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Speech genre and temporal conceptual metaphor use in the discourse of speakers with autism spectrum disorders… Sun, Peter 2007

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SPEECH GENRE AND TEMPORAL CONCEPTUAL METAPHOR USE IN THE DISCOURSE OF SPEAKERS WITH AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS (ASDs) by PETER SUN B . A . , The University of British Columbia, 2005  A THESIS S U B M I T T E D IN P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T OF T H E R E Q U I R E M E N T S F O R T H E D E G R E E OF M A S T E R OF ARTS  in  T H E F A C U L T Y OF G R A D U A T E STUDIES  (English)  T H E U N I V E R S I T Y OF BRITISH C O L U M B I A August 2007 © Peter Sun, 2007  ABSTRACT  The thesis explores how temporal spoken text and metaphors of time are used in semi-structured conversational discourse by speakers with Autism Spectrum Disorders. The focus on time, its structure (through genre) and metaphoric representation, is a potentially revealing line of research for better understanding communication difficulties as well as patterns of conceptualization in A S D . Metaphors, in general, are difficult for people with A S D (Happe, 1993, 1995). Time in this context is an interesting concept to examine as it is largely expressed using metaphor (Lakoff & Johnson, 1999). The thesis also provides an opportunity to explore how temporal metaphors, as ingrained concepts of nature, are used by individuals who traditionally struggle with figurative metaphor. Individuals with A S D use temporal metaphors and the findings here may not only serve as a contribution to our knowledge about A S D , but also to the understanding of semantics and philosophy of time.  ii  TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract  ii  Table of Contents  iii  List of Tables List of Figures List of Abbreviations  '.  v vii viii  Acknowledgements  ix  Chapter 1 - Introduction  1  Chapter 2 - Background  7  1. Autism Spectrum Disorders  7  2. Data  7  3. Speech Genre  8  4 Cognitive Linguistics  9  Chapter 3 - Methods  12  A . Cohesion Analysis  12  B. Speech Genre Analysis  15  C. Conceptual Metaphor Analysis  18  Chapter 4 - Speech Genre Analysis  27  Part 1: Individual Text Analysis  28  Part 2: Analysis of A l l Transcripts  51  Conclusion  60  Chapter 5 - Metaphor Analysis Part 1: Individual Text Analysis  62 64  iii  Part 2: Analysis of A l l Texts Conclusion  95 109  Chapter 6 - Conclusion  112  Works Cited  120  Appendix 1 - Temporal Stretches Extracted from 9 Transcripts  122  Appendix 2 - Summary of Genre Types and Generic Stages Used in 9 Texts  144  Appendix 3 - Utterances that Use Units of Time Extracted from 9 Texts  146  Appendix 4 - Analysis of Metaphors, Metonymies, and Senses of Time of Utterances that Use Temporal Units 151  iv  LIST OF TABLES Table 3.1 - External conjunctive relations of the temporal type  14  Table 3.2 - Storytelling genres and their structure  15  Table 3.3 - Description of generic stages used in storytelling genres  16  Table 3.4 - Generic structure of Procedure  17  Table 3.5 - Genre types and associated generic structure used for analysis  18  Table 4.1 - Genre types used for analysis  27  Table 4.2 - Summary of genre types and generic stages used by speakers in text 1  30  Table 4.3 - Summary of genre types and generic stages used by speakers in text 2  31  Table 4.4 - Generic structure of the Anecdote and the Specific Recount  32  Table 4.5 - Summary of genre types and generic stages used by speakers in text 3  38  Table 4.6 - Summary of genre types and generic stages used by speakers in text 4  39  Table 4.7 - Summary of genre types and generic stages used by speakers in text 5  41  Table 4.8 - Summary of genre types and generic stages used by speakers in text 6  42  Table 4.9 - Summary of genre types and generic stages used by speakers in text 7  46  Table 4.10 - Summary of genre types and generic stages used by speakers in text 8  50  Table 4.11 - Summary of genre types used by speakers in 9 texts  51  Table 4.12 - Summary of generic stages used by speakers in 9 texts  52  Table 5.1 - Lines 140, 141, 146, 147, 151, and 153 from text 1  64  Table 5.2 - Summary of metaphors and metonymies used in text 1  66  Table 5.3 - Lines 1, 3, 4, 6, and 8 from text 2  67  Table 5.4 - Summary of metaphors and metonymies used in text 2  71  Table 5.5- Lines 45, 70, and 115 from text 3  72  v  Table 5.6 - Lines 21, 43, 127, 176, 177, 205, 206, 209, 210, and 222 from text 3  73  Table 5.7 - Lines 82 and 107 from text 3  74  Table 5.8 - Lines 94, 96, 105, and 191 from text 3  75  Table 5.9 - Summary of metaphors and metonymies used in text 3  81  Table 5 . 1 0 - L i n e s 134, 151, 153 from text 4  82  Table 5.11 - Lines 140 and 144 from text 4  .82  Table 5.12 - Summary of metaphors and metonymies used in text 4  84  Table 5 . 1 3 - Lines 9 and 16 from text 5  85  Table 5.14 - Summary of metaphors and metonymies used in text 5  86  Table 5 . 1 6 - L i n e s 14, 2 5 , 2 6 , 7 1 , 7 2 , 74, 76, 113,114, 115, 120, and 150 from text 7 87 Table 5.17 - Lines 24, 27, and 53 from text 7  88  Table 5.18 - Summary of metaphors and metonymies used in text 7  90  Table 5.19 - Summary of metaphors and metonymies used in text 8  92  Table 5.20 - Summary of metaphors and metonymies used in text 9  94  Table 5.21 - Number of utterances that use basic metaphors of time in texts 1 through 9 96 Table 5.22 - Summary of metaphors and metonymies used in texts 1 through 9  97  Table 5.23 - Number of utterances that use metonymies of time in texts 1 through 9.... 98 Table 5.24 - Number of utterances that use other basic metaphors of time in texts 1 through 9  99  Table 5.25 - Number of utterances that use Evans' senses of time  99  vi  LIST OF FIGURES Figure 5.1 - Researcher's frame of the Time Orientation and M o v i n g Observer metaphors  67  Figure 5.2 - C h i l d ' s frame of the Time Orientation and the M o v i n g Observer Metaphors  67  Figure 5.3 - Construal of "weekends" from line 219 of text 2  69  Figure 5.4 - "Twelve rides" construal of time in line 192 of text 3  76  Vll  LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS  T r a n s c r i p t i o n Conventions R E S : = Researcher C H I : = Child (Research Participant)  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Time is a valuable commodity. Thank you Dr. Jessica de Villiers and Dr. Barbara gier for being generous with your time while supervising this thesis.  C H A P T E R 1 - INTRODUCTION This thesis investigates how temporal spoken text and metaphors of time are produced and understood in the discourse of people with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). The approach taken integrates speech genre analysis (Martin & Plum, 1997; Halliday & Hasan, 1989; Eggins & Slade, 1997; Plum, 2004) from the Systemic Functional Tradition in Linguistics with an analysis of conceptual approaches to metaphor from Cognitive Linguistics (Lee 2001; Lakoff & Johnson 1999; Evans 2003) in a complementary way. Speech genre analysis proposes that speakers organize and structure texts in predictable stages to achieve an overall purpose. Conceptual metaphor is the process of understanding one conceptual domain in terms of another domain. In the thesis, I identify and examine stretches of temporally sequenced events in a corpus of 9 semi-structured conversational texts produced by children and adolescents diagnosed with A S D . O f particular interest in the examination is the marked use of speech genre types in the discourse of A S D . Contextually appropriate discourse is particularly difficult for speakers with A S D . While the discourse of individuals with A S D typically does not conform to expected patterns, problems with the contextual use and variation of language are equally detrimental to social success but are also not well-understood in A S D . There are numerous theories of A S D ; however, few deal with the difficulties in communication. deVilliers and Szatmari (2004) found that individuals with A S D have difficulties with chronological organization in the quantity of information and linearity of serial events. Speech genre analysis is an appropriate approach to examining the discourse of speakers with A S D as it looks at the structure of text in a functional way. Specifically, speech  1  genre theory is sensitive to a configuration o f contextual factors, including the nature o f the text, the participants and their relationship to one another, and the role language plays in the experience. In this thesis, speech genre types and their associated generic structure w i l l provide a means to better understand how individuals with A S D structure time and temporal concepts in conversational texts. In this thesis, the term genre refers to speech genre. Also o f interest is the conceptualization of time among individuals with A S D , as temporal concepts are largely communicated using conceptual metaphor (Lakoff & Johnson, 1999). Conceptual metaphor is used when one conceptual domain is understood in terms o f another conceptual domain. Meaning is achieved i n conceptual metaphor by recognizing a set o f systematic correspondences between the two domains. Time is unconsciously conceptualized and so deeply entrenched in our cognitive system that typical speakers often do not realize that they are using conceptual metaphor. Classic examples include spending, saving, or measuring time. The T I M E IS M O N E Y conceptual metaphor, among other conceptual metaphors o f time, are relatively stable, are not arbitrary, and are widespread throughout cultures (Lakoff & Johnson, 1999, 134). In this thesis, unless otherwise noted, the term metaphor refers to conceptual metaphor. It is widely reported that even the most verbally able individuals with A S D fail to understand nonliteral speech (Happe, 1993, 1995). The problems that people with A S D experience in such metaphoric language use can significantly encumber communication and social success. Yet, despite a growing literature on problems with metaphor and other figurative language use in A S D , these difficulties are still not well-understood. The analysis o f conceptual metaphors, metonymies, and senses o f time is appropriate to  2  approach temporal texts produced by speakers with A S D as these individuals must have an understanding o f conceptual metaphors o f time and temporal concepts. This thesis aims to investigate the degree to which individual use and comprehend conceptual metaphors o f time. The findings may not only serve as a contribution to the knowledge o f the disorder, but may also comment on the degree o f the conventionality o f temporal metaphor and contribute to the philosophy of time. The thesis analyzes nine spoken texts produced by children and adolescents diagnosed with A S D . It applies two approaches: Systemic Functional Discourse Analysis and Cognitive Linguistics. First, a speech genre analysis o f stretches o f spoken discourse that involve temporally sequenced events is undertaken to examine the extent to which the research participants under investigation predictably engage i n discourse based on contextual factors. Following this speech genre analysis, stretches o f temporally sequenced events are examined for the use of temporal conceptual metaphors. The result is a well-articulated evaluation o f the use o f speech genre and conceptual metaphor types in 9 conversational texts of speakers with A S D . The speech genre analysis follows a framework developed by Eggins and Slade ' (1997) who found ten types o f speech genres used in casual conversations. O f these ten types, they label four types as storytelling genres. The four types o f storytelling genres are Narrative, Anecdotes, Recounts, and Exemplum. Building on Eggins and Slade's work, further subcategorization o f the Recount speech genre into Specific Recounts and General Recounts was made. (Specific Recounts involve a Record o f Events that is unique and non-repetitive while General Recounts involve a Record o f Events that is habitual or that occurs on a recurring basis.) A n emergent speech genre type that uses  3  external temporal conjunctions but does not adhere to any of the speech genres described by Eggins and Slade (1997) is Procedure (Plum, 2004). Following Plum, Procedure is incorporated in the classification. To approach temporal metaphors produced by speakers with A S D , Lakoff and Johnson's (1999) conceptual metaphors of time and Evans' (2003) senses of time are applied. In the analysis of temporal conceptual metaphors, Lakoff and Johnson (1999) were followed and the approach to the analysis of the lexical item, "time" followed Evans (2003). Lakoff and Johnson's conceptual metaphors of time have been described in Philosophy in the Flesh (1999). Although time as a concept is chiefly metaphorical, it is realized in many ways by different conceptual metaphors. The selected conceptual metaphors of time used for analysis of metaphor are: 1) Time Orientation metaphor; 2) M o v i n g Time metaphor; 3) M o v i n g Observer metaphor; 4) Event-for-Time metonymy; 5) Distance-Time metonymy; 6) Time as a Resource metaphor; and 7) Time as Money metaphor. In all stretches of temporally sequential texts from the 9 transcripts, all instances were noted where the word "time" or units of time (i.e. "tomorrow", "two minutes", "June the fifth", " 1 9 8 5 " , etc.) were uttered. These uses of time were categorized according to Lakoff and Johnson's conceptual metaphors using Lakoff & Johnson's (1999) criteria. Where the lexical item "time" explicitly appeared, these instances were categorized according to Evans' (2003) distinct senses of time: 1. Duration Sense 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.  Moment Sense Instance Sense Event Sense Matrix Sense Agentive Sense  4  7.  Measurement-system Sense  The analysis of speech genre in the nine texts found that the individuals with A S D used certain speech genre types and not others. They also used some speech genre types more frequently than others. The Recount genre (Specific and General) was used the most. The thesis examines closely the speech genre types used and considers the frequency of particular stages in the genres. Some children appeared to have stronger conversational ability marked by longer generic stages and longer turns. These speakers did use a greater variety of generic stages but appeared to favour a particular generic stage. The analysis of conceptual metaphor, metonymies, and senses of time showed that individuals with A S D appeared to use some metaphors more often than others. A s with genres, some individuals appeared to be more able than others to use temporal metaphors, metonymies and senses of time marked by a more varied and a greater quantity of these expressions. The speakers that appeared to be more competent with temporal expressions showed unconventional uses related to the specificity of conceptual metaphors, metonymies, and senses of time. Following the speech genre and metaphor analyses, the results of the two investigations are compared and discussed. Both approaches to analyzing the same 9 texts showed a relationship where the research participants with the most conversational engagement also used the greatest variety of speech genre types and the most temporal conceptual metaphors. The findings in this thesis are important because speech genre analysis and the analysis of conceptual metaphors are appropriate to examine the pragmatic language use of time and temporal concepts that occur in the conversations of  5  i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h A S D . I n d i v i d u a l s w i t h A S D struggle w i t h p r a g m a t i c a n d figurative language use and f e w studies e x a m i n e the conversational d i f f i c u l t i e s o f i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h A S D . T h i s thesis w i l l serve as a c o n t r i b u t i o n to the k n o w l e d g e o f the c o n v e r s a t i o n a l difficulties o f the disorder and c o m m e n t o n the degree o f the c o n v e n t i o n a l i t y o f t e m p o r a l conceptual metaphors that o c c u r i n s p o k e n discourse. C h a p t e r 1 has i n t r o d u c e d the thesis that w i l l e x a m i n e the use o f speech genres and t e m p o r a l conceptual metaphors, m e t o n y m i e s , and senses o f t i m e i n s p o k e n texts p r o d u c e d b y speakers w i t h A S D . C h a p t e r 2, Background, describes A S D , speech genre analysis, and C o g n i t i v e L i n g u i s t i c s . T h e second chapter also identifies the source o f the data used i n this thesis. C h a p t e r 3, Methods, outlines c o h e s i o n analysis, speech genre analysis, and the analysis o f t e m p o r a l conceptual metaphors, m e t o n y m i e s , and senses o f t i m e used to approach the data. Chapter  4, Speech Genre Analysis, describes the use o f  speech genre that o c c u r i n each o f the 9 texts. Patterns that o c c u r i n the use o f speech genres are also i d e n t i f i e d across the  9 texts. Chapter 5, Metaphor Analysis, describes the  use o f t e m p o r a l conceptual metaphors, m e t o n y m i e s , and senses o f t i m e that o c c u r i n the same 9 texts. Patterns o f t e m p o r a l metaphors, m e t o n y m i e s , and senses o f t i m e that o c c u r across the 9 texts are then identified and discussed. C h a p t e r 5, Conclusion, discusses observations and f i n d i n g s that emerged f r o m b o t h the analysis o f speech genre and the analysis o f t e m p o r a l conceptual metaphors, m e t o n y m i e s , and senses o f t i m e .  6  CHAPTER 2-  BACKGROUND  1. A u t i s m Spectrum Disorders A u t i s m S p e c t r u m D i s o r d e r ( A S D ) is an u m b r e l l a term for a spectrum o f n e u r o c o g n i t i v e disorders, i n c l u d i n g a u t i s m , h i g h - f u n c t i o n i n g a u t i s m ( H F A ) , A s p e r g e r ' s S y n d r o m e ( A S ) and P e r v a s i v e D e v e l o p m e n t a l D i s o r d e r N o t O t h e r w i s e S p e c i f i e d ( P D D N O S ) that is characterized b y severe i m p a i r m e n t s i n c o m m u n i c a t i o n and s o c i a l r e c i p r o c i t y . It is w e l l k n o w n that c o m m u n i c a t i o n i n A S D is associated w i t h d i f f i c u l t i e s i n pragmatics, i n c l u d i n g the p r o d u c t i o n and interpretation o f f i g u r a t i v e metaphor ( H a p p e , 1995). S i n c e t i m e and t e m p o r a l concepts are v i r t u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e to c o n c e p t u a l i z e w i t h o u t conceptual metaphor ( L a k o f f & J o h n s o n , 1999, 139), a n i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f the use o f t e m p o r a l concepts b y speakers w i t h A S D m a y help to better understand the nature o f the disorder. P e o p l e w i t h A S D are also k n o w n to have d i f f i c u l t y u s i n g discourse i n c o n t e x t u a l l y appropriate w a y s , i n c l u d i n g p r o b l e m s w i t h relevance ( H a p p e , 1993), o r g a n i z a t i o n (de V i l l i e r s & S z a t m a r i , 2 0 0 4 ) and c o h e s i o n ( F i n e , 1994). A n a n a l y s i s o f t e m p o r a l l y sequenced stretches o f discourse u s i n g a c o n t e x t u a l l y sensitive d e s c r i p t i v e a p p r o a c h such as f u n c t i o n a l speech genre analysis m a y also i n f o r m our understanding o f the d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h language associated w i t h A S D .  2. D a t a D a t a for this thesis came f r o m a f o l l o w - u p study o f c h i l d r e n d i a g n o s e d w i t h A S D at C h e d o k e - M c M a s t e r H o s p i t a l i n H a m i l t o n , O n t a r i o . A u d i o r e c o r d i n g s o f semi-structured conversations between a research t e c h n i c i a n and 9 research participants d i a g n o s e d w i t h A S D were c o l l e c t e d and transcribed p r i o r to the analysis undertaken i n the present research. F o r the present e x a m i n a t i o n , t e m p o r a l stretches o f discourse were isolated f r o m  7  the 9 transcripts of semi-structured conversational texts. For a full description of the data collection procedures see de Villiers et al. 2007.  3. Speech Genre In the early 2 0 century, genre study was limited to comparing the differences th  among texts in the disciplines o f rhetoric and literature. In 1953, Bakhtin claimed that texts (both spoken and written) were heterogeneous in nature and suggested that a broader perspective was necessary in communication to account for similarities among texts. For example, Bakhtin noted the fact that utterances involve a finalization o f a turn that can be sensed by participants in a conversation. Bakhtin explained that each text can be extremely varied, for example, daily dialogue as opposed to business documents; but, their forms are in fact combinations o f speech genres: Each separate utterance is individual, of course, but each sphere i n which language is used develops its own relative stable types o f these utterances. This we may call speech genres (1986, 60). In the Systemic Functional Tradition, Halliday provides a similar account on the nature o f texts using the concept o f register. " . . . every text is in some sense like other texts; and for any given text there w i l l be some that it resembles more closely" (Halliday & Hasan, 1989, 42). Register analysis claims that participants can predict textual features based on 3 situational variables: the nature o f the text, the participants and their relationship to one another, and the role language plays in the experience. These variables are used to account for contextual aspects o f text. Speech genre theory extends upon these variables and attempts to understand why the text was produced; speech genre analysis considers the cultural purposes o f text both in content and form. It claims that texts are composed  8  of stages that are culturally imperative. The generic structure of a text is composed of a sequence of intermediate stages that serve a final goal. For example, Hasan (Halliday & Hasan, 1989) compared conversational transactions at a fruit stand. Hasan notes that these "service encounter" texts were generic to the extent that they are made up of obligatory stages in the following order— Sales Request (SR), Sales Compliance (SC), Sale (S), Purchase (P), and Purchase Closure (PC): SR= SC= S= P=  Can I have ten oranges and a kilo of bananas please? Yes, anything else? No thanks. That'll be dollar forty. Two dollars.  PC=  Sixty, eighty, two dollars. Thank you.  Example 2.1 - Service Encounter (Halliday & Hasan, 1989, 59) According to Hasan, a successful transaction at a fruit stand of the Service Encounter genre type requires a SR, SC, S, P, and PC in serial order. The use of speech genre analysis is a revealing way to describe discourse in this thesis as it provides a means to examine how individuals with A S D structure time and temporal concepts in spoken text. Speech genre analysis enables a discussion about pragmatic language use; this thesis is therefore able to examine the degree to which text produced by speakers with A S D conforms to culturally accepted norms in content and form. 4. Cognitive Linguistics The thesis uses Lakoff and Johnson (1999) and Evans' (2003) cognitive approaches to time. Both stem from the discipline of Cognitive Linguistics. Cognitive Linguistics assumes that linguistic expression is associated with specific construal (Lee, 2001, 2). It assumes that thought operates at a level below cognitive awareness (Lakoff &  9  Johnson, 1980, 10) and that although there may be formal rules that govern language use, these rules are rooted in cognition. L a k o f f and Johnson's approach to time uses the concept of conceptual metaphor. Conceptual metaphor allows us to think about a phenomenon in different ways (Lee, 2001, 6). For example, "I spend too much time at the m a l l , " uses the conceptual metaphor T I M E IS M O N E Y , while, "time passes quickly at the m a l l , " uses the conceptual metaphor T I M E IS M O T I O N . Both linguistic expressions of conceptual metaphor 1  present different construal of the same phenomenon using a source and target domain. In the case of T I M E IS M O N E Y , "money" is the source and "time" is the target. The source domain is relatively more experientially concrete while the target is more abstract; therefore, our conception of money (more concrete) helps us structure our experience of time (more abstract). Conceptual metaphors differ from figurative metaphors in their conventionality. Linguistic expressions of conceptual metaphors of time are so deeply entrenched in thought and conventionalized to the point that they may no longer be recognized as metaphorical expressions. Although figurative metaphors may be based on conceptual metaphors, they require a higher level of cognitive function. Figurative metaphors are more literary and often less clear but richer in meaning (Kovecses, 2002, 45). The distinction between conceptual metaphors and figurative metaphors is relevant to this thesis as individuals with A S D are known to struggle with non-literal language. These difficulties are most obvious with expressions using figurative metaphors. Since individuals with A S D do conceptualize time and temporal events, they must use conceptual metaphors of time. This thesis w i l l examine the degree to which individuals 1  Or PASSAGE OF TIME IS MOTION  10  with A S D use and comprehend temporal metaphors as temporal discourse cannot exist without conceptual metaphor. Evans' senses of time approaches time and temporal concepts from a framework that classifies a range of distinct lexical concepts for time. This approach considers instances where lexical concepts are paired with the lexeme "time". Although Evans' approach differs from the analysis of time using conceptual metaphors, the investigation of the ways in which individuals with A S D use the lexeme "time" is an interesting area of investigation. Analyzing spoken discourse using both cognitive approaches to time w i l l reveal the ways in which these speakers use and comprehend temporal concepts.  11  CHAPTER 3 - METHODS  This thesis examines semi-structured conversational texts of nine speakers diagnosed with A S D using a combined approach of cohesion and genre analysis from Systemic Functional Linguistics (Halliday, 2004) and analysis of metaphor from Cognitive Linguistics (Lakoff & Johnson, 1999). The focus of analysis is on temporal discourse, both in generic structures and linguistic expressions of metaphor. This combined approach is appropriate for several reasons. First, temporal patterns in the discourse of speakers with A S D are underdescribed in both cognitive linguistic and functional linguistic literature. Both approaches use microanalytic techniques to uncover patterns that would otherwise go unobserved. Both approaches are descriptive of discourses situated in context. Moreover, by using functional cohesion analysis, I was able to extract, in a systematic way, stretches of temporally sequenced events from the nine original transcripts that served as the data for the cognitive linguistic analysis of metaphor. The results of the genre and metaphor analyses of different speakers' texts were also compared. Thus, the two theoretical descriptive approaches were applied in complementary ways.  A . Cohesion Analysis  Before beginning the analyses of temporal genres and metaphors in the nine texts, temporal stretches in the semi-structured conversations had to be identified. To isolate these, stretches of text were first identified with temporally sequenced events using Halliday and Hasan's (1976) cohesive subtypes. Cohesion can be defined as meaning relations within text (Halliday & Hasan, 1976, 29) and instances of cohesion are realized  12  where the interpretation o f one element in discourse is dependent upon another (Halliday & Hasan, 1976, 4). Cohesion concerns the way in which the meaning of the elements is interpreted. "Where the interpretation of any item in the discourse requires making reference to some other item in the discourse, there is cohesion" (Halliday & Hasan, 1976, 11). For example: l a . John is nice. l b . He likes to help people. Example 3.1 - Cohesive tie In example 3.1, both John and he refer to the same entity; or, restated, the proper name John and the personal pronoun he, form a cohesive tie. In Halliday and Hasan's framework (1976), cohesion i n text can be realized by reference (as in example 3.1), substitution, ellipsis, conjunction, or lexical collocation. Relevant to temporally sequenced events are temporal conjunctions, a subtype o f Halliday and Hasan's conjunction group. Halliday and Hasan (1976) differentiate instances o f internal temporal relations from external temporal relations (263). The former express successivity in the communication process while the latter concern successivity in the events talked about (Halliday & Hassan, 1976, 263): Internal temporal relation: First, I w i l l talk about the car's engine, and then I w i l l discuss its colour. After, I conclude with comments about its manufacturer. External temporal relation: First, John opened the car door then sat in the seat. Next, he started the engine then backed out of the garage. Example 3.2 - Internal and external temporal relations. In this thesis, external conjunctions of the temporal type were used to locate and extract stretches o f temporal discourse (see Appendix 1) because they are a feature that identifies the temporal sequencing o f events as "There is always some feature of which  13  we can say, 'This is typically associated with this or that use of language'" (Halliday & Hasan, 1989, 40). External temporal conjunctions are typically associated, but not exclusive, to texts that communicate events as they happen(ed). Below, Table 3.1 provides a summary of external conjunctive relations of the temporal type:  Table 3.1 is a list of external conjunctive relations of the temporal type. Table 3.1 has been removed due to copyright restrictions. Please see Halliday & Hasan, 1976, 266.  Table 3.1 - External conjunctive relations of the temporal type (Halliday & Hasan, 1976, 266) Table 3.1 identifies the external conjunctive relations of the temporal time that were used to extract stretches of temporal text from 9 conversational transcripts. The use of these conjunctions identifies stretches of texts that describe sequential events. These texts form the data that was used for the analysis of speech genres and conceptual metaphors.  14  B. Speech Genre Analysis  In Chapter 4, a full speech genre analysis was conducted of the stretches of text extracted from the 9 transcripts and they were grouped according to a framework developed by Eggins and Slade (1997). Eggins and Slade (1997) found ten types of genre used in casual conversations. Of these 10 types, they label 4 types as storytelling genre. They are Narrative,  Anecdotes, Recounts,  and Exemplum. Table 3.2 summarizes their  generic structure. The present paper classifies the stretches of text from the 9 transcripts of speakers with ASD according to Eggins and Slade's 4 storytelling genre types. Genre (Types)  Generic structure  Narrative  (Abstract) (Orientation) Complication Evaluation Resolution (Coda) Anecdote (Abstract) (Orientation) Remarkable Event Reaction (Coda) Exemplum (Abstract) (Orientation) Incident Interpretation (Coda) Recount (Abstract) (Orientation) Record of Events (Coda) Table 3.2 - Storytelling genres and their structure (Eggins & Slade, 1997) A  A  A  A  A  A  A  A  A  A  A  A  A  A  A  A  Martin notes these storytelling genres are based on narrative clauses that share basic generic stages at their beginnings and ends (1992, 564). Table 3.3 provides a description of the stages in generic structure.  15  Description Establishes the point of the text and signals that a story is about to be told Orients listeners to what is to follow in terms of people, actions, Orientation time and place Complication Temporally orders actions leading to a crisis Temporally orders actions outlining a remarkable event which Remarkable Event the narrator wants to share her reaction to Reaction The evaluation of the events establishes the significance of the story Outlines temporally sequenced events in order to elucidate Incident interpretative comments or moral judgement A moral interpretation or judgement of incident is relayed Interpretation Record of Events Provides a sequence of events with ongoing appraisal Resolution Actions resolve crisis Evaluation Evaluates or presents appraisal Coda Makes point about text as a whole Returns text to present Table 3.3 - Description of generic stages used in storytelling genres  Generic Stage Abstract  In Table 3.3, the shared stages in generic structure are Abstract, Orientation and Coda and are identified as optional with parentheses; the remaining generic stages are obligatory to the genre type. For example, a Narrative must contain a Complication stage, followed by an Evaluation and a Resolution stage; it may or may not contain an Abstract, Orientation, or Coda. The Abstract stage provides thematic information for the stretch of discourse and the Orientation stage describes the setting while the Coda may complete the stretch of discourse by glossing the entire sequence. Descriptions of the storytelling genre types follow: Narratives have a Complication, Evaluation, and Resolution because these texts build in tension and excitement to reach a crisis that is then resolved. Anecdotes are texts that are similar to narrative as they also focus on crisis. Anecdotes contain a Remarkable Event; a sequence of events builds towards a crisis but unlike Narratives, the crisis is not resolved.  16  Alternatively, the string of events is told to highlight event(s) that are bizarre or unusual for the purpose of sharing a reaction to these events. Exemplums are texts that have a prescriptive nature and suggest how the world should or should not be. Exemplums contain an Incident, a set of temporally sequenced events that are told in order to focus on the significance of these events (rather than their problematic nature). The Interpretation stage of the Exemplum text relates the story to the larger context of culture and a moral point of some kinds is then made. Finally, Recounts are about a temporal sequence experienced by the narrator. In these texts, the Record of Events tells how one event leads to another; the goal is simply to relay succession of events. I further subcategorize the Recount genre into Specific Recounts and General Recounts. I define Specific Recounts to involve a Record of Events that is unique and non-repetitive while General Recounts involve a Record of Events that is habitual or that occurs on a recurring basis. A n additional genre type emerged that used external temporal conjunctions but did not adhere to any of the genres described by Eggins and Slade (1997). I found this genre type to be Procedure (Plum,2004). Procedures are texts that involve temporally sequenced events or steps in a H o w To stage that outlines the means to achieve a desired state or result. A recipe is a classical example of a Procedure text. Table 3.4 details the generic structure of Procedure. Genre Generic structure Procedure (Abstract) Orientation H o w To Table 3.4 - Generic structure of Procedure (Plum, 2004) A  A  A  (Coda)  The 6 genre types, including my 2 subtypes of Recount genre, are used for the analysis of temporally sequenced text from conversations of speakers with A S D . Table  17  3.5 generalizes the generic structure of these genre types used to code spoken discourse in this project. Generic structure (Abstract) (Orientation) Complication Evaluation Resolution (Coda) (Abstract) (Orientation) Remarkable E v e n t Reaction Anecdote (Coda) (Abstract) (Orientation) Incident Interpretation (Coda) Exemplum (Abstract) (Orientation) Specific Record of Events (Coda) Specific Recount (Abstract) (Orientation) General Record of Events (Coda) General Recount (Abstract) Orientation H o w To (Coda) Procedure Table 3.5 - Genre types and associated generic structure used for analysis  Genre Narrative  A  A  A  A  A  A  A  A  A  A  A  A  A  A  A  A  A  A  A  A  A  A  A s in Eggins and Slade (1997), the stages in the six genre types include optional stages in parentheses and required stages without parentheses. Evaluation is an additional optional stage that may occur throughout the generic structure in the 6 genre types at any point. The purpose of Evaluation is to sustain the story and establish its contextual significance (Eggins & Slade, 1997, 238). Analyzing conversational texts produced by speakers with A S D using speech genre and their associated generic stages w i l l provide insight into how these individual produce temporal discourse.  C . C o n c e p t u a l M e t a p h o r Analysis In Chapter 5, an analysis of metaphors in the Cognitive Linguistics tradition was performed on each of the temporal stretches identified with the cohesion analysis. Both Lakoff and Johnson's conceptual metaphors of time and Evans' senses of time were used, with Evans' approach being applied where further semantic specification for the lexeme "time" helped to show unconventional uses of the lexeme "time".  18  Lakoff and Johnson's Conceptual Metaphors of Time (1999) This approach to the analysis o f metaphors o f time in discourse is developed from L a k o f f and Johnson's Philosophy in the Flesh (1999). Lakoff and Johnson (1999) describe a variety o f conceptual metaphors o f time and metonymies for time. Metonymy, similar to metaphor, is defined as using one entity to refer to another (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980, 35.) For example, "the rock concert was long," uses the Event-for-Time metonymy where the event, "the rock concert," stands metonymically for a specific period o f time. This approach to analyzing temporal discourse classifies metaphors and metonymies according to the following categories described by L a k o f f & Johnson (1999): A . Time Orientation metaphor B. C. D. E. F. G.  M o v i n g Time metaphor M o v i n g Observer metaphor Event-for-Time metonymy Distance-for-Time metonymy Time as a Resource metaphor Time as Money metaphor  The following outlines and provides examples o f these metaphors and metonymies:  Time Orientation Metaphor The Time Orientation metaphor is the most basic metaphor. Its construal situates an observer who is at the present who faces the future. L a k o f f and Johnson provide the following examples: That's all behind us now. We're looking ahead to the future. He has a great future in front of him. (1999, 140)  19  Moving Time Metaphor In this metaphor, Lakoff and Johnson (1999) describe time using a lone, stationary observer who faces a fixed direction. A n indefinite sequence o f objects (times) move past the observer from front to back and these objects are also conceptualized as having fronts that face their direction o f motion (Lakoff & Johnson, 1999, 141). The motion o f the objects (time) moving past the observer represents the "passage" o f time. The M o v i n g Time metaphor can be combined with the Time Orientation metaphor to create the following composite mapping: The location of the observer The space in front of the observer The space behind the observer Objects The motion of objects past the observer  -> The present -> The future -> The past -> Times -> The "passage" o f time (Lakoff & Johnson, 1999, 142)  Here are some examples o f the M o v i n g Time metaphor: The deadline is approaching. The time for action has arrived. The summer just zoomed by. The time for end-of-summer sales has passed In the weeks following next Tuesday, there w i l l be very little to do. (Lakoff & Johnson, 1999, 143)  Moving Observer Metaphor The M o v i n g Observer metaphor differs from the M o v i n g Time metaphor because the observer is no longer fixed in one location. Alternatively, the locations (times) are fixed on a path upon which the observer moves. The motion o f the observer represents the "passage" o f time while the distance moved by the observer represents the amount o f time "passed."  20  When we combine the M o v i n g Observer metaphor with the Time Orientation metaphor, we have the following composite mapping: The location of the observer The space in front of the observer The space behind the observer Locations on the observer's path o f motion The motion o f the observer The distance moved by the observer  -> The present -> The future -> The past -> Times -> The "passage" o f time -> The amount o f time "passed" (Lakoff & Johnson, 1999, 146)  L a k o f f & Johnson provide the following examples: There's going to be trouble down the road. His visit to Russia extended over many years. She arrived on time. We're coming up on Christmas. We passed the deadline. (1999, 146)  Event-for-Time Metonymy The Event-for-Time metonymy can co-occur with other metaphors o f time. Through metaphor, temporal moments are represented as locations, substances, or motion and events are bounded and realized with respect to these temporal moments. For example, in the sentence, "The rock concert is approaching," the event (rock concert) metonymically stands for the time (duration) o f the concert.  Distance-for-Time Metonymy Distance can also stand metonymically for time as in "I slept for fifty miles while she drove" (Lakoff & Johnson, 1999, 152). In this example, the time it took to drive "fifty miles" is the amount o f time the speaker slept.  Time as a Resource Metaphor The Time as a Resource metaphor is a characteristic way o f conceptualizing time in Western culture (Lakoff & Johnson, 1999, 161). This metaphor maps information from  21  a resource domain (source) onto the time domain (target). Lakoff & Johnson describe this mapping: The The The The The  resource user of the resource purpose that requires the resource value of the resource value of the purpose  -> -> -> ->  Time The agent (the user of time) The purpose that requires time The value of the time The value of the purpose (1999, 162-3)  Linguistic expressions of this metaphor include: You've used up all of your time. The job took up three hours. He used his time efficiently. Time as Money Money is a type of resource; therefore, the Time as Money metaphor is similar to the Time as a Resource metaphor. They are constituents of the same system. In the Time as Money metaphor, words like "budget," "spend," "invest," "profit," and "loss" prompt for this metaphor. This mapping is as follows: Money The user of the money The purpose that requires the money The value of the money The value of the purpose  -> Time -> The user of time (the agent) -> The purpose that requires time -> The value of the time -> The value of the purpose (Lakoff & Johnson, 1999, 163-4)  Lakoff and Johnson provide the following linguistic expressions of this metaphor: I have to budget my time. I spent too much time on that. I've invested a lot of time on this project. (1999, 164) The above 7 types of conceptual metaphors form the framework for the analysis of temporal metaphors in this thesis.  22  E v a n s ' Senses of T i m e (2003) This cognitive approach to the analysis of time is developed by Evans (2003). Evans presents a framework that determines a range of distinct lexical concepts for time. This approach considers instances where lexical concepts are paired with the lexeme "time". It suggests that there are 8 distinct senses of time: 1. The Duration Sense 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.  The The The The The The The  Moment Sense Instance Sense Event Sense Matrix Sense Agentive Sense Measurement-system Sense Commodity Sense  I outline and provide examples for each of Evans' senses of time that w i l l analyze the use of the lexeme "time" in the conversational texts produced by speakers with A S D . T h e D u r a t i o n Sense The Duration Sense is a lexical concept that constitutes an interval bounded by two "boundary" events. There is an onset and an offset that creates a temporal interval. The duration sense can be elaborated in terms of physical length, quality of experience, and temporal compression and protracted duration. Evans (2003) provides the following examples: The relationship lasted a long/short time. During their ill-fated marriage they fought a lot/some/much of the time. He returned to Germany for good in 1857, moving for a time to Berlin. Time flies (by) when you're having fun. Time crawls (by) when you're bored. (110-115)  23  Moment Sense The Moment Sense prompts for a conceptualisation o f a discrete o f punctual point or moment without reference to its duration. Evans provides the following examples: The time for a decision has arrived / come. Doctors had warned that Daniel, five, of Sinfin, Derby, could die at any time. What size was she the time o f change? What time is it? (2003,123)  Instance Sense The Instance Sense prompts for a reading in which an instance o f a particular event, activity, process or state is being referenced. Evans provides the following examples: Devine improved for the fourth time this winter when he reached 64.40 meters at a meeting in Melbourne. This time, it was a bit more serious because I got a registered letter. He did it 50 times in a row. Once it was clear that the room could not be held, he would order its evacuation, men leaving two at a time by the far window. (2003, 131)  Event Sense The Event Sense prompts for a conceptualisation in which a specific event is referenced. A n event constitutes an occurrence o f some type, characterized by certain features or characteristics which mark the occurrence as is by being temporally discreet. This sense references an experiential point in an event-sequence (event embedded in ongoing experience/event-sequences). The following linguistic expressions are examples of the Event Sense o f time: The young woman's time [=labour] approached. The man had every caution given him not a minute before to be careful with the gun, but his time was coming as his poor shipmates say and with that they console themselves. 24  The barman called time. (Evans, 2003,135)  Matrix Sense In the Matrix Sense, "time" prompts an entity that is unbounded. Evans provides the following examples: Time flows/runs/goes on forever. Time has no end. Those mountains have stood for all time. Nothing can outlast time. (Evans, 2003,142)  Agentive Sense The Agentive Sense prompts time as an entity that serves to bring about change. Here are some examples: Time, the subtle thief o f youth. Time has aged me. Time has left its scars Time has yellowed the pages Time transformed her Time reveals all (Evans, 2003, 159)  Measurement-System Sense In the Measurement-System Sense, physical symbols can be used to represent or measure time. The temporal measurements arise due to the correlation between periodic behaviour in the external world and our experience o f duration. Evans provides the following examples: Clock—serves to divide day into hours, minutes, seconds... In quick time (dance), 108 paces, or 270 feet, are taken in a minute; and in slow time, seventy-five paces, or 187 feet... To play music out o f time. In the 1850s Railway time was introduced as standard. We get paid double time on public holidays (2003, 169)  25  C o m m o d i t y Sense The Commodity Sense prompts time as an entity that is valuable. It therefore can be for exchanged, traded, acquired, and possessed: Remember that time is money. Time has become a scarce commodity. Everyone wants more of it. They are selling time-shares on the Costa Blanca. The psychiatrist charges a lot for her time. A few techniques to create more time in your day. (Evans, 2003, 177)  Following Evans, the above 8 senses of time form the framework to analyze the use of the lexeme "time" in conversational texts produced by speakers with A S D . This chapter has described the methods used in this thesis. Cohesion analysis was used to isolate stretches of temporal text from 9 conversational transcripts produced by speakers with A S D . Speech genre analysis and conceptual metaphor analysis was used to describe observations in each of the 9 texts and the patters across all 9 texts.  26  CHAPTER 4 - SPEECH GENRE ANALYSIS In this chapter I examine generic structure in temporal discourse in semistructured conversations involving speakers with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). My approach uses genre analysis (Eggins & Slade, 1997; Plum, 2004; Martin, 1997) from functional discourse analysis to examine a corpus of nine texts. The chapter examines how speakers with A S D produce, structure, and comprehend temporally sequenced events in spoken text. Genre analysis from the discipline of discourse analysis is used to classify stretches of spoken text that involve sequences of events. This chapter proceeds in two parts. Part 1 describes each speaker's use of genre in the 9 individual texts. Part 2 extends upon this description by analyzing patterns of genre use across the 9 texts. To identify speakers' use of genre, stretches of spoken text that involve sequences of events were isolated from 9 transcripts of transcribed conversations based on the speakers' use of Halliday & Hasan's (1976) external conjunctive relations of the temporal type. These stretches of text were classified into 6 genre types that follow the work of Eggins and Slade (1997) and Plum (2004). Table 1.1 identifies the 6 genre types used for analysis in this chapter and their generic structure. Appendix 1 presents the full set of extracted data coded for genre types and generic stages.  Genre Narrative  Generic structure (Abstract) (Orientation) Complication Evaluation Resolution (Coda) Anecdote (Abstract) (Orientation) Remarkable Event Reaction (Coda) Exemplum (Abstract) (Orientation) Incident Interpretation (Coda) Specific Recount (Abstract) (Orientation) Specific Record of Events (Coda) General Recount (Abstract) (Orientation) General Record of Events (Coda) Procedure (Abstract) Orientation How To (Coda) Table 4 . 1 - Genre types used for analysis A  A  A  A  A  A  A  A  A  A  A  A  A  A  A  A  A  A  A  A  A  A  27  PART 1: Individual Text Analysis This section begins the analysis of genre by describing the individual speaker's use of genre in the 9 texts. In these texts, both the researcher (RES) and the child (CHI) contribute to the generic structure of the text because turn-taking is a characteristic of conversational discourse. Textl Text 1 contains 2 stretches of temporally sequenced text. The first was a General Recount and the second was a Specific Recount. The General Recount text proceeds through an Orientation stage followed by a Record of Events: RES: CHI:  ORIENTATION what do y o u do when y o u go home f r o m s c h o o l [RECORD OF EVENTS a h -: I p l a y games.  Will?  Example 4.1 - General Recount 1, transcript 1, lines 79-80 As can be seen from Example 1.1, the General Recount identified is not produced entirely by the research participant. Rather, the researcher utters the Orientation as a question and the child utters the Record of Events in response to the researcher's question. The participant that contributes each generic stage is identified because conversational texts, especially clinical texts, involve a semi-structured turn-taking pattern where both participants share the construction of the genre. The child's Record of Events involves a single event and the researcher solicits it. The Specific Recount proceeds through the generic stages of Orientation Record A  of Events Orientation Record of Events Record of Events Orientation Record of A  A  A  A  A  Events: RES: CHI:  s o do y o u l i k e mmhm.  ORIENTATION pizza Will?  28  RES: RES: CHI RES CHI RES RES: RES : CHI RES RES  RECORD OF EVENTS n i g h t f o r supper. ORIENTATION what d i d y o u h a v e f o r s u p p e r l a s t n i g h t ? RECORD OF EVENTS I had p i z z a t o o . d i d you? yeah. oh -: . RECORD OF EVENTS and t h e n i g h t b e f o r e I had pork chops. |ORIENTATION| c a n y o u remember what y o u h a d t h e n i g h t b e f o r e ? RECORD OF EVENTS p o r k chops t o o . you had p o r k chops t o o . hm. I had p i z z a  last  Example 4.2 - Specific Recount 1, transcript 1, Lines 138-150 The second text's sequence repeats the Orientation Record of Events sequence 3 A  times with an additional Record of Events between the second and third sequence. In this, each Orientation stage following the initial Orientation functions to re-establish the temporal setting when supper was eaten. In both the General Recount and Specific Recount, all Orientation stages were uttered by the researcher in the form of questions. The Records of Events represent the child's responses to these questions. In the 2 stretches of text, the researcher utters all 4 of the Orientation stages. The child only utters solicited Records of Events and each describes a single event. A turntaking pattern is observed where the researcher poses a question and the child answers it. It appears that the child requires structure from the researcher's questions to sustain turntaking in the conversation. Table 4.2 summarizes the genres types and generic stages that speakers in text 1 use.  29  T3  cu  •a  '3  cu  "o  •a  CA  cu  cu  5  c  O CA  S TS  GO  cu  5  •o  o  cu  CA  cu  CO  s  s u  o  3  z  o  • M  'u u  c  ets  u  X  •o  a.  <  CU  u cu  Z  e  H  a  U  ©  X  u 3 •a cu u  E U  X  e  s  >  cu  XI  c  10  o  >-  XI  B  Ui  o  C M  B  O  < <  W C M  o  •a  e X  e  X  cu OS  cu  3 S  X  o o o EE  o  B  e  >  U _cu  eg -4  « -4  X  « E  cu  a!  cu  05  o to  U >> x B e  u es cu Qi  B .©  B _© U C3 CU  o  Vi  Is  X  cu  cu  2  cu  > tit _cu  •O  5  o co  x CU  U  CA  cu  U o to  VI  CU  X  5  o  B  5  "o  CO  cu  o  •a cu • M  B  GO  o  cu  •a  5  o  cu  •o  B  •o  X  o U  CO T3 O  U  X B .© CO  et  s  s  13 >  "et  >  Table 4.2 - Summary of genre types and generic stages used by speakers in text 1 Text 2 Text 2 contains a single General Recount (see Appendix 1). This text uses only Orientation and Record of Events stages in its generic structure with the exception of an evaluative comment that also serves as a Coda uttered by the researcher. The General Recount contains 3 Orientations, 3 Record of Events, and a Coda. Two of the 3 Orientations were uttered by the researcher and the remaining Orientation was uttered by the child and solicited by the researcher. A l l 3 Records of Events were uttered by the child and solicited by the researcher. The generic structure of the text repeats the Orientation Record of Events sequence 3 times. The participants' turn-taking followed a A  pattern where the researcher posed a question and the child answered the question. The conversation relies heavily on this turn-taking pattern to sustain conversation as all of the  30  child's responses were solicited by the researcher. Table 4.3 summarizes the genre type and generic stages that speakers in text 2 use.  e/3  ja U ^> 1.  tu  XI  s  X  X!  >  E 3  E  X  3  B  o  X  o  "a.  E x  o SB  c «3  0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0  S  3  0  0 0  U >-> x  Ed J£ x cs  x  ±£ u a  •a o  a  U  as  0  0  0  1  0 1  Table 4.3 - Summary of genre types and generic stages used by speakers in text 2 Text 3 Text 3 contains a Specific Recount and 3 General Recounts. The Specific Recount is particularly interesting because it contains a Reaction stage that is normally found in Anecdotes. It appears that the child and researcher have a misunderstanding in the conversation's genre (see Example 4.3). The Specific Recount is also discontinuously realized. The Specific Recount proceeds through the following genre stages: • • • •  Abstract Orientation Evaluation Record of Events A  A  A  31  • • • • • • • • • • • • • •  Reaction Orientation Record of Events Orientation Record of Events Orientation Record of Events Orientation Record of Events Orientation Evaluation Orientation Record of Events Evaluation  •  Evaluation/Coda  A  A  A  A  A  A  A  A  A  A  A  A  A  A  In the Specific Recount, the child engages in a Recount while the researcher appears to engage in an Anecdote. Table 4.4 compares the generic structure of an Anecdote with the generic structure of a Specific Recount. Genre Anecdote  Generic structure (Abstract) (Orientation) Remarkable E v e n t Reaction (Coda) Specific Recount (Abstract) (Orientation) Specific Record of Events (Coda) Table 4.4 - Generic structure of the Anecdote and the Specific Recount A  A  A  A  A  A  A  In Chapter 3, Methods, it is noted that the beginnings and endings of genre types may use some of the same generic stages. Both the Anecdote and Specific Recount may begin with Abstracts and Orientations and they may conclude with Codas. These shared stages and the nature of the Remarkable Event and Specific Record of Events stages in both genre types appear to cause the confusion between the participants. The researcher begins the Specific Recount with an Abstract. The child then utters an Orientation that is solicited by the researcher. The researcher evaluates and then asks a question. The child responds to the researcher's question with a Record of Events. This Record of Events is solicited and it describes 6 events in serial order. The researcher  32  appears to mistake the child's Record of Events for a Remarkable Event and interrupts the child with a Reaction, "wow." The researcher then attempts to reorient the conversation with a question; however, the child answers this question with a polar response and returns to continue his Record of Events: RECORD OF EVENTS S o p h i e a n d I went t o R e c o r d m a n and a t R e c o r d n a n R e c o r d m a n we f o u n d a S t a n R o g e r s t a p e c a l l e d P o e t i c J u s t i c e [!] w i t h t w o r a d i o p l a y e r s c a l l e d H a r r i s and t h e major and t h e s i s t e r s . um J S o p h i e f o u n d a S o p h i e f o u n d a t h i n g t h a t w a s n ' t CHI : Tom W a i t s w a s n ' t t h e Wake i t w a s n ' t R i c k W a k e f i e l d b u t i t was t h e W a l l f l o w e r s # c a l l e d b r i n g i n g down t h e h o r s e . CHI : i t was t h e o n l y W a l l f l o w e r s a l b u m t h e y e v e r r e c o r d e d . ANECDOTE REACTION RES : ORIENTATION RES h a d y o u h e a r d a b o u t them b e f o r e ? RES t h i s group? CHI no! RES RECORD OF EVENTS CHI: uh t h e s o t h e n we went t o a n a n t i q u e s h o p , CHI: and t h e n b a c k t o V i n y l R e c o r d s . CHI: CHI:  Example 4.3 Excerpt from Specific Recount 1, transcript 3, lines 26-36  The misinterpretation of genre types may be better understood by considering the context of situation. In this text, what is happening ideationally is a casual conversation between a researcher and a child. Both participants appear to understand that the conversation genre belongs to a storytelling genre type. The level of specificity of language appears to be the source of confusion. The child retells events with great detail; for example, the naming of each music album. This child's use of detail is more typical of a Remarkable Event stage found in the Anecdote genre type. The researcher appears to draw this conclusion based on the child's use of detail. Typically in a Recount, information in a Record of Events would be kept more general compared to a  33  Remarkable Event in an Anecdote. Compare the level of specificity and detail in the following invented examples: Recount: RECORD OF EVENTS Y e s t e r d a y n i g h t I made m a c a r o n i a n d c h e e s e . A f t e r w a t c h e d some T.V.  dinner,  I  Example 4.4 - Typical Record of Events stage in a Recount Anecdote: REMARKABLE EVENT Y e s t e r d a y n i g h t I made m a c a r o n i a n d c h e e s e . I t o o k a c u p o f d r y m a c a r o n i a n d p u t i t i n a p o t . Then I went o v e r t o t h e s i n k , a n d when I h e l d t h e p o t u n d e r t h e f a u c e t a n d t u n e d o n t h e h o t w a t e r t a p , s m e l l y b r o w n w a t e r came o u t o f t h e t a p ! REACTION Yuck!  Example 4.5 - Typical Remarkable Event and Reaction Stages in an Anecdote In the Remarkable Event stage, information is typically retold with more detail compared to the Record of Events stage. Overly specific information when relating text to context would hint to the audience that that the detailed retelling of events is intentional. In a Recount or an Anecdote, audiences may not establish the text's genre type until after the optional elements have been uttered because both may begin with the same optional elements. The child uses high level of detail in the Record of Events and the researcher believes that the child is retelling a Remarkable Event. This example suggests that speakers with A S D may have difficulty with the coordination of contextual information producing utterances in conversations that can mislead audiences. In the Specific Recount, the child continues in an extended Record of Events following the researcher's Reaction and (re)Orientation. The child's Record of Events describes 12 events in serial order. The researcher attempts to reorient the child during his Record of Events 4 times, but the child always returns to his Record of Events. These attempts to reorient, including the child's return to a Record of Events, are shaded in Example 4.6:  34  IRECORD RES:  what  d i d  CHI:  you see i n  <I>  RES:  <or  in>  [>]  [<]  . Toronto?  CHI:  f i r s t  CHI:  and v i s i t e d  CHI:  on on Tuesday  both  went  to  I  the  CHI:  went  RES:  with  oh where  CHI:  does  oh  from  Kingsbury.  to  pick  and I  Recordnan  Poetic  J u s t i c e  Tom  and the major um J  Waits  and J  we  Sophie. us  to  a band  c a l l e d  the  i t .  America.  and at  CHI:  Winston Winston  play?  CHI: Harris  i n  band  Sophie c a l l e d  up  Judy  America.  CHI: tape  and Judy  introduced  D i l l o n  the  Eddy  and Wednesday  Sophie  Jacob  from  RES:  t o  my a u n t  airport  (a)n(d)  Wallflowers  OF EVENTS|  Toronto?  Wallflowers  #  CHI:  i t  to  [!]  with  c a l l e d  i t  a  Sophie  wasn't  bringing  was t h e  only  we  two  found  radio  a  Stan  players  Rogers c a l l e d  s i s t e r s .  found  t h e Wake  Recordman.  Recordman  and the  Sophie  wasn't  went  found  Rick  down  the  a  thing  Wakefield  that  but  wasn't  i t  was t h e  horse.  Wallflowers  album  they  ever  recorded.  ANECDOTE REACTION RES:  wow.  _ _ _ _ _ _ _ RES;", [CHI:  0 R'l- E-NTi A;T-;-l 0N :  {.'.riaffi^  RES-rj  this, .  groupj?  ;>•:'"'• n o f j  RES:  • no?[~"~~"~  CHIY  •  ;y\}:.;^n.i;jah,, t-hV-'.;so^then:,we/$e"n._'i t d ^ a j ^ a r f t & L q u e  CHI:  and then  CHI: [!]  when section  I  CHI: I  was stopped  Jennifer  the  the  Cohen  by  the blue  album  and I  and then  got  i t  c a l l e d  [!]  l e t t e r  section raincoat  Famous  on LP and  we a n d t h e n  and then  the  b  i n  the  Bowie  One B o w i e .  i n  Warnes  f o u home  through [!]  s h o p ,|  Records.  dead  CHI: we  V i n y l  Changes  CHI: then  to  f l i p p e d  found  and then  t i l l new  I  back  Blue  r i f l e d  through from  out  the  Raincoat.  cassette.  we w e n t  we d r o v e  I  staring  back  home to  to  and then  Kingsbury  and  and  Kingsbury. CHI:  and l i s t e n e d  CHI:  and at  to  i t  Kingsbury  on  I  the  ate  way - :  some  ay  lasagna  there. and  butterscotch  icecream. CHI: um  a n d we w e n t  <and>  RES:  [>]  <do  outside  at  night  and played  i n  the  snow  .  you>  [<]  CHI:  the  JCHI:  ;"arid,  .  next  day I  we  I  went  to  the  bookshop.  gbtf,"trie" E n g l i s h ^ ' V e f s Y o l T r o f irth^e'rJudiFli  ,.Beoris'  book'  •Alexander .And^The^e*^ aoved>  [>;/•;'/;  \  <excuse  REST  me  Jwill>;"[<l  RES:,  ' d i d you*Have -cousins  JCHI:  '  '  |0R1 E N T A T 3 ON  .]  there,TtpTpTa^  n o - : if"~  RES.:.,:- n o . j u s t  <adults.  e h . h m > . [>];  ?j  35  (CHI::. farm. CHI:  . < i . t ' s dr.> <and>  RECORD ••OF'. EVENTS <] ;,• t h'eri*^ ^ e n t l l t ;o B i l l y / a h d ^ N a n c y i t s ^  [>] ORIENTATION  RES JCHI RES [CHI RES' JCHI RES' RES (CHI RES RES: CHI CHI CHI CHI CHI CHI CHI CHI CHI CHI CHI CHI CHI CHI RES: (CHI:  they-ihadi-a l o t ' [ ! ' l i k e about ',twenty or ! f i f ty'\pr.-'whati would, you think?! t ' t w enty____b\Tj • twent-y^fewo.?P** < y e a h > „ [>] ' <and w> [-<] what w h a t ' c o l o u r s » w e r e they<.?j w e r e t h e y i H b l s t i e n s b l a c k a n d - w h i t e 'Jones, o r ^ ' w e r e . v  i  it  J  t,  f  f—•  u  • t h e y .were - b l a c k -and, w h i t e - H o l s t - i e n s . ] • w e r e , they_?j uhhuh.| RECORD. OF EVENTS e x c u s e me ' a n d ^excuse/'mevand'-^ and I went o u t s i d e a g a i n . and I t o o k a b a t h . and t h e n [!] I went t o s l e e p . and t h e n I went t o b e d . and t u r n e d o f f t h e l i g h t . t h e n e x t m o r n i n g I p a c k e d my s u i t c a s e u p . and we went b a c k t o T o r o n t o , b u t my f a t h e r was g o n e . I s a t down a n d r e a d - : . and s u d d e n l y my f a t h e r went my f a t h e r came b a c k , he w a l k e d me o v e r t o t h e S a m ' s on Yonge s t r e e t , and B l o o r s t r e e t - : . and I . PRIENTATION ; w h a t ' s. ,that p l a c e - W i l l ? ""'y .'i t • ' s;'3vit''S;;-a:rri;ey<?Sam^s;^<wBe%fe>[^ ' " .'::j£he^thave;jiis^ey ;  ;  L  :  RES:: jfe <: whe'rie ;  < j] "M  RECORD OF" EVENTS CHI: , '"but I am'Sflrry t h e y , d i d no.t^ h a v e a r t y ' ; W i n c h e s t e r L P s there..) Example 4.6 - Excerpt from Specific Recount 1, transcript 3, Lines 16-81 The shaded areas in the above example show a rigid adherence to the Record of Events stage of the Recount genre. The Specific Recount in Text 3 includes 7 Orientations, 6 Records of Events, a Reaction, 3 Evaluations, and a Coda. Six of the 7 Orientations and all the Records of Events were uttered by the child. O f these 6 Orientations, 5 were solicited by the researcher while only 1 o f the 6 Record o f Events was solicited by the researcher. The ratio 5:1 of unsolicited Record o f Events to  36  unsolicited Orientations points again to preferred or rigid use of the Record of Events generic stages in genre. In the Specific Recount, the researcher uttered the Reaction, and 2 of the 3 Evaluations. The child uttered a single Evaluation and it was solicited by the researcher. Text 3 also contains 3 General Recounts. The first General Recount proceeds through Orientation Record of Events Orientation Evaluation/Coda. A l l stages are A  A  A  uttered by the researcher. The second General Recount proceeds through Abstract^ Orientation Evaluation Orientation Record of Events Orientation Record of Events A  A  A  A  A  A  Evaluation/Coda. The Abstract is uttered by the child and solicited by the researcher. T w o of the 3 Orientation stages were uttered by the child and solicited by the researcher and both Records of Events were uttered by the child without solicitation. The first Record of Events describes a single event while the second Record of Events describes 2 events in serial order. Both the Evaluation and the Evaluation/Coda are uttered by the researcher. The third General Recount proceeds through Orientation Record of Events A  A  Evaluation Record of Events Coda. Two Records of Events are uttered by the child and A  A  are solicited by the researcher. Both Records of Events describe 2 events in serial order. The Orientation, Evaluation, and Coda are uttered by the researcher. Text 3 contains 13 Orientations (4 by the researcher and 9 by the child). Seven of the child's Orientations are solicited by the researcher. The child utters 10 Records of Events, 8 of which are unsolicited. The researcher utters a single Reaction, all Codas (4) and 6 of the 7 Evaluations. (The child's Evaluation is solicited by the researcher.) Interestingly, in this text, the child engages in Records of Events that often describe  37  multiple events in serial order. Table 4.5 summarizes the genre types and generic stages that the speakers in text 3 use.  •a  tu  01  o  •O  o>  t» B  •a 01  E 3  Z  o> > es u  H  CS u  es Z  0  o •a w V B  <  _3  "5. E V X  Ed  B 3 O u  3 O u  OS  02  a. Vi  o> B tu  a  B O  o> >3  B  •a U  o  £1  <  B  o>  7  S  0  01  Ed  •a  u ou tu  VI 8  o>  >• Ed  B tu  > Ed 0>  X  o  •a u ou  to  X  0>  o  H  o X  X a it  cs E 01 BS  2  ©  w  o  x  o  05  B XI  o  B  3  CA  0>  X  Vi  CA  "o  3  •a  •a  U >> x  o  B  5  (/I  o  V  CA  B  o  tu  '3 "o  •a  "o  13 tU  •a  w  0>  -*-t  01  t/3  B  tu X  B  B  "o  "o  •a  CA  o>  a)  VJ  •a o  o> > Ed  Vi  — X  x x  B  B O  cs  E  es  ai  PS  X  es o>  tu  01  o U  es •o o U  B  cs  cs  a  _3  "55  >  >• Ed  Ed  S  2  8  U  U  0  0  o  i  o  Table 4.5 - Summary of genre types and generic stages used by speakers in text 3  Text 4 Text 4 contains a General Recount, and a Procedure. The General Recount proceeds through Orientation Record of Events Evaluation. The researcher utters the A  A  Orientation in the form of a question. The child responds with a Record of Events that describes a single event. The child then utters an unsolicited Evaluation. The Procedure describes how to make Kraft Dinner. The Procedure proceeds through Abstract^ Orientation Record of Events Coda. It follows the Procedure genre A  A  described by Eggins and Slade perfectly because it uses all mandatory and optional stages of the Procedure genre type. The researcher utters the Abstract in the form of a question:  38  " D o you do any cooking at home W i l l ? " The researcher then orients. The child utters a H o w To stage that involves 3 steps. The child provides an unsolicited Coda. Text 4 contains 2 stretches of spoken discourse that use temporally sequenced events. The researcher uses a single Abstract. The speakers use 2 Orientations; both speakers utter a single Orientation. The child's Orientation is unsolicited. The child utters a single Record of Events and a single H o w To stage that are both solicited by the researcher. The child utters a single unsolicited Evaluation. In text 4, the child demonstrates competency in using the Procedure genre type in addition to the General Recount genre type. The child is also able utter an unsolicited Coda and evaluates without solicitation once. Table 4.6 summarizes the genre types and generic stages that the speakers in text 4 use.  CD  "o  73  CA  CD  e  CD  '5  "o CA  S o  Vi  x U >> x  e  x u CD u  Q.  E  tu x W  C  v>  o S  CD  c CD  o o  CD  U x  o X  Vi  Vi  X  O  o  t/J  X  y X  o H o  X  X c  X X cs  Pi  O  U  es  •O O  U  u 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 Table 4.6 - Summary of genre types and generic stages used by speakers in text 4  o es  _s  >  1  u  39  Text 5 Text 5 contains a Specific Recount and a Procedure. The Specific Recount proceeds through Orientation Record of Events Record of Events Evaluation/Coda. A  A  A  The researcher utters the Orientation, the first Record of Events, and the Evaluation/Coda. The child utters the second Record of Events and it is solicited by the researcher. The child's Record of Events describes a single event. The Procedure from Text 5 proceeds through Abstract Orientation Evaluation H o w t o A  A  A  A  Evaluation  A  Evaluation/Coda. The child utters the Abstract that is solicited by the researcher. The researcher utters the Orientation and the child follows with an unsolicited Evaluation. The child then utters a H o w To solicited by the researcher and then evaluates without solicitation. The H o w To describes 3 steps. Finally, the researcher utters the Evaluation/Coda. Text 5 contains a single solicited Abstract uttered by the child, 2 Orientations uttered by the researcher, 2 Record of Events (one solicited and uttered by the child and the other uttered by the researcher), a solicited H o w To uttered by the child, 2 Codas uttered by the researcher, and 4 Evaluations. Two of the evaluations are unsolicited and are uttered by the child and 2 are uttered by the researcher. The child's utterances are all solicited by the researcher with the exception of 2 unsolicited Evaluations. Table 4.7 summarizes the genre types and generic stages that the speakers in text 5 use.  40  CD 0)  •o  B  tu  tu  B  3  [3 "©  |3 "3  CA  e  o  E o •o u es  CD  <S  3  x  OS  a,  o u  U  OS  X  CD  B  tu  75  3 T3  X B O  1  o>  0> >  W C M  O  es B X  >  •a  •c o o  OS  [3  >  CO  CA  B  CO*  x B  3  "o  CO~  CD  CD  o CO  O CO  -*-» B  ©  co  CD  >  u CD  ©  X es  X ©  S3  E  s  CD  S3  X B _o  X! B  X es es  T3 o  S.  T3 CD -*-»  73  o  W o  CA  to  t/3  x B  CD  •a  U B  '3 "©  O  ST  JS  X  •a  B  3  o  o CO  CO —' 1  to" •a  0)  CD  o>  B  CA  CD  73  T5  CD  a; ai  u es s> OS  es T3 ©  X es 73  o  es  73  U  CS  _3 "es  > H  2  U  S 0 0 Table 4.7 - Summary of genre types and generic stages used by speakers in text 5  0  0  0  0  Text 6 Text 6 contains a General Recount and 2 Procedures. The General Recount proceeds through an Orientation Record of Events. The researcher solicits both stages A  and they are uttered by the child. The child's Record of Events describes 2 events in serial order. Both Procedures proceed through Orientation H o w T o Evaluation/Coda. A  A  In both cases, the child utters all elements. A l l stages in the Procedures are unsolicited except for the Orientation in the first Procedure. Both H o w To stages describe 2 steps in serial order. Text 6 contains 3 Orientations, one uttered by the researcher, and 2 uttered by the child. O f the 2 Orientations produced by the child, one is solicited by the researcher and the other is not. The text also contains 2 H o w To stages, 2 Codas, and an Evaluation.  41  These stages are all unsolicited and uttered by the child. Table 4.8 summarizes the genre types and generic stages that the speakers in text 5 use.  73  '3 "o CA  tu -*-»  s  CA  z *u cu  o  •o  c  CA  E _a  "E. E  u  es u  CD  41 X  B  H  w  tu Qi u tu  a.  CO  tu B tu  •a  tu u o  CA  XI  X  B  >> X  CU  >  CU  B  3  "o  3  o CO  3  co~  CA  s  CO*  3  B  o u tu  0)  >  >  W  u ocu  o  H  o  SB  X o  H  o SB  X!  S3 1-  es  CO  o CO  B cu >• W X  E  E  at  OS  CU  >> X B O  XI  CS  cs  o CO 73  ©  Xi  o  B  O B tu  eu  '3  CA  Cfl  CU  •d  < < o o1 ai s  o  "o  X  u  0!  •O  73  o  73 cu  X  >> XI o CS  73  73 eu  o CO  U  <u OS  ]3  O CO  tu  o CO B 3 O cu  w  B  •o  *— 73 tu  B 3 O eu  3  CU •«-»  CD  B  E  73  3  "3  X  B  B  B _©  cu es  CU CS  es 73 o  U  Xi es 73 O  u  es  73 >  2 2 1 U U u Table 4.8 - Summary of genre types and generic stages used by speakers in text 6  0  0  CS  >  1 u  Text 7 Text 7 contains 4 General Recounts. The first proceeds through Abstract  A  Orientation Evaluation Record of Events Orientation Record of Events Record of A  A  A  A  A  Events Record of Events Orientation Evaluation/Coda. The child in this text A  A  A  demonstrates advanced use of generic stages of the General Recount. The Abstract is solicited by the researcher and uttered by the child. The first Record of Events describes a single event. The Orientation and first Record of Events, produced by the child, are unsolicited. The researcher reorients the conversation and solicits a second Record of Events from the child. The second Record of Events describes 5 events in serial order.  42  The second, third, and fourth Records of Events in the first General Recount are interesting because the fourth Record of Events is discontinuously realized from the second Record of Events, while the third Record of Events refers to a different temporal setting:  CHI: CHI: CHI: RES:  |RECQRD OF E V E N T S (2)| w e l l we t a k e t h e um f o u r + f o r t y + f i v e bus. um - : a n d t h a t i s t h o s e um tho. RECORD OF E V E N T S (3) well it's not Funtrack. i t u s e d t o be Funtrack. it's T r e n t w a y <now> [>]. <mmhm> [<] mmhm?  CHI: CHI: a t um  a n d um # a n d we t h e n um i t g o e s in Hamilton.  CHI: CHI:  R E C O R D OF E V E N T S (4) t a k e t h e we t a k e t h e four+forty+five bus. to a l l these l i t t l e towns b e f o r e i t stops  Example 1.7 - General Recount 1, transcript 7, lines 30-37 The child discusses the bus ride he generally takes to work in the second Record of Events, then shifts to the third Record of Events where he describes the before and after facts of the bus' name/type. In the fourth Record of Events, the child returns to continue the second Record of Events by repeating it and then proceeds through additional events in serial order. That is, the child suspends the temporal sequences in the second Record of Events, shifts to another temporal sequence (the third Record of Events) and then continues the second Record of Events in the fourth Record of Events. The third and fourth Records of Events both describe 2 events in serial order. The final Orientation is an unsolicited list of towns (possibly in serial order) uttered by the child with an Evaluation/Coda uttered by the researcher. The second General Recount in Text 7 has a simple structure of Orientation  A  Record of Events. The Orientation is uttered by the researcher and the Record of Events is solicited by the researcher and uttered by the child. This Record of Events describes 2  43  events in serial order. The third and fourth General Recounts in Text 7 followed a similar simple generic structure. The third General Recount proceeds through Orientation  A  Record of Events Evaluation Record of Events. The Orientation is uttered by the A  A  researcher and both Records of Events are uttered by the child. The first Record of Events is solicited by the researcher and describes a single event while the second Record of Events is unsolicited and describes 2 events in serial order. The first and second Records of Events are discontinuously realized and they are separated by a brief Evaluation uttered by the researcher. The child utters the entire fourth General Recount. The generic structure proceeds through Orientation Record of Events Orientation Record of Events. The initial A  A  A  Orientation is solicited by the researcher while the remaining stages are unsolicited. Both Records of Events are a result of a discontinuously realized single Record of Events and the Orientation that separates them functions to further specify the situation under which the first Record of Events occurs. Here the child describes his physical activity, reorients the situation, and then continues describing the serial events in his workout: [RECORD CHI:  <well>  CHI:  I  CHI:  but  I  [<]  we  don't  u  very  I  used  much  I  do  one  #  but  I  do  l i f t i n g  to  OF  EVENTS|  do  that  for  sportsnight.  now. um  on  Sundays  I  go  to  uh  my  f i t n e s s  c l a s s e s . CHI:  and  l i f t i n g  one  up.  ORIENTATION CHI:  well  CHI:  except  those  CHI:  because  CHI:  <and  CHI:  so  RES:  uhhuh?  CHI:  you  those  they're I  t r i e d  couldn't  i t ' s  more  weight  not to  do of  the l i f t  that> the  things. big [%  CHI:  excuse  CHI:  <xxx>  RES:  <0  [=!  CHI:  um  #  CHI:  what  of  weights.  c h u c k l i n g ] .  machine RECORD  do  sort  those.  OF  sort  of  weights.  EVENTS  the. me. [>]. chuckles]>  I  do  else  [<].  um. do  I  do?  44  CHI:  I  RES:  oh  do  this  CHI:  then  RES:  yeah.  um  #  the  ones  where  you  go  l i k e  t h i s .  r i g h t . you  CHI:  I  do  um  CHI:  I  do  #.  #  you  do  something  that. with  #  that.  Example 4.8 - General Recount 4, transcript 7, lines 148-169 Text 7 contains 7 Orientations; 3 are unsolicited and uttered by the child while 4 are uttered by the researcher. Text 7 also contains 9 Records of Events all uttered by the child; 4 Records of Events are solicited by the researcher while 5 are not. Several of the Record of Events stages describe multiple events in serial order. The researcher utters a Coda and 3 Evaluations. The child in Text 7 is flexible with generic structure because he is able to divide Records of Events with an optional stage (an Orientation). He is also able and to produce discontinuously realized spoken discourse. Table 4.9 summarizes the genre types and generic stages that the speakers in text 7 use.  45  "O  cu 'u "o s  c  3  3  o  T3  tO~  CO  CU  XI  u «U  Si  E s  u  Z a E  cu X W  cs  H  X  U  s o •a i_ o  D.  e  ccu u SL  u  CU  D. CO  o CO  X  >> X  x o H  X!  x X  cs  cs  •o o  o  > bi  U  4  S 5  0  0  0  1  U  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  Table 4.9 - Summary of genre types and generic stages used by speakers in text 7  Text 8 Text 8 contains 2 Specific Recounts, a General Recount, and a Procedure. The 2 Specific Recounts are simple in generic structure; they proceed through Orientation  A  Record of Events. In the first Specific Recount, the child utters both the Orientation and the Record of Events. In the Record of Events, the researcher attempts to solicit a H o w To with the questions, " H o w does it get filled up?" but the child responds with a Record of Events that contains a single event. If the child had responded to the researcher's question with a H o w To, the text would be classified as a Procedure rather than a Specific Recount.  46  pRIENTATION| RES:  <and>  [<]  CHI:  mm  yes!  CHI:  it  RES:  a  CHI:  of  -: had wet  you  a  wet  heavy  were  t e l l i n g  heavy load  me  about  a  cement  truck  before.  load.  -:  .  concrete.  RES:  from  CHI:  for  CHI:  that  RES:  how  CHI:  just  what? the  m  for  for  the  mighty  mixer.  xxx. RECORD does go  it  get  f i l l e d  OF  EVENTS  up?  xxx.  Example 4.9 - Recount 1, transcript 8, lines 9-18 In the second Specific Recount, the researcher asks the child "what does it make?" In this question, "it" refers to wet cement mix when it dries. Instead of responding to the researcher's question, again, the child utters a Record of Events that describes a single event: pRIENTATION| RES:  and  CHI:  um  what  does  it  make? RECORD  #  and  it  turns  that  way  OF  EVENTS  instead  of  coming  this  way.  it=truck CHI:  that's  because  they  are  many  machines  in  the  construction  s i t e . RES:  there  CHI:  them  are there  many are  which? many  machines  in  the  construction  s i t e .  Example 4.10 - Recount 2, transcript 8, lines 38-42 The child violates the conventions of generic stages in both Specific Recounts because he neglects the solicited question and responds with Records of Events. In example, 4.10, the researcher solicits a Record of Events and the child responds with a Record of Events; however, the child's Record of Events does not answer the researcher's question. The General Recount proceeds through Orientation Record of Events A  A  Orientation Record of Events. The child utters the Orientation that is solicited by the A  researcher. A n interesting aspect of the Orientation is that it contains what Hasan (Halliday and Hasan, 1989) term a probe. In Hasan's analysis of sales encounters, if a person were to enter into a store and "hang about" the vendor may attempt to provoke a 47  Sales Request (SR). The vendor could attempt to do so by asking " C a n I help you?" or " A r e you alright?" (Halliday & Hasan, 1989, 66). Hasan explains, "It [a probe] consists of some device that is calculated to bring about the kind of behaviour on the part of some(one) participant..." (Halliday & Hasan, 1989, 66). In the General Recount the child asks the researcher "what what did Sophia do?" This question functions as a probe that attempts to solicit a question from the researcher. It appears that the child knows that the researcher w i l l not be able to answer this question and w i l l respond accordingly with another question. The researcher responds with the anticipated question in the following example: ORIENTATION RES  what's  CHI  I  RES  what's  a  have  dog  [<] a  CHI  i t ' s  RES  oh  who  CHI  um  -:  CHI  what  CHI  well  #  CHI  what  did  so dog  i t ' s do  I  RES  did  CHI  yes .  CHI:  now  stuck  in  much game  I  t r y i n g play  did  I  so  much  fun.  to  get  the  other  dogs  out.  with?  play  with  Sophia  Sophia?  did  she  have  l i k e ?  you  what  don't  [>]?  xxx  sometime what  RES  <game>  she  do  to  do? me?  know.  she  do  she  was  something  to  you?  RECORD stuck  in  in  OF  EVENTS  between  in  between  maybe  she  got  between. ORIENTATION  RES  in  between  what?  CHI.  in  between  #  RES  oh  in  RES  <where  CHI:  now  the  between in>  the  trees, trees?  [>]? RECORD  Sophia  was  gotten  OF  stuck  EVENTS in  between  #  on  a  summer  day.  Example 4.11 - General Recount 1, transcript 8, line 119-136 The child appears so determined to probe for a specific question that he probes the researcher with 3 consecutive questions. When the researcher responds to the probe with the question, " D i d she do something to you?" the child begins a Record of Events. The researcher then attempts to clarify the setting by soliciting the child to reorient. The child  48  responds and continues with an unsolicited Record of Events. Both of the child's Records of Events in the General Recount describe a single event. In total, Text 8 contains 5 Orientations; the researcher utters 2 Orientations while the child utters 3 Orientations. The child's Orientations are solicited by the researcher. This text also contains 5 Records of Events that are all uttered by the child; 4 are solicited by the researcher while 1 is not. The majority of the conversation follows an Orientation  A  Record of Events pattern. The child violates the genre initiated by the researcher and utters a Record of Events where another generic stage would typically be used or responds with a Record of Events that does not answer the researcher's question. The child also probes the researcher 2 times in this text. In the first probe, the child attempts to probe the researcher by repeating the same question 3 times. In the second probe, the child is successful at probing the researcher with his first attempt. Table 4.10 summarizes the genre types and generic stages that the speakers in text 8 use.  49  H  Transcript Number  oo  u o  Narrative  1.10 - Summary of genre types and generic stages used 1oy speakers in text 8  o  Anecdote  o  Exemplum  to  Specific Recount  -  General Recount Procedure  o  Abstract  o  Abstract by Child Solicited (S)/Unsolicited (U)  t_/l  Orientation Orientation by Child Solicited (S)/Unsolicited (U) Record of Events  C  — </>  4^  Record of Events by Child Solicited (S)AJnsolicited (U)  O  How To  o  How To by Child Solicited (S)/Unsolicited (U)  o  Remarkable Event  o  Remarkable Event by Child Solicited (S)/Unsolicited (U)  ©  Reaction  o  Reaction by Child Solicited (S)/Unsolicited (U)  o  Coda  o  Coda by Child Solicited (S)/Unsolicited (U)  o  Evaluation  o  Evaluation by Child Solicited (S)AJnsolicited (U)  P A R T 2: Analysis of A l l Transcripts In Part 1, stretches o f text that use temporal events were categorized according to 6 genre types. The generic structure of each stretch was described and patterns were observed within individual texts. In this section, patterns across the 9 text are observed and discussed. In the 9 texts, speakers use Specific Recounts, General Recounts, and Procedures but do not use Narratives, Anecdotes, or Exemplums. In total, the speakers use 5 Specific Recounts, 12 General Recounts, and 5 Procedures. General Recounts are the most frequently used genre type i n the 9 texts. Table 4.11 details these findings.  Transcript Number 1 2 3  4 5 6 7 8 9 Total  Narrative 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  Anecdote 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  Exemplum 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  Specific Recount 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 2 0 5  General Recount 1 1 3  1 0 1 4 1 0 12  Procedure 0 0 0 1 1 2 0 1 0 5  Table 4 . 1 1 - Summary of genre types used by speakers in 9 texts The generic stages that speakers use in the 9 texts correspond with the genre types found in the texts (see Appendix 2). There is an exception where a Reaction stage appears within a Specific Recount. Table 1.12 shows that the speakers (researcher and research participants) use Orientations most frequently (39 times), followed by Records o f Events (37 times) and Evaluations (17 times). Although Orientations are an optional stage among the 6 genre types, speakers use Orientations more than other mandatory stages.  51  The speakers in the 9 texts use Records o f Events frequently as it is a mandatory stage of the Recount genres but less often than Orientations. The Recount genres include both General Recounts and Specific Recounts. Together, these genre types were used the most by the speakers in the texts. Speakers also use Evaluations frequently. Evaluations are another optional stage found in all 6 o f the genre types. Speakers use Reactions the least among the generic stages. A single Reaction appears in the 9 texts. This observation is not surprising as no Anecdotes are found in the 9 texts. Appendix 2 summarizes all genre types and generic stages used by speakers in the 9 texts.  Generic Stage Abstract Orientation Record of Events How To Remarkable Event Reaction Coda Evaluation  Number of Times Used by Speakers  Number of Times Used by Researcher  Number of Times used by Child  5 39  3 20  2(2S) 19(13S6U)  37 4  4 0  33 (19S 14U) 4 (2S 2U)  0 0 0 1 1 0 11 8 3 (3U) 17 12 5 (1S4U) Table 4.12 - Summary of generic stages used by speakers i n 9 texts The child uses Records o f Events the most frequently (33 times), followed by Orientations (19 times) and Evaluations (5 times). The child uses 33 Records o f Events while the researcher uses 4 Records o f Events. This finding may be explained by the semi-structured nature o f the conversational texts. The researcher orients Recount genres and solicits Records o f Events from the child; therefore, 19 o f the child's total 33 Records of Events are solicited by the researcher. Yet a remaining 14 Records o f Events uttered by the child are not solicited and these warrant further examination. They can, perhaps,  52  be better understood from the analysis of individual texts. Earlier observations suggest that children with A S D have a tendency to use Records of Events in several ways. O n 4 occasions in text 3, the child ignores or responds to Orientations that interrupt a Records of Events, but then returns to the Record of Events without solicitation. It can also be observed that the children sometimes respond using Records of Events from the Recount genre when other stages and genres are solicited by the researcher. This happens, for example, in text 8, when the researcher solicits a Procedure and the child responds using a Specific Recount. The children's use of probes to cause the researcher to solicit Records of Events is a third observation that supports that children prefer to use Records of Events of the Recount genres. The use of probes is found twice in text 9. The first probe appears in a General Recount while the second probe appears in a Procedure. Although the second probe is found in a Procedure, the utterances that follow the probe appear to describe a Record of Events. These three observations suggest that children with A S D may have a preference for using Records of Events in spoken discourse. The children use a total of 19 Orientation in the 9 texts. Those who use the most Orientations are the speakers in texts 3, 7, and 8. The child in text 3 uses 9 Orientations and the children in text 7 and 8 each use 3 Orientations. In each of the remaining texts (1, 2, 4, 5, 6, and 9) research participants use 2 or less Orientation stages. Still a further distinction should be made between those who produce solicited and unsolicited Orientations. The children who use unsolicited Orientation stages are found in texts 3, 6, and 7 (producing 2, 1 and 3 instances respectively). A s noted earlier, speakers use Orientation stages to establish what is to follow in terms of people, actions, times and places in text; therefore, it can be suggested that children who use unsolicited  53  Orientations may have stronger conversational abilities. Another observation helps confirm that the children in texts 3, 6, and 7 who use unsolicited Orientations have stronger conversational abilities. These children are the only speakers with A S D among the 9 texts who describe multiple events in serial order while engaged in Record of Events stages. Evaluations, the third most used generic stage by the children, may serve as another indication of conversational abilities. Evaluations offer appraisal and serve as running commentary between generic stages. The research participants in texts 3, 4, 5, and 6 use Evaluations. Those in texts 1 , 2 , 7 , 8 and 9 do not. O f the Evaluations, only the children in texts 3, 4, 5 and 6 offer unsolicited Evaluations. (Child 3 utters a solicited Evaluation, child 5 utters 2 unsolicited Evaluations, and children 4 and 6 each utter a single unsolicited Evaluation.) One observation that can be made is that the children in texts 3 and 6 are the ones who use both unsolicited Orientations and Evaluations. This may suggest that they have a greater command over optional stages in generic structure. The research participants in the texts use Abstracts the least among all the generic stages examined. Abstracts establish the point of the text and signals that a story is about to be told. The children use Abstracts only twice, and both times these stages were solicited by the researcher. In contrast, the extensive use of Records of Events by the children points to their significant contributions to the Recount genres and a relative ease in this genre. A s discussed in Chapter 3, Methods, the Recount genres were subdivided into 2 sub-types; Specific Recounts and General Recounts. Including both types, 17 Recounts are identified in the 9 texts: 12 General Recounts and 5 Specific Recounts. Together, these 17  54  instances of Recount genres form the majority of the genre types of the stretches of discourse uttered by the speakers in the 9 texts. Thus patterning in the Recount genres emerges as an interesting area for description. Several patterns can be observed related to Recount genre use. The children in texts 3 and 7 appear to have greater conversational ability. This is suggested by longer dialogue between turns C h i l d 3 utters 130 lines within 60 turns. This child utters an average of 2.17 lines per turn. C h i l d 7 utters 61 lines within 19 turns. This child utters an average of 3.21 lines per turn. These averages can be compared to less conversationally engaged children who utter a single line per turn. The research participants in texts 3 and 7 are the only ones to use both unsolicited Orientations and Records of Events. They are also among the children who describe multiple events in serial order when engaged in Records of Events. The children in texts 3 and 7 also produce Records of Events that were discontinuously realized. The analysis of unsolicited generic stages is interesting because it demonstrates that usually where they occur, the child has consistent strength to utter them across multiple generic stages. Children 4, 5, 6, and 8 also use unsolicited generic stages but they are infrequent. Texts 1, 5, and 9, do not contain any Orientations produced by research participants. The child in text 1 only uses 3 solicited Records of Events. In text 5 the child only uses a single solicited Record of Events and 2 unsolicited Evaluations. The child in text 9 does not use any genre types or generic stages. This pattern provides further evidence that weak conversational ability among the children may result in solicited stages and it is consistent across multiple generic stages. It is also important to note the possibility that weaker conversational abilities result in closer adherence to  55  mandatory stages of generic structure. The child in text 5 does use 2 unsolicited Evaluations, however this is an exception. Some of the children who are weaker conversationalists appear to have coping techniques. Such techniques are evident in Texts 1, 2, and 8. In Text 1, the child provides solicited answers to questions posed by the researcher that mirror the researcher (and appear coincidental): |ORIENTATION| .  RES: CHI:  so  do you l i k e mmhm.  RES:  I had  RES:  what d i d  pizza  Will?  RECORD O F  pizza  last  night  for  EVENTS  supper.  ORIENTATION  you h a v e f o r  supper  |RECORD O F  RES:  I had p i z z a you? yeah. oh - : .  RES:  and  CHI: RES: CHI:  last  night?  EVENTS  too.  did  RECORD O F  the  night before  I had  EVENTS  pork  chops.  ORIENTATION  RES:  can  you  remember what you had |RECORD O F  CHI: RES: RES:  the  night  before?  EVENTS  p o r k chops t o o . you had p o r k c h o p s t o o . hm.  Example 4.12 - Recount 1, transcript 1, lines 138-150 A l s o in Text 1, the child provides a solicited response that might be considered too general as answer to fully address the researcher's question: |ORIENTATION|  RES:  what do y o u do when y o u  go home f r o m  RECORD OF  CHI:  ah  -: I p l a y  school  Will?  EVENTS  games.  Example 4.13 - General Recount 1, transcript 1, lines 79-80  In Text 2, the child uses minimal and polar responses that do not advance the conversation:  56  ORIENTATION RES:  so  what  CHI:  do  you  do  on  the  weekends  RECORD RES:  do  you  CHI: RES:  W i l l ?  nothing. have  a  worker  EVENT'S  OF  that  comes?  with  you?  nope. and  spends  CHI:  some  time  yes. |ORIENTATION  RES:  hm  what's  CHI:  his  name?  Tom. IRECORD  RES:  and  what  CHI:  do  go  RES:  mmhm?  RES:  what  you  out  do  with  with  OF  EVENTS]  Tom  him. ORIENTATION  do  you  do  when  you're  out?  |RECORD O F E V E N T S CHI: RES: CHI:  play  golf.  golf? yes.  Example 4.14 - General Recount 1, transcript 2, lines 219-233 In Text 8, the child uses the elaborate technique of probing the researcher to solicit specific questions while demonstrating difficulties in other areas of the conversation. Another pattern is the unvaried use of conjunctions of the temporal type. In the 9 texts, the children largely link temporal events in sequence by using the conjunctive (not coordiating) and and the temporal simple conjunction of the sequential type (and) then. It is true that these are among the most common ways that people generally communicate temporally sequenced events. However, in Texts 3 and 7, there are stretches of discourse where the conjunctions are unvaried and almost exclusive to " a n d " and "(and) then", reflecting a pattern of serial ordered relations that may be characteristic in A S D (de Villiers & Szatmari, 2004): IRECORD OF EVENTS| CHI:  excuse  CHI:  and  CHI: CHI:  me  and  I  went  and  I  took  and  then  [!]  CHI:  and  then  I  CHI:  and  turned  CHI:  the  next  excuse  outside a  me  and  then  we  went  home.  again.  bath. I  went  to  to  bed.  went off  the  morning  I  sleep.  l i g h t . packed  my  suitcase  up.  57  CHI:  and  we went b a c k t o  Toronto.  Example 4.15 - Excerpt from Recount 1, transcript 3, lines 64-71  |RECQRD O F  EVENTS|  23. C H I : we go on t h e v a n f i r s t . 24. C H I : and t h e n and t h e n we t h e n we w o r k # t h e n we w o r k um s o m e t h i n g l i k e uh n i n e + t h i r t y t o n i n e + t h i r t y t o t w e l v e [!]. 25. C H I : t h e n we h a v e l u n c h a t t w e l v e a t t h a t . 26. C H I : t h e n we s t a r t b a c k a t w o r k a t one o ' c l o c k . 27. C H I : and t h e n we go r i g h t a l l t h e way t h r o u g h t o four+thirty. 28. RES: oh - : .  Example 4.16 - Excerpt from Recount 1, transcript 7, lines 23-28 Inflexible use of conjunctions in Text 7 only occurs once while it is a consistent pattern throughout Text 3. Excerpts that follow a rigid pattern of question by the researcher and response by the child (Texts 1 and 2) did not contain any conjunctions uttered by the child because turn-taking proceeded through a question from the researcher and response from the child. That is, responses tended to be without elaboration. The researcher typically led the conversations in all texts by soliciting responses; however, this varies in degree and is less prevalent in texts where the child engages in extended discourse. The children with the less strong conversational abilities used little or no temporal conjunctions. Interestingly, children with stronger conversational abilities (Texts 3 and 7) are both children who present patterns of inflexible temporal conjunction use in their Recounts. Further discourse produced by speakers with A S D who are able to sustain longer turns and are engaged in extended Records of Events is needed to determine i f inflexible temporal conjunction use is a characteristic of speakers with A S D . A final pattern concerning temporal discourse that describes sequences of events in the future emerged. In these "Future Projections", the children use external conjunctive relations of the temporal type to sequence unrealized events in serial order. Future  58  Projections are not included in the genre analysis, but because of their temporal dimension, the stretches are used in Chapter 5, Metaphor.  CONCLUSION Genre analysis provides insight into how individuals with A S D use the contextual configuration of relevant situational information in producing spoken text. This chapter used genre analysis to approach the investigation of how individuals with A S D produce temporal texts that involve sequences of events. Specifically, the analysis of temporal stretches of text found that the research participants used the Record of Events generic stage the most frequently, followed by Orientations. These research participants may favour the Records of Events stage in temporal texts: evidence suggests that children ignore or respond to interruptions during Records of Events and then continue on with the the Record of Events. Also, children with ASD may use the Record of Events stage when other genre types are solicited by the researcher. Furthermore, individuals with A S D may also probe for questions that solicit Records of Events. This chapter identified conversational difficulties found in the spoken discourse of individuals with A S D that are illuminated with genre analysis. The level of detail used when engaging in Records of Events can be responsible for confusion between a speaker and audience. Individuals with A S D may ignore context in some cases, (for example in the use of a Recount when a Procedure is solicited); however, it is also apparent that speakers with A S D do use genre, but in different ways. The speakers looked at in this thesis largely engage in Recounts and for the most part have a mastery of the Record of Events generic stage. Those who are most competent and use both unsolicited Orientations and Records of Events (the children in texts 3 and 7) appear to be the children with stronger conversational abilities. These children engage in longer turns and use discontinuously realized Records of Events. These same children were among the  60  research participants who described multiple events in serial order when engaged in Records of Events. Probing also provides further evidence that context is important to speakers with ASD. The mechanism seeks to establish a specific contextual configuration so that the individual may utter spoken discourse in context. Individuals with weaker conversational abilities appear to rely on their interlocutor's probes to establish specific contexts. It may be that speakers with ASD have more knowledge of context than they are able to make use of in conversation. This project applied an established genre framework to discourses of speakers with ASD. While the use of an established descriptive framework was warranted, indeed necessary in a field with recognized, replicable methodologies, it does not focus on speakers' individual variation. A study replicating these findings in a larger group of speakers with A S D would provide more conclusive findings and could also be used to investigate the possibility that speakers with A S D may have their own varieties that may involve specific generic structures.  61  CHAPTER 5 - METAPHOR ANALYSIS This chapter examines the use of metaphors of time, metonymies of time, and senses of time in stretches of temporal discourse found in 9 semi-structured conversational texts produced by speakers with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). The chapter proceeds in two parts. Part 1 describes the use of metaphors, metonymies, and senses of time in each individual text. Patterns within each text are identified. Part 2 extends upon the observations from part 1 by examining patterns in the use of metaphors, metonymies, and senses of time across the 9 texts. Utterances that use units of time found within stretches of temporal discourse are identified. These utterances are then analyzed for the use of temporal metaphors, metonymies and sense of time. The methods for analysis and their theoretical frameworks are previously outlined in Chapter 3, Methods. Metaphors and metonymies of time are classified according to Lakoff and Johnson's (1999) framework. The categories selected from Lakoff and Johnson (1999) are: Time Orientation metaphor M o v i n g Observer metaphor M o v i n g Time metaphor Event-for-Time metonymy Distance-for-Time metonymy Time-for-Distance metonymy Time is a Resource metaphor Time is Money metaphor Where the lexeme "time" appears, it is classified according to Evans' (2003) senses of time. Evans' (2003) senses of time are: Duration Sense Moment Sense Instance Sense Event Sense Matrix Sense  62  Agentive Sense Measurement-system Sense Commodity Sense In this chapter, utterances produced by both the child and researcher are discussed. It is important to note that although these speakers' utterances are compared in form and number, they are not produced equally due partly to the semi-structured nature of these conversational texts.  63  P A R T 1: I n d i v i d u a l Text Analysis Text 1 There are 6 utterances in text 1 that use temporal units. The researcher utters 5 o f these 6 utterances. The child utters a single solicited response that uses a single temporal unit. A l l utterances use the Time Orientation metaphor where the future is construed as the space in front of the observer, the present is the observer's current location, and the past is the space behind the observer. This metaphor is prompted by the prepositions "last" and "before" and the lexeme "tonight." These lexical items motivate spatial deixis where locations establish meaning in relation to each other. Table 5.1 shows this data. The temporal units are in bold and lexemes that prompt for temporal metaphors and metonymies are italicized.  Line 140 141 146 147 151 153  Speaker Utterance RES RES RES RES RES CHI  I h a d p i z z a l a s t night f o r s u p p e r . what d i d y o u h a v e f o r s u p p e r last night?  and t h e night before  I had pork chops. c a n y o u remember what y o u h a d t h e night before? what a r e y o u h a v i n g tonight I'm having r i c e f o r supper  # f o r supper? tonight.  Table 5.1 - Lines 140, 141, 146, 147, 151, and 153 from text 1 In text 1, the researcher asks the child what he had for supper last night, the night before last, and what he w i l l have tonight for supper. The first of these questions establishes the temporal setting in the past (line 141). The researcher then reorients the temporal setting by moving further into the past (line 147). The researcher's final question shifts the temporal setting ahead into the future (line 151). The child's responses indicate that the child comprehends the Time Orientation metaphor. In addition, the child also comprehends the shifts in temporal setting prescribed by the researcher's questions.  64  The child uses spatial deixis to form temporal relations when the researcher shifts the temporal setting. In line 141, the researcher asks, "what did you have for supper last night?" The child replies, "I had pizza too." Later in line 147, the researcher asks, "can you remember what you had the night before?" Here the researcher is implicitly asking the child what he had for supper the night before last. The child replies "pork chops too." The child's responses suggest that the child first comprehends the initial shift into the past ("last night"). With reference to this point, the child is able to use this information to answer the researcher's next question that shifts the setting one night further into the past to "the night before." Line 147 further demonstrates that the child is able to comprehend questions with temporal units in a pragmatic way. Literally, the researcher's question "can you remember what you had the night before?" solicits a polar yes/no response; however, the child correctly assumes that the researcher is inquiring about what the child actually ate for dinner and not i f the child is able to remember what he ate. In one instance, the child utters a response that includes the temporal unit "tonight." "Tonight" is the only unit of time uttered by the child in text 1. The temporal unit, "tonight", is a bounded event in the sense that it uses deixis to reference a specific period of time. There are two possible reasons for the child's limited use of temporal units. First, the child provides minimal non-elaborative and polar responses to the researcher's questions. The conversation therefore follows a turn-taking pattern where the researcher poses questions and the child answers these questions. Second, the conversational turn-taking pattern and the child's limited use of temporal units indicates that the child may be more able to comprehend temporal metaphors compared to his ability to produce temporal metaphors. Although these two reasons may explain the lack  65  of temporal units uttered by the child, the child does demonstrate that he is able to comprehend the researcher's utterances that use temporal units in a pragmatic way. Table 5.2 summarizes the types of metaphors and metonymies that the speakers use in text 1. The number corresponding to each metaphor or metonymy represents the number of utterances that use that type of metaphor or metonymy.  B •o  sol icit  cu  )y Child  Time  on Time  Evan  1  6  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  BC B  _  o _.  _  i o>  1  H  BC B  cu  [A  Vi •  Sei  Time  on  Time  6  z  H  E  1  "c«  nse of Time by Cl  sou rce Metaph r b  sou rce Metaph  B  Time  ir-Diistanice Metonyi  C  Time  stanice Metonyi  oBC oBC  Time  or -Time Metonyi  O  Dista nc  "or-Tirne Metonyi  O  Dista nc  me Metonymy  o  Even t-fi  me Metonymy  cd  3  Even  cs  o cn _  CM  Movi  Qi  >> ca  Movi  i  cu  '-^  Movi  •  2  o  Movi  etaphor by Chi  etaphor  ervi jr Metapho  nits by Child  f Temporal  H  o  rient  s  H  =  Time  5  (A  4*  P  rient  Utt(  0  CU -3 E  Vi  p  ;•>  Time  Utteran  6  —'  u  >>  2 !s U  Temf  CU  —>  _  U  _:  w r j  2 Is U >. -3 >. P  Total  tteran ces Ignor  s  Total  be  esearcher  iber o f Utterance  Text i  CU  _"S  _  L.  •a  >> JS  Ulj  1  3  o  _  2  Ui]  •a  E  OS qs  z  c Z3  —  'c M>  ervi :r Metapho  —i  Vi  2  2 is U  is U n Metapho by  ._  n Metapho  •o Child Solic  c S  cu  1/1  "cn B  « >  0  Table 5.2 - Summary of metaphors and metonymies used in text 1  Text 2 Text 2 contains 7 utterances that use 10 temporal units. The child utters 2 unsolicited lines that use 3 temporal units and the researcher utters 5 lines that use 7 temporal units. Lines 1, 3, 4, 6, and 8 use the Time Orientation and the M o v i n g Observer metaphors. The Time Orientation metaphor is prompted by the lexemes "today" and "tomorrow." A s seen in text 1, lexical items such as "today" and "tomorrow" motivate spatial deixis where temporal locations become relative to one another. The M o v i n g Observer metaphor is prompted indirectly by an intermediate metaphor. Lakoff and Johnson describe this intermediate metaphor as one where numbers are points on a line  66  (1999, 155). These numerical values prompt for the M o v i n g Observer metaphor because "the numbers pick out points on a line that metaphorically represent instants o f time" (Lakoff & Johnson, 1999,155). When we combine the Time Orientation metaphor with the M o v i n g Observer metaphor, we arrive at a composite mapping where locations on the observer's path o f motion (numbers on a line) represent times.  Line  Speaker Utterance  1  RES  today  3  CHI  <fifth>  4  RES  is  6  CHI  tomorrow's  8  RES  today  it  is  June  the  sixth.  [<]  the is  fifth?  the  June  sixth. the  fifth.  Table 5.3 - Lines 1, 3, 4, 6, and 8 from text 2 Lines 1 through 8 reflect the researcher mistaking the date as "June the sixth." The child corrects the researcher by stating that it is June 5 . Lines 1 through 3 indicate th  that the child and researcher have different frames (or versions) o f the Time Orientation metaphor: 1. 2. 3.  RES: RES: CHI:  today is a n d <I> <fifth>  June [>]. [<]  the  sixth.  Figures 5.1 and 5.2 compare the researcher's initial frame o f the Time Orientation and M o v i n g Observer metaphors with the child's frame o f the same metaphors. 5  6  7  -»  June: past present future Figure 5.1 - Researcher's frame o f the Time Orientation and M o v i n g Observer metaphors 4  5  6  ->  June: past present future Figure 5.2 - C h i l d ' s frame o f the Time Orientation and the M o v i n g Observer metaphors  67  In Figure 5.1, the researcher construes the present date as "June the sixth." The space behind the researcher (the past) includes June the 5th, 4 , 3 . . . and the space ahead th  rd  of the researcher (the future) includes June the 7 , 8 , 9 ... The child's frame construes th  th  th  the values of these points differently. The child construes the present as June the "fifth", the past as June 4 , 3 , 2 . . . , and the future is June 6 , 7 , 8 ... Both speakers' frames th  rd  n d  th  th  th  depend on spatial deixis whereby their present location provides contextual information that determines the values of the spaces ahead and behind the speakers. The fact that the child is able to correct the researcher demonstrates three competencies. First, the child is able to construe his own frame of the composite mapping as shown in Figure 5.2. Second, the child is able to access the researcher's frame of the composite mapping as shown in Figure 5.1. Third, the child is able to compare both frames and conclude that the researcher has assigned incorrect dates, or values, to the points of his composite mapping. The child's process of prompting two frames and comparing them occurs in lines 1 through 3. Lines 4 through 8 reflect a process where the researcher adopts the child's frame of the composite mapping: 4 . RES 5. C H I 6. C H I 7 . RES 8 . RES  is  it  the  f i f t h ?  yes . tomorrow's oh  the  s i x t h  okay.  today  i s  June  the  f i f t h .  In line 6, the child makes a significant contribution. The child provides the researcher with an additional access point to the child's frame of his composite metaphor. In line 4, the researcher asks "is it the fifth?" The child responds " y e s " and then states "tomorrow's the sixth." The child's utterances appear to serve two purposes. First, the child attempts to convince the researcher that it is June the fifth by negotiating spatial  68  deixis. Second, the child elaborates by providing additional information that serves as an access point for the researcher to the child's frame. In line 8, the researcher adopts the child's frame and agrees that "today is June the fifth." Line 219 is uttered by the researcher and also uses the Time Orientation and the M o v i n g Observer metaphors to create a composite mapping. The preposition " o n " in the utterance "so what do you do on the weekends W i l l ? " prompts for a composite mapping because the locations on the observer's path of motion represent times. Furthermore, the plural temporal unit, "weekends" elicits multiple points upon the observer's path of motion. Some examples of these points are marked with a " * " in Figure 5.3.  * <  -  * I  I  * "  >  past week present week next week M T W T F S S M T W T F S S M T W T F S S Figure 5.3 - Construal of "weekends" from line 219 of text 2 The researcher's question, "so what do you do on the weekends W i l l ? " asks the child to generalize the weekends along the child's path of motion. Restated, the researcher is inquiring about the habitual activities that the child does on the weekends. A m o n g these locations are the points included in Figure 5.3; however, the researcher's question may prompt for other weekends that extend further into both the future and past. The child replies with the minimal and evasive response "nothing": 219. 220. 221. 222. 223. 224.  RES: CHI: RES: CHI: RES: CHI:  so what do y o u do on t h e w e e k e n d s nothing. do y o u h a v e a w o r k e r t h a t comes? nope. and s p e n d s some t i m e w i t h y o u ? yes.  Will?  The researcher rephrases the question twice before the child provides an appropriate answer. The child's initial response to the researcher's question in line 219 suggests that the child may experience difficulty with temporal construal that prompt for  69  a generic understanding of temporal points. General terms, like "weekends" found in line 219, require a more global cognitive approach to process the temporal construal. They require the child to elicit all weekends and then select general events that occur on the majority of the weekends. Although, the child is able to entertain two specific frames as show in lines 1-8 of this text, he may experience difficulty with generalizations that elicit a multitude of unspecified points. " T i m e " is the final temporal unit used in line 223 of text 2. The researcher asks "and spends some time with y o u ? " According to Lakoff & Johnson, the verb "to spend" and the quantifier "some" coupled with the lexeme "time" prompts for the Time is Money metaphor. It is based on the Resource Schema where a purpose requires an amount of a resource (Lakoff & Johnson, 1999,162). In the Time as Money metaphor, "spends" prompts for a purpose that requires money. When mapped onto the time domain, this purpose is one that requires time. This metaphor had achieved a level of conventionality whereby it has been lexicalized as a literal expression in English. Alternatively, following Evans' (2003) the lexeme "time" in this case prompts for the Commodity Sense of time. This sense construes time as a valuable commodity. The child comprehends the Time is Money metaphor (Lakoff & Johnson, 1999) or the Commodity Sense (Evans, 2003) of time and replies with the minimal, polar response "yes." The utterances in text 2 provide insight into this child's comprehension and use of temporal metaphors. In lines 1 through 8, the child contributes utterances that are unsolicited and he elaborates upon these voluntary utterances. These lines use the most basic metaphors of time that include the Time Orientation and M o v i n g Observer metaphors to create composite mappings. The child's voluntary and elaborative  70  utterances suggest that the child is competent with these metaphors of time. A g a i n , in line 219, the same metaphors of time are used; however, they construe time in a generalized way. The child appears to have difficulty when these metaphors elicit an indefinite number of temporal points and requires the child to generalize. Line 223 uses the Time is Money metaphor or the Commodity Sense of time. The child appears to comprehend this metaphor/sense of time but responds with a non-elaborative, polar response. The child's minimal, polar response to this metaphor/sense of time may suggest that he has a stronger ability to comprehend this metaphor than to produce it. Table 5.4 summarize the metaphors, metonymies, and senses of time of time that the speakers use in text 2.  isolicited  a  Moving Observer Metaphoi  Moving Observer Metaphoi by Chi  Moving Time Metaphor  Moving Time Metaphor by Child  Event-for-Time Metonymy  Event-for-Time Metonymy 1by Chile  Distance-for-Time Metonyn  Distance-for-Time Metonyniy by CI  Time-for-Distance Metonyn  Time-for-Distance Metonyniy by CI  Time is a Resource Metaphi  Time is a Resource Metaph<>r by Cl  Time is Money  Time is Money by Child  Evans' Sense of Time  Evans' Sense of Time by Ch  2 U  Time Orientation Metaphor by Chi  5  Time Orientation Metaphor  Utterances by Researcher  0  Temporal Units by Child  Ignored Utterances  7  Total Number of Temporal Units  Total Number of Utterances  2  Utterances by Child Solicited (S) /  Text Number  2  3  6  2  6  2  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  1  0  >>  2  1  0  Table 5.4 - Summary of metaphors and metonymies used in text 2  71  Text 3 There are 26 utterances that use 35 temporal units in text 3. The child utters 16 lines; 12 o f these lines are unsolicited by the researcher and 4 are solicited. The researcher utters 10 lines that use temporal units. The child utters lines 45, 70, and 115 (see Table 5.5). These utterances use the Time Orientation metaphor. In these lines, the adjective "next" that precedes each temporal unit prompts for the Time Orientation metaphor as it situates the present at the observer's current position with the future located ahead o f the observer. These expressions motivate spatial deixis. In the following tables, temporal units are in bold while lexemes that prompt for metaphors and metonymies o f time are italicized. Line  Speaker  Utterance  45  CHI  the  next  day  70  CHI  the  next  morning  115  CHI  and  the  next  I  we  I I  went packed  morning w h e n  to  the  bookshop.  my s u i t c a s e  up.  I  h a d some  woke  up  I  bread  Table 5.5- Lines 45, 70, and 115 from text 3 Lines 21, 43, 127, 176, 177, 205, 206, 209, 210, and 222 also use the Time Orientation metaphor.  72  Line  Speaker  21  CHI  went  43  CHI  <and>  Utterance on and  1  Tuesday a n d Wednesday J u d y  on  we w e n t [>]  <they're CHI  176  RES  u s u a l l y .  177  RES  what  t e l l  and CHI  a  which  August  and  209  CHI  but  210  CHI  it  the  RES  [>]  your  N i e l s e n l i k e  an(d)  uh  i n  the  snow  um  our  vide at i t  was n o t  released  me w h a t  and v i s i t i n g  m e in  the  your  something  Saturday's  on  on Saturdays?  do  LP which  # bought  video  v i s i t  you do  and one and once  was uh  t e l l  and played  [!]  was r e p l a c e d  by  CHI  222  l i k e  and 206  July  you u s u a l l y  had a  1985 205  coming>  me a b o u t do  night  a n d J we b o t h  .  summer in  127  at  outside  Winston  i s  l i k e the  c a l l e d  video  my m o t h e r i n  June  released  before  the  favourite  The Point  our video  - :  released  The Point  which  in was  box. and I  and i n  got  i t  in  um  July  August. 1985.  L P in thing  1984 i s  - : to  ## do  uh in  the  summer time.  Table 5.6 - Lines 21, 43, 127, 176, 177, 205, 206, 209, 210, and 222 from text 3 The utterances in Table 2.6 combine the Time Orientation metaphor with the M o v i n g Observer metaphor to form composite mappings. Both the Time Orientation metaphor and the M o v i n g Observer metaphors are prompted by the prepositions " i n , " "at," or, " o n " that precede the temporal units. These prepositions prompt for a construal where the observer arrives at temporal points along a path o f motion. The child utters 7 o f the 11 lines that use the Time Orientation and M o v i n g Observer metaphors while the researcher utters 3 lines. Lines 176 and 177 uttered by the researcher require a generalized construal o f time similar to line 219 in text 2. The researcher repeats the question twice before the child provides an appropriate response in line 178. This observation suggests that the child in text 3, like the child in text 2, may experience difficulties with utterances that elicit multiple temporal points and require the child to generalize across these points.  73  In line 222, the researcher uses the lexeme "summer time." Although this unit of time is underdefined, the child replies to the researcher's question with an elaborative response. The child utters line 82 and the researcher utters line 107. Both lines 82 and 107 use the Time Orientation metaphor plus additional metaphors. Line  Speaker  Utterance my  father  82  CHI  before  107  RES  did  went  grade  you sleep  there  # went  during  w a n my f a t h e r there  once  and I  went  there  once  before grade f i v e started.  the car t r i p ?  Table 5.7 - Lines 82 and 107 from text 3 In line 107, the researcher uses the Time Orientation and M o v i n g Observer metaphors. These metaphors are prompted by the mapping where the motion o f the observer (car trip) is understood as the "passage o f time" (Lakoff & Johnson, 1999, 146). This expression also uses the Event-for-Time metonymy where the "car trip" also stands for an amount o f time during which the observer could sleep. The child appears to comprehend the researcher's question and replies to it with a minimal, polar response. Line 82, uttered by the child uses the Time Orientation metaphor. The Time Orientation metaphor is prompted by the preposition "before." The preposition suggests a temporal point located in the past. Line 82 also uses the Event-for-Time metonymy. The event, when "grade five started," references a temporal moment. In addition to these metaphors and this metonymy, the child's utterance expresses Evans' Instance Sense o f time. Recall that the Instance Sense "prompts for a reading i n which an instance o f a particular event, activity, or state is being referenced..." (Evans, 131). The lexeme "once" prompts the Instance Sense because it is implicitly understood as "one time." The child is therefore not only able to construe the Instance Sense o f time, but also is able to  74  articulate a contextually appropriate form of this sense of time. Line 206 shown in Table 2.6 also uses the lexeme "once." Lines 94, 96, 105, and 191 use the Time Orientation and Moving Observer metaphors. In addition to these metaphors, the utterances also use the Event-for-Time metonymy and the Distance-for-Time metonymy. Line  Speaker  94 96 105 191  RES CHI CHI RES  Utterance  was i t a long d r i v e ? i t was a long d r i v e . and t h e c a r t r i p w a s long [!] . hm how long h a v e y o u b e e n d o i n g t h a t ?  Table 5.8 - Lines 94, 96, 105, and 191 from text 3 In these utterances, the events, "drive," "trip," and "horseback riding" (the pronoun "that" in line 191 refers to "horseback riding" found in line 182) metonymically stand for stretches of time during which these events occurred. In all cases, "long" modifies the event and prompts the Distance-for-Time metonymy. These metonymies presuppose the Time Orientation and the Moving Observer metaphors as the events are construed in terms of physical distance along the observer's path of motion. The child's utterance in line 96 is in response to the researcher's question in line 94. The child utters line 105 as a continuing turn and an elaborative statement. In line 192, the child comprehends and responds to the researcher's question from line 191: 191. RES: hm how l o n g h a v e y o u b e e n d o i n g t h a t ? 192. C H I : I have been d o i n g i t f o r t w e l ( v e ) h a v e done i t f o r t w e l v e r i d e s -: .  I have d I  In line 192, the child combines the Time Orientation metaphor with the Moving Observer metaphor. The child's utterance also uses the Event-for-Time metonymy where a single ride stands for a specific amount of time. The child construes the length of time he has participated in the activity of horseback in terms of 12 occasions of horseback riding.  75  These 12 occasions of horseback riding are located in the past and they exist as points along the child's temporal path. These points prompt for Time Orientation and the M o v i n g Observer metaphors. Figure 5.4 shows this construal. *1  *2  *3  *4  *5  *6  *7  *8  *9  *10  *11  *12  past  present  future  * denotes " a ride" Figure 5.4 - "Twelve rides" construal of time in line 192 of text 3 "Twelve rides" expresses a length of time in an unconventional way. A typical speaker would likely describe the same experience using the term "twelve times." The lexeme "time" in this context would be considered an example of Evans' Instance Sense of time. Line 192 suggests that the child chooses to construe time using the Event-forTime metonymy, in terms of a sequence events, as opposed to simply the number of times the same event reoccurred. The child's construal suggests that the "twelve rides" are heterogeneous where as a typical speaker's response would use "twelve times" that construes the rides as a set of homogeneous events. This observation is closely related to the children's difficulties with generalizations seen already in texts 2 and earlier in text 3. Generalizations require a construal where each instance is construed as a reoccurrence of the same event. It is possible that speakers with A S D do not view these events as reoccurrences; rather, they are construed as discreet and dissimilar events. The child's response in line 192 does not clearly answer the researcher's question from line 191. It can be inferred that the child has been going horseback riding for 12 weeks when lines 176 through 178 are taken into account: 176.  RES:  t e l l  me  what  do  about  your  uh  you  do  something  on  Saturday's  u s u a l l y . 177.  RES:  178.  CHI:  I  you go  u s u a l l y horseback  do  on  Saturdays?  r i d i n g .  76  Although lines 176 to 178 establish that the child usually goes horseback riding on Saturdays, the length of time the child has been horseback riding remain uncertain. Line 139 and line 144 again use metonymy and the Time Orientation/Moving Observer composite mapping. The researcher uses the Time-for-Distance metonymy. These metaphors and this metonymy are prompted by the proposition "from" or the verb "to drive" coupled with the temporal unit "half an hour": 139. hour 140. 141. 142. 143. 14 4. 145. 146. 147.  RES: when y o u w e r e t h e r e y o u w e r e o n l y a b o u t a h a l f a n f r o m a f a r m w h e r e I y u I grew u p . CHI what f a r m i s t h a t ? RES w e l l t h a t ' s where my mom a n d d a d owned a f a r m , RES and I l i v e d when I was a l i t t l e g i r l . CHI yes [ ! ] . RES and my mom u s e d t o d r i v e a h a l f an h o u r , and t e a c h i n K i n g s b u r y , RES she t a u g h t h i g h s c h o o l . RES < d i d she> [>] ? CHI  The Time-for-Distance metonymy reverses the source and target domains of the Distance-for-Time metonymy where "time duration can stand metonymically for distance" (Lakoff and Johnson, 1999, 152). Lakoff and Johnson explain "half an hour, the time it takes to travel the distance, stands for the distance" (1999, 152). In line 139 and 144, the researcher uses time to metonymically stand for a distance travelled. The child appears to comprehend these metaphors as he prompts the researcher to elaborate in line 140 and 147. Lines 98, 101, 103, and 170 use the Time as a Resource metaphor. Line 170, uttered by the researcher, is a classic example of the Time is a Resource metaphor: 170.  RES:  a n d we n e e d t o do a b o u t  # three  o r f o u r more m i n u t e s .  The adjective "more" prompts for the Resource Schema where a purpose requires an amount of a resource (Lakoff & Johnson, 1999, 161). In the Time is a Resource  77  metaphor, the purpose that requires the resource is mapped onto the time domain where it becomes a purpose that requires time. The child appears to comprehend this metaphor as he responds, "yes D o r i s " in line 174. Lines 98, 101, and 103 also use the Time is a Resource metaphor along with other metaphors and metonymies. The researcher asks a question in line 98 and the child responds to this question in line 101. The child repeats his utterance from line 101 in line 103: 98.  RES:  99.  RES:  how <just  long  about>  100.  CHI:  <it>  101.  CHI:  it  s i x t y  four  102.  RES:  103.  CHI:  did  [>]  [<]  took  it  take  you  W i l l ?  . .  it  took  wo  it  took  five  hundred  and  minutes. did  it  r e a l l y ? it  took  five  hundred  and  s i x t y  four  minutes.  Lines 98, 101, and 103 prompt for the Time is a Resource metaphor because they use the verb "to take." This verb uses multiple elements and scenarios from the Resource Schema. Specifically, time is a resource and the child is the user of this resource. The purpose is a trip and it requires ("takes") an amount of the time resource. The child must "use up" an amount of time to make this trip. The result is a portion of time that has been used/taken away and is no longer available to the child. Line 98 uses the Time Orientation metaphor, the M o v i n g Observer metaphor, and the Distance-for-Time metonymy in addition to the Time is a Resource metaphor. " L o n g " prompts for the Distance-for-Time metonymy while "it" refers to a drive and prompts for the Time Orientation and the M o v i n g Observer metaphors. Line 101 uses the Time Orientation metaphor and the M o v i n g Observer metaphor again prompted by "it" in addition to the Time is a Resource Metaphor.  78  Lines 101 and 103 uttered by the child use temporal units in an unconventional way. The child uses "five hundred and sixty four minutes" to describe the amount of time a trip takes. This construal divides the trip into 564 increments of one minute. W e would expect a typical speaker to use larger increments of time; for example, a speaker may use " 9 hours and 24 minutes" or alternatively approximate the time of the trip as " 9 and a half hours." Yet again, the child's discourse points to possible difficulties with generalization. A pattern emerges from the child's utterances in lines 101, 103, and 192. Although lines 101, 103, and 192 are construed using different metaphors and senses of time, they demonstrate the child in text 3 has the tendency to divided units of time or events that metonymically stand for time into smaller, than usual increments. In lines 101 and 103 the child construes 9 hours and 24 minutes as "five hundred and sixty four minutes." In line 192, the child construes a length of time in terms of 12 rides. It appears that the child has the tendency a to construe continuous experiences or larger units in term of smaller increments. A second observation points to a discrepancy between the construals presented in lines 82 and 192. In line 192, the child uses "rides" as opposed to the typical Instance Sense construal that would use the lexeme "time." In lines 82 and 206, the child not only uses the Instance Sense, but also uses it in a contextually appropriate way. The child must comprehend Evans' Instance Sense of time because he uses the variant "once" in lines 82 and 206 but avoids its use in line 192.1 also note that in both cases, the construals that involve the Instance Sense of time are preceded by false starts. It is possible that the child in text 3 comprehends Evans' Instance Sense but may experience difficulties in articulating the sense using the actual lexical item "time." A possible  79  explanation is the fact that the child's construal of "rides" suggests a heterogeneous sequence of events. This construal of time is unlike Evans' Instance Sense of time that motivates a homogeneous understanding of events. In general, the spoken discourse produced by the child in text 3 demonstrates an extensive ability to comprehend and articulate multiple construals of time. They include L a k o f f and Johnson's Time Orientation, M o v i n g Observer, and Time is a Resource Metaphors. A l s o the child is also able to understand and use the Event-for-Time Metonymy, the Distance-Time Metonymy, and the Instance Sense of time. In the case of the Instance Sense of time, the child does not explicitly use the lexeme "time." In addition to the child's strength in the use of these temporal expressions in spoken discourse, the child is also able to engage in extended conversation using unsolicited, elaborative, and continuing turns that involve temporal units; however, there remain several instances where the child still provides minimal or polar responses in response to utterances that contain temporal units. Table 5.9 provides a summary of the metaphors, metonymies, and senses of time used in text 3. The child's utterances that use the variant "once" o f the Instance Sense of time are included in the Table 5.9.  80  2  Time Orientation Metaphor by Chil  Moving Observer Metaphor  Moving Observer Metaphor by Chi  Moving Time Metaphor  Moving Time Metaphor by Child  Event-for-Time Metonymy  Event-for-Time Metonymy by Child  Distance-for-Time Metonymy  Distance-for-Time Metonymy by Cl  Time-for-Distance Metonymy  Time-for-Distance Metonymy by Cl  Time is a Resource Metaphor  Time is a Resource Metaphor by Cl  Time is Money  Time is Money by Child  Evans'Sense of Time  Evans' Sense of Time by Child  m  Time Orientation Metaphor  1 0  Utterances by Child Solicited (S) / Un solicited  Utterances by Researcher  Ignored Utterances  0  2  Temporal Units by Child  2 6  4 S 12 U  2  •a  Total Number of Temporal Units  3  Total Number of Utterances  Text Number  §  3 5  2 3  2 4  1 5  2 0  1 2  0  0  7  4  5  2  2  0  4  2  0  0  3  2  Table 5.9 - Summary of metaphors and metonymies used in text 3  Text 4 Text 4 contains 10 temporal units found in 7 utterances. The child utters 5 lines; 4 of these 5 lines are unsolicited while a single line is solicited by the researcher. The researcher utters 2 lines that use temporal units in text 4. Lines 134, 151, and 153 contain 4 temporal units and use the Time Orientation metaphor. In line 134, the child's utterance construes "last year and the year before" as increments along a linear path located in the past. This utterance is elaborative and relies on spatial deixis. The child's construal of time in line 134 divides the period of the past 2 years into one-year increments. The construal of time is unconventional as it would be more typical to state "last two years" as opposed to "last year and the year before." L i k e the example in line 192 in text 3, this construal of time suggests that "last year and the year before" are heterogeneous periods of time. The more typical expression "two years" construes the period as homogeneous. In the following tables, temporal units are in bold and lexemes that prompt for metaphors and metonymies are italicized.  81  Line  Speaker Utterance  134  CHI  but  she hasn't  151  CHI  and  I'm  153  RES  for  everyone  v i s i t  me l a s t  w i t ' s something t o  look  year  and t h e  f o r me t o  forward  to  look  year  forward  before.  to.  eh?  Table 5.10- Lines 134, 151, 153 from text 4 The child utters line 151 and the researcher repeats the same information in line 153. In line 151, the child construes time using the Time Orientation metaphor because he talks about a point ahead of him as "something for me to look forward to" in the future. Line 151 is elaborative and is produced by the child without solicitation. The researcher mirrors the child's construal in line 153. Line 140 and line 144 use a composite mapping that combines the Time Orientation metaphor with the Moving Observer metaphor. Line  Speaker Utterance  140  CHI  <she's>  144  RES  is  [<]  v i s i t i n g  she coming  me  at Christmas.  Christmas day?  Table 5.11- Lines 140 and 144 from text 4 The child utters line 140 and the preposition "at" that precedes the temporal unit "Christmas" prompts for the composite mapping. In line 144, the researcher utters "is she coming Christmas day?" The conversational nature of this spoken text allows the researcher to skip the preposition "on" that would likely precede the temporal unit "Christmas day." In line 144, the "implied" preposition prompts for the Time Orientation and Moving Observer metaphors. The child appears to comprehend the researcher's question in line 144 and replies with an elaborative response in line 145: 144.  RES:  i s  145.  C H I :  she's  she coming spending  Christmas the night  day? s  spending  nights  there.  Line 145 uses the Time is Money metaphor. This metaphor is prompted by the verb "to spend." "She," (the child's cousin) is visiting the child during Christmas and therefore will be spending time with the child. Two observations provide insight into the child's 82  . u n c o n v e n t i o n a l construal o f t i m e i n this utterance. F i r s t , the c h i l d is o v e r l y general stating that " s h e ' s s p e n d i n g . . . nights there." A l t h o u g h this m a y be true, t y p i c a l l y w e w o u l d expect a speaker to quantify the n u m b e r o f nights d u r i n g w h i c h the c o u s i n w i l l visit. T y p i c a l speakers w o u l d use this c o n v e n t i o n a l i z e d e x p r e s s i o n o f t i m e i n a n i n c r e m e n t a l w a y ; h o w e v e r , the c h i l d does not do this. T h e utterance i n v o l v e s a false start that m a y suggest d i f f i c u l t y i n p r o d u c i n g the T i m e is M o n e y metaphor. S e c o n d , the c h i l d uses the p r o n o u n "there" to express where his c o u s i n w i l l spend her t i m e . T y p i c a l l y , i f someone w e r e to v i s i t over C h r i s t m a s , w e w o u l d use the p r o x i m a l p r o n o u n "here" as o p p o s e d to the distal p r o n o u n "there." I n this expression, the c h i l d appears to have d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h dietic reference. These difficulties w i t h b o t h spatial d e i x i s and the T i m e is M o n e y metaphor m a y be rooted i n the l e x i c a l i z e d e x p r e s s i o n associated w i t h " s p e n d i n g " t i m e . T h i s e x p r e s s i o n requires c o n t e x t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n for it to be used appropriately. A l t h o u g h w e o b s e r v e d that the c h i l d i n text 2 was able to c o m p r e h e n d a n e x p r e s s i o n that uses the verb "to s p e n d " w i t h concepts o f t i m e , this is the first o c c a s i o n w h e r e a c h i l d attempts to p r o d u c e this k i n d o f m e t a p h o r i c a l expression. M o r e o v e r , the response the c h i l d p r o v i d e s i n l i n e 145 does not answer the researcher's question i n l i n e 144. T h e final t e m p o r a l unit is f o u n d i n line 190. T h e c h i l d utters, "but first y o u have to w a i t t i l l the w a # for the water to b o i l [!]" T h i s utterance c o m b i n e s the T i m e O r i e n t a t i o n metaphor w i t h the M o v i n g T i m e metaphor. T h e p o i n t w h e r e "the water b o i l s " is construed as b e i n g ahead o f the observer. T h e observer r e m a i n s stationary and waits for the p o i n t to pass the observer. T h i s utterance is not s o l i c i t e d b y the researcher. In text 4, the c h i l d demonstrates the a b i l i t y to use and c o m p r e h e n d a variety o f metaphors. T h e c h i l d is able to use and c o m p r e h e n d the m o s t basic metaphors o f time.  83  They include the Time Orientation, the M o v i n g Observer, and the M o v i n g Time metaphors. In addition, the child uses the Time is Money metaphor; however, it is construed in an unconventional way. The child is too general in expressing the time his cousin w i l l spend visiting him and demonstrates difficulty with deixis. Table 5.12 summarizes the temporal metaphors and metonymies the speakers use in text 4.  u  CD  E H  Table 5.12 - Summary of metaphors and metonymies used in text 4  Text 5 In text 5, the researcher utters 2 lines that use temporal units. These temporal units are found in lines 9 and 16. Line 9 uses the temporal unit "night" in a question. The adjective "last" that precedes "night" prompts for the Time Orientation Metaphor as it locates the past as the space behind the observer. "Last night" becomes a point behind the observer. The researcher uses a check, "didn't I?" The child comprehends and replies to the researcher's question and check with a polar "yeah" in line 10.  84  Line  Speaker Utterance  9  RES  I  16  RES  that  talked  to  sounds  you on the  telephone  l i k e  a  quite  long  l a s t  night  too  d i d n ' t  I?  drive.  Table 5.13 - Lines 9 and 16 from text 5 The second utterance uses the temporal unit "long drive." The utterance prompts for a construal that uses the Event-for-Time metonymy where the "drive" metonymically represents a length o f time. This length o f time is modified by the preceding adjective " l o n g " that prompts for the Distance-for-Time metonymy. The " l o n g " distance travelled during the ride metonymically stands for an extended duration of time. This utterance also uses the Time Orientation and M o v i n g Observer metaphors because the distance travelled by the observer is an amount o f time that has passed. Line 16 is followed by a continuing line uttered by the researcher. It cannot be determined i f the child comprehends this metaphor. The child does not utter any temporal units in text 5. The child demonstrates that he comprehends the construal o f time in line 9 that uses the Time Orientation metaphor. Although the child elaborates and provides unsolicited utterances, the child replies with minimal responses to questions that contain temporal units posed by the researcher. Table 5.13 summarizes the metaphors and metonymies speakers use i n text 5.  85  u  0  1 0  0  0  1 0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  T a b l e 5.14 - S u m m a r y o f metaphors and m e t o n y m i e s used i n text 5  Text 6 T e x t 6 does not c o n t a i n any utterances that used t e m p o r a l units.  Text 7 T e x t 7 contains 23 utterances. S i x o f these 23 utterances are i g n o r e d . L i n e s 2 0 and 2 2 are i g n o r e d because they use the i d i o m a t i c expression "quite a t r i p . " L i n e s 30 and 36 are i g n o r e d because they use the t e r m "four+forty+five b u s " w h e r e t i m e m o d i f i e s the bus. A l s o , lines 121 and 148 are i g n o r e d because they use the c o n t r a c t i o n "sportsnight." T h e r e m a i n i n g 17 utterances c o n t a i n 22 t e m p o r a l units. T h e c h i l d utters 11 o f the 17 l i n e s ; 2 lines are s o l i c i t e d b y the researcher w h i l e 9 are not. T h e researcher utters 6 lines. L i n e 12 is uttered b y the researcher and uses the t e m p o r a l unit " n o w . " T h i s l e x e m e p r o m p t s for the T i m e O r i e n t a t i o n metaphor because it situates the researcher and the c h i l d at a p o i n t o n the o b s e r v e r ' s path that is the present t i m e . T h e l e x e m e " n o w " also motivates spatial d e i x i s . T h e c h i l d c o m p r e h e n d s this construal o f time as he p r o v i d e s a p o l a r response, " y e s . " T h e c h i l d then elaborates:  86  12.  RES:  and a r e you working  13.  C H I :  um - : y e s .  now?  Lines 14, 25, 26, 71, 72, 74, 76, 113, 114, 115, 120, and 150 (12 utterances) prompt for the Time Orientation and the M o v i n g Observer metaphors. The child utters 9 of these 12 utterances. The researcher utters 3 lines. These utterances use temporal units that are preceded or followed by prepositions. The prepositions function to orient the observer either " o n , " "at," " i n , " or "after" the temporal unit that is located along the observer's path. The following table summarizes the utterances that prompt for the Time Orientation and M o v i n g Observer metaphors. In the following tables, the temporal units are in bold and prepositions are italicized. Line  Speaker  14  CHI  I  25  CHI  then  we h a v e  26  CHI  then  we s t a r t  71  RES  what  time  72  CHI  um  i t ' s u s u a l l y  74  CHI  between e i g h t + f i f t e e n a n d e i g h t + t h i r t y w e u s u a l l y  76  CHI  and  113  RES  back  114  RES  what  do you do  115  CHI  well  Tuesdays after  Utterance work  so  and 120  CHI  to  150  CHI  but  -  a t u m o n Tuesdays a n d Thursdays a t a t u m lunch back  at  do you leave  we g e t u h t o what  at twelve work  one  in  Mailboxes.  that. o'clock.  t h e morning?  eight.  Mailboxes  do you u s u a l l y  at  here  after  a t  a t  d o in  leave.  nine+thirty. t h e evenings  when  youget  here?  on t h u r s I  a f t e r supper?  well  working # well  we h a v e  t o do a workout  on Thursdays  d o o n e # b u t u m on Sundays I  I  used  t o  g o t o um  g o t o u h my f i t n e s s  Table 5 . 1 6 - L i n e s 14, 2 5 , 2 6 , 7 1 , 7 2 , 74, 76, 113, 114, 115, 120, and 150 from text 7 Lines 71, 114, and 115 that use the preposition "after" are cases of the M o v i n g Observer metaphor because of a prior preposition that precedes these utterances. For example, in line 71, the researcher asks, "What time do you leave here in the morning?" The child responds in line 72, "um-: it's usually after eight." The child's response uses the M o v i n g Observer metaphor because " i n " from line 72 contextual establishes the same construal i n line 73.  87  In lines 24, 27, and 53, the speaker construes time using the Time Orientation metaphor, the M o v i n g Observer metaphor, and the Distance-for-Time metonymy.  Line  Speaker Utterance and  24 27 53  CHI CHI RES  t h e n a n d t h e n we t h e n we w o r k # t h e n we work um  s o m e t h i n g l i k e uh nine+thirty to nine+thirty t o twelve [!] • and t h e n we go r i g h t a l l t h e way t h r o u g h t o four+thirty. t h a t makes q u i t e a long day d o e s n ' t i t ?  Table 5 . 1 7 - Lines 24, 27, and 53 from text 7 In line 24, the child utters "and then and then we then we work # then we work um something like uh nine+thirty to nine+thirty to twelve [!]" The child construes himself as an observer upon a temporal path and faces forward as described by the Time Orientation metaphor. The child travels from the point "nine+thirty" to "twelve" and the distance that the child travels between these points metonymically represent a length o f time. Line 27 is also uttered by the child and prompts for the same construal. The child states, "and then we go right all the way through to four+thirty." This utterance construes the passing o f time as movement along a temporal path and the distance travelled metonymically represents a length o f time. The temporal unit "day" is modified by the adjective " l o n g " in line 53. Again, in this expression the speaker metonymically uses distance to stand for a length o f time. In lines 29 and 71, the researcher uses the lexeme "time." According to Evans (2003), both utterances use the Moment Sense o f time where a discrete punctual point is conceptualized without reference to its duration. The child appears to comprehend both cases o f the Moment Sense as the child provides elaborative responses:  29. 30. 31. 32.  RES: CHI: CHI: CHI:  a n d what time d o e s t h a t g e t y o u b a c k h e r e ? w e l l we t a k e t h e um f o u r + f o r t y + f i v e b u s . um -: a n d t h a t i s t h o s e um t h o . well i t ' snot Funtrack.  88  71.  RES:  what  72.  CHI:,  um  time  -:  i t ' s  73.  RES:  uhhuh?  74.  CHI:  between  do  you  leave  u s u a l l y  here  after  e i g h t + f i f t e e n  and  in  the  morning?  eight. e i g h t + t h i r t y  we  u s u a l l y  leave. 75.  RES:  mmhm.  76.  CHI:  and  we  get  uh  to  Mailboxes  at  nine+thirty.  A particularly interesting observation that differentiates this child from others is this child's ability to generalize using metaphor, metonymies, and senses of time. In this text, many of the utterances that contain metaphors, metonymies and senses of time discuss events that occur on a regular basis. Line 113 and line 114, however, do point out a recurring difficulty that the children with A S D appear to have with generalizations. In line 113, the researcher asks, "so what do you usually do in the evenings when you get back here?" The child does not respond and the researcher rephrases the question as "what do you do after supper?" This pattern of rephrasing questions that involve generalization was also observed in lines 176 and 177 in text 3 and lines 219 through 223 in text 2. Nonetheless, the child in this text produces and comprehends a variety of temporal metaphors and metonymies in text 7. They include the Time Orientation metaphor, the M o v i n g Observer metaphor, and the Distance-for-Time metonymy. The child is particularly competent with the composite mapping that combines the Time Orientation and M o v i n g Observer metaphors. These metaphors were used together in all of the child's utterances. The child appears to comprehend Evans' Moment Sense of time. He provides elaborative and extended responses to questions posed by the researcher. Table 5.18 provides a summary of the metaphors, metonymies, and senses of time the speakers use in text 7.  89  c  3  U  'E  "3  •a  c  X 3  z o H  US o c  6D  c o  o  XI  E  o a.  3  3  Xi  XI  _ o a. E  s  >-> XI  X  XI  2  o  o H  E  Xt  O  CL  E H  o a.  E H en  E H  E  x  X  B O  E H —• o  s o  3  Z  o X a.  x  >> E  •o >> E  E H  ex c "> o  X  o or  B  B  >  _  OD  >  O  OS  Q  >  S  9  B  2 E H  E H  5  c o  E H  '0  U  T a b l e 5.18 - S u m m a r y o f metaphors and m e t o n y m i e s used i n text 7  Text 8 T e x t 8 contains 4 utterances that use t e m p o r a l units. L i n e 58 is i g n o r e d because the c h i l d utters the t e m p o r a l unit " m i d n i g h t " that appears to be part o f the proper name " m i d n i g h t express." O f the r e m a i n i n g 3 utterances, the c h i l d utters a single s o l i c i t e d l i n e w h i l e the researcher utters 2 lines. T h e c h i l d uses 2 t e m p o r a l units i n l i n e 136 and the researcher utters a single t e m p o r a l unit i n l i n e 137. I n b o t h lines 136 and 137, the speakers use the t e m p o r a l unit " a s u m m e r d a y . " I n b o t h lines, this unit is preceded b y the p r e p o s i t i o n " o n . " T h i s p r o p o s i t i o n construes " a s u m m e r d a y " as a t e m p o r a l p o i n t u p o n a n o b s e r v e r ' s path and p r o m p t s for the T i m e O r i e n t a t i o n and M o v i n g O b s e r v e r metaphors: 136.  CHI:  summer 137.  now C h r i s t i n a  was  gotten  stuck  i n  between  #  on  a  day.  RES:  on  a  summer  day.  I n l i n e 136, the c h i l d appears to have d i f f i c u l t y expressing w h e n C h r i s t i n a w a s "stuck i n b e t w e e n . " First, the c h i l d uses the l e x e m e " n o w " w h i c h uses the T i m e O r i e n t a t i o n  90  metaphor to express the current temporal moment; however, the child then uses both the past-tense form of the verb "to be" and the verb phrase "get stuck" in the form "gotten stuck." The child struggles with spatial deixis as the lexemes " n o w " and the past-tense clash instead of establishing relative temporal meaning. The child's utterance appears to be unsolicited, elaborative, and continuing in turn. The researcher's utterance in line 137 appears to repeats the child's words, "on a summer day," to acknowledge the child's statement. Line 62 contains the temporal unit, "during that train ride" and is a question uttered by the researcher: 62.  RES:  I  guess  63.  CHI:  yes  I  you  would  sleep  during  that  t r a i n  ride  eh?  would.  This question construes a hypothetical situation because of the conjunction " i f uttered by the child in line 58 and the verb " w i l l " in the form " w o u l d " in line 62 that expresses the conditional. This utterance uses the Time Orientation metaphor because the situation is unrealized and located in the future. The Time Orientation metaphor is coupled with the M o v i n g Observer metaphor to create a composite mapping where the distance travelled by the researcher represents an amount of time that passes. Line 62 also uses the Event-for-Time metonymy as the train ride stands metonymically for an amount of time that that the child could sleep. The child comprehends the researcher's question and responds "yes I would," in the following line. This response is not elaborative. In text 8, the child is able to use and comprehend both the Time Orientation and M o v i n g Observer metaphors. The child also appears to comprehend and use the Eventfor-Time metonymy. The child does produce solicited and unsolicited utterances in text  91  H  03  a  oo  Total Number of Utterances  - Ignored Utterances  Utterances by Researcher  r/j  e  3 3 CD  o  Utterances by Child Solicited (S) / Unsolicited (U)  4>  Total Number of Temporal Units  to  Temporal Units by Child  U>  Time Orientation Metaphor  <-+  03 o  Time Orientation Metaphor by Child  cr o  u>  Moving Observer Metaphor  g  o  Moving Observer Metaphor by Child  o.  3  o  Moving Time Metaphor  o 3  o  Moving Time Metaphor by Child  o  Event-for-Time Metonymy by Child  o  Distance-for-Time Metonymy  o  Distance-for-Time Metonymy by Child  73  >-t CO  <D  - Event-for-Time Metonymy  fD o X OO  to  Text Number  Time-for-Distance Metonymy  o  Time-for-Distance Metonymy by Child  o  Time is a Resource Metaphor  o  Time is a Resource Metaphor by Child  o  Time is Money  o  Time is Money by Child  o  Evans' Sense of Time  o  Evans' Sense of Time by Child  Text 9 Text 9 contains a single temporal unit uttered by the researcher in line 254: 254.  RES:  255.  CHI:  what  supper.  do  256.  RES:  supper?  257.  RES:  yeah?  you  do  after  school?  This utterance uses the Time Orientation metaphor and the Event-for-Time metonymy. The researcher's utterances prior to line 254 construes "after school" as a temporal stretch of time located in the future. The Event-for-Time metonymy is prompted because the utterance uses the event of children finishing school to represent a specific temporal moment. Line 254 therefore motivates spatial deixis where a temporal relationship is established between the point that the child finishes school and the events that occur after this point. In this line, the researcher asks a question that requires the child to generalize about what he usually does after school. Although the child responds stating "supper," this response is peculiar. Supper is typically located much further in the evening in relation to the time a child finishes school. Typical speakers would likely describe events that occur on a regular basis closer to the point when school finishes. A possible explanation for the child's response is that supper is the consistent event that reoccurs. It is possible that the child may recall the events that occur after school on a daily basis but is unable to generalize across the days. Supper is an event that is consistent and occurs everyday after school. It is also possible the child participates in preparing supper (shopping, cooking, etc.). Similar problems with generalizations were observed in texts 2 and 3. The child's response is minimal and he does not elaborate. The conversational turn-taking follows a question-response pattern, with questions posed by the researcher. The child provides minimal responses, does not  93  H Text Number sa CT" ft  to o  I  o  -  o  3 o  3  -  o  -  C D  Total Number of Utterances Ignored Utterances Utterances by Researcher Utterances by Child Solicited (S) / Unsolicited (U) Total Number of Temporal Units Temporal Units by Child Time Orientation Metaphor  o  Time Orientation Metaphor by Child  tr o i-i  o  Moving Observer Metaphor  CO  o  Moving Observer Metaphor by Child  3  o  Moving Time Metaphor  o  o  Moving Time Metaphor by Child  CO  C  C D CL  CO  -  Event-for-Time Metonymy  o  Event-for-Time Metonymy by Child  o  Distance-for-Time Metonymy  o  Distance-for-Time Metonymy by Child  o  Time-for-Distance Metonymy  o  Time-for-Distance Metonymy by Child  ©  Time is a Resource Metaphor  o  Time is a Resource Metaphor by Child  o  Time is Money  o  Time is Money by Child  o  Evans' Sense of Time  o  Evans' Sense of Time by Child  PART 2: Analysis of All Texts This section summarizes the use o f temporal metaphors, temporal metonymies, and senses o f time produced by speakers across all 9 texts. General and specific patterns in the use o f these devices are identified and discussed. Texts 1 through 9 contain 76 utterances that use temporal units. Seven of these 76 utterances are ignored. O f the remaining 69 lines, the child utters 35 lines that use 52 temporal units; 8 o f the child's utterances are solicited while 27 are not. The researcher utters 34 lines that use 38 temporal units. Table 5.22 summarizes the utterances that use temporal units in texts 1 through 9. For a case-by-case analysis o f each instance o f metaphor, metonymy, or sense of time, refer to Appendix 2. Four general observations are made from Table 5.22. First, the majority o f temporal units uttered by both the researcher and the child construe time using Lakoff and Johnson's (1999) Time Orientation metaphor and M o v i n g Observer metaphor. The Time Orientation metaphor occurs in 65 o f the total 69 utterances. Thirty-four o f the 65 utterances that use the Time Orientation metaphor are uttered by the child. Forty-eight o f the 69 total utterances use the M o v i n g Observer metaphor. The child uses the M o v i n g Observer metaphor 27 times. According to Lakoff and Johnson (1999) another basic metaphor o f time is the M o v i n g Time metaphor; however, the speakers in texts 1 through 9 seldom use the M o v i n g Time metaphor. The child uses the M o v i n g Time metaphor once in text 4. In general, the child used more o f each metaphor type than the researcher. In total there are 114 times that the Time Orientation metaphor, M o v i n g Observer metaphor or the M o v i n g Time metaphor occur. Table 5.21 summarizes these observations. Table 5.22 suggests that in general the children with A S D comprehend and  95  use the Time Orientation and M o v i n g Observer metaphors most frequently among the three most basic temporal metaphors types.  Total Utterances  Time Orientation Metaphor  Moving Observer Metaphor  Moving Time Metaphor  Child Researcher  35 34  34 31  27 21  1 0  Total  69  65  48  1  Speaker  Table 5.21 - Number o f utterances that use basic metaphors o f time in texts 1 through 9  96  Total -i  o\ ~4  SO  O  -  to OO  GO  G  00 so  oo  -  u>  c/1  Ul  to  to  o to ^1  to  os  ^1  os  o o  o  o  o o  Ignored Utterances  OS  o  to to  o  vyi  Utterances by Researcher  U)  so to o  C oo  •u — — to GO  C oo  c  to  c  00  o  Os  Ul  to  o  o  to  Ul  u>  o to  to  OS Os  --  o o  t*i  o  A. o o  o  to  o  --  o  o o  Ul OS  o o o  U) OS  Total Number of Utterances  -  Total Number of Temporal Units Temporal Units by Child Time Orientation Metaphor  to  ~  to  o  OS  o Moving Observer Metaphor  o o  to  to  o Moving Observer Metaphor by Child  o  o  o o Moving Time Metaphor  o  o o Moving Time Metaphor by Child  o  -  to  o o o - o  O  --o  •U  o  o  o  o  00  o  o to  o  Ul  o o  to  o  o  -  *.  Text Number  Utterances by Child Solicited (S) / Unsolicited (U)  o to o  -  -  o  OS  *• to to  o\ <J1  -J  -  ^4  o  ©  -  Time Orientation Metaphor by Child  o o Event-for-Time Metonymy  ©  o o Event-for-Time Metonymy by Child  o  o o Distance-for-Time Metonymy o Distance-for-Time Metonymy by Child  o o  o  to  ©  o  o  to  o o Time-for-Distance Metonymy  o o o  o o o  o  o o Time-for-Distance Metonymy by Child  o o o  o o  o  to  o o  o  o o  o  tO  o  o o  o o  _  o o o  o o -  Os  o o  o o o  U)  N>  o  o  to  o  ©  to  o o  o  o o  o to  o  o  ©  Time is a Resource Metaphor  o o Time is a Resource Metaphor by Child  -  o Time is Money  o o Time is Money by Child  -o  Evans' Sense of Time  o  Evans' Sense of Time by Child  ©  A second general observation indicates that the speakers in texts 1 through 9 produced a fewer number of utterances that use metonymies o f time. The Event-for-Time metonymy occurs i n 10 o f the total 69 utterances; the child utters 4 o f these 10 lines. Eight of the total 69 utterances use the Distance-for-Time metonymy; the child utters 3 o f these 8 lines. T w o utterances use the Time-Distance-Metonymy and none o f these lines are uttered by the child. In total, the researcher utters more lines that use each type o f metonymy than the child. In total, 20 utterances use one or more types of metonymy. Table 5.23 summarizes these observations.  Total Utterances  Event-for Time Metonymy  Distance-forTime Metonymy  Time-forDistance Metonymy  Child Researcher  35 34  4 6  3 5  0 2  Total  69  10  8  2  Speaker  Table 5.23 - Number of utterances that use metonymies o f time i n texts 1 through 9 A third general observation indicates that speakers produce utterances that use even fewer o f Lakoff and Johnson's (1999) other metaphors o f time. These metaphors are the Time is a Resource Metaphor and the Time is Money metaphor. Four o f the total 69 utterances use the Time is a Resource metaphor; 2 o f these lines are uttered by the child. Two o f the total 69 utterances use the Time is Money metaphor; the child utters 1 o f these lines. In general, the child uses as many or fewer of these metaphors o f time compared to the researcher. In total, the Time is a Resource or the Time is Money metaphor occur in 6 lines o f text. Table 5.24 summarizes these observations.  98  Total Utterances  Time is a Resource  Time is Money Metaphor  Child Researcher  35 34  2 2  1 2  Total  69  4  2  Speaker  Table 5.24 - Number of utterances that use other basic metaphors o f time in texts 1 through 9 A final general observation shows that the speakers i n texts 1 through 9 use Evans' senses o f time the least among the expressions examined. Six o f the 69 total utterances use one o f Evans' senses of time; the researcher utters 4 o f these lines while the child utters 2 lines. Table 5.25 summarizes these observations.  Total Utterances  Evans' Senses of Time  Child Researcher  35 34  2 4  Total  69  6  Speaker  Table 5.25 - Number o f utterances that use Evans' senses o f time General findings o f the use o f temporal metaphors and metonymies in spoken discourse suggest that the speakers examined use the Time Orientation metaphor and the M o v i n g Observer metaphor the most frequently among the most general metaphors o f time. In the 9 texts, the child uses the Time Orientation metaphor, the M o v i n g Observer metaphor and the M o v i n g Time metaphor in utterances more frequently than the researcher. Closer examination indicates that although general temporal metaphors are overall used more often by the child than the researcher, it is not the case when each child is examined on an individual text basis. The children i n texts 3, 4, and 7 are the only speakers that use the Time Orientation metaphor and the M o v i n g Observer metaphor as often as or more often than the researcher. The remaining children (in texts 1, 2, 5, 6, 8, and 9) use these metaphors less often in utterances than the researcher. The child in text 4  99  is the only child that uses the M o v i n g Time metaphor. A l l speakers examined use the Time Orientation metaphor and the M o v i n g Observer metaphor. Preliminary findings suggest that both the researcher and child use less temporal metonymies in utterances than they use general temporal metaphors. Closer examination indicates that temporal metonymies only occur in texts 3, 5, 7, 8, and 9; however, the children in texts 3 and 7 are the only children who use temporal metonymies in their utterances. C h i l d 3 uses the Event-for-Time metonymy 4 times and the Distance-forTime metonymy twice. C h i l d 7 uses the Distance-for-Time metonymy once. In the remaining texts where metonymies of time appear, they are uttered by the researcher. Speakers in texts 1 through 9 use the Time is a Resource metaphor and the Time is Money metaphor even less than they use temporal metonymies. These lexicalized metaphors occur in texts 2, 3, and 4. Texts 3 and 4 are the only texts where the child uses the Time is a Resource metaphor or the Time is Money metaphor. Although the children appear to comprehend the Time is a Resource metaphor when uttered by the researcher, the cases where the children express these metaphors appear to be unconventional. A possible reason for this observation is that both the Time is a Resource and Time as Money metaphors have achieved a level of literalness where they have become lexicalized expression. Lexicalized expression use is subject to contextual conventions and children with A S D do not use the Time as a Resource and Time as Money metaphors in contextually appropriate ways. The child in text 3 uses the Time is a Resource metaphor twice and is overly specific with the amount of time a trip took. The child in text 4 uses the Time is Money metaphor once and underspecifies the number of night his cousin w i l l spend visiting him.  100  F i n a l l y , E v a n s ' senses o f t i m e o c c u r the least a m o n g the types o f expressions e x a m i n e d . E v a n s ' senses o f t i m e are used w i t h i n utterances i n texts 2, 3, and 7. T h e c h i l d i n text 3 is the o n l y c h i l d a m o n g the 9 c h i l d r e n that uses E v a n s ' sense o f t i m e . M o r e o v e r , r e c a l l that this c h i l d does not use the l e x e m e " t i m e , " rather, the c h i l d uses the t e r m " o n c e " that is a variant o f E v a n s ' Instance Sense o f t i m e . Therefore, throughout the texts e x a m i n e d , none o f the c h i l d r e n actually use the l e x e m e " t i m e " i n s p o k e n discourse. O v e r a l l , a patter emerges w h e r e c h i l d r e n i n texts 3, 4, and 7 use the most and the greatest variety o f metaphors, m e t o n y m i e s , and senses o f t i m e . T h e c h i l d r e n that are most competent w i t h the basic metaphors o f t i m e appear to be the same c h i l d r e n w h o use t e m p o r a l m e t o n y m i e s , the T i m e is a R e s o u r c e / T i m e is M o n e y metaphor, and E v a n s ' senses o f t i m e . T h e r e m a i n i n g c h i l d r e n utter v e r y l i m i t e d or no utterances that use e x p r e s s i o n other than the T i m e O r i e n t a t i o n and M o v i n g O b s e r v e r metaphors. S e v e r a l m o r e s p e c i f i c f i n d i n g s emerge f r o m the analysis o f the 9 texts. These f i n d i n g s suggest 4 patterns: the c h i l d r e n i n these texts demonstrate a greater a b i l i t y to interpret as o p p o s e d to p r o d u c e metaphors, m e t o n y m i e s , and senses o f t i m e ; some c h i l d r e n experience d i f f i c u l t y w i t h generalization, u n s p e c i f i c construal, or construal that p r o m p t for m u l t i p l e reference points; t i m e and t e m p o r a l events are construed and expressed b y the c h i l d r e n i n s m a l l e r than t y p i c a l units; and w h e r e t y p i c a l speakers w o u l d l i k e l y use the l e x e m e " t i m e " and senses o f t i m e the c h i l d construes t i m e and senses o f time i n unconventional ways. First, the majority o f c h i l d r e n are m o r e able to interpret metaphors, m e t o n y m i e s , and senses o f t i m e c o m p a r e d to their ability to p r o d u c e these same expressions. T a b l e 5.22 suggests that the c h i l d r e n w i t h A S D are m o r e l i k e l y to p r o d u c e the m o s t general  101  t e m p o r a l metaphors m o r e often than the researcher; h o w e v e r , w e f i n d u p o n closer o b s e r v a t i o n that this is not the case. A f e w c h i l d r e n do use the most general metaphors o f t i m e m o r e often than the researcher but the majority o f c h i l d r e n d o not. T h e total score for general metaphors o f t i m e is b e i n g d r i v e n b y a f e w c h i l d r e n w h o frequently use t h e m . T h e c o n v e r s a t i o n a l abilities o f c h i l d r e n m a y be a large determinate o f t e m p o r a l metaphor use b y c h i l d r e n w i t h A S D . T h e i m b a l a n c e b e t w e e n the p r o d u c t i o n and interpretation o f t e m p o r a l expressions a m o n g the m a j o r i t y o f the c h i l d r e n i n the 9 texts m a y be caused b y the fact that c h i l d r e n w i t h less strong c o n v e r s a t i o n a l a b i l i t i e s require m o r e structured conversations. These m o r e structured conversations entail a turn-taking pattern w h e r e the researcher asks questions and the c h i l d responds to these questions. C h a p t e r 4, Genre notes this r e o c c u r r i n g turn-taking pattern. I n a d d i t i o n to m o r e structured conversations, c h i l d r e n w i t h less strong c o n v e r s a t i o n a l a b i l i t i e s s o m e t i m e s p r o v i d e m i n i m a l and non-elaborative responses that consequently are u n l i k e l y to i n c l u d e expressions that c o n t a i n either t e m p o r a l metaphors or units o f t i m e . I n the m a j o r i t y o f the texts, the researcher uses m o r e t e m p o r a l expressions and the c h i l d appears to understand the researcher's expressions. T h i s fact raises the p o s s i b i l i t y that the c h i l d r e n w i t h A S D i n the 9 texts are m o r e l i k e l y to c o m p r e h e n d t e m p o r a l metaphors than they are able to use t h e m . It m a y , o f course, be the case that the 'terseness' noted ( m i n i m a l responsiveness) affords fewer opportunities for p r o d u c t i o n . T h e question warrants further c o n s i d e r a t i o n . It is p o s s i b l e that difficulties w i t h t e m p o r a l metaphor use m a y be rooted i n the c h i l d r e n ' s i n a b i l i t y to articulate m o r e c o m p l i c a t e d construals o f t i m e . S e v e r a l c h i l d r e n demonstrated difficulties w i t h t e m p o r a l specificity and generalizations i n terms o f  102  temporal points prompted in spoken discourse. In text 2, the child is asked a question and he provides an unlikely response: 219.  RES:  220.  CHI:  so  what  do  you  do  on  the  weekends  W i l l ?  nothing.  The child uses a minimal response and does not answer the researcher's question. The researcher rephrases the question two additional times before the child provides an appropriate response: 221.  RES:  222.  CHI:  223.  RES:  224.  CHI:  do  you  have  a  worker  that  comes?  with  you?  nope. and  spends  some  time  yes.  Line 219 uses the temporal unit, "weekends," that prompts for multiple points upon the observer's path. Although we cannot determine the degree to which the child comprehends this metaphor, again, it appears that metaphors that involve generalized or unspecific events pose problems with individuals with A S D . These construals of time elicit a number of temporal points and require the child to generalize across these points. Lines 176 through 178 in text 3 provide another example: 17 6 .  RES:  t e l l  me  what  do  about  your  uh  you  do  something  on  Saturday's  usually. '  111.  RES:  178.  CHI:  I  you go  usually  do  horseback  on  Saturdays?  r i d i n g .  In line 178, the child answers the researcher's question; however, before doing so, the question has to be rephrased. The researcher uses the temporal unit, "Saturdays," that again prompt for multiple points upon the observer's path. The need for the researcher to rephrase the question may indicate that the child has processing difficulties. The need to rephrase a generalized question in the context of generalizations comes up again in text 7: 113. back 114.  RES:  so  what  do  you  usually  do  in  the  evenings  when  you  get  here? RES:  what  do  you  do  after  supper?  103  115.  CHI:  well  Tuesdays  after  working  we  have  to  do  a  workout  downstairs.  Text 9 provides a final example of the children's difficulties with questions that generalize and elicit multiple temporal points: 254.  RES:  255.  CHI:  what  do  you  do  after  .school?  supper.  Although the child responds to the researcher's question with a correct answer, the child's response is unconventional. Cases where children with A S D are required to generalize seem to pose difficulties as they require a homogeneous perspective of time and events. It is possible that children with A S D may elicit multiple temporal points but it is the task that requires them to see similarities and generalize across these points that is the source of difficulty. The child in text 7 appears to be significantly more capable at generalizing compared to the other children. He appears to be the only child that is more able to generalize in his utterances; however, he still requires the researcher to rephrase a question. In text 3, the child is asked to generalize again; however, the child demonstrates difficulty in a different way, providing a more specific answer than that requested by the researcher: 222.  RES:  summer  t e l l  me  what  your  favourite  -:  thing  i s  to  do  in  the  time.  223.  CHI:  I  224.  CHI:  an(d)  I  go  on when  vacation Kathy  is  to  Prince  away  in  Edward  Island.  Mon(t)real  I  go  camping. 225.  CHI:  and  and  after  I  go  camping  I  pack  up  my  suitcase...  Although the child answers the researcher's question that uses the temporal unit "summer time," it appears that the child replies referencing a specific occurrence and not a general one. A g a i n , this example suggests that the child prefers a heterogeneous construal of  104  events as opposed to a homogenous one. Moreover, the child uses a false start which may again indicate processing difficulties. This chapter has shown that children with A S D demonstrate competence with some of the most basic metaphors of time; however, when these metaphors elicit multiple temporal points or motivate a homogeneous construal of time, the children with A S D appear to struggle with these expressions. Discoursal patterns coinciding include minimal and non-elaborative responses, false starts, and the need for the question to be rephrased. A second pattern that concerns temporal specificity emerged among the texts analyzed. Several children showed the tendency to construe time and temporal events in smaller than typical units. This observation somewhat differs from the previous pattern. In this pattern, the children show competence is expressing time but construe time in overly specific units. Three examples are provided. Minutes are used as opposed to hours and a two-year period may be divided into 2 single-year segments. Text 3 provides the first example: 98.  RES:  99.  RES:  how <just  long  about>  100.  CHI:  <it>  101.  CHI:  it  s i x t y  four  102.  RES:  103.  CHI:  did  [>] [<]  took  it  take  you  W i l l ?  . .  it  took  wo  it  took  five  hundred  and  minutes. did  it  r e a l l y ? it  took  five  hundred  and  s i x t y  four  minutes.  In lines 98 through 103, "it" refers to a (car) drive. We would expect typical speakers to be more general and to describe the length of time using hours, not minutes. Note that the child's response begins with a false start. A second example shows that in text 4 the child construes a length of time using smaller than typical units:  105  131.  RES  how  does  132 .  CHI  she  l i k e s  133.  RES  mmhm?  134 .  CHI  but  135 .  RES  um.  she  she it  l i k e  Toronto?  <wonderbar>  hasn t  v i s i t  me  [! ] l a s t  In lines 131 through 135, "she" refers to the child's little cousin. The child describes the period of time that his cousin has not visited Toronto in terms of 2 1 -year increments. We would expect typical speakers to simply state that Ingrid has not been to Toronto in the past 2 years. A third example in text 3 shows that a child construes a length of time in terms of a series of shorter events as opposed to a longer continuous event: 191.  RES:  192.  CHI:  have  done  193.  RES:  194.  CHI:  hm  how  long I  it  for  have  twelve  twelve  rides yes  -:  have been rides  you  been  doing -:  it  doing  that?  for  twel(ve)  I  have  d  I  .  oh. .  In lines 191 through 194, "that" and "it" refers to the activity of horseback riding. The child does not answer the researcher's question. Instead of stating a length of time that he has done the activity, the child expresses the number of times as a sequence of the same event. The length of time is therefore construed in terms of a series of smaller temporal events as opposed to a single, continuous duration of time. Note again that the child begins his response with a false start. The above examples from texts 3 and 4 provide further evidence that children with A S D experience difficulties with temporal specificity. These difficulties are apparent where utterances prompt for multiple temporal points in terms of generalizations and where utterances prompt for events or ongoing events where smaller units can be used. Again, the observations in texts 3 and 4 suggest that the child uses a heterogeneous construal of time. T w o 1-year increments heterogeneously differentiate one year for the  106  other whereas the more typical expression "two years" construes the period of time as homogeneous. Twelve rides also construes the 12 events as heterogeneous entities while the more typical "12 times" expression assumes an ongoing homogeneous recurrence of the same event. The majority of these findings are observed in texts 3, 4, and 7 where children demonstrate the ability to use a greater variety of temporal metaphors, metonymies, and sense of time. The data examined suggest that children with A S D may construe and communicate time differently. Where typical speakers would likely use the lexeme "time" and senses of time, the child construed time and senses of time in unconventional ways. There is comprehension of the researcher's utterances that used the Commodity, Duration, and Moment Senses of time; however, the Instance Sense is the only sense of time used by child 3 in the 9 texts. C h i l d 3 uses the lexeme "once" on two occasions that prompt for the Instance Sense of time. " O n c e " is a contextually appropriate variant of the Instance Sense and is therefore construed as "one time" in text 3: 82.  CHI:  there  once  my before  father  grade  #  went  went  there  there  w  an  my  father  once  before  and  once  my  in  June  and  and  grade  I  went  five  started.  206. in  um  CHI: July  and and  August  by  and  #  bought  one it  mother  and  I  got  it  August.  Yet none of the children used the lexeme "time" itself, and in several instances, time is construed unconventionally. In text 4, we see that the child construed the length of time he has being going horseback riding as "twelve rides": .192.  CHI:  have  done  I it  for  have  twelve  been rides  doing -:  it  for  twel(ve)  I  have  d  I  .  This construal uses 12 consecutive events to describe a length of time. It is unusual as we would expect typical speakers to use the Instance Sense of time. For example, "I have  107  done it t w e l v e t i m e s . " H o w i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h A S D use senses o f t i m e warrants further i n v e s t i g a t i o n as these t w o e x a m p l e s s h o w b o t h c o m p e t e n c y and difficulties w i t h the Instance Sense o f t i m e . Further analysis o f texts w h e r e speakers w i t h A S D use the l e x e m e " t i m e " w o u l d p r o v i d e m o r e e v i d e n c e for patterns i n the use o f senses o f t i m e .  108  CONCLUSION T h i s chapter has i d e n t i f i e d that speakers w i t h A S D do c o m p r e h e n d and p r o d u c e t e m p o r a l metaphors, t e m p o r a l m e t o n y m i e s , and senses o f t i m e . T h e analysis f o u n d that i n general, the c h i l d r e n i n the 9 texts use the T i m e O r i e n t a t i o n and M o v i n g O b s e r v e r metaphors the most often. M e t o n y m i e s o f t i m e and the less basic metaphors o f time are used less b y the c h i l d r e n w i t h A S D . C h i l d r e n w i t h A S D used E v a n s ' senses o f t i m e the least. I n a d d i t i o n to these general observations, it w a s i d e n t i f i e d that the m a j o r i t y o f c h i l d r e n w i t h A S D used fewer t e m p o r a l metaphors, m e t o n y m i e s , and senses o f t i m e than the researcher. U p o n closer e x a m i n a t i o n , it was f o u n d that c h i l d r e n i n text 3, 4, and 7, are exceptions w h o used the T i m e O r i e n t a t i o n and M o v i n g O b s e r v e r metaphors m o r e frequently than the researcher. T h e c h i l d r e n i n text 1, 3, 4, and 7 are i n fact the o n l y c h i l d r e n w h o used other metaphors, m e t o n y m i e s , and sense o f t i m e , besides the T i m e O r i e n t a t i o n metaphor and the M o v i n g O b s e r v e r metaphor. M o r e o v e r , patterns are i d e n t i f i e d a m o n g speakers that suggest d i f f i c u l t y w i t h t i m e i n g e n e r a l i z i n g events. G e n e r a l i z a t i o n s p r o m p t for m u l t i p l e t e m p o r a l points and motivate h o m o g e n e o u s construals o f events and t i m e . O t h e r specific patterns that were identified i n c l u d e difficulties w i t h s p e c i f i c i t y i n terms o f t e m p o r a l units and difficulties w i t h senses o f t i m e and the l e x e m e " t i m e . " T h e most o b v i o u s e x a m p l e s o f these patterns are f o u n d i n texts 3, 4, and 7. T h e c h i l d r e n w i t h A S D i n texts 3, 4, and 7 are the c h i l d r e n that used the greatest variety o f metaphors, m e t o n y m i e s , and senses o f t i m e ; yet, these c h i l d r e n are a m o n g the ones that demonstrated the greatest difficulties w i t h generalizations, s p e c i f i c i t y , and the l e x e m e " t i m e . " C h i l d r e n responded to generalizations or questions that r e q u i r e d  109  construals involving multiple temporal points with responses that were unlikely or that used false starts. They required the question to be restated or replied with utterances that did not answer the question. Lengths of time were observed to be construed in smaller than usual units. The lexeme "time" was never used and where the lexeme "time" would typically be expected, the child replaced "time" with a series of events. The child did comprehend the researcher's utterances that used senses of time and also used the lexeme, "once." These observations suggest that children with A S D have the tendency to express heterogeneous construals of time and struggle with expressions that motivate homogeneous construals. Further analysis of the lexeme "time" with a specific focus on temporal cycles and recurrence may provide interesting and more conclusive findings that would help better understand how individuals with A S D use the lexeme "time." The fact that the research participants did not use the lexeme "time" suggests that Evans' approach to time has limited applications in the context of the discourse of individuals with A S D . This limit provides further insight into the analysis of time as the research participants were able to express time and temporality without using the lexeme. This observation suggests that conceptual metaphor, in general, may be a more effective way to discuss the cognitive aspects of time. Although Evans' framework enables a discussion in this thesis, it precedes the theory of conceptual metaphor in the context of speakers with A S D . Throughout texts 1 through 9, many of the child's utterances demonstrate unusual temporal construals that we would not expect in typical conversations. These utterances violate or ignore contextual factors and protocol of conversational discourse. Unusual utterances among the children examined were largely found to be uttered by the children  110  who used the greatest variety of metaphors, metonymies, and senses of time. Context and genre establish the generally accepted conventions of conversation. A definite relationship exists between the expressions analyzed and story telling genres. A variety of general and specific observations concerning temporal expressions are noted in this chapter.  Ill  CHAPTER 6 - CONCLUSION This thesis examined temporal discourse produced by 9 speakers with A S D from two linguistic disciplines in a complementary way. First, using speech genre analysis, this thesis explored the ways in which individuals with A S D structured stretches of texts that involve sequences of events. These stretches of text were described following a framework from Eggins and Slade (1997) and Plum (2004) and patterns in the use of speech genre types and generic stages were identified across all 9 texts. Second, these same stretches of text were examined for temporal conceptual metaphors, metonymies and senses of time following Lakoff and Johnson (1999) and Evans (2003). The speakers' uses of conceptual metaphors, metonymies, and senses of time were described and patterns in the linguistic expressions of these devices were identified across the 9 texts. The examination of semi-structured conversational texts is an interesting line of inquiry as individuals with A S D struggle with contextually appropriate discourse in conversation (de Villiers et al., 2006). The "storytelling genres" (Eggins & Slade, 1997) in such texts also place relatively high demands on semantic and episodic memory (Asp & de Villiers, forthcoming). Thus the data was well-suited to this inquiry. The speech genre analysis was found to be an effective means of better understanding the ways in which these individuals contextually use and vary language in spoken discourse. Time and temporal concepts were another engaging area to examine as these concepts are largely communicated using conceptual metaphor. It is widely acknowledged, individuals with A S D struggle the interpretation and use of figurative metaphor, tending to interpret metaphors in an overly literal way. B y combining these two approaches, it was found that  112  the individuals with A S D investigated have problems with temporal specificity in the context of storytelling conversations. Speech genre analysis of the stretches of temporal texts found that children with A S D engaged exclusively in Specific Recounts, General Recounts, and Procedures. The research participants did not use Narratives, Anecdotes, or Exemplums as speech genre types in the stretches extracted from the 9 texts. A m o n g the generic stages of the speech genre types, children used Records of Events the most, followed by Orientations, and Evaluations. A pattern also emerged where children with A S D appeared to have a tendency to use Records of Events. This finding was based on the observation that a large number of Records of Events were found, that children ignored utterances that interrupted Records of Events, they returned to Records of Events i f they were interrupted, and they provided Records of Events when other generic stages were solicited. The research participants in texts 3 and 7 appeared to have stronger conversational abilities marked by longer dialogue between turns and the ability to use a variety of unsolicited generic stages. These same children were the participants who also described multiple events in serial order and produced discontinuously realized Records of Events. Interestingly, although the participants from texts 3 and 7 may have had stronger conversational abilities, they were inflexible with temporal conjunction use. They largely sequenced events using "then" or "and (then)." In contrast, the participants in texts 1,5, and 9 showed weaker conversational abilities marked by fewer or no unsolicited and optional generic stages. Children in texts 2 and 8 also had weaker conversational abilities. They exhibited what may have been coping techniques that  113  included mirroring the researcher's responses, using minimal responses, and probing for specific questions. The analysis of temporal conceptual metaphors, metonymies, and senses of time found several general patterns. The research participants with A S D used the Time Orientation and Moving Observer metaphors the most frequently. They used metonymies of time, the Time is a Resource metaphor, and the Time is Money metaphor less frequently and Evans' senses of time the least. The research participants in texts 3, 4, and 7 used the most and the greatest variety of temporal conceptual metaphors, metonymies, and senses of time. The remaining participants used the Time Orientation metaphor and the Moving Observer metaphor, but very few or none of the other conceptual metaphors, metonymies, or senses of time. Other patterns in the use of conceptual metaphors, metonymies, and senses of time suggest that some children with A S D were more able to interpret the above temporal expressions as opposed to producing them. The research participants appeared to be more able to comprehend some temporal conceptual metaphors uttered by the researcher, but lacked the resources to use theses same metaphors in contextually appropriate ways. A number of expressions of conceptual metaphors, metonymies, and senses of time uttered by the children demonstrated an attempt to use the expression but difficulties with specificity resulted in utterances that were unexpected or unconventional, Some children further experienced difficulties with generalizations, unspecific construals of time, or consturals that prompted for multiple temporal points. The research participants also expressed time in smaller than typical units, tended to construe events heterogeneously, and where the lexeme "time" would normally occur, expressed the lexical item in  114  unconventional ways. The most obvious examples were found i n texts 3, 4, and 7, where children were the most able at using conceptual metaphors, metonymies, and senses o f time. Although time is typically expressed using figurative and conceptual metaphors, individuals who struggle with figurative expressions showed general competency with some conceptual metaphors of time; specifically, these conceptual metaphors were the Time Orientation and M o v i n g Observer metaphors. Conceptual metaphors differ from figurative metaphors in their intensity of conventionality. Individuals with A S D are knows to have difficulties with figurative expressions but the findings of this thesis indicate that the research participants interpreted and produced linguistic expressions that used conventional (conceptual) metaphors of time. Overall, patterns from the two analytic approaches employed suggest interesting possibilities. Specifically, a relationship was found between stronger conversational ability and a stronger ability to use speech genre, conceptual metaphors, metonymies, and senses of time. In addition, unconventional patterns in the use o f speech genre, metaphors, metonymies, and senses of time seemed to occur among the most conversationally able speakers with A S D . It appears that there is a relationship between conversational success and conceptual metaphor use in A S D and further studies in this area are warranted. The findings also suggest that unconventional use of speech genre types and metaphor are not necessarily indicative of conversational ability i n A S D . Further studies would be needed to explore this hypothesis. The children in texts 3 and 7 were the children that used the most and the greatest variety o f generic stages and speech genre types in the stretches o f texts extracted from  115  the 9 transcripts. Children in texts 3, 4, and 7 used the most and greatest variety of temporal metaphors, metonymies, and sense of time in the same in the same 9 texts. These observations suggest that speakers who are more able to use speech genre types and stages may also be more able to use temporal conceptual metaphors, metonymies, and senses of time. Both the analyses show specific difficulties with speech genre use and conceptual metaphor use. Speech genre analysis revealed that although the children in texts 3 and 7 had stronger conversational abilities marked by their varied use of generic stages, longer turns, and the ability to produce discontinuously realized Records of Events and Records of Events that described multiple events in serial order, their use of temporal conjunctions was unvaried. They largely sequenced events in serial order using "then" and "and (then)." The child in text 3 was overly specific with his description of events, causing the researcher to mistake the child's Recount for an Anecdote. This child also provided many obvious examples where he either ignored utterances by the researcher that interrupted Records of Events or responded to the researcher's utterances and then returned to the Record of Events. It may be that individuals with A S D who are more conversationally able favour the Recount genre. The unvaried use of conjunctions, the specific description of events, and the tendency to return to Records of Events are all unconventional conversational qualities that support and may even encourage children with A S D to use the Record of Events stage of the Recount genre. Metaphor analysis revealed that these same children were among the most apparent to construe time and temporal events in unconventional ways. C h i l d 3 was overly specific and described 9 hours and 24 minutes as "five hundred and sixty four  116  minutes." This child also described the fact that he had gone horseback riding 12 times as "twelve rides," an example that suggests the child may replace the more conventional expression using the lexeme "time" with the lexeme "ride." Furthermore, as discussed, "twelve rides" suggests a heterogeneous construal of temporal events where each ride may be different, whereas "12 times" would suggest 12 occasions of the same event. Both the children in texts 3 and 7 appeared to have difficulties with generalizations. Questions that solicited multiple temporal points and then required the child to generalize, (e.g. "What do you usually do in the evenings?", were ignored by the child or needed to be rephrased by the researcher. A recurring pattern that was apparent among the most conversationally engaged children with A S D was the inappropriate use of detail. From speech genre analysis, difficulties with specificity appeared in the detailed description of events. From conceptual metaphor analysis, this same difficulty appeared in the use of smaller temporal units, generalized events, and the recurrence of similar events. It is likely that the less conversationally engaged individuals with A S D may experience these same difficulties; however, these patters may be more difficult to detect because of the ways these individuals participate in conversation. Speech genre analysis showed that the less conversationally engaged individuals required more structure from the researcher, did not elaborate, and tended to use minimal and polar responses. Individuals with A S D who were less conversationally engaged appeared, at times, to compensate for their difficulties. A s just noted, speech genre analysis showed that these individuals participated in a turn-taking pattern where the researcher would ask a question and the child would respond to the question. O n occasion, the child did not  117  respond to questions, provided unlikely answers, or copied the researcher's responses. The speech genre analysis also showed that the less conversationally engaged children appeared not to elaborate and one child used probes to solicit specific questions from the researcher. The analysis of conceptual metaphor showed that these same children used fewer conceptual metaphors, metonymies, and senses of time and largely used only the Time Orientation metaphor and the Moving Observer metaphor. Again, the limited use of metaphors can be linked back to patterns found from speech genre analysis. These individuals often provided responses to questions that were minimal and unelaborative; therefore, limited use of metaphor, metonymies, and senses of time could be expected. All the research participants showed unconventional patterns in their use of storytelling speech genres, conceptual metaphors, metonymies, and senses of time. The more conversationally engaged individuals showed specific difficulties with both speech genre and conceptual metaphor that related to specificity of time and temporal events in different ways. The less conversationally engaged individuals also showed difficulties and sometimes techniques that helped compensate for their difficulties with speech genre and conceptual metaphor. Conversational specificity is highly dependent on context and in this thesis specificity in relation to speech genre and conceptual metaphors of time was identified as a particular area of difficulty for individuals with ASD. Although individuals with ASD may experience difficulties with speech genre, they do appear use genre and generic stages in conversation, but in unconventional ways. This finding suggests that speakers with ASD do rely on context and attempt to make shared and meaningful contributions in conversational discourse.  118  Individuals with A S D also used metaphors, metonymies, and senses of time in unconventional ways. Difficulties with conceptual metaphors are rooted in specificity. The fact that the speakers with ASD used temporal conceptual metaphors, metonymies, and senses of time indicates that they attempted to make shared temporal contributions in spoken discourse. Their success in using some conceptual metaphors also serves as a contribution to the philosophy of time, since metaphor use, especially in spoken discourse, is particularly sensitive to context. People with A S D who struggle with figurative metaphor comprehend and produce some conceptual metaphors, metonymies, and senses of time. Most interestingly, the research participants showed competency with some of the most conventionalized metaphors of time. Conceptual metaphors explored in this thesis are among the most conventionalized temporal metaphors. As figurative metaphors are extensions of conceptual metaphors, temporal metaphors exist on a continuum that ranges from conventional (conceptual) metaphors to poetic (figurative) metaphors. Individuals with A S D must reach a point on the continuum of the conventionality of metaphors where they begin to struggle with metaphorical expression. The tendency for individuals to use a limited number of conceptual metaphors in this thesis provides evidence that individuals with A S D begin to show difficulties with figurative language somewhere at the conceptual level. The point at which these difficulties begin to appear warrants further investigation.  119  WORKS CITED Bakhtin M . M . (1986). Speech Genres and Other Late Essays. Trans. V . W . M c G e e . Austin: University o f Texas Press. de Villiers, J. & A s p , E. (forthcoming). When Language Breaks Down: Analyzing Discourse in Clinical Contexts. London: Cambridge University Press. de Villiers, J., Fine, J., Ginsberg, G . , Vaccarella, L., & Szatmari, P. (2007). Brief Report: A Scale for Rating Conversational Impairment in Autism Spectrum Disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37, 7, 1375-1380. de Villiers, J. and Szatmari, P. (2004). Message Organization in Autism Spectrum Disorder. In G . D. Fulton, W . J. Sullivan & A . R. L o m m e l , eds., LAC US Forum XXX: Language, Thought and Reality. Houston : L A C U S , 207-214. Eggins, S. & Slade, D. (1997). Analyzing Casual Conversation. London, U K : Cassell. Evans, V . (2003). 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(1999). Philosophy in the Flesh: The Embodied Mind and Its Challenge to Western Thought. N e w York: Basic Books.  120  Lakoff, G . & Johnson, M . (1980). Metaphors We Live By. Chicago: University o f Chicago Press. Lee, D. (2001). Cognitive Linguistics: An Introduction. Victoria, Australia: Oxford University Press.  Martin, J. R. & Plum, G . A . (1997). Construing Experience: Some Story Genres. Journal of Narrative and Life History, 7 (1-4), 299-308. Plum, G . A . (2004). Text and Contextual Condition in Spoken English: A Genre-based Approach. [Online]. Available U R L http://ses.librarv.usvd.edu.aU/bitstream/2123/608/2/adtNU20040629.09514001 front.pdf  121  APPENDIX 1 Temporal Stretches Extracted from 9 Transcripts  TEMPORAL STRETCHES: TRANSCRIPT 1 GENERAL  RECOUNT  1 ORIENTATION  79.  RES:  what  do  you  do  when  you  |REC0RD 80.  CHI:  SPECIFIC  ah  RECOUNT  -:  I  play  go OF  home  from  school  W i l l  EVENTS  games.  1 ORIENTATION  138 .  RES :  139.  CHI:  140.  RES :  so  do  you  l i k e  p i z z a  W i l l ?  rarahra. RECORD I  had  p i z z a  l a s t  OF  night  EVENTS  for  supper.  ORIENTATION 141 .  RES :  what  did  you  have  for  supper  RECORD 142 .  CHI:  143 .  RES :  144 .  CHI:  145.  RES:  oh  146.  RES :  and  I did  had  p i z z a  l a s t  OF  EVENTS  OF  EVENTS  night?  too.  you? yeah. -:  . RECORD  the  night  before  I  had  pork  chops.  ORIENTATION 147 .  RES:  can  you  remember  what  you  RECORD 148 .  CHI:  149.  RES :  you  150 .  RES :  hm.  FUTURE  pork had  PROJECTION  chops  pork  had  OF  the  night  before?  EVENTS  too.  chops  too.  1  151.  RES  what  152 .  RES  do  you  are  153.  CHI  154 .  RES  oh  what  155.  CHI  156.  RES  turkey  157 .  RES  that  158 .  RES  mmhm.  you  having  tonight  #  for  supper?  know? I'm  having  do  you  r i c e  eat  turkey. and  sounds  for  with  r i c e . d e l i c i o u s .  supper  the  r i c e ?  tonight.  TEMPORAL STRETCHES: TRANSCRIPT 2 FUTURE  PROJECTION  1.  RES  today  2 .  RES  and  3.  CHI  4 .  RES  5.  CHI  6.  CHI  7 .  RES  oh  8 .  RES  today  GENERAL  1 is  June  <I>  [>]  <fifth> is  it  the  s i x t h .  [<]  .  .  the  f i f t h ?  yes . tomorrow's  the  s i x t h  okay.  RECOUNT  is  June  the  f i f t h .  1 ORIENTATION  219.  RES :  220.  CHI:  221.  RES:  222 .  CHI:  223.  RES :  224 .  CHI:  so  what  do  you  do  on  the  weekends  nothing. RECORD do  you  have  a  worker  OF  EVENTS  that  comes?  with  you?  nope. and  spends  some  time  yes . ORIENTATION hm  what's  225.  RES :  226.  CHI:  227 .  RES :  228 .  CHI:  229.  RES :  mmhm?  230.  RES :  what  his  name?  Tom. RECORD and  what  do  go  out  you  do  with  with  OF  EVENTS]  Tom?  him. ORIENTATION!  do  you  do  when  you're  [R E C O R D 231.  CHI:  232 .  RES :  233 .  CHI:  234 .  RES :  235.  CHI:  play  OF  out? EVENTS  golf.  golf? yes , EVALUATION/CODA^ oh  that's yes .  e x c i t i n g ,  1  W i l l ?  TEMPORAL STRETCHES: TRANSCRIPT 3 SPECIFIC  RECOUNT  1  -  DISCOUNTINUOUSLY R E A L I Z E D  ABSTRACT y o u went on a h o l i d a y r e c e n t l y . I [>] • ORIENTATION RES: <where d i d y o u go?> [<] CHI: I went t o T o r o n t o and K i n g s b u r y . EVALUATION 9. RES : wow. 10 . RES I l i k e your accent, 11. CHI yes . 12. CHI yes . 13. CHI y o u l o v e my a c c e n t . 14 . CHI I d y o u do. 15. RES mmhm. RECORD OF EVENTS 16. RES what d i d you see i n T o r o n t o ? 1.7 . CHI <I> [>] • 18 . RES <or i n > [<] T o r o n t o ? 19. CHI f i r s t I went t o K i n g s b u r y . 20. CHI and v i s i t e d my a u n t Eddy and J u d y W i n s t o n . 21. CHI on on T u e s d a y and Wednesday J u d y W i n s t o n and J we b o t h went t o t h e a i r p o r t t o p i c k up S o p h i e . ( a ) n ( d ) S o p h i e i n t r o d u c e d us t o a b a n d c a l l e d t h e 22. CHI: W a l l f l o w e r s w i t h Jacob D i l l o n i n i t . oh where d o e s t h e b a n d p l a y ? 23. RES from America, 24 . CHI oh f r o m A m e r i c a . 25. RES 26. CHI S o p h i e and I went t o R e c o r d m a n . 27 . CHI and a t R e c o r d n a n R e c o r d m a n we f o u n d a S t a n R o g e r s t a p e !] w i t h two r a d i o p l a y e r s c a l l e d H a r r i s and t h e called Poetic Justice m a j o r and t h e s i s t e r s . 28. CHI: um J S o p h i e f o u n d a S o p h i e f o u n d a t h i n g t h a t w a s n ' t Tom W a i t s w a s n ' t t h e Wake i t w a s n ' t R i c k W a k e f i e l d b u t i t was t h e W a l l f l o w e r s # c a l l e d b r i n g i n g down t h e h o r s e . 29. CHI: i t was t h e o n l y W a l l f l o w e r s a l b u m t h e y e v e r r e c o r d e d RES : CHI:  I hear  ANECDOTE  REACTION 30.  RES:  ORIENTATION had you h e a r d a b o u t them b e f o r e ? t h i s group? no! no? RECORD OF EVENTS uh t h e . s o t h e n we went t o an a n t i q u e s h o p , 35. CHI and t h e n b a c k t o V i n y l Records.. 36. CHI when I f l i p p e d t h r o u g h t h e t h e l e t t e r b i n t h e B o w i e 37. CHI [!] s e c t i o n I f o u n d C h a n g e s [!] One B o w i e . and t h e n i n t h e C o h e n [!] s e c t i o n I r i f l e d t h r o u g h 38. CHI: t i l l I was s t o p p e d d e a d b y t h e b l u e r a i n c o a t s t a r i n g o u t f r o m t h e new J e n n i f e r Warnes a l b u m c a l l e d Famous B l u e R a i n c o a t . 39. CHI: and I g o t i t on LP and c a s s e t t e . 31. 32. 33. 34 .  RES RES CHI RES  125  40. we  CHI: fou  and  home  and  then  then we  we  and  drove  then  back  41.  CHI:  and  l i s t e n e d  42.  CHI:  and  at  Kingsbury  to  and  we  went  to  we  went  home  Kingsbury  it  on  I  the  ate  way  some  to  and -:  and  then  and  then  Kingsbury. ay  there.  lasagna  and  butterscotch  icecream. 43.  CHI:  <and>  [>]  44.  RES:  45.  CHI:  the  next  46.  CHI:  and  got  Alexander  outside  at  night  and  played  in  the  snow  um  . <do  And  you>  The  [<]  . day the  T e r r i b l e  [>]  •  47 .  RES  <excuse  me  48 .  RES  did  have  49.  CHI  50.  RES  I  we  I  went  E n g l i s h  Horrible  to  version  No  Good  the of  Very  bookshop. the  Judith  Bad  Day  Beoris  <which  book  I  loved>  ORIENTATION  51 .  you no  no  just  CHI :  Will>  -:  [<]  .  cousins  there  to  play  with  too?  !  <adults  hm>  [>]  RECORD  eh  OF  < i t ' s  in>  [<]  <and>  [>]  .  then  ? EVENTS! I  went  to  B i l l y  and  Nancy's  dairy  farm. 52.  CHI:  53 .  RES  54 .  CHI  ORIENTATION  55 .  RES  56.  CHI  <how  many  uh>  they l i k e  had  about t  cows  a  lot  twenty  twenty  57 .  RES  58 .  CHI  59.  RES  <and  w>  60.  RES  were  they  61.  CHI  62.  RES  were  63.  RES  uhhuh.  64 .  CHI  excuse  65.  CHI  and  66.  CHI  67 .  CHI  68 .  twenty  [<]  would  [!]  or  they  have  on  that  dairy  farm?  .  f i f t y  or  what  would  colours  were  they?  you  think?  two.  two? <yeah> [<]  [>] what  what  Holstiens  they  black  were b l a c k  and white  and  white  ones  or  were.  H o l s t i e n s .  they? RECORD and  me  OF  I  went  outside  and  I  took  a  and  then  [ !]  CHI  and  then  I went  69  CHI  and  70  CHI  the  next  71  CHI  and  we  72  CHI  but  my  73  CHI  I  74  CHI  and  75  CHI  he  76  CHI  and  77  CHI  and  78  RES  turned  sat  off  went  to  to  bed.  the  and  then  we  went  home.  father  p a c k e d my  to  was  suddenly w a l k e d me  street  up.  gone. -:  father  over  s u i t c a s e  Toronto.  read  my  sleep.  l i g h t .  I  back  down and  Bloor  me  again.  bath. I  morning  went  EVENTS  excuse  to -:  went  the  my  Sam's  father on  came  Yonge  back.  street.  .  I. ORIENTATION  79 LP  what's  CHI  that i t ' s  place i t ' s  a  W i l l ? a  new  Sam's  <where>  [>]  they  have  used  s .  80  RES  81  CHI  <where>  [<]  . RECORD  Winchester  but LPs  I  am  sorry  OF  they  EVENTS d i d not  have  any  Jessy  [ ! ]  there.  126  82.  CHI:  once 83.  my  before  grade  #  For  Me.  CHI:  Talk 84.  and  Memphis CHI:  Bloor [!]  and we  85. 86.  I  his  eight and  found  th(en) Jessy  his  a  #  there  once  and  s i x t h  then  one  CHI  and  we  paid  CHI  and  then  87 .  CHI  and  I  ate  88 .  CHI  and  a  taxi  and  and  a  how  did  CHI Toronto  #  <and>  for  we  ones  father  as  #  On  c a l l e d  to to  [!]  The  Born  I  went  there  s t a r t e d .  went  album  Touch  and  five Learn  we  f i r s t  Joe  Love  and  the  Sam's  and  then  Rainy To  It  Side  Cuddle  on album  an(d)  so  and  Cuddle.  them.  walked  a  my  grade  [!]  c a l l e d  Mendleson  an  new  Winchester's  of  89.  w  before  two  tape  to  pay  found  went  there  we  and  street  and  father went  [!]  Vanhouts.  bar and  picked  taxi  to  over  nanaimo  us  drank  and took  came  some  water.  up. us  back  and  home  took  [>] ORIENTATION  90.  RES  <um  >  [<]  91.  RES  did  you  92 .  CHI  93.  RES  yeah?  94 .  RES  was  95.  RES  it  96.  CHI  97 .  RES  98 .  CHI  99.  RES  f l y  sh  or  we  you  did  went  get  to  Toronto?  go  by  car?  you  by  car  -:  .  EVALUATION it  a  must  long have  it  drive? been  was  a  eh?  long  d r i v e .  mmhm. how <just  long  about>  100  CHI :  <it>  101  CHI :  it  did  [>]  [<]  it  take  you  W i l l ?  . .  took  it  took  wo  it  took  five  hundred  and  s i x t y  four  minutes 102  RES :  103  CHI:  it  104 .  CHI:  enough  105 .  CHI:  106 .  RES:  did  it  r e a l l y ? took  and  five to  the  hundred  make  car  me  t r i p  and  s i x t y  four  minutes.  sweat. was  long  [!]  .  mmhm. ORIENTATION  107  RES  108  CHI  did  you  109  RES  110  CHI  111  RES  mmhm?  112  CHI  and  113  RES  mmhm?  114  CHI  sleep  no  -:  during  the  car  t r i p ?  during  the  t r i p .  !  no? I  was  awake  RECORD  115  and  I  s l i p  after  OF and  the  EVENTS I  slept  mattress  on in  a mattress  at  my g r a n d m o t h e r  home. and  apartment. and  CHI peanut  slep  attress  grandfather's and  I  butter  the  for  next  116  CHI  and  117  CHI  ek  118  CHI  and  then  119  CHI  and  departed  120  CHI  and  I  c r i e d  121  RES  122  CHI  123.  RES:  it  was  did  morning  when  I  woke up  I  had  some  bread  breakfast. then. eakfast I  had  to  for about  pack  up.  home. leaving Toronto.  you? yes . EVALUATION  I  suppose  sad  leaving  your  grandparents  eh?  127  124. ...  CHI:  yes  (CONTINUED  34  it  LINES  was  sad  -  LATER) EVALUATION/CODA^  158.  RES:  159.  CHI:  160.  RES:  161.  RES:  so  you  RES:  126.  CHI:  127. the  <sounds  >  good  [>]  [<]  t r i p .  . .  do  1  they  come  and  v i s i t  you  here  [>]  an(d)  too?  yes. <they're in  J u l y  [!]  RES:  <oh  RES:.  oh  t h a t ' s  130.  CHI:  in  131.  CHI:  yes.  nice>  t h a t ' l l  Future  coming>  v i s i t  and  v i s i t i n g  me  in  .  129.  in  -:  like>  128.  [Note:  pretty  yeah.  CHI: summer  a  <yes  FUTURE PROJECTION 125.  had  be  [<]  .  n i c e .  J u .  P r o j e c t i o n  1  they =  grandparents]  GENERAL RECOUNT 1 ORIENTATION 132.  RES  133.  CHI  134.  RES  135.  CHI  136.  RES  when  137.  RES  do  138.  CHI  139.  RES  a  farm  where  140.  CHI  141.  RES  do  you  know  when  you  were  at  Kingsbury  W i l l ,  where? you  remember  when  you  were  at  Kingsbury?  what? you  you  v i s i t e d  Kingsbury,  remember  that  s  that  town?  yes . when I  you  yu  well  I  were grew  there  you  what  farm is  t h a t ' s  where  RES  143.  CHI  and  I  l i v e d  144 .  RES  and  my  145.  RES  and  teach  146.  RES  she  taught  147 .  CHI  148 .  RES  yes  when I  [ ! ]  mom  only  about  a  h a l f  an  hour  from  that? my  mom  RECORD 142 .  were  up.  a  dad owned  a  farm.  EVENTS l i t t l e  g i r l .  .  used to in  was  and  OF  drive  a  an  half  hour.  Kingsbury.  highschool. ORIENTATION  <did  she>  <do  you  know>  she  taught  -:  my  my  ?  [>  [<]  do  you  know do  you  know what  subject  she  taught? 149.  CHI  150 .  RES  151.  CHI  152 .  RES  153 .  CHI  154 .  RES  what  does  t  d i d she  [!]  teach?  mathematics t my  tea  my  #  to  highschool  teacher  teaches  students. geography  [!]  .  she? geography  from  Canada  -  mmhm? EVALUATION/CODA^  128  155.  RES:  geography 156.  CHI:  157 .  RES:  FUTURE  i t ' s  i n t e r e s t i n g  i s n ' t  yes mmhm  -:  PROJECTION  learn  about  your  own  country  in  -:  .  .  2  166.  CHI:  oh  167.  CHI:  and  ah  168.  CHI:  and  l e t ' s  169.  RES:  well  170.  RES:  and  we  171.  RES:  and  then  172.  RES:  and  you  173.  RES:  okay?  174.  CHI:  yes  175.  CHI:  I  GENERAL  to  i t ?  we  RECOUNT  f  oh  f  oh  and  have  Doris  re  to  I'll can  to  about  stop  and  #  Doris  please  stop  the  tape.  play.  our  recording  do  hear  it  record  been  need  please  rewind  v o i c e .  our  v o i c e .  three  or  four  more  minutes.  rewind.  yourself.  Doris.  can.  2  PLBSRTACT 176 .  RES •  t e l l  me  about  what  do  you  uh  your  you  do  something  on  Saturday'  u s u a l l y . 177 .  RES  178 .  CHI  I  RES  where's  go  u s u a l l y  do  horseback  on  Saturdays?  r i d i n g .  ORIENTATION 179 .  that  i t ' s  180 .  CHI  181 .  RES  mmhm?  182 .  RES  t h a t ' s  183 .  CHI  184 .  RES  185 .  CHI  186 .  RES  W i l l ?  in  North  York  at  Kingsway.  EVALUATION a  long  yeah  to  ways  -:  go  to  go  horseback  r i d i n g  eh?  .  mm. yes . ORIENTATIOI\  187 .  CHI  188 .  RES  is  it  i t ' s  RES  mmhm?  191 .  RES  hm  192 .  CHI RES  194 .  CHI  195 .  RES  196 .  CHI  197 . ^RES  how  long I  twelve  193 .  i n s i d e ?  indoors  sometimes  CHI  190 .  for  or  wow.  189 .  it  outside  twelve  -:  your  out  been  doing  [! ]  •  doing  that?  for  twel(ve)  it  I  have  d  I  . oh.  -:  mom  no  ride you  been  rides yes  do  have  have  rides  I  . and  [!]  dad  ride  horseback  too?  .  no.  198 .  CHI  no.  199 .  CHI  my  200 .  RES  um.  201 .  RES  does  202 .  CHI  ye  yes.  203 .  CHI  he  wen  he  friend l i v e  C r a i g  H o l l y  in  Dundas?  he  l i v e s  in  takes  me.  Burlington.  129  RECORD 204.  CHI:  he  went  to  OF  school  EVENTS  in  Toronto.  ORIENTATION 205.  and  CHI:  released which  was  in  1985  had  l i k e  replaced  a  l i k e  at  N i e l s e n our  the  video  CHI:  July  and August  207.  CHI  but.  208.  CHI  August  209.  CHI  but  210.  CHI  it  and  and #  by  and  bought  it  one in  which  l i k e  is  our  c a l l e d  video  The  The  Point  Point  which  was  a  box.  RECORD 206.  LP  vide  OF  EVENTS  and  once  my  mother  June  and  August,  was  not  released  and  I  got  it  in  um  -:  ##  uh  1984  um.  the was  video uh  released  before  the  in LP  1985. in  1984  1989 EVALUATION/CODA^  211.  RES  212.  CHI  213.  RES  <you  do>  214.  RES  <you  know  you  know I  GENERAL RECOUNT  so  much  d(o)  <I  [<]  about do>  music  [>]  W i l l .  Doris.  .  so  much>  [>]  .  3 ORIENTATION  222.  RES:  t e l l  me  what  your  I  on  favourite  thing  i s  to  do  in  the  summer  time. RECORD 23.  CHI:  I  go  224.  CHI:  an(d)  225.  CHI:  and  and  and  d  OF  vacation  when  Kathy  after  I  EVENTS to  is  Prince  away  go  in  camping  Edward  Island.  Toronto I  pack  I  up  go my  camping. s u i t c a s e  again. 226.  CHI:  and  leave  for  Toronto.  EVALUATION 227.  RES:  228.  CHI:  that  sounds yes.  229.  CHI:  I'll  230.  CHI:  and  the  other  l i k e  fun. RECORD  231.  one  uh  CHI:  (h)afta then  go  OF  I'll to  EVENTS  (h)afta  the  pick  up the  Esther  two  Sam's  #  f i r s t  of  great  treasures  and on  X. Yonge  and  Bloor. um  uh  we  find  a  lot  -:  there  um.  CODA^ 232.  RES  233.  CHI  yeah.  234.  CHI  you  I  can  imagine, can  imagine  that  Doris!  130  TEMPORAL STRETCHES: TRANSCRIPT 4 FUTURE  PROJECTION and  1  20.  RES  21.  CHI  22.  CHI  I'm  23.  CHI  a  24.  CHI  and  25.  RES  oh.  26.  CHI  <and  27 .  RES  hm.  28.  RES  <why's>  29.  CHI  30.  CHI  and  31.  CHI  and  I  32 .  CHI  and  eat  33 .  CHI  J  what  J  are  ha  going  to  have  for  lunch?  gonna  a c t u a l l y  not  r e a l l y .  Pillsbury+Pizza+pop. I'm  gonna  eat  [>]  [%  i t ' s  James.  chuckles].  that? [<]  I'll  because  pretend  eat  my  James's  dessert  not  is  nice  to  me.  Walter,  Walt,  him.  (be)cause  RECOUNT  pretend  him>  [because]  GENERAL  gonna  James.  Walter  i s n ' t  nice  to  me  either.  1 ORIENTATION  108.  RES:  so  what  do  you  do  when  RECORD 109.  CHI:  play  110.  RES:  mmhm.  with  111.  CHI:  she's  you OF  go  to  Bowen+Island?  EVENTS  Ingrid. EVALUATION  FUTURE  our  PROJECTION  favourite  cou  she's  our  favourite  l i t t l e  cousin.  2  131.  RES  how  does  132 .  CHI  she  l i k e s  133.  RES  mmhm?  134 .  CHI  but  135.  RES  um.  136.  CHI  i t ' s  137 .  RES  <so  138 .  RES  mmhm.  139.  RES  so  140 .  CHI  <she's>  141.  RES  t h a t ' l l  be  142 .  CHI  <mmhm>  [<].  143.  RES  mmhm.  144 .  RES  is  145.  CHI  she's  146.  RES  mmhm.  147 .  RES  and  148 .  CHI  yeah.  149.  RES  mmhm.  150.  CHI  Uncle  151.  CHI  and  152 .  RES  that's  she <a  shame>  [<]  a  aunt  Jake w  and i t ' s  me  [!]. l a s t  year  and  the  year  before  [>]. [<]. <brother  e x c i t i n g  coming  I'm  v i s i t  v i s i t i n g  spending  your  Toronto?  <wonderbar>  have> have  she  l i k e  it  hasn't  you you  she  xx>  me  won't  Christmas the and  night uncle  Aunt  at  [>]. Christmas. <it>  [>]?  day? s  spending  as  nights  there.  well?  Melissa.  something  for  me  to  look  forward  to.  r i g h t .  131  153.  RES:  for  154.  CHI:  mmhm.  [Note:  in  procedure  everyone  Future  to  look  P r o j e c t i o n  2  forward  she  =  to  eh?  Ingrid]  1 ABSTRACT  179.  RES:  180.  CHI:  181.  RES:  182.  CHI:  do  you  <um  do  any  yeah>  cooking  at  home  #  <Will>  [>]?  [<]. ORIENTATION  what I  do  did  183.  RES  can  184 .  RES  how'd  185.  CHI  <you  186.  RES  mmhm?  187 .  CHI  an(d)  188 .  CHI  then  189.  RES  mmhm? but  you  un  you  cook?  cooking t e l l  you  me  <do  just>  [<]  for how  it>  xx  batch  HOW  TO  to  make  Kraft+Dinner  and  oatmeal,  Kraft+Dinner?  [>]?  add  ch  cheese  and.  cheese. you  190.  CHI  b o i l  [ ! ]  f i r s t  191.  CHI:  t h a t ' s  192.  CHI:  y  b o i l you  it  in  have  the to  pot.  wait  t i l l  CODA^ how  a l l . you  make  Kraft+Dinner.  the  wa  #  for  the  water  TEMPORAL STRETCHES: TRANSCRIPT 5 S P E C I F I C RECOUNT 1 ORIENTATION 9.  RES:  I  t a l k e d  10.  CHI:  yeah.  11.  RES:  mmhm.  12.  RES:  you  to  you  on  the  telephone  RECORD and  your  mom  had  OF  13.  RES:  where  14.  CHI:  w e l l  c o u s i n ' s  house  #  15.  RES:  mm.  16.  RES:  that  did  you  we  were  up  in  night  too  d i d n ' t  EVENTS  just  RECORD  l a s t  gone  OF  for  a  d r i v e .  EVENTS  go? we  just  came  back  f  we  were  back  from  my  Woodbridge. EVALUATION/CODA^  PROCEDURE  sounds  l i k e  quite  a  long  d r i v e .  1 ABSTRACT  163.  RES :  and  do  you  164 .  CHI:  yes .  165.  RES :  what?  166.  CHI:  uh  cheese  167 .  RES :  oh  r i g h t  have  p i z z a I  a  favourite  and  food?  pineapple  remember  you  pudding.  t e l l i n g  me  about  the  pineapple  t ifore.  pudding 168 .  CHI:  yeah.  169.  RES :  mm.  170 .  RES :  do  171.  CHI:  well  172 .  CHI:  but  173.  CHI:  w e l l  174 .  RES :  mmhm?  ORIENTATION you  ever  #  make  cheese  pizza?  yes. EVALUATION  my  mom  my  dad  doesn't l i k e s  my  parents  his  cheese HOW  175.  RES :  how  176.  CHI:  well  do we  you  make  177 .  CHI:  and  then  178 .  CHI •  two  layers  179.  CHI  but  sometimes  180.  RES  s p r i n k l e we  put of  the  b i t  on  the  l i k e  his  cheese,  p i z z a ,  TO  cheese  a  don't on  of  pizza? m o z z a r e l l a .  toppings.  cheese. EVALUATION,  tastes  181.  CHI  yeah.  182.  CHI  because  might  t a s te  cheese  taste  awful  don't  you  think?  it  shows  i f  you  i f  it  doesn't  go  in  the  sour,  183.  RES  yeah.  184.  RES  or  185.  CHI  186.  RES  hm.  187.  RES:  but  188.  CHI:  a  b i t  mouldy?  yeah. EVALUATION/CODA^ i t ' s  yeah.  .  awful?  p r e t t y  good  when  i t ' s  fresh  i s n ' t  i t ?  fridge  18 9 .  RES:  190.  RES:  mmhm. I  191.  CHI:  mmhm.  192.  CHI:  me  193.  RES:  mmm.  e s p e c i a l l y too.  l i k e  it  on  pizzas,  TEMPORAL STRETCHES: TRANSCRIPT 6 GENERAL RECOUNT 1 ORIENTATION 147. RES  what  do  you do  148. RES  is  there  149. RES  do  you have  a  f o r  store to  groceries  go by  CHI  well  151.  CHI  and  to  t r a v e l  <mmhm>  152. RES 153.  we h a v e uh  and  that?  boat?  RECORD 150.  and food  nearby?  get  to  OF EVENTS  o f f  the  the  store  boat. <in>  town.  [>]  [<]?  IGA.  CHI  mmhm?  154. RES  PROCEDURE 1 ORIENTATION 165.  RES:  and what  166.  CHI:  well  have  this  or  #  do  well  lumbermill  lumbermill  up  you do  outside  at  at  cottage  we we  the  here  which  this  there's  used  cottage? # we h a v e  f o r  s  a  we h a v e  t i n y  shed  this  we  lumbershed  c a l l e d .  167.  CHI:  lots  of  168.  CHI:  there  was a l s o  this  169.  CHI:  there  was a l s o  this  wheels  i s  the  and t h e r e ' s  skinny  wood  to  sharpen  170. R E S :  mmhm.  171.  CHI:  plus  172.  CHI:  and  173.  CHI:  it  and things  the  this  stored  mo t h i s  i n  a l l  these  tools  and  here.  motor. motor  a  plug  a n d s a n a n d some  sandstone  axes. HOW T O  i f  you get  l i k e  a  rectang  a  skinny  rectangled  piece  of  wood. put i t  the  i t  end on  smoothly  the  end of  sands  the  right  sandstone  through  i t  wheel.  leaving  a  smooth  end. 174. R E S :  mmhm?  175.  I  sand  CHI:  think  when  I  get  up  there  you can go  sand  sand  sand  sand  sand. EVALUATION/CODAJ  176.  CHI:  makes  177 .  RES:  does  a  perfect  fancy  s t i c k ,  i t ?  PROCEDURE 2 |ORIENTATION| 178.  CHI:  sharpen  and  uh  #  I  shar  I  can sh  I'd  get  an  axe and uh  sh  kind  of  i t .  179.  CHI:  t h e r e ' s  180.  CHI:  but  I  181.  CHI:  and  know  182. R E S :  sparks  know  f l y i n g  but  I've  how t o  i n  the  learned  handle  a i r . to  sharpen,  i t .  uhhuh?  183.  CHI:  I  184.  CHI:  plus  know  the  how t o  plus  I  handle  the  sand  #  grinder  machine,  axes. |HOW T O  185.  CHI:  pu push  get  the  body  of  the axe.  135  186. to  CHI:  take  the  and  put  rust  it  along  the  sand  #  stone  to  l i k e  kind  of  clean  it  off.  187.  CHI:  and  I  188.  CHI:  they  18 9 .  RES:  mmhm.  it  revealed  p r i n t i n g  saying  that  it  was  made  in  Sweden  EVALUATION/CODA^ make  good  s t e e l  there.  136  TEMPORAL STRETCHES: TRANSCRIPT 7 GENEREAL RECOUNT 1  .12 . RES : 13 . CHI: 14 . 15. 16. 17 . 18 . 19.  CHI CHI RES RES CHI RES  20. RES 2 1 . CHI 22 . CHI 23. CHI: 24 . CHI: something 25. CHI 26. CHI 27 . CHI 28 . RES 29. RES: 30. 31.  CHI: CHI :  32 . 33. 34 . 35.  CHI: CHI: CHI: RES :  36. CHI: 37 . CHI: um i n Ha 38. 39. 40. 41. 42 . 43. 44 . 45. 46. 47 . 48. 49. 50. 51  CHI: RES : CHI: CHI: RES : CHI: CHI: CHI: CHI: CHI: CHI: CHI: CHI: RES :  ABSTRACT and a r e you w o r k i n g now? um -: y e s . ORIENTATION I w o r k a t um o n T u e s d a y s a n d T h u r s d a y s and t h a t ' s um i n S t r a t f o r d uhhuh? so y o u t r a v e l from h e r e t o t h e r e ? yes . oh r e a l l y ? EVALUATION < t h a t ' s > [>] q u i t e a t r i p . <yeah> [ < ] . uh y e y e a h i t i s q u i t e a t r i p . RECORD OF EVENTS we go on t h e v a n f i r s t . and t h e n a n d t h e n we t h e n we w o r k # t h e n we w o r k um l i k e uh n i n e + t h i r t y t o n i n e + t h i r t y t o t w e l v e [!] t h e n we h a v e l u n c h a t t w e l v e a t t h a t . t h e n we s t a r t b a c k a t w o r k a t o n e o ' c l o c k . and t h e n we go r i g h t a l l t h e way t h r o u g h t o f o u r + t h i r t y . oh -: . ORIENTATION and what t i m e d o e s t h a t g e t you b a c k h e r e ? RECORD OF EVENTS w e l l we t a k e t h e um f o u r + f o r t y + f i v e b u s . um -: a n d t h a t i s t h o s e um t h o . RECORD OF EVENTS w e l l i t ' s not Funtrack. i t used t o be F u n t r a c k . i t ' s T r e n t w a y <now> [>] . <mmhm> [<] mmhm? RECORD OF EVENTS and um # a n d we t a k e t h e we t a k e t h e f o u r + f o r t y + f i v e b u s . t h e n um i t g o e s t o a l l t h e s e l i t t l e t o w n s b e f o r e i t s t o p s a t ORIENTATION < l i k e > [>] um what i s i t ? <oh -: > [<] . uh B e a m s v i l l e V i n e l a n d um # um t h a t not Foodland. P o r t P e r r y <maybe> [ > ] ? <yeah> [ < ] . w e l l w yes yes. P o r t P e r r y um a n d F o o d l a n d . yeah. t h a t ' s what i t ' s c a l l e d . i t ' s a l i t t l e town n e a r . i t ' s near i t ' s a t s c a Scugog. we s t o p b y t h e r e t o o . mmhm?  Foodland.  137  52 .  RES:  mmhm.  53.  RES :  that  54 .  CHI:  it  55.  CHI:  yeah.  EVALUATION/CODA^ makes  quite  a  long  day  doesn't  i t ?  does.  GENERAL ORIENTATION 71.  what  RES :  time  do  you  leave  here  RECORD 72 .  CHI:  um  73.  RES :  uhhuh?  -:  i t ' s  74 .  CHI:  between  75.  RES :  mmhm.  76.  CHI:  and  77 .  RES :  uhhuh.  we  u s u a l l y  uh  to  in  the  morning?  EVENTS  after  e i g h t + f i f t e e n get  OF  eight,  and  e i g h t + t h i r t y  Mailboxes  at  we  u s u a l l y  leave,  nine+thirty.  GENERAL ORIENTATION 113.  RES  so  what  RES  what  do  you  u s u a l l y  do  in  the  evenings  when  you  get  back  here? 114 .  do  you  do  after  supper?  IRECORD 115.  CHI  well  Tuesdays  after  OF  EVENTSl  working  we  have  to  do  a  workout  downstai 116.  CHI  and  117 .  CHI  0  you  118 .  RES  oh  119  CHI  yeah  120  CHI  and  121  CHI  what  122  CHI  I  123  CHI  uh  [=!  have  to  l i f t  weights.  chuckles]. EVALUATION  goodness, r i g h t . RECORD on  thurs  well  #  OF  well  EVENTS on  Thursdays  I  used  to  go  to  um  to  um.  GENERAL  was  don't I  I  RECOUNT  it  a  s  sports+night  in  um  in  Grimsby.  now. do  bowling  now.  4 ORIENTATION  144 .  RES:  <do  145.  CHI:  uh  146.  RES:  are  147 .  RES :  baseball  148 .  CHI:  <well>  149.  CHI:  I  150.  CHI:  c l a s ses . 151.  you> -:  I  [<]  do  you  do  you  take  part  in  other  that  you  do?  sports  W i l l ?  .  there  any or  [<]  don't  other  <soccer we  u  very  I  do  one  #  and  I  do  l i f t i n g  >  [>].  RECORD  OF  EVENTS  I  to  do  used  much  but  sports -:  but  that  for  sportsnight.  now. um  on  Sundays  I  go  to  uh  my  f i t n e s s  CHI: l i f t i n g  one  up.  138  152 . 153. 154 . 155. 156. 157 .  CHI CHI CHI CHI CHI RES  158 . 159. 160. 161. 162 . 163. 164 . 165. 166. 167 . 168 . 169.  CHI CHI CHI RES CHI CHI CHI RES CHI RES CHI CHI  ORIENTATION w e l l those those weight t h i n g s . except t h e y ' r e not the b i g s o r t of w e i g h t s . those. because I t r i e d to l i f t <and c o u l d n ' t do t h a t > [% c h u c k l i n g ] . s o i t ' s more o f t h e m a c h i n e s o r t o f w e i g h t s . uhhuh? RECORD OF EVENTS y o u do t h e . e x c u s e me. <xxx> [ > ] . <0 [=! c h u c k l e s ] > [ < ] . um # I do um. what e l s e do I do? I do t h i s um # t h e o n e s w h e r e y o u go l i k e t h i s oh r i g h t . t h e n y o u # y o u do t h a t . yeah. I do um s o m e t h i n g w i t h # t h a t . I do #.  139  TEMPORAL STRETCHES: TRANSCRIPT 8 SPECIFIC  RECOUNT  1 ORIENTATION  9.  RES:  <and>  [<]  mm  yes!  10  CHI  11  CHI  it  12  RES  a  13  CHI  of  14  RES  from  1-5  CHI  for  16  CHI  that  17 .  RES  how  18 .  CHI  just  FUTURE  -: had wet  you  a  wet  heavy  were  t e l l i n g  heavy load  cement  truck  of  coming  this  before  .  what? the  m  for  for  the  mighty  mixer.  xxx. does go  it  get  RECORD  OF  f i l l e d  up?  EVENTS  xxx.  1  RES  and  25.  CHI  it  26.  RES  where  27 .  CHI  the  28 .  RES  29.  RES  30 .  CHI  pour  cement.  31.  RES  pour  cement?  32.  CHI  yes .  33.  CHI  and  then  it  hardens.  34 .  RES  and  when  it  hardens  35.  CHI  then  36.  RES  it  37 .  RES  uhhuh.  SPECIFIC  a  concrete.  PROJECTION  in  about  load.  -:  24 .  [Note:  me  then  what  would  would  move  along.  would  it  it  move  do?  along  construction  s i t e .  the  construction  s i t e .  and  what  it  would  dries  it  do  to?  there?  what  happens?  [ ! ] .  d r i e s .  Future  P r o j e c t i o n  RECOUNT  1  it  =  cement  truck]  2 pRIENTATION|  38.  RES:  and  39.  CHI:  um  what  does  it  make? RECORD  #  and  it  turns  that  OF way  EVENTS instead  way.  it=truck 40.  CHI:  t h a t ' s  because  they  are  many  machines  in  the  construction  s i t e . 41.  RES:  there  42.  CHI:  them  [Note:  in  are there  S p e c i f i c  many are  Recount  which? many  machines  2  =  it  in  the  construction  s i t e .  cement]  140  FUTURE  PROJECTION what  2 happens  i f  58..  CHI:  59.  RES:  I  60.  RES:  what  happens?  61.  CHI:  when  you  whistle  <when  62.  RES  63.  CHI  I  don't  you I  64.  RES  I  65.  RES  and  FUTURE  get  get  guess  yes  you  when  on>  you  the  whistle  #  the  sleep  would  midnight  express?  uh  y  and  then  you  wake  up  at  the  during  that  t r a i n  ride  eh?  w  wake  you  up  you  mean?  3  CHI  what  happens  what  do  105.  CHI  then  the  106.  CHI  then  they  w i l l  107.  RES  well  they  would  108.  RES  or  i f  i f  they  GENERAL  the  see.  RES  CHI  um  would  104.  RES  the  [?]  103.  110.  on  would.  PROJECTION  109.  go  know,  uh  you men  they  when  think w i l l  the  t r a i n  crash?  die.  make i f  were  were  uh  happens? them they  [?]  go  were  to  i l l  the  uh  h o s p i t a l .  s i c k  wouldn't  they?  injured.  inj  they  were  injured  #  wouldn't  they?  mmhm.  RECOUNT  1 ORIENTATION  119.  RES :  what's  120.  CHI:  I  a  121.  RES :  what's  122 .  CHI:  i t ' s  123 .  RES :  oh  who  124 .  CHI:  um  -:  125.  CHI:  what  126.  CHI:  well  #  127 .  CHI:  what  did  128 .  RES:  I  129.  RES:  did  130 .  CHI:  yes .  131.  CHI:  now  have  dog  [<] a  <game>  so  dog  i t ' s do  game  trying play  did  I  to  play she  do  much  fun.  to  get  the  other  dogs  out.  with  Sophia  do? do?  me?  know. RECORD  stuck  so  with?  Sophia  did  she  have  l i k e ?  you  what  don't  I  xxx  sometime what  [>]?  much  she  do  she  was  something stuck  in  OF  EVENTS  to  you?  in  between  in  between  maybe  she  got  in between. ORIENTATION  132 .  RES :  in  between  what?  133. 134 .  CHI:  in  between  #  RES :  oh  in  13.5.  RES :  <where  136.  CHI:  now  137 .  RES :  on  the  between in>  trees,  the  trees?  [>]? RECORD  Sophia a  summer  was  gotten  OF  EVENTS  stuck  in  between  #  on  a  summer  day.  day.  141  FUTURE  PROJECTION  4  157 .  CHI  what  158 .  CHI  wouldn't  159.  RES  mmhm.  160 .  CHI  awful!  161.  CHI  stink.  162 .  CHI  and  163.  CHI  <stink  164 .  CHI  cause  165.  CHI  and  FUTURE 2 63. #  then  scratch  that  be  you  hate  hairy> she's  then  l i  um  -:  what  i f  you're  RES  i f  265.  RES  hm.  I  do  you're  -:  you  leave>  [!]  what  CHI  your  head  267.  CHI  then  y o u ' l l  w i l l  is  do  [?]  #  happens  f e e l i n g  266.  PROCEDURE  l i o n s .  [?]. stinky.  <I  happens  264.  you.  t e r r i b l e ?  5  PROJECTION  CHI:  what  would  a  get  i f i f  l i t t l e  you're you're  stuck f e e l i n g  in a  between l i t t l e  in  -  down  down?  red.  scream.  1 pRIENTATION|  328.  RES:  that  329.  RES:  how  330.  CHI  do  331.  RES  oh  I  332 .  CHI,  to  get  to  the  333.  RES  um.  334 .  CHI  so  you  go  on  335.  RES  get  on  336.  CHI  say  "look  337 .  RES  look  338 .  CHI  s  339.  CHI  what  340 .  RES  you  do  a  turntable.  you  work  i t ? |HOW  it  1  l i k e  TOl  that.  see.  the  out ##  the  to  to  get  on  the  turntray  turntable. out  you  he's  happens turn  outside.  you  don't  don't going i f  f a l l " .  f a l l . on  you  the go  on  t a b l e . the  turntable.  around.  142  T E M P O R A L STRETCHES: TRANSCRIPT 9 FUTURE  252. 253. 254. 255. 256. 257.  PROJECTION  RES: CHI: RES: CHI: RES: RES:  1  <um> [<] what a r e , y o u gonna do when <you go> <0 [=! t h r o a t n o i s e s ] > [<] . what do y o u do a f t e r s c h o o l ? supper. supper? yeah?  [>] h o m e . t o d a y ?  143  APPENDIX 2 Summary of Genre Types and Generic Stages Used in 9 Texts  Total  00  -J  e o o  ©  ©  ©  ©  ©  ©  ©  Narrative  o o  ©  ©  ©  ©  ©  ©  ©  Anecdote  ©  ©  ©  ©  Exemplum  SO  e o  ©  NJ  ©  ©  ©  NJ  ©  ©  ©  -  Transcript Number  - Specific Recount o - - - - General Recount cn o Procedure o - -Abstract in  o  ©  ©  ©  ©  ©  >j\  NI  o  Ul  o  o  19S 1-  o  e  00  C  4^ 00  ©  ©  ©  NJ  ©  ©  00  ©  ©  ©  00  G c  o  ©  ©  co o  ©  ©  o o  ©  NJ NJ  00  ©  NJ  NJ  ©  00  00  ©  Orientation by Child Solicited (S)/UnsoIicited (U) Ul  NJ  00  00  NJ 00 00  Record of Events  #  00  G  -  Abstract by Child Solicited (S)/Unsolicited (U) Orientation  7S 2U  Ul -J  OJ 00  ©  ©  IS 1U  13S 6U  o  ©  NJ  ©  ©  OJ 00  Record of Events by Child Solicited (S)/Unsolicited (U) o How To  C  00  00  ©  ©  ©  ©  ©  ©  ©  ©  ©  ©  Remarkable Event  o o  ©  ©  ©  ©  ©  ©  ©  ©  Remarkable Event by Child Solicited (S)/Unsolicited (U)  o  ©  ©  ©  ©  ©  ©  ©  Reaction  o  ©  ©  ©  ©  ©  ©  ©  ©  Reaction by Child Solicited (S)/Unsolicited (U)  t—*  o  ©  NJ  NJ  ©  Coda  ©  Coda by Child Solicited (S)/Unsolicited (U)  ©  Evaluation  c  e -J  -  ©  1S4U  ©  o  ©  o  ©  ©  C G C  00  Ul  ©  ©  NJ  G  ©  - ©  ©  -  ©  NJ  -  c  ©  —  NJ  ©  NJ  ©  -  ©  How To by Child Solicited (S)/Unsolicited (U)  Evaluation by Child Solicited (S)/Unsolicited (U) Future Projection  APPENDIX 3 Utterances that Use Units of Time Extracted from 9 Texts  Text 1 l a s t night f o r s u p p e r .  140.  RES:  I had p i z z a  141.  RES:  what d i d y o u h a v e f o r s u p p e r  last  night?  14 6. RES:  a n d t h e night b e f o r e I h a d p o r k  147.  RES:  c a n y o u remember what y o u h a d t h e night b e f o r e ?  151.  RES:  what a r e y o u h a v i n g tonight # f o r s u p p e r ?  153.  CHI:  I'm h a v i n g r i c e  f o r supper  chops.  tonight.  Text 2 1. RES: 3. C H I : 4. RES: 6. C H I :  today i s June the s i x t h . <fifth>  [<]  .  i s i t t h e fifth? tomorrow's t h e s i x t h .  8. RES:  today i s June the  fifth.  219.  RES:  s o what do y o u d o o n t h e weekends W i l l ?  223.  RES:  a n d s p e n d s some time w i t h y o u ?  Text 3 21. CHI: o n on Tuesday a n d Wednesday Judy Winston a n d J we b o t h went t o t h e a i r p o r t t o p i c k up S o p h i e . 43. C H I : [>] •  a n d we went o u t s i d e a t night a n d p l a y e d i n t h e snow um <and>  45. C H I :  t h e n e x t day I we I went t o t h e b o o k s h o p .  70. C H I :  t h e n e x t morning I p a c k e d my s u i t c a s e u p .  82. C H I : my f a t h e r went t h e r e w a n my f a t h e r a n d I went t h e r e o n c e b e f o r e g r a d e # went t h e r e o n c e b e f o r e grade f i v e started. 94. RES:  was i t a long drive?  96. C H I :  i t was a long d r i v e .  98. RES:  how long d i d i t t a k e y o u W i l l ?  ( i t = the drive)  101. C H I : i t t o o k i t t o o k wo i t t o o k f i v e hundred and s i x t y four minutes. ( i t = t h e d r i v e )  147  f i v e hundred and s i x t y f o u r minutes.  103.  CHI:  i t  105.  CHI:  a n d t h e c a r t r i p was l o n g  107.  RES:  115.  CHI:  and the  CHI:  <they're  127.  the  RES:  farm  when  where  I  [!] .  d u r i n g the c a r t r i p ?  d i d you sleep  summer i n J u l y  139. a  took  next  when  morning  coming>  [>]  I  an(d)  woke v i s i t  up  I  h a d some  and v i s i t i n g  bread me  i n  [!] .  you were  yu  I  grew  there  you were  only  about  h a l f an hour  a  from  up  144.  RES:  a n d my mom u s e d  17 0 .  RES:  a n d we n e e d  17 6 .  RES:  t e l l  me a b o u t  do  to  to  drive  do  about  your  uh  h a l f an hour.  a  t h r e e o r f o u r more minutes.  #  you do  something  on  Saturday's  u s u a l l y . 177.  RES:  what  191.  RES:  hm h o w  192.  CHI:  done  i t  205.  CHI:  which  long I  f o r  released  CHI: and  209.  CHI:  have  l i k e  1985  CHI:  and  1989 - :  222.  RES:  Saturdays?  on  you been  been  l i k e  at  the  and by  August  210.  do  doing  doing  that?  f o r  twel(ve)  i t  I  have  d  I  have  twelve r i d e s -: .  was r e p l a c e d  206.  have  and had a i n  July  you u s u a l l y  i t  video  LP which l i k e  i t  the  June  i n  video  was uh  i s  c a l l e d  our video  The  Point  The Point  which  was a  box.  and one and  # bought but  N i e l s e n our vide  once m y m o t h e r August.  was n o t  released  and I  got  i t  i n  um  ##  uh 1984  and  released  before  the  i n  1985.  LP i n  1984  - :  . t e l l  me w h a t  your  favourite  - :  thing  i s  to  do  i n  the  summer  time.  Text 4 134.  CHI:  but  she hasn't  140.  CHI:  <she's>  144.  RES:  i s  145.  CHI:  she's  151.  CHI:  and I'm  153.  RES:  f o r  [<]  v i s i t  v i s i t i n g  me a t  year  and the  year  before.  Christmas.  Christmas day?  she coming spending w i t ' s  everyone  me l a s t  to  the  night  something  s  spending  f o r  me t o  look forward to  nights  there.  look forward t o .  eh?  148  190. boil  CHI: [!].  but f i r s t  y o u h a v e t o wait t i l l  t h e wa # f o r t h e w a t e r t o  Text 5 9. RES:  I t a l k e d t o you on t h e telephone  16.  that  RES:  sounds l i k e  quite  l a s t night t o o d i d n ' t I ?  a long d r i v e .  Text 6 [none]  Text 7 12. RES:  a n d a r e y o u w o r k i n g now?  14.  CHI:  I w o r k a t um o n Tuesdays a n d Thursdays a t a t um M a i l b o x e s .  20.  RES:  <that's>  22. C H I :  [>] quite a t r i p .  u h y e y e a h i t i s quite a t r i p .  24. C H I : a n d t h e n a n d t h e n we t h e n we w o r k # t h e n we w o r k um s o m e t h i n g l i k e u h nine+thirty t o nine+thirty t o twelve [!]. 25.  CHI:  t h e n we h a v e l u n c h a t twelve a t t h a t .  26.  CHI:  t h e n we s t a r t b a c k a t work a t one o'clock.  27.  CHI:  a n d t h e n we go r i g h t a l l t h e way t h r o u g h t o four+thirty.  29.  RES:  a n d what time d o e s t h a t  30.  CHI:  w e l l we t a k e t h e um four+forty+five  36.  CHI:  a n d um # a n d we t a k e t h e we t a k e t h e fo  g e t you back  here? bus.  149  ur+forty+five b u s . R E S :  that  makes  71.  RES:  what  time  72.  CHI:  um - :  74.  C H I :  between  76.  CHI:  a n d we g e t u h t o M a i l b o x e s  113.  quite  long day  53.  a  do you leave  i t ' s u s u a l l y  s o what  114.  RES:  what  do you do  115.  CHI:  well  Tuesdays  and  do you u s u a l l y  i n t h e  i t ?  morning?  eight.  after  eight+fifteen  R E S :  here  doesn't  eight+thirty  we u s u a l l y  leave.  nine+thirty.  a t  do i n t h e  evenings  when  you g e t back  here?  after supper?  after  working  we h a v e  t o do a  workout  downstairs. 120.  CHI:  a n don  121.  C H I :  what  148.  C H I :  <well>  150.  CHI:  b u t I  thurs  well  # well  on  Thursdays  I  used  t o g o t o um t o  um. was i t [<]  a s we u  sports+night I  used  i n um i n  t o do that  d o o n e # b u t um o n  Sundays  f o r I  Grimsby. sportsnight.  g o t o u h my  f i t n e s s  classes.  Text 8 58.  CHI:  what  62.  R E S :  I  happens  guess  i f  you go on t h e t h e  youwould  136.  CHI:  now  137.  RES:  o n a summer day.  C h r i s t i n a  sleep  was gotten  midnight  express?  during that t r a i n r i d e e h ? stuck  i n between  # on a  summer day.  Text 9 254.  R E S :  what  do you do  after school?  150  APPENDIX 4 Analysis of Metaphors, Metonymies, and Senses of Time of Utterances that Use Temporal Units  15  Text Os  Utterance  for supper.  I had pork  night  before  for  you had the  #  did you have for- supper last  night  had pizza last  I  what  RES  night?  and the  RES  chops.  tonight  can you remember what before?  ,,  are you having  RES  Speaker  night  Line Number  RES  supper?  what  RES  tonight.  I'm having rice for supper  CHI w  o  Solicited (S) / Unsolicited (U) Number of Temporal Units Ignored Utterance Time Orientation Metaphor Moving Observer Metaphor Moving Time Metaphor Event-for-Time Metonymy Distance-for-Time Metonymy Time-for-Distance Metonymy Time is a Resource Metaphor Time is Money Metaphor Evans's Sense of Time  Evans' Sense of Time  today is June the sixth.  the fifth?  to  Hi V  "A"  C  -  to  Utterance  CHI  it  RES  Speaker  is  Line Number  A  H-  Text  tomorrow's the sixth.  to  to  Hi  C  -  to  CHI  weekends Will?  to  RES  RES  and spends some time with you?  fifth.  RES  to  00  what do you do on the  to  today is June the  to to  to  so  to  RES  to  Solicited (S) / Unsolicited (U) Number of Temporal Units Ignored Utterance  -  Time Orientation Metaphor Moving Observer Metaphor Moving Time Metaphor Event-for-Time Metonymy Distance-for-Time Metonymy Time-for-Distance Metonymy Time is a Resource Metaphor Time is Money Metaphor Evans's Sense of Time  Commodity  Evans' Sense of Time  Text to  3  Line Number  n  x  Speaker BJ 3  A  rt  P-  CD < "  W  1-1  <  TJ  3  a cr cr 0) ro 3  3  « O P-  g CD  B  3  ua cr O v  p3 — V rr  —  CD  Bi 3  cr  CD  3  rt M  a H-  O  s-  p-  r^  "  6 -cT 0 aw O  3 cr cr t-h 0J >< CD CD H i Mi  o o cr 1-1 1-1 CD a> Hi ID h rt cr m CD H  i-t  a a 0 Hi  CD  o  a  " cr  O  CD  3  cr  P-  3 "rt CT  z CD  3  cr CD  |a CD O  3  O CD  (0  S ttJ CD 3  0-  cr  rt  CD M  cr  CD  CO  3  3  ro o  s  CD 3 rt  3  rt  CD  H-  a  l-l  * M  p-  (D  3  ff rt  a> crra  re 65  rt  A  ai 3  a V  3  P iQ  rt  v n> 3 a  —  E  CD  3  0  0)  a  r t |  rt O  Ci C  a  Solicited (S) / Unsolicited (U) Number of Temporal Units Ignored Utterance Time Orientation Metaphor Moving Observer Metaphor Moving Time Metaphor Event-for-Time Metonymy Distance-for-Time Metonymy Time-for-Distance Metonymy Time is a Resource Metaphor Time is Money Metaphor Evans's Sense of Time  Evans' Sense of Time  3  139  RES  when only farm and  you were there y o u were a b o u t a h a l f an h o u r f r o m where I yu I grew up my mom u s e d  to drive  a  a half  3  144  RES  an h o u r .  3  170  RES  or  3  176  RES  t e l l me a b o u t y o u r u h y o u d o s o m e t h i n g o n Saturday's u s u a l l y .  and  we n e e d four  what  3  177  RES  3  191  RES  3  192  CHI  3  205  CHI  3.  206  CHI  3  209  3  210  do y o u u s u a l l y  three  have  the video 1985.  i t in  was uh r e l e a s e d before t h e LP 1984 - : ## u h 1984 a n d 1989 -  CHI RES  i t  in  time.  me w h a t i s to  your  favourite  d o i n t h e summer  1  1  1  1 1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  S  1  1  1  1  u  1  1  1  u  4  1  1  u  1  1  . 1  u  3  1  1  1  1  1  doing  was n o t r e l e a s e d  1  1  1  do on  you been  1  2  and had a . N i e l s e n L P which i s c a l l e d The Point r e l e a s e d i n 1985 l i k e l i k e o u r v i d e l i k e o u r v i d e o The P o i n t which was a which was r e p l a c e d a t t h e v i d e o box. a n d b y a n d o n e a n d o n c e my m o t h e r a n d I g o t i t i n um July a n d A u g u s t # b o u g h t i t i n June a n d August.  thing  222  #  that? I have been doing i t f o r twel(ve) I have d I have done for twelve rides - : .  t e l l  3  do about  more m i n u t e s .  Saturdays ? hm h o w l o n g  but  CHI  to  1  „  1 *  Instance  1  Duration  -:  4*.  SO  Ul U)  o  4*. 4^ 4^  4*  Ui  Text  U)  4^  Line Number Speaker  [<]  Utterance  visiting me at  Christmas day?  s  but she hasn't visit me last and the year before.  <she's>  Christmas.  she coming  is  night  there.  year  something for me to  CO  - -  CHI  nights  w it's  look forward to  s h e ' s spending the  spending  and I'm  everyone to  to boil  wait till  C  RES  CHI  look forward to.  for  CHI  first  eh?  wa # for the water  you have to  the  but  RES  CHI C  O  4^  CHI  4*.  G  G  to  -- -  -  -  Solicited (S) / Unsolicited (U) Number of Temporal Units Ignored Utterance Time Orientation Metaphor Moving Observer Metaphor Moving Time Metaphor Event-for-Time Metonymy Distance-for-Time Metonymy Time-for-Distance Metonymy Time is a Resource Metaphor Time is Money Metaphor Evans's Sense of Time  Evans' Sense of Time  RES  ui  Text  -o  Line Number  RES  Ul  Speaker  Utterance  like quite  a long  I talked to you on the telephone last night too didn't I  that sounds  drive.  —  Solicited (S) / Unsolicited (U) Number of Temporal Units Ignored Utterance  - -  Time Orientation Metaphor Moving Observer Metaphor Moving Time Metaphor Event-for-Time Metonymy Distance-for-Time Metonymy Time-for-Distance Metonymy Time is a Resource Metaphor Time is Money Metaphor Evans's Sense of Time  Evans' Sense of Time  8SI  Utterance  and are you working now?  to Os  to  CHI  CHI  RES  RES  CHI  CHI  RES  CHI  CHI  CHI  um - i t ' s usually a f t e r  morning?  that makes quite a long day doesn't it? what time do you leave here in the  the four+forty+five  four+forty+five  and what time does that get you back here? well we take the um  o'clock.  then we have lunch at twelve at that. then, we start back at work at one  twelve [ ! ] .  G  G  G  through to four+thirty.  bus.  bus.  and um # and we take the we take  eight.  between eight+fifteen and  eight+thirty we usually leave. and we get uh to Mailboxes at nine+thirty.  G  to  Ignored Utterance  -  RES work at um on Tuesdays and at at um Mailboxes.  Thursdays  I  CHI [ > ] quite a trip.  <that's>  to -J  Time Orientation Metaphor Moving Observer Metaphor Moving Time Metaphor Event-for-Time Metonymy Distance-for-Time Metonymy Ti m e-fo r-Dista n ce Metonymy Time is a Resource Metaphor Time is Money Metaphor Evans's Sense of Time  -  CHI  to v©  G  ---  RES  o  uh nine+thirty to nine+thirty to  Os  to  1—»  CHI  U)  and then we go right all the way  u> u>  G  --  - --- - -  uh ye yeah it is quite a trip. and then and then we then we work # then we work um something like  1  -o  C  -  Speaker  -J to  CHI  to  Solicited (S) / Unsolicited (U) Number of Temporal Units G  Line Number ~J  G  IO  to © to  to to Ul  -o OS  Text •o  -J -0 -o  -4 -0  Moment  Moment  Evans' Sense of Time  so  what  do  you  7  113  RES  evenings  7  114  RES  what  do  well  Tuesdays  7  115  CHI  have  to  7  120  CHI  and  on  when you  do  what  do  was  I it  after  well used a  s  # to  in  the  CHI  in  7  148  CHI  < w e l l > [<] we u I for sportsnight.  7  150  CHI  I  do  one  u h my  working  well go  used  # but fitness  1  1  1  1  1  S  1  1  1  U  2  1  1  U  1  1  s  1  1  u  1  1  1  supper? we  to  on um  to in  um  Grimsby.  to  1  here?  sports+night  121  go  do back  workout  7  but  get  after  a  thurs  Thursdays  usually you  to  um o n  do  that  Sundays  I  Text  Ul  U)  ON  -J  Os  Ul 00  Line Number  RES  RES  RES  CHI  Speaker  I guess you would sleep during that train, ride eh?  what happens if you go on the midnight express?  Christina was gotten stuck  Utterance  oo  between # on a summer day!  OO  now  00  on a summer day.  00  the  in G  -  Solicited (S) / Unsolicited (U) Number of Temporal Units Ignored Utterance  -  -  Time Orientation Metaphor Moving Observer Metaphor Moving Time Metaphor Event-for-Time Metonymy Distance-for-Time Metonymy Time-for-Distance Metonymy Time is a Resource Metaphor Time is Money Metaphor Evans's Sense of Time  Evans' Sense of Time  SO  4^  Line Number  RES  to  Text  Speaker  -  Utterance  what do you do after sc]hool?  -  Solicited (S) / Unsolicited (U) Number of Temporal Units Ignored Utterance Time Orientation Metaphor Moving Observer Metaphor Moving Time Metaphor Event-for-Time Metonymy Distance-for-Time Metonymy Time-for-Distance Metonymy Time is a Resource Metaphor Time is Money Metaphor Evans's Sense of Time  Evans' Sense of Time  

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