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Fourteen ways of looking at a blackbird : point of view in The Sound and the Fury Layman, Lewis Magnus 1973

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FOURTEEN WAYS OF LOOKING AT A BLACKBIRD Point of*View i n The Sound and the Fury by LEWIS MAGNUS LAYMAN A Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l Fulfilment of The Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy i n the Department of English We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1973 In presenting t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree that permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission. Department of k: r-> £> L U H The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date O C T 1 7 , / 1 7 ? ABSTRACT T h i s t h e s i s i s an i n t e n s i v e a n a l y s i s o f The Sound and the Fury, f o c u s s i n g on F a u l k n e r ' s treatment of p o i n t of view. The n o v e l i s examined as an e x p l o r a t i o n of the a c t o f p e r c e p t i o n , r e f l e c t i n g the author's Bergsonian view of c o n s c i o u s n e s s . F a u l k n e r ' s statement t h a t every r e f l e c t o r sees one a s p e c t of the t r u t h and t h a t the w r i t i n g of the n o v e l i s an attempt t o a c h i e v e a comprehensive overview i s used as a f o c a l p o i n t f o r the t h e s i s . In the i n t r o d u c t o r y c h apter I s t a t e my b a s i c approach: to d i s c u s s the v a l i d i t y and d i s t o r t i o n of each p o i n t of view as conveyed by the r e n d e r i n g of a u t h o r i a l involvement and d i s t a n c e from the pr e s e n t e d p e r s p e c t i v e s . Before a p p l y i n g these c r i t e r i a to the r e f l e c t o r s of the n o v e l , I b r i e f l y d i s c u s s The Sound and the Fury i n r e l a t i o n to As I Lay Dying, Light in August, Absalom,Absalom! and Go Down,Moses. The f o u r subsequent c h a p t e r s are c l o s e a n a l y s e s of each s e c t i o n of the book. I emphasi2e Benjy's f u n c t i o n as a l i t e r a l embodiment of the Compson dilemma. In Chapter 3 I s t r e s s the r e l a t i o n s h i p of Quentin's monologue to Benjy's as a r e f l e c t i o n o f the growth of c o n s c i o u s n e s s . I a l s o e x p l o r e the s i g n i f i c a n c e of i n c e s t and the q u i x o t i c a s p e c t s of Quentin's c h a r a c t e r . The focus of Chapter 4 i s upon Jason as a r e f l e c t o r who f u l l y expresses the negative impulses to renounce r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and withdraw from human involvement. I suggest that Part Three i s simul-taneously a r e a l i z a t i o n of destructive p o s s i b i l i t i e s and a kind of comic r e l i e f . The l i k e l i h o o d that Joyce's use of perspective i n the Cyclops episode of Ulysses was a precedent for t h i s horror-comedy i s explored. In Chapter Five I examine the narrative point of view and the way the language of Section Four r e f l e c t s the process of perception. I study the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p of the various parts of t h i s section to each other and to the monologues of the Compson brothers. I assert that there i s a sense of affirmation, stemming from the author's and audience's a b i l i t y to comprehend the s i g n i f i c a n c e of experience, that i s not embodied i n any characters i n the novel. The f i n a l chapter contains some general conclusions about the book and a discussion of the "Appendix" written in 1945. By i n t e n s i v e l y analyzing aspects of the novel such as the use of multi-perspectives, the function of a character who begins and ends the book, and the a n t i -c l i m a c t i c ending, I have s t r i v e n to achieve two goals. F i r s t , I have attempted to gain a f u l l understanding of The Sound and the Fury. Second, i n exploring d i s t i n c t i v e and e s s e n t i a l features of Faulkner's novels I have sought to gain i n s i g h t into his works as a whole. TABLE OF CONTENTS P a g e ABSTRACT • i i i CHAPTER 1 FOURTEEN WAYS OF LOOKING AT A BLACKBIRD 2 CHAPTER 2 TRYING TO SAY 33 CHAPTER 3 A LONG CORRIDOR OF GREY HALFLIGHT 68 CHAPTER 4 I S THIS THE PROMIS'D END? 128 CHAPTER 5 EACH I N I T S ORDERED PLACE 212 CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSION. AND WAS NOT HEARD OF AGAIN. EXCEPT ... (11) 296 CHAPTER NOTES AND L I S T OF WORKS CONSULTED 314 CHAPTER 1 FOURTEEN WAYS OF LOOKING AT A BLACKBIRD 2 On May 8 t h , 1 9 5 8 , t h e f o l l o w i n g e x c h a n g e t o o k p l a c e b e t w e e n W i l l i a m F a u l k n e r a n d a s t u d e n t a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f V i r g i n i a : Q. Mr. F a u l k n e r , i n Absalom, Absalom! d o e s any one o f t h e p e o p l e who t a l k s a b o u t S u t p e n h a v e t h e r i g h t v i e w , o r i s i t more o r l e s s a c a s e o f t h i r t e e n ways o f l o o k i n g a t a b l a c k b i r d w i t h none o f them r i g h t ? A. T h a t ' s i t e x a c t l y . I t h i n k t h a t no one i n d i v i d u a l c a n l o o k a t t r u t h . I t b l i n d s y o u . You l o o k a t i t a n d s e e one p h a s e o f i t . Someone e l s e l o o k s a t i t a n d s e e s a s l i g h t l y a w r y p h a s e o f i t . B u t t a k e n a l l t o g e t h e r , t h e t r u t h i s i n wha t t h e y saw t h o u g h n o b o d y saw t h e t r u t h i n t a c t . . . . I t was, a s y o u s a y , t h i r t e e n ways o f l o o k i n g a t a b l a c k b i r d . B u t t h e t r u t h , I w o u l d l i k e t o t h i n k , comes o u t , t h a t when t h e r e a d e r h a s r e a d a l l t h e s e t h i r t e e n d i f f e r e n t ways o f l o o k i n g a t t h e b l a c k b i r d , t h e r e a d e r h a s h i s own f o u r t e e n t h image o f t h a t b l a c k -b i r d w h i c h I w o u l d l i k e t o t h i n k i s t h e t r u t h . 1 I i n t e n d t o e l a b o r a t e u p o n t h e m u l t i p l e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s s t a t e m e n t i n my i n t r o d u c t i o n a n d t h e n a p p l y them t o a n i n t e n s i v e s t u d y o f The Sound and the Fury i n s u b s e q u e n t c h a p t e r s . The p u r p o s e o f t h i s t h e s i s i s n o t o n l y t o c o n d u c t a t h o r o u g h e x p l o r a t i o n o f The Sound and the Fury, b u t t o p r o v i d e an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f how e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f F a u l k n e r ' s f i c t i o n , s u c h a s h i s m u l t i p l e x f o c u s a n d h i s i m m e r s i o n w i t h i n t h e c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f h i s c h a r a c t e r s , r e f l e c t h i s u n d e r l y i n g c o n c e p t i o n o f e x i s t e n c e . I n my f i r s t c h a p t e r I w i l l s u g g e s t how I f e e l t h i s p a r t i c u l a r n o v e l s h o u l d be v i e w e d , a n d s e e k t o e s t a b l i s h i t i n t h e c o n t e x t o f F a u l k n e r ' s w o r k s . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , I w i l l r e g a r d i t w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e f i v e n o v e l s i n w h i c h I c o n s i d e r F a u l k n e r a c h i e v e s h i s f u l l e s t i m m e r s i o n w i t h i n t h e 3 consciousness of his characters. They are The Sound and the Fury, As I Lay Dying, Light in August, Absalom, Absalom! and Go Down,Moses. Faulkner's answer to the question quoted above provides a key to understanding his v i s i o n of r e a l i t y . The "truth" i s beyond the comprehension of any one i n d i v i d u a l . This explains why his novels present the consciousness of a number of people, rather than focussing on one i n d i v i d u a l as, for example, Joyce does i n A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man. In Faulkner's view, no one character has a s u f f i c i e n t l y comprehensive grasp of r e a l i t y to merit exclusive focus. One of the most d i s t i n c t i v e character-i s t i c s of his longer f i c t i o n i s that no single protagonist emerges. His mode of presentation, as Walter S l a t o f f says, "prevents us from organizing our impressions about any single center." 2 I t i s possible to argue that various characters do become protagonists i n the f i v e novels that I am going to deal with i n t h i s chapter. But these arguments are always subject to q u a l i f i c a t i o n . I w i l l attempt to show that a case can be made for each of the four Compson children as being most c e n t r a l to The Sound and the Fury. The m u l t i -p l i c i t y of perspectives and lack of any single center of consciousness i s most evident i n As I Lay Dying. The focus i s narrowed down i n Light in August to three main characters; but t h e i r d i v e r s i t y of background and outlook maintains the 4 sense of diffuseness, as does the s l i g h t interconnection of the p l o t sequences. From one point of view, Thomas Sutpen i s most c e r t a i n l y the protagonist of Absalom, Absalom! Faulkner, himself, suggests t h i s , although he q u a l i f i e s the point. Q. Who i s the central character of Absalom, Absalom!? I t seems so obviously to be Sutpen, yet i t ' s been said that i t ' s also the story of Quentin, and I was wondering j u s t who i s the central character? A. The c e n t r a l character i s Sutpen, yes. The story of a man who wanted a son and got too many, got so many that they destroyed him. I t ' s incident-a l l y the story of Quentin Compson's hatred of the bad q u a l i t i e s i n the country he loves. But the c e n t r a l character i s Sutpen . . . 3 Paradoxically, Sutpen i s both more ce n t r a l and more remote than the protagonists i n the previously mentioned novels. He i s the i n i t i a t o r of a l l the action and i s always present i n the minds of the narrators. But we are never allowed a d i r e c t view of Sutpen's consciousness and are i n one sense more d i s t a n t from him than we are from the narrators. As Wayne Booth says,"If granting to the hero the r i g h t to r e f l e c t his own story can insure the reader's sympathy, withholding i t from him and giving i t to another character can prevent too much i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . " 1 1 In contrast, Isaac McCaslin i s both a p a r t i c i p a n t i n the action and a center of consciousness i n Go Down,Moses. The tone poem at the beginning of the novel suggests the importance of past events ("Was") i n forming his s e n s i b i l i t y , and establishes him as the dominant consciousness. Never-5 t h e l e s s , Isaac i s not d i r e c t l y p r e s e n t i n f o u r of the seven s t o r i e s , i n c l u d i n g those which begin and end the n o v e l . The technique of framing Ike i n the c e n t e r of the work r e f l e c t s the f a c t t h a t F a u l k n e r p o r t r a y s a l a r g e , complex cosmos, which w h i l e c e n t e r i n g on Isaac u l t i m a t e l y expands f a r beyond him. The n e c e s s i t y f o r t h i s expansion i s shown i n " D e l t a Autumn." Isaac M c C a s l i n i s , i n my o p i n i o n , the most comprehensive r e f l e c t o r of c o n s c i o u s n e s s of any c h a r a c t e r i n F a u l k n e r . Yet, h i s l i m i t a t i o n s are made s t a r t l i n g l y c l e a r when he says to h i s n i e c e i n " D e l t a Autumn," "You're a n i g g e r 1" 5, and when she l a t e r rebukes him as f o l l o w s : "Old man . . . have you l i v e d so l ong and f o r g o t t e n so much t h a t you dont remember an y t h i n g you ever knew or f e l t o r even heard about l o v e ? " {Go Down,Moses, p. 363). I t becomes p a i n f u l l y c l e a r i n t h i s s t o r y t h a t even as s e n s i t i v e an o b s e r v e r as Isaac M c C a s l i n d i s t o r t s t r u t h i n responding to i t . Ike's l i m i t a t i o n s r e f l e c t the b a s i c human dilemma. Every human being i s bound u l t i m a t e l y w i t h i n the l i m i t a t i o n s of h i s own p o i n t of view. No matter how much a person expands h i s s e n s i b i l i t y through e x p e r i e n c e , through empathy, through whatever e d u c a t i o n he i s a b l e to a c q u i r e i n the woods, on the road, or through r e a d i n g books, d i s t o r t i o n i s i n e v i t a b l e . In F a u l k n e r ' s own words: "I t h i n k t h a t no one i n d i v i d u a l can look a t t r u t h . I t b l i n d s you." 6 I m p l i c i t i n t h i s comment i s the metaphor of t r u t h as the sun, the source 6 o f t h e l i g h t by w h i c h we a l l s e e ; b u t e a c h p e r s o n i s e n c l o s e d w i t h i n h i s own e a r t h b o u n d a n g l e o f v i s i o n . I f a man s e e s t h e s u n d i r e c t l y a b o v e h i s h e a d , t h i s i s t r u e f o r h i m , y e t a t t h e same moment t h e s u n may be i n t h e E a s t e r n h o r i z o n f o r a n o t h e r man, a n d i n t h e W e s t e r n h o r i z o n f o r s t i l l a n o t h e r . The d i l e m m a , t h e n , i s t h a t w h a t we p e r c e i v e i s b o t h t r u e a n d n o t t r u e s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . O l g a V i c k e r y ' s comment t h a t e a c h o f t h e f i r s t t h r e e s e c t i o n s o f The Sound and the Fury " i s a t o n c e t h e t r u t h a n d a c o m p l e t e d i s t o r t i o n o f t h e t r u t h " 7 i s a p p l i c a b l e , w i t h some q u a l i f i c a t i o n , t o a l l human b e i n g s , a s p o r t r a y e d b y F a u l k n e r . The d i s t o r t i o n o f I s a a c M c C a s l i n ' s p e r s p e c t i v e i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s t h a n t h a t o f J a s o n Compson. B u t J a s o n , d e s p i t e h i s n a r r o w b i a s e s , s e e s some t h i n g s a c c u r a t e l y . W h e reas I k e , d e s p i t e h i s p r o f o u n d i n s i g h t s , s e e s some t h i n g s f a l s e l y . T h i s i s b e c a u s e e v e r y man " s e i z e s u p o n some f r a g m e n t o f t h e t r u t h a s t h o u g h i t w e r e t h e w h o l e t r u t h , a n d e l a b o r a t e s i t i n t o a t o t a l v i s i o n o f t h e w o r l d . " 8 The c o n c e p t o f a r e l i a b l e n a r r a t o r (and o f r e l i a b i l i t y i t s e l f ) " p r e s u p p o s e s t h a t s o m e t h i n g o b j e c t i v e l y t r u e c a n be s a i d a b o u t a c t i o n s a n d t h o u g h t s . " 9 T h i s i d e a h a s b e e n c h a l l e n g e d , n o t o n l y by F a u l k n e r , b u t by m o d e r n n o v e l i s t s s u c h a s H e n r y J a m e s , J o s e p h C o n r a d , a n d James J o y c e , a l l o f whom e x p e r i m e n t w i t h m u l t i p l e p o i n t s o f v i e w . A c c o r d i n g t o C h a r l e s F e i d e l s o n , t h e i m p o s s i b i l i t y o f b e i n g o b j e c t i v e i s s u g g e s t e d a s f a r b a c k a s 18 51 by Herman M e l v i l l e i n Moby Dick. 7 The p a t t e r n o f "The D o u b l o o n " i s t h e scheme o f t h e b o o k : u n d e r t h e o v e r h a n g i n g c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f I s h m a e l , w i t h M e l v i l l e l o o k i n g o v e r h i s s h o u l d e r , t h e s e v e r a l c h a r a c t e r s e n v i s a g e t h e m e a n i n g o f t h e c o i n . A s t h e v a r i o u s m e a n i n g s m u l t i p l y , we h e a r t h e c h a n t o f P i p : " I l o o k , y o u l o o k , he l o o k s ; we l o o k , ye l o o k , t h e y l o o k . " 1 0 T h e r e i s an a n a l o g u e b e t w e e n t h e c h a r a c t e r s o f Moby Dick l o o k i n g a t t h e g o l d d o u b l o o n a n d F a u l k n e r ' s m e t a p h o r o f p e o p l e g a z i n g a t d i f f e r e n t p h a s e s o f t h e s u n o f t r u t h . B o t h s t r e s s t h e a c t o f l o o k i n g , w h i c h i s a s y m b o l o f t h e p r o c e s s o f human p e r c e p t i o n . I t i s a s t r u e f o r F a u l k n e r a s f o r M e l v i l l e t h a t " t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e i s in t h e w o r l d a n d t h e s i g n i f i c a n t w o r l d i s g e n e r a t e d b y ' l o o k i n g . ' " 1 1 N e i t h e r w o u l d s u b s c r i b e c o m p l e t e l y t o t h e t h e o r y t h a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l c r e a t e s t h e m e a n i n g o f l i f e i n r e s p o n d i n g t o i t , p r e c i s e l y b e c a u s e " t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e i s in t h e w o r l d . " S t r a n g e l y e n o u g h , t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e i s b o t h r e a l i z e d a n d d i s t o r t e d by t :e i n d i v i d u a l r e s p o n s e . "The m e a n i n g s u f f e r s a f r a g m e n t a -t i o n a s i t comes i n t o b e i n g a n d P i p ' s comment ['I l o o k , y o u l o o k ' . . . e t c . ] i s a n a s s e r t i o n o f r e a l m u l t i p l i c i t y . " 1 2 T h i s b e l i e f t h a t " t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e i s in t h e w o r l d and t h e s i g n i f i c a n t w o r l d i s g e n e r a t e d by l o o k i n g " i s r e f l e c t e d i n F a u l k n e r ' s v i v i d r e n d e r i n g b o t h o f t h e e x t e r n a l w o r l d a n d o f t h e i n n e r r e a l m s o f human c o n s c i o u s n e s s . Hence no m a t t e r how p s y c h o l o g i c a l t h e s t o r y ' s m a t e r i a l , F a u l k n e r n e v e r f a l l s i n t o t h e mere e n u m e r a t i o n w h i c h i n much s t r e a m - o f - c o n s c i o u s -n e s s w r i t i n g d i s s o l v e s a l l drama a n d r e d u c e s t h e n a r r a t i v e t o a c a s e h i s t o r y w i t h o u t t h e s h a p i n g f r a m e w o r k o f a n a l y s i s , o r e v e n t o a n unmapped a n a c h r o n i s t i c c h a o s o f r a w c o n s c i o u s n e s s . F a u l k n e r i s a l w a y s a d y n a m i c s t o r y - t e l l e r , n e v e r j u s t a 8 r e p o r t e r o f u n o r g a n i z e d phenomena. H i s m o s t d r a s t i c , m o s t d r e a m - l i k e u s e o f s t r e a m - o f -c o n s c i o u s n e s s , f o r i n s t a n c e , i n The Sound and the Fury, i s n o t o n l y l i m i t e d t o t h e f i r s t two s e c t i o n s o f t h e b o o k , b u t i t s k e t c h e s a p l o t w h i c h i n t h e l u c i d s e c t i o n s t h a t f o l l o w g r a d u a l l y e m e r g e s c l e a r - c u t . A s c l e a r - c u t , a t l e a s t , a s F a u l k n e r ' s s t o r i e s c a n b e . 1 3 L i k e M e l v i l l e , F a u l k n e r i s a b l e t o c o n v e y t h e i n t r o -s p e c t i v e w o r l d o f t h e m i n d a n d t h e w o r l d o f m a t t e r , i n c l u d i n g w i t h i n t h e r a n g e o f h i s n o v e l s e x p l o r a t i o n o f t h e p s y c h e and n a r r a t i v e a c t i o n . What d i s t i n g u i s h e s h i m f r o m t h e e a r l i e r w r i t e r i s t h e t o t a l i t y o f h i s c o m m i t m e n t t o t h e v i e w o f l i f e a s p r o c e s s a n d o f t h e i n e v i t a b i l i t y o f f r a g m e n t a t i o n a s t h e p r o c e s s o f p e r c e p t i o n o c c u r s . D e s p i t e t h e m u l t i p l i c i t y o f v i s i o n i n "The D o u b l o o n " , e v e r y t h i n g d o e s t a k e p l a c e " u n d e r t h e o v e r h a n g i n g c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f I s h m a e l . " 1 h I n a n o v e l s u c h a s Absalom, Absalom!, i t i s a s i f t h e c h a r a c t e r s a r e l o o k i n g a t t h e d o u b l o o n e q u i v a l e n t ( S u t p e n b e i n g t h e o b s e r v e d r e a l i t y ) w i t h o u t t h e o v e r h a n g i n g c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f a n I s h m a e l . No c h a r a c t e r i s t h e " d e l e g a t e d v i s i o n " 1 5 o f t h e a u t h o r . I n s t e a d o f t h e g o l d d o u b l o o n , w h i c h h a s a f i x e d e x t e r n a l r e a l i t y , no m a t t e r how f l u i d t h e p e r s p e c t i v e s , t h e s y m b o l o f t r u t h i s S u t p e n , h i m s e l f a s s u b j e c t t o t h e p r o c e s s o f c h a n g e as h i s i n t e r p r e t e r s . T h u s , he i s a n e v e n more e l u s i v e r e a l i t y t h a n t h e g o l d c o i n , w h i c h d o e s n o t d e c a y o r c h a n g e . M o s t i m p o r t a n t , i n s t e a d o f b r i e f s o l i l o q u i e s , F a u l k n e r p r e s e n t s i n t e n s e r e n d e r i n g s o f t h e i n n e r m o s t b e i n g s o f t h e o b s e r v i n g c h a r a c t e r s t h r o u g h h i s u s e o f s t r e a m - o f - c o n s c i o u s -9 ness techniques. If "the s i g n i f i c a n t world i s generated by 'looking'", the author can best render t h i s by immersing himself i n the consciousness of his characters, looking at l i f e through t h e i r eyes. This i s one reason why Faulkner r e a l i z e s his a r t i s t i c p o t e n t i a l rather suddenly i n The Sound and the Fury. In his three previous novels the author's point of view i s external to the characters. He i s not able to convey his sense of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s perception being at once intensely true and r a d i c a l l y d i s t o r t e d . The multi-focus of Soldiers' Pay, Mosquitoes, and Sartoris reveals the l i m i t a t i o n s of each i n d i v i d u a l perspective by showing diverging and contrasting views. But the characters are seen from so great a distance that t h e i r views have only s l i g h t v a l i d i t y . As a r e s u l t the d i s t o r t i o n i s emphasized. The e f f e c t i s not so much " s a t i r e " 1 6 or " c a r i c a t u r e " 1 7 as a sense of the grotesque. In The Sound and the Fury Faulkner i s able to f u l l y render the simultaneous truth and d i s t o r t i o n of human perspective for the f i r s t time. As i n the previous novels, the multiplex focus helps to convey the l i m i t a t i o n s of each i n d i v i d u a l point of view. By immersing himself i n the consciousness of three people, he resolves the problem of a r t i s t i c distance, conveying the v a l i d i t y of his characters' perceptions as well as th e i r aberrations. Wayne Booth helps to c l a r i f y t h i s point about distance i n a discussion of Jane Austen's Emma. 10 The s o l u t i o n t o t h e p r o b l e m o f m a i n t a i n i n g s y m p a t h y d e s p i t e a l m o s t c r i p p l i n g f a u l t s was p r i m a r i l y t o u s e t h e h e r o i n e h e r s e l f a s a k i n d o f n a r r a t o r , t h o u g h i n t h i r d p e r s o n , r e p o r t i n g o n h e r own e x p e r i e n c e . . . .By s h o w i n g m o s t o f t h e s t o r y t h r o u g h Emma's e y e s , t h e a u t h o r i n s u r e s t h a t we w i l l t r a v e l w i t h Emma r a t h e r t h a n s t a n d a g a i n s t h e r . 1 8 F a u l k n e r ' s v i s i o n i s t o o c o m p l e x t o a l l o w us t o s i m p l y " t r a v e l w i t h " o r " s t a n d a g a i n s t " h i s c h a r a c t e r s . I t w o u l d be more a c c u r a t e t o s a y t h a t we do b o t h s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , b e c a u s e e a c h o f t h e c o n f l i c t i n g p e r s p e c t i v e s h a s some v a l i d i t y . B u t B o o t h ' s i n s i g h t t h a t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f t h e c h a r a c t e r l e a d s t o s y m p a t h e t i c u n d e r -s t a n d i n g i s d i r e c t l y r e l e v a n t t o F a u l k n e r . I t p r o v i d e s a n a s t o n i s h i n g l y s i m p l e a n s w e r t o t h e q u e s t i o n o f why one may f e e l a m b i v a l e n t t o w a r d a c h a r a c t e r a s d e s t r u c t i v e a s J a s o n Compson, who d o e s h a v e " c r i p p l i n g f a u l t s . " By m a k i n g t h e f i r s t p e r s o n n a r r a t o r f u n c t i o n a s J a n e A u s t e n h a d u s e d t h e t h i r d p e r s o n n a r r a t o r , F a u l k n e r h a s gone one s t e p b e y o n d n o t o n l y J a n e A u s t e n , b u t a l s o H e n r y J a m e s . He r e n d e r s l i f e t h r o u g h t h e e y e s o f a n i n s e n s i t i v e , u n s y m p a t h e t i c o b s e r v e r . F a u l k n e r h a s b e e n a b l e t o i d e n t i f y s u f f i c i e n t l y w i t h J a s o n t o p r e s e n t r e a l i t y f r o m J a s o n ' s own p o i n t o f v i e w . A s B o o t h r e m a r k s , " P e r h a p s t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t e f f e c t o f t r a v e l l i n g w i t h a n a r r a t o r who i s u n a c c o m p a n i e d by a h e l p f u l a u t h o r i s t h a t o f d e c r e a s i n g o u r e m o t i o n a l d i s t a n c e . " 1 9 I n o t h e r w o r d s , s u c h a t e c h n i q u e t e n d s t o i n c r e a s e o u r e m o t i o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t . T h i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h J a s o n e n a b l e s u s t o u n d e r s t a n d h i m ; a n d t h e u n d e r -11 s t a n d i n g engenders sympathy, d e s p i t e h i s many obnoxious t r a i t s . Through empathy, F a u l k n e r i s a b l e to draw h i m s e l f and h i s r e a d e r s c l o s e to h i s c h a r a c t e r s , c r e a t i n g a f e e l i n g of i n t e n s e involvement. A c c o r d i n g to H e n r i Bergson, t h i s a b i l i t y t o a chieve empathy i s what d i s t i n g u i s h e s the g r e a t n o v e l i s t from the i n f e r i o r one. C o n s i d e r , a g a i n , a c h a r a c t e r whose adventures are r e l a t e d t o me i n a n o v e l . The author may m u l t i p l y the t r a i t s o f h i s hero's c h a r a c t e r , may make him speak and a c t as much as he p l e a s e s , but a l l t h i s can never be e q u i v a l e n t to the simple and i n d i v i s i b l e f e e l i n g which I should e x p e r i e n c e i f I were a b l e f o r an i n s t a n t t o i d e n t i f y myself w i t h the person of the hero h i m s e l f . Out o f t h a t i n d i v i s i b l e f e e l i n g , as from a s p r i n g , a l l the words, gestures,and a c t i o n s of the man would appear t o me to f l o w n a t u r a l l y . 2 0 Bergson*s term f o r t h i s a c t of sympathetic i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i s " i n t u i t i o n . " I t i s the a c t of empathy and i s o p p o s i t e to " a n a l y s i s " which i s knowledge from an e x t e r n a l p o i n t of view. "By i n t u i t i o n i s meant the k i n d of intellectual sympathy by which one p l a c e s o n e s e l f w i t h i n an o b j e c t i n order t o c o i n c i d e w i t h what i s unique i n i t and consequently i n e x p r e s s i b l e . " 2 1 I t has been r e c o g n i z e d by a number of c r i t i c s t h a t F a u l k n e r has t h i s c a p a c i t y . In E l i z a b e t h K e r r ' s view "Faulkner i l l u s t r a t e s the a r t i s t who uses p r i v a t e f e e l i n g s c h i e f l y as they i l l u m i n a t e human nature and may be p r o j e c t e d i n c h a r a c t e r s e s s e n t i a l l y u n l i k e h i m s e l f . " 2 2 T h i s p r o j e c t i o n (or 'empathy') i s a c h i e v e d most f u l l y i n h i s s tream-of-consciousness n o v e l s and i s one reason f o r 12 t h e i r s p e c i a l i n t e n s i t y . A n d F a u l k n e r ' s s e n s e o f i r o n i c t r a g e d y , t h o u g h p o w e r f u l o f t e n i n s u c h n o v e l s a s Sanctuary a n d The Hamlet, r e a c h e s t h e credibility n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e s h a r p e s t e f f e c t i v e n e s s o n l y i n h i s s t r e a m -o f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s n o v e l s i n w h i c h p s y c h i c drama p r e v a i l s o v e r g r a n d i o s e r h e t o r i c . R o b e r t Humphrey's o b s e r v a t i o n i s e s s e n t i a l l y c o r r e c t , e v e n t h o u g h h i s t e r m s a r e somewhat v a g u e . He d e f i n e s s t r e a m -o f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s n o v e l s a s "a t y p e o f f i c t i o n i n w h i c h t h e b a s i c e m p h a s i s i s p l a c e d o n e x p l o r a t i o n o f t h e p r e s p e e c h l e v e l s o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s f o r t h e p u r p o s e , p r i m a r i l y , o f r e v e a l i n g t h e p s y c h i c b e i n g o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s . " 2 1 * T h i s i s an a d e q u a t e , t h o u g h n o t t o t a l l y s a t i s f a c t o r y ^ d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e t e r m . Humphrey s t a t e s t h a t i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e " i n t e l l i g e n c e " o f a c h a r a c t e r " t h e p r e s p e e c h l e v e l s o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s a r e n o t c e n s o r e d , r a t i o n a l l y c o n t r o l l e d , o r l o g i c a l l y o r d e r e d . " 2 5 T h i s d i s t i n c t i o n h e l p s t o c l a r i f y h i s d e f i n i t i o n . I w o u l d a d d t h a t t h e r e n d e r i n g o f p r e s p e e c h l e v e l s i s s t r u c t u r e d o n t h e a s s o c i a t i v e p r i n c i p l e by w h i c h t h e c o n s c i o u s n e s s moves f r o m o n e p e r c e p t i o n t o a n o t h e r r a t h e r t h a n o n t h e more l o g i c a l l y o r d e r e d p r i n c i p l e o f s p o k e n s p e e c h . Humphrey s a y s t h a t : H e n r y James h a s w r i t t e n n o v e l s w h i c h r e v e a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s i n w h i c h a s i n g l e p o i n t o f v i e w i s m a i n t a i n e d so t h a t t h e e n t i r e n o v e l i s p r e s e n t e d t h r o u g h t h e i n t e l l i g e n c e o f a c h a r a c t e r . B u t t h e s e , s i n c e t h e y do n o t d e a l a t a l l w i t h p r e s p e e c h l e v e l s o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s , a r e n o t w h a t I h a v e d e f i n e d a s s t r e a m - o f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s n o v e l s . 2 6 U n f o r t u n a t e l y , Humphrey f a i l s t o s p e c i f y e x a c t l y w h i c h w o r k s o f F a u l k n e r he c o n s i d e r s s t r e a m - o f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s 13 n o v e l s . T h i s d i s t i n c t i o n i s n o t s e l f - e v i d e n t , s i n c e F a u l k n e r f r e q u e n t l y c o m b i n e s t h e i n t e n s i v e r e n d e r i n g o f p r e s p e e c h l e v e l s o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s w i t h a c o h e r e n t p l o t a n d d i s t a n t n a r r a t o r , f e a t u r e s u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n . U s i n g t h e s e f e a t u r e s a s a c r i t e r i o n , i t m i g h t p l a u s i b l y be a r g u e d t h a t t h e r e a r e s t r o n g n a r r a t i v e e l e m e n t s i n a l l o f F a u l k n e r ' s n o v e l s . M o r e o v e r , i t c o u l d be a s s e r t e d t h a t s e c t i o n s o f The Mansion a n d The Hamlet, a n o v e l Humphrey o b v i o u s l y c o n s i d e r s t o be a n a r r a t i v e , do f i t h i s d e f i n i t i o n o f s t r e a m - o f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s f i c t i o n . I w i l l r e f e r t o t h e f i v e w o r k s i n c l u d e d f o r d i s c u s s i o n i n t h i s c h a p t e r a s " F a u l k n e r ' s s t r e a m - o f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s n o v e l s . " T h e r e a r e n a r r a t i v e e l e m e n t s i n a l l o f them; b u t i n t h e s e w o r k s F a u l k n e r m o s t f u l l y d e p i c t s t h e i n n e r m o s t f l o w o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s ' t h o u g h t s a n d f e e l i n g s o n a p r e s p e e c h l e v e l t o r e v e a l t h e i r p s y c h i c b e i n g s . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o b e a r i n m i n d , h o w e v e r , t h a t t h e t e r m i s a u s e f u l c o n v e n i e n c e , r a t h e r t h a n r e p r e s e n t i n g a h a r d a n d f a s t d e f i n i t i o n . I h a v e s t a t e d t h a t a r e l a t i v e l y f u l l s e n s e o f i m a g i n a t i v e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n t a k e s p l a c e b e t w e e n t h e a u t h o r a n d c h a r a c t e r i n F a u l k n e r ' s s t r e a m - o f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s f i c t i o n ; I a l s o s u g g e s t t h a t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e r e a d e r a n d t h e c h a r a c t e r i s a l t e r e d i n t h e s e w o r k s . L e o n E d e l ' s s t a t e m e n t a b o u t t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i s h e l p f u l . Once t h e a t t e m p t i s made t o r e n d e r a c e r t a i n m i n d , t h e r e e n s u e s t h e m e e t i n g o f t h a t m i n d w i t h t h e m i n d o f t h e r e a d e r . T h e r e c a n f o l l o w a m e r g i n g o f t h e two m e n t a l a t m o s p h e r e s . 14 I n t h e o l d n o v e l s t h i s was n o t t h e c a s e . The r e a d e r was b e i n g t o l d a s t o r y . He l i s t e n e d . He was d r a w n i n t o i t p r i m a r i l y t h r o u g h i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h one o r a n o t h e r o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s . . . . I f t h e a u t h o r s u c c e e d s i n d r a w i n g t h e r e a d e r i n t o t h i s s i n g l e c o n s c i o u s n e s s , he s h o u l d be a b l e t o make t h e r e a d e r feel w i t h t h e c h a r a c t e r : a n d t h e r e a d e r d o e s t h i s o n l y i f p r o p e r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . . . i s a c h i e v e d He may t h e n . . . a l l o w h i s own s m e l l memory t o come i n t o p l a y when B e n j y . . . t e l l s h i m t h a t Caddy s m e l l e d l i k e l e a v e s o r t h a t V e r s h s m e l l e d l i k e 2 7 r a x n . E d e l s u g g e s t s t h a t F a u l k n e r , i n r e n d e r i n g t h e p r o c e s s o f p e r c e p t i o n o f v a r i o u s c h a r a c t e r s , f o r c e s t h e r e a d e r t o b r i n g i n t o p l a y h i s own p r o c e s s o f p e r c e p t i o n . F a u l k n e r ' s own w o r d s s u p p o r t t h i s s t a t e m e n t . Remember a l l T o l s t o y s a i d a b o u t A n n a K a r e n i n a was t h a t s h e was b e a u t i f u l a n d c o u l d s e e i n t h e d a r k l i k e a c a t . T h a t ' s a l l he e v e r s a i d t o d e s c r i b e h e r . A n d e v e r y man h a s a d i f f e r e n t i d e a o f w h a t ' s b e a u t i f u l . A n d i t ' s b e s t t o t a k e t h e g e s t u r e , t h e shadow o f t h e b r a n c h , a n d l e t t h e m i n d c r e a t e t h e t r e e . 2 8 The t e c h n i q u e o f e n c o u r a g i n g t h e r e a d e r t o c r e a t e h i s own image i s more t h a n a l i t e r a r y d e v i c e . I t r e f l e c t s t h e u n d e r l y i n g c o n c e p t t h a t l i f e i t . . e l f i s p r o c e s s . T h i s v i e w i s i n c r e a s i n g l y p r e v a l e n t i n t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y a n d i s a t t r i b u t a b l e t o a w i d e v a r i e t y o f i n f l u e n c e s i n c l u d i n g t h i n k e r s s u c h a s D a r w i n , F r e u d , B e r g s o n , W i l l i a m J a m e s , and W h i t e h e a d , t o name b u t a f e w . I t i s m o s t s u c c i n c t l y s t a t e d by W h i t e h e a d , a s r e p o r t e d by a f r i e n d : "He had b e e n t e l l i n g u s i n s i m p l e t e r m s t h a t o u r j u d g m e n t s a r e s h a r p l y c o n d i t i o n e d by t i m e a n d s p a c e b u t t h a t t h e a c t u a l i t i e s a r e o u t s i d e o f b o t h , a n d t h a t change is the process and is itself the actuality." 2 * T h i s c o n c e p t i s c l a r i f i e d i n 15 H e n r i Bergson's An Introduction to Metaphysics, an essay which F a u l k n e r acknowledges having r e a d . 3 0 There i s no s t a t e o f mind, however simple, which does not change every moment, s i n c e there i s no consciousness without memory, and no c o n t i n u a t i o n of a s t a t e without the a d d i t i o n , to the p r e s e n t f e e l i n g , o f the memory o f past moments. I t i s t h i s which c o n s t i t u t e s d u r a t i o n . Inner d u r a t i o n i s the continuous l i f e of a memory which p r o l o n g s the past onto the p r e s e n t . 3 1 In o t h e r words c o n s c i o u s n e s s , i t s e l f , i s a process i n continuous f l u x . Bergson i s one o f the d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e s on F a u l k n e r . "In f a c t , I agree p r e t t y much w i t h Bergson's t h e o r y o f the f l u i d i t y o f time. There i s o n l y the p r e s e n t moment i n which I i n c l u d e the p a s t and the f u t u r e . " 3 2 F a u l k n e r ' s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c method o f b e g i n n i n g a n o v e l i n the pr e s e n t and then, through the use o f f l a s h b a c k , showing i t to be the cumulati v e i n f l u e n c e o f the p a s t r e f l e c t s t h i s concept. He i s e s s e n t i a l l y i n agreement w i t h Bergson t h a t consciousness i s a s t a t e "which changes and endures . . .[a s t a t e of] p e r p e t u a l becoming," 3 3 i . e . , a c o n s t a n t l y changing p r o c e s s , r a t h e r than a f i x e d s t a t e . S l a t o f f has observed t h a t F a u l k n e r i s l i k e Bergson i n t h a t "he o f t e n tends t o view experi e n c e as a s t a t e o f the whole being o r o f the s e l f and to c o n c e i v e of the s e l f as an i n d i v i s i b l e i n t e r n a l p rocess which can o n l y be i n t u i t e d . " 3 1 * The sense o f process i s rendered most f u l l y i n Fa u l k n e r ' s stream-of-consciousness n o v e l s . I t i s dramatized i n the c h a r a c t e r s p o r t r a y e d and generated i n the r e a d e r . 16 Since e x p l i c i t a uthorial comment tends to be absent or minimal, the reader i s forced to r e l y more on his own process of perception i n order to make sense out of the experience. The less the author comments d i r e c t l y , the more the reader i s forced to draw his own conclusions. This explains a key question raised by Wayne Booth about Faulkner's work. "Why should e x p l i c i t judgment be banned from The Sound and the Fury and allowed i n "Barn Burning." 3 5 In the short story we witness the boy's struggle from a greater narrative distance than i n the novel. The author poses a problem for his character and resolves i t . The following passage from "Barn Burning" occurs a f t e r young Sa r t o r i s Snopes has decided to act against his own father: Father, my Father , he thought. "He was brave!" he c r i e d suddenly aloud,but not loud, no more than a whisper: "He was! He was i n the war! He was i n Colonel S a r t o r i s 1 cav'ry!" not knowing that his father had gone to that war a private i n the f i n e old European sense, wearing no uniform, admitting the authority of and giving f i d e l i t y to no man or army or f l a g , going to war as Malbrouck himself d i d : for b o o t y - - i t meant nothing and less than nothing to him i f i t were enemy booty or his own. 3 6 The information provided makes i t c l e a r that the boy, despite his remorse, did make the correct d e c i s i o n . The knowledge avail a b l e to the reader enables him to admire and p i t y the boy from a p o s i t i o n of c e r t a i n t y . This i s because the boy can not know how correct his decision i s . The reader has no doubts about the correctness of the decision, because he has been provided with information that i s not a v a i l a b l e to S a r t o r i s Snopes. As a r e s u l t , he 17 i s a witness to the boy's struggle, rather than a p a r t i c i p a n t i n i t . The reader i s i n the secure p o s i t i o n of having seen a problem posed by the author and then s a t i s f a c t o r i l y resolved; whereas i n The Sound and the Fury e x p l i c i t value judgments are absent from the f i r s t three sections and minimal i n the fourth. The reader i s thus closer to the s i t u a t i o n of the characters who are forced to grope for meaning i n a world of uncertainty. The r e s u l t i s that the reader, l i k e the character, i s subjected to the process of perception and forced to make his own synthesis. Thus, "Barn Burning" functions more on the l e v e l of a narrative, i n which the author, c e r t a i n of his judgments, passes them on to the reader. In The Sound and the Fury, characters, author, and audience must a l l seek meaning i n a world which i s confusing, because the very act of seeking brings d i s t o r t i o n as well as c l a r i f i c a t i o n . I t i s for t h i s reason that e x p l i c i t judgments are minimal i n the novel. I have suggested that Faulkner's stream-of-conscious-ness f i c t i o n i s his most successful for three i n t e r r e l a t e d reasons: he i s able to achieve the greatest extent of empathy i n these works. Through empathy, he i s able to explore the innermost psychological workings of his characters. In dramatizing t h e i r inner l i v e s , he i s able to convey t h e i r processes of perception, rendering his v i s i o n that l i f e i s process. The t o t a l e f f e c t i s toward intense involvement. 18 Strangely enough, t h i s intense involvement does not preclude distance between the reader and the character; rather i t seems to co-exist along with i t . As previously mentioned, the s h i f t i n g perspectives of a Faulkner novel make us aware of the l i m i t a t i o n s of any single view. I t i s necessary for the reader to grope somewhat i n order to determine whether the perspective of a narrator such as Stephen Dedalus i s d i s t o r t e d i n A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man. Faulkner's novels are more l i k e Joyce's Ulysses i n the use of multiple viewpoints, each of which i s i m p l i c i t l y compared and contrasted to the o t h e r s . 3 7 As a r e s u l t these novels provide a context beyond each i n d i v i d u a l perspective. This context i s lacking i n novels which r e l y on a single angle of v i s i o n . Each change i n point of view s h i f t s our focus, not only from one character to another, but also from the character to the author. The greater the number of s h i f t s , the more we become aware of the a r t i s t who i s doing the manipulation. This awareness tends to evoke distance and l i m i t involvement. One reason for the s p e c i a l i n t e n s i t y of The Sound and the Fury i s that the point of view does not s h i f t u n t i l we have become thoroughly immersed i n the consciousness of the main characters. Each of the Compson brothers i s allowed to have his f u l l say, before receding to the background. The changes of perspective are more frequent i n Light in August and far more numerous i n As I Lay Vying. 19 The involvement between the author and reader with the character i s i n inverse proportion to the number of s h i f t s : greatest i n The Sound and the Fury, less i n Light in August and s i g n i f i c a n t l y less i n As I Lay Dying. I t should be noted, however, that t h i s i s not to be taken as a mathematical equation or a new theorem. The technique of changing focus i s only one of the factors a f f e c t i n g involvement and distance. The stance that the author takes i n r e l a t i o n to his characters i s of the utmost importance. In The Sound and the Fury and As I Lay Dying, Faulkner presents his information without a u t h o r i a l comment, as i f he were d i r e c t l y rendering the consciousness of his characters (the concluding section of The Sound and the Fury i s the exception to t h i s ) . In Light in August, Absolom, Absolom! and Go Down,Moses, a t h i r d person author-narrator i s established i n the opening passages and maintained throughout the novels. The difference i n e f f e c t may be seen i n a comparison of the opening sections of The Sound and the Fury and Light in August. Through the fence, between the c u r l i n g flower spaces, I could see them h i t t i n g . They were coming toward where the f l a g was and I went along the fence. Luster was hunting i n the grass by the flower tree. They took the f l a g out and they were h i t t i n g . Then they went to the table, and he h i t and the other h i t . 3 8 S i t t i n g beside the road, watching the wagon mount the h i l l toward her, Lena thinks, I have come from Alabama: a fur piece. A l l the way from Alabama a-walking. A fur piece. 1 Thinking although I have not been quite a month on the road I an already in Mississippi j further from home than I' have ever been before. I am now further from Doane's Mill than I have been since I was twelve years old. 20 She h a d n e v e r e v e n b e e n t o Doane's M i l l u n t i l a f t e r h e r f a t h e r a n d m o t h e r d i e d . . . 3 9 I n The Sound and the Fury, F a u l k n e r i m m e r s e s h i m s e l f w i t h i n t h e c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f B e n j y Compson, l i m i t i n g h i s p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e f i r s t s e c t i o n t o B e n j y ' s r e s p o n s e s . The s e n s e o f i n v o l v e m e n t i s i n t e n s e b e c a u s e t h e r e a d e r i s f o r c e d t o s e e l i f e t h r o u g h B e n j y ' s e y e s . The s e n s e o f d i s t a n c e i s a l s o s t r o n g b e c a u s e t h e r e a d e r i s t h r u s t s u d d e n l y i n t o a n u n f a m i l i a r a n d b e w i l d e r i n g w o r l d . W i t h o u t e x p l i c i t a u t h o r i a l a s s i s t a n c e he m u s t d e d u c e t h a t t h e n a r r a t o r i s a t h i r t y - t h r e e y e a r o l d i d i o t named B e n j y a n d t h a t a game i s t a k i n g p l a c e . I t i s t h e r e a d e r , n o t t h e n a r r a t o r , who m u s t f i r s t q u e s t i o n w h a t i s h a p p e n i n g a n d t h e n a t t e m p t t o d e c i p h e r i t . T h i s i s r e m o t e f r o m t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f B e n j y who i s i n c a p a b l e o f f o c u s s i n g o n a q u e s t i o n a n d o f m a k i n g a n i n t e l l e c t u a l s y n t h e s i s . A s one c r i t i c n o t e s : i t w o u l d seem t h a t F a u l k n e r i n t e n d e d t o i n d i c a t e s o m e t h i n g a b o u t t h e q u a l i t y o f B e n j y ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e w o r l d a b o u t h i m by u n i f o r m l y o m i t t i n g t h e q u e s t i o n m a r k s i n t h e q u e s t i o n s t h a t a r e a s k e d i n t h e d i a l o g u e o f h i s s e c t i o n o f t h e n o v e l . 4 0 The i n c a p a c i t y o f B e n j y t o f o r m u l a t e q u e s t i o n s d i s t a n c e s h i m f r o m t h e r e a d e r . I n Light in August t h e a u t h o r - n a r r a t o r a l t e r n a t e s t h e r e n d e r i n g o f t h e f l o w o f L e n a ' s c o n s c i o u s n e s s w i t h h i s own o b s e r v a t i o n s a b o u t h e r . T hough u n o b t r u s i v e , t h e a u t h o r ' s p r e s e n c e i s d i r e c t l y f e l t . He c o n v e y s i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t i s n o t i n t h e c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f a n y o f h i s c h a r a c t e r s . The a l t e r n a t i o n o f p e r s p e c t i v e i n L e n a ' s p a s s a g e seems t o s h i f t 21 t h e f o c u s s l i g h t l y f r o m t h e c h a r a c t e r t o w a r d t h e a u t h o r . The i t a l i c s o f t h e q u o t e d p a s s a g e s e r v e q u i e t l y t o e m p h a s i z e t h i s p o i n t . The c h a n g e o f f o c u s i s s i m i l a r t o b u t l e s s t h a n i n t h e m a j o r s h i f t s o f p o i n t o f v i e w i n t h e n o v e l . The r e a s o n f o r t h i s i s t h a t t h e c h a n g e s o f a n g l e o f v i s i o n a r e s u b t l e a n d u n o b t r u s i v e i n t h e q u o t e d p a s s a g e . W h ereas when F a u l k n e r s h i f t s f r o m B e n j y t o Q u e n t i n o r f r o m L e n a t o J o e C h r i s t m a s , he seems t o d e l i b e r a t e l y o m i t s m o o t h t r a n s i t i o n s . The e f f e c t i s t o e m p h a s i z e t h e j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f p e r s p e c t i v e s a n d t o r e m i n d u s o f t h e a u t h o r who i s d o i n g t h e j u x t a p o s i n g . The s e n s e o f i n v o l v e m e n t i s more c o m p l e t e i n The Sound and the Fury b e c a u s e t h e r e a d e r i s i m m e r s e d w i t h i n t h e c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f t h e c h a r a c t e r , w h e r e a s i n Light in August he i s a k i n d o f s p e c t a t o r i n c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e c h a r a c t e r ' s c o n s c i o u s n e s s . The n a r r a t i v e s t a n c e i n t h e l a t t e r n o v e l e n a b l e s F a u l k n e r t o c o n v e y t h e i n t e n s i t y t h a t s t e m s f r o m c l o s e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h a c h a r a c t e r , e v e n t h o u g h i t i s l e s s t h a n what he a c h i e v e s i n The Sound and the Fury. D i s t a n c e f r o m t h e c h a r a c t e r s i s e v i d e n t i n b o t h w o r k s , b u t i t i s d i f f e r e n t i n k i n d . I n The Sound and the Fury t h e r e a d e r i s d i s t a n t b e c a u s e t h e n e c e s s i t y o f m a k i n g h i s own s y n t h e s i s r e m o v e s h i m f r o m t h e e x p e r i e n c e s o f t h e c h a r a c t e r . T h i s i s l e s s t r u e o f Light in August, w h e r e t h e a u t h o r p r o v i d e s i n f o r m a t i o n more e x p l i c i t l y . B u t i n t h a t n o v e l t h e r e a d e r h a s t h e d i s t a n c e o f a k n o w l e d g e a b l e o n l o o k e r . I n t h e p a s s a g e q u o t e d f r o m t h e L e n a s e c t i o n , t h e a n g l e o f v i s i o n 22 s h i f t s s l i g h t l y a n d t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e a u t h o r a s a c o m m e n t a t o r i s d i r e c t l y f e l t . B o t h o f t h e s e f a c t o r s c o n t r i -b u t e t o a s e n s e o f d i s t a n c e . T hey a r e i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e B e n j y p a s s a g e w h e r e t h e a n g l e o f v i s i o n r e m a i n s c o n s t a n t and t h e a u t h o r ' s p r e s e n c e i s i n d i r e c t l y f e l t . One m u s t n o t make t h e m i s t a k e o f a s s u m i n g t h a t a w r i t e r i s n o t e v i d e n t , s i m p l y b e c a u s e no e x p l i c i t a u t h o r i a l comment i s g i v e n . A s Wayne B o o t h l u c i d l y p u t s i t : "we m u s t n e v e r f o r g e t t h a t t h o u g h t h e a u t h o r c a n t o some e x t e n t c h o o s e h i s d i s g u i s e s , he c a n n e v e r c h o o s e t o d i s a p p e a r . " "*1 I s u g g e s t t h a t t h e c h a n g e o f t e c h n i q u e f r o m The Sound and the Fury t o Light in August r e f l e c t s a b a s i c a l t e r a t i o n i n F a u l k n e r ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f e x p e r i e n c e . No s u c h c h a n g e o c c u r s i n As I Lay Dying w h e r e F a u l k n e r d i r e c t l y p r e s e n t s t h e c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f h i s c h a r a c t e r s a s he had p r e v i o u s l y d o ne i n The Sound and the Fury. D o m e s t i c d i f f i c u l t i e s , f r i c t i o n b e t w e e n c h i l d r e n o f t h e same f a m i l y , c o n f r o n t a t i o n o f t h e k n o w l e d g e o f d e a t h , a n d t h e l o s s o f v i r g i n i t y h a v e a l l b e e n e x p l o r e d i n t e n s e l y and r e l a t i v e l y f u l l y i n t h e e a r l i e r n o v e l . They a r e t r e a t e d w i t h c o m i c d i s t a n c e i n As I Lay Dying. The n o v e l ' s t i t l e a n d t h e r e v e a l i n g s o l i l o q u y o f A d d i e B u n d r e n i n d i c a t e h e r c e n t r a l i m p o r t a n c e . Her d e a t h g e n e r a t e s t h e a c t i o n i n t h e n o v e l a n d h e r a t t i t u d e t o w a r d t h e c h i l d r e n i s a c r u c i a l f a c t o r i n t h e i r d e v e l o p m e n t o f c h a r a c t e r . B u t t h e l a r g e number o f r e f l e c t o r s c r e a t e s a s e n s e o f d i f f u s i o n a n d w o r k s a g a i n s t i n t e n s i v e f o c u s . 23 A l t h o u g h t h e a u t h o r ' s i m m e r s i o n w i t h i n t h e c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f h i s c h a r a c t e r s e n c o u r a g e s i n v o l v e m e n t , t h e s h o r t n e s s o f t h e c a p t i o n s a n d f r e q u e n c y o f t h e s h i f t s e v o k e d i s t a n c e , p r e v e n t i n g d e p t h e x p l o r a t i o n o f any one r e f l e c t o r . F a u l k n e r f e l t t h a t t h e s e n s e o f d i s c o v e r y was " m i s s i n g f r o m As I Lay Dying b e c a u s e he h a d known so much a b o u t t h a t b o o k b e f o r e w r i t i n g i t . " 4 2 T h i s i s why he s p e a k s o f t h e n o v e l a s a " t o u r de f o r c e . " 4 3 I n Light in August t h e p r e s e n c e o f a t h i r d p e r s o n n a r r a t o r s u g g e s t s a v i s i o n o f a u n i v e r s e f a r more u n d e r c o n t r o l t h a n t h e one p r e s e n t e d i n The Sound and the Fury. A l t h o u g h i t i s u n o b t r u s i v e t h e n a r r a t i v e c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f t h e a u t h o r i s p r e s e n t a s a g u i d i n g f o r c e f r o m b e g i n n i n g t o en d . C o l e r i d g e ' s comment o n "Venus a n d A d o n i s " i s , i n my o p i n i o n , a p p l i c a b l e t o Light in August. I t i s t h r o u g h o u t a s i f a s u p e r i o r s p i r i t more i n t u i t i v e , more i n t i m a t e l y c o n s c i o u s , e v e n t h a n t h e c h a r a c t e r s t h e m s e l v e s , n o t o n l y o f o u t w a r d l o o k a n d a c t , b u t o f t h e f l u x a n d r e f l u x o f t h e m i n d i n a l l i t s s u b t l e s t t h o u g h t s a n d f e e l i n g s , w e r e p l a c i n g t h e w h o l e b e f o r e o u r v i e w ; 4 4 I n b o t h The Sound and the Fury a n d Light in August t h e r e a d e r m u s t i m m e r s e h i m s e l f i n e x p e r i e n c e b e f o r e c l a r i f i -c a t i o n i s a c h i e v e d . B u t Light in August b e g i n s a n d e n d s i n c l a r i t y . I t i s r e f l e c t e d b o t h i n t h e l u c i d i t y o f L e n a ' s p e r c e p t i o n s a n d t h e r e a d e r ' s a w a r e n e s s o f wh a t i s h a p p e n i n g . W h e r e a s t h e i n i t i a l f o c u s i n The Sound and the Fury i s t h e a n g l e o f v i s i o n o f a b e w i l d e r e d r e f l e c t o r , a n d t h e r e a d e r i s p l a c e d i n a p o s i t i o n o f c o n f u s i o n . I t i s o n l y a f t e r i n t e n s e s t r u g g l e t h r o u g h two s e c t i o n s t h a t e x p e r i e n c e b e g i n s 24 t o c l a r i f y . The p o s s i b i l i t y o f c l a r i f i c a t i o n i s p r o b l e m a t i c t h r o u g h o u t t h e f i r s t p a r t o f The Sound and the Fury b u t i m p l i c i t f r o m t h e s t a r t o f Light in August. I n Absalom, Absalom! t h e s t r u g g l e t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e n a t u r e o f e x p e r i e n c e i s a s d i f f i c u l t a n d a s i n t e n s e a s i n The Sound and the Fury. A l t h o u g h t h e n o v e l s i m i l a r l y moves f r o m c o n f u s i o n t o w a r d g r e a t e r c l a r i t y i n t h e f i n a l two n a r r a t i o n s , t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g a c h i e v e d i s more t e n t a t i v e . I n t h i s n o v e l F a u l k n e r f u l l y c o n f r o n t s b o t h t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s a n d a d v a n t a g e s o f e x p l o r i n g p a s t e x p e r i e n c e , t a k i n g h i s p r o f o u n d e s t l o o k a t t h e r u t h l e s s f o r e f a t h e r who a t t e m p t e d t o f o u n d a d y n a s t y i n M i s s i s s i p p i . O t h e r e x a m p l e s o f t h i s r e c u r r e n t f i g u r e i n F a u l k n e r ' s f i c t i o n a r e C o l o n e l S a r t o r i s , J a s o n L y c u r g u s Compson, a nd L u c i u s Q u i n t u s C a r o t h e r s M c C a s l i n . 1 * 5 The y o u n g men who a t t e m p t t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e n a t u r e o f S u t p e n h a v e n e v e r met h i m p e r s o n a l l y a n d mus t r e l y f o r t h e i r i n f o r m a t i o n o n w r i t t e n d o c u m e n t s a n d h e a r s a y . The d i f f i c u l t y o f c o m p r e h e n s i o n i n t h e n o v e l i s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e t e x t u r e o f t h e r h e t o r i c a n d t h e s u p p o s i t i o n s t h a t Q u e n t i n a n d S h r e v e a r e f o r c e d t o make a b o u t t h e n a t u r e o f S u t p e n a n d h i s f a m i l y . P a r a d o x i c a l l y , a c l a r i t y o f p e r s p e c t i v e i s a c h i e v e d t h a t o ne c a n n o t a t t a i n i n e v a l u a t i n g i m m e d i a t e e x p e r i e n c e . T h i s i n s i g h t i s e x p r e s s e d by Q u e n t i n when he i s p i c t u r i n g S u t p e n , J u d i t h , a n d C l y t i e . The n a r r a t o r s a y s o f Q u e n t i n , " h e c o u l d s e e i t ; he m i g h t e v e n h a v e b e e n t h e r e . T h e n he t h o u g h t No. If I had been there I could not have seen it this plain."1'6 E v e n t s a r e p e r c e i v e d o n l y a s f i l t e r e d 25 through the consciousness of the various r e f l e c t o r s . Rosa C o l d f i e l d " i s the only one of the narrators who was an actual p a r t i c i p a n t i n the drama, and even her ro l e was a l i m i t e d and minor one which ended forty-three years e a r l i e r with her sudden departure from Sutpen's house."1*7 In Go Down,Moses, on the other hand, the focus i s far more external. Depth immersion within a turbulent, struggling consciousness i s conveyed only i n Part Four of "The Bear." In that story Faulkner renders an external metaphor repre-senting the process of perception i n Isaac's search for Old Ben i n the f o r e s t . I t i s only a f t e r immersion i n the woods that c l a r i f i c a t i o n of v i s i o n takes place with the emergence of the animal that incarnates the s p i r i t of the wilderness. "The Bear" functions more as a t r a d i t i o n a l narrative than the novels previously discussed. I see i t as balancing the immersion i n consciousness of Faulkner's stream-of-conscious-ness f i c t i o n with narrative elements. The sense of a t h i r d person narrator i n control i s even more evident than i n Light in August. The r h e t o r i c , with the exception of Part Four, r e f l e c t s t h i s sense of c o n t r o l . The long sentences are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Faulkner's attempt to reach out f o r an understanding of the complexities of experience. But the tortured q u a l i t y of the language, i n d i c a t i n g the d i f f i c u l t y of t h i s struggle for characters such as Quentin Compson and Ga i l Hightower, i s absent here. The reader i s more of a witness to Ike's struggle to f i n d himself than he i s a 26 p a r t i c i p a n t . A l t h o u g h t h e s e n s e o f i n v o l v e m e n t i s s t r o n g , t h e n a r r a t i v e a n g l e o f v i s i o n i s more e x t e r n a l t h a n i n t h e w o r k s p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d . T h i s e v o k e s d i s t a n c e . The d u a l s e n s e o f i n v o l v e m e n t a n d d i s t a n c e i s t h e e s s e n c e o f t h e r e s p o n s e , n o t o n l y t o a F a u l k n e r i a n n o v e l , b u t t o a n y w o r k o f a r t . A s a c r i t i c o f J o y c e i n s i s t s , "The a r t i s t m u s t b a l a n c e o u r s e n s e o f t h e r e a l i t y o f h i s w o r l d . . . a g a i n s t o u r s e n s e o f i t a s a n a r t i f a c t . " 1 * 8 I n v o l v e m e n t d e p e n d s u p o n w h a t C o l e r i d g e h a s t e r m e d " t h a t w i l l i n g s u s p e n -s i o n o f d i s b e l i e f f o r t h e moment w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e s p o e t i c f a i t h . " 1 * 9 The a b s e n c e o f i t p r e c l u d e s r e s p o n s e t o a r t . I t o c c u r s e v e n i n t h e r e a d i n g o f so l i m i t e d a p o p u l a r a r t f o r m a s t h e n e w s p a p e r c o m i c s t r i p . The r e a d e r o f D o n a l d Duck, f o r e x a m p l e , t e m p o r a r i l y s u s p e n d s h i s d i s b e l i e f t o a c c e p t t h e c o n v e n t i o n t h a t d u c k s c a n t a l k E n g l i s h . N o r i s he s u r p r i s e d t o o b s e r v e a d u c k w a l k i n g a dog down t h e s t r e e t . The f a c t t h a t t h e c o m i c s t r i p i s r e a d i n s e v e r a l s e c o n d s w o r k s a g a i n s t a s t r o n g s e n s e o f i n v o l v e m e n t ; b u t t h e s e n s e o f i n v o l v e m e n t d o e s t a k e p l a c e t o a l i m i t e d e x t e n t . I b e l i e v e t h a t a s e n s e o f d i s t a n c e i s a l s o i n e v i t a b l e i n t h e r e s p o n s e t o a r t . I d i s a g r e e w i t h c r i t i c s s u c h a s R i c h a r d R o v e r e o n t h i s p o i n t . I n d i s c u s s i n g G a i l H i g h t o w e r o f Light in August , R o v e r e a s s e r t s t h a t "we a r e m o m e n t a r i l y so i m m e r s e d i n t h i s s e e d y , u n f r o c k e d a n d d e f e a t e d o l d c l e r g y -man t h a t , i n f a c t , we become h i m . " 5 0 He w o u l d a p p a r e n t l y d i s p u t e Wayne B o o t h ' s p o i n t t h a t t h e a r t i s t i s e v i d e n t i n 27 the d e t a i l s he has selected to render and can not choose to disappear. I believe that Booth's contention i s a v a l i d one. No matter how intense our involvement, there co-exists always a sense of detachment, an awareness of the work of art as an a r t i f a c t , which prevents us from becoming the character. I suggest that the involvement of author and reader with a character i s s i m i l a r to the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of a c h i l d with a r o l e he i s playing i n a game. The c h i l d may become extremely involved i n the r o l e he assumes. Yet, as Johan Huizinga points out i n Homo Ludens, "Genuine play possesses . . . the consciousness, however l a t e n t , of 'only pretending,' " 5 1 I r e a l i z e that t h i s point can not be proven, but would l i k e to c i t e one example to support my contention. The complete lack of t h i s sense of detachment i s portrayed as a kind of madness by one of Faulkner's f a v o r i t e authors, Miguel de Cervantes. 5 2 Don Quixote, lacking a l l sense of c r i t i c a l distance, f a i l s to d i s t i n g u i s h between l i f e and a r t . Cervantes informs us that " a l l the Fables and fantas-t i c a l Tales which he read, seem'd to him now as true as the most authentic H i s t o r i e s . " 5 3 The i n a b i l i t y to make t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n , evident throughout the work, i s most v i v i d l y i l l u s t r a t e d by the episode i n which Don Quixote i s watching a puppet show. Incensed by a threat of one of the puppet v i l l a i n s , he charges at the show, sword i n hand, cutting and slashing at the v i l l a i n o u s marionettes. 5 1* Cervantes' 28 p o i n t i s t h a t t h e p u p p e t show i s a r t , a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f l i f e , r a t h e r t h a n l i f e i t s e l f , a n d t h a t o n l y a madman w o u l d f a i l t o know t h e d i f f e r e n c e . E v e n Don Q u i x o t e , o v e r - i n v o l v e d a s he i s , d o e s n o t become t h e c h a r a c t e r s i n t h e w o r k s o f a r t he o b s e r v e s , t h o u g h he d o e s t r y t o e n t e r t h e i r w o r l d as s a v i o r . What i s u n i q u e a b o u t t h e wo r k o f F a u l k n e r t h e n i s n o t t h a t i n v o l v e m e n t a n d d i s t a n c e e x i s t , s i n c e t h e s e f a c t o r s a r e p r e s e n t i n a l l w o r k s o f a r t ; r a t h e r i t i s t h a t i n h i s m o s t s u c c e s s f u l n o v e l s t h e s e n s e b o t h o f i n v o l v e m e n t a n d o f d e t a c h m e n t i s e x t r e m e l y i n t e n s e . The r e s u l t i s wh a t P e t e r S w i g g a r t hc-.s c a l l e d "a k i n d o f d o u b l e v i s i o n " 5 5 i n w h i c h we s e e t h e w o r l d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y f r o m t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f t h e c h a r a c t e r a n d f r o m o u r own c r i t i c a l d i s t a n c e . The i n v o l v e -ment c o n v e y s t o u s t h e v a l i d i t y o f e a c h p e r s p e c t i v e , w h i l e t h e d e t a c h m e n t e n a b l e s u s t o j u d g e i t s l i m i t a t i o n s . T h u s , F a u l k n e r i s a b l e t o r e n d e r w h a t I h a v e r e f e r r e d t o a s " t h e b a s i c human d i l e m m a " : t h a t w h a t we p e r c e i v e i s a t o n c e a t r u t h a n d a d i s t o r t i o n . I w i l l r e f e r t o F a u l k n e r ' s a w a r e -n e s s o f t h i s d i l e m m a t h a t e a c h i n d i v i d u a l i s i n e v i t a b l y l o c k e d w i t h i n t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f h i s own p o i n t o f v i e w a s h i s s e n s e o f c o s m i c i r o n y . . I n t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r s I w i l l a n a l y z e c l o s e l y The Sound and the Fury, s t r e s s i n g F a u l k n e r ' s t r e a t m e n t o f i n v o l v e m e n t a n d d i s t a n c e . I w i l l show t h a t t h e s e f a c t o r s , t h o u g h e s s e n t i a l i n any w o r k o f a r t , assume a h e i g h t e n e d s i g n i f i c a n c e when t h e a c t o f p e r c e p t i o n ( i . e . , 29 how we l o o k a t e x p e r i e n c e ) i s a c e n t r a l c o n c e r n . I w i l l a l s o e x a m i n e how t h e p r o c e s s o f w r i t i n g (and o f r e a d i n g ) t h e n o v e l s i s a n a t t e m p t t o c o p e w i t h t h e d i l e m m a o f t h e i n e v i t a b l e d i s t o r t i o n o f human p e r s p e c t i v e . The q u o t a t i o n f r o m Faulkner in the University, w h i c h I h a v e t a k e n a s c e n t r a l t o t h i s t h e s i s , a g a i n p r o v i d e s t h e k e y . I t h i n k t h a t no one i n d i v i d u a l c a n l o o k a t t r u t h . I t b l i n d s y o u . Y o u l o o k a t i t a n d y o u s e e one p h a s e o f i t . Someone e l s e l o o k s a t i t a n d s e e s a s l i g h t l y a w r y p h a s e o f i t . B u t t a k e n a l l t o g e t h e r , t h e t r u t h i s i n w h a t t h e y saw t h o u g h n o b o d y saw t h e t r u t h i n t a c t . . . . I t was, a s y o u s a y , t h i r t e e n ways o f l o o k i n g a t a b l a c k b i r d . B u t t h e t r u t h , I w o u l d l i k e t o t h i n k , comes o u t , t h a t when t h e r e a d e r h a s r e a d a l l t h e s e t h i r t e e n d i f f e r e n t ways o f l o o k i n g a t t h e b l a c k b i r d , t h e r e a d e r h a s h i s own f o u r t e e n t h i m age o f t h a t b l a c k b i r d w h i c h I w o u l d l i k e t o t h i n k i s t h e t r u t h . 5 6 F a u l k n e r i s s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e a u t h o r a n d r e a d e r m u s t become i m m e r s e d i n e a c h o f t h e p e r s p e c t i v e s u n t i l t h e y a r e a b l e t o c o m p r e h e n d an o v e r v i e w w h i c h I n c l u d e s a l l t h e v a r i o u s a n g l e s o f v i s i o n . The r e s u l t a n t p o i n t o f v i e w w i l l be more c o m p r e h e n s i v e t h a n t h o s e e x p r e s s e d by a n y I n d i v i d u a l w i t h i n t h e n o v e l . W a l t e r S l a t o f f , d e s p i t e a b r i l l i a n t a n a l y s i s , e r r s s e r i o u s l y i n f a i l i n g t o c o m p r e h e n d t h i s p o i n t . He s t a t e s t h a t "Our t e n s e c o n d i t i o n v e r y much r e s e m b l e s t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t a t e o f F a u l k n e r ' s c h a r a c t e r s , a s t a t e we a l s o s h a r e t h r o u g h e m p a t h y . No more than they a r e we p e r m i t t e d t o a c h i e v e f i n a l r e s o l u t i o n o r r e l e a s e . " 5 7 F a u l k n e r ' s a r t d o e s n o t l e a v e t h e r e a d e r i n t h e same p o s i t i o n a s h i s c h a r a c t e r s . I t e n c o u r a g e s t h e r e a d e r t o u s e h i s own p r o c e s s o f p e r c e p t i o n t o s t r i v e f o r a n i n t e g r a t e d 3 0 v i s i o n of r e a l i t y , based upon the a s s i m i l a t i o n of v a r i o u s and c o n f l i c t i n g v e r s i o n s of e x p e r i e n c e . Faulkner i s q u i t e e x p l i c i t about t h i s i n Knight's Gambit. He s t a t e s t h a t " i t i s o n l y i n l i t e r a t u r e t h a t the p a r a d o x i c a l and even m u t u a l l y n e g a t i v i n g anecdotes i n the h i s t o r y of a human h e a r t can be juxtaposed and annealed by a r t i n t o v e r i s i m i l i t u d e and c r e d i b i l i t y . " 5 8 "Anneal" i s the key word here. I t i s d e f i n e d by Webster as "to heat, as g l a s s , i n order to f i x l a i d - o n c o l o r s . " T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g i n view of the f a c t t h a t F a u l k n e r o r i g i n a l l y wished the d i f f e r e n t s e c t i o n s of The Sound and the Fury to be p r i n t e d i n d i f f e r e n t c o l o r i n k . 5 9 He a t one time f e l t t h a t d i f f e r e n t c o l o r ink would be an e f f e c t i v e i n d i c a t o r of the d i v e r s e c o n s ciousnesses of the c h a r a c t e r s . 5 0 The i m p l i c a t i o n of the q u o t a t i o n from Knight's Gambit i s t h a t l i t e r a t u r e i n v o l v e s the p a t t e r n i n g of d i f f e r e n t and o f t e n c o n t r a d i c t o r y s e c t i o n s i n t o a coherent whole. T h i s i s not to say t h a t a r t i s the p e r f e c t s o l u t i o n t o the c o n t r a d i c t i o n s of l i f e . No such s o l u t i o n e x i s t s . An e x c e s s i v e l o v e of a r t can l e a d one away from l i f e r a t h e r than i n t o i t , as any ardent admirer of Don Quixote knows. Moreover, the r e s o l u t i o n must of n e c e s s i t y be i m p e r f e c t , because the novel i s w r i t t e n and read by i n d i v i d u a l s , them-s e l v e s s u b j e c t to the i n e v i t a b l e d i s t o r t i o n , of e x p e r i e n c e as they respond to i t . F aulkner i s w e l l aware of t h i s , as i n d i c a t e d by the q u a l i f i c a t i o n i n h i s statement a t the U n i v e r s i t y of V i r g i n i a . "But the t r u t h , I- would like to 31 think, comes o u t . . . ." 6 1 F a u l k n e r ' s r e p e t i t i o n o f t h e i t a l i c i z e d p h r a s e i n t h e c o n c l u d i n g s e n t e n c e o f t h e q u o t a t i o n i m p l i e s h i s a w a r e n e s s t h a t a n y human s y n t h e s i s m u s t be t e n t a t i v e a n d i n c o m p l e t e . T h i s d o e s n o t mean, a s S l a t o f f a s s u m e s i n Quest for Failure, t h a t r e s o l u t i o n i s i m p o s s i b l e a n d t h a t t h e r e a d e r i s "doomed t o f a i l . " 6 2 I t d o e s mean t h a t t h e p r o c e s s o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g e x p e r i e n c e c a n n o t be t o t a l l y s u c c e s s f u l , b e c a u s e o f b a s i c human l i m i t a t i o n . I t i s t h e b r i l l i a n c e o f F a u l k n e r ' s a c h i e v e m e n t t o be a b l e t o r e n d e r i n h i s a r t b o t h t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f human c o m p r e -h e n s i o n a n d t h e l i m i t a t i o n s i n h e r e n t i n a n y s u c h e n d e a v o r . I n t h e f o l l o w i n g s t u d y I w i l l e x a m i n e how F a u l k n e r c o n v e y s b o t h t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s a n d l i m i t a t i o n s i n The Sound and the Fury. CHAPTER 2 TRYING TO SAY 33 In my i n t r o d u c t o r y chapter I suggested t h a t by immersing h i m s e l f w i t h i n the consciousness of h i s c h a r a c t e r s , Faulkner i s a b l e to convey the i n t e n s i t y of t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s , r e s o l v i n g h i s h a n d l i n g of the problem of p o i n t of view. The suddenness of the r e s o l u t i o n may be i l l u s t r a t e d by a comparison of the opening passage of The Sound and the Fury w i t h one from New Orleans Sketches, w r i t t e n approximately t h r e e years b e f o r e . The c a r came s w i f t l y down Decatur S t r e e t and t u r n i n g i n t o the alleyway, stopped. Two men a l i g h t e d , but the o t h e r remained i n h i s s e a t . The f a c e of the s i t t i n g man was vague and d u l l and l o o s e - l i p p e d , and h i s eyes were c l e a r and b l u e as c o r n f l o w e r s , and u t t e r l y vacant of thought; he s a t a s h a p e l e s s , d i r t y lump, l i f e without mind, an organism without i n t e l l e c t . Yet always i n h i s s l o b b e r i n g , vacuous f a c e were h i s two eyes of a h e a r t s h a k i n g b l u e , and g r i p p e d t i g h t l y i n one f i s t was a n a r c i s s u s . 2 Through the fence, between the c u r l i n g f l o w e r spaces, I c o u l d see them h i t t i n g . They were coming toward where the f l a g was and I went along the fence. L u s t e r was hunting i n the g r a s s by the f l o w e r t r e e . They took the f l a g out, and they were h i t t i n g . Then they put the f l a g back and they went to the t a b l e , and he h i t and the other h i t . Then they went on, and I went along the f e n c e . L u s t e r came away from the f l o w e r t r e e and we went along the fence and they stopped and we stopped and I looked through the fence w h i l e L u s t e r was hunting i n the g r a s s . "Here, c a d d i e . " He h i t . They went away ac r o s s the p a s t u r e . I h e l d to the fence and watched them going away. " L i s t e n a t you, now." L u s t e r s a i d . " A i n ' t you something, t h i r t y - t h r e e y ears o l d , going on t h a t way. A f t e r I done went a l l the way to town to buy you t h a t cake. Hush up t h a t moaning. A i n t you going to help me f i n d t h a t q u a r t e r so t h a t I can go to the show t o n i g h t . " They were h i t t i n g l i t t l e , a c r o s s the p a s t u r e . I went [back] along the fence to where the f l a g was. I t f l a p p e d on the b r i g h t g r a s s and the t r e e s . (23) 34 F a u l k n e r ' s d e v e l o p m e n t i n t h i s t h r e e y e a r p e r i o d i s a s t o n i s h i n g . The f i r s t d e s c r i p t i o n , a s t h e t i t l e o f t h e v o l u m e i m p l i e s , i s s i m p l y a s k e t c h . The n a r r a t i v e p o i n t o f v i e w i s e x t e r n a l t o t h e s u b j e c t b e i n g r e n d e r e d a n d t e n d s t o e v o k e d i s t a n c e f r o m t h e i d i o t who i s d e s c r i b e d a s a " s h a p e l e s s d i r t y l u m p . " A b s t r a c t i o n s a r e a w k w a r d l y m i n g l e d w i t h p r e c i s e r e n d e r i n g s , w e a k e n i n g t h e e f f e c t o f v i v i d p i c t o r i a l d e t a i l s s u c h a s t h e f a c t t h a t t h e man's m o u t h i s " l o o s e - l i p p e d . " The c o n c r e t e n e s s o f t h e d e s c r i p t i o n t h a t " h i s e y e s w e r e c l e a r a n d b l u e a s c o r n f l o w e r s " i s o f f s e t by t h e n a r r a t o r ' s p r o c l a i m i n g t h a t t h e e y e s w e r e " u t t e r l y v a c a n t o f t h o u g h t . " The d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e man a s " l i f e w i t h o u t m i n d , a n o r g a n i s m w i t h o u t i n t e l l e c t " i s a l m o s t c l i n i c a l l y a b s t r a c t . B e r g s o n h a s s u g g e s t e d t h a t o n t h e d e e p e s t l e v e l o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s " m a n p e r c e i v e s i n t e r m s o f i m a g e s r a t h e r t h a n s t a t e m e n t s . 3 The f o r m e r a r e c o n c r e t e e m b o d i m e n t s o f p e r c e p t i o n , w h i l e t h e l a t t e r a r e g e n e r a l i z a -t i o n s o ne s t e p r e m o v e d f r o m t h e a c t o f e x p e r i e n c i n g . I n B e r g s o n i a n t e r m s t h e p a s s a g e f r o m New Orleans Sketches i s i n e f f e c t i v e b e c a u s e i t f u n c t i o n s p r i m a r i l y a s s t a t e m e n t r a t h e r t h a n i m a g e . T h e r e i s an i m p e r f e c t l y c o n t r o l l e d a m b i v a l e n c e i n t h e p a s s a g e t h a t i s e v i d e n t i n much o f F a u l k n e r ' s e a r l y w r i t i n g . The c o n c l u d i n g s e n t e n c e o f t h e p a r a g r a p h b e g i n s , " Y e t a l w a y s i n h i s s l o b b e r i n g , v a c u o u s f a c e w e r e h i s two e y e s o f a h e a r t -s h a k i n g b l u e . . . " I t i s a s i f t h e a u t h o r i s t e l l i n g t h e 35 a u d i e n c e t h a t d e s p i t e t h e r e p u l s i v e q u a l i t i e s o f t h i s v a c a n t , s l o b b e r i n g o r g a n i s m " y e t " t h e r e i s s o m e t h i n g a p p e a l i n g a b o u t h i m ; b u t t h e a u t h o r i s n o t a b l e t o make t h i s p o i n t c o n -v i n c i n g . The d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e i d i o t ' s e y e s i s n o t e n o u g h t o o f f s e t t h e s e n s e o f r e p u l s i v e n e s s s u g g e s t e d by t h e o t h e r d e t a i l s . The t o t a l e f f e c t i s t o e v o k e t h e d i s t a n c e one f e e l s when s t a r i n g a t a p e r s o n who i s b a d l y d e f o r m e d . I n The Sound and the Fury p a s s a g e F a u l k n e r i s a b l e t o r e n d e r t h e s p e c i f i c p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e i d i o t - c h i l d , r a t h e r t h a n m a k i n g g e n e r a l o b s e r v a t i o n s a b o u t h i m . I n s t e a d o f p r o v i d i n g a n e x t e r n a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f B e n j y , t h e a u t h o r c o n v e y s w h a t i t m i g h t be l i k e t o s e e l i f e t h r o u g h h i s a n g l e o f v i s i o n . He t h u s s u c c e e d s i n s h o w i n g w h a t B e n j y i s l i k e r a t h e r t h a n t e l l i n g t h e r e a d e r w h a t t o t h i n k . He has a d v a n c e d f r o m t h e a b s t r a c t a n d p r o c l a m a t o r y s t a t e m e n t s o f h i s e a r l i e r w o r k t o t h e d i r e c t p r e s e n t a t i o n o f i m a g e s a s r e n d e r e d t h r o u g h t h e c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f B e n j y . L t i s n o t u n t i l t h e r e a d e r i s w e l l i n t o t h e n o v e l t h a t he i s a w a r e t h a t t h i s t a l e i s b e i n g t o l d by a n i d i o t . By t h e t i m e F a u l k n e r g i v e s an e x t e r n a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f h i m i n P a r t F o u r (2 9 0 ) , he h a s f o r c e d t h e r e a d e r t o a c k n o w l e d g e t h e h u m a n i t y he s h a r e s w i t h B e n j y . The s e n s e o f i n t e n s e i n v o l v e m e n t t h a t t h e a u t h o r a c h i e v e s i s e x p l a i n e d by L e o n E d e l a s f o l l o w s : I n a c c e p t i n g t h e m a t e r i a l i n a s c r a m b l e d s t a t e a n d s e e k i n g t o u n d e r s t a n d i t , we a r e i n v i t e d by F a u l k n e r t o p l a c e o u t s e l v e s w i t h i n t h e a n g l e o f v i s i o n o r p e r c e p t i o n o f B e n j y . . . . We a r e m a n o u v e r e d by t h e n o v e l i s t i n t o t a k i n g o v e r a l l o f 36 B e n j y ' s s e n s e s : h i s e y e s become o u r e y e s , h i s s e n s e o f s m e l l i s o u r s , h i s u n i q u e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e w o r l d a r o u n d h i m i s o u r s f o r t h e d u r a t i o n o f t h e b o o k [ s e c t i o n ] . We a r e , s o t o s p e a k , o n t h e i n s i d e o f a n i d i o t - - l o o k i n g o u t — e v e n t h o u g h we r e t a i n , a t t h e same t i m e , o u r own r e a s o n a n d o u r a w a r e n e s s . A p e c u l i a r e m p a t h y i s a s k e d o f u s [:] 'The room w e n t away, b u t I d i d n ' t h u s h , a n d t h e room came b a c k a n d D i l s e y s a t o n t h e bed , l o o k i n g a t me.''1 One a d v a n t a g e o f v i e w i n g l i f e t h r o u g h B e n j y ' s e y e s i s t h a t he s e e s e x i s t e n c e w i t h c l a r i t y a n d d i r e c t n e s s . When he s t a t e s t h a t "They w e r e h i t t i n g l i t t l e " he i s d e s c r i b i n g t h e a c t o f p u t t i n g . B e c a u s e he h a s no k n o w l e d g e o f w h a t i t means t o p l a y g o l f , he d e s c r i b e s t h e a c t i o n i t s e l f , r a t h e r t h a n u s i n g t h e w o r d " p u t t " w h i c h r e p r e s e n t s t h e c o n c e p t o f " h i t t i n g l i t t l e . " The r e s u l t o f t h i s t e c h n i q u e i s t o g i v e t o t h e n a r r a t i v e o f B e n j y a p r e c i s i o n a n d a l i t e r a l n e s s o f o b s e r v a t i o n w h i c h a r e m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f h i s s i m p l e , d i r e c t r e s p o n s e t o l i f e . The t e c h n i q u e a l s o i n d u c e s t h e r e a d e r t o u n d e r t a k e w h a t Wayne B o o t h t e r m s " t h e p l e a s u r e o f d e c i p h e r i n g ' / 5 w h i c h i s t h e g o o d f e e l i n g o n e g e t s i n c o m p r e -h e n d i n g t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f a l i t e r a r y p a t t e r n o r a l l u s i o n . B o o t h s u g g e s t s t h a t t h i s p l e a s u r e i s e s p e c i a l l y e v i d e n t i n w o r k s w h e r e a n u n s y m p a t h e t i c n a r r a t o r i s u s e d , s u c h a s t h e s p e a k e r s i n A Modest Proposal, t h e C y c l o p s e p i s o d e o f Ulysses a n d t h e J a s o n s e c t i o n o f The Sound and the Fury. B u t t h e p l e a s u r e o f d e c i p h e r i n g i s n o t r e s t r i c t e d t o t h e i r o n i c p a r t s o f t h e s e two n o v e l s . I t i s " v i r t u a l l y u n l i m i t e d " 6 i n Ulysses a n d The Sound and the Fury b e c a u s e 37 t h e p r o c e s s o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f e x p e r i e n c e i s t h e e s s e n c e o f b o t h b o o k s . I f e e l i t i s a s t r u e o f F a u l k n e r ' s n o v e l a s i t i s o f J o y c e ' s Ulysses t h a t t h e theme i s t h e " a c t i v i t y o f t h e human s p i r i t t h r o u g h w h i c h , i n w h i c h , l i f e c o n t i n u a l l y s e e k s t o u n d e r s t a n d i t s e l f a n d i n u n d e r -s t a n d i n g t o r e c r e a t e . " 7 The p l e a s u r e o f d e c i p h e r i n g i s i n i t i a t e d i n t h e o p e n i n g p a s s a g e o f The Sound and the Fury. I t i s m a n i f e s t i n t h e r e a d e r ' s r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t t h e p e o p l e B e n j y w a t c h e s t h r o u g h t h e f e n c e a r e p l a y i n g g o l f ; i t i s m o s t e v i d e n t when we c o m p r e h e n d t h a t h i s m o a n i n g s t e m s f r o m t h e f a c t t h a t t h e c r y " H e r e , c a d d i e " (23) r e m i n d s h i m o f h i s d e p a r t e d s i s t e r . T h i s r e a l i z a t i o n c a n n o t be made a t f i r s t , s i n c e t h e r e a d e r d o e s n o t h a v e s u f f i c i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n a t t h e t i m e he f i r s t w i t n e s s e s B e n j y moan. The r e a s o n f o r t h e i d i o t - c h i l d ' s c o n d u c t becomes c l e a r e r a s t h e B e n j y s e c t i o n c i r c l e s b a c k t o w a r d t h e o p e n i n g e p i s o d e i n w h i c h g o l f e r s w a l k b e y o n d t h e f e n c e . The f o l l o w i n g p a s s a g e t a k e s p l a c e a f t e r L u s t e r , h a v i n g l o s t t h e g o l f b a l l t h a t he h o p e d t o s e l l f o r a q u a r t e r , v e n t s h i s f r u s t r a t i o n o n t h e h e l p l e s s B e n j y : " ' B e l i e r . Y o u w a n t s o m e t h i n g t o b e l i e r a b o u t . A l l r i g h t t h e n . C a d d y . 1 he w h i s p e r e d . 'Caddy. B e l i e r now. Cadd y ' " ( 7 4 ) . By t h i s t i m e t h e c a u s e o f B e n j y ' s c o n d u c t i n t h e o p e n i n g s c e n e h a s become c l a r i f i e d . The r e a d e r i s now a b l e t o c o m p r e h e n d a n d t a k e p l e a s u r e i n t h e a u t h o r ' s m e t h o d o f p r e s e n t i n g e x p e r i e n c e . 38 Faulkner has chosen to begin h i s p r e s e n t a t i o n through the eyes of an innocent. I b e l i e v e t h a t both the v a l i d i t y and l i m i t a t i o n s of Benjy's p o i n t of view are i m p l i c i t i n the f i r s t sentence of the n o v e l : "Through the fence, between the c u r l i n g f lower spaces, I c o u l d see them h i t t i n g " (23) . He l o o k s a t l i f e d i r e c t l y and c l e a r l y , s e e i n g the fence, the c u r l i n g f l o w e r s , and beyond the spaces the g o l f e r s . But he sees l i f e through narrow c h i n k s , i . e . , "between the c u r l i n g f l o w e r spaces." I take t h i s t o be symbolic of the l i m i t a -t i o n s of innocence. Benjy's angle of v i s i o n i s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y c l e a r l y f o c u s s e d and h i g h l y r e s t r i c t e d . I t i s no c o i n c i d e n c e t h a t the n o v e l begins w i t h a r e f e r e n c e t o s i g h t , s i n c e the way each i n d i v i d u a l sees e x i s t e n c e i s of c e n t r a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . S i g h t i s a symbol of the p r ocess of p e r c e p t i o n throughout The Sound and the Fury, which may be regarded as f o u r d i s t i n c t ways of l o o k i n g a t the b l a c k b i r d of r e a l i t y ( i n t h i s i n s t a n c e the e x p e r i e n c e of the Compson f a m i l y ) . In S e c t i o n Three Jason says,"By the time I got the c a r stopped and grabbed her hands t h e r e was about a dozen people l o o k i n g . I t made me so mad f o r a minute i t k i n d of b l i n d e d me" (206) . I t should be c l e a r t o everyone except the myopic Jason t h a t t h i s r e f l e c t s the way h i s anger l i m i t s and d i s t o r t s h i s p e r s p e c t i v e . L i k e w i s e , the r e f e r e n c e to the f a c t t h a t Mrs. Compson's "eyes are g i v i n g out" (234) suggests her l i t e r a l and s p i r i t u a l s h o r t -s i g h t e d n e s s . In c o n t r a s t , D i l s e y ' s statement t h a t "I've 3 9 s e e d de f i r s t en de l a s t " (313) s u g g e s t s t h e m a g n i t u d e o f h e r v i s i o n , a s w e l l a s t h e w i d e r a n g e o f h e r e x p e r i e n c e w i t h t h e Compsons. The f i r s t s e n t e n c e o f t h e book t h u s i n i t i a t e s a c r u c i a l a n d r e c u r r e n t m o t i f . I t p r e s e n t s a f a c t u a l d e s c r i p t i o n , t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f w h i c h w i l l become e v i d e n t i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e n o v e l a s a w h o l e . B e i n g i n n o c e n t , B e n j y i s u n a b l e t o r e p r e s s a n d d i s t o r t e x p e r i e n c e . Howe e x p l a i n s t h a t " B e c a u s e he c a n n o t c o l o r o r s h a p e h i s m e m o r i e s , h i s m i n d s e r v e s t h e n o v e l a s a n e n t i r e l y f a i t h f u l g l a s s . " 6 M i c h a e l M i l l g a t e i s i n a g r e e m e n t w i t h Howe, s t a t i n g t h a t "what F a u l k n e r d o e s i n t h i s [ B e n j y ' s] s e c t i o n i s t o e s t a b l i s h a c o n v e n t i o n o f o b j e c t i v i t y . . . a k i n d o f c a m e r a e y e . " 9 A l t h o u g h I a g r e e w i t h t h e s e c r i t i c s t h a t B e n j y ' s p e r s p e c t i v e i s l e s s d i s t o r t e d t h a n Q u e n t i n ' s a n d J a s o n ' s , I do n o t f u l l y c o n c u r w i t h t h e o p i n i o n t h a t B e n j y i s o b j e c t i v e . I n my i n t r o d u c t o r y c h a p t e r I s u g g e s t e d t h a t a l l human p e r s p e c t i v e s , a s p o r t r a y e d by F a u l k n e r , c o n t a i n e l e m e n t s o f d i s t o r t i o n . A s t u d y o f P h e n o m e n o l o g y by C o l i n W i l s o n s u p p o r t s t h i s c o n t e n t i o n . W i l s o n makes t h e f o l l o w i n g o b s e r v a t i o n s : F r e u d s u g g e s t e d . . . t h a t a man who l e f t h i s u m b r e l l a b e h i n d m i g h t a c t u a l l y w a n t t o r e t u r n t o . t h e h o u s e , a n d so h a v e s u b c o n c i o u s l y w i l l e d h i m s e l f t o f o r g e t i t . T h a t i s t o s a y t h e o v e r s i g h t was intentional y e t n o t c o n s c i o u s l y s o . 1 0 C o n s c i o u s n e s s i t s e l f . . . i s i n t e n t i o n a l . I t i s n o t a p l a n e m i r r o r , m e r e l y r e f l e c t i n g t h e w o r l d . I t makes i t s own d i s t o r t i o n s q u i t e a p a r t f r o m o u r n a t u r a l human t e n d e n c y t o d i s t o r t t h e w o r l d t h r o u g h o u r e m o t i o n s and p r e j u d i c e s . 1 1 40 An e x a m p l e o f t h e d i s t o r t i o n o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s i t s e l f i s p r o v i d e d by t h e M u l l e r - L y e r i l l u s i o n i n w h i c h one l i n e seems l o n g e r t h a n a n o t h e r o f t h e i d e n t i c a l l e n g t h ^ V A X 6 W i l s o n ' s d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n k i n d s o f d i s t o r t i o n i s h e l p f u l i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g F a u l k n e r ' s h a n d l i n g o f p o i n t o f v i e w i n The Sound and the Fury. I s u g g e s t t h a t t h e d i s t o r -t i o n o f t h e two o l d e r b r o t h e r s e x e m p l i f i e s t h e k i n d i l l u s t r a t e d by W i l s o n ' s f i r s t e x a m p l e , w h e r e a s B e n j y ' s p e r s p e c t i v e r e f l e c t s t h e d i s t o r t i o n o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s i t s e l f . H i s r e a c t i o n t o C a d d y ' s d e v e l o p i n g s e x u a l i t y w h i c h p o s e s a t h r e a t t o h i s own s e c u r i t y m i g h t be t e r m e d " n a t u r a l " , b u t i t i s c e r t a i n l y n o t o b j e c t i v e . I n p r o c e e d i n g f r o m B e n j y t o Q u e n t i n t o J a s o n , F a u l k n e r moves f r o m a n a r r a t o r who i s u n r e p r e s s e d t o one who i s a l m o s t c o m p l e t e l y r e p r e s s e d . The g r e a t e r t h e r e p r e s s i o n o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s , t h e g r e a t e r i s t h e e l e m e n t o f d i s t o r t i o n i n The Sound and the Fury. The m e t a p h o r o f B e n j y a s a " f a i t h f u l g l a s s " o r " m o r a l m i r r o r " 1 2 i s u s e f u l , s i n c e F a u l k n e r e m p l o y s B e n j y ' s c o n s c i o u s n e s s t o p r o j e c t a b a s i c a l l y a c c u r a t e r e m e m b r a n c e o f e v e n t s a n d c o n v e r s a t i o n s t h a t h a v e t a k e n p l a c e . B u t i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o remember t h a t B e n j y i s n o t a p u r e l y o b j e c t i v e n a r r a t o r . A c o l l a t i o n o f t h e m a n u s c r i p t o f The Sound and the Fury a n d t h e f i r s t e d i t i o n i n d i c a t e s t h a t F a u l k n e r was 41 c o n s c i o u s o f t h i s l a c k o f o b j e c t i v i t y . E m i l y I z s a k o b s e r v e s t h a t " N e g r o s p e e c h i n t h e f i r s t s e c t i o n o f t h e n o v e l was r e v i s e d s o a s t o r e d u c e somewhat i t s c o l l o q u i a l c h a r a c t e r . " 1 3 T h i s t y p e o f r e v i s i o n was made o n l y i n P a r t One. I t s e r v e s t o d i s t i n g u i s h s p e e c h a s p e r c e i v e d by t h e i n n o c e n t B e n j y f r o m t h a t d i r e c t l y r e n d e r e d by t h e n a r r a t o r i n t h e l a s t s e c t i o n o f t h e n o v e l . M i s s I s z a k c o n c l u d e s B e n j a m i n ' s m i n d t h u s a p p e a r s t o r e s h a p e t h e s p e e c h he h e a r s a c c o r d i n g t o a c o m p a r a t i v e l y i m p e r s o n a l p a t t e r n o f d i c t i o n . F a u l k n e r h a s t a k e n c a r e n o t t o d e n a t u r e N e g r o s p e e c h , b u t m e r e l y t o s u b o r d i n a t e somewhat i t s r e g i o n a l q u a l i t i e s t o t h e c o n s c i o u s n e s s c o n s t r u c t e d f o r B e n j a m i n . 1 " * B e c a u s e he i s i n n o c e n t B e n j y r e s p o n d s t o s t i m u l i i n s t a n t l y a n d w i t h t o t a l i n v o l v e m e n t . B e i n g f u l l y i n v o l v e d i n t h e p r e s e n t i n s t a n t he h a s no c o n c e p t o f o p p o s i t i o n s . He h a s i n s t e a d a s e n s e o f i n t e n s e j o y i n r e s p o n d i n g t o p l e a s u r -a b l e s t i m u l i a n d g r i e f i n r e a c t i n g t o t h e i r l o s s . I t i s t h e l a c k o f t e n s i o n i n B e n j y w h i c h e n a b l e s h i s c o n s c i o u s n e s s t o f l o w u n r e s t r a i n e d l y f r o m one s c e n e t o a n o t h e r . T h i s s e n s e o f u n r e s t r i c t e d movement h a s two k e y f u n c t i o n s i n The Sound and the Fury. I t c o n v e y s t h e l a c k o f i n h i b i t i o n w h i c h i s p a r t o f t h e j o y o f i n n o c e n c e . The f l o w i n g f r o m e p i s o d e t o e p i s o d e i s a l s o u s e f u l t o F a u l k n e r a s a d e v i c e f o r i n t r o -d u c i n g v i r t u a l l y e v e r y m o t i f o f t h e n o v e l i n h i s f i r s t s e c t i o n . F a u l k n e r h a s r e f e r r e d t o t h e B e n j y s e c t i o n a s t h e " g r o u n d w o r k " 1 5 o f t h e bo o k . The i d i o t - c h i l d ' s l i t e r a l n e s s o f o b s e r v a t i o n e n a b l e s t h e a u t h o r t o r e n d e r i n c o n c r e t e 42 d e t a i l the world ( i . e . , 'ground') i n which the s t o r y takes p l a c e . Another i m p l i c a t i o n of t h i s r i c h image i s t h a t the m e t a p h o r i c a l resonances of the n o v e l are grounded i n the c o n c r e t e n e s s of l i t e r a l e x p e r i e n c e . M i c h a e l Cowan e x p l a i n s Most of the symbols i n The Sound and the Fury b e g i n as l i t e r a l r e f e r r e n t s . . . . When water f i r s t appears i n Benjy's s e c t i o n , i t i s l i t e r a l l y water; shadows are l i t e r a l l y shadows; f l o w e r s , r a i n , and t r e e s , d i r t and mud, f i r e and s u n l i g h t , m i r r o r s and s l i p p e r s , money and g o l f b a l l s a l l appear t o Benjy as a c t u a l phenomena. The m e t a p h o r i c a l resonances of these and o t h e r key words and images do not b e g i n to appear u n t i l we have s t r u g g l e d a good way i n t o h i s s e c t i o n , and such resonances do not a c q u i r e t h e i r f u l l range of i m p l i c a t i o n u n t i l we e x p e r i e n c e new c o n t e x t s f o r these words and images i n the remaining s e c t i o n s of the n o v e l . Guided by F a u l k n e r , the reader must move g r a d u a l l y from c o n c r e t e e x p e r i e n c e s to complex i m p l i c a t i o n s , from c o n f u s i o n to t e n t a t i v e u n d e r s t a n d i n g . 1 6 The i n i t i a l passage of The Sound and the Fury c o n t a i n s s e v e r a l i l l u s t r a t i o n s of Cowan's p o i n t . The f a c t t h a t Benjy i s t h i r t y - t h r e e y e a r s o l d i s conveyed i n the f i r s t l i n e s spoken by L u s t e r . T h i s c o n c r e t e b i t of i n f o r m a t i o n assumes i n c r e a s i n g s i g n i f i c a n c e as the a s s o c i a t i o n s between Benjy and Jesus C h r i s t are developed. The f u l l resonance of t h i s f a c t emerges o n l y near the end of the book when D i l s e y says to Benjy: "You's de Lawd's c h i l e , anyway. En I be H i s ' n too, f o long, p r a i s e Jesus" ( 3 3 3 ) . 1 7 Benjy i s p r e s e n t e d w i t h i n the c o n f i n e s of the Compson domain l o o k i n g through the fence a t a game i n which he can not p a r t i c i p a t e . H i s r e s t r i c t i o n and s e p a r a t i o n from the a c t i v i t i e s of human e x i s t e n c e are emphasized when L u s t e r says to Benjy "You 43 oan't play no ball "(51). T h i s remark takes on added s i g n i -f i c a n c e when the reader l e a r n s t h a t Benjy has l i t e r a l l y l o s t h i s b a l l s , having been c a s t r a t e d a f t e r f r i g h t e n i n g two young g i r l s . In the very f i r s t page of h i s novel F a u l k n e r i s thus a b l e t o render a number o f f a c t s which w i l l c o ntinue to resonate throughout the book. Without g i v i n g the appearance of compression, the author succeeds i n p r e s e n t i n g s e v e r a l s i g n i f i c a n t images i n a few s h o r t l i n e s . In r e n d e r i n g the a s s o c i a t i o n a l flow o f Benjy's c o n s c i o u s n e s s , F a u l k n e r i s a b l e t o move from one important scene t o another, a v o i d i n g t r a n s i t i o n a l passages which might d i m i n i s h the nov e l ' s i n t e n s i t y . He succeeds i n i n t r o d u c i n g a l a r g e c a s t of c h a r a c t e r s and a g r e a t number of events, as w e l l as i n i t i a t i n g a l l the major m o t i f s i n the n o v e l . As noted by Maurice Coindreau, these i n c l u d e " v i s i t s t o the cemetery, c a s t r a t i o n , Caddy's misconduct, the f a t h e r ' s drunkenness,Jason's b r u t a l i t y , Quentin's rendezvous and her escape down the window, e t c . " 1 8 E x c e r p t s from the f i r s t p a r t o f the novel serve as p r e l u d e s to S e c t i o n s Two and Three. T h i s i s i l l u s t r a t e d by the f o l l o w i n g passage: "'Of course.' F a t h e r s a i d . 'Bad h e a l t h i s the primary reason f o r a l l l i f e . C r e ated by d i s e a s e , w i t h i n p u t r e f a c t i o n , i n t o decay'" (63). The n i h i l i s m o f Mr. Compson w i l l become dominant i n the consciousness o f Quentin. The passages i n which Jason and Miss Quentin squabble a t the d i n n e r t a b l e , w i t h the l a t t e r attempting to throw a g l a s s a t her u n c l e , 44 (88-90) serve even more e x p l i c i t l y as a p r e l u d e of what i s to come. Because the innocent Benjy does not d w e l l on scenes o b s e s s i v e l y , as do Quentin and Jason, and because t h i s episode i s juxtaposed w i t h Benjy's memories of the p a s t , i t remains u n o b t r u s i v e i n S e c t i o n One. J u x t a p o s i t i o n i s the e s s e n t i a l technique not o n l y i n P a r t One but w i t h i n the n o v e l as a whole. By j u x t a p o s i n g p a s t and p r e s e n t scenes , F a u l k n e r i s a b l e t o evoke a poignant and immediate c o n t r a s t between a grim p r e s e n t and a h a p p i e r p a s t . The c o n t r a s t s begin on the second page of the n o v e l , c o n t i n u i n g throughout the Benjy s e c t i o n . "Wait a minute." L u s t e r s a i d . "You snagged on t h a t n a i l a g a i n . Cant you never crawl through here without snagging on t h a t n a i l . " Caddy uncaught me and we crawled through. Uncle Maury said not to let anybody see us3 so we better stoop over, Caddy said. Stoop over, Benjy. Like this, see. (24) The tenderness of Caddy i s shown i n the f i r s t memory of the p a s t t h a t Faulkner dramatizes. I t i s Caddy who t r i e s to p r o t e c t the h e l p l e s s Benjy from the snags of e x i s t e n c e t h a t he can not cope w i t h . The f i r s t image of h i s s i s t e r shows her r e s c u i n g him. Her concern i s shown through her kindness, her p a t i e n c e and the use of the a f f e c t i o n a t e n i c k -name "Benjy".which c o n t r a s t to Mrs. Compson's c o l d and formal "Benjamin." Caddy's concern f o r her b r o t h e r i s c o n t r a s t e d w i t h t h a t of the l e s s p a t i e n t L u s t e r . The j u x t a p o s i t i o n of these two c h a r a c t e r s o c c u r s s e v e r a l times i n the opening pages of the n o v e l , w i t h each i n s t a n c e r e i n f o r c i n g a n d ' c l a r i f y i n g the 4!5 c o n t r a s t . The f o l l o w i n g i n s t a n c e i s t h e t h i r d e x a m p l e o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r c o u n t e r p o i n t : C addy k n e l t a n d p u t h e r arms a r o u n d me and h e r c o l d b r i g h t f a c e a g a i n s t m i n e . She s m e l l e d l i k e t r e e s . " Y o u ' r e n o t a p o o r b a b y . A r e y o u . Y o u ' v e g o t y o u r C a d d y . H a v e n ' t y o u g o t y o u r C a d d y . " Cant you shut up that moaning and slobbering, Luster said. hint you shamed of yourself making all this racket. (28) C a d d y ' s s y m p a t h e t i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g i s i n d i r e c t c o n t r a s t t o t h e i r r i t a b i l i t y o f L u s t e r , who w i s h e s t o s e a r c h f o r h i s l o s t q u a r t e r w i t h o u t b e i n g h i n d e r e d by a m o a n i n g and s l o b b e r i n g i d i o t . The w a r m t h o f C a d d y ' s f e e l i n g s a r e t h u s e f f e c t i v e l y j u x t a p o s e d a g a i n s t t h e p e r f u n c t o r y r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h L u s t e r . T h i s i s b u t one o f a s e r i e s o f c o m p a r i s o n s a n d c o n t r a s t s t h a t h e l p t o c l a r i f y t h e n a t u r e o f e x p e r i e n c e i n The Sound and the Fury. The a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d B e n j y o f C a d d y , L u s t e r , U n c l e M a u r y , M r s . Compson a n d V e r s h a r e p o r t r a y e d i n t h e o p e n i n g p a g e s o f t h e b o o k . A s t h e n o v e l p r o c e e d s t h e r e s p o n s e s o f o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s a r e b r o u g h t i n . I t h a s b e e n r e c o g n i z e d by a number o f c r i t i c s t h a t B e n j y s e r v e s a s a t o u c h s t o n e o r " m o r a l m i r r o r . " 1 9 L a w r a n c e Thompson e x p l a i n s t h i s f u n c t i o n : R e p e a t e d l y Ben i s r e p r e s e n t e d a s h a v i n g t h e i n s t i n c t i v e a n d i n t u i t i v e p ower t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e b e t w e e n o b j e c t s o r a c t i o n s w h i c h a r e l i f e -e n c o u r a g i n g a n d o t h e r s w h i c h a r e l i f e - i n j u r i n g , a n d t h e s e a r e u s e d by F a u l k n e r t o s y m b o l i z e t h e a n t i t h e s i s b e t w e e n g o o d and e v i l . I n t h i s l i m i t e d s e n s e . . . Ben s e r v e s a s a k i n d o f m o r a l m i r r o r , i n w h i c h t h e members o f h i s own f a m i l y may c o n t e m -p l a t e r e f l e c t i o n s o f t h e i r own p o t e n t i a l i t i e s , t h e i r own m o r a l s t r e n g t h s and w e a k n e s s e s . 2 0 4 6 One way o f e v a l u a t i n g t h e c h a r a c t e r s i n t h e n o v e l i s by o b s e r v i n g how t h e y t r e a t B e n j y and h i s i n s t i n c t i v e r e s p o n s e t o them. He r e s p o n d s a f f i r m a t i v e l y t o t h e l o v e o f C a d d y a n d D i l s e y , a n d n e g a t i v e l y t o t h e f r i g i d i t y o f M r s . Compson a n d t o t h e c a l c u l a t e d m e a n n e s s o f J a s o n , who a s a c h i l d c u t s up B e n j y ' s d o l l s a n d a s a n a d u l t h a s h i m c a s t r a t e d . T h o s e who c a r e f o r B e n j y l o v e h i m u n s e l f i s h l y , s i n c e h i s i n c a p a c i t y p r e v e n t s h i m f r o m d o i n g a n y t h i n g f o r p e o p l e . C o n v e r s e l y , h i s v u l n e r a b i l i t y makes h i m a r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e s c a p e g o a t , s i n c e p e o p l e c a n t a k e a d v a n t a g e o f h i m w i t h o u t f e a r o f r e t a l i a t i o n . A l t h o u g h Thompson i s e s s e n t i a l l y c o r r e c t i n h i s o b s e r v a t i o n , t h e p r o c e s s o f e v a l u a t i o n i s n o t a s c l e a r - c u t a s h i s a b o v e s t a t e m e n t i m p l i e s . L u s t e r ' s r e s p o n s e t o B e n j y , f o r e x a m p l e , seems i m p e r s o n a l when c o m p a r e d t o C a d d y ' s . I n t h i s j u x t a p o s i t i o n h i s b o r e d o m , h i s i m p a t i e n c e a n d h i s o c c a s i o n a l o u t r i g h t t a u n t i n g o f t h e i d i o t - c h i l d a r e e m p h a s i z e d . From t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e L u s t e r i s a d i s r u p t i v e f o r c e . Y e t , when h i s t r e a t m e n t o f B e n j y i s c o m p a r e d t o J a s o n ' s , i t seems r e l a t i v e l y c o m p a s s i o n a t e . When h i s r e a c t i o n s a r e c o m p a r e d t o M r s . Compson's r e s p o n s e t o h e r own c h i l d , L u s t e r a p p e a r s t o be a p e r s o n who c a n h a n d l e a d i f f i c u l t s i t u a t i o n c o m p e t e n t l y , w h i l e o n l y i n f r e q u e n t l y l o s i n g h i s p a t i e n c e . F rom t h i s a n g l e o f v i s i o n L u s t e r may be r e g a r d e d a s a b o y who c o p e s w e l l w i t h a d i f f i c u l t t a s k . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , he seems a m o r e d i s i n t e r e s t e d and l e s s 4 7 s y m p a t h e t i c a t t e n d a n t t h a n V e r s h , who o c c a s i o n a l l y t h r e a t e n s t o s p a n k B e n j y , b u t n e v e r t a u n t s h i m . V e r s h shows a c e r t a i n i n s i g h t w h i c h L u s t e r a p p e a r s t o l a c k , s a y i n g t o t h e i d i o t -c h i l d " Y ou's b o r n l u c k y a n d d o n t know i t " ( 8 8 - 8 9 ) . W a l t e r S l a t o f f p r o v i d e s t h e k e y t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g F a u l k n e r ' s j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f p e r s p e c t i v e s . He s a y s t h a t "when v i e w e d i n t o t a l c o n t e x t , h i s c h a r a c t e r s seem t o e x i s t i n a l o o s e s u s p e n s i o n r a t h e r t h a n i n f i x e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o one a n o t h e r . " 2 1 T h i s s t a t e m e n t i s c r u c i a l t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g F a u l k n e r ' s n o v e l s , e x p l a i n i n g t h e f a c t t h a t t h e y c a n n o t be r e d u c e d t o a s i n g l e a n g l e o f v i s i o n . The B e n j y s e c t i o n c o n t r i b u t e s t o t h e f l u i d i t y o f p e r s p e c t i v e s i n two i m p o r t a n t w a y s . F i r s t , by i m m e r s i n g h i m s e l f w i t h i n t h e c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f h i s c h a r a c t e r , F a u l k n e r i s a b l e t o a v o i d e x p l i c i t a u t h o r i a l comment. S e c o n d , b e c a u s e B e n j y i s a n i n n o c e n t w i t h no c o n c e p t o f g o o d o r e v i l , he r e g i s t e r s h i s i m p r e s s i o n o f e x p e r i e n c e , m a k i n g no e x p l i c i t m o r a l j u d g m e n t s . The r e a d e r i s t h u s e n c o u r a g e d t o a s s i m i l a t e w h a t i s b e i n g p r e s e n t e d and d r a w h i s own c o n c l u s i o n s . B e n j y ' s p e r s p e c t i v e i t s e l f i s f l u i d , m o v i n g by a s s o c i a t i o n b a c k a n d f o r t h f r o m p r e s e n t i n c i d e n t s t o o c c u r -r e n c e s i n t h e p a s t . H a v i n g no a w a r e n e s s o f c h r o n o l o g i c a l t i m e , he d o e s n o t d i f f e r e n t i a t e b e t w e e n w h a t i s a n d w h a t was. E v e n t s w h i c h h a p p e n e d i n 18 98 a r e a s v i v i d l y r e n d e r e d a s t h o s e o f 1928 f o r t h i s r e a s o n . I n c o n v e y i n g h i s c o n s c i o u s -n e s s F a u l k n e r i s f r e e d f r o m t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f h a v i n g t o 48 p r e s e n t e v e n t s i n t h e i r c h r o n o l o g i c a l s e q u e n c e . I n my i n t r o d u c t o r y c h a p t e r I c i t e d t h e f o l l o w i n g p a s s a g e a s e v i d e n c e o f F a u l k n e r ' s B e r g s o n i a n v i e w o f t i m e : " I n f a c t I a g r e e p r e t t y much w i t h B e r g s o n ' s t h e o r y o f t h e f l u i d i t y o f t i m e . T h e r e i s o n l y t h e p r e s e n t moment i n w h i c h I i n c l u d e t h e p a s t and t h e f u t u r e . " 2 2 B e n j y i s e s s e n t i a l l y F a u l k n e r ' s d r a m a t i z a t i o n o f t h e B e r g s o n i a n c o n c e p t o f d u r a t i o n . The a u t h o r a s sumes " t h a t t h e m i n d o f a n i d i o t , l i k e t h e u n c o n s c i o u s s e l f , i s t i m e l e s s . " 2 3 One o f F a u l k n e r ' s comments on B e n j y i s s i m i l a r t o h i s s t a t e m e n t a b o u t B e r g s o n ' s t h e o r y . He s a y s "To t h a t i d i o t , t i m e was n o t a c o n t i n u a t i o n , i t was a n i n s t a n t , t h e r e was no y e s t e r d a y a n d no t o m o r r o w , i t a l l i s [now] t o h i m - " 2 4 M e m o r i e s o f t h e c h i l d r e n ' s p a s t a r e t h u s a s i m m e d i a t e t o B e n j y a s p r e s e n t o c c u r r e n c e s . I n t h e B e n j y s e c t i o n t h e a u t h o r m o s t p o w e r f u l l y e v o k e s h a p p y m e m o r i e s o f t h e c h i l d h o o d w o r l d o f i n n o c e n c e . The s e n s e o f t h e l o s s o f t h a t h a p p i n e s s , p o r t r a y e d t h r o u g h , j u x t a -p o s i t i o n w i t h t h e p r e s e n t , becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y p o i g n a n t a s t h e s e c t i o n p r o g r e s s e s . The j o y t h a t B e n j y f e e l s i n h i s c h i l d h o o d i s f o c u s s e d p r i m a r i l y o n Caddy a n d t h e i n n o c e n t l o v e o f b r o t h e r a n d s i s t e r . Few t h i n g s e v o k e o n e ' s own l o s t i n n o c e n c e more v i v i d l y t h a n t h e c o n t r a s t b e t w e e n t h e way one r e g a r d e d C h r i s t m a s a s a c h i l d , a n d o n e ' s p e r s p e c t i v e o f i t now. The f i r s t r e n d e r e d memory o f t h e p a s t t a k e s p l a c e on December 23. I t c o n v e y s t h e e x c i t e m e n t t h a t a c h i l d f e e l s 49 d u r i n g t h e C h r i s t m a s s e a s o n . "What i s i t . " C a d d y s a i d . " D i d y o u t h i n k i t w o u l d be C h r i s t m a s when I came home f r o m s c h o o l . I s t h a t w h a t y o u t h o u g h t . C h r i s t m a s i s t h e d a y a f t e r t o m o r r o w . S a n t y C l a u s , B e n j y . S a n t y C l a u s . Come o n , l e t ' s r u n t o t h e h o u s e a n d g e t warm." She t o o k my h a n d a n d we r a n t h r o u g h t h e b r i g h t r u s t l i n g l e a v e s . (27) The a n t i c i p a t i o n a n d e x c i t e m e n t c o n v e y e d i n C a d d y ' s e x c l a m a -t i o n a r e t h e e s s e n c e o f t h e j o y o f i n n o c e n c e . The c h i l d r e n ' s s p o n t a n e o u s e x u b e r a n c e c o n t r a s t s t o M r s . Compson who s a y s "Nobody knows how I d r e a d C h r i s t m a s . Nobody knows" ( 2 8 ) . T h i s c o n t r a s t w i l l assume h e i g h t e n e d s i g n i f i c a n c e when t h e r e a d e r r e a l i z e s t h a t C a d d y , who i s c a p a b l e o f l o v e , p a r t a k e s o f t h e s p i r i t o f C h r i s t m a s , w h i l e t h e f r i g i d M r s . Compson c a n o n l y r e g a r d t h e c e l e b r a t i o n o f t h e b i r t h o f C h r i s t w i t h d r e a d . The i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s j u x t a p o s i t i o n become e v i d e n t i n S e c t i o n F o u r , w h e r e D i l s e y ' s c a p a c i t y f o r l o v e i s m a n i f e s t i n h e r r e s p o n s e t o t h e v i s i o n o f C h r i s t a t t h e E a s t e r s e r v i c e . J a s o n a n d M r s . Compson, b o t h o f whom a r e u n a b l e t o p a r t a k e o f t h e s p i r i t o f l o v e , r e g a r d E a s t e r a s an i n c o n v e n i e n c e . The humor o f c h i l d r e n i s a r e c u r r e n t m o t i f t h r o u g h o u t B e n j y ' s s e c t i o n t h a t h e l p s t o e v o k e t h e w o r l d o f c h i l d h o o d j o y . The two f o l l o w i n g e x a m p l e s t a k e p l a c e i n 1898 and 1910 r e s p e c t i v e l y . I n t h e l a t t e r t h e d r u n k e n l y e x u b e r a n t T.P. i s t h e s p e a k e r . "The one [room] n e x t t o i t i s w h e r e we h a v e t h e m e a s l e s . " C a d d y s a i d . "Where do y o u an d T.P. h a v e t h e m e a s l e s , F r o n y . " 50 "Has them j u s t w h e r e v e r we i s , I r e c k o n . " F r o n y s a i d . (57) Come o n , l e s d r i n k some more s a s s p r i l l u h . . . We b e t t e r g e t one more b o t t l e o r we b o t h be h o l l e r i n g . We c a n s a y Dan d r u n k i t . M r. Q u e n t i n a l w a y s s a y i n g he so s m a r t , we c a n s a y he s a s s p r i l l u h d o g , t o o . (58) O t h e r e p i s o d e s c o n t a i n i n g humor i n v o l v e c o m i c t r e a t m e n t s o f s e r i o u s t h e m e s . The e n m i t y b e t w e e n J a s o n a n d Caddy i s p r e s e n t i n t h e i r e a r l y y e a r s , b u t h a s n o t y e t h a r d e n e d i n t o i r r e v o c a b l e h a t r e d . " Y o u ' r e a s k i z z a r d . " J a s o n s a i d . He b e g a n t o c r y . " Y o u ' r e a k n o b n o t . " C a d d y s a i d . J a s o n c r i e d . H i s h a n d s w e r e i n h i s p o c k e t s . " J a s o n g o i n g t o be a r i c h man." V e r s h s a i d . "He h o l d i n g h i s money a l l t h e t i m e . " (55) Caddy a n d J a s o n w i l l c o n t i n u e t h e i r name c a l l i n g i n l a t e r y e a r s , b u t w i t h a b i t t e r n e s s t h a t i s n o t e v i d e n t i n t h i s i n s t a n c e . S t i l l o t h e r p a s s a g e s r e f l e c t t h e w h i m s i c a l n a t u r e o f Caddy r e v e a l i n g h e r a s s e r t i v e n e s s , h e r a c u t e n e s s o f p e r c e p t i o n a n d h e r a f f e c t i o n f o r B e n j y . M o t h e r l a y c r y i n g a g a i n s t t h e r e d a n d y e l l o w c u s h i o n . "Hush, M o t h e r . " Caddy s a i d . "You go u p -s t a i r s a n d l a y down, s o y o u c a n be s i c k . " (.83) F a u l k n e r ' s s e n s e o f humor i s n o t c o n f i n e d t o t h e B e n j y s e c t i o n , b e i n g m a n i f e s t i n a l l p a r t s o f t h e n o v e l , a s I w i l l a t t e m p t t o show i n l a t e r c h a p t e r s . B u t t h e a u t h o r d o e s c o n v e y a w o r l d o f c h i l d h o o d humor a n d w h i m s e y w h i c h d i s s o l v e s away a s he moves i n t o s u b s e q u e n t s e c t i o n s , a n d t h e i m p l i c a -t i o n s o f t h e Compson e x p e r i e n c e become more s e r i o u s . The r e n d e r i n g o f humor i s o n l y one f a c t o r i n F a u l k n e r ' s 51 p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e j o y s o f i n n o c e n c e . B e n j y ' s s e n s u o u s r e s p o n s e t o phenomena s u c h a s t h e c u r l i n g f l o w e r s p a c e s , t h e b r i g h t g r a s s , t h e r e d f l a g f l a p p i n g i n t h e b r e e z e a n d t h e b i r d u p o n i t c o n v e y s a p a s t o r a l - l i k e w o r l d . A k i n d o f harmony i s s u g g e s t e d b y t h e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e o f B e n j y ' s r e a c t i o n s t o t h e p e o p l e he o b s e r v e s . T h i s i s i l l u s t r a t e d by t h e f o l l o w i n g p a s s a g e : "Then t h e y w e n t o n , a n d I w e n t a l o n g t h e f e n c e . L u s t e r came away f r o m t h e f l o w e r t r e e a n d we w e n t a l o n g t h e f e n c e a n d t h e y s t o p p e d a n d we s t o p p e d " ( 2 3 ) . The i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e s e l i n e s becomes c l e a r e r l a t e r i n S e c t i o n One. They moaned at Dilsey's house. Dilsey was moaning. When Dilsey moaned Luster said, Hush, and we hushed, and then I began to cry and Blue howled under the kitchen steps. Then Dilsey stopped and we stopped. (52) I n t h e f i r s t e x c e r p t B e n j y ' s p h y s i c a l movement c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h o s e o f t h e p e o p l e he w a t c h e s , a n d i n t h e s e c o n d he s h a r e s D i l s e y ' s g r i e f . The p a s s a g e s s u g g e s t t h e way a c h i l d r e s p o n d s d i r e c t l y t o h i s e n v i r o n m e n t , l a u g h i n g when a d u l t s l a u g h a t s o m e t h i n g he c a n n o t " u n d e r s t a n d " o r c r y i n g b e c a u s e a n o t h e r c h i l d i s c r y i n g . T h i s i m m e d i a c y o f r e s p o n s e i s s u g g e s t e d i n t h e way B e n j y ' s c o n s c i o u s n e s s f l o w s u n i n h i -b i t e d l y f r o m one s c e n e t o a n o t h e r . He h a s t h e t o t a l i n v o l v e m e n t o f a c h i l d who c a n be h a p p y p l a y i n g i n one i n s t a n t , c a n bump h i m s e l f a n d be w h o l e h e a r t e d l y c r y i n g t h e n e x t moment a n d c a n be i n s t a n t l y made ha p p y a g a i n by a t o y ( o r i n t h i s c a s e by t h e s l i p p e r o f a d e p a r t e d s i s t e r ) . 52 The f l o w o f B e n j y ' s c o n s c i o u s n e s s i s p r i m a r i l y r e f l e c t e d t h r o u g h t h e r h y t h m o f t h e p r o s e o f h i s s e c t i o n . F a u l k n e r i s a b l e t o i d e n t i f y w i t h B e n j y o n s o i n t e n s e a n i m a g i n a t i v e l e v e l t h a t he i s a b l e t o c o n v e y t h e r h y t h m o f t h e i d i o t - c h i l d ' s c o n s c i o u s n e s s . E d e l r e c o g n i z e s t h a t t h e j o y o f i n n o c e n c e i s e v o c a t i v e l y r e n d e r e d t h r o u g h t h e f l o w o f t h e l a n g u a g e , r e f e r r i n g t o t h e movement a s "a d a n c e o f t h e s e n s e s . " 2 5 I n t e r e s t i n g l y e n o u g h , H e n r i B e r g s o n u s e s t h e same m e t a p h o r i n h i s e s s a y " L a u g h t e r . " H i s comment d e s c r i b e s w h a t F a u l k n e r i s d o i n g i n t h e f i r s t t h r e e s e c t i o n s o f The Sound and the Fury, O t h e r s d e l v e y e t d e e p e r s t i l l . B e n e a t h t h e s e j o y s a n d s o r r o w s w h i c h c a n , a t a p i n c h , be t r a n s -l a t e d i n t o l a n g u a g e , t h e y g r a s p s o m e t h i n g t h a t h a s n o t h i n g i n common w i t h l a n g u a g e , c e r t a i n r h y t h m s o f l i f e a n d b r e a t h t h a t a r e c l o s e r t o man t h a n h i s i n m o s t f e e l i n g s , b e i n g t h e l i v i n g l a w — v a r y i n g w i t h e a c h i n d i v i d u a l — o f h i s e n t h u s i a s m a n d d e s p a i r , h i s h o p e s a n d r e g r e t s . By s e t t i n g f r e e a n d e m p h a s i z i n g t h e m u s i c , t h e y f o r c e i t u p o n o u r a t t e n t i o n ; t h e y c o m p e l u s . . . t o f a l l i n w i t h i t , l i k e p a s s e r s - b y who j o i n i n a . d a n c e . A n d t h u s t h e y i m p e l u s t o s e t i n m o t i o n i n t h e d e p t h s o f o u r b e i n g , some s e c r e t c h o r d w h i c h was o n l y w a i t i n g t o t h r i l l . 2 6 J o y c e h a d u s e d v e r b a l a n d m u s i c a l m o t i f s t o r e f l e c t t h e d i f f e r e n t c o n s c i o u s n e s s e s i n t h e S i r e n s c h a p t e r o f Ulysses. I n The Sound and the Fury t h e r e n d e r i n g o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s ' l i f e - r h y t h m s i s l e s s o f a d e v i c e a n d more o f a n i n t e g r a l p a r t o f F a u l k n e r ' s c o n c e p t i o n o f them. I n t h e f i r s t t h r e e s e c t i o n s o f t h e n o v e l he c o n v e y s t h r e e d i f f e r e n t r h y t h m s w h i c h r e f l e c t t h e i n n e r m o s t b e i n g s o f t h e Compson b r o t h e r s . A l t h o u g h I a g r e e w i t h B e r g s o n t h a t t h i s k i n d o f 53 achievement i s e s s e n t i a l l y beyond words and l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s , I would n e v e r t h e l e s s l i k e to examine s e v e r a l o f Benjy's passages i n an attempt t o c l a r i f y F a u l k n e r ' s r e n d e r i n g of the i d i o t - c h i l d ' s c o n s c i o u s n e s s . I t was r e d , f l a p p i n g on the p a s t u r e . Then t h e r e was a b i r d s l a n t i n g and t i l t i n g on i t . L u s t e r threw. The f l a g f l a p p e d on the b r i g h t g r a s s and the t r e e s . I h e l d to the fe n c e . (24) Versh set me down and we went into Mother's room. There was a fire. It was rising and falling on the walls. There was another fire in the mirror. I could smell the sickness. It was a cloth folded on Mother's head. Her hair was on the -pillow. The fire didn't reach i t , but it shone on her hand, where her rings were jumping. (80) In the f i r s t passage the l a c k o f " c o n n e c t i v e t i s s u e between h i s s e n t e n c e s " 2 7 r e f l e c t s Benjy's i n a b i l i t y to under-stand c a u s e - e f f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p s . E v e r y t h i n g i s i n motion: the r e d f l a g i s f l a p p i n g , the b i r d i s s l a n t i n g and t i l t i n g . L u s t e r , who i s o f t e n a d i s r u p t i v e f o r c e f o r Benjy, throws, the b i r d d i s a p p e a r s and the f l a g f l a p s as i t d i d b e f o r e . I t i s g e n e r a l l y accepted t h a t p a r t i c i p l e s convey the s t r o n g e s t sense of a c t i o n , t h a t " I t i s f l a p p i n g " i s more v i v i d and immediate than " I t f l a p s . " P a r t i c i p l e s are prominent i n the c i t e d passages and throughout S e c t i o n One. The s i m p l i c i t y of the syntax suggests the d i r e c t n e s s and l a c k of complica-t i o n o f Benjy's responses. The concreteness o f each l i n e r e f l e c t s h i s i n a b i l i t y t o a b s t r a c t . Each sentence i s c l e a r and c o n t a i n e d , m a n i f e s t i n g the way Benjy g i v e s t o t a l concen-t r a t i o n to whatever i m p r e s s i o n he i s r e n d e r i n g a t the time. T h i s c o n c e n t r a t i o n i s e v i d e n t i n the c l a r i t y o f f o c u s and 54 u n i t y o f p e r c e p t i o n c o n v e y e d i n e a c h s e n t e n c e . B e n j y ' s e m o t i o n s a r e a s c l e a r a s t h e d e t a i l s r e n d e r e d i n t h e s e p a s s a g e s b e c a u s e t h e y a r e p u r e l i k e t h e l a u g h t e r a n d g r i e f o f a c h i l d . S i c k n e s s i s n o t s o m e t h i n g a b s t r a c t t o B e n j y b u t i s s m e l l e d a n d e v e n s e e n . The s y n e s t h e s i a F a u l k n e r u s e s t h r o u g h -o u t t h e f i r s t s e c t i o n r e f l e c t s t h e i n t e n s i t y o f u n i n h i b i t e d s e n s u o u s r e s p o n s e s . The f i r e i s r e n d e r e d by h i s c o n s c i o u s -n e s s n o t a s a s t a t i c p i c t u r e , b u t a s s o m e t h i n g r i s i n g a n d f a l l i n g . When l o o k i n g a t M r s . Compson, who i s s t a g n a n t , he s e e s r i n g s j u m p i n g i n t h e r e f l e c t e d f i r e l i g h t . The s e n s e o f m o t i o n c o n v e y s t h e f a c t t h a t " e v e r y t h i n g a p p e a r s t o h i m i n d r a m a t i c t e r m s . " 2 8 I t a l s o r e n d e r s t h e movement w h i c h i s t h e f l o w o f h i s c o n s c i o u s n e s s . T h o u g h c o m p l e t e l y p a s s i v e o n a p h y s i c a l l e v e l , B e n j y h a s a n a c t i v e s e n s i b i l i t y . T h i s i s b e c a u s e he h a s no p r e c o n c e p t i o n s , no r e p r e s s i o n t h a t e r e c t s b a r r i e r s b e t w e e n t h e e x t e r n a l w o r l d a n d h i s p e r c e p t i o n o f i t . The v a r i e t y o f B e n j y ' s r e s p o n s e s i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e t h i r d p a s s a g e I h a v e s e l e c t e d f o r a n a l y s i s . I n some r e s p e c t s i t s e r v e s a s a m i c r o c o s m o f t h e e n t i r e s e c t i o n . C a d d y was w a l k i n g . T h e n s h e was r u n n i n g , h e r b o o k s a t c h e l s w i n g i n g a n d j o u n c i n g b e h i n d h e r . " H e l l o , B e n j y . " Caddy s a i d . She o p e n e d t h e g a t e and came i n a n d s t o o p e d down. Caddy s m e l l e d l i k e l e a v e s . " D i d y o u come t o m eet me." s h e s a i d , " D i d y o u come t o meet C a d d y . What d i d y o u l e t h i s h a n d s g e t so c o l d f o r V e r s h . " " I t o l d h i m t o k e e p them i n h i s p o c k e t s . " V e r s h s a i d . " H o l d i n g o n t o t h a t a hun g a t e . " 55 "Did you come to meet Caddy." she said, rubbing my hands. "What i s i t . What are you tryi n g to t e l l Caddy." Caddy smelled l i k e trees and l i k e when she says we were asleep. (26) The three basic modes of Benjy's perception are evident i n t h i s excerpt. There i s an a l t e r n a t i o n of the i d i o t - c h i l d ' s d e s c r i p t i o n of events with his recording of conversations, and his rendering of his own sense-impressions. By employing t h i s p r i n c i p l e of a l t e r n a t i o n Faulkner avoids the danger of monotony inherent i n a point of view which precludes r e f l e c -t i o n . Variety i s conveyed both through the use of t h i s p r i n c i p l e and because of the fact that Benjy's consciousness i s receptive to experience, capturing the d i f f e r e n t speech patterns and mannerisms of each person. This sense of var i e t y i s absent from the consciousness of a r e f l e c t o r , such as Jason, who perceives a l l men as f o o l s and a l l women as bitches. Unlike Quentin and Jason who l i v e In a world of concepts which d i s t o r t and mute t h e i r perception of the outside world Benjy responds openly to experience. The var i e t y r e f l e c t s the f a c t that l i f e i s always new and e x c i t i n g to the idiot-child,who i s i n a constant state of stimulation. In t h i s instance the stimulation i s intensely pleasurable. The sense of motion manifest throughout the section i s e s p e c i a l l y strong i n t h i s passage. Faulkner suggests on a number of occasions that he equates l i f e with motion and death with immobility. 2 9 The eagerness of Caddy to greet Benjy i s conveyed through her sense of movement. 56 T h i s i s e v i d e n t i n the f i r s t two sentences where the words "wal k i n g , " " r u n n i n g , " "swinging" and " j o u n c i n g " c o n t r i b u t e g r e a t l y i n r e n d e r i n g her motion. Benjy's f e e l i n g of s e c u r i t y i s suggested by h i s p e r c e i v i n g h i s s i s t e r i n harmony w i t h nature: "Caddy smelled l i k e t r e e s . " He i s comforted by the p l e a s a n t s e n s a t i o n of having h i s hands warmed. T h i s g e s t u r e i s an e x t e r n a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n of the warming e f f e c t t h a t her l o v e has upon him. A l t h o u g h the author conveys a s t r o n g sense of c h i l d -hood joy and harmony, he does not i d e a l i z e the s t a t e o f innocence. In F a u l k n e r ' s own words Benjy r e p r e s e n t s the " b l i n d s e l f - c e n t e r e d n e s s o f i n n o c e n c e . " 3 0 He i s unable t o conc e i v e of Caddy as a person who must grow up and respond to l i f e and whatever lo v e she can f i n d o u t s i d e of the Compson household. He i n s t i n c t i v e l y p r o t e s t s her d e v e l o p i n g r e l a -t i o n s w i t h young men. His moaning d u r i n g Caddy's adolescence i s h i s e q u i v a l e n t of Quentin's p r o t e s t a g a i n s t time and change, s i n c e Benjy has no concept of time as an e n t i t y , but merely the f e e l i n g of l o s s t h a t time b r i n g s . H i s i n a b i l i t y t o c o n s i d e r o t h e r s i s rendered i n the f o l l o w i n g l i n e s : L u s t e r had some s p o o l s and he and Quentin fought and Quentin had the s p o o l s . L u s t e r c r i e d and Frony came and gave L u s t e r a t i n can to p l a y w i t h , and then I had the spools and Quentin fought me and I c r i e d . "Hush." Frony s a i d , " A i n t you shamed of y o u r s e l f . Taking a baby's p l a y p r e t t y . " "You have to keep him down here." Frony s a i d . "He f i g h t i n g these babies a g a i n . " C49-50) John Hunt a c u t e l y observes of Benjy t h a t " h i s s e l f - c e n t e r e d 57 idiocy e f f e c t i v e l y undercuts any tendency that the reader might have to exalt his nonrationality . 1 , 3 1 Faulkner treats innocence as an ambivalent state of consciousness. The l y r i c beauty of many of Benjy's passages presents his i n s t i n c t i v e responsiveness to l i f e and his capacity for joy. But Faulkner reminds us, as Evelyn Scott noted, that "Innocence i s t e r r i b l e as well as p a t h e t i c . " 3 2 E r i c h Neumann discusses the l i m i t a t i o n s of innocence more f u l l y . He observes that: the t o t a l r e a c t i v i t y of pr i m i t i v e man i s no subject for romanticism. We must r e a l i z e that, l i k e the child,he was forced into t o t a l reaction by any and every content that emerged, and overpowered by his emotionality and the underlying images, acted as a t o t a l i t y , b u t without freedom. 3 3 Thus, an event such as an e c l i p s e might overwhelm pr i m i t i v e man, stampeding him into committing a human s a c r i f i c e . Like-wise, a ride around a Confederate War monument i n an unaccustomed d i r e c t i o n might cause a pri m i t i v e conscious-ness to panic. Despite his l i m i t a t i o n s Benjy i s extremely important i n The Sound and the Fury. In an interview i n Japan Faulkner suggests that the germ of the book lay i n his conception of Benjy. Having conceived of him, the author began to speculate "where could he get the tenderness" 3 h he needed. Although t h i s statement should be viewed as but one of a number of Faulkner's c o n f l i c t i n g versions of the o r i g i n s of The Sound and the Fury, i t i s an in t e r e s t i n g one. I t shares with the version of the novel beginning "with the picture of 58 the l i t t l e g i r l ' s muddy d r a w e r s " 3 5 an emphasis on the importance of Caddy, s i n c e i t i s she who i s the c h i e f p r o v i d e r of the tenderness needed by the i d i o t - c h i l d . Caddy's warm spontaneous l o v e of Benjy and h i s p o s i t i v e response to i t are the most important f a c t o r s i n d e t e r m i n i n g the r e a d e r ' s p e r c e p t i o n of her. Through Benjy's p e r s p e c t i v e F a u l k n e r i s a b l e to convey a l a s t i n g i m p r e s s i o n of her v i t a l i t y . T h i s i m p r e s s i o n , though somewhat m o d i f i e d by other p e r s p e c t i v e s , i s never negated. The q u e s t i o n o f where Benjy would get the a f f e c t i o n n e c e s s a r y to s u s t a i n him i s the key to the touchstone aspect of the f i r s t s e c t i o n . I t most c l e a r l y i l l u m i n a t e s the a f f i r m a t i v e q u a l i t i e s of Caddy and D i l s e y and the l a c k of compassion i n Mrs. Compson and Jason. Quentin, though fond of Benjy, has l i t t l e t o do w i t h him. H i s d i s p l a y s of a f f e c -t i o n are r a r e compared to those of Caddy and D i l s e y . When he does show concern, Benjy observes t h a t "Quentin smelled l i k e r a i n " (85). Mr. Compson's a f f e c t i o n a t e r e f e r r a l t o h i s i d i o t - s o n as " o l d f e l l o w " (81) r e v e a l s the more p o s i t i v e s i d e of h i s n a t u r e ; whereas Uncle Maury's s e l f - c e n t e r e d use of people and h i s d e s p e r a t i o n are m a n i f e s t i n h i s employment of Benjy as a messenger to Mrs. P a t t e r s o n . In a d d i t i o n to s e r v i n g as a touchstone and p r o v i d i n g the "groundwork" f o r i m p l i c a t i o n s to be developed i n sub-sequent s e c t i o n s , Benjy has another major f u n c t i o n i n The Sound and the Fury. He may be regarded as an image of the 59 b a s i c c o n d i t i o n o f t h e Compson b r o t h e r s . He i s e s s e n t i a l l y p a s s i v e a n d t o t a l l y u n a b l e t o c o n t r o l h i s own f a t e . A s F a u l k n e r s a y s , " G o d h a d s t r i c k e n h i m b l i n d a t b i r t h . . . t h e r e was n o t h i n g he c o u l d e v e r do a b o u t i t . " 3 6 He t h u s becomes a s y m b o l o f t h e Compson b r o t h e r s who a r e b e s e t by f o r c e s b e y o n d t h e i r c o n t r o l . T h i s d o e s n o t n e g a t e t h e f a c t t h a t Q u e n t i n a n d J a s o n h a v e more r e s o u r c e s a t t h e i r d i s p o s a l a n d h e n c e more r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r t h e i r d e s t i n y t h a n B e n j y d o e s . C o n t r a d i c t o r y p a t t e r n s e x i s t w i t h i n t h e F a u l k n e r i a n n o v e l . T h e i r p r e s e n c e i s a m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f t h e a u t h o r ' s b e l i e f t h a t t h e n a t u r e o f " t h e t r u t h " i s c o m p l e x and s h i f t i n g a n d c a n n o t be r e d u c e d t o a n y s i n g l e p a t t e r n . T h u s , f r o m one p o i n t o f v i e w t h e Compson b r o t h e r s a r e d i f f e r e n t f r o m e a c h o t h e r , a s m a n i f e s t by t h e f a c t t h a t t h e two e l d e r o n e s b e a r some r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r what h a p p e n s t o them, w h i l e t h e y o u n g e s t d o e s n o t . F r o m a n o t h e r a n g l e o f v i s i o n B e n j y i s a s y m b o l o f t h e v i c t i m i z a t i o n w h i c h b e s e t s a l l t h r e e b r o t h e r s who a r e u n a b l e t o c o p e w i t h t h e i r o v e r w h e l m i n g p r o b l e m s . I n h i s i n a b i l i t y t o a d j u s t t o c h a n g i n g c i r c u m s t a n c e s he d r a m a t i z e s t h e Compson d i l e m m a . T h e i r f e e l i n g o f b e i n g t r a p p e d i s r e f l e c t e d i n B e n j y ' s l i t e r a l c o n f i n e m e n t w i t h i n t h e f a m i l y g a t e s . I s u g g e s t t h a t B e n j y i s n o t o n l y one v e r s i o n o f t h e Compson b r o t h e r s ' d i l e m m a , b u t i s a k i n d o f o b j e c t i v e c o -r e l a t i v e d r a m a t i z i n g i n e x t e r n a l i z e d a n d u l t i m a t e t e r m s t h e 6 0 s i t u a t i o n t h a t c o n f r o n t s a l l o f them. The c r i s i s o f i d e n t i t y , r e f l e c t e d i n Q u e n t i n ' s i n a b i l i t y t o u p h o l d a n i d e a l i s t i c t r a d i t i o n a n d i n J a s o n ' s r e n u n c i a t i o n o f t h e Compsons, i s m a n i f e s t i n B e n j y ' s l i t e r a l c h a n g e o f name. The Compsons a r e o b s e s s e d by r e m e m b r a n c e s o f s u p p o s e d l y h a p p i e r t i m e s . B e n j y i s a n i mage o f a c o n s c i o u s n e s s e n g u l f e d by t h e p a s t . P r e s e n t e v e n t s c o n t i n u a l l y r e l e a s e a f l o o d o f m e m o r i e s f o r h i m . W h ereas a l l t h r e e b r o t h e r s f a i l t o c o m m u n i c a t e , B e n j y l i t e r a l l y c a n n o t t a l k . Q u e n t i n , t h o u g h c a p a b l e o f b e i n g a r t i c u l a t e , h a s l i t t l e d i a l o g u e w i t h t h e o u t s i d e w o r l d , b e i n g o v e r w h e l m e d by m e m o r i e s o f t h e p a s t . J a s o n , t h o u g h he q u i b b l e s w i t h e v e r y o n e u n f o r t u n a t e e n o u g h t o c r o s s h i s p a t h , h a s no r e a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h a n y o n e ; he t a l k s more t o h i m s e l f t h a n he d o e s t o o t h e r s . B e n j y , t h o u g h r e s p o n d i n g i n t e n s e l y t o t h e w o r l d a r o u n d h i m , t o t a l l y l a c k s t h e a b i l i t y t o a r t i c u l a t e . H i s i n a b i l i t y t o c o m m u n i c a t e i s s u g g e s t e d i n t h e o p e n i n g l i n e s o f t h e n o v e l , when he c a n o n l y moan a f t e r h e a r i n g t h e g o l f e r ' s c r y o f " H e r e , c a d d i e . " A t t h i s p o i n t t h e r e a d e r c a n n o t c o m p r e h e n d t h e r e a s o n f o r B e n j y ' s m o a n i n g , a n d i s t h u s made t o p a r t a k e i n t h e n o n - c o m m u n i c a t i o n t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e s B e n j y ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e o u t s i d e w o r l d . T h o u g h e v i d e n t t h r o u g h o u t t h e b o o k , t h i s f a i l u r e o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n i s m o s t v i v i d l y i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e p a s s a g e d e s c r i b i n g B e n j y ' s b u r s t i n g o u t o f t h e Compson g a t e s i n h i s f u t i l e a t t e m p t t o b r e a k t h r o u g h t h e b a r r i e r s t h a t c o n f i n e h i m . 61 "I'm s c a r e d . " "He w o n ' t h u r t y o u . I p a s s h e r e e v e r y d a y . He j u s t r u n s a l o n g t h e f e n c e . " T h e y came o n . I o p e n e d t h e g a t e a n d t h e y s t o p p e d , t u r n i n g . I was t r y i n g t o s a y , a n d I c a u g h t h e r , t r y i n g t o s a y , a n d s h e s c r e a m e d a n d 1 was t r y i n g t o s a y a n d t r y i n g a n d t h e b r i g h t s h a p e s b e g a n t o s t o p a n d I t r i e d t o g e t o u t . I t r i e d t o g e t i t o f f my f a c e , b u t t h e b r i g h t s h a p e s w e r e g o i n g a g a i n . They w e r e g o i n g up t h e h i l l t o w h e r e i t f e l l away a n d I t r i e d t o c r y . B u t when I b r e a t h e d i n , I c o u l d n ' t b r e a t h e o u t a g a i n t o c r y , and I t r i e d t o k e e p f r o m f a l l i n g o f f t h e h i l l a n d I f e l l o f f t h e h i l l i n t o t h e b r i g h t , w h i r l i n g s h a p e s . Here, loony, Luster said. Here come some. Hush your slobbering and moaning now. (72) B e n j y ' s f a i l u r e i n h i s a t t e m p t a t c o m m u n i c a t i o n i s i n t e n s e l y r e n d e r e d t h r o u g h t h e s e n t e n c e f r a g m e n t " t r y i n g t o s a y . " The i n c o m p l e t e n e s s o f h i s e f f o r t i s c o n v e y e d t h r o u g h t h e i n c o m p l e t e n e s s o f t h e s e n t e n c e . The f a i l u r e o p e r a t e s on t h e s e x u a l l e v e l a s w e l l a s t h e v e r b a l o n e . What B e n j y a c t u a l l y d o e s i s l e f t a m b i g u o u s , b u t t h e r e c a n be no d o u b t t h a t h i s r e s p o n s e i s b a s i c a l l y s e x u a l . He i s s e e k i n g t h e c o m f o r t a n d w a r m t h t h a t he o n c e f o u n d i n Caddy,who u s e d t o m e e t h i m a t t h e g a t e o n h e r r e t u r n f r o m s c h o o l . H i s a c t i o n i s n o t made e x p l i c i t , s i n c e t h e s e c t i o n r e f l e c t s t h e c o n -s c i o u s n e s s o f B e n j y , w h o h a s no k n o w l e d g e o f s e x . By r e n d e r i n g t h e s c e n e f r o m t h e i d i o t - c h i l d ' s p o i n t o f v i e w , F a u l k n e r i s a b l e t o c o n v e y b o t h B e n j y ' s l a c k o f m a l i c e a n d t h e t e r r o r o f t h e g i r l who s c r e a m e d . P r e s e n t e d f r o m t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h e i d i o t - c h i l d t h e e p i s o d e becomes a c e n t r a l s y m b o l o f t h e f a i l u r e o f h u m a n i t y t o c o m m u n i c a t e . The s c e n e p o r t r a y s t h e u r g e n c y o f t h e n e e d f o r human u n d e r -s t a n d i n g a n d t h e i n a b i l i t y t o a c h i e v e i t . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g 62 t o n o t e t h a t i n d i s c u s s i n g h i s own f a i l u r e t o c o m m u n i c a t e f u l l y h i s v i s i o n i n The Sound and the Fury, F a u l k n e r a g a i n u s e s t h e e x p r e s s i o n " t r y i n g t o s a y . " 3 7 B e n j y ' s t h o u g h t s f l o w f r o m t h e e p i s o d e i t s e l f i n w h i c h he " c a u g h t h e r " t o t h e s u b s e q u e n t c a s t r a t i o n w h e r e he c a n o n l y remember t r y i n g t o a v o i d t h e a n e s t h e t i c f o r t h e o p e r a t i o n . " I t r i e d t o g e t i t o f f my f a c e . . . . B u t when I b r e a t h e d i n , I c o u l d n ' t b r e a t h e o u t a g a i n t o c r y " ( 7 2 ) . I n r e s p e c t t o t h e g e l d i n g , B e n j y a g a i n becomes t h e o b j e c t i f i c a -t i o n o f a s i t u a t i o n w h i c h a p p l i e s t o t h e Compson b r o t h e r s a n d r e s o n a t e s o u t w a r d t o i m p l y a c o n d i t i o n o f T w e n t i e t h C e n t u r y man. A l l o f t h e b r o t h e r s f a i l i n s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s w i t h women. Q u e n t i n d i e s a c e l i b a t e , l a m e n t i n g t h e f a c t t h a t i t i s C a d d y , r a t h e r t h a n h e , who i s n o t a v i r g i n . J a s o n d o e s h a v e a r e l a t i o n s h i p o f s o r t s w i t h a p r o s t i t u t e named L o r r a i n e , b u t k e e p s i t o n a b u s i n e s s - l i k e b a s i s i n w h i c h he g e t s w h a t he p a y s f o r . The t h r e e b r o t h e r s a r e a l l i n e f f e c t s t e r i l e , b u t i t i s B e n j y who i s l i t e r a l l y c a s t r a t e d . B e i n g a v i c t i m o f f o r c e s b e y o n d h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g a n d c o n t r o l , he c a n do no more t h a n moan a b o u t t h e l o s s . " J got undressed and I looked at myself, and I began to cry. Hush, Luster said. Looking for them aint going to do no good. They're gone." (92) The l o s s o f s e x u a l p o w e r s i s b o t h c r u c i a l i n i t s e l f a n d p a r t o f t h e l a r g e r p a t t e r n o f d i s p o s s e s s i o n a n d l o s s . T h i s m o t i f , l i k e s o many o t h e r s , i s i n i t i a t e d i n t h e f i r s t s c e n e w h e r e t h e g o l f e r s , a f t e r h i t t i n g t h e b a l l , "went away 63 a c r o s s t h e p a s t u r e " ( 2 3 ) . P e o p l e a n d o b j e c t s a r e c o n s t a n t l y d i s a p p e a r i n g f r o m B e n j y , s e e m i n g l y o f t h e i r own v o l i t i o n . I c i t e two i n s t a n c e s w h i c h r e i n f o r c e t h e s e n s e o f l o s s : I t r i e d t o p i c k up t h e f l o w e r s . L u s t e r p i c k e d t h e m up, a n d t h e y w e n t away. I. b e g a n t o c r y . (73) A l o n g p i e c e o f w i r e came a c r o s s my s h o u l d e r . I t w e n t t o t h e d o o r , a n d t h e n t h e f i r e w e n t away. I b e g a n t o c r y . (76) The room, t h e f i r e , t h e f l o w e r s , h i s t e s t i c l e s , h i s s i s t e r C a d d y , t h e p a s t u r e he l o v e s , a l l d i s a p p e a r f r o m B e n j y . H i s m o a n i n g o r " b e l l e r i n g " a b o u t h i s l o s s e s f o r m s a k i n d o f r e f r a i n i n P a r t One, e x p r e s s i n g t h e i d i o t - c h i l d ' s s e n s e o f t h e d i s r u p t i o n o f h i s w o r l d . M i c h a e l Cowan h a s p o i n t e d o u t t h a t a w e d d i n g a n d f o u r d e a t h s (Damuddy, Q u e n t i n , Mr. Compson, a n d R o s k u s ) a r e r e n d e r e d i n t h e f i r s t s e c t i o n a n d t h a t a s e n s e o f l o s s I s f e l t i n a l l f i v e e v e n t s . 3 8 The s u d d e n movements f r o m one s c e n e t o a n o t h e r s u g g e s t t h e way p e o p l e a n d o b j e c t s a r e c o n s t a n t l y d i s a p p e a r i n g f r o m B e n j y . The movement t h u s r e f l e c t s b o t h t h e p l e a s u r e o f a n u n i n h i b i t e d f l o w o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s a n d t h e p a i n o f s u d d e n i n e x p l i c a b l e l o s s . The f e e l i n g o f p a i n d o e s n o t n e g a t e t h e f u l f i l l m e n t i n B e n j y ' s l i f e b u t c o - e x i s t s w i t h i t ; i n r e l i v i n g h i s p l e a s a n t m e m o r i e s he r e l i v e s t h e i r l o s s , a s w e l l . The l i t e r a l way i n w h i c h t h i n g s seem t o d i s a p p e a r c o n v e y s t h e s e n s e o f l o s t o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n t h e l i v e s o f Q u e n t i n , J a s o n a n d a l l t h e Compsons. T h i s m o t i f , s t r o n g l y f e l t i n P a r t One, w i l l emerge i n t o f u l l f o c u s i n t h e Q u e n t i n m o n o l o g u e o f The Sound and the Fury.33 64 The w h o l e B e n j y s e c t i o n s u g g e s t s i m p l i c a t i o n s t h a t w i l l be a m p l i f i e d a n d f u r t h e r c l a r i f i e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e n o v e l . The f a c t t h a t s o much i s i n f e r r e d r a t h e r t h a n s t a t e d s e r v e s p a r a d o x i c a l l y t o h e i g h t e n b o t h t h e r e a d e r ' s i n v o l v e m e n t a n d d i s t a n c e f r o m B e n j y . The r e a d e r i s f o r c e d t o i d e n t i f y w i t h t h e i d i o t - c h i l d ' s p e r s p e c t i v e i n o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d w h a t i s h a p p e n i n g . T h i s e n a b l e s h i m t o a p p r e c i a t e t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e i n s t i n c t i v e p e r c e p t i o n s o f a n i n n o c e n t . Y e t t h e v e r y a c t o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g d o e s d i s t a n c e t h e r e a d e r f r o m B e n j y who c a n n o t c o m p r e h e n d w h a t i s h a p p e n i n g t o h i m . The s e n s e o f d i s t a n c e s e r v e s t o make u s a w a r e o f B e n j y ' s l i m i t a t i o n s . The more t h e r e a d e r becomes a w a r e o f t h e d e v i c e s and t e c h n i q u e s o f t h e a u t h o r , t h e more t h e f o c u s i s s h i f t e d away f r o m t h e c h a r a c t e r t o w a r d t h e c r e a t o r who i s p e r f o r m i n g t h e m a n i p u l a t i o n s . To i n t e r p r e t t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f B e n j y ' s e y e s , f o r e x a m p l e , a s p a r t o f t h e m o t i f o f s i g h t i n The Sound and the Fury i s t o e m p h a s i z e w h a t t h e a u t h o r i s d o i n g a n d d i s t a n c e o n e s e l f f r o m t h e s t o r y b e i n g t o l d . I n t h i s r e s p e c t t h e " p l e a s u r e o f d e c i p h e r i n g " c o n t r i b u t e s t o a s e n s e o f d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n t h e r e a d e r a n d t h e c h a r a c t e r s . S.L. G o l d b e r g s u g g e s t s , " T h e a r t i s t m u s t b a l a n c e o u r s e n s e o f t h e r e a l i t y o f h i s w o r l d . . . a g a i n s t o u r s e n s e o f i t a s a n a r t i f a c t . " 4 0 I n d i s c o v e r i n g s i g n i f i c a n t p a t t e r n s i n t h e n o v e l a n d i n r e c o g n i z i n g a r t i s t i c d e v i c e s , t h e r e a d e r becomes more a w a r e o f t h e w o r k a s a r t i f a c t . The f a c t t h a t t h e p o i n t o f v i e w i s n o t i n a c c o r d a n c e 65 w i t h a s t a n d a r d o f " s t r i c t v e r i s i m i l i t u d e " 1 * 1 f u r t h e r d i s t a n c e s t h e r e a d e r f r o m t h e c h a r a c t e r . S w i g g a r t h a s n o t e d t h a t d e s p i t e w h a t seems t o be a d i r e c t , s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d r e n d e r i n g o f B e n j y ' s p e r c e p t i o n s , " F a u l k n e r a v o i d s a n y d i r e c t s t a t e m e n t o f h i s one c l e a r l y d e f i n e d e m o t i o n , h i s l o v e f o r C a ddy." 1* 2 T h i s i s " r e a l i s t i c " e n o u g h s i n c e B e n j y w o u l d u n d e r s t a n d t h e e m o t i o n w i t h o u t h a v i n g u n d e r s t o o d t h e c o n c e p t a s e x p r e s s e d by t h e w o r d " l o v e . " I t m i g h t p l a u s i b l y be a r g u e d t h a t B e n j y h a s no c o n c e p t o f i n n o c e n c e p r e c i s e l y b e c a u s e he i s i n n o c e n c e i t s e l f . I t i s o n l y a f t e r i n n o c e n c e h a s b e e n l o s t t h a t t h e c o n s c i o u s n e s s i s a b l e t o c o n c e p t u a l i z e i t . B u t when B e n j y b u r n s h i s h a n d i n t h e f i r e , we m i g h t , j u d g i n g by a s t a n d a r d o f s t r i c t v e r i s i m i l i t u d e , e x p e c t h i m t o u t t e r some d i r e c t e x c l a m a t i o n o f p a i n s u c h a s "ow" o r " o u c h . " I n s t e a d F a u l k n e r r e n d e r s t h e s c e n e a s f o l l o w s : I p u t my h a n d o u t t o w h e r e t h e f i r e h a d b e e n . " C a t c h h i m . " D i l s e y s a i d . " C a t c h h i m b a c k . " My h a n d j e r k e d b a c k a n d I p u t i t i n my m o u t h a n d D i l s e y c a u g h t me. I c o u l d s t i l l h e a r t h e c l o c k b e t w e e n my v o i c e . D i l s e y r e a c h e d b a c k a n d h i t L u s t e r o n t h e h e a d . My v o i c e was g o i n g l o u d e v e r y t i m e . " G e t t h a t s o d a . " D i l s e y s a i d . C78) F a u l k n e r ' s t e c h n i q u e o f h a n d l i n g p o i n t o f v i e w h e r e i s m o s t a c c u r a t e l y d e s c r i b e d by J o h n Hunt,who s t a t e s t h a t " B e n j y ' s s e c t i o n d o e s n o t g i v e a n a c t u a l r e p r o d u c t i o n o f h i s m e n t a l p r o c e s s e s ; r a t h e r , a n i l l u s i o n o f v e r i s i m i l i t u d e i s c r e a t e d d r a m a t i c a l l y b y t h e o b j e c t i f i c a t i o n i n l a n g u a g e o f h i s i n t e r i o r l i f e . " 1 * 3 E m o t i o n s a r e i n f e r r e d f r o m s c e n e s such. 66 a s t h e one q u o t e d a b o v e . I n f a c t , a l l o f B e n j y ' s e m o t i o n s a r e i n f e r r e d , i n c l u d i n g h i s l o v e f o r C a d d y w h i c h i s r e n d e r e d t h r o u g h s t a t e m e n t s s u c h a s "Caddy s m e l l e d l i k e t r e e s " ( 2 6 ) . One e f f e c t o f t h i s t e c h n i q u e i s t o a c h i e v e a d e t a c h e d a n d i m p e r s o n a l manner o f r e n d e r i n g B e n j y ' s p a i n , l o v e a n d o t h e r e m o t i o n s . The s e n s e o f i n v o l v e m e n t a n d d i s t a n c e a r e b o t h i n t e n s e i n P a r t One, r e n d e r i n g t h e s i m u l t a n e o u s v a l i d i t y a n d d i s t o r t i o n o f t h e i d i o t - c h i l d ' s p e r s p e c t i v e . B e n j y i s b o t h a n e x t r e m e l y h e l p f u l a n d a h i g h l y l i m i t e d r e f l e c t o r o f c o n s c i o u s -n e s s . S e e i n g l i f e s o l e l y t h r o u g h h i s e y e s t h e r e a d e r c a n n o t p o s s i b l y h a v e a c l e a r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e Compson s i t u a t i o n . The f i r s t s e c t i o n p a r t i a l l y r e v e a l s t h e n a t u r e o f e x p e r i e n c e a n d p a r t i a l l y e v o k e s b e w i l d e r m e n t . I n o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e c o m p l e x i t i e s o f e x p e r i e n c e one m u s t f i r s t become i m m e r s e d i n i t , l o s t i n i t a s I s a a c M c C a s l i n becomes l o s t i n t h e w i l d e r n e s s , a n d t h e n s t r u g g l e t o emerge a n d a c h i e v e c l a r i t y . H a v i n g r e n d e r e d a t h o r o u g h l o o k a t t h e Compsons f r o m t h e p e r c e p t i v e b u t l i m i t e d v i e w o f i n n o c e n c e , F a u l k n e r i s now r e a d y t o move on t o a new a n g l e o f v i s i o n . L i k e a l l p e r s p e c -t i v e s i t w i l l c o n t a i n i t s d i s t o r t i o n s a s w e l l a s i t s v a l i d i t y . B u t i t w i l l move t h e r e a d e r one s t e p c l o s e r t o t h e o v e r v i e w w h i c h w i l l be h i s p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e t r u t h . CHAPTER 3 LONG CORRIDOR OF GREY HALFLIGHT 68 Having p r e s e n t e d t h e v i r t u e s and l i m i t a t i o n s o f a c o n s c i o u s n e s s u n a b l e t o c o n c e p t u a l i z e i n S e c t i o n One, F a u l k n e r d r a m a t i z e s i n P a r t Two t h e v a l i d i t y and d i s t o r t i o n s of a c o n s c i o u s n e s s g i v e n t o i n t e l l e c t u a l i z i n g . Q u e n t i n ' s monologue, l i k e B e n j y ' s , b e g i n s w i t h a r e f e r e n c e t o s i g h t w h i c h r e f l e c t s t h e n a t u r e o f h i s p e r c e p t i o n o f r e a l i t y . When t h e shadow o f t h e s a s h appeared on t h e c u r t a i n s i t was between seven and e i g h t o c l o c k and t h e n I was I n t i m e a g a i n , h e a r i n g t h e watch. I t was G r a n d f a t h e r ' s and when F a t h e r gave i t t o me he s a i d , Q u e n t i n , I g i v e you t h e mausoleum o f a l l hope and d e s i r e ; i t ' s r a t h e r e x c r u c i a t i n g - l y a p t t h a t you w i l l use i t t o g a i n t h e r e d u c t o absurdum o f human e x p e r i e n c e w h i c h can f i t y o u r I n d i v i d u a l needs no b e t t e r t h a n i t f i t t e d h i s o r h i s f a t h e r ' s . (95) The v a l i d i t y o f Q u e n t i n 1 s p e r s p e c t i v e stems from h i s c r i t i c a l i n t e l l i g e n c e , w h i c h e n a b l e s him t o r e f l e c t upon t h e s i g n i f i -c ance o f e x p e r i e n c e . He has a knowledge o f f a m i l y h i s t o r y and r e l e v a n t e v e n t s t h a t makes h i s c o n s c i o u s n e s s f a r more comprehensive t h a n B e n j y ' s . I n r e g a r d i n g t h e Compsons from Q u e n t i n ' s more knowledgeable p e r s p e c t i v e t h e r e a d e r undergoes an e x p a n s i o n o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s , s i n c e he i s a b l e t o v i e w t h e Compson dilemma from two p o i n t s o f v i e w , r a t h e r t h a n one, and s i n c e t h e second a n g l e o f v i s i o n c o n t a i n s a p e n e t r a t i n g a n a l y s i s w h i c h i s l a c k i n g i n t h e f i r s t p r e s e n t a t i o n . The c h i e f l i m i t a t i o n o f Q u e n t i n ' s p o i n t o f v i e w i s t h a t he i s l o c k e d w i t h i n a w o r l d o f h i s own c o n c e p t s and hence c u t o f f from t h e immediacy o f e x p e r i e n c e . Whereas Be n j y l o o k s a t l i f e t h r o u g h c u r l i n g f l o w e r s p a c e s , Q u e n t i n does n o t see t h r o u g h t h e window, b e h o l d i n g i n s t e a d t h e shadow of t h e s a s h . L i k e G a i l Hightower o f Light in August he i s 69 c u t o f f f r o m t h e w o r l d o u t s i d e o f h i s own room a n d o u t s i d e o f h i s own c o n s c i o u s n e s s . B o t h c h a r a c t e r s l i v e i n shadowy-w o r l d s r e m o v e d f r o m t h e l i g h t o f t h e s u n . I n b o t h i n s t a n c e s F a u l k n e r i s p r e s e n t i n g t h e i m a g e o f a n ego l o c k e d w i t h i n i t s e l f , u n a b l e t o c o m m u n i c a t e w i t h t h e o u t s i d e w o r l d . The r e s u l t i s a f e e l i n g o f c l a u s t r o p h o b i a o b j e c t i f i e d i n t h e im a g e o f t h e c h a r a c t e r d w e l l i n g w i t h i n a s m a l l , e n c l o s e d room, u n a b l e t o s e e b e y o n d i t . Q u e n t i n ' s r e s p o n s e i s s o i n d i r e c t t h a t i t comes a s a s u r p r i s e f o r t h e r e a d e r t o r e a l i z e t h a t S e c t i o n Two b e g i n s o n a b r i g h t summer m o r n i n g . Q u e n t i n ' s f a i l u r e t o l o o k d i r e c t l y a t e x p e r i e n c e i s s u g g e s t e d i n h i s s t a t e m e n t t h a t " I f i t h a d b e e n c l o u d y I c o u l d h a v e l o o k e d a t t h e window" ( 9 6 ) . I n s t e a d o f t h e a p p r e h e n s i o n o f s u n l i g h t , g r e e n g r a s s a n d b i r d s t h a t a r e p r e s e n t e d t h r o u g h t h e c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f B e n j y , we s e e t h r o u g h Q u e n t i n ' s e y e s o n l y " t h e shadow o f t h e s a s h . " A l t h o u g h t h e shadow i s a f l u i d s y m b o l w i t h many r e s o n a n c e s i n The Sound and the Fury, one m e a n i n g i s c l e a r l y s u g g e s t e d i n t h e f i r s t s e n t e n c e o f P a r t Two. I t r e f l e c t s t h e way Q u e n t i n p e r c e i v e s l i f e i n d i r e c t l y , r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e shadow c a u s e d by t h e s u n , r a t h e r t h a n t o t h e s u n a n d t h e o b j e c t i t s e l f . H u n t s t a t e s t h a t f o r Q u e n t i n " E x t e r n a l r e a l i t y i n t h e f i n a l s t a g e i s o b l i q u e , s h a d e d , a n d m i r r o r e d , n o t d i r e c t l y a n d i m m e d i a t e l y e x p e r i e n c e d . " 1 He f u r t h e r n o t e s t h a t The i m a g e s o f o b l i q u i t y a r e f o r Q u e n t i n t h e e n t i r e c o n t e n t o f h i s e x p e r i e n c e . . . . O n l y 70 by an o v e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f r e a l i t y , t h e p r o d u c t o f a p r e c i o u s i n t e l l e c t u a l i z a t i o n w h e r e an o b j e c t i s l e s s r e a l t h a n i t s shadow, w h e r e e v e n t s r e f l e c t e d a n d r e f l e c t e d u p o n a r e more a c t u a l t h a n t h e y a r e i n t h e i r f u l l i m m e d i a c y , i s Q u e n t i n a b l e t o m a i n t a i n a c o h e r e n t e x p e r i e n c e a t a l l . 2 I s u g g e s t t h a t Q u e n t i n ' s r e s i d e n c e a t H a r v a r d s y m b o l i z e s b o t h t h e a c u t e n e s s o f h i s i n t e l l i g e n c e a n d h i s d i s t a n c e f r o m t h e i m m e d i a c y o f e x p e r i e n c e . I n t h i s r e s p e c t i t i s a p a r t o f t h e l a r g e r p a t t e r n o f t h e book i n w h i c h e x t e r n a l l a n d s c a p e s r e f l e c t i n n e r s t a t e s o f m i n d . The l o c a t i o n o f t h e N e g r o c h u r c h a t a d i s t a n c e f r o m t h e w h i t e s e c t i o n o f t o w n arid t h e " r a i l e d e n c l o s u r e c l u t t e r e d w i t h s h e l v e s a n d p i g e o n h o l e s " (12). w h e r e J a s o n c o n d u c t s h i s b u s i n e s s a r e two o t h e r e x a m p l e s o f t h i s p a t t e r n . Q u e n t i n i s a n i n t e l l e c t u a l r e s i d i n g a t w h a t h a s t r a d i t i o n a l l y b e e n c o n s i d e r e d a s t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l c e n t e r o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . He i s t h e e l d e s t s o n a n d t h e hope o f t h e f a m i l y t o a f f i r m i t s t r a d i t i o n o f " g e n t i l i t y . " H i s a t t e n d i n g a n e x p e n s i v e a n d p r e s t i g i o u s u n i v e r s i t y w o u l d s u p p o r t t h e f a m i l y ' s c l a i m o f s t a t u r e . The c o s t t o t h e Compsons i s e m p h a s i z e d by t h e s a l e o f t h e p a s t u r e t o f i n a n c e Q u e n t i n ' s e x p e n s e s . The f a c t t h a t S e c t i o n Two t a k e s p l a c e i n C a m b r i d g e , M a s s a c h u s e t t s , i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e n o v e l e x p a n d s g e o g r a p h i c a l l y f r o m S e c t i o n One w h e r e B e n j y i s c o n f i n e d w i t h i n t h e e v e r -s h r i n k i n g Compson d o m a i n . The l i t e r a l e x p a n s i o n o f t h e l a n d s c a p e r e f l e c t s t h e e x p a n s i o n o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s t h a t t a k e s p l a c e . B u t t h e s e t t i n g o f P a r t Two r e f l e c t s t h e l i m i t a t i o n s a s w e l l a s t h e v a l i d i t y o f Q u e n t i n ' s v i e w , w h i c h i s b o t h a n 71 e x p a n s i o n a n d a c o n t r a c t i o n f r o m B e n j y ' s s e c t i o n . Q u e n t i n i s an u p r o o t e d S o u t h e r n e r w a n d e r i n g a r o u n d a i m l e s s l y i n a l i e n New E n g l a n d . The v e r y m e a g e r n e s s o f t h e M a s s a c h u s e t t s l a n d s c a p e c o m p a r e d t o t h e l u x u r i a n t g r o w t h o f t h e S o u t h c o n v e y s h i s s e n s e o f l o s s , e v e n t h o u g h a p a r t o f h i m s h r i n k s f r o m t h e f e c u n d i t y o f h i s h o m e l a n d . The l i t e r a l d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n H a r v a r d a n d J e f f e r s o n may be r e g a r d e d a s a s y m b o l o f Q u e n t i n ' s a l i e n a t i o n . He i s c u t o f f f r o m h i s own p a s t a n d f r o m a t r a d i t i o n w h i c h o n c e g a v e m e a n i n g t o t h e l i v e s o f h i s a n c e s t o r s . H a v i n g p a r t a k e n o f t h e f r u i t o f t h e t r e e o f k n o w l e d g e , he d w e l l s i n t h e w o r l d o f E x p e r i e n c e a n d l o o k s b a c k o n w h a t he i m a g i n e s t o h a v e b e e n t h e h a p p y s t a t e o f I n n o c e n c e . T h i s i s t h e b a s i s o f h i s f e e l i n g s o f e x i l e w h i c h a r e g i v e n e x t e r n a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n i n Q u e n t i n ' s d w e l l i n g i n a c o l l e g e d o r m i t o r y f a r f r o m home. . H i s l o s s o f i n n o c e n c e i s f i r s t s u g g e s t e d i n t h e B e n j y s e c t i o n . Of t h e f o u r c h i l d r e n Q u e n t i n i s t h e o n l y one who u n d e r s t a n d s t h a t h i s g r a n d m o t h e r h a s d i e d . A t a t i m e when Caddy s t i l l t h i n k s t h a t " W h i t e f o l k s d o n t h a v e f u n e r a l s " ( 5 2 ) , he h a s a l r e a d y g a i n e d k n o w l e d g e o f d e a t h . T h i s i s i m p l i e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g p a s s a g e : " Q u e n t i n a n d V e r s h came i n . Q u e n t i n h a d h i s f a c e t u r n e d away. 'What a r e y o u c r y i n g f o r . ' C addy s a i d " ( 9 2 ) . A l t h o u g h t h e l o s s o f i n n o c e n c e i s a l w a y s p a i n f u l , i t i s e s p e c i a l l y s o i n Q u e n t i n ' s c a s e , b e c a u s e he becomes a w a r e o f t h e d i s i n t e g r a t i o n o f h i s f a m i l y w h i c h seemed t o f u n c t i o n w e l l i n t h e p a s t . H i s l o n g i n g f o r 72 innocence r e f l e c t s his desire for the security that stems from the unquestioning f a i t h of childhood. But Quentin's nostalgic view of his own youth i s a re f u s a l to accept the inev i t a b l e a l t e r a t i o n s brought about by time and change. I t i s no less than a r e f u s a l to accept l i f e i t s e l f , since the l i f e - c y c l e i s not s t a s i s , but recurrence within an ever-changing movement. The only a l t e r n a t i v e s to growing up are early death or to remain forever locked i n childhood as Benjy does. But Faulkner has already shown i n Section One that to remain an eternal c h i l d i s an unsatisfactory s i t u a t i o n . I t i s one of the novel's pungent i r o n i e s that Quentin desires and i d e a l i z e s a state of consciousness embodied by Benjy. He i s never able to acknowledge to himself the ambivalence of innocence. Quentin yearns f o r the unity perceived i n the State of Innocence which contrasts with the disunity that takes place a f t e r the F a l l . E r i c h Neumann discusses t h i s change of perception i n terms of the development of the i n d i v i d u a l consciousness. Gradually,with the growth of consciousness things and places were organized into an abstract system and d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from one another; but o r i g i n a l l y thing and place belonged together i n a continuum and were f l u i d l y r e l a t e d to an ever-changing ego. In t h i s inchoate state there was no d i s t i n c t i o n between I and you , inside and out-side, or between men and things, just as there was no clear d i v i d i n g l i n e between man and the animals, man and man, man and the world. Every-thing p a r t i c i p a t e d i n everything else, l i v e d i n the same undivided and overlapping state i n the world of the unconscious. 73 T h i s p a s s a g e f o c u s s e s o n t h e u n i t y p e r c e i v e d i n t h e S t a t e o f I n n o c e n c e . I n t h e f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t s Neumann d e s c r i b e s t h e movement f r o m t h e s t a t e o f p r i m a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s t o t h e n e x t s t a g e : O n l y i n t h e l i g h t o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s c a n man know. And t h i s a c t o f c o g n i t i o n , o f c o n s c i o u s d i s c r i m i n a -t i o n , s u n d e r s t h e w o r l d i n t o o p p o s i t e s , f o r e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e w o r l d i s o n l y p o s s i b l e t h r o u g h o p p o s i t e s . '* N o t o n l y do d a y a n d n i g h t , b a c k a n d f r o n t , u p p e r a n d l o w e r , i n s i d e a n d o u t s i d e , I and you/ m a l e a n d f e m a l e , g r o w o u t o f t h i s d e v e l o p m e n t o f o p p o s i t e s . . . b u t . . . " s a c r e d " a n d " p r o f a n e " , " g o o d " a n d " e v i l " , a r e now a s s i g n e d t h e i r p l a c e i n t h e w o r l d . 5 The f r a g m e n t a t i o n i n Q u e n t i n ' s s e c t i o n r e f l e c t s t h e f a c t t h a t h i s k n o w l e d g e h a s s u n d e r e d t h e w o r l d i n t o p o l a r o p p o s i t e s . T r a p p e d i n a w o r l d o f d u a l i t y he d e s p e r a t e l y l o n g s f o r t h e u n i t y he f e l t a s a c h i l d . T h r o u g h Q u e n t i n , F a u l k n e r i s a b l e t o p o r t r a y t h e d a n g e r s i n h e r e n t i n t h e g r o w t h o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s . A s t h e i n t e l l e c t d e v e l o p s i t t e n d s t o c l a s s i f y a n d c o n c e p t u a l i z e . C o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n c a n s i m u l -t a n e o u s l y c l a r i f y a n d d i s t o r t p e r c e p t i o n a n d i s r e n d e r e d a s d o i n g b o t h i n t h e Q u e n t i n s e c t i o n . The g r o w t h o f c o n s c i o u s -n e s s i s e v i d e n t i n Q u e n t i n ' s p r o v i d i n g e v a l u a t i o n s o f e x p e r i e n c e s u c h a s h i s comment t h a t N e g r o e s "come i n t o w h i t e p e o p l e s l i v e s . . . i n s u d d e n s h a r p b l a c k t r i c k l e s t h a t i s o l a t e w h i t e f a c t s f o r a n i n s t a n t i n u n a r g u a b l e t r u t h l i k e u n d e r a m i c r o s c o p e " ( 1 8 9 ) . T h e s e j u d g m e n t s , t o t a l l y l a c k i n g i n S e c t i o n One, h e l p t h e r e a d e r i n t h e p r o c e s s o f e v a l u a t i n g e x p e r i e n c e . 74 The l i m i t a t i o n o f the i m p u l s e t o c l a s s i f y i s b e s t d e s c r i b e d by H e n r i Bergson,who terms i t " a n a l y s i s . " 6 He c o n t r a s t s i t t o t h e a c t o f i n t u i t i o n w h i c h he d e f i n e s as "the k i n d o f intellectual sympathy by whi c h one p l a c e s one-s e l f w i t h i n an o b j e c t i n o r d e r t o c o i n c i d e w i t h what i s un i q u e i n i t and c o n s e q u e n t l y i n e x p r e s s i b l e . " 7 Bergson s u g g e s t s t h a t c o n s c i o u s n e s s i s a c o n s t a n t l y c h a n g i n g p r o c e s s w h i c h can b e s t be apprehended t h r o u g h i n t u i t i o n . He sees a n a l y s i s as an a t t e m p t t o a p p l y f i x e d c o n c e p t s t o t h a t w h i c h i s e s s e n t i a l l y f l u i d . The l i m i t a t i o n s o f a n a l y s i s , summarized by Thomas A. Goudge i n t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n t o Bergson's Essay on Metaphysics a p p l y r e m a r k a b l y w e l l t o Q u e n t i n . (1) The i n t e l l e c t apprehends t h e w o r l d e x t e r n a l l y as a c o l l e c t i o n o f t h i n g s i n space . . . (2 ) The i n t e l l e c t d e a l s w i t h the w o r l d by means of d i s c r e t e u n i t s c a p a b l e o f b e i n g c o u n t e d o r measured. . . . (3) The i n t e l l e c t t r e a t s t h e w o r l d as though i t were f u n d a m e n t a l l y s t a t i c and i m m o b i l e . T h i s i s f o r Bergson t h e most s e r i o u s l i m i t a t i o n o f a l l . F o r i t means t h a t t h e i n t e l l e c t i s bound t o m i s u n d e r s t a n d t h e f a c t o f m o t i o n and change. 8 Q u e n t i n can not a c c e p t t h e changes i n h i s s i s t e r Caddy as she d e v e l o p s from a c h i l d t o an a d o l e s c e n t and i n t o a young woman. D e s p i t e h i s s y m p a t h e t i c n a t u r e he i s u n a b l e t o p r o v i d e t h e com p a s s i o n a t e u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t she needs i n a t i m e o f t r o u b l e . T h i s i s because Q u e n t i n i s bound by h i s c o n c e p t s o f how a woman s h o u l d a c t . He does " m i s u n d e r s t a n d t h e f a c t o f m o t i o n and change" i n i d e a l i z i n g t h e p a s t and d e p r e c a t i n g t h e p r e s e n t . He a l s o m a n i f e s t s t h e danger t h a t i n a p p r e h e n d i n g t h e w o r l d i n terms o f u n i t s one tends t o l o s e 75 t h e p r i m a l s e n s e o f u n i t y . B e n j y e m b o d i e s t h i s u n i t y w h i l e Q u e n t i n i s t h e m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f i t s l o s s . A c u t e l y a w a r e o f m i n u t e s a n d h o u r s he i s c u t o f f f r o m t h e c y c l e o f l i f e i t s e l f . I t seems a s i f Q u e n t i n i s a w a r e o f t i m e t h r o u g h o u t e v e r y m i n u t e o f h i s d a y . B e c a u s e he i s l i s t e n i n g f o r them he c o n s t a n t l y h e a r s t h e t i c k i n g o f c l o c k s a n d w a t c h e s , t h e r i n g i n g o f b e l l s a t f i f t e e n m i n u t e i n t e r v a l s a n d t h e s o u n d o f f a c t o r y w h i s t l e s . Q u e n t i n ' s a g o n i z e d a w a r e n e s s o f t h e p a s s i n g o f t i m e i s e x p r e s s e d t h r o u g h o u t h i s s e c t i o n f r o m t h e f i r s t s e n t e n c e o f h i s m o n o l o g u e when " i t was b e t w e e n s e v e n a n d e i g h t o c l o c k " (.95) t o t h e f i n a l p a r a g r a p h when "The l a s t n o t e s o u n d e d " ( 1 9 7 ) . F a u l k n e r ' s b e g i n n i n g a n d e n d i n g t h e m o n o l o g u e w i t h a r e f e r e n c e t o t i m e s u g g e s t s n o t o n l y a r e c u r r e n t m o t i f b u t a m e t a p h o r o f e n c l o s u r e . I t r e f l e c t s t h e f a c t t h a t Q u e n t i n i s n e v e r a b l e t o t r a n s c e n d h i s a w a r e -n e s s o f c h r o n o l o g i c a l t i m e . T hus h i s t h o u g h t s a n d f e e l i n g s t a k e p l a c e w i t h i n t h e e n c l o s e d l i m i t s o f t h i s a w a r e n e s s . Q u e n t i n i s o p p r e s s e d by b e i n g i n t i m e , a s i f i t w e r e a p r i s o n c o n f i n i n g a n d r e s t r i c t i n g h i m . I t i s a p r i s o n i n t h e s e n s e t h a t Q u e n t i n d e s i r e s e t e r n a l v a l u e s a n d f e e l s t r a p p e d i n t h e t e m p o r a l w o r l d . H i s t e a r i n g t h e h a n d s o f f t h e w a t c h s u g g e s t s h i s r e f u s a l t o a c c e p t t i m e , t h e p r e s e n t , c h a n g e a n d l i f e i t s e l f . 9 He i s m o s t d e e p l y t r o u b l e d by h i s f a t h e r ' s o p i n i o n t h a t h i s a g i t a t i o n o v e r C a d d y ' s l o s s o f v i r g i n i t y w i l l be m o d i f i e d by t h e p a s s i n g o f t i m e . The 76 t h o u g h t t h a t i t w i l l no l o n g e r seem o f paramount i m p o r t a n c e i s more u n b e a r a b l e t o him t h a n t h e g r i e f i t s e l f . H i s s u i c i d e may be seen as an a c t t o p r e v e n t t h i s change from t a k i n g p l a c e . Q u e n t i n i s , i n F r e d e r i c k Hoffman's words, " i n l o v e w i t h s t a s i s , r e p r e s e n t e d v a r i o u s l y by the p l a c e o f t h e Compson home, by Caddy's v i r g i n i t y and e v e n t u a l l y by d e a t h i t s e l f . " 1 0 F a u l k n e r has d r a m a t i z e d i n S e c t i o n One t h e p e r c e p t i o n t h a t c h r o n o l o g i c a l t i m e i s an i l l u s i o n because c o n s c i o u s n e s s , on t h e d e e p e s t l e v e l , does n o t apprehend i t . M i n u t e s , h o u r s , days and weeks a r e r a t i o n a l c o n c e p t s d e s i g n e d by t h e human i m a g i n a t i o n t o measure o u t t i m e . The v e r y f a c t t h a t Q u e n t i n f e e l s t r a p p e d w i t h i n c h r o n o l o g i c a l t i m e s u g g e s t s t h a t h i s problems stem from h i s c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s and i n t e l l e c t u a l i t y . I t i s t h e r e l a t i v i t y i m p l i e d by t i m e and change t h a t Q u e n t i n i s u n a b l e t o a c c e p t . T h i s i s i n d i c a t e d i n h i s v i s i t t o t h e j e w e l l e r when he asks,"Would you mind t e l l i n g me i f any o f t h o s e watches i n t h e window a r e r i g h t ? " (.103). The man answers "No. But t h e y haven't been r e g u l a t e d and s e t y e t . " The i m p l i c a t i o n o f t h e j e w e l l e r ' s r e p l y i s t h a t t h e c l o c k s and watches can be r e g u l a t e d s u f f i c i e n t l y t o p r o v i d e a u s e f u l s t a n d a r d . But Q u e n t i n i s not r e a l l y l i s t e n i n g t o t h e j e w e l l e r . H i s q u e s t i o n i s a r h e t o r i c a l one w h i c h mani-f e s t s h i s d e s i r e t o have h i s own o p i n i o n s c o n f i r m e d , r a t h e r t h a n t o o p e n l y e x p l o r e t h e n a t u r e o f e x p e r i e n c e . I g n o r i n g t h e j e w e l l e r ' s r e p l y , he n o t e s t h a t "There were about a dozen 77 watches i n t h e window, a dozen d i f f e r e n t hours and each w i t h t h e same a s s e r t i v e and c o n t r a d i c t o r y a s s u r a n c e t h a t mine had" (104). T h i s s y m b o l i z e s t o Q u e n t i n t h e m u l t i p l i c i t y o f human p e r s p e c t i v e s , e a c h a s s e r t i n g i t s own v a l i d i t y and c o n t r a d i c t i n g t h e o t h e r s . I have s u g g e s t e d , i n my i n t r o d u c t o r y c h a p t e r , t h a t t h e r e l a t i v i t y o f a l l p e r s p e c t i v e s i s a c o n c e p t a t t h e c o r e o f F a u l k n e r ' s v i e w o f e x i s t e n c e . I t seems t o me t h a t Q u e n t i n Compson embodies t h e n e g a t i v e r e a c t i o n t o t h i s r e a l i z a t i o n . B enjy does n ot have t h i s p r o b l e m , s i n c e he e x i s t s on a l e v e l o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s p r e c l u d i n g i n t e l l e c t u a l awareness. He has t h e u n q u e s t i o n i n g f a i t h o f a c h i l d , never d o u b t i n g t h a t what h i s i m a g i n a t i o n p e r c e i v e s as r e a l i t y i s the t r u t h . I n c o n t r a s t , Q u e n t i n i s a c u t e l y aware o f t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f a l l human p e r s p e c t i v e s , but i s u n w i l l i n g t o a c c e p t t h e i r r e l a t i v i t y . A l t h o u g h F a u l k n e r b e l i e v e s t h a t i n d i v i d u a l p e r s p e c t i v e s a r e l i m i t e d , he a l s o t h i n k s t h a t t h e r e i s a " t r u t h " about e x p e r i e n c e and t h a t a p e r s o n can appr o a c h an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f i t . I n t h e a u t h o r ' s v i e w , t h i s comprehension must I n e v i t a b l y be t e n t a t i v e and i n c o m p l e t e . Q u e n t i n i s u n a b l e t o a c c e p t t h i s t e n t a t i v e n e s s . He l o n g s f o r a b s o l u t e s , d e s i r i n g t h e c e r t a i n t i e s t h a t a l l men e x p e r i e n c e I n c h i l d -hood. H i s awareness o f l i m i t a t i o n s l e a d s him, n o t t o a c c e p t -ance o f common human f r a i l t y , but t o a s t a t e o f p a r a l y s i s , based on t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t , because t h e y a r e r e l a t i v e , a l l 78 human endeavors a r e f u t i l e . The l a c k o f f a i t h and t h e r e s u l t a n t i n a b i l i t y t o a c t a r e d i a g n o s e d by F r i e d r i c h N i e t z s c h e i n t h e f o l l o w i n g passage from Beyond Good and Evil: F o r s k e p t i c i s m i s t h e most s p i r i t u a l e x p r e s s i o n o f a c e r t a i n . . . p h y s i o l o g i c a l temperament w h i c h , i n o r d i n a r y language i s c a l l e d n e rvous d e b i l i t y and s i c k l i n e s s . . . e v e r y t h i n g i s d i s q u i e t , derangement, doubt, and t e n t a t i v e ; t h e b e s t powers o p e r a t e r e s t r i c t i v e l y , t h e v e r y v i r t u e s p r e v e n t i n g each o t h e r g r o w i n g and becoming s t r o n g , e q u i l i b r i u m , b a l l a s t , and p e r p e n d i c u l a r s t a b i l i t y a r e l a c k i n g i n body and s o u l . T h a t , however, w h i c h i s most d i s e a s e d and de g e n e r a t e d i n such n o n d e s c r i p t s i s t h e will . . . P a r a l y s i s o f w i l l ; where do we n o t f i n d t h i s c r i p p l e s i t t i n g nowdays! . . . i t i s w o r s t and most v a r i e d where c i v i l i z a t i o n has l o n g e s t p r e v a i l e d . 1 1 The images o f s t a s i s t h r o u g h o u t S e c t i o n Two s t r o n g l y c o n t r i b u t e t o r e n d e r i n g t h i s c o n d i t i o n o f p a r a l y s i s . I t i s conveyed, on t h e de e p e s t l e v e l o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s , t h r o u g h t h e rhythm o f Q u e n t i n ' s language. The e f f e c t i s h e i g h t e n e d by t h e i m p l i e d c o n t r a s t w i t h P a r t One. The f a s t - m o v i n g q u a l i t y o f B e n j y ' s p r o s e i s i n c o u n t e r p o i n t t o t h e l o n g , slow-moving s e n t e n c e s w h i c h r e f l e c t Q u e n t i n ' s b r o o d i n g s e n s i b i l i t y . The l a c k o f f l o w i n t h e rhythm o f Q u e n t i n ' s language s u g g e s t s t h e f a c t t h a t h i s i s a b l o c k e d c o n s c i o u s -n e s s . Whereas t h e s p o n t a n e i t y o f B e n j y ' s r e s p o n s e t o e x p e r i e n c e i s conveyed t h r o u g h t h e f l o w o f h i s p r o s e , t h e r e v e r s e i s t r u e o f Q u e n t i n ; h i s slow-moving l i n e s s u g g e s t d e l i b e r a t i o n and l a c k o f s p o n t a n e i t y . I would l i k e t o examine an e x c e r p t from Q u e n t i n ' s monologue t o demo n s t r a t e how the t e x t u r e o f t h e language 79 r e f l e c t s h i s tormented c o n s c i o u s n e s s . The f o l l o w i n g sentence I s a c u l m i n a t i n g e x p r e s s i o n o f h i s agony: Sometimes I c o u l d put m y s e l f t o s l e e p s a y i n g t h a t o v e r and o v e r u n t i l a f t e r t h e h o n e y s u c k l e g o t a l l mixed up i n i t t h e whole t h i n g came t o s y m b o l i z e n i g h t and u n r e s t I seemed t o be l y i n g n e i t h e r a s l e e p nor awake l o o k i n g down a l o n g c o r r i d o r o f g r e y h a l f l i g h t where a l l s t a b l e t h i n g s had become shadowy p a r a d o x i c a l a l l I had done shadows a l l I had f e l t s u f f e r e d t a k i n g v i s i b l e form a n t i c and p e r v e r s e mocking w i t h o u t r e l e v a n c e i n h e r e n t them-s e l v e s w i t h t h e d e n i a l o f t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e t h e y s h o u l d have a f f i r m e d t h i n k i n g I was I was not who was not was not who. (188) " L y i n g n e i t h e r a s l e e p nor awake" s u g g e s t s Q u e n t i n ' s p a s s i v i t y and l a c k o f m o t i o n . T h i s i m p r e s s i o n i s augmented by t h e absence o f a c t i o n v e r b s t h r o u g h o u t t h e passage. The ph r a s e i n d i c a t e s t h e n e r v o u s n e s s and d i s q u i e t o f a p e r s o n so a g i t a t e d t h a t he i s u n a b l e t o s l e e p . I t i m p l i e s t h a t Q u e n t i n d w e l l s i n an In-between s t a t e o f n o t h i n g n e s s w h i c h i s n e i t h e r l i v i n g n o r r e a l d e a t h . The imagery o f t w i l i g h t , i n d i c a t i n g n e i t h e r d a r k n e s s nor l i g h t b u t a c o n f u s e d m i n g l i n g o f t h e two, r e i n f o r c e s t h e i m p r e s s i o n o f a c o n s c i o u s n e s s i n a s t a t e o f l i m b o . 1 2 I n t h e c o n t e x t o f S e c t i o n One, " s a y i n g " r e f l e c t s an a c t i v e s e n s i b i l i t y . B e n j y ' s " t r y i n g t o say" I s an a t t e m p t t o communicate, b r e a k i n g down t h e b a r r i e r s t h a t e x i s t between p e o p l e . But Q u e n t i n i s n o t t r y i n g t o communicate w i t h o t h e r s . He i s s a y i n g t h e same t h i n g o v e r and o v e r t o h i m s e l f . H i s l i f e , as d r a m a t i z e d on June 2, c o n s i s t s l a r g e l y o f d i a l o g u e w i t h h i m s e l f , e x t e r n a l c o n v e r s a t i o n s b e i n g f l a t and uncommunicative. The absence o f e x t e r n a l d i a l o g u e s u g g e s t s 80 Q u e n t i n ' s s e l f - a b s o r p t i o n and h i s i n a b i l i t y t o e x p r e s s h i s f e e l i n g s . H i s s a y i n g t h e same t h i n g o v e r and o v e r i s an o b v i o u s image o f n o n - p r o g r e s s i o n . Q u e n t i n i s not l o o k i n g down a r e a l c o r r i d o r . E a r l i e r i n t h e day he has seen a r a i l r o a d t r a i n g o i n g t h r o u g h a t u n n e l . I n t h e passage q uoted above t h i s e x p e r i e n c e becomes t r a n s l a t e d i n t o an image o f v i e w i n g h i s own p a s t , " l o o k i n g " s u g g e s t i n g t h e a c t o f p e r c e p t i o n , as i t does t h r o u g h o u t t h e n o v e l . I n s t e a d o f t h e a c t i v e movement o f t h e t r a i n p r o -g r e s s i n g t h r o u g h t h e t u n n e l , Q u e n t i n r e n d e r s an image i m p l y i n g p a s s i v i t y and l a c k o f p r o g r e s s . I n s t e a d o f a v i v i d l y p i c t o r i a l scene t h e r e i s a murky p i c t u r e i n " g r e y h a l f l i g h t . 1 1 T h i s image r e f l e c t s t h e f a c t t h a t Q u e n t i n e x i s t s i n a shadowy w o r l d i n w h i c h form and c l a r i t y have l o s t t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e . I t a l s o s u g g e s t s h i s r e m o v a l from t h e immediacy o f c o n c r e t e e x p e r i e n c e . V a r i a t i o n s o f t h e image o f r e m o v a l from t h e l i g h t r e c u r t h r o u g h o u t S e c t i o n Two, b e g i n n i n g w i t h t h e o p e n i n g s e n t e n c e o f t h e monologue. Q u e n t i n l a t e r v i s u a l i z e s h i s p a r e n t s i n "a d a r k p l a c e i n t o w h i c h a s i n g l e weak r a y o f l i g h t came s l a n t i n g upon two f a c e s l i f t e d o u t o f t h e shadow . . . and us l o s t somewhere below even them w i t h o u t even a r a y o f l i g h t " (191). A l l t h e s e images s u g g e s t t h a t Q u e n t i n ' s c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s c u t him o f f from e x p e r i e n c e , d i s t a n c i n g him from t h e sun o f t r u t h . I f Benjy had seen t h e t r a i n he would have r e n d e r e d a g r a p h i c p i c t u r e o f i t s appearance and movement. Q u e n t i n s c a r c e l y n o t i c e s t h e a c t u a l l o c o m o t i v e and t u n n e l . When 81 the image does appear i n h i s c o n s c i o u s n e s s i t has become i n t e r n a l i z e d and a b s t r a c t e d . T h i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f e x p e r i e n c e i l l u s t r a t e s Cowan's p o i n t t h a t " Q u e n t i n cannot keep h i s mind on t h e l i t e r a l i t y o f [ h i s own] s e n s a t i o n s . " 1 3 I n h i s c o n s c i o u s n e s s s u b s t a n c e i s c o n s t a n t l y b e i n g t r a n s -formed i n t o shadow. The f r a g r a n t s m e l l o f h o n e y s u c k l e becomes c o n v e r t e d i n h i s mind i n t o a symbol o f what he c o n s i d e r s t o be Caddy's s e x u a l f a l l . A b e a u t i f u l , sweet t a s t i n g f l o w e r becomes f o r him n o t a m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f l i f e , b u t a symbol o f d e a t h . A l i v i n g sea g u l l a b l e t o p o i s e and hover i n t h e c u r r e n t s o f a i r l i k e w i s e s u g g e s t s d e a t h t o Q u e n t i n . He t h i n k s o f e x i s t e n c e as "A g u l l on an i n v i s i b l e w i r e a t t a c h e d t h r o u g h space dragged" (12 3 ) . The i n v e r s i o n o f t h e words from t h e more n a t u r a l o r d e r o f "dragged t h r o u g h space" s l o w s t h e s e n t e n c e down t o an a l m o s t e x c r u c i a t i n g c r a w l , r e n d e r i n g Q u e n t i n ' s e n d l e s s b r o o d i n g . Not o n l y does he t r a n s f o r m s u b s t a n c e i n t o shadow, but shadow i n t o s u b s t a n c e . The t i c k i n g o f h i s w a t c h reminds Q u e n t i n o f a "parade o f t i m e " ( 9 4 ) . He says o f t h e j e w e l l r y s t o r e t h a t "The p l a c e was f u l l o f t i c k i n g , l i k e c r i c k e t s i n September" (102). A b s t r a c t i o n s become r e a l i z e d i n c o n c r e t e terms f o r Q u e n t i n , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t c o n c e p t s o f p e o p l e and o b j e c t s have become more i m p o r t a n t t o him t h a n t h e t h i n g s t h e m s e l v e s . The sense o f a b s t r a c t i o n i s s t r o n g i n t h e s e n t e n c e I have quoted t o i l l u s t r a t e Q u e n t i n ' s c o n s c i o u s n e s s . I t i s 82 n o t c e r t a i n e x a c t l y what t h e pronouns r e f e r t o . "That" s u g g e s t s what Q u e n t i n says t o h i m s e l f t o i n d u c e s l e e p , but i t i s never made c l e a r what t h e words a r e . Q u e n t i n ' s s t a t e m e n t " a f t e r t h e h o n e y s u c k l e g o t mixed up i n i t " a l s o l a c k s c l a r i t y . The r e f e r e n c e may be t o t h e s m e l l o f honey-s u c k l e , a s s o c i a t e d i n Q u e n t i n ' s i m a g i n a t i o n w i t h n a t u r e , f e c u n d i t y and Caddy's s e x u a l i t y , becoming mixed i n w i t h the s m e l l o f w a t e r ; o r t h e pronoun " i t " m i ght r e f e r t o h i s t h o u g h t s . One might s p e c u l a t e about t h e n a t u r e o f t h e " s t a b l e t h i n g s " t h a t have become shadowy p a r a d o x i c a l . I t i s not s p e c i f i e d e x a c t l y what t h e y a r e . What does Q u e n t i n mean by " a l l I had done"? What i s t h e shape o f " v i s i b l e form a n t i c and p e r v e r s e " ? L e a v i n g t h i s q u e s t i o n open t o s p e c u l a -t i o n can s t i m u l a t e t h e r e a d e r t o use h i s own p r o c e s s o f p e r c e p t i o n , i m a g i n i n g f o r h i m s e l f what t h e s e a n t i c forms l o o k l i k e . I t i s e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t t h a t t h e a b s t r a c t q u a l i t y o f t h e passage s u g g e s t s Q u e n t i n ' s d i s t a n c e from t h e c o n c r e t e p a r t i c u l a r i t y o f e x p e r i e n c e . The a b s t r a c t i o n r e s u l t s i n a c e r t a i n vagueness i n d i c a t i n g Q u e n t i n ' s l o s s o f c l e a r v i s i o n . J u s t as t h e f l o w o f smooth, b r i g h t shapes i s a m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f B e n j y ' s c o n s c i o u s n e s s , so t h e m u r k i n e s s r e f l e c t s Q u e n t i n ' s . The b l u r r i n g o f v i s i o n i s emphasized by t h e c o n s t r u c -t i o n o f t h e s e n t e n c e , i n w h i c h l o o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d f r a g m e n t s a r e thrown t o g e t h e r . The l a c k o f symmetry r e f l e c t s t h e d i s o r d e r o f Q u e n t i n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s . The e f f e c t o f p a c k i n g many l o o s e l y - r e l a t e d elements t o g e t h e r i n a n o n - s y n t a c t i c a l 83 r e l a t i o n s h i p i s t o r e n d e r an i m p r e s s i o n o f b e i n g c l u t t e r e d w h i c h r e f l e c t s t h e s p i r i t u a l c l a u s t r o p h o b i a o f Q u e n t i n . The d i v e r s e elements i n h i s c o n s c i o u s n e s s a r e a l l crammed t o g e t h e r , u n a b l e t o d i s t i l and c l a r i f y . The sense o f f r a g m e n t a t i o n i s augmented by t h e i n c o m p l e t e n e s s o f t h e se n t e n c e w h i c h ends as f o l l o w s : " t h i n k i n g I was I was n o t who was not was not who." The r e p e t i t i o n o f t h e p h r a s e "was n o t " emphasizes t h e d e a t h o r i e n t a t i o n o f Q u e n t i n . By en d i n g w i t h "who" F a u l k n e r s t r e s s e s t h e sense o f i n c o m p l e t e -ness w h i c h r e f l e c t s t h e f a c t t h a t f o r Q u e n t i n e v e r y t h i n g i s t e n t a t i v e and u n f u l f i l l e d . S w i g g a r t s u g g e s t s t h a t " t h e t o r t u r e d q u a l i t y o f t e n p r e s e n t i n t h e a u t h o r ' s r h e t o r i c i s r e l a t e d t o t h e e f f o r t s of s u c h f i g u r e s as Q u e n t i n Compson . . . t o f i n d meaning . . . t h r o u g h a d e f i n i t i o n o f p a s t and p r e s e n t e x p e r i e n c e s . . . i n a s h i f t i n g t e m p o r a l w o r l d . " 1 1 * As he becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y overwhelmed i n h i s at t e m p t t o f i n d s t a b i l i t y i n a w o r l d o f c o n s t a n t f l u x , Q u e n t i n ' s language becomes more d i s j o i n t e d . The p r o s e near t h e end o f h i s monologue s u g g e s t s a complete breakdown o f o r d e r ; t h i s i s i n d i c a t e d by t h e o m i s s i o n o f p u n c t u a t i o n and o f c a p i t a l i z a t i o n o f a l l words i n c l u d i n g t h e pronoun " i . " The ego l o s s and d i s i n t e g r a t i o n o f p e r s o n a l i t y a r e m a n i f e s t i n t h e l o n g , fragmented s e n t e n c e s w h i c h s u g g e s t a c o n s c i o u s n e s s o u t o f c o n t r o l . The c o n f u s i o n c o n t r a s t s v i v i d l y w i t h t h e u n i t y o f p e r c e p t i o n i m p l i e d i n B e n j y ' s s h o r t c l e a r l i n e s . 84 The c o u n t e r p o i n t between the s h o r t , l y r i c s e n t e n c e s o f t h e i d i o t - c h i l d and t h e complex, p h i l o s o p h i c a l ones o f Q u e n t i n makes a v a l i d p a t t e r n , b u t i t s h o u l d not be o v e r -s t a t e d , s i n c e the l a t t e r i s a l s o c a p a b l e o f l y r i c i s m . The f o l l o w i n g passages i l l u s t r a t e t h i s p o i n t : A t l a s t I c o u l d n ' t see t h e smoke s t a c k . The r o a d went b e s i d e a w a l l . T r e e s l e a n e d o v e r t h e w a l l , s p r a y e d w i t h s u n l i g h t . The s t o n e was c o o l . W a l k i n g near i t you c o u l d f e e l t h e c o o l n e s s . Only our c o u n t r y was not l i k e t h i s c o u n t r y . . . (132) We went on i n t h e d a p p l e d shade. We came t o an o r c h a r d , p i n k and w h i t e . I t was f u l l o f bees; a l r e a d y we c o u l d hear them. " L e t ' s go t o t h e m i l l and go swimming," t h e t h i r d s a i d . A l a n e t u r n e d o f f b e s i d e t h e o r c h a r d . The t h i r d boy slowed and h a l t e d . The f i r s t went on, f l e c k s o f s u n l i g h t s l i p p i n g a l o n g t h e p o l e a c r o s s h i s s h o u l d e r and down t h e back o f h i s s h i r t . (140-141) The f i r s t e x c e r p t c o n t a i n s s h o r t e v o c a t i v e s e n t e n c e s r e c o r d i n g sense i m p r e s s i o n s . I t m i g h t have been from t h e Benjy s e c t i o n , e x c e p t f o r t h e f i n a l l i n e i n w h i c h Q u e n t i n b e g i n s t o compare h i s homeland t o New E n g l a n d . I n t h e second passage Q u e n t i n p r e s e n t s t h e d i r e c t , sensuous r e n d e r i n g o f a scene t h a t we a s s o c i a t e w i t h t h e i d i o t - c h i l d . But whereas Benjy p e r c e i v e s l i f e t h r o u g h an unchanging a n g l e o f v i s i o n , Q u e n t i n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s a r e f a r more v a r i e d . As Hunt o b s e r v e s , Q u e n t i n ' s e x p e r i e n c e i s "more r i c h , complex, and v a r i o u s " 1 5 t h a n t h a t p r e s e n t e d i n S e c t i o n One. The a l t e r n a t i o n o f l o n g and s h o r t s e n t e n c e s i n P a r t Two i s a m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f the v a r i e t y w i t h i n Q u e n t i n ' s a n g l e o f v i s i o n . Q u e n t i n i s , i n r a r e moments, a b l e t o r e s p o n d d i r e c t l y 85 t o e x p e r i e n c e , a l t h o u g h h i s b e i n g l o c k e d w i t h i n a w o r l d o f h i s own c o n c e p t s i s more p r e v a l e n t . T h e r e a r e a f e w o c c a s i o n s , h o w e v e r , when Q u e n t i n i s a b l e t o make a d i r e c t r e s p o n s e t o t h e e x t e r n a l w o r l d o f c o l o r a n d s u n l i g h t . He o b s e r v e s t h a t " Y e l l o w b u t t e r f l i e s f l i c k e r e d a l o n g t h e s h a d e l i k e f l e c k s o f s u n " (.141) . I n t h i s i n s t a n c e Q u e n t i n i s n o t a b s t r a c t i n g a n d d i s t o r t i n g h i s p e r c e p t i o n o f n a t u r e . The o r i g i n a l c a p a c i t y f o r d i r e c t r e s p o n s e h a s b e e n o v e r w h e l m e d a n d s u b o r d i n a t e d , b u t n o t e n t i r e l y l o s t . I t i s a s i f , d e s p i t e h i s d e a t h - o r i e n t a t i o n , l i f e i m p u l s e s r e m a i n w i t h i n h i m , c o n t i n u i n g t o a s s e r t t h e m s e l v e s . I n a d d i t i o n t o r e f l e c t i n g moments o f l y r i c i s m , t h e s h o r t e r s e n t e n c e s i n P a r t Two s e r v e a t l e a s t t h r e e o t h e r f u n c t i o n s . They a r e i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g b r i e f p a s s a g e : The c a r s t o p p e d . I g o t o u t , w i t h t h e m l o o k i n g a t my e y e . When t h e t r o l l e y came i t was f u l l . I s t o p p e d o n t h e b a c k p l a t f o r m . " S e a t s up f r o n t , " t h e c o n d u c t o r s a i d . I l o o k e d i n t o t h e c a r . T h e r e w e r e no s e a t s o n t h e l e f t s i d e . "I'm n o t g o i n g f a r , " I s a i d . " I ' l l j u s t s t a n d h e r e . " (189) The m e c h a n i c a l n a t u r e o f Q u e n t i n ' s j o y l e s s a n d r o u t i n e a c t i v i t i e s i s i n e v i d e n c e h e r e . The f l a t n e s s o f h i s d i a l o g u e w i t h t h e o u t s i d e w o r l d i s a l s o d e m o n s t r a t e d . T h i s p a s s a g e comes s h o r t l y a f t e r t h e n i g h t m a r i s h one i n w h i c h Q u e n t i n v i s u a l i z e s h i m s e l f l o o k i n g down t h e " l o n g c o r r i d o r o f g r e y h a l f l i g h t " ( 1 8 8 ) . I t s l a c k o f i n t e n s i t y s u g g e s t s , n o t o n l y n o n - c o m m u n i c a t i o n , b u t t h e f a c t t h a t Q u e n t i n ' s e n e r g y l i e s 86 i n r e m i n i s c e n c e a l o n e . The f o c u s o f h i s p e r c e p t i o n i s on th e p a s t t h a t haunts him r a t h e r t h a n on t h e p r e s e n t . Q u e n t i n g e n e r a l l y d i s p l a y s a l a c k o f i n t e r e s t i n p e o p l e and e v e n t s a t H a r v a r d . H i s boredom r e f l e c t s h i s l o s s o f purpose and h i s j o y l e s s e x i s t e n c e . Boredom i s t h e one emotion t h a t B enjy i s i n c a p a b l e o f f e e l i n g , s i n c e he r e t a i n s t h e c h i l d ' s c a p a c i t y f o r wonder. The l o s s o f t h i s c a p a c i t y i s r e n d e r e d i n t h e e x c e r p t q u o t e d above. The passage a l s o i l l u s t r a t e s Cowan's p o i n t t h a t Q u e n t i n ' s " f r e n e t i c m e n t a l pace" i s " b e l i e d by h i s d e l i b e r a t e e x t e r n a l a c t i o n s on June 2 . " 1 6 The d i s p a r i t y between Q u e n t i n ' s o u t e r a c t i o n s and i n n e r t h o u g h t s m a n i f e s t s a fragmented c o n s c i o u s n e s s d i v i d e d a g a i n s t i t s e l f . H i s a c t i o n s , i n s t e a d o f b e i n g i n harmony w i t h h i s t r u e f e e l i n g s , a r e i n c o u n t e r p o i n t t o them. T h i s r e f l e c t s t h e " s t a t e o f u n r e l e a s e d t e n s i o n " 1 7 t h a t S l a t o f f f e e l s i s i n h e r e n t i n many o f F a u l k n e r ' s c h a r a c t e r s . There i s a sense o f " f o r c e s p u s h i n g and b e i n g b l o c k e d by some k i n d o f r e s t r a i n t . " 1 8 One way i n w h i c h t h i s sense o f d i v i s i o n i s r e n d e r e d i s t h r o u g h fragmented p h r a s e s such as "My little sister had no. If I could say Mother. Mother" (114). The f i r s t fragment f o r c e s t h e r e a d e r t o s p e c u l a t e on what i t s c o m p l e t i o n might be. Among t h e more p l a u s i b l e p o s s i b i l i t i e s a r e "My l i t t l e s i s t e r had no (1) s i s t e r , (2) v i r g i n i t y , (3) mother." The second fragment, w h i c h i s r e l a t e d t o t h e f i r s t by Q u e n t i n ' s t h o u g h t t h a t he and Caddy l a c k an u n d e r s t a n d i n g mother, has 87 something o f t h e i n t e n s i t y o f B e n j y ' s " t r y i n g t o say" passage. I n b o t h i n s t a n c e s t h e r e f l e c t o r i s u n a b l e t o say what needs t o be communicated. I n b o t h examples t h e l i n g u i s t i c m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f t h e l a c k o f f u l f i l l m e n t i s the i n c o m p l e t e s e n t e n c e . The s e n t e n c e fragments c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e sense o f d i s j o i n t e d n e s s w h i c h r e f l e c t s t h e c o n s c i o u s n e s s e s o f b o t h Benjy and Q u e n t i n . I n P a r t One t h e f r a g m e n t a t i o n i l l u s t r a t e s Humphrey's p o i n t t h a t " d i s c o n t i n u i t y . . . i s a q u a l i t y o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s " 1 9 i t s e l f . The u n i t y o f B e n j y ' s p e r c e p t i o n i s j u x t a p o s e d w i t h t h e f r a g m e n t a t i o n stemming from h i s i n a b i l i t y t o s y n t h e s i z e . I n Q u e n t i n ' s monologue th e h e i g h t e n e d d i s -c o n t i n u i t y i s a r e f l e c t i o n o f a b l o c k e d s e n s i b i l i t y , d i v i d e d a g a i n s t i t s e l f . T h i s I n n e r d i v i s i o n i s i n d i c a t e d by the f a c t t h a t Q u e n t i n ' s s e c t i o n i s more d i s j o i n t e d t h a n B e n j y ' s . Cowan has n o t e d t h a t t h e r e a r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y two hundred t i m e s h i f t s i n Q u e n t i n ' s c h a p t e r as opposed t o one hundred i n B e n j y ' s . He s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e s h i f t s and fragments m a n i f e s t Q u e n t i n ' s " f r e n e t i c m e n t a l pace" w h i c h makes t h e second p a r t o f t h e n o v e l " i n one sense more d i f f i c u l t t o u n d e r s t a n d " 2 0 t h a n t h e i n t r o d u c t o r y s e c t i o n . The d i f f i c u l t y I s f u n c t i o n a l because the s t r u g g l e t o comprehend t h e complex and s h i f t i n g n a t u r e o f e x p e r i e n c e i s d r a m a t i z e d w i t h i n t h e c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f Q u e n t i n . He i s t h e o n l y one o f t h e t h r e e b r o t h e r s who a t t e m p t s t o u n d e r s t a n d and hence c o n f r o n t t h e Compson dilemma. The r e a d e r ' s 88 s t r u g g l e i n P a r t One i s i n c o u n t e r p o i n t t o Benjy and i s thus a f a c t o r d i s t a n c i n g t h e r e a d e r from him. I n P a r t Two a d i f f e r e n t , e f f e c t i s a c h i e v e d . The d i f f i c u l t y t h a t Q u e n t i n has i n s t r i v i n g f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g i s analogous t o t h a t of th e r e a d e r , t h u s e n c o u r a g i n g us t o i d e n t i f y w i t h him. L i k e Q u e n t i n , t h e r e a d e r must f a c e t h e p a i n f u l and b e w i l d e r i n g r e a l i t i e s o f a complex u n i v e r s e . The dilemma o f how one i s t o f i n d meaning i n a w o r l d where a l l human p e r s p e c t i v e s a r e d i f f e r e n t from each o t h e r and i n a s t a t e o f c o n s t a n t f l u x i s most f u l l y c o n f r o n t e d i n S e c t i o n Two. The dangers o f r e f l e c -t i o n , d r a m a t i z e d h e r e , a r e r e l a t e d t o t h i s s t r u g g l e . Modern man must a t t e m p t t o comprehend h i s e x p e r i e n c e i n o r d e r t o cope w i t h i t , but t h e v e r y a t t e m p t may r e s u l t i n a l i e n a t i o n and estrangement from l i f e r a t h e r t h a n c l a r i f i c a t i o n and immersion i n i t . I n t h e sense t h a t he, o f a l l t h e c h a r a c t e r s i n t h e n o v e l , most f u l l y d r a m a t i z e s t h e problems o f modern e x i s t e n c e , Q u e n t i n i s t h e p r o t a g o n i s t o f The Sound and the Fury . M e l v i n Backman c o r r e c t l y o b s e r v e s t h a t "The a n g u i s h o f the n o v e l i s c e n t e r e d i n Q u e n t i n Compson." 2 1 I n n o t i n g t h a t t h e second s e c t i o n " c r e a t e s a narrow o b s e s s i o n a l w o r l d " 2 2 t h a t i s a c o n t r a c t i o n and y e t an e x p a n s i o n , Backman acknowledges t h e am b i v a l e n c e o f F a u l k n e r ' s r e n d e r i n g . He a v o i d s t h e e r r o r s o f e a r l i e r c r i t i c s who have seen Q u e n t i n as a " t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y h e r o " 2 3 o r , a t t h e o t h e r extreme, as a boy w i t h "a problem t h a t i s ' s p e c i a l ' i n a c l i n i c a l s ense." 2 1* These 89 v i e w p o i n t s i g n o r e t h e s i m u l t a n e o u s v a l i d i t y and l i m i t a t i o n s w h i c h F a u l k n e r v i s u a l i z e s i n a l l human p e r s p e c t i v e s , i n c l u d i n g Q u e n t i n ' s . I su g g e s t t h a t t h e a u t h o r i a l sense b o t h o f d i s t a n c e and i n v o l v e m e n t i s s t r o n g e r w i t h Q u e n t i n t h a n w i t h B e n j y . V i s u a l i z i n g Q u e n t i n as a hero i g n o r e s t h e c r i t i c a l detachment i n t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n , w h i l e s e e i n g him as a c l i n i c a l c a s e o v e r l o o k s t h e i n v o l v e m e n t . I n C h a p t e r Two I s u g g e s t e d t h a t Q u e n t i n ' s v i e w o f Caddy i s more d i s t o r t e d t h a n B e n j y ' s and l e s s d i s t o r t e d t h a n J a s o n ' s . From t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e t h e t h r e e b r o t h e r s a r e t r e a t e d i n c r e a s i n g l y i r o n i c a l l y ; t h e more d i s t o r t e d t h e c h a r a c t e r ' s p e r s p e c t i v e , t h e g r e a t e r i s t h e d i s t a n c e o f a u t h o r and r e a d e r from him. F a u l k n e r h i m s e l f has s a i d t h a t Q u e n t i n was "too s e n s i t i v e " 2 5 t o f a c e r e a l i t y . He a l s o remarks t h a t " i n Caddy's o p i n i o n he was su c h a w e a k l i n g t h a t even i f t h e y had been no k i n , s h e would never have chosen him f o r h e r s w e e t h e a r t . She would have chosen one l i k e t h e ex-s o l d i e r she d i d . But never anybody l i k e Q u e n t i n . " 2 6 An a u t h o r ' s comments on h i s own works a r e not n e c e s -s a r i l y more v a l i d t h a n anyone e l s e ' s . But I f e e l t h a t F a u l k n e r ' s c r i t i c a l s t a t e m e n t s r e f l e c t h i s e x t r a o r d i n a r y i n t u i t i v e sense and a l m o s t always c o n t a i n a c u t e p e r c e p t i o n s . The remark quoted above r e f l e c t s one p e r s p e c t i v e o f Q u e n t i n t h a t i s i m p l i e d i n The Sound and the Fury. T h i s s t a t e m e n t , l i k e h i s o t h e r comments i n l e c t u r e s and i n t e r v i e w s , s h o u l d be r e g a r d e d as one i n t e r e s t i n g and u s e f u l way o f l o o k i n g a t 9 0 t h e work o f a r t , r a t h e r t h a n as "the t r u t h " from an a l l -k n o w l e dgeable a u t h o r . I n d i s c u s s i n g Q u e n t i n as a n a r r a t o r o f Absalom, Absalom! F a u l k n e r makes an e x p l i c i t s t a t e m e n t on t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f Q u e n t i n ' s p o i n t o f v i e w . Having been asked i f Q u e n t i n i s t h e same c h a r a c t e r i n t h a t n o v e l as he was i n The Sound and the Fury,the w r i t e r r e p l i e s : To me he's c o n s i s t e n t . That he approached t h e Sutpen f a m i l y w i t h t h e same o p h t h a l m i a t h a t he approached h i s own t r o u b l e s , t h a t he p r o b a b l y never saw a n y t h i n g v e r y c l e a r l y , t h a t h i s was j u s t one o f t h e t h i r t e e n ways t o l o o k a t Sutpen, and h i s may have been the - - one o f t h e most e r r o n e o u s . P r o b a b l y h i s f r i e n d McCannon [ShreveJ had a much t r u e r p i c t u r e o f Sutpen from what Q u e n t i n t o l d him t h a n Q u e n t i n h i m s e l f d i d . 2 7 O p h t h a l m i a i s an i n f l a m m a t i o n o f t h e e y e b a l l . I b e l i e v e t h e metaphor s u g g e s t s the way i n w h i c h Q u e n t i n ' s p e r s o n a l a g i t a -t i o n c o l o r s and d i s t o r t s h i s v i s i o n . Perhaps i t i s not n e c e s s a r y t o b e l a b o r t h e f a c t o f Q u e n t i n ' s d i s t o r t i o n s i n c e i t i s f a i r l y e v i d e n t ; b u t t o see him as s e n s i t i v e hero i s t o o v e r l o o k t h i s p o i n t . The a u t h o r has not o n l y a h e a l t h y c r i t i c a l d i s t a n c e from Q u e n t i n but a s t r o n g sense o f i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h him. "As a boy F a u l k n e r matches r a t h e r c l o s e l y t h e p i c t u r e o f Q u e n t i n t h a t we g e t i n The Sound and the Fury . . . a q u i e t , o b s e r v a n t , s e r i o u s , somewhat i n t r o v e r t e d and t h o u g h t f u l c h i l d who had no r e a l l y c l o s e f r i e n d s o u t s i d e t h e f a m i l y . " 2 8 Cowan has o b s e r v e d t h a t F a u l k n e r , l i k e Quentin,was the e l d e s t o f f o u r c h i l d r e n w i t h a grandmother r e f e r r e d t o as "Damuddy." He mentions t h e sense o f f a m i l y d e c l i n e from a more c o l o r f u l 91 p a s t and t h e s i m i l a r i t y o f D i l s e y ' s c h a r a c t e r t o t h a t o f "Mammy" C a l l i e B a r r (the woman t o whom F a u l k n e r d e d i c a t e s Go Down Moses) as f u r t h e r p a r a l l e l s . Cowan s t a t e s t h a t "Though such f r a g m e n t s o f F a u l k n e r ' s y o u t h do not make The Sound and the Fury a c o v e r t a u t o b i o g r a p h y , t h e y do h e l p a c c o u n t f o r p a r t o f i t s e m o t i o n a l s t r e n g t h . " 2 9 I am i n agreement w i t h Cowan and w i l l b r i n g i n b i o g r a p h i c a l i n f o r m a -t i o n about F a u l k n e r when I t seems t o me t h e r e i s a p l a u s i b l e c o n n e c t i o n , e f f e c t i n g t h e a u t h o r ' s sense o f i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h h i s c h a r a c t e r . John F a u l k n e r ' s a c c o u n t o f h i s o l d e r b r o t h e r ' s d e p a r t u r e from M i s s i s s i p p i a t t h e t i m e o f h i s c h i l d h o o d s w e e t h e a r t ' s engagement and wedding i s somewhat r e m i n i s c e n t of Q u e n t i n . B i l l l e f t town. He wouldn't s t a y around t o see someone e l s e c l a i m E s t e l l e . P h i l g o t B i l l a j o b i n a b o o k s t o r e i n New Haven . . . . Th a t ' s where B i l l went t o g e t as f a r away as p o s s i b l e when he found he'd l o s t E s t e l l e . He must have gone t h r o u g h torment i n t h a t s t r a n g e l a n d w i t h h i s whole w o r l d gone t o p o t . He counted-t h e days as E s t e l l e ' s wedding approached, and when t h a t deed was a c c o m p l i s h e d he j o i n e d t h e R o y a l F l y i n g C o r p s . 3 0 Q u e n t i n a l s o goes t h r o u g h torment i n a s t r a n g e l a n d " w i t h h i s whole w o r l d gone t o p o t . " A d m i t t e d l y , t h i s I s not o v e r -whelming e v i d e n c e o f a c o n n e c t i o n between t h e a u t h o r ' s l i f e and h i s a r t ; but i t i s I n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t a l t h o u g h F a u l k n e r d i d not go t o Cambridge, he d i d r e s i d e i n New Haven d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d o f p e r s o n a l c r i s i s , w o r k i n g a t t h e Y a l e 92 b o o k s t o r e , r a t h e r t h a n a t t e n d i n g H a r v a r d . I t i s a l s o i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t F a u l k n e r ' s e n l i s t m e n t i n t h e A i r F o r c e c o i n c i d e s w i t h E s t e l l e ' s wedding. A l t h o u g h th e d e c i s i o n may be r e g a r d e d as the p e r f e c t l y n a t u r a l c h o i c e o f a p a t r i o t i c and p h y s i c a l l y a c t i v e man, i t i s f r e q u e n t l y d e p i c t e d i n F a u l k n e r ' s f i c t i o n as a r e c k l e s s c o u r t i n g of d e a t h t o escape from t h e problems o f e x i s t e n c e . There i s a s p e c i a l i n t e n s i t y about t h e f o l l o w i n g two e x c l a m a t i o n s i n t h e Q u e n t i n s e c t i o n : "Mr. and Mrs. J a s o n Richmond Compson announce the m a r r i a g e o f " ( 9 6 ) . "Mr. and Mrs. J a s o n Richmond Compson announce the m a r r i a g e of t h e i r d a u g h t e r t o Mr. S i d n e y H e r b e r t Head on t h e t w e n t y - f i f t h of A p r i l , one thousand n i n e hundred and t e n a t J e f f e r s o n M i s s i s s i p p i " (112). I do n o t w i s h t o equate F a u l k n e r w i t h any one of h i s c h a r a c t e r s s i n c e I b e l i e v e t h a t t h e c o n s c i o u s -ness o f t h e a u t h o r f l o w s t h r o u g h and beyond h i s c r e a t e d p r o j e c t i o n s , making them a l i v e and a c h i e v i n g a k i n d o f d r a m a t i c i m p e r s o n a l i t y . I would, however, suggest t h e l i k e l i -hood t h a t F a u l k n e r has p r o j e c t e d t h e d e s p a i r o f h i s own a d o l e s c e n c e and young manhood i n t o t h e c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f Q u e n t i n Compson. I t i s i n h i s s e c t i o n t h a t t h e problems o f t h e d i s p l a c e d ' sons of a f a i l e d a r i s t o c r a c y a r e i n t e n s e l y c o n f r o n t e d ; b u t whatever p e r s o n a l t u r b u l e n c e t h e a u t h o r f e l t has been f u l l y t r a n s m u t e d i n t o h i s a r t . A c c o r d i n g l y the i n t e n s i t y o f t h e wedding announcement i s e x p l a i n a b l e w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e n o v e l . Caddy's wedding r e p r e s e n t s t o Q u e n t i n h i s f i n a l , i r r e v o c a b l e l o s s 93 o f t h e o n l y woman he has ever been a b l e t o c a r e f o r . The c o n t r a s t between t h e f o r m a l i t y o f the wedding announcement and t h e a g i t a t i o n t h e event c a u s e s i n Q u e n t i n ' s c o n s c i o u s n e s s evokes a s t a t e o f t e n s i o n . T h i s r e f l e c t s t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e e x t e r n a l appearance o f e v e n t s and t h e i r i n n e r r e a l i t y . The c o n t r a s t i s p o i g n a n t because t h e f o r m a l announcement s u g g e s t s somehow t h a t a wedding s h o u l d be a f u l f i l l m e n t , and t h a t t h e Compsons a r e t r y i n g t o a c t as i f t h a t were the c a s e ; b u t i n t h i s i n s t a n c e i t i s an a c t o f n e c e s s i t y f o r Caddy and a d e a t h w a r r a n t f o r Q u e n t i n . When Shreve sees Q u e n t i n d r e s s e d i n a s u i t he a s k s , " L a i t a wedding o r a wake?" ( 1 0 1 ) Though u n o b t r u s i v e , t h e q u e s t i o n i s a r e s o n a n t one. I t s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e wedding o f h i s s i s t e r means d e a t h f o r Q u e n t i n . I t a l s o i m p l i e s t h a t Q u e n t i n ' s o n l y f u l f i l l m e n t w i l l be t h e n e g a t i v e one o f h i s own d e a t h , as he p l u n g e s down i n t o t h e r i v e r bed. Unable t o b e l i e v e i n t h e C h r i s t i a n f a i t h o f h i s a n c e s t o r s , Q u e n t i n can f i n d no s a t i s f a c t o r y a l t e r n a t i v e t o s u s t a i n h i m s e l f . The f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t w h i c h o c c u r s near t h e end o f h i s monologue i s t h e c u l m i n a t i n g e x p r e s s i o n o f h i s agony o f d i s b e l i e f : . . . but F a t h e r s a i d . . . he c e r t a i n l y c o u l d board and l o d g e U n c l e Maury now and the n and l e n d him a l i t t l e money who k e p t h i s F a t h e r ' s b e l i e f i n th e c e l e s t i a l d e r i v a t i o n o f h i s own s p e c i e s a t such a f i n e heat t h e n Mother would c r y and say t h a t F a t h e r b e l i e v e d h i s p e o p l e were b e t t e r t h a n h e r s t h a t he was r i d i c u l i n g U n c l e Maury t o t e a c h us t h e same t h i n g she c o u l d n ' t see t h a t F a t h e r was t e a c h i n g us t h a t a l l men a r e j u s t a c c u m u l a t i o n s d o l l s s t u f f e d w i t h sawdust swept up from the t r a s h heaps where a l l 94 p r e v i o u s d o l l s had been thrown away the sawdust f l o w i n g from what wound i n what s i d e t h a t not f o r me d i e d not. (194) In t h i s passage Quentin expresses a climax of n e g a t i o n . His f a t h e r i s n i h i l i s t i c and e mbittered, h i s mother querulous and s e l f - p i t y i n g , h i s u n c l e weak and p a r a s i t i c . There i s no s t r e n g t h w i t h i n the f a m i l y to s u s t a i n him; nor i s Quentin a b l e to f i n d s t r e n g t h w i t h i n h i m s e l f . I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t the o n l y r e f e r e n c e to b e l i e f i n the quoted passage i s an i r o n i c one, r e f l e c t i n g the mocking tone of Mr. Compson. There i s a l a c k of b e l i e f i n mankind (human beings are v i s u a l i z e d as mere " d o l l s s t u f f e d w i t h sawdust"), i n growth or p r o g r e s s of any s o r t , i n death and r e s u r r e c t i o n , and i n Jesus. In The Sound and the Fury the absence of Jesus i m p l i e s not o n l y the l a c k of b e l i e f i n C h r i s t i a n d o c t r i n e , but the absence of l o v e . In the c o n c l u d i n g s e c t i o n of the n o v e l F a u l k n e r w i l l i m p l i c i t l y c o n t r a s t t h i s passage to the E a s t e r s e r v i c e w i t h i t s theme of death and r e s u r r e c t i o n and w i t h i t s focus on D i l s e y who i s a b e l i e v e r and i s a b l e to l o v e . The i n t e n s i t y of the passage quoted above suggests t h a t Quentin has v i t a l i t y . U n f o r t u n a t e l y h i s e n e r g i e s and i n t e l l e c t u a l r e s o u r c e s are d i r e c t e d s e l f - d e s t r u c t i v e l y , so t h a t h i s p o t e n t i a l i s never r e a l i z e d . R i c h a r d Adams suggests t h a t "Quentin's s e c t i o n i s the most i n t e n s e of the f o u r i n i t s t e c h n i c a l containment of . . . e n e r g y . " 3 2 T h i s i s because Quentin i s the o n l y one of the t h r e e b r o t h e r s who has the 95 p o t e n t i a l i t y to b r i n g o r d er t o the c h a o t i c Compson world. Benjy i s p h y s i o l o g i c a l l y i n c a p a c i t a t e d , whereas Jason, as I w i l l l a t e r show, i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y i n c a p a b l e of growth. Quentin alone has the c a p a c i t y to l e a r n from e x p e r i e n c e and t o a c t a c c o r d i n g l y . What d i s t i n g u i s h e s Quentin's s e c t i o n from those of h i s b r o t h e r s and generates the energy w i t h i n P a r t Two i s the f a c t t h a t the s t r u g g l e f o r meaning takes p l a c e w i t h i n h i s c o n s c i o u s n e s s . The b a t t l e i s l o s t when the o n l y b r o t h e r capable of making a c h o i c e i s overwhelmed by d e s p a i r and chooses s u i c i d e . , The image of an i n t e l l i g e n t person, p a i n f u l l y aware of what i s wrong w i t h the world around him, but too s e n s i t i v e and s e l f - c o n s c i o u s to make a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f o r t t o change i t , i s a r e c u r r e n t one i n t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y l i t e r a t u r e . Nathanael West's Miss L o n e l y h e a r t s , E l i o t ' s P r u f r o c k , and S a l i n g e r ' s Holden C a u l f i e l d are n o t a b l e examples. There are two c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which d i s t i n g u i s h F a u l k n e r ' s treatment of t h i s m o t i f from h i s contemporaries. Whereas Miss L o n e l y h e a r t s and J . A l f r e d P r u f r o c k are p r e s e n t e d as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of modern man, F a u l k n e r , i n keeping w i t h h i s r e f u s a l to o r g a n i z e around any s i n g l e c e n t e r , p r e s e n t s Quentin as one of a number of p o s s i b i l i t i e s . T h i s i s r e f l e c t e d i n the f a c t t h a t Quentin's s e c t i o n i s but one of f o u r . Moreover, w i t h i n the second s e c t i o n i t s e l f t h ere are a number of a l t e r n a t i v e s . Adams says t h a t " I f Quentin c o u l d s u c c e s s f u l l y emulate e i t h e r Spoade's c o n f i d e n c e or Shreve's f l e x i b i l i t y he might be a b l e 96 to s u r v i v e . " 3 3 Adams i s correct i n suggesting that the two students are opposites, though his terming of Shreve as " f l e x i b l e " seems imprecise to me. Spoade i s a Southerner i n his senior year who has a reputation for remaining unruffled. He i s the envy of the pretentious Mrs. Bland "for having f i v e names, including that of a present English ducal house" (110-111). Although Spoade i s a descendant of an a r i s t o c r a t i c family, he appears to be able to adjust to diverse circumstances. The following passage suggests his motion as he s t r o l l s to chapel, while Shreve rushes to i t and Quentin stays behind: "Spoade was i n the middle of them l i k e a t e r r a p i n i n a street f u l l of scuttering dead leaves, his c o l l a r about his ears, moving at his customary unhurried walk" (98). Spoade always seems to be i n control of a s i t u a t i o n . His r e s t r a i n t and sardonic wit are i n contrast to Shreve who i s a Canadian, a freshman and a frank straightforward person. The contrast i s made clear i n the town court, when Shreve indignantly protests the f i n e and Spoade i n s i s t s that Quentin play the game and pay up. The Southerner has s o c i a l grace and a mode of behavior which enables him to function s u c c e s s f u l l y . His sardonic wit i s evident i n his comment to Quentin a f t e r the l a t t e r ' s f i g h t with Bland. "Oh," Spoade said, "the champion of dames. Bud, you excite not only admiration, but horror." (185). Shreve, though lacking the Southerner's s o c i a l grace also functions s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . Thus Spoade, through 97 r e s t r a i n t and distance from people, and Shreve, through his ingenuous involvement, seem able to cope with l i f e whereas Quentin can not. Faulkner's sense of the range of human p o s s i b i l i t i e s distinguishes his presentation from E l i o t ' s i n "The Lovesong of J . A l f r e d Prufrock," where no a l t e r n a t i v e i s v i s u a l i z e d [in contemporary l i f e ] to the s t e r i l i t y of the protagonist. The other d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n Faulkner's treatment i s the i r r e s o l v a b l e ambivalence i n Quentin, conveyed through the simultaneous sense of involvement and detachment from him. Whereas Prufrock and Miss Lonelyhearts ultimately become pathetic caricatures of t h e i r own id e a l s , Quentin does "excite both admiration and horror." Adams suggests that though Quentin's short-comings are evident we care for him "because he i s so se n s i t i v e , so naively innocent, so i n t e l l i g e n t , and so completely and i n e v i t a b l y doomed. He i s driven to suicide by his i n a b i l i t y to accept the i l l e g i t i m a t e pregnancy of his s i s t e r Caddy, and more generally by his revulsion from any kind of mature sexual a c t i v i t y . " 3 1 * Caddy's sexuality i s as much a threat to Quentin as i t i s to Benjy. The i d i o t - c h i l d protests against i t "because i t threatened to deprive him of Caddy's love. When Caddy smelled l i k e trees he could return to the security of t h e i r childhood y e a r s . " 3 5 Quentin's r e l a t i o n s h i p to Caddy i s p a r a l l e l but more complicated. He too protests against his 98 s i s t e r ' s s e x u a l i t y , l o n g i n g f o r t h e c e r t a i n t i e s o f c h i l d h o o d . I have s u g g e s t e d t h a t one r e a s o n f o r h i s l o n g i n g i s t h a t he y e a r n s f o r t h e n a t u r a l f a i t h o f t h e i n n o c e n t . H i s d e s i r e t o r e t u r n t o a c h i l d h o o d s t a t e i s a l s o a m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f h i s i n a b i l i t y t o c o n f r o n t s e x , w h i c h " t h r o u g h o u t t h e n o v e l i s a t h r e a t t o s e c u r i t y and p e a c e . " 3 6 L i k e o t h e r F a u l k n e r i a n i d e a l i s t s , i n c l u d i n g w i t h some v a r i a t i o n Byron Bunch, I s a a c M c C a s l i n , and G a v i n Stephens, Q u e n t i n i s s a d l y c e l i b a t e . Adams says t h a t " F a u l k n e r ' s male c h a r a c t e r s g e n e r a l l y f e a r and a v o i d t h e ' t e r r i b l e ' commitment" 3 7 w h i c h i s t o l i f e , and more s p e c i f i c a l l y t o sex. I t i s more a c c u r a t e t o say t h a t F a u l k n e r ' s i d e a l i s t s f e a r making l o v e and u s u a l l y f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t t o a t t r a c t women; o f t e n t h e y watch w i t h c h a g r i n l e s s s e n s i t i v e r i v a l s who l a c k b o t h t h e i d e a l i s m and t h e d i f f i c u l t y i n h a v i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h women. I n s e v e r a l n o v e l s F a u l k n e r p o r t r a y s a t r i a n g l e i n w h i c h two men compete f o r a woman whose n a t u r a l i n c l i n a t i o n i s t o p r e f e r t h e l e s s s e n s i t i v e and more p h y s i c a l man. Q u e n t i n Compson-Caddy-D a l t o n Ames, Byron Bunch-Lena Grove-Lucas B u r c h , and G a v i n S t e p h e n s - E u l a V a r n e r - M a n f r e d De S p a i n a r e t h r e e examples o f t h i s k i n d o f i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p . The problem o f t h e i d e a l i s t i s e x p l o r e d most f u l l y w i t h i n Q u e n t i n ' s c o n s c i o u s n e s s . Tormented by t h o u g h t s o f h i s v i r g i n i t y and Caddy's p r o m i s -c u i t y , he l o n g s f o r t h e days when n e i t h e r was a problem. In V o l p e ' s words, "He f i n d s c o m f o r t o n l y i n t h e t h o u g h t o f c h i l d -hood s e x l e s s n e s s . " 3 8 T h i s e x p l a i n s why Q u e n t i n says t o t h e 99 l i t t l e I t a l i a n c h i l d , " P o o r k i d , y o u ' r e j u s t a g i r l " ( 1 5 7 ) . The r e m a r k comes a f t e r t h e y h a v e b e e n s p l a s h e d by t h e t h r e e y o u n g b o y s who h a v e b e e n swimming i n t h e nude and a r e a n n o y e d by t h e p r e s e n c e o f a g i r l . The h o s t i l i t y f r o m b o y s who h a d b e e n f r i e n d l y e a r l i e r i n t h e a f t e r n o o n s u g g e s t s t h e f r a g i l i t y o f human r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The v u l n e r a b i l i t y o f t h e c h i l d a n d Q u e n t i n ' s a s s o c i a t i o n o f s e x w i t h w a t e r r e m i n d h i m o f t h e t i m e when he a n d C a d d y f o u g h t . "We lay in the wet grass panting the rain l i k e eold shot on my back" ( 1 5 7 ) . Q u e n t i n ' s comment t o t h e c h i l d i n d i c a t e s t h a t he s e e s h e r a s b e i n g i n t h e u n f o r t u n a t e s i t u a t i o n o f h a v i n g t o g r o w up (as C a d d y h a s d o n e ) , i n e v i t a b l y l o s i n g h e r i n n o c e n c e a n d h e r v i r g i n i t y . I t i s c l e a r f r o m t h i s r e a c t i o n t h a t Q u e n t i n i s r e j e c t i n g n o t h i n g l e s s t h a n l i f e i t s e l f . To be " j u s t a g i r l " i s a f t e r a l l t o be b l e s s e d w i t h l i f e . To move f r o m c h i l d h o o d t o a d o l e s c e n c e a n d t o a d u l t h o o d i s t o e x p e r i e n c e b o t h g a i n s a n d l o s s e s . B u t Q u e n t i n f a i l s t o s e e a m b i v a l e n c e i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s . H i s p e r s p e c t i v e i s d i s t o r t e d b e c a u s e he s e e s o n l y t h e n e g a t i v e a s p e c t s o f t h e c h a n g e . An i r o n y o f The Sound and the Fury i s t h e f a c t t h a t Q u e n t i n i s h i m s e l f t h e e m b o d i m e n t o f t h e a m b i v a l e n c e o f t h e g r o w t h o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s . H i s a n g l e o f v i s i o n i s b o t h more d i s t o r t e d t h a n B e n j y ' s a n d more c o m p r e h e n s i v e . H i s k n o w l e d g e r e s u l t s i n a f e e l i n g o f i s o l a t i o n . Y e t i t c o u l d l e a d t o t h e u n d e r -s t a n d i n g n e c e s s a r y t o c o p e w i t h t h e d e c l i n e o f t h e Compsons. 100 Q u e n t i n i s more c u t o f f f r o m p e o p l e t h a n B e n j y , b u t he i s a l s o c a p a b l e o f a c t i n g w i t h g e n e r o s i t y a n d c o m p a s s i o n t o w a r d p e o p l e s u c h a s t h e l i t t l e I t a l i a n g i r l . B e n j y , i n h i s b l i n d s e l f - c e n t e r e d n e s s , l a c k s t h i s c a p a c i t y s i n c e he«can n o t c o n c e i v e o f o t h e r p e o p l e a p a r t f r o m h i m s e l f . S t r a n g e l y e n o u g h , Q u e n t i n i s t h e embodiment o f a n a m b i v a l e n c e w h i c h h e , h i m s e l f , c a n n o t r e c o g n i z e . Q u e n t i n ' s f a i l u r e o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g l e a v e s h i m u n b a l a n c e d o n t h e l e v e l o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s . N i e t z s c h e h a s s a i d t h a t f o r t h e n e r v o u s , o v e r - s e n s i t i v e i n t e l l e c t u a l " e q u i l i b -r i u m , b a l l a s t , a n d p e r p e n d i c u l a r s t a b i l i t y a r e l a c k i n g i n b o d y a n d s o u l . " 3 9 T h e r e i s a l i t e r a l p h y s i c a l s y m b o l o f t h i s i m b a l a n c e i n S e c t i o n Two. I t i s commented o n by J o h n H u n t who s t a t e s t h a t " Q u e n t i n ' s p r o s t r a t i o n a t c r u c i a l m o m e n t s " 4 0 i s a r e c u r r e n t s y m b o l e v i d e n t i n t h e e p i s o d e w i t h C a d d y a t t h e hog w a l l o w ( i n w h i c h s e x a n d t h e s t a i n o f e x c r e -ment a r e a s s o c i a t e d ) . Q u e n t i n a l s o l i e s p r o s t r a t e a f t e r t h e f i g h t w i t h B l a n d a n d t h e e n c o u n t e r w i t h D a l t o n M e s . H u n t p e r c e p t i v e l y n o t e s t h a t a l l t h e s e e v e n t s a r e f o r e r u n n e r s o f Q u e n t i n ' s d e a t h l e a p . 4 1 I n t h e A p p e n d i x F a u l k n e r c o m p a r e s Q u e n t i n ' s c o n c e p t o f Compson h o n o r t o a b a l l r e s t i n g t e m p o r -a r i l y o n t h e n o s e o f a t r a i n e d s e a l a n d doomed t o come c r a s h i n g down. T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t i n 1945 t h e a u t h o r s t i l l t h o u g h t o f Q u e n t i n ' s c o n s c i o u s n e s s i n t e r m s o f a l a c k o f b a l a n c e . H i s l a c k o f p h y s i c a l a n d p s y c h i c b a l a n c e i s c o n t r a s t e d .101 t o t h e e q u i l i b r i u m o f t h e t r o u t i n t h e r i v e r and the m a y f l i e s i n t h e c u r r e n t s o f a i r (136). T h i s p a r t i c u l a r c o n t r a s t i s p a r t o f a l a r g e r p a t t e r n o f o p p o s i t i o n s i n t h e n o v e l . The t r o u t embodies m o t i o n and s t i l l n e s s , moving e a s i l y i n t h e c u r r e n t o f t h e C h a r l e s R i v e r , w h i c h s u g g e s t s t h e stream o f l i f e i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e book. Q u e n t i n drowns i n the same r i v e r t h a t s u s t a i n s t h e t r o u t . I n t h e f o l l o w i n g passage Q u e n t i n i s w a t c h i n g t h e f i s h , w h i l e he v i s u a l i z e s h i m s e l f b u r n i n g i n e t e r n a l f l a m e s w i t h Caddy: t h e n I saw a shadow h a n g i n g l i k e a f a t arrow stemming i n t o t h e c u r r e n t . M a y f l i e s skimmed i n and o u t o f t h e shadow o f t h e b r i d g e j u s t above t h e s u r f a c e . If it could just be a hell beyond that: the clean flame the two of us more than dead. Then you w i l l have only me then only me then the two of us amid the pointing and the horror beyond the clean flame. The arrow i n c r e a s e d w i t h o u t m o t i o n , t h e n i n a q u i c k s w i r l t h e t r o u t l i p p e d a f l y beneath th e s u r f a c e w i t h t h a t s o r t o f g i g a n t i c d e l i c a c y o f an e l e p h a n t p i c k i n g up a peanut. The f a d i n g v o r t e x d r i f t e d away down st r e a m and t h e n I saw t h e arrow a g a i n , nose i n t o t h e c u r r e n t , w a v e r i n g d e l i c a t e l y t o t h e m o t i o n o f t h e w a t e r above w h i c h t h e M a y f l i e s s l a n t e d and p o i s e d . Only you and me then amid the pointing and the horror walled by the clean flame The t r o u t h u n g , d e l i c a t e and m o t i o n l e s s among the w a v e r i n g shadows. (135-136) The t r o u t , i n i t s c o m b i n i n g o f m o t i o n and t r a n q u i l i t y , i s an image of l i f e . So g r a c e f u l and e f f o r t l e s s i s i t s m o t i o n t h a t i t s c a r c e l y seems t o be moving. Y e t i t i s here p i c t u r e d as making the movement n e c e s s a r y t o s u s t a i n i t s e l f . Q u e n t i n i s e x a c t l y t h e o p p o s i t e . A l t h o u g h he i s sometimes p o r t r a y e d t h r o u g h images o f s t a g n a n c y he i s a l s o r e n d e r e d as w a l k i n g , r i d i n g i n a t r o l l e y , and s i t t i n g i n t h e back s e a t 102 o f a c a r d r i v e n by G e r a l d B l a n d . H i s mind i s c o n s t a n t l y m u l l i n g o v e r e x p e r i e n c e . Yet Q u e n t i n does not g e t anywhere i n t h e sense o f making p r o g r e s s . T h i s i s i n d i c a t e d by t h e r e p e t i t i o n o f t h e t h o u g h t i t a l i c i z e d i n t h e passage c i t e d above. Whereas t h e f i s h p r o g r e s s e s w i t h o u t seeming t o move Q u e n t i n seems t o move b u t f a i l s t o p r o g r e s s . I t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t o draw a c o n t r a s t between th e c i r c u l a r m o t i o n o f t h e t r o u t and o f Q u e n t i n . I n my o p i n i o n , t h e v o r t e x - l i k e movement o f t h e t r o u t s u g g e s t s t h a t i t i s i n harmony w i t h i t s environment and w i t h t h e l i f e - c y c l e i t s e l f . Duncan A s w e l l has n o t e d t h a t a l l t h e Compson b r o t h e r s t r a v e l i n c i r c l e s . He o b s e r v e s t h a t Q u e n t i n ' s " a i m l e s s , c o m p u l s i v e w a n d e r i n g and t h e s c r u p u l o u s a t t e n t i o n t o p e t t y d e t a i l on w h i c h h i s monologue c l o s e s mock h i s d e s i r e f o r a c o n f r o n t a -t i o n w i t h e t e r n i t y , a way o u t o f t h e c i r c l e . " 1 * 2 The c o n t r a s t i s between t h e l i f e - c y c l e w h i c h i n v o l v e s harmonious and c o n t i n u o u s movement from one phase t o a n o t h e r and. t h e v i c i o u s c i r c l e w h i c h may be t a k e n as a metaphor o f b e i n g i m p r i s o n e d w i t h i n one's own ego and c u t o f f from l i f e . The f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t by M e l v i n Backman h e l p s t o e s t a b l i s h t h e c o n n e c t i o n between Q u e n t i n ' s o b s e s s i o n s and the metaphor o f t h e v i c i o u s c i r c l e : A t t h e same t i m e t h a t he s t r u g g l e s a g a i n s t c e r t a i n memories, as i f he w i s h e d t o o b l i t e r a t e them from h i s c o n s c i o u s n e s s , he seems c o m p e l l e d t o r e l i v e them. The broken sequence o f h i s memories and t h o u g h t s conveys a sense o f d i s i n t e g r a t i o n as w e l l as a r e l u c t a n c e t o r e c a l l p a i n f u l memories; t h e i r r e p e t i t i o n and c i r c l i n g movement su g g e s t a c o m p u l s i v e r e t u r n t o t h e s o u r c e o f a d e e p - r o o t e d f r u s t r a t i o n . 1 * 3 103 Q u e n t i n keeps c i r c l i n g back t o t h e same memories o f Caddy because he has been u n a b l e t o s a t i s f a c t o r i l y cope w i t h what he t h i n k s o f as her p r o m i s c u i t y . H i s c o n s c i o u s n e s s i s l i k e a s t r e a m t h a t has e n c o u n t e r e d a b a r r i e r i t cannot surmount. I n s t e a d o f f l o w i n g on, i t w h i r l s around r e p e a t i n g t h e same p a t t e r n i n e v e r c o n s t r i c t i n g c i r c l e s . Norman 0. Brown terms t h e r e s u l t a n t b e h a v i o r "the r e p e t i t i o n c o m p u l s i o n , " w h i c h he d e f i n e s as t h e r e p e a t i n g "of an a c t i v i t y t h a t once bro u g h t p l e a s u r e , i n t h e hope o f d u p l i c a t i n g t h e o r i g i n a l p l e a s u r e . " 4 1 * He s t a t e s t h a t "Under c o n d i t i o n s o f r e p r e s s i o n t h e r e p e t i t i o n -c o m p u l s i o n e s t a b l i s h e s a f i x a t i o n t o t h e p a s t , w h i c h a l i e n -a t e s t h e n e u r o t i c from t h e p r e s e n t and commits him t o t h e u n c o n s c i o u s q u e s t f o r t h e p a s t i n t h e f u t u r e . " 1 * 5 Q u e n t i n ' s f a i l u r e t o cope w i t h h i s problems l e a d s him t o w i t h d r a w i n t o an i m a g i n a r y w o r l d o f i d e a l i z e d c h i l d h o o d . T h i s w i t h d r a w a l r e s u l t s i n a f u r t h e r f a i l u r e t o cope w h i c h l e a d s t o f u r t h e r w i t h d r a w a l , e t c . The v i c i o u s c i r c l e may be r e g a r d e d as a metaphor r e f l e c t i n g a d e a t h - o r i e n t e d c o n s c i o u s n e s s . I t s c u l m i n a t i o n i s t h e n o t h i n g n e s s o f o b l i t e r a t i o n , t h e c i r c l e o f z e r o . I n l a t e r works, such as Light in August and The Bear, F a u l k n e r d e v e l o p s th e c o n t r a s t i n g metaphor o f t h e c i r c l e o f l i f e t h a t i s e v e r y t h i n g and t h e c i r c l e o f d e a t h t h a t i s n o t h i n g more f u l l y and perhaps more c o n s c i o u s l y . I t may be t h a t t h e p a t t e r n becomes more e x p l i c i t i n works t h a t come a f t e r h i s d e p t h e x p l o r a t i o n i n The Sound and the Fury because 104 t h e a u t h o r has become more c o n s c i o u s o f t h e n a t u r e o f h i s own p e r c e p t i o n s . The m e a n i n g l e s s c i r c l i n g o f t h e c l o c k s , f o r example i s not as e x p l i c i t l y r e l a t e d t o Q u e n t i n ' s c o n s c i o u s n e s s as the image o f t h e u r n i s t o Lena Grove. The c i r c u l a r p a t t e r n o f h i s meandering i s not made as c l e a r i n h i s s e c t i o n as i t i s i n t h e c a s e o f Joe C h r i s t m a s i n Light of August, whose e x t e r n a l w a n d e r i n g s a l s o r e f l e c t t h e c i r c l e o f d e a t h w i t h i n w h i c h he i s t r a p p e d . The metaphor i s t r a d i t i o n a l and i s f u l l y d e v e l o p e d i n a work such as King Lear,where t h e c i r c l e r e p r e s e n t s t h e shape o f t h e u n i v e r s e , t h e sun, L e a r ' s g o l d e n crown, h i s head ( r e f e r r e d t o as h i s " b a l d c r o w n " ) , t h e e y e - b a l l and t h e shape o f t h e t o r n a d o - l i k e s t o r m . F a u l k n e r ' s t r e a t m e n t o f t h e metaphor d i f f e r s i n two ways from t h e more t r a d i -t i o n a l t r e a t m e n t i n King Lear. I n Shakespeare's works t h e c i r c l e as a symbol o f p e r f e c t i o n and n e g a t i o n i s based on s o c i e t y ' s b e l i e f t h a t t h e m i c r o c o s m i c u n i t o f man r e f l e c t s t h e macrocosm o f t h e u n i v e r s e . I t i s , i n o t h e r words, a symbol based on a c o n c e p t t h a t members o f s o c i e t y s h a r e i n common w i t h each o t h e r as an assumed t r u t h . The movement o f t h e p l a n e t s i n t h e heavens and t h e shape o f t h e I n f e r n o were b o t h t h o u g h t t o be c i r c u l a r . I n c o n t r a s t , F a u l k n e r ' s n o v e l s a r e an a t t e m p t t o d e a l w i t h t h e b a s i c human dilemma t h a t a l l i n d i v i d u a l s p e r c e i v e t r u t h d i f f e r e n t l y , not s h a r i n g any f o u n d a t i o n o f b e l i e f i n common w i t h each o t h e r . There a r e c o n s e q u e n t l y no g i v e n symbols, b u t o n l y t h o s e w h i c h a r e 105 d i s c o v e r e d by t h e p e r c e i v e r i n t h e t e x t u r e o f t h e work. The c i r c l e i s n o t a g i v e n symbol as i n t h e p l a y but one t h a t u n f o l d s from t h e d e e p e s t l e v e l o f t h e a u t h o r ' s c o n s c i o u s n e s s . The r e s u l t i s t o emphasize t h e p r o c e s s o f p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e a u t h o r and r e a d e r . The second d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e t r e a t m e n t o f t h e c i r c l e from t r a d i t i o n a l works i s t h e emphasis on c o n s c i o u s n e s s t h a t d i s t i n g u i s h e s t h e f u n c t i o n i n g o f t h e c i r c u l a r m o t i f i n The Sound and the Fury and Light in August from t h a t o f King Lear. I b e l i e v e t h a t t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n i s i n degree r a t h e r t h a n i n k i n d ; t h e l i f e - c y c l e o f s u n s h i n e and r a i n i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h C o r d e l i a as t h e s t o r m i s w i t h t h e v i o l e n t p a s s i o n s o f G o n e r i l and Regan. I n t h e p l a y t h e metaphor r e f l e c t s t h e n a t u r e o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s . I n t h e F a u l k n e r i a n n o v e l s t h e metaphor i s more d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o t h e way c h a r a c t e r s p e r c e i v e e x i s t e n c e . The emphasis has s h i f t e d somewhat from c h a r a c t e r p o r t r a y a l toward e x p l o r a t i o n o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s . Whereas i n Lear t h e m o t i f o f s i g h t s u g g e s t s whether a c h a r a c t e r sees w e l l o r sees b a d l y , i n The Sound and the Fury i t i n d i c a t e s how and from what a n g l e o f v i s i o n a c h a r a c t e r s e e s . I n t h e book t h e v i c i o u s c i r c l e i s a m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f t h e way Q u e n t i n ' s o b s e s s e d c o n s c i o u s n e s s r e t u r n s t o t h e same t h o u g h t s w i t h o u t e v e r a c h i e v i n g a b r e a k t h r o u g h i n t o s e l f - i n s i g h t . As Q u e n t i n watches t h e t r o u t , he v i s u a l i z e s h i m s e l f b u r n i n g i n H e l l w i t h Caddy f o r h a v i n g committed th e s i n o f i n c e s t . The i m a g i n e d s t a s i s o f t h e H e l l f i r e s i s i n c o n t r a s t 106 t o t h e f l o w i n g w a t e r s o f t h e r i v e r w h i c h i s a l w a y s i n f l u x a n d y e t a c o n s t a n t . I n c e s t , i n Q u e n t i n ' s c o n s c i o u s n e s s , i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s u f f e r i n g a n d w i t h d e a t h . I t i s t h e c e n t r a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f h i s t h w a r t e d d e v e l o p m e n t . 4 6 The f i r s t t h i n g t o be n o t e d i s t h a t t h e i n c e s t i s s y m b o l i c r a t h e r t h a n l i t e r a l . Q u e n t i n i s i n c a p a b l e o f c o m m i t t i n g t h e a c t o f i n c e s t w i t h h i s s i s t e r . L i k e P r u f r o c k , he i s u n a b l e t o "mu r d e r o r c r e a t e . " The p e r f o r m a n c e o f e i t h e r a c r e a t i v e a c t o r a d e s t r u c t i v e o ne w o u l d be a n a s s e r t i o n o f h i m s e l f . E l i o t h a s r e m a r k e d t h a t t o do a d e s t r u c t i v e a c t i s , i n o ne s e n s e , b e t t e r t h a n t o do n o t h i n g a t a l l . Q u e n t i n h o l d s a k n i f e t o C a d d y ' s t h r o a t , c o n t e m p l a t i n g m u r d e r i n g b o t h h e r a n d h i m s e l f . A l t h o u g h s h e o f f e r s no r e s i s t a n c e he f u m b l e s h i s p e n k n i f e a t t h e c r u c i a l moment ( 1 7 0 - 1 7 1 ) . He n e v e r makes l o v e t o a woman, b r o o d i n g i n s t e a d "Why c o u l d n ' t i t h a v e b e e n me a n d n o t h e r who i s u n v i r g i n " ( 9 7 ) . As C a d d y h a s g r o w n up s h e h a s become i n d e p e n d e n t o f Q u e n t i n . The f o c u s o f h e r l o v e h a s s h i f t e d f r o m h e r b r o t h e r t o w a r d a w h o l e s e r i e s o f b o y f r i e n d s c u l m i n a t i n g i n D a l t o n Ames. T h i s c h a n g e c a n be s e e n a s p a r t o f t h e n a t u r a l d e v e l o p -ment o f a g i r l i n t o a woman. I w o u l d l i k e t o s u g g e s t t h a t C a d d y ' s p r o m i s c u i t y i s a l s o i n p a r t a r e v o l t a g a i n s t t h e s t r i c t u r e s o f t h e f r i g i d a n d s e l f - r i g h t e o u s M r s . Compson. C a d d y f i n d s a v i t a l i t y i n some o f t h e t o w n b o y s t h a t i s l a c k i n g i n h e r own f a m i l y w i t h i t s a r i s t o c r a t i c p r e t e n s i o n s a n d i t s P u r i t a n i c r i g i d i t i e s . W h i l e n e v e r l o s i n g h e r a f f e c -107 t i o n f o r Q u e n t i n , s h e d o e s f a l l i n l o v e w i t h a man who i n many ways i s t h e a n t i t h e s i s o f h e r b r o t h e r . D a l t o n Ames i s an e x - s o l d i e r , p o r t r a y e d a s a man o f a c t i o n r a t h e r t h a n o f w o r d s . H i s b e l i e f t h a t women a r e " a l l b i t c h e s " (179) i s i n d i r e c t c o n t r a s t t o Q u e n t i n ' s i d e a l i z a t i o n . Ames' c a s u a l n e s s a n d e a s e i n h a v i n g s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s w i t h women c o n t r a s t s t o Q u e n t i n ' s h i g h s e r i o u s n e s s a n d h i s v i r g i n i t y . C a d d y ' s b o y -f r i e n d i s a s p h y s i c a l a s h e r b r o t h e r i s c e r e b r a l . Q u e n t i n ' s i d e a l i z a t i o n o f women a n d h i s v i r g i n i t y a r e i n t e r r e l a t e d . The i m p u l s e t o i d e a l i z e may be s e e n a s one way o f e s c a p i n g f r o m t h e r e a l i t i e s o f e x i s t e n c e . B e i n g i n l o v e w i t h t h e . i d e a o f b a r e w h i t e a r m s , P r u f r o c k m a n i f e s t s f l e s h r e v u l s i o n a t t h e t h o u g h t o f arms "downed w i t h l i g h t b r o w n h a i r . " Backman a r g u e s c o n v i n c i n g l y t h a t Q u e n t i n ' s a s s o c i a t i o n o f s e x w i t h i m a g e r y o f s w i n e i s e v i d e n c e o f a s i m i l a r f e e l i n g . He o b s e r v e s t h a t i t i s a t t h e h o g w a l l o w w h e r e Q u e n t i n l i e s w i t h C a d d y b e f o u l i n g b o t h h e r a n d h i m s e l f ( 1 5 5 - 1 5 6 ) . He a l s o c i t e s t h e f o l l o w i n g p a s s a g e i n w h i c h Q u e n t i n v i s u a l i z e d C a d d y c o p u l a t i n g w i t h D a l t o n Ames: " D i d y o u e v e r d r i n k p e r f u m e ? " S p o a d e s a i d . with, one hand he aould l i f t her to his shoulder and run with her running Running "No," S h r