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Unifying devices in Poulenc : a study of the cycles Banalités and Tel jour telle nuit Dawson, Terence Evan 1991

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UNIFYING DEVICES IN POULENC A study of the cycles Banalites and Tel jour telle nuit by TERENCE EVAN DAWSON B.Mus., Mount Allison University, 1981 M.Mus., The University of British Columbia,  1983  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF MUSICAL ARTS (Piano Performance) in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (School of Music) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA March, 1991 © Terence Evan Dawson,  1991  In  presenting this  degree at the  thesis  in  University of  partial  fulfilment  of  of  department  this thesis for or  by  his  or  requirements  British Columbia, I agree that the  freely available for reference and study. I further copying  the  representatives.  an advanced  Library shall make it  agree that permission for extensive  scholarly purposes may be her  for  It  is  granted  by the  understood  that  head of copying  my or  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department  of  Music  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  Date  DE-6 (2/88)  April  16,  1991  ABSTRACT  Francis Poulenc has made a significant contribution to twentieth century repertoire for voice and piano.  Many of his songs  are published in collections under a single title.  These collections  are often referred to as cycles, but they do not always fall into the definition of a song cycle in the traditional sense.  The goal of this  paper is to disclose a cyclic nature on a structural level in the music of Banalites, using Tel jour telle nuit as a model for critical examination of both works. The introduction to the thesis addresses both the problem of defining a song cycle, and the implications such a definition has on categorizing the works Banalites and Tel jour telle nuit. One explores  influences of composers,  Chapter  teachers and artistic  movements on Poulenc's early life and outlines his significant compositional periods.  In addition, this chapter cites specific  works indicative of a maturation process vocal settings.  in Poulenc's approach to  Chapter Two investigates  Banalites and Tel jour telle nuit.  the poetic texts of  Guillaume Apollinaire and Paul  Eluard were integral figures in the developments of Surrealism and its formation as an artistic linkage between  movement.  The chapter analyses  the  the poems within each work, offering interpretive  solutions. Chapter Three, which constitutes  the main body of the paper,  provides a detailed analysis of the general architecture  and shape of  each cycle in terms of formal structure,  harmonic and melodic  language, and text-music  The analysis reveals  relationships.  that  both cycles are highly integrated and unified through various devices,  such  as  literal restatement of materials,  relationships and stylistic resemblances tempo and tonal structure.  at the  intervallic  levels  of texture,  Moreover, metric aspects of both poetry  and music are shown to also contribute to that integration.  ii  In light of this investigation, unifying devices of both a covert and overt nature testify to the cyclic nature of Banalites and Tel jour telle nuit. yet point to the different type of cycle each work outlines.  This conclusion helps the performers to convey the unity  of the song cycles, thus doing justice to the sense in which Poulenc conceived the works.  i ii  T A B L E OF CONTENTS  ABSTRACT  ii  LIST O F F I G U R E S  v  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  vii  INTRODUCTION  1  Chapter One.  P O U L E N C S E A R L Y LIFE A N D INFLUENCES  5  Two.  T H E POETIC T E X T S  15  T H E INTERACTION OF T E X T A N D MUSIC  24  Three. CONCLUSION  66  BIBLIOGRAPHY  68  A P P E N D I X 1 (Texts of Banalites)  73  A P P E N D I X 2 (Texts of T e l jour telle nuit)  76  iv  LIST OF FIGURES figure  1.1  Bonne journee mm. 1-4  p.25  figure  1.2  Nous avons fait la nuit mm. 1-4  p.25  figure  1.3  Bonne journee  p.26  figure  1.4  Nous avons fait la nuit mm. 33-34  p.26  figure  1.5  Bonne journee  p.27  figure  1.6  Nous avons fait la nuit mm. 43-45  p.27  figure  1.7  Chanson d'Orkenise mm. 17-28  p.29  figure  1.8  Chanson d'Orkenise mm. 1-4  p.31  figure  1.9  Sanglots mm. 1-4  p.31  figure  1.10  Chanson d'Orkenise mm. 5-20  p.32  figure  1.11  Sang lots mm. 8-16  p.33  figure  1.12  Fagnes de Wallonie mm. 12-14  p.36  figure  1.13  Fagnes  de Wallonie mm.27-29  p.37  figure  1.14  Fagnes  de Wallonie mm. 36-38  p.37  figure  1.15  Le front  comme un drapeau perdu mm. 9-11  p.38  figure  1.16  Le front  comme un drapeau  p.39  figure  1.17  A toutes brides mm. 7-10  p.40  figure  1.18  A toutes brides mm. 16-17  p.40  figure  1.19  Une herbe pauvre mm. 1-6  p.41  figure  1.20  Une herbe pauvre mm. 17-23  p.42  figure  1.21  Voyage a. Paris mm. 11-26  p.43  figure  1.22  Bonne journee  p.47  figure  1.23  Figure  mm. 27-28 mm. 40-42  perdu mm. 23-35  mm. 4-13  de force  brulante  et farouche  mm.  12-19 p.50  figure  1.24  Le front  figure  1.25  Figure  comme un drapeau perdu de force  brulante  mm. 21-24  et farouche  p.51  m m . 20-24 p.52  figure  1.26  Une mine coquille vide mm. 5-19  p.55  figure  1.27  Hdtel mm. 1-5  p.56  figure  1.28  Hdtel mm. 20-21  p.57  figure  1.29  Chanson d'Orkenise mm. 47-57  p.58  v  figure  1.30  Sanglots mm. 76-77  p.60  figure  1.31  Hotel mm. 22-24  p.60  figure  1.32  Bonne journee mm. 40-43  p.61  figure  1.33  Nous avons fait la nuit mm. 43-47  p.61  figure  1.34  Une roulotte couverte  en tuiles mm. 1-2  p.62  figure  1.35  Une roulotte couverte  en tuiles m m . 7-9  p.63  figure  1.36  Voyage a Paris mm. 1-6  p.64  figure  1.37  Voyage a Paris mm. 62-65  p.64  vi  ACKNOWLETX}EMENTS I would like to extend my sincere appreciation to the members of my committee who not only read this work and offered many insightful suggestions and comments, but also encouraged me throughout the many stages of the doctoral degree. To my friends: my heartfelt thanks for your presence during my years of graduate study. A special gesture of gratitude to those who read the drafts, to my patient typist Lucia Choi, and to Craig Morash for his unwavering support. Many thanks to Catherine Fitch Bartlett who made an invaluable contribution in the performance of the cycles during the accompanying lecture-recital, and to Dr. Ruth White for her stimulating interpretation of the poetry which led to the completion of Chapter Two. Finally, to my principal teacher Professor Jane Coop; her guidance, teaching, and superb artistry have been and will continue to be a tremendous source of inspiration to me.  vii  INTRODUCTION  The cycles Banalites (a group of five songs set to words of Guillaume Apollinaire) and Tel jour telle nuit (consisting of nine songs with texts by Paul Eluard) have been recognized by musicologists,  theorists  and performers  Francis Poulenc's legacy of vocal music.  as major  contributions to  1  The composer has been described by some as "a musical clown of the first order, a brilliant musical mimic, and an adroit craftsman".  2  characterized style.  Undeniably, works written during his early years are by a propensity for a witty and somewhat comical  However, in later years (from 1932 onwards) his  compositional technique began to exploit a more poignant and deeper melodic  inspiration, derived from insightful poetic  interpretations.  In his biography and commentary on the songs of Francis Poulenc, Pierre Bernac writes:  "Tel jour telle nuit constitutes a  cycle in the true sense of the word" , and, "this collection of five 3  poems [Banalitesl is not in any sense a cycle."  4  To put these works  into perspective, two vital questions must be asked:  What does  Bernac mean by "a cycle in the true sense of the word", and, what are his reasons  for not considering Banalites a cycle?  To begin, it is necessary to define the word "cycle" and clarify its use in this discussion.  Luise Peake suggests that a song cycle is:  Keith W. Daniel, Francis Poulenc: His Artistic Development and Musical Style (Ann Arbor: UMI Research Press, 1982); Vivian Lee Poates Wood, Poulenc's Songs: A n Analysis of Style (Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1979); Pierre Bernac, Francis Poulenc: The Man and his Songs (London: Victor Gollancz Ltd., 1978). 1  2  Martin Cooper, French Music (London: Oxford University Press,  3  Bernac, Francis Poulenc. p. 97.  4  Ibid., p. 69.  1  1951), p. 194.  A  composite  form of vocal  music  consisting  of a group of individually complete may relate a series of events,  songs...  It  or a series of  impressions, or it may simply be a group of songs unified by mood. by a single author Peake  continues  The texts may be  or from several  her definition with a more  sources.  specific  5  set  of  criteria:  Each [song cycle] is an art work in which the emotional content of each song, together with its rhythmic and dynamic momentum, is allowed to carry over to the next, and to be musically prepared, developed and c o n c l u d e d . 6  The  momentum Peake  linkage of some kind.  refers to implies a progression  This linking she cites as being emotional,  rhythmic and dynamic.  Certain romantic  Frauenliebe und -leben and Schubert's momentum of Peake's levels.  cycles  such as  depict  the  definition to various degrees and on varied  eyes of a girl, bride, wife, mother and widow. provides a linking element  love through  the  The mill stream  for the emotional journey of the lad in  Mullerin.  Some works are referred story-line  Schumann's  D i e schone Mullerin  Frauenliebe und -leben tells of a woman's  Die schone  and  or  for example,  linking  musical  to as cycles material.  despite the absence of a  Schubert's  Schwanengesang.  a collection of songs on poems by Rellstab, Heine and  Seidl, has been considered a song cycle only because of the publisher's decision to release them together under this light  of the  previous  definition, a classification  a cycle is a misnomer. a kind in the 'sehnsucht'  of this  name.  In  collection  as  However, Gerald Moore finds a momentum of or 'longing' theme contained in some of the  The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. 6th ed., (1980) s.v. "Song Cycle.", by Luise Eitel Peake, p. 521. Ibid., p. 522. 5  6  2  verses which justifies him to include it in his book, T h e Schubert Song C y c l e s .  7  Poulenc refers to his groups of songs under a single title as 'cycles' in much the same way as Peake. of the term  seems to have  him and Bernac.  caused  However, Poulenc's  apparent  disagreement  concept  between  F o r example, concerning Fianc.ailles pour rire.  Poulenc stated:  "the tonal ambiguity prevents  the song [La dame  d'Andre] from coming to a conclusion and so prepares the way for the following s o n g . "  8  This kind o f linkage resembles the one indicated  by Peake as a characteristic appears  of the work as a song cycle.  to be a contradiction,  Bernac  insists  In  what  that the collection  Fianc.ailles pour rire "...does not at all constitute  a true cycle", and  that "...there is no poetic or musical link of any kind between these effectively  contrasting  to mean that some  songs."  songs  O n e could interpret  9  from collections  Bernac's  claim  such as Fianc.ailles pour  rire or Banalites could very well be performed out o f context with each  other.  Yet he also contradicts  these and other cycles concert  performance".  himself by asserting  that both  do form a "well-constructed group for 10  A cursory glance at the five songs which make up the cycle Banalites  does  However,  a study of aspects of the surrealist  Apollinaire's themes  not show  anticipation  within the poetry.  disclose a cyclic nature  immediate  connections  o f its ideals,  reveal  between  them.  movement and associations  of  It is also the intention of this paper to in the music of Banalites on a structural  level, using T e l jour telle nuit as a model for critical examination of both works.  T h e ultimate purpose is to aid performers in  Gerald Moore. The Schubert Song Cycles. (London: Hamish Hamilton Ltd., 1975). p. xiv.  7  Francis Poulenc, Diary of My Songs, trans. Winifred Radford (London: Victor Gollancz Ltd., 1985), p. 55.  8  9  1 0  Bernac, Francis Poulenc. p. 137. Ibid.  3  discovering a sense of continuity and cohesiveness beneficial to performance.  As a result, audiences may perceive more clearly the  often obscure evocations elicited by the poetry.  ***  4  CHAPTER ONE POULENC'S E A R L Y LIFE A N D INFLUENCES  Francis Poulenc was born on January 7, 1899, Paris.  in the heart of  His early spiritual, cultural and musical development was  self-admittedly influenced by his parents. who was a competent  In particular his  mother,  pianist, introduced the young Poulenc to the  music of Mozart, Chopin, Schubert, Schumann and Scarlatti. Moreover, she communicated her love for popular salon music by composers such as Grieg and Anton Rubinstein.  In later years,  Poulenc referred to this style of music as Tadorable  mauvaise  musique" - the adorable bad music. Fascinated profane  with Debussy's composition Danse sacree et  for cross-strung  chromatic  harp and string  danse  orchestra,  Poulenc was intrigued by Debussy's predilection for ninth chords and added tones.  Several years latere, at the age of eleven, his interest  in song literature  was awakened with the discovery of Schubert's  Winterreise in a local Parisian music shop.  His study of these  works, in addition to L'Oiseau de feu, Petrouchka and Le sacre du printemps of Stravinsky, proved to be a major influence in Poulenc's early music education and development as a composer.  His earliest  attempts at composition, a group of preludes of "incredible complexity written out on three or four staves, [were] later referred to by the composer as inferior imitations of Debussy and Stravinsky".  11  In 1914  Poulenc discovered the music of Emmanuel Chabrier.  Thirty five years later, Poulenc wrote a biography of this  composer  who made an indelible mark on him and on many of his contemporaries.  Perhaps,  as Daniel points out, the  anti-Wagnerian bent of much of [Chabrier'sJ  "anti-romantic,  music certainly  must  Henri Hell, Francis Poulenc. trans. Edward Lockspeiser (London: John Calder, 1959), pp. 6-7. 1 1  5  have  attracted  ingratiating  these  composers,  melodies,  A t the age  and  as  did his  popular  cafe-concert  of fifteen, Poulenc began  virtuoso pianist, Ricardo Vines. "turning point" in his life.  simple studies  H e describes  textures,  atmosphere".  with the Spanish  this as being a  The young man learned much from  teacher who not only guided his pianistic technique, but broadened  his horizons as  The  characteristic  distinguished Vines' distinctive  trait,  compositions,  exuberance  style was Vines'  reflected to  legato".  also  which  in Poulenc's  find  its  way  into  A  Poulenc's  which Vines himself  on Virfes and aspects of piano technique: A n d what science  playing.  Poulenc  "...nobody knew  H e could play clearly in a flood  of the staccato opposed to an  absolute  13  By artistic  freedom  factor" in modern music.  better how to teach this than he did. of pedals.  and  pedal technique  considered to be "an essential commented  this  an artist.  which later was  was  12  1916,  circles  Poulenc had begun to make his presence felt in the of the  Parisian  "musical kaleidoscope",  Elaine Brody in her book by the same n a m e .  14  so dubbed by  H e became acquainted  with the leading poets and musicians of the day and, in particular, formed a friendship with Eric Satie. a mere seven years,  Satie's  influence on Poulenc  can be heard in his compositions Further  to  this  Although this bond was to last  influence, Poulenc  written between  was profound, and 1918  and  1920.  comments:  Shortly afterward, I wrote the Mouvements perp&uels and, a bit later, this Suite en ut so obviously Satie-esque. Y o u must realize that the metamorphosis took place in the twinkling of an eye under the guidance of a magician who knew my true personality. 15  1 2  Daniel, Francis Poulenc: His Artistic Development and Musical Style, p. 4.  1 3  Bernac,  1 4  Francis  Poulenc. p.  23.  Elaine B r o d y , Paris/The M u s i c a l Kaleidoscope (New Y o r k : George Braziller, Inc.,  1987). 1 5  Daniel, Francis Poulenc: His Artistic Development and M u s i c a l Style, p.  6  12.  Satie's influence was not confined to Poulenc.  He became the  "spiritual model" and "unofficial guardian" of a group of musicians who called themselves "Les Nouveaux Jeunes".  Initially made up of  Georges Auric, Arthur Honegger, Louis Durey and, later, Darius Milhaud, this group met frequently for readings of music and poetry. These readings were often enhanced by displays of art by Parisian painters such as Picasso, Braque and Gris.  Poulenc and Germaine  Tailleferre joined the core group of composers in the fall of  1917.  Musical soirees became the avenue for the performance of many of Poulenc's early works such as the song cycles Le Bestiare. Cocardes, and the Mouvements perpetuels for solo piano.  In his  biography of the composer, Hell refers to the "striking melodic gifts" evident in the short songs of Le Bestiare and to the apparent intimacy found here between Poulenc the musician and Apollinaire the poet.  The reminiscent music-hall tunes found in Cocardes are a  complete contrast to Le Bestiare. benefit  from Poulenc's  The enigmatic Cocteau poems  uncluttered  settings.  Elements of grace, charm, colour and clarity of texture reflect a movement which took place during and immediately after World War I.  It was a reaction against both the German romanticism of  Wagner and the French impressionism of Debussy.  Not only was this  response apparent in music but also in art and literature.  Brody  calls Paris a "cultural melting pot", owing to the interaction which existed between  musicians, writers and artists after World War I.  Music was an important part of the lives of artists of many disciplines such as Degas (who had little love for Wagner, preferring the music of Chabrier) and Rodin (who disliked Debussy).  Writers  who turned away from Wagner included Gide, who called him "barbarous".  The trend was toward clarity of expression and away  from superfluous ornamentation.  This can be observed in the music  of Satie, poems of Cocteau and Apollinaire, and works of Picasso and Braque. Although the six musicians of Les Nouveaux Jeunes (Auric, Honegger, Durey, Tailleferre, Milhaud and Poulenc) shared a very general dislike of extremes in music, they made no conscious effort to form a "national school" of any description. 7  In fact, the name of  "Les S i x " became  attached  Henri Collet in Comoeciia  to them as a result o f articles  written by  entitled: 'The F i v e Russians, the Six  Frenchmen and Satie', and, T h e Six Frenchmen'.  Milhaud writes:  Quite arbitrarily [Collet] had chosen six names: A u r i c , Durey, Honegger, Poulenc, Tailleferre and my own, merely because we knew one another, were good friends, and had figured on the same programmes; quite irrespective o f our different temperaments and wholly dissimilar c h a r a c t e r s . 16  T h i s feeling is shared by Poulenc in his comment  that their  names "...only had to be linked together as a team several times for a critic needing a slogan to baptize the French "Les S i x " , on the model of the famous " F i v e " Russian composers. common aesthetic dissimilar".  W e had never had any  and our musical styles  have  always  been  1 7  In her article entitled 'Les Six and Jean Cocteau', V e r a Rasin believes however that a bond did exist:  " O n the purely musical side  the members o f the 'Groupe des Six' were linked by technique". Rasin draws an insightful analogy  18  between jazz and the popular  songs of the day and the group's search for "simplicity" and "purity". As  well,  she sees an interesting  comparison between  the writing  style of composers in France after W o r l d War I and the economy of movement circus.  demonstrated  by acrobatics  and clowns o f the French  She speaks of a "return to what was almost a form of  classicism"  19  and points to a movement  Debussy and Ravel.  These observations  away  from the influences of  reflect a pamphlet by Jean  Cocteau, written in 1918, entitled Le Cog et VArlequin.  This  manifesto spurred the group which, with the help of Cocteau and  Darius Milhaud, Notes Without Music, trans. Donald Evans, ed. Rollo H . Myers (New York: Alfred A . Knopf, 1953), pp. 82-83. 1 6  17  Francis Poulenc, My Friends and Myself (London: Dobson Books Ltd., 1978), p. 42.  Vera Rasin, "Les Six and Jean Cocteau." 166. Ibid., p. 167.  1 8  1 9  8  Music and Letters. 38 (April, 1957),  p.  Satie,  "provided a much-needed breath  over-heated  atmosphere  of French  of fresh air in the stuffy,  music  of the  time".  20  Despite the denial by Poulenc and Milhaud of any based on style between composers  of Les Six, the six Parisian  shared the maxims contained in Le  examination writing:  members  of these new ideals reveals  melodies  based  idioms, explorations  on  Coq  et VArlequin.  a cleaner,  music-hall tunes,  An  purer style  interpolations  of  of  'jazz'  of harmony through the use of bitonality and a  return to what Martin Cooper describes linear conception  association  as the implication of  "a  of music".  In a sense this proclamation of the ideals of simplicity, sobriety and linear workmanship was a form of classicism...With such ideas as these it was inevitable that neo-classical pastiche should take the place of what might have been a more serious return to classical ideals and practices. This did not fail to happen, especially in the case of the two composers [Poulenc and Auric] who were at the heart of the new movement. 21  Acknowledging Six",  suffice it to  such differences  say  that Poulenc's  concerning  the unity of  association  with the  provided recognition to both him and his music. performed publicly piano,  was  a chamber  string quartet, flute, B-flat  movement  composition  entitled  garde for its time, caused dissonances,  parallel  Rapsodie  and voice. negre,  quite a reaction  fifths,  and  to its  group  H i s first work  composition written clarinet  in  1917  This  considered  2 1  avant-  and  composing from instinct  After his discharge  from military  he began studies with Charles Koechlin who had a  significant influence on him.  2 0  five-  octaves.  continued to develop his own unique style, service in 1921,  for  extreme  During the period 1917-21, Poulenc served in the army rather than from formal training.  "Les  Koechlin used Bach chorale  Ibid. Cooper, French Music, pp. 185-186. 9  melodies to  instill  basic  rules  obvious talent  of harmonization and encouraged  for choral composition.  for chorus written in 1922:  A result was  Chanson a boire.  works for this medium may be seen here. Poulenc's which  ability to colour the  contradicted  Conservatoire  techniques  text through being taught  1921  O f particular note is innovative harmony at  the  Paris  and Schola Cantorum.  went their separate ways.  composition  his first work  Glimpses of later  "Les Six" developed individually as composers of  Poulenc's  was  and, by the end  The last attempt at a "group"  initiated by Cocteau  and was  entitled Les Maries de la T o u r Eiffel.  a dadaist  Ideally it was to be a  collaboration between all the members of "Les Six". refused to participate Despite questionable  However, Durey  and Honegger contributed only a single piece.  their relatively unification, it  short  must  existence as  be  said that  the bond which enabled them to liberate France impressionism.  fantasy  a group and their  friendship was  from Wagner and  In Keith Daniel's words:  ...they accelerated the decline of romanticism [and] helped to lay the artistic foundation of skepticism and banality upon which dada and surrealism flourished. They brought music back down to earth...They helped usher in a decade of pleasure...and aesthetic freedom...They set the stage for, and became some of the chief proponents of, musical neoclassicism". 2 2  While composing diverse works, Poulenc nurtured his love for the poetry poetry the  was  war  output  of Cocteau,  published in various  years.  Although  during the  for the voice.  2 2  Apollinaire,  years  Poemes  Eluard, Jacob and others  literary journals  instrumental 1923-30,  in existence during  works dominated  he did write  whose  several  Poulenc's compositions  de Ronsard contain splashes of heavy  Daniel. Francis Poulenc: His Artistic Development and Musical Style, p.  1 0  22.  dissonance exception  and Poulenc  states that  of the prosody,  they  were  written,  "with all possible  with the  carelessness".  23  In the genre of vocal music, he was openly critical of his 1927-28 work: Airs chantes.  H e writes:  I am always astonished at myself for having been able to write these four songs. I detest Moreas and I chose these poems precisely because I found them suitable for mutilation...Have I been punished for my vandalism? I fear so, because this song [ A i r champStre] that irritates me is said to be a hit. 2 4  In addition to this criticism of the work, H e l l and Bernac on the mediocrity of both poetry and music. phrases  with a fine melodic sweep,  uninspired  and purely  Although they contain  much of the piano writing seems  accompanimental.  Poulenc was much more positive in his remarks Chansons  gaillardes. whose  with the voice.  concerning the  texts are anonymous ribald poems  from the seventeenth century. partner  comment  dating  Here we see the piano as an equal  T h e accompaniments  are intricately  woven  with the vocal line and although spiced with dissonance, cannot be characterized During  as  such  throughout.  the mid-1920's Poulenc excelled  composition.  in chamber  With these compositions, the piano took on a role of  increased importance  in Poulenc's style of writing. T h e T r i o  (1926)  for piano, oboe and bassoon is considered one of his masterworks in the repertoire.  In three movements,  statement  the piano  from  which  it opens with a declamatory  immediately  establishes  its  central  position in the ensemble.  T h e composer again gave the piano a major  role in his choreographic  concerto  entitled Aubade,  written  in 1929.  At the very least, the piano is given consideration as an equal member of a small chamber  orchestra  instruments. 2 3  Poulenc, Diary of My Songs, p. 23.  2 4  Ibid., p. 25.  1 1  numbering nineteen  Poulenc continued to write music for piano during this period. Although some of these compositions (Trois pieces (1928), Deux novelettes  (1927-28)) have become popular, his works for solo piano  are of uneven quality and have received criticism for their superficial nature and seeming lack of inspiration. It was with the four songs: Ouatre poemes. written in 1931 and set to the poetry of Apollinaire, that Poulenc felt he had found his  "true melodic style".  In this work Poulenc successfully juggles  two primary characteristic style:  the elements  traits that are the hallmarks of his  of comic light-heartedness  versus a more  serious lyric quality of melody foreshadow a mature Poulenc, inspired by poetic word. In fact, Guillaume Apollinaire and Paul Eluard were (along with Max Jacob) the poets he most admired.  In 1935 the composer turned  to Eluard's poetry for Cinq poemes, a work written for his first recital with baritone Pierre Bernac.  25  At that time, as the  composer himself states, he was "feeling [his] way in this work." The  26  difficulties inherent in surrealist poetry are apparent when one  listens to these Eluard settings. of gravity, they seem somewhat  Although the dominant mood is one disjointed.  (This characteristic  is  not atypical of poetry of this nature, and further discussion of such attributes  will  be found within the dissertation.)  Poulenc overcomes  these problems of text interpretation  in his  settings of the nine Eluard poems which make up the cycle Tel jour telle nuit, written between December, 1936 and January,  1937.  poet himself acknowledges  after the  work's  first  the composer's  achievement  The  performance:  I hardly listened to myself Francis Francis through you I now hear myself On the whitest of roads Through a vast landscape Undoubtedly, the relationship between Poulenc and Bernac was instrumental to Poulenc's acquisition of skill at writing for the voice and mastery of lyric technique. He learned much from accompanying the singer in performances of standard German lieder as well as the French art songs of Debussy, Ravel and Faure.  2 5  2 6  Poulenc, Diary Of My Songs, p. 31.  12  Soaked in light Night has now no roots Shade is behind mirrors Francis we dream of distance Like a child with an endless In  the  starlit  country  G i v i n g in return y o u t h . In Bernac's  game  27  opinion, T e l jour telle nuit "may well never be equalled in  the whole of 20th century The  years  vocal  1937-40 were  music."  prolific:  28  Poulenc  composed  a  variety  of works for voice (solo or chorus), revised a sextet, and began work on incidental music for Babar the Elephant, the Sonata for cello and piano, and music for a ballet. The Apollinaire poems which make up the five songs Banalit6s  were  discovered by Poulenc  published during the war years. primarily to This setting mixture  can  extraordinary  be  to  audiences.  attributed  texts  with  to  Poulenc's  enlightening  Poulenc himself has been described as of seemingly  contradictions  contradictory  allow  clarity  and  elements."  insight?  In a sense,  communicated  in the  interpretive  process.  "a  Poulenc  Surrealistic clarifies  the  of thought, These  musicians  thereby  thoughts  through melodic and rhythmic impulse -  are  the  cycle.  ***  2 8  2 9  Henri Hell. Francis Poulenc. p. 53. Bernac,  liner notes,  Melodies. E M I 2C165-16231/5,  David Cox, "Poulenc and Surrealism,"  13  text  and organic  'momentum' Peake uses in her definition of the  2 7  at  compositional  the composer guides the  and the audience along his own stream participating  success  H o w do these  29  for the listener by his manner of text setting development of ideas.  months  have enjoyed an immense popularity  accessibility  accessibility  the  devices.  their  reviews  These songs, written in the  of October and November 1940, due  in old literary  of  1978.  The Listener. 11 July, 1963,  p. 69.  Several analyses exist which are devoted to the study of various musical aspects of Francis Poulenc's works.  The extensive  study undertaken by Daniel has resulted in an invaluable addition to scholarly research and as such should be considered primary source material.  Werner's  30  study articulates Poulenc's harmonic  and provides a source of reference for structural analysis.  language 31  The  work of Stringer gives a detailed study of the diversity of compositional styles found in Poulenc's song and chamber/instrumental  genres.  32  The goal of this paper is to further analyse Banalites and Tel jour telle nuit, especially from a performance perspective.  Bearing  in mind elements that most concern the singer, pianist, and their audience, this study comprises  two sections:  (1)  the surrealist texts  of Apollinaire and Eluard and (2) Poulenc's harmonic and melodic language, with attention concerning  to general form and structure and aspects  performance.  ***  3 0  Daniel, Francis Poulenc: His Artistic Development and Musical Style.  Warren Kent Werner, "The Harmonic Style of Francis Poulenc" (Ph.D. dissertation, University of Iowa, 1966). 3 1  Mary Ann Stringer, "Diversity as Style in Poulenc's Chamber Works with Piano" ( D . M . A . dissertation, University of Oklahoma, 1986). 3 2  14  CHAPTER TWO T H E POETIC T E X T S  Surrealism  has had an impact conception  of  unequaled, literary  in our  time, by any other  communication. J.H. Matthews  Such artistic solely  a  monumental assertion  movement known to France,  it was  Andre Breton (1896  concepts the  there that the  movement  experimentations theatre events associated his the  certain  Its  movement  which reacted  du  to  the  and resulted in  or nonsense  poetry,  collage  Surrealisme,  devoted to  and  Breton  but broke from it in 1924 poetic  to  was issue  surrealism and  viewpoint.  In this discourse, Breton recalls how, in 1919, phrases  and their  corresponding  would enter his head before falling asleep. technique he called "automatic he attempted  articulate.  aim was primarily directed toward  aesthetics  with this movement,  to  became  that often bordered on the outrageous.  surrealist  attention  not confined  Surrealism had its beginnings in  with phonetic  first Manifeste  the  - 1966), a French poet and critic, is considered  of waste and war. of  significance of  Although  a deliberately provocative  destruction  the  as Surrealism.  the founder of the movement. Dadaism,  reflects  to  suppress  any  he began to pay  striking images  that  Using an experimental  writing", he recorded his thoughts attempts  at  organization  or  interpretation. His creation.  ultimate goal  was  to  increase  T o achieve this, he concentrated  1 5  the  boundaries of  artistic  on the world of the  as  unconscious artistic  mind;  dreams  and fantasies  became  the  vehicle for  difficulties in deciphering or  interpreting  creativity.  The  recognized  works of a surrealist nature are obvious. the  text will  affect  his interpretation  What the reader brings to  of verbal cues.  Commenting  on this, Louise Rosenblatt explains that "the reader of a text who evokes a literary work of art is, above all, a performer, in the same sense that a pianist performs a sonata, before h i m . "  reading it from the  text  She continues with this comparison, emphasising  3 3  that the finding of meaning in any work of literature involves both the author and the reader. experiences  elements  surrealist  Paul Eluard.  art".  the  interpretation repertory  of  and, specifically, the  " N o surrealist...persuades  works of the  remarkable  us more quickly that  surrealist  musical  poetry  the  century  movement.  Although  has  French -  assured  his place  in  melodie.  1918)  was at the cusp of the  he died before  Surrealism had fully  matured, he realized his dream of writing in a new style. and articles,  H i s works and  were a great influence on Breton.  Apollinaire's expression  emphasis  or representation  turned from Symbolism of norms  and  the  of reality, to a new  Louise Rosenblatt. The Reader, the Text, the Poem. University Press. 1978), p. 28. 3 3  3 4  Through  he formulated a new form of writing which  emphasized unbridled invention and inspiration. thoughts  act  ability to put forth an intimate  Guillaume Apollinaire (1880  his lectures  poet  35  of twentieth  surrealist  in a discussion  on the part of the former as much as it demands  latter."  Poulenc's  to  34  of cooperation between writer and public, an  requiring generosity of  poetry  H e says:  poetry is an act faith  the work of  Matthews agrees with Rosenblatt  concerning  [draws]  symbolized by the score or text,  a new experience,  J.H.  "from the linkage of his own  with words, from his own store of memories,  the appropriate structure  T h e reader,  creative  (Carbondale: Southern Illinois  Ibid., p. 14.  J.H. Matthews, Surrealist Poetry in France. (New York: Syracuse University Press, 1969), p. 103.  3 5  1 6  spirit  in poetry.  objects  perspective.  cyclic pattern traditional poets  creativity  diverted attention  away  from  with a familiar function or surrounding to a more  worldly"  The  This  H i s efforts  o f life,  rhetoric  often pre-occupied with the  death and resurrection.  became  ultimate effect  were  A s a result,  coloured with a sense  was an enlargement  claims  that  of  of the scope  worked: exploring the psyche and delving  Balakian justly  "other-  "Apollinaire's  "rootlessness". from which  into eroticism.  writings show  he was not  only conscious of a transition but helped to herald and shape a new world."  H e truly was a link between the nineteenth and twentieth  36  centuries. The younger Paul Eluard (1895  - 1952) experienced both world  wars which deeply affected his thinking.  A s a result, he took refuge  from the cruelty and absurdity of war in the warmth and light of love and poetry.  In fact, Eluard almost fused the two as he speaks of  poetry as a love which "unites everything". Both and They and  their  poets  realized  violent rejection  the self-defeating of order  sterility  o f the  and conventional romanticism.  did however retain the technique of free association explored concepts  which stemmed  of words  from dream-like imagery.  Although  there are marked differences in the two poets, two  important  similarities can be drawn.  both  The  five poems  collectively. his  Both are revolutionaries, and  have the unmistakable ingredient o f lyricism  & ik  dadaists  in their works.  sic  that comprise Banalit6s were  Poulenc explains in the following  not published  passage how he made  choices: I have already spoken of my inveterate habit of putting certain poems on one side in advance. I had chosen Sanglots a long time before and the curious Fagnes de Wallonie.  Anna Balakian, Surrealism: the Road to the Absolute (London: George Allen and Unwin Ltd., 1959), p. 80. 3 6  1  7  Going through my library in October 1940, I turned the pages much  emotion  once again - and with how  - of those  literary  reviews  which from 1914 to 1923 had enchanted my adolescence.  This  of Literature  particularly  chose  time,  the series held  of issues  my  attention...I  only the delicious lines of doggerel.  V o y a g e a Paris Hotel  [from  [from Poemes  Poemes  divers  grouped under the title  retrouv6s1  and  1900-1917],  Banalites...  Nothing  more was needed for my decision to undertake a cycle in which Sanglots and Fagnes [from II y a] would appear.  It  remained to find an opening rhythmical song since  Sanglots  gravity.  would  conclude the cycle  Then I remembered a song, a little  Maeterlinck  in style,  that Apollinaire had  inserted in a strange and beautiful piece  entitled  In attempting running  Onirocritique.  through these poems,  some  reason  French  o f love and fantasy  throughout the collection.  folk-poetry.  for Apollinaire's somewhat  of free-verse.  common linkage or thread  the themes  used for Chanson d'Orkenise lends imitates  prose  31  to discover  in one form or another and  with  References  itself easily Light-hearted  surface  T h e strophic form to a fantasy-ballad, poetic  unusual departure  content from  to the "heart" and "marriage"  is the  his style  are made by  two of the three characters in the poem, and provide the first suggestion  of the element  The fantasy  of "love".  in Hfitel is detailed in a wonderful way: the poet  sees the sun as possessing  human qualities and completes  bliss by lighting his cigarette "at the fire of day". juxtaposes sequence  his fragmented of images  thoughts  and achieves  his life of  Apollinaire  an unbroken  of the artist's spleen, into which the reader is  drawn. The poem Fagnes de Wallonie speaks of a part of Belgium where Apollinaire once lived.  A s such, "Fagnes"  Bernac, Francis Poulenc. p. 70. 1 8  originates from a  Flemish dialect and refers to the uplands.  This area of country is  rather windy and untamed, and consists primarily of woods and peat-bogs.  Apollinaire describes his fantasy walk in these woods.  As the four stanzas of uneven length progress an increasing element of sadness is introduced.  The woods that befriended him and became  his refuge suddenly turn against him, reflecting one of Apollinaire's philosophies of life: the world is made up of objects in a state of change or flux.  Images from the first poem reappear here.  Apollinaire recalls the image of the heart in stanza one and, in the final stanza, the idea of marriage is coloured by a sharp reference to the contrast  between life and death.  This foreshadows their  presence in the final poem. Voyage a Paris is, with five unpunctuated lines, by far the shortest poem of the group. the second poem, Hotel.  The general mood is not unlike that of  Its simple sentiment expresses the charm  of gay Paris which, Apollinaire feels, was created by love. Sanglots without dispute, is the most poetically intense poem in Banalites.  Hell describes it as "one of the most penetrating  poems of Apollinaire, exposing the misery in the hearts of all men".  38  As it progresses, the poetic momentum increases in  intensity, the ensuing result of which is the climax of momentum of the entire group. The poem moves in two separate strata which represent two speakers.  (Radford, in translation, has differentiated the two voices  by means of parenthesis.)  The first speaker is a realist who  believes in man's somewhat futile existence. parenthesis)  The second voice (in  is a dreamer, and one who is optimistic about life,  mankind and a divine will "ordered by the stars".  The extreme  surrealist nature of the poem itself and unbalanced strata groupings give it a sense of development and momentum unequalled in the course of the poems. At the level of the entire collection, a progressive shape to the poems may be discerned. Hotel and Voyage a Paris.  Certainly the most naive of the five are These we will consider as transitory and  Hell, Francis Poulenc. p. 61.  19  transitional.  There  are  central poem, Fagnes poems.  These are:  marked similarities in content  between  de Wallonie, and the two remaining outer references  marriage, and life and death.  to  the  heart,  love-tenderness  and  A s a result, this poem can be  considered pivotal. T h e first and last poems give balance to group in terms similarities,  of length and poetic intensity.  presently  discussed,  between  outer poems which lend credence bonding  poems  the  the  the  There are musical settings  to the argument  of  these  that they are  the  for the collection, marking growth from lightness  to  intensity. Poulenc chose  the nine poems which comprise T e l jour telle  nuit from collections by Eluard entitled Les yeux Recognizing  that Eluard's titles perhaps would not be suitable for a  collection of songs, he asked the poet to suggest Eluard wrote to Poulenc on January possible  fertiles and Facile.  titles  for  the  2nd, 1937  another.  In reply,  and suggested four  cycle: 1. Tout dire. 2. T e l jour telle nuit. 3. Aussi loin que l'amour. 4.  The reference  Paroles  peintes.  to "day" and "night" in Poulenc's chosen title  could be representative  of Eluard's dream universe.  Although  belong to the familiar world, Eluard uses them, and images them, in a context which sever Eluard's world  their connections  they  like  with that world.  is one of self-exploration; a universe illuminated by a  love which succeeds  in dominating any thoughts  of the  material  world. Bonne journee death and life.  presents  fleeting images  of love,  friendship,  T h e first stanza introduces someone who the poet  feels deeply about, whom he "shall never forget".  This relationship  holds lasting happy memories for the poet evoking "smiles" in the final line of the first stanza.  T h e second stanza changes  the tone  the poem to include the "shadow" of death of the "man who passed by".  T h e third stanza introduces a serene picture of a place  death: the "distant shore".  after  T h e final stanza brings new life in the  word "dawn" which invades the "dark under the green trees". 20  of  The next five poems all contain references sadness.  to death and  Une ruine coquille vide, consisting of three stanzas,  presents the image of weeping children surrounding what could be an old woman represented by " A ruin an empty shell" (although Bernac specifically disagrees  with this interpretation).  The "arrow in a  heart" only escapes death by sleep, which comes in the final line of the poem. Le front comme un drapeau perdu, made up of four stanzas of uneven length, evokes a pessimistic view of life and love, through images of "cold streets" and "dark rooms", futility of life, and drowning.  The final stanza suggests a grave and death.  Une roulotte couverte en tuiles is in three unbalanced parts consisting of a stanza of four lines, a single line, and a two line stanza.  The first two stanzas relate a scene of torment: a hideous  scene of a wagon and dead horse, "two breasts beating down upon him like two fists", "his brow blue with hatred".  The final stanza  comments on the futile scene: tearing away "the sanity of the heart". A toutes brides could very well be a description of internal, emotional turmoil.  In the first of three stanzas the death image, not  unlike that in Goethe's Erlkonig. appears riding his horse. stanza is the height of desperation for the narrator.  The final  Even so, the  verbal imagery is never violent but rather displays an inner turbulence that many  will argue is more powerful than any image.  Although Une herbe pauvre contains the image of death in the final line of its single stanza, this is not the central subject. short sentences contain softer images:  The  "grass", "snow", "pure air".  These words appear in a context that suggests spring and purity, only tinged with the bittersweet "withered".  melancholy of the final word:  This poem is as simple and gentle as the preceding  verses are complex and vehement. With the poem Je n'ai envie que de t'aimer, the tide has turned towards hope and a strong perception of love. exhibit  tender  sentiment,  illustrating  Only two lines fail to  surrealist  "a storm fills the valley / a fish the river."  visual  suggestions:  Eluard refers to "days"  and "nights" in the final line, providing a link to the first and last poems of the group. 2 1  The penultimate poem, Figure de force brulante et farouche, returns Eluard's images to those of "fiery wild forcefulness".  Of the  three stanzas,  within  the third is the longest and provides contrast  the poem by its intimate reference to the human body.  The last  three-line stanza seems to cry out at life as a "prison". Nous avons fait la nuit. the last poem of the group, is written in a continuous, unbroken stanza.  It is an intimate poem, in praise of  the many facets of love and the poet's beloved. verse, the lover realizes that the "stranger" brings a newness to the relationship.  At the climax of the  that is his beloved  This stranger is the essence  of love to him. J.H. Matthews believes that, to Eluard, "woman is the mirror in which the world is reflected in new perspective".  If one is to  39  believe Matthew's theory to be correct, the references  to women and  images of love throughout the poems become representations and, in a sense, re-creation or rebirth.  of hope  Eluard's imagination releases  him from the every day familiarities of the world.  Concepts such as  "day" and "night" (the obvious poetic link between poems in Tel jour telle nuit) are overcome in his search to discover the surreal in the universe around him. In addition to the theme of love embraced in the outer poems, musical connections will be examined which link these poems together.  Poulenc specifically notes  songs in the cycle to be transitory.  his considerations of certain With these details in mind,  similarities in the overall shapes of the two cycles may be discerned. Bernac describes the atmosphere which pervades Tel jour telle nuit as one of "composed happiness, of calmness and serenity."  40  This supports Matthews' theory of an underlying theme of love which unites all.  The reconciling presence of love is apparent in Clancier's  description of Eluard's writing: "His poetry is infinitely sensitive,  3 9  Matthews, Surrealist Poetry in France, p.  Bernac, The Interpretation of French Song. 1970), p. 291.  4 0  110. (New York: W.W. Norton & Co. Inc.,  sad, yet remains a pure song of happiness; immediate, spontaneous, intimate as the poet's breathing".  41  When considering the great partnerships of poetry and music, one is inclined to dwell on Goethe and Schubert.  Like the marriage  of the romantic Goethe's poems to Schubert's music, Poulenc's settings  of Apollinaire and Eluard's surrealist poetry infuse his  interpretations of the poetic images with a certain immediacy.  The  composer feels the partnership of words and music "...should be an act of love, never a marriage of convenience."  42  Goethe's and  Poulenc's instincts parallel each other remarkably.  Goethe speaks of  the importance of recognizing basic recitation when he says that "...singing itself must revert to the simplicity of speech if it aspires to become significant and deeply moving."  43  As we shall see,  Poulenc takes his melodic inspirations from the texts, recognizes their genesis, remaining faithful to them in every aspect.  ***  G . E . Clancier, ed., De Rimbaud au Surrealisme: Panorama critique (Paris: Seghers, 1959), p. 362,  4 1  4 2  Bernac, The Interpretation of French Song, p. 269.  Luigi Ronga, The Meeting of Poetry and Music, trans. Elio Gianturco and Cara Rosanti (New York: Merlin Press, n.d.), p. 149.  4 3  CHAPTER THREE THE INTERACTION OF T E X T AND MUSIC  In his book Diary of My Songs, Poulenc states that he considers each song in any cycle to be influential to what follows it. With a view to performance, the transitional or pivotal nature of certain  songs in both cycles  provides the performers  indications of pacing and emphasis. architecture  with unwritten  Although the perception of the  of each cycle as a whole requires performers to think  in rather general terms and broad concepts, it is possible to pinpoint specific elements which aid in achieving an overview of the entire work or works. Concern for architecture  is a factor Poulenc considered of  prime importance in Tel jour telle nuit.  Le front comme un drapeau  perdu, Une roulotte couverte en tuiles and A toutes brides are songs the composer feels are impossible to perform separately. toutes brides. Poulenc insists "[it]  Of A  has no other pretentions than to  heighten the effect of Une herbe pauvre".  44  Furthermore, the primary  aim in the performance of Figure de force brulante et farouche is to "make one hear the kind of silence that is the opening of Nous avons . fait la nuit [which follows]".  45  These statements lead to the  conclusion that songs are dependent not only on each other, but also on those which surround them in order for their purpose of existence to be entirely  fulfilled.  Unity is achieved between the opening and closing songs of Tel jour telle nuit through semblance of melody.  The melodic contours  of Bonne journee and Nous avons fait la nuit are alike. with an ascending line encompassing an octave, over an  4 4  4 5  Poulenc, Diary of My Songs, p. 35. Ibid.  Each begins  accompaniment which consists of reiterated octaves and continuous eighth-note movement, sharing the C tonality, (see figures 1.1 & 1.2) This predominant quarter-note motion is followed by, for the most part, intervals of a second or third. Poulenc reserves larger intervallic leaps for the climax in both songs.  0  '"M  1  j&\ /.  ,  J  m. 1 Boa . ne  CaIme(J=63) V*- v >  t)  ^  P  figure 1.1  figure 1.2  |  ft J i jour . ne  ^  .  _ i  >' y  e  K.  h  j^ai re . vu ^  w  .  v-*- | v>- v>- v.-*-  ^ ^ I ^  qui je n'oublie pas  v  . !  v  . 1  \  .  1  Qui .  1  ^  © 1937 Durand S.A., Used By Permission Of The Publisher Sole Representative U.S.A., Theodore Presser Company  © 1937 Durand S.A., Used By Permission Of The Publisher Sole Representative U.S.A., Theodore Presser Company  Literal restatement of melodic material, termed as germinal motives, also serves to link these important songs in the 25  cycle. nuit.  T w o motives in Bonne journee appear in Nous avons fait la T h e first is a chromatic  eventually resolves 1.4)  figure in the accompaniment  to the tonic chord of C major.  (See  which  figures  1.3  &  This figure in both songs serves as a bridge to the coda.  m.27  bor  .  de —„i  ^ r ^ j *4 f •faVnJ  • — r  b»  i—i  •  .  —J figure 1.3  © 1937 Durand S.A., Used By Permission Of The Publisher Sole Representative U.S.A., Theodore Presser Company  m.33  figure 1.4  @ 1937 Durand S.A., Used By Permission Of The Publisher Sole Representative U.S.A., Theodore Presser Company  The  second  syncopated reiterated  example  of a literal restatement of material  bass octave line which appears tonic and dominant, (see  figures  is a  under the interval of a 1.5  &  1.6)  Both  appearances of this motive occur in the piano postludes.  The  extended coda of the last song plays a role not unlike the postlude in Schumann's and  Dichterliebe. a comparison  performers  supported by  many  including Keith Daniel and Pierre Bernac.  26  scholars  T h e quote  from the opening of the cycle in the final measures of this postlude, brings this cycle's arch shape to full formation.  'sans  figure  <:hanu-vr ju^tjU'<i  hi  J*in\  1.5 ©  1937  Durand S . A . ,  U s e d B y Permission O f T h e Publisher Sole  figure  Representative  U.S.A.,  Theodore  Presser  Company  1.6 ©  1937  Durand S . A . ,  U s e d B y Permission O f T h e Publisher Sole  Representative  U.S.A.,  Theodore  Presser  Company  The recapturing of the C tonality in the first and last songs has been mentioned. association  In addition, vestige of a tonic-dominant  is seen between songs one and two, three and four, and  four and five.  However, because the texts are of an ambiguous 27  nature,  Poulenc frequently uses polytonality to link musical sonority  with aesthetic intent of the  poetry.  For example, the fifth song contains elements of a D tonality (reinforced by the piano right hand and vocal line) and a G tonality (in the piano left hand). tonality,  the resulting  related major keys.  The remaining songs begin in a minor seriousness  tempered  with excursions  to  A return to the opening C tonality at the  conclusion of the cycle, coupled with its similar motivic content and migration to predominantly major keys, provides striking recollection  and reinforces  of the cycle.  the arch shape signalling the conclusion  Specific discussion of the use of tonality to highlight  poetic intent will take place later in this Regarding Banalites,  Poulenc was certain he wanted to  "conclude the cycle with gravity". opening song.  chapter.  46  He took care in choosing the  His choice provides suitable contrast and balance with  the intense and grave characteristics inherent in the final song. this case too, he was concerned for the cycle's  In  architecture as well  as for the impression the collection gives as a cohesive group of songs. Chanson d'Orkenise begins Banalites with the light tone of a musical and poetic folk-song.  His inspiration comes directly from  the text, which is a folk-like narrative. performance  In fact, Poulenc's  indication specifically gives the direction:  style d'une chanson populaire".  The song contains numerous changes  of dynamics, chord colours and expressions itself requires the characterization listener recognize town guard.  the  various  "dans le  of character.  of voice types  speakers:  The poem  in order that the  narrator, tramp,  carter and  To this end, Poulenc assigns like textures in the piano  accompaniment  for each particular voice.  The voices of tramp and  carter are accompanied by similar motives of sparse chordal texture.  The characters of the narrator and town guards both  possess more intricate  and thicker textured piano lines.  1.7)  4 6  Ibid, p. 67.  28  (see  figure  figure  1.7 ©  1941  Editions M a x E s c h i g , 48, Reprinted  by  Rue de R o m e ,  Paris  Permission  In contrast, the singular mood of laziness revealed by the poetry of Hfltel is teamed with accompaniment style.  of a homogeneous  The sonorous piano writing is a major unifying factor in the  composition through its steady pulse and harmonic rhythm. If, for the sake of argument, we were to remove the third song (Fagnes de Wallonie) from the cycle, the similar "fantasy"  texts of  Hdtel and Voyage a Paris would negate development from a poetic 29  standpoint.  Each is concerned with a rather care-free existence and,  as such, contrast would be eliminated.  The dynamic momentum of  the poetry is accentuated by the inclusion of Fagnes de Wallonie. The text of Fagnes de Wallonie foreshadows the pain and sadness fully described in the final song of the cycle.  In addition,  the positioning of this song mid way through the cycle allows for direction from and toward changes  of character; consequently,  elements of motion and intensity throughout the cycle are introduced.  As we shall soon see, these elements are essential for  the shaping of the cycle as a whole. It is an interesting observation that this is the only song in the group of five which lacks a piano introduction and features the piano and voice in melodic and rhythmic unison in the opening measures.  If performers treat this song as transitional, importance  tends to gravitate to the outer songs. Reference has been made to the intensity and climax of poetic momentum in Sanglots.  Restatement  of similar melodic material  may be found to link the outer songs of Banalites (Chanson d'Orkenise and Sanglots).  These essentially germinal motives  provide the genesis for reminiscence and, in this way, a sense of unity and musical momentum within the cycle. The piano introductions of Chanson d'Orkenise and Sanglots share intervals  (albeit rhythmically prolonged and  elaborated),  giving rise to the similar melodic contour heard in the opening measures of both songs.  The interval of a third is significant and  governs the direction and arch of each melody,  30  (see figure 1.8 &  1.9)  m.l  »7  m figure  1.8  3  fo ^ » m . 1  m  V  7  _  -  r ~ r  ^  -k-—ran"  _=i (J  i *~y f~  1  s  r  - — i — ~ .|  clair  ft) Durant " £ «toute fisure  1  © 1941 Editions Max Eschig, 48, Rue de Rome, Paris Reprinted by Permission  Tres calme («[_=_&&>  i J tin J r  s  i -  i  cette me'todie, / J ^ se servir beaucoup des pedaies  1.9 © 1941 Editions Max Eschig, 48, Rue de Rome, Paris Reprinted by Permission  The vocal line of Chanson d'Orkenise begins with an initial leap of a perfect fifth, extended by a minor third interval.  The final  gesture of the opening four measure phrase is also a rising third of a major variety.  The entire phrase is repeated,  followed immediately  by a series of descending and ascending thirds, decorated with appogiaturas.  (see  31  figure  1.10)  occassionally  i  -  figure  1.10 ©  1941  Editions M a x E s c h i g , 48, Reprinted  by  Rue de R o m e ,  Paris  Permission  The vocal line of Sanglots begins with a stepwise motion encompassing the interval of a minor third.  The first phrase is  completed by a descent of a major third followed by an ascent of a minor third.  The interval of a third also dominates the melodic  contour of the second phrase,  (see figure 1.11)  32  figure  1.11 ©  1941  Editions M a x E s c h i g , 48, Reprinted  Rue de R o m e , Paris  by P e r m i s s i o n  Poulenc's emphasis of particular intervals and consequent similarities in the melodic contours of the first and last songs in Banalites provide the basis for a figurative analysis of the architecture of the cycle. transitional  By treating the central song as  and realizing the like characteristics  of the texts which  surround it, the cycle is shaped in a progressive way, with some detours, moving from lightness to seriousness.  In this respect,  the  role of Fagnes de Wallonie is pivotal not only in terms of anticipating the poetic pain and sadness but also as an attempt to remind one of the folk element present in the first song.  Poulenc  accomplishes this through a lilting perpetual movement and folkish melodic  structure.  This pivotal role is underlined also through its tonality: the Fsharp minor key foreshadows its reappearance in the final song. Furthermore, the overall key structure to the cycle reflects  the  different nature of the shape of this cycle compared to that of Tel jour telle nuit.  The F major, D major and E-flat major keys of  songs one, two and four provide a sense of lightness characterizing the beginning of the progression, while the F-sharp minor key of this pivotal central song anticipates the grave final mood of the cycle. Thus we can see that an arch shape is not a necessary ingredient to any song cycle.  The difference in the nature of the two  cycles under discussion does not in any way contradict Peake's 3 3  definition.  On the contrary, these works demonstrate  Poulenc's  ability to mold songs to form cohesive cycles in different yet equally convincing ways.  ***  The success of a composer of song literature is often measured by that composer's ability to set the poetry.  It is the  interaction of the two elements - text and music - which bind together to provide the "momentum" of Peake's definition of a song cycle, quoted in the Introduction to this thesis. Clearly, Poulenc constructed  aspects of unity within his songs  using parallels between the vocal and piano lines.  In a conversation  with Robert Sabin for the journal Musical America, he explains: I believe that one must translate into music not merely the literal meaning of the word, but also everything that is^ written between the lines, if one is not to betray the poetry. Each, poetry and music, should evoke the other...I want to express the things which are only implied on the large printed page. 47  These implications are magnified when one views both voice and piano lines in correlation with each other.  The relationships  between both are such that each is dependent on the other for total success in communicating the poetic thought or image. Concerning his abilities to write for piano, Poulenc commented on several occasions that he felt his piano writing was much stronger in his song accompaniments than in his works for solo  Robert Sabin, "The Essence is Simplicity." November, 1949), p. 27. 4 7  34  Musical America. LXIX/27 (15  piano.  Certainly his accompaniments  48  vocal line. of poetry  serve  and intensify  the  In addition, they are often used to link stanzas or lines of different moods or aid in the continuity of stanzas of  like moods.  T h e interludes frequently correspond to his  observation  of the way in which poets arranged their words on the page. examination of  the  of  poet's  several  formal  Apollinaire's Banalites,  interludes  the  composer's  verse  incentive  style  in Chanson d'Orkenise of  for Poulenc  to divide the  five  into two divisions: made up of three, then two stanzas. ritornello opens and closes two divisions of the piece. remote harmony figure  awareness  structure.  strophic  provides  reveals  An  leave  the  strophes  T h e piano  the song and is the linking device for the Its lack of formal cadence listener  in an anticipatory  and use of state,  (see  1.8) The markedly different approach to the  poem  and its  consistent  regarding the structure elements  as  style  of each  meter, tempo  of unity and  Hfitel contribute  is  another  next  observation  Homogeneity of such basic  and harmonic vocabulary  serve  as  a  source  the  contained in the chordal accompaniment  to the prevailing feeling of laziness.  three distinct  accompaniment rhythm  song.  lead to  of the  cohesiveness.  T h e lush harmonies there are  throughout  setting  provides  sections  to  a unifying  this  agent.  linkage for three perfectly  indicated below by the sum of measures Prelude  short  A,  2 + 6 The single measure  B 7  Its  in each  1  Although the  constant  balanced  Interlude +  song,  of  quarter-note  sections,  clearly  division: C  Postlude 5  +  3  of interlude is used not only to modulate to the  B-flat minor seventh chord, but also to develop and indeed mark  the  An interesting discussion and references concerning this topic may be found in the chapter entitled "The Piano Music" in Keith Daniel's book Francis Poulenc: His Artistic Development and Musical Style. 4 8  35  changed mood of the song from a state of observation to one of declaration: "I do not want to work / I want to smoke". The significant changes of mood in Fagnes de Wallonie of Banalites are bridged by three interludes of similar melodic contour, (see figures 1.12  - 1.14)  Scale-type passages of a single voice  serve as linking  devices at these strategic mood changes, propelling  the music through these stanzaic feature  thinner textured  interpretation.  divisions.  Subsequent  writing which heightens  the  poetic  The final interlude leads to an expanded  for both instruments, climaxing the "death" image.  measures tessitura  The unusually  restless text which begins the song is matched well by the constantly  figure  1.12  moving accompaniment  and multi-textured writing.  © 1941 Editions Max Eschig, 48, Rue de Rome, Paris Reprinted by Permission  36  =F les  ai, re!  Ten.drement  E  r  7 F  ma. n . v . e  m.36  y  ires  m.^.  fieure  rythme  marquee  1.14 © 1941 Editions Max Eschig, 48, Rue de Rome, Paris Reprinted by Permission  Scale-type  piano interludes  throughout both cycles.  reinforce  poetic  momentum  In Le front comme un drapeau perdu of Tel  jour telle nuit. the interludes mark significant mood changes, figure 1.15) phrase,  The extended scale-type  besides  acting  as a structural  (see  descent of the final voice link, precipitates  emphasis  a poetic nature by a pianissimo dynamic marking and legato line. 37  of  This  contrasts with the  figure  figure  preceding  forte angular measures,  1.16)  1.15  © 1937 Durand S.A., Used By Permission Of The Publisher Sole Reprentative U.S.A., Theodore Presser Company  38  (see  figure  1.16  © 1937 Durand S.A., Used By Permission Of The Publisher Sole Representative U.S.A., Theodore Presser Company  39  Poulenc  also  allusions to poetic  uses scale-type text.  beginning at measure  interludes  The transposed  as representations  two-measure  interlude  16 of A toutes brides is an extension of the  four-measure interlude beginning at measure 7. 1.18)  of  (see figures 1.17 &  These passages serve as a leit-motif recalling the tension-  ridden text, as well as a structural device used to link and mark the stanzaic  divisions. P r e s s e r encore  figure  1.17 © 1937 Durand S.A., Used By Permission O f The Publisher Sole Representative U . S . A . , Theodore Presser Company  figure  1.18 © 1937 Durand S.A., Used By Permission O f The Publisher Sole Representative U . S . A . , Theodore Presser Company  The melodic style of Poulenc is substantially lacking in developmental procedure.  Daniel refers to his compositional style in  general as "additive" rather than "developmental". rather than developing a theme,  In explanation,  Poulenc juxtaposes several  shorter  fragments, often choosing one to repeat in a different key or in  40  partial repetition.  Often the repetition will involve some  re-  ordering of notes or intervals. Measures 1 through 6 of Une herbe pauvre of Tel jour telle nuit are harmonically identical to measures 17 - 22. 1.20)  (see figures 1.19  &  This musical repetition (with a slight re-ordering and octave  transposition  marked)  Poulenc relies  highlights repetition  on exact repetition  in Voyage a Paris of Banalites.  of text.  Similarily,  or simple intervalic  (see figure 1.21)  transposition  Alone, the melodic  material is not strong enough to support a developmental technique, nor is the doggerel intense enough to warrant such procedures.  In both examples,  compositional  elaborative  poetic content dictates the  approach.  Clair.doux et lent (J=60j  I  P Une  her - be  3  *  pau . vre  Sau  va .  n—I Ap . pa  . ge  m. 1 Clair,doux et lent fJ=60)  =f=T  pp ires humble  r r  m. 5  figure  1.19  . rut  dans  f  i-  la  nei .  ge  Ce  r r  r  r  r  r  © 1937 Durand S.A., Used By Permission Of The Publisher Sole Representative U.S.A., Theodore Presser Company  41  r  r  .  Une  her .  be  pau . vre  Sau .  . va.  .  . ee .  m.17  Sans aans^ ralentir  . rut  dans  la  nei.  m. 23 Sans ralontir  mm  >~7  E  •  r r  ta  V « ~ 7  Ii tcnu  figure 1.20 ©  1937 D u r a n d S . A . ,  U s e d B y Permission O f T h e Publisher Sole  Representative  U.S.A.,  42  Theodore  Presser  Company  Ap  .  pa  mf  figure  subtto  1.21 © Editions M a x  1941  E s c h i g , 48,  Reprinted  43  by  Rue de R o m e , Permission  Paris  Juxtaposition  of melodies conforming to Poulenc's additive  style is often accompanied by pervasive rhythmic elements. Continuous rhythmic motion indicates phrase structure sweep.  and melodic  Both cycles contain songs of this nature.  Fagnes de Wallonie of Banalites and Je n'ai envie que de t'aimer of Tel jour telle nuit both possess rhythmic motion.  Of the former,  accompaniments with constant  Bernac suggests the song should be  sung "as though in one gust of north wind from the beginning to end".  49  The tempo remains brisk, the dynamic intensity lessens, and  the song calms throughout the final measures with sudden absence of constant  eighth-note  movement.  Concerning Je n'ai envie que de t'aimer. Bernac states that the song requires performers to think in terms of "...a single curve, a single impulse".  50  With this in mind, the most striking feature of  the song is the way in which Poulenc juxtaposes melodies.  successive  The unceasing eighth-notes of the accompaniment  serve  well as a linking element for these otherwise disjointed phrases. Despite a predominance of improvisatory-like material, his additive style of writing retains an acute sense of structure and organization.  The clear  reinforced by alternating character of individual  antecedent-consequent  phrase  major-minor modes, obviates  structure, the unstable  phrases.  Further examination of Poulenc's "additive" rather than "developmental" style Of writing shows that changes of meter, mood, tempo, and/or style function as a type of development. momentum is realized within both cycles.  In this way,  Poulenc relies greatly on  the unity found within the text to guide his writing and the corresponding elements of momentum. prosody  dictate  The demands of the text  the musical treatment and, therefore,  the  structure  of momentum from the beginning to the conclusion of each song in the  cycles.  4 9  Bernac, The Interpretation of French Song, p. 283.  5 0  Bernac, Francis Poulenc. p.  104.  44  For example, Poulenc's use of metric change corresponds to the free verse patterns of the poet's texts.  By definition, the term "free  verse" seems to negate the presence of a pattern or a metricorhythmic structure.  However, his extreme sensitivity to the  combination of words and music reveals patterns  and images that  enable the listener to form personal associations that may otherwise be elusive.  Further to the subject of free verse, Calin  comments: Poetry must have an expected meter: this meter will then contrast with the actual rhythmic accent of the text when spoken aloud, comparable to a prose rhythm. The contrast thus is between the artificial convention of meter and natural linguistic articulation of speech. The play and tension between the two - meter and rhythm - create the language of poetry. To sacrifice either is to sacrifice poetry, to exterminate it, to render its existence impossible. 51  Recitation of the poetry in Chanson d'Orkenise of Banalites reveals a rhythmic pulse which is the impetus for the setting Poulenc provides.  A pervasive rhythmic element, consisting of two  eighth-notes followed by (in the majority of cases) two quarternotes,  corresponds to Apollinaire's  verses:  3  4-  3 4  Par  Veut  les  por-tes d'Or-ke-ni-se  en-trer  un  char-re-tier  William Calin, In Defense of French Poetry (University Park: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1987), p. 42.  5 1  This rhythmic ostinato makes development difficult to perceive and leads the performer to depend on changes of dynamics and expressions  of text characters to portray contrast.  Shifts of  register in the accompaniment, coupled with a fast harmonic rhythm lessen the danger of monotony found in the rhythm of the vocal line. Despite the dynamic and harmonic changes, the basic tempo of the song never alters.  Constancy of tempo becomes a unifying device  and as such achieves a type of momentum. The unmetered poetry of Bonne journee of Tel jour telle nuit receives a different type of musical treatment.  The two rhythmic  elements that dominate the construction of this song are shown in Figure 1.22.  Rhythm 'A' is the steady eighth-note pulse found in the  piano accompaniment and is the "expected meter" Calin speaks of. Rhythm 'B' is Calin's "contrast speech."  of...natural linguistic articulation of  The placement of the eighth-notes followed by quarter-  note pattern in the vocal line is governed by the syllable stress.  Of  particular note are measures  10 and 11, where the syllable stress  does  natural measure-to-measure  not coincide with the  Together,  rhythms ' A ' and 'B' create the language of poetry and  music in combination. meter  accents.  In this song there are fifteen similar musical  changes.  46  figure 1 .22  (c) 1937 Durand S.A., Used By Permission Of The Publisher Sole Representative U.S.A., Theodore Presser Company 47  In the song Sanglots.  the last of Banalites,  meter changes corresponding These changes reflect also  Poulenc's  to the  uneven meter of the  not only the complex  sensitivity  there are  in setting  texts  nature of  nine  poetry.  of the poetry,  varying  but  metric  regularity. Une roulotte engaging  couverte en tuiles of T e l jour telle nuit is an  "parlando"  Reminiscent  melody over  of Moussorgsky, the  and somewhat  out  of the  soaring melodic lines. Poulenc's part. feature  it contributes  repeated  tones  speech  alongside  and poetic  which  accents.  developments structure.  that Poulenc's The  to the grim scene  emphasize  the  The B section's  greater note  for rhythmic and  of Banalites. such  as:  T h e next three examples  concerns  change  "animer  serves as  fluctuations  The composer's  tres  progressive  or  Areas correspond  recessive  phases  of progressive  indication at  becomes  chordal in relation  prevails throughout second  measure  actions  in poetic  eventually to triplets.  basic to  the  pulse in  the  in determining  and  relations A t the  first  the piano texture thickens  to the  sparse open writing which  (measure 27), A t the  the  measures.  opening. 48  to  the  melodic pulse  initial  and  A t the region  "ceder" (measure 38),  piano returns  the  progressivement",  intensity.  lines decrease their rhythmic activity.  (measure 39),  support  17,  the opening sixteen  "animer"  as  intensity.  rhythmic  to areas of increase  "animer"  in  such  of  development.  of the  instructions  un peu mais  a type  key elements  "animer encore un peu" and "ceder" are key elements  voice  melodic  of tempo achieves  of other  use of tempo  first example  performers  the  spacious,  development.  momentum  Sanglots  static  Composed in a modified A B A form, the A  It has been shown that constancy harmony  is rather  usually  and triplet rhythms provide a momentum  melodic  theory  contour  character of Poulenc's  O n the contrary,  rhythm and natural values  melodic  accompaniment.  This is not due to any lack of inspiration on  portrayed by the poetry. sections  a chromatic  Finally,  of  increases,  both piano and at Tempo I  sparse texture of  the  The three tempo changes mentioned coincide with the establishment  of three tonal centres separated,  original tonal centre of F-sharp minor.  by a third, from the  The combination of harmonic  and rhythmic momentum underline the importance of the poetic content and its building tension.  Variations in tempo aid in  delineating the two strata upon which the poem is structured. The second example  demonstrates how rhythmic  52  augmentation  and diminution can be used to accentuate poetic intensity.  In the  following excerpt from Figure de force brulante et farouche in Tel jour telle nuit. tension is held, focusing on a fixed collection of tones within a pianissimo dynamic,  (see figure 1.23)  At the same  time, an element of instability is introduced in the harmonic content with conflicting semi-tones  between  the voice and piano lines.  A n explanation of these strata may be found in Chapter Two, p. 19. Guy Arnold Hargrove Jr. provides a more detailed discussion in "Francis Poulenc's Settings of Poems of Guillaume Apollinaire and Paul Eluard" (Ph.D. dissertation, University of Iowa, 1971). pp. 126-139.  5 2  Lent (J=66) pit mornr /L V <&\ •"" ' • • V T f 1 1 1 -i Aux vei . nes des tern.pes n.12 T.pntfJ=66)  1  h- ^  r  f f  "f  —• '  .  • J—r-! v  1  | n  m  Comme aux bouts des seins  ' T  La  •  i ! vie se  -j  .  y ,  ' re . fu . se  i f r ' T b  •> UP  ?nor7if  j  J  !  -rk  1—1  1—1  1— A 1  i  7  1 i !  i  At this point in the text the poet is intensely personal, exploring the depth of human emotion through images of the body. Bernac confirms this song as a melodie of "transition", a description made even more obvious by this contrasting central section. extraordinary  effect foreshadows  the  sublime intimacy  This  contained in  the final song of the cycle. A final example of momentum achieved by tempo fluctuation is from Le front comme un drapeau perdu of Tel jour telle nuit. Poulenc combines a metric increase  in the speed of recitation with  an ascending line, the final destination leading to poetic (see  figure  1.24)  Crcu . so la ter. re sous ton om .  figure  1.24  - bre  © 1937 Durand S.A., Used By Permission Of The Publisher Sole Representatve U.S.A., Theodore Presser Company  51  Here,  climax,  The previously  materials  for moments  stated melodic or rhythmic  from Figure de force repeated  of climax  often  material.  brulante et farouche  (see  segments  In this  for their reappearance  These octaves contain appearance  in the  by the vocal line. the final measure.  a degree  of tension  form of clashes  figure 1.25),  absent  of semi-tones  from their  initial  and tones supported  In this instance then, the role of this  movement  toward  device and a contributor  eventual  resolution.  1.25 ©  1937  Durand S.A.,  U s e d B y Permission O f T h e Publisher Sole  recalled  song which follows.  D:I figure  the  This tension and build of momentum is released in  recollection is twofold: a unifying and  in the  of  example  broken octaves of the opening song of the cycle are  in preparation  tension  are  Representative  U.S.A.,  52  Theodore  Presser  Company  to  We have seen that an imaginative use of conventional formal structures,  combined with Poulenc's  additive style of composition  results in development and momentum throughout both cycles.  Like  his melodies, Poulenc's use of harmony is primarily diatonic with "wrong notes" added for colour.  This conforms to the practices of  composers preceding him including Debussy, Ravel, Chabrier, Satie and Stravinsky.  Edward Lockspeiser remarks that the Romantic  53  composers have also influenced Poulenc and nurtured his lyrical gifts.  Thus, "Poulenc has shown that the special magic of diatonic  harmony [and] modulation...can...make an effect as poignant as in Schubert himself."  54  Any musician with more than a cursory  familiarity with Poulenc's works for any genre will agree that such a comparison is not unwonted.  However, the use of the occasional  non-chord tone within areas of conservative  diatonic harmony  serves to emphasize progression or recession of poetic or musical momentum. Poulenc uses chords with an added seventh and ninth as key centres, following  the innovations of the impressionist  composers.  Once considered dissonant or unstable in terms of the tonal centre, they are often used as primary chords and stable elements of harmony.  These important tonal pillars are essential to Poulenc's  harmonic language and appear throughout both cycles. impressionists, his "consistent  treatment of them as sonorous  entities indicates the importance attached composition".  Like many  to them in unifying a  55  An example of this occurs in Voyage a Paris of Banalites. where the E-flat major tonality is not a pure one. decorated with the seventh in both voice and piano.  Rather, it is An abrupt shift  Poulenc specifically acknowledges the influences of Debussy and Stravinsky in particular when he refers to his first attempts at composition as being "inferior imitations" of these two composers. Hell, Francis Poulenc. pp. 6-7. 5 3  Edward Lockspeiser, "The Wit and the Heart: A Study of Francis Poulenc." Fidelity. VIII/7 (July 1958), p. 92. 5 4  High  Robert E . Mueller, "The Concept of Tonality in Impressionist Music" (Ph.D. dissertation, University of Indiana, 1954). pp. 67-68.  5 5  53  of key centre to G-flat is followed by a series of constantly shifting tonalities which confirm the seventh chord as the tonal centre. These shifts are punctuated by a strong bass movement which eventually migrates back to the original key of E-flat major.  This  kind of writing bears out Werner's observation regarding tonal centres in Poulenc's harmonic practice:  "Even though the texture of  the upper...parts may be highly chromatic and studded with a variety of non-harmonic complexities, a clear tonal plane."  the bass progression  usually defines  56  Instances of stylistic  resemblance  treatment of various classifications  are  shown by  of harmony.  consistent  His use of seventh  and ninth chords as stable tonal centres shows his exploration of innovative harmony.  Shifts of these tonal centres are common, such  as those which occur in Une mine coquille vide of Tel jour telle nuit. Here, the use of the G minor-seventh chord is the stable tonal pillar for the first four measures.  A shift of tonality to that of C major at  measure 6 is short-lived, and a series of shifts follows only to arrive at the original G minor-seventh harmony at the song's conclusion.  Within this large progression may be found a basic root  movement of descending fifths, masked by a continuous shift of tonality,  (see  figure  1.26)  Werner, "The Harmonic Style of Francis Poulenc", p. 31.  54  — a—jr —-= P l e u r e danssontabli . er 1  Lesenfants  qui jouent autourd'elle  Fontmoinsdebruit  m. 5;  f r r f  t r n sempre -pp  cuedesmou.ches  La  m.10  rui . ne s'en  1 ifl - Jrl—Mn f  V  u lejour  je  j'. 1  vois c e . l a  va  a  tatons  C h e r . c h e r sesvaches dans un tire'  j N . 1V >.J Sans en  a  m=\ .  voir  J hon .  i, K  j  ,  J'ai  ,  1  . te  m.lf  "J  J  J  J  i  '  figure 1.26  jr  tpre pp  J '"\  1  - -J  T  j  — '  ^ dovcerncnt timbre  u  '  •7  © 1937 Durand S.A., Used By Permission Of The Publisher Sole Representative U.S.A., Theodore Presser Company  In Hfoel of Banalites. added seconds, ninths and sixths contribute to the general feel of laziness paramount in the song.  The  use of uncoloured chords (in this case those of the D major tonality) resolves the suspensions created by the added colour tones.  Chords  on the first beat of each  measure  can be considered  which resolve on the third beat to a consonant figure  1.27)  appoggiaturas  or colour chord,  These gestures provide harmonic momentum  (see  and a  propelling motion to the song.  Tres calme et paresseux <J = 50  p tris lie et expressif  Ma  chambre  a  la  ^Tres calme et paresseux (J = 50)  1  3fc  rt  V*  pp tres doux  f o r . me  r  5" -13-  d'u. ne  b V I  ca _  ge  Le  13  b7  y  s o . leil  l  •13-  3  pas  m. 5  7 fieure  f9  13  5  4  1.27 ©  1941  Editions M a x E s c h i g , 48, R u e de R o m e , Reprinted  What vocabulary Poulenc's  appear  unique penchant  interpretations. which extend stability attitude  to be traditional harmonies  as keys are juxtaposed  to life.  to measure  modulations  corresponding  to the poet's  laissez faire  In the closing voice and piano cadence,  this harmonic  minor ninths,  of measure  linked with his text  from measures 9-17 of HQtel disallow any feeling of  o f key centre,  continues  take on a distinct  in unique and colourful ways.  for colour is closely  T h e series  Paris  by P e r m i s s i o n  Poulenc  ambiguity through the use of both major and  (i.e. B-natural and A-sharp)  56  (see figure  1.28)  -*  £  fax.  fieure  1.28 ©  1941  Editions M a x E s c h i g , 48, Reprinted  by  Rue de R o m e , Paris Permission  The G minor tonality and the brief excursions  to other key  centres in Une mine coquille vide of T e l jour telle nuit are similarily embellished by added sevenths the poetry  and its striking images  are  and seconds.  T h e mood of  enhanced by this musical  treatment. The addition of "wrong notes" occurs  at a cadence  technique words,  are  and/or  based  or dissonant harmony  and/or climatic point.  Functions of this  on highlighting strategic  musical  often  text passages  or  climax.  One such use occurs at the final line of poetry in Chanson d'Orkenise in Banalites. from measures  (see  figure  at measure  this activity. 47  T h e sustained  47-50 may be seen as part of a large  motion which extends to measure concludes  1.29)  consists  ninth scale degree.  53.  progression  cadential  A short five measure  T h e prevailing harmony of the  postlude  progression  of a G seventh chord with an added flattened  A n inversion of this chord (on the third beat of  the measure) provides the harmonic momentum in much the way as the appoggiatura chords in Hotel.  57  same  mm  m. 56 Sans  ralentir  Ceder a peine (dessus) i  1 "if  figure  1.29 ©  1941  Editions M a x E s c h i g , 48, R u e de R o m e , Reprinted  58  by  Permission  Paris  i  The clashing C and B-naturals  between voice and piano in  measures 51 and 52 provide the harmonic measures.  A rising chromatic  hand adds  an interesting  "lentement".  Poulenc's  ascending  colouration  function to these  pattern  in the piano right  to the final textual adverb -  use of the tritone  bass progression  gives a  peculiar slant to what could easily have been a standard 1V-I plagal cadence. places  This event,  the entire  added to the chromatic  ascent in the piano,  cadence in a state of flux.  Despite the length of the cadence and its extended motion provided by a) the repetition of the progression 47  and b) the sustained dyad of C and B-naturals  52,  linear in measure  in measures 51 and  the cadence is not strong in a traditional diatonic sense.  song ends on an open fifth between piano and voice, and 54)  The  (measures 53  Rather than using the piano postlude to confirm a major or  minor tonality,  Poulenc  closing measures. recollection  Tonality  in the song's  T h e fifths which begin Sanglots  o f these  feature between  reiterates the open fifth  final  fifths,  the outer  poems  is threatened  providing  another  are heard as a unifying  musical  o f Banalites.  by Poulenc's  use of dissonance in  measures 20 and 21 of Figure de force brulante et farouche in T e l jour telle  nuit.  Here, the fundamental materials  are provided by a striking dissonance  between  voice and right hand of the accompaniment alternating  E-flats  accompaniment.  and E-naturals  for poetic  climax  the D-naturals  (see  figure  in the  1.25), and  in the left hand of the  T h e tonal conflict between  the E-flat  and E-natural  in the piano left hand is resolved with the E-flat pedal tone in measures 22 and 23 harmony.  Poulenc  piano between  and the establishment immediately  E-flat,  presents  of the quasi-Neopolitan  semi-tone  D-natural and C-sharp.  clashes  in the  T h e cadence  resolves  all conflict with the confirmation of the D major tonic chord in the final  measure.  musically  Reference  illustrated  Examination  to the "prison" in this example is  through  "wrong  note"  clashes  of two cadences of similar rhythm  Poulenc uses the piano postlude as a comment the text. progression  and dissonance.  In the passage from Sanglots in measure  76 functions  shows  that  on his impression of  (see figure 1.30), the  within  the dominant  harmony as  a VII7 of V , but resolves to a second inversion of the tonic rather than the expected dominant. resolution.  The delayed root further weakens  This unusual final progression  contributes  to "time" and "death" in the final lines of the poetry. leaves an impression of unsettled  the  to references Apollinaire  sadness which Poulenc reflects in  the closing cadence.  m.76  Ceder a peine 'f  I" (dessus)  'T  *  i PPT  tax  figure  1.30 ©  1941  Editions Max Eschig, 48, Rue de Rome, Paris Reprinted by Permission  The poetry from Hotel in its final line contains an element of defiance and assurance despite an overall impression of languidness. Together, the strong root movement  and perfect cadence, prefaced by  a beguiling colour chord, comments  on the final poetic utterance and  serve as punctuation for the stanza,  -  (see  figure  1.31)  i  m. 22  $ i: 11  mf doucetnent soutenu  VPP  ^  i  1  if  V  1  ;  J  DrlV ^"!! V 7  figure  1  1  -  —1  i i  1.31 ©  1941  Editions Max Eschig, 48, Rue de Rome, Paris Reprinted by Permission  60  11  Poulenc's  fondness  with the harmonic  for  the  perfect  These notes are  figure  m >  &  1.32  PP  ^_  figure  1.33)  © 1937 Durand S.A., Used By Permission Of The Publisher Sole Representative U.S.A., Theodore Presser Company  -  Strictement en mesure 8  m 1.33  final colour  the prominence  effect of the added tones,  satut changer jusqrfa la fin.  v—v~  nature.  with the introduction of  Three measures of open fifths ensure  1.32  43JLi  of a poetic  him  made even more significant in light of their  this interval, and the resultant figures  provides  of T e l jour telle nuit. the  measures take on a unique sonority preparation.  interval  foundation for final comment  In both the first and last songs tones.  fifth  sr/npre pp  -  b7-  "  g) 1937 Durand S.A., Used By Permission Of The Publisher Sole Representatve U.S.A., Theodore Presser Company  6 1  (see  of  This  event  illumines the issues  of Eluard's poetry:  nature of love and its constant renewal the last poem in the cycle. the  lowered  seventh  that of the  depicted in the final lines  It is interesting  scale degree appearing  that the colour tone of in the  first song  enhanced by the lowered third in the final song; Poulenc's musical comment  is ensured poignancy  of  is  final  by this addition and  comparison. Parallels relatively  may  stable  the poetry.  be drawn between  harmony  and the  Hideous poetic  en tuiles in T e l jour telle line which obscures migrating harmony natural.  the  nuit are (see  melody  T7J1  I  depicted in Une roulotte matched figure  «' d'  ' d'  d'  U . ne roulot. te  T r e s lent et sinistre 1 1 r-J J « !!  d'd'  "  d  figure  couverte chromatic  T h e remote  to harmonic  0  (.1^80) 1  1  \  1  (  L.  S'  1  0 V  r^f  1  m  v  tension by  1 1  T T  .  W  v  v  1  d ,  .  J  un enfant mai.tre  d •  ,  H*  0  Le cheval mort  p 1n  1.34)  contributes  couverte en tui .les  -6-.  * Il  with an eerie  of  >  P  m  m  simplistic nature  D-natural.  T r e s lent et sinistre (A:80) A  or  of  in the piano line threatens the pedal point D -  T h e chant-like  enforcing  complex  images  tonality,  the presence or absence  p  1 -  \ ,—  ,  H'  '  ]  L  —  Ji.'-  1.34 © 1937 Durand S.A., Used By Permission Of The Publisher Sole Representatve U.S.A., Theodore Presser Company A  continuous build of tension in the poetry  excursions  away from the tonal centre of D in the B section.  establishment ends  1.35)  B y wrenching away  of the  A re-  of this centre in a slightly modified repeat of the  section  the poetic  is matched by  in a complete  image:  "this  abandonment  of tonality,  (see  from the tonal centre, Poulenc  melodrama  heart."  62  tears away  A  figure portrays  from us / the  sanity  figure 1.35  © 1937 Durand S.A., Used By Permission Of The Publisher Sole Representative U.S.A., Theodore Presser Company  Conversely,  a more  stable  tonality  and key centre is  in songs which contain poetry of a less complex nature. flat  major  tonality  Voyage a Paris dyads,  (see  simplicity  prevails  through  poetry.  first  six  T h e basic E -  measures  of  in Banalites. coloured by a series of descending  figure 1.36)  which  It is the style of accompaniment  characterizes  the  particular charm to this song. tradition  the  apparent  of the  cafe-concert  melodic  and  line that gives  a  The lively waltz hints at music in the and is  Poulenc says of the verse:  particularly  suited  to  the  " T o anyone who knows me it will  seem quite natural that I should open my mouth like a carp to snap up the deliciously stupid lines of Voyage a Paris. concerns music."  Paris I approach with tears in my eyes and my head full of  57  Although some dissonance is used it is resolved  immediately;  its  (see  1.37)  5 7  Anything that  figure  effect reduced  Poulenc, Diary of My Songs, p. 67. 63  to  an  anacrusis  of passing  tones,  figure  1.36 (c)  1941  Editions Max Eschig, 48, Rue de Rome, Paris Reprinted by Permission tres aimable  Char, man . te  figure  cho  .  ANACRUSIS  1.37  © 1941 Editions Max Eschig, 48, Rue de Rome, Paris Reprinted by Permission  In a broad sense, an examination of Poulenc's harmonic vocabulary reveals  elements  that are central  Stringer identifies these elements diversity". explains  58  as those of "paradox  Roland Gelatt's remarks  Stringer's  to his musical style. and  concerning Poulenc's  analysis:  Poulenc is very much a contemporary, but not an innovator. He has created no new forms, no unusual harmonic devices; his musical esthetic has about it nothing of the 5 8  Stringer, "Diversity as  Style", p.  29.  style  revolutionary. If he is not strikingly avantgarde, neither is he a classical or baroque composer attired in twentieth-century dress with a taste for sterile-fugues peppered with dissonance. He speaks a language thoroughly his own. He can be dissonant, yet his dissonance is a means to an expressive end, never an end in itself. One could call him traditional but not reactionary, the tradition being that of Chabrier, Satie and late Ravel. 59  Such a description of the composer is apt to leave one with the feeling that any attempt to classify his style of harmony would fall somewhat short of the mark.  It is, above all, important to remember  that "Poulenc himself always wanted his music to strike us as instinctive,  spontaneous,  and  heartfelt".  60  Such a statement leads one to believe that it is not formal analysis that is important, but rather an appreciation of the blend of music and text that assures a unique and magical interpretation of these  cycles. If they put on my tomb: 'Here lies Francis Poulenc, musician of Apollinaire and Eluard,' I feel that would be my greatest claim to glory. Francis  Poulenc  ***  5 9  Roland Gelatt, " A Vote for Francis Poulenc", Saturday Review. 28 January, 1950, p.  57. 6 0  Daniel, Francis Poulenc: His Artistic Development and Musical Style, p. 57.  CONCLUSION Francis Poulenc's statement regarding his system  of  composition reveals his resistance to an approach based on technical analysis: My "rules" are instinctive, I am not concerned with principles and I am proud of that; I have no system of writing (for me "system" means "tricks"); and as for inspiration, it is so mysterious that it is wiser not to try to explain it... 61  Despite this declaration, examination of poetic and musical elements termed as unifying devices reveals covert and overt linkage which may aid  the perception of Banalites and Tel jour telle  nuit as song cycles. Concerning the voice, voix!"  Poulenc states,  (I love the voice so much!)  62  "J'aime tellement la  The ideal relationship between  Poulenc's inspiratory gestures from the text and the qualities of the human voice perfectly demonstrates  this statement.  Roger Nichols  calls him the "most eligible candidate" for the twentieth equivalent to Schubert.  century's  Bernac echoes this praise for Poulenc's  ability to write for the voice.  He says "[Poulenc's] melodic gift,  which was the very essence of his music, inspired him to find the appropriate musical line to heighten the expression of the literary phrase."  63  Poulenc's paradoxical style masterfully suits the poetry Apollinaire and Eluard.  of  The composer succeeds in assimilating many  of the elements that can be found in the "isms" so prevalant in the  6 1  Bernac, Francis Poulenc. p. 37.  Poulenc, Correspondance. reunie par Helene de Wendel, preface de Darius Milhaud (Paris: Editions du Seuil, 1967), p. 248. Bernac, The Interpretation of French Song, p. 269.  6 2  6 3  66  first half of the twentieth century, among which include neoclassicism,  neo-romanticism  and  surrealism.  The awareness of unifying devices used by Poulenc in both Banalites and Tel jour telle nuit will provide performers with insights beneficial to the interpretation prepared performance,  of the cycles.  A carefully  with due consideration given to the  analyses  found within this dissertation, will hopefully be the final convincing argument in support of this premise: that each set is a song cycle in the  truest  sense.  * **  67  BIBUOGRAPHY  Balakian, A n n a . Surrealism: the Road to the Absolute. George A l l e n & Unwin L t d . , 1970. Bernac, Pierre.  T h e Interpretation of French Song.  London:  New York: W . W .  Norton & Company Inc., 1970. .  " A Certain Grace." Opera News. 5 February,  .  Francis Poulenc: T h e M a n and H i s Songs.  1977, pp. 28 -  34. Winifred Radford. . et.al. Berry,  Trans, by  London: Victor Gollancz L t d . , 1978.  liner notes to Francis  Poulenc,  ( E M I 2C165-16231/5,  1978).  Melodies. E l l y A m e l i n g ,  Richard A r n o l d . "Francis Poulenc's Settings of Poems of Paul Eluard for Solo V o i c e and Piano: A Reflection of French Artistic Moods from 1920-1960." D . M . A . dissertation, University o f M i s s o u r i - Kansas City, 1985.  Berry, Wallace. 1966.  Form in M u s i c .  Structural Functions H a l l , Inc., 1976.  N e w Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc.,  in M u s i c .  Brereton, Geoffrey. A n Introduction Methuen & C o . Ltd., 1973.  New Jersey:  to the French Poets.  Brody, Elaine. Paris/The Musical Kaleidoscope. New York: Braziller, Inc., 1987.  Prentice-  London:  George  Broome, Peter and Graham Chesters. T h e Appreciation of Modern French Poetry (T850-1950). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1976. Brown, C a l v i n S. M u s i c and Literature. New England, 1987. Calin, W i l l i a m .  Hanover:  In Defense of French Poetry.  Pennsylvania  State  University 68  Press,  University Press of  University Park: T h e 1987.  Chadwick, Charles.  Symbolism.  London: Methuen & Co. Ltd., 1971.  Clancier, Georges Emmanuel, ed. De Rimbaud au Surrealisme: Panorama Critique. Paris: Seghers, 1959. Cooper, Martin. 1951.  French Music.  Cornell, Kenneth. 1900-1920. Cox,  David. p. 69.  London: Oxford University Press,  The Post Symbolist Period: French Poetic Currents, New York: Yale University Press, 1958.  "Poulenc and Surrealism."  The Listener. 11 July, 1963,  Daniel, Keith W. Francis Poulenc: His Artistic Development and Musical Style. Ann Arbor: U.M.I. Research Press, 1982. Demuth, Norman. Musical Trends in the Twentieth Century. Westport: Greenwood Press Publishers, 1952. Drew, David. "The Simplicity of Poulenc." 1958, p. 137. Ferguson, Donald N . Music as Metaphor. Minnesota Press, 1960.  The Listener. 16 January,  Minneapolis: University of  Gelatt, Roland. " A Vote for Francis Poulenc." January, 1950, pp. 57-58.  Saturday Review. 28  Gruer, John. "Poulenc." Musical America. L X X X / 5 (April, 1960), 6-7. Hargrove, Guy Arnold, Jr. "Francis Poulenc's Settings of Poems of Guillaume Apollinaire and Paul Eluard." Ph.D. dissertation, University of Iowa, 1971. Hell, Henri. Francis Poulenc. Trans, by Edward Lockspeiser. John Calder Publishers Ltd., 1959.  69  London:  Hermans, Theo. The Structure of Modernist Poetry. Helm Ltd., 1982.  London: Croom  Houston, John Porter. French Symbolism and the Modernist Movement. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1980. Ivey, Donald. Song: Anatomy, Imagery and Styles. New York: The Free Press, 1970. Kolodin, Irving. "The Merit of Poulenc." Saturday Review. February, 1963), pp. 49-50, 60.  LXVI/8  Kramer, Lawrence. Music and Poetry: The Nineteenth Century and After. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984. Lawler, James R. The Language of French Symbolism. Princeton University Press, 1969.  New Jersey:  Lockspeiser, Edward. "The Wit and the Heart: A Study of Francis Poulenc." High Fidelity. VIII/7 (July, 1958), pp. 35-37, 91-92. Matthews, J.H. Surrealist Poetry in France. New York: Syracuse University Press, 1969. Middaugh, Bennie. "Poulenc: Tel Jour Telle Nuit." X X V (December, 1968), pp. 2-8.  The N A T S Bulletin.  Milhaud, Darius. Notes Without Music. Trans, by Donald Evans; ed. by Rollo H . Myers. New York: Alfred A . Knopf, 1953. Moore, Gerald. The Schubert Song Cycles. London: Hamish Hamilton Ltd., 1975. Mueller, Robert E . "The Concept of Tonality in Impressionist Music." Ph.D. dissertation, University of Indiana, 1954. New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. 6th ed. S.v. "Song Cycle," by Luise Eitel Peake.  70  Nugent, Robert. Paul Eluard.  New York: Twayne Publishers, Inc.,  1974. Peake, Luise Eitel. " T h e Song Cycle: A Preliminary Inquiry into the Beginnings o f the Romantic Song C y c l e and the Nature of an Art Form." Poulenc,  P h . D . dissertation,  Francis.  Wendel.  Correspondance  C o l u m b i a University,  1968.  1915-1952. reunie par Helene de  Preface de Darius Milhaud.  Paris: Editions du Seuil,  1967. . M y Friends and Myself. Trans, by James Harding. London: Dobson Books L t d . , 1978. . Diary o f M y Songs. Trans, by Winifred Radford. London: Victor Gollancz L t d . , 1985. Rasin, Vera. "Les Six and Jean Cocteau." 1957):164-169.  Music and Letters 38 (April  Ronga, Luigi. T h e Meeting of Poetry and Music. Trans, by E l i o Gianturco and Cara Rosanti. New York: Merlin Press, n.d. Rosenblatt,  Louise M . T h e Reader,  Southern  Illinois  University  the Text, the Poem. Press,  Carbondale:  1978.  Sabin, Robert. "Poulenc: T h e Essence is Simplicity." America L X I X / 2 7 (15 November 1949): 27.  Musical  Seaton, Douglass. T h e Art Song: A Research and Information New York: Garland Publishing Inc., 1987. Stevens, Denis, ed. 1960. Stringer,  Mary A n n .  with Piano."  Guide.  A History of Song. London: Hutchinson & C o . , L t d . ,  "Diversity as Style in Poulenc's D.M.A.  dissertation,  1986.  7 1  Chamber Works  University o f Oklahoma.  Trickey, Samuel Mueller. State  University,  Werner, Warren Kent. dissertation,  P h . D . dissertation, North Texas  1955. "The Harmonic Style of Francis Poulenc."  Iowa  Wood, V i v i a n Lee Poates. Jackson:  "Les Six."  State  University,  1966.  Poulenc's Songs: A n Analysis of Style.  University Press  72  of M i s s i s s i p p i ,  1979.  Ph.D.  APPENDIX l  6  4  BANALITES (BANALITIES) SONG OF ORKENISE  CHANSON D'ORKENISE Par les portes d'Orkenise Veut entrer un charretier. Par les portes d'Orkenise Veut sortir un va-nu-pieds.  Through a carter Through a tramp  Et les gardes de la ville Courant sus au va-nu-pieds: 'Qu'emportes tu de la ville?' 'J'y laisse mon coeur entier.'  And the town guards hasten up to the tramp: 'What are you taking away from the town?' 'I leave my whole heart there.'  Et les gardes de la ville Courant sus au charretier: 'Qu'apportes tu dans la ville?' 'Mon coeur pour me marier!'  the gates of Orkenise. wants to enter. the gates of Orkenise wants to leave.  And the town guards hasten up to the carter: 'What are you bringing into the town?' 'My heart to be married!'  Que de coeurs dans Orkenise! Les gardes riaient, riaient. Va-nu-pieds la route est grise, L'amour grise, o charretier.  What a lot of hearts in Orkenise! The guards laughed, laughed. Tramp, the road is hazy, love makes the head hazy, O carter.  Les beaux gardes de la ville Tricotaient superbement; Puis, les portes de la ville, Se ferm&rent lentement. Guillaume Apollinaire  The fine-looking town guards knitted superbly; then the gates of the town slowly closed.  HOTEL  A  HOTEL Ma chambre a la forme d'une cage Le soleil passe son bras par la fenetre Mais moi qui veux turner pour faire des mirages J'allume au feu du jour ma cigarette Je ne veux pas travailler je veux turner Guillaume Apollinaire  My room is shaped like a cage the sun puts its arm through the window but I who would like to smoke to make smoke pictures I light at the fire of day my cigarette I do not want to work I want to smoke.  A l l translations are by Winifred Radford, extracted from Pierre Bernac, The Interpretation of French Song. (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1970), pp. 280-285. 6 4  73  WALLOON UPLANDS  FAGNES DE WALLONIE  Overwhelming sorrow seized my heart in the desolate uplands when tired I rested in the fir plantation the weight of the kilometres while blustered the west wind I had left the pretty wood the squirrels stayed there my pipe tried to make clouds in the sky which remained obstinately clear  Tante de tristesses plenieres Prirent mon coeur aux fagnes de'solees Quand las j'ai repose dans les sapinieres Le poids des kilometres pendant que ralait Le vent d'ouest J'avais quitte le Les ecureuils y Ma pipe essayait Au ciel Qui restait pur  joli bois sont restes de faire des nuages obstinement  I did not confide any secret except an enigmatic song to the damp peat bog  Je n'ai confie aucun secret sinon une chanson enigmatique Aux tourbieres humides  the heather fragrant with honey attracted the bees and my aching feet crushed the bilberries and the blaeberries  Les bruyeres fleurant le miel Attiraient les abeilles Et mes pieds endoloris Foulaient les myrtilles et les airelles Tendrement mariee Nord Nord La vie s'y tord En arbres forts Et tors La vie y mord La mort A belles dents Quant bruit le vent  tenderly united north north life twists itself there in strong trees and twisted life bites there death ravenously when the wind howls  Guillaume Apollinaire  VOYAGE A PARIS  TRIP TO PARIS  Ah! la charmante chose Quitter un pays morose Pour Paris Paris joli Qu'un jour Dut creer 1'Amour  Ah! how charming to leave a dreary place for Paris delightful Paris that once upon a time love must have created  Guillaume Apollinaire  7 4  SANGLOTS  SOBS  Notre amour est regie par les calmes etoiles Or nous savons qu'en nous beaucoup d'hommes respirent Qui vinrent de tres loin et sont un sous nos ft C'est la chanson des reveurs Qui s'etaient arrache le coeur Et le portaient dans la main droite Souviens-t'en cher orgueil de tous ces souvenirs Des marins qui chantaient comme des conquerants Des gouffres de Thule des tendres cieux d'Ophir Des malades maudits de ceux qui fuient leur ombre Et du retour joyeux des heureux emigrants. De ce coeur il coulait du sang Et le reveur allait pensant A sa blessure delicate Tu ne briseras pas la chaine de ces causes Et douloureuse et nous disait Qui sont les effets d'autres causes Mon pauvre coeur mon coeur brise Pareil au coeur de tous les hommes Voici voici nos mains que la vie fit esclaves Est mort d'amour ou c'est tout comme Est mort d'amour et le voici Ainsi vont toutes choses Arrachez done le votre aussi Et rien ne sera libre jusqu'a la fin des temps Laissons tout aux morts Et cachons nos sanglots Guillaume Apollinaire  75  Our love is ordered by the calm stars now we know that in us many men have their being who came from very far away and are one under our brows it is the song of the dreamers who tore out their heart and carried it in the right hand (remember dear pride all these memories of the sailors who sang like conquerors of the chasms of Thule of the gentle skies of Ophir of the cursed sick people of those who fled from their shadow and of the joyous return of happy emigrants) this heart ran with blood and the dreamer went on thinking of his wound delicate (You will not break the chain of these causes) and painful and said to us (which are the effects of other causes) my poor heart my broken heart resembling the heart of all men (here here are our hands that life enslaved) has died of love or so it seems has died of love and here it is such is the way of all things tear out yours also (and nothing will be free until the end of time) let us leave all to the dead and hide our sobs  APPENDIX 2  6 5  T E L JOUR T E L L E NUTT (SUCH A D A Y SUCH A NIGHT) BONNE JOURNEE...  A GOOD DAY...  Bonne journee j'ai revu qui je n'oublie pas Oui je n'oublerai jamais Et des femmes fugaces dont les yeux Me faisaient une haie d'honneur Elles s'envelopperent dans leurs sourires  A good day I have again seen whom I do not forget whom shall I never forget and women fleeting by whose eyes formed for me a hedge of honour they wrapped themselves in their smiles  Bonne journee j'ai vu mes amis sans soucis Les hommes ne pesaient pas lourd Un qui passait Son ombre changee en souris Fuyait dans le ruisseau  a good day I have seen my friends carefree the men were light in weight one who passed by his shadow changed into a mouse fled into the gutter  J'ai vu le ciel tres grand Le beau regard des gens prives de tout Plage distante ou personne n'aborde  I have seen the great wide sky the beautiful eyes of those deprived of everything distant shore where no one lands  Bonne journee qui commenca melancolique Noire sous les arbres verts Mais qui soudain trempee d'aurore M'entra dans le coeur par surprise.  Paul Eluard  6 5  Ibid., pp. 291-298.  a good day which began mournfully dark under the green trees but which suddenly drenched with dawn invaded my heart unawares.  UNE RUINE COQUILLE VIDE..  A RUIN A N EMPTY SHELL...  Une mine coquille vide Pleure dans son tablier Les enfants qui jouent autour d'elle Font moins de bruit que des mouches  A ruin an empty shell weeps into its apron the children who play around it make less sound than flies  La ruine s'en va a tStons Chercher ses vaches dans un pre J'ai vu le jour je vois cela Sans en avoir honte  the ruin goes groping to seek its cows in the meadow I have seen the day I see that without shame  II est minuit comme une fleche Dans un coeur a la portee Des folatres leurs nocturnes Qui contredisent le sommeil.  It is midnight like an arrow in a heart within reach of the sprightly nocturnal glimmerings which gainsay sleep.  Paul Eluard  THE BROW LIKE A LOST F L A G . . .  L E FRONT COMME UN DRAPEAU PERDU...  The brow like a lost flag I drag you when I am alone through the cold streets the dark rooms crying in misery  Le front comme un drapeau perdu Je te trathe quand je suis seul Dans des rues froides Des chambres noires En criant misere Je ne veux pas les lacher Tes mains claires et compliquees Ne'es dans le miroir clos des miennes  I do not want to let them go your clear and complex hands born in the enclosed mirror of my own  Tout le reste est parfait Tout le reste est encore plus inutile Que la vie  all the rest is perfect all the rest is even more useless than life  Creuse la terre sous ton ombre  hollow the earth beneath your shadow  Une nappe d'eau pres des seins Ou se noyer Comme une pierre.  a sheet of water reaching the breasts wherein to drown oneself like a stone.  Paul Eluard  77  A GYPSY WAGON ROOFED WITH TILES...  UNE ROULOTTE COUVERTE E N TUILES...  Comme deux poings  A gypsy wagon roofed with tiles the horse dead a child master thinking his brow blue with hatred of two breasts beating down upon him like two fists  Ce melodrame nous attache La raison du coeur.  this melodrama tears away from us the sanity of the heart.  Une roulotte couverte en tuiles Le cheval mort un enfant raaitre Pensant le front bleu de haine A deux seins s'abattant sur lui  Paul Eluard  RIDING F U L L TILT...  A TOUTES BRIDES... A toutes brides toi dont le fantSme Piaffe la nuit sur un violon Viens regner dans les bois  Riding full tilt you whose phantom prances at night on a violin come to reign in the woods  Les verges de l'ouragan Cherchent leur chemin par chez toi Tu n'es pas de celles Dont on invente les desirs  the lashings of the tempest seek their path by way of you you are not of those whose desires one imagines  Viens boire un baiser par ici Cede au feu qui te desespere.  come drink a kiss here surrender to the fire which drives you to despair.  Paul Eluard  SCANTY GRASS...  UNE HERBE PAUVRE...  Scanty grass wild appeared in the snow it was health my mouth marvelled at the savour of pure air it had it was withered.  Une herbe pauvre Sauvage Apparut dans la neige C'etait la sant^ Ma bouche tut emerveillSe Du goQt d'air pur qu'elle avait Elle Stait fange.  Paul Eluard  78  I LONG ONLY TO LOVEYOU...  JE N'AI EN VIE Q U E D E TAIMER.. Je n'ai envie que de t'aimer Un orage eraplit la vallee Un poisson la riviere  I long only to love you a storm fills the valley a fish the river  Je t'ai faite a la taille de ma solitude Le monde entier pour se cacher Des jours des nuits pour se comprendre  I have formed you to the pattern of my solitude the whole world to hide in days and nights to understand one another  Pour ne plus rien voir dans tes yeux Que ce que je pense de toi Et d'un monde a ton image  to see nothing more in your eyes but what I think of you and of a world in your likeness  Et des jours et des nuits regies par tes paupieres.  and of days and nights ordered by your eyelids.  Paul Eluard  FIGURE D E F O R C E BRULANTE ET FAROUCHE...  IMAGE OF FIERY WILD FORCEFULNESS...  Figure de force brulante et farouche Cheveux noirs ou l'or coule vers le sud Aux nuits corrompues  Image of fiery wild forcefulness black hair wherein the gold flows towards the south on corrupt nights  Or englouti etoile impure Dans un lit jamais partage  engulfed gold tainted star in a bed never shared  Aux veines des tempes Comme au bout des seins La vie se refuse Les yeux nul ne peut les crever Boire leur eclat ni leurs larmes Le sang au dessus d'eux triomphe pour lui seul  to the veins of the temples as to the tips of the breasts life denies itself no one can blind the eyes drink their brilliance or their tears the blood above them triumphs for itself alone  Intraitable demesuree Inutile Cette sante bStit une prison.  intractable unbounded useless this health builds a prison.  Paul Eluard  79  NOUS AVONS FAIT L A NUTT...  WE H A V E M A D E NIGHT...  Nous avons fait la nuit je tiens ta main je veille Je te soutiens de toutes mes forces Je grave sur un roc l'etoile de tes forces Sillons profonds ou la bonte de ton corps germera Je me repete ta voix cachee ta voix publique Je ris encore de l'orgueilleuse Que tu traites comme une mendiante Des fous que tu respectes des simples ou tu te baignes Et dans ma tete qui se met doucement d'accord avec la tienne avec la nuit Je m'emerveille de l'inconnue que tu deviens Une inconnue semblable a toi semblable a tout ce que j'aime Qui est toujours nouveau.  We have made night I hold your hand I watch over you I sustain you with all my strength I engrave on a rock the star of your strength deep furrows where the goodness of your body will germinate I repeat to myself your secret voice your public voice I laugh still at the haughty woman whom you treat like a beggar at the fools whom you respect the simple folk in whom you immerse, yourself and in my head which gently begins to harmonize with yours with the night I marvel at the stranger that you become a stranger resembling you resembling all that I love which is ever new.  Paul Eluard  80  

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