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A performance project on selected works of five contemporary composers : Malcolm Arnold, Robert Henderson,.. 1991

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A PERFORMANCE PROJECT ON SELECTED WORKS OF FIVE CONTEMPORARY COMPOSERS: MALCOLM ARNOLD, ROBERT HENDERSON, STAN FRIEDMAN, JOHN ELMSLY, LUCIA DLUGOSZWESKI By EDWARD STANLEY BACH B.Mus., Brandon University, 1981 M.Mus., The University of British Columbia, 1983 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF MUSICAL ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (School of Music) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April 1991 @ Edward Stanley Bach, 1991 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date DE-6 (2/88) ABSTRACT The p r i n c i p a l objec t ive of t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n i s to discuss music f o r unaccompanied t rumpet and t rumpet and tape composed a f t e r 1965. The d i s c u s s i o n of these works w i l l emphasize a method of preparat ion f o r each work. New t e c h n i q u e s and e f f e c t s t h a t modern-day t rumpet players w i l l need to master w i l l be pursued with r e l a t i o n s h i p to each composit ion under c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Each c h a p t e r i s d e d i c a t e d to one c o m p o s i t i o n . The i n t r o d u c t o r y chapter discusses the execution of d i f f i c u l t leaps which i s one of the most common c h a l l e n g e s i n the m a j o r i t y of modern t rumpet m u s i c . T e c h n i q u e books and g e n e r a l s u g g e s t i o n s i n the improvement of t h i s technique are emphasized. C h a p t e r I I f e a t u r e s comments on M a l c o l m A r n o l d ' s F a n t a s y f o r F l a t Trumpet which i s the most " t r a d i t i o n a l " composit ion of the f i v e works being surveyed. In C h a p t e r I I I , Robert Henderson 's V a r i a t i o n Movements , 1967 i s d i s c u s s e d . The work has components o f s e r i a l i s m w h i c h g i v e way to t o n a l l y m o t i v i c m a t e r i a l . The p i e c e l e n d s i t s e l f to a d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s , although, for t h i s purpose, a rather general d i s c u s s i o n with some d e t a i l w i l l make the musical dec is ions c l e a r e r . The f o u r t h c h a p t e r d i s c u s s e s S t a n F r i e d m a n ' s S ^ L u £ . T h i s c o m p o s i t i o n f e a t u r e s the use of p e d a l t o n e s , a l e a t o r i c e v e n t s , the open-tubing technique, tremolos, and s l i d e g l i s s a n d i . Some analys is as i i w e l l a s p r a c t i c e and p e r f o r m a n c e s u g g e s t i o n s a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r . C h a p t e r V f o c u s e s on a work by J o h n E l m s l y e n t i t l e d T r i p t y c h f o r t r u m p e t and t a p e . In a d d i t i o n to some a n a l y s i s o f the work t h e r e a r e p e r f o r m a n c e s u g g e s t i o n s t o e n a b l e s y n c h r o n i z a t i o n b e t w e e n t r u m p e t and t a p e . C h a p t e r V I f e a t u r e s L u c i a D l u g o s z e w s k i ' s Space i s a D i a m o n d , t h e most e x p e r i m e n t a l c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e f i v e b e i n g d i s c u s s e d . I n n o v a t i v e t e c h n i q u e s u t i l i z e d i n the work i n c l u d e p e r c u s s i v e b u b b l e , g l i s s a n d o , f l u t t e r - t o n g u i n g , r i c o c h e t g l i s s a n d o , f l a p - t o n g u i n g , and w h i s t l e t o n e . New n o t a t i o n a l i n d i c a t i o n s are a l s o d i s c u s s e d . T h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e s e c o m p o s i t i o n s d e m o n s t r a t e s i n c r e a s e d t e c h n i c a l d e m a n d s a n d a n a l y t i c a l s k i l l s t h a t w i l l b e r e q u i r e d b y t r u m p e t p l a y e r s . i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i LIST OF EXAMPLES v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ix Chapter I. INTRODUCTION 1 II. MALCOLM ARNOLD'S FANTASY FOR B-FLAT TRUMPET 7 III. ROBERT HENDERSON'S VARIATION MOVEMENTS, 1967 13 IV. STAN FRIEDMAN'S SOLUS 33 V. JOHN ELMSLY'S TRIPTYCH FOR TRUMPET AND TAPE 50 VI. LUCIA DLUGOSZEWSKI'S SPACE IS A DIAMOND 62 VII. CONCLUSIONS 71 BIBLIOGRAPHY 73 i v L I S T OF EXAMPLES l a . A r n o l d , F a n t a s y f o r B - F l a t T r u m p e t , mm. 1-6 2 l b . F r i e d m a n , S o l u s , " I n t r o d u c t i o n , m. 9 3 l c . D l u g o s z e w s k i , Space i s a D i a m o n d , P a r t I V , m. 3 , l i n e 3 3 I d . D l u g o s z e w s k i , Space i s a D i a m o n d , P a r t I V , l i n e 4 3 l e . D l u g o s z e w s k i , Space i s a D i a m o n d , P a r t I , l a s t t h r e e l i n e s . . . 4 2 a . A r n o l d , F a n t a s y f o r B - F l a t T r u m p e t , mm. 18-24 8 2 b . A r n o l d , F a n t a s y f o r B - F l a t T r u m p e t , mm. 67-79 9 2 c . A r n o l d , F a n t a s y f o r B - F l a t T r u m p e t , mm. 101-11 9 2 d . A r n o l d , F a n t a s y f o r B - F l a t T r u m p e t , m. 22 10 2e . A r n o l d , F a n t a s y f o r B - F l a t T r u m p e t , mm. 14-21 10 2 f . A r n o l d , F a n t a s y f o r B - F l a t T r u m p e t , mm. 68-71 11 2 g . A r n o l d , F a n t a s y f o r B - F l a t T r u m p e t , mm. 117-20 11 2 h . A r n o l d , F a n t a s y f o r B - F l a t T r u m p e t , mm. 121-26 11 3 a . H e n d e r s o n , V a r i a t i o n Movements , 1967, F i r s t Movement, mm. 1-9 14 3 b . H e n d e r s o n , V a r i a t i o n Movements , 1967, F i r s t Movement, mm. 19-32 15 3 c . H e n d e r s o n , V a r i a t i o n Movements , 1967, F i r s t Movement, mm. 53-54 15 3 d . A r b a n , C a r n i v a l o f V e n i c e , Theme 17 3e . A r b a n , C a r n i v a l o f V e n i c e , V a r . V I I I 17 3 f . H e n d e r s o n , V a r i a t i o n Movements , 1967, F i r s t Movement, mm. 1-13 17 v 3 g . H e n d e r s o n , V a r i a t i o n Movements , 1967, Second Movement, mm. 1-16 18 4 a . A r b a n , C a r n i v a l o f V e n i c e , V a r . V 19 4 b . H e n d e r s o n , V a r i a t i o n Movements , 1967, T h i r d Movement, mm. 1-12 20 4 c . H e n d e r s o n , V a r i a t i o n Movements , 1967, T h i r d Movement, mm. 13-16 21 4 d . H e n d e r s o n , V a r i a t i o n Movements , 1967, T h i r d Movement, mm. 24-32 22 5 a . H e n d e r s o n , V a r i a t i o n Movements , 1967, T h i r d Movement, mm. 1-2 23 5 b . H e n d e r s o n , V a r i a t i o n Movements , 1967, F o u r t h Movement, mm. 1-12 23 5 c . H e n d e r s o n , V a r i a t i o n Movements , 1967, F o u r t h Movement, mm. 11-28 24 5 d . H e n d e r s o n , V a r i a t i o n Movements , 1967, F o u r t h Movement, mm. 26-40 25 6 a . H e n d e r s o n , V a r i a t i o n Movements , 1967, F i f t h Movement, mm. 1-8 26 6 b . H e n d e r s o n , V a r i a t i o n Movements , 1967, F i f t h Movement, mm. 13-20 26 6 c . H e n d e r s o n , V a r i a t i o n Movements , 1967, F i f t h Movement, mm. 37-44 28 6 d . H e n d e r s o n , V a r i a t i o n Movements , 1967, F i f t h Movement, mm. 45-52 29 6e . H e n d e r s o n , V a r i a t i o n Movements , 1967, F i f t h Movement, mm. 66-68 29 6 f . H e n d e r s o n , V a r i a t i o n Movements , 1967, F i f t h Movement, mm. 24-32 30 7 a . F r i e d m a n , S o l u s , F i r s t Movement, mm. 1-2 33 7b . F r i e d m a n , S o l u s , F i r s t Movement , m. 12 34 7 c . F r i e d m a n , S o l u s , F i r s t Movement , mm. 42-46 34 7 d . F r i e d m a n , S o l u s , F i r s t Movement, mm. 15-17 35 7e . F r i e d m a n , S o l u s , F i r s t Movement, mm. 17-18 35 vi 7 g . F r i e d m a n , S o l u s , F i r s t Movement , mm. 23-29 3 7 7 h . F r i e d m a n , S o l u s , F i r s t Movement, m. 19 37 7 i . C h a r l i e r , E t u d e # 17, mm. 124-48 38 7 j . F r i e d m a n , S o l u s , Second Movement, f i r s t t h r e e l i n e s 40 7 k . F r i e d m a n , S o l u s , Second Movement', f i r s t l i n e , s e c o n d page . . . 41 7 1 . F r i e d m a n , S o l u s , f i r s t l i n e , s e c o n d page 41 7m. F r i e d m a n , S o l u s , T h i r d Movement , mm. 1-8 43 7 n . F r i e d m a n , S o l u s , T h i r d Movement, l a s t t h r e e l i n e s 43 7o . F r i e d m a n , S o l u s , T h i r d Movement , mm. 26-27 44 7 p . F r i e d m a n , S o l u s , T h i r d Movement, mm. 60-70 45 7 q . F r i e d m a n , S o l u s , F o u r t h M o v e m e n t , f i r s t l i n e 46 8 a . E l m s l y , T r i t y p c h , F i r s t Movement, f i r s t f o u r l i n e s 51 8 b . E l m s l y , T r i t y p c h , F i r s t Movement, f i f t h l i n e 52 8 c . E l m s l y , T r i t y p c h , F i r s t Movement, l i n e s 6 -8 53 8 d . E l m s l y , T r i t y p c h , F i r s t Movement, l i n e s 1 1 - 1 4 53 8 e . E l m s l y , T r i t y p c h , Second Movement, mm. 1-7 55 8 f . E l m s l y , T r i t y p c h , Second Movement, mm. 29-30 55 8 g . E l m s l y , T r i t y p c h , Second Movement, mm. 16-28 56 8 h . E l m s l y , T r i t y p c h , T h i r d Movement , mm. 3 - 6 , 4 7 - 4 8 , 7 9 - 8 3 . . . . 58 8 i . E l m s l y , T r i t y p c h , T h i r d Movement, mm. 1-2 , 46 59 8j . E l m s l y , T r i t y p c h , T h i r d Movement, 62-67 5 9 9 a . D l u g o s z e w s k i , Space i s a D i a m o n d , P a r t I I , s e c o n d l i n e . . . . 63 9 b . D l u g o s z e w s k i , Space i s a D i a m o n d , P a r t I I I , f i r s t t h r e e l i n e s 64 9 c . D l u g o s z e w s k i , Space i s a D i a m o n d , P a r t I V , l i n e 7 64 9 d . D l u g o s z e w s k i , Space i s a D i a m o n d , P a r t V , f i r s t f o u r l i n e s . . 65 9 e . D l u g o s z e w s k i , Space i s a D i a m o n d , P a r t I , f i f t h l i n e 65 9 f . D l u g o s z e w s k i , Space i s a D i a m o n d , P a r t I V , s i x t e e n t h l i n e . . . 66 vii 9 g . D l u g o s z e w s k i , Space i s a D i a m o n d , P a r t I V , n i n e t e e n t h l i n e . . . 66 9 h . D l u g o s z e w s k i , Space i s a D i a m o n d , P a r t I , s i x t h l i n e 66 9 i . D l u g o s z e w s k i , Space i s a D i a m o n d , P a r t I I I , l i n e s 3-4 67 9 j . D l u g o s z e w s k i , Space i s a D i a m o n d , P a r t I V , l i n e s 11-13 . . . . 67 9 k . D l u g o s z e w s k i , Space i s a D i a m o n d , P a r t V I , l a s t t h r e e l i n e s . . 68 9 1 . D l u g o s z e w s k i , Space i s a D i a m o n d , P a r t I , f i r s t l i n e 68 9m. D l u g o s z e w s k i , Space i s a D i a m o n d , P a r t I I I , f o u r t h l i n e . . . . 68 9 n . D l u g o s z e w s k i , Space i s a D i a m o n d , P a r t V , l i n e s 10-11 69 voi ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish to express my s i n c e r e thanks to the members of my Doctoral Committee: Professors Paul Douglas, Alan Thrasher and Jesse Read. S p e c i a l thanks to P r o f e s s o r M a r t i n Berinbaum, my A d v i s o r , f o r invaluable influence on my a r t i s t i c endeavours i n music. To my friend Dr Gregory Johnston, I am indebted for his comments and suggestions regarding the preparation of this document. Above a l l , I g r a t e f u l l y acknowledge the support of my w i f e , Bonnie, whose encouragement d u r i n g my d o c t o r a l s t u d i e s has been unending. ix CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION An i n c r e a s i n g number o f c o n t e m p o r a r y c o m p o s e r s have c o n t r i b u t e d to m u s i c f o r t h e t r u m p e t . O v e r t h e p a s t f i f t y y e a r s w o r k s w i t h t r u m p e t a n d o r c h e s t r a a n d t r u m p e t a n d p i a n o h a v e b e c o m e s t a p l e s o f t h e t r u m p e t e r ' s l i t e r a t u r e . Works l i k e the H i n d e m i t h , K e n n a n , and H a l s e y S t e v e n s ' s s o n a t a s , as w e l l as t h e n u m e r o u s F r e n c h c o m p o s i t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y by B o z z a , a re r e g u l a r l y p e r f o r m e d i n r e c i t a l s . A l t h o u g h t h e t r u m p e t w o r k s by t h e s e c o m p o s e r s a r e c h a l l e n g i n g , t h e y do n o t c o m p e l the p l a y e r t o e x p l o r e new t e c h n i c a l f r o n t i e r s . I t i s t h i s k e e n i n t e r e s t i n s t r e t c h i n g t h e l i m i t s o f b o t h t h e p l a y e r a n d t r u m p e t t e c h n i q u e t h a t e n c o u r a g e d t h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f w o r k s f o r u n a c c o m p a n i e d t r u m p e t and f o r t r u m p e t w i t h t a p e . One o f the most o b v i o u s m o d e r n - d a y demands o f the t r u m p e t p l a y e r i s the e x e c u t i o n o f awkward l e a p s , the p h y s i c a l demands o f w h i c h o f f e r even the v e r y b e s t p l a y e r s many c h a l l e n g e s . ^ I n a number o f the w o r k s o f t h e c o m p o s e r s m e n t i o n e d a b o v e , t h e r e a r e p a s s a g e s w i t h l a r g e i n t e r v a l l i c l e a p s . But why a r e t h e s e le_aps l e s s d i f f i c u l t t h a n many o f t h e w o r k s c o m p o s e d f o r u n a c c o m p a n i e d t r u m p e t a n d t r u m p e t a n d t a p e ? T h e r e a r e a t l e a s t two r e s p o n s e s t o t h i s i m p o r t a n t q u e s t i o n . The f i r s t r e s p o n s e i s t h a t c o m p o s e r s have a v o i d e d w r i t i n g many l e a p s t h a t f o l l o w r a p i d l y i n s u c c e s s i o n , and the p l a y e r i s not o f t e n a s k e d t o p l a y l e a p s l a r g e r t h a n a t w e l f t h . T h e s e c o n d r e s p o n s e i s t h a t i n t h e s t a n d a r d 1 tonal l i t e r a t u r e i t i s eas ier for the player to "hear" the r i g h t p i t c h , w h i c h i s not a lways the case i n the v e r y a n g u l a r w r i t i n g that i s e v i d e n t i n works l i k e Henderson 's V a r i a t i o n Movements 1967 or o Fr iedman's Solus. M a l c o l m A r n o l d ' s F a n t a s y f o r B - F l a t Trumpet has passages where f l e x i b l e l i p s are r e q u i r e d to a c h i e v e the r i g h t p i t c h . Most p l a y e r s would agree that i n example l a the large i n t e r v a l s are playable . Ex. l a . A r n o l d , Fantasy for B - F l a t Trumpet, mm. 1-6. Allegro energico (J = 120) Other works i n t h i s d i s c u s s i o n do not o f f e r the same ease when p l a y i n g large i n t e r v a l l i c leaps. The a b i l i t y to hear a l l the pi tches i n one's inner ear i s very h e l p f u l and was not a s k i l l trumpet players i n t h i s c e n t u r y had to r e f i n e u n t i l the l a s t twenty or t h i r t y y e a r s . Obviously , one can f i n d c o n t r a d i c t i o n s - - for example, the o r c h e s t r a l works of Webern. The a b i l i t y to execute i n t e r v a l s i n excess of an octave and the a b i l i t y to hear a note before p l a y i n g i t are techniques that need much refinement i n today's trumpet world . Stan F r i e d m a n ' s S o l u s c h a l l e n g e s the ear and l i p f l e x i b i l i t y of the p l a y e r . In the second bar of the f o u r t h l i n e , the f i r s t h a l f of the measure i s awkward s i m p l y because of the a t o n a l n a t u r e of the m u s i c . (See Ex. l b ) However, because most of the l e a p s are f o l l o w e d by a step or at least a considerably smal ler leap, the sec t ion becomes 2 more attainable. Ex. l b . Friedman, Solus, "Introduction", m. 9 Perhaps the best example of an extremely d i f f i c u l t leap in trumpet literature is Lucia Dlugoszewski's Space is a Diamond, especially Part IV. The leaps in the third measure of the third line are large but are made increas ingly d i f f i c u l t because the dynamic marking is "ppp" and because the required speed of the execution is rapid. (See Ex. Ic) Ex. Ic. Dlugoszewski, Space is a Diamond, Part IV, m. 3, l i n e 3. On the fourth l i n e of Part IV, there are leaps that are easier to execute because of a glissando effect.^ (See ex. Id) Ex. Id. Dlugoszewski, Space is a Diamond, Part IV, line 4. .- Trumpet players learn to play i n the high r e g i s t e r by blowing rapidly so that the l i p buzzes a higher frequency; inherent with this technique is a louder dynamic and br ighter sound. There are many 3 commercial works where trumpet players enter on such high notes, but the players do not have to hold back on t h e i r a i r speed or the i r volume. They often use s p e c i a l l y designed mouthpieces with a very shallow cup which helps extreme upper-register notes respond. However, the player would have l i t t l e success in the compositions being discussed here, since these shallow-cupped mouthpieces do not function e f f i c i e n t l y in the lower ranges and the tone quality is unacceptable. In Space is a Diamond many of the leaps can only be e f f e c t i v e l y played i f a h a l f - v a l v i n g technique is u t i l i z e d . This h a l f - v a l v i n g technique decreases the s ize of hole the a i r t ravels through. The smaller the bore, the easier i t is to achieve higher notes. (See Ex. le) Everything above c ' " should use this technique and everything below c ' " should be played normally with the valves pressed a l l the way down. Ex. le. Dlugoszewski, Space is a Diamond, Part I, last 3 lines. 4 The w o r k s b e i n g d i s c u s s e d have been s e l e c t e d c a r e f u l l y i n o r d e r to d e m o n s t r a t e the many modern s t y l e s the t r u m p e t s o l o i s t may be a b l e to e x e c u t e . A r n o l d ' s F a n t a s y i s c o m p o s e d i n a t r a d i t i o n a l s t y l e . H e n d e r s o n ' s work f e a t u r e s a t o n a l and s e r i a l i s t i c t e c h n i q u e s . I n t h i s w o r k i t i s i m p e r a t i v e t h a t t h e p l a y e r u n d e r s t a n d t h e r o w s so t h a t e m p h a s i s and m u s i c a l judgement a r e p r o p e r l y e x e c u t e d . F r i e d m a n ' s S o l u s d e m o n s t r a t e s i n s t r u m e n t a l e x p e r i m e n t a l m u s i c . E x c e r p t s f r o m D l u g o s z e w s k i ' s S p a c e i s a D i a m o n d w i l l a l s o be d i s c u s s e d b e c a u s e o f some o f the u n p r e c e d e n t e d t e c h n i q u e s f o r the t r u m p e t b e i n g u s e d . These i d e a s may be u s e d b y c o m p o s e r s i n t h e n e a r f u t u r e a n d t h u s d e s e r v e a t t e n t i o n i n t h i s d o c u m e n t . J o h n E l m s l y ' s T r i p t y c h f e a t u r e s t r u m p e t and t a p e , a c o m b i n a t i o n t h a t i s b e c o m i n g more p o p u l a r w i t h c o m p o s e r s a n d t r u m p e t p l a y e r s a l i k e . T h i s m u s i c o f f e r s new c h a l l e n g e s , as t h e p l a y e r must u n d e r s t a n d the c o n t r i b u t i o n o f n o t o n l y the t r u m p e t p a r t b u t a l s o how i t r e l a t e s to the t a p e d m u s i c . 5 NOTES L a r g e l e a p s on any b r a s s i n s t r u m e n t c a n be i n t i m i d a t i n g and c a n a l s o c r e a t e a c o n t r a d i c t i o n i n the p l a y e r ' s m i n d : the p l a y e r must b l o w f a s t w h i c h c a u s e s t h e l i p s t o b u z z o r v i b r a t e a d i f f e r e n t n o t e . When p l a y i n g a n a s c e n d i n g l e a p , f o r e x a m p l e , t h e p l a y e r w i l l i n c r e a s e t h e s p e e d o f a i r a n d w i l l i n t u r n make t h e a p e r t u r e o f t h e l i p s m a l l e r . T h e c o n t r a d i c t i o n l i e s i n t h e f a c t t h a t t h e e x e c u t i o n o f t h e l e a p r e q u i r e s t h a t t h e p l a y e r be v e r y r e l a x e d t o a l l o w f o r p r o p e r a i r s u p p o r t . A n y t y p e o f s h o r t , n e r v o u s b r e a t h w i l l d e c r e a s e t h e s u c c e s s f u l e x e c u t i o n o f the l e a p . 2 . . . . When p r e p a r i n g a p r o g r a m o f s u c h c h a l l e n g i n g m u s i c i t was d e c i d e d t h a t m u c h p r a c t i c e o f f l e x i b i l i t y e x e r c i s e s h e l p e d i n c r e a s e t h e e l a s t i c i t y o f t h e l i p . T h r e e s p e c i f i c t e c h n i q u e b o o k s p r o v e d b e n e f i c i a l i n the e v e r y d a y p r e p a r a t i o n o f the m u s i c . H e r b e r t C l a r k e ' s T e c h n i c a l S t u d i e s , S c h l o s s b e r g ' s D a i l y D r i 1 I s and T e c h n i c a l S t u d i e s , and R o b e r t N a g e l ' s T r u m p e t S k i l l s h e l p e d i n c r e a s e the l i p ' s a b i l i t y t o p e r f o r m t h e l a r g e n u m b e r o f d i f f i c u l t l e a p s t h a t a r e so p r o m i n e n t i n t h e m u s i c . T h i s t y p e o f m u s i c n e c e s s i t a t e s f o c u s o n p l a y i n g l a r g e i n t e r v a l l i c l e a p s many t i m e s i n s u c c e s s i o n a t a r a p i d tempo. 3 The r e a s o n t h e s e o c t a v e s a r e e a s i e r t o p l a y i s t h a t t h e n o t e s a r e e a s y to " h e a r " and t h a t the d y n a m i c l e v e l , f o r t e , a l l o w s the p l a y e r t o r e l e a s e the a i r i n a more u n i n h i b i t e d manner . ^The p l a y e r s i m p l y c o m p r e s s e s the v a l v e s h a l f way w h i l e s t e a d i l y i n c r e a s i n g t h e a i r s p e e d a n d t i g h t e n i n g t h e l i p s u n t i l t h e r e q u i r e d u p p e r p i t c h i s a t t a i n e d . Of c o u r s e the d y n a m i c m a r k i n g o f mf ppp o n e a c h g l i s s a n d o u p w a r d s m a k e s t h e e x e c u t i o n v e r y d i f f i c u l t . A c r e s c e n d o t o t h e u p p e r n o t e s i s t h e t y p i c a l m a n n e r i n w h i c h a p l a y e r w i l l p l a y t h e s e t y p e s o f l e a p s . I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t to n o t e t h a t i n the p u b l i s h e d v e r s i o n o f Space i s a D i a m o n d , comments by D l u g o s z e w s k i , the c o m p o s e r , a n d S c h w a r z , t h e p e r f o r m e r ( w h o f i r s t r e c o r d e d t h e c o m p o s i t i o n ) d e a l s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h t h e s e i n h e r e n t l y d i f f i c u l t l e a p s . D l u g o s z e w s k i ' s f i r s t c o m m e n t a b o u t t h e w o r k s t a t e s " a s e n s e o f h u g e n e s s , t r a n s p a r e n c y , d e l i c a c y o f b r i l l i a n c e , s p e e d and f r e q u e n c y o f sudden d a r i n g l e a p s i n t o d i s p a r a t e d y n a m i c s and t h e p a s s i o n a t e c a p a c i t y f o r e x p r e s s i o n o f a s o l o i n s t r u m e n t w i t h e s s e n t i a l l y l i n e a r p o s s i b i l i t i e s : m e d i t a t i o n s a l o n g t h e s e l i n e s c r e a t e d the m u s i c o f Space i s a D i a m o n d . " She c o n t i n u e s b y s a y i n g " a s a r e s u l t o f s t r u c t u r a l c h a l l e n g e s i m p l i c i t i n w o r k i n g w i t h l a r g e d i m e n s i o n s , many new ways o f p l a y i n g the t r u m p e t were i n v e n t e d . " H e r o b v i o u s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h b r a s s s p e c i a l i s t s l i k e G e r a r d Schwarz and G u n t h e r S c h u l l e r h e l p e d D l u g o s z e w s k i e x p l o r e "some o f t h e s e new ways o f p l a y i n g the t r u m p e t . " The p e r f o r m e r s h o u l d c a r e f u l l y r e a d the p e r f o r m a n c e n o t e s i n c l u d e d i n the p u b l i s h e d v e r s i o n . 6 CHAPTER II MALCOLM ARNOLD'S FANTASY FOR B-FLAT TRUMPET The compositions selected for discussion were chosen because of the v a r i e t y of d i f f e r e n t t e c h n i q u e s and w i t h the i n t e n t of demonstrating differ ing compositional styles and techniques. Malcolm Arnold's Fantasy i s composed i n a s t y l e where the tonal goals are obvious. Between 1966 and 1975 Arnold composed fantasies for a l l the main brass and woodwind instruments as wel l as for gui tar and harp. The trumpet Fantasy is a piece that is one of Arnold's most successful fantas ies . He also composed a trumpet concerto which i s gradually becoming important in the trumpet repertoire. His brass quintet is one of the most famous and is regularly performed. Malcolm Arnold wrote so well for wind and brass instruments, especially the trumpet, because he was an accomplished trumpet player. In his own words: When I was twelve I l e f t school because of bad heal th I had asthma. At that time I wanted to play the trumpet. My doctor took me to the family doctor who said, ' i f that doesn't cure him, i t ' l l k i l l him: so t e l l him to do i t . ^ Apparently no i l l effects were experienced by the young, aspiring trumpeter and Arnold quickly advanced on the instrument under the careful instruction of Ernest H a l l , the principal trumpet player with the BBC Symphony Orchestra. It is to Ernest Hall that the Fantasy for B-Flat Trumpet is dedicated. In this same interview, Arnold discussed some of his significant 7 e a r l y i n f l u e n c e s . My o r i g i n a l i d o l was A r m s t r o n g . I s t a r t e d w i t h j a z z , and a f t e r w a r d s c l a s s i c a l m u s i c . We had a f a m i l y j a z z ensemble i n N o r t h a m p t o n , where I grew up, and we p l a y e d on Sundays, even though my father was a P r i m i t i v e Methodist . The f i r s t composers I admired were Handel and Puree 11. There are those gorgeous trumpet p a r t s f o r S t . P a u l ' s W e s t m i n s t e r Abbey. I used to love them: I would p l a y them on my own f o r sheer e n j o y m e n t . Then t h e r e was Debussy , F a u r e , and D e l i u s . T h e i r uses of c o l o u r s has a lways impressed me. I loved p l a y i n g Mahler's music and bought a l l the scores I could f i n d . ^ M a l c o l m A r n o l d became a member o f the London P h i l h a r m o n i c Orchestra i n 1941 and became p r i n c i p a l trumpet i n 1942. He i s keenly aware that h i s m u s i c i s t r a d i t i o n a l - - m u s i c that has o b v i o u s t o n a l goals and recognizable thematic m a t e r i a l . He s ta tes : t h a t h i s m u s i c s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d " t r a d i t i o n a l . " I t ' s v e r y e a s i l y a t t a c k e d b e c a u s e o f t h i s . I 'm n o t a s h a m e d o f s e n t i m e n t a l i t y - - not at a l l . I t h i n k new m u s i c s h o u l d be a c c e s s i b l e . That was Hindemith's thing - - although he went over the top w i t h Gebrauchmusik - - but the idea of music for youth and f o r the p e o p l e i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t . H i n d e m i t h ' s m u s i c i s so b e a u t i f u l l y p l a c e d . A l l my m u s i c i s meant to be p l a y a b l e by amateurs or p r o f e s s i o n a l s I b e l i e v e s t r o n g l y i n that - - and that i t should contain every v a r i e t y of mood. The two o u t e r s e c t i o n s are f a n f a r e - l i k e , making f o r a p o w e r f u l b e g i n n i n g and e n d i n g to the c o m p o s i t i o n . These two s e c t i o n s w i l l be designated as A and A l . Each sec t ion has c l e a r beginnings and endings. The opening A s e c t i o n , ending on a sustained e', takes the music in to a f r a n t i c 6/8 rondo which w i l l be designated as the B sec t ion . (See Ex. 2a) Ex. 2a. A r n o l d , Fantasy for B - F l a t Trumpet, mm. 18-24. The sustained e' announces an important s t r u c t u r a l point , but obviously the changed time signature and the d e f i n i t i v e change to a l i g h t e r and faster a r t i c u l a t i o n also indicate a new sect ion. The C sect ion is equally apparent, again by the use of a sustained e" , a change in time signature - - 3/4 - - and a very l y r i c a l theme. Indicated below is Example 2b, the l y r i c a l theme of the Fantasy. Ex. 2b. Arnold, Fantasy for B-Flat Trumpet, mm. 67-79. [GI Allegretto (J =92) p cantabile sip There is no hint of a t o n a l i t y in this work as is demonstrated by the t r i a d i c C sect ion above. T r i a d i c sections l i k e this can be found throughout the work. The Al sect ion i s again announced by obvious s t r u c t u r a l components. The music stops between sect ion C and A l , supplying a dramatic pause as w e l l as demonstrating the composer's appreciation of endurance problems on the instrument. (See Ex. 2c) Ex. 2c. Arnold, Fantasy for B-Flat Trumpet, mm. 101-11. In I " PP (Tj Maestoso (J = ioo> 'fmarcaio As mentioned earl ier , the Fantasy C section is based entirely on a 9 tr iadic theme. It is quite apparent that Arnold intends the work to be approachable by even the amateur who, even today, would have some trouble handling works with no suggested harmonies and tonality. There is hardly a measure of music where the intended harmony is not obvious. The Vivace sec t ion , designated as B, uses three t r a d i t i o n a l ways of indicating simple harmonies. In the f i r s t bar, measure 22, the e minor t r i a d i s o u t l i n e d . (See ex. 2d) Ex. 2d. Arnold, Fantasy for B-Flat Trumpet, m. 22. Vivace (J = laro The tonal o r i e n t a t i o n of the whole piece is C major. Malcolm Arnold changes the colour of the work considerably by using the relative minor of G major - - E minor. The work would be much less i n v e n t i v e , harmonical ly and t o n a l l y , i f the composer had s e t t l e d on using the dominant of C major a l l the time. In measure 14 and 15 there i s a strong dominant G. This also occurs in measures 19-21. (See ex. 2e) Ex. 2e. Arnold, Fantasy for B-Flat Trumpet, mm. 14-21. Measures 68-70 push towards a p o t e n t i a l G major area but at the last moment at which the l i s t e n e r expects the V, e minor subst i tutes i t . (See ex. 2f) 10 Ex. 2f. Arnold, Fantasy for B-Flat Trumpet, mm. 68-71. The dynamics help demonstrate the confl ic t between G major and E minor. In Example 2d (also 2e) the dynamic level - - " f f " - - occurs on the G and there i s a sudden and dramatic decrescendo as soon as the e minor tonal area i s apparent. Only i n the f i n a l sect ion - - Al - - i s there a decis ive V-I cadence. In the fourth and f i f t h measures of K the G tonal area is accented. The anticipation of the dominant chord's a r r i v a l i s greater than the a n t i c i p a t i o n of the tonic because the dominant is consistently substituted by i ts relative minor "E". (See ex. 2g) Ex. 2g. Arnold, Fantasy for B-Flat Trumpet, mm. 117-20. There are, of course, a number of scales used in th is work, but the only time a scale b u i l t on g occurs i s at measure 122, where i t frames the dominant chord in a traditional assertion of tonality. (See ex. 2h) Ex. 2h. Arnold, Fantasy for B-Flat Trumpet, mm. 121-26. accelerando lr- 1 ritardando T W 11 NOTES Andrew Stewart, "Malcolm Arnold," Music Teacher (June, 1989) I b i d . , p. 25. ' i b i d . , p. 26. 12 CHAPTER III ROBERT HENDERSON'S VARIATION MOVEMENTS, 1967 For the performer and the general l istener, Henderson's Variation Movements, 1967 is dramatically different than the Arnold Fantasy just discussed. Although the piece lends i t s e l f to detailed analysis, for this purpose a rather general discussion, with some d e t a i l , w i l l make the musical decisions clearer. Robert Henderson was born in Pimona, California on May 13,. 1948. He current ly holds the p o s i t i o n of musical d i r e c t o r and conductor of the Arkansas Symphony in L i t t l e Rock, Arkansas. He has studied the v i o l i n , French horn, and piano as well as composition. At California State U n i v e r s i t y , Henderson worked with Daniel Lewis and Donal Michalsky. In a d d i t i o n , he studied with Ingolf Dahl at U.S.C. Among Henderson's awards is the prestigious B.M.I, composer's grant, of which he was one of the youngest r e c i p i e n t s . Of note is that the V a r i a t i o n Movement s, 1967 was the featured composition in 1978 at the Munich Instrumental Competition. This composition has components of serialism using a nine-note row rather than the more frequently used twelve-tone row. There are five movements, each of which u t i l i z e s the nine-note row which is presented at the beginning of the f i r s t movement. (See Ex. 3a) This f i r s t movement i s , s ignif icantly , entitled "Theme." The breath mark at the end of measure 3 makes i t c lear that the row - - i n i t s most complete 13 form has been presented. (See Ex. 3a) Ex. 3a. Henderson, Variation Movements, 1967, F i rs t Movement, mm. 1-9. Moving and in a s i n p i n ^ s t y l e At the beginning of measure 4, the d#" is the f i r s t repeated note of the composition. This p i t c h has important r a m i f i c a t i o n s in t h i s movement. It i s the f i r s t note of the second phrase. In s t r i c t twelve-tone technique a particular pitch should not come between two statements of the row. Also, the f i r s t two lines of the f i r s t movement show that the second breath mark comes before the g", which is the ninth and f i n a l note of the nine-note row. Although, as mentioned, the Henderson has components of s e r i a l music, two significant features are evident, especially in the f i r s t movement: 1) the f i r s t nine notes, while being s e r i a l i s t i c i n themselves, do hint at t o n a l i t y , and 2) the movement begins and concludes with an e'. Throughout the work, the s e r i a l i s t i c components give way to tonally motivic material. Because of the close association between the d# and the e and the former pi tch 's obvious leading tone tendencies, the assumption in serialism is that the two notes would not be placed by one another. With the d# appearing before the e, e s p e c i a l l y one note before, suspicions of a tonal centre are w e l l - founded. There are two examples where the d# appears directly before e - - measures 20-21 (See Ex. 3b) and measure 4 (See Ex. 3a), 14 Ex. 3b. Henderson, Variation Movements, 1967, First Movement, mm. 10- 18. The cadential formula seen in the last two bars delays the leading tone d#'-e'. There i s , however, no question of a tonal centre as the music resolves on the e'. (See Ex. 3c) Ex. 3c. Henderson, Variation Movements, 1967, F i rs t Movement, mm. 53-r 54. The cadential f i r s t movement features a number of formula. The appearance of the formula appearances of the at measures 29-32 is particularly interesting because the resolution to the e" is delayed. (See Ex. 3b) In a traditional manner, Henderson is able to capitalize on the ear's tonal expectations by delaying the resolution. Measure 31 delays the i n e v i t a b l e . It is c r u c i a l that the dynamic markings are adhered to. Af t er the g' a decrescendo begins on the low b. Measure 31 with the f c " a' is piano, and measure 32, with the e" , i s not only being encouraged by a crescendo but, for the f i r s t time i n the piece , a note i s repeated consecutively . Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , the repeated note i s e" . The cadent ia l formula found throughout the f i r s t movement also indicates important tonal r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Each note can be shown to have some r e l a t i o n s h i p to e. the d#, as mentioned e a r l i e r , i s the leading tone to e minor; the b i s a dominant of the tonic e area; and the g is the relative major of e minor. The second movement features a variation similar , in concept, to the f i n a l v a r i a t i o n of the famous cornet solo, Carniva l of Venice by Arban. In the Arban, the main theme is accented under a turn, as opposed to the Henderson which has the most obvious melodic line in the upper voice. Another difference between the Carnival of Venice and the Henderson c o m p o s i t i o n i s that the l a t t e r i s more complex i n rationalizing the source of the pitch material. Shown below i s the main theme of the Carnival of Venice. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the theme (See Ex. 3d) and the f i n a l v a r i a t i o n (See Ex. 3e) is i l l u s t r a t e d not only by the accents but also by the registral change between the accompanying line and the theme line. 16 Ex. 3d. Arban, Carnival of Venice, Theme. (A) 8 Theme i is - _. . — . _ "j Var. I 3 H Ex. 3e. Arban, Carnival of Venice, Var. VIII. rt Var. VIII F [ j j ] r r , r > In n In n -J • JTU- 'j f m m m ^1 > 1 * CLSTJ > — (—f 1 Given below is the Henderson Variation Movements, 1967 theme or prime row. (See Ex. 3f) Ex. 3f. Henderson, Variation Movements, 1967, First Movement, mm. 1- 13. if - Pt, -'. i ' 1 1 }—^0 t — ~ n t * i — — ~ t 1 i The variation, movement two, uses the same idea of register change, as well as art iculation, and dynamic changes - - loud for the upper notes 17 and soft for the lower notes. (See Ex. 3g) Ex. 3g. Henderson, Variation Movements, 1967, Second Movement, mm. 1- 16. There is transposition of a minor third between the notes in the f i r s t line of the second movement with those of the f i r s t movement. It i s s i g n i f i c a n t to e s t a b l i s h (since i t i s , p r i m a r i l y , a theme and v a r i a t i o n piece) some r e l a t i o n s h i p with a l l movements to the f i r s t movement. In the Arban solo the cornet is given a theme (See Ex. 3d) which i t then ornaments i n the d i f f e r e n t v a r i a t i o n s . Example 3e features the cornet o u t l i n i n g the theme with accented notes. The remainder of the notes in the cornet part serve as an accompaniment to these accented pitches which are w r i t t e n i n the lower r e g i s t e r . Henderson's second movement follows this same form of variation. In example 3g the P3 form of the ser ies (the theme) is accented loudly while softer and lower notes serve as an accompaniment. The accompaniment to the accented melody in the Henderson is more complicated than the Arban. These lower note groups have some r e l a t i o n s h i p to something that has occurred e i ther i n the f i r s t movement or as the second movement progresses. Three examples w i l l be given. The f i r s t example i s from measure 4. This i s an i n t e r e s t i n g measure because there are four notes instead of the more common three- 18 note pattern that permeates the movement. This is the cadence formula that concluded the f i r s t movement. Not only does the grace note add attention to this section but the dramatic rest before the four notes is reminiscent of the f i r s t movement. It should be r e c a l l e d that a rest preceded every statement of the cadent ia l formula. (See Ex. 3g) Measure 5, the second example, uses a three-note group i n the lower voice that is found in the upper voice in measures 2 and 3. In the t h i r d example the seventh measure features e' f#' c as the three note set. The origin of this particular set is the upper voice of measures 5, 6, and 7 on the downbeat of each aforementioned bar. (See ex. 3g) In the third movement, from measures 1-10, a l l the accented notes coincide with the thematic or tone row pitches heard at the beginning of the f i r s t movement. This variation technique is reminiscent of the Carnival of Venice cornet solo discussed with i ts close s imi lar i t ies in 3 the second movement of th is composition. Two s i m i l a r types of variation techniques are shown in Examples 4a and 4b. Ex. 4a. Arban, Carniva l of Venice., Var. V. * * «a J"'J J KK roc Var.V /L\> F * m ^ » p m "*T^ — - - t s J r / lb J mam , r— m m f ^\^ r ' ^^S^ F Sm 1 N^tty ^ J l ^ n r>m, •P# — — —[—" ' - J CU1; ' J J * H f-ff LLP -J-«̂ » L •H sfc-j - F T » w „ • - -V. 19 Ex. 4b. Henderson, Variation Movements, 1967, Third Movement, mm. 1- 12. In the v a r i a t i o n s of the two themes, both composers wri te out rapid passages eighth notes for the Henderson and t r iple t sixteenth notes for the Arban - - with the accented notes representing the exact thematic m a t e r i a l . The Henderson u t i l i z e s th is standard v a r i a t i o n technique found in much earl ier popular cornet l i terature. Henderson stops the note-for-note relationship (at least with the whole row) at measure 11. It is the different time value in measure 11 that signals the whole theme w i l l not continue. However, the variation technique w i l l continue to be u t i l i z e d i n th is movement. There are other important compositional elements that give a clue that something d i f f e r e n t might occur. For example, i t is the loudest point of this particular movement helped by a rather large crescendo; also, i t is the f i r s t moment of silence in the movement. (See Ex 4b) The note-for -note r e l a t i o n s h i p , at least with the whole row presented at the beginning of the f i r s t movement, ceases at measure 11. 20 At measures 12-14 the cadence formula from the f i r s t movement i s outlined d#' g' b, but s ignif icantly , the resolution to e' found at the end of the f i r s t movement is lost. Instead measures 14-16 are a rough sequence using f#' b ' d " . Measure 15 simply ornaments the accented notes like the earl ier part of the movement. Measure 16 then resolves, i n i t i a l l y to the g' - - d r a m a t i c a l l y at the piano dynamic. At this p o i n t of the work the g i s a note of s i g n i f i c a n c e . It h e l p s predetermine the f inal note of the movement - - the g' which occurs in measure 32. The symmetry of the two appearances of the g as cadence notes is obvious. The f i r s t g' in measure 16 and the f i n a l note g' at the end of the movement. (See Ex. 4c) Ex. 4c. Henderson, Variation Movement, 1967, Third Movement, mm. 13- 16. \ - * P ' «r This movement gives a sense of two pitches - - g and a - - battl ing for s u p e r i o r i t y as the tonal centre. For that matter the fourth movement continues the tension between these two notes. One o«f the spots in the music that demonstrates this tension occurs from measures 25-30. (See Ex. 4d) The accented notes of measure 30 and measure 25 - - e.' a' c' - - s p e l l an "a" minor t r i a d . Measure 30 and the last beat of measure 29 features, as accented notes - - e' g' c' •?- which spells a C major t r i a d . The e' and c' are common notes to the two t r i a d s with g' and a' as the only unrelated notes. Dynamically , the accented a' appears stronger in measure 30 than the accented g' of measure 29. The 21 music descends chromatically in the f i n a l two measures going as low as the low a, but then leaping to the a0' and concluding on a g' at a pianissimo dynamic. Perhaps i t is with a sense of musical humour that Henderson places the pianissimo g' in the same rhythmical point as the fortissimo a' of measure 30. (See Ex. 4d) Ex. 4d. Henderson, Variation Movements, 1967, Third Movement, mm. 24- 32. H — H — ^ - U ^ J^J 1 1 L p ntft - * J i J ^4 The fourth movement i s a re f reshing change of atmosphere from movements 2 and 3. The movement is in three sec t ions , a standard composit ional feature of the v a r i a t i o n s . The use of two d i f f e r e n t mutes separated by an open sect ion defines the three sect ions . The f i r s t section, from measures 1-12, uses the straight mute; the second s e c t i o n , from measures 12-26 uses the open instrument; and the t h i r d section, from measures 27 to the end uses the harmon mute. This movement does depend on the row but certain thematic events from e a r l i e r movements are obvious. In the middle sec t ion i t uses small flashbacks - - quasi cadenza - - from the three earl ier movements. However, i t is the third movement that is most closely related to the fourth movement. More significant than the obvious relationship from the f i r s t three movements are the tensions between the a and g discussed in movement three, especially at the end of that movement. 2 2 The ear is drawn to the s i m i l a r i t i e s between the f i r s t bars of the t h i r d and fourth movements because of shared pitches e' f g' a' g' in the same register. (See Ex. 5a and 5b) Not surprisingly, the sharing of pitches stops af ter the f i f t h note g'. C u r i o u s l y , although the g' is the f i n a l note much of the f i r s t section focuses on the "a". After the breath mark in measure 10 the a is heard four times. The f i r s t two times i t i s accented; the f o l l o w i n g two times i t is not. A l s o , there i s a diminuendo to pianiss imo, a res t , and a# concludes the f i r s t sec t ion . Apparent focus on the a i s spoi led as th is p i t c h serves as the leading tone to a#. (See Ex. 5b) Ex. 5a. Henderson, Variation Movements, 1967, Third Movement, mm. 1-2. --•> - - - - - j m mf -iilllPii Ex. 5b. Henderson, Variation Movements, 1967, Fourth Movement, mm. 1- 12. S l o w a n d i n a l y r i c s t y1< Straight mute m din The middle sec t ion , which begins at measure 13, i s w r i t t e n predominantly in the low register u n t i l the a " in measure 23. In this movement the highest , loudest, and lowest notes are a l l "a". Also of note is the use of the cadence formula from the f i r s t movement. The 23 rests are important, especially the sixteenth rest, where Henderson has i n d i c a t e d that the las t s ixteenth note be played very short . It is imperative that the d#'-e' r e l a t i o n s h i p not be muddied by poor execution. The length of notes must be perfect for the cadence formula to be recognized. (See Ex. 5c) Ex. 5c. Henderson, V a r i a t i o n Movements, 1967, Fourth Movement, mm. 11-28. - - • After the powerful a " a quasi cadenza closes the middle section. Measure 26, the f inal measure of the second section, contains material taken from measures 33-36 of the f i r s t movement. This part of the f i r s t movement, like the f inal measure of this section, cadences very s o f t l y on the g', d i s r u p t i n g the s h o r t - l i v e d climax on the a " i n measure 22. (See Ex. 5c) In the third section, measures 27-28 transpose the f i r s t measure of the t h i r d movement up a major t h i r d . T h i s n o t e - f o r - n o t e t r a n s p o s i t i o n , however, stops on the downbeat of measure 20 in the fourth movement. The f#', s ignif icantly , rises to the g' in measure 29 instead of an a' had the t r a n s p o s i t i o n continued. This i s proof that 24 the "a" and "g" are s t ruggl ing for s u p e r i o r i t y . (Compare Exx. 5a to 5d) Ex. 5d. Henderson, Variation Movements, 1967, Fourth Movement, mm. 26- 40. Measures 31 and 32 place the f i r s t four notes of the f i r s t movement theme in retrograde building to a crescendo on the only g " of the movement. Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , the g " moves chromat ica l ly to the lower a' get t ing progress ively sof ter . This a' has l i t t l e emphasis because the cadential formula follows immediately in measures 34-36. This refocus on the "e" also gives way to a presentation of the i n i t i a l row missing only one note - - the "a" . The g#' i n measure 39 hints at an a' but instead a rest f o l l o w s . The f#' in the measure before patiently waits for the g' which appears at "ppp". (See Ex 5d) Henderson's f i f t h movement features a three-voice fugue. When the second voice presents the fugue subject at measure 7 the music i s written on two staves. Similarly , when the fugue subject is presented i n a t h i r d v o i c e the music i s w r i t t e n on three s t a v e s . T h i s fac i l i ta tes the a b i l i t y of the composer to inser t countersubjects in the other voices . For example, when the fugue subject enters in the 25 second voice at measure 7, the f i r s t voice executes a countersubject based on i n t e r j e c t o r y t r i l l s . (See Ex. 6a) At measure 17, when the third voice announces the fugue subject, the top line presents another countersubject of t r i p l e t notes while the middle voice continues the countersubject based on the t r i l l s . ^ (See Ex. 6b) Ex. 6a. Henderson, Variation Movements, 1967, F i f t h Movement, mm. 1-8. 7 7 f=r rt ^ t—h^ # - * J 4 5 • - • 4 j> 4 4 , , — - — # : — r — * \ Ex 6b. Henderson, Variation Movements, 1967, F i f t h Movement, mm. 13- 20. P-9__La.t 4 n o t e s R I 4 l a s t 4 PO RT-.ll Last.,4 This movement could be discussed in great detail with focus on the fugue form and a l l of the re la ted rows and the i r c o n t r i b u t i o n . However, there is something far more interesting to explain and that is 26 why the piece ends on "c#". There are many places i n the f i f t h movement that substantiate this ending and i t is this angle that w i l l be pursued in this document. The f i r s t episode involves the f i r s t six measures of the movement and their obvious relationship to the beginning of the f i r s t movement. Measures 5 and 6 use the same pi tch mater ia l as measures 4-7 of the f i r s t movement and again this presentation stops on a "c#" in measure 6 of the f i f t h movement as i t was stopped by a breath mark at the end of measure 7 i n the f i r s t movement. (Compare Exx. 6a to 3a) When comparing this section with the parallel events in the f i r s t movement i t i s apparent how the "c#" was selected as the f i n a l note of the composition. Measures 17-19 are of significance as the fugue subject is a major third higher than the prime 7 presentation starting at measure 11. In a d d i t i o n the countersubject i s also transposed up a major t h i r d . However, the b t r i l l i n g should have moved to a#; d r a m a t i c a l l y , the t r i l l resolves to c# i n t e r r u p t i n g what was an obvious i n t e r v a l l i c relationship. (See Ex. 6b) There are countless points in the music where various in terval l i c relationships are interrupted by the "c#". The expectancy of that "c#" is greatly enhanced i f the performer realizes this. At measure 36 the f i r s t staff begins a significant presentation of three rows which end in the middle of measure 42. The f i r s t row is P- 5, the second is P-8, and the t h i r d is P-2-. During these three presentations the second s t a f f continues to play the f lut ter tongued pitches as accompaniment while the bottom staff continues the rhythmic figures originating from the second, movement. There are some important 27 p i t c h concerns i n th is sect ion which involve the "c#". Between the presentation of the P-5 and P-8 versions of the subject in the top s t a f f there is one note which does not f i t i n e i ther presentation - - c#". A l s o , in the countersubject of the middle s t a f f , the g#' c#' found in measure 39 of the top staff is repeated. A definite dominant- tonic relationship. (See Ex. 6c) Ex. 6c. Henderson, Variation Movements, 1967, F i f t h Movement, mm. 37- 44.. - - 1 • •• nP 1 > . h / > 1 LJ 1 l'» - , • ^ r -— !̂*~~cJ— r 1 V r P 5 fi - K & > =4̂ — L > P 8 1 fe— ^ = a fi > -=n — = v ip *F—-— hfi - . . . . . . n ^ . N tfri _ P 2 • ; L v — • J i # * B 3 The third section, beginning at measure 45, develops the interval of a perfect fourth. These fourths, however, are not the key issue of these three measures. A l l pitches are present in these three measures except f# a# and c#. As can be observed in the las t measure these pitches are integral. (See Exx. 6d and 6e) 28 The "f#" has great significance in the buildup to the cadence from measures 24-30 that c loses the f i r s t sec t ion . The "f#" acts as the dominant to the "B" area and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to the "B" area is that of a tonic dominant relation as well . (See Ex. 6f) 2 9 Ex. 6f. Henderson, Variation Movements, 1967, F i f t h Movement, mm. 24- 32. • J T - n - N L , > = ,ir,Hf V , i rty suo. cresc. > -=| — * - / — td 1 r r ' n <—i no D 7 gL M *y i n ! > •/ j */ !|i U j S i * — 3fc J > I -ftp - YtY - - - j a". m ' XI iv -4—• r 1 *tr~ - *F 1 fl# > 5J •;if>.,^t»-™ ™ ' -tr 'L=* ; — r (—f- - - l _ i Ul L _ l " LJ L L -4r y y — , y P-1 j) - i — [ i i j-i—IY fonr -1 / / Some important elements can be found i n measures 49-50. In measure 49, combining a l l voices with the middle staff in measure 50 presents the fugue subject i n i t s o r i g i n a l p i t c h form. However, the whole subject i s not presented. The eighth note f o l l o w i n g the f#' should have been "c#." Instead the top voice transposes the f i n a l three pitches of the middle voice of measure 50. (See Ex. 6d) By looking at the las t measure (Ex. 6e) the "F" t r i a d is o u t l i n e d i n the f i r s t beat. In measure 49 and 50 the second, third and fourth notes of the row a c f are given. It i s imperative that the a r t i c u l a t i o n be executed so that the e' is not considered part of this three-note set. A l s o , the C major t r i a d in the top s t a f f of measure 50 is included in the second beat of the f i n a l measure. F i n a l l y , the f# a#(B^) c# is apparent because of the three-note group's absence in measures 45-47 when a l l twelve notes were seemingly going to appear. It cannot be random thought for the F# triad to be absent. F i n a l l y , there i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p to the f i r s t measure of the 30 f i r s t movement. The f i r s t three notes s p e l l an "a" minor t r i a d . The f i f t h of the triad is the "e" which concludes the f i r s t movement. The discussion of the F# triad in the f i n a l measure and measures 45-47 of the f i f t h movement substantiates the C# as the f i f t h of that triad and thus the concluding p i t c h . This is a good example of a composer unifying a l l of the substantial musical elements. 31 NOTES Already, there is an important performance d e c i s i o n , as the i n i t i a l tendency would have been to play through the breath mark. M u s i c a l l y , th is would be an error as i t would d i s t o r t c e r t a i n l i n e a r and even harmonic goals found in the movement. The Henderson is more d i f f i c u l t than the Arban because the leaps are much wider and more d i f f i c u l t for the player to hear. In addition, the adherence to perfection with regard to the dynamic markings adds awkwardness. This passage has to be prac t ised very s lowly at f i r s t with not only precise pitches but also equally precise dynamics. An error in dynamic levels is more damaging to the i n t e g r i t y of the movement than would be a missed note. The theme of Carnival of Venice can be reviewed in Example 3d and the theme of the Henderson can be reviewed in Example 3f. ^This scoring device is very helpful when performing and learning the movement in order to understand where the thematic mater ia l i s . Reading music l i k e , this, however, is rather confusing and i t could be suggested that each individual line could be condensed into one line as trumpet players' are accustomed to reading. 32 CHAPTER IV STANLEY FRIEDMAN'S SOLUS Stanley Friedman's Solus was selected because of i ts combined use of a number of innovative techniques now demanded of the modern day trumpet player. The most significant of innovative techniques found in this composition include micro-tuning, s l i d e g l i s s a n d i , pedal tones, open tubing, and aleatoric rhythms and pitches. His trumpet i n s t r u c t o r was Sidney Mear, to whom Solus is dedicated. His composition instructor was Samuel Adler. He has won a number of distinguishing awards for his compositions. Solus was the second place winner of the 1976 International Trumpet Guild contest. The f i r s t movement of Friedman's Solus e n t i t l e d " Int roduct ion" begins with a one bar theme that w i l l be developed and treated in a number of d i f f e r e n t ways. The opening measure w i l l often appear transposed at different pitch levels as seen in measure 12. (Compare Ex. 7a to Ex. 7b) Ex. 7a. Friedman, Solus, f i r s t movement, mm. 1-2. V e r y f r e e l y ( J = 5 0 ) 33 Ex. 7b. Friedman, Solus, f i r s t movement, m. 12. In the f i r s t movement certain intervals are developed particularly the major seventh (d^' to c") or i t s inverted form of a minor second. (See Ex. 7a) The f i n a l four pitches of the movement, f " c " d * 5 " ' a, presents a retrograde vers ion of the f i r s t measure. (Compare Ex. 7a with Ex. 7c) Ex. 7c. Friedman, Solus, f i r s t movement, mm. 42-46. D i f f e r e n t v a l v e e f f e c t s l i k e the t r e m o l o and d i f f e r e n t a r t i c u l a t i o n e f f e c t s l i k e f l u t t e r t o n g u e are u t i l i z e d i n the presentation of the theme. (See Ex. 7c) The f i r s t movement is i n three sect ions . The f i r s t of these i s completed on a d ' "ppp" followed by a fermata and a double bar. The middle s e c t i o n , beginning at measure 12, restates the theme at a d i f f e r e n t p i t c h l e v e l and i n t r o d u c e s the g r e a t e s t number of contemporary trumpet techniques i n the movement. Measures 15-17 feature a number of standard t r i l l s . A l l of the t r i l l i n g i s a development of the major seventh interval of the opening; the t r i l l is the related minor second interval . (See Ex. 7d) 34 Ex. 7d. Friedman, Solus, Solus, f i r s t movement, mm. 15-17. tf. tf.. Measure 18 demonstrates a contemporary effect known as the slide glissando. Friedman defines i t as being produced by manipulation of the f i r s t and third valve slides as shown below: 2 sl ide 3 - - depress valves two and three and extend the third 3 valve slide to lower pitch 1 slide 1 - - depress valves one and two and extend the f i r s t valve 2 slide to lower pitch The reason the slide glissando is becoming a popular compositional technique for trumpet literature is to enable the instrument to u t i l i z e a d i f f e r e n t timbre and also to simulate changing p i t c h more l i k e a trombone. This effect requires special attention as the pitch is often d i f f i c u l t to execute perfectly.^ Ex. 7e. Friedman, Solus , f i rs t movement, mm. 17-18. In measure 20, the f i r s t s l i d e glissando is a whole step a' g' which is rather awkward followed by a second glissando from the g' a^'. When the a l t e r a t i o n of p i t c h is more than a semitone the movement of the slide w i l l not be sufficient to bring the pitch a whole step down. In addi t ion to moving the t h i r d s l i d e the player must " l i p " the note down. Moving from the g' to the a b ' is not d i f f i c u l t except that i t is 35 a different fingering combination than in measure 18. (See Ex. 7f) Ex. 7f. Friedman, Solus, f i r s t movement, mm. 20-22. The f ' - e ' s l i d e g l i s s a n d o i s not p o s s i b l e w i t h the g i v e n f inger ings (1 s l i d e 3). This i s undoubtedly a mispr int i n the published vers ion (see Ex. 7f) as Friedman, who is an accomplished player, would be aware that 1 slide 1 is the only workable combination for these two pitches . Moving the t h i r d valve s l i d e when using the f i r s t valve has no e f f e c t on the p i t c h . In any s l i d e gl issando the f i r s t or t h i r d valve has to be used. If i t i s only the f i r s t valve , then the f i r s t valve s l i d e must be used. The same holds true for the third valve sl ide. Measure 22 is a sequence of measure 21 and the a^ ' -g ' s l i d e glissando is not particularly d i f f i c u l t . It is not d i f f i c u l t because the player can s tar t on a note that w i l l use a regular f i n g e r i n g and slide to the note which w i l l not. It is much more d i f f i c u l t to execute in the reverse order where the fa lse f i n g e r i n g is combined with the s l i d e out. (See Ex. 7f) Measures 26 and 29 are e s p e c i a l l y d i f f i c u l t s l i d e g l i s s a n d i . Getting the e " and the a " i n the respect ive measures, with the respective valves depressed and slides out, is increasingly awkward as i t seems the higher one goes the less predic table the r e s u l t w i l l be.* In a d d i t i o n , measure 26 is harder because the p i t c h before uses the f l u t t e r tongue. (See Ex. 7g) 36 Ex. 7g. Friedman, Solus, f i r s t movement, mm. 23-29. The f inal technique required in the f i r s t movement of the Friedman is the tremolo. This effect sounds like a t r i l l but the t r i l l moves to the same note. This is achieved by alternating the regular fingering pattern. For example, the d " in measure 19 is played with the f i r s t valve depressed alternating rapidly with the 1/3 combination. (See Ex 7h) Ex. 7h. Friedman, Solus, f i r s t movement, m. 19. [rem. Most col lege players w i l l experience the i r f i r s t use of the tremolo in jazz music. The c lass ical player sees the tremolo in "Etude #17 I n t e r v a l l e s (Les S i x t e s ) " from C h a r l i e r T r e n t e ^ s i x E_tude_£ Transcendantes pour Trompette. The particular excerpt is especially helpful to practice in conjunction with preparing the f i r s t movement of the Friedman. (See Ex. 7i) The player should strive to make the notes very even and rhythmical. 37 Ex. 7i . Charlier, Etude #17, mm. 124-48. The t h i r d sec t ion , which begins at measure 30, s tar ts with a presentation of the theme with rhythmical modifications. It features a number of ideas discussed in the ear l ier sections. The piece concludes with the theme in retrograde. (See Ex. 7c) The second movement of Solus is entitled "Furtively." The Shorter Oxford Engl ish P i c t i o n a r y defines " F u r t i v e l y " as: "done by s t e a l t h ; c landest ine , s u r r e p t i t i o u s , secret 2) of a person, e tc : Steal thy, s ly 1858 3) S to le ; also taken by s t e a l t h or s e c r e t l y 1718 4) Thievish 1816." Gene Young commented on the second movement saying: A muted staccato prevails throughout the second section which is marked appropriately, "Furtively." The harmon mute is employed to further enhance the apprehensive mood. The notat ion is free , r e f l e c t i n g the atmosphere d e s i r e d , and a c c e l e r a n d o s and ralentandos are indicated through banding, a most common present day n o t a t i o n a l d e v i c e . There i s a moderate use of s l i d e extensions to alter pitch, and, gratefully, l i t t l e application of the overused hackneyed "Wah." The movement is e f f e c t i v e and indicates that music does not have to be technically impossible to be successful. The three sections in t h i s second movement are bordered by a registral change that is most audible to the listener - - this is by use of pedal tones. The f i r s t sec t ion comprises the f i r s t s ix l i n e s of the movement with the pedal tones concluding. The second sec t ion begins i n the 38 middle of the sixth line and concludes in the middle of the fourth line of the second page again s i g n a l l e d by the pedal tones. The t h i r d sect ion begins at the end of the fourth l i n e on the second page concluding "furt ively" at the "ppp" a*5 f lat after a three-second delay. The outer sections, unlike the middle section, use the lower range of the trumpet predominantly. The middle sect ion has a much louder dynamic marking and is much more disjunct, using many higher pitches. There are a number of contemporary features i n t h i s second movement. The use of aleatoric rhythm permeates the movement. Some rhythmic events, according to the way they are written, can be executed differently in every performance of the work. Banding, for example, is used regularly throughout the movement. When accelerating, the lines w i l l enlarge to three l i n e s and when d e c e l e r a t i n g , the l i n e s w i l l contract back to one line. This is the banding that Mr Young speaks of in his ar t ic le discussed above. Also, from performance to performance, the pitches, as in the second and third lines of the f i r s t section w i l l d i f f e r , although only fractionally. In this section the pitch change with the slide glissando technique occurs over a number of written E's as opposed to moving from one p i t c h to another as seen i n the f i r s t movement slide glissandi. The significance of the slide glissando at this point i s that the pitches being played when slowly p u l l i n g the s l i d e out w i l l again d i f f e r from performance to performance as the player w i l l not get the same pitch to sound every time. (See Ex. 7j) Ex. 7j. Friedman, Solus, second movement, f i r s t three lines. 39 Ex. 7j . Continued. Leon Dallen has a good definit ion of aleatoric elements in music: The crux of an a l e a t o r i c composition l i e s i n the elements predetermined by the composer and those lef t to the discretion of the performer. Any aspect of a composition can be fixed or free. For example, pitches can be notated i n uniform symbols without rhythmic significance, in which case the performer determines the pitch of each duration. Likewise, tempos, dynamics, articulations, form, and even the medium can be described and the same i n a l l performances, or u n s p e c i f i e d and p o t e n t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t i n each realization. The relative degrees of freedom and control vary in e x i s t i n g compositions from almost n i l to almost t o t a l i n both directions. From a time standpoint the indicated rests are a l e a t o r i c i n nature. These rests are shown by indicating the number of seconds of silence. The time spans (3" 4" 2"), however, should be proportionate. Consideration should be made according to the acoustical environment of the performance. If the h a l l has too much reverb the performer might consider wait ing longer so that a s u f f i c i e n t amount of s i lence has passed. The time spans (3" 4" 2"), however, should be proportionate. Returning to Example 7j and the second and t h i r d l i n e s some a t tent ion should be renewed on the microtonal aspects of th is particular section of the movement. The way this section was composed indicates that Friedman a c t u a l l y intends i t to sound l i k e a s l i d e glissando with a b /4 indication just showing the player where the pitch should be i n r e l a t i o n to how many notes w i l l be sounded before the actual w r i t t e n e^' is played nine notes l a t e r . In other words every four notes drop a quarter of a semitone. On the four w r i t t e n e*5' the 40 player must stop moving the third valve sl ide. (See Ex. 7j) One other microtonal event takes place in the second movement. It occurs on the f i r s t line of the second page. This particular line plus the two sextuplet figures just before are quite demanding, especially at a rapid tempo. What Friedman has accomplished in this section is a number of "false fingerings" that, when coordinated with the third and f i r s t t r i g g e r s , allows the player to h i t the r ight notes.^ (See Ex. Ex. 7k. Friedman, Solus, second movement, f i r s t l ine , second page. The three episodes where the hand i s used over the harmon mute offer no real d i f f i c u l t y to the player. In the f i r s t two examples the player simply l i f t s the hand o f f the mute at the point where WA is indicated. The third "WA," near the end of the piece requires that the player remove the hand from the mute simultaneously with the tongue s t r i k i n g the c'. (See Ex. 71) Ex. 71. Friedman, Solus, f i r s t l ine , second page. Friedman offers a rea l i s t i c suggestion when discussing the pedal tones in his performance i n s t r u c t i o n s . "Pedal tones are p r a c t i c a l , however, the performer may wish to experiment with f ingerings other 7k) dim. 41 than those indicated." His recommended fingerings are those that work best for him. Each player , as Friedman astutely acknowledges, f inds different combinations easier for their needs. The t h i r d movement, "Scherzando and Wal tz , " is quite l i g h t in nature. It is theatrical and indicates that the player should approach the w a l t z i n an "exaggerated and t h e a t r i c a l " s t y l e . I t i s a particularly effective movement following what happened in the second movement. A definit ion of "scherzando" i s : "direction that an impression of l ightheartedness i s to be given."^ Scherzo also means " joke" i n Italian. Friedman is not only developing new technical aspects of the trumpet but also develops a player's interpretative s k i l l s by including a movement l ike "Scherzando and Waltz." This movement should be approached with a sense of humour. For example, the basic theme given i n the f i r s t measures (See ex. 7m) supplies the impetus of the whole scherzando sect ion both at the beginning of the movement and also at the end where the scherzando concludes the movement. In the second measure of the theme the rhythmical placement of the two d " on beats three and f i v e is where the l ightheartedness o r i g i n a t e s . It would be assumed, i n the s t r i c t answer to the theme, found in measures 4 and 5, that the f i n a l two pitches would be the same - - which they are - - and that rhythmically they too would land on beats three and five. As is seen in example 7m, the f i r s t b b lands on beat three but the second b b lands on the second half of beat four. This witty answer, with obvious relationship to the f i r s t two measures has an even more witty episode in measures 6 and 7. The a' and b b reappear, as i f to place the b^ i n thei r r i g h t place, or at least in the same rhythmical placement as the d " i n measure 2. 42 Curiously, the a' is now found on beat one rather than beat two. This whole f i r s t section requires perfectly executed rhythm so that these " joke-l ike" events are obvious to the listener. Ex. 7m. Friedman, Solus, third movement, mm. 1-8. L i g h t l y ( J = 11z) In the f i n a l sect ion of the t h i r d movement where the scherzando reappears at a different pitch level the events discussed with regard to the f i r s t f i v e measures are expected to appear again. However, Friedman, in tongue-in-cheek response, eliminates the f inal two notes altogether. (Compare Ex. 7m to Ex. 7n) Ex. 7n. Friedman, Solus, third movement, last three lines. L i g h t l y ( J = i i 2 ) *i •«?-••+• I—i—1 >" •" • : - •/lip (open) =— f?r-> r — i Q ,v i i 11 ~i—' i— ". —• , /• n j ^ _. _ mp my SHAKE.' Two trumpet t e c h n i q u e s that are becoming more common i n contemporary trumpet literature are found in the third movement. The t r i l l s from f to g** in measures 26-27 are the f i r s t event. These t r i l l s are not possible on the C trumpet unless the pedal note f i n g e r i n g for the f is used. The instrument i s only able to play to 43 the low concert g which has a l l three valves depressed. To get the f with a l l three valves depressed the t h i r d valve t r igger must be as extended as possible. The t r i l l is d i f f i c u l t because the third valve s l i d e has to move i n and out for the two pitches . The l i p i s quite loose because the note is very low and thus with the s l i d e moving i n and out the trumpet does not f e e l very secure against the l i p . (See Ex. 7o) Ex. 7o. Friedman, Solus, third movement, mm. 26-27. The second trumpet technique which is becoming more popular i s found in the last l i n e of the movement and is c a l l e d a "shake." (See Ex. 7n) The shake i s an e f f e c t that has been u t i l i z e d in jazz music for many years and is becoming a more popular effect in contemporary trumpet literature. Smoker discusses the "shake" in his dissertation: The e f f e c t of the shake is much l i k e that of the t r i l l . F i r s t popularized by jazz musicians, i t i s produced by shaking the instrument against the l ips enough to produce the next overtone, usual ly higher . The speed of the shake is c o n t r o l l e d s o l e l y by the movement of the hands and arms used to shake the instrument. An up and down movement of the instrument against the l i p s i s often used to produce a slow shake; while and i n / o u t movement against the l i p s is frequently u t i l i z e d i n the production of a fast shake. These may be used i n combination a lso , the added mouthpiece pressure against the embouchure forces the l i p to v i b r a t e at a s l i g h t l y fas ter rate . As a r e s u l t , the highest harmonic is squeezed out.** The waltz section of the third movement offers no real technical problems on the instrument. It , however, needs an overly dramatic performance to really be effective. Words l ike "very rubato" or "molto vibrato" and also "exaggerated and theatrical" are words Friedman used [slide J) 44 in the indications at the beginning of the waltz section. Any attempt to play the waltz i n a s t r i c t 3/4 time without rubato - - except the last seven measures - - w i l l deem the section untheatrical. Some kind of programmatic thoughts may be useful i n approaching the waltz section, particularly the last three lines of i t which are devoted to only three pitches - - e' f d#'. From measures 62-70 the waltz loses i t s flow even though the metre is quite s t r i c t . It i s as i f two dancers are losing their step. Perhaps they are unable to go on as the rhythm gets more jerky with no real feeling of a strong downbeat. (See Ex. 7p) Ex. 7p. Friedman, Solus, third movement, mm. 60-70. The next two lines which are rhythmically aleatoric have taken the time or the waltz fee l r i g h t out of this "macabre" dance. It i s , d r a m a t i c a l l y , a very long time - - 5 " - - before the scherzando reappears after the end of the waltz which has become "progressively louder, more frantic , and more insane." That the scherzando reappears in this lighthearted style adding to a bizarre sense of humour that is evident throughout the movement. (See Ex. 7p, following measure 70) 45 The fourth movement e n t i t l e d "Fanfare" u t i l i z e s the concept of removing the second valve slide for the entire movement. The absence of the second valve slide creates a muting effect where the trumpet's tone is similar to that of a cornetto. When comparing the slide less sound with the normal trumpet sound, the former is muted trumpet type of timbre, is less focused, especially i n the lower r e g i s t e r , has less loudness p o t e n t i a l , has more f l e x i b i l i t y of intonation (each slot of the deformed overtone series is c h a r a c t e r i z e d by wider than u s u a l " l i p p a b l e " range, c a u s i n g considerable d i f f i c u l t y in attacking certain notes), and exits from a d i f f e r e n t part of the instrument, which may even be aimed i n a q different direction. There are some significant details that Friedman mentions in his performance i n s t r u c t i o n s and w i t h i n the body of the score. For example, the designated fingerings indicated in the score must be used in order to realize the composer's intended effect : The f a l s e tones are used e x c l u s i v e l y from the beginning of the movement to A. From A to B fa lse tones and r e a l tones are a l ternated . From B to C fa lse tones are again used e x c l u s i v e l y . At C real tones are employed.^ Throughout the movement there are many passages that have two dynamics i n d i c a t e d . For example, the f i r s t note of the movement has ppp/mp. This means that the player should play the note "mp" but because the note is a false tone produced through the second valve the resultant volume is only "ppp". (See Ex. 7q) Ex. 7q. Friedman, Solus, fourth movement, f i r s t line. (Remove second vnlve slide for enlire movement ! 46 Musically the false tones combined with the regular sound of the trumpet create the effect of two different instruments playing. The movement i s b a s i c a l l y a c o l l e c t i o n of fanfares which enables the composer to u t i l i z e the open-tubing technique. It i s this technique which sustains interest in the movement. 47 NOTES In measure 18, for example, the player must be able to hear the actual note before playing i t ; i t is good practice to begin on measure 17 when working out measure 18 so that the i n t e r v a l l i c r e l a t i o n s h i p between the b and the g' seem obvious. In this f i r s t example (See Ex. 7e) the 2-3) remains depressed for the entire measure (the second and third valve are the regular fingering for a '). To play the g' in tune with these valves depressed the third valve slide (which is attached to the t h i r d valve) , should go as far out as possible i n order to br ing the a0' down a h a l f step to g'. At the point where the a^' is c a l l e d for the s l i d e i s brought e n t i r e l y " i n , " br inging the p i t c h up a h a l f step to a0'. 2 • . • Each d i f f e r e n t f i n g e r i n g combination, even i f i t uses the same two notes, as i s the case with the g' a^' in measure 18, and measures 20-21, requires similar practice because the distance the slide has to move out w i l l be considerably d i f f e r e n t . The a ' -g ' 3 s l i d e 3 i s particularly awkward and the player should,, be cautioned that any over compensation in flattening w i l l make an E natural sound. (See Ex. 7f) Gene Young, "Solus review" Internat ional Trumpet Gui ld 5, no. 2 (Feb. 1979): 17. ^Leon Dallen, Twentieth Century Composition (Dubuque, Iowa: Wm C. Brown Company, 1980), pp. 239-40. ^It is most challenging to get the pitches in tune, especially the a' to f " on the top l i n e of the second page. Slow pract ice i n get t ing both t r iggers out i s a necessi ty and the player must get the t h i r d valve t r igger as far out as p o s s i b l e . This is rather awkward on the hand when executing the f " as i t requires the f i r s t slide a l l the way out. It was only by repeatedly playing the passage slowly and hearing the f " before playing i t that the accuracy was increased. The f i r s t f " is quite sharp and thus, when playing the second f " next to i t , the p i t c h sounds a quarter tone f l a t t e r . The player should not make the two f " in tune as i t was not the intention of the composer. Also, in experimentation with the f inger ings and s l i d e i n d i c a t i o n s i t is impossible to get them to play in tune. If the player attempts to" l ip" the second f " up or the f i r s t f " down, the player is c e r t a i n to miss one of the notes. This is the reason Friedman placed the b/4 (quarter tone f l a t ) between the two f " . (See Ex. 7k) The rest of the s l i d e g l i s s a n d i i n th is movement o f f e r no s i m i l a r d i f f i c u l t i e s . Slow practice w i l l improve the pitch considerably. ^Stan Friedman, Solus (Nashville: Brass Press, 1978), p. 9. ^Arthur Jacobs, A New D i c t i o n a r y of Music (Great B r i t a i n : C. Nichols and Company L t d . , 1973), p. 336. 48 Paul Smoker, "A Comprehensive Performance Project i n Trumpet Literature with a Survey of Some Recently Developed Trumpet Techniques and E f f e c t s Appearing i n Contemporary Music" (D.M.A. d i s s e r t a t i o n , University of Iowa, 1974), p. 117 q ' E d w i n H a r k i n s , " A s p e c t s of KRYL - T A Trumpet P i e c e , " International Trumpet Guild 5 (October, 1980): 25. 1 0 Stan Friedman, Solus (Nashville: Brass Press, 1980), p. 9. 49 CHAPTER V JOHN ELMSLY'S TRIPTYCH FOR TRUMPET AND TAPE John Elmsly composed T r i p t y c h i n 1985 and la ter revised the composition in 1987. Elmsly is a graduate in mathematics and music of Victoria University of Wellington, where he studied composition with David Farquhar. From 1975 to 1978 he held a post graduate scholarship from the Belgian Minstry of Cul ture . In 1977 he was awarded a f i r s t p r i z e in composition by the Royal Conservatory of Brussels where he studied with V i c t o r Legley and in 1978 continued study in Liege with Henri Pousseur, Philippe Boesmans and Frederic Rzewski. In 1981, after two years of teaching in London, he returned to New Zealand to take up the Mozart Fel lowship at the U n i v e r s i t y of Otago. This was followed by a further two years in London. In 1984 he joined the School of Music at the U n i v e r s i t y of Auckland as a lec turer in c o m p o s i t i o n . He has w r i t t e n works f o r d i v e r s e i n s t r u m e n t a l combinations from solo to f u l l orchestra as well as electronic music. Trumpet and tape has, over the past decade, become a popular addition to trumpet reci tals . John Elmsly 's T r i p t y c h o f f e r s trumpet players new challenges in contemporary music. Triptych offers as i ts most challenging apsect the synchronization of the trumpet and the tape or as i t is i n the s i x t h l i n e of the Prelude the a b i l i t y to avoid synchronizat ion. (See Ex. 8c) Elmsly mentions in his performance notes that "synchronization with the tape is indicated where necessary, 50 otherwise in the outer movements the performer should f e e l free to treat timing indications as approximate."^ As is often the case in works for trumpet with prepared electronic tape the score does not indica te every event that takes place electronically. Instead, the score w i l l give instruction regarding the tape's events only when i t a f f e c t s the trumpet player 's entrance, completion of a phrase or section, or any other such structural event where synchronization is important. The beginning of the "prelude" i s an example of how the player must be f u l l y conscious of timed events as f i f t e e n seconds must t ranspire before the f i r s t trumpet entrance. (See Ex. 8a) A l s o , at the end of the f i r s t sect ion (which takes place at the end of the fourth l ine) the player must be conscious of the one minute mark, as the f " r e s o l v i n g the g°" must be sustained for twenty seconds. If the player miscalculates they may not be able to hold the last pitches for the alotted time which is " t i l l the tape is si lent ." Ex. 8a. Elmsly, Triptych, f i r s t movement, f i r s t four lines. ' I — C D VP? z" Ull -tope, Silent l-j a 1 b« n - T — • r£» ; 4-2 f ! f "Il [k_ - ti U- • ? 51 Sometimes writing in pitch or rhythmical detail can be helpful for the performer i n th is kind of music. For example, on the f i n a l sustained note (g b " ) the tape w i l l play a pi tch that w i l l crescendo and decrescendo eight times. As can be seen by looking at example 8a this i s not indicated but would be useful to the player . S i m i l a r l y , a f t e r the general pause and the ten second tape alone, the tape, i n this ten second episode repeats a t r i p l e t f igure twenty times. (See Ex. 8b) For those who wish not to use a watch, the trumpet should enter a f t e r the twentieth group of t r i p l e t s . In a d d i t i o n , the tape helps set the tempo i n th is B sect ion as the f i r s t notes the trumpet has are also t r iplets . Ex. 8b. Elmsly, Triptych, f i r s t movement, f i f t h line. I'a?"- ' / HO" , vrr*'r f * i i — . ' M l i ! I L'l), r j > H \) 1 jpl I ; 7~~ ^ < < J $f "9= At the 1'45" point the tape and trumpet have a fugue l i k e idea where the tape plays the s ix note theme (See Ex. 8c ) and then the trumpet e n t e r s . The composer recommends the trumpet a v o i d synchronizat ion. This episode is very dramatic as Elmsly makes b r i l l i a n t use of the f u l l r e g i s t e r of the trumpet. The t h i r d and highest r e g i s t e r does not play the ent i re s ix note theme but instead repeats D-C sharp six times. This section w i l l definitely challenge the best players because of the extreme range and the loud volume at which i t must be played. 52 Ex. 8c. Elmsly, Triptych, f i r s t movement, lines 6-8. Following this episode, the tape plays alone from 2'25" - - 2'35" b u i l d i n g up to a f l o u r i s h that brings the trumpet back i n on a d ' " . The trumpet then descends t r i a d i c a l l y stopping on the lowest note of each phrase, a l lowing for another f l o u r i s h by the tape. Although a rest is not indicated in the score the composer has indicated that the trumpet must stop at the las t note of each phrase. (See Ex. 8d) Perhaps the use of / / would be useful in these three spots. Like the A section the B section also concludes on g^", holding the note unt i l a bass pulse is heard. Ex. 8d Elmsly, Triptych, f i r s t movement, lines 11-14. 53 Ex. 8d. Continued. (Z'457 3Et IP > (ca.3QZ}. ^"Mupe-j The second A sect ion reappears with s i m i l a r ideas, although the pitch levels are different. It too concludes the movement on a at the same dynamic l e v e l "ppp" which the trumpet had s tar ted the movement. The second movement, e n t i t l e d "Allemand Courant", immediately draws a t tent ion to Baroque s u i t e s . An obvious comparison between Bach's Allemande and Courante and Elmsly 's Allemand Courant i s that they are polyphonic and that both compositions consis t of only two voices . In a d d i t i o n , the set of E n g l i s h suites by Bach also begins with a Prelude followed by the Allemande and then the Courante. In the Bach suites each movement i s separated from the other. However, Elmsly's Allemand Courant is one movement. A Baroque model of the Courant is not detectable in the movement p a r t l y because the standard Courante is i n 3/2 time. There i s no indication that there is any three feel in the movement, outside of a 3/4 measure in the f i r s t repeat. One instance of s t y l i s t i c i m i t a t i o n of both the Allemand and Courante of the Baroque with the combined movement by Elmsly is the use of an anacrusis . This takes place in the tape part. (See Ex. 8e) 54 Ex. 8e. Elmsly, Triptych, second movement, mm. 1-7. . 1 L J 3 ^ 32E .1 n i . 1 J " — m a r c . f 1 > 1 . 2 -*<=v- i i i moroa+ol ^ > as m The events that best associate this movement with i t s Baroque counterpart are f i r s t l y , the f i r s t sect ion being repeated and i n the second ending i ts attempt at creating a modulation. In the Baroque era this modulation would go to the dominant key area. The movement has a d e f i n i t e "D" tonal centre, as is quickly noted by the tape's s t a r t i n g pitch and the trumpet's i n i t i a l entrance. This entrance outlines both the D minor t r i a d and also the D major t r i a d . This s h i f t i n g between the minor and the major t r i a d s (and key areas) i s a feature of the movement. There is similar shift ing between minor and major modes when the piece f i n a l l y a r r ives in the dominant key area of A. (See Ex. 8f vand Ex. 8g) Ex. 8f. Elmsly, Triptych, second movement, mm. 29-33. TV u r n H i FT 1 > rH-ar—1 -f^-] 3 4 = r : -L rr\f 55 Ex. 8g. Elmsly, Triptych, second movement, mm. 16-28. 7 -J' / v . . : y , 5 • > © > Typically, in the Baroque Allemand or Courante a dominant cadence is found at the end of the f i r s t section, which would be at measure 17. This dominant cadence event does not take place unt i l measure 28. The expected event in a Baroque Allemand or Courante would have a cadence in the A key area occurr ing at measure 17 i n the second ending. Instead, an e' (V/V) assumes importance for a few measures moving to a b " - - the dominant key area of E - - with a g' being played on the tape. Measure 20 hints at the A key area with the broken arpeggio (see Ex. 8g) but i t i s f o i l e d by the sustained b " on the trumpet and the g' on the tape. As Douglas Moore points out "the second h a l f , which i s u s u a l l y longer, is concerned with the problems of finding i ts way back to the tonic. When this is achieved the piece comes to an end." As soon as the A tonal area is es tabl ished at measure 28 there is a dramatic silence and the immediate search for the D tonic area which does appear 3 at the end of the movement. Harmonically, this movement is very much related to Baroque models in the simplest of terms. The tonic modulation is to the dominant key area but resolves back to the tonic at the end of the B section. Measures 32 to the end are unusual because they are d i r e c t l y re la ted to the beginning of the piece. Such d i s t i n c t i v e thematic patterns in Baroque Allemandes and Courantes are rare. At f i r s t these last s ix measures appeared to be a return to the A sect ion except at the dominant level . However, because there is other shared materials in the B section (See Ex. 8e and Ex. 8g) - - measures 5-7 and measure 25 - - i t seems that Elmsly is trying to maintain a binary design in place and that the B sect ion should be considered complete at the f i n a l cadence of the d'. The f i n a l movement "Rondeau-Gigue," seems to combine c e r t a i n elements of the t r a d i t i o n a l Rondeau and the t r a d i t i o n a l Gigue. In consultation with the composer, he stressed that the forms are, in the case of the second and t h i r d movements, a fusion of two types - - Allemand Courant in the second movement and Rondeau-Gigue in the third movement. The composer feels that the fusion of the rondeau and gigue is the most obvious. The Rondeau and Gigue are movements often found at the ends of suites. The gigue feel is primarily attained by the feeling of t r iplet rhythms found i n a l l sections of the movement --"sometimes in the 57 accompaniment and sometimes i n the trumpet part . In most Mozart sonatas and concertos the rondo concluded the composition. The simplest rondo form would be ABACADA - - the A sect ion would always represent the r e c u r r i n g sect ion. For example, at the l ' l O " , 2'56" and 3'49" point, which would a l l be designated A sections there are a number of recurring events. In each case the trumpet sustains a long note waiting for the tape to enter playing t r iplets as an accompaniment figure. In each of these A sections the t r iple t accompaniment figure is consis tent . The l ' l O " A sect ion and the 3'49" A sec t ion also share the same thematic material although the f i n a l A section is at a higher p i t c h l e v e l - - s t a r t i n g on the dominant of A - - i . e . e" . Example 8h shows a l l three A sections where they originate. Ex. 8h. Elmsly, Triptych, third movement, mm. 3-6, 47-48, 79-83. JQ? crtsc.\ J Although the middle A sect ion at 2'56" has a somewhat d i f f e r e n t theme i t does share the a l e a t o r i c i d e n t i t y of the f i r s t A sect ion as seen in the two examples below. (See Ex. 8i) 58 Ex. 8i Elmsly, Triptych, third movement, mm. 1-2, 46. 3§ ft Went ad f i b . t o w t i i 4i"L>3r^ i f a t r c a t - o , ' • - r t f j u W l y jpaus iA. j i K t i a . o r a r y $ u b - J v & j r t v e r \ t ) (rMlS O x l . l i b ) "hyp t̂ ATStS J The B sec t ion at 1'44" is much more t r i p l e t - o r i e n t e d i n the trumpet part than the A sections. The accompaniment, as well , returns to the t r ip le t rhythm near the end of the B section. The trumpet part is rhythmically awkward because of the constant shif t ing of duple and t r i p l e feel . The C sect ion - - a l i a toccata - - at 3'15" i s a f a i r l y b r i l l i a n t sec t ion . The d e f i n i t i o n i n the New Dic t ionary of Music of the word toccata i s "an instrumental piece , usual ly for one performer and usually consisting of a rapid movement exhibiting the player's touch. This i s most evident as can be seen i n example 8j with the rapid tr iplets in the trumpet part. Ex. 8j. Elmsly, Triptych, third movement, mm. 62-67. hit.. . . t f f l t . ^r==^ y c c , ' -.3'. 15) SB « 2 £ 59 i i i i I • 1„ I I JLLJJL The movement o f f e r s a few a l e a t o r i c events which are quite s t ra ightforward as the composer has indicated "ad l i b . loud, short s taccato, i r r e g u l a r l y spaced; these or any sub-fragment, (rests ad l i b . ) . " In both examples, as seen in example 8 i , the player stops when the tape is si lent . Synchronization with the tr iplets in the tape is the most challenging aspect of the movement. The a b i l i t y to combine duple meter with the t r iple t ideas on the tape needs careful attention. 60 NOTES John Elmsly, Triptych for Trumpet and Tape (Auckland: J. Elmsly, 1989), p. 1 Douglas Moore, Guide to Musica l Styles (New York: W. W. Norton and Company, 1962). From an endurance standpoint, the f i r s t sect ion played for the second time, is particuarly d i f f i c u l t . The synchronization between the tape and trumpet is most significant in this middle movement and quite straightforward. ^New Dictionary of Music. 6 1 CHAPTER VI LUCIA DLUGOSZEWSKI'S SPACE IS A DIAMOND FOR UNACCOMPANIED TRUMPET Lucia Dlugoszewski's Space i s a Diamond is an i n t e r e s t i n g c o n t r i b u t i o n to the l i t e r a t u r e because of i t s use of new trumpet techniques and also i ts manner of notating certain musical events. Lucia Dlugoszewski was born in Detroit in 1931. While studying in New York, she studied composition with Edgard Varese and Felix Salzer. Distinguished awards include the Tompkins Literary Award for Poetry in 1947 and the National Institute of Arts and Letters Award in 1966. In addition to her numerous instrumental works she has invented more than one hundred percussion instruments including the "timbre piano." Space is a Diamond, composed in 1970, is rarely performed and has received a less than favourable review i n the Internat ional Trumpet GuiId. Many of the requirements of the music go w e l l beyond the technical capabili t ies of even the finest players. Perhaps the work is a l i t t l e before i t s time. Nonetheless, i t is assumed that, because Gerard Schwarz - - recognized as one of America's great musicians - - recorded the work and also wrote performance notes, the composition is one of worth to the trumpet literature. Perhaps Schwarz's look to the future is quite optimistic about what players w i l l be able to achieve. In the introductory comments on page 5 d i s c u s s i o n takes place 62 about one of the most common technica l requirements of Space i s a Diamond - - " v i r t u a l l y a l l extreme high r e g i s t e r passages are to be performed softly with the valves s l ight ly depressed."''' Pedal tone playing is also a common feature found i n the Dlugoszewski: The particular "pedal tones" called for in Space is a Diamond are the easiest and the most practical on the B-flat trumpet. The lips must be able to v ibrate the pi tch with a wide aperture and very l i t t l e pressure.^ The fingerings for the pedal tones are also included in the performance notes. The notation indications, with regard to mute changes, are quite unique and are discussed in detai l in the performance notes which are quoted here: A mute symbol in green indicates "mute in" , in red "mute out." In passages with many close successive mute changes the lef t end of the mute symbol is to be taken as the point where the mute change occurs.^ Ex. 9a, Dlugoszewski, Space is a Diamond, Part 2, second line. The o and + i n d i c a t i o n s modify both harmon and plunger mutings. As applied to the harmon mute, + means l i g h t l y covering the opening of the mute with the hand ( f ingers ) , while o means removing the hand. As applied to the plunger; + means closing the b e l l of the trumpet with the plunger; o means opening the plunger, although not t o t a l l y , so that the sound s t i l l h i t s the plunger a l i t t l e . ^ (See ex. 9b) 63 The harmon mute is to be used at times with the stem completely i n , at other times with the stem completely out (as indicated) . Indeed, i t is suggested that the performer use two harmon mutes, one with the stem in , the other without stem. during fast moving passages marked o+o+o, the opening and c l o s i n g need not necessarily be total ly co-ordinated with pitch changes."' (See Ex. 9c) Ex. 9c. Dlugoszewski, Space is a Diamond, Part 4, l ine 7. A small table with a l l the mutes on i t set up within reach of the player w i l l fac i l i ta te mute changes. Generally the lef t hand w i l l be used to inser t or withdraw the mutes. It is important that a minimum amount of extraneous noise be made during mute changes. Part V is a particularly significant movement with regard to quick mute changes and the constant colour change that the composer i s looking for on one pitch - - c#". Shown below is Example 9d, the f i r s t 64 four lines of the movement. Ex. 9d. Dlugoszewski, Space is a Diamond, Part 5, f i r s t four l ines. The glissando should not be confused with the Friedman s l i d e glissando. The glissando in Space is a Diamond are played with valves h a l f way down. (See Ex. 9e) Ex. 9e. Dlugoszewski, Space is a Diamond, Part 1, f i f t h line. There are also glissando that require the player to add the f l u t t e r - t o n g u e . The r o l l i n g of the tongue is added but the composer urges that the glissando should be as smooth as possible. (See Ex. 9f) 6 5 Ex. 9f. Dlugoszewski, Space is a Diamond, Part IV, sixteenth l ine. A t h i r d type of glissando i s the " r icochet g l issando" and " i s produced by taking a half valve position and, after the i n i t i a l attack, 'glissandoing' upward with the tongue touching various pitches while getting faster as the pitch r ises . " 7 (See Ex. 9g) Ex. 9g. Dlugoszewski, Space is a Diamond, Part IV, nineteenth line. The standard nota t ional symbol of TK indicates double tonguing. In the Dlugoszewski, however, i t is required "as fast as possible. It i s used in two ways: (a) over rapid passages using d i f f e r e n t pitches (see ex. 9h) and (b) over s ingle pitches r e i t e r a t e d i n a s - f a s t - a s - possible double tonguing. (See x. 9i) Such TK passages are notated 8 with three cross l ines." Ex. 9h. Dlugoszewski, Space is a Diamond, Part I, sixth l ine . The player should note that a fluttertongued note w i l l be notated with four l ines. (See Ex. 9i) ricochet gliss. J= 120 Quite suft, like gusts of TK 66 Ex. 9i . Dlugoszewski, Space is a Diamond, Part III, lines 3-4. ( L Q ) f = ^ p / The "percussive bubble" is created by hi t t ing the mouthpiece with the hand while certain valve combinations are pressed down. (See Ex. 9j) Ex. 9j. Dlugoszewski, Space is a Diamond, Part IV, lines 11-13. The "flap-tongue" is one of those techniques a beginner might do and the teacher w i l l strongly urge the student to stop. It is produced with a rather "wide" embouchure, sending the a i r through the instrument, without normal tonguing, but instead thrust ing the tongue forward and upward against the upper teeth and l i p s , thereby stopping the air and making a percussive sound. This can be done at various speeds and dynamic levels. (See Ex. 9j) The " w h i s t l e - t o n e " i s a t h i n w h i s t l e sound produced by (a) (preferred by the composer) w h i s t l i n g the desired p i t c h through the teeth into the instrument without forming an embouchure and only the s l i g h t e s t pressure against the mouthpiece; or (b) producing a high, thin "whistle-tone" with a very tight embouchure but minimal pressure, in a sense like a harmonic.^ 6 7 Apart from t r a d i t i o n a l tempo and metronome i n d i c a t i o n s , the present work also uses a notat ion in which an arrow (along with the appropriate metronome markings) delineates the time space to which the duration is to be applied.** (See Ex. 91) Ex. 91. Dlugoszewski, Space is a Diamond, Part I, f i r s t l ine. gliss All glissandi very smooth and unaccented. Another unique notat ion is the dotted l i n e that i s used to indicate the uniting of a number of fluttertongued pitches. When this i s done, only the F i r s t note should be a r t i c u l a t e d , with the rest of the pitches slurred. (See Ex. 9m) Ex. 9m. Dlugoszewski, Space is a Diamond, Part III, fourth l ine. f=-PPP^M= 68 Final ly , a technique where the player must sing one pitch and play a note - - often different - - s imultaneously. This i s a p a r t i c u l a r l y d i f f i c u l t technique on the trumpet as the mouthpiece is not big enough. This effect is a form of multiphonics. (See Ex. 9n) Ex. 9n. Dlugoszewski, Space is a Diamond, Part V, l ines, 10-11. Stems up = sing notes 69 NOTES *Lucia Dlugoszewski, Space i s a Diamond (Newton Centre, Mass.: Margun Music, Inc., 1977), p. i . 2Ibid. Ibid., p. 1 1 . 4 I b i d . 5Ibid. 6Ibid. 7Ibid. 8 I b i d . Q ... Ibid., p. i n . 1 0 I b i d . 1 1 I b i d . 70 CHAPTER VII CONCLUSIONS The compositions discussed in this document feature a wide range of technical d i f f i c u l t i e s and demands. The style of the music from the Fantasy for B-Flat Trumpet by Malcolm Arnold to Space is a Diamond by Lucia Dlugoszewski exhibits the struggle between t r a d i t i o n a l and experimental music. The trumpet world stands embroiled in a struggle reminiscent of the invention of the keyed trumpet and the valved trumpet. Even in the early 1800s the powerful trumpet guilds battled against Weidinger's keyed trumpet (with some success) only to see the valved trumpet come into vogue shortly thereafter. Preparing this program of music encourages the trumpet player's mind to concentrate more deeply on what the music is saying and how i t is achieved. The Fantasy for B-Flat Trumpet by Arnold is prepared in a s i m i l a r manner to any t r a d i t i o n a l trumpet solo, such as the Haydn or Hummel concertos. Certain s t r u c t u r a l events are s i g n i f i c a n t to the pl a y e r and the music. Because the work i s h a r m o n i c a l l y and melodically straightforward the musical tonal goals are e a s i l y comprehended. I n i t i a l l y , Henderson's Variation Movements, 1967 has tonal goals that are less straightforward than those of the Arnold. By looking at some of the tonal goals in the composition, like the recurring cadence formula in the f i r s t movement or the final note of the f i f t h movement, 71 a more i n s i g h t f u l performance w i l l be possible. The demands of technical s k i l l , e s p e c i a l l y l i p f l e x i b i l i t y , make this piece a great challenge. H i s t o r i c a l l y , Friedman and Dlguoszewski should be considered pioneers in exploring new ideas that w i l l expand the capabilities of the trumpet and the trumpet player. The use of pedal tones, aleatoric events, open-tubing technique, s l i d e g l i s s a n d i , and tremolos in Friedman's Solus o f f e r new potentials for musical i n s p i r a t i o n for composers. Trumpet and electronic tape, as demonstrated by John Elmsly's Triptych, is an excellent combination. The balance between the trumpet and the tape i s far easier to achieve than the balance between the trumpet and the piano. The di f f e r e n t variety of sounds available to the tape composer is more of a complement to the timbre of the trumpet. Imperative to the successful performance of this type of music is the trumpet player's t o t a l f a m i l i a r i t y with the electronic part so that synchronization, when required, is achieved. 72 BIBLIOGRAPHY Books and Articles Cole, Hugo. Malcolm Arnold. London: Faber Music, 1989. D a l l i n , Leon. Twentieth Century Composition. Dubuque, Iowa: Wm. C. Brown, 1980. Harkins, Edwin. "Aspects of Kryl — a Trumpet Piece." International Trumpet Guild. (October, 1980): pp. 22-28 Jacobs, Arthur. A New Dictionary of Music. Great Britain: C. Nichols and Company Ltd., 1973. Lester, Joel. Analytic Approaches to Twentieth Century Music. New York: W. W. Norton and Company, Ind., 1989 Moore, Douglas. A Guide to Musical Styles. New York: W. W. Norton and Company, 1962. Smoker, Paul. "A Comprehensive Performance Project i n Trumpet Literature with a Survey of Some Recently Developed Trumpet Techniques and Effec t s Appearing i n Contemporary Music." D.M.A. dissertation, University of Iowa, 1974. Stewart, Andrew. "Malcolm Arnold." Music Teacher (June, 1989): 25-28. Tuozzolo, James. "Trumpet Techniques in Selected Works of Four Contemporary American Composers: Gunther Schuller, Meyer Kupf erman, William Sydeman, and William Frabizio." D.M.A. dissertation, University of Miami, 1972. Young, Gene. "Solus Review." International Trumpet Guild. (February, 1979): 17. Music Arban, Jean Baptiste. Fantasie, Theme and Variations on the Carnival of Venice. Rev. and arr. by Erik W. G. Leidzen. Rockville Centre, NY: Belwin Inc., 1961. Arnold, Malcolm. Fantasy for B-Flat Trumpet. London: Faber Music Ltd., 1969. 73 C h a r l i e r , Theo. Trente -s ix Etudes Transcendantes pour Trompette. Paris: Editions Musicales Alphonse Leduc, 1946. Clarke , Herbert L. Technical Studies. New York: Car l F i s c h e r , Inc., 1944. Dlugoszewski, Lucia. Space is a Diamond. Newton Centre, Mass.: Margun Music, Inc., 1977. E l m s l y , John. T r i p t y c h for Trumpet and Tape. Auckland: J . E lmsly , 1989. Friedman, Stan. Solus. Nashville: The Brass Press, 1978. Henderson, Robert. Variation Movements (1967). Los Angeles: Western International Music, Inc., 1971. Nagel, Robert. Trumpet S k i l l s . Brookfield, Conn.: Mentor Music, Inc., 1982. Schlossberg, Max. Daily D r i l l s and Technical Studies for Trumpet. New York: M. Baron Co., 1941. 74 THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA SCHOOL OF MUSIC Recital Hall Sunday, A p r i l 21, 1991 2:30 p.m. DOCTORAL SOLO RECITAL* EDWARD BACH, Trumpet Fantasy for B-f lat Trumpet (1969) Malcolm Arnold Variation Movements (1967) Robert Henderson Moving and in a Singing Style Very fast Fast and Marked Slow and in a l y r i c style Fast and Rhythmic Triptych for Trumpet and Tape (1987) John Elmsly Prelude Allemand Courant Rondeau - Gigue Solus (1975) Stan Friedman Introduction Furtively Scherzando and Waltz Fanfare * In part ial fulfil lment of the requirements for the Doctor of Musical Arts degree with a major in trumpet performance. 7 r

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