 10430 15500 10500 5000 68 32 22 7.2 PL/YTC Jan 3/4 245 3 7610 18000 12500 5500 69 31 23 8.1 YTC /PL/YTC Jan 3/4 245 1 7930 15500 9500 6000 44 56 22 7.6 YTC/PL/YTC Jan 3/4 245 2 7265 15500 10500 5000 47 53 24 7.4 YTC /PL /YTC Jan 3/4 245 3 7795 19000 1300 17700 50 50 26 7.6 Y T C Jan 11/06 344.6 1 8190 1667 1000 667 60 40 1.7 7.5 Y T C Jan 11/06 344.6 2 8050 1000 333 667 33 67 1.2 7.4 Y T C Jan 11/06 344.6 3 8295 1000 333 667 33 67 1.5 7.4 PL Jan 11/06 344.6 1 7710 5000 2000 3000 40 60 2.8 7.3 PL Jan 11/06 344.6 2 7005 3500 1500 2000 43 57 6.0 8.0 PL Jan 11/06 344.6 3 8270 5000 2000 3000 40 60 6.0 7.8 Y T C / P L Jan 11/06 344.6 1 7740 6667 3000 3667 62 39 4.8 7.5 Y T C / P L Jan 11/06 344.6 2 7750 4667 2000 2667 59 41 3.6 7.3 Y T C / P L Jan 11/06 344.6 3 6980 7333 3000 4333 57 44 7.5 7.7 PL /YTC Jan 11/06 344.6 1 7350 8333 4667 3666 56 44 17 7.7 PL/YTC Jan 11/06 344.6 2 7328 7000 383-1 3166 55 45 7.8 PL /YTC Jan 11/06 344.6 3 7305 5667 3000 2667 53 47 17 7.8 YTC / P L /YTC Jan 11/06 344.6 1 7180 6500 4000 2500 45 55 16 7.5 Y T C / P L / Y T C Jan 11/06 344.6 2 7400 11000 6500 4500 43 57 17 7.7 YTC / P L /YTC Jan 11/06 344.6 3 7690 11500 6500 5000 41 59 14 7.8 Y T C Jan 18/06 418.2 1 4840 1000 500 500 50 50 0.9 7.0 Y T C Jan 18/06 418.2 2 4765 750 500 250 67 33 1.0 7.0 Y T C Jan 18/06 418.2 3 4940 750 500 250 67 33 0.9 7.0 PL Jan 18/06 418.2 1 4610 750 250 500 33 67 1.6 7.0 PL Jan 18/06 418.2 2 4180 1250 500 750 40 60 1.8 7.4 —1 Treatment Sample Leachate Volatile Name Date Precipitation Replicate Volume TSS Ash DOM Ash Fraction EC PH (mm) (mL) (mg L"1) (%) (dS m"1) PL Jan 18/06 418.2 3 4750 1000 250 750 25 75 1.6 7.1 YTC/PL Jan 18/06 418.2 1 5080 2333 1333 1000 57 43 7.3 7.4 YTC/PL Jan 18/06 418.2 2 5005 2000 1000 1000 50 50 16 7.4 YTC/PL Jan 18/06 418.2 3 4540 3667 1667 2000 46 55 8.0 7.4 PL/YTC Jan 18/06 418.2 1 4900 3667 1667 2000 46 55 5.8 7.7 PUYTC Jan 18/06 418.2 2 5160 2667 1333 1334 50 50 4.3 7.6 PL/YTC Jan 18/06 418.2 3 4890 3000 1000 2000 33 67 5.0 7.6 YTC/PL/YTC Jan 18/06 418.2 1 4840 5667 3667 2000 65 35 3.4 7.3 YTC/PL/YTC Jan 18/06 418.2 2 4900 7000 4333 2667 62 38 2.5 7.2 YTC/PL/YTC Jan 18/06 418.2 3 5240 5000 3000 2000 60 40 4.4 7.4 YTC Feb. 1/06 515.2 1 7595 750 375 375 50 50 0.8 7.0 YTC Feb. 1/06 515.2 2 7350 500 250 250 50 50 0.9 7.0 YTC Feb. 1/06 515.2 3 7880 750 375 375 50 50 0.7 7.1 PL Feb.1/06 515.2 1 7890 1000 500 500 50 50 1.2 7.2 PL Feb. 1/06 515.2 2 7090 1500 750 750 50 50 1.3 7.6 PL Feb. 1/06 515.2 3 8005 1250 500 750 40 60 1.2 7.3 YTC/PL Feb. 1/06 515.2 1 8250 2000 1000 1000 50 50 2.2 7.5 YTC/PL Feb. 1/06 515.2 2 8300 1750 750 1000 43 57 1.9 7.2 YTC/PL Feb. 1/06 515.2 3 7595 1750 1000 750 57 43 2.4 7.3 PL/YTC Feb. 1/06 515.2 1 8250 2000 750 1250 50 50 2.8 7.7 PL/YTC Feb. 1/06 515.2 2 8730 2000 750 1250 50 50 2.8 7.6 PL/YTC Feb. 1/06 515.2 3 7875 2333 750 1583 43 57 3.6 7.7 YTC/PL/YTC Feb.1/06 515.2 1 7825 4000 1250 2750 42 58 4.3 7.6 YTC/PL/YTC Feb. 1/06 515.2 2 7995 3667 1500 2167 55 45 6.0 7.6 YTC/PL/YTC Feb. 1/06 515.2 3 7815 4000 1500 2500 50 50 5.0 7.8 YTC Feb. 14/06 554.2 1 2160 600 300 300 50 50 0.8 7.4 YTC Feb. 14/06 554.2 2 2130 700 400 300 57 43 0.9 7.3 YTC Feb. 14/06 554.2 3 2115 700 400 300 57 43 0.7 7.4 PL Feb. 14/06 554.2 1 2180 1100 600 500 55 46 1.1 7.3 PL Feb. 14/06 554.2 2 2005 800 400 400 50 50 1.3 7.6 oo Treatment Sample Leachate Volatile Name Date Precipitation Replicate Volume TSS Ash DOM Ash Fraction EC pH (mm) (mL) (mg L"1) (%) (dS m"1) PL Feb. 14/06 554.2 3 2125 900 500 400 56 44 1.2 7.4 YTC/PL Feb. 14/06 554.2 1 2755 1250 750 500 60 40 1.5 7.4 YTC/PL Feb. 14/06 554.2 2 2490 1500 750 750 50 50 1.7 7.4 YTC/PL Feb. 14/06 554.2 3 2405 1500 750 750 50 50 2.1 7.5 PL/YTC Feb. 14/06 554.2 1 2650 1750 750 1000 43 57 2.8 7.5 PL/YTC Feb. 14/06 554.2 2 2560 2000 1000 1000 50 50 2.7 7.5 PL/YTC Feb. 14/06 554.2 3 2610 2250 1000 1250 44 56 3.3 7.5 YTC/PL/YTC Feb. 14/06 554.2 1 3045 3500 1750 1750 50 50 4.5 7.5 YTC/PL/YTC Feb. 14/06 554.2 2 3000 2500 1250 1250 50 50 3.6 7.3 YTC/PL/YTC Feb. 14/06 554.2 3 3005 3500 2000 1500 57 43 4.7 7.6 YTC Mar. 15/06 628.6 1 3520 700 400 300 57 43 0.8 7.0 YTC Mar. 15/06 628.6 2 3575 800 500 300 63 38 0.7 7.2 YTC Mar. 15/06 628.6 3 3720 600 500 100 67 33 0.6 7.5 PL Mar. 15/06 628.6 1 3385 1100 500 600 45 55 1.0 7.8 PL Mar. 15/06 628.6 2 2972 1100 500 600 45 55 1.2 8.0 PL Mar. 15/06 628.6 3 3178.5 1100 500 600 45 55 7.9 YTC/PL Mar. 15/06 628.6 1 3925 1400 800 600 57 43 1.9 7.7 YTC/PL Mar. 15/06 628.6 2 3880 1500 800 700 53 47 1.8 7.2 YTC/PL Mar. 15/06 628.6 3 3325 1400 700 700 50 50 1.8 8.0 PL/YTC Mar. 15/06 628.6 1 3745 1750 1000 750 57 43 2.6 7.4 PL/YTC Mar. 15/06 628.6 2 3990 2000 500 1500 25 75 2.4 7.3 PL/YTC Mar. 15/06 628.6 3 ' 3 8 6 7 . 0 2000 750 1250 38 63 2.5 7.2 YTC/PL/YTC Mar. 15/06 628.6 1 3805 3000 1500 1500 50 50 4.0 8.0 YTC/PL/YTC Mar. 15/06 628.6 2 3590 2250 1000 1250 44 56 3.5 7.4 YTC/PL/YTC Mar. 15/06 628.6 3 3697.5 3250 1500 1750 46 54 4.4 8.1 YTC April 5/06 656.6 1 2160 545 181.8 363.2 33 67 0.7 7.4 YTC April 5/06 656.6 2 2195 700 300 400 43 57 0.6 7.0 YTC April 5/06 656.6 3 2275 500 200 300 40 60 0.5 8.0 PL April 5/06 656.6 1 2243 1200 400 800 33 67 1.4 7.7 PL April 5/06 656.6 2 1618 1200 400 800 33 67 1.6 8.0 VO VO Treatment Sample Leachate Volatile Name Date Precipitation Replicate Volume TSS Ash DOM Ash Fraction EC PH (mm) (mL) (mg L"1) (%) (dS m"1) PL April 5/06 656.6 3 2260 1000 200 800 20 80 1.2 7.8 YTC/PL April 5/06 656.6 1 2615 1200 700 500 58 42 1.4 7.7 YTC/PL April 5/06 656.6 2 2610 1500 900 600 60 40 1.8 7.2 YTC/PL April 5/06 656.6 3 2155 1600 700 900 44 56 2.0 7.6 PL/YTC April 5/06 656.6 1 2630 2750 1000 1750 36 64 2.9 6.9 PL/YTC April 5/06 656.6 2 2675 2000 1000 1000 50 50 2.4 6.5 PL/YTC April 5/06 656.6 3 2727 2500 1250 1250 50 50 2.9 6.6 YTC/PL/YTC April 5/06 656.6 1 2652 3500 2250 1250 64 36 4.4 7.6 YTC/PL/YTC April 5/06 656.6 2 2670 2250 1250 1000 56 44 3.8 7.4 YTC/PL/YTC April 5/06 656.6 3 2950 3250 2250 1000 69 31 4.4 7.2 Numbers in orange were averaged due to mis.Mng data (.ic. leaked columns, lost samples) or anomalous values. Tab le C .2 Concentrat ions o f nutrients i n leachates. Treatment Sample Total Nitrate Nitrite Ammonium Kjedahl Organic Diss. Ortho- Total TOC COD BOD Name Date N N N P P P (mg L-1) YTC Nov-15 752 0 4 252 497 8.0 6.0 34.1 2650 10400 1910 YTC Nov-15 YTC Nov-15 YTC Dec-05 593 0 0 176 590 417 7.8 5.0 24.6 YTC Dec-05 574 0 0 159 570 415 7.0 5.0 22.7 YTC Dec-05 501 0 0 156 500 345 5.7 5.0 22.4 PL Dec-05 5190 0 0 2720 5200 2470 497 429 6150 15700 3800 PL Dec-05 PL Dec-05 YTC Dec-20 415 0 1.2 83 410 331 5.3 4.0 YTC Dec-20 401 0 1 61 400 340 4.9 3.7 YTC Dec-20 397 0 1 400 .... 324 7.9 6.4 YTC/PL Dec-20 4480 0.14 2.3 115 4500 4360 79.0 78.9 330 2980 21900 2710 o o Treatment Name Sample Date Total Nitrate Nitrite Ammonium Kjedahl N N Organic Diss. Ortho- Total N P P P TOC COD BOD (mg L-1) YTC/PL YTC/PL PL/YTC PL/YTC PL/YTC YTC/PL/YTC YTC/PL/YTC YTC/PL/YTC YTC YTC YTC PL PL PL YTC/PL YTC/PL YTC/PL PL/YTC PL/YTC PL/YTC YTC/PL/YTC YTC/PL/YTC YTC/PL/YTC YTC YTC YTC PL PL PL YTC/PL Dec-20 Dec-20 Dec-20 Dec-20 Dec-20 Dec-20 Dec-20 Dec-20 Jan 3/4 Jan 3/4 Jan 3/4 Jan 3/4 Jan 3/4 Jan 3/4 Jan 3/4 Jan 3/4 Jan 3/4 Jan 3/4 Jan 3/4 Jan 3/4 Jan 3/4 Jan 3/4 Jan 3/4 Jan 11/06 Jan 11/06 Jan 11/06 Jan 11/06 Jan 11/06 Jan 11/06 Jan 11/06 833 2810 1.3 148 365 830 2800 686 2450 7.7 5.3 3.5 1.5 41.4 49.6 155 0.42 2.2 113 150 40 14.7 12.8 18 158 0.51 2.2 111 160 44 _ j 14.5 11.8 18 205 0.57 2.2 109 200 94 * 18.4 15.0 18 3250 0.82 3.1 2500 3200 745 365 345 342 2640 0.66 2.6 1780 4100 857 317 283 342 2030 0.42 2.4 1530 2000 502 246 241 342 3660 0.41 3 1990 3700 1670 308 263 323 2880 0 2.6 2190 2900 687 339 305 , 323 3030 0.46 2.5 2090 3000 937 246 159 323 0.6 2.6 1 160 2900 597 42.7 19.9 '. 4 7 1660 0.21 2.6 1485 1700 172 32.5 22.1 • 47 1860 0.09 2.6 1810 1900 47 29.4 16.5 47 1680 1.32 2.3 1090 1700 589 73.0 86.0 76, 2160 0.86 2.8 1570 2200 587 77.0 58.0 76 1940 1.32 2.2 1079 1900 868 37.1 24.8 76 116 0 0.7 92 120 25 14 15.6 17 109 0 0.5 106 110 2 13 14.5 16 81 4.76 0 83 76 0 15 16.1 18 872 0 0.7 808 650 63 153 157 181 890 0 0.9 827 890 63 164 159 190 854 0 0.7 789 850 65 179 173 201 827 0 1 772 830 56 151 147 184 1940 7810 426 2460 17200 1430 Treatment Sample Total Nitrate Nitrite Ammonium Kjedahl Organic Diss. Ortho- Total TOC COD BOD Name Date N N N P P P (mq L/1) YTC/PL Jan 11/06 581 0 0.8 412 580 168 164 152 187 YTC/PL Jan 11/06 1410 0 1.4 1040 1400 367 218 202 253 PL/YTC Jan 11/06 1280 0 1.1 1090 1300 197 141 135 154 PL/YTC Jan 11/06 1400 0 1.1 1012 K00 387 125 117 140 PL/YTC Jan 11/06 1520 0 1.1 935 1500 583 108 98 125 YTC/PL/YTC Jan 11/06 1110 0 0.9 924 1100 189 67 39.1 99 YTC/PL/YTC Jan 11/06 1460 0 1.2 1250 1500 207 86 77 120 YTC/PL/YTC Jan 11/06 1440 0 1.2 1100 1400 340 86 79 127 YTC Jan 18/06 38 0 0 31 38 7 13 11.5 14 YTC Jan 18/06 48 0 0 35 48 13 12 10.9 12 YTC Jan 18/06 45 0 0 33 45 12 14 13.1 15 PL Jan 18/06 225 0 0 194 230 32 131 115 133 PL Jan 18/06 251 0 0 218 250 34 105 95 113 PL Jan 18/06 223 0 0 184 220 39 127 115 131 YTC/PL Jan 18/06 445 0 0 335 450 110 153 130 151 YTC/PL Jan 18/06 317 0 0 240 320 77 150 129 154 YTC/PL Jan 18/06 599 0 0 455 600 145 163 148 181 PL/YTC Jan 18/06 803 0 0 548 800 256 200 192 224 PL/YTC Jan 18/06 628 0 0 485 630 143 276 262 276 PL/YTC Jan 18/06 762 0 0.8 604 760 158 202 192 215 YTC/PL/YTC Jan 18/06 846 0 0 740 850 106 113 101 142 YTC/PL/YTC Jan 18/06 1130 0 0.8 970 1100 155 149 136 172 YTC/PL/YTC Jan 18/06 987 0 0.7 920 990 67 175 163 185 YTC Feb. 1/06 47 5.45 3.1 18 39 21 8 8.3 8.1 YTC Feb. 1/06 43 2.73 1.1 33 39 6 8.8 8.8 8.6 YTC Feb. 1/06 36 0 0.7 28 36 8 9.8 10 9.8 PL Feb. 1/06 153 0 0 116 150 37 98 98 93 PL Feb. 1/06 182 0 0 138 180 44 68 75 70 PL Feb. 1/06 190 0 0 107 6 83 91 90 90 YTC/PL Feb. 1/06 232 0 0 163 230 69 93 91 127 o Treatment Sample Total Nitrate Nitrite Ammonium Kjedahl Organic Diss. Ortho- Total TOC COD BOD Name Date N N N P P P YTC/PL Feb. 1/06 223 0 0 143 220 80 87 69 102 YTC/PL Feb. 1/06 295 0 0 229 300 67 96 82 98 PL/YTC Feb. 1/06 515 0 0.6 438 350 76 142 148 130 PL/YTC Feb. 1/06 468 0 0.6 401 470 67 154 168 162 PL/YTC Feb. 1/06 561 0 0.7 474 560 87 146 156 143 YTC/PL/YTC Feb. 1/06 601 0 0.7 500 600 101 92 98 95 YTC/PL/YTC Feb. 1/06 690 0 0.8 532 690 158 151 167 156 YTC/PL/YTC Feb. 1/06 783 0 0.7 676 780 108 155 162 151 YTC Feb. 14/06 62 9.3 0 17 52 35 7.1 7.1 7.5 YTC Feb. 14/06 50 3.4 0 25 47 22 8.6 8.3 13.5 YTC Feb. 14/06 41 0 0 25 41 16 9.1 9.2 10.2 PL Feb. 14/06 149 0 0 138 150 11 108 91 116 PL Feb. 14/06 174 0 0 148 170 26 86 69 80 PL Feb. 14/06 136 0 0 116 140 21 98 81 136 YTC/PL Feb. 14/06 171 0 0 153 170 18 109 52 89 YTC/PL Feb. 14/06 187 0 0 166 190 21 76 42.1 98 YTC/PL Feb. 14/06 246 0 0 223 250 24 83 57 96 PL/YTC Feb. 14/06 428 0 0 376 430 52 138 142 137 PL/YTC Feb. 14/06 414 2.07 0 361 410 51 132 132 135 PL/YTC Feb. 14/06 481 0 0 432 480 49 163 162 165 YTC/PL/YTC Feb. 14/06 594 0 0 482 590 112 90 81 107 YTC/PL/YTC Feb. 14/06 476 0 0 435 480 41 230 127 299 YTC/PL/YTC Feb. 14/06 670 0 0 577 670 93 154 141 194 YTC Mar. 15/06 98 83.4 0 1.1 14 13 7 6.2 7.4 YTC Mar. 15/06 111 78.8 0 3.2 32 29 7.9 6.9 7.6 YTC Mar. 15/06 50 35.5 0 0.0 14 14 7.5 6.7 6.1 PL Mar. 15/06 173 0 0 96 170 77 47.2 39.4 44 PL Mar. 15/06 226 0 0 146 230 80 48.3 39.7 46.2 PL Mar. 15/06 200 IIIB flBHi 121 lUiiBB 79 0 39.6 45.1 YTC/PL Mar. 15/06 254 0 0 165 250 90 49.3 33 46.5 o Treatment Sample Total Nitrate Nitrite Ammonium Kjedahl Organic Diss. Ortho- Total TOC COD BOD Name Date N N N P P P (mg L"1) YTC/PL Mar 15/06 146 0 0 120 150 26 71 68 87 YTC/PL Mar. 15/06 280 0 0 180 280 100 32.2 20.5 31.2 PL/YTC Mar. 15/06 513 28.4 46 313 440 126 113 102 105 PL/YTC Mar. 15/06 497 46.2 50 264 400 137 120 137 116 PL/YTC Mar. 15/06 416 32.5 48 262 260 74 147 135 145 YTC/PL/YTC Mar. 15/06 486 6.46 1.2 449 480 30 41.3 40.2 40.9 YTC/PL/YTC Mar. 15/06 549 6.61 0.8 415 380 127 99 85 105 YTC/PL/YTC Mar. 15/06 612 49.3 37.6 498 520 27 105 90 97 YTC Apr I 5/06 67 55.3 0 1.2 12 11 5.6 5.7 5.7 YTC Apr I 5/06 70 52.3 0 0.9 18 17 7.1 8 7.1 YTC Apr I 5/06 19 2.98 0 1.0 16 15 6 5.2 5.9 PL Apr I 5/06 199 0 0 137 200 62 34.1 36.9 35.6 PL Apr I 5/06 221 0 0 171 220 50 38.4 40.7 39.3 PL Apr I 5/06 196 0 0.7 118 200 78 28.9 31.6 29.6 YTC/PL Apr I 5/06 132 0 0 85 130 47 41.3 41.3 47.9 YTC/PL Apn I 5/06 147 0 0 80 150 68 67 47.9 106 YTC/PL Apri I 5/06 142 0 0 137 140 6 36.2 28.5 51 PL/YTC Apri I 5/06 473 53.5 162 217 260 41 112 139 139 PL/YTC Apri I 5/06 420 66.8 173 168 180 13 101 111 98 PL/YTC Apri I 5/06 493 57.2 197 203 240 36 163 178 163 YTC/PL/YTC Apri I 5/06 548 22.4 1.8 412 520 112 42 36.8 53 YTC/PL/YTC Apri I 5/06 585 29.6 0.9 414 550 141 61 52 85 YTC/PL/YTC Apri I 5/06 753 160 219 308 370 66 105 122 126 Data was averaged due to miss ing sample points (ie. leaked co lumns, lost samples) or anomalous values. Data was extrapolated (using previous and subsequent data) due to missed analysis by M a x x a m Ana ly t i cs . o Table C.3 Concentrations of metals in leachates. Treatment Sample Name Date K Na Ca Mg S Fe Cu Zn Mn B Mo Ni (mg L'1) YTC 15-Nov-05 4220 168 505 228 183 10.4 0.4 1.6 2.3 0.4 0.1 0.2 PL 5-Dec-05 5340 1010 57 5 1070 21.6 25.2 10.5 1.2 3.1 0.9 0.8 YTC/PL 20-Dec-05 4910 757 67 7 749 17.6 17.0 7.1 1.3 2.5 0.7 0.6 PL/YTC 20-Dec-05 4270 218 560 260 349 4.1 1.3 1.0 1.1 0.3 0.1 0.2 YTC/PL/YTC 20-Dec-05 4820 489 485 192 561 10.9 5.7 2.2 1.9 0.7 0.2 0.4 YTC 3-Jan-06 1020 33 91 38 14 2.2 0.1 0.1 0.4 0.3 0 0 PL 3-Jan-06 2300 456 63 4 383 5.8 5.1 3.0 0.4 2.0 0.2 0.3 YTC/PL 3-Jan-06 2730 414 93 8 300 5.5 3.6 2.7 0.7 2.0 0.2 0.2 PL/YTC 3-Jan-06 3370 343 341 117 334 5.3 2.2 0.9 0.8 0.4 0.1 0.2 YTC/PL/YTC 3-Jan-06 3410 342 213 66 286 5.2 1.5 1.0 0.8 0.7 0.1 0.2 YTC 11-Jan-06 343 8 30 13 3 1.3 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0 0 PL 11-Jan-06 554 118 43 5 67 2.3 2.7 0.9 5.0 1.2 0.1 0.1 YTC/PL 11-Jan-06 1080 146 66 11 111 4.4 3.8 1.6 11.2 1.1 0.1 0.1 PL/YTC 11-Jan-06 1650 259 121 14 198 8.3 2.2 0.9 14.0 0.6 0.2 0.2 YTC/PL/YTC 11-Jan-06 2260 239 181 13 219 5.7 1.7 0.8 13.1 0.8 0.1 0.2 YTC 18-Jan-06 237 4.8 28 12 2 0.7 0 0.1 0.1 0.2 0 0 PL 18-Jan-06 114 30 35 0.18 10 0.6 0.8 0.3 0.2 0.6 0 0 YTC/PL 18-Jan-06 562 61 55 0.37 37 2.4 1.9 0.8 0.4 0.9 0.1 0 PL/YTC 18-Jan-06 701 111 55 0.43 60 5.4 1.0 0.5 0.4 0.8 0.2 0 YTC/PL/YTC 18-Jan-06 1490 166 113 0.54 123 5.6 1.1 0.6 0.5 0.8 0.1 0.2 YTC 1-Feb-06 198 2 41.7 18.9 2 0.4 0 0 0.1 0.3 0 0 PL 1-Feb-06 97 20.4 36.9 28.2 6 0.5 0.5 0.2 0.2 0.4 0 0 YTC/PL 1-Feb-06 321 25.6 67.8 40.6 12 1.3 0.8 0.4 0.4 0.6 0 0 PL/YTC 1-Feb-06 394 63.8 45 9.9 30 4.3 0.5 0.3 0.4 0.8 0 0 YTC/PL/YTC 1-Feb-06. 842 88.7 70.6 16.7 54 4.8 0.6 0.4 0.5 0.8 0 0 YTC 14-Feb-06 160 1.7 52.5 23.3 2 0.3 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0 0 PL 14-Feb-06 79 14.9 41.1 27 5 0.3 0.4 0.2 0.2 0.4 0 0 YTC/PL 14-Feb-06 236 12.8 76.7 31.6 7 0.7 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.5 0 0 o Treatment Sample Name Date K Na Ca Mg S Fe Cu Zn Mn B Mo Ni (mg L'1) PL/YTC 14-Feb-06 343 53.5 43.2 13.5 20 3.3 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.8 0 0 YTC/PL/YTC 14-Feb-06 704 69.7 73.8 20 44 4.8 0.5 0.3 0.5 0.8 0.1 0 Concentrations of cadmium, selenium, and lead were below the detection limits for all samples for each sampling date. Table C.4 Macro and micro nutrient concentrations of initial Y T C packed into columns and Y T C layers after leaching. Treatment Rep Ash Total C _ _ T n + a l P H EC (dS m"1) NH4- N N03- Bray- N PT N P K Ca Mg Cu Zn Fe Mn S Na (%) (mg kg"1) (%) (mg kg"1) (%) YTC 1 44 24.7 72 143 1333 2.21 0.36 0.31 1.90 0.25 50 185 8061 294 0.27 0.13 6.4 0.37 YTC 2 41 26.8 68 100 1641 2.28 0.34 0.29 1.84 0.26 55 195 8894 271 0.25 0.15 6.4 0.32 YTC 3 44 28.7 68 49 1436 1.91 0.30 0.29 1.98 0.26 67 191 9574 245 0.26 0.16 6.4 0.28 YPL - Yc 1 42 25.9 84 103 1231 2.04 0.35 0.20 1.67 0.38 52 171 10042 262 0.23 0.13 6.6 0.36 YPL - Yc 2 37 27.2 80 103 1415 2.05 0.35 0.22 1.68 0.31 45 163 8193 273 0.19 0.16 6.6 0.32 Y P L - Y c 3 43 23.9 72 104 1600 2.08 0.34 0.24 1.60 0.37 43 154 8849 267 0.19 0.16 6.6 0.38 PLY - Yp 1 45 25.7 792 227 2769 2.22 0.47 0.37 1.53 0.32 95 179 7260 266 0.22 0.18 6.4 1.25 PLY - Yp 2 48 24.3 408 218 3323 2.06 0.41 0.38 1.58 0.46 93 192 8966 253 0.24 0.19 6.2 1.1 PLY - Yp 3 38 31.3 376 209 3323 2.06 0.45 0.36 1.69 0.30 98 194 7911 285 0.21 0.18 6.2 1.0 S - Yc 1 46 30.3 96 166 1231 2.06 0.35 0.33 1.69 0.28 50 182 7219 282 0.25 0.13 6.6 0.43 S - Y c 2 38 29.9 144 118 2031 2.00 0.37 0.32 1.82 0.34 54 174 8654 267 0.18 0.17 6.5 0.38 S - Y c 3 40 26.9 152 132 1785 1.83 0.31 0.30 1.69 0.32 49 154 8157 265 0.17 0.14 6.5 0.37 S - Y p 1 42 30.7 1204 310 2892 2.33 0.54 0.66 1.69 0.37 116 204 7189 300 0.22 0.23 7.2 2.0 S - Y p 2 43 26.6 728 311 3077 1.98 0.45 0.44 2.00 0.38 100 176 9912 295 0.19 0.17 6.5 1.6 S - Y p 3 44 31.4 496 279 3323 1.99 0.43 0.56 1.54 0.41 99 168 8422 254 0.26 0.17 6.4 1.3 Initial 1 43.2 27.00 1300 276 1436 1.91 0.32 1.20 1.90 0.32 51 202 10851 277 0.23 0.09 7.2 2.8 Initial 2 41.8 28.30 1400 300 1436 2.60 0.33 1.35 1.85 0.28 48 174 8785 282 0.26 0.09 7.0 3.0 Initial 3 45.6 24.66 1200 300 1436 1.85 0.30 1.20 1.75 0.27 44 182 9957 278 0.23 0.09 7.1 2.8 Initial 4 49.9 25.18 1100 303 1641 1.90 0.29 1.06 1.83 0.24 44 190 9725 275 0.24 0.10 7.1 2.8 *Yp = Y T C base pad, Yc = Y T C cover o 0\ Tab le C.5 M a c r o and mic ro nutrient concentrations o f in i t ia l P L packed into co lumns and P L layers after leaching. Treatment Rep Ash % Total C % • Available N03-N pH EC (dS m"1) NH4-N Bray- Pi N P K Ca Mg Cu Zn Fe Mn S Na (mg kg - 1) (%) (mg kg"1) PL 1 20 36.9 1400 91 10769 2.49 2.41 0.15 4.93 0.61 443 709 1774 798 0.34 0.07 7.1 1.1 PL 2 16 36.8 1200 148 11077 2.43 2.44 0.17 4.92 0.55 470 660 1566 716 0.32 0.17 7.0 1.3 PL 3 17 36.3 1040 127 9538 2.51 2.59 0.12 5.08 0.65 513 748 1786 792 0.31 0.06 7.1 1.2 YPL 1 19 37.3 232 345 10460 2.10 2.45 0.19 3.89 0.70 335 529 1944 648 0.25 0.07 6.5 1.5 YPL 2 17 37.2 344 311 10770 2.02 2.27 0.16 4.41 0.66 376 591 2150 667 0.24 0.06 6.7 1.3. YPL 3 18 37.1 240 364 12000 2.10 2.57 0.23 3.66 0.82 334 528 1940 593 0.25 0.06 6.7 1.4 PLY 1 19 36.8 1240 219 10155 2.32 2.76 0.15 3.97 0.68 320 552 1435 607 0.26 0.07 7.3 1.4 PLY 2 23 35.4 1120 190 10460 2.19 2.28 0.14 3.89 0.73 346 540 3888 583 0.26 0.07 7.1 1.3 PLY 3 17 38.4 1120 150 10155 1.98 1.94 0.10 3.52 0.57 308 527 1319 593 0.33 0.05 7.2 1.3 SPL 1 20 37.4 640 509 11243 2.07 2.94 0.27 4.26 0.73 447 670 1702 755 0.28 0.07 6.8 1.7 SPL 2 16 40.1 408 423 9230 1.75 1.96 0.14 3.60 0.66 350 530 1377 593 0.24 0.05 6.6 1.5 SPL 3 15 39.1 260 426 9846 1.61 1.57 0.12 3.12 0.55 290 473 1290 538 0.23 0.05 6.6 1.4 SDPL 1 18 34.7 3520 421 12310 2.56 2.13 1.68 3.30 0.54 330 469 1173 469 0.46 0.32 7.0 7.5 SDPL 2 19 33.1 3680 379 14460 2.94 2.51 1.63 3.70 0.59 359 490 1307 467 0.53 0.33 6.9 12 Initial 1 19.1 36.0 5400 705 10154 3.64 2.07 1.66 3.30 0.46 375 463 1104 441 0.59 0.35 7.1 12 Initial 2 17.4 34.8 5000 721 9846 3.64 2.24 1.66 3.49 0.51 364 475 1214 419 0.38 0.31 7.2 12 Initial 3 15.5 36.3 4800 745 10461 3.22 2.06 1.65 3.60 0.46 396 451 1101 440 0.54 0.33 7.2 12 Initial 4 13.9 35.8 4600 658 11077 3.47 2.39 1.78 3.89 0.53 407 496 1211 451 0.50 0.33 7.1 12 Appendix D : Sampling Field Piles Figure D . l Photograph o f excavator cut made for sampl ing at P i l e 1 in the Y T C covered section. The three pegs marked wi th f lagging tape indicate the dry core, wet midd le , and wet edge samples. T w o such excavator cuts were made in each treatment at each pi le . Figure D.2 Samp l ing spots in the wet outer reg ion o f the Y T C covered section o f P i l e 1. Samples were col lected f rom the Y T C base pad, wet poultry litter, and Y T C cover. Scale: each b lack bar is 10 c m long. 108 Figure D.3 Sampling spots from the dry core of Pile 1. Samples were collected from the YTC base pad, dry poultry litter, and wet poultry litter above. Scale: each black bar represents 10 cm. 109 Appendix E: Field Study Soil Data Table E . l M a c r o and mic ro nutrients concentrations o f soi ls col lected under and around f ie ld pi les. Total N03- Available Sample ID* Depth NH4-N N N P K Ca Mg Na Cu Zn Fe Mn so-s (mg kg 1) S1 1-C-0-1 0-15cm 246.7 6.4 253.1 123 775 1350 420 60 7.3 13.0 600 42 28 S2 1-C-0-1 15-30cm 170.4 0.0 170.4 87 360 1300 395 65 3.8 5.0 700 26 13 S3 1-C-0-2 0-15cm 48.4 13.3 61.6 195 740 1300 375 55 4.1 14.0 255 28 20 S4 1-C-0-2 15-30cm 8.6 12.7 21.2 103 390 1250 405 40 2.6 8.0 275 16 19 S5 1-C-0-3 0-15cm 226.6 0.2 226.8 113 420 1300 415 60 3.4 8.5 350 30 38 S6 1-C-0-3 15-30cm 170.4 0.0 170.4 179 740 1350 445 65 4.7 13.5 310 37 56 S7 1-C-2-1 0-15cm 3.4 7.4 10.8 210 700 1400 385 35 3.7 15.5 260 32 7.1 S8 1-C-2-1 15-30cm 5.7 8.6 14.3 103 400 1350 375 40 2.2 8.0 290 18 6.8 S9 1-C-2-2 0-15cm 5.0 4.3 9.2 200 720 1400 390 30 5.5 16.5 280 37 5 S10 1-C-2-2 15-30cm 12.0 2.3 14.4 103 420 1200 360 35 2.9 10.0 310 22 13 S11 1-C-2-3 0-15cm 39.3 4.5 43.8 210 640 1850 400 40 2.4 15.5 125 31 8.9 S12 1-C-2-3 15-30cm 5.5 1.6 7.1 92 370 1400 440 50 2.8 8.5 245 19 15 S13 1-C-5-1 0-15cm 3.5 6.8 10.3 185 580 1350 375 40 4.6 14.5 280 27 15 S14 1-C-5-1 15-30cm 3.9 5.3 9.2 97 410 1300 370 35 2.6 7.5 305 13 13.9 S15 1-C-5-2 0-15cm 3.1 15.8 18.9 190 660 1350 405 40 5.5 12.0 355 25 29 S16 1-C-5-2 15-30cm 3.2 17.6 20.8 97 370 1250 410 40 2.3 7.5 295 14 45 S17 1-C-5-3 0-15cm 2.7 16.4 19.1 215 630 1050 290 25 7.6 16.5 300 33 23 S18 1-C-5-3 15-30cm 2.3 19.6 21.9 87 395 1200 430 40 2.6 7.0 285 14 32 S19 1-U-0-1 0-15cm 3.5 7.2 10.7 215 570 1150 305 25 3.9 19.0 300 30 9.3 S20 1-U-0-1 15-30cm 3.7 6.7 10.4 246 755 1250 350 35 4.7 20.0 310 29 17 S21 1-U-0-2 0-15cm 5.4 4.3 9.7 210 680 1350 380 30 5.3 16.5 340 34 8.5 S22 1-U-0-2 15-30cm 75.3 2.4 77.7 179 810 1350 400 40 6.8 17.0 405 41 19 S23 1-U-0-3 0-15cm 2.6 20.8 23.4 200 650 1300 360 30 3.8 16.0 345 26 14 S24 1-U-0-3 15-30cm 6.7 34.0 40.7 200 790 1300 400 50 5.6 19.0 260 35 45 S25 1-U-2-1 0-15cm 179.8 0.9 180.7 149 640 1350 435 55 8.0 14.0 600 48 36 S26 1-U-2-1 15-30cm 154.5 0 154.5 67 490 1150 405 55 3.8 5.0 600 31 14 Total N03- Available Sample ID* Depth NH4-N N N S27 1-U-2-2 0-15cm 161.1 1.0 162.1 S28 1-U-2-2 15-30cm 174.9 0 174.9 S29 1-U-2-3 0-15cm 141.9 0.1 142.0 S30 1-U-2-3 15-30cm 41.0 0 41.0 S31 1-U -5-1 0-15cm 2.1 9.4 11.5 S32 1-U -5-1 15-30cm 1.2 9.0 10.2 S34 1-U -5-2 0-15cm 1.9 6.4 8.3 S35 1-U -5-2 15-30cm 0.9 12.4 13.3 S36 1-U -5-3 0-15cm 43.7 2.0 45.7 S37 1-U -5-3 15-30cm 18.7 1.0 19.7 S38 1-CE-1 0-15cm 944.1 0 944.1 S39 1-CE-1 15-30cm 286.5 0 286.5 S40 1-CE-1 30-60cm 60.8 0 60.8 S41 1-CE-2 0-15cm 193.7 0 193.7 S42 1-CE-2 15-30cm 140.8 0 140.8 S43 1-CE-2 30-60cm 14.1 0 14.1 S44 1-CE-3 0-15cm 166.8 0 166.8 S45 1-CE-3 15-30cm 78.7 0 78.7 S46 1-CE-3 30-60cm 26.9 0 26.9 S47 1-Cin-1 0-15cm 1115.9 0 1115.9 S48 1-Cin-1 15-30cm 242.0 0 242.0 S49 1-Cin-2 0-15cm 1601.2 0 1601.2 S50 1-Cin-2 15-30cm 310.6 0 310.6 S51 1-Cin-3 0-15cm 2216.3 0.7 2217.0 S52 1-Cin-3 15-30cm 288.1 0 288.1 S53 1-CC-1 0-15cm 258.3 0 258.3 S54 1-CC-1 15-30cm 177.9 0 177.9 S55 1-CC-2 0-15cm 274.1 0 274.1 S56 1-CC-2 15-30cm 172.0 0 172.0 P K Ca Mg Na Cu Zn Fe Mn SO- (mg kg 1) 190 705 1350 430 45 4.6 15.5 355 43 16 113 730 1150 380 75 6.7 13.0 600 39 21 210 1200 1300 420 70 5.5 19.5 330 42 38 164 820 1300 425 75 3.7 17.0 340 31 50 152 725 1250 385 60 4.5 15.0 255 27 45 52 410 1150 455 75 2.3 6.0 275 11 69 110 875 1200 345 60 3.2 11.0 385 20 12 43 580 1100 445 90 2.0 5.0 330 9 15 171 1110 1200 365 75 6.2 19.0 410 33 33 176 790 1200 345 80 4.4 14.5 400 26 54 154 600 1150 365 285 10.5 12.5 650 42 68 87 730 1150 430 100 5.2 7.0 700 31 14 26 285 1550 875 95 3.5 8.0 265 20 22 169 780 1400 415 175 6.7 13.5 345 41 28 67 550 1350 520 115 2.7 5.5 425 26 37 16 190 1200 910 115 4.1 4.5 280 16 39 174 1500 1350 460 135 4.7 13.5 335 41 52 92 450 1350 565 100 2.8 7.5 295 25 48 14 230 1100 940 125 5.4 4.5 310 19 45 97 2600 1500 560 380 2.5 11.5 750 44 57 67 425 1200 470 100 3.8 5.5 800 30 13 144 535 1050 360 340 5.1 16.0 750 50 52 87 705 1200 435 100 5.6 8.0 650 41 13 128 2300 1300 310 360 4.7 15.5 650 49 57 87 615 1150 410 80 6.2 9.0 650 41 13 113 970 1300 485 60 5.4 10.5 500 44 20 77 350 1250 450 45 4.1 6.5 500 34 10 113 1000 1350 480 60 7.1 12.5 550 50 24 34 380 1250 410 50 6.1 8.0 600 41 11 Total N03- Available Sample ID* Depth NH4-N N N S57 1-CC-3 0-15cm 314.7 0 314.7 S58 1-CC-3 15-30cm 200.0 0 200.0 S59 1-UE-1 0-15cm 372.2 0 372.2 S60 1-UE-1 15-30cm 220.0 0 220.0 S61 1-UE-1 30-60cm 11.5 0 11.5 S62 1-UE-2 0-15cm 1026.6 0 1026.6 S63 1-UE-2 15-30cm 489.3 0 489.3 S64 1-UE-2 30-60cm 51.3 0 51.3 S65 1-UE-3 0-15cm 259.5 0 259.5 S66 1-UE-3 15-30cm 229.0 0 229.0 S67 1-UE-3 30-60cm 42.3 0 42.3 S68 1-Uin-1 0-15cm 533.0 0 533.0 S69 1-Uin-1 15-30cm 156.4 0 156.4 S70 1-Uin-2 0-15cm 815.6 0 815.6 S71 1-Uin-2 15-30cm 192.6 0 192.6 S72 1-Uin-3 0-15cm 1898.2 0 1898.2 S73 1-Uin-3 15-30cm 334.2 0 334.2 S74 1-UC-1 0-15cm 261.2 0 261.2 S75 1-UC-1 15-30cm 157.4 0 157.4 S76 1-UC-2 0-15cm 263.6 0 263.6 S77 1-UC-2 15-30cm 148.8 0 148.8 S78 1-UC-3 0-15cm 278.8 0 278.8 S79 1-UC-3 15-30cm 123.8 0 123.8 S80 2-C-0-1 0-15cm 44.5 56.0 100.4 S81 2-C-0-1 15-30cm 110.8 20.9 131.7 S82 2-C-0-2 0-15cm 4.8 14.8 19.5 S83 2-C-0-2 15-30cm 4.5 5.6 10.1 S84 2-C-0-3 0-15cm 2.1 7.4 9.5 S85 2-C-0-3 15-30cm 7.3 1.7 9.0 P K Ca Mg Na Cu Zn Fe Mn so-s (mg kg 1) 118 1150 1400 485 65 8.0 13.5 550 51 34 97 430 1250 435 50 5.6 8.0 600 40 12 100 1200 1250 425 110 5.3 10.5 465 34 14 48 690 1100 500 135 2.2 3.5 430 16 34 110 1800 1000 285 175 5.4 13.5 575 36 47 74 1000 1075 415 150 3.9 6.8 530 27 37 167 1600 1150 395 110 6.1 17.5 435 37 26 110 900 1050 355 90 6.0 11.5 575 27 20 110 1250 1150 365 105 7.7 12.0 675 38 20 44 525 1150 480 95 4.4 4.2 695 25 9 110 1450 1100 360 125 6.0 14.0 675 41 17 62 600 1150 410 85 5.2 6.0 750 26 15 152 3050 1100 340 335 6.6 17.5 630 39 68 81 1025 950 470 180 5.8 9.0 650 22 29 124 940 1150 415 80 8.8 10.5 650 36 23 64 415 1150 380 80 12.5 3.3 600 92 12.3 100 1080 1150 370 75 8.7 11.0 690 37 31 56 420 1150 480 95 8.8 5.7 550 32 15.6 110 1060 1150 395 90 9.1 15.0 680 38 35 44 630 1100 500 150 4.5 4.9 550 28 21.3 121 68 121 53 121 63 Total N03- Available Sample ID* Depth NH4-N N N P K Ca Mg Na Cu Zn Fe Mn SO-S S86 2-C-2-1 0-15cm 0.6 24.4 25.0 105 S87 2-C-2-1 15-30cm 1.0 10.6 11.6 42 S88 2-C-2-2 0-15cm 12.8 13.5 26.3 121 S89 2-C-2-2 15-30cm 0.8 21.1 21.8 58 S90 2-C-2-3 0-15cm 38.9 20.3 59.3 116 S91 2-C-2-3 15-30cm 6.1 1.9 8.1 63 S92 2-C-5-1 0-15cm 0.4 9.5 9.9 100 S93 2-C-5-1 15-30cm 0.7 4.9 5.6 53 S94 2-C-5-2 0-15cm 1.1 7.1 8.2 100 S95 2-C-5-2 15-30cm 0.2 6.9 7.1 58 S96 2-C-5-3 0-15cm 1.0 8.8 9.7 105 S97 2-C-5-3 15-30cm 0.3 4.7 5.0 53 S98 2-U-0-1 0-15cm 83.6 51.7 135.2 158 S99 2-U-0-1 15-30cm 41.5 1.6 43.1 84 S100 2-U-0-2 0-15cm 376.3 142.4 518.7 200 S101 2-U-0-2 15-30cm 240.8 3.2 244.0 84 S102 2-U-0-3 0-15cm 395.1 117.5 512.6 126 S103 2-U-0-3 15-30cm 299.4 1.8 301.2 74 S104 2-U-2-1 0-15cm 3.0 5.3 8.2 100 S105 2-U-2-1 15-30cm 0.7 4.0 4.7 63 S106 2-U-2-2 0-15cm 1.6 4.6 6.2 100 S107 2-U-2-2 15-30cm 2.8 1.9 4.7 79 S108 2-U-2-3 0-15cm 2.4 4.5 7.0 110 S109 2-U-2-3 15-30cm 5.5 1.5 7.0 63 S110 2-U-5-1 0-15cm 1.4 5.7 7.1 89 S111 2-U-5-1 15-30cm 0.3 4.0 4.3 74 S112 2-U-5-2 0-15cm 0.6 5.7 6.3 105 S113 2-U-5-2 15-30cm 0.7 3.0 3.6 79 S114 2-U-5-3 0-15cm 0.7 3.7 4.3 100 Total N03- Available Sample ID* Depth NH4-N N N P K Ca Mg Na Cu Zn Fe Mn SO-S S115 2-U-5-3 15-30cm 0.5 0 0.5 84 S116 2-CE-1 0-15cm 928.4 0 928.4 68 S117 2-CE-1 15-30cm 309.8 0 309.8 39 S118 2-CE-1 30-60cm 16.0 0 16.0 S119 2-CE-2 0-15cm 1602.7 0 1602.7 95 S120 2-CE-2 15-30cm 164.8 0 164.8 58 S121 2-CE-2 30-60cm 16.5 0 16.5 S122 2-CE-3 0-15cm 1669.5 0 1669.5 105 S123 2-CE-3 15-30cm 292.6 0 292.6 74 S124 2-CE-3 30-60cm 26.0 0 26.0 S125 2-CC-1 0-15cm 1248.6 0 1248.6 100 S126 2-CC-1 15-30cm 161.7 0 161.7 58 S127 2-CC-2 0-15cm 470.7 0 470.7 84 S128 2-CC-2 15-30cm 58.0 0 58.0 63 S129 2-CC-3 0-15cm 401.9 0 401.9 84 S130 2-CC-3 15-30cm 73.1 0 73.1 58 S131 2-UE-1 0-15cm 2156.1 0 2156.1 142 S132 2-UE-1 15-30cm 486.8 0 486.8 63 S133 2-UE-1 30-60cm 26.0 0 26.0 S134 2-UE-2 0-15cm 873.6 0.3 873.8 121 S135 2-UE-2 15-30cm 176.8 0 176.8 84 S136 2-UE-2 30-60cm 36.0 0 36.0 S137 2-UE-3 0-15cm 2028.3 0 2028.3 137 S138 2-UE-3 15-30cm 201.9 0 201.9 63 S139 2-UE-3 30-60cm 33.0 0 33.0 S140 2-UC-1 0-15cm 2086.4 0 2086.4 100 S141 2-UC-1 15-30cm 142.0 0 142.0 53 S142 2-UC-2 0-15cm 734.5 0 734.5 100 S143 2-UC-2 15-30cm 121.3 0 121.3 74 Total N03- Available Sample ID* Depth NH4-N N N P K Ca Mg Na Cu Zn Fe Mn SO-S (mg kg 1) S144 2-UC-3 0-15cm 732.5 0 732.5 84 S145 24JC-3 15-30cm 121.0 0 121.0 63 S146 3-0-1 0-15cm 257.3 10.5 267.8 215 S147 3-0-1 15-30cm 101.1 0 101.1 118 S148 3-0-2 0-15cm 519.3 13.5 532.9 241 S149 3-0-2 15-30cm 44.8 0 44.8 82 S150 3-0-3 0-15cm 216.7 14.5 231.2 246 S151 3-0-3 15-30cm 25.4 0 25.4 62 S152 3-2-1 0-15cm 109.6 0 109.6 185 S153 3-2-1 15-30cm 21.5 0 21.5 67 S154 3-2-2 0-15cm 153.0 0 153.0 300 S155 3-2-2 15-30cm 36.7 0 36.7 82 S156 3-2-3 0-15cm 364.0 29.7 393.8 210 S157 3-2-3 15-30cm 82.7 0 82.7 64 S158 3-5-1 0-15cm 3.8 1.2 5.0 167 315 2000 485 75 3.4 8.5 180 32 32 S159 3-5-1 15-30cm 3.7 0 3.7 114 170 1800 485 75 3.3 7.5 180 28 36 S160 3-5-2 0-15cm 0.6 5.7 6.2 186 290 1950 425 60 3.5 8.5 160 31 17 S161 3-5-2 15-30cm 3.9 0 3.9 114 190 1750 445 70 3.4 7.0 170 28 33 S162 3-5-3 0-15cm 3.6 2.0 5.6 171 305 1750 405 50 3.5 7.5 190 32 11 S163 3-5-3 15-30cm 2.2 0 2.2 62 150 1650 475 55 3.4 6.0 190 24 14 S164 3-E-1 0-15cm 5885.1 0 5885.1 243 2050 1300 390 360 5.6 9.0 690 33 84 S165 3-E-1 15-30cm 368.5 0 368.5 34 360 1400 560 120 5.4 4.5 445 24 10 S166 3-E-1 30-60 cm 60.7 0 60.7 11 145 975 595 90 15.5 4.5 270 13 28 S167 3-E-2 0-15cm 2445.4 0 2445.4 743 3900 900 355 675 4.2 19.0 690 28 185 S168 3-E-2 15-30cm 1406.5 0 1406.5 47 900 1300 555 335 3.5 5.5 480 24 36 S169 3-E-2 30-60 cm 40.6 0 40.6 12 125 1050 680 100 18.0 6.0 335 12 24 S170 3-E-3 0-15cm 4313.6 0 4313.6 357 3100 1200 380 515 4.8 12.0 730 38 101 S171 3-E-3 15-30cm 720.4 0 720.4 37 300 900 300 105 7.7 5.3 680 31 14 S172 3-E-3 30-60 cm 214.8 0 214.8 17 240 1050 560 115 14.5 4.5 300 14 35 Total N03- Available Sample ID* Depth NH4-N N N P K Ca Mg Na Cu Zn Fe Mn SO- (mg kg"1) S173 3-C-1 0-15cm 3407.1 0 3407.1 286 1700 950 215 390 4.6 9.0 760 36 66 S174 3-C-1 15-30cm 221.9 0 221.9 71 345 1400 485 140 5.3 5.5 435 26 21 S175 3-C-2 0-15cm 3917.3 0 3917.3 357 3900 1300 330 760 5.1 11.0 750 39 68 S176 3-C-2 15-30cm 5.6 0 5.6 57 255 950 285 80 5.1 5.5 480 25 13 S177 3-C-3 0-15cm 197.7 0 197.7 200 1800 1350 365 385 6.3 9.2 700 37 31 S178 3-C-3 15-30cm 2094.9 0 2094.9 57 185 1400 425 90 5.6 7.0 485 27 14 S179Z 4-0-1 0-15cm 0 5.7 5.7 272 S180 4-0-1 15-30cm 0 0 0 S181 4-0-2 0-15cm 0.1 1.0 1.1 308 S182 4-0-2 15-30cm 0 0 0 S183 4-0-3 0-15cm 0 5.8 5.8 323 S184 4-0-3 15-30cm 0 0 0 S185 4-2-1 0-15cm 0 1.9 1.9 272 S186 4-2-1 15-30cm 0 0 0 S187 4-2-2 0-15cm 0 0.3 0.3 282 S188 4-2-2 15-30cm 0 0 0 S189 4-2-3 0-15cm 0 0.5 0.5 287 S190 4-2-3 15-30cm 0 0 0 S191 4-5-1 0-15cm 0 0 0 267 S192 4-5-1 15-30cm 0 0 0 S193 4-5-2 0-15cm 0 0.1 0.1 272 S194 4-5-2 15-30cm 0 0 0 S195 4-5-3 0-15cm 0 0.7 0.7 333 S196 4-5-3 15-30cm 0 0 0 S197 4-E-1 0-15cm 1380.8 68.9 1449.7 297 S198 4-E-1 15-30cm 349.4 5.2 354.6 S199 4-E-1 30-60 cm 38.9 0 38.9 S200 4-E-2 0-15cm 699.7 11.0 710.7 554 S201 4-E-2 15-30cm 218.6 2.3 221.0 Total N03- Available Sample ID* Depth NH4-N N N P K Ca Mg Na Cu Zn Fe Mn so-s (mg kg 1) S202 4-E-2 30-60 cm 121.0 0 121.0 S203 4-E-3 0-15cm 492.2 0 492.2 226 S204 4-E-3 15-30cm 48.3 0 48.3 S205 4-E-3 30-60 cm 12.7 0 12.7 S206 4-C-1 0-15cm 2002.3 0 2002.3 133 S207 4-C-1 15-30cm 97.8 0 97.8 S208 4-C-2 0-15cm 2787.0 0 2787.0 118 S209 4-C-2 15-30cm 448.2 0 448.2 S210 4-C-3 0-15cm 434.0 0 434.0 144 S211 4-C-3 15-30cm 71.9 0 71.9 S231 Pile 1 Fall 0-15cm 8.0 77.9 85.9 129 320 600 175 50 4.0 5.5 375 9 68 S232 Pile 1 Fall 15-30cm 4.8 0 4.8 71 240 700 200 45 2.5 6.0 285 11 11 S233 Pile 2 fall 0-15cm 5.5 97.3 102.9 124 S234 Pile 2 fall 15-30cm 2.3 0 2.3 65 S235 Pile 3 Fall 0-15cm 11.6 350.2 361.7 181 300 2250 525 95 3.0 9.5 135 33 83 S236 Pile 3 Fall 15-30cm 1.3 0 1.3 86 175 1800 500 90 3.2 7.5 160 26 53 S237 Pile 4 fall 0-15cm 1.5 20.3 21.8 246 S238 Pile 4 fall 15-30cm 0.3 0 0.3 213 * First d ig i t indicates the p i le number (1-3). Fo r P i les 1 and 2 the first digit is fo l lowed by the letter ' C for Y T C covered or ' U ' for uncovered. The f o l l o w i n g letter for a l l pi les indicates ' E ' for edge, ' i n ' for inner, or ' C for core or i f it is a number it indicates the distance away f rom the pi le (0 = beside the pi le , 2 = 2.5 m and 5 m away). The f ina l number indicates the replicate number (1-3). E g . l-C-2-2 = P i l e 1, covered sect ion, 2.5 m away, replicate number 2 or 3-C-l = P i le 3, core, replicate number 1. z P i l e 4 is a case study wh i ch was not inc luded in the thesis because it was located on a different so i l type, it was not a w ind row , and was very sma l l . The data have been inc luded here for future reference. Appendix F: Field Study YTC and PL Data Table F. 1 M a c r o and mic ro nutrient concentrations o f in i t ia l Y T C sampled in the fa l l and Y T C sampled f rom various locat ions w i th in P i l e 1 after storage. Available Total - Sample Total NH4- N03- Bray- Location Rep Ash C N N Pi N P K Ca Mg Cu Zn Fe Mn S Na PH EC (mg kg"1) ) kg"1) (dS I %) (%) (°/ m 1) 1CPE* 1 57 24 104 363 1108 1.42 0.27 0.49 1.99 0.47 50 165 11216 356 0.17 0.19 6.8 1.1 1CPE 2 57 22 52 251 1477 1.35 0.30 0.49 1.91 0.49 53 159 11464 308 0.11 0.23 6.7 0.8 1CPE 3 53 24 52 697 2277 1.68 0.41 0.59 1.81 0.38 65 186 10000 309 0.27 0.29 5.7 2.6 1CPM* 1 45 27 8800 123 4000 2.72 0.66 1.47 1.07 0.26 50 167 7585 243 0.42 0.58 6.0 15 1CPM 2 46 24 880 57 1231 1.50 0.21 0.81 1.58 0.35 46 155 10210 295 0.20 0.26 7.6 2.4 1CPM 3 50 28 2080 100 1600 1.81 0.33 0.99 1.47 0.33 57 150 9873 284 0.25 0.44 8.0 3.0 1CPC* 1 53 28 456 38 1169 1.50 0.25 0.69 1.58 0.36 45 143 9979 284 0.14 0.21 7.4 1.5 1CPC 2 46 26 700 44 1231 1.57 0.26 0.74 1.68 0.35 49 150 11111 325 0.14 0.22 7.5 1.7 1CPC 3 45 25 544 30 923 1.41 0.18 0.64 1.67 0.31 44 146 11250 302 0.13 0.18 7.4 1.5 1CCM* 1 53 22 536 1261 1169 1.51 0.23 0.40 1.59 0.33 50 144 10312 271 0.14 0.20 5.2 2.7 1CCM 2 42 28 88 491 985 1.51 0.24 0.27 1.80 0.32 52 146 6900 254 0.13 0.18 6.3 0.9 1CCM 3 43 28 768 720 2708 1.82 0.64 0.36 2.32 0.41 90 221 8842 389 0.16 0.22 6.8 1.7 1CCT* 1 57 24 52 183 1292 1.43 0.27 0.38 1.70 0.37 58 177 10616 297 0.12 0.20 6.4 0.5 1CCT 2 42 27 136 920 1046 1.74 0.24 0.35 1.69 0.33 45 145 9408 285 0.19 0.17 5.6 2.1 1CCT 3 44 23 56 507 1108 1.44 0.23 0.32 1.70 0.29 47 144 9382 288 0.13 0.14 6.4 0.8 1UPE* 1 60 21 2200 137 1816 1.64 0.33 0.81 1.57 0.34 67 160 10647 270 0.34 0.15 7.2 2.2 1UPE 2 58 22 2200 114 1492 2.19 0.41 0.81 1.46 0.33 67 170 9081 277 0.30 0.15 7.3 1.9 1UPE 3 44 23 200 1100 1816 1.72 0.41 0.70 1.77 0.31 56 202 7188 318 0.23 0.11 5.6 2.4 1UPM* 1 52 26 4600 194 3438 2.04 0.62 1.20 1.05 0.35 132 212 6618 245 0.36 0.19 6.8 6.5 1UPM 2 54 26 880 94 1427 1.56 0.33 1.00 1.46 0.36 75 147 8437 254 0.25 0.15 7.6 2.4 1UPM 3 53 25 640 220 1038 1.57 0.33 0.89 1.57 0.38 54 158 8873 267 0.25 0.14 7.5 2.4 1UPC* 1 47 29 420 97 1038 1.60 0.27 0.78 1.71 0.35 49 256 8742 288 0.21 0.10 7.3 1.5 1UPC 2 52 24 180 80 973 1.36 0.26 0.74 1.68 0.38 51 161 8613 273 0.18 0.10 7.4 1.3 oo Available Total Sample Location Rep Ash Total C NH4- N N03- N Bray- Pi N P K Ca Mg Cu Zn Fe Mn S Na PH EC (%) (mg kg 1) (%) (mg kg 1) (%) (dS m"1) 1UPC 3 56 23 280 89 973 1.51 0.28 0.70 1.48 0.38 42 148 8792 264 0.20 0.10 7.4 1.2 Initial 1 43 27 1300 276 2092 2.21 0.36 1.39 1.69 0.32 41 161 9388 273 0.30 0.09 7.2 2.8 Initial 2 42 28 1400 300 2123 2.31 0.34 1.43 1.59 0.27 37 157 7856 261 0.33 0.09 7.0 3.0 Initial 3 46 25 1200 300 2000 2.22 0.35 1.33 1.58 0.36 56 158 8544 271 0.27 0.09 7.1 2.8 Initial 4 50 25 1100 303 2123 2.12 0.34 1.29 1.47 0.35 38 164 9539 268 0.28 0.10 7.1 2.8 *Samp le locat ion codes: 1 indicates P i l e 1 for each sample; C P E = Y T C covered section, sample col lected f rom the Y T C base pad on the edge; C P M = Y T C covered sect ion, sample co l lected f rom the Y T C base pad in the midd le ; C P C = Y T C covered sect ion, sample col lected f r o m the Y T C base pad under the core o f the p i le ; C C M = Y T C covered section, sample col lected f rom the Y T C cover in the midd le (eg. ha l fway up the p i le ) ; C C T = Y T C covered section, sample col lected f rom the Y T C cover at the top o f the p i le ; U P E , U P M and U P C indicate the uncovered sect ion Y T C base pad samples col lected f r om the edge, middle and core. Tab le F.2 M a c r o and mic ro nutrient concentrations o f in i t ia l poultry litter sampled in the fa l l and poultry litter after storage sampled f rom various locat ions w i th in P i les 1 and 2. Available Total Sample Location* Rep Ash Total C NH4- N N03- N Bray- P N P K Ca Mg Cu Zn Fe Mn S Na PH EC (%) (mg kg"1) (%) (mg kg"1) (%) (dS m"1) I C ^ L W B 1 16 40 1360 195 7179 2.93 1.96 0.77 2.61 0.83 326 380 761 511 0.35 0.13 7.2 3.3 I C ^ L W B 2 15 39 12800 246 7385 4.40 2.21 1.64 2.77 0.63 232 398 885 476 0.50 0.50 6.0 23 I C ^ L W B 3 15 41 1280 174 7179 3.21 1.81 0.45 3.32 0.48 257 482 1071 610 0.38 0.97 6.9 2.3 1C-PLWT 1 21 33 4160 1487 15385 3.77 2.69 2.19 3.17 0.82 349 524 1092 568 0.65 0.46 6.5 18 I C ^ L W T 2 27 31 2880 790 13846 3.33 3.37 2.03 6.10 1.16 632 854 1663 976 0.53 0.53 6.5 18 1C-PLWT 3 27 30 4400 1077 14461 3.98 3.81 2.26 3.79 1.15 260 530 1353 530 0.80 0.59 6.5 18 I C ^ L D C 1 16 38 7120 390 6564 4.35 2.07 1.79 2.64 0.62 327 464 949 475 0.56 0.35 6.2 17 I C ^ L D C 2 14 41 3560 174 5538 4.79 1.84 1.39 2.34 0.51 191 404 745 404 0.46 0.40 5.6 12 1C-PLDC 3 13 40 3440 157 5641 4.74 1.98 1.44 2.00 0.52 186 337 632 368 0.45 0.43 5.6 11 Available Total Sample Total NH4- N03- Bray- Location* Rep Ash C N N P N P K Ca Mg Cu Zn Fe Mn S Na PH EC (mg kg 1) (dS (%) (%) (mg kg") (%) m"1) 1U-PLWB 1 15 45 13300 486 5405 5.87 1.85 2.35 2.13 0.47 302 391 1118 360 0.55 0.34 6.0 24 1U-PLWB 2 14 44 14600 371 5189 5.83 1.75 2.23 2.00 0.45 322 433 889 373 0.58 0.37 6.0 25 1U-PLWB 3 20 42 3200 286 5189 4.38 2.96 1.65 3.96 0.84 396 595 1101 771 0.46 0.31 7.2 5.0 1U-PLWT 1 25 36 1620 1200 15892 3.06 3.96 0.37 5.28 1.08 365 899 1634 1024 0.38 0.10 6.4 3.2 1 U-PLWT 2 24 38 3300 514 13189 3.97 4.36 1.11 4.75 1.19 287 839 1435 1048 0.44 0.28 7.1 4.4 1 U-PLWT 3 24 34 2900 800 11676 3.25 3.25 1.07 4.34 0.86 315 662 1627 792 0.44 0.26 7.0 5.0 1U-PLDC 1 14 43 4100 274 5189 4.77 1.70 1.54 2.37 0.48 313 399 754 431 0.44 0.24 5.5 12 1U-PLDC 2 14 44 3800 231 5405 4.81 1.73 1.60 2.14 0.51 321 406 855 459 0.45 0.27 5.6 11 1U-PLDC 3 15 41 4500 214 6203 5.29 1.90 1.54 2.24 0.51 137 459 962 524 0.43 0.43 5.8 13 1 initial 1 15 38 5000 674 6564 4.89 2.23 1.52 2.28 0.47 174 391 1087 380 0.50 0.42 1 initial 2 14 40 4200 650 5744 5.33 2.21 1.65 2.48 0.44 131 431 754 402 0.40 0.40 1 initial 3 15 39 5000 689 5333 5.13 2.11 1.70 2.46 0.46 24 395 962 406 0.38 0.35 1 initial 4 15 39 3800 639 5744 5.08 2.12 1.50 2.47 0.42 20 387 1075 430 0.43 0.37 2C-PLWT 1 39 33 2880 1895 7400 3.32 2.76 1.56 4.10 0.71 261 410 3024 551 0.50 0.26 7.0 11 2C-PLWT 2 35 31 3120 2905 10600 3.08 2.75 1.40 4.55 0.58 255 411 3571 476 0.48 0.26 6.5 12 2C-PLWT 3 36 33 1920 2810 8400 3.05 2.31 1.83 4.50 0.74 241 375 4176 482 0.57 0.27 6.8 13 2C-PLWB 1 32 36 1840 347 8400 3.30 3.22 1.85 4.52 0.56 237 418 2753 430 0.43 0.40 7.8 6.4 2C-PLWB 2 45 29 1520 421 7400 2.72 2.21 1.12 5.97 0.58 196 426 6077 544 0.46 0.24 7.6 4.8 2C-PLWB 3 45 32 640 1247 8600 2.70 3.10 0.94 11.4 0.73 302 604 2542 720 0.55 0.22 7.5 4.5 2C-PLDC 1 24 37 4720 179 6400 4.03 2.03 1.44 2.85 0.71 212 316 2321 359 0.42 0.30 5.6 12 2C-PLDC 2 26 40 5360 179 5000 3.93 1.89 1.64 4.71 0.47 223 332 1949 396 0.55 0.29 6.0 16 2C-PLDC 3 26 41 5120 200 5800 3.81 1.91 1.60 4.97 0.47 184 346 1857 400 0.56 0.31 6.2 15 2U-PLWT 1 43 31 400 1698 8400 2.10 2.04 0.39 3.50 0.54 243 403 4237 599 0.26 0.11 5.6 3.4 2U-PLWT 2 34 31 880 3076 11400 2.94 3.43 0.38 3.70 0.72 259 490 2288 588 0.27 0.13 5.8 6.5 2U-PLWT 3 40 36 2960 2801 10000 2.47 3.43 0.25 7.01 0.59 313 531 3822 658 0.24 0.10 6.4 5.5 2U-PLWB 1 38 32 2400 274 8800 3.09 2.67 1.69 5.31 0.55 293 542 4664 607 0.37 0.31 6.7 7.0 2U-PLWB 2 25 34 2000 3000 12200 3.27 3.11 1.58 2.55 0.73 238 340 1915 372 0.41 0.35 5.8 15 2U-PLWB 3 20 30 640 642 8800 2.64 2.54 1.07 2.88 0.82 232 341 1706 352 0.46 0.26 7.0 5.5 2U-PLDC 1 25 37 3360 200 6200 4.43 1.87 1.57 3.90 0.89 190 338 3692 380 0.48 0.28 5.2 12 o Available Total Sample Total NH4- N03- Bray- Location* Rep Ash C N N P N P K Ca Mg Cu Zn Fe Mn S Na PH EC (%) (mg kg"1) (%) (mg kg"1) (%) (dS m"1) 2U-PLDC 2 24 40 4080 210 6200 4.49 1.85 1.65 3.78 0.47 187 347 3046 378 0.50 0.32 5.4 15 2U-PLDC 3 19 40 3600 200 5000 4.30 1.96 1.49 2.87 0.49 226 340 1486 372 0.52 0.37 5.6 15 2 initial 1 23 34 4300 600 4780 3.46 1.95 1.64 4.51 0.45 139 333 1502 424 0.51 0.35 2 initial 2 24 34 4900 576 4530 4.03 2.04 1.90 4.73 0.52 172 333 1505 435 0.55 0.34 2 initial 3 29 31 5400 558 4718 3.72 3.00 1.57 5.06 0.51 179 359 2110 485 0.50 0.33 2 initial 4 32 32 4200 689 4513 3.48 1.83 1.46 2.53 0.52 179 295 6118 454 0.41 0.30 *Sample locat ion codes: f irst number indicates P i l e 1 or 2; ' C indicates Y T C covered section and 'LP indicates uncovered sect ion; P L indicates poul t ry litter sample ; W B = wet bot tom (ie. saturated wet region around bottom of pi le ) ; W T = wet top o f p i l e ; D C = dry core o f p i le .

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Japan 2 0
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Beijing 19 0
Unknown 7 4
Wilmington 2 0
Tokyo 2 0
Canaan 2 0
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