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Innovative approaches to melodic elaboration in contemporary Tabuh Kreasi Baru Steele, Peter Michael 2007

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INNOVATIVE APPROACHES TOMELODIC ELABORATION I N C O N T E M P O R A R Y TABUH KREASIBARU  by PETER MICHAEL STEELE B.A., Pitzer College, 2003  A THESIS S U B M I T T E D IN P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE D E G R E E OF M A S T E R OF A R T S  in T H E F A C U L T Y OF G R A D U A T E STUDIES (Music)  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August 2007 © Peter Michael Steele, 2007  ABSTRACT  The following thesis has two goals. The first is to present a comparison of recent theories of Balinese music, specifically with regard to techniques of melodic elaboration. By comparing the work of Wayan Rai, Made Bandem, Wayne Vitale, and Michael Tenzer, I will investigate how various scholars choose to conceptualize melodic elaboration in modern genres of Balinese gamelan. The second goal is to illustrate the varying degrees to which contemporary composers in the form known as Tabuh Kreasi are expanding this musical vocabulary. In particular I will examine their innovative approaches to melodic elaboration. Analysis of several examples will illustrate how some composers utilize and distort standard compositional techniques in an effort to challenge listeners' expectations while still adhering to indigenous concepts of balance and flow. The discussion is preceded by a critical reevaluation of the function and application of the western musicological terms polyphony and heterophony.  ii  TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract  ii  Table of Contents List of Tables  : ....  iii  '.  iv  List of Figures  '  Acknowledgements  v vi  CHAPTER 1 Introduction and Methodology Background : Analysis: Some Recent Thoughts  •••••  :•-1 1 4  CHAPTER 2 Many or just Different?: A Lesson in Categorical Cacophony Polyphony Now and Then Heterophony... what is it, exactly? CHAPTER 3 Historical and Theoretical Contexts Introduction Melodic Elaboration in History, Theory and Process Abstraction and Elaboration Elaboration Types Constructing Elaborations Issues of "Feeling". Elaboration in Practice CHAPTER 4 Innovations in Modern Repetoire Uneven Divisions of the Tactus. Polyphonic Forms of Melodic elaboration Concluding Remarks  11 12 17 20 20 22 32 36 44 45 ..52  ..'  •.  63 63 67 92  Bibliography  94  Appendix  96  iii  List of Tables  Table 1  Stratum types i n B a l i n e s e g a m e l a n  Table 2  Balinese M o d a l S y s t e m based o n  Table 3  E l a b o r a t i o n types  Table 4  Pattern types/qualities i n the  20  Saih Pitu  35 37  gegenderan o f Cam Warn  iv  91  List of Figures Figure 1 Saih Pitu in Western Notation with Balinese solfege Figure 2 Example of norot  34 ,  38  Figure 3 Example of nyog cag  39  Figure 4 Example of ubit telu  39  Figure 5 Example of ubit empat  40  Figure 6 Nyalimput and nyalimpud styles of elaborating Baris Tunggal  42  Figure 7 Mergapati example of melodic elaboration  44  Figure 8 Mergapati with solfege  50  Figure 9 Legong Condong  53  Figure 10 Reyongan Ngipuk-Kebyar Gandrung  57  Figure 11 Contour Analysis-Kebyar Gandrung  60  Figure 12 Lemayung, Gegenderan  64  Figure 13 Banyuari- Quintuplet Kotekan  65  Figure 14 Lebur Saketi, Gegenderan  69  Figure 15 Lebur Saketi, penyacah with hypothetical sangsih  71  Figure 16 Sruti Laya outline  74  Figure 17 Sruti Laya ending  75  Figure 18 Sruti Laya pitch aggregates  79  Figure 19 Sruti Laya voice leading  '.  79  Figure 20 Semayut intro  81  Figure 21 Semayut from 7:20  84  Figure 22 Cam Wara melody for elaboration 1  87  Figure 23 Cam Wara melody for elaboration 2  87  Figure 24 Cam Wara, reyongan  88  Figure 25 Cam Wara, reyongan with voice crossing  90  v  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I would like to take this opportunity to thank everyone that has supported and mentored me over the years. Without them this thesis would not have been possible. First and foremost I want to thank my parents whose patience and understanding gave me the freedom to stumble serendipitously into the gamelan world. Bill Alves, Julie Simon and Katherine Hagedorn are the people who first introduced me to gamelan and gave me my first ecstatic performance experiences. My first gamelan teacher, I Nyoman Wenten, gave me room to grow at my own pace, which in turn allowed me to develop secure and slow-cooked sort of love for Balinese music. The bonds I made that first fateful summer in Bali sealed the deal and set the course for these years and all years to come. Sabrina, Chandi, Paddy and Sanggar Cudamani made that possible. In Vancouver, Michael Tenzer and I Wayan Sudirana are both incredible mentors who further instilled in me the idea that Balinese gamelan is not a music. It's a lifestyle. You both possess an uncanny brilliance and I am humbly grateful for the time I've spent studying with you. The Bali lifestyle in Vancouver, CA would not have been possible without my colleagues and drinking partners, Paddy, Maisie, Leslie, and Deirdre. Lastly, I want to thank Shoko for trying (albeit unsuccessfully) to keep me sane during the writing process. Her efforts were valiant, however unsound her means. PS Tanah Goreng is not a food group.  vi  Chapter 1: Introduction, and Methodology Introduction The following thesis is a historical and analytical investigation of contemporary approaches to melodic elaboration in instrumental compositions for Balinese gamelan. Specifically, I will be dealing with a sub-genre of Balinese music commonly referred to as Tabuh Kreasi . The analysis focuses contemporary pieces composed within the last 1  fifteen years. Over the course of my analysis, I focus on compositional techniques that composers use to consciously develop and reinterpret normative approaches to elaboration. In order to do so, I will draw on a number of analytical models from both western music theory and ethnomusicology. This necessitates a brief overview of discourse surrounding the analysis of non-Western musics so that we may be aware of the advantages and dis-advantages of each type of approach. I will also deal at some length with the musicological terms polyphony and heterophony and discuss their varying degrees of applicability to these innovations. Some readers may find fault in my desire to engage such terminology at all. It's true that whispers of such comparisons have easily and understandably drawn criticism from cultural relativists and western music theorists alike. For cultural relativists, the imposition of these non-indigenous categories may stink of euro-centrism, while western music theorists may be quick to find inconsistencies regarding the finer aspects of such terminology when applied to non-western music. I have chosen to engage these terms for two reasons: Since my earliest encounters with Indonesian music (undergrad world music classes, introductory readings, lecture  ' Tabuh is a general term referring to compositional form in lelambatan repetoire, while kreasi may be an adaptation of the Dutch term, creatie (McGraw 2005: 4).  1  demos, etc) I have been told that heterophony is "basic to the Indonesian gamelan." (Cooke 2007). A s I will argue later, the creation of this category implies a culturally biased assumption that Indonesian music is fundamentally less complex than western music in that Indonesian music is conceptually reducible to one melodic line while prevailing interpretations of western tonal music reduce it to at least two . Lately, a few 2  scholars working on Javanese music have taken issue with the term heterophony , but in 3  Balinese music scholarship the concept of heterophony has not been so refined. Also, I have found in the course of my research, relationships between melodic instruments (particularly in contemporary Tabuh Kreasi) that are more aptly described as polyphonic or contrapuntal rather than heterophonic. I should clarify that I am N O T saying the composers themselves conceptualize these relationships polyphonically. During my interviews, not one composer expressed any overt interest in the western concepts polyphony or heterophony. In general, the composers are merely seeking new melodic and orchestrational possibilities that are rooted within traditional Balinese concepts of melody and composition. M y analysis is primarily inspired by the workTenzer and A g a w u (both 2006), and incorporates some cognitive concepts laid out in Perlman (2004: 13-28). The analysis makes use of current models from Western music theory and ethnomusicology. In all cases, I have tried to base my analysis around indigenous concepts of melody as well as indigenous concepts of melodic quality in order to lend the analysis an appropriate degree of cultural currency. More specifically, I use Tenzer's method of contour analysis (2000: Even Schenker's Urlinie (foundamental line), refers to the upper voice of a composition and is always accompanied by the bass progression I-V-I. Thus, western tonal music is minimally reducible to two distinct melodic lines (scale degrees 3-2-1 in the upper voice paired with scale degrees 1-5-1 in the lower) (Forte 1959: 8). 3  see Brinner 2001 and Perlman 1993 and 2004.  2  184-189), as w e l l as methods o f g r o u p i n g and theories o f generative r h y t h m f r o m L e r d a h l and J a c k e n d o f f ( 1 9 8 3 : 13-17, 30-37, 43-55). Increases i n m e l o d i c independence and increased frequency o f s i m u l t a n e o u s l y s o u n d i n g intervals between parts that are internally ( h o r i z o n t a l l y ) cohesive (other than the standard  ngempat or " B a l i n e s e fourth")  w i l l be discussed i n terms o f p o l y p h o n y and counterpoint. A w a r e n e s s o f Tabuh Kreasi's m u s i c a l peers and c u l t u r a l antecedents are critical to understanding its stylistic conventions. First I must locate  Tabuh Kreasi as precisely  as possible w i t h i n the densely inhabited matrix o f new m u s i c i n B a l i and discuss its often incestuous relationship w i t h other contemporary genres such as and  Kreasi Baru, Tari Kreasi,  Musik Kontemporer, I w i l l also discuss its roots i n early twentieth century  instrumental c o m p o s i t i o n s as w e l l as its development and lasting affiliation w i t h structures o f p o w e r i n B a l i and abroad. T h i s provides context for the diverse set o f stylistic, t o p i c a l , and h i s t o r i c a l referents that are drawn u p o n i n c o n t e m p o r a r y  kreasi  composition. In the next chapter I w i l l discuss styles o f elaboration by c o m p a r i n g the theoretical w r i t i n g s of T e n z e r , R a i , and B a n d e m . I focus p r i m a r i l y on pre-composed styles o f elaboration, the most prevalent o f w h i c h is  ubit-ubitan. I then discuss some  examples o f " m e l o d i c d i v e r g e n c e " ( P e r l m a n 2 0 0 4 : 63-74) that arise d u r i n g the c o m p o s i t i o n a l process i n non-kreasi genres. T h e point here is to characterize m e l o d i c elaborations i n B a l i n e s e m u s i c as a " n o n - c l a s s i c a l category" ( i b i d : 18-21). T h u s , I present m e l o d i c elaboration i n B a l i n e s e m u s i c as a diverse and i n t e r n a l l y inconsistent theoretical system w i t h f l e x i b l e norms that possess tremendous potential for distortion and expansion.  3  In the last chapter, I analyze various approaches to m e l o d i c elaboration i n w o r k s by I W a y a n Y u d a n e , I D e w a K e t u t A l i t , I D e w a Putu Berata, and I W a y a n Sudirana. T h e analysis is o r g a n i z e d into various categories o f m e l o d i c elaboration that are defined by the nature o f the elaboration's relationship to the core m e l o d y or p o k o k . A t least t w o of these categories w i l l be described as p o l y p h o n i c . I also w i l l l o o k at h o w these c o m p o s e r s ' approaches to elaboration expand existing concepts o f elaboration by adhering to some traditional m o d e l s w h i l e simultaneously d i s t o r t i n g others.  Analysis: some recent thoughts C l i m a t e changes in e t h n o m u s i c o l o g i c a l theory are e n a b l i n g the use o f h y b r i d analytical m e t h o d o l o g i e s .  In anthropology, the binary distinctions between " i n s i d e r " and  "outsider" and as w e l l as " e m i c " verus " e t i c " perspectives have b r o k e n d o w n into an infinite spectrum o f inter-related subjectivities. T h i s i d e o l o g y has led to the appearance o f " r e f l e x i v e ethnographies" that s e l f - c o n s c i o u s l y a c k n o w l e d g e the i d e o l o g i c a l and cultural contexts o f the ethnographer. C o n s e q u e n t l y the ethnographic d o c u m e n t itself has been recast as a subjective representation filtered and arranged b y those contextual biases ( T y l e r 1988: 123).  In e t h n o m u s i c o l o g y this perspective has been i n f l u e n t i a l i n a large  number o f w o r k s o v e r the last t w o decades.  4  F o r some authors it brings a sense o f relief  because we are liberated f r o m representing our subjects as "discrete objects or texts" ( C l i f f o r d 1988: 25). C l i f f o r d also mentions that our i n c r e a s i n g sensitivity to subjectivity a l l o w s for a new v i s i o n o f culture as something both " h i s t o r i c a l and interactive" ( i b i d : 25).  4  Kisliuk 1998, Hagedorn 2001, and Rice 1994 are just a few examples.  4  T h e question n o w is, " w h a t is the place o f (ethnographic) m u s i c a l analysis under these new c o n d i t i o n s ? " I f w e f o l l o w C l i f f o r d ' s l o g i c , m u s i c a l analysis ( l i k e ethnography) is s i m i l a r l y liberated f r o m the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f r e v e a l i n g h i d d e n truths and perceptual absolutes. N o w it assumes a new role as one o f many v o i c e s i n d i a l o g u e that l i k e a l l modes o f ethnographic representation are i d e o l o g y - b a s e d and "essentially c r e a t i v e " (Tenzer 2 0 0 6 : 6). S c h o l a r s are attracted to analysis because they b e l i e v e that it has the a b i l i t y to elucidate "deep" or " h i d d e n " structures felt somewhere beneath the m u s i c a l surface  5  (Stock 1993: 2 2 0 - 2 2 1 ) . T y p e s o f categorization are important to bear m i n d w h e n . attempting to reveal these sub-surface structures through i m p o r t e d a n a l y t i c a l means. P e r l m a n (2004: 18-21) deals w i t h the issue through c o g n i t i v e p s y c h o l o g y by d i s c u s s i n g aspects o f Javanese m u s i c i n terms o f " c l a s s i c a l " and " n o n - c l a s s i c a l " categories. In a broad sense, classical categories are groupings that are i n t e r n a l l y consistent on the basis o f pre-determined criteria. A n e x a m p l e i n linguistics w o u l d be regular verbs because they behave consistently o n the basis o f pre-determined g r a m m a t i c a l rules. N o n - c l a s s i c a l categories or " f a m i l y r e s e m b l e n c e " categories ( P e r l m a n 2 0 0 4 : 19 after W i t t g e n s t e i n ) are groupings based o n s i m i l a r i t i e s that are not internally consistent o n the w h o l e . A table, is one famous e x a m p l e o f a n o n - c l a s s i c a l category.  It m a y or m a y not have f o u r legs. It  may or m a y not be made o f w o o d . It m a y or m a y not even be used to put things on. S t i l l , these items o f disparate usage, make-up, and appearance m a y still be c a l l e d , "tables". C r e a t i n g these categorical d i s t i n c t i o n s is important w h e n d e a l i n g w i t h diverse and inconsistent systems l i k e B a l i n e s e m u s i c . M a n y aspects o f B a l i n e s e m u s i c resist  5  See also Tenzer 2006 and Perlman 2004.  5  standardization. T h i s heterogeneity is even a source o f pride a m o n g B a l i n e s e . C r e a t i n g this d i s t i n c t i o n between category types is important i n order to a v o i d what P e r l m a n refers to as, " e v e r y d a y s t r u c t u r a l i s m " ( P e r l m a n 2 0 0 4 : 20-21). M e a n i n g , this d i s t i n c t i o n helps us to a v o i d creating r i g i d categories that belie the heterogeneous nature o f the material being analyzed. T h i s d i s t i n c t i o n helps us to a v o i d creating r i g i d categories that belie the heterogeneous nature o f the material being a n a l y z e d . W h i l e P e r l m a n uses the term to describe garap i n Javanese m u s i c , I w i l l be referring to v a r i o u s styles o f m e l o d i c 6  elaboration i n B a l i n e s e m u s i c i n this manner. I w i l l also b o r r o w P e r l m a n ' s terms m e l o d i c " c o n v e r g e n c e " and " d i v e r g e n c e " w h e n illustrating h o w these elaborations m a y be appropriately labeled n o n - c l a s s i c a l categories. A n o t h e r important issue i n analysis is representation and a c c o u n t a b i l i t y . A r e we to assume i n this " p o l y p h o n y o f v o i c e s " all parts are g i v e n equal say at equal v o l u m e ? 7  O r do structures o f p o w e r continue to f a v o r certain parts on the basis o f racial and e c o n o m i c d i s t i n c t i o n s , thereby i n h i b i t i n g the expansion o f k n o w l e d g e o f m u s i c a l systems b e y o n d euro-centric p a r a d i g m s ? Different writers have e m p h a s i z e d different priorities and i d e o l o g i c a l agendas w h e n t h e o r i z i n g on this issue. S o m e o p t i m i s t i c a l l y predict that technology (such as T V , internet, itunes, etc) is increasing the frequency and efficiency o f cross-cultural interactions, w h i c h m a y lead to the advent o f a " u n i v e r s a l m u s i c t h e o r y " ( T e n z e r 2 0 0 6 : 32-33). H o w e v e r , other proponents o f cross-cultural analysis r e m a i n skeptical o f a c a d e m i c e p i s t e m o l o g i e s and their relationships to p o w e r . In short, "what about those w h o c a n ' t afford T V , internet, or itunes. W h a t r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s do we have i n  6  7  namely ubit-ubitan, reyong norot improvisation, and reyong kilitan. McGravv 2005: 83 borrows the concept from Foucault after Baktin.  6  m a k i n g ethnographic representations o f their m u s i c ? " A n interesting e x a m p l e o f this p o l e m i c was p l a y e d out i n front o f me at a recent U B C c o l l o q u i u m : In 2 0 0 6 , M i c h a e l T e n z e r and K o f i A g a w u both p u b l i s h e d texts t h e o r i z i n g on the prizes and pitfalls o f analysis and w o r l d m u s i c . A g a w u was asked to g i v e a presentation based on a f o r t h c o m i n g article for  The Journal of the American Musicological Society.  T h e talk c r i t i q u e d methods o f analysis a p p l i e d to A f r i c a n m u s i c , w i t h a particular focus on various representations o f the " s o - c a l l e d standard pattern" ( A g a w u 2 0 0 6 : 1). T o w a r d s the end o f his talk A g a w u read the f o l l o w i n g t w o sentences f r o m his paper: M y particular burden i n this article has been to deny that any structural feature o f A f r i c a n r h y t h m has an  a priori v a l i d i t y that excuses it f r o m a cultural test, w h i l e  also d e n y i n g that essential aspects o f a cultural v i e w resist structural translation. Questions o f p r i o r i t y i n research cannot be answered outside the p u r v i e w o f i d e o l o g y , h o w e v e r - w h a t we believe the enterprise to be about, what we get out o f it as p r a c t i c i n g analysts or theorists, and h o w w e do facilitates or impedes intellectual (or other f o r m s of) d o m i n a t i o n . " ( i b i d : 42)  F o l l o w i n g that, T e n z e r asked that A g a w u re-read the first sentence. A f t e r hearing it a second time he thought for a m o m e n t and asked, " o k a y , but i s n ' t there a m o r e positive w a y to say i t ? " A g a w u response was, "that's a cultural perspective n o w i s n ' t i t ? " T h e r o o m fell silent for a few a w k w a r d moments. A g a w u seemed to say that the differences in their racial and cultural backgrounds were responsible for their contrasting o u t l o o k s on m u s i c a l analysis, and that those cultural differences are the reason T e n z e r does not identify w i t h A g a w u ' s " n e g a t i v i t y " . W h i l e both are proponents o f cross-cultural analysis, their differences became stark d u r i n g those few silent m o m e n t s . T e n z e r sees universals and inclusiveness, w h i l e A g a w u r e m i n d s us o f our "burdens" and the potential for " i n t e l l e c t u a l d o m i n a t i o n " H o w m i g h t their differences be the result, as A g a w u said, o f their " c u l t u r a l perspectives"? A g a w u , a native G h a n a i a n ,  7  deals p r i m a r i l y w i t h A f r i c a n m u s i c . In the context o f N o r t h A m e r i c a , issues o f representation c o n c e r n i n g A f r i c a n and A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n culture are o f m u c h greater and more i m m e d i a t e p o l i t i c a l g r a v i t y than that o f B a l i n e s e culture. T h e r e is no " B a l i n e s e A m e r i c a n " p o p u l a t i o n that exists as the result o f a m a s s i v e slave t r a d i n g operation; 8  consequently there were no wars fought o v e r their f r e e d o m , no p u b l i c i z e d history o f prejudice towards t h e m , no c i v i l rights m o v e m e n t c o n c e r n i n g their rights as A m e r i c a n s , no B a l i n e s e James B r o w n s , M a r t i n L u t h e r K i n g s , or F e l a K u t i s . In short, there is no B a l i n e s e c u l t u r a l m o v e m e n t i n N o r t h A m e r i c a w i t h a history o f resistance to p o l i t i c a l and cultural oppression to c h a l l e n g e the B a l i - o l o g i s t ' s means and methods o f representation. O n l y recently have some e t h n o m u s i c o l o g i s t s begun to c r i t i c i z e racial biases i n e t h n o m u s i c o l o g i c a l theory w i t h regards to A s i a n ( s p e c i f i c a l l y C h i n e s e ) m u s i c , but these 9  critiques deal m o r e w i t h i d e o l o g i c a l generalities than a n a l y t i c a l specifics. T h i s relative ignorance o f B a l i n e s e culture amongst the N o r t h A m e r i c a n p o p u l a c e is both a curse and a blessing. O n the one hand, as ethnographers we are free to interpret culture w i t h c o m p a r a t i v e l y few p o l i t i c a l repercussions yet on the other, w e are r o b b e d o f accountability to a n y b o d y other than our o w n conscience. H o p e f u l l y , intercultural dialogues w i l l continue to f l o w w i t h increased ease and f l u e n c y until a day c o m e s w h e n B a l i n e s e and N o r t h A m e r i c a n scholars can exchange ideas w i t h c o m p a r a b l e b a r g a i n i n g power. Steps are already b e i n g taken to level the scholastic p l a y i n g f i e l d . T e n z e r ' s b o o k on G a m e l a n G o n g K e b y a r  (2000) is  currently  b e i n g translated into Indonesian, m a k i n g his theories and methods m o r e w i d e l y k n o w n to  Although, an estimated 150,000 Balinese were sold and/or traded as slaves throughout the Indonesian archipelago between 1650-1830 (Shulte-Nordholt 1996: 41). see Witzleben 1997.  9  8  native Indonesian scholars. A s well, there are some scholars that are bringing Indonesian scholarship into North American discourse. A n interesting example is Perlman's (2004) book, which compares three Javanese scholars' concept of "hidden melody" in Javanese Gamelan. Perlman's approach is also interesting in that it circumvents (to a degree) some issues of power and representation. Perlman's work comments on and synthesizes threads of indigenous discourse rather than running the riskier proposition of positing his own perceptual opinions on Javanese melody . 10  Despite discrepancies on the surface, the differences between Tenzer and Agawu amount more to differences in personality and style rather than approach; a proverbial "good cop, bad cop" for the occasionally stand-offish encounter with a musical text. Both theorists stress the importance of culturally informed analytical techniques or "ethnotheories" (Agawu 2006 and Tenzer 2006), and share the basic assumption that analysis of world music has the potential to empower non-western music and musicians by bringing them into "international discourse " (Tenzer 2006: 10). A s we saw above, 11  Agawu is not opposed to using non-indigenous analytical models with regards to African music (in his talk, after critiquing several theories he settles on what he calls a "generative approach," based on Lerdahl and Jackendoff) as long as the technique employed is cross-checked by a "cultural test."  Similarly, Tenzer adapted the concept of  contour-class using terminology developed in Michael Friedmann's analysis of Schoenberg (Friedmann 1985). In both cases however, the theories were employed with cultural concepts in mind. For Agawu the generative approach makes more sense than  Although he does run a risky proposition in comparing the evolution of the hidden melody theory to the evolution of the "chord-roofin Western Music (Perlman 2004). Tenzer was referring to statements from Agawu 2003, and Scherzinger 2001 that were referring to African music specifically. 1 0  9  others because o f the standard-pattern's relationship to basic dance m o v e m e n t s .  For  T e n z e r the analysis o f contour seems appropriate in l i g h t of i n d i g e n o u s v o c a b u l a r y for d e s c r i b i n g the k i n e t i c quality o f m e l o d i c patterns (Tenzer 2 0 0 0 : 178-80). In c o n c l u s i o n , recent i d e o l o g i c a l shifts are enabling the use o f h y b r i d methodologies. A n a l y s i s is n o w free o f its r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to absolute truth, but remains a valuable tool to deepen i n d i v i d u a l s ' relationships to m u s i c . A n important issue in analysis is the d e v e l o p m e n t o f categories and it should be done i n such a w a y to a l l o w for exceptions to a v o i d o v e r s i m p l i f y i n g a m u c h richer m u s i c a l reality. W h i l e some theorists emphasize issues o f misrepresentation to v a r y i n g degrees, most seem to agree that western theoretical m o d e l s can be useful i f applied w i t h cultural sensitivity.  10  Chapter II Many or just Different? A Lesson in Categorical Cacophony M y p r i m a r y impetus for engaging the set of terms  polyphony, and heterophony  has to do w i t h inconsistencies and c o n f u s i o n regarding their use i n discussions o f B a l i n e s e m u s i c and Indonesian m u s i c i n general. T h e f o l l o w i n g chapter is an e t y m o l o g y o f both terms i n W e s t e r n m u s i c as w e l l as i n e t h n o m u s i c o l o g y . I w i l l argue that w i t h respect to h o w each idea has e v o l v e d , it is problematic to create d e f i n i t i v e boundaries between the t w o concepts. In some cases, the distinction between heterophony and p o l y p h o n y is o b v i o u s . H o w e v e r , m y focus is the m u s i c that exists i n the gray areas between. T h r o u g h an analysis o f the terms and their usage, w e get an understanding of how this is possible. T h i s historiography illustrates h o w heterophony and p o l y p h o n y function as  concepts i n practice. I therefore stress that the s i m i l a r i t i e s are not necessarily  evident through a c o m p a r i s o n o f the m u s i c a l systems and their rules o f syntax. M o r e o v e r , they lie i n the c o g n i t i v e processes o f m a n i p u l a t i n g pitches, rhythms, and intervals. T h e r e are three such process d o m a i n s where these s i m i l a r i t i e s are most evident. T h e y are the c o m p o s i t i o n a l , the a n a l y t i c a l , and the p e d a g o g i c a l process d o m a i n s . In these three d o m a i n s , p o l y p h o n y and heterophony b e c o m e less distinct. T h e goal is to establish a suitable e n v i r o n m e n t to discuss the nuances o f m e l o d i c abstraction and elaboration i n various kinds o f B a l i n e s e m u s i c . I propose that, in terms o f process, both m u s i c s a v o i d (or resolve) dissonance at m e t r i c a l l y and structurally important places. T h i s is evident in B a l i n e s e examples where simultaneous adjacent scale tones o c c u r m o r e frequently at m e t r i c a l l y weak points and are less c o m m o n at  11  metrically strong points. T h e absence o f these d i s s o n a n t  12  simultaneities at points o f  metric stress creates a structurally meaningful accent that is p e r c e i v a b l e to listeners f a m i l i a r w i t h B a l i n e s e m u s i c and B a l i n e s e m u s i c a l norms. O n a conceptual l e v e l , this resembles basic processes o f h a r m o n i c practice in tonal m u s i c . I present this a steppingstone to the u n i q u e l y p o l y p h o n i c examples i n contemporary  Polyphony  Tabuh Kreasi.  now and then  It w o u l d be i n f o r m a t i o n a l o v e r k i l l to g i v e a complete history o f p o l y p h o n y ' s usages and contexts i n western m u s i c . H o w e v e r , a b r i e f retracing o f its roots is appropriate i n order to get a sense o f h o w concepts o f p o l y p h o n y have e v o l v e d to their present status. P r i o r to 1538, the term " p o l y p h o n i a " was used to as a blanket term for various types o f part w r i t i n g , and later e v o l v e d as an alternative to " d y a p h o n i a , " ( s i m i l a r to h o m o p h o n y , but i n v o l v i n g o n l y two parts) " P o l y p h o n i a " i n this sense is characterized largely by " r h y t h m i c d i v e r s i t y i n its parts" (Frobenius 2 0 0 1 ) . E s s e n t i a l l y , the concept e v o l v e d to describe multi-part m u s i c that was not h o m o r h y t h m i c . It was not until 1538 that an i d e o l o g i c a l thread was born characterizing p o l y p h o n y as, " c o m p o s i t i o n i n v o l v i n g several parts o f equal i m p o r t a n c e " (ibid.) T h i s idea o f " e q u a l i t y " between voices needs to be c o n t e x t u a l i z e d and w i l l be discussed i n greater depth later o n . A t this point theorists focus o n p o l y p h o n y as a m e l o d i c a l l y d r i v e n process, w h e r e i n other processes (particularly the progression o f vertical h a r m o n y ) are "subordinate" ( i b i d ) . T h i s concept was w i d e l y accepted and d e v e l o p e d by K o c h , w h o i n 1802 wrote o f p o l y p h o n y as m u s i c  12  I use this term cautiously since there is no explicit discourse concerning dissonance in Balinese music. However, the fact that seconds, and thirds occur more frequently in metrically weak points indicates that there may exist an implicit understanding that those intervals are somehow more unstable. 12  wherein each v o i c e has "the character o f a m a i n v o i c e " ( i b i d ) . K o c h also wrote that in p o l y p h o n y , "the feelings o f several people are expressed" ( K o c h i n F r o b e n i u s 2001). H o w e v e r , i n 1862, B e l l e r m a n contested that the d e f i n i n g feature o f p o l y p h o n y was not m e l o d i c a l l y based but m o r e o v e r the result o f "the r h y t h m i c relationship between v o i c e s " (ibid). T h i s idea is m o r e a k i n to early descriptions o f " p o l y p h o n i a . " F r o m these theories we may c o n c l u d e that p r i o r to the twentieth century, p o l y p h o n y consisted o f " e q u a l " parts that were affectively distinct yet s o m e h o w fused into a c o m p o s i t i o n a l unity. W e must also keep i n m i n d that i m p l i c i t i n these descriptions are aesthetic assumptions about the rhythm and tonality that are s p e c i f i c to pre-twentieth century E u r o p e a n art m u s i c . P o l y p h o n y takes a different shape i n the twentieth century w i t h the d i s s o l u t i o n (or expansion) o f tonal h a r m o n y . W i t h the advent o f s e r i a l i s m , i n d e t e r m i n a c y , c o l l a g e , b i and p o l y t o n a l i t y , etc., the idea o f expressing, "the feelings o f several people at o n c e " takes on an entirely new m e a n i n g . In w r i t i n g , the shift i n emphasis is o b v i o u s . B o u l e z (1964: 153) for e x a m p l e classifies p o l y p h o n y as "constellations that are m u t u a l l y dependent i n a special w a y as far as pitches and durations are c o n c e r n e d . " H e also describes p o l y p h o n y as m u s i c whose parts are " r e s p o n s i b l e " for one another. ( B o u l e z 1964: 136) W h e r e a s early theorists are able to take for granted notions o f meter and tonality B o u l e z must use broader t e r m i n o l o g y to incorporate c o n t e m p o r a r y aesthetics.  In  d e f i n i n g p o l y p h o n y , it is clear that his emphasis is on the interdependence rather than the independence o f parts. W e b e r n ' s emphasis is s i m i l a r . H e stresses the c o m b i n i n g o f p o l y p h o n i c materials to f o r m a " m u s i c a l synthesis" ( F r o b e n i u s 2 0 0 1 ) . In a c o m p o s i t i o n a l climate where almost a n y t h i n g goes, these composers choose to e m p h a s i z e that p o l y p h o n i c m u s i c must s t i l l , despite its differing elements, constitute a greater m u s i c a l  13  whole. This is in direct contrast with earlier theorists who emphasize the individual character of the various voices. Theorists have long debated what music best exemplifies these characteristics. In these debates, polyphony is often framed in contrast to homophony (parts that are melodically but not rhythmically distinct). Theorists stress that in homophonic writing, the primary musical emphasis is the progression of vertical sonorities, while good polyphonic writing favors the melodic cohesion of individual parts (having "the character of a main voice"). There is something tacit in these discussions of homophony and polyphony. The debate assumes that polyphony is more complex and by virtue of our own cultural associations , of greater artistic value than monophonic or homophonic 13  musics. Even the words' own morphology suggests a basic distinction.  Although Bach  and Beethoven are pillars of western music, Bach's contrapuntally oriented music beats Beethoven's harmonically driven works, if only by a nose. Nineteenth Century scholars who endow polyphony (particularly that of Bach) with a uniquely "objective" and "universal" appeal reinforce this (ibid). The differing emphases of theorists discussing tonal music versus those discussing non or post-tonal music encapsulate the conceptual bounds of "polyphony" in Western musical thought. During the evolution of tonal and functional harmony, (the period during which a hierarchy of dissonance was formed and relied upon) independence and distinctiveness between parts is emphasized. Such polyphony is understood in light of historical context to conform within certain parameters of register,  Nettl 1995 discusses how Western culture's propensity to valorize size as well as rigor in terms of empiricsm and technological advancement is evident in musical historiography. One can argue that in terms of music and musical language the controlled polyphony of the late-Baroque readily embodies such principles more than music of other periods. 1 3  14  tonality, and r h y t h m . W h i l e the basic p r i n c i p l e is the same i n the twentieth century, the parameters are m u c h broader. T h e basic features of p o l y p h o n y are left intact, h o w e v e r the w o r d i n g is adjusted to a c c o m m o d a t e the broadening o f the parameters just described. In light o f this broadening, the emphasis shifts to c o v e r the gap. P o l y p h o n y as independent parts becomes p o l y p h o n y as interdependent structures.  A n d paradoxically  enough, authors w h o choose to focus on the interdependent nature o f p o l y p h o n y i n twentieth century are referring to m u s i c that is tonally and r h y t h m i c a l l y independent beyond the w i l d e s t i m a g i n a t i o n s o f the theorists l i v i n g i n 1538. B e f o r e m o v i n g onto p o l y p h o n y as it relates to e t h n o m u s i c o l o g y , I s h o u l d b r i n g up some potential p r o b l e m s w i t h the idea o f p o l y p h o n i c parts as b e i n g " e q u a l " - l y valuable. T h i s idea was introduced as early as 1538 by K i r s c h n e r and further c a n o n i z e d by writers l i k e A l s t e d and M a r p u r g . ( F r o b e n i u s 2001) A l t h o u g h functional h a r m o n y and tonality as we k n o w it d i d not o f f i c i a l l y coalesce until the 18* century, Renaissance and B a r o q u e musics were still g u i d e d by m e l o d i c and h a r m o n i c p r i n c i p l e s that place dissonances w i t h i n a hierarchy. T h i s vertical phenomenon c o m b i n e d w i t h h o r i z o n t a l means o f a p p r o a c h i n g and departing those dissonances, means that certain v o i c e s are controlled or are at least c o m p o s e d i n reference to other, more p r i m a r y v o i c e s . T h i s interdependence is what is i m p l i c i t i n discussions o f tonal m u s i c and e x p l i c i t i n discussions o f post-tonal music. T h i s is o b v i o u s i n the case o f the  cantus firmus. In terms o f the c o m p o s i t i o n a l  process, the cantus f i r m u s is a p r i m a r y v o i c e f r o m w h i c h a l l m e l o d i c material is derived. O n that conceptual l e v e l , the v o i c e w i t h the cantus f i r m u s possesses a greater importance than the s u r r o u n d i n g parts. If we take the idea of "equal parts" l i t e r a l l y , a l l m u s i c based  15  on a cantus firmus must not be polyphonic. In terms of the analytical process domain, Schenkerian analysis also works against this idea of equal voices. From a Schenkerian perspective, the bass and soprano are of greater structural importance than the inner voices. It can also be argued that at any given moment in time the voices of a fugue may also exist within a hierarchy. The voice that carries the subject exhibits greater primacy over the counter-subject, which exhibits greater primacy over the "free" voice(s). Such conceptual hierarchies are even clearer in the compositional exercises within pedagogical texts that direct the student to compose fugues and another types of imitative 14  counterpoint in a certain order thereby instilling a hierarchy of voices from the outset. While frequently applied and debated in western music, the term polyphony has been somewhat taboo in ethnomusicology. As Peter Cooke writes, we are, "uneasy about using the term" (Cooke 2001). He traces our discomfort to early scholars who looked at Non-Western music "within an evolutionary framework (in which European contrapuntal and harmonic traditions stood at the apex and 'polyphonic' had acquired a rather specialized meaning" (ibid). Cooke is reminding us that our cultural biases are no longer as apparent or as glaringly racist as they once were, but that they still operate on deeper levels, effecting our willingness to draw conceptual analogies between certain western musical phenomena and similar phenomena in different cultures. The term polyphony is (understandably) particularly intimidating, given the amount of cultural weight the term has acquired over the past millennium. Perhaps even more intimidating; it is the hallmark of western music. Our unwillingness to apply it to music of different cultures in many  see Practical Approach to Eighteenth Century Counterpoint Robert Gauldin, 1995.  16  ways reinforces the status o f p o l y p h o n y as our m u s i c ' s d e f i n i n g feature.  It is what  e x e m p l i f i e s the c o m p l e x and r i g o r o u s l y d e v e l o p e d state o f our m u s i c a l syntax. Perhaps one o f the most rigorous definitions o f p o l y p h o n y i n e t h n o m u s i c o l o g y is that offered by S i m h a A r o m i n his structuralist analysis o f instrumental m u s i c o f B a A k a p y g m i e s i n the C e n t r a l A f r i c a n R e p u b l i c . A f t e r offering a history and analysis o f the w o r d (drawn m o s t l y f r o m R i e m a n n ) , A r o m derives the f o l l o w i n g traits o f p o l y p h o n y " n o n - p a r a l l e l , heterorhythmic, multi-part and s i m u l t a n e o u s " ( A r o m 1991:34, 38).  He  goes onto corroborate the qualifications l a i d out by earlier theorists b y s a y i n g that p o l y p h o n i c parts must be internally cohesive, h a r m o n i c a l l y c o m p a t i b l e and r h y t h m i c a l l y d i s s i m i l a r . These parts must also thought o f as, "constituent elements o f a single m u s i c a l entity" by the performers themselves, ( i b i d : 34) A r o m also makes note o f the fact that i n Western m u s i c parts or v o i c e s o c c u p y distinct pitch registers and that this is yet another factor w h e n t r y i n g to locate p o l y p h o n y i n non-Western m u s i c . In the s e c o n d part o f this paper, I w i l l s h o w that o n the basis o f these traits, contemporary f o r m s o f m e l o d i c elaboration i n B a l i n e s e m u s i c are p o l y p h o n i c .  Heterophony..  .what is it exactly?  O u r c h o i c e o f t e r m i n o l o g y reflects basic conceptual d i s t i n c t i o n s . S u c h c o g n i t i v e processes are defined as " c r o s s - d o m a i n m a p p i n g " ( Z b i k o w s k i 2 0 0 1 : 13-17). In this process we m a p interactions o f perceived sonic phenomena f r o m an abstract and intangible d o m a i n to a more concrete d o m a i n w h e r e i n we e n d o w the sonic phenomena w i t h concrete p h y s i c a l properties as i f they were objects,  (ibid) T h e terms heterophony  and p o l y p h o n y are an e x a m p l e o f such a process. B y l a b e l i n g a piece " p o l y p h o n i c "  17  (literally " m a n y sounds") we are t a k i n g an intangible sonic mass, for e x a m p l e a B a c h fugue, and e n d o w i n g what w e perceive to be a c o l l e c t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l m e l o d i c strands w i t h a metaphorical object-hood. O n this basis the term heterophony ( l i t e r a l l y , "different sounds") i m p l i e s that there is o n l y one m e l o d i c strand that is r e a l i z e d by i n d i v i d u a l parts, differently. C o n s e q u e n t l y m u s i c that is rooted i n the r e a l m o f heterophony is by default less c o m p l e x on a conceptual l e v e l , than m u s i c rooted i n p o l y p h o n y . A c c o r d i n g to  The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, heterophony is  "fundamental to the m u s i c o f the Indonesian g a m e l a n . " T h i s statement and statements s i m i l a r have been reiterated ad i n f i n i t u m i n discussions o f both Javanese and B a l i n e s e gamelan m u s i c . R e c e n t l y a few scholars w o r k i n g p r i m a r i l y i n the f i e l d o f Javanese m u s i c have taken issue w i t h the term. W i t h reference to C e n t r a l Javanese gamelan B e n j a m i n B r i n n e r writes, "both heterophony and p o l y p h o n y are e q u a l l y unsatisfactory descriptions of gamelan texture, w h i c h is characterized both b y considerable independence and b y extensive m e l o d i c d e r i v a t i o n o f one part f r o m another" ( B r i n n e r 2 0 0 1 ) . M a r c P e r l m a n (2004), another J a v a specialist, finds fault w i t h heterophony for s i m i l a r reasons. O n e particular p r o b l e m w i t h the concept o f heterophony, is that it is s i m p l y too vague, yet for some reason it has b e c o m e our w o r d to describe the "fundamentals" o f Indonesian m u s i c . It is also e m p l o y e d m u c h more frequently than the t e r m p o l y p h o n y b y ethnomusicologists i n countless other areas as w e l l . It is p r o b l e m a t i c because it has been used to describe e v e r y t h i n g f r o m minute variations a m o n g v o c a l i s t s or p r e d o m i n a n t l y u n i s o n parts to "the most c o m p l e x contrapuntal w r i t i n g " ( C o o k e 2 0 0 1 ) . I f this is the case then w h y is m u s i c c o m p o s e d f r o m a "cantus f i r m u s " p o l y p h o n i c rather than heterophonic?  18  In practice, perhaps the d e f i n i n g feature o f heterophony is the a r r i v a l o f unisons and octaves at structurally significant points. H o w e v e r i f this is case, the d i s t i n c t i o n between it and p o l y p h o n y is p r o b l e m a t i c because it is rooted entirely i n the r e a l m o f m u s i c a l materials. A n d I do not want to confuse differences i n m u s i c a l materials w i t h differences i n m u s i c a l processes and conceptualizations. I n terms o f process, m u s i c a l materials, w h i l e not necessarily irrelevant, are relative i n h o w they are c o m b i n e d i n various process d o m a i n s . H o w e v e r , as illustrated above, the terms heterophony and p o l y p h o n y i m p l y v e r y different w a y s o f c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g m u s i c . Y e t , it appears that those differences l i e m o r e i n material terms rather than conceptual ones. T h i s w i l l b e c o m e clearer i n the next chapter as w e e x a m i n e B a l i n e s e m u s i c a l materials i n the c o m p o s i t i o n a l and abstractional process d o m a i n s . These d o m a i n s indicate that there are hierarchies a m o n g v o i c e s i n p o l y p h o n i c m u s i c . T h i s also indicates that processes o f d e r i v a t i o n n o r m a l l y associated w i t h heterophony are also r e g u l a r l y a p p l i e d to p o l y p h o n i c m u s i c a l styles. I n this sense w e are presented w i t h , " a heterophony o f p o l y p h o n i e s " ( B o u l e z 1964: 133). I n the next section w e w i l l see h o w B a l i n e s e m u s i c a l materials i n k i n d e x h i b i t a " p o l y p h o n y o f heterophonies."  T h i s is enabled t h r o u g h the use o f dissonance b e t w e e n r h y t h m i c a l l y and  registrally distinct v o i c e s . I focus o n the s i m i l a r i t i e s to p o l y p h o n y i n the c o m p o s i t i o n a l and abstractional process d o m a i n s . W e w i l l see first that B a l i n e s e m u s i c a l materials are rooted i n the heterophonic arts o f m e l o d i c elaboration and abstraction. H o w e v e r i n the c o m p o s i t i o n a l and abstractional process d o m a i n s , B a l i n e s e m u s i c m a k e s frequent use o f seconds and thirds b o t h to 1) enhance the h o r i z o n t a l cohesiveness o f and i n d i v i d u a l part 2) emphasize m e t r i c a l l y and structurally important m o m e n t s i n a c o m p o s i t i o n .  19  Chapter III Historical and Theoretical Contexts Introduction  Stratum type  Balinese terms  Instruments  Pokok elab. (up to 8 strata)  Kotekan, payasan, Ubit-ubitan, bunga  Abstraction  Pokok tones  pokok  Ugal, pemade, kantilan, reyong, rebab, suling, trompong penyacah, calung  Mediation  Pokok rein.  jegogan  jegogan  c o l o t o m i c pattern  gongan  Music concept Elaboration  M e t r i c Structure  gong, kempli  Table 1-Stratum Types in Balinese Gamelan T h e f o l l o w i n g section is a historical and theoretical o v e r v i e w o f the m e l o d i c elaborations i n the c o n t e m p o r a r y genre  Tabuh Kreasi. T h e analysis explores  c o m p o s i t i o n a l i n n o v a t i o n s i n terms o f their increasing degrees o f d i s s o c i a t i o n f r o m the core m e l o d y or  pokok. I b e g i n w i t h some examples that are b a s i c a l l y heterophonic that  incorporate i n n o v a t i o n s i n terms o f r h y t h m and contour and m o v e g r a d u a l l y to discuss examples that reinterpret the f u n c t i o n and m e a n i n g o f pokok i n general. T h e analysis breaks d o w n the orchestral forces i n t o " stratum types" ( T e n z e r 2 0 0 0 : 53) i n order to aptly articulate the degree to w h i c h m e l o d i c parts are abstracted or dissociated. Needless to say the higher the degree o f m e l o d i c d i s s o c i a t i o n between parts, the more p o l y p h o n i c the m u s i c is. T h e above table outlines the basic m e l o d i c relationship between parts i n G a m e l a n G o n g K e b y a r . T h e " c o n c e p t s " c o l u m n refers to the processes a p p l i e d to m e l o d y in relationship to the m e t r i c structure. T h e chart serves as a g o o d basis for understanding  20  these relationships. T a k e care to notice that no m u s i c a l concept, stratum type, instrument or term e x p l i c i t l y plays or illustrates the " m e l o d y " o f a c o m p o s i t i o n . T h i s is s i m i l a r to the notion o f " u n p l a y e d m e l o d i e s " i n Javanese m u s i c , w h e r e i n the "true" or " i d e a l " m e l o d y exists somewhere i n the m i n d , between the m e l o d i c abstraction p l a y e d by the  sawn and its various e l a b o r a t i o n . I m o d i f y this basic schematic to s h o w h o w c o m p l e x 15  the relationship between elaboration and abstraction is i n newer m u s i c . S u c h a b r e a k d o w n c o u l d easily apply to other genres o f B a l i n e s e m u s i c as w e l l . H o w e v e r a key feature to  Tabuh Kreasi today is the e x p a n s i o n o f this basic m o d e l , w h i c h  (to v a r y i n g degrees) a l l o w s for a more c o m p l e x interaction between the concepts o f elaboration, abstraction and m e d i a t i o n . In many o f the e x a m p l e s there is m o r e than one  pokok ( w h i c h , i n a sense, negates its pokok-ness), w h i c h is not reinforced by the jegogan, and is not elaborated by traditional means. E s s e n t i a l l y , these e x a m p l e s break d o w n the heterophonic hierarchy c o m p l e t e l y . Part o f what makes  kreasi so fascinating is the  inconsistency w i t h w h i c h composers do this. H o w e v e r , despite this i n c o n s i s t e n c y , their musical innovations r e m a i n internally cohesive i n terms o f traditional B a l i n e s e syntax. F o r e x a m p l e , m a n y i n n o v a t i v e elaborations rely on what c o u l d be an i n d i g e n o u s tonal hierarchy. In the most p o l y p h o n i c examples there is a general tendency for m e l o d i c parts to c o i n c i d e o n larger intervals (most c o m m o n l y octaves, unisons or fourths), and a v o i d c o i n c i d i n g o n adjacent scale tones. A l s o , almost a l l elaborations undergo m e l o d i c transformations as they approach m e t r i c a l l y significant points ( l i k e the end o f a c y c l e ) . First, we w i l l c o v e r some c o g n i t i v e and theoretical p r e l i m i n a r i e s w i t h w h i c h I frame m y analysis.  1 5  A term first coined by M a r c Perlman 1993.  21  Melodic Elaboration  in History,  Theory, and Process  In order to understand h o w contemporary m u s i c is stretching and reinterpreting the syntactical n o r m s o f B a l i n e s e m u s i c , we must understand it f r o m three basic perspectives. First w e w i l l briefly trace the development o f Tabuh Kreasi i n order to get a basic understanding o f h o w cultural and p o l i t i c a l factors have shaped and continue to shape the s t y l i s t i c features o f the genre. S e c o n d l y , we w i l l e x p l o r e m o d e r n theories o f m e l o d y and elaboration i n B a l i n e s e m u s i c , i n order to get a handle on h o w people talk about the general characteristics o f m e l o d i c elaboration and its inverse process ( m e l o d i c abstraction), as w e l l as to get a sense o f the " w e l l - f o r m e d n e s s r u l e s " ( L e r d a h l and Jackendoff 1983: 37) f o r the m o d e r n  Gamelan Gong Kebyar. T h i s is f r a m e d p r i m a r i l y  through the w o r k o f T e n z e r , B a n d e m , and R a i , and i n c o r p o r a t i n g a n a l y t i c a l perspectives f r o m L e r d a h l and Jackendoff. L a s t l y , w e w i l l l o o k at some m u s i c a l e x a m p l e s i n order to see h o w the basic materials identified i n theory are put together i n the c o m p o s i t i o n a l process. L o o k i n g at these e x a m p l e s w e w i l l see h o w materials based i n the r e a l m o f elaboration and abstraction routinely e m p l o y dissonance to f a v o r h o r i z o n t a l c o h e s i o n w i t h i n i n d i v i d u a l parts as w e l l as for c o m p o s i t i o n a l balance. L i k e p o l y p h o n y and heterophony, I propose we characterize elaborations and abstractions as n o n - c l a s s i c a l categories. T h a t is, due to the extreme heterogeneity o f B a l i n e s e m u s i c it is nearly i m p o s s i b l e to accept or reject a g i v e n elaboration on the basis of f i x e d criteria. E v a l u a t i o n o f a g i v e n elaboration must be nuanced enough to account for a variety o f factors that are m u s i c a l , e x t r a - m u s i c a l , abstract and context dependent. U s i n g both western and i n d i g e n o u s analytical models, I w i l l be e l u c i d a t i n g some o f these  22  relevant factors, w h i l e p a y i n g particular attention to m e l o d i c d i v e r g e n c e as it results f r o m these processes. T h e c o n t e m p o r a r y examples we w i l l l o o k at often break d o w n the concepts o f elaboration and abstraction entirely. Instead they consist o f m a n y different melodies, none o f w h i c h exert clear guidance over the other parts. W e w i l l also see h o w the indigenous c o m p o s i t i o n a l factors mentioned are g u i d i n g this increased independence.  History Tabuh Kreasi Baru (instrumental w o r k s ) and Kreasi Baru (a more general term referring to both m u s i c and dance pieces) are Indonesian terms that emerged i n the years f o l l o w i n g Indonesian independence. A t the time, Indonesia was s e a r c h i n g for a national m u s i c to unite its 17,000 islands and o v e r 300 ethnicities. S o m e m u s i c critics i n Java favored the adoption o f m u s i c based on western tonality and instrumentation (musik  Indonesia baru). In both B a l i and Java the term Kreasi Baru has appealed m o r e readily to the populace ( R a d e n 1995: 2 3 7 , see also M c G r a w 2 0 0 5 : 3). In J a v a ,  Kreasi Baru  gained p o p u l a r i t y through the w o r k o f Javanese g a m e l a n c o m p o s e r K i W a s i t o d i p u r o . A c c o r d i n g to R a d e n , i n an attempt to incorporate the r e g i o n a l tradition o f Javanese gamelan into the new Indonesian state, W a s i t o d i p u r o was asked to create m u s i c that made use o f c o m p l e t e l y new f o r m a l structures and m u s i c a l i d i o m s . B y d i v o r c i n g the m u s i c f r o m its traditional roots, the idea was to create a new t r a d i t i o n that c o u l d appeal to all Indonesian people. C o m p o s e r s o f  Kreasi Baru f r o m this p e r i o d were also encouraged  to incorporate songs and styles f r o m other Indonesian m u s i c a l traditions i n order to broaden its appeal. T h i s c u l m i n a t e d i n the creation o f  Jaya Manggala Gita,  c o m m i s s i o n e d for Indonesian Independence D a y in 1952. T h e piece s e l f - c o n s c i o u s l y  23  employs several non-traditional musical features including, "bi-tonality, linearity, and polyphonic voice writing". (Raden 2001: 241) A l l of which, at least according to Raden, were inspired solely by western music. In Bali, Gamelan Gong Kebyar had already been experiencing widespread popularity since the 1920s. The genre itself purportedly evolved at some point in the 1910s in North Bali. According to some accounts, the earliest kebyar-isms may have originated in the villages of Bungkulan and Jagaraga, which began incorporating sharp, "thrusts and syncopations" into music for Gamelan Sekati  16  (Bandem 2006: 2). In the  1920s kebyar spread beyond north Bali, particularly due to the influence and fame of dancer I Ketut Maria. (Ibid: 5). After moving to South Bali, tourists and scholars became particularly familiar with groups from south Bali namely, Belaluan and Peliatan. One of the few surviving examples of instrumental kebyar from this period is Kebyar Ding, by I Made Regog' , which was recorded in 1928 by Odeon. Unlike the music of the 7  pre-colonial court system, Gong Kebyar was a democratic music because it evolved only after the Dutch dissolved the court system (Ramstedt 1992: 68). After Indonesia gained independence, President Sukarno actively supported the promotion of Gong Kebyar as Indonesian Kreasi Baru for this reason. Sukarno, whose mother was Balinese, frequently invited Balinese musicians and dancers to perform in Jakarta or at his palace in Bali. T w o famous Balinese musicians that were often asked to perform were I Wayan Beratha, the son of Gong  Belaluan's  leader, I Made Regog, and I Gde Manik, the master drummer and dancer credited with  1 6  An ancient gamelan similar to gong  Luang.  17  This was recorded in 1928 by Odeon, and is now available commercially through World Arbiter/Qualiton.  24  creating the c o n t e m p o r a r y v e r s i o n o f n o w canonic dance piece, 2000: 95).  Teruna Jaya. (Tenzer  Kreasi Baru f r o m the S u k a r n o era favored secular themes that focused on  social r e a l i s m rather than H i n d u m y t h o l o g y . T h i s is quite different than the majority o f dance and theatre pieces b e i n g created today. S o m e famous e x a m p l e s f r o m this p e r i o d include,  Tari Tani (farmer dance), and Tari Nelayan (fisherman dance), and Tari Gotong  Royong (mutual h e l p i n g dance) (Ramstedt 1992: 68, see also M c G r a w 2 0 0 5 : 2 9 and T e n z e r 2 0 0 0 : 95). In 1959, K O K A R ( m u s i c conservatory) was founded, and eight years later the  Akademi Seni Tinggi Indonesia (Indonesian A c a d e m y o f H i g h A r t s ) was established. These institutions were instrumental i n the development o f  Kreasi Baru i n the sixties and  seventies. Beratha became p a r t i c u l a r l y famous after the 1968-69 G o n g K e b y a r festivals and almost s i n g l e - h a n d e d l y forged the terra for contemporary instrumental m u s i c i n B a l i . A f t e r the festivals, I W a y a n B e r a t h a ' s w o r k s were disseminated throughout the island w i t h the help o f R R I ( R a d i o R e p u b l i k Indonesia) as w e l l as t h r o u g h K K N  (Kuliah Kerja  Nyata) initiatives. T h r o u g h K K N , students f r o m K O K A R and A S T I furthered his celebrity by p e r f o r m i n g outreach services i n local v i l l a g e s and t e a c h i n g his m u s i c to their v i l l a g e ensembles ( M c G r a w 2 0 0 5 : 127). In this w a y , B e r a t h a ' s m u s i c a l m o s t instantly established the  Kreasi Baru canon.  T h e traditional concept o f Tri Angga connotes the trisection o f a b o d y or f o r m . A r o u n d this t i m e it was d e v e l o p e d , i n m u s i c , to describe a tripartite f o r m a l structure that is purportedly f o u n d i n most w o r k s of the  Gong Gde and Semar Pegulingan repertoires.  T h e i n d i v i d u a l parts are often characterized s y m b o l i c a l l y as the  kawitan (head),  pengawak (body) and pengecet (legs). T h e m u s i c o - r e l i g i o u s s y m b o l i s m is one  25  i d e o l o g i c a l thread that binds contemporary  kreasi to tradition i n the m i n d s o f composers.  H o w e v e r l o c a t i n g this f o r m i n pre-independence general m u s i c a l terms, the  kebyar is often a d u b i o u s task. In the  kawitan is an introduction o f sorts, and i f c o m p o s e d d u r i n g  this time w i l l l i k e l y i n c l u d e a series o f unmetered unison phrases referred as kebyar. These are best performed w i t h laser sharp t i m i n g and near supernatural s y n c h r o n i c i t y . T h e pengawak is t y p i c a l l y at a s l o w e r tempo than other sections o f the piece and usually has the longest m e l o d i c c y c l e . T h e pengecet by contrast, consists o f a shorter m e l o d y at a faster tempo. In the 1980's, K O K A R and A S T I (later S T S I ) , became i n c r e a s i n g l y concerned w i t h concept o f  Tri Angga i n Kreasi Baru and d e v e l o p e d a rigorous set o f  rules and p r i n c i p l e s under w h i c h all innovations i n  Kreasi Baru must be guided. T h i s  was largely due to changes cultural p o l i c y under Indonesia's new leader, Suharto. T h e Suharto r e g i m e brought massive change to life i n B a l i . F i r s t and foremost was the rapid e x p a n s i o n o f B a l i ' s t o u r i s m industry, o f w h i c h culture and the arts were and remain to this very day, a particular focal point. F r o m this p e r i o d up through the eighties and nineties  Kreasi Baru matured largely under the auspices o f the conservatory system  ( H a r n i s h 2 0 0 0 : 1 , 8). T h e i r influence was enabled in part through recordings and performances at the popular, " B a l i A r t s F e s t i v a l . " S i m i l a r to B e r a t h a , I N y o m a n W i n d h a emerged as an i n f l u e n t i a l c o m p o s e r i n the f o r m a t i o n o f  Kreasi Baru throughout this  period. S t i l l n o w , his c o m p o s i t i o n s almost routinely receive first p r i z e at the annual  Gong Kebyar c o m p e t i t i o n . A S T I / S T S I graduates and students, f r o m the 8 0 ' s until n o w often perform, "as innovators i n the p e r f o r m i n g arts" (Ramstedt 1992: 79). A c c o r d i n g to Ramstedt these innovations, must be based u p o n the f o l l o w i n g three criteria, " P r e s e r v a t i o n o f an idea,  26  f o r m , and the h a r m o n i o u s balance between t h e m " ( B a n d e m 1986 i n Ramstedt 1992: 7 9 ) .  Kreasi Baru is the free-est f o r m o f B a l i n e s e instrumental  T h e central idea is that although  m u s i c , it must adhere i n specific w a y s to tradition w h i l e also i n c o r p o r a t i n g g l o b a l and pan-Indonesian influences. O n e w a y i n w h i c h composers are expected to e x h i b i t this balance is through Tri Angga f o r m . H o w e v e r , this has b e c o m e i n c r e a s i n g l y contentious a m o n g composers and scholars i n recent years ( H a r n i s h 2 0 0 0 : 1 3 ) . In a general sense,  Kreasi Baru has a l w a y s i m p l i e d aspects o f change or deviation  w i t h i n a largely traditional f r a m e w o r k . N o w a d a y s , it is one w a y that c o m p o s e r s are able  to differentiate between Tabuh Kreasi and its more extreme y o u n g e r s i b l i n g Musik Kontemporer ( w h i c h often relies entirely o n unusual ensembles a n d extended techniques, s i m i l a r to e x p e r i m e n t a l o r avant-garde m u s i c i n the W e s t ) . T h e w a y i n w h i c h such 18  theories ( l i k e  Tri Angga) are constructed is important to keep i n m i n d . It s h o w s that the  f r a m e w o r k w i t h i n w h i c h i n n o v a t i o n s take place is as f l u i d a n d u n - f i x e d as the innovations that reinterpret it. In general, B e r a t h a ' s pieces are shorter and more m e l o d i c a l l y succinct than other w o r k s o f the time. S o m e o f his most famous w o r k s f r o m the 5 0 ' s a n d 6 0 ' s are his versions o f  Kosalia Arini, Swa Bhuana Paksa, and Jaya Semara . T h e s e pieces illustrate 19  m e l o d i c c o n c i s i o n a n d clear f o r m a l d i v i s i o n s . S o m e pieces, consist o n l y o f a l o n g unmetered  Jaya Semara f o r e x a m p l e ,  kebyar and pengecet. F a m o u s also d u r i n g this period  although not nearly as influential w a s the Peliatan c o m p o s e r a n d performer I W a y a n Gandera, k n o w n for works like  Sekar Jaya and Hujan Mas. Hujan Mas is another  example o f a piece c o n s i s t i n g o f o n l y t w o large sections. D u r i n g this p e r i o d , a B a l i n e s e  18  See McGraw 2005 for a lot more on Musik Kontemporer. 1 9  See Tenzer 2000: 327-31, and 332-37. 27  adaptation o f a Javanese traditional song, Gambang Suling, also emerged. W e w i l l c o m e back to some o f these e x a m p l e s later o n , w h e n e x a m i n i n g theories o f m e l o d i c elaboration in the next section. B y the mid-seventies Tabuh Kreasi had expanded i n scope and f o r m . Tabuh Kreasi f r o m P i n d h a and Perean are classic examples. I N y o m a n W i n d h a ' s Gora Merdawa and Jagra Parwata e p i t o m i z e his stylistic c o n t r i b u t i o n s to Tabuh Kreasi f r o m the m i d eighties through the early '90s. F r o m these years o n w a r d , Tabuh Kreasi e x h i b i t a m u c h more e x p a n s i v e f o r m a l structure consisting o f eight distinct sections. V i t a l e (2002: 39) outlines " L a t e - T w e n t i e t h C e n t u r y Tabuh Kreasi" structure as f o l l o w s :  1. Gineman/kotekan group a. Gineman: Opening statements for the gangsa, reyong, and low instrument groups, typically ametric and/or fragmented, separated by pauses which highlight the instruments' long sustain. Alternately, a kebyar opening: a dynamic orchestral tutti of short ametric phrases. b. Gegenderan (Kotekan): A single, long, regularly pulsed melody with elaborate interlocking figuration {kotekan) played predominantly or entirely by the gangsa group; repeated once or twice.  2. Bapang group a. Peralihan (transition): lead-in to bapang proper b. Bapang: The next large cyclic island, often consisting of one or more ostinati (typically 8, 16 or 32 beats in length) in very fast tempi; elaborated with passages successively highlighting the various instrumental sections (kendang/ceng-ceng, reong, gangsa), with occasional tutti orchestral interjections.  3. Pengecet (or Gambangan) a. Peralihan (transition): lead-in to pengecet proper b. Pengecet: A series of full orchestral statements in a medium or medium-fast tempo, often in a balanced phrase structure (e.g. 8 + 8 or 16 + 16 beats). The overall atmosphere is that of relaxed and regular tunefulness, in contrast to the dynamic material of previous sections. c. Short codetta (penyuwud or pekaad)  T h e s e f o r m a l d i v i s i o n s f i t (albeit r o u g h l y ) into the concept o f Tri Angga, i n that there are three large parts. S u c h f o r m a l constraints have been the bounds for kreasi i n n o v a t i o n since the 1970s. A s m e n t i o n e d earlier, the conservatories have enforced and essentially mandated adherence to these f o r m a l d i v i s i o n s since the 1980s; a fact that frustrates some  28  Balinese composers. O n e c r i t i c is S T S I faculty member, Saptono,  " W h o made this tri-angga concept? E a c h r e c i t a l , every thesis, a l w a y s this concept is referenced. B u t i f we really l o o k and observe the classic kebyar m u s i c l i k e Oleg [ t a m b u l i l i n g a n ] , or Teruna Jaya, where is the  tri-angga  structure? Y e t , it is as i f the students w o r s h i p it. T h e y o r g a n i z e the defenses o f their recital w o r k s through this concept. A n d the c o m p o s e r s , the j u r i e s , still use this term, even i f the kawitan [head] today are really v e r y d i f f i c u l t and intricate, and already very different f r o m classical Gong Gede kawitan f o r m s . N o w the m u s i c a l structures are quite different, but they still use the term 'kawitan'  so  that they can say that Kreasi Baru and musik kontemporer is really still t r a d i t i o n a l . " (Saptono, i n M c G r a w 2005:53)  A distilled and c o n c i s e v e r s i o n o f this f o r m is v i s i b l e i n B e r a t h a ' s Kosalia  Arini.  By  contrast, Tabuh f r o m Perean f r o m the m i d - 6 0 ' s and 7 0 ' s are m u c h l o n g e r (approx. 2 0 minutes) and often i n v o l v e m u c h stranger m e l o d i c material, and a s y m m e t r i c meters. B y W i n d h a ' s t i m e , the sections w i t h i n these f o r m s are expanded, and the transitions between them more f l u i d . In a piece l i k e Jagra Parwata for e x a m p l e , the transitional material creates a seamless v a c u u m between larger groups, s o m e w h a t o b s c u r i n g the d i v i s i o n s between s e c t i o n s . In 1995, c o m p o s e r I W a y a n Y u d a n e p u r p o s e f u l l y inverted the Tri20  Angga f o r m by p l a c i n g the pengecet, at the b e g i n n i n g , w h i c h a c c o r d i n g to at least one account, literally gave I W a y a n B e r a t h a a headache (he was i n the audience, apparently). (Harnish 2000:19) A n o t h e r staple c o m p o s i t i o n a l feature throughout a l l these periods is the extensive use o f quotation. Q u o t a t i o n stems f r o m a l o n g tradition o f m u s i c a l r i v a l r y between villages. V i l l a g e s often h o l d their respective v e r s i o n o f a piece i n h i g h regard and have h i s t o r i c a l l y gone to great lengths to defend its secrecy. In the event that the secret gets out, it becomes fresh material f o r other Tabuh Kreasi. T h e s e quotations are part o f what  This was once illustrated to me while listening to Jagra Parwata with I Wayan Sudirana.  29  T e n z e r refers to as " t o p i c s , " i n  Gong Kebyar c o m p o s i t i o n . ( T e n z e r 2 0 0 0 : 163-171 after  Ratner) T o p i c s are revealed through the use o f m u s i c a l signifiers. T h e s e signifiers may exist w i t h i n m u l t i p l e m u s i c a l strata s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , and m a y create aural associations w i t h both m u s i c a l and e x t r a - m u s i c a l concepts. Other topics i n c l u d e structural or r h y t h m i c allusions to older ensembles or specific dance characters. T e n z e r indicates this semiotic aspect as integral to the experience o f c o m p o s i n g and l i s t e n i n g to  Gong Kebyar.  A famous e x a m p l e o f a quotation topic is the gender wayang piece Sekar Gendot 21  whose various parts appear frequently and almost a n o n y m o u s l y i n countless  gegenderan  (see p. 28) since the 1 9 6 0 ' s - 7 0 ' s . A s the role o f the c o m p o s e r has risen to greater p r o m i n e n c e i n B a l i o v e r the last century, this practice has b e c o m e less c o m m o n or at least less overt. B u t it is still a l i v e and w e l l i n some cases. S o m e recent e x a m p l e s i n c l u d e I Nyoman Windha's,  "Lekesan," where b o r r o w e d a 36 beat tune f r o m L o u H a r r i s o n ' s ,  Philemon and Baukis. In general, d i s c u s s i o n s o f  Kreasi Bam most often focus m u s i c and dance for Gong  Kebyar. H o w e v e r , the term m y be a p p l i e d to new m u s i c for any traditional B a l i n e s e ensemble, i n c l u d i n g " a n c i e n t " ensembles such as  Selunding, Gambang, and Gong Luang.  In the early ' 9 0 s , W a y a n B e r a t h a invented a new h y b r i d g a m e l a n that fuses the basic instrumentation o f  Gong Kebyar w i t h the seven-tone p i t c h gamut o f the older ensemble  Semar Pegulingan. A f t e r a few early incarnations the ensemble was refined into the present-day  Gamelan Semarandana . T h i s ensemble has been s l o w l y i n c r e a s i n g i n 22  popularity o v e r the last fifteen years. T w o o f the most f a m o u s Semarandana ensembles  21  An older, smaller ensemble used to accompany shadow-plays. Far more detailed histories of Semarandana can be found in McGraw 1999, and Vitale 2002. Vitale 2002 also contains a detailed analysis of the kreasi, Geregel. A transcription and analysis of Pengastung Kara can be found in McGraw 2005: 204.  2 2  30  are the U b u d - b a s e d group, Semara Ratih, and the slightly y o u n g e r Cudamani.  Cudamani  is i n many respects an offshoot o f Semara Ratih, but w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l y different m u s i c a l aesthetics and artistic goals. Semara Ratih, focuses m o s t l y o n Gong Kebyar repertoire, and in terms o f Tabuh Kreasi s p e c i a l i z e i n W i n d h a classics l i k e , Gora Merdawa, and Jagra Parwata.  Cudamani's  '  Lekesan  Tabuh Kreasi, on the other hand, i n c l u d e some o f the  most radical experiments w i t h B a l i n e s e tonality w i t h i n a Tabuh Kreasi f r a m e w o r k , to date. T h e i r p r i n c i p a l c o m p o s e r , I D e w a K e t u t A l i t , first garnered the attention o f western scholars w i t h , "Geregel," a piece that incorporates a variety o f h a r m o n i c and r h y t h m i c innovations, and a d d i t i o n a l attention f o r his penyambutan ( w e l c o m e dance) Pengastung Kara, in 2 0 0 5 . A record released through San F r a n c i s c o - b a s e d V i t a l R e c o r d s and t w o successful U S tours have made Cudamani one o f b e s t - k n o w n B a l i n e s e groups i n N o r t h A m e r i c a . M o r e recently at least t w o other Semarandana ensembles have arisen i n the U b u d area, l e d by y o u n g c o m p o s e r s w h o are t a k i n g advantage o f the u n i q u e c o m p o s i t i o n a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f gamelan  Semarandana . 23  Kreasi o f the present day are still h e a v i l y i n f l u e n c e d by the precedents and mandates set by B e r a t h a , W i n d h a , and the conservatory system. S t i l l n o w , the m a i n f o r u m for Tabuh Kreasi is the annual B a l i A r t s F e s t i v a l , and its c o m p o s e r s are more often than not ISI ( f o r m e r l y S T S I / A S T I ) graduates, students, and f a c u l t y . T h e j u d g e s themselves are usually current and f o r m e r ISI faculty. T h i s means that the current systems o f patronage and discourse are d e c i d i n g factors as whether or not a given kreasi is accepted or rejected and therefore disseminated. T h i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y impacts the scope of impact for the i n n o v a t i o n s i n the piece. T h e s e days, dozens i f not hundreds o f kreasi  23  Namely these are Sanggars Chandra Wirabhuana and Nrita Dewi.  31  are written every year and o n l y a very s m a l l percentage o f those w o r k s are p l a y e d again. H o w e v e r , success at the B a l i A r t s F e s t i v a l often translates to fame, respect, and recording contracts w h i c h are often m u c h more valuable than the meager s u m g i v e n to F e s t i v a l winners. R e m e m b e r it was B e r a t h a ' s o r i g i n a l success at the 1968 F e s t i v a l that helped get h i m g o i n g . T h e s e names and institutions are also what frame and c o n t e x t u a l i z e the innovations that take place w i t h i n  Tabuh Kreasi. F o r e x a m p l e , Y u d a n e ' s experiments on  f o r m w o u l d be far less interesting i f the idea o f Tri Angga was not so r i g o r o u s l y defended by the institutions. A l s o , the recent success o f p r i v a t e l y funded cooperatives) such as  Sanggar (arts  Cudamani, p r o v i d e an interesting counterpoint to the influence o f  institutions i n the f i e l d o f artistic i n n o v a t i o n . It is important to keep these issues i n m i n d when d o i n g m u s i c a l analysis, i n order to contextual their m u s i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e i n relationship to c o n t e m p o r a r y cultural norms.  Abstraction  and  Elaboration  T h e r e has been a surge i n theoretical w r i t i n g about B a l i n e s e m u s i c i n recent years. S i n c e C o l i n M c P h e e ' s l a n d m a r k p u b l i c a t i o n i n 1966 there was v e r y little w o r k published until the last fifteen years. M i c h a e l T e n z e r (2000) recently p u b l i s h e d the most c o m p r e h e n s i v e study since M c P h e e , c o n c e r n i n g the twentieth century m u s i c a l genre  Gong Kebyar. Recent dissertations by I W a y a n R a i and A n d y M c G r a w have e n l i v e n e d the discussion by o f f e r i n g unique perspectives on the structure and syntax o f B a l i n e s e music. T o understand h o w exactly m e l o d i c elaborations deviate f r o m c o m p o s i t i o n a l norms, the f o l l o w i n g section synthesizes e x i s t i n g theories o f m e l o d y and m e l o d i c elaboration i n  Gong Kebyar, Semarandana and where a p p l i c a b l e , B a l i n e s e m u s i c as a  32  whole. T h e goal o f this section is to present a context for the i n n o v a t i o n s t a k i n g place i n recent m u s i c . D o i n g so w i l l i n v o l v e l o o k i n g through the unique perspectives o f three scholars. W e w i l l c o m e out o f our investigation w i t h some c o g n i t i v e p r e l i m i n a r i e s c l a s s i f y i n g the l e x i c o n o f n o r m a t i v e elaborations as w e l l as getting a sense o f h o w they are put together i n process. F r o m there, w e can more accurately and articulately conceptualize the nature o f the innovations in contemporary m u s i c . A c c o r d i n g to M c G r a w (1999) there is an, "apparent l a c k o f a c o m p r e h e n s i v e B a l i n e s e theory o n m o d e , e s p e c i a l l y i n c o m p a r i s o n to the theory expressed i n the central Javanese  gamelan t r a d i t i o n " ( M c G r a w 1999: 75). T h i s is due i n part to the extreme  heterogeneity o f B a l i n e s e m u s i c as mentioned several times so far. M c G r a w also comments that some ISI faculty are a m b i v a l e n t about creating such a theory out o f partial c o n c e r n that it w i l l stifle o r i g i n a l i t y (this is s i m i l a r to issues raised c o n c e r n i n g Tri  Angga).  H e cites W i n d h a s p e c i f i c a l l y , w h o feels that central Javanese m u s i c has  essentially, " f o s s i l i z e d " ( i b i d : 76), out o f extensive t h e o r i z i n g . W h e t h e r or not issues o f popularity and i n n o v a t i o n i n the central Javanese tradition have any relationship to discourse is uncertain, h o w e v e r we can be sure that the m e l o d i c terrain i n B a l i remains relatively uncharted. B e c a u s e o f this s i m i l a r concepts often have different names . depending on h i s t o r i c a l p e r i o d and geographic location. I w i l l try to be as consistent as possible, but keep i n m i n d that m u c h o f the t e r m i n o l o g y presented here is not d e f i n i t i v e and/or standardized. T h e p i t c h sets f o r the ensembles B a l i n e s e tonal system  Gong Kebyar and Semarandana are rooted in the  (laras) pelog, and is most c o m m o n l y referred to as Saih Pitu  (literally, series o f seven). In western terms, this diatonic, seven-tone scale l o o k s s i m i l a r  33  to the P h r y g i a n m o d e w h e n represented i n western staff notation. H o w e v e r , this differs greatly f r o m the acoustic reality because there is no standard t u n i n g f o r this or any particular laras, i n B a l i .  <jp ^  \  ^  i  i  o  *  m  e  •  eu  *  ' u  a  1  ai  Figure 1- Saih Pitu i n W e s t e r n N o t a t i o n , w i t h Balinese solfege . 24  Saih Pitu i n its m o d e r n f o r m (as it is used Semarandana for e x a m p l e ) is d e r i v e d f r o m the seven-tone ensembles f r o m the madya or " m i d d l e " p e r i o d o f B a l i n e s e m u s i c , a c c o r d i n g B a l i n e s e m u s i c theorist, I N y o m a n R e m b a n g (1973). B y R e m b a n g ' s system, the m i d d l e period encapsulates m u s i c a l genres f r o m the time that the H i n d u court system was i m p o r t e d to B a l i f r o m J a v a (fourteenth century) until the twentieth century. M u s i c o l o g i c a l l y s p e a k i n g , ensembles f r o m this period d e v e l o p e d t h r o u g h these Javanese courts. T h i s tonal-system is l i k e l y to be o f an entirely different lineage and s h o u l d not be confused w i t h that o f o l d e r seven-tone ensembles (from the tua or ancient period). (Richter 1992: 196) T h e s e ensembles are, n a m e l y , Gambang, Luang, Saron, and Selunding. (Schaareman 1992: 177) A s mentioned earlier, the Semarandana  ensemble  e v o l v e d p r i n c i p a l l y as a c o m b i n a t i o n o f Gong Kebyar and the madya era g a m e l a n ensemble Semar Pegulingan.  It is assumed that the p i t c h system f o r Semar  Pegulingan  was h e a v i l y i n f l u e n c e d by another court genre o f the same era, k n o w n as Gambuh.  The  transposition o f w o r k s f r o m Gambuh to Semar Pegulingan m a y have begun as early as  This shorthand is taken from Tenzer 2000. The full name for each syllable is pronounced by adding d-ng to the given vowel, thereby "i" becomes "ding," "o" becomes "dong" etc.  34  the 16 C e n t u r y , and it is said that m u c h o f Semar Pegulingan''s core repertoire comes lh  directly f r o m  Gambuh. ( R a i 1996: 81)  T o d i g m u c h deeper into the o r i g i n s o f the Gambuh tone system brings up issues o f c o s m o l o g y and c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n that are difficult to discuss i n any sort o f concrete manner.  In the esoteric texts  Aji Gurnita and Prakempa, the solfege o f the t w o major  tuning systems are presented as the result o f the m y s t i c a l p a i r i n g o f s y l l a b l e s . T h e s e solfege pitches are  ding, dong, deng, dung, and dang (listed i n scalar order). T h e s e  pitches correspond to the f o u r c a r d i n a l directions as w e l l as a central point. E a c h pitch is also associated w i t h s p e c i f i c deities, c o l o r s , numbers, and m o o d s . T h e added pitches  deung, and daing fit into this scheme as o r d i n a l points i n between. In Gambuh and Semar Pegulingan, these seven pitches are d i v i d e d i n to f i v e note sub-sets k n o w n as  tetekep o r patutan. In t r a n s i t i o n i n g f r o m Gambuh, to Semar Pegulingan, to 25  Semarandana m a n y o f these sub-sets have remained the same, a l t h o u g h some m o d a l classifications differ between scholars as w e l l as between l o c a l v i l l a g e s . D u e to the f l e x i b l e intonation o f the b a m b o o flutes, a m o d e i n different f r o m the same m o d e i n  Gambuh m a y sound r a d i c a l l y  Semar Pegulingan, or Semarandana. In m o d e r n  practice the modes are created by c o u n t i n g 3 consecutive scale degrees, and then by s k i p p i n g a note and c o u n t i n g 2 more consecutive scale degrees. A c c o r d i n g to one interpretation, the solfege w o r k s l i k e a " m o v a b l e ding" w h e r e i n the same order o f syllables is transposed starting w i t h the lowest pitch o f the t r i c h o r d .  Scalar order Selisir  1 C# I  2 D O  3 E E  4 F#  5 G# U  6 A A  Slendro Gde Baro Tembung Sunaren Pengenter* Pengenter Alit* T h e s e are theoretical modes that do not exist in any surviving Gambuh, or Semar Pegulingan repertoire. These modes were named by N y o m a n Kaler (McGravv 1998: 4, Tenzer 2000: 28, V i t a l e 2002: 61) Table 2-Balinese M o d a l System based on Saih Pitu  25 This term refers literally to the act of "closing" certain holes on the Gambuh flutes to create the modes.  35  A m o n g f o r e i g n scholars as w e l l as i n B a l i , the names and s y l l a b l e s f o r each m o d e are not standardized. T h e above chart s h o w s one possibility. Pitches p l a y e d between  deng and  dung {deung) as w e l l as between dang and ding (daing) i n Gambuh and Semar Pegulingan t y p i c a l l y f u n c t i o n as pemero tones. These tones are used i n a restricted manner. In Semar Pegulingan, pitch deung has a m e l o d i c quality o f " p u s h i n g "  (penyorog) w h i l e p i t c h daing has quality o f " s w e e t e n i n g " (pemanis) ( R a i 1996: 97). Interestingly e n o u g h a c c o r d i n g to R i c h t e r , the order i n w h i c h these solfege tones are presented differs between the Prakempa and the Aji Gurnita. T h e r e are also discrepancies in these documents as to w h i c h pitches are associated w i t h w h i c h directions. T h i s makes it difficult to connect these c o s m o l o g i c a l associations to c o n t e m p o r a r y m u s i c a l practices . 26  A l l o f the m u s i c a l e x a m p l e s c o m i n g f r o m the genre B a l i n e s e m o d e k n o w n as selisir.  Gong Kebyar are based i n the  Selisir can be abstracted f r o m the Saih Pitu m o d e l i n the  previous e x a m p l e as pitches 123-56-, i n transcription as western pitches C # , D , E , G#, A or in B a l i n e s e solfege as is one e x a m p l e f r o m  Elaboration  ding, dong, deng, dung, dang ( i , o, e, u , a i n short hand). T h e r e  gong Semarandana. T h a t excerpt uses the m o d e Pengenter.  Types  T h e v o c a b u l a r y f o r elaborating a g i v e n m e l o d y is i n c r e d i b l y v a r i e d . H o w e v e r , w e w i l l notice i n a l l cases the prevalence o f the interval  ngempat as a p r i m a r y consonance,  w h i c h u n l i k e other dyads does not obscure the clarity f o r m e l o d i c d i r e c t i o n o f a g i v e n  Although that's exactly what Richter 1992 attempts do to with reference Gambuh in Batuan.  36  e l a b o r a t i o n . E l a b o r a t i o n s break d o w n into t w o distinct categories: " u n - f i x e d " or 27  " i m p r o v i s e d " elaborations and " f i x e d " o r pre-composed elaborations. T h e term " i m p r o v i s e d " must be used c a u t i o u s l y . W h i l e these elaborations are c o m p o s e d i n performance by the p l a y e r or players themselves, they are g u i d e d b y a n u m b e r o f factors such as the style, pitch relationships w i t h respect to c o l o t o m i c structure, as w e l l as the v o c a b u l a r y o f i d i o m a t i c riffs and gestures that are n o r m a l l y associated w i t h the particular instrument. " F i x e d " elaborations are usually c o m p o s e d d u r i n g the rehearsal process and are taught by either the c o m p o s e r o r the lead drummer. T h e y are distributed a m o n g the instruments as f o l l o w s .  Fixed  Elaboration  Un-fixed  Instrument  Ugal, Suling, Rebab, Trompong, Reyong  Pemade, KantUan, Reyong  18  Table 3- Elaboration Types M y analysis is p r i m a r i l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h f i x e d elaborations, so I w i l l not be d e a l i n g w i t h u n - f i x e d elaborations at a l l i n this section. F i x e d elaborations m a y be further b r o k e n d o w n into i n t e r l o c k i n g and n o n i n t e r l o c k i n g elaboration styles. T h e former are so c o m m o n and so i d i o m a t i c to B a l i n e s e m u s i c that three scholars have dealt w i t h the topic i n recent years. I w i l l continue w i t h T e n z e r ' s classifications, before m o v i n g m y w a y b a c k w a r d s to augment his descriptions w i t h concepts and t e r m i n o l o g y f r o m B a l i n e s e scholar I M a d e B a n d e m . T h e s e i n t e r l o c k i n g parts are t y p i c a l l y d i v i d e d into pairs called polos and sangsih. Polos under  This only really applies to kebyar and kebyar associated genres. Older ensembles, such as gender vvayang frequently use 2nds and 3rds. The reyong plays un-fixed elaborations only under special circumstances. This will be dealt with in more detail shortly.  2 7  2 8  37  normal circumstances tracks the m e l o d y more closely than m e l o d y tone i n its part.  sangsih and i n c l u d e s the  Sangsih ( w h i c h literally means " f o l l o w i n g " ) f i l l s i n the gaps.  T h i s t y p i c a l l y results i n a continuous stream of notes and can be executed at very h i g h speeds.  T h e elaborations here are a l l heterophonic i n that they a l i g n i n u n i s o n w i t h the  pokok every 2 beats. T e n z e r ' s i n d e x o f i n t e r l o c k i n g elaboration styles is as f o l l o w s :  Norot (or Nyok Cok, i n V i t a l e 1990)- associated w i t h the sacred and classical Gong Gede repertoire and characterized b y neighbor m o t i o n between the pokok tone and its upper neighbor. T h i s particular style o f elaboration is interesting because it prepares the arrival of the i m p e n d i n g pokok tone by o n l y three s u b d i v i s i o n s before the beat (the p i c k up gesture, before beats 3 and 5). F o r a pokok such as this, other styles o f i n t e r l o c k i n g use patterns that are more m e l o d i c a l l y v a r i e d . T h i s potentially i m b u e s norot w i t h added sense o f stasis, because it i m p l i e s the previous the pokok tone l o n g e r than the other styles. C o i n c i d e n t a l l y or not, this style is most prevalent in derived f r o m the w o r d  "lambat," m e a n i n g " s l o w . "  previous deng  Kotekan  lelambatan repertoire, w h i c h is  to dung  previous dung  m  m  to dang  3  Pokok  Figure 2- Norot  Nyog Cag- new to Gong Kebyar, characterized by a one-to-one alteration o f attack points between polos and sangsih. 38  to dang  to dung  Kotckan  Pokok  Figure 3- Nyog Cag  Ubit Telu (or Kotekan Telu)- associated with Semar Pegulingan,  and Pelegongan,  and  often oriented around three note modules. Polos most commonly uses the pokok tone and the adjacent tone either above or below. The pitch adjacent to the pokok tone is shared. A n d sangsih covers the third remaining pitch. According to Tenzer (2000: 224) If the pattern is symmetrical (generally two beats long) it must: 1) Have a range of three adjacent scale tones (the three-note module) 2) For every four notes, all three notes must occur once and one note must occur twice. 3) There are no successive repeated notes with a grouping . 29  In fact, these contours are extremely prevalent as majalan  patterns in ubit telu. to danc  to dung  Kotckan  Pokok  Figure 4- Ubit Telu  29  There is one exception mentioned in Tenzer 2000: 224, This may be played either as ubit telu or ubit empat.  39  libit Empat (or Kotekan Empat)- same associations as telu with a similar orientation. However sangsih occasionally coincides with polos at the interval of ngempat. A major difference between this style and telu is that the polos plays pitches of the pokok tone less frequently than ubit telu. However, it is still common for polos to play the pokok tone in some instances.  to dang  to dung  Kotekan  Pokok  Figure 5- Ubit Empat  According to Tenzer, these patterns are also endowed with kinetic qualities of stasis and motion. Patterns are typically known as being static (ngubeng) or "having motion" (majalan). A static pattern elaborates melodic motion where the pokok does not change. A change in the pokok must be accompanied by a pattern that "moves" the elaboration to that new pitch. We will investigate that phenomena in more detail, shortly. A l l of the patterns shown here are majalan because they follow the elaboration to a new pokok tone. According to Tenzer's classification all ngubeng patterns are inversionally symmetrical or identical when divided in half. Tenzer goes as far as to derive 48 ngubeng patterns and 12 majalan patterns for Ubit telu and empat . This detailed 30  taxonomy is an excellent articulation of the materials afforded to composers when  30  Tenzer 2000: 220-231  40  constructing an elaboration. A c c o r d i n g to T e n z e r , it is these syntactical n o r m s that composers passively e m p l o y to derive their elaborations. In some w a y s , this is the ultimate structuralist analysis o f m e l o d i c elaboration i n  Gong Kebyar. In terms o f practice, the above descriptions c o n c e r n i n g the make-up may be thought o f as " w e l l - f o r m e d n e s s r u l e s " ( L e r d a h l and J a c k e n d o f f 1983:37) u n d e r l y i n g c o m p o s i t i o n a l choices. H o w e v e r , b e y o n d these materials, it is d i f f i c u l t for a foreign scholar to reach beneath the objective evidence to u n l o c k insights into the f e e l i n g o f a given elaboration, although an understanding o f topics and k i n e t i c qualities helps to d o so. In 1992, f o r m e r head o f the arts conservatory I M a d e B a n d e m p u b l i s h e d an analysis o f 14 styles o f ubit-ubitan that were c o m p i l e d and n a m e d b y one o f B a l i ' s f o u n d i n g m u s i c theorists, G u s t i P u t u G r i y a . A c c o r d i n g to B a n d e m , G r i y a c o l l e c t e d and articulated a vast amount o f k n o w l e d g e about fixed and u n f i x e d elaborations, assigning them names and d e s c r i b i n g their characteristic uses. W h i l e the a c c u r a c y and v a l i d i t y o f these examples can i n n o w a y be verified, these examples are interesting because they elucidate the different qualities between elaborations that use the same m e l o d y and the same style o f ubit. In other w o r d s , the article articulates differences between t w o realizations, b e y o n d any overt references to a g i v e n style o r character. B a n d e m offers the f o l l o w i n g examples f r o m the traditional w a r r i o r dance,  41  Baris.  "nyalimpm"  fe  LA a  9"  4  ^  JP M '  "nyalimpud"  4  H 1 , '  Jl  1  G  G  P  p  G  G  P  P  Figure 6- nyalimput and nyalimpud styles of elaborating Gj/aA: Baris.  The differences are subtle. In fact the last four beats of each elaboration are exactly the same. While Bandem states that the specific meaning of the term nyalimput  is unknown,  the name gives an impression of "stumbling legs ensared by a rope. " He cites the 31  winding contour of the last two beats as evidence of this effect. Nyalimpud  is described  simply as "considerably curvy" . Other figurations in Bandem's analysis are described 32  as "sliding," "scrubbing," and "carrying with a spoon." This implies that in addition to topic, stylistic norms, and kinetic qualities, kotekan as gestalten are endowed with abstract qualities that are perceivable on their own terms. This also means that among a given set of elaborations that meet the same criteria in terms of style, topic, kineticsm, etc., certain elaborations are chosen purely for aesthetic reasons. Therefore elaborations must exist as separate melodic entities, with unique compositional relationships to the pokok and such choices are guided by "preference rules" (Lerdahl and Jackendoff: 1983: 43). This adds further testament to the artful and non-derivative nature of composition in Balinese music.  "Kaki tersandung akibat terjerat tali." Translation by the author "cukup belit"  42  T h i s and m a n y o f the  kotekan presented i n B a n d e m ' s article illustrate an  important feature o f m e l o d i c elaboration i n practice that is under e m p h a s i z e d i n the literature. B o t h Baris e x a m p l e s have instances o f m e l o d i c d i v e r g e n c e between the elaboration and the m e l o d y . T h e  nyalimpud e x a m p l e is s l i g h t l y m o r e divergent than the  nyalimput one. T h e elaboration aligns w i t h neliti on o n l y f i v e out eight beats (beats 1,2,  5,6, and 8) and almost a l l o f these points c o i n c i d e w i t h c o l o t o m i c markers gong and kempur. T h i s is not u n c o m m o n at a l l . T e n z e r and others a l l state that elaborations m a y track m o t i o n i n  neliti, calung, or jegogan. A l l one w o u l d need to d o w o u l d be to repeat  the ascending m o t i f A I O until beat  5 ( w h i c h w o u l d c o i n c i d e w i t h the jegogan on pitch O )  and reverse d i r e c t i o n w i t h the m o t i f O I A until y o u get to gong. A n d indeed some gamelan groups use e x a c t l y that pattern. B u t , it is o b v i o u s that the " c u r v y - n e s s " o f this m e l o d y gives an added m e l o d i c interest. I argue that this interest is at least partly enabled by the contour and by its increased divergence f r o m the  neliti at m e t r i c a l l y and  structurally w e a k points i n the c y c l e . T h i s divergence perhaps strengthens the arrival to a unison w i t h the  gong and kempur.  T h i s means that a l t h o u g h the abstractions (noun), and the  penyacah, calung, and jegogan play m e l o d i c  pemade, kantilan, and, reyong, play m e l o d i c elaborations  (noun), processes o f m e l o d i c elaboration (verb) and m e l o d i c abstraction (verb) i n v o l v e the use o f dissonance i n order to achieve a desired m e l o d i c effect s e r v i n g the h o r i z o n t a l cohesion o f the parts as individual  voices. T h i s is not necessarily a p o l y p h o n i c  conception. H o w e v e r , I want to h i g h l i g h t that the relationship between abstracted parts and elaborated parts is far more than derivative.  43  Constructing  Elaborations  G a m e l a n m u s i c i n general has been categorized as stratified heterophony. T h i s blanket term is often used to describe all Indonesian m u s i c . W h i l e it is not incorrect, as mentioned earlier, it is a dangerously a m b i g u o u s concept. T h e simplest w a y to elucidate basic features o f m e l o d i c elaboration is w i t h a m u s i c a l e x a m p l e .  Elaboration (Ubit-ubitan)  Neliti  Core Melody (Pokok)  Gong Pattern Kempur (P)  Klentong(T)  Kempur (P)  Low Gong (G)  Figure 7 -Pengecet Mergapati  T h e above elaboration is f r o m a dance piece f r o m the early 1940s, c a l l e d Mergapati. T h e second staff f r o m the bottom shows the core m e l o d y o r pokok, w h i c h is b e i n g elaborated by a m e l o d y i n the upper staff. T h e bottom staff describes the " c o l o t o m i c " markers, w h i c h are h a n g i n g gongs that elucidate certain positions w i t h i n a m e l o d i c period. T h e l o w gong a l w a y s corresponds w i t h the end o f the c y c l e (sometimes c a l l e d , period).  A l l notes are o f equal duration. T h i s is not a l w a y s the case a l t h o u g h m a n y i f not  most B a l i n e s e m e l o d i e s are i n some w a y distilled into equal durations by at least one instrument i n the ensemble. T h e excerpt is also i n s i m p l e duple meter. T h e s e are c o m m o n features i n B a l i n e s e m u s i c . N o t i c e that the elaboration actually descends to A  44  on the eighth sixteenth note w h i l e the pokok ascends to an A o n the second h a l f note. T h i s is not an e x a m p l e o f contrary m o t i o n . T h i s has o n l y to d o w i t h the fact that the particular instrument p l a y i n g the m e l o d y has a one-octave range and therefore must ascend to that pitch. T h e neliti or " m e l o d y proper" p l a y e d by the ugal, t y p i c a l l y clarifies the contour i n these instances. T h i s m e l o d y provides the base coat, or f o u n d a t i o n for a variety o f p r e - c o m p o s e d and/or i m p r o v i s e d embellishments. L o o k i n g at the w h o l e picture, we notice that each staff functions as a distinct r h y t h m i c stratum or tier. T h e base m e l o d y m o v e s w i t h the slowest durations, the k e m p l i ' s attack points d i v i d e that pulse i n half and the elaborating part further subdivides that pulse into f o u r equal durations. T h e r e are three things we need to notice about the elaboration i n the upper staff. 1) T h e patterns used i n the elaboration anticipate  or prepare  the a r r i v a l o f the  i m p e n d i n g m e l o d y tone. T h i s means that the note a l i g n e d w i t h the m e l o d y marks the end or c u l m i n a t i o n o f a pattern that began eight notes earlier. T h i s is c r u c i a l to keep in m i n d w h e n t r y i n g to group w e i r d e r m u s i c . 2)  It is heterophonic i n that it aligns w i t h the m e l o d y i n u n i s o n or at an octave, tracing the exact m e l o d i c contour o f the tune.  3)  T h e same pattern type is used three times and a different pattern is used to elaborate the g o n g tone. T h i s is very c o m m o n to m a n y forms o f elaboration i n B a l i n e s e m u s i c . T h i s concept w i l l be s h o w n i n more i n n o v a t i v e contexts later on.  Issues of  "Feeling"  A s m e n t i o n e d before, literature on B a l i n e s e m e l o d y is scarce. T w o recent studies that deal w i t h m e l o d i c tendencies i n depth are f o u n d i n R a i 1996 and T e n z e r (2000: 183-  45  248).  I avoid "always" or "never" statements at all costs, because the heterogeneity of  the material will undoubtedly provide a counter-example. However, I would like to include as many theoretical perspectives as possible in order to enrich the discussion with a diverse field of conceptualizations concerning melodic tendencies. These tendencies elucidate how a given composition "feels" in reference to its melodic construction. Rai 1996 is a melodic analysis of nineteen pieces in the Semar Pegulingan repertoire. The study is in many ways modeled on the work of his advisor Mantle Hood, author of a famous study on mode in Javanese music. Rai transcribes the pokok of 19 pieces and organizes them in terms of mode. He is a Balinese musician and scholar and the current head of the Institut Seni Indonesia (Indonesian A r t Instutite). A s an intuitive analytical primary, he elucidates four primary melodic tendencies that he names " T formulas." In the Semar Pegulingan repertoires these formulas occur in, "important structural positions in the piece" (Rai 1996: 96). These formulas outline the common melodic trajectories occurring in the musical middleground. There are four basic contours : 33  T l = 4-3-2-1 (a-u-e-o, in selisir) T2=l-2-3-4(o-e-u-a) T3=1-5-4 (o-I-A) T4=4-5-l (A-I-o)  These numbers correspond to the distance (in terms of scale degrees within the mode) between what Rai refers to as the "tonic" of the mode and its "dominant" (ngempyung). In selisir, these pitches are dong (D) and dang (A) respectively.  46  E a c h contour h i g h l i g h t s notes 1 and 4 as the primary axes o f m e l o d i c m o t i o n . A c c o r d i n g to R a i , these four m e l o d i c tendencies are sewn into the fabric o f the repertoire. T h i s is the first e x a m p l e w e have seen i n d i c a t i n g the p r i m a c y o f the interval o f a B a l i n e s e fourth also k n o w n as  "kempyung" or "ngempat," i n B a l i n e s e c o m p o s i t i o n a l practices dating at  least until the 16 C e n t u r y i f not earlier. lh  A n o t h e r m e l o d i c factor i n  Semar Pegulingan are "dance f o r m u l a s " or what  T e n z e r refers to as "character t o p i c s . " These are m e l o d i c c e l l s that s i g n i f y a certain character i n dance or theatrical repertoire. T o p i c s appear p r o m i n e n t l y and are c r i t i c a l l y important w h e n t r y i n g to understand the c o m p o s i t i o n a l choices i n pieces f r o m this repertoire.  A l m o s t all o f the pieces that R a i l o o k s at (and indeed most o f the repertoire)  were c o m p o s e d to a c c o m p a n y dance and theatre, i n w h i c h case, c l a r i f y i n g the f e e l i n g or the affect o f a g i v e n character is one o f the m u s i c ' s p r i m a r y responsibilities. In contemporary  Gong Kebyar, these character topics survive i n instrumental m u s i c as  m u s i c a l signifiers associated w i t h characters f r o m this and other theatrical repertories.  In  R a i ' s analysis, the f o l l o w i n g dance f o r m u l a is used i n the m o d e selisir.  Dfl=u-e-o Df2=o-e-u  In R a i ' s analysis, the pitch the s t r i k i n g o f the l o w pitch  dung is most frequently the gong-tone (pitch c o i n c i d i n g w i t h  gong ageng, m a r k i n g the end o f the m e l o d i c c y c l e ) N o t i c e that the  ding is r e l a t i v e l y under used i n a l l o f these formulas. A c c o r d i n g to R a i , pitch ding is  the "enemy t o n e " o f  Selisir and s h o u l d be avoided unless the c o m p o s e r wants to  47  intentionally create a clear image of a strong and refined male character. A particular example of this is Gending Lasem, associated with the legendary K i n g Lasem. Rai takes care to notice that the gong-tone is ding, which signifies the Lasem's character but it retains its status as the enemy tone by being avoided until the gong. In other contexts, the pitch should be used only in passing. The majority of Balinese musicians are probably not familiar with the details of Rai's work concerning the modal system of Semar Pegulingan Saih Pitu. However, they are certainly familiar with the bulk of the repertoire being discussed. If there is any veracity to his analytical approach and his conclusions, we can safely assume that these melodic tendencies, having been in practice for hundreds of years, have forged a passive set of melodic expectations and associations in the minds of Balinese listeners. It is highly likely that these tendencies exist in contemporary music for Gong Kebyar, since it is based entirely within selisir and is still used for theatre and dance, and for performing a considerable amount of the Semar Pegulingan repertoire. Tenzer's study of Balinese melody is less concerned with the affective principles of individual pitches, and focuses more on aspects of symmetry and asymmetry within the melodic period. In other words, his primary foci are melodic contours as they revolve around certain structurally important pitches. His perspective differs from Rai's fundamentally in that Tenzer explicitly states that there is no, "ur-contour" (Tenzer 2000: 205). Rai's analysis boils down to step-wise approaches and departures from structurally significant pitches dong and dang. Their differences may relate significantly to the plural repertoires of Gong Kebyar. Kebyar ensembles frequently perform works from many different repertoires (most avidly Pelegongan, Semar Pegulingan, and Gong Gede), in a  48  variety o f performance contexts. T h i s r i c h p l u r a l i s m w i t h i n the  Gong Kebyar's  performance v o c a b u l a r y has a l l o w e d this single ensemble to acquire the m e l o d i c characteristics o f these o l d e r g a m e l a n types.  Tabuh Kreasi as a result, d r a w s freely f r o m  these associations. A n important aspect o f m e l o d i c tendency is k i n e t i c energy. R e m e m b e r that elaboration patterns are also e n d o w e d w i t h a sense o f k i n e t i c energy. T h i s k i n e t i c quality can be either  ngubeng (static) or majalan ( h a v i n g m o t i o n ) . U s i n g his d e s c r i p t i o n of its  usage and context, the terms  ngubeng and majalan can be used to describe just about any  aspect o f a c o m p o s i t i o n as w e l l . T h i s can i n c l u d e the "rate o f scale tone t u r n o v e r " i n a m e l o d y , the rate at w h i c h a d r u m m e r varies their patterns, the pattern types used i n a given elaboration, as w e l l as tempo and d y n a m i c s just to name a f e w . A l l o f these factors conspire to create a m u l t i l a y e r e d c o m p l e x o f m o t i o n and stillness, w i t h different strata e l u c i d a t i n g specific and often  different characteristics o f the neliti ( m e l o d y " p r o p e r "  played i n a s l i g h t l y ornamented f a s h i o n by the means, let us return to the  Mergapati e x a m p l e .  49  ugal). T o get a better sense o f what this  Tonal Direction of the Elaboration:  t» claim  to dung  i» dont;  to dinjj  Elaboration (Ubit-ubitan)  Neliti abbreviated solfege: I  A  A  U  U  o  o  I  Core Melody (Pokok) Balinese Solfege:  DANG  DUNG  DONG  DING  Gong Pattern  Figure 8 -Pengecet Mergapati with solfege  T h e m e l o d y is majalan i n the sense that it changes every note, and does not return to any note w i t h i n the c y c l e . T h e quality o f the elaboration is also majalan f o r that reason. H o w e v e r , the surface texture is quite ngubeng i n that the same pattern type is used f o r every pitch (except f o r the g o n g tone) and is repeated m a n y times. In larger c y c l e s ( w h i c h can get very l o n g ) composers pay particular attention to the balance between these t w o k i n e t i c affects, t r y i n g not to f a v o r any particular sensation w h e n c o m p o s i n g the basic m e l o d y . T h e same is often true f o r elaborations. H o w e v e r , some pieces b y virtue of their style topic w i l l by necessity, f a v o r certain elaboration styles. T e n z e r ' s a n a l y t i c a l m o d e l focuses o n contour. I w i l l be a d o p t i n g the same v o c a b u l a r y i n order to articulate certain m u s i c a l phenomena later o n . T e n z e r ' s notation (after F r i e d m a n n ) f o r this elaboration type labels the pokok p i t c h as 0 a n d numbers the preceding pitches i n the pattern 1 or 2, or - 1 , -2 i f the pokok p i t c h is approached f r o m b e l o w . T h i s reduces the first three elaborations into t w o basic contours. {1,0,2,1/0,2,1,0} and its i n v e r s i o n {-1,0,-2,-1/0,-2,-1,0}.  50  T e n z e r ' s analysis emphasizes s y m m e t r y as it occurs w i t h reference to the " a x i s " or m i d p o i n t o f a s y m m e t r i c a l pattern or m e l o d y . Because s y m m e t r i c a l tunes o f this i l k are entirely i n d u p l e meter, this 4+4 g r o u p i n g reflects s y m m e t r i e s , and g r o u p i n g repetitions w i t h respect to the meter. H o w e v e r , i n this particular style, elaboration patterns are oriented s y n t a c t i c a l l y w i t h i n a three-note c e l l that, a l m o s t by necessity, i n v o l v e s the pokok as one o f its members. U s i n g the same notation w h i l e g r o u p i n g this pattern w i t h respect to the three-note cell and its relationship to the pokok, a slightly different interpretation arises. T h e result is three nearly identical cells o f uneven length {(1,0)(2,1,0)(2,1,0)}. T h i s reading deemphasizes the meter and accentuates the g r o u p i n g repetitions w i t h respect to the threenote c e l l . Inspired by the w o r k o f L e r d a h l and Jackendoff, it also emphasizes groupings that o c c u r d u r i n g i n the process o f l i s t e n i n g to a succession o f h i e r a r c h i c a l l y  34  organized  tones i n relation to one another. I s h o u l d m e n t i o n that their theories o f g r o u p i n g apply specifically to the c o g n i t i v e processes a m o n g listeners w h o are familiar  w i t h the m u s i c  they are l i s t e n i n g to. A listener, accustomed to B a l i n e s e m e l o d i c tendencies w i l l hear stress on the last note o f the phrase rather than the first. T h i s note (pitch " 0 " ) receives a phenomenal accent by the calung, jegogan,  and/or c o l o t o m i c punctuation. P i t c h " 0 " also occurs i n the  polos part (the part associated w i t h c o n t a i n i n g the i m p e n d i n g m e l o d y tone) this visual and perhaps aural cue (depending on the performers) differentiates that p i t c h even before the pokok reinforces it. T h i s m e t h o d o f g r o u p i n g is p a r t i c u l a r l y helpful i n a s y m m e t r i c or c h a n g i n g meters because it does not rely on the e l a b o r a t i o n ' s relationship to the meter. Although this is self-explanatory, I should emphasize that pitch "0" and its ngempat are structurally more important than pitches 1 or 2, because their alignment links the melodic elaboration to the melodic parts in other strata.  3 4  51  T h i s notation, moreover, emphasizes g r o u p i n g repetitions rather than s y m m e t r i e s a m o n g patterns.  T h e p r i m a c y o f the three-note cell i n this c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n is also a helpful  reference point w h e n t r y i n g to group elaborations that d o not c o r r e s p o n d to any specific  pokok tone. In the Mergapati e x a m p l e above, it is also helpful because it characterizes the quality o f the m o t i o n w i t h i n the c e l l , w h i c h i n this case is h i g h l y directed thereby reflecting its "majalan-ness".  Elaboration  in Practice  (polyphonic  aspects of melodic  divergence)  In this section, w e w i l l see h o w the objects abstracted b y theory are generated i n practice. W h i l e the theoretical m o d e l s discussed i n the previous section dealt w i t h the " w e l l - f o r m e d n e s s r u l e s " o f m e l o d y a n d m e l o d i c elaboration, this section w i l l focus on the "preference r u l e s " r e g a r d i n g the selective c o m b i n a t i o n o f patterns, k i n e t i c s , symmetries and asymmetries. T h e p r i n c i p l e focus o f the f o l l o w i n g section is instances o f m e l o d i c divergence as they regularly o c c u r i n this generative process. M o r e s p e c i f i c a l l y , I w i l l deal w i t h the prevalence o f passing tones to enhance the h o r i z o n t a l cohesiveness o f abstracted parts as w e l l as w h e n they o c c u r as a byproduct o f pattern types i n elaborations. In the latter case, dissonance is a l l o w e d at m e t r i c a l l y and structurally weak points as l o n g as it functions appropriately w i t h i n a k i n e t i c pattern type that is e m p l o y e d for a c o m p o s i t i o n a l purpose. S u c h purposes m a y be p a r a l l e l i s m , s y m m e t r y or cadential m o t i o n . In fact, dissonance o f this k i n d often increases i n 4-beat cadential elaboration patterns l e a d i n g to gong. I offer these examples as indigenous springboards f o r the extreme cases o f m e l o d i c divergence, p o l y p h o n y , a n d counterpoint i n c o n t e m p o r a r y  Tabuh Kreasi.  52  Legong Lasem- Papeson Condong The neliti is often referred to as the "true" or "correct" melody. However calung abstractions are rarely entirely derivative from this core tune. In fact, it is entirely common in traditional repertoire for the calung to use passing tones at metrically and structurally weak moments to enhance the tunefulness of the calung line as an individual part. Take the following example: ngubcng pattern (U)  maj (O)  cad. pattern (E)  ngbg (E)  muj (A)  77rf7iJ3 y_LLJ  [ I  r .t.  p.t. i  V'  • V* By'  ff44'  II  e  o  "  o  E  O  e  a  p.t. u  e  Rir.Trirnr:  u f-.  p.t.  cad, pattern (U)  u  M  u  e  s  j  u  a  u  i  p.t. u  u  a  U  E  u  p-t.  " Ij  Y  M  p.t.  A  E  U  «  0  E  A  U  •  s  Figure 9-Legong Lasem- Papeson Condong  On the middle staff is the neliti. On the upper staff is the elaboration played by the gangsa section ipemade and kantilan) and on the lower staff is the melodic abstraction played by the calung. The jegogan plays every other calung pitch starting on gong. Specifically, the jegogan plays U-[:0-E-A-U:], which is also stressed by the colotomic punctuation. Notice that this melody is inversionally symmetrical at the jegogan level.  53  1  W h i l e the  neliti as a w h o l e does not demonstrate this s y m m e t r y ,  accentuates it i n the  the use o f passing tones  calung. In the first half o f the m e l o d y , the calung approaches each  jegogan pitch by its scalar upper neighbor and i n the second half, by its scalar l o w e r neighbor. T h e c o m p o s i t i o n a l process o f m e l o d i c abstraction therefore h i g h l i g h t s the inversional s y m m e t r y o f the  jegogan part. T h i s also creates a certain amount o f c o g n i t i v e  differentiation between the abstractions,  jegogan, calung and the m i n i m a l l y elaborated  neliti (the sixteenths are actually grace notes referred to as ngoret). A l s o , the p a r a l l e l i s m i n the neliti facilitates an exact repetition o f pattern types i n the elaboration. T h i s f o r m u l a is {ngubeng pattern, formula }. 36  H o w e v e r , the first  majalan pattern, 4-beat cadential  ngubeng pattern is s l i g h t l y longer than the second. I  d i v i d e the sixteen-beat neliti into t w o halves. T h i s w a y , w e notice that the elaboration patterns cause dissonance at the same metric point per h a l f (neliti pitches 1, 5, 6, 9, 14 and 15). T h e absence o f a passing tone on the fourth beat f o i l s an exact p a r a l l e l i s m , however. W e can see f r o m this e x a m p l e that passing tones m a y be used to reinforce symmetries o c c u r r i n g o n deeper structural levels as w e l l to differentiate the between the parts. T h e passing tones i n the elaboration function more as the b y - p r o d u c t o f the pattern types w h i c h are identical between halves o f the m e l o d y . T h i s i m p l i e s that the repetition or balance o f pattern types is o f greater c o m p o s i t i o n a l i m p o r t a n c e than strict adherence to melody.  particularly because it ascends to ding instead of descending to dong on beat 14. This does however create a parrellelism between the two halves. This particular 4-beat pattern is ubiquitous in music for Gong Kebyar and can also be found in Semar Pegulingan, Pelegongan, and Gong Gede repertoire. It is consistently used to elaborate structurally significant tones (in this case the axis tone, and the gong-tone). It can be used in kotekans telu or empat and has a contour of {_,(-2,-l,0)(-2,-l,0)(-l,-2,0)(-l,-2,0)(-2,-l,0)}.  3 6  54  Pengipuk-Kebyar Gandrung A s mentioned before, the  reyong o c c a s i o n a l l y performs u n - f i x e d elaborations i n  very specific contexts. T h i s style of elaboration is c a l l e d w h i l e the  reyong norot and usually occurs  gangsas are p l a y i n g norot (although is this not a l w a y s the case). In reyong  norot m u s i c i a n s elaborate not o n l y u p o n the m e l o d y but o n norot itself. T h i s relatively s i m p l e elaboration style becomes a "template" ( T i l l e y 2 0 0 3 : 14) for f o u r m u s i c i a n s to i m p r o v i s e upon s i m u l t a n e o u s l y on the same instrument. T h i s is truly a unique phenomenon, because l i k e other styles o f m e l o d i c elaboration the m u s i c i a n s must interlock i n order to m a i n t a i n a continuous m e l o d i c thread. T o a c c o m p l i s h this all m u s i c i a n s must have already internalized the m e l o d y and the norot template w i t h an awareness o f w h i c h pitches are more structurally important. T h i s k n o w l e d g e is then applied to the unique and narrow range o f pitches at each o f the f o u r p l a y e r s ' disposal. T h i s ranges between t w o and four pitches per player. T h i s i m p r o v i s a t i o n process provides an interesting insight into h o w tones are ordered h i e r a r c h i c a l l y i n the m i n d s o f musicians. In the f o l l o w i n g e x a m p l e we w i l l also notice h o w the interval  ngempat is  conceptually equivalent to a u n i s o n i n that it can also f u n c t i o n as a pokok or template substitution (ibid). T i l l e y outlines ten basic modes o r processes by w h i c h m u s i c i a n s choose to expand upon the basic template. T h e s e b o i l d o w n to the processes o f altering and then subtracting notes. M u c h o f these concepts have to do w i t h what she calls, "suspensions" and " a n t i c i p a t i o n s . " T h i s means that musicians are p l a y i n g w i t h the n o r m a t i v e set o f expectations b y p l a y i n g a s p e c i f i c tone earlier or d e l a y i n g its a r r i v a l b y a s u b d i v i s i o n or so. A c c o r d i n g to T i l l e y , performers also distort the basic r e l a t i o n s h i p between the  55  elaboration and the m e l o d y by c h o o s i n g to alter the k i n e t i c q u a l i t y o f their pattern types or s w i t c h i n g to a different contour l e x i c o n entirely, such as  ubit-ubitan.  In reyong norot, players are also permitted to " m a k e use o f the ngempat notes that fall w i t h i n his/her range" ( T i l l e y 2 0 0 3 : 47). H e r theoretical c a t e g o r i z a t i o n is that the pitch ngempat is interchangeable w i t h a unison. H o w e v e r w e see i n figure 10 that despite i n c r e d i b l e busy-ness between the beats, the texture regularly hones i n on pokok tones on almost every beat, a v o i d i n g the use o f other pitches. Ngempat,  therefore, is a v o i d e d at  m e t r i c a l l y strong points. It appears the frequent dissonances between the template and the reyong point to the crafting o f an artful divergence. L i t e r a l l y , each r e y o n g player is a v o i c e i n counterpoint w i t h the neliti, gangsa  as w e l l as the reyong  players. In fact,  a c c o r d i n g to T i l l e y ' s informant, c o m p o s e r and teacher I D e w a K e t u t A l i t , the more syncopated each part is, the more "wayan"  (mature), it feels. M y o w n teacher I W a y a n  Sudirana, has also said that the parts s h o w n i n the transcription here have a r h y t h m i c relationship to one another. A c c o r d i n g to S u d i , the lowest part (penyorog) more syncopated, w h i l e the second part (pengenter) pengenter  is t y p i c a l l y  is less so. In this sense, the  player leads the elaboration, and is perhaps less free to i m p r o v i s e than the  other parts. H o w e v e r , as a w h o l e , the reyong elaboration deviates f r o m and re-aligns w i t h the template and the pokok at m e t r i c a l l y specific points. T h i s causes a phenomenal accent at m e t r i c a l l y significant points w h e n the m e l o d i c texture thins out. T h i s results i n a unique and intricately f o r m e d sort o f B a l i n e s e p o l y p h o n y . (See F i g u r e 10 next page).  56  KebyatGandrung^Rengipuk gangxa, reyong, calung and gong elaboration group 1 Norot (U-0-U-O-U) 10 beats  elaboration group 2 elaboration group 3 elaboration group 4 Norot (I-E-I-E) 8 beats Noroi (A-E-A) 6 beats Nyog Ccig (O) 4 beats  Gangsa Norot  Reyong Norot  Composite Reyongan  Neliti  u  o '  U  O  U  I  E  A  O  O  Pokok  60 C 3  c  s ec  T h e t h i r d staff f r o m the bottom is labeled " c o m p o s i t e r e y o n g a n . " T h i s c o m p o s i t e is a c o n g l o m e r a t i o n o f the i m p r o v i s e d i n t e r l o c k i n g figurations p l a y e d b y the bottom t w o players on the  reyong. It was generated by c o l l a p s i n g both parts into the pengenter's  octave to f o r m a c o n t i n u o u s m e l o d i c thread. In all but f i v e instances (beats 2,6,9,11,15) this y i e l d s a continuous, and m e l o d i c a l l y conjunct c o m p o s i t e . In those cases, I selected the most l o g i c a l pitch w i t h respect to the three rules o f contour for ubit-ubitan (see page 37). T h i s corroborates T i l l e y ' s characterization of pokok tones.  ngempat's interchangeability w i t h  H o w e v e r , it o n l y really applies, here, to m e t r i c a l l y w e a k points. N o t i c e that  whenever the l o w e r part is not p l a y i n g one o f these c o m p o s i t e pitches it almost a l w a y s p l a y i n g its ngempat, o r i m m e d i a t e l y resolves to one o f these sonorities. T h e r e is one instance o f an adjacent scale degree clash on beat 2 1 . H o w e v e r , i n this case, the  dung i n  the l o w e r part is a p r i m e e x a m p l e o f what T i l l e y refers to as a " d e l a y e d pokok tone u n i s o n , " ( m e a n i n g that the  dung is just d e l a y i n g the a r r i v a l to the pokok p i t c h dang on the  next s u b d i v i s i o n ) . T h e i m p l i e d c o m p o s i t e in the serpentine contours o f  pengenter quite blatantly m i m i c s the  ubit-ubitan, but i n a w a y that differs quite r e m a r k a b l y f r o m ubit  telu or ubit empat. It is remarkable first, because it is an i m p r o v i s e d pattern (although it was i n an sense " c o m p o s e d " w h e n it was taught to me). T h e c o m p o s i t e creates an almost seamless stream o f notes that are grouped quite clearly i n terms o f  ubit style patterns that  lead to structurally important pitches. In fact, i n all but t w o instances this c o m p o s i t e runs entirely i n stepwise m o t i o n .  A g r o u p i n g analysis o f the 28 beat  neliti reveals interesting interval relationships  that may help facilitate such a f l u i d elaboration.  58  GrouplGroup2Group3Group4-  (UOUOU) 10 beats (IEIE) 8 beats (AEA) 6 beats (O) 4 beats  First of all, each successive calung pitch is exactly 2 scale degrees away from the previous pitch. Also the interval between each group is consistently that of a falling ngempat.  These curious constants combined with the consistent subtraction of two beats  from each group, make for a strikingly linear melodic progression. The improvised elaboration is bewildering in its rhythmic complexity and speed. Performed at tempo this elaboration is usually played faster than 200 bpm. After filling in the composite, I grouped the patterns in terms of the pitches they elaborate. By indexing the contours, we see that the contour vocabulary is quite limited (see figure 11). Notice that contour use is even more restricted per group, in that each group oscillates between only two elaboration patterns. However, this economy of material is dutifully obscured through omissions, anticipations, delays, and syncopations. It is worth noting that the relationship between the elaboration and the norot being played by the gangsas is tenuous at best.  59  Elaboration_Group 1 pokok= ( U O U O U ) beats 1-10 (-1,0,-2,-1/0-2,-1,0) to D U N G occurs on beats 1-2, 5-6,9-10  (0,-1 ,-2,-1/0,1 ,-1,0) to D O N G occurs on beats 3-4,7-8  Elaboration,Group.2 pokok=(IE!E) beats 11-18 (1,0,1,-1/0,1,-1,0) to D I N G occurs on beats 11 -12, 15-16  (-1 ,-2,-3 ,-2/-1,0,1,0) to D E N G  n  #  ISC  lac  Elaboration_Group.,3 Pokok= A E A beats 19-24 (2,1,0,1/0,2,1,0) to D A N G occurs on beats 19-20, 23-24 J  •  *  *  (norot A to I/-1,0,1,0) to D E N G occurs on beats 21-22 •  *  *  dt  M  Elaboration.Group-4 Pokok= O Beats 25-28 (0,1,-1,0,1,-1,0,1,-1,0,1,-1,0,1,-1,0)  Figure 11: Contour analysis of reyong norot, pengipuk Kebyar Gandrung'.  60  _  •  m  fi  E a c h set o f contours f o l l o w s some basic general p r i n c i p l e s . I n general, the first half o f each c o n t o u r is farther a w a y f r o m the i m p e n d i n g pokok tone w h i l e the second half w i n d s around it. T h i s is evident i n that o n l y t w o contours c o n t a i n a p i t c h more than one scale degree a w a y f r o m the pokok (the first contours i n groups 1 and 3, w h i c h are inversions o f one another). T h e last halves o f the other contours also relate to one another in interesting w a y s . T h e s e are the contours {0,1,-1,0} a n d {-1,0,1,0}. T h e y relate to one another i n that the first c o n t o u r ' s last t w o m e m b e r s are identical to the other's last t w o and the first c o n t o u r ' s first t w o members are s y m m e t r i c a l w i t h others last two. T h e r e is also a c u r i o u s resemblance between a few first halves. In terms o f m o t i o n the first halves o f group 1 contour 2, group 2 contour 2, and group 3 contour 1 are identical i n that they descend by t w o steps and ascend by one step. T h e contour o f g r o u p 4 is quite different than the p r e c e d i n g contours. It is a m o t o r i c repetition o f the ascending m o t i f I O E . T h i s is a c o m m o n and e c o n o m i c a l way to get between scale tones t w o steps apart (as i n the first contour i n group 1). H o w e v e r this contour is s l i g h t l y m o r e unusual i n that the i m p e n d i n g pokok tone is the m i d d l e tone o f the three-note c e l l . It also is unusual because it actually w o r k s against the  neliti and the  calung until a unison on gong. T h i s change in elaboration style corresponds w i t h the c o m p o s e d shift f r o m norot to  nyog cag i n the gangsa part as i f both parts are a c q u i r i n g increased m o m e n t u m in this  last 4 beat g r o u p i n g before gong. T h i s change i n elaboration is made easier by the fact that the m e l o d y breaches its l o c a l syntax on the both the The  calung l e v e l and the neliti level.  calung does so by r e m a i n i n g on the same pitch. A n d the neliti does so b y c o n t i n u i n g  an ascending stepwise sequence that began 6 beats before gong.  61  A l t h o u g h there is apparent chaos on the surface,  reyong norot i m p r o v i s a t i o n s are  a c c o m p l i s h e d through quite e c o n o m i c a l means. T h i s chaos is part o f the effect, as performers i n t e n t i o n a l l y and artfully distort their source material  (neliti, calung, and,  gangsa), w h i l e still m a i n t a i n i n g a consistent and directed m e l o d i c thread. T h e m e l o d y is then elaborated d o u b l y and differently  (gangsa and reyong). W h i l e the reyong is c l e a r l y  elaborating a core tune, this idea is p o l y p h o n i c i n that the reyong acts l i k e a sort o f "free v o i c e . " T h i s free v o i c e is able to play w i t h the relationship between  norot style kotekan  and the m e l o d y b y u s i n g an inexhaustible amount o f r h y t h m i c and m o t i v i c variation through the use o f deletions, suspensions, anticipations, etc. T h i s is kept i n check by the somewhat l i m i t e d contour v o c a b u l a r y that is dictated by the  pokok. T h e resulting texture  is a lush " p o l y p h o n y o f heterophonies" ( B o u l e z 1964). I present these instances o f m e l o d i c divergence as springboards for the m e l o d i c innovations t a k i n g place i n  Tabuh Kreasi today. T h i s shows h o w innately contrapuntal  c o m p o s i t i o n a l processes are d r i v i n g composers to increase the r h y t h m i c and m e l o d i c difference between parts i n different strata i n order to e x p l o r e new s o n i c territory. In some extreme cases, this c o m p l e t e l y breaks d o w n the fundamental concepts elaboration and abstraction, o r i n a sense fuses them w i t h contrapuntal ideas, such as v o i c e - e x c h a n g e , thereby f o r g i n g entirely new m u s i c a l concepts.  62  Chapter 4 Innovations in Modern repertoire Uneven divisions of the tactus Balinese music from the 1400s until the present day  37  has been almost exclusively  in duple meter. In cases, where the music is based on a cycle of odd-numbered beats, the division of that basic pulse is always duple. This is not the case in Western music, especially in contemporary western music where odd-numbered groupings of every kind are practically a pre-requisite. T w o recent Tabuh Kreasi have taken direct inspiration (in one case) and direct quotation (in another) from western compositions for Balinese gamelan that make use of this. In each case, the Balinese composer had worked closely with the western composer and (unbeknownst to the western composer) took interest in the novelty of their approach. Coincidentally, both pieces feature these uneven divisions of the tactus in their gegenderan . The first example was composed by I Dewa Putu 38  Berata in winter 2004, for the piece Lemayung.  According to Tenzer 2000: 246-47, melodies of symmetrically divisible lengths are associated with music from the "middle"( 1400-1900) and "new" (1900-now) periods of Balinese music while " o l d " music (pre-1400) is associated with melodic asymmetry. 3 8  a section of a piece which features the gangsa section (meaning the reyong, ceng-ceng and drums are  absent). See Vitale 2002 p.39 or p.28 of this thesis.  63  G w  r  f  j.  r  j.  f  p  G |  j,  ^  Figure 12- gegenderan from  r  ^  r  j,  r  r  ^  "Lemayung " 39  T h e elaboration has a c o n v e n t i o n a l l y heterophonic i n relationship to the pokok. T h e elaboration consistently tracks m o v e m e n t i n the jegogan (white noteheads denote jegogan tones) b y meeting i n unison every four beats. T h e elaboration also aligns w i t h the m e l o d y o n the beat after the jegogan (except i n measure 3, where the interval is ngempat) but o n l y aligns w i t h p o k o k tones i n the second h a l f o f the bar i n the first measure and third measures. W h i l e intentional or not, there is regularity to this i n that the elaboration aligns at a unison w i t h the m e l o d y on beats 1-2-3-5 and 6 o f every eight-beat g r o u p i n g . T h i s eight-beat p e r i o d i c i t y is defined by the each repetition o f the jegogan i s o r h y t h m , w h i c h i n terms o f half beats is 8+5+3. O n beats 4,7, a n d 8 o f these groupings  M o r e info on Lemayung can be found at http://vvvvvv.kalakutagofanach.com/lemayung_paper/lemayung_vveb.htm  64  the elaboration is m e l o d i c a l l y divergent f r o m the  pokok. W h i l e the elaboration generally  f o l l o w s the basic m e l o d i c shape o f the pokok there is an interesting m o m e n t o f contrary m o t i o n on beat 10 w h e n the elaboration meets at a unison o n F# then ascends to a B ,  w h i l e the pokok descends to an E . F r o m the standpoint o f contour this elaboration is far f r o m traditional. In the previous section r e m e m b e r that elaborations t r a c k i n g the combination of  jegogan w i l l often rely on some  ngubeng and majalan patterns. T h e elaboration here approaches the  downbeat o f each bar i n an i r r e g u l a r l y serpentine manner u s i n g contours that cannot be rationalized as possessing either quality. T h e o n l y apparent consistency is the ascending contour m o t i v e {-2,-1,0} used to approach the that the approach to  jegogan tones every f o u r beats. N o t i c e  gong is different than the approach to the other jegogan tones. T h i s  B a l i n e s e syntactical c o n v e n t i o n w i l l be seen i n several m u s i c a l e x a m p l e s later on. The  kotekan f r o m Lemayung was directly influenced by the piece, Banyuari  c o m p o s e d by M i c h a e l T e n z e r for the A m e r i c a n gamelan group  Sekar Jaya i n 1992. In  T e n z e r ' s o w n w o r d s , the piece was his, "most radical gamelan piece at the t i m e . " 40  , m  j j  J J j j j ^ J J ,jJJJ,JTJJJJTJ  rnu 5  S  5  L U L U  r~T~] i - t r - - p i  iu 4r t[h uJ~ J  5  Figure 13- Banyuari quintuplet kotekan  40  quote taken from his personal website www.interchange.ubc.ca/mtenzer  65  J  s  s  Immediately we notice one glaring similarity. Both kotekan divide the basic pulse into five equal subdivisions. That feature alone gives the melodic motion in each example a similar quality. Most of Tenzer's kotekan adheres to stylistic features of ubit empat, making occasional use of thirds. In a purely musical sense, something about Tenzer's kotekan sounds and feels more "conventional" than Berata's (although keep in mind Banyuari was composed almost a decade and a half before Lemayung, when such rhythmic devices were basically unheard off). The reason for stark differences musically may boil down to differences in how most Balinese and western composers compose. Tenzer almost certainly notated the entire score Banyuari ahead of time, calculatedly manipulating the musical material in the intellectual manner taught to him by his cultural forbearers. Dewa Berata may have composed one of two ways. Either he wrote the pokok first and composed a polos part to accompany it, while the sangsih was probably worked out later in the process of teaching the piece , or there was something that he particularly liked about that polos and then he 41  derived a suitable pokok from that. This may account for the "tunefulness" in Berata's polos. In either case there is a difference in approach (undoubtedly the result of culturally related habits toward music) that is evident in the musical text. Dewa's kotekan is born of generative principles while Tenzer's results more from principles of intellection. It should also be noted that another Balinese composer, I Made Subandi, did a similar thing with his 2006 kreasi "Rendered." Prior to composing "Rendered" he had been Interestingly enough, when a friend of asked the composer ro show him sangsih in that kotekan, Dewa was able to make one, but could not actually remember the specific part used in performance. According to my friend, Dewa told him, "only Supar (the sangsih player in their group) knows that part  4 1  66  w o r k i n g w i t h A m e r i c a n scholar and c o m p o s e r A n d r e w M c G r a w . M c G r a w a n d Subandi collaborated o n a piece f o r S u b a n d i ' s group that i n c l u d e d a  gegenderan where the basic  pulse was a dotted-eighth note. T h e f o l l o w i n g year, A n d y returned to B a l i to f i n d that Subandi had taken large c h u n k s o f his gegenderan, essentially v e r b a t i m a n d assimilated them into several other w o r k s . F o r a f o r e i g n composer o f g a m e l a n m u s i c , such thievery 42  may i n fact be the ultimate c o m p l i m e n t .  Polyphonic  Forms of Melodic  Elaboration  W h i l e the i n n o v a t i o n s i n the first t w o examples are r h y t h m i c , the f o l l o w i n g examples illustrate m e l o d i c i n n o v a t i o n s i n v o l v i n g increased m e l o d i c independence between parts (or strata), as w e l l as increased interdependence between parts w i t h i n a single stratum. T h e latter process effectively creates n e w strata between elaborating instruments w h i l e the t w o processes c o m b i n e d challenge the idea o f m e l o d i c abstraction and elaboration, m a k i n g it difficult to analyze the m u s i c i n a heterophonic framework. T h e order o f analyses w i l l f o l l o w these m u s i c a l trends i n a r o u g h l y c h r o n o l o g i c a l fashion.  Lebur Saketi and Sruti Laya-1 Wayan Yudane T h e first t w o examples c o m e f r o m the c o m p o s e r I W a y a n Y u d a n e . I became f a m i l i a r w i t h his w o r k f r o m t w o sources. W h i l e studying i n B a l i , several y o u n g B a l i n e s e composers m e n t i o n e d Y u d a n e ' s w o r k as being particularly i n f l u e n t i a l u p o n their c o m p o s i t i o n a l practices. Y u d a n e is a s e l f - c o n s c i o u s l y radical c o m p o s e r famous equally  for his avant-garde w o r k s for Musik Kontemporer as he is for his kebyar compositions.  4 2  Andrew McGraw personal communication May 2006.  67  C o m i n g f r o m a m u s i c a l f a m i l y , Y u d a n e studied traditional m u s i c as a youngster and later studied c o m p o s i t i o n in.Jakarta before returning to B a l i to f i n i s h his degree at S T S I Denpasar. ( M c G r a w 2 0 0 5 : 363) Y u d a n e is k n o w n as i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c c o m p o s e r , a n d is outspoken i n his critiques o f the m u s i c a l establishment i n B a l i . D e s p i t e some artistic 4 3  differences w i t h the establishment, his c o m p o s i t i o n s were a y e a r l y f i x t u r e at the B a l i A r t s Festival f r o m 1992-2000. In 1995 he w o n first place f o r his c o m p o s i t i o n ,  Lebur Saketi.  T h i s is a considerable achievement for a y o u n g composer w h o must compete w i t h established composers f r o m previous generations whose w o r k often dominates the competition. T h e piece has already received some scholarly attention i n H a r n i s h 2 0 0 0 as w e l l as M c G r a w 2 0 0 5 . A s i d e f r o m m e l o d i c innovations the piece is noted for its i n n o v a t i v e approach to tri angga f o r m ( H a r n i s h 2 0 0 0 : 19). Y u d a n e i n t e n t i o n a l l y inverted the c o n v e n t i o n a l f o r m a l structure b y p l a c i n g what is usually the last t h i r d o f a piece  (pengecet) at the b e g i n n i n g . M c G r a w discusses some o f the m e l o d i c i n n o v a t i o n s (particularly i n the gegenderan) i n more detail. H e describes the relationship between v o i c e s as, " a contrapuntal texture o f seven l i n e s " ( i b i d : 349). S p e c i f i c a l l y he is referring to the m e l o d i c independence a m o n g elaborating instruments  (ugal, pemade, kantilan, and penyacah) as w e l l as a m o n g the  abstracting instruments  (calung, and jegogan). In a basic sense the n o r m a t i v e  relationship o f r h y t h m i c density between parts is maintained. T h e  jegogan operates  p r i m a r i l y i n half notes a n d quarters. T h e c a l u n g w o r k s at quarters a n d eighths w h i l e the penyacah is i n eighths a n d sixteenths, and the gangsas are i n sixteenths o n l y . T h e  4 3  for direct quotes see McGraw 2005: 52, 55.  68  internal s u b d i v i s i o n s o f the eighteen beat p e r i o d are most c l e a r l y m a r k e d by durational accents i n the  jegogan part (half notes o n beats 1,4, 10, a n d 14) w h i c h d i v i d e the  gegenderan into four unequal units labeled A B C D ) . T h e s e internal s u b d i v i s i o n s are reinforced by unisons i n the penyacah and calung. W h i l e h o l d i n g the parts to syntactical norms i n those terms, Y u d a n e approaches these points o f c o n v e r g e n c e w i t h a h i g h degree of r h y t h m i c independence b y g i v i n g each instrument an i n d i v i d u a l v o i c e . T h e y are further differentiated f r o m one another i n terms o f phrase length. F o r e x a m p l e , phrase C in each v o i c e elaborates the pitch C # o r ding, h o w e v e r the penyacah phrase is slightly longer than the other t w o parts  e " c  f  e  i——  "  C  [  r"1  L c  r l  ?  ' _ ,  °>  i  Ai  Ai  Ai  Ai  i  C  r-2  (  i j  e  ^1  o c  B  uc  o  e  u c  o  c  o  U  Figure 14-  E  Lebur Saketi  A 44  a i D-  v c  B-  E  Lr^r  J \\c-  E  U  E  O  Melodic relationship between jegogan,  In the above t r a n s c r i p t i o n , each o f four  I  A  I  calung, penyacah  u a i  r f o  e  D-  U  I  o  E  (gegenderan)  jegogan phrases are l a b e l e d , A through D . It is  important to notice that I have created retroactive groupings because, as I said earlier, i n Balinese m u s i c points o f metric stress denote the end or c u l m i n a t i o n o f the pattern preceding. S o u n l i k e western g r o u p i n g theorists w h o w o u l d label the durational accents in the  jegogan as " n e w b e g i n n i n g s , " I a m l a b e l i n g them as " e x p l i c i t e n d i n g s , " i n  44  This transcription differs slightly from Harnish 2000: 18 and McGraw 2005: 354. In both of their transcriptions the fourth jegogan pitch is dung. However, in my recording I am almost certain it is pitch  dang.  69  accordance w i t h B a l i n e s e modes o f m e l o d i c c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n . H o p e f u l l y this w i l l help make sub-surface m u s i c a l p h e n o m e n a more apparent. A l s o I pay less attention to noteby-note phenomena, c h o o s i n g o n l y to l o o k at the relationship between pitches at points o f metric stress and p r e c e d i n g the gong. T h e relationship between phrase groupings w i l l be discussed generally i n terms o f contour and pattern units. Here is a b r e a k d o w n o f the general characteristics o f each phrase. In phrase A , a l l parts generally hover around pitch  deng. T h e jegogan part elaborates the pitch by  m o v i n g stepwise to its upper neighbor  dung. T h e calung m o v e s s i n u s o i d a l l y to both the  upper and l o w e r neighbors, w h i l e penyacah plays straight dengs i n dotted eighths against the beat. T h e difference i n contour between the  calung and jegogan is interesting in that  the l o w e r pitched instruments c o m p l e t e one half o f a single w a v e l i k e f o r m w h i l e the higher pitched instruments ( w h i c h vibrate r o u g h l y t w i c e as fast i n terms o f frequency) complete the w a v e f o r m i n d i m i n u t i o n . Phrase B is m o r e degree to pitch  majalan i n character, and brings a l l three parts d o w n one scale  dong. H o w e v e r each part descends differently. T h e calung again m i m i c s  the contour o f the  jegogan i n d i m i n u t i o n , but i n such a w a y that the parts c o n v e r g e on the  last t w o beats o f the phrase. T h e penyacah m e l o d y repeats the same o s c i l l a t i n g pitch sequence as the  calung ([e-o-e-u] starting f r o m the third p i t c h i n phrase A to the fifth  pitch o f phrase B ) i n s y n c o p a t i o n as w e l l as r h y t h m i c a l l y out o f phase. T h u s , the overall effect is that o f c o m m e n t a r y o n the calung rather than a d u p l i c a t i o n o f it. T h e penyacah then adopts the characteristics o f a gangsa In phrase C , the pitch perhaps w h y the  ubit polos part on the last three beats.  ding is anticipated by the calung and penyacah, w h i c h is  jegogan m e l o d y hovers around pitch ding u s i n g the scalar l o w e r  70  neighbor in a ngubeng fashion similar to phrase A. Again, the calung mimics that basic contour of the jegogan in diminution, but in a way that purposefully offsets their attack points until the last pitch of the phrase. The penyacah however maintains the ubit pattern (which, coincidentally or not, is also a further diminution of the calung part) that in the presence of a complimentary sangsih would elaborate pitch ding in a ngubeng fashion (although the contour is quite majalan) for four full beats (although it would arrive on ding one beat late). See the example:  hypothetical sangsih  a *  *  m  •  f  *X  penyacah part phrase C  •0-  beginning of phrase D in the calung  phrase C  s iti" i 11"  held over from previous beat  Figure 15- Lebur Saketi, penyacah phrase with hypothetical sangsih  Phrase D differs from the three previous phrases for a few reasons. First of all, the calung aligns with each attack point in the jegogan. The previously syncopated penyacah cools down to a steady stream of eighth notes elaborating the calung and jegogan parts in a simple, heterophonic fashion. This shift in gears puts special emphasis  on this last four beat phrase leading to gong, thereby highlighting the pitch that coincides with the gong in a special way. This feature was also evident in the Legong, Kebyar Gandrung and Lemyaung examples.  71  W h a t does this a l l amount to? W e notice that although this is a r a d i c a l l y new w a y of orchestrating these instruments, the parts are bound to one another i n a w a y that reinterprets e x i s t i n g modes o f c o m p o s i t i o n i n B a l i n e s e m u s i c . F o r e x a m p l e , the basic process o f stratifying voices i n terms o f r h y t h m i c density has r e m a i n e d intact. H o w e v e r , Y u d a n e has chosen to differentiate between the parts t h r o u g h s y n c o p a t i o n a n d differing phrase lengths, w h i c h c o m b i n e d create increased m e l o d i c divergence. L i k e the T e n z e r and Berata e x a m p l e s , this m u s i c is heterophonic i n that a l l three parts adhere to the basic contour o f the jegogan part. H o w e v e r , both the calung a n d the penyacah m a k e frequent deviations a l o n g that basic trajectory. T h e deviations i n contour, r h y t h m i c differentiation, registral separation, and h o r i z o n t a l cohesiveness ( s i n g a b i l i t y ) a l l show i n c r e a s i n g l y p o l y p h o n i c tendencies, w h i l e the basic m e l o d i c c o n c e p t i o n is still heterophonic. H o w e v e r , there is one m e l o d i c event that distorts the basic heterophonic m o d e l . T h a t is the a n t i c i p a t i o n o f pitch ding b y the calung and penyacah w h i c h m a y the be the reason jegogan phrase C elaborates ding i n a ngubeng f a s h i o n as i f to a c k n o w l e d g e the calung and penyacah's a r r i v a l o n that tone (beat 11 i n figure 14) as an official m e l o d i c shift. In a n o r m a t i v e context such a m e l o d i c shift w o u l d c o i n c i d e w i t h a jegogan pitch i n order to reinforce the m e l o d i c importance o f that particular point i n time. T h i s m o m e n t a r i l y distorts the basic hierarchy between voices b y a l l o w i n g an upper v o i c e to, i n a sense, " c a l l the shots." T h e c o m p o s e r c o u l d have easily g i v e n a quarter note to pitch dong and g i v e n a half note to pitch ding, w h i c h w o u l d have placed clearer emphasis on the arrival to that p i t c h , but it seems his intention was to obscure its a r r i v a l and p r o l o n g the revelation o f its importance until a f e w beats later.  72  Sruti Laya Sruti Laya was composed in 1999. Like Lebur Saketi, it was commissioned by the Bali Arts Festival and again won first prize for best composition. Similar to Lebur, the piece makes extended use of seconds and thirds as well as intricately woven melodic lines. The gegenderan of this piece is similarly polyphonic. In addition, the final two minutes of the piece feature rhythmically active orchestration between the suling, penyacah, calung, and jegogan. The excerpt is unusual because of its slow tempo, quiet dynamic level, and the complete absence of kendhang, ceng-ceng, pemade, kantilan, or reyong.  A l s o the melodic fragments that are exchanged antiphonally between the calung  and penyacah do not repeat over the course of three 36-beat gong cycles. Remember this part of a piece is usually reserved for the pengecet and pekaad, which are typically at a brisk tempo and involve shorter melodic cycles. Yudane's choice of texture quite is quite blatantly oppositional to the formal expectations of Tabuh Kreasi Baru, and such deviance rarely gains acceptance by the musical establishment . 45  In addition to being texturally novel, the excerpt exhibits contrapuntal writing that is quite unusual for Balinese traditional music, and as far as I know, does not refer to any indigenous musical styles in Bali. I can only surmise that Yudane's influence (either directly or indirectly) is Western classical music. The most striking examples of contrary motion exist between the jegogan and suling voices, which provide a tonal canvas within which the penyacah and calung perform through-composed variations over the course of three gongan.  Although according to his personal website (http://hey-joe369.tripod.com/yudane/), Yudane may chalk his victory up to the fact that he'd already won six times before.  73  /  Hun  a  <\. •  II-  -iy-  -t*-^  •  <>•  G  f\ ,  »»•  I  P  P  € -% •  G  Figure 16- Sruti Laya, reduction of the outer voices, suling on the top staff, jegogan on the bottom  In the reduction we notice that the jegogan and the suling meet in unison on every other jegogan tone, but the suling ascends stepwise by two scale degrees coinciding on the dissonant interval telu in bars 2 and 4, and the abnormally dissonant adjacent scale tone dang in bar 6. By looking at the transcription alone it appears that there is an overall "X"-like shape to the period, which indicates the consistent use of contrary motion between the outer voices. However, this diagnosis must be qualified.  74  Sruti Laya  I Wayan Gede Yudane  (from 9:42-)  i Penyacah  ' r  4=^= §  11  ^'  J  =*=  —f—  #•  J-|  -f  iyf  *  -  P - J — P — J  n H ^  >M n - T  F f f w-' •>—P~ •p 1  75  „ h  „ |  1  f  j -1 nd jm. .1 i  ,  J  s  r  r f - d  l^LJ,  ^ | H1  - j  =-f— , _ u _  1  1  Sruti Laya  4*  m  4fe  ^  "  <  p  G  slowing down  .HP  T7 PP  Figure 17- Sruti Laya  from 9:40 until the end, full transcription  76  A s mentioned in the previous section, octave displacement is frequently used by pokok instruments to reinforce pitches of a neliti. This means that approaching a unison or an octave in contrary motion does not necessarily indicate melodic independence between parts. More often than not, it is the result of a neliti descending below pitch ding on the ugal, which forces the calung and jegogan to leap up because ding is the lowest pitch on these instruments.  Because the ranges of the gangsa, and reyong are all  different, elaborating even the most basic melody can easily create a densely contrapuntal texture full of contrary motion between parts. However, this contrariness exists only on the surface, as a by-product of idiomatic practicalities resulting from differing ranges among the instruments . 46  Such an arrangement is referred to as "first-order vertical  relations" (Tenzer 2000: 55-57). O f course, in standard repertoire it is easier to discern whether or not the neliti ascends or descends to a given pitch because the extended range of the gangsas (or at the very least ugal) will often clarify the contour in their elaboration. However, this excerpt lacks that clarity. For example in bar 3, the penyacah and calung parts use both high and low dang while the jegogan uses its only dang (high), and the suling uses low dang.  I have indexed the pitches used at the ends of phrases. These are organized within each 12 beat jegogan group. This reveals that while the calung and penyacah parts are not embellishing the jegogan  or suling in any heterophonic way (although the  relationship between the suling and the jegogan may be considered loosely heterophonic with an abnormally high rate of melodic divergence and dissonance.) they still tend towards certain pitches. For example, both the penyacah and calung spend a great deal 4 6  Of course, its entirely possible that in the course of gamelan's development, differing instrument ranges  were favored because they help facilitate a fuller and livelier orchestral texture.  77  of time on dong w h e n e v e r there is dang i n the jegogan.  A l s o the jegogan guides the  constellation o f these p i t c h sets although it is unclear i f they are d e r i v e d i n t u i t i v e l y f r o m a B a l i n e s e hierarchy o f pitches (based i n B a l i n e s e fourths) or l o o s e l y i n s p i r e d by western ideas o f tertian h a r m o n y .  Group l-jegogan  p i t c h ding: a,i,e  Group 2-jegogan  p i t c h dang: o,e,a  Group 3-jegogan  p i t c h dung: u,a,o  It is clear that the same three pitch sets i n the calung and penyacah, and suling are used consistently i n c o o r d i n a t i o n w i t h each jegogan pitch. I f w e adopt another notation system f r o m set theory, a l l three pitch sets b o i l d o w n to the same t r i c h o r d {0,1,3} i f put in p r i m e o r d e r . Interestingly e n o u g h , i n each group the relationship between pitch " 0 " o f 47  the t r i c h o r d and the jegogan p i t c h is different. ( G r o u p 1: p i t c h 0=jegogan p i t c h - 1 scale degree, G r o u p 2: p i t c h 0= jegogan pitch -2, G r o u p 3: p i t c h 0= jegogan pitch). H o w e v e r , there is a tendency w i t h i n each group to want to c o m p l e t e the trichord. F o r e x a m p l e i n group 2, w h e n the jegogan and the suling are p l a y i n g pitches dang, and ding, both penyacah and calung emphasize pitch dong for the entire six beat period. O n e reason that particular pitch aggregate w o r k s f r o m a c o m p o s i t i o n a l standpoint c o u l d be that i f reordered they represent a series o f stacked ngempat or B a l i n e s e fourths, w h i c h is a standard interval used w h e n elaborating pitches, although its use is often strictly g u i d e d by the s t y l i s t i c conventions, and w o u l d never be done l i k e this.  Prime order means that the pitches are arranged in such a way that the interval between the lowest pitch, "0" and highest pitch, in this case "3" is the smallest interval possible.  4 7  78  a o u •e-©-  Figure 18- Sruti Laya pitch aggegrates as "stacked ngempats"  H o w e v e r , I f i n d that interpretation unfavorable because the " r o o t " o f the empat does not correlate to any o f the  jegogan pitches. L o o k i n g at the texture alone it is entirely possible  that Y u d a n e was i n s p i r e d by western modes of c o m p o s i t i o n . In w h i c h case the c h a n g i n g pitch sets c o u l d be interpreted as " h a r m o n i e s , " w h i c h are r e l a t i v e l y stable i n group 1 ( s o u n d i n g s i m i l a r to a major triad i n first i n v e r s i o n ) then b e c o m e s l i g h t l y m o r e dissonant in group 2 ( s i m i l a r to a major triad w i t h a suspended 4th), then reach an apex o f dissonance i n group 3 ( w i t h the tritone and the m i n o r second) before r e s o l v i n g to the stable sonority o f group 1.  g  _  |  3E  3E  Figure 19- Sruti Laya-voice leading, stems down=calung, stems up=penyacah, suling an stems.  W h i l e it is d i f f i c u l t to reach any definitive c o n c l u s i o n about what i f any rules govern a m u s i c a l e x a m p l e l i k e this, it is safe to say that it represents a c o n t i n u e d effort to differentiate between the various m e l o d i c instruments as w e l l as to reinterpret their traditional roles w i t h i n the ensemble. In  Sruti Laya, the jegogan is no l o n g e r r e i n f o r c i n g  79  a core melody and is instead providing a tonal landscape for a variety of pitch sets. The fact that these pitch sets change in coordination with changes in the jegogan indicate that the composer was motivated by some sort of polyphonic impetus that involves decorating the jegogan pitch with no fewer than two other pitches. It is however difficult to assess why the composer chose those specific pitch sets to accompany the jegogan pitches. It is entirely likely that the composer was passively or even consciously motivated by western styles of composition and western tonal harmony. Bali has its fair share of popular music, movie soundtracks, and garage bands. The sum of these influences could very well be seeping into the intuitive compositional sensibilities of contemporary composers. In this case, the steady increase of dissonance right before gong and the return to stable sonorities with the gong may not be a mere coincidence. It may be evidence of two musical vocabularies merging at their points of compatibility.  Semayut-1 Wayan Sudirana Sudirana is one composer out of a new generation motivated equally by their admiration and respect for traditional and ancient music and their desire to revitalize and reinvent contemporary traditional forms. Like others of his generation, he feels that certain aspects of Balinese music have become so rigorously codified that they threaten to stagnate.  48  He has sought in his own work a balance between adhering to the  compositional mandates of institutions, and finding his own creative voice. A member of the Sanggar Cudamani, Sudirana has toured and performed internationally as well as collaborated with countless musicians from other musical traditions. Also, as a guest  48  Personal communication July 2006.  80  artist in residence at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a he has had even more exposure to the western c l a s s i c a l tradition, other w o r l d m u s i c traditions, and gained outsider insight on his o w n culture. S u c h exposure has undoubtedly i n f l u e n c e d his creative w o r k in the process. Semayut was c o m p o s e d i n 2003 as a c o m m i s s i o n for the B a l i A r t s F e s t i v a l . S u d i r a n a h i m s e l f is a fan of Y u d a n e ' s m u s i c and has c i t e d h i m numerous times as an influence. In the t w o o f the examples we w i l l l o o k at, the i n f l u e n c e is quite clear. T h e first e x a m p l e comes f r o m the introduction. T y p i c a l l y Tabuh Kreasi open w i t h l o u d virtuosic passages often i n v o l v i n g kebyar texture or some k i n d o f v i r t u o s i c statement f r o m the gangsa section. T h e s e function to establish the c o m p e t i n g g r o u p ' s ensemble virtuosity. S u d i r a n a ' s i n t r o d u c t i o n is remarkable in that he opts instead for an understated, i n t e l l e c t u a l , and unusual texture h i g h l i g h t i n g the darker timbre o f the pokok instruments and suling, before crashing into the requisite kebyar.  Figure 20- Semayut, intro until kebyar  T h e analysis reveals that we are d e a l i n g w i t h m u s i c that is m u c h more contrapuntal and p o l y p h o n i c i n its basic conception than the p r e v i o u s excerpts.  The  excerpt is also an interesting e x a m p l e o f m o d a l mixture i n that the suling m e l o d y is in an  81  entirely different mode (slendro alii) than the rest of the ensemble. While traditional Balinese music, specifically that of Gong Kebyar's precursor Semar Pegulingan frequently makes use of these non-scale tones (pemero), typically their use is much more restricted, and certainly does not involve one instrument playing in a different mode than the rest of the ensemble. A s far as Tabuh Kreasi is concerned pemero have been used at least since the late seventies, and with the advent of the seven-tone gamelan Semarandana modal mixture is becoming more common (McGraw 1999: 77). Perhaps one of the most famous examples of modal mixture can be found in Dewa Ketut A l i t ' s Geregel, composed for Sanggar Cudamani in 2000, where the same melody is played in three different modes simultaneously (Vitale 2002: 43). Aside from Sudirana's innovative use of mode, the excerpt exhibits considerable independence between parts. Using traditional definitions, no single part functions as a pokok. In other words, the parts cannot be boiled down to one core melodic cell. A l l of the parts are registrally, rhythmically, and melodically distinct from one another. Unlike the Yudane example there is not one point within the 9 beat period wherein all parts are playing same pitch. Only on the last jegogan pitch before the gong do the most of the voices align in unison. Despite the music's densely contrapuntal make up there are still some normative features of Balinese syntax, which may help bind these disparate parts into a compositional unity. The solid lines running through the jegogan and suling parts illustrate how the two "outer" voices run basically parallel to one another. A l s o , on the beats before and after gong they play in unison (although for the rest of the time they are in two different modes). A l s o , most pitches coincide at the interval of a Balinese fourth  82  (ngempat) or its inversion (telu), and very seldom do they collide on adjacent scale tones. However, when dissonances on adjacent scale tones or thirds occur, similar to western counterpoint, these dissonances are often left by step to stable sonorities (either unison or ngempat). Some notable examples of this are labeled with an asterisk. The opening chord is interesting in that the bottom two parts and the top two parts relate to one another in terms of ngempat and the bottom notes of each pair relate to each other in terms of its inversion. A l s o , the arrows on the analysis illustrate a few examples of contrary motion and voice crossing between the various parts. Traditional concepts of melodic abstraction and elaboration must be abandoned completely when looking at an example like this. Each part functions as an independent melodic element that is composed with special attention to how it interacts both rhythmically and harmonically with the other parts. It is apparent that Sudirana is picking up where Yudane left off, increasing the use of dissonance while still consistently controlling their usage within the framework of a uniquely Balinese sense of tonality. The next example comes from the same piece. Directly inspired by the unusual texture at the end of Yudane's Sruti Laya , Sudi has chosen similar instrumentation with 49  a comparable stratification of the various parts.  personal communication March 2007  83  C,  G  Figure 21-Semayutfrom 7:20  T h i s e x a m p l e uses the exact same instrumentation as the p r e v i o u s e x a m p l e as w e l l as the Sruti Laya e x a m p l e . A l l three examples are relatively quiet and i n v o l v e a h i g h degree o f r h y t h m i c a c t i v i t y between parts. L i k e the Sruti Laya e x a m p l e the v o i c e s are stratified i n a manner s i m i l a r to traditional orchestrational practices i n B a l i n e s e m u s i c . T h e r e are four basic jegogan phrases w i t h i n the 16-beat period. These phrases are bracketed w i t h reference to the last note o f the phrase. T h e phrases outline the f o l l o w i n g progression o f pitches ( 0 ) [ : O E U O : j . T h e calung, rather than elaborating this basic m e l o d y , instead provides a counter m e l o d y w i t h an even t w o beats between attack points, w i t h the exception o f the last note before gong and the gong p i t c h itself, w h i c h are each one beat in duration. T h i s sets the calung against the meter i n a w a y w i t h further differentiates it f r o m the other three m e l o d i c parts. T h e calung d i v i d e s b a s i c a l l y into t w o phrases ( A ) [ : U A - E - O / U - E - I - U A : j . T h e r h y t h m i c relationship between the parts is interesting because these core jegogan tones are elaborated by t w o and three note phrases that prepare their a r r i v a l , so on the m u s i c a l surface it actually appears that the jegogan is m o v i n g at a higher rate o f r h y t h m i c density thereby reversing its n o r m a t i v e f u n c t i o n . H o w e v e r , the durational and p h e n o m e n a l accents at those metric points lead me to interpret o n l y the dotted quarters and half notes as structurally significant pitches. T h e attack points i n the  84  jegogan phrase are syncopated in a way that seeks resolution on the downbeat of each bar. These phrases end with durational accents on that pitch in that there is comparatively less dissonance at those points metrically (coincidences at a unison and empat are marked in solid lines). This further reinforces the sense of "harmonic" motion outlined by the jegogans.  Notice that there is no derivative or consistent intervallic  correspondence or contour relationship between the calung and jegogan.  Indeed, they  were composed as two distinct voices working in rhythmic coordination. The suling and penyacah parts are rhythmically distinct in that they hocket on beats 2, 3 and 4 of each measure. Like the earlier example, the parts are often either a ngempat or telu apart and approach or depart dissonances by step. The parts also favor consonance on metrically strong points. This applies to interpart relationships in general. Both in this example and the previous one, Sudirana is coordinating the voices in an overtly polyphonic manner with Balinese tonal principles in mind. This excerpt differs from the Sruti Laya example in that Sudirana appears more concerned with the melodic interdependence and horizontal cohesion within parts. There is no clear sense of a homophonic progression of pitch aggregates or "chords" like the {0,1,3} set in Sruti Laya. The melodic parts instead change subtly so as not to disrupt horizontal continuity. The organization of these four melodic parts with relation to one another is also in no way random. While they were composed from a primarily melodic perspective, Sudi clearly favors consonances at the interval of ngempat and unison. Less frequently, does he incorporate dissonances at telu and he avoids the simultaneous sounding of adjacent scale tones altogether. A n d when adjacent scale tones do collide, he often approaches and leaves these dissonances by step. There also a clear design to the  85  rhythmic differentiation in both Semayut examples. The jegogan is mildly decorated while the calung plays in half notes against the meter. The suling and penyacah parts are differentiated by their rhythmic density as well as their differing contours. The suling follows a very predictable stream of off-beat attack points with neighbor motion on the down beat of each bar. The penyacah offers a simple contrapuntal complement to that static contour involving larger leaps and a predictably sinusoidal curvethat subtly approaches pitches in consonance with the lower two parts. In general, this sort of polyphony bears some clear resemblances to western polyphonic music, but Sudi's tonal hierarchy is based on indigenous conceptualizations of pitch relationships in addition to possessing an intuitive treatment of kinetics relative to the gong.  Cam Wara-I Dewa Ketut Alit Among North American Bali-philes, I Dewa Ketut A l i t has something of a reputation. He first garnered the attention of western scholars with his popular (and popularly distributed) 2000 Tabuh Kreasi, Geregel. The piece features dozens of innovations in terms of elaboration, and orchestration and treatment of mode. His music is often dissonant and polyrhythmic. The following analysis of Cam Wara will elucidate some ways in which his melodic elaborations and abstractions are rooted in heterophonic concepts of melodic elaboration while also being incredibly contrapuntal and dissonant. Cam Wara was composed in 2005 for the Cenik Wayah Ubud children's gamelan, for the Bali Arts Festival competition. It should be noted that I Wayan Sudirana is that group's primary teacher and composer, and it may be no coincidence that his and A l i t ' s works both exhibit these contrapuntal qualities. While they are too close in  86  age to guess how they may influence each other, it's a fairly safe bet that Yudane was influential for both of them. Alit is also vocal in his critiques of the musical establishment in Bali. And this may or may not be one reason he spends much of his time teaching and performing abroad. Cam Wara itself received mixed reviews from the upper echelon of Bali's music community. In truth, the opening of the piece is quite bizarre. Considering, that the piece was written for a children's ensemble, it is remarkably abstract. In some ways it is reminiscent of an unmetered gineman; like the fragmented statements of an early Tabuh Kreasi like Kosali Arini. However the prolonged soft dynamic and the unconventional interlocking of phrases between pokok instruments were enough to draw criticism. The two examples we will look each come from the same section of the piece. Melody  9 v r r r r r r r r r r 'r r r r r r r r r r ;  Kempli  11  Figure 22- Cam Wara Melody 1 with kempli melody  ^ ¥ a fr r f rr p  i  ft  kempli  i  j  r  r r  c  rrr rr rrrr r rrrr r [  r -  Figure 23- Cam Wara-Melody 2 with kempli  87  1 1  In the first melody, notice that: 1) Half of the kempli and melody attack points are syncopated against the perceived basic pulse (or tactus). 2) the syncopations in the melody are mostly coordinated with the syncopations in the kempli (except the last four attack points) After this melody is introduced, a rhythmically modified (or perhaps rotated) version of melody 2 is superimposed beneath by the jegogan.  It is "rotated" in that its  essential rhythmic morphology is left intact (3.5+3.5+4) but shifted ahead by 3.5 beats. We notice that both melodies are coordinated with the attack points of the kempli (for the rotated melody two all but four attack points are coordinated with kempli strokes) yet they are dramatically different in contour and character. In this sense the excerpt is polyphonic in that both voices are horizontally cohesive but rhythmically, harmonically, and registrally distinct. On the third gong, the elaboration is introduced. The middle staff is a transcription of the composed elaboration performed jointly by four players on the  reyong.  vyong (minus kempyung)  -  •  y\ m 4  » JA—»Iff « - * -f—  i\  l  1  f  T  :alung/sulii]£  - H i h *  0 ,m L  m  9  ttT[ •  k  u  l/k '>  k  u  if* =H i i  u  •p.'—l/k  ,'l/kl  ;  t' k  k  u  ' k  l/k |  l/k —  k  !  J  it  %* T]  ' -4—-<  L  ^=^= jegogan  o  1  L  $  ---  r  ,  u  /  *  #•  m  m  n  m  t  u  l/k  — * r r r r r—r r r r r r r r r r—r r r r r Figure 24-Caru Wara reyong with analysis  88  1  The relationship between the three melodic parts is complex. T o make the contours more easily decipherable, the elaboration was re-written without the upper note of the dyads to make the contour more apparent. First we notice that the pattern lengths are irregular. A l s o , these patterns do not line up with melody tones, in any consistent way, and when they do it is not in unison or at an octave. A s said before, melodic elaborations are composed to prepare the arrival of a melody tone. From this cultural basis, I have chosen to put white noteheads at the end of each phrase on the assumption that the pattern leading to it will be heard as its preparation (I call any stream of continuous durations separated by a durational accent a phrase). This was also done in the Mergapati and Legong examples. Notice that none of these white noteheads align with the melody in unison except for the very last pitch 50  before gong. While discussing these abnormal groupings with Sudirana, he suggested that I look again to see if at any point the elaboration coincides with the melody tone at the interval of a Balinese fourth. Following his lead, any instances of a unison or ngempat was labeled in the transcription (ngempat=k). Notice that 6 of thel3 note-heads align with both a melody note and a kempli stroke and that last white note-head aligns with the melody but not the kempli. The same is true for the reyong elaboration, although this only becomes apparent after close examination. Also notice that the lower two melodies seldom play adjacent pitches simultaneously. They almost always relate to one another in terms of Balinese fourths (more frequently) or its inversion. Another interesting feature in the relationship between the reyong and the melody is what looks  5 0  although there are two other unisons that are met in passing and two that coincide with the beginning of a  phrase.  89  like a voice exchange between the pitches dung and dung over the course of the last eleven beats.  elaboration  m e l o d y  f r o m e x a m p l e  v "" 4  -»  centered  a r o u n d  pitch  " d u n g "  a s c e n d i n g  stepwise t oh i g h  d u n g  It 1  y 0  V-  0  0-  -»  0-  -9  0  0+  Figure 25- Cam Wara-voice exchange between reyong and penyacah  This is fascinating evidence if not proof of intricately designed polyphonic music derived from distinctly Balinese musical aesthetics. The next example comes later in the piece. A grouping analysis of the gegenderan using melody 2 reveals interesting symmetries beneath a polyrhythmic and free sounding exterior. The largest of the grouping units (the hyper gongan units) are defined primarily by their relationship to the long ascending sequence that begins on the 2 4 beat of the th  excerpt. I label next smallest strata as "large phrase groupings" ( L P G ' s , for short). The groupings are based largely upon kinds of repetition (except for L P G 3 , which was determined solely on the basis of its difference from the material in the adjacent groups).  90  Lastly, I labeled larger phrase groupings as ngubeng or majalan in terms of both pattern quality and pattern type. See Appendix for a full transcription.  TYPE  MAJ.  NGUB  MAJ  MAJALAN  NGUB.  MAJALAN  QUALITY  NGUB.  NGUB  MAJ  NGUBENG  NGUB.  NGUBENG  H G UNIT  1  2  3  Table 4-pattern types and pattern qualities in the gegenderan of Caru Wara.  This revealed a peculiarly symmetrical sense of balance to the elaboration. Like traditional repertoire, as well as in most of the newer examples, the elaboration is guided by its relationship to gong. Specifically, shifts in pattern quality or type occur as follows: G o n g l - 2 beats before gong G o n g 2- 4 beats before gong G o n g 3- not at all (but the sequence reverses direction 2 beats before gong) G o n g 4- 4 beats before gong G o n g 5- 4 beats after gong G o n g 6- not at all  We notice that A l i t ' s elaborations are guided by traditional aesthetics. Particularly, melodic elaborations are influenced in some way by their metric proximity to the gong. In all the examples we see how the gong possesses an almost radioactive quality, mutating and in a sense liquefying contours (evident in the prevalence of majalan contours immediately prior to gong) as they approach structural points. A l i t ' s innovations are interesting in that they subvert traditional models yet faithfully adhere to Balinese conceptualizations melody, time, and kinetic energy. This is  91  evident in the kinetic balance in the previous example, and the treatment of dissonance in the reyong elaboration. These innovations speak to the enormous compositional potential for gamelan music.  Concluding  Remarks  We have seen how Balinese composers are expanding and developing instrumental music in Bali. In each of the above cases, the composer has taken liberties with traditional musical roles to create lush new textures. There is little doubt that these melodic experiments are a reflection of the rapidly changing cultural terra in Bali. Bali, like anywhere else in the globe, is increasingly saturated with global influences. A s a result, composers are getting familiar with more diverse styles of music at younger ages. It is only natural that these external influences find their way into contemporary music. What is most fascinating about these interactions is how various elements of Balinese music (such as, structure, melody, rhythm, and tempo) are adapting and developing to incorporate these new influences. For example, we have seen several instances in which the abstracting instruments adopt a more elaborate and polyphonic character (like Semayut). W e ' v e also seen elaborations that appear to break entirely from any melodic guidance provided by the pokok and neliti. Yet, uponcloser inspection we notice that these elaborations are in fact linked to other parts both melodically and structurally, and that these links are traceable to indigenous concepts (such as the prevalence of the interval ngempat). I have shown that with respect to various process domains the differences between heterophony and polyphony are indistinct with reference to these melodic  92  innovations. In these domains there are numerous examples of western-style polyphony that are subject to heterophonic processes. Conversely there are numerous where Balinese music exhibits polyphonic characteristics. This thesis has dealt with innovations in modern music from a primarily melodic standpoint. Further studies may investigate how composers are re-conceiving approaches rhythm, form and tempo. Andrew M c G r a w (2005) has touched on issues of tempo in Balinese Musik Kontemporer.  A n d Tenzer (2006: 205-235) has dealt with aspects of  musical linearity in traditional music. If this information was synthesized with reference to developments in overall musical form a greater, more holistic understanding of Balinese music may come as the result.  93  BIBLIOGRAPHY Agawu. Kofi. (2006) "Structural Analysis or Cultural Analysis? Competing Perspectives on the 'Standard Pattern'of West African Rhythm" Journal of the American Musicological  Society, 59:1  1-49.  Arom. Simha.(1991) African Polyphony and Polyrhythm, Cambridge: Cambridge. University Press. Bandem. I Made. (2006) "Kebyar: A Monumental Achievement in Balinese Arts" Mudra Special Edition, Institut Seni Indonesia: Denpasar . (\986)_Prakempa:  Sebuah lontar Gambelan Bali.  STSI: Denpasar:  . (1992) Ubit-ubitan: Sebuah Teknik Permainan Gamelan Bali. STSI: Denpasar Boulez. Pierre. (1964) Pensez de la Musique Aujord'hui. Denoe Gonthier, Paris. Brinner. Benjamin. (2004) "Indonesia," Groves Music Online, ed. L. Macy (Accessed 5 December, 2006. Clifford. James. (1986) "Partial Truths," Writing Culture: the poetics and politics of ethnography, University of California Press, Berkeley. Cooke (2001). "Polyphony" Grove Music Online, ed. L. Macy, (Accessed 5, December, 2006). Friedmann. Michael. (1985). "A Methodology for the Discussion of Contour: Its Application to Schoenberg's Music" Journal of Music Theory, Vol. 29 No. 2: 233-248. Forte. Allen (1959). "Schenker's Conception of Musical Structure," Journal of Music Theory, Vol. 3, No. 1: 1-30. Frobenius (2001) "Polyphony" Grove Music Online, K. Macy (accessed 5 December, 2006). Harnish. David. (2000) "The World of Music Composition in Bali," Journal of Research, Vol. 20:  Musicological  1-40.  Lerdahl. Fred, and Ray Jackendoff. (1983) A Generative Theory of Tonal Music, Cambridge: M.I.T. Press. McGraw. Andrew. (1999) "The Development of the Gamelan Semara Dana, and the Expansi of the Modal System in Bali, Indonesia" Asian Music Vol.31, no.l. . (2005) Musik Kontemporer: Contemporary Music in Bali, Phd. Diss.  Wesleyan University. McPhee. Colin. (1966) Music in Bali, Yale University Press, New Haven. Perlman. Marc. (2004) Unplayed Melodies: Javanese Gamelan and the Genesis of Music  94  Theory,  Berkeley: University of California Press.  Perlman, M. (1994) "Unplayed Melodies: Music Theory in Postcolonial Java" Ph.D. diss., Wesleyan University. Raden. Frankie. (2001) "Music, Politics, and the Problems of National Identity in Indonesia" Ph.D. diss. The University of Madison,Wisconsin. Rai. I Wayan. (1994) "Balinese Gamelan Semar Pegulingan Saih Pitu: The Modal System" Ph.D. diss., The University of Maryland. Ramstedt. Martin. (1992) "Indonesian cultural Policy in relation to the Development of the Balinese performing arts." In Schaareman, D., ed., Balinese Music in Context: A Sixtyfifth Birthday Tribute to Hans Oesch, 59-84. Winterthur: Amadeus Verlag, Forum Ethnomusicologicum 4. Richter, K. (1992) "Slendro-Pelog and the Conceptualization of Balinese Music: Remarks on the Gambuh Tone system." In Schaareman, D., ed. Balinese Music in Context: A Sixty-fifth Birthday Tribute to Hans Oesch, 195-220. Winterthur: Amadeus Verlag. Forum Ethnomusicologicum 4. Schulte-Nordholt. H. (1996), The Spell of Power: A History of Balinese Politics, KITLV Press, Leiden. Sorrel 1. Neil. (1990) A Guide to Gamelan,  1650-1940,  Faber and Faber, London, pp. 13-15.  Tenzer. Michael. (2000) Gamelan Gong Kebyar: The Art of Twentieth Century Balinese Music. Chicago University Press, Chicago. . (2006) Analytical Studies in World Music. Oxford University Press, Oxford. Tilley. Leslie (2003) Reyong norot figuration : an exploration into the inherent musical techniques of Bali, MA Thesis, University of British Columbia, Vancouver. Tyler. Stephen (1986) "Post-Modern Ethnography: From Document of the Occult to Occult Document" Writing Culture, Cambridge: Harvard University Press Vitale. Wayne. (1990) "Kotekan: Technique of Interlocking Parts in Balinese Music" Balungan, Vol. 4, No. 1, Winter/Spring 1991. . (2002) "Balinese Kebyar Music Breaks the Five-Tone Barrier: New Composition for Seven-Tone Gamelan." Perspectives of New Music, Vol. 40, No.l: 5-69. Witzleben.J. Lawrence. (1997) "Whose Ethnomusicology? Western Ethnomusicology and the Study of Asian Music" Ethnomusicology, Vol. 41, No. 2, Special Issue: Issues in Ethnomusicology. (Spring-Summer,: 220-242) Zbikowski. Lawrence Michael. (2001) Conceptualizing Analysis, Oxford University Press, Oxford.  95  music: Cognitive Structure,  Theory, and  APPENDIX-CVw IW/ZYI-FUM Grouping Analysis jwttktara f  Uvtix^ GIJ* HI* tvuv-J)  ,  Shifts in pal tern ti utility imd/or tjpc: g4wig 1-2 heal - before 0 j;t}»g beat." before Ci gimji jbui the sequence reverse* direction 2 heal* heftwe t«> gtmj; 4-4 beau bettirc fl jjcmg 5-* heat* after O pong <w«»nc 1  cr  

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