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Speech genre and temporal conceptual metaphor use in the discourse of speakers with autism spectrum disorders… Sun, Peter 2007

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SPEECH GENRE AND TEMPORAL CONCEPTUAL METAPHOR USE IN THE DISCOURSE OF SPEAKERS WITH AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS (ASDs) by P E T E R S U N B.A. , The University of British Columbia, 2005 A THESIS S U B M I T T E D IN P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T OF T H E R E Q U I R E M E N T S F O R T H E D E G R E E OF M A S T E R OF A R T S in T H E F A C U L T Y OF G R A D U A T E STUDIES (English) T H E U N I V E R S I T Y OF BRIT ISH C O L U M B I A August 2007 © Peter Sun, 2007 A B S T R A C T The thesis explores how temporal spoken text and metaphors of time are used in semi-structured conversational discourse by speakers with Aut ism Spectrum Disorders. The focus on time, its structure (through genre) and metaphoric representation, is a potentially revealing line of research for better understanding communication difficulties as well as patterns of conceptualization in A S D . Metaphors, in general, are difficult for people with A S D (Happe, 1993, 1995). Time in this context is an interesting concept to examine as it is largely expressed using metaphor (Lakoff & Johnson, 1999). The thesis also provides an opportunity to explore how temporal metaphors, as ingrained concepts of nature, are used by individuals who traditionally struggle with figurative metaphor. Individuals with A S D use temporal metaphors and the findings here may not only serve as a contribution to our knowledge about A S D , but also to the understanding of semantics and philosophy of time. i i TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract i i Table of Contents i i i List of Tables '. v List of Figures vi i List of Abbreviations v i i i Acknowledgements ix Chapter 1 - Introduction 1 Chapter 2 - Background 7 1. Autism Spectrum Disorders 7 2. Data 7 3. Speech Genre 8 4 Cognitive Linguistics 9 Chapter 3 - Methods 12 A . Cohesion Analysis 12 B. Speech Genre Analysis 15 C. Conceptual Metaphor Analysis 18 Chapter 4 - Speech Genre Analysis 27 Part 1: Individual Text Analysis 28 Part 2: Analysis of A l l Transcripts 51 Conclusion 60 Chapter 5 - Metaphor Analysis 62 Part 1: Individual Text Analysis 64 i i i Part 2: Analysis of A l l Texts 95 Conclusion 109 Chapter 6 - Conclusion 112 Works Cited 120 Appendix 1 - Temporal Stretches Extracted from 9 Transcripts 122 Appendix 2 - Summary of Genre Types and Generic Stages Used in 9 Texts 144 Appendix 3 - Utterances that Use Units of Time Extracted from 9 Texts 146 Appendix 4 - Analysis of Metaphors, Metonymies, and Senses of Time of Utterances that Use Temporal Units 151 iv LIST OF TABLES Table 3.1 - External conjunctive relations of the temporal type 14 Table 3.2 - Storytelling genres and their structure 15 Table 3.3 - Description of generic stages used in storytelling genres 16 Table 3.4 - Generic structure of Procedure 17 Table 3.5 - Genre types and associated generic structure used for analysis 18 Table 4.1 - Genre types used for analysis 27 Table 4.2 - Summary of genre types and generic stages used by speakers in text 1 30 Table 4.3 - Summary of genre types and generic stages used by speakers in text 2 31 Table 4.4 - Generic structure of the Anecdote and the Specific Recount 32 Table 4.5 - Summary of genre types and generic stages used by speakers in text 3 38 Table 4.6 - Summary of genre types and generic stages used by speakers in text 4 39 Table 4.7 - Summary of genre types and generic stages used by speakers in text 5 41 Table 4.8 - Summary of genre types and generic stages used by speakers in text 6 42 Table 4.9 - Summary of genre types and generic stages used by speakers in text 7 46 Table 4.10 - Summary of genre types and generic stages used by speakers in text 8 50 Table 4.11 - Summary of genre types used by speakers in 9 texts 51 Table 4.12 - Summary of generic stages used by speakers in 9 texts 52 Table 5.1 - Lines 140, 141, 146, 147, 151, and 153 from text 1 64 Table 5.2 - Summary of metaphors and metonymies used in text 1 66 Table 5.3 - Lines 1, 3, 4, 6, and 8 from text 2 67 Table 5.4 - Summary of metaphors and metonymies used in text 2 71 Table 5.5- Lines 45, 70, and 115 from text 3 72 v Table 5.6 - Lines 21, 43, 127, 176, 177, 205, 206, 209, 210, and 222 from text 3 73 Table 5.7 - Lines 82 and 107 from text 3 74 Table 5.8 - Lines 94, 96, 105, and 191 from text 3 75 Table 5.9 - Summary of metaphors and metonymies used in text 3 81 Table 5 . 1 0 - L i n e s 134, 151, 153 from text 4 82 Table 5.11 - Lines 140 and 144 from text 4 . 82 Table 5.12 - Summary of metaphors and metonymies used in text 4 84 Table 5 . 1 3 - Lines 9 and 16 from text 5 85 Table 5.14 - Summary of metaphors and metonymies used in text 5 86 Table 5 . 1 6 - L i n e s 14, 25 ,26 ,71 ,72 , 74, 76, 113,114, 115, 120, and 150 from text 7 87 Table 5.17 - Lines 24, 27, and 53 from text 7 88 Table 5.18 - Summary of metaphors and metonymies used in text 7 90 Table 5.19 - Summary of metaphors and metonymies used in text 8 92 Table 5.20 - Summary of metaphors and metonymies used in text 9 94 Table 5.21 - Number of utterances that use basic metaphors of time in texts 1 through 9 96 Table 5.22 - Summary of metaphors and metonymies used in texts 1 through 9 97 Table 5.23 - Number of utterances that use metonymies of time in texts 1 through 9.... 98 Table 5.24 - Number of utterances that use other basic metaphors of time in texts 1 through 9 99 Table 5.25 - Number of utterances that use Evans' senses of time 99 vi LIST OF FIGURES Figure 5.1 - Researcher's frame of the Time Orientation and Moving Observer metaphors 67 Figure 5.2 - Chi ld 's frame of the Time Orientation and the Moving Observer Metaphors 67 Figure 5.3 - Construal of "weekends" from line 219 of text 2 69 Figure 5.4 - "Twelve rides" construal of time in line 192 of text 3 76 V l l L I S T O F A B B R E V I A T I O N S Transcr ip t ion Conventions R E S : = Researcher CHI : = Chi ld (Research Participant) A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T S Time is a valuable commodity. Thank you Dr. Jessica de Vi l l iers and Dr. Barbara gier for being generous with your time while supervising this thesis. C H A P T E R 1 - INTRODUCTION This thesis investigates how temporal spoken text and metaphors of time are produced and understood in the discourse of people with Aut ism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). The approach taken integrates speech genre analysis (Martin & Plum, 1997; Halliday & Hasan, 1989; Eggins & Slade, 1997; Plum, 2004) from the Systemic Functional Tradition in Linguistics with an analysis of conceptual approaches to metaphor from Cognitive Linguistics (Lee 2001; Lakoff & Johnson 1999; Evans 2003) in a complementary way. Speech genre analysis proposes that speakers organize and structure texts in predictable stages to achieve an overall purpose. Conceptual metaphor is the process of understanding one conceptual domain in terms of another domain. In the thesis, I identify and examine stretches of temporally sequenced events in a corpus of 9 semi-structured conversational texts produced by children and adolescents diagnosed with A S D . O f particular interest in the examination is the marked use of speech genre types in the discourse of A S D . Contextually appropriate discourse is particularly difficult for speakers with A S D . While the discourse of individuals with A S D typically does not conform to expected patterns, problems with the contextual use and variation of language are equally detrimental to social success but are also not well-understood in A S D . There are numerous theories of A S D ; however, few deal with the difficulties in communication. deVill iers and Szatmari (2004) found that individuals with A S D have difficulties with chronological organization in the quantity of information and linearity of serial events. Speech genre analysis is an appropriate approach to examining the discourse of speakers with A S D as it looks at the structure of text in a functional way. Specifically, speech 1 genre theory is sensitive to a configuration of contextual factors, including the nature of the text, the participants and their relationship to one another, and the role language plays in the experience. In this thesis, speech genre types and their associated generic structure wi l l provide a means to better understand how individuals with A S D structure time and temporal concepts in conversational texts. In this thesis, the term genre refers to speech genre. Also of interest is the conceptualization of time among individuals with A S D , as temporal concepts are largely communicated using conceptual metaphor (Lakoff & Johnson, 1999). Conceptual metaphor is used when one conceptual domain is understood in terms of another conceptual domain. Meaning is achieved in conceptual metaphor by recognizing a set of systematic correspondences between the two domains. Time is unconsciously conceptualized and so deeply entrenched in our cognitive system that typical speakers often do not realize that they are using conceptual metaphor. Classic examples include spending, saving, or measuring time. The T I M E IS M O N E Y conceptual metaphor, among other conceptual metaphors of time, are relatively stable, are not arbitrary, and are widespread throughout cultures (Lakoff & Johnson, 1999, 134). In this thesis, unless otherwise noted, the term metaphor refers to conceptual metaphor. It is widely reported that even the most verbally able individuals with A S D fail to understand nonliteral speech (Happe, 1993, 1995). The problems that people with A S D experience in such metaphoric language use can significantly encumber communication and social success. Yet, despite a growing literature on problems with metaphor and other figurative language use in A S D , these difficulties are still not well-understood. The analysis of conceptual metaphors, metonymies, and senses of time is appropriate to 2 approach temporal texts produced by speakers with A S D as these individuals must have an understanding of conceptual metaphors of time and temporal concepts. This thesis aims to investigate the degree to which individual use and comprehend conceptual metaphors of time. The findings may not only serve as a contribution to the knowledge of the disorder, but may also comment on the degree of the conventionality of temporal metaphor and contribute to the philosophy of time. The thesis analyzes nine spoken texts produced by children and adolescents diagnosed with A S D . It applies two approaches: Systemic Functional Discourse Analysis and Cognitive Linguistics. First, a speech genre analysis of stretches of spoken discourse that involve temporally sequenced events is undertaken to examine the extent to which the research participants under investigation predictably engage in discourse based on contextual factors. Fol lowing this speech genre analysis, stretches of temporally sequenced events are examined for the use of temporal conceptual metaphors. The result is a well-articulated evaluation of the use of speech genre and conceptual metaphor types in 9 conversational texts of speakers with A S D . The speech genre analysis follows a framework developed by Eggins and Slade ' (1997) who found ten types of speech genres used in casual conversations. O f these ten types, they label four types as storytelling genres. The four types of storytelling genres are Narrative, Anecdotes, Recounts, and Exemplum. Bui lding on Eggins and Slade's work, further subcategorization of the Recount speech genre into Specific Recounts and General Recounts was made. (Specific Recounts involve a Record of Events that is unique and non-repetitive while General Recounts involve a Record of Events that is habitual or that occurs on a recurring basis.) A n emergent speech genre type that uses 3 external temporal conjunctions but does not adhere to any of the speech genres described by Eggins and Slade (1997) is Procedure (Plum, 2004). Fol lowing Plum, Procedure is incorporated in the classification. To approach temporal metaphors produced by speakers with A S D , Lakoff and Johnson's (1999) conceptual metaphors of time and Evans' (2003) senses of time are applied. In the analysis of temporal conceptual metaphors, Lakoff and Johnson (1999) were followed and the approach to the analysis of the lexical item, "t ime" followed Evans (2003). Lakoff and Johnson's conceptual metaphors of time have been described in Philosophy in the Flesh (1999). Although time as a concept is chiefly metaphorical, it is realized in many ways by different conceptual metaphors. The selected conceptual metaphors of time used for analysis of metaphor are: 1) Time Orientation metaphor; 2) Moving Time metaphor; 3) Moving Observer metaphor; 4) Event-for-Time metonymy; 5) Distance-Time metonymy; 6) Time as a Resource metaphor; and 7) Time as Money metaphor. In all stretches of temporally sequential texts from the 9 transcripts, all instances were noted where the word "t ime" or units of time (i.e. "tomorrow", "two minutes", "June the fifth", "1985", etc.) were uttered. These uses of time were categorized according to Lakoff and Johnson's conceptual metaphors using Lakoff & Johnson's (1999) criteria. Where the lexical item "t ime" explicitly appeared, these instances were categorized according to Evans' (2003) distinct senses of time: 1. Duration Sense 2. Moment Sense 3. Instance Sense 4. Event Sense 5. Matrix Sense 6. Agentive Sense 4 7. Measurement-system Sense The analysis of speech genre in the nine texts found that the individuals with A S D used certain speech genre types and not others. They also used some speech genre types more frequently than others. The Recount genre (Specific and General) was used the most. The thesis examines closely the speech genre types used and considers the frequency of particular stages in the genres. Some children appeared to have stronger conversational ability marked by longer generic stages and longer turns. These speakers did use a greater variety of generic stages but appeared to favour a particular generic stage. The analysis of conceptual metaphor, metonymies, and senses of time showed that individuals with A S D appeared to use some metaphors more often than others. A s with genres, some individuals appeared to be more able than others to use temporal metaphors, metonymies and senses of time marked by a more varied and a greater quantity of these expressions. The speakers that appeared to be more competent with temporal expressions showed unconventional uses related to the specificity of conceptual metaphors, metonymies, and senses of time. Fol lowing the speech genre and metaphor analyses, the results of the two investigations are compared and discussed. Both approaches to analyzing the same 9 texts showed a relationship where the research participants with the most conversational engagement also used the greatest variety of speech genre types and the most temporal conceptual metaphors. The findings in this thesis are important because speech genre analysis and the analysis of conceptual metaphors are appropriate to examine the pragmatic language use of time and temporal concepts that occur in the conversations of 5 ind iv iduals w i t h A S D . Individuals w i t h A S D struggle w i t h pragmatic and figurative language use and few studies examine the conversational diff icul t ies o f ind iv iduals w i t h A S D . Th i s thesis w i l l serve as a contr ibut ion to the knowledge o f the conversational diff icul t ies o f the disorder and comment on the degree o f the convent ional i ty o f temporal conceptual metaphors that occur i n spoken discourse. Chapter 1 has introduced the thesis that w i l l examine the use o f speech genres and temporal conceptual metaphors, metonymies , and senses o f t ime i n spoken texts produced by speakers w i t h A S D . Chapter 2, Background, describes A S D , speech genre analysis, and Cogn i t i ve L ingu i s t i c s . The second chapter also identifies the source o f the data used i n this thesis. Chapter 3, Methods, outlines cohes ion analysis, speech genre analysis, and the analysis o f temporal conceptual metaphors, metonymies , and senses o f t ime used to approach the data. Chapter 4, Speech Genre Analysis, describes the use o f speech genre that occur i n each o f the 9 texts. Patterns that occur i n the use o f speech genres are also identif ied across the 9 texts. Chapter 5, Metaphor Analysis, describes the use o f temporal conceptual metaphors, metonymies , and senses o f t ime that occur i n the same 9 texts. Patterns o f temporal metaphors, metonymies , and senses o f t ime that occur across the 9 texts are then identif ied and discussed. Chapter 5, Conclusion, discusses observations and f indings that emerged f rom both the analysis o f speech genre and the analysis o f temporal conceptual metaphors, metonymies , and senses o f t ime. 6 C H A P T E R 2 - B A C K G R O U N D 1. Aut ism Spectrum Disorders A u t i s m Spectrum Disorder ( A S D ) is an umbre l la term for a spectrum o f neurocogni t ive disorders, inc lud ing autism, high-funct ioning aut ism ( H F A ) , Asperge r ' s Syndrome ( A S ) and Pervasive Deve lopmenta l Disorder N o t Otherwise Speci f ied ( P D D -N O S ) that is characterized by severe impairments i n communica t ion and social rec iproci ty . It is w e l l k n o w n that communica t ion i n A S D is associated w i t h diff icult ies i n pragmatics, i nc lud ing the product ion and interpretation o f f igurative metaphor (Happe, 1995). Since t ime and temporal concepts are v i r tual ly imposs ible to conceptual ize wi thout conceptual metaphor ( L a k o f f & Johnson, 1999, 139), an invest igat ion o f the use o f temporal concepts by speakers w i t h A S D may help to better understand the nature o f the disorder. People w i t h A S D are also k n o w n to have di f f icul ty us ing discourse i n contextually appropriate ways , i nc lud ing problems w i t h relevance (Happe, 1993), organizat ion (de V i l l i e r s & Szatmari , 2004) and cohesion (Fine , 1994). A n analysis o f temporal ly sequenced stretches o f discourse us ing a contextually sensitive descript ive approach such as functional speech genre analysis may also in fo rm our understanding o f the diff icul t ies w i t h language associated w i t h A S D . 2. Data Data for this thesis came f rom a fo l low-up study o f ch i ld ren diagnosed w i t h A S D at C h e d o k e - M c M a s t e r Hosp i t a l i n H a m i l t o n , Ontario. A u d i o recordings o f semi-structured conversations between a research technician and 9 research participants diagnosed w i t h A S D were col lected and transcribed pr ior to the analysis undertaken i n the present research. F o r the present examinat ion, temporal stretches o f discourse were isolated f rom 7 the 9 transcripts of semi-structured conversational texts. For a full description of the data collection procedures see de Vi l l iers et al. 2007. 3. Speech Genre In the early 20 t h century, genre study was limited to comparing the differences among texts in the disciplines of rhetoric and literature. In 1953, Bakhtin claimed that texts (both spoken and written) were heterogeneous in nature and suggested that a broader perspective was necessary in communication to account for similarities among texts. For example, Bakhtin noted the fact that utterances involve a finalization of a turn that can be sensed by participants in a conversation. Bakhtin explained that each text can be extremely varied, for example, daily dialogue as opposed to business documents; but, their forms are in fact combinations of speech genres: Each separate utterance is individual, of course, but each sphere in which language is used develops its own relative stable types of these utterances. This we may call speech genres (1986, 60). In the Systemic Functional Tradition, Halliday provides a similar account on the nature of texts using the concept of register. " . . . every text is in some sense like other texts; and for any given text there wi l l be some that it resembles more closely" (Halliday & Hasan, 1989, 42). Register analysis claims that participants can predict textual features based on 3 situational variables: the nature of the text, the participants and their relationship to one another, and the role language plays in the experience. These variables are used to account for contextual aspects of text. Speech genre theory extends upon these variables and attempts to understand why the text was produced; speech genre analysis considers the cultural purposes of text both in content and form. It claims that texts are composed 8 of stages that are culturally imperative. The generic structure of a text is composed of a sequence of intermediate stages that serve a final goal. For example, Hasan (Halliday & Hasan, 1989) compared conversational transactions at a fruit stand. Hasan notes that these "service encounter" texts were generic to the extent that they are made up of obligatory stages in the following order— Sales Request (SR), Sales Compliance (SC), Sale (S), Purchase (P), and Purchase Closure (PC): SR= Can I have ten oranges and a kilo of bananas please? SC= Yes, anything else? No thanks. S= That'll be dollar forty. P= Two dollars. PC= Sixty, eighty, two dollars. Thank you. Example 2.1 - Service Encounter (Halliday & Hasan, 1989, 59) According to Hasan, a successful transaction at a fruit stand of the Service Encounter genre type requires a SR, SC, S, P, and PC in serial order. The use of speech genre analysis is a revealing way to describe discourse in this thesis as it provides a means to examine how individuals with A S D structure time and temporal concepts in spoken text. Speech genre analysis enables a discussion about pragmatic language use; this thesis is therefore able to examine the degree to which text produced by speakers with ASD conforms to culturally accepted norms in content and form. 4. Cognitive Linguistics The thesis uses Lakoff and Johnson (1999) and Evans' (2003) cognitive approaches to time. Both stem from the discipline of Cognitive Linguistics. Cognitive Linguistics assumes that linguistic expression is associated with specific construal (Lee, 2001, 2). It assumes that thought operates at a level below cognitive awareness (Lakoff & 9 Johnson, 1980, 10) and that although there may be formal rules that govern language use, these rules are rooted in cognition. Lakof f and Johnson's approach to time uses the concept of conceptual metaphor. Conceptual metaphor allows us to think about a phenomenon in different ways (Lee, 2001, 6). For example, "I spend too much time at the mal l , " uses the conceptual metaphor T I M E IS M O N E Y , while, "time passes quickly at the mal l , " uses the conceptual metaphor T I M E IS M O T I O N 1 . Both linguistic expressions of conceptual metaphor present different construal of the same phenomenon using a source and target domain. In the case of T I M E IS M O N E Y , "money" is the source and "t ime" is the target. The source domain is relatively more experientially concrete while the target is more abstract; therefore, our conception of money (more concrete) helps us structure our experience of time (more abstract). Conceptual metaphors differ from figurative metaphors in their conventionality. Linguistic expressions of conceptual metaphors of time are so deeply entrenched in thought and conventionalized to the point that they may no longer be recognized as metaphorical expressions. Although figurative metaphors may be based on conceptual metaphors, they require a higher level of cognitive function. Figurative metaphors are more literary and often less clear but richer in meaning (Kovecses, 2002, 45). The distinction between conceptual metaphors and figurative metaphors is relevant to this thesis as individuals with A S D are known to struggle with non-literal language. These difficulties are most obvious with expressions using figurative metaphors. Since individuals with A S D do conceptualize time and temporal events, they must use conceptual metaphors of time. This thesis wi l l examine the degree to which individuals 1 Or PASSAGE OF TIME IS MOTION 10 with A S D use and comprehend temporal metaphors as temporal discourse cannot exist without conceptual metaphor. Evans' senses of time approaches time and temporal concepts from a framework that classifies a range of distinct lexical concepts for time. This approach considers instances where lexical concepts are paired with the lexeme "t ime". Although Evans' approach differs from the analysis of time using conceptual metaphors, the investigation of the ways in which individuals with A S D use the lexeme "t ime" is an interesting area of investigation. Analyzing spoken discourse using both cognitive approaches to time wi l l reveal the ways in which these speakers use and comprehend temporal concepts. 11 C H A P T E R 3 - M E T H O D S This thesis examines semi-structured conversational texts of nine speakers diagnosed with ASD using a combined approach of cohesion and genre analysis from Systemic Functional Linguistics (Halliday, 2004) and analysis of metaphor from Cognitive Linguistics (Lakoff & Johnson, 1999). The focus of analysis is on temporal discourse, both in generic structures and linguistic expressions of metaphor. This combined approach is appropriate for several reasons. First, temporal patterns in the discourse of speakers with ASD are underdescribed in both cognitive linguistic and functional linguistic literature. Both approaches use microanalytic techniques to uncover patterns that would otherwise go unobserved. Both approaches are descriptive of discourses situated in context. Moreover, by using functional cohesion analysis, I was able to extract, in a systematic way, stretches of temporally sequenced events from the nine original transcripts that served as the data for the cognitive linguistic analysis of metaphor. The results of the genre and metaphor analyses of different speakers' texts were also compared. Thus, the two theoretical descriptive approaches were applied in complementary ways. A . Cohesion Analysis Before beginning the analyses of temporal genres and metaphors in the nine texts, temporal stretches in the semi-structured conversations had to be identified. To isolate these, stretches of text were first identified with temporally sequenced events using Halliday and Hasan's (1976) cohesive subtypes. Cohesion can be defined as meaning relations within text (Halliday & Hasan, 1976, 29) and instances of cohesion are realized 12 where the interpretation of one element in discourse is dependent upon another (Halliday & Hasan, 1976, 4). Cohesion concerns the way in which the meaning of the elements is interpreted. "Where the interpretation of any item in the discourse requires making reference to some other item in the discourse, there is cohesion" (Halliday & Hasan, 1976, 11). For example: la . John is nice. lb . He likes to help people. Example 3.1 - Cohesive tie In example 3.1, both John and he refer to the same entity; or, restated, the proper name John and the personal pronoun he, form a cohesive tie. In Halliday and Hasan's framework (1976), cohesion in text can be realized by reference (as in example 3.1), substitution, ellipsis, conjunction, or lexical collocation. Relevant to temporally sequenced events are temporal conjunctions, a subtype of Halliday and Hasan's conjunction group. Halliday and Hasan (1976) differentiate instances of internal temporal relations from external temporal relations (263). The former express successivity in the communication process while the latter concern successivity in the events talked about (Halliday & Hassan, 1976, 263): Internal temporal relation: First, I w i l l talk about the car's engine, and then I wi l l discuss its colour. After, I conclude with comments about its manufacturer. External temporal relation: First, John opened the car door then sat in the seat. Next, he started the engine then backed out of the garage. Example 3.2 - Internal and external temporal relations. In this thesis, external conjunctions of the temporal type were used to locate and extract stretches of temporal discourse (see Appendix 1) because they are a feature that identifies the temporal sequencing of events as "There is always some feature of which 13 we can say, 'This is typically associated with this or that use of language'" (Halliday & Hasan, 1989, 40). External temporal conjunctions are typically associated, but not exclusive, to texts that communicate events as they happen(ed). Below, Table 3.1 provides a summary of external conjunctive relations of the temporal type: Table 3.1 is a list of external conjunctive relations of the temporal type. Table 3.1 has been removed due to copyright restrictions. Please see Hall iday & Hasan, 1976, 266. Table 3.1 - External conjunctive relations of the temporal type (Halliday & Hasan, 1976, 266) Table 3.1 identifies the external conjunctive relations of the temporal time that were used to extract stretches of temporal text from 9 conversational transcripts. The use of these conjunctions identifies stretches of texts that describe sequential events. These texts form the data that was used for the analysis of speech genres and conceptual metaphors. 14 B. Speech Genre Analysis In Chapter 4, a full speech genre analysis was conducted of the stretches of text extracted from the 9 transcripts and they were grouped according to a framework developed by Eggins and Slade (1997). Eggins and Slade (1997) found ten types of genre used in casual conversations. Of these 10 types, they label 4 types as storytelling genre. They are Narrative, Anecdotes, Recounts, and Exemplum. Table 3.2 summarizes their generic structure. The present paper classifies the stretches of text from the 9 transcripts of speakers with ASD according to Eggins and Slade's 4 storytelling genre types. Genre (Types) Generic structure Narrative (Abstract) A (Orientation) A Complication A Evaluation A Resolution A (Coda) Anecdote (Abstract) A (Orientation) A Remarkable Event A Reaction A (Coda) Exemplum (Abstract) A (Orientation) A Incident A Interpretation A (Coda) Recount (Abstract) A (Orientation) A Record of Events A (Coda) Table 3.2 - Storytelling genres and their structure (Eggins & Slade, 1997) Martin notes these storytelling genres are based on narrative clauses that share basic generic stages at their beginnings and ends (1992, 564). Table 3.3 provides a description of the stages in generic structure. 15 Generic Stage Description Abstract Establishes the point of the text and signals that a story is about to be told Orientation Orients listeners to what is to follow in terms of people, actions, time and place Complication Temporally orders actions leading to a crisis Remarkable Event Temporally orders actions outlining a remarkable event which the narrator wants to share her reaction to Reaction The evaluation of the events establishes the significance of the story Incident Outlines temporally sequenced events in order to elucidate interpretative comments or moral judgement Interpretation A moral interpretation or judgement of incident is relayed Record of Events Provides a sequence of events with ongoing appraisal Resolution Actions resolve crisis Evaluation Evaluates or presents appraisal Coda Makes point about text as a whole Returns text to present Table 3.3 - Description of generic stages used in storytelling genres In Table 3.3, the shared stages in generic structure are Abstract, Orientation and Coda and are identified as optional with parentheses; the remaining generic stages are obligatory to the genre type. For example, a Narrative must contain a Complication stage, followed by an Evaluation and a Resolution stage; it may or may not contain an Abstract, Orientation, or Coda. The Abstract stage provides thematic information for the stretch of discourse and the Orientation stage describes the setting while the Coda may complete the stretch of discourse by glossing the entire sequence. Descriptions of the storytelling genre types follow: Narratives have a Complication, Evaluation, and Resolution because these texts build in tension and excitement to reach a crisis that is then resolved. Anecdotes are texts that are similar to narrative as they also focus on crisis. Anecdotes contain a Remarkable Event; a sequence of events builds towards a crisis but unlike Narratives, the crisis is not resolved. 16 Alternatively, the string of events is told to highlight event(s) that are bizarre or unusual for the purpose of sharing a reaction to these events. Exemplums are texts that have a prescriptive nature and suggest how the world should or should not be. Exemplums contain an Incident, a set of temporally sequenced events that are told in order to focus on the significance of these events (rather than their problematic nature). The Interpretation stage of the Exemplum text relates the story to the larger context of culture and a moral point of some kinds is then made. Finally, Recounts are about a temporal sequence experienced by the narrator. In these texts, the Record of Events tells how one event leads to another; the goal is simply to relay succession of events. I further subcategorize the Recount genre into Specific Recounts and General Recounts. I define Specific Recounts to involve a Record of Events that is unique and non-repetitive while General Recounts involve a Record of Events that is habitual or that occurs on a recurring basis. A n additional genre type emerged that used external temporal conjunctions but did not adhere to any of the genres described by Eggins and Slade (1997). I found this genre type to be Procedure (Plum,2004). Procedures are texts that involve temporally sequenced events or steps in a How To stage that outlines the means to achieve a desired state or result. A recipe is a classical example of a Procedure text. Table 3.4 details the generic structure of Procedure. Genre Generic structure Procedure (Abstract) A Orientation A How To A (Coda) Table 3.4 - Generic structure of Procedure (Plum, 2004) The 6 genre types, including my 2 subtypes of Recount genre, are used for the analysis of temporally sequenced text from conversations of speakers with A S D . Table 17 3.5 generalizes the generic structure of these genre types used to code spoken discourse in this project. Genre Generic structure Narrative (Abstract) A (Orientation) A Complication A Evaluation A Resolution A (Coda) Anecdote (Abstract) A (Orientation) A Remarkable E v e n t A Reaction A (Coda) Exemplum (Abstract) A (Orientation) A Incident A Interpretation A (Coda) Specific Recount (Abstract) A (Orientation) A Specific Record of Events A (Coda) General Recount (Abstract) A (Orientation) A General Record of Events A (Coda) Procedure (Abstract) A Orientation A How To A (Coda) Table 3.5 - Genre types and associated generic structure used for analysis As in Eggins and Slade (1997), the stages in the six genre types include optional stages in parentheses and required stages without parentheses. Evaluation is an additional optional stage that may occur throughout the generic structure in the 6 genre types at any point. The purpose of Evaluation is to sustain the story and establish its contextual significance (Eggins & Slade, 1997, 238). Analyzing conversational texts produced by speakers with A S D using speech genre and their associated generic stages wi l l provide insight into how these individual produce temporal discourse. C . Conceptual Metaphor Analysis In Chapter 5, an analysis of metaphors in the Cognitive Linguistics tradition was performed on each of the temporal stretches identified with the cohesion analysis. Both Lakoff and Johnson's conceptual metaphors of time and Evans' senses of time were used, with Evans' approach being applied where further semantic specification for the lexeme "t ime" helped to show unconventional uses of the lexeme "time". 18 Lakoff and Johnson's Conceptual Metaphors of Time (1999) This approach to the analysis of metaphors of time in discourse is developed from Lakof f and Johnson's Philosophy in the Flesh (1999). Lakoff and Johnson (1999) describe a variety of conceptual metaphors of time and metonymies for time. Metonymy, similar to metaphor, is defined as using one entity to refer to another (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980, 35.) For example, "the rock concert was long," uses the Event-for-Time metonymy where the event, "the rock concert," stands metonymically for a specific period of time. This approach to analyzing temporal discourse classifies metaphors and metonymies according to the following categories described by Lakof f & Johnson (1999): A . Time Orientation metaphor B. Moving Time metaphor C. Moving Observer metaphor D. Event-for-Time metonymy E. Distance-for-Time metonymy F. Time as a Resource metaphor G. Time as Money metaphor The following outlines and provides examples of these metaphors and metonymies: Time Orientation Metaphor The Time Orientation metaphor is the most basic metaphor. Its construal situates an observer who is at the present who faces the future. Lakof f and Johnson provide the following examples: That's all behind us now. We're looking ahead to the future. He has a great future in front of him. (1999, 140) 19 Moving Time Metaphor In this metaphor, Lakoff and Johnson (1999) describe time using a lone, stationary observer who faces a fixed direction. A n indefinite sequence of objects (times) move past the observer from front to back and these objects are also conceptualized as having fronts that face their direction of motion (Lakoff & Johnson, 1999, 141). The motion of the objects (time) moving past the observer represents the "passage" of time. The Moving Time metaphor can be combined with the Time Orientation metaphor to create the following composite mapping: The location of the observer -> The present The space in front of the observer -> The future The space behind the observer -> The past Objects -> Times The motion of objects past the observer -> The "passage" of time (Lakoff & Johnson, 1999, 142) Here are some examples of the Moving Time metaphor: The deadline is approaching. The time for action has arrived. The summer just zoomed by. The time for end-of-summer sales has passed In the weeks following next Tuesday, there wi l l be very little to do. (Lakoff & Johnson, 1999, 143) Moving Observer Metaphor The Moving Observer metaphor differs from the Moving Time metaphor because the observer is no longer fixed in one location. Alternatively, the locations (times) are fixed on a path upon which the observer moves. The motion of the observer represents the "passage" of time while the distance moved by the observer represents the amount of time "passed." 20 When we combine the Moving Observer metaphor with the Time Orientation metaphor, we have the following composite mapping: The location of the observer -> The present The space in front of the observer -> The future The space behind the observer -> The past Locations on the observer's path of motion -> Times The motion of the observer -> The "passage" of time The distance moved by the observer -> The amount of time "passed" (Lakoff & Johnson, 1999, 146) Lakof f & Johnson provide the following examples: There's going to be trouble down the road. His visit to Russia extended over many years. She arrived on time. We're coming up on Christmas. We passed the deadline. (1999, 146) Event-for-Time Metonymy The Event-for-Time metonymy can co-occur with other metaphors of time. Through metaphor, temporal moments are represented as locations, substances, or motion and events are bounded and realized with respect to these temporal moments. For example, in the sentence, "The rock concert is approaching," the event (rock concert) metonymically stands for the time (duration) of the concert. Distance-for-Time Metonymy Distance can also stand metonymically for time as in "I slept for fifty miles while she drove" (Lakoff & Johnson, 1999, 152). In this example, the time it took to drive "fifty miles" is the amount of time the speaker slept. Time as a Resource Metaphor The Time as a Resource metaphor is a characteristic way of conceptualizing time in Western culture (Lakoff & Johnson, 1999, 161). This metaphor maps information from 21 a resource domain (source) onto the time domain (target). Lakoff & Johnson describe this mapping: The resource The user of the resource The purpose that requires the resource The value of the resource The value of the purpose -> Time -> The agent (the user of time) -> The purpose that requires time -> The value of the time The value of the purpose (1999, 162-3) Linguistic expressions of this metaphor include: You've used up all of your time. The job took up three hours. He used his time efficiently. Time as Money Money is a type of resource; therefore, the Time as Money metaphor is similar to the Time as a Resource metaphor. They are constituents of the same system. In the Time as Money metaphor, words like "budget," "spend," "invest," "profit," and "loss" prompt for this metaphor. This mapping is as follows: Money The user of the money The purpose that requires the money The value of the money The value of the purpose -> Time -> The user of time (the agent) -> The purpose that requires time -> The value of the time -> The value of the purpose (Lakoff & Johnson, 1999, 163-4) Lakoff and Johnson provide the following linguistic expressions of this metaphor: I have to budget my time. I spent too much time on that. I've invested a lot of time on this project. (1999, 164) The above 7 types of conceptual metaphors form the framework for the analysis of temporal metaphors in this thesis. 22 Evans ' Senses of T ime (2003) This cognitive approach to the analysis of time is developed by Evans (2003). Evans presents a framework that determines a range of distinct lexical concepts for time. This approach considers instances where lexical concepts are paired with the lexeme "time". It suggests that there are 8 distinct senses of time: 1. The Duration Sense 2. The Moment Sense 3. The Instance Sense 4. The Event Sense 5. The Matrix Sense 6. The Agentive Sense 7. The Measurement-system Sense 8. The Commodity Sense I outline and provide examples for each of Evans' senses of time that wi l l analyze the use of the lexeme "t ime" in the conversational texts produced by speakers with A S D . The Durat ion Sense The Duration Sense is a lexical concept that constitutes an interval bounded by two "boundary" events. There is an onset and an offset that creates a temporal interval. The duration sense can be elaborated in terms of physical length, quality of experience, and temporal compression and protracted duration. Evans (2003) provides the following examples: The relationship lasted a long/short time. During their ill-fated marriage they fought a lot/some/much of the time. He returned to Germany for good in 1857, moving for a time to Berl in. Time flies (by) when you're having fun. Time crawls (by) when you're bored. (110-115) 23 Moment Sense The Moment Sense prompts for a conceptualisation of a discrete of punctual point or moment without reference to its duration. Evans provides the following examples: The time for a decision has arrived / come. Doctors had warned that Daniel, five, of Sinfin, Derby, could die at any time. What size was she the time of change? What time is it? (2003,123) Instance Sense The Instance Sense prompts for a reading in which an instance of a particular event, activity, process or state is being referenced. Evans provides the following examples: Devine improved for the fourth time this winter when he reached 64.40 meters at a meeting in Melbourne. This time, it was a bit more serious because I got a registered letter. He did it 50 times in a row. Once it was clear that the room could not be held, he would order its evacuation, men leaving two at a time by the far window. (2003, 131) Event Sense The Event Sense prompts for a conceptualisation in which a specific event is referenced. A n event constitutes an occurrence of some type, characterized by certain features or characteristics which mark the occurrence as is by being temporally discreet. This sense references an experiential point in an event-sequence (event embedded in ongoing experience/event-sequences). The following linguistic expressions are examples of the Event Sense of time: The young woman's time [=labour] approached. The man had every caution given him not a minute before to be careful with the gun, but his time was coming as his poor shipmates say and with that they console themselves. 24 The barman called time. (Evans, 2003,135) Matrix Sense In the Matrix Sense, " t ime" prompts an entity that is unbounded. Evans provides the following examples: Time flows/runs/goes on forever. Time has no end. Those mountains have stood for all time. Nothing can outlast time. (Evans, 2003,142) Agentive Sense The Agentive Sense prompts time as an entity that serves to bring about change. Here are some examples: Time, the subtle thief of youth. Time has aged me. Time has left its scars Time has yellowed the pages Time transformed her Time reveals all (Evans, 2003, 159) Measurement-System Sense In the Measurement-System Sense, physical symbols can be used to represent or measure time. The temporal measurements arise due to the correlation between periodic behaviour in the external world and our experience of duration. Evans provides the following examples: Clock—serves to divide day into hours, minutes, seconds... In quick time (dance), 108 paces, or 270 feet, are taken in a minute; and in slow time, seventy-five paces, or 187 feet... To play music out of time. In the 1850s Railway time was introduced as standard. We get paid double time on public holidays (2003, 169) 25 Commodi ty Sense The Commodity Sense prompts time as an entity that is valuable. It therefore can be for exchanged, traded, acquired, and possessed: Remember that time is money. Time has become a scarce commodity. Everyone wants more of it. They are selling time-shares on the Costa Blanca. The psychiatrist charges a lot for her time. A few techniques to create more time in your day. (Evans, 2003, 177) Fol lowing Evans, the above 8 senses of time form the framework to analyze the use of the lexeme "t ime" in conversational texts produced by speakers with A S D . This chapter has described the methods used in this thesis. Cohesion analysis was used to isolate stretches of temporal text from 9 conversational transcripts produced by speakers with A S D . Speech genre analysis and conceptual metaphor analysis was used to describe observations in each of the 9 texts and the patters across all 9 texts. 26 CHAPTER 4 - SPEECH GENRE ANALYSIS In this chapter I examine generic structure in temporal discourse in semi-structured conversations involving speakers with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). My approach uses genre analysis (Eggins & Slade, 1997; Plum, 2004; Martin, 1997) from functional discourse analysis to examine a corpus of nine texts. The chapter examines how speakers with ASD produce, structure, and comprehend temporally sequenced events in spoken text. Genre analysis from the discipline of discourse analysis is used to classify stretches of spoken text that involve sequences of events. This chapter proceeds in two parts. Part 1 describes each speaker's use of genre in the 9 individual texts. Part 2 extends upon this description by analyzing patterns of genre use across the 9 texts. To identify speakers' use of genre, stretches of spoken text that involve sequences of events were isolated from 9 transcripts of transcribed conversations based on the speakers' use of Halliday & Hasan's (1976) external conjunctive relations of the temporal type. These stretches of text were classified into 6 genre types that follow the work of Eggins and Slade (1997) and Plum (2004). Table 1.1 identifies the 6 genre types used for analysis in this chapter and their generic structure. Appendix 1 presents the full set of extracted data coded for genre types and generic stages. Genre Generic structure Narrative (Abstract) A (Orientation) A Complication A Evaluation A Resolution A (Coda) Anecdote (Abstract) A (Orientation) A Remarkable Event A Reaction A (Coda) Exemplum (Abstract) A (Orientation) A Incident A Interpretation A (Coda) Specific Recount (Abstract) A (Orientation) A Specific Record of Events A (Coda) General Recount (Abstract) A (Orientation) A General Record of Events A (Coda) Procedure (Abstract) A Orientation A How To A (Coda) Table 4 . 1 - Genre types used for analysis 27 PART 1: Individual Text Analysis This section begins the analysis of genre by describing the individual speaker's use of genre in the 9 texts. In these texts, both the researcher (RES) and the child (CHI) contribute to the generic structure of the text because turn-taking is a characteristic of conversational discourse. Textl Text 1 contains 2 stretches of temporally sequenced text. The first was a General Recount and the second was a Specific Recount. The General Recount text proceeds through an Orientation stage followed by a Record of Events: ORIENTATION RES: what do you do when you go home from s c h o o l W i l l ? [RECORD OF EVENTS CHI: ah -: I p l a y games. Example 4.1 - General Recount 1, transcript 1, lines 79-80 As can be seen from Example 1.1, the General Recount identified is not produced entirely by the research participant. Rather, the researcher utters the Orientation as a question and the child utters the Record of Events in response to the researcher's question. The participant that contributes each generic stage is identified because conversational texts, especially clinical texts, involve a semi-structured turn-taking pattern where both participants share the construction of the genre. The child's Record of Events involves a single event and the researcher solicits it. The Specific Recount proceeds through the generic stages of OrientationA Record of EventsA OrientationA Record of EventsA Record of EventsA OrientationA Record of Events: ORIENTATION RES: so do you l i k e p i z z a W i l l ? CHI: mmhm. 28 RECORD OF EVENTS RES: I had p i z z a l a s t n i g h t f o r supper. ORIENTATION RES: what d i d you have f o r supper l a s t n i g h t ? RECORD OF EVENTS CHI RES CHI RES I had p i z z a t o o . d i d you? yeah. oh -: . RECORD OF EVENTS RES: and the n i g h t b e f o r e I had po r k chops. |ORIENTATION| can you remember what you had t h e n i g h t b e f o r e ? RES : CHI RES RES RECORD OF EVENTS p o r k chops t o o . you had p o r k chops t o o . hm. Example 4.2 - Specific Recount 1, transcript 1, Lines 138-150 The second text's sequence repeats the Orientation A Record of Events sequence 3 times with an additional Record of Events between the second and third sequence. In this, each Orientation stage following the initial Orientation functions to re-establish the temporal setting when supper was eaten. In both the General Recount and Specific Recount, all Orientation stages were uttered by the researcher in the form of questions. The Records of Events represent the child's responses to these questions. In the 2 stretches of text, the researcher utters all 4 of the Orientation stages. The child only utters solicited Records of Events and each describes a single event. A turn-taking pattern is observed where the researcher poses a question and the child answers it. It appears that the child requires structure from the researcher's questions to sustain turn-taking in the conversation. Table 4.2 summarizes the genres types and generic stages that speakers in text 1 use. 29 CU X s 3 z • M ' u u c ets u H Z o •o u cu e < a. E CU U s o u c 10 a © u 3 •a cu u o >- X < cu O CA S GO o VI X U X < B o e •a cu c TS cu o GO X I B e e > Ui C M O cu OS •a cu 5 •o cu o CO X s cu W C M o •a cu 3 S o o EE •o cu o CA B 5 cu o to XI U X o o e CU > tit _cu X eg -4 « E cu a! T3 cu '3 "o CA B 5 •a cu o CO X U x cu > U _cu X « -4 cu 05 B e u es cu Qi •o cu 5 cu o co 2 Is U >> x B _© U C3 CU o U •a cu • M "o CA B 5 cu o to X CO T3 O U B .© et s 13 > B 5 •O cu o Vi X B .© CO s "et > Table 4.2 - Summary of genre types and generic stages used by speakers in text 1 Text 2 Text 2 contains a single General Recount (see Appendix 1). This text uses only Orientation and Record of Events stages in its generic structure with the exception of an evaluative comment that also serves as a Coda uttered by the researcher. The General Recount contains 3 Orientations, 3 Record of Events, and a Coda. Two of the 3 Orientations were uttered by the researcher and the remaining Orientation was uttered by the child and solicited by the researcher. A l l 3 Records of Events were uttered by the child and solicited by the researcher. The generic structure of the text repeats the OrientationA Record of Events sequence 3 times. The participants' turn-taking followed a pattern where the researcher posed a question and the child answered the question. The conversation relies heavily on this turn-taking pattern to sustain conversation as all of the 30 child's responses were solicited by the researcher. Table 4.3 summarizes the genre type and generic stages that speakers in text 2 use. 1. tu X E 3 E 3 "a. E x c «3 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 X B o S 3 XI X o o SB 0 0 0 ja U >^ s > Ed J£ x cs ±£ u a a as x 0 0 0 1 0 1 •a o U e/3 X! U >-> x Table 4.3 - Summary of genre types and generic stages used by speakers in text 2 Text 3 Text 3 contains a Specific Recount and 3 General Recounts. The Specific Recount is particularly interesting because it contains a Reaction stage that is normally found in Anecdotes. It appears that the child and researcher have a misunderstanding in the conversation's genre (see Example 4.3). The Specific Recount is also discontinuously realized. The Specific Recount proceeds through the following genre stages: • Abstract • OrientationA • EvaluationA • Record of EventsA 31 • React ion A • Orientation A • Record of Events A • Orientation A • Record of Events A • Orientation A • Record of Events A • Orientation A • Record of Events A • Orientation A • Evaluat ion A • Orientation A • Record of Events A • Evaluat ion A • Evaluation/Coda In the Specific Recount, the child engages in a Recount while the researcher appears to engage in an Anecdote. Table 4.4 compares the generic structure of an Anecdote with the generic structure of a Specific Recount. Genre Generic structure Anecdote (Abstract) A (Orientation) A Remarkable E v e n t A Reaction A (Coda) Specific Recount (Abstract) A (Orientation) A Specific Record of Events A (Coda) Table 4.4 - Generic structure of the Anecdote and the Specific Recount In Chapter 3, Methods, it is noted that the beginnings and endings of genre types may use some of the same generic stages. Both the Anecdote and Specific Recount may begin with Abstracts and Orientations and they may conclude with Codas. These shared stages and the nature of the Remarkable Event and Specific Record of Events stages in both genre types appear to cause the confusion between the participants. The researcher begins the Specific Recount with an Abstract. The child then utters an Orientation that is solicited by the researcher. The researcher evaluates and then asks a question. The child responds to the researcher's question with a Record of Events. This Record of Events is solicited and it describes 6 events in serial order. The researcher 32 appears to mistake the child's Record of Events for a Remarkable Event and interrupts the child with a Reaction, "wow." The researcher then attempts to reorient the conversation with a question; however, the child answers this question with a polar response and returns to continue his Record of Events: RECORD OF EVENTS CHI: CHI: CHI : CHI : Sophie and I went t o Recordman and a t Recordnan Recordman we found a S t a n Rogers tape c a l l e d P o e t i c J u s t i c e [!] w i t h two r a d i o p l a y e r s c a l l e d H a r r i s and t h e major and the s i s t e r s . um J Sophie found a Sophie found a t h i n g t h a t wasn't Tom W a i t s wasn't the Wake i t wasn't R i c k W a k e f i e l d b u t i t was t h e W a l l f l o w e r s # c a l l e d b r i n g i n g down the h o r s e . i t was the o n l y W a l l f l o w e r s album t h e y e v e r r e c o r d e d . ANECDOTE RES : REACTION ORIENTATION RES RES CHI RES had you h e a r d about them b e f o r e ? t h i s group? no! RECORD OF EVENTS CHI: CHI: Example 4.3 uh the so t h e n we went t o an a n t i q u e shop, and t h e n back t o V i n y l R e c o r d s . Excerpt from Specific Recount 1, transcript 3, lines 26-36 The misinterpretation of genre types may be better understood by considering the context of situation. In this text, what is happening ideationally is a casual conversation between a researcher and a child. Both participants appear to understand that the conversation genre belongs to a storytelling genre type. The level of specificity of language appears to be the source of confusion. The child retells events with great detail; for example, the naming of each music album. This child's use of detail is more typical of a Remarkable Event stage found in the Anecdote genre type. The researcher appears to draw this conclusion based on the child's use of detail. Typically in a Recount, information in a Record of Events would be kept more general compared to a 33 Remarkable Event in an Anecdote. Compare the level of specificity and detail in the following invented examples: Recount: RECORD OF EVENTS Y e s t e r d a y n i g h t I made ma c a r o n i and cheese. A f t e r d i n n e r , I watched some T.V. Example 4.4 - Typical Record of Events stage in a Recount Anecdote: REMARKABLE EVENT Y e s t e r d a y n i g h t I made macar o n i and cheese. I t o o k a cup o f d r y m a c a r o n i and put i t i n a p o t . Then I went o v e r t o the s i n k , and when I h e l d the pot under the f a u c e t and tuned on the hot water t a p , s m e l l y brown water came out o f the t a p ! REACTION Yuck! Example 4.5 - Typical Remarkable Event and Reaction Stages in an Anecdote In the Remarkable Event stage, information is typically retold with more detail compared to the Record of Events stage. Overly specific information when relating text to context would hint to the audience that that the detailed retelling of events is intentional. In a Recount or an Anecdote, audiences may not establish the text's genre type until after the optional elements have been uttered because both may begin with the same optional elements. The child uses high level of detail in the Record of Events and the researcher believes that the child is retelling a Remarkable Event. This example suggests that speakers with A S D may have difficulty with the coordination of contextual information producing utterances in conversations that can mislead audiences. In the Specific Recount, the child continues in an extended Record of Events following the researcher's Reaction and (re)Orientation. The child's Record of Events describes 12 events in serial order. The researcher attempts to reorient the child during his Record of Events 4 times, but the child always returns to his Record of Events. These attempts to reorient, including the child's return to a Record of Events, are shaded in Example 4.6: 34 I R E C O R D O F E V E N T S | R E S : w h a t d i d y o u s e e i n T o r o n t o ? C H I : < I > [>] . R E S : < o r i n > [<] T o r o n t o ? C H I : f i r s t I w e n t t o K i n g s b u r y . C H I : a n d v i s i t e d m y a u n t E d d y a n d J u d y W i n s t o n C H I : o n o n T u e s d a y a n d W e d n e s d a y J u d y W i n s t o n a n d J we b o t h w e n t t o t h e a i r p o r t t o p i c k u p S o p h i e . C H I : ( a ) n ( d ) S o p h i e i n t r o d u c e d u s t o a b a n d c a l l e d t h e W a l l f l o w e r s w i t h J a c o b D i l l o n i n i t . R E S : o h w h e r e d o e s t h e b a n d p l a y ? C H I : f r o m A m e r i c a . R E S : o h f r o m A m e r i c a . C H I : S o p h i e a n d I w e n t t o R e c o r d m a n . C H I : a n d a t R e c o r d n a n R e c o r d m a n w e f o u n d a S t a n R o g e r s t a p e c a l l e d P o e t i c J u s t i c e [ ! ] w i t h t w o r a d i o p l a y e r s c a l l e d H a r r i s a n d t h e m a j o r a n d t h e s i s t e r s . C H I : u m J S o p h i e f o u n d a S o p h i e f o u n d a t h i n g t h a t w a s n ' t T o m W a i t s w a s n ' t t h e W a k e i t w a s n ' t R i c k W a k e f i e l d b u t i t w a s t h e W a l l f l o w e r s # c a l l e d b r i n g i n g d o w n t h e h o r s e . C H I : i t w a s t h e o n l y W a l l f l o w e r s a l b u m t h e y e v e r r e c o r d e d . ANECDOTE R E A C T I O N R E S : w o w . _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 0 R'l- E-NTi A;T-;-l :0N R E S - r j {.'.riaffi^  R E S ; " , t h i s , g r o u p j ? [ C H I : . ;>•:'"'• n o f j R E S : • no?[~"~~"~ C H I Y • ;y\}:.;^ n.i;jah,, t-hV-'.;so^then:,we/$e"n._'i t d ^ a j ^ a r f t & L q u e s h o p ,| C H I : a n d t h e n b a c k t o V i n y l R e c o r d s . C H I : w h e n I f l i p p e d t h r o u g h t h e t h e l e t t e r b i n t h e B o w i e [ ! ] s e c t i o n I f o u n d C h a n g e s [ ! ] O n e B o w i e . C H I : a n d t h e n i n the C o h e n [ ! ] s e c t i o n I r i f l e d t h r o u g h t i l l I w a s s t o p p e d d e a d b y t h e b l u e r a i n c o a t s t a r i n g out f r o m t h e n e w J e n n i f e r W a r n e s a l b u m c a l l e d F a m o u s B l u e R a i n c o a t . C H I : a n d I g o t i t o n L P a n d c a s s e t t e . C H I : a n d t h e n w e a n d t h e n we w e n t h o m e t o a n d t h e n a n d t h e n w e f o u h o m e a n d t h e n we d r o v e b a c k t o K i n g s b u r y a n d K i n g s b u r y . C H I : a n d l i s t e n e d t o i t o n t h e w a y - : a y t h e r e . C H I : a n d a t K i n g s b u r y I a t e s o m e l a s a g n a a n d b u t t e r s c o t c h i c e c r e a m . C H I : a n d w e w e n t o u t s i d e a t n i g h t a n d p l a y e d i n t h e s n o w u m < a n d > [>] . R E S : < d o y o u > [<] . C H I : t h e n e x t d a y I w e I w e n t t o t h e b o o k s h o p . J C H I : ; " a r i d , gbtf,"trie" Eng l i sh^ 'Ve f sYo lTro f irth^e'rJudiFli , . B e o r i s ' book' •Alexander .And^The^e*^ a o v e d > [>;/•; '/; | 0R1 E N T A T 3 O N R E S T \ < e x c u s e me Jwill>;"[<l .] R E S : , ' d i d y o u * H a v e - c o u s i n s t he re , T t p T p T a ^ JCHI: ' ' n o - : i f"~ R E S . : . , : - n o . j u s t < a d u l t s . e h . hm> . [>]; ?j 35 RECORD ••OF'. EVENTS (CHI::. . < i . t ' s dr.> <] ;,• t h'e ri* ^ ^ e n t l l t ;o B i l l y / a h d ^ N a n c y i t s ^ f a r m . C H I : <and> [>] ORIENTATION RES JCHI RES [CHI RES' JCHI RES' RES (CHI RES RES: they- ihadi-a l o t ' [ ! ' l i k e about ',twentyvor ! f i f ty'\pr.-'whatiitwould, you think?! t' tiwJenty____b\Tj • twent-y^fewo.?P** <yeah>„ [>] ' <and w> [-<] what what ' c o l o u r s »were they<.?j were t h e y i H b l s t i e n s b l a c k a n d - w h i t e 'Jones, or^ 'were . t, f f—• u • t h e y .were - b l a c k -and, w h i t e - H o l s t - i e n s . ] • were , they_?j uhhuh. | RECORD. OF EVENTS CHI CHI CHI CHI CHI CHI CHI CHI CHI CHI CHI CHI CHI CHI excuse me ' and ^excuse/ 'mevand'-^ and I went o u t s i d e a g a i n . and I t o o k a b a t h . and t h e n [!] I went t o s l e e p . and t h e n I went t o b e d . and t u r n e d o f f t he l i g h t . t h e n e x t m o r n i n g I p a c k e d my s u i t c a s e up . and we went back t o T o r o n t o , bu t my f a t h e r was gone . I s a t down and r e a d - : . and s u d d e n l y my f a t h e r went my f a t h e r came b a c k , he w a l k e d me o v e r t o t he Sam's on Yonge s t r e e t , and B l o o r s t r e e t - : . and I . PRIENTATION RES: ; w h a t ' s . ; , that p l a c e - W i l l ; ? L (CHI: ""' ' ' " y . i t • ' s; '3vit ' 'S;;-a:rri;ey<?Sam^s;^<wBe%fe>[^ : . ' ::j£he^thave;jiis^ey RES:: jfe;<: whe'rie < j] "M RECORD OF" EVENTS C H I : , '"but I am'Sflrry they , d i d no.t^ h a v e a r t y ' ; W i n c h e s t e r LPs there..) Example 4.6 - Excerpt from Specific Recount 1, transcript 3, Lines 16-81 The shaded areas in the above example show a rigid adherence to the Record of Events stage of the Recount genre. The Specific Recount in Text 3 includes 7 Orientations, 6 Records of Events, a Reaction, 3 Evaluations, and a Coda. Six of the 7 Orientations and all the Records of Events were uttered by the child. O f these 6 Orientations, 5 were solicited by the researcher while only 1 of the 6 Record of Events was solicited by the researcher. The ratio 5:1 of unsolicited Record of Events to 36 unsolicited Orientations points again to preferred or rigid use of the Record of Events generic stages in genre. In the Specific Recount, the researcher uttered the Reaction, and 2 of the 3 Evaluations. The child uttered a single Evaluation and it was solicited by the researcher. Text 3 also contains 3 General Recounts. The first General Recount proceeds through Orientation A Record of Events A Orientation A Evaluation/Coda. A l l stages are uttered by the researcher. The second General Recount proceeds through Abstract^ Orientation A Evaluat ion A Orientation A Record of Events A Orientation A Record of Events A Evaluation/Coda. The Abstract is uttered by the child and solicited by the researcher. Two of the 3 Orientation stages were uttered by the child and solicited by the researcher and both Records of Events were uttered by the child without solicitation. The first Record of Events describes a single event while the second Record of Events describes 2 events in serial order. Both the Evaluation and the Evaluation/Coda are uttered by the researcher. The third General Recount proceeds through Orientation A Record of Events A Evaluat ion A Record of Events A Coda. Two Records of Events are uttered by the child and are solicited by the researcher. Both Records of Events describe 2 events in serial order. The Orientation, Evaluation, and Coda are uttered by the researcher. Text 3 contains 13 Orientations (4 by the researcher and 9 by the child). Seven of the child's Orientations are solicited by the researcher. The child utters 10 Records of Events, 8 of which are unsolicited. The researcher utters a single Reaction, all Codas (4) and 6 of the 7 Evaluations. (The child's Evaluation is solicited by the researcher.) Interestingly, in this text, the child engages in Records of Events that often describe 37 multiple events in serial order. Table 4.5 summarizes the genre types and generic stages that the speakers in text 3 use. tu X E 3 Z es u H o> > CS u es Z o •a w V B < _3 "5. E V X Ed B 3 O u O S a. Vi 3 O u 02 o> B tu a o> >-3 •a U o < 0 0 o> "o B w •a 01 o Vi £1 B •O o> "o t» B •a tu o XI B O B o> 7 S 2 U Ed •a u o u tu tu B 13 tU o (/I X U >> x B 01 >• Ed •a u o u 0> 2 S 8 U o to X "o B 5 •a 0> o 05 X o H o X B tu > Ed 0> X a it cs E 01 B S •a 01 o CA B t/3 o •a x o> > Ed — X cs E 01 ai B O es tu P S 01 CA B 3 o> o a) x es o> o U •a V "o CA 8 w •a o Vi X es •o o U B cs _3 > Ed 0 0 o i o •a 0> -*-t '3 "o CA B 3 VI © VJ x B cs a "5  >• Ed Table 4.5 - Summary of genre types and generic stages used by speakers in text 3 Text 4 Text 4 contains a General Recount, and a Procedure. The General Recount proceeds through Orientation A Record of Events A Evaluation. The researcher utters the Orientation in the form of a question. The child responds with a Record of Events that describes a single event. The child then utters an unsolicited Evaluation. The Procedure describes how to make Kraft Dinner. The Procedure proceeds through Abstract^ Orientation A Record of Events A Coda. It follows the Procedure genre described by Eggins and Slade perfectly because it uses all mandatory and optional stages of the Procedure genre type. The researcher utters the Abstract in the form of a question: 38 "Do you do any cooking at home Wi l l ? " The researcher then orients. The child utters a How To stage that involves 3 steps. The child provides an unsolicited Coda. Text 4 contains 2 stretches of spoken discourse that use temporally sequenced events. The researcher uses a single Abstract. The speakers use 2 Orientations; both speakers utter a single Orientation. The child's Orientation is unsolicited. The child utters a single Record of Events and a single How To stage that are both solicited by the researcher. The child utters a single unsolicited Evaluation. In text 4, the child demonstrates competency in using the Procedure genre type in addition to the General Recount genre type. The child is also able utter an unsolicited Coda and evaluates without solicitation once. Table 4.6 summarizes the genre types and generic stages that the speakers in text 4 use. X Q. E tu x W C v> x u CD u S CD o o x U >> x e o c CD o CD "o CA e o Vi X Vi X o H o X U x CD Vi X y X Pi cs O U o X es •O O U 73 CD '5 "o CA S CD O t/J X c o es _s > 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 u 1 u Table 4.6 - Summary of genre types and generic stages used by speakers in text 4 39 Text 5 Text 5 contains a Specific Recount and a Procedure. The Specific Recount proceeds through Orientation A Record of Events A Record of Events A Evaluation/Coda. The researcher utters the Orientation, the first Record of Events, and the Evaluation/Coda. The child utters the second Record of Events and it is solicited by the researcher. The child's Record of Events describes a single event. The Procedure from Text 5 proceeds through Abstract A Orientation A Evaluat ion A How to A Evaluat ion A Evaluation/Coda. The child utters the Abstract that is solicited by the researcher. The researcher utters the Orientation and the child follows with an unsolicited Evaluation. The child then utters a How To solicited by the researcher and then evaluates without solicitation. The How To describes 3 steps. Finally, the researcher utters the Evaluation/Coda. Text 5 contains a single solicited Abstract uttered by the child, 2 Orientations uttered by the researcher, 2 Record of Events (one solicited and uttered by the child and the other uttered by the researcher), a solicited How To uttered by the child, 2 Codas uttered by the researcher, and 4 Evaluations. Two of the evaluations are unsolicited and are uttered by the child and 2 are uttered by the researcher. The child's utterances are all solicited by the researcher with the exception of 2 unsolicited Evaluations. Table 4.7 summarizes the genre types and generic stages that the speakers in text 5 use. 40 X es o •o u C D S < 0 0 E 3 x 0 0) O S a, 75 o u CD OS B tu 0 3 T3 tu |3 "3 CA e o CO U X X 1 S es B o> •c o •o tu [3 "© CA B to" •a o X B O S . o 0 B > W C M O •a OS 0) B 3 o> o JS U x B 0> > W o T3 © o S3 T5 3 ST •a o t/3 X © s S3 B C D > u C D X es 0 CD B CO 1—' •a C D O to x -*-» B CD > X es es E CD a; CD ai 73 C D '3 "© CA B CO* 73 CD O CO X! B u es s> O S es T3 © T 3 CD -*-» [3 "o CA B CO~ © co X es 73 o U es 73 CD 3 CO o CO X B _o CS _3 "es > H 2 U Table 4.7 - Summary of genre types and generic stages used by speakers in text 5 Text 6 Text 6 contains a General Recount and 2 Procedures. The General Recount proceeds through an Orientation A Record of Events. The researcher solicits both stages and they are uttered by the child. The child's Record of Events describes 2 events in serial order. Both Procedures proceed through Orientation A How T o A Evaluation/Coda. In both cases, the child utters all elements. A l l stages in the Procedures are unsolicited except for the Orientation in the first Procedure. Both How To stages describe 2 steps in serial order. Text 6 contains 3 Orientations, one uttered by the researcher, and 2 uttered by the child. O f the 2 Orientations produced by the child, one is solicited by the researcher and the other is not. The text also contains 2 How To stages, 2 Codas, and an Evaluation. 41 These stages are all unsolicited and uttered by the child. Table 4.8 summarizes the genre types and generic stages that the speakers in text 5 use. X E z *u cu CA c es u H o •o u CD B E _a "E. E 41 X w B 3 O eu tu Qi u tu a. CO B 3 O cu <u OS tu B tu o •a tu u o o CS CA XI < tu -*-» "3 CA B *— 73 tu o CO >> XI u 0! X < B tu o 0 0 s •o tu o CO X U >> X B 0) o 1 s 1 u B CU > o u tu ai B 3 w •O CD O CO X B > W O •d u o cu o H o SB 73 CU •«-» ]3 "o Cfl B 3 o X o H o SB 2 U CU > X ! S3 1-es E at 73 '3 "o CA B 3 73 CU o CO X i B cu >• W X CS cs E CU OS cu es 73 eu o CA B 3 CO* © CO XI B _© CU CS es 73 o U 73 eu '3 "o CA s 3 73 cu o CO X i es 73 O u 2 U es 73 > 3 co~ o CO 73 >> X B O CS > 1 u Table 4.8 - Summary of genre types and generic stages used by speakers in text 6 Text 7 Text 7 contains 4 General Recounts. The first proceeds through Abstract A Orientation A Evaluat ion A Record of Events A Orientation A Record of Events A Record of Events A Record of Events A Orientation A Evaluation/Coda. The child in this text demonstrates advanced use of generic stages of the General Recount. The Abstract is solicited by the researcher and uttered by the child. The first Record of Events describes a single event. The Orientation and first Record of Events, produced by the child, are unsolicited. The researcher reorients the conversation and solicits a second Record of Events from the child. The second Record of Events describes 5 events in serial order. 42 The second, third, and fourth Records of Events in the first General Recount are interesting because the fourth Record of Events is discontinuously realized from the second Record of Events, while the third Record of Events refers to a different temporal setting: |RECQRD OF E V E N T S ( 2 ) | C H I : w e l l we t a k e t h e um f o u r + f o r t y + f i v e b u s . C H I : um - : a n d t h a t i s t h o s e um t h o . RECORD OF E V E N T S (3) C H I : w e l l i t ' s n o t F u n t r a c k . C H I : i t u s e d t o b e F u n t r a c k . C H I : i t ' s T r e n t w a y <now> [ > ] . R E S : <mmhm> [<] mmhm? RECORD OF E V E N T S (4) C H I : a n d um # a n d we t a k e t h e we t a k e t h e f o u r + f o r t y + f i v e b u s . C H I : t h e n um i t g o e s t o a l l t h e s e l i t t l e t o w n s b e f o r e i t s t o p s a t um i n H a m i l t o n . Example 1.7 - General Recount 1, transcript 7, lines 30-37 The child discusses the bus ride he generally takes to work in the second Record of Events, then shifts to the third Record of Events where he describes the before and after facts of the bus' name/type. In the fourth Record of Events, the child returns to continue the second Record of Events by repeating it and then proceeds through additional events in serial order. That is, the child suspends the temporal sequences in the second Record of Events, shifts to another temporal sequence (the third Record of Events) and then continues the second Record of Events in the fourth Record of Events. The third and fourth Records of Events both describe 2 events in serial order. The final Orientation is an unsolicited list of towns (possibly in serial order) uttered by the child with an Evaluation/Coda uttered by the researcher. The second General Recount in Text 7 has a simple structure of Orientation A Record of Events. The Orientation is uttered by the researcher and the Record of Events is solicited by the researcher and uttered by the child. This Record of Events describes 2 43 events in serial order. The third and fourth General Recounts in Text 7 followed a similar simple generic structure. The third General Recount proceeds through Orientation A Record of Events A Evaluat ion A Record of Events. The Orientation is uttered by the researcher and both Records of Events are uttered by the child. The first Record of Events is solicited by the researcher and describes a single event while the second Record of Events is unsolicited and describes 2 events in serial order. The first and second Records of Events are discontinuously realized and they are separated by a brief Evaluation uttered by the researcher. The child utters the entire fourth General Recount. The generic structure proceeds through Orientation A Record of Events A Orientation A Record of Events. The initial Orientation is solicited by the researcher while the remaining stages are unsolicited. Both Records of Events are a result of a discontinuously realized single Record of Events and the Orientation that separates them functions to further specify the situation under which the first Record of Events occurs. Here the child describes his physical activity, reorients the situation, and then continues describing the serial events in his workout: [ R E C O R D O F E V E N T S | C H I : < w e l l > [<] w e u I u s e d t o d o t h a t f o r s p o r t s n i g h t . C H I : I I d o n ' t v e r y m u c h n o w . C H I : b u t I d o o n e # b u t um o n S u n d a y s I g o t o u h m y f i t n e s s c l a s s e s . C H I : a n d I d o l i f t i n g l i f t i n g o n e u p . O R I E N T A T I O N C H I : w e l l t h o s e t h o s e w e i g h t t h i n g s . C H I : e x c e p t t h e y ' r e n o t t h e b i g s o r t o f w e i g h t s . C H I : b e c a u s e I t r i e d t o l i f t t h o s e . C H I : < a n d c o u l d n ' t d o t h a t > [% c h u c k l i n g ] . C H I : s o i t ' s m o r e o f t h e m a c h i n e s o r t o f w e i g h t s . R E S : u h h u h ? R E C O R D O F E V E N T S C H I : y o u d o t h e . C H I : e x c u s e m e . C H I : < x x x > [ > ] . R E S : <0 [ = ! c h u c k l e s ] > [ < ] . C H I : um # I d o u m . C H I : w h a t e l s e d o I d o ? 44 C H I : I d o t h i s u m # t h e o n e s w h e r e y o u g o l i k e t h i s . R E S : o h r i g h t . C H I : t h e n y o u # y o u d o t h a t . R E S : y e a h . C H I : I d o um s o m e t h i n g w i t h # t h a t . C H I : I d o # . Example 4.8 - General Recount 4, transcript 7, lines 148-169 Text 7 contains 7 Orientations; 3 are unsolicited and uttered by the child while 4 are uttered by the researcher. Text 7 also contains 9 Records of Events all uttered by the child; 4 Records of Events are solicited by the researcher while 5 are not. Several of the Record of Events stages describe multiple events in serial order. The researcher utters a Coda and 3 Evaluations. The child in Text 7 is flexible with generic structure because he is able to divide Records of Events with an optional stage (an Orientation). He is also able and to produce discontinuously realized spoken discourse. Table 4.9 summarizes the genre types and generic stages that the speakers in text 7 use. 45 «U Si E s Z e cs H 0 0 a D. E cu X W u CU D. CO 0 1 u s o o CO XI u >> X •a i_ o cu cu SL 4 S 5 U x o H o X 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 c 3 tO~ X U x X cs •o o U "O cu 'u "o s 3 T3 CU o CO X ! cs > bi Table 4.9 - Summary of genre types and generic stages used by speakers in text 7 Text 8 Text 8 contains 2 Specific Recounts, a General Recount, and a Procedure. The 2 Specific Recounts are simple in generic structure; they proceed through Orientation A Record of Events. In the first Specific Recount, the child utters both the Orientation and the Record of Events. In the Record of Events, the researcher attempts to solicit a How To with the questions, "How does it get f i l led up?" but the child responds with a Record of Events that contains a single event. If the child had responded to the researcher's question with a How To, the text would be classified as a Procedure rather than a Specific Recount. 46 p R I E N T A T I O N | R E S : < a n d > [<] y o u w e r e t e l l i n g me a b o u t a c e m e n t t r u c k b e f o r e . C H I : mm - : y e s ! C H I : i t h a d a w e t h e a v y l o a d . R E S : a w e t h e a v y l o a d - : . C H I : o f c o n c r e t e . R E S : f r o m w h a t ? C H I : f o r t h e m f o r f o r t h e m i g h t y m i x e r . C H I : t h a t x x x . R E C O R D O F E V E N T S R E S : h o w d o e s i t g e t f i l l e d u p ? C H I : j u s t g o x x x . Example 4.9 - Recount 1, transcript 8, lines 9-18 In the second Specific Recount, the researcher asks the child "what does it make?" In this question, "it" refers to wet cement mix when it dries. Instead of responding to the researcher's question, again, the child utters a Record of Events that describes a single event: p R I E N T A T I O N | R E S : a n d w h a t d o e s i t m a k e ? R E C O R D O F E V E N T S C H I : um # a n d i t t u r n s t h a t w a y i n s t e a d o f c o m i n g t h i s w a y . i t = t r u c k C H I : t h a t ' s b e c a u s e t h e y a r e m a n y m a c h i n e s i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n s i t e . R E S : t h e r e a r e m a n y w h i c h ? C H I : t h e m t h e r e a r e m a n y m a c h i n e s i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n s i t e . Example 4.10 - Recount 2, transcript 8, lines 38-42 The child violates the conventions of generic stages in both Specific Recounts because he neglects the solicited question and responds with Records of Events. In example, 4.10, the researcher solicits a Record of Events and the child responds with a Record of Events; however, the child's Record of Events does not answer the researcher's question. The General Recount proceeds through Orientation A Record of Events A Orientation A Record of Events. The child utters the Orientation that is solicited by the researcher. A n interesting aspect of the Orientation is that it contains what Hasan (Halliday and Hasan, 1989) term a probe. In Hasan's analysis of sales encounters, i f a person were to enter into a store and "hang about" the vendor may attempt to provoke a 47 Sales Request (SR). The vendor could attempt to do so by asking "Can I help you?" or "Are you alright?" (Halliday & Hasan, 1989, 66). Hasan explains, "It [a probe] consists of some device that is calculated to bring about the kind of behaviour on the part of some(one) participant..." (Halliday & Hasan, 1989, 66). In the General Recount the child asks the researcher "what what did Sophia do?" This question functions as a probe that attempts to solicit a question from the researcher. It appears that the child knows that the researcher wi l l not be able to answer this question and wi l l respond accordingly with another question. The researcher responds with the anticipated question in the following example: O R I E N T A T I O N R E S C H I R E S C H I R E S C H I C H I C H I C H I R E S R E S C H I w h a t ' s a d o g < g a m e > [ > ] ? I h a v e [<] s o m u c h I h a v e s o m u c h f u n . w h a t ' s a d o g g a m e l i k e ? i t ' s i t ' s x x x t r y i n g t o g e t t h e o t h e r d o g s o u t . o h w h o d o y o u p l a y w i t h ? u m - : s o m e t i m e I p l a y w i t h S o p h i a w h a t w h a t d i d S o p h i a ? w e l l # w h a t d i d s h e d o ? w h a t d i d s h e d o t o m e ? I d o n ' t k n o w . d i d s h e d o s o m e t h i n g t o y o u ? y e s . R E C O R D O F E V E N T S C H I : n o w s h e w a s s t u c k i n i n b e t w e e n i n b e t w e e n m a y b e s h e g o t s t u c k i n b e t w e e n . O R I E N T A T I O N R E S C H I . R E S R E S i n b e t w e e n w h a t ? i n b e t w e e n # t h e t r e e s , o h i n b e t w e e n t h e t r e e s ? < w h e r e i n > [ > ] ? R E C O R D O F E V E N T S C H I : n o w S o p h i a w a s g o t t e n s t u c k i n b e t w e e n # o n a s u m m e r d a y . Example 4.11 - General Recount 1, transcript 8, line 119-136 The child appears so determined to probe for a specific question that he probes the researcher with 3 consecutive questions. When the researcher responds to the probe with the question, "D id she do something to you?" the child begins a Record of Events. The researcher then attempts to clarify the setting by soliciting the child to reorient. The child 48 responds and continues with an unsolicited Record of Events. Both of the child's Records of Events in the General Recount describe a single event. In total, Text 8 contains 5 Orientations; the researcher utters 2 Orientations while the child utters 3 Orientations. The child's Orientations are solicited by the researcher. This text also contains 5 Records of Events that are all uttered by the child; 4 are solicited by the researcher while 1 is not. The majority of the conversation follows an Orientation A Record of Events pattern. The child violates the genre initiated by the researcher and utters a Record of Events where another generic stage would typically be used or responds with a Record of Events that does not answer the researcher's question. The child also probes the researcher 2 times in this text. In the first probe, the child attempts to probe the researcher by repeating the same question 3 times. In the second probe, the child is successful at probing the researcher with his first attempt. Table 4.10 summarizes the genre types and generic stages that the speakers in text 8 use. 49 H oo Transcript Number u o Narrative 1.10 - Summary of genre types and generic stages used 1 o Anecdote 1.10 - Summary of genre types and generic stages used 1 o Exemplum 1.10 - Summary of genre types and generic stages used 1 t o Specific Recount 1.10 - Summary of genre types and generic stages used 1 - General Recount 1.10 - Summary of genre types and generic stages used 1 - Procedure 1.10 - Summary of genre types and generic stages used 1 o Abstract 1.10 - Summary of genre types and generic stages used 1 o Abstract by Child Solicited (S)/Unsolicited (U) 1.10 - Summary of genre types and generic stages used 1 t_/l Orientation 1.10 - Summary of genre types and generic stages used 1 Orientation by Child Solicited (S)/Unsolicited (U) 1.10 - Summary of genre types and generic stages used 1 Record of Events 1.10 - Summary of genre types and generic stages used 1 C — </> 4^  Record of Events by Child Solicited (S)AJnsolicited (U) 1.10 - Summary of genre types and generic stages used 1 O How To 1.10 - Summary of genre types and generic stages used 1 o How To by Child Solicited (S)/Unsolicited (U) 1.10 - Summary of genre types and generic stages used 1 o Remarkable Event oy speakers in text 8 o Remarkable Event by Child Solicited (S)/Unsolicited (U) oy speakers in text 8 © Reaction oy speakers in text 8 o Reaction by Child Solicited (S)/Unsolicited (U) oy speakers in text 8 o Coda oy speakers in text 8 o Coda by Child Solicited (S)/Unsolicited (U) oy speakers in text 8 o Evaluation oy speakers in text 8 o Evaluation by Child Solicited (S)AJnsolicited (U) P A R T 2: Analysis of A l l Transcr ipts In Part 1, stretches of text that use temporal events were categorized according to 6 genre types. The generic structure of each stretch was described and patterns were observed within individual texts. In this section, patterns across the 9 text are observed and discussed. In the 9 texts, speakers use Specific Recounts, General Recounts, and Procedures but do not use Narratives, Anecdotes, or Exemplums. In total, the speakers use 5 Specific Recounts, 12 General Recounts, and 5 Procedures. General Recounts are the most frequently used genre type in the 9 texts. Table 4.11 details these findings. Transcript Specific General Number Narrative Anecdote Exemplum Recount Recount Procedure 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 3 0 0 0 1 3 0 4 0 0 0 0 1 1 5 0 0 0 1 0 1 6 0 0 0 0 1 2 7 0 0 0 0 4 0 8 0 0 0 2 1 1 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 Total 0 0 0 5 12 5 Table 4 . 1 1 - Summary of genre types used by speakers in 9 texts The generic stages that speakers use in the 9 texts correspond with the genre types found in the texts (see Appendix 2). There is an exception where a Reaction stage appears within a Specific Recount. Table 1.12 shows that the speakers (researcher and research participants) use Orientations most frequently (39 times), followed by Records of Events (37 times) and Evaluations (17 times). Although Orientations are an optional stage among the 6 genre types, speakers use Orientations more than other mandatory stages. 51 The speakers in the 9 texts use Records of Events frequently as it is a mandatory stage of the Recount genres but less often than Orientations. The Recount genres include both General Recounts and Specific Recounts. Together, these genre types were used the most by the speakers in the texts. Speakers also use Evaluations frequently. Evaluations are another optional stage found in all 6 of the genre types. Speakers use Reactions the least among the generic stages. A single Reaction appears in the 9 texts. This observation is not surprising as no Anecdotes are found in the 9 texts. Appendix 2 summarizes all genre types and generic stages used by speakers in the 9 texts. Number of Number of Number of Times used by Child Generic Times Times Used Stage Used by Speakers by Researcher Abstract 5 3 2(2S) Orientation 39 20 19(13S6U) Record of Events 37 4 33 (19S 14U) How To 4 0 4 (2S 2U) Remarkable Event 0 0 0 Reaction 1 1 0 Coda 11 8 3 (3U) Evaluation 17 12 5 (1S4U) Table 4.12 - Summary of generic stages used by speakers in 9 texts The child uses Records of Events the most frequently (33 times), followed by Orientations (19 times) and Evaluations (5 times). The child uses 33 Records of Events while the researcher uses 4 Records of Events. This finding may be explained by the semi-structured nature of the conversational texts. The researcher orients Recount genres and solicits Records of Events from the child; therefore, 19 of the child's total 33 Records of Events are solicited by the researcher. Yet a remaining 14 Records of Events uttered by the child are not solicited and these warrant further examination. They can, perhaps, 52 be better understood from the analysis of individual texts. Earlier observations suggest that children with A S D have a tendency to use Records of Events in several ways. On 4 occasions in text 3, the child ignores or responds to Orientations that interrupt a Records of Events, but then returns to the Record of Events without solicitation. It can also be observed that the children sometimes respond using Records of Events from the Recount genre when other stages and genres are solicited by the researcher. This happens, for example, in text 8, when the researcher solicits a Procedure and the child responds using a Specific Recount. The children's use of probes to cause the researcher to solicit Records of Events is a third observation that supports that children prefer to use Records of Events of the Recount genres. The use of probes is found twice in text 9. The first probe appears in a General Recount while the second probe appears in a Procedure. Although the second probe is found in a Procedure, the utterances that fol low the probe appear to describe a Record of Events. These three observations suggest that children with A S D may have a preference for using Records of Events in spoken discourse. The children use a total of 19 Orientation in the 9 texts. Those who use the most Orientations are the speakers in texts 3, 7, and 8. The child in text 3 uses 9 Orientations and the children in text 7 and 8 each use 3 Orientations. In each of the remaining texts (1, 2, 4, 5, 6, and 9) research participants use 2 or less Orientation stages. Stil l a further distinction should be made between those who produce solicited and unsolicited Orientations. The children who use unsolicited Orientation stages are found in texts 3, 6, and 7 (producing 2, 1 and 3 instances respectively). As noted earlier, speakers use Orientation stages to establish what is to fol low in terms of people, actions, times and places in text; therefore, it can be suggested that children who use unsolicited 53 Orientations may have stronger conversational abilities. Another observation helps confirm that the children in texts 3, 6, and 7 who use unsolicited Orientations have stronger conversational abilities. These children are the only speakers with A S D among the 9 texts who describe multiple events in serial order while engaged in Record of Events stages. Evaluations, the third most used generic stage by the children, may serve as another indication of conversational abilities. Evaluations offer appraisal and serve as running commentary between generic stages. The research participants in texts 3, 4, 5, and 6 use Evaluations. Those in texts 1 ,2 ,7 ,8 and 9 do not. O f the Evaluations, only the children in texts 3, 4, 5 and 6 offer unsolicited Evaluations. (Child 3 utters a solicited Evaluation, child 5 utters 2 unsolicited Evaluations, and children 4 and 6 each utter a single unsolicited Evaluation.) One observation that can be made is that the children in texts 3 and 6 are the ones who use both unsolicited Orientations and Evaluations. This may suggest that they have a greater command over optional stages in generic structure. The research participants in the texts use Abstracts the least among all the generic stages examined. Abstracts establish the point of the text and signals that a story is about to be told. The children use Abstracts only twice, and both times these stages were solicited by the researcher. In contrast, the extensive use of Records of Events by the children points to their significant contributions to the Recount genres and a relative ease in this genre. A s discussed in Chapter 3, Methods, the Recount genres were subdivided into 2 sub-types; Specific Recounts and General Recounts. Including both types, 17 Recounts are identified in the 9 texts: 12 General Recounts and 5 Specific Recounts. Together, these 17 54 instances of Recount genres form the majority of the genre types of the stretches of discourse uttered by the speakers in the 9 texts. Thus patterning in the Recount genres emerges as an interesting area for description. Several patterns can be observed related to Recount genre use. The children in texts 3 and 7 appear to have greater conversational ability. This is suggested by longer dialogue between turns Chi ld 3 utters 130 lines within 60 turns. This child utters an average of 2.17 lines per turn. Chi ld 7 utters 61 lines within 19 turns. This child utters an average of 3.21 lines per turn. These averages can be compared to less conversationally engaged children who utter a single line per turn. The research participants in texts 3 and 7 are the only ones to use both unsolicited Orientations and Records of Events. They are also among the children who describe multiple events in serial order when engaged in Records of Events. The children in texts 3 and 7 also produce Records of Events that were discontinuously realized. The analysis of unsolicited generic stages is interesting because it demonstrates that usually where they occur, the child has consistent strength to utter them across multiple generic stages. Children 4, 5, 6, and 8 also use unsolicited generic stages but they are infrequent. Texts 1, 5, and 9, do not contain any Orientations produced by research participants. The child in text 1 only uses 3 solicited Records of Events. In text 5 the child only uses a single solicited Record of Events and 2 unsolicited Evaluations. The child in text 9 does not use any genre types or generic stages. This pattern provides further evidence that weak conversational ability among the children may result in solicited stages and it is consistent across multiple generic stages. It is also important to note the possibility that weaker conversational abilities result in closer adherence to 55 mandatory stages of generic structure. The child in text 5 does use 2 unsolicited Evaluations, however this is an exception. Some of the children who are weaker conversationalists appear to have coping techniques. Such techniques are evident in Texts 1, 2, and 8. In Text 1, the child provides solicited answers to questions posed by the researcher that mirror the researcher (and appear coincidental): |ORIENTATION| . RES: so do you l i k e p i z z a W i l l ? C H I : mmhm. RECORD OF EVENTS RES: I had p i z z a l a s t n i g h t f o r s u p p e r . ORIENTATION RES: what d i d you have f o r suppe r l a s t n i g h t ? |RECORD OF EVENTS C H I : I had p i z z a t o o . RES: d i d you? C H I : y e a h . RES: oh - : . RECORD OF EVENTS RES: and the n i g h t b e f o r e I had p o r k c h o p s . ORIENTATION RES: can you remember what you had the n i g h t b e f o r e ? |RECORD OF EVENTS C H I : p o r k chops t o o . RES: you had p o r k chops t o o . RES: hm. Example 4.12 - Recount 1, transcript 1, lines 138-150 Also in Text 1, the child provides a solicited response that might be considered too general as answer to fully address the researcher's question: |ORIENTATION| RES: what do you do when you go home from s c h o o l W i l l ? RECORD OF EVENTS C H I : ah -: I p l a y games. Example 4.13 - General Recount 1, transcript 1, lines 79-80 In Text 2, the child uses minimal and polar responses that do not advance the conversation: 56 O R I E N T A T I O N R E S : s o w h a t d o y o u d o o n t h e w e e k e n d s W i l l ? C H I : n o t h i n g . R E C O R D OF E V E N T ' S R E S : d o y o u h a v e a w o r k e r t h a t c o m e s ? C H I : n o p e . R E S : a n d s p e n d s s o m e t i m e w i t h y o u ? C H I : y e s . | O R I E N T A T I O N R E S : hm w h a t ' s h i s n a m e ? C H I : T o m . I R E C O R D O F E V E N T S ] R E S : a n d w h a t d o y o u d o w i t h T o m C H I : g o o u t w i t h h i m . R E S : mmhm? O R I E N T A T I O N R E S : w h a t d o y o u d o w h e n y o u ' r e o u t ? |RECORD O F E V E N T S C H I : p l a y g o l f . R E S : g o l f ? C H I : y e s . Example 4.14 - General Recount 1, transcript 2, lines 219-233 In Text 8, the child uses the elaborate technique of probing the researcher to solicit specific questions while demonstrating difficulties in other areas of the conversation. Another pattern is the unvaried use of conjunctions of the temporal type. In the 9 texts, the children largely link temporal events in sequence by using the conjunctive (not coordiating) and and the temporal simple conjunction of the sequential type (and) then. It is true that these are among the most common ways that people generally communicate temporally sequenced events. However, in Texts 3 and 7, there are stretches of discourse where the conjunctions are unvaried and almost exclusive to "and" and "(and) then", reflecting a pattern of serial ordered relations that may be characteristic in A S D (de Vi l l iers & Szatmari, 2004): IRECORD OF EVENTS| CHI: e x c u s e me a n d e x c u s e me a n d t h e n w e w e n t h o m e . CHI: a n d I w e n t o u t s i d e a g a i n . CHI: a n d I t o o k a b a t h . CHI: a n d t h e n [ ! ] I w e n t t o s l e e p . CHI: a n d t h e n I w e n t t o b e d . CHI: a n d t u r n e d o f f t h e l i g h t . CHI: t h e n e x t m o r n i n g I p a c k e d m y s u i t c a s e u p . 57 C H I : and we went back t o T o r o n t o . Example 4.15 - Excerpt from Recount 1, transcript 3, lines 64-71 |RECQRD OF EVENTS| 2 3 . C H I : we go on the v a n f i r s t . 24 . C H I : and t h e n and t h e n we t h e n we work # t h e n we work um s o m e t h i n g l i k e uh n i n e + t h i r t y t o n i n e + t h i r t y t o t w e l v e [ ! ] . 2 5 . C H I : t h e n we have l u n c h a t t w e l v e a t t h a t . 2 6 . C H I : t h e n we s t a r t back a t work a t one o ' c l o c k . 2 7 . C H I : and t h e n we go r i g h t a l l t he way t h r o u g h t o f o u r + t h i r t y . 2 8 . RES: oh - : . Example 4.16 - Excerpt from Recount 1, transcript 7, lines 23-28 Inflexible use of conjunctions in Text 7 only occurs once while it is a consistent pattern throughout Text 3. Excerpts that fol low a rigid pattern of question by the researcher and response by the child (Texts 1 and 2) did not contain any conjunctions uttered by the child because turn-taking proceeded through a question from the researcher and response from the child. That is, responses tended to be without elaboration. The researcher typically led the conversations in all texts by soliciting responses; however, this varies in degree and is less prevalent in texts where the child engages in extended discourse. The children with the less strong conversational abilities used little or no temporal conjunctions. Interestingly, children with stronger conversational abilities (Texts 3 and 7) are both children who present patterns of inflexible temporal conjunction use in their Recounts. Further discourse produced by speakers with A S D who are able to sustain longer turns and are engaged in extended Records of Events is needed to determine i f inflexible temporal conjunction use is a characteristic of speakers with A S D . A final pattern concerning temporal discourse that describes sequences of events in the future emerged. In these "Future Projections", the children use external conjunctive relations of the temporal type to sequence unrealized events in serial order. Future 58 Projections are not included in the genre analysis, but because of their temporal dimension, the stretches are used in Chapter 5, Metaphor. C O N C L U S I O N Genre analysis provides insight into how individuals with ASD use the contextual configuration of relevant situational information in producing spoken text. This chapter used genre analysis to approach the investigation of how individuals with ASD produce temporal texts that involve sequences of events. Specifically, the analysis of temporal stretches of text found that the research participants used the Record of Events generic stage the most frequently, followed by Orientations. These research participants may favour the Records of Events stage in temporal texts: evidence suggests that children ignore or respond to interruptions during Records of Events and then continue on with the the Record of Events. Also, children with ASD may use the Record of Events stage when other genre types are solicited by the researcher. Furthermore, individuals with ASD may also probe for questions that solicit Records of Events. This chapter identified conversational difficulties found in the spoken discourse of individuals with ASD that are illuminated with genre analysis. The level of detail used when engaging in Records of Events can be responsible for confusion between a speaker and audience. Individuals with ASD may ignore context in some cases, (for example in the use of a Recount when a Procedure is solicited); however, it is also apparent that speakers with ASD do use genre, but in different ways. The speakers looked at in this thesis largely engage in Recounts and for the most part have a mastery of the Record of Events generic stage. Those who are most competent and use both unsolicited Orientations and Records of Events (the children in texts 3 and 7) appear to be the children with stronger conversational abilities. These children engage in longer turns and use discontinuously realized Records of Events. These same children were among the 60 research participants who described multiple events in serial order when engaged in Records of Events. Probing also provides further evidence that context is important to speakers with ASD. The mechanism seeks to establish a specific contextual configuration so that the individual may utter spoken discourse in context. Individuals with weaker conversational abilities appear to rely on their interlocutor's probes to establish specific contexts. It may be that speakers with ASD have more knowledge of context than they are able to make use of in conversation. This project applied an established genre framework to discourses of speakers with ASD. While the use of an established descriptive framework was warranted, indeed necessary in a field with recognized, replicable methodologies, it does not focus on speakers' individual variation. A study replicating these findings in a larger group of speakers with ASD would provide more conclusive findings and could also be used to investigate the possibility that speakers with ASD may have their own varieties that may involve specific generic structures. 61 C H A P T E R 5 - M E T A P H O R A N A L Y S I S This chapter examines the use of metaphors of time, metonymies of time, and senses of time in stretches of temporal discourse found in 9 semi-structured conversational texts produced by speakers with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). The chapter proceeds in two parts. Part 1 describes the use of metaphors, metonymies, and senses of time in each individual text. Patterns within each text are identified. Part 2 extends upon the observations from part 1 by examining patterns in the use of metaphors, metonymies, and senses of time across the 9 texts. Utterances that use units of time found within stretches of temporal discourse are identified. These utterances are then analyzed for the use of temporal metaphors, metonymies and sense of time. The methods for analysis and their theoretical frameworks are previously outlined in Chapter 3, Methods. Metaphors and metonymies of time are classified according to Lakoff and Johnson's (1999) framework. The categories selected from Lakoff and Johnson (1999) are: Time Orientation metaphor Moving Observer metaphor Moving Time metaphor Event-for-Time metonymy Distance-for-Time metonymy Time-for-Distance metonymy Time is a Resource metaphor Time is Money metaphor Where the lexeme "t ime" appears, it is classified according to Evans' (2003) senses of time. Evans' (2003) senses of time are: Duration Sense Moment Sense Instance Sense Event Sense Matrix Sense 62 Agentive Sense Measurement-system Sense Commodity Sense In this chapter, utterances produced by both the child and researcher are discussed. It is important to note that although these speakers' utterances are compared in form and number, they are not produced equally due partly to the semi-structured nature of these conversational texts. 63 P A R T 1: Indiv idual Text Analysis Text 1 There are 6 utterances in text 1 that use temporal units. The researcher utters 5 of these 6 utterances. The child utters a single solicited response that uses a single temporal unit. A l l utterances use the Time Orientation metaphor where the future is construed as the space in front of the observer, the present is the observer's current location, and the past is the space behind the observer. This metaphor is prompted by the prepositions "last" and "before" and the lexeme "tonight." These lexical items motivate spatial deixis where locations establish meaning in relation to each other. Table 5.1 shows this data. The temporal units are in bold and lexemes that prompt for temporal metaphors and metonymies are italicized. Line Speaker Utterance 140 RES I had p i z z a l a s t night f o r s u p p e r . 141 RES what d i d you have f o r suppe r last night? 146 RES and t he night before I had p o r k c h o p s . 147 RES can you remember what you had t h e night before? 151 RES what a r e you h a v i n g tonight # f o r s u p p e r ? 153 CHI I ' m h a v i n g r i c e f o r s u p p e r tonight. Table 5.1 - Lines 140, 141, 146, 147, 151, and 153 from text 1 In text 1, the researcher asks the child what he had for supper last night, the night before last, and what he wi l l have tonight for supper. The first of these questions establishes the temporal setting in the past (line 141). The researcher then reorients the temporal setting by moving further into the past (line 147). The researcher's final question shifts the temporal setting ahead into the future (line 151). The child's responses indicate that the child comprehends the Time Orientation metaphor. In addition, the child also comprehends the shifts in temporal setting prescribed by the researcher's questions. 64 The child uses spatial deixis to form temporal relations when the researcher shifts the temporal setting. In line 141, the researcher asks, "what did you have for supper last night?" The child replies, "I had pizza too." Later in line 147, the researcher asks, "can you remember what you had the night before?" Here the researcher is implicitly asking the child what he had for supper the night before last. The child replies "pork chops too." The child's responses suggest that the child first comprehends the initial shift into the past ("last night"). With reference to this point, the child is able to use this information to answer the researcher's next question that shifts the setting one night further into the past to "the night before." Line 147 further demonstrates that the child is able to comprehend questions with temporal units in a pragmatic way. Literally, the researcher's question "can you remember what you had the night before?" solicits a polar yes/no response; however, the child correctly assumes that the researcher is inquiring about what the child actually ate for dinner and not i f the child is able to remember what he ate. In one instance, the child utters a response that includes the temporal unit "tonight." "Tonight" is the only unit of time uttered by the child in text 1. The temporal unit, "tonight", is a bounded event in the sense that it uses deixis to reference a specific period of time. There are two possible reasons for the child's limited use of temporal units. First, the child provides minimal non-elaborative and polar responses to the researcher's questions. The conversation therefore follows a turn-taking pattern where the researcher poses questions and the child answers these questions. Second, the conversational turn-taking pattern and the child's limited use of temporal units indicates that the child may be more able to comprehend temporal metaphors compared to his ability to produce temporal metaphors. Although these two reasons may explain the lack 65 of temporal units uttered by the child, the child does demonstrate that he is able to comprehend the researcher's utterances that use temporal units in a pragmatic way. Table 5.2 summarizes the types of metaphors and metonymies that the speakers use in text 1. The number corresponding to each metaphor or metonymy represents the number of utterances that use that type of metaphor or metonymy. B •o cu icit sol c 2 2 2 S 2 2 Is !s is is U U U U U •a _: r j >. ;•> •o . _ 'c — i by >> JS Chi w >> -3 >. rb 2 Vi M> _ L. _ u Chi p P = P o o ' - ^ f Utterance ces esearcher Child Solic f Temporal by Child n Metapho n Metapho :r Metapho jr Metapho etaphor etaphor by Metonymy Metonymy ne Metonyi -Time Metonyi ice Metonyi ice Metonyi rce Metaph rce Metaph )y Child Time Time by Cl — iber o tteran OS o _ CU nits —> —' ervi ervi 4* me me -Tir -Time Metonyi stan stan sou sou >> ca CM o nse of be iber o tteran q s _"S -3 rient rient Vi (A Ui] Ulj H H "or or E ir-Dii cu Qi on on cn _ nse of E c 3 CU s E 3 rient rient o o H H _ o _ i o> • cu i ir-Dii cs cd Sei cu 1/1 3 z Z •a CU an z o O O BC C BC B BC B BC B _. t-fi nc1 nc • Vi [A "c« "cn Text i Total Ignor Utter Utt( Total Temf Time Time Movi Movi Movi Movi Even Even Dista Dista Time Time Time Time Time Time Evan B « > 1 6 0 5 1 s 6 1 6 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Table 5.2 - Summary of metaphors and metonymies used in text 1 Text 2 Text 2 contains 7 utterances that use 10 temporal units. The child utters 2 unsolicited lines that use 3 temporal units and the researcher utters 5 lines that use 7 temporal units. Lines 1, 3, 4, 6, and 8 use the Time Orientation and the Mov ing Observer metaphors. The Time Orientation metaphor is prompted by the lexemes "today" and "tomorrow." A s seen in text 1, lexical items such as "today" and "tomorrow" motivate spatial deixis where temporal locations become relative to one another. The Moving Observer metaphor is prompted indirectly by an intermediate metaphor. Lakoff and Johnson describe this intermediate metaphor as one where numbers are points on a line 66 (1999, 155). These numerical values prompt for the Moving Observer metaphor because "the numbers pick out points on a line that metaphorically represent instants of t ime" (Lakoff & Johnson, 1999,155). When we combine the Time Orientation metaphor with the Moving Observer metaphor, we arrive at a composite mapping where locations on the observer's path of motion (numbers on a line) represent times. Line Speaker Utterance 1 RES today i s June the s i x t h . 3 CHI < f i f t h > [<] 4 RES i s i t the f i f t h ? 6 CHI tomorrow's the s i x t h . 8 RES t o d a y i s June the f i f t h . Table 5.3 - Lines 1, 3, 4, 6, and 8 from text 2 Lines 1 through 8 reflect the researcher mistaking the date as "June the sixth." The child corrects the researcher by stating that it is June 5 t h . Lines 1 through 3 indicate that the child and researcher have different frames (or versions) of the Time Orientation metaphor: 1. RES: t o d a y i s June the s i x t h . 2 . RES: and <I> [>]. 3. C H I : < f i f t h > [<] Figures 5.1 and 5.2 compare the researcher's initial frame of the Time Orientation and Moving Observer metaphors with the child's frame of the same metaphors. 5 6 7 - » June: past present future Figure 5.1 - Researcher's frame of the Time Orientation and Moving Observer metaphors 4 5 6 -> June: past present future Figure 5.2 - Chi ld 's frame of the Time Orientation and the Moving Observer metaphors 67 In Figure 5.1, the researcher construes the present date as "June the sixth." The space behind the researcher (the past) includes June the 5th, 4 t h , 3 r d . . . and the space ahead of the researcher (the future) includes June the 7 t h , 8 t h , 9 t h... The child's frame construes the values of these points differently. The child construes the present as June the "fifth", the past as June 4 t h , 3 r d , 2 n d . . . , and the future is June 6 t h , 7 t h , 8 t h... Both speakers' frames depend on spatial deixis whereby their present location provides contextual information that determines the values of the spaces ahead and behind the speakers. The fact that the child is able to correct the researcher demonstrates three competencies. First, the child is able to construe his own frame of the composite mapping as shown in Figure 5.2. Second, the child is able to access the researcher's frame of the composite mapping as shown in Figure 5.1. Third, the child is able to compare both frames and conclude that the researcher has assigned incorrect dates, or values, to the points of his composite mapping. The child's process of prompting two frames and comparing them occurs in lines 1 through 3. Lines 4 through 8 reflect a process where the researcher adopts the child's frame of the composite mapping: 4 . R E S i s i t t h e f i f t h ? 5 . C H I y e s . 6 . C H I t o m o r r o w ' s t h e s i x t h 7 . R E S o h o k a y . 8 . R E S t o d a y i s J u n e t h e f i f t h . In line 6, the child makes a significant contribution. The child provides the researcher with an additional access point to the child's frame of his composite metaphor. In line 4, the researcher asks " is it the fifth?" The child responds "yes" and then states "tomorrow's the sixth." The child's utterances appear to serve two purposes. First, the child attempts to convince the researcher that it is June the fifth by negotiating spatial 68 deixis. Second, the child elaborates by providing additional information that serves as an access point for the researcher to the child's frame. In line 8, the researcher adopts the child's frame and agrees that "today is June the fifth." Line 219 is uttered by the researcher and also uses the Time Orientation and the Moving Observer metaphors to create a composite mapping. The preposition " o n " in the utterance "so what do you do on the weekends W i l l ? " prompts for a composite mapping because the locations on the observer's path of motion represent times. Furthermore, the plural temporal unit, "weekends" elicits multiple points upon the observer's path of motion. Some examples of these points are marked with a " * " in Figure 5.3. * * * < - I I " > past week present week next week M T W T F S S M T W T F S S M T W T F S S Figure 5.3 - Construal of "weekends" from line 219 of text 2 The researcher's question, "so what do you do on the weekends W i l l ? " asks the child to generalize the weekends along the child's path of motion. Restated, the researcher is inquiring about the habitual activities that the child does on the weekends. Among these locations are the points included in Figure 5.3; however, the researcher's question may prompt for other weekends that extend further into both the future and past. The child replies with the minimal and evasive response "nothing": 2 19 . RES: so what do you do on the weekends W i l l ? 220 . C H I : n o t h i n g . 2 2 1 . RES: do you have a w o r k e r t h a t comes? 222 . C H I : nope . 223 . RES: and spends some t i m e w i t h you? 224 . C H I : y e s . The researcher rephrases the question twice before the child provides an appropriate answer. The child's initial response to the researcher's question in line 219 suggests that the child may experience difficulty with temporal construal that prompt for 69 a generic understanding of temporal points. General terms, like "weekends" found in line 219, require a more global cognitive approach to process the temporal construal. They require the child to elicit all weekends and then select general events that occur on the majority of the weekends. Although, the child is able to entertain two specific frames as show in lines 1-8 of this text, he may experience difficulty with generalizations that elicit a multitude of unspecified points. "T ime" is the final temporal unit used in line 223 of text 2. The researcher asks "and spends some time with you?" According to Lakoff & Johnson, the verb "to spend" and the quantifier "some" coupled with the lexeme "t ime" prompts for the Time is Money metaphor. It is based on the Resource Schema where a purpose requires an amount of a resource (Lakoff & Johnson, 1999,162). In the Time as Money metaphor, "spends" prompts for a purpose that requires money. When mapped onto the time domain, this purpose is one that requires time. This metaphor had achieved a level of conventionality whereby it has been lexicalized as a literal expression in English. Alternatively, fol lowing Evans' (2003) the lexeme "t ime" in this case prompts for the Commodity Sense of time. This sense construes time as a valuable commodity. The child comprehends the Time is Money metaphor (Lakoff & Johnson, 1999) or the Commodity Sense (Evans, 2003) of time and replies with the minimal, polar response "yes." The utterances in text 2 provide insight into this child's comprehension and use of temporal metaphors. In lines 1 through 8, the child contributes utterances that are unsolicited and he elaborates upon these voluntary utterances. These lines use the most basic metaphors of time that include the Time Orientation and Mov ing Observer metaphors to create composite mappings. The child's voluntary and elaborative 70 utterances suggest that the child is competent with these metaphors of time. Again, in line 219, the same metaphors of time are used; however, they construe time in a generalized way. The child appears to have difficulty when these metaphors elicit an indefinite number of temporal points and requires the child to generalize. Line 223 uses the Time is Money metaphor or the Commodity Sense of time. The child appears to comprehend this metaphor/sense of time but responds with a non-elaborative, polar response. The child's minimal, polar response to this metaphor/sense of time may suggest that he has a stronger ability to comprehend this metaphor than to produce it. Table 5.4 summarize the metaphors, metonymies, and senses of time of time that the speakers use in text 2. a isolicited 2 ted (S) / Units by Chi by Chi Child by Chile >> iy by CI iy by CI >r by Cl 2 Text Number Total Number of Utterances Ignored Utterances Utterances by Researcher Utterances by Child Solici Total Number of Temporal Temporal Units by Child Time Orientation Metaphor Time Orientation Metaphor Moving Observer Metaphoi Moving Observer Metaphoi Moving Time Metaphor Moving Time Metaphor by Event-for-Time Metonymy Event-for-Time Metonymy 1 Distance-for-Time Metonyn Distance-for-Time Metonyn Time-for-Distance Metonyn Time-for-Distance Metonyn Time is a Resource Metaphi Time is a Resource Metaph< Time is Money Time is Money by Child Evans' Sense of Time Evans' Sense of Time by Ch 2 1 2 7 0 5 U 0 3 6 2 6 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 Table 5.4 - Summary of metaphors and metonymies used in text 2 71 Text 3 There are 26 utterances that use 35 temporal units in text 3. The child utters 16 lines; 12 of these lines are unsolicited by the researcher and 4 are solicited. The researcher utters 10 lines that use temporal units. The child utters lines 45, 70, and 115 (see Table 5.5). These utterances use the Time Orientation metaphor. In these lines, the adjective "next" that precedes each temporal unit prompts for the Time Orientation metaphor as it situates the present at the observer's current position with the future located ahead of the observer. These expressions motivate spatial deixis. In the following tables, temporal units are in bold while lexemes that prompt for metaphors and metonymies of time are italicized. Line Speaker Utterance 4 5 C H I t h e n e x t day I w e I w e n t t o t h e b o o k s h o p . 7 0 C H I t h e next morning I p a c k e d m y s u i t c a s e u p . 1 1 5 C H I a n d t h e n e x t morning w h e n I w o k e u p I h a d s o m e b r e a d Table 5.5- Lines 45, 70, and 115 from text 3 Lines 21, 43, 127, 176, 177, 205, 206, 209, 210, and 222 also use the Time Orientation metaphor. 72 Line Speaker Utterance 2 1 C H I on on Tuesday a n d Wednesday J u d y W i n s t o n a n d J w e b o t h w e n t 4 3 C H I a n d w e w e n t o u t s i d e at night a n d p l a y e d i n t h e s n o w u m < a n d > [>] . 1 1 2 7 C H I < t h e y ' r e c o m i n g > [>] a n ( d ) v i s i t a n d v i s i t i n g me in t h e summer in July [!] 1 7 6 R E S t e l l me a b o u t y o u r u h y o u d o s o m e t h i n g on Saturday ' s u s u a l l y . 1 7 7 R E S w h a t d o y o u u s u a l l y d o on Saturdays? 2 0 5 C H I a n d h a d a N i e l s e n L P w h i c h i s c a l l e d T h e P o i n t r e l e a s e d in 1985 l i k e l i k e o u r v i d e l i k e o u r v i d e o T h e P o i n t w h i c h w a s a w h i c h w a s r e p l a c e d a t t h e v i d e o b o x . 2 0 6 C H I a n d b y a n d o n e a n d o n c e m y m o t h e r a n d I g o t i t in u m July a n d August # b o u g h t i t i n June a n d August. 2 0 9 C H I b u t t h e v i d e o w a s n o t r e l e a s e d i n 1985. 2 1 0 C H I i t w a s u h r e l e a s e d b e f o r e t h e L P in 1984 - : ## u h 2 2 2 R E S t e l l me w h a t y o u r f a v o u r i t e - : t h i n g i s t o d o in t h e summer time. Table 5.6 - Lines 21, 43, 127, 176, 177, 205, 206, 209, 210, and 222 from text 3 The utterances in Table 2.6 combine the Time Orientation metaphor with the Moving Observer metaphor to form composite mappings. Both the Time Orientation metaphor and the Moving Observer metaphors are prompted by the prepositions " i n , " "at," or, " o n " that precede the temporal units. These prepositions prompt for a construal where the observer arrives at temporal points along a path of motion. The child utters 7 of the 11 lines that use the Time Orientation and Moving Observer metaphors while the researcher utters 3 lines. Lines 176 and 177 uttered by the researcher require a generalized construal of time similar to line 219 in text 2. The researcher repeats the question twice before the child provides an appropriate response in line 178. This observation suggests that the child in text 3, like the child in text 2, may experience difficulties with utterances that elicit multiple temporal points and require the child to generalize across these points. 73 In line 222, the researcher uses the lexeme "summer time." Although this unit of time is underdefined, the child replies to the researcher's question with an elaborative response. The child utters line 82 and the researcher utters line 107. Both lines 82 and 107 use the Time Orientation metaphor plus additional metaphors. Line Speaker Utterance 8 2 C H I m y f a t h e r w e n t t h e r e w a n m y f a t h e r a n d I w e n t t h e r e o n c e b e f o r e g r a d e # w e n t t h e r e o n c e before grade five started. 1 0 7 R E S d i d y o u s l e e p during the car trip? Table 5.7 - Lines 82 and 107 from text 3 In line 107, the researcher uses the Time Orientation and Mov ing Observer metaphors. These metaphors are prompted by the mapping where the motion of the observer (car trip) is understood as the "passage of time" (Lakoff & Johnson, 1999, 146). This expression also uses the Event-for-Time metonymy where the "car trip" also stands for an amount of time during which the observer could sleep. The child appears to comprehend the researcher's question and replies to it with a minimal, polar response. Line 82, uttered by the child uses the Time Orientation metaphor. The Time Orientation metaphor is prompted by the preposition "before." The preposition suggests a temporal point located in the past. Line 82 also uses the Event-for-Time metonymy. The event, when "grade five started," references a temporal moment. In addition to these metaphors and this metonymy, the child's utterance expresses Evans' Instance Sense of time. Recall that the Instance Sense "prompts for a reading in which an instance of a particular event, activity, or state is being referenced..." (Evans, 131). The lexeme "once" prompts the Instance Sense because it is implicitly understood as "one time." The child is therefore not only able to construe the Instance Sense of time, but also is able to 74 articulate a contextually appropriate form of this sense of time. Line 206 shown in Table 2.6 also uses the lexeme "once." Lines 94, 96, 105, and 191 use the Time Orientation and Moving Observer metaphors. In addition to these metaphors, the utterances also use the Event-for-Time metonymy and the Distance-for-Time metonymy. L i n e Speaker Utterance 94 RES was i t a long d r i v e ? 96 CHI i t was a long d r i v e . 105 CHI and t h e c a r t r i p w a s long [!] . 191 RES hm how long have you been d o i n g t h a t ? Table 5.8 - Lines 94, 96, 105, and 191 from text 3 In these utterances, the events, "drive," "trip," and "horseback riding" (the pronoun "that" in line 191 refers to "horseback riding" found in line 182) metonymically stand for stretches of time during which these events occurred. In all cases, "long" modifies the event and prompts the Distance-for-Time metonymy. These metonymies presuppose the Time Orientation and the Moving Observer metaphors as the events are construed in terms of physical distance along the observer's path of motion. The child's utterance in line 96 is in response to the researcher's question in line 94. The child utters line 105 as a continuing turn and an elaborative statement. In line 192, the child comprehends and responds to the researcher's question from line 191: 191. RES: hm how l o n g have you been d o i n g t h a t ? 192. CHI: I have been d o i n g i t f o r t w e l ( v e ) I have d I have done i t f o r t w e l v e r i d e s -: . In line 192, the child combines the Time Orientation metaphor with the Moving Observer metaphor. The child's utterance also uses the Event-for-Time metonymy where a single ride stands for a specific amount of time. The child construes the length of time he has participated in the activity of horseback in terms of 12 occasions of horseback riding. 75 These 12 occasions of horseback riding are located in the past and they exist as points along the child's temporal path. These points prompt for Time Orientation and the Mov ing Observer metaphors. Figure 5.4 shows this construal. *1 *2 *3 *4 *5 *6 *7 *8 *9 *10 *11 *12 past present future * denotes " a r ide" Figure 5.4 - "Twelve rides" construal of time in line 192 of text 3 "Twelve rides" expresses a length of time in an unconventional way. A typical speaker would likely describe the same experience using the term "twelve times." The lexeme "t ime" in this context would be considered an example of Evans' Instance Sense of time. Line 192 suggests that the child chooses to construe time using the Event-for-Time metonymy, in terms of a sequence events, as opposed to simply the number of times the same event reoccurred. The child's construal suggests that the "twelve rides" are heterogeneous where as a typical speaker's response would use "twelve times" that construes the rides as a set of homogeneous events. This observation is closely related to the children's difficulties with generalizations seen already in texts 2 and earlier in text 3. Generalizations require a construal where each instance is construed as a reoccurrence of the same event. It is possible that speakers with A S D do not view these events as reoccurrences; rather, they are construed as discreet and dissimilar events. The child's response in line 192 does not clearly answer the researcher's question from line 191. It can be inferred that the child has been going horseback riding for 12 weeks when lines 176 through 178 are taken into account: 1 7 6 . R E S : t e l l me a b o u t y o u r u h y o u d o s o m e t h i n g o n S a t u r d a y ' s u s u a l l y . 1 7 7 . R E S : w h a t d o y o u u s u a l l y d o o n S a t u r d a y s ? 1 7 8 . C H I : I g o h o r s e b a c k r i d i n g . 76 Although lines 176 to 178 establish that the child usually goes horseback riding on Saturdays, the length of time the child has been horseback riding remain uncertain. Line 139 and line 144 again use metonymy and the Time Orientation/Moving Observer composite mapping. The researcher uses the Time-for-Distance metonymy. These metaphors and this metonymy are prompted by the proposition "from" or the verb "to drive" coupled with the temporal unit "half an hour": 139. RES: when you were t h e r e you were o n l y about a h a l f an hour from a farm where I yu I grew up. 140. CHI 141. RES 142. RES 143. CHI 14 4. RES 145. RES 146. RES 147. CHI what farm i s t h a t ? w e l l t h a t ' s where my mom and dad owned a farm, and I l i v e d when I was a l i t t l e g i r l . yes [ ! ] . and my mom used t o d r i v e a h a l f an hour, and t e a c h i n K i n g s b u r y , she t a u g h t h i g h s c h o o l . <did she> [>] ? The Time-for-Distance metonymy reverses the source and target domains of the Distance-for-Time metonymy where "time duration can stand metonymically for distance" (Lakoff and Johnson, 1999, 152). Lakoff and Johnson explain "half an hour, the time it takes to travel the distance, stands for the distance" (1999, 152). In line 139 and 144, the researcher uses time to metonymically stand for a distance travelled. The child appears to comprehend these metaphors as he prompts the researcher to elaborate in line 140 and 147. Lines 98, 101, 103, and 170 use the Time as a Resource metaphor. Line 170, uttered by the researcher, is a classic example of the Time is a Resource metaphor: 170. RES: and we need t o do about # t h r e e o r f o u r more m i n u t e s . The adjective "more" prompts for the Resource Schema where a purpose requires an amount of a resource (Lakoff & Johnson, 1999, 161). In the Time is a Resource 77 metaphor, the purpose that requires the resource is mapped onto the time domain where it becomes a purpose that requires time. The child appears to comprehend this metaphor as he responds, "yes Dor is" in line 174. Lines 98, 101, and 103 also use the Time is a Resource metaphor along with other metaphors and metonymies. The researcher asks a question in line 98 and the child responds to this question in line 101. The child repeats his utterance from line 101 in line 103: 9 8 . R E S : h o w l o n g d i d i t t a k e y o u W i l l ? 9 9 . R E S : < j u s t a b o u t > [>] . 1 0 0 . C H I : < i t > [<] . 1 0 1 . C H I : i t t o o k i t t o o k w o i t t o o k f i v e h u n d r e d a n d s i x t y f o u r m i n u t e s . 1 0 2 . R E S : d i d i t r e a l l y ? 1 0 3 . C H I : i t t o o k f i v e h u n d r e d a n d s i x t y f o u r m i n u t e s . Lines 98, 101, and 103 prompt for the Time is a Resource metaphor because they use the verb "to take." This verb uses multiple elements and scenarios from the Resource Schema. Specifically, time is a resource and the child is the user of this resource. The purpose is a trip and it requires ("takes") an amount of the time resource. The child must "use up" an amount of time to make this trip. The result is a portion of time that has been used/taken away and is no longer available to the child. Line 98 uses the Time Orientation metaphor, the Moving Observer metaphor, and the Distance-for-Time metonymy in addition to the Time is a Resource metaphor. " L o n g " prompts for the Distance-for-Time metonymy while "it" refers to a drive and prompts for the Time Orientation and the Moving Observer metaphors. Line 101 uses the Time Orientation metaphor and the Moving Observer metaphor again prompted by "it" in addition to the Time is a Resource Metaphor. 78 Lines 101 and 103 uttered by the child use temporal units in an unconventional way. The child uses "f ive hundred and sixty four minutes" to describe the amount of time a trip takes. This construal divides the trip into 564 increments of one minute. We would expect a typical speaker to use larger increments of time; for example, a speaker may use "9 hours and 24 minutes" or alternatively approximate the time of the trip as "9 and a half hours." Yet again, the child's discourse points to possible difficulties with generalization. A pattern emerges from the child's utterances in lines 101, 103, and 192. Although lines 101, 103, and 192 are construed using different metaphors and senses of time, they demonstrate the child in text 3 has the tendency to divided units of time or events that metonymically stand for time into smaller, than usual increments. In lines 101 and 103 the child construes 9 hours and 24 minutes as "f ive hundred and sixty four minutes." In line 192, the child construes a length of time in terms of 12 rides. It appears that the child has the tendency a to construe continuous experiences or larger units in term of smaller increments. A second observation points to a discrepancy between the construals presented in lines 82 and 192. In line 192, the child uses "rides" as opposed to the typical Instance Sense construal that would use the lexeme "time." In lines 82 and 206, the child not only uses the Instance Sense, but also uses it in a contextually appropriate way. The child must comprehend Evans' Instance Sense of time because he uses the variant "once" in lines 82 and 206 but avoids its use in line 192.1 also note that in both cases, the construals that involve the Instance Sense of time are preceded by false starts. It is possible that the child in text 3 comprehends Evans' Instance Sense but may experience difficulties in articulating the sense using the actual lexical item "t ime." A possible 79 explanation is the fact that the child's construal of "r ides" suggests a heterogeneous sequence of events. This construal of time is unlike Evans' Instance Sense of time that motivates a homogeneous understanding of events. In general, the spoken discourse produced by the child in text 3 demonstrates an extensive ability to comprehend and articulate multiple construals of time. They include Lakof f and Johnson's Time Orientation, Moving Observer, and Time is a Resource Metaphors. Also the child is also able to understand and use the Event-for-Time Metonymy, the Distance-Time Metonymy, and the Instance Sense of time. In the case of the Instance Sense of time, the child does not explicitly use the lexeme "time." In addition to the child's strength in the use of these temporal expressions in spoken discourse, the child is also able to engage in extended conversation using unsolicited, elaborative, and continuing turns that involve temporal units; however, there remain several instances where the child still provides minimal or polar responses in response to utterances that contain temporal units. Table 5.9 provides a summary of the metaphors, metonymies, and senses of time used in text 3. The child's utterances that use the variant "once" o f the Instance Sense of time are included in the Table 5.9. 80 § solicited Un •a Event-for-Time Metonymy by Child 2 2 m 2 Text Number Total Number of Utterances Ignored Utterances Utterances by Researcher Utterances by Child Solicited (S) / Total Number of Temporal Units Temporal Units by Child Time Orientation Metaphor Time Orientation Metaphor by Chil Moving Observer Metaphor Moving Observer Metaphor by Chi Moving Time Metaphor Moving Time Metaphor by Child Event-for-Time Metonymy Event-for-Time Metonymy by Child Distance-for-Time Metonymy Distance-for-Time Metonymy by Cl Time-for-Distance Metonymy Time-for-Distance Metonymy by Cl Time is a Resource Metaphor Time is a Resource Metaphor by Cl Time is Money Time is Money by Child Evans'Sense of Time Evans' Sense of Time by Child 2 1 4 S 12 3 2 2 1 2 1 3 6 0 0 U 5 3 4 5 0 2 0 0 7 4 5 2 2 0 4 2 0 0 3 2 Table 5.9 - Summary of metaphors and metonymies used in text 3 Text 4 Text 4 contains 10 temporal units found in 7 utterances. The child utters 5 lines; 4 of these 5 lines are unsolicited while a single line is solicited by the researcher. The researcher utters 2 lines that use temporal units in text 4. Lines 134, 151, and 153 contain 4 temporal units and use the Time Orientation metaphor. In line 134, the child's utterance construes "last year and the year before" as increments along a linear path located in the past. This utterance is elaborative and relies on spatial deixis. The child's construal of time in line 134 divides the period of the past 2 years into one-year increments. The construal of time is unconventional as it would be more typical to state "last two years" as opposed to "last year and the year before." L ike the example in line 192 in text 3, this construal of time suggests that "last year and the year before" are heterogeneous periods of time. The more typical expression "two years" construes the period as homogeneous. In the following tables, temporal units are in bold and lexemes that prompt for metaphors and metonymies are italicized. 81 Line Speaker Utterance 1 3 4 C H I b u t s h e h a s n ' t v i s i t me l a s t year a n d t h e year b e f o r e . 1 5 1 C H I a n d I ' m w i t ' s s o m e t h i n g f o r me t o look forward to. 1 5 3 R E S f o r e v e r y o n e t o look forward to e h ? Table 5.10- Lines 134, 151, 153 from text 4 The child utters line 151 and the researcher repeats the same information in line 153. In line 151, the child construes time using the Time Orientation metaphor because he talks about a point ahead of him as "something for me to look forward to" in the future. Line 151 is elaborative and is produced by the child without solicitation. The researcher mirrors the child's construal in line 153. Line 140 and line 144 use a composite mapping that combines the Time Orientation metaphor with the Moving Observer metaphor. Line Speaker Utterance 1 4 0 C H I < s h e ' s > [<] v i s i t i n g me at Christmas. 1 4 4 R E S i s s h e c o m i n g Christmas day? Table 5.11- Lines 140 and 144 from text 4 The child utters line 140 and the preposition "at" that precedes the temporal unit "Christmas" prompts for the composite mapping. In line 144, the researcher utters "is she coming Christmas day?" The conversational nature of this spoken text allows the researcher to skip the preposition "on" that would likely precede the temporal unit "Christmas day." In line 144, the "implied" preposition prompts for the Time Orientation and Moving Observer metaphors. The child appears to comprehend the researcher's question in line 144 and replies with an elaborative response in line 145: 1 4 4 . R E S : i s s h e c o m i n g C h r i s t m a s d a y ? 1 4 5 . C H I : s h e ' s s p e n d i n g t h e n i g h t s s p e n d i n g n i g h t s t h e r e . Line 145 uses the Time is Money metaphor. This metaphor is prompted by the verb "to spend." "She," (the child's cousin) is visiting the child during Christmas and therefore will be spending time with the child. Two observations provide insight into the child's 82 . unconvent ional construal o f t ime i n this utterance. Firs t , the c h i l d is over ly general stating that "she's spending . . . nights there." A l t h o u g h this may be true, typ ica l ly we w o u l d expect a speaker to quantify the number o f nights dur ing w h i c h the cous in w i l l vis i t . T y p i c a l speakers w o u l d use this convent ional ized expression o f t ime i n an incremental way ; however , the c h i l d does not do this. The utterance involves a false start that may suggest d i f f icul ty i n p roduc ing the T i m e is M o n e y metaphor. Second, the c h i l d uses the pronoun "there" to express where his cous in w i l l spend her t ime. T y p i c a l l y , i f someone were to v is i t over Chris tmas, we w o u l d use the p rox ima l p ronoun "here" as opposed to the distal p ronoun "there." In this expression, the c h i l d appears to have diff icul t ies w i t h dietic reference. These diff icult ies w i t h both spatial deixis and the T i m e is M o n e y metaphor may be rooted i n the l ex ica l i zed expression associated w i t h "spending" t ime. T h i s expression requires contextual information for it to be used appropriately. A l t h o u g h we observed that the c h i l d i n text 2 was able to comprehend an expression that uses the verb "to spend" w i t h concepts o f t ime, this is the first occas ion where a c h i l d attempts to produce this k i n d o f metaphorical expression. Moreove r , the response the c h i l d provides i n l ine 145 does not answer the researcher's question i n l ine 144. The f inal temporal unit is found i n l ine 190. The c h i l d utters, "but first y o u have to wai t t i l l the w a # for the water to b o i l [!]" Th i s utterance combines the T i m e Orientat ion metaphor w i t h the M o v i n g T i m e metaphor. The point where "the water b o i l s " is construed as being ahead o f the observer. The observer remains stationary and waits for the point to pass the observer. T h i s utterance is not sol ic i ted by the researcher. In text 4, the c h i l d demonstrates the abi l i ty to use and comprehend a variety o f metaphors. The c h i l d is able to use and comprehend the most basic metaphors o f t ime. 83 They include the Time Orientation, the Moving Observer, and the Moving Time metaphors. In addition, the child uses the Time is Money metaphor; however, it is construed in an unconventional way. The child is too general in expressing the time his cousin wi l l spend visiting him and demonstrates difficulty with deixis. Table 5.12 summarizes the temporal metaphors and metonymies the speakers use in text 4. u CD E H Table 5.12 - Summary of metaphors and metonymies used in text 4 Text 5 In text 5, the researcher utters 2 lines that use temporal units. These temporal units are found in lines 9 and 16. Line 9 uses the temporal unit "night" in a question. The adjective "last" that precedes "night" prompts for the Time Orientation Metaphor as it locates the past as the space behind the observer. "Last night" becomes a point behind the observer. The researcher uses a check, "didn't I?" The child comprehends and replies to the researcher's question and check with a polar "yeah" in line 10. 84 Line Speaker Utterance 9 R E S I t a l k e d t o y o u o n t h e t e l e p h o n e l a s t night t o o d i d n ' t I ? 1 6 R E S t h a t s o u n d s l i k e q u i t e a long drive. Table 5.13 - Lines 9 and 16 from text 5 The second utterance uses the temporal unit " long drive." The utterance prompts for a construal that uses the Event-for-Time metonymy where the "dr ive" metonymically represents a length of time. This length of time is modified by the preceding adjective " long" that prompts for the Distance-for-Time metonymy. The " long" distance travelled during the ride metonymically stands for an extended duration of time. This utterance also uses the Time Orientation and Moving Observer metaphors because the distance travelled by the observer is an amount of time that has passed. Line 16 is followed by a continuing line uttered by the researcher. It cannot be determined i f the child comprehends this metaphor. The child does not utter any temporal units in text 5. The child demonstrates that he comprehends the construal of time in line 9 that uses the Time Orientation metaphor. Although the child elaborates and provides unsolicited utterances, the child replies with minimal responses to questions that contain temporal units posed by the researcher. Table 5.13 summarizes the metaphors and metonymies speakers use in text 5. 85 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 u Table 5.14 - Summary o f metaphors and metonymies used i n text 5 Text 6 Text 6 does not contain any utterances that used temporal units. Text 7 Text 7 contains 23 utterances. S i x o f these 23 utterances are ignored. L i n e s 20 and 22 are ignored because they use the id iomat ic expression "quite a t r ip . " L i n e s 30 and 36 are ignored because they use the term "four+forty+five bus" where t ime modif ies the bus. A l s o , l ines 121 and 148 are ignored because they use the contract ion "sportsnight." The remain ing 17 utterances contain 22 temporal units. The c h i l d utters 11 o f the 17 l ines; 2 lines are sol ic i ted by the researcher w h i l e 9 are not. The researcher utters 6 lines. L i n e 12 is uttered by the researcher and uses the temporal unit " n o w . " T h i s lexeme prompts for the T i m e Orientat ion metaphor because it situates the researcher and the c h i l d at a point o n the observer 's path that is the present t ime. The lexeme " n o w " also motivates spatial deixis . The ch i ld comprehends this construal o f t ime as he provides a polar response, "yes ." The c h i l d then elaborates: 86 1 2 . R E S : a n d a r e y o u w o r k i n g n o w ? 1 3 . C H I : u m - : y e s . Lines 14, 25, 26, 71, 72, 74, 76, 113, 114, 115, 120, and 150 (12 utterances) prompt for the Time Orientation and the Moving Observer metaphors. The child utters 9 of these 12 utterances. The researcher utters 3 lines. These utterances use temporal units that are preceded or followed by prepositions. The prepositions function to orient the observer either "on , " "at," " i n , " or "after" the temporal unit that is located along the observer's path. The following table summarizes the utterances that prompt for the Time Orientation and Moving Observer metaphors. In the following tables, the temporal units are in bold and prepositions are italicized. Line Speaker Utterance 1 4 C H I I w o r k a t u m o n Tuesdays a n d Thursdays a t a t u m M a i l b o x e s . 2 5 C H I t h e n we h a v e l u n c h at twelve a t t h a t . 2 6 C H I t h e n we s t a r t b a c k a t w o r k at one o'clock. 7 1 R E S w h a t t i m e d o y o u l e a v e h e r e in t h e morning? 7 2 C H I um - i t ' s u s u a l l y after eight. 7 4 C H I between eight+fifteen a n d eight+thirty w e u s u a l l y l e a v e . 7 6 C H I a n d w e g e t u h t o M a i l b o x e s a t nine+thirty. 1 1 3 R E S s o w h a t d o y o u u s u a l l y d o in t h e evenings w h e n y o u g e t b a c k h e r e ? 1 1 4 R E S w h a t d o y o u d o a f t e r supper? 1 1 5 C H I w e l l Tuesdays after w o r k i n g w e h a v e t o d o a w o r k o u t 1 2 0 C H I a n d on thurs w e l l # w e l l on Thursdays I u s e d t o g o t o um t o 1 5 0 C H I b u t I d o o n e # b u t um on Sundays I g o t o u h m y f i t n e s s Table 5 . 1 6 - L i n e s 14, 25 ,26 ,71 ,72 , 74, 76, 113, 114, 115, 120, and 150 from text 7 Lines 71, 114, and 115 that use the preposition "after" are cases of the Moving Observer metaphor because of a prior preposition that precedes these utterances. For example, in line 71, the researcher asks, "What time do you leave here in the morning?" The child responds in line 72, "um-: it's usually after eight." The child's response uses the Moving Observer metaphor because " i n " from line 72 contextual establishes the same construal in line 73. 87 In lines 24, 27, and 53, the speaker construes time using the Time Orientation metaphor, the Moving Observer metaphor, and the Distance-for-Time metonymy. Line Speaker Utterance 24 CHI and t h e n and then we then we work # th e n we work um something l i k e uh nine+thirty to nine+thirty t o twelve [ ! ] • 27 CHI and t h e n we go r i g h t a l l t h e way t h r o u g h t o four+thirty. 53 RES t h a t makes q u i t e a long day doesn't i t ? Table 5 . 1 7 - Lines 24, 27, and 53 from text 7 In line 24, the child utters "and then and then we then we work # then we work um something like uh nine+thirty to nine+thirty to twelve [!]" The child construes himself as an observer upon a temporal path and faces forward as described by the Time Orientation metaphor. The child travels from the point "nine+thirty" to "twelve" and the distance that the child travels between these points metonymically represent a length of time. Line 27 is also uttered by the child and prompts for the same construal. The child states, "and then we go right all the way through to four+thirty." This utterance construes the passing of time as movement along a temporal path and the distance travelled metonymically represents a length of time. The temporal unit "day" is modified by the adjective " long" in line 53. Again, in this expression the speaker metonymically uses distance to stand for a length of time. In lines 29 and 71, the researcher uses the lexeme "t ime." According to Evans (2003), both utterances use the Moment Sense of time where a discrete punctual point is conceptualized without reference to its duration. The child appears to comprehend both cases of the Moment Sense as the child provides elaborative responses: 29. RES: and what time does t h a t g et you back h e r e ? 30. CHI: w e l l we t a k e t h e um f o u r + f o r t y + f i v e bus. 31. CHI: um -: and t h a t i s t h o s e um t h o . 32. CHI: w e l l i t ' s not F u n t r a c k . 88 7 1 . R E S : w h a t t i m e d o y o u l e a v e h e r e i n t h e m o r n i n g ? 7 2 . C H I : , um - : i t ' s u s u a l l y a f t e r e i g h t . 7 3 . R E S : u h h u h ? 7 4 . C H I : b e t w e e n e i g h t + f i f t e e n a n d e i g h t + t h i r t y w e u s u a l l y l e a v e . 7 5 . R E S : m m h m . 7 6 . C H I : a n d w e g e t u h t o M a i l b o x e s a t n i n e + t h i r t y . A particularly interesting observation that differentiates this child from others is this child's ability to generalize using metaphor, metonymies, and senses of time. In this text, many of the utterances that contain metaphors, metonymies and senses of time discuss events that occur on a regular basis. Line 113 and line 114, however, do point out a recurring difficulty that the children with A S D appear to have with generalizations. In line 113, the researcher asks, "so what do you usually do in the evenings when you get back here?" The child does not respond and the researcher rephrases the question as "what do you do after supper?" This pattern of rephrasing questions that involve generalization was also observed in lines 176 and 177 in text 3 and lines 219 through 223 in text 2. Nonetheless, the child in this text produces and comprehends a variety of temporal metaphors and metonymies in text 7. They include the Time Orientation metaphor, the Moving Observer metaphor, and the Distance-for-Time metonymy. The child is particularly competent with the composite mapping that combines the Time Orientation and Moving Observer metaphors. These metaphors were used together in all of the child's utterances. The child appears to comprehend Evans' Moment Sense of time. He provides elaborative and extended responses to questions posed by the researcher. Table 5.18 provides a summary of the metaphors, metonymies, and senses of time the speakers use in text 7. 89 X E 3 z o H US o c 6 D 3 c 3 s •a X I 9 U 'E "3 _ o a. E o 3 Z o H c 3 o C L E c o E H X I 2 s o E H Xt O ex c "> o X o X I a. X o or B > O o X a. E H en B X i o a. E H OD E > •o >> E B O > S 5 U >-> XI >> E x x X Q _ OS E H c o 2 E H B E H E H —• o '0 Table 5.18 - Summary o f metaphors and metonymies used i n text 7 Text 8 Text 8 contains 4 utterances that use temporal units. L i n e 58 is ignored because the c h i l d utters the temporal unit "midn igh t " that appears to be part o f the proper name "midn igh t express." O f the remain ing 3 utterances, the c h i l d utters a single sol ic i ted l ine w h i l e the researcher utters 2 l ines. The c h i l d uses 2 temporal units i n l ine 136 and the researcher utters a single temporal unit i n l ine 137. In both lines 136 and 137, the speakers use the temporal unit "a summer day." In both l ines, this unit is preceded by the preposi t ion " o n . " T h i s propos i t ion construes " a summer day" as a temporal point upon an observer 's path and prompts for the T i m e Orientat ion and M o v i n g Observer metaphors: 1 3 6 . C H I : n o w C h r i s t i n a w a s g o t t e n s t u c k i n b e t w e e n # o n a s u m m e r d a y . 1 3 7 . R E S : o n a s u m m e r d a y . In l ine 136, the c h i l d appears to have dif f icul ty expressing when Chr i s t ina was "stuck i n between." First , the c h i l d uses the lexeme " n o w " w h i c h uses the T i m e Orientat ion 90 metaphor to express the current temporal moment; however, the child then uses both the past-tense form of the verb "to be" and the verb phrase "get stuck" in the form "gotten stuck." The child struggles with spatial deixis as the lexemes "now" and the past-tense clash instead of establishing relative temporal meaning. The child's utterance appears to be unsolicited, elaborative, and continuing in turn. The researcher's utterance in line 137 appears to repeats the child's words, "on a summer day," to acknowledge the child's statement. Line 62 contains the temporal unit, "during that train ride" and is a question uttered by the researcher: 6 2 . R E S : I g u e s s y o u w o u l d s l e e p d u r i n g t h a t t r a i n r i d e e h ? 6 3 . C H I : y e s I w o u l d . This question construes a hypothetical situation because of the conjunction " i f uttered by the child in line 58 and the verb " w i l l " in the form "would" in line 62 that expresses the conditional. This utterance uses the Time Orientation metaphor because the situation is unrealized and located in the future. The Time Orientation metaphor is coupled with the Moving Observer metaphor to create a composite mapping where the distance travelled by the researcher represents an amount of time that passes. Line 62 also uses the Event-for-Time metonymy as the train ride stands metonymically for an amount of time that that the child could sleep. The child comprehends the researcher's question and responds "yes I would," in the following line. This response is not elaborative. In text 8, the child is able to use and comprehend both the Time Orientation and Moving Observer metaphors. The child also appears to comprehend and use the Event-for-Time metonymy. The child does produce solicited and unsolicited utterances in text 91 to H 03 a r/j e 3 3 CD <-+ 03 73 cr o >-t CO g o. 3 <D o 3 fD X O O oo Text Number Total Number of Utterances - Ignored Utterances Utterances by Researcher o Utterances by Child Solicited (S) / Unsolicited (U) 4> Total Number of Temporal Units to Temporal Units by Child U> Time Orientation Metaphor o Time Orientation Metaphor by Child u> Moving Observer Metaphor o Moving Observer Metaphor by Child o Moving Time Metaphor o Moving Time Metaphor by Child - Event-for-Time Metonymy o Event-for-Time Metonymy by Child o Distance-for-Time Metonymy o Distance-for-Time Metonymy by Child o Time-for-Distance Metonymy o Time-for-Distance Metonymy by Child o Time is a Resource Metaphor o Time is a Resource Metaphor by Child o Time is Money o Time is Money by Child o Evans' Sense of Time o Evans' Sense of Time by Child Text 9 Text 9 contains a single temporal unit uttered by the researcher in line 254: 2 5 4 . R E S : w h a t d o y o u d o a f t e r s c h o o l ? 2 5 5 . C H I : s u p p e r . 2 5 6 . R E S : s u p p e r ? 2 5 7 . R E S : y e a h ? This utterance uses the Time Orientation metaphor and the Event-for-Time metonymy. The researcher's utterances prior to line 254 construes "after school" as a temporal stretch of time located in the future. The Event-for-Time metonymy is prompted because the utterance uses the event of children finishing school to represent a specific temporal moment. Line 254 therefore motivates spatial deixis where a temporal relationship is established between the point that the child finishes school and the events that occur after this point. In this line, the researcher asks a question that requires the child to generalize about what he usually does after school. Although the child responds stating "supper," this response is peculiar. Supper is typically located much further in the evening in relation to the time a child finishes school. Typical speakers would likely describe events that occur on a regular basis closer to the point when school finishes. A possible explanation for the child's response is that supper is the consistent event that reoccurs. It is possible that the child may recall the events that occur after school on a daily basis but is unable to generalize across the days. Supper is an event that is consistent and occurs everyday after school. It is also possible the child participates in preparing supper (shopping, cooking, etc.). Similar problems with generalizations were observed in texts 2 and 3. The child's response is minimal and he does not elaborate. The conversational turn-taking follows a question-response pattern, with questions posed by the researcher. The child provides minimal responses, does not 93 H sa CT" ft to o I 3 o 3 CD tr o i-i CO 3 o CO C CO CD CL Text Number - Total Number of Utterances o Ignored Utterances - Utterances by Researcher o Utterances by Child Solicited (S) / Unsolicited (U) - Total Number of Temporal Units o Temporal Units by Child - Time Orientation Metaphor o Time Orientation Metaphor by Child o Moving Observer Metaphor o Moving Observer Metaphor by Child o Moving Time Metaphor o Moving Time Metaphor by Child - Event-for-Time Metonymy o Event-for-Time Metonymy by Child o Distance-for-Time Metonymy o Distance-for-Time Metonymy by Child o Time-for-Distance Metonymy o Time-for-Distance Metonymy by Child © Time is a Resource Metaphor o Time is a Resource Metaphor by Child o Time is Money o Time is Money by Child o Evans' Sense of Time o Evans' Sense of Time by Child PART 2: Analysis of All Texts This section summarizes the use of temporal metaphors, temporal metonymies, and senses of time produced by speakers across all 9 texts. General and specific patterns in the use of these devices are identified and discussed. Texts 1 through 9 contain 76 utterances that use temporal units. Seven of these 76 utterances are ignored. O f the remaining 69 lines, the child utters 35 lines that use 52 temporal units; 8 of the child's utterances are solicited while 27 are not. The researcher utters 34 lines that use 38 temporal units. Table 5.22 summarizes the utterances that use temporal units in texts 1 through 9. For a case-by-case analysis of each instance of metaphor, metonymy, or sense of time, refer to Appendix 2. Four general observations are made from Table 5.22. First, the majority of temporal units uttered by both the researcher and the child construe time using Lakoff and Johnson's (1999) Time Orientation metaphor and Moving Observer metaphor. The Time Orientation metaphor occurs in 65 of the total 69 utterances. Thirty-four of the 65 utterances that use the Time Orientation metaphor are uttered by the child. Forty-eight of the 69 total utterances use the Moving Observer metaphor. The child uses the Moving Observer metaphor 27 times. According to Lakoff and Johnson (1999) another basic metaphor of time is the Moving Time metaphor; however, the speakers in texts 1 through 9 seldom use the Moving Time metaphor. The child uses the Moving Time metaphor once in text 4. In general, the child used more of each metaphor type than the researcher. In total there are 114 times that the Time Orientation metaphor, Mov ing Observer metaphor or the Moving Time metaphor occur. Table 5.21 summarizes these observations. Table 5.22 suggests that in general the children with A S D comprehend and 95 use the Time Orientation and Moving Observer metaphors most frequently among the three most basic temporal metaphors types. Speaker Total Time Moving Moving Utterances Orientation Observer Time Metaphor Metaphor Metaphor Chi ld 35 34 27 1 Researcher 34 31 21 0 Total 69 65 48 1 Table 5.21 - Number of utterances that use basic metaphors of time in texts 1 through 9 96 Total SO oo ^4 c/1 Ul to - Text Number -i o\ - to U) o to 1^ to os 1^ OS Total Number of Utterances ~4 O - os o o o o o o Ignored Utterances - OS o to to o vyi Utterances by Researcher to OO G GO so to C oo o o •u — C oo — to GO c to c 00 Utterances by Child Solicited (S) / Unsolicited (U) 00 so - *• to to o to o Ul *. o Os Total Number of Temporal Units u> to o o to U) Ul - Temporal Units by Child o\ <J1 - u> o to OS to OS Os Time Orientation Metaphor t*i o - - o o to ~ Time Orientation Metaphor by Child A. oo o Ul OS o - to to o OS o Moving Observer Metaphor to -J o - - o o - to to o Moving Observer Metaphor by Child o o o o o - o o o Moving Time Metaphor - o o o o o - o o o Moving Time Metaphor by Child O - - o o - o o o Event-for-Time Metonymy •U o o o o © © o o Event-for-Time Metonymy by Child 00 o o to o - o o o Distance-for-Time Metonymy Ul o o - o o o to © o Distance-for-Time Metonymy by Child to o o © o o o to o o Time-for-Distance Metonymy o o o o o o o o o o Time-for-Distance Metonymy by Child o o o o o o o © Time is a Resource Metaphor to o o o o o o to o o Time is a Resource Metaphor by Child tO o o o o o - o - o Time is Money _ o o o o o - o o o Time is Money by Child Os o o to o o o U) - o Evans' Sense of Time N> o o o o o o to o © Evans' Sense of Time by Child A second general observation indicates that the speakers in texts 1 through 9 produced a fewer number of utterances that use metonymies of time. The Event-for-Time metonymy occurs in 10 of the total 69 utterances; the child utters 4 of these 10 lines. Eight of the total 69 utterances use the Distance-for-Time metonymy; the child utters 3 of these 8 lines. Two utterances use the Time-Distance-Metonymy and none of these lines are uttered by the child. In total, the researcher utters more lines that use each type of metonymy than the child. In total, 20 utterances use one or more types of metonymy. Table 5.23 summarizes these observations. Speaker Total Event-for Distance-for- Time-for-Utterances Time Time Distance Metonymy Metonymy Metonymy Chi ld 35 4 3 0 Researcher 34 6 5 2 Total 69 10 8 2 Table 5.23 - Number of utterances that use metonymies of time in texts 1 through 9 A third general observation indicates that speakers produce utterances that use even fewer of Lakoff and Johnson's (1999) other metaphors of time. These metaphors are the Time is a Resource Metaphor and the Time is Money metaphor. Four of the total 69 utterances use the Time is a Resource metaphor; 2 of these lines are uttered by the child. Two of the total 69 utterances use the Time is Money metaphor; the child utters 1 of these lines. In general, the child uses as many or fewer of these metaphors of time compared to the researcher. In total, the Time is a Resource or the Time is Money metaphor occur in 6 lines of text. Table 5.24 summarizes these observations. 98 Speaker Total Utterances Time is a Resource Time is Money Metaphor Chi ld 35 2 1 Researcher 34 2 2 Total 69 4 2 Table 5.24 - Number of utterances that use other basic metaphors of time in texts 1 through 9 A final general observation shows that the speakers in texts 1 through 9 use Evans' senses of time the least among the expressions examined. Six of the 69 total utterances use one of Evans' senses of time; the researcher utters 4 of these lines while the child utters 2 lines. Table 5.25 summarizes these observations. Speaker Total Utterances Evans' Senses of Time Chi ld 35 2 Researcher 34 4 Total 69 6 Table 5.25 - Number of utterances that use Evans' senses of time General findings of the use of temporal metaphors and metonymies in spoken discourse suggest that the speakers examined use the Time Orientation metaphor and the Moving Observer metaphor the most frequently among the most general metaphors of time. In the 9 texts, the child uses the Time Orientation metaphor, the Mov ing Observer metaphor and the Moving Time metaphor in utterances more frequently than the researcher. Closer examination indicates that although general temporal metaphors are overall used more often by the child than the researcher, it is not the case when each child is examined on an individual text basis. The children in texts 3, 4, and 7 are the only speakers that use the Time Orientation metaphor and the Mov ing Observer metaphor as often as or more often than the researcher. The remaining children (in texts 1, 2, 5, 6, 8, and 9) use these metaphors less often in utterances than the researcher. The child in text 4 99 is the only child that uses the Moving Time metaphor. A l l speakers examined use the Time Orientation metaphor and the Moving Observer metaphor. Preliminary findings suggest that both the researcher and child use less temporal metonymies in utterances than they use general temporal metaphors. Closer examination indicates that temporal metonymies only occur in texts 3, 5, 7, 8, and 9; however, the children in texts 3 and 7 are the only children who use temporal metonymies in their utterances. Chi ld 3 uses the Event-for-Time metonymy 4 times and the Distance-for-Time metonymy twice. Chi ld 7 uses the Distance-for-Time metonymy once. In the remaining texts where metonymies of time appear, they are uttered by the researcher. Speakers in texts 1 through 9 use the Time is a Resource metaphor and the Time is Money metaphor even less than they use temporal metonymies. These lexicalized metaphors occur in texts 2, 3, and 4. Texts 3 and 4 are the only texts where the child uses the Time is a Resource metaphor or the Time is Money metaphor. Although the children appear to comprehend the Time is a Resource metaphor when uttered by the researcher, the cases where the children express these metaphors appear to be unconventional. A possible reason for this observation is that both the Time is a Resource and Time as Money metaphors have achieved a level of literalness where they have become lexicalized expression. Lexicalized expression use is subject to contextual conventions and children with A S D do not use the Time as a Resource and Time as Money metaphors in contextually appropriate ways. The child in text 3 uses the Time is a Resource metaphor twice and is overly specific with the amount of time a trip took. The child in text 4 uses the Time is Money metaphor once and underspecifies the number of night his cousin wi l l spend visiting him. 100 F i n a l l y , E v a n s ' senses o f t ime occur the least among the types o f expressions examined. E v a n s ' senses o f t ime are used w i t h i n utterances i n texts 2, 3, and 7. The c h i l d i n text 3 is the on ly c h i l d among the 9 ch i ldren that uses E v a n s ' sense o f t ime. M o r e o v e r , recal l that this c h i l d does not use the lexeme " t ime," rather, the c h i l d uses the term "once" that is a variant o f E v a n s ' Instance Sense o f t ime. Therefore, throughout the texts examined, none o f the chi ldren actually use the lexeme " t ime" i n spoken discourse. O v e r a l l , a patter emerges where chi ldren i n texts 3, 4, and 7 use the most and the greatest variety o f metaphors, metonymies, and senses o f t ime. The chi ldren that are most competent w i t h the basic metaphors o f t ime appear to be the same ch i ld ren who use temporal metonymies , the T i m e is a Resource /Time is M o n e y metaphor, and E v a n s ' senses o f t ime. The remaining chi ldren utter very l imi ted or no utterances that use expression other than the T i m e Orientat ion and M o v i n g Observer metaphors. Several more specific f indings emerge f rom the analysis o f the 9 texts. These f indings suggest 4 patterns: the chi ldren i n these texts demonstrate a greater abi l i ty to interpret as opposed to produce metaphors, metonymies , and senses o f t ime; some chi ldren experience dif f icul ty w i t h generalization, unspecif ic construal , or construal that prompt for mul t ip le reference points; t ime and temporal events are construed and expressed by the ch i ldren i n smaller than typica l units; and where typ ica l speakers w o u l d l i ke ly use the lexeme " t ime" and senses o f t ime the c h i l d construes t ime and senses o f t ime i n unconvent ional ways . Firs t , the majority o f ch i ldren are more able to interpret metaphors, metonymies , and senses o f t ime compared to their abi l i ty to produce these same expressions. Table 5.22 suggests that the ch i ldren w i t h A S D are more l i ke ly to produce the most general 101 temporal metaphors more often than the researcher; however , we f ind upon closer observation that this is not the case. A few chi ldren do use the most general metaphors o f t ime more often than the researcher but the majority o f ch i ldren do not. The total score for general metaphors o f t ime is being dr iven by a few ch i ld ren w h o frequently use them. The conversational abil i t ies o f ch i ldren may be a large determinate o f temporal metaphor use by chi ldren w i t h A S D . The imbalance between the product ion and interpretation o f temporal expressions among the majori ty o f the ch i ldren i n the 9 texts may be caused by the fact that chi ldren w i t h less strong conversat ional abil i t ies require more structured conversations. These more structured conversations entail a turn-taking pattern where the researcher asks questions and the c h i l d responds to these questions. Chapter 4, Genre notes this reoccurr ing turn-taking pattern. In addi t ion to more structured conversations, ch i ldren w i t h less strong conversational abil i t ies sometimes provide m i n i m a l and non-elaborative responses that consequently are un l ike ly to include expressions that contain either temporal metaphors or units o f t ime. In the majori ty o f the texts, the researcher uses more temporal expressions and the c h i l d appears to understand the researcher's expressions. T h i s fact raises the poss ibi l i ty that the ch i ldren w i t h A S D i n the 9 texts are more l i ke ly to comprehend temporal metaphors than they are able to use them. It may, o f course, be the case that the 'terseness' noted ( m i n i m a l responsiveness) affords fewer opportunities for product ion. The question warrants further consideration. It is possible that diff icult ies w i t h temporal metaphor use may be rooted i n the ch i ld ren ' s inabi l i ty to articulate more compl ica ted construals o f t ime. Several ch i ldren demonstrated diff icul t ies w i t h temporal specif ici ty and generalizations i n terms o f 102 temporal points prompted in spoken discourse. In text 2, the child is asked a question and he provides an unlikely response: 2 1 9 . R E S : s o w h a t d o y o u d o o n t h e w e e k e n d s W i l l ? 2 2 0 . C H I : n o t h i n g . The child uses a minimal response and does not answer the researcher's question. The researcher rephrases the question two additional times before the child provides an appropriate response: 2 2 1 . R E S : d o y o u h a v e a w o r k e r t h a t c o m e s ? 2 2 2 . C H I : n o p e . 2 2 3 . R E S : a n d s p e n d s s o m e t i m e w i t h y o u ? 2 2 4 . C H I : y e s . Line 219 uses the temporal unit, "weekends," that prompts for multiple points upon the observer's path. Although we cannot determine the degree to which the child comprehends this metaphor, again, it appears that metaphors that involve generalized or unspecific events pose problems with individuals with A S D . These construals of time elicit a number of temporal points and require the child to generalize across these points. Lines 176 through 178 in text 3 provide another example: 1 7 6 . R E S : t e l l me a b o u t y o u r u h y o u d o s o m e t h i n g o n S a t u r d a y ' s u s u a l l y . ' 111. R E S : w h a t d o y o u u s u a l l y d o o n S a t u r d a y s ? 1 7 8 . C H I : I g o h o r s e b a c k r i d i n g . In line 178, the child answers the researcher's question; however, before doing so, the question has to be rephrased. The researcher uses the temporal unit, "Saturdays," that again prompt for multiple points upon the observer's path. The need for the researcher to rephrase the question may indicate that the child has processing difficulties. The need to rephrase a generalized question in the context of generalizations comes up again in text 7: 1 1 3 . R E S : s o w h a t d o y o u u s u a l l y d o i n t h e e v e n i n g s w h e n y o u g e t b a c k h e r e ? 1 1 4 . R E S : w h a t d o y o u d o a f t e r s u p p e r ? 103 1 1 5 . C H I : w e l l T u e s d a y s a f t e r w o r k i n g w e h a v e t o d o a w o r k o u t d o w n s t a i r s . Text 9 provides a final example of the children's difficulties with questions that generalize and elicit multiple temporal points: 2 5 4 . R E S : w h a t d o y o u d o a f t e r . s c h o o l ? 2 5 5 . C H I : s u p p e r . Although the child responds to the researcher's question with a correct answer, the child's response is unconventional. Cases where children with A S D are required to generalize seem to pose difficulties as they require a homogeneous perspective of time and events. It is possible that children with A S D may elicit multiple temporal points but it is the task that requires them to see similarities and generalize across these points that is the source of difficulty. The child in text 7 appears to be significantly more capable at generalizing compared to the other children. He appears to be the only child that is more able to generalize in his utterances; however, he still requires the researcher to rephrase a question. In text 3, the child is asked to generalize again; however, the child demonstrates difficulty in a different way, providing a more specific answer than that requested by the researcher: 2 2 2 . R E S : t e l l me w h a t y o u r f a v o u r i t e - : t h i n g i s t o d o i n t h e s u m m e r t i m e . 2 2 3 . C H I : I I g o o n v a c a t i o n t o P r i n c e E d w a r d I s l a n d . 2 2 4 . C H I : a n ( d ) w h e n K a t h y i s a w a y i n M o n ( t ) r e a l I g o c a m p i n g . 2 2 5 . C H I : a n d a n d a f t e r I g o c a m p i n g I p a c k u p m y s u i t c a s e . . . Although the child answers the researcher's question that uses the temporal unit "summer time," it appears that the child replies referencing a specific occurrence and not a general one. Again, this example suggests that the child prefers a heterogeneous construal of 104 events as opposed to a homogenous one. Moreover, the child uses a false start which may again indicate processing difficulties. This chapter has shown that children with A S D demonstrate competence with some of the most basic metaphors of time; however, when these metaphors elicit multiple temporal points or motivate a homogeneous construal of time, the children with A S D appear to struggle with these expressions. Discoursal patterns coinciding include minimal and non-elaborative responses, false starts, and the need for the question to be rephrased. A second pattern that concerns temporal specificity emerged among the texts analyzed. Several children showed the tendency to construe time and temporal events in smaller than typical units. This observation somewhat differs from the previous pattern. In this pattern, the children show competence is expressing time but construe time in overly specific units. Three examples are provided. Minutes are used as opposed to hours and a two-year period may be divided into 2 single-year segments. Text 3 provides the first example: 9 8 . R E S : h o w l o n g d i d i t t a k e y o u W i l l ? 9 9 . R E S : < j u s t a b o u t > [>] . 1 0 0 . C H I : < i t > [<] . 1 0 1 . C H I : i t t o o k i t t o o k w o i t t o o k f i v e h u n d r e d a n d s i x t y f o u r m i n u t e s . 1 0 2 . R E S : d i d i t r e a l l y ? 1 0 3 . C H I : i t t o o k f i v e h u n d r e d a n d s i x t y f o u r m i n u t e s . In lines 98 through 103, "it" refers to a (car) drive. We would expect typical speakers to be more general and to describe the length of time using hours, not minutes. Note that the child's response begins with a false start. A second example shows that in text 4 the child construes a length of time using smaller than typical units: 105 1 3 1 . R E S h o w d o e s s h e l i k e T o r o n t o ? 1 3 2 . C H I s h e l i k e s i t < w o n d e r b a r > [! ] 1 3 3 . R E S mmhm? 1 3 4 . C H I b u t s h e h a s n t v i s i t me l a s t 1 3 5 . R E S u m . In lines 131 through 135, "she" refers to the child's little cousin. The child describes the period of time that his cousin has not visited Toronto in terms of 2 1 -year increments. We would expect typical speakers to simply state that Ingrid has not been to Toronto in the past 2 years. A third example in text 3 shows that a child construes a length of time in terms of a series of shorter events as opposed to a longer continuous event: 1 9 1 . R E S : h m h o w l o n g h a v e y o u b e e n d o i n g t h a t ? 1 9 2 . C H I : I h a v e b e e n d o i n g i t f o r t w e l ( v e ) I h a v e d I h a v e d o n e i t f o r t w e l v e r i d e s - : . 1 9 3 . R E S : t w e l v e r i d e s o h . 1 9 4 . C H I : y e s - : . In lines 191 through 194, "that" and "it" refers to the activity of horseback riding. The child does not answer the researcher's question. Instead of stating a length of time that he has done the activity, the child expresses the number of times as a sequence of the same event. The length of time is therefore construed in terms of a series of smaller temporal events as opposed to a single, continuous duration of time. Note again that the child begins his response with a false start. The above examples from texts 3 and 4 provide further evidence that children with A S D experience difficulties with temporal specificity. These difficulties are apparent where utterances prompt for multiple temporal points in terms of generalizations and where utterances prompt for events or ongoing events where smaller units can be used. Again, the observations in texts 3 and 4 suggest that the child uses a heterogeneous construal of time. Two 1-year increments heterogeneously differentiate one year for the 106 other whereas the more typical expression "two years" construes the period of time as homogeneous. Twelve rides also construes the 12 events as heterogeneous entities while the more typical "12 times" expression assumes an ongoing homogeneous recurrence of the same event. The majority of these findings are observed in texts 3, 4, and 7 where children demonstrate the ability to use a greater variety of temporal metaphors, metonymies, and sense of time. The data examined suggest that children with A S D may construe and communicate time differently. Where typical speakers would likely use the lexeme "t ime" and senses of time, the child construed time and senses of time in unconventional ways. There is comprehension of the researcher's utterances that used the Commodity, Duration, and Moment Senses of time; however, the Instance Sense is the only sense of time used by child 3 in the 9 texts. Chi ld 3 uses the lexeme "once" on two occasions that prompt for the Instance Sense of time. "Once" is a contextually appropriate variant of the Instance Sense and is therefore construed as "one time" in text 3: 8 2 . C H I : m y f a t h e r w e n t t h e r e w a n m y f a t h e r a n d I w e n t t h e r e o n c e b e f o r e g r a d e # w e n t t h e r e o n c e b e f o r e g r a d e f i v e s t a r t e d . 2 0 6 . C H I : a n d b y a n d o n e a n d o n c e m y m o t h e r a n d I g o t i t i n um J u l y a n d A u g u s t # b o u g h t i t i n J u n e a n d A u g u s t . Yet none of the children used the lexeme "t ime" itself, and in several instances, time is construed unconventionally. In text 4, we see that the child construed the length of time he has being going horseback riding as "twelve rides": . 1 9 2 . C H I : I h a v e b e e n d o i n g i t f o r t w e l ( v e ) I h a v e d I h a v e d o n e i t f o r t w e l v e r i d e s - : . This construal uses 12 consecutive events to describe a length of time. It is unusual as we would expect typical speakers to use the Instance Sense of time. For example, "I have 107 done it twelve t imes." H o w indiv iduals w i th A S D use senses o f t ime warrants further invest igat ion as these two examples show both competency and diff icul t ies w i t h the Instance Sense o f t ime. Further analysis o f texts where speakers w i t h A S D use the lexeme " t ime" w o u l d provide more evidence for patterns i n the use o f senses o f t ime. 108 CONCLUSION T h i s chapter has identif ied that speakers w i t h A S D do comprehend and produce temporal metaphors, temporal metonymies , and senses o f t ime. The analysis found that i n general, the chi ldren i n the 9 texts use the T i m e Orientat ion and M o v i n g Observer metaphors the most often. Me tonymies o f t ime and the less basic metaphors o f t ime are used less by the ch i ld ren w i t h A S D . C h i l d r e n w i t h A S D used E v a n s ' senses o f t ime the least. In addi t ion to these general observations, it was identif ied that the majori ty o f ch i ldren w i t h A S D used fewer temporal metaphors, metonymies , and senses o f t ime than the researcher. U p o n closer examinat ion, it was found that ch i ldren i n text 3, 4, and 7, are exceptions who used the T i m e Orientat ion and M o v i n g Observer metaphors more frequently than the researcher. The ch i ld ren i n text 1, 3, 4, and 7 are i n fact the only ch i ld ren who used other metaphors, metonymies , and sense o f t ime, besides the T i m e Orienta t ion metaphor and the M o v i n g Observer metaphor. Moreove r , patterns are ident i f ied among speakers that suggest d i f f icul ty w i t h t ime i n general iz ing events. General izat ions prompt for mul t ip le temporal points and motivate homogeneous construals o f events and t ime. Other specific patterns that were identif ied include difficult ies w i t h specif ici ty i n terms o f temporal units and diff icul t ies w i t h senses o f t ime and the lexeme " t ime ." The most obvious examples o f these patterns are found i n texts 3, 4, and 7. The ch i ld ren wi th A S D i n texts 3, 4, and 7 are the ch i ld ren that used the greatest variety o f metaphors, metonymies , and senses o f t ime; yet, these ch i ld ren are among the ones that demonstrated the greatest diff icult ies w i th generalizations, specif ic i ty , and the lexeme " t ime ." C h i l d r e n responded to generalizations or questions that required 109 construals involving multiple temporal points with responses that were unlikely or that used false starts. They required the question to be restated or replied with utterances that did not answer the question. Lengths of time were observed to be construed in smaller than usual units. The lexeme "t ime" was never used and where the lexeme "t ime" would typically be expected, the child replaced "t ime" with a series of events. The child did comprehend the researcher's utterances that used senses of time and also used the lexeme, "once." These observations suggest that children with A S D have the tendency to express heterogeneous construals of time and struggle with expressions that motivate homogeneous construals. Further analysis of the lexeme "t ime" with a specific focus on temporal cycles and recurrence may provide interesting and more conclusive findings that would help better understand how individuals with A S D use the lexeme "time." The fact that the research participants did not use the lexeme "t ime" suggests that Evans' approach to time has limited applications in the context of the discourse of individuals with A S D . This limit provides further insight into the analysis of time as the research participants were able to express time and temporality without using the lexeme. This observation suggests that conceptual metaphor, in general, may be a more effective way to discuss the cognitive aspects of time. Although Evans' framework enables a discussion in this thesis, it precedes the theory of conceptual metaphor in the context of speakers with A S D . Throughout texts 1 through 9, many of the child's utterances demonstrate unusual temporal construals that we would not expect in typical conversations. These utterances violate or ignore contextual factors and protocol of conversational discourse. Unusual utterances among the children examined were largely found to be uttered by the children 110 who used the greatest variety of metaphors, metonymies, and senses of time. Context and genre establish the generally accepted conventions of conversation. A definite relationship exists between the expressions analyzed and story telling genres. A variety of general and specific observations concerning temporal expressions are noted in this chapter. Ill CHAPTER 6 - CONCLUSION This thesis examined temporal discourse produced by 9 speakers with A S D from two linguistic disciplines in a complementary way. First, using speech genre analysis, this thesis explored the ways in which individuals with A S D structured stretches of texts that involve sequences of events. These stretches of text were described following a framework from Eggins and Slade (1997) and Plum (2004) and patterns in the use of speech genre types and generic stages were identified across all 9 texts. Second, these same stretches of text were examined for temporal conceptual metaphors, metonymies and senses of time following Lakoff and Johnson (1999) and Evans (2003). The speakers' uses of conceptual metaphors, metonymies, and senses of time were described and patterns in the linguistic expressions of these devices were identified across the 9 texts. The examination of semi-structured conversational texts is an interesting line of inquiry as individuals with A S D struggle with contextually appropriate discourse in conversation (de Vi l l iers et al., 2006). The "storytelling genres" (Eggins & Slade, 1997) in such texts also place relatively high demands on semantic and episodic memory (Asp & de Vi l l iers, forthcoming). Thus the data was well-suited to this inquiry. The speech genre analysis was found to be an effective means of better understanding the ways in which these individuals contextually use and vary language in spoken discourse. Time and temporal concepts were another engaging area to examine as these concepts are largely communicated using conceptual metaphor. It is widely acknowledged, individuals with A S D struggle the interpretation and use of figurative metaphor, tending to interpret metaphors in an overly literal way. By combining these two approaches, it was found that 112 the individuals with A S D investigated have problems with temporal specificity in the context of storytelling conversations. Speech genre analysis of the stretches of temporal texts found that children with A S D engaged exclusively in Specific Recounts, General Recounts, and Procedures. The research participants did not use Narratives, Anecdotes, or Exemplums as speech genre types in the stretches extracted from the 9 texts. Among the generic stages of the speech genre types, children used Records of Events the most, followed by Orientations, and Evaluations. A pattern also emerged where children with A S D appeared to have a tendency to use Records of Events. This finding was based on the observation that a large number of Records of Events were found, that children ignored utterances that interrupted Records of Events, they returned to Records of Events i f they were interrupted, and they provided Records of Events when other generic stages were solicited. The research participants in texts 3 and 7 appeared to have stronger conversational abilities marked by longer dialogue between turns and the ability to use a variety of unsolicited generic stages. These same children were the participants who also described multiple events in serial order and produced discontinuously realized Records of Events. Interestingly, although the participants from texts 3 and 7 may have had stronger conversational abilities, they were inflexible with temporal conjunction use. They largely sequenced events using "then" or "and (then)." In contrast, the participants in texts 1,5, and 9 showed weaker conversational abilities marked by fewer or no unsolicited and optional generic stages. Children in texts 2 and 8 also had weaker conversational abilities. They exhibited what may have been coping techniques that 113 included mirroring the researcher's responses, using minimal responses, and probing for specific questions. The analysis of temporal conceptual metaphors, metonymies, and senses of time found several general patterns. The research participants with ASD used the Time Orientation and Moving Observer metaphors the most frequently. They used metonymies of time, the Time is a Resource metaphor, and the Time is Money metaphor less frequently and Evans' senses of time the least. The research participants in texts 3, 4, and 7 used the most and the greatest variety of temporal conceptual metaphors, metonymies, and senses of time. The remaining participants used the Time Orientation metaphor and the Moving Observer metaphor, but very few or none of the other conceptual metaphors, metonymies, or senses of time. Other patterns in the use of conceptual metaphors, metonymies, and senses of time suggest that some children with ASD were more able to interpret the above temporal expressions as opposed to producing them. The research participants appeared to be more able to comprehend some temporal conceptual metaphors uttered by the researcher, but lacked the resources to use theses same metaphors in contextually appropriate ways. A number of expressions of conceptual metaphors, metonymies, and senses of time uttered by the children demonstrated an attempt to use the expression but difficulties with specificity resulted in utterances that were unexpected or unconventional, Some children further experienced difficulties with generalizations, unspecific construals of time, or consturals that prompted for multiple temporal points. The research participants also expressed time in smaller than typical units, tended to construe events heterogeneously, and where the lexeme "time" would normally occur, expressed the lexical item in 114 unconventional ways. The most obvious examples were found in texts 3, 4, and 7, where children were the most able at using conceptual metaphors, metonymies, and senses of time. Although time is typically expressed using figurative and conceptual metaphors, individuals who struggle with figurative expressions showed general competency with some conceptual metaphors of time; specifically, these conceptual metaphors were the Time Orientation and Moving Observer metaphors. Conceptual metaphors differ from figurative metaphors in their intensity of conventionality. Individuals with A S D are knows to have difficulties with figurative expressions but the findings of this thesis indicate that the research participants interpreted and produced linguistic expressions that used conventional (conceptual) metaphors of time. Overall, patterns from the two analytic approaches employed suggest interesting possibilities. Specifically, a relationship was found between stronger conversational ability and a stronger ability to use speech genre, conceptual metaphors, metonymies, and senses of time. In addition, unconventional patterns in the use of speech genre, metaphors, metonymies, and senses of time seemed to occur among the most conversationally able speakers with A S D . It appears that there is a relationship between conversational success and conceptual metaphor use in A S D and further studies in this area are warranted. The findings also suggest that unconventional use of speech genre types and metaphor are not necessarily indicative of conversational ability in A S D . Further studies would be needed to explore this hypothesis. The children in texts 3 and 7 were the children that used the most and the greatest variety of generic stages and speech genre types in the stretches of texts extracted from 115 the 9 transcripts. Children in texts 3, 4, and 7 used the most and greatest variety of temporal metaphors, metonymies, and sense of time in the same in the same 9 texts. These observations suggest that speakers who are more able to use speech genre types and stages may also be more able to use temporal conceptual metaphors, metonymies, and senses of time. Both the analyses show specific difficulties with speech genre use and conceptual metaphor use. Speech genre analysis revealed that although the children in texts 3 and 7 had stronger conversational abilities marked by their varied use of generic stages, longer turns, and the ability to produce discontinuously realized Records of Events and Records of Events that described multiple events in serial order, their use of temporal conjunctions was unvaried. They largely sequenced events in serial order using "then" and "and (then)." The child in text 3 was overly specific with his description of events, causing the researcher to mistake the child's Recount for an Anecdote. This child also provided many obvious examples where he either ignored utterances by the researcher that interrupted Records of Events or responded to the researcher's utterances and then returned to the Record of Events. It may be that individuals with A S D who are more conversationally able favour the Recount genre. The unvaried use of conjunctions, the specific description of events, and the tendency to return to Records of Events are all unconventional conversational qualities that support and may even encourage children with A S D to use the Record of Events stage of the Recount genre. Metaphor analysis revealed that these same children were among the most apparent to construe time and temporal events in unconventional ways. Chi ld 3 was overly specific and described 9 hours and 24 minutes as "f ive hundred and sixty four 116 minutes." This child also described the fact that he had gone horseback riding 12 times as "twelve rides," an example that suggests the child may replace the more conventional expression using the lexeme "t ime" with the lexeme "ride." Furthermore, as discussed, "twelve rides" suggests a heterogeneous construal of temporal events where each ride may be different, whereas "12 times" would suggest 12 occasions of the same event. Both the children in texts 3 and 7 appeared to have difficulties with generalizations. Questions that solicited multiple temporal points and then required the child to generalize, (e.g. "What do you usually do in the evenings?", were ignored by the child or needed to be rephrased by the researcher. A recurring pattern that was apparent among the most conversationally engaged children with A S D was the inappropriate use of detail. From speech genre analysis, difficulties with specificity appeared in the detailed description of events. From conceptual metaphor analysis, this same difficulty appeared in the use of smaller temporal units, generalized events, and the recurrence of similar events. It is l ikely that the less conversationally engaged individuals with A S D may experience these same difficulties; however, these patters may be more difficult to detect because of the ways these individuals participate in conversation. Speech genre analysis showed that the less conversationally engaged individuals required more structure from the researcher, did not elaborate, and tended to use minimal and polar responses. Individuals with A S D who were less conversationally engaged appeared, at times, to compensate for their difficulties. As just noted, speech genre analysis showed that these individuals participated in a turn-taking pattern where the researcher would ask a question and the child would respond to the question. On occasion, the child did not 117 respond to questions, provided unlikely answers, or copied the researcher's responses. The speech genre analysis also showed that the less conversationally engaged children appeared not to elaborate and one child used probes to solicit specific questions from the researcher. The analysis of conceptual metaphor showed that these same children used fewer conceptual metaphors, metonymies, and senses of time and largely used only the Time Orientation metaphor and the Moving Observer metaphor. Again, the limited use of metaphors can be linked back to patterns found from speech genre analysis. These individuals often provided responses to questions that were minimal and unelaborative; therefore, limited use of metaphor, metonymies, and senses of time could be expected. All the research participants showed unconventional patterns in their use of storytelling speech genres, conceptual metaphors, metonymies, and senses of time. The more conversationally engaged individuals showed specific difficulties with both speech genre and conceptual metaphor that related to specificity of time and temporal events in different ways. The less conversationally engaged individuals also showed difficulties and sometimes techniques that helped compensate for their difficulties with speech genre and conceptual metaphor. Conversational specificity is highly dependent on context and in this thesis specificity in relation to speech genre and conceptual metaphors of time was identified as a particular area of difficulty for individuals with ASD. Although individuals with ASD may experience difficulties with speech genre, they do appear use genre and generic stages in conversation, but in unconventional ways. This finding suggests that speakers with ASD do rely on context and attempt to make shared and meaningful contributions in conversational discourse. 118 Individuals with ASD also used metaphors, metonymies, and senses of time in unconventional ways. Difficulties with conceptual metaphors are rooted in specificity. The fact that the speakers with ASD used temporal conceptual metaphors, metonymies, and senses of time indicates that they attempted to make shared temporal contributions in spoken discourse. Their success in using some conceptual metaphors also serves as a contribution to the philosophy of time, since metaphor use, especially in spoken discourse, is particularly sensitive to context. People with ASD who struggle with figurative metaphor comprehend and produce some conceptual metaphors, metonymies, and senses of time. Most interestingly, the research participants showed competency with some of the most conventionalized metaphors of time. Conceptual metaphors explored in this thesis are among the most conventionalized temporal metaphors. As figurative metaphors are extensions of conceptual metaphors, temporal metaphors exist on a continuum that ranges from conventional (conceptual) metaphors to poetic (figurative) metaphors. Individuals with ASD must reach a point on the continuum of the conventionality of metaphors where they begin to struggle with metaphorical expression. The tendency for individuals to use a limited number of conceptual metaphors in this thesis provides evidence that individuals with ASD begin to show difficulties with figurative language somewhere at the conceptual level. The point at which these difficulties begin to appear warrants further investigation. 119 W O R K S C I T E D Bakhtin M . M . (1986). Speech Genres and Other Late Essays. Trans. V . W. McGee. Austin: University of Texas Press. de Vi l l iers, J. & Asp, E. (forthcoming). 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Victoria, Australia: Oxford University Press. Mart in, J. R. & Plum, G. A . (1997). Construing Experience: Some Story Genres. Journal of Narrative and Life History, 7 (1-4), 299-308. Plum, G.A. (2004). Text and Contextual Condition in Spoken English: A Genre-based Approach. [Online]. Available U R L http://ses.librarv.usvd.edu.aU/bitstream/2123/608/2/adt-NU20040629.09514001 front.pdf 121 APPENDIX 1 Temporal Stretches Extracted from 9 Transcripts TEMPORAL STRETCHES: TRANSCRIPT 1 G E N E R A L R E C O U N T 1 O R I E N T A T I O N 7 9 . R E S : w h a t d o y o u d o w h e n y o u g o h o m e f r o m s c h o o l W i l l | R E C 0 R D O F E V E N T S 8 0 . C H I : a h - : I p l a y g a m e s . S P E C I F I C R E C O U N T 1 1 3 8 . R E S : 1 3 9 . C H I : 1 4 0 . R E S : 1 4 1 . R E S : 1 4 2 . C H I : 1 4 3 . R E S : 1 4 4 . C H I : 1 4 5 . R E S : 1 4 6 . R E S : 1 4 7 . R E S : 1 4 8 . C H I : 1 4 9 . R E S : 1 5 0 . R E S : O R I E N T A T I O N s o d o y o u l i k e p i z z a W i l l ? rarahra. R E C O R D O F E V E N T S I h a d p i z z a l a s t n i g h t f o r s u p p e r . O R I E N T A T I O N w h a t d i d y o u h a v e f o r s u p p e r l a s t n i g h t ? R E C O R D O F E V E N T S I h a d p i z z a t o o . d i d y o u ? y e a h . o h - : . R E C O R D O F E V E N T S a n d t h e n i g h t b e f o r e I h a d p o r k c h o p s . O R I E N T A T I O N c a n y o u r e m e m b e r w h a t y o u h a d t h e n i g h t b e f o r e ? R E C O R D O F E V E N T S p o r k c h o p s t o o . y o u h a d p o r k c h o p s t o o . h m . F U T U R E P R O J E C T I O N 1 1 5 1 . R E S w h a t a r e y o u h a v i n g t o n i g h t # f o r s u p p e r ? 1 5 2 . R E S d o y o u k n o w ? 1 5 3 . C H I I ' m h a v i n g r i c e f o r s u p p e r t o n i g h t . 1 5 4 . R E S o h w h a t d o y o u e a t w i t h t h e r i c e ? 1 5 5 . C H I t u r k e y . 1 5 6 . R E S t u r k e y a n d r i c e . 1 5 7 . R E S t h a t s o u n d s d e l i c i o u s . 1 5 8 . R E S m m h m . TEMPORAL STRETCHES: TRANSCRIPT 2 F U T U R E P R O J E C T I O N 1 1 . R E S t o d a y i s J u n e t h e s i x t h . 2 . R E S a n d < I > [>] . 3 . C H I < f i f t h > [<] . 4 . R E S i s i t t h e f i f t h ? 5 . C H I y e s . 6 . C H I t o m o r r o w ' s t h e s i x t h 7 . R E S o h o k a y . 8 . R E S t o d a y i s J u n e t h e f i f t h . G E N E R A L R E C O U N T 1 O R I E N T A T I O N 2 1 9 . R E S : 2 2 0 . C H I : 2 2 1 . R E S : 2 2 2 . C H I : 2 2 3 . R E S : 2 2 4 . C H I : 2 2 5 . R E S : 2 2 6 . C H I : 2 2 7 . R E S : 2 2 8 . C H I : 2 2 9 . R E S : 2 3 0 . R E S : 2 3 1 . C H I : 2 3 2 . R E S : 2 3 3 . C H I : 2 3 4 . R E S : 2 3 5 . C H I : s o w h a t d o y o u d o o n t h e w e e k e n d s W i l l ? n o t h i n g . R E C O R D O F E V E N T S d o y o u h a v e a w o r k e r t h a t c o m e s ? n o p e . a n d s p e n d s s o m e t i m e w i t h y o u ? y e s . O R I E N T A T I O N hm w h a t ' s h i s n a m e ? T o m . R E C O R D O F E V E N T S ] a n d w h a t d o y o u d o w i t h T o m ? g o o u t w i t h h i m . mmhm? O R I E N T A T I O N ! w h a t d o y o u d o w h e n y o u ' r e o u t ? [ p l a y g o l f . R E C O R D O F E V E N T S 1 g o l f ? y e s , E V A L U A T I O N / C O D A ^ o h t h a t ' s e x c i t i n g , y e s . TEMPORAL STRETCHES: TRANSCRIPT 3 S P E C I F I C R E C O U N T 1 - D I S C O U N T I N U O U S L Y R E A L I Z E D ABSTRACT 9. 10 . 11. 12. 13. 14 . 15. 16. 1.7 . 18 . 19. 20. 21. RES : CHI: RES: CHI: RES : RES CHI CHI CHI CHI RES RES CHI RES CHI CHI CHI I hear you went on a h o l i d a y r e c e n t l y . I [>] • ORIENTATION <where d i d you go?> [<] I went t o T o r o n t o and K i n g s b u r y . EVALUATION wow. I l i k e your a c c e n t , yes . yes . you l o v e my a c c e n t . I d you do. mmhm. RECORD OF EVENTS what d i d you see i n T o r o n t o ? <I> [>] • <or in> [<] T o r o n t o ? f i r s t I went t o K i n g s b u r y . and v i s i t e d my aunt Eddy and Judy W i n s t o n . on on Tuesday and Wednesday Judy W i n s t o n and J we b o t h went t o t h e a i r p o r t t o p i c k up Sophie. 22. CHI: (a)n(d) Sophie i n t r o d u c e d us t o a band c a l l e d t h e W a l l f l o w e r s w i t h Jacob D i l l o n i n i t . 23. 24 . 25. 26. 27 . RES CHI RES CHI CHI oh where does t h e band p l a y ? from A m e r i c a , oh from A m e r i c a . Sophie and I went t o Recordman. and a t Recordnan Recordman we found a S t a n Rogers tape !] w i t h two r a d i o p l a y e r s c a l l e d H a r r i s and the c a l l e d P o e t i c J u s t i c e major and the s i s t e r s . 28. CHI: um J Sophie found a Sophie found a t h i n g t h a t wasn't Tom W a i t s wasn't t h e Wake i t wasn't R i c k W a k e f i e l d but i t was t h e W a l l f l o w e r s # c a l l e d b r i n g i n g down the h o r s e . 29. CHI: i t was the o n l y W a l l f l o w e r s album t h e y e v e r r e c o r d e d A N E C D O T E REACTION 30. RES: ORIENTATION 31. 32. 33. 34 . RES RES CHI RES had you h e a r d about them b e f o r e ? t h i s group? no! no? RECORD OF EVENTS uh t h e . s o t h e n we went t o an a n t i q u e shop, and t h e n back t o V i n y l Records.. when I f l i p p e d t h r o u g h the the l e t t e r b i n the Bowie 35. CHI 36. CHI 37. CHI [!] s e c t i o n I found Changes [!] One Bowie. 38. CHI: t i l l I was s t o p p e d dead by t h e b l u e r a i n c o a t s t a r i n g out from t h e new J e n n i f e r Warnes album c a l l e d Famous B l u e R a i n c o a t . 39. CHI: and I got i t on LP and c a s s e t t e . and t h e n i n t h e Cohen [!] s e c t i o n I r i f l e d t h r o u g h 125 4 0 . C H I : a n d t h e n w e a n d t h e n w e w e n t h o m e t o a n d t h e n a n d t h e n w e f o u h o m e a n d t h e n w e d r o v e b a c k t o K i n g s b u r y a n d K i n g s b u r y . 4 1 . C H I : a n d l i s t e n e d t o i t o n t h e w a y - : a y t h e r e . 4 2 . C H I : a n d a t K i n g s b u r y I a t e s o m e l a s a g n a a n d b u t t e r s c o t c h i c e c r e a m . 4 3 . C H I : a n d w e w e n t o u t s i d e a t n i g h t a n d p l a y e d i n t h e s n o w um < a n d > [>] . 4 4 . R E S : < d o y o u > [<] . 4 5 . C H I : t h e n e x t d a y I w e I w e n t t o t h e b o o k s h o p . 4 6 . C H I : a n d g o t t h e E n g l i s h v e r s i o n o f t h e J u d i t h B e o r i s b o o k A l e x a n d e r A n d T h e T e r r i b l e H o r r i b l e N o G o o d V e r y B a d D a y < w h i c h I l o v e d > [>] • 4 7 . 4 8 . 4 9 . 5 0 . R E S R E S C H I R E S C H I : 5 1 . f a r m . 5 2 . C H I : O R I E N T A T I O N < e x c u s e me W i l l > [<] . d i d y o u h a v e c o u s i n s t h e r e t o p l a y w i t h t o o ? n o - : ! n o j u s t < a d u l t s e h hm> [>] ? R E C O R D O F E V E N T S ! < i t ' s i n > [<] t h e n I w e n t t o B i l l y a n d N a n c y ' s d a i r y < a n d > [>] . O R I E N T A T I O N 5 3 . R E S < h o w m a n y u h > [<] c o w s w o u l d t h e y h a v e o n t h a t d a i r y f a r m ? 54 . C H I t h e y h a d a l o t [ ! ] . 5 5 . R E S l i k e a b o u t t w e n t y o r f i f t y o r w h a t w o u l d y o u t h i n k ? 5 6 . C H I t t w e n t y t w o . 5 7 . R E S t w e n t y t w o ? 5 8 . C H I < y e a h > [>] 5 9 . R E S < a n d w> [<] w h a t w h a t c o l o u r s w e r e t h e y ? 6 0 . R E S w e r e t h e y H o l s t i e n s b l a c k a n d w h i t e o n e s o r w e r e . 6 1 . C H I t h e y w e r e b l a c k a n d w h i t e H o l s t i e n s . 6 2 . R E S w e r e t h e y ? 6 3 . R E S u h h u h . R E C O R D O F E V E N T S 64 . C H I e x c u s e me a n d e x c u s e me a n d t h e n w e w e n t h o m e . 6 5 . C H I a n d I w e n t o u t s i d e a g a i n . 6 6 . C H I a n d I t o o k a b a t h . 6 7 . C H I a n d t h e n [ ! ] I w e n t t o s l e e p . 6 8 . C H I a n d t h e n I w e n t t o b e d . 6 9 C H I a n d t u r n e d o f f t h e l i g h t . 7 0 C H I t h e n e x t m o r n i n g I p a c k e d m y s u i t c a s e u p . 7 1 C H I a n d w e w e n t b a c k t o T o r o n t o . 7 2 C H I b u t m y f a t h e r w a s g o n e . 7 3 C H I I s a t d o w n a n d r e a d - : 7 4 C H I a n d s u d d e n l y m y f a t h e r w e n t m y f a t h e r c a m e b a c k . 7 5 C H I h e w a l k e d me o v e r t o t h e S a m ' s o n Y o n g e s t r e e t . 7 6 C H I a n d B l o o r s t r e e t - : . 7 7 C H I a n d I . O R I E N T A T I O N 7 8 R E S w h a t ' s t h a t p l a c e W i l l ? 7 9 C H I i t ' s a i t ' s a n e w S a m ' s < w h e r e > [>] t h e y h a v e u s e d L P s . 8 0 R E S < w h e r e > [<] . R E C O R D O F E V E N T S 8 1 C H I b u t I a m s o r r y t h e y d i d n o t h a v e a n y J e s s y [ ! ] W i n c h e s t e r L P s t h e r e . 126 8 2 . C H I : m y f a t h e r w e n t t h e r e w a n m y f a t h e r a n d I w e n t t h e r e o n c e b e f o r e g r a d e # w e n t t h e r e o n c e b e f o r e g r a d e f i v e s t a r t e d . 8 3 . C H I : a n d w e # f o u n d t w o n e w o n e s # L e a r n t o L o v e I t a n d T a l k M e m p h i s F o r M e . 8 4 . C H I : a n d t h ( e n ) a n d t h e n [ ! ] a s w e w e n t t o t h e S a m ' s o n B l o o r s t r e e t I f o u n d J e s s y W i n c h e s t e r ' s f i r s t a l b u m [ ! ] a n d t h e n a l b u m [ ! ] a n d h i s e i g h t h i s s i x t h o n e c a l l e d T o u c h O n T h e R a i n y S i d e a n ( d ) a n d a n d w e p a y a n d a t a p e o f M e n d l e s o n J o e c a l l e d B o r n T o C u d d l e s o C u d d l e . h o m e 8 5 . C H I a n d w e p a i d f o r t h e m . 8 6 . C H I a n d t h e n we w a l k e d o v e r t o V a n h o u t s . 8 7 . C H I a n d I a t e a n a n a i m o b a r a n d d r a n k s o m e w a t e r . 8 8 . C H I a n d a t a x i [ ! ] p i c k e d u s u p . 8 9 . C H I a n d a n d a t a x i c a m e a n d t o o k u s b a c k a n d t o o k t o T o r o n t o # < a n d > [>] O R I E N T A T I O N 9 0 . R E S 9 1 . R E S 9 2 . C H I 9 3 . R E S 94 . R E S 9 5 . R E S 9 6 . C H I 9 7 . R E S 9 8 . C H I 9 9 . R E S 1 0 0 C H I : 1 0 1 C H I : m i n u t e s 1 0 2 R E S : 1 0 3 C H I : 1 0 4 . C H I : 1 0 5 . C H I : 1 0 6 . R E S : <um > [<] h o w d i d y o u g e t t o T o r o n t o ? d i d y o u f l y o r d i d y o u g o b y c a r ? s h w e w e n t b y c a r - : . y e a h ? E V A L U A T I O N w a s i t a l o n g d r i v e ? i t m u s t h a v e b e e n e h ? i t w a s a l o n g d r i v e . m m h m . h o w l o n g d i d i t t a k e y o u W i l l ? < j u s t a b o u t > [>] . < i t > [<] . i t t o o k i t t o o k w o i t t o o k f i v e h u n d r e d a n d s i x t y f o u r d i d i t r e a l l y ? i t t o o k f i v e h u n d r e d a n d s i x t y f o u r m i n u t e s . e n o u g h t o m a k e me s w e a t . a n d t h e c a r t r i p w a s l o n g [ ! ] . m m h m . O R I E N T A T I O N 1 0 7 R E S d i d y o u s l e e p d u r i n g t h e c a r t r i p ? 1 0 8 C H I n o - : ! 1 0 9 R E S n o ? 1 1 0 C H I I w a s a w a k e d u r i n g t h e t r i p . 1 1 1 R E S mmhm? R E C O R D O F E V E N T S 1 1 2 C H I a n d I s l e p a n d I s l i p a n d I s l e p t o n a m a t t r e s s a t h o m e . 1 1 3 R E S mmhm? 1 1 4 C H I a t t r e s s a f t e r t h e m a t t r e s s i n m y g r a n d m o t h e r a n d g r a n d f a t h e r ' s a p a r t m e n t . 1 1 5 C H I a n d t h e n e x t m o r n i n g w h e n I w o k e u p I h a d s o m e b r e a d a n d p e a n u t b u t t e r f o r b r e a k f a s t . 1 1 6 C H I a n d t h e n . 1 1 7 C H I e k e a k f a s t 1 1 8 C H I a n d t h e n I h a d t o p a c k u p . 1 1 9 C H I a n d d e p a r t e d f o r h o m e . 1 2 0 C H I a n d I c r i e d a b o u t l e a v i n g T o r o n t o . 1 2 1 R E S d i d y o u ? 1 2 2 C H I y e s . E V A L U A T I O N 1 2 3 . R E S : I s u p p o s e i t w a s s a d l e a v i n g y o u r g r a n d p a r e n t s e h ? 127 1 2 4 . C H I : y e s i t w a s s a d -... ( C O N T I N U E D 3 4 L I N E S L A T E R ) E V A L U A T I O N / C O D A ^ 1 5 8 . R E S : s o y o u h a d a p r e t t y g o o d t r i p . 1 5 9 . C H I : < y e s - : > [>] . 1 6 0 . R E S : < s o u n d s l i k e > [<] . 1 6 1 . R E S : y e a h . FUTURE PROJECTION 1 1 2 5 . R E S : d o t h e y c o m e a n d v i s i t 1 2 6 . C H I : y e s . 1 2 7 . C H I : < t h e y ' r e c o m i n g > t h e s u m m e r i n J u l y [ ! ] . 1 2 8 . R E S : < o h t h a t ' s n i c e > [<] . 1 2 9 . R E S : . o h t h a t ' l l b e n i c e . 1 3 0 . C H I : i n J u . 1 3 1 . C H I : y e s . [ N o t e : i n F u t u r e P r o j e c t i o n 1 t h e y y o u h e r e t o o ? [>] a n ( d ) v i s i t a n d v i s i t i n g me i n = g r a n d p a r e n t s ] GENERAL RECOUNT 1 O R I E N T A T I O N 1 3 2 . R E S 1 3 3 . C H I 1 3 4 . R E S 1 3 5 . C H I 1 3 6 . R E S 1 3 7 . R E S 1 3 8 . C H I 1 3 9 . R E S a f a r m w h e r e d o y o u k n o w w h e n y o u w e r e a t K i n g s b u r y W i l l , w h e r e ? y o u r e m e m b e r w h e n y o u w e r e a t K i n g s b u r y ? w h a t ? w h e n y o u v i s i t e d K i n g s b u r y , d o y o u r e m e m b e r t h a t s t h a t t o w n ? y e s . w h e n y o u w e r e t h e r e y o u w e r e o n l y a b o u t a h a l f a n h o u r f r o m I y u I g r e w u p . 1 4 0 . C H I w h a t f a r m i s t h a t ? 1 4 1 . R E S w e l l t h a t ' s w h e r e m y mom a n d d a d o w n e d a f a r m . R E C O R D O F E V E N T S 1 4 2 . R E S a n d I l i v e d w h e n I w a s a l i t t l e g i r l . 1 4 3 . C H I y e s [ ! ] . 1 4 4 . R E S a n d m y mom u s e d t o d r i v e a h a l f a n h o u r . 1 4 5 . R E S a n d t e a c h i n K i n g s b u r y . 1 4 6 . R E S s h e t a u g h t h i g h s c h o o l . O R I E N T A T I O N 1 4 7 . C H I < d i d s h e > [> ? 1 4 8 . R E S < d o y o u k n o w > [<] d o y o u k n o w d o y o u k n o w w h a t s u b j e c t s h e t a u g h t ? 1 4 9 . C H I w h a t [ ! ] d i d s h e t e a c h ? 1 5 0 . R E S s h e t a u g h t - : m a t h e m a t i c s # t o h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s . 1 5 1 . C H I m y t m y t m y t e a m y t e a c h e r t e a c h e s g e o g r a p h y [ ! ] . 1 5 2 . R E S d o e s s h e ? 1 5 3 . C H I g e o g r a p h y f r o m C a n a d a -1 5 4 . R E S mmhm? E V A L U A T I O N / C O D A ^ 128 1 5 5 . R E S : i t ' s i n t e r e s t i n g t o l e a r n a b o u t y o u r o w n c o u n t r y i n g e o g r a p h y i s n ' t i t ? 1 5 6 . C H I : y e s - : . 1 5 7 . R E S : mmhm - : . F U T U R E P R O J E C T I O N 2 1 6 6 . C H I : o h f o h f o h D o r i s p l e a s e D o r i s p l e a s e s t o p t h e t a p e . 1 6 7 . C H I : a n d a h a n d r e w i n d i t t o p l a y . 1 6 8 . C H I : a n d l e t ' s r e r e c o r d o u r v o i c e . 1 6 9 . R E S : w e l l we h a v e b e e n r e c o r d i n g o u r v o i c e . 1 7 0 . R E S : a n d we n e e d t o d o a b o u t # t h r e e o r f o u r m o r e m i n u t e s . 1 7 1 . R E S : a n d t h e n I ' l l s t o p a n d r e w i n d . 1 7 2 . R E S : a n d y o u c a n h e a r y o u r s e l f . 1 7 3 . R E S : o k a y ? 1 7 4 . C H I : y e s D o r i s . 1 7 5 . C H I : I c a n . G E N E R A L R E C O U N T 2 PLBSRTACT 1 7 6 . R E S • t e l l me a b o u t y o u r u h y o u d o s o m e t h i n g o n S a t u r d a y ' u s u a l l y . 1 7 7 . R E S w h a t d o y o u u s u a l l y d o o n S a t u r d a y s ? 1 7 8 . C H I I g o h o r s e b a c k r i d i n g . O R I E N T A T I O N 1 7 9 . R E S w h e r e ' s t h a t W i l l ? 1 8 0 . C H I i t ' s i n N o r t h Y o r k a t K i n g s w a y . 1 8 1 . R E S mmhm? E V A L U A T I O N 1 8 2 . R E S t h a t ' s a l o n g w a y s t o g o t o g o h o r s e b a c k r i d i n g e h ? 1 8 3 . C H I y e a h - : . 1 8 4 . R E S m m . 1 8 5 . C H I y e s . O R I E N T A T I O I \ 1 8 6 . R E S i s i t o u t s i d e o r i n s i d e ? 1 8 7 . C H I i t ' s i n d o o r s 1 8 8 . R E S w o w . 1 8 9 . C H I s o m e t i m e s I r i d e o u t [! ] • 1 9 0 . R E S mmhm? 1 9 1 . R E S hm h o w l o n g h a v e y o u b e e n d o i n g t h a t ? 1 9 2 . C H I I h a v e b e e n d o i n g i t f o r t w e l ( v e ) I h a v e d I i t f o r t w e l v e r i d e s - : . 1 9 3 . R E S t w e l v e r i d e s o h . 1 9 4 . C H I y e s - : . 1 9 5 . R E S d o y o u r mom a n d d a d r i d e h o r s e b a c k t o o ? 1 9 6 . C H I n o [ ! ] . 1 9 7 . ^ R E S n o . 1 9 8 . C H I n o . 1 9 9 . C H I m y f r i e n d C r a i g H o l l y t a k e s m e . 2 0 0 . R E S u m . 2 0 1 . R E S d o e s h e l i v e i n D u n d a s ? 2 0 2 . C H I y e y e s . 2 0 3 . C H I h e w e n h e l i v e s i n B u r l i n g t o n . 1 2 9 R E C O R D O F E V E N T S 2 0 4 . C H I : 2 0 5 . C H I : r e l e a s e d w h i c h w a s 2 0 6 . C H I : J u l y a n d 2 0 7 . C H I 2 0 8 . C H I 2 0 9 . C H I 2 1 0 . C H I a n d 1 9 8 9 2 1 1 . R E S 2 1 2 . C H I 2 1 3 . R E S 2 1 4 . R E S h e w e n t t o s c h o o l i n T o r o n t o . O R I E N T A T I O N a n d h a d a N i e l s e n L P w h i c h i s c a l l e d T h e P o i n t i n 1 9 8 5 l i k e l i k e o u r v i d e l i k e o u r v i d e o T h e P o i n t w h i c h w a s a r e p l a c e d a t t h e v i d e o b o x . R E C O R D O F E V E N T S g o t i t i n u m a n d b y a n d o n e a n d o n c e m y m o t h e r a n d I A u g u s t # b o u g h t i t i n J u n e a n d A u g u s t , b u t . A u g u s t u m . b u t t h e v i d e o w a s n o t r e l e a s e d i n 1 9 8 5 . i t w a s u h r e l e a s e d b e f o r e t h e L P i n 1 9 8 4 - : ## u h 1 9 8 4 E V A L U A T I O N / C O D A ^ y o u k n o w s o m u c h a b o u t m u s i c W i l l . I d ( o ) < I d o > [>] D o r i s . < y o u d o > [<] . < y o u k n o w s o m u c h > [>] . GENERAL RECOUNT 3 O R I E N T A T I O N 2 2 2 . R E S : t i m e . 2 3 . C H I : 2 2 4 . C H I : 2 2 5 . C H I : a g a i n . 2 2 6 . C H I : 2 2 7 . R E S : 2 2 8 . C H I : 2 2 9 . C H I : 2 3 0 . C H I : t h e o t h e r 2 3 1 . C H I : 2 3 2 . R E S 2 3 3 . C H I 2 3 4 . C H I t e l l me w h a t y o u r f a v o u r i t e t h i n g i s t o d o i n t h e s u m m e r R E C O R D O F E V E N T S I I g o o n v a c a t i o n t o P r i n c e E d w a r d I s l a n d . a n ( d ) w h e n K a t h y i s a w a y i n T o r o n t o I g o c a m p i n g . a n d a n d a f t e r I g o c a m p i n g I p a c k u p m y s u i t c a s e a n d d a n d l e a v e f o r T o r o n t o . E V A L U A T I O N t h a t s o u n d s l i k e f u n . y e s . R E C O R D O F E V E N T S I ' l l ( h ) a f t a I ' l l ( h ) a f t a p i c k u p E s t h e r a n d X . a n d t h e n g o t o t h e t w o S a m ' s # t h e f i r s t o n Y o n g e a n d o n e u h B l o o r . um u h we f i n d a l o t o f g r e a t t r e a s u r e s - : t h e r e u m . CODA^ I c a n i m a g i n e , y e a h . y o u c a n i m a g i n e t h a t D o r i s ! 130 TEMPORAL STRETCHES: TRANSCRIPT 4 F U T U R E P R O J E C T I O N 1 2 0 . R E S 2 1 . C H I 2 2 . C H I 2 3 . C H I 2 4 . C H I 2 5 . R E S 2 6 . 2 7 . 2 8 . 2 9 . 3 0 . 3 1 . 3 2 . 3 3 . C H I R E S R E S C H I C H I C H I C H I C H I a n d w h a t a r e g o n n a h a g o i n g t o h a v e f o r l u n c h ? J J J a m e s . I ' m g o n n a a c t u a l l y n o t r e a l l y . a P i l l s b u r y + P i z z a + p o p . a n d I ' m g o n n a p r e t e n d i t ' s J a m e s . o h . < a n d e a t h i m > [% c h u c k l e s ] . h m . < w h y ' s > [>] t h a t ? [ b e c a u s e ] [<] b e c a u s e J a m e s ' s n o t n i c e t o m e . a n d I ' l l p r e t e n d m y d e s s e r t i s W a l t e r , a n d I e a t W a l t , a n d e a t h i m . ( b e ) c a u s e W a l t e r i s n ' t n i c e t o me e i t h e r . G E N E R A L R E C O U N T 1 1 1 1 . C H I : O R I E N T A T I O N 1 0 8 . R E S : s o w h a t d o y o u d o w h e n y o u g o t o B o w e n + I s l a n d ? R E C O R D O F E V E N T S 1 0 9 . C H I : p l a y w i t h I n g r i d . 1 1 0 . R E S : m m h m . E V A L U A T I O N s h e ' s o u r f a v o u r i t e c o u s h e ' s o u r f a v o u r i t e l i t t l e c o u s i n . F U T U R E P R O J E C T I O N 2 1 3 1 . R E S h o w d o e s s h e l i k e T o r o n t o ? 1 3 2 . C H I s h e l i k e s i t < w o n d e r b a r > [ ! ] . 1 3 3 . R E S mmhm? 1 3 4 . C H I b u t s h e h a s n ' t v i s i t me l a s t y e a r a n d t h e y e a r b e f o r e 1 3 5 . R E S u m . 1 3 6 . C H I i t ' s < a s h a m e > [ > ] . 1 3 7 . R E S < s o y o u h a v e > [ < ] . 1 3 8 . R E S m m h m . 1 3 9 . R E S s o y o u h a v e a < b r o t h e r x x > [ > ] . 1 4 0 . C H I < s h e ' s > [<] v i s i t i n g me a t C h r i s t m a s . 1 4 1 . R E S t h a t ' l l b e e x c i t i n g w o n ' t < i t > [ > ] ? 1 4 2 . C H I <mmhm> [ < ] . 1 4 3 . R E S m m h m . 1 4 4 . R E S i s s h e c o m i n g C h r i s t m a s d a y ? 1 4 5 . C H I s h e ' s s p e n d i n g t h e n i g h t s s p e n d i n g n i g h t s t h e r e . 1 4 6 . R E S m m h m . 1 4 7 . R E S a n d y o u r a u n t a n d u n c l e a s w e l l ? 1 4 8 . C H I y e a h . 1 4 9 . R E S m m h m . 1 5 0 . C H I U n c l e J a k e a n d A u n t M e l i s s a . 1 5 1 . C H I a n d I ' m w i t ' s s o m e t h i n g f o r me t o l o o k f o r w a r d t o . 1 5 2 . R E S t h a t ' s r i g h t . 131 1 5 3 . R E S : f o r e v e r y o n e t o l o o k f o r w a r d t o e h ? 1 5 4 . C H I : m m h m . [ N o t e : i n F u t u r e P r o j e c t i o n 2 s h e = I n g r i d ] p r o c e d u r e 1 1 7 9 . R E S : 1 8 0 . C H I : 1 8 1 . R E S : 1 8 2 . C H I : 1 8 3 . 1 8 4 . 1 8 5 . 1 8 6 . 1 8 7 . 1 8 8 . 1 8 9 . 1 9 0 . b o i l R E S R E S C H I R E S C H I C H I R E S C H I [ ! ] 1 9 1 . C H I : 1 9 2 . C H I : A B S T R A C T d o y o u d o a n y c o o k i n g a t h o m e # < W i l l > [ > ] ? <um y e a h > [ < ] . O R I E N T A T I O N w h a t d o y o u c o o k ? I d i d u n c o o k i n g f o r x x b a t c h K r a f t + D i n n e r a n d o a t m e a l , HOW T O c a n y o u t e l l me h o w t o m a k e K r a f t + D i n n e r ? h o w ' d y o u < d o i t > [ > ] ? < y o u j u s t > [<] a d d c h c h e e s e a n d . mmhm? a n ( d ) c h e e s e . t h e n y o u b o i l i t i n t h e p o t . mmhm? b u t f i r s t y o u h a v e t o w a i t t i l l t h e w a # f o r t h e w a t e r CODA^ t h a t ' s a l l . y h o w y o u m a k e K r a f t + D i n n e r . TEMPORAL STRETCHES: TRANSCRIPT 5 S P E C I F I C RECOUNT 1 9 . R E S : 1 0 . C H I : 1 1 . R E S : 1 2 . R E S : O R I E N T A T I O N I t a l k e d t o y o u o n t h e t e l e p h o n e l a s t n i g h t t o o d i d n ' t y e a h . m m h m . R E C O R D O F E V E N T S y o u a n d y o u r mom h a d j u s t g o n e f o r a d r i v e . R E C O R D O F E V E N T S 1 3 . R E S : w h e r e d i d y o u g o ? 1 4 . C H I : w e l l w e w e r e w e j u s t c a m e b a c k f w e w e r e b a c k f r o m m y c o u s i n ' s h o u s e # u p i n W o o d b r i d g e . 1 5 . R E S : m m . E V A L U A T I O N / C O D A ^ 1 6 . R E S : t h a t s o u n d s l i k e q u i t e a l o n g d r i v e . PROCEDURE 1 A B S T R A C T 1 6 3 . R E S : 1 6 4 . C H I : 1 6 5 . R E S : 1 6 6 . C H I : 1 6 7 . R E S : p u d d i n g t 1 6 8 . C H I : 1 6 9 . R E S : 1 7 0 . R E S : 1 7 1 . C H I : 1 7 2 . C H I : 1 7 3 . C H I : 1 7 4 . R E S : 1 7 5 . R E S : 1 7 6 . C H I : 1 7 7 . C H I : 1 7 8 . C H I • a n d d o y o u h a v e a f a v o u r i t e f o o d ? y e s . w h a t ? u h c h e e s e p i z z a a n d p i n e a p p l e p u d d i n g . o h r i g h t I r e m e m b e r y o u t e l l i n g me a b o u t t h e p i n e a p p l e i f o r e . y e a h . m m . O R I E N T A T I O N d o y o u e v e r m a k e c h e e s e p i z z a ? w e l l # y e s . E V A L U A T I O N b u t m y mom d o e s n ' t m y p a r e n t s d o n ' t l i k e c h e e s e , w e l l m y d a d l i k e s h i s c h e e s e o n h i s p i z z a , mmhm? HOW T O h o w d o y o u m a k e t h e c h e e s e p i z z a ? w e l l we s p r i n k l e a b i t o f m o z z a r e l l a . a n d t h e n we p u t o n t h e t o p p i n g s . t w o l a y e r s o f c h e e s e . E V A L U A T I O N , 1 7 9 . C H I 1 8 0 . R E S 1 8 1 . C H I 1 8 2 . C H I m i g h t t a s t 1 8 3 . R E S 1 8 4 . R E S 1 8 5 . C H I 1 8 6 . R E S 1 8 7 . R E S : 1 8 8 . C H I : b u t s o m e t i m e s c h e e s e t a s t e a w f u l d o n ' t y o u t h i n k ? . t a s t e s a w f u l ? y e a h . b e c a u s e i t s h o w s i f y o u i f i t d o e s n ' t g o i n t h e f r i d g e e s o u r , y e a h . o r a b i t m o u l d y ? y e a h . h m . E V A L U A T I O N / C O D A ^ b u t i t ' s p r e t t y g o o d w h e n i t ' s f r e s h i s n ' t i t ? y e a h . 1 8 9 . R E S : m m h m . 1 9 0 . R E S : I e s p e c i a l l y l i k e i t o n p i z z a s , 1 9 1 . C H I : m m h m . 1 9 2 . C H I : me t o o . 1 9 3 . R E S : mmm. TEMPORAL STRETCHES: TRANSCRIPT 6 GENERAL RECOUNT 1 1 4 7 . R E S 1 4 8 . R E S 1 4 9 . R E S 1 5 0 . C H I 1 5 1 . C H I 1 5 2 . R E S 1 5 3 . C H I 1 5 4 . R E S O R I E N T A T I O N w h a t d o y o u d o f o r g r o c e r i e s a n d f o o d a n d t h a t ? i s t h e r e a s t o r e n e a r b y ? d o y o u h a v e t o g o b y b o a t ? R E C O R D O F E V E N T S w e l l w e h a v e t o g e t o f f t h e b o a t . a n d u h t r a v e l t o t h e s t o r e < i n > [>] <mmhm> [ < ] ? I G A . mmhm? t o w n . PROCEDURE 1 O R I E N T A T I O N 1 6 5 . R E S : a n d w h a t d o y o u d o o u t s i d e a t t h e c o t t a g e ? 1 6 6 . C H I : w e l l # w e l l a t t h e c o t t a g e w e w e # w e h a v e w e h a v e t h i s w e h a v e t h i s l u m b e r m i l l u p h e r e w h i c h i s u s e d f o r s a t i n y s h e d l u m b e r s h e d o r l u m b e r m i l l c a l l e d . 1 6 7 . C H I : a n d t h e r e ' s t h i s t h e r e ' s t h i s m o t h i s a l l t h e s e t o o l s a n d l o t s o f s k i n n y w o o d a n d t h i n g s s t o r e d i n h e r e . 1 6 8 . C H I : t h e r e w a s a l s o t h i s m o t o r . 1 6 9 . C H I : t h e r e w a s a l s o t h i s m o t o r a p l u g a n d s a n a n d s o m e s a n d s t o n e w h e e l s t o s h a r p e n t h e a x e s . 1 7 0 . R E S : 1 7 1 . C H I : w o o d . 1 7 2 . C H I : 1 7 3 . C H I : e n d . 1 7 4 . R E S : 1 7 5 . C H I : s a n d s a n d . m m h m . HOW T O p l u s i f y o u g e t l i k e a r e c t a n g a s k i n n y r e c t a n g l e d p i e c e o f a n d p u t t h e e n d o n t h e e n d o f t h e s a n d s t o n e w h e e l . i t i t i t s m o o t h l y s a n d s r i g h t t h r o u g h i t l e a v i n g a s m o o t h mmhm? I t h i n k w h e n I g e t u p t h e r e y o u c a n g o s a n d s a n d s a n d s a n d E V A L U A T I O N / C O D A J 1 7 6 . 1 7 7 . C H I : R E S : m a k e s a p e r f e c t f a n c y s t i c k , d o e s i t ? PROCEDURE 2 | O R I E N T A T I O N | a n d u h # I s h a r I c a n s h I ' d g e t a n a x e a n d u h s h k i n d o f t h e r e ' s s p a r k s f l y i n g i n t h e a i r . b u t I k n o w b u t I ' v e l e a r n e d t o s h a r p e n , a n d k n o w h o w t o h a n d l e i t . u h h u h ? I k n o w h o w t o h a n d l e t h e s a n d # g r i n d e r m a c h i n e , p l u s t h e a x e s . |HOW T O 1 8 5 . C H I : p l u s I p u p u s h g e t t h e b o d y o f t h e a x e . 1 7 8 . C H I : s h a r p e n i t . 1 7 9 . C H I : 1 8 0 . C H I : 1 8 1 . C H I : 1 8 2 . R E S : 1 8 3 . C H I : 1 8 4 . C H I : 135 1 8 6 . C H I : a n d p u t i t a l o n g t h e s a n d # s t o n e t o l i k e k i n d o f c l e a n i t t o t a k e t h e r u s t o f f . 1 8 7 . C H I : a n d I i t r e v e a l e d p r i n t i n g s a y i n g t h a t i t w a s m a d e i n S w e d e n E V A L U A T I O N / C O D A ^ 1 8 8 . C H I : t h e y m a k e g o o d s t e e l t h e r e . 1 8 9 . R E S : m m h m . 136 TEMPORAL STRETCHES: TRANSCRIPT 7 GENEREAL RECOUNT 1 ABSTRACT .12 . 13 . RES : CHI: and a r e you w o r k i n g now? um -: yes. ORIENTATION 14 . CHI I work a t um on Tuesdays and Thursdays 15. CHI and t h a t ' s um i n S t r a t f o r d 16. RES uhhuh? 17 . RES so you t r a v e l from here t o t h e r e ? 18 . CHI yes . 19. RES oh r e a l l y ? EVALUATION 20. RES <that's> [>] q u i t e a t r i p . 21. CHI <yeah> [<]. 22 . CHI uh ye yeah i t i s q u i t e a t r i p . RECORD OF EVENTS 23. 24 . CHI: CHI: we go on the van f i r s t . and t h e n and th e n we t h e n we work # t h e n we work um something l i k e uh n i n e + t h i r t y t o n i n e + t h i r t y t o t w e l v e [!] 25. 26. 27 . 28 . CHI CHI CHI RES t h e n we have l u n c h a t t w e l v e a t t h a t . t h e n we s t a r t back at work a t one o ' c l o c k . and t h e n we go r i g h t a l l the way t h r o u g h t o f o u r + t h i r t y . oh -: . ORIENTATION 29. RES: and what time does t h a t get you back he r e ? RECORD OF EVENTS 30. 31. CHI: CHI : w e l l we t a k e the um f o u r + f o r t y + f i v e bus. um -: and t h a t i s t h o s e um t h o . RECORD OF EVENTS 32 . CHI: 33. CHI: 34 . CHI: 35. RES : 36. CHI: 37 . CHI: um i n Ha 38. CHI: 39. RES : 40. CHI: 41. CHI: 42 . RES : 43. CHI: 44 . CHI: 45. CHI: 46. CHI: 47 . CHI: 48. CHI: 49. CHI: 50. CHI: 51 RES : w e l l i t ' s not F u n t r a c k . i t used t o be F u n t r a c k . i t ' s Trentway <now> [>] . <mmhm> [<] mmhm? RECORD OF EVENTS and um # and we t a k e the we t a k e t h e f o u r + f o r t y + f i v e bus. t h e n um i t goes t o a l l t h e s e l i t t l e towns b e f o r e i t s t o p s a t ORIENTATION < l i k e > [>] um what i s i t ? <oh -: > [<] . uh B e a m s v i l l e V i n e l a n d um # um t h a t F o o d l a n d . not F o o d l a n d . P o r t P e r r y <maybe> [>]? <yeah> [<]. w e l l w yes yes. P o r t P e r r y um and Foo d l a n d . yeah. t h a t ' s what i t ' s c a l l e d . i t ' s a l i t t l e town ne a r . i t ' s n e ar i t ' s a t sc a Scugog. we s t o p by t h e r e t o o . mmhm? 137 5 2 . R E S : 5 3 . R E S : 5 4 . C H I : 5 5 . C H I : G E N E R A L 7 1 . R E S : 7 2 . C H I : 7 3 . R E S : 7 4 . C H I : 7 5 . R E S : 7 6 . C H I : 7 7 . R E S : G E N E R A L 1 1 3 . R E S h e r e ? 1 1 4 . R E S 1 1 5 . C H I d o w n s t a i 1 1 6 . C H I 1 1 7 . C H I 1 1 8 . R E S 1 1 9 C H I 1 2 0 C H I u m . 1 2 1 C H I 1 2 2 C H I 1 2 3 C H I m m h m . E V A L U A T I O N / C O D A ^ t h a t m a k e s q u i t e a l o n g d a y d o e s n ' t i t ? i t d o e s . y e a h . O R I E N T A T I O N w h a t t i m e d o y o u l e a v e h e r e i n t h e m o r n i n g ? R E C O R D O F E V E N T S um - : i t ' s u s u a l l y a f t e r e i g h t , u h h u h ? b e t w e e n e i g h t + f i f t e e n a n d e i g h t + t h i r t y w e u s u a l l y l e a v e , m m h m . a n d w e g e t u h t o M a i l b o x e s a t n i n e + t h i r t y . u h h u h . O R I E N T A T I O N s o w h a t d o y o u u s u a l l y d o i n t h e e v e n i n g s w h e n y o u g e t b a c k w h a t d o y o u d o a f t e r s u p p e r ? I R E C O R D O F E V E N T S l w e l l T u e s d a y s a f t e r w o r k i n g w e h a v e t o d o a w o r k o u t a n d y o u h a v e t o l i f t w e i g h t s . 0 [ = ! c h u c k l e s ] . E V A L U A T I O N o h g o o d n e s s , y e a h r i g h t . R E C O R D O F E V E N T S a n d o n t h u r s w e l l # w e l l o n T h u r s d a y s I u s e d t o g o t o um t o w h a t w a s i t a s s p o r t s + n i g h t i n u m i n G r i m s b y . I d o n ' t n o w . u h I I d o b o w l i n g n o w . G E N E R A L R E C O U N T 4 1 4 4 . R E S : 1 4 5 . C H I : 1 4 6 . R E S : 1 4 7 . R E S : 1 4 8 . C H I : 1 4 9 . C H I : 1 5 0 . C H I : c l a s s e s . 1 5 1 . C H I : O R I E N T A T I O N < d o y o u > [<] d o y o u d o y o u t a k e p a r t i n o t h e r s p o r t s W i l l ? u h - : . a r e t h e r e a n y o t h e r s p o r t s t h a t y o u d o ? b a s e b a l l o r < s o c c e r - : > [ > ] . R E C O R D O F E V E N T S < w e l l > [<] we u I u s e d t o d o t h a t f o r s p o r t s n i g h t . I I d o n ' t v e r y m u c h n o w . b u t I d o o n e # b u t u m o n S u n d a y s I g o t o u h m y f i t n e s s a n d I d o l i f t i n g l i f t i n g o n e u p . 138 ORIENTATION 152 . CHI w e l l t h o s e t h o s e w e i g h t t h i n g s . 153 . CHI e x c e p t t h e y ' r e no t t he b i g s o r t o f w e i g h t s . 154 . CHI because I t r i e d t o l i f t t h o s e . 155 . CHI <and c o u l d n ' t do t h a t > [% c h u c k l i n g ] . 156 . CHI so i t ' s more o f t h e mach ine s o r t o f w e i g h t s . 157 . RES uhhuh? RECORD OF EVENTS 158 . CHI you do t h e . 159 . CHI e x c u s e me. 160 . CHI <xxx> [>] . 1 6 1 . RES <0 [=! c h u c k l e s ] > [<] . 162 . CHI um # I do um. 163 . CHI what e l s e do I do? 164 . CHI I do t h i s um # t h e ones where you go l i k e t h i s 165 . RES oh r i g h t . 166 . CHI t h e n you # you do t h a t . 167 . RES y e a h . 168 . CHI I do um s o m e t h i n g w i t h # t h a t . 169 . CHI I do #. 139 TEMPORAL STRETCHES: TRANSCRIPT 8 S P E C I F I C R E C O U N T 1 O R I E N T A T I O N 9 . R E S : < a n d > [<] y o u w e r e t e l l i n g me a b o u t a c e m e n t t r u c k b e f o r e 1 0 C H I mm - : y e s ! 1 1 C H I i t h a d a w e t h e a v y l o a d . 1 2 R E S a w e t h e a v y l o a d - : . 1 3 C H I o f c o n c r e t e . 14 R E S f r o m w h a t ? 1-5 C H I f o r t h e m f o r f o r t h e m i g h t y m i x e r . 1 6 C H I t h a t x x x . R E C O R D O F E V E N T S 1 7 . R E S h o w d o e s i t g e t f i l l e d u p ? 1 8 . C H I j u s t g o x x x . F U T U R E P R O J E C T I O N 1 2 4 . R E S a n d t h e n w h a t w o u l d i t d o ? 2 5 . C H I i t w o u l d m o v e a l o n g . 2 6 . R E S w h e r e w o u l d i t m o v e a l o n g t o ? 2 7 . C H I t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n s i t e . 2 8 . R E S t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n s i t e . 2 9 . R E S a n d w h a t w o u l d i t d o t h e r e ? 3 0 . C H I p o u r c e m e n t . 3 1 . R E S p o u r c e m e n t ? 3 2 . C H I y e s . 3 3 . C H I a n d t h e n i t h a r d e n s . 3 4 . R E S a n d w h e n i t h a r d e n s w h a t h a p p e n s ? 3 5 . C H I t h e n i t d r i e s [ ! ] . 3 6 . R E S i t d r i e s . 3 7 . R E S u h h u h . [ N o t e : i n F u t u r e P r o j e c t i o n 1 i t = c e m e n t t r u c k ] S P E C I F I C R E C O U N T 2 p R I E N T A T I O N | 3 8 . R E S : a n d w h a t d o e s i t m a k e ? R E C O R D O F E V E N T S 3 9 . C H I : um # a n d i t t u r n s t h a t w a y i n s t e a d o f c o m i n g t h i s w a y . i t = t r u c k 4 0 . C H I : t h a t ' s b e c a u s e t h e y a r e m a n y m a c h i n e s i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n s i t e . 4 1 . R E S : t h e r e a r e m a n y w h i c h ? 4 2 . C H I : t h e m t h e r e a r e m a n y m a c h i n e s i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n s i t e . [ N o t e : i n S p e c i f i c R e c o u n t 2 i t = c e m e n t ] 140 F U T U R E P R O J E C T I O N 2 w h a t h a p p e n s i f y o u g o o n t h e t h e m i d n i g h t e x p r e s s ? I d o n ' t k n o w , w h a t h a p p e n s ? w h e n y o u g e t w h e n u m # t h e u h y a n d t h e n y o u w a k e u p a t t h e 5 8 . . C H I : 5 9 . R E S : 6 0 . R E S : 6 1 . C H I : w h i s t l e < w h e n y o u g e t o n > [ ? ] 6 2 . R E S 6 3 . C H I 6 4 . R E S 6 5 . R E S I g u e s s y o u w o u l d s l e e p d u r i n g t h a t t r a i n r i d e e h ? y e s I w o u l d . I s e e . a n d t h e w h i s t l e w o u l d w w a k e y o u u p y o u m e a n ? F U T U R E P R O J E C T I O N 3 1 0 3 . C H I 1 0 4 . R E S 1 0 5 . C H I 1 0 6 . C H I 1 0 7 . R E S 1 0 8 . R E S 1 0 9 . C H I 1 1 0 . R E S w h a t h a p p e n s u h w h e n u h t h e t r a i n c r a s h ? w h a t d o y o u t h i n k h a p p e n s ? t h e n t h e m e n w i l l d i e . t h e n t h e y w i l l m a k e t h e m [ ? ] g o t o t h e h o s p i t a l . w e l l t h e y w o u l d i f t h e y w e r e i l l u h s i c k w o u l d n ' t t h e y ? o r i f t h e y w e r e i n j u r e d . i f t h e y w e r e i n j t h e y w e r e i n j u r e d # w o u l d n ' t t h e y ? m m h m . G E N E R A L R E C O U N T 1 O R I E N T A T I O N 1 1 9 . R E S : 1 2 0 . C H I : 1 2 1 . R E S : 1 2 2 . C H I : 1 2 3 . R E S : 1 2 4 . C H I : 1 2 5 . C H I : 1 2 6 . C H I : 1 2 7 . C H I : 1 2 8 . R E S : 1 2 9 . R E S : 1 3 0 . C H I : 1 3 1 . C H I : s t u c k i n 1 3 2 . R E S : 1 3 3 . C H I : 1 3 4 . R E S : 1 3 . 5 . R E S : 1 3 6 . C H I : 1 3 7 . R E S : w h a t ' s a d o g < g a m e > [ > ] ? I h a v e [<] s o m u c h I h a v e s o m u c h f u n . w h a t ' s a d o g g a m e l i k e ? i t ' s i t ' s x x x t r y i n g t o g e t t h e o t h e r d o g s o u t . o h w h o d o y o u p l a y w i t h ? u m - : s o m e t i m e I p l a y w i t h S o p h i a w h a t w h a t d i d S o p h i a d o ? w e l l # w h a t d i d s h e d o ? w h a t d i d s h e d o t o m e ? I d o n ' t k n o w . R E C O R D O F E V E N T S d i d s h e d o s o m e t h i n g t o y o u ? y e s . n o w s h e w a s s t u c k i n i n b e t w e e n i n b e t w e e n m a y b e s h e g o t b e t w e e n . O R I E N T A T I O N i n b e t w e e n w h a t ? i n b e t w e e n # t h e t r e e s , o h i n b e t w e e n t h e t r e e s ? < w h e r e i n > [ > ] ? R E C O R D O F E V E N T S n o w S o p h i a w a s g o t t e n s t u c k i n b e t w e e n # o n a s u m m e r d a y . o n a s u m m e r d a y . 141 F U T U R E P R O J E C T I O N 4 1 5 7 . C H I w h a t w o u l d s c r a t c h y o u . 1 5 8 . C H I w o u l d n ' t t h a t b e t e r r i b l e ? 1 5 9 . R E S m m h m . 1 6 0 . C H I a w f u l ! 1 6 1 . C H I s t i n k . 1 6 2 . C H I a n d t h e n y o u h a t e l i o n s . 1 6 3 . C H I < s t i n k h a i r y > [ ? ] . 1 6 4 . C H I c a u s e s h e ' s s t i n k y . 1 6 5 . C H I a n d t h e n < I l i I - : l e a v e > [ ? ] F U T U R E P R O J E C T I O N 5 2 6 3 . C H I : u m - : w h a t d o y o u [ ! ] d o # i f y o u ' r e s t u c k i n b e t w e e n i n -# w h a t h a p p e n s i f y o u ' r e w h a t h a p p e n s i f y o u ' r e f e e l i n g a l i t t l e d o w n 2 6 4 . R E S 2 6 5 . R E S 2 6 6 . C H I 2 6 7 . C H I i f y o u ' r e f e e l i n g a l i t t l e d o w n ? h m . y o u r h e a d w i l l g e t r e d . t h e n y o u ' l l s c r e a m . P R O C E D U R E 1 p R I E N T A T I O N | 3 2 8 . R E S : t h a t i s a t u r n t a b l e . 3 2 9 . R E S : h o w d o y o u w o r k i t ? |HOW TOl 3 3 0 . C H I d o i t l i k e t h a t . 3 3 1 . R E S o h I s e e . 3 3 2 . C H I , t o g e t t o t h e o u t s i d e . 3 3 3 . R E S u m . 3 3 4 . C H I s o y o u g o o n t h e t o t o g e t o n t h e t u r n t r a y 3 3 5 . R E S g e t o n t h e t u r n t a b l e . 3 3 6 . C H I s a y " l o o k o u t y o u d o n ' t f a l l " . 3 3 7 . R E S l o o k o u t y o u d o n ' t f a l l . 3 3 8 . C H I s 1 ## h e ' s g o i n g o n t h e t a b l e . 3 3 9 . C H I w h a t h a p p e n s i f y o u g o o n t h e t u r n t a b l e . 3 4 0 . R E S y o u t u r n a r o u n d . 142 TEMPORAL STRETCHES: TRANSCRIPT 9 F U T U R E P R O J E C T I O N 1 252. RES: <um> [<] what are, you gonna do when <you go> [>] home.today? 253. CHI: <0 [=! t h r o a t n o i s e s ] > [<] . 254. RES: what do you do a f t e r s c h o o l ? 255. CHI: supper. 256. RES: supper? 257. RES: yeah? 143 APPENDIX 2 Summary of Genre Types and Generic Stages Used in 9 Texts Total SO 00 - J NJ Transcript Number e o o © © © © © © © Narrative o o © © © © © © © © Anecdote e o © © © © © © © © Exemplum in o NJ © © - © © - Specific Recount o - - © - - - General Recount cn o - © NJ © © © Procedure >j\ o © - © - - NJ © © Abstract NI o © © © 00 © 00 © © Abstract by Child Solicited (S)/Unsolicited (U) Ul o NJ NJ Orientation 13S 6U o OJ 00 C IS 1U © 00 7S 2U 00 © Orientation by Child Solicited (S)/UnsoIicited (U) Ul - J o - NJ Ul Record of Events 19S 1- o 00 4^ 00 00 00 00 NJ 00 00 # 00 OJ 00 e G c G Record of Events by Child Solicited (S)/Unsolicited (U) o © © NJ - © © o How To co c o © © NJ C 00 00 © © © How To by Child Solicited (S)/Unsolicited (U) o o © © © © © © © © Remarkable Event o o © © © © © © © © Remarkable Event by Child Solicited (S)/Unsolicited (U) o © © © © © - © © Reaction o © © © © © © © © © Reaction by Child Solicited (S)/Unsolicited (U) t—* o © - NJ NJ - - © Coda e © © © NJ G © c © © © Coda by Child Solicited (S)/Unsolicited (U) - J o © — - © Evaluation 1S4U o © © C NJ G C 00 © © Evaluation by Child Solicited (S)/Unsolicited (U) - Ul © © © NJ NJ - Future Projection APPENDIX 3 Utterances that Use Units of Time Extracted from 9 Texts Text 1 140. RES: I had p i z z a l a s t night f o r supper. 141. RES: what d i d you have f o r supper l a s t night? 14 6. RES: and th e night b e f o r e I had por k chops. 147. RES: can you remember what you had th e night b e f o r e ? 151. RES: what are you h a v i n g tonight # f o r supper? 153. CHI: I'm h a v i n g r i c e f o r supper tonight. Text 2 1. RES: today i s June the sixth. 3. CHI: <fifth> [<] . 4. RES: i s i t the f i fth? 6. CHI: tomorrow's th e sixth. 8. RES: today i s June the f i f t h . 219. RES: so what do you do on th e weekends W i l l ? 223. RES: and spends some time w i t h you? Text 3 21. CHI: on on Tuesday and Wednesday Judy Winston and J we b o t h went t o t h e a i r p o r t t o p i c k up So p h i e . 43. CHI: and we went o u t s i d e a t night and p l a y e d i n t h e snow um <and> [>] • 45. CHI: the nex t day I we I went t o the bookshop. 70. CHI: t h e n e x t morning I packed my s u i t c a s e up. 82. CHI: my f a t h e r went t h e r e w an my f a t h e r and I went t h e r e once b e f o r e grade # went t h e r e once b e f o r e grade five started. 94. RES: was i t a long drive? 96. CHI: i t was a long drive. 98. RES: how long d i d i t t a k e you W i l l ? ( i t = th e d r i v e ) 101. CHI: i t too k i t to o k wo i t too k five hundred and sixty four minutes. ( i t = t h e d r i v e ) 147 1 0 3 . C H I : i t t o o k f i v e hundred and s i x t y four minutes. 1 0 5 . C H I : a n d t h e c a r t r i p was long [!] . 1 0 7 . R E S : d i d y o u s l e e p during the car t r i p ? 1 1 5 . C H I : a n d t h e n e x t morning w h e n I w o k e u p I h a d s o m e b r e a d 1 2 7 . C H I : < t h e y ' r e c o m i n g > [>] a n ( d ) v i s i t a n d v i s i t i n g me i n t h e summer i n July [!] . 1 3 9 . R E S : w h e n y o u w e r e t h e r e y o u w e r e o n l y a b o u t a h a l f an hour f r o m a f a r m w h e r e I y u I g r e w u p 1 4 4 . R E S : a n d m y mom u s e d t o d r i v e a h a l f an hour. 1 7 0 . R E S : a n d w e n e e d t o d o a b o u t # three or four more minutes. 1 7 6 . R E S : t e l l me a b o u t y o u r u h y o u d o s o m e t h i n g o n Saturday ' s u s u a l l y . 1 7 7 . R E S : w h a t d o y o u u s u a l l y d o o n Saturdays? 1 9 1 . R E S : h m h o w long h a v e y o u b e e n d o i n g t h a t ? 1 9 2 . C H I : I h a v e b e e n d o i n g i t f o r t w e l ( v e ) I h a v e d I h a v e d o n e i t f o r twelve rides -: . 2 0 5 . C H I : a n d h a d a N i e l s e n L P w h i c h i s c a l l e d T h e P o i n t r e l e a s e d i n 1985 l i k e l i k e o u r v i d e l i k e o u r v i d e o T h e P o i n t w h i c h w a s a w h i c h w a s r e p l a c e d a t t h e v i d e o b o x . 2 0 6 . C H I : a n d b y a n d o n e a n d once m y m o t h e r a n d I g o t i t i n u m July a n d August # b o u g h t i t i n June a n d August. 2 0 9 . C H I : b u t t h e v i d e o w a s n o t r e l e a s e d i n 1985. 2 1 0 . C H I : i t w a s u h r e l e a s e d b e f o r e t h e L P i n 1984 - : ## u h 1 9 8 4 a n d 1 9 8 9 - : . 2 2 2 . R E S : t e l l me w h a t y o u r f a v o u r i t e - : t h i n g i s t o d o i n t h e summer time. Text 4 1 3 4 . C H I : b u t s h e h a s n ' t v i s i t me l a s t year a n d t h e year b e f o r e . 1 4 0 . C H I : < s h e ' s > [<] v i s i t i n g me a t Christmas. 1 4 4 . R E S : i s s h e c o m i n g Christmas day? 1 4 5 . C H I : s h e ' s s p e n d i n g t h e night s s p e n d i n g nights t h e r e . 1 5 1 . C H I : a n d I ' m w i t ' s s o m e t h i n g f o r me t o look forward to. 1 5 3 . R E S : f o r e v e r y o n e t o look forward to e h ? 148 190. CHI: but f i r s t you have t o wait t i l l the wa # f o r the water t o b o i l [!]. Text 5 9. RES: I t a l k e d t o you on the t e l e p h o n e l a s t night t o o d i d n ' t I ? 16. RES: t h a t sounds l i k e q u i t e a long drive. Text 6 [none] Text 7 12. RES: and ar e you w o r k i n g now? 14. CHI: I work a t um on Tuesdays and Thursdays a t a t um M a i l b o x e s . 20. RES: <that's> [>] quite a t r i p . 22. CHI: uh ye yeah i t i s quite a t r i p . 24. CHI: and t h e n and then we then we work # th e n we work um something l i k e uh nine+thirty t o nine+thirty t o twelve [!]. 25. CHI: t h e n we have l u n c h a t twelve a t t h a t . 26. CHI: t h e n we s t a r t back a t work a t one o'clock. 27. CHI: and then we go r i g h t a l l t h e way t h r o u g h t o four+thirty. 29. RES: and what time does t h a t get you back he r e ? 30. CHI: w e l l we t a k e t he um four+forty+five bus. 36. CHI: and um # and we t a k e t he we t a k e t he fo 149 ur+forty+five b u s . 5 3 . R E S : t h a t m a k e s q u i t e a long day d o e s n ' t i t ? 7 1 . R E S : w h a t t i m e d o y o u l e a v e h e r e i n t h e morning? 7 2 . C H I : um - : i t ' s u s u a l l y a f t e r eight. 7 4 . C H I : b e t w e e n eight+fifteen a n d eight+thirty w e u s u a l l y l e a v e . 7 6 . C H I : a n d w e g e t u h t o M a i l b o x e s a t nine+thirty. 1 1 3 . R E S : s o w h a t d o y o u u s u a l l y d o i n t h e evenings w h e n y o u g e t b a c k h e r e ? 1 1 4 . R E S : w h a t d o y o u d o after supper? 1 1 5 . C H I : w e l l Tuesdays a f t e r w o r k i n g w e h a v e t o d o a w o r k o u t d o w n s t a i r s . 1 2 0 . C H I : a n d o n thurs w e l l # w e l l o n Thursdays I u s e d t o g o t o u m t o u m . 1 2 1 . C H I : w h a t w a s i t a s s p o r t s + n i g h t i n u m i n G r i m s b y . 1 4 8 . C H I : < w e l l > [<] w e u I u s e d t o d o t h a t f o r s p o r t s n i g h t . 1 5 0 . C H I : b u t I d o o n e # b u t um o n Sundays I g o t o u h m y f i t n e s s c l a s s e s . Text 8 5 8 . C H I : w h a t h a p p e n s i f y o u g o o n t h e t h e midnight e x p r e s s ? 6 2 . R E S : I g u e s s y o u w o u l d s l e e p during that train ride e h ? 1 3 6 . C H I : now C h r i s t i n a w a s g o t t e n s t u c k i n b e t w e e n # o n a summer day. 1 3 7 . R E S : o n a summer day. Text 9 2 5 4 . R E S : w h a t d o y o u d o after school? 150 APPENDIX 4 Analysis of Metaphors, Metonymies, and Senses of Time of Utterances that Use Temporal Units 1 5 Text Os o Line Number CHI RES RES RES RES RES Speaker I'm having rice for supper tonight. what are you having tonight # for supper? ,, can you remember what you had the night before? and the night before I had pork chops. what did you have for- supper last night? I had pizza last night for supper. Utterance w Solicited (S) / Unsolicited (U) Number of Temporal Units Ignored Utterance Time Orientation Metaphor Moving Observer Metaphor Moving Time Metaphor Event-for-Time Metonymy Distance-for-Time Metonymy Time-for-Distance Metonymy Time is a Resource Metaphor Time is Money Metaphor Evans's Sense of Time Evans' Sense of Time t o to to to to to to Text t o to to 00 - Line Number RES RES RES CHI RES CHI RES Speaker and spends some time with you? so what do you do on the weekends Will? today is June the fifth. tomorrow's the sixth. is it the fifth? A Hi H-Hi V "A" today is June the sixth. Utterance C C Solicited (S) / Unsolicited (U) - t o to - t o Number of Temporal Units Ignored Utterance Time Orientation Metaphor Moving Observer Metaphor Moving Time Metaphor Event-for-Time Metonymy Distance-for-Time Metonymy Time-for-Distance Metonymy Time is a Resource Metaphor - Time is Money Metaphor - Evans's Sense of Time Commodity Evans' Sense of Time 3 to Text Line Number n x Speaker BJ A 3 rt CD < < P - " W 1-1 3 O P -g 3 CD ua v p-3 — V r r — cr CD Bi 3 T J 3 a cr cr 0) ro 3 « CD B cr O rt a M H -O 3 H-a o s- p-r^  " 6-cT 0 O a w t-h 3 0J >< cr cr CD CD Hi Mi o o 1-1 1-1 Hi ID h rt cr CD a> H i-t cr m CD 3 l-l a a a 0 CD M ff rt " cr O CD 3 cr Hi * p -(D CD cr CD |a CD O 3 O CD s CD 3 r t cr CD r t M cr CD CO P - z 3 CD 3 "rt r t CT ro o A ai 3 3 P a iQ V rt v n> — 3 a 3 3 3 (0 S ttJ CD 3 0-r t a> crra E 0 CD 0) 3 a r t | r t O C i C a re 65 Solicited (S) / Unsolicited (U) Number of Temporal Units Ignored Utterance Time Orientation Metaphor Moving Observer Metaphor Moving Time Metaphor Event-for-Time Metonymy Distance-for-Time Metonymy Time-for-Distance Metonymy Time is a Resource Metaphor Time is Money Metaphor Evans's Sense of Time Evans' Sense of Time 3 139 RES w h e n y o u w e r e t h e r e y o u w e r e o n l y a b o u t a h a l f an hour f r o m a f a r m w h e r e I y u I g r e w u p 1 1 1 3 144 RES a n d my mom u s e d t o d r i v e a h a l f an hour. 1 1 1 1 3 170 RES a n d we n e e d t o d o a b o u t # three or four more minutes. 2 1 3 176 RES t e l l me a b o u t y o u r u h y o u d o s o m e t h i n g o n Saturday ' s u s u a l l y . 1 1 1 3 177 RES w h a t d o y o u u s u a l l y d o o n Saturdays ? 1 1 1 3 191 RES hm h o w long h a v e y o u b e e n d o i n g t h a t ? 1 1 1 1 1 3 192 CHI I h a v e b e e n d o i n g i t f o r t w e l ( v e ) I h a v e d I h a v e d o n e i t f o r t w e l v e r i d e s - : . S 1 1 1 1 * Instance 3 205 CHI a n d h a d a . N i e l s e n L P w h i c h i s c a l l e d T h e P o i n t r e l e a s e d i n 1985 l i k e l i k e o u r v i d e l i k e o u r v i d e o T h e P o i n t w h i c h w a s a w h i c h w a s r e p l a c e d a t t h e v i d e o b o x . u 1 1 1 3. 206 CHI a n d b y a n d o n e a n d o n c e my m o t h e r a n d I g o t i t i n um J u l y a n d August # b o u g h t i t i n June a n d August. u 4 1 1 3 209 CHI b u t t h e v i d e o w a s n o t r e l e a s e d „ i n 1985. u 1 1 . 1 3 210 CHI i t w a s u h r e l e a s e d b e f o r e t h e L P i n 1984 - : ## u h 1984 a n d 1989 -u 3 1 1 3 222 RES t e l l me w h a t y o u r f a v o u r i t e - : t h i n g i s t o d o i n t h e summer time. 1 1 1 1 Duration 4*. 4*. 4*. 4^  Text SO o U l U) 4* U i 4^  4^  O U) 4^  Line Number CHI RES CHI CHI RES CHI CHI Speaker but first you have to wait till the wa # for the water to boil for everyone to look forward to eh? and I'm w it's something for me to look forward to. she's spending the night s spending nights there. is she coming Christmas day? <she's> [<] visiting me at Christmas. but she hasn't visit me last year and the year before. Utterance C C CO G G Solicited (S) / Unsolicited (U) - - to Number of Temporal Units Ignored Utterance - - - - - Time Orientation Metaphor - Moving Observer Metaphor Moving Time Metaphor Event-for-Time Metonymy Distance-for-Time Metonymy Time-for-Distance Metonymy Time is a Resource Metaphor - Time is Money Metaphor Evans's Sense of Time Evans' Sense of Time Ul ui Text -o Line Number RES RES Speaker that sounds like quite drive. I talked to you on the last night too didn't I Utterance a long telephone Solicited (S) / Unsolicited (U) — Number of Temporal Units Ignored Utterance - - Time Orientation Metaphor - Moving Observer Metaphor Moving Time Metaphor Event-for-Time Metonymy - Distance-for-Time Metonymy Time-for-Distance Metonymy Time is a Resource Metaphor Time is Money Metaphor Evans's Sense of Time Evans' Sense of Time 8SI -0 -o -4 -0 •o - J Text - o OS ~ J - J t o -o u> u> U ) Os o t o v© t o - J t o Os t o U l t o t o to to © IO Line Number CHI CHI CHI RES RES CHI CHI 1 RES CHI CHI CHI CHI CHI RES CHI RES Speaker and we get uh to Mailboxes at nine+thirty. between eight+fifteen and eight+thirty we usually leave. um - it's usually after eight. what time do you leave here in the morning? that makes quite a long day doesn't it? and um # and we take the we take the four+forty+five bus. well we take the um four+forty+five bus. and what time does that get you back here? and then we go right all the way through to four+thirty. then, we start back at work at one o'clock. then we have lunch at twelve at that. and then and then we then we work # then we work um something like uh nine+thirty to nine+thirty to twelve [!]. uh ye yeah it is quite a trip. <that's> [>] quite a trip. I work at um on Tuesdays and Thursdays at at um Mailboxes. and are you working now? Utterance C G t o G t o G G G G G G Solicited (S) / Unsolicited (U) t o Number of Temporal Units - Ignored Utterance - - - - - - - - Time Orientation Metaphor - - - - 1—» - - - Moving Observer Metaphor Moving Time Metaphor Event-for-Time Metonymy Distance-for-Time Metonymy Ti m e-fo r-Dista n ce Metonymy Time is a Resource Metaphor Time is Money Metaphor - Evans's Sense of Time Moment Moment Evans' Sense of Time 7 113 RES s o w h a t d o y o u u s u a l l y d o i n t h e e v e n i n g s w h e n y o u g e t b a c k h e r e ? 1 1 1 7 114 RES w h a t d o y o u d o a f t e r s u p p e r ? 1 1 1 7 115 CHI w e l l T u e s d a y s a f t e r w o r k i n g we h a v e t o d o a w o r k o u t S 1 1 1 7 120 CHI a n d o n t h u r s w e l l # w e l l o n T h u r s d a y s I u s e d t o g o t o um t o U 2 1 1 7 121 CHI w h a t w a s i t a s s p o r t s + n i g h t i n um i n G r i m s b y . U 1 1 7 148 CHI < w e l l > [<] we u I u s e d t o d o t h a t f o r s p o r t s n i g h t . s 1 1 7 150 CHI b u t I d o o n e # b u t um o n S u n d a y s I g o t o u h my f i t n e s s u 1 1 1 00 00 OO o o Text U l - J U ) Os ON U l 00 Line Number RES RES RES CHI Speaker on a summer day. now Christina was gotten stuck in between # on a summer day! I guess you would sleep during that train, ride eh? what happens if you go on the the midnight express? Utterance G Solicited (S) / Unsolicited (U) - Number of Temporal Units Ignored Utterance - Time Orientation Metaphor - Moving Observer Metaphor Moving Time Metaphor Event-for-Time Metonymy Distance-for-Time Metonymy Time-for-Distance Metonymy Time is a Resource Metaphor Time is Money Metaphor Evans's Sense of Time Evans' Sense of Time SO Text to 4^  Line Number RES Speaker what do you do after sc] Utterance hool? Solicited (S) / Unsolicited (U) - Number of Temporal Units Ignored Utterance - Time Orientation Metaphor Moving Observer Metaphor Moving Time Metaphor Event-for-Time Metonymy Distance-for-Time Metonymy Time-for-Distance Metonymy Time is a Resource Metaphor Time is Money Metaphor Evans's Sense of Time Evans' Sense of Time 

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