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A comparative analysis of a selection of Hungarian folktales in English Szilagyi, Andrea Katalin 2007

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A C O M P A R A T I V E A N A L Y S I S OF A S E L E C T I O N OF H U N G A R I A N F O L K T A L E S IN E N G L I S H • by A N D R E A K A T A L I N S Z I L A G Y I B.A. , The University of Alberta, 2003 A THESIS S U B M I T T E D IN P A R T I A L F U L F I L M E N T OF T H E R E Q U I R E M E N T S F O R T H E D E G R E E OF M A S T E R OF A R T S in T H E F A C U L T Y OF B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A (Children's Literature) October 2007 ©Andrea Katalin Szi lagyi, 2007 Abstract A significant body of Hungarian folktales in English exists, but these tales are difficult to locate, out of print, and/or excluded from international folktale anthologies. Critics have attributed this lack of prominence to linguistic isolation or to issues surrounding translation and economic challenges in today's publishing world. This thesis examines a selected body of Hungarian folktales in English. Specifically, it presents the findings of my extensive search for tales in translation and for scholarship on these tales; it offers a system of classifying and describing the selected tales and provides a comparative analysis of variants and types; and it offers an argument for anthologizing tales for a Canadian and/or Hungarian Canadian reading audience. Twenty tales (four variants within each tale category), chosen according to the selection criteria, comprise the body of primary material and are grouped according to tale categories - fairy tales, humorous tales, animal tales, anecdotes, and historical legends. In considering the variants of a selection of tale types and their particular references to Hungarian culture, this study illuminates the persistence of certain Hungarian folktales while highlighting their cultural distinctiveness. Ultimately, by creating awareness of this unique body of tales, my hope is for Canadian readers to be made aware of Hungary's culture and its folk literature, and for the tales to find their way into collections of multicultural folktales, to be released from their isolation, and to jo in other well-known international folktales on bookshelves around the world. i i Table of Contents Abstract i i Table of Contents i i i List of Tables iv Acknowledgements v C H A P T E R O N E : I N T R O D U C T I O N 1 C H A P T E R T W O : L I T E R A T U R E R E V I E W 8 Primary Sources 8 Secondary Sources: Hungarian Folklore 13 C H A P T E R T H R E E : DEFINIT IONS A N D C R I T I C A L ISSUES 25 Debated Terms 27 Critical Issues 30 Folktale Variants 38 Defining Tale Categories 40 Identifying Comparative Elements 41 C H A P T E R F O U R : F A I R Y T A L E S 43 C H A P T E R F I V E : H U M O R O U S T A L E S 51 C H A P T E R SIX: A N I M A L T A L E S 60 C H A P T E R S E V E N : A N E C D O T E S 68 C H A P T E R E IGHT : H I S T O R I C A L L E G E N D S 74 C H A P T E R N I N E : C O N C L U S I O N 83 W O R K S C I T E D 87 Primary Sources 87 Secondary Sources (Hungarian Folklore) Cited and Consulted 91 Secondary Sources (Folktale/Children's Literature theory) Cited and Consulted 93 Appendix A : Chronology of Hungarian Folktale Collections in English 99 Appendix B: Chronology of Illustrated Hungarian Folktales in English 101 Appendix C : Criteria for Folktale Selection 102 Appendix D: Tale Texts 103 Appendix E: Selected Illustrations 104 ii i List of Tables Table 1.1- Fairy Tales - Selected Variants • 1 Table 1.2 - Humorous Tales - Selected Variants • • Table 1.3 - Animal Tales - Selected Variants 12 Table 1.4 - Anecdotes - Selected Variants • 2 Table 1.5 - Historical Legends - Selected Variants 13 Table 2.1 - Identification of Fairy Tale Variant Elements -"The Student who was Forcibly made King" '. 44 Table 2.2 - Identification of Fairy Tale Variant Elements -"The Student who was Forced to be King" 44 Table 2.3 - Identification of Fairy Tale Variant Elements -The Student who became King in spite of Himself. 45 Table 2.4 - Identification of Fairy Tale Variant Elements -"How a Student became a King" 46 Table 3.1 - Identification of Humorous Tale Variant Elements - "The Wishes" 52 Table 3.2 - Identification of Humorous Tale Variant Elements - "Three Wishes" 53 Table 3.3 - Identification of Humorous Tale Variant Elements - Janko's Wish 54 Table 3.4 - Identification of Humorous Tale Variant Elements - "Three Wishes" 55 Table 4.1 - Identification of Animal Tale Variant Elements - The Little Cockerel 61 Table 4.2 - Identification of Animal Tale Variant Elements - The Little Cock 62 Table 4.3 - Identification of Animal Tale Variant Elements -The Little Rooster's Diamond Penny 63 Table 4.4 - Identification of Animal Tale Variant Elements -The Little Rooster and the Diamond Button 63 Table 5.1 - Identification of Anecdote Variant Elements - "The Dog Market in Buda" 69 Table 5.2 - Identification of Anecdote Variant Elements - "A Deal that Went to the Dogs" 69 Table 5.3 - Identification of Anecdote Variant Elements -"Only One Dog Market in Buda" 70 Table 5.4 - Identification of Anecdote Variant Elements -"One-Time Dog Market in Buda" 70 Table 6.1 - Identification of Historical Legend Variant Elements - The White Stag 75 Table 6.2 - Identification of Historical Legend Variant Elements - "The Enchanted Stag" 76 Table 6.3 - Identification of Historical Legend Variant Elements - The Miraculous Hind 77 Table 6.4 - Identification of Historical Legends Variant Elements -"The Legend of the White Stag" 78 iv Acknowledgements I would like to express my sincere gratitude to several people who have supported me during the process of completing this thesis. Specifically, I would like to thank my thesis advisor, Judy Brown, for her consistent support, patience, and invaluable editorial input. Special thanks go to Judith Saltman, M A C L Chair during my time in the Program, Margot Fil ipenko, my directed studies supervisor and thesis committee member, and Theresa Rogers, current M A C L Chair. In addition, I would like to thank the Hungarian community in Edmonton and Vancouver - the people within these communities contributed to the rich memories I hold of growing up as a first generation Hungarian-Canadian. Deep appreciation goes to my Koma, Susanna Biro, who has fostered, influenced, and shared my love of Hungarian folklore. To my parents, Ildiko and Paul, thank you for choosing to teach us about our cultural heritage, for passing down your traditions, for involving us in the Hungarian community, and for your love and support. Thank you, Genevieve Brisson, my friend and colleague, for your good conversation, friendship, and thoughtfulness from day one of the M A C L program. Finally, I would like to thank Jordon Starling, for his interest in Hungarian culture, for his support of my endeavours, and for his love, which has been a source of inspiration from the beginning. "The folklore of Hungary is richly based in the national character. It mirrors the many-sided texture of the Hungarian peasant imagination: its simple belief in the supernatural, its faith in the power of good and evil and its ability to use the splendid release of humour to make the business of ordinary daily life bearable. It is, above all, the humour in these tales that appeals to me most. The villains are certainly villainous, yet their badness is human and recognizable so that one can retain some small shred of sympathy for them; the heroes are heroic without bombast, because their basic goodness is not of the shining-armour type: they, too, are a little too human for that. " - Val Biro, The Honest Thief vi C H A P T E R O N E : I N T R O D U C T I O N As a first generation Canadian, I have felt a strong connection to my Hungarian heritage from a young age. As I was growing up in Edmonton, my parents chose to enroll my siblings and me in various cultural activities, including Saturday Hungarian school, scouts, and folk dancing. A l l three of these activities introduced me to Hungarian language, culture, and folklore. A t Hungarian school, geography, history, and language were all components of our education and provided background information about Hungary and its culture. This is information I am grateful for and use to this day. In Hungarian scouts, we would put on skits for the campfire each night, and often act out folktales - usually humorous tales, jokes, or historical legends. Specifically, I remember learning the tale of the White Stag, a historical legend describing the migration and formation of the Hungarian people centuries ago. The antiquity of the characters and story elements struck me, and it was fascinating to learn about Hungary's rich history by way of an engaging tale. Where scouts taught history and outdoor skills, folk dancing fostered understanding of village life. Today, Hungarian folk dancers in Hungary and Canada work at preserving the dances from specific villages, as they were performed many years ago. As a result of folklorists researching a village, its people, and its traditions, these dances are still performed today in dance camps and tdnchdzak or dance houses, both in Hungary and in Canada. Such research has also shown that a rural life has been a reality for many Hungarians in Hungary throughout Hungary's history. Even today, Hungary's folklore (pottery, crafts, music, song, and dance) is rich and very much alive. The 1 landscape—the pastoral setting, where people work hard on their land and relax by visiting with friends and family, enjoying each other's company over good food, drink, and revelry—is equally important. The strong presence of Hungarian heritage still exists today, particularly in villages in former Hungary, or Transylvania, where the traditions of the Hungarian people are still celebrated. Despite being familiar with the culture, I had never traveled to Hungary until 2001, when I decided it was time to explore my roots first-hand and meet relatives I had only ever heard about. I grew up listening to my parents and their friends speak Hungarian, though it was common practice for us to respond in English; after all, we were growing up in a primarily English-speaking part of Canada. A s children, we had a few storybooks in Hungarian, but looking back, I think it would have been enjoyable and educational to read Hungarian stories in English. A s a teenager, I began to consider ideas of cultural identity and what it means to call myself Hungarian. Is it just that my parents were born in Hungary? Or is it my dedication to preserving the traditions of their former home? Or is it simply that I identify myself as a Hungarian-Canadian? As an active member of the Hungarian-Canadian community, even today, I am committed to preserving the culture and educating others about the traditions of Hungary as much as possible. Through folk dance research, practice, and performance, our dance group's aim is to create awareness among Hungarian and non-Hungarian communities. This is also a major aim of many Hungarian organizations in Canada. The New Hungarian Voice (NHV), a publication devoted to the promotion of Hungarian culture, includes, among a wide range of articles, a folktale in each issue, which I either translate and/or adapt. I have been a member of the NHV since 2004. The 2 JVT/Fteam is not limited in its scope; members of the committee organize community events, cultural performances, historical exhibits (such as the month-long 50 t h anniversary commemoration of the 1956 Revolution, held at the Vancouver Public Library, Central Branch in October 2006), and other major projects such as translating important and lengthy documents to make them available for English speakers. The NHV team believes in the importance of making information available in English to those interested in Hungarian culture. Children should be no exception, and one way to create awareness in them is by exposing them to a wide range of stories. When I became interested in studying literature during my undergraduate years, and more recently, during my current graduate work in children's literature, my interest in Hungarian folktales has also grown. The project of discovering the range of Hungarian folktales available in English began, and acquiring illustrated versions, collections, as well as critical works about the tales became a slow and ongoing endeavour, especially since many of these books are out of print and not readily available in libraries or bookstores. This project emerges from my desire to study a selected body of Hungarian folktales in more detail. Specifically, the goals of this study are three-fold: to present the finding of my extensive search for tales in translation and for scholarship on these tales; to offer a system of classifying and describing the selected tales and to provide a comparative analysis of variants and types; and to offer an argument for anthologizing tales for a Canadian and/or Hungarian Canadian reading audience. Upon examining the collections and illustrated tales, I realized that a very large number of tales exists, and variants of the same tale appear in different collections. The 3 number of tales was too large to contend with in this study's scope, and it became apparent that some narrowing of the data was necessary. I divided the body of tales into two categories: single, illustrated folktales, and folktale collections (illustrations not presence or minimal). Approximately eighteen illustrated folktales exist in English, and most were published between 1960 and 2000. Interestingly, within these illustrated tales, certain cultural elements (folk art designs, traditional costumes, and peasant/village scenes) seem to recur despite differing illustration styles. These elements are what provide readers of all ages with a glimpse of what life used to be, and is still, in many cases, like for Hungarians. The illustrated tales chosen for this study are important as they are distinctively Hungarian, providing a richer experience of the tales and of the culture. Culture, as defined by Perry Nodelman, is "the entire range of texts, actions, and artifacts through which a social group - a particular class or a national or local group -expresses and confirms its meanings and values to itself and others" (243). The selection of folktales demonstrates, through text and illustration, the traditional actions and artifacts of this national group. In addition, the selected tales, both with and without illustrations, have the aspect of translation in common. That is, they have been translated from Hungarian at some point. This is not to say that the tales do not have other cultural variants - this is entirely possible, as folklore is not confined to national or political borders. However, I argue in this study that there is something uniquely Hungarian about these tales that is only communicated through signs in the text and illustration. This study ultimately makes a case for the creation of an anthology of illustrated Hungarian folktales in translation for young Canadian readers. Twenty tales, chosen 4 according to the selection criteria, comprise the body of primary material and are grouped according to tale categories. A review of critical works on Hungarian folktales helps provide context for the study; in addition, critical works pertaining to specific aspects of folklore studies serve to ground the comparative parts of this thesis in critical theory. For example, the discussion around illustration and culture considers theories that examine both illustration in children's books (such as those of Penni Cotton, Perry Nodelman, Mar ia Nikolajeva, Patricia Cianciolo, Ken and Sylvia Marantz, John Stewig, and others) and cultural theory (Nodelman, Stuart Hal l , and Anthony Smith). In considering the variants of a selection of tale types and their particular references to Hungarian culture, my hope is to illuminate the persistence of certain Hungarian folktales while highlighting their distinctiveness. Fol lowing this introductory chapter, which provides an overview of this study's content, purpose, and structure as well as some personal background and connection to Hungarian culture, Chapter Two discusses the primary materials and defines the criteria applied to the selection of tales in this study. A lso in the second chapter, I evaluate, analyze, and synthesize secondary sources related to Hungarian folktales. These critical works in Hungarian folktale research are organized chronologically and provide a context for this study. Chapter Three defines the folktale categories—fairy tales, humorous tales, animal tales, anecdotes, and historical legends—underpinning my thesis. In this chapter, I also define the elements of comparison used for each tale category, or grouping—beginnings, endings, motifs, and illustrations. Another important aspect of this chapter is the examination of critical issues surrounding folktales as literary objects. The classification 5 systems and critical issues discussed in chapter three serve as the theoretical paradigm for chapters four to eight. Chapters four to eight are primarily close readings and detailed comparisons of variants within each tale grouping. Definitions of each tale category draw upon Gyula Ortutay and Linda Degh's established definitions from Chapter Three. Chapters four to eight are structured similarly, and given that text and illustration can hardly be separated in picturebook analysis, illustration is given some consideration within each of these sections. As mentioned earlier, the focus of these chapters is to look at differences and similarities among tales variants within a particular category as well as the role illustration plays in depictions of Hungarian culture. Chapter Nine, the conclusion, includes observations from the comparative chapters, four to eight, and opportunities for further research related to this study. I also argue for the creation of an anthology of Hungarian folktales in English, anticipated challenges of such a project (funding, permissions, time, translation), the shape of the anthology (for example, introductory essay for each section), the consequences of, or expected response(s) to, having such an anthology, and finally, a working title for the anthology. This study, I believe, shows the evolution of these folktales: their roots in oral tradition, their collection and transcription, their translation, their adaptation (through words and pictures), their migration to other parts of the world, and their accessibility to a wider body of young readers. This change in readership results not only in the development of creativity and literacy through reading, but also in cultural awareness and the development of empathy in child readers. Today, many of these tales are difficult to 6 locate, and the act of pulling them all together in an illustrated anthology would be invaluable. Such an anthology would help promote multiculturalism in Canada and create awareness of a body of literature, Hungarian folktales, that is so often ignored in world folktale collections. In her book, Folktales of Hungaryu L inda Degh describes Hungary as a "racial and linguistic island between the Balkan and the Balt ic states" (v) -a possible explanation for the lack of Hungarian folktales translated into English. It is my hope that this study sparks interest and further research in Hungarian folklore, so that Canadian children may have access to stories from that part o f the world and, by extension, gain an understanding of another culture and its richness. Ultimately, by creating awareness of this unique body of tales, my hope is for readers of Hungarian folktales, and especially child readers, to be made aware of the culture and its folk literature, and for the tales to find their way into collections of multicultural anthologies of folktales. A t present, they are noticeably absent, and this neglect does a disservice to a group of stories that are, as V a l Biro writes in The Honest Thief "richly based in the national character..., [that mirror] the many-sided texture of the Hungarian peasant imagination: its simple belief in the supernatural, its faith in the power of good over evi l , and its ability to use the splendid release of humour to make the business of ordinary life bearable" (n.pag.). 7 C H A P T E R T W O : L I T E R A T U R E R E V I E W Pr imary Sources Hungarian folktales are rarely included in world folktale collections for children. One possible explanation is that they are not readily available. In fact, relatively few Hungarian folktales exist in translation. A preliminary search through the University of British Columbia and Vancouver Public Library systems returned fewer than eight of the single, illustrated folktales and folktale collections ever published. Most, however, are out of print and/or rare and only available for purchase through the Advanced Book Exchange online. The folktale chronologies provided in the appendices of this paper are as complete as possible, though I acknowledge that other tales and/or collections may exist that are out of print or simply unavailable online or through the U B C or V P L catalogues. I wi l l provide an overview of available primary material, Hungarian folktales in English, to demonstrate my point: that there is a lack of translated Hungarian folktales, and that those translated are largely inaccessible. In total, there are seventeen collections of Hungarian folktales published in English, with publication dates ranging from 1886 to 2001. Nine of these collections appeared between 1960 and 1990, with only five published in the last fifteen years. The number of single, illustrated Hungarian folktales is comparable at eighteen. The earliest English language picturebook, The Three Poor Tailors, by author/illustrator Victor Ambrus, was published in 1965, much later than the first unillustrated collection of tales published in the late nineteenth century. Again, as with the collections in translation, the 8 majority of these illustrated tales were published between 1965 and 1981, with only four appearing after 1990, the most recent being Cel ia Barker Lottridge's The Little Rooster and the Diamond Button in 2001. Nine of these books were published in the United States, with four coming out of Britain, and three from Canada. Ful l bibliographic information appears in Appendix B. In this study, one of my goals has been to determine a core sample of Hungarian folktales, which proved a challenging task, as many of the collections contain up to forty tales. I tried to choose tales from a range of categories and ultimately decided on the following: fairy tales, humorous tales, animal tales, anecdotes, and historical legends. Definitions for these categories are given in Chapter Three, along with an explanation o f the process by which I arrived at these categories and their definitions. To establish and maintain the comparative framework of this study, it was important to choose tales with several variants. And to provide a more uniform study of each, I chose five tales—one for each category—each tale within the category to have three other variants. I also included at least one illustrated version in each tale grouping, though the animal tale grouping is composed entirely of illustrated folktales. Five criteria determined the selection of tales for the folktale sample. These items are as follows and also appear (for easier reference) in Appendix C: 1) The tales must be Hungarian, with distinct textual or visual representations of the country and/or its culture. Those without distinctive Hungarian representations give source notes rooting the tale in Hungarian culture. 2) A given tale should be chosen from one of the main categories: fairy tale, humorous tale, animal tale, anecdote, and historical legend. 9 3) The chosen tale for each category needs at least three other variants to adequately facilitate a comparative framework. 4) Each grouping needs to include at least one single, illustrated version, or folktale in picturebook format. 5) Each grouping also needs to include at least one variant that has a child audience in mind. Since this study focuses on Hungarian folktales, it has been important to include authors of Hungarian origin'. However, I have chosen to include tales by non-Hungarian authors as well , provided the source explicitly identifies the tale as Hungarian. This is the case with Cel ia Barker Lottridge's The Little Rooster and the Diamond Button, a "l ively retelling of [a] traditional Hungarian folktale," according to the front matter. I have included this tale in the core sample because, as an adaptation by a non-Hungarian author, it contributes to a richer comparative discussion. Similarly, The Little Rooster's Diamond Penny by Marina McDougal l (1945) is a bilingual book, its text in both English and Hungarian, of a well-known folktale in which the protagonist is an animal. Though visual and textual cultural distinctiveness are absent in this book, it is connected to Hungarian culture through language. The following charts organize the primary materials selected for this study according to title, author, source, and presence of illustration: 1 In most cases, biographical information is included with each illustrated tale. Where this information has been omitted, a biographical search on the Internet has determined whether the author is Hungarian or not, and what connection he or she has to the culture. 10 Table 1.1 Fairy Tales - Selected Variants Title Author(s) Source Illustrations "The Student Who Was Forcibly Made K ing " Rev. W. Henry Jones & Lewis L. Kropf collection - Folk-Tales of the Magyars (1886) no "The Student Who Was Forced To Be K i n g " Gyula Illyes collection - Once Upon a Time: Forty Hungarian Folk-tales (1964) no The Student Who Became King in spite of Himself Francois Colos picturebook - The Student Who Became King in spite of Himself\\91r4) yes "How a Student Became a K ing " Irma Molnar collection - One-Time Dog Market in Buda (2001) no Table 1.2 Humorous Tales - Selected Variants Title Author(s) Source Illustrations "The Wishes" Rev. W. Henry Jones & Lewis L. Kropf collection - Folk-Tales of the Magyars (1886) no "Three Wishes" Gyula Illyes collection - Once Upon a Time: Forty Hungarian Folk-tales (1964) no Janko 's Wish Judy Varga picturebook -Janko's Wish (\969) yes "Three Wishes" Elek Benedek collection - The Tree that Reached the Sky (1988) yes- one 11 Table 1.3 Animal Tales - Selected Variants Title Author(s) Source Illustrations The Little Cockerel Victor Ambrus picturebook - The Little Cockerel (1968) yes The Little Cock Joseph Domjan & Jeanne B. Hardendorff Picturebook - The Little Cock (1969) yes The Little Rooster's Diamond Penny Marina McDougal l bilingual picturebook - The Little Rooster's Diamond Penny (1978) yes The Little Rooster and the Diamond Button Celia Barker Lottridge picturebook - The Little Rooster and the Diamond Button (2001) yes Table 1.4 Anecdotes - Selectee 1 Variants Title Author(s) Source Illustrations "The Dog Market in Buda" Rozsika Schwimmer collection - Tisza Tales (1928) yes - two " A Deal that Went to the Dogs" Linda Degh collection -Folktales of Hungary (1965) no "Only One Dog Market in Buda" Peggy Hoffmann & Gyuri Biro collection - The Money Hat and other Hungarian Folk Tales (1969) yes - one "One-Time Dog Market at Buda" Irma Molnar collection - One-Time Dog Market at Buda (2001) yes - one 12 Table 1.5 Historical Legends - Selected Variants Title Author Source Illustrations The White Stag Kate Seredy illustrated chapter book - The White Stag (1970) yes "The Enchanted Stag" Albert Wass collection - Selected Hungarian Legends (1971) yes - one The Miraculous Hind Elizabeth Cleaver picturebook - The Miraculous Hind (1973) yes "The Legend of the White Stag" Irma Molnar collection - One-Time Dog Market at Buda(2001) no Secondary Sources: Hungarian Folklore A n extensive search in the University of British Columbia databases, as well as a lengthy consultation with Joanne Naslund, a research specialist in children's literature at the U B C Education Library, yielded a small body of secondary sources related to Hungarian folktales. Though just a few scholarly articles have been published on the subject, a larger number of books have been produced. To place my study in the context of previous research dealing with topics in Hungarian folklore, the existing literature is reviewed chronologically in this section of the chapter. The earliest scholarly work in English on Hungarian folktales is Rev. W. Henry Jones' and Lewis L. K r o p f s The Folk-tales of the Magyars, published in 1889. This source is a collection of folktales, translated and edited, with detailed notes accompanying each tale. These notes compare the anthologized tales to the folktales of other nations. However, in the introduction, Jones and Kropf also give a history of Hungary and its people as well as a list of Hungarian folktale collections to the date of 13 publication, which amounted to 240 tales. In his extended introduction, Jones makes an important argument about the lack of critical attention paid to this body of literature: The great difficulty in considering these tales—in common with the Finn, Esthonian, and Lapp—is the language; and the aim of the present translation is but to be as literal as possible in its rendering of the stories; there being no attempt whatever made to polish or beautify the tales, but simply an endeavour to reproduce as near as may be the stories as told by the people; in many cases, especially with regard to the Szekely stories, this has been a work of very great difficulty, on account of the dialect, and must plead for the many shortcomings in the translations. (Jones xxiv) A lengthy section explaining the significance of certain characters, such as giants, fairies, and witches, as well as of beliefs, superstitions, and special days, grounds this source in the tales, while drawing at the same time upon the traditions of Hungarian culture. Jones credits the paper "Mythological Elements in Szekely Folk-lore and Folk- l i fe" as his source. By combining a selection of primary sources with comparative notes, Jones and Kropf help place the tales in an international context and illuminate them for the purposes of critical study. Jeremiah Curtin's Myths and Folk-tales of the Russians, Western Slavs, and Magyars, published by Little, Brown, and Company in 1890, is less rigorous in its critical material, and looks briefly at Hungary's political history, while selecting only six tales2 in total as a sample of the country's folk literature. Curtin's bibliography cites many of the 2 "The Poor Man, and the K ing of the Crows," "The Useless Wagoner," "M i rko , the King 's Son, " 'The Reed Maiden," "K iss Mik los, and the Green Daughter of the Green K ing , " and "The Hedgehog, the Merchant, the King, and the Poor Man . " 14 same sources as Jones' does; however, by including even a small number of Hungarian folktales, he allows for awareness of their existence in an English language audience. It seems there was a lul l in publication of critical works in English until 1955, when Gyula Ortutay's article, "The Science of Folklore in Hungary between World War One and Two and during the Period Subsequent to the Liberation," appeared in the journal Acta Ethnographica. This dense, academic, and lengthy (83-page) essay has no headings and lacks an accessible organizational scheme. Ortutay's ideas are significant to folklore research and grand in scale, but go beyond what this study intends to explore. I, therefore, w i l l not engage these ideas in this study but note them here for their contribution to the study of Hungarian folklore. Ortutay also surveys the major scholars of this field and their contributions to the development of folklore research. In addition, he examines the mistakes in interpretation made by Hungarian researchers as well as the "various erroneous western doctrines, e.g. the psychoanalysis" applied to the interpretation of texts (26). The objectives of Ortutay's essay are summarized in the final lines: "We hope to have given above a concise survey of the history of the science of folklore in Hungary during the last decades including the post-liberation era, and we trust we have conveyed to the reader a comprehensive picture of the problems, debates, controversies and results of those years" (81). Though my project is a literary study rather than a survey, Ortutay's research provides pertinent cultural information that gives a context for a study of this nature. His work is influential in the history of Hungarian folk research and marks the beginning of a fruitful period of publication in the field of Hungarian folklore. 15 Agnes Kovacs' authoritative article, "The Hungarian Folktale-Catalogue in Preparation," published in 1955 in Acta Ethnographica, describes the various attempts of folklorists at cataloguing Hungarian folktales over the years, outlining the works, the authors, details of their projects, their successes and shortcomings. Kovacs contends that, in the mid-twentieth century, 6000 tales comprised the body of Hungarian folktales. She explains the purpose of her article as follows: The tale-catalogue.. .wants to present to scholars of folklore within and without Hungary the complete material of the Hungarian folktale, viz. the texts of folktales (a) published in anthologies of folk-poetry, (b) issued as publications of philological texts, (c) printed in ethnographical, linguistic, literary and sociographical etc. works, reviews and periodicals, (d) registered in the manuscript-collections of the Ethnographical Museum, the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, etc., or (f) hidden as manuscripts in the possession of private collectors. The texts are to be arranged in accordance with Aarne-Thompson's internationally accepted system, indicating, within that framework, the characteristic features of the Hungarian folktales in respect of construction, episodes, and motifs. (443) This document would be a key source, as it specifically relates to folktale analysis and looks at the characteristics of Hungarian folktales. However, despite searching databases such as Academic Search Premier and others where literature and/or folkloric topics appear, I was only able to locate an incomplete version of the document. Then, in an e-mail correspondence, Linda Degh, an author, folklorist, and professor at the University of 16 Indiana, wrote the following in answer to my question concerning a completed version of Kovacs' "The Hungarian Folktale-Catalogue in Preparation": The Hungarian Folktale Catalogue (vols. 1-12) was published several years ago, only the last concluding volume hasn't been finished yet. Nevertheless the volumes are available on order, from the Folklore Research Institute in Budapest. The materials, by the way, were incorporated into the new The Types of International Folktales in 3 vols, by Hans-Jorg Uther ... Agnes Kovacs (who died 10 years ago) was related to the great story collector-teller Elek Benedek. (n.pag.) M y search for this document involved several e-mail enquires to the Folklore Institute as well as an Interlibrary Loan request at U B C . What I learned is that this document was published in 12 separate volumes, available by individual request. Due to time restraints, I was not able to collect all 12 volumes for use in this study. I did, however, obtain Hans-Jorg Uther's The Types of International Folktales. As L inda Degh mentions in her e-mail correspondence, the materials are incorporated, meaning the book combines thousands of international folktales. Again, the time constraints did not allow me to search these dense and lengthy volumes for the five tale types selected for this study. It would, however, be useful for subsequent studies similar to this one to obtain and refer to Kovacs' "Hungarian Folk-Tale Catalogue." In the following year, 1956, Tekla Domotor published "Principal Problems of the Investigation on the Ethnography of the Industrial Working Class in Hungary." This article is very much ideologically driven and written in an ethnographic vein. It deals with ideas of the working class in relation to Hungarian folklore and focuses primarily on 17 folk songs; furthermore, it sheds light on peasant life, and since many Hungarian folktales are also about peasant life, the information is useful to the researcher of such tales. Unl ike Domotor, Linda Degh is primarily concerned with folktales and their oral transmission. Degh's essay, "Some Questions of the Social Function of Storytelling," published in 1958 in Acta Ethnographica, argues that "the social background is of cardinal importance in the research into folktales, for their sense, development, gain and loss of glamour can best be explained when their performance is placed in their proper social setting" (91). The historical discussion focuses on storytelling and storytellers among both peasantry and nobility, but also discusses the folktale itself. Degh is concerned primarily with the telling of stories, and not necessarily stories (told) for children. The same is true of Ortutay. Both are folklorists, not children's literature specialists, and their works reflect this. Degh does, however, discuss the role of women and children in relation to storytelling: The narration of tales for the benefit of children is, however, no genuine storytelling. Children's stories as told by women are not taken seriously anywhere, nor are they taken so in Hungary, whereas real storytelling is accepted in all communities as a serious form of entertainment. (139-140) Given that this study is ultimately interested in the child audience of the folktale, any reference to children and folktales is significant. However, now—fifty years later—such sweeping statements about gender roles and societal or cultural beliefs should be regarded critically, as beliefs belonging to a particular past period. 18 Gyula Ortutay, in his 1959 Acta Ethnographica article, "Principles of Oral Transmission in Folk Culture," writes: " a variant is the result of a given creative moment but is, at the same time, the echo of a historical form: it is only in comparison with that pre-existing model that it conveys something new and different, so that the term variant is quite justif ied" (181-182). Though his comment pertains to the oral transmission of folk poetry, it may also be applied to this study. The importance of comparison is clearly justified here by Ortutay. He continues to argue for motif and type comparisons: " A comparison of the type, motif, etc. with their variants enables us to fol low historical processes, perceive ethnically conditioned deviations, observe the creative role of the individual in reproduction, measure the force of communal tradition and discover characteristic features of oral transmission" (190). What is particularly compelling for this study are the "ethnically conditioned deviations," which do influence the adaptation or alteration of pre-existing folktales. One drawback of Ortutay's article is that it focuses very little on folktales and more on folk songs, poetry, and ballads. Therefore, some of it is not directly pertinent; still, some of the theory concerning the oral transmission of folklore can be applied to the literary genre of folktales as well. V i lmos Voight 's "Selected Studies of Janos Honti ," published in Acta Ethnographica, followed Ortutay in 1963, and claims significance because of Honti 's major contributions as a folktale researcher. This article is an overview of Honti 's works and an introduction to his life and to those who influenced him. Voight 's mention of Honti 's works is useful to the further study of Hungarian folktales, though Voight does not specify whether Honti 's works have been translated into English or not. 19 Linda Degh is arguably the most prolific and influential Hungarian folklorist whose work has been translated into, or originally published in, English. In the foreword of her book, Folktales of Hungary, published in 1965, Degh gives a comprehensive overview of past and then-current (to 1965) research on Hungarian folktales. This book is part of the World Folktale series, edited by Richard Dorson: its "principal motive ... is ... to suggest the contribution of Hungarian oral literature to the universal stock of folk narrative" (Degh xii i). A s a rich resource for identifying other seminal works related to this subject, it provides a detailed look at major issues as well as at collections available in English. The 72 tales that comprise the collection of primary sources are divided into seven categories: "Marchen," "Jokes and Anecdotes," "Religious Tales," "An imal Tales," "Tales of Ly ing , " "Historic Legends," and "Loca l Legends." This final category is further subdivided to specify the following types: "The Herdsman Legend Cyc le , " "The Coachman Legend Cyc le , " "Witches," "Other Persons Endowed with Extraordinary Knowledge," "The Garaboncias Legend Cyc le , " "Supernatural Beings," and "Legends That Have Assumed the Form of Tales." Each tale is annotated, some more thoroughly than others, and the author includes a glossary, extensive bibliography, index of motifs, and index of tale types. Folktales of Hungary has a distinctively sociological slant, as the author's research is primarily concerned with storytelling and primary materials collected from villages. Nevertheless, it contains much information pertaining to the tales themselves and the traditions of the culture from which the tales arise. Should this study become a steppingstone for a larger scale project, Degh's Folktales of Hungary would likely be the best bibliographical resource. To give an 20 example of one valuable item included in Folktales of Hungary, Degh suggests that in 1846-1848, Janos Erdelyi 's three volumes of Folksongs and Legends, "displayed insights into social theory and recognized that the rudest peasant possessed the finest specimens of folk prose and folk poetry" (Degh vii). I have found Degh's bibliography a most useful tool in learning about the range of material available (both in English and in Hungarian) on Hungarian folktale research. Another of Linda Degh's works, Folktales & Society: Storytelling in a Hungarian Peasant Community, originally published in 1969, is again concerned with, as the subtitle suggests, storytelling in a peasant community. She focuses on a "transplanted Bucovina Szekler community" residing in the village of Kakasd, which belongs to the County of Tolna, Hungary (vii). Degh also provides a "survey of the results in folktale research to the present" (v). Interestingly, her afterword was added in 1989, once she revisited this community. The appendix is a survey of the tales from Kakasd, including comparisons of variants, thorough annotations, notes to the tales, and a bibliography, which are all extensive and most useful in understanding these tales and their origins, as well as in determining the range of tales originating from this geographical area. The index of motifs and tale types provides a sense of the range of Hungarian folktales available, and the translated versions appearing in this book contribute significantly to the body of Hungarian folktales available in English. Gyula Ortutay, a contemporary of Degh's, wrote Hungarian Folklore: Essays, published in 1972, which is typical of Ortutay's style—erudite, critical, and insightful— and is a seminal work to consider in a study of this nature. The most pertinent section of the book is titled, "The Hungarian Folktale," in which the author delves systematically 21 into the tales and analyzes their elements, motifs, types, and contexts. In addition, the third part of the book provides detailed portraits of all the major Hungarian folklore scholars and their contributions to research and development in this particular field. Ortutay's writing is stylistically different from Degh's, whose work is more direct and accessible. L inda Degh's essay, "Fo lk Narrative," was published in Folklore andFolklife: An Introduction in 1972; it provides a detailed description of the evolution of Hungarian folktale scholarship but also delves into the various types of folk narrative, which include "the magic tale," "the romantic tale," and "migratory legends." As an overview of folktale scholarship, as well as an introduction to these types of folk narrative, Degh's essay is lucidly written and provides clear examples for each type. Ivan Balassa and Gyula Ortutay's Hungarian Ethnography and Folklore, published in 1974, is a goldmine of over 800 pages of information about Hungarian folk life. It is essentially an anthology divided into sections dealing with the various anthropologies of Hungary: social, material, and cultural. The section on folktales and legends is extensive and deals specifically with the following types: "Fairy Tales," "Humorous Tales," "Vi l lage Mocking Tales," "Religious Legends," "An imal Fables," "The Form and Content of Folktales," "The Legend," and "Other Types of Folk Narrative." These pages are invaluable to subsequent chapters of my study, as they provide definitions for the tale categories I have selected. Important information they provide on motifs and their significance in Hungarian folktales is also integrated into my comparison. 22 Studies in East European Folk Narrative, published in 1978, and edited by Linda Degh, includes at least six scholarly articles (in translation) pertaining directly to the study of Hungarian folk narrative. Since each article deals with folk narrative in relation to a specific geographic area of Hungary or is a detailed study of motifs, characters, or other narrative elements specific to a group of tales, none of the articles is directly useful for this study, though they are useful additions to the body of literature on Hungarian folktales in general. L inda Degh's work, Hungarian Folktales: The Art ofZsuzsanna Palko, published in 1995, is a tribute to well-known and acclaimed storyteller Zsuzsanna Palko (1880-1964). Degh writes, "There has been no more important relationship between folk artist and folklorist than that between Zsuzsanna Palko and Linda Degh," demonstrating her close relationship with Mrs. Palko (vii). The result is a collection of 35 tales, as told by Mrs. Palko, including sections by Degh devoted to terms, special meanings, concepts, and references. This anthology is not a collection intended for children; instead, it adds to the body of Hungarian folktales available in English, widening the range of tales, and providing another perspective on this subject. As this literature review shows, given the time span, there is only a handful of scholars whose research on Hungarian folklore is available in English. In the process of researching secondary material and considering one of the aims of this study—to review current literature—I have determined that no substantial body of current literature exists in the area of Hungarian folktale research, making it a rather obscure area of interest where many avenues are waiting to be pursued. According to Degh, the launching in 1953 of Acta Ethnographica—a significant journal both for my study and for the 23 preservation of Hungarian folktales—marked the beginning of research on Hungarian folklore in English. This brief movement, which began in the 1950s, and the works produced in English during this period (until approximately the late 1980s), appears to have been created by a select group, led by Ortutay and Degh. Having reviewed the scholarly works in English, relating to Hungarian folklore and folktales, I turn in the next chapter to defining the folktales categories—fairy tales, humorous tales, animal tales, anecdotes, and historical legends—underpinning my thesis. Chapter Three also defines the comparative elements employed for each tale grouping, examines critical issues surrounding folktales as literary objects, and situates these tales within the context of existing literature as literary objects. I have chosen to examine these classification schemes and critical issues in a separate chapter because they serve as the theoretical paradigm for the subsequent five chapters which look in depth at the primary texts I have selected for this study. 24 CHAPTER THREE: DEFINITIONS AND CRITICAL ISSUES This study considers folktales as literary objects and creates a comparative framework for the purpose of examining patterns among tale variants of a selection of Hungarian folktales for children. This chapter first looks at some commonly debated terms and at questions that arise in folktale scholarship. It then provides definitions of tale categories and selected comparative elements. M y overall purpose in this chapter is to situate my analyses of selected folktales as literary objects within the context of a literary approach to folktales, to acknowledge some frequently debated terms and issues in folklore scholarship, and to establish the framework for comparison of these texts. In Beauty and the Beast: Visions and Revisions of an Old Tale, Betsy Hearne considers the complex nature of fairy tales: The study of fairy tales is by nature interdisciplinary, requiring some familiarity with folklore, literature, art, history, psychology, and education. Although researchers must guard against thin scholarship in dealing with so many diverse canons of knowledge, they otherwise risk limitations of vision within a narrow specialty, (xiii) Certainly one must acknowledge the wide-ranging areas of knowledge involved in the study of folktales. Mar ia Tatar also acknowledges this multidisciplinarity: "When it comes to fairy tales, nearly everyone has something to say, and they all have something different to say. Folklorists, cultural anthropologists, historians, sociologists, educators, literary critics, psychologists—even criminologists—have all laid claim to occupying privileged positions as judges and interpreters of those tales" (39). The folktales this •25 study is concerned with are no exception to the prevailing idea that folktale scholarship must consider a number of disciplines. Given the many possible approaches to examining a set of folktales, it has been necessary for me to define research goals workable for a thesis project of limited length. The aims of this study, therefore, are to 1) survey a wide selection of Hungarian folktales in English and select a sample of Hungarian folktale categories 2) select folktales representative of the chosen categories 3) find at least three variants for each folktale and identify patterns of variation from tale to tale 4) examine, through close reading and a comparative framework, the similarities and differences among variants of the same tale 5) draw conclusions and make generalizations about the presence of Hungarian folktales in current children's literature. Once my key research objectives were articulated, it became apparent to me that a literary approach to this study was possible. In The Oxford Companion to Fairy Tales, the literary approach to studying folktales is defined using Max Luthi as an example, and Robyn McCal lum makes the following observation about his work: [He] focuses on those formal stylistic features which characterize the genre and which ... function thematically ... supported by close textual analysis of particular tales and their variants [and he] largely ignore [s] the social and cultural contexts of particular retellings, focusing instead on those story elements and motifs which remain stable despite progressive 26 retellings ... [he] avoids imposing specific meanings on individual tales. (18) Key to this definition is the analysis of the texts of particular tales and their variants to draw conclusions about the tales' timelessness. Though other approaches—sociological, historical, cultural, and so on—are equally valid, I have chosen to investigate the selected tales within a literary context as this is the perspective that most intrigues me. Debated Terms In children's literature criticism, authoritative definitions of the terms folktale and fairy tale are elusive. The Oxford Companion to Fairy Tales makes a distinction between the two: The terms have distinct etymologies and meanings. The words fairy tale can refer to both a category of oral folk tale and a genre of prose literature. The term folk tale is reserved for any tale deriving from or existing in oral tradition and is generally preferred by folklorists and anthropologists. Literary scholars tend to use the word [sic] fairy tale to refer to a genre of prose literature, which may or may not be based on oral tradition. (Stein 167) According to Martin Hallett and Barbara Karasek, in Folk and Fairy Tales (2 n d edition), a "folk tale means exactly what it says: it 's a tale of the folk ... the common people of a nation - and the important point to realize here is that the 'common people' were, in the past, generally illiterate. Consequently, their tales were orally transmitted" (12). Perry 27 Nodelman and Mavis Reimer define folktales simply as "stories that circulated orally" (303). Mar ia Tatar discusses a continuum between supernatural and natural settings: The term folktale traditionally has been used in two senses. On the one hand., folktale refers to oral narratives that circulate among the folk; on the other it designates a specific set of tales, namely oral narratives that take place among the folk, that is, in a realistic setting with naturalistic details.... The term fairy tale, by contrast, has been associated with both oral and literary traditions but is above all reserved for narratives set in a fictional world where preternatural events and supernatural intervention are taken wholly for granted. A fairy tale can thus belong to the category of folktales, but it stands in contrast to the folk tale, which is sharply biased in favor of earthy realism. (Tatar 33) For the purposes of this study, I combine several of the outlined definitions of folktale and use the term loosely to refer to tales transmitted orally, originally told by the Hungarian "folk," or peasantry. I use folktale as a general/inclusive term, accounting for all the different categories within the broad genre of folktales. To avoid confusion, I use fairy tale to refer to a "category of oral folk tale" (Stein 167). The definition of this term is expanded in a later section of this chapter. Broadly speaking, folklore is a contextual term—a source from which folktales arise. According to Bette Bosma, folklore is a term coined by Wi l l iam Thorns in 1846 as a study of "manners, customs, observances, superstitions, ballads, proverbs, etc. of the olden time" (28). Since this study is primarily concerned with folktales as literary objects, it does not thoroughly explore all definitions of folklore as Bosma and Thorns have done. 28 I do, however , acknowledge scholar D o n a l d Haase, w h o explores a nationalist ic v i e w o f folklore . H e writes, "to some, the fo lk are an ethnic or national group sharing c o m m o n traditions, lore, and social or cul tural traits" (65). F o r the purposes o f this study, I concur w i t h Haase 's def ini t ion offolklore, w h i c h l inks the term to an ethnic g r o u p — i n this study, Hungarians. Because m y study focuses i n part on illustrated folktales, it has also been necessary to explore different perspectives on terms associated w i t h this genre o f ch i ldren ' s literature. Scholars often differentiate between an illustrated book and a picturebook based on the number or size o f il lustrations or even based o n the level o f interaction between picture and text. F o r example , John S tewig defines illustrated books as having "fewer il lustrations than picture storybooks and what they do have are [sic] often printed i n l imi ted co lor or just b lack and whi te" (7). Pa t r ic ia C i a n c i o l o , however , defines the illustrated book as "any book i n w h i c h the text is accompanied by illustrations that are pertinent to the text," and the picture book as having a "thorough fusion o f pictures and words" {Illustrations 24). Joseph Schwarcz uses the term illustrated book to describe more generally a book for ch i ldren i n w h i c h " w o r d and picture come together to produce a c o m m o n work" ; he defines picture book as a " k i n d o f book, where text and pic tor ia l narratives accompany each other, alternate, and intertwine . . . [and] it strives to overcome cultural boundaries and to offer entertainment and enlightenment i n a metanational f ramework" (Picturebook A). Fo r the purposes o f this study, the term picturebook w i l l be used synonymous ly w i t h i l lustrated story/tale/book and w i l l be appl ied to the pr imary materials w h i c h include more than two illustrations. 29 Some of the texts I have chosen include a single illustration; these tales will not be considered picturebooks. I refer to them simply as folktales, not as picturebooks. Critical Issues By including picturebooks in the selection of tales, one must consider, perhaps obviously, the element of illustration. Illustrated folktales have value that reaches into multiple disciplines as well: art history/criticism, education, psychology, and cultural anthropology, to name a few. Illustrations, according to Gail de Vos, have intrinsic value: Any picture-book version of a folktale cannot help but fill some of those gaps because graphic images are directly referential and necessarily explicit about all sorts of details that the writer of the text may choose not to mention. Pictures tell us the ages of the characters, their physical appearance from hair color to height, and their personalities and relationships to other characters as shown by facial expressions and posture.... To a greater or lesser extent, the buildings, furniture, and clothing in the pictures will suggest a time and place in which the story is set. (New Tales 25) My views are aligned with Patricia Cianciolo's, in that folktale variants can have the same text, but as soon as illustrations are added, the tale becomes a new story: "Folktales have been told without illustrations as long as humans have used language to communicate their ideas, values, and creative imaginings. But once illustrations exist, they inevitably change the story" ("Variants" Cianciolo 98). Illustrations extend the text, 30 provide additional information, and make certain demands on readers that text alone does not. In addition to extending the text, illustration "provides context [and] additional information that doesn't appear in the text" (Nodelman 294). This is the case with the Hungarian folktales this study is concerned with. These tales, through icons in the illustration, provide details about another place and about another culture. Mar ia Nikolajeva's definition of icons is apt here: Iconic, or representational signs are those in which the signifier and the signified are related by common qualities; that is, where the sign is a direct representation of what is signified.... A picture of a horse-drawn cart, then, is a direct representation of the horse-drawn cart . . . in most cases, we do not need special knowledge to understand a simple icon. (1) These glimpses of elements of Hungarian culture are one reason these books are distinctly Hungarian. The illustrations, as Patricia Cianciolo observes, help teach young readers about another culture by representing folkloric items found in the culture: "Information about and appreciation of people of various cultural groups may be obtained from picture books, be they factual or fictional books" ("Variants" 106). For my part, I am more interested in what the pictures actually show, rather than in "how pictures are able to express and metaphorically display what cannot be pictured directly—ideas, moods, abstract notions and qualities" (Doonan 8). Without venturing deeply into cultural representations in illustration, I argue that the visual elements of Hungarian culture are 31 what the pictures show, and that these elements contribute to the Hungarian-ness of the tales. Ultimately, the illustrations in the primary sources of this study create a sense of place: the people, the objects, and the setting mirror elements of Hungarian folk life. On one hand, "when children get acquainted with these old stories, they can take pride in their own backgrounds" ("Variants" Cianciolo 92). Meanwhile, they also "learn to appreciate differences among cultures" ("Variants" Cianciolo 92). Illustrated folktales can thus function as affirmation of one's own cultural roots as well as offering a sampling of another culture. Some may argue that these tales and their culturally specific illustrations exclude the non-Hungarian reader. I believe, apart from their intrinsic artistic value, that they inform, and that most school-aged children are interested in settings and cultures different from their own. Ultimately, the themes and form of these tales are familiar, and they leave readers, whatever their ethnicity, with a sense of satisfaction. Perry Nodelman's observation on this issue is apt: he writes of Jane Yolen's Favorite Folktales from around the World3: "This collection of tales bubbling up from the thoughts and imaginations of ordinary people everywhere in all cultures shows amply the common reservoirs of hopes, fears, love, and rascality that we all share" (309). Folktales inherently touch on common elements that resonate with readers of all ages. In addition to issues of illustration, matters of translation inevitably come into play when one is looking at a body of literature originating in a language other than English. In many of the tales selected for this thesis, multiple authors are credited for a 3 Favorite Folktales from around the World by Jane Yolen is not illustrated. 32 single retelling. Often the author is not the translator, but many of the stories have indeed been translated, and are noted accordingly. Due to these complexities, an in-depth analysis of the factors involved in translation could comprise another study altogether; however, considering some issues involved with translation may lead to awareness of Hungarian folktales among others and, ultimately, to the translation of more Hungarian literature for English-speaking children. The scarcity of translated children's literature is perhaps due to Hungary's "linguistic isolation," as Katalin Nun calls it, or to economic considerations of cost, marketing, distribution, as well as to a lack of communication between publishers and, thus, a lack of awareness of children's literature in Hungary. Katalin Nun's essay, "Hungary," in the International Companion Encyclopedia of Children's Literature (2004 edition), traces the history of Hungarian children's literature. Even in its introductory approach, this piece is a valuable contribution to Hungarian folktale scholarship. Rarely has discussion of Hungarian literature been included in such international and scholarly anthologies; Hungarian folktales are more often than not omitted from world folktale anthologies for children as well. Though Nun mentions some works of Hungarian children's literature that have been translated into English, her list is far from comprehensive, and she writes of children's literature in general, mentioning folktales only in passing. That aside, Nun 's essay draws attention to Hungarian children's literature and provides a solid introduction to political influences on its development, trends in publishing, and translated works. Ron Jobe summarizes the task of translating for children wel l : "In the purest form, then, translating literature for children presents a complex challenge wherein the 33 translator tries to retain the original sense and meaning of the story in another language" ("Translation" 913). Translation is truly an art form, and retaining the original essence of a story, without losing the nuances of the language and culture, is arguably an impossible feat. In her essay, "Weaving World Understanding: The Importance of Translations in International Children's Literature," Rosie Webb Joels argues, "the magnitude of the translator's ski l l , technique, and art in a successfully translated book cannot be overemphasized; successes result only when cultural codes are discerned, understood, and rebuilt" (69). Sandra Bermann would argue that culture and national identity are not mutually exclusive. In her introduction to Nation, Language, and the Ethics of Translation, a collection of essays on translation, says, in reference to translation and national identity, that language is not neutral. Restating a text in a new language subjects that text to cultural and linguistic changes. Bernmann writes, "consciously or unconsciously, [language] performs deft feats of appropriation and exclusion, supported by a dialectic of otherness" (3). Bernmann's work leads to a fundamental question: i f the tales selected for this study did not include source notes, or had no mention of Hungary, or no illustrations representing elements unique to the culture, then how would one credibly define them as Hungarian? They would simply be tales, and one might or might not stop to make assumptions about, or give due credit to, their origins. Though cultures may have similarities, they are also, by definition, different from one another. Perry Nodelman writes, "There are many cultures exactly because these cultures are not like one another—and because the stories they tell are not like the stories other cultures te l l " (309). To retain these differences, there must be either something 34 dist inct ive about the tales that can be attributed to a certain culture or source notes root ing the tale i n a particular culture. Authors and illustrators must be famil iar w i t h that culture i f they are to accurately represent it i n text or i l lustrat ion. C h i l d r e n ' s literature i n translation, then, both educates young readers about another place and "provides students w i t h a sensitive g l impse into the minds and actions o f young people i n other parts o f the w o r l d " ("Reflect ions" Jobe 22). In different words , Ros ie W e b b Joels agrees that translating ch i ld ren ' s literature is a "means to advancing mutual respect among a l l peoples o f the w o r l d " (66). Despite the many obstacles to translating literature for chi ldren , then, the benefits o f sharing literature among nations are obv ious ly numerous. Transla t ion often gives rise to another c o m m o n l y debated topic i n discussions about folktales: authorship, and more speci f ica l ly , cul tural appropriat ion. One side o f the debate argues that a person w h o has no direct experience or ethnic connect ion w i t h a culture cannot possible offer a credible re te l l ing o f a particular cul ture 's folktales. M a r i a N iko l a j eva , i n Aesthetic Approaches to Children's Literature: An Introduction, explores the complexi t ies o f wr i t ing f rom a cul tural standpoint other than one 's o w n : ' L e n d i n g a v o i c e ' to an oppressed minor i ty is undesirable, because the author is wr i t ing f rom a superior power pos i t ion and cannot adopt the m i n o r i t y ' s subjectivity. O n the other hand, it can be posi t ive, as the author is lending a vo ice to a s i lenced group. Ye t , it is s t i l l undesirable, because lending a vo ice is a lways usurping a voice . Further, the act ivi ty can be v i e w e d as self-indulgent and motivated by self-justification. N o t least, it is impossible , because the authors cannot use their o w n experience i n their 35 writing. The counter argument to this last stance is that it is possible for a talented author to adopt an Other subjectivity. (15) Though I do not consider today's Hungarians, either living in Hungary or abroad, an "oppressed minority," Nikolajeva's exploration of cultural appropriation clearly demonstrates the complexities involved. Cultural distinctiveness is important for many reasons: to preserve a culture, to introduce a child reader to a world wider than he or she can see, to facilitate discussions about different people and places, and ultimately, to encourage empathy, respect and appreciation for other groups of people in the world. To a certain degree, cultural distinctiveness and nuances may not be present in tales adapted by non-ethnic authors. However, adaptations by authors outside the cultural group provide an opportunity for a rich comparison of folktale variants. Tales often persist through time and language and culture because non-ethnic authors have adapted them from other cultures. This, I believe, attests to a tale's staying power and universal appeal. Having a non-Hungarian author for a tale originating in Hungary contributes to a richer comparative discussion and supports the idea that Hungarian tales are appealing to an English-language as well as a Hungarian audience. It is impossible to trace the original author in many cases, as these tales are rooted in an oral tradition. From there, the tales have been collected, transcribed, translated, retold and/or adapted, making original authorship difficult to claim. Another element of folktale evolution to consider is audience. In their book, New Tales for Old, Gail De Vos and Anna Altmann write, "folktales are not children's stories" (21). What they mean is that folktales did not originate as children's stories: 36 For 200 years and more, adults who write, publish, and choose stories for children have worked hard to make sure that those stories are psychologically appropriate for young readers, free of sex and bad language, packed with edifying themes or good clean fun. Folktales, before they became children's stories read in books, showed no such concern for innocent ears. (21) Indeed, the first collections of Hungarian folktales appeared to be targeted at an academic, not child, audience. In fact, only the picturebook versions of Hungarian folktales seem to be specifically aimed at children. Unlike the picturebooks, many of the collections are accompanied by annotations and other critical commentary and appendices. Because each of the tales in this study has at least one picturebook version, which I assume to have a child audience in mind, I consider the variants also to be intended for children. Though I believe that folktales are appealing to audiences of all ages, ultimately, in this study, my views are aligned with de Vos's comment that "folktales do make marvelous children's stories": They are short, with a straightforward narrative line, and all the force of the story is in the eventful plot. They have patterned repetition, strong contrasts, very little description, and unambiguous characters. They are also a superb playground for the imagination, full of wonders and the bizarre, free from the limitations of everyday reality, with layers of meaning that the conscious or unconscious mind may discover according to its readiness or need. And their porousness and resilience lets them 37 survive a great deal of pasteurization, homogenization, and the addition of whatever the currently approved moral equivalents of supplementary vitamins and minerals for children might be. (New Tales 23) Indeed, folktales are resilient and persistent as a result. Hearne's views are similar to de Vos ' : "Although not originally intended for an exclusively young audience, fairy tales have become, primarily and perhaps irrevocably, provender for children" (141). Mar ia Tatar, on the other hand, claims an agelessness in the appeal of fairy tales: Compell ing in their simplicity and poignant in their emotional appeal, fairy tales have the power to stir long-dormant childhood feelings and to quicken our sympathies for the downtrodden. They also offer wit and wisdom in the trenchant formulations of the folk. There is something in them for every age and generation. (Tatar xii i) Children's literature scholars evidently agree upon the critical issues of intended audience and folktale appeal: folktales were not initially intended for a child audience, but it is "difficult to conceive of a childhood without them" (Tatar xiv). And folktales are appealing to readers of all ages, contributing to their persistence over time and culture. Folkta le Var iants Jerry Griswold, in his book on Beauty and the Beast, writes the following: The pleasure in reading these various versions is twofold. If enough of them are consulted, similarities are recognized and what emerges is a sense of the shared story.. .that lies behind them. (116) 38 Though Griswold's chosen tales are very different from my own, we share the idea that familiarity creates awareness through variation. Griswold also views adaptations and retellings in a positive manner. I agree that the creation of variants speaks to the success of a tale. If a tale did not have staying power, it would not likely be selected for multiple retellings by different authors. Again, regarding Beauty and the Beast, Betsy Hearne writes, "The core of motifs, images, characters, and conflicts remains constant. Yet the changes in form, detail, and tone show the tale's elasticity. Its endurance of transition proves it to be one of the great metaphors of oral and written tradition" (1). A s I show in subsequent chapters which focus on a close reading of the tales, most tales retain core elements in their variants; however, illustration and other details may be modified while preserving the essence of the tale. Hearne states, "the core elements remain because they are magnetic to each other, structurally, and to people, variably but almost universally" (6). Hearne writes, "remarkably—the most effective literary versions prove to share the same motifs that have been retained in oral variants, a pattern that suggests significant continuity of creative process between the two traditions" (123). From this statement, I conclude that there are certain core elements inherent to the folktale that secure it regardless of evolution of form from oral to written. However, as Cianciolo writes, "when the same elements are repeated in one tale after another, small differences between them become all the more prominent, all the more obvious as features of a specific culture" ("Variants" Cianciolo 82). I look for both similarities and differences in subsequent chapters, which centre on comparing variants of tales. 39 Defin ing Tale Categories A s one might assume, similar to the differences in folktale terminology, multiple and conflicting definitions for folktale categories also exist. In surveying the literature on Hungarian folktale scholarship, I came across definitions for folktale categories advanced by two major contributors—Gyula Ortutay and Linda Degh. I have chosen to adopt their definitions of folktale categories for this study: 1) Fairy tales: A tale containing " a wondrous miracle, mysterious assistance, magical transformation, a signal of danger, giants (or dragons), witches, and which has epic authenticity and the confident faith of the narrator" (Ethnography Ortutay 556). 2) Humorous tales: "Although they frequently slip into the world of fairy tales, with which they are interwoven by the presence of the miraculous, they are more robust and more realistic, and at times lash out with rather unsparing humour at the stumblings of the weak ... these jokes were born or became rooted in the tradition of people having a hard, often barely tolerable fate. Thus, in these humorous tales the reigning element is not the miraculous, but the grotesque" (Ethnography Ortutay 564). 3) Animal tales: according to Degh, "animal tales are meant exclusively for audiences of children" (Folktales xxxvi i) . I have expanded this definition to include any folktale in which the main character is an animal. 4) Anecdotes "[h]ave a highly censorious sense of social crit icism... [and are] excellent satires, directed against the village boss, the overbearing official, or the 40 bullying squire held up to ridicule by a released soldier, or their own coachman, or a gypsy lad play-acting the simpleton" (Folktales Degh xxxvi). 5) Historical legends: "The kern of the historical legend is actually always realistic and has some foundation in truth. However, this kern of reality is coloured generally, often by tale-like elements" (Ethnography Ortutay 583). Identifying Comparative Elements After carefully reading each tale and its versions, and scanning for patterns in variance, I concluded that most tales differ in similar ways. In other words, these differences can be broken down into the following elements: beginnings, endings, illustrations, and motifs. These serve as the primary elements for my comparison and contrast within each tale grouping. Other scholars have also chosen elements within a particular vein; for example Betsy Hearne bases her comparison of the 22 versions of Beauty and the Beast on the following structural functions: "character (and characterization); narrative structure (action, event, plot); narrative voice (style, description, tone, point of view, theme); and symbols, objects, and images" (7). Hearne limits her comparison to structural function. I now turn to defining the comparative elements—beginnings, endings, illustrations, and motifs. The beginning refers to the opening and initial action; the ending refers to the closing action and final lines, and illustration indicates whether the narrative is illuminated visually in addition to textually, and to what degree (ranging from a single illustration to a single, illustrated tale, or picturebook). This element also describes 41 briefly the kinds of illustrations present in the tales but does not focus on the artistic medium and other aspects associated with art appreciation. For the purposes of this study, I have accepted Stith Thompson's definition of a motif: "the smallest element in a tale having a power to persist in tradition" (415). Thompson makes the following observations about motifs: Most motifs fall into three classes. First are the actors in a tale—gods, or unusual animals, or marvelous creatures like witches, ogres, or fairies, or even conventionalized human characters like the favorite youngest child or the cruel stepmother. Second come certain items in the background of the action—magic objects, unusual customs, strange beliefs, and the like. In the third place there are single incidents—and these comprise the great majority of motifs. It is this last class that can have an independent existence and that may therefore serve as true tale-types. By far the largest number of traditional types consists of single motifs. (415-416) The descriptive analyses of the motifs in tale variants in this study keep Thompson's parameters in mind. M y next chapter begins by organizing the results of my comparison of the five tale variants within the fairy tales category into a chart. Fol lowing the organization of comparative elements is a discussion comprised of detailed close reading of the texts. The theoretical and comparative frameworks offered in chapters two and three drive the discussion of the subsequent five chapters. 42 CHAPTER FOUR: FAIRY TALES "The Student Who Was Forcibly Made K i n g " and its three variants are surprisingly similar, given their range in dates of publication from 1886 to 2001. Their basic plot structure is the same: a student embarks on a journey, comes across some peas, and pockets them for later (remembering his father's advice). Once he arrives at the king's home, the student requests shelter, and the king and queen put the student to a test to see i f he is a prince disguised as a student and thus a possible suitor for their marriageable daughter. The student passes the test, marries the princess, and after one year, they are told to go back to the prince's land. The student frets that his real identity wi l l be revealed and decides he wi l l abandon his wife and servants and return to school. Once they reach a forest, the student meets a false helper (a seven-headed dragon), who offers help (an abandoned castle to live in until the castle begins to spin). The couple lives happily in their new dwelling for a while. Then, the false helper comes to "collect;" the student frets again but meets an actual helper (an old woman). He follows her instructions to bake a loaf of bread seven times over. When the false helper (dragon) arrives a second time, it cannot pass the test required to enter the castle (to endure what the loaf has endured), so he perishes, and the student becomes an actual king, eventually of two countries. The following tables outline the differences between these folktale variants in the comparative elements described in Chapter Three: 43 Table 2.1 Identification of Fairy Tale Variant Elements - "The Student Who Was Forcibly made King" Title Beginning Motifs Illustrations Ending "The Opening lines -student on journey no Closing Student and initial -royal borough illustrations action: Who was action: " A -the adjoining house present Student Forcibly student started -servant watch becomes lord Made K i n g " on a journey, -peas under bed of the fortress (Henry and as he -peas in corner of and king of Jones and went over a handkerchief two lands. If Lewis field he found -student's gown not dead, still Kropf) some peas -copper fortress reigns which were swiveling on a cracked." goose's leg Final line: "If -old woman/queen I knew that I of magic should fare as -expanded loaf- well as that baking instructions student I would become a student to this very blessed day!" Table 2.2 Identification of Fairy Tale Variant Elements - "The Student Who Was Forced to Be King" Title Beginning Motifs Illustrations Ending "The Opening lines -student out no Closing action: Student and initial walking illustrations Student Who was action: " A -kingdom present becomes king Forced To student who -wing of palace of castle and Be K i n g " was out -trustworthy man king of two (Gyula walking one on watch lands. If not Illyes) day found -peas onto bed dead, still some cracked -peas in pants' ruling there. peas in a pocket meadow." -student clothes Final line: "If I -copper castle knew that I turning on webbed would be as feet lucky as that -old witch/queen student, I -short loaf-baking would become instructions a student this -king of the castle very day." 44 Table 2.3 Identification of Fairy Tale Variant Elements - The Student Who Became King in spite of Himself , Title Beginning Motifs Illustrations Ending The Student Opening lines -student leaves picturebook Closing action: Who and initial home to see the format: student Young man is Became action: "Once world has shoulder- Lord of the King in spite upon a time, -tiny green balls length, wavy castle and all of Himself beyond the in field brown hair; countryside, (Francois Glass -city of the King dressed in folk later rules two Colos) Mountain, -asks for sausages garments; countries. Still there was a and shelter national items does, if he great sea. In -distant wing of depicted— hasn't died yet. this great sea palace currency, lived a little -trustworthy man postage, flag Final line: "If I fish. On the watch colours, folk could know biggest tooth -peas onto bed costume. before it of this little -peas into Intertextual: happened that I fish was handkerchief British, could have written this -no student royalty, other such good luck story: One clothes folktale I would day a student -large castle on a characters. become a left home to duck's foot Eclectic style, student at see the -lived in castle 7 almost collage once." world." years -old witch/Batu, Queen of the Tartars -loaf instructions short 45 Table 2.4 How a Student Became a King" Title Beginning Motifs Illustrations Ending "How a Opening lines -Student on no illustrations Closing action: Student and initial journey to present Student Became a action: "In university becomes king K i n g " another time -dried peas in a and later king (Irma Molnar) and place a field of two student set out -capital city, countries. on the journey royal palace. to the -information Final line: "He university. On on custom is still ruling, i f the way he -small back he has not died found some room in the dried peas in a -royal guard meantime." field, picked watch them up, and -peas onto bed History and put them in -peas in source notes. one of his handkerchief pockets." -student's uniform -copper castle -old woman/queen of the witches -loaf instructions short Motifs vary just slightly within this grouping of tales. In Folk-Tales of the Magyars, Jones writes, "Heroes of folk-tales often attain wealth ... by picking up some apparently useless thing on the road" (354). This motif, picking up the peas, remains the same in each tale. What varies at times is the request the student makes. For example, in Illyes' and Jones' versions, the student asks for travel expenses, whereas in Molnar 's, he requests lodging and provisions. Colos has the student asking for sausage and shelter. The name of the king's castle upon which the student stumbles changes from author to author: Jones refers to a royal borough, Illyes to a kingdom, Molnar to the 46 capital city and royal palace, and Colos to the city of the king and his palace. Other minor name changes occur in this section of the tale as well. Where Jones has the student placed in an adjoining house during his stay, Illyes has him in the wing of the palace. Molnar places the student in a small back room, and Colos in a distant wing of the palace. While in this room, on the first night of his stay, the student either drops the peas accidentally under the bed (Jones) or onto the bed (Illyes, Molnar, and Colos). Once he picks them up, he either wraps them safely in a handkerchief (Jones, Molnar, and Colos) or places them back in his pants' pocket (Illyes). Another motif, the seven-headed dragon, appears in all four tales unchanged and plays the role of the false helper in each tale. The spinning castle, however, changes slightly from version to version. In fact, both the description of the castle and the length of the student's stay vary slightly. Jones refers to a copper fortress that swivels on a goose leg, and the student stays there for two years. Illyes also employs a copper castle, which turns on webbed feet, where the student also stays for two years. Colos now describes a castle (with no mention of copper) that spins on a duck's foot, and the student stays seven years rather than two. Molnar removes the foot and simply has a copper castle that houses the student for two years. Another variation in motif is the identity of the actual helper. In Jones' version, she is an old woman who calls herself the queen of magic; in the other three versions, she is called a witch (Illyes and Colos) and queen of the witches (Molnar), and in all four cases she is a fierce enemy of the false helper, the seven-headed dragon. Colos gives the witch a name - Batu, Queen of the Tartars. By doing this, Colos adds his signature to the 47 folktale, making it a literary artefact. His illustrations, which I discuss later in this chapter, also serve to make this tale markedly Colos ' . The advice that the true helper gives to save the student and his wife is another important motif: she tells him to bake a loaf of bread seven times over in the oven and to place it at the threshold of the castle. The loaf of bread is a magical object that challenges the dragon to endure what the loaf has endured (from being seeded to harvested to baked) and ultimately extinguishes the false helper/enemy. A l l four tales retain this motif exactly, with Jones inserting lengthier instructions to have the particular loaf put in the oven first and taken out last each time it is baked. The others' tales simply mention the loaf should be baked seven times over. Beginnings and endings serve as the next category for comparison within the fairy tale grouping. Jones has the student simply starting on a journey; Molnar, similarly, has the student on a journey to university; Illyes' student is not setting out on a journey at all but is just out walking; finally, Colos has an entirely different take, inserting a short, opening vignette of a fish with the story written on its tooth. Only after this odd opening does he send the student on a journey to see the world. In the endings, the same closing action is retained for each variant: the dragon dies from rage, the student becomes king, and when his parents-in-law die, he becomes king of two countries. The tale closes with the narrator reflecting on the wish to become a student, i f being a student means having such luck. Only Molnar omits this wistful reflection and instead writes a brief annotation to the tale: "traveling students were often offered hospitality in palaces, and a handsome, well-mannered one could be mistaken for 48 a prince traveling incognito" (59). In addition, she provides source notes on the tale and compares it to Hans Christian Andersen's "The Princess and the Pea." Finally, as almost every children's literature scholar would agree, illustrations play a key role in altering and enhancing a story, and in the case of Colos' picturebook, a single tale is told through words and pictures within the covers of the book, thereby giving the story a new level of importance. The illustrations serve as a vehicle of expression for the illustrator, whose work has appeared in The New York Times, Life, Harper's, and Time publications. Colos was a collector of stamps, engravings, decals, sticks, drawings, and prints, all of which he incorporates in his collage-style illustrations. He has an eclectic and intertextual style—the forest scene, which is an illustration that spans two pages, includes Sir John Tenniel's Alice, a cherub, Red Riding Hood and the wolf, and other, seemingly unrelated characters. The inclusion of certain national and cultural elements—the colours of the Hungarian flag, traditional costumes, and old Hungarian postage stamps—pays tribute to the origins of the tale, while mingling with the artist's modern and unique take on an old story. It is perhaps surprising that the selected variants in the fairy tale category are so similar. They each follow the same basic story structure, with only slight variations in motif, beginning, and ending. One other noteworthy distinction among the tales is the style (tone and diction) in which they are written. Jones' version is told in an elevated discourse, which is likely a reflection of the period. Illyes' and Molnar's styles are quite similar, perhaps because these two variants come from collections that rely on the textual narrative, having no illustrations. Colos' version of this tale, being a picturebook, has the added virtue of marrying the text with illustration to create an entirely different feel to the 49 story. A s a result, this tale stands, in my mind, as the most memorable variant among the group. In this chapter, I have discussed the major differences, as I see them, of these tales. The next chapter compares tale variants within the category of Humorous Tales. 50 C H A P T E R F I V E : H U M O R O U S T A L E S Humorous tales, according to Gyula Ortutay, may contain elements of magic but are "more robust and ... realistic" than fairy tales (564). In addition, Ortutay gives humorous tales the characteristic of "lashing out with rather unsparing humour at the stumblings of the weak ... these jokes were born or became rooted in the tradition of people having a hard, often barely tolerable fate. Thus, in ... humorous tales the reigning element is not the miraculous, but the grotesque" (Ethnography 564). Parallel to Ortutay's definition, the next set of tales, "Three Wishes," features a poverty-stricken couple and a grotesque scenario; the latter adds humour and makes the former tolerable. The four versions I have selected range in publication dates from 1886 to 1988 and differ more significantly from one another than the tales discussed in chapter four. The tales titled "Three Wishes" and "The Wishes" wi l l be discussed as a group, and the fourth, Judy Varga's Janko's Wish, wi l l be contrasted, as it is most loosely based on the story structure of the previous three. The basic story structure for Henry Jones, Gyula Illyes, and Elek Benedek's versions involves a childless and poor peasant couple and the presence of a special helper who grants three wishes, the second of which is squandered by the couple and the third is required to fix the mistake. Varga's tale, Janko's Wish, involves a single, male farmer who is lazy and keeps his farm in disarray. He meets a special helper who grants a single wish in exchange for help. Janko eventually achieves everything he could wish for, but only after learning important lessons on helping himself. 51 The following tables outline the differences between these folktale variants in the comparative elements described in chapter three: Table 3.1 Identification o Humorous Tale Variant Elements - "The Wishes' Title Beginning Motifs Illustrations Ending "The Wishes" Opening lines -poor farmers, no illustrations Closing action: (Henry Jones and initial married, no present Couple makes a and Lewis action: "There children hearty meal of Kropf) were 10,000 -wife home early, sausage wagons rolling about to cook along the soup Final line: turnpike road, in -husband has "They got on each wagon news much better in there were -squire's maize- the world, and 10,000 casks, in field in time they each cask -golden carriage, acquired heifers, 10,000 bags, in pretty little horses, and a each bag 10,000 woman (fairy) sucking [sic] pig poppy seeds, in inside, four fine into the bargain, each poppy seed black dogs because they 10,000 -fairy promises were industrious lightnings [sic]. reward for help to and thrifty." May all these get out of mud; (Didactic thunderous offers 3 wishes; ending) lightnings strike wife to make him who won't wishes listen to my tale, - first wish for which I have sausage brought from -couple discusses beyond the other wishes -Operencian heifers, two Sea!" horses, and Initial action: sucking [sic] pig the woman -husband upsets comes home frying pan with early and has sausage nothing to cook. -wife wishes sausage onto his nose -wife wishes sausage back into pan -couple agrees to live in harmony -couple acquires heifer, horses, and sucking pig 52 Table 3.2 Identification o Humorous Tale Variant Elements - "Three Wishes' Title Beginning Motifs Illustrations Ending "Three Opening lines -young, poor, no illustrations Closing action: Wishes" and initial married present Couple sits (Gyula Illyes) action: "There couple, no down to dinner was once upon children but does not a time - don't -wife home enjoy it. ask me when earlier from or where - a fields; about to Final line: " A l l poor man and cook soup the time they his wife." -swishing kept grumbling Initial action: sound, fairy about which Woman comes appears one was to home early -fairy offers blame for the from fields, three wishes fact that they not knowing -first wish - would again be what to make sausage just as poor as for supper -man comes they were home; couple before." argues about what to wishes -man wants horse, cow, pig -man upsets sausage in pan -wife wishes sausage on his nose -wish sausage back into pan -couple continues to argue 53 Table 3.3 Identification o Humorous Tale Variant Elements - Janko's Wish Title Beginning Motifs Illustrations Ending Janko s Wish Opening lines -poor, lazy picturebook Closing action: (Judy Varga) and initial peasant; farm format: Janko Janko receives action: "Once in disarray is a slim, everything he upon a time a -forest; farmer young lad; wished for peasant named gathers berries dresses in folk Janko owned a -old Gypsy garments; Final line: farm that was crone "Queen national items "Possibly the the grubbiest of the depicted— old crone on this side of Gypsies"; colours of the really was the the Danube, i f caravan's back flag, folk art queen of the not in all wheels stuck in (designs, Gypsies, but of Hungary." mud textiles, wood magical -gypsy offers a carving, and powers she had wish for help pottery), rural none at a l l . " -farmer architecture considers sack (buildings, of gold as wish wells, -cleans up landscape), farm while market with searching for Hungarian hiding place words on for gold signs, folk -plaintive tune costumes, folk on flute dance scene -vegetables to with costumes market and musicians. -fixes roof -Sunday clothes -new hiding place—under rock -works fields, gold enough there not to wish for gold -wishes instead for wife -big wedding; has everything could have wished for 54 Table 3.4 Identification o Humorous Tale Variant Elements - "Three Wishes" Title Beginning Motifs Illustrations Ending "Three Opening lines -Poor married one, full-page Closing action: Wishes" and initial couple; young, illustration of Couple sits (Elek action: "Once no children two females in down to eat Benedek) upon a time, -woman home folk costumes, but does not and never early from one wearing a enjoy meal. mind when, fields, starts to head scarf. there lived a make soup Both females Final line: poor man and -fairy appears, have haloes " N o w they his wife." shaking wings surrounding could sit down Initial action: on table-top their heads. to eat, but they Wife comes -grants three did not enjoy it home earlier wishes much, as they from fields, -wishes for were still does not know sausage squabbling what to make -man comes about whose for supper home; wants fault it was, horse, ox, pig and how they -woman wants would now chicken, stay as poor as mirror, new they had apron always been." -couple argues -man reaches for pipe, tips frying pan over -woman wishes sausage onto his nose -couple argues -woman wishes sausage back into pan -end squabbling Motifs are fairly consistent in Jones', Illyes' and Benedek's versions. Differences arise in the type of helper and the situation in which the helper appears. In Jones' 55 version, a fairy's carriage is stuck in the mud, and she offers three wishes in exchange for help getting out. Illyes has a peasant woman in a kitchen wishing for a more substantial meal than clear soup, when a fairy appears to her and offers her three wishes to "see whether [she has her] wits about [her]" (Illyes 173). Benedek also places the woman in the kitchen, stewing over their poverty and meager dinner. A fairy appears and gives the woman a fright, and then offers three wishes. In the first case, the wish is a reward for help, in the second, a test to see i f the woman wi l l squander it, and in the third, compensation for frightening the poor woman as well as a test. Other motifs are surprisingly consistent among these three tale variants, considering the range in publication dates. A l l three tales feature a poor, young peasant couple with a tendency to quarrel, though they love each other very much. Illyes and Benedek describe the couple without children, and Jones makes no mention of children. The major motifs—presence of a fairy, granting three wishes, the wife wishing for sausage, a squabble over what to wish for, the husband upsetting the sausage from the pan as a result of reaching to f i l l the pipe, the wife wishing the sausage onto the husband's nose in anger, and then having to wish it back into the pan—are consistent among these three variants. Slight variation occurs in what the couple desires as wishes. Jones' characters mention two heifers, two horses, and a sucking [sic] pig; Illyes' characters want a horse, a cow, and a pig; and Benedek's characters each have their own desires—the husband a horse, an ox, and a pig, and the woman a chicken, a mirror and a new apron. Beginnings serve as the next category for comparison within the humorous tale grouping. Jones begins his version of the tale uniquely: "There were 10,000 wagons 56 roll ing along the turnpike road, in each wagon there were 10,000 casks, in each cask 10,000 bags, in each bag 10,000 poppy seeds, in each poppy seed, 10,000 lightnings. May all these thunderous lightnings strike him who won't listen to my tale, which I have brought from beyond the Operencian Sea! " (217). He then introduces the poor, but very-much-in-love couple, and the story ensues. Illyes begins, "There was once upon a t ime— don't ask me when or where—a poor man and his wife," and then jumps right into introducing the young peasant couple and opening action (173). Benedek begins in a similar fashion to Illyes: "Once upon a time, and never mind where, there lived a poor man and his wife" (56). In fact, Benedek and Illyes' version are the most similar, in all aspects of comparison, of the humorous tale grouping. In terms of endings, both Illyes and Benedek give their versions an unhappy ending treatment, where the couple continues to squabble, not able to enjoy their dinner and each blaming their perpetual poverty on the other. Even though the tales contain situational humour (the sausage growing on the end of the man's nose), the endings these authors choose is still unhappy. One reason for this may simply be personal—artistic— choice; alternately, an unhappy ending may reflect a return to reality for a historical Hungarian peasant audience listening to the story. The story provides a brief escape, via humour, but an unhappy ending reminds them of their fate—poverty. Not all the authors choose an unhappy ending. Jones has the couple learn from their mistake, live in harmony, and eventually "acquir[e] heifers, horses, and a sucking pig...because they were industrious and thrifty" (Jones 219). This didactic ending also serves as a happy one. 57 Varga's Janko's Wish deserves separate consideration for two main reasons: it is loosely based on the story of the three wishes, and it is in picturebook format. Varga's tale begins with an introduction to the main character and setting: "Once upon a time a peasant named Janko owned a farm that was the grubbiest on this side of the Danube, i f not in all Hungary"(n. pag.). The basic story structure involves a poor farmer who does not like to work and whose farm is in a state of terrible disarray. While in the forest collecting berries, he encounters a gypsy woman—"Queen of the Gypsies"—whose caravan is stuck in the mud. She offers to grant him a wish in exchange for help to extract the caravan. Incidentally, this motif is shared with Jones' version of tale. A t this point, however, Varga's story begins to deviate from the others: the farmer's wish is for gold, and in the process of trying to find a place to hide it, he begins to clean up his farm and work hard to put it in order. A s a result, his luck changes, and he begins to increase his wealth. He decides to wish for a wife, and marries shortly thereafter. He now has everything he could ever wish for, and the tale implies that the gypsy woman did not have any magical power to begin with and simply swindled him. The illustrations add an enormous amount of cultural information, and include the following depictions of Hungary folk culture: colours of the flag prevalent throughout, folk art designs on textiles, wood carving, and pottery, rural architecture (characteristic buildings, wells, and landscape), farmers' market with Hungarian words on signs, folk garments throughout, folk dance scene with folk garments and musicians. The combination of textual references and visual elements makes this tale distinctly Hungarian and offers a didactic tale along with detailed information about a rural setting within Hungary. 58 In this chapter, I have discussed the major differences, as I see them, of the humorous tale category. Chapter six compares tale variants within the category of Animal Tales. 59 CHAPTER SIX: ANIMAL TALES According to Linda Degh, "animal tales are meant exclusively for audiences of children" {Folktales xxxvii). I have expanded this definition to include any folktale in which the main character is an animal. The next set of tales, the first of which is The Little Cockerel by Victor Ambrus, differs from all other tale groupings of this study in that all four variants are single illustrated folktales. Incidentally, I did not find a single unillustrated version in any of the collections. Among all four picturebooks, the basic story structure is shared: a poor old woman has a rooster who finds a shiny item of value while scratching for food. A sultan passes by the house, demands the coin, and takes it from the rooster by force. The rooster then follows the sultan to his palace and crows until the sultan becomes annoyed. Three times the sultan tries to get rid of the rooster: by throwing him first in a well , then in a red-hot oven, and finally, in a beehive. Each time, the rooster, who has a special power and sharp wits, escapes the attempts, and eventually returns to the woman, bringing riches. The following tables outline the differences among these folktale variants in the comparative elements described in Chapter Three: 60 Table 4.1 Identification of Animal Tale Variant Elements - The Little Cockerel Title Beginning Motifs Illustrations Ending The Little Opening lines -Poor old woman; picturebook Closing action: Cockerel and initial tumbledown format: no Cockerel flies (Victor action: "Once house explicit home and Ambrus) upon a time -little cockerel depictions of gives woman there was a scratching over Hungarian the coin. poor old rubbish heap culture, except woman, and -golden sovereign, for last page - Final line: all she had in -Turkish sultan & folk art designs "The old the world his men, take coin on furniture in woman was so were a by force woman's pleased she tumbledown -men throw kitchen, plates allowed the house, a little cockerel in well , displayed on brave little cockerel and a sucks up water wall. cockerel to sit rubbish heap." -men throw wherever he cockerel in red- wanted, and Cockerel hot fire, spits out gave him corn scratches and water to eat in a finds a golden -men throw bowl, and he sovereign cockerel into never again beehive, swallows had to scratch them in the rubbish -blows them on heap for his Sultan, takes coin dinner." back to woman 61 Table 4.2 Identification of Animal Tale Variant Elements - The Little Cock Title Beginning Motifs Illustrations Ending The Little Opening -Poor old woman picturebook Closing action: Cock (Joseph lines and in Hungary, small format: color Little cock Domjan & initial action: house at end of woodcuts, no goes back to Jeanne. B. "There was village recognizably house with Hardendorff) once, in -pet cock K i s distinctive gold and Hungary, a Kakas, scratching elements of silver, poor old in yard for worms Hungarian diamonds and woman who to eat culture, rubies, and lived in a -diamond suggestion of diamond very small halfpenny folkart designs halfpenny house at the -Turkish Sultan in some end of the with soldiers, images Final line: " K i s vil lage." takes halfpenny Kakas and the from cock, puts old woman K is Kakas penny in Treasure lived happily scratches and Room and in comfort finds a -Sultan has three for the rest of diamond wives their l ives." halfpenny -first wife throws cock in well , drinks water -second wife throws cock into hot fire in stove, spits water out -third wife throws cock into beehive, swallows bees -Sultan sits on cock, spits out bees, bees sting Sultan -Treasure room, swallows treasure, takes back to woman 62 Table 4.3 Identification of Animal Tale Variant Elements - The Little Rooster's Diamond Penny Title Beginning Motifs Illustrations Ending The Little Opening lines -Poor woman and bilingual Closing action: Rooster's and initial tumbledown cottage picturebook Little rooster Diamond action: -little rooster, pecking format: folkart brings back Penny (Marina "A long time at garbage pile designs suggested mound of riches McDougall) ago, at the time -diamond penny in rooster's in his magic the Turks -Turkish Sultan with feather and in gizzard. invaded army, guards take depiction of old Hungary, there penny, rooster flies woman in front Final line: "The lived a poor into guard's cloak matter (folk little rooster and woman who -guard throws rooster garment with his mistress had a little into well, drinks all peasant house in danced with joy rooster." water background; folk around the -guard throws into art designs in treasure heap, for Rooster pecks oven, spits out all border) they knew they at garbage pile water would never again for food and -guard throws rooster go hungry." finds a diamond in beehive, rooster eats penny bees -Sultan sits on rooster, who spits out bees -treasure house, throws ruby out to distract guards, swallows all treasure, takes it back to mistress Table 4.4 Identification of Animal Tale Variant Elements - The Little Rooster and the Diamond Button Title Beginning Motifs Illustrations Ending The Little Opening lines -poor old woman picturebook Closing action: Rooster and and initial action: -rooster scratches for format: no Rooster gives the Diamond "Once long ago, worms and bugs distinctive diamond buttons Button (Celia a little rooster -diamond button elements of to woman Barker lived with a poor -imperial sultan/three Hungarian culture Final line: "Then Lottridge) old woman." servants take button -throw rooster in well, featured he went outside to tell his friends the Rooster has to drinks water worms and the scratch for -throw rooster in fire, bugs all about the worms and bugs spits out water sultan and his to eat, finds a -throw rooster in three servants and diamond button beehive, eats bees -Sultan sits on rooster, rooster spits out bees, which sting Sultan -room with diamond buttons, rooster eats up buttons, takes them back to woman, tells friends the tale the diamond button." 63 Each tale remains true to its type in that the narrative action, or story structure, among the tales is the same. The same motifs occur as well , though they differ from tale to tale in name only. In Ambrus' version, for example, the "little cockerel" finds a golden sovereign; Domjan's K i s Kakas, or "little cock," discovers a halfpenny; McDougal l 's "little rooster" has a diamond penny; and Lottridge decides to give her "little rooster" a diamond button. The rooster in each tale also repeats a phrase as it is performing its magical ability: this saying, also a motif, differs in each retelling. Ambrus' cockerel says, for example, "stomach drink up all the water"; Domjan's K i s Kakas, repeats, "drink, my craw, drink up"; McDougall 's rooster says, "gizzard, gizzard, magic gizzard, suck in all this water"; and Lottridge's rooster says, "Come, my empty stomach. Come, my empty stomach. Drink up all the water in the wel l . " Along these lines, Ambrus, McDougal l , and Lottridge have their rooster's crow "Cock-a-doodle-doo!" while Domjan's cries "Kukuricku!" (the Hungarian word for the sound of a rooster). The repeated element within each tale of the rooster addressing its stomach is enduring and significant within the comparative framework of this study; more interesting is the authors' choice to alter the diction. This alteration may be a result of choosing context-appropriate words. Another motif altered among these variants is the treasure room. Three of the four versions include a visit, with or without permission, to the treasure room, where the rooster fills up its stomach with treasure to take back to his mistress. Only Ambrus' version omits this motif and has the rooster returning with the single coin. Domjan fills the treasure room with gold, silver, diamonds, and rubies; McDougal l calls it a treasure 64 house that holds seven chests of precious stones, and Lottridge fills a room with diamond buttons, which the rooster ingests. One other element that differs among these variants is the character who carries out the Sultan's orders to try to extinguish the rooster. Where Ambrus puts the Sultan's guards to the task, Domjan employs a single servant, and Lottridge three servants. Domjan deviates the most, by putting each of his three wives to the task, one by one, offering to reward them with the diamond halfpenny should they succeed in ki l l ing the rooster. As most differences among this tale grouping are in the naming of motifs, a change in the character who attempts to k i l l the rooster is one of the significant differences among these tale variants. A l l four authors begin their variants of the cockerel tale differently, with two mentioning Hungary, and two including no such mention. Where Ambrus begins in a traditional way with "once upon a time," Domjan immediately sets the story in Hungary. McDougal l refers to an historical event in Hungary: " long ago when the Turks invaded Hungary," and Lottridge omits any mention of Hungary, like Ambrus. The mention of Hungary and the use of Hungarian words or phrases may or may not be linked to authorship. For example, neither Ambrus nor Lottridge mentions Hungary or includes visual or textual cues (though the source notes indicate they are Hungarian folktales) to indicate the tale indeed comes from Hungary, and yet, Ambrus is of Hungarian descent, whereas Lottridge is not. Domjan deliberately uses Hungarian names, " K i s Kakas," and phrases, "kukuricku." As mentioned, McDougal l 's version, which is bilingual, also makes references to a specific historical event of Hungary: when "the Turks invaded Hungary." Though no clear connection may be made between the authors' backgrounds 65 and the mention of Hungary or the use of Hungarian words, the presence of these elements nonetheless adds to the cultural distinctiveness of the tales. In terms of endings, Ambrus ends quite suddenly and simply with the little cockerel f lying home and giving the old woman the coin. The woman is pleased and rewards the cockerel's bravery by allowing him to sit anywhere he likes and giving him corn to eat in a bowl, not having to scratch in the rubbish heap again. Domjan's K i s Kakas goes back to the house and empties his stomach of gold and silver, diamonds and rubies, and a diamond halfpenny. Together they live happily in comfort. McDougal l 's little rooster half-flies, half-walks home, lets out treasures from his gizzard and together, the mistress and rooster dance around the heap, glad they wi l l never go hungry again. Lottridge's little rooster walks home because he is too heavy with diamonds. When home, the rooster gives all the diamond buttons to the old woman. She is surprised, and he goes outside to tell his friends (the worms and bugs) about his adventures. Though each tale in this grouping is Hungarian, according to a source note (Ambrus, Lottridge) or reference within the tale text (Domjan, McDougal l ) , none has a distinctly Hungarian presence about the illustration. Folk art designs are suggested within the illustrations of Domjan's, Ambrus' , and McDougal l 's versions, but do not depict Hungarian culture through obvious icons, such as tales in previous groupings do. As mentioned earlier, neither Lottridge nor Joanne Fitzgerald, the illustrator of The Little Rooster and the Diamon Button, is Hungarian. This may explain why the tale has no distinctive Hungarian visual elements. I consider these tales animal tales because, as Degh writes, "they are for children," and because they feature an animal protagonist. This chapter discusses the 66 differences, however minor, in the animal tale category. The next chapter, seven, compares tale variants within the category of Anecdotes. 67 CHAPTER SEVEN: ANECDOTES Anecdotes differ from legends and humorous stories in that they function primarily as social criticism. According to L inda Degh, anecdotes are "excellent satires, directed against the village boss, the overbearing official, or the bullying squire held up to ridicule by a released soldier, or their own coachman, or a gypsy lad play-acting the simpleton" (Folktales Degh xxxvi). To this definition, I w i l l add that anecdotes can have humour but do not contain wondrous elements or magic. The next tale, "The Dog Market in Buda," can be considered part of the unique group of anecdotes referring to K ing Matyas, who reigned in Hungary during the period 1458-1490. This story's premise is that a rich farmer is punished for his greed, and justice prevails when a poor farmer gains riches. The tale depends on the wise and generous king with a strong sense of social justice. According to Linda Degh in Folktales of Hungary, "this is a popular anecdote attached to the figure of K ing Matyas; an old Hungarian proverb, still very much in use, alludes to this incident: 'Only once did dogs go into the bargain at Buda, ' [a proverb] said i f luck has left a person" (322). The following tables outline the differences between and among these folktale variants in the comparative elements described in Chapter Three: 68 Table 5.1 Identification of Anecdote Variant Elements - "The Dog Market in Buda" Title Beginning Motifs Illustrations Ending "The Dog Opening lines -King Mathias, One illustration Closing action: Market in and initial dressed as student, present: black People leave the Buda" action: "One leaves palace and white sketch storytelling (Rozsika day Mathias -poor peasant of a palace session; snow Schwimmer) felt, as he often crying - cheated and entranceway, ceases falling. did, tired of the no money with two men, a King business, -king gives advice: farmer and a Final line: and dressed up will pay great price guard, standing "Snow covered as a wandering for dog with a dog. the village, and student, in -peasant goes to Illustration by stillness spread quest of palace, offers dog - Willy Pogany, out over snow adventure." king promises to folk art designs and roofs." look into injustice, - in wood work silk purse and 100 and border. gold pieces Caption reads: -villagers learn of "I want to offer peasant's luck my dog to his -yellow cur dogs majesty." -march to Buda -king orders everyone leave Table 5.2 Identification of Anecdote Variant Elements - "A Deal that Went to the Dogs" Title Beginning Motifs Illustrations Ending "A Deal that Opening lines -King Matyas "the no illustrations Closing action: Went to the and initial Righteous," present The king Dogs"(Linda action: "Maybe -wealthy farmer outwits the Degh) you have -good bargain for bamboozling already heard dogs man the story of the -poor man sells only dogs that were possession, cow, for Final line: "The sold in Buda." pack of dogs, takes wicked man was them to castle sent off with Man returns -servants send him nothing more from Buda and and dogs to pound than he had tells everyone -king invites him in when he left of the -100 thalers home." wonderful price -king asks for rich for dogs in man's name Buda -rich man takes dogs to king -king sends him off with nothing 69 Table 5.3 Identification of Anecdote Variant Elements - "Only One Dog Market in Buda" Title Beginning Motifs Illustrations Ending "Only One Opening lines -"King Matthias the one illustration: Closing action: Dog Market and initial Just," black and white King shouts at in Buda" action: '"There -man plowing with sketch of a man the farmer to (Peggy was only one two oxen standing at an take the dogs Hoffmann & dog market in -man with six oxen opening in a away Gyuri Biro) Buda!'" This is -king suggests brick wall, a familiar lending two oxen to wearing folk- Final line: "But saying in other like garments I thought—the Hungary. It -rich neighbour and boots, farmer said means refuses holding several again. "Out!" somewhat the -king tells poor man dogs by a leash. ordered the same as the to sell two oxen, to In the King. "There phrase that is buy dogs and to background, was only one common in bring them to church steeples dog market in America: capital city and houses. Buda. " 'Lightning -king buys dogs for Small head shot never strikes a fortune of a dog at the twice.'" -rich man sells six end. King Matthias oxen for dogs, goes the Just walks to palace through the -king orders man to countryside in get rid of dogs the spring, watching people work on their farms Table 5.4 Identification of Anecdote Variant Elements - "One-Time Dog Market in Buda" Title Beginning Motifs Illustrations Ending "One-Time "Although it -"Matthias the One illustration: Closing action: Dog Market happened more Just," a comical black King punishes in Buda" than five -wealthy man brags and white sketch greedy man. (Irma hundred years about good deal in with a castle in Final line: "My Molnar) ago, many Buda the distance, good sir," the people still -poor man sells only dogs running king addressed remember the possession, cow, around in front him. "I am sorry dog market at buys pack of dogs, of it, storm that you let such Buda. and goes to castle clouds and rain. a fine Whenever they -100 gold pieces A man's smiling opportunity slip think of it, they -rich man buys profile in the through your laugh, and for dogs, takes to king foreground, fingers. You are good reason." -king tells him too holding a sack. simply too late. -Wealthy man late, market only The dog market brags of money once. at Buda made by selling happened only dogs. once." 70 Rosika Schwimmer's 1928 version of this tale differs most, both in length (it is substantially longer) and in altered motifs. She injects considerable social commentary in the narrative: "He was often bored with the royal game, its stiff formality, its lack of sincerity. He hated the unreasonable adulation showered on him because he was a king, and yearned for simple friends and manners" (Schwimmer 166). While wandering, the king comes across a poor peasant, lamenting his losses from being cheated and left with only a dog. Upon K ing Matthias' advice, the peasant travels to the castle to sell his dog for a large sum. He is rewarded, and when the rest of the villagers discover the source of his good fortune, they proceed to the castle as well, wherein the king's message is swiftly delivered: "there was only once a dog market in Buda and there never wi l l be one again." For the ending, Schwimmer includes an epilogue or vignette that portrays a typical storytelling scenario, with peasants gathered around, the snow fall ing outdoors, laughing over the narrative and life and their similarities and differences. There is less magic and more of a realistically portrayed human element to the tale, along with a reflection of the culture. For example, the author interjects with Hungarian words such as "ejnye," "Bodr i , " "B imbo, " and "el jen." The one illustration in this version—a simple line rendering of the peasant at the palace gates, dog at his side—is by Wi l ly Pogany. Degh's version, which is narrated by "Laszlo Marton, a farmhand resettled from Bukovina" (Folktales 322), has not a single illustration, and this version is considerably shorter than Schwimmer's, with certain motifs altered. The narrator places this tale in history, " in 1460-70, 470 years ago" (168), and refers to the K ing as Matyas the Righteous. Unlike Schwimmer's version, here, a wealthy farmer takes pleasure in outwitting others, and tells every "Tom, Dick, and Harry" that selling dogs to the king is 71 a lucrative business. A poor man sells off his possessions, buys a pack of dogs, and heads to the palace. The king takes pity, gives him "one hundred thalers," and lets the dogs go free. When the rich farmer finds out about the money, he too sells everything, only to discover upon arriving at the palace that "only once did it happen in Buda that a deal was made over dogs." This version, appearing 37 years after Schwimmer's, is noticeably different in narrative style, though the tale remains true to its type. Hoffmann and Biro 's version opens immediately with "there was only one dog market in Buda! " followed by an explanation of this proverb: " i t 's something like 'lightning never strikes twice'" (108). This variant is similar to Schwimmer's in that K ing Matthias is walking through the countryside, but then the tale deviates slightly. The K ing notices a rich farmer with six oxen, and a poor farmer with two. When he suggests the rich farmer give the poor two so they each have four, the rich man refuses. In line with the role of the just king, he tells the poor farmer to sell his oxen and buy a pack of dogs, bring it to him, and he wi l l not regret selling his possessions. The farmer does as he is told and is rewarded with "an unbelievably large sum of money" (110). The rich farmer hears of this, and sells his six oxen for a pack of dogs, only to be denied at the palace gates. This version is more dialogue driven than the other two, and is approximately the same length as Degh's narrator's version. The single illustration of, presumably, the rich farmer, is a comical pencil sketch that depicts Hungarian village-style buildings and church steeples in the background. Finally, Molnar opens similarly to Degh, placing the story over 500 years ago, during the reign of Matthias the Just. A lso in line with Degh's version, a wealthy man l iving near Buda takes pleasure in ridiculing people. After making a good deal "West of 72 the Danube," he tells a poor man to sell dogs to the king i f he wishes to acquire riches. A t the castle gates, the poor man is rejected and is consequently angry. The king then invites him to return, hears of the story, and compensates the poor man with 1 0 0 gold pieces. When the rich man finds out, he buys a pack of dogs and goes to the king, but "the greedy fellow [falls] into his own pit" ( 2 0 ) . The king says, "I am sorry that you let such a fine opportunity slip through your fingers. Y o u are simply too late. The dog market at Buda happened only once" ( 2 0 ) . O f the four variants, I find this one has the least compelling narrative style due to its elevated language and comparative lack of linguistic thrust. However, its single, pencil drawing of a cartoon man holding a sack, with dogs dancing about before the castle in the distance, is amusing, and the final note provides some geographical notes and an explanation that this proverb refers to "a unique opportunity" (Hoffmann 2 0 ) . This chapter examines, the similarities and differences among tale variants within the category of Anecdotes. Chapter eight explores a selected group of Historical Legends and provides descriptive analyses of this category of tale variants. 73 C H A P T E R E I G H T : H I S T O R I C A L L E G E N D S Historical legends, according to Gyula Ortutay, have a "kern of reality [that] is coloured ... by tale-like elements" (Ethnography Ortutay 583). The legend of the White Stag is significant because it serves to explain the Hungarians' migration from As ia to Europe and suggests the genesis of the Hungarian people. Irma Molnar gives her account of this migratory tale: The origin and kinship of Hungarians are hotly debated issues. According to Kezai Simon's chronicle, Gesta Hungarorum, written in 1283, Hunor and Magor followed the trail of the white stag into the Maeotian marshes near ancient Persia. Apart from a narrow wading place this region is enclosed by the Sea of Azov ... Hunor and Magor did not move for five years. In the sixth year they ventured out to the land of the Alans, situated in North Caucasus ... here they seized the two daughters of Dula, the prince of the Alans, for their brides. A l l the Huns descended from these women.. .their descendants settled along the River Vo lga in an area known as Magna Hungaria.. .In a protracted scramble for l iving space, the Hungarians were pushed westward by their powerful enemies...Their migration lasted more than four centuries and ended in what is now Hungary. (125-126) According to Elizabeth Cleaver, "The Legend of the Miraculous Hind is based upon actual historical events that took place on the borders of Europe and As ia some fifteen hundred years ago. It is in many ways an accurate reflection of the movements of the 74 Hungarians through the eastern European steppes between the fifth and eighth centuries A . D . " (60). This legend is indeed the subject of much attention and debate, and as a result appears in various forms and permutations of the basic story. The following tables outline the differences between these folktale variants in the comparative elements described in Chapter Three: Table 6.1 Identification of Historical Legend Variant Elements - The White Stag Title Beginning Motifs Illustrations Ending The White Opening lines -Old Nimrod, sons Several Closing Stag (Kate and initial Hunor and illustrations: by action: Seredy) action: "O ld Magyar (Twin Kate Seredy, Nimrod, Eagles of Hadur) black and white Final line: Mighty -Hadur - pagan pencil/charcoal "He stood, Hunter before god drawings with K ing of the the Lord, -white stag heavy shading, Promised leaned -sons give chase, Dramatic Land, Atti la wearily seven days and illustrations of the against the nights the characters, Conquerer." stones of the -sons find eagles, the sacrificial bountiful and white stag, each altar." beautiful land and a small are appointed depiction of an leaders of tribe action in the -stag leads them narrative. No to their new explicit homeland Hungarian -Old Nimrod dies distinctiveness -journey -dancing Moonmaidens 75 Table 6.2 Identification of Historical Legend Variant Elements - "The Enchanted Stag" Title Beginning Motifs Illustrations Ending "The Opening lines -"faraway land of one Closing action: Enchanted and initial the East," - illustration: by Brothers marry Stag" action: beautiful site—tall Joseph Mor , princesses and (Albert "Long, long mountains to dark black and settle in new Wass) ago, in the North, sparkling white forest land faraway land seas to South, scene, with of the East, forest, game, three women Final line: there was a herds in clothes "Thus the beautiful site -K ing Nimrod dancing in a descendants of [sic]." mighty Ruler, circle, warriors Hunor and his sons Hunor and and horses men became Description of Magor, -each lead watching from known as the the land, one hundred behind trees, Huns in years introduction young braves and the white to come, while to Hunor and -white stag stag standing the Magor -men chase for between trees descendants of seven days & Magor and his nights men were -reach beautiful destined to be land called the -brothers and men Magyars." camp there -heavenly music -beautiful daughters of K ing Dul -men fall in love, marry them -descendants Huns and Magyars 76 Table 6.3 Identification of Historical Legend Variant Elements - The Miraculous Hind Title Beginning Motifs Illustrations Ending The Opening lines -Ural Mountains picturebook Closing action: Miraculous and initial -king Menrot and format: Hunor and Hind action: "Let wife Eneh Illustrations by Magor settle in (Elizabeth me tell you of -sons Hunor and Elizabeth new land Cleaver) an Magyar, mighty Cleaver. adventurous hunters Large, full- Final line: hunt for a -great hunt, chose page, pictures, "Here is where Miraculous 100 men brightly Hunor and Hind by my -stag appears coloured and Magyar and people, the -Magyar pierces more salient their one Hungarians." stag's heart with than text in hundred arrow many cases. horsemen and Introduction -bluebird flies to Distinctive their wives to Menrot, sky Hungarian made their wife, and sons -hind escapes elements: home. Their -Kur river, hind traditional children and disappears garments their children's -camp for night, specific to the children hind appears, give tale's period formed the chase Hungarians." -Sea of A z o v -settle there -hear music -fairy maidens, daughters of D u l and Belar -each man chooses wife -children's children are Hungarians 77 Table 6.4 Identification of Historical Legend Variant Elements - "The Legend of the White Stag" Title Beginning Motifs Illustrations Ending "The Opening lines -Grandson of no illustrations Closing action: Legend of and initial Noah present Hunor and the White action: "Two -Menrot, marries Magor return Stag" (Irma generations Persian woman the beautiful Molnar) after the Eneh land they Flood, -two sons Hunor found recorded in and Magor, Jewish sacred mighty warriors Final line: literature, and hunters (bird "When they lived the as game) arrived, they mighty prince, -boys grow up, knelt down, Menrot, father offers land, thanked God grandson of forests, servants, for their new Noah. " horses, and homeland, and livestock praised the Sons of -hunting trip white stag that Menrot -white stag, give had lured them known as chase there." fathers of -stag disappears Hungarians -beautiful land, seven days and nights away -go home -father gives blessing -brothers go back and thank God for new homeland Kate Seredy's 1970 version, The White Stag, is an illustrated novel about the coming of Att i la the Hun, divided into four parts: Nimrod, the Mighty Hunter, Twin Eagles of Hadur, White Eagle of the Moon, and Atti la. Seredy expands the basic migratory tale of the Huns and Magyars moving "relentlessly westward, obeying the voices of their pagan gods, which compelled them to fol low the elusive white stag to their 78 promised homeland," and contends with a broader range of elements (book cover). The basic story structure involves Old Nimrod and his sons, Hunor and Magyar, both excellent warriors. Hunor and Magyar "lead the tribe toward the promised land, for they, too, understood the voice of Hadur when it spoke in the wind and in thunder" (13). Similar motifs to the other variants include the presence of the white stag and its role in leading the men and ultimately their tribe to their new homeland; the dancing maidens and their eventual role as wife and mothers to the Huns and the Magyars. One difference between Seredy's version and the others is that the characters are listening to the voice of a pagan god for direction; whereas, in the other versions, Hunor and Magor/Magyar embark on a hunting journey, more because of their own desire for adventure. Coming upon the beautiful land for the warriors in the versions by Wass, Cleaver, and Molnar is more a matter of chance than predetermination. As mentioned, this narrative is expanded into a short novel (94 pages), but adapts to some conventions of the novel such as the use of chapters and descriptive passages to elaborate upon the basic story elements. The other variants within this category, in keeping with the folktale tradition, use a brief narrative, offering no more details than necessary. Wass' drastically shorter, nine-paragraph retelling of this legend is called "The Enchanted Stag," and keeps the story structure tightly focused on the following elements: K ing Nimrod's two sons, Hunor and Magyar, both hunters and might warriors, set out with one hundred chosen men each on a hunting journey. A white stag appears, and they give chase, eventually discovering a beautiful land, which they do not want to leave. There also they find the two daughters of K ing Du l , along with two hundred dancing 79 maidens. According to this version, "the two hundred warriors married the two hundred maidens, and they all settled on the new land" (Wass 14). Despite the direct delivery of this legend, an illustration provides a glimpse of a forest scene, in which the maidens dance, the warriors peer at them from behind trees, and the stag appears in mid-leap in the background. Interestingly, Wass devotes more space to the explanatory notes than to the tale itself. It seems that authors who choose to adapt or retell this legend feel compelled to include extensive notes regarding the legend, and for good reason. Elizabeth Cleaver, in her elaborate 1973 picturebook version, The Miraculous Hind, includes over four pages of notes, which are divided up into the following sections: "The Early History of the Hungarians," a map, "The Legend of the Miraculous H ind , " "Figures of the Legend," and "Costumes." The legend itself is illustrated in bright colours and authentic representations of Hungarian culture, particularly in folk garments (e.g. sztir—mantles with large back-collars and gatya—wide white trousers), as researched by the author/illustrator. According to Cleaver's notes, "The major figures of the story—Eneh, Menrot, Hunor and Magyar, and the daughters of Dul—wear the dress characteristic of the Hungarian nobility between the sixteenth and eighteenth centuries which survived as Hungarian gala costume until the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries" (63). The other characters, according to Cleaver, are dressed in "regional costumes of the nineteenth century" (63). In the tale's endnotes, Cleaver devotes considerable detail to describing not only costumes, but also "The Early History of the Hungarians," "The Legend of the Miraculous H ind , " and "Figures of the Legend." 80 Compared to Wass' straightforward narrative style, Cleaver's is much more poetic and whimsical, with fairy maidens and tents woven from strands of mist, and her words are very much married to her renderings on each page. In terms of story structure, Cleaver has Hunor and Magyar as the two sons of K ing Menrot and his wife Eneh. The two plan a large-scale hunt, choosing fifty men each to accompany them. There are direct references to the traditional costume/dress of the time and brief explanations that are, as mentioned, furthered in the endnotes. In this adaptation, the men embark on their hunt when a stag and a hind appear. Magyar's arrow pieces the stag's heart, and bluebird flies up as the hind escapes. The group then pursues the hind until they come upon a beautiful land where the "grass is like silk, the water is sweet, sweet sap drips like syrup from the trees. The blue rivers have shining fish and wi ld game is plentiful" (Cleaver n.pag.). In line with Wass' version, the two warriors decided to settle on this land after meeting the daughters of K ing Du l and Belar: "Here is where Hunor and Magyar and their one hundred horsemen and their wives made their home. Their children and their children's children formed the Hungarians" (Cleaver n.pag.). The fourth variant chosen for this study is also the most recent. Irma Molnar 's 2001 version, "The Legend of the White Stag," is taken from her collection of Hungarian folktales and remains true to the tale type in the sense that though some variation exists, all necessary motifs are in place. This tale differs from both Wass' and Cleaver's in its opening: "Two generations after the Flood, recorded in Jewish sacred literature, l ived the mighty prince, Menrot, grandson of Noah. From the mountains of Ararat in the area of Urartu, Menrot's father, Japheth, migrated toward Persia. Because of his passion for hunting, Menrot settled there amidst such an abundance of game" (Molnar 121). Only 81 after this rather dense introduction does the author mention the main characters, Hunor and Magor and their hunt. Molnar, like Cleaver, gives each young son fifty men for his journey. Unlike Cleaver, however, it is an amazing stag that jumps out and leads them to the beautiful land on which they desire to settle. In this version, Hunor and Magor's father is i l l , and they feel they must have his blessing to relocate. Their journey home lasts seven days and seven nights, and only after Menrot gives his blessing, passes, and is given a dignified burial do his sons take their hundred men, servants, livestock, and move to their new homeland. Molnar's variant is not as poetic in style as Cleaver's and differs in that it has not a single illustration. Historical legends are distinctive both for Hungarians and for an English language audience. For Hungarians, historical legends represent kernels of a people's history and the evolution of their nation and culture. A n English language audience, through historical legends, may read glimpses of another country's history, presented in the persistent and effective form of the folk tale. This chapter explores the similarities and differences among tale variants within the category of Historical Legends. Chapter Nine offers concluding remarks with regard to the comparative chapters of this thesis—Chapters Four to Eight. It also makes suggestions for further study. A s well , based on a brief survey of tales included in a selection of world folktale anthologies, I argue that Hungarian folktales should be included in such anthologies. 82 C H A P T E R N I N E : C O N C L U S I O N This thesis has presented the findings of my extensive search for Hungarian folktales in translation and for scholarship on these tales. It has also offered a system of classifying and describing the selected tales and has provided a comparative analysis of variants and types. In the process of comparing and contrasting tales, I have shown that although these tale variants come from different authors and/or collections, they are still similar in notable ways. It appears that, for the most part, the main differences between the tale variants are in presentation, style, illustration, and/or beginnings and endings. Significantly, the key elements of the tales have been retained over time and across variants. Motifs have generally been altered in function, not in name. The most substantial differences occur in the single, illustrated versions of the tales, where, it seems, the tales take on a new life as a result of the of the illustrator's pictorial interpretation of the text. Therefore, what has emerged from the comparative chapters of this thesis, chapters four to eight, is the observation that the essence of the folktale variants in each category remains largely consistent. As this study provides a multi-faceted examination of a selection of tales, it serves as a stepping-stone for different avenues of study related to Hungary folktales. In her book The Hard Facts of the Grimms' Fairy Tales, Maria Tatar makes direct reference to Linda Degh and Alan Dundes and suggests that wider approaches to the study of interpreting folktales are recommended: 83 Like any literary critic who ventures into the realm of folkloric studies, I have discovered that close textual analysis is a skill that does not always pay off in interpreting folktales. The tools of literary study in general cannot be directly applied to folklore but must first be adapted for use in examining oral narration, a form of literature paradoxically without letters. That literature and folklore are, despite their mutual contamination, separate in their genesis, intentions, and structure is an insight—obvious as it may seem—that I owe to scholars in the area of folkloric analysis, who never tire of reminding their literary colleagues to observe carefully the line dividing the two. Linda Degh and Alan Dundes deserve special mention in this context. But folklore, I have also learned from these scholars, is a discipline without real boundaries. It requires the paleontologist's love of the archaic, the historian's appetite for facts, the psychologist's curiosity about causes, and the anthropologist's passion for understanding cultural differences, (xix-xx) This thesis is a literary study; however, I agree with Tatar's observation that folklore has no real boundaries and should use multiple disciplines when interpreting folktales. With that in mind, some multidisciplinary studies might include an in-depth study of the historical significance of each tale or of a group of tales. Another avenue of study might be dedicated to an analysis of the visual elements of the tales in picturebook format. Examining each instance of a distinctive representation of Hungarian culture, by providing a historical context and identification of historical period and regions from 84 which the illustrations are taken, would likely involve a multi-disciplinary approach: literary, visual arts, socio-historical perspectives, and possibly others. In addition to observing the complexities surrounding illustration in some of the selected tales of this study, I noticed upon sifting through a large number of tales, and in looking in-depth at the core sample of tales chosen for this study, that none of the tales feature child protagonists. Moreover, the heroes of these folktales, i f not an animal, are all human males. Looking at reasons for a predominantly male-gendered body of tales would be an interesting study unto itself. Perhaps it points to patriarchal roots of the Hungarian culture. Similarly, child protagonists do not exist in this study's selection of tales, even though several folktale collections, and especially the single, illustrated tales seem explicitly intended for a child audience. I would be curious to find out the reasons behind these choices and pursue questions surrounding audience, including culture, gender, and socio-economic status, both historically and in the present day. Another possible avenue for further study would involve detailed research of the specific contributions made by the major figures in Hungarian folktale research, such as Lajos Katona, Janos Kriza , Janos Erdelyi, Janos Honti, Tekla Domotor, Sandor Erdesz, Ivan Balassa, Gyula Ortutay, Agnes Kovacs, and Linda Degh,. Perhaps one day a comprehensive anthology—a series of portraits—complete with biographical, bibliographical, theoretical, and contextual information may find its way into print. I believe the creation of a comprehensive anthology devoted to Hungarian folktales in English would bring together and promote awareness of the rich body of tales. Such an anthology might include newly translated tales and be organized according to categories, including but building upon the categories created in this study. Each 85 chapter might include a critical introduction and annotations for both text and illustration. I acknowledge that this is a large-scale project requiring considerable time and funding commitments. Other challenges involved in such an endeavour include obtaining the appropriate permissions and issues around translation. Nonetheless, the outcomes of creating an anthology of Hungarian folktales in English are limitless. First, English speaking audiences around the world would have access to a large body of tales that are otherwise unavailable. Second, readers would be given the opportunity to learn about the Hungarian people, the culture, and their folklore. Third, opportunities for fresh comparative work would likely arise. Ultimately, by creating awareness of this unique body of tales, my hope is for Canadian readers to be made aware of Hungary's culture and its folk literature, and for the tales to find their way into collections of multicultural folktales, to be released from their isolation, and to join other well-known international folktales on bookshelves around the world. 86 W O R K S C I T E D Pr imary Sources Ambrus, Victor. The Little Cockerel. London: Oxford U P , 1968. —. The Three Poor Tailors. London: Oxford U P , 1965. —. Brave Soldier Janosh. London: Oxford U P , 1967. Arany, Laszlo. The Son of the White Horse: A n Hungarian Fairy Tale. Trans. Elizabeth Szasz. Illus. Gabriella Hajnal. Surrey: Forum Books Limited, 1990. (Hung. Ed 1988, Mora Ferenc Konyvkiado) Benedek, Elek and Illyes Gyula. "Three Wishes." The Tree that Reached the Sky. Budapest: Corvina, 1988. Benedek, Elek and Illyes Gyula. The Prince and His Magic Horse. Budapest: Corvina, 1987. Benedek, Elek. Palko the Piper: Hungarian Folktales. Illus. Rozsi Bekes. Budapest: Corvina 1999. Biro, Va l . The Honest Thief. Leicester: Brockhampton, 1972. Biro, Va l . Oxford Myths and Legends: Hungarian Folk-tales. Oxford: Oxford UP , 1980. Bodnar, Judit, Z . A Wagonload of Fish. Illus. A lex i Natchev. New York: Lothrop, Lee & Shepard, 1996. Cleaver, Elizabeth, illus. The Miraculous Hind. Toronto: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1973. Colos, Francois. The Student Who Became K ing in spite of Himself. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1974. 87 Curtin, Jeremiah. Myths and Folk-Tales of the Russians. Western Slavs, and Magyars. Boston: Little, Brown, and Company, 1890. de Papp Severo, Emoke, trans. The Good Hearted Youngest Brother. Ill us. Diane Goode. New York: Bradbury Press, 1981. de Papp Severo, Emoke. Hungarian & Transylvanian Folktales. Ottawa: Borealis, 1997. Degh, Linda. " A Deal that Went to the Dogs." Folktales of Hungary. Trans. Halasz Judit. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1965. Domjan, Joseph. The Little Cock. Retold by Jeanne B. Hardendorff. New York: J .B. Lippincott, 1969. Domjan, Joseph. Hungarian Heroes and Legends. New Jersey: D. Van Nostrand, 1963. Dorson, Richard M. . Folktales Told Around the World. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1975. (note: two Hungarian folktales by L inda Degh on p i09 : "The Magic Ca lk" and "Lazybones") Galdone, Paul. The Amazing Pig. New York: Houghton Mif f l in/Clar ion, 1981. Greene, El l in. The Little Golden Lamb. Illus. Rosanne Litzinger. New York: Clarion, 2000. Ginsburg, Mirra. (1976) Two Greedy Bears. Illus. Jose Aruego & Ariane Dewey. New York: Aladdin, 1998. Hoffmann, Peggy and Gyuri Biro. "Only One Dog Market in Buda." The Money Hat and Other Hungarian Folk Tales. Illus. Gyuri Biro. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1969. 88 Illyes, Gyula. "The Student Who Was Forced to be K i n g . " Once Upon A Time: Forty Hungarian Folk-Tales. 2 n d ed. Trans. Barna Balogh and Susan Kun. Ed . Ruth Sutter. Budapest: Corvina, 1964. —. "Three Wishes." Once Upon A Time: Forty Hungarian Folk-Tales. 2 n d ed. Trans. Barna Balogh and Susan Kun. Ed . Ruth Sutter. Budapest: Corvina, 1964. Jones, Henry W. Rev. and Lewis L. Kropf. "The Student who was Forcibly Made K ing . " The Folk-tales of the Magyars. London: Folk-lore Society: 1889. —. "The Wishes." The Folk-tales of the Magyars. London: Folk-lore Society: 1889. Lottridge, Cel ia Barker and Joanne Fitzgerald. The Little Rooster and the Diamond Button. Toronto: Groundwood, 2001. Manning-Sanders, Ruth. The Glass Man and the Golden Bi rd: Hungarian Folk and Fairy Tales. Illus. Victor G. Ambrus. New York: Roy, 1968. McDougal l , Marina. The Little Rooster's Diamond Penny. Illus. Yuksel Hassan. Toronto: K ids Can Press, 1978. Molnar, Irma, trans.. "How a Student Became a K ing . " One-Time Dog Market at Buda and Other Hungarian Folktales. Illus. Georgeta-Elena Enesel. North Haven: Linnet, 2001. —. "One-Time Dog Market at Buda." One-Time Dog Market at Buda and Other Hungarian Folktales. Illus. Georgeta-Elena Enesel. North Haven: Linnet, 2001. —. "The Legend of the White Stag." One-Time Dog Market at Buda and Other Hungarian Folktales. Illus. Georgeta-Elena Enesel. North Haven: Linnet, 2001. Schwimmer, Rosika. "The Dog Market in Buda." Tisza Tales. Illus. Wi l ly Pogany. New York: Doubleday, Doran & Company, 1928. 89 Seredy, Kate. The White Stag. 1937. New York: V ik ing, 1970. Varga, Judy. Janko's Wish. New York: Wi l l iam Morrow and Company, 1969. Wass, Albert. "The Enchanted Stag." Selected Hungarian Legends. Astor Park: Danubian, 1971. 90 Secondary Sources (Hungarian Folklore) Cited and Consulted Balassa, Ivan and Gyula Ortutay. Hungarian Ethnography and Folklore. Budapest: Corvina, 1979. Bisztray, George. Hungarian-Canadian Literature. Toronto: U of Toronto P, 1987. Cleaver, Elizabeth, illus. The Miraculous Hind. Toronto: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1973. Curtin, Jeremiah. Myths and Folk-Tales of the Russians. Western Slavs, and Magyars. Boston: Little, Brown, and Company, 1890. Degh, Linda. "Fo lk Narrative." Folklore and Folkl i fe: an Introduction. Ed. Richard. M . Dorson. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1972. —. Folktales & Society: Story-telling in a Hungarian Peasant Community. 1969. Bloomington: Indiana U P , 1989. —. Folktales of Hungary. Trans. Halasz Judit. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1965. —. Hungarian Folktales: The Art of Zsuzsanna Palko. Jackson: U P of Mississippi, 1995. —. Legend and Belief: Dialectics of a Folklore Genre. Bloomington: Indiana U P , 2001. —. "Some Questions of the Social Function of Storytelling." Acta Ethnographica 6 (1958): 91-146. —. Studies in East European Folk Narrative. Vo l . 30. Bibliographical and Special Series. Gen. Ed. Wm. Hugh Jansen.Bloomington: American Folklore Society, 1978. —. "Re : Hungarian Folktale Research." E-mail from Linda Degh. 13 July 2006. Domotor, Tekla. Hungarian Folk Customs. Ed . Gyula Ortutay. Trans. Judith Elliott. Budapest: Corvina, 1972. 91 —. "Principal Problems of the Investigation on the Ethnography of the Industrial Working Class in Hungary." Acta Ethnographica 5 (1956): 331-349. Halasz, Zoltan. Cultural L i fe in Hungary. Budapest: Pannonia, 1966. Jones, Henry W. Rev. and Lewis L. Kropf. The Folk-tales of the Magyars. London: Folk-lore Society: 1889. Kosary, Domokos. Culture and Society in Eighteenth Century Hungary. Budapest: Corvina, 1987. Kovacs, Agnes. "The Hungarian Folktale-Catalogue in Preparation." Acta Ethnographica 4 (1955): 443-477. Molnar, Mik los. A Concise History of Hungary. Trans. Anna Magyar. Cambridge: Cambridge U P , 2001. Ortutay, Gyula. Hungarian Folklore: Essays. Budapest: Adaemiai, 1972. —. "Principles of Oral Transmission in Folk Culture." Acta Ethnographica 8 (1959): 175-221. —. "The Science of Folklore in Hungary between the two World Wars and during the Period Subsequent to the Liberation." Acta Ethnographica 4 (1955): 5-88. Steven, Phill ips Jr. Ed. . New York Folklore: The Journal of the New York Folklore Society. 40 t h Anniversary Ed. 11.1-4 (1985). Voight, Vi lmos. "Selected Studies of Janos Honti ." Acta Ethnographica 12 (1963): 195-201. 92 Secondary Sources (Folktale/Children's Literature theory) Cited and Consulted Baker, Donald. Functions of Folk and Fairy Tales. Ed . Lucy Prete Martin. Washington: Association for Childhood Education International, 1981. Bermann, Sandra, and Michael Wood (Eds). Nation, Language, and the Ethics of Translation. Princeton: Princeton U P , 2005. Bettleheim, Bruno. The Uses of Enchantment: The Meaning and Importance of Fairy Tales. New York: Vintage, 1989. Blatt, Glor ia T. Once Upon a Folktale: Capturing the Folklore Process with Children. New York: Teachers College Press, 1993. Bosma, Bette. "Celebration of Folklore." Once Upon a Folktale: Capturing the Folklore Process with Children. Ed . Glor ia T. Blatt. New York: Teachers College Press, 1993. Cianciolo, Patricia. Illustrations in Children's Books. 2 n d ed. Dubuque: Wm.C Brown, 1976. —. "Folktale Variants: L ink to the Never-Ending Chain." Once Upon a Folktale: Capturing the Folklore Process with Children. Ed . Glor ia T. Blatt. New York: Teachers College Press, 1993. —. "Creating Variants with Illustrations." Once Upon a Folktale: Capturing the Folklore Process with Children. Ed . Glor ia T. Blatt. New York: Teachers College Press, 1993. Cotton, Penni. Picture Books Sans Frontieres. London: Trentham, 2000. De Carvalho-Neto, Paulo. The Concept of Folklore. Trans. Jacques M . P. Wilson. Florida: U of Miama P, 1965. 93 —. Folklore and Psychoanalysis. Trans. Jacques M . P. Wilson. Florida: U of M iami P, 1968. de Vos, Gai l and Anna E. Altmann. New Tales for Old: Folktales as Literary Fictions for Young Adults. Englewood. C O : Libraries Unlimited, 1999. —. Tales, Then and Now: More Folktales as Literary Fictions for Young Adults. Englewood, C O : Libraries Unlimited, 2001. Doonan, Jane. Looking at Pictures in Picture Books. Stroud: Thimble Press, 1993. Dorson, Richard, M . Folklore and Folkl i fe: A n Introduction. Massachusetts: U of Chicago P, 1972. Dundes, Alan. International Folkloristics: Classic Contributions by the Founders of Folklore. New York: Rowman & Littlefield, 1999. —. The Study of Folklore. Englewood Cl i f fs: Prentice-Hall, 1965. —. Interpreting Folklore. Bloomington: Indiana U P , 1980. Egoff, Sheila, and Judith Saltman. The New Republic of Childhood: A Critical Guide to Canadian Children's Literature in English. Toronto: Oxford U P , 1990. Folklore on Two Continents: Essays in Honor of Linda Degh. Eds. Nikola i Burlakoff et al. Indiana: Trickster, 1980. Frye, Northrop. (1957) Anatomy of Crit icism: Four Essays. New York: Atheneum, 1966. Griswold, Jerry. The Meanings of 'Beauty & The Beast:' A Handbook. Toronto: Broadview P, 2004. Haase, Donald. "Mot i fs: Making Fairy Tales Our Own. " Once Upon a Folktale. Ed. Gloria T. Blatt. New York: Teachers College Press, 1993. Hal l , Stuart and Paul du Gay. Questions of Cultural Identity. London: Sage, 1996. 94 Hallett, Martin and Barbara Karasek. Folk and Fairy Tales. 2" ed. Toronto: Broadview, 2000. Hearne, Betsy. Beauty and the Beast: Visions and Revisions of A n Old Tale. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1989. Hunt, Peter. International Companion Encyclopedia of Children's Literature. London: Routledge, 1998. —. 2 n d Ed . International Companion Encyclopedia of Children's Literature. V o l . 1 London: Routledge, 2004. Jobe. Ronald, A . "Reflections of Reality: Literature in Translation for Young People." English Journal. 1983 72(1): 22-26. —. 2 n d Ed . "Translation for children - practice." International Companion Encyclopedia of Children's Literature. Ed . Peter Hunt.912-926. Joels, Rosie Webb. "Weaving World Understanding: The Importance of Translations in International Children's Literature." Children's Literature in Education. 30.1 (1999): 65-81. Krohn, Kaarle. Folklore Methodology. 1926. Trans. Roger L. Welsch. Texas: U of Texas P, 1971. Laubach, David, C. Introduction to Folklore. Rochelle Park: Hayden, 1980. Li i thi, Max. The European Folktale: Form and Nature. Trans. John D. Niles. Bloomington: Indiana U P, 1986. —. Once Upon a Time: On the Nature of Fairy Tales. (1909) Trans. Lee Chadeayne and Paul Gottwald. Bloomington: Indiana U P , 1976. 95 Marantz, Sylvia S. and Kenneth A . Marantz. The Art of Children's Picture Books: A Selective Reference Guide. London: Garland, 1988. McCal lum, Robyn. "Approaches to the Literary Fairy Tale: Literary Approaches: Max Luth i . " The Oxford Companion to Fairy Tales. Ed. Jack Zipes. Oxford: Oxford U P , 2000. McGi l l i s , Roderick. The Nimble Reader: Literary Theory and Children's Literature. New York: Twayne, 1996. Mul len, Ginger. "The Transformation o f 'Tarn L i m ' : A n Analysis of Folktale Picture Books." Diss. U of British Columbia, 1994. Nathhorst, Bertel. Formal or Structural Studies of Traditional Tales. Stockholm: Norstedt & Soner, 1969. Nikolajeva, Mar ia and Carole Scott. How Picturebooks Work. New York: Garland, 2001. Nodelman, Perry and Mavis Reimer. The Pleasures of Children's Literature. 3 r d ed. New York: A l l yn and Bacon, 2003. Norma, L ivo . J. and Sandra A . Rietz. Storytelling: Folklore Sourcebook. Englewood: Libraries Unlimited, 1991. Nun, Katalin. "Hungary." International Companion Encyclopedia of Children's Literature. Ed. Peter Hunt. 2 n d Ed . V o l . 1 London: Routledge, 2004. 1072-1075. Preston, Cathy Lynn Preston. Folklore, Literature, and Cultural Theory: Collected Essays. New York: Garland, 1995. Read MacDonald, Margaret. The Storyteller's Sourcebook: A Subject Title, and Mot i f Index to Folklore Collections for Children. 1 s t ed. Detroit: Neal-Shuman, 1982. (758) 96 Saltman, Judith. The Riverside Anthology of Children's Literature. 6 t h Ed. Boston: Houghton Mi f f l in , 1985. Schwarcz, Joseph H. Ways of the Illustrator: Visual Communication in Children's Literature. Chicago: A L A , 1982. Schwarcz, Joseph H. and Chava Schwarcz. The Picture Book Comes of Age. Chicago: A L A , 1991. Shannon, George, W.B . Folk Literature and Children: A n Annotated Bibliography of Secondary Materials. Connecticut: Greenwood, 1981. Smith, Anthony D. National Identity. Reno: U of Nevada P, 1991. Stein, Mary Beth. "Folklore and Fairy Tales." The Oxford Companion to Fairy Tales. Ed. Jack Zipes. Oxford: Oxford U P , 2000. Stewig, John Warren. Looking at Picture Books. Fort Atkinson: Highsmith, 1995. Sutton-Smith, Brian, Jay Mechl ing, Thomas W. Johnson, and Felicia R. McMahon. Children's Folklore: A Sourcebook. New York: Garland, 1995. Tatar, Maria. The Hard Facts of the Grimms' Fairy Tales. Princeton: Princeton U P , 1987. Thompson, Stith. The Folktale. New York: Dryden, 1951. Toelken, Barre. The Dynamics of Folklore. Boston: Houghton Mi f f l in , 1979. Tolkien, J. R. R. Tree and Leaf. Boston: Houghton Mi f f l in , 1965. Warner, Marina. From the Beast to the Blonde: On Fairy Tales and Their Tellers. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1994. Yolen, Jane. Touch Magic: Fantasy. Faerie and Folklore in the Literature of Childhood. New York: Philomel, 1981. Zipes, Jack. Fairy Tales and the Art of Subversion. 2 n d Ed. New York: Routledge, 2006. 97 Happily Ever After: Fairy Tales, Children, and the Culture Industry. New York: Routledge, 1997. The Oxford Companion to Fairy Tales. Oxford: Oxford U P, 2000. The Trials and Tribulations of Little Red Riding Hood: Versions of the Tale in Sociocultural Context. Mass: Bergin & Garvey, 1983. 98 Appendix A: Chronology of Hungarian Folktale Collections in English - 1886- The Folk-tales of the Magyars (Collected by Kr iza, Erdelyi , Pap, and others) by Henry W. Jones and Lewis L. Kropf - 1890 - Myths and Folk-tales of the Russians, Western Slavs, and Magyars by Jeremiah Curtin 1928 - Tisza Tales by Rozsika Schwimmer 1963 - Hungarian Heroes and Legends by Joseph Domjan - 1964 - Once Upon A Time: Forty Hungarian Folk-tales by Gyula Illyes 1965 - Folktales of Hungary by Linda Degh - 1968 - The Glass Man and the Golden Bird by Ruth Manning-Sanders - 1969 - The Money Hat and Other Hungarian Folk Tales by Peggy Hoffmann and Gyuri Biro, illustrations by Gyur i Biro 1971 - Selected Hungarian Legends (compiled from the collection of Freda B. Kovacs) by Albert Wass. - 1980 - Hungarian Folk-tales (Oxford Myths and Legends) retold and illustrated by Va l Biro 1987 - The Prince and His Magic Horse by Elek Benedek and Gyula Illyes - 1988 - The Tree that Reached the Sky by Elek Benedek and Gyula Illyes 1995 - Hungarian Folktales: The Art of Zsuzsanna Palko collected, transcribed, annotated, and introduced by Linda Degh. 1997 - Hungarian and Transvlvanian Folktales by Emoke de Papp Severo 1999 - Palko the Piper: Hungarian Folktales by Elek Benedek 99 2001 - One-Time Dog Market at Buda and Other Hungarian Folktales translated and retold by Irma Molnar, illustrations by Georgeta-Elena Enesel. 100 Appendix B: Chronology of Illustrated Hungarian Folktales in English 1965 - The Three Poor Tailors by Victor G . Ambrus 1967 - Brave Soldier Janosh by Victor G. Ambrus - 1968 - The Little Cockerel by Victor G. Ambrus 1969 - The Little Cock by Joseph Domjan 1969 - Janko's Wish by Judy Varga - 1970 - The White Stag by Kate Seredy - 1972 - The Honest Thief by Va l Biro 1973 - The Miraculous Hind by Elizabeth Cleaver - 1974 - The Student Who Became K ing in Spite of Himself by Francois Colos 1975 - Mishka by Victor G . Ambrus 1976 - Two Greedy Bears by Mirra Ginsburg 1978 - The Little Rooster's Diamond Penny by Marina Mezey McDougal l - 1981 - The Amazing Pig by Paul Galdone 1981 - The Good-Hearted Youngest Brother by Emoke de Papp Severo 1990 - The Son of the White Horse: A n Hungarian Fairy Tale by Laszlo Arany - 1996 - A Wagonload of Fish by Judit Z . Bodnar - 2000 - The Little Golden Lamb by E l l in Greene - 2001 - The Little Rooster and the Diamond Button by Cel ia Barker Lottridge 101 Appendix C: Criteria for Folktale Selection 1) The tales must be Hungarian, with distinct textual or visual representations of the country and/or its culture. Those without distinctive Hungarian representations give source notes rooting the tale in Hungarian culture. 2) A given tale should be chosen from one of the main categories: fairy tale, humorous tale, animal tale, anecdote, and historical legend. 3) The chosen tale for each category needs at least three other variants to adequately facilitate a comparative framework. 4) Each grouping needs to include at least one single, illustrated version, or folktale in picturebook format. 5) Each grouping also needs to include at least one variant that has a child audience in mind. 102 Appendix D: Tale Texts Text removed for copyright reasons; original sources: 1. "The Student Who Was Forced To Be K ing (Gyula Illyes) 2. "The Wishes" (Rev. W. Henry Jones & Lewis L. Kropf) 3. The Little Cock (Joseph Domjan & Jeanne B. Hardendorff) 4. " A Deal that went to the Dogs" (Linda Degh) 5. "The Legend of the White Stag" (Irma Molnar) 103 Appendix E: Selected Illustrations Illustrations removed for copyright reasons. 104 


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