UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

An empirical investigation of the attitudes, values, and ethics of youth towards a work orientation Cook, Wayne Ernest, 1944- 1973

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1973_A4_5 C65_3.pdf [ 4.63MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0100987.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0100987-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0100987-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0100987-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0100987-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0100987-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0100987-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0100987-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0100987.ris

Full Text

AN EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE ATTITUDES, VALUES, AND ETHICS OF YOUTH TOWARDS A WORK ORIENTATION by WAYNE E. COOK A Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l m e n t of The Requirements f o r the Degree of MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION i n the Department of ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d s t a n d ard i THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA June, 1 9 7 3 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make i t freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Commerce & Business Administration Department of The University of British Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date 25 Sep 1975 * -1-ABSTRACT This study was an attempt to explore the work a t t i t u d e s of the young educated worker of the near f u t u r e . S e v e r a l m o t i v a t i o n a l dimensions have been u t i l i z e d to determine the values and preferences of the younger generation. Data have been gathered from the f o l l o w i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s ! two u n i v e r s i t i e s , two c o l l e g e s , one t e c h n i c a l - v o c a t i o n a l school and three high schools by means of a L i k e r t - s c a l e type q u e s t i o n n a i r e devised f o r t h i s study. The data have then been analysed on the b a s i s of s e v e r a l m o t i v a t i o n a l s c a l e s which could be l o o s e l y grouped (but not i n c l u s i v e ) i n t o i n t r i n s i c and e x t r i n s i c job c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . A n a l y s i s o f the r e s u l t s s u b s t a n t i a t e d the f o l l o w i n g hypotheses i I I U n i v e r s i t y and v o c a t i o n a l trade students w i l l g e n e r a l l y p e r c e i v e themselves to be more mobile, both upwards and s p a t i a l l y , than high school and r e g i o n a l c o l l e g e students. I l l Commerce and v o c a t i o n a l students w i l l be more o r i e n t e d towards economic r e t u r n s as a r e s u l t of t h e i r value t r a n s m i s s i o n than a r t s students. V Youth i n a r t s , i n c o n t r a s t to those i n commerce and t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g , w i l l be l a r g e l y uncommitted and w i l l seek increased l e i s u r e time due to the l a c k of s o c i a l i z a -t i o n towards s p e c i f i c o c cupational p o s i t i o n s . - i i -The f o l l o w i n g hypotheses were moderately substan-t i a t e d ! I A r t s students w i t h t h e i r general e d u c a t i o n a l base w i l l express g r e a t e r a n t i - a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m than Commerce and T e c h n i c a l students who are more o r i e n t e d towards the values o f the business community. VI U n l i k e students from high s c h o o l , c o l l e g e and u n i v e r s i t y a r t s programmes, commerce and v o c a t i o n a l students do not regard p e s s i m i s t i c a l l y the general employment c o n d i t i o n s and p o l i t i c a l concern f o r i n d i v i d u a l s . V I I The a t t i t u d e s towards work and l i f e s t y l e are r e l a t i v e l y s i m i l a r among youth under 30. The f o l l o w i n g hypotheses were not s u b s t a n t i a t e d i n f u l l i IV U n i v e r s i t y and v o c a t i o n a l students are more motivated towards work which i s meaningful and which u t i l i s e s the s k i l l s , knowledge, and c a p a c i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l than high school or c o l l e g e students. V I I I Men are i n c l i n e d towards a w o r k - o r i e n t a t i o n , whereas women are i n c l i n e d towards a s o c i a l - o r i e n t a t i o n . - i i i -TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE 1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 2 2 THEORETICAL BACKGROUND 11 3 RESEARCH DESIGN 29 SAMPLE... . . . . 3 0 METHOD 3Q QUESTIONNAIRE MEASURES 31 STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES 32 k RESULTS 34 5 DISCUSSION OF RESULTS 46 6 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 58 REFERENCES 62 APPENDIX I THE QUESTIONNAIRE 69 APPENDIX I I THE ANSWER SHEET ..72 APPENSIX I I I TOTAL RESPONSE PROFILE 7^ - i v -TABLES & CHARTS TABLE/CHART PAGE 1 TRENDS IN NON-BUSINESS FACTORS 1 2 POPULATION 1971 ^ 3 DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION 5 4 U.S. POPULATION GROWTH 5 5 POPULATION ESTIMATES 7 6 PERCENT CHANGE IN LABOUR FORCE 7 7 LABOUR MARKET INFLUENCES 8 8 UNEMPLOYMENT RATES 8 9 INSTITUTION 3^  10 AGE 35 11 SEX DISTRIBUTION 35 12 AUTHORITY 37 13 MOBILITY 38 14 ECONOMIC RETURNS 39 15 TYPE OF WORK. 0^ 16 LEISURE M 17 EMPLOYMENT 42 18 WORK ETHIC .....^ 3 19 MALE-FEMALE LEISURE.............. V* 20 MALE-FEMALE ECONOMIC RETURNS 5^ 21 MALE-FEMALE ADVANCEMENT. 5^ -V-ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would l i k e to acknowledge the f o l l o w i n g three groups who made t h i s t h e s i s a r e a l i t y t F i r s t , to the c o u n c e l l o r s t p r i m a r i l y , Dr. Ron Taylor f o r h i s i n t e l l i g e n t , encouraging, c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m ; Robin Morley, f o r her p a t i e n t computer i n s t r u c t i o n ! Malcolm G r e i g , Jason Halm and Dr. Mark Thompson f o r t h e i r v a l u a b l e a s s i s t a n c e . Second, to the F e d e r a l Department of Labour and the UBC I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s Department f o r ( e i t h e r d i r e c t or i n d i r e c t ) f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e . L a s t , to the students who always seem to f i l l out que s t i o n n a i r e s without ever r e c e i v i n g a great d e a l of g r a t i t u d e . Thank you - v i -YOUTH "There's no need f o r a p e r s o n a l i t y to grow o l d . The t h i n g i s not to remain adolescent but to work towards m a t u r i t y , to appraise l i f e h onestly and w i t h experience, not n a i v e l y but c r i t i c a l l y and a t the same time keep t h i s openess, t h i s w i l l i n g n e s s to face r e a l i t y , t h i s i n t e r e s t i n l i f e and not grow o l d . Our whole t h r u s t should be towards the f u t u r e , and t h a t ' s what t y p i f i e s youth." Bernard Cooke -1-CHART 1 if*?.:-, 1800-1900, ' ' . ' . < • ' ! •. / " ' ' v ^ - i ; ^ - -f REflPSTN HON BUSINESS FACTORS J900-1960 I 1960-1970 POWER GROUPS OTHER FACTORS' SOURCE! SEE CRUICKSHANK, 1972. -2-CHAPTER ONE STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM I t has almost become a c l i c h e to d i s c u s s the 'new' worker or use the phenomenon c a l l e d the 'generation gap* as a c a t c h - a l l to e x p l a i n any v a r i a t i o n s i n va l u e s , behavior or general appearance from the status-quo. However, can t h i s term 'gap* be f u r t h e r e l u c i d a t e d ? I f the youth of today are the employees and lead e r s of tomorrow, should we not focus some a t t e n t i o n to the u n d e r l y i n g values and e t h i c s which w i l l i n f l u e n c e t h e i r behavior i n the work s e t t i n g ? An a n a l y s i s of the m o t i v a t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s , a t t i t u d e s , and value system of the segment of the po p u l a t i o n under 30 years o l d may h i g h l i g h t some of the b a s i c f a c t o r s u n d e r l y i n g t h e i r expectations and needs. I t may a l s o add va l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n to the changing trends i n non-business f a c t o r s (see c h a r t # l ) i s p e c i f i c a l l y , youth. Warren Bennis (1970) foresees the end of bureaucracy as we know i t and the r i s e o f new s o c i a l systems b e t t e r s u i t e d to t w e n t i e t h century demands of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n . One of the u n d e r l y i n g reasons f o r the decay of the b u r e a u c r a t i c system i s a p o p u l a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a younger, more mobile, and b e t t e r educated work f o r c e . The 1971 d i s t r i b u t i o n of Canadian p o p u l a t i o n , i l l u s -t r a t i n g t h a t more than 5 5 . ^ of the po p u l a t i o n i s under 29 -3 -years of age (see t a b l e 2), i n d i c a t e s a very high r a t e of growth i n the labour f o r c e . This age-population d i s t r i b u t i o n a l s o p a r a l l e l s the United S t a t e s growth r a t e of 14.5# (see ch a r t #4). The challenge f o r Canada w i l l be to meet the renewed surge of labour f o r c e growth accentuated mainly by the s h i f t i n g age d i s t r i b u t i o n of the p o p u l a t i o n . The degree of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the work f o r c e by women of a l l age groups has a l s o continued to i n c r e a s e , thus adding f u r t h e r momentum to the labour f o r c e expansion. Canada i s not l i k e l y to encounter anything approaching a c h r o n i c labour shortage i n the f u t u r e . For example, chart 5 and t a b l e 6 i n d i c a t e t h a t between 1965 and 1980, the Canadian labour f o r c e w i l l have increased by almost 50$. This trend could have a favourable e f f e c t on the o v e r a l l growth r a t e provided the economy can a l s o expand to create the needed jobs, but i f i t cannot accommodate t h i s surge, the t h r e s h o l d workers w i l l be faced w i t h poor employment prospects, e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e i r chosen f i e l d . Expansion w i l l be an i n c r e a s i n g l y demanding task f o r both government and business. I n 1971, employment increased by 250,000 people or 3.1#t which was s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r than 1969 and 1970 (see c h a r t #7). However, more than one out of every three new jobs emerging between 1970 and 1972 -4-TABLE 2 POPULATION 1971 AGE MALE FEMALE TOTAL _ 0-14 3.263,485 3.117,410 6,380,895 29.5 15-19 1,074,430 1,039,915 2,114,345 9.8 20-24 941,775 947,630 1,889,405 8.8 25-29 800,710 783.410 1,584,125 7.3 T o t a l f o r Canada 10,795.370 10,772,945 21,568,310 100. SOURCEt Canadian P o p u l a t i o n Census, Cat. 92-715 V o l 1-Part 2 A p r i l 1973 - 5 -CHART 3 % 40 30 20 10 0 DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION s 1971 AND 1996 • 1971 E l 1996 IN P E R C E N T A G E S —"*T • .—> r 0 - 14 15 - 29 30 . 44 45 - 64 A G E G R O U P S 65+ SOURCEi HUDSON INSTITUTE OF CANADA (See Dr. S.D. Cruickshank) CHART 4 U.S. P o p u l a t i o n growth. 1950-1980 250 200 i 150 S 100 50 18.6% m 14.5% 1-1 i _ 13.2% 1 ^Increase during 'iM decade 1 -too I—~ 80 6 0 40 20 1 /• t~~ 1980 - _Z2 1970 Population by age 1960_.'7Q_'8Q__ /I / _ 0-19 20-34 35-54 55up SOURCEt U.S. Bureau o f the Census -6 -has been f i l l e d by someone under 25 years of age. The surge of youth i n t o the work f o r c e has j u s t commenced i n mass. Already the i n f l u x of young people has been f e l t by both management and unions. J.H. Crispo andH.W..Arthurs (1968) have s t a t e d that» young people have been born i n a p e r i o d of sustained p r o s p e r i t y , are b e t t e r educated, are more impatient f o r the good things of l i f e , are unin t i m i d a t e d by the experience of the depression, and are g e n e r a l l y more s k e p t i c a l of the values of t h e i r e l d e r s and of the need to respect a u t h o r i t y . Unschooled i n the t r a d i t i o n s of trade unionism and c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g , u n a p p r e c i a t i v e , perhaps unaware, of t h e i r past accomplishments and eager to share i n t h e i r purported b e n e f i t s , t h e i r impact i s bound to be u n s e t t l i n g to say the l e a s t , (p.252) Some young union members, who have been l a b e l l e d "young t u r k s " as a r e s u l t o f having aggravated the s i t u a t i o n i n many unions, are eager a s p i r a n t s to f u l l - t i m e union o f f i c e and d e s i r e r a d i c a l change or explanation of p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s . Other young union members, who do not take the union s e r i o u s l y , are a p a t h e t i c and f r e q u e n t l y look upon the p o s s i b i l i t y of a s t r i k e as a h o l i d a y . The r i s i n g l e v e l of education could a l s o be p a r t l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r an e q u a l l y r i s i n g l e v e l of expecta-t i o n s i n young workers, both i n the m a t e r i a l sense and i n terms of the higher order needs. Young educated workers are a l s o more aware of the general p r o s p e r i t y t h a t surrounds them and of t h e i r enhanced b a r g a i n i n g power i n a p e r i o d of such p r o s p e r i t y . Thus m i l i t a n c y a c t u a l l y pays div i d e n d s . There are a l s o a l l e g a t i o n s t h a t t h e i r values w i l l be d i f f e r e n t , t h a t -7-CHART 5 POPULATION ESTIMATES 4 0 In M i D i o n s H I G H ^ U * ^ ^ r i i i i ..1 I I 1 M i l 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1 9 9 5 2 0 0 0 SOURCE: S t a t i s t i c s Canada and Hudson I n s t i t u t e of Canada, (see Dr. S.D. Cruickshank) TABLE 6 PER CENT CHANGE IN LABOUR FORCE - 1965-1980 ." A)' B R I T A I N S^,-J>^f- ' '  4- 4r« V ' S F R A N C E ' [ f } ' y 1 3 . 5 ; W E S T GERMANY " > ; :•;''<• 5 5 ' I T A L Y . /'• -' \ ' ' •*.•/•:-v 1.7 [. S W E D E N / V ; . ' r ' • -0.3 , UNITED STATES ' \ 29.5 CANADA :':k 49.8 B) THE ABSOLUTE ESTIMATED INCREASE IH THE CANADIAN LABOUR FORCE BETWEEN 1965 AMD 1900 AT 3.6 MILLION, EXCEEDS THE COMBINED INCREASE (3 MILLION) IN _„_. BRITAIN, WEST GERMANY AND ITALY. SOURCEi Economic C o u n c i l o f Canada - Fourth Annual Review -8-CHART 7 CHART 8 LABOUR MARK&Y INFLUENCES Annual net additions to: population of working age labour force Thousands employment 400 I- •- TOTAL—all ages -300 -200 100 400 300 200 - 100 i 1967 1 968 1 969 1 970 1 971 1972 100 -100 -200 -100 -200 100 -100 100 - 200 - 100 - 200 100 1967 1968 1969 197p 1971 1972 10 UNEMPLOYMENT RATES % —1 12 f Age 14-24 f (both sexes) TOTAL Over 25 (men) The Bank of Nova Scotia ~ I I I . 10 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 SOURCEi Monthly Review, The Bank of Nova S c o t i a , January 1 9 7 3 -9-rampant materialism no longer has priority, and that the prime challenge facing the economy i s to understand and adjust i t s e l f to the young workers' revolution against traditional values. Surveys which reveal this hierarchy of values of threshold workers or those students preparing to enter the work force, have only been exploratory in design. In 1972 the f i r s t significant rise in the labour force participation of the 17 to 19 age group was recorded when students opted to work rather than to continue with their education (see chart 7). The preference of employment over education i s not without i t s problems. The labour force unemployment levels for the 14 to 24 age group are extremely high compared to the national average (see chart 7)• This again corresponds to the United States as Hayghe (1972) reports in a Special Labor Force Report. Recent high school graduates and drop-outs made up 2 out of 10 of the unemployed and 1 in 10 of the employed out-of-school youth. Rosenfeld and Sover (1972) also found that the same report revealed that more than half the teenage labour force were enrolled in school in October 1971. This trend has spurred investigation into the "hidden unemployed" that appear to respond to the economic market conditions. The new perspective proposed by Bennis (1970) forecasts several significant trends, particularly -10-the s i g n i f i c a n t movement o f young persons who are posing b a s i c challenges to e x i s t i n g values and i n s t i t u t i o n s and who are attempting to create r a d i c a l new l i f e s t y l e s i n an attempt to preserve i n d i v i d u a l i d e n t i t y or to opt out of s o c i e t y , (p.8) I f , as Bennis suggests, the young educated p o p u l a t i o n i s now approaching the business economic community, should not more a t t e n t i o n be focused on t h e i r needs and motives? Do they r e q u i r e more involvement, p a r t i c i p a t i o n and autonomy i n t h e i r work? What form of " p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n t r a c t " or set of expecta-t i o n s do they have i n t h e i r o r i e n t a t i o n towards the work s e t t i n g ? Do they " f i t " i n t o a l r eady e s t a b l i s h e d m o t i v a t i o n a l models? Th i s p i l o t study w i l l probe and examine the v a l u e s , e t h i c s and o r i e n t a t i o n s of the young student populace towards the work p l a c e . -11-CHAPTER I I THEORETICAL BACKGROUND General Only r e c e n t l y has r e s e a r c h demonstrated t h a t Adam Smith's " i n v i s i b l e hand" and the "economic man" theory are not the s o l e f a c t o r i n determining behaviour i n the work s e t t i n g (Stagner, 1950)• A dearth of t h e o r i e s and a p l e t h o r a of a r t i c l e s , which have d e a l t w i t h v a r i o u s dimensions of s a t i s f a c t i o n and m o t i v a t i o n , have provided a broad i n t e l l e c t u a l f oundation. To attempt to summarize a l l of t h e i r f i n d i n g s would appear i l l - a d v i s e d a t t h i s time. I t may be s u f f i c i e n t to s t a t e i n capsule form t h a t a number of broad u n d e r l y i n g s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l values tend to i n f l u e n c e and determine n e e d - s a t i s f a c t i o n and behaviour. The r e s u l t has been an a r r a y of needs, h i e r a r c h i c a l l e v e l s of needs or u t i l i t y dimensions, i n response to the p h y s i c a l and c o g n i t a t i v e d r i v e s . Thus, workers w i l l d i s p l a y a v a r i e t y o f i n t e r e s t s and o r i e n t a t i o n s towards work, (Sha f f e r 1953» Maslow 1964), The p r e v a i l i n g a t t i t u d e or set of a t t i t u d e s w i l l g e n e r a l l y be based upon the i n d i v i d u a l ' s sense of needs, d r i v e s , and achievement upon i n t e r n a l i z e d v a l u e s . Young workers, s i m i l a r to young students p r e p a r i n g to enter the -12-workforce, appear to have given r i s e to a new 'ontology* or a new understanding o f and focus f o r an i n d i v i d u a l ' s r e l a t i o n -s h i p both to h i s f e l l o w man and to the n a t u r a l environment. T h i s s h i f t i n emphasis i s the d i r e c t opposite of John Locke's a t o m i s t i c 'ontology' i n which there were no bonds between men (Bowers & Ochs, 1971)• I t may be appropriate a t t h i s p o i n t to d e f i n e such terms as "values" and "youth". A l l p o r t (1969) uses the p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y accepted meaning of "values" as those s t i m u l i and d r i v e s perceived as r e l a t e d to the s e l f . The process of t r a n s l a t i n g means to ends, of changing e x t r i n s i c values i n t o i n t r i n s i c v a l u e s , i s f u n c t i o n a l l y autonomy. Technology has no inherent e t h i c a l v a l u e s because a l l values t h a t one p e r c e i v e d to be p a r t of technology or change are c u l t u r a l l y determined, but values can be t w i s t e d without regard f o r other people (Hess, 1971)* T h i s t h e s i s i s mainly i n t e r e s t e d i n how these e v a l u a t i o n s or v a l u e s t h a t youth g e n e r a l l y possess can be a p p l i e d to the work environment, which would compose t h e i r " o r i e n t a t i o n " towards the work p l a c e . " E t h i c a l " statements are not statements of fact but are moral judgements designed to t e s t logically the Tightness or wrongness of human a c t s (Walton, 1969). " I n t r i n s i c " r e f e r s to those rewards which are inherent i n and d e r i v e d from the a c t i v i t y and are the main source of s a t i s f a c -t i o n (ie, i n t e r e s t , c h allenge, c r e a t i v i t y , autonomy and s e l f -development). " E x t r i n s i c " are those i n c e n t i v e s or rewards -13-which are outcomes, concomitants o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n ( i e . s t a t u s , p r e s t i g e , esteem, s e c u r i t y , and economic i n c e n t i v e s ) (Deci 1972a). "Value t r a n s m i s s i o n " i s defined as those value t r a i t s which are embrased and i n t e r n a l i s e d from one generation to the next ( M i r e l s & G a r r e t t , 1971). The term "youth", accor d i n g to the Canadian Committee on Youth (Hunter et a l , 1971), represents people between 14 and 25 years o f age. For the purposes of t h i s study, the over-under 30 dichotomy i s used f o r the d e f i n i t i o n , although the f i n a l a n a l y s i s w i l l a l s o check f o r v a r i a t i o n between age groupings. As the m a j o r i t y o f t h i s survey w i l l d e a l w i t h youth under 25 years of age, comparisons between "youth" o f v a r i o u s s t u d i e s are assumed equal. In the a r t i c l e s p ublished d u r i n g the youth t u r m o i l o f the s i x t i e s , i t i s g e n e r a l l y accepted t h a t youth have evolved a ' c o u n t e r - c u l t u r e 1 or a value system d i f f e r e n t from those of t h e i r parents ( F l a c k s 1967» Roszak, 1968, Frienenberg 1969). The focus of t h i s t h e s i s i s on those values of youth which can be a p p l i e d to the work s e t t i n g and which are sometimes r e f e r r e d to as work e t h i c s . A t t i t u d e Change Bar t h and Balork (1972), i n a review of l i t e r a t u r e on the generation gap phenomenon, h i g h l i g h t two b a s i c a t t i t u d e s h i f t s . The f i r s t i s a s h i f t of a u t h o r i t y - o r i e n t a t i o n and the -In-growing r e a l i t y of the r h e t o r i c about the a b i l i t y of each i n d i v i d u a l d e s i r i n g to c o n t r o l t h e i r own d e s t i n y . The second i s a c o n t i n u i n g process of r e d e f i n i t i o n of the r a t i o n a l i t y of work and the meaning of man. Ondrack (1971) has surveyed l i t e r a t u r e between 1950 and i960 and has found t h a t a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m l e v e l s had d e c l i n e d among c o l l e g e students. Miner (1971) has a l s o agreed w i t h t h i s negative s h i f t towards a u t h o r i t y and rank ordered v a r i a b l e s i n terms of the degree of negative s h i f t i n a t t i t u d e s or m o t i v a t i o n a l decrease towards 1 1. a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s 2. managerial r o l e 3. assuming a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y 4. competitive m o t i v a t i o n (occupational) 5. competitive m o t i v a t i o n (games) 6. assumption of the masculine r o l e (as i t i s p r e s e n t l y defined) 7. assumption of a d i f f e r e n t i a t e d r o l e 8. power mo t i v a t i o n I t can be hypothesized t h a t these changes w i l l be evident i n the value system of the general student p o p u l a t i o n . Hypothesis 1: A r t s students w i t h t h e i r general educational base w i l l express g r e a t e r a n t i - a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m than Commerce and T e c h n i c a l students who are more or i e n t e d towards the values of the business community. - 1 5 -I n the Youth Report (Hess 1971 ) t i t was revealed t h a t i d e o l o g i c a l l y - o r i e n t e d youth r e p r e s e n t i n g v a r i o u s s e c t o r s and geographic areas of the United S t a t e s , had achieved a gener a l consensus by a f r e e vote t h a t a l l young people should have an equal v o i c e i n a l l d e c i s i o n s of a l l s t r u c t u r e s which a f f e c t t h e i r s o c i e t y , even r e l i g i o u s b u r e a u c r a t i c i n s t i t u t i o n s . The need to share i n the pl a n n i n g and policy-making d e c i s i o n s i s one which i s s t r o n g l y g a i n i n g s t r e n g t h . Bennis (1964) p o s t u l a t e s t h a t "the increased l e v e l o f education and r a t e of m o b i l i t y w i l l b r i n g about c e r t a i n changes i n the values the p o p u l a t i o n hold regarding work. People w i l l tend tot (1) be more r a t i o n a l , be i n t e l l e c t u a l l y committed, and r e l y more h e a v i l y on forms of s o c i a l i n f l u e n c e which correspond t o t h e i r value system? (2) be more " o t h e r - d i r e e t e d " and w i l l r e l y on t h e i r temporary neighbours and work-mates f o r companionships; and (3) r e q u i r e more involvement, p a r t i c i p a t i o n and autonomy i n t h e i r p a t t e r n of work (p.4 4 5 ) . The Ripon S o c i e t y (1971) supports t h i s reasoning and f u r t h e r s t a t e s t h a t the p o l i t i c a l system i s not pursuing the proper g o a l ; thus, a f e e l i n g of a l i e n a t i o n and f u t i l i t y has evolved because youth have no v o i c e i n determining p o l i c y . Youth w i l l engage i n forms of d e v i a t i n g behaviour to d e f i n e the terms under which they w i l l renew t h e i r consent f o r the system to continue to r u l e . -16-Work R a t i o n a l e S e v e r a l authors suggest t h a t youth have r e d e f i n e d the r a t i o n a l e f o r work (Dawis 1965» F r i e d l a n d e r 1966) and t h i s along w i t h the r a p i d t e c h n o l o g i c a l , c y b e r n e t i c r e v o l u t i o n (Johnston 1972, T o f f l e r 1970), has e s t a b l i s h e d a new set of values throughout s o c i e t y . I t seems c l e a r to Parker (1971) and Deci (1972b) t h a t a t l e a s t some of the young people want d i f f e r e n t kinds of work and d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s from work. However, Sargent (1972) b e l i e v e s many young people are s t i l l a p a t h e t i c and uncommitted. I t has never been c l e a r l y proven to date t h a t youth's w i l l to work has s u f f e r e d any great d e t e r i o r a -t i o n . I n s t e a d , they may be s u f f e r i n g from aimlessness, a l i e n a -t i o n and f r u s t r a t i o n . Goodman i n Growing Up Absurd even went one step f u r t h e r to suggest t h a t our c u l t u r e does not provide r e a l o p p o r t u n i t y to grow up i n a "meaningful, f u l f i l l i n g " way. Nothing the s o c i e t y can o f f e r i s manly and s a t i s f y i n g and so i n anger or f r u s t r a t i o n , a young man turns o f f or s t r i k e s out. Wilson (1970) r a t i o n a l i z e s t h a t i t would be f a c i l e to assume t h a t encapsulation of r a t i o n a l i t y i n t o machines f r e e s men from the c o n s t r a i n i n g n e c e s s i t y to moderate t h e i r d e s i r e s . The a c q u i s i t i o n of s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e and i n t e r n a l i z e d values are necessary f o r the maintenance of s t a b l e , s o c i a l o r der. However, the values i n h e r i t e d by contemporary s o c i e t y are those t h a t have defined and secured a measure of s o c i a l - 1 7 -order f o r l i f e i n the communities of the p a s t . M o b i l i t y i n i t s e l f causes the contours o f such communities t o s h i f t . People who are blocked or c u t - o f f from t h i s perceived m o b i l i t y w i l l l i k e l y be disenchanted and e i t h e r r e b e l or withdraw. Blood ( 1 9 6 9 ) has found t h a t the need f o r achievement i s based on the P r o t e s t a n t E t h i c and to the degree to which i t i s embraced. R e s p o n s i b i l i t y and achievement have been noted as f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g such a t t i t u d e s as morale, behaviour as turnover and absenteeism (Davey et a l 1 9 7 1 ) • I t can be t h e o r i z e d t h a t both r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and achievement are connected w i t h o v e r a l l upward m o b i l i t y and the l a c k of such would l i k e l y r e s u l t i n unproductive overt behaviour. Hypothesis 2t U n i v e r s i t y and v o c a t i o n a l trade students w i l l g e n e r a l l y p e r c e i v e themselves to be more mobile, both upwardly and s p a t i a l l y than high school and r e g i o n a l c o l l e g e youth. Work E t h i c The c e n t r a l i t y of work i n Western c u l t u r e , has c a r r i e d heavy C a l v i n i s t i c moral and emotional s i g n i f i c a n c e . The P r o t e s t a n t E t h i c was incorporated i n t o Weber's Bureaucracy as a means to s e l f - d e f i n i t i o n and a l s o , as S t . Simon has t h e o r i z e d , to i n d i v i d u a l betterment. F u n c t i o n a l autonomy occurs when money becomes the standard by which people achieve s o c i a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t ends. The o r i g i n a l work e t h i c was -18-translated into a 'success' ethic, emphasizing prestige, strong competitiveness, preeminence, and the pleasure of food consumption. Thus, success in l i f e could be measured by a man's material possessions. Such a measure of a man's worth led to the cliche. i t doesn't matter how you play the game as long as you win. The youth generally have not internalized the tradi-tional work/success ethic of the last century, the religious values and the consumer consumption with which i t was associated? (Ginzberg 1961, Dawis 1965). Their reasons, according to Wilson (1970), are f i r s t , that modern societies have not maintained a complete consensus of values thus, the mSlange of cultural values had only acceded ways of proceeding towards attainment of presently acceptable goals to the larger system of society. Second, change was so rapid that value-commitment may only be generally observed. These variables have combined to produce an increasing condition of Durkheim's "anomie," a situation in society where the normative system no longer controls behaviour. The young worker's perception of a discrepancy between practice and principle has created a sensitivity to "hypocrisy" and i t s institutionalisation due to the slow movement towards change in powerful institutions. Thus, the system of double standards has only served to crystallize the cred i b i l i t y gap (Flory and Mackenzie 197D. Miner (1971) has theorized that the transformation - 1 9 -from the t r a d i t i o n a l work e t h i c was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a d e c l i n e o f m o t i v a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y among the "young". Long (1972) even suggests t h a t the o l d J u d e o - C h r i s t i a n work e t h i c i s dyin g , i f not dead, and i s being r e p l a c e d by e i t h e r " s i t u a t i o n a l e t h i c s " , which assents t h a t an a c t i s r i g h t or wrong depending on the p e c u l a r i t i e s of the s i t u a t i o n , ( F l e t c h e r 1 9 6 6 ) , or " r i p - o f f e t h i c s " which s t a t e s i t i s not merely excusable but p o s i t i v e l y good to s t e a l from i n d i v i d u a l s or o r g a n i z a t i o n s -i n c l u d i n g the government - t h a t support the c u r r e n t s t r u c t u r e o f s o c i e t y . (Drosin 1 9 7 1 ) . I n sharp c o n t r a s t to the aforementioned e t h i c s , the Caucus o f the Values, E t h i c s and Cu l t u r e Committee (Hess 1971) i d e n t i f i e s the highest values of American youth to be» 1 . commitment to human brotherhood 2 . i n t e g r i t y and d i g n i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l 3. compassion f o r and sh a r i n g w i t h those i n need 4. fundamental worth and e q u a l i t y of a l l men 5. freedom f o r the i n d i v i d u a l to work out h i s s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n as long as he d i d not harm ot h e r s . This a n a l y s i s appears c o n s i s t e n t w i t h Keniston's (1968) t h i r t e e n b a s i c value demands of the young, r a d i c a l l y committed students and w i t h the Minnesota study, (Graen & Davis 1971) which has u t i l i z e d the s c a l e s of s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n , personal i n f l u e n c e , fame, and self-development which represent some of the h i g h e s t a s p i r a t i o n s and concerns of youth today. -20-Lawrie (1968) has found that male, liberal-arts college students ranked the following c r i t e r i a in order of over-all importance! 1. chance to use my s k i l l and a b i l i t i e s 2. sense of pride and accomplishment 3. a chance to do what I feel i s important k, a chance to make my own decisions 5. a chance to continue to grow intellectually The elements of high economic rewards, secure employment and prestige/status, ranked as the bottom 10-12 respectively. A l l of these value dimensions could in effect be realized through the workplace by juxtaposing the human factor with the materialization of any end product. The resolution, adopted by the United States Youth Committee (Hess 1971)i recommends "management and labor make efforts to give man meaningful work so he i s not a mindless cog, but an individual who used his innate and acquired a b i l i t i e s " (10,6a). This idea parallels Likert's (1961) plea that every worker should see his task as d i f f i c u l t , important and meaningful! i f he does not, his job should be reorganized to meet this specifica-tion. This resolution, while not really surprising, reverber-ates a central belief of the "hippy" creedi "your l i f e should be your work} the way you l i v e i s what you do" (Yablonsky 1968, Skolnick, 1971). It also reflects the amorphous "hang-loose social ethic"« a "cool" irreverent attitude of society, tolerant, spontaneous and pervasive humanism which places the -21-h i g h e s t value on human d i g n i t y and l i f e w h i l e i t questions the cornerstones of s o c i e t y , r e l i g i o n - i n s t i t u t i o n s s e r v i n g to p r e d e f i n e a t r a d i t i o n a l mode of acquiescence to a l i f e s t y l e they cannot regard as v a l i d (Simmons & Winograd, 1966). Sheppard & H e r r i c k (1972) have found the expectation gap centered around the work i t s e l f . Workers over 30 were p r i m a r i l y d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r s a l a r y w h i l e under 30 workers complained of the l a c k of opportunity f o r self-development, f o l l o w e d by pay, nature of work, and a chance to u t i l i z e t h e i r s k i l l s . There was g e n e r a l l y more importance placed on the young workers' i n t e r e s t i n the work, on t h e i r o p p ortunity to develop t h e i r own s p e c i a l a b i l i t i e s , and on t h e i r chances f o r promotion. However, a l l age groups seemed to be e q u a l l y i n t e r e s t e d i n the economics of work. The Canadian Youth Committee (Hunter et a l . 1971) agrees w i t h t h i s s o c i a l e t h i c and f i n d s t h a t the concept of work has produced p o l a r i z a t i o n between young and a d u l t s . The young do want to work but not i n a t i g h t l y circumscribed environment where accumulation of money i s a prime f a c t o r . Yet there are few s t u d i e s to t e s t the acceptance of v a r i o u s e t h i c a l thought p a t t e r n s now i n command. Hypothesis 3» Commerce and V o c a t i o n a l students w i l l be more o r i e n t e d towards economic r e t u r n s due to t h e i r value t r a n s m i s s i o n than w i l l a r t s students. -22-Hypothesis 4 i U n i v e r s i t y and Trades (Vocational) students are more motivated than high school and c o l l e g e youth towards work which i s meaningful and which u t i l i z e s the s k i l l s , knowledge, and c a p a c i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l . Shared Values One focus of a t t e n t i o n towards e m p i r i c a l a n a l y s i s o f the generation gap has been to measure the shared values ( s o c i a l cohesion) between broadly c a t a g o r i z e d groups, and to i d e n t i f y those dimensions which have not been shared, and the u n d e r l y i n g reasons. Moore & Turner (1972) and McGowan (1970) examine the o p e r a t i v e value concepts (economic, a e s t h e t i c , p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l and r e l i g i o u s ) between students and managers f i n d i n g the g r e a t e s t v a r i a t i o n i n s o c i a l v a l u e s . B a r t h & Balork (1972) cross-examined the works of s e v e r a l authors (England, 1967, D e S a l v i a & Gemmill 197D w i t h t h e i r Canadian study of two s i m i l a r groups and found Canadian managers more prag-m a t i c a l l y o r i e n t e d than Canadian students, but l e s s than United S t a t e s businessmen, and a l l l e s s than United S t a t e s students, i l l u s t r a t i n g t h a t American student • s o c i a l i z a t i o n * was most able to i n t e r n a l i z e the values of the environment. B a r t h & Balork a l s o found t h a t l e i s u r e was r a t e d r e l a t i v e l y low (below 65 value concepts). This c o n t r a d i c t s the works of -23-Wilson (197G) and Youth Report (Hess 197D which i d e n t i f i e d a r e c i p r o c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between l e i s u r e and work w i t h youth p r e f e r r i n g the adoption of a four day work week. The S h e l l study (Davey et a l . 1970) of the needs of graduates v s . e x - S h e l l graduates has u t i l i z e d two s c a l e s , one f o r importance r a n k i n g and a second f o r s a t i s f a c t i o n r a n k i n g . I n t e r e s t i n g work, access to i n f o r m a t i o n to do the job, challenge and worthwhile achievement ranked as the top four c r i t e r i a on the importance s c a l e while good r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h f e l l o w employees, op p o r t u n i t y to be w i t h the f a m i l y , economic r e t u r n , and i n t e r e s t i n g work were the top f o u r c r i t e r i a on the s a t i s -f a c t i o n s c a l e . I t may be hypothesized t h a t blockage or some f r u s t r a t i o n i n the importance channel w i l l cause an increased d e s i r e f o r l e i s u r e time to g a i n g r e a t e r r e t u r n s i n the s a t i s -f a c t i o n channel. Manning (IR Youth Conference 1970) s t a t e d t h a t on a b e a u t i f u l sunny day an employer may never see some of h i s workers again a f t e r the lunch break. I t can be hypothesized t h a t t e c h n i c a l l y t r a i n e d youth should be more c l o s e l y l i n k e d t o the business community due to t h e i r value system. Hypothesis 5« Youth i n a r t s i n c o n t r a s t to those i n commerce and t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g w i l l be l a r g e l y uncommitted and w i l l seek increased l e i s u r e time due to the l a c k o f s o c i a l i z a t i o n towards s p e c i f i c o c c upational p o s i t i o n s . -2k-Turn-over The a r t i c l e s and research concerning d i f f e r e n c e s of shared values have p r i m a r l y focused upon n e a t l y grouped v e r t i c a l c a t e g o r i e s r a t h e r than a h o r i z o n t a l a n a l y s i s of demographic v a r i a b l e s such as age. Thus, d i f f e r e n c e s are noted between "managers" and "students" or between "blue c o l l a r " and "white c o l l a r " workers, but v a r i a t i o n i s l e v e l l e d when comparing one ambiguous, broad-spanning category to another. Seashore & Barnowe (1972) and Hofstede (1972) have e m p i r i c a l l y attempted to prove t h a t the colour of the c o l l a r i s an inaccurate anachronism. Seashore & Barnowe have a l s o found that the cause f o r "workers blues" i s not only l i n k e d p o s i t i v e l y to the f r u s t r a t i n g , b o r i n g , dehumanizing c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the job i t s e l f , but al s o to the demographic v a r i a b l e s of age, sex, and education ( H e r r i c k & Quinn 1971). The Minnesota study (Heneman & Davis 1968) i l l u s -t r a t e s w e l l the f r u s t r a t i o n of high school students confronted w i t h a wide and of t e n b e w i l d e r i n g a r r a y of p o t e n t i a l job choices and a set of u n r e a l i s t i c views about what the r e q u i r e -ments f o r success i n any one o f them are. Thompson (1968) a l s o has found a 20% increase i n i n d e c i s i o n about f u t u r e v o c a t i o n s by the sen i o r year. Johnstone (1969) has found t h a t English-speaking youth viewed Canada very much as an open-class s o c i e t y where -25-t h e most important f a c t o r s l e a d i n g to success are hard work, good grades i n sc h o o l , u n i v e r s i t y education and a p l e a s i n g p e r s o n a l i t y . Francophones f e l t being b i l i n g u a l was the prime c r i t e r i o n f o r guaranteed success i n Canadian l i f e , w i t h s o c i a l background and education r a n k i n g ahead of hard work. This f i n d i n g i s i n c o n t r a s t w i t h Yankelovich (1972) who found t h a t students no longer subscribe to the t r a d i t i o n a l view t h a t hard work w i l l pay o f f . The trend of those who b e l i e v e i n i t has been decreasing from 69% i n 1968 to 56$ i n 1969 and 39$ i n 1971. The " c r i s i s " of the students a c t u a l l y occurs when employment i s sought i n t h e i r proposed f i e l d of i n t e r e s t and a second c r i s i s occurs when the search i s unsuccessful (Hayghe, Rosenfeld & Gover, 1972). The Canadian Youth Committee (Hunter et a l , 197D has speculated t h a t young people who are unable to f i n d s a t i s -f a c t i o n i n t h e i r jobs q u i c k l y w i l l move on to something e l s e . T r a d i t i o n a l jobs, i n which a d u l t s s t i c k r i g i d l y to narrow d e f i n i t i o n s w i t h i n a u t h o r i t a r i a n s t r u c t u r e s , are frozen i n t o the forms of the past and may not f u l f i l the expectations of today's youth. Consequently, employers may not f i n d new encumbents to continue the managerial f u n c t i o n without l a r g e i n c r e a s e s i n f i n a n c i a l rewards f o r temporary employees. The Committee has f u r t h e r found t h a t the f a c t o r s which r e s u l t i n high job turnover among young i n c l u d e 1 1. an undeveloped formal & i n f o r m a l " p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n t r a c t " f o r job seeking which emerge only a f t e r experience. -26-2, i n i t i a l & succeeding job c o n t r a c t s r a r e l y match up w i t h t h e i r l e a r n i n g , education or a s p i r a t i o n s 3. general tendency to experiment before s e t t l i n g i n t o permanent employment, A s p e c i f i c l i n k to a p a r t i c u l a r v o c a t i o n should, i n theory, form a r e a l i s t i c s e t of expectations between students ( e s p e c i a l l y i n commerce and t e c h n i c a l trades) and the general business community. Hypothesis 6 i U n l i k e students from high s c h o o l , c o l l e g e and u n i v e r s i t y a r t s programmes, commerce and v o c a t i o n a l students do not regard p e s s i m i s t i c a l l y the general employment c o n d i t i o n s and p o l i t i c a l concern f o r i n d i v i d u a l s . P a r t of the problem may be due to the u n r e a l i s t i c c o n s t r a i n t s r e q u i r e d to apply f o r some job p o s i t i o n s ! i e . , education l e v e l or experience r e q u i r e d . Berdie (1968) a l s o has found from comparisons of the l e v e l s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the n i n t h grade scores f o r both men and women are extremely c l o s e to the scores obtained by the norm groups, and the c o l l e g e freshmen scores c l o s e l y resemble the scores of the c o l l e g e norm groups. The groups stu d i e d do not seem to be d i f f e r e n t i n terms e i t h e r of t h e i r n i n t h or of t h e i r t h i r t e e n t h grade scores when compared to a v a i l a b l e norm groups. This i n f o r m a t i o n i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h Thompson's (1966 & 1971) f i n d i n g s t h a t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a v o c a t i o n ( t h a t -27-are important to students) may be i n t e r n a l i s e d r e l a t i v e l y e a r l y i n l i f e . There were minor d i f f e r e n c e s between what g i r l s and boys thought important, but l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e was found between the group means of these students when freshmen. A year l a t e r few changed o c c u p a t i o n a l preferences. Super (1962) found t h a t n i n t h graders were ready to consider the problems of pr e - v o c a t i o n a l and v o c a t i o n a l choice. In theory, students should be cohesive to the new l i f e s t y l e and e t h i c s towards work. Hypothesis 7« The a t t i t u d e s towards work and l i f e s t y l e values are r e l a t i v e l y s i m i l a r among youth under 30. Work O r i e n t a t i o n Ace et a l (1972), on the b a s i s of theory and e x t r a p o l a t i o n (backwards) from the data on a d u l t s , have found a low c o r r e l a t i o n between work a t t i t u d e s and the biographic v a r i a b l e s of sex, education, socioeconomic s t a t u s , f u t u r e p l a n s , and place of resi d e n c e . A f t e r a c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n a n a l y s i s , they a l s o have found t h a t young females are more "people-oriented" and that males tend towards a "work o r i e n t a -t i o n " . T h i s f i n d i n g i s consonant w i t h the s t u d i e s of Williamson & Karras (1970), i n d i c a t i n g t h a t i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and acceptance of r e a l i t y (Smith 1955) are a fundamental source of s a t i s f a c t i o n f o r females, although -28-f i n a n c i a l i n c e n t i v e s rank high i n p o s i t i o n s perceived by the encumbant to be "temporary". Burk (1966) has found t h a t there i s r e a l l y very l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e between the needs of males and females i n the work r o l e . Stansbury (1969) and Wild (1970) found t h a t turnover could o f t e n be a t t r i b u t e d to the l a c k of the same i n t r i n s i c job c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s sought by males. I t can be hypothesised t h a t males should look towards i n t r i n s i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the job while females would be considered w i t h the e x t r i n s i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the job. Hypothesis 8t Males are i n c l i n e d towards a work-o r i e n t a t i o n , whereas females are i n c l i n e d towards a s o c i a l - o r i e n t a t i o n . -29-CHAPTER I I I RESEARCH DESIGN 1. O v e r a l l Design An appropriate r e s e a r c h methodology f o r g a t h e r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n concerning work values held by students a t v a r i o u s age l e v e l s i s a f i e l d survey. The h o r i z o n t a l grouping of age i s important because these students are about to enter the work f o r c e i n the Vancouver area. 2. Instrument The survey instrument was a q u e s t i o n n a i r e composed of 41 statements s e l e c t e d from surveys conducted i n the United S t a t e s . The respondents were issued an answer sheet c o n t a i n i n g a L i k e r t f i v e p o i n t s c a l e t s t r o n g l y agree, agree, d i s a g r e e , s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e , or don't know/no answer. The q u e s t i o n n a i r e a l s o contained a b r i e f e x p l a n a t i o n of the purpose, d i r e c t i o n s f o r i t s completion and an assurance t h a t the respondents would remain completely anonymous. A copy of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e and answer sheet are contained i n Appendix 1 and 2 r e s p e c t i v e l y . A l l respondents were able to complete the q u e s t i o n n a i r e w i t h i n t h i r t y minutes. The statements were presented i n a random order i n c o n s t r u c t i n g the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The dimensions s e l e c t e d to t e s t the hypotheses emanating from the l i t e r a t u r e survey concern the f o l l o w i n g values« -30-I n t r i n s i c to .job - autonomy - achievement - r e c o g n i t i o n - advancement - use df s k i l l s - s e l f development - l e a r n i n g - i n t e r e s t - c r e a t i v i t y - challenge E x t r i n s i c to .job - rewards - s e c u r i t y - economic r e t u r n s - c o n d i t i o n s of work - s u p e r v i s o r r e l a t i o n s - m o b i l i t y - e x t e r n a l aspects of the job ( l e i s u r e ) - personal outlook - way of l i f e - work e t h i c - a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m - p o l i t i c a l concern - employment prospects 3. Sample and Sampling Techniques A r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample of high school and c o l l e g e students i n the Vancouver area would permit g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the work-related values of Vancouver t h r e s h o l d workers. Such a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample was approximated by i n c l u d i n g three high s c h o o l s , two r e g i o n a l c o l l e g e s , two u n i v e r s i t i e s , and one major t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t e . The term "College Students" r e f e r s to students from r e g i o n a l c o l l e g e s . The high school sample was taken from three d i f f e r e n t s c hool d i s t r i c t s of r e l a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t socio-economic l e v e l s , s e l e c t e d by s t r a t i f i e d sample ( s e l e c t e d s t r a t a s ) by the D i s t r i c t Superintendant. Within each school the courses sampled were balanced to provide a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e or subsample from -31-academic, commerce, trad e , and general programs. Each c l a s s had the same p r o b a b i l i t y of being s e l e c t e d w i t h i n i t s own subset or s t r a t a . One change was made w i t h c o l l e g e s concerning the technique of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the instrument which was v a r i e d , conducting one sample set i n s e l e c t e d c l a s s e s and the other i n the c a f e t e r i a at a v a r i e t y of times. The u n i v e r s i t y samples f o l l o w e d t h i s p a t t e r n as w e l l . One u n i v e r s i t y was sampled a t v a r i o u s times i n s e l e c t e d c l a s s e s i n order t h a t A r t s and Commerce samples would be on a comparable b a s i s . The second u n i v e r s i t y was sampled a t v a r i o u s l o c a t i o n s ranging from the conference-coffee rooms to the l i b r a r y . 4. Data Gathering Procedure A p r e - t e s t was conducted w i t h s e v e r a l i n d i v i d u a l s which was done i n a conference, open-ended s t y l e to d i s c u s s the merit of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e and any weak areas t h a t i t may have contained. The p r e - t e s t was followed by a l i m i t e d p r e l i m i n a r y survey of approximately 300 i n the u n i v e r s i t y i n order to check the d i r e c t i o n of responses from the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . A f t e r an a n a l y s i s , the complete survey was then conducted. A l l p a r t i c i p a t i o n was v o l u n t a r y and subjects were f r e e to r e f u s e to do the q u e s t i o n n a i r e without pressure from anyone concerned w i t h the c l a s s or w i t h d i s t r i b u t i n g the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . In order not to b i a s the r e s u l t s , no i n f o r m a t i o n -32-was disseminated p r i o r to s t a r t i n g the q u e s t i o n n a i r e except t h a t i t was a requirement f o r a t h e s i s . Anonymity was guaranteed, m i t i g a t i n g any f e e l i n g s of having to give favourable responses. Although the purpose of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e was explained a f t e r the c l a s s was f i n i s h e d , i t was u n l i k e l y t h a t the t r a n s m i s s i o n o f t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n could b i a s any other sample. 5. S t a t i s t i c a l Techniques Used I n A n a l y s i s of the Data The primary data a n a l y s i s c o n s i s t e d of a comparison between student responses and i n s t i t u t i o n s , sex, age groups and f u t u r e p l a n s . The computer programs u t i l i z e d (on the MTS - m u l t i p l e time-sharing system) was "MVTAB" ( m u l t i p l e contingency t a b u l a t i o n s ) . The contingency t a b l e s were the c l e a r e s t method of r e c o r d i n g q u e s t i o n n a i r e responses i n an ordered f a s h i o n and d e r i v i n g s e v e r a l s t a t i s t i c a l c a l c u l a -t i o n s . The hypotheses were t e s t e d w i t h the s t a t i s t i c a l techniques of chi-square, chiprob, and Guttman's Lambda ( a l l provided by MVTAB). These c a l c u l a t i o n s were used to determine i f two groups were independent i n t h e i r responses f o r s e v e r a l questions. I f they were dependent then groups could not be c l e a r l y d e l i n e a t e d as being d i f f e r e n t or as h o l d i n g d i f f e r e n t v a l u e s . The n u l l hypothesis was t h a t the s e l e c t e d groups would always respond i n a l i k e manner. The only exception was -33-f o r hypothesis 7 where the opposite was a p p l i c a b l e . The a l t e r n a t i v e hypothesis was f o r m a l l y s t a t e d . The n u l l hypothesis was r e j e c t e d i f the sample mean was s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from the h y p o t h e t i c a l mean to be a t t r i b u t a b l e to chance. The l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e chosen was % . The s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l i s a r b i t r a r y and chosen to t e s t the hypotheses emanating from the l i t e r a t u r e survey. To achieve a t i g h t r e l a t i o n s h i p two c e l l s o f the L i k e r t s c a l e were c o l l a p s e d to create an agree-disagree dichotomy which a l s o reduced the degrees of freedom from three to one. Chi-square was then used to approximate hypergeometric d i s t r i b u t i o n . For each hypothesis there were a number of questions i n c l u d e d f o r each dimension t e s t e d . I f any one dimension was s i g n i f i c a n t , the n u l l hypothesis was r e j e c t e d . I f only one question w i t h i n the dimension being t e s t e d was s i g n i f i c a n t , the n u l l hypothesis p e r t a i n i n g to t h a t question was s t i l l r e jected} however, the a l t e r n a t i v e hypothesis was only "moderatly" s u b s t a n t i a t e d . When two or more dimensions are used i n t e s t i n g a hypothesis and any one of these dimensions i s s i g n i f i c a n t , the hypothesis w i l l not be accepted " i n f u l l " and w i l l r e q u i r e f u r t h e r s u b s t a n t i a t i o n . -34-CHAPTER IV RESULTS 1. GENERAL Approximately 1,450 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were administered, w i t h 1,372 reported i n the a n a l y s i s . S i x answer sheets were discarded due to remarks i n d i c a t i n g a l a c k of seriousness and c o n s i s t e n c y ! another e i g h t were r e j e c t e d as they r e q u i r e d s u b j e c t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ! s i x t y - f o u r were never returned. Of those recorded, some data were not inc l u d e d and were recorded as zero responses f o r t h a t s p e c i f i c answer or demographic v a r i a b l e . Table one provided an a n a l y s i s of the su b j e c t s as per i n s t i t u t i o n , TABLE 9  INSTITUTION I n s t i t u t i o n No. of Subjects Percent Not i d e n t i f i e d 3 .22 UBC - A r t s 187 13.63 - Commerce 167 12.17 - Grad Students __3__ (391) 2.70 (28.50) High Schools 205 14.94 Coll e g e s 215 15.67 SFU 242 17.64 BCIT - Engineering & Trade 162 11.81 Tech - Commercial Technology 107 7.80 - Health S e r v i c e s 47 (316) 3.43 (23.04) -35-Age was coded i n t o the ranges as per t a b l e 10. I n the a n a l y s i s of the responses, the number o f 30 or over (3.72$) was not considered s i g n i f i c a n t to s u b t r a c t from the t o t a l response of tha t i n s t i t u t i o n . TABLE 10  AGE Age No. of Subjects Percent Not s p e c i f i e d 25 1.82 under 20 550 40.09 20-24 630 45.92 25-29 116 8.45 30 and over 51 3.72 A s e r i o u s attempt was made to i n c l u d e a s u f f i c i e n t sample of females i n the survey to make p o s s i b l e comparisons of work-related values f o r males versus females. The data are presented i n Table 11. TABLE 11 SEX DISTRIBUTION Sex No. o f Subjects Percent T o t a l - n o t s p e c i f i e d 27 .22 -male 775 56.49 -female 570 41.55 P l a c e Male Female UBC-Arts 52 ( 3.79$) 118 ( 8.60$) -Comm 128 ( 9.33 ) 32 ( 2.33 ) -Grads 21 ( 1.53 ) 14 ( 1.02 ) High School 106 ( 7.73 ) 99 ( 7.22 ) College 120 ( 8.75 ) 95 ( 6.92 ) SFU-Arts 122 ( 8.89 ) 120 ( 8.75 ) BCIT-Eng 154 (11.22 ) 8 ( .58 ) -Comm 70 ( 5.10 ) 37 ( 2.70 ) -Health Serv 2 ( .15 ) 45 ( 3.28 ) -36-Some respondents both agreed and disagreed w i t h the same qu e s t i o n . I f i t was marked i n both the squares, i t was coded under "DK" category, to t h i s was added any non-responses f o r each q u e s t i o n . The non-response r a t e reached a high of 23.98$ w i t h f i f t e e n questions r e c e i v i n g a r a t e above 10%. An attempt w i l l be made i n Chapter V to d i s c o v e r any reasons f o r these r a t e s . 2. RESULTS RELATING TO THE SPECIFIC HYPOTHESESt Hypothesis l i "Arts students w i t h t h e i r general e d u c a t i o n a l base w i l l express greater a n t i - a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m than Commerce and T e c h n i c a l (V o c a t i o n a l ) students who are more o r i e n t e d towards the values of the business community." Respondents were grouped i n t o two main groups, A r t s students (UBC & SFU) and Commerce (UBC & BCIT) and trades (BCIT Engineering and Health Technologies). Reasons f o r t h i s grouping are i n c l u d e d under Chapter V f o r hypothesis one. Questions r e l a t i n g to a u t h o r i t y were r e f l e c t e d i n the s t y l e of l e a d e r s h i p (#4), i n absolute obedience to parents (#22), and i n d i r e c t l y i n autonomy (#18 & 31). Groups were examined f o r the degree of i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p and independence. A o n e - t a i l e d t e s t was used f o r a l l hypotheses and the " d i r e c t i o n " of responses was a l s o checked f o r each que s t i o n . The n u l l hypothesis r e q u i r e d t h a t both groups respond i n a l i k e manner. R e f e r r i n g to t a b l e 12, only question 22 i s - 3 7 -s i g n i f i c a n t at the 1% l e v e l ( p < . 0 1 ) . The n u l l hypothesis was r e j e c t e d and hypothesis 1 was t h e r e f o r e "moderately" s u b s t a n t i a t e d . TABLE 12  AUTHORITY # Commerce & Trades A r t s Ghi-square Chiprob Agree Disagree Agree Disagree 1 T a i l 4 126 338 1 0 9 299 . 0 0 . 4 7 5 2 6 22 80 3 7 4 46 3 67 6 . 8 0 . 0 0 4 4 5 * 18 412 38 6 9 5 81 1 . 07 . 1 5 0 8 0 31 3 8 9 49 6 6 9 87 . 4 4 . 2 5 7 2 7 *P <.01 Hypothesis 2> " U n i v e r s i t y and V o c a t i o n a l Trade students w i l l g e n e r a l l y perceive themselves to be more mobile, both upwardly and s p a t i a l l y , than high school and r e g i o n a l c o l l e g e youth." Respondents grouped i n t o the U n i v e r s i t y segment inc l u d e d UBC A r t s , Commerce & Graduate Students, SFU A r t s Students and a l l BCIT Students, Upward m o b i l i t y was r e l a t e d to the need f o r advancement, r e c o g n i t i o n , or promotion, which i s r e f l e c t e d i n questions 20 and moderately i n 21 and 26. S p a t i a l m o b i l i t y i s defined as a w i l l i n g n e s s f o r geographical move or change as found i n questions 7 and 13. - 3 8 -The data presented i n Table 13 i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t f o r questions 20, 21, and 7i P<»05 and f o r question: 13, p<.01. Hypothesis 2 was t h e r e f o r e s u b s t a n t i a t e d . TABLE 13  MOBILITY # Univ. & Trades High School & College Chi-Square 1 Chiprob Agree Disagree Agree i! )isagree 20 496 320 199 162 3.08 .03771* 21 666 230 316 *85 2.77 .04593* 26 688 165 304 85 .99 .17^02 7 5^5 369 258 138- 3.32 .03246* 13 610 279 224 ^164 13.63 .00015** * pc . 0 5 * * p<.01 Hypothesis 3i "Commerce and V o c a t i o n a l students w i l l be more o r i e n t e d towards economic r e t u r n s due to t h e i r value t r a n s m i s s i o n than w i l l a r t s students." I f the values of the P r o t e s t a n t E t h i c have been i n t e r n a l i s e d or t r a n s m i t t e d , one could expect some form of •money m o t i v a t i o n ' or maximization of the ' d o l l a r e t h i c s ' . Questions d e a l i n g w i t h some form of economic r e t u r n included» l , 3 . 5 i 2 1 , 2 6 , and 29. -39-The data d i s p l a y e d i n Table 14 h i g h l i g h t s f o r ques t i o n 5» P<»05 -nd f o r questions 3t 12, 21 and 26, p<.01. Hypothesis 3 was th e r e f o r e s u b s t a n t i a t e d . TABLE 14 ECONOMIC RETURNS # Commerce & Trade A r t s Chi-Square Chiprob Agree Disagree Agree Disagree 1 271 150 189 83 1.71 .09379 3 134 326 147 233 8.10 .00226** 5 160 296 170 243 3.14 .03631* 12 199 224 213 133 15.54 .00006** 21 377 85 265 134 25.23 .00000** 26 374 70 284 90 8.36 .00198** 29 46 430 32 374 .66 , , .21095 * p<.05 ** p<.01 Hypothesis 4i " U n i v e r s i t y and V o c a t i o n a l (Technical) students are more motivated towards work which i s meaningful and u t i l i z e s the s k i l l s , knowledge and c a p a c i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l than high school and c o l l e g e youth who are without a s p e c i f i c degree or tra d e . " S k i l l was defined as having p r i d e i n workmanship and g a i n i n g management's respect f o r the i n d i v i d u a l ' s a b i l i t y -40-(#9 '& 33)t knowledge meant a l l o w i n g the i n d i v i d u a l to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the decision-making process (#34 & 35) and to expand the knowledge base by continued l e a r n i n g experience (#15 & 19)» c a p a c i t y meant management's t r u s t i n the workers a b i l i t y and t h e r e f o r e the employer's a l l o w i n g the i n d i v i d u a l autonomy (#18 & 31) and h i s g i v i n g only d i s t a n t s u p e r v i s i o n (28). Table 15 i l l u s t r a t e s questions 18, 31 & 35 p .01. I t i s on the dimension of autonomy t h a t a degree of i n t e r -r e l a t i o n s h i p occurs. In t a b l e 12 n e i t h e r question 18 or 31 was s i g n i f i c a n t between Commerce-Technical students and A r t s students. I t i s the high school students who have shown independence on t h i s dimension. Hypothesis 4 i s th e r e f o r e "moderately" s u b s t a n t i a t e d i n the d i r e c t i o n of decision-making and l e a r n i n g experience but not i n the d i r e c t i o n of autonomy. TABLE 15 TYPE OF WORK # Univ.&Tech/Trades High School & Chi-square Chiprob Col: Lege Agree Disagree Agree Disagree 9 364 500 160 218 .00 .47526 33 243 562 108 248 .00 .42526 3k 738 111 324 *51 .'03 M955 35 617 188 234 106 7.25 .00351** 18 809 70 332 51 8.19 .00215** 19 780 92 324 51 2.10 .07153 15 888 38 382 21 .57 .22831 31 780 83 31k 63 12.01 .00033** 28 " E B — 472 411 214 17-9 .07 .39051 ** p<.01 -41-Hypothesis 5» "Youth in Arts in contrast to those in Commerce and technical studies w i l l be largely uncommitted and w i l l seek increased leisure time due to the lack of socializa-tion towards specific occupational positions." Uncommitted youth was defined as workers who have a low job, who seek drive or who rank leisure activity i n their future plans higher than that of job seeking. Leisure was also reflected in working fewer hours (#3) or in not working during vacation time (#5). The analysis of table 16 signifies that for question 5 p<.05 and for questions 46, 4?, and 3, p<.01, therefore the hypothesis 5 was substantiated. TABLE 16  LEISURE # Commerce & Trades Arts Agree Disagree Agree Disagree Chi-square Chiprob 46 275(JOB) 69 (TRAVEL; 288(J) 134(T) 88.78(DF3) .00000** 47 70(J) 326(T) 147(J) 213(T) 8.39 .01899** 3 134 326 147 233 8.10 .00246** 5 16 0 296 170 243 3.14 .03631* * P<.05 ** p<.01 -42-Hypothesis 61 "Unlike students from high s c h o o l , c o l l e g e and u n i v e r s i t y a r t s programmes, commerce and v o c a t i o n a l students do not regard p e s s i m i s t i c a l l y the general employment c o n d i t i o n s and p o l i t i c a l concern f o r i n d i v i d u a l s " . The a t t i t u d e towards the general economic c o n d i t i o n s was r e f l e c t e d i n p e r s p e c t i v e towards job a v a i l a b i l i t y (#16 & 24) and p o l i t i c a l empathy, and toward concern and a c t i o n f o r the problems of the i n d i v i d u a l (#27 & 41). Table 17 i l l u s t r a t e s f o r questions 16 and 27 p<.05. Hypothesis 6 was "moderately" s u b s t a n t i a t e d i n regard to p o l i t i c a l concern, and i n regard to the general employment c o n d i t i o n s . TABLE 17 EMPLOYMENT # 1 Commerce & Tech. A r t s , College & High School Chi-square Chiprob Agree Disagree Agree Disagree 16 173 209 348 33^ 2.99 .03992* 24 275 123 443 228 .93 .16849 27 211 198 317 365 2.47 .05584* 41 253 148 444 - 242 .22 .32204 * P<.05 - 4 3 -Hypothesis 7» "The a t t i t u d e s towards work and l i f e s t y l e v alues are r e l a t i v e l y s i m i l a r among youth under 30." L i f e s t y l e , a t t i t u d e and o r i e n t a t i o n towards work i s r e f l e c t e d i n questions 17t 25, 36, and 4 0 and a l s o i n d i r e c t l y by 29. Homogeneous youth under 30 years should respond i n a s i m i l a r manner. Table 18 shows f o r question 36 p<.05, t h e r e f o r e hypothesis 7 was "moderately" s u b s t a n t i a t e d , TABLE 18  WORK ETHIC # U n i v e r s i t y High School & College Chi-square Chiprob Agree Disagree Agree' Disagree 17 1 8 9 7 0 7 8 9 3 1 3 . 1 2 . 3 6 3 4 7 25 94 825 48 3 5 5 . 6 6 . 2 1 0 9 5 32 540 2 0 1 226 73 . 6 7 . 2 0 9 1 3 36 1 3 5 756 76 320 2 . 9 7 . 0 4 0 4 2 * 4 0 1 7 4 7 2 0 7 9 3 1 7 . 0 2 . 4 2 9 3 0 29 8 1 836 40 3 5 6 . 3 9 . 2 6 9 9 2 * p<.05 -44-Hypothesis 8 1 "Males are inclined only towards a work-orientation, whereas females are inclined only towards a social-orientation." A work-orientation i s defined here to prefer job seeking activity over leisure (46) and other returns over leisure (3i 5)« A work-orientation would advocate a greater interest in intrinsic (ie. advancement) than extrinsic rewards (ie. pay). Tables 19, 20 and 21 reflect questions 46 and 3» (relating to leisure) and 12 (economic returns) p<.05 and for questions 1, 21, 26, 29, 20 and 7, p<.01. The hypothesis was "moderately" substantiated for the dimensions of leisure and pay but not substantiated in respect to advancement. TABLE 19  MALE/FEMALE LEISURE # Males Females Agree Disagree Agree Disagree Chi-square Chiprob Leisure 46 354(J ) 238(T) 102(j; 96 (T) 3.83 .02377* 3 211 514 176 345 2.88 .04280* 5 298 433 337 320 .04 .41118+ * p .05 + direction reversed -45-TABLE 20  MALE/FEMALE - ECONOMIC RETURNS # Male Agree Disagree Female Agree Disagree Chi-square Chiprob 1 370 253 307 148 7.00 .00401** 3&5 t a b l e l 9 12 364 327 267 189 3.59 .027^9*+ 21 596 149 365 163 10.01 .00238** 26 597 122 378 124 10.50 .00068** 29 88 659 31 515 13.32 .00018** + d i r e c t i o n reversed * P<.05 ** p<.01 TABLE 21 MALE/FEMALE - ADVANCEMENT 10 581 139 451 87 1.84 .08559 30 225 371 163 269 .00 .47526 37 298 397 219 278 .12 .363^ 7 20 445 255 236 217 14.49 .00010** 7 417 319 369 183 13.33 .00018**+ 13 468 260 350 .„ 175 .66 .21095 + d i r e c t i o n reversed * P<.05 ** p<.01 -46-CHAPTER V  DISCUSSION OF THE RESULTS 1. NON-RESPONSE To discover the reasons for some of the large non-response rates, the remarks were observed on the questionnaires and answer sheets. The reasons appear to f a l l into three general groups. F i r s t , there i s a basic lack of experience (1) dealing with public o f f i c i a l s (#27, 41), (2) finding a •full-time' job (#16, 24), and (3) not knowing too many workers (#33) or employers (#38) to generalize accurately. Second, there are minor problems of interpretation of the meaning of various terms which may be perceived as being a b i t generalt "fringe benefits" (#12); "make good" (#20)t "lot of the average man" (#32)i "bigger voice" (#34)i "who he can count on" (#37)I "can solve problems" (#39). In each case, "depends" may be a suitable answer when not referring to a specific work environment. Finally, there may be some minor problems in trade-off questions (#30, 35) because both of the dimensions may rate the same u t i l i t y , or be so close, that a decision i s avoided. 2. HYPOTHESES» Hypothesis one dealt with anti-authoritarianism between arts and commerce and was not as strong as anticipated. - 4 7 -I n the t o t a l response r a t e f o r the dimension of a n t i - a u t h o r -i t a r i a n i s m , the response p r o f i l e (appendix 3 ) i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t 69.5*J$ disagree on question 4 , which r e f e r s to l e a d e r s h i p s t y l e , and 7 9 . 3 7 $ on question 2 2 , which r e f e r s to absolute obedience to parents. I t may be noted t h a t youth i s not completely homogeneous as 2 6 . 5 3 $ ( 1 / 4 ) were i n agreement w i t h question 4 although some research leads the reader to b e l i e v e t h a t youth are s t r o n g l y cohesive. A m a j o r i t y of respondents supported the t h e o r i e s of Ondrack ( 1 9 7 1 ) and Miner ( 1 9 7 1 ) who have speculated a negative s h i f t towards a u t h o r i t y . This f i n d i n g does not mean a r e j e c t i o n of t o t a l a u t h o r i t y - that would be naive - but r a t h e r a r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t absolute a u t h o r i t y , where f e a r of power o v e r r i d e s any q u e s t i o n i n g of g o a l s , o b j e c t i v e s , business v a l u e s , e t h i c s , and the l e g i t i m a c y of the power d i s t r i b u t i o n . R e s p o n s i b i l i t y and a u t h o r i t y should be evenly i n t e r l o c k e d e s p e c i a l l y f o r task committment and may a l s o serve as "underpinning" f o r r e d e f i n i n g perceptions of e f f e c t i v e l e a d e r s h i p w i t h i n o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Hypothesis two concerned the p e r c e p t i o n of m o b i l i t y between u n i v e r s i t y - v o c a t i o n a l and high s c h o o l - c o l l e g e youth. I t appears, due to the dependence of responses, t h a t u n i v e r s i t y and v o c a t i o n a l students are more cohesive i n t h e i r need or d e s i r e f o r upward m o b i l i t y and i n t h e i r w i l l i n g n e s s f o r geographic change or s p a t i a l m o b i l i t y . A blockage i n t h i s upward path would l i k e l y r e s u l t i n f r u s t r a t i o n and d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the -48-job. The f i n d i n g s support the p o s t u l a t i o n of Bennis (1964) concerning the increased education and m o b i l i t y of tomorrow's workers. The study f u r t h e r s u b s t a n t i a t e s the A.C. N i e l s e n Study (1970) which has i s o l a t e d the f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a as the highest r a t e d f a c t o r s f o r both the BA and MBA graduates! the type of work, challenge, and advancement, which a l s o appears to be a common need ran k i n g (Thompson, 1971 and Lawrie 1968), Hypothesis three found t h a t Commerce and v o c a t i o n a l students were more concerned about economic r e t u r n s than A r t s students. The values of d o l l a r e t h i c s have only been p a r t l y t r a n s m i t t e d but concern i s s t i l l g r e a t e r f o r i n t r i n s i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of job content (Seashore & Barnowe, 1972, H e r r i c k & Quinn, 1971). The need f o r m a t e r i a l i s m has tapered o f f w i t h more concern given f o r i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p , such as co-workers and f a m i l y (Davey et a l 1970). Despite the switch of p r i o r i t i e s , economic r e t u r n s are important (Yankelovich 1972) e s p e c i a l l y to commerce and v o c a t i o n a l students but are not the most o v e r - r i d i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n . This f a c t f u r t h e r s u b s t a n t i a t e s the b e l i e f t h a t the ' c a r r o t - a n d - s t i c k ' d o l l a r f a l l a c y of mot i v a t i o n i s , by i t s e l f , s t i l l a f a l l a c y . The dimensions o f work over l e i s u r e , economic r e t u r n s and achievement, appear to be v a r i a b l e s of the P r o t e s t a n t E t h i c and as M i r e l s & G a r r e t t (1971) have suggested, inher e n t -49-i n the p e r s o n a l i t y of i n d i v i d u a l s . F i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e t h a t commerce and v o c a t i o n a l students have i n t e r n a l i z e d these values to a gr e a t e r degree than those students i n a r t s . This has been the major "underpinning" f o r the grouping of A r t s versus Commerce. G o e r t z e l (1972) f u r t h e r found t h a t the most v o c a l unrest i s o f t e n l o c a t e d among midd l e - c l a s s youth, e s p e c i a l l y those who are in v o l v e d i n l i b e r a l a r t s programmes i n c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s . Support, which i s a l s o given to Lawler (1971) and Po r t e r (1967), s t a t i n g t h a t economic r e t u r n s should be t a i l o r e d to s u i t the i n d i v i d u a l set of needs, could a l s o a c t as r e i n f o r c e -ment or r e c o g n i t i o n of achievement i f rewards were immediate. Th i s p r i n c i p l e would imply a d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of some funds to the 'assessment p o i n t * (person r e s p o n s i b l e f o r making performance e v a l u a t i o n ) ; thus, an o r g a n i z a t i o n i s e f f e c t i v e by being able to d i s t r i b u t e d i f f e r e n t e x t r i n s i c rewards based upon performance. The recent i n t r o d u c t i o n by General Foods of f i v e d i f f e r e n t pay and f r i n g e b e n e f i t packages appears to be along t h i s t r e n d . Hypothesis four was su b s t a n t i a t e d f o r d e c i s i o n making and l e a r n i n g experience but not f o r autonomy. I n both s t u d i e s , autonomy (#18 & 31) and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d e c i s i o n making (#35) were s i g n i f i c a n t at the 1% l e v e l . The dimension of p a r t i c i p a t i o n contained two questions 34 ( s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n ) and 35 (personal -50-i n f l u e n c e ) . Considering the l i n k o f a n t i - a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m and autonomy, i t i s reasonable t h a t personal i n f l u e n c e should a l s o f o l l o w t h i s s h i f t . The highest response on the q u e s t i o n -n a i r e was t h a t of self-development or l e a r n i n g (#15)» w i t h 44.61$ s t r o n g l y agree and 48.10$ agree or a t o t a l of 92.71$ p o s i t i v e responses. The r e s u l t s p a r a l l e l those of Sheppard & H e r r i c k (1972) who have found t h a t the young workers are h i g h l y concerned w i t h the opportunity f o r self-development. I t supports the Youth Report (Hess 1971) which h i g h l i g h t e d the need f o r increased p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a l l d e c i s i o n s concerning the i n d i v i d u a l and h i s environment. I t a l s o supports the S h e l l study (Davey et a l , 1970) which has found t h a t the g r e a t e s t reason f o r turnover of graduates was u n d e r - u t i l i z a t i o n o f c a p a b i l i t i e s . Graduates ranked i n t e r e s t i n g work f i r s t on the importance s c a l e and good r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h f e l l o w employees f i r s t on the s a t i s f a c t i o n s c a l e . The r e s u l t s from hypotheses one and f o u r appear to su b s t a n t i a t e B a r t h and Balork (1972) concerning the s h i f t of a u t h o r i t y - o r i e n t a t i o n and d e s i r e to c o n t r o l ones own d e s t i n y . Both the f i n d i n g s f o r hypotheses 3 and 4 appear to su b s t a n t i a t e the Canadian Youth Report (Hunter et a l 1971) and i n c o n t r a s t to Long (1972) t h a t the work e t h i c i s not dead or being re p l a c e d ( F l e t c h e r 1972, D r o s i n 1971)t but i s s t r o n g l y - 5 1 -a l i v e f o r "meaningful" employment. The only d e c l i n e i n m o t i v a t i o n , i n c o n t r a s t to Miner ( 1 9 7 1 ) i s n e g a t i v e l y a g a i n s t absolute m a t e r i a l i s m or maximisation of wealth over a l l other v a l u e s . Hypothesis f i v e d e a l t w i t h the demand f o r l e i s u r e between a r t s and commerce-technical students. Care must be taken i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f question 3 because the m a j o r i t y of respondents would not be w i l l i n g to t r a d e - o f f i n c r e a s e d l e i s u r e time f o r a decrease i n pay but might be w i l l i n g to opt f o r a three day week-end or four day week i f pay was maintained. Some problems i n p e r c e p t i o n may be pr e v a l e n t i n question 5 as to the meaning of v a c a t i o n -"summer" or "work". The d e s i r e f o r increased l e i s u r e other than a four day work week may w e l l be, as Seashore and Barnowe ( 1 9 7 2 ) have found, d i r e c t l y l i n k e d to the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the job i t s e l f . As the n u l l hypothesis was s t r o n g l y r e j e c t e d , A r t s students are i n c l i n e d to place g r e a t e r value i n l e i s u r e time than commerce or v o c a t i o n a l youth. Are youth or workers, g e n e r a l l y , r e t r e a t i n g from work? (Wilson, 1 9 7 2 ) Or are youth j u s t searching f o r s a t i s f a c t i o n i n other areas? Thompson ( 1 9 6 8 ) , has found t h a t the high achievers were the students w i t h the hig h e s t scores on i n d i v i d u a l i s m , i n i t i a t i v e , work success, -52-and future-time o r i e n t a t i o n . I t would seem reasonable t h a t a l a c k of these dimensions w i t h i n the job content/context would cause a high a c h i e v i n g youth to seek more l e i s u r e time to f i n d i t elsewhere. Hypothesis s i x was o n l y "moderately" s u b s t a n t i a t e d i n regards to p o l i t i c a l concern and a l s o w i t h respect to general economic c o n d i t i o n s . I t appears t h a t from comments "employ-ment" i n question 24, (most people who want employment can f i n d a job i n Vancouver) was l i k e l y perceived as general work w h i l e "a job" i n question 16 ( f i n d i n g a job i s hard i n Vancouver) may be i n t e r p r e t e d as one of meaningful value which may account f o r the s i g n i f i c a n c e . One r e s u l t was almost an even d i v i s i o n i n responses (51*03$ - 48.97$) by A r t s ^ c o l l e g e and high school f o r question 16. Another s i g n was the high non-response r a t e o f 20*63$ f o r question 16 and 20#12$ f o r question 24. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t the d i r e c t i o n of responses from Commerce and trades i s not much stronger. T h i s f a c t may i n d i c a t e a l a c k of concrete t i e s w i t h business o r g a n i z a t i o n s v i a c o n s u l t i n g by doing f i e l d research p r o j e c t s where personal contacts could be e s t a b l i s h e d . I f commerce i n s t i t u t i o n s remain i s o l a t e d from the business community, they w i l l o n l y a l i e n a t e t h e i r own products. A l s o very l i t t l e a s s i s t a n c e appears to be given the i n d i v i d u a l by the i n s t i t u t i o n - 5 3 -(which provided h i s t r a i n i n g ) i n s e c u r i n g a p o s i t i o n i n any-organised f a s h i o n . There are some exceptions but l a r g e l y students are simply dumped on the market to fend f o r themselves or to seek the a i d of Manpower or a r e c r u i t i n g agency. V o c a t i o n a l guidance and i n f o r m a t i o n should go one step f u r t h e r and have gr e a t e r p r a c t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n w i t h the business community, which may a i d i n overcoming t h i s dilemma (Heneman & Dawis 1 9 6 8 ) . Students were s p l i t i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e towards the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of w r i t i n g t h e i r e l e c t e d p o l i t i c a l representa-t i v e s ( 3 8 . 4 9 $ - 4 2 . ? 8 $ see Appendix 3 ) . but the m a j o r i t y (52 .04$) f e l t t h a t p o l i t i c i a n s only care about the i n d i v i d u a l around e l e c t i o n time. The seeds of a l i e n a t i o n a l r eady seem to have been sown ( i r r e s p e c t i v e o f A r t s or Commerce), when youth f e e l they can no longer reach an e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e or achieve change from w i t h i n the system. The same c o n c l u s i o n could be s t a t e d f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d e c i s i o n s which a f f e c t the worker. I f the i n d i v i d u a l cannot achieve any change from w i t h i n concerning the p a r t i c u l a r c o n d i t i o n , behaviour may soon r e f l e c t t h i s a l i e n a t i o n . (Frienenberg, 1 9 6 9 ) Hypothesis seven was moderately s u b s t a n t i a t e d i n t h a t there was a loose cohesion of youth values and a t t i t u d e s . Question 36 concerning the work e t h i c may be s i g n i f i c a n t due - 5 4 -to the o l d e r , more mature p e r s p e c t i v e s on work, e s p e c i a l l y i f u n i v e r s i t y students are a s p i r i n g to a p r o f e s s i o n a l or an executive business career. T h i s concept agrees i n p a r t w i t h Domenichetti (1970) who suggested t h a t there i s an inv e r s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between v o c a t i o n a l maturity and work values and t h a t d i f f e r e n t work values emerge and submerge a t d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s i n development. Although there were some minor variances i n age groupings, the a t t i t u d e towards work was r e l a t i v e l y c o n s i s t e n t . Work i t s e l f no longer appeared to be the c e n t r a l core or heart o f the youth of today but was r a t h e r l i k e the spine, g i v i n g shape but not the most v i t a l s u b s t r u c t u r e . The homogeneity of youth i n l o n g i t u d i n a l a n a l y s i s w i l l d i s p e l l the myth of w a i t i n g f o r youth to change to s u i t business o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Any o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t i s sagacious should be able to f o r e c a s t the i n d i r e c t c o s t s of r e s i s t i n g change (Drumm 1 9 7 2 ) . Y o u t h f u l employees have r e l a t e d t h a t b a s i c values are too r e a l to be p r o s t i t u t e d to a management t h a t n e i t h e r understands i t s a s p i r i n g young men nor cares ( F l o r y & Mackenzie 1 9 7 1 ) • The r e d e f i n i t i o n of work by youth and the r e a l l o c a -t i o n of emphasis on other areas supports the work of Guion & Landy (1972) and Deci (1972b). I t a l s o r e a f f i r m s the work of Davis (1965) and McGregor (I960) t h a t the r a t i o n a l e of man has a l s o been r e v i s e d by these t h r e s h o l d workers and has consequently r e v i s e d some of t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s . -55-The f i n d i n g s a l s o support M i l l e r ( 1 9 5 6 ) and Lawrie ( 1 9 6 8 ) who rank-ordered career goals of students r e s u l t i n g i n the highest r a t i n g being given to *a chance to use my s k i l l s and a b i l i t i e s to the f u l l e s t * . I t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t any turnover would r e s u l t from working too hard but r a t h e r from other v a r i a b l e s such as the work i t s e l f . An important aspect i s the students* a t t i t u d e towards business o r g a n i z a t i o n s a t the time they make t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s . I f the student o n l y sees high f i n a n c i a l r e t u r n i n business (Lawrie, 1 9 6 8 ) r a t h e r than the s a t i s f a c t i o n of higher order needs (Maslow 1 9 6 4 , Hofstede 1 9 7 2 ) , t h e y w i l l be i n c l i n e d to pursue d i f f e r e n t occupations which would s a t i s f y these needs. This has important i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r r e c r u i t e r s e s p e c i a l l y when A.G. N e i l s o n Company ( 1 9 7 0 ) has reported t h a t an average company w i l l l o s e 25$ of i t s new engineers, 3 9 $ of i t s salesmen and over a l l 1 i n 3 employees. Schain ( 1 9 6 7 ) r e p o r t s t h a t almost every company looses 50$ of i t s c o l l e g e ( u n i v e r s i t y ) graduates w i t h i n the f i r s t 3 to 5 years. Faced w i t h an i n d i r e c t cost of h i r i n g one good c o l l e g e graduate of $ 1 2 , 0 0 0 (Maclean E d i t o r s , 1 9 6 9 ) , i t becomes q u i c k l y obvious t h a t o f f e r i n g s to the t h r e s h o l d worker are important. The A.C. N e i l s o n Company has a l s o s t r e s s e d t h a t i n order to r e t a i n and motivate the a s p i r i n g young people needed f o r s u c c e ssion, management w i l l need to know what i s going on - 5 6 -i n the minds of youth as i t e f f e c t s i n d u s t r y . I f managers are to d e a l w i t h behaviour, they need to know why the youth behave as they do. This knowledge appears to be the key eoncept i n i n s t a l l i n g any m o t i v a t i o n a l system which works f o r youth as w e l l as f o r o l d e r employees (Kafka 1 9 7 2 ) . This trend i n r e v a l u a t i o n of the r a i s o n d'etre of work may a l s o provide new d i r e c t i o n s f o r the unionsj i n f a c t , Turner & Lawrence ( 1 9 6 5 * p.116 ) have quoted Pa u l Jacobs i n ' d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h leaders from United Auto Workers Union who s a i d t " I f unions are going to s u r v i v e and grow i n t h i s coming p e r i o d , they w i l l have to break w i t h t h e i r o l d p a t t e r n . F i r s t of a l l , they w i l l have to break w i t h t h e i r p a t t e r n of not t h i n k i n g about work, the nature of work, t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to work, and what they can do about work," Hypothesis e i g h t concerns the o r i e n t a t i o n of males versus females which was only "moderately" s u b s t a n t i a t e d f o r l e i s u r e and pay and not s u b s t a n t i a t e d f o r advancement. One o f the major problems of any comparative a n a l y s i s w i t h other authors i s t h e i r e m p i r i c a l l y derived taxonomy and even t h e i r typology of approach. Few authors s t a t e or d e f i n e "work-o r i e n t a t i o n " or " p e o p l e - o r i e n t a t i o n , " The opposite of work should be l e i s u r e . W i t h i n any work s i t u a t i o n one may have a pleasant s o c i a l atmosphere i n which good co-workers are i n c r e a s i n g i n importance (Davey et a l 1 9 7 0 ) . -57-The r e s u l t s only p a r t l y support Ace et a l (1972) as both males and females are work o r i e n t e d , males being o n l y moderately more so. Males appear more i n t e r e s t e d i n e x t r i n s i c rewards (economic r e t u r n s ) than females. The r e v e r s a l of d i r e c t i o n o f responses n u l l i f i e s the s i g n i f i c a n c e i n questions 5 ( l e i s u r e ) , 7 ( s p a t i a l m o b i l i t y ) and 12 (economic r e t u r n s ) . The responses i n Table 20 has i l l u s t r a t e d t h a t wage r a t e s are s t i l l of prime importance to females, e s p e c i a l l y to remain competitive and w i t h t h e i r peer group (Williamson & Karras 1970), I n advancement, the n u l l hypothesis was not r e j e c t e d ; t h e r e f o r e , both males and females are s i m i l a r l y seeking advance-ment but, f o r females, not s u f f i c i e n t l y to r i s k t h e i r e n t i r e f u t u r e (#20). Females are, however, more p o s i t i v e l y l i n k e d to s p a t i a l m o b i l i t y than males, which appears to i n d i c a t e the new trend o f career-seeking females. Because responses are i n some cases the same f o r pay, c l o s e f o r l e i s u r e and the same f o r advancement, i t may help e x p l a i n why Burk (1966) found no necessary d i f f e r e n c e between male and female workers. I t a l s o lends a great d e a l of support to Wild (1970) and Stansbury (1969) who pinp o i n t e d t h a t turnover was mainly due to job boredom and i n t r i n s i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , thus d i s a g r e e i n g s t r o n g l y w i t h Smith (1955). The area of female motivation i s one which i s p o o r l y researched and r e q u i r e s f u r t h e r study. - 5 8 -CHAPTER VI SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS The main focus of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n has been to examine those values o f t h r e s h o l d youth which can be a p p l i e d to the work s e t t i n g . I t i s recognized t h a t human motives are c o n s t r u c t s which cannot be observed or measured d i r e c t l y but which must be i n f e r r e d from a t t i t u d e responses. S a t i s f a c t i o n or d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n , which i s the base of v a r i o u s overt behaviour (such as turnover, absenteeism and morale), can again o n l y be r e f l e c t e d by i n d i r e c t i n d i c a t o r s or 'surrogates' (Gross 1966). T h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e survey has been designed f o r the e x p l i c i t purpose of d e t e c t i n g the needs of a wave of youth which are considered t h r e s h o l d workers and to p r e d i c t t h e i r f u t u r e m o t i v a t i o n a l p a t t e r n s i n the work p l a c e . The survey sample in c l u d e d 1,372 students who rep-r e s e n t the general a t t i t u d e s of students from high schools to u n i v e r s i t i e s i n the lower mainland of B r i t i s h Columbia. These students c o n s t i t u t e a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the f u t u r e work for c e on the West Coast. The present survey has found t h a t students r e p o r t values which are g e n e r a l l y a n t i - a u t h o r i t a r i a n . They would a l s o tend to s h i f t away from those s t r u c t u r e s or p o s i t i o n s i n which o b j e c t i v e s or goals are not reviewed or questioned f o r f e a r of the inherent power s t r u c t u r e . The values of t r u t h , honesty, -59-openness and c r e d i b i l i t y are more adaptive to a c o l l e g i a t e , i n f o r m a l r e l a t i o n s h i p r a t h e r than t r a d i t i o n a l f o r m a l i t y . The work e t h i c i s a l s o f a r from deadi only i t s p o s i t i o n i n the l i f e s t y l e of youth has s h i f t e d . The c e n t r a l i t y o f work appears to be g i v i n g way to i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . There i s a stronger demand f o r meaningful work which i s important, which contains some challenge and which enables the i n d i v i d u a l to u t i l i z e h i s c a p a c i t y w h i l e i n the process of l e a r n i n g - e s p e c i a l l y by doing. A d d i t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , job enlargement, and enrichment are only a p a r t i a l answer? job redesign and the d i r e c t i o n of t e c h n o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h to e l i m i n a t e the b o r i n g f r u s t r a t i n g jobs are nearer to the t a r g e t i n u t i l i z i n g manpower to c o n t r o l machines r a t h e r than v i c e v e r s a . Thus, o r g a n i z a t i o n a l i n t r o s p e c t i o n w i l l be r e q u i r e d to develop a c l i m a t e where youth can be committed to the achievement of o p e r a t i o n a l g o a l s . Youth i s extremely mobile and seeks not only achievement and advancement but a l s o r e c o g n i t i o n . For, as McClelland (1961) found, the need f o r achievement i s both culture-bound and p r e v a l e n t i n our s o c i e t y . The need to p a r t i c i p a t e , to have a p a r t i n f o r m u l a t i n g t h e i r own o b j e c t i v e s , to c o n t r o l t h e i r own work fl o w , to have r e l a t i v e autonomy and d i s t a n t human-oriented s u p e r v i s i o n i s a major concern of students i n s e l e c t i n g a compatible working c l i m a t e and i n - 6 0 -remaining w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r o r g a n i z a t i o n or company. Reinforcement, as p a r t of r e c o g n i t i o n , w i l l have to "be sh o r t -l i n k e d or immediate i n order to achieve maximum s a t i s f a c t i o n . Both males and females, w h i l e i n the educ a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n , have numerous s i m i l a r needs and a t t i t u d e s concerning work p e r s p e c t i v e s . Students from high schools to graduates are b a s i c a l l y s i m i l a r i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e s towards the microcosm c a l l e d the work o r g a n i z a t i o n . I t appears u n l i k e l y t h a t the o r g a n i z a t i o n w i l l change the b a s i c values of youth but r a t h e r should r e a d j u s t and remodel p a r t s of the 'system', i f q u a l i t y i s any c r i t e r i a f o r s e l e c t i o n . I t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t a l l the young generation are i d e a l i s t i c , f o r many w i l l respond to the t r a d i t i o n a l assignments, orders, and h i e r a r c h i e s of the past. Yet many of the very best of the youth are the reformers, and they should be challenged by the most d i f f i c u l t o f problems the o r g a n i z a t i o n c o n f r o n t s . This t h e s i s has c o n t r i b u t e d to the growing body of l i t e r a t u r e supporting the emphasis on i n t r i n s i c job c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s w h i l e keeping e x t r i n s i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n homeostatis w i t h the needs of the i n d i v i d u a l , l o c a l c ompetition, the i n d u s t r y and the general economic c o n d i t i o n s . I t has a l s o provided an i n s i g h t i n t o the needs, values and a t t i t u d e s of the t h r e s h o l d worker which may e f f e c t the u n d e r l y i n g pre-d i s p o s i t i o n s towards work. -61-In c o n c l u s i o n , to manage e f f i c i e n t l y , i t w i l l be the s u p e r v i s o r s ' task to know what motivates the young workers and w i l l r e q u i r e management to have a depth of understanding the c o m p l e x i t i e s of a given human and s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n and a great deal of s k i l l i n r e l a t i n g e f f e c t i v e l y t o i t i n the f u t u r e (Turner & Lawrence 1965)• And as Odiorne (1971, p.43) suggested: "The g r e a t e s t t e s t we as o l d e r people and managers face i s to manage i n such a way t h a t the members of the new generation f i n d our e x i s t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s can be v e h i c l e s f o r t h e i r best e f f o r t s and s i t e s f o r a c h i e v i n g t h e i r best dreams." -62-REFERENCES ACE, M.E., GRAEN, G.B., DAVIS, R.V. "Biographic C o r r e l a t e s o f Work A t t i t u d e s " J o u r n a l of V o c a t i o n a l Behavior, 2, 2, A p r i l , 1972, 191-199 A.C. N i e l s e n Company Survey. "As You Were Saying - Student A t t i t u d e s towards Indu s t r y " Personnel J o u r n a l , June, 1970, p.517-519. ALLPORT, G.W. "Values of Our Youth" i n The Young A d u l t -I d e n t i t y & Awareness Winter, G.D. & Neuss, G.M. (eds) S c o t t , Foresman & Company, 111., 1969 a l s o i n Study of Values. A l l p o r t , G.W. & Vernon, P.E. (eds) Bostont Houghton M i f f l i n , i960. BARTH, R.T., BALORK, D.B. "Some Socio-Economic I m p l i c a t i o n s of the Generation Gapt A Review and E x p l o r a t o r y Study", Socio-Economic Planning Science, 6, 1972, 575-593. BENNIS, W.G. a "A Funny Thing Happened On The Way To The Future" American Psychology, June, 1970, 25, 7, 595-608. b " O r g a n i z a t i o n a l Developments and the Fate of Bureaucracy i n L.L. Commings & W.E. S c o t t (eds) O r g a n i z a t i o n a l Behavior and Human Performance, Irwin-Dorsey L t d . , Georgetown, Ont., 1964, p.44-5. BERDIE, R.F. " P e r s o n a l i t y Changes From High School Entrance to College M a t r i c u l a t i o n " J o u r n a l of C o u n s e l l i n g  Psychology. 1968, 15, 376-3815^  BLOCK, J.H., HAAN, N., SMITH, M.B. " S o c i a l i z a t i o n C o r r e l a t e s o f Student A c t i v i s m " J o u r n a l of S o c i a l Issues, 25, 1969, 143-177. BLOOD, M,R. "Work Values and Job S a t i s f a c t i o n " J o u r n a l of  Ap p l i e d Psychology. 1969, 53• 456-459. BOWERS, J.W. & OCHS, D.J. "The R h e t o r i c of A g i t a t i o n and C o n t r o l " Addison-Wesley P u b l i s h i n g Company, Reading Mass., 1971. BURK, R.J. "Di f f e r e n c e s i n Pe r c e p t i o n of Desired Job C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the Opposite Sex" The Jo u r n a l of  Genetic Psychology, 109, 27-36, 37-46 (1966) CRISPO, J.H.G., ARTHURS, H.W. " I n d u s t r i a l Unrest i n Canadai A Diagnosis of Recent Experience" I n d u s t r i a l  R e l a t i o n s , 23, 2, 1968, 237-262. -63-CRUICKSHANK, W.D. "The Corporate Environment - The Seventies And Beyond" Address given to the A.M.A., Montreal, March 20, 1972, by the Hudson I n s t i t u t e of Canada. Was adapted from A.J. Wierner (President) symposium "Some Long Range P e r s p e c t i v e s On Current Issues", V a l Morin, Quebec, May 20, 1971. DAVEY, D.M., GILL, D.R., MCDONNELL, P. " A t t i t u d e Surveys i n Industry* Information Report 3" I n s t i t u t e of Personnel Management, 1970. DECI, E.L. a " I n t r i n s i c M o t i v a t i o n , E x t r i n s i c Reinforcement and I n e q u i t y " J o u r n a l of P e r s o n a l i t y & S o c i a l  Psych, 22, 1, A p r i l , 1972, 113-120. b "Work-Who Does Not L i k e I t and Why" Psychology Today, 6, 3. Aug, 1972, 56-59. DAWIS, R.V. "The Meaning of Work" Paper read a t A.P.G.A. Symposium, Wed., A p r i l 14, 1965i Roosevelt Room, Leamington. DOMINICHETTI, M. Work values i n adolescence as a f u n c t i o n of v o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y . D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s 1970, Oct., Vol. 31 (4-A) 15-74. DRUMM, R.H. "Making Room For Pea c e f u l R e v o l u t i o n a r i e s " Personnel, May-June, 1972, p.49-55. DR0SNIN, M. "Ripping O f f , The New L i f e S t y l e " New York Times  Magazine. Aug 18, 1971. FLACKS, R. a "The L i b e r a t e d Generation! An E x p l o r a t i o n of the Roots of Student P r o t e s t " , J o u r n a l of S o c i a l I s s u e s , 1967, 23(3), 52-75. b S o c i a l and c u l t u r a l meanings of student r e v o l t Some in f o r m a l comparative o b s e r v a t i o n s , S o c i a l  Problems, 1970, 17, 3, 340-57. FLETCHER, J . " S i t u a t i o n a l E t h i c s t The New M o r a l i t y " P h i l t The Westminster P r e s s , 1966. FL0RY, CD. & MACKENZIE, R.A. "The C r e d i b i l i t y Gap i n Management" Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, Toronto 1971. FRIENENBERG, E.Z. "Current P a t t e r n s of Generation C o n f l i c t " J o u r n a l of S o c i a l Issues, 25, 1969, 21-37. -64-FRIEDLANDER, F. "Importance of Work Versus Non-work Among S o c i a l l y and O c c u p a t i o n a l l y S t r a t i f i e d Groups" J o u r n a l of A p p l i e d Psychology, 50, 6, Dec. 1966, 437-441. GINZBERG, E. "Values & I d e a l s of American Youth" New Yorkt Columbia, 1961. GOERTZEL, T. "Generational C o n f l i c t & S o c i a l Change" Youth and  S o c i e t y , 3. 3. March, 1972, 327-352. GRAEN, G.B. & DAVIS, R.V. "A Measure of Work A t t i t u d e s f o r High School-Age Youth" J o u r n a l of V o c a t i o n a l  Behavior. 1, 1971. 343-353. GROSS, B. "The State of the Nation» S o c i a l System Accounting" i n S o c i a l I n d i c a t o r s , Bauer, R.A. (ed), MIT Pres s , Cambridge, Mass, 1966• GUION, R.M. & LANDY, F.J. "The Meaning of Work and the M o t i v a t i o n to Work" O r g a n i z a t i o n a l Behavior and  Human Performance. 7, 2, 1972, 308-339. HAYGHE, H. "Employment of High School Graduates and Dropouts" Monthly Labor Review. 95, 5. May, 1972, 49-53. HENEMAN J r . , H.G., DAVIS, R.V. "Youth Unemployment! F r i c t i o n s i n the Threshold of the Work C a r e e r — A n E x p l o r a t o r y Probe" I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s Center, U n i v e r s i t y of Minnesota, USDL Research Contract No. 81-22-01, F i n a l Report, Dec. 1968. HERRICK, N.Q., QUINN, R.P. "Conditions Survey As A Source of S o c i a l I n d i c a t o r s " Monthly Labor Review, A p r i l , 1971 HESS, S. "Report of the White House Conference on Youth" A p r i l 18-22, 1971, Estes Park, Colorado, No. 4000-0267, Stephen Hess, N a t i o n a l Chairman. HUNTER, D., BOURDON, P., KELLY, U. " I t s Your Turn" A Report to the S e c r e t a r y of State by the Committee on Youth. Cat. No. 572-171. J u l y 26, 1971 JOHNSTON, D.F. "The Future of Work" Three P o s s i b l e A l t e r n a t i v e s " Monthly Labor Review, 95. 5. May, 1972, 3-11 JOHNSTONE, J.C. "Young People's Image of Canadian S o c i e t y . An Opinion Survey of Canadian Youth 13-20 years of Age" Royal Commission on B i l i n g u a l i s m and B i c u l t u r a l i s m , Cat. No. 1-1963-1-1-2,1969. - 6 5 -KAFHA, V.W. "A M o t i v a t i o n System That Works Both Ways" Personnel, V o l 4 9 , No, 4 , July-Aug, 1 9 7 2 , p.6 1 - 6 9 KENISTON, K, "Young R a d i c a l s " Notes 018 Committed Youth" Hareourt, Brace & World, I n c . New York, 1 9 6 8 . LAWLER, E.E. I l l "Compensating the New-Life-Style Worker" Personnel, May-June, 1 9 7 1 * p. 2 9 - 2 5 . , & PORTER, L.W. "The E f f e c t of Performance on Job S a t i s f a c t i o n " I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s , A  Jo u r n a l of Economics & So c i o l o g y , 7 , Oct, (1967) 20 - 2 8 . LAWRIE, J.W. A t t i t u d e s Toward Business as a Function of Student Q u a l i t y and Career I n t e n t i o n s . Personnel and Guidance J o u r n a l , 4 6 , May, 1 9 6 8 , 9 0 3 - 9 0 8 . LIKERT, R. "New P a t t e r n s of Management" New York: McGraw-Hill, 1 9 6 1 and repeated i n "The Human Organiz a t i o n : I t s Management and Value" McGraw-Hill, 1 9 6 7 . LONG, J.D. "The P r o t e s t a n t E t h i c Reexamined" Business Horizons, 5 0 , 1 , Feb, 1 9 7 2 , 7 5 - 8 3 . MACLEAN EDITORS " ' C r e d i b i l i t y Gap' between i n d u s t r y and engineering graduates" Canadian Pulp and Paper I n d u s t r y , Maclean-Hunter P u b l i c a t i o n , Nov, 1 9 6 9»p . l 6 . MASLOW, A. "Moti v a t i o n and P e r s o n a l i t y " New York: Harper, 1 9 5 4 McCLELLAND, D . C . "The A c h i e v i n g S o c i e t y " P r i n c e t o n : Van Nostrand, 1 9 6 1 . MeGREGOR, D. "The Human Side of E n t e r p r i s e " McGraw H i l l , i 9 6 0 McGOWAN, R.P. "Line Managers & College Business Students" a d i f f e r e n t i a l a n a l y s i s of p e r s o n a l i t y v a r i a b l e s and value concepts." D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s  I n t e r n a t i o n a l , 3 1 . 1 9 7 0 , #3745-B MILLER, C H . "Occupational Choice and Values" Personnel and Guidance J o u r n a l , V o l . 35t Dec. 1 9 5 6 , p.245-246 MINER, J.B. "Changes i n Student A t t i t u d e s Towards Bu r e a u c r a t i c Role P e r s c r i p t i o n s During the 1 9 6 0 s " Adm S c i Q, 1 6 , ( 1 9 7 1 ) , 3 5 1 - 3 6 4 . -66-MIRELS, H.L. & GARRETT, J.B. "The P r o t e s t a n t E t h i c As A P e r s o n a l i t y V a r i a b l e " J o u r n a l of Co n s u l t i n g &  C l i n i c a l Psychology. 36, 1, 1971, 40-44 MOORE, L.F., TURNER, T. "A Comparison of Values" Tomorrow's Managers Versus Those of Today" Studies i n Personnel Psychology, Oct. 1972, 4, 2, 29-34. ODIORNE, G.S. "The New Generation and the Accounting P r o f e s s i o n " The Jo u r n a l o f Accountancy, May 1971, 39-43 ONDRACK, D.A. " A t t i t u d e s Towards A u t h o r i t y " Personnel A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , 34, 1971, 8-18 and a l s o Canadian  Personnel and I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s J o u r n a l , 1972 19, 31-32. PARKER, S. "The Future of Work & L e i s u r e " Granad Pub L t d . , London, 1971 ROSZAK, T. "The Making of a Counter C u l t u r e " Doubledayi New York, 1968 RIPON SOCIETY "Instead of R e v o l u t i o n " Hawthorn Books Inc: New York, 1971 ROSENFELD, C., GOVER, K.R., "Employment of School-Age Youth" Monthly Labor Review, 95. 8, Aug, 1972, 25-30. SARGENT, F.H. "A Multi-Dimensional Approach to Business" Business P e r s p e c t i v e s , 8, 2, Winter, 1972, 3-11 SCHEIN, E.H. a "The College Graduate's F i r s t Job. What He Wants, What You Want and How To Have i t Both Ways" Management Review. 56, 5, May, 1967, 56-59 b "The Generation Gapi I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Education and Management" Working Paper #326-68, Massachusets I n s t i t u t e of Technology, 1969 SEASHORE, S.E., BARNOWE, J.T. a "Demographic and Job F a c t o r s A s s o c i a t e d w i t h The Blue C o l l a r Blues" U n i v e r s i t y of Michigan, D r a f t #3, March 1972 , b " C o l l a r Color Doesn't Count" Psychology Today, 6,3. Aug, 1972, 52-56 -67-SIMMONS, J . I . , WINDGRAD, B., " I t ' s Happening" Marc-Laird P u b l i c a t i o n s , Santa Barbara, C a l i f . , 1966. SHAFFER, R.H. "Job S a t i s f a c t i o n as Related To Need S a t i s f a c t i o n i n Work" P s y c h o l o g i c a l Monographs. 19^3, 67, 1-29 SHEPPARD, H.L. & HERRICK, N.Q. "Where Have A l l the Robots Gone? Worker D i s s a t i s f a c t i o n i n the '70s" The Free P r e s s , New York, 1972. SKOLNICK, J.H. "The Generation Gap" i n The Anti-American Generation, E.Z. Friendenberg (ed) Transaction Books, A l d i n e Pub. Co., 1971 SMITH, P.C. "The P r e d i c t i o n of I n d i v i d u a l D i f f e r e n c e s i n S u s c e p t i b i l i t y to I n d u s t r i a l Monotony" J o u r n a l of  A p p l i e d Psychology. 1955, 39, 322-329 STAGNER, R. " P s y c h o l o g i c a l Aspects of I n d u s t r i a l C o n f l i c t I I , M o t i v a t i o n " Personnel Psychology, 3, 1950, 1-17 STANSBURY, W.F. "What Causes C l e r i c a l Turnover" Personnel  J o u r n a l , Dec 1969, p.978-980/91 SUPER, D.E. "The c r i t i c a l n i n t h grade - v o c a t i o n a l choice or v o c a t i o n a l e x p l o r a t i o n s . " Personnel and Guidance  J o u r n a l . I 9 6 0 , 3 9 , 106 and i n A p p r a i s i n g V o c a t i o n a l  F i t n e s s , Super D.E. & C r i t e s , U.O. (eds), New York, Harper, 1962 THOMPSON, O.E. a. "Occupational Values of High School Students" Personnel and Guidance J o u r n a l , i960, 44, 850-855. b. "Student Values i n T r a n s i t i o n " i n Contemporary Adolescence Readings Thornburg, H.D. (ed), Brooks/Cole Pub. Co. Belmont, C a l i f , 1971, 388-393 and C a l i f o r n i a  J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l Research, 1968, 19, 77-86. TOFFLER, A. "Future Shock" Bantam Books, Random House, Toronto Ont. 15th e d i t i o n , 1970 TURNER, A.N. & LAWRENCE P.R. " I n d u s t r i a l Jobs and the Worker* An I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f Response to Task A t t i t u d e s . " Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , Boston, 1965 WALTON, C.C. "Ethos and the Executive! Values i n Managerial D e c i s i o n Making" P r e n t i c e - H a l l , I n c . Englewood C l i f f s , New Jersey, 19o9. -68-WILLIAMSON, T.R. & KARRAS, E.J. "Job S a t i s f a c t i o n V a r i a b l e s Among Female C l e r i c a l Workers" J o u r n a l of A p p l i e d  Psychology. 1970, 5 4 , 4 , 3 4 3 - 3 4 0 ' WILD, R.f "Job Needs, Job S a t i s f a c t i o n , and Job Behavior Of Women Manual Workers" J o u r n a l of A p p l i e d Psychology 1970, 5 4 , 2, 163-168 WILSON, B. "The Youth C u l t u r e & U n i v e r s i t i e s " Faber & Faber, London, Eng, 1970 WILSON, J.A. "The Meaning of the 4-day Weeki Re t r e a t From Work or Assent To L e i s u r e " P i t t s b u r g Business Review, M a r c h - A p r i l , 1972 YABLONSKY, L. "The Hippie T r i p " P e l i c a n Books, Baltimore, Maryland, 1968 YANKELOVICH, D. "The Changing Values On Campus" J.D. R o c k e r f e l l e r , 3rd Fund Washington Square Press i New York, 1972 YOUTH IR CONFERENCEi Proceedings of the 13th Annual Research Conference i n I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s , U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , Los Angeles, March 17, 1970. 1. AARON, Bi "Values of the Youth R e v o l t " 2. HARTSOCK, Dt "The Youth R e v o l t - C o n f r o n t a t i o n of Values" 4-12 3. MILLER, J.F.t "Experience of Management In D e a l i n g With Hard-Core Youth" 13-18 4 . McIVERS, W.D.t "Experience of Management In D e a l i n g With College-Trained Youth" 19 - 2 3 5 . MANNING, Ni "Experience of Union O f f i c i a l s I n D e a l i n g With Young Members." 2 4 - 2 7 6. YABLONSKY, Ls " S t r a t e g i e s and A l t e r n a t i v e Approaches To B r i d g i n g The Generation Gapt 28 - 3 2 -69-Appendix I A t t i t u d e Questionnaire D i r e c t i o n s 1. The attached q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s designed to evaluate your p e r s p e c t i v e s concerning work and a s s o c i a t e d i s s u e s . I f you have not had f u l l - t i m e work experience, t h i n k about any part-time job you have had and evaluate the questions i n r e l a t i o n to your personal value system. In any case, you may base your answers on your " f i r s t impression" of the statement. 2. As t h i s survey i s p a r t of a t h e s i s and w i l l have impact on i t s outcome, you are requested to be honest and s e r i o u s i n your responses. 3. I f you do not understand a question or f e e l i t i s ambiguous, please mark your comments on the answer sheet i t s e l f . A s e c t i o n w i l l be provided a t the end of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r any: general comments t h a t you may have. k. YOUR TIME AND COOPERATION ARE GREATLY APPRECIATED. 1. I would r a t h e r have a job w i t h a good boss and poor pay than a job w i t h good pay and a poor boss. 2. Supervisors have the r i g h t to i n s i s t t h a t everyone works hard. 3. I would p r e f e r to work fewer hours each day, even i f my income f e l l . 4. Any good l e a d e r should be s t r i c t w i t h people under him i n order to g a i n t h e i r r e s p e c t . 5. I would p r e f e r to work d u r i n g p a r t of my v a c a t i o n to gain e x t r a income. 6. Management i s out to get e v e r y t h i n g i t can from i t s employees. 7. I wouldn't mind working i n a company where I d i d n ' t know anyone. 8. I work because i t means g e t t i n g the t h i n g s I want. -70-9. Most workers don't take p r i d e i n t h e i r work. 10. Doing the k i n d of work t h a t I l i k e i s more important to me than having a steady job, 11. No one should be f o r c e d to work beyond h i s normal work day except i n the most s e r i o u s emergencies. 12. I p r e f e r a higher wage r a t e i n s t e a d of b e t t e r f r i n g e b e n e f i t s . 13. I wouldn't mind t a k i n g a job f a r away from home, i n a p l a c e I d i d n ' t know. 14. The k i n d of work t h a t I do i s more important to me than the k i n d of boss I have. 15. I p r e f e r a job where I can continue to l e a r n f o r the r e s t of my working career. 16. F i n d i n g a job i s hard i n Vancouver. 17. Work i s seldom enjoyable. 18. I p r e f e r a job where I would make the d e c i s i o n s than have them made f o r me. 19. Having a job where I can continue to l e a r n f o r the r e s t of my l i f e i s more important to me than having a job where I could not be f i r e d . 20. I don't mind a job which forced me to gamble my f u t u r e , i f I had the chance to r e a l l y make good. 21. The opportunity to get pay i n c r e a s e s i s very important to me i n a job. 22. The most important t h i n g to teach c h i l d r e n i s absolute obedience to t h e i r parents. 23. Most workers don't have enough knowledge to suggest important changes i n the way they do t h e i r jobs. 24. Most people who want employment can f i n d a job i n Vancouver. 25. Work i s the same hard g r i n d whatever job you have. 26. I p r e f e r a job where I could make more money i f I worked harder to one where I always brought home the same amount. - 7 1 -27. There's l i t t l e use i n w r i t i n g to p u b l i c o f f i c i a l s because o f t e n they aren't r e a l l y i n t e r e s t e d i n the problems of the average man. 2 8 . Supervisors should leave employees alone unless they need he l p . 29. The o n l y value of work i s the income i t p r o v i d e s . 30. I would r a t h e r have a steady job w i t h poor pay than good pay without a steady job. 3 1 . I l i k e a job where I am my own boss. 32. In s p i t e of what some people say, the l o t of the average man i s g e t t i n g b e t t e r , not worse. 3 3 . Today's workers do not care about t h e i r work. 3 4 . Management should l e t workers have a bigger v o i c e on how jobs are done. 3 5 . Having a job where my o p i n i o n i s valued i s more important to me than having a job w i t h good pay. 3 6 . Work i s the most important p a r t of l i f e . 3 7 . These days, a person doesn't r e a l l y know who he can count on. 3 8 . Most employers want to t r e a t t h e i r workers f a i r l y . 3 9 . I want a job where I can solve problems no one e l s e can. 4 0 . Few t h i n g s are more important than work. 4 1 . Most p o l i t i c i a n s care about ord i n a r y people only around e l e c t i o n time. -72-Appendix I I KEY FOR CODING Answer Sheet Key: SA = S t r o n g l y Agree A = Agree D - Disagree SD = S t r o n g l y Disagree DK = Don't Know, No Answer, Maybe or Undecided Question Page 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 SA A D SD DK Question 1 i 1 Page 2 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 SA A D SD DK -I -73-Question 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 SA Page 3 A D SD DK 1. Agei 2. Sext 3. Grade or Yeari 4. Option or Programt 5. What i s your preferences f o l l o w i n g graduation? (rank) -continue education -job -housewife - t r a v e l -don't know 6. Hometowni 7. Comments or C r i t i c i s m s ! - 7 4 -Appendix I I I TOTAL RESPONSE PROFILE a. AUTHORITY # SA A D SD 4 49 305 598 356 22 4 0 167 565 524 #4 agree disagree #22 agree disagree % of surve -UBC A r t s t 6 5 1 1 3 26 151 (13 .63) Commt 4 1 1 2 1 28 137 ( 1 2 . 1 7 ) BCIT Comt 2 4 7 9 13 8 5 ( 7 . 8 0 ) Eng! 48 105 3 5 115 ( 1 1 . 8 1 ) SFU A r t s i 4 4 1 8 6 20 2 1 6 ( 1 7 . 6 4 ) UBC Gradsi 2 33 3 3 1 ( 2 . 7 0 ) HSs 6 9 131 4 4 1 4 8 ( 1 4 . 4 9 ) COLLEGE} 57 151 3 4 1 6 6 (15 .67) BCIT-HS: 13 33 4 37 ( 3 . 4 3 ) MOBILITY J % SA f % A % D % SD 2 0 12 .03 3 8 . 7 8 2 8 . 5 7 6 . 6 3 2 1 2 0 . 7 0 5 1 . 0 9 2 0 . 8 5 2 . 1 1 26 2 2 . 7 4 49 .71 1 6 . 4 0 1 . 9 0 7 6 . 7 8 51 .75 2 2 . 1 6 15 .01 1 3 1 1 . 5 9 4 9 . 4 2 24 .27 8 . 0 2 POL. CONCERN 27 115 4 2 0 4 7 6 1 1 1 4 1 2 0 9 505 3 5 4 57 CONTENT S k i l l s 9 7 . 6 5 30 .54 4 1 . 8 4 1 0 . 7 1 3 3 3.72 2 1 . 8 7 51 .38 7 . 8 7 Knowledge 3 4 1 4 . 6 5 6 2 . 9 0 1 0 . 4 2 1 . 4 6 3 5 1 3 . 7 8 4 8 . 4 7 1 9 . 6 1 1 . 8 2 Capacity 18 32 .43 50 .87 8 . 0 2 . 8 7 3 1 30 .61 4 9 . 3 4 9 . 9 1 . 7 3 28 1 1 . 0 1 3 9 . 1 4 37 .17 5 . 9 0 L e a r n i n g 1 5 4 4 . 6 1 4 8 . 1 0 3.50 . 8 0 1 9 32 .43 50 .87 8 . 0 2 . 8 7 -75-e. LIFE STYLE Question Under 20 20-24 25-29 30 or over (40.09$) (45.92$) (8.45$) (3.72$) Agree Disagree A D A D A D 17 7.94 29.03 9.98 23.17 1.75 6.13 .22 3.21 25 4.01 34.47 5.39 39.65 .37 7.44 .37 3.20 32 30.12 6.92 27.04 10.28 4.81 1.82 2.77 .66 36 6.71 30.97 6.48 36.95 1.46 6.56 .58 2.77 40 6.85 30.83 8.75 35.06 2.04 5.90 .66 2.69 8 31.04 7.29 34.04 10.42 6.27 2.12 1.82 1.75 29 3.43 34.62 4.23 40.45 .66. 7.36 .37 3.13 f . MALE-FEMALE Question $Male $Female A D A D 4 15.60 38.77 10.13 29.7b 22 9.41 43.80 5.39 34.03 1 26.97 18.43 22.38 10.79 2 38.19 16.11 29.45 9.99 28 29.09 23.69 20.26 18.36 14 38.63 11.74 30.03 8.24 6 25.87 25.65 17.20 19.89 38 40.09 8.96 28.79 5.90 10' 42.35 10.13 32.87 6.34 30 16.40 27.04 11.88 19.61 37 21.72 28.94 15.96 20.27 20 32.43 18.59 17.20 15.82 7 30.40 23.25 26.90 13.34 13 34.11 28.95 25.51 12.85 -76-g. MALE-FEMALE Female # A D A D X 2 CHIPROB Boss 1 ( t a b l e 20) 14 530 161 412 113 .44 .51454 Authority- 4 214 532 139 408 1.54 .21191 22 129 601 74 467 3.39 .06217 Contact 2 524 221 404 137 2.72 .09488 w i t h people [management) acceptance 6 355 352 236 273 1.60 .20293 28 399 325 278 252 .76 .38745 38 550 123 395 81 .22 .64405 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0100987/manifest

Comment

Related Items