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UBC Theses and Dissertations

A performance project on selected works of five contemporary composers : Malcolm Arnold, Robert Henderson,.. Bach, Edward Stanley 1991

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A PERFORMANCE PROJECT ON SELECTED WORKS OF FIVE CONTEMPORARY COMPOSERS: MALCOLM ARNOLD, ROBERT HENDERSON, STAN FRIEDMAN, JOHN ELMSLY, LUCIA DLUGOSZWESKI By EDWARD STANLEY BACH B.Mus., Brandon University, 1981 M.Mus., The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1983 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF MUSICAL ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (School of Music)  We accept this thesis as conforming to the required  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l 1991 @  Edward Stanley Bach, 1991  In  presenting this  degree at the  thesis  in  University of  partial  fulfilment  of  of  department  this thesis for or  by  his  or  requirements  British Columbia, I agree that the  freely available for reference and study. I further copying  the  representatives.  an advanced  Library shall make it  agree that permission for extensive  scholarly purposes may be her  for  It  is  granted  by the  understood  that  head of copying  my or  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  Date  DE-6 (2/88)  ABSTRACT  The  p r i n c i p a l objective  of  this  dissertation  f o r u n a c c o m p a n i e d t r u m p e t and t r u m p e t The  discussion  of  f o r each work. players  will  these  New t e c h n i q u e s  most  the e x e c u t i o n in  music 1965.  preparation  that modern-day  trumpet to  each  of d i f f i c u l t majority  suggestions  leaps of  The  which i s  modern  i n the  introductory one o f  trumpet  the  music.  improvement of  this  emphasized.  Chapter II Flat  a method of  be pursued w i t h r e l a t i o n s h i p  the  T e c h n i q u e books and g e n e r a l are  emphasize  i s d e d i c a t e d to one c o m p o s i t i o n .  common c h a l l e n g e s  technique  discuss  consideration.  Each chapter discusses  to  and t a p e composed a f t e r  and e f f e c t s  need to master w i l l  c o m p o s i t i o n under  chapter  works w i l l  is  f e a t u r e s comments on M a l c o l m A r n o l d ' s F a n t a s y  Trumpet which i s  the  most  " t r a d i t i o n a l " composition  of  for  the  five  works b e i n g surveyed. In C h a p t e r I I I , discussed. tonally analysis,  The  The work has c o m p o n e n t s  motivic  material.  although,  some d e t a i l  will  fourth  composition  R o b e r t H e n d e r s o n ' s V a r i a t i o n M o v e m e n t s , 1967  for this  The  o f s e r i a l i s m w h i c h g i v e way  piece  purpose,  lends  a rather  make the m u s i c a l d e c i s i o n s chapter  features  open-tubing technique,  discusses  the use tremolos,  Stan  itself general  a  to  detailed  discussion with  clearer. Friedman's  of p e d a l tones,  S^Lu£.  aleatoric  and s l i d e g l i s s a n d i .  i i  to  is  This  events,  Some a n a l y s i s  the as  well  as  practice  and  performance  suggestions  are  included  in  this  chapter. Chapter trumpet  and  V focuses tape.  performance  In  on  a  w o r k by  addition  suggestions  to  to  John  some  enable  Elmsly entitled  analysis  of  synchronization  the  Triptych  work  for  there  are  trumpet  and  Diamond,  the  between  tape. Chapter most  VI  features  experimental  techniques  New n o t a t i o n a l The  in  the  ricochet  demands  of  and  Dlugoszewski's of  work  the  five  include  glissando,  indications  examination  technical trumpet  composition  utilized  flutter-tonguing,  Lucia  are  these  also  Space  being  is  a  discussed.  percussive  Innovative  bubble,  flap-tonguing,  and  glissando,  whistle  tone.  discussed.  compositions  analytical  skills  players.  iii  demonstrates  that  will  be  increased  required  by  TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT  i i  LIST OF EXAMPLES  v  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  ix  Chapter I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII.  INTRODUCTION  1  MALCOLM ARNOLD'S FANTASY FOR B-FLAT TRUMPET  7  ROBERT HENDERSON'S VARIATION MOVEMENTS, 1967  13  STAN FRIEDMAN'S SOLUS  33  JOHN ELMSLY'S TRIPTYCH FOR TRUMPET AND TAPE  50  LUCIA DLUGOSZEWSKI'S SPACE IS A DIAMOND  62  CONCLUSIONS  71  BIBLIOGRAPHY  73  i v  LIST  Fantasy  la.  Arnold,  lb.  Friedman,  lc.  Dlugoszewski,  Space  i s a Diamond, P a r t  I V , m. 3 ,  Id.  Dlugoszewski,  Space  i s a Diamond, P a r t  IV, line  le.  Dlugoszewski,  Space  i s a Diamond, P a r t  I,  2a.  Arnold,  Fantasy  for B-Flat  Trumpet,  mm. 1 8 - 2 4  8  2b.  Arnold,  Fantasy  for B-Flat  Trumpet,  mm. 6 7 - 7 9  9  2c.  Arnold,  Fantasy  for B-Flat  Trumpet,  mm. 1 0 1 - 1 1  9  2d.  Arnold,  Fantasy  for B-Flat  Trumpet,  m . 22  10  2e.  Arnold,  Fantasy  for B-Flat  Trumpet,  mm. 1 4 - 2 1  10  2f.  Arnold,  Fantasy  for B-Flat  Trumpet,  mm. 6 8 - 7 1  11  2g.  Arnold,  Fantasy  for B-Flat  Trumpet,  mm. 1 1 7 - 2 0  11  2h.  Arnold,  Fantasy  for B-Flat  Trumpet,  mm. 1 2 1 - 2 6  11  3a.  Henderson, mm.  3b.  3c.  for B-Flat  OF EXAMPLES  Solus,  Trumpet,  "Introduction,  mm. 1-6  m. 9  V a r i a t i o n Movements,  3  1967,  First  3  3  4 three  3 lines  .  .  .  4  Movement, 14  V a r i a t i o n Movements, 19-32  1967,  Henderson,  V a r i a t i o n Movements,  1967,  First  Movement, 15  First  Movement,  53-54  3d.  Arban,  Carnival  3e.  Arban,  Carnival of Venice,  3f.  Henderson, mm.  last  line  1-9  Henderson, mm.  mm.  2  of Venice,  15 Theme  17  V a r . VIII  17  V a r i a t i o n Movements, 1-13  1967,  First  Movement, 17  v  3g.  Henderson, mm.  4a.  Arban,  4b.  Henderson,  4d.  5a.  5b.  5c.  5d.  6a.  6b.  6d.  6e.  6f.  of Venice,  V a r i a t i o n Movements,  19  1967,  Movement, 20  Henderson, mm.  V a r i a t i o n Movements, 24-32  1967,  Henderson, mm.  V a r i a t i o n Movements, 1-2  1967,  Henderson, mm.  V a r i a t i o n Movements, 1-12  1967,  Henderson, mm.  V a r i a t i o n Movements, 11-28  1967,  Henderson, mm.  V a r i a t i o n Movements, 26-40  1967,  Henderson, mm.  V a r i a t i o n Movements, 1-8  1967,  V a r i a t i o n Movements,  1967,  Third  Movement, 21  Third  Movement, 22  Third  Movement, 23  Fourth  Movement, 23  Fourth  Movement, 24  Fourth  Movement, 25  Fifth  Movement, 26  Fifth  Movement,  13-20  26  V a r i a t i o n Movements, 37-44  1967,  Henderson, V a r i a t i o n Movements, mm. 4 5 - 5 2  1967,  Henderson, mm.  V a r i a t i o n Movements, 66-68  1967,  Henderson,  V a r i a t i o n Movements,  1967,  mm.  Third  1-12 1967,  Henderson, mm.  Movement,  Var. V  V a r i a t i o n Movements, 13-16  Henderson,  Second  18  Henderson, mm.  mm. 6c.  1967,  1-16  Carnival  mm. 4c.  V a r i a t i o n Movements,  Fifth  Movement, 28  Fifth  Movement, 29  Fifth  Movement, 29  Fifth  24-32  Movement, 30  7a.  Friedman,  Solus,  First  Movement,  mm. 1-2  33  7b.  Friedman,  Solus,  First  Movement,  m . 12  34  7c.  Friedman,  Solus,  First  Movement,  mm. 4 2 - 4 6  34  7d.  Friedman,  Solus,  First  Movement,  mm. 1 5 - 1 7  35  7e.  Friedman,  Solus,  First  Movement,  mm. 1 7 - 1 8  35  vi  7g.  Friedman,  Solus,  First  Movement,  mm. 2 3 - 2 9  37  7h.  Friedman,  Solus,  First  Movement,  m. 19  37  7i.  Charlier,  Etude  17,  mm. 1 2 4 - 4 8  7j.  Friedman,  Solus,  Second  Movement,  first  three  lines  7k.  Friedman,  Solus,  Second  Movement',  first  line,  second  71.  Friedman,  Solus,  first  7m.  Friedman,  Solus,  7n.  Friedman,  7o.  #  page  .  .  .  41 41  T h i r d Movement,  mm. 1-8  43  Solus,  T h i r d Movement,  last  Friedman,  Solus,  T h i r d Movement,  mm. 2 6 - 2 7  44  7p.  Friedman,  Solus,  T h i r d Movement,  mm. 6 0 - 7 0  45  7q.  Friedman,  8a.  Elmsly,  Tritypch,  First  Movement,  first  four  8b.  Elmsly,  Tritypch,  First  Movement,  fifth  line  52  8c.  Elmsly,  Tritypch,  First  Movement,  lines  6-8  53  8d.  Elmsly,  Tritypch,  First  Movement,  lines  11-14  53  8e.  Elmsly,  Tritypch,  Second Movement,  mm. 1-7  55  8f.  Elmsly,  Tritypch,  Second Movement,  mm. 2 9 - 3 0  55  8g.  Elmsly,  Tritypch,  Second Movement,  mm. 1 6 - 2 8  56  8h.  Elmsly,  Tritypch,  Third  Movement,  mm. 3 - 6 ,  47-48,  8i.  Elmsly,  Tritypch,  Third  Movement,  mm. 1 - 2 ,  46  8j .  Elmsly,  Tritypch,  Third  Movement,  62-67  9a.  Dlugoszewski,  Space  i s a Diamond, P a r t  II,  9b.  Dlugoszewski,  Space  i s a Diamond, P a r t  III,  first  Fourth  second  40  page  Solus,  line,  38  Movement,  three  lines  first  43  line  46  lines  51  79-83.  .  .  .  58 59 59  second  line  three  lines  9c.  Dlugoszewski,  Space  i s a Diamond, P a r t  IV, line  7  9d.  Dlugoszewski,  Space  i s a Diamond, P a r t  V, first  four  9e.  Dlugoszewski,  Space  i s a Diamond, P a r t  I,  line  9f.  Dlugoszewski,  Space  i s a Diamond, P a r t  IV, sixteenth  .  .  .  .  63  64  vii  fifth  64 lines  .  .  65 65  line  .  .  .  66  9g.  Dlugoszewski,  Space i s  a Diamond,  Part  IV, nineteenth l i n e .  9h.  Dlugoszewski,  Space  is  a Diamond,  Part  I,  9i.  Dlugoszewski,  Space  is  a Diamond,  Part  III,  9j.  Dlugoszewski,  Space i s  a Diamond,  Part  IV, lines  9k.  Dlugoszewski,  Space  is  a Diamond,  Part  VI, last  three  91.  Dlugoszewski,  Space  is  a Diamond,  Part  I,  line  9m.  Dlugoszewski,  Space  is  a Diamond,  Part  III,  9n.  Dlugoszewski,  Space  is  a Diamond,  Part  V,  voi  sixth  67  11-13  .  .  lines  line  10-11  66 66  3-4  fourth lines  .  line  lines  first  .  .  . .  67 .  68 68  .  .  .  .  68 69  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I Doctoral Read.  wish  to express  Committee:  my  Professors  sincere Paul  Douglas,  t o t h e members Alan  Thrasher  o f my  and Jesse  S p e c i a l t h a n k s t o P r o f e s s o r M a r t i n B e r i n b a u m , my A d v i s o r , f o r  invaluable  i n f l u e n c e on my a r t i s t i c  endeavours i n music.  To my f r i e n d Dr Gregory Johnston, and  thanks  suggestions  r e g a r d i n g the p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s  Above a l l , I g r a t e f u l l y Bonnie,  whose  I am indebted  encouragement  f o r h i s comments  document.  acknowledge the support during  unending.  ix  my  o f my  doctoral studies  wife,  has been  CHAPTER  I  INTRODUCTION  An i n c r e a s i n g music and  for  the  trumpet.  orchestra  trumpeter's  number o f c o n t e m p o r a r y  and  trumpet  literature.  Stevens's  sonatas,  particularly  by  the  works  trumpet  compel  Over the  the  player  to  are  technique  that encouraged  and  for  trumpet  of  the  most  One is  the  even of  execution  the  the  very  works  There  are  response rapidly larger  of  best  composed at  is in  least that  for  two  in  composers new  with  succession,  than a t w e l f t h .  are  technical  limits  this  of  modern-day leaps,  Halsey  Although  they  It  is  do  this  and  not keen  the  player  works  for  unaccompanied  the  trumpet  the  demands  above,  responses have the  to  In  there  these  of  p h y s i c a l demands  many c h a l l e n g e s . ^  The  the  trumpet  tape.  le_aps  unaccompanied  and  and  recitals.  frontiers.  both  of  compositions,  challenging,  discussion of  why a r e  composers  Kennan,  performed  obvious  But  Hindemith,  to  trumpet  staples  regularly  mentioned  leaps.  become  French  the  players  the  contributed  works w i t h  numerous  awkward  composers  intervallic the  stretching  have  have  the  explore  in  trumpet  as  these  interest  f i f t y years  piano  like  well  Bozza, by  and  Works  as  past  composers  are less  trumpet  this  second  is  passages  response  1  is  than  and t r u m p e t  often  leaps  that  The that  to  i n the  offer works large  many  and  question.  asked  the  with  difficult  important  not  which  a number o f  a v o i d e d w r i t i n g many player  of  player  play  of  tape? first follow leaps  standard  tonal  literature  which  is  not  evident  in  it  is  always works  easier the  like  for  case  the p l a y e r to " h e a r " the r i g h t  i n the  Henderson's  very  angular  V a r i a t ion  pitch,  w r i t i n g that  Movements  1967  is or  o Friedman's Solus. Malcolm Arnold's Fantasy  for B-Flat  T r u m p e t has p a s s a g e s where  f l e x i b l e l i p s a r e r e q u i r e d t o a c h i e v e the r i g h t p i t c h . would agree that i n example Ex.  la.  A r n o l d , Fantasy  l a the  large  for B-Flat  intervals  Trumpet, mm.  are  Most p l a y e r s  playable.  1-6.  Allegro energico (J = 120)  O t h e r works i n t h i s playing i n one's  large  intervallic  i n n e r ear  d i s c u s s i o n do not o f f e r t h e same e a s e when leaps.  i s very h e l p f u l  The a b i l i t y to and was not  i n t h i s c e n t u r y had t o r e f i n e u n t i l Obviously,  one can  works o f Webern.  find  the l a s t  contradictions  --  that need much r e f i n e m e n t  trumpet  Stan Friedman's Solus c h a l l e n g e s  a skill  the m e a s u r e  is  by a s t e p or  at  However, because  o f the  years.  orchestral  i n excess of are  the  an  techniques  atonal  first half nature  most o f the l e a p s a r e  least a considerably smaller  2  players  and l i p f l e x i b i l i t y o f  In the s e c o n d b a r o f t h e f o u r t h l i n e ,  (See Ex. l b )  trumpet  world.  the p l a y e r .  music.  pitches  the  playing i t  the e a r  awkward s i m p l y b e c a u s e  the  twenty or t h i r t y  intervals  a note b e f o r e  i n today's  all  f o r example,  The a b i l i t y to e x e c u t e  octave and the a b i l i t y to hear  hear  leap,  the  of  of the  followed  section  becomes  more attainable. Ex. l b .  Friedman, Solus, "Introduction", m. 9  Perhaps the best example of an extremely d i f f i c u l t literature IV.  leap i n trumpet  is Lucia Dlugoszewski's Space i s a Diamond, especially Part  The leaps i n the third measure of the third line are large but are  made i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f f i c u l t because the dynamic marking is "ppp" and because the required speed of the execution i s rapid. Ex. Ic.  Dlugoszewski,  Ic)  Space i s a Diamond, Part IV, m. 3, l i n e 3.  On the f o u r t h l i n e of Part  IV, there  execute because of a glissando effect.^ Ex. Id.  (See Ex.  are  leaps that are e a s i e r  (See ex.  to  Id)  Dlugoszewski, Space is a Diamond, Part IV, line 4.  .- Trumpet p l a y e r s l e a r n to p l a y i n the high r e g i s t e r by blowing rapidly so that the l i p buzzes a higher frequency; inherent with this technique i s a louder dynamic and b r i g h t e r sound. 3  There are many  commercial works where trumpet players enter on such high notes, the p l a y e r s do not have to hold back on t h e i r volume.  air  speed or  their  They o f t e n use s p e c i a l l y designed mouthpieces w i t h a very  shallow cup which helps extreme upper-register notes respond. the  but  player  would have  discussed here,  little  success  i n the  However,  compositions  being  since these shallow-cupped mouthpieces do not function  e f f i c i e n t l y in the lower ranges and the tone quality is unacceptable. In Space i s a Diamond many of the leaps can only be e f f e c t i v e l y played i f a h a l f - v a l v i n g technique i s u t i l i z e d . technique decreases the s i z e of hole the a i r s m a l l e r the bore, the e a s i e r le)  E v e r y t h i n g above c ' "  below c ' "  This h a l f - v a l v i n g  travels  through. The  i t i s to achieve higher notes.  (See Ex.  should use t h i s technique and e v e r y t h i n g  should be played n o r m a l l y w i t h the v a l v e s pressed a l l the  way down. Ex. le.  Dlugoszewski, Space i s a Diamond, Part I,  4  last 3 l i n e s .  The w o r k s b e i n g d i s c u s s e d h a v e demonstrate  the  many m o d e r n s t y l e s  execute.  Arnold's  Henderson's  work  work  imperative  it  is  emphasis  Fant asy  features  and m u s i c a l  is  atonal  that  the  judgement  demonstrates  instrumental  Dlugoszewski's  Space  some  of  ideas  the  attention and  tape,  is  a  this  combination  and t r u m p e t  players  player  understand  but  must  also  how i t  the to  This  i n the  the near  able  the  music.  rows  future  to  style. In  this  so  that  Friedman's  Solus  Excerpts  from  be d i s c u s s e d trumpet  to  because  being used.  These deserve  E l m s l y ' s Triptych features  trumpet  more  music offers  contribution  of  music.  not  and  of  thus  becoming  5  may be  techniques.  executed.  also  in order  traditional  understand  properly  taped  a  serialistic  for  carefully  soloist  in  experimental  is  the  trumpet  player  John  that  alike.  relates  and  techniques  document.  selected  composed  are  u s e d by c o m p o s e r s  in  the  a Diamond w i l l  unprecedented  may be  been  popular  with  composers  new c h a l l e n g e s , only  the  as  trumpet  the part  NOTES  L a r g e l e a p s o n a n y b r a s s i n s t r u m e n t c a n be i n t i m i d a t i n g a n d c a n a l s o c r e a t e a c o n t r a d i c t i o n i n the p l a y e r ' s m i n d : the p l a y e r must b l o w f a s t w h i c h c a u s e s the l i p s to b u z z or v i b r a t e a d i f f e r e n t n o t e . When p l a y i n g an a s c e n d i n g l e a p , f o r e x a m p l e , the p l a y e r w i l l i n c r e a s e the s p e e d o f a i r and w i l l i n t u r n make t h e a p e r t u r e o f t h e l i p s m a l l e r . The c o n t r a d i c t i o n l i e s i n the f a c t t h a t t h e e x e c u t i o n o f t h e leap requires t h a t t h e p l a y e r be v e r y r e l a x e d t o a l l o w f o r p r o p e r air support. Any type of short, nervous breath will decrease the s u c c e s s f u l e x e c u t i o n o f the l e a p .  2  .  .  .  .  When p r e p a r i n g a p r o g r a m o f s u c h c h a l l e n g i n g m u s i c i t was d e c i d e d t h a t much p r a c t i c e of f l e x i b i l i t y exercises helped increase the elasticity of the lip. Three specific technique books proved b e n e f i c i a l i n the e v e r y d a y p r e p a r a t i o n of the m u s i c . Herbert Clarke's T e c h n i c a l S t u d i e s , S c h l o s s b e r g ' s D a i l y D r i 1 I s and T e c h n i c a l S t u d i e s , and R o b e r t N a g e l ' s T r u m p e t S k i l l s h e l p e d i n c r e a s e the l i p ' s a b i l i t y to p e r f o r m t h e l a r g e n u m b e r o f d i f f i c u l t l e a p s t h a t a r e so p r o m i n e n t i n the m u s i c . T h i s type of music n e c e s s i t a t e s focus on p l a y i n g l a r g e i n t e r v a l l i c l e a p s many t i m e s i n s u c c e s s i o n a t a r a p i d t e m p o . 3 The r e a s o n t h e s e o c t a v e s a r e e a s i e r t o p l a y e a s y t o " h e a r " and t h a t t h e d y n a m i c l e v e l , f o r t e , r e l e a s e the a i r i n a more u n i n h i b i t e d manner.  i s that allows  the the  notes are p l a y e r to  ^The p l a y e r s i m p l y c o m p r e s s e s t h e v a l v e s h a l f way w h i l e s t e a d i l y i n c r e a s i n g the a i r speed and t i g h t e n i n g the l i p s u n t i l the r e q u i r e d upper p i t c h i s a t t a i n e d . Of c o u r s e t h e d y n a m i c m a r k i n g o f mf ppp on e a c h g l i s s a n d o upwards makes the e x e c u t i o n v e r y d i f f i c u l t . A c r e s c e n d o to the upper n o t e s i s the t y p i c a l manner i n w h i c h a p l a y e r w i l l play these types of leaps. I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t to note t h a t i n the p u b l i s h e d v e r s i o n o f S p a c e i s a D i a m o n d , c o m m e n t s by D l u g o s z e w s k i , t h e composer, and S c h w a r z , the performer (who f i r s t recorded the c o m p o s i t i o n ) d e a l s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h these i n h e r e n t l y d i f f i c u l t leaps. Dlugoszewski's first comment about the work s t a t e s "a sense of hugeness, transparency, d e l i c a c y o f b r i l l i a n c e , speed and f r e q u e n c y o f sudden d a r i n g l e a p s i n t o d i s p a r a t e d y n a m i c s and the p a s s i o n a t e capacity for expression of a solo instrument with essentially linear p o s s i b i l i t i e s : m e d i t a t i o n s a l o n g t h e s e l i n e s c r e a t e d the m u s i c o f Space i s a Diamond." She c o n t i n u e s b y s a y i n g " a s a r e s u l t o f s t r u c t u r a l challenges i m p l i c i t i n w o r k i n g w i t h l a r g e d i m e n s i o n s , many new ways o f p l a y i n g t h e trumpet were i n v e n t e d . " Her o b v i o u s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h b r a s s specialists l i k e G e r a r d S c h w a r z and G u n t h e r S c h u l l e r h e l p e d D l u g o s z e w s k i e x p l o r e "some o f t h e s e new w a y s o f p l a y i n g t h e t r u m p e t . " The p e r f o r m e r s h o u l d c a r e f u l l y r e a d the p e r f o r m a n c e n o t e s i n c l u d e d i n the p u b l i s h e d v e r s i o n .  6  CHAPTER II MALCOLM ARNOLD'S FANTASY FOR B-FLAT TRUMPET The c o m p o s i t i o n s s e l e c t e d the  variety  of  different  f o r d i s c u s s i o n were chosen because of  techniques  and w i t h  the  intent  demonstrating d i f f e r i n g compositional styles and techniques.  Malcolm  A r n o l d ' s Fantasy i s composed i n a s t y l e where the t o n a l goals obvious.  Between 1966  and 1975  Arnold composed fantasies  of  are  for a l l the  main brass and woodwind instruments as w e l l as f o r g u i t a r and harp. The trumpet Fantasy i s a piece that i s one of Arnold's most successful fantasies.  He a l s o composed a trumpet concerto which i s g r a d u a l l y  becoming important i n the trumpet repertoire.  His brass quintet is one  of the most famous and i s regularly performed.  Malcolm Arnold wrote so  well for wind and brass instruments, especially the trumpet, because he was an accomplished trumpet player.  In his own words:  When I was twelve I l e f t school because of bad h e a l t h I had asthma. At that time I wanted to p l a y the trumpet. My doctor took me to the family doctor who said, ' i f that doesn't cure him, i t ' l l k i l l h i m : so t e l l him to do i t . ^ Apparently no i l l effects  were experienced by the young, aspiring  trumpeter and Arnold q u i c k l y advanced on the instrument under the careful i n s t r u c t i o n of Ernest H a l l , the BBC Symphony Orchestra.  It  the p r i n c i p a l trumpet player with  is to Ernest H a l l that the Fantasy for  B-Flat Trumpet i s dedicated. In this same interview, Arnold discussed some of his s i g n i f i c a n t  7  early  influences. My o r i g i n a l i d o l was A r m s t r o n g . I started with jazz, and afterwards c l a s s i c a l music. We had a f a m i l y j a z z e n s e m b l e i n N o r t h a m p t o n , where I grew u p , and we p l a y e d on S u n d a y s , e v e n though my f a t h e r was a P r i m i t i v e M e t h o d i s t . The f i r s t composers I admired were Handel and Puree 11. There are those gorgeous trumpet p a r t s f o r S t . P a u l ' s W e s t m i n s t e r A b b e y . I u s e d to l o v e t h e m : I w o u l d p l a y them on my own f o r s h e e r e n j o y m e n t . Then t h e r e was D e b u s s y , F a u r e , and D e l i u s . T h e i r u s e s o f c o l o u r s has a l w a y s impressed me. I loved p l a y i n g M a h l e r ' s music and bought a l l the scores I could f i n d . ^ Malcolm  Orchestra  Arnold  i n 1941  became  a  member  and became p r i n c i p a l  aware t h a t h i s m u s i c i s t r a d i t i o n a l goals  and r e c o g n i z a b l e  of  the  trumpet  --  London i n 1942.  Philharmonic He i s  m u s i c t h a t has o b v i o u s  thematic m a t e r i a l .  keenly tonal  He s t a t e s :  t h a t h i s m u s i c s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d " t r a d i t i o n a l . " It's very easily a t t a c k e d because of this. I'm not ashamed of sentimentality - - not at a l l . I t h i n k new m u s i c s h o u l d be accessible. That was Hindemith's t h i n g - - although he went over the top w i t h Gebrauchmusik - - but the i d e a o f music f o r youth and f o r the people i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t . Hindemith's music i s so beautifully placed. A l l my m u s i c i s meant to be p l a y a b l e by amateurs or p r o f e s s i o n a l s I b e l i e v e s t r o n g l y i n t h a t - - and that i t should c o n t a i n every v a r i e t y of mood. The two o u t e r s e c t i o n s a r e  fanfare-like,  b e g i n n i n g and e n d i n g to the c o m p o s i t i o n . designated  as A and A l .  The opening A s e c t i o n , frantic  6/8  Each s e c t i o n  T h e s e two s e c t i o n s w i l l  has c l e a r  ending on a s u s t a i n e d  rondo which w i l l  making f o r a p o w e r f u l  be designated  beginnings and endings.  e', as  takes the music i n t o a the  B section.  2a) Ex.  2a.  A r n o l d , Fantasy  for  B-Flat  Trumpet,  be  mm.  18-24.  (See  Ex.  The s u s t a i n e d e' announces an important s t r u c t u r a l  p o i n t , but  o b v i o u s l y the changed time s i g n a t u r e and the d e f i n i t i v e change to a l i g h t e r and f a s t e r a r t i c u l a t i o n a l s o i n d i c a t e a new s e c t i o n . s e c t i o n i s e q u a l l y apparent,  The C  again by the use of a s u s t a i n e d e " , a  change in time signature - - 3/4 - - and a very l y r i c a l theme.  Indicated  below i s Example 2b, the l y r i c a l theme of the Fantasy. Ex. 2b.  Arnold, Fantasy for B-Flat Trumpet, mm. 67-79.  [GI Allegretto (J =92)  sip  p cantabile  There i s no h i n t of a t o n a l i t y i n t h i s work as i s demonstrated by the t r i a d i c C s e c t i o n above. throughout the work. structural  T r i a d i c s e c t i o n s l i k e t h i s can be found  The A l s e c t i o n i s again announced by obvious  components.  The music stops between s e c t i o n C and A l ,  s u p p l y i n g a dramatic pause as w e l l as demonstrating the composer's appreciation of endurance problems on the instrument. Ex. 2c.  (See Ex. 2c)  Arnold, Fantasy for B-Flat Trumpet, mm. 101-11.  In PP  I"  (Tj Maestoso (J = ioo>  'fmarcaio  As mentioned e a r l i e r , the Fantasy C section i s based e n t i r e l y on a 9  t r i a d i c theme.  It i s quite apparent that Arnold intends the work to be  approachable by even the amateur who, even today,  would have some  trouble handling works with no suggested harmonies and tonality.  There  is hardly a measure of music where the intended harmony i s not obvious. The Vivace s e c t i o n ,  designated as B, uses three t r a d i t i o n a l ways of  indicating simple harmonies. triad is outlined. Ex.  2d.  In the f i r s t bar, measure 22, the e minor  (See ex. 2d)  Arnold, Fantasy  for B-Flat  Trumpet, m. 22.  Vivace (J = laro  The t o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n of the whole piece i s C major.  Malcolm Arnold  changes the colour of the work considerably by using the r e l a t i v e minor of G major  - - E minor.  h a r m o n i c a l l y and t o n a l l y ,  The work would be much l e s s i f the composer had s e t t l e d  dominant of C major a l l the time. strong dominant G. Ex. 2e.  In measure  on using the  14 and 15 there i s a  This also occurs in measures 19-21.  Arnold, Fantasy  inventive,  (See ex. 2e)  for B-Flat Trumpet, mm. 14-21.  Measures 68-70 push towards a p o t e n t i a l G major area but at the l a s t moment at which the l i s t e n e r expects the V, e minor it.  (See ex. 2f)  10  substitutes  Ex. 2f.  Arnold, Fantasy  for B-Flat Trumpet, mm. 68-71.  The dynamics help demonstrate minor.  the c o n f l i c t between G major and E  In Example 2d (also 2e) the dynamic level - - " f f " - - occurs on  the G and there i s a sudden and dramatic decrescendo as soon as the e minor t o n a l area i s apparent.  Only i n the f i n a l s e c t i o n - - A l - - i s  there a d e c i s i v e V - I cadence.  In the f o u r t h and f i f t h measures of K  the G tonal area i s accented. arrival  i s g r e a t e r than the a n t i c i p a t i o n of the t o n i c because the  dominant i s consistently ex.  2g)  Ex.  2g.  The a n t i c i p a t i o n of the dominant chord's  substituted by i t s r e l a t i v e  minor " E " .  (See  Arnold, Fantasy for B-Flat Trumpet, mm. 117-20.  There a r e , of course,  a number of s c a l e s used i n t h i s work, but  the only time a s c a l e b u i l t on g occurs i s at measure 122, where i t frames the dominant chord i n a t r a d i t i o n a l assertion of tonality. ex. 2h) Ex. 2h.  Arnold, Fantasy  accelerando  for B-Flat Trumpet, mm. 121-26.  ritardando lr-  1  T  W 11  (See  NOTES Andrew Stewart, "Malcolm Arnold," Music Teacher (June, Ibid.,  p. 25.  'ibid.,  p. 26.  12  1989)  CHAPTER III ROBERT HENDERSON'S VARIATION MOVEMENTS, For the performer  and the general  Movements,  1967  discussed.  Although the piece  listener,  1967  Henderson's Variation  i s dramatically different than the Arnold Fantasy lends i t s e l f  this purpose a rather general discussion,  just  to detailed analysis,  with some d e t a i l ,  for  w i l l make  the musical decisions clearer. Robert Henderson was born i n Pimona,  C a l i f o r n i a on May 13,.  1948.  He c u r r e n t l y holds the p o s i t i o n of m u s i c a l d i r e c t o r and conductor the Arkansas Symphony i n L i t t l e Rock, Arkansas. violin, State  French horn, University,  Michalsky.  He has s t u d i e d the  and piano as well as composition. Henderson worked  At C a l i f o r n i a  w i t h D a n i e l Lewis  and Donal  In a d d i t i o n , he s t u d i e d w i t h I n g o l f Dahl at U.S.C.  Henderson's awards is the prestigious  B.M.I, composer's  he was one of the youngest r e c i p i e n t s . Movement s,  1967  of  Among  grant, of which  Of note i s that the V a r i a t i o n  was the featured c o m p o s i t i o n i n 1978 at the Munich  Instrumental Competition. This composition has components of s e r i a l i s m using a nine-note row rather than the more frequently used twelve-tone movements, at  There are  each of which u t i l i z e s the nine-note row which is  the beginning of the  movement  row.  is,  first  significantly,  movement.  (See  e n t i t l e d "Theme."  Ex.  3a)  presented  This  first  The breath mark at  end of measure 3 makes i t c l e a r that the row - - i n i t s most 13  five  the  complete  form  has been presented.  Ex. 3a.  Henderson, Variation Movements, 1967,  Moving and i n a s i n p i n ^  (See Ex.  F i r s t Movement, mm. 1-9.  style  At the beginning of measure 4, of the c o m p o s i t i o n . is  3a)  the d#" i s the f i r s t repeated  note  This p i t c h has important r a m i f i c a t i o n s i n t h i s  movement.  It  the  twelve-tone  technique a particular  statements of the row.  f i r s t note  of  the  second phrase.  In  strict  pitch should not come between two  Also, the f i r s t two lines of the f i r s t movement  show that the second breath mark comes before the g", which i s  the  ninth and f i n a l note of the nine-note row. Although, as mentioned, the Henderson has components of s e r i a l music,  two s i g n i f i c a n t features  movement:  1)  themselves,  the  first  do h i n t at  concludes with an e'.  nine  are evident, notes,  tonality,  especially  w h i l e being  and 2)  i n the  serialistic  the movement  Throughout the work, the s e r i a l i s t i c  give way to tonally motivic material.  first  Because of the close  in  begins and components association  between the d# and the e and the former p i t c h ' s obvious l e a d i n g tone tendencies, be p l a c e d  the assumption i n s e r i a l i s m is that the two notes would not by one  another.  e s p e c i a l l y one note b e f o r e , founded.  With  the  d#  appearing before  s u s p i c i o n s of a t o n a l centre are  the  e,  well-  There are two examples where the d# appears d i r e c t l y before e  - - measures 20-21  (See Ex. 3b) and measure 4 (See Ex. 3a),  14  Ex. 3b. 18.  Henderson, Variation Movements, 1967, F i r s t  The cadential tone d#'-e'.  formula seen i n the last two bars delays the leading  There i s , however, no q u e s t i o n of a t o n a l c e n t r e as the  music r e s o l v e s Ex. 3c. 54.  Movement, mm. 10-  on the e'.  (See Ex. 3c)  Henderson, Variation Movements, 1967, F i r s t Movement, mm. 53-r  The f i r s t  movement  cadential formula.  features  a number of appearances o f the  The appearance of the formula at measures 29-32 is  particularly  interesting  (See Ex. 3b)  because the  resolution to the e "  In a t r a d i t i o n a l manner,  is delayed.  Henderson is able to  on the ear's tonal expectations by delaying the resolution. delays the i n e v i t a b l e . adhered to.  It i s c r u c i a l that the dynamic markings  c"  a' i s p i a n o ,  and measure 32,  only being encouraged by a crescendo but, a note  is  repeated note i s The c a d e n t i a l indicates  Measure 31  A f t e r the g' a decrescendo begins on the low b.  31 w i t h the f  piece,  capitalize  repeated  are  Measure  w i t h the e " ,  is  not  f o r the f i r s t time i n the  consecutively.  Not s u r p r i s i n g l y ,  the  formula found throughout the f i r s t movement  also  e".  important t o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  have some r e l a t i o n s h i p  to e.  the d#,  Each note can be shown to  as mentioned e a r l i e r ,  is  the  l e a d i n g tone to e minor; the b i s a dominant of the t o n i c e a r e a ; and the g i s the r e l a t i v e major of e minor. The second movement features a v a r i a t i o n s i m i l a r ,  i n concept,  to  the f i n a l v a r i a t i o n of the famous cornet s o l o , C a r n i v a l of Venice by Arban.  In the Arban,  the main theme i s accented under a t u r n ,  as  opposed to the Henderson which has the most obvious melodic line in the upper voice.  Another difference between the Carnival of Venice and the  Henderson c o m p o s i t i o n  is  that  the  r a t i o n a l i z i n g the source of the pitch  latter  is  more  complex  material.  Shown below i s the main theme of the C a r n i v a l of V e n i c e . r e l a t i o n s h i p between the theme (See Ex. 3d) and the f i n a l (See Ex.  3e)  in  The  variation  i s i l l u s t r a t e d not only by the accents but a l s o by the  r e g i s t r a l change between the accompanying line and the theme l i n e .  16  Ex.  3d.  Arban, Carnival of Venice, Theme. (A)  8  Theme  i  is Var. I  -  3e.  rt  V a r . VIII  .  —  .  _  "j  Arban, Carnival of Venice, Var. VIII.  Inn Inn  Ex.  _.  3 H  >  [jj] ,r  F  r r  -J  •  >  ^1 1 * CLSTJ JTU-  'j  f m  m  m  —  >  (—f  1  Given below i s the Henderson Variation Movements, prime row. Ex. 3f. 13.  theme or  (See Ex. 3f)  Henderson, Variation Movements,  1  1967  if -  The v a r i a t i o n ,  Pt, -'.  }—^0  1967,  First  Movement, mm. 1-  i '1  t—~nt*i  — — ~ t  1  i  movement two, uses the same idea of register change,  well as a r t i c u l a t i o n ,  as  and dynamic changes - - loud for the upper notes 17  and soft for the lower notes. Ex. 3g. 16.  (See Ex.  3g)  Henderson, Variation Movements, 1967,  Second Movement, mm. 1-  There i s transposition of a minor t h i r d between the notes i n the f i r s t line of the second movement with those of the f i r s t movement. is  s i g n i f i c a n t to e s t a b l i s h ( s i n c e  it  is,  p r i m a r i l y , a theme and  v a r i a t i o n piece) some r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h a l l movements to the movement.  It  first  In the Arban s o l o the cornet i s g i v e n a theme (See Ex. 3d)  which i t  then ornaments  features  the cornet  i n the d i f f e r e n t v a r i a t i o n s .  Example  o u t l i n i n g the theme w i t h accented notes.  3e The  remainder of the notes i n the cornet part serve as an accompaniment to these accented  pitches  which are  written  Henderson's second movement follows this example 3g the P3 form of the s e r i e s  i n the  same  lower  register.  form of v a r i a t i o n .  (the theme) i s accented  In  loudly  while softer and lower notes serve as an accompaniment. The accompaniment to the accented melody i n the Henderson i s more complicated  than  relationship  to  the Arban.  These  something that has  lower note occurred  movement or as the second movement progresses. given.  The f i r s t example i s from measure 4.  groups  either  have  i n the  some first  Three examples w i l l be T h i s i s an i n t e r e s t i n g  measure because there are four notes instead of the more common three18  note pattern that permeates  the movement.  that concluded the f i r s t movement.  This is the cadence formula  Not only does the grace note add  attention to this section but the dramatic rest before the four notes i s r e m i n i s c e n t of the f i r s t movement.  It should be r e c a l l e d that a  r e s t preceded every statement of the c a d e n t i a l f o r m u l a . Measure 5,  the second example, uses a t h r e e - n o t e  (See Ex. 3g)  group i n the lower  v o i c e that i s found i n the upper v o i c e i n measures 2 and 3.  In the  t h i r d example the seventh measure f e a t u r e s e' f#' c as the three note set. 5,  The o r i g i n of this particular set 6,  is the upper voice of measures  and 7 on the downbeat of each aforementioned bar. In the t h i r d movement,  from measures 1-10,  3g)  a l l the accented notes  coincide with the thematic or tone row pitches heard at of the f i r s t movement.  (See ex.  the beginning  This v a r i a t i o n technique i s reminiscent of the  Carnival of Venice cornet solo discussed with i t s close s i m i l a r i t i e s in 3 the  second movement  of t h i s  composition.  Two s i m i l a r types  of  v a r i a t i o n techniques are shown i n Examples 4a and 4b. Ex. 4a.  Arban, C a r n i v a l of Venice., V a r . V. Var.V --ts  * * «a J"'J  J  roc  KK  / /L\> F  *  Sm  ^\^ ' r  ^^S^  lb J  J r  m ^ » p m "*T^ — 1  n  F  -J-«^»  •P# —  L  mam ,  'JJ*  J l ^ CU ;  N^tty ^  J  r>m, — —[—"  '  1  H f-ff  m m f  r—  LLP  -  •H sfc-j - F T » w „ •  19  -  -V.  Ex. 4b. 12.  Henderson, Variation Movements,  1967,  In the v a r i a t i o n s of the two themes, rapid passages  Third Movement, mm. 1-  both composers w r i t e out  eighth notes for the Henderson and t r i p l e t  notes for the Arban - - with the accented thematic m a t e r i a l .  sixteenth  notes representing the exact  The Henderson u t i l i z e s t h i s standard v a r i a t i o n  technique found in much e a r l i e r popular cornet Henderson stops the note-for-note whole row) at measure 11.  literature.  relationship (at  least with the  It is the d i f f e r e n t time value in measure 11  that signals the whole theme w i l l not continue.  However, the v a r i a t i o n  technique w i l l continue to be u t i l i z e d i n t h i s movement.  There are  other important compositional elements that give a clue that something d i f f e r e n t might occur.  For example, i t i s the loudest p o i n t of t h i s  p a r t i c u l a r movement helped by a rather large crescendo; also, i t i s the f i r s t moment of silence in the movement. The n o t e - f o r - n o t e  relationship,  (See Ex 4b) at  least  w i t h the whole row  presented at the beginning of the f i r s t movement, ceases at measure 20  11.  At measures  12-14  the cadence formula from the f i r s t movement i s  outlined d#' g' b, but s i g n i f i c a n t l y , end of the f i r s t movement i s lost. sequence using f#' b ' d " .  the resolution to e' found at the Instead measures 14-16 are a rough  Measure 15 s i m p l y ornaments the accented  notes l i k e the e a r l i e r part of the movement. i n i t i a l l y to the g ' - - d r a m a t i c a l l y at point  of  the  work  the  g is  a note  Measure 16 then resolves,  the piano dynamic. of s i g n i f i c a n c e .  At t h i s It  helps  predetermine the f i n a l note of the movement - - the g' which occurs in measure 32.  The symmetry of the two appearances of the g as cadence  notes i s obvious.  The f i r s t g ' i n measure 16 and the f i n a l note g' at  the end of the movement. Ex. 4c. 16.  (See Ex.  4c)  Henderson, Variation Movement,  1967,  *  \-  Third Movement, mm. 13-  P  '  «r  This movement gives a sense of two pitches - - g and a - - b a t t l i n g f o r s u p e r i o r i t y as the t o n a l c e n t r e .  For that matter  movement c o n t i n u e s the t e n s i o n between these two notes.  the  fourth  One o«f the  spots in the music that demonstrates this tension occurs from measures 25-30.  (See Ex. 4d)  - - e.' a ' c' - -  The accented notes of measure 30 and measure 25  s p e l l an " a " minor t r i a d .  of measure 29 features, C major t r i a d .  Measure 30 and the l a s t beat  as accented notes - - e' g' c' •?- which s p e l l s a  The e' and c' are common notes to the two t r i a d s with  g' and a ' as the only u n r e l a t e d notes.  D y n a m i c a l l y , the accented a '  appears stronger i n measure 30 than the accented g' of measure 29. 21  The  music descends chromatically i n the f i n a l two measures going as low as the low a,  but then l e a p i n g to the a ' 0  pianissimo dynamic.  and c o n c l u d i n g on a g ' at a  Perhaps i t is with a sense of musical humour that  Henderson places the pianissimo g' i n the same rhythmical point as the fortissimo a' of measure 30. Ex. 4d. 32.  (See Ex. 4d)  Henderson, Variation Movements, 1967,  ^  ^ - U  p  J^J  1  1 L- * J ntft  J  Third Movement, mm. 24-  ^4  i  H—H—  The f o u r t h movement i s a r e f r e s h i n g change of atmosphere from movements 2 and 3.  The movement i s i n three s e c t i o n s ,  c o m p o s i t i o n a l f e a t u r e of the v a r i a t i o n s .  a standard  The use of two d i f f e r e n t  mutes separated by an open s e c t i o n d e f i n e s the three s e c t i o n s . first  section,  from measures 1-12,  s e c t i o n , from measures 12-26 section,  uses the straight mute;  The  the second  uses the open i n s t r u m e n t ; and the t h i r d  from measures 27 to the end uses the harmon mute.  This movement does depend on the row but certain thematic from e a r l i e r movements are o b v i o u s .  In the middle s e c t i o n i t  events uses  small flashbacks - - quasi cadenza - - from the three e a r l i e r movements. However, i t is the t h i r d movement that is most c l o s e l y related to the fourth movement. the  first  More s i g n i f i c a n t than the obvious r e l a t i o n s h i p from  three movements  discussed in movement three,  are  the  tensions  between  the  a and g  especially at the end of that movement.  22  The ear is drawn to the s i m i l a r i t i e s between the f i r s t bars of the t h i r d and f o u r t h movements because of shared p i t c h e s e' f the same register.  (See Ex. 5a and 5b)  g' a' g ' i n  Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , the sharing  of p i t c h e s stops a f t e r the f i f t h note g'.  C u r i o u s l y , although the g'  is the f i n a l note much of the f i r s t section focuses on the "a". the breath mark in measure 10 the a i s heard four times.  The f i r s t two  times i t i s accented; the f o l l o w i n g two times i t i s not. i s a diminuendo to p i a n i s s i m o , a r e s t , section.  first  (See Ex. 5b)  --•>  m Slow  and a# concludes the  Henderson, Variation Movements, 1967,  Ex. 5b. 12.  A l s o , there  Apparent focus on the a i s s p o i l e d as t h i s p i t c h serves as  the l e a d i n g tone to a#. Ex. 5a.  After  -  -  -  -  -  -iilllPii  mf  Henderson, V a r i a t i o n Movements, 1967,  and  in  Straight  a  l y r i c  s t  Third Movement, mm. 1-2. j  Fourth Movement, mm. 1-  y1<  mute  m  din  The middle s e c t i o n ,  which begins at  measure  13,  is  written  predominantly i n the low register u n t i l the a " in measure 23.  In this  movement the h i g h e s t , l o u d e s t , and lowest notes are a l l " a " .  A l s o of  note i s the use of the cadence formula from the f i r s t movement. 23  The  rests are important, especially the sixteenth rest, where Henderson has i n d i c a t e d that the l a s t s i x t e e n t h note be played very s h o r t . imperative execution.  that  the d#'-e' r e l a t i o n s h i p  Ex. 5c. 11-28.  not be muddied by poor  The length of notes must be perfect  to be r e c o g n i z e d .  It i s  for the cadence formula  (See Ex. 5c)  Henderson, V a r i a t i o n Movements, 1967, Fourth Movement, mm. •  After the powerful a " a quasi cadenza closes  the middle section.  Measure 26, the f i n a l measure of the second section,  contains  taken from measures  This part of the  f i r s t movement,  33-36 of the f i r s t movement.  like the f i n a l measure of this section,  s o f t l y on the g ' , d i s r u p t i n g measure 22.  cadences very  the s h o r t - l i v e d c l i m a x on the a " i n  (See Ex. 5c)  In the t h i r d section, of  material  the t h i r d movement  t r a n s p o s i t i o n , however, fourth movement.  The f#',  measures  27-28 transpose  up a m a j o r  third.  the f i r s t  This  measure  note-for-note  stops on the downbeat of measure 20 i n the s i g n i f i c a n t l y , rises to the g' i n measure 29  i n s t e a d o f an a ' had the t r a n s p o s i t i o n c o n t i n u e d .  24  T h i s i s proof that  the " a " and " g " are s t r u g g l i n g f o r s u p e r i o r i t y .  (Compare Exx. 5a to  5d) Ex. 5d. 40.  Henderson, Variation Movements, 1967,  Measures  31  and 32  place  the  first  Fourth Movement, mm. 26-  four notes  of  the  first  movement theme i n retrograde building to a crescendo on the only g " of the movement.  Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , the g " moves c h r o m a t i c a l l y to the  lower a' g e t t i n g p r o g r e s s i v e l y s o f t e r . because  the cadential  This a' has l i t t l e emphasis  formula follows immediately in measures  This refocus on the "e" also gives way to a presentation of the row m i s s i n g only one note - an a ' but  instead a rest  the " a " .  follows.  34-36. initial  The g#' i n measure 39 h i n t s at The f#'  i n the measure  patiently waits for the g' which appears at "ppp".  before  (See Ex 5d)  Henderson's f i f t h movement features a three-voice  fugue.  When the  second v o i c e presents  the fugue subject  written on two staves.  Similarly,  when the fugue subject i s presented  in  music  written  a third voice  the  is  at measure 7 the music i s  on t h r e e  staves.  This  f a c i l i t a t e s the a b i l i t y of the composer to i n s e r t c o u n t e r s u b j e c t s the other v o i c e s .  in  For example, when the fugue subject e n t e r s i n the 25  second v o i c e at measure 7, the f i r s t v o i c e executes a c o u n t e r s u b j e c t based on i n t e r j e c t o r y t r i l l s .  (See Ex. 6a)  third voice announces the fugue subject, countersubject  of t r i p l e t notes  countersubject  based on the t r i l l s . ^  Ex. 6a.  while  At measure 17, when the  the top line presents  the middle voice continues (See Ex.  #-*J4  f=r  7  F i f t h Movement, mm. 1-8.  rt  4  ,  Ex 6b. 20.  Henderson, Variation Movements, 1967,  P-9__La.t  4  notes  R  I  4  l  a  s  t  ,—-—#  : — r — *  \  F i f t h Movement, mm. 13-  PO  4  t—h^  ^  j>  • - • 4 4  5  the  6b)  Henderson, Variation Movements, 1967,  7  another  RT-.ll  Last.,4  This movement could be discussed i n great d e t a i l with focus on the fugue  form and a l l  of  the  related  rows  and t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n .  However, there is something far more interesting to explain and that is 26  why the  piece  ends  on "c#".  movement that substantiate  There are  many places  this ending and i t  i n the  fifth  is this angle that  will  be pursued i n this document. The f i r s t episode involves the f i r s t six measures of the movement and their obvious relationship to the beginning of the f i r s t movement. Measures 5 and 6 use the same p i t c h m a t e r i a l as measures 4-7 of the f i r s t movement and again this presentation stops on a "c#"  in measure 6  of the f i f t h movement as i t was stopped by a breath mark at the end of measure  7 i n the  first  movement.  (Compare Exx.  6a  to  3a)  When  comparing this section with the p a r a l l e l events i n the f i r s t movement i t i s apparent how the "c#"  was s e l e c t e d  as the  final  note of  the  composition. Measures 17-19  are of significance as the fugue subject i s a major  third higher than the prime 7 presentation starting at measure 11. addition  the  countersubject  is  also  transposed up a major  However, the b t r i l l i n g should have moved to a#; trill  resolves  relationship.  In  third.  dramatically,  the  to c# i n t e r r u p t i n g what was an obvious i n t e r v a l l i c (See Ex.  6b)  There are countless points i n the music where various i n t e r v a l l i c relationships are  interrupted by the "c#".  The expectancy of that  "c#"  is greatly enhanced i f the performer realizes t h i s . At measure 36 the f i r s t s t a f f begins a s i g n i f i c a n t presentation of three rows which end in the middle of measure 42. 5,  the  second i s  P-8,  and the  third is  P-2-.  The f i r s t row i s PDuring  these  three  p r e s e n t a t i o n s the second s t a f f continues to play the f l u t t e r t o n g u e d pitches as accompaniment while the bottom s t a f f continues the rhythmic figures o r i g i n a t i n g from the second, movement.  27  There are some important  p i t c h concerns i n t h i s s e c t i o n which i n v o l v e the "c#".  Between the  p r e s e n t a t i o n of the P-5 and P-8 v e r s i o n s of the subject i n the top s t a f f there i s one note which does not f i t i n e i t h e r p r e s e n t a t i o n - c#".  Also,  i n the c o u n t e r s u b j e c t of the middle s t a f f ,  found i n measure 39 of the top s t a f f i s repeated. tonic r e l a t i o n s h i p .  (See Ex.  the g#'  c#'  A d e f i n i t e dominant-  6c)  Ex. 6c. Henderson, Variation Movements, 1967, 44.. • ••  F i f t h Movement, mm. 37-  1  nP  1  >  .h/>  r  1  P5  fi -  V  1  r  1 l'»  LJ  >  K  -  hfi  — =  ......  P2  n  ^ .  N  tfri  •  ,  P8  &  > -=n  fi  -  =4^—  L  >  v ip  *F—-—  —^!*~~c — ^ = a  ^ r -  1  J  fe—  _  •  ; L  v —  J i# * B 3  •  The t h i r d section, beginning at measure 45, of a perfect fourth.  develops the i n t e r v a l  These fourths, however, are not the key issue of  these three measures.  A l l pitches are present i n these three measures  except f# a# and c#.  As can be observed i n the l a s t measure these  pitches are i n t e g r a l .  (See Exx. 6d and 6e)  28  The "f#" has great significance i n the buildup to the cadence from measures 24-30 that c l o s e s the f i r s t s e c t i o n .  The "f#" acts as the  dominant to the " B " area and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to the "B" area i s that of a tonic dominant r e l a t i o n as w e l l .  29  (See Ex. 6f)  Ex. 6f. 32.  Henderson, Variation Movements, 1967, F i f t h Movement, mm. 24-  • JT-n-NL,  >  =  td  i  rty -/  *y i  M  -=|  >  1  —  r  r gL  >  •/  j  */ |i U j !  -  j) - i — [ i i j-i—IY  i  Ul  fonr  S i * — 3fc J  -4—• r 1 'L=* ; — iv  ,  l y_  7  no D  ' n <—i n!  —  *  j a". m ' XI •;if>. ^t»-™ ™ ' -tr  - YtY - - 5J  P-1  V ,  cresc.  suo.  -  ,ir,Hf  >  I  *tr~ r  y _ l " LJ L  -ftp  (—f—,y L L  *F  1  fl#  >  -4r  -1  / /  Some important elements can be found i n measures 49-50.  In  measure 49, combining a l l voices with the middle s t a f f i n measure 50 presents the fugue subject i n i t s o r i g i n a l p i t c h form. whole s u b j e c t i s not p r e s e n t e d . should have been "c#."  However, the  The e i g h t h note f o l l o w i n g the f#'  Instead the top v o i c e transposes the f i n a l  three p i t c h e s o f the middle v o i c e of measure 50.  (See Ex. 6d)  By  l o o k i n g at the l a s t measure (Ex. 6e) the " F " t r i a d i s o u t l i n e d i n the f i r s t beat.  In measure 49 and 50 the second, t h i r d and fourth notes of  the row a c f are g i v e n .  It i s i m p e r a t i v e that the a r t i c u l a t i o n be  executed so that the e' i s not considered part of this three-note set. A l s o , the C major t r i a d i n the top s t a f f of measure 50 i s i n c l u d e d i n the second beat of the f i n a l measure.  Finally,  the f# a#(B^) c# i s  apparent because of the t h r e e - n o t e group's absence i n measures 45-47 when a l l twelve notes were seemingly going to appear.  It cannot be  random thought for the F# t r i a d to be absent. Finally,  there i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p to the f i r s t measure of the 30  f i r s t movement.  The f i r s t three notes s p e l l an " a " minor t r i a d .  The  f i f t h of the triad is the "e" which concludes the f i r s t movement.  The  discussion of the F# t r i a d in the f i n a l measure and measures 45-47  of  the f i f t h movement substantiates the C# as the f i f t h of that t r i a d and thus  the  concluding p i t c h .  T h i s i s a good example  unifying a l l of the substantial musical elements.  31  of a composer  NOTES  A l r e a d y , there i s an important performance d e c i s i o n , as the i n i t i a l tendency would have been to play through the breath mark. M u s i c a l l y , t h i s would be an e r r o r as i t would d i s t o r t c e r t a i n l i n e a r and even harmonic goals found in the movement. The Henderson is more d i f f i c u l t than the Arban because the leaps are much wider and more d i f f i c u l t for the player to hear. In addition, the adherence to perfection with regard to the dynamic markings adds awkwardness. This passage has to be p r a c t i s e d very s l o w l y at f i r s t w i t h not only p r e c i s e p i t c h e s but a l s o e q u a l l y p r e c i s e dynamics. An e r r o r i n dynamic l e v e l s i s more damaging to the i n t e g r i t y of the movement than would be a missed note. The theme of Carnival of Venice can be reviewed i n Example 3d and the theme of the Henderson can be reviewed in Example 3f. ^This scoring device is very helpful when performing and learning the movement i n order to understand where the thematic m a t e r i a l i s . Reading music l i k e , t h i s , however, is rather confusing and i t could be suggested that each individual l i n e could be condensed into one l i n e as trumpet players' are accustomed to reading.  32  CHAPTER IV STANLEY FRIEDMAN'S SOLUS Stanley Friedman's Solus was selected because of i t s combined use of a number of i n n o v a t i v e techniques now demanded of the modern day trumpet player.  The most s i g n i f i c a n t of innovative techniques  found in  this composition include m i c r o - t u n i n g , s l i d e g l i s s a n d i , pedal tones, open tubing, and a l e a t o r i c rhythms and pitches. His  trumpet  dedicated.  instructor  was  Sidney  His composition instructor  Mear,  to  whom Solus  was Samuel Adler.  number of distinguishing awards for his compositions. second place winner of the 1976  International  is  He has won a Solus was  the  Trumpet Guild contest.  The f i r s t movement of Friedman's Solus e n t i t l e d  "Introduction"  begins w i t h a one bar theme that w i l l be developed and t r e a t e d i n a number of d i f f e r e n t transposed  at d i f f e r e n t  Ex. 7a to Ex. Ex. 7a.  ways.  The opening measure w i l l  pitch levels  as seen in measure 12.  7b)  Friedman, Solus, f i r s t movement, Very  freely  (J=50)  33  often  mm.  1-2.  appear (Compare  Ex. 7b.  Friedman, Solus, f i r s t movement, m. 12.  In the f i r s t movement certain intervals are developed p a r t i c u l a r l y the major seventh ( d ^ ' to c") (See Ex. 7a)  or i t s i n v e r t e d form of a minor second.  The f i n a l four p i t c h e s of the movement, f " c " d * " ' a, 5  presents a r e t r o g r a d e v e r s i o n of the f i r s t measure.  (Compare Ex. 7a  w i t h Ex. 7c) Ex. 7c.  Friedman, Solus, f i r s t movement, mm. 42-46.  Different articulation  valve  effects  effects  like  presentation of the theme.  like  the  tremolo  f luttertongue  (See Ex.  are  and  different  utilized  in  the  7c)  The f i r s t movement i s i n three s e c t i o n s .  The f i r s t of these i s  completed on a d ' "ppp" f o l l o w e d by a fermata and a double bar. middle  section,  different  pitch  contemporary feature  b e g i n n i n g at level  trumpet  a number of  measure  12,  and i n t r o d u c e s  techniques standard  restates the  trills.  the theme at a  greatest  i n the movement. A l l of  the  The  number  Measures trilling  15-17 is  development of the major seventh interval of the opening; the t r i l l the related minor second i n t e r v a l .  (See Ex. 7d)  34  of  a is  Ex. 7d.  Friedman, Solus, Solus, f i r s t movement,  mm. 15-17. tf. tf..  Measure 18 demonstrates a contemporary glissando.  Friedman defines  effect known as the s l i d e  i t as being produced by manipulation of  the f i r s t and t h i r d valve slides as shown below: 2  slide  3 - - depress valves two and three and extend  3  the  third  valve s l i d e to lower pitch  1 s l i d e 1 - - depress valves one and two and extend the f i r s t valve 2  slide to lower pitch  The reason the s l i d e glissando i s becoming a popular compositional technique for trumpet l i t e r a t u r e  i s to enable the instrument to u t i l i z e  a d i f f e r e n t timbre and a l s o to s i m u l a t e changing p i t c h more l i k e a trombone. difficult Ex. 7e.  This effect requires special attention as the pitch i s often to execute  perfectly.^  Friedman, S o l u s , f i r s t movement,  In measure  20, the f i r s t  mm. 17-18.  s l i d e g l i s s a n d o i s a whole step a ' g '  which i s rather awkward followed by a second glissando from the g' a^'. When the a l t e r a t i o n of p i t c h i s more than a semitone the movement of the s l i d e w i l l not be s u f f i c i e n t to bring the pitch a whole step down. In a d d i t i o n to moving the t h i r d s l i d e the p l a y e r must " l i p " the note down.  Moving from the g' to the a ' is not d i f f i c u l t except that i t i s b  35  a different Ex. 7f.  fingering combination than i n measure 18.  Friedman, Solus,  The  f'-e'  fingerings  slide  (1  3).  p u b l i s h e d v e r s i o n (see player,  7f)  f i r s t movement, mm. 20-22.  glissando  slide  (See Ex.  This  Ex.  7f)  is is  not  possible  undoubtedly  with  the  a misprint  given in  the  as Friedman, who i s an accomplished  would be aware that 1 s l i d e 1 is the only workable combination  for these two p i t c h e s .  Moving the t h i r d valve s l i d e when u s i n g the  f i r s t v a l v e has no e f f e c t on the p i t c h . f i r s t or t h i r d valve has to be used.  If i t i s only the f i r s t  then the f i r s t valve s l i d e must be used. third valve  In any s l i d e g l i s s a n d o  the  valve,  The same holds true for the  slide.  Measure  22  is  a sequence of measure 21  glissando is not p a r t i c u l a r l y  difficult.  It  and the  a^'-g'  slide  is not d i f f i c u l t because  the p l a y e r can s t a r t on a note that w i l l use a r e g u l a r f i n g e r i n g and slide to the note which w i l l not.  It is much more d i f f i c u l t to execute  i n the r e v e r s e order where the f a l s e f i n g e r i n g i s combined w i t h the s l i d e out.  (See Ex.  Measures Getting  the  26 e"  7f)  and 29 are and the  a"  respective valves depressed  especially i n the  d i f f i c u l t slide glissandi.  respective  and slides out,  measures,  with  the  is increasingly awkward as  i t seems the higher one goes the less p r e d i c t a b l e the r e s u l t w i l l be.* In a d d i t i o n , measure 26 i s harder because the p i t c h before uses the f l u t t e r tongue.  (See Ex. 7g)  36  Ex. 7g.  Friedman, Solus, f i r s t movement, mm. 23-29.  The f i n a l technique required i n the f i r s t movement of the Friedman i s the tremolo.  This effect sounds l i k e a t r i l l but the t r i l l moves to  the same note.  This i s achieved by alternating  pattern.  the regular fingering  For example, the d " i n measure 19 i s played w i t h the  valve depressed alternating rapidly with the 1/3  combination.  first  (See Ex  7h) Ex. 7h.  Friedman, Solus, f i r s t movement, m. 19. [rem.  Most c o l l e g e  players  tremolo in jazz music. #17  Intervalles  Transcendantes  (Les  will  experience  their  first  use of  the  The c l a s s i c a l player sees the tremolo in "Etude Sixtes)"  pour Trompette.  from C h a r l i e r T r e n t e ^ s i x  E_tude_£  The p a r t i c u l a r excerpt is especially  helpful to practice i n conjunction with preparing the f i r s t movement of the Friedman.  (See Ex. 7i)  The player should strive to make the notes  very even and rhythmical.  37  Ex. 7 i .  Charlier, Etude #17,  The t h i r d s e c t i o n ,  mm. 124-48.  which begins at measure 30,  starts with a  presentation of the theme with rhythmical modifications. number of ideas discussed in the e a r l i e r sections. with the theme in retrograde.  (See Ex.  It features a  The piece concludes  7c)  The second movement of Solus i s e n t i t l e d " F u r t i v e l y . "  The Shorter  Oxford E n g l i s h P i c t i o n a r y d e f i n e s " F u r t i v e l y " as: "done by s t e a l t h ; c l a n d e s t i n e , s u r r e p t i t i o u s , s e c r e t 2) of a person, e t c : S t e a l t h y , s l y 1858  3) S t o l e ;  also  taken by s t e a l t h  or s e c r e t l y  1718  4)  Thievish  1816." Gene Young commented on the second movement saying: A muted staccato prevails throughout the second section which is marked appropriately, " F u r t i v e l y . " The harmon mute is employed to f u r t h e r enhance the apprehensive mood. The n o t a t i o n i s f r e e , r e f l e c t i n g the a t m o s p h e r e d e s i r e d , and a c c e l e r a n d o s and ralentandos are indicated through banding, a most common present day n o t a t i o n a l d e v i c e . T h e r e i s a m o d e r a t e use o f s l i d e extensions to a l t e r p i t c h , and, g r a t e f u l l y , l i t t l e application of the overused hackneyed "Wah." The movement i s e f f e c t i v e and indicates that music does not have to be technically impossible to be successful. The three s e c t i o n s  in this  second movement  are bordered by a  r e g i s t r a l change that is most audible to the l i s t e n e r - - this i s by use of pedal  tones.  The f i r s t s e c t i o n comprises the f i r s t s i x l i n e s of the movement w i t h the pedal tones c o n c l u d i n g . The second s e c t i o n begins i n the 38  middle of the sixth line and concludes in the middle of the fourth l i n e of the second page again s i g n a l l e d by the pedal tones. section  begins  at  the  end of  concluding " f u r t i v e l y " at  the  fourth  l i n e on the  The t h i r d second  the "ppp" a* f l a t after a three-second  page delay.  5  The outer sections, unlike the middle section, use the lower range of the trumpet p r e d o m i n a n t l y .  The middle s e c t i o n has a much louder  dynamic marking and is much more disjunct, using many higher pitches. There movement.  are  a number of contemporary  The use of aleatoric  rhythmic events,  in this  second  rhythm permeates the movement.  Some  according to the way they are written, can be executed  d i f f e r e n t l y in every performance of the work. used regularly throughout w i l l enlarge  features  the movement.  Banding, for example,  When accelerating,  to three l i n e s and when d e c e l e r a t i n g ,  contract back to one l i n e .  the  is  the lines lines  will  This i s the banding that Mr Young speaks of  in his a r t i c l e discussed above.  Also, from performance to performance,  the pitches, as i n the second and third lines of the f i r s t section w i l l differ,  although only f r a c t i o n a l l y .  In this  section the pitch change  with the s l i d e glissando technique occurs over a number of written E's as opposed to moving from one p i t c h to another as seen i n the movement s l i d e g l i s s a n d i .  first  The significance of the s l i d e glissando at  t h i s point i s that the p i t c h e s being played when s l o w l y p u l l i n g the s l i d e out w i l l again d i f f e r from performance to performance as the player w i l l not get the same pitch to sound every time. Ex. 7j.  Friedman, Solus, second movement,  39  (See Ex.  f i r s t three l i n e s .  7j)  Ex. 7 j .  Continued.  Leon Dallen has a good d e f i n i t i o n of a l e a t o r i c elements in music: The crux of an a l e a t o r i c c o m p o s i t i o n l i e s i n the elements predetermined by the composer and those l e f t to the d i s c r e t i o n of the performer. Any aspect of a composition can be fixed or free. For example, p i t c h e s can be notated i n u n i f o r m symbols without rhythmic significance, in which case the performer determines the pitch of each duration. Likewise, tempos, dynamics, a r t i c u l a t i o n s , form, and even the medium can be d e s c r i b e d and the same i n a l l performances, or u n s p e c i f i e d and p o t e n t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t i n each r e a l i z a t i o n . The r e l a t i v e degrees of freedom and control vary in e x i s t i n g compositions from almost n i l to almost t o t a l i n both directions. From a time nature.  aleatoric  in  These rests are shown by indicating the number of seconds  of  silence.  standpoint  the  indicated rests  The time spans (3" 4" 2"),  however,  are  should be proportionate.  Consideration should be made according to the acoustical environment of the performance.  If the h a l l has too much reverb the performer might  c o n s i d e r w a i t i n g longer so that a s u f f i c i e n t amount of s i l e n c e passed.  The time spans (3" 4" 2"),  Returning to Example 7j attention  should be  renewed  however,  and the on  the  particular section of the movement. indicates  that Friedman a c t u a l l y  glissando with a / 4 b  has  should be proportionate.  second and t h i r d l i n e s  some  microtonal  this  aspects  of  The way this section was composed intends i t  to sound l i k e a s l i d e  i n d i c a t i o n just showing the player where the pitch  should be i n r e l a t i o n to how many notes w i l l be sounded before a c t u a l w r i t t e n e^' i s played nine notes l a t e r . four notes drop a quarter of a semitone. 40  the  In other words every  On the four w r i t t e n e* ' the 5  player must stop moving the t h i r d valve s l i d e .  (See Ex.  7j)  One other microtonal event takes place in the second movement. occurs on the f i r s t line of the second page.  It  This p a r t i c u l a r line plus  the two sextuplet  figures just before are quite demanding, especially  at a rapid tempo.  What Friedman has accomplished in this section i s a  number of "false fingerings" that, f i r s t triggers,  when coordinated with the t h i r d and  a l l o w s the p l a y e r to h i t the r i g h t notes.^  (See Ex.  7k) Ex. 7k.  Friedman, Solus, second movement,  first line,  second page.  The three episodes where the hand i s used over the harmon mute offer no real d i f f i c u l t y to the player.  In the f i r s t two examples  the  p l a y e r s i m p l y l i f t s the hand o f f the mute at the p o i n t where WA i s indicated.  The third "WA," near the end of the piece requires that the  p l a y e r remove the hand from the mute s i m u l t a n e o u s l y w i t h the tongue s t r i k i n g the c'. Ex. 71.  (See Ex.  71)  Friedman, Solus, f i r s t l i n e , second page.  dim.  Friedman offers a r e a l i s t i c  suggestion when discussing the pedal  tones i n h i s performance i n s t r u c t i o n s .  "Pedal tones are  practical,  however, the performer may wish to experiment with f i n g e r i n g s other  41  than those indicated." best f o r h i m .  His recommended fingerings are those that work  Each p l a y e r , as Friedman a s t u t e l y acknowledges, f i n d s  d i f f e r e n t combinations easier for their needs. The t h i r d movement, "Scherzando and W a l t z , " i s q u i t e l i g h t i n nature. the  It is t h e a t r i c a l and indicates that the player should approach  waltz  i n an " e x a g g e r a t e d  and t h e a t r i c a l "  style.  It  is  a  p a r t i c u l a r l y e f f e c t i v e movement following what happened i n the second movement. A d e f i n i t i o n of "scherzando" i s : " d i r e c t i o n that an impression of lightheartedness Italian.  is  to  be g i v e n . " ^  Scherzo  a l s o means " j o k e " i n  Friedman is not only developing new technical aspects of the  trumpet but also develops a player's interpretative s k i l l s by including a movement l i k e "Scherzando and Waltz." This movement should be approached w i t h a sense of humour. example,  the b a s i c theme g i v e n i n the  supplies  the  f i r s t measures  (See ex.  7m)  impetus of the whole scherzando s e c t i o n both at  the  b e g i n n i n g of the movement and a l s o at the end where the concludes  For  the movement.  In the  second measure  of the  scherzando theme  the  r h y t h m i c a l placement of the two d " on beats three and f i v e i s where the l i g h t h e a r t e d n e s s o r i g i n a t e s . answer to the theme, pitches  It would be assumed, i n the  found i n measures 4 and 5,  the f i r s t b  b  two  As is seen i n example 7m,  lands on beat three but the second b  h a l f of beat four.  b  lands on the second  This witty answer, with obvious relationship to the  two measures has an even more witty episode i n measures 6 and 7.  The a ' and b at  that the f i n a l  would be the same - - which they are - - and that rhythmically  they too would land on beats three and f i v e .  first  strict  least  b  reappear, as i f to place the b^ i n t h e i r r i g h t p l a c e , or  i n the same r h y t h m i c a l placement as the d " i n measure 42  2.  Curiously,  the a' i s now found on beat one rather  whole f i r s t  section requires perfectly executed  than beat two.  This  rhythm so that  these  " j o k e - l i k e " events are obvious to the l i s t e n e r . Ex. 7m.  Friedman, Solus, t h i r d movement, mm. 1-8. L i g h t l y ( J = 11z)  In the f i n a l s e c t i o n of the t h i r d movement where the scherzando reappears at a d i f f e r e n t pitch level the events discussed with regard to the f i r s t Friedman,  are expected to appear again.  i n tongue-in-cheek response,  altogether. Ex. 7n.  f i v e measures  (Compare Ex. 7m to Ex.  eliminates the f i n a l  *i  •«?-••+•  two notes  7n)  Friedman, Solus, t h i r d movement, last Lightly  However,  three l i n e s .  (J=ii2)  I—i—1  :-  >" •" •  •/lip (open) Q  i i1 mp  Two  ". —•  ~i—' i—  1  ,v  my  trumpet  , /•  nj  ^  =—  f?r-> r — i  SHAKE.'  techniques  contemporary trumpet l i t e r a t u r e  that  are  becoming more common i n  are found i n the t h i r d movement.  trills  from f to g** i n measures  26-27 are  trills  are  C trumpet  not  _. _  p o s s i b l e on the  f i n g e r i n g f o r the f i s used.  the f i r s t event. unless  the  pedal  The These note  The instrument i s only able to p l a y to 43  the low concert g  which has a l l three valves depressed.  w i t h a l l three v a l v e s depressed the t h i r d v a l v e t r i g g e r extended as possible.  The t r i l l  is d i f f i c u l t  because  s l i d e has to move i n and out for the two p i t c h e s .  To get the f must be as  the t h i r d valve The l i p i s q u i t e  loose because the note i s very low and thus w i t h the s l i d e moving i n and out the trumpet does not f e e l very secure against the l i p . Ex.  (See  7o)  Ex. 7o.  Friedman, Solus, t h i r d movement, mm. 26-27. [slide J)  The second trumpet technique which i s becoming more popular i s found i n the l a s t l i n e of the movement and i s c a l l e d a "shake." Ex. 7n)  (See  The shake i s an e f f e c t that has been u t i l i z e d i n j a z z music  for many years and i s becoming a more popular effect trumpet l i t e r a t u r e .  i n contemporary  Smoker discusses the "shake" i n his d i s s e r t a t i o n :  The e f f e c t of the shake i s much l i k e that of the t r i l l . F i r s t p o p u l a r i z e d by j a z z m u s i c i a n s , i t i s produced by shaking the instrument against the l i p s enough to produce the next overtone, u s u a l l y h i g h e r . The speed of the shake i s c o n t r o l l e d s o l e l y by the movement of the hands and arms used to shake the instrument. An up and down movement of the instrument a g a i n s t the l i p s i s o f t e n used to produce a slow shake; w h i l e and i n / o u t movement a g a i n s t the l i p s i s f r e q u e n t l y u t i l i z e d i n the p r o d u c t i o n of a f a s t shake. These may be used i n c o m b i n a t i o n a l s o , the added mouthpiece pressure a g a i n s t the embouchure f o r c e s the l i p to v i b r a t e at a s l i g h t l y f a s t e r r a t e . As a r e s u l t , the h i g h e s t harmonic is squeezed out.** The waltz section of the t h i r d movement offers no r e a l technical problems on the i n s t r u m e n t .  It,  however, needs an o v e r l y dramatic  performance to r e a l l y be e f f e c t i v e .  Words l i k e "very rubato" or "molto  v i b r a t o " and also "exaggerated and t h e a t r i c a l " are words Friedman used 44  in the indications at the beginning of the waltz section. to play the w a l t z i n a s t r i c t last  seven measures  of programmatic section,  3/4 time without rubato - - except the  - - w i l l deem the section untheatrical.  thoughts  Some kind  may be u s e f u l i n approaching the w a l t z  p a r t i c u l a r l y the last  three lines of i t which are devoted to  only three p i t c h e s - - e' f d#'. its  Any attempt  From measures 62-70 the w a l t z loses  flow even though the metre  dancers are losing their step.  is quite s t r i c t .  It  i s as i f two  Perhaps they are unable to go on as the  rhythm gets more jerky with no real feeling of a strong downbeat.  (See  Ex. 7p) Ex. 7p.  Friedman, Solus, third movement, mm. 60-70.  The next two lines which are rhythmically aleatoric have taken the time or the w a l t z dramatically, reappears louder,  after  f e e l r i g h t out of t h i s "macabre" dance.  a very  long  time  - - 5"  - - before  the  It i s ,  scherzando  the end of the waltz which has become "progressively  more f r a n t i c ,  and more insane."  That the scherzando  reappears  in this lighthearted style adding to a bizarre sense of humour that is evident throughout the movement.  (See Ex. 7p, following measure 70)  45  The f o u r t h movement e n t i t l e d " F a n f a r e " u t i l i z e s the concept of removing the second valve slide for the entire movement. of the second valve s l i d e creates a muting effect tone i s s i m i l a r to that of a  The absence  where the  trumpet's  cornetto.  When comparing the s l i d e less sound with the normal trumpet sound, the former is muted trumpet type of timbre, is less focused, especially in  the  lower  register,  has  less  loudness  potential,  has  more  f l e x i b i l i t y of intonation (each slot of the deformed overtone series characterized  by w i d e r  than  usual  " l i p p a b l e " range,  considerable d i f f i c u l t y i n attacking certain notes), different  part  of  the  instrument,  is  causing  and exits from a  which may even be aimed i n a  q  different direction. There are performance example,  some s i g n i f i c a n t details  instructions  and w i t h i n  that Friedman mentions i n his the  body of  the  score.  For  the designated fingerings indicated in the score must be used  in order to r e a l i z e the composer's intended e f f e c t : The f a l s e tones are used e x c l u s i v e l y from the b e g i n n i n g of the movement to A. From A to B f a l s e tones and r e a l tones are alternated. From B to C f a l s e tones are again used e x c l u s i v e l y . At C real tones are employed.^ Throughout the movement there are many passages that have two dynamics i n d i c a t e d . ppp/mp.  For example, the f i r s t note of the movement has  This means that the p l a y e r should play the note "mp" but  because the note is a false tone produced through the second valve the resultant Ex. 7q.  volume is only "ppp".  (See Ex. 7q)  Friedman, Solus, fourth movement,  ( R e m o v e second vnlve slide f o r enlire m o v e m e n t !  46  first  line.  Musically the false tones combined with the regular sound of the trumpet create the effect movement  of two d i f f e r e n t  instruments playing.  i s b a s i c a l l y a c o l l e c t i o n of f a n f a r e s  composer to u t i l i z e the o p e n - t u b i n g technique. which sustains interest  i n the movement.  47  which enables  The the  It i s t h i s technique  NOTES In measure 18, f o r example, the p l a y e r must be able to hear the actual note before playing i t ; i t i s good practice to begin on measure 17 when working out measure 18 so that the i n t e r v a l l i c r e l a t i o n s h i p between the b and the g ' seem obvious. In t h i s f i r s t example (See Ex. 7e) the 2-3) remains depressed for the entire measure (the second and third valve are the regular fingering for a '). To play the g' i n tune with these valves depressed the third valve slide (which i s attached to the t h i r d v a l v e ) , should go as f a r out as p o s s i b l e i n order to b r i n g the a ' down a h a l f step to g'. At the point where the a ^ ' i s c a l l e d f o r the s l i d e i s brought e n t i r e l y " i n , " b r i n g i n g the p i t c h up a h a l f step to a '. 0  0  2  •  .  •  Each d i f f e r e n t f i n g e r i n g c o m b i n a t i o n , even i f i t uses the same two notes, as i s the case with the g ' a^' i n measure 18, and measures 20-21, requires s i m i l a r practice because the distance the slide has to move out w i l l be c o n s i d e r a b l y d i f f e r e n t . The a ' - g ' 3 s l i d e 3 i s p a r t i c u l a r l y awkward and the player should,, be cautioned that any over compensation i n flattening w i l l make an E natural sound. (See Ex. 7f) Gene Young, "Solus r e v i e w " I n t e r n a t i o n a l (Feb. 1979): 17.  Trumpet G u i l d 5, no. 2  ^Leon Dallen, Twentieth Century Composition (Dubuque, Iowa: Wm C. Brown Company, 1980), pp. 239-40. ^It is most challenging to get the pitches i n tune, especially the a' to f " on the top l i n e of the second page. Slow p r a c t i c e i n g e t t i n g both t r i g g e r s out i s a n e c e s s i t y and the p l a y e r must get the t h i r d v a l v e t r i g g e r as f a r out as p o s s i b l e . This i s r a t h e r awkward on the hand when executing the f " as i t requires the f i r s t s l i d e a l l the way out. It was only by repeatedly playing the passage slowly and hearing the f " before p l a y i n g i t that the accuracy was i n c r e a s e d . The f i r s t f " i s q u i t e sharp and thus, when p l a y i n g the second f " next to i t , the p i t c h sounds a quarter tone f l a t t e r . The p l a y e r should not make the two f " i n tune as i t was not the intention of the composer. Also, i n e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n w i t h the f i n g e r i n g s and s l i d e i n d i c a t i o n s i t i s impossible to get them to play i n tune. If the player attempts t o " l i p " the second f " up or the f i r s t f " down, the p l a y e r i s c e r t a i n to miss one of the notes. This is the reason Friedman placed the b/4 (quarter tone f l a t ) between the two f " . (See Ex. 7k) The r e s t of the s l i d e g l i s s a n d i i n t h i s movement o f f e r no s i m i l a r d i f f i c u l t i e s . Slow practice w i l l improve the pitch considerably. ^Stan Friedman, Solus (Nashville: Brass Press,  1978), p. 9.  ^Arthur Jacobs, A New D i c t i o n a r y of Music (Great N i c h o l s and Company L t d . , 1973), p. 336.  48  B r i t a i n : C.  Paul Smoker, "A Comprehensive Performance P r o j e c t i n Trumpet Literature with a Survey of Some Recently Developed Trumpet Techniques and E f f e c t s Appearing i n Contemporary M u s i c " (D.M.A. d i s s e r t a t i o n , University of Iowa, 1974), p. 117 q  'Edwin International 10  H a r k i n s , "Aspects of Trumpet Guild 5 (October,  S t a n Friedman,  KRYL - T A Trumpet 1980): 25.  Solus (Nashville: Brass Press,  49  Piece,"  1980), p. 9.  CHAPTER V JOHN ELMSLY'S TRIPTYCH  FOR TRUMPET AND TAPE  John E l m s l y composed T r i p t y c h i n 1985 composition in 1987.  Elmsly is a graduate i n mathematics  V i c t o r i a University of Wellington, David Farquhar.  and l a t e r  From 1975  to 1978  revised  the  and music of  where he studied composition with he held a post graduate scholarship  from the B e l g i a n M i n s t r y of C u l t u r e .  In 1977 he was awarded a f i r s t  p r i z e i n c o m p o s i t i o n by the Royal Conservatory of B r u s s e l s where he s t u d i e d w i t h V i c t o r Legley and i n 1978 continued study in Liege w i t h Henri Pousseur, Philippe Boesmans and Frederic Rzewski. In 1981,  after two years of teaching in London, he returned to New  Zealand to take up the Mozart F e l l o w s h i p at the U n i v e r s i t y of Otago. This was followed by a further two years in London.  In 1984 he joined  the School of Music at the U n i v e r s i t y of Auckland as a l e c t u r e r composition.  He has  written  works  for  diverse  instrumental  combinations from solo to f u l l orchestra as well as electronic Trumpet and tape has,  over the past decade,  addition to trumpet r e c i t a l s . players new challenges  music.  music.  become a popular  John E l m s l y ' s T r i p t y c h o f f e r s  in contemporary  in  trumpet  Triptych offers as  its  most challenging apsect the synchronization of the trumpet and the tape or as  it  is  i n the  synchronization.  sixth  l i n e of the Prelude the a b i l i t y to avoid  (See Ex. 8c)  E l m s l y mentions i n h i s  performance  notes that "synchronization with the tape is indicated where necessary, 50  otherwise i n the outer movements the performer should f e e l free to treat timing indications as approximate."^ As is often the case in works for trumpet with prepared electronic tape  the  score  electronically. tape's events  does  not  Instead,  indicate  every  event  that  takes  place  the score w i l l give i n s t r u c t i o n regarding the  only when i t  affects  completion of a phrase or section,  the trumpet  player's  entrance,  or any other such structural  event  where synchronization is important. The b e g i n n i n g of the " p r e l u d e " i s an example of how the p l a y e r must be f u l l y  conscious  of timed events  as  t r a n s p i r e before the f i r s t trumpet entrance. the end of the f i r s t  section  (which takes  f i f t e e n seconds (See Ex. 8a)  place at  must  Also,  the end of  at the  f o u r t h l i n e ) the p l a y e r must be conscious of the one minute mark, as the f " r e s o l v i n g the g°" the player miscalculates  must be s u s t a i n e d for twenty seconds. they may not be able to hold the last  for the alotted time which i s " t i l l Ex. 8a.  Elmsly, Triptych,  the tape is s i l e n t . "  f i r s t movement, f i r s t four l i n e s . ' I —  C D  z"  VP?  Ull -tope, Silent  -  - T — •  r£»  l-j a  ; 4-2  1 b« n  f ! f  "Il  [k_ U-  ti  • 51  ?  If  pitches  Sometimes writing i n pitch or rhythmical d e t a i l can be helpful for the performer i n t h i s k i n d of music. s u s t a i n e d note ( g " )  For example,  on the  the tape w i l l play a p i t c h that w i l l  b  and decrescendo e i g h t times.  final  crescendo  As can be seen by l o o k i n g at example 8a  t h i s i s not i n d i c a t e d but would be u s e f u l to the p l a y e r .  Similarly,  a f t e r the general pause and the ten second tape a l o n e , the tape, t h i s ten second episode repeats a t r i p l e t f i g u r e twenty times. Ex. 8b)  For those who wish not to use a watch,  enter a f t e r  the t w e n t i e t h group of t r i p l e t s .  the trumpet  In a d d i t i o n ,  in  (See should  the tape  h e l p s set the tempo i n t h i s B s e c t i o n as the f i r s t notes the trumpet has are also t r i p l e t s . Ex. 8b.  Elmsly, Triptych,  i  f i r s t movement, f i f t h  I'a?"' HO" , rr*'r  i — .  '  v  M l  /  i  f!  *  I  7~~  At the 1'45"  line.  L'l), r j > ^  H \)  $f  < < J  1 jpl  I ;  "9=  p o i n t the tape and trumpet have a fugue l i k e idea  where the tape plays the s i x note theme (See Ex. 8c ) and then the trumpet  enters.  synchronization.  The composer This episode  b r i l l i a n t use of the f u l l  recommends  the  i s v e r y dramatic  register  trumpet  avoid  as E l m s l y makes  of the trumpet.  The t h i r d and  h i g h e s t r e g i s t e r does not play the e n t i r e s i x note theme but i n s t e a d repeats  D-C sharp six times.  This section w i l l  d e f i n i t e l y challenge  the best p l a y e r s because of the extreme range and the loud volume at which i t must be played.  52  Ex. 8c.  Elmsly, Triptych,  f i r s t movement, lines  Following this episode,  6-8.  the tape plays alone from 2'25"  --  2'35"  b u i l d i n g up to a f l o u r i s h that b r i n g s the trumpet back i n on a d ' " . The trumpet  then descends  t r i a d i c a l l y stopping on the lowest note of  each phrase, a l l o w i n g f o r another f l o u r i s h by the tape.  Although a  rest is not indicated i n the score the composer has indicated that the trumpet  must  stop at  the  last  note  of each phrase.  (See Ex.  Perhaps the use of / / would be useful i n these three spots. section the B section also concludes on g^",  Elmsly,  Triptych,  f i r s t movement, lines 11-14.  53  Like the A  holding the note u n t i l a  bass pulse i s heard. Ex. 8d  8d)  Ex. 8d.  Continued. (Z'457 3Et  IP  (ca.3QZ}.  >  ^"Mupe-j  The second A s e c t i o n reappears w i t h s i m i l a r i d e a s , although the pitch levels are d i f f e r e n t . the  same dynamic  It too concludes the movement on a  l e v e l "ppp" which the  trumpet  at  had s t a r t e d  the  movement. The second movement, e n t i t l e d "Allemand Courant", immediately draws a t t e n t i o n  to Baroque s u i t e s .  An obvious comparison between  Bach's Allemande and Courante and E l m s l y ' s Allemand Courant i s that they are polyphonic and that both compositions c o n s i s t of only two voices.  In a d d i t i o n , the set of E n g l i s h s u i t e s by Bach a l s o begins  with a Prelude followed by the Allemande and then the Courante. Bach s u i t e s  each movement i s separated  from the other.  In the  However,  Elmsly's Allemand Courant is one movement. A Baroque model of the Courant is not detectable p a r t l y because  the standard Courante i s i n 3/2  in the movement  time.  indication that there i s any three feel in the movement, 3/4 measure in the f i r s t One i n s t a n c e  There i s no outside of a  repeat.  of s t y l i s t i c  i m i t a t i o n of both the Allemand and  Courante of the Baroque with the combined movement by Elmsly i s the use of an a n a c r u s i s . This takes p l a c e i n the tape p a r t .  54  (See Ex. 8e)  Ex. 8e.  Elmsly, Triptych,  second movement, mm. 1-7.  .  1  L  J  3^ .1  n  i.  32E  1  1.  J " —1 marc . >  f moroa+ol ^ >  i i i  -*<=v-  2  as  m  The events that best a s s o c i a t e t h i s movement w i t h i t s Baroque counterpart are f i r s t l y , the f i r s t s e c t i o n being repeated and i n the second ending i t s attempt at creating a modulation. this modulation would go to the dominant key area. d e f i n i t e "D" tonal centre, pitch and the trumpet's  In the Baroque era The movement has a  as i s q u i c k l y noted by the tape's s t a r t i n g  i n i t i a l entrance.  This entrance  the D minor t r i a d and a l s o the D major t r i a d .  outlines both  This s h i f t i n g between  the minor and the major t r i a d s (and key areas) i s a f e a t u r e movement.  There is s i m i l a r s h i f t i n g between minor and major modes when  the piece f i n a l l y a r r i v e s i n the dominant key area of A. v  (See Ex. 8f  and Ex. 8g) Ex. 8f.  of the  Elmsly, Triptych,  second movement, mm. 29-33.  urn  TV  H  i  :  FT -L  1  rH-ar—1  >  rr\f  55  -f^-]  34=r  Ex. 8g.  Elmsly, Triptych, 7  -J'  / v . . :  5  y  second movement, mm. 16-28.  ,  • ©  >  >  Typically,  i n the Baroque Allemand or Courante a dominant cadence  is found at the end of the f i r s t section, which would be at measure 17. This dominant cadence event does not take place u n t i l measure 28.  The  expected event in a Baroque Allemand or Courante would have a cadence in  the  A key area o c c u r r i n g at  Instead,  measure  17  i n the  second ending.  an e' (V/V) assumes importance for a few measures moving to a  b" --  the dominant key area of E - - w i t h a g ' being played on the  tape.  Measure 20 hints at the A key area with the broken arpeggio  (see  Ex. 8g) but i t i s f o i l e d by the s u s t a i n e d b " on the trumpet and the g ' on the  tape.  As Douglas Moore p o i n t s out "the second h a l f , which i s u s u a l l y longer,  i s concerned with the problems of finding i t s way back to  tonic.  When this i s achieved the piece comes to an end."  the A t o n a l area i s e s t a b l i s h e d at measure  the  As soon as  28 there i s a dramatic  silence and the immediate search for the D tonic area which does appear 3  at the end of the movement. Harmonically, this movement is very much related to Baroque models in the simplest of terms.  The tonic modulation is to the dominant key  area but resolves back to the tonic at the end of the B section. Measures 32 to the end are related  unusual because  to the b e g i n n i n g of the p i e c e .  they are  directly  Such d i s t i n c t i v e  thematic  patterns in Baroque Allemandes and Courantes are rare.  At f i r s t these  l a s t s i x measures appeared to be a r e t u r n to the A s e c t i o n except at the dominant l e v e l .  However, because  there is other  shared  materials  in the B section (See Ex. 8e and Ex. 8g) - - measures 5-7 and measure 25 - - i t seems that Elmsly is trying to maintain a binary design i n place and that  the B s e c t i o n  should be c o n s i d e r e d complete at  the  final  cadence of the d'. The f i n a l  movement "Rondeau-Gigue," seems to combine  certain  elements of the t r a d i t i o n a l Rondeau and the t r a d i t i o n a l Gigue. consultation with the composer,  he stressed  case of the second and t h i r d movements,  that the forms are,  In  i n the  a f u s i o n of two types  --  Allemand Courant in the second movement and Rondeau-Gigue in the t h i r d movement.  The composer feels that the fusion of the rondeau and gigue  is the most obvious. The Rondeau and Gigue are movements o f t e n found at the ends of suites.  The gigue feel is p r i m a r i l y attained by the f e e l i n g of t r i p l e t  rhythms found i n a l l s e c t i o n s  of the movement - - " s o m e t i m e s 57  i n the  accompaniment and sometimes i n the trumpet p a r t . sonatas  and concertos  In most Mozart  the rondo concluded the c o m p o s i t i o n .  The  s i m p l e s t rondo form would be ABACADA - - the A s e c t i o n would always represent and  the r e c u r r i n g s e c t i o n .  For example,  at the l ' l O " ,  2'56"  3'49" point, which would a l l be designated A sections there are a  number of recurring events.  In each case the trumpet sustains a long  note waiting for the tape to enter playing t r i p l e t s as an accompaniment figure. is  In each of these A sections  consistent.  the t r i p l e t accompaniment figure  The l ' l O " A s e c t i o n and the 3 ' 4 9 " A s e c t i o n  also  share the same thematic material although the f i n a l A section i s at a higher  pitch level  - - starting  on the dominant of A - - i . e .  e".  Example 8h shows a l l three A sections where they originate. Ex.  8h.  Elmsly, Triptych,  J  Q?  third movement, mm. 3-6, 47-48, 79-83.  crtsc.\ J  Although the middle A s e c t i o n at 2'56" has a somewhat d i f f e r e n t theme i t does share the a l e a t o r i c i d e n t i t y of the f i r s t A s e c t i o n as seen i n the two examples below.  (See Ex. 8i)  58  Ex. 8 i  Elmsly, Triptych, t h i r d movement, mm. 1-2,  46.  3§ ft  Went ad  fib.  towtii  4i"L>3r^  o r a r y $ub-Jv&jrtver\t  ifatrcat-o, )  (rMlS  '•-rtfjuWly  jpausiA. j  iKtia.  Oxl.l i b )  "hyp t^ATStS J  The B s e c t i o n  at  1'44"  i s much more t r i p l e t - o r i e n t e d  trumpet part than the A sections.  The accompaniment, as w e l l ,  to the t r i p l e t rhythm near the end of the B section. is rhythmically awkward because of the constant  i n the returns  The trumpet part  s h i f t i n g of duple and  t r i p l e feel. The C s e c t i o n - - a l i a t o c c a t a - - at 3'15" section.  is a f a i r l y b r i l l i a n t  The d e f i n i t i o n i n the New D i c t i o n a r y of Music of the word  t o c c a t a i s "an i n s t r u m e n t a l p i e c e ,  u s u a l l y f o r one performer and  usually consisting of a rapid movement exhibiting the player's touch. This  i s most e v i d e n t as can be seen i n example 8j  triplets Ex. 8j.  w i t h the r a p i d  in the trumpet part. Elmsly, Triptych,  t h i r d movement, mm. 62-67.  ycc' , .3'. 15) hit..  .  .  t f f l t  .  ^r==^  SB  «2£  i i i i I • 1„ I I JLLJJL 59  The movement  which are  quite  s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d as the composer has i n d i c a t e d "ad l i b . l o u d ,  short  staccato, lib.)."  offers  a few a l e a t o r i c  i r r e g u l a r l y spaced;  In both examples,  the tape i s s i l e n t .  events  these or any sub-fragment,  as seen i n example 8 i ,  the player stops when  Synchronization with the t r i p l e t s  the most challenging aspect of the movement.  in the tape is  The a b i l i t y to combine  duple meter with the t r i p l e t ideas on the tape needs careful  60  ( r e s t s ad  attention.  NOTES John Elmsly, Triptych for Trumpet and Tape (Auckland: J . Elmsly, 1989), p. 1 Douglas Moore, Guide to M u s i c a l S t y l e s (New York: W. W. Norton and Company, 1962). From an endurance s t a n d p o i n t , the f i r s t s e c t i o n played f o r the second time, is particuarly d i f f i c u l t . The synchronization between the tape and trumpet i s most s i g n i f i c a n t i n this middle movement and quite straightforward. ^New Dictionary of Music.  6 1  CHAPTER VI LUCIA DLUGOSZEWSKI'S SPACE IS A DIAMOND FOR UNACCOMPANIED TRUMPET Lucia  Dlugoszewski's Space  contribution  to  the  literature  is  a Diamond  because  of i t s  is  an  interesting  use of new trumpet  techniques and also i t s manner of notating certain musical events. Lucia Dlugoszewski was born in Detroit in 1931.  While studying in  New York, she studied composition with Edgard Varese and F e l i x Salzer. Distinguished awards include the Tompkins Literary Award for Poetry in 1947  and the National Institute  of Arts and Letters Award i n 1966.  In  addition to her numerous instrumental works she has invented more than one hundred percussion instruments including the "timbre piano." Space is a Diamond, composed in 1970,  i s rarely performed and has  r e c e i v e d a l e s s than f a v o u r a b l e review i n the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Trumpet GuiId.  Many of the requirements  of the music go w e l l beyond the  technical c a p a b i l i t i e s of even the finest players. a l i t t l e before i t s time.  Perhaps the work is  Nonetheless, i t i s assumed t h a t ,  because  Gerard Schwarz - - recognized as one of America's great m u s i c i a n s - recorded the work and also wrote performance notes, one of worth to the trumpet  literature.  the composition is  Perhaps Schwarz's look to the  future is quite o p t i m i s t i c about what players w i l l be able to achieve. In the i n t r o d u c t o r y comments on page 5  62  d i s c u s s i o n takes place  about one of the most common t e c h n i c a l requirements of Space i s a Diamond - - " v i r t u a l l y a l l extreme high r e g i s t e r passages are to be performed s o f t l y with the valves s l i g h t l y depressed."''' Pedal  tone  playing  is  also  a common f e a t u r e  found  in  the  Dlugoszewski: The p a r t i c u l a r "pedal tones" c a l l e d for i n Space i s a Diamond are the easiest and the most p r a c t i c a l on the B - f l a t trumpet. The l i p s must be able to v i b r a t e the p i t c h w i t h a wide aperture and very l i t t l e pressure.^ The fingerings for the pedal tones are also included i n the performance notes. The notation indications, with regard to mute changes,  are quite  unique and are discussed i n d e t a i l i n the performance notes which are quoted here: A mute symbol i n green indicates "mute i n " , in red "mute out." In passages with many close successive mute changes the l e f t end of the mute symbol is to be taken as the point where the mute change occurs.^ Ex. 9 a , Dlugoszewski,  Space i s a Diamond, Part 2, second l i n e .  The o and + i n d i c a t i o n s modify both harmon and plunger mutings. As a p p l i e d to the harmon mute, + means l i g h t l y c o v e r i n g the opening of the mute w i t h the hand ( f i n g e r s ) , w h i l e o means removing the hand. As applied to the plunger; + means c l o s i n g the b e l l of the trumpet with the plunger; o means opening the plunger, although not t o t a l l y , so that the sound s t i l l h i t s the plunger a little.^ (See ex. 9 b )  63  The harmon mute i s to be used at times w i t h the stem c o m p l e t e l y i n , at other times w i t h the stem c o m p l e t e l y out (as i n d i c a t e d ) . Indeed, i t is suggested that the performer use two harmon mutes, one with the stem i n , the other without stem. during fast moving p a s s a g e s marked o+o+o, the o p e n i n g and c l o s i n g need not necessarily be t o t a l l y co-ordinated with pitch changes."' (See Ex. 9c)  Ex.  9c.  Dlugoszewski, Space i s a Diamond, Part 4, l i n e 7.  A small table with a l l the mutes on i t set up within reach of the player w i l l f a c i l i t a t e mute changes. Generally the l e f t hand w i l l be used to i n s e r t or withdraw the mutes. It i s important that a minimum amount of extraneous noise be made during mute changes. Part V is a p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t movement with regard to quick mute changes  and the constant  looking for on one pitch - - c#".  c o l o u r change that the composer i s Shown below is Example 9d, the f i r s t  64  four lines of the Ex. 9d.  movement.  Dlugoszewski, Space is a Diamond, Part 5, f i r s t  The g l i s s a n d o glissando.  The glissando  h a l f way down. Ex. 9e.  should not be confused w i t h the  (See Ex.  are  flutter-tongue.  Friedman  slide  in Space i s a Diamond are played with valves 9e)  Dlugoszewski, Space i s a Diamond, Part 1,  There  four l i n e s .  also glissando  that  require  the  f i f t h line.  player  to  The r o l l i n g of the tongue i s added but the  urges that the glissando should be as smooth as possible.  65  add  the  composer  (See Ex.  9f)  Ex. 9f.  Dlugoszewski, Space is a Diamond, Part IV, sixteenth l i n e .  A t h i r d type of g l i s s a n d o  is  the " r i c o c h e t  glissando"  and  "is  produced by taking a half valve position and, after the i n i t i a l attack, 'glissandoing' upward with the getting faster as Ex. 9g.  tongue touching v a r i o u s  the pitch r i s e s . "  7  (See Ex.  pitches  while  9g)  Dlugoszewski, Space is a Diamond, Part IV, nineteenth l i n e . ricochet gliss.  The standard n o t a t i o n a l symbol of TK i n d i c a t e s double tonguing. In the Dlugoszewski, however, i t  is required "as  fast as possible.  i s used i n two ways: (a) over r a p i d passages using d i f f e r e n t (see  ex.  9h)  and (b) over s i n g l e  p o s s i b l e double tonguing.  pitches r e i t e r a t e d  (See x. 9i)  It  pitches  in as-fast-as-  Such TK passages are notated  8  with three cross Ex. 9h.  lines."  Dlugoszewski, Space is a Diamond, Part I,  sixth  line.  J= 120 Quite suft, like gusts of TK  The player should note that a fluttertongued note w i l l be notated w i t h four l i n e s .  (See Ex.  9i)  66  Ex. 9 i .  Dlugoszewski, Space i s a Diamond, Part III,  (LQ)  lines  3-4.  f = ^ p /  The "percussive bubble" i s created by h i t t i n g the mouthpiece with the hand while certain valve combinations are pressed down.  (See Ex.  9j) Ex. 9j.  Dlugoszewski, Space i s a Diamond, Part IV, lines 11-13.  The "flap-tongue" is one of those techniques a beginner might do and the teacher w i l l strongly urge the student to stop. It is produced with a r a t h e r " w i d e " embouchure, sending the a i r through the i n s t r u m e n t , without normal tonguing, but i n s t e a d t h r u s t i n g the tongue forward and upward against the upper t e e t h and l i p s , thereby stopping the a i r and making a percussive sound. This can be done at various speeds and dynamic levels. (See Ex. 9j) The " w h i s t l e - t o n e " i s a t h i n w h i s t l e sound produced by (a) ( p r e f e r r e d by the composer) w h i s t l i n g the d e s i r e d p i t c h through the teeth into the instrument without forming an embouchure and only the s l i g h t e s t pressure a g a i n s t the mouthpiece; or (b) producing a high, thin "whistle-tone" with a very tight embouchure but minimal pressure, in a sense l i k e a harmonic.^  67  Apart from t r a d i t i o n a l tempo and metronome i n d i c a t i o n s , the present work a l s o uses a n o t a t i o n i n which an arrow (along w i t h the appropriate metronome markings) delineates the time space to which the duration i s to be applied.** (See Ex. 91)  Ex. 91.  Dlugoszewski, Space is a Diamond, Part I,  first  line.  gliss  All glissandi very smooth and unaccented.  Another  unique n o t a t i o n  is  the  dotted  l i n e that  indicate the uniting of a number of fluttertongued pitches.  i s used  to  When this  i s done, only the F i r s t note should be a r t i c u l a t e d , w i t h the r e s t of the pitches slurred. Ex. 9m.  (See Ex. 9m)  Dlugoszewski, Space i s a Diamond, Part III,  f=-PPP^M=  68  fourth l i n e .  Finally,  a technique where the player must sing one pitch and play  a note - - often d i f f e r e n t - - s i m u l t a n e o u s l y .  This is a  d i f f i c u l t technique on the trumpet as the mouthpiece This e f f e c t i s a form of multiphonics. Ex. 9n.  (See Ex.  is not big enough.  9n)  Dlugoszewski, Space i s a Diamond, Part V, l i n e s ,  Stems up = sing notes  69  particularly  10-11.  NOTES *Lucia Dlugoszewski, Space i s a Diamond (Newton Centre, Mass.: Margun Music, Inc., 1977), p. i . 2  Ibid. Ibid., p. 1 1 .  4  Ibid.  5  Ibid.  6  Ibid.  7  Ibid.  8  Ibid.  Q  ...  Ibid., p. i n .  1 0  Ibid.  1 1  Ibid.  70  CHAPTER VII  CONCLUSIONS The compositions discussed i n this document feature a wide range of technical d i f f i c u l t i e s and demands.  The style of the music from the  Fantasy for B-Flat Trumpet by Malcolm Arnold to Space i s a Diamond by L u c i a Dlugoszewski e x h i b i t s the s t r u g g l e between t r a d i t i o n a l experimental music.  The trumpet world stands embroiled i n a struggle  r e m i n i s c e n t of the i n v e n t i o n of the keyed trumpet trumpet.  and  Even in the early  and the v a l v e d  1800s the powerful trumpet guilds battled  against Weidinger's keyed trumpet (with some success) only to see the valved trumpet come into vogue shortly thereafter. Preparing this program of music encourages the trumpet  player's  mind to concentrate more deeply on what the music i s saying and how i t is achieved. The Fantasy for B-Flat Trumpet by Arnold i s prepared i n a s i m i l a r manner to any t r a d i t i o n a l trumpet solo, such as the Haydn or Hummel concertos. player  and  melodically  C e r t a i n s t r u c t u r a l events are s i g n i f i c a n t to the  the m u s i c .  Because  straightforward  the work  the m u s i c a l  is harmonically  tonal  goals  are  and  easily  comprehended. Initially,  Henderson's Variation Movements, 1967 has tonal goals  that are less straightforward than those of the Arnold.  By looking at  some of the tonal goals in the composition, l i k e the recurring cadence formula i n the f i r s t movement or the f i n a l note of the f i f t h movement, 71  a more i n s i g h t f u l performance w i l l be p o s s i b l e .  The demands o f  t e c h n i c a l s k i l l , e s p e c i a l l y l i p f l e x i b i l i t y , make t h i s piece a great challenge. Historically,  Friedman and Dlguoszewski  pioneers i n exploring new ideas that w i l l the trumpet and the trumpet player. events,  open-tubing  technique,  should be c o n s i d e r e d  expand the c a p a b i l i t i e s of  The use of pedal tones, a l e a t o r i c  slide  glissandi,  and tremolos i n  Friedman's Solus o f f e r new p o t e n t i a l s f o r m u s i c a l i n s p i r a t i o n f o r composers. Trumpet and e l e c t r o n i c tape, as demonstrated by John Elmsly's Triptych, i s an excellent combination.  The balance between the trumpet  and the tape i s f a r e a s i e r to achieve than the balance between the trumpet and the piano.  The d i f f e r e n t v a r i e t y of sounds a v a i l a b l e to  the tape composer i s more of a complement to the timbre of the trumpet. Imperative  to the successful performance of this type of music i s the  trumpet player's t o t a l f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the e l e c t r o n i c part so that synchronization, when required, i s achieved.  72  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Books and A r t i c l e s Cole, Hugo.  Malcolm Arnold.  London: Faber Music, 1989.  D a l l i n , Leon. Twentieth Century Composition. Brown, 1980.  Dubuque, Iowa: Wm. C.  Harkins, Edwin. "Aspects of Kryl — a Trumpet Piece." Trumpet Guild. (October, 1980): pp. 22-28 Jacobs, Arthur. A New Dictionary of Music. and Company Ltd., 1973.  International  Great B r i t a i n : C. Nichols  L e s t e r , J o e l . A n a l y t i c Approaches to Twentieth Century Music. York: W. W. Norton and Company, Ind., 1989 Moore, Douglas. A Guide to Musical Styles. Company, 1962.  New  New York: W. W. Norton and  Smoker, Paul. "A Comprehensive Performance P r o j e c t i n Trumpet L i t e r a t u r e w i t h a Survey o f Some R e c e n t l y Developed Trumpet Techniques and E f f e c t s Appearing i n Contemporary Music." D.M.A. dissertation, University of Iowa, 1974. Stewart, Andrew.  "Malcolm Arnold." Music Teacher (June, 1989): 25-28.  Tuozzolo, James. "Trumpet Techniques i n S e l e c t e d Works o f Four C o n t e m p o r a r y A m e r i c a n Composers: Gunther S c h u l l e r , Meyer Kupf erman, W i l l i a m Sydeman, and W i l l i a m F r a b i z i o . " D.M.A. dissertation, University of Miami, 1972. Young, Gene. "Solus Review." 1979): 17.  International Trumpet Guild.  (February,  Music Arban, Jean Baptiste. Fantasie, Theme and Variations on the Carnival of Venice. Rev. and a r r . by E r i k W. G. L e i d z e n . Rockville Centre, NY: Belwin Inc., 1961. Arnold, Malcolm. Ltd., 1969.  Fantasy f o r B - F l a t Trumpet.  73  London: Faber Music  C h a r l i e r , Theo. T r e n t e - s i x Etudes Transcendantes pour P a r i s : Editions Musicales Alphonse Leduc, 1946. C l a r k e , Herbert L. 1944.  Technical Studies.  Dlugoszewski, Lucia. Space i s a Diamond. M u s i c , Inc., 1977. E l m s l y , John. 1989. Friedman,  Stan.  Newton Centre,  Trumpet S k i l l s .  (1967).  Inc.,  Mass.: Margun  Auckland: J. Elmsly,  Nashville: The Brass Press,  Henderson, Robert. Variation Movements International Music, Inc., 1971. Nagel, Robert. 1982.  New York: C a r l F i s c h e r ,  T r i p t y c h for Trumpet and Tape. Solus.  Trompette.  1978.  Los Angeles:  Western  Brookfield, Conn.: Mentor Music,  Inc.,  Schlossberg, Max. Daily D r i l l s and Technical Studies for Trumpet. York: M. Baron Co., 1941.  New  74  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA SCHOOL OF MUSIC Recital Hall Sunday, A p r i l 21, 1991 2:30 p.m.  DOCTORAL SOLO RECITAL* EDWARD BACH, Trumpet  Fantasy for B - f l a t Trumpet (1969)  Variation Movements (1967)  Malcolm Arnold  Robert Henderson  Moving and i n a Singing Style Very fast Fast and Marked Slow and i n a l y r i c style Fast and Rhythmic  Triptych for Trumpet and Tape (1987)  John Elmsly  Prelude Allemand Courant Rondeau - Gigue  Solus (1975)  Stan Friedman  Introduction Furtively Scherzando and Waltz Fanfare  * In p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t of the requirements for the Doctor of Musical Arts degree with a major i n trumpet performance.  7r  

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