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Communicative acts of young children in structured elicitation contexts MacLachlan, Shannon Lee 2007

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C O M M U N I C A T I V E A C T S O F Y O U N G C H I L D R E N IN S T R U C T U R E D ELICITATION C O N T E X T S  by SHANNON LEE MACLACHLAN B . S c . H o n s . , T h e University of British C o l u m b i a , 2 0 0 0 D. L i n g . , T h e University of British C o l u m b i a , 2 0 0 5  A T H E S I S S U B M I T T E D IN P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T O F THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Audiology and S p e e c h Sciences)  T H E UNIVERSITY O F BRITISH C O L U M B I A July 2007  © Shannon Lee MacLachlan, 2007  ABSTRACT Communicative A c t s in Y o u n g Children in Structured Elicitation Contexts T h e relationship b e t w e e n c o m m u n i c a t i o n skills o v e r time, a n d the k n o w l e d g e that early intervention i m p r o v e s a child's long-term o u t c o m e , reinforces the n e e d for valid a n d reliable m e a s u r e s of y o u n g c h i l d r e n ' s c o m m u n i c a t i o n skills. T h e current study e v a l u a t e d c o m m u n i c a t i o n abilities of 3 4 children (1;5 - 2;0), s o m e with a n d s o m e without family hjstory of l a n g u a g e d e l a y . T h e major p u r p o s e w a s to d o c u m e n t rate, d i s c o u r s e type (initiation or r e s p o n s e ) , m o d e , a n d s p e e c h act type in t h e s e c h i l d r e n ' s c o m m u n i c a t i o n a n d d e t e r m i n e a g e or g e n d e r d i f f e r e n c e s . A s e c o n d a r y objective w a s to d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r s t a n d a r d i z e d l a n g u a g e test s c o r e s c o r r e l a t e d with c o m m u n i c a t i v e act d a t a . P r e d i c t i o n s w e r e that directives a n d a s s e r t i v e s w o u l d b e the m o s t frequent s p e e c h a c t s a n d s t a n d a r d i z e d l a n g u a g e s c o r e s w o u l d c o r r e l a t e with s p e e c h act d a t a . C h i l d r e n participated in a structured play s e s s i o n a s part of a larger longitudinal study. A n e x p e r i m e n t e r p r e s e n t e d a s e r i e s of toys a n d a t t e m p t e d to elicit c o m m u n i c a t i o n from the child with minimal prompting. D a t a w e r e a u d i o - a n d v i d e o - t a p e d , then orthographically t r a n s c r i b e d a n d c o d e d a c c o r d i n g to w h e t h e r the utterance w a s c o m m u n i c a t i v e or not, w h e r e the c h i l d ' s f o c u s of attention lay, w h e t h e r a n utterance w a s a n initiation or r e s p o n s e , a n d in what the m o d e a n d what the function of c o m m u n i c a t i o n w e r e . U t t e r a n c e function w a s d e f i n e d a c c o r d i n g to s p e e c h act theory, d e f i n e d by S e a r l e a n d V a n d e r v e k e n (1985) a n d m o d i f i e d by K l i n c a n s ( 1 9 9 1 ; J o h n s o n & K l i n c a n s , 1999). C h i l d r e n c o m m u n i c a t e d at a n a v e r a g e rate of 8.6 u t t e r a n c e s / minute. Initiations i n c r e a s e d with child a g e , a l t h o u g h there w a s m u c h variability a m o n g c h i l d r e n a n d a c r o s s activities; r e s p o n s e s w e r e not related to child a g e . M o d e differed by activity, with v e r b a l i z a t i o n s related to i n c r e a s i n g child a g e . T h e m o s t frequent s p e e c h act t y p e s w e r e , in order, directive, a s s e r t i v e , a n d e x p r e s s i v e , with u t t e r a n c e s c o d e d ' a m b i g u o u s ' b e t w e e n d i r e c t i v e s a n d a s s e r t i v e s in f r e q u e n c y . Significant correlations w e r e f o u n d b e t w e e n s p e e c h act d a t a a n d s t a n d a r d testing s c o r e s for: initiations a n d P L S - A C , v e r b a l i z a t i o n s a n d P L S - A C , a n d a s s e r t i v e s a n d P L S - A C , P L S - E C , a n d C D I s c o r e s . T h e s e results, particularly the relationship b e t w e e n a s s e r t i v e s a n d l a n g u a g e s c o r e s , s u g g e s t that s p e e c h act a n a l y s i s c a n contribute to the valid a n d reliable e v a l u a t i o n of c o m m u n i c a t i o n skills in structured c o n t e x t s of children u n d e r a g e 2;0 a n d a l s o predict s o m e l a n g u a g e abilities of children at this difficult-to-test a g e .  TABLE OF CONTENTS  ABSTRACT  ii  TABLE OF CONTENTS  iii  LIST O F T A B L E S .  vi  LIST O F F I G U R E S  vii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  viii  C H A P T E R 1: Introduction a n d review of the literature  1  1.1  Introduction  1  1.2  Study G o a l s  2  1.3  Y o u n g Children's C o m m u n i c a t i o n : Past R e s e a r c h  3  1.3.1  Early L a n g u a g e D e v e l o p m e n t in Y o u n g C h i l d r e n  3  1.3.2 S o c i a l C o m m u n i c a t i o n by T y p i c a l l y D e v e l o p i n g a n d L a n g u a g e I m p a i r e d Y o u n g  1.4  Children L e s s than T w o Y e a r s Old  ...3  Observation and Analysis of Child Language  15  1.4.1  Standard Tests and Tools  16  1.4.2  Elicitation of C o m m u n i c a t i v e S a m p l e s  20  1.4.3 C o d i n g S c h e m a s t o A n a l y z e Elicitations 1.5  21  Critical Analysis of Existing S y s t e m s  26  1.5.1  R e s p o n s e to C r i t i c i s m s  27  1.5.2  B a c k g r o u n d Investigations to the C u r r e n t S t u d y : K l i n c a n s (1991) a n d S i n g  (2002) 1.6  .28  B a s i s for the Current Study 1.6.1  Coding System  1.6.2  Research Questions  .29 ..'  .......29 30  C H A P T E R 2: M E T H O D  33  2.1  Overview of the Study  33  2.2  Participants  33  iii  2.3  2.4  2.2.1  B a c k g r o u n d Longitudinal S t u d y  2.2.2  Current Study  2.6  ..33 34  Data Collection  35  2.3.1  Longitudinal S t u d y T a s k s at 18 m o n t h s  35  2.3.2  S t r u c t u r e d Interaction T a s k  35  2.3.3  Structured Interaction S e s s i o n R e c o r d i n g  37  Transcription 2.4.1  2.5  :..  . Reliability of T r a n s c r i p t i o n  ...37 38  Coding  38  2.5.1  Inter-Rater Reliability: C o d i n g C o m m u n i c a t i v e A c t s  38  2.5.2  Intra-rater Reliability: C o d i n g C o m m u n i c a t i v e A c t s . .  39  2.5.3  U t t e r a n c e C o m m u n i c a t i v e or N o n - C o m m u n i c a t i v e in Intent  39  2.5.4  F o c u s of Attention  40  2.5.5  U t t e r a n c e in R e s p o n s e to / U t t e r a n c e Initiated  41  2.5.6  M o d e of C o m m u n i c a t i o n .  42  2.5.7  lllocutionary P o i n t  45  2.5.8  Coding System Modifications..  60  Data A n a l y s i s  61  2.6.1  Overview  :  ...61  2.6.2  Effect of A g e , G e n d e r , a n d T a s k o n C h i l d r e n ' s C o m m u n i c a t i o n  61  2.6.3  Relationship between Conventional A s s e s s m e n t and S p e e c h Act Data  62  CHAPTER 3  63  Results  63  3.1  Overview  3.2  C o m m u n i c a t i v e Abilities  3.3  ...63 63  3.2.1  U t t e r a n c e C o m m u n i c a t i v e or N o n - C o m m u n i c a t i v e in Intent  63  3.2.2  F o c u s of Attention  64  3.2.3  U t t e r a n c e in R e s p o n s e to/ U t t e r a n c e Initiated  64  3.2.4  M o d e of C o m m u n i c a t i o n  65  3.2.5  lllocutionary P o i n t  65  Relationship between Conventional A s s e s s m e n t and S p e e c h Act Data....  C H A P T E R 4: D i s c u s s i o n  68  69  4.1  Overview  69  4.2  S u m m a r y of Results  69  4.3  Detailed D i s c u s s i o n of C o d e d T o p i c s  71  4.3.1  R a t e of C o m m u n i c a t i o n in Structured Elicitation C o n t e x t s  4.3.2 U t t e r a n c e in R e s p o n s e to / U t t e r a n c e Initiated  71 ......73  4 . 3 . 3 M o d e of C o m m u n i c a t i o n . . . .  75  4.3.4 S p e e c h A c t F u n c t i o n s  79  4.4  Summary  79  4.5  Methodological Limitations.....  79  4.5.1  Inter-rater Reliability  :.  80  4.5.2 C o d i n g C o m m u n i c a t i v e A c t s  81  4.5.3 Consistency A c r o s s Children  82  4.5.4 U s e of S t a n d a r d i z e d T e s t s v e r s u s N o n - S t a n d a r d Elicitations  82  4.6  Future Directions and Clinical Implications  83  4.7  Conclusion  83  REFERENCES  .99  APPENDIX 1  104  v  LIST O F T A B L E S  T a b l e 1.1: C l a s s i f i c a t i o n S c h e m e c o n s t r u c t e d by K l i n c a n s (1991)  85  T a b l e 2 . 1 : S u m m a r y of C h i l d C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  86  Table 2.2: Mullen, Preschool Language Scale, and McArthur CDI S c o r e s  86  T a b l e 3 . 1 : R a t e s of C o m m u n i c a t i v e U t t e r a n c e s per Minute in e a c h Activity  87  T a b l e 3.2: C o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n A g e a n d C o m m u n i c a t i v e U t t e r a n c e s per Unit T i m e  87  T a b l e 3.3: R a t e s of N o n - C o m m u n i c a t i v e U t t e r a n c e s per M i n u t e in e a c h Activity (for u t t e r a n c e s that r e m a i n e d in transcripts)  87  T a b l e 3.4: S u m m a r y of Statistics re: Initiations a n d R e s p o n s e s in e a c h Activity per Minute T a b l e 3.5: R e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n Initiations a n d R e s p o n s e s a n d C h i l d A g e  87 :....88  T a b l e 3.6: M o d e of C o m m u n i c a t i o n - N u m b e r of T i m e s per M i n u t e of Activity  88  T a b l e 3.7: R e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n M o d e of C o m m u n i c a t i o n a n d A g e  89  T a b l e 3.8: lllocutionary P o i n t s - N u m b e r of T i m e s per Minute of Activity...  89  T a b l e 3.9: C o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n lllocutionary A c t s a n d A g e  89  vi  LIST O F F I G U R E S  F i g u r e 3 . 1 : P e r c e n t of U t t e r a n c e s O n - T o p i c with E x p e r i m e n t e r ' s T o y s by A g e  ..90  F i g u r e 3.2: N u m b e r of U t t e r a n c e s by A g e  90  F i g u r e 3.3: B o o k Activity: Initiations a n d R e s p o n s e s A c r o s s C h i l d r e n  91  F i g u r e 3.4: W h a l e Activity: Initiations a n d R e s p o n s e s A c r o s s C h i l d r e n  91  F i g u r e 3.5: B u b b l e s Activity: Initiations a n d R e s p o n s e s A c r o s s C h i l d r e n  ...92  F i g u r e 3.6: B o o k Activity - V o c a l i z a t i o n s , V e r b a l i z a t i o n s , a n d Point per M i n u t e  .92  F i g u r e 3.7: W h a l e Activity - R e a c h i n g , a n d H o l d O u t / G i v e per Minute  93  F i g u r e 3.8: W h a l e Activity - V o c a l i z a t i o n s a n d V e r b a l i z a t i o n s per Minute  93  F i g u r e 3.9: B u b b l e s A c t i v i t y - R e a c h i n g , V o c a l i z a t i o n s , a n d V e r b a l i z a t i o n s p e r Minute  94  F i g u r e 3.10: A s s e r t i v e s per Minute A c r o s s All Activities  94  F i g u r e 3 . 1 1 : N u m b e r of A s s e r t i v e s per Minute by Activity  ....95  F i g u r e 3.12: Directives per Minute A c r o s s All Activities  95  F i g u r e 3 . 1 3 : N u m b e r of Directives per M i n u t e by Activity  96  F i g u r e 3.14: E x p r e s s i v e s per Minute A c r o s s All Activities  96  F i g u r e 3.15: N u m b e r of E x p r e s s i v e s per Minute by Activity  97  F i g u r e 3.16: A m b i g u o u s per Minute A c r o s s All Activities  97  F i g u r e 3.17: Variation in R a t e of A m b i g u o u s A c t s b e t w e e n activities in 10 r a n d o m l y s e l e c t e d children  98  F i g u r e 4 . 1 : z - s c o r e d a t a for M u l l e n , P L S , a n d C D I a s s e s s m e n t s , c o m p a r e d with the n u m b e r of c o m m u n i c a t i v e utterances per minute of ten randomly s e l e c t e d participants  98  vii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  J I w o u l d like to e x p r e s s my s i n c e r e gratitude to m y t h e s i s s u p e r v i s o r , Dr. B a r b a r a M a y B e r n h a r d t , for believing this w a s a project that c o u l d b e f i n i s h e d , for s h a r i n g in s o m e of the c o d i n g of c o m m u n i c a t i v e a c t s , a n d for a d d i n g laughter, curiosity, a n d fun to the p r o c e s s . I a m very grateful for her critical a d v i c e a n d editorial c o m m e n t s , a s well a s her unfailing support a n d encouragement. M a n y t h a n k s to Dr. C a r o l y n J o h n s o n for her g e n e r o u s time, her p e r s p e c t i v e s a n d e x p e r t i s e in c o d i n g c o m m u n i c a t i o n a c t s , a n d for her insights in d e v e l o p i n g a n d c o m p l e t i n g this t h e s i s project. A l s o a big t h a n k - y o u to Dr. J u l i e S c o t t for her r e s p o n s e to all m y e m a i l s , for s h a r i n g u p to-date information o n the overall project a n d m y s a m p l e of c h i l d r e n , a n d for her m u c h a p p r e c i a t e d m e t h o d o l o g i c a l a n d statistical support! I w o u l d a l s o like to e x t e n d m y a p p r e c i a t i o n to Dr. S t e k f a M a r i n o v a - T o d d for her contributions to the quality a n d c o m p l e t i o n of this project. Lastly, two very s p e c i a l thank y o u ' s to L i s a K l i n c a n s w h o , in collaboration with C a r o l y n J o h n s o n , d e v e l o p e d the c o d i n g s y s t e m u p o n w h i c h this t h e s i s is b a s e d , a n d to T r a c e y S i n g for providing a pilot study to this work. Without their hard work, this project w o u l d h a v e b e e n m u c h m o r e difficult. T h i s project w a s greatly a s s i s t e d by a Major C o l l a b o r a t i v e H e a l t h R e s e a r c h G r a n t from NSERC.  to the d o g sitters a n d w a l k e r s , cookers, cleaners, and sanity-maintainers. m u c h love a n d m a n y t h a n k s .  CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION AND REVIEW O F THE LITERATURE  1.1  Introduction A w e b s e a r c h for the term 'child d e v e l o p m e n t ' returns o v e r 118 million related Internet  s i t e s in u n d e r four s e c o n d s . M a n y of t h e s e s i t e s a l s o include information relevant to l a n g u a g e d e v e l o p m e n t ; in fact, a n o t h e r q u i c k s e a r c h with ' l a n g u a g e d e v e l o p m e n t ' a s the s e a r c h term y i e l d s 2 6 9 million s i t e s . T h e s e s i t e s r a n g e f r o m large a s s o c i a t i o n w e b s i t e s , s u c h a s the A m e r i c a n S p e e c h a n d H e a r i n g A s s o c i a t i o n , to s m a l l e r retail o r g a n i z a t i o n s that s e l l t o y s to ' a c c e l e r a t e ' child d e v e l o p m e n t . T h i s topic is a l s o targeted in the p o p u l a r m e d i a , a s is evident from q u o t a t i o n s o n the N a t i o n a l L i t e r a c y T r u s t ' s ( N L T ) w e b s i t e in the U K (2006). F o r e x a m p l e , Dr. S a l l y W a r d (2000, cited o n N L T , 2 0 0 6 ) s a y s " T h e r e is n o g r e a t e r gift that y o u c a n g i v e y o u r child at the b e g i n n i n g of life than the ability to c o m m u n i c a t e . " E r n e s t L. B o y e r ( 1 9 9 1 , cited o n N L T , 2 0 0 6 ) , s p e a k i n g o n the Ready To Learn initiative, s a y s " E v e r y c h i l d , to b e e d u c a t i o n a l l y s u c c e s s f u l , n e e d s a l a n g u a g e - r i c h e n v i r o n m e n t , o n e in w h i c h adults s p e a k w e l l , listen attentively, a n d r e a d a l o u d e v e r y d a y " . A n d finally, B y e r s - B r o w n & E d w a r d s ( 1 9 8 9 , cited o n N L T , 2 0 0 6 ) s a y s " C h i l d r e n w h o a r e u n a b l e to c o m m u n i c a t e effectively through l a n g u a g e or to u s e l a n g u a g e a s a b a s i s for further learning a r e h a n d i c a p p e d s o c i a l l y , e d u c a t i o n a l l y a n d , a s a c o n s e q u e n c e , emotionally". All of t h e s e s o u r c e s e m p h a s i z e the i m p o r t a n c e of e a r l y c o m m u n i c a t i o n d e v e l o p m e n t to e n s u r e a c h i l d ' s s o c i a l , e d u c a t i o n a l , a n d e m o t i o n a l s u c c e s s . F r o m the s h e e r proliferation of a c c e s s i b l e information o n this topic, it is readily a p p a r e n t that our s o c i e t y is c o n c e r n e d a b o u t l a n g u a g e d e v e l o p m e n t in y o u n g c h i l d r e n . T h i s c o n c e r n a b o u t early child l a n g u a g e d e v e l o p m e n t is justified in the e v i d e n c e p r e s e n t e d by the r e s e a r c h literature; it is well d o c u m e n t e d that c h i l d r e n ' s early c o m m u n i c a t i v e abilities a r e c o r r e l a t e d with their later l a n g u a g e abilities (Brady, S t e e p l e s , & F l e m i n g , 2 0 0 5 ; C a l a n d r e l l a & W i l c o x , 2 0 0 0 ) . F o r e x a m p l e , M c C a t h r e n , Y o d e r , a n d W a r r e n (1999) reported that, in children b e t w e e n the a g e s of 1 ;5 a n d 2 ; 10 with mild to m o d e r a t e intellectual d e l a y s , rate of v o c a l i z a t i o n , rate of v o c a l i z a t i o n s with c o n s o n a n t s , a n d rate of v o c a l i z a t i o n s u s e d interactively w e r e positively c o r r e l a t e d with e x p r e s s i v e v o c a b u l a r y o n e y e a r later b e t w e e n the a g e s of 1 ;5 a n d 2 ; 10. S t o e l - G a m m o n (1998) s t a t e s that later s p e e c h a n d l a n g u a g e d e v e l o p m e n t s a r e c o r r e l a t e d with p r e - s p e e c h v o c a l i z a t i o n s . M u n d y a n d G o m e s (1998) additionally f o u n d that early 1  n o n - v e r b a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n skills w e r e related to later l a n g u a g e ability. In particular, early ability to initiate joint attention w a s predictive of later l a n g u a g e production skills a n d early r e s p o n d i n g to joint attention w a s predictive of later l a n g u a g e c o m p r e h e n s i o n l e v e l s . T h e r e f o r e , it is important to be a b l e to m e a s u r e c h i l d r e n ' s c o m m u n i c a t i o n capabilities in early d e v e l o p m e n t a c c u r a t e l y a n d p r e c i s e l y . It is a l s o important to c o n s i d e r that c h i l d r e n ' s c o m m u n i c a t i o n ability c a n b e a n important index of their cognitive d e v e l o p m e n t , b e c a u s e m a n y cognitive i m p a i r m e n t s c o - o c c u r with l a n g u a g e impairment. A s s u c h , it b e c o m e s n e c e s s a r y to e v a l u a t e y o u n g c h i l d r e n ' s c o m m u n i c a t i o n capabilities a c c u r a t e l y , in o r d e r to k n o w w h i c h children a r e d e v e l o p i n g a s e x p e c t e d , a n d w h i c h children a r e likely to d e v e l o p l a n g u a g e a n d / o r other cognitive d e l a y s ( B r a d y et a l . , 2 0 0 5 ) . T h i s is particularly important for v e r y y o u n g c h i l d r e n , b e c a u s e it is often true that the earlier that support s e r v i c e s c a n b e p r o v i d e d , the greater the i m p a c t will b e o n the c h i l d ' s long-term o u t c o m e . N u m e r o u s w a y s exist to e v a l u a t e a child's c o m m u n i c a t i v e c a p a b i l i t i e s , i.e., a s s e s s i n g a c h i l d ' s p h o n o l o g i c a l , syntactic, a n d / o r s e m a n t i c k n o w l e d g e a n d skills. A n additional w a y of e v a l u a t i n g a c h i l d ' s l a n g u a g e abilities h a s to d o with the w a y s in w h i c h a child is a b l e to u s e l a n g u a g e , that is, w h a t functions, or a c t s , a child c a n a c h i e v e u s i n g his or her existing v e r b a l a n d n o n - v e r b a l m e a n s of c o m m u n i c a t i o n .  1.2  Study Goals T h e primary g o a l s of the current study w e r e to d o c u m e n t the w a y s in w h i c h children  b e t w e e n 17 a n d 2 4 m o n t h s of a g e c o m m u n i c a t e a n d to investigate m e t h o d s of o b s e r v i n g a n d a n a l y z i n g c h i l d r e n ' s l a n g u a g e - r e l a t e d c o m m u n i c a t i v e b e h a v i o u r s . T h i s study contributes to the existing literature by c h a r a c t e r i z i n g the r a n g e of c o m m u n i c a t i v e abilities of 3 4 c h i l d r e n , a c o n s i d e r a b l y larger n u m b e r than usually s t u d i e d in r e s e a r c h of this nature. A s it is well d o c u m e n t e d in the literature that y o u n g c h i l d r e n ' s l a n g u a g e abilities a r e c o r r e l a t e d with their later c o m m u n i c a t i o n capabilities ( C a l a n d r e l l a & W i l c o x , 2 0 0 0 ; B r a d y , S t e e p l e s , & F l e m i n g , 2 0 0 5 ) , this c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of a r a n g e of y o u n g c h i l d r e n ' s abilities is a n important s t e p t o w a r d s d i a g n o s i n g l a n g u a g e impairment at a y o u n g e r a g e than is currently p o s s i b l e . T h i s s t u d y will a l s o contribute to the existing literature by investigating two m e t h o d s of c h a r a c t e r i z i n g y o u n g c h i l d r e n ' s u t t e r a n c e s : s t a n d a r d i z e d testing instruments v e r s u s n o n - s t a n d a r d i z e d o b s e r v a t i o n of c h i l d r e n ' s c o m m u n i c a t i v e g e s t u r e s , m o d e s of c o m m u n i c a t i o n , a n d functions of c o m m u n i c a t i o n . C h a p t e r I r e v i e w s the literature o n y o u n g c h i l d r e n ' s c o m m u n i c a t i o n d e v e l o p m e n t , p r e s e n t i n g d a t a from s t u d i e s o n both typically a n d atypically d e v e l o p i n g children a n d f o c u s e s o n the v e r b a l a n d n o n - v e r b a l c o m m u n i c a t i v e c a p a b i l i t i e s of y o u n g c h i l d r e n . T h e q u e s t i o n s r a i s e d a n d h y p o t h e s e s f o r m e d a s a result of this review a r e p r e s e n t e d at the e n d of C h a p t e r 1. C h a p t e r 2  2 d e s c r i b e s h o w the d a t a for this study w e r e c o l l e c t e d a n d a n a l y z e d , including the h i e r a r c h i c a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g s y s t e m that w a s u s e d . C h a p t e r 3 p r e s e n t s the results of this study, w h i c h a r e then d i s c u s s e d in C h a p t e r 4.  1.3  Y o u n g Children's C o m m u n i c a t i o n : Past Research T h e s t u d y of l a n g u a g e e n c o m p a s s e s a b r o a d r a n g e of d o m a i n s , i.e., p h o n o l o g y ,  s e m a n t i c s , s y n t a x a n d p r a g m a t i c s : S e c t i o n 1.3.1 briefly d i s c u s s e s the first three of t h e s e t o p i c s ; s e c t i o n 1.3.2, the f o c u s of this t h e s i s , d i s c u s s e s the last in greater detail.  1.3.1  Early Language Development in Y o u n g Children P a u l (2007) n o t e s a n u m b e r of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of l a n g u a g e d e v e l o p m e n t b e f o r e a g e 2 .  C h i l d r e n t e n d to s h o w a n a v e r a g e production v o c a b u l a r y of b e t w e e n 5 0 to 100 w o r d s at 1 ;6 y e a r s a n d 2 0 0 - 3 0 0 w o r d s at 2;0 y e a r s ( P a u l , 2 0 0 7 ) . E a r l y s e m a n t i c relationships i n c l u d e u n d e r s t a n d i n g a n d p r o d u c i n g agent-action/object, action-object/location, entity-location, p o s s e s s o r - p o s s e s s i o n , demonstrative-entity, a n d attribute-entity relations. In t e r m s of the p h o n o l o g i c a l form of early w o r d s at a g e 1 ;6, P a u l (2007) n o t e s that children a r e typically p r o d u c i n g w o r d s with s o m e of the c o n s o n a n t s u s e d in b a b b l i n g . B y a g e 2 , children typically a r e p r o d u c i n g nine to ten word-initial a n d five to s i x word-final c o n s o n a n t s , 7 0 % of w h i c h m a t c h the adult target. B o t h m o n o s y l l a b i c w o r d s ( C V , C V C ) a n d s o m e disyllabic w o r d s a r e in the child's repertoire. E a r l y syntactic relationships b e t w e e n w o r d s b e g i n to e m e r g e b e t w e e n 1 ;6 a n d 2 ; 0 ; twow o r d u t t e r a n c e s e m e r g e a n d w o r d o r d e r b e c o m e s i n c r e a s i n g l y c o n s i s t e n t , a l t h o u g h there a r e f e w g r a m m a t i c a l m a r k e r s exist before a g e 2 ; 0 ( P a u l , 2 0 0 7 ) .  1.3.2  Social C o m m u n i c a t i o n by Typically Developing and Language Impaired Y o u n g Children L e s s than Two Y e a r s O l d T h e study of c o m m u n i c a t i v e p r a g m a t i c s c o n c e r n s the f u n c t i o n s a n d f r e q u e n c y of  c o m m u n i c a t i o n , skills in d i s c o u r s e ( s u c h a s turn-taking a n d t o p i c - m a i n t e n a n c e ) , a n d modification of s p e e c h for different c o n v e r s a t i o n partners. T h i s s e c t i o n p r e s e n t s a review of the literature in p r a g m a t i c s that is c o n c e r n e d with c h i l d r e n ' s functional u s e of l a n g u a g e . S t u d i e s a r e g r o u p e d into two major s e c t i o n s : c o m m u n i c a t i v e m o d e a n d c o m m u n i c a t i v e function. T h e s e s u b t o p i c s a r e specifically a d d r e s s e d b e c a u s e m u c h of the p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h in this a r e a h a s u s e d t h e s e distinctions. In addition, it is important to c o n s i d e r c o m m u n i c a t i v e m o d e a n d c o m m u n i c a t i v e function s e p a r a t e l y , b e c a u s e a child m a y b e a b l e to v e r b a l i z e ( a 'high' m o d e of c o m m u n i c a t i o n ) but u n a b l e to e x p r e s s m a n y different c o m m u n i c a t i v e f u n c t i o n s , a n d the  3  o p p o s i t e . T h i s information is i n v a l u a b l e in treatment of l a n g u a g e impairment. N o t e that the following d i s c u s s i o n f o c u s e s o n g e n e r a l findings of the s t u d i e s to provide a n o v e r v i e w . F u r t h e r detail o n c o d i n g s c h e m e s l e a d i n g to t h o s e findings a r e d i s c u s s e d in the last s e c t i o n of the c h a p t e r , a s b a c k g r o u n d for the current study m e t h o d o l o g y . (The pilot study for the current s t u d y ( S i n g , 2002) is not d i s c u s s e d in this s e c t i o n , but rather at the e n d of the c h a p t e r , a s a p r e l u d e to the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s a n d predictions for the current study.)  1.3.2.1 M o d e of C o m m u n i c a t i o n R e s e a r c h findings c o n c e r n i n g different m o d e s of c o m m u n i c a t i o n are briefly p r e s e n t e d h e r e ; first, the n o n v e r b a l m o d e s a n d then the v e r b a l m o d e s . M o d e of c o m m u n i c a t i o n d e s c r i b e s the m a n n e r or w a y in w h i c h c o m m u n i c a t i o n took p l a c e — g e s t u r e , g a z e , v o c a l i z a t i o n , or v e r b a l i z a t i o n . M a n y of the s t u d i e s p r e s e n t e d h e r e will a l s o b e d i s c u s s e d in 1.3.2.2. F o l l o w i n g this d i s c u s s i o n , two s t u d i e s a r e p r e s e n t e d . T h e first study c o n s i d e r s variability b e t w e e n c h i l d r e n ' s d e v e l o p m e n t of c o m m u n i c a t i v e m o d e s a n d the s e c o n d s t u d y c o n s i d e r s predictability of a child's d e v e l o p m e n t of different c o m m u n i c a t i v e m o d e s o v e r time.  Non-Verbal Communication: Gesture G e s t u r e is a c o m m o n m o d e of c o m m u n i c a t i o n in typical d e v e l o p m e n t . G e s t u r e s include a c t i o n s s u c h a s pointing, r e a c h i n g , s h o w i n g , w a v i n g , n o d d i n g or s h a k i n g the h e a d , a n d m a n y other natural f o r m s that derive m e a n i n g f r o m the context in w h i c h they a r e p r o d u c e d (e.g., a child lifting his/her a r m s to a parent to indicate the d e s i r e to b e p i c k e d up). A n u m b e r of r e s e a r c h e r s h a v e s t u d i e d the d e v e l o p m e n t a n d function of g e s t u r e in y o u n g c h i l d r e n . T o p b a s , M a v i s a n d E r b a s (2003), in their s t u d y of 16 T u r k i s h infants a g e d 1 ;3 to 3;0 (8 typically d e v e l o p i n g , 8 l a n g u a g e d e l a y e d ) f o u n d that c o m m u n i c a t i o n o c c u r r e d by g e s t u r e 7 5 % of the time in typically d e v e l o p i n g children b e t w e e n 1;1 a n d 1;3. In children with l a n g u a g e d e l a y , by contrast, c o m m u n i c a t i o n o c c u r r e d by g e s t u r e 9 0 % of the time in children at a g e 2 ; 0 . T y p i c a l l y d e v e l o p i n g children u s e d m u c h l e s s g e s t u r e by 1;6 to 2;0 y e a r s , with only 5 % of u t t e r a n c e s b e i n g g e s t u r e s . H o w e v e r , 5 5 % of the u t t e r a n c e s w e r e still by g e s t u r e in children with l a n g u a g e d e l a y b e t w e e n 2;6 a n d 3;0 y e a r s . F r a n c o a n d Butterworth (1996) set out to e v a l u a t e the c o m m u n i c a t i v e function of g e s t u r e s in v a r y i n g c o m m u n i c a t i o n c o n t e x t s . T h e y investigated the u s e of pointing, r e a c h i n g a n d other indicative g e s t u r e s by 4 7 children a g e d 1 ;0-1 ;6 y e a r s o l d . T h e i r s t u d y u s e d two different e x p e r i m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s : a referential condition w h e r e c h i l d r e n w e r e e x p e c t e d to s h a r e interest in the event with a n adult, a n d a n instrumental condition w h e r e the children w e r e e x p e c t e d to request help from the adult. F r a n c o a n d Butterworth (1996) f o u n d that their s u b j e c t s  4  (1 ;0-1 ;6) p o i n t e d , but d i d not r e a c h , in the referential condition (where they w e r e e x p e c t e d to s h a r e interest in a n e v e n t with a n adult). C h i l d r e n pointed a n d r e a c h e d in the instrumental condition (where they w e r e e x p e c t e d to r e q u e s t help from the adult). F r a n c o a n d Butterworth (1996) c o n c l u d e d that pointing by y o u n g c h i l d r e n f u n c t i o n s a s a d e c l a r a t i v e c o m m u n i c a t i v e act. T h e y f o u n d n o c h a n g e in modality of indication (from pointing to reaching) a s the c h i l d r e n got older. F r a n c o a n d Butterworth's (1996) finding that c h i l d r e n at 1;0-1;6 c a n u s e a n a p p r o p r i a t e g e s t u r e ('point' v e r s u s ' r e a c h a n d point') in referential v e r s u s instrumental e x p e r i m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s s p e a k s to the high level of e x p r e s s i v e c o m m u n i c a t i v e c o m p e t e n c e that v e r y y o u n g children c a n p o s s e s s . T h i s is particularly m e a n i n g f u l g i v e n the large s a m p l e s i z e from w h i c h the authors draw conclusions. L i s z k o w s k i , C a r p e n t e r , H e n n i n g , S t r i a n o , a n d T o m a s e l l o (2004) further i n v e s t i g a t e d early pointing b e h a v i o u r by 1 2 - m o n t h - o l d s to test w h e t h e r infants point to satisfy t h e m s e l v e s only, to g a i n a n adult's attention a n d e m o t i o n for t h e m s e l v e s , to direct a n adult's attention to a n object, or to s h a r e attention a n d interest in the object. T h e s e h y p o t h e s e s w e r e p o s e d to a n s w e r the q u e s t i o n s of w h e t h e r infants a r e c a p a b l e of either or both proto-imperative a n d protod e c l a r a t i v e pointing. P r o t o - i m p e r a t i v e pointing is pointing for w h i c h the infant u s e s the adult a s a tool to g a i n a c c e s s to a n object (e.g., pointing to r e q u e s t a n item). P r o t o - d e c l a r a t i v e pointing is pointing for w h i c h the infant u s e s a n object to g a i n the adult's attention (e.g., pointing to s h a r e attention a n d interest in a b o o k ) . M u c h of the existing literature (e.g., C a r p e n t e r , N a g e l l , a n d T o m a s e l l o , 1 9 9 8 ; Bretherton, M c N e w , a n d B e e g h l y - S m i t h , 1 9 8 1 ; L e u n g a n d R h e i n g o l d , 1 9 8 1 , cited in L i s z k o w s k i et a l . , 2 0 0 4 ) s u g g e s t s that both proto-declarative a n d proto-imperative points e m e r g e a r o u n d 12 m o n t h s of a g e , with proto-declarative points slightly p r e d a t i n g protoimperative points. H O w e v e r , M o o r e a n d C o r k u m (1994, cited in L i s z k o w s k i et a l . , 2 0 0 4 ) s u g g e s t that infants d o not g a i n proto-declarativity until 1 ;6. L i s z k o w s k i et a l . (2004) c o n c l u d e d that the infants w e r e pointing with a d u a l p u r p o s e : to direct the adult's attention, a n d to elicit a c o m m e n t from the adult a b o u t the event. T h i s d u a l motive c o n c l u s i o n w a s c o n s i s t e n t with the literature cited a b o v e that infants c a n p r o d u c e a proto-declarative point at 12 m o n t h s . In a related study, C r a i s , D o u g l a s , a n d C o x C a m p b e l l (2004) u s e d B a t e s ' s (1976) definitions of imperative a n d d e c l a r a t i v e a n d a l i g n e d t h e m with B r u n e r ' s (1981) b e h a v i o u r regulation a n d joint attention functions, respectively. T h e s e a u t h o r s report that d e c l a r a t i v e pointing to r e q u e s t joint attention a n d action or information from the s o c i a l partner o c c u r r e d 2 m o n t h s before imperative pointing to r e q u e s t a c t i o n s (e.g., child points to the d o o r a s a r e q u e s t to g o out). C r a i s et a l . (2004) a l s o reported that d e c l a r a t i v e giving (joint attention function) 5  o c c u r r e d 1.5 m o n t h s b e f o r e imperative giving (behaviour regulation function). T h e distinctions t h e s e a u t h o r s m a d e b e t w e e n different t y p e s of the s a m e g e s t u r e a r e e x t r e m e l y d e t a i l e d , if a little difficult to follow. Reilly, E a d i e , B a v i n , W a k e , Prior, W i l l i a m s , Bretherton, Barrett, a n d U k o u m u n n e (2006). f o u n d that e v e n y o u n g e r children than the o n e s p r e s e n t e d a b o v e (0;8 - 1 ;0) w e r e u s i n g c o m m u n i c a t i o n strategies effectively, including e m o t i o n a l indicators a n d e y e g a z e (as d i s c u s s e d in the next s e c t i o n , 7 5 % of the children). A s m a l l e r p e r c e n t a g e of the children w e r e u s i n g natural g e s t u r e s ( 5 - 4 6 % d e p e n d i n g o n the gesture), but m o r e than 8 0 % w e r e v o c a l i z i n g with intent to obtain attention or help. B y 1 ;0, the c h i l d r e n ' s skills h a d a d v a n c e d in all a r e a s , particularly in the u s e of g e s t u r e . In s u m m a r y , typically d e v e l o p i n g children w e r e a b l e to u s e g e s t u r e (pointing a n d / o r reaching) appropriately by 1;0 to 1;3 y e a r s of a g e to g a i n attention, s h a r e interest, elicit c o m m e n t s , a n d request help. During this time p e r i o d , g e s t u r e s a r e the c h i l d r e n ' s primary m o d e of c o m m u n i c a t i o n a n d , for s o m e t y p e s , g e s t u r e s w e r e the s o l e m o d e of c o m m u n i c a t i o n (e.g., direct attention to self, g r e e t i n g , a n d request for object w e r e c o m m u n i c a t e d c o m p l e t e l y with g e s t u r e before 1 ;3 ; T o p b a s et a l . , 2 0 0 3 ) . B y contrast, children with d e v e l o p m e n t a l d e l a y u s e g e s t u r e a s their only m o d e of c o m m u n i c a t i o n a p p r o x i m a t e l y s e v e n m o n t h s longer than their typically d e v e l o p i n g s a m e - a g e p e e r s (until 2;0), with g e s t u r e often r e m a i n i n g their d o m i n a n t m o d e of c o m m u n i c a t i o n until 3;0.  Non-Verbal Communication: G a z e Y o u n g children a l s o u s e g a z e to c o m m u n i c a t e . F r a n c o a n d Butterworth (1996) s t u d i e d g a z e in y o u n g c h i l d r e n . T h e s e a u t h o r s f o u n d that the timing of v i s u a l c h e c k i n g (defined a s g a z e to the s o c i a l partner that c o i n c i d e d with a g e s t u r e but not with the partner s p e a k i n g i m m e d i a t e l y prior to the g a z e ) with pointing differed a c c o r d i n g to the c h i l d ' s a g e ; v i s u a l c h e c k i n g o c c u r r e d i m m e d i a t e l y after pointing at 1 ;0, v i s u a l c h e c k i n g o c c u r r e d during pointing at 1 ;2, a n d v i s u a l c h e c k i n g o c c u r r e d before pointing at 1 ;4. T h e timing of v i s u a l c h e c k i n g with r e a c h i n g a l s o differed a c c o r d i n g to the c h i l d ' s a g e ; at 1 ;0, v i s u a l c h e c k i n g o c c u r r e d before, after a n d d u r i n g the r e a c h , but by 1 ;2, it o c c u r r e d nearly e x c l u s i v e l y during the r e a c h . F r a n c o a n d Butterworth (1996) state that v i s u a l c h e c k i n g at different time points within a g e s t u r a l s e q u e n c e s e r v e s three s e p a r a t e functions: to direct the partner to a n interesting event, to c h e c k for a partner's attention, a n d / o r to s h a r e a n internal state. T h a t is, the c h a n g e s in timing of v i s u a l c h e c k i n g that o c c u r s with children a s they a g e a l l o w s t h e m to g a i n a r a n g e of skills in s o c i a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n interactions. F r a n c o a n d Butterworth (1996) a l s o c o n c l u d e that pointing a n d r e a c h i n g are intentional g e s t u r e s e v e n at this y o u n g a g e , b e c a u s e 4 7 % of pointing g e s t u r e s  6  a n d 3 1 % of r e a c h i n g g e s t u r e s w e r e a s s o c i a t e d with v i s u a l g a z e to a n adult by the a g e of 1;0. T h e a m o u n t of v i s u a l c h e c k i n g to a n adult with pointing i n c r e a s e d with a g e ( 6 5 % at 1 ;6), but v i s u a l c h e c k i n g to a n adult with r e a c h i n g r e m a i n e d c o n s t a n t with a g e . H o w e v e r , it is s o m e w h a t q u e s t i o n a b l e w h e t h e r the timing of v i s u a l c h e c k i n g after, during or b e f o r e pointing truly c h a n g e s the function of the point in the w a y F r a n c o a n d Butterworth (1996) s u g g e s t (to direct partner, c h e c k for attention, or s h a r e internal state). In addition, F r a n c o a n d Butterworth (1996) d e f i n e d a g e s t u r e a s intentionally c o m m u n i c a t i v e a c c o r d i n g to p r e s e n c e or a b s e n c e of g a z e . A c c o r d i n g to B l a k e , M c C o n n e l l , H o r t o n , a n d B e n s o n (1992) e y e g a z e d o e s not a c c o m p a n y the majority of g e s t u r e s exhibited by children u n d e r 2 y e a r s of a g e . T h i s finding i m p l i e s F r a n c o a n d Butterworth (1996) m a y not h a v e attributed c o m m u n i c a t i v e intent to u t t e r a n c e s that w e r e , in fact, c o m m u n i c a t i v e .  Verbal Communication: Vocalization and Verbalization A s n o t e d earlier, children a r e typically v o c a l i z i n g a n d v e r b a l i z i n g in the s e c o n d y e a r with c o m m u n i c a t i v e intent. In t e r m s of relative u s e of v o c a l i z a t i o n v e r s u s v e r b a l i z a t i o n a n d a g e , T o p b a s , M a v i s a n d E r b a s (2003) f o u n d that v o c a l i z a t i o n s a n d v e r b a l i z a t i o n s w e r e u s e d b e t w e e n 1 ;3 a n d 1 ;6 a n d v e r b a l i z a t i o n s w e r e the d o m i n a n t m o d e of c o m m u n i c a t i o n u s e d b e t w e e n 1 ;6 a n d 2 ; 0 . P a u l (2007) n o t e s that p r e v e r b a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n d e c r e a s e s a n d w o r d u s e i n c r e a s e s with i n c r e a s i n g a g e b e t w e e n 1;6 a n d 2 ; 0 . P a u l (2007) a l s o reports a m e a n rate of 7.5 u t t e r a n c e s per minute in free play b e t w e e n 1 ;6 a n d 2 ; 0 . Further to rate a n d function, in a n e x p e r i m e n t a l context, Lichtert (2003) f o u n d that children p r o d u c e d a n a v e r a g e of two u t t e r a n c e s e a c h time a n item w a s offered in a protoimperative c o n d i t i o n . A n a v e r a g e of two u t t e r a n c e s w a s a l s o f o u n d in a proto-declarative e x p e r i m e n t (Lichtert, 2 0 0 3 ) . H o w e v e r , there w a s a large a m o u n t of variation in n u m b e r of u t t e r a n c e s , e v e n w h e n c o n s i d e r i n g a g e of the c h i l d r e n . Lichtert (2003) f o u n d a greater n u m b e r of u t t e r a n c e s in the proto-declarative condition than in the proto-imperative c o n d i t i o n . In the proto-imperative e x p e r i m e n t , the a v e r a g e n u m b e r of u t t e r a n c e s g r a d u a l l y i n c r e a s e d linearly with the a g e of the c h i l d . In the proto-declarative e x p e r i m e n t , the a v e r a g e n u m b e r of u t t e r a n c e s f o r m e d a curvilinear trend with a g e . At a g e 1;6, the m e a n n u m b e r of elicited a c t s w a s 1.7; at a g e 2 ; 0 , 1.0; a n d at a g e 2;6, 3.4. In s u m m a r y , v o c a l i z a t i o n s a n d v e r b a l i z a t i o n s s e e m to g a i n c o m m u n i c a t i v e intent b e t w e e n 1;3 a n d 1;6, with v e r b a l i z a t i o n s b e c o m i n g m o r e frequent than v o c a l i z a t i o n s a s a child a g e s . T h e n u m b e r of u t t e r a n c e s per minute in free play m a y b e a s high a s 7.5 p e r minute, a l t h o u g h activity type m a y affect the child's production of u t t e r a n c e s .  7  Variability in M o d e of C o m m u n i c a t i o n A c q u i s i t i o n C h i l d r e n a c q u i r e m o d e s of c o m m u n i c a t i o n at different t i m e s in their individual d e v e l o p m e n t a n d m a y not initially b e a b l e to u s e a n e w m o d e a c r o s s all activities. C a s b y a n d C u m p a t a (1986) investigated the level of m o d e of c o m m u n i c a t i o n in 11 y o u n g (n = 1) or s e v e r e l y l a n g u a g e - d e l a y e d children (n = 10), b e t w e e n the a g e s of 1 ;6 to 3 ; 3 , during activities that elicited intentional c o m m u n i c a t i o n . T h e a u t h o r s d e s c r i b e d c h i l d r e n ' s m o d e of c o m m u n i c a t i o n o n a five-item ordinal s c a l e (the P r o t o c o l for the A s s e s s m e n t of Prelinguistic Intentional C o m m u n i c a t i o n - P A P I C ( C a s b y a n d C u m p a t a , 1986). T h e y f o u n d a great r a n g e in c h i l d r e n ' s m o d e s of c o m m u n i c a t i o n b e t w e e n 1 ;6 a n d 3;3 a n d b e t w e e n a g i v e n c h i l d ' s p e r f o r m a n c e o n different t a s k s . T h e y o u n g e s t child in the study (1 ;6, not l a n g u a g e d e l a y e d ) a c h i e v e d the highest M L U ( m e a n length of utterance = 1.60) a n d m e a n s o n the P A P I C w e r e b e t w e e n 1.5 a n d 3 . 0 5 with high points of 4 o n both of t h e s e t a s k s . T h e s e s c o r e s r e p r e s e n t the highest s c o r e s a c h i e v e d by a s i n g l e child in the study. T h e o l d e s t child in the s t u d y (3;3, l a n g u a g e - i m p a i r e d ) a l s o a c h i e v e d a relatively large M L U v a l u e (1.42), a n d m e a n s o n the P A P I C w e r e b e t w e e n 0.71 (highest v a l u e 1) a n d 3.46 (highest v a l u e 4) w h e n rated o n the ordinal s c a l e . O n e additional child with l a n g u a g e impairment r e c e i v e d a n M L U of l e s s than 1. T h i s s t u d y s h o w s that typically d e v e l o p i n g children a s y o u n g a s 1 ;0 c a n u s e objects to g a i n a c c e s s to a n adult's attention, a n d that typically d e v e l o p i n g children a s y o u n g a s 1 ;6 c a n c o m m u n i c a t e v i a quite s o p h i s t i c a t e d m o d e s of c o m m u n i c a t i o n ( s u c h a s v e r b a l i z i n g ) . H o w e v e r , the variability in a g e , M L U , a n d m e a n a n d highest level m o d e s of c o m m u n i c a t i o n r e a c h e d o n the C a s b y a n d C u m p a t a ordinal s c a l e highlights the potential for great variability b e t w e e n a n d within children o n t a s k s that m e a s u r e early l a n g u a g e d e v e l o p m e n t . A l t h o u g h it is interesting to k n o w t h a t children at s u c h a y o u n g a g e a r e c a p a b l e of t h e s e m o d e s of c o m m u n i c a t i o n , it is e q u a l l y important to c o n s i d e r if the m e a s u r e s inform u s a b o u t the c h i l d ' s ability to e x p r e s s their c o m m u n i c a t i v e intention. Further to the C a s b y a n d C u m p a t a study, it is important to q u e s t i o n w h e t h e r M L U w a s a n appropriate w a y to m e a s u r e a c h i l d ' s l a n g u a g e complexity, g i v e n that M L U c a n b e i n f l u e n c e d in a variety of different w a y s , including by a d d i n g w o r d s , i n c r e a s i n g m o r p h o l o g y , or responding/imitating to a n adult's d i s c o u r s e ( J o h n s t o n , 2 0 0 5 ) . A l t h o u g h the quantitative result in t e r m s of M L U m a y b e equivalent, o n e c o u l d a r g u e e a c h of t h e s e e x a m p l e s s a y s s o m e t h i n g different a b o u t the child's l a n g u a g e c a p a b i l i t i e s . In addition, the ordinal s c a l e d e s c r i b e d b y C a s b y a n d C u m p a t a (1986) e x c l u s i v e l y d e s c r i b e s the c h i l d ' s m o d e of c o m m u n i c a t i o n , not the s o p h i s t i c a t i o n of their c o m m u n i c a t i o n . W h e n c o m p a r i n g children of different l a n g u a g e abilities, particularly different children with l a n g u a g e impairment, it s e e m s a s t h o u g h s o p h i s t i c a t i o n , rather t h a n length or m o d e , w o u l d be a m o r e relevant v a r i a b l e to m e a s u r e .  8  Predictability in D e v e l o p m e n t of M o d e of C o m m u n i c a t i o n C o n c e r n i n g implications of c o m m u n i c a t i v e m o d e for later l a n g u a g e d e v e l o p m e n t , C a l a n d r e l l a a n d W i l c o x (2000) attempted to predict a child's d e v e l o p m e n t of c o m m u n i c a t i v e m o d e by their ability at T i m e 1. T h e s e a u t h o r s d e v i s e d a c o d i n g s y s t e m to c l a s s i f y the c o m m u n i c a t i v e abilities of 2 5 y o u n g children (1 ;5 to 3;2) with D o w n S y n d r o m e or a n o t h e r d e v e l o p m e n t a l d e l a y . E a c h child c o m m u n i c a t e d at a prelinguistic l a n g u a g e level 9 5 % of the time at the initiation of the study. T h e children w e r e v i d e o t a p e d e v e r y 6 m o n t h s o v e r the c o u r s e of o n e y e a r during naturalistic play s e s s i o n s with their m o t h e r s (three o b s e r v a t i o n s e s s i o n s ) . C a l a n d r e l l a a n d W i l c o x (2000) u s e d r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s to d e t e r m i n e w h i c h T i m e 1 a n d T i m e 2 factors (6 m o n t h s later) w e r e c o r r e l a t e d with c o m m u n i c a t i v e skills at T i m e 3 (one y e a r later). T h e y did not find significant predictors at T i m e 1 of the c h i l d r e n ' s l a n g u a g e c o m p r e h e n s i o n or production s c o r e s at T i m e 3 (one y e a r later) o n the S e q u e n c e d Inventory of C o m m u n i c a t i o n D e v e l o p m e n t - R e v i s e d ( S I C D - R ; H e d r i c k , Prather, a n d T o b i n , 1 9 8 4 ) . H o w e v e r , they did find significant relationships b e t w e e n a child's rate of intentional n o n - v e r b a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n with a n d without c o o r d i n a t e d attention at T i m e 1 a n d their l a n g u a g e skills ( c o m p r e h e n s i o n a n d production) a n d rate of different s y m b o l p r o d u c t i o n s at T i m e 3 . R a t e of g e s t u r a l indicating b e h a v i o u r at T i m e 1 did not predict l a n g u a g e o u t c o m e at T i m e 3 , but rate of g e s t u r a l indicating b e h a v i o u r at T i m e 2 did predict l a n g u a g e o u t c o m e at T i m e 3 G i v e n that all children in the study w e r e o p e r a t i n g at a prelinguistic level 9 5 % of the time at T i m e 1, it is not surprising that T i m e 1 factors (e.g., gestural indicating, S I C D - R s c o r e ) did not predict l a n g u a g e c o m p r e h e n s i o n or production at T i m e 3 . It s e e m s that the b e h a v i o u r s C a l a n d r e l l a a n d W i l c o x (2000) cited at T i m e 1 (non-verbal intentional c o m m u n i c a t i o n , c o o r d i n a t e d attention) that w e r e predictive of l a n g u a g e o u t c o m e at T i m e 3 a r e m o r e representative of the abilities e x p e c t e d in " 9 5 % prelinguistic c h i l d r e n . " G i v e n that the children a d v a n c e d in their c o m m u n i c a t i o n abilities b e t w e e n T i m e 1 a n d T i m e 2 , w e w o u l d e x p e c t T i m e 2 b e h a v i o u r s to b e better predictors of b e h a v i o u r at T i m e 3. T h e s t u d i e s d i s c u s s e d a b o v e indicate that children d o u s e a variety of m o d e s to c o m m u n i c a t e before a g e 2 , with variability a c r o s s children in t e r m s of verbal a n d n o n - v e r b a l c o m m u n i c a t i v e m o d e s . Intentional c o m m u n i c a t i o n is well d o c u m e n t e d to a p p e a r b e t w e e n 0;10 a n d 0;11 ( s e e e . g . , S u g a r m a n , 1983). A n d y o u n g children a r e highly proficient at s e l e c t i n g appropriately b e t w e e n v a r i o u s g e s t u r e t y p e s .  9  1.3.2.2 F u n c t i o n s of C o m m u n i c a t i o n C o m m u n i c a t i v e functions of y o u n g children h a v e a l s o b e e n a f o c u s of r e s e a r c h . T h i s s e c t i o n c o n s i d e r s d e v e l o p m e n t of c o m m u n i c a t i v e functions o v e r time, the influence of setting or interaction type o n c o m m u n i c a t i o n , w h e t h e r different t y p e s of children (e.g., y o u n g , s e v e r e l y l a n g u a g e d e l a y e d ) are c a p a b l e of intentional c o m m u n i c a t i o n , a n d w h e t h e r different t y p e s of children (e.g., typically d e v e l o p i n g a n d l a n g u a g e d e l a y e d ) h a v e d i f f e r e n c e s in production of c o m m u n i c a t i v e a c t s . T h i s review will b e g i n with a brief description of the findings f r o m three of the early s t u d i e s o n this topic. T h e literature about typically d e v e l o p i n g c h i l d r e n ' s f u n c t i o n s of c o m m u n i c a t i o n will then b e d i s c u s s e d , f o l l o w e d by a d i s c u s s i o n a b o u t the d e v e l o p m e n t of functions of c o m m u n i c a t i o n in children with l a n g u a g e impairment. D o r e ' s (1973) dissertation r e s e a r c h a p p l i e d a s p e e c h act a n a l y s i s to the c o m m u n i c a t i o n d e v e l o p m e n t of two c h i l d r e n , b e g i n n i n g w h e n the children w e r e 1;3. D o r e (1973) a d a p t e d the s p e e c h act t a x o n o m y of A u s t i n a n d S e a r l e to be a b l e to d e s c r i b e d e v e l o p m e n t in form a n d function of c h i l d r e n ' s intentional c o m m u n i c a t i o n a s they p r o g r e s s e d f r o m pre-linguistic c o m m u n i c a t i o n to m o r e c o n v e n t i o n a l f o r m s . D o r e (1973) c o n c l u d e d illocutionary f o r c e a n d propositional content d e v e l o p e d i n d e p e n d e n t l y in y o u n g c h i l d r e n , b a s e d o n his o b s e r v a t i o n of different rates a n d different o r d e r s of the two t y p e s of skill d e v e l o p m e n t in the two c h i l d r e n . M c S h a n e (1980) a n d B r u n e r (1981) b e l i e v e d c o m m u n i c a t i v e f u n c t i o n s d e v e l o p e d a s a result of s o c i a l interactions, a s children m a t u r e d a n d r e c o g n i z e d that their o w n c o m m u n i c a t i v e b e h a v i o u r s c o u l d affect the b e h a v i o u r s of others. M c S h a n e (1980) c h a r a c t e r i z e d the c o m m u n i c a t i v e functions of six children b e t w e e n the a g e s of 1;0 a n d 2 ; 0 , a c c o r d i n g to w h e t h e r the act f u n c t i o n e d a s a regulation (to request), s t a t e m e n t (to n a m e or g i v e information), e x c h a n g e (to a n n o u n c e giving or receiving), p e r s o n a l (to state o n e ' s intention or feeling), or c o n v e r s a t i o n ( d i s c o u r s e c o m p o n e n t ) . B r u n e r ' s (1981) s y s t e m identified three g e n e r a l functions of c o m m u n i c a t i o n that a r i s e during a c h i l d ' s first y e a r (at a p p r o x i m a t e l y 8-9 m o n t h s ) : s o c i a l interaction (to direct or maintain a n o t h e r ' s attention o n o n e s e l f ) , b e h a v i o u r regulation (to regulate a n o t h e r ' s a c t i o n s ) , a n d joint attention (to direct a n o t h e r ' s attention). B e c a u s e of the f r e q u e n c y with w h i c h two t e r m s in particular a r e u s e d in this set of literature, they a r e re-defined h e r e . C a s b y a n d C u m p a t a (1986) a n d Lichtert (2003) both u s e d B a t e s et a l . ' s ( 1 9 7 5 , 1977) definitions of protodeclarative a c t s a s t h o s e in w h i c h the child u s e s o b j e c t s to g a i n a n adult's attention, a n d protoimperative a c t s a s t h o s e in w h i c h the child u s e s the adult to g a i n a c c e s s to objects. T h e s e two functions a r e c o m m o n l y s t u d i e d in y o u n g c h i l d r e n ' s c o m m u n i c a t i o n b e c a u s e they a r e a m o n g the earliest t y p e s of c o m m u n i c a t i o n to d e v e l o p a n d b e c a u s e they a r e e a s i l y u n d e r s t o o d b y the c h i l d ' s n o n - v e r b a l a c t i o n s .  10  T w o e x a m p l e s of s t u d i e s of typically d e v e l o p i n g c h i l d r e n ' s c o m m u n i c a t i v e f u n c t i o n s a r e C r a i s , D o u g l a s , a n d C o x C a m p b e l l (2004) a n d R y c k e b u s c h a n d M a r c o s (2004). C r a i s et a l . d o c u m e n t e d the c o m m u n i c a t i v e g e s t u r e s of 12 typically d e v e l o p i n g children b e t w e e n 0;6 a n d 2 ; 0 , a s reported by parents. T h e p u r p o s e of their s t u d y w a s to provide details a b o u t the o r d e r of d e v e l o p m e n t of c o m m u n i c a t i v e functions a s the children a g e d . C r a i s et a l . p r o v i d e d e a c h child's parent with a g e s t u r e r e c o r d i n g form ( G R F ) that c o r r e s p o n d e d to the c h i l d ' s a g e for e v e r y 2 m o n t h s the child participated in the study. Eight or nine c o m m u n i c a t i v e b e h a v i o u r s w e r e listed o n e a c h G R F that w e r e p r e d i c t e d by p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h to o c c u r during the t w o - m o n t h a g e interval. P a r e n t s w e r e a s k e d to note the context a n d a g e at w h i c h a b e h a v i o u r first o c c u r r e d , w h e n the b e h a v i o u r w a s u s e d three or m o r e t i m e s , w h e n it w a s u s e d c o n s i s t e n t l y , a n d w h e n a n d h o w it g e n e r a l i z e d to n e w situations. C r a i s et a l . (2004) c l a i m e d that c o m m u n i c a t i v e f u n c t i o n s (as e x p r e s s e d by gesture) relating to b e h a v i o u r regulation (i.e., protodeclarative) e m e r g e d b e t w e e n 0;4 a n d 1;7 y e a r s of a g e ; r e q u e s t i n g o b j e c t s (i.e., protoimperative) e m e r g e d b e t w e e n 0;4 to 1 ;6 ( m e a n = 0;9;1), r e q u e s t i n g a c t i o n s e m e r g e d b e t w e e n 0;4 to 1;7 (i.e., protoimperative) ( m e a n = 0;9;15), a n d protesting e m e r g e d b e t w e e n 0;3 to 1 ;6 ( m e a n = 0;8;22). C o m m u n i c a t i v e f u n c t i o n s to d o with s o c i a l interaction e m e r g e d b e t w e e n 0;4 a n d 1 ;9 y e a r s ; regulating s o c i a l g a m e s e m e r g e d b e t w e e n 0;4 a n d 1 ;9 ( m e a n = 0;9; 19) a n d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l g e s t u r e s (unclear w h e t h e r this w o u l d b e c o n s i d e r e d protoimperative or protodeclarative) e m e r g e d b e t w e e n 0;6 a n d 1; 10 ( m e a n = 1 ;1 ;23). C o m m u n i c a t i v e functions related to e s t a b l i s h i n g joint attention e m e r g e d b e t w e e n 0;4 a n d 1;11; c o m m e n t s (i.e., protodeclarative) e m e r g e d b e t w e e n 0;9 a n d 1;11 ( m e a n = 1;3;18) a n d r e q u e s t s for information ( e m e r g e d b e t w e e n 0;4 a n d 1;6 ( m e a n = 10;19). T h e results of C r a i s et a l . (2004) c o r r e s p o n d with s o m e p r e v i o u s f i n d i n g s in this a r e a of child l a n g u a g e r e s e a r c h , but there a r e s o m e notable d i f f e r e n c e s . Imperative b e h a v i o u r s in the C r a i s et a l . (2004) study t e n d e d to p r e c e d e d e c l a r a t i v e b e h a v i o u r s , in a g r e e m e n t with V y g o t s k y ' s ( 1 9 6 2 ; cited in C r a i s et a l . , 2 0 0 4 , p. 688) a r g u m e n t a n d other r e s e a r c h e r ' s findings ( P e r u c c h i n i a n d C a m a i o n i , 1 9 9 3 ; Z i n o b e r a n d M a r l e w , 1 9 8 5 ; cited in C r a i s et a l . 2 0 0 4 , p. 6 8 8 ) . H o w e v e r , the a u t h o r s ( C r a i s et a l . , 2 0 0 4 ) a l s o state that m a n y of the c o m m u n i c a t i v e f u n c t i o n s a n d b e h a v i o u r s s t u d i e d e m e r g e d s o m e t i m e s m o n t h s earlier than p r e v i o u s l y reported, i.e., at a g e 4 m o n t h s , w h e n children a r e m o s t likely pre-intentional in their v o c a l i z a t i o n a n d m o v e m e n t . Intentional c o m m u n i c a t i o n is well d o c u m e n t e d to c o m m e n c e a r o u n d 0;10 or 0;11 with c h i l d r e n ' s ability to look at both a n adult a n d a n object in the s a m e act ( s e e S u g a r m a n , 1 9 8 3 , for m o r e detail). T h i s attribution of c o m m u n i c a t i v e intent to p r e - b a b b l i n g infants w e a k e n s the findings of the. C r a i s et al (2004) study.  11  C r a i s et a l . (2004) attribute s o m e of t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s to m e t h o d o l o g i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s (e.g., parent v e r s u s clinician reporting, h o m e v e r s u s lab e n v i r o n m e n t ) , but a l s o note that the familiar context w o u l d h a v e r e m o v e d the n e e d for the child to g e n e r a l i z e a c o m m u n i c a t i v e function a n d b e h a v i o u r b e y o n d the setting in w h i c h it w a s initially l e a r n e d . In addition, t h e s e a u t h o r s note that parental interaction style a n d d i f f e r e n c e s in filling out the f o r m s m a y h a v e contributed to s o m e of the variation. T h i s is a r e a s o n a b l e a s s u m p t i o n a b o u t the s t u d y limitations. T h e a u t h o r s n e e d e d to b e m o r e careful about the notion of c o m m u n i c a t i v e intent w h e n a s c r i b i n g function to child v o c a l i z a t i o n or m o v e m e n t . R y c k e b u s c h a n d M a r c o s (2004) s t u d i e d c o m m u n i c a t i v e a c t s of children a g e s 1;3 to 2 ; 5 . T h e s e a u t h o r s u s e d a n o n - s t a n d a r d i z e d m e t h o d to c l a s s i f y c h i l d r e n ' s c o m m u n i c a t i o n b e h a v i o u r s during mother-toddler a n d father-toddler play in two different play situations: a building activity a n d free play. D u r i n g the different play s e s s i o n s , R y c k e b u s c h a n d M a r c o s (2004) w e r e following a theory of s p e e c h a c t s ( s e e S e c t i o n 1.4.3). T h e y f o u n d that the m e a n n u m b e r of s p e e c h a c t t y p e s a c t s p r o d u c e d (in a p p r o x i m a t e l y 8 - 1 2 m i n u t e s e a c h ) by the children in the 1 ;6 to 1 ;11 a g e g r o u p w a s a s follows: 4 9 a s s e r t i v e s , 3 2 r e q u e s t s , a n d 16 expressives. R y c k e b u s c h a n d M a r c o s ' s (2004) results a l s o s h o w that b y the time a child is 1 ; 5 , p a r e n t ' s g e n d e r m a y influence the c h i l d ' s s p e e c h act t y p e s . C h i l d r e n u s e d directive s p e e c h a c t s m o r e frequently with fathers than with m o t h e r s , irrespective of play situation. In addition, by the time children w e r e 1 ;10, parent's g e n d e r i n f l u e n c e d c h o i c e of t o y s . T y p e of p l a y a l s o i n f l u e n c e d s p e e c h act c h o i c e ; action r e q u e s t s a n d e x p r e s s i v e c o m m u n i c a t i v e a c t s w e r e m o r e frequent with a building activity a n d information r e q u e s t s w e r e m o r e frequent in free play. R y c k e b u s c h a n d M a r c o s (2004) c o n c l u d e d that children a d a p t s p e e c h b e h a v i o u r s to m a t c h c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of their interlocutor a n d the context. T h e s e results are important to c o n s i d e r w h e n u n d e r t a k i n g a study of child l a n g u a g e ; not only is it important to a c c o u n t for c o n s i s t e n c y in child a n d e x p e r i m e n t e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , but R y c k e b u s c h a n d M a r c o s (2004) h a v e d e m o n s t r a t e d the n e e d to c o n s i d e r both g e n d e r of the interlocutor a n d type of play. It is interesting to note that the d i f f e r e n c e s in s p e e c h a c t s p r o d u c e d w e r e m o r e salient in s o m e a g e g r o u p s a n d with s o m e s p e e c h act t y p e s than with o t h e r s . A n u m b e r of r e s e a r c h e r s h a v e investigated function of c o m m u n i c a t i o n in children with d e v e l o p m e n t a l d e l a y s of o n e type or a n o t h e r a s d i s c u s s e d b e l o w . In the s t u d y m e n t i o n e d a b o v e of 1 y o u n g a n d 10 s e v e r e l y l a n g u a g e - d e l a y e d c h i l d r e n (1;6 to 3;3), C a s b y a n d C u m p a t a (1986) investigated w h e t h e r t h e s e children w e r e c a p a b l e of intentional c o m m u n i c a t i o n . T h e y f o u n d c h i l d r e n ' s intentional c o m m u n i c a t i o n abilities b e t w e e n 1 ;6 a n d 3;3 v a r i e d in s o m e r e s p e c t s , yet w e r e relatively s t a b l e in o t h e r s . T h e y o u n g e s t child in 12  the study (1;6, not l a n g u a g e d e l a y e d ) c o m p l e t e d both proto-declarative a n d proto-imperative t a s k s with a highly r a n k e d m o d e of c o m m u n i c a t i o n o n the C a s b y a n d C u m p a t a (1986) ordinal c o d i n g s c a l e . T h e oldest child in the study (3;3, l a n g u a g e - i m p a i r e d ) a l s o c o m p l e t e d both protod e c l a r a t i v e a n d proto-imperative t a s k s , but a c h i e v e d a lower r a n k e d a v e r a g e m o d e of c o m m u n i c a t i o n . Additionally, a s e c o n d child with l a n g u a g e impairment c o m p l e t e d both d e c l a r a t i v e a n d imperative t a s k s a n d s c o r e d , o n a v e r a g e , a level 4 o n m o d e of c o m m u n i c a t i o n . T h e lack of variation in the c h i l d r e n ' s ability to perform the proto-declarative a n d protoimperative t a s k s s u g g e s t s children o l d e r than 1 ;6, w h e t h e r d e v e l o p m e n t a l l y d e l a y e d or not, s h o u l d b e c a p a b l e of (proto-)declarative a n d (proto-)imperative t a s k s . ( C h i l d r e n without l a n g u a g e impairment a r e likely c a p a b l e of non-proto d e c l a r a t i v e a n d imperative t a s k s at this a g e ; that is, a s their v o c a b u l a r y a n d syntactic abilities d e v e l o p , they b e c o m e c a p a b l e of true s p e e c h a c t s ) . T h i s s t a t e m e n t s h o u l d m o s t likely b e qualified by a d d i n g that n o other significant restrictions exist, s u c h a s the ability to carry out p u r p o s e f u l m o v e m e n t . In a n o t h e r s t u d y d i s c u s s e d a b o v e including children with l a n g u a g e d e l a y , T o p b a s et a l . (2003) s t u d i e d 16 T u r k i s h infants a g e d 1;3 to 3;0 (8 with l a n g u a g e d e l a y ) ; the a u t h o r s a t t e m p t e d to d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r the c o m m u n i c a t i v e interactions of children with n o r m a l l a n g u a g e d e v e l o p m e n t differed from children with d e l a y e d l a n g u a g e d e v e l o p m e n t . T h e c h i l d r e n w e r e o b s e r v e d in a university c e n t r e after a 10-minute w a r m - u p play s e s s i o n a n d a 15-minute naturalistic play s e s s i o n in w h i c h the child p l a y e d with their parent. T h e 15-minute structured play s e s s i o n u s e d ' c o m m u n i c a t i o n t e m p t a t i o n s ' in w h i c h the e x p e r i m e n t e r tried to e n c o u r a g e a natural r e s p o n s e from the child ( W e t h e r b y a n d R o d r i g u e z , 1992). T o p b a s et a l . (2003) f o u n d that typically d e v e l o p i n g T u r k i s h infants t e n d e d to d e v e l o p c o m m u n i c a t i v e intentions b e t w e e n 1;1 a n d 2;0 in the s e q u e n c e : r e q u e s t object, protest, direct attention (self), r e s p o n d , r e q u e s t a c t i o n , a n d c o m m e n t . T y p i c a l l y d e v e l o p i n g Infants w e r e a b l e to protest a n d r e q u e s t o b j e c t s b e t w e e n 1 ;1 a n d 1 ;3 a n d c o u l d direct attention to t h e m s e l v e s b y 1 ;3 (with g e s t u r e s ) . C h i l d r e n with d e l a y e d l a n g u a g e u s e d g e s t u r e to protest by a g e 2;0, a n d this o c c u r r e d twice a s frequently a s s e e n in typically d e v e l o p i n g children b e t w e e n 1;1 a n d 1;3. In addition, T o p b a s et a l . (2003) f o u n d that children with l a n g u a g e d e l a y t e n d e d to p r o d u c e m o r e b e h a v i o u r s relating to s o c i a l interaction, rather than joint attention. C h i l d r e n with l a n g u a g e d e l a y b e g a n initiating joint attention at 1 ;8 a n d s e e k i n g attention at 2 ; 0 . R e s p o n d i n g e m e r g e d a r o u n d 3;0. T h i s w o r k s u g g e s t s children with l a n g u a g e d e l a y d e v e l o p c o m m u n i c a t i o n f u n c t i o n s in a p p r o x i m a t e l y the s a m e s e q u e n c e , but later than typically d e v e l o p i n g c h i l d r e n . E x t e n d i n g the investigation of c o m m u n i c a t i v e function to the deaf, Lichtert (2003) s t u d i e d 18 normally d e v e l o p i n g but profoundly deaf toddlers at 1;6, 2;0, a n d 2;6 y e a r s of a g e with a p u r p o s e of e x a m i n i n g the eliciting potential of a proto-imperative a n d a proto-declarative 13  t a s k (the m o s t c o m m o n distinction e v a l u a t e d , a s n o t e d a b o v e ) . T h e t a s k s u s e d by Lichtert (2003) w e r e related to t h o s e d e s c r i b e d by C a s b y a n d C u m p a t a (1986). In the first e x p e r i m e n t , the t o d d l e r s w e r e p r e s e n t e d with p r o b l e m s (intended to elicit proto-imperative c o m m u n i c a t i o n s ) that they w e r e u n a b l e to s o l v e o n their o w n . T h e c o m m u n i c a t i v e u t t e r a n c e s the c h i l d r e n u s e d to enlist a n adult's help w e r e r e c o r d e d . In the s e c o n d e x p e r i m e n t , the t o d d l e r s w e r e p r e s e n t e d with a s e r i e s of v i d e o - c l i p s i n t e n d e d to elicit proto-declarative c o m m u n i c a t i o n s . S o m e of the t a s k s that w e r e i n t e n d e d to elicit p r o t o - d e c l a r a t i v e s w e r e different f r o m the o n e s u s e d by C a s b y a n d C u m p a t a (1986) b e c a u s e a pilot s t u d y s h o w e d that the t a s k s C a s b y a n d C u m p a t a (1986) u s e d frequently frustrated the children a n d w e r e s u c c e s s f u l in eliciting c o m m u n i c a t i o n s only a b o u t 5 0 % of the time. Lichtert (2003) c o n c l u d e d that proto-imperatives a n d p r o t o - d e c l a r a t i v e s c a n b e s u c c e s s f u l l y elicited in deaf children at 1;6, 2 ; 0 , a n d 2;6 y e a r s . Lichtert a c k n o w l e d g e d the tradeoff that e x i s t s w h e n eliciting l a n g u a g e (as o p p o s e d to naturalistic o b s e r v a t i o n s ) , but n o t e d the i n v a l u a b l e contribution of elicitation t a s k s to q u i c k l y e s t i m a t e the d e v e l o p m e n t a l level of a c h i l d , s u c h a s the highly-structured context a n d the short t i m e - s p a n required for d a t a c o l l e c t i o n . In a n o t h e r 2 0 0 3 study, D r o m i reported o n the c o m m u n i c a t i o n a c t s of 4 3 deaf c h i l d r e n of h e a r i n g p a r e n t s b e t w e e n 0;8 a n d 4 ; 1 , a g a i n b a s e d o n parent report. P a r e n t s filled out a q u e s t i o n n a i r e a b o u t c h i l d r e n ' s prelinguistic c o m m u n i c a t i o n during c a r e g i v i n g c o n t e x t s , i.e., w h e n the c h i l d ' s b a s i c n e e d s w e r e met by the p a r e n t s (e.g., d i a p e r i n g , f e e d i n g , etc), a n d during social-routine play c o n t e x t s (e.g., p e e k - a - b o o g a m e , story telling). D r o m i f o u n d a n u m b e r of significant positive c o r r e l a t i o n s : b e t w e e n i n d e p e n d e n t b e h a v i o u r s ( b e h a v i o u r s a child d o e s without r e q u e s t i n g a s s i s t a n c e f r o m a n adult, solitary a c t i o n s ) , c o l l a b o r a t i o n with adults a n d pointing; b e t w e e n c o l l a b o r a t i o n with adults, pointing, a n d other g e s t u r e s ; b e t w e e n pointing a n d other g e s t u r e s ; a n d a l s o b e t w e e n pointing a n d v o c a l i z a t i o n s . D r o m i (2003) n o t e s that the correlation b e t w e e n pointing a n d other g e s t u r e s w a s not a s s o c i a t e d with a d v a n c e d prelinguistic b e h a v i o u r s , v e r b a l i z a t i o n s or s i g n i n g , a s w o u l d b e e x p e c t e d for h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n ; rather, pointing a n d g e s t u r e s w e r e a s s o c i a t e d with l e s s a d v a n c e d b e h a v i o u r s s u c h a s i n d e p e n d e n t b e h a v i o u r s a n d c o l l a b o r a t i o n with adults. S h e s u g g e s t s that t h e s e c o r r e l a t i o n s might h a v e b e e n related to the low l a n g u a g e level of the participants in the study a n d the late o n s e t of intervention. D r o m i (2003) c o n c l u d e s f r o m this that the deaf children in the s t u d y did not follow the typical transition of prelinguistic to linguistic b e h a v i o u r s a s e x p e c t e d in h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n , p o s s i b l y d u e to subtle d i f f e r e n c e s in d y a d i c interactions b e t w e e n h e a r i n g p a r e n t s a n d d e a f c h i l d r e n . S p e c i f i c a l l y , D r o m i (2003) n o t e s the t e n d e n c y for h e a r i n g p a r e n t s to d o m i n a t e a n d initiate c o n v e r s a t i o n s ( J a m i e s o n , 1 9 9 4 , 1 9 9 8 ; M e a d o w - O r l a n s a n d S p e n c e r , 1 9 9 6 ; S p e n c e r a n d G u t f r u e n d , 1 9 9 0 ; cited in D r o m i , 2 0 0 3 ) . D r o m i ' s f i n d i n g s (unlike t h o s e of the T o p b a s et a l . , 2 0 0 3 study) a r e important to c o n s i d e r  14  b e c a u s e they call into q u e s t i o n w h e t h e r children with s o m e d e v e l o p m e n t a l l a n g u a g e d e l a y s or d i s o r d e r s will follow the linguistic d e v e l o p m e n t a l trajectory of typical c h i l d r e n .  T h e information g i v e n in this s e c t i o n is a richer kind of information than that p r e s e n t e d in the p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n . Not only d o w e k n o w h o w children a r e c o m m u n i c a t i n g , but w e a l s o get s o m e s e n s e of c h i l d r e n ' s intentions in c o m m u n i c a t i n g . A s s h o w n by C a s b y a n d C u m p a t a (1986), children older than 1 ;6 a r e typically a b l e to p r o d u c e both proto-imperative a n d protodeclarative t y p e s of intentional c o m m u n i c a t i o n . R y c h e b u s c h a n d M a r c o s (2004) s p e c i f i e d slightly m o r e , stating that children a r e c a p a b l e of a s s e r t i v e s , r e q u e s t s , a n d e x p r e s s i v e s before a g e 1 ;6. T o p b a s e t a l . (2003) g a v e a n e v e n greater level of detail in their study of T u r k i s h infants; t h e s e a u t h o r s stated that typically d e v e l o p i n g children d e v e l o p e d c o m m u n i c a t i v e intentions b e t w e e n 1;1 a n d 2;0 to request objects, protest, direct attention (self), r e s p o n d , request a c t i o n , a n d c o m m e n t (in that order). C h i l d r e n with l a n g u a g e d e l a y d e v e l o p e d t h e s e intentions in a p p r o x i m a t e l y the s a m e order, but at a later a g e . It a p p e a r s that children w h o a r e typically d e v e l o p i n g tend to a c q u i r e the ability to e x p r e s s different c o m m u n i c a t i v e m e a n i n g s in a d v a n c e of children w h o h a v e a s e n s o r y h a n d i c a p ( s u c h a s d e a f n e s s ) , or t h o s e w h o a r e globally d e l a y e d , l a n g u a g e d e l a y e d , or s y n d r o m i c . It is a l s o a p p a r e n t f r o m t h e s e d i s c u s s i o n s that, a s r e s e a r c h e r s , it is v e r y important to c o n s i d e r the e n v i r o n m e n t a l context s u r r o u n d i n g elicitation situations a n d to c o n s i d e r validity a n d c o n s i s t e n c y in our s o u r c e s of information. T h e next s e c t i o n c o n s i d e r s s t e p s b a c k f r o m the brief o v e r v i e w of findings p r e s e n t e d in this s e c t i o n , a n d d i s c u s s e s h o w c h i l d r e n ' s l a n g u a g e d e v e l o p m e n t (particularly for the t o p i c s d i s c u s s e d in this section) c a n b e o b s e r v e d a n d a n a l y z e d . A s n o t e d , the context of elicitation a n d s o u r c e of information are c r u c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s .  1.4  Observation and Analysis of Child Language S t a n d a r d i z e d a n d criterion r e f e r e n c e d m e a s u r e s for e v a l u a t i n g child l a n g u a g e h a v e  contributed to our u n d e r s t a n d i n g of early c o m m u n i c a t i o n in children in both r e s e a r c h a n d clinical settings. Alternative m e t h o d s (different t y p e s of c o m m u n i c a t i v e s a m p l i n g ) h a v e a l s o contributed information a b o u t l a n g u a g e d e v e l o p m e n t . T h i s s e c t i o n first d e s c r i b e s s e v e r a l s t a n d a r d a n d n o n s t a n d a r d tools ( s o m e of w h i c h a r e u s e d in the current study) b e c a u s e of their frequent u s e b y s p e e c h - l a n g u a g e pathologists a n d early c h i l d h o o d s p e c i a l i s t s , a n d then d i s c u s s e s the i s s u e of communicative samples.  15  1.4.1  Standard Tests and Tools A c o m m o n s t a n d a r d i z e d test u s e d to e v a l u a t e y o u n g c h i l d r e n ' s l a n g u a g e is the  P r e s c h o o l L a n g u a g e S c a l e - Fourth Edition ( P L S - 4 , Z i m m e r m a n , S t e i n e r , & P o n d , 2 0 0 2 ) . T h e P L S - 4 is d e s c r i b e d here b e c a u s e it w a s o n e of the tools s e l e c t e d for the longitudinal s t u d y of w h i c h the current s t u d y is a part. T h e P L S - 4 h a s two s c a l e s , Auditory C o m p r e h e n s i o n ( A C ) a n d E x p r e s s i v e C o m m u n i c a t i o n ( E C ) , w h i c h a d d together to give a total l a n g u a g e s c o r e for the test. T h e test is a d m i n i s t e r e d by a c l i n i c i a n , w h o a s k s the child or parent s e v e r a l q u e s t i o n s t a r g e t e d at the child's d e v e l o p m e n t a l a g e . B a s a l level is a c h i e v e d w h e n the child a n s w e r s four c o n s e c u t i v e q u e s t i o n s correctly; ceiling is a c h i e v e d w h e n the child a n s w e r s s e v e n c o n s e c u t i v e q u e s t i o n s incorrectly. F o r children u n d e r 2 (the a g e g r o u p for the current study), the P L S - 4 a s k s the child to p r o d u c e at least five different c o n s o n a n t s o u n d s (phonology), point to familiar p i c t u r e s a n d b o d y parts ( s e m a n t i c s ) , imitate a n d u s e s e v e r a l w o r d s (phonology, s e m a n t i c s ) , c o m p r e h e n d v e r b s in context (syntactic/lexical c o m p r e h e n s i o n ) , b a b b l e u s i n g the intonation pattern of a n adult (phonology), a n d s h o w a n d object to a n d r e q u e s t a n object from others (pragmatics). T h i s test d o e s not a p p e a r to e v a l u a t e syntactic abilities at this a g e . W e k n o w f r o m s t u d i e s r e v i e w e d briefly a b o v e that children in this a g e g r o u p a r e e x p e c t e d to h a v e d e v e l o p e d 2 0 0 to 3 0 0 w o r d s by 2 ; 0 , h a v e e s t a b l i s h e d early s e m a n t i c a n d syntactic relationships a n d u s e a variety of c o m m u n i c a t i v e m o d e s a n d functions. A s c a n be s e e n , the P L S - 4 m e a s u r e s the c h i l d ' s p h o n o l o g y , s e m a n t i c s , a n d p r a g m a t i c abilities in a v e r y rudimentary w a y . T h e M c A r t h u r - B a t e s C o m m u n i c a t i o n D e v e l o p m e n t Inventory ( C D I , F e n s o n et a l . , 1993) is a n o t h e r c o m m o n l y u s e d tool for e v a l u a t i n g c h i l d r e n ' s l a n g u a g e u n d e r a g e 2 a n d w a s a l s o u s e d in the longitudinal study for w h i c h the current study is a part. T h e c h i l d ' s parent m a y c o m p l e t e this a s s e s s m e n t a l o n e , b e c a u s e it is s i m p l y a c h e c k l i s t of v o c a b u l a r y items a n d p h r a s e s the child u n d e r s t a n d s or s a y s . T h e M c A r t h u r C D I d o e s not solicit information o n a child's p h o n o l o g y , s y n t a x or p r a g m a t i c abilities. O n e s c a l e that d o e s set out to a s s e s s early p r a g m a t i c c o m m u n i c a t i o n is the C o m m u n i c a t i o n a n d S y m b o l i c B e h a v i o u r S c a l e s D e v e l o p m e n t a l Profile ( C S B S - D P ; W e t h e r b y a n d P r i z a n t , 2 0 0 2 ) , a n o n - s t a n d a r d i z e d instrument with a c a r e g i v e r q u e s t i o n n a i r e a n d a structured c l i n i c i a n - a d m i n i s t e r e d c o m m u n i c a t i v e elicitation. T h e structured elicitation task for the current s t u d y is b a s e d o n the m e t h o d o l o g y of the C S B S - D P . T h e p u r p o s e of the C S B S - D P is to e v a l u a t e a n infant or toddler's e m o t i o n a n d e y e g a z e , c o m m u n i c a t i o n , g e s t u r e s , s o u n d s , w o r d s , u n d e r s t a n d i n g a n d object u s e b e h a v i o u r s , with the a s s u m p t i o n that t h e s e b e h a v i o u r s a r e predictive of later l a n g u a g e d e v e l o p m e n t ( W e t h e r b y a n d P r i z a n t , 2 0 0 2 ) . T h e child is p r e s e n t e d with s e v e r a l ' c o m m u n i c a t i o n temptations,' (i.e., a situation i n t e n d e d to elicit c o m m u n i c a t i o n , e . g . , 16  p l a c i n g a c l o s e d jar of b u b b l e s n e a r the child), a n d r e s p o n s e b e h a v i o u r s a r e c o d e d a c c o r d i n g to their social-affective, c o m m u n i c a t i v e f u n c t i o n / m e a n s , a n d s y m b o l i c b e h a v i o u r d i m e n s i o n s . A n action is c o d e d a s c o m m u n i c a t i v e if a g e s t u r e , v o c a l i z a t i o n , or v e r b a l i z a t i o n is d i r e c t e d to a n adult a n d u s e d a s a c o m m u n i c a t i v e s i g n a l to s e r v e a c o m m u n i c a t i v e function. E a c h of the 2 0 s c a l e s m e a s u r e d in the C S B S - D P is d e f i n e d in the m a n u a l , a n d b e h a v i o u r s a r e e x e m p l i f i e d o n an accompanying videotape. A similar but l e s s w e l l - k n o w n tool is A s s e s s i n g Linguistic B e h a v i o u r s ( A L B ; O l s w a n g , S t o e l - G a m m o n , C o g g i n s , & C a r p e n t e r , 1987), a n o t h e r c o m m e r c i a l l y a v a i l a b l e test to e v a l u a t e skills of d e v e l o p m e n t a l l y y o u n g c h i l d r e n . T h e r e a r e five s c a l e s : the first two s c a l e s , cognitive a n t e c e d e n t s to w o r d m e a n i n g a n d l a n g u a g e c o m p r e h e n s i o n , a r e o b s e r v e d d u r i n g interactions with the e x a m i n e r ; the last three s c a l e s , play, c o m m u n i c a t i v e intention, a n d l a n g u a g e p r o d u c t i o n , a r e o b s e r v e d during free play with t o y s . E a c h s c a l e h a s s e v e r a l s u b c o m p o n e n t s a n d there m a y b e s e v e r a l t a s k s within e a c h s u b c o m p o n e n t . A c h i l d ' s abilities a r e s c o r e d within e a c h task a c c o r d i n g to the criteria e s t a b l i s h e d for that particular task. F o r e x a m p l e , within the cognitive a n t e c e d e n t s to w o r d m e a n i n g s c a l e , there are s u b c o m p o n e n t s to the s c a l e for n o m i n a t i o n , a g e n t , a n d location k n o w l e d g e . Within the nomination task, a n individual c h i l d ' s b e h a v i o u r w o u l d b e s c o r e d o n the highest level of ability f r o m the criteria: m a n i p u l a t e , s h o w , give, point, v o c a l i z e / v e r b a l i z e , or label. Within the a g e n t task, the c h i l d ' s b e h a v i o u r w o u l d b e s c o r e d o n the highest level of ability f r o m the criteria for that task: s i n g l e recipient act, nondirective multiple recipient act, directive multiple recipient act, directive multiple recipient a c t with persistent or c l e a r r e q u e s t i n g b e h a v i o u r a n d verbalization of a g e n t a n d / o r a c t i o n . In this w a y , e a c h c a t e g o r y , s u b c o m p o n e n t , a n d task h a s its o w n u n i q u e c o m m u n i c a t i v e act c o d i n g system. A c o m m o n criticism of s t a n d a r d tools for a s s e s s i n g c h i l d l a n g u a g e is that they frequently fail to a s s e s s multiple a s p e c t s of l a n g u a g e (thereby requiring multiple tests to e v a l u a t e l a n g u a g e c o m p e t e n c e ) . In particular, s t a n d a r d tests are particularly p o o r at a s s e s s i n g p r a g m a t i c ability ( A d a m s , 2 0 0 2 ; cited in P a u l , 2 0 0 7 , p.4). F o r a child's results to b e interpreted with a n y validity, the child m u s t b e a d e q u a t e l y similar in c h a r a c t e r to the n o r m i n g s a m p l e that w a s u s e d in test c o n s t r u c t i o n . C r i t e r i o n - r e f e r e n c e d tools ( s u c h a s t h e . C D I or C S B C ) differ slightly f r o m s t a n d a r d i z e d 'tests' in that they a s k w h e t h e r a child c a n perform to a certain level of c o m p e t e n c e , without n e c e s s a r i l y c o m p a r i n g the child's p e r f o r m a n c e with that of their p e e r s . B o t h the C S B C a n d the A L B a r e a b l e to c o m m e n t o n the child's c o m m u n i c a t i v e m o d e a n d f u n c t i o n m o r e than the P L S , but neither type of test p r o v i d e s information a b o u t a c h i l d ' s p e r f o r m a n c e in a c o m p l e t e l y naturalistic context.  17  T h e next s e c t i o n d i s c u s s e s u s e s of s t a n d a r d a n d criterion-reference tools b e y o n d the single-point static a s s e s s m e n t , that is, telling m o r e a b o u t their predictive p o w e r c o n c e r n i n g a c h i l d ' s future l a n g u a g e skills a n d relationships with other v a r i a b l e s . T h i s s e c t i o n is i n c l u d e d here b e c a u s e the current study u s e s both s t a n d a r d tools a n d o b s e r v a t i o n a l a s s e s s m e n t a s part of a longitudinal investigation of c h i l d r e n ' s l a n g u a g e d e v e l o p m e n t f r o m a g e 18 m o n t h s to 4 y e a r s .  1.4.1.1 E x a m p l e s of S t a n d a r d Instrument U s e Reilly et a l . (2006) u s e d the C o m m u n i c a t i o n a n d S y m b o l i c B e h a v i o u r S c a l e s ( W e t h e r b y a n d P r i z a n t , 2 0 0 3 ) with 1911 infants at a g e s 0;8 a n d 1 ;0 a s part of a p r o s p e c t i v e , longitudinal, population-level study. Reilly et a l . ' s (2006) h y p o t h e s i s w a s that the p e r i o d b e t w e e n 0;8 a n d 2;0 (the full a g e s p a n of their study) is a n important period for l a n g u a g e d e v e l o p m e n t a n d that early intervention targeting children during this period w o u l d b e b e n e f i c i a l . T h e a u t h o r s note that a primary motivation for t h e m to s t u d y the c o m m u n i c a t i o n d e v e l o p m e n t of s u c h y o u n g c h i l d r e n is the current t e n d e n c y for l a n g u a g e impairment to b e d i a g n o s e d w h e n children a r e 3;0 y e a r s or older, m e a n i n g that intervention frequently starts late a n d m a n y children a r e left with lasting l a n g u a g e a n d a c a d e m i c i m p a c t s (Reilly et a l . , 2 0 0 6 ) . T h e y f o u n d the s t r o n g e s t predictor of C S B S s c o r e at 1 ;0 w a s C S B S s c o r e at 0;8. Reilly et a l . (2006) a l s o f o u n d that while f e m a l e g e n d e r w a s related to higher C S B S s c o r e s , twin birth, b e i n g a d v a n t a g e d (judged by g e o g r a p h i c l o c a l e ) , a n d family history of l a n g u a g e d e l a y w e r e predictive of lower C S B S s c o r e s at 0;8 a n d 1 ;0. F e n s o n , D a l e , a n d R e z n i c k (1993) s u g g e s t that the relationship b e t w e e n s o c i a l / e c o n o m i c a d v a n t a g e a n d low l a n g u a g e s c o r e s m a y b e d u e to m o r e c o n s e r v a t i v e reporting from p a r e n t s with higher e d u c a t i o n levels. In Reilly et a l . ' s (2006) study, h o w e v e r , family a n d m a t e r n a l factors w e r e not c o r r e l a t e d with c h i l d r e n ' s pre-linguistic c o m m u n i c a t i v e d e v e l o p m e n t . A n o t h e r s t u d y that linked the C S B S to a different s t a n d a r d m e a s u r e w a s B r a d y , S t e e p l e s , a n d F l e m m i n g (2005). T h e c o m m u n i c a t i v e b e h a v i o u r s of 4 5 children b e t w e e n 3 a n d 6 y e a r s of a g e with s e v e r e d e l a y s in l a n g u a g e production w e r e e x a m i n e d u s i n g the S e q u e n c e d Inventory of C o m m u n i c a t i v e D e v e l o p m e n t - R e v i s e d (Hedrick et a l . , 1984) a n d the C o m m u n i c a t i o n T e m p t a t i o n s s e c t i o n of the C o m m u n i c a t i o n a n d S y m b o l i c B e h a v i o u r S c a l e s ( C S B S ; W e t h e r b y a n d P r i z a n t , 2 0 0 3 ) . In their investigation of the effects of prelinguistic level o n initiating r e q u e s t s a n d c o m m e n t s a n d repairing c o m m u n i c a t i o n b r e a k d o w n s in s c r i p t e d interactions, B r a d y et a l . , (2005) c h o s e to c o d e c o m m u n i c a t i v e b e h a v i o u r s a c c o r d i n g to their m o d e (i.e., g e s t u r e type, v o c a l i z a t i o n , s p o k e n w o r d , or sign), function (i.e., r e q u e s t , c o m m e n t , other) a n d w h e t h e r c o m m u n i c a t i o n b r e a k d o w n s w e r e or w e r e not r e s o l v e d b y the c h i l d r e n . T h e y f o u n d that the c h i l d r e n ' s l a n g u a g e c o m p r e h e n s i o n a n d production s c o r e s p r e d i c t e d c h i l d r e n ' s  18  c o m m e n t s a n d that t h e c h i l d r e n ' s c o m m u n i c a t i o n production level predicted initiation of r e q u e s t s , w h e n the a u t h o r s controlled for child IQ. L e v e l s of c o m m u n i c a t i o n production w e r e not related to repair of c o m m u n i c a t i o n b r e a k d o w n s . In a n o t h e r s t u d y linking different t y p e s of s t a n d a r d a s s e s s m e n t with c o m m u n i c a t i o n s c a l e s , M u n d y a n d G o m e s (1998) u s e d three c o m m e r c i a l l y a v a i l a b l e tools to investigate w h e t h e r different t y p e s of joint attention p r e d i c t e d l a n g u a g e c o m p r e h e n s i o n by 2 4 infants a g e d 1 ;2 to 1 ; 5 . T h e s e a u t h o r s u s e d the R e y n e l l D e v e l o p m e n t a l L a n g u a g e S c a l e s ( R e y n e l l a n d G r a b e r , 1990) to m e a s u r e l a n g u a g e production a n d c o m p r e h e n s i o n , the B a y l e y S c a l e s of Infant D e v e l o p m e n t - l l ( B a y l e y , 1 9 6 9 , 1994) to m e a s u r e cognitive d e v e l o p m e n t , a n d a short v e r s i o n of the E a r l y S o c i a l - C o m m u n i c a t i o n S c a l e s ( E S C S , S e i b e r t , H o g a n , a n d M u n d y , 1 9 8 2 ; M u n d y a n d H o g a n , 1996) to m e a s u r e n o n - v e r b a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n skill d e v e l o p m e n t . T h e E S C S reports o n skills s u c h a s initiating a n d r e s p o n d i n g to o t h e r s ' initiation of joint attention, initiating a n d r e s p o n d i n g to b e h a v i o u r regulation, a n d initiating a n d r e s p o n d i n g to others' initiations of s o c i a l interaction ( M u n d y a n d G o m e s , 1998). T h e a u t h o r s noted that joint attention skills a r e a n important a r e a to c o n s i d e r w h e n e v a l u a t i n g l a n g u a g e d e v e l o p m e n t , b e c a u s e d e v e l o p m e n t of joint attention skills reflects maturation of s o c i a l , cognitive, a n d self-regulatory abilities. After a period of four m o n t h s , M u n d y a n d G o m e s (1998) retested the c h i l d r e n ' s abilities with the E S C S a n d f o u n d significant d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n c h i l d r e n ' s joint attention a n d n o n - v e r b a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n skills. T h e y additionally f o u n d that early n o n - v e r b a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n skills w e r e related to l a n g u a g e ability at follow-up (16 w e e k s following initial testing). In particular, early ability to initiate joint attention w a s predictive of later l a n g u a g e production s c o r e s , a n d early r e s p o n d i n g to joint attention initiations w a s predictive of later l a n g u a g e c o m p r e h e n s i o n l e v e l s . M u n d y a n d G o m e s (1998) highlighted (a) the i m p o r t a n c e of r e c o g n i z i n g different t y p e s of joint attention (e.g., pointing to s h o w v s . request) w h e n attempting to correlate e a r l y n o n - v e r b a l b e h a v i o u r s to later c o m m u n i c a t i v e a c t s a n d (b) the large a m o u n t of variability b e t w e e n y o u n g children in their l a n g u a g e a n d l a n g u a g e growth, m a k i n g early prediction of l a n g u a g e d e l a y a difficult task. B y c h o o s i n g s u c h a representative array of testing materials, the a u t h o r s a t t e m p t e d to g a i n information o n m a n y a s p e c t s of l a n g u a g e d e v e l o p m e n t . T h i s tactic w a s u s e f u l within a r e s e a r c h situation, particularly b e c a u s e all three s h o w different a s p e c t s of c o m m u n i c a t i o n d e v e l o p m e n t . H o w e v e r , it is s o m e w h a t unlikely that a clinician not a s s o c i a t e d with a r e s e a r c h project w o u l d h a v e a d e q u a t e time to p u r s u e three different testing instruments with o n e client. T h e s e c t i o n p r o m p t s the q u e s t i o n s : H o w well d o the results correlate b e t w e e n different m e t h o d s of a n a l y s i s of children's c o m m u n i c a t i o n ? Is there a c o m b i n a t i o n of s t a n d a r d i z e d a n d / o r  19  n o n - s t a n d a r d i z e d instruments that r e p r e s e n t s c h i l d r e n ' s c o m m u n i c a t i o n abilities m o r e fairly a n d a c c u r a t e l y ? H o w well d o the results of current tools predict c h i l d r e n ' s l a n g u a g e level o v e r t i m e ?  1.4.2  Elicitation of C o m m u n i c a t i v e S a m p l e s In addition to u s i n g than s t a n d a r d a n d criterion-referenced tools, r e s e a r c h e r s a n d  clinicians attempt to elicit c o m m u n i c a t i o n s a m p l e s from children to e x a m i n e their c o m m u n i c a t i v e b e h a v i o u r . Eliciting s u c h s a m p l e s from y o u n g children c a n b e a difficult task. P a u l (2007) d i s c u s s e s two structured m e t h o d s for d o i n g this: elicited imitation a n d elicited p r o d u c t i o n . Elicited imitation o c c u r s w h e n the child is a s k e d to repeat a n utterance after a m o d e l . T h i s m e t h o d h a s b e e n criticized for the unnatural w a y in w h i c h l a n g u a g e is elicited, a n d b e c a u s e children d o not s e e m to p r o d u c e the s a m e k i n d s of errors in a n imitated context a s they d o in natural s p e e c h ( P a u l , 2 0 0 7 ) . Elicited production attempts to set u p ' a context for c o m m u n i c a t i o n in a w a y that e n c o u r a g e s the target b e h a v i o u r . T h i s is similar to the w a y W e t h e r b y a n d P r i z a n t (2003) u s e d the term ' c o m m u n i c a t i o n temptation' to d e s c r i b e a situation in w h i c h a n adult attempts to elicit a c h i l d ' s c o m m u n i c a t i o n by withholding a d e s i r e d item until a n a p p r o p r i a t e c o m m u n i c a t i o n o c c u r s . T h e major d i s a d v a n t a g e of elicitation a p p r o a c h e s is that a child m a y not p r o d u c e all the l a n g u a g e c o m p o n e n t s of interest. H o w e v e r , P e n a , Q u i n n , a n d Iglesias (1992) s u g g e s t that d y n a m i c a s s e s s m e n t m e t h o d s , including s c a f f o l d i n g , m a y b e u s e d to g u i d e production of the d e s i r e d f o r m s . C o m m u n i c a t i v e s a m p l e s m a y a l s o b e elicited with m i n i m a l influence of the e x p e r i m e n t e r or parent, that is, the child is just v i d e o t a p e d or a u d i o t a p e d in naturalistic play or c o n v e r s a t i o n interactions with p e e r s or adults. T h e a d v a n t a g e of naturalistic s a m p l i n g ( c o m p a r e d with structured elicitation) is that the b e h a v i o u r the child p r o d u c e s is m o r e likely to r e p r e s e n t the child's true p e r f o r m a n c e in typical daily settings. T h e d i s a d v a n t a g e of naturalistic s a m p l i n g ( c o m p a r e d with structured elicitations) is that it m a y t a k e a n e x t e n d e d p e r i o d of time for the child to p r o d u c e the form the r e s e a r c h e r or clinician is interested in, if he or s h e e v e r p r o d u c e s s u c h a f o r m . In a naturalistic context, c h i l d r e n ' s c o m m u n i c a t i o n partners m a y a l s o differ widely in interaction style, w h i c h c a n affect the c h i l d r e n ' s p e r f o r m a n c e a n d m a k e b e t w e e n - c h i l d r e n analyses more challenging. T h i s s e c t i o n r e m i n d s u s of the n e e d to c o n s i d e r the w a y in w h i c h c o m m u n i c a t i o n d a t a a r e c o l l e c t e d . If d a t a a r e elicited, the r e s e a r c h e r n e e d s to a s k : A r e the activities u s e d to elicit c o m m u n i c a t i o n representative of a child's natural s p e e c h output? D o e s the activity s k e w the child's output toward or a w a y from particular c o m m u n i c a t i v e intentions?  20  1.4.3  Coding Schemas to Analyze Elicitations O n c e a c o m m u n i c a t i v e s a m p l e h a s b e e n c o l l e c t e d a n d t r a n s c r i b e d (whether f r o m a  structured or unstructured elicitation context), s o m e m e t h o d of c o d i n g the d a t a must b e s e l e c t e d or d e v e l o p e d . S o m e of the earliest w o r k c l a s s i f y i n g adult c o m m u n i c a t i o n w a s a c c o m p l i s h e d b y A u s t i n a n d his student, S e a r l e , in the 1 9 6 0 s a n d early 1 9 7 0 s . A u s t i n , a n d then S e a r l e , d i v i d e d s p e e c h a c t s into five different c a t e g o r i e s : a s s e r t i v e s , directives, e x p r e s s i v e s , c o m m i s s i v e s a n d d e c l a r a t i v e s ( S e a r l e a n d V a n d e r v e k e n , 1985). S e a r l e a n d V a n d e r v e k e n (1985) d e f i n e d a s s e r t i v e s a s c o m m e n t s a b o u t 'the state of the world,' directives a s h a v i n g the i n t e n d e d g o a l of getting s o m e o n e to d o s o m e t h i n g ; e x p r e s s i v e s a s giving the s p e a k e r ' s thoughts a b o u t a proposition, c o m m i s s i v e s a s committing the s p e a k e r to future a c t i o n s , a n d d e c l a r a t i v e s a s modifying 'the state of the w o r l d , ' s i m p l y by their p r o n o u n c e m e n t by a p e r s o n of s t a t u s . S o m e e x a m p l e s of the v a r i o u s t y p e s of s p e e c h a c t s a r e a s follows: (1) a s s e r t i v e - T h i s is a toy: (2) directive - C a n y o u p a s s m e the toy; (3) e x p r e s s i v e - W o w ! (in r e s p o n s e to a toy); (4) c o m m i s s i v e -I'll c l e a n up the toys; a n d (5) d e c l a r a t i v e s -I h e r e b y r e n a m e this toy Mr. B a n a n a the M o n k e y . S e a r l e ' s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the function of s p e e c h a c t s w a s f o l l o w e d by s e v e r a l other early attempts to c a t e g o r i z e c h i l d r e n ' s c o m m u n i c a t i o n , s u c h a s the s y s t e m s p o s i t e d by D o r e (1973), T o u g h (1977) a n d M c S h a n e (1980). Ninio a n d S n o w (1996) provide a n o v e r v i e w of t h e s e a p p r o a c h e s to c o d i n g child l a n g u a g e . A c c o r d i n g to Ninio a n d S n o w (1996), D o r e ' s c o d i n g s y s t e m is the m o s t similar to S e a r l e ' s work, in that it a l s o d i v i d e s c o m m u n i c a t i o n a c t s by their illocutionary force at the utterance level, yielding c o m m u n i c a t i o n c a t e g o r i e s s u c h a s r e q u e s t i v e s , a s s e r t i v e s , r e s p o n s i v e s , regulatives, e x p r e s s i v e s a n d p e r f o r m a t i v e s (p. 2 0 ) . Ninio a n d S n o w (1996) s u g g e s t that T o u g h ' s a n a l y s i s s y s t e m is unlike S e a r l e a n d D o r e ' s c a t e g o r i e s , b e c a u s e it b a s e s s o m e of its distinctions o n the child's thought p r o c e s s e s a n d is m o s t appropriate for d e s c r i b i n g the c o m m u n i c a t i o n of older c h i l d r e n . T h i s s y s t e m d e f i n e s four c a t e g o r i e s : directive, interpretive, projective, a n d relational (Ninio a n d S n o w , p. 2 0 ) . M c S h a n e ' s a n a l y s i s , a c c o r d i n g to Ninio a n d S n o w (1996), is a l s o different, b e c a u s e it c a t e g o r i z e s s p e e c h a c t s a c c o r d i n g to the activity in w h i c h the child is i n v o l v e d , u s i n g regulation, statement, e x c h a n g e , p e r s o n a l a n d c o n v e r s a t i o n a s its s p e e c h act c a t e g o r i e s (p. 20). D o r e ' s (1973) descriptive s y s t e m is explicitly b a s e d o n S e a r l e ' s in the w a y it d e f i n e s c a t e g o r i e s within a c o n v e r s a t i o n a l e x c h a n g e . W h e n c o m p a r i n g the two s y s t e m s , w e s e e that D o r e ' s c a t e g o r y of r e q u e s t i v e s (solicit information or actions) is a p p r o x i m a t e l y e q u i v a l e n t to S e a r l e ' s c a t e g o r y of directives (to try to get the H e a r e r to d o s o m e t h i n g ) . D o r e ' s p e r f o r m a t i v e s ( a c c o m p l i s h a n d e s t a b l i s h a c t s / f a c t s by b e i n g said) a r e a l s o a p p r o x i m a t e l y e q u i v a l e n t to S e a r l e ' s d e c l a r a t i v e s , r e n a m e d f r o m A u s t i n ' s 'performatives' (to bring a b o u t a c h a n g e in the 21  future state of affairs). D o r e a n d S e a r l e ' s c o n c e p t s of a s s e r t i v e s (Dore: report f a c t s , state rules, c o n v e y attitudes, etc.; S e a r l e : to s a y 'how things are') a r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y equivalent. Similarly, their c a t e g o r i e s for e x p r e s s i v e s (Dore: non-propositionally c o n v e y attitudes or repeat others; S e a r l e : to e x p r e s s p e r s o n a l attitude or p s y c h o l o g i c a l attitude a b o u t a state of affairs) a r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y e q u a l , although S e a r l e d o e s not r e c o g n i z e 'repeat o t h e r s ' a s a type of s p e e c h act. In addition, S e a r l e d o e s not r e c o g n i z e either the r e s p o n s i v e (supply solicited information or a c k n o w l e d g e remarks) or regulative (control p e r s o n a l contact a n d c o n v e r s a t i o n a l flow) f u n c t i o n s put forth by D o r e , b e c a u s e t h e s e a r e d i s c o u r s e functions, not s p e e c h act functions; a n d D o r e d o e s not r e c o g n i z e the c o m m i s s i v e (to c o m m i t the s p e a k e r to a future c o u r s e of action) c a t e g o r y of S e a r l e , p r o b a b l y b e c a u s e y o u n g children a r e not c a p a b l e of committing t h e m s e l v e s to future a c t i o n s . T o u g h ' s (1977) analytic s y s t e m is c o n s i d e r a b l y different f r o m S e a r l e ' s a n d D o r e ' s in the w a y it d e f i n e s c a t e g o r y distinctions. R a t h e r than b a s i n g t h e s e d e c i s i o n s wholly o n the c o m m u n i c a t i v e function of the utterance, T o u g h ' s s y s t e m w e a v e s b a c k a n d forth b e t w e e n c o m m u n i c a t i v e function a n d p e r s p e c t i v e of the s p e a k e r . F o r e x a m p l e , although T o u g h ' s c a t e g o r y of directives is d e f i n e d m o r e b r o a d l y than S e a r l e ' s directives or D o r e ' s r e q u e s t i v e s (in that it i n c l u d e s both self a n d other directing), it is c o n s i s t e n t with the i d e a of getting s o m e o n e to 'do s o m e t h i n g . ' H o w e v e r , T o u g h ' s c a t e g o r y of projectives d o e s not h a v e a s p e e c h act function in the s a m e w a y ; rather, this a p p e a r s to b e a c a t e g o r y a b o u t the c h i l d ' s o w n t h o u g h t s , in that it i n c l u d e s predicting, e m p a t h e t i c , a n d imaginating (sic) a s its s u b c a t e g o r i e s . It s h o u l d b e n o t e d that T o u g h w a s interested in c h i l d r e n ' s c o m m u n i c a t i o n s in a s c h o o l setting. M c S h a n e (1980) a l s o s e e m s t o switch p e r s p e c t i v e s within his s y s t e m . A l t h o u g h Ninio a n d S n o w (1996) a r g u e that M c S h a n e c a t e g o r i z e s s p e e c h a c t s a c c o r d i n g to the activity in w h i c h the child is i n v o l v e d , it might a l s o b e a r g u e d that M c S h a n e ' s c o d i n g s y s t e m l a c k s c o n s i s t e n c y in the type of b e h a v i o u r c o d e d . T h e s a m e definition a s S e a r l e a n d D o r e u s e for c o m m u n i c a t i v e functions s e e m s to b e u s e d in M c S h a n e ' s regulation (approximately equivalent to S e a r l e ' s directives) a n d s t a t e m e n t (approximately e q u i v a l e n t to S e a r l e ' s a s s e r t i v e s ) c a t e g o r i e s , but M c S h a n e a p p e a r s to deviate from this definition of c o m m u n i c a t i v e functionality in the further c a t e g o r i e s . R a t h e r , M c S h a n e ' s u s e of e x c h a n g e to m e a n giving a n d r e c e i v i n g , p e r s o n a l to m e a n d o i n g , d e t e r m i n a t i o n , refusal a n d protest, a n d c o n v e r s a t i o n to m e a n imitation, a n s w e r , follow-on a n d q u e s t i o n s u g g e s t t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s h a v e a d i s c o u r s e , rather than a c o m m u n i c a t i v e , function. A l t h o u g h the D o r e (1973), T o u g h (1977) a n d M c S h a n e (1980) m o d e l s a r e different from o n e a n o t h e r a n d from S e a r l e ' s , they a r e v a l u a b l e to c o n s i d e r in that e a c h attempts to c a t e g o r i z e s p e e c h a c c o r d i n g to s o m e h i e r a r c h i c a l s y s t e m . In this w a y , u t t e r a n c e s a n d / o r a c t i o n s m a y b e  22  a s s i g n e d to c a t e g o r i e s a n d s u b c a t e g o r i e s with varying d e g r e e s of certainty; this w a s c o n s i d e r e d to be a useful strategy for the p r e s e n t s t u d y for t h o s e i n s t a n c e s in w h i c h a c h i l d ' s utterance a n d / o r action w o u l d not be e a s i l y a s s i g n e d to a n y particular c a t e g o r y . S i n c e the work of A u s t i n , S e a r l e , V a n d e r v e k e n , D o r e , T o u g h a n d M c S h a n e , m a n y other c o d i n g s y s t e m s h a v e b e e n u s e d to c a t e g o r i z e c o m m u n i c a t i v e b e h a v i o u r s . A brief o v e r v i e w of s e v e r a l other recent s y s t e m s u s e d for c o d i n g the c o m m u n i c a t i v e b e h a v i o u r s of y o u n g children is p r e s e n t e d in the next s e c t i o n , starting with c o d i n g s y s t e m s m o s t similar to p r e v i o u s c o d i n g s y s t e m s , that is, t h o s e that c o d e for m o d e of c o m m u n i c a t i o n , f o l l o w e d next b y s y s t e m s that a r e b a s e d o n the c o m m u n i c a t i v e function of a n utterance a n d , finally, by t h o s e in w h i c h d a t a h a v e b e e n c o l l e c t e d o n both function a n d m o d e of c o m m u n i c a t i o n . B e c a u s e m o s t s t u d i e s h a v e b e e n previously d i s c u s s e d , only highlights of the informal c o d i n g s c h e m a s a r e i n c l u d e d b e l o w a s a prelude to the d i s c u s s i o n of m o r e formal a n d hierarchical s c h e m e s outlined in the s u b s e q u e n t s e c t i o n s that w e r e the b a s i s for the current study.  1.4.3.1 C o d i n g S c h e m e s : M o d e of C o m m u n i c a t i o n T h i s s e c t i o n g i v e s e x a m p l e s of three b a s i c c o d i n g s c h e m e s for m o d e of c o m m u n i c a t i o n , f o c u s i n g o n t h o s e m o d e s that a r e c o m m o n to m a n y of the s t u d i e s . In order to c l a s s i f y gestural a n d v e r b a l b e h a v i o u r s , C a s b y a n d C u m p a t a (1986) d e v e l o p e d a 5-item ordinal s c a l e (the P A P I C ) to c a p t u r e the highest m o d e of intentional c o m m u n i c a t i o n exhibited by the child during v a r i o u s elicitation t a s k s . T h e i r ordinal c o d i n g s c a l e i n c l u d e d : 1) n o r e s p o n s e , 2) g e s t u r e or pointing to a n adult or object with deictic g a z e , 3) g e s t u r e or pointing to a n adult or object with v o c a l i z a t i o n , 4) verbalization to a n adult or object (may include gesture), a n d 5) verbalization with c o n v e n t i o n a l w o r d s or p h r a s e s . C a s b y a n d C u m p a t a (1986) c l a i m e d that this c o d i n g s y s t e m a l l o w e d t h e m to d o c u m e n t the full r a n g e of a c h i l d ' s c o m m u n i c a t i o n ability f r o m n o n - c o m m u n i c a t i v e to fully c o m m u n i c a t i v e , a n d e m p h a s i z e d early g a z e , g e s t u r e , a n d v o c a l / v e r b a l abilities of a child. T h e y a s s e r t e d that it a l s o a l l o w e d m e a n a n d r a n g e of intentional c o m m u n i c a t i o n d a t a to be d e t e r m i n e d for e a c h c h i l d , a n d for reliability b e t w e e n raters to be a c h i e v e d . F r a n c o a n d Butterworth (1996) s t u d i e d the m o d e s of c o m m u n i c a t i o n for 4 7 c h i l d r e n a g e d 1 ;0 - 1 ;6. T h e r e s e a r c h e r s c o d e d for p r e s e n c e / a b s e n c e of g e s t u r e s , a n d w h e n a g e s t u r e w a s p r e s e n t , c o l l e c t e d information o n v i s u a l c h e c k i n g a n d v o c a l i z a t i o n s . C o o r d i n a t i o n of g e s t u r e a n d g a z e w a s n o t e d , b e c a u s e the a u t h o r s h y p o t h e s i z e d that c o o r d i n a t i o n of g e s t u r e a n d g a z e m a y signify m o r e s o p h i s t i c a t e d c o m m u n i c a t i o n a c t s than t h o s e without s y n c h r o n i z e d g e s t u r e s a n d g a z e . Within the c a t e g o r y of g e s t u r e s , F r a n c o a n d Butterworth s u b c a t e g o r i z e d g e s t u r e s by pointing (finger-point a n d arm-point) a n d r e a c h i n g b e h a v i o u r s , a n d within the c a t e g o r y of v i s u a l  23  c h e c k i n g , they n o t e d the timing of g a z e to the adult a n d n u m b e r of e p i s o d e s in w h i c h the infant l o o k e d to the partner o n two or m o r e o c c a s i o n s . In a further investigation of pointing, L i s z k o w s k i et a l . (2004) set out to d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r infants w e r e c a p a b l e of either or both proto-imperative a n d proto-declarative pointing. L i s z k o w s k i et a l . (2004) t e s t e d the r e a c t i o n s of children u n d e r four different e x p e r i m e n t e r reaction c o n d i t i o n s : joint attention ( c o m m e n t s about the e v e n t a n d l o o k s b a c k a n d forth b e t w e e n the e v e n t a n d the child), f a c e ( c o m m e n t s about the child a n d only l o o k s at the child's f a c e ) , e v e n t (no c o m m e n t s a n d l o o k s only at the event) a n d ignore (no c o m m e n t s a n d did not look at either the c h i l d ' s f a c e or the event). C o d e s a n d m e a s u r e m e n t s f o c u s e d o n the c h i l d ' s looking to the e x p e r i m e n t e r before a n d during or after a point, a n d f r e q u e n c y , duration, a n d l a t e n c y of pointing. In s u m m a r y , d a t a o n m o d e of c o m m u n i c a t i o n g e n e r a l l y i n c l u d e s information o n b o d y g e s t u r e s ( s u c h a s pointing a n d r e a c h i n g ) , v o c a l i z a t i o n s , v e r b a l i z a t i o n s a n d e y e g a z e .  1.4.3.2 C o d i n g S c h e m e s : F u n c t i o n of C o m m u n i c a t i o n T h i s s e c t i o n g i v e s a n e x a m p l e of a c o d i n g s c h e m e d e s c r i b i n g t h e function of a c o m m u n i c a t i v e b e h a v i o u r that d e r i v e s from s p e e c h act theory. O t h e r s c h e m a s a r e d i s c u s s e d in the next s e c t i o n , b e c a u s e they f o c u s e d m o r e e q u a l l y o n m o d e a n d function. R y c k e b u s c h a n d M a r c o s (2004) c l a s s i f i e d c h i l d r e n ' s c o m m u n i c a t i o n b e h a v i o u r s ( a g e s 1 ;3 to 2;5) during mother-toddler a n d father-toddler play in two different play situations: a building activity a n d free play. T h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s y s t e m they u s e d to s t u d y the c h i l d r e n ' s u t t e r a n c e s w a s c l o s e l y related to S e a r l e a n d V a n d e r v e k e n ' s (1985) five s p e e c h a c t c a t e g o r i e s ; h o w e v e r , R y c k e b u s c h a n d M a r c o s (2004) u s e d only the a s s e r t i v e , directive, e x p r e s s i v e , a n d m i s c e l l a n e o u s (which i n c l u d e d c o m m i s s i v e s ) c a t e g o r i e s . Additionally, R y c k e b u s c h a n d M a r c o s (2004) s u b d i v i d e d directive s p e e c h a c t s into three portions: action r e q u e s t s , information r e q u e s t s , a n d attention r e q u e s t s , a r g u i n g that this w a s n e c e s s a r y for the p u r p o s e s of their study. A s s e r t i v e a n d e x p r e s s i v e a c t s w e r e not further d i s t i n g u i s h e d .  1.4.3.3 C o d i n g S c h e m e s : B o t h F u n c t i o n a n d M o d e T h i s s e c t i o n p r o v i d e s three e x a m p l e s of s t u d i e s that e v a l u a t e d both the m o d e of c o m m u n i c a t i o n a n d the function of the utterance. S t u d i e s v a r y in the detail of m o d e s a n d f u n c t i o n s c o d e d , with s c h e m a s reflecting the p u r p o s e of the study m o r e than deriving from a n y strong theoretical b a s i s . O n e a r e a of interest in c h i l d r e n ' s early c o m m u n i c a t i v e b e h a v i o u r is joint attention. C a l a n d r e l l a a n d W i l c o x (2000) d i s t i n g u i s h e d b e t w e e n three t y p e s of c o m m u n i c a t i o n s / m o d e s 24  a c c o r d i n g to w h e t h e r a given i n s t a n c e of c o m m u n i c a t i o n referred to a n object or event a n d / o r involved joint attention with a n adult. C a l a n d r e l l a a n d W i l c o x ' s (2000) first c a t e g o r y w a s intentional n o n v e r b a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n in w h i c h the child u s e d a referential g e s t u r e ( r e a c h , s h o w , point, give) a n d / o r v o c a l i z a t i o n (the m o d e s ) to refer to a n object or e v e n t in the e n v i r o n m e n t while e n g a g i n g in joint attention with a n adult partner (the functions). T h e i r s e c o n d c a t e g o r y of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n c l u d e d s o c i a l interaction s i g n a l s , in w h i c h g e s t u r e s a n d / o r v o c a l i z a t i o n s (mode) did not refer to a n i m m e d i a t e object or event, but e n g a g e d the joint attention of a n adult (function). T h e i r third c a t e g o r y w a s gestural indicating b e h a v i o u r s (mode), in w h i c h the child referred to a n i m m e d i a t e object or event (function), but did not include joint attention with a n adult. C a l a n d r e l l a a n d W i l c o x (2000) a l s o c o l l e c t e d information o n v e r b a l i z a t i o n s a n d s i g n s (mode). S p o k e n w o r d s w e r e d e f i n e d a s h a v i n g a c o n s i s t e n t p h o n o l o g i c a l form a n d s o u n d m e a n i n g relationship, s h a r i n g o n e c o n s o n a n t with the adult form or h a v i n g a n identifiable p h o n o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s a n d b e i n g p r o d u c e d in at least two different c o n t e x t s . S i g n s w e r e required to a p p r o x i m a t e the c o n v e n t i o n a l s i g n , b e c o n s i s t e n t in their s i g n - m e a n i n g relationship, a n d b e p r o d u c e d in at least two different contexts. C r a i s et a l . (2004) a d a p t e d B r u n e r ' s (1981) c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s y s t e m of three g e n e r a l c o m m u n i c a t i v e functions a n d eight s p e c i f i c intentions in c o d i n g of c h i l d r e n ' s early c o m m u n i c a t i v e attempts. Joint attention (a f o c u s in the C a l l a n d r e l l a a n d W i l c o x s t u d y a b o v e ) w a s a l s o a f o c u s in the B r u n e r s c h e m a , w h i c h d e s c r i b e d three b r o a d intentional c o m m u n i c a t i v e functions: b e h a v i o u r regulation (i.e., a c t s for regulation of a n o t h e r ' s b e h a v i o u r ) , s o c i a l interaction (i.e., a c t s to g a i n a n d / o r maintain a n o t h e r ' s interaction with o n e s e l f ) , a n d joint attention (i.e., a c t s to g u i d e a n o t h e r ' s attention to a s p e c i f i c object or event) (1981). T h e eight s p e c i f i c intentions B r u n e r (1981) d e f i n e d w e r e s u b d i v i s i o n s of t h e s e b r o a d c o m m u n i c a t i v e functions; that is, the s p e c i f i c intentions of r e q u e s t i n g objects, r e q u e s t i n g a c t i o n s , a n d protesting to regulate b e h a v i o u r w e r e s e e n a s c o m m u n i c a t i v e a c t s with a b e h a v i o u r regulation function. C o m m e n t i n g a n d r e q u e s t i n g information w e r e s p e c i f i c intentions c o m p l e t e d for a joint attention function, a n d representational g e s t u r e s , attention s e e k i n g , a n d s o c i a l g a m e s w e r e p e r f o r m e d to elicit a s o c i a l interaction function. C r a i s et a l . (2004) h y p o t h e s i z e d that a g e s t u r e h i e r a r c h y might b e useful to distinguish b e t w e e n a child w h o is a 'late talker' a n d o n e w h o is e x p e r i e n c i n g a n a c t u a l l a n g u a g e d e l a y . A gestural h i e r a r c h y c o u l d b e u s e d to distinguish children w h o s h o w s y m b o l formation deficits (late o n s e t of w o r d s ) from t h o s e with a m o r e g e n e r a l late o n s e t of intentional c o m m u n i c a t i o n (at a g e s t u r a l level). A s noted earlier, the C r a i s et a l . (2004) s t u d y a p p e a r s to attribute intentional c o m m u n i c a t i o n to v e r y y o u n g children (4-6 m o n t h s of a g e ) , s u g g e s t i n g that the parent reporting led to s o m e over-interpretation of the functions of the child's m o v e m e n t s a n d v o c a l i z a t i o n s . 25  D r o m i ' s (2003) s t u d y of 4 3 deaf children a l s o f o c u s e d o n g e s t u r e s ( m o d e ) , c o d i n g t h e m a s either deictic or referential in function. Deictic g e s t u r e s w e r e d e f i n e d a s g e s t u r e s that e s t a b l i s h joint attention a n d indicate interest in a n object or event (as in Iverson & T h a i , 1998). S u c h g e s t u r e s i n c l u d e d s h o w i n g , r e a c h i n g , giving, a n d pointing, a n d w e r e further c o d e d a s contact v e r s u s distal g e s t u r e s ( B a t e s , C a m a i o n i , & V o l t e r r a , 1975). C o n t a c t deictic g e s t u r e s implied p h y s i c a l c o n t a c t b e t w e e n c o m m u n i c a t i o n partners (e.g., p u s h i n g a h a n d a w a y to indicate refusal), a n d distal g e s t u r e s did not (e.g., pointing to a n object to indicate d e s i r e ; B a t e s e t a l . , 1975). Deictic g e s t u r e s w e r e a l s o c l a s s i f i e d a s imperative or d e c l a r a t i v e s u b - t y p e s (function): a n imperative deictic g e s t u r e w a s c o n s i d e r e d to regulate b e h a v i o u r (e.g., r e q u e s t a n a c t i o n or object) a n d a d e c l a r a t i v e deictic g e s t u r e w a s c o n s i d e r e d a m e a n s of e s t a b l i s h i n g joint attention (e.g., direct attention to a n object). Referential g e s t u r e s w e r e a l s o c a l l e d representational g e s t u r e s , a n d w e r e g e s t u r e s that i n c o r p o r a t e d s e m a n t i c content a n d e s t a b l i s h e d a referent. Referential g e s t u r e s w e r e further d i v i d e d into o b j e c t - r e l a t e d / s y m b o l i c referential g e s t u r e s , w h i c h h a d a n o n - c o n v e n t i o n a l s y m b o l i c nature (e.g., d a n c i n g to r e q u e s t the radio b e turned on), a n d c o n v e n t i o n a l referential g e s t u r e s , w h i c h h a d a s o c i a l l y d e f i n e d s y m b o l i c nature (e.g., w a v i n g to s a y g o o d b y e ) ( C r a i s et a l . , 2 0 0 4 ) . F r o m this c o m p l e x s e t of c o d e s , after e a c h p e r i o d of parent o b s e r v a t i o n , the c h i l d r e n ' s a c t i o n s w e r e d i v i d e d into prelinguistic c a t e g o r i e s of b e h a v i o u r s a n d s u m m e d a n d a v e r a g e d . T h e child's p e r f o r m a n c e w a s then a s s i g n e d to a prelinguistic level of f u n c t i o n i n g : c r y i n g , i n d e p e n d e n t b e h a v i o u r s , c o l l a b o r a t i o n with a n adult, pointing, g e s t u r e s , v o c a l i z a t i o n s , w o r d s , a n d s i g n s , all l o o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d with deictic or referential g e s t u r e t y p e s . F o r e x a m p l e , D r o m i (2003) d e f i n e d 'collaboration with a n adult' a s a g e s t u r e that involved mutual e n g a g e m e n t b e t w e e n the child a n d a n adult a n d direct p h y s i c a l manipulation by the child of a n o t h e r to a c h i e v e g o a l s , but with n o direct e x p r e s s i o n of c o m m u n i c a t i v e intent to the adult. I n d e p e n d e n t b e h a v i o u r s w e r e d e f i n e d a s n o n - c o m m u n i c a t i v e i n d e p e n d e n t b e h a v i o u r s , s u c h a s looking for a lost toy without a n y a s s i s t a n c e from a n adult.  1.5  Critical Analysis of Existing Systems A s u m m a r y of the s p e e c h a c t b e h a v i o u r s that w e r e c o d e d by s e v e r a l of the a b o v e -  m e n t i o n e d r e s e a r c h e r s is p r e s e n t e d in A p p e n d i x 1. F r o m this, w e c a n s e e that a great variety of m o d e s a n d functions, a n d m e t h o d s of d a t a c o l l e c t i o n , h a v e b e e n u s e d to d o c u m e n t c o m m u n i c a t i o n in y o u n g c h i l d r e n . Ninio, S n o w , P a n , a n d R o l l i n s (1994) p r e s e n t a c o g e n t a c c o u n t of the c r i t i c i s m s that s u r r o u n d the diversity of c o d i n g s c h e m e s in the field of child l a n g u a g e d e v e l o p m e n t . T h e m a i n  26  c o n c e r n s t h e s e a u t h o r s e x p r e s s include a lack internal c o h e r e n c e , a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s , or theoretical b a s i s for the c o d i n g s c h e m e s b e i n g utilized. T h o s e a r g u m e n t s a r e outlined b e l o w . Ninio et a l . (1994) define internal c o h e r e n c e a s a failure to differentiate b e t w e e n l e v e l s of a n a l y s i s or specificity b e t w e e n c a t e g o r i e s . W h i l e s o m e s y s t e m s d o c a p t u r e a full array of information at o n e level of a n a l y s i s (e.g., D o r e , 1973), Ninio et a l . (1994) state that m a n y s y s t e m s d o not c a p t u r e a full array of information at o n e level of a n a l y s i s , nor d o they c a p t u r e information at m o r e than o n e level of a n a l y s i s (e.g., functional v s . d i s c o u r s e levels). T h i s type of detail is important to a c c o u n t for the full r a n g e of a c o m m u n i c a t o r ' s abilities. Ninio et a l . (1994) a l s o a r g u e that c o d i n g s y s t e m s require a theoretical f o u n d a t i o n for the n u m b e r a n d type of s p e e c h a c t s d i s t i n g u i s h e d . T h e level to w h i c h all c a t e g o r i e s a r e d i v i d e d s h o u l d b e driven f r o m the q u e s t i o n s p o s e d of the d a t a ; if o n e c a t e g o r y requires a n additional level of detail, the hierarchy of c a t e g o r i z a t i o n a n d d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s s h o u l d b e m a d e explicit (Ninio e t a l . , 1 9 9 4 , p. 164). Additionally, m a n y of the w e l l - u s e d b e h a v i o u r c o d i n g s y s t e m s ( s u c h a s B a t e s et a l . , 1 9 7 9 ; D o r e , 1 9 7 3 ; M c S h a n e , 1980) w e r e d e s i g n e d for c o m m u n i c a t o r s at a s p e c i f i c a g e or ability level a n d m a y , therefore, not b e appropriate to u s e a c r o s s the l i f e s p a n , in longitudinal r e s e a r c h or with p e o p l e w h o h a v e v a r y i n g levels of ability a c r o s s l a n g u a g e d o m a i n s . A n o t h e r feature of m a n y of the p r e v i o u s l y e x p l a i n e d c o d i n g s y s t e m s is that they fail to c o n s i d e r the point of v i e w from w h i c h c o d i n g is to take p l a c e (Ninio et a l . , 1994). F o l l o w i n g S e a r l e ' s a r g u m e n t (n.d., cited in Ninio et a l . , 1 9 9 4 , p. 165) that the intended act of the s p e a k e r is not n e c e s s a r i l y the s a m e a s w h a t is inferred b y the listener, Ninio et a l . (1994) s u g g e s t c o d i n g s y s t e m s must e s t a b l i s h the p e r s p e c t i v e f r o m w h i c h d a t a is to b e c o d e d , that is, w h e t h e r d a t a will be c o d e d a s the intended c o m m u n i c a t i o n or the a c h i e v e d c o m m u n i c a t i o n . It is interesting that m o s t of the s t u d i e s reported a b o v e failed to incorporate the r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s set out by Ninio et a l . , e v e n t h o u g h Ninio et a l . p u b l i s h e d their criticisms m a n y y e a r s prior to the majority of the s t u d i e s d i s c u s s e d h e r e .  1.5.1  R e s p o n s e to Criticisms A s a r e s p o n s e to t h e s e criticisms, Ninio a n d W h e e l e r (1984) attempted to d e v e l o p a  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s y s t e m with "internal c o h e r e n c e " that h a d a strong theoretical b a s i s a n d w a s appropriate for all c o m m u n i c a t i o n s a m p l e s . T h e full Ninio a n d W h e e l e r (1984) s y s t e m c o n t a i n s a 63-item t a x o n o m y of s p e e c h act c o d e s a n d c a t e g o r i e s o r g a n i z e d into g r o u p s by major p r a g m a t i c f o r c e . T h e twelve major c a t e g o r i e s that distinguish a m o n g the effect of a n utterance o n a n i n t e r c h a n g e include directives a n d r e s p o n s e s , s p e e c h elicitations a n d r e s p o n s e s , commitments and responses, declarations and responses, markings and responses, statements  27  a n d r e s p o n s e s , q u e s t i o n s a n d r e s p o n s e s , p e r f o r m a n c e s , e v a l u a t i o n s , d e m a n d s for clarification, text editing a n d v o c a l i z a t i o n s . E a c h of t h e s e twelve c a t e g o r i e s is c o m p o s e d of m o r e s p e c i f i c s p e e c h a c t s , w h i c h c a n b e u s e d a c c o r d i n g to t h e g o a l s of a particular r e s e a r c h project. A major fault of t h e Ninio a n d W h e e l e r (1984) s y s t e m is that, a l t h o u g h they a d v o c a t e for internal c o h e r e n c e in a c o d i n g s y s t e m , t h e a u t h o r s t h e m s e l v e s c o m b i n e l e v e l s of a n a l y s i s within o n e s y s t e m . F o r e x a m p l e , within t h e c a t e g o r y directives a n d r e s p o n s e s , Ninio a n d W h e e l e r (1984) include ' a g r e e to c a r r y out act r e q u e s t e d or p r o p o s e d b y another'. T h i s is inappropriate b e c a u s e directives a r e typically d e f i n e d within S p e e c h A c t T h e o r y a s a n attempt to get t h e H e a r e r to DO s o m e t h i n g . T h i s e x a m p l e (agree to carry out a c t r e q u e s t e d o r p r o p o s e d b y another) is m o r e c o n g r u e n t with t h e S e a r l e c a t e g o r y of c o m m i s s i v e s , w h i c h a r e a c t s that c o m m i t the S p e a k e r to a future c o u r s e of a c t i o n . In addition, 'directives a n d r e s p o n s e s ' d o not constitute a s p e e c h a c t c a t e g o r y ; ' r e s p o n s e s ' is a d i s c o u r s e c a t e g o r y . F o r e x a m p l e , a r e s p o n s e c o u l d b e a statement, a r e q u e s t for clarification, o r a n a g r e e m e n t to d o (just to n a m e a f e w p o s s i b l e s p e e c h acts).  1.5.2  B a c k g r o u n d Investigations to the Current Study: Klincans (1991) a n d S i n g (2002) T h e current s t u d y builds o n a r e s e a r c h p r o g r a m initiated b y K l i n c a n s ( 1 9 9 1 ; J o h n s o n &  K l i n c a n s , 1999). K l i n c a n s c o m p a r e d s p e e c h a c t s in o n e s i g h t e d b o y a n d h i s blind identical twin. S h e utilized a c o d i n g s c h e m a b a s e d o n S e a r l e a n d V a n d e r v e k e n (1985), c o m p a r i n g a n d contrasting her s y s t e m with that of Ninio a n d W h e e l e r (1984). K l i n c a n s i n c l u d e d t h e c a t e g o r i e s a n d s u b c a t e g o r i e s p r e s e n t e d in T a b l e 1.1 in her c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s c h e m e ; further details a r e p r e s e n t e d in c h a p t e r 2 . T h e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n the K l i n c a n s ( 1 9 9 1 ; J o h n s o n & K l i n c a n s , 1999) a n d Ninio a n d W h e e l e r (1984) s y s t e m s help m a k e the distinctions b e t w e e n c a t e g o r i e s c l e a r e r ( b a s e d o n S p e e c h A c t T h e o r y ) a n d d e m o n s t r a t e its theoretical b a s i s a n d internal c o h e r e n c e . T h e K l i n c a n s a n d J o h n s o n s y s t e m w a s a d a p t e d b y S i n g (2002) in a pilot s t u d y to w h i c h the p r e s e n t s t u d y is related, with S i n g (2002) slightly truncating t h e K l i n c a n s a n d J o h n s o n c o d i n g s y s t e m to a c c o u n t for d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e a g e s of t h e children in their s t u d i e s . S i n g (2002) s t u d i e d 18 children b e t w e e n t h e a g e s of 1;4 a n d 1;10, with 8 children h a v i n g i m m e d i a t e family history of l a n g u a g e d e l a y a n d 10 infants h a v i n g n o s u c h history. S i n g (2002) c o d e d type a n d f r e q u e n c y of c o m m u n i c a t i v e b e h a v i o u r s a n d m o d e of c o m m u n i c a t i o n , a n d w h e t h e r the a c t w a s initiated o r w a s a r e s p o n s e in s e v e n different activities d e s i g n e d to elicit c o m m u n i c a t i o n : activating t w o w i n d - u p t o y s ; taking objects from a b a g ; e n g a g i n g in ball p l a y , then withholding the ball; pointing to a t e l e v i s i o n ; blowing b u b b l e s , then c l o s i n g the jar; activating a c a u s e - a n d effect toy; a n d looking at b o o k s with t h e c a r e g i v e r . S i n g ' s p u r p o s e in e v a l u a t i n g t h e c o m m u n i c a t i v e b e h a v i o u r of t h e s e children w a s to c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n of children in  28  this a g e r a n g e a n d to e v a l u a t e w h e t h e r the s p e e c h a c t s of children with family history of l a n g u a g e impairment differed from t h o s e of children without family history of l a n g u a g e impairment. T h e m a i n findings of the S i n g (2002) s t u d y w e r e that children with a n d without family history of l a n g u a g e impairment w e r e similar in their c o m m u n i c a t i v e abilities (that is, within this s a m p l e s i z e , the family history g r o u p did not h a v e m o r e children with c o m m u n i c a t i o n d e l a y s than the group with n o history of l a n g u a g e impairment). Directive a n d a s s e r t i v e s p e e c h a c t s w e r e m o s t c o m m o n a n d c h i l d r e n ' s a v e r a g e rate of c o m m u n i c a t i o n w a s 6.48 a c t s p e r minute. Additionally, S i n g (2002) f o u n d that children with m o r e s p o n t a n e o u s w o r d s a n d a h i g h e r rate of c o m m u n i c a t i v e a c t s p e r minute h a d i n c r e a s e d l a n g u a g e production s c o r e s , a higher n u m b e r of c o m m u n i c a t i v e a c t s , a n d m o r e a s s e r t i v e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s than children w h o h a d f e w e r s p o n t a n e o u s w o r d s a n d a lower rate of c o m m u n i c a t i o n . T h i s is s u p p o r t e d b y the finding that her participants' R e y n e l l ( R e y n e l l , 1977) l a n g u a g e c o m p r e h e n s i o n s c o r e s c o r r e l a t e d with d i s c o u r s e c a t e g o r y a n d rate of c o m m u n i c a t i o n . S i n g p r e s e n t s a f e w p o s s i b l e c o n f o u n d s e n c o u n t e r e d during her r e s e a r c h . S h e s t a t e s that e x p e r i m e n t a l a n d control g r o u p s m a y h a v e b e e n l e s s different (in t e r m s of risk a n d parental c o n c e r n about l a n g u a g e d e l a y , etc.) than p r e v i o u s l y thought a n d additionally q u e s t i o n s w h e t h e r birth-order status a n d n u m b e r of s i b l i n g s might affect c h i l d r e n ' s s p e e c h act p r o d u c t i o n s . T h e current s t u d y a t t e m p t e d to strengthen S i n g ' s efforts by clarifying definitions of children 'at risk of l a n g u a g e d e l a y ' in t e r m s of their family history of l a n g u a g e d e l a y . A g r e a t e r n u m b e r of children w e r e s t u d i e d , a n d c o n s i s t e n c y in birth-order b e t w e e n g r o u p s w a s maintained.  1.6  B a s i s for the Current Study  1.6.1  Coding System A l t h o u g h it h a s s h o w n to b e difficult to d e v i s e a s p e e c h act c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s y s t e m that h a s  a strong theoretical b a s i s , is internally c o h e r e n t , a n d appropriate for u s e with a variety of individuals a n d situations, the ability to d e s c r i b e the t y p e s of c o m m u n i c a t i v e a c t s children perform is a n important g o a l t o w a r d s e n a b l i n g c o m m o n u n d e r s t a n d i n g b e t w e e n practitioners in child d e v e l o p m e n t (Ninio & S n o w , 1996), a n d t o w a r d earlier d i a g n o s i s of l a n g u a g e d e l a y . T h i s s y s t e m must include a set of c a t e g o r i e s that differentiate b e t w e e n t y p e s of c o m m u n i c a t i o n s , plus s o m e s y s t e m a t i c w a y of a s s i g n i n g i n s t a n c e s of c o m m u n i c a t i o n to c o m m u n i c a t i v e c a t e g o r i e s (Ninio & S n o w , 1 9 9 6 ) . K l i n c a n s ( 1 9 9 1 ; J o h n s o n & K l i n c a n s , 1999) a n d S i n g (2002) d e v e l o p e d a n d u s e d s y s t e m s that satisfy Ninio a n d S n o w ' s (1996) criteria. F o r this r e a s o n , t h e s e s y s t e m s form the b a s i s for the c o m m u n i c a t i v e c o d i n g s y s t e m d e v e l o p e d for the current thesis. 29  In addition to the q u e s t i o n s arising from the S i n g (2002) pilot s t u d y results n o t e d a b o v e , two additional a s p e c t s of the K l i n c a n s (1991) a n d S i n g (2002) c o d i n g s y s t e m s w e r e q u e s t i o n e d : the c o d i n g of a m b i g u o u s c o m m u n i c a t i v e a c t s a n d the h i e r a r c h i c a l levels within e a c h set of major c a t e g o r i e s . R e g a r d i n g ambiguity, the q u e s t i o n r e m a i n e d w h e t h e r it w o u l d b e p o s s i b l e to s u b - c a t e g o r i z e a m b i g u o u s illocutionary f o r c e a s o n e of two options (e.g., w h e t h e r a directive w a s a r e q u e s t for information or a c t i o n , or w h e t h e r a n act w a s a directive or a s s e r t i v e ) . R e g a r d i n g hierarchical relationships b e t w e e n l e v e l s of specificity, o n c e a c o m m u n i c a t i o n act w a s d e t e r m i n e d to b e l o n g to a c a t e g o r y b a s e d o n major illocutionary f o r c e (e.g., directive), the q u e s t i o n w a s w h e t h e r this c o u l d b e further s u b - d i v i d e d (as a directive to a c h i e v e a c t i o n , g a i n information, attention, or p e r m i s s i o n ) ? If the act c o u l d b e c o d e d to the sub-illocutionary f o r c e l e v e l , c o u l d it b e d e t e r m i n e d w h e t h e r the act c o u l d b e c o d e d to a further level of p r e c i s i o n (e.g., if the act w a s directive, for information, w a s the child s e e k i n g n e w information, or information for clarification). ( S e e C h a p t e r 2 for further d i s c u s s i o n . )  1.6.2  Research Questions T h e current s t u d y f o l l o w e d a r e s e a r c h p r o g r a m ( K l i n c a n s , 1 9 9 1 ; S i n g , 2 0 0 2 ) in this topic  a r e a , a n d w a s a direct follow-up to the S i n g (2002) pilot study. T h e g e n e r a l lack of information a b o u t c h i l d r e n ' s c o m m u n i c a t i v e a c t s in the s e c o n d y e a r of life, a n d the lack of c o h e r e n c e in v a r i o u s c o d i n g s y s t e m s for c o m m u n i c a t i v e a c t s by children led to the following r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s a n d predictions for the current study.  Q u e s t i o n O n e : H o w d o children a g e d 1 ;5 to 2;0 c o m m u n i c a t e in structured elicitation c o n t e x t s ? Specifically: a.  W h a t is the c h i l d r e n ' s rate of c o m m u n i c a t i o n in structured elicitation c o n t e x t s ? B a s e d on previous studies (Paul, 2007; R y c k e b u s c h and Marcos, 2004; and S i n g , 2 0 0 2 ) rate of c o m m u n i c a t i o n w a s predicted to b e b e t w e e n 5 a n d 8 u t t e r a n c e s per minute.  b.  D o the children t e n d to r e s p o n d to or initiate c o m m u n i c a t i o n s in structured elicitation contexts? It w a s predicted that children w o u l d initiate m o r e frequently with a g e , but that the t y p e s of activities c o n d u c t e d m a y affect this d e v e l o p m e n t a l t e n d e n c y ( S i n g , 2002).  c.  W h a t is the preferred m o d e of c o m m u n i c a t i o n for children a g e d 1 ;5 to 2;0 in structured elicitation c o n t e x t s ?  30  It w a s anticipated that n o n - v e r b a l g e s t u r e s s u c h a s pointing, r e a c h i n g a n d s h o w i n g w o u l d be p r e s e n t in all c h i l d r e n , r e g a r d l e s s of a g e , but that m o r e s y m b o l i c f o r m s of c o m m u n i c a t i o n , s u c h a s v e r b a l i z a t i o n s a n d m a n u a l s i g n , m a y only b e p r e s e n t in the older children b a s e d o n the r e s e a r c h p r e s e n t e d a b o v e a n d C a s b y a n d C u m p a t a ' s ordinal s c a l e of c o m m u n i c a t i o n d e v e l o p m e n t . d.  W h a t a r e the m o s t frequent s p e e c h act t y p e s u s e d by the c h i l d r e n in structured elicitation c o n t e x t s ? It w a s e x p e c t e d that directives a n d a s s e r t i v e s w o u l d b e the m o s t frequently o c c u r r i n g type of s p e e c h act p r o d u c e d a n d declarative a n d c o m m i s s i v e a c t s w o u l d be the least frequently o c c u r r i n g type of s p e e c h a c t s a c r o s s c h i l d r e n , b a s e d o n the work of R y c k e b u s c h a n d M a r c o s (2004) a n d the a g e s of the children with r e s p e c t to the definitional r e q u i r e m e n t s for c o m m i s s i v e s a n d d e c l a r a t i v e s . In addition, it w a s e x p e c t e d that directives w o u l d b e m o r e frequent than a s s e r t i v e s , g i v e n the findings in S i n g ' s (2002) pilot s t u d y (which u s e d similar elicitation m e t h o d s ) . H o w e v e r , g i v e n that R y c k e b u s c h a n d M a r c o s ' (2004) f o u n d a s s e r t i v e s w e r e m o r e frequent than directives (with a similar a g e g r o u p ) , this prediction is u n c e r t a i n . W e t h e r b y a n d R o d r i q u e z (1992) s u g g e s t d i f f e r e n c e s in c o m m u n i c a t i o n m a y b e the result of structured v e r s u s unstructured c o n t e x t s .  e.  D o e s a g e or g e n d e r affect the c o m m u n i c a t i v e b e h a v i o u r of children b e t w e e n 1 ;5 a n d 2;0 in structured elicitation s e s s i o n s a s m e a s u r e d by s p e e c h a c t s ? It w a s e x p e c t e d that girls w o u l d b e slightly m o r e a d v a n c e d in their c o m m u n i c a t i o n s , a s c o m p a r e d to s a m e a g e b o y s , b a s e d o n Reilly et a l . ' s (2006) finding that f e m a l e children s c o r e d higher than m a l e c h i l d r e n o n the C S B S a s s e s s m e n t . It w a s a l s o anticipated that children w o u l d b e c o m e m o r e c o m p e t e n t communicators as age increased.  T h e primary g o a l of the current project w a s d e s c r i p t i v e , that is, to a d d to the literature o n c h i l d r e n ' s l a n g u a g e d e v e l o p m e n t b y d o c u m e n t i n g the t y p e s , r a n g e , a n d f r e q u e n c y of c o m m u n i c a t i v e b e h a v i o u r s in y o u n g s e c o n d - b o r n children (1 ;5 to 1 ;11) a s they o c c u r r e d in structured c o m m u n i c a t i v e interactions with a s i n g l e e x p e r i m e n t e r . A w i d e r a n g e of d e v e l o p m e n t a l s e q u e n c e s a n d timings w a s e x p e c t e d , b a s e d o n the conflicting results b e t w e e n s t u d i e s a n d the variation noted by M u n d y a n d G o m e s (1998). S t r u c t u r e d t a s k s w e r e c h o s e n for o b s e r v a t i o n of y o u n g c h i l d r e n ' s c o m m u n i c a t i v e a c t s (1) b e c a u s e they a l l o w g r e a t e r s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n of the e x p e r i m e n t e r ' s interactions a c r o s s c h i l d r e n , a n d thus ' b e t w e e n - c h i l d r e n ' c o m p a r i s o n of c o m m u n i c a t i o n b e h a v i o u r s without variability in partner interaction style a s a  31  possible confound (Ryckebusch and Marcos, 2004; Yont, Snow, and Vernon-Feagans, 2003), a n d (2) b e c a u s e the current s t u d y w a s a follow-up to a pilot s t u d y ( S i n g , 2 0 0 2 ) , w h i c h e x a m i n e d c o m m u n i c a t i o n in similar c o n t e x t s .  Q u e s t i o n T w o : D o e s c h i l d r e n ' s p e r f o r m a n c e o n structured elicitation t a s k s m a t c h their p e r f o r m a n c e o n s t a n d a r d i z e d or criterion-referenced tools (i.e., the P L S a n d C D I s c o r e s ) ; in t e r m s of statistical or descriptive a n a l y s i s ?  T h e q u e s t i o n h e r e is w h e t h e r s t a n d a r d tools m a t c h a c h i l d ' s c o m m u n i c a t i o n in l e s s formal elicitation s a m p l e s ( e v e n structured elicitations). Ultimately, this a n s w e r s w h a t m e t h o d s a r e m o s t reliable a n d valid for e v a l u a t i n g a child's l a n g u a g e d e v e l o p m e n t . T y p e s , r a n g e , a n d f r e q u e n c y of c o m m u n i c a t i v e a c t s w e r e p r e d i c t e d to relate with other i n d i c e s of d e v e l o p m e n t , s u c h a s s t a n d a r d i z e d tests of l a n g u a g e a n d d e v e l o p m e n t (as n o t e d in S i n g , 2 0 0 2 ; M u n d y a n d G o m e s , 1998). B e c a u s e the s t a n d a r d tests of l a n g u a g e a n d d e v e l o p m e n t u s e d in this s t u d y a r e different f r o m t h o s e u s e d by S i n g (2002) or M u n d y a n d G o m e s (1998), it is uncertain w h e t h e r this prediction w o u l d b e c o n f i r m e d .  32  CHAPTER 2 METHOD  2.1  Overview of the Study Thirty-four c h i l d r e n , a g e s 1 ;5 to 2 ; 0 , participated in a structured play s e s s i o n a s part of a  larger longitudinal study. A n e x p e r i m e n t e r p r e s e n t e d the child with a s e r i e s of t o y s a n d a t t e m p t e d to elicit c o m m u n i c a t i o n f r o m the child with minimal p r o m p t i n g . D a t a w e r e a u d i o - a n d v i d e o - t a p e d , then t r a n s c r i b e d orthographically a n d c o d e d a c c o r d i n g to w h e t h e r the utterance w a s c o m m u n i c a t i v e or not, w h e r e the child's f o c u s of attention lay, w h e t h e r a n utterance w a s a n initiation or a r e s p o n s e , a n d w h a t the m o d e a n d function of c o m m u n i c a t i o n w e r e . T h e c o d e d d a t a w e r e a n a l y z e d for f r e q u e n c y a n d correlation with results f r o m s t a n d a r d l a n g u a g e m e a s u r e s , family history of l a n g u a g e impairment, a g e , a n d g e n d e r . T h i s c h a p t e r p r o v i d e s details of the m e t h o d u s e d in the study.  2.2  Participants  2.2.1  B a c k g r o u n d Longitudinal Study T h e participants from the current s t u d y w e r e a s u b - g r o u p f r o m 91 c h i l d r e n w h o a r e  taking part in a longitudinal s t u d y e v a l u a t i n g early detection of l a n g u a g e d e l a y . T h e p u r p o s e of the b a c k g r o u n d s t u d y w a s to d e t e r m i n e w h i c h of s e v e r a l e v a l u a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s m o s t reliably predicts l a n g u a g e d e l a y in y o u n g c h i l d r e n . In order to d o this, e a c h of the 91 children w a s e v a l u a t e d at three different a g e s (18 m o n t h s , 3 y e a r s , a n d 4 y e a r s ) , a n d their l a n g u a g e skills at 3 y e a r s a n d 4 y e a r s w e r e c o m p a r e d with their t a s k p e r f o r m a n c e at 18 m o n t h s . T h e current study, w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i z e s the c o m m u n i c a t i v e c o m p e t e n c e of c h i l d r e n at 18 m o n t h s , r e p r e s e n t s a n initial s t e p t o w a r d s the g o a l of the longitudinal study. C h i l d r e n w e r e recruited through a d v e r t i s e m e n t s p l a c e d in c o m m u n i t y l o c a t i o n s , s u c h a s n e w s p a p e r s , libraries, a n d at parent-child g r o u p s . Additionally, children w h o h a d s i b l i n g s or a n o t h e r first-degree family m e m b e r with l a n g u a g e d e l a y w e r e recruited through local health Units a n d S - L P c l i n i c s . B e c a u s e s i b l i n g s of a child with l a n g u a g e d e l a y h a v e a n i n c r e a s e d likelihood of a l s o h a v i n g a l a n g u a g e d e l a y (Neils a n d A r a m , 1 9 8 6 ; S p i t z , T a l l a l , F l a x , & B e n a s i c h , 1 9 9 7 ; T o m b l i n , 1989), children with family history of l a n g u a g e d e l a y w e r e s p e c i f i c a l l y recruited to i n c r e a s e the likelihood that children with l a n g u a g e d e l a y w o u l d b e i n c l u d e d in the s a m p l e o b s e r v e d in the longitudinal study. S i b l i n g s with l a n g u a g e d e l a y w e r e d e f i n e d by h a v i n g 33  s e e n , either currently or in the past, a S p e e c h - L a n g u a g e P a t h o l o g i s t ( S L P ) for a n y s p e e c h a n d / o r l a n g u a g e related impairment T h e children w h o participated in the longitudinal study w e r e primarily f r o m c o m m u n i t i e s in s o u t h w e s t British C o l u m b i a . Criteria for e x c l u s i o n f r o m this s t u d y i n c l u d e d h a v i n g l e s s t h a n 8 0 % E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e e x p o s u r e , failing a t y m p a n o m e t r y s c r e e n i n g , or h a v i n g a n o t h e r identifiable condition ( s u c h a s a s e n s o r i n e u r a l h e a r i n g l o s s or c e r e b r a l p a l s y ) . O n a v e r a g e , the g r o u p of children h a d e x p o s u r e to E n g l i s h only in the h o m e a c c o r d i n g to parent report (range 80-100%).  2.2.2  Current S t u d y O n l y children with older s i b l i n g s w e r e s e l e c t e d for inclusion in the current s t u d y f r o m the  91 c h i l d r e n recruited for the larger s t u d y (n = 34). T h i s criterion for inclusion w a s set to rule out a h y p o t h e s i s r a i s e d in S i n g ' s (2002) pilot s t u d y for this project. S i n g (2002) s u g g e s t e d birth o r d e r m a y h a v e b e e n a contributing factor to not finding significant d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n the s p e e c h a c t s of her e x p e r i m e n t a l a n d control g r o u p s . S e l e c t i n g c h i l d r e n with o n e or m o r e o l d e r s i b l i n g s p r o v i d e d s o m e c o n s i s t e n c y in d e v e l o p m e n t a l e n v i r o n m e n t b e t w e e n c h i l d r e n in the study, a n d r e m o v e d the p o s s i b l e c o n f o u n d of birth-order from relationships that might e m e r g e . E l e v e n of the 3 4 children in the s t u d y h a d o l d e r s i b l i n g s with no p r e v i o u s d i a g n o s i s of l a n g u a g e d e l a y . T h i s group c o n s i s t e d of five m a l e a n d s i x f e m a l e c h i l d r e n , a g e s 17 to 21 m o n t h s (mean=18.8 m o n t h s ) . T h r e e of the c h i l d r e n h a d two o l d e r s i b l i n g s (7, 9, a n d 34); nine of the children h a d only One older sibling (14, 2 4 , 3 2 , 4 1 , 5 8 , 6 8 , 7 4 , a n d 7 8 ) . T h e s i b l i n g s ' a g e s v a r i e d b e t w e e n 2;6 a n d 11 y e a r s of a g e . T w e n t y - t h r e e of the 3 4 children in the s t u d y h a d older s i b l i n g s with p r e v i o u s d i a g n o s i s of l a n g u a g e d e l a y (and h a d a t t e n d e d s p e e c h - l a n g u a g e therapy). T h i s g r o u p c o n s i s t e d of 10 m a l e a n d 13 f e m a l e c h i l d r e n , a g e s 17 to 2 4 m o n t h s ( m e a n = 1 9 . 7 m o n t h s ) . T w o children h a d four older s i b l i n g s , with o n e sibling from e a c h set h a v i n g a l a n g u a g e d e l a y (11 a n d 59); o n e child h a d three o l d e r s i b l i n g s , with o n e h a v i n g a l a n g u a g e d e l a y (87); two children h a d two o l d e r s i b l i n g s , with o n e of e a c h sibling s e t h a v i n g a l a n g u a g e d e l a y (4 a n d 31); o n e child h a d two older s i b l i n g s , with both s i b l i n g s h a v i n g a l a n g u a g e d e l a y (90); a n d 17 children h a d only o n e o l d e r sibling, all of w h o m h a d a l a n g u a g e d e l a y (3, 6, 3 0 , 3 3 , 3 5 , 3 9 , 6 0 , 6 2 , 6 3 , 6 9 , 7 5 , 7 9 , 8 0 , 8 1 , 8 4 , 8 5 , a n d 86). T h e siblings' a g e s v a r i e d f r o m 3 to 21 y e a r s of a g e . C h i l d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e listed in T a b l e s 2.1 a n d 2 . 2 . H o w e v e r , children with a n d without family history of l a n g u a g e d e l a y w e r e not treated a s two g r o u p s in o u r a n a l y s e s b e c a u s e a n i n d e p e n d e n t s a m p l e s t-test s h o w e d n o differentiation b e t w e e n g r o u p s b a s e d o n s t a n d a r d i z e d l a n g u a g e s c o r e s , initiations v e r s u s r e s p o n s e s , m o d e , or illocutionary point. T h i s is c o n s i s t e n t with f i n d i n g s by S i n g (2002) a n d Scott (unpublished). 34  All of the children that w e r e i n c l u d e d in the present s t u d y w e r e t e s t e d a s part of the longitudinal study in a health unit, a university p s y c h o l o g y lab, a m o b i l e testing v a n , or their h o m e s . T w o visits w e r e s c h e d u l e d o n e to two w e e k s apart.  2.3  Data Collection  2.3.1  Longitudinal Study T a s k s at 18 months T h e children participated in s e v e r a l t a s k s at 18 m o n t h s , including a v i d e o t a p e d 1 0 - 1 5 -  minute structured play s e s s i o n with a trained child l a n g u a g e r e s e a r c h e r a n d a 1 0 - 1 5 minute unstructured play s e s s i o n with o n e parent. In addition, children participated in a w o r d learning task (looking r e s p o n s e p a r a d i g m ) ( W e r k e r , C o h e n , L l o y d , C a s a s o l a , & S t a g e r , 1 9 9 8 ) , a n d w e r e t e s t e d with the M u l l e n F i n e M o t o r a n d V i s u a l R e c e p t i o n s c a l e s ( M u l l e n , 1995) a n d the P r e s c h o o l L a n g u a g e S c a l e - 4 ( P L S - 4 , Z i m m e r m a n , S t e i n e r , & P o n d , 2 0 0 2 ) . P a r e n t s a l s o filled out the M c A r t h u r - B a t e s C o m m u n i c a t i o n D e v e l o p m e n t Inventory ( C D I , F e n s o n et a l . , 1993) W o r d s a n d G e s t u r e s form or W o r d s a n d S e n t e n c e s form. T a b l e 2.2 s h o w s results of the M u l l e n , P L S - 4 a n d M a c A r t h u r - B a t e s C D I tests c o n v e r t e d to z - s c o r e s (raw a n d s c a l e d s c o r e s a v a i l a b l e f r o m the author). T h e z - s c o r e s w e r e c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g percentile r a n k s f r o m t e s t - s p e c i f i c n o r m s ; thus, the c a l c u l a t e d z - s c o r e s took child a g e into a c c o u n t / T h e z - s c o r e s w e r e u s e d in o r d e r to b e a b l e to c o m p a r e a c r o s s tests in statistical a n a l y s e s a n d d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r h i g h - a n d lowperforming g r o u p s o n the s t a n d a r d i z e d t a s k s w o u l d differ in p e r f o r m a n c e in c o m m u n i c a t i v e a c t s (as predicted at the e n d of the introduction). T h e children w h o p e r f o r m e d o n a v e r a g e at o n e s t a n d a r d deviation a b o v e the m e a n or greater w e r e 7, 6 0 , 6 9 a n d 7 8 . P a r t i c i p a n t s w h o p e r f o r m e d at o n e s t a n d a r d deviation a b o v e the m e a n or greater o n two or m o r e of the l a n g u a g e tests (i.e., P L S - 4 A C , P L S - 4 E C , M c A r t h u r CDI) w e r e 6, 7, 6 0 , a n d 7 8 . T h e children w h o p e r f o r m e d o n a v e r a g e at o n e s t a n d a r d deviation b e l o w the m e a n or g r e a t e r w e r e 3 3 , 3 9 a n d 9 0 . P a r t i c i p a n t s w h o p e r f o r m e d at o n e s t a n d a r d deviation b e l o w the m e a n or greater o n two or m o r e of the l a n g u a g e tests (i.e., P L S - 4 A C , P L S - 4 E C , M c A r t h u r C D I ) w e r e 9, 3 3 , a n d 8 1 . Difference in p e r f o r m a n c e in c o m m u n i c a t i v e a c t s w a s e x p e c t e d b e t w e e n the h i g h - a n d low-performing g r o u p s o n the s t a n d a r d i z e d t a s k s , with d i f f e r e n c e s reflecting the predictions m a d e at the e n d of the introduction (age a l s o b e i n g t a k e n into a c c o u n t ) .  2.3.2  Structured Interaction T a s k T h e child's parent w a s normally p r e s e n t during the structured interaction task. T h e child  a n d parent w e r e s e a t e d at 9 0 ° at a s m a l l table, a l t h o u g h , o c c a s i o n a l l y , the child w a s s e a t e d in the p a r e n t ' s lap. T h e e x p e r i m e n t e r w a s s e a t e d 180° from the c h i l d . T h e e x p e r i m e n t e r p r e s e n t e d a s e r i e s of t o y s u s i n g m i n i m a l l a n g u a g e but providing m a n y s c e n a r i o s d e s i g n e d to elicit c o m m u n i c a t i o n f r o m the child (e.g., putting the lid b a c k o n the b u b b l e s while the child w a s still 35  interested in playing). T h e m a t e r i a l s p r e s e n t e d during the structured interaction s e s s i o n i n c l u d e d a b o o k , a killer w h a l e puppet, two toy p h o n e s , b u b b l e s a n d a robot. At a n y time, only the toy that w a s in u s e w a s visible to the c h i l d . E a c h structured interaction s e s s i o n w a s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 8 m i n u t e s in d u r a t i o n . F o r the current study, the b o o k , w h a l e , a n d b u b b l e s activities w e r e u s e d to c h a r a c t e r i z e c o m m u n i c a t i v e interactions. T h e p h o n e activity w a s not i n c l u d e d b e c a u s e it w a s v e r y difficult to d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r a child u s i n g the p h o n e w a s playing out the well k n o w n 'what y o u d o while o n the p h o n e ' script, or w h e t h e r they w e r e u s i n g the p h o n e with intent to c o m m u n i c a t e to a n o t h e r p e r s o n , w h e t h e r p r e s e n t in the r o o m or not. T h e robot activity w a s a l s o not i n c l u d e d b e c a u s e m a n y children w e r e afraid of the robot a n d did not c o m m u n i c a t e w h e n it w a s p r e s e n t . T h e robot a l s o t e n d e d to greatly r e d u c e the c o m m u n i c a t i v e interactions of the children w h o did play with it b e c a u s e it w a s a highly stimulating a n d n o i s y toy. T h e e x p e r i m e n t e r b e g a n e a c h s e s s i o n by a s k i n g the parent to r e m a i n a s quiet a s p o s s i b l e during the play interactions, s o it c o u l d b e s e e n h o w the child u s e d l a n g u a g e i n d e p e n d e n t l y . T h e e x p e r i m e n t e r then p l a c e d o n the table a n a l p h a b e t b o a r d b o o k with p a g e s c o r r e s p o n d i n g to e a c h letter of the a l p h a b e t . If the child r e a c h e d for the b o o k , it w a s g i v e n to him/her. T h e child h a d o n e to two m i n u t e s to play with the b o o k . If the child did not r e a c h for the b o o k , the e x p e r i m e n t e r o p e n e d it in front of the child a n d silently b e g a n pointing to pictures to try to interest the child in the b o o k . A l t h o u g h b o o k r e a d i n g is not exactly a neutral activity (i.e., there is a ' k n o w n ' routine a n d adult r e s p o n s e s affect c h i l d r e n ' s e x p r e s s i v e b e h a v i o u r (Ninio a n d B r u n e r , 1976) it w a s i n c l u d e d h e r e , a s b o o k r e a d i n g is a familiar activity to m a n y c h i l d r e n in this age range. After a f e w m i n u t e s , or if the child s h o w e d disinterest in the b o o k , the e x p e r i m e n t e r r e m o v e d it. S h e then p r e s e n t e d the w h a l e p u p p e t by w e a r i n g it o n her h a n d a n d ' s w i m m i n g ' it through the air in front of herself a n d the child while m a k i n g a ' w h o o s h i n g ' s o u n d . If the child r e a c h e d for the w h a l e , it w a s g i v e n to him/her. T h e child w a s g i v e n a b o u t 1 minute to play with the puppet. If the child did not r e a c h for the w h a l e , the e x p e r i m e n t e r s q u e a k e d a n o i s e - m a k e r in the puppet a s a n attempt to e n g a g e the child's interest. T h e child w a s then offered the p u p p e t a n d s h o w n h o w to m a k e it s q u e a k . After a f e w m i n u t e s , or if the child s h o w e d disinterest in the w h a l e , the e x p e r i m e n t e r put it a w a y a n d p l a c e d a rotary style toy p h o n e o n the table in front of herself. T h i s t a s k w a s not i n c l u d e d in the a n a l y s e s p r e s e n t e d h e r e . After the p h o n e task, the e x p e r i m e n t e r brought out a c o n t a i n e r of b u b b l e s . T h e e x p e r i m e n t e r r e m o v e d the lid, b l e w b u b b l e s o n c e or twice, r e p l a c e d the w a n d a n d c o n t a i n e r lid a n d p l a c e d the jar o n the table in front of herself. If the child i n d i c a t e d interest in the b u b b l e s , the e x p e r i m e n t e r b l e w m o r e b u b b l e s . T h i s s e q u e n c e w a s r e p e a t e d s e v e r a l t i m e s (for a b o u t 1 minute) if the child w a s interested in the b u b b l e s . If the child w a s not  36  interested in t h e b u b b l e s , the e x p e r i m e n t e r m o v e d the b u b b l e jar c l o s e r to the child or b l e w a f e w m o r e b u b b l e s , in a n attempt to interest the child in the toy. After a f e w m i n u t e s , the e x p e r i m e n t e r put the b u b b l e s a w a y a n d put a toy robot o n the table. T h e e x p e r i m e n t e r a c t i v a t e d the robot by p u s h i n g o n its a r m , w h i c h c a u s e d t h e robot's m o u t h to o p e n a n d shut a n d m a k e a clattering n o i s e . T h i s w a s the s e c o n d t a s k that w a s not i n c l u d e d in t h e a n a l y s i s d e s c r i b e d here. W h e n the child w a s f i n i s h e d with the robot a n d if the child h a d p l a y e d s o m e w h a t with all of the other i t e m s , the structured interaction s e s s i o n w a s f i n i s h e d . If the child h a d not s h o w n interest w h e n a n item w a s introduced the first time, it w a s often re-introduced at t h e e n d of the s e s s i o n . If the child s h o w e d interest in the item at that time, the child w a s g i v e n a p p r o x i m a t e l y a minute to play with it. If the child d i d not s h o w interest in the item, it w a s put a w a y . T h e parent a n d child w e r e then g i v e n instructions for a n o t h e r t a s k in the longitudinal study.  2.3.3  Structured Interaction S e s s i o n R e c o r d i n g B o t h v i d e o - a n d a u d i o - c a s s e t t e r e c o r d i n g s w e r e m a d e of t h e structured interaction  s e s s i o n s a s part of the d a t a collection for the longitudinal study. V i d e o r e c o r d i n g s w e r e m a d e u s i n g o n e S o n y Digital H a n d y c a m v i d e o c a m e r a . Digital a u d i o r e c o r d i n g s w e r e m a d e with a T a s c a m D A - 2 0 D A T R e c o r d e r , a T O A T r u e Diversity R e c e i v e r ( m o d e l W T - 4 8 1 0 ) a n d two T O A w i r e l e s s lapel m i c r o p h o n e s ( m o d e l W M - 4 3 1 0 ) . D u r i n g all e x p e r i m e n t a l t a s k s , the child w o r e o n e m i c r o p h o n e (typically d r a p e d o v e r the child's c h a i r o r w o r n o n a c h i l d - s i z e d v e s t at c h e s t level) a n d the parent w o r e the other.  2.4  Transcription T h e p r e s e n t author t r a n s c r i b e d e a c h c h i l d ' s structured interaction play s a m p l e f r o m  v i d e o r e c o r d i n g s of the s e s s i o n to u s e a s a g u i d e for further a n a l y s e s . U t t e r a n c e s , g e s t u r e s , e y e g a z e a n d other potential f o r m s of c o m m u n i c a t i o n w e r e r e c o r d e d with a d i s c r e t e n u m b e r a n d the time a l o n g t h e t a p e that the a c t o c c u r r e d in order to allow c o n s i s t e n t intra- a n d inter-coder identification of a particular c o m m u n i c a t i v e a c t . T h e o b s e r v a t i o n s w e r e hand-written o n s e p a r a t e f o r m s for e a c h c h i l d . E a c h of the child's u t t e r a n c e s / a c t i o n s w a s written o n a n e w line that c o r r e s p o n d e d to a u n i q u e n u m b e r . If the parent or e x p e r i m e n t e r ' s u t t e r a n c e s / a c t i o n s p r o m p t e d or w e r e c l o s e l y related to the c h i l d ' s next u t t e r a n c e / a c t i o n , the adult's utterance/action w a s written first a n d the child's utterance/action f o l l o w e d it o n the s a m e transcript line. In the following text, this term 'utterance/action' refers to a s i n g l e line of v o c a l i z a t i o n , v e r b a l i z a t i o n , g e s t u r e , a n d / o r e y e g a z e that w a s r e c o r d e d o n the structured interaction s e s s i o n transcript.  37  2.4.1  Reliability of Transcription After the c h i l d r e n ' s s e s s i o n s w e r e initially t r a n s c r i b e d , the p r e s e n t author c h e c k e d e a c h  for c o r r e c t n e s s a n d c o m p l e t e n e s s a g a i n s t a D A T a u d i o - r e c o r d i n g of the s a m e s e s s i o n . Additionally, for 2 0 % of the c h i l d r e n , structured interaction s e s s i o n s w e r e t r a n s c r i b e d by a n additional i n d e p e n d e n t o b s e r v e r a n d e v a l u a t e d for inter-rater reliability u s i n g C o h e n ' s k a p p a . T h e transcripts p r o d u c e d by the s e c o n d a r y transcriber w e r e c o m p a r e d to t h o s e of t h e primary transcriber. D a t a w e r e c o n s i d e r e d e q u i v a l e n t b e t w e e n the two transcripts if both primary a n d s e c o n d a r y t r a n s c r i b e r s h a d i n c l u d e d the s a m e i n s t a n c e s of c o m m u n i c a t i v e a c t s , i.e., v o c a l i z a t i o n s , v e r b a l i z a t i o n s a n d / o r g e s t u r e s , w h e t h e r t r a n s c r i b e d o n the s a m e or different lines o n the transcript. Inter-rater transcript reliability w a s k= 0.66. N e i t h e r t r a n s c r i b e r h a d k n o w l e d g e of individual c h i l d r e n ' s family history of l a n g u a g e d e l a y during transcription. Intra-rater reliability w a s not c a l c u l a t e d for the transcripts b e c a u s e the transcripts w e r e r e v i e w e d a n d r e v i s e d m a n y t i m e s before a n d during the c o d i n g of c o m m u n i c a t i o n a c t s , a n d a l s o b e c a u s e the transcript w a s only u s e d a s a g u i d e to b e h a v i o u r s , not a strict dictation of b e h a v i o u r s that d i d or d i d not o c c u r . T h a t is, if the c o d e r s noticed that a c o m m u n i c a t i v e a c t w a s m i s s i n g o n the transcript, they w e r e a b l e to modify the transcript at the t i m e of c o d i n g .  2.5  Coding F o l l o w i n g transcription, e a c h c h i l d ' s v i d e o - r e c o r d e d structured interaction s e s s i o n w a s  r e v i e w e d a n d e a c h utterance/action w a s c l a s s i f i e d a l o n g five d i m e n s i o n s : utterance a s c o m m u n i c a t i v e or n o n - c o m m u n i c a t i v e in intent, f o c u s of attention, utterance initiated v e r s u s in r e s p o n s e to a p e r s o n or context, m o d e of c o m m u n i c a t i o n , a n d illocutionary point. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the child's u t t e r a n c e s / a c t i o n s a l o n g t h e s e d i m e n s i o n s w a s m a d e after r e v i e w i n g e a c h s e g m e n t o n the v i d e o t a p e s e v e r a l t i m e s .  2.5.1  Inter-Rater Reliability: C o d i n g Communicative A c t s F o r a r a n d o m l y s e l e c t e d 2 0 % of the 3 4 children i n v o l v e d in this study, a s e c o n d  i n d e p e n d e n t o b s e r v e r (in addition to the author) c o d e d u t t e r a n c e s a s c o m m u n i c a t i v e or n o n c o m m u n i c a t i v e in intent, plus p r o v i d e d c o d e s for f o c u s of attention, initiated/respondent, m o d e of c o m m u n i c a t i o n , illocutionary point a n d strength of affect. Neither transcriber h a d k n o w l e d g e of a n y child's positive or n e g a t i v e family history of l a n g u a g e d e l a y at the time of c o d i n g . Inter-rater reliability w a s k = . 7 5 for utterance in r e s p o n s e to or utterance initiated, k = .73 for m o d e of c o m m u n i c a t i o n , a n d k = . 6 7 for illocutionary point. F o c u s of attention w a s not i n c o r p o r a t e d in t h e s e a n a l y s e s b e c a u s e the first a n d s e c o n d c o d e r s w e r e u s i n g different o p e r a t i o n a l definitions for this c a t e g o r y w h e n c o d i n g c o m m u n i c a t i v e a c t s . O n c e the first a n d s e c o n d c o d e r s a g r e e d o n a m e t h o d o l o g y , the inter-rater a g r e e m e n t in this c a t e g o r y w a s n e a r 38  perfect. It is important to note that typical points of d i s a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n the first a n d s e c o n d c o d e r i n c l u d e d i n s t a n c e s w h e n o n e c o d e r felt confident in c o d i n g a n a c t a s intentional, while the s e c o n d c o d e r felt it w a s a m b i g u o u s .  2.5.2  Intra-rater Reliability: C o d i n g C o m m u n i c a t i v e A c t s In addition to inter-rater reliability, the first c o d e r did a blind r e - c o d i n g of the s a m e 2 0 %  of the 3 4 c h i l d r e n . Intra-rater reliability w a s k= .92 for utterance in r e s p o n s e to or utterance initiated, k = .88 for m o d e of c o m m u n i c a t i o n , a n d k = .78 for illocutionary point, including w h e t h e r a n utterance w a s c o m m u n i c a t i v e or not c o m m u n i c a t i v e . F o c u s of attention w a s not l o o k e d at in t e r m s of intra-rater reliability b e c a u s e the m e t h o d o l o g y c h a n g e d b e t w e e n first a n d second codings.  2.5.3  Utterance Communicative or Non-Communicative in Intent U t t e r a n c e / a c t i o n s that w e r e t r a n s c r i b e d during the initial transcription p h a s e , but  s u b s e q u e n t l y not c o n s i d e r e d c o m m u n i c a t i v e w e r e e x c l u d e d from the d a t a at this point. T h e d e c i s i o n r e g a r d i n g the e x i s t e n c e of or lack of c o m m u n i c a t i v e intent w a s b a s e d o n the c o d e r ' s interpretation of the child's intent of a n utterance/action. T h i s interpretation w a s b a s e d o n c u e s s u c h a s h a n d a n d b o d y g e s t u r e s , facial e x p r e s s i o n s , a n d intonation in v o c a l a n d v e r b a l utterances. In addition, S i n g ' s (2002) definition of intentionality w a s a d o p t e d , w h i c h h a d b e e n a d a p t e d from B a t e s (1976), B a t e s et a l . (1979), H a r d i n g & Golinkoff (1979), F o s t e r (1990), S a c h s (2001), a n d W e t h e r b y , Y o n c l a s , & B r y a n (1989). S i n g (2002) d e f i n e d a n intentionally c o m m u n i c a t i v e a c t in the following w a y : 1) " T h e child g a z e s toward a n d / o r a d j u s t s b o d y orientation t o w a r d the c o m m u n i c a t i o n partner, a n d / o r p h y s i c a l l y c o n t a c t s the c o m m u n i c a t i o n partner before, after, or while gesturing a n d / o r v o c a l i z i n g ; the child m a y alternate looking b e t w e e n a n object/activity a n d the c o m m u n i c a t i o n partner. 2) T h e child p e r s i s t s in his/her b e h a v i o u r ( s ) w h e n not u n d e r s t o o d or until the r e s p o n s e d e s i r e d is a c h i e v e d , a n d m a y modify his/her behaviour(s) in (an) attempt(s) to c o m m u n i c a t e m o r e clearly. 3) T h e child waits for a r e s p o n s e from the H e a r e r after p r o d u c i n g a c o m m u n i c a t i v e a c t . T h e child u s e s c o n s i s t e n t or ritualized (or conventional) g e s t u r e s a n d / o r v o c a l i z a t i o n s in s p e c i f i c situations, i.e., the child a l w a y s u s e s t h e s o u n d " u h " w h e n s / h e w a n t s something. 4) A c o m m u n i c a t i v e a c t b e g a n w h e n o n e or m o r e of t h e a b o v e criteria w a s m e t , a n d t e r m i n a t e d w h e n the c h i l d ' s attention shifted to a different e v e n t or topic, or w h e n 39  the adult took a turn, or w h e n the child m a d e further attempt(s) to c o m m u n i c a t e (including c o m m u n i c a t i o n for the original p u r p o s e ) . " ( S i n g , 2 0 0 2 , p. 46)  In the p r e s e n t study, S i n g ' s definition w a s interpreted s o that if a n y o n e of the four c o n d i t i o n s w e r e met, the utterance/action w a s c o n s i d e r e d c o m m u n i c a t i v e . A s s u c h , e y e contact w a s not required for a n utterance/action to be c o n s i d e r e d c o m m u n i c a t i v e . T h i s is c o n s i s t e n t with B l a k e , M c C o n n e l l , H o r t o n , a n d B e n s o n ' s (1992) findings. T h e s e a u t h o r s f o u n d that e v e n though e y e g a z e did not a c c o m p a n y the majority of g e s t u r e s exhibited by c h i l d r e n u n d e r 2 y e a r s of a g e , they w e r e a b l e to c a t e g o r i z e g e s t u r e s by c o m m u n i c a t i v e intent with a high d e g r e e of inter-rater reliability ( B l a k e et a l . , 1992). In s o m e i n s t a n c e s , it w a s not p o s s i b l e to clearly define a n act a s c o m m u n i c a t i v e or n o n c o m m u n i c a t i v e . W h e n this o c c u r r e d , the act w a s d e f i n e d in o n e of two w a y s : 1) likely to b e c o m m u n i c a t i v e , but with u n k n o w n illocutionary point, or 2) likely to b e n o n - c o m m u n i c a t i v e . A c c o r d i n g to the a b o v e definition, the following two i n s t a n c e s w e r e not c o n s i d e r e d c o m m u n i c a t i v e : 1) a child r e a c h e d to t o u c h a b u b b l e without interacting with another p e r s o n ; 2) a child t o u c h e d a b o o k p a g e without looking at a n y o n e , or e x p e c t i n g a r e s p o n s e from a n y o n e . T h i s w a s in contrast to a situation in w h i c h a child pointed to a picture, l a b e l e d it, p a u s e d a n d m o v e d o n to the next picture. T h e latter e v e n t w a s c o n s i d e r e d c o m m u n i c a t i v e a c c o r d i n g to S i n g ' s definition, parts 2 a n d 3 . In addition to the a b o v e situations, a n i n s t a n c e w a s e x c l u d e d from b e i n g r e c o g n i z e d a s c o m m u n i c a t i v e if it w a s felt that the i n s t a n c e w a s inappropriate to c a t e g o r i z e within a S p e e c h A c t f r a m e w o r k b e c a u s e it l a c k e d a s p e e c h act role. A l t h o u g h this w a s rare, a s a n e x a m p l e , ' m h m m ' w a s not a s s i g n e d a s p e e c h act c o d e w h e n it p e r f o r m e d a d i s c o u r s e , rather than s p e e c h act, role. T h i s might h a v e o c c u r r e d w h e n the v o c a l i z a t i o n ("mhmm") f u n c t i o n e d for the benefit of the h e a r e r (e.g., "I'm still listening" - d i s c o u r s e role), rather than if it w a s u s e d to c o m m u n i c a t e m e a n i n g from the s p e a k e r to the h e a r e r (e.g., "I a g r e e with y o u " - s p e e c h act role).  2.5.4  F o c u s of Attention W h e n c o d i n g the c h i l d r e n ' s u t t e r a n c e s / a c t i o n s , 'focus of attention' w a s u s e d to refer to  the object or activity a r o u n d w h i c h the child's interest w a s f o c u s e d . T h i s w a s not n e c e s s a r i l y s y n o n y m o u s with the direction of a c h i l d ' s e y e g a z e . F o r e x a m p l e , if a child pointed to a picture in the b o o k a n d l o o k e d at his or her parent, the f o c u s of the child's attention w a s c o n s i d e r e d to b e the b o o k . O t h e r foci of attention i n c l u d e d the w h a l e , (phone), b u b b l e s , (robot), D A T v e s t / m i c r o p h o n e (that the child a n d parent w o r e ) , the parent, e x p e r i m e n t e r , a n d c a m e r a / p e r s o n with the c a m e r a . In addition, a n 'other' c a t e g o r y w a s u s e d to a c c o u n t for l e s s frequent  40  foci of attention, s u c h a s a m a n w h o s n e e z e d in the a d j a c e n t r o o m or a n u n k n o w n p e r s o n w a l k i n g d o w n the corridor.  2.5.5  Utterance in R e s p o n s e to / Utterance Initiated ' U t t e r a n c e initiated / in r e s p o n s e to' w a s u s e d to d e s c r i b e the context s u r r o u n d i n g a n  i n s t a n c e of c o m m u n i c a t i o n by a c h i l d . A n utterance/action w a s 'initiated' w h e n it w a s not p r o m p t e d by a n o t h e r p e r s o n or e n v i r o n m e n t a l event. A child's utterance/action w a s r e c o r d e d a s 'in r e s p o n s e to' w h e n it a p p e a r e d a s t h o u g h it w a s p r o m p t e d by a n o t h e r p e r s o n or e n v i r o n m e n t a l event. P o s s i b l e s o u r c e s of p r o m p t s i n c l u d e d the parent, the e x p e r i m e n t e r , contextual c u e s a n d other. A child's utterance/action w a s c o n s i d e r e d 'in r e s p o n s e to the parent or e x p e r i m e n t e r ' w h e n the child r e s p o n d e d to s o m e t h i n g the parent or e x p e r i m e n t e r did or s a i d a s him/herself. F o r e x a m p l e , w h e n the parent or e x p e r i m e n t e r s a i d ' a p p l e ' a n d / o r pointed to a picture of a n a p p l e in the b o o k , the child's s u b s e q u e n t utterance ' a p p l e ' w a s c o d e d 'in r e s p o n s e to PIE.' Similarly, if the parent or e x p e r i m e n t e r pointed or otherwise d i r e c t e d the c h i l d ' s attention to a n object a n d the child then c o m m e n t e d o n the object, the child's utterance w a s c o d e d 'in r e s p o n s e to  PIE: H o w e v e r , if the parent or e x p e r i m e n t e r elicited a n utterance/action w h e n p e r f o r m i n g not  a s him/herself, the utterance/action w a s c o d e d 'in r e s p o n s e to c o n t e x t u a l c u e . ' T h i s s u b c a t e g o r y w a s normally r e s e r v e d for c o n t e x t u a l c u e s within the i m m e d i a t e e n v i r o n m e n t . F o r e x a m p l e , w h e n ' s w i m m i n g ' the w h a l e in front of the child p r o m p t e d the child to s a y ' w h a l e , ' this utterance w a s c o d e d 'in r e s p o n s e to C C b e c a u s e the child w a s reacting to the a c t i o n of the w h a l e . Similarly, if b l o w i n g b u b b l e s p r o m p t e d the child to g a z e at his or her parent a n d point at the b u b b l e s excitedly, this w a s c o d e d 'in r e s p o n s e to C C b e c a u s e the child w a s not r e s p o n d i n g to the e x p e r i m e n t e r a s herself, but to the object the e x p e r i m e n t e r h a d p r o d u c e d . H o w e v e r , w h e n a child protested to the e x p e r i m e n t e r w h e n s h e put the b u b b l e s a w a y after h a v i n g b l o w n t h e m for a f e w m i n u t e s , this w a s c o d e d 'in r e s p o n s e to E ' b e c a u s e the child w a s r e s p o n d i n g directly to the a c t i o n s of the e x p e r i m e n t e r . A n utterance w a s not c o d e d 'in r e s p o n s e to C C if the child w a s m a n i p u l a t i n g the context by himself or herself. F o r e x a m p l e , if the child d r o p p e d the w h a l e p u p p e t a n d s a i d ' o o p s , ' or w a s turning p a g e s in the b o o k i n d e p e n d e n t l y a n d c o m m e n t i n g o n the pictures without input f r o m E or P, or c h o s e to c o m m e n t o n s o m e t h i n g the e x p e r i m e n t e r w a s w e a r i n g , t h e s e w e r e not c o d e d 'in r e s p o n s e to C C T h e s e e x a m p l e s w e r e c o d e d 'initiated,' b e c a u s e the c o m m e n t w a s p r o m p t e d b y a n action or internal thought p r o c e s s of the child, not by a n o t h e r p e r s o n or e n v i r o n m e n t a l event.  41  E v e n t s that c o u l d not b e c l a s s i f i e d a s 'in r e s p o n s e to P or E or C C w e r e c o d e d 'in r e s p o n s e to other' or ' C N C (could not c o d e ) ' . If a n e v e n t o u t s i d e the testing r o o m p r o m p t e d a n utterance/action (e.g., the n o i s e of a child c r y i n g in the waiting room), this w a s c o d e d 'in r e s p o n s e to other.' If a n event o c c u r r e d w h e r e it w a s u n c l e a r w h e t h e r the utterance/action w a s 'in r e s p o n s e to' o n e thing or a n o t h e r (e.g., the child r e s p o n d e d to s o m e t h i n g but w a s out of v i e w of the c a m e r a ) , the e v e n t w a s g i v e n ' C N C  2.5.6  M o d e of C o m m u n i c a t i o n ' M o d e of c o m m u n i c a t i o n ' w a s c o d e d u s i n g the four c a t e g o r i e s : v o c a l i z a t i o n ,  v e r b a l i z a t i o n , g e s t u r e a n d e y e g a z e . M o d e s of c o m m u n i c a t i o n w e r e c o d e d only if a n utterance/action w a s p r e v i o u s l y d e t e r m i n e d to b e c o m m u n i c a t i v e in nature ( s e e s e c t i o n 2.5.3).  2.5.6.1 V o c a l i z a t i o n a n d V e r b a l i z a t i o n V o c a l i z a t i o n s w e r e t r a n s c r i b e d 'voc,' a n d i n c l u d e d i n c o n s i s t e n t s o u n d s that the c o d e r c o u l d not interpret a s c h i l d ' w o r d s ' o r p r o t o w o r d s that c o n s i s t e n t l y indicated m e a n i n g . V e r b a l i z a t i o n s w e r e orthographically t r a n s c r i b e d , a n d i n c l u d e d s o u n d - c o m b i n a t i o n s that w e r e u s e d c o n s i s t e n t l y to indicate m e a n i n g , in addition to all u t t e r a n c e s that w e r e interpretable (in E n g l i s h ) . If the utterance w a s not interpretable in E n g l i s h , a n attempt at p h o n e t i c transcription w a s m a d e , or the utterance w a s t r a n s c r i b e d a s 'verb'. Additionally, s o m e children u s e d m a n u a l s i g n l a n g u a g e . T h i s w a s t r a n s c r i b e d a s ' M S + the child's i n t e n d e d m e a n i n g ' . V e g e t a t i v e s o u n d s ( s u c h a s grunting with effort) w e r e not i n c l u d e d a s either v o c a l i z a t i o n s or v e r b a l i z a t i o n s . N e i t h e r v o c a l i z a t i o n nor v e r b a l i z a t i o n w a s s u b - c a t e g o r i z e d further. If it w a s u n c l e a r w h e t h e r a n utterance s h o u l d b e c o n s i d e r e d a v o c a l i z a t i o n or v e r b a l i z a t i o n , it w a s c o n s i d e r e d a v o c a l i z a t i o n .  2.5.6.2 G e s t u r e G e s t u r e s w e r e s u b - c a t e g o r i z e d a c c o r d i n g to the type of g e s t u r e : point, r e a c h , hold out, g i v e / p u s h a w a y , w a v e , n o d h e a d , s h a k e h e a d , h a n d s u p , a r m s up, m a n u a l s i g n , facial e x p r e s s i o n , a n d other (e.g., c l i m b i n g o n the table to get c l o s e r to a toy, or r o c k i n g b a c k a n d forth o n the c h a i r to indicate excitement).  Point 'Point' w a s d e f i n e d a s a n i n s t a n c e w h e n the child e x t e n d e d o n e or m o r e fingers t o w a r d s a n item of interest in a n attempt to indicate that item to a n o t h e r p e r s o n in the r o o m . T h i s i n c l u d e d both proximal a n d distal pointing. Strict d e c i s i o n s w e r e not m a d e r e g a r d i n g w h e t h e r a point o c c u r r e d or did not o c c u r b a s e d o n the n u m b e r of fingers or w h i c h fingers w e r e u s e d , b e c a u s e of the variability in fine motor c o o r d i n a t i o n in children at this a g e . H o w e v e r , if the child 42  u s e d the h a n d without s e e m i n g to h a v e a g o a l of interacting with a n o t h e r p e r s o n , this w a s not c o n s i d e r e d a n i n s t a n c e o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n a n d the h a n d m o v e m e n t w a s , therefore, not c o n s i d e r e d a point. F o r e x a m p l e , if a child t o u c h e d a p a g e in the book, did not look at a n y p e r s o n , s u b - v o c a l i z e d ' n a n a ' with flat intonation, a n d turned the p a g e before a n adult c o m m e n t e d , this m o v e m e n t w a s not c o n s i d e r e d c o m m u n i c a t i v e a n d , therefore, w a s not i n c l u d e d o n the c o d i n g d a t a s h e e t s .  Reach ' R e a c h ' w a s d e f i n e d a s a n i n s t a n c e in w h i c h the child e x t e n d e d his or her arm(s) with c o m m u n i c a t i v e intent toward a n object to g a i n a c c e s s to that object, but c o u l d not a c c e s s it b e c a u s e it w a s out of the c h i l d ' s ability to o b t a i n . T h i s c a t e g o r y did not include i n s t a n c e s in w h i c h a child c o u l d r e a c h a n d obtain a n object without interacting with a n o t h e r p e r s o n , u n l e s s a c o m m u n i c a t i v e act involving a n o t h e r p e r s o n clearly o c c u r r e d . F o r e x a m p l e , if the b u b b l e s w e r e o n the table a n d the child e a s i l y e x t e n d e d h i s / h e r a r m s to pick t h e m up, this w a s not c o d e d a s a c o m m u n i c a t i v e r e a c h . If the child e a s i l y e x t e n d e d his/her a r m s to pick up the b u b b l e s while looking at the e x p e r i m e n t e r with a q u e s t i o n i n g facial e x p r e s s i o n , the facial e x p r e s s i o n that c o m m u n i c a t e d the child's q u e s t i o n a b o u t w h e t h e r s h e or he w a s a l l o w e d to play with the toy w a s c o d e d a s a c o m m u n i c a t i v e act ( s e e below), but the a r m m o v e m e n t that required n o c o m m u n i c a t i o n to obtain the b u b b l e s w a s not c o d e d . H o w e v e r , if the child required a n d r e q u e s t e d a s s i s t a n c e to r e a c h the toy, the action of r e a c h i n g w a s c o n s i d e r e d c o m m u n i c a t i v e . T h i s w a s m o s t a p p a r e n t w h e n the child p a i r e d the a r m g e s t u r e with s o m e v o c a l i z a t i o n (e.g., "uh uhl") or verbalization (e.g., "want it!").  Hold Out ' H o l d out' w a s d e f i n e d a s a n i n s t a n c e in w h i c h the child held a n object or b o d y part s o it w a s visible to a n d attracted the attention of a n o t h e r p e r s o n in the r o o m in a n attempt to c o m m u n i c a t e s o m e t h i n g to that p e r s o n . T h e child did not relinquish control of a n object during a 'hold out.' R a t h e r , the a p p a r e n t p u r p o s e of this g e s t u r e w a s to s h o w the object to a n o t h e r p e r s o n . If the child m o v e d a n object in proximity to a n o t h e r p e r s o n without the p u r p o s e of s h o w i n g it to s o m e o n e (e.g., ' s w a m ' the w h a l e a w a y f r o m him or herself a n d incidentally t o w a r d s a n o t h e r p e r s o n ) , this w a s not c o n s i d e r e d a c o m m u n i c a t i v e g e s t u r e a n d w a s not c o d e d o n the d a t a s h e e t s . O c c a s i o n a l l y this g e s t u r e w a s a c c o m p a n i e d by the verbalization 'look!'  Give G i v e ' w a s d e f i n e d a s a n i n s t a n c e in w h i c h the child p i c k e d up a n object, m o v e d it t o w a r d s a n o t h e r p e r s o n in the r o o m , a n d purposefully g a v e control of the object to a n o t h e r 43  p e r s o n with the intent to c o m m u n i c a t e s o m e t h i n g to that p e r s o n . F o r e x a m p l e , the item w a s c o n s i d e r e d a 'give' if a child h a n d e d the b u b b l e w a n d to a n adult, c o m m u n i c a t i n g to the adult that m o r e b u b b l e s s h o u l d b e b l o w n . H o w e v e r , if the child m o v e d a n object t o w a r d a n o t h e r p e r s o n a n d the adult g a i n e d control of the object without the child intending to c o m m u n i c a t e s o m e t h i n g or relinquish control (e.g., the child ' s w a m ' the w h a l e t o w a r d s the adult a n d the adult pulled the puppet off the child's h a n d a s the child w a s continuing to ' s w i m ' the w h a l e a r o u n d ) this w a s not c o n s i d e r e d c o m m u n i c a t i v e a n d w a s not i n c l u d e d o n the c o d i n g d a t a s h e e t s . T h i s m o d e of c o m m u n i c a t i o n w a s d e f i n e d in the direction of child to adult; that is, the child g a v e a n adult a n object or toy.  Wave ' W a v e ' w a s d e f i n e d a s a relatively o p e n - h a n d e d b a c k a n d forth or up a n d d o w n m o v e m e n t of either h a n d d i r e c t e d t o w a r d s a n o t h e r p e r s o n in greeting. E v e n t h o u g h t o y s a r e n o n - a n i m a t e , w a v i n g to the w h a l e p u p p e t w a s i n c l u d e d in this c a t e g o r y b e c a u s e it w a s a s s u m e d the child w a s c o m m u n i c a t i n g with intent during the pretend interaction that he or s h e w a s h a v i n g with the tOy.  Nod Head ' N o d h e a d ' w a s d e f i n e d a s a n up a n d d o w n m o v e m e n t of the h e a d , g e n e r a l l y in r e s p o n s e to a q u e s t i o n , s t a t e m e n t or a c t i o n . T h i s g e s t u r e indicated a g r e e m e n t with a p r e v i o u s q u e s t i o n , statement, or a c t i o n .  Shake Head ' S h a k e h e a d ' w a s d e f i n e d a s a s i d e - t o - s i d e m o v e m e n t of the h e a d , g e n e r a l l y in r e s p o n s e to a q u e s t i o n , s t a t e m e n t or a c t i o n . T h i s g e s t u r e indicated d i s a g r e e m e n t with a p r e c e d i n g q u e s t i o n , s t a t e m e n t or a c t i o n .  Hands Up ' H a n d s up' w a s d e f i n e d a s a n i n s t a n c e in w h i c h the child c o m m u n i c a t i v e l y g e s t u r e d to a n o t h e r p e r s o n with their p a l m s f a c i n g up at a m i d - c h e s t height. A n adult's interpretation of this g e s t u r e might b e ' w h a t ' s next? o r ' I don't k n o w . '  Arms Up ' A r m s u p ' w a s d e f i n e d a s a n i n s t a n c e in w h i c h the child g e s t u r e d c o m m u n i c a t i v e l y with their a r m s e x t e n d e d o v e r or n e a r their h e a d t o w a r d s a n o t h e r p e r s o n . C h i l d r e n frequently p a i r e d this g e s t u r e with the v e r b a l i z a t i o n s ' u p ' o r ' w a n t up.' 44  - Manual Sign M a n u a l s i g n s (e.g., A m e r i c a n S i g n L a n g u a g e - A S L ) w e r e g r o u p e d with g e s t u r e s for the p u r p o s e s of this p a p e r b e c a u s e this a l l o w e d c o d i n g of d u a l - m o d a l i t y c o m m u n i c a t i o n s (i.e., a child v e r b a l i z i n g a n d s i g n i n g s i m u l t a n e o u s l y ) . T h i s s u b - c a t e g o r y of g e s t u r e s i n c l u d e d both a c t i o n s that a child u s e d a s in a s t a n d a r d A S L l e x i c o n , plus modifications of A S L s i g n s that a child u s e d with c o n s i s t e n t m e a n i n g . F o r e x a m p l e , c o n v e n t i o n a l u s e of A S L s i g n s i n c l u d e d situations in w h i c h the child t o u c h e d the fingers of both ' a n d ' h a n d s in front of the c h e s t with p a l m s f a c i n g d o w n to c o m m u n i c a t e ' m o r e ' (Flodin, 2 0 0 4 ) . A n e x a m p l e of a n o n - s t a n d a r d u s e of s i g n i n c l u d e d a situation w h e r e a child c o n s i s t e n t l y f l a p p e d his a r m s in front of his c h e s t to m e a n 'bubble.'  Facial Expression F a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s w e r e c o d e d a s g e s t u r e s w h e n they f u n c t i o n e d to c o m m u n i c a t e information with intent. A n e x a m p l e of this type of g e s t u r e i n c l u d e d w h e n a child s t o p p e d looking at the b o o k m o m e n t a r i l y to s m i l e at the e x p e r i m e n t e r . T h i s i n s t a n c e s e e m e d to c o m m u n i c a t e satisfaction from the child to the adult about their current activity. In addition, children frequently f r o w n e d while p u s h i n g a n object off the table. T h e s e i n s t a n c e s c o m m u n i c a t e d that the child's t o l e r a n c e for the activity h a d e x p i r e d .  Other A n additional s u b - c a t e g o r y 'other' w a s u s e d for c o d i n g all other c o m m u n i c a t i v e g e s t u r e s that w e r e not a c c o u n t e d for by the other ten c a t e g o r i e s . A n e x a m p l e of this o c c u r r e d w h e n a child c r a w l e d a c r o s s the table to obtain a toy.  2.5.7  lllocutionary Point F o r the p u r p o s e of this p a p e r , s p e e c h a c t s w e r e d e f i n e d u s i n g S e a r l e a n d  V a n d e r v e k e n ' s (1985) five c a t e g o r i e s of illocutionary f o r c e : a s s e r t i v e s , directives, c o m m i s s i v e s , e x p r e s s i v e s , a n d d e c l a r a t i v e s . A n attempt w a s m a d e to s u b - c a t e g o r i z e t h e s e b r o a d l e v e l s a c c o r d i n g to the g u i d e l i n e s d i s c u s s e d by Ninio et a l . (1994) ( s e e s e c t i o n 1.4). T h e work of J o h n s o n a n d K l i n c a n s (1999), K l i n c a n s (1991), a n d S i n g (2002) significantly i n f l u e n c e d the taxonomy described here. In contrast to m u c h of the existing s p e e c h act literature, but in a c c o r d a n c e with J o h n s o n a n d K l i n c a n s ' (1999), K l i n c a n s ' (1991), a n d S i n g ' s (2002) work, u t t e r a n c e s w e r e a s s i g n e d illocutionary force w h e n g e s t u r e a n d / o r e y e g a z e a c h i e v e d c o m m u n i c a t i o n without a v o c a l or v e r b a l c o m p o n e n t . N o n - v e r b a l g e s t u r e , e y e g a z e , a n d intonation w e r e a l s o u s e d to help 45  distinguish illocutionary f o r c e of u t t e r a n c e s that i n c l u d e d v o c a l or v e r b a l c o m p o n e n t s . T h e s e d e c i s i o n s w e r e m a d e b e c a u s e of the c h i l d r e n ' s y o u n g a g e s a n d low v e r b a l l a n g u a g e abilities.  2.5.7.1 A s s e r t i v e S e a r l e a n d V a n d e r v e k e n d e s c r i b e d a s s e r t i v e s a s s p e e c h a c t s in w h i c h the S p e a k e r s a y s ' h o w things a r e . ' In this form of illocutionary act, the s p e a k e r b e l i e v e s or c o m m i t s to s o m e t h i n g b e i n g the c a s e (the sincerity condition) a n d the direction of fit is w o r d s - t o - w o r l d . A l t h o u g h a s s e r t i v e s a r e frequently d e s c r i b e d from the viewpoint of the s p e a k e r p r o d u c i n g the a s s e r t i o n (e.g., "it's c o l d in here"), a n a s s e r t i o n m a y a l s o b e d e f i n e d a s a g r e e m e n t (or d i s a g r e e m e n t ) with the a s s e r t i o n of a n o t h e r (e.g., "it's c o l d in h e r e " . . . " y e s , it is"). T h r e e s u b - c a t e g o r i e s of a s s e r t i v e illocutionary a c t s w e r e d e f i n e d : d e s c r i b e , identify / label, a n d a g r e e with a n o t h e r ' s a s s e r t i o n .  Assertive - Describe ' D e s c r i b e ' w a s d e f i n e d by K l i n c a n s , a s a "descriptive utterance relating to a n activity or event, object or a state of affairs," stating that "...the proposition m a y relate to the c h i l d ' s 'real world reality' or a state of affairs within a ' m a k e b e l i e v e reality'" ( 1 9 9 1 , p. 4 1 ) . T h e s e definitions w e r e a d o p t e d a n d then three third-level c a t e g o r i e s w e r e c r e a t e d to permit further s p e c i f i c a t i o n : activity or event, object, a n d state of affairs. ' A s s e r t i v e - d e s c r i b e - activity or e v e n t ' w a s u s e d for c o m m u n i c a t i v e a c t s that d e s c r i b e d i m m e d i a t e o c c u r r e n c e s . A n e x a m p l e of this c o u l d h a v e b e e n during play with the w h a l e if a child said 'whale's swimming.' ' A s s e r t i v e - d e s c r i b e - object' w a s u s e d to c o d e c o m m u n i c a t i v e a c t s that d e s c r i b e d a n a c t u a l object. A n e x a m p l e of this type of utterance w a s w h e n a child s a i d "soft" while t o u c h i n g the w h a l e puppet. ' A s s e r t i v e - d e s c r i b e - state of affairs' w a s u s e d for c o m m u n i c a t i v e a c t s that d e s c r i b e d the g e n e r a l state of things. A n e x a m p l e of this w o u l d b e if a child s a i d 'fun' while b l o w i n g b u b b l e s with the e x p e r i m e n t e r . In this situation, the child w o u l d b e giving his or her point of v i e w for h o w things w e r e at the time. ' A s s e r t i v e - d e s c r i b e - a m b i g u o u s ' w a s the c o d e for c o m m u n i c a t i v e a c t s in w h i c h the act c o u l d b e d e s c r i b e d a s a n y or m o r e than o n e of 'activity or e v e n t , " o b j e c t ' or 'state of affairs.' A n e x a m p l e of this o c c u r r e d w h e n the child s a i d " m o r e b u b b l e s ! " after the e x p e r i m e n t e r pulled the b u b b l e c o n t a i n e r b a c k out of the toy b a g . In this situation, it w a s u n c l e a r w h e t h e r the child's e x c l a m a t i o n related to the activity ' m o r e blowing b u b b l e s ' or the object ' m o r e b u b b l e s in the air.'  46  A s s e r t i v e - Identify / L a b e l F o r the current report, the c o d e 'identify / l a b e l ' s u b - c a t e g o r y of a s s e r t i o n s f o l l o w e d the definition of K l i n c a n s (1991): (this c a t e g o r y includes) listing (e.g., n a m i n g t o y s a s they a r e b e i n g put a w a y ) a n d c o u n t i n g (e.g., c o u n t i n g all of the like o b j e c t s o n a p a g e in a picture b o o k ) . It differs from (describe) only in that the (identify / label) a c t c o n s i s t s of s e q u e n c e s or s e r i e s of like o b j e c t s (including n u m b e r s , d a y s of the w e e k , etc.) that are not linked syntactically. G e s t u r i n g , s u c h a s pointing at e a c h i n s t a n c e of a n item, m a y a c c o m p a n y the utterance act. T h i s act m a y b e elicited by a d u l t s , or by certain activities. It m a y b e elicited by a n o t h e r s p e a k e r ' s uttering " W h a t ' s that?" or s o m e variation thereof. It often a c c o m p a n i e s routinized activities like b o o k - r e a d i n g or c l e a n - u p time without instigation by a n adult. If this activity is elicited by a n adult H e a r e r , the child m a y look at t h e adult after e a c h utterance for confirmation or a p p r o v a l . . . In order to b e a n i n s t a n c e of c o m m u n i c a t i v e identification/labeling, the utterance m u s t o c c u r within a potentially interactive context, i.e., the child m u s t b e in proximity to the H e a r e r , a n d m u s t not b e e n g a g e d in non-interactive play. ( K l i n c a n s 1 9 9 1 , p. 43) T h r e e third-level c a t e g o r i e s w e r e a l s o c r e a t e d to permit further s p e c i f i c a t i o n : activity or event, object a n d state of affairs. T h e definitions for t h e s e third-level c a t e g o r i e s w e r e similar to the a b o v e definitions ('assertive - d e s c r i b e ' ) , but differed a c c o r d i n g to the quality of the c o m m u n i c a t i v e a c t s (i.e., identify / l a b e l , rather than d e s c r i b e ) . A n e x a m p l e of a n ' a s s e r t i v e - identify / label - activity or event' o c c u r r e d w h e n a parent a s k e d " w h a t ' c h a d o i n g ? " during the time the child w a s p l a y i n g with the w h a l e . In r e s p o n s e , the child replied " s w i m m i n g . " T h i s w a s c o n s i d e r e d to b e subtly different from a n ' a s s e r t i v e d e s c r i b e - activity or event.' A c o m m u n i c a t i v e act w a s c o d e d a s ' a s s e r t i v e - d e s c r i b e - activity or e v e n t ' w h e n a m o r e c o m p l e t e d e s c r i p t i o n w a s g i v e n by the child for the event (e.g., " w h a l e ' s s w i m m i n g " ) . A c o m m u n i c a t i v e act w a s c o d e d a s ' a s s e r t i v e - identify / label - activity or event' w h e n the child g a v e a truncated label for his or her a c t i o n s (e.g., " s w i m m i n g " ) . A n e x a m p l e of a n ' a s s e r t i v e - identify / label - object' o c c u r r e d w h e n a child s a i d "book" a s the b o o k w a s p l a c e d o n the t a b l e . A n ' a s s e r t i v e - identify / label - state of affairs' o c c u r r e d w h e n a parent a s k e d " h o w ' s y o u r d i a p e r ? " a n d the child replied "wet." A n o t h e r e x a m p l e of this type o c c u r r e d w h e n a child d r o p p e d a toy o n the floor a n d s a i d "uh o h . "  „  A s a b o v e , if it w a s c l e a r that a n utterance/action w a s a n ' a s s e r t i v e - identify / l a b e l " but w a s u n c l e a r w h e t h e r it w a s a n 'activity or event,' 'object' or 'state of affairs,' the c o d e r d e s i g n a t e d the utterance/action a s ' a s s e r t i v e - identify / label - a m b i g u o u s . ' A n e x a m p l e of this 47  o c c u r r e d w h e n a child s a i d " b u b b l e s ! " after the e x p e r i m e n t e r pulled the b u b b l e c o n t a i n e r out of the toy b a g . In this situation, it w a s u n c l e a r w h e t h e r the child w a s e x c l a i m i n g a b o u t the activity 'blowing b u b b l e s ' o r the o b j e c t ' b u b b l e jar.'  A s s e r t i v e - A g r e e with a n o t h e r ' s a s s e r t i o n K l i n c a n s (1991) d e s c r i b e d this form of A s s e r t i v e a s " a child a s s e r t s that a p r e v i o u s utterance is true; this i n c l u d e s providing confirmation of o n e ' s o w n a s s e r t i o n s , a n d affirmations of other's a s s e r t i o n s . . . the child m a y u s e explicit, m o o d l e s s f o r m s of a g r e e m e n t s u c h a s yes, yeah and mhm, or e x p r e s s a g r e e m e n t / c o n f i r m a t i o n through partial or c o m p l e t e repetitions, mitigated repetitions, a n d / o r p a r a p h r a s e . " (pp. 43-44) T h i s c a t e g o r y w a s further s p e c i f i e d into ' a g r e e ' a n d ' d i s a g r e e ' i n the current c o d i n g s y s t e m . A n e x a m p l e of this type of s p e e c h act o c c u r r e d w h e n , during the b o o k activity, the e x p e r i m e n t e r l a b e l e d a n item in the b o o k , a n d the child s a i d " y e a h " or r e p e a t e d the label. A hypothetical e x a m p l e of this type c o u l d h a v e o c c u r r e d if a parent a s k e d "this is fun, isn't it?" a n d the child r e s p o n d e d " y e p . "  Assertive - Ambiguous T h i s c a t e g o r y indicated c o m m u n i c a t i v e a c t s in w h i c h it w a s u n c l e a r w h e t h e r the utterance/action f u n c t i o n e d to ' d e s c r i b e ' or 'identify/label'. T h i s w a s u s e d in addition to ' a s s e r t i v e - d e s c r i b e - a m b i g u o u s ' a n d ' a s s e r t i v e - identify/label - a m b i g u o u s . '  2.5.7.2 D i r e c t i v e s S e a r l e a n d V a n d e r v e k e n d e s c r i b e d directives a s s p e e c h a c t s c o m m i t t e d by the S p e a k e r with the p u r p o s e of getting the H e a r e r to D O s o m e t h i n g . In this form of illocutionary act, the s p e a k e r w a n t s / w i s h e s / d e s i r e s s o m e t h i n g to b e the c a s e (the sincerity condition) a n d the direction of fit is world-to-words. Q u e s t i o n s a r e i n c l u d e d in this illocutionary point; they are a request to S A Y , a s a s u b c a t e g o r y of r e q u e s t to d o . K l i n c a n s (1991) d e s c r i b e d s e v e n s u b t y p e s of r e q u e s t s in w h i c h the S p e a k e r a t t e m p t e d to get the H e a r e r to d o s o m e t h i n g : give information, give a n object, give p e r m i s s i o n , g i v e attention, participate in a family routine, b e alert a n d s t o p d o i n g s o m e t h i n g (p. 46). K l i n c a n s (1991) d e s c r i b e s directives a s : the child w a n t s the H e a r e r to ' d o ' A . T h e child's utterance m a y include g e s t u r e a n d / o r r e a c h i n g . A c l e a r indication that a n utterance w a s i n t e n d e d a s a r e q u e s t b e h a v i o u r is that the child waits for a r e s p o n s e , either v e r b a l or b e h a v i o u r a l , f r o m the H e a r e r , a n d is likely to repeat the request if the H e a r e r d o e s not r e s p o n d a s  48  d e s i r e d . If the i n t e n d e d perlocutionary effect is a c h i e v e d , the child m a y b e satisfied by (the) H e a r e r ' s r e s p o n s e a n d c e a s e ' r e q u e s t i n g ' K l i n c a n s 1 9 9 1 , p. 46) K l i n c a n s ' s u b t y p e s a n d definitions form the b a s i s for the four c a t e g o r i e s u s e d h e r e : attention, information, action a n d p e r m i s s i o n . ' B e alert' w a s not i n c l u d e d in the p r e s e n t t a x o n o m y b e c a u s e this w a s v i e w e d a s the S p e a k e r attempting to get the H e a r e r to give attention or a c t i o n . ' S t o p d o i n g s o m e t h i n g ' w a s a l s o not i n c l u d e d in the p r e s e n t t a x o n o m y b e c a u s e this w a s v i e w e d a s the S p e a k e r giving the H e a r e r a request for a c t i o n , e v e n t h o u g h the d e s i r e d r e s p o n s e w a s a c e s s a t i o n of activity.  Directive - Attention F o r the c a t e g o r y 'directive-attention,' the K l i n c a n s (1991) definition w a s a d o p t e d . K l i n c a n s d e s c r i b e d a directive for attention a s : ...the child a d d r e s s ( i n g ) a proximal or n o n p r o x i m a l H e a r e r with the intention of getting the H e a r e r to p a y attention or participate in interaction... T h e child b e l i e v e s the H e a r e r is not attending or n e a r b y , but that he is c a p a b l e of h e a r i n g a n d fulfilling the request. T h e child m a y u s e the H e a r e r ' s n a m e to elicit attention. T h e utterance m a y h a v e i n c r e a s e d l o u d n e s s a n d s y l l a b i c l e n g t h e n i n g . T h e child waits for a r e s p o n s e from the H e a r e r ( D u n l e a 1 9 8 9 : 125). lllocutionary uptake m a y b e indicated by the H e a r e r ' s v e r b a l or b e h a v i o r a l a c k n o w l e d g e m e n t of the child's request; the H e a r e r m a y m o v e c l o s e r to the child or s i g n a l p h y s i c a l l y that he is n e a r b y a n d attending. If the H e a r e r d o e s not attend, the child is likely to c o n t i n u e to request attention. ( K l i n c a n s 1 9 9 1 , p. 49) A n e x a m p l e of a 'directive - attention' o c c u r r e d w h e n a child u s e d a familiar n a m e for their parent ("Mom"), or w h e n they pointed a n d g a z e d at a n object while v o c a l i z i n g (e.g., child pointed to a picture, s a i d "uh! u h ! " a n d l o o k e d at the parent). T h e c a t e g o r y 'directive - attention' w a s not further s p e c i f i e d in the current c o d i n g s c h e m e .  Directive - Information T h e 'information' s u b - c a t e g o r y of directives w a s d e f i n e d a s follows in K l i n c a n s (1991) and followed here: the child attempts to get the H e a r e r to s a y X . . . the child is s i n c e r e in a request for information only w h e n he d o e s not k n o w , or h a s forgotten, the a n s w e r to the q u e s t i o n he a s k s . O f t e n , c o m m u n i c a t i v e a c t s that a p p e a r to b e r e q u e s t s for information (by virtue of s y n t a x , a n d s e m a n t i c a n d propositional content) a r e actually indirect r e q u e s t s for attention or attempts to maintain o n e ' s turn in a 49  c o n v e r s a t i o n a l situation. It is important, t h e n , to d i s t i n g u i s h b e t w e e n real q u e s t i o n s , in w h i c h the child h o n e s t l y s e e k s the information r e q u e s t e d , a n d ' i m p o s t o r ' q u e s t i o n s , w h i c h look like the real thing but s e r v e s o m e function other than to r e q u e s t information... T h e child i n d i c a t e s sincerity by a c k n o w l e d g i n g or c o m m e n t i n g o n the H e a r e r ' s r e s p o n s e , or by p e r s i s t i n g if the d e s i r e d perlocutionary effect is not a c h i e v e d . ( K l i n c a n s 1 9 9 1 , p. 51) T h r e e s u b - c a t e g o r i e s of 'directive - information' illocutionary a c t s w e r e a l s o d e f i n e d in this study: 'directive - information' a c t s that request n e w information, k n o w n information, a n d clarification. 'Directive - information - n e w ' w a s the c o d e for c o m m u n i c a t i v e a c t s during w h i c h the child r e q u e s t e d information that w a s u n k n o w n previously. A n e x a m p l e of this type of act o c c u r r e d w h e n a child s a i d "what's that?" after the w h a l e w a s first i n t r o d u c e d . A n o t h e r e x a m p l e of this type o c c u r r e d w h e n a child l o o k e d at his parent while d o i n g the ' h a n d s - u p ' g e s t u r e . T h e parent interpreted this g e s t u r e / e y e g a z e to m e a n ' w h a t ' s n e x t ? ' 'Directive - information - k n o w n ' indicated c o m m u n i c a t i v e a c t s in w h i c h the child r e q u e s t e d information that w a s a l r e a d y k n o w n . A n e x a m p l e of this type of act o c c u r r e d w h e n a child pointed a n d v e r b a l i z e d "what's t h a t ? " i m m e d i a t e l y after his parent h a d l a b e l e d the s a m e object of interest in the b o o k . T h i s type of act w a s a l s o i n d i c a t e d w h e n a child r e p e a t e d l y pointed to the s a m e object in the b o o k , e v e n t h o u g h the e x p e r i m e n t e r h a d p r e v i o u s l y n a m e d that object. 'Directive - information - clarification' w a s u s e d to define c o m m u n i c a t i v e a c t s in w h i c h the child r e q u e s t e d further information o n a topic that w a s d i s c u s s e d p r e v i o u s l y . A n e x a m p l e of this type of utterance w a s if the child s a i d "little b u b b l e ? " after p o p p i n g a s m a l l b u b b l e . In this situation, it a p p e a r e d a s t h o u g h the child k n e w the object w a s a b u b b l e , but w a n t e d to clarify its s i z e . T h i s type of act w a s a l s o indicated w h e n a child p o i n t e d to a ball in the picture b o o k (the parent l a b e l e d it 'ball'), then the child pointed to a n o t h e r ball picture a n d g a z e d at the parent (the parent a g a i n l a b e l e d it 'ball'), then the child pointed to a third ball picture a n d g a z e d at the parent. In this e x a m p l e , the parent interpreted the c h i l d ' s g e s t u r e s a s a s k i n g w h e t h e r all three pictures w e r e balls. If it w a s c l e a r that a n utterance/action w a s a 'directive - information,' but w a s u n c l e a r w h e t h e r it w a s for n e w information, k n o w n information or clarification, the c o m m u n i c a t i v e a c t w a s d e s i g n a t e d 'directive - information - a m b i g u o u s . '  D i r e c t i v e - Action K l i n c a n s (1991) d e f i n e d a s u b - c a t e g o r y of directives a s : 50  the child attempts to get the H e a r e r to provide a n object... h e b e l i e v e s he c a n a n d s h o u l d h a v e (the object), a n d that the H e a r e r c a n give it to, or get it for, h i m . . . T h e child's utterance m a y t a k e the form of a s i n g l e w o r d or longer utterance, n a m i n g or indicating the d e s i r e d object, a n d m a y b e a c c o m p a n i e d by r e a c h i n g or pointing. G e n e r a l l y the child waits for the d e s i r e d r e s p o n s e , a n d m a y persist in requesting if it is not o b t a i n e d . Explicit m a r k e r s of this r e q u e s t a r e 'give m e ' a n d 'I want.' ( K l i n c a n s 1 9 9 1 , p. 48) F o r the p u r p o s e s of the current report, 'directive - a c t i o n ' w a s d e f i n e d differently from Klincans" (1991) c a t e g o r y 'directive - a c t i o n ' in that the current t a x o n o m y i n c l u d e d d i r e c t i v e s for action s u b - c a t e g o r i z e d by giving, s h o w i n g , performing a n d t a k i n g . 'Directive - action - g i v e ' w a s u s e d to c o d e c o m m u n i c a t i v e a c t s in a similar w a y to the w a y in w h i c h K l i n c a n s (1991) d e f i n e d 'directive - a c t i o n ' (i.e., the child attempts to get the H e a r e r to provide him/her with a n object). A n e x a m p l e of this type of utterance o c c u r r e d w h e n a child v o c a l i z e d " u h ! u h ! " while s h e p o i n t e d to a n d r e a c h e d for the p u p p e t o n the table. A n o t h e r e x a m p l e of this type o c c u r r e d w h e n the e x p e r i m e n t e r s a i d " Y o u w a n t m o r e t o y s ? " a n d the child n o d d e d affirmation. 'Directive - action - s h o w ' indicated c o m m u n i c a t i v e a c t s in w h i c h the child a t t e m p t e d to get the H e a r e r to s h o w him or her a n object without attempting to a p p r o p r i a t e the object. A n e x a m p l e of this type of c o m m u n i c a t i v e act o c c u r r e d w h e n a child pulled o n the p a r e n t ' s a r m to bring the w h a l e puppet c l o s e r to himself or herself s o s / h e c o u l d s e e it. A s e c o n d e x a m p l e of this type o c c u r r e d w h e n a parent a s k e d " d o y o u want to s e e it?" w h e n the w h a l e w a s p l a c e d o n the table. T h e child s h o o k their h e a d to indicate 'no' a n d the parent a s interpreted this a s the child not wanting to s e e it. 'Directive - action - p e r f o r m ' w a s u s e d to identify c o m m u n i c a t i v e a c t s in w h i c h the child a t t e m p t e d to h a v e the H e a r e r perform a n a c t i o n . A n e x a m p l e of this type of utterance w a s w h e n a child s a i d " m o r e ! " after the b u b b l e s h a d b e e n c a p p e d a n d p l a c e d o n the table. In this situation, it w a s o b v i o u s that the child w a n t e d the adult to m a k e m o r e b u b b l e s . A n o n - v e r b a l e x a m p l e of this type of c o m m u n i c a t i v e act o c c u r r e d w h e n a child a s s e r t i v e l y h a n d e d the b u b b l e w a n d to the e x p e r i m e n t e r while g a z i n g b e t w e e n the b u b b l e jar a n d the e x p e r i m e n t e r . T h i s g e s t u r e w a s interpreted to m e a n 'perform the action of blowing m o r e b u b b l e s . ' 'Directive - action - t a k e ' indicated c o m m u n i c a t i v e a c t s in w h i c h the child a t t e m p t e d to get the H e a r e r to t a k e a n object. A n e x a m p l e of this c o m m u n i c a t i v e act o c c u r r e d w h e n a child h a n d e d the b o o k to the e x p e r i m e n t e r a n d s a i d " n o want." H e r e , it w a s c l e a r the child w a n t e d the e x p e r i m e n t e r to t a k e the b o o k . A n o t h e r e x a m p l e of this type of c o m m u n i c a t i v e act o c c u r r e d w h e n a child pulled the w h a l e puppet off the e x p e r i m e n t e r ' s h a n d a n d firmly p l a c e d it o n the  51  table in front of the e x p e r i m e n t e r . T h i s w a s interpreted a s the child w a n t i n g the e x p e r i m e n t e r to s t o p the activity a n d t a k e the w h a l e a w a y . If it w a s c l e a r that a c o m m u n i c a t i v e act indicated 'directive - action,' but it w a s u n c l e a r w h e t h e r the act indicated give, s h o w , perform or t a k e , or if the c o m m u n i c a t i v e act indicated m o r e than o n e of give, s h o w , perform or take, the act w a s d e s i g n a t e d 'directive - a c t i o n a m b i g u o u s . ' A n e x a m p l e of this o c c u r r e d w h e n a child s a i d " b u b b l e s ! " a s the e x p e r i m e n t e r tried to put d o w n the b u b b l e jar after blowing a f e w b u b b l e s . T h i s e x c l a m a t i o n c o u l d h a v e b e e n interpreted in m a n y w a y s , including a s a 'directive - action - g i v e ' (i.e., 'give m e m o r e o b j e c t s that a r e b u b b l e s ' ) , a n d a 'directive - action - p e r f o r m ' (i.e., 'do the act of b l o w i n g m o r e b u b b l e s ' ) . It w a s a s s i g n e d to the c o m m u n i c a t i v e c a t e g o r y 'directive - action - a m b i g u o u s ' (and the c a t e g o r y ' a s s e r t i v e - identify/label - a m b i g u o u s ' ) .  Directive - P e r m i s s i o n A s in K l i n c a n s (1991), a c a t e g o r y ' d i r e c t i v e - p e r m i s s i o n ' w a s i n c l u d e d a n d f o l l o w e d the K l i n c a n s (1991) definition. K l i n c a n s (1991) d e f i n e d d i r e c t i v e s for p e r m i s s i o n a s the child w a n t i n g to perform A , but believing s / h e c a n n o t until s / h e obtains p e r m i s s i o n to d o s o . K l i n c a n s (1991) adds a caution: A p r o b l e m a t i c e x a m p l e of [attempting to get the H e a r e r to give p e r m i s s i o n for the S p e a k e r to d o a n act, A] is [when children] a s k e a c h o t h e r ' s p e r m i s s i o n by t a g g i n g " k a y ? " or " o k a y ? " to indirect directive u t t e r a n c e s , e . g . , [child G a s k i n g child B] "we c o u l d build t h e m n o w , k a y (child) B ? " . , . [Child G ] d o e s not likely b e l i e v e that he requires his brother's p e r m i s s i o n in the context of collaborative play (if in a n y ) , or that [child B] p o s s e s s e s a p o w e r of authority o v e r h i m . . . [ W h e n 'directive - permission'] - r e s e m b l i n g u t t e r a n c e s o c c u r , the context a n d utterance m u s t indicate g e n u i n e preparatory a n d sincerity c o n d i t i o n s for the utterance to b e c o n s i d e r e d a n act (in this c a t e g o r y ) . If not, m a r k e r s like k a y m a y s e r v e a s d i s c o u r s e functions to s i g n a l c o m p l e t i o n of the S p e a k e r ' s turn, or - a s in the e x a m p l e a b o v e - m a y function to "soften" a directive to g a i n c o m p l i a n c e ( K l i n c a n s 1 9 9 1 , p. 49). T w o s u b - c a t e g o r i e s of 'directive - p e r m i s s i o n ' illocutionary a c t s w e r e d e f i n e d for u s e in this study: t h o s e that required p e r m i s s i o n to h a v e a n d t h o s e that required p e r m i s s i o n to d o . 'Directive - p e r m i s s i o n - to h a v e ' indicated c o m m u n i c a t i v e a c t s in w h i c h the child r e q u e s t e d p e r m i s s i o n to g a i n a c c e s s to a n object, s u c h a s a toy. A n e x a m p l e of this type of c o m m u n i c a t i v e act o c c u r r e d w h e n a child s a i d "want that" a n d l o o k e d at t h e b u b b l e w a n d while the e x p e r i m e n t e r w a s blowing b u b b l e s . A n o t h e r e x a m p l e o c c u r r e d w h e n a child l o o k e d at the e x p e r i m e n t e r with r a i s e d e y e b r o w s after the e x p e r i m e n t e r p l a c e d a toy within r e a c h o n the 52  table. In this situation, it a p p e a r e d a s t h o u g h the child w a s looking for p e r m i s s i o n to p l a y with the toy. Directive - p e r m i s s i o n - to d o ' w a s u s e d for c o m m u n i c a t i v e a c t s in w h i c h the child r e q u e s t e d p e r m i s s i o n to perform a n action with a toy. A n e x a m p l e of thjs type of utterance w a s w h e n a child r e a c h e d part w a y to the b u b b l e s , then l o o k e d up at the e x p e r i m e n t e r . In this situation, it s e e m e d that the child w a s c h e c k i n g that s h e or h e w a s a l l o w e d to play with the toy. W h e n it w a s c l e a r that a n utterance/action w a s a 'directive - p e r m i s s i o n , ' but u n c l e a r w h e t h e r it w a s 'to h a v e ' or 'to d o , ' the utterance/action w a s d e s i g n a t e d 'directive - p e r m i s s i o n a m b i g u o u s . ' A n e x a m p l e of this o c c u r r e d w h e n a child i n d i c a t e d the b u b b l e w a n d a n d s a i d , " C a n I try?" In this s c e n a r i o , it s e e m e d that the child w a n t e d to h a v e the w a n d to d o the act of b l o w i n g the b u b b l e s .  Directive - A m b i g u o u s A c o m m u n i c a t i v e act c o u l d a l s o b e d e s i g n a t e d 'directive - a m b i g u o u s ' . T h i s c a t e g o r y indicated a n act that f u n c t i o n e d a s a directive in that it tried to get the H e a r e r to d o s o m e t h i n g , but w a s u s e d w h e n it w a s u n c l e a r w h e t h e r the S p e a k e r w a s trying to get the H e a r e r to g i v e attention, information, action or p e r m i s s i o n . T h i s frequently o c c u r r e d during the b o o k r e a d i n g activity w h e n a child p o i n t e d to a picture, l o o k e d at the parent or e x p e r i m e n t e r a n d uttered " u h ! " In this situation, it w a s u n c l e a r w h e t h e r the child w a s r e q u e s t i n g the adults to attend to the picture or s u p p l y information a b o u t the picture. A n attempt w a s m a d e to s p e c i f y w h i c h of the four s u b - c a t e g o r i e s of directives w a s i n v o l v e d in e a c h i n s t a n c e of ambiguity. F o r e x a m p l e , a m b i g u i t i e s b e t w e e n r e q u e s t i n g attention a n d r e q u e s t i n g information w e r e c a t e g o r i z e d s e p a r a t e l y from a m b i g u i t i e s b e t w e e n r e q u e s t i n g attention a n d r e q u e s t i n g a c t i o n .  2.5.7.3 C o m m i s s i v e s S e a r l e a n d V a n d e r v e k e n d e s c r i b e c o m m i s s i v e s a s s p e e c h a c t s c o m m i t t e d by the S p e a k e r with the p u r p o s e of committing him/herself to s o m e future c o u r s e of a c t i o n . In this form of illocutionary act, the s p e a k e r is intending for s o m e t h i n g to b e the c a s e (the sincerity condition) a n d the direction of fit is world-to-words. K l i n c a n s (1991) p r e s e n t s the difficulty that h a s b e e n p r e v i o u s l y e n c o u n t e r e d in s u b categorizing commissive s p e e c h acts: O n e p r o b l e m e n c o u n t e r e d in d e v i s i n g the [Klincans] t a x o n o m y is the a p p a r e n t inequality of positive a n d n e g a t i v e c o m m i s s i v e a c t s (negative in the s e n s e that the future action to w h i c h the S p e a k e r c o m m i t s h a s n e g a t i v e c o n s e q u e n c e s for either the S p e a k e r or the H e a r e r ; positive a c t s d e n o t e d e s i r a b l e c o n s e q u e n c e s ) . . . T h e point of a c o m m i s s i v e act is to c o m m i t the S p e a k e r to a 53  future a c t i o n , c o m m i t m e n t implying obligation to perform the stated a c t i o n . H o w e v e r , while S e a r l e a n d V a n d e r v e k e n include the act of threatening  in the  c o m m i s s i v e c l a s s , they a d d that o n e of the d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n threatening (negative) a n d p r o m i s i n g (a positive c o m m i s s i v e ) is the a b s e n c e of obligation to carry out a threat, w h e r e a s the S p e a k e r is b o u n d to fulfill a p r o m i s e , p l e d g e , or v o w ( 1 9 8 5 : 193). T o s a y that a c o m m i s s i v e act d o e s not entail obligation, h o w e v e r , d e n i e s , by definition, its identity a s a m e m b e r of the c o m m i s s i v e c a t e g o r y . . . ( K l i n c a n s 1 9 9 1 , p. 60). In addition, K l i n c a n s s t a t e s : C u r r e n t theory r e c o g n i z e s the p s y c h o l o g i c a l state of a c o m m i s s i v e a s that of intention, but the p r e s e n t condition d o e s n ' t permit a satisfactory distinction b e t w e e n a n a s s e r t i v e s t a t e m e n t about a future self-action (e.g., I'm g o i n g s w i m m i n g tomorrow) a n d a c o m m i s s i v e s t a t e m e n t of intention, positive or n e g a t i v e . F o r the p u r p o s e s of (the K l i n c a n s study), it is a s s u m e d that the definition of c o n d i t i o n s g o v e r n i n g the c o m m i s s i v e c l a s s is in n e e d Of r e v i s i o n , p e r h a p s to include a s p e c i f i e d m i n i m u m d e g r e e of obligation that m u s t b e p r e s e n t in order to j u d g e a n illocution a s c o m m i s s i v e ( K l i n c a n s 1 9 9 1 , p. 60). T h e r e f o r e , in the p r e s e n t study, c o m m i s s i v e s p e e c h a c t s w e r e strictly d e f i n e d a s t h o s e a c t s that c o m m i t the S p e a k e r to a future c o u r s e of a c t i o n , similar to the w a y in w h i c h d i r e c t i v e s attempt to c o m m i t the H e a r e r to a future a c t i o n . T h i s r e s o l v e d the difficulty in d i s t i n g u i s h i n g b e t w e e n c o m m i s s i v e a n d a s s e r t i v e s p e e c h a c t s in that a s s e r t i v e s w e r e c o n s i d e r e d to give s t a t e m e n t s of the S p e a k e r ' s belief about current or o n g o i n g s t a t e s or situations (without altering future s t a t e s of 'doing'), while c o m m i s s i v e s p e e c h a c t s w e r e c o n s i d e r e d to affect future s t a t e s of 'doing'. A s s u c h , in this study, the s e c o n d a r y a n d tertiary l e v e l s of c o m m i s s i v e s p e e c h a c t s w e r e d e f i n e d in a similar w a y to t h o s e d e f i n e d for directive s p e e c h a c t s ( s e e 2.4.7.2). T h r e e s e c o n d level c a t e g o r i e s w e r e d e f i n e d : attention, information a n d a c t i o n , plus the option to c o d e a n utterance/action a s a m b i g u o u s if it c o u l d not b e e x p l a i n e d by o n e of t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s .  C o m m i s s i v e - Attention ' C o m m i s s i v e - attention' w a s u s e d to indicate a c o m m u n i c a t i v e act in w h i c h a child c o m m u n i c a t e d the intention to give attention to s o m e t h i n g at a future point in time. A n e x a m p l e of this type of act w o u l d b e if a child s a i d , "I'll look in a m o m e n t , " in r e s p o n s e to a bid for his or her attention. T h i s c a t e g o r y w a s not a s s i g n e d further l e v e l s of distinction.  54  C o m m i s s i v e - Information ' C o m m i s s i v e - information' w a s s u b - c a t e g o r i z e d into 'new,' ' k n o w n , ' 'clarification,' a n d ' a m b i g u o u s , ' following the definitions given for 'directive - information,' but altering the 'do-er' from the H e a r e r to the S p e a k e r . ' C o m m i s s i v e - information - n e w ' indicated a c o m m u n i c a t i v e act in w h i c h a child c o m m u n i c a t e d that he or s h e w o u l d tell u n k n o w n information to the H e a r e r at s o m e future point. A n e x a m p l e of this type of act w o u l d b e if a child s a i d to his or her c o m m u n i c a t i o n partner: "I'll tell y o u in a minute." ' C o m m i s s i v e - information - k n o w n ' w a s u s e d for c o m m u n i c a t i v e a c t s in w h i c h a child c o m m u n i c a t e d that he or s h e w o u l d tell k n o w n information to the H e a r e r at s o m e future point. A n e x a m p l e of this type of act w o u l d b e if a child s a i d to his or her c o m m u n i c a t i o n partner: "I'll tell y o u a g a i n in a minute." ' C o m m i s s i v e - information - clarification' indicated a c o m m u n i c a t i v e act in w h i c h a child c o m m u n i c a t e d that he or s h e w o u l d clarify information to the H e a r e r at s o m e future point. A n e x a m p l e of this type of act w o u l d b e if a child indicated to his or her c o m m u n i c a t i o n partner: "I'll re-explaiii that in a w a y that it will b e e a s i e r to u n d e r s t a n d in a minute." W h e n it w a s c l e a r that a n utterance/action w a s a ' c o m m i s s i v e - information,' but u n c l e a r w h e t h e r it w a s for n e w or k n o w n information or for clarification, the c o m m u n i c a t i v e act w a s c l a s s i f i e d a s ' c o m m i s s i v e - information - a m b i g u o u s . '  Commissive - Action ' C o m m i s s i v e - a c t i o n ' w a s s u b - c a t e g o r i z e d into 'give,' ' s h o w , ' 'perform' a n d ' a m b i g u o u s , ' following the definitions g i v e n for 'directive - a c t i o n , ' but, a g a i n , altering the 'do-er' from the H e a r e r to the S p e a k e r . ' C o m m i s s i v e - action - g i v e ' indicated a c o m m u n i c a t i v e act in w h i c h the child c o m m i t t e d him/herself to giving a n object at s o m e point in the future. A n e x a m p l e of this type of act w o u l d b e if a child s a i d to his or her c o m m u n i c a t i o n partner: "I'll give it to y o u in a minute." ' C o m m i s s i v e - a c t i o n — s h o w ' w a s u s e d for c o m m u n i c a t i v e a c t s in w h i c h the child c o m m i t t e d him/herself to s h o w i n g a n object at s o m e point in the future. A n e x a m p l e of this type of act w o u l d b e if a child s a i d to his or her c o m m u n i c a t i o n partner: "I'll s h o w it to y o u in a minute." ' C o m m i s s i v e - a c t i o n - perform' indicated a c o m m u n i c a t i v e act in w h i c h the child c o m m i t t e d him/herself to performing a n action at s o m e point in the future. A n e x a m p l e of this type of act w o u l d b e if a child s a i d to his or her c o m m u n i c a t i o n partner: "I'll m a k e the w h a l e s w i m in a minute."  55  If it w a s c l e a r that a n utterance/action w a s a ' c o m m i s s i v e - a c t i o n , ' but w a s u n c l e a r w h e t h e r it w a s to give, s h o w or perform, the utterance/action w a s d e s i g n a t e d ' c o m m i s s i v e action - a m b i g u o u s . '  Commissive - Permission T w o s u b - c a t e g o r i e s of ' c o m m i s s i v e - p e r m i s s i o n ' illocutionary a c t s w e r e d e f i n e d for u s e in this study: t h o s e that required p e r m i s s i o n to h a v e a n d t h o s e that required p e r m i s s i o n to d o , a g a i n , altering t h e ' d o - e r ' f r o m the H e a r e r to the S p e a k e r . ' C o m m i s s i v e - p e r m i s s i o n - to h a v e ' indicated a c o m m u n i c a t i v e act in w h i c h the child c o m m i t t e d him/herself to giving p e r m i s s i o n to h a v e at s o m e point in the future. A n e x a m p l e of this type of act w o u l d b e if a child s a i d to his or her c o m m u n i c a t i o n partner: "I'll let y o u h a v e that in a minute." ' C o m m i s s i v e - p e r m i s s i o n - to d o i n d i c a t e s a c o m m u n i c a t i v e act in w h i c h the child c o m m i t t e d him/herself to giving p e r m i s s i o n to perform a n action at s o m e point in the future. A n e x a m p l e of this type of act w o u l d b e if a child s a i d to his or her c o m m u n i c a t i o n partner: "I'll let y o u play with the b o o k in a minute." W h e n it w a s c l e a r that a n utterance/action w a s a ' c o m m i s s i v e - p e r m i s s i o n , ' but u n c l e a r w h e t h e r it w a s 'to h a v e ' or 'to d o , ' the utterance/action w a s d e s i g n a t e d ' c o m m i s s i v e permission-ambiguous.'  Commissive - Ambiguous In addition to ' c o m m i s s i v e - attention,' ' c o m m i s s i v e - information,' ' c o m m i s s i v e - a c t i o n , ' a n d ' c o m m i s s i v e - p e r m i s s i o n , ' a c o m m u n i c a t i v e act c o u l d b e d e s i g n a t e d ' c o m m i s s i v e a m b i g u o u s . ' T h i s c a t e g o r y w a s u s e d w h e n it w a s c l e a r the act f u n c t i o n e d a s a c o m m i s s i v e in that the S p e a k e r c o m m i t t e d to d o s o m e t h i n g , but it w a s u n c l e a r w h e t h e r s/he c o m m i t t e d to give attention, information, action or p e r m i s s i o n .  A l t h o u g h ' p r o m i s e / t h r e a t e n ' a n d ' a g r e e to d o / r e f u s e to d o ' a r e frequently u s e d a s s u b c a t e g o r i e s of c o m m i s s i v e s , they w e r e not i n c l u d e d in the p r e s e n t t a x o n o m y , b e c a u s e it w a s felt that t h e s e c o u l d b e a c c o u n t e d for within the c a t e g o r i e s a b o v e . T h a t is, if a child p r o m i s e d to c l e a n up t h e toys, or, c o m m i t t e d to c l e a n i n g up the toys a s a future c o u r s e of action (i.e., ' c o m m i s s i v e - action - perform'), t h e s e w e r e s e e n a s functional e q u i v a l e n t s .  2.5.7.4 E x p r e s s i v e s S e a r l e a n d V a n d e r v e k e n d e s c r i b e d e x p r e s s i v e s a s s p e e c h a c t s c o m m i t t e d by the S p e a k e r with the p u r p o s e of e x p r e s s i n g p s y c h o l o g i c a l state. In this form of illocutionary act, the 56  s p e a k e r w a n t s / w i s h e s / d e s i r e s s o m e t h i n g to b e the c a s e (the sincerity condition) a n d the direction of fit is null. T w o s u b - c a t e g o r i e s of e x p r e s s i v e illocutionary a c t s w e r e d e f i n e d for u s e in this study: 'mark s o c i a l interaction' a n d ' e x p r e s s p e r s o n a l attitude / affective state.'  E x p r e s s i v e - M a r k S o c i a l Interaction ' M a r k s o c i a l interaction' w a s d e f i n e d in K l i n c a n s (1991) a s follows a n d a d o p t e d in the current study. S h e s t a t e s : T h e child attempts to e x p r e s s p e r s o n a l attitude t o w a r d a state of affairs u s i n g a s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e , c o n v e n t i o n a l f o r m . . . . T h e a c t s of g r e e t i n g , a p o l o g i z i n g , t h a n k i n g , congratulating, s a y i n g g o o d b y e , e x c u s i n g o n e s e l f , etc., all e x p r e s s p e r s o n a l attitude about a c h a n g e in the state of affairs of either the S p e a k e r or H e a r e r . T h e preparatory condition r e q u i r e s that the child b e reacting to true propositional content, a n d the sincerity condition is that (s/)he h a s the feeling e x p r e s s e d in the act. P r o p o s i t i o n a l content c o n d i t i o n s a r e g e n e r a l l y c o n s t r a i n e d to the t y p e s of s o c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s a b o v e ; h o w e v e r , t h e s e m a y t a k e idiosyncratic (child l a n g u a g e ) f o r m s . . . s u c h a s " T a " for thank you. T h e child typically utters a c o n v e n t i o n a l i z e d e x p r e s s i v e f o r m , s u c h a s Hi, Goodbye,  Thanks,  Sorry,  Excuse  me, etc. W h e n appropriate, the utterance m a y b e a c c o m p a n i e d by g e s t u r e (e.g., w a v i n g ) . T h e context involves a c h a n g e in the state of affairs a p p r o p r i a t e to the e x p r e s s i o n u s e d , e . g . , hello u p o n arriving, or a n o t h e r ' s a r r i v a l . . . ( K l i n c a n s 1 9 9 1 , p. 66) A n e x a m p l e of a n ' e x p r e s s i v e - m a r k s o c i a l interaction' o c c u r r e d in the current s t u d y w h e n a child s a i d " H i " a n d w a v e d , w h e n greeting o n e of the e x p e r i m e n t e r s . A n o t h e r c o m m u n i c a t i v e act in this c a t e g o r y o c c u r r e d w h e n a child c o m m u n i c a t i v e l y s a i d " T h a n k y o U " u p o n r e c e i v i n g o n e of the t o y s from the e x p e r i m e n t e r . T h i s c a t e g o r y w a s not further s p e c i f i e d .  E x p r e s s i v e - E x p r e s s P e r s o n a l Attitude/ Affective S t a t e K l i n c a n s (1991) a l s o p r e s e n t s a d e s c r i p t i o n of ' e x p r e s s p e r s o n a l attitude / affective state', a d o p t e d for the current study a n d d e s c r i b e d a s follows: T h e child utters word(s) to e x p r e s s attitude / affective state, either directly (e.g., I'm mad at you! or That makes  me sad), or indirectly, u s i n g m o o d l e s s u t t e r a n c e s  a n d s u p r a s e g m e n t a l f e a t u r e s s u c h a s e m p h a t i c s t r e s s a n d intonation (e.g., oh no! uttered with a n e x a g g e r a t e d intonation a n d i n c r e a s e d l o u d n e s s ) . . . T h e child m u s t h a v e the p s y c h o l o g i c a l state w h i c h is e x p r e s s e d a s part of the sincerity  condition of the utterance for it to b e a s i n c e r e act. C o n s t r a i n t s o n propositional content a r e that the utterance e x p r e s s a n e m o t i v e state or attitude a b o u t the propositional content, P , but not a b o u t other internal s t a t e s s u c h a s h u n g e r a n d fatigue (which w o u l d b e c l a s s i f i e d a s a s s e r t i v e ) , a n d that it e x p r e s s attitude t o w a r d P without stating P . . . the proposition m a y b e s t a t e d in c o m p l e x illocutionary a c t s (i.e., u t t e r a n c e s c o n t a i n i n g m o r e than o n e illocution)... F a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n m a y b e helpful in d e t e r m i n i n g the p r e s e n c e of true e x p r e s s i v e illocutionary f o r c e . ( K l i n c a n s 1 9 9 1 , p. 66) F o r the current study, a n e x a m p l e of a n ' e x p r e s s i v e - p e r s o n a l attitude / affective state' o c c u r r e d w h e n a child s a i d "no like" while pointing to the w h a l e . A n o t h e r e x a m p l e o c c u r r e d w h e n a child f r o w n e d a n d turned a w a y or c r i e d while interacting with a toy. T h i s c a t e g o r y w a s not further s p e c i f i e d .  Expressive - Ambiguous In addition to ' e x p r e s s i v e - m a r k s o c i a l interaction' a n d ' e x p r e s s i v e - p e r s o n a l attitude / affective state,' the c o d e r c o u l d d e s i g n a t e a n utterance/action a s ' e x p r e s s i v e - a m b i g u o u s . ' T h i s c a t e g o r y w a s u s e d w h e n it w a s c l e a r a n utterance/action f u n c t i o n e d a s a n e x p r e s s i v e , but it w a s u n c l e a r w h i c h type. T h i s o c c u r r e d w h e n a child w a s v o c a l i z i n g while p l a y i n g with the w h a l e . In this situation, it w a s not p o s s i b l e to d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r the child w a s h a p p y a b o u t playing with the w h a l e or w h e t h e r the child w a s greeting the toy.  2.5.7.5 Declaratives S e a r l e a n d V a n d e r v e k e n d e s c r i b e d d e c l a r a t i v e s a s s p e e c h a c t s c o m m i t t e d b y the S p e a k e r with the p u r p o s e of bringing about a c h a n g e in the future state of affairs. In this form of illocutionary act, the s p e a k e r m a k e s s o m e t h i n g true by stating it (declaring it) (the sincerity condition) a n d the direction of fit is both w o r d s - t o - w o r l d s a n d world-to-words. K l i n c a n s a d d s to this definition by s a y i n g "the child ( n e e d s to) b e in a position w h e r e he h a s the requisite type of authority to effect a c h a n g e in the state of affairs; for c h i l d r e n , this authority is u s u a l l y d e r i v e d in play situations, or in interactions with p e e r s or s i b l i n g s " ( K l i n c a n s 1 9 9 1 , p. 54). T h r e e s u b - c a t e g o r i e s of d e c l a r a t i v e illocutionary a c t s w e r e d e f i n e d for u s e in this study, including d e c l a r a t i o n s to d o with s o c i a l interaction, g a m e s , a n d o w n e r s h i p .  D e c l a r a t i v e - S o c i a l Interaction T h e definition for ' D e c l a r a t i v e - s o c i a l interaction' w a s a d o p t e d from K l i n c a n s a s indicating c o m m u n i c a t i v e a c t s that e n a c t e d a n e w s o c i a l reality a s a result of their 58  p r o n o u n c e m e n t ( 1 9 9 1 , p. 56). E x a m p l e s of d e c l a r a t i o n s given by K l i n c a n s ( 1 9 9 1 , p. 56) i n c l u d e d the child d e c l a r i n g "we're partners this time" or "you're the leader."  Declarative - G a m e s F o r the current study, ' D e c l a r a t i v e - g a m e s ' indicated c o m m u n i c a t i v e a c t s in w h i c h the child attempted to direct play or details of play by m a k i n g a d e c l a r a t i o n a s in K l i n c a n s ( 1 9 9 1 , p. 55). S u c c e s s f u l a c h i e v e m e n t of a 'declarative - g a m e s ' s p e e c h act resulted in a c h a n g e in the w a y a g a m e w a s p l a y e d . A n e x a m p l e of a c o m m u n i c a t i v e act from this c a t e g o r y w o u l d h a v e b e e n if a child s a i d "ok, n o w y o u m a k e the w h a l e s w i m o v e r h e r e , " while p l a y i n g with the w h a l e puppet.  Declarative - Ownership ' D e c l a r a t i v e - o w n e r s h i p ' indicated c o m m u n i c a t i v e a c t s in w h i c h the child a t t e m p t e d to g a i n o w n e r s h i p of a n item by d e c l a r i n g the item b e l o n g e d to him or her. A n e x a m p l e of a 'declarative - o w n e r s h i p ' o c c u r r e d in the b o o k activity w h e n a child r e f u s e d to g i v e the b o o k b a c k to the e x p e r i m e n t e r a n d d e c l a r e d " M i n e ! , " in o r d e r to maintain control o v e r the item.  Declarative - A m b i g u o u s In addition to 'declarative - s o c i a l interaction,' 'declarative - g a m e , ' a n d 'declarative o w n e r s h i p , ' the c o d e r c o u l d d e s i g n a t e a n utterance/action a s 'declarative - a m b i g u o u s , ' T h i s c a t e g o r y w a s u s e d w h e n it w a s c l e a r a n utterance/action f u n c t i o n e d a s a d e c l a r a t i v e , but it w a s u n c l e a r w h i c h type.  2.5.7.6 Multiple C o d e s E a c h c o m m u n i c a t i v e act w a s c l a s s i f i e d into o n e or m o r e of the a b o v e c a t e g o r i e s , a c c o r d i n g to the c o d e r ' s interpretation of the child's intent in c o m m u n i c a t i n g .  2.5.7.7 A m b i g u o u s In addition to the possibility of c o d i n g a c o m m u n i c a t i v e act a s a m b i g u o u s within e a c h of the s p e e c h act c a t e g o r i e s , a c o m m u n i c a t i v e act w a s c o d e d ' a m b i g u o u s ' in the higher-level c a t e g o r y if it w a s u n c l e a r w h i c h of two or m o r e illocutionary f o r c e s w a s m o s t appropriate. T h i s is c o n s i s t e n t with the work of K l i n c a n s (1991) w h o u s e d this c a t e g o r y w h e n the v e r b a l a n d n o n v e r b a l c o n t e x t s of a situation did not permit resolution b e t w e e n p o s s i b l e illocutionary points. A n attempt w a s m a d e to c o d e w h i c h of the five illocutionary points w a s involved in e a c h i n s t a n c e of ambiguity; that is, a m b i g u i t i e s b e t w e e n directives a n d a s s e r t i v e s w e r e c a t e g o r i z e d separately from ambiguities between assertives a n d expressives. 59  A n e x a m p l e of ambiguity at this level of the t a x o n o m y o c c u r r e d w h e n a child c l o s e d the b o o k , the e x p e r i m e n t e r r e - o p e n e d it a n d the child shut it a g a i n . T h e s e c o n d c l o s i n g of the b o o k w a s c o d e d ' a m b i g u o u s - d i r / a s s / e x p r , ' b e c a u s e this c o m m u n i c a t i v e act might h a v e c o m m u n i c a t e d a n y of the following intents: ' S t o p s h o w i n g m e the b o o k ' (directive - action s h o w (negative)), T m d o n e ' (assertive - d e s c r i b e - state of affairs), or 'I don't like this a n y m o r e ' ( e x p r e s s i v e - p e r s o n a l attitude/affective state). B e c a u s e it w a s not c l e a r that all three illocutionary points w e r e relevant to d e s c r i b e the c o m m u n i c a t i v e act a n d that n o o n e of the three possibilities clearly d e s c r i b e d the c o m m u n i c a t i v e act, it w a s g i v e n the c o d e ' a m b i g u o u s d i r / a s s / e x p r . ' A n o t h e r e x a m p l e of this type o c c u r r e d w h e n a chjld stated " n o " a s the e x p e r i m e n t e r w a s s h o w i n g a child the w h a l e . T h i s utterance c o u l d b e c l a s s i f i e d a s a n y or all of directive, a s s e r t i v e , or e x p r e s s i v e , s o w a s c l a s s i f i e d a s ' a m b i g u o u s - d i r / a s s / e x p r . C h i l d r e n ' s u t t e r a n c e s / a c t i o n s w e r e a s s i g n e d to two additional c a t e g o r i e s c r e a t e d to h a n d l e greater l e v e l s of ambiguity. T h e first of t h e s e , 'unlikely to b e c o m m u n i c a t i v e , ' w a s u s e d w h e n it s e e m e d the child w a s not intentionally c o m m u n i c a t i n g . T h e s e c o n d c a t e g o r y , ' u n k n o w n , ' w a s u s e d w h e n it a p p e a r e d a s t h o u g h a n utterance/action s e r v e d a c o m m u n i c a t i v e p u r p o s e , but it w a s not p o s s i b l e to d e t e r m i n e w h a t the p u r p o s e m a y h a v e b e e n .  2.5.7.8 U n c o d a b l e F o l l o w i n g K l i n c a n s (1991), c o m m u n i c a t i v e a c t s w e r e c a t e g o r i z e d a s ' u n c o d a b l e ' if the utterance or k e y portions of the utterance w e r e unintelligible, if it w a s u n c l e a r w h e t h e r a n utterance/action w a s by the child or a n o t h e r s p e a k e r or if the child w a s out of v i e w of the v i d e o camera.  2.5.8  C o d i n g S y s t e m Modifications T h r o u g h the p r o c e s s e s of d e t e r m i n i n g inter-rater a n d intra-rater reliability, it b e c a m e  a p p a r e n t that s o m e of the c a t e g o r i e s or l e v e l s of distinction outlined in C h a p t e r 1 w e r e unrealistic or i m p o s s i b l e to u s e with children of the a g e s p a n e x a m i n e d in this study. S p e c i f i c a l l y , the p r o p o s e d s u b - c a t e g o r i e s (new, k n o w n , clarify) u n d e r directive-information w e r e r e m o v e d from the c o d i n g s y s t e m . T h i s w a s d e c i d e d b e c a u s e it w a s not p o s s i b l e for a c o d e r unfamiliar with e a c h individual child to j u d g e w h a t type of information r e q u e s t (new, k n o w n , clarify) the child h a d m a d e . It w a s a l s o d e c i d e d the default s u b - c a t e g o r y of a s s e r t i v e s in this s t u d y w o u l d b e identify/label b e c a u s e s o m a n y children l a c k e d the v e r b a l skills n e c e s s a r y to differentiate a n assertive-identify/label from a n a s s e r t i v e - d e s c r i b e s p e e c h act. A c c o r d i n g to the initial e x p e r i m e n t a l p r o t o c o l s , e y e g a z e w a s r e c o r d e d o n the c o d i n g d a t a s h e e t s w h e n it s e r v e d a c o m m u n i c a t i v e function. T h r e e s u b - c a t e g o r i e s of e y e g a z e w e r e u s e d : s i n g l e , d y a d i c a n d triadic. S i n g l e e y e g a z e w a s d e f i n e d a s a n i n s t a n c e of c o m m u n i c a t i v e 60  e y e g a z e in w h i c h the child f o c u s e d o n only o n e of the parent or the e x p e r i m e n t e r or a toy, but not a c o m b i n a t i o n of t h e s e . D y a d i c e y e g a z e w a s d e f i n e d a s a n i n s t a n c e of c o m m u n i c a t i v e e y e g a z e in w h i c h the child f o c u s e d o n two of the parent, the e x p e r i m e n t e r or the toy, in s u c c e s s i o n . T r i a d i c e y e g a z e w a s d e f i n e d a s a n i n s t a n c e of c o m m u n i c a t i v e e y e g a z e w h e r e the child f o c u s e d o n two or three of the parent, the e x p e r i m e n t e r or the toy, with a g a z e shift o c c u r r i n g twice (e.g., the child l o o k e d at the parent, shifted g a z e to the toy, shifted g a z e b a c k to the parent). J u d g m e n t s w e r e c o n s e r v a t i v e l y m a d e w h e n a s s i g n i n g c o m m u n i c a t i v e intent to e y e g a z e a n d in a s s i g n i n g i n s t a n c e s of e y e g a z e to the d y a d i c a n d triadic c a t e g o r i e s . A n i n s t a n c e of e y e g a z e that w a s c o n s i d e r e d c o m m u n i c a t i v e o c c u r r e d w h e n the b u b b l e s w e r e p l a c e d o n the table after the e x p e r i m e n t e r h a d blown s o m e . In this i n s t a n c e , the child l o o k e d at the parent, b a c k to the b u b b l e s , a n d then b a c k to the parent. T h e e y e g a z e w a s c o d e d triadic. I n s t a n c e s w h e r e the child a p p e a r e d to b e ' c h e c k i n g ' w h e t h e r the adult w a s attending w e r e a l s o c o n s i d e r e d c o m m u n i c a t i v e (similar in intent a s if the child w a s a b l e to s a y 'hey, a r e y o u l o o k i n g ? ' ) . I n s t a n c e s w h e r e the child w a s looking at the adult only b e c a u s e s h e or he w a s c o m m u n i c a t i n g with the adult w e r e not c o n s i d e r e d c o m m u n i c a t i v e . Unfortunately, very low l e v e l s of inter-rater reliability (/c=0.34 to k=0.6A) w e r e a c h i e v e d w h e n c o d i n g g a z e b e c a u s e it w a s difficult to b e certain w h e r e the child w a s actually looking (e.g., at the b u b b l e s the e x p e r i m e n t e r w a s holding, or at the e x p e r i m e n t e r ' s f a c e ) . T o a c h i e v e a greater d e g r e e of certainty, a s e c o n d c a m e r a w o u l d h a v e b e e n useful {as in Lichtert, 2 0 0 3 ) . A s s u c h , e y e g a z e w a s not i n c l u d e d in the final a n a l y s e s .  2.6  Data A n a l y s i s  2.6.1  Overview S u b j e c t d a t a w e r e e n t e r e d into Microsoft E x c e l for M a c ® S e r v i c e R e l e a s e 1 (Microsoft  C o r p o r a t i o n , 1 9 8 5 - 2 0 0 1 ) . D a t a w e r e a n a l y z e d with S P S S 12.0 G r a d u a t e S t u d e n t V e r s i o n . I will briefly d e s c r i b e the m e t h o d o l o g y for a n a l y s i s here.  2.6.2  Effect of A g e , Gender, and T a s k on Children's C o m m u n i c a t i o n T o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r a c h i l d ' s a g e c o r r e l a t e d with a c h a n g e in illocutionary a c t s ,  n u m b e r of c o m m u n i c a t i v e u t t e r a n c e s per minute, ratio of initiations to r e s p o n s e s or m o d e of communication, P e a r s o n Product-Moment Correlations were conducted. T o determine whether illocutionary point w a s affected by g e n d e r of the child, or w h e t h e r there w a s a m a i n effect of task, r e p e a t e d m e a s u r e s A N O V A s w e r e c o n d u c t e d with s e x a s a b e t w e e n - s u b j e c t s factor a n d t a s k a s the within-subjects factor.  61  2.6.3  Relationship between Conventional A s s e s s m e n t and S p e e c h Act Data T o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r c h i l d r e n ' s s t a n d a r d i z e d or criterion-referenced test s c o r e s  c o r r e l a t e d with their s p e e c h act d a t a , P e a r s o n P r o d u c t - M o m e n t C o r r e l a t i o n s w e r e c o n d u c t e d .  62  CHAPTER 3 RESULTS  3.1  Overview T h e p u r p o s e of this study w a s to c h a r a c t e r i z e the c o m m u n i c a t i v e a c t s of y o u n g c h i l d r e n  a n d to d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r children with a n d without family history of l a n g u a g e d e l a y c o u l d b e differentiated a c c o r d i n g to the t y p e s of their interactions. In this c h a p t e r , e a c h q u e s t i o n p o s e d at the e n d of C h a p t e r 1 will b e a n s w e r e d in turn, starting with Q u e s t i o n 1 in S e c t i o n 3.2. Q u e s t i o n 2 is a n s w e r e d in S e c t i o n 3 . 3 .  3.2  Communicative Abilities S e c t i o n 3.2 will s p e a k to the t o p i c s o r g a n i z e d a s Q u e s t i o n 1 at the e n d of the  Introductory C h a p t e r ( C h a p t e r 1). T h e s e q u e s t i o n s i n c l u d e d : H o w d o y o u n g c h i l d r e n c o m m u n i c a t e ? W h a t is the rate of c o m m u n i c a t i o n ? D o children t e n d to r e s p o n d to or initiate c o m m u n i c a t i o n s ? W h a t is the preferred m o d e of c o m m u n i c a t i o n ? W h a t a r e the m o s t frequent s p e e c h act t y p e s ? D o e s t a s k affect s p e e c h a c t s p r o d u c e d ? D o e s a g e or s e x affect c h i l d r e n ' s c o m m u n i c a t i v e b e h a v i o u r a s m e a s u r e d by s p e e c h a c t s ?  3.2.1  Utterance Communicative or Non-Communicative in Intent O n a v e r a g e , the children in this s t u d y p r o d u c e d 8.57 c o m m u n i c a t i v e u t t e r a n c e s per  minute, although there w a s a great a m o u n t of variability b e t w e e n children ( T a b l e 3.1). T h i s variability w a s not d u e to the c h i l d r e n ' s a g e (Table 3.2). M a n y of the c h i l d r e n ' s transcripts c o n t a i n e d a s m a l l n u m b e r of u t t e r a n c e s that w e r e d e t e r m i n e d , u p o n c o d i n g a c c o r d i n g to the criteria in 2 . 4 . 2 . 1 , to be n o n - c o m m u n i c a t i v e in intent. T h e m e a n n u m b e r of n o n - c o m m u n i c a t i v e u t t e r a n c e s w a s slightly o v e r 1.00 u t t e r a n c e s / m i n u t e in e a c h activity (Table 3.3). H o w e v e r , this m e a s u r e m a y not b e a c c u r a t e in c o m p a r i n g c h i l d r e n ' s c o m m u n i c a t i v e abilities, b e c a u s e the g o a l of transcription w a s not to include u t t e r a n c e s that w e r e unlikely to be c o m m u n i c a t i v e in intent. T h a t is, a child w h o s e n o n - c o m m u n i c a t i v e u t t e r a n c e s w e r e u n a m b i g u o u s l y not c o m m u n i c a t i v e m a y not h a v e h a d a s m a n y i n s t a n c e s i n c l u d e d o n the initial transcript that w a s s u b s e q u e n t l y u s e d a s the b a s i s for c o d i n g . A child w h o s e u t t e r a n c e s w e r e m o r e difficult to c h a r a c t e r i z e a s clearly c o m m u n i c a t i v e v e r s u s n o n -  63  c o m m u n i c a t i v e m a y h a v e h a d m o r e i n s t a n c e s of a c t s i n c l u d e d o n the transcript that n e e d e d to b e e x c l u d e d at the c o d i n g s t a g e . T h e m e a n n u m b e r of u t t e r a n c e s children g a v e during the three activities in the structured interaction s e s s i o n of interest to this study w a s 5 5 . 8 0 . C h i l d r e n v a r i e d b e t w e e n 17 a n d 108 u t t e r a n c e s , with a s t a n d a r d deviation of 2 3 . 8 0 .  3.2.2  F o c u s of Attention In g e n e r a l , the toy that the e x p e r i m e n t e r w a s s h o w i n g or giving to the child w a s the topic  of the child's u t t e r a n c e s . Of the 3 4 children in this study, 21 c h i l d r e n ' s u t t e r a n c e s w e r e 1 0 0 % about the e x p e r i m e n t e r ' s toys. A n additional five children m a i n t a i n e d attention o n the e x p e r i m e n t e r ' s toys during 9 5 % or m o r e of their u t t e r a n c e s (Figure 3.1). T h e m e a n proportion of on-topic u t t e r a n c e s w a s 9 4 . 5 0 % , with a s t a n d a r d deviation of 1 0 . 6 0 . T h e m i n i m u m proportion of on-topic u t t e r a n c e s w a s 5 4 . 2 0 % . T h e n u m b e r of off-topic u t t e r a n c e s v a r i e d f r o m z e r o to 2 2 . 0 , with 3.12 a s the m e a n a n d 6.42 a s the s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n . Neither attention to topic nor n u m b e r of u t t e r a n c e s w a s related to child a g e (Figure 3.2)  3.2.3  Utterance in R e s p o n s e to/ Utterance Initiated C h i l d r e n initiated c o m m u n i c a t i v e a c t s m o r e frequently in the b o o k activity ( m e a n = 9.10)  than in the w h a l e or b u b b l e s activities ( m e a n = 3.63 a n d 3 . 1 5 , respectively) (Table 3.4). T h e n u m b e r of initiations in the b u b b l e s activity w a s positively c o r r e l a t e d with the n u m b e r of initiations per minute in both the b o o k (/f34) = . 5 2 1 , p = .002) a n d w h a l e (/{31) = . 4 2 3 , p = .018) activities, h o w e v e r the n u m b e r of initiations per minute in the b o o k activity w a s not c o r r e l a t e d with the n u m b e r of initiations p e r minute in the w h a l e activity (r(31) = . 3 1 5 , p = .085). C h i l d r e n ' s r e s p o n s e s p e r minute to a c t s initiated by the context or a n o t h e r p e r s o n w e r e roughly e q u i v a l e n t a c r o s s activities ( m e a n s = 2 . 1 0 , 2 . 6 1 , a n d 3.61 respectively) (Table 3.4). T h e n u m b e r of r e s p o n s e s per minute w a s not c o r r e l a t e d b e t w e e n a n y of the activities, i.e., r e s p o n s e s p e r minute in the b o o k activity w e r e not c o r r e l a t e d with r e s p o n s e s p e r minute in the w h a l e activity, etc. T h e g r e a t e s t n u m b e r of initiations p e r minute w a s 2 0 during the b o o k activity (child 3); the m a x i m u m n u m b e r of initiations p e r minute in both the w h a l e a n d b u b b l e s activities w a s lower than that s e e n with the b o o k , e . g . , only 8.48 initiations per minute with the w h a l e . C h i l d r e n 5 8 , 3 9 , 8 7 , 9, a n d 41 did not initiate at all in the w h a l e activity. T h e m a x i m u m n u m b e r of r e s p o n s e s per minute w a s , in contrast to the initiations, relatively c o n s i s t e n t a c r o s s activities, with 8 . 5 7 during the b o o k , 6.92 during the w h a l e , a n d 10.08 during the b u b b l e activities. 64  F i g u r e s 3.3, 3.4, a n d 3.5 s h o w the variability in different c h i l d r e n ' s initiations a n d r e s p o n s e s per minute (the children a r e not o r d e r e d in a n y significant w a y a l o n g the x - a x i s ) . If a child did not initiate or r e s p o n d during a n activity, a g a p is s h o w n or bar is m i s s i n g . A g e w a s positively c o r r e l a t e d with n u m b e r of initiations p e r minute in the w h a l e (r(31) = . 3 8 3 , p = .033) a n d b u b b l e s (r(34) = . 5 7 1 , p = .000) activities, a n d with the total n u m b e r of initiations p e r minute a c r o s s activities (r(34) - . 3 6 0 , p = .036). A g e w a s not c o r r e l a t e d with n u m b e r of initiations per minute in the b o o k activity (r(34) = . 3 0 2 , p = .083), nor with r e s p o n s e s per minute in a n y activity (r(34) = - . 0 0 7 , p = .968) (Table 3.5).  3.2.4  Mode of C o m m u n i c a t i o n During the b o o k activity, the p r e d o m i n a n t m o d e s of c o m m u n i c a t i o n w e r e pointing ( m e a n  = 6.09), v o c a l i z a t i o n s ( m e a n = 3.47); a n d v e r b a l i z a t i o n s ( m e a n = 5.95). H o w e v e r , c h i l d r e n v a r i e d greatly (Figure 3.6) (pointing s . d . = 5.27, v o c a l i z a t i o n s s . d . = 3.47, v e r b a l i z a t i o n s s . d . = 5.95). D u r i n g the w h a l e activity, the p r e d o m i n a n t m o d e s of c o m m u n i c a t i o n w e r e r e a c h i n g ( m e a n = 1.23), hold out/give ( m e a n = 1 . 6 8 ) , v o c a l i z a t i o n s ( m e a n = 2.71), a n d v e r b a l i z a t i o n s ( m e a n = 1.50). A s in the b o o k activity, a great d e a l of variation w a s s e e n a c r o s s individual children (Figure 3.7 a n d F i g u r e 3.8) (reaching s . d . = 1.37, hold out/give s . d . = 1.40, v o c a l i z a t i o n s s . d . = 2 . 5 1 , v e r b a l i z a t i o n s s . d . = 2.39). D u r i n g the b u b b l e s activity, the p r e d o m i n a n t m o d e s of c o m m u n i c a t i o n w e r e r e a c h i n g ( m e a n = 1.44), v o c a l i z a t i o n s ( m e a n = 2.43), a n d v e r b a l i z a t i o n s ( m e a n = 3.32). A s in the other two activities, individual children v a r i e d greatly (Figure 3.9) ( r e a c h i n g s . d . = 1.60, v o c a l i z a t i o n s s . d . = 2 . 2 6 , v e r b a l i z a t i o n s s . d . = 3.39). T a b l e 3.6 s h o w s the m e a n , s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n , a n d m a x i m u m a n d m i n i m u m a c t s p e r minute for e a c h c o m m u n i c a t i v e m o d e . N o type of g e s t u r e c o r r e l a t e d with child a g e (r(34) = . 1 9 4 , p = .271), nor did v o c a l i z a t i o n s correlate with child a g e (r(34) = - . 2 6 9 , p = .125). V e r b a l i z a t i o n s p e r minute w e r e positively c o r r e l a t e d with child a g e in m o n t h s (r(34) = . 4 8 7 , p = .004) (Table 3.7).  3.2.5 3.2.5.1  lllocutionary Point Assertives C h i l d r e n p r o d u c e d a s s e r t i v e s p e e c h a c t s o n a v e r a g e 2 . 6 2 t i m e s per minute ( s . d . = 2.25).  H o w e v e r , a great d e a l of variation w a s s e e n a c r o s s children (Figure 3.10). T o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r children differed in their production of a s s e r t i v e s a c r o s s t a s k s , a r e p e a t e d m e a s u r e s A N O V A w a s c o n d u c t e d with s e x (male v e r s u s f e m a l e ) a s the b e t w e e n  65  s u b j e c t s factor a n d t a s k (book v e r s u s w h a l e v e r s u s b u b b l e s ) a s the within s u b j e c t s factor. A s s e r t i v e s w e r e p r o d u c e d significantly m o r e frequently with the book activity (F(2,60) = 2 4 . 8 5 3 , p = .000) than with the w h a l e or b u b b l e s activities (Figure 3.11). C h i l d r e n p r o d u c e d a m e a n n u m b e r of a s s e r t i v e s of 5 . 4 3 t i m e s p e r minute with the b o o k ( s . d . = 4.80) v e r s u s 0.74 a n d 0.92 t i m e s p e r minute with the w h a l e a n d b u b b l e s , r e s p e c t i v e l y ( T a b l e 3.8). G e n d e r w a s not a significant factor for n u m b e r of a s s e r t i v e s p r o d u c e d (F(2,60) = . 2 5 3 , p = .777).  3.2.5.2  Directives C h i l d r e n p r o d u c e d directive s p e e c h a c t s o n a v e r a g e 5.37 t i m e s per minute ( s . d . = 2.42).  H o w e v e r , a great d e a l of variation w a s s e e n a c r o s s c h i l d r e n (Figure 3.12). T o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r children differed in their production of directives a c r o s s t a s k s , a r e p e a t e d m e a s u r e s A N O V A w a s c o n d u c t e d with s e x ( m a l e v e r s u s f e m a l e ) a s the b e t w e e n s u b j e c t s factor a n d task (book v e r s u s w h a l e v e r s u s b u b b l e s ) a s the within s u b j e c t s factor. T h e r e w a s a m a i n effect of t a s k o n the n u m b e r of directives p r o d u c e d (F(2,60) = 3 . 3 4 5 , p = .042) (Figure 3.13). C h i l d r e n p r o d u c e d a m e a n n u m b e r of d i r e c t i v e s of 6.41 t i m e s p e r minute with the b o o k ( s . d . = 4.27), 4 . 5 9 t i m e s per minute with the w h a l e ( s . d . = 3.86), a n d 4 . 6 8 t i m e s p e r minute with the b u b b l e s (s.d. = 2.36) (Table 3.8). G e n d e r w a s not a significant factor for n u m b e r of d i r e c t i v e s p r o d u c e d (F(2,60) = 1.27, p = .35).  3.2.5.3  Commissives V e r y f e w children in this a g e g r o u p p r o d u c e d c o m m i s s i v e s p e e c h a c t s during the three  activities s t u d i e d . N o n e w e r e p r o d u c e d during the b o o k activity, a n d two children (62 a n d 8 6 , both 1;7 y e a r s ) m a y h a v e p r o d u c e d a s i n g l e c o m m i s s i v e e a c h during e a c h of the w h a l e a n d b u b b l e s activities. T h i s g i v e s m e a n rates of production of 0 . 0 2 8 a c t s p e r minute during the w h a l e activity (s.d. = 0.16) a n d 0 . 0 1 7 a c t s per minute during the b u b b l e s activity ( s . d . = 0.099). B e c a u s e the n u m b e r p r o d u c e d w a s s o low, it w a s not p o s s i b l e to d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r a m a i n effect of t a s k e x i s t e d , or if s e x of the child affected c o m m i s s i v e p r o d u c t i o n .  3.2.5.4  Expressives C h i l d r e n p r o d u c e d e x p r e s s i v e s p e e c h a c t s o n a v e r a g e 2.12 t i m e s p e r minute ( s . d . =  1.54). H o w e v e r , a great d e a l of variation w a s s e e n a c r o s s children (Figure 3.14). T o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r children differed in their production of e x p r e s s i v e s a c r o s s t a s k s , a r e p e a t e d m e a s u r e s A N O V A w a s c o n d u c t e d with s e x (male v e r s u s f e m a l e ) a s the b e t w e e n s u b j e c t s factor a n d task (book v e r s u s w h a l e v e r s u s b u b b l e s ) a s the within s u b j e c t s factor. N o m a i n effect of t a s k o c c u r r e d with the e x p r e s s i v e s s p e e c h a c t s the children p r o d u c e d in this 66  s t u d y (Figure 3.15). C h i l d r e n p r o d u c e d a m e a n n u m b e r of e x p r e s s i v e s of 1.57 t i m e s p e r minute with the b o o k ( s . d . = 2.71), 2.61 t i m e s per minute with the w h a l e ( s . d . = 3.90), a n d 2 . 6 5 t i m e s with the b u b b l e s (s.d. = 2.06) (Table 3.8). T h e c h i l d r e n ' s s e x h a d no significant effect o n n u m b e r of a s s e r t i v e s p r o d u c e d (F(2,60) = 1.272, p = .288).  3.2.5.5  Declaratives N o children in this s a m p l e p r o d u c e d d e c l a r a t i v e s p e e c h a c t s during the three activities  s t u d i e d . O n e child (#3, 1;11 y e a r s ) m a y h a v e p r o d u c e d a s i n g l e d e c l a r a t i v e during the b u b b l e s activity, a l t h o u g h it is difficult to differentiate b e t w e e n this act a s a d e c l a r a t i v e v e r s u s a directive. B e c a u s e the n u m b e r p r o d u c e d w a s effectively z e r o , it w a s not p o s s i b l e to d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r a m a i n effect of task e x i s t e d , or if s e x of the child affected d e c l a r a t i v e p r o d u c t i o n .  3.2.5.6  Multiple C o d e s Directive-attention a c t s w e r e p r o d u c e d in c o m b i n a t i o n with other illocutionary a c t s 4 8 %  of the time. E x p r e s s i v e a c t s w e r e p r o d u c e d in c o m b i n a t i o n with other illocutionary a c t s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 5 1 % of the time. N o other illocutionary points w e r e c o n s i s t e n t l y p r o d u c e d with a n o t h e r act.  3.2.5.7  Ambiguous C h i l d r e n p r o d u c e d a m b i g u o u s s p e e c h a c t s o n a v e r a g e 2 . 7 0 t i m e s per minute (s.d. =  2.05). H o w e v e r , a great d e a l of variation w a s s e e n a c r o s s children (Figure 3.16). T o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r children differed in their production of a m b i g u o u s a c t s a c r o s s t a s k s , a r e p e a t e d m e a s u r e s A N O V A w a s c o n d u c t e d with s e x (male v e r s u s f e m a l e ) a s the b e t w e e n s u b j e c t s factor a n d task (book v e r s u s w h a l e v e r s u s b u b b l e s ) a s the within s u b j e c t s factor. T h e r e w a s a m a i n effect of task o n the n u m b e r of a m b i g u o u s a c t s p r o d u c e d (F(2,60) = 6 . 2 4 6 , p = .003) (Figure 3.17). C h i l d r e n p r o d u c e d a m e a n n u m b e r of a m b i g u o u s a c t s 1.88 t i m e s per minute with the b o o k (s.d. = 1.15), 4 . 5 9 t i m e s p e r minute with the w h a l e ( s . d . = 3.08), a n d 2 . 7 8 t i m e s p e r minute with the b u b b l e s ( s . d . = 2.43) (Table 3.8). T h e c h i l d r e n ' s s e x h a d n o significant effect o n n u m b e r of a m b i g u o u s a c t s p r o d u c e d (F(2,60) = 0 . 7 9 2 , p = .458).  R e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n A g e a n d lllocutionary F o r c e A g e did not correlate with a n y illocutionary point, e x c e p t d e c l a r a t i v e s - h o w e v e r , b e c a u s e only o n e d e c l a r a t i v e w a s p r o d u c e d during the three activities i n c l u d e d in this s t u d y this result w a s not c o n s i d e r e d a valid correlation (Table 3.9).  67  3.3  Relationship between Conventional A s s e s s m e n t and S p e e c h Act Data S e c t i o n 3.3 a d d r e s s e s the s e c o n d q u e s t i o n that w a s p o s e d at the e n d of the Introductory  C h a p t e r ( C h a p t e r 1). T h i s q u e s t i o n w a s : D o c h i l d r e n ' s s t a n d a r d i z e d or criterion-referenced test s c o r e s correlate with their s p e e c h act d a t a ? T h e n u m b e r of a s s e r t i v e s p e r minute a child p r o d u c e d w a s significantly related to e a c h of their P L S - A C , P L S - E C , a n d C D I P r o d u c t i o n s c o r e s (/(34) = . 3 5 9 , p = . 0 3 7 ; r{34) = . 3 9 2 , p = .022; a n d Af31) = . 5 2 0 , p = . 0 0 3 , respectively). T h e n u m b e r of directives per minute a child p r o d u c e d w a s a l m o s t , but not significantly, related to their P L S - A C s c o r e (^34) = . 3 3 3 , p = .055). T h e n u m b e r of directive, d e c l a r a t i v e , e x p r e s s i v e , c o m m i s s i v e , or a m b i g u o u s s p e e c h a c t s per minute a child p r o d u c e d w e r e not significantly related to a c h i l d ' s other P L S a n d C D I s c o r e s .  68  CHAPTER 4 DISCUSSION  4.1  Overview T h e p u r p o s e s of this study w e r e to c h a r a c t e r i z e the c o m m u n i c a t i v e a c t s of y o u n g  children in structured elicitation c o n t e x t s a n d to investigate m e t h o d s of o b s e r v i n g a n d a n a l y z i n g c h i l d r e n ' s l a n g u a g e - r e l a t e d b e h a v i o u r s . In this c h a p t e r , a brief review of the results will b e p r e s e n t e d , a l o n g with a d i s c u s s i o n of their r e l e v a n c e a n d c o n n e c t i o n to existing literature. T h i s s e c t i o n will c o n c l u d e with s t u d y limitations, clinical implications, a n d further d i r e c t i o n s for research.  4.2  S u m m a r y of Results A brief o v e r v i e w of results for e a c h of the q u e s t i o n s p o s e d at the e n d of C h a p t e r 1 is  g i v e n in this s e c t i o n a s a b a c k g r o u n d for the following d i s c u s s i o n . S o m e of the k e y f i n d i n g s of this study for e a c h of the t o p i c s e x a m i n e d a r e a s follows:  Question One: H o w d o y o u n g children c o m m u n i c a t e in structured elicitation c o n t e x t s ? a.  W h a t is the rate of c o m m u n i c a t i o n of children 1 ;5 to 2;0 in structured elicitation c o n t e x t s ? T h e children in the current study p r o d u c e d a m e a n rate of 8.57 c o m m u n i c a t i v e a c t s per minute (s.d. = 3.81), with a higher rate of a c t s per minute in the b o o k - r e a d i n g activity (11.4). T h i s a v e r a g e rate of c o m m u n i c a t i v e a c t s w a s higher than e x p e c t e d .  b.  D o children 1 ;5 to 2;0 in structured elicitation c o n t e x t s t e n d to r e s p o n d to or initiate communications? A c r o s s c h i l d r e n , there w a s a m e a n rate of initiations of 5.7 p e r minute a n d a m e a n rate of r e s p o n s e s of 2.8 p e r minute. C h i l d r e n initiated m o r e within the b o o k - r e a d i n g activity. It w a s e x p e c t e d there w o u l d b e variation in rate of initiations a n d r e s p o n s e s b e t w e e n activities (as in S i n g , 2 0 0 2 ) ; h o w e v e r , significant d i f f e r e n c e s w e r e only f o u n d in rate of initiation b e t w e e n activities in this study. It w a s a l s o e x p e c t e d that a g e w o u l d b e related to rate of r e s p o n s e s a n d initiations. O u r finding w a s that a g e related to initiations in the w h a l e a n d b u b b l e s activities, but not in the b o o k activity, a n d it w a s not at all related to r e s p o n s e s . 69  c.  W h a t is the preferred m o d e of c o m m u n i c a t i o n for children 1 ;5 to 2;0 in structured elicitation contexts? G e s t u r e s w e r e p r o d u c e d at a n a v e r a g e rate of 6.1 p e r minute a c r o s s all activities. V o c a l i z a t i o n s w e r e p r o d u c e d 3.0 t i m e s per minute a n d v e r b a l i z a t i o n s w e r e p r o d u c e d 4.1 t i m e s p e r minute. It w a s anticipated that g e s t u r e s , v o c a l i z a t i o n s , a n d v e r b a l i z a t i o n s w o u l d b e related to child a g e . H o w e v e r , it w a s f o u n d that only v e r b a l i z a t i o n s w e r e related to child age.  d.  W h a t a r e the most frequent s p e e c h act t y p e s u s e b y children 1 ;5 to 2;0 in structured elicitation c o n t e x t s ? T h e m o s t frequent s p e e c h a c t s g i v e n by the children in this study w e r e d i r e c t i v e s (5.37 t i m e s / m i n ) , followed by a s s e r t i v e s (2.62 t i m e s / m i n ) , a n d e x p r e s s i v e s (2.12 t i m e s / m i n ) . C o m m i s s i v e s a n d d e c l a r a t i v e s w e r e rarely u s e d , if at all. It s h o u l d b e n o t e d that 2 . 7 c o m m u n i c a t i v e a c t s per minute w e r e c o d e d a m b i g u o u s . T h e existing literature p r e d i c t e d d i r e c t i v e s a n d a s s e r t i v e s w o u l d b e the m o s t c o m m o n s p e e c h act t y p e s in children of this age.  e.  D o e s a g e or s e x affect c h i l d r e n ' s (1 ;5 to 2;0) c o m m u n i c a t i v e b e h a v i o u r in structured elicitation s e s s i o n s a s m e a s u r e d by s p e e c h a c t s ? N e i t h e r a g e nor s e x affected c h i l d r e n ' s production of s p e e c h a c t s in structured elicitation sessions.  In this study, it w a s f o u n d that a great d e a l of variability e x i s t e d a m o n g activities a n d children in t e r m s of their rates of c o m m u n i c a t i o n , t e n d e n c i e s t o w a r d s initiation or r e s p o n s e , a n d m o d e s a n d s p e e c h act t y p e s of c o m m u n i c a t i o n . F o r e x a m p l e , s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s for the a s s e r t i v e s p e e c h act type w e r e 4 . 8 0 in the b o o k activity a n d 1.56 in t h e b u b b l e s activity ( s e e table 3.8 for m o r e s t a n d a r d deviation v a l u e s ) . Further d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n of t h e s e t o p i c s is p r e s e n t e d following a brief d i s c u s s i o n of the s e c o n d q u e s t i o n in the study.  Question Two: a.  D o e s c h i l d r e n ' s p e r f o r m a n c e o n structured elicitation t a s k s correlate with their p e r f o r m a n c e o n s t a n d a r d i z e d or criterion-referenced tools (i.e., the M u l l e n , P L S , a n d C D I s c o r e s ) , in t e r m s of statistical or qualitative a n a l y s i s ? R a t e of c o m m u n i c a t i o n w a s not related to the child's M u l l e n , P L S , or C D I s c o r e s .  Initiations p e r minute w e r e significantly c o r r e l a t e d with the P L S - A C s c o r e s (r(34) = . 3 4 0 , p = .049), but n o n e of the other e v a l u a t i o n s . T h i s w a s in contrast to S i n g (2002), w h o f o u n d rate of c o m m u n i c a t i o n w a s significantly c o r r e l a t e d with her s u b j e c t s ' raw a n d s t a n d a r d s c o r e s o n the  70  V e r b a l C o m p r e h e n s i o n s e c t i o n of the R e y n e l l D e v e l o p m e n t a l L a n g u a g e S c a l e s ( R e y n e l l , 1977). A l t h o u g h s h e did not explicitly reported this, it is a s s u m e d S i n g f o u n d no correlation b e t w e e n rate of c o m m u n i c a t i o n a n d M c A r t h u r C D I s c o r e s . In the current study, the only potential r e l a t i o n s h i p s (although very w e a k t e n d e n c i e s ) w e r e for low P L S - E C or M c A r t h u r G D I P r o d u c t i o n s c o r e s to b e related to a low n u m b e r of c o m m u n i c a t i v e u t t e r a n c e s . D i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n the two s t u d i e s c o u l d reflect individual d i f f e r e n c e s or the different l a n g u a g e m e a s u r e s u s e d . Further, r e s p o n s e s per minute w e r e not related to a n y of the e v a l u a t i o n s . N e i t h e r g e s t u r e s nor v o c a l i z a t i o n s w e r e related to the c h i l d r e n ' s M u l l e n , P L S , or C D I s c o r e s , but v e r b a l i z a t i o n s w e r e significantly related to the P L S - A C (/f34) = .514, p = .002), P L S - E C (^34) = .586, p = .000), a n d C D I s c o r e s ( / i 3 1 ) = . 6 3 6 , p = .000). T h e s e results a r e not u n e x p e c t e d , a s both the P L S a n d C D I e v a l u a t i o n s rely heavily o n a c h i l d ' s v e r b a l ability. T h e r e w a s a significant correlation b e t w e e n the n u m b e r of a s s e r t i v e s p e r minute a child p r o d u c e d a n d h i s / h e r P L S - A C , P L S - E C , a n d C D I P r o d u c t i o n s c o r e s (/{34) = . 3 5 9 , p = . 0 3 7 ; r{34) = . 3 9 2 , p = . 0 2 2 ; a n d /f31) = . 5 2 0 , p = . 0 0 3 , respectively). Similarly, B r a d y et a l . (2005) f o u n d that a c h i l d r e n ' s l a n g u a g e c o m p r e h e n s i o n a n d production s c o r e s (as m e a s u r e d by the S I C D - R a n d C S B S ) predicted c h i l d r e n ' s c o m m e n t s a n d initiation of r e q u e s t s , w h e n the a u t h o r s controlled for child IQ. In the current study, the rate of directives a child p r o d u c e d w a s a l m o s t , but not significantly, related to that c h i l d ' s P L S - A C s c o r e (A{34) = . 3 3 3 , p = .055) (but not other l a n g u a g e s c o r e s ) . C o r r e l a t i o n s w e r e not significant for the other s p e e c h act t y p e s . T h e s e results s u g g e s t that s t a n d a r d i z e d tests a n d s p e e c h act d a t a are not entirely u n r e l a t e d w a y s of e x a m i n i n g y o u n g c h i l d r e n ' s c o m m u n i c a t i o n abilities, but neither d o they perfectly predict e a c h other. N o n e of the s p e e c h act d a t a w a s related to M u l l e n s c o r e s . T h i s is not entirely s u r p r i s i n g b e c a u s e the M u l l e n is a m e a s u r e of motor skills, a n d the skills m e a s u r e d in this s t u d y w e r e m o r e interactive a n d c o m m u n i c a t i v e nature.  4.3  Detailed D i s c u s s i o n of C o d e d T o p i c s T h e following s e c t i o n will d i s c u s s e a c h of the findings for the v a r i o u s t o p i c s in g r e a t e r  d e p t h , including the results s u r r o u n d i n g the major c a t e g o r i e s of c o d i n g : c o m m u n i c a t i v e or n o n c o m m u n i c a t i v e , f o c u s of attention, initiations v e r s u s r e s p o n s e s , m o d e s , a n d illocutionary points.  4.3.1  R a t e of C o m m u n i c a t i o n in S t r u c t u r e d Elicitation C o n t e x t s T h e c h i l d r e n in the current study p r o d u c e d a m e a n rate of 8.57 c o m m u n i c a t i v e a c t s per  minute ( s . d . = 3.81). S i n g (2002), in the pilot to this study, f o u n d a m e a n rate of 6.48 c o m m u n i c a t i v e a c t s p e r minute (s.d. = 1.54) in a structured context. S i n g (2002) u s e d different 71  activities to elicit c o m m u n i c a t i o n from the participants in her study, s o w e w o u l d not e x p e c t to s e e identical results ( s e e s e c t i o n 1.4.2). R y c k e b u s c h a n d M a r c o s (2004) f o u n d similar rates of s p e e c h act production to t h o s e f o u n d in S i n g (2002) in their s t u d y of typically d e v e l o p i n g F r e n c h toddlers b e t w e e n the a g e s of 1 ;8 a n d 1 ;11 y e a r s . In R y c k e b u s c h a n d M a r c o s (2004), t o d d l e r s a v e r a g e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 6.6 a c t s per minute while p l a y i n g with a building toy a n d 5.7 a c t s per minute while e n g a g e d in free play with either parent. A l t h o u g h S i n g ' s (2002) a n d R y c k e b u s c h a n d M a r c o s ' (2004) rates of s p e e c h act production are slightly lower than the m e a n rate reported h e r e , in fact, the m e a n n u m b e r of a c t s per minute in this s t u d y during the w h a l e a n d b u b b l e activities w e r e 6 . 3 a n d 6.8, respectively. B e c a u s e the n u m b e r of s p e e c h a c t s p e r minute p r o d u c e d by the c h i l d r e n during the b o o k activity a v e r a g e d 11.4, the m e a n n u m b e r of c o m m u n i c a t i v e a c t s reported h e r e a p p e a r s slightly higher than the m e a n s reported by both S i n g (2002) a n d R y c k e b u s c h a n d M a r c o s (2004). Ninio a n d B r u n e r (1976) d i s c u s s picture-book r e a d i n g a n d the similarity this activity h a s to a structured c o m m u n i c a t i o n i n t e r c h a n g e . B a s e d o n v i d e o d a t a from o n e motherinfant d y a d , Ninio a n d B r u n e r o b s e r v e d little differentiation of the m o t h e r ' s u t t e r a n c e s during b o o k r e a d i n g , but that the mother a c c e p t e d a w i d e variety of activities by the child a s the child's c o m m u n i c a t i v e 'turn'. T h e s e a u t h o r s a l s o n o t e d that if the mother g a v e f e e d b a c k (an imitation, l a u g h , or c o m m e n t ) after the child's utterance, the child w a s 4 0 - 4 5 % likely to repeat their utterance, w h e n the m o t h e r ' s f e e d b a c k w a s positive. W h e n the m o t h e r ' s f e e d b a c k w a s negative, the child w a s 9 % l e s s likely to reply. In this study, f e e d b a c k w a s g i v e n during the b o o k activity typically by a c k n o w l e d g i n g the child's utterance ('yes', ' m h m m ' , or ' y e s , bear'). F e e d b a c k w a s not g i v e n a s frequently during the other two activities. G i v e n Ninio a n d B r u n e r ' s (1976) findings a n d the nature of this study, it is not u n e x p e c t e d to s e e the slightly i n c r e a s e d rate of u t t e r a n c e s during the b o o k activity. T h e r e w a s c o n s i d e r a b l e variation in the rate of c o m m u n i c a t i o n in g e n e r a l . O n e child c o m m u n i c a t e d l e s s than o n c e per minute (58). T h r e e children c o m m u n i c a t e d l e s s than twice per minute (9, 3 3 , 39), five children l e s s than three t i m e s per minute (4, 4 1 , 5 9 , 6 3 , 80), s i x children l e s s than four t i m e s per minute (30, 3 1 , 3 2 , 6 9 , 7 4 , 7 8 , 90). F o u r children c o m m u n i c a t e d m o r e than s e v e n t i m e s p e r minute (3, 3 5 , 8 4 , 85). T h e variation in rate of c o m m u n i c a t i o n w a s not e x p l a i n e d by the c h i l d r e n ' s a g e or d e v e l o p m e n t a l status a s d e t e r m i n e d by the M u l l e n , P L S , a n d C D I tests. In fact, there w a s often variation a c r o s s a s i n g l e child's results o n the five i n d i c e s of d e v e l o p m e n t (Figure 4.1). C a s b y a n d C u m p a t a (1986) a l s o f o u n d n o correlation with a g e for c h i l d r e n ' s intentional c o m m u n i c a t i o n b e t w e e n the a g e s 1 ;6 a n d 3 ; 3 . T h o s e a u t h o r s reported ( a m o n g other v a r i a b l e s ) m e a n a n d highest a c h i e v e m e n t o n a n ordinal s c a l e that m e a s u r e d m o d e of c o m m u n i c a t i o n . C a s b y a n d 72  C u m p a t a (1986) f o u n d the y o u n g e s t child in their study (1 ;6) a c h i e v e d the h i g h e s t r a n k i n g s o n the ordinal s c a l e for m o d e , while the oldest child in the s t u d y (3;3) a c h i e v e d m u c h lower levels o n the ordinal s c a l e for m o d e . B e c a u s e all children w e r e e q u a l l y familiar with the e x p e r i m e n t a l e n v i r o n m e n t , w e further s u s p e c t that variation in rate of c o m m u n i c a t i o n w a s not related to d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n children in e x p o s u r e to the e x p e r i m e n t a l setting, a l t h o u g h children m a y h a v e v a r i e d in their relative a l e r t n e s s a n d attention for the t a s k (during long testing s e s s i o n s for their a g e ) .  4.3.2  U t t e r a n c e in R e s p o n s e to-/ U t t e r a n c e Initiated T h e status of a n utterance a s a n initiation or r e s p o n s e v a r i e d c o n s i d e r a b l y a c r o s s  children a n d t a s k s a n d , thus, the d i s c u s s i o n f o c u s e s o n that variation.  4.3.2.1 V a r i a t i o n a c r o s s C h i l d r e n T h e rate of initiations p e r minute v a r i e d greatly b e t w e e n children in this s t u d y (0-20 initiations p e r minute, s . d . = 5.41 with the b o o k a n d s . d . = 2.36 with the b u b b l e s ) . B e c a u s e e a c h utterance c o u l d only result from a child initiating or a s a r e s p o n s e to s o m e t h i n g (i.e., not both) w e e x p e c t e d that there w o u l d b e s o m e sort of trade-off b e t w e e n the rates of initiating a n d r e s p o n d i n g in o n e s i n g l e c h i l d . T h e r e w a s c o n s i d e r a b l e variation b e t w e e n children in their t e n d e n c i e s toward initiating or r e s p o n d i n g . C o n f i r m i n g this e x p e c t a t i o n , five children initiated m o r e than five t i m e s m o r e often than they r e s p o n d e d . Fifteen children initiated m o r e than twice a s often than they r e s p o n d e d . S i x children initiated slightly m o r e frequently than r e s p o n d i n g . S e v e n children r e s p o n d e d m o r e frequently than they initiated. T h e s e results are different from t h o s e f o u n d by S i n g (2002), w h o n o t e d that all s u b j e c t s initiated m o r e than r e s p o n d i n g , with the a v e r a g e proportion of initiations e q u a l to .77 a n d the a v e r a g e proportion of r e s p o n s e s e q u a l to .22. H o w e v e r , S i n g a l s o f o u n d s o m e variation a m o n g her s u b j e c t s ' initiation v e r s u s r e s p o n s e proportions: the child w h o initiated m o s t often in her s t u d y initiated 9 2 % of the time a n d r e s p o n d e d 8 % of the time, but the child w h o initiated the least often in her s t u d y initiated 5 5 % of the time a n d r e s p o n d e d 4 2 % of the time (the rest of the full proportion w a s a c c o u n t e d for by ambiguity). T h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s m a y b e the result of d i f f e r e n c e s in the definitions of initiation a n d r e s p o n s e in the two s t u d i e s . In the p r e s e n t study, c o m m e n t s that w e r e elicited following the n o n - v e r b a l p r e s e n t a t i o n of a n item by the e x p e r i m e n t e r w o u l d h a v e b e e n c l a s s i f i e d a s 'in r e s p o n s e to contextual c u e ' . A c c o r d i n g to S i n g ' s definitions, h o w e v e r , this s a m e c o m m e n t w o u l d h a v e b e e n c l a s s i f i e d a s a n initiation. T h i s u n d e r l i n e s the i m p o r t a n c e of k n o w i n g the definition of the t e r m s 'initiation' a n d ' r e s p o n s e ' w h e n interpreting results c o n c e r n i n g this a s p e c t of c o m m u n i c a t i o n . 73  4.3.2.2 Variation a c r o s s tasks Activity type affected type of c o m m u n i c a t i o n a s r e s p o n s e or initiation. S e v e n t y - n i n e p e r c e n t of children m a d e m a n y m o r e initiations during the b o o k activity (9.10 a c t s p e r minute) than either of the other two activities (3.63 a n d 3.15 a c t s p e r minute). T h i s variation b e t w e e n t a s k s m a y b e d u e to the nature df the activities. T h e b o o k c o n t a i n e d m a n y different pictures of o b j e c t s typically familiar to a y o u n g c h i l d . In contrast, the w h a l e a n d b u b b l e activities c o n t a i n e d only o n e or a few different items, s o the child m a y h a v e h a d f e w e r different things to s a y . T h e nature of the w h a l e a n d b u b b l e s activities w a s m o r e interactive; b e c a u s e of this, the p r e s s u r e to initiate or the opportunity to initiate c o m m u n i c a t i o n , m a y h a v e b e e n l e s s e n e d . It is a l s o p o s s i b l e that children felt the n e e d to c o m m e n t o n pictures in the b o o k b e c a u s e of pre-conditioning to the s o c i a l script of w h a t o n e " d o e s with b o o k s " (Ninio a n d B r u n e r , 1976). In addition, the child m a y h a v e felt additional p r e s s u r e to c o m m e n t b e c a u s e both the parent a n d e x p e r i m e n t e r w e r e waiting e x p e c t a n t l y for the child to g e s t u r e , v o c a l i z e , or v e r b a l i z e while he or s h e e x p l o r e d the b o o k , a n d if the child failed to c o m m e n t o n the b o o k , the parent a n d e x p e r i m e n t e r silently p o i n t e d to pictures. T h e rate a n d t y p e s of c o m m u n i c a t i o n in the w h a l e a n d b u b b l e s activities m a y h a v e t h u s b e e n m o r e representative of the c h i l d ' s natural t e n d e n c i e s in c o m m u n i c a t i v e interaction, k e e p i n g in m i n d that the elicitation context is still not typical. R y c k e b u s c h a n d M a r c o s (2004) note similar variation in c h i l d r e n ' s s p e e c h act b e h a v i o u r d u e to 'type-of-play' factors (i.e., play with a building toy or free play), a n d in their study, a l s o f o u n d variation in c h i l d r e n ' s s p e e c h b e h a v i o u r c o r r e l a t e d with parent g e n d e r (which m a y b e roughly c o r r e l a t e d with parent interaction style). O n e of the f e w positive c o r r e l a t i o n s with a g e in the study w a s initiations per minute in the w h a l e a n d b u b b l e s activities. It is p o s s i b l e that initiations p e r minute w e r e not c o r r e l a t e d with a g e in the b o o k activity b e c a u s e of high p r e s s u r e to perform, a n d / o r high levels of prompting by the e x p e r i m e n t e r . T h e n u m b e r of r e s p o n s e s per minute w a s m o r e c o n s i s t e n t a c r o s s activities, likely b e c a u s e the e x p e r i m e n t e r (and parent) a t t e m p t e d to elicit c o m m u n i c a t i o n from the child at a similar rate a c r o s s activities. A l t h o u g h the e x p e r i m e n t e r pointed at pictures in the b o o k activity at a relatively regular interval if the child w a s not readily n a m i n g objects, the e x p e r i m e n t e r w a s a l s o a b l e to c u e l a n g u a g e f r o m the child in the other two activities by w a y of c o m m u n i c a t i o n temptations. T h e f r e q u e n c y of c o m m u n i c a t i o n temptation a c r o s s all three activities s e e m e d relatively similar but this w a s not c o n f i r m e d with quantitative d a t a f r o m the c h i l d r e n / F u t u r e investigation of the e x p e r i m e n t e r i n f l u e n c e s o n the t a s k s a l o n g with relative rate of initiations a n d r e s p o n s e s m a y r e v e a l m o r e a b o u t this a s p e c t of the study. T h e lack of positive c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n r e s p o n s e s p e r minute 74  a n d a c h i l d ' s a g e , p o s s i b l y a g a i n , reflects the context: the rate of r e s p o n s e s by definition d e p e n d e d o n the rate at w h i c h the e x p e r i m e n t e r (and parent) p r o m p t e d or a s k e d q u e s t i o n s .  4.3.3  M o d e of C o m m u n i c a t i o n M o d e of c o m m u n i c a t i o n w a s a l s o quite variable b e t w e e n children a n d b e t w e e n activities  ( s e e T a b l e 3.6 for m e a n , s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n , a n d m a x i m u m a n d m i n i m u m a c t s per minute for e a c h c o m m u n i c a t i v e m o d e ) . O n l y v e r b a l i z a t i o n s c o r r e l a t e d with a g e , partially confirming our initial p r e d i c t i o n s . T h e finding that v e r b a l i z a t i o n s w o u l d b e c o m e m o r e c o m m o n with a g e w a s e x p e c t e d , g i v e n that v e r b a l i z a t i o n s o v e r t a k e v o c a l i z a t i o n s during the natural d e v e l o p m e n t a l p r o c e s s . T h e a b s e n c e of significant relationships b e t w e e n g e s t u r e type a n d a g e or v o c a l i z a t i o n a n d a g e w a s not a n t i c i p a t e d . H o w e v e r , g i v e n the variability in a g e (within a narrow range) a c r o s s the children in the study a n d the variability of ability p r e s e n t at a n y given a g e , t h e s e results a r e not entirely s u r p r i s i n g . Additionally, it is p o s s i b l e that the children in this s t u d y w e r e too a d v a n c e d in their c o m m u n i c a t i v e skills to h a v e s h o w n m u c h differentiation in gesturing d u e to a g e . S t a t e d differently, there w a s a n insufficient n u m b e r of children c o m m u n i c a t i n g at a low e n o u g h level to investigate a n y trends in g e s t u r e d e v e l o p m e n t o v e r time. T h i s h y p o t h e s i s is s u p p o r t e d by the s t u d i e s in s e c t i o n 1.3.2.1 that d o c u m e n t e d m u c h of child g e s t u r e a s d e v e l o p i n g b e f o r e a g e 1 ;6. After a g e 1 ; 3 , it a p p e a r s that v o c a l i z a t i o n s a n d then v e r b a l i z a t i o n s b e c o m e m o r e c o m m o n m o d e s of c o m m u n i c a t i o n . Further c o m m e n t a r y o n the v a r i o u s m o d e s a n d their interaction for individual children follows in s e c t i o n 4.3.3.1 a n d 4 . 3 . 3 . 2 b e l o w . T h e variation in most c o m m o n m o d e of c o m m u n i c a t i o n s e e n with the different activity t y p e s is a l s o not s u r p r i s i n g ; the c h i l d r e n ' s t e n d e n c y to point during the b o o k activity is interpreted b y the parent a s a n active r e s p o n s e to the p a r e n t ' s d i a l o g u e , a n d s e r v e s to further the c o m m u n i c a t i v e e x c h a n g e (Ninio a n d B r u n e r , 1 9 7 6 ) . F u r t h e r m o r e , holding out a n d giving during the p u p p e t activity is c o n s i s t e n t with s h a r i n g attention a n d interest in a novel object, a n d r e a c h i n g to g a i n a c c e s s to m o r e b u b b l e s during the b u b b l e s activity is a logical (and highly effective) m e a n s of c o m m u n i c a t i n g o n e ' s d e s i r e .  4.3.3.1 G e s t u r e c o m p a r e d with other m o d e s L o o k i n g at the m o d e s u s e d by individual children w h o g e s t u r e d frequently a n d infrequently, s o m e potential trends a p p e a r e d in t e r m s of relation of g e s t u r e to other m o d e s . F o r the participants gesturing at the highest f r e q u e n c y (34, 8 1 , a n d 8 4 , with rates of 1 2 . 9 8 , 1 0 . 9 5 , a n d 1 1 . 2 5 g e s t u r e s p e r minute), rates of v o c a l i z a t i o n w e r e r e s p e c t i v e l y 9 . 3 1 , 5.0, a n d 6.71 v o c a l i z a t i o n s per minute, a n d for v e r b a l i z a t i o n w e r e 2 . 9 4 , 2 . 8 6 , a n d 8.29 v e r b a l i z a t i o n s p e r minute. T h e s e proportions s u g g e s t that participants 3 4 a n d 81 w e r e largely still in g e s t u r a l / v o c a l 75  s t a g e s of d e v e l o p m e n t , while 8 4 w a s m o r e a d v a n c e d , c o m m u n i c a t i n g with all three m o d e s m o r e equally. Similarly, participant 8 0 p r o d u c e d only g e s t u r e s a n d no v o c a l i z a t i o n s or v e r b a l i z a t i o n s . F o r the participants gesturing at the lowest f r e q u e n c y (9, 3 2 , 3 3 , 3 9 , a n d 5 8 , with rates of 2 . 4 1 , 2 . 2 5 , 2 . 2 1 , 0.66, a n d 0.48 g e s t u r e s per minute respectively), rate of v o c a l i z a t i o n s w a s a l s o low (0.54, 4 . 0 6 , 1.55, 3 . 0 9 , a n d 0.24 v o c a l i z a t i o n s per minute, respectively) with m o s t h a v i n g no v e r b a l i z a t i o n s (0, 2 . 4 8 , 0, 0, a n d 0 v e r b a l i z a t i o n s per minute respectively). C h i l d r e n 9, 3 3 , 3 9 , a n d 5 8 h a d the lowest a v e r a g e rates of intentional c o m m u n i c a t i o n overall (child 3 2 r a n k e d 7  in  t h  rate of c o m m u n i c a t i o n in the study). G i v e n the c o m m o n finding that early c o m m u n i c a t i o n skill is related to later l a n g u a g e ability ( S t o e l - G a m m o n , 1 9 8 8 ; M u n d y & G o m e s , 1998) participants 9, 3 3 , 3 9 , a n d 5 8 (and p o s s i b l y 80) might b e e x p e c t e d to c o n t i n u e to h a v e low l a n g u a g e p e r f o r m a n c e later o n .  4.3.3.2 V o c a l i z a t i o n c o m p a r e d with other m o d e s L o o k i n g at the m o d e s of c o m m u n i c a t i o n u s e d by individual children w h o v o c a l i z e d frequently a n d infrequently, s o m e potential t r e n d s a p p e a r e d in t e r m s of relation of v o c a l i z a t i o n to other m o d e s . P a r t i c i p a n t s 2 4 , 3 4 , 3 5 , a n d 8 4 p r o d u c e d the m o s t v o c a l i z a t i o n s in the study. T h e y differed, h o w e v e r , in their relative proportion of other m o d e s . T w o participants (24, 34) h a d a relative b a l a n c e b e t w e e n g e s t u r e a n d v o c a l i z a t i o n rate per minute, (7 a n d 7 for 2 4 ; 13 a n d 9 for 34) but a l m o s t no v e r b a l i z a t i o n s per minute (0 a n d 3). In contrast, participants 3 5 a n d 8 4 s h o w e d a l m o s t e q u a l proportions of g e s t u r e s , v o c a l i z a t i o n s , a n d v e r b a l i z a t i o n s per minute (9, 8, a n d 8 r e s p e c t i v e l y for child 3 5 ; a n d 1 1 , 7 , a n d 8 for child 84). T h i s s u g g e s t s that participants 3 5 a n d 8 4 w e r e at a p l a c e in their c o m m u n i c a t i o n d e v e l o p m e n t w h e r e they w e r e relatively s t r o n g c o m m u n i c a t o r s a c r o s s all three modalities, w h e r e a s participants 2 4 a n d 3 4 m a y h a v e b e e n p r o d u c i n g high n u m b e r s of v o c a l i z a t i o n s b e c a u s e they h a d not yet b e g u n to u s e verbalization a s a m a i n m o d e of c o m m u n i c a t i o n . T h e children w h o p r o d u c e d a relatively e v e n proportion of all m o d e s of c o m m u n i c a t i o n w e r e 1;7 (child 3 5 , child 84). T h e c h i l d r e n w h o p r o d u c e d a high n u m b e r of v o c a l i z a t i o n s but relatively f e w e r v e r b a l i z a t i o n s w e r e 1 ;6 (child 24) a n d 1 ;7 (child 34). T h i s s u p p o r t s the finding that a g e w a s not related to m o d e of c o m m u n i c a t i o n . F o r children w h o p r o d u c e d the least a m o u n t of v o c a l i z a t i o n (children 7, 9, 14, 5 8 , 6 0 , 7 9 , a n d 80), there w e r e different patterns relative to other m o d e s . O n e child (participant 7) p r o d u c e d f e w g e s t u r e s or v o c a l i z a t i o n s per minute (4, 0 respectively), but 7.5 v e r b a l i z a t i o n s per minute. P a r t i c i p a n t s 14 a n d 7 9 p r o d u c e d 0.5 v o c a l i z a t i o n s per minute a n d participant 6 0 p r o d u c e d 0.0 v o c a l i z a t i o n s per minute; h o w e v e r , 14, 7 9 , a n d 6 0 u s e d both g e s t u r e s (8, 7, 4 per minute respectively) a n d v e r b a l i z a t i o n s (8, 12, 6 respectively). F r o m the a b o v e proportions, it is p r o b a b l e that participants 7, 14, 6 0 , a n d 7 9 p r o d u c e d v o c a l i z a t i o n s at a lower rate than other 76  c h i l d r e n b e c a u s e they w e r e a b l e to v e r b a l i z e their n e e d s (i.e., there w a s a trade-off b e t w e e n v o c a l i z i n g a n d v e r b a l i z i n g for t h e s e children). H o w e v e r , children 9 a n d 5 8 a n d 8 0 d o not s h o w this s a m e trade-off, that is, the lack of v o c a l i z a t i o n w a s linked to lack of c o m m u n i c a t i o n o v e r a l l .  4.3.3.3 Verbalization and Other M o d e s S e v e n children (3, 6, 14, 6 0 , 8 4 , 8 5 , 86) a p p e a r e d to b e strong c o m m u n i c a t o r s in e a c h of the three m o d e s . A l t h o u g h they t e n d e d to p r o d u c e a high rate of g e s t u r e s , a lower rate of v o c a l i z a t i o n s , a n d a high rate of v e r b a l i z a t i o n s , it is p r o b a b l e that the low rate of v o c a l i z a t i o n s p r o d u c e d w a s b e c a u s e t h e s e children c o u l d a d e q u a t e l y e x p r e s s their n e e d s verbally. In contrast, four children (9, 3 3 , 3 9 , a n d 58) p r o d u c e d v e r y f e w c o m m u n i c a t i o n s p e r minute in a n y m o d e (as n o t e d p r e v i o u s l y a b o v e ) . F r o m t h e s e d a t a it a p p e a r s that c h i l d r e n 9, 3 3 , 3 9 , a n d 5 8 w e r e w e a k c o m m u n i c a t o r s overall before a g e 2 ; 0 , Of the other children w h o s h o w e d lower v e r b a l i z a t i o n s , participants 2 4 , 4 1 , 6 3 a n d 9 0 a p p e a r e d to b e p r e - v e r b a l , b e c a u s e they c o m m u n i c a t e d relatively frequently with v o c a l i z a t i o n s a n d g e s t u r e s a n d minimally or not at all (participant 90) verbally. C h i l d 8 0 a p p e a r e d to b e s o m e w h e r e b e t w e e n two g r o u p s in that s h e g e s t u r e d a b o u t a s frequently a s the other c h i l d r e n , but p r o d u c e d no v e r b a l i z a t i o n s or vocalizations. It w a s anticipated that a s children got older, there w o u l d b e a g e n e r a l trend t o w a r d a n i n c r e a s i n g proportion of v e r b a l i z a t i o n s a n d a c o n c o m i t a n t d e c r e a s e in proportion of v o c a l i z a t i o n s . T h e statistically significant positive relationship f o u n d b e t w e e n v e r b a l i z a t i o n s p e r minute a n d a g e w a s c o n s i s t e n t with e x p e c t a t i o n s a n d replicated other f i n d i n g s in the literature. T o p b a s , M a v i s , a n d E r b a s ' (2003) f o u n d that, in normally d e v e l o p i n g c h i l d r e n , v o c a l i z a t i o n s w e r e m o r e c o m m o n l y u s e d b e t w e e n 1 ;3 a n d 1 ;6 a n d v e r b a l i z a t i o n s w e r e m o r e c o m m o n in children o l d e r than 1 ;6. P a u l (2007) a l s o reported that typically d e v e l o p i n g y o u n g e r c h i l d r e n (< 1 ;6) t e n d to h a v e m o r e v o c a l i z a t i o n s than v e r b a l i z a t i o n s a n d typically d e v e l o p i n g older children (> 2;0) t e n d to u s e m o r e v e r b a l i z a t i o n s than v o c a l i z a t i o n s . In spite of the statistical c o n c u r r e n c e of the current s t u d y ' s d a t a with t h e s e p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s , the current d a t a d o not, h o w e v e r , s h o w a c l e a r pattern in the individual c h i l d r e n ' s c o m m u n i c a t i v e abilities g i v e n their a g e s . T h e children w h o p r o d u c e d a s m a l l rate of both v o c a l i z a t i o n s a n d v e r b a l i z a t i o n s r a n g e d in a g e from 1 ;5 (child 58) to 1 ;7 a n d 1 ;9 (child 8 4 , 8 0 , a n d 9). S i m i l a r a g e r a n g e s w e r e n o t i c e d for all the other relative proportions of m o d e s . T h e children w h o p r o d u c e d the greatest rate of v o c a l i z a t i o n s a n d relatively f e w e r v e r b a l i z a t i o n s w e r e a g e d 1;7 (participants 2 4 a n d 90). T h e children w h o p r o d u c e d a high rate of v e r b a l i z a t i o n a n d a lower rate of v o c a l i z a t i o n r a n g e d in a g e f r o m 1 ;6 (child 14) to 1 ;7 (child 86) to 1 ;9 (child 60). T h u s , a l t h o u g h there w a s a statistically significant positive correlation b e t w e e n rate of v e r b a l i z a t i o n a n d i n c r e a s i n g a g e , it is important to 77  note the variability a n d o v e r l a p in the a g e s of the children b e t w e e n g r o u p s . T h i s variation a p p e a r s to differ from the trend toward i n c r e a s i n g s o p h i s t i c a t i o n in m o d e of c o m m u n i c a t i o n with a g e that is reported by s u c h a u t h o r s a s T o p b a s et a l . (2003), but it is u n c o m m o n for p u b l i s h e d s o u r c e s to p r e s e n t variation in individual c h i l d r e n ' s s c o r e s , s i m p l y d u e to s p a c e c o n s t r a i n t s . T h e statistically significant relationship f o u n d in this study b e t w e e n a g e a n d m o d e h o l d s true, but there is a l s o individual variation b e t w e e n children a l o n g the g e n e r a l trend line.  4.3.4  S p e e c h Act Functions A s n o t e d in 4 . 2 , the m o s t frequent s p e e c h a c t s p r o d u c e d by the children in this s t u d y  w e r e directives (5.37 times/min), f o l l o w e d b y a s s e r t i v e s (2.62 times/min), a n d e x p r e s s i v e s (2.12 times/min), with utterances c o d e d ' a m b i g u o u s ' o c c u r r i n g 2.7 t i m e s p e r minute. C o m m i s s i v e s a n d d e c l a r a t i v e s w e r e rare. N e i t h e r a g e nor s e x p r e d i c t e d the f r e q u e n c y of production of particular s p e e c h a c t s ; h o w e v e r , the relationship b e t w e e n directive s p e e c h a c t s a n d a g e w a s nearly significant (/f34) = .33, p = .056). T h e s e findings are in k e e p i n g with our predictions that children in this a g e g r o u p w o u l d m o r e c o m m o n l y p r o d u c e directives a n d a s s e r t i v e s than e x p r e s s i v e s , c o m m i s s i v e s , or d e c l a r a t i v e s , a n d with the findings in the literature. S i n g (2002) reported results similar to o u r o w n : children p r o d u c e d directives m o s t frequently, f o l l o w e d by a s s e r t i v e s , e x p r e s s i v e s , a n d c o m m i s s i v e s . A similar pattern w a s a l s o f o u n d by R y c k e b u s c h a n d M a r c o s (2004), w h o n o t e d that children p r o d u c e d a s s e r t i v e s m o s t frequently, followed by r e q u e s t s , then e x p r e s s i v e s . M c S h a n e (1980) a l s o b e l i e v e d the f o u n d a t i o n of c o m m u n i c a t i o n a r o s e from interacting s o c i a l l y with a n o t h e r p e r s o n - therefore, the t y p e s of intentional c o m m u n i c a t i o n that involve e x p r e s s i n g o n e ' s self to a n o t h e r (i.e., directives, a s s e r t i v e s , e x p r e s s i v e s ) w o u l d logically b e e x p e c t e d to a r i s e first. D o r e ' s (1973) findings a l s o C o n c u r with t h o s e reported in this study, a l t h o u g h h e r e c o g n i z e d s o m e variation b e t w e e n children in the order of a c q u i s i t i o n of different s p e e c h a c t t y p e s . T h e rate of production of u t t e r a n c e s that c o u l d not b e u n a m b i g u o u s l y c o d e d (i.e., t h o s e c o d e d ' a m b i g u o u s ' ) is not c l e a r from the literature. It is difficult to d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r t h e s e results are c o n s i s t e n t with the findings of other r e s e a r c h e r s with r e s p e c t to proto-imperative (i.e., the infant u s e s the adult a s a tool to g a i n a c c e s s to a n object) a n d proto-declarative u t t e r a n c e s (i.e., the infant u s e s a n object to g a i n the adult's attention). B a t e s (1976) r e c o g n i z e d t h e s e two t y p e s of u t t e r a n c e s a s p r e c u r s o r s to the u s e of functional s p e e c h . C r a i s et al.'s (2004) u s e of t h e s e t e r m s is b a s e d o n the definitions g i v e n by B a t e s (1976). C r a i s et a l . f o u n d that children r e q u e s t objects, r e q u e s t a c t i o n s , a n d protest b e t w e e n 0;4 a n d 1 ;7, with a m e a n a g e of d e v e l o p m e n t of 0;8;22 (proto-imperative). S h e a l s o reported that regulating g a m e s a n d s o c i a l interactions d e v e l o p e d b e t w e e n 0 ; 6 - 1 ; 1 0 , with a  78  m e a n a g e of d e v e l o p m e n t of 1;1;23 (proto-declarative), a n d that joint attention (including c o m m e n t i n g a n d information requests) d e v e l o p e d b e t w e e n 0;4-1;6, with a m e a n a g e of d e v e l o p m e n t of 0 ; 1 0 ; 1 9 (proto-declarative). T h i s predicts children w o u l d first a c q u i r e request/protest, then joint attention, then s o c i a l interaction/regulation. T h e c a t e g o r y request/protest l o o s e l y a l i g n s with the definition of d i r e c t i v e s u s e d h e r e ; the c a t e g o r y of joint attention similarly l o o s e l y a l i g n s with the definition of directives u s e d h e r e , a n d the c a t e g o r y of s o c i a l interaction/regulation l o o s e l y c o r r e s p o n d s to e x p r e s s i v e s a n d d e c l a r a t i v e s a s d e f i n e d in this study. T h e current study did find that m o r e directives w e r e p r o d u c e d than e x p r e s s i v e s or d e c l a r a t i v e s in the structured interactions, but this d o e s not a g r e e with the prediction that protod e c l a r a t i v e u t t e r a n c e s predate proto-imperative u t t e r a n c e s a s p r e s e n t e d by L i s z k o w s k i et a l . (2004). A f e w children in this study p r o d u c e d far f e w e r directive a n d a s s e r t i v e a c t s p e r minute than other children in the study, including children 9, 3 3 , 3 9 , a n d 5 8 . In addition, C h i l d 9 p e r f o r m e d poorly o n all s t a n d a r d m e a s u r e s of ability ( M u l l e n , P L S , a n d C D I ) , children 3 3 a n d 3 9 p e r f o r m e d poorly o n the s t a n d a r d l a n g u a g e m e a s u r e s , a n d child 5 8 p e r f o r m e d within the n o r m a l r a n g e o n all s t a n d a r d tests. G i v e n that children in this a g e r a n g e typically p r o d u c e both directive a n d a s s e r t i v e illocutionary points, the trend in t h e s e children m a y b e relevant in early prediction of l a n g u a g e d e l a y .  4.4  Summary T h i s s e c t i o n g i v e s a brief s u m m a r y of the findings d e s c r i b e d a b o v e . C h i l d r e n in this  study h a d a m e a n rate of c o m m u n i c a t i v e u t t e r a n c e s of 8 . 5 7 . A g r e a t e r rate of u t t e r a n c e s per minute w a s s e e n in the b o o k r e a d i n g activity, a n d it is h y p o t h e s i z e d that this w a s d u e to the nature of adult f e e d b a c k during b o o k r e a d i n g activities. P r o p o r t i o n of initiations v e r s u s r e s p o n s e s w a s highly v a r i a b l e a c r o s s the children i n c l u d e d in this study. T h e s e d a t a a r e slightly different f r o m t h o s e reported by S i n g (2002), likely d u e to d i f f e r e n c e s in definitions b e t w e e n the two s t u d i e s . M o d e of c o m m u n i c a t i o n v a r i e d s o m e w h a t a c r o s s t a s k s , a n d v e r b a l i z a t i o n s w e r e m o r e c o m m o n with i n c r e a s i n g a g e . Directives a n d a s s e r t i v e s w e r e the m o s t frequent t y p e s of s p e e c h a c t s , e x p r e s s i v e s did o c c u r , but c o m m i s s i v e s a n d d e c l a r a t i v e s rarely o c c u r r e d . T h i s result w a s e x p e c t e d , g i v e n the findings of other literature o n the topic.  4.5  Methodological Limitations F o u r m a i n m e t h o d o l o g i c a l c h a l l e n g e s w e r e r e c o g n i z e d during the c o u r s e of this study:  d e t e r m i n i n g inter-rater reliability, c o d i n g s p e e c h a c t s , a c c o u n t i n g for d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n  79  p a r e n t s , a n d using s t a n d a r d i z e d or criterion r e f e r e n c e d tests to r e p r e s e n t a child's 'true' c o m m u n i c a t i o n ability. T h e s e c h a l l e n g e s a r e d i s c u s s e d b e l o w .  4.5.1  Inter-rater Reliability A t e n d e n c y p r e s e n t in the literature for c o d i n g c o m m u n i c a t i v e a c t s h a s b e e n to e n s u r e  inter-rater reliability by h a v i n g the two principle c o d e r s c o d e a c t s i n d e p e n d e n t l y , then d i s c u s s points of n o n - a g r e e m e n t until a g r e e m e n t h a s b e e n r e a c h e d . Not only is this practice timec o n s u m i n g , but it m a y not give a n a c c u r a t e representation of a n individual's clarity in transmitting information. N i c h o l a s , G e e r s , a n d R o l l i n s (1999) p r e s e n t a v e r y interesting a r g u m e n t a g a i n s t point by point a g r e e m e n t , stating that in c o d i n g c o m m u n i c a t i o n of l e s s skilled c o m m u n i c a t o r s , p o o r e r inter-coder a g r e e m e n t m a y b e a n index of higher l e v e l s of ambiguity in the c h i l d ' s c o m m u n i c a t i o n . F o r c i n g a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n c o d e r s m a y inappropriately inflate the d e g r e e to w h i c h w e b e l i e v e children a r e u n d e r s t o o d . S e v e r a l a u t h o r s h a v e u s e d C o h e n ' s k a p p a (coefficient for a g r e e m e n t c o r r e c t e d for c h a n c e ) to report inter-rater reliability, a n d a s a relative index of c o n f i d e n c e of their d a t a . S o m e e x a m p l e s of t h e s e s t u d i e s follow for c o m p a r i s o n with the current study. Lichtert (2003), in a s t u d y of intentional c o m m u n i c a t i o n of deaf c h i l d r e n , a c h i e v e d a k a p p a of .81 w h e n d e t e r m i n i n g w h e t h e r u t t e r a n c e s w e r e proto-imperative a n d .82 in d e t e r m i n i n g w h e t h e r u t t e r a n c e s w e r e proto-declarative. Iverson a n d G o l d i n - M e a d o w (2005) u s e d C o h e n ' s k a p p a to d e t e r m i n e interrater reliability a b o u t w h e t h e r g e s t u r e - p l u s - w o r d c o m b i n a t i o n s w e r e c o m p l e m e n t a r y (i.e., s h o w i n g a referent that m a t c h e s the a c c o m p a n y i n g w o r d , e . g . , pointing to f l o w e r s while s a y i n g 'flowers') or s u p p l e m e n t a r y ( s h o w i n g a referent to give different but related information a b o u t the referent) a n d c a l c u l a t e d k a p p a statistics of .92 a n d 1.0, respectively, for t h e s e d e c i s i o n s . O z c a l i s k a n a n d G o l d i n - M e a d o w (2005) u s e d C o h e n ' s k a p p a to d e t e r m i n e reliability in their s t u d y of g e s t u r e - s p e e c h c o - d e v e l o p m e n t b e t w e e n 1;2 a n d 1;10. T h e s e a u t h o r s c a l c u l a t e d k a p p a of .76 for identifying g e s t u r e s , .86 for a s s i g n i n g m e a n i n g to t h o s e g e s t u r e s , a n d .96 to .98 for c o d i n g s e m a n t i c relations b e t w e e n s p e e c h a n d g e s t u r e . F r a n c o a n d Butterworth (1996) c a l c u l a t e d C o h e n ' s k a p p a in the r a n g e of .8 to .9 while c h e c k i n g inter-rater reliability in their study of the effects of situation o n g e s t u r e , v i s u a l c h e c k i n g , a n d v o c a l i z a t i o n in children 1;0 to 1 ;6. D i d o w a n d E c k e r m a n a c h i e v e d k a p p a of .96 for detecting a c o d a b l e v e r b a l r e s p o n s e , .81 for determining w h e t h e r a r e s p o n s e w a s relevant ( c h o i c e of y e s , no, a m b i g u o u s ) , 1.0 for d e t e r m i n i n g h o w a r e s p o n s e w a s relevant ( c h o i c e of centrally, tangentially, minimally), a n d .85 for distinguishing a c t i o n s that d e s c r i b e from t h o s e that regulate. T h e c h a l l e n g e in s i m p l y quoting C o h e n ' s k a p p a a s a n index of reliability of a study is that the v a l u e s t h e m s e l v e s h a v e very little m e a n i n g . A l t h o u g h the inter-rater k a p p a v a l u e s a c h i e v e d 80  in this study (k = .75 for utterance in r e s p o n s e to or utterance initiated, k = . 7 3 for m o d e of c o m m u n i c a t i o n , k= .67 for illocutionary point) a r e lower than the v a l u e s q u o t e d by other a u t h o r s , the d a t a g e n e r a t e d in this study m a y b e m o r e reliable than the C o h e n ' s coefficients w o u l d a p p e a r , g i v e n that intra-rater reliability w a s high (k=  .92 for utterance in r e s p o n s e to or  utterance initiated, k = .88 for m o d e of c o m m u n i c a t i o n , a n d k= .78 for illocutionary point) a n d that all the d a t a u s e d in statistical a n a l y s e s w a s g e n e r a t e d by the s a m e primary c o d e r . H a v i n g the primary c o d e r train the s e c o n d c o d e r m o r e e x t e n s i v e l y to i m p r o v e inter-rater reliability quotients w o u l d not h a v e affected the reported results of this study, but w o u l d certainly b e useful in d o c u m e n t i n g our m e t h o d o l o g y for future u s e . Additionally, it is important to note that points of d i s a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n the first a n d s e c o n d c o d e r typically o c c u r r e d w h e n o n e c o d e r felt confident in c o d i n g a n act a s intentional, while the s e c o n d c o d e r felt it w a s a m b i g u o u s . R a r e l y did a d i s a g r e e m e n t involve two illocutionary c a t e g o r i e s . T h e first c o d e r t e n d e d to c o d e a c t s m o r e c o n s e r v a t i v e l y than the s e c o n d c o d e r (i.e., c o d e d m o r e a c t s a s a m b i g u o u s ) , t h e r e b y a s s i g n i n g a n intentional illocutionary point to a child's utterance only w h e n it w a s very c l e a r that this intention e x i s t e d . H a d e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n required the two c o d e r s to a s s i g n o n e illocutionary point to a n utterance, e v e n w h e n o n e w a s not c l e a r l y s u p e r i o r , this w o u l d h a v e h i d d e n the d e g r e e to w h i c h a given c h i l d ' s u t t e r a n c e s w e r e a m b i g u o u s , a n d inflated our estimation of the child's ability to m a k e him or herself u n d e r s t o o d (recall N i c h o l a s , G e e r s , & R o l l i n s , 1999).  4.5.2  Coding Communicative Acts A great d e a l of uncertainty is inherent in c o d i n g c o m m u n i c a t i v e intentions of v e r y y o u n g  c h i l d r e n , s i m p l y d u e to the immaturity of c o m m u n i c a t i v e abilities in children at t h e s e a g e s . M a n y of the children in this study w e r e at pre-verbal or early v e r b a l s t a g e s of c o m m u n i c a t i o n . T h i s i n c r e a s e s the difficulty of c o d i n g a s p e e c h act b e c a u s e of the m a n y p o s s i b l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n interpretations a n y g i v e n g e s t u r e m a y h a v e . F o r e x a m p l e , a point c a n m e a n 'look h e r e , ' 'wow,' ' m o r e , ' etc. In o r d e r to a c c o u n t for this m e t h o d o l o g i c a l difficulty, there w e r e explicit different l e v e l s of c o d e s to d o c u m e n t a m b i g u o u s c o m m u n i c a t i v e a c t s , a n d two illocutionary points w e r e a l l o w e d to b e r e c o r d e d for o n e act, if it w a s felt the child h a d a d u a l p u r p o s e in p r o d u c i n g the act. Of c o u r s e , a n y interpretation of a n o t h e r ' s p u r p o s e in c o m m u n i c a t i n g will i n c l u d e s o m e d e g r e e of non-quantifiable error i m p o s e d by the c o d e r . T h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s y s t e m u s e d in this study w a s a d e q u a t e to c l a s s i f y all of the c h i l d r e n ' s u t t e r a n c e s - a n d the different c a t e g o r i e s a v a i l a b l e to c o d e d e g r e e s of ambiguity w e r e u s e f u l . T h e ability to c o d e o n e utterance for multiple c o m m u n i c a t i o n intentions w a s important, b e c a u s e 81  children in this a g e c a t e g o r y a p p e a r a b l e to intend multiple m e a n i n g s in their illocutionary a c t s . A n i m p r o v e m e n t to the s y s t e m u s e d in this study w o u l d b e to h a v e a n additional f e w c a t e g o r i e s to a c c o u n t for ambiguity within a n illocutionary point c a t e g o r y .  4.5.3  Consistency Across Children B e c a u s e e v e r y family h a s a u n i q u e a n d e s t a b l i s h e d pattern of t e a c h i n g a n d eliciting  k n o w l e d g e (as well a s overall individual interaction patterns), it is difficult to e n s u r e c o n s i s t e n c y in parental interaction a c r o s s the children in this study. W e attempted to a c k n o w l e d g e this variability by recording w h e t h e r a c o m m e n t w a s in r e s p o n s e to the parent, a n d limit this variability by a s k i n g p a r e n t s to r e m a i n a s quiet a s p o s s i b l e , but w e did o b s e r v e variability in the level of parental interaction with the c h i l d . It w a s particularly difficult to c o d e a c h i l d ' s b e h a v i o u r w h e n a parent a s k e d a l e a d i n g q u e s t i o n , s u c h a s 'do y o u w a n t to b l o w ? ' or 'do y o u w a n t to put it o n y o u r h a n d ? ' In t h e s e situations, if a child a n s w e r e d ' y e s , ' they w e r e not only committing the parent to a future a c t i o n , but a l s o committing t h e m s e l v e s to a future action - a s p e e c h act type that children in this a g e group d o not normally p r o d u c e .  4.5.4  U s e of S t a n d a r d i z e d T e s t s v e r s u s N o n - S t a n d a r d Elicitations T h e M c A r t h u r C D I a s s e s s m e n t is a parent report of a c h i l d ' s c o m p r e h e n s i o n a n d  production v o c a b u l a r y . D r a w b a c k s of this type of a s s e s s m e n t a r e that it d e p e n d s o n the a c c u r a c y of the parent report, a n d only p r o v i d e s information a b o u t a c h i l d ' s v o c a b u l a r y , not the child's ability to c o m m u n i c a t e . T h e P L S - 4 w a s a l s o u s e d in this study to a s s e s s c h i l d r e n ' s l a n g u a g e c o m p r e h e n s i o n a n d production. H o w e v e r , b e c a u s e of the a g e r a n g e of children in this study, this evaluation primarily e v a l u a t e s play skills, v o c a b u l a r y c o m p r e h e n s i o n , a n d s p e e c h s o u n d d e v e l o p m e n t . T h e child c a n a l s o be e v a l u a t e d o n his or her ability to s h o w a n d request. Neither of t h e s e tests is a d e q u a t e to e v a l u a t e the c o m m u n i c a t i v e c a p a b i l i t i e s (as o p p o s e d to s p e e c h capabilities) of pre-verbal children or t h o s e w h o a r e s l o w in d e v e l o p i n g w o r d s a n d sounds. V i e w i n g c h i l d r e n ' s c o m m u n i c a t i o n f r o m a n o n - s t a n d a r d i z e d p e r s p e c t i v e h a s s o m e other a d v a n t a g e s o v e r t h e s e s t a n d a r d i z e d or criterion-referenced tests. N o n - s t a n d a r d a s s e s s m e n t s c a n b e faster to administer, m a y i n c r e a s e child participation b e c a u s e they a r e m o r e fun a n d children a r e l e s s a w a r e of b e i n g e v a l u a t e d , a n d c a n provide opportunities to j u d g e s p e e c h intelligibility a n d p r a g m a t i c skills, in addition to v o c a b u l a r y . F u r t h e r m o r e , including s p e e c h act e v a l u a t i o n in a n o n - s t a n d a r d a s s e s s m e n t a l l o w s a r e s e a r c h e r or clinician to e v a l u a t e w h e t h e r a child is a b l e to a c h i e v e m o r e than r e q u e s t i n g a n d s h o w i n g (directive-action-show a n d directive-  82  information), that is, the clinician c a n d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r the child is c a p a b l e of multiple f u n c t i o n s in c o m m u n i c a t i o n .  4.6  Future Directions and Clinical Implications D u e to the s m a l l n u m b e r of c h i l d r e n , heterogeneity in a g e of the c h i l d r e n , a n d lack of  strong statistical support for our t e c h n i q u e s , this study primarily s e r v e s a s a r e m i n d e r of the i n a d e q u a c y of s t a n d a r d i z e d testing a n d a s e n c o u r a g e m e n t to investigate different w a y s of quantifying c h i l d r e n ' s c o m m u n i c a t i o n . Future r e s e a r c h directions c o u l d include i n c r e a s i n g s a m p l e s i z e , i n c r e a s i n g h o m o g e n e i t y a m o n g the c h i l d r e n , a n d investigating further links b e t w e e n rates or z - s c o r e s of c o m m u n i c a t i v e a c t s a n d c h i l d r e n ' s p r o g r e s s o v e r time. In addition, given the p o s s i b l e influence parent a n d e x p e r i m e n t e r variability m a y h a v e h a d o n c h i l d r e n ' s u t t e r a n c e s , future investigations s h o u l d likely include a n a l y s i s of the adult's influence o n the c h i l d r e n ' s s p e e c h a c t s d u e to prompting. V i e w i n g c h i l d r e n ' s c o m m u n i c a t i o n abilities f r o m a s p e e c h act f r a m e w o r k s e r v e s to b r o a d e n our p e r s p e c t i v e of what e l e m e n t s are important in c o m m u n i c a t i o n - not just w o r d s a n d p h r a s e length, but a l s o the w a y s in w h i c h a p e r s o n c a n c o m m u n i c a t e u s i n g l a n g u a g e . C l i n i c i a n s m u s t r e m a i n vigilant to t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s w h e n a s s e s s i n g c o m m u n i c a t i o n in y o u n g c h i l d r e n , particularly if w e h o p e to obtain a r e a s o n a b l e e s t i m a t e of a c h i l d ' s a c t u a l abilities.  4.7  Conclusion T h i s study investigated the u s e of a s p e e c h act h i e r a r c h y in c h a r a c t e r i z i n g  c o m m u n i c a t i v e a c t s by y o u n g c h i l d r e n . F o r this p u r p o s e , a h i e r a r c h i c a l s y s t e m w a s d e v i s e d b a s e d o n the work of S e a r l e a n d V a n d e r v e k e n (1986), J o h n s o n a n d K l i n c a n s , (1999), K l i n c a n s (1991), S i n g (2002), a n d the critical a n a l y s i s of c o d i n g s y s t e m s by Ninio, S n o w , P a n , a n d R o l l i n s (1994). In the study, significant correlations w e r e f o u n d b e t w e e n s p e e c h act d a t a a n d s t a n d a r d testing s c o r e s for: initiations a n d P L S - A C , v e r b a l i z a t i o n s a n d P L S - A C , a n d a s s e r t i v e s a n d P L S - A C , P L S - E C , a n d C D I s c o r e s . T h e s e findings, particularly the relationship b e t w e e n a s s e r t i v e s a n d l a n g u a g e s c o r e s , s u g g e s t that s p e e c h act a n a l y s i s a l o n e (without s t a n d a r d testing) m a y b e a useful w a y to e v a l u a t e c h i l d r e n ' s c o m m u n i c a t i o n skills in structured c o n t e x t s . O n e of the m o s t interesting findings of this study is that within the s i n g l e structured interaction s e s s i o n , c h o i c e of activity clearly i m p a c t e d the c o m m u n i c a t i v e a c t s of the c h i l d r e n . T h e b o o k activity elicited m a n y a s s e r t i v e c o m m e n t s , a n d the t y p e s of interaction (i.e., m o d e a n d initiations v e r s u s r e s p o n s e s ) a r o u n d the b o o k w e r e relatively similar a c r o s s c h i l d r e n , a l t h o u g h there w a s individual variability. It is likely that a c h i l d ' s s u c c e s s f u l participation in the b o o k activity is indicative of his or her early literacy skills, a s m u c h a s it is indicative of early c o m m u n i c a t i o n 83  ability. T h e w h a l e puppet activity, in contrast, elicited a b r o a d e r s p e c t r u m of c o m m u n i c a t i v e a c t s , likely b e c a u s e the s o c i a l rules a b o u t interacting a r o u n d a p u p p e t are l e s s rigidly d e f i n e d than the s o c i a l rules about b o o k r e a d i n g . T h e s e two short activities in c o m b i n a t i o n m a y p r o v e useful for a s s e s s i n g c o m m u n i c a t i v e a c t s in y o u n g c h i l d r e n , by providing children with v a r i e d opportunities to d e m o n s t r a t e their c o m m u n i c a t i v e skills a c r o s s a r a n g e of m o d e s a n d functions. M u c h r e m a i n s to b e l e a r n e d a b o u t the c o m m u n i c a t i o n of y o u n g c h i l d r e n . T h i s study, a n d t h o s e that p r e c e d e it, support a m o r e d i v e r s e a p p r o a c h to a s s e s s i n g c h i l d r e n ' s l a n g u a g e d e v e l o p m e n t than u s i n g the s t a n d a r d tools that a r e currently a v a i l a b l e . S p e e c h act a n a l y s i s h a s contributed detailed information about the c o m m u n i c a t i o n abilities of the children i n v o l v e d at the first timepoint of a longitudinal study. D a t a f r o m the later time-points will further e l u c i d a t e the r e l e v a n c e a n d i m p o r t a n c e of the information g a i n e d in the current investigation, i.e., the predictive v a l u e of the v a r i o u s o b s e r v a t i o n s .  84  TABLES AND FIGURES  T a b l e 1.1: C l a s s i f i c a t i o n S c h e m e c o n s t r u c t e d by K l i n c a n s (1991) Assertives  descriptive utterance of a n activity, event, object, or state of affairs identification / labeling a g r e e with p r e v i o u s proposition d i s a g r e e with p r e v i o u s proposition  Directives  request to d o a n act other t h a n : routine give object attend w a r n of d a n g e r prohibit action of H e a r e r give permission r e q u e s t information r e q u e s t clarification  Declaratives  d e c l a r e a n e w state of affairs regulate pretend play / g a m e s regulate other g a m e s regulate s o c i a l interactions refusal / rejection of a n o t h e r ' s d e c l a r a t i o n appropriation a c c e p t a n c e / a p p r o v a l of a n o t h e r ' s d e c l a r a t i o n  Commissives  promise threaten to d o a g r e e to d o or let d o refuse to d o or let d o offer/show  Expressives  mark s o c i a l routine / e v e n t e x p r e s s affective state / attitude  Non-illocutionary Communication and Language Use  d i s c o u r s e function family routine  Non-communicative/ Non-interactive  repeat/imitate p r e v i o u s utterance  Language Use Other  gestural c o m m u n i c a t i o n d e f e r r e d imitation non-interactive verbalization a m b i g u o u s illocutionary point uncodeable i n c o m p l e t e utterance  S o u r c e : K l i n c a n s , 1991  85  T a b l e 2 . 1 : S u m m a r y of C h i l d C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s N=34 Number Male 11 children - no sibling with  Number Female  A g e range (in months)  Mean age (in m o n t h s )  5  6  17-21  18.8  10  13  17-24  19.7  history of language delay 2 3 children - sibling with history of l a n g u a g e d e l a y Table 2.2: Mullen, Preschool Language Scale, and McArthur CDI S c o r e s Mullen Visual Reception zScore  Mullen Fine Motor z - S c o r e  3*  -0.1  0.2  0.3750  0.6875  -0.8110  4*  -1.8  -1.3  -0.8750  0.8750  0.0425  6*  0.9  0.6  1.0625  -0.6875  1.5129  7  0.8  0.8  1.1250  1.0000  0.9287  9  -0.3  -0.1  -0.1250  -1.1875  -1.0416  11*  -1.4  0.6  -0.5625  0.2500  -0.5639  14  -0.2  1.9  0.6875  0.5000  0.8833  24  -0.4  0.2  -0.5625  -0.2500  -0.9390  30*  -0.9  0.4  -1.6250  0.2500  -0.0751  31*  0.0  -0.3  -1.1875  -0.2500  -0.7931  32  -0.2  0.4  -0.1250  0.2500  0.0500  33*  -0.9  0.8  -2.0000  -1.3125  -0.7522  34  -0.6  0.4  -0.3750  -0.2500  -0.5126  35*  1.0  0.2  0.3750  0.6875  0.1445  39*  -0.2  0.4  -1.6250  -0.8750  -0.7105  41  1.5  -0.1  0.1250  -0.5000  -0.3563  58  0.9  0.8  1.8125  0.6875  -0.3154  59*  -0.6  -0.5  -0.3750  0.6875  -0.4598  60*  1.1  -0.1  1.4375  1.5000  2.3529  62*  0.7  1.4  -0.1250  0.8750  0.3424  63*  -0.2  -0.6  -0.8750  -0.2500  -0.2842  68  -0.7  0.2  0.9375  -1.1875  -0.8973  69*  0.7  1.4  0.6875  0.8750  1.7703  74  1.2  -0.1  0.3750  0.2500  -0.4501  75*  -2.5  -1.2  0.1250  0.2500  -0.5736  78  1.3  1.4  1.1250  1.0000  79*  0.0  1.0  0.1250  0.8750  80*  -0.4  0.2  -0.1250  -0.0625  C h i l d ID  Preschool Communicative Preschool Language Language Development Inventory Scale-4 Scale-4 Production Auditory Expressive z-Score Comprehension Communication z-Score z-Score  -1.1257  T a b l e 2.2: M u l l e n , P r e s c h o o l L a n g u a g e S c a l e , a n d M c A r t h u r C D I S c o r e s Preschool Communicative Preschool L a n g u a g e Development Language Scale-4 Scale-4 Inventory Production Auditory C o m p Expressive Comm z-Score z-Score z-Score  Mullen Visual Reception zScore  Mullen Fine Motor z - S c o r e  81*  0.4  0.2  0.1250  -1.1875  84*  0.4  0.2  -0.3750  0.5000  85*  0.0  0.6  0.1250  0.6875  -0.3757  86*  1.3  0.6  0.3750  0.5000  0.0507  87*  -0.4  -0.7  -0.8750  -0.2500  -0.7619  90*  -0.4  -0.7  -1.6250  -0.5000  -0.8869  C h i l d ID  -1.1049  * C h i l d r e n with family history of l a n g u a g e d e l a y T a b l e 3 . 1 : R a t e s of C o m m u n i c a t i v e U t t e r a n c e s per Minute in e a c h Activity Book  Whale  Bubbles  Average  Mean  11.36  6.34  6.82  8.57  S.D. Maximum  5.92 22.64  4.56 21.81  3.97 18.26  3.81 15.78  Minimum  0.00  0.00  0.62  1.20  T a b l e 3.2: C o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n A g e a n d C o m m u n i c a t i v e U t t e r a n c e s per Unit T i m e Communicative Utterances/Minute Book Whale Bubbles  434)=. 3 3 7 , 434)=. 0 4 2 , 434)=. 1 8 7 ,  C o r r e l a t i o n with A g e ? No No No  p=.051 p=.811 p=.288  T a b l e 3.3: R a t e s of N o n - C o m m u n i c a t i v e U t t e r a n c e s per Minute in e a c h Activity (for u t t e r a n c e s that r e m a i n e d in transcripts)  Mean  Book  Whale  Bubbles  Average  1.17  1.08  1.00  1.05  S.D.  1.02  1.70  1.11  0.72  Maximum  4.14  7.14  5.36  3.36  Minimum  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  T a b l e 3.4: S u m m a r y of Statistics re: Initiations a n d R e s p o n s e s in e a c h Activity per M i n u t e Book Initiations Responses per minute per minute  Whale Initiations Responses per minute per minute  Bubbles Responses Initiations per minute per minute  Mean  9.10  2.10  3.63  2.61  3.15  3.61  S.D.  5.41  2.23  2.46  2.04  2.36  2.49  Maximum  20.00  8.57  8.48  6.92  8.48  10.08  Minimum  0  0  0  0  0  0.56 87  T a b l e 3.5: R e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n Initiations a n d R e s p o n s e s a n d C h i l d A g e C o r r e l a t i o n with A g e ? Initiations/Minute R e s p o n s e s / Minute  f{34)=.360, p=.036 A{34)= - . 0 0 7 , p=.968  Yes No  T a b l e 3.6: M o d e of C o m m u n i c a t i o n - N u m b e r of T i m e s per M i n u t e of Activity Activity  Mean  S.D.  Maximum  Minimum  Book Whale Bubbles Average  6.09 0.48 0.95 2.99  5.27  18.46 4.62 3.58 7.89  0 0 0 0  Gesture: Reach  Book Whale Bubbles Average  0.10 1.23 1.44 0.97  0.39 1.37 1.60 0.88  2.07 3.95 7.57 4.47  0 0 0 0  Gesture: Hold Out / G i v e  Book Whale Bubbles Average Book Whale Bubbles Average  0.73 1.68 0.28 0.60  1.83 1.40 0.51 0.46  0 0 0 0  0.43 0.17 0.40 0.39  1.01 0.43 0.71 0.62  8.57 5.45 1.82 1.66 4.70 1.71 3.30 2.38  Gesture: Facial Expression  Book Whale Bubbles Average  0.24 0.59 0.94 0.61  0.51 1.17 1.07 0.68  2.07 5.45 3.41 2.90  0 0 0 0  Gesture: Other  Book Whale Bubbles Average  0.38 0.41 0.84 0.52  1.01 0.79 1.54 0.63  5.26 2.73 5.87 2.41  0 0 0 0  G e s t u r e : Total  Book Whale Bubbles Average  7.98 4.57 4.88 6.09  5.36 2.88 2.49 2.90  19.34 10.91 9.90 12.98  0 0 0 0.48  Book Whale Bubbles Average  3.47 2.71 2.43 2.98  3.68 2.51 2.26 2.37  12.40 7.27 8.57 9.31  0 0 0 0  Book  5.95 2.14 3.32 4.09  5.53 4.29 3.39 3.65  20.75 21.82 11.74 12.20  0 0 0 0  G e s t u r e : Point  Gesture: Non-verbal Conventional *  Vocalization  Verbalization  Whale Bubbles  1.09 1.04 2.47  0 0 0 0  Average 22.64 0 9.42 6.12 Book 4.47 21.82 0 4.85 Whale 0 5.74 3 . 8 3 1 3 . 7 0 Bubbles 0 7.07 4.05 15.36 Average * N o n - v e r b a l c o n v e n t i o n a l g e s t u r e s include n o d h e a d , s h a k e h e a d , h a n d s / a r m s up, w a v e , a n d manual sign  All V o c a l / V e r b a l  T a b l e 3.7: R e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n M o d e of C o m m u n i c a t i o n a n d A g e M o d e of C o m m u n i c a t i o n  C o r r e l a t i o n with A g e ?  Pointing/ Minute R e a c h i n g / Minute H o l d o u t / G i v e / Minute Non-verbal Conventional/Minute F a c i a l E x p r e s s i o n / Minute O t h e r / Minute V o c a l i z a t i o n s / Minute V e r b a l i z a t i o n s / Minute  434)=.162, p=.359 434)=. 1 0 1 , p = . 5 6 9 434)=. 2 2 3 , p=.204 434)= - . 1 3 1 , p=.459  No No No No No No No Yes  /f34)= . 0 1 9 , p = . 9 1 7 434)=. 0 6 1 , p = . 7 3 3 434)= - . 2 6 9 , p=.125 434)=.487, p=.004  T a b l e 3.8: lllocutionary P o i n t s - N u m b e r of T i m e s per Minute of Activity  Assertives  Directive  Commissive  Expressive  Declarative  Ambiguous  Activity Book Whale Bubbles Average Book Whale Bubbles Average Book Whale Bubbles Average Book Whale Bubbles Average Book Whale Bubbles Average  Mean 5.43 0.74 0.92 2.62 6.41 4.59 4.68 5.37 0.00 0.03 0.02 0.01 1.57 2.61 2.65 2.12 0.00 0.00 0.02 0.01  S.D. 4.80 1.68 1.56 2.25 4.27 3.86 2.36 2.42 0.00 0.16 0.10 0.06 2.71 3.90 2.06 1.54 0.00 0.00 0.11 0.06  Maximum 18.46 8.08 8.48 8.68 13.61 21.82 8.41 9.53 0.00 0.90 0.58 0.26 13.68 21.82 8.70 6.56 0.00 0.00 0.62 0.34  Minimum 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00  Book Whale Bubbles Average  1.43 1.88 4.59 2.78  1.53 1.15 3.08 2.43  8.04 5.53 15.00 8.57  0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00  T a b l e 3.9: C o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n lllocutionary A c t s a n d A g e lllocutionary Point Directives 434)=.33, p=.056 Commissives 434)=- . 0 6 6 , p = . 7 1 3 Assertives 434)=.302, p = . 0 8 3 Declaratives 434)=. 4 0 2 , p = . 0 1 9 Expressives 434)=. 0 1 7 , p=.925 Ambiguous 434)=- . 1 0 8 , p = . 5 4 5  0.00 0.00 0.00 0.96 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00  Correlation with A g e ? No Insufficient D a t a No Insufficient D a t a No No  F i g u r e 3 . 1 : P e r c e n t of U t t e r a n c e s O n - T o p i c with E x p e r i m e n t e r ' s T o y s by A g e  * T h e 2 2 month old w h o is on-topic only 5 4 % of the time is child #4  F i g u r e 3.2: N u m b e r of U t t e r a n c e s by A g e  120 i to  I 100 c "E co • 80  •  •  -  xi O  |  i_. 60 Q. Q.  ro in  O c ro o5  ti  •  •  •  •  •  •  • •  • -  40  •  •  20  •  -  •  •  •  •  •  W •  3  16  17  18  19  20  21  22  23  24  25  A g e in Months  90  F i g u r e 3.3: B o o k Activity: Initiations a n d R e s p o n s e s A c r o s s C h i l d r e n I Book: Initiations per Minute  B B o o k : R e s p o n s e s per Minute  20  B  15  c 0) 9  E  I  3  kJk C T T (D N O)  ^•rroT-cM(Ttmo)T-ooo)otM(oeoo)^-u)ooo)OT-^tmioso T-C\ICOCOCOCOCOC^C^Tflf)ir5COCDCDCDCDr^r^N.r^COCOOOCOOOOOO)  Child ID  Figure 3.4: W h a l e Activity: Initiations a n d R e s p o n s e s A c r o s s C h i l d r e n  I Whale: Initiations per Minute  • Whale: R e s p o n s e s per Minute  oo^cor^o>T-TtTtor-csic^Tfino)T-ooo)ocNjcococT)^ioooa>gT-^u2 o T - ^ C N i c o c o c o c o c o o o c o ^ i n i r j c o c o c D u s c D r ^ r ^ r ^ - i ^ c o c o c o o o co 00 CO CT) Child ID  Figure 3.5: B u b b l e s Activity: Initiations a n d R e s p o n s e s A c r o s s C h i l d r e n • Bubbles: Initiations per Minute  • Bubbles: R e s p o n s e s per Minute  Figure 3.6: B o o k Activity - V o c a l i z a t i o n s , V e r b a l i z a t i o n s , a n d Point p e r M i n u t e • V o c / T i m e MVerb/Time  CIPoint/Min  coTfcor^05T-TjTto^cNico^ino)^coc3)ocNicococn^rir)coc3)OT-^j-incDr^o T-T-CNJCOCOC^COOOCOCOTfirjtOCDCDCDCDCDr^r^r^r^COCOCOCOCOOOO)  C h i l d ID  92  Figure 3.7: W h a l e Activity - R e a c h i n g , a n d H o l d Out/ G i v e p e r M i n u t e I Reach/Time D H o l d Out, G i v e / T i m e  1 0>  4 o  Q. O u.  0) §2  I  1  CO'tlDSOT-Tf^fOT-C^CO^-inOT-COOOCMCOOOOJI-lfiCOmOT-^-tOtDSO T-T-PJCOCOCOCOCOCOCO^-lfilfltO(OtDCDCDSNSSOOOOOOOOOOOOO)  Child ID  F i g u r e 3.8: W h a l e Activity - V o c a l i z a t i o n s a n d V e r b a l i z a t i o n s per Minute IVoc/Time B V e r b / T i m e 10  03 c 0> CL 05  CO  ID ["-- CT>  >«r o T - c \ j c O ' ^ - i n o 5 - t - c o o ) o c \ j c o o o c n r j - i n c x 5 0 ) O T - T f i n ( D S O COCOCOCOCO-^-tniOCDCOCDCDCON-h-I^I^OOOOCOOO • i - CM CO CO oo oo en Child ID  F i g u r e 3.9: B u b b l e s Activity - R e a c h i n g , V o c a l i z a t i o n s , a n d V e r b a l i z a t i o n s per Minute • Reach/Time • V o c / T i m e  •Verb/Time  14 n 12 -  2  10 -  p)^(ONO)^-Tr^roi-cNco^ino)T-(oo)ocNnooo)^ioooo)OT-^in(oso T-T-csioocr>cococr>c^cOTfioioc0«Dcococor^ Child ID  F i g u r e 3.10: A s s e r t i v e s per Minute A c r o s s All Activities • A s s e r t i v e s / M i n (all activities) 10  T  8  Child ID  94  Figure 3 . 1 1 : N u m b e r of A s s e r t i v e s p e r Minute by Activity  CD  5  3  8.4 to  CD > CD CO CO  3  °  <  o 2  1— 0  .Q  § 1  Book  Whale  Bubbles  Average  Activity  F i g u r e 3.12: Directives per Minute A c r o s s A l l Activities I Directives/Min (all activities) 10  CD 3 C  CD  CL  CD .Q  E 3  CO  CO S  O) T -  ^  O  T - C N C T * L O O ) 1 - CO C5) O  I  CM CO C O d l T f L n c O f f i O r - T t l f i C D N O  T-T-cMcoc^cococococoTfinincococococor^r^r^r^oocoro  Child ID  95  F i g u r e 3.13: N u m b e r of Directives per Minute by Activity  F i g u r e 3.14: E x p r e s s i v e s per Minute A c r o s s All Activities I E x p r e s s i v e s / M i n (all activities) 10  I  6  0  Q_ 03 .O  E 3  n ^ t o s o j T - ^ - ' t o ^ - c N n ^ m c s T - c D O i o CN co o o o i T f i n f f l o i O T - ^ m t o s o T - T - c N c o c o c o c o c o c o c o ' ^ - m m co co c o t o c o r ^ i ^ i ^ i ^ o o c o c o c o c o c o c n  Child ID  96  F i g u r e 3.15: N u m b e r of E x p r e s s i v e s per Minute by Activity  3 C  rs  03  a. 2 CO CD >  to  CO  i  CD  CL  X UJ  •5  1  ' 1_ CD .Q  E 3  •  Whale  Book  Bubbles  Average  Activity  Figure 3.16: A m b i g u o u s per Minute A c r o s s All Activities • 10  -I-  :  :  Ambiguous/Min :  8 CD 3  C O ^ C O S O J T - ^ - ^ O T - C N C O ^ i n O J T - C O C S O C N C O C O C J J ^ l O O O O J O T - ^ l O C O S O  T-T-iNcocococoncoco^inincocDcococossssoococococoooo)  Child ID  97  Figure 3.16: Variation in R a t e of A m b i g u o u s A c t s b e t w e e n activities in 10 r a n d o m l y s e l e c t e d children • Book • Whale •  Bubbles  C h i l d ID  F i g u r e 4 . 1 : z - s c o r e data for M u l l e n , P L S , a n d C D I a s s e s s m e n t s , c o m p a r e d with the n u m b e r of c o m m u n i c a t i v e utterances per minute o f t e n randomly s e l e c t e d participants  • Mullen V R • Mullen F M • P L S A C B P L S E C • McArthur CDI • C o m m U t t / M i n 2.000  -2.000  =  J  3  4  6  11  30  32  41  58  68  74  Child ID  98  REFERENCES  B a t e s , E . 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Journal Intervention,  of  Early  22, 1 2 6 - 1 3 6 .  Y o n t , K., S n o w , C , a n d V e r n o n - F e a g a n s , L. (2003). T h e role of context in mother-child interactions: A n a n a l y s i s of c o m m u n i c a t i v e intents e x p r e s s e d during toy play a n d b o o k r e a d i n g with 1 2 - m o n t h - o l d s . Journal  of Pragmatics,  Z i m m e r m a n , I., S t e i n e r , V . , & P o n d , R. (2002). PLS-4:  35, 4 3 5 - 4 5 4 .  Preschool  Language  Scale - 4th  edition.  S a n Antonio, T X : The Psychological Corporation.  103  APPENDIX 1  S u m m a r y of t y p e s of b e h a v i o u r s that h a v e b e e n c o d e d in the literature AUTHOR  CODING S Y S T E M R E C O R D E D . . .  S e a r l e (1960-70's)  locutionary, illocutionary (primary a n d s e c o n d a r y t y p e s ) , perlocutionary  Searle and V a n d e r v e k e n ' s (1985)  a s s e r t i v e , directive, e x p r e s s i v e , c o m m i s s i v e , or d e c l a r a t i v e  D o r e (1973)  r e q u e s t i v e , a s s e r t i v e , r e s p o n s i v e , regulative, e x p r e s s i v e , or performative (types of illocution at utterance level)  T o u g h (1977)  directive, interpretive, projective, or relational (cognitive level)  M c S h a n e (1980)  regulation, statement, e x c h a n g e , p e r s o n a l , or c o n v e r s a t i o n (activity level)  Ryckebusch and M a r c o s (2004)  a s s e r t i v e , directive (action r e q u e s t s , information r e q u e s t s , a n d . attention r e q u e s t s ) , e x p r e s s i v e , or m i s c e l l a n e o u s  Callendrella and W i l c o x (2000)  intentional n o n v e r b a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n a c t s , s o c i a l interaction s i g n a l s , or gestural indicating b e h a v i o u r s  Crais, Douglas, and C o x C a m p b e l l (2004)  deictic v s . referential g e s t u r e s ; b e h a v i o u r regulation (requesting o b j e c t s , r e q u e s t i n g a c t i o n s , a n d protesting), s o c i a l interaction (representational g e s t u r e s , attention s e e k i n g , a n d s o c i a l g a m e s ) , or joint attention ( c o m m e n t i n g a n d r e q u e s t i n g information)  Topbas, Mavis, and E r b a s (2003)  regulating, s o c i a l interaction, or joint attention b e h a v i o u r s ( s o m e s u b - t y p e s s p e c i f i e d similar to C r a i s et a l . , 2004)  Casby and Cumpata (1986)  illocutionary force a n d level of intentional c o m m u n i c a t i o n (gesture, g a z e , v e r b a l i z a t i o n / v o c a l i z a t i o n to adult (ordinal scale))  Liszkowski, Carpenter, H e n n i n g , Striano, a n d T o m a s e l l o (2004)  proto-imperative v s . proto-declarative pointing  D r o m i (2003)  deictic (establish joint attention, e . g . s h o w i n g , r e a c h i n g , g i v i n g , a n d pointing - either contact or distal) v s . referential g e s t u r e  Franco and Butterworth (1996)  gesture, visual checking, and vocalization  104  S u m m a r y of t y p e s of b e h a v i o u r s that h a v e b e e n c o d e d in the literature, c o n t i n u e d . Lichtert (2003)  illocutionary force a n d level of intentional c o m m u n i c a t i o n (as in C a s b y a n d C u m p a t a (1986), but modified for u s e with deaf toddlers)  Brady, Steeples, and F l e m m i n g (2005)  g e s t u r e , v o c a l i z a t i o n , s p o k e n w o r d , or s i g n (topography), request, c o m m e n t , or other (function), a n d w e r e c o m m u n i c a t i o n breakdowns resolved  Wetherby and Prizant (2002) C S B S - D P  eye gaze, communication, gesture, sounds, words, u n d e r s t a n d i n g , or object u s e b e h a v i o u r  Olswang, StoelGammon, Coggins, a n d C a r p e n t e r (1987) ALB  level of ability o n task s p e c i f i c criterion o n s u b t e s t s : cognitive a n t e c e d e n t s to w o r d m e a n i n g , l a n g u a g e c o m p r e h e n s i o n , play, c o m m u n i c a t i v e intention, a n d l a n g u a g e production  Mundy and G o m e s (1998)  R e y n e l l D e v e l o p m e n t a l L a n g u a g e S c a l e s - receptive a n d expressive language age B a y l e y S c a l e s of Infant D e v e l o p m e n t - l l - cognitive d e v e l o p m e n t Early S o c i a l C o m m u n i c a t i o n S c a l e s - n o n - v e r b a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n skills  105  UBC  o  The University of British Columbia Office of Research Services Behavioural Research Ethics Board Suite 102, 6190 Agronomy Road, Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1Z3  CERTIFICATE OF APPROVAL - MINIMAL RISK AMENDMENT  PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Uanet F. Werker  IDEPARTMENT: UBC/Arts/Psychology, Department of  UBC BREB NUMBER: HO1-80266  INSTITUTION(S) WHERE RESEARCH WILL BE CARRIED OUT: Institution  UBC  Site  Point Grey Site  (Other locations where the research will be conducted:  Ubbotsford Health Unit, spare audiology room.  CO-INVESTIGATOR(S): Linda Siegel parolyn E. Johnson Barbara M. Bernhardt Uulianne Scott SPONSORING AGENCIES: Canadian Language and Literacy Research Network (CLLRNet) - Networks of Centres of Excellence (NCE) - "Early Detection of Language Delay - 3rd Y e a r Undergraduate Research Assistant Award Placement" Natural S c i e n c e s and Engineering Research Council of Canada ( N S E R C ) Networks of Centres of Excellence (NCE) - "Early Detection of Language Disorders in Genetically and Perinatally High-Risk Infants" U B C Human Early Learning Partnership (HELP) - "Early Detection of Language Delay: Age 4 Follow-up" - "Relationship of Early (Word Learning and Later Language Abilities in Preschoolers" - "Early Detection of Language Disorders in Genetically and Perinatally High-Risk Infants" PROJECT TITLE: Detection of Language Delay: Age 4 Follow-up Expiry Date - Approval of an amendment does not change the expiry date on the current UBC BREB approval of this study. An application for renewal is required on or before: July 6, 2007 AMENDMENT(S):  AMENDMENT APPROVAL DATE: May 9, 2007  N/A The amendment(s) and the document(s) listed above have been reviewed and the procedures were found to be acceptable on ethical grounds for research involving human subjects. Approval is issued on behalf of the Behavioural Research Ethics Board and signed electronically by one of the following:  Dr. Peter Suedfeld, Chair Dr. Jim Rupert, Associate Chair Dr. Arminee Kazanjian, Associate Chair Dr. M. Judith Lynam, Associate Chair Dr. Laurie Ford, Associate Chair  

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