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Innovative approaches to melodic elaboration in contemporary Tabuh Kreasi Baru Steele, Peter Michael 2007

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I N N O V A T I V E A P P R O A C H E S T O M E L O D I C E L A B O R A T I O N IN C O N T E M P O R A R Y TABUH KREASIBARU by P E T E R M I C H A E L S T E E L E B.A. , Pitzer College, 2003 A THESIS S U B M I T T E D IN P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T OF T H E R E Q U I R E M E N T S F O R T H E D E G R E E OF M A S T E R OF A R T S in T H E F A C U L T Y OF G R A D U A T E S T U D I E S (Music) THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August 2007 © Peter Michael Steele, 2007 ABSTRACT The following thesis has two goals. The first is to present a comparison of recent theories of Balinese music, specifically with regard to techniques of melodic elaboration. By comparing the work of Wayan Rai, Made Bandem, Wayne Vitale, and Michael Tenzer, I will investigate how various scholars choose to conceptualize melodic elaboration in modern genres of Balinese gamelan. The second goal is to illustrate the varying degrees to which contemporary composers in the form known as Tabuh Kreasi are expanding this musical vocabulary. In particular I will examine their innovative approaches to melodic elaboration. Analysis of several examples will illustrate how some composers utilize and distort standard compositional techniques in an effort to challenge listeners' expectations while still adhering to indigenous concepts of balance and flow. The discussion is preceded by a critical reevaluation of the function and application of the western musicological terms polyphony and heterophony. ii T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S Abstract i i Table of Contents : iii List of Tables .... '. iv List of Figures ' v Acknowledgements vi CHAPTER 1 Introduction and Methodology • • • • • :•-1 Background : 1 Analysis: Some Recent Thoughts 4 CHAPTER 2 Many or just Different?: A Lesson in Categorical Cacophony 11 Polyphony Now and Then 12 Heterophony... what is it, exactly? 17 CHAPTER 3 Historical and Theoretical Contexts 20 Introduction 20 Melodic Elaboration in History, Theory and Process ..' 22 Abstraction and Elaboration 32 Elaboration Types 36 Constructing Elaborations 44 Issues of "Feeling". 45 Elaboration in Practice ..52 CHAPTER 4 Innovations in Modern Repetoire 63 Uneven Divisions of the Tactus. •. 63 Polyphonic Forms of Melodic elaboration 67 Concluding Remarks 92 Bibliography 94 Appendix 96 ii i List of Tables Table 1 Stratum types in Bal inese gamelan 20 Table 2 Balinese M o d a l System based on Saih Pitu 35 Table 3 Elaborat ion types 37 Table 4 Pattern types/qualities in the gegenderan of Cam Warn 91 iv List of Figures Figure 1 Saih Pitu in Western Notation with Balinese solfege 34 Figure 2 Example of norot , 38 Figure 3 Example of nyog cag 39 Figure 4 Example of ubit telu 39 Figure 5 Example of ubit empat 40 Figure 6 Nyalimput and nyalimpud styles of elaborating Baris Tunggal 42 Figure 7 Mergapati example of melodic elaboration 44 Figure 8 Mergapati with solfege 50 Figure 9 Legong Condong 53 Figure 10 Reyongan Ngipuk-Kebyar Gandrung 57 Figure 11 Contour Analysis-Kebyar Gandrung 60 Figure 12 Lemayung, Gegenderan 64 Figure 13 Banyuari- Quintuplet Kotekan 65 Figure 14 Lebur Saketi, Gegenderan 69 Figure 15 Lebur Saketi, penyacah with hypothetical sangsih 71 Figure 16 Sruti Laya outline 74 Figure 17 Sruti Laya ending 75 Figure 18 Sruti Laya pitch aggregates 79 Figure 19 Sruti Laya voice leading '. 79 Figure 20 Semayut intro 81 Figure 21 Semayut from 7:20 84 Figure 22 Cam Wara melody for elaboration 1 87 Figure 23 Cam Wara melody for elaboration 2 87 Figure 24 Cam Wara, reyongan 88 Figure 25 Cam Wara, reyongan with voice crossing 90 v A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T S I would like to take this opportunity to thank everyone that has supported and mentored me over the years. Without them this thesis would not have been possible. First and foremost I want to thank my parents whose patience and understanding gave me the freedom to stumble serendipitously into the gamelan world. Bill Alves, Julie Simon and Katherine Hagedorn are the people who first introduced me to gamelan and gave me my first ecstatic performance experiences. My first gamelan teacher, I Nyoman Wenten, gave me room to grow at my own pace, which in turn allowed me to develop secure and slow-cooked sort of love for Balinese music. The bonds I made that first fateful summer in Bali sealed the deal and set the course for these years and all years to come. Sabrina, Chandi, Paddy and Sanggar Cudamani made that possible. In Vancouver, Michael Tenzer and I Wayan Sudirana are both incredible mentors who further instilled in me the idea that Balinese gamelan is not a music. It's a lifestyle. You both possess an uncanny brilliance and I am humbly grateful for the time I've spent studying with you. The Bali lifestyle in Vancouver, CA would not have been possible without my colleagues and drinking partners, Paddy, Maisie, Leslie, and Deirdre. Lastly, I want to thank Shoko for trying (albeit unsuccessfully) to keep me sane during the writing process. Her efforts were valiant, however unsound her means. PS Tanah Goreng is not a food group. vi Chapter 1: Introduction, and Methodology Introduction The following thesis is a historical and analytical investigation of contemporary approaches to melodic elaboration in instrumental compositions for Balinese gamelan. Specifically, I will be dealing with a sub-genre of Balinese music commonly referred to as Tabuh Kreasi1. The analysis focuses contemporary pieces composed within the last fifteen years. Over the course of my analysis, I focus on compositional techniques that composers use to consciously develop and reinterpret normative approaches to elaboration. In order to do so, I will draw on a number of analytical models from both western music theory and ethnomusicology. This necessitates a brief overview of discourse surrounding the analysis of non-Western musics so that we may be aware of the advantages and dis-advantages of each type of approach. I will also deal at some length with the musicological terms polyphony and heterophony and discuss their varying degrees of applicability to these innovations. Some readers may find fault in my desire to engage such terminology at all. It's true that whispers of such comparisons have easily and understandably drawn criticism from cultural relativists and western music theorists alike. For cultural relativists, the imposition of these non-indigenous categories may stink of euro-centrism, while western music theorists may be quick to find inconsistencies regarding the finer aspects of such terminology when applied to non-western music. I have chosen to engage these terms for two reasons: Since my earliest encounters with Indonesian music (undergrad world music classes, introductory readings, lecture ' Tabuh is a general term referring to compositional form in lelambatan repetoire, while kreasi may be an adaptation of the Dutch term, creatie (McGraw 2005: 4). 1 demos, etc) I have been told that heterophony is "basic to the Indonesian gamelan." (Cooke 2007). As I wi l l argue later, the creation of this category implies a culturally biased assumption that Indonesian music is fundamentally less complex than western music in that Indonesian music is conceptually reducible to one melodic line while prevailing interpretations of western tonal music reduce it to at least two 2. Lately, a few scholars working on Javanese music have taken issue with the term heterophony3, but in Balinese music scholarship the concept of heterophony has not been so refined. Also, I have found in the course of my research, relationships between melodic instruments (particularly in contemporary Tabuh Kreasi) that are more aptly described as polyphonic or contrapuntal rather than heterophonic. I should clarify that I am N O T saying the composers themselves conceptualize these relationships polyphonically. During my interviews, not one composer expressed any overt interest in the western concepts polyphony or heterophony. In general, the composers are merely seeking new melodic and orchestrational possibilities that are rooted within traditional Balinese concepts of melody and composition. M y analysis is primarily inspired by the workTenzer and Agawu (both 2006), and incorporates some cognitive concepts laid out in Perlman (2004: 13-28). The analysis makes use of current models from Western music theory and ethnomusicology. In all cases, I have tried to base my analysis around indigenous concepts of melody as well as indigenous concepts of melodic quality in order to lend the analysis an appropriate degree of cultural currency. More specifically, I use Tenzer's method of contour analysis (2000: Even Schenker's Urlinie (foundamental line), refers to the upper voice of a composition and is always accompanied by the bass progression I-V-I. Thus, western tonal music is minimally reducible to two distinct melodic lines (scale degrees 3-2-1 in the upper voice paired with scale degrees 1-5-1 in the lower) (Forte 1959: 8). 3 see Brinner 2001 and Perlman 1993 and 2004. 2 184-189), as w e l l as methods o f grouping and theories o f generative rhythm f rom Lerdahl and Jackendoff (1983: 13-17, 30-37, 43-55). Increases in melod ic independence and increased frequency o f s imultaneously sounding intervals between parts that are internally (horizontal ly) cohesive (other than the standard ngempat or "Bal inese fourth") w i l l be discussed in terms o f po lyphony and counterpoint. Awareness o f Tabuh Kreasi's musical peers and cultural antecedents are cr i t ical to understanding its stylist ic conventions. First I must locate Tabuh Kreasi as precisely as possible w i th in the densely inhabited matrix o f new music i n B a l i and discuss its often incestuous relationship wi th other contemporary genres such as Kreasi Baru, Tari Kreasi, and Musik Kontemporer, I w i l l also discuss its roots in early twentieth century instrumental composi t ions as we l l as its development and last ing aff i l iat ion wi th structures of power in B a l i and abroad. T h i s provides context for the diverse set o f stylistic, topical , and historical referents that are drawn upon in contemporary kreasi composi t ion. In the next chapter I w i l l discuss styles of elaboration by compar ing the theoretical wri t ings of Tenzer , R a i , and Bandem. I focus p r imar i ly on pre-composed styles of elaboration, the most prevalent o f wh ich is ubit-ubitan. I then discuss some examples of "me lod ic divergence" (Perlman 2004: 63-74) that arise dur ing the composi t ional process i n non-kreasi genres. T h e point here is to characterize melodic elaborations in Bal inese music as a "non-classical category" ( ib id : 18-21). Thus , I present melodic elaboration in Bal inese music as a diverse and internally inconsistent theoretical system wi th f lex ib le norms that possess tremendous potential for distortion and expansion. 3 In the last chapter, I analyze various approaches to melod ic elaboration in works by I W a y a n Yudane , I D e w a Ketut A l i t , I D e w a Putu Berata, and I W a y a n Sudirana. The analysis is organized into various categories of melodic elaboration that are defined by the nature o f the elaboration's relationship to the core melody or pokok. A t least two of these categories w i l l be described as polyphonic . I also w i l l look at how these composers ' approaches to elaboration expand exist ing concepts o f elaboration by adhering to some traditional models whi le simultaneously distort ing others. Analysis: some recent thoughts Cl ima te changes in e thnomusicological theory are enabl ing the use o f hybr id analytical methodologies. In anthropology, the binary dist inctions between " ins ider" and "outsider" and as we l l as " e m i c " verus "e t ic" perspectives have broken d o w n into an infinite spectrum of inter-related subjectivities. Th i s ideology has led to the appearance of "ref lexive ethnographies" that self-consciously acknowledge the ideologica l and cultural contexts of the ethnographer. Consequently the ethnographic document itself has been recast as a subjective representation fil tered and arranged by those contextual biases (Tyler 1988: 123). In e thnomusicology this perspective has been influential in a large number o f works over the last two decades. 4 F o r some authors it brings a sense o f rel ief because we are liberated f rom representing our subjects as "discrete objects or texts" (Cl i f fo rd 1988: 25). C l i f f o r d also mentions that our increasing sensit ivity to subjectivity a l lows for a new v i s ion of culture as something both "his tor ical and interactive" ( ib id: 25). 4 Kisliuk 1998, Hagedorn 2001, and Rice 1994 are just a few examples. 4 T h e question now is, "what is the place of (ethnographic) musica l analysis under these new condi t ions?" If we f o l l o w C l i f f o r d ' s log ic , musica l analysis ( l ike ethnography) is s imi la r ly liberated f rom the responsibi l i ty o f revealing hidden truths and perceptual absolutes. N o w it assumes a new role as one o f many voices in dialogue that l ike a l l modes o f ethnographic representation are ideology-based and "essentially creative" (Tenzer 2006: 6). Scholars are attracted to analysis because they bel ieve that it has the abi l i ty to elucidate "deep" or "h idden" structures felt somewhere beneath the musica l surface 5 (Stock 1993: 220-221). Types of categorization are important to bear m i n d when . attempting to reveal these sub-surface structures through imported analyt ical means. Per lman (2004: 18-21) deals wi th the issue through cogni t ive psychology by discussing aspects o f Javanese music in terms o f "c lass ica l" and "non-c lass ica l " categories. In a broad sense, classical categories are groupings that are internally consistent on the basis o f pre-determined criteria. A n example in l inguist ics w o u l d be regular verbs because they behave consistently on the basis o f pre-determined grammatical rules. Non-c lass ica l categories or " f ami ly resemblence" categories (Per lman 2004: 19 after Wittgenstein) are groupings based on s imilar i t ies that are not internally consistent on the whole . A table, is one famous example o f a non-classical category. It may or may not have four legs. It may or may not be made o f wood . It may or may not even be used to put things on. S t i l l , these items o f disparate usage, make-up, and appearance may st i l l be ca l led , "tables". Creat ing these categorical dist inctions is important when deal ing wi th diverse and inconsistent systems l ike Bal inese music . M a n y aspects o f Bal inese mus ic resist 5 See also Tenzer 2006 and Perlman 2004. 5 standardization. T h i s heterogeneity is even a source o f pride among Bal inese . Creat ing this dist inction between category types is important in order to avo id what Per lman refers to as, "everyday s t ructural ism" (Per lman 2004: 20-21). M e a n i n g , this dist inction helps us to avoid creating r ig id categories that belie the heterogeneous nature o f the material being analyzed. T h i s dist inct ion helps us to avoid creating r ig id categories that belie the heterogeneous nature of the material being analyzed. W h i l e Per lman uses the term to describe garap in Javanese music , I w i l l be referring to various styles 6 o f melod ic elaboration in Bal inese music in this manner. I w i l l also borrow Per lman ' s terms melodic "convergence" and "divergence" when i l lustrating how these elaborations may be appropriately labeled non-classical categories. Another important issue in analysis is representation and accountabil i ty. A r e we to assume in this "po lyphony of vo i ce s 7 " al l parts are g iven equal say at equal vo lume? O r do structures o f power continue to favor certain parts on the basis o f racial and economic dist inctions, thereby inhib i t ing the expansion o f knowledge o f musical systems beyond euro-centric paradigms? Different writers have emphasized different priorit ies and ideological agendas when theoriz ing on this issue. Some opt imis t ica l ly predict that technology (such as T V , internet, itunes, etc) is increasing the frequency and efficiency of cross-cultural interactions, w h i c h may lead to the advent o f a "universal mus ic theory" (Tenzer 2006: 32-33). Howeve r , other proponents o f cross-cultural analysis remain skeptical o f academic epistemologies and their relationships to power. In short, "what about those who can' t afford T V , internet, or itunes. Wha t responsibil i t ies do we have in 6 namely ubit-ubitan, reyong norot improvisation, and reyong kilitan. 7 McGravv 2005: 83 borrows the concept from Foucault after Baktin. 6 making ethnographic representations of their mus ic?" A n interesting example o f this polemic was played out in front of me at a recent U B C c o l l o q u i u m : In 2006, M i c h a e l Tenzer and K o f i A g a w u both published texts theor iz ing on the prizes and pitfalls o f analysis and w o r l d music . A g a w u was asked to give a presentation based on a for thcoming article for The Journal of the American Musicological Society. The talk cri t iqued methods of analysis applied to A f r i c a n music , wi th a particular focus on various representations o f the "so-cal led standard pattern" ( A g a w u 2006: 1). Towards the end of his talk A g a w u read the f o l l o w i n g two sentences f rom his paper: M y particular burden in this article has been to deny that any structural feature of A f r i c a n rhythm has an a priori va l id i ty that excuses it f rom a cultural test, whi le also denying that essential aspects of a cultural v iew resist structural translation. Questions o f pr ior i ty in research cannot be answered outside the purv iew of ideology, however-what we believe the enterprise to be about, what we get out of it as pract ic ing analysts or theorists, and how we do facilitates or impedes intellectual (or other forms of) dominat ion ." ( ib id: 42) F o l l o w i n g that, Tenzer asked that A g a w u re-read the first sentence. Af te r hearing it a second time he thought for a moment and asked, "okay, but i sn ' t there a more positive way to say i t ?" A g a w u response was, "that's a cultural perspective now isn ' t i t ?" The room fel l silent for a few awkward moments. A g a w u seemed to say that the differences in their racial and cultural backgrounds were responsible for their contrasting outlooks on musical analysis, and that those cultural differences are the reason Tenzer does not identify wi th A g a w u ' s "negat ivi ty" . W h i l e both are proponents o f cross-cultural analysis, their differences became stark during those few silent moments. Tenzer sees universals and inclusiveness, whi le A g a w u reminds us o f our "burdens" and the potential for "intel lectual dominat ion" H o w might their differences be the result, as A g a w u said, of their "cultural perspectives"? A g a w u , a native Ghanaian, 7 deals p r imar i ly wi th A f r i c a n music . In the context o f Nor th A m e r i c a , issues o f representation concerning A f r i c a n and A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n culture are o f much greater and more immediate pol i t ica l gravity than that of Bal inese culture. There is no "Bal inese-A m e r i c a n " populat ion that exists as the result o f a massive slave t rad ing 8 operation; consequently there were no wars fought over their freedom, no pub l i c i zed history of prejudice towards them, no c i v i l rights movement concerning their rights as Amer icans , no Balinese James B r o w n s , M a r t i n Luther K i n g s , or Fe l a K u t i s . In short, there is no Balinese cultural movement in Nor th A m e r i c a wi th a history o f resistance to pol i t ica l and cultural oppression to challenge the Ba l i -o log i s t ' s means and methods o f representation. O n l y recently have some ethnomusicologists begun to cr i t ic ize racial biases in e thnomusicological theory wi th regards to A s i a n (specif ical ly Chinese) mus ic , 9 but these critiques deal more wi th ideologica l generalities than analyt ical specifics. T h i s relative ignorance o f Bal inese culture amongst the Nor th A m e r i c a n populace is both a curse and a blessing. O n the one hand, as ethnographers we are free to interpret culture wi th comparat ively few pol i t ica l repercussions yet on the other, we are robbed o f accountabil i ty to anybody other than our own conscience. Hopefu l ly , intercultural dialogues w i l l continue to f l ow wi th increased ease and f luency until a day comes when Bal inese and Nor th A m e r i c a n scholars can exchange ideas wi th comparable bargaining power. Steps are already being taken to level the scholastic p lay ing f ie ld . Tenze r ' s book on Gamelan G o n g K e b y a r (2000) is currently being translated into Indonesian, mak ing his theories and methods more wide ly known to Although, an estimated 150,000 Balinese were sold and/or traded as slaves throughout the Indonesian archipelago between 1650-1830 (Shulte-Nordholt 1996: 41). 9 see Witzleben 1997. 8 native Indonesian scholars. As well, there are some scholars that are bringing Indonesian scholarship into North American discourse. A n interesting example is Perlman's (2004) book, which compares three Javanese scholars' concept of "hidden melody" in Javanese Gamelan. Perlman's approach is also interesting in that it circumvents (to a degree) some issues of power and representation. Perlman's work comments on and synthesizes threads of indigenous discourse rather than running the riskier proposition of positing his own perceptual opinions on Javanese melody 1 0. Despite discrepancies on the surface, the differences between Tenzer and Agawu amount more to differences in personality and style rather than approach; a proverbial "good cop, bad cop" for the occasionally stand-offish encounter with a musical text. Both theorists stress the importance of culturally informed analytical techniques or "ethnotheories" (Agawu 2006 and Tenzer 2006), and share the basic assumption that analysis of world music has the potential to empower non-western music and musicians by bringing them into "international discourse 1 1" (Tenzer 2006: 10). A s we saw above, Agawu is not opposed to using non-indigenous analytical models with regards to African music (in his talk, after critiquing several theories he settles on what he calls a "generative approach," based on Lerdahl and Jackendoff) as long as the technique employed is cross-checked by a "cultural test." Similarly, Tenzer adapted the concept of contour-class using terminology developed in Michael Friedmann's analysis of Schoenberg (Friedmann 1985). In both cases however, the theories were employed with cultural concepts in mind. For Agawu the generative approach makes more sense than 1 0 Although he does run a risky proposition in comparing the evolution of the hidden melody theory to the evolution of the "chord-roofin Western Music (Perlman 2004). Tenzer was referring to statements from Agawu 2003, and Scherzinger 2001 that were referring to African music specifically. 9 others because o f the standard-pattern's relationship to basic dance movements. Fo r Tenzer the analysis o f contour seems appropriate in l ight of indigenous vocabulary for describing the kinet ic quali ty o f melodic patterns (Tenzer 2000: 178-80). In conc lus ion , recent ideological shifts are enabling the use o f hybr id methodologies. A n a l y s i s is now free o f its responsibil i ty to absolute truth, but remains a valuable tool to deepen ind iv idua l s ' relationships to music . A n important issue in analysis is the development o f categories and it should be done in such a way to a l low for exceptions to avo id over s imp l i fy ing a much richer musical reality. W h i l e some theorists emphasize issues of misrepresentation to vary ing degrees, most seem to agree that western theoretical models can be useful i f applied wi th cultural sensit ivi ty. 10 Chapter II Many or just Different? A Lesson in Categorical Cacophony M y primary impetus for engaging the set of terms polyphony, and heterophony has to do wi th inconsistencies and confusion regarding their use in discussions o f Bal inese music and Indonesian music in general. T h e f o l l o w i n g chapter is an e tymology of both terms in Western music as we l l as in e thnomusicology. I w i l l argue that wi th respect to how each idea has evolved , it is problematic to create defini t ive boundaries between the two concepts. In some cases, the dist inction between heterophony and polyphony is obvious . Howeve r , my focus is the music that exists in the gray areas between. Th rough an analysis o f the terms and their usage, we get an understanding of how this is possible. T h i s historiography illustrates how heterophony and polyphony function as concepts in practice. I therefore stress that the s imilar i t ies are not necessarily evident through a compar ison of the musical systems and their rules of syntax. Moreover , they lie in the cogni t ive processes of manipulat ing pitches, rhythms, and intervals. There are three such process domains where these s imilar i t ies are most evident. T h e y are the compos i t iona l , the analytical , and the pedagogical process domains. In these three domains , polyphony and heterophony become less distinct. T h e goal is to establish a suitable environment to discuss the nuances o f melodic abstraction and elaboration in various kinds of Bal inese music . I propose that, in terms of process, both musics avo id (or resolve) dissonance at metr ical ly and structurally important places. T h i s is evident in Bal inese examples where simultaneous adjacent scale tones occur more frequently at metr ical ly weak points and are less c o m m o n at 11 metrical ly strong points. T h e absence o f these dissonant 1 2 s imultaneit ies at points o f metric stress creates a structurally meaningful accent that is perceivable to listeners famil iar wi th Bal inese mus ic and Bal inese musical norms. O n a conceptual leve l , this resembles basic processes o f harmonic practice in tonal music . I present this a stepping-stone to the uniquely po lyphonic examples in contemporary Tabuh Kreasi. Polyphony now and then It w o u l d be informational ove rk i l l to give a complete history o f po lyphony ' s usages and contexts in western music . However , a brief retracing of its roots is appropriate in order to get a sense o f how concepts of polyphony have evo lved to their present status. Pr io r to 1538, the term "po lyphon ia" was used to as a blanket term for various types o f part wr i t ing , and later evolved as an alternative to "dyaphonia ,"(s imi lar to homophony, but i n v o l v i n g on ly two parts) " P o l y p h o n i a " in this sense is characterized largely by " rhythmic divers i ty in its parts" (Frobenius 2001). Essent ia l ly , the concept evolved to describe multi-part music that was not homorhythmic . It was not until 1538 that an ideologica l thread was born characterizing po lyphony as, "compos i t ion i n v o l v i n g several parts o f equal importance" (ibid.) T h i s idea of "equal i ty" between voices needs to be contextualized and w i l l be discussed in greater depth later on. A t this point theorists focus on po lyphony as a melod ica l ly driven process, wherein other processes (particularly the progression o f vertical harmony) are "subordinate" ( ibid) . T h i s concept was wide ly accepted and developed by K o c h , who in 1802 wrote o f polyphony as music 12 I use this term cautiously since there is no explicit discourse concerning dissonance in Balinese music. However, the fact that seconds, and thirds occur more frequently in metrically weak points indicates that there may exist an implicit understanding that those intervals are somehow more unstable. 12 wherein each voice has "the character o f a main vo ice" ( ibid) . K o c h also wrote that in polyphony, "the feelings o f several people are expressed" ( K o c h in Frobenius 2001). However , in 1862, Be l l e rman contested that the defining feature o f po lyphony was not melodica l ly based but moreover the result o f "the rhythmic relationship between voices" (ibid). T h i s idea is more ak in to early descriptions of "po lyphon ia . " F r o m these theories we may conclude that prior to the twentieth century, po lyphony consisted o f "equal" parts that were affectively distinct yet somehow fused into a composi t ional unity. W e must also keep in mind that i m p l i c i t in these descriptions are aesthetic assumptions about the rhythm and tonali ty that are specific to pre-twentieth century European art music . Po lyphony takes a different shape in the twentieth century wi th the dissolut ion (or expansion) o f tonal harmony. W i t h the advent o f serial ism, indeterminacy, col lage, b i -and polytonal i ty , etc., the idea of expressing, "the feelings o f several people at once" takes on an entirely new meaning. In wr i t ing , the shift in emphasis is obvious . B o u l e z (1964: 153) for example classifies polyphony as "constellations that are mutual ly dependent in a special way as far as pitches and durations are concerned." H e also describes po lyphony as music whose parts are "responsible" for one another. (Bou lez 1964: 136) Whereas early theorists are able to take for granted notions o f meter and tonality B o u l e z must use broader terminology to incorporate contemporary aesthetics. In defining polyphony, it is clear that his emphasis is on the interdependence rather than the independence o f parts. Webern ' s emphasis is s imilar . H e stresses the c o m b i n i n g o f polyphonic materials to f o r m a "mus ica l synthesis" (Frobenius 2001). In a composi t ional cl imate where almost anything goes, these composers choose to emphasize that polyphonic music must s t i l l , despite its differing elements, constitute a greater musical 13 whole. This is in direct contrast with earlier theorists who emphasize the individual character of the various voices. Theorists have long debated what music best exemplifies these characteristics. In these debates, polyphony is often framed in contrast to homophony (parts that are melodically but not rhythmically distinct). Theorists stress that in homophonic writing, the primary musical emphasis is the progression of vertical sonorities, while good polyphonic writing favors the melodic cohesion of individual parts (having "the character of a main voice"). There is something tacit in these discussions of homophony and polyphony. The debate assumes that polyphony is more complex and by virtue of our own cultural associations 1 3, of greater artistic value than monophonic or homophonic musics. Even the words' own morphology suggests a basic distinction. Although Bach and Beethoven are pillars of western music, Bach's contrapuntally oriented music beats Beethoven's harmonically driven works, if only by a nose. Nineteenth Century scholars who endow polyphony (particularly that of Bach) with a uniquely "objective" and "universal" appeal reinforce this (ibid). The differing emphases of theorists discussing tonal music versus those discussing non or post-tonal music encapsulate the conceptual bounds of "polyphony" in Western musical thought. During the evolution of tonal and functional harmony, (the period during which a hierarchy of dissonance was formed and relied upon) independence and distinctiveness between parts is emphasized. Such polyphony is understood in light of historical context to conform within certain parameters of register, 1 3 Nettl 1995 discusses how Western culture's propensity to valorize size as well as rigor in terms of empiricsm and technological advancement is evident in musical historiography. One can argue that in terms of music and musical language the controlled polyphony of the late-Baroque readily embodies such principles more than music of other periods. 14 tonality, and rhythm. W h i l e the basic pr inciple is the same in the twentieth century, the parameters are much broader. T h e basic features of po lyphony are left intact, however the word ing is adjusted to accommodate the broadening o f the parameters just described. In l ight of this broadening, the emphasis shifts to cover the gap. P o l y p h o n y as independent parts becomes po lyphony as interdependent structures. A n d paradoxical ly enough, authors who choose to focus on the interdependent nature o f polyphony in twentieth century are referring to music that is tonally and rhy thmica l ly independent beyond the wildest imaginat ions of the theorists l i v i n g in 1538. Before m o v i n g onto po lyphony as it relates to e thnomusicology, I should br ing up some potential problems wi th the idea of polyphonic parts as be ing "equa l" - ly valuable. T h i s idea was introduced as early as 1538 by Ki r schner and further canonized by writers l ike A l s t ed and M a r p u r g . (Frobenius 2001) A l t h o u g h functional harmony and tonality as we know it d id not o f f i c ia l ly coalesce until the 18* century, Renaissance and Baroque musics were st i l l guided by melodic and harmonic principles that place dissonances wi th in a hierarchy. T h i s vertical phenomenon combined wi th horizontal means o f approaching and departing those dissonances, means that certain voices are controlled or are at least composed in reference to other, more primary voices. T h i s interdependence is what is imp l i c i t in discussions o f tonal music and expl ic i t in discussions o f post-tonal music. T h i s is obvious in the case o f the cantus firmus. In terms o f the composi t ional process, the cantus f i rmus is a pr imary voice f rom wh ich a l l me lod ic material is derived. O n that conceptual l eve l , the voice wi th the cantus f i rmus possesses a greater importance than the surrounding parts. If we take the idea of "equal parts" l i tera l ly , a l l music based 15 on a cantus firmus must not be polyphonic. In terms of the analytical process domain, Schenkerian analysis also works against this idea of equal voices. From a Schenkerian perspective, the bass and soprano are of greater structural importance than the inner voices. It can also be argued that at any given moment in time the voices of a fugue may also exist within a hierarchy. The voice that carries the subject exhibits greater primacy over the counter-subject, which exhibits greater primacy over the "free" voice(s). Such conceptual hierarchies are even clearer in the compositional exercises within pedagogical texts14 that direct the student to compose fugues and another types of imitative counterpoint in a certain order thereby instilling a hierarchy of voices from the outset. While frequently applied and debated in western music, the term polyphony has been somewhat taboo in ethnomusicology. As Peter Cooke writes, we are, "uneasy about using the term" (Cooke 2001). He traces our discomfort to early scholars who looked at Non-Western music "within an evolutionary framework (in which European contrapuntal and harmonic traditions stood at the apex and 'polyphonic' had acquired a rather specialized meaning" (ibid). Cooke is reminding us that our cultural biases are no longer as apparent or as glaringly racist as they once were, but that they still operate on deeper levels, effecting our willingness to draw conceptual analogies between certain western musical phenomena and similar phenomena in different cultures. The term polyphony is (understandably) particularly intimidating, given the amount of cultural weight the term has acquired over the past millennium. Perhaps even more intimidating; it is the hallmark of western music. Our unwillingness to apply it to music of different cultures in many see Practical Approach to Eighteenth Century Counterpoint Robert Gauldin , 1995. 16 ways reinforces the status of po lyphony as our mus ic ' s def in ing feature. It is what exemplif ies the complex and r igorously developed state of our musica l syntax. Perhaps one of the most rigorous definitions o f polyphony in e thnomusicology is that offered by S i m h a A r o m in his structuralist analysis o f instrumental music of B a A k a pygmies in the Centra l A f r i c a n Republ ic . After offering a history and analysis o f the word (drawn most ly f rom Riemann) , A r o m derives the f o l l o w i n g traits o f polyphony "non-paral le l , heterorhythmic, multi-part and simultaneous" ( A r o m 1991:34, 38). H e goes onto corroborate the qualif ications la id out by earlier theorists by saying that polyphonic parts must be internally cohesive, harmonical ly compat ib le and rhythmical ly dissimilar . These parts must also thought o f as, "constituent elements o f a single musical entity" by the performers themselves, ( ib id: 34) A r o m also makes note o f the fact that in Western music parts or voices occupy distinct pitch registers and that this is yet another factor when t ry ing to locate po lyphony in non-Western music . In the second part o f this paper, I w i l l show that on the basis o f these traits, contemporary forms o f melod ic elaboration in Balinese music are po lyphonic . Heterophony.. .what is it exactly? O u r choice o f te rminology reflects basic conceptual dist inctions. Such cogni t ive processes are defined as "cross-domain mapp ing" ( Z b i k o w s k i 2001: 13-17). In this process we map interactions o f perceived sonic phenomena f rom an abstract and intangible domain to a more concrete domain wherein we endow the sonic phenomena wi th concrete physical properties as i f they were objects, ( ibid) T h e terms heterophony and polyphony are an example o f such a process. B y label ing a piece " p o l y p h o n i c " 17 (l i terally "many sounds") we are taking an intangible sonic mass, for example a B a c h fugue, and endowing what we perceive to be a col lec t ion of ind iv idua l melod ic strands wi th a metaphorical object-hood. O n this basis the term heterophony ( l i teral ly, "different sounds") impl ies that there is on ly one melodic strand that is real ized by ind iv idua l parts, differently. Consequent ly music that is rooted in the realm of heterophony is by default less complex on a conceptual level , than music rooted in po lyphony. A c c o r d i n g to The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, heterophony is "fundamental to the music o f the Indonesian gamelan." T h i s statement and statements s imi lar have been reiterated ad inf in i tum in discussions o f both Javanese and Bal inese gamelan music . Recent ly a few scholars w o r k i n g p r imar i ly in the f i e ld o f Javanese music have taken issue wi th the term. W i t h reference to Central Javanese gamelan Benjamin Br inner writes, "both heterophony and polyphony are equally unsatisfactory descriptions of gamelan texture, w h i c h is characterized both by considerable independence and by extensive me lod ic der ivat ion o f one part f rom another" (Br inner 2001) . M a r c Pe r lman (2004), another Java specialist, finds fault w i t h heterophony for s imi la r reasons. One particular p rob lem w i t h the concept o f heterophony, is that it is s imply too vague, yet for some reason it has become our w o r d to describe the "fundamentals" o f Indonesian mus ic . It is also employed m u c h more frequently than the term po lyphony by ethnomusicologists i n countless other areas as w e l l . It is problemat ic because it has been used to describe everything f rom minute variations among vocal is ts or predominantly unison parts to "the most complex contrapuntal w r i t i n g " ( C o o k e 2001). I f this is the case then why is mus ic composed f rom a "cantus f i rmus" po lyphon ic rather than heterophonic? 18 In practice, perhaps the defining feature o f heterophony is the arr ival o f unisons and octaves at structurally significant points. Howeve r i f this is case, the dis t inct ion between it and po lyphony is problemat ic because it is rooted entirely i n the rea lm o f musica l materials. A n d I do not want to confuse differences i n mus ica l materials w i th differences i n mus ica l processes and conceptualizations. In terms o f process, mus ica l materials, w h i l e not necessarily irrelevant, are relative i n h o w they are combined i n various process domains. Howeve r , as illustrated above, the terms heterophony and po lyphony i m p l y very different ways o f conceptual iz ing mus ic . Y e t , it appears that those differences l ie more i n material terms rather than conceptual ones. T h i s w i l l become clearer i n the next chapter as we examine Bal inese mus ica l materials i n the composi t ional and abstractional process domains. These domains indicate that there are hierarchies among voices i n po lyphon ic music . T h i s also indicates that processes o f derivat ion normal ly associated w i t h heterophony are also regular ly appl ied to po lyphonic mus ica l styles. In this sense we are presented wi th , " a heterophony o f po lyphonies" (Bou lez 1964: 133). In the next section we w i l l see h o w Bal inese mus ica l materials i n k i n d exhibi t a "po lyphony o f heterophonies." T h i s is enabled through the use o f dissonance between rhy thmica l ly and registrally distinct voices . I focus on the similari t ies to po lyphony i n the composi t ional and abstractional process domains. W e w i l l see first that Bal inese mus ica l materials are rooted i n the heterophonic arts o f melod ic elaboration and abstraction. H o w e v e r i n the composi t ional and abstractional process domains, Bal inese mus ic makes frequent use o f seconds and thirds both to 1) enhance the horizontal cohesiveness o f and ind iv idua l part 2) emphasize metr ica l ly and structurally important moments i n a compos i t ion . 19 Chapter III Historical and Theoretical Contexts Introduction Music concept Stratum type Balinese terms Instruments Elaborat ion Pokok elab. (up to 8 strata) Kotekan, payasan, Ubit-ubitan, bunga Ugal, pemade, kantilan, reyong, rebab, suling, trompong Abstract ion Pokok tones pokok penyacah, calung Media t ion Pokok rein. jegogan jegogan Met r i c Structure co lo tomic pattern gongan gong, kempli Table 1-Stratum Types in Balinese Gamelan The f o l l o w i n g section is a historical and theoretical overv iew of the melodic elaborations in the contemporary genre Tabuh Kreasi. T h e analysis explores composi t ional innovations in terms of their increasing degrees o f dissociat ion f rom the core melody or pokok. I begin wi th some examples that are basical ly heterophonic that incorporate innovations in terms o f rhythm and contour and move gradually to discuss examples that reinterpret the function and meaning of pokok i n general. T h e analysis breaks down the orchestral forces in to" stratum types" (Tenzer 2000: 53) in order to aptly articulate the degree to w h i c h melod ic parts are abstracted or dissociated. Needless to say the higher the degree o f melod ic dissociat ion between parts, the more po lyphonic the music is. The above table outlines the basic melodic relationship between parts in Gamelan G o n g Kebyar . T h e "concepts" c o l u m n refers to the processes appl ied to melody in relationship to the metric structure. The chart serves as a good basis for understanding 20 these relationships. T a k e care to notice that no musical concept, stratum type, instrument or term exp l ic i t ly plays or illustrates the " m e l o d y " of a compos i t ion . T h i s is s imi lar to the notion o f "unplayed melodies" in Javanese music , wherein the "true" or " i d e a l " melody exists somewhere in the mind , between the melodic abstraction played by the sawn and its various elaborat ion 1 5 . I modify this basic schematic to show how complex the relationship between elaboration and abstraction is in newer music . Such a breakdown could easily apply to other genres o f Bal inese music as we l l . Howeve r a key feature to Tabuh Kreasi today is the expansion o f this basic model , wh ich (to vary ing degrees) a l lows for a more complex interaction between the concepts o f elaboration, abstraction and mediat ion. In many of the examples there is more than one pokok (which , in a sense, negates its pokok-ness), w h i c h is not reinforced by the jegogan, and is not elaborated by traditional means. Essent ial ly , these examples break down the heterophonic hierarchy completely . Part o f what makes kreasi so fascinating is the inconsistency wi th w h i c h composers do this. However , despite this inconsistency, their musical innovations remain internally cohesive in terms o f traditional Bal inese syntax. Fo r example, many innovat ive elaborations rely on what cou ld be an indigenous tonal hierarchy. In the most po lyphonic examples there is a general tendency for melodic parts to coincide on larger intervals (most c o m m o n l y octaves, unisons or fourths), and avoid co inc id ing on adjacent scale tones. A l s o , almost a l l elaborations undergo melodic transformations as they approach metr ical ly significant points ( l ike the end o f a cycle) . First , we w i l l cover some cogni t ive and theoretical prel iminaries w i th w h i c h I frame my analysis. 1 5 A term first coined by Marc Perlman 1993. 2 1 Melodic Elaboration in History, Theory, and Process In order to understand how contemporary music is stretching and reinterpreting the syntactical norms o f Bal inese music , we must understand it f rom three basic perspectives. First we w i l l briefly trace the development o f Tabuh Kreasi in order to get a basic understanding o f how cultural and pol i t ical factors have shaped and continue to shape the stylist ic features o f the genre. Secondly, we w i l l explore modern theories of melody and elaboration in Bal inese music , in order to get a handle on how people talk about the general characteristics of melodic elaboration and its inverse process (melodic abstraction), as we l l as to get a sense of the "well-formedness rules" (Lerdahl and Jackendoff 1983: 37) for the modern Gamelan Gong Kebyar. T h i s is framed pr imar i ly through the work of Tenzer , Bandem, and R a i , and incorporat ing analyt ical perspectives f rom Lerdahl and Jackendoff. Las t ly , we w i l l look at some musica l examples in order to see how the basic materials identified in theory are put together in the composi t ional process. L o o k i n g at these examples we w i l l see how materials based in the realm of elaboration and abstraction routinely employ dissonance to favor horizontal cohesion wi th in ind iv idua l parts as w e l l as for composi t ional balance. L i k e po lyphony and heterophony, I propose we characterize elaborations and abstractions as non-classical categories. That is, due to the extreme heterogeneity of Bal inese music it is nearly impossible to accept or reject a g iven elaboration on the basis of f ixed criteria. Eva lua t ion o f a given elaboration must be nuanced enough to account for a variety of factors that are mus ica l , extra-musical , abstract and context dependent. U s i n g both western and indigenous analytical models, I w i l l be e lucidat ing some of these 22 relevant factors, whi le paying particular attention to melodic divergence as it results f rom these processes. T h e contemporary examples we w i l l look at often break d o w n the concepts of elaboration and abstraction entirely. Instead they consist o f many different melodies, none o f w h i c h exert clear guidance over the other parts. W e w i l l also see how the indigenous composi t ional factors mentioned are gu id ing this increased independence. History Tabuh Kreasi Baru (instrumental works) and Kreasi Baru (a more general term referring to both music and dance pieces) are Indonesian terms that emerged in the years f o l l o w i n g Indonesian independence. A t the t ime, Indonesia was searching for a national music to unite its 17,000 islands and over 300 ethnicities. Some music crit ics in Java favored the adoption o f music based on western tonality and instrumentation (musik Indonesia baru). In both B a l i and Java the term Kreasi Baru has appealed more readily to the populace (Raden 1995: 237, see also M c G r a w 2005: 3). In Java, Kreasi Baru gained populari ty through the w o r k of Javanese gamelan composer K i Wasi todipuro . A c c o r d i n g to Raden, in an attempt to incorporate the regional tradit ion o f Javanese gamelan into the new Indonesian state, Wasi todipuro was asked to create music that made use o f complete ly new formal structures and musica l id ioms . B y d ivo rc ing the music f rom its tradit ional roots, the idea was to create a new tradit ion that cou ld appeal to all Indonesian people. Composers of Kreasi Baru f rom this period were also encouraged to incorporate songs and styles f rom other Indonesian musical traditions in order to broaden its appeal. T h i s culminated in the creation o f Jaya Manggala Gita, commiss ioned for Indonesian Independence Day in 1952. T h e piece self-consciously 23 employs several non-traditional musical features including, "bi-tonality, linearity, and polyphonic voice writing". (Raden 2001: 241) A l l of which, at least according to Raden, were inspired solely by western music. In Bal i , Gamelan Gong Kebyar had already been experiencing widespread popularity since the 1920s. The genre itself purportedly evolved at some point in the 1910s in North Bal i . According to some accounts, the earliest kebyar-isms may have originated in the villages of Bungkulan and Jagaraga, which began incorporating sharp, "thrusts and syncopations" into music for Gamelan Sekati16 (Bandem 2006: 2). In the 1920s kebyar spread beyond north Bal i , particularly due to the influence and fame of dancer I Ketut Maria. (Ibid: 5). After moving to South Bal i , tourists and scholars became particularly familiar with groups from south Bali namely, Belaluan and Peliatan. One of the few surviving examples of instrumental kebyar from this period is Kebyar Ding, by I Made Regog'7, which was recorded in 1928 by Odeon. Unlike the music of the pre-colonial court system, Gong Kebyar was a democratic music because it evolved only after the Dutch dissolved the court system (Ramstedt 1992: 68). After Indonesia gained independence, President Sukarno actively supported the promotion of Gong Kebyar as Indonesian Kreasi Baru for this reason. Sukarno, whose mother was Balinese, frequently invited Balinese musicians and dancers to perform in Jakarta or at his palace in Bal i . Two famous Balinese musicians that were often asked to perform were I Wayan Beratha, the son of Gong Belaluan's leader, I Made Regog, and I Gde Manik, the master drummer and dancer credited with 1 6 An ancient gamelan similar to gong Luang. 17 This was recorded in 1928 by Odeon, and is now available commercially through World Arbiter/Qualiton. 24 creating the contemporary version o f now canonic dance piece, Teruna Jaya. (Tenzer 2000: 95). Kreasi Baru f rom the Sukarno era favored secular themes that focused on social real ism rather than H i n d u mythology. Th i s is quite different than the majority of dance and theatre pieces being created today. Some famous examples f rom this period include, Tari Tani (farmer dance), and Tari Nelayan (fisherman dance), and Tari Gotong Royong (mutual he lp ing dance) (Ramstedt 1992: 68, see also M c G r a w 2005: 29 and Tenzer 2000: 95). In 1959, K O K A R (music conservatory) was founded, and eight years later the Akademi Seni Tinggi Indonesia (Indonesian A c a d e m y of H i g h Ar t s ) was established. These institutions were instrumental in the development of Kreasi Baru in the sixties and seventies. Beratha became part icularly famous after the 1968-69 G o n g K e b y a r festivals and almost s ingle-handedly forged the terra for contemporary instrumental music in B a l i . Af ter the festivals, I W a y a n Beratha 's works were disseminated throughout the island wi th the help o f R R I (Rad io Repub l ik Indonesia) as we l l as through K K N (Kuliah Kerja Nyata) init iatives. Th rough K K N , students f rom K O K A R and A S T I furthered his celebrity by performing outreach services in local vi l lages and teaching his music to their vi l lage ensembles ( M c G r a w 2005: 127). In this way, Beratha 's music almost instantly established the Kreasi Baru canon. The traditional concept o f Tri Angga connotes the trisection o f a body or form. A r o u n d this t ime it was developed, in music , to describe a tripartite formal structure that is purportedly found in most works of the Gong Gde and Semar Pegulingan repertoires. The ind iv idua l parts are often characterized symbol ica l ly as the kawitan (head), pengawak (body) and pengecet (legs). The musico-re l ig ious s y m b o l i s m is one 25 ideological thread that binds contemporary kreasi to tradition in the minds o f composers. However locat ing this fo rm in pre-independence kebyar is often a dubious task. In the general musical terms, the kawitan is an introduction of sorts, and i f composed during this t ime w i l l l i k e ly include a series o f unmetered unison phrases referred as kebyar. These are best performed wi th laser sharp t iming and near supernatural synchronici ty. The pengawak is typ ica l ly at a s lower tempo than other sections o f the piece and usually has the longest melod ic cyc le . T h e pengecet by contrast, consists o f a shorter melody at a faster tempo. In the 1980's, K O K A R and A S T I (later S T S I ) , became increasingly concerned wi th concept o f Tri Angga in Kreasi Baru and developed a rigorous set of rules and pr inciples under w h i c h al l innovations in Kreasi Baru must be guided. T h i s was largely due to changes cultural po l icy under Indonesia's new leader, Suharto. T h e Suharto regime brought massive change to l ife in B a l i . Firs t and foremost was the rapid expansion o f B a l i ' s tour ism industry, o f w h i c h culture and the arts were and remain to this very day, a particular focal point. F r o m this per iod up through the eighties and nineties Kreasi Baru matured largely under the auspices o f the conservatory system (Harnish 2000:1 , 8). T h e i r influence was enabled in part through recordings and performances at the popular, " B a l i Ar t s Fes t iva l . " S i m i l a r to Beratha, I N y o m a n W i n d h a emerged as an influential composer in the formation o f Kreasi Baru throughout this period. S t i l l now, his composi t ions almost routinely receive first prize at the annual Gong Kebyar compet i t ion. A S T I / S T S I graduates and students, f rom the 80 's unti l now often perform, "as innovators in the performing arts" (Ramstedt 1992: 79). A c c o r d i n g to Ramstedt these innovations, must be based upon the f o l l o w i n g three criteria, "Preservat ion of an idea, 26 form, and the harmonious balance between them" (Bandem 1986 in Ramstedt 1992: 79). The central idea is that al though Kreasi Baru is the free-est fo rm o f Bal inese instrumental music, it must adhere in specific ways to tradition whi le also incorporat ing global and pan-Indonesian influences. One way in w h i c h composers are expected to exhibi t this balance is through Tri Angga form. However , this has become increasingly contentious among composers and scholars in recent years (Harnish 2000:13). In a general sense, Kreasi Baru has always imp l i ed aspects o f change or deviation wi th in a largely traditional framework. Nowadays , it is one way that composers are able to differentiate between Tabuh Kreasi and its more extreme younger s ib l ing Musik Kontemporer (wh ich often relies entirely on unusual ensembles and extended techniques, s imilar to experimental or avant-garde music in the Wes t 1 8 ) . T h e way in w h i c h such theories ( l ike Tri Angga) are constructed is important to keep in mind . It shows that the framework wi th in w h i c h innovations take place is as f lu id and un-f ixed as the innovations that reinterpret it. In general, Beratha 's pieces are shorter and more me lod ica l ly succinct than other works o f the time. Some o f his most famous works f rom the 50 ' s and 60 ' s are his versions o f Kosalia Arini, Swa Bhuana Paksa, and Jaya Semara19. These pieces illustrate melodic concis ion and clear formal d ivis ions . Some pieces, Jaya Semara for example, consist only o f a long unmetered kebyar and pengecet. Famous also dur ing this period although not nearly as influential was the Peliatan composer and performer I W a y a n Gandera, k n o w n for works l ike Sekar Jaya and Hujan Mas. Hujan Mas is another example of a piece consis t ing o f on ly two large sections. D u r i n g this period, a Balinese 18 See McGraw 2005 for a lot more on Musik Kontemporer. 1 9 See Tenzer 2000: 327-31, and 332-37. 27 adaptation o f a Javanese traditional song, Gambang Suling, also emerged. W e w i l l come back to some o f these examples later on , when examin ing theories o f melod ic elaboration in the next section. B y the mid-seventies Tabuh Kreasi had expanded in scope and form. Tabuh Kreasi f rom Pindha and Perean are classic examples. I N y o m a n W i n d h a ' s Gora Merdawa and Jagra Parwata epi tomize his stylistic contributions to Tabuh Kreasi f rom the m i d eighties through the early '90s. F r o m these years onward , Tabuh Kreasi exhibi t a much more expansive formal structure consist ing of eight distinct sections. V i t a l e (2002: 39) outlines "Late-Twent ie th Century Tabuh Kreasi" structure as fo l lows : 1. Gineman/kotekan group a. Gineman: Opening statements for the gangsa, reyong, and low instrument groups, typically ametric and/or fragmented, separated by pauses which highlight the instruments' long sustain. Alternately, a kebyar opening: a dynamic orchestral tutti of short ametric phrases. b. Gegenderan (Kotekan): A single, long, regularly pulsed melody with elaborate interlocking figuration {kotekan) played predominantly or entirely by the gangsa group; repeated once or twice. 2. Bapang group a. Peralihan (transition): lead-in to bapang proper b. Bapang: The next large cyclic island, often consisting of one or more ostinati (typically 8, 16 or 32 beats in length) in very fast tempi; elaborated with passages successively highlighting the various instrumental sections (kendang/ceng-ceng, reong, gangsa), with occasional tutti orchestral interjections. 3. Pengecet (or Gambangan) a. Peralihan (transition): lead-in to pengecet proper b. Pengecet: A series of full orchestral statements in a medium or medium-fast tempo, often in a balanced phrase structure (e.g. 8 + 8 or 16 + 16 beats). The overall atmosphere is that of relaxed and regular tunefulness, in contrast to the dynamic material of previous sections. c. Short codetta (penyuwud or pekaad) These formal d iv is ions fit (albeit roughly) into the concept o f Tri Angga, in that there are three large parts. Such formal constraints have been the bounds for kreasi innovat ion since the 1970s. A s mentioned earlier, the conservatories have enforced and essentially mandated adherence to these formal d iv is ions since the 1980s; a fact that frustrates some 28 Balinese composers. One cr i t ic is S T S I faculty member, Saptono, " W h o made this tri-angga concept? E a c h recital , every thesis, a lways this concept is referenced. B u t i f we really look and observe the classic kebyar music l ike Oleg [ tambuli l ingan], or Teruna Jaya, where is the tri-angga structure? Y e t , it is as i f the students worship it. T h e y organize the defenses of their recital works through this concept. A n d the composers, the juries, sti l l use this term, even i f the kawitan [head] today are really very diff icul t and intricate, and already very different f rom classical Gong Gede kawitan forms. N o w the musical structures are quite different, but they st i l l use the term 'kawitan' so that they can say that Kreasi Baru and musik kontemporer is really st i l l t radi t ional ." (Saptono, in M c G r a w 2005:53) A dis t i l led and concise vers ion o f this fo rm is v is ib le in Beratha 's Kosalia Arini. B y contrast, Tabuh f rom Perean f rom the mid-60 ' s and 70 ' s are much longer (approx. 20 minutes) and often invo lve much stranger melodic material , and asymmetr ic meters. B y W i n d h a ' s t ime, the sections wi th in these forms are expanded, and the transitions between them more f l u id . In a piece l ike Jagra Parwata for example, the transitional material creates a seamless vacuum between larger groups, somewhat obscur ing the d ivis ions between sections 2 0 . In 1995, composer I W a y a n Yudane purposefully inverted the Tri-Angga fo rm by p lac ing the pengecet, at the beginning, w h i c h accord ing to at least one account, l i teral ly gave I W a y a n Beratha a headache (he was in the audience, apparently). (Harnish 2000:19) Another staple composi t ional feature throughout al l these periods is the extensive use of quotation. Quota t ion stems f rom a long tradition o f musica l r iva l ry between vil lages. V i l l a g e s often hold their respective version o f a piece in h igh regard and have his tor ical ly gone to great lengths to defend its secrecy. In the event that the secret gets out, it becomes fresh material for other Tabuh Kreasi. These quotations are part of what This was once illustrated to me while listening to Jagra Parwata with I Wayan Sudirana. 29 Tenzer refers to as " topics ," in Gong Kebyar composi t ion . (Tenzer 2000: 163-171 after Ratner) Top i c s are revealed through the use of musical signifiers. These signifiers may exist wi th in mul t ip le musica l strata simultaneously, and may create aural associations wi th both musical and extra-musical concepts. Other topics include structural or rhythmic allusions to older ensembles or specific dance characters. Tenzer indicates this semiotic aspect as integral to the experience of compos ing and l is tening to Gong Kebyar. A famous example o f a quotation topic is the gender wayang21 piece Sekar Gendot whose various parts appear frequently and almost anonymously in countless gegenderan (see p. 28) since the 1960 's-70 's . A s the role of the composer has risen to greater prominence in B a l i over the last century, this practice has become less c o m m o n or at least less overt. Bu t it is s t i l l a l ive and we l l in some cases. Some recent examples include I N y o m a n W i n d h a ' s , "Lekesan," where borrowed a 36 beat tune f rom L o u Harr i son ' s , Philemon and Baukis. In general, discussions o f Kreasi Bam most often focus music and dance for Gong Kebyar. However , the term my be applied to new music for any traditional Bal inese ensemble, i nc lud ing "ancient" ensembles such as Selunding, Gambang, and Gong Luang. In the early '90s, W a y a n Beratha invented a new hybr id gamelan that fuses the basic instrumentation o f Gong Kebyar wi th the seven-tone pitch gamut of the older ensemble Semar Pegulingan. Af te r a few early incarnations the ensemble was refined into the present-day Gamelan Semarandana22. T h i s ensemble has been s l o w l y increasing in popularity over the last fifteen years. T w o of the most famous Semarandana ensembles 21 An older, smaller ensemble used to accompany shadow-plays. 2 2 Far more detailed histories of Semarandana can be found in McGraw 1999, and Vitale 2002. Vitale 2002 also contains a detailed analysis of the kreasi, Geregel. A transcription and analysis of Pengastung Kara can be found in McGraw 2005: 204. 30 are the Ubud-based group, Semara Ratih, and the sl ightly younger Cudamani. Cudamani is in many respects an offshoot of Semara Ratih, but wi th considerably different musical aesthetics and artistic goals. Semara Ratih, focuses mostly on Gong Kebyar repertoire, ' and in terms of Tabuh Kreasi specialize in W i n d h a classics l ike , Gora Merdawa, Lekesan and Jagra Parwata. Cudamani's Tabuh Kreasi, on the other hand, include some o f the most radical experiments wi th Bal inese tonality wi th in a Tabuh Kreasi f ramework, to date. The i r pr incipal composer , I D e w a Ketut A l i t , first garnered the attention of western scholars wi th , "Geregel," a piece that incorporates a variety o f harmonic and rhythmic innovations, and addit ional attention for his penyambutan (welcome dance) Pengastung Kara, in 2005. A record released through San Francisco-based V i t a l Records and two successful U S tours have made Cudamani one o f best-known Bal inese groups in Nor th A m e r i c a . M o r e recently at least two other Semarandana ensembles have arisen in the U b u d area, led by young composers who are taking advantage o f the unique composi t ional possibi l i t ies o f gamelan Semarandana23. Kreasi o f the present day are sti l l heavi ly influenced by the precedents and mandates set by Beratha, W i n d h a , and the conservatory system. S t i l l now, the main forum for Tabuh Kreasi is the annual B a l i Ar t s Fes t iva l , and its composers are more often than not ISI (formerly S T S I / A S T I ) graduates, students, and faculty. T h e judges themselves are usually current and former ISI faculty. T h i s means that the current systems of patronage and discourse are deciding factors as whether or not a given kreasi is accepted or rejected and therefore disseminated. T h i s s ignif icant ly impacts the scope of impact for the innovations in the piece. These days, dozens i f not hundreds o f kreasi 23 Namely these are Sanggars Chandra Wirabhuana and Nrita Dewi. 31 are written every year and only a very small percentage o f those works are played again. However , success at the B a l i A r t s Fest ival often translates to fame, respect, and recording contracts w h i c h are often much more valuable than the meager sum given to Fest ival winners. Remember it was Beratha 's or iginal success at the 1968 Fest ival that helped get h i m going. These names and institutions are also what frame and contextualize the innovations that take place wi th in Tabuh Kreasi. Fo r example, Y u d a n e ' s experiments on form w o u l d be far less interesting i f the idea o f Tri Angga was not so r igorously defended by the institutions. A l s o , the recent success of privately funded Sanggar (arts cooperatives) such as Cudamani, provide an interesting counterpoint to the influence of institutions in the f ie ld o f artistic innovat ion. It is important to keep these issues in mind when do ing musical analysis, in order to contextual their mus ica l s ignif icance in relationship to contemporary cultural norms. Abstraction and Elaboration There has been a surge in theoretical wr i t ing about Bal inese music in recent years. Since C o l i n M c P h e e ' s landmark publ icat ion in 1966 there was very litt le work published until the last fifteen years. M i c h a e l Tenzer (2000) recently publ ished the most comprehensive study since M c P h e e , concerning the twentieth century musical genre Gong Kebyar. Recent dissertations by I W a y a n Ra i and A n d y M c G r a w have enlivened the discussion by offering unique perspectives on the structure and syntax of Bal inese music . T o understand how exactly melodic elaborations deviate f rom composi t ional norms, the f o l l o w i n g section synthesizes exist ing theories o f melody and melod ic elaboration in Gong Kebyar, Semarandana and where applicable, Bal inese music as a 32 whole. The goal o f this section is to present a context for the innovations taking place in recent music. D o i n g so w i l l i nvo lve look ing through the unique perspectives o f three scholars. W e w i l l come out o f our investigation wi th some cogni t ive prel iminaries classifying the l ex icon o f normative elaborations as we l l as getting a sense o f how they are put together in process. F r o m there, we can more accurately and articulately conceptualize the nature o f the innovations in contemporary music . A c c o r d i n g to M c G r a w (1999) there is an, "apparent lack o f a comprehensive Balinese theory on mode, especial ly in comparison to the theory expressed in the central Javanese gamelan t rad i t ion" ( M c G r a w 1999: 75). T h i s is due in part to the extreme heterogeneity o f Bal inese music as mentioned several t imes so far. M c G r a w also comments that some ISI faculty are ambivalent about creating such a theory out o f partial concern that it w i l l stifle or ig ina l i ty (this is s imi la r to issues raised concerning Tri Angga). H e cites W i n d h a specif ical ly , who feels that central Javanese music has essentially, " fo s s i l i z ed" ( ib id : 76), out o f extensive theoriz ing. Whether or not issues of populari ty and innovat ion in the central Javanese tradition have any relationship to discourse is uncertain, however we can be sure that the melodic terrain in B a l i remains relatively uncharted. Because of this s imi lar concepts often have different names . depending on historical period and geographic location. I w i l l try to be as consistent as possible, but keep in m i n d that much of the terminology presented here is not definit ive and/or standardized. The pi tch sets for the ensembles Gong Kebyar and Semarandana are rooted in the Balinese tonal system (laras) pelog, and is most c o m m o n l y referred to as Saih Pitu (l i terally, series o f seven). In western terms, this diatonic, seven-tone scale looks s imilar 33 to the Phrygian mode when represented in western staff notation. H o w e v e r , this differs greatly f rom the acoustic reality because there is no standard tuning for this or any particular laras, in B a l i . <jp ^  \ ^ i m * • ' * 1 i o e eu u a ai Figure 1- Saih Pitu in Wes te rn Nota t ion , wi th Balinese solfege 2 4 . Saih Pitu in its modern fo rm (as it is used Semarandana for example) is derived f rom the seven-tone ensembles f rom the madya or " m i d d l e " period of Bal inese music , according Balinese music theorist, I N y o m a n Rembang (1973). B y Rembang ' s system, the middle period encapsulates musica l genres f rom the t ime that the H i n d u court system was imported to B a l i f rom Java (fourteenth century) until the twentieth century. M u s i c o l o g i c a l l y speaking, ensembles from this period developed through these Javanese courts. T h i s tonal-system is l i k e l y to be o f an entirely different l ineage and should not be confused wi th that of older seven-tone ensembles (from the tua or ancient period). (Richter 1992: 196) These ensembles are, namely, Gambang, Luang, Saron, and Selunding. (Schaareman 1992: 177) A s mentioned earlier, the Semarandana ensemble evolved pr inc ipa l ly as a combinat ion of Gong Kebyar and the madya era gamelan ensemble Semar Pegulingan. It is assumed that the pi tch system for Semar Pegulingan was heavily influenced by another court genre o f the same era, k n o w n as Gambuh. The transposition o f works f rom Gambuh to Semar Pegulingan may have begun as early as This shorthand is taken from Tenzer 2000. The full name for each syllable is pronounced by adding d-ng to the given vowel, thereby "i" becomes "ding," "o" becomes "dong" etc. 34 the 16 l h Century, and it is said that much of Semar Pegulingan''s core repertoire comes directly from Gambuh. (Rai 1996: 81) T o d ig much deeper into the origins of the Gambuh tone system brings up issues o f cosmology and conceptual izat ion that are difficult to discuss in any sort o f concrete manner. In the esoteric texts Aji Gurnita and Prakempa, the solfege of the two major tuning systems are presented as the result o f the myst ical pai r ing o f syl lables. These solfege pitches are ding, dong, deng, dung, and dang (listed in scalar order). These pitches correspond to the four cardinal directions as we l l as a central point. E a c h pitch is also associated wi th specific deities, colors , numbers, and moods. T h e added pitches deung, and daing fit into this scheme as ordinal points in between. In Gambuh and Semar Pegulingan, these seven pitches are d iv ided in to f ive note sub-sets known as tetekep25 or patutan. In t ransi t ioning f rom Gambuh, to Semar Pegulingan, to Semarandana many o f these sub-sets have remained the same, al though some modal classifications differ between scholars as we l l as between local vi l lages. Due to the f lexible intonation o f the bamboo flutes, a mode in Gambuh may sound radical ly different f rom the same mode in Semar Pegulingan, or Semarandana. In modern practice the modes are created by counting 3 consecutive scale degrees, and then by sk ipping a note and count ing 2 more consecutive scale degrees. A c c o r d i n g to one interpretation, the solfege works l ike a "movable ding" wherein the same order o f syllables is transposed starting wi th the lowest pitch of the t r ichord. Scalar order 1 2 3 4 5 6 C# D E F# G# A Selisir I O E U A Slendro Gde Baro Tembung Sunaren Pengenter* Pengenter Alit* T h e s e are theoretical modes that do not exist in any surviving Gambuh, or Semar Pegulingan repertoire. These modes were named by Nyoman Kaler (McGravv 1998: 4, Tenzer 2000: 28, Vi ta le 2002: 61) Table 2-Balinese Modal System based on Saih Pitu 25 This term refers literally to the act of "closing" certain holes on the Gambuh flutes to create the modes. 35 A m o n g foreign scholars as w e l l as in B a l i , the names and syllables for each mode are not standardized. T h e above chart shows one possibi l i ty. Pitches played between deng and dung {deung) as we l l as between dang and ding (daing) in Gambuh and Semar Pegulingan typ ica l ly function as pemero tones. These tones are used in a restricted manner. In Semar Pegulingan, pi tch deung has a melodic quali ty o f "push ing" (penyorog) wh i le pi tch daing has quality of "sweetening" (pemanis) (Rai 1996: 97). Interestingly enough according to Richter , the order in w h i c h these solfege tones are presented differs between the Prakempa and the Aji Gurnita. There are also discrepancies in these documents as to w h i c h pitches are associated wi th w h i c h directions. T h i s makes it diff icult to connect these cosmolog ica l associations to contemporary musical practices 2 6 . A l l o f the musica l examples coming f rom the genre Gong Kebyar are based in the Balinese mode k n o w n as selisir. Selisir can be abstracted f rom the Saih Pitu model in the previous example as pitches 123-56-, in transcription as western pitches C#, D , E , G#, A or in Bal inese solfege as ding, dong, deng, dung, dang ( i , o, e, u , a i n short hand). There is one example f rom gong Semarandana. That excerpt uses the mode Pengenter. Elaboration Types T h e vocabulary for elaborating a g iven melody is incredib ly varied. However , we w i l l notice in a l l cases the prevalence o f the interval ngempat as a pr imary consonance, wh ich unl ike other dyads does not obscure the clarity for melod ic direct ion of a given Although that's exactly what Richter 1992 attempts do to with reference Gambuh in Batuan. 36 elaborat ion 2 7 . Elaborat ions break down into two distinct categories: "un - f i xed" or " improv i sed" elaborations and " f i x e d " or pre-composed elaborations. T h e term " improv i sed" must be used cautiously. W h i l e these elaborations are composed in performance by the player or players themselves, they are guided by a number o f factors such as the style, pi tch relationships wi th respect to co lo tomic structure, as w e l l as the vocabulary o f id iomat ic riffs and gestures that are normal ly associated wi th the particular instrument. " F i x e d " elaborations are usually composed dur ing the rehearsal process and are taught by either the composer or the lead drummer. T h e y are distributed among the instruments as fo l lows . Elaborat ion U n - f i x e d F i x e d Instrument Ugal, Suling, Rebab, Trompong, Reyong18 Pemade, KantUan, Reyong Table 3- Elaboration Types M y analysis is p r imar i ly concerned wi th f ixed elaborations, so I w i l l not be dealing wi th un-f ixed elaborations at a l l in this section. F i x e d elaborations may be further broken down into in te r locking and non-inter locking elaboration styles. The former are so c o m m o n and so id iomat ic to Balinese music that three scholars have dealt wi th the topic in recent years. I w i l l continue wi th Tenzer ' s classifications, before m o v i n g my way backwards to augment his descriptions wi th concepts and te rminology f rom Balinese scholar I M a d e Bandem. These inter locking parts are typ ica l ly d iv ided into pairs called polos and sangsih. Polos under 2 7 This only really applies to kebyar and kebyar associated genres. Older ensembles, such as gender vvayang frequently use 2nds and 3rds. 2 8 The reyong plays un-fixed elaborations only under special circumstances. This will be dealt with in more detail shortly. 37 normal circumstances tracks the melody more closely than sangsih and includes the melody tone in its part. Sangsih (wh ich l i teral ly means " f o l l o w i n g " ) f i l l s in the gaps. T h i s typ ica l ly results in a continuous stream of notes and can be executed at very high speeds. The elaborations here are al l heterophonic in that they a l ign in unison wi th the pokok every 2 beats. Tenzer ' s index of in ter locking elaboration styles is as fo l lows : Norot (or Nyok Cok, in V i t a l e 1990)- associated wi th the sacred and classical Gong Gede repertoire and characterized by neighbor mot ion between the pokok tone and its upper neighbor. T h i s particular style of elaboration is interesting because it prepares the arrival of the impending pokok tone by only three subdivisions before the beat (the p ick up gesture, before beats 3 and 5). Fo r a pokok such as this, other styles of in ter locking use patterns that are more me lod ica l ly varied. T h i s potentially imbues norot wi th added sense of stasis, because it impl ies the previous the pokok tone longer than the other styles. Coinc iden ta l ly or not, this style is most prevalent in lelambatan repertoire, w h i c h is derived f rom the word "lambat," meaning " s l o w . " Kotekan Pokok m previous deng to dung previous dung to dang m 3 Figure 2- Norot Nyog Cag- new to Gong Kebyar, characterized by a one-to-one alteration o f attack points between polos and sangsih. 38 to dung to dang Kotckan Pokok Figure 3- Nyog Cag Ubit Telu (or Kotekan Telu)- associated with Semar Pegulingan, and Pelegongan, and often oriented around three note modules. Polos most commonly uses the pokok tone and the adjacent tone either above or below. The pitch adjacent to the pokok tone is shared. And sangsih covers the third remaining pitch. According to Tenzer (2000: 224) If the pattern is symmetrical (generally two beats long) it must: 1) Have a range of three adjacent scale tones (the three-note module) 2) For every four notes, all three notes must occur once and one note must occur twice. 3) There are no successive repeated notes with a grouping 2 9. In fact, these contours are extremely prevalent as majalan patterns in ubit telu. Kotckan Pokok to dung to danc Figure 4- Ubit Telu 29 There is one exception mentioned in Tenzer 2000: 224, This may be played either as ubit telu or ubit empat. 39 libit Empat (or Kotekan Empat)- same associations as telu with a similar orientation. However sangsih occasionally coincides with polos at the interval of ngempat. A major difference between this style and telu is that the polos plays pitches of the pokok tone less frequently than ubit telu. However, it is still common for polos to play the pokok tone in some instances. to dung to dang Kotekan Pokok Figure 5- Ubit Empat According to Tenzer, these patterns are also endowed with kinetic qualities of stasis and motion. Patterns are typically known as being static (ngubeng) or "having motion" (majalan). A static pattern elaborates melodic motion where the pokok does not change. A change in the pokok must be accompanied by a pattern that "moves" the elaboration to that new pitch. We wil l investigate that phenomena in more detail, shortly. A l l of the patterns shown here are majalan because they follow the elaboration to a new pokok tone. According to Tenzer's classification all ngubeng patterns are inversionally symmetrical or identical when divided in half. Tenzer goes as far as to derive 48 ngubeng patterns and 12 majalan patterns for Ubit telu and empat30. This detailed taxonomy is an excellent articulation of the materials afforded to composers when 30 Tenzer 2000: 220-231 40 constructing an elaboration. A c c o r d i n g to Tenzer , it is these syntactical norms that composers passively employ to derive their elaborations. In some ways, this is the ultimate structuralist analysis o f melod ic elaboration in Gong Kebyar. In terms o f practice, the above descriptions concerning the make-up may be thought o f as "well-formedness rules" (Lerdahl and Jackendoff 1983:37) underlying composi t ional choices. Howeve r , beyond these materials, it is d i f f icul t for a foreign scholar to reach beneath the objective evidence to unlock insights into the feel ing of a given elaboration, al though an understanding of topics and kinet ic qualit ies helps to do so. In 1992, former head of the arts conservatory I M a d e B a n d e m published an analysis of 14 styles o f ubit-ubitan that were compi led and named by one o f B a l i ' s founding music theorists, Gus t i Putu G r i y a . A c c o r d i n g to Bandem, G r i y a collected and articulated a vast amount of knowledge about f ixed and unfixed elaborations, assigning them names and descr ibing their characteristic uses. W h i l e the accuracy and val id i ty o f these examples can in no way be verif ied, these examples are interesting because they elucidate the different qualit ies between elaborations that use the same melody and the same style o f ubit. In other words, the article articulates differences between two realizations, beyond any overt references to a given style or character. Bandem offers the f o l l o w i n g examples from the traditional warr ior dance, Baris. 41 "nyalimpm" "nyalimpud" fe 9"4 LA a JP M H 1 , Jl ^ ' 4 ' 1 G G P p G G P P Figure 6- nyalimput and nyalimpud styles of elaborating Gj/aA: Baris. The differences are subtle. In fact the last four beats of each elaboration are exactly the same. While Bandem states that the specific meaning of the term nyalimput is unknown, the name gives an impression of "stumbling legs ensared by a rope. 3 1" He cites the winding contour of the last two beats as evidence of this effect. Nyalimpud is described simply as "considerably curvy" 3 2 . Other figurations in Bandem's analysis are described as "sl iding," "scrubbing," and "carrying with a spoon." This implies that in addition to topic, stylistic norms, and kinetic qualities, kotekan as gestalten are endowed with abstract qualities that are perceivable on their own terms. This also means that among a given set of elaborations that meet the same criteria in terms of style, topic, kineticsm, etc., certain elaborations are chosen purely for aesthetic reasons. Therefore elaborations must exist as separate melodic entities, with unique compositional relationships to the pokok and such choices are guided by "preference rules" (Lerdahl and Jackendoff: 1983: 43). This adds further testament to the artful and non-derivative nature of composition in Balinese music. "Kaki tersandung akibat terjerat tali." Translation by the author "cukup belit" 42 T h i s and many of the kotekan presented in Bandem ' s article illustrate an important feature o f melod ic elaboration in practice that is under emphasized in the literature. B o t h Baris examples have instances o f melod ic divergence between the elaboration and the melody. T h e nyalimpud example is s l ight ly more divergent than the nyalimput one. T h e elaboration aligns wi th neliti on only f ive out eight beats (beats 1,2, 5,6, and 8) and almost a l l o f these points coincide wi th co lo tomic markers gong and kempur. T h i s is not u n c o m m o n at a l l . Tenzer and others a l l state that elaborations may track motion in neliti, calung, or jegogan. A l l one w o u l d need to do w o u l d be to repeat the ascending mot i f A I O until beat 5 (which w o u l d coincide wi th the jegogan on pitch O) and reverse direct ion wi th the mot i f O I A until you get to gong. A n d indeed some gamelan groups use exactly that pattern. But , it is obvious that the "curvy-ness" o f this melody gives an added melod ic interest. I argue that this interest is at least partly enabled by the contour and by its increased divergence f rom the neliti at metr ica l ly and structurally weak points in the cycle . T h i s divergence perhaps strengthens the arrival to a unison wi th the gong and kempur. T h i s means that al though the penyacah, calung, and jegogan play melodic abstractions (noun), and the pemade, kantilan, and, reyong, play me lod ic elaborations (noun), processes o f melod ic elaboration (verb) and melodic abstraction (verb) involve the use of dissonance in order to achieve a desired melodic effect serving the horizontal cohesion o f the parts as individual voices. T h i s is not necessarily a po lyphon ic conception. Howeve r , I want to highl ight that the relationship between abstracted parts and elaborated parts is far more than derivative. 43 Constructing Elaborations Gamelan music in general has been categorized as stratified heterophony. T h i s blanket term is often used to describe al l Indonesian music . W h i l e it is not incorrect, as mentioned earlier, it is a dangerously ambiguous concept. T h e simplest way to elucidate basic features o f melod ic elaboration is wi th a musical example. Elaboration (Ubit-ubitan) Neliti Core Melody (Pokok) Gong Pattern Kempur (P) Klentong(T) Kempur (P) Low Gong (G) Figure 7 -Pengecet Mergapati T h e above elaboration is f rom a dance piece f rom the early 1940s, ca l led Mergapati. The second staff f rom the bottom shows the core melody or pokok, w h i c h is being elaborated by a melody in the upper staff. The bottom staff describes the " c o l o t o m i c " markers, w h i c h are hanging gongs that elucidate certain positions w i th in a melodic period. The low gong a lways corresponds wi th the end of the cyc le (sometimes cal led, period). A l l notes are of equal duration. T h i s is not a lways the case al though many i f not most Bal inese melodies are in some way dist i l led into equal durations by at least one instrument in the ensemble. T h e excerpt is also in s imple duple meter. These are c o m m o n features in Bal inese music . Not ice that the elaboration actually descends to A 44 on the eighth sixteenth note wh i l e the pokok ascends to an A on the second half note. T h i s is not an example o f contrary mot ion. T h i s has only to do wi th the fact that the particular instrument p lay ing the melody has a one-octave range and therefore must ascend to that pitch. T h e neliti or "melody proper" played by the ugal, typ ica l ly clarifies the contour in these instances. T h i s melody provides the base coat, or foundation for a variety of pre-composed and/or improvised embellishments. L o o k i n g at the whole picture, we notice that each staff functions as a distinct rhythmic stratum or tier. The base melody moves wi th the slowest durations, the k e m p l i ' s attack points d iv ide that pulse in half and the elaborating part further subdivides that pulse into four equal durations. There are three things we need to notice about the elaboration in the upper staff. 1) The patterns used in the elaboration anticipate or prepare the arr ival o f the impending melody tone. T h i s means that the note al igned wi th the melody marks the end or cu lmina t ion o f a pattern that began eight notes earlier. T h i s is crucia l to keep in mind when t ry ing to group weirder music. 2) It is heterophonic in that it aligns wi th the melody in unison or at an octave, tracing the exact melod ic contour of the tune. 3) The same pattern type is used three times and a different pattern is used to elaborate the gong tone. T h i s is very c o m m o n to many forms o f elaboration in Bal inese music. T h i s concept w i l l be shown in more innovative contexts later on. Issues of "Feeling" A s mentioned before, literature on Balinese melody is scarce. T w o recent studies that deal wi th melod ic tendencies in depth are found in Ra i 1996 and Tenzer (2000: 183-45 248). I avoid "always" or "never" statements at all costs, because the heterogeneity of the material wi l l undoubtedly provide a counter-example. However, I would like to include as many theoretical perspectives as possible in order to enrich the discussion with a diverse field of conceptualizations concerning melodic tendencies. These tendencies elucidate how a given composition "feels" in reference to its melodic construction. Rai 1996 is a melodic analysis of nineteen pieces in the Semar Pegulingan repertoire. The study is in many ways modeled on the work of his advisor Mantle Hood, author of a famous study on mode in Javanese music. Rai transcribes the pokok of 19 pieces and organizes them in terms of mode. He is a Balinese musician and scholar and the current head of the Institut Seni Indonesia (Indonesian Art Instutite). As an intuitive analytical primary, he elucidates four primary melodic tendencies that he names "T formulas." In the Semar Pegulingan repertoires these formulas occur in, "important structural positions in the piece" (Rai 1996: 96). These formulas outline the common melodic trajectories occurring in the musical middleground. There are four basic contours 3 3: T l = 4-3-2-1 (a-u-e-o, in selisir) T2=l-2-3-4(o-e-u-a) T3=1-5-4 (o-I-A) T4=4-5-l (A-I-o) These numbers correspond to the distance (in terms of scale degrees within the mode) between what Rai refers to as the "tonic" of the mode and its "dominant" (ngempyung). In selisir, these pitches are dong (D) and dang (A) respectively. 46 Each contour highlights notes 1 and 4 as the primary axes o f melod ic mot ion. A c c o r d i n g to R a i , these four melod ic tendencies are sewn into the fabric of the repertoire. T h i s is the first example we have seen indicat ing the pr imacy o f the interval of a Bal inese fourth also k n o w n as "kempyung" or "ngempat," in Balinese composi t ional practices dating at least until the 16 l h Century i f not earlier. Another melod ic factor in Semar Pegulingan are "dance fo rmulas" or what Tenzer refers to as "character topics ." These are melodic cel ls that s ignify a certain character in dance or theatrical repertoire. Top i c s appear prominent ly and are cr i t ica l ly important when t ry ing to understand the composi t ional choices in pieces f rom this repertoire. A l m o s t al l o f the pieces that Ra i looks at (and indeed most o f the repertoire) were composed to accompany dance and theatre, in w h i c h case, c la r i fy ing the feel ing or the affect o f a g iven character is one o f the mus ic ' s pr imary responsibil i t ies. In contemporary Gong Kebyar, these character topics survive in instrumental music as musical signifiers associated wi th characters f rom this and other theatrical repertories. In R a i ' s analysis, the f o l l o w i n g dance formula is used in the mode selisir. Dfl=u-e -o Df2=o-e-u In R a i ' s analysis, the pi tch dung is most frequently the gong-tone (pi tch co inc id ing wi th the s t r iking of the l ow gong ageng, mark ing the end o f the melod ic cycle) Not ice that the pitch ding is relat ively under used in a l l of these formulas. A c c o r d i n g to R a i , pi tch ding is the "enemy tone" o f Selisir and should be avoided unless the composer wants to 47 intentionally create a clear image of a strong and refined male character. A particular example of this is Gending Lasem, associated with the legendary K ing Lasem. Rai takes care to notice that the gong-tone is ding, which signifies the Lasem's character but it retains its status as the enemy tone by being avoided until the gong. In other contexts, the pitch should be used only in passing. The majority of Balinese musicians are probably not familiar with the details of Rai 's work concerning the modal system of Semar Pegulingan Saih Pitu. However, they are certainly familiar with the bulk of the repertoire being discussed. If there is any veracity to his analytical approach and his conclusions, we can safely assume that these melodic tendencies, having been in practice for hundreds of years, have forged a passive set of melodic expectations and associations in the minds of Balinese listeners. It is highly likely that these tendencies exist in contemporary music for Gong Kebyar, since it is based entirely within selisir and is still used for theatre and dance, and for performing a considerable amount of the Semar Pegulingan repertoire. Tenzer's study of Balinese melody is less concerned with the affective principles of individual pitches, and focuses more on aspects of symmetry and asymmetry within the melodic period. In other words, his primary foci are melodic contours as they revolve around certain structurally important pitches. His perspective differs from Rai 's fundamentally in that Tenzer explicitly states that there is no, "ur-contour" (Tenzer 2000: 205). Rai 's analysis boils down to step-wise approaches and departures from structurally significant pitches dong and dang. Their differences may relate significantly to the plural repertoires of Gong Kebyar. Kebyar ensembles frequently perform works from many different repertoires (most avidly Pelegongan, Semar Pegulingan, and Gong Gede), in a 48 variety o f performance contexts. T h i s r ich plural ism wi th in the Gong Kebyar's performance vocabulary has a l lowed this single ensemble to acquire the melodic characteristics o f these older gamelan types. Tabuh Kreasi as a result, draws freely from these associations. A n important aspect o f melodic tendency is kinet ic energy. Remember that elaboration patterns are also endowed wi th a sense o f kinet ic energy. T h i s kinet ic quality can be either ngubeng (static) or majalan (having motion) . U s i n g his descript ion of its usage and context, the terms ngubeng and majalan can be used to describe just about any aspect o f a compos i t ion as w e l l . T h i s can include the "rate o f scale tone turnover" in a melody, the rate at w h i c h a drummer varies their patterns, the pattern types used in a given elaboration, as we l l as tempo and dynamics just to name a few. A l l of these factors conspire to create a mul t i layered complex of motion and stillness, w i th different strata elucidat ing specific and often different characteristics o f the neliti (melody "proper" played in a s l ight ly ornamented fashion by the ugal). T o get a better sense o f what this means, let us return to the Mergapati example. 49 Tonal Direction of the Elaboration: t» claim to dung i» dont; to dinjj Elaboration (Ubit-ubitan) Neliti Core Melody (Pokok) Gong Pattern Figure 8 -Pengecet Mergapati with solfege The melody is majalan in the sense that it changes every note, and does not return to any note wi th in the cycle . T h e quality of the elaboration is also majalan for that reason. However , the surface texture is quite ngubeng in that the same pattern type is used for every pitch (except for the gong tone) and is repeated many times. In larger cycles (which can get very long) composers pay particular attention to the balance between these two kinet ic affects, t ry ing not to favor any particular sensation when compos ing the basic melody. T h e same is often true for elaborations. Howeve r , some pieces by virtue of their style topic w i l l by necessity, favor certain elaboration styles. Tenzer ' s analyt ical model focuses on contour. I w i l l be adopting the same vocabulary in order to articulate certain musical phenomena later on. Tenzer ' s notation (after Fr iedmann) for this elaboration type labels the pokok pi tch as 0 and numbers the preceding pitches in the pattern 1 or 2, or - 1 , -2 i f the pokok pi tch is approached f rom below. T h i s reduces the first three elaborations into two basic contours. {1,0,2,1/0,2,1,0} and its invers ion {-1,0,-2,-1/0,-2,-1,0}. abbreviated solfege: I A A U U o o I Balinese Solfege: D A N G D U N G D O N G D I N G 50 Tenzer ' s analysis emphasizes symmetry as it occurs wi th reference to the "ax i s" or midpoint o f a symmetr ica l pattern or melody. Because symmetr ica l tunes o f this i l k are entirely in duple meter, this 4+4 grouping reflects symmetries, and grouping repetitions wi th respect to the meter. However , in this particular style, elaboration patterns are oriented syntactical ly wi th in a three-note ce l l that, almost by necessity, involves the pokok as one o f its members. U s i n g the same notation whi le grouping this pattern wi th respect to the three-note cel l and its relationship to the pokok, a s l ight ly different interpretation arises. T h e result is three nearly identical cells o f uneven length {(1,0)(2,1,0)(2,1,0)}. T h i s reading de-emphasizes the meter and accentuates the grouping repetitions wi th respect to the three-note ce l l . Inspired by the work of Lerdahl and Jackendoff, it also emphasizes groupings that occur during in the process o f l is tening to a succession o f h i e r a rch i ca l ly 3 4 organized tones in relation to one another. I should mention that their theories o f grouping apply specif ical ly to the cogni t ive processes among listeners who are familiar wi th the music they are l is tening to. A listener, accustomed to Balinese melodic tendencies w i l l hear stress on the last note of the phrase rather than the first. T h i s note (pitch "0") receives a phenomenal accent by the calung, jegogan, and/or co lo tomic punctuation. P i t ch " 0 " also occurs in the polos part (the part associated wi th containing the impending melody tone) this visual and perhaps aural cue (depending on the performers) differentiates that pi tch even before the pokok reinforces it. T h i s method o f grouping is part icularly helpful in asymmetric or changing meters because it does not rely on the elaboration's relationship to the meter. 3 4 Although this is self-explanatory, I should emphasize that pitch "0" and its ngempat are structurally more important than pitches 1 or 2, because their alignment links the melodic elaboration to the melodic parts in other strata. 51 This notation, moreover, emphasizes grouping repetitions rather than symmetries among patterns. T h e pr imacy o f the three-note cel l in this conceptual izat ion is also a helpful reference point when t ry ing to group elaborations that do not correspond to any specific pokok tone. In the Mergapati example above, it is also helpful because it characterizes the quality o f the motion wi th in the ce l l , wh ich in this case is h igh ly directed thereby reflecting its "majalan-ness". Elaboration in Practice (polyphonic aspects of melodic divergence) In this section, we w i l l see how the objects abstracted by theory are generated in practice. W h i l e the theoretical models discussed in the previous section dealt wi th the "well-formedness rules" o f melody and melodic elaboration, this section w i l l focus on the "preference rules" regarding the selective combinat ion o f patterns, kinet ics , symmetries and asymmetries. T h e pr incip le focus of the f o l l o w i n g section is instances o f melodic divergence as they regularly occur in this generative process. M o r e speci f ica l ly , I w i l l deal wi th the prevalence o f passing tones to enhance the horizontal cohesiveness of abstracted parts as w e l l as when they occur as a byproduct o f pattern types in elaborations. In the latter case, dissonance is a l lowed at metr ical ly and structurally weak points as long as it functions appropriately wi th in a kinet ic pattern type that is employed for a composi t ional purpose. Such purposes may be para l le l i sm, symmetry or cadential motion. In fact, dissonance o f this k ind often increases in 4-beat cadential elaboration patterns leading to gong. I offer these examples as indigenous springboards for the extreme cases o f me lod ic divergence, polyphony, and counterpoint in contemporary Tabuh Kreasi. 52 Legong Lasem- Papeson Condong The neliti is often referred to as the "true" or "correct" melody. However calung abstractions are rarely entirely derivative from this core tune. In fact, it is entirely common in traditional repertoire for the calung to use passing tones at metrically and structurally weak moments to enhance the tunefulness of the calung line as an individual part. Take the following example: ngubcng pattern (U) maj (O) cad. pattern (E) ngbg (E) muj (A) cad, pattern (U) 7 7 r f 7 i J 3 Rir.Trirnr: r .t. [ I y _ L L J u f-.u M M Y uj p.t. p.t. p.t. p.t. p-t. p.t. i II e o e a u e u e u a u i u u V' ff44' " o " a E O Ij E U A E U • V* By' s « 0 E A U • s 1 Figure 9-Legong Lasem- Papeson Condong On the middle staff is the neliti. On the upper staff is the elaboration played by the gangsa section ipemade and kantilan) and on the lower staff is the melodic abstraction played by the calung. The jegogan plays every other calung pitch starting on gong. Specifically, the jegogan plays U-[:0-E-A-U:], which is also stressed by the colotomic punctuation. Notice that this melody is inversionally symmetrical at the jegogan level. 53 W h i l e the neliti as a whole does not demonstrate this symmetry, the use o f passing tones accentuates it in the calung. In the first half of the melody, the calung approaches each jegogan pitch by its scalar upper neighbor and in the second half, by its scalar lower neighbor. The composi t iona l process of melodic abstraction therefore highlights the inversional symmetry o f the jegogan part. T h i s also creates a certain amount o f cognit ive differentiation between the abstractions, jegogan, calung and the m i n i m a l l y elaborated neliti (the sixteenths are actually grace notes referred to as ngoret). A l s o , the para l le l i sm in the neliti facilitates an exact repetition of pattern types in the elaboration. T h i s fo rmula is {ngubeng pattern, majalan pattern, 4-beat cadential fo rmula 3 6 } . However , the first ngubeng pattern is s l ight ly longer than the second. I d iv ide the sixteen-beat neliti into two halves. T h i s way, we notice that the elaboration patterns cause dissonance at the same metric point per hal f (neliti pitches 1, 5, 6, 9, 14 and 15). T h e absence o f a passing tone on the fourth beat foi ls an exact paral le l ism, however. W e can see f rom this example that passing tones may be used to reinforce symmetries occur r ing on deeper structural levels as w e l l to differentiate the between the parts. The passing tones in the elaboration function more as the by-product o f the pattern types wh ich are identical between halves of the melody. T h i s impl ies that the repetition or balance o f pattern types is of greater composi t ional importance than strict adherence to melody. particularly because it ascends to ding instead of descending to dong on beat 14. This does however create a parrellelism between the two halves. 3 6 This particular 4-beat pattern is ubiquitous in music for Gong Kebyar and can also be found in Semar Pegulingan, Pelegongan, and Gong Gede repertoire. It is consistently used to elaborate structurally significant tones (in this case the axis tone, and the gong-tone). It can be used in kotekans telu or empat and has a contour of {_,(-2,-l,0)(-2,-l,0)(-l,-2,0)(-l,-2,0)(-2,-l,0)}. 54 Pengipuk-Kebyar Gandrung A s mentioned before, the reyong occasional ly performs un-f ixed elaborations in very specific contexts. T h i s style of elaboration is cal led reyong norot and usually occurs whi le the gangsas are p lay ing norot (although is this not a lways the case). In reyong norot musicians elaborate not only upon the melody but on norot itself. T h i s relatively s imple elaboration style becomes a "template" (T i l l ey 2003: 14) for four musicians to improvise upon simultaneously on the same instrument. T h i s is truly a unique phenomenon, because l ike other styles of melodic elaboration the musicians must interlock in order to maintain a continuous melodic thread. T o accompl i sh this al l musicians must have already internalized the melody and the norot template wi th an awareness o f w h i c h pitches are more structurally important. T h i s knowledge is then applied to the unique and narrow range o f pitches at each of the four players ' disposal. Th i s ranges between two and four pitches per player. T h i s improvisa t ion process provides an interesting insight into how tones are ordered hierarchical ly in the minds o f musicians. In the f o l l o w i n g example we w i l l also notice how the interval ngempat is conceptually equivalent to a unison in that it can also function as a pokok or template substitution (ibid). T i l l e y outlines ten basic modes or processes by w h i c h musicians choose to expand upon the basic template. These bo i l down to the processes o f al tering and then subtracting notes. M u c h of these concepts have to do wi th what she cal ls , "suspensions" and "anticipat ions." T h i s means that musicians are p lay ing wi th the normative set of expectations by p lay ing a specific tone earlier or delaying its arr ival by a subdivis ion or so. A c c o r d i n g to T i l l e y , performers also distort the basic relat ionship between the 55 elaboration and the melody by choosing to alter the kinet ic quali ty of their pattern types or swi tching to a different contour l ex icon entirely, such as ubit-ubitan. In reyong norot, players are also permitted to "make use o f the ngempat notes that fal l wi th in his/her range" (T i l l ey 2003: 47). Her theoretical categorization is that the pitch ngempat is interchangeable wi th a unison. Howeve r we see in figure 10 that despite incredible busy-ness between the beats, the texture regularly hones in on pokok tones on almost every beat, avo id ing the use of other pitches. Ngempat, therefore, is avoided at metr ical ly strong points. It appears the frequent dissonances between the template and the reyong point to the crafting o f an artful divergence. L i t e r a l ly , each reyong player is a voice in counterpoint wi th the neliti, gangsa as we l l as the reyong players. In fact, according to T i l l e y ' s informant, composer and teacher I D e w a Ketu t A l i t , the more syncopated each part is, the more "wayan" (mature), it feels. M y o w n teacher I W a y a n Sudirana, has also said that the parts shown in the transcription here have a rhythmic relationship to one another. A c c o r d i n g to Sud i , the lowest part (penyorog) is typ ica l ly more syncopated, wh i l e the second part (pengenter) is less so. In this sense, the pengenter player leads the elaboration, and is perhaps less free to improvise than the other parts. However , as a whole , the reyong elaboration deviates f rom and re-aligns wi th the template and the pokok at metr ical ly specific points. T h i s causes a phenomenal accent at metr ical ly significant points when the melodic texture thins out. T h i s results in a unique and intricately formed sort o f Bal inese polyphony. (See F igure 10 next page). 56 KebyatGandrung^Rengipuk gangxa, reyong, calung and gong elaboration group 1 elaboration group 2 elaboration group 3 elaboration group 4 Norot (U-0-U-O-U) 10 beats Norot (I-E-I-E) 8 beats Noroi (A-E-A) 6 beats Nyog Ccig (O) 4 beats Gangsa Norot Reyong Norot Composite Reyongan Neliti Pokok u o ' U O U I E A O O 60 C 3 c s ec The third staff f rom the bottom is labeled "composite reyongan." T h i s composite is a conglomerat ion of the improvised inter locking figurations played by the bottom two players on the reyong. It was generated by col lapsing both parts into the pengenter's octave to form a continuous melod ic thread. In all but f ive instances (beats 2,6,9,11,15) this yields a continuous, and melod ica l ly conjunct composite. In those cases, I selected the most log ica l pitch wi th respect to the three rules o f contour for ubit-ubitan (see page 37). T h i s corroborates T i l l e y ' s characterization of ngempat's interchangeabil i ty with pokok tones. However , it on ly really applies, here, to metr ical ly weak points. Not ice that whenever the lower part is not p lay ing one of these composite pitches it almost always p laying its ngempat, or immedia te ly resolves to one of these sonorities. There is one instance of an adjacent scale degree clash on beat 21 . Howeve r , in this case, the dung in the lower part is a prime example of what T i l l e y refers to as a "delayed pokok tone unison," (meaning that the dung is just delaying the arr ival to the pokok pi tch dang on the next subdivis ion) . T h e imp l i ed composite in the pengenter quite blatantly m i m i c s the serpentine contours o f ubit-ubitan, but in a way that differs quite remarkably f rom ubit telu or ubit empat. It is remarkable first, because it is an improvised pattern (although it was in an sense "composed" when it was taught to me). T h e composi te creates an almost seamless stream o f notes that are grouped quite clearly in terms o f ubit style patterns that lead to structurally important pitches. In fact, in all but two instances this composite runs entirely in stepwise motion. A grouping analysis o f the 28 beat neliti reveals interesting interval relationships that may help facilitate such a f lu id elaboration. 58 G r o u p l - (UOUOU) 10 beats Group2- (IEIE) 8 beats Group3- (AEA) 6 beats Group4- (O) 4 beats First of all, each successive calung pitch is exactly 2 scale degrees away from the previous pitch. Also the interval between each group is consistently that of a falling ngempat. These curious constants combined with the consistent subtraction of two beats from each group, make for a strikingly linear melodic progression. The improvised elaboration is bewildering in its rhythmic complexity and speed. Performed at tempo this elaboration is usually played faster than 200 bpm. After filling in the composite, I grouped the patterns in terms of the pitches they elaborate. By indexing the contours, we see that the contour vocabulary is quite limited (see figure 11). Notice that contour use is even more restricted per group, in that each group oscillates between only two elaboration patterns. However, this economy of material is dutifully obscured through omissions, anticipations, delays, and syncopations. It is worth noting that the relationship between the elaboration and the norot being played by the gangsas is tenuous at best. 59 Elaboration_Group 1 pokok= ( U O U O U ) beats 1-10 (-1,0,-2,-1/0-2,-1,0) to D U N G (0,-1 ,-2,-1/0,1 ,-1,0) to D O N G occurs on beats 1-2, 5-6,9-10 occurs on beats 3-4,7-8 Elaboration,Group.2 pokok=(IE!E) beats 11-18 (1,0,1,-1/0,1,-1,0) to D I N G occurs on beats 11 -12, 15-16 (-1 ,-2,-3 ,-2/-1,0,1,0) to D E N G n # lac ISC Elaboration_Group.,3 Pokok= A E A beats 19-24 (2,1,0,1/0,2,1,0) to D A N G occurs on beats 19-20, 23-24 (norot A to I/-1,0,1,0) to D E N G occurs on beats 21-22 _ m fi J • * * • * * dt M • Elaboration.Group-4 Pokok= O Beats 25-28 (0,1,-1,0,1,-1,0,1,-1,0,1,-1,0,1,-1,0) Figure 11: Contour analysis of reyong norot, pengipuk Kebyar Gandrung'. 60 E a c h set o f contours fo l lows some basic general principles. In general, the first half o f each contour is farther away f rom the impending pokok tone wh i l e the second half winds around it. T h i s is evident in that only two contours contain a pi tch more than one scale degree away f rom the pokok (the first contours in groups 1 and 3, w h i c h are inversions o f one another). T h e last halves o f the other contours also relate to one another in interesting ways. These are the contours {0,1,-1,0} and {-1,0,1,0}. They relate to one another in that the first contour 's last two members are identical to the other's last two and the first contour 's first two members are symmetr ica l wi th others last two. There is also a curious resemblance between a few first halves. In terms o f motion the first halves o f group 1 contour 2, group 2 contour 2, and group 3 contour 1 are identical in that they descend by two steps and ascend by one step. T h e contour o f group 4 is quite different than the preceding contours. It is a motoric repetition o f the ascending mot i f I O E . Th i s is a c o m m o n and economica l way to get between scale tones two steps apart (as in the first contour in group 1). H o w e v e r this contour is s l ight ly more unusual in that the impending pokok tone is the midd le tone of the three-note ce l l . It also is unusual because it actually works against the neliti and the calung until a unison on gong. T h i s change in elaboration style corresponds wi th the composed shift f rom norot to nyog cag in the gangsa part as i f both parts are acquir ing increased momentum in this last 4 beat grouping before gong. T h i s change in elaboration is made easier by the fact that the melody breaches its loca l syntax on the both the calung level and the neliti level . T h e calung does so by remain ing on the same pitch. A n d the neliti does so by cont inuing an ascending stepwise sequence that began 6 beats before gong. 61 A l t h o u g h there is apparent chaos on the surface, reyong norot improvisat ions are accomplished through quite economical means. T h i s chaos is part o f the effect, as performers intentionally and artfully distort their source material (neliti, calung, and, gangsa), wh i le s t i l l mainta ining a consistent and directed me lod ic thread. T h e melody is then elaborated doubly and differently (gangsa and reyong). W h i l e the reyong is clearly elaborating a core tune, this idea is polyphonic in that the reyong acts l ike a sort of "free vo ice . " Th i s free voice is able to play wi th the relationship between norot style kotekan and the melody by using an inexhaustible amount o f rhythmic and mot iv i c variation through the use of deletions, suspensions, anticipations, etc. T h i s is kept in check by the somewhat l imi ted contour vocabulary that is dictated by the pokok. T h e resulting texture is a lush "po lyphony o f heterophonies" (Boulez 1964). I present these instances of melodic divergence as springboards for the melodic innovations taking place in Tabuh Kreasi today. T h i s shows how innately contrapuntal composi t ional processes are d r iv ing composers to increase the rhy thmic and melodic difference between parts in different strata in order to explore new sonic territory. In some extreme cases, this completely breaks down the fundamental concepts elaboration and abstraction, or in a sense fuses them wi th contrapuntal ideas, such as voice-exchange, thereby forging entirely new musical concepts. 62 Chapter 4 Innovations in Modern repertoire Uneven divisions of the tactus Balinese music from the 1400s until the present day 3 7 has been almost exclusively in duple meter. In cases, where the music is based on a cycle of odd-numbered beats, the division of that basic pulse is always duple. This is not the case in Western music, especially in contemporary western music where odd-numbered groupings of every kind are practically a pre-requisite. Two recent Tabuh Kreasi have taken direct inspiration (in one case) and direct quotation (in another) from western compositions for Balinese gamelan that make use of this. In each case, the Balinese composer had worked closely with the western composer and (unbeknownst to the western composer) took interest in the novelty of their approach. Coincidentally, both pieces feature these uneven divisions of the tactus in their gegenderan38. The first example was composed by I Dewa Putu Berata in winter 2004, for the piece Lemayung. According to Tenzer 2000: 246-47, melodies of symmetrically divisible lengths are associated with music from the "middle"( 1400-1900) and "new" (1900-now) periods of Balinese music while "o ld" music (pre-1400) is associated with melodic asymmetry. 3 8 a section of a piece which features the gangsa section (meaning the reyong, ceng-ceng and drums are absent). See Vitale 2002 p.39 or p.28 of this thesis. 63 G w r f r j. f j. p G | j, ^ r r ^ j, r r ^ Figure 12- gegenderan from "Lemayung39" The elaboration has a convent ional ly heterophonic in relationship to the pokok. T h e elaboration consistently tracks movement in the jegogan (white noteheads denote jegogan tones) by meeting in unison every four beats. T h e elaboration also aligns wi th the melody on the beat after the jegogan (except in measure 3, where the interval is ngempat) but only al igns w i th pokok tones in the second half o f the bar in the first measure and third measures. W h i l e intentional or not, there is regularity to this in that the elaboration aligns at a unison wi th the melody on beats 1-2-3-5 and 6 o f every eight-beat grouping. T h i s eight-beat per iodici ty is defined by the each repetition of the jegogan isorhythm, wh ich in terms o f half beats is 8+5+3. O n beats 4,7, and 8 o f these groupings More info on Lemayung can be found at 64 the elaboration is me lod ica l ly divergent f rom the pokok. W h i l e the elaboration generally fo l lows the basic melod ic shape o f the pokok there is an interesting moment of contrary mot ion on beat 10 when the elaboration meets at a unison on F# then ascends to a B , whi le the pokok descends to an E . F r o m the standpoint of contour this elaboration is far f rom tradit ional. In the previous section remember that elaborations tracking the jegogan w i l l often rely on some combinat ion o f ngubeng and majalan patterns. The elaboration here approaches the downbeat o f each bar in an irregularly serpentine manner using contours that cannot be rationalized as possessing either quality. T h e only apparent consistency is the ascending contour mot ive {-2,-1,0} used to approach the jegogan tones every four beats. Not ice that the approach to gong is different than the approach to the other jegogan tones. T h i s Balinese syntactical convent ion w i l l be seen in several musica l examples later on. T h e kotekan f rom Lemayung was directly influenced by the piece, Banyuari composed by M i c h a e l Tenzer for the A m e r i c a n gamelan group Sekar Jaya in 1992. In Tenzer ' s o w n words, the piece was his, "most radical gamelan piece at the t ime 4 0 . " , m j rnu J J j j j ^ J J , jJJJ,JTJJJJTJ r~T~] i - tr--pi j 5 S 5 L U L U iu 4rJt[hJuJ~ 5 s s Figure 13- Banyuari quintuplet kotekan 40 quote taken from his personal website 65 Immediately we notice one glaring similarity. Both kotekan divide the basic pulse into five equal subdivisions. That feature alone gives the melodic motion in each example a similar quality. Most of Tenzer's kotekan adheres to stylistic features of ubit empat, making occasional use of thirds. In a purely musical sense, something about Tenzer's kotekan sounds and feels more "conventional" than Berata's (although keep in mind Banyuari was composed almost a decade and a half before Lemayung, when such rhythmic devices were basically unheard off). The reason for stark differences musically may boil down to differences in how most Balinese and western composers compose. Tenzer almost certainly notated the entire score Banyuari ahead of time, calculatedly manipulating the musical material in the intellectual manner taught to him by his cultural forbearers. Dewa Berata may have composed one of two ways. Either he wrote the pokok first and composed a polos part to accompany it, while the sangsih was probably worked out later in the process of teaching the piece 4 1, or there was something that he particularly liked about that polos and then he derived a suitable pokok from that. This may account for the "tunefulness" in Berata's polos. In either case there is a difference in approach (undoubtedly the result of culturally related habits toward music) that is evident in the musical text. Dewa's kotekan is born of generative principles while Tenzer's results more from principles of intellection. It should also be noted that another Balinese composer, I Made Subandi, did a similar thing with his 2006 kreasi "Rendered." Prior to composing "Rendered" he had been 4 1 Interestingly enough, when a friend of asked the composer ro show him sangsih in that kotekan, Dewa was able to make one, but could not actually remember the specific part used in performance. According to my friend, Dewa told him, "only Supar (the sangsih player in their group) knows that part 66 work ing wi th A m e r i c a n scholar and composer A n d r e w M c G r a w . M c G r a w and Subandi collaborated on a piece for Subandi ' s group that included a gegenderan where the basic pulse was a dotted-eighth note. T h e f o l l o w i n g year, A n d y returned to B a l i to f ind that Subandi had taken large chunks of his gegenderan, essentially verbat im and assimilated them into several other works 4 2 . F o r a foreign composer of gamelan music , such thievery may in fact be the ultimate compliment . Polyphonic Forms of Melodic Elaboration W h i l e the innovations in the first two examples are rhythmic , the f o l l o w i n g examples illustrate melod ic innovations i n v o l v i n g increased me lod ic independence between parts (or strata), as we l l as increased interdependence between parts wi th in a single stratum. T h e latter process effectively creates new strata between elaborating instruments whi le the two processes combined challenge the idea o f me lod ic abstraction and elaboration, mak ing it diff icul t to analyze the music in a heterophonic framework. The order o f analyses w i l l f o l l o w these musical trends in a roughly chronologica l fashion. Lebur Saketi and Sruti Laya-1 Wayan Yudane T h e first two examples come f rom the composer I W a y a n Yudane . I became famil iar wi th his work f rom two sources. W h i l e studying in B a l i , several young Balinese composers mentioned Y u d a n e ' s work as being particularly influential upon their composi t ional practices. Y u d a n e is a self-consciously radical composer famous equally for his avant-garde works for Musik Kontemporer as he is for his kebyar composi t ions. 4 2 Andrew McGraw personal communication May 2006. 67 C o m i n g f rom a musica l f ami ly , Y u d a n e studied traditional mus ic as a youngster and later studied composi t ion in.Jakarta before returning to B a l i to f in i sh his degree at S T S I Denpasar. ( M c G r a w 2005: 363) Yudane is k n o w n as ind iv idua l i s t ic composer, and is outspoken in his crit iques o f the musical establishment in B a l i 4 3 . Despite some artistic differences wi th the establishment, his composit ions were a yearly f ixture at the B a l i Ar t s Festival f rom 1992-2000. In 1995 he w o n first place for his compos i t ion , Lebur Saketi. T h i s is a considerable achievement for a young composer who must compete wi th established composers f rom previous generations whose work often dominates the competi t ion. The piece has already received some scholarly attention in Harn ish 2000 as wel l as M c G r a w 2005. A s i d e f rom melodic innovations the piece is noted for its innovative approach to tri angga fo rm (Harnish 2000: 19). Yudane intent ional ly inverted the conventional formal structure by plac ing what is usually the last third o f a piece (pengecet) at the beginning. M c G r a w discusses some o f the melod ic innovations (particularly in the gegenderan) in more detail. H e describes the relationship between voices as, "a contrapuntal texture o f seven l ines" ( ib id: 349). Spec i f i ca l ly he is referring to the melodic independence among elaborating instruments (ugal, pemade, kantilan, and penyacah) as w e l l as among the abstracting instruments (calung, and jegogan). In a basic sense the normative relationship o f rhythmic density between parts is maintained. T h e jegogan operates pr imar i ly in half notes and quarters. The calung works at quarters and eighths whi le the penyacah is in eighths and sixteenths, and the gangsas are in sixteenths only . T h e 4 3 for direct quotes see McGraw 2005: 52, 55. 68 internal subdivis ions o f the eighteen beat period are most c lear ly marked by durational accents in the jegogan part (half notes on beats 1,4, 10, and 14) w h i c h d iv ide the gegenderan into four unequal units labeled A B C D ) . These internal subdivis ions are reinforced by unisons in the penyacah and calung. W h i l e ho ld ing the parts to syntactical norms in those terms, Y u d a n e approaches these points of convergence wi th a high degree of rhythmic independence by g iv ing each instrument an ind iv idua l voice . T h e y are further differentiated f rom one another in terms of phrase length. Fo r example, phrase C in each voice elaborates the pitch C# or ding, however the penyacah phrase is sl ight ly longer than the other two parts e " c f e  Ci——[ " r"1 L c r l ? ' _ , °> i Ai Ai Ai Ai i Cr-2 ( i j e ^1 J \ \ c -Lr^r r f o c u c o e u c o c o B B- v c D-a i u a i o e D-U I o E E U E A E U E O I A I Figure 14- Lebur Saketi44 Melodic relationship between jegogan, calung, penyacah (gegenderan) In the above transcription, each o f four jegogan phrases are labeled, A through D . It is important to notice that I have created retroactive groupings because, as I said earlier, in Balinese music points o f metric stress denote the end or cu lmina t ion o f the pattern preceding. So unl ike western grouping theorists who w o u l d label the durational accents in the jegogan as "new beginnings," I am label ing them as "exp l i c i t endings," in 44 This transcription differs slightly from Harnish 2000: 18 and McGraw 2005: 354. In both of their transcriptions the fourth jegogan pitch is dung. However, in my recording I am almost certain it is pitch dang. 69 accordance wi th Bal inese modes o f melodic conceptualizat ion. Hope fu l l y this w i l l help make sub-surface musical phenomena more apparent. A l s o I pay less attention to note-by-note phenomena, choos ing on ly to look at the relationship between pitches at points of metric stress and preceding the gong. The relationship between phrase groupings w i l l be discussed generally in terms of contour and pattern units. Here is a breakdown of the general characteristics o f each phrase. In phrase A , al l parts generally hover around pitch deng. The jegogan part elaborates the pitch by mov ing stepwise to its upper neighbor dung. T h e calung moves s inusoidal ly to both the upper and lower neighbors, wh i l e penyacah plays straight dengs in dotted eighths against the beat. The difference in contour between the calung and jegogan is interesting in that the lower pitched instruments complete one half o f a single wave l ike fo rm whi le the higher pitched instruments (which vibrate roughly twice as fast in terms of frequency) complete the waveform in d iminut ion . Phrase B is more majalan in character, and brings a l l three parts d o w n one scale degree to pitch dong. H o w e v e r each part descends differently. T h e calung again mimics the contour of the jegogan in d iminut ion , but in such a way that the parts converge on the last two beats o f the phrase. T h e penyacah melody repeats the same osc i l la t ing pitch sequence as the calung ([e-o-e-u] starting f rom the third pi tch in phrase A to the fifth pitch of phrase B ) in syncopation as wel l as rhythmical ly out of phase. Thus , the overall effect is that of commentary on the calung rather than a dupl ica t ion of it. T h e penyacah then adopts the characteristics o f a gangsa ubit polos part on the last three beats. In phrase C , the pitch ding is anticipated by the calung and penyacah, w h i c h is perhaps why the jegogan melody hovers around pitch ding using the scalar lower 70 neighbor in a ngubeng fashion similar to phrase A. Again, the calung mimics that basic contour of the jegogan in diminution, but in a way that purposefully offsets their attack points until the last pitch of the phrase. The penyacah however maintains the ubit pattern (which, coincidentally or not, is also a further diminution of the calung part) that in the presence of a complimentary sangsih would elaborate pitch ding in a ngubeng fashion (although the contour is quite majalan) for four full beats (although it would arrive on ding one beat late). See the example: hypothetical sangsih a * * m • f * X penyacah part phrase C •0-phrase C beginning of phrase D in the calung s i ti" i 11" held over from previous beat Figure 15- Lebur Saketi, penyacah phrase with hypothetical sangsih Phrase D differs from the three previous phrases for a few reasons. First of all, the calung aligns with each attack point in the jegogan. The previously syncopated penyacah cools down to a steady stream of eighth notes elaborating the calung and jegogan parts in a simple, heterophonic fashion. This shift in gears puts special emphasis on this last four beat phrase leading to gong, thereby highlighting the pitch that coincides with the gong in a special way. This feature was also evident in the Legong, Kebyar Gandrung and Lemyaung examples. 71 What does this al l amount to? W e notice that although this is a radica l ly new way of orchestrating these instruments, the parts are bound to one another in a way that reinterprets exis t ing modes o f composi t ion in Balinese music . F o r example , the basic process of stratifying voices in terms of rhythmic density has remained intact. However , Yudane has chosen to differentiate between the parts through syncopat ion and differing phrase lengths, w h i c h combined create increased melodic divergence. L i k e the Tenzer and Berata examples, this music is heterophonic in that a l l three parts adhere to the basic contour o f the jegogan part. However , both the calung and the penyacah make frequent deviations along that basic trajectory. The deviations in contour, rhythmic differentiation, registral separation, and horizontal cohesiveness (s ingabi l i ty) al l show increasingly po lyphonic tendencies, whi le the basic melodic concept ion is st i l l heterophonic. However , there is one melodic event that distorts the basic heterophonic model . That is the anticipation o f pitch ding by the calung and penyacah w h i c h may the be the reason jegogan phrase C elaborates ding in a ngubeng fashion as i f to acknowledge the calung and penyacah's arr ival on that tone (beat 11 in figure 14) as an off ic ia l melodic shift. In a normative context such a melodic shift w o u l d co inc ide wi th a jegogan pitch in order to reinforce the melod ic importance of that particular point in time. Th i s momentar i ly distorts the basic hierarchy between voices by a l l o w i n g an upper voice to, in a sense, " ca l l the shots." T h e composer could have easily g iven a quarter note to pitch dong and given a half note to pitch ding, w h i c h w o u l d have placed clearer emphasis on the arrival to that pi tch, but it seems his intention was to obscure its arr ival and prolong the revelation o f its importance until a few beats later. 72 Sruti Laya Sruti Laya was composed in 1999. Like Lebur Saketi, it was commissioned by the Bali Arts Festival and again won first prize for best composition. Similar to Lebur, the piece makes extended use of seconds and thirds as well as intricately woven melodic lines. The gegenderan of this piece is similarly polyphonic. In addition, the final two minutes of the piece feature rhythmically active orchestration between the suling, penyacah, calung, and jegogan. The excerpt is unusual because of its slow tempo, quiet dynamic level, and the complete absence of kendhang, ceng-ceng, pemade, kantilan, or reyong. A lso the melodic fragments that are exchanged antiphonally between the calung and penyacah do not repeat over the course of three 36-beat gong cycles. Remember this part of a piece is usually reserved for the pengecet and pekaad, which are typically at a brisk tempo and involve shorter melodic cycles. Yudane's choice of texture quite is quite blatantly oppositional to the formal expectations of Tabuh Kreasi Baru, and such deviance rarely gains acceptance by the musical establishment45. In addition to being texturally novel, the excerpt exhibits contrapuntal writing that is quite unusual for Balinese traditional music, and as far as I know, does not refer to any indigenous musical styles in Bal i . I can only surmise that Yudane's influence (either directly or indirectly) is Western classical music. The most striking examples of contrary motion exist between the jegogan and suling voices, which provide a tonal canvas within which the penyacah and calung perform through-composed variations over the course of three gongan. Although according to his personal website (, Yudane may chalk his victory up to the fact that he'd already won six times before. 73 / Hun a <\. -iy- f\ , • II- -t*-^  » » • < > • • € -% • G P I P G Figure 16- Sruti Laya, reduction of the outer voices, suling on the top staff, jegogan on the bottom In the reduction we notice that the jegogan and the suling meet in unison on every other jegogan tone, but the suling ascends stepwise by two scale degrees coinciding on the dissonant interval telu in bars 2 and 4, and the abnormally dissonant adjacent scale tone dang in bar 6. By looking at the transcription alone it appears that there is an overall "X"-like shape to the period, which indicates the consistent use of contrary motion between the outer voices. However, this diagnosis must be qualified. 74 i Sruti Laya (from 9:42-) I Wayan Gede Yudane Penyacah 4=^ = ' r J —f— § 11 ^ ' =*= J-| # • j - nj . i * , 1 d m. 1 s - f P - J — P — J i y f n H ^ F f f w-' •>—P~ - f J r •p r f - d = - f — >M n - T 1 „ h „ | 1 l^LJ, , _ u _ ^ | H 1 - j 1 1 75 Sruti Laya 4* m 4fe ^ " < G p slowing down .HP T7 PP Figure 17- Sruti Laya from 9:40 until the end, full transcription 76 As mentioned in the previous section, octave displacement is frequently used by pokok instruments to reinforce pitches of a neliti. This means that approaching a unison or an octave in contrary motion does not necessarily indicate melodic independence between parts. More often than not, it is the result of a neliti descending below pitch ding on the ugal, which forces the calung and jegogan to leap up because ding is the lowest pitch on these instruments. Because the ranges of the gangsa, and reyong are all different, elaborating even the most basic melody can easily create a densely contrapuntal texture full of contrary motion between parts. However, this contrariness exists only on the surface, as a by-product of idiomatic practicalities resulting from differing ranges among the instruments4 6. Such an arrangement is referred to as "first-order vertical relations" (Tenzer 2000: 55-57). Of course, in standard repertoire it is easier to discern whether or not the neliti ascends or descends to a given pitch because the extended range of the gangsas (or at the very least ugal) wi l l often clarify the contour in their elaboration. However, this excerpt lacks that clarity. For example in bar 3, the penyacah and calung parts use both high and low dang while the jegogan uses its only dang (high), and the suling uses low dang. I have indexed the pitches used at the ends of phrases. These are organized within each 12 beat jegogan group. This reveals that while the calung and penyacah parts are not embellishing the jegogan or suling in any heterophonic way (although the relationship between the suling and the jegogan may be considered loosely heterophonic with an abnormally high rate of melodic divergence and dissonance.) they still tend towards certain pitches. For example, both the penyacah and calung spend a great deal 4 6 Of course, its entirely possible that in the course of gamelan's development, differing instrument ranges were favored because they help facilitate a fuller and livelier orchestral texture. 77 of t ime on dong whenever there is dang in the jegogan. A l s o the jegogan guides the constellation o f these pitch sets although it is unclear i f they are der ived intui t ively f rom a Balinese hierarchy o f pitches (based in Bal inese fourths) or loosely inspired by western ideas o f tertian harmony. Group l-jegogan pi tch ding: a,i,e Group 2-jegogan pi tch dang: o,e,a Group 3-jegogan pi tch dung: u,a,o It is clear that the same three pitch sets in the calung and penyacah, and suling are used consistently in coordinat ion wi th each jegogan pitch. If we adopt another notation system f rom set theory, a l l three pitch sets bo i l down to the same tr ichord {0,1,3} i f put in prime order 4 7 . Interestingly enough, in each group the relationship between pitch " 0 " o f the tr ichord and the jegogan pi tch is different. (Group 1: pi tch 0=jegogan pi tch -1 scale degree, Group 2: pi tch 0= jegogan pitch -2, Group 3: pi tch 0= jegogan pitch). However , there is a tendency wi th in each group to want to complete the tr ichord. Fo r example in group 2, when the jegogan and the suling are p lay ing pitches dang, and ding, both penyacah and calung emphasize pitch dong for the entire six beat period. One reason that particular pitch aggregate works from a composi t ional standpoint cou ld be that i f reordered they represent a series of stacked ngempat or Bal inese fourths, wh ich is a standard interval used when elaborating pitches, al though its use is often strictly guided by the stylist ic conventions, and wou ld never be done l ike this. 4 7 Prime order means that the pitches are arranged in such a way that the interval between the lowest pitch, "0" and highest pitch, in this case "3" is the smallest interval possible. 78 a o u •e-- © -Figure 18- Sruti Laya pitch aggegrates as "stacked ngempats" However , I f ind that interpretation unfavorable because the "root" o f the empat does not correlate to any o f the jegogan pitches. L o o k i n g at the texture alone it is entirely possible that Yudane was inspired by western modes of composi t ion. In w h i c h case the changing pitch sets could be interpreted as "harmonies ," wh ich are relat ively stable in group 1 (sounding s imi lar to a major triad in first inversion) then become s l ight ly more dissonant in group 2 (s imi lar to a major triad wi th a suspended 4th), then reach an apex o f dissonance in group 3 (wi th the tritone and the minor second) before resolv ing to the stable sonority o f group 1. g _ | 3 E 3 E Figure 19- Sruti Laya-voice leading, stems down=calung, stems up=penyacah, suling and jegogan no stems. W h i l e it is d i f f icul t to reach any definit ive conclus ion about what i f any rules govern a musical example l ike this, it is safe to say that it represents a continued effort to differentiate between the various melodic instruments as we l l as to reinterpret their traditional roles wi th in the ensemble. In Sruti Laya, the jegogan is no longer reinforcing 79 a core melody and is instead providing a tonal landscape for a variety of pitch sets. The fact that these pitch sets change in coordination with changes in the jegogan indicate that the composer was motivated by some sort of polyphonic impetus that involves decorating the jegogan pitch with no fewer than two other pitches. It is however difficult to assess why the composer chose those specific pitch sets to accompany the jegogan pitches. It is entirely likely that the composer was passively or even consciously motivated by western styles of composition and western tonal harmony. Bali has its fair share of popular music, movie soundtracks, and garage bands. The sum of these influences could very well be seeping into the intuitive compositional sensibilities of contemporary composers. In this case, the steady increase of dissonance right before gong and the return to stable sonorities with the gong may not be a mere coincidence. It may be evidence of two musical vocabularies merging at their points of compatibility. Semayut-1 Wayan Sudirana Sudirana is one composer out of a new generation motivated equally by their admiration and respect for traditional and ancient music and their desire to revitalize and reinvent contemporary traditional forms. Like others of his generation, he feels that certain aspects of Balinese music have become so rigorously codified that they threaten to stagnate.48 He has sought in his own work a balance between adhering to the compositional mandates of institutions, and finding his own creative voice. A member of the Sanggar Cudamani, Sudirana has toured and performed internationally as well as collaborated with countless musicians from other musical traditions. Also, as a guest 48 Personal communication July 2006. 80 artist in residence at the Unive r s i ty of Br i t i sh C o l u m b i a he has had even more exposure to the western classical tradit ion, other w o r l d music traditions, and gained outsider insight on his o w n culture. Such exposure has undoubtedly influenced his creative work in the process. Semayut was composed in 2003 as a commiss ion for the B a l i A r t s Fest ival . Sudirana h imse l f is a fan of Yudane ' s music and has ci ted h i m numerous times as an influence. In the two o f the examples we w i l l look at, the influence is quite clear. The first example comes f rom the introduction. T y p i c a l l y Tabuh Kreasi open wi th loud virtuosic passages often i n v o l v i n g kebyar texture or some k ind of vir tuosic statement f rom the gangsa section. These function to establish the compet ing group's ensemble virtuosity. Sudirana 's introduction is remarkable in that he opts instead for an understated, intel lectual , and unusual texture h ighl ight ing the darker t imbre o f the pokok instruments and suling, before crashing into the requisite kebyar. Figure 20- Semayut, intro until kebyar T h e analysis reveals that we are dealing wi th music that is much more contrapuntal and po lyphonic in its basic conception than the previous excerpts. The excerpt is also an interesting example o f modal mixture in that the suling melody is in an 81 entirely different mode (slendro alii) than the rest of the ensemble. While traditional Balinese music, specifically that of Gong Kebyar's precursor Semar Pegulingan frequently makes use of these non-scale tones (pemero), typically their use is much more restricted, and certainly does not involve one instrument playing in a different mode than the rest of the ensemble. As far as Tabuh Kreasi is concerned pemero have been used at least since the late seventies, and with the advent of the seven-tone gamelan Semarandana modal mixture is becoming more common (McGraw 1999: 77). Perhaps one of the most famous examples of modal mixture can be found in Dewa Ketut A l i t ' s Geregel, composed for Sanggar Cudamani in 2000, where the same melody is played in three different modes simultaneously (Vitale 2002: 43). Aside from Sudirana's innovative use of mode, the excerpt exhibits considerable independence between parts. Using traditional definitions, no single part functions as a pokok. In other words, the parts cannot be boiled down to one core melodic cell. A l l of the parts are registrally, rhythmically, and melodically distinct from one another. Unlike the Yudane example there is not one point within the 9 beat period wherein all parts are playing same pitch. Only on the last jegogan pitch before the gong do the most of the voices align in unison. Despite the music's densely contrapuntal make up there are still some normative features of Balinese syntax, which may help bind these disparate parts into a compositional unity. The solid lines running through the jegogan and suling parts illustrate how the two "outer" voices run basically parallel to one another. A lso, on the beats before and after gong they play in unison (although for the rest of the time they are in two different modes). A lso, most pitches coincide at the interval of a Balinese fourth 82 (ngempat) or its inversion (telu), and very seldom do they collide on adjacent scale tones. However, when dissonances on adjacent scale tones or thirds occur, similar to western counterpoint, these dissonances are often left by step to stable sonorities (either unison or ngempat). Some notable examples of this are labeled with an asterisk. The opening chord is interesting in that the bottom two parts and the top two parts relate to one another in terms of ngempat and the bottom notes of each pair relate to each other in terms of its inversion. A lso, the arrows on the analysis illustrate a few examples of contrary motion and voice crossing between the various parts. Traditional concepts of melodic abstraction and elaboration must be abandoned completely when looking at an example like this. Each part functions as an independent melodic element that is composed with special attention to how it interacts both rhythmically and harmonically with the other parts. It is apparent that Sudirana is picking up where Yudane left off, increasing the use of dissonance while still consistently controlling their usage within the framework of a uniquely Balinese sense of tonality. The next example comes from the same piece. Directly inspired by the unusual texture at the end of Yudane's Sruti Laya49, Sudi has chosen similar instrumentation with a comparable stratification of the various parts. personal communication March 2007 83 C, G Figure 21-Semayutfrom 7:20 T h i s example uses the exact same instrumentation as the previous example as we l l as the Sruti Laya example. A l l three examples are relatively quiet and invo lve a h igh degree of rhythmic act ivi ty between parts. L i k e the Sruti Laya example the voices are stratified in a manner s imi lar to traditional orchestrational practices in Bal inese music . There are four basic jegogan phrases wi th in the 16-beat period. These phrases are bracketed wi th reference to the last note o f the phrase. The phrases outline the f o l l o w i n g progression of pitches ( 0 ) [ : O E U O : j . T h e calung, rather than elaborating this basic melody, instead provides a counter melody wi th an even two beats between attack points, wi th the exception o f the last note before gong and the gong pi tch itself, w h i c h are each one beat in duration. T h i s sets the calung against the meter in a way wi th further differentiates it f rom the other three melod ic parts. T h e calung divides basical ly into two phrases ( A ) [ : U -A - E - O / U - E - I - U A : j . T h e rhythmic relationship between the parts is interesting because these core jegogan tones are elaborated by two and three note phrases that prepare their arr ival , so on the musica l surface it actually appears that the jegogan is m o v i n g at a higher rate of rhythmic density thereby reversing its normative function. However , the durational and phenomenal accents at those metric points lead me to interpret only the dotted quarters and half notes as structurally significant pitches. T h e attack points in the 84 jegogan phrase are syncopated in a way that seeks resolution on the downbeat of each bar. These phrases end with durational accents on that pitch in that there is comparatively less dissonance at those points metrically (coincidences at a unison and empat are marked in solid lines). This further reinforces the sense of "harmonic" motion outlined by the jegogans. Notice that there is no derivative or consistent intervallic correspondence or contour relationship between the calung and jegogan. Indeed, they were composed as two distinct voices working in rhythmic coordination. The suling and penyacah parts are rhythmically distinct in that they hocket on beats 2, 3 and 4 of each measure. Like the earlier example, the parts are often either a ngempat or telu apart and approach or depart dissonances by step. The parts also favor consonance on metrically strong points. This applies to interpart relationships in general. Both in this example and the previous one, Sudirana is coordinating the voices in an overtly polyphonic manner with Balinese tonal principles in mind. This excerpt differs from the Sruti Laya example in that Sudirana appears more concerned with the melodic interdependence and horizontal cohesion within parts. There is no clear sense of a homophonic progression of pitch aggregates or "chords" like the {0,1,3} set in Sruti Laya. The melodic parts instead change subtly so as not to disrupt horizontal continuity. The organization of these four melodic parts with relation to one another is also in no way random. While they were composed from a primarily melodic perspective, Sudi clearly favors consonances at the interval of ngempat and unison. Less frequently, does he incorporate dissonances at telu and he avoids the simultaneous sounding of adjacent scale tones altogether. And when adjacent scale tones do collide, he often approaches and leaves these dissonances by step. There also a clear design to the 85 rhythmic differentiation in both Semayut examples. The jegogan is mildly decorated while the calung plays in half notes against the meter. The suling and penyacah parts are differentiated by their rhythmic density as well as their differing contours. The suling follows a very predictable stream of off-beat attack points with neighbor motion on the down beat of each bar. The penyacah offers a simple contrapuntal complement to that static contour involving larger leaps and a predictably sinusoidal curvethat subtly approaches pitches in consonance with the lower two parts. In general, this sort of polyphony bears some clear resemblances to western polyphonic music, but Sudi's tonal hierarchy is based on indigenous conceptualizations of pitch relationships in addition to possessing an intuitive treatment of kinetics relative to the gong. Cam Wara-I Dewa Ketut Alit Among North American Bali-philes, I Dewa Ketut A l i t has something of a reputation. He first garnered the attention of western scholars with his popular (and popularly distributed) 2000 Tabuh Kreasi, Geregel. The piece features dozens of innovations in terms of elaboration, and orchestration and treatment of mode. His music is often dissonant and polyrhythmic. The following analysis of Cam Wara wi l l elucidate some ways in which his melodic elaborations and abstractions are rooted in heterophonic concepts of melodic elaboration while also being incredibly contrapuntal and dissonant. Cam Wara was composed in 2005 for the Cenik Wayah Ubud children's gamelan, for the Bal i Arts Festival competition. It should be noted that I Wayan Sudirana is that group's primary teacher and composer, and it may be no coincidence that his and A l i t ' s works both exhibit these contrapuntal qualities. While they are too close in 86 age to guess how they may influence each other, it's a fairly safe bet that Yudane was influential for both of them. Alit is also vocal in his critiques of the musical establishment in Bali. And this may or may not be one reason he spends much of his time teaching and performing abroad. Cam Wara itself received mixed reviews from the upper echelon of Bali's music community. In truth, the opening of the piece is quite bizarre. Considering, that the piece was written for a children's ensemble, it is remarkably abstract. In some ways it is reminiscent of an unmetered gineman; like the fragmented statements of an early Tabuh Kreasi like Kosali Arini. However the prolonged soft dynamic and the unconventional interlocking of phrases between pokok instruments were enough to draw criticism. The two examples we will look each come from the same section of the piece. Melody Kempli 9; v r r r r r r r r r r 'r r r r r r r r r r 1 1 Figure 22- Cam Wara Melody 1 with kempli melody ^ ¥ a f r r f r r p i ft kempli i j r r r c r - r r r r r [r r r r r r r r r r 1 1 Figure 23- Cam Wara-Melody 2 with kempli 87 In the first melody, notice that: 1) Half of the kempli and melody attack points are syncopated against the perceived basic pulse (or tactus). 2) the syncopations in the melody are mostly coordinated with the syncopations in the kempli (except the last four attack points) After this melody is introduced, a rhythmically modified (or perhaps rotated) version of melody 2 is superimposed beneath by the jegogan. It is "rotated" in that its essential rhythmic morphology is left intact (3.5+3.5+4) but shifted ahead by 3.5 beats. We notice that both melodies are coordinated with the attack points of the kempli (for the rotated melody two all but four attack points are coordinated with kempli strokes) yet they are dramatically different in contour and character. In this sense the excerpt is polyphonic in that both voices are horizontally cohesive but rhythmically, harmonically, and registrally distinct. On the third gong, the elaboration is introduced. The middle staff is a transcription of the composed elaboration performed jointly by four players on the reyong. vyong (minus kempyung) • - --- o n y \ 4 m L-f—l I f f « - * -1 i\ 0 ,m L 9 if* •p. » JA—»-T] r , it m m m t $ 1 f TttT[ :alung/sulii]£ • - H i h * L u k l/k ' > k m u i i =H u l/k '—- ' -4—-< ,'l/kl ; %* u / u ^=^= jegogan k k u ' k l/k | l/k — t k ' ! J * #• l/k — * r r r r r—r r r r r r r r r r—r r r r r 1 Figure 24-Caru Wara reyong with analysis 88 The relationship between the three melodic parts is complex. To make the contours more easily decipherable, the elaboration was re-written without the upper note of the dyads to make the contour more apparent. First we notice that the pattern lengths are irregular. A lso , these patterns do not line up with melody tones, in any consistent way, and when they do it is not in unison or at an octave. As said before, melodic elaborations are composed to prepare the arrival of a melody tone. From this cultural basis, I have chosen to put white noteheads at the end of each phrase on the assumption that the pattern leading to it wi l l be heard as its preparation (I call any stream of continuous durations separated by a durational accent a phrase). This was also done in the Mergapati and Legong examples. Notice that none of these white noteheads align with the melody in unison 5 0 except for the very last pitch before gong. While discussing these abnormal groupings with Sudirana, he suggested that I look again to see if at any point the elaboration coincides with the melody tone at the interval of a Balinese fourth. Following his lead, any instances of a unison or ngempat was labeled in the transcription (ngempat=k). Notice that 6 of thel3 note-heads align with both a melody note and a kempli stroke and that last white note-head aligns with the melody but not the kempli. The same is true for the reyong elaboration, although this only becomes apparent after close examination. Also notice that the lower two melodies seldom play adjacent pitches simultaneously. They almost always relate to one another in terms of Balinese fourths (more frequently) or its inversion. Another interesting feature in the relationship between the reyong and the melody is what looks 5 0 although there are two other unisons that are met in passing and two that coincide with the beginning of a phrase. 89 like a voice exchange between the pitches dung and dung over the course of the last eleven beats. e l a b o r a t i o n c e n t e r e d a r o u n d p i t c h " d u n g " a s c e n d i n g s t e p w i s e t o h i g h d u n g m e l o d y f r o m e x a m p l e It 1 v " 4" y V --» 0 0 0- -» 0- -9 0 0+ Figure 25- Cam Wara-voice exchange between reyong and penyacah This is fascinating evidence if not proof of intricately designed polyphonic music derived from distinctly Balinese musical aesthetics. The next example comes later in the piece. A grouping analysis of the gegenderan using melody 2 reveals interesting symmetries beneath a polyrhythmic and free sounding exterior. The largest of the grouping units (the hyper gongan units) are defined primarily by their relationship to the long ascending sequence that begins on the 24 t h beat of the excerpt. I label next smallest strata as "large phrase groupings" ( L P G ' s , for short). The groupings are based largely upon kinds of repetition (except for L P G 3 , which was determined solely on the basis of its difference from the material in the adjacent groups). 90 Lastly, I labeled larger phrase groupings as ngubeng or majalan in terms of both pattern quality and pattern type. See Appendix for a full transcription. T Y P E MAJ. N G U B MAJ MAJALAN N G U B . MAJALAN Q U A L I T Y N G U B . N G U B MAJ N G U B E N G N G U B . N G U B E N G H G U N I T 1 2 3 Table 4-pattern types and pattern qualities in the gegenderan of Caru Wara. This revealed a peculiarly symmetrical sense of balance to the elaboration. Like traditional repertoire, as well as in most of the newer examples, the elaboration is guided by its relationship to gong. Specifically, shifts in pattern quality or type occur as follows: G o n g l - 2 beats before gong Gong 2- 4 beats before gong Gong 3- not at all (but the sequence reverses direction 2 beats before gong) Gong 4- 4 beats before gong Gong 5- 4 beats after gong Gong 6- not at all We notice that A l i t ' s elaborations are guided by traditional aesthetics. Particularly, melodic elaborations are influenced in some way by their metric proximity to the gong. In all the examples we see how the gong possesses an almost radioactive quality, mutating and in a sense liquefying contours (evident in the prevalence of majalan contours immediately prior to gong) as they approach structural points. A l i t ' s innovations are interesting in that they subvert traditional models yet faithfully adhere to Balinese conceptualizations melody, time, and kinetic energy. This is 91 evident in the kinetic balance in the previous example, and the treatment of dissonance in the reyong elaboration. These innovations speak to the enormous compositional potential for gamelan music. Concluding Remarks We have seen how Balinese composers are expanding and developing instrumental music in Bal i . In each of the above cases, the composer has taken liberties with traditional musical roles to create lush new textures. There is little doubt that these melodic experiments are a reflection of the rapidly changing cultural terra in Bal i . Bal i , like anywhere else in the globe, is increasingly saturated with global influences. As a result, composers are getting familiar with more diverse styles of music at younger ages. It is only natural that these external influences find their way into contemporary music. What is most fascinating about these interactions is how various elements of Balinese music (such as, structure, melody, rhythm, and tempo) are adapting and developing to incorporate these new influences. For example, we have seen several instances in which the abstracting instruments adopt a more elaborate and polyphonic character (like Semayut). We've also seen elaborations that appear to break entirely from any melodic guidance provided by the pokok and neliti. Yet, uponcloser inspection we notice that these elaborations are in fact linked to other parts both melodically and structurally, and that these links are traceable to indigenous concepts (such as the prevalence of the interval ngempat). I have shown that with respect to various process domains the differences between heterophony and polyphony are indistinct with reference to these melodic 92 innovations. In these domains there are numerous examples of western-style polyphony that are subject to heterophonic processes. Conversely there are numerous where Balinese music exhibits polyphonic characteristics. This thesis has dealt with innovations in modern music from a primarily melodic standpoint. Further studies may investigate how composers are re-conceiving approaches rhythm, form and tempo. Andrew McGraw (2005) has touched on issues of tempo in Balinese Musik Kontemporer. And Tenzer (2006: 205-235) has dealt with aspects of musical linearity in traditional music. If this information was synthesized with reference to developments in overall musical form a greater, more holistic understanding of Balinese music may come as the result. 93 BIBLIOGRAPHY Agawu. Kofi. (2006) "Structural Analysis or Cultural Analysis? Competing Perspectives on the 'Standard Pattern'of West African Rhythm" Journal of the American Musicological Society, 59:1 1-49. Arom. Simha.(1991) African Polyphony and Polyrhythm, Cambridge: Cambridge. University Press. Bandem. I Made. (2006) "Kebyar: A Monumental Achievement in Balinese Arts" Mudra Special Edition, Institut Seni Indonesia: Denpasar . (\986)_Prakempa: Sebuah lontar Gambelan Bali. STSI: Denpasar: . (1992) Ubit-ubitan: Sebuah Teknik Permainan Gamelan Bali. STSI: Denpasar Boulez. Pierre. (1964) Pensez de la Musique Aujord'hui. Denoe Gonthier, Paris. Brinner. Benjamin. (2004) "Indonesia," Groves Music Online, ed. L. Macy (Accessed 5 December, 2006. Clifford. James. (1986) "Partial Truths," Writing Culture: the poetics and politics of ethnography, University of California Press, Berkeley. Cooke (2001). "Polyphony" Grove Music Online, ed. L. Macy, (Accessed 5, December, 2006). Friedmann. Michael. (1985). "A Methodology for the Discussion of Contour: Its Application to Schoenberg's Music" Journal of Music Theory, Vol. 29 No. 2: 233-248. Forte. Allen (1959). "Schenker's Conception of Musical Structure," Journal of Music Theory, Vol. 3, No. 1: 1-30. Frobenius (2001) "Polyphony" Grove Music Online, K. Macy (accessed 5 December, 2006). Harnish. David. (2000) "The World of Music Composition in Bali," Journal of Musicological Research, Vol. 20: 1-40. Lerdahl. Fred, and Ray Jackendoff. (1983) A Generative Theory of Tonal Music, Cambridge: M.I.T. Press. McGraw. Andrew. (1999) "The Development of the Gamelan Semara Dana, and the Expansi of the Modal System in Bali, Indonesia" Asian Music Vol.31, no.l. . (2005) Musik Kontemporer: Contemporary Music in Bali, Phd. Diss. Wesleyan University. McPhee. Colin. (1966) Music in Bali, Yale University Press, New Haven. Perlman. Marc. (2004) Unplayed Melodies: Javanese Gamelan and the Genesis of Music 94 Theory, Berkeley: University of California Press. Perlman, M. (1994) "Unplayed Melodies: Music Theory in Postcolonial Java" Ph.D. diss., Wesleyan University. Raden. Frankie. (2001) "Music, Politics, and the Problems of National Identity in Indonesia" Ph.D. diss. The University of Madison,Wisconsin. Rai. I Wayan. (1994) "Balinese Gamelan Semar Pegulingan Saih Pitu: The Modal System" Ph.D. diss., The University of Maryland. Ramstedt. Martin. (1992) "Indonesian cultural Policy in relation to the Development of the Balinese performing arts." In Schaareman, D., ed., Balinese Music in Context: A Sixty-fifth Birthday Tribute to Hans Oesch, 59-84. Winterthur: Amadeus Verlag, Forum Ethnomusicologicum 4. Richter, K. (1992) "Slendro-Pelog and the Conceptualization of Balinese Music: Remarks on the Gambuh Tone system." In Schaareman, D., ed. Balinese Music in Context: A Sixty-fifth Birthday Tribute to Hans Oesch, 195-220. Winterthur: Amadeus Verlag. Forum Ethnomusicologicum 4. Schulte-Nordholt. H. (1996), The Spell of Power: A History of Balinese Politics, 1650-1940, KITLV Press, Leiden. Sorrel 1. Neil. (1990) A Guide to Gamelan, Faber and Faber, London, pp. 13-15. Tenzer. Michael. (2000) Gamelan Gong Kebyar: The Art of Twentieth Century Balinese Music. Chicago University Press, Chicago. . (2006) Analytical Studies in World Music. Oxford University Press, Oxford. Tilley. Leslie (2003) Reyong norot figuration : an exploration into the inherent musical techniques of Bali, MA Thesis, University of British Columbia, Vancouver. Tyler. Stephen (1986) "Post-Modern Ethnography: From Document of the Occult to Occult Document" Writing Culture, Cambridge: Harvard University Press Vitale. Wayne. (1990) "Kotekan: Technique of Interlocking Parts in Balinese Music" Balungan, Vol. 4, No. 1, Winter/Spring 1991. . (2002) "Balinese Kebyar Music Breaks the Five-Tone Barrier: New Composition for Seven-Tone Gamelan." Perspectives of New Music, Vol. 40, No.l: 5-69. Witzleben.J. Lawrence. (1997) "Whose Ethnomusicology? Western Ethnomusicology and the Study of Asian Music" Ethnomusicology, Vol. 41, No. 2, Special Issue: Issues in Ethnomusicology. (Spring-Summer,: 220-242) Zbikowski. Lawrence Michael. (2001) Conceptualizing music: Cognitive Structure, Theory, and Analysis, Oxford University Press, Oxford. 95 APPENDIX-CVw IW/ZYI-FUM Grouping Analysis jwttktara f Uvtix^ GIJ* HI* tvuv-J) , Shifts in pal tern ti utility imd/or tjpc: g4wig 1-2 heal1- before 0 j;t}»g beat." before Ci gimji jbui the sequence reverse* direction 2 heal* heftwe t«> gtmj; 4-4 beau bettirc fl jjcmg 5-* heat* after O pong <w«»nc cr 


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