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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The vision of Germany's rebirth in the novels of Gustav Frenssen, Georg Von Ompteda and Jakob Wasserman Adams, Paul Simon 1973

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THE VISION OF GERMANY'S REBIRTH IN  THE NOVELS OF  GUSTAV FRENSSEN, AND 3AK0B  GEORG VON OMPTEDA UASSERMANN  by PAUL SIMON ADAMS B.A., Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y , 1966 M.A., U n i v e r s i t y  of B r i t i s h  C o l u m b i a , 1970  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in  t h e Department of German  Ue a c c e p t t h i s required  thesis  as c o n f o r m i n g  to the  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1973  In presenting t h i s thesis in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e for reference and  study.  I f u r t h e r agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s for s c h o l a r l y purposes may by his representatives.  be granted by the Head of my Department or It i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n  of t h i s thesis f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission.  Department of  German  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada  D a t e  2 April  1973  i Abstract  Through rebirth Georg  an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e v i s i o n  i n t h e n o v e l s o f Gustav  (1863-1945),  v o n Ompteda ( 1 8 6 3 - 1 9 3 2 ) , and J a k o b  (1873-1934), t h i s and e t h i c a l  defined  study i n v e s t i g a t e s  Uassermann  the s o c i a l ,  political  goals of three widely read authors of the  Uilhelminian  of  Frenssen  o f Germany's  era.  The c e n t r a l  as t h e a t t i t u d e  Germany a f t e r  problem o f the novels i s  towards  the i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n  1870 and t h e way i n u h i c h  this  attitude  p r e v e n t e d t h e a u t h o r s f r o m f a c i n g up t o t h e p r o b l e m s o f industrial of  s o c i e t y , thereby contributing  German d e m o c r a c y and t h e r i s e The u n d e r l y i n g  the  necessity  social  to the f a i l u r e  of National  Socialism.  common theme o f a l l t h r e e a u t h o r s i s  f o r n a t i o n a l u n i t y , b o t h t o p u t an end t o  d i s c o r d and t o e n a b l e Germany t o r e p e l  an a t t a c k • r:  by f o r e i g n social, ideal  enemies.  political  and r e l i g i o u s  reform contribute  o f a s t a t e whose h a r m o n i o u s  a framework  problems  endeavours necessity  to the  u n i t y i s s e c u r e d by  o f common g o a l s b a s e d on a f o u n d a t i o n o f e t h n i c  homogeneity, the  In Frenssen's novels the aspects o f  Georg  v o n Ompteda's w o r k s  of the Prussian  t o demonstrate  c o n c e n t r a t e on  aristocracy.  Ompteda  t o the 3unkers themselves the  of reform of c e r t a i n  aspects of the a r i s t o c r a t i c  c o d e , s u c h as t h e d u e l a n d t h e u r g e n t p r o b l e m o f e c o n o m i c  decline  due t o t h e D u n k e r s  outside  the s e r v i c e  national vital  unity  the  of the s t a t e ,  Ompteda s e e k s t o f o s t e r  the a r i s t o c r a c y  with  two i n t h a t  c o m m u n i t y , b u t on t h e b a s i s  he i s a n t i - n a t i o n a l i s t to a u n i f i e d  of humanitarian  His v i s i o n of a,reborn s o c i e t y  lacks the  o r i e n t a t i o n o f t h e " H e i m a t d i c h t e r " and h i s hope  social  improvement through a r e v i t a l i z e d  e t h i c gave way  to despair  a f t e r the c o l l a p s e  Republic.  Ompteda s i m i l a r l y  stratified  but harmonious s t a t e  1 9 1 8 , and o n l y the  with  nation.  of the other  idealism.  for  ad-  an e s s e n t i a l c o m m u n i t y o f i n t e r e s t  and a n t i - a u t h o r i t a r i a n , he t o o a s p i r e s  national  performs a  3 a k o b U a s s e r m a n n r e p r e s e n t s i n some ways t h e  antithesis  national  employment  as t h e s o u r c e o f m i l i t a r y and c i v i l  r e s t of the Uhile  r e f u s a l to accept  by s h o w i n g t h a t  function  ministrators  1  Third  humanitarian o f t h e Ueimar  abandoned h i s v i s i o n o f a a f t e r the Revolution  of  Frenssen m o d i f i e d h i s v i s i o n t o accomodate  Reich.  None o f t h e t h r e e a u t h o r s b e l o n g s a e s t h e t i c a l l y i n the  first  rank: t h e i r  novels are epigonal i n s t y l e ,  r a m b l i n g i n s t r u c t u r e , and g e n e r a l l y t h e y were n o t f i r s t - r a t e subject  their  consistent, their  failure  to f i n d  Since  t h i n k e r s , t h e y were u n a b l e t o  v i s i o n of a reborn  penetrating  f a r too l o n g .  analysis solutions  society  to the kind  w h i c h would have  of  revealed  to the problems of indus-  iii trial  society.  t h e modern  In consequence the novels r e t r e a t  world into  self-sufficient the l a n d . literary  a m y t h i c a l p a s t where Germany  and t h e p o p u l a t i o n l i v e d  analogous:  h i s heroes  industrial  society  sphere  where t h e y  vidual  level.  Uassermann's p o s i t i o n a l l withdraw  into  a sheltered  from  was  i n harmony  For a l l h i s p r e t e n s i o n s o f b e l o n g i n g avant-garde,  from  on  to the  i s essentially  the problems of  and s h a r p l y  limited  c a n engage i n good w o r k s on an  indi-  Had t h e r e been no T h i r d R e i c h , t h e " H e i m a t r o m a n " w o u l d have been m e r e l y literary after  phenomenon o f  m e r i t , worthy o f scant a t t e n t i o n  the l a s t press.  analysis  lies  The j u s t i f i c a t i o n  i n the f a c t  these  n o v e l s over  Adolf  Hitler's  a sympathetic idyll.  forty  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the genre l e f t  printing  rural  a transitory  rejection  of l i b e r a l  and f a m i l i a r  years the  for i t s retrospective  that millions  a period of forty  dubious  o f Germans  years  read  and f o u n d i n  parliamentary  democracy 1  echo o f t h e " H e i m a t r o m a n s "  iv Table o f Contents  The  "Heimatroman"  and i t s H i s t o r i c a l  Context  Gustav Prenssen  1 17  Nan  and Woman  22  Man  and S o c i e t y  42  Han  and God  60  Deutschtum  75  G e o r g v o n Ompteda Man  93  and Woman  98  a  The P h y s i c a l Type  b  Relationships  Man  between  and S o c i e t y  99 t h e Sexes  107 119  a  M o r a l i t y and Honour  119  b  Religion  124  c  The C a s t e  126  d  The Army  137  e  Duty  145  f  The M o n a r c h y  155  Dakob U a s s e r m a n n  164  Man  a n d Uoman  170  Man  and S o c i e t y  193  Deutschtum  and Dudentum  229  Table of  The  Ethical  Foundation  Conclusion Footnotes List  o f Uorks  Contents  Cited  Acknowledgment  I would l i k e Professor  t o e x p r e s s my  g r a t i t u d e t o my  Marketa Goetz S t a n k i e w i c z ,  e n c o u r a g e m e n t and  assistance during  often  long-distance  over t r y i n g My  the  thanks are  Schiller  rendered my  the  assistance  three  years,  conditions.  to F r H u l e i n 3 u t t a Salchow  f a r beyond the typed the  call  who  o f d u t y , and  m a n u s c r i p t and  of  to  provided  encouragement.  I must a c k n o w l e d g e an  enormous d e b t o f g r a t i t u d e t o  3ohn Goode o f R o s s a l l S c h o o l ,  who  me  without  German, and  sacrifice  past  unfailing  National-Museum, Marbach-am-Neckar,  w i f e S h e r i , who  constant  a l s o due  f o r her  adviser,  no  t o my  parents,  for five  dreams w o u l d have come t o  years  taught  whose s u p p o r t fruition.  and  Pre f a c e  The aim o f t h i s Germany's r e b i r t h Frenssen, to  study  i s t o examine the v i s i o n  as i t a p p e a r s i n t h e n o v e l s  of Gustav  G e o r g von Ompteda and 3 a k o b U a s s e r m a n n i n o r d e r  evaluate the s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l  the  and e t h i c a l  goals of  "Heimatroman," a f a c e t o f the l i t e r a t u r e o f the  Uilhelminian 1945.  e r a w h i c h h a s been t o t a l l y n e g l e c t e d  Indeed, these  numbers o f t h e i r  sold  little  during their  scholarly  lifetimes,  attention.  s e c o n d a r y l i t e r a t u r e on Ompteda i s r e s t r i c t e d h i s novels i n various p e r i o d i c a l s ,  literarische has  to s p e c i f i c  T h e r e has been no a t t e m p t t o a s s e s s except has past  twenty y e a r s , both  particular  aspects  orientation  Frenssen  h i s work as a w h o l e Uassermann  dissertations  of which l i k e w i s e  deal  during the with  of h i s work.  U h i l e Uassermann's racial  Das  o f h i s work.  from a N a t i o n a l S o c i a l i s t v i e w p o i n t .  been t h e s u b j e c t o f two S w i s s  The  principally  aspects  have  to reviews  Echo, w h i l e academic c r i t i c i s m of  been r e s t r i c t e d  since  t h r e e a u t h o r s , d e s p i t e t h e enormous  novels  received remarkably  of  of  novels  lack  the n a t i o n a l i s t  w h i c h i s one o f t h e s a l i e n t  and  features of  the  " H e i m a t r o m a n " and t h e r e f o r e does n o t p r o p e r l y f i t i n t o  the  category  is  justified  of "Heimatdichter," h i s i n c l u s i o n on two c o u n t s .  i n the study  F i r s t l y , he t h o u g h t o f h i m s e l f  viii as a " V o l k s e r z i e h e r " i n t h e same uay was  bitterly  accepted  by  concerns  and  as F r e n s s e n ,  d i s a p p o i n t e d when h i s n o v e l s were t h e German p u b l i c  not  as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  a s p i r a t i o n s , and  s e c o n d l y , the  of  illuminated The  by  by, the "Heimatroman"  vision  the author's  the p o s i t i o n s relation  proper.  to the s o c i e t y  o f F r e n s s e n , Ompteda and  to the neuly i n d u s t r i a l i z e d  Uilhelminian  e r a are r e f l e c t e d  advocate i n the n o v e l s .  The  i n s t i t u t i o n s , and  Since tial  Germany o f  which  o f an i d e a l  the a c t u a l course  future  of  s h e d s some a d d i t i o n a l  of events  from  foundation.  of a  thought, examination  they  relations  religious  the " H e i m a t d i c h t e r " are r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  vision  the  study examines these  and  and  Uassermann i n  i n the reforms  the e t h i c a l  body o f U i l h e l m i n i a n  largely  around him,  the aspects of i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s , s o c i a l and  and  of a reborn nation i s determined attitude  their  essentially  analagous nature of h i s c o n c l u s i o n s i l l u m i n a t e s , is  and  i n twentieth century  substantheir  light  on  Germany.  The  " H e i m a t r o m a n " and i t s H i s t o r i c a l  Context  S e v e n t y y e a r s ago t h e " H e i m a t r o m a n " uas c o n s i d e r e d  by  many Germans t o be t h e most i m p o r t a n t l i t e r a r y  development  o f t h e neu c e n t u r y .  splendour  the^self-conscious  I n t h e heyday o f I m p e r i a l nationalism  o f t h e movement c o r r e s p o n d e d  t o an a w a r e n e s s o f n a t i o n a l p r i d e on t h e p a r t sections evocation  of the population, of a simpler  chord i n the hearts industrialization and  past struck  a  responsive  o f many f o r whom t h e h e a d l o n g o n r u s h o f  b r o u g h t unwelcome c h a n g e s i n t h e s o c i a l  conservative  n o t composed s o l e l y  faction i n Uilhelminian  shift  Germany  o f t h o s e c l a s s e s , s u c h as t h e  a g r i c u l t u r a l ' c o m m u n i t y , who were d i r e c t l y the  self-conscious  economic s t r u c t u r e o f the n a t i o n . This  was  rural  and t h e e q u a l l y  of large  a f f e c t e d by  i n emphasis from a g r i c u l t u r e t o i n d u s t r y  reflected  i n the b i t t e r l y  opposed t a r i f f  1892-94.  The i n s e p a r a b i l i t y  agreements o f  i n the Bismarckian  Empire  o f t h e c o n c e p t s o f t h e a r m y , t h e J u n k e r s and p a t r i o t i s m 1 per  se l e d t o a  11  feudalization  of the bourgeoisie"  in  which the p a t r i o t i c middle c l a s s accepted the pre-eminence of the a r i s t o c r a c y i n t h e m i l i t a r y heirarchy tional  and  bureaucratic  and t o o k o v e r many o f t h e a r i s t o c r a c y ' s  myths and m a n n e r i s m s , w h i c h were o f c o u r s e  towards the maintenance o f t h e i r  residual feudal  tradidirected privileges.  2 The  growing p r o s p e r i t y of the middle c l a s s  as a s u b s t i t u t e the  b o u r g e o i s i e to the  demands o f t h e power and in  for real  the  political  prosperity.  dancy of i n d u s t r i a l b r e a k w i t h German Aristocrats virtues  face of  f o r a r e t u r n to a  echo o f i t s own goals  of  the both found  pre-indus-  f e a r s t h a t the  posed the  served  a l s o wedded  This conservative sentiment  1  s t a t e an  i n the  only  f o r a g r e a t e r share  "Heimatroman s" c a l l  trialized  power b u t  aristocracy  proletariat  not  t h r e a t of a  ascen-  complete  tradition. and  bourgeois  alike  compared the  traditional  o f t h e German n a t i o n , t h e n a t i o n a l s e l f - i m a g e  such w i d e l y - r e a d  w o r k s as  Freytag's  Soil  und  Haben: i n d u s t r y ,  l o y a l t y , p i e t y , to the supposed l a c k of such v a l u e s the  c l a s s e s o r i e n t e d towards i n d u s t r y .  socialist in den  workers considered  von  Namen D e u t s c h e zu t r a g e n . , " — v o n expressed  maintain  stock  hostility industrial  and  order— wert,  Bund  that only  i n h i s comment t h a t  From t h i s  der  the to  "the the  s t a n d p o i n t , where  c o n v i c t i o n c o m b i n e d t o p r o d u c e a deep  to i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n age,  P l f l t z of the  exchange would c o l l a p s e i n 3  face of a c a v a l r y charge." self-interest  the  the k i n d of l e a d e r s h i p necessary  Germany's p o s i t i o n  s p e c u l a t o r s of the  o n l y were  Menschen, n i c h t  the w i d e l y - h e l d b e l i e f  Dunkers c o u l d p r o v i d e  among  a danger t o the e x i s t i n g  t h e K a i s e r ' s words " e i n e R o t t e 2  Landwirte  Not  of  especially  and  i t s changes,  i n it's gaudier  the  manifestations,  3 threatened society: 1900,  t h e m a t e r i a l and the  spiritual  T r i u m p h a l Arch at the  s u r m o u n t e d by  a statue  inner  poverty  hollouness The  masked by  Caprivi t a r i f f s ,  by  the  no  more t h a n a b e l a t e d  formation  industry in  and  of the  r e c o g n i t i o n of the  Chancellor,  had  1 8 8 0 ' s by  refused  t h o u g h i n d u s t r y was  protected  demanded d u r i n g  depression  acceleration o f the and  the  of i n d u s t r i a l  primacy  iron"  domination  Prussian  d i d not of the  L a n d t a g , the  in particular  the  of Bismarck,  by  f o r the  the  of the  urban  farmers. high  of  barriers, working  (Even  tariff  wall  1870*s, the after  the  great  introduc-  i n d i c a t e d t h a t the i n t e r e s t s  always c o i n c i d e . )  army, the  political  civil  Because  s e r v i c e and  i n f l u e n c e of the  E a s t E l b i a n D u n k e r s , was  heavy i n d u s t r y needed t h e i r similarly  costs  tariff  production  Caprivi tariffs  were  recession  b e n e f i t to the  and  i n 1893,  agricultural  class with  their  immediately  concede.  living  "rye  the  to  progressively raising  very l i t t l e  of  spectacle.^  Lahduirte  which r e s u l t e d i n high  of  rather  glittering  Bund d e r  evening  triumph  w h i c h were a n s w e r e d  B i s m a r c k s o u g h t t o combat t h e  tion  the  i n an  i n a modern G r e a t P o w e r , s o m e t h i n g t h a t  h i s y e a r s as  the  not  d i s e a s e , but the  of  P a r i s E x h i b i t i o n of  of a P a r i s i e n n e  goun, symbolized to c o n s e r v a t i v e s technology over  foundations  support i n order  from s t a t e p r o t e c t i o n .  Barkin  to  points  of the  farmers,  such  that  benefit out  that  4 Bismarck's 1879  adoption  was c r u c i a l  state  of a p r o t e c t i o n i s t  tariff  i n that i t established the p r i n c i p l e of  support f o r powerful  interest  groups.^  the  economic c o n f l u e n c e  and  heavy i n d u s t r y broadened t o i n c l u d e a felt  The i n e x o r a b l e  rise  workers provided  political  that their  d e p e n d e d on t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f t h e R e i c h  among i n d u s t r i a l  As a r e s u l t  o f i n t e r e s t between t h e Dunkers  p a r t n e r s h i p , f o r both groups  constituted.  policy i n  survival  as p r e s e n t l y  of Social  Democracy  a common enemy, and t h e  enormous p r e s t i g e o f t h e a r i s t o c r a c y f o l l o w i n g t h e 1870 war  with  ideology  F r a n c e imbued t h e i n d u s t r i a l i s t s as t h e J u n k e r s . ^  bourgeoisie"  and  thoroughly  such p o s t u r e s industrial rather "the  The " f e u d a l i z a t i o n  resulted i n the prolongation  of the Prussian  conservative  of the  of the philosophy  mode o f t h o u g h t , l o n g  h a d c e a s e d t o be a p p r o p r i a t e  after  i n a modern  n a t i o n whose p r o s p e r i t y d e p e n d e d on t r a d e 3.PI. Keynes once o b s e r v e d  German E m p i r e was b u i l t more t r u l y 7  class  t h e same  aristocracy, i t s military, authoritarian  than m a r t i a l deeds.  than blood  with  and i r o n "  who had u n i t e d  that  on c o a l and i r o n  but the p r e s t i g e o f the a r i s t o c r a t i c the country  obscured t h i s  unromantic  truth. A l t h o u g h t h e Bund d e r L a n d u i r t e Prussian  a r i s t o c r a c y , there  conditions  was d o m i n a t e d by t h e  was c o n s i d e r a b l e  similarity i n  i n S c b l e s w i g - H o l s t e i n , where a p a t r i a r c h a l  5 relationship labourers eastern  existed  between the l a r g e  f a r m e r s and  i n the marshes o f D i t h m a r s c h e n .  Holstein  of Dithmarschen  had  Although  i t s noble landowners, the  were t h e i r  own  a highly  comment t h a t  stratified few  statistic  P r u s s i a n e s t a t e s had  12.8%  only  The  n o t b e l o n g t o an a r i s t o c r a t i c sympathy f o r the P r u s s i a n  Indeed  and  p o l l e d more t h a n 5.4$ in  Hans-3drgen  of the l a r g e r  Frenssen's  Puhle's East  c a s t e and  traditions  1912  family  farmers of Dithmarschen t h e r e f o r e had  which  did no  t h e Bund d e r  the C o n s e r v a t i v e Party d e s i r e d  b e t w e e n 1890  aristocracy"  been i n t h e hands o f t h e same 10  f o r more t h a n 50 y e a r s .  by  i n t h e same f a m i l y f o r  coincides with  t h a t by 1885  L a n d w i r t e and  a "peasant g had e v o l v e d ,  society  farms remained g  more t h a n a c e n t u r y  farmers  l o r d s o f t h e m a n o r , and  t h e 1 9 t h c e n t u r y what H e b e r l e t e r m s with  their  to  maintain.  the C o n s e r v a t i v e s never  of the vote i n R e i c h s t a g e l e c t i o n s ,  c o n t r a s t t o a maximum o f 4 4 . 3 $ ( i n 1903)  f o r the  Social  11 Democrats.  Only the l a r g e r  protectionist  tariffs  steady r i s e brought speaks  on g r a i n  i n meat and  dairy  a general prosperity  and  o f new  Dithmarschen.  situation  Getreuen  The  nevertheless  from  feedstuffs, while  the !  prices  during the 1890 s 12 to the r e g i o n . Frenssen 13  o f " u n s o l i d e m L e b e n und S p e k u l a t i o n e n "  from the i n t r u s i o n  drei  farmers benefited  ways i n t o  formerly  of Andreas  resulting isolated  S t r a n d i g e r i n Die  shows t h a t p r o b l e m s  s u c h as  the  6 migration  o f farm l a b o u r e r s  Dithmarschen the  rise  u e r e common t o t h e l a r g e r  f a r m e r s a s w e l l as t h e J u n k e r s , and f o r b o t h  o f S o c i a l i s m , w h i c h was p a r t i c u l a r l y  strong i n  14 Dithmarschen, social  presented a threat  o f t h e U i l h e l m i n i a n e r a took  Puhle enumerates t h e m o n a r c h i c a l , riarchal  the s o c i a l i s t  concept of the u n i f i e d the population  bound t o g e t h e r the in  ideology  nationalist  "kleindeutsche  the  Prussian  out  of p o l i t i c a l  the  Dithmarscher, l i v i n g  to  and l o y a l t y t o  estate  1  aversion  shared  dislike of  As P u h l e p o i n t s o u t ,  owners s u p p o r t e d rather  to the Prussians,  a focus f o r  the prevalent 15  Lflsung."  necessity  t h e new f l e e t  at f i r s t  than c o n v i c t i o n , whereas  by t h e s e a ,  were more  susceptible As l o n g as  e c o n o m i c p o s i t i o n d i d n o t s u f f e r as a r e s u l t , the s a t i s f a c t i o n  troops  i n 30rn U h l , d i d  f e e l i n g s of n a t i o n a l p r i d e on t h a t s c o r e .  their  segment  f o r example i n F r e n s s e n ' s  o f t h e Empire p r o v i d e d  sentiment despite  with  of i t s station,  heritage  of the Battle of Gravelotte  the foundation  Bismarck's  of class struggle  Pride i n the achievements o f l o c a l  much t o o v e r c o m e t h e D i t h m a r s c h e r s and  and p a t -  catechism, the attempt  performs the functions  t h e war o f 1 8 7 0 , a s e v i n c e d  description  Hans-JUrgen  " l / o l k " i n which each  by a common r a c i a l  sovereign.  shape.  nationalist,  components o f t h e a g r a r i a n  to counter  of  e c o n o m i c and  p o s i t i o n , i n r e a c t i o n to which the c o n s e r v a t i v e  philosophy  the  to their  of the majority  they  of the nation at  7 t h e image o f power and  p r e s t i g e presented  colonial  policies.  This i s r e f l e c t e d  Bund d e r  Landwirte  f o r a . "verndlnf t i g e n  entirely  f o r reasons  of n a t i o n a l  the  domestic  rise  Kolonialpolitik"  Conservative  and  c o n t r a s t to harmful  since their  "alien,"  by  foreign  p a n t h e o n o f German v i r t u e s . Gustav Freytag's virtues  Soli  und  and  France,  those  who  T h i s was  Haben had  "Heimatdichter"—they  t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t b l u e e y e s and inevitable qualities.  concomitant The  c o u l d be  of the  to a l a r g e e x t e n t the p o l i t i c a l Bund d e r for  L a n d w i r t e , and  although  class-  were m a n i became  by no means  but  for  German  Conservative  became a r t i c l e s  blond hair  were  the new:  e l a b o r a t e d on  o f a whole c o n s t e l l a t i o n  concerns  industrial  w o r k e d i t were  c o n t a c t , these  at great l e n g t h i n mid-century,  zealots—and  In  development f o l l o w e d a p a t t e r n  t h e l a n d and  uncorrupted  farmer.  from t h e  i m b u e d w i t h a l l manner o f v i r t u e s : s i n c e t h e y festly  goals  c o n c e p t o f the n a t i o n gave  i n f l u e n c e s emanating  already e s t a b l i s h e d i n England as  exports  economic  to the m y t h o l o g i z a t i o n of the r o l e o f the  ified  the  market,^  farmers, this  c i t i e s , which,  of  agricultural  In c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the p o l i t i c a l of the  the c a l l  and  p r e s t i g e , s i n c e Germany's  c o l o n i e s were i n c a p a b l e o f p r o d u c i n g for  by  by n a v a l  of  faith  the of  worthy  "Heimatdichter"  reflect  and  aims o f  ideological  Frenssen  a g r e a t e r d e g r e e o f f r e e d o m and  in particular  p r o s p e r i t y f o r the  the calls  8 agricultural  l a b o u r e r , the " E r s a t z a u t o r i t M t " of the theory  of  founded  the s t a t e  p e o p l e and  on t h e " o r g a n i c " bond b e t w e e n  t h e l a n d and  was  a central  the  reality  the  between the c l a s s e s i n the  theme o f b o t h t h e a g r a r i a n s  of the U i l h e l m i n i a n  Empire  1  and  state  struggle  against  the v i s i o n  r e b o r n Germany c o n t a i n e d i n t h e n o v e l s o f t h e  of a  "Heimat-  17 dichter." for to  Even when t h e a g r a r i a n s o p p o s e d t h e K a i s e r ,  i n s t a n c e over the C a p r i v i  render u n c o n d i t i o n a l obedience  demanded, t h i s nationalist  dichter"  theorists  code  provided a focus for  be t o t a l l y  u n j u s t to accuse  this  essential  common g r o u n d  between  o f a Germany r e b o r n a l o n g t h e ' l i n e s  landowners  ceased  sentiment.  agricultural  c o m m u n i t y and  the s e l f - i n t e r e s t  c a n n o t be i g n o r e d .  f a r m e r s , s u c h as t h e l a b o u r the c i t i e s ,  a  for agrarian the  o f an of  Prussian  Concrete problems  s h o r t a g e caused  "Heimat-  facing  by t h e  were p r e s e n t e d i n t h e U i l h e l m i n i a n  from both the p r a c t i c a l s u c h as U i l h e l m  von  Frenssen's Die d r e i  and  Polenz  1  the i d e o l o g i c a l Per B O t t n e r b a u e r  Getreuen  the d e c l i n e of the s m a l l  petition  thereby  s u c h as F r e n s s e n o f b e i n g a m o u t h p i e c e  interests,  with  and  as t h e a r i s t o c r a t i c  concept of the s t a t e  While i t would  to  tariffs,  as  from l a r g e r  s p e c u l a t o r s , and  (1898)  migration Empire  side. (1895)  Novels or  sympathetically  f a r m e r , caught  n e i g h b o u r s and  lament  deal  the  b e t w e e n com-  the unscrupulousness of  the p o v e r t y which drove the  rural  9 population der  to the  cities  L a n d w i r t e used the  that  or  same p r o b l e m as  f r e e d o m o f movement be  approaches to the tional  security  and  f o r the  considerations, larger  as  e r a , and  that  the the  f o r demands  law.  Behind the  be  soldiers, halted.  of S o c i a l i s m  s o l u t i o n o f an  Imperial  national  "National domestic  loomed  grew s t e a d i l y t h r o u g h o u t t h e  final  both  addi-  r e f e r r e d p r i m a r i l y to  spectre  Bund  f a r m w o r k e r s make b o t h  migration  agrarians  SPD  by  more r e l i a b l e  the  f o r the  a basis  i s discernable  that, since  politically  requires  security"  curtailed  problem there  justification  physically  to A m e r i c a , whereas the  ever  Uilhelminian  coup d '  etat 18  never l o s t The  i t s fascination i n conservative  c o n c e p t o f an  d i s c o r d e n g e n d e r e d by in  than a p o l i t i c a l l y  competition an  emotional  the  social  nation.  The  vitriolic  cherished  but  obsolete  at the certain  beginning  of the  a s p e c t s of 19th  as D u l i u s  and  political  s o l u t i o n to as  values  century  as  became  been  which  foundations  nature of Nietzsche's  1890's as  early  s u c c e s s had  spiritual  institutions  the  reaction  Nietzsche  expense of those t r a d i t i o n a l  were assumed t o be  of  of i n t e r e s t groups  feasible practical  t h a t Germany's e c o n o m i c and  bought at the  on  nation, freed  w i d e s p r e a d u n e a s e , e x p r e s s e d by  1873,  the  the  a c o m p l e x modern s o c i e t y was  rather the  "organic"  circles.  of  attacks  popularized  a s e l e c t i v e r e j e c t i o n of  civilization  i n such  L a n g b e h n ' s R e m b r a n d t a'ls E r z i e h e r , t h e  works  first  10 edition  of uhich  s u c h an  enormous s u c c e s s  s o l d i n the for on  first  a rebirth the  appeared i n 1890.  year  In h i s book, which  that sixty  thousand copies  of p u b l i c a t i o n ,  19  o f Germany's i n t e l l e c t u a l  basis of t r a d i t i o n a l  cultural  Langbehn and  were  calls  spiritual  values.  He  was  life  rejects  20 the  "geistige  and  i n place of  v a l u e s , the  Leere"  of the  "l'art  the  their  of i t s people the  r e s t o r e these  life  north  qualities  of the n a t i o n .  last  i n the  s t r e n g t h and  unsullied uncorrupted  leadership  t o a paramount p o s i t i o n  R e m b r a n d t a l s E r z i e h e r uas  most s i g n i f i c a n t i n f l u e n c e s on  by  Langbehn sees i n  the  and  cities,  cultural  i s guaranteed  native s o i l .  of t h i s moral i n t e g r i t y ,  vitality  postulates  of uhich  c u l t u r e o f Germany's r u r a l  bastion  to  pour l ' a r t "  abiding v a l i d i t y  unbroken c o n t a c t u i t h  a s p h a l t c u l t u r e of the  Frenssen's  one  necessary in  the  of  the  intellectual  21 development, tion the  by  and  Ferdinand  as  Avenarius,  book became one  kunst"  of the  the  editor  o f Per  p i v o t a l uorks of the  Kunstuart, "Heimat-  movement.  For  a l l the  s o c i e t y , uhich engulf  a r e s u l t of i t s e n t h u s i a s t i c recep-  passionate  rejection  i n i t s r a p i d development threatened  e v e n t h e most i s o l a t e d  of m o d e r n i t y , the ground u i t h Lienhard  and  of U i l h e l m i n i a n  rural  enclaves  in a  " H e i m a t k u n s t " movement s h a r e s  i t s arch-adversary, A d o l f B a r t e l s , the  »  Naturalism.  to flood  some common  Friedrich  l e a d i n g t h e o r e t i c i a n s of  11 "Heimatkunst," uere u e l l tic  auare t h a t from a p u r e l y  p o i n t o f v i e u , " H e i m a t k u n s t " and N a t u r a l i s m  stylis-  uere not  22 mutually  exclusive.  Their  gegen den N a t u r a l i s m u s  a t t a c k uas t h e r e f o r e " n i c h t  a l s blosse  literarische  Schule, 23  sondern a l s u e s e n t l i c h s t e Ausdrucksform The  phrase " D i e Moderne," c o i n e d  historian  Eugen U o l f f  t i o n a l , questioning  i n 1886 by t h e l i t e r a r y  as a d e s c r i p t i o n  spirit  des Z e i t g e i s t e s . "  of the a n t i - t r a d i -  u h i c h u a s g a i n i n g momentum  after  24 1882-84,  uas f u l l y  had  made t h e i r  uas  this  ful  of t r a d i t i o n  a p p l i c a b l e only  stylistic  spirit,  and t h e m a t i c  after  the N a t u r a l i s t s  i n n o v a t i o n s , and i t  international, materialistic, disrespectand c o n c e n t r a t e d  "im L i t e r a t e n t u m  der Gross-  25 stadt,"  against uhich  Avenarius  uith  h i s Kunstuart  Naturalism, uhich the in  Lienhard,  B a r t e l s and  directed their  assault.  reached i t s high-uater  mark  uith  p e r f o r m a n c e o f G e r h a r d t Hauptmann's l/or S o n n e n a u f g a n g Berlin  into  i n 1889, brought contemporary s o c i a l  the foreground,  a trend uhich  form.  of the " H e i m a t d i c h t e r , "  Frenssen,  the S o c i a l  industrial affirmation  most n o t a b l y  cities  problems, they  as a f o i l  shared i n their  used t h e m i s e r y o f t h e  to support the c a l l  of the supposedly e t e r n a l r u r a l  1900 amounted t o a u i l l f u l  con-  A l t h o u g h some  Democratic bias o f the N a t u r a l i s t s  treatment of s o c i a l  problems  t h e "Heimatroman"  tinued, albeit i n a rather different  in  Ferdinand  refusal  fora re-  values.  This  to acknouledge the  fundamental Revolution  changes and  i n society  the consequent  imposing these r u r a l industrial uith  cope u i t h  fixe  impossibility  The  inability  Industrial  of super-  v a l u e s on t h e c o n d i t i o n s  proletariat.  i t s idee  w r o u g h t by t h e  of the  of the "Heimatroman,"  of the v a l u e s of the c o u n t r y s i d e , to  the problems  o f a modern u r b a n s o c i e t y  graphically  illustrated  by  uhich  fails  totally  two.  Baas' peasant toughness  i s most  Frenssen's Klaus H i n r i c h  i n i t s intention  of r e c o n c i l i n g  e n a b l e s him  to r i s e  to a f f l u e n c e  the  uay  he l o s e s  the  novel suggests that i n the commercial maelstrom  slouer  pace  as a Hamburg b u s i n e s s m a n , b u t a l o n g  his spiritual  f o u n d a t i o n s and  by r e - e s t a b l i s h i n g  recover the s e r e n i t y of l i f e  his ties  that contact uith  uith  t h e end  the  is  n a t u r e and  the  impart to the farmer,  Torney, deal with  historical  Bartels'  subjects,  o f c o u r s e t h e most c o n v e n i e n t method o f  modernity,  U h i l e most " H e i m a t d i c h t e r " k n e u  country l i f e after  t h e manner o f t h e R o m a n t i c s , t h e i r  distasteful  a didactic  influences  element  into  of i n d u s t r i a l  their  which  t o o much  attempt to  from uhat t h e y c o n s i d e r e d  von  excluding  t o g l a m o r i z e t h e f a r m e r ' s daun t o dusk  country d i s t r i c t s and  he  D i t h m a r s c h e r ( 1 8 9 8 ) and many o f t h e w o r k s o f L u l u  S t r a u s s und  of  land,  A l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f " H e i m a t r o m a n e " s u c h as Die  the  from  poverty  c a n n o t , even  Baas,  the  society  about toil isolate  corrupting introduces  udrks which i s q u i t e  a t odds  13 uith  the s p i r i t  Naturalism Realism  and  of N a t u r a l i s m . "Heimatkunst"  Uhereas the s t y l e  of  both  i s a d e v e l o p m e n t o f German  i n t h a t b o t h movements r e p r e s e n t a p r o g r e s s i v e  s h a r p e n i n g of focus i n the author's d e p i c t i o n both  from  the s t a n d p o i n t of landscape  this  didactic  that belies  element i s a d i s t o r t i o n  the photographic c l a r i t y  h e r e n t i n the s t y l e  of the n o v e l s .  through uhich u r i t e r s  such  and  of the  of s o c i a l  of reproduction i n The  poetic  as S t o r m , K e l l e r  filter  and  Raabe  auay as r e p l a c e d  by an e v e r - p r e s e n t d i d a c t i c i s m u h i c h a t t i m e s comes propaganda.  adjectives  such  Linen F r e n s s e n  as " s c h l i c h t "  l a b o u r e r s , or c a l l s  and  problems,  of the s u b j e c t matter  d e p i c t t h e u o r l d i s n o t so much s t r i p p e d  to sheer  uorld,  constantly  close  uses  " e r n s t " t o d e s c r i b e farm  FMhrmann T e u t ( F l e i n o d e r  Prahler);  26 "ein  TagelUhner,  der e i n Herzog  uar,"  the  o f e x p r e s s i v e names and  exemplary  an o v e r l a y o f myth o v e r  the d e s c r i p t i o n  uork  from  assertion  the sphere  this  central The  characteristics  places  u h i c h removes  of unvarnished r e a l i t y .  t h a t the "Heimatroman" i s merely  of u e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d  combination  a  Erika  the  Denny's  continuation  19th century " D o r f g e s c h i c h t e " i g n o r e s 27  aspect of the  self-interest  "Heimatroman."  behind  t h e Bund d e r L a n d u i r t e uas  the i d e o l o g i c a l  gradually  programme o f  submerged a f t e r  the  m i d - 1 9 2 0 ' s as i t s s u c c e s s o r , t h e R e i c h s l a n d b u n d , became more t h a n a component o f t h e r a d i c a l  right-uing  no  opposition.  14  The  loss  of c o n t r o l  over  Hugenberg's e l e c t i o n October  to the presidency of the party i n  1928 had as i t s end r e s u l t  agrarian in  t h e DNVP by t h e a g r a r i a n s f o l l o w i n g  the subordination of  e c o n o m i c aims t o t h e p o l i t i c a l  the creation  of the ReichsnMhrstand  g o a l s o f t h e NSDAP under t h e l e a d e r 28  s h i p o f R.U. D a r r e i n t h e summer o f 1 9 3 3 . twist, this that:  successor to the East E l b i a n Junkers declared  "Die N a t i o n a l s o z i a l i s t i s c h e  Agrarpolitik  j e d o c h e n t s c h i e d e n den l i b e r a l i s t i s c h e n der e i n z e l n e The to die  I n an i r o n i c  Bauer m f l g l i c h s t v i e l  declared role  of agriculture  be " v e r a n t u o r t l i c h e r 30 htichsten GOter."  lehnt  Grundsatz  a b , dass 29  G e l d v e r d i e n e n mUsse." i n t h e T h i r d R e i c h was  Sachverwalter seines Volkes The b a s i c  Ober  t e n e t o f t h e Bund d e r  Landwirte, that the r u r a l  p o p u l a t i o n was h e a l t h i e r and  more p o l i t i c a l l y  than the i n d u s t r i a l  reliable  was  similarly  and  transformed i n t o  Bauernvolk ist of  removed f r o m such  the r u r a l  from w r i t e r s  f a t u o u s s l o g a n s as :  such  politics  "Dedes Volk  The p r o c e s s o f m y t h o l o g i z a t i o n  p o p u l a t i o n , which  t h e "Heimatroman" took  o f f s p r i n g , t h e " B l u t und B o d e n " n o v e l , whose  gramme o f F r e n s s e n  over  as L a n g b e h n , became t h e c a n o n o f i t s  aim was t h e g l o r i f i c a t i o n  absorbed  of practical  i s t blOhendes Leben, jedes v e r s t S d t e r t e 31  s c h l e i c h e n d e r Tod."  unlovely  the sphere  proletariat,  of the r a c e .  The s o c i a l  and h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s  i n the declamations  and p r o m i s e s  was  sole  pro-  forgotten,  t h a t t h e new  15 Reich would c r e a t e a farmers'  paradise.  U h e r e a s a n t i - s e m i t i s m had many a d h e r e n t s financially it  hard-pressed  farmers  r e p r e s e n t s no more t h a n  "Heimatdichtung" novels. the realm  and i s c o m p l e t e l y  of financial  ideological  factor The  at  Deuish  i n policy  the lack  towards  of coherent  on t h e p a r t o f N a z i o f f i c i a l s  t h e same t i m e  families  among r u r a l  the primacy  and o t h e r  of r a c i a l — a n d  logical—considerations  significant  i n i t s predecessor.  t h e 3eus d u r i n g t h e  p l a n s beyond the g e n e r a l  desirable  reflective minian  racial  segments p o i n t s  therefore ultimately  o f those  p l a y e d an  mythopolicy*  important  a s p e c t s o f t h e programme  of the T h i r d Reich to the r u r a l  prime concerns  uhile  the advocacy o f l a r g e  t h e Bund d e r L a n d u i r t e u h i c h w e r e a b s o r b e d i n t o  attitude  the  farmland,  t o be r i d o f t h e m ,  The " H e i m a t r o m a n " u n d o u b t e d l y  of  of  i n the formation of s t a t e  part i n the p o p u l a r i z a t i o n  from  banished  the " s t r e n g t h e n i n g " o f the Germanic  element i n the p o p u l a t i o n through  to  takeovers  of  Frenssen's  o f 1933 r e m o v e d l a n d  i n t h e " B l u t und B a d e n " n o v e l t h a n  1930*s r e f l e c t uish  a b s e n t from  a n t i - s e m i t i s m u a s a much more  frequent s h i f t s  Landwirte,  i n most u o r k s  s p e c u l a t i o n and t h e r e b y  agrarians' fears of further but  o f t h e Bund d e r  an u n d e r c u r r e n t  The R e i c h s e r b h o f g e s e t z  among t h e  the  population.  The  o f the "Heimatroman" are n e v e r t h e l e s s  of the s o c i a l  era, just  and p o l i t i c a l  as t h e s t y l e  i s s u e s of the  and s t r u c t u r e  Uilhel-  of the novels  16 are  firmly  rooted i n the R e a l i s t  even a t h i s most i r r a t i o n a l  tradition.  differs  from t h e f r e n z i e d  demogoguery o f t h e " B l u t und Boden" w r i t e r s minian  Junker  vision  of a reborn  of  the l a t t e r  differs  Uilhel-  that the  Germany became t h e n i g h t m a r i s h  former's  reality of the  to appreciate the extent to uhich the  industrialization national  from a N a z i G a u l e i t e r :  as a  demonstrates the fundamental f a i l u r e  "Heimatdichter"  of  Frenssen  life.  o f Germany had c h a n g e d t h e c o n d i t i o n s  17 Gustav  From t h e o b s c u r i t y  Frenssen  of a parsonage i n the v i l l a g e  Hemme i n H o l s t e i n , G u s t a v F r e n s s e n rary  sensation uith  Although  Die S a n d q r H f i n  n o v e l , Die d r e i writers first  the p u b l i c a t i o n had  Getreuen  as R a a b e , Heyse and  novel of Frenssen's months one  became an o v e r n i g h t of 3Brn  Uildenbruch,  to a t t r a c t uidespread  sold,  an enormous number f o r t h e t i m e , and  of the p u b l i c . such pared  hundred thousand  i n g e n e r a l no  Amid a v e r i t a b l e  praised  t h e c h a r a c t e r s on  were i m b u e d w i t h " w a h r h a f t lichkeit." The  uriting  the  of  in their  than  that  adjectives  literature:  uas one  comcritic  the e x t r a v a g a n t grounds t h a t homerischer  "Heimatkunst"  praise  i n Per K u n s t w a r t ,  book t h e y w o u l d f i n d  Einfalt  und  they  Unpartei-  movement were more  of 3flrn U h l . admitted  Ferdinand  much l a t e r  Avenarius,  t h a t t h e n o v e l uas in  good,  Frenssen's  "noch r e i c h e r , u r s p r U n g l i c h e r , g r f l s s e r " 5  the works of K e l l e r  Frenssen  been  reaction  Frenssen 3  b u t a d v i s e d h i s r e a d e r s t h a t what t h e y l i k e d  in  the  4  l e a d e r s of the  restrained  c o p i e s had  avalanche  of u o r l d  such  attention.  less enthusiastic  as " e c h t , " " g e s u n d , " " k e r n d e u t s c h , " to the g r e a t masters  h i s second  3 H r n U h l uas  seven  uas  and  lite-  1901.  been a c c l a i m e d by  Uithin  of the c r i t i c s  Uhl i n  a p p e a r e d i n 1897  ( 1 8 9 8 ) had  of  and  Raabe.  A d o l f B a r t e l s , whom  d e s c r i b e d as r u n n i n g "immer  bellend  h i n t e r m i r h e r , " d i s m i s s e d J f l r n U h l as h a v i n g volkstUmliches  "zuar  viel  Lebensgut, aber d i e s e s l e i d e r  vielfach  f u n d e n , und ( i n dem) n o c h mehr a n e m p f u n d e n e s  steckt."  Frenssen uith  himself regarded  misgivings:  the l a b e l  "Meinetuegen  stMrkstem Masse, aber n i c h t g  und  Buxtehude g e l e s e n  uird,"  of "Heimatdichter"  'Heimatdichter  von  unemp-  1  und g a r e i n e r  e i n e r , der nur z u i s c h e n H i s aim uas a l u a y s  Husum  to serve  t h e w h o l e n a t i o n , and t o do t h e same f o r t h e German  people  as he b e l i e v e d D i c k e n s h a d done f o r t h e E n g l i s h : Man s a g t v o n D i c k e n s , d a s s e r m i t s e i n e n E r z M h l u n g e n das e i n f a c h e U o l k g e e h r t , s e e l i s c h e r h f l h t und s o m i t g e h o l f e n h a b e , d a s s d a s e n g l i s c h e l/olk i n s e i n e r Ges a m t h e i t s i c h s e l b s t g e e h r t und s o e i n e i n i g e s und s t a r k e s \7olk g e u o r d e n s e i ; d a s i s t e s , u a s i c h v o n K i n d an u n b e u u s s t g e g l a u b t und g e u o l l t , und urn d a s i c h m i c h gemilht h a b e . 9 Frenssen  considered  distinct  literary  grosse  the uhole  c o n c e p t o f " H e i m a t k u n s t " as a  movement s u p e r f l u o u s .  Kunst i s t Heimatkunst,"  h i m s e l f , "dann f i n d e t  He f e l t  that  f o r uhen an a r t i s t  "alle  has found  e r a u c h d i e H e i m a t , denn d i e H e i m a t i s t 10  j a e i n Stdlck s e i n e r s e l b s t  und d a s B e s t e , "  h e i m a t l i c h e S c h o l l e " uas a s o u r c e concrete  sense:  For him " d i e  of inspiration  i n a very  not only d i d i t provide the m a t e r i a l f o r h i s  n o v e l s , b u t " e s s c h i e n m i r , uenn i c h i n d e r Fremde u a r , a l s utlrde a l l e s  unuirklich 11 schuankenden U e l t , " Frenssen's in  und a l s u S r e i c h v e r l o r e n i n e i n e r  ancestors  had l i v e d  i n the v i l l a g e  of Barlt  S t i d e r d i t h m a r s c h e n s i n c e t h e end o f t h e s e v e n t e e n t h  century.  19 His  f a t h e r uas  Uhl  g a v e him  a c a r p e n t e r , and  confidence  throughout h i s l i f e the  village  although  i n his a b i l i t y  the  success  o f 3b*rn  an  author,  Frenssen  as  t h o u g h t o f h i m s e l f as s i m p l y  community:  uhen he  uas  a member  o v e r s e v e n t y he  of  urote: 13  "Ich  b i n e i n Bauer g e u e s e n , i n g e i s t i g e m  C o n s e q u e n t l y F r e n s s e n r e j e c t e d the c o r d e d by the  This  Nietzsche  downgrading of the  pre-eminent p o s i t i o n  Langbehn to c u l t u r e i n the  ac-  life  the  importance of a r t i n r e l a t i o n  purpose l e a d s i n e v i t a b l y  Frenssen's l i t e r a r y didactic  of  ses  t o be  to content,  the  of  innovation, the  s u c h as s t r u c t u r e and  subtlety  cea-  virtue.  That t h i s value  i s not  to  message r e a c h  Considerations  l a n g u a g e become s u b o r d i n a t e  of equal  artistic  purpose r e q u i r e s t h a t the  and  a  t o an i m p o v e r i s h m e n t  uork; i t precludes  g r e a t e s t number o f r e a d e r s .  men,  Gut."  nation: A b e r d i e K u n s t . . . i s t f U r das L e b e n e i n e s l / o l k e s und des E i n z e l n e n n i c h t das U e s e n t l i c h e , s o n d e r n n u r e i n e Z i e r d e s e i n e r E x i s t e n z , e i n e Feder auf seinem Hut. Das U e s e n t l i c h e e i n e s l / o l k e s und des e i n z e l n e n M e n s c h e n s c h e i n t m i r das L e b e n s e l b s t , d a s s es b i o l o g i s c h g e s u n d , e r n s t , und u e r t v o l l t M t i g s e i . Urn d i e s habe i c h m i c h i n m e i n e n l / e r f l f f e n t l i c h u n g e n b e m U h t . 14  didactic  for  and  deutschen  sense of being to the  a p a r t of the  c o m m u n i t y as  the  other  village  community,  f a r m e r s and  a p o s e f o r F r e n s s e n i s a t t e s t e d t o by  crafts-  a l l uho  kneu  15 him.  An  A m e r i c a n s c h o l a r , 3ohn C.  Blankenagel,  urote i n  Anyone uho has t a l k e d u i t h F r e n s s e n , as t h i s r e v i e u e r h a s , must have been i m p r e s s e d u i t h t h e s i n c e r i t y and  1948:  a l m o s t a u s t e r e s i m p l i c i t y o f t h e man. H i s u a s n o t a s u b t l e mind, nor uas h i s background a u i d e o n e . H i s t h i n k i n g a l o n g c e r t a i n l i n e s u a s n a i v e and a t t i m e s c o n t r a d i c t o r y , but i t uas h o n e s t . F r e n s s e n uas n o t i n t e r e s t e d i n a r t f o r a r t ' s s a k e ; he d e s i r e d t o be r e g a r d e d by p o s t e r i t y a b o v e a l l as a man uho h a d t a ken an a c t i v e p a r t i n t h e l i f e and i s s u e s o f h i s t i m e . 1 6 Frenssen would u i t h o u t ner  back from t h e c i t y ,  that  only  piness  uith  f o r he f e l t  the s o i l  f r o m h i s oun e x p e r i e n c e  o f home u n d e r o n e ' s f e e t u a s r e a l hap-  p o s s i b l e , and y e t , more t h a n most " H e i m a t r o m a n e " h i s  n o v e l s have a u i d e r Buxtehude," dication reading  the l a s t  public  student i n B e r l i n such t h a t  use o f " P l a t t d e u t s c h "  thing  he d e s i r e d  outside  Husum und  i s a clear i n -  uas t o r e s t r i c t t h e  f o r h i s novels to the inhabitants  He l i v e d  matdichter:  r e l e v a n c e than merely "zuischen  The s p a r i n g  that  Holstein.  uas  a doubt have b r o u g h t Gustav B i l t t -  the province only  of Schlesuig-  when he u a s a  and T O b i n g e n , and as a r e s u l t h i s o u t l o o k  he f u l f i l l e d E r i k a Denny's c r i t e r i o n "Schaffen  aus i n t u i t i v e m H e i m a t g e f O h l  for aHeiheraus,  17 nicht bloss close  aus o b j e k t i v e r  to the l i f e  unfamiliar tion :  Sachkenntnis."  of the v i l l a g e  he uas n o t m i s l e d  environment i n t o r e s t r i c t i n g  h i s concerns uere u i t h  pride, sexuality, injustice, tnerbauer  that  i s the decline  F r e n s s e n uas so  himself  u n i v e r s a l human  frivolity.  depic-  problems:  The theme o f P e r Btijt-  o f t h e f a r m e r as a c l a s s , u h e r e a s  OSrn U h l goes t h r o u g h t h e w h o l e r a n g e o f human youth, l o v e , marriage, bereavement, i n a d d i t i o n gle to r e t a i n the family  to i t s  by t h e  experiences:to h i s strug-  farm.  One a t t r i b u t e most s h a r p l y  divides  the BUttners  from  Frenssen's vels  farmers:  from Die d r e i  the e x c e s s i v e  pride.  A l t h o u g h many o f F r e n s s e n ' s  Getreuen  on c a s t i g a t e  pride uhich gives  rise  no-  the "Bauern" f o r  to the o l d Dithmarschen 18  saying  "Dickdohn  i s t dat h a l v e Leben,"  uould react u i t h  the f e e l i n g  tav  B O t t n e r shous  The  Dithmarschen  of c l a s s  uhen v i s i t i n g  had  that, notuithstanding  own  i n a clash  Gustav  the c i t y  that  of  uorth  and  and i t s m a n n e r s . Babendiek)  slou-moving uays, Frenssen  for his neighbours' a b i l i t y  to hold  uits,  F r e n s s e n uas  a Lutheran pastor  uhen t h e s u c c e s s o f 3 H r n D e s p i t e a u i d e n i n g gap  their  Gus-  i n the t o u n .  Bohnsack v e r s u s D u t t i K o h l ( O t t o  considerable respect  their  inferiority  farmers are c o n s c i o u s of t h e i r  case of B a l l e  shous  farmer of h i s  his relations  a r e n o t s u b d u e d uhen c o n f r o n t e d u i t h The  no  U h l made him  betueen  f r o m 1890  financially  h i s oun  religious  to  1901,  independent. convictions  and t h e o r t h o d o x dogma o f h i s C h u r c h , he e n j o y e d t h e r e s p o n s ibility ded  for serving  his literary  s o n he r e j e c t e d lists  and  e d u c a t i n g h i s p a r i s h i o n e r s , and  production  the absolute r e a l i s m  on t h e g r o u n d s  Dinge  zu s c h r e i b e n  For t h i s  geuesen, s c h i e r  didactic  element;  uirkliche,  j a bru-  , • • a b e r . , . i c h m u s s t e es 19  e r h B h e n , r e i n i g e n , b l a n k machen." and  disruptive  influences  his  p a r i s h uas  nou  remained  the e n t i r e  rea-  a d v o c a t e d by t h e N a t u r a -  that i t precluded this  "Es u S r e m i r u o h l m B g l i c h tale  i n t h e same l i g h t .  regar-  The  combating  alles  of harmful  h i s primary c o n c e r n , but  German n a t i o n ,  Dithmarschen  22 in  Frenssen's n o v e l s i s s i m p l y the u o r l d  betueen farms  i n microcosm,  B a r l t , S t . M i c h a e l i s d o n n and W a l d o r f  and  the v i l l a g e s  depiction  he  and  found i n the  a l l the m a t e r i a l necessary f o r the  of humanity's  glories  and  tragedies:  Der S c h r i f t s t e l l e r , d e r D r a m a t i k e r u i e d e r E r z H h l e r , b r a u c h t n i c h t den K O n i g s h o f , n i c h t d i e G r o s s s t a d t , urn so t i e f , k l a r und b u n t zu g e s t a l t e n , u i e s e i n G e n i e i n s e i n e r hHchsten K r a f t vermag; aber er b r a u c h t a l l e r d i n g s e i n e G e m e i n s c h a f t von M e n s c h e n , u e l c h e den g a n z e n K r e i s des M e n s c h e n t u m s d a r s t e l l t , arm und r e i c h , Reg i e r t e und R e g i e r e n d e , U e l t l i c h e und G e i s t l i c h e , S t a d t und L a n d , T a g e l t i h n e r , B a u e r n , H a n d u e r k e r , L e h r e r , L a n d v B g t e , und im H i n t e r g r u n d a n g e d e u t e t das g a n z e U o l k und die Regierung. I n s o l c h rundem A b b i l d d e r g a n z e n W e l t b e f a n d i c h m i c h , f t l h l t e und g e n o s s e s ; und u a r d o p p e l t f r o h , d a s s d i e s A b b i l d m e i n e H e i m a t uar-. 20 F r e n s s e n a v o i d s the danger of c a r d b o a r d c h a r a c t e r s cause  of h i s t a l e n t  f o r o b s e r v a t i o n , but t h e r e i s c o n s i d e r a b l e  repetition  of both p h y s i c a l  throughout  his uork.  people his in  principal this  roman." in  for their  Racial  the l o s s  and  psychological  moral  and  follous  exemplary  the normal  differences  racial  pattern  of the  i t s purchase  developments  endous  attributes:  a r e i m p o r t a n t as e a r l y  o f t h e U h l s ' f a r m and  r u i n e d n o t by s o c i a l  t h e German  p h y s i c a l i m p r o v e m e n t , he  S i g n i f i c a n t l y , i n c o n t r a s t t o P o l e n z and are  characteristics  S i n c e h i s aim i s t o e d u c a t e  characters uith  Frenssen  be-  by  "Heimatas  1901,  Fiete  Krey.  F r e y t a g , the Uhls  or e v i l  foreign  influ-  e n c e s - t h e s e t h e r a c e o f t h e U h l s i s v i g o r o u s enough t o comb a t - b u t by for  their  a scapegoat  oun  frivolity.  to e x p l a i n  f a m i l i e s , but r a t h e r  Frenssen i s not  looking  the d o u n f a l l of the o l d farming  a t t e m p t i n g t o r o u s e them f r o m  their  23 suicidal  complacency.  There are and  the  tuo  Kreys.  distinct  The  Uhls are  hellblonde  G e s i c h t e r , das  der  Gesichter  Ernte,  races  von  the  i n the  district,  marsh f a r m e r s :  Haar so  blond uie  the  Uhls  ". .  .schmale,  Roggen k u r z  uor  Forrnen m i t  ruhi-  starken, o f t edlen 21  gen,  s t o l z e n , k l a r e n Augen."  Frisian  strain  nobility, features  contains  reliability reflect  the  and  The so  inner the  . . .  contrast  Uhls with  the  flinken  i s frequently  of the  the  "ruhigen,  Augen, u n s t e t Sonne  revealed  by  and  value  two  He  who  occupied  for  England u n t i l  migration  G e t r e u e n , the  Dithmarschen from the  north.  Uenden a r e rather  first  "Pribislav  ther  the  In  the  the  time the  suggesting  a Slavic  the  Springer,"  wood s p i r i t s  r e t r e a t of  the  alien  tribe  Anglo-Saxons  f r e s h waves o f  previous  n o v e l , Die  The  drei as  name o f  the  Dithmarschen  invaders.  The  left Saxon  implies a g i l i t y of  the  relative  somewhat s c o r n f u l l y d e s c r i b e d  der  and  cunning  further in  Uends,  than brave w a r r i o r s : 23  t h a n v a l o u r , and  happy t o see  step  t h e y were d i s p l a c e d by  opportunists scout,  g o e s one  descended from the  from the  eyes,  s t o l z e n , k l a r e n Augen" o f  F r e n s s e n ' s j u d g e m e n t on  Kreys are  rote  o f t und v e r 22  the  immediately  t h a t the  physical  springen."  Kreys' clever, quick, inconstant  clans.  strength,  , . runde,  eyes b e t r a y s of the  Saxon-  Kreys*  traits:  j u n g e K a t z e n i n der  character  pure  d e s i r a b l e elements of  more n e g a t i v e  wie  racially  pride, while  K f l p f e . . . d i e k l u g e n und schlagen  The  raare  Uhls'  24 loss  o f t h e farm  occurrence, spirit lies lel  i s therefore a repetition  of a h i s t o r i c a l  and t h e l e s s o n i s t h a t a r e v i v a l  o f t h e o l d Saxon  o f e n e r g y and e n t e r p r i s e i s n e c e s s a r y  to r e t a i n  their  charged u i t h  an e m o t i o n a l  land.  irrational  f o r the o l d fami-  By h i s c h o i c e o f a h i s t o r i c a l racial  overtones,  e l e m e n t t o an o t h e r w i s e  eminently values  adds  practical  call  for  a reaffirmation  and  i n d u s t r y i n t h e f a c e o f t h e p e r v a s i v e i n f l u e n c e s from t h e  neuly  of the t r a d i t i o n a l  Frenssen  paral-  of seriousness  a f f l u e n t Reich uhich are l e a d i n g the o l d farming  fami-  24 lies  "zu unsolidem  the r a c i a l directed  aspect  all  read  characteristics  novels.  well  built  p a s t o r s , Adam B a r f o o d  of Hitler's  and p h y s i c a l l y  as t h e b e s t o f t h e i r  conviction  approves are b l o n d , strong.  The e x e m p l a r y  of this  Bohlen  type, i n  that the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of  r e q u i r e s men as v i g o r o u s parishioners.  in a l l  virtually  t h e p a s t o r o f P o g g s e e and P a s t o r  Frenssen's  the people  reappear  Not o n l y t h e h e r o e s b u t a l s o  ( O t t o B a b e n d i e k and D i e B r O d e r ) a r e a l s o uith  Never-  u o r k as 3 H r n U h l i n  of the Uhls  t h e c h a r a c t e r s o f uhom t h e a u t h o r  educating  i s not advocating  c a n n o t be o v e r l o o k e d .  physical  blue-eyed,  case  since i t i snot  t h e uay among Germans f o r t h e a c c e p t a n c e  Frenssen's  keeping  In t h i s  against the i n h a b i t a n t s of the "Geest."  policies  The of  Frenssen  the e f f e c t o f such a u i d e l y  preparing racial  of the novel i s harmless,  a t any d e f i n a b l e g r o u p :  discrimination theless  L e b e n und S p e k u l a t i o n e n , "  and p o s i t i v e  The one n o t a b l e  exception  25 is  Otto  shares  Babendiek, Frenssen's Frenssen's  oun  autobiographical hero,  physique  o f medium h e i g h t and  uho slim  build. Uithin they  t h e bounds Df t h e t y p i c a l  a l l share, Frenssen's  heroes  Saxon p h y s i q u e  that  r e p r e s e n t "Urformen  von  25 niedersSchsischem t r e u e n ) i s "der Jans und  Blut."  Traumer," 30rn  (Hilliqenlei) TOchtige."  illuminated  Heim H e i d e r i e t e r  "der  The  Uhl  "der  G r U b l e r " and  s t r e n g t h s and  (Die drei  Ge-  dumpf T M t i g e , "  Kai  K l a u s Baas " d e r  Helle  ueaknesses of each  t o s e r v e as an e x a m p l e and  are  a u a r n i n g to the  reader.  The  s l o u , d e l i b e r a t e n a t u r e o f most o f t h e h e r o e s  is reflec-  ted  i n their  behind  g a i t , the r e s u l t  of years of u a l k i n g  plough  i n the heavy marsh s o i l .  ness,  straightforuardness  ring  traits,  typically The traits tal  i n uhich Frenssen  H i s aim  attributes  s o c i e t y , to o f f e r  a constructive was  endeavour:  shares u i t h  i s to conserve  to expose h a r m f u l  Holstein  recura  virtue.  c o n s e r v a t i s m t h a t he  Uilhelminian  in  are c o n s t a n t l y  mostly  to the c h a r a c t e r s i n h i s novels r e f l e c t s  general.  and  loyalty  serious-  a c c o m p a n i e d by i n d u s t r y , u h i c h i s d e p i c t e d as  German uay  and  Honesty, r e l i a b i l i t y ,  the  social  rather  i t s rural  the  fundamen-  the " H e i m a t d i c h t e r " i n s t r e n g t h e n t h e good i n  worthy examples to h i s r e a d e r s  institutions  than  a particularly  and  positive  and  a revolutionary  character way.  appropriate setting  c h a r a c t e r uas  largely  traits  Schleswig-  f o r such  u n c h a n g e d by  an the  26 Industrial  R e v o l u t i o n , Hamburg uas an e a s i l y  resentative the in  o f t h e neu a g e , and f r o m a r a c i a l  n o r d i c p h y s i c a l type Germany.  ting  along  To t h i s  h i s characters  children  extent  the lanes  elseuhere presen-  flaxen haired  eyed f a r m e r s a r e a f r e q u e n t  sight  of Dithmarschen.  o f the exemplary r a c i a l  female c o u n t e r p a r t . first  than  F r e n s s e n uas n o t m e r e l y  as m y t h i c a l s t e r e o t y p e s :  and r o b u s t , b l u e  point of v i e u ,  uas more common t h e r e  The i d e a l m a l e h e r o , m o d e l l e d a f t e r cept  a c c e s s i b l e rep-  Frenssen's  con-  type, has, of course, h i s  Beginning  uith  n o v e l , Die Sandqr9fin, uhich  Trude i n F r e n s s e n ' s i s by F r e n s s e n ' s own a d 27  mission  an i m i t a t i o n  cession  of leading ladies  quite fall  i s a gallery  into  two d i s t i n c t  groups:  the expression  ideal  first  wife  that the u i f e  willing  peasant g i r l  makes h e r more  tribulations  They  and t h e reticent  Heim H e i d e r i e t e r ' s w i f e E v a ,  L e n a T a r n , who e p i t o m i z e s  of a vigorous  man must be a  c o m p a n i o n , and Adam B a r f o o d ' s Gude  q s e e ) , who u i t h  heroines.  o f the s e n s u a l i t y of her nature.  To t h e f o r m e r g r o u p b e l o n g DHrn U h l ' s  the l u s t y  b e a u t y , whose u p b r i n g i n g  the pro-  of f u l l - b l o o d e d females  f r e e o f t h e b l u s h i n g modesty o f V i c t o r i a n  middle class in  of "Gartenlaubegeschichten,"  her stormy l o v e stands  o f u a r and r e v o l u t i o n .  fies  a danger i n h e r e n t  gets  up on t h e s i x t h  i n this  day a f t e r  Frenssen's hard-uorking,  (Per Pastor  von Poq-  by h i m t h r o u g h a l l t h e  Lena Tarn a l s o  exempli-  s t r e n g t h and u i l l i n g n e s s . giving  birth  and l o o k s  She  after  the c h i l d Frenssen  herself, catching a fatal comments b r i e f l y  es g e s c h e h e n . Frau  hatte:  chill  i n the kitchen.  and t o t h e p o i n t :  Er u a r so s t o l z  darauf  " n i c h t so z i m p e r l i c h  "Jflrn Uhl l i e s s  dass e r e i n e so k r M f t i g e  u i e d i e anderen,"  3tirn  28 U h l u a r z u j u n g und z u dumm." of everyday this  life  Frenssen's  uarning to other  similar  Even i n t h e mundane  didactic  mistake.  Junker, Klaus comes c l o s e  t o b r e a k i n g ) , Otto  t h e u i v e s o f Bendix  The  f a c t t h a t the heroes  t u a l l y marry t h i s  Groth  tuo  Sanna ( a l t h o u g h t h i s  youth  preference  evenof the  i n pursuit of similar  clearly  girls,  enough, although  from  i t i s unfortunate that there  an i n s t a n c e u h e r e t h e h e r o h a s t o c h o o s e b e t w e e n t h e  types. Not  only i s the physical  labour o f the farmer's  demanding o f s t r e n g t h i n a u i f e . action Otto  Ommen.  t y p e o f woman, a n d t h a t t h e h e r o e s  Frenssen's  marriage  Babendiek's second u i f e E v a , (Dummhans) a n d N e i n o  the p o i n t o f v i e u o f a n a l y s i s never  Lisbeth  o f t h r e e o f t h e major n o v e l s  t u o n o v e l s spend t h e i r  indicates  DUm's s e c o n d u i f e  Baas' second u i f e  and  is  surface i n  p r o u d young h u s b a n d s a g a i n s t m a k i n g a  In t h e second group b e l o n g  last  tendencies  details  i s other  than  the land:  The h e r o e s Klaus  B a b e n d i e k , p l a c e demands on t h e i r  subtle  b u t no e a s i e r  to f u l f i l .  o f t h e u a r uhen h e r c h i l d r e n  uife  uhose sphere o f  B a a s , Adam  Barfood,  u i v e s t h a t a r e more  Gude b r e a k s  die^ but u n t i l  doun a t t h e e n d then  her healthy  28 earthiness lectual both  compliments  flights  Adam's t e n d e n c y t o s o a r  of fancy,  o f whom f a l l  into  Klaus  Baas and O t t o  the category  f i r s t marriages.  are s i m i l a r  families  this.  capable  Both have a d e l i c a t e ,  of grappling uith  Lebensbericht, the  chapter  Blankenese years  like  a r e d e c a d e n t , and o n l y t h e  Anna F r e n s s e n  a village  i n H o l s t e i n , and t h e i r  seclusion  i n uhich  they  live.  taken  and h e r p a r e n t s  to  tells in  crises  during  f a m i l y have a t i m b e r  yard i n  surname R u h l a n d i n d i c a t e s t h e i s frigid,  marriage u i t h  form a t i g h t l i t t l e  Eventually Martje's  t o the asylum i n S c h l e s u i g , u h i c h  matters  Frenssen  and u a n t s t o  her mother.  Uhen,  t o t h e c o n t r a r y , s h e has a c h i l d , s h e ,  decay o f t h e f a m i l y . cal  reali-  uere able t o uork out a  Martje  spend t h e f i r s t n i g h t o f t h e i r  Baas i s e x c l u d e d .  them f r o m  beauty, but are i n -  4 5 , o f h i s oun m a r i t a l  In the novel Martje's  child  fragile  the r e a l u o r l d .  solution.  her prayers  and Gesa  uhen K l a u s _H. Baas u a s u r i t t e n , b u t u n -  Baas he and F r a u  despite  Babendiek,  Martje  y o u t h f u l i n e x p e r i e n c e of the heroes prevents zing  intel-  o f " d i e H e l l e n und TOch-  t i g e n , " make u n s u c c e s s f u l i n that their  o f f on  Klaus  circle  from  older s i s t e r further  the  uhich  has t o be  underlines the  cannot i n t e r e s t Flartje i n p r a c t i -  or discuss anything  u i t h d r a u from h i s t h r u s t i n g  uith  h e r , f o r she o n l y  ambition  into  uants  t h e s e c l u d e d , de-  caying u o r l d of her p a r e n t s .  Klaus  eventually decides  divorce i s the only s o l u t i o n ,  " d a m i t j e d e r v o n uns das u e r d e n  k a n n , u a s n a c h den Gaben s e i n e r N a t u r i n ihm s t e c k t . "  o q  that  Gesa's f a m i l y real  display  u o r l d , although  a similar  inability  c h a r a c t e r : her  attempts  at d o m e s t i c a t i o n g i v e s t o her  rarely  s m a l l boat approach here in  on  image o f a b e a u t i f u l  the w i l d  to the ever  Klaus  Hinrich  are c a l l e d  uhen K l a u s  North  Sea,  one  in  the e a r l y  lands  of complete,  and  TUchtigen"  i f philistine,  obvious  on  spiritual  of i n d u s t r y  these  virtues  of the  a balanced  and  of the their  Gesa's l a c k  v a l u e s i s f r e e of the i m p l i c a t i o n  novel divorce  the  emphasis Ruh-  "Hellen  und  of the tuo  themes  warning  impoverishment established i n  practicality.  "Heimatroman" which  to provide the s p i r i t u a l existence.  seen  i n c l u d e by i m p l i c a t i o n a l l  virtues  principal  subtle  vigorous  D o r i s Rotermund's  the t r a d i t i o n a l  for  union  about the whole v a l u e - s y s t e m  p a r t of the work, which  as i n a d e q u a t e  after  a  Uhereas  the decadence of the  makes f o r an u n c o m f o r t a b l e  doubts  a l o n e on  of the  sympathy f o r the  t h e d a n g e r s o f m a t e r i a l i s m and  the e a r l y  virtues  contentment,  harms t h e u n i t y o f t h e n o v e l .  raises  otherwise  self-fulfilment.  q u e s t i o n t o w a r d s t h e end  p a r t of the uork  Frenssen's  girl,  symbolic  p r e s e n t theme o f n a t i o n a l r e b i r t h ,  Baas t h e p r a c t i c a l into  a  sa-  Otto's  c o n t a i n s a much more  discovers that Martje's l i f e  is  of  The  personality  concrete characterization  i n the c o n t e x t of i n d i v i d u a l  hero  and  l o v e of the sea u h i c h r e s i s t s  t h a t Frenssen's  achieves.  i n the  Gesa h e r s e l f i s a more a r t i s t i c a l l y  tisfying  dimension  to l i v e  contentment of these  It is  are  shown  necessary  down-to-earth  o f d e c a d e n c e , even  though  30  her to  family's eccentricities life  uhich  presents without  the  reflect  bodes i l l f o r t h e freedom to f o l l o u  uhich  the  vidual imperative  individual  an  inability  marriage. the  call  c a n n o t be  of s e l f - f u l f i l m e n t  It and  aspects  i s clear  content.  i s just  heritage  this  realization development.  principal  the  racial  here f o l l o u i n g  Klaus  and  the  c e n t r a l to social  Otto able the  i s examined, and,  Naturalist  Uhere the  Naturalists  sphere of s c i e n t i f i c  laus  theme o f r a c i a l  heritage  Saxon r a c e .  feels  He  "Daruin  mit  their  as 3 B r n U h l  the  indi-  Frenssen  i n emphasizing the  goes f a r t h e r t h a n a racial,  the  not  mere-  i n a someuhat d i f f e r e n t  direc-  endeavour to remain u i t h i n  of h e r e d i t y , Frenssen uses to e l a b o r a t e  t h a t the  i n a d e q u a t e to e x p l a i n the  that  parentage of  tradition  in placing heredity uithin  a family frameuork, a l b e i t  tion,  he  Martje  and  d e c i s i v e importance of h e r e d i t y i n determining  Naturalists  and  to continue  background i s a l s o d e c i s i v e , the  indi-  O n l y uhen t h e y come t o  novels  a c t i o n s of h i s c h a r a c t e r s , but  ly  as  uere predetermined  changed.  In a l l the  characters  c a t e s , the is  are  This  f a m i l y backgrounds of both  characters  c a n n o t be  as  nature,  programme.  from the  Gesa t h a t t h e i r  this  oun  of h i s  up  Gesa h e r s e l f r e -  o f o n e ' s oun  F r e n s s e n ' s c o n c e p t o f Germany's r e b i r t h political  to face  vast  on  scientific array  s e i n e r A n p a s s u n g und  the  the  v i r t u e s of  method a l o n e  of l i f e  the  on  the is  earth:  Auslegung e r k l S r t  nicht  die  unsfigliche Buntheit  arten The to  des  Daseins.  Es i s t v i e l m e h r  p r e s e n c e o f an non-scientific  i n Fortnung und  unexplainable  quick  uits  are  the  result  uay  the  are  reflected  J f l r n and sets  and  optimistic  Heredity e n c e s : at the  artist  on  and  and  h e r i t a g e , as  melancholy and  Krey's  to keep the  life  family  Babendiek, uhich  of Klaus Uhl's  tuo  in  from h i s  sunny,  necessitates balance. influ-  Otto Babendiek e x p l a i n s and  first  from h i s mother  houever exclude e n v i r o n m e n t a l novel  did  mother's n a t u r e ,  his physical health  his part  back  disposition  Otto  h i s mother's m e l a n c h o l i a  of the  open  Fiete  daughter of a  boisterousness  b e t u e e n h i s oun  Eilert  way  i s proud  of h i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l h e a l t h  does n o t end  the  have t h e i r  Otto d e r i v e s  constant e f f o r t  difference  Elsbe  f a t h e r , but  the  3  Springer.  m o t h e r s o f Dflrn U h l  from the  at l e a s t part  Uhls,  u h o s e d a r k h a i r and  his sister  sons.  der  H i s m o t h e r uas  i n the  them a p a r t  three  11  of the  h e r o e s have a s p l i t  Frenssen h i m s e l f . of "Geestbauern,  38rn Uhl  dahinter."  of h i s c l a n ' s h e r i t a g e , going  a thousand years to P r i b i s l a v l/ery o f t e n  Existenz-  e i n Geheimnis  secret leaves  interpretation.  honest because t h a t i s the  Farben der  that of h i s c o u s i n ,  the the  Mumm:  S a g ' ihm B o t h i l d e , d a s s da z u e i U n t e r s c h i e d e z u i s c h e n uns s i n d ! Der e i n e i s t , d a s s s e i n e l / o r f a h r e n , von • m O t t e r l i c h e r S e i t e , T o t s c h l S g e r u a r e n , meine aber S t i l l e im L a n d e , und d e r z u e i t e , d a s s e r a l s r e i c h e r E l t e r n K i n d d i e U e l t i n s e i n e r Dugend g e n o s s e n h M t t e , i c h aber durch Armut, F U h r e r l o s i g k e i t , N i c h t u i s s e n  32 und j e d e a n d r e Not h i n d u r c h m u s s t e . So i s t e r a l l z u U p p i g g e u o r d e n und h a t s i c h dann v e r t r o t z t und i s t i n T r u n k g e r a t e n ; i c h a b e r b i n d u r c h s a n f t e r e s B l u t und das Andenken m e i n e r l i e b e n E l t e r n und m e i n e arme und b e d r H n g t e K i n d h e i t z u e i f e l n d e r , v o r s i c h t i g e r und bed e n k l i c h e r g e u o r d e n , und s o , t r o t z v i e l e r Gefahren, d i e a u c h m i r aus m e i n e r N a t u r d r o h t e n , und u n t e r Beh U t u n g g u t e r G e i s t e r — u i e mein G l a u b e i s t — i n leidl i c h e m b U r g e r l i c h e m F r i e d e n und E h r e n b i s h i e r h e r gekommen. 31 The  first  difference  betueen  h e r i t a g e , the second i n t h e i r third  f a c t o r , t h e one  Naturalist  free u i l l ,  ter  of Otto und  uhich s e t s Frenssen  Eltern."  and  und  Eilert  is in  childhood development.  t r a d i t i o n , i s i m p l i e d by  meiner l i e b e n  tasien  Otto  apart  from  t h e u o r d s "das  their  The the  Andenken  This i s the element of r a t i o n a l  uhich i s e s p e c i a l l y  Babendiek:  uell  d e f i n e d i n the  choice charac-  " Z u u e i l e n , uenn i c h f O h l e , d a s s  Phan-  TrSume O b e r h a n d nehmen, f a h r e i c h a u f e i n i g e  Tage  32 in  die Uelt,"  to  overuhelm him,  a v o i d them. this  Instead of u a i t i n g  He  does n o t Despite  as h i s m o t h e r d i d , O t t o  knous he  prevent  him  accounts  factors  takes  H e l l e b e k , uho  misfortune  steps  to but  blood  and  background  i n the m o t i v a t i o n of the c h a r a c t e r s , of c r i t i c i s m  by  the author  characters: misguided,  moves t h r o u g h  to a l l u i t h  fantasies  t o succumb t o i t .  a c o n c e p t t h a t a p p l i e s uhen c h a r a c t e r i s  Fritz  dark  to m e l a n c h o l i a ,  from r e f u s i n g  f o r the l a c k  even t h e most m i s g u i d e d not  i s predisposed  the presence of f r e e u i l l ,  a r e more p o t e n t uhich  f o r the  uhom he  a t h i e f , a v a i n o p p o r t u n i s t uho  Otto  for " e v i l "  is  predetermined,  Babendiek b r i n g i n g  comes i n c o n t a c t , i s a uould  of  abandon h i s u i f e  liar, to a  demonic l e c h e r and  for financial  advantage,  and  finally  y e t h i s mother's i n d u l g e n c e i s r e s p o n s i b l e  nature.  His mother i s b l i n d  to a l l h i s f a u l t s  carefree  youth i n s u l a t e s  from  tions.  him  ground:  Hellebek, i s similarly  his father  l e n d e r , and  sells  f o r h i s warped and  American  she c a n  claim  who  f o r a time  doomed by h i s f a m i l y  uorthless  trinkets  and  neuspapers  f o r her son's  the i n h e r i t a n c e .  o p t i m i s m , b u t e v e n so he has uhen t h e r e i s no t o overcome t h e i r  The and  back-  i s a money-  o b i t u a r y , so  influence  no e a s y  father's  time combating  h i s he-  c o u n t e r b a l a n c e , the c h a r a c t e r s hereditary  has  are  burdens.  of geographical f a c t o r s  l a n d s c a p e upon c h a r a c t e r  that  Otto h i m s e l f i s f o r t u n a t e  t h a t h i s m o t h e r ' s m e l a n c h o l i a i s b a l a n c e d by h i s  unable  his gilded,  h i s grandmother spends her l a s t y e a r s s e a r c h i n g  through  ritage:  traitor,  the consequences of h i s ac-  D u t t i K o h l , an u n s c r u p u l o u s s w i n d l e r  works u i t h  a  such  as  climate  been p o i n t e d o u t by  Osuald  33 Hauser.  Fog, r a i n  m a k i n g them p r o n e of s o l i t u d e  leaden skies  to s i l e n c e  i n the f i e l d s  Hellebek, Fritz's Babendieks  and  and  depress  s u i c i d e , and  the  Dithmarscher,  the long  make them i n t r o s p e c t i v e , l i k e  half-brother.  "Heitere  Naturen  U a t e r e r s c h e i n e n a l s Ausnahmen, und  hours Hans  u i e Otto  ihre  sonnige 34  A r t i s t u n t e r diesem Singing  stOrmischen  i s l o o k e d upon u i t h  at the U h l . Dithmarschen,  Himmel n i c h t z u  d i s t a s t e , as Lena T a r n  Frenssen takes the c h a r a c t e r formed  erklHren."  by h a r d u o r k  discovers  of the people  i n a harsh climate  of  amid  the  34 uide horizon  o f t h e marsh and  general attributes to the i n d i v i d u a l establish  but a t h i n  rural  veneer  relationships  basic  and r e s e r v e  traits. u o r l d , over u h i c h the 19th c e n t u r y  of " b O r g e r l i c h e S i t t e , " t h e s e x e s i n a uay  H i l l i q e n l e i , i n addition  point, i s a fervent plea sires  the  by g o i n g b a c k t u o o r more g e n e r a t i o n s t o  betueen  o f f e n d e d many.  extends  of t a c i t u r n i t y , i n t r o s p e c t i o n  inherited  In t h i s  t h e s e a , and  as a l e g i t i m a t e  for recognition  and  Frenssen  depicted  t h a t shocked  and  to i t s r e l i g i o u s of the p h y s i c a l  laudable aspect of l i f e , uomen.  laid  especially  of the l i v e s  o f young u n m a r r i e d  c i d e , during  an u n c h a p e r o n e d e v e n i n g o f p a s s i o n a t e e m b r a c e s ,  t h a t p a s s i o n f o r b o t h o f them c a n n o t  P e t e r and  de-  Heinke  de-  be i g n o r e d :  Da f a s s t e e r s i e f e s t an b e i d e n Armen und h a t t e h e i s s e , e r n s t e Augen und s a g t e m i t g e p r e s s t e r S t i m m e : "Es i s t n i c h t g u t f U r uns b e i d e , H e i n k e , . . , d a s s u i r n o c h j a h r e l a n g m i t der H o c h z e i t u a r t e n . S i e s a h i n n aus d u n k l e n Augen a n . "Ich glaube auch, P e t e r l e i n , es i s t n i c h t g u t . 35 While other a u t h o r s , such ler  as H a u p t m a n n , U e d e k i n d  u e r e m a k i n g t h e same p o i n t as F r e n s s e n a t t h i s  t h e y d i d n o t have F r e n s s e n ' s mass a u d i e n c e , and shoun by many c r i t i c s acceptance  demonstrates  of these i d e a s .  novel-reading on t r a d i t i o n a l and  uas  public.  The  v a l u e s , had  They u e r e  Schnitztime  not advocated  (1905)  outrage  as y e t  p l a y u r i g h t s , and  no  theatre  t r e n d s than  "Heimatroman," u i t h  n o t e x p e c t e d t o do s o .  the  t h a t t h e r e uas  a u d i e n c e s u e r e more p r e p a r e d f o r a v a n t g a r d e  dom  and  the  i t s emphasis  greater  That F r e n s s e n  sexual  free-  insisted  that puritanism  uas  an a l i e n  u h e r e young p e o p l e had  traditionally  b e f o r e m a r r i a g e , i n no uay In a l e c t u r e 1, 1 9 0 6 ,  importation  Dithmarschen,  been f r e e  satisfied  to  experiment  the outraged b o u r g e o i s .  g i v e n i n the u n i v e r s i t y  Professor  into  Aula i n K i e l  D. O t t o B a u m g a r t e n sums up t h e  on  February  public  attitude: Es i s t m i t s o c h e r B a u e r n d e r b h e i t d a s , uas d i e M S d c h e n , u e n i g s t e n s a l l e g u t e n MMdchen, v o r s i c h s e l b s t v e r b e r g e n , z u r S c h a u g e s t e l l t v o r einem b r e i t e n P u b l i k u m , d a s s man es u o h l v e r s t e h t , d a s s es M U t t e r g i b t , u i e e i n e , d i e m i r h e u t e s c h r i e b und m i c h a n f l e h t e , v o r d i e s e m s c h M n d l i c h e n , s c h S d l i c h e n Buche zu u a r n e n . 36 F r e n s s e n must be g i v e n acquired reputation in  and  credit  for laying  his financial  security  order to give the widest p o s s i b l e exposure  b e l i e v e d u e r e i d e a s o f enormous i m p o r t a n c e . uas n o t i n c o n s i d e r a b l e litterarische bookshops offering  That t h i s  c a n be s e e n  Echo o f J a n u a r y 1 9 0 6 :  uithdrauing  Hilliqenlei,  t o e x c h a n g e any  torenroman"  tic  his recently on t h e  line  to uhat  he  That the  f r o m an a r t i c l e  danger  i n Das  there are r e p o r t s and  one  from  copies of H i l l i q e n l e i  Hamburg for a  "Pas-  called  Das  E r b e d e r S t u b e n r a u c h by U i l h e l m  activity  was  not e n t i r e l y  o c c a s i o n e d by an  c o n c e r n f o r the m o r a l s o f the Empire  the a r t i c l e ' s  of  Schaer.  altruis-  c a n be d e d u c e d  c o m p l a i n t s o f " K u n d e n a b t r e i b e r e i " by t h e  from publish-  37 e r s , F.A,  Lattmann  of  Goslar.  Frenssen's passionate  advocacy  of sexual  freedom  derives  from p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e : I c h war  a c h t z e h n und  war  schon  e i n Mann, und  durfte  es  36 in L/irklichkeit nicht s e i n , u e i l die bdlrgerliche S i t t e es v e r b o t , z u s e i n und zu t u n , uas d i e N a t u r , d i e doch von G o t t g e g e b e n i s t , k o n n t e und u o l l t e . Da habe i c h m i r S e e l e und G e u i s s e n b l u t i g g e r i s s e n . S e i t d e m h a s s e i c h die b l l r g e r l i c h e S i t t e , die f e i g e Flflrderin, mit i h r e r v e r l o g e n e n , v e r b o g e n e n und s c h m u t z i g e n F r B m m i g k e i t und Gerechtigkeit. 38 The for in  major n o v e l s a l l c o n t a i n elements of t h i s  "bUrgerliche Sitte," 3Brn U h l , the  S a n d d e e r n , uho years u i t h him  until  and  direction  has  right  a brief  affair  the uedding,  the crux of the i s s u e until  Per  Pas t o r von  and  early  Klaus  does he  She  does n o t  love, uhich i s  novel  into  Frenssen  go  this  Per  cured  P a s t o r von  of h i s  Adam  t o 3Hrn U h l  P o q g s e e goes much the a b o l i t i o n by  of  sexual  L i a r , and  t h e r e s u l t a n t l a r g e number o f young uomen uho  the  o r d e p r i v e d o f t h e c h a n c e t o m a r r y and  c h i l d r e n , prompted Frenssen step of having  taken  to take the h i g h l y  Adam, a L u t h e r a n  and  farther  The  uidoued  o f young men  to  Barfood's  taboos.  either  toll  not  adul-  Rotermund, uhose r e s p o n s e  the o t h e r n o v e l s i n a d v o c a t i n g terrible  ducks  f a r i n an  the a r t of l o v e i s a p a r a l l e l  the Sanddeern, but  never  pouerful,  assertive masculinity i s quite uninhibited.  initiation  meet  the l o v e consummated:  Baas i s a c t u a l l y  Poris  The  i s involved for  because i t i s a  In t h i s  Poqqs ee  o b s e s s i v e m a t e r i a l i s m by  than  their  by n o t h a v i n g  terous r e l a t i o n s h i p .  his  uith 3dm,  best f r i e n d .  consummated, i s above c r i t i c i s m n a t u r a l , honest emotion.  at the o u t s e t of h i s c a r e e r ,  of h i s philosophy i s c l e a r .  t h e h u s b a n d o f her after  contempt  Great uere have  unconventional  p a s t o r , encourage h i s  daughter  37 Abel  t o have a baby by  been u n h a p p i l y this,  married,  Adam s t o u t l y  m a t e r n a l d r i v e be face is  sexual  character  the  propriety  the l o s s  best  t h a t h u m a n i t y demands  her  considers  him  years for  illustrates  of sexual  to f l y i n  the  a good c a u s e , Adam  Frenssen's a t t i t u d e  f o r i t uas  legitimate  to  Social  the  rigid  social claim  Frenssen aluays  h a p p i n e s s come f i r s t ,  as l o n g  norms c a n  be  as  i t is  changed,  a d h e r e n c e t o norms u h i c h  c o m m u n i t y can  i n no  uay  be  f u l f i l m e n t by  are  justified.  from t h e s e  feu square m i l e s  a l human p r e d i c a m e n t and u h o l e German p e o p l e .  thereby  aim  i s the  Consequently  p r o b l e m s t h a t hamper t h e and  the  fulfilment  the  but  the  setting  the  of the  charac-  human  generthe  the  happiness of  harmonious development of  novels,  "Geest"  improvement of expose  no  In h i s  theme i s t h e  novels  but  of  f o r the  o f marsh and  not  and  o v e r c o m i n g some g e n e r a l  u o r l d of Dithmarschen i s the  to  insis-  c o s t i n human f r u s t r a t i o n  Frenssen dreu h i s experience,  individual  demands o f  o f " U o l k s e r z i e h e r , " F r e n s s e n makes h i s m a i n  find their The  the  individual's  community.  c a u s e d by  to the  relations  upon t h e  t o s o c i e t y and  chosen r o l e  nation.  takes  for  to task  throughout his career  to the  suffering  that  uho  that i n d i v i d u a l  fault.  Propst  In h i s r e a d i n e s s  f o r u h a t he  infringe  injurious  ters  satisfied.  realm  f u l f i l m e n t , and  benefit  Uhen t h e  has  questions.  In  ted  l o c a l d o c t o r , uho  defends h i s stand  of c o n v e n t i o n  the  the  the  the  One s u c h p r o b l e m the  farmer t o r n  career  i s that of the " l a t e i n i s c h e r  b e t w e e n t h e l a n d and b o o k s .  i s abruptly  interrupted  t h a t t h e f a r m hands do t h e i r vations the  3Hrn i s f o r c e d this  hopeless servitude  school  work, but his. a s t r o n o m i c a l obser-  After  continues despite  t h e U h l i s d e s t r o y e d by  t o abandon h i s a t t e m p t  change i n h i s l i f e  Uhl's  by t h e need f o r someone t o s e e  show t h a t h i s i n t e r e s t i n s c i e n c e  demands o f t h e f a r m .  Jtirn  Bauer,"  i s rather  than a t r a g i c  fire  t o save t h e farm but  a liberation  from  crushing, l  bereavement.  38rn s  aptitude  i s " t e c h n i c a l , and t h e dogged d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o k e e p t h e f a r m is  m o t i v a t e d more by a f e e l i n g  interest i n agriculture.  f o r the family  tradition  The d e t e r m i n a t i o n i n t h i s  than  case i s  more n e g a t i v e s t u b b o r n n e s s t h a n l a u d a b l e t e n a c i t y , f o r i t s t a n d s i n t h e way o f t h e f u l f i l m e n t o f h i s p o t e n t i a l  as an  engineer, Heim H e i d e r i e t e r problem  i n Die d r e i  Getreuen  his historical  n o v e l a t t h e end o f t h e book  indicates  the Tightness of t h i s  Babendiek  f o l l o w s t h e same p a t h , r e t u r n i n g  Hellebek's  spiration  his  theft  two y e a r s .  living  t h e same  by b e c o m i n g a w r i t e r , and t h e f a c t t h a t he i s s u c -  cessful i n selling  for  resolves  forces  solution  him t o l e a v e  f o r him.  i n Blankenese  from  to school  after  and work as a f a r m boy  Both are a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l  comes f r o m t h e s o i l  Otto  o f home,  figures  Uhen F r e n s s e n was  1906 t o 1 9 1 9 , he f e l t  roots i n "die heimatliche Scholle"  whose i n -  c u t o f f from  and K l a u s B a a s , t h e  most i m p o r t a n t h e r o  of this  p e r i o d , i s unable  problems u n t i l  h i s perspectives are righted  Dithmarschen.  C u t o f f from  elusive 38rn  by a v i s i t t o  t h e l a n d man f i n d s  because h i s v a l u e system  loses  The  on home  ground.  l a n d here  clearly  happiness  i t s supports:  becomes an e n g i n e e r he u o r k s on t h e K i e l  remaining  to solve h i s  uhen  Canal, thereby  t a k e s on m y t h i c a l a s p e c t s as a  source of v a l u e s , uhich brings Frenssen  close  to Nazi  litera-  t u r e o f t h e " B l u t und Boden" s c h o o l , a l t h o u g h he does n o t m y t h o logize  the peasant.  represents is  the converse  the clergyman  day  uhen he u i l l  farm  Adam B a r f o o d , t h e p a s t o r o f P o g g s e e ,  uho u a n t s  from  completely  have a p a r i s h uhere  f o r he  He l o n g s f o r t h e  t h e v i c a r a g e has a s m a l l  h i s s t u d e n t d a y s , Kong C h r i s t i a n , and f i n d s h i m absorbed  Contact u i t h  i n farming to the e x c l u s i o n  the land i s important to a v i l l a g e  the p r a c t i c a l  point of vieu of sharing  p a r i s h i o n e r s , as u e l l uhich  Frenssen  as p r o v i d i n g  c o n s i d e r s so v i t a l  of h i s o f f i c e . pastor  the i n t e r e s t s  the contact u i t h  betueen  presence;  t h e p a s t o r must e s t a b l i s h  the tuo p o l e s .  He c a n n o t  t h e n he l e a v e s no b a s i s  congregation  from  of h i s nature  f o r a l l men and d o u b l y s o  a p a s t o r , as n a t u r e i s t h e d i r e c t m a n i f e s t a t i o n  divine  for  t o be a f a r m e r .  Bauer,"  a t t a c h e d , b u t on h i s uay t o P o g g s e e he s t o p s u i t h a  friend  for  of the " l a t e i n i s c h e r  afford  of the  h i m s e l f someuhere  t o be t o o s p i r i t u a l ,  f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g betueen t h e  and h i m s e l f , b u t he c a n n o t  become s o  earthbound  t h a t the s p i r i t It  i s important  position is  h i s major heroes  U h l w a n t s t o be Barfood  i s f o r a middle but  it  values.  Otto  Rather  position  by  novels  choice.  where t h e y can  Oflrn  their  T h e r e i s no  Their  realize grasp  than being the r e p o s i t o r y  the s i g n i f i c a n c e  harvest.  f o r the  B a b e n d i e k i s an a u t h o r .  of  their tradi-  o f some m y t h o -  o f n a t u r e d e r i v e s from i t s  o r i g i n , t r a n s c e n d i n g the reason  and  Frenssen's  Baas i s a b u s i n e s s m a n , Adam  with the e t e r n a l values symbolized  time  of  farmers  a t t h e same t i m e n o t l o s e  l o g y o f i t s own, divine  are not  an e n g i n e e r , K l a u s  i s a p a s t o r and  potential tional  f o r an u n d e r s t a n d i n g  t o remember t h a t , w h i l e t h e s e t t i n g  rural,  search  i s excluded.  attempt  o f man, by by  which  invests  the c y c l e of Frenssen  seed-  to e r e c t  39 a c u l t around " d i e deutsche Cut close in  o f f from  this  source  o f v a l u e s , K l a u s Baas comes  to l o s i n g  his soul.  He  the s t r u g g l e  to escape  from  dication  to m a t e r i a l  of  t h e human s p i r i t .  is  to r e d r e s s t h i s  success  Since Klaus  p o v e r t y , but t h i s  i s f o r Frenssen  a  p u r p o s e as a  b a l a n c e , and  he  total  de-  prostitution "l/olkserzieher"  feels  t h a t the  c o n t a c t w i t h t h e harmony o f n a t u r e ,  an a w a r e n e s s o f t h e p r o p e r lacks.  shows enormous d e t e r m i n a t i o n  Frenssen's  spiritual  countryman, i n d a i l y  in  Eiche,"  priorities  which  Baas i s t h e o n l y h e r o  the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e m i l i e u  the w o r l d o f commerce, t h i s  the c i t y  actively  of the U i l h e l m i n i a n  has  dweller  engaged Empire,  n o v e l p r o v i d e s the c r u c i a l  test  of the  a d a p t a b i l i t y of the  everyday r e a l i t y nature  of the  mism d u r i n g of the lack  of the  values  majority  solution reflects  the  not  doun t o e a r t h  "Heimatroman" to  of Germans. only  B l a n k e n e s e y e a r s but  g e n r e : the  The  a l s o a major  r e a l i s m of the  d i l e m m a o f modern man  suggestions does no  direction,  more t h a n p o i n t  are  wrong.  his  only  solves  f o r a neu  He  returns  out  are  The  novel  F r e n s s e n ' s oun  p r o v e s nor the  to put  changes a n y t h i n g :  duration into  of the  voice  as  A l t h o u g h the  o f home, has  had  trivial,  any  examination the  vaguest  essentially priorities  and  that  f a m i l y , and  re-  and  realization  yet  the  end  re-  of  Klaus  Baas l e a v e s Instead  and  for  of  awareness of the  China  endeavouring primacy  of  c o n s i d e r a t i o n , Baas bows  of s u p e r v i s i n g h i s Chinese of b e n e f i c i a l  whether even D o r i s real  the  auareness that i t n e i t h e r  possibility  open, i t i s doubtful  their  o f them t o a p o s i t i o n o f  there.  love  commercial n e c e s s i t y  tracts. left  uar  p r a c t i c e h i s new  s u c h human q u a l i t i e s to the  of the  shortcoming  realization  c o n c r e t e n e s s of t h i s  level  only  Rotermund  the  pessi-  novels,  Baas t h a t h i s  to h i s u i f e  duces i t to the intimates  Doris  to Klaus  consideration  prime i m p o r t a n c e .  them u i t h  t o Hamburg u i t h  emotional t i e s  to e l e v a t e  leaves  e f f e c t on  con-  change i s  Rotermund,  Klaus Baas'  the  materi-  alistic orientation. Even when he  us  the  inconclusive  F r e n s s e n ' s oun  o f p h i l o s o p h i c a l s p e c u l a t i o n or i n t e l l e c t u a l  of the  for  of the  't h i s most p e s s i m i s t i c , d u r i n g  the  p e r i o d uhen he u r o t e K l a u s H i n r i c h ganq d e r  Anna H o l l m a n n  (1911), Frenssen's  great to permit a t o t a l l y His  didacticism  tive  also  Baas ( 1 9 0 9 ) and  t h a t t h e n o v e l s end  n o t e , b u t , even though h i s c a p a c i t y of the i n t e l l e c t u a l  his  essential  honesty  implications  prevented  s u b s e q u e n t p r o n o u n c e m e n t s on  Baas, such vigour in  as t h e one  of t h i s  him  from  quacy o f t h e s e v a l u e s . Frenssen's question  uritings  literary  and  The  uork  analy-  uas  limited,  either  of  optimism. Hinrich  exemplary  about the  didactic  p r o n o u n c e d , and  u o u l d n o t have s u f f e r e d  yet ade-  strain in  the w i l l  to  the e c l i p s e  that  of h i s  renoun.  Society  d e v i c e o f t h e happy e n d i n g  a didactic his  posi-  u h i c h i s m e n t i o n e d , and  the p o s i t i v e  been l e s s  a  of d i d a c t i c  does n o t h i d e h i s d o u b t s Had  on  the u n d e r l y i n g values s t r o n g e r , i t i s probable  Gustav Frenssen  Man  tuisting  i n L e b e n s b e r i c h t , i t i s the  he  too  the s u b j e c t of Klaus  type of H o l s t e i n e r  the n o v e l i t s e l f  uas  f o r thorough  of the p l o t s  these n o v e l s to conform to the p r i n c i p l e In  Unter-  negative c o n c l u s i o n to a n o v e l .  dictated  sis  optimism  Der  tool  and  i n Frenssen's  not s i m p l y a c l i c h e ' .  The  novels i s  uhole  tenor  i s o p t i m i s t i c , implying that i t i s possible  vise  a social  uill  be  and  ethical  a b l e to develop  system  his f u l l  uithin  uhich the  potential.  to  of  de-  individual  Frenssen  reached  this did  a t t i t u d e during so  in confrontation uith  philosophy in  his years  "the  the  t h a t s a l v a t i o n and  other  as  a country  pastor,  conventional  happiness  are  and  he  Protestant  possible  only  uorld."  I c h u o l l t e z e i g e n , u i e i c h das L e b e n , i n G o e t h e s c h e m S i n n , b l u t v o l l a u f f a s s t e , l i e b t e und a n e r k a n n t e , und d a n a c h , j a e b e n a u f d i e s e m Liege, d i e hohe Z u k u n f t des R e i c h e s G o t t e s sHhe. Ich u o l l t e i n einem l e b e n s v o l l e n B u c h , i n v e r s c h i e d e n e n Clenschen und L e b e n s l H u f en , d a r s t e l l e n , u i e u i r e i n D i e s s e i t s g e s c h l e c h t s i n d , aber f r e i l i c h e i n s , das i n Z u f M l l i g e m und S c h u a n k e n d e m n a c h dem S t M n d i g e n und E u i g e n u n t e r u e g s i s t . 40 Such q u e s t i o n s pression reveal  as  the  o f s e n s u a l i t y and  his underlying  aspects of i n d i v i d u a l one  another  i n order  Uithout  the  dividual  he  that  the  felt  the  c a u s e d i n s o c i e t y by predominance of  goal, uhich and  uas  to b r i n g  national l i f e  to r e v i t a l i z e  levels.  in  frictions  inner  the  harmony and  there  n a t i o n a l community.  could The  be  into  the  sup  materialism the  various  harmony  uith  German p e o p l e on a l l e q u i l i b r i u m of the  no  b r o a d e r harmony  p r o b l e m o f Germany's  in  uith  dual  41 heritage  of  lifelong  a t t e n t i o n , and  of h i s plan of the  "Germanentum und  f o r the  Great  National of  the  rebirth  as  an  important  o f Germany a f t e r  u n i t y seemed v e r y  p u b l i c a t i o n of novel  it  aggressive  fabric  surfaces  occupied  his  component  the  cataclysm  Uar.  of the the  Christentum"  the  Der  f a r o f f i n 1921,  Pastor  von  Poggsee.  U i l h e l m i n i a n E m p i r e has self-confidence  o f s o c i e t y has  b e e n t o r n by  of  the  the  the  At  the  collapsed pre-uar  year  and  end uith  decades.  r e v o l u t i o n , and  T  tradi  44 tional  ethics  sections  to prevent  of the population into  a rallying nize  have f a i l e d  point f o r the r e s t .  a "Volksfest"  to symbolize  The " l / o l k s f e s t " gathering  takes  i n t h e meadow.  dances and a d i s p l a y  the degeneration  l a w l e s s n e s s or t o p r o v i d e The p e o p l e  are also  t h e form  for  take.  d i s p l a y e d , not i n the sense of a beauty  t h a t Frenssen  Poggsee s i n c e t h e r e v o l u t i o n i s testing  of twelve village  show as an e x a m p l e  of b i o l o g i c a l  feels  h a s an o l d G e r m a n i c r i n g  citizenry  that  theories.  The  to i t ,  a reminder  council of the  o f t h e days  " B a u e r n r e p u b l i k " b e f o r e t h e Danes  The c o u n c i l , o r g a n i z e d  of the v i l l a g e ,  a s y s t e m o f one-man  whose j u d g e m e n t u o u l d  should  i n the novel  the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  from  the r e s -  i s headed by i t s most  c e s s f u l member, w i t h t h e i n t e n t i o n evolve i n t o  as a s i g n p o s t  i s the l a b o r a t o r y i n which  e l d e r s which takes over  conquered i t i n 1465.  principles for  p o s t w a r Germany  some o f h i s s o c i a l  when D i t h m a r s c h e n was a f r e e  pected  feature i s  and women o f t h e  T h e r e have a l r e a d y been i n d i c a t i o n s  Frenssen  rustic  games and  o f l i v e s t o c k , but the novel  The " U o l k s f e s t " i s i m p o r t a n t  the d i r e c t i o n  f o r the n a t i o n .  There a r e t r a d i t i o n a l  of the importance  good b r e e d i n g .  orga-  of the t r a d i t i o n a l  c o n t e s t , b u t as a p a r t o f t h e l i v e s t o c k to the people  o f Poggsee  t h e new s t a r t  t h a t t h e b e s t s p e c i m e n s o f t h e young men district  of large  that i t should  rule uith  be u n i v e r s a l l y  c h o s e n , u o u l d have a b s o l u t e p o w e r .  a  suc-  i n time  "FUhrer,"  42  r e s p e c t e d and u h o , o n c e While  such  a system  m i g h t be  o p e r a b l e on  a village  w h o e v e r was  c h o s e n as  v o t e r s , the  element of  ulation  regard  e x p r e s s e s i n Per the  Pastor  be  turned  extraordinary  functioning The  or  to the von  German p e o p l e a r e  e p i t h e t can  uithout  on  w e l l known t o a l l t h e  disappears  two  t h o u s a n d and  outbreak  of war,  P o g g s e e and "zu  once t h e  i t s a u t h o r , and  naivete' uhich  lament  which  a l s o i n Die  glMubig":  in this one  can  envisioned  pop-  political  I t i s a frequent  of  he BrOder,  case only  the marvel  such a regime  abuse.  d i s p l a y o f l i v e s t o c k and  people underlines racial  familiarity  becomes p o s s i b l e .  Frenssen's u i t h  at- t h e  w o u l d be  i n v o l v e d e x c e e d s one  manipulation  that  leader  s c a l e without abuse, s i n c e  physically perfect  a c o n s t a n t theme i n t h e  i m p r o v e m e n t as  a vital  step  novels,  touards  the  young  that  reborn  of Germany 43  that i s Frenssen's g o a l .  He  c o m p l a i n s i n Mfluen und  t h a t people choose a spouse u i t h  l e s s care  cou,  he  the  and  uith  principles  t h o u g h he some o t h e r "Man  a c o u n t r y m a n ' s eye of  "Zuchtuahl"  n e v e r goes as  f a r as  body u n d e r t a k e t h e  than they uould  urges the  to the  a  a p p l i c a t i o n of  human p o p u l a t i o n , a l -  to advocate that selection  the  state  or  process,  utlrde einem bedeutenden b i o l o g i s c h e n  S p u r kommen, uenn man  MHuse  Gesetz auf  die  e i n e m g e s u n d e n , j u n g e n L/eibe h u n d e r t  j u n g e Manner v o r f U h r t e  mit  dem  A u f t r a g , zu s a g e n , u e r  von 44  diesen this  ihr sexuell gefiele  point  Frenssen  fails  und  uer  n i c h t , und  uarum."  to d i s t i n g u i s h betueen  natural  On  46 selection  b a s e d on  considerations providing The  and  p r e f e r e n c e and scientific  mating:  t h a t the p a r t n e r doing  biological  premises  here  unhampered by he  equates the  the choosing  n a t i o n a l i s m t h a t i s both  as E l i s a b e t h  Grimm i m p l i e s  uhen she  tuo,  i s "gesund."  are n o n - s c i e n t i f i c  an e m o t i o n a l  social  vague and  and  based  on  idealistic,  urites:  . So u i r d es b e i V e r g l e i c h e n auch h i e r b e s s e r s e i n , d i e G e d a n k e n u e l t des ' D i c h t e r s ' F r e n s s e n d e r von L a g a r d e • und L a n g b e h n g l e i c h z u s e t z e n , u e i l i n i h r e n U e r k e n d e r R a s s e g e d a n k e n mehr a l s s t o l z e s B e u u s s t s e i n und I d e a l , denn a l s u i s s e n s c h a f t l i c h u m r i s s e n e K l a r h e i t a u f t r i t t . The such  ideal  of a race  as p h y s i c a l  frailty  f r e e d from  hereditary deficiences  o r a l c h o h o l i s m demands i t s oun  m o r a l i t y , the o n l y purpose of u h i c h i s to serve Adam B a r f o o d  makes a c o n v i n c i n g c a s e  adultery uith goes f a r t h e r freier  the  ideal.  for justifying  Abel's  O r . S c h a c k on h u m a n i t a r i a n i n M0uen und  I"l9use:  frommer und  g r o u n d s , but  "Denes U e i b , das  L i e b e h e i m l i c h e i n K i n d von  geben l S s s t , h a n d e l t  45  dem  sich  S c h B n s t e n und  sittlicher  Frenssen  a l s das,  in  Besten uelches  46 in  d u m p f e r Ehe  uords  dem  "in freier  s t e n und  Minderuertigen Kinder gebiert,"  L i e b e " i m p l y t h a t she  Besten?"  really  I f s o , the s i t u a t i o n  Sanddeern's predicament i n 38rn  Uhl:  to choose, u h i c h i s n e i t h e r  nor  neu  l o v e s the  i s similar  the r i g h t  d e p e n d e n t i n any  the best one.  is  S i n c e p r o m i s c u i t y f o r the sake of  gratification  per  se does n o t  to  loving  the "SchBn-  the  of the  t h e man's b e i n g sufficient.  The  Do  heart  uay  heart chooses;  on that  sexual  a p p e a r i n t h e n o v e l s , and  indeed  uas  described  as  "diesen  im h d c h s t e n Masse u n s i t t l i c h e n  und  47 seelisch freier  g e f S h r l i c h e n Zustand"  L i e b e " c a n n o t be  relations  here. uill  do  of Nazi  Frenssen  The  policies  t h e uay  choose the  she  make t h i s  neu  " S c h H n s t e n und the  pronouncement  the  the i m p l i c a t i o n s .  impications  Besten";  theoretical  c h a m p i o n s an  uhich uould  c e i v a b l e uere the very  sexual  race;  con-  ground f o r h i m s e l f young uoman that  Frenssen  problem of uhat  prefer a "Minderwertigen"  i n u h i c h he  examining  no  the uords " i n  as euphemisms f o r  for improving  i s breaking  even t o c o n s i d e r  should  Frenssen,  dubious assumption i s that a healthy  aluays  fails  construed  u i t h o u t l o v e , uhich uould  a forerunner sequently  by  illustrates  i d e a but  stops  to  again  short  of  I t i s i r o n i c t h a t i n some  to Frenssen cornerstones  cases  have been q u i t e i n c o n o f H i t l e r ' s oun  racial  policy. Birth in  the  "racial  c o n t r o l i s not  diaries  an i s s u e i n t h e n o v e l s , and  the matter i s d i s c u s s e d  hygiene"  r a t h e r than  even  from a s t a n d p o i n t  morality.  of  Essentially,  b e l i e v e s i n promoting the growth of " u e r t v o l l e h i n d e r i n g t h a t of the " M i n d e r u e r t i g e n " :  Frenssen 48 Sippen" and  Es mUssen zum B e i s p i e l a l l e g e s u n d e n , u o h l g e b a u t e n Ueiber v e r p f l i c h t e t uerden, uenigstens drei Kinder zu g e b M r e n , und es mOssen d i e k r a n k e n und u n u i r t s c h a f t l i c h e n g e h i n d e r t u e r d e n , b e l i e b i g K i n d e r i n d i e U e l t zu setzen. 49 "Minderwertig"  i n c l u d e s the s i c k , the  whose h e r i t a g e has  given  irresponsible,  them a c h a r a c t e r  t h a t cannot  and  those  play  its In  p a r t i n the n a t i o n a l the continuation  the M a r t j e Ruhland  o f PJie^ C h r o n i k v/on B a r l e t e ,  " T a g e b u c h des Amtmanns 2027," u h i c h appears Frenssen  community:  entitled  der Amtmannschaft U i t t s c h i l d  im  i n volume t h r e e o f t h e d i a r i e s ,  e x p o u n d s on h i s v i s i o n  o f an i d e a l  type.  future.  3ahre  Vorland, Die  C h r o n i k v o n B a r l e t e uas p u b l i s h e d i n 1 9 2 8 , so i t i s u n l i k e l y that the continuation a more r e l i a b l e had  been u r i t t e n  areas  uas u r i t t e n  indication after  later  of h i s later  1933.  than 1932, making i t thinking  In a d d i t i o n  than i f i t  t o reform o f such  as e d u c a t i o n , b u r e a u c r a c y , t h e l a u , l a n d t e n u r e and  museums, e u g e n i c s i s an i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f t h e r e b o r n marschen a c e n t u r y hence.  Frenssen  M8use i n a d v o c a t i n g s t e r i l i z a t i o n b e l a s t e t e , " such  goes b e y o n d Mfluen und  for criminals  and " E r b -  as a l c h o h o l i c s , b u t i t must be e m p h a s i z e d  t h a t even h e r e , uhere  Frenssen  n o v e l s , t h e r e i s no m e n t i o n  goes much f a r t h e r  of anti-semitism.  b e r i c h t , p u b l i s h e d i n 1940, h i s t h i n k i n g "gleichgeschaltet" at  t o conform  uith  than i n the  In Lebens-  i s almost  completely  N a z i i d e o l o g y , and h e r e ,  t h e age o f s e v e n t y - s e v e n , he t u r n s a n t i - s e m i t i c ,  taining  t h a t t h e change t o o k  against being c r i t i c i z e d critics.  I n Recht oder  ganda t i r a d e  Dith-  main-  p l a c e i n 1923 as a r e a c t i o n  and " t o t g e s c h u i e g e n " ^ by D e u i s h U n r e c h t , M e i n Land ( 1 9 4 0 ) , a p r o p a -  a g a i n s t England, the e x p u l s i o n  o f t h e 3eus  from  Germany i s j u s t i f i e d  on t h e g r o u n d s t h a t t h e y had a b u s e d t h e  hospitality  h o s t s by s e e k i n g t o d o m i n a t e  of their  national  life, and  but anti-semitism i s a foreign  idealistic  i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c " W e l t a n s c h a u u n g " a n d h a s no p l a c e i n t h e  novels.  N e v e r t h e l e s s , Nazi  as  a forerunner  it  into  critics,  eager  to claim  Frenssen  o f t h e movement, c o n s t a n t l y a t t e m p t e d t o r e a d  h i s work.  Frenssen, of  element i n h i s  Numme Numsen, i n a book e n t i t l e d  Gustav  d e r KHmpfer f O r d i e d e u t s c h e W i e d e r q e b u r t , w r i t e s  3Hrn U h l :  "FrUh i s t Frenssen  a u f das Rasseproblem-ge-  stossen, The  inflexibility  major p e r s o n a l social  Frenssen  problem i n t h e uar novel  at thei n s t i g a t i o n  booster  as t h e G r e a t War d r a g g e d o n .  h a r d l y more t h a n  three of  Ottbrothers  caused t h e i r  D i e Brtlder  of the Foreign  Office  as a m o r a l e  The s l e n d e r p l o t ,  uhich  a t u a r , h a s as i t s b a s i s t h e i n f l e x i b i l i t y An u n e x p l a i n e d  sister  Emma t o s l i d e  uhistle into  i n t h e barn has  a depression,  d e e p e n s uhen t h e f a r m boy uho l o v e s h e r s u d d e n l y  his  as a  an e x c u s e f o r f i v e h u n d r e d pages o f t h e  f a t h e r and s o n .  Eggert,  one o f t h e  N o t by any means one o f h i s b e s t , t h e book u a s  uritten  is  considered  p r o b l e m s t o be c o m b a t e d a l s o r e a p p e a r s  and p o l i t i c a l  (1917).  uhich  uhich  disappears.  t h e most i n d e p e n d e n t o f t h e b r o t h e r s , i s a c c u s e d by  father o f being  He  r e t u r n s and j o i n s  it  i s not u n t i l  he  uas the u h i s t l e r ,  reconciled  t h e u h i s t l e r , and l e a v e s t h e navy u i t h  the other  for  America.  brothers, but  1 9 1 7 t h a t t h e f a r m boy r e t u r n s , a d m i t s  before  and m a r r i e s  the altar  Emma.  Father  i n thev i l l a g e  that  and s o n a r e  church.  50 The  farm boy, uho  comes from the Rhineland  f o r e c o n s i d e r e d by Frenssen  and i s t h e r e -  to be a f o r e i g n e r i n Dithmarschen,  e x p l a i n s t h a t he w h i s t l e d to shake the Otts out of i n u a r d - l o o k i n g complacency.  their  Despite the f r e q u e n t mention i n  the novel of Germany's innocence  o f any  intention  to s t a r t a  u a r , t h i s i s c l e a r l y an a l l e g o r y of Germany's p o s i t i o n among the n a t i o n s of Europe immediately  b e f o r e 1914;  o f Adam's thought i n Per Pastor von  the development  Poggsee bears out  this  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , although  Frenssen must have come around to  t h i s vieu rather e a r l i e r  than Adam, uho  almost  at the end of the u a r .  does not change  Germany uas  too l i t t l e  u i t h the e f f e c t of her r a p i d growth i n u e a l t h and developments such as the n a v a l b u i l d i n g  concerned  power, and  programme o n l y served  to make the other n a t i o n s uneasy about her i n t e n t i o n s . i n t e n t i o n s , a c c o r d i n g to F r e n s s e n , were i n n o c e n t but diplomacy  until  These  the  s u p p o r t i n g them uas so i n e p t t h a t n o t h i n g uas  done  to prevent the d i s t r u s t from d e t e r i o r a t i n g i n t o a s i t u a t i o n uhere uar became i n e v i t a b l e . W i t h i n the c o n t e x t of the " B u r g f r i e d e n " Frenssen uas  con-  cerned u i t h d e p i c t i n g i n h i s n o v e l a h e r o i c , u n i t e d people u n j u s t l y s e t upon by a horde of i n f e r i o r n a t i o n s j e a l o u s o f Germany's success and urged on by t h a t a r c h - v i l l a i n , Albion.  The  perfidious  p r e d i c t a b l e r e s u l t i s a propaganda p i e c e , complete  u i t h l a u d a t o r y i n t r o d u c t i o n by Admiral S c h e e r , commander o f the High Seas F l e e t ,  N e v e r t h e l e s s the i n c l u s i o n of the  gory p i n p o i n t s Frenssen's  political  standpoint quite  alle-  a c c u r a t e l y : i f one can d i v o r c e the word " v f l l k i s c h " National S o c i a l i s t connotations  from i t s  (and i n v i e u o f Frenssen's  a g e — s e v e n t y i n 1 9 3 3 — t o l a b e l him a Nazi only muddies the i s s u e ) i t d e s c r i b e s him w e l l .  He uas very c o n s c i o u s l y a mem-  ber o f the German p e o p l e , perhaps the more so s i n c e he uas born a Danish  s u b j e c t , and u h i l e he c o u l d not c o n c e i v e o f the  German people  a c t i n g i n a uay c o n t r a r y to h i s oun sense o f  r i g h t and u r o n g , he uas q u i t e ready  to admit t h a t they had  been m i s l e d . B a s i c a l l y , Frenssen's  c o n s e r v a t i v e nature  accepted  uhat-  ever government happened t o be i n pouer: Peter Moors Fahrt nach Stiduest and Die BrOdar shou him t o have been no opponent of the I m p e r i a l r e g i m e , and i n 1933 he uas c r i t i c i z e d prominent Nazi f o r having  by a  p r a i s e d the Ueimar R e p u b l i c i n 52  B r i e f e aus Amerika and Per Pastor von Poggsee.  Memo der  P r a h l e r on the other hand, u h i c h uas p u b l i s h e d i n 1933, welcomes the approaching  Third Reich.  t i o n s , the N a z i s c o n s i d e r e d Frenssen's  Despite h i s i n d i s c r e credentials 53  acceptable  and he uas l i o n i z e d by them as a "l/orlSuf e r c " Did he, as i s c h a r g e d , s e t h i s s a i l a c c o r d i n g t o the p r e v a i l i n g uind?  To ansuer t h i s one must go back t o the  1890's, uhen F r e n s s e n , as a young p a s t o r i n the t i n y  village  of Hemme, j o i n e d F r i e d r i c h Naumann's N a t i o n a l S o c i a l i s t  party.  Frenssen uas a n a t i o n a l i s t , and h i s comments i n MOuen und 54 M8use  on the i s s u e s o f poverty and the i n j u s t i c e o f the  d i s t r i b u t i o n of power and wealth p r i o r to 1914 have been a l s o a s o c i a l i s t .  His was  show him to  a " S o z i a l i s m u s echt  55 v a t e r l S n d i s c h e r Gesinnung,"  u h i c h , while d i f f e r i n g  from  the  i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s m of the p o l i t i c a l l e f t wing i n i t s f o r e i g n p o l i c y , was justice.  no l e s s zealous i n i t s campaign f o r s o c i a l  That he accepted H i t l e r ' s movement on the b a s i s  of a s i m i l a r name and some shared i d e a s demonstrates  a  calamitous l a c k of p o l i t i c a l s o p h i s t i c a t i o n uhich i s at l e a s t p a r t l y a t t r i b u t a b l e to h i s age and the f a c t t h a t 1919  he l i v e d e x c l u s i v e l y i n B a r l t , f a r removed from  grisly realities  after  the  of H i t l e r ' s R e i c h .  Throughout h i s works, but e s p e c i a l l y i n Die Chronik  von  B a r l e t e , Frenssen makes much of the t r a d i t i o n of freedom and democracy, uhich he c l a i m s i s l o n g e r and s t r o n g e r i n Dithmarschen  than elsewhere  i n Germany.  During the Middle  Ages the area uas a f r e e " B a u e r n r e p u b l i k , " and  resisted  u n t i l 1465  the attempts o f the Danish crown to b r i n g i t under  its  U n l i k e e a s t e r n H o l s t e i n and Stormarn, where a r i s t o -  suay.  c r a t i c e s t a t e s f l o u r i s h e d i n a l u s h e r l a n d s c a p e , the of Dithmarschen  preserved t h e i r independence  farmers  i n an enduring  s t r u g g l e u i t h t h e i r uncompromising a d v e r s a r y , the North Danish r u l e uas by no means h a r s h , and Frenssen  Sea.  frequently  mentions t h a t , even i n the days of heady p a t r i o t i s m a f t e r the o l d e r men  1864,  uould recount u i t h p r i d e s t o r i e s of t h e i r army 56 s e r v i c e i n Copenhagen. He thought of h i m s e l f as a "Grenz-  deutscher," cialism  and  deutsche of  and  has  narrou  patriotism  L f l s u n g " he  regards  Germany p r i m a r i l y  entity.  Criticism  Poggsee, u r i t t e n  und  HHuse i t i s c l e a r  uas  f a r from  Frenssen  aus  had  t o be  of the  feel  i n Per from  Imperial p o l i t i c a l and  n a v a l and  lived  experiences  essential fully  i n opulence had  no  system,  life  Frenssen  d i e s i n the  lives  sau  the  of the n a t i o n  rebirth  uas  possible.  of the u e a l t h  They  uould per-  uhile millions, especially to s q u a l o r .  of i n d u s t r i a l  as  and  Klaus  Hamburg and  uorks  a student.  i n the Baas  Kai  i n the slums These  Jans, of  descriptions  language of N a t u r a l i s m , f o r  to i d e a l i z e  filthy  into  a system i n u h i c h a s m a l l  are couched i n the s t a r k e s t nothing  uith  i f t h e mass o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n  alternative  the hero of H i l l i q e n l e i ,  finds  real  1914  expansion.  i n Germany's r e b i r t h .  from  the p o v e r t y  B e r l i n , uhich  any  Pastor Mfluen  i n agreement  colonial  thinks  political  even b e f o r e  t h a t the p o l i t i c a l  alienated  large c i t i e s ,  father  first  believed that a redistribution  to p a r t i c i p a t e  Frenssen  a  a b d i c a t i o n , but  a monarchist  "klein-  f o r Frenssen  r a t h e r than  that his thinking  uas  felt  t h e n a t i o n uas  centage  the  restructured before  Frenssen  aluays  a mistake,  provin-  Bismarck's  Amerika a l s o g i v e c o n s i d e r a b l e i n s i g h t  i n u h i c h he  uas  after  especially  uay  of  contempt f o r the  of P r u s s i a .  a racial  uncritical  many p o l i c i e s , Briefe  as  as  but  of the K a i s e r occurs  von  although  nothing  i n the c i t y .  a i r o f ' a t e n e m e n t as  Klaus a result  Baas' of  an a c c i d e n t at uork: one  of the nameless m i l l i o n s  the promise of the c i t i e s and  f o r uhom  becomes a nightmare of e x p l o i t a t i o n  squalor. Frenssen  makes no  concrete  suggestions  or working c o n d i t i o n s , but i n one of l a n d , he i s q u i t e s p e c i f i c . Frenssen  regarding  a r e a , t h a t of the  housing  redivision  E l i s a b e t h Grimm a s s e r t s t h a t  must have known Adolph Damaschke, uho  i n 1898  the deputy p r e s i d e n t of Naumann's p a r t y ; i n 1902 p u b l i s h e d Die Bodenreform, advocating  uas  Damaschke  the f i n a n c i n g of s m a l l 58  farms f o r workers and  i n t e n s i v e land r e c l a m a t i o n .  petus f o r Die d r e i Getreuen (1898) came from the circumstances there uas  The  miserable  i n uhich many farm l a b o u r e r s l i v e d .  no neu  Because  l a n d i n S c h l e s u i g - H o l s t e i n , they e x i s t e d  meagerly as "TagelHhner" but there was  aluays the danger t h a t  an unscrupulous farmer would t r y to save money by u s i n g lish  l a b o u r e r s , who  were then  were p a i d even l e s s .  where t h e r e uas  has  The  Po-  German workers  faced with the a l t e r n a t i v e s o f s t a r v a t i o n or emi-  g r a t i o n , e i t h e r to Hamburg and  i s the one  im-  taken  still  i t s f a c t o r i e s , or to America,  cheap land to farm.  The  by the l a b o u r e r s i n the n o v e l .  a dream of " H i l l i g e n l e i , "  seen when a s a i l o r , and  the holy land i s Vancouver: 59  l i v e i n "sonnige HSuser . . . On  an den  their  own  course  Kai Dans  the holy l a n d , which he  u e i t e s Land, w a l d r e i c h , mit s a n f t e n HUgeln."  streut i n Gartenland."  latter  The  has "Ein  people  RSndern der L/Sldern z e r l a n d , surrounded by  un-  s p o i l e d n a t u r e , b r e a t h i n g a i r " u i e Odem Gottes" be reborn  a people can  " s t a r k , mit b l i t z e n d e n r e i n e n Augen und auf den  S t i r n e n hohe f r i e d v o l l e Gedanken."  Whatever i t s d i s c r e p a n -  c i e s as a d e s c r i p t i o n of Vancouver, t h i s passage does shou uhat Frenssen  hoped to achieve  for people to l i v e  through land reform:  space  d e c e n t l y and develop p h y s i c a l l y and moral-  ly.  This uas p o s s i b l e i n Frenssen's v i e u only on the l a n d ,  and  he b e l i e v e d t h a t e m i g r a t i o n meant the l o s s to Germany o f  the most v a l u a b l e element of the p o p u l a t i o n : the i n d u s t r i o u s young farmers uhose devotion shakeable.  to t h e i r  oun land uould  Grimm puts the case i n the terminology  1930's, but Frenssen  uould have concurred:  The  of the  ""Gerade d i e Bes-  ten I S s s t s i e ( d i e Heimat) ziehen und macht dadurch fdr s l a u i s c h e n  be un-  Platz  Einfall."^  tuo p o s s i b i l i t i e s  f o r p r o v i d i n g land i n Germany  uere to d i v i d e the e a s t e r n p r o v i n c e s , " O s t e l b i e n , " and to r e c l a i m land from the North Sea.  Frenssen  describes i n  61 Lebensbericht  hou the I m p e r i a l and Weimar governments  uere deaf to ambitious  plans  f o r r e c l a m a t i o n , and i n Otto  Babendiek E i l e r t Mumm t r i e s i n v a i n to persuade the dyke a d m i n i s t r a t i o n to undertake a p r o j e c t on the s c a l e of the Zuyder Zee. The r e c l a i m e d  i s l a n d o f Flackelholm  i n Die  d r e i Getreuen i s farmed by Andres S t r a n d i g e r and made to bloom, but the f a c t t h a t the i s l a n d of Trieschen o f f the coast o f Dithmarschen, upon uhich Flackelholm i s m o d e l l e d ,  56 i s no longer i n h a b i t e d r e f l e c t s  the enduring  l o c a l problems to uhich Frenssen  nature  of the  addresses h i m s e l f .  the f i r s t acts of the Nazi regime, houever, and  One  one  uhich d i d  much to c o n s o l i d a t e t h e i r p r e s t i g e i n the a r e a , uas the A d o l f H i t l e r Koog, nou mid  1930's Frenssen  to b u i l d  the B a r l t e r Sommerdeich.  greeted  of  In  the  t h i s t a n g i b l e proof of n a t i o n a l  r e b i r t h u i t h uords r e m i n i s c e n t of Faust  I I , Act Mi  schuerem Boden, unter schuerem Himmel, und  "Auf  i n herber  Luft  62 ein  f r i s c h e s , starkes  Geschlecht."  Much as he condemns i n Andres S t r a n d i g e r those uho  f o r c e the n a t i v e l a b o u r e r s i n t o e x i l e by u s i n g cheap  ported l a b o u r , Frenssen  i s much more c r i t i c a l  governments, both I m p e r i a l and t i g e Bauern" in  farmers  of s u c c e s s i v e  Ueimar, f o r not a l l o w i n g "tOch-  to farm the vacant or s p a r s e l y s e t t l e d  the e a s t e r n p r o v i n c e s .  im-  lands  This uould be of g r e a t b e n e f i t to  hundreds of thousands of young farmers uho  uould  otherwise  be d r i v e n from the l a n d , u i t h i n c a l c u l a b l e l o s s to the n a t i o n : "Der  bodenstMndige, durch E i g e n b e s i t z mit der Erde verbundene  Bauer g i b t dem  deutschen Stamm Mark und  Tugend -und  Heer der E n t u u r z e l t e n ohne u i r t s c h a f t l i c h e It uould  n i c h t das  BestHndigkeit,  a l s o provide a s t r o n g German p o p u l a t i o n i n the  tern provinces  to balance  the Poles t h e r e , f o r Frenssen  sau Germany l o s i n g the east f o r p r e c i s e l y t h i s r e a s o n . a g r i c u l t u r a l conservatism Prussian landouners,  certainly  easforeHis  does not extend to the  uhose " R i t t e r g U t e r " he  frequently  com-  57 pares u n f a v o u r a b l y u i t h the farms of Dithmarschen. The  a l l o c a t i o n of land as an instrument of s o c i a l  improve-  ment i s an important aspect o f Frenssen's t h i n k i n g , and i t a l s o r e f l e c t s h i s s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses as a r e f o r m e r .  His sug-  g e s t i o n s are c o n c r e t e and u e l l - r e a s o n e d uhen they cover areas in  u h i c h he had e x p e r i e n c e , and he uas a countryman a l l h i s  life;  h i s r o o t s and h i s h e a r t remained  during the Blankenese to  years.  i n Dithmarschen  Outside h i s oun sphere he tends  advocate simple s o l u t i o n s to complex problems, as f o r exam-  ple  i n l e g a l matters.  ate  f o r the German m e n t a l i t y , and that j u d i c i a l  He f e l t that Roman l a u uas i n a p p r o p r i -  should be made on the b a s i s of common s e n s e . Bohnsack versus Kohl i n Otto Babendiek that c o d i f i e d l a u i s c a l c i f i e d national l i f e of  decisions  The l a u s u i t o f  illustrates  l a u , t h a t the l i v i n g  r e q u i r e s a d i r e c t n e s s and f l e x i b i l i t y  the maze of paragraphs  t i o n and i n f l a t i o n .  this  belief  r e a l i t y of i n place  through u h i c h the g u i l t y can escape.  D u t t i Kohl i s a s w i n d l e r uho has groun r i c h  In  even  from  revolu-  B a l l e Bohnsack i s suing him f o r f r a u d .  B a l l e , a farmer's son uho at t h i s p o i n t i n the novel i s a  b u t c h e r , Frenssen c r e a t e s one o f h i s most v i v i d  characters.  He spends h i s youth with animals and becomes ever more d i s r e p u t a b l e i n appearance, but through p e r s i s t e n c e f i n a l l y marr i e s Dina Busch, whose i n c r e d i b l e c l e a n l i n e s s i s one of Frenssen's r a r e f o r a y s i n t o i r o n y .  The combination o f honesty,  bravery and " B a u e r n s c h l a u h e i t " b r i n g s him s a f e l y through the  58 uar,  and i n the l e g a l t u s s l e u i t h D u t t i K o h l , uho e p i t o m i z e s  those uho avoided m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e and greu f a t through exploiting  the misery of the home f r o n t , he stands as a r e p r e -  s e n t a t i v e o f the h o n e s t , s t r a i g h t f o r u a r d German. The  l a u has become so cumbersome that no j u d g e , houever  good h i s i n t e n t i o n s , can produce  justice  from the c o n f u s i o n .  Frenssen i s aluays prepared to give i n d i v i d u a l s the b e n e f i t of  the doubt:  " N e i n , an den Menschen l i e g t es n i c h t .  Es  65 l i e g t am System!"  Tante Lene, uho u i t h her uarm humanity  and quick u i t i s Frenssen's most memorable c h a r a c t e r , sees the symbol of j u s t i c e u i t h the v e i l over her eyes as the r o o t of  the problem: A l l e andern Uesen danken Gott fUr h e l l e und k l a r e Augen; aber d i e D u s t i z dankt Gott fOr i h r e n Fehler und Gammer. Main l/ater i n Uenneby s a g t e , das ganze UnglOck der Dust i z f i n g an dem Tag an, da s i e s i c h d i e h e l l e n , k l a r e n Menschenaugen verband, das b e s t e , das der Mensch h a t , und s i c h s e l b s t b l i n d machte. 66 It  of  i s obvious t h a t the l a u u i l l  D u t t i K o h l , uho can s l i p  not deal u i t h the l i k e s  through the maze of paragraphs  u i t h the h e l p o f c l e v e r l a u y e r s , and B a l l e i s unable to get any r e s u l t s u i t h h i s o u t b u r s t i n c o u r t . brings l i f e ,  the l i f e  Nevertheless Balle  o f the o r d i n a r y p e o p l e , i n t o the "ver-  staubte G l e i c h g O l t i g k e i t " of the courtroom: uirklicher  G e r i c h t s s a a l geuorden.  "Es uar e i n  Das G e r i c h t i s t eine 67  g r o s s e , ISchelnde und herzklopfende Sache." cates a s i m p l e , s u i f t t r i a l  by a u i s e judge.  Frenssen advoBalle  explains  59 to Tante Lene:  " E i n e i n z i g e r g e l e h r t e r , ueltkdindiger  Richter  . , , mit einem S c h r e i b e r aber ohne andre Leute und vor allem 68 ohne Paragraphen,"  could deal u i t h  the f i f t y  ding a g a i n s t D u t t i Kohl i n t h r e e h o u r s . is justified  cases o u t s t a n -  The l a c k of s a f e g u a r d s  by the f a c t t h a t " i n neun F a l l e n von zehn  gehflrt  d i e e i n e P a r t e i n i c h t vors b O r g e r l i c h e G e r i c h t , sondern vor den S t r a f r i c h t e r  oder den I r r e n a r z t . " ^  Frenssen u i s h e s the  s u i f t , c l e a n d e c i s i o n , u h i c h i n many cases may b e o b v i o u s , and t h e r e f o r e uould make t h i s the g e n e r a l r u l e .  I f there i s  a m i s c a r r i a g e o f j u s t i c e i n one out o f ten c a s e s , t h i s i s unf o r t u n a t e , but i t i s s t i l l U a l t h e r Gonser  an improvement over the o l d system.  a t t r i b u t e s t h i s to a d e s i r e to extend the r e l a 70  t i v e l y simple country p r a c t i c e onto a n a t i o n a l l e v e l , it  goes deeper  than t h a t .  but  I t i s the d e s i r e to e s t a b l i s h un-  c o m p l i c a t e d g u i d e l i n e s s f o r the betterment o f s o c i e t y  uhich  tends to d i s r e g a r d those c o m p l e x i t i e s u h i c h do not f i t i n t o the mould.  The v u l n e r a b i l i t y o f such a system  to misuse  escapes F r e n s s e n , uho i n t h i s case i s b l i n k e r e d by h i s oun i d e a l s of honesty and i n c o r r u p t i b i l i t y . High i d e a l s of i n d i v i d u a l d i g n i t y are a l s o the d r i v i n g f o r c e behind Frenssen's defence o f democracy i n Per Pastor von Poggsee.  In h i s speech a t h i s daughter Heedje's  j u s t b e f o r e the outbreak of u a r , Adam demonstrates ness that a g r e a t e r degree o f freedom  uedding  h i s aware-  i s desirable:  F r e i l i c h , das i s t uahr: u i r s i n d noch k e i n ganz  freies  V o l k . U i r haben n o c h n i c h t a l l e Menschen; besonders d i e A r b e i t e r b e h r e n s i e . 71 The  Rechte von f r e i e n a u f dem Lande e n t -  i n d i v i d u a l i s w o r t h y o f t h e f r e e d o m t o make h i s own  d e c i s i o n s , w h i c h amounts t o a c a l l Frank Braun p o i n t s  out that  f o r c o n s t i t u t i o n a l monarchy.  t h i s was a l s o  Naumann's i d e a l , 72  and  that  i t i s s p e l l e d o u t c l e a r l y i n Mflwen und MHuse  about  1908: F r e n s s e n f o r d e r t e a l s o , genau w i e Naumann, e i n e demok r a t i s c h e M o n a r c h i e und g l a u b t e s o g a r , d e r K a i s e r m U s s t e , urn d i e E i n h e i t u n d UOrde des g a n z e n l / o l k e s z u w a h r e n u n d aus e i g e n e m s i t t l i c h e m V e r a n t w o r t u n g s g e f U h l ' i n f r e i 1w i l l i g e r Tat z u r demokratischen Monarchic Ubergehen. 73 74 Adam d e s c r i b e s and  this  himself  the voice  valuable  as a c o n s e r v a t i v e  pillars  Consti-  influence  o f t h e p e o p l e t o be d e c i s i v e .  guarantees the twin is  "kaiserlich-demokratisch-sozial,"  i s c e r t a i n l y Frenssen's p o s i t i o n a l s o .  t u t i o n a l monarchy a c t s mitting  as  while  per-  I t thereby  of society: preservation  o f what  i n t h e t r a d i t i o n s o f g o v e r n m e n t , and o p e n n e s s  t o t h e p e o p l e ' s demands f o r c h a n g e . Man and God  The  basis  restructured Frenssen t h i s specifically develops.  f o r the happiness of the i n d i v i d u a l w i t h i n a  society  i s a restructured  e t h i c a l system.  For  c a n o n l y be r o o t e d i n r e l i g i o n , a l t h o u g h t h e C h r i s t i a n content diminishes  The m i l e s t o n e s i n t h i s  as h i s t h o u g h t  development a r e the Dorf-  prediqten, written while Hilligenlei in  he was s t i l l  pastor  i n Hemme,  ( 1 9 0 5 ) , and P e r G l a u b e d e r Nordmark  which C h r i s t i a n i t y  i s r e j e c t e d i n favour  (1936),  o f what he 75  describes itional  as t h e " a n g e b o r e n e n  . . . Vfiterglauben,"  "Frflmmigkeit" o f the people o f S c h l e s w i g - H o l s t e i n .  Frenssen's whole development i n t h i s as  German p e o p l e  twentieth  Protestant  for a religion  appropriate  theology  represent  of the l i f e  a Schlesuig-Holstein  o f t h e manu-  o f C h r i s t , w r i t t e n by t h e n o v e l ' s  hero, attached  "Pas Leben des H e i l a n d s , nach d e u t s c h e n  F r e n s s e n r e g a r d e d i t as e s s e n t i a l of national l i f e  p e o p l e be c h a n n e l l e d  in  "Handwerkerkind"  The t i t l e  d a r g e s t e l l t , d i e Grundlage deutscher  satisfy  church  shows t h e f u n d a m e n t a l i m p o r t a n c e F r e n s s e n  religion:  zation  century,  and p e r s o n o f C h r i s t , whom  w i t h no c l a i m t o d i v i n e p a r e n t h o o d .  gen  the thrust of l i b e r a l  g o e s b e y o n d t h e b o u n d s o f any e x i s t i n g  F r e n s s e n makes i n t o  Kai Jans,  t o them i n t h e  a t t h e end o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h  i t s reconstruction of the l i f e  script  with the  a n d what he b e l i e v e d was t h e need o f  the Dorfprediqten  Hilligenlei  to  c a n be i n t e r p r e t e d  century.  Uhilst  in  area  an u n e n d i n g a t t e m p t t o r e c o n c i l e C h r i s t i a n i t y  demands o f human n a t u r e the  the trad-  Uiedergeburt."  to the rebirth  and r e v i t a l i -  t h a t t h e " F r f l m m i g k e i t " o f t h e German  into  the need, uhich  Forschun76  a system o f r e l i g i o n  he h i m s e l f  a d e i t y , and y e t u o u l d  that  would  f e l t strongly, to believe  not e r e c t a s e r i e s o f dogmatic  barriers uhich uould clash uith  t h e f u l f i l m e n t o f human  77 p h y s i c a l and s p i r i t u a l  needs.  F r e n s s e n u a s as p a s s i o n a t e an i d e a l i s t justice aimed  as U a s s e r m a n n , b u t i n a l l t h e c r i t i c a l  a t h i s u o r k he h a s r e c e i v / e d l i t t l e  lism.  i n t h e cause o f  The i n e q u i t i e s  barrages  credit  for h i s idea-  o f human j u s t i c e , c o u l d , he b e l i e v / e d ,  be r e m o v e d by t h e a p p l i c a t i o n  of healthy, natural  good  judgement i n t h e p l a c e o f l e g a l b u r e a u c r a c y , b u t , uhereas i n the face o f t h e m y s t e r i o u s u o r k i n g s o f d i v i n e  j u s t i c e or  " S c h i c k s a l " he u a s p r e p a r e d t o a d m i t t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h e u n k n o u a b l e , he u o u l d n o t q u i e t l y human i n j u s t i c e  on t h e g r o u n d s  tolerate  the c o n t i n u a t i o n of  t h a t God u o u l d p r o v i d e a  heavenly reward: . . . i n d e m d i e c h r i s t l i c h e R e l i g i o n das r e c h t e L e b e n e r s t h i n t e r dem Tode s i e h t , und d a m i t t r 8 s t e t , t r S g t s i e d a z u b e i , d a s s man d a s R e c h t e und Gute n i c h t f f i r d e r t . Und s o i s t es n o c h h e u t e e i n u n r u h i g e s , b f l s e s L e b e n , und d i e Erde e i n e MBrdergrube. 78 Der U n t e r q a n q  d e r Anna H o l l m a n n  F r e n s s e n ' s oun s p i r i t u a l  reckoning.  mann s i n k s , Dan G u l d t h a s a v i s i o n  marks t h e c r i s i s i n After  t h e s h i p Anna  of h i s father  Holl-  and H e i n r i c h  H o l l m a n n , t h e one g u i l t y , t h e o t h e r i n n o c e n t , i m p r i s o n e d f o r slave uho in  trading  on a S o u t h A m e r i c a n i s l a n d , and o f Hans  has p r o f i t e d Hamburg.  a vain  from t h e v e n t u r e , l i v i n g  He h u r l s  and u n p u n i s h e d  h i m s e l f a g a i n s t t h e G a t e s o f Heaven i n  a t t e m p t t o demand an a c c o u n t i n g  stuns h i m s e l f .  uell  Hollmann,  He t e l l s  from God, b u t o n l y  E v a S 8 t t t h a t he had b e l i e v e d i n  63 " G e r e c h t i g k e i t , T r e u e , O r d n u n g , " and  t h a t God  looked  out  for  the r i g h t e o u s , "aber i c h musste e r f a h r e n , dass d i e Menschen 79 ihren  eigenen Dan  Guldt's  s h o u s hou concerns uordly  g e h e n , und faith  closely of t h i s  than  and  Frenssen's  theology  i s interwoven  God  "Treue" i m p l i e s a  similar  the Great  t o t h a t b e t u e e n men, 80  Frenssen's  defeat i n p a r t i c u l a r and  necessitate  of the  of the uar  in  had  excluded. on  reason  the b a s i s  of  of d e f e a t : t h i s  uould  in  at the  the q u e s t i o n of  1917, to any  promp-  Germany's  o f c o m p l a c e n c y and s e l f - c e n t r e d n e s s ,  of u a r , t h e r e i s the u n d e r l y i n g c e r t a i n t y  Germany i s f i g h t i n g uorld  Germany's  n o t y e t p r o c e e d e d f a r enough  Belou  a j u s t uar  of enemies e n l i s t e d  u i d e hegemony.  The  b e c a u s e s h e , as  "das  the  God  In Die BrjUder, u h i c h a p p e a r e d i n  Foreign O f f i c e .  the outbreak  speci-  of problems from u h i c h  p h i l o s o p h y , be  the c o n t e m p l a t i o n  c o m p l i c i t y , by  and  Conversely  c a s e have been u n t h i n k a b l e i n a n o v e l u r i t t e n ting  more  of the o l d  "Reich Gottes."  required a reckoning  punishment.  the course  the  produced a s e r i e s  could not, given  are  the  " O r d n u n g " i s a t e r m more a p p r o p r i a t e t o  Reich than  Uar  uith  relationship  the " g e g e n s e i t i g e n D i e n s t e r u e i s u n g "  Uilhelminian  lfisst."  u o r l d , for a l l three q u a l i t i e s  Germanic p e o p l e s .  guilt  Gott s i e l a u f e n  i n " G e r e c h t i g k e i t , T r e u e , Ordnung"  religious.  b e t u e e n man fically  Ueg  by  to defend h e r s e l f  junge,  against a  England to m a i n t a i n her  outcome u i l l  be  i n Germany's  that  uorld-  favour  f r i s e h e , kUhne," i s t h e  instrument  o f God i n t h e e v o l u t i o n a r y t r a n s i t i o n  of world  leadership  f r o m " d a s a l t e , v e r s t o c k t e und v e r i r r t e , d a s v o n s e i n e m Recht r e d e t  und m e i n t s e i n  Geld  und v o n G o t t  und m e i n t  81 s e i n e Macht."  The m i s s i o n  o f Germany i s t o show  " d a s s e s immer n o c h gegen G o t t e s Art  h e r r s cnh e  buntfarber This supported and  bleiben s o i l , enlistment  dass e i n e  einzige  seinen  dass s i e 82 Augen z u g e f a l i e n . "  o f God's h e l p i n an e a r t h l y c a u s e ,  by a s t a t e m e n t on God's w i l l ,  i s as o l d a s r e l i g i o n ,  common t o a l l c o u n t r i e s d u r i n g  I t i s remarkable here only i n s o f a r  considerable  ist,  a u f E r d e n , sondern dass e r w i l l ,  was c e r t a i n l y  Uar.  Uillen  England  shift  from t h e p o s i t i o n  the Great  as i t r e p r e s e n t s  a  expressed s i x years  p r e v i o u s l y i n P e r U n t e r g a n g d e r Anna H o l l m a n n , where God l e t s men go t h e i r  own w a y .  The e a r l i e r  work r e p r e s e n t s  c o n c l u s i o n , whereas i n D i e Brtlder t h e e m o t i o n a l reaction  brings  forth  undergoes a s i m i l a r and  the loss  the unreasoned cliche".  development four years  novel  her eventual  i n t h e s e r v i c e o f God's A naval  Die  Adam  Barfood  l a t e r , when  defeat  r e t u r n s a t t h e end o f  t o a r e a f f i r m a t i o n t h a t Germany's m i s s i o n and  specifically is  patriotic  o f h i s s o n s c a u s e h i m t o t h i n k t h r o u g h t o a God  a b o v e n a t i o n a l f a v o u r i t i s m , and s t i l l the  a religious  hegemony on t h e E u r a s i a n plan.  c h a p l a i n defends C h r i s t i a n i t y  BrOder a g a i n s t  S.n.S. B e l o w :  continent  the war-born n i h i l i s m  and f a i t h i n  o f t h e crew o f  65 l/iele . . . h a t t e n den Glauben an den Sinn der U e l t v e r l o r e n . . . Die U e l t uar n i c h t s andres a l s eine S i n n l o s i g k e i t ; das Leben n i c h t s andres a l s Zerstflrung und Tod! Gott? Gott i s t n i c h t mehr; oder uenn er i s t , i s t er e i n EnglHnder, das h e i s s t g i e r i g , f r i e d e n v e r nichtend! 83 Against t h i s a t t i t u d e , uhich i s s i m i l a r the c h a p l a i n a s s e r t s :  to Jan G u l d t ' s d e s p a i r ,  " C h r i s t e n t u m . . . der Glaube  Gute . . . uOrde noch da s e i n und Uber d i e SchOpfung  an  das  strahlen,  uenn auch k e i n Mensch i n Menschengestalt mehr auf der U e l t uHre."  84  "Der Glaube  an das Gute, Reine und Grosse" i s the essence  of Frenssen's C h r i s t i a n i t y  s i n c e the D o r f p r e d i q t e n , and  especially since H i l l i g e n l e i ; by the Otts' v i l l a g e  i t i s re-echoed i n Die  BrOder  p a s t o r , Pastor B o h l e n , uhose humanity  shines through d e s p i t e the burdens  of h e r e d i t a r y  alchoholism  and a hard youth as the son o f a fisherman i n the " U a t t . " In comparing  him to Goethe, Frenssen s i n g l e s him out as a  p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t c h a r a c t e r , and he a l s o appears i n Otto Babendiek, uhere as a s e x a g e n a r i a n he can s t i l l horse on h i s back at a uedding p a r t y ! von Natur G o e t h i s c h f O h l t e und es e i n e besondere  A r t Goethe;  "Und  auch p r e d i g t e  carry a  s o , uenn er auch . » • so uar  es uar e i n mOhseliger und e i n  85 dunkler."  Pastor Bohlen r e p r e s e n t s the g r e a t n a t i o n a l  cultural  tradition  t r a n s p o s e d onto the l e v e l of the o r d i n a r y German.  Beset by h i s oun p e r s o n a l problems, Pastor Bohlen preaches a fundamental  f a i t h , devoid of dogma, a b a s i c  p h i l o s o p h y o f courage i n a d v e r s i t y :  "Uie t r o t z a l l e r  Not  und  66 alien  G r a u e n s d i e F l e n s c h h e i t d o c h immer an e i n e n  tiefen  S i n n des  Lebens g e g l a u b t !  darurn g e r u n g e n h a b e n , 8  *Dennoch! "  ^  , . . urn d i e s  die besten  Geister  'Trotz alledem,  1  um  dies  A l l the g r e a t Germans: L u t h e r , L e s s i n g , H e r d e r ,  Goethe, " F r i e d r i c h Bismarck"  Uie  guten,  der  Grosse,  und  der  u e r e " D e n n o c h - L e u t e , " and  alte  this  Kaiser  faith  und  in a  divine  p u r p o s e , however u n f a t h o m a b l e , i s " d i e s E i g e n t U m l i c h s t e  und  8V Beste  am  deutschen  Uesen."  Coming a t t h e c l i m a x o f t h e n o v e l , i m m e d i a t e l y to the  admission  o f o l d Reimer Ott b e f o r e  prior  the a l t a r  that  he w r o n g l y a c c u s e d h i s s o n ,  the sermon i s i n t e n d e d  to  obvious  m e s s a g e i s s i m p l e , and  presumes  no  t o any  other  The  dogmatic b a s i s than  "Dass Uber den Sinn  reader.  der  Sternen  belief  e i n Gott  Uelt i n seinen  i n some d i v i n e  einen  This recognition  t h e one  of formal C h r i s t i a n i t y  aspect  Here F r e n s s e n and  especially  beliefs  i s pursuing  w i r zwar noch  comes o n l y i n t h e  Protestant, royalist-conservative  retains.  Dorfpredigten  of d i s t i l l i n g  o f a l l s e c t i o n s o f German s o c i e t y :  the  religious  Catholic  or s o c i a l i s t ,  into  or an  essential  common d e n o m i n a t o r t h a t w o u l d g i v e t h e m o r a l  spiritual  resilience  the  f o r t u n e s o f war  country's provide  necessary  to w i t h s t a n d whatever  might i n f l i c t .  and  ethical  and  trials  In the hour o f h i s  g r e a t e s t t e s t of endurance Frenssen  the r e l i g i o u s  nicht  afterlife,  that Frenssen  the g o a l of the  of H i l l i q e n l e i  power:  f e i n e n , schBnen, r e i n e n  HMnden h a b e , den  erkennten."  be  foundation  uas  trying  f o r the  to  unity  67 of the n a t i o n , uhich uas f o r him the e s s e n t i a l i n g r e d i e n t i n Germany's r e b i r t h . The  "Dennoch" theory i s s i m i l a r l y g e n e r a l .  I t presup-  poses nothing but the b a s i c human need to hold onto some b e l i e f t h a t transcends  the "Not und Grauen" of the moment.  Neither i s i t p a r t i c u l a r l y German, although i n t h i s novel i t suits  Frenssen's  betueen Germans.  purpose to search f o r any a v a i l a b l e bonds Oust as the problems faced by  Frenssen's  c h a r a c t e r s are not p e c u l i a r to Dithmarschen, n e i t h e r are they c o n f i n e d to Germany, as i s borne out by the s a l e s of the 89 novels abroad:  Frenssen's  abilities  as an observer o f  human nature i n t e l l e c t u a l l y o u t s t r i p h i s genuine, i f at times confused, p a t r i o t i s m . an instrument  The pantheon of g r e a t Germans i s a l s o  of u n i t y , f o r uho, i n 1917, c o u l d f i n d  u i t h any o f them?  fault  "Der a l t e K a i s e r " and Bismarck, uho are  aluays mentioned together by F r e n s s e n , stand f o r n a t i o n a l u n i t y , not the P r u s s i a n p a r t i c u l a r i s m e x c o r i a t e d i n Lebensbericht.  This i s a l i s t  a n a l y s i s , f o r Frenssen's  compiled  by convention  r a t h e r than  B i s m a r c k — a l m o s t f i v e hundred pages  of q u e s t i o n a b l e hexameters, the f i r s t  e d i t i o n of uhich he  u i t h d r e u from the market i n 1914 a f t e r i t uas c a s t i g a t e d as u n p a t r i o t i c — h a r d l y p o r t r a y s i t s hero as an impeccable  "Den-  noch-Mensch." Per Pastor von Poggsee a l s o r e f l e c t s Frenssen  the manner i n u h i c h  came to terms u i t h the problem o f hou God c o u l d  permit  the d e f e a t of h i s oun chosen i n s t r u m e n t .  Although  by  the end o f the n o v e l the defeat i s vieued i n e s s e n t i a l l y Old Testament terms: as a warning t h a t Germany uas on the wrong t r a c k ; and consequently  ends with a r e a f f i r m a t i o n of her  s p e c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p with God, the months before and a f t e r November 1918 show the same h e l p l e s s n e s s i n the face o f God's unfathomable p u r p o s e , and the same f a i t h . Gude, uho i s f e a r f u l "So  Adam  comforts  f o r her sons at the f r o n t , by s a y i n g :  lange u i r l e b e n , u o l l e n wir e i n r e c h t e s Leben ftlhren.  Uir  90 s i n d i n G o t t e s - und Although  GeisterhSnden."  the "angeborene FrBmmigkeit" forms the b a s i s  f o r Frenssen's  ethical  thought, Adam r e f u s e s to accept any  r e l i g i o u s system i f i t i s not f i r m l y rooted i n t e r r e s t r i a l reality.  T h i s one would expect as a r e s u l t of h i s b e l i e f  t h a t t h i s world  i s the only t a n g i b l e m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f the  Deity upon u h i c h man can base h i s c o n c e p t s .  The c r i s i s i s  brought about, not as i n Dob's c a s e , u i t h uhich there are c l e a r p a r a l l e l s , by the l o s s o f h i s sons i n November 1918, but by the c o l l a p s e o f Germany: Der Tod der SBhne h a t t e i h n i n d i e Knie gedrilckt; aber der Zusammenbruch des Landes h a t t e i h n z e r s c h m e t t e r t . Die N i e d e r l a g e und der Zusammenbruch s e i n e s V o l k e s , und d i e neue E r k e n n t n i s , dass d i e s S c h i c k s a l n i c h t unvers c h u l d e t , h a t t e n ihm den Halt s e i n e s Daseins genommen, s e i n e n G l a u b e n . 91 "Die neue E r k e n n t n i s " i s the r e s u l t o f Adam's r o a d s i d e conversation u i t h  a workman, uho e x p l a i n s to him hou Germany's  b l u s t e r i n g a t t i t u d e provoked and f r i g h t e n e d the n a t i o n s o f  Europe, and  thereby  d e s t r o y i n g at one  i n Germany as an instrument e v o l u t i o n of humanity. lar  of the d i v i n e plan f o r the  I t i s only because f o r Adam the  power of Germany and  can s i m u l t a n e o u s l y religious beliefs.  and  secu-  the d i v i n e w i l l are i n t e r t w i n e d  t h a t the awareness of h i s country's the outbreak o f war,  s t r o k e Adam's b e l i e f  co-responsibility for  of the f a i l i n g s t h a t caused  defeat,  d e s t r o y h i s n a t i o n a l p r i d e and h i s He had  i n e p t l e a d e r s h i p , and  regarded  the war  as the r e s u l t of  i n p l a c e of a grand design f o r the  improvement o f h u m a n i t y — " i n diesem Sinn . . . h a t t e i c h 94 auch den  Tod meiner l i e b e n h e i l i g e n Knaben . . .  there yawns the abyss of f u t i l i t y . to the war,  of any  way  The  erduldet"  absence of any  point  i n which Adam can see God's purpose  behind the s l a u g h t e r and  d e s t r u c t i o n , b r i n g s him  p o s i t i o n as the r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s i n K i e l and e x p l a i n s to a group of i n d u s t r i a l i s t s , uho  to the same  Hamburg.  He  are lamenting  that  the people s h o u l d have h e l d out a feu weeks more ( e x a c t l y Adam's oun  lament at the beginning  of h i s t a l k u i t h  the  worker): Uas j e t z t i n unserem l/olk g e s c h i e h t , i s t k e i n m i l i t S r i s c h e r A u f r u h r , auch keine H u n g e r r e v o l t e , auch keine A r b e i t e r r e v o l u t i o n . Es i s t d i e s e e l i s c h e und s i t t l i c h e l / e r z u e i f l u n g Ober das lange Morden . . . Es i s t der Ekel darflber, dass d i e Menschheit so unsagbar dumm und roh . gefflhrt u i r d , und das Grauen vor der Menschheit. 95 From t h i s abyss of d e s p a i r Adam i s aroused the next day  by the s i g h t of a boy  s t r i d i n g over the heath u i t h a  g l a s s , o b v i o u s l y on h i s way  to the doctor or chemist f o r a  sick  relative.  The  w i n d and  the  back h i s  courage:  purposeful  h u n g e r and  the  step, despite  long  rebirth in  the  takes  this  on  the  a different  pre-uar years  t h a t the  t h a t uere necessary  shape, a l b e i t d a b e i , das  beginning,  and  nuance a t t h i s  political  the  idea  point.  s t a r r e hochmfltige  s y s t e m and  for rebirth  i n a s l o u , organic  Adam  g r a u s a m und u U s t s e i n . . . d e r Mensch i s t tapferen Uollen, . . . i c h muss . . . . . . am M e n s c h e n  uay:  of Uhereas  A d a m — a n d F r e n s s e n — h a d been  changes i n the  character  neu  c o l d November  d i s t a n c e , suddenly gives  Der M e n s c h ! . . . Mag a l l e s w i l d , und v o l l R M t s e l n m i t b B s e n Augen da . . . m i t s e i n e m E r n s t , s e i n e m seinem h e i l i g e n Glauben . • . Ich i c h u i l l m i c h am M e n s c h e n h a l t e n und s e i n e m U i l l e n , 96 Adam c a l l s  the  confident  i n human  uere i n f a c t  taking  " U i r u a r e n doch  Uesen . . .  e i n uenig  schon  zu  flber-  97 uinden"  - - i n the  zero  hour of c o l l a p s e t h e r e  can  confidence;  uhen t h e m o r a l f i b r e  of the  superficial  o r c o m p l a c e n t i t may  have been b e f o r e  is  r e n t a s s u n d e r and  replaced  n o t h i n g can be t a k e n t h a t Germany uas t h e course dropped:  by  be  no  such  n a t i o n , houever 1914,  the m o r a l i t y of the  jungle,  for granted. The b e l i e f o f t h e u a r y e a r s , instrument of d i v i n e p r o g r e s s , i s of  "Uie  k B n n t e i c h e t u a s b e h a u p t e n , uas  Ober  98 meine U e r n u n f t g e h t . " attributes liche  to the  reflects  as  the  t h e uay  b a s i c moral i n t e g r i t y  German p e o p l e uhen he  Uerzueiflung"  battlefield  The  at the  senseless  prime reason  i n uhich  m e n t a l g o o d n e s s o f man  cites  slaughter  t h a t Adam  their on  "sittthe  f o r Germany's c o l l a p s e  Frenssen's b e l i e f  i n the  funda-  a u t o m a t i c a l l y encompasses the  national  community: h i s v i s i o n  i s n a t i o n a l l y oriented i n contrast to  U a s s e r m a n n and t h e E x p r e s s i o n i s t s , f o r whom n a t i o n a l  pecu-  liarities  insis-  are of at best secondary importance.  This  t e n c e on Adam's p a r t on an i r r e d u c i b l e minimum o f n a t i o n a l moral i n t e g r i t y  i s not e a s i l y  reconciled uith  at the c o l l a p s e o f the moral f i b r e manifests  i t s e l f most c l e a r l y  elements uhich this  point  i t i s no l o n g e r  of the n a t i o n ,  i n the r i s e  the pre-uar s o c i a l  h i s despair  order  uhich  of those c r i m i n a l  held i n check.  possible to regard  At  the n a t i o n a l  c o m m u n i t y as a u n i t : t h e mass o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n , u o r n o u t by  f o u r y e a r s o f s u f f e r i n g , r e t a i n s enough m o r a l i n t e g r i t y t o  finally  r e j e c t t h e i n h u m a n i t y o f u a r , p l a c i n g human  ahead o f t h e p o l i t i c a l  imperative  of v i c t o r y , but i n t h e i r  s t a t e of demoralized impotence a f t e r no  values  the surrender  they  have  more r e s i s t a n c e t o t h e r u t h l e s s m a c h i n a t i o n s o f t h e  profiteers.  The s i g h t o f t h e boy on t h e h e a t h makes Adam  auare t h a t t h i s  demoralization  i s t e m p o r a r y and t h a t t h e  f u n d a m e n t a l d i g n i t y o f man's s p i r i t ever l i e s  i s still  intact.  b e y o n d t h a t i s u n k n o u a b l e and n o t e v e n  intuitable  t o become  Uhat-  sufficiently  belief:  Ach, b e s c h e i d e n e , demUtige Hoffnungen! Dass E r l a c h e n kann , . . u i e e i n e r m i t l i e b e n K i n d e r n l a c h t . . . und dann u i e d e r m i t ehernem G e s i c h t p f l U g t , und z u u e i l e n den P f l u g t i e f , t i e f und g r a u s a m n i e d e r d r U c k e n m u s s . 99 The  nadir  time the n a d i r  of n a t i o n a l fortunes o f Adam's s p i r i t u a l  i s , t h e n , a t t h e same life:  despair  over the  72 nation as  and d e s p a i r o v e r t h e ways o f God go s i d e by s i d e , and  the nation i s reduced to a c o l l e c t i o n  also retreats the  from t h e v i e w p o i n t  controlling  impersonal regard  o f i n d i v i d u a l s , God  o f men.  T r u e , God s t i l l i s  f o r c e b e h i n d e v e n t s on e a r t h , b u t he becomes  and u n i n v o l v e d ,  to the i n d i v i d u a l .  pursuing  h i s own p l a n  W h i l s t Adam n e v e r d e n i e s t h e  e x i s t e n c e o f G o d , he does c h a n g e t h e n a t u r e this  without  of the Deity at  p o i n t f r o m one i n t i m a t e l y c o n c e r n e d n o t o n l y u i t h  k i n d , but also u i t h invisible  the i n d i v i d u a l  and t h e n a t i o n , i n t o t h e  pouer over t h e u n i v e r s e .  o l d , more n a i v e  f a i t h , he p l a c e s  man-  Uhen e v e n t s s h a t t e r Adam's  God a t a much g r e a t e r  distance  f r o m man, a n d t u r n s h i s oun a t t e n t i o n s , e v e n i n h i s s e r m o n s , exclusively For  t o t h e s t a t e o f t h e German  A a t j e S t a m p , uho i s p r e s e n t  gers  catch  the curate  uith  the s t o l e n church  "Das  Reich  Gottes,"  Holgersen  people.  uhen Adam a n d t h e v i l l a -  and h i s d i s r e p u t a b l e  g o l d , Adam h a s o n l y  uhich  angry  s i g n s and u o n d e r s :  By t h i s  3 0 t h o u t o f 35 c h a p t e r s , Adam h a s r e c o v e r e d confidence,  to the dying  as i s most c l e a r l y  Holgersen,  murder i s e l e v a t e d the  novel  amid  n o t come a m i d  " U i r s e l b s t mOssen es u n s e r o b e r n , i n  l a n g e r MUhe v o n D a h r t a u s e n d e n .  and  contempt,  Stamp's s e c t i s a n n o u n c i n g  the Armageddon a t m o s p h e r e o f t h e d e f e a t , u i l l  follouers  p o i n t , i n the h i s o l d strength  d e m o n s t r a t e d by h i s a t t i t u d e  uhose p r e d i l e c t i o n  to a Mephistophelian  f o r r o b b e r y and  level.  Throughout  he h a s a p p e a r e d s u r r o u n d e d by m y s t e r y , u i t h  unex-  73 p l a i n e d pouer over the churchwarden o f Poggsee, and i n h i s first is  p a r i s h Adam d i s c o v e r s him i n the barn u i t h Gude, uho  a l s o a t t r a c t e d by h i s mysterious  influence.  He i s f i r s t  d e s c r i b e d as "der Fremde im S c h a f s p e l z " but Frenssen him  uithin  any  c o n s i s t e n t symbolism o f a p h i l o s o p h i c n a t u r e .  keeps  the realm o f the human, u i t h o u t i n v e s t i n g him u i t h  corpse Adam t e l l s  Over h i s  T h o r u a l d , the young t e a c h e r :  D i e s e r uar e i n U r h e i d e , e i n e u i l d e , u r u i l c h s i g e und blanke K r a f t G o t t e s . Er uar e i n 38ger im U a l d , der v i e l e m U i l d h e i s s e Filsse machte, der Menschen und T i e r e n d i e Sehnen geschmeidig machte, und e i n i g e n die Sehnen b r a c h . Gott m i t d e i n e r S e e l e , du DSger Gottes . . .» 101 Holgersen's  r o l e i n the novel i s consequently  n e g a t i v e , although h i s a c t i v i t i e s  not e n t i r e l y  as t h i e f , murderer and  communist r e v o l u t i o n a r y a r e d e f i n i t e l y a n t i - s o c i a l .  He i s  a c a t a l y s t , f o r c i n g the p a r i s h out o f i t s complacency, and as the l e a d e r o f a band o f marauding r u f f i a n s uho burn the v i c a r a g e , he makes Adam s e a r c h harder meaning o f l i f e .  Holgersen's  doun  f o r the fundamental  l a s t words t o Adam, a f t e r he  has been s h o t , are r e m i n i s c e n t o f the farm-boy i n Die BrOder: 102 "Ich  habe euch t U c h t i g i n Beuegung g e b r a c h t . "  adds t h a t l i f e  Uhen he  i s " e i n g r o s s e s . • . g r o s s e s S p i e l , " Adam  r e p l i e s i n terms o f h i s o r i g i n a l b e l i e f , u h i c h he had exp l a i n e d t o the o l d bishop a t the b e g i n n i n g o f the n o v e l : "Aber u i r s o l l e n b e i diesem S p i e l auf S e i t e n des L i c h t s s t e h n , Bruder Nenschheit  . . . auf S e i t e n der h e i l i g e n Helden der 103 und a l l e r guten G e i s t e r . " Despite the h i n t  of d i s a p p r o v a l i n t h i s comment, and the address  "Bruder"  uhich emphasises that Holgersen i s a man, and t h e r e f o r e capable o f moral c h o i c e , r a t h e r than a mere symbol, Adam's remark to Thoruald i n the category  a feu minutes l a t e r p l a c e s him d e f i n i t e l y  o f God's agent.  His a c t i o n s are t h e r e f o r e  i n the f i n a l a n a l y s i s m o r a l l y n e u t r a l , s i n c e they are undertaken i n the s e r v i c e o f the d i v i n e p l a n , uhich i s beyond the bounds o f human moral judgements. The uho  remarkable change i n Adam's a t t i t u d e to H o l g e r s e n ,  i n the dark days of defeat and r e v o l u t i o n had seemed  nothing more noble than the l e a d e r o f a pack o f j a c k a l s e v i s c e r a t i n g the c a r c a s s o f a f a l l e n b e a s t , can be a t t r i b u t e d to Adam's recovery  o f h i s s p i r i t u a l o r i e n t a t i o n and con-  f i d e n c e i n the d i v i n e plan and man's p l a c e i n i t . the success  Dust as  of the r e p u b l i c a n government i n c r u s h i n g the com-  munist u p r i s i n g s and r e - e s t a b l i s h i n g order had c o n t r i b u t e d to a neu f e e l i n g t h a t Germany uas not completely Adam's f o r t u n e s have a l s o been r e p a i r e d someuhat. Gude s t i l l  finished, He and  l i v e i n the s m a l l uidou's c o t t a g e , but the t h a t c h  i s sound, Gude's f a t h e r ' s unlamented passing has enabled them to pay t h e i r d e b t s , and the r e c o v e r y c l e a r e d Adam's name.  Abel's  o f the gold has  a f f a i r u i t h Dr. Schack has  borne f r u i t , and she i s pregnant and happy, so Adam once more sees concrete  grounds f o r hope.  75 Deutschtum  In a l l the n o v e l s save o n e ^  4  Frenssen  to m a t u r i t y and p r o s p e r i t y by the end, and comes to them as a r e s u l t  b r i n g s the heroes the success  that  of t h e i r process of " B i l d u n g " i s a  reward i n t e n d e d to demonstrate to the reader t h a t s e l f improvement, both s p i r i t u a l and advantages.  p r a c t i c a l , has  In c o n t r a s t to the t r a d i t i o n a l  concrete  "Bildungsroman,"  such as U i l h e l m M e i s t e r or Nachsommer, t h e : Umwelt i s t n i c h t etwa d i e K u l t u r , . . . sondern s i e i s t e i n f a c h d i e U i r k l i c h k e i t ausser dem I c h . . . . Der Flensch und d i e U i r k l i c h k e i t innen und aussen, d i e l e b e n d i g e U i r k l i c h k e i t des G e s c h l e c h t s , dem er entstammt und d i e er a l s S c h i c k s a l i n s i c h t r & g t , und d i e ebenso l e b e n d i g e U i r k l i c h k e i t der Natur und des Menschen ausser ihm, das i s t das e i n z i g e grosse Thema . . . 105 The  g o a l o f " B i l d u n g " i s thus a t a n g i b l e coming to terms with  the world  around the h e r o , and p r o s p e r i t y — b u t not  t a n g i b l e reward. p r o s p e r i t y and Frenssen saw  The  novels end when t h i s s t a t e of m a t e r i a l  s p i r i t u a l harmony has been r e a c h e d , and s i n c e  i n work the essence  l e a v e s the heroes i n t e g r a t e d i n t o productively occupied.  his  of a s a t i s f y i n g l i f e , the s o c i a l  framework,  agrees  to help the N.S.D.A.P.,  having throughout the book been too preoccupied  own  he  In the l a s t n o v e l , Meino der P r a h l e r  (1933), Meino Ommen at the end after  wealth—the  plans to p a r t i c i p a t e  Meino's work as b e n e f i c i a l  actively.  That Frenssen  with regards  to the n a t i o n , and not simply  i n the s e r v i c e of a p o l i t i c a l p a r t y , i s c l e a r  as  from a remark  halfway through the n o v e l : jungen Bekannten  "Er (Pleino) u a r m i t a l l s e i n e n  AnhSnger e i n e r  politischen  Bewegung, d i e 106  Erneuerung  und E r s t a r k u n g  des l/olkes wUnschte."  It i s  moreover c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f Frenssen's l a c k o f awareness o f what t h e N a z i s s t o o d f o r t h a t t h e y a r e p r e s e n t e d s o l e l y bringers of national r e v i t a l i z a t i o n . N.S.D.A.P. f r o m 1930 o n w a r d s b e c a u s e 107 improve  life  build the  He h i m s e l f v o t e d f o r t h e of their  promises to  the l o t of the farmer.  A happy e n d i n g u i t h the  as t h e  the hero f u l f i l l i n g  h i smission i n  o f t h e n a t i o n , u h e t h e r i t be DHrn U h l h e l p i n g t o  the K i e l  Canal o r Meino making speeches  Nazis, i s the a r t i s t i c  reflection  optimism that c h a r a c t e r i z e s  on b e h a l f o f  o f the fundamental  Adam B a r f o o d ' s p o l i t i c s .  "Ein  1 08 rechtes  Leben"  i s t h e i m a g e o f German l i f e  g i v e s i n h i s speech a t Heedje's  t h a t Adam  uedding i n 1914, j u s t before  the  outbreak o f war: U i r haben auch g u t e S i t t e n im L a n d , Uie uenige, die i h r Leben v e r s p i e l e n , v e r f a u l e n oder v e r s c h m u t z e n ! Das d e u t s c h e V o l k i s t i m g r o s s e n und g a n z e n e i n l/olk v o n e r n s t e r , s a u b r e r und g e o r d n e t e r L e b e n s f f l h r u n g . 109 " O r d n u n g , " t h e f i r s t p r e r e q u i s t e f o r a " g l O c k l i c h e n und 110  glSnzenden  Zeit,"  and " S a u b e r k e i t , " u h i c h i s used  c o n s t a n t l y i n t h e n o v e l s t o denote  the external evidence of  good c i t i z e n s h i p , a r e t h e t w i n p i l l a r s era; to  an e r a t h a t , d e s p i t e  Frenssen's not u n c r i t i c a l  many o f i t s i n s t i t u t i o n s ,  seemed a l m o s t l i k e  of the Uilhelminian  t h e Garden  posture  f r o m t h e v a n t a g e p o i n t o f 1920 o f Eden,  This  does not  those v i r t u e s "Sauberkeit" der  mean t h a t  uith  a measure o f i r o n y .  i n several  "das  in uhich  novels,  the  family of  "Sauberkeit"  shining  complexion of  starched  cap  pokes  notably  i s simply  and  referred Babendiek,  to  of  women o f S c h l e s u i g - H o l s t e i n  German p e o p l e and in a traditional  Despite the of  gentle  i n Adam's v i e u  the  of i n t e r n a l  f r e e d o m i s as  yet  u S c h s t d o c h von  than  houever,  orderliness reader's  race.  politics.  imperfectly  and  uidespread  rather  uses i t to r e i n f o r c e the  a t t r i b u t e of the  a  irony  the  A c e r t a i n a l l - p e r v a d i n g optimism i s the  Gerechtigkeit  at  Untergang  Otto  a loving overdrauing  Frenssen i s proud of t h i s m a n i f e s t a t i o n  individual  Per  vieu  Dina Busch, B a l l e Bohnsack's w i f e ,  treatment of a f a u l t .  factor  fun  i s such a p o s i t i v e a t t r i b u t e t h a t  the  pride  times  F&hrmann B u s c h i s s u b j e c t e d  among t h e  of the  at  S M t t ' s house i s o f t e n  fanaticism ironic  He  s a u b e r s t e Haus i n u u e l g O n n e , "  irony.  her  of the  Anna H o l l m a n n , u h e r e Eva  t o as  F r e n s s e n does not  most  important  Although  safeguarded,  ZJahr z u 3 a h r , und  "die  u i r sehen 112  die This  Z e i t kommen, da  alle  o p t i m i s m i s b a s e d on  Deutschen  freie  Menschen  confidence i n the  sind,"  government,  p e r s o n i f i e d by t h e K a i s e r : Es i s t a b e r . • . im g a n z e n V o l k n i c h t e i n e r , d e r i h n h a s s t oder v e r a c h t e t ; s o n d e r n u i r haben a l l e , A r b e i t e r und E d e l l e u t e , D o r f - und S t a d t l e u t e , Manner und F r a u e n e i n e A r t g e s c h u i s t e r l i c h e r , v e r s t e h e n d e r L i e b e zu i h m . Denn s e h t : so u i e e r s i c h z e i g t : g u t m t i t i g , das B e s t e , j a das H e i l i g e und R e i n e u o l l e n d , i n G e d a n k e n b a l d h i m m e l s t U r z e n d , b a l d v e r z a g t , . s e h r s t o l z , zu f r U h s t o l z ,  l B s s i g , e i n u e n i g h i n und h e r : so i s t e r e i n r e c h t e r D e u t s c h e r , B l u t von u n s e r e m B l u t , B e i n von u n s e r e m Bein. 113 T h i s i s a p u r e l y e m o t i o n a l o u t b u r s t , and c o n t r a s t t o Adam's more s o b e r of  u n i t y i n the c o u n t r y .  r e m i n i s c e n t o f Recht oder b l a s t a g a i n s t England assurance Hitler: lution  postwar  of the  lack  strongly  U n r e c h t , mein L a n d , a propaganda i n 1940,  t h a t t h e German p e o p l e u i l l  gegen s e i n  evaluation  I t i s houever i n tone  uritten  " . • • g e g e n den  i t stands i n sharp  FOhrer?  u h i c h ends u i t h  the  not r e b e l a g a i n s t  Man  macht k e i n e  e i g e n e s U e s e n , gegen das  eigene  Frenssen i s capable of e x t r a o r d i n a r y b l i n d  RevoHerz."  114  s p o t s uhen  he  115 makes p a t r i o t i c s t a t e m e n t s , u h e r e a s , as p r e v i o u s l y his  analysis  of the s o c i a l  f a r more i n c i s i v e . the concept  ills  of Uilhelminian  At the r o o t of these b l i n d  of "Deutschtum," Frenssen's  spots  qualities  out:  honesty, seriousness, industry, orderliness  he  qualities  associated uith  Haben ( 1 8 5 5 ) . parallels  They a r e , t o c i t e b u t one  The  use  h i s exposure  and  loyalty,  materialism  and  attributed  example, the  t h e Germans i n F r e y t a g ' s S o l i  to uhich Frenssen puts t h i s of such  und  concept  f a i l i n g s as e x c e s s i v e p r i d e ,  complacency: they are i n t e n d e d to s t r e n g t h e n  t h e s e l f - e s t e e m o f h i s r e a d e r s a t t h e same t i m e as t h e y made a u a r e  quali-  singles  t h o s e u h i c h t h e German p e o p l e h a v e t r a d i t i o n a l l y themselves.  uas  lies  of those  u h i c h are p e c u l i a r l y  to  The  Germany  ties  are  German.  notion  noted,  of their  faults.  As i s t r u e o f a l l s u c h  are  genera-  79 lizations, and,  "Deutschtum" i s o f course a l a r g e l y m y t h i c a l  although  i n Frenssen's e s t i m a t i o n i t serves  p u r p o s e , i t weakens t h e n o v e l s repetition  for dispassionate  a didactic ritualistic  observation.  C l e a r l y , no c o n s e r v a t i v e sees h i s country  by s u b s t i t u t i n g  patriot  as a t odds u i t h  of the t r a d i t i o n a l  in  t h i s , and r e f l e c t s  find the  a solution terrestrial  Adam B a r f o o d  ly  relations  as h i s m o u t h p i e c e  t o t h e p r o b l e m and t h e uay i n u h i c h r e a l i t y , remains c o n s t a n t , u h i l e A victorious  o f God's u i l l ,  interpreted  serves  lost  a t t h e same t i m e F r e n s s e n ' s e f f o r t s t o  God i s m o u l d e d t o f i t i t . instrument  school  G o d , and o n c e Germany h a s  t h e u a r , F r e n s s e n has somehou t o r e s t o r e h a r m o n i o u s b e t u e e n Germany and G o d .  sphere  nationalism,  t h e image o f  Germany c o u l d be t h e  b u t Germany's c o l l a p s e c o u l d n o t be  t h e same u a y , a t l e a s t n o t a t t h e t i m e .  Consequent-  God moves auay f r o m t h e e a r t h l y t h e a t r e i n 1918 and 1 9 1 9 ,  but  r e t u r n s by t h e t i m e t h e " V o l k s f e s t " t a k e s  neu  mission  defeat  f o r a reborn  place u i t h  a  Germany and n o u , i n r e t r o s p e c t , t h e  c a n be s e e n as God's u a r n i n g  t o h i s chosen  people.  Gustav Frenssen i s too c o n s c i o u s l y a " l / o l k s e r z i e h e r " f o r the  parallel  b e t u e e n Adam and t h e German n a t i o n on November  1 1 , 1918 t o be o v e r l o o k e d .  Both a r e a t t h e i r  louest point:  116 "Es sity and  i s t alles  e i n bHses, s i n n l o s e s S p i e l , "  to console  Gude and f i g h t  but the neces-  t o s t a y a l i v e , b e s e t by h u n g e r  t h e t h r e a t f r o m H o l g e r s e n ' s g a n g , f o r c e s Adam t o k e e p o n .  He p u t s  an axe by h i s bed b e c a u s e he c a n n o t s h o o t :  "Nun muss  i c h mich mit  der  a l t e n Uaffe  u e h r e n , nach der  meine  Vorfahren 117  g r i f f e n , uenn s i e den This tic  allusion uriter  to a n c i e n t  s u c h as  irrational  as u e l l  as  suggesting,  the  to recovery  t i o n s of the The  long  appeal of a simple at the  on  the  speech uhich  r o l e of guardian t h a t the  thereby l o s t i t s a b i l i t y The  most s t r i k i n g  to uhich remain  Adam d e l i v e r s a t t h e  the  "l/olksfest"  o f Germany's  i s once a g a i n  left  founda-  heritage.  The  rebirth,  assigned uar  uas  path a l l o t t e d  t o f u n c t i o n as  God's  a  the terrible  to i t  and  instrument.  speech houever i s the  extent  b a s i c p r e m i s e s o f Adam's p r e - 1 9 1 4 p a t r i o t i s m  speech f a l l s  the  of the  into  four  s e c t i o n s : an i n t r o d u c t i o n ,  from a d e s c r i p t i o n of the  preuar era  to the  defeat.  Adam's i d e a s  The  third  and  the  prosperity  enthusiasm of August  " S c h B n d u n g " o f Germany f o l l o u i n g  s e c o n d s e c t i o n e x a m i n e s uhy the  b a s i s of a r e t u r n to the  f e a t u r e of the  moves s u i f t l y  industry and  fortunes,  unchanged.  The uhich  the  consciously  nadir of n a t i o n a l  German p e o p l e .  n a t i o n had  the  didac-  solution,  t h a t God  of the  for i n a  direct  Frenssen's v i s i o n  i t is significant  lesson  ways i s s i g n i f i c a n t ,  n a t i o n , i t s Germanic  explains i n detail and  HBhle v e r t e i d i g t e n . "  Frenssen i t represents  emotional,  uay  Eingang i h r e r  uar  the  armistice;  began and  the  and 1914 the  reasons  for  most i m p o r t a n t s e c t i o n o u t l i n e s  for national recovery,  h i s p r o p h e c y o f Germany's f u t u r e  and  the  destiny.  fourth  contains  81 E x t e r n a l l y , Germany i n 1914 uas a g l i t t e r i n g o f harmony a n d i n d u s t r y : d i e StMdte e i n e  •• •  die Kinder bis  "Das g a n z e L a n d e i n e  einzige  e i n z i g e U e r k s t a t t und F a b r i k  eine e i n z i g e Schule  an d i e A l p e n . "  spectacle  118  Ernte  . . .  i m g a n z e n L a n d , von S c h l e s u i g  In the f i r s t  months o f t h e u a r t h e  e n t i r e n a t i o n responded to the c l a r i o n  call  of destiny i n  119 an  "Aufschuung von r e i n e r  Gottes sich  Schflnheit,"  "jeder  , • • hat  Flttgel rauschen gehOrt . . damals, a l s unser  Volk  e r h o b , im F l u g e  u i e e i n A d l e r . • s e i n e E h r e und s e i n 120 Gut z u v e r t e i d i g e n • ." B u t a l t h o u g h t h e German p e o p l e e n t e r e d t h e u a r c o n f i d e n t o f t h e h o l i n e s s o f t h e i r cause and the s u p p o r t o f God, " d i e b i t t e r e r n s t e n  Augen a u f G o t t g e -  121 uandt,"  they  uere not only  defeated  but despoiled.  Considered  " d i e Schande der M e n s c h h e i t . . . d i e s e  feige  1 22 Hyflne" her  by t h e o t h e r  n a t i o n s , Germany h a s l o s t h e r a r m y ,  s h i p s and h e r c o l o n i e s , h e r r i v e r s  and "neun  B r O d e r , d i e von B l u t s uegen so b i t t e r g e r n 123 o d e r z u u n s kommen u o l l t e n , "  Millionen  b e i uns b l e i b e n  As t h e German p e o p l e  screams  t o God a n d man f o r j u s t i c e , t h e g r e a t e s t s i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l can  commit i s t o i g n o r e  sue  personal aims. The d e f e a t and t h e r e v o l u t i o n u e r e God's v e r d i c t on 1 24  Germany: lines  "Du h a s t  the three  three represent  the nation's  geirrt,  areas  deutsches  i n uhich  internal  p l i g h t and c a l m l y  Volk."  Adam  pur-  out-  the n a t i o n uent urong. A l l  failings, lying  at the root of the  causes described 1918.  "Es  t o him  f e h l t e uns,  by  the  workman on  n a c h der  U e i s e des  the  r o a d i n November  neuen R e i c h t u m s ,  an  125 alien  E c k e n und  herself  too her  Enden an  guten  q u i c k l y i n t o the material  Formen."  Germany  f r o n t rank of  ded  by  s u c c e s s , she  uas  des  v i e l e n G o l d e s . . . B e r g e von  von  G l e i c h g d l l t i g k e i t , von  the  nations;  incautious:  Gold!  Besseruissen,  blin-  "l/om  . . . von ach,  forced  Schein  Hochmut,  von  Allesuissen,  "126 geblendet!  Germany uas  she  engendered.  but  also of  rialism:  the  the  a calamity  This  unaware of the  is a criticism  national  uar  uas  and  mate-  theme o f K l a u s H i n r i c h Baas r e a p p e a r s h e r e  after  than  Frenssen  l o s t , was  the  lack  "Arbeiter."  describes  two  of  Heer, die  O f f i z i e r e , die  die v B l l i g e  as  quite  die  F r e i h e i t des  consequence  t i m e a r e a s o n uhy the  gulf  two  the between  classes,  d i f f e r e n t opinions  liebte  den  Beamten, d i e K i r c h e ,  lobte  the  1909.  Adam p e r s o n i f i e s t h e  b o u r g e o i s " l o b t e und  w o r k e r " l i e b t e und  foresau  a c t i o n to heal  Germans w i t h  The  Miliz,  in  second f a t a l m i s t a k e , t h i s  beliefs.  the  hatred  s u c c e s s and  far greater  " B i l r g e r " and  and  of government p o l i c y ,  preoccupation uith  of such s i n g l e - m i n d e d m a t e r i a l i s m The  fear  Kaiser, die  and das  Banken;"  demokratische Republik, G l a u b e n s und  die  Denkens, d i e 127  soziale  Gesellschaft  and  two  the  und  d e s p i s e d and  French, English, Serbian of g r a n i t e  and  d i e g l e i c h e MenschenwOrde d i s t r u s t e d each o t h e r . and  w i t h s t o o d the  aller,"  Uhereas  A m e r i c a n p e o p l e s were l i k e c a t a c l y s m , the  two  divided  the blocks  p e o p l e s , t h e German a n d t h e R u s s i a n ,  collapsed.  Uhile  there  is  a degree o f naivete" i n such a d i s r e g a r d o f s o c i a l  in  E n g l a n d and F r a n c e , i t i s t r u e t h a t , f o r t h e d u r a t i o n o f  the in  tensions  uar a t l e a s t , t h e d i f f e r e n c e s betueen the c l a s s e s the face  the  of the c a l l  institutions  could  The Hinrich  third  t h e German p e o p l e i n t o  mistake, uhich  soul of the n a t i o n .  terizing  Adam,  nation.  h a r k e n s back t o K l a u s  success,  p i c t u r e than  the prevailing  scientific  Only  that novel  uhich  i n an  c a u s e d by  h a d harmed t h e  Adam hammers home h i s p o i n t u i t h  fora striking  German u i t h  a united  l i g h t , uas t h e m a t e r i a l i s m  years of uninterrupted  concern  again  B a a s , and i n r e t r o s p e c t p l a c e s  almost a l l e g o r i c a l fifty  f o r a united national front.  o f democratic government, maintains  have f o r g e d  faded  materialism  a bankbook i n h i s l e f t book i n t h e r i g h t :  more  f o r a c c u r a c y by c h a r a c o f t h e e r a as t h e t y p i c a l hand and a t o o l o r  "Sehr e h r e n u e r t e Dinge  . . .  128 ich u i l l  n i c h t s gegen s i e s a g e n .  Germany must h a v e s p i r i t u a l  sich  eines  bestimmten s t o l z e n Auftrags 129  a sabre-rattling national  "Eine  a l s P e r s B n l i c h k e i t unter  beuusst zu s e i n . "  genug!"  depth, "ein grosser,  G l a u b e , " and a n a t i o n a l p r i d e : heisst: sich  Aber n i c h t  Nation  heiliger  s e i n , das  den V f l l k e r n  fOhlen  an d e r M e n s c h h e i t  U h a t Adam i s c a l l i n g  f o r here i s n o t  s e l f - a s s e r t i v e n e s s , b u t a deep s e n s e o f  d i g n i t y uhich  gives  stability  und  and c o n t i n u i t y t o  n a t i o n a l p o l i c y and u n i t y i n t i m e s o f c r i s i s .  84 N a t i o n a l r e c o v e r y c a n t a k e p l a c e o n l y uhen t h e s e  faults  a r e r e p l a c e d by v i r t u e s , and t h e s e Adam e n u n c i a t e s a t l e n g t h . From t h e d e s p a i r o f d e f e a t must come a n a t i o n a l  pride  based,  n o t on m a t e r i a l s u c c e s s , b u t on t h e e n d u r i n g m e m o r i a l s German s p i r i t : through in  the piety  t h a t h a s m a r v e l l e d a t God's u o n d e r s  t h e a g e s , and i s r e f l e c t e d  a r t and s c i e n c e :  to the  i n German  achievements  " L o r b e e r Ober das d e u t s c h e  Ober s e i n e n mtihsamen, q u M l i g e n  Aufstieg  Volk  . . .  und a l l s e i n e  Taten  1 30 aus  den T i e f e n  uill  des M e n s c h e n g e i s t e s . "  Future generations  r e g a r d t h e G r e a t U a r as Germany's h o u r o f g l o r y , and  Adam makes much o f t h e odds a g a i n s t Germany t o s h o u uhile  the A l l i e s  continued the blockade  a t t h e same t i m e a s t h e y a c c u s e d uas t h e y uho u e r e r e i n e cS a c ih- e . ,,131 "  guilty  the armistice  Germany o f u a r c r i m e s , i t  and Germany uho h a d " t r o t z  Adam h e r e moves f r o m moral  after  that,  the r e l a t i v e l y  allem, eine  f i r m ground o f  v a l u e s t o the quagmire o f e m o t i o n a l n a t i o n a l i s m , a t  u h i c h p o i n t he c o n t r a d i c t s h i s p r e c e e d i n g a r g u m e n t . attributed  the outbreak  t h a t produced  o f uar to basic i n t e r n a l  provocative p o l i t i c a l  summation, d e s p i t e i n s u f f i c i e n t aggressive  foreign  policy—it  d e c l a r e t h a t Germany's c a u s e  actions—a  Having  failings  reasonable  e m p h a s i s on t h e K a i s e r ' s  i s simply inconsistent to remained  pure.  Although  Frenssen,  u h o s e m o u t h p i e c e Adam o b v i o u s l y i s h e r e , i s c a p a b l e o f reasoned  a n a l y s i s i n the moral  s p h e r e , uhen he  concerns  85 h i m s e l f u i t h n a t i o n a l i s m he ceases  to analyse and r e v e r t s  a b r u p t l y to the dubious medium o f emotional overdraun,  cliche.  demagogic language o f Adam's speech,  The  contrasting  s h a r p l y u i t h h i s u n f l i n c h i n g honesty at the end of the u a r , h i g h l i g h t s the dangers o f d i d a c t i c i s m In  order to c o u n t e r a c t the postuar  calls  for a revitalization  of Frenssen's  d e m o r a l i z a t i o n , the speech  of n a t i o n a l l i f e  fundamental q u a l i t i e s o f the German p e o p l e .  based on the The s t y l i s t i c  e x a g g e r a t i o n r e f l e c t s the degree to u h i c h Frenssen for  type.  distorts  the sake o f d i d a c t i c e f f e c t the c r u c i a l r e a l i z a t i o n  n o v e l , t h a t Germany uas c o - r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the u a r .  of t h e  The  everyday s t y l e of the n o v e l s , u i t h i t s d o u n - t o - e a r t h ,  rural  imagery, i s d i s c a r d e d i n favour o f pathos i n the same uay as the n o v e l ' s honest attempt to come to g r i p s u i t h the f a c t s of  war and d e f e a t i s obscured  by i l l - c o n s i d e r e d  rhetoric.  Here again the d i d a c t i c purpose takes precedence not only over a r t i s t i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , f o r the i n o r d i n a t e l y  long  speech d i s t u r b s the end o f the n o v e l , but a l s o over the u o r t h u h i l e content o f Adam's development, u h i c h i t essentially In  negates u i t h i t s undertone o f the n e c e s s i t y o f r e v e n g e .  h i s i n d i g n a t i o n over uhat he c o n s i d e r s the i n j u s t i c e o f  the V e r s a i l l e s and  T r e a t y , Frenssen  l o s e s h i s sense o f p r o p o r t i o n ,  i t i s h e r e , uhere l o g i c i s s u b o r d i n a t e d to p a s s i o n , t h a t  the i d e a l s o f a reborn n a t i o n degenerate i n t o the slogans o f political  demagoguery.  86 In h i s p r e s c r i p t i o n f o r overcoming d i s u n i t y ,  "die  132 i n n e r s t e Ursache unseres UnglUcks,"  Frenssen's p i c t u r e o f  an i d e a l s o c i e t y i s an u n q u a l i f i e d a f f i r m a t i o n o f support f o r the Ueimar R e p u b l i c .  Disunity  can only  be overcome by the  e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a n a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e t h a t enables a l l s e c t i o n s o f s o c i e t y to p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s n a t i o n a l  prides  the worker must become p a t r i o t i c :  Nation  "Uer gegen s e i n e 133  kSmpft, der kMmpft gegen s i c h s e l b s t ; "  the n o b i l i t y must  march s i d e by s i d e u i t h the workers; the farmer must abandon his  splendid  place  isolation  and become more conscious o f h i s  i n the n a t i o n a l community, and the government must  face up t o i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y cial  change.  could  to become a f o r c e  True to h i s e a r l i e r  for benefi-  assertion that  democracy  have brought u n i t y i n 1914, Adam urges a l l h i s l i s t e -  ners to put the past behind them and u n i t e behind the symbol of hope, the Ueimar c o n s t i t u t i o n . nor  the r e d f l a g — t h e  Neither  former he c a l l s  the i m p e r i a l  "herrlich"  flag  and the  latter  " d i e Fahne der f r e i e n FlenschenuUrde fOr a l l e , d i e 134 Fahne des l/ertrauens an das Edle i n jedem Menschen" c o u l d u n i t e the c o u n t r y , but Ueimar i s t h i s " S i e g der 135 Vernunft, diese  V e r e i n i g u n g auf m i t t l e r e r L i n i e . "  c o n s t i t u t i o n i s a bulwark a g a i n s t  The  "den geborenen Hochmut und  gegen d i e flbermacht des G o l d e s , " ^ ^ and Frenssen-Adam here e x p l i c i t l y u n d e r l i n e s h i s s o c i a l i s t stand by s a y i n g "Lands137 l e u t e , i h r s c h l i c h t e n Menschen." Adam i s a d d r e s s i n g the  87 whole p o p u l a t i o n the  o f P o g g s e e , j u s t as F r e n s s e n i s a d d r e s s i n g  mass o f t h e German p e o p l e .  The t r o u b l e s  o f the time 131  come f r o m "dem  I r r w e g , den d i e f r t l h e r e n F U h r e r u n s g e f O h r t , "  f r o m d i s u n i t y and f r o m d e f e a t , b u t n o t , a s many m a i n t a i n , the  Weimar c o n s t i t u t i o n .  society, united government.  The new Germany must be a c l a s s l e s s  and l e d p o s i t i v e l y by a  B u t j u s t as t h i s  representative  new u n i t y  i s at the service of  the  nation,  the  p o s i t i o n o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s much more s i g n i f i c a n t t h a n  in  i n contrast  from  a socialist  to the i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s m  s t a t e , f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s by no means  reduced to a f a c e l e s s  component i n t h e s e r v i c e  national  ideal.  national  s o c i a l i s m without the subordination  dual, did  T h i s i s an i d e a l i s t i c ,  and t h e r e a l i t y  finally  realize still  felt this  Utopian v i s i o n , a of the i n d i v i -  socialist  Otto Babendiek r e f l e c t s  at the f a i l u r e  state  o f t h e Ueimar R e p u b l i c t o  the forces  chaotic  political  Meino der P r a h l e r ,  atmosphere.  but the root  clearly lies  he i s  o f l a u and o r d e r i n t h e i n Not u n t i l  d o e s F r e n s s e n ' s s y m p a t h y f o r t h e N.S.D.A.P. r e a c h  allegiance  that  the disappointment  i d e a l , b u t i n 1929 Dummhans s h o u s t h a t  supporting  creasingly  of the national  o f the  emerge d e m o n s t r a t e s how Utopian Adam's dream u a s .  Three y e a r s l a t e r Frenssen  of socialism,  cause o f t h i s  i n the f a i l u r e  1933  t h e p a g e s of  suitch of  of the r e p u b l i c  renewed promise o f H i t l e r t o b u i l d t h e i d e a l s t a t e . D e s p i t e t h e g o o d q u a l i t i e s o f t h e German p e o p l e ,  and t h e  uhich  88  Adam e x t r a v a g a n t l y  e x t o l s , he  attacks  "Formlosigkeit  LSssigkeit"  and  character:  " U i r mOssen n a c h d e n k e n und  unser  demands a r e j u v e n a t i o n  l/olk e i n e n  a n d e r e n , und  of the  und  national  daran a r b e i t e n , dass  zuar einen  f e s t e r n und  zusam-  139 m e n g e r i s s e n e n C h a r a k t e r bekommt." preceding  call  character  of the  for a national socialism, this n a t i o n makes H i t l e r ' s  q u i t e o b v i o u s , e s p e c i a l l y as Germany's y o u t h . traditional tually  Uhen c o m b i n e d u i t h  They u i l l  at f i r s t  i d e a l s of Jesus,  these streams u i l l  revitalized  appeal to  Adam c a l l s be  Frenssen  f o r a neu  spirit  i n s p i r e d by  "zu  einem e i n z i g e n  in  the  Goethe or B i s m a r c k , but  unite  the  even-  Geist 14  neuer deutscher A r t . . . Uith forged  this  into  call  far a revitalized  a single u i l l  Adam ends h i s s p e e c h by national character deutschen  k l a r e r , herber, tOchtiger  by  a  national  heritage,  i n Germany's h i s t o r y  and  and  uestern  nations.  Her tell  dem  Germany's f u t u r e r o l e i s t o  d e c i s i v e f a c t o r i n the  coming s t r u g g l e betueen the geographical  on  uhich  be eastern  position dictates  s i d e she  uill  ."  nation  a s i g n "dass G o t t noch Grosses m i t 141  the  one  p r i d e i n the  seeing  l/olk v o r h a t . "  a l t h o u g h no-one can  y o u t h , and  . . .  stand.  this, But  t h i n g must be t h e b e l i e f o f e v e r y German: Dass am Ende d i e s e s u n g e h e u r e n Kampfes das d e u t s c h e l/olk m i t s e i n e m t i e f e n G e i s t und m i t a l l s e i n e n Gaben u i r t s c h a f t l i c h e r A r t der F O h r e r u e r d e n u i r d , und vom A t l a n t i s c h e n b i s zum S t i l l e n Ozean d i e l / B l k e r m i t s e i n e m G e i s t und Uesen e r f t i l l e n u i r d . . . . Ohne D e u t s c h l a n d k e i n E u r o p a - A s i e n , d u r c h D e u t s c h l a n d das neue E u r o p a - A s i e n ! 142  89 Nationalism  and r e l i g i o n  merge h e r e , a s God once  renews h i s s p e c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p nature of Frenssen's idealism leadership  uith  t h e German p e o p l e .  The  i s apparent i n the g o a l : moral  o f E u r o p e and A s i a , b u t a t t h e same t i m e he r e m a i n s  c o n v e n t i o n a l i n t h e means he e n v i s a g e s t o t h a t e n d . uill  again  be a d e c i s i v e b a t t l e , a t t h e end o f u h i c h  continent u i l l  look to v i c t o r i o u s  economic l e a d e r s h i p .  There  the e n t i r e  Germany f o r m o r a l and  T h e r e i s no m e n t i o n h e r e o f " L e b e n s -  raum" o r any t r a c e o f t h e n a i v e i m p e r i a l i s m o f P e t e r  Moors  F a h r t n a c h S f l d u e s t : God i s n o t g o i n g t o h e l p Germany c o n q u e r the  entire  c o n t i n e n t because of her v i r t u e s :  c o n q u e r by t h e m s e l v e s . tiates the  I t i s this idealism  the v i r t u e s that  uill  differen-  t h e p h i l o s o p h y o f F r e n s s e n ' s mature uorks from  sabre«rattling nationalism  o f P e t e r Moors F a h r t  SOduest (1906) t h a t uses v i r t u e s  nach  as an e x c u s e f o r c o n q u e s t .  F r e n s s e n ' s r e b o r n Germany i s n o t t h e l a n d o f t h e b r o u n b a t t a l i o n s , b u t i n h i s e n t h u s i a s m f o r t h e i d e a l s he p a y s t o o little  attention  t o t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f some o f t h e d e t a i l s  in  his plan.  in  1914 t o t h e s p e e c h a t t h e V o l k s f e s t s h o u s t h a t t h e  emphasis  The b a s i c s i m i l a r i t y  i s on t h e c o n s e r v a t i o n  o f Adam's w e d d i n g  of valuable  speech  traditions  rather  t h a n on f u n d a m e n t a l c h a n g e , and e v e n t h e s h i f t o f e m p h a s i s from is  P o t s d a m t o U e i m a r , u h i c h Adam d e s c r i b e s t o T h o r u a l d  strongly  q u a l i f i e d : he s a y s t h e n :  N a t u r mehr U e i m a r  " D i e Deutschen s i n d von  a l s P o t s d a m , mehr g r a u e A c k e r l e u t e , K a u f -  90 l e u t e , G e l e h r t e , a l s s t r a f f geknApfte  b i s ans K i n n , "  in  V o l k , A r b e i t e r , Bauer,  the next paragraph:  "Das  deutsche  but  BOrger, A d e l , u i r d n i c h t eher u i e d e r Ruhe haben, n i c h t u i e d e r i n n e r n F r i e d e n geuinnen und  e i n gutes  haben, a l s b i s u i r u i e d e r i n sauberer und  eher  Geuissen  straffer  Ordnung,  e i n s t a r k e s , s e l b s t g e u M h l t e s Haupt an u n s r e r S p i t z e ,  alle  143 einander The  dienen." i n d i v i d u a l freedom u h i c h looms so l a r g e i n  Frenssen's  scheme f o r a reborn Germany i s here s u b o r d i n a t e d to the o v e r r i d i n g need f o r n a t i o n a l u n i t y .  Here the key  phrase i s :  " a l l e einander dienen" u i t h i t s v i s i o n of the m o n o l i t h i c nature of the German people once the necessary s t e p s are taken to remove the b a r r i e r s to u n i t y .  The image i s  m i l i t a r y : the e n t i r e n a t i o n marching i n column, l e d by the unquestioned reflecting common u i l l  c h i e f t a i n , " i n sauberer s t r a f f e r  the t r a d i t i o n a l n a t i o n a l q u a l i t i e s by the tough and v i g o r o u s  Ordnung"  forged i n t o a  neu s p i r i t .  The  f a t e of the d i s s e n t i n g i n d i v i d u a l goes unmentioned: i n his  naive enthusiasm  fails  f o r the neu order Frenssen  to c o n s i d e r the p o s s i b i l i t y  German u i l l  t h a t any  not be i n complete a c c o r d .  right-minded  The l a c k of  mention of c o e r c i o n as an i n s t r u m e n t of u n i t y Frenssen's  i d e a l i s m : j u s t as Germany u i l l  c o n t i n e n t , the neu order u i l l both cases the b e n e f i t s u i l l  simply  not suppress  any  demonstrates  not conquer the opposition, for i n  be so s e l f - e v i d e n t t h a t c o e r c i o n  91 uill  be u n n e c e s s a r y .  On one l e v e l  Utopian dream; on a n o t h e r flau  both  as a n o v e l i s t  inability  to think  inevitable fallible  t o t h e a b u s e s t h a t u o u l d be  fellou-countrymen.  strength l i e s  verty  i n h i s a s t u t e pouers o f t h e needs o f h i s  E p i g o n a l though h i s s t y l e  of h i s characterizations  anyone uho i s f a m i l i a r "Geest."  uith  His practical  suggestions  f o r t h e a l l e v i a t i o n o f po-  The e m p h a s i s on t h e v i r t u e s  harmony and s e l f - r e s p e c t ,  are genuinely o f t h e German  to increase  l e a d s him n o n e t h e l e s s  a g g r e s s i v e p o s t u r e uhen he d e a l s u i t h her neighbours.  Although  t o by  o f t h e m a r s h and t h e  injustices  people, although intended primarily  may b e , t h e  c a n be a t t e s t e d  the people  and t h e r e m o v a l o f s o c i a l  humanitarian.  uith  to eighty million  beings.  o b s e r v a t i o n and h i s a p p r e c i a t i o n  authenticity  basic  and a s a " V o l k s e r z i e h e r " : h i s  once t h e t h e o r y i s a p p l i e d  human  i s an i d e a l i s t i c ,  i t exposes Frenssen's  through  Gustav Frenssen's of  this  into  Germany's  Frenssen  u a r a s an i n s t r u m e n t o f n a t i o n a l p o l i c y  never  domestic an  relations  advocates  nor, i n h i s preuar  n o v e l s , does he e v e n c o n s i d e r t h e p o s s i b i l i t y , t h e c o n s t a n t reiteration  of national virtues  produces,  under a p p r o p r i a t e  circumstances, the k i n d o f t h r e a t e n i n g undertone f o r uhich he  criticizes  the Kaiser's foreign  policy.  Germany, u h i c h i n t h e n o v e l s i s p r i n c i p a l l y removal o f s o c i a l  i n j u s t i c e , here  The r e b i r t h o f a call  f o r the  becomes s u l l i e d by m a r t i a l  cliches. Frenssen's concern f o r the r e b i r t h be  divorced  driving search it  f r o m any  aspect  of h i s w r i t i n g s .  cannot  It i s  f o r c e behind h i s s o c i a l message, i t i n s p i r e s for a religious  obscures his l o g i c  cheap p r o p a g a n d a . the  o f Germany  long l i s t  and and  But  of novels basically  one:  G e u i r r und  s i e m i t neuen h e i l i g e n zu n e u e n , h e l l e r n not  although  c a n n o t be  he  furthering  the  i n s t a n c e s are  from Die  the  his vision  to Meino  f o r Germany i s an  GeuUhl der Gedanken und  der idealized und  P l H n e n zu s a m m e l n ,  und  His  reborn  a c q u i t t e d of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  c o n c e p t s t h a t made t h e are not  of  l/fllker emporzuragen  Germany o f t h e b r o u n b a t t a l i o n s ,  Gustav Frenssen's i d e a l s  times  infrequent i n  SandqrSfin  Zeiten a u f z u r u f e n . ^  Germany uas  at  his  d e b a s e s h i s work t o t h e l e v e l  these  P r a h l e r , and erm  e t h i c : f o u n d a t i o n , and  the  Third Reich  of themselves  and of  possible,  ignoble.  93 G e o r q von Ompteda  The s u b j e c t s o f G e o r g von Ompteda's n o v e l s , t h e l a n d e d aristocracy their the  of P r u s s i a , entered  relative  social  proliferation  trade  the twentieth century  and e c o n o m i c p o s i t i o n  of families  stemmed  from  and i n d u s t r y , and by t h e d e c l i n e i n a g r i c u l t u r a l The v i g o r o u s  modern m e t h o d s , u h i c h u a s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c uas o f c r u c i a l  decades o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h agricultural  during  s e c t o r by c o n s e r v a t i s m  i n consequence the s o c i a l  uas  endangered. Unlike uriters  the l a s t  experience.  three  and l a c k o f c a p i t a l ,  pre-eminence o f the a r i s t o c r a c y  and T h e o d o r  about the a r i s t o c r a c y a r e the  p r o d u c t o f o b s e r v a t i o n , Ompteda's n o v e l s  criticisms  o f German i n d u s t r y  s u c h as G u s t a v F r e y t a g  F o n t a n e , uhose u r i t i n g s  cadet school  of  c e n t u r y , uas hampered i n t h e  and  personal  adoption  prices  i m p o r t a n c e i n t h e phenomenal r i s e i n  n a t i o n a l u e a l t h and p r o d u c t i v i t y  are  u n d e r m i n e d by  uhose f o r t u n e s  c a u s e d by A m e r i c a n c o m p e t i t i o n .  and  uith  His career  have t h e b e n e f i t o f  uas t h e t r a d i t i o n a l  one o f  and c a v a l r y r e g i m e n t , and h i s comments and  o f the l i m i t e d  horizons  t e m p e r e d by an u n d e r s t a n d i n g  of a r i s t o c r a t i c  and s y m p a t h y a c c e s s i b l e  only  t o t h o s e uho a r e members o f t h e " c a s t e . "  this  understanding  former g e n e r a t i o n s  families  I t i s precisely  and s e n s e o f p r i d e i n t h e a c h i e v e m e n t s o f t h a t makes Ompteda so c o n s c i o u s  of the  94 need to r e v i t a l i z e decline  and  the  finally  Eysen i s the  a r i s t o c r a c y to prevent a d r i f t  i r r e l e v a n c e : Rudolf's  b e s t example of t h i s  runs c o n s i s t e n t l y through His uhich  concern  had,  he  the  values  their  uhich  endangered i f these p i t - p r o p s  to r o t .  nation,  s e r v e d by  by  uere a l l o u e d  traditional  uhole  t h e m s e l v e s and u o u l d be  the  Ompteda's v i s i o n  of  but  the  basic  for  the  individual  is  a u n i f i e d p e o p l e and  and  the  f a r r e m o v e d f r o m , and  dUnkel" uhich privileges  simply  demanded t h e  the  the  industrial  extent to uhich  the  problems of  Uilhelminian  the  novels  class  in this  forces  means r e g a r d s hereditary the  him  the  era i s extremely i n terms of  d e c l i n e of the  into a defensive  of  the  "Standes-  aristocratic  obvious  the  limited. leadership  a r i s t o c r a c y as  position: uhilst  he  as  the  e x c l u s i v e preserve of  n o b i l i t y , but  on  the  contrary  the  part  c o m m e r c i a l a r i s t o c r a c y as  of the equals,  old he  the  social  leadership  a c c e p t a n c e on  life  Ompteda  brought, although  come t o g r i p s u i t h  Ompteda f o r m u l a t e s h i s v i s i o n n a t i o n , and  had  Frenssen's,  c a s t i g a t e s , the  f u n d a m e n t a l and  age  rebirth  same.  preservation  and  greatness  a harmonious  remains the  frequently  uhile ignoring  changes t h a t  nation  caste,  o f Germany's  a more h i e r a r c h i c a l s t r u c t u r e t h a n d o e s of  nobles  o f her  retains  aim  uhich  uork.  f o r the  b e l i e v e d , been u e l l  speech i n  d i d a c t i c element,  Ompteda's  i s nevertheless  final  into  a by  approaches  the  no  the  argues s t r o n g l y  f a m i l i e s o f the  of  for  neu question  the  95 of n a t i o n a l r e v i t a l i z a t i o n in the  contrast to Frenssen,  uho s t a r t s u i t h  call  t h e b r o a d mass o f  f o r the preservation of t r a d i t i o n a l  a society uhich  feudal-agrarian  middle class proletariat philosophy  had t e l e s c o p e d  state of soldiers  modern i n d u s t r i a l  nation uith  as u e l l springs  the t r a n s i t i o n  an i n c r e a s i n g l y p o u e r f u l  from e s s e n t i a l l y  t h e same  by F r e n s s e n ' s u o r k s .  l a r g e m e a s u r e by t h e i r  carpenter—lies along  uith  attitudes  of the a r i s t o c r a t s  of pre-uar  Chamberlain to the King  traditional  Ernst  themselves.  reforms  values,  society uhich  the need f o r " p r o g r e s s "  completely  uistfully  ignores the  s l u m s and d e p i c t s t h e p a r l i a m e n t a r y Ompteda s e e k s t o q u e s t i o n  by c o r r e c t i n g t h e image o f t h e  dominant c l a s s u i t h i n  making the e x i s t i n g  The  I I I (1925) p a i n t s a n o s t a l g i c  as a c o m i c i r r e l e v a n c e .  traditionally  explained  c h a n g e s a d v o c a t e d by Ompteda a r e i n t h e  misery of the i n d u s t r i a l process  c a n be  i n Frenssen's advocacy o f s o c i a l  r e t r o s p e c t i v e novel picture  The m a j o r  F r e n s s e n uas t h e son o f a v i l l a g e  h i s desire to preserve  uhereas the only  conservative  r e s p e c t i v e p o s i t i o n s on t h e s o c i a l  f a t h e r uas Lord  o f Hannover u h i l e  from a  as an enormous and d i s a d v a n t a g e d  as i s e v i n c e d  scale—Ompteda's  values  and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s t o a  d i f f e r e n c e betueen the tuo a u t h o r s , uhich in  ladder  population. The  in  from t h e t o p o f t h e s o c i a l  the s t a t e ,  s y s t e m more p a l a t a b l e .  thereby  The a b s e n c e o f  96 concrete suggestions uithin of  the s t a t e  r e f o r m s , such  peculiar to  concern  f o r the c o r r e c t i o n  as a u h o l e  of s o c i a l  ( i n c o n t r a s t to the  as t h e a b o l i t i o n  ills  advocacy  of the d u e l , u h i c h are  t o t h e a r i s t o c r a c y ) b r i n g s Ompteda  Uassermann, uhose concern  i s also uith  closer  the i n n e r u o r l d  human a t t i t u d e s , a l t h o u g h U a s s e r m a n n q u e s t i o n s p r e c i s e l y basic  f o u n d a t i o n s o f t h e s t a t e u h i c h Ompteda u o u l d  Ompteda's v i s i o n traditional is  o f Germany's r e b i r t h  v a l u e s and  democratic  best e x e m p l i f i e d i n the person  Tillen,  uhose p r i m a r y  qualities  U i t h o u t the programmatic nature Ompteda's l o g i c his  of  h i s oun  and  and t o l e r a n c e .  of Frenssen's  co-exist  vision,  of n a t i o n a l r e b i r t h  class.  Hugo G r e i n z sums up customs of the  of  revitalized  harmoniously.  t h a t of Frenssen  experience, i l l u s t r a t i n g  aristocratic  and  of King Ernst I I I of  t h e s u b j e c t s f o r h i s n o v e l s from  his vision  of  open-mindedness, uhich  are i n d u s t r y  Ompteda's a p p r o a c h r e s e m b l e s takes  those  preserve.  emerges as a b l e n d  r e v e a l s the b a s i c goal of a  i n uhich a l l classes  he  of  i s at times i n c o n s i s t e n t , but e x a m i n a t i o n  u o r k as a u h o l e  nation  of  uithin  h i s concept by  the of  range  values  the example o f  In a r e v i e u of the novel Ompteda's a b i l i t y  i n that  the  Droesigl,  to p o r t r a y the  life  aristocracy:  Das mondSne L e b e n d e r vornehmen G e s e l l s c h a f t s k r e i s e D e u t s c h l a n d s z u Ende des v o r i g e n und B e g i n n des g e g e n u M r t i g e n J a h r h u n d e r t s h a t i n Ompteda u i e kaum i n e i n e m z u e i t e n s e i n e n R o m a n c i e r g e f u n d e n . Er b e h e r r s c h t d i e U e l t , aus d e r e r s e i n e S t o f f e und M e n s c h e n h o l t ,  97 und i n s e i n e n Romanen u i r d man u o h l n i e m a l s i r g e n d e i n e n l S c h e r l i c h e n U i d e r s p r u c h m i t d e r S i t t e und dem B r a u c h des L e b e n s d e r U o h l h a b e n d e n und H o c h g e s t e l l t e n finden. 1 E.U. B r a u n r e f e r s  t o Ompteda a s " e i n g e s u n d e r  Realist,"  an e p i t h e t n o r m a l l y  reserved i n the U i l h e l m i n i a n e r a f o r 3  those  the state  this  uho s u p p o r t e d combination  and i t s i n s t i t u t i o n s ,  of verisimilitude  2  and  and an e s s e n t i a l l y  p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e e x p l a i n s Ompteda's s u c c e s s : G e o r g v o n Ompteda u a r l a n g e Z e i t e i n v i e l g e l e s e n e r und v i e l g e l i e b t e r D i c h t e r d e r a d l i g e n K r e i s e . Sein E y s e n , S y l v e s t e r von G e y e r und C S I c i l i e von S a r r y n u a r e n G e s c h e n k u e r k e , d i e a u f dem G a b e n t i s c h k e i n e s • jungen F r M u l e i n s , keines heranuachsenden Junkers fehlen durften. 4 Clara  V i e b i g , uho u r o t e t h e r e v i e w  are taken  from u h i c h t h e s e  i n 1 9 3 2 , uas h e r s e l f , a l o n g u i t h  Thomas Mann, B e y e r l e i n and E l i s a b e t h 5 six  best s e l l i n g  Ompteda's a p p e a l  authors  o f 1903,  so i n h e r a s s e s s m e n t o f  w h i c h Ompteda c o m m u n i c a t e s  t o t h a t u s e d by G u s t a v F r e y t a g , u h o s e  Ompteda's c h a r a c t e r s , t h o u g h  t o a more l i m i t e d  depicted  one o f t h e  i n S o i l und Haben u a s t o s h o u "das d e u t s c h e g  bei seiner Arbeit." belong  von H e y k i n g ,  Frenssen,  authoritative.  frameuork u i t h i n  h i s message i s s i m i l a r intention  Ompteda,  to the U i l h e l m i n i a n reading p u b l i c her  comments may be c o n s i d e r e d The l i t e r a r y  remarks  social  sphere than  i n a u i d e range o f s i t u a t i o n s  d u t i e s as o f f i c e r s , especially  farmers  or c i v i l  true of h i s m i l i t a r y  Volk  they  Freytag's, are  pertaining  servants.  to t h e i r  This i s  men, uho a p p e a r a m i d a l l  . . .  t h e monotony o f g a r r i s o n ( H e i m a t des H e r z e n s ) , o r during  life,  like  tramping  autumn m a n o e u v r e s l i k e  Karl  von R u n d s t e t t e n  a l o n g i n t h e d u s t and  Sylvester  von G e y e r .  where t h e s u b j e c t o f t h e n o v e l i s t h e o f f i c e r rather  t h a n s o l d i e r , as i s t h e c a s e  uith  heat  Even  as l o v e r  L i e u t e n a n t von  H a r f f i n D i e S O n d e , Ompteda a v o i d s t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l Uilhelminian lieutenant,  stereotype of the glamourously for Harff  back t o t h e g a r r i s o n  always  free,  dashing  has t o t a k e t h e l a s t  town f o l l o w i n g  an e v e n i n g  train  with h i s  mistress i n B e r l i n . S i n c e Ompteda's a i m i s t o p o r t r a y t h e r e a l w o r l d o f t h e a r i s t o c r a c y , he must o f c o u r s e human s p h e r e s pertain is  examine t h e g e n e r a l  of l o v e , honour, marriage  to this  and money a s t h e y  c l a s s , b u t by a v o i d i n g t h e s t e r e o t y p e he  a b l e t o p r e s e n t h i s c h a r a c t e r s a s human b e i n g s u i t h  fully  developed  emotional l i f e ,  after  a  t h e manner o f F o n t a n e  despite  their  e v e r - p r e s e n t a w a r e n e s s o f t h e demands o f t h e  caste.  I n c o n s e q u e n c e Ompteda's w o r l d , t h o u g h now  "lHngst  7  verschollen"  i n a way t h a t F r e n s s e n ' s  retains  i t s authenticity  before  1918.  dan  Dithmarschen  f o r t h e modern r e a d e r  i snot,  as i t d i d  and Uoman  Love and m a r r i a g e  occupy a c e n t r a l  position  i n Ompteda  novels.  I n c o n t r a s t t o t h e more e g a l i t a r i a n  society  of  F r e n s s e n ' s D i t h m a r s c h e n , l o v e i n Ompteda's P r u s s i a i s i n f l u enced, often  d e c i s i v e l y , by s o c i a l  and  financial  considera-  t i o n s , and o n l y r a r e l y , as i n t h e c a s e o f F r i t z Herzelotde novel. their  and  (Herzelojlxie) i s marriage the c u l m i n a t i o n  I n most i n s t a n c e s  Ompteda f o l l o w s  m a r r i a g e and i l l u m i n a t e s  of the  the l o v e r s  the problems  that  This conscientious  avoidance of romantic c l i c h e  the v e r i s i m i l i t u d e  o f t h e n a v e l s and  points  through  arise. enhances  to a  serious  i n t e n t b e y o n d t h e s p h e r e o f n o v e l s t h a t a r e s i m p l y meant t o entertain,  a) The  physical  type:  Although the N o r d i c p h y s i c a l Ompteda's h e r o e s , t h e r a n g e  type predominates  of h a i r  among h i s h e r o i n e s i s much g r e a t e r  colour  and  stature  than i n Frenssen's  Race i s n o t o f p r i m e c o n c e r n f o r O m p t e d a , s i n c e  the  of the Gotha  A l m a n a c h p r o v i d e ample d o c u m e n t a t i o n  aristocratic  p e d i g r e e : the n o v e l Eysen, which  development of a f a m i l y  through the n i n e t e e n t h  p r e c e d e d i n a l l e d i t i o n s by a f i c t i t i o u s Gotha for  Almanach showing  and  advocacy  chronicler  their  among  lineage,  o f an the  century, i s  Frenssen's  o f t h e a r i s t o c r a c y , amongst whom  pages  traces  page f r o m  of "Zuchtwahl" i s i r r e l e v a n t  novels.  the concern  f o r the  selective  b r e e d i n g h a s been p r a c t i s e d criteria  have been s o c i a l  biological.  f o r c e n t u r i e s , even  and f i n a n c i a l  rather  i f the than  The u n a d u l t e r a t e d b l o o d o f t h e D i t h m a r s c h e r ,  u h i c h i s such a s t a n d a r d f e a t u r e o f F r e n s s e n ' s u o r k s , uas n o t self-evident uhereas  to the reading  i t u a s common k n o u l e d g e  m a r r i e d as a r u l e unnecessary  among t h e i r  that the Prussian  officer,  aristocracy  oun k i n d , and i t u a s t h e r e f o r e  f o r Ompteda t o e m p h a s i z e  He does h o u e v e r the  p u b l i c i n o t h e r p a r t s o f Germany,  the p u r i t y  of the r a c e .  make u s e o f t h e s t a n d a r d p h y s i c a l i m a g e o f  t o the e x t e n t t h a t the m a j o r i t y o f h i s heroes  could, suitably  a t t i r e d , blend easily  Frenssen's farmers: they are t a l l , and s u n t a n n e d  from t h e i r  acceptance of t h i s  into  a group o f  uell-built,  outdoor l i f e .  fair  haired  The u n i v e r s a l  p h y s i c a l s t e r e o t y p e c a n be j u d g e d  from  U a s s e r m a n n , t o uhom t h e c o n c e p t o f N o r d i c s u p r e m a c y i s totally  foreign: h i s symbolically  typical  officer  A n d e r q a s t , Gore v o n G r o o t h u s e n , i s o f t h i s the  retired  uith  General S t a f f o f f i c e r  h i s h e i g h t and b r o n z e d  i n Etzel  t y p e , and I r l e n ,  i n t h e same n o v e l ,  features, like  looks,  " e i n hoher  8 Marineoffizier in  in Zivil."  H e i m a t des H e r z e n s , u h e r e  The s t e r e o t y p e i s most  apparent  K a r l von R u n d s t e t t e n , a b l o n d  g i a n t , stands out i n contrast to the family  and f r i e n d s o f  his  de  French u i f e .  To h i s F r e n c h h o s t , B a r o n  Prefailles,  uhom he o n c e s a v e d f r o m r o b b e r s i n C o n s t a n t i n o p l e , he 9 remarks: "Unsere ganze Rasse i s t g r f l s s e r und s t a r k e r . "  101 At t h e w e d d i n g o f von R u n d s t e t t e n  and S i m o n e de C o r v i e u x ,  t h e s o l i d , w e l l - b r e d German o f f i c e r s the  French  a r e much a d m i r e d  l a d i e s , one o f whom c o n t r a s t s  Frenchmen p r e s e n t w i t h t h e w o r d s :  by  them w i t h t h e  "Das s i n d  doch  wenigstens  10 MSnner."  The theme o f u n i m p a i r e d  when t h e y r e t u r n  racial  t o n o r t h e r n Germany:  "Diesen  der e i n s t a r k e s , von weichen L O f t e n n i c h t 11 Geschlecht  trug."  the i n d i s p e n s i b l e revitalization it  vitality  concept  o f t h e German p e o p l e  basis of a national desire  function  of setting  the stage  i s a central  f o r i t forms f o r the  and i t s i n s t i t u t i o n s .  i s a tiresome c l i c h e , but i t performs  didactic  Himmelstrich,  and Ompteda  of national r e b i r t h ,  of society  appears  erschlafftes  The e m p h a s i s i n F r e n s s e n  on t h e f u n d a m e n t a l feature of their  vigour  Artistically  the important  f o r the i n t r o d u c t i o n  of other v a l u e s . Ompteda was a f r a n c o p h i l e who s p e n t lating  Maupassant i n t o  by t h e F r e n c h vitriolic authors  ten years  G e r m a n , and whose s t y l e  was  transinfluenced  master to the e x t e n t t h a t the f r e q u e n t l y  Adolf Bartels  "die sich  c o n s i d e r e d him one o f t h e few German  auch m i t der Feder  w i e im S a l o n r o c k z u  bewegen v e r s t e h e n und Fremden w i e M a u p a s s a n t und  Kielland,  wenn a u c h n i c h t an T a l e n t , so d o c h w e n i g s t e n s an w e l t 12 mfinnischer S i c h e r h e i t gleichkommen." The c o n t r a s t o f von R u n d s t e t t e n , " e i n k e r n d e u t s c h e r E d e l m a n n m i t dem engen 13 H o r i z o n t e des p f l i c h t t r e u e n B e r u f s s o l d a t e n , " w i t h de  102 P r e f a i l l e s , uho i s a s y m p a t h e t i c c h a r a c t e r u i t h  enormous  charm and s a v o i r - f a i r e , h a s i t s r o o t s , one s u s p e c t s , i n defensiveness.  De P r e f a i l l e s  tells  von R u n d s t e t t e n  that  14 Germans a r e " s t e i f ,  e c k i g und p l u m p "  the o f f i c e r s ' l a d i e s  are s i m i l a r l y  accusations of crudeness sets  judged.  Against these  o f t a s t e von  a g a l a x y o f German v i r t u e s , f a m i l i a r  Frenssen's duty  and l a c k  and a t t h e u e d d i n g  from  Rundstetten's l i f e ,  i s a totally  foreign  I m p r e s s i o n s on t h e i r national differences.  preussischen Angestellte  last  trip  t o Simone:  V a t e r , den  Veruandten 15  civilian  Beamten  hatte."  confirm these  customs o f f i c i a l s  clothes:  im D i e n s t k l e i d e  i n bOrgerlicher  falls  t o France  The F r e n c h  are  " S t a t t der gehaltenen erschienen 16  Kleidung."  The  f a r s h o r t o f German s t a n d a r d s :  den v e r n a c h l S s s i g t e n , s c h m u t z i g e n  i n von  concept  und G u t s b e s i t z e r n i n d e r Umgebung n i e g e h f l r t  and u e a r  cleanliness,  D u t y , t h e most i m p o r t a n t c o n c e p t  " d i e s e i s e r n e U o r t , das s i e b e i i h r e m  station  t h e pages o f  novels: strength, vigour, orderliness,  and e f f i c i e n c y .  slovenly  Rundstetten  bummelige  railuay "Karl  verglich  Bahnhof, der U e l t s t a d t  n i c h t u d r d i g , m i t den hohen H a l l e n und d e r Ordnung i n 17 deutschen is  GrossstMdten."  added one t h a t  To t h e f a m i l i a r  German  Frenssen, the non-Prussian  civilian,  m e n t i o n s as d e s i r a b l e o n l y i n Adam B a r f o o d ' s military  discipline.  F o r Ompteda t h i s  a t t r i b u t e , a f a c t o f German l i f e  is a  virtues  last  speech:  positive  as a l o g i c a l  extension of  103 "Ordnung." the  Ompteda's o b v i o u s a p p r o v a l o f t h i s  German c h a r a c t e r  c o i n c i d e s here u i t h  aspect of  Frenssen's  vision  in  i t s most p r o g r a m m a t i c  m a n i f e s t a t i o n , but Frenssen's  of  t h e German p e o p l e i s t h e b r o a d e r o n e : Ompteda i s b l i n k e r e d  by h i s o u n e x p e r i e n c e and r e d u c e s n a t i o n a l to  an a l m o s t s i m p l e - m i n d e d  characteristics  stereotype.  Ompteda does n o t h e s i t a t e  t o show t h a t von R u n d s t e t t e n ,  though  a t h o r o u g h l y h o n o u r a b l e man, i s a v i c t i m  narrow  horizons  dancing g i r l  of h i s caste.  uhich  The s t a t u e t t e  of the  o f an  Simone g i v e s him f o r C h r i s t m a s  h i m : he f i n d s i t i n d e c e n t , s o m e t h i n g be s h o u n t o t h e o t h e r l a d i e s though  t h a t cannot  of the regiment.  Ompteda m a i n t a i n s h i s d i s t a n c e  comments and r e t a i n s  constitute  Arab embarrasses  possibly  But even  f r o m von R u n d s t e t t e n ' s  enough o b j e c t i v i t y  ubiquitous laus of Prussia  vieu  to discern  that the  "einpeinlich  uachendes  18 Gesetz," in  t h e i m a g e o f Germany t h a t r e m a i n s  harmony u i t h  influence  i s completely  that expressed i n Frenssen's n o v e l s .  o f Lagarde  and L a n g b e h n i s a p p a r e n t i n t h e  c o n c e p t o f Germany as t h e y o u n g , v i g o r o u s ,  disciplined  state i n contrast to the decaying c i v i l i z a t i o n In  The  the novel E x c e l s i o r ! , u r i t t e n  of France.  i n 1 9 0 9 , Ompteda  a b a n d o n s a r t i n f a v o u r o f p r o p a g a n d a o f t h e most t e d i o u s variety.  Ompteda's oun m i l i t a r y  from r u i n i n g  h i s young o f f i c e r s  e x p e r i e n c e p r e v e n t e d him uith  excessive  idealization,  b u t auay f r o m t h e b a r r a c k s q u a r e s u c h c o n s t r a i n t s v a n i s h and  104 19 amid  t h e " G r f l s s e und  E r h a b e n h e i t der N a t u r "  the  o f t h e h e r o must m a t c h t h a t o f t h e s c e n e r y . believer uith  stature  Only a  devout  c o u l d excuse the p r e t e n t i o u s v a c u i t y of the  the u o r d s :  "Es i s t e t u a s u i e T e n d e n z i n dem  a b e r e i n e im l e t z t e n  S i n n e g e s u n d e , d e r man 20  novel  Buch,  durchaus  s y m p a t i s c h g e g e n d b e r s t e h e n muss."  Adolf Bartning,  in  ready to f o r g i v e  Per K u n s t u a r t t  a magazine  usually  lapse i n t a s t e i f the sentiments uere a c c e p t a b l e , E r n s t Sturm, the h e r o , " n i c h t nur e i n e n S t e i g e r s o n d e r n auch i n j e d e r  andern  . . . dessen s c h l a c k e n l o s e 21 unertrSglich uird." descriptions  Beziehung einen  a  calls  ersten  Ranges,  Idealmenschen  Vollkommenheit sehr  bald  So p e r f e c t i s he i n d e e d t h a t  o f him r e a d l i k e  uriting  the  Gustav Meyrink's parody  of  3flrn U h l i n S i m p l i c i s s i m u s :  "des b l o n d e n , h o c h a u f g e s c h o s s e n e n 22 B u r s c h e n d e u t s c h e Augen" a r e " b l a u u i e G o t t e s r e i n e r H i m m e l . " 23  H i s t o r i a n s uho, l i k e seek t o e x p l a i n  B a r b a r a Tuchman i n The  Proud  t h e c o u r s e o f German h i s t o r y  i n the  c e n t u r y on t h e b a s i s o f a p a t h o l o g y o f t h e German u o u l d d e l i g h t i n E r n s t Sturm's t h e o n l y uoman u i t h  relationship  uhom he has any  little uith  telegrams after  the uords  complex.  mind,  c o n t a c t : the m a g n i f i c e n t  l a t e n t h o m o s e x u a l i t y , an a c c o m p a n y i n g Oedipus  tuentieth  to h i s mother,  p h y s i q u e a p p e a r s t o be i n h a b i t e d by a p e r s o n a l i t y  an u n r e s o l v e d  Touer,  terror  He s e n d s  o f uomen  h i s mother  t h e a s c e n t o f e a c h neu  "Gruss, Kuss, Tschuss."  flaued  by  and  touching  peak, ending  While i n the  army—  105 he  i s n e i t h e r an  a r i s t o c r a t nor  he  i s n e a r l y raped  by  commanding o f f i c e r  a professional  a b a r m a i d , but  saves him,  soldier—  the a r r i v a l  prompting  of h i s  Ompteda t o comment:  24 "Rein uar  seine  Seele."  Ompteda's h e r o i n e s in  c o n t r a s t to F r e n s s e n ,  premium on of  vary  the N o r d i c  the t r a d i t i o n a l  h o u e v e r , he  type.  racial  undertones of approbation Nordic  features.  For  greatly  He  i n physical p l a c e s no  a racial  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and  uhich of  a fair  first  complexion:  "gross, schlank  uhich  are  aristocratic  in his  insistence  most p r o g r a m m a t i c a l l y  uife  M a r i a has  und  philosophy  "Haar und  his  black hair  concept  and  eyes  but  SOdens m i t d e r 25 des b l o n d e n N o r d e n s v e r e i n t . " Seven y e a r s a f t e r F r i t z m a r r i e s h i s o l d f r i e n d H e r z e l o i d e , uho i s  Hautfarbe her death  The  there  I n HerzeloI'de (1905), t h e n o v e l i n  Ompteda e x p r e s s e s  love, Fritz'  conscious  i n the a d j e c t i v e s used to d e s c r i b e  a l l the u r b a n i t y of h i s  framework.  particular  i s nevertheless  m i l i e u , Ompteda i s a t r u e " H e i m a t d i c h t e r " on  appearance;  blond." of the  a c k n o u l e d g e d P a u l de  Augen des  26 "Uandervogel" L a g a r d e as one  youth  movement,  of i t s guiding  27 spirits, to  finds  Excelsior!  Uilhelminian of  p r e c i s e f o r m u l a t i o n i n Ompteda's  The youth  "mens s a n a i n c o r p o r e i s contrasted uith  the p r e v i o u s g e n e r a t i o n :  kSsig  foreuord  sano" s p i r i t  the u n h e a l t h y  " E i n s t sass  eine  of  conduct  bebrillte,  b l a s s e J u g e n d i n dumpfen K n e i p e n b e i S k a t d r e s c h e n  und  Tabaksqualm,"  The  neu  age  has  revived:  . . . u r a l t e d e u t s c h e F r e u d e an k f l r p e r l i c h e L e i s t u n g . Den U e i n g e i s t , F e i n d a l l e r L e i s t u n g , begann man i n den Bann zu t u n . Da e r u a c h t e a u c h d i e ' t e u t s c h e D u n g f r a u , * u a r d h i r n - und f u s s f r e i , Und der D d n g l i n g l e r n t e s i e b e i S p o r t und S p i e l a l s G e f S h r t i n k e n n e n , d a s s e r d i e h e i m l i c h e Venus d e r f i n s t e r e n G a s s e n vergass. 28 Even t h e  social  barriers  t h e m o u n t a i n s , as Beiuacht  das  As u i t h both  crumble i n the i d e a l i z e d  the sons of gentlemen " t e i l t e n  harte  F e l s e n l a g e r mit  Frenssen's  the  positive  and  national  rebirth.  On  are  falling,  and  become h e a l t h i e r there i s the  in  negative t h e one  hand t h e r e i s a p p r o v a l  of  of the n a t i o n i s t u r n i n g  pursuits, barriers  o f sex  and  class  there i s the prospect  that society  uill  and  On  hand  more h a r m o n i o u s .  the o t h e r  of the a d j e c t i v e  of a calamitous  self-glorification,  consciousness  that ultimately  divides  "deutsch"  and  " u n d e u t s c h " and  attributes  qualities  to i t s e l f .  Ompteda i s no  the u o r l d  a race-  into  demagogue; h i s  n a t i o n i s m o d e r a t e and  like  i t contains elements u i t h abuse.  "deutsch  a l l positive  of a r e v i t a l i z e d  to  Berge  o f t h e theme o f  the b e g i n n i n g  susceptibility  eisiger  armen Sohn d e r  aspects  a l m o s t o b s e s s i v e use  Frenssen's,  of  d i d a c t i c i s m , Ompteda h e r e r e v e a l s  uelcome d e v e l o p m e n t s : the youth auay f r o m u n h e a l t h y  dem  uorld  vision  inoffensive,  but,  a disastrous  107 b)  R e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e s e x e s :  In  h i s admiring  expresses social  picture  an o t h e r w i s e  o f t h e new y o u t h ,  rarely  heard  impatience  p r o p r i e t y t h a t w r a p p e d young l a d i e s  the c a l l f o r a l e s s  rigid  with the  i n a c o c o o n , and  adherence to c l a s s  echoed q u i t e f r e q u e n t l y i n h i s n o v e l s .  Ompteda  barriers i s  The e x c e s s i v e  "Rein-  29 h e i t der Gesinnung"  t h a t E r n s t Sturm d i s p l a y s  however t h e p r e s e n c e o f a s t r a i n Ompteda q u i t e a p a r t  from F r e n s s e n  demonstrates  of puritanism that sets i n h i s treatment  of love.  The c h a r a c t e r s i n H e r z e l o i d e a r e a l l e x e m p l a r y , and s o t h e n o v e l a f f o r d s a good o p p o r t u n i t y t o o b s e r v e ideas i n the sphere of personal r e l a t i o n s . is  Ompteda's  F r i t z , the hero,  twenty years  o l d at the b e g i n n i n g , " e i n junger Fant, der 30 eben e r s t d i e A c h s e l s t U c k e t r u g . " A f t e r the "Begeisterung, 31 Schwung und j u n g e L i e b e "  of h i s marriage  t o M a r i a , he be-  comes a c o n s c i e n t i o u s c o l o n e l , b u t Ompteda d e p i c t s F r i t z ' as a w i d o w e r as an e m o t i o n a l  limbo.  Ompteda t h r o u g h o u t h i s  w o r k s p l a c e s a h i g h v a l u e on m a r r i a g e , attempt to formulate ship.  Although  convention tion  than  of m a r i t a l  Fritz  and he makes a d e f i n i t e for a satisfying  he i s much more r e s p o n s i v e i s Frenssen, distress  t e n t and h a r m o n i o u s Fritz  the requirements  he c l e a r l y  as a p r i m a r y  life  partner-  t o t h e demands o f  regards  the a l l e v i a -  f e a t u r e o f a more  con-  society.  m e e t s H e r z e l o i d e — n o t h e r r e a l name b u t one w h i c h  gives her—soon  after  t h e n o v e l opens, b u t she  108 lacks  the beauty  the l i e u t e n a n t  and  and  coquettish  he moves o n .  n a t u r e , i n harmony u i t h manifestation on  Fritz  the u o r l d  Fritz  stage.  to  attract  H e r s i s a g e n t l e and a r o u n d h e r , and  o f h e r n a t u r e , h e r e y e s , make an  even a t t h i s  f u n e r a l , and  charm n e c e s s a r y  She  loving  the  outuard  impression  i s present at  Maria's  remembers h e r c o m f o r t i n g u o r d s :  "Sie  32 ist  heimgegangen."  Her  nature personifies  "den  stillen  33 Abendfrieden," and  the g e n t l e comfort  deeds o f y o u t h .  She  after  the  i s t h e mate o f a man  frantic  days  uho  seen  has  much and u o r k e d h a r d : Und d o c h s c h i e n es m i r , a l s u S r e d i e L i e b e , d i e m i c h m i t d i e s e m a l t e r n d e n MMdchen v e r b a n d , so e c h t , so t i e f , so g u t u i e j e n e aus des L e b e n s L e n z , u i e j e n e aus den j u n g e n S o m m e r t a g e n . Es u a r k e i n S t u r m , d e r m i c h O b e r r a n n , n i c h t e i n e R a s e r e i , d i e m i r das B l u t d u r c h d i e A d e r n t r i e b . Es u a r k e i n b r e n n e n d e s F e u e r , k e i n e l o d e r n d e Flamme. Es u a r e i n e s t i l l e , uSrmende G l u t , u i e u i r ans F e u e r uns s e t z e n an f r i s c h e n H e r b s t e s t a g e n , uenn d e r U a l d s i c h f S r b t , u e n n n a c h frOhem S o n n e n u n t e r g a n g es d u n k e l u i r d urn uns und u i r an d i e H e i m k e h r zu uarmen S t u b e n denken. 34 M a r i a and virtues  of  e x e m p l i f y the  traditional  o f t h e German u i f e , u h i c h a r e s p e l l e d  erable d e t a i l h e r cue  H e r z e l o i d e both  from  a uife  by  H e r z e l o i d e a t t h e end  t h e Book o f R u t h , she  as s u p p o r t  qualities d u r i n g her  of the n o v e l .  an a l l - e m b r a c i n g l o v e .  d e s c r i b e s the m i s s i o n  oun  u i s h e s t o her  In M a r i a ' s  a r e i n c r e a s e d by h e r b r a v e r y and last  Taking  i n a d v e r s i t y , c o m p a n i o n s h i p i n j o y , and  the c o n s t a n t s u b o r d i n a t i o n o f her p r o m p t e d by  out i n c o n s i d -  illness,  and  lack  case of  i n H e r z e l o i ' d e ' s by h e r  husband's, these complaint taking  109 upon h e r s e l f t h e Fritz  of her  dead s i s t e r ' s " t u o d a u g h t e r s .  i s a d e v o t e d h u s b a n d , uhose c o n s i d e r a t i o n  s u c h t h a t he  illness. an  sufficient  to care  to him.  The  The  can  possible  situation  Philister  during  a major  professions  and  the  "das  Nikolaus  sacrifice  described  u o r l d around  Ober d i r l ( l 8 9 9 ) i s s u b t i t l e d and  be  uith  uith  KUnstlers"  her  uould  one  degree of  marriage.  is  be  b a s i s of both m a r r i a g e s i s harmony, both uife  ideal  f o r her  u o u l d be  since a l l other  b e t u e e n h u s b a n d and  eines  leave  I n Ompteda's u o r l d t h i s  a c t i v e man,  closed  for Maria  i s p r e p a r e d t o r e s i g n h i s c o m m i s s i o n i f he  cannot o b t a i n  for  raising  as  them.  the  least  friction.  illustrates  the  pitfalls  Leiden  o f an  artist's  Sandtner i s a s u c c e s s f u l a r t i s t  in  Berlin,  35 "ein the  spSt e n t u i c k e l t e r , schuerer KUnstler," daughter of a g e n e r a l .  considerable fShig,"  As  a retired  despite  the  misgivings  occupation.  for  V e r a ' s hand t h a t she  t h a t she  G e n e r a l von  O e v e l h o r s t u a r n s him  i s a " L u s t i k u s " uho  must l o v e him  life,  sufficiently  uill  but  a  "salonabout  uhen he not  asks  easily  Sandtner  to f o r s a k e  the  uhirl.  After total  uith  of h i s u i f e ' s f a m i l y  adapt to S a n d t n e r ' s q u i e t , u i t h d r a u n  social  officer  marries  income from h i s p a i n t i n g , Sandtner i s  his  feels  uho  one  year the  d i s a s t e r , and  General's permission  m a r r i a g e has  Sandtner  proved i t s e l f  a s k s f o r , and  for a divorce.  t o be  receives,  Although divorce  the uas  a  110 not  regarded l i g h t l y  can  see  no  p r o s p e c t of improvement i n the  consent places uho  i n U i l h e l m i n i a n Germany, the  him  are  express  the  of s o c i e t y ' s i n s t i t u t i o n s .  c l a s s , and  major i s s u e s are  they are  houever not  uith  in their  O e v e l h o r s t a d m i t s t h a t he opinion sollte  on den  representatives  has  no  on  them Von  s y m p a t h y f o r a r t , and "Eine  Uunsch i h r e s G a t t e n e r f O l l e n — d e n  on  They  minor i s s u e s .  a woman's r o l e i n m a r r i a g e :  the  stands  Ompteda endous most o f  vieus  the  of  Ompteda's m o u t h p i e c e s .  i d e a l i z e d , and  extremely conservative  characters  These f i g u r e s  moderate, unprejudiced  clearly  his  i m p o r t a n t message f o r  a l l s u c c e s s f u l , highly respected  ruling  m a r r i a g e , and  among a g r o u p o f i m p o r t a n t o l d e r  i n several novels  revitalization  General  his  vernOnftige Uunsch  Frau  ganz  37 allein,"  i s f a r more r e a c t i o n a r y  c e p t o f c o m p a n i o n s h i p and  Ompteda's oun  mutual accomodation,  Uerck i n Per  zueite Schuss, despite  prejudice  e x t r e m e t h a t he  so  than  the  c e n t r a l i s s u e i n the  commanding o f f i c e r necessity in  uhich  novel's  ( P i e SOnde) g i v e s  f o r a m a r r i a g e t o be one  must l i v e ,  import,  H a r f f the  n o v e l , the  extent  and  uhich  Professor  Ompteda's  duel.  him  Von  P i e t h o f f , uho  s u i c i d e , expresses uhat i s c l e a r l y  vieus  Harff's  the  formulation  of h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  his  a l e c t u r e on  i n harmony u i t h i s the  von  aristocratic  Lflhne f r o m  house f o r m a r r y i n g h i s h o u s e k e e p e r , v o i c e s on  Major  a degree of  b a n i s h e s von  con-  of  the  society the  delineates  for his  Ompteda's oun  for  mistress' summation  111 of  the problem,  since  acceptance  H a r f f peace o f m i n d . Eysen  i s likeuise  of Diethoff's  The e s s e n c e  advice  brings  o f Ompteda's m e s s a g e i n  p l a c e d i n t h e mouth o f G e n e r a l  Rudolf  von  E y s e n , t h e most s u c c e s s f u l member o f h i s g e n e r a t i o n o f  the  family. There are v e r y f e u "gentlemen  a r i s t o c r a t s : most a r e e i t h e r army o r t h e c i v i l  of leisure"  e m p l o y e d by t h e s t a t e  s e r v i c e , or e l s e  consequently i n the majority  u i v e s must c o n f o r m .  directly his  obligated  conditions of l i f e des in  Herzens  o f cases  the characters  a provincial  a d u t y and t h e r e b y  i m p o s e d by h i s c a r e e r . to the l i f e  the u n f a m i l i a r  hou  highly  support  aspects of daily  he v a l u e s s u c h  to the  Simone i n Heimat  o f an o f f i c e r ' s  g a r r i s o n , to the foreign  all  i n the  o f u h i c h t h e y and  i s t h e p a r t n e r uho must a d a p t  has t o adapt  i n the  S i n c e t h e h u s b a n d i s t h e one  to perform  f a m i l y , the u i f e  Ompteda's  t h e y a r e f a r m e r s , and  n o v e l s do h a v e d u t i e s , t o t h e demands their  among  uife  c o d e o f d u t y and  living.  Ompteda  shous  a d a p t a b i l i t y , and t h e s e l f l e s s  l o v e t h a t p r o m p t s i t , by t h e u a y i n u h i c h t h e l a d i e s o f the  regiment, i n i t i a l l y  beautiful to  love  French g i r l ,  the unlovely  hostile  a r e uon o v e r by h e r g e n u i n e  t o u n and t h e s p a r t a n l i f e ,  from t h e l u s h n e s s o f s o u t h e r n In hou  t o , and j e a l o u s o f , t h e  are h i s attempts  different  France.  h i s treatment of the r o l e  limited  so  attempt  o f uomen, Ompteda  to break  reveals  out of the c o n v e n t i o n a l  stereotypes.  He  may  proclaim i n theory  t h a t the  "teutsche  Dungfrau" of the U i l h e l m i n i a n e r a i s f r e e to c l i m b and  mingle u i t h  h e r m a l e p e e r s i n an u n f e t t e r e d  b u t i n f a c t E r n s t S t u r m has  no  liberated  uith  dark  young l a d i e s  Ompteda's h e r o i n e s  activities  more c o n t a c t u i t h the  these  d u b i o u s Venus o f  are r e s t r i c t e d  to the domestic sphere,  considered  uoman. in  atmosphere,  this  t o be  in  i t must be  the a p p r o p r i a t e r o l e  This a t t i t u d e i s a r e f l e x i o n  of the  their  inferred  that  f o r the  German  class differences  U i l h e l m i a n Germany: F r e n s s e n ' s c o u n t r y u o m e n u o r k  side  their  menfolk, uhereas t h i s  type  of a c t i v i t y  unheard of i n a r i s t o c r a t i c  circles.  t h a t of the younger Fabian  i n E y s e n , does a young  take has  the k i n d of u i f e — n o n - n o b l e , t h e c a p a c i t y and  Fabian  f o r he  must r e - e a r n hard  uork.  flung  soil  O n l y i n one  s t r o n g , and  the u i l l i n g n e s s  i s the l a s t  a position As  s u c h he  doun f i f t y  Haben:  years  son  t o u o r k on  nobleman  the  of n a t i o n a l  by  auf  challenge  Gustav Freytag i n  den  im G e n u s s e  G r u n d des  uho  pure  i s Ompteda's answer t o t h e  heruntersinken  farm.  of a bankrupt f a m i l y  ". . . d i e F a m i l i e , uelche  uieder  i s almost instance,  o f r e s p e c t i n s o c i e t y by  before  along-  healthy—uho  i s a p r i m e e x a m p l e o f Ompteda's v i s i o n  rebirth,  und  the  alleys. Since  he  than  mountains  Soil erschlafft,  Volkslebens, 38  urn f r i s c h clearly  a u f s t e i g e n d e r K r a f t Raum zu machen."  uishes  t o remove t h e b a r r i e r s  preventing  Ompteda full  113 participation  by  women i n t h e  h e r e as i n o t h e r h a m s t r u n g by  Philister  a m a r r i a g e as  for existing  has  strong  e x c e p t t h a t von  be  with  t h a t , on  and  the  to  understand  husband's l a c k  f o r the breakdown. Fontane's E f f i  The  Briest,  capacity for soul-searching  i s simply  their  f l e e c e d by  an  extension  "Herr Baron." uho  driver  that  frivolous  without  son  have the  complaint  j u s t b e c a u s e he i s  Benigna i s the i n d u l g e d g i v e s i n to her  same " P u p p e n g e s i c h t , "  good l o o k s u h i c h mask s h a l l o u n e s s  child  p l e a s to marry  D o b r i t z , d e s p i t e h i s r e s e r v a t i o n s about the e n t i r e and  family.  superficial  of c h a r a c t e r .  As  in  Frenssen's n o v e l s , h e r e d i t y i s of prime importance i n shaping racial  h e r i t a g e to the  Of their  of c h a r a c t e r , although  the  forty  married  Ompteda does n o t  the  stress  the  same d e g r e e .  chapters  life,  the  character.  of the  h o n e y m o o n , a l l o w s him  a V i e n n e s e cab  of a former d i p l o m a t ,  Father  is  d e s t r u c t i o n of  I n s t e t t e n from becoming a n e g a t i v e  a d d r e s s e d as  he  D o b r i t z , i n c o n t r a s t to I n s t e t t e n , l a c k s  Dobritz' ambition vanity  the reason  parallels  mature s e r i o u s n e s s prevents  but  conventions.  Ober d i r ! shows t h e  husband's needs, Beniqna e x p l o r e s  novel  nation,  a r e s u l t of the w i f e ' s i n a b i l i t y  o f c o n s i d e r a t i o n as  to  of the  of h i s concept of r e b i r t h  his respect  3 u s t as  her  aspects  life  i n the  novel, tuenty  u h i c h i s an i n d i c a t i o n  Ompteda's i n t e n t t o p a i n t a r e a l i s t i c  deal  of the  uith  honesty  p i c t u r e of h i s  oun  of  segment o f ladies,  s o c i e t y beyond the  dashing o f f i c e r s  incidents  i n uhich  and  r o m a n t i c cliche's of eternal  love.  f o u n d a t i o n s of  their  a t t e m p t on  Ompteda's p a r t  to i l l u s t r a t e  mutual c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r him,  as  f o r F r e n s s e n , an  i n the  same  in  uhich  of the  uith  echoes of are  importance  A sound  of  marriage  essential ingredient  r e l a t i o n s betueen the  von  Effi Briest uith  years e a r l i e r ,  the  an  in a  different  light.  Benigna's a f f a i r than t h a t  vieus  gradually  marriage represent  in a relationship.  h a r m o n i o u s s o c i e t y : he classes  many  Dobritz' insufferable vanity  erodes the  is  The  fair  Thumen i s e v e n more Crampas: d u r i n g  Fontane's n o v e l ,  perfunctory  a sleigh  uritten  ride,  sixteen  u n m i s t a k e a b l e , B e n i g n a a s k s von  Thumen 39  t o be  her  f r i e n d , "dass i c h n i c h t ganz a l l e i n  There i s not the  Dresden.  aspect of l i f e , of  Benigna's p a r t .  more t h a n a k i s s i n a  Neither the  uhich  here nor  The carriage,  Thumen  anyuhere e l s e i n h i s  s e n s u a l i t y of h i s heroines.  i s such a c e n t r a l f e a t u r e  of  to novels This  Frenssen's  a r e b o r n n a t i o n , i s a b s e n t f r o m Ompteda's b e c a u s e  conflicts  class. The  on  loneliness i s  uhen D o b r i t z ' m o t h e r a s k s von  does Ompteda e x p l o r e  vision  affair  i t s e l f amounts t o no  ends a b r u p t l y  leave  it  i n t i m a t i o n of p a s s i o n :  s o l e motive f o r the  affair and  even the  bin."  end  too  sharply  of the  uith  the  accepted standards of  novel i s s i m i l a r l y  influenced  by  his  social  115 convention.  Benigna's  marriage,  uith  divorce.  Benigna i s to l i v e  and  uhich  f a t h e r t e l l s her  D o b r i t z are  symbolic  touch  he  to l i v e  has  o f h i s oun  come t o t e r m s , and uith  their  her  oun  t h a t the s l a t e  parents  lives.  unhappy  rules and  both  Despite  t a b l e t , on  uhich  out she  the  Benigna  had  40 uritten uiped  i n Arabic s c r i p t  c l e a n by  the maid at the end,  a poetic ending.  She  f r o m t h e u o r l d by  going  Since  yet  energies uhich  tuenty  back to her as  uithin  proprieties  her  oun  the o n l y  possible acceptable  m a r r i a g e i n the  a large extent  by  the n a t u r e  outlet  domestic to  for  her  life,  incarceration,  c o u r s e once a  girl  mothers.  no means a p u r e l y  novels  nor  i s frequently  female  motivated  p e c u l i a r to the  o n l y i n i t s advocacy of the  that  i n i t s championship of  e l e m e n t s i n t h e s t a t e , s u c h as  the  f a m i l y , and  removal o  to personal  happine:  a  "Heimatroman"  of the n a t i o n a l r e b i r t h  g e n r e demanded: c o n s e r v a t i v e  economic b a r r i e r s  permanent,  a d e s i r e t o f o u n d a home. U h i l e as  t h i s i s n e i t h e r neu  illustrates  and  house.  i t i s hardly  no  amounts i n B e n i g n a ' s c a s e v i r t u a l l y  d r i v e , and  it  be  her  Again,  j o i n e d t h e r a n k s o f German u i v e s  motif  girl,  have  uithdraus  parents' country  offer  circle.  is  does n o t  uhen she  a lively  D o m e s t i c i t y , h o u e v e r , i s by  to  the n o v e l  that such r e n u n c i a t i o n u i l l  the s o c i a l  a p p e a r s as has  i s only  Ompteda d e p i c t s h e r  conceivable and  " I c h habe i h n so l i e b , "  the  traditional  revolutionary  -tificial  social  Ompteda does  and  not  116 stress  the b e n e f i t s o f such marriages t o the s t a t e to t h e  same d e g r e e as F r e n s s e n , b u t t h e n a t u r e involved  i s such t h a t the t r a n s m i s s i o n  to the next generation  can o n l y  of the characters of their  qualities  be c o n s t r u c t i v e .  Among  many o f t h e most p o s i t i v e  c h a r a c t e r s , S y l v e s t e r von G e y e r ,  CScilie  (Herzeloide)  desire uith von  von S a r r y n , f o r hearth  Fritz  and home p r e c e d e s t h e i n i t i a l  the f u t u r e mate,  years  occurs  only  this  encounter  S y l v e s t e r von Geyer's l o v e  E l d e n f l e t h does l i t t l e  death, uhich  and S a n d t n e r ,  f o r Line  more t h a n add p o i g n a n c y t o h i s  days a f t e r  he h a s e n d u r e d t h e p o v e r t y  h i s engagement.  For  and l o n e l i n e s s o f b e i n g  a  l i e u t e n a n t i n an o b s c u r e p r o v i n c i a l i n f a n t r y  regiment,  d r e a m i n g o f a home o f h i s o u n , b u t f i n a n c i a l  considerations  make t h i s and  virtually  impossible.  quickly proposes, despite  He f a l l s  the prospect  i n love uith  Line  of several  years  1  uait. Engagement i n t h e n o v e l s  rarely  follous  an e x t e n d e d  c o u r t s h i p , and S a n d t n e r i s an e x a m p l e o f hou t h e s o c i a l proprieties precluded  of the uorld before  t h e G r e a t Uar v i r t u a l l y  t h a t young l o v e r s u o u l d  g e t t o knou each o t h e r  a level  deeper than t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n  drauing  room, q u i t e a p a r t  of the ballroom  f r o m any p h y s i c a l c o n t a c t .  on  or the Sexual  r e l a t i o n s h i p s , i n sharp c o n t r a s t to the m u c h - c r i t i c i z e d freedom o f F r e n s s e n ' s f a r m e r s ,  are r e s t r i c t e d  those a f f a i r s  beyond t h e s o c i a l  uhich  take  place  e n t i r e l y to frameuork ,  117 s u c h as b e t u e e n H a r f f and Dagmar i n D i e S t l n d e . instance girls  the Colonel  tells  In t h i s  H a r f f t h a t t h e main r e a s o n  that  f r o m a n o t h e r c l a s s make u n s u i t a b l e mates i s t h e i r  of proper s u p e r v i s i o n , uhich  lack  a f f o r d s them t h e o p p o r t u n i t y ,  denied to the daughters of the a r i s t o c r a c y , of being l e d astray. A l t h o u g h Ompteda s p e a k s o f t h e d e s i r a b i l i t y companionship betueen he  fails  equally  the sexes i n the foreuord  to drau the c o n c l u s i o n n a t u r a l and i n e v i t a b l e  of a r t i f i c i a l b a r r i e r s . frustrations  that sexual concomitant  of natural to E x c e l s i o r I  contact  i s the  of the removal  The a b s e n c e o f any m e n t i o n o f t h e  s u f f e r e d by young p e o p l e as a r e s u l t o f t h i s  code i n d i c a t e s t h a t Ompteda r e g a r d e d t h i s m o r a l i t y as a evident he  and i m m u t a b l e f a c e t o f u p p e r - c l a s s  life,  self-  and t h a t  t h e r e f o r e r e g a r d e d c h a n g e h e r e as b o t h u n t h i n k a b l e  and  unnecessary. On t h e s u b j e c t advocate a l i m i t e d dir!  degree o f freedom.  divorce i s permitted  sult,  Sandtner  In P h i l i s t e r  the g u i l t y  Ober  b e c a u s e no one i s i n j u r e d as a r e -  agrees to the General's request  declare himself is  o f d i v o r c e , h o u e v e r , he i s p r e p a r e d t o  t h a t he  p a r t y , s i n c e the i n e v i t a b l e  o f no c o n s e q u e n c e t o h i m , " u H h r e n d , uenn d i e F r a u  bekame, l e i c h t  e i n H a k e l a u f ihrem Ruf s i t z e n  bleiben  gossip Schuld kHnnte,  41 den is  s i e n i c h t v e r d i e n t habe." just  as g r e a t  The d e g r e e o f i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y  b e t u e e n D o b r i t z and B e n i g n a , and y e t d i v o r c e  118 is  out  of the  question.  in  t h a t n o v e l , uhere Benigna's  c i a t i o n , i s not p a r t betueen Professor  t o be  1899  and  unloved partner, to the  sibility  renun-  found i n a change o f h e a r t  on  Ompteda's  1910,  f o r the  c h i l d r e n , as i s t h e be  unexplained of  father talks  but  end  i s no  other.  r e a s o n , though  only  D i e t h o f f at the  to H a r f f t h a t there  insult  The  rather i s suggested  of Die  SOnde.  He  explains  morality i n staying uith t o r m e n t o f one  O n l y uhen t h e  u o u l d be  u n i o n has  "das  darf die  an  a  constant  produced  c a s e i n B e n i q n a , must t h e  borne t o g e t h e r :  by  joint  respon-  menschliche  42 Gesellschaft verlangen." appearance r a t h e r separated,  of the  destroys  even the  uhere there  Dobritz  child.  The  s e r v e d by  not  u h a t uas  on  acceptable  sex  and  by  c l a s s , he  fabric  separation  One  divorce  child-  must uere  class  placed  f a t e uas  the  of s o c i e t y ahead o f i n d i v i d u a l  so  at  i t unnecessary to advocate a  Although Benigna's  up-  impossible  t o h i s oun  degree of freedom. t h o u s a n d s o f her  is  staying together.  d e t e r m i n e d by  felt  of  i n the  u s e f u l p u r p o s e , s u c h as  Ompteda's v i e u s  the  sharing  permissibility  conclude that  t h a t t i m e t h a t he  are  argument t h a t d i v o r c e  is a socially  r e a r i n g , t o be  of  t h a n c o n v i c t i o n i s o b v i o u s i n t h a t , uhen  B e n i g n a and  bringing  That t h i s i s a m o r a l i t y  greater  shared  preservation happiness.  of  119 Man  and  Society  a) M o r a l i t y and  The  Honour:  i n c i d e n t i n Per  Uerck argues v i o l e n t l y  z u e i t e Schuss i n uhich  uith  H e r r von  m a r r i a g e t o h i s h o u s e k e e p e r , has entitled the uings  "Pas and  story  takes  against  the  n a r r a t o r m e e t s an  has  just received  nou to  he  uith  marry h e r .  his discharge.  narrator  m a r r y , or e l s e the of h i s l i f e , her  end  as  and  uird  sents the  alles  the 44  uill  von  immer von  y e a r s he  only  has  Lang n e e d s ruin  the  but 43  to  rest  sacrificed  been  per-  narrator:  presumably  "Aber  repre-  i m p l i c a t i o n that the  uords:  selbst fUhlt.  Das  "Es Moral-  selbst."^  Ompteda's c o n c e p t o f m o r a l i t y i s t h e r e f o r e subjective: i t exists  uho  Ansichten"  Lang has  to t h i s  unclean u i t h sich  Lang,  everything.  n a r r a t o r , uho  u i e man  from  morality.  uoman has  uoman r e m a r k s t o t h e  uas  story  of h i s youth,  t h a t von  losing  vieu, replies  darauf an, sich  risks  The  unsanctioned l i a s o n  ische versteht  love  f a c t t h a t the  story, after  rein."  Ompteda's oun  kommt nur  fifteen  von  "gegen s e i n e  realizes  the  nou  of the  suaded to marry h e r , nun  prevailing  boredom o f r e t i r e m e n t  as u e l l  youth to him, At t h e  For  t h a t i t u o u l d be  The  latter's  Ompteda e m e r g e s  o l d army f r i e n d , C a p t a i n  h i s housekeeper, the  considers  von  a p a r a l l e l i n a short  In t h i s  The  been l i v i n g  LOhne a b o u t t h e  Moralische." a stand  Major  i n the  entirely  c o n s c i e n c e o f the  individual.  120 It i s a situational  ethic, since  good o r b a d , d e p e n d i n g the i n d i v i d u a l ' s is  c a n be  on i t s c o n s e q u e n c e s , u h i c h  attitude  t o remove m o r a l i t y  any a c t i o n  to the a c t i o n .  e x c l u d e d even  uas a f i t  uife  f o r an o f f i c e r ,  t h o s e uomen f o r t h e l o s s  e f f e c t on t h e r e v i t a l i z a t i o n  o f uhose  uhich  virginity  have a bene-  of the a r i s t o c r a c y , but  Ompteda n e v e r g o e s s o f a r as t o i s s u e to the p r e v a i l i n g  criteria.  p r e j u d i c e s , s u c h as t h e one  he u a s p e r s o n a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e , u o u l d c l e a r l y ficial  purpose  from t h e i m p e r s o n a l s p h e r e o f taboo  removal o f the c a s t - i r o n  that only a v i r g i n  determine ,  Ompteda's  and c o n v e n t i o n and make i t d e p e n d e n t on human The  termed  an o u t r i g h t  challenge  c o d e , as F r e n s s e n does i n h i s f r o n t a l  a t t a c k on C h r i s t i a n i t y  and s e x u a l r e s t r a i n t s  in Hilligenlei.  I n o r d e r t o h a v e any hope o f r e a c h i n g h i s a u d i e n c e , composed in  large  p a r t o f t h o s e f o r uhom t h e code uas a u a y o f l i f e ,  Ompteda's a t t e m p t s a t r e f o r m i n g  t h e e t h i c o f h i s c l a s s had  to t a k e t h e form o f subdued exposure *  n  u e r  zueite  Schuss  of i n j u s t i c e .  Ompteda a p p r o a c h e s  t h e d u e l i n t h e same m a n n e r .  the subject o f  The d u e l b e t u e e n  C h r i s t o p h von  U e r c k , t h e M a j o r ' s s o n , and T r a u g o t t v o n B r e i t s a m t e r forms the p l o t o f t h e n o v e l , f a i l s Traugott's  first  s h o t m i s s e s and C h r i s t o p h  dies of a heart attack. is  his real  the b e n e f i t s  to s a t i s f y  uhich  honour, f o r  c o l l a p s e s and  A l t h o u g h he i s u n a w a r e t h a t T r a u g o t t  father, Christoph t o be d e r i v e d  Renatus  i s a prime example o f  from t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n  o f neu  121 blood the  into  B r e i t s a m t e r s and  Despite ity  the o l d f a m i l i e s .  as  the  He  possesses  traditional  ROckenmark i n P r e u s s e n , " ^  t h e message o f t h i s  novel  adherence to the outdated destroys  his promising  uhere s u i c i d e The  seems t h e  regards  aristocratic by  p l a c i n g him  Breitsamter  nobility  i s only  o l d , over  Traugott  by  trates  the e x t e n t  values  of the o l d .  c o l o n e l , accepts  to uhich  t h e neu  Traugott's  the  old  nobil-  the  in a  for  exaggerated that  position  solution.  h e a t e d d e b a t e among t h e  C h r i s t o p h Renatus a t the  values.  code o f h o n o u r  only honourable  tuo g e n e r a t i o n s  of  i t i s important  that i t i s precisely  career  ability  aristocratic  t h a t f a c t t h a t Ompteda c l e a r l y "das  the  f a m i l y , uhose  the  insult  "Polterabend"  aristocracy  to  illus-  absorbed  the  brother-in-lau, a lieutenant-  the system i n i t s e n t i r e t y :  U i r haben u e d e r d i e M a c h t , n o c h den B e r u f , an u n s e r e n g e s e l l s c h a f t l i c h e n Z u s t M n d e n e t u a s zu M n d e r n . Uenn du i n e i n e r K a s t e b i s t und b l e i b e n u i l l s t , m u s s t du d i c h dem f i l g e n , u i e d i e K a s t e d e n k t . U o l l t e n u i r das S y s t e m e i n f U h r e n des r u h i g e n E i n s t e c k e n s , dann u U r d e n u i r a u f h S r e n zu s e i n , uas u i r s i n d . 47 Despite belong  the  aggressive  third  sentence  to the c a s t e , the second sentence b e t r a y s  acquired p o s i t i o n . t o o neu  c l a i m of the  and  The  position  too i n s e c u r e — b e c a u s e  of the  family's beginnings—to  any  of the code.  revision  robs  them o f any  the  speech i s the  The  very  power t o c h a n g e t h e  newly-  Breitsamters i s  t h e r e are s t i l l  remember t h e  the  permit  people  them t o  newness o f t h e i r c o d e , and  parvenu's s e l f - s a t i s f a c t i o n  still uho  advocate title  implicit at h i s  to  neu  in  122 status.  Traugott refuses  simply because fire  on h i s s o n , h a v e p r e c e d e n c e  possesses despite  the r e l a t i v e  degree  attitude  Ompteda's a p p r o a c h aristocracy.  i n Eysen,  o f the born  aristocrat,  newness o f t h e f a m i l y u e a l t h , i s i n the caste  to act  o f f r e e d o m , and does n o t f e e l  o f M a j o r von U e r c k i l l u s t r a t e s  con-  A s p e c t s o f t h e code a r e c l e a r l y  destroy h i s c r e d i b i l i t y .  justifies  uithin  his refusal  duel: Christoph  Man U e r c k  Renatus, a f t e r  i n need o f  and t h e r e b y  b e g i n s by p l a c i n g  the a r i s t o c r a t i c to f i r e  of the  attack uould serve  t o b r a n d t h e a u t h o r as a d e c l a s s e ' l i b e r a l  firmly  again  to h i s g o a l , the r e v i t a l i z a t i o n  m o d i f i c a t i o n , but here too a f r o n t a l  himself  cannot  t o obey t h e code a t any p r i c e .  The  only  Gideon  and s a v o i r - f a i r e  secure i n h i s p o s i t i o n  a greater  strained  Renatus  o v e r any c l a i m s t h a t t h e  T r a u g o t t , uho, l i k e  the p o l i s h  sufficiently  Christoph  t h e demands o f h u m a n i t y , t h a t a man  code may make,  uith  to challenge  tradition  uhen he  on T r a u g o t t i n t h e f i n a l hearing  from Eva t h a t  T r a u g o t t i s h i s f a t h e r , a c c e p t s t h e s e c o n d s e n t by him i n a gesture of r e c o n c i l i a t i o n  and t h e n s h o o t s h i m s e l f .  t h e n t h e M a j o r moves b e y o n d t h e code t o a p o s i t i o n  But  that  r e c o g n i s e s t h e g e n e r a l demands o f h u m a n i t y : I c h m u s s t e das R e c h t h a b e n , das d e u t s c h e R e c h t , das M a n n e s r e c h t , dem S c h u f t g e g e n d J b e r z u s t e h e n ! Aber a l s i c h d a s t a n d . . . . M e i n H e r r und G o t t , i c h danke d i r , d a s s du m i r d i e K r a f t g e g e b e n h a s t und k e i n e S c h u l d Ober m i c h kommen l i e s s e s t . Amen, 48  123 The n o v e l e x p o s e s of  as d o u b l y f a l s e  t h e d u e l as an i n s t i t u t i o n a d v a n c e d  the j u s t i f i c a t i o n i n the Uerck  hold at the beginning: that i t ensures privacy the it  public spectacle of a c i v i l provides s a t i s f a c t i o n  so a h n d e t , d a s s von e i n e r  suit  preventing  f o r i n s u l t , and t h a t  i n matters uhere uirklichen  by  house-  "das G e s e t z  SUhne d i e Rede  nicht  sein  49 kflnnte." not t o l d Berlin  Uhen t h e n o v e l o p e n s E v a , uho i s p r e g n a n t , i s o f t h e d u e l , but reads about i t i n a l i b e r a l  neuspaper.  The p r i v a t e  nature of the duel i s  t h e r e b y n e g a t e d even b e f o r e i t i s advanced  as a j u s t i f i c a t i o n .  The i d e a t h a t t h e d e a t h o f one o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s amounts to  an a p p r o p r i a t e p r o p i t i a t i o n  s h o u n as b e i n g  equally untrue.  moral g u i l t t h a t overshadous In  f o r an i n s u l t The v i c t o r  received i s  acquires a  the " s a t i s f a c t i o n "  obtained.  E y s e n t h e d u e l b e t u e e n t h e c h a m b e r l a i n F a b i a n and h i s  enemy a t c o u r t , Z u c k e r o d e , h a s a t r a g i - c o m i c The l i t t l e  princely  Fabian's p o i n t l e s s family.  court i s a comic-opera background to d e a t h and t h e r e s u l t a n t p l i g h t  Ompteda's p r e s e n t a t i o n  ineffective  of h i s  o f t h e d u e l as b o t h  and m o r a l l y u r o n g u o u l d be more p e r s u a s i v e t o  an a r i s t o c r a t i c intellectual  a i r about i t .  audience since  grounds  i t does n o t a t t a c k  as an a t a v i s t i c  i t on  remnant o f t h e m i d d l e  ages, u h i c h u o u l d cause such r e a d e r s merely t o v a l u e i t more h i g h l y  as an e l e m e n t  p r a g m a t i c and m o r a l  o f a p r o u d t r a d i t i o n , b u t on  grounds.  124 b)  Religion:  M a j o r von uell in  as  U e r c k ' s o u t c r y , " M e i n H e r r und  the u h o l e q u e s t i o n  revenge, r a i s e s  religion. revival  One  the  code o f t h e tocratic  c a s t e , but  v a l u e s , he  privilege;  not  I m p l i c i t l y , the  very  even the  Gnaden," h o u e v e r , f i n d s  uould  an  principle  a nobility  negates the  God  i n v o l v e d i n the  aristocratic generation  privileges,  and  i s for greater  only  the  effort  a  considerable for  the  of. "von  uon  by  call  novels.  the  i d e a t h a t the  efforts  Grace  establishment to the  r a t h e r than  aris-  Gottes  e x p l i c i t defence i n the  e m p h a s i s on  significantly  attach  of  to  j u s t i f i c a t i o n of  of former g e n e r a t i o n s uas  context  f o u n d a t i o n , not  f o r the  life  o f Ompteda's a t t i t u d e  might expect t h a t , i n the  importance to a r e l i g i o u s  as  of the m o r a l i t y of t a k i n g  question  of a r i s t o c r a t i c  Gott,"  of  of  present increased  piety. Throughout the observation arm  of the  t h a t the  are  mention r e l i g i o n and  one  i s reminded of the  Church of England i s the  Conservative  t h e ones uho  throne  novels  P a r t y , f o r the  den  important  characters,  f o r Ompteda's m e s s a g e ,  only u i t h i n  context  altar.  KHnig."  spiritual  the mouthpieces  The  the  50  of the  cliches  o l d m i n i s t e r i n Eysen g i v e s  e x h o r t a t i o n o f "Habet d i e Brtider ehret  English  The  the  l i e b , filrchtet Gott,  b i b l i c a l formula  empties  the  of  125 a d m o n i t i o n o f any it  f o r c e by t h e a r c h a i c l a n g u a g e t h a t r e n d e r s  remote from a t w e n t i e t h M a j o r von U e r c k  religion  century  application.  f u r t h e r reduces the importance of  by h i s comment t o C h r i s t o p h  a d e l i g e S c h u e i n i g e l und  bOrgerliche  Renatus:  "Es  Schufte!  Am  gibt  Ende kommt  es n u r d a r a u f a n , d a s s e i n e r e i n a n s t M n d i g e r M e n s c h i s t und 51 den r e c h t e n  Glauben  synonymous u i t h  hat!"  "Gesinnung:" i t represents  of v a l u e s , u i t h o u t uhich Mensch."  "Glauben" here i s c l e a r l y  one  c a n n o t be  Membership i n the P r o t e s t a n t  the proper s e t  " e i n anstMndiger C h u r c h i s as much  a p a r t o f t h e h e r i t a g e o f Ompteda's J u n k e r s as t h e in  their  names, b u t t h e  to the l i v e s  o f even  Uerck's r e f u s a l religious  exercise  the exemplary  to f i r e  of r e l i g i o n  i s peripheral  characters.  on B r e i t s a m t e r ,  t e r m s , i s b a s e d on C h r i s t i a n  "von"  Major  von  although phrased i n doctrine only i n s o f a r  as h i s a w a r e n e s s o f t h e u r o n g he u o u l d t h e r e b y commit coincides uith himself  Christian  a Christian  yet i t i s only he r e j e c t s  uith  teaching.  gentleman  Uhile  the r e l i g i o u s  of the duel  certainly  pistol  i n h i s hand  phrasing  o f von U e r c k ' s  a d d s an a d d i t i o n a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n  His r e l i g i o u s  indeed there  faith  i s no i n d i c a t i o n  and that  tradition.  undergoes  no  rejection  to the moral  o b j e c t i o n s , i t c a n n o t be s a i d t h a t he r e c e i v e s insight.  considers  throughout the n o v e l ,  the d u e l i n g  the time-honoured  He  a  religious  revitalization,  u h a t e v e r t h a t he, or  Ompteda,  126 feel is  any need f o r s u c h a c h a n g e : Ompteda h e r e , as e l s e w h e r e ,  simply  and  o p p o s i n g one t r a d i t i o n  older.  For him, r e l i g i o n  aristocratic effectiveness  c)  The  values,  u i t h another, both  i s one a s p e c t o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l  b u t n o t one f r o m u h i c h  a r e v i v a l of the  o f t h e c l a s s may be g e n e r a t e d .  Caste:  The p i c t u r e  o f German s o c i e t y  p r e s e n t e d by Ompteda i n  the  n o v e l s r a r e l y goes beyond t h e u o r l d  and  the upper middle c l a s s .  uife  nobler  f o r the scion  Schuss d e l i n e a t e s  of the a r i s t o c r a c y  The d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e p e r f e c t  o f an o l d P r u s s i a n  family  the boundaries of t h i s  i n Per z u e i t e  uorld:  Aus e i n e r j e n e r a l t e n p r e u s s i s c h e n F a m i l i e n s o l l t e s i e s e i n , uo d e r O n k e l am Hof u a r , d e r V a t e r im H e r r e n h a u s e o d e r im R e i c h s t a g e s a s s , d i e B r O d e r i n d e r G a r d e k a v e l l e r i e d i e n t e n , l / e t t e r n i n den F l i n i s t e r i e n P r e u s s e n , und i n f e r n e n L S n d e r n das R e i c h d i e n t e n . 52 By the  the time Uilhelm  I I a s c e n d e d t h e t h r o n e i n 1889 h o u e v e r ,  pre-eminent p o s i t i o n o f such  eroded, l a r g e l y because t h e i r ment o u t s i d e  the s e r v i c e  s o u r c e s o f neu u e a l t h , uhich uas c r e a t i n g  f a m i l i e s uas  traditional  of the state  severely  disdain  excluded  the r e s u l t of i n d u s t r i a l  o f employ-  them f r o m t h e development,  i t s oun a r i s t o c r a c y .  In t u o n o v e l s i n p a r t i c u l a r , Per z u e i t e Ompteda comes t o t e r m s u i t h t h i s to the o l d a r i s t o c r a c y  to re-earn  S c h u s s and E y s e n ,  p r o b l e m by i s s u i n g a their  call  privileged position  127 by  f a c i n g up  concern  to  f o r the  t h a t many o f upon t h e their  laurels  successors  acquired  declining  is  as  g a r n e r e d by  their  t o p e n u r y and  the  nation  by  Ompteda's in his  continuing  forebears,  are  i m p o t e n c e , and  of t r a d i t i o n s  and  vieu  to  sleep  condemning  at the  same  experience  centuries.  z u e i t e Schuss the  Uerck  the  c l a s s uhose c l a i m  nation  age.  a uhole i s r e f l e c t e d  a r i s t o c r a c y , and  rising  o f a neu  present generation,  through the  In Per  of the  challenges  nation  the  time d e p r i v i n g  the  the  family represents  neuly-ennobled  Breitsamters  to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the  r e s t s upon t h e i r  capital.  a prototypical representative  of h i s  the  Old  leadership  M a j o r von  Uerck  class:  Er s a s s i n a l i e n A u s s c h d l s s e n , l e i t e t e a l l e L a n d u i r t s c h a f t s t a g e , h a t t e d i e f U h r e n d e Stimme im F o h l e n a u f z u c h t s v e r e i n , s t a n d an d e r S p i t z e j e g l i c h e r Armenp f l e g e und F U r s o r g e , aus d e r ub e r z e u g u n g h e r a u s , d a s s den B e s i t z e n d e n d o p p e l t e P f l i c h t e n a u f e r l e g t s e i e n . • • E i n Mann, der nur e i n e s g e l t e n l i e s s : A r b e i t . . . . So u a r e r , s e l b s t von e i s e r n e r G e s u n d h e i t , e m p f l r t , a l s C h r i s t o p h den A b s c h i e d nahm, u e i l e r den A n s t r e n g u n g e n des P i e n s t e s s i c h n i c h t g e u a c h s e n f t i h l t e . 53 The the  emphasis here i s c l e a r l y  privileges  of noble b i r t h .  i n command o f t h e i r  BHrualde, t h e i r s a m t e r s , uho Uercks l i v e small  details  duties, rather their  Uercks are  destiny.  The  live  the  i n the  small  baroque " S c h l o s s "  adjacent  to b r i n g out  the  farm.  than  apparently no  longer  mortgages  o l d e s t a t e , have been a c q u i r e d  nou on  oun  the  Pespite  u n a s s a i l a b l e p o s i t i o n h o u e v e r , the fully  on  by  to  the  uhile  Breitthe  Ompteda u s e s  d i f f e r e n c e s betueen the  tuo  .  1 28 1  families:  the B r e i t s a m t e r s  c a r r i a g e i s " t e u e r , aber  schlecht  54 angespannt," military  a state of a f f a i r s  and f a r m i n g  unthinkable  family; Ehrenreich  i n an o l d  von B r e i t s a m t e r , 55  the  family p a t r i a r c h , i s " e i nuenig  c o n t r a s t t o M a j o r von U e r c k ' s The  second g e n e r a t i o n  d i f f e r e n c e more f u l l y . the  broader outlook  aristocracy uith  the a r i s t o c r a t ' s  in  i s clearly Traugott  polish  cial  and h i s r e f u s a l  on h i s oun s o n .  a capable  represents  his rival  marries  family  von Uerck i l l u s t r a t e s t h e Even t h e p h y s i c a l t o u g h n e s s  i s l a c k i n g , and a l t h o u g h Prussian g i r l  the Major to  Christoph, like  Thomas  have C h r i s t o p h  heir  counter-  Buddenbrook,  E v a v a n d e r G e l l e n i s q u i e t and  u i t h d r a u n , and makes no a t t e m p t t o o p p o s e t h e M a j o r ' s to  finan-  and r e s t o r e t h e o l d U e r c k e n e r g y i n  generations,  a Dutch g i r l .  lacks,  uell.  of the t r a d i t i o n a l  u a n t e d him t o m a r r y a c o n v e n t i o n a l act h i s quiet nature  h i s father  an a d v a n c e f o r t h e B r e i t s a m t e r s  Christoph  of h i s m a r t i a l ancestors  to f o l l o u  A l t h o u g h he  b u s i n e s s m a n as  decline of the o l d a r i s t o c r a c y .  succeeding  t a s t e o f t h e neu  p o l i s h e d manners u h i c h  uithout the loss  ability,  von B r e i t s a m t e r p e r s o n i f i e s  h i s English uife  has  If  o f each f a m i l y i l l u s t r a t e s the  and i n t e r n a t i o n a l  code i f i t means f i r i n g  in  bluntness.  Traugott  the  Traugott  zu h H f l i c h , "  desire  R e n a t u s r a i s e d i n t h e P r u s s i a n manner as  to the e s t a t e .  The u l t i m a t e i r o n y i s t h a t  R e n a t u s , as t h e s o n o f Eva and T r a u g o t t ,  Christoph  i s q u i t e a t home i n  129 his  role  of  sacrificing his  "heranuachsender Dunker," to the his l i f e  Breitsamter The  the  neu  point  f o r the  heritage t h a t the  i d e a l s of the  of t h r i f t  as e q u a l s ,  E y s e n , a huge c a n v a s on panorama o f t h e  that  i s one  uhich  caste,  despite  the  neucomers  Ompteda p a i n t s  an  the  served  depicted  over the  to  1895,  the  of the  as  feudal  Prussia i n uhich  Three g e n e r a t i o n s their  s o n s , the  are  end  at the o f an  Since  he  family. the  As  alliance  a half last  from  such f a m i l i e s f l o u r i s h e d .  born around 1880. Uilhelm  " M i t b e i d e n sank e i n e uhen t h e  s y m b o l i c of the  a former c o l l e a g u e  The  I, signifying  ganze Z e i t i n s  novel  opens, h i s  p o s i t i o n achieved  o f B i s m a r c k , he  E u r o p e a n p r e - e m i n e n c e , and  a l s o the  l e a d i n g , but state.  guided  The  and  the Grab."^  imporby  the  represents  uhich  a r i s t o c r a c y i n the  and  Minister  nobility  of the  18B0  vestiges  o f t h r o n e and  position  years  c o n t e m p o r a r i e s o f 3 8 r n U h l , K l a u s Baas  i s almost eighty  tance i s l a r g e l y  back e i g h t hundred  e r a s e d the  same t i m e as K a i s e r  era:  The  shoun: the M i n i s t e r , h i s nepheus,  Uassermann's c h a r a c t e r s dies  age  and  P r u s s i a from i t s  c r i t i c a l d e c a d e and  industrial  of  G r e a t Uar  d e c l i n e o f a f a m i l y t h a t has  is  are  impressive  for i t s rejuvenation.  traces i t s nobility  and  o f t h e m a i n themes  makes most s t r o n g l y h i s p l e a  and  ability.  old families  German u p p e r c l a s s b e f o r e  beginnings,  of  mathematical  i n t e r e s t s of the  a r i s t o c r a c y c o i n c i d e , and  uorthy of respect  and  extent  Prussia  to  endangered  Minister i s  the  only  one  of h i s brothers  his  five  nepheus, only  vigour: Rudolf a suitable an  career  should  be  living  of " H o f r a t " at the  because of h i s s u c c e s s ,  end  of the  Prignitz  favourable  s o l d , and  novel.  Fabian  Ompteda CMsar,  because the  Ernst leaves  spends a f u t i l e he  light  is  title  the  estate  d e b t s th'at i t existence  is killed  i n an  at  the  equally  duel.  The  perilous position  century  officer's  the  m o u n t a i n o f d e b t s t h a t he  seen i n the c h i l d r e n the  elder, Christi,  i s forced to f l e e  a cavalry regiment, although  the e s t a t e cannot begin soon f a l l s  a r i s t o c r a c y at the  E r n s t ' s sons f o l l o u  career, until  Both boys j o i n  of the  i s most c l e a r l y  M i n i s t e r ' s nepheus.  marries  family  considered  uhich  acquires  so b u r d e n e d u i t h  court of a petty prince u n t i l  of the  not  e m u l a t e d by more o f h i s c l a s s , u h i l e  at P o i z e i n the  of  f o r a member o f s u c h a f a m i l y , L u d u i g  o f h i s u n s u i t a b l e c a r e e r , e v e n t h o u g h he  futile  and  traditional  A l t h o u g h t r a d e uas  a c t o r , a p p e a r s i n a much l e s s  must be  i n 1880,  demonstrate the  Luduig.  exemplary character  feels the  and  tuo  still  into  a forty-four  year  company.  of  amasses s u c h to  a  America.  the income  uhose  from  Christi  In America  old part negress,  the  traditional  t o s u p p o r t s u c h l u x u r y , and  d i s a s t r o u s l y bad  turn  he  "Fehler  57 im For  Pedigree"  i s houever balanced  a l l h i s neu  family.  Fabian,  uealth, Christi Ernst's  by  a considerable  remains  forever lost  second son, r e s i g n s h i s  fortune. to  the  commission  131 after  h i s f a t h e r ' s d e a t h , and  hardworking heroes.  Fabian  l a n d , but Poltze  farmer i n the  best  maintains  the  He  i s an  traditional  and—which  an  Frenssen's  ties  He  vegetable  introduces  reminiscent  of the  a modest but  the  significant  The  i n the  the  E m i l , the  to take  t h a t the a r i s t o c r a c y the  lead i n  Instead  with  little  but  name. at the  Fedor, the first  lives  i s strong  spoiled  and  in his  own  o f f the  " A d l i g e r " he  the  fresh  e l d e s t , shows h i s  g a t h e r i n g , where  E r n s t ; a year l a t e r  a r i s t o c r a c y on  o f the  noble,  promise of adding  t h e M i n i s t e r f o r a p a m p h l e t he the  breaking  daughters.  ancient  argues v i o l e n t l y  nothing,  not  professor, i s l i k e w i s e a leader  of family s p i r i t  attacking  marries, while  h i s sons e x h i b i t  to t h e i r  choosing.  o f F r e n s s e n ' s M e i n o Ommen,  h e a l t h y , i n s h a r p c o n t r a s t t o some o f t h e  a c c o u n t by  in  P r i g n i t z , which i s  and  lack  makes  novel  o f h i s own  ground.  glory  he  ancestral estate,  new  aristocratic  he  into  indication  ability  girl  terms not  farming  innovations  p o s s e s s e s the  but  the  i s e v e n more i m p o r t a n t i n v i e w o f t h e a r i s t o c r a c y ' s i s s u c c e s s f u l on  field,  with  potentially humiliating  e m p l o y e e on  situation—he  useless  competent,  Gideon's c a p i t a l  c h a n g e d and  of being  a  of  exemplary c h a r a c t e r  adapts to the  circumstances  still  tradition  w i t h modern methods and  pay.  t h a t he  develops i n t o  he  he  i s called  has  written  to  grounds t h a t i t produces  achievements of former proposes a concept of  generations. "Edeling":  E i n e V e r e i n i g u n g s o i l e s s e i n der M e n s c h e n . . , e d e l s t e r Gesinnung, e d e l s t e r hHchster L e i s t u n g ! D i e T O c h t i g s t e n , d i e im Kampfe urns D a s e i n i n d e r A u s l e s e O b e n g e b l i e b e n e n . 58 Despite confused  the Minister's  initial  Utopian v i s i o n , u i t h  application  of Daruin's  theory  outrage  of evolution  i sreiterated  R u d o l f , as u e l l  a s by L u d u i g .  and i t s p r e -  by t h e most  as a young man uhen he u a s u n a b l e  Luduig  social  and N i e t z s c h e ' s  s u c c e s s f u l members o f t h e E y s e n c l a n , t h e M i n i s t e r and  rather  i t s echoes o f Langbehn's  "Obermensch," t h e b a s i c i d e a , t h a t n o b i l i t y e m i n e n c e must be e a r n e d ,  at this  traditionally himself  uas d i s i n h e r i t e d  t o s u c c e e d i n "einem  standes-  59 gemSssen B e r u f , "  and s e n t  o f 1880 i s h i s f i r s t  to America.  meeting u i t h  The f a m i l y g a t h e r i n g  his brothers after  tuenty  y e a r s , d u r i n g u h i c h he h a s u o r k e d h i m s e l f up t o be t h e h e a d of a tobacco Although aries  company a n d a c q u i r e d c o n s i d e r a b l e u e a l t h .  h i s p r o f e s s i o n p l a c e s him o u t s i d e t h e u s u a l  o f h i s c l a s s , and h i s v i e u s a r e c o n s i d e r e d  astonishing  by F a b i a n , t h e c h a m b e r l a i n ,  quite  Ompteda c l e a r l y b e -  s t o u s upon them h i s stamp o f a p p r o v a l by h a v i n g by  bound-  them  repeated  R u d o l f i n h i s s p e e c h t o t h e young E y s e n s a t t h e l a s t  g a t h e r i n g i n 1895.  T h i s s p e e c h sums up t h e e s s e n c e o f u h a t  the o t h e r s , i n c l u d i n g of the a r i s t o c r a c y : verstiegenen Luduig  F e d o r , have demanded i n a r e v i t a l i z a t i o n "Es u a r , a l s h M t t e e r aus F e d o r s  Ansichten  den g e s u n d e n K e r n  herausgeschSlt."^  p o i n t s o u t t h e a n a c h r o n i s m s o f t h e c a s t e code  alluding  t o t h e f a m i l y c r e s t , an i r o n - c o l o u r e d h e a r t  uhile  133 e m b l a z o n e d on a  a s h i e l d s u r m o u n t e d by  a b r a s arme  brandishing  suord: H e r z e n von E i s e n s o l l e n s i e b e u a h r e n , a l i e n g e g e n t i b e r , dann u e r d e n s i e s e l b s t a u c h von a n d e r e n n i c h t zu l e i d e n haben und u e r d e n v o r u S r t s kommen. Den Arm von Eisen mflgen s i e zu Hause l a s s e n , denn h e u t e u e r d e n u n s e r e S c h l a c h t e n a u f der B f l r s e g e s c h l a g e n , i n H a n d e l und U a n d e l , i n der I n d u s t r i e . H i t dem S c h u e r t e r i c h t e n u i r n i c h t s mehr a u s . Das v e r g i s s t der d e u t s c h e A d e l . Er i s t im M i t t e l a l t e r hSngen g e b l i e b e n . 61 Uhile  an for  money i s n o t  indispensible  the  goal of  prerequisite  finances  and  could  the  die  p r e - e m i n e n c e and  traditional  army: R u d o l f u a r n s t h a t  d e s t r o y the  "denn a u c h f t l r  aristocracy, i t is  for s o c i a l  c o n t i n u e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the  agriculture  the  effectiveness  Offiziersequipierung  of  spheres  of  n e g l e c t of the  even  their  class,  f e h l t uns  das  62 nfltige Geld!"  The  pursuit  of u e a l t h  f o r i t s oun  houever u n u o r t h y : Fedor's a s s e r t i o n  that  tocracy  i n America i s challenged  the  uords:  "Geld i s t i h r A d e l , 63  ischer  als u i r . "  Uercks, decline sons nor  In  the  R e n a t u s e x h i b i t any  purpose of  national uhich  the  the  A fortune  Ernst's  entire nation  as  and  neither  be  by  i s the  means t o  In the  Ompteda, t h e  this  example.  the  physical an  end,  nation  scheme  values  b a s e d become g u i d e l i n e s  a r e s u l t of  the  Ernst's  evidence of  a v i g o r o u s , competent example.  rebirth uill  uith  a r i s t o c r a c y i s to s e r v e the  r e b i r t h envisioned  aris-  sind sie aristokrat-  is invariably financial:  Christoph  providing  darin  t h e r e i s no Minister  f a m i l i e s s u c h as  or m e n t a l d e g e n e r a t i o n . and  und  by  sake i s  Though  by of  upon for  the  this  1 34 direction  i s contrary  are  f o u n d p r i m a r i l y among t h e  t o be  values is  are  i n f a c t the  same,  t h a t such  general  U h i l e the  e l d e r s i n Per  hou  to provide  and  the  the  final  local  effective  c o n c e p t o f an  affairs  by  Poggsee, the  leadership  all-pouerful  M a j o r von by  Uerck,  a neu  age  as  the  aspect council  question  i s important for village  task  i n uhich  of  of Frenssen,  headman i s i n  k i n d of r o l e  The  the  played  in  i s leadership,  the  feudal  knight  atavism. For  nobility  this  task  the  a r i s t o c r a t needs s t r e n g t h  of c h a r a c t e r ,  "vornehme G e s i n n u n g , " and  advantage over other lies  von  a n a l y s i s very c l o s e to the  made more d i f f i c u l t an  Pastor  values  population,  hereditary  o f c o u r s e a b s e n t from such i n s t i t u t i o n s  village  is  to F r e n s s e n ' s b e l i e f  vital  he  has  c l a s s e s of s o c i e t y i n t h a t t h i s  deep i n h i s h e r i t a g e .  o b l i g e " i s as  and  i n 1900  The as  tradition a t any  of  an  quality  "noblesse  time i n the  past:  A d e l mag dem Dummen und F a u l e n z u r L a s t u e r d e n , denn i n ihm l i e g t d i e V e r p f l i c h t u n g , e t u a s zu l e i s t e n . Pern K l u g e n u i r d e r k e i n e BOrde s e i n , a u c h n i c h t s Nebens H c h l i c h e s , s o n d e r n s t e t e r S p o r n z u r A r b e i t , zu vornehmer G e s i n n u n g , 64 The  p h i l o s o p h i c a l concept of  here t r a n s l a t e d i n t o the  practical  o l d a r i s t o c r a c y has  inculcated  by  these n a t i o n a l The  "fjbermensch" or  tradition,  the  terms.  "Edeling" i s  I n Ompteda's v i e u ,  necessary s p i r i t u a l  to provide  qualifications,  a preponderance  of  leaders.  example o f  Fabian r e v i t a l i z i n g  the  overuorked  soil  135 o f t h e Mark B r a n d e n b u r g last  speech.  Ompteda comes v e r y c l o s e  of "die heimatliche and  tradition,  "Heimatkunst," Certainly sell  Scholle"  the f a m i l y  as 3 8 r n U h l , and as i n e x o r a b l e  the Dithmarschen  farmer.  c o n s i d e r e d a uork  the debts t h a t f o r c e  by a l l t r y i n g pouers  is  absent  Holstein. at Poltze Ernst's  The  uieder  erquickt."^  aspect surround-  o f l a n d i n t h e Mark B r a n d e n b u r g hierarchical  industrialist  Gideon  are neuly-minted barons.  daughter  regeneration:  der i h r K r a f t  an a d d i t i o n a l , s o c i a l  from the l e s s  G e l l a , i s one  society  of  f a m i l y uho The  buy  B a r o n , uho  of three b r o t h e r s .  t h e f i r m , b u t he u a n t s t o d e v o t e  to a g r i c u l t u r e .  He  title  had  his father  t o R u d o l f uhy  uhich  Schlesuig-  them r e m a i n u i t h  explains  Eysens  hopelessly  of s p i r i t u a l  z i e h t , uenn i h r e u c h an i h r e m E r d g e r u c h e  the a c q u i s i t i o n  and  as  to l i v e o f f  Gut n u r a l s d i e H e i m a t , aus  There i s houever  them  f o r the P r u s s i a n Junker  " a l s m e l k e n d e Kuh,"  the l a n d u i t h  " B e t r a c h t e t das  ing  of  to  R u d o l f u a r n s t h e young  i t s p r o d u c t i v e pouers  he i n v e s t s  uas  concept  strength  a t P o l t z e i s j u s t as r e l u c t a n t  not to r e g a r d the e s t a t e  it;  to Frenssen's  "echt brandenburgisch, bodenstSndig."  the e s t a t e  overtax  form i n R u d o l f ' s  as t h e s o u r c e o f  and i n d e e d E y s e n  t o do so a r e j u s t for  assumes p r o g r a m m a t i c  the  estate  marries Tuo  of  himself  he a c c e p t e d t h e  refused:  Uenn e r a b e r e i n R i t t e r g u t k a u f t e , u i e e r es g e t a n , so begebe e r s i c h d a m i t , i n der P r i g n i t z u e n i g s t e n s , f a s t a u s s c h l i e s s l i c h zuischen eine festgeschlossene Kaste,  136 d e r n i c h t a n z u g e h f l r e n p e i n l i c h s e i . Um so p e i n l i c h e r a l s e r , d e r a l t e K o r p s s t u d e n t und R e s e r v e o f f i z i e r e i n e s bevorzugten Regiments, t a t s S c h l i c h i n a l i e n Ansichten a u f dem g l e i c h e n S t a n d p u n k t s t O n d e , u i e s e i n e j e t z t i g e n Standesgenossen. 67 Rudolf, i n i t i a l l y  cautious  about such  motivation,  admits t h a t Gideon i s r i g h t i n h i s assessment vantage of n o b i l i t y  o f the ad-  for his children:  B e i s e i n e n K i n d e r n . . . k r H h t e s c h o n k e i n Hahn d a n a c h , u o h e r s i e s t a m m t e n . B e i den E n k e l n u u s s t e man g e u i s s vom U r s p r u n g d e r G i d e o n s n i c h t s m e h r , und d i e U r e n k e l h i e l t man dann v i e l l e i c h t f U r e i n e a l t e Familie. 68 The l a s t  sentence, uith  of s u p e r i o r i t y tradition uhich  i t s "vielleicht,"  contains  i n the consciousness of the c e n t u r i e s * o l d  o f Eysen n o b i l i t y , but b a s i c a l l y  c a n be assumed t o r e f l e c t  aristocratic  rank i m p l i e s  and as a r e c o g n i t i o n t o neu b l o o d .  a shade  Ompteda's o u n , i s t h a t  duties rather  of achievement  Ompteda c o n s i d e r s  ship that a r e v i t a l i z e d  Rudolf's a t t i t u d e ,  than  privileges,  i t must be  accessible  the nature of the l e a d e r -  Germany u i l l  need t o be o f c e n t r a l  i m p o r t a n c e , and a l t h o u g h he u o u l d p r e s e r v e t h e c a s t e , h i s insistence  on t h e f u n d a m e n t a l  neu n o b i l i t y revolutionary mobility  demonstrates  o f t h e o l d and t h e  h o u , i n a c o n s e r v a t i v e , un-  u a y , he a d v o c a t e s a g r e a t e r  t h a n most o f t h e o l d f a m i l i e s  accept at the t i m e . Renatus  equality  this  belief  of s o c i a l  uere prepared t o  Young F a b i a n von E y s e n  both i l l u s t r a t e  the o l d a r i s t o c r a c y  degree  and C h r i s t o p h  that the b a r r i e r s  betueen  and t h e r e s t o f t h e n a t i o n must come  137 doun f o r t h e b e n e f i t o f b o t h : F a b i a n , as a estate role not  manager f i n d s f u l f i l m e n t i n a most u n a r i s t o c r a t i c  and C h r i s t o p h  Renatus l i v e s  a drop o f o l d P r u s s i a n  being  conscientious  an a n a c h r o n i s t i c  and d i e s  an a r i s t o c r a t w i t h  blood i n h i s v e i n s .  Far from  remnant, the a r i s t o c r a t i c  code, i f  properly  a t t u n e d and m o d i f i e d  century,  c a n s e r v e as an e x a m p l e t o i t s members t o  the  d)  responsibility  f o r t h e demands o f t h e neu fulfil  of l e a d e r s h i p ,  The Army:  A l t h o u g h he u r g e s t h e a r i s t o c r a c y t o s t r i v e ship i n a l l f i e l d s last  of national l i f e ,  Rudolf stresses  speech the importance o f m a i n t a i n i n g  present  for leaderin his  t h e army i n i t s  form:  U e r d e t O f f i z i e r e , d i e b r a u c h e n u i r , denn d i e Armee i s t , , , d e r " r o c h e r de b r o n c e ! " Gott e r h a l t e s i e uns, uie s i e i s t , hflrt i h r , u i e s i e i s t — s o n s t — f i n i s Germaniae! 69 Rudolf fears  that uithout  an o f f i c e r  corps draun  the  r a n k s o f t h e a r i s t o c r a c y and s t e e p e d i n m i l i t a r y  the  army u i l l  danger.  be u e a k e n e d , p l a c i n g t h e n a t i o n  A l t h o u g h he f e e l s t h a t  future u i l l  be t h e s t o c k  istic  pacifism  of the  e x c h a n g e and t h e l a b o r a t o r y , t h e  of Uilhelminian of l a t e r  tradition,  i n mortal  the b a t t l e f i e l d s  "Heimatroman's" a t t i t u d e t o uar r e f l e c t s self-confidence  from  the  aggressive  Germany and n o t t h e i d e a l -  movements s u c h as E x p r e s s i o n i s m ,  130 Germany must be p r e p a r e d , been a h i s t o r i c a l l y  and t h e o f f i c e r - a r i s t o c r a t  d e p e n d a b l e l e a d e r on t h e b a t t l e f i e l d .  The i n s i s t e n c e on m a i n t a i n i n g appears h o p e l e s s l y  alone the  demanded  f o r the o f f i c e r  of tuo u o r l d  f a r greater  corps  than  reserves  the a r i s t o c r a c y  c o u l d p r o v i d e , and y e t i t must be remembered  full  of 1914.  century  d i d n o t become a p p a r e n t u n t i l  I n 1900 i t u a s s t i l l  generals  respective merits  t h e autumn  possible for staff  d e p r e c a t e t h e m a c h i n e gun as an o v e r r a t e d  British  that  impact o f the t e c h n o l o g i c a l developments o f the  nineteenth  to  t h e army t h u s c o n s t i t u t e d  a n a c h r o n i s t i c i n the l i g h t  uars, the scale of uhich o f manpouer  has  officers  u e a p o n , and  u e r e engaged i n h e a t e d debate over t h e o f t h e s a b r e and t h e l a n c e  as c a v a l r y  70 ueapons. In  1912, during  the Reichstag  d e b a t e on t h e Z a b e r n  i n c i d e n t , uhere the g a r r i s o n o f a toun i n Alsace  opened  on  used  t h e i n h a b i t a n t s , a member o f t h e C e n t r e  Rudolf's  phrase " f i n i s  Germaniae" t o d e s c r i b e  consequences t h a t uould beyond t h e l a u .  Party  the dire  e n s u e i f army o f f i c e r s  Colonel  Reuter,  the o f f i c e r  uere  placed  commanding  the  Z a b e r n g a r r i s o n , u a s c o u r t - m a r t i a l l e d and a c q u i t t e d ,  and  t h e p o u e r o f t h e army o v e r  became a m a j o r p o l i t i c a l Rudolf's  phrase to a t t a c k  issue.  the r i g h t s  defends i n d i c a t e s the extent  of the c i t i z e n  T h a t t h e member  the very  institution  to uhich  fire  used  that  Rudolf  t h e c a s t e uas under  attack the  during  the  he  tic,  and  tested  institutions  therefore  uhich  b r o u g h t up  e q u a l i t y of o p p o r t u n i t y , a r i s t o c r a c y and  t o d a t e and  latter  s t e r e o t y p e of  the  g a l l a n t , carefree  The u o r k and the  routine  officers  he  at the  ihn  des  atavis-  the  there  the  officer  must join  bourgeois  popular  and  subjects  scrutiny.  contrasts  t i m e , of the  the  bourgeois to  challenges  to duty t h a t  die glSnzende S e i t e  "Leutnant" uie  uithin  i n Ompteda's n o v e l s e x e m p l i f y  image, current  "Nicht  end  to u n r o m a n t i c i z e d  subordination  in  a r i s t o c r a t t o engage i n  the  military  able  of  purged of  institutions  f o r the  f o r the  rebirth,  have s e r v e d u e l l  To  the  illustrates  a revitalization  destructive, prejudices;  frameuork of t r a d i t i o n a l  pursuits.  I t also  Ompteda's c o n c e p t o f n a t i o n a l  These must be and  era.  sees p r i m a r i l y i n terms of  values  past.  the  Uilhelminian  l i m i t a t i o n s of  uhich  be  the  hard  strongly  dashing  Offiziers  a  uith  lieutenant.  . . .  nicht  der  s i c h d i e g r o s s e Masse d e n k t , s o n d e r n  in  72 seiner  ernsten  critic  describes  imbued u i t h  A r b e i t , dem  the  Sylvester  b i t t e r e n Entsagen,"  as  von  critics,  Geyer.  c h a u v i n i s m of the  Uilhelminian  e x a g g e r a t e s and  distorts  tional  e t h i c , uere f r e q u e n t l y  Prussian  enthusiastic Henriette  era  f a r more  von  Typus n i c h t  Geyer i n der  tradi-  aggressively  than t h e i r  Meerheimb, f o r example, r h a p s o d i z e s ;  manch e i n e n S y l v e s t e r  that  s i m p l e p a t r i o t i s m of the  a b o u t Ompteda's c h a r a c t e r s  von  s o l a n g e der  the  Ompteda's  one  creator. "Es  gibt  d e u t s c h e n Armee.  a u s s t i r b t , u i r d s i e die  erste  der  Und  140 Uelt  bleiben." Sylvester  7 3  von G e y e r , h o u e v e r , i s n o t i n t e n d e d  exemplary c h a r a c t e r :  e v e n as- a s o l d i e r  f l a u s , and does n o t f i t as e a s i l y be  expected  aluays  he has s e r i o u s  into military  Criticism  to Dresden.  The r o m a n t i c arm o f t h e  s e r v i c e , the c a v a l r y , i s out o f reach Sylvester  recruits  one o f  t e d i u m , f o r he c a n n o t a f f o r d t h e l u x u r y o f  entertainment or t r i p s  and  and  the boring  o f a p r o v i n c i a l g a r r i s o n t o make h i s l i f e  unrelieved  as m i g h t  have  makes him o b s t i n a t e  r e b e l l i o u s , and l a c k o f money c o m b i n e s u i t h routine  life  f r o m one o f h i s b a c k g r o u n d : t h e G e y e r s  been s o l d i e r s .  as an  f o r t h e same  reason,  spends h i s days i n t h e c o n s t a n t d r i l l i n g o f  on t h e p a r a d e  Sylvester's  ground.  natural intelligence  rebels  against the  r o u t i n e , b u t as he becomes more e x p e r i e n c e d h i s d i s e n c h a n t ment i s t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o p r i d e i n t h e f a i t h f u l of s m a l l novel,  tasks.  this  i s , uithin  a p o s i t i v e development, since  these small  tasks  Ompteda i s q u i t e narrouing the  Uhile  the context of the  the system t h a t  n e c e s s a r y i s a t no t i m e u n d e r auare o f t h e n e g a t i v e  of the horizons.  He u r i t e s  performance  makes  attack,  aspects of t h i s i n the foreuord  to  novel: U i e U b e r a l l , uo K a s t e n u e s e n h e r r s c h t , g r e i f t u n t e r i h n e n i n g e u i s s e m Masse e i n e U e r k n f l c h e r u n g urn s i c h , e i n e V e r e n g u n g des H o r i z o n t e s , e i n N i c h t - b e g r e i f e n kflnnen a n d e r e r K r e i s e und f r e m d e r L e b e n s t f i t i g k e i t . . . . Aus g e u o l l t e r B e s c h r M n k u n g e r g i b t s i c h l e i c h t BeschrSnktheit. 74  141 Ompteda i s n o t outside  p r i m a r i l y an  i t , but  rather  apologist  his f i r s t  f o r h i s c l a s s to  concern i s to break  t h i s narrow, s e l f - c e n t r e d a t t i t u d e i n order the  deadly  calcification  that eventually  intelligent  members o f t h e  properly  an  it  i s the  that to  as  sum  officer, of small  forms the  the  welfare  n a t i o n , S y l v e s t e r and  problem, the  to continue  to perform the  t h a t u o u l d open up  of the  neu  key  to i t s s o l u t i o n .  is,  t o be  century,  but  s u r e , e x e m p l a r y , but  emulatable model,  he  he  his horizons That the  on  to r i s e  army as  i t s members can  enlightened that i s of larly  be  an  characters  turn their  and  to  an  Eysen  able  (Heimat he  has  t o be  S a n d t n e r , uhose a r t i s t i c  the  a gendes  i s too  limited  of the  caste.  a confining effect  some o f t h e  more  b a c k s upon i t , a theme 1  some i m p o r t a n c e i n U a s s e r m a n n s n o v e l s ,  C h r i s t i a n U a h n s c h a f f e and  a  R u d o l f von  prejudices  s e e n i n t h e uay  viewpoint  provide  i s too  institution  defines  does n o t  l/on R u n d s t e t t e n  above the  vital  colleagues  duties  caste  H e r z e n s ) i s happy i n h i s p r o f e s s i o n , but in  his  narrou  the  A f i g u r e s u c h as  army i s  Ompteda  small  that  themselves,  the  important r o l e .  i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y of the  breadth of v i s i o n  erally  army: s i n c e  the  perform  realize  t a s k s , meaningless i n  a socially  overcome  to  S y l v e s t e r must f i r s t  of the  the  appreciation  In order  of the  fulfilling  doun  o v e r t a k e s even  fabric  are  necessary  caste.  to  those  Etzel  Anderqast,  temperament u i l l  not  be  particuNikolaus  bound  by  142 military  conventions,  a p a i n t e r , and an  author.  leaves  Herzeloide  to h i s career i s of i n t e r e s t  pecuniary  S y l v e s t e r von  cavalry balls  r a t h e r than  is  not  type  Fritz  attitude  of  Fritz  p o i n t of view, f o r bound t o t h e  i n h i s youth  in his quarters.  is a  army  by  typical  unsullied  by  entirely "mal  de  on  rich  si^cle"  century.  demolishing realities  this  of m i l i t a r y  of the r e s t of the his uillingness  imagines  primeval  "of course"  as  an  This adolescent  in i t s hostility and  to the  fantasy  o f R o m a n t i c i s m by life  are  population.  just  shouing  Fritz'  underscores  freedom of a c t i o n  p l a c e d upon t h e  frequent mention  the r e s t r i c t i o n s  on  o f f i c e r , thereby  the i d e a o f a f u n d a m e n t a l community o f  betueen a l l c l a s s e s .  the  those  to r e s i g n h i s commission i f o b s t a c l e s  p l a c e d i n h i s uay  the  uith  that  as mundane as  a  actual  s o c i e t y at the c l o s e of  Ompteda i s h o u e v e r c o n c e r n e d  aura  officer,  Ompteda's p a r t , f o r i t r e f l e c t s  s t a t e of European c u l t u r e nineteenth  but  a thoroughbred.  naive  a b r a n d neu  savage, a n a t u r a l ,  civilization,  mounted on  As  f r o m t h e s c h o o l b e n c h , he  a k i n d of noble  uidespread  ening  army t o become  t h a t S y l v e s t e r e n v i e s , the  t o have e s c a p e d  h i m s e l f as  officer  from t h i s  as  l i e u t e n a n t uhose e v e n i n g s are s p e n t at s o c i e t y  delighted  being  of the  the  Geyer, i s not  considerations.  young o f f i c e r  army t o p u r s u e a c a r e e r  Ompteda h i m s e l f a b a n d o n e d t h e  In the novel  he, u n l i k e  the  of  are  personal strength-  interest  Sylvester  von  G e y e r ' s f r e e d o m o f a c t i o n i s much more  l i m i t e d , p r i m a r i l y because of h i s l a c k because of the  family  A v e n a r i u s , the  p a t r o n of the  G e y e r s as  one  of  tradition  o f army s e r v i c e ,  geistig  durchaus achtbaren  also Ferdinand  "Heimatroman," d e s c r i b e s  "jene e i n f a c h e n ,  manchen G l i e d e r n  o f money b u t  the  uenig b e m i t t e l t e n ,  in  b e s c h r H n k t e n a b e r f a s t immer  Familien,  d e r e n L e b e n von  Geschlecht 75  zu  G e s c h l e c h t dem  military  D i e n s t e des  tradition  r u n s so  is bitter  Sylvester's  as  forgets  his r e s o l v e , taken i n anger, that  become a s o l d i e r and  sacrifice sixty join and  and  deep t h a t  retired  not  a captain  KOnigs geuidmet i s t , "  i n order  cavalry  i t uould cost  i s b e y o n d t h e m , and  f o r t y marks f o r the  strain.  I t i s impossible s a l a r y he  for Sylvester  small  and  c o l l e c t i o n s for departing appearances,  Sylvester  must pay  Uhen he  first  orphans' fund.  pay  He  at  the  end  hundred severe  to s a v e , f o r out  promoted to  h i s mess b i l l  of  better  keep  lieutenant, f o r one  uidous'  o f f than they  Eysen t h a t  of  bills  month  and  f r i e n d E l d e n f l e t h decide that  shop a s s i s t a n t i s f i n a n c i a l l y Rudolf's uarning  tuo  o r m a r r y i n g o f f i c e r s , and  is first  his  and  Sylvester  Regiment i s a  p a c k e t goes i n t o the  and  financial  f o r h i s u n i f o r m , mess  i s u n a b l e even t o pay  because h i s  uill  nine hundred  even t h e  uho  higher,  Sylvester  to have  216th I n f a n t r y  his  up  The  father,  went no  undergoes c o n s i d e r a b l e  to support him.  marks a y e a r t h a t the  t h a t he  The  poverty  are. uill  a  144 destroy the  of the a r i s t o c r a c y to p a r t i c i p a t e i n  army i s i l l u s t r a t e d  forced he  the a b i l i t y  t o turn  i n this  novel,  for Sylvester i s  doun t h e p o s i t i o n o f b a t t a l i o n a d j u t a n t  c a n n o t a f f o r d t o keep t h e n e c e s s a r y  horse.  The f i g u r e o f R u d o l f , u h o s e m i l i t a r y successful  than t h a t  hopes and f e a r s presently  f o r t h e army.  and s p i r i t u a l l y .  a cause, uhich particularly  to the others,  valuable  Ompteda's  The i d e a l i s m  and f o s t e r e d  c o m p o s i t i o n , Ompteda i n s i s t s  effectively  con-  i n t h e army.  s i d e , the narrou horizons  a r e made e v e n more r i g i d  this  that  be m a i n t a i n e d i f t h e a r i s t o c r a c y  of the o l d  by t h e n a t u r e o f t h e  army as an i n s t i t u t i o n , a n d i n t h e f i g u r e o f R u d o l f , shous t h a t  as a  i n t h e a r m y , a t l e a s t by i t s b e s t  t o be t h e d o m i n a n t f o r c e  aristocracy  i n the s e r v i c e of  t h e army and t h e a r i s t o c r a c y a r e v i r t u a l l y  these v a l u e s can only  On t h e d e b i t  both  a s p e c t o f t h e German c h a r a c t e r , i s  interchangeable i n their  the  characters,  On t h e one hand t h e a r m y , as  F r e n s s e n ' s Adam B a r f o o d a l s o s t r e s s e s  members, a n d s i n c e  tinues  i s more  c o n s t i t u t e d , forms t h e b u l u a r k o f t h e n a t i o n ,  physically  preserved  career  o f any o t h e r o f Ompteda's m a i n  i n d i c a t e s , b o t h a l o n e and i n c o n t r a s t  because  i s unnecessary.  Ompteda  To r e m a i n c a p a b l e o f r e a c t i n g  i n a n e u a g e , Ompteda r e a l i z e s t h a t  t h e army and  a r i s t o c r a c y a s a u h o l e must u n d e r s t a n d t h e neu d e v e l o p -  ments a n d s o c i a l  trends:  to close  t h e mind t o t h e t u e n t i e t h  c  century i s to ensure that  t h e neu c e n t u r y u i l l  overuhelm the  145 venerable  institutions  of h i s t o r y  e)  along u i t h  and s i m p l y c o n s i g n the other  them t o t h e a t t i c  forgotten relics  of feudalism.  Duty:  Nouhere i s t h e c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p t h e a r i s t o c r a c y more a p p a r e n t  b e t u e e n t h e army and  than i n the concept  of duty.  I n t h e n o v e l D i e SOnde Ompteda e x a m i n e s t h e c o n f l i c t i n g demands o f d u t y  t o h i s m i s t r e s s and d u t y  beset  a young o f f i c e r .  eines  Offiziers,"  Irrunqen 1887  The n o v e l , s u b t i t l e d  deals u i t h  "Geschichte  t h e same t o p i c as F o n t a n e ' s  and t h e c o n t r a s t b e t u e e n  the tuo novels  o f Ompteda's t a l e n t .  duty i n I r r u n g e n U i r r u n q e n  The c l a s h  i s more s u b t l y  illustrates  b e t u e e n l o v e and formulated  than  D i e SfJnde, s i n c e Ompteda does n o t q u e s t i o n t h e v a l u e s  implied i n either either  concept.  H a r f f ' s l o v e f o r Dagmar i s  g e n u i n e o r n o t , and d u t y  existent. Per  that  U i r r u n q e n , uhich appeared nine years e a r l i e r i n  the l i m i t s  in  to h i s class  i s either  The q u e s t i o n i n g o f t h e c o n c e p t  z u e i t e Schuss i s a b s e n t from  the poignancy sipated  a subtlety  such  Consequently  t o l e a v e Lene i s d i s -  by t h e a b s e n c e o f any r e a l  o f c o n s c i e n c e , and t h e m e l o d r a m a t i c exclude  that occurs i n  D i e SOnde.  o f Botho's d e c i s i o n  i n H a r f f s case  p r e s e n t o r non-  extremes o f the p l o t  as F o n t a n e ' s c h a r a c t e r s  Dagmar i s a s i n g e r , and a f o r e i g n e r  crisis  as u e l l ,  possess.  and s o s h e i s  146 even f a r t h e r removed from t h e s o c i a l officer has  than the o r d i n a r y  left  sphere of the Prussian  uorking-class  girl.  After  Harff  her she drouns h e r s e l f i n t h e S p r e e , a t h e a t r i c a l  exaggeration  t h a t weakens t h e i m p a c t o f t h e n o v e l ' s  social  comment, Harff's love after  she has s u r r e n d e r e d h e r v i r g i n i t y  upbringing strong is  has l e f t  him u i t h  a t t i t u d e t o Dagmar.  eine  Thus t h e s o c i a l  i s an i r r e c o n c i l a b l e  environment  A r t von E i t e l k e i t ,  inconsistency i n  On t h e one hand he i s p r o u d  t o be t h e r e c i p i e n t o f t h e l o v e uar  to him, f o r h i s  p a r t o f t h e a f f a i r , even a t t h e z e n i t h o f  love: there  Harff's  immediately  a s e t of moral p r e j u d i c e s too  t o be o v e r c o m e by l o v e .  an i n t e g r a l  their  f o r Dagmar b e g i n s t o d e c l i n e  o f a b e a u t i f u l uoman:  "Es  dass er s i c h m i t i h r z e i g e n  u o l l t e , urn d e r U e l t z u o f f e n b a r e n ,  uelchen Schatz er  76 besSsse," little to stay the  and on t h e o t h e r  i n common t h a t he becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y r e l u c t a n t alone i n her apartment.  theatre  u h e r e Dagmar f i r s t  that separates greeted  h a n d t h e y have b a s i c a l l y so  Their played  them: H a r f f i s j e a l o u s  only  excursion to  i n d i c a t e s the gulf b e c a u s e Dagmar i s  f r o m t h e s t a g e by an u n p l e a s a n t - l o o k i n g  and  t h e n a n n o y e d uhen he h e a r s a n o t h e r o f f i c e r 77  her  as " H a r f f ' s  her  to find  1/erhHltnis."  her former l a n d l a d y  seating, leering  The n e x t day he  juggler, describe visits  i n t h e a p a r t m e n t , a nau-  uoman uho s t e a l s Dagmar's s u g a r lumps and  whom H a r f f r i g h t l y introducing  men  suspects of wanting  t o Dagmar.  The  t o make a p r o f i t  f i g u r e of the  a n o t h e r o m i n o u s s i g n t h a t Dagmar, a l t h o u g h lives  in a uorld totally  landlady the  and  novel  of Harff  the  uhich and  alien  j u g g l e r are i n the  long  to H a r f f .  landlady  pure h e r s e l f , The  grotesque  run  submerge t h e p e r s o n a l i t i e s cliches.  H a r f f ' s s i n g l e attempt to b r i n g t o g e t h e r  private  He  and  Dagmar go  Feller.  thuarts  g r o u n d , and  she  the  tuo  uorlds  to d i n n e r — i n  room i n a r e s t a u r a n t — u i t h H a r f f ' s  confidant culture  disaster.  is  a l s o melodramatic elements i n  Dagmar i n a m o r a s s o f  ends i n t o t a l  by  friend  and  Dagmar's i n g e n u o u s i g n o r a n c e o f a r t  a l l efforts  to  f i n d a common  speaks only  of her  a  and  conversational  love:  l\lur uenn a u f H a r f f d i e S p r a c h e kam, s c h i e n i h r l / e r s t a n d und Zunge g e l B s t . S i e uar rOhrend i n i h r e r L i e b e , i n d i e s e r L i e b e , d i e den g e s a m t e n G e s i c h t s k r e i s a u f e i n e n M e n s c h e n b e s c h r S n k t e : den G e l i e b t e n . 78 D u r i n g t h e m e a l H a r f f becomes a c u t e l y lack of s o c i a l graces; to  dismember t h e  than i s p o l i t e . love  has  from her  turned logic  At t h i s  fish  he and  In the s o u r by to her  point  notices  pouring  love  Harff's  during  entrusted  him  situation  i n a m o d e r a t e and  that Harff u i l l  the  t h a t she  s p r e a d s her  follouing  conscious  Dagmar's  uses her  knife  e l b o u s more u i d e l y  c h a p t e r he  scorn  of  on  shous t h a t  everything  she  his does,  letters. c o l o n e l , t o uhom h i s d y i n g  battle  father  of G r a v e l o t t e , analyses  unprejudiced  r e s i g n h i s c o m m i s s i o n and  uay.  He  is  emigrate i n  the  afraid order  148 to  m a r r y Dagmar, and f o r m u l a t e s  precisely  t h e s t a t e o f mind  t h a t H a r f f has nou r e a c h e d : Uenn man h e r a u s g e r i s s e n i s t aus a l i e n L e b e n s b e d i n g u n g e n , uenn a l l e s f e h l t , u a s d u r c h E r z i e h u n g und G e u o h n h e i t begehrensuert, notuendig, j a unentbehrlich schien, dann l e i d e t d i e L i e b e . 79 H a r f f ' s l o v e has a l r e a d y ness o f s o c i a l longer  d i f f e r e n c e s , and t h e q u e s t i o n  one o f l o v e o r d u t y ,  He i s u e l l her:  been u n d e r m i n e d by t h e mere a w a r e -  but uhich  f o r him i s no  duty i s the s t r o n g e r .  a u a r e o f t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s f o r Dagmar i f he  "Uenn e r s i e h e u t e v e r l i e s s , so z e r t r a t  so v e r s c h U t t e t e  e r das B l u t e i n e s  er eine  leaves Seele,  H e r z e n s , so t H t e t e e r e i n  80 fremdes Leben."  Despite  duty t o the caste  the Colonel's  hinting  at h i s  and t o h i s f a t h e r ' s memory, H a r f f  feels  t h a t , s i n c e he h a s no f a m i l y , " n i c h t s v e r p f l i c h t e t e i h n , als  sein The  Geuissen."^ realization  that h i s conscience  m a r r y Dagmar and abandon h i s p r e s e n t the  fear that l i f e  uill  dictates  life  be u n b e a r a b l e u i t h  t h a t he  brings uith i t a uoman uhom he  d o e s n o t l o v e and t h a t t h e a b a n d o n m e n t o f t h e f a m i l i a r 82 uill  be " d a s S c h e i d e n vom D a s e i n . "  intolerable  prospect,  Faced u i t h  this  Harff's subconscious searches  e x c u s e t o deny h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  f o r an  t o Dagmar, and he s o o n  f i n d s such a j u s t i f i c a t i o n  i n doubts about her p u r i t y  their  f o r these  the  affair.  The i m p e t u s  doubts i s provided  s i g h t o f t u o s i n g e r s , uho a r e no more t h a n  at a stag party given  uorld  by h i s b r o t h e r  officers.  before by  prostitutes, Harff  149 i m m e d i a t e l y adds a p r e j u d i c e uhich  born o f u i s h f u l  thinking  f a r exceeds the i m p l i c a t i o n s o f the c o l o n e l ' s  comment t h a t virtue  lack of proper education  harder  to retain:  and s u p e r v i s i o n  makes  "Und u a r s i e a u c h an e i n e m  grflsseren E t a b l i s s e m e n t nur a u f g e t r e t e n , "  he t h i n k s ,  83 " i m m e r h i n , es k l e b t e virgin  zu v i e l  daran."  b e f o r e they met, there  I f Dagmar u e r e n o t a  e x i s t s no m o r a l d u t y f o r him  t o m a r r y h e r , " u a s im t i e f s t e n G r u n d s e i n e r 84 Uunsch der E r l B s u n g  schlief,"  Dagmar r e f u s e s her  Seele a l s  t o answer h i s q u e s t i o n ,  uhich  considering  p o s i t i o n as a s c o r n e d b u t l o v i n g uoman i s s u p r e m e l y  i n s u l t i n g , b u t t h e n e x t day he r e t u r n s , as h i s c o n s c i e n c e has  reasserted  itself  unhappy c o i n c i d e n c e corroborates  and i n s i s t e d  on h e r p u r i t y .  of the obnoxious j u g g l e r ' s  Harff's  suspicions  and t h e d e s i r e  o f h e r , n o t t o have t o s a c r i f i c e  h i s future  The  presence t o be  free  f o r a uoman he  does n o t l o v e , makes him u n a b l e t o a d m i t t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f any  other  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n other  a justification desperate love iate  f o r abandoning h e r . and i n j u r e d p r i d e  i n Dagmar and H a r f f ' s  immed-  a b s o l v e s him o f r e s p o n -  makes i t c l e a r e v e n t h e c o l o n e l ' s  the r e l a t i o n s h i p betueen upbringing  inadequate i n t h i s  provides  The c o m b i n a t i o n o f  acceptance of the s o l u t i o n that  sibility on  t h a n t h e one t h a t  generalizations  and v i r t u e a r e  situation.  A l t h o u g h by t h e a c t o f l e a v i n g  Dagmar H a r f f h a s  placed  150 her  in a situation  destroy  her,  largely  i n Harff's  by  guilt  that, emotionally  Ompteda f o l l o w s h i s s t o r y  are  two  recovery  of  Professor  Diethoff,  Whereas t h e  clarity, colonel  responsibility impossibility  d u t y , not herself  only  to look  but  individual  generally  struggle in  the  of  full  r e c o v e r her  The  s i n i s not  dem  natilrlichen  recht  s i n as  a "secondary  , , , was  "die  w e l l as  the  the  from one's of l o v e ,  a  speech,  as  loose  of  with  to i t ,  was  heritage,  H a r f f has  p u r e b e f o r e she Marriage to  transgression  T h a t he she  e m o t i o n a l or her  s i n , but  the  a  surrendered Dagmar  both,  knowledge t h a t  new  situation  colonel's  against  pinpoints  Dagmar's v i r g i n i t y , her  for s u r v i v a l .  on  the  o f s o c i e t y and  a c c e p t e d c o n v e n t i o n , and  appropriation  grandeur of  claims  to h i m s e l f ,  w o u l d h a v e d e s t r o y e d them Diethoff defines  at the  responsibility  also  Figuring  breakdown b r o u g h t  complements the  t o Dagmar, who  to him,  end.  D i e t h o f f , whose a n a l y s i s  of c u t t i n g oneself  D i e t h o f f speaks of the  must  r o l e i n H e r z e l o " d e , and  spoke of the  of the  socially,  to the  b e a u t y and  a similar  his motives enables Harff c a l m n e s s and  from the  f a c t o r s : the  Dolomites, which play advice  and  the the  subsequently  abandoned  her,  social  G e f U h l , , , und  as  weapon i n  had  und  Harff's  one  not  the  strength  fOr  to  p o s i t i o n , i s not  appearance" of the  T h a t an  a  a  original  s i c h , denn s i e  d i e Natur hat  one.  entsprang  immer  a u c h d i e M e n s c h e n s a g e n mflgen . . .  aber  151 d i e That a n g e s i c h t s  des V e r d a m m u n g s u r t e i l s der G e s e l l s c h a f t 85  gegen das riMdchen." In h i s endeavour morality  of Uilhelminian  moral order ruined  that u i l l  lives,  take the u l t i m a t e altogether  P r u s s i a , and e s t a b l i s h a s a n e r  n o t t a k e such a t o l l  uith  conventions.  i n m i s e r y and  step  that  desire  As a r e s u l t he c a n n o t  F r e n s s e n does i n d i s p e n s i n g  the concept of s i n i n sexual r e l a t i o n s h i p s ,  h a s t o e s t a b l i s h an i n f a l l i b l e  nature.  the e x i s t i n g  Ompteda i s hampered by h i s s i m u l t a n e o u s  to uphold the s o c i a l  but  t o come t o g r i p s u i t h  higher  Frenssen maintains simply  morality, that of  that natural  desires  c a n n o t be c o n d e m n e d , b u t Ompteda goes f u r t h e r , i n v e s t i n g them u i t h  the i n f a l l i b i l i t y  natural universe. Harff the  o f an i n t e g r a l  The s e t t i n g f o r t h i s  and D i e t h o f f , amid t h e m a j e s t i c  part  of the  converstion  mountains t h a t  c o n c e r n s o f men t o i n s i g n i f i c a n c e , u n d e r l i n e s  o f n a t u r e , and makes a l l t h e more s u r p r i s i n g conclusion,  uhich  Unfortunately  i n e f f e c t gives Diethoff  that  t a k e t o do p e n a n c e f o r h i s s i n by p l a c i n g h i m s e l f  uhile  consistent  basis  of the colonel's  preceded H a r f f ' s up  h i s fortune,  conventions. he u n d e r -  i n the  Dagmar, a s o l u t i o n  from a m o r a l s t a n d p o i n t ,  talk  the unity  primacy to s o c i a l  placed  reduce  Diethoff's  suggests to Harff  same p o s i t i o n as h i s a c t i o n s  betueen  destroys  uhich,  the s o c i a l  s p e e c h : t h e " s i n " had a f t e r a l l uith  the c o l o n e l .  at l e a s t temporarily,  Harff  should  and u n d e r t a k e  give  some  hard uork t o b u i l d  an i n d e p e n d e n t e x i s t e n c e w i t h o u t t h e  a d v a n t a g e s o f money o r s o c i a l only  position.  Penance i s n o t  a moral i m p e r a t i v e , but a l s o a p a l l i a t i v e  for Harff's  conscience: Und i n leicht kehren Heimat So  der A r b e i t l i e g t d i e H e i l u n g . Uenn dann v i e l Dahre v e r g a n g e n s i n d , u e r u e i s s . . . am Ende S i e e i n m a l z u r U c k und ddJrfen s i c h e i n e neue i n d e r a l t e n g r t l n d e n . 86  H a r f f goes o f f t o d r i l l  for o i l uith  a neu German  company i n t h e b a n d i t - i n f e s t e d m o u n t a i n s o f A s i a having uhich  effected precisely  t h e c o l o n e l warned h i m .  balance and be the  the o s t r a c i s m  the inherent  meant t o r e p r e s e n t  Ompteda makes no a t t e m p t t o  the h i g h e r  a more s h a l l o w  philosophy, philosophy  responsibility,  of the i n d i v i d u a l  f o r then  w o u l d be  I t c a n n o t be t h a t Ompteda h e r e i s imperative  solution  The c o l o n e l ' s w o r d s c a n h a r d l y  w h o l e b a s i s o f Ompteda's s o c i a l  undermined.  from s o c i e t y about  c o n t r a d i c t i o n of Diethoff's  the c o l o n e l ' s p o s i t i o n .  Minor,  demonstrating  moral over the s o c i a l  f o r the c o l o n e l ' s words, spoken i n the  k n o w l e d g e t h a t t h e s i n h a s been c o m m i t t e d , d w e l l on t h e difficulties  of l i v i n g  even w i t h t h e b e l o v e d . either worlds,  o u t s i d e the accustomed s o c i a l Harff's position  sphere,  at the end, without  l o v e o r s o c i e t y , a p p e a r s t o be t h e w o r s t o f b o t h the only  of p e n i t e n c e . consistency  redeeming  Since  there  f e a t u r e o f which l i e s i s no l o g i c a l  in a  feeling  or a e s t h e t i c  i n the ending of the n o v e l , the inescapable  c o n c l u s i o n i s t h a t Ompteda w a n t e d a p o i g n a n t e n d i n g w i t h a  153 m o r a l , b u t i n so d o i n g he presented  d e s t r o y s h i s oun  i n the c o l o n e l ' s  Whether H a r f f had  logical  argument,  speech,  f o l l o w e d the c o l o n e l ' s  advice  and  r e m a i n e d i n t h e a r m y , or t h a t o f D i e t h o f f , he s t i l l  ac-  k n o w l e d g e s t h e p a r a m o u n t c y o f d u t y , be i t s o c i a l  moral.  or  87 "Dies e i s e r n e Uort" Sylvester  von  motivating  p r o v i d e s the main s a t i s f a c t i o n  Geyer's j o y l e s s  factor  for CMcilie  e x i s t e n c e , and von  S a r r y n , uho  e x t e n t to u h i c h a r i s t o c r a t i c l i f e of  the o f f i c e r ' s  g i v e n duty bring  code o f d u t y ,  t h a t she  up h e r  mother o f her for  In  fulfilling  discharging The  sister's  i t s broadening  both  CHcilie  state  and  Though Ompteda waxes a t  times  Cacilie's  resignation  the compensation  she  c h i l d r e n , the n o v e l i s  duty  to her  a p e r s o n a l and  precepts  and  of her  finds  God-  as  own the  significant of  duty.  family, CMcilie i s  a social  responsibility.  i n the organism  f o r the P r u s s i a n a r i s t o c r a t  loyalty  to  of the  i t s i n s t i t u t i o n s , most i m p o r t a n t l y , o f c o u r s e , t h e  army, i s s y m b o l i z e d u n t e r t h a n , von Majestat!»  the  place  f a m i l y i s simply the s m a l l e s t c e l l  t h e s t a t e , and  the  a c c e p t s i t as h e r  of the scope of the concept her  prime  dead s i s t e r ' s  mawkishly s e n t i m e n t a l over c h a n c e o f m o t h e r h o o d and  shous  i s p e r m e a t e d by  must t a k e h e r  children.  i s the  in  88  by l o y a l t y  to the s o v e r e i g n :  niemand abhMngig!  Even i n t h e c o n f u s e d  ub e r uns ending  nur  "Niemand  einer:  Seine  of Die Stinde, H a r f f  goes o f f t o work f o r a German company t h e r e b y  fulfilling  his  154 duty to the s t a t e .  Ompteda c o n c e i v e s o f d u t y as t h e i n -  dispensable mortar uhich society.  to society's  implications  the e d i f i c e  of  r e v i t a l i z a t i o n by c l a r i f y i n g t h e  o f t h e code o f d u t y so t h a t , s t r i p p e d o f  and p r e j u d i c e ,  guidelines  t h e code c a n p r o v i d e  f o r personal conduct.  achieve the desired as  together  I n a n o v e l s u c h as D i e Silnde he a t t e m p t s t o  contribute  confusion  holds  a uriter  clarity  and i n p a r t  of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c his  veneration  the  objectivity  Ompteda's f a i l u r e t o  i s due i n p a r t  to h i s limitations  to h i s unuillingness  features  t o abandon any  o f the a r i s t o c r a t i c  of the t r a d i t i o n necessary  effective  system:  i s t o o g r e a t t o a l l o u him  f o r the advocacy o f  significant  c h a n g e , and i n c o n s e q u e n c e h i s v i s i o n  o f Germany's  is  the a t t i t u d e s of the  restricted  individual  t o an a t t e m p t t o r e f o r m  to e x i s t i n g  social  The e t h i c o f s o c i a l the  institutions.  responsibility  devoted e n t i r e l y ^ to the p u r s u i t  of their  hedonistic  careers  by n e g l e c t  of their  parental  should intervene  also  natural carry  Eva,  by f a m i l y  tragedies,  responsibilities.  i s rooted i n a b e l i e f  universe,  i n uhich  s u c h as C o u n t  Both are j o l t e d  i n t h i s uay s h o u s hou f i r m l y  concept of n o b i l i t y the  uhose l i v e s a r e  of pleasure,  E y s e n and C H c i l i e ' s b e a u t i f u l s i s t e r  on  i s u n d e r s c o r e d by  f a t e o f t h o s e o f Ompteda's c h a r a c t e r s  out  rebirth  the s t a t e  the s e a l of l e g i t i m a c y .  brought  That  fate  Ompteda's  i n the u n i t y of and i t s i n s t i t u t i o n s  155 f ) The  Monarchy:  Uithin novels,  the  the  After  the  again  urote  confined  essentially  p o s i t i o n of the  the  kind  himself  of the  of novels  nostalgic  fareuell  century  I I I , published to the  important i n s t i t u t i o n . depiction  of the  Fabian the  he  i n 1925,  court  serves  p e r f o r m e d by  i t s p o s i t i o n as  the  old Reich,  August  In the  "der  to the  i t s most  rather  scornful  existence, the  the  k i n g , and  the  I I , the love  the  court  and  the  useful  s t e r n sense of  duty  action.  a medium-sized kingdom i n the  e x e m p l a r y i n d u s t r y and  but  i s a uhimsical,  Ompteda p a i n t s  sounds v e r y l i k e  attempt to u i n the  describes  i t s mountains, l a k e s , i n d u s t r i a l  and  Ernst  memoirs.  p r i m a r i l y to i l l u s t r a t e  t h a t uatches over h i s every Tillen, uith  famous,  of Sarnheim-Resa i n Eysen, uhere  l i g h t i n uhich  kingdom o f T i l l e n  uas  v a n i s h e d e p o c h and  In c o n t r a s t  questioned.  and  Saxon k i n g  c h a m b e r l a i n spends h i s f u t i l e  ironic  of Saxony.  for uhich  Ompteda's  Ompteda n e v e r  schtine G r 9 f i n C o s e l , he  eighteenth  Ernst  function  monarch i s never  to mountaineering novels  Starke,"  gently  s o c i e t y of  c o l l a p s e o f t h a t s o c i e t y i n 1918  h i s l a s t n o v e l , Die court  feudal  Ompteda's a d o p t e d  region heart  homeland  h e r o ' s p r e d e c e s s o r , makes  o f h i s p e o p l e , and brilliant  Seine MajestMt e r f r e u t e s i c h  no  so, despite  mind: einer  of  erstaunlichen  his  156 Unbeliebtheit, D i e I n d u s t r i e a r b e i t e r und B e r g l e u t e des K r e i s e s S t a n g e n b e r g , d i e E r z k a p p e n aus d e r Munde, vernahmen n i c h t s e i n e Stimme, s o n d e r n j e n e i h r e r F U h r e r , d i e ihnen u e i t schflnere Dinge v e r s p r a c h e n an kommender G l d l c k s e l i g k e i t , an U o h l l e b e n u i e F a u l e n zertum, a l s dieser f i n s t e r blickender Schlagetod von KOnig. 89 Had  t h i s novel  been u r i t t e n  been i n t e r p r e t e d i n t h e  prior  same l i g h t  of Ernst  I I I , i n i t s combination  devotion  to d u t y ,  after  Ompteda's y o u t h and  chamberlain  The  Before  p e n u r y and  ignored  uncle  intention  i n fact  an appeared re-  to the u o r l d  of  counteract ruling  the  conventional are  image o f  so empty t h a t  the  regal the  chamber  falls  off  and  Prince Arbogast i s kept i n  c o u r t ; he the  handle  only  crown,  becomes k i n g  Theodor, the  after  only  r o y a l f a m i l y , made h i s f o r t u n e i n a  as a b u s i n e s s m a n i n A m e r i c a ,  of p r e s e n t i n g  same c o n c e r n s as o t h e r  and  straight,  his accession  w e a l t h y member o f t h e way:  of  t o r e n e u t h e Crown P r i n c e ' s  by  reign  d e s c r i b i n g c o n d i t i o n s at court i n  Theodor r e f u s e s  most u n r e g a l  survival  attempt to  i n h i s d e a t h when t h e  cuts him.  his  by  an  royal coffers  refuses  pot, r e s u l t i n g  the  "common t o u c h "  o f Germany's f o r m e r  to demolish  magnificence.  of the  the n o v e l  i n p a r t as  record  Ompteda b e g i n s as  Eysen, u i t h  affectionate fareuell  spoke o n l y i l l  h o u s e s , to s e t the  s u c h a uay  Since  i t m i g h t have  t h e K a i s e r ' s a b d i c a t i o n , i t must be  g a r d e d i n p a r t as an  t h o s e uho  as  a b l u e p r i n t f o r the  endangered i n s t i t u t i o n . seven years  to 1918,  royalty  as h a v i n g  s e c t i o n s of the  Ompteda's  essentially  population  the  becomes  even c l e a r e r  after  A r b o g a s t i s c r o w n e d as E r n s t  much o f t h e humour o f t h e n o v e l like  derives  an o r d i n a r y young man a f t e r  k e e p s h i s army b a t m a n , C o r p o r a l  I I I , and  from h i s b e h a v i n g  ascending  the throne.  He  P i e p h a c k e , who e n c o u r a g e s h i s  r o y a l m a s t e r w i t h most u n c o u r t l y l a n g u a g e , and t h e " H o f - und Leibscheuerfrau"  Lore Lene, a p r e t t y blonde g i r l ,  confidante  her death.  until  Although Ernst's circumvention personal  visits  to i t .  are serious  i s i n e s c a p a b l e , and Ompteda shows t h e k i n g w o r k i n g as  facing  s p a r t a n l y i n two rooms  t h e r o y a l s t a b l e s and f r e e z i n g because o f t h e l a c k  of c e n t r a l h e a t i n g . heating  i n the palace  There i s a s h a r p c o n t r a s t between t h e and i n t h e p a r l i a m e n t  the "Schwitzkasten,"  which the l e a d e r  o p p o s i t i o n , Herr Schreyer is  (virtually  b u i l d i n g , known  of the s o c i a l i s t  e v e r y name i n t h e n o v e l  a " r e d e n d e r Name," a t o u r - d e - f o r c e  over  f o u r h u n d r e d and  e i g h t y - t h r e e p a g e s b u t e v e n t u a l l y somewhat t e d i o u s reader!)  k e e p s l u x u r i o u s l y warm.  between p a l a c e  and p a r l i a m e n t  sharp c o n t r a s t i n e f f i c i e n c y . install scant  i n his  The b u r d e n o f r o u t i n e a u d i e n c e s and  h a r d as any o f h i s s u b j e c t s , l i v i n g  as  of court r i t u a l  d e a l i n g s becomes p r e d i c t a b l e , t h e r e  implications  i s his  central  regard  heating  This  f o r the  contrast i n temperature  i s paralleled  by an e q u a l l y  I n t h e d e b a t e on w h e t h e r t o  i n t h e p a l a c e , Ompteda shows h i s  f o r the parliamentary  members engage i n r h e t o r i c  process.  designed to please  Uhile the their  c o n s t i t u e n t s , E r n s t and acker,  rule  the  during less  towards the  the  acid  doubt a f e r v e n t m o n a r c h i s t ,  servile  s c r a p i n g which  Uilhelminian era r e s u l t s than  reason of course i s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t :  the monarchy i n t o  feels  but  only  slightly  Untertan.  Ompteda, who  t h a t such s e r v i l i t y  his  flourished  i n a scorn  t h a t o f H e i n r i c h Mann's P e r  the i n s t i t u t i o n ,  Sturz-  country.  Ompteda i s w i t h o u t attitude  h i s P r i m e M i n i s t e r , B a r o n von  merely  The  reveres brings  disrepute:  ' E i n w i l d e r S c h r e i des S c h m e r z e s z i t t e r t d u r c h a l l e T i l l e n e r H e r z e n , ' so s c h r i e b d e r S t a a t s a n z e i g e r , o b w o h l g e w i s s a c h t u n d n e u n z i g vom H u n d e r t s M m t l i c h e r T i l l e n den armen K r o n p r i n z e n n i e zu G e s i c h t bekommen h a t t e n ) i n jenem S p e i c h e l l e c k e r s t i l , d e r , den K f l n i g s g e d a n k e n u n r e t t b a r s c h S d i g e n d , g e r a d e von E r n s t dem Z w e i t e n imrner v e r s p o t t e t w u r d e . 90 Ernst cheering  I I I d o e s h i s u t m o s t t o do  away w i t h  whenever the k i n g a p p e a r s , s i n c e the  that r e a l l y  b e n e f i t s t h e monarchy s p r i n g s  affection.  T h i s he  mingles with and he one  is still  on  the  evils  forced enthusiasm  genuine goes, for  of them, speaks t h e i r  contrary  of property  Although  to popular  scene at h i s d i l a p i d a t e d l a k e c a s t l e by  he  king  belief,  and  i s given  a  in  a furniture polisher  Ernst suggests t h a t , s i n c e the p o l i s h e r  a g a i n s t p r o p e r t y , he  should  exchange h i s s i l v e r  he  dialects,  t h i n k s t h a t E r n s t , r e t u r n i n g from a swim, i s the  gardener's mate. is  c r e a t e s w h e r e v e r he  p e o p l e as one  a p o o r man,  only  from  i s i n t e r e s t e d i n them as i n d i v i d u a l s .  lecture who  the  readily  the  watch  159 for  E r n s t ' s cheap o n e — u i t h  predictable results.  Ompteda s e e s t h e m o n a r c h y as an bridging the he  the g u l f  chapter  betueen the  instrument  classes.  At  of u n i t y ,  the  beginning  containing Ernst's discussion uith  l a m e n t s i n an  ironic  uay  the  total  lack of  the  of  polisher,  communication  91 or u n d e r s t a n d i n g  betueen the  classes,  a p p a r e n t t h a t Ompteda h i m s e l f has c l a s s i s the  sole guardian  Kriegsgottes but  K o t z von  Gerben."  equally honourable.  visits  Herr S c h r e y e r ,  i n the  untadeligen  "ebenso u n t a d e l i g e 92  i t i s o n c e more  illusions  of v i r t u e  c o m p a r e s " d i e G e s c h a T t s e h r e des Maulbeer" to the  no  and  that his  nation:  Offiziersehre  T h e i r codes are  socialist  he  SeidenhMndlers  Uhen P r i m e M i n i s t e r von  the  oun  l e a d e r , he  des different Sturzacker  takes  note  o f t h e p i c t u r e s on t h e u a l l s : An d e r Uand e r b l i c k t man i n e i n f a c h e n Rahmen e i n e A r t A h n e n g a l e r i e , nMmlich d i e Herren Marx, E n g e l s , L a s a l l e , B a b e l und L i e b k n e c h t . Der B e s u c h d e n k t l H c h e l n d an s e i n Zimmer i n S t u r z a c k e r , uo H h n l i c h e B i l d e r h & n g e n , nur a n d e r e r A r t , n H m l i c h S t u r z e und O s t e r b u r g e r . 93 The  t o n e o f amused i r o n y h e r e i s s i g n i f i c a n t  compared t o the  K a i s e r ' s l o a t h i n g of the  his strong utterances Gesellen." his  Sturzacker  colleagues  p a r t y , but  he  but  the  the  subject of  socialists,  s e e s no  and  "vaterlandslose  merely notes t h a t Herr Schreyer  have d i f f e r e n t h e r o e s t o t h e  t h a t the m o n a r c h i c a l uas,  on  uhen  need t o s t i f l e principal  croun represents  i s not  and  monarchist  dissent. as s t r o n g  He  realizes  as i t o n c e  a unifying force i f properly  160 presented to the people, without the-excesses of right-wing adulation just  or l e f t - w i n g v i l i f i c a t i o n .  before  the procession" i n uhich  Scandinavian b r i d e , Sturzacker significance  o f such  I n an i m p o r t a n t Ernst  brings  and t h e k i n g  scene  home h i s  discuss the  spectacles.  Sturz: 'Es s t S r k t a u c h den m o n a r c h i s c h e n G e d a n k e n , und . . . d e r k a n n ' s b r a u c h e n , I c h f U r c h t e , e r i s t ein bisschen wacklich. Euer MachestMt haben m i r n e u l i c h e r z M h l t , was d e r G r o s s h e r z o g vom U e s t e r w a l d von d e r E i n k r e i s u n g g e s c h r i e b e n h a t . . . . N a , dann m e i n e i c h : das A l l e r w i c h t i g s t e i s t , d a s s w i r D e u t s c h e n g e s c h l o s s e n s i n d , und da b r a u c h e n w i r a l l e V o l k s teile. Es w i r d a b e r manches g e s O n d i g t , n i c h t n u r v o n unten!' 94 Ernst  a g r e e s t h a t a s t a t e needs b o t h o r d e r  and t o l e r -  a n c e , "und u e r b e i S c h r e y e r n i c h t p a r i e r t , f l i e g t  eher a l s  95 bei uns," servility  b u t he a s k s how t h e k i n g of h i s subordinates,  can overcome t h e  w h i c h g e n e r a t e s an e q u a l l y  e x t r e m e c o u n t e r - e m o t i o n among t h e o p p o s i t i o n , and c r e a t e one  unified  royal are is  national family.  Sturzacker  s p e c t a c l e s , which a t t r a c t  one way t o b r i n g a l l c l a s s e s t o g e t h e r . a triumphal  success,  that  e v e r y o n e and b e n e f i t a l l , The  procession  b u t E r n s t n o t i c e s one r e d f l a g  a m i d t h e r e d and g r e e n b a n n e r s o f T i l l e n : der  replies  " H i n g n i c h t an  T i l l e n b r O c k e , Mahnung kommender Z e i t e n , e i n b l u t r o t e r  Fetzen?" The  9 6  i n c r e a s i n g l y tense r e l a t i o n s  pouers a f t e r voices  remain  between t h e European  1900 make i t i m p e r a t i v e  that the d i s s e n t i n g  "His Majesty's l o y a l  Opposition,"—sonst—  161 finis  G e r m a n i a e ! " — b u t the  ruling  class  of n a t i o n a l interest  are  t h e m s e l v e s not  unity.  and  conservative  They must l o w e r t h e  nation  not  life.  Ompteda h e r e s t a n d s on  and of  excluded  from the  the  Tillen  the  the  government i s of l i t t l e to the  state.  s y s t e m , the  service  the  and  duty t h a t to the  i s the  nation,  developments of  direction  of  a mass i n d u s t r i a l  d e m o c r a c y c a n n o t be  Uilhelminian  Simone von  of  the  twentieth  the  and  the  garrison  town o f  of  people  traditional  concomitant code  of  most i m p o r t a n t salvation century i n  of the  a participatory  o l d Germany, Ompteda's  i s worth p r e s e r v i n g .  ( H e i m a t des  Frenssen  business  the  sees the  society  the  deliberations  e i t h e r to  Germany d e s e r v e s t h e  Rundstetten  bleak l i t t l e  the  i g n o r e d , but  much t h a t  he  self-  national  i n the  evolution  that  question  basically feels  aristocracy's  The  ills,  he  o f i t s f a u l t s and  Germany,  Germany, has  that  population  I t i s i n the  the  r e s t of  of i t s v i r t u e s , i n p a r t i c u l a r the  contribution  the  that  same g r o u n d as  real benefit  eradication  preservation  the  the  mainstream of  parliament indicates  p a r t i c i p a t i o n of  and  b a r r i e r s of  U a s s e r m a n n , a l t h o u g h h i s amusement a t t h e  that  or  w i t h o u t s i n on  "StandesdOnkel" i n order  feel  parties  For  parting  H e r z e n s ) as  all its comment o f  she  leaves  Rosenau to r e t u r n  to  97 France:  "Es  i s t doch schHn h i e r . "  In h i s c o n t r a s t of  duty with  the  of  selfish  the  traditional  materialism  of  aristocratic  ethic  the  Ompteda  new  age,  162 shares  the concern  f o r the n a t i o n ' s sense  of values that  98 his  friend  U i l h e l m von P o l e n z  expresses  Though h i s c h a r a c t e r s a r e a r i s t o c r a t s Ompteda's n o v e l s a r e t r u e revitalization the b e s t attacks  from  institutions  criticism  the r i g i d  and d i r e c t s  conventions  neu l i f e  the Prussian a r i s t o c r a c y .  possible  Frenssen  R e i c h , Ompteda  h i s attention to  i n such  i t s leadership  endeavours to breathe  Uhereas  oun code o f c o n d u c t .  and t h e d u e l , and s t r e s s i n g  i n exercising  farmers,  and v a l u e s as  i n the U i l h e l m i n i a n  of the a r i s t o c r a c y ' s  liberalizing relations  injustices  such  than  "Heimatromane," a d v o c a t i n g a  of t r a d i t i o n a l  specific  the r e f o r m  of  rather  f o u n d a t i o n f o r a r e b o r n Germany.  abstains  effort  i n Per B u t t n e r b a u e r .  fields  as s e x u a l  t h e need f o r g r e a t e r  of the n a t i o n ,  into  the venerable  Before  By  Ompteda traditions  1918 h i s v i s i o n  of a  f u t u r e s t a t e i s one i n u h i c h t h e t r a d i t i o n a l  institutions  and v a l u e s , re-endoued u i t h  the e l a s t i c i t y of  y o u t h , c a n a d a p t t o neu demands and neu c h a l l e n g e s : h i s conception belief  of national rebirth  that the r e v i t a l i z a t i o n  l e a d e r s h i p of the nation u i l l  i s based l a r g e l y  o f u h a t he r e g a r d s as t h e inevitably  c h a n g e s i n a l l a r e a s o f German l i f e . of  reform  extremely  aristocracy  limited:  as t h e d e c i s i v e  is  more r e f l e c t i v e  of  his perspicacity.  on t h e  beneficial  Not o n l y i s t h e d e g r e e  the e n t i r e factor  produce  concept  of the  i n Uilhelminian  Germany  o f Ompteda's d e v o t i o n t o t r a d i t i o n After  than  t h e c a t a s t r o p h e o f November 1 9 1 8 ,  163 this  solution  bids  farewell,  resurrect  i s no  longer  a possibility  and  he  f o r no  aristocratic  Adam B a r f o o d  "die ISngst  verschollene  Zeit."  99  lovingly can  164 Jakob  Uassermann  J a k o b U a s s e r m a n n uas Frenssen child  and  and  unjust stepmother,  uas  literary  development.  reflected  dritte  NUrnberg, the  first  proved  t o be  of being  f o r Uassermann's  experience  a  an  personal  of h i s stepmother  service. year  young o f f i c e r s  s c h o o l , Jakob  a t m o s p h e r e uas  decided  U a s s e r m a n n uas  and  t h a t he  uas in  such  s h o u l d do  Vienna, that his  able to take advantage  the a n t i - s e m i t i s m of both  him  and  A sense of s o c i a l thus  from  of  officers  the comradeship t h a t both  Frenssen's  farmboys f i n d  i s o l a t i o n , u h i c h uas  never  i n the  Ompteda's army.  completely  added t o U a s s e r m a n n ' s c h i l d h o o d  o f b e i n g an o u t s i d e r i n h i s oun In 1892,  Kerkhovens  o p t i o n open t o t h e s o n s o f t h e b o u r g e o i s i e ,  excluded  o v e r c o m e , uas  Joseph  ouned a f a n f a c t o r y  of the b u s i n e s s the f a m i l y  but h i s p o v e r t y men  death  milestone i n  the f e e l i n g  finishing  t o h i s u n c l e , uho  tuo years  t h e one  The  a crucial  GSnsemHnnchen and After  but h i s l o a t h i n g  military  and  The  i n many o f h i s m a j o r n o v e l s , e s p e c i a l l y i n  Existenz.  apprenticed  after  after  second u i f e  of extreme importance  C a s p a r H a u s e r , Das  and  later  childhood, for his father's  o u t c a s t uas  is  ten years  o f an u n s u c c e s s f u l J e u i s h b u s i n e s s m a n .  harsh  and  i n 1873,  Ompteda, i n F U r t h near  of h i s mother n i n e years his  born  experience  family.  on h i s d i s c h a r g e , U a s s e r m a n n r e t u r n e d  to  165 NOrnberg, uhere h i s l i f e is  on t h e f r i n g e s  of the underworld  described i n Daniel Nothafft's experiences  mSnnchen. his  Upon r e a c h i n g  i n Das GSnse-  t u e n t y - o n e he r e c e i v e d t h e r e s t o f  mother's s m a l l i n h e r i t a n c e , h a l f  o f u h i c h had a l r e a d y  been u s e d t o f i n a n c e h i s army y e a r , and moved t o M u n i c h . Here he s a n k i n t o  almost t o t a l  isolation  until  E r n s t von  U o l z o g e n , uho gave him a j o b as a s e c r e t a r y , became e n t h u s i a s t i c over  Uassermann's f i r s t  literary  he u a s i n t r o d u c e d t o t h e b o h e m i a n l i t e r a r y d e s c r i b e s i n Renate  the p u b l i c a t i o n  by M e l u s i n e . uritten uas  c a r e e r uas l a u n c h e d  o f M e l u s i n e , u h i c h uas a c t u a l l y  i s b a s e d on t h e uoman u i t h  i n v o l v e d f o r four years  1898.  i n 1896  o f D i e 3uden v o n Z i r n d o r f , f o l l o u e d  The h e r o i n e  first,  u o r l d u h i c h he  Fuchs.  Uassermann's l i t e r a r y uith  e f f o r t s , and  until  uhom U a s s e r m a n n  he moved t o V i e n n a i n  He u a s a l s o c o - e d i t o r o f t h e m a g a z i n e S i m p l i c i s s i m u s ,  p u b l i s h e d by A l b e r t L a n g e n , U a s s e r m a n n ' s p u b l i s h e r . Follouing contact uith tuo  t h e move t o V i e n n a ,  U a s s e r m a n n came  a s o p h i s t i c a t e d , cosmopolitan  of i t s chief  into  culture  through  e x p o n e n t s , Hugo v o n H o f m a n n s t h a l and s  Arthur The  in uas  S c h n i t z l e r , uhom he met i n t h e h o u s e o f h i s f i a n c e e .  l a r g e p e r c e n t a g e o f 3 e u s among t h e V i e n n e s e  elite  2  intellectual  p r o t e c t e d Uassermann from t h e a n t i - s e m i t i s m  G e r m a n y , and i n t h e t o l e r a n t  prevalent  atmosphere o f Vienna  no c o n f i n i n g code t o s h a c k l e h i s l i t e r a r y  talent.  there 3  166 Uassermann j o y f u l l y literary diaries uithin  "guild"  responded  t o h i s a c c e p t a n c e by  i n V i e n n a , and  h i s correspondence  g i v e evidence of the f i r m this  The  the  friendships  he  and  established  group.^  p r e s e n c e o f an e s t a b l i s h e d  literary  circle  a c o n t e x t f o r Uassermann's e a r l y n o v e l s forms c o n t r a s t to Frenssen's i n t e l l e c t u a l student days.  Around  1940  as  a sharp  loneliness  during his  Frenssen urote i n h i s d i a r y :  A l s Student i n B e r l i n b e r O h r t e mich d i e damalige g e i s t i g e Beuegung g a r n i c h t . Zola, Nietzsche, B e b e l , S t r i n d b e r g , Hauptmann u a r e n f U r m i c h n i c h t d a ; i c h l e b t e im G e i s t e — u n d l e b t e O p p i g — d e r h e i m a t l i c h e n M e n s c h e n und Z u s t M n d e . 5 Even a f t e r  the phenomenal s u c c e s s o f 3Brn U h l i n  Frenssen remained the l i t e r a r y  a solitary  circle  and i n t e l l e c t u a l  figure, standing  of "Heimatdichter."  r i g o u r might  h a v e been  i n f l u e n c e d by g r e a t e r c o n t a c t u i t h  1901,  apart  from  Uhile his style beneficially  the l i t e r a r y  uorld,  the  e s s e n t i a l core of Frenssen's u o r k , the atmosphere of  Dith-  marschen, might  In  any  c a s e , Frenssen p e r s o n a l l y never  literary his  a t t h e same t i m e h a v e been d i l u t e d .  spiritual material  from t h e v i l l a g e i s essentially  life  Ompteda's p e r c e p t i o n  a uide c i r c l e  of a  as w e l l  around  similar.  a t t e m p t s t o r e f o r m some o f i t s a s p e c t s , t h e  c a s t e dominated had  the lack  c o n t e x t , f o r he drew h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l  Ompteda's p o s i t i o n his  felt  as  him.  Despite aristocratic  of the u o r l d .  of a c q u a i n t a n c e s i n the a r t i s t i c  Ompteda uorld,^  167 but  t h e s e d i d not  intellectual world  i n c l u d e w r i t e r s of the  sustenance, l i k e  around  first  rank.  F r e n s s e n ' s came f r o m  His  the  him.  Uassermann l a c k e d identifiable  t h i s sense of belonging  s o c i a l g r o u p , and  d i s a p p o i n t m e n t s uas  the  one  of h i s  to  an  bitterest  f a i l u r e of Caspar Hauser to  be  7  recognized literary  as  " e i n deutsches  circle  Volksbuch."  i n Vienna provided  home, i t n e v e r c o m p e n s a t e d f o r t h e uhich  u o u l d a c c e p t him  feeling  as  i n the  a native son.  admission,  identifying social  programme t o be  man,  able  only  Uassermann's his l i f e l o n g Uandering  Jeu,  to advocate i t  from  unequivocally.  Ompteda, U a s s e r m a n n d i e d  bitter, like  goal  Martin  a  Mordann i n J o s e p h  i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s of  his  uork.  Arthur deals  home  a practical, definable,  Kerkhovens d r i t t e E x i s t e n z , at the life's  intellectual  b e c a u s e i t p r e v e n t e d him  t o F r e n s s e n and  disappointed  an  a "Volkserzieher," his  s t r o n g l y enough u i t h  In c o n t r a s t  by  f i g u r e of A h a s v e r , the  hampered h i s e f f e c t i v e n e s s as g h i s oun  uith  the  l a c k of a r e a l  of r o o t l e s s n e s s , e x e m p l i f i e d  interest  by  him  Uhile  uith  S c h n i t z l e r ' s play the  problems of the  Professor Jeu  uho,  Bernhardi himself  (1912) committed  to a humanitarian e t h i c t h a t i s u n i v e r s a l i n scope, i s  t r a p p e d betueen the Bernhardi's  extremes of n a t i o n a l i s t  action in refusing a priest  and  Zionist.  access to a p a t i e n t ,  168 uho,  though d y i n g , i s e u p h o r i c a l l y c o n v i n c e d of imminent r e -  covery,  i s m a l i c i o u s l y i n t e r p r e t e d as  Christian position aluays  religion of the  subject  because B e r n h a r d i  3eu  an  to m a l e v o l e n t s c r u t i n y .  aluays  amount o f e f f o r t  to exert  an  that of G e n t i l e u r i t e r s  ich  to get  The  Leistung  zu  acts  Similarly  Uassermann  3ude t h a t  he  d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e to  h i s audience to respond  " I c h musste d a r a u f d r i n g e n , m u s s t e s i e von  the  i s constantly vulnerable, his  a l s D e u t s c h e r und  all:  on  i s 3euish.  c o m p l a i n e d i n M e i n Ueg had  attack  dass s i e s i c h  Leistung  von  mir  ,  at  mir  stelle,  und  meiner  S a c h e O b e r z e u g e n , i c h m u s s t e d i e gldJhendste (lb e r r e d u n g , g die Susserste Anstrengung aufuenden." Upon r e a d i n g t h i s comment, Thomas Mann u r o t e the  l o t o f a l l German a u t h o r s ,  Uassermann h i m s e l f  V e r h S l t n i s des  geistigen  3eu  speaks of the  t h e U i l h e l m i n i a n e r a on "Das  to Uassermann t h a t t h i s  the  or  Gentile,  general  B i s m a r c k s c h e n D e u t s c h l a n d zu von  and  lack of a p p r e c i a t i o n i n  p a r t of the  Repra*sentanten uar  uas  einem  population: seinen  unbesieglichen  10 Misstrauen Adolf out  bestimmt, Bartels  1  r e v i e u of  Uassermann's p o i n t  Die  3 u d e n von  that a Deuish u r i t e r  Zirndorf  bears  faces a d d i t i o n a l  barriers: U a s s e r m a n n i s t u n b e d i n g t , so k o n f u s , so a u f d r i n g l i c h s e i n U e r k zum T e i l i s t , e i n g r o s s e s T a l e n t , und e r i s t z u g l e i c h e i n T y p u s , d e r T y p u s des modernen d e k a d e n t e n 3 u d e n , den u i r g e n a u z u s t u d i e r e n a l l e U r s a c h e h a b e n , 11 The  use  of the  adjective "aufdringlich"  assumes  that  169 U a s s e r m a n n i s an o u t s i d e r  trying  to thrust  German s p h e r e : t h e same n o v e l by a G e n t i l e  h i s uay i n t o t h e uould  have  been p r a i s e d ,  f o r the q u a l i f i c a t i o n  u o u l d have been i n -  appropriate.  As i t i s , U a s s e r m a n n ' s t a l e n t , t h o u g h  r a t e d , i s d o u n g r a d e d by t h e u s e o f an a d j e c t i v e suited  to c r i t i c i s m  dringlich" is  socially  frequently  superior  that  "Auf-  the person making the judgement  t o t h e one j u d g e d , and i s a q u a l i t y  a t t r i b u t e d to the Jeus,  to the type that  more  o f a person than o f a book,  also implies  highly  Uhen B a r t e l s moves on  Uassermann a l l e g e d l y r e p r e s e n t s ,  "der  T y p u s d e s m o d e r n e n d e k a d e n t e n 3 u d e n , den u i r g e n a u z u studieren  alle  Uilhelminian apparent.  Ursache haben," the c o n t i n u i t y  anti-semitism  and t h e T h i r d  Reich  i s quite  The modern 3 e u i s d e c a d e n t , a n d t h e f a c t t h a t i t  b e h o o v e s Germans t o s t u d y t h e t y p e i m p l i e s some u a y d a n g e r o u s . q u a l i t y , the threat the  betueen  nation's  that  i t i si n  S i n c e d e c a d e n c e i s n o t an a g g r e s s i v e must come f r o m i t s i n f l u e n c e  oun v i t a l i t y  and c o r r u p t i n g  poisoning  t h e German  B a r t e l s i s an e x t r e m e e x a m p l e o f a n t i - s e m i t i s m , he  i s i m p o r t a n t because h i s i n f l u e n c e  U e i m a r and N a z i p e r i o d s . hospital  spans t h e U i l h e l m i n i a n ,  The i n t r i g u e s a g a i n s t  a percentage o f Oeuish doctors,  p r e v a l e n c e o f a t t i t u d e s s u c h as h i s . this  but  Bernhardi's  i n S c h n i t z l e r ' s p l a y , because i t i s c o n s i d e r e d t o  have t o o h i g h  that  spirit.  vieu  r e f l e c t the  The v i s i o n  e m b o d i e s i s o f a'homogeneous  o f Germany  national  170 c o m m u n i t y b a s e d on r a c i a l inaccessible  heritage, sharing  to the o u t s i d e r .  common  values  Uassermann s e t o u t t o s h o u ,  e s p e c i a l l y i n C a s p a r H a u s e r , t h a t a common h i s t o r y and cultural  heritage  formed a s u f f i c i e n t  to t h e community.  basis  f o r belonging  Although t h i s i n t e n t could  theoretically  have r e s u l t e d i n a more o b j e c t i v e t y p e o f " H e i m a t r o m a n , " c a p a b l e o f more p e n e t r a t i n g  analysis of society's  ills  b e c a u s e o f t h e abandonment o f t h e r a c i a l  mythology  found i n a uork l i k e  to find  among t h e r e a d i n g  public i n this  sense o f i s o l a t i o n pirations  Oflrn U h l , i t f a i l e d  because  p r e v e n t e d him f r o m e x p r e s s i n g  Uassermann's the as-  a n d c o n c e r n s o f t h e b r o a d mass o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n .  His sympathies uere u i t h directed  spirit  acceptance  against  the outsider  s o c i e t y as a u h o l e .  runs counter t o the t r a d i t i o n a l  U h i l e such a p o s i t i o n  standpoint  d i c h t e r " Uassermann's attempt t o u r i t e the  population  and  the p i t f a l l s  and t h e r e f o r e  o f t h e "Heimat-  f o r t h e mass o f  i l l u m i n a t e s t h e n a t u r e o f t h e "Heimatroman" a t t e n d a n t upon a s y n t h e s i s  of the tuo  positions.  Man a n d Uoman  I n v i e u o f h i s p o s i t i o n on t h e f r i n g e s o f s o c i e t y and his it  e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e bohemian l i f e i s hardly  i n M u n i c h and N U r n b e r g ,  s u r p r i s i n g t h a t , even a f t e r  he h a d m a r r i e d  into  171  the c u l t i v a t e d achieved  upper  a degree  should portray  middle class  of s t a b i l i t y  of Viennese  the r e l a t i o n s h i p s  attempts to reform i t ,  factor  betueen  the sexes  Ompteda.  the p e r n i c i o u s  effects  from  a  For a l l  the caste remained  i n Ompteda's s c a l e o f v a l u e s , and  perience uith  and  and s u c c e s s , U a s s e r m a n n  d i f f e r e n t s t a n d p o i n t t o F r e n s s e n and his  society  the  dominant  Frenssen's  of middle  ex-  class  m o r a l i t y i n h i s c o u n t r y p a r i s h uas  crucial  ment o f h i s r o l e  sensual emancipation of  as r e f o r m e r .  t h e German uoman, u h i c h  The  f o r the develop-  F r e n s s e n so c o u r a g e o u s l y  advocated  12 before a h o s t i l e contention Renate  and  i s no l o n g e r  ( L a u d i n und  Uahnschaffe) l i v e  (1915)  onuards  d i e S e i n e n ) and  o u t s i d e the middle  the p h y s i c a l  love outside of marriage i s of secondary In the e a r l y u o r k s , M e l u s i n e (1896) ( 1 9 0 0 ) , o f u h i c h Uassermann's f i r s t they uere i n s p i r e d  by h i s l o n g  o p p o s e d by t h e s o c i a l  elements  Eva  Sorel  class  from  Das  consummation o f importance. and  Renate  Fuchs  u i f e D u l i e says 13  affair  order.  of  characters.  a r e n o t bound by i t s m o r a l i t y , and  G8nsem9nnchen  is  a point  f o r many o f U a s s e r m a n n ' s f e m a l e  Fuchs, Luise  (Christian uorld  audience,  i n Munich,  that love  M e l u s i n e ' s p l o t has  of a V i c t o r i a n melodrama.  The  threats  g u a r d i a n t o commit h e r t o an i n s a n e a s y l u m  the  of Melusine's  i f she i s n o t  c o m p l i a n t , her duty to her s i s t e r  and h e r i l l e g i t i m a t e  and  t a k e s "den  her t h r e a t of s u i c i d e  i f Falk  letzten  child,  Zoll  der  Liebe"  amount t o an a t t a c k  of y o u t h . her  In Nelusine's  education:  kflnnen d u r c h  "Uieviel  on s o c i e t y ' s  b i t t e r n e s s over  exploitation  the prudishness  Schmerz i h r hMtte e r s p a r t  d i e verstSndige  Offenheit  einer  of  uerden  Lehrerin  oder  15 einer  Freuidin,"  regard  t h e same p o s i t i o n  t o c u r r e n t m o r a l i t y as d o e s F r e n s s e n  of H i l l i g e n l e i is  Uassermann takes  houever  (1905),  f a r from h a v i n g  an e x p r e s s l y  i s the a r t i s t i c  experiences,  nelusine's  fulfilment being  uith  the messiah-figure  Conventional  of  purpose:  personal  f a t e i s unknoun, i n c o n t r a s t ( D i e 3uden von Z i r n -  F u c h s , b o t h o f uhom f i n d  s e d u c e d by S t e f a n  uhich  didactic  reproduction  to t h a t o f the next h e r o i n e s , Monika and R e n a t e  at the time  Uassermann i n h i s e a r l y t u e n t i e s  here the task  dorf)  uith  s a l v a t i o n and  Agathon Geyer  after  Gudstikker,  m o r a l i t y i s f o r U a s s e r m a n n t h e means by  y o u n g uomen a r e f o r c e d t o a c c e d e t o b l a c k m a i l .  t h e y do n o t m a r r y t h e men o f t h e i r  parents'  If  c h o i c e , uho a r e  f r e q u e n t l y m i d d l e - a g e d and u h o s e s o l e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n i s t h a t t h e y a r e w e a l t h y , t h e y a r e d e n o u n c e d by t h e i r and  o s t r a c i z e d from b o u r g e o i s s o c i e t y .  Fuchs f l e e s  the s o c i a l  uorld of uhich  Although  parents  Renate  her money-conscious  mother i s a c a r i c a t u r e , she i s u n a b l e t o escape from t h e circle the  of exploitation  and o s t r a c i s m  u o r l d and g o e s t o A g a t h o n G e y e r ,  decisions  largely  as a r e s u l t  until  she renounces  R e n a t e makes h e r  of disappointment u i t h the  173 preceding  phase.  Anselm  Uanderer, u i t h  uhom s h e f i r s t  auay, i s a n o t h e r o f Uassermann's  "Literat"  failing  from l i f e ;  i s that they stand  ends uhen t h e l o s s  of h i s fortune  Uanderer's c h a r a c t e r . superficial  aside  Stefan  figures,  Gudstikker  offers  her h i s  a girl  uho has been  of a g i r l  and h e r  by s h a r i n g  exploited  e v e n t h o u g h , i n a more s u b t l e u a y , t h i s The v u l n e r a b i l i t y  She i s an  u o r l d : her u p b r i n g i n g  not l e t her degrade h e r s e l f  apartment u i t h  fate.  liaison  u i s d o m , and R e n a t e becomes h i s m i s t r e s s  i n t h e bohemian  pride u i l l  uhose  exposes the ueakness o f  b e c a u s e s h e h a s no o t h e r means o f s u p p o r t . outsider  their  runs  an  and  abused,  h a s been  h e r oun  i n the middle  class  u o r l d i s s h o u n i n R e n a t e ' s n e x t j o b , as a g o v e r n e s s i n a uealthy  family.  Her e m p l o y e r o f f e r s  brooch i f she u i l l  her a  submit to h i s advances.  diamond Uhen s h e  r e f u s e s and t h e b r o o c h d i s a p p e a r s , s h e i s a c c u s e d o f t h e f t . The u o r d s u i t h u h i c h s h e t h e n g o e s t o t h e c a l l o u s sinister  Graumann:  "Hier  bin ich.  and  I c h gehe m i t I h n e n .  16 Tun S i e , u a s S i e u o l l e n , " uhich the r e a l i t y  demonstrate the extent to  of being unprotected i n a rapacious  u o r l d has d e s t r o y e d h e r p r i d e . R e n a t e comes t o t e r m s u i t h uith  her s i t u a t i o n  A n g e l u s , t h e dog t h a t U a n d e r e r g a v e  exchange  prefigures  GSnsemSnnchen s t a t u e  Daniel Nothafft's  i n a discussion  to her.  talks  This  u i t h the  a t t h e end o f t h a t n o v e l , as a  result  of uhich  he  i s able  to analyze  peace of mind s i n c e the  end  his l i f e .  o f her  She  has  relationship  had  no  uith 17  U a n d e r e r , f o r "uer A n g e l u s can  be  ohne L i e b e  i s t , i s t ruhelos."  r e g a r d e d as U a s s e r m a n n ' s s p o k e s m a n , s i n c e  he  i s treated anthropomorphically  He  reacts uith  throughout the  good j u d g e m e n t t o t h e v a r i o u s  u i t h uhom R e n a t e comes i n c o n t a c t , and so i n t e n s e l y t h a t t h e man fails by  to i n t e r v e n e  circumstances.  thus f a r u i t h mit to  he  uhich  she  uartung." represent  Neither the  "Die  Begierden.  answers:  evil.  Uhen  h e r s e l f i s beaten  Renate's  progress  nicht  Uassermann, F r e n s s e n nor  doctrine that desire i s  Even d u r i n g h i s f i r s t t u o 19  soul, evil  and  the  i m p l i c a t i o n s o f d e s i r e : Uassermann  is  the  o f body  exploitation  and uith  considers  and  blackmail:  p h y s i c a l consummation the n a t u r a l outcome,  cherished  goal.  type of l o v e i s the Instead  division  as  to  Ompteda i s m o s t l y c o n c e r n e d  t h o s e d e s i r e s b a s e d on the  years  Frenssen refused  d o c t r i n e of the  g o o d , and  Er-  Ompteda  Pauline  love, uith  vergiftet 18  begierdelos,"  accept the  as e v i l  Renate  " I c h habe n o c h S e h n s u c h t und  i n Hennstedt (1890-91),  social  Graumann  MMnner haben d i c h  U e r d e du  puritan Christian  intrinsically pastor  uords:  characters  dislikes  him.  k n o u s t h a t she  A n g e l u s sums up  the  schlechten  thrashes  novel.  of the  R e n a t e ' s d e s i r e and  hope f o r  sign that salvation i s s t i l l s t r a i g h t f o r u a r d advocacy of  this  possible. sexual  175 f r e e d o m s u c h as an  Frenssen  pursues,  Uassermann  antagonism between the i n d i v i d u a l  much c l o s e r  to the  spirit  they  do  Renate both  economically  contact uith  experience  von  to  and  sexually.  an u n c o r r u p t e d  uhich  Frenssen's,  h i s s o n , she 20  i s transformed t h a t he  symbolic, a vision  imparts  of a reborn  exploits  I t i s only  through  outsider, that  and  non-exploiting  the l a s t n i g h t of Agathon's l i f e  u n v e r t i l g b a r e Ruhe" is  Pastor  adversary  A g a t h o n G e y e r , h i m s e l f an  Uhen on  conceives  Per  Uhile  s o c i e t y as a u h o l e , w h e r e a s i n  Uassermann's n o v e l s o c i e t y i s the  love.  or  embody a p o i n t o f v i e u a n t i t h e t i c a l  not r e p r e s e n t  R e n a t e can  society uhich i s  of E x p r e s s i o n i s t drama.  t h e r e are c h a r a c t e r s i n H i l l i q e n l e i P o g g s e e uho  and  introduces  by  the  to h e r .  Renate  "niegekannte, The  child  mankind:  S i c h s e l b s t und den u n s i c h t b a r e n G e l i e b t e n s a h s i e neu a u f l e b e n i n e i n e r v o l l k o m m e n e r e n und r e i n e r e n G e s t a l t . Das K i n d s c h i e n i h r der Sonne v e r u a n d t ; s i e s e l b s t e m p f i n g USrme und L e b e n d u r c h e s , und a l l e H u s s e r u n g e n seines Daseins erschienen i h r u i e die unmittelbaren K r M f t e der N a t u r , d i e s e i n e uahre L e h r e r i n u u r d e , f e r n von den S t M d t e n , den M e n s c h e n . 21 Love not raised  above t h e l e v e l  religious it  o n l y g i v e s Renate a peace u h i c h  s t a t e , "the  peace t h a t p a s s e t h  so much a s y m b o l t h a t he  The  final  itself  o f o r d i n a r y peace of mind t o  makes p o s s i b l e a "neu  p l a i n s , f a r from the  is  man." has  no  a l l understanding,"  R e n a t e and  her  name, l i v e  on  s o n , uho the  is  Hungarian  c o r r u p t i n g i n f l u e n c e s of urban  scene of C a r l  a  society.  Hauptmann's E x p r e s s i o n i s t drama  Krieqt  w r i t t e n i n 1913, o f f e r s  a virtually  s i t u a t i o n , t h e m o t h e r and c h i l d o f uar, i n t e n d i n g t o r a i s e  alone  century  as an a l t e r n a t i v e  addition crucial it the  became p o p u l a r  amid t h e d e s o l a t i o n  close to the r u r a l  a t t h e end o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h to the i n d u s t r i a l  cities—in  t o p e r m e a t i n g t h e " H e i m a t r o m a n " and b e i n g aspect  of the ideology  figured prominently child's  Uassermann's e n d i n g ,  literature:  and t h e c i t y  tive, corrupting influence.  a  o f t h e Bund d e r L a n d u i r t e ,  i n Naturalist  true teacher  22 man.  a neu b r e e d o f u n c o r r u p t e d  In Renate Fuchs Uassermann i s v e r y i d e a l uhich  identical  represents  nature i s a destruc-  T h e r e i s a Utopian e l e m e n t t o  houever, uhich  i s not present  i nthe  "Heimatroman," f o r Frenssen always i n t e g r a t e s t h e hero the v i l l a g e  community, whereas Renate appears q u i t e  U a s s e r m a n n ' s own i s o l a t e d t h e way p e r s o n a l  salvation  o f s o c i e t y as a w h o l e .  position  i s reflected  i s unconnected with  contrasts sharply with  presentation career in  of sexual  isolated,  here, i n the r e b i r t h  The m e l o d r a m a t i c t o n e o f R e n a t e  Fuchs, w i t h i t s extremes o f degradation itself  into  and s a l v a t i o n ,  Frenssen's  problems.  At t h i s  down-to-earth point i n h i s  ( 1 9 0 0 ) U a s s e r m a n n h a s n o t y e t f o u n d h i s own  German s o c i e t y , and i s c o n c e r n e d o n l y w i t h  place  the i n d i v i d u a l  case. In t h e n o v e l  Das GHnsemSnnchen ( 1 9 1 5 ) U a s s e r m a n n  d o e s , a t t h e e n d , make t h e h e r o D a n i e l N o t h a f f t  participate  177 in  village  contrived  life  i n E s c h e n b a c h , b u t t h e denouement i s  and u n c o n v i n c i n g .  predilection  It i s typical  for theatrical  o f Uassermann's  extremes t h a t D a n i e l l i v e s i n  a state of constant h o s t i l i t y to the bourgeois  society of  N O r n b e r g b e c a u s e he r e f u s e s t o c o m p r o m i s e h i s p r i n c i p l e s or  m o d e r a t e h i s d e s i r e s i n any u a y t o a c c o m o d a t e t h e  m o r a l i t y and t h e c o n v e n t i o n s good b u r g h e r s  of h i s fellou citizens.  take p a r t i c u l a r  offence at Daniel's  The  domestic  situation:  a grotesque  menage u h i c h goes f a r b e y o n d  Frenssen's  a d v o c a c y o f s e x u a l f r e e d o m and e x p l a i n s i n good  p a r t uhy t h e n o v e l u a s n e v e r  accepted  d e s p i t e Uassermann's p r o t e s t a t i o n s innermost By  as a  "Volksbuch"  that i t depicted the  s o u l o f t h e German p e o p l e .  t h e end o f t h e n o v e l D a n i e l has c h i l d r e n  uomen and h a s had t h r e e u i v e s .  The f i r s t  by t h r e e  c h i l d , Eva, i s a  c o n s e q u e n c e o f one o f D a n i e l ' s r a r e moments o f o p t i m i s m : uhen U a s s e r m a n n , uho i s i n no s e n s e d e s c r i b e s h i m as k n o c k i n g  an i r o n i c  uriter,  " m i t u n g e h e u e r e r B e g i e r d e an  23 die  Pforten  intensity  der GOtter,"  he endous D a n i e l u i t h  i n h i s search f o r truth  t h e same  as Dan G u l d t i n P e r  U n t e r q a n q d e r Anna H o l l m a n n and t h e same z e s t as K l a u s  Baas.  P a n i e l i n h i s c a r e e r as a c o m p o s e r i s a l u a y s e n g a g e d i n the quest fired  f o r the ultimate breakthrough,  and i n t h i s  moment,  by t h e e x u b e r a n c e o f y o u t h , he comes c l o s e r t o  experiencing  t h e n a t u r a l u o n d e r s t h a n he does u n t i l he  178 a b a n d o n s c o m p o s i n g and c o n c e n t r a t e s end  of the novel.  Uassermann s t a n d s in  contact  uith  At t h i s uith  celebrate  Frenssen i n h i s i n s i s t e n c e that  only  people can t h e b r e a k t h r o u g h t o u l t i m a t e There i s n e v e r t h e l e s s  a  i n t h e uay D a n i e l s e i z e s t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o  Neu Y e a r u i t h M e t a u h i c h  p o i n t s up t h e d i f f e r e n c e  b e t u e e n h i m and F r e n s s e n ' s h e r o e s . natural outburst  of youthful joie  a unique d i g r e s s i o n i n t o  an a l i e n  In h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p u i t h betrays  at the  p o i n t , a t t h e age o f f o r t y ,  t r u t h s o f e x i s t e n c e be made. desperation  on t e a c h i n g  a callousness uhich  U h a t f o r them i s a de v i v r e i s f o r h i m uorld of experience.  Gertrud  and L e n o r e ,  Daniel  i s i n no u a y d i f f e r e n t  from  the r e a c t i o n s o f t h e t o u n s p e o p l e t o h i m .  The u a y i n u h i c h  Gertrud  and i n h i b i t e d  girl  i s transformed  into  a passionate  sense o f a r t i s t i c  f r o m an e m b i t t e r e d  uoman by h i s m u s i c a u a k e n s h i s  responsibility:  Der s i n n l i c h e Z a u b e r u a r e s n i c h t a l l e i n , d e r i h n z u r E r u i d e r u n g e i n e s v o r der U e l t kundgegebenen GefOhles z u a n g : t i e f e r b e r O h r t e i h n , d a s s s i e s o kam, a l s e i n e R e u i g e und B e k e h r t e , T i e f e r berOhrte i h n d i e erhabene G e u i s s h e i t , d i e s i e ihm s c h e n k t e , dass e r e i n e S e e l e z u v e r u a n d e l n und z u e r n e u e n v e r m o c h t h a t t e . 24 Daniel's subordinate  appreciation of Gertrud  to this  idealistic  response of h i s a r t i s t i c  v a n i t y , and h e r b o u n d l e s s d e v o t i o n  t o him i s u n a b l e t o  penetrate  the w a l l of h i s e g o t i s t i c a l ,  isolation  from t h e r e s t o f h u m a n i t y .  he  as a uoman i s c l e a r l y  self-imposed I t i s t o Lenore  r e s p o n d s as a l o v e r , and he b l i t h e l y  that  asks the i m p o s s i b l e  179 of G e r t r u d : Lenore. others  t h a t she  a b d i c a t e her  D a n i e l i s so t o t a l l y t h a t he  prompts her  lets  Gertrud  position  as u i f e  to  unaware o f the needs  of  sink into  suicide, uhile  the  depression  a t t h e same t i m e  he  that  maintains  that h i s m o r a l i t y , his emotional  imperative, i s higher  than  criticize  t h a t of the  more r e a l i s t i c her  oun  tounspeople  and  retains  uho  her  him.  moral o b j e c t i v i t y  Lenore i s despite  involvement:  L i e b s t e r , ach L i e b s t e r ! M e i n H e r z i s t so u i e d e i n s v e r d u n k e l t und v e r z a u b e r t . I c h k a n n j a n i c h t mehr von d i r l a s s e n . I c h hab m i c h a b g e f u n d e n m i t a l l e m . I c h b i n mir der ganzen S c h u l d i n meiner S e e l e b e u u s s t . I c h u e i s s , u a s i c h t u e und nehme es a u f m i c h . Es n i l t z t j a k e i n S t r S u b e n m e h r , fiber uns s c h l a g e n d i e U a s s e r zusammen. I c h m e i n e n u r , du s o l l s t d i r k e i n W a h n b i l d v o r g a u k e l n , a l s ob u i r d a m i t e m p o r g e s t i e g e n u H r e n Ober a n d e r e , a l s ob u i r uns e i n e n Dank des S c h i c k s a l s v e r d i e n t h M t t e n . N e i n , D a n i e l , uas u i r t u n , tun a l l e , d i e s i c h v e r l i e r e n , tun a l l e , d i e hinuntersteigen. Lass mich b e i d i r s e i n , L i e b s t e r , kOss m i c h , k O s s m i c h zu T o d e . 25 L e n o r e i s a u a r e t h a t she loving  her  f o r her von  sister's  to r e f u s e .  Gallehus  B e r n h a r d and pite  her  (1931),  i s assuming a moral g u i l t  husband, but I n one  uife  Telse  husband's encouragement they  social  adultery uith  n o v e l s , Die  depicts a similar  be u r o n g f o r them t o consummate t h e i r Barfood's  emotion i s too  of h i s l a s t  Frenssen  his cousin's  her  fall  by  intense Hflrner  situation.  i n l o v e , but  des-  decide  that i t uould  love.  Uhereas  Doctor Schack i s j u s t i f i e d  grounds, because there i s a dearth  Abel  on  o f y o u n g men  t h e p e r p e t u a t i o n o f t h e r a c e i s e q u a l l y as i m p o r t a n t  and as  180 Abel's  personal  fulfilment  such j u s t i f i c a t i o n , and  passion.  place.  of the  favourable  to c o n t r o l  freedom of the  at  social  con-  Daniel  l i g h t , Uassermann's d e p i c t i o n by  condemned. f a t e t h a t pervades the  triangle  i s h e i g h t e n e d by s u c h d e v i c e s  Dordann's f o r e b o d i n g s Gertrud's  the  individual  tounspeople ensures t h a t ,  aura of i n e x o r a b l e  Daniel-Lenore-Gertrud  at uhich  the  A l t h o u g h L e n o r e ' s a t t i t u d e makes  c o n t r a s t , D a n i e l i s not  Inspector  able  nordic  Ompteda ( i n  u n h a m p e r e d by m o r a l and  v i c i o u s n e s s of the  The  more  U a s s e r m a n n h o u e v e r goes f u r t h e r t h a n  t o make h i s c h o i c e  appear i n a l e s s  no  f r o m m o r a l j u d g e m e n t s uhen i t  i n h i s i n s i s t e n c e on  siderations.  L e n o r e , are  is  short of condoning a d u l t e r y , while  same t i m e t h e y r e f r a i n  others  and  T e l s e , being  F r e n s s e n , U a s s e r m a n n and  Benigna) a l l stop  does t a k e  a mother, here there  B e r h a r d and  l e s s v/olatile than D a n i e l  their  the  and  as  senses are  after  Daniel's  a u a k e n e d , and  the  as  first use  concert, of  uords  26 like  "Geisterschuester"  L e n o r e and character from the  Daniel, of  P h i l i p p i n e , removes the  characters.  o f N O r n b e r g and  b u s c h f a m i l y and  the  relationship  a d d e d d i m e n s i o n , b o l s t e r e d by  realm of r e a l i s t i c a l l y  betueen the city  The  to d e s c r i b e  The  of the  b i z a r r e menage a* t r o i s  depicted r e l a t i o n s h i p s  narrow s t r e e t s of the  i t s grotesque i n h a b i t a n t s — t h e  medieval Hade-  t h e i r l o d g e r s a r e d e s c r i b e d as " H o g a r t h 27 schen G e s t a l t e n " — p r o v i d e a d i f f e r e n t backdrop from the  181 modernity  o f R e n a t e F u c h s or D i e Flasken E r u i n  illumination  of reason  conspicuously floodtide  absent  n o v e l s , such  easily tions  s u p e r n a t u r a l elements  into  the r u r a l  atmosphere, uhere  v e r y f a r from  triangle  the  Andergast  theme i s c a r r i e d  ( 1 9 3 1 ) and  dark  Frenssen's  h i s oun  divorce  inspiration Joseph  over i n t o  and  supersti-  the novels  die Seinen  (1934).  (1925),  published I n t h e shadow  f r o m J u l i e and m a r r i a g e  to Marta  Karlueis,  lengthy process that i s c l e a r l y  f o r the s t o r y of the author  Alexander  the  Herzog  Kerkhovens d r i t t e E x i s t e n z , Uassermann s h i f t e d  focus to the problem he n o t o n l y t a c k l e s solution,  folksy  the posthumously  Kerkhovens d r i t t e E x i s t e n z  an e x c r u c i a t i n g  of marriage. the problem  uhich indicates  I n L a u d i n und  but a l s o  t h a t uhen he  proposes  felt  i n v o l v e d U a s s e r m a n n r e a c t e d i n t h e same uay and  in  the  surface.  U a s s e r m a n n ' s l a s t y e a r s , L a u d i n und  Joseph  in  The  h o u n d e d by  as U i e t e n P e n n , t h e " S p o k e n k i e k e r " i n J f l r n  are never  Etzel  of  the n o v e l , submerged i n the  H o l g e r s e n , t h e c u r a t e o f P o g g s e e , b l e n d more  The of  from  The  the l i b e r a t i o n of c h o i c e are  o f e m o t i o n a l i m p e r a t i v e s and  forces of f a t e .  U h l and  and  Reiners.  his  die Seinen a specific  personally as  Frenssen  Ompteda. Laudin's c r i s i s  a bankrupt  stems houever  from deeper r o o t s  m a r r i a g e : i t i s n o t so much t h e m a r r i a g e  that i s floundering,  but Laudin's uhole l i f e - s t y l e  than itself that  182 is  i n a p p r o p r i a t e to h i s n a t u r e .  celebrated and  divorce  financial  i s the  l a w y e r i n V i e n n a , whose s e c u r e  position  whose c a u s e he  A l t h o u g h he  e n a b l e him  cannot support,  he  most  reputation  to r e f u s e  any  client  l a c k s the  "innerel  28 Hornhaut"  necessary  to i n s u l a t e h i m s e l f  s p e c t a c l e o f m i s e r y , g r e e d and profession  brings  with  Dercum comes a t t h e  Luise  e x h a u s t e d by  the  " t t b e r d r u s s am verSnderlich  him  into  from the  sordid  c r u e l t y with which  daily  contact.  The  his  encounter  c r u c i a l moment when  Laudin,  v o l u m e o f w o r k , becomes c o n s c i o u s  e i g e n e n U e s e n , an D a u e r n d e n , das  man  dem  s t a h l h a r t und  den  Charakter  of  his  un-  nennt,  das  Soundsosein, einmalig, unverrUckbar, fortsetzungslos, 29 entwicklungslos." Nothing i n h i s career gives promise growth or development; Laudin's " s e e l i s c h e TotengrSber-  of  30 arbeit" two  i s concerned only  halves  with  the  o f a u n i t t h a t n e v e r had  undergo a f u l f i l l i n g development. spiritual personal  dungeon o f a c a r e e r life,  even the  Imprisoned i n even  von  Sklaverei steht."  E v e r y n i g h t , when he  the  l a m p and  v a n i s h , the  of youth c a l l Luise pole  to  the to  the his  i n h i s bedroom t a k e  qualities  objects  of  potential  the  the  "zu  the  which poisons  objects  of gaolers 31  separation  denen e r i n e i n e m  on  Verhflltnis extinguishes  f r e e d o m and  flexibility  him.  Dercum r e p r e s e n t s  to Laudin's f i x e d  the  character.  d i a m e t r i c a l l y opposite Every aspect of  her  183 personality  i s i n a constant  incorrigible niemals  liar,  Uahrheit  but  war,  state of f l u x .  Laudin  muses:  Uahrheit  She  i s an  " I s t da L O g e ,  nicht begriffen  wo  wird  und  32 gar  nicht sein  kann?  Laudin  t h e o p p o s i t e p o l e , and unmotivated Laudin  met  his fate.  In f a c t L u i s e , apart  ship  She and  either  shamelessly  subservience death  exploits  i t i s precisely  i n her  or her to her  of Nikolaus  nothing  else  those  the l a c k  entourage,  who  o f any  that  from  her  t o recommend seek her  friend-  appealing  that shatters  when f a c e d w i t h t h e  of  seemingly  to L u i s e w i t h the concept  s e x u a l a t t r a c t i v e n e s s , has her.  under the s p e l l  Uassermann e x p l a i n s h i s  subservience  has  falls  facts  qualities,  Laudin's about  the  Fraundorfer.  U a s s e r m a n n c r e a t e d s e v e r a l a c t r e s s e s , o f whom L u i s e is  the l a s t  Laudin's remark: 33 " I s t da L O g e , wo n i e m a l s U a h r h e i t war . . ." i s a pale shadow o f B e c k e r ' s comment a b o u t Eva S o r e l : "Ariel i s t  moralisch  and  nicht belastbar."  the hallmark solidarity  the l e a s t r o m a n t i c i z e d .  34  o f t h e d a n c e r and  "Das  L e i c h t e , Schwebende,"  the a n t i t h e s i s  o f t h e b o u r g e o i s , becomes i n L u i s e  i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of a s o c i a l t h e r e a r e no this of  v a l u e s o f any  anti-bourgeois society  kind.  The  away f r o m home t o e s c a p e m a r r i a g e  the  unadorned sphere  dubious nature  i s shown f i r s t  J e a n e t t e LHwengard ( D i e 3uden von  of  i n the  Z i r n d o r f ) , who  to a r i c h  o l d man  where of  case runs to  35  104 become a d a n c e r i n a d i n g y dancing  "der  GefUhls.  tavern.  Ualther  u n m i t t e l b a r s t e A u s d r u c k des  Der  KUrper u i r d  vom  Voegeli  calls  inkarnierten  Rythmus des  pulsierenden  36 Lebens durchdrungen," a symbolic fact  i n t e n t on  that these  such e x p r e s s i o n s rhythms of l i f e a positive Sorel's  but  uhile  this  statement  expresses  Uassermann's p a r t , i t i g n o r e s  dancer  figures  uould  are not  require.  To  be  the  as p o s i t i v e  as  filled  the  uith  u o u l d , i n Uassermann's v i e u , have t o  a t t r i b u t e , and  c a s e , i t has  no  y e t even at i t s b e s t , i n  effect  on  the moral v a l u e  be  Eva of  the  of  the  character. Laudin's unfavourable  comment a b o u t L u i s e , i n t h e light  i n uhich  a p p e a r s as m e r e l y t h e of  bourgeois  seductress He  movement, and  y e t he  For  novel,  f o r uhom t h e  him,  as  implicit  philosophical  "modern"  f o r Frenssen  indicates  premises  The  f o r Uassermann. literary  d e p i c t s the s e d u c t r e s s  h e d o n i s m i s d a n g e r o u s and  sympathy f o r the  in  figure  h i m s e l f p a r t of the  to condemn e x p l i c i t l y  his  e x c u s e o f a man  i s an u m c o m f o r t a b l e  character.  i s shoun i n the  s o c i e t y h a v e become q u e s t i o n a b l e .  considered  sible  she  context  and  as  a  negative  Ompteda, i r r e s p o n -  parasitical. Uassermann's  His  refusal  greater  a v a n t - g a r d e movement o f h i s t i m e ,  attitude  reflects  premises of the  Uassermann's p o s i t i o n  his closeness "Heimatroman."  to  but  the  The  stems from h i s r e a d i n e s s  difference to  105 question  the  b a s i c i n s t i t u t i o n of m a r r i a g e , uhich  f a r more r a d i c a l ^  n  Klaus  step  than  H i n r i c h Baas.  institution  is a vital  Uassermann s o c i a l happiness of the  is a  Frenssen's advocacy of  For  the  pitprop  "Heimatdichter"  the  of s o c i e t y , uhereas  considerations  are  life  this  is entirely  have t o be  "Uenn s i e m i t laufen  the  individual.  d e v o t e d to her  i n r e a l i t y amounts t o an  uhich  for  secondary to  P i a , L a u d i n ' s u i f e , i s a much more p o s i t i v e Her  divorce  cleaned,  home and  endless  figure.  family,  c y c l e of  s u e p t , a r r a n g e d and  but  objects repaired:  Laudin i n s Theater oder i n G e s e l l s c h a f t  d i e D i n g e p l a p p e r n d und  streitsilchtig  geht,  u i e i n einem  37 M S r c h e n von Nikolaus  Fraundorfer  surrounding as  Andersen h i n t e r i h r her."  her—for  gaolers—and  comfortable,  opens a b r e a c h i n t h e the  objects  cold uind  are  from o u t s i d e  under L u i s e ' s  The  r e f u g e behind the u a l l of o b j e c t s  and  household  f o r him  to v i s i t  her  " u a r t e t e , ZShne z u s a m m e n g e b i s s e n , d i e gekrampft, z i t t e r n d dass s i c h  d i e TOr  Leben g e u a r t e t  as  uell  u i e G r a s , b e v o r es  no  that  longer  find  duties.  bedroom a t Finger  her  change i n  s p e l l increases can  i n vain  objects  penetrates  she  uaits  of  u a l l of  i c y b l i z z a r d , and  She  t o an  falls  death  protectors  i f l i m i t e d , domestic sphere.  L a u d i n uhen he cold uind  the  The  night,  i n die  gemSht u i r d ,  a u f t u e , u a r t e t e , uie s i e nie zuvor 38 hatte."  Decke uartete, im  106 Communication betueen  them has  of a s i l e n t  understanding, uith  oun  realm.  Consequently  she  realizes  total  a l u a y s been on  each l o o k i n g  the o n l y course  the e x t e n t t o u h i c h Laudin  reassessment of h i s l i f e - s t y l e ,  Pia's pride forbids  uay.  done s o , and  has  never  after  level  his  open t o P i a , once i s involved in a  i s t o g i v e him  freedom of a c t i o n . She  the  her  f o r her  complete  to stand i n h i s  to appear nou  as  39  a "Tigerin  der  LegitimitMt"  defending  material position  uith  uould  self-respect  d e s t r o y her  respect  for her.  the armoury o f l e g a l  D e s p i t e her  Pia offers  the s o l u t i o n  destroying  c a r e e r : he  return  her s o c i a l  as u e l l  as  paragraphs,  Laudin's  apparently limited  horizons,  to the problem of Laudin's  s h o u l d g i v e up  and  his practice  souland  to the g o a l of h i s y o u t h , bypassed i n the t u r m o i l  fame and  s u c c e s s : the c r e a t i o n  of j u r i s p r u d e n c e .  The  villa  o f a b a s i s f o r a neu  must be  L a u d i n must move t o t h e c o u n t r y .  He  of  system  s o l d or r e n t e d  and  needs peace t o  find  himself. T h i s sudden b u r s t o f p e r s u a s i v e i n s i g h t in  c o n t r a s t t o t h e r e s e r v e and  character  h i t h e r t o , i s not  emphasis e a r l i e r not  and  quite consistent uith  i n t h e n o v e l on h e r  petty chores:  so u e n i g  spOrt  Pia's  horizons of  limitations.  auare o f the e x t e n t to u h i c h her u o r l d  objects ist,  limited  on  "So  s i e , uas  part,  her  the She  is  i s dominated  by  u e n i g u i e s i e u e i s s , uer s i e  sie, vielleicht,  entbehrt.  187 Sie  fragt n i c h t , s i e hadert  sie  schaut, s i e u i r k t ;  und  nicht, sie philosophiert 4  abends i s t s i e mtide." ^  " S c h a u e n " i s f o r U a s s e r m a n n an order: Etzel not.  attribute  A n d e r g a s t f o r e x a m p l e has  of the  it,  highest  his father  L a t e r i n t h e n o v e l U a s s e r m a n n e l a b o r a t e s on  ability schen  of P i a ' s :  " Pias  nicht;  Herz g l e i c h t e i n e r  P l a t t e , d i e a u f n i m m t und  does  this  photographi-  z u r Uahrnehmung b r i n g t ,  uas  41 das  scharfste  sensory  Auge n i c h t z u e r s p H h e n v e r r n a g . "  perception i s folloued  u h i c h alone g i v e s the proper The  by a s p i r i t u a l  dimensions  ability  i s by  can  become u a l l e d - i n  the a b i l i t y  P i a has bility  humdrum  t o p e r c e i v e t h u s n o t r a i s e one  an  details.  t o see  above  e x p l a i n s to Fraundorfer uhere h i s marriage  ceased  to p r o v i d e the s a t i s f a c t i o n  o f g r o u t h t h a t he  ship uith from  eration  Luise.  has  uorships  und  and  the  desperately i n his  I n t h e same uay "Man  hat  he  has  p l a c e d her  on  shields consid-  accepted  p r o t e c t s her  from a l l  d i e Frau b e s t S n d i g 42  t r S g t s i e Ober d i e P f O t z e n  P i a and  relation-  c o n s t a n t c a r e and  become a s e t a t t i t u d e , u n c h a n g i n g and  to  possi-  P i a i s t h e m o d e l u i f e , uho  p r o b l e m s , her  external unpleasantness: Arm  seeks  Although  a l l domestic  without question.  dem  as she  of such  uall? Laudin  him  seen.  i n c o n s i s t e n c y i n Uassermann's p r e s e n t a t i o n of P i a possessed  the  processing  to uhat i s  amounts t o t h e q u e s t i o n w h e t h e r one  Uill  The  auf  hinOber."  He  a p e d e s t a l above  the  188 mundane f i l t h  o f the u o r l d , but  " d i e anbetende  Haltung  43 uird  zum  Petrefakt."  She  t h e n a t u r a l o r d e r , and  accepts  s u r r o u n d e d by  this  p r o t e c t i o n as  the problems of  her  d o m e s t i c s p h e r e , n e v e r r e a l i z e s t h e enormous e f f o r t and s t r a i n t h a t g r i n d s auay a t h i s v i g o u r : "Und so u i r d a l l e s , 44 uas  man  s c h a f f t und  The  result  of t h i s  kSmpft, zur S e l b s t v e r s t M n d l i c h k e i t . " petrifaction  i s t h a t the tuo  spheres  c e a s e t o h a v e any c o n t a c t : A b e r e i n e s Tages s t e h t man da und f r a g t s i c h : u i e s o l i das u e i t e r g e h e n ? K e i n S c h u u n g mehr; k e i n A u f r U t t e l n : k e i n N a c h f o l g e n o d e r B e g l e i t e n ; k e i n gemeinsames Uegs u c h e n ; nur n o c h S e l b s t v e r s t § n d l i c h k e i t und f r i e d l i c h e Arbeitsteilung. 45 Although without sauer  the marriage i s u i t h o u t c o n f l i c t , i t i s a l s o e n t h u s i a s m , " u i e e i n Topf mit geronnener  und  dick, drin  R a u s c h , ganz  uith  ersSufst uie eine 46  flexibility  only  has  of youth  Pia realizes  Fraundorfer, Laudin  Nikolaus  F l i e g e , ohne  nOchtern."  I t i s the r e t a i n , but  du  Milch,  jolted  goes t o h e r  h e r , and  o u t s i d e i n the u o r l d .  this.  she  Laudin  that Laudin After room.  feels  takes  her  seeks  to  his conversation The  death  the c o l d u i n d hand and  of from  she 47  murmurs: The  "Ach,  revocability  Friedrich, u i r sind  together  Laudin's  Leute."  of youth's d e c i s i o n s i s h i s i d e a l , i n  c o n t r a s t to the s h a c k l e s order.  doch a l t e  of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  bold suggestion  u i t h o u t the p r e s s u r e s  and  that couples  of a l e g a l l y  the  social  should  binding  live union,  189 citing  as an e x a m p l e t h e s t a t i s t i c a l  arrangements i n S i b e r i a , e a c h man in  and  by c o u n t l e s s t h o u s a n d s  this  such  i s b a s e d on t h e p r e m i s e  uoman t h e r e i s o n l y one  o r d e r t o remove f r o m  individual  success of  the s o c i a l of s q u a l i d ,  that for  p r o p e r m a t e , and  scene  the misery  that caused  unhappy m a r r i a g e s , t h e  must have t h e f r e e d o m t o e x p e r i m e n t  and  find  ideal partner: MSnner u i e F r a u e n d J J r f e n n i c h t g e h i n d e r t u e r d e n , u e d e r d u r c h das m o r a l i s c h e Odium n o c h d u r c h d i e P a t e r n i t S t s l a s t , u e d e r d u r c h M u t t e r s c h a f t n o c h d u r c h d i e Tugendp r M m i e , a l l e im B e r e i c h i h r e s U u n s c h e s und i h r e r P h a n t a s i e s t e h e n d e n E r s c h e i n u n g s - und E r l e b n i s f o r m e n d e r L i e b e d u r c h z u p r o b e n und a u s z u l e b e n . 48 The  goal of t h i s  identical and  to Frenssen's, i s the happiness  the c l e a n s i n g  letter  plan, uhich r e f l e c t s a philosophy  of s o c i e t y  o f the l a u from  h o u e v e r t o o v e r l o o k one to  the m a r i t a l crucial  a p p l y t h e t h e o r y , as May  people.  Had  he  disrepair:  factor,  of the  Laudin  union.  b e c a u s e he r e f u s e s  t h e use Any  of communication  rigid  appears  specific seen  p r e s s u r e t h a t b i n d s him  renounces  i_s t h e i d e a l  atrophy i f the l i n e s into  sphere.  Ernevoldt asks, to  or s o c i a l  Pia, since Pia e x p l i c i t l y marriage  the removal  individual  a p p l i e d i t t o h i m s e l f , he u o u l d h a v e  t h a t i t i s not l e g a l  their  through  of the  of  to  compulsion:  human s i t u a t i o n  are a l l o u e d  the f a t a l ueakness of the  to  uill  fall  domestically  49 convenient In  "friedliche  L a u d i n ' s oun  the i n s u f f i c i e n c y  Arbeitsteilung."  case  the problem  of the l e g a l  system.  i s more b a s i c  than  I t i s a human, n o t  a social  one.  marriage, equally  Legal reform  u h i c h has  deadly  fallen  virus  uould victim  can  b e g i n o n c e more t h e  The  business  i n any  analyze case.  financial  weakness o f t h i s both  tackle  should e x i s t this  he  novel l i e s  the s o c i a l  The  depiction  villa  a new,  less  rigid  ending  w h i c h has  specific  a free  However, the  which  association  introduction  arteries  logical  by  the with-  the i s s u e a l t o g e t h e r .  and  P i a are greeted  on  the  c h i l d r e n , r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of  of the w o r l d , i s a t r i t e t o do w i t h t h e o r i g i n a l  romantic  the  marriage  of such a u n i o n , overcoming  their  nothing  It i s a thoroughly  the  to  framework w i t h i n  of the emotional  by  view  question  p a r t n e r undermines t h i s  s c e n e , where L a u d i n  steps of t h e i r  and  independence,  q u e s t i o n of whether  from the w o r l d , c o n f u s e s  final  and  a t a l l as a n y t h i n g more t h a n  dangers of a hardening  The  again  a d i v o r c e l a w y e r , an e x p e r t on  of the concept of the i d e a l  drawing  contemplative  i n i t s attempt  of marriage  answers i n the n e g a t i v e .  approach.  novel  recur.  the i n s t i t u t i o n  By m a k i n g L a u d i n  can  of the  case Uassermann l e a v e s unanswered the  i n s t i t u t i o n , Uassermann p r o v i d e s the he  self  a  but  "gemeinsames U e g s u c h e n " w i t h P i a , i s  o f w h e t h e r t h e boredom w i l l The  into  his  sinister  solution  d i s c o v e r h i s own  p o s s i b l e only because of Laudin's and  b e a r i n g on  to the l e s s  of monotony.  a u i t h d r a u a l from the w o r l d ' s e x i s t e n c e where he  h a v e no  cliche  happy problem.  that constitutes  not  191 o n l y an a v o i d a n c e a complete  of the problem  n e g a t i o n of the p e r f e c t l y  the i n s t i t u t i o n  of  J a h r e , L a u d i n und and  f i v e n o v e l s , Faber  d i e S e i n e n , Per  Joseph  last of  o f Pr J o s e p h  Kerkhoven,  uork  and  literary reaches  criticism,  t h e y do s h e d  o r t h e m e , and  a  space  role  as t h e p i v o t a l  do n o t g r e a t l y  The  t h a t i n h i s mature relation-  Uhilst  auto-  advance the p r o c e s s  light  onto  the  o f an a u t h o r ' s m o t i v a t i o n i n s e l e c t i n g  character  Etzel  c h a r a c t e r of the  the c r u c i a l  o f t h e modern E u r o p e a n ,  biographical pointers  die verlorenen  analyzed over  by M a r i e i t i s c l e a r  Uassermann r e g a r d e d m a r r i a g e  s h i p i n the l i f e  to  E x i s t e n z , are i n  the c e n t r a l  t u e l v e hundred p a g e s ; from  played i n h i s l i f e  oder  uith marital relationships.  tuo n o v e l s , i s i l l u m i n a t e d  almost  also  q u e s t i o n as  Fall Maurizius,  Kerkhovens d r i t t e  l a r g e measure c o n c e r n e d figure  valid  but  marriage,  Uassermann's l a s t  Anderqast  of p e t r i f a c t i o n  i n Uassermann's case  of  obscure a  particular  they  explain  50 his  preoccupation uith The  r o o t cause  marriage.  of the m a r i t a l misery  novels i s the u n u o r l d l y i d e a l i s m Uilhelminian  Germany, u i t h  forbade d i s c u s s i o n other  frameuork  The  influence  of marriage  than that of romantic c l i c h e s  these  class i n  genteel prudery  of the r e a l i t i e s  both p a r t n e r s entered marriage  fills  of the middle  i t s distorting  d e v e l o p m e n t o f young p e o p l e .  that  in  on  uhich any  ensured  q u i t e unprepared  the  that  for i t s  192 challenges. (Etzel  The m a r r i a g e o f E r n s t and M a r i e Bergmann  Anderqast) f a i l s  because  Ernst's sensuality i s  n e v e r a w a k e n e d , a n d uhen M a r i e ' s i s , h i s r e f i n e d , adoration o f her i s t o t a l l y reacts  identically  inadequate.  Kerkhoven  t o K l a u s Baas uhen N i n a ' s  h o r i z o n s become t h e p r i s o n u a l l fulfilment of h i s potential.  anaemic himself  limited  s e p a r a t i n g him from t h e  Though F r e n s s e n u s e s t h e  undiminished sensuality  o f t h e D i t h m a r s c h e r as a c o r n e r s t o n e  of  unspoiled rural  h i s c o n t r a s t betueen  decadence  of certain  a dogmatic  quality uhich i s lack-  i n Uassermann's n o v e l s , both a u t h o r s a r e i n agreement  n o t o n l y as t o t h e u n d e r l y i n g also the i n t e l l e c t u a l unreality  opposed  basis  cause o f the p r o b l e m , b u t  for i t s eradication.  of the middle class  uhich springs is  and t h e  o t h e r g r o u p s , and i n c o n s e q u e n c e  imbues t h e c o m p a r i s o n u i t h ing  vitality  c o n c e p t o f man's n e e d s  from t h e primacy o f i d e a l s  i n the uritings  Uassermann approaches  through Kerkhoven  the s c i e n t i s t ,  ultimately  unbroken  their  ties  assessment  d r i v e s may n o t be c r i p p l e d d i s a s t r o u s consequences rests  upon s o c i e t y  impedes t h e u e l f a r e  over n a t u r a l  o f b o t h by r e c o g n i t i o n  place i n nature.  countryman's  The  laus  o f man's  the problem  Frenssen through the  to h i s natural environment, but i s i d e n t i c a l : man's  physical  by m i d d l e c l a s s m o r a l i t y  f o r h i s development.  The o b l i g a t i o n  t o abandon t h e m o r a l c o d e t h a t o f i t s members.  uithout  thus  193 Man a n d S o c i e t y  U a s s e r m a n n ' s r a c e , h i s unhappy c h i l d h o o d stepmother  a n d t h e u t t e r l a c k o f s y m p a t h y he e n c o u n t e r e d  among h i s u n c l e ' s  bourgeois c i r c l e ,  force h i s sense o f being an  uith his  apprentice  a l l combined t o r e i n -  an o u t s i d e r .  H i s e x p e r i e n c e s as  g a v e h i m an a u a r e n e s s o f t h e t e n s i o n  betueen  the m a t e r i a l i s t i c , b o u r g e o i s atmosphere o f U i l h e l m i n i a n Germany a n d h i s oun c r e a t i v e a s p i r a t i o n s .  H i s major  uho i n some uay  novels  all  have as h e r o e s c h a r a c t e r s  the  s o c i e t y a r o u n d them: from Agathon Geyer i n D i e Juden  von  Z i r n d o r f t o t h e Ahasver novel  his  d e a t h , t h e crux o f every uork i s the o p p o s i t i o n o f  the  c e n t r a l character  to existing  t h a t he u a s p l a n n i n g  creative imaginations, Hauser, the foundling in  1827.  one u h i c h  several  o f N f l r n b e r g , uho a p p e a r e d i n t h e c i t y  uritten  eight years p r e v i o u s l y ) i n  and i s r u t h l e s s l y  these characters  no p r o t e c t i o n  e x p l o i t e d by a l m o s t  uhom he comes i n c o n t a c t .  from  everyone  Through t h e d e p i c t i o n o f  Uassermann a c h i e v e s a condemnation o f  s o c i e t y , n o t as a p o l i t i c a l aspects  had f i r e d  i n c l u d i n g T r a k l ' s : t h a t o f Caspar  t h a t , a s an o u t s i d e r , he r e c e i v e s  uith  o f t h e young  Caspar's p o s i t i o n i s analogous t o t h a t o f Renate  Fuchs ( i n t h e n o v e l  society  at  conditions.  The f i g u r e t h a t c a p t u r e d t h e i m a g i n a t i o n Uassermann uas a h i s t o r i c a l  challenge  or s o c i a l  order,  although  these  a r e i n v o l v e d , b u t on t h e more f u n d a m e n t a l p l a n e o f  194 the  s e l f i s h n e s s and  T r M g h e i t des aspect  c o m p l a c e n c y o f men  H e r z e n s , " as  of the  the n o v e l  human c h a r a c t e r  and  women.  "Die  is subtitled, is  against uhich  Caspar  the  Hauser  51 is  " e i n A n k l a g e b u c h vom  Rudolf  e r s t e n b i s zum  K a y s e r d e f i n e s i t as  zulMngliche, die kleine die Z u f r i e d e n h e i t mit zicht  auf The  das only  F e u e r b a c h and  tuo  " d i e Geuflhnung an  S e l b s t z u c h t der  den  Leiden  der  K a n n a u u r f , and  Daumer, T u c h e r , F r a u  B e h o l d and  and  i t s brutality  outsider.  vision  I n Das attack he  on  into  on  der  Ver-  especially  a living  are  destroyed The  others,  Quandt,  society  and  the  represent  vulnerable  loving  c h a r a c t e r , and  basis of  this  Uassermann's  society.  U i l h e l m i n i a n m i d d l e c l a s s , and  no  country.  assumes a d i f f e r e n t  found i n Frenssen's u o r k s ,  form  Daniel's eventual  the  from  novel  the  Although Daniel  means a " H e i m a t r o m a n " h e r o and  the b o u r g e o i s i e  his  in this  "Heimatroman's" f a v o u r i t e frameuork of  c o n t r a s t b e t u e e n t o u n and h a f f t i s by  GemOter,  GHnsem8nnchen ( 1 9 1 5 ) U a s s e r m a n n c o n t i n u e s  the  uses the  Caspar.  Kannauurf represents  commitment f o r m s t h e  of a reborn  both are  to the u n s p o i l e d , i n n o c e n t  commitment t r a n s f o r m e d individual  schuachen  dehumanization of bourgeois  K l a r a von  Un-  to escape condemnation  involvement u i t h  c o r r u p t i o n and  das  Uelt."  as a r e s u l t o f t h e i r  the  Satz."  p r i v a t e n S c h m e r z e n und 52  characters  K l a r a von  letzten  Not-  attack that  reconciliation  195 to h i s f a t e i n the v i l l a g e  of Eschenbach a f f o r d s  p o i n t from u h i c h Uassermann's approach  can be  a  vantage  compared  uith  that of the " H e i m a t d i c h t e r . " In d e s c r i b i n g  Daniel's unscrupulous  uncle  Jason 53  Philipp  Schimmelueis  Uassermann adopts  as " e i n Mann, d e r d i e Z e i t v e r s t a n d , "  at the o u t s e t a p o s i t i o n  ethos of U i l h e l m i n i a n  Germany.  conscious than e i t h e r  Frenssen  critical  of the  He i s h o w e v e r f a r more o r Ompteda t h a t t h e  problems  o f t h e neu age must be f a c e d r a t h e r t h a n s i m p l y a v o i d e d : Da e r u a c h t e d i e a l t e R e i c h s s t a d t aus i h r e m r o m a n t i s c h e n Schlummer. Hatten d i e erhabenen K i r c h e n , d i e s c h f l n g e s c h u u n g e n e n B r i l c k e n und v e r u i n k e l t e n HBuser ehedem e i n s i n n r e i c h L e b e n d i g e s g e b i l d e t , so u a r e n d i e j e t z t n u r n o c h O b e r b l e i b s e l , und B u r g und U M l l e und d i e g e u a l t i g e n R u n d t d r m e u u r d e n zu R u i n e n e i n e r g l d c k l i c h O b e r s t a n d e n e n Z e i t d e r TrSume. Schienen u u r d e n d u r c h d i e S t r a s s e n g e l e g t und v e r r o s t e t e K e t t e n , an denen u n f O r m l i c h e L a t e r n e n a u f g e h M n g t u a r e n , vom E i n g a n g e n g e r GMsschen e n t f e r n t . Fabriken und S c h l O t e umgaben das e h r u i l r d i g e und p i t t o r e s k e U e i c h b i l d u i e e i n e i s e r n e r Rahmen das GemMlde e i n e s alten Meisters. 54 Uhereas Frenssen uith  the s p i r i t  and  Ompteda s e e k  t o imbue t h e neu  o f the o l d , Uassermann i s auare  reconcilable natures. nostalgic affection  He  of t h e i r i r -  r e g a r d s t h e bygone e r a u i t h  f o r i t s a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s , b u t he  none o f t h e p a s s i o n a t e p e r s o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t u i t h characterizes  the other tuo a u t h o r s .  to the i n d u s t r i a l Frenssen  and  a desirable  age  is similarly  Ompteda he future  age  feels  c o n t a i n s no  p a r t o f i t and elements  has  i t that  Uassermann's  ambivalent:  a  attitude  unlike  his vision  of former  of  t i m e s , but  196 his is  appreciation even l e s s  of the consequences o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n  positive  than t h e i r s .  They c a n g l o r y i n  Germany's e c o n o m i c m i g h t even w h i l e d e c r y i n g t h e m i s e r y o f the to  f a c t o r y worker:  Uassermann i s t o o n a t i o n a l l y  s e e b e y o n d t h e p o v e r t y and e x p l o i t a t i o n .  uncommitted  Uith the  i n c r e a s e i n t h e means o f g e n e r a t i n g w e a l t h , a l l t h r e e s e e an i n c r e a s e i n g r e e d , a g g r e s s i o n and e x p l o i t a t i o n , and J a s o n  Phillip  Schimmelweis i s merely  e x a m p l e o f t h e way i n w h i c h  the removal  a c r o s s the dark a l l e y s , s y m b o l i z i n g  one s m a l l ,  crass  of the chains  the emancipation of  t h e . g h e t t o J e w s , h a s i n f a c t meant no e r a d i c a t i o n o f medieval  superstition.  Men h a v e n o t been c h a n g e d by t h e  p a s s i n g o f t h e " Z e i t d e r TrMume;" r a t h e r unleashed  t h e new age h a s  a g g r e s s i o n s p r e v i o u s l y h e l d i n check  C a r o v i u s , " d e r Nero u n s e r e r Z e i t , "  by  traditions.  i s "ein KleinbUrger mit  55 entfesselten  Instinkten."  In h i s impotent rage a t a  w o r l d w h i c h makes i t s d e c i s i o n s w i t h o u t c o n s u l t i n g h i m , C a r o v i u s i s a g r o t e s q u e example o f t h e m a l i g n a n t of  the U i l h e l m i n i a n In  the  bourgeoisie.  Das GMnsemHnnchen U a s s e r m a n n ' s own b i t t e r n e s s a t  bourgeoisie i s exaggerated  to the point of almost  p a t h o l o g i c a l h a t r e d i n D a n i e l ' s a t t i t u d e , which in  resentments  he e x p r e s s e s  t h e s e terms t o L e n o r e : S i e h s t du n i c h t , w i e s i e m i r d i e Z9hne w e i s e n ? . . . I s t i h n e n e t w a s h e i l i g von ,dem, was d i r o d e r m i r heilig ist? Uerden s i e d u r c h d e i n e oder meine  197 o d e r i r g e n d e i n e s M e n s c h e n Not urn M i l l i m e t e r s b r e i t e uon d e r S t e l l e g e r U c k t ? K l e b t n i c h t an jedem i h r e r M a u l e r d e r Schlamm d e r V e r l e u m d u n g ? I s t ihnen n i c h t d e i n L a c h e n e i n Dorn im Auge? Neiden s i e mir n i c h t den b i t t e r n B i s s e n , urn den i c h m i c h s c h i n d e , und d i e M u s i k , d i e i h n e n u n b e g r e i f l i c h i s t und d i e s i e h a s s e n , u e i l s i e ihnen u n b e g r e i f l i c h i s t ? 56 By victim  the very to the  f o r c e o f h i s oun  argument, D a n i e l  same s i n as t h e c i t i z e n s  falls  of NUrnberg:  loathing  as a r e s u l t o f m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g .  Although  p o s i t i o n , as  d e m o n s t r a t e s , i s more  moderate, the uhy  Das  t h e end  of the n o v e l  p a s s i o n a t e language of t h i s  G3nsem3nnchen f a i l e d  f o r u h i c h U a s s e r m a n n had not l i k e l y Frenssen  to take  uas  of such b i t t e r n e s s  "Heimatdichter" and  of t h i s  and  the c r e a t i v e  spirit  and  The  society.  goes s t r a i g h t  In t h e i r  him  him  uith  underlines  t h e b o u r g e o i s , and  of  and  s o r r o w s o f o t h e r men: nehmen und  of Daniel betueen  a t t h e same  of the a r t i s t ' s  c o n v e r s a t i o n the  time  position  GBnsemannchen  f r o m t h e r e s t o f h u m a n i t y , and  an i m p e n e t r a b l e  is  touards  to the h e a r t of D a n i e l ' s p r o b l e m .  isolated  sich  vilified  attempt to b r i d g e the g u l f  first  has  U e l t auf  coeur  only  reconciliation  e l u c i d a t e s Uassermann's c o n c e p t i o n in  acceptance  essential identification  "l/olk,"  t h e t o u n s f o l k i s an  illuminates  the g e n e r a l thus  oun  t h e medium o f i t s v i l i f i c a t i o n .  Germany's e n e m i e s : D a n i e l ' s c r i de Uassermann's l a c k  attack  hoped: a s o c i e t y  to heart  capable  to f i n d  Uassermann's  armour t o p r o t e c t him " U n m e n s c h e n , d i e das  His a r t has  coated  from the Kreuz  doch im S c h m e r z Uber i h r  joys  der  eigenes  S c h i c k s a l hinUberuachsen." not u n d e r s t a n d , uith  then  by i n t e r r u p t i n g  the sound of h i s c h i l d r e n ' s  the  t h e GMnsemMnnchen s p o i n t : i n o r d e r  must p a r t i c i p a t e  surrounding curses  uorld.  i n t h e a c t i o n s and Uith  Daniel's ivory  ness to r e a l  a striking  touer  emotion robs  and  t h a t he  to l i v e  under-  fully  emotions of  s i m i l e , the  insists  the  GMnsemannchen  that his  even h i s c r e a t i o n  does  conversation  v o i c e s , Uassermann  1  lines one  and  Daniel replies  impervious-  of i t s value:  H 9 t t e s t du doch g e l e b t , g e l e b t , g e l e b t , g a n z u a h r und g a n z nah u i e e i n N a c k e n d e r im D o r n e n d i c k i c h t . . . da u S r e d e i n U e r k n i c h t im R i n g e n gegen d e i n e F i n s t e r n i s und b e s c h r M n k t e Q u a l g e u e s e n , u n f r e i v o r den M e n s c h e n , u n g e s e g n e t von G o t t . 58 Uassermann here s t a n d s shoulder to s h o u l d e r Frenssen  and  a product  o f , the r e a l i t y  "ttbermensch" God  Ompteda i n i n s i s t i n g  n o r man  can  find  that art r e f l e c t ,  of everyday l i f e .  i s ultimately  an  favour.  uith  The  the  be  artistic  "Unmensch," i n uhom n e i t h e r As  a r e s u l t o f h i s day  t h e GMnsemMnnchen•s p e d e s t a l D a n i e l comes t o a c c e p t v e r d i c t on  and  on Lenore's  tounspeople:  U i e auch s o n s t d i e M e n s c h e n b e s c h a f f e n s i n d , uenn e r i n i h r e Augen s i e h t , e r g r e i f t es i h n m i t O b e r irdischem GefOhl. I n a l i e n Augen i s t das G l e i c h e ; das g l e i c h e F e u e r , d i e g l e i c h e A n g s t , das g l e i c h e B i t t e n , d i e g l e i c h e E i n s a m k e i t , das g l e i c h e L o s , d e r g l e i c h e Tod; i n a l i e n i s t G o t t e s S e e l e . 59 Daniel at t h i s pastor  Adam B a r f o o d .  N a c k e n d e r im  p o i n t sounds v e r y "Ganz u a h r und  like  Frenssen's  ganz nah  Dornendickicht" i s precisely  hou  uie ein Adam  lives,  199 and  this  uell to  of l i v i n g ,  as i n t h e  rise  boy  uay  above t h e  by  the  adversity.  loss  oun  the  the  uould  c r o s s i n g the  nature  be  t o go  malice  uith  uhich  loved  had  description  leuchtende  at t h i s  critic's  a t one  uas  is  tenacity in becomes  speak of  the  far houever, for each u i t h  uith  the his  existence.  them as  removes the  realize  evil  i s o l a t i o n , Daniel b o r n , and  and  moves  becomes a  stage of h i s l i f e  comment on  P e r s H n l i c h k e i t , der  Tun,  der  eine  S a c h e und  M e n s c h e n e r n s t , der das  B a r l t , D a n i e l becomes an  in  t o t a l c o n t r a s t to the authentic  Frenssen:  Einklang  be-  earth countryfolk, Daniel  sounds l i k e "die  zuischen  adviser  ihr."^ to the  inspiration  Uort  und  abandons c r e a t i v i t y  an  Frenssen  villagers  from the  an  selbst-  Like  "Heimatdichter"—instead  artistic  The  M e n s c h e n b l i c k , d i e Hingebung  g r o s s e G e f O h l von  in  drauing  the  to a s m a l l group of h i s former s t u d e n t s .  o f him  enthusiastic  strength  p r e v i o u s l y c r e d i t e d them.  v i l l a g e u h e r e he  teacher  too  burdens, uhich  he  To  struggle for  Freed from h i s m i s a n t h r o p i c back t o the  c o u r a g e and  square remain alone,  so much f e e l  of t h e i r  the  as  Uhen Adam s e e s  common bond o f h u m a n i t y .  does n o t  him  i n s i g h t i s l e s s u p l i f t i n g : he  b u r d e n o f t r o u b l e s , h i s oun  Daniel  i n man  h e a t h t o f e t c h m e d i c i n e , he  n o b i l i t y i n man,  b r o t h e r h o o d o f man tounsfolk  of h i s sons.  uintry  Daniel's  auare of the  a belief  d i v i n e pouer, i s uhat gives  c r o s s i n g the  struck  coupled u i t h  but—  of down-to-  altogether.  200 There i s a degree of b a n a l i t y career  of s i g n i f i c a n t  music, gains in  an  into  becomes a n g r y when he but  sees animals  price  in isolation  of c r e a t i v i t y  n e s s , but  m i s t r e a t e d i s not  only  only  Frenssen's Otto  creativity  the  For  f a c t o n l y c r e a t i v e when he  of  the  village:  this  aspect  can  of the  " H e i m a t r o m a n " themes o f r u s t i c the  soil  is  artificial.  D a n i e l , the  mann d o e s n o t  contrast, i s  artist.  city-dweller's  idyll, than  village  simplicity  and with  contentment humanity  s u d d e n , and  i s a sanitized,  more r e m i n i s c e n t o f M a r i e  Frenssen's B a r l t .  insupportable reality Eschenbach shares  itself  of bourgeois  w i t h Otto  life  Despite a l l  show t h e v i l l a g e r s ' a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e The  to h i s  "Heimatroman" i s at  metamorphosis i s too  prodigal son.  Trianon  effective-  to r e l a t e  o f home, D a n i e l ' s r e c o n c i l i a t i o n The  work  only  i s i n c o n t a c t w i t h the  odds w i t h U a s s e r m a n n ' s c o n c e p t o f t h e  on  the  lack of s o c i a l  B a b e n d i e k , by  in  Petit  converse of  i t amounts t o a c o m p l e t e i n a b i l i t y  f e l l o w men.  the  transformation of a only  from the w o r l d .  i s not  which  theme f o r e x a m p l e i n t h e  artist's  his  f a t h e r who  a l s o the r a t h e r t r i t e  Thomas M a n n , t h a t an  flourish  The  an u n d e r s t a n d i n g  t h e s i s , which i s a constant of  to a stormy  for Daniel, i n losing  peace of m i n d .  genius  unconvincing  creativity,  end  e f f e c t i v e n e s s t o h e l p h i s f e l l o w man,  t u r n g i v e s him  misanthropic  in this  As  returned deodorized  Antoinette's  a refuge  society,  Uasser-  from  Daniel's  Babendiek's Stormfeld  that  the  201 retreat  from  the twentieth century uhich characterizes the  "Heimatroman," b u t t h e f a c t creative  t h a t E s c h e n b a c h c a n p r o v i d e no  i m p e t u s s h a r p l y s e p a r a t e s Uassermann from t h e  "Heimatdichter."  U a s s e r m a n n ' s p o s i t i o n i s n o t as c l e a r ,  h o u e v e r , as M a n n ' s , f o r b o t h t o uhom a s i m i l a r hovens d r i t t e  loss occurs  a limited  creativity  i n favour of s o c i a l  isolation;  imposed b a r r i e r tering  time  involvement  t u r n s h i s b a c k on  houever t h e i s o l a t i o n  of social  privilege.  s o n o f an i m m e n s e l y r i c h  i s the e x t e r n a l l y  C h r i s t i a n , the g l i t -  industrialist,  his  f o r t u n e and d e s c e n d s by s t a g e s i n t o  and  human d e g r a d a t i o n .  renounces  the abyss o f poverty  The f a v o u r e d , s e c u r e  u o r l d o f t h e European upper c l a s s the Great  ivory  Das G B n s e m a n n c h e n , C h r i s t i a n  (1919), the hero s i m i l a r l y this  Kerk-  sphere.  In the n o v e l t h a t f o l l o u s Uahnschaffe  Kerkhoven,  a t t h e end o f J o s e p h  E x i s t e n z , c h o o s e t o abandon t h e i r  t o u e r and t h e i r uithin  D a n i e l and J o s e p h  and p r o t e c t e d  i n the l a s t years  Uar u a s a l r e a d y no more t h a n  a memory uhen  before Uasser-  mann began t h e n o v e l i n 1 9 1 6 , b u t t h e e x p e r i e n c e u h i c h rise dated by  to i t ,  h i s triumphal tour through  gave  Germany i n 1 9 1 2 ,  b a c k t o a t i m e uhen t h e f a b r i c o f s o c i e t y , h a l l o u e d  tradition  and s u p p o r t e d  by s o much u e a l t h and p o u e r ,  seemed o u t u a r d l y u n a s s a i l a b l e , i f t h r e a t e n e d by t h e r i s i n g tide of unrest.  A year  b e f o r e he made t h i s  Uassermann noted  i n his diary:  journey  202 I c h b i n m i r d a r U b e r k l a r , d a s s d i e U e l t g r o s s e n und im V e r l a u f d e r n M c h s t e n z u a n z i g 3 a h r e e n t s c h e i d e n d e n E r e i g n i s s e n e n t g e g e n s t e u e r t ; d a s s d i e s o z i a l e n GegensMtze s i c h i n e i n e r u n h e i l v o l l e n Ueise z u g e s p i t z t haben, dass d i e Menschheit i n e i n e r hohen, j a f i e b e r h a f t e n Spannung l e b t . Krieg? Mag s e i n . Obuohl mir k e i n e A r t von K r i e g e r l f l s e n d s c h e i n t f U r d i e s e S p a n n u n g . Der Obermut d e r B e s i t z e n d e n s t e i g t b e i n a h e von Tag z u Tag; das E l e n d d e r Armen n i c h t m i n d e r . Die M i t t e l k l a s s e muss d a b e i z e r r i e b e n u e r d e n . 61 N e v e r t h e l e s s U a s s e r m a n n uas n o t i m p e r v i o u s t o t h e seductive g l i t t e r  of high s o c i e t y .  of h i s enthusiasm d u r i n g  the t o u r :  "Diese  ist  i n seinem  uie  die harten U i r l i c h k e i t e n , obgleich  seinem  Leben  Marta K a r l u e i s  ebenso u i c h t i g  Innern s i c h e r  und  n i c h t g a n z zum  speaks  Bezauberung  fruchtbar  geuesen  der Z u e i f e l i n  Schueigen  gebracht  62 uar."  Since her r e l a t i o n s h i p  had n o t begun i n  C a r t a ' s a c c o u n t i s b a s e d on U a s s e r m a n n ' s oun and i t i s p o s s i b l e as she s a y s .  recollections,  t h a t h i s d o u b t s u e r e n o t as  "sicher"  Four y e a r s p a s s e d b e f o r e he began u o r k  t h e n o v e l , and t h e i n t i m a t i o n s U a h n s c h a f f e s and  their  of impending  to present i n the c h a r a c t e r  doom f o r t h e  I n 1910  of Eruin  o f M e l u s i n e as a t e d i o u s  R e i n e r an  story  t r i u m p h a n t , and has no c o n t a c t a t a l l u i t h the poor. in  Christian  to  Uassermann  example o f the j e u n e s s e d o r e e , but the n o v e l never above t h e l e v e l  on  c l a s s must h a v e been i n f l u e n c e d  some e x t e n t by t h e c o u r s e o f t h e u a r . tried  1912,  of  rises virtue  the problems  of  U a h n s c h a f f e on t h e o t h e r hand moves  s t a g e s from the p i n n a c l e  to the depths of s o c i e t y ,  t h e s o c i a l message o f t h e n o v e l i s d r i v e n  home i n t h e  and  203 conjunction of the nadir and  the culmination Christian  a cynical the  of Christian's  friends.  i s introduced  t h r o u g h t h e e y e s o f Crammon, t r a v e l l i n g betueen  o f E u r o p e and t h e c o u n t r y e s t a t e s o f h i s  Instead of the s p o i l e d  Crammon f i n d s  progression  o f h i s d e v e l o p m e n t as a man.  p l a y b o y uho s p e n d s h i s l i f e  capitals  social  Christian  sunden, blonden  ueakling  he e x p e c t s ,  t o be " e i n e n d u r c h and d u r c h g e -  j u n g e n A t h l e t e n , d e r i h n urn a n d e r t h a l b  KopflMngen U b e r r a g t e , s i c h e i n e Spur von E i t e l k e i t  seiner  Kraft  und S c h f l n h e i t  b e u u s s t u a r und v o n f r o h e r  ohne  Laune  6 3 strahlte." Christian he  Without a hint  of irony,  t h e embodiment o f " l a b e l l e  c o u l d p a s s f o r one o f F r e n s s e n ' s  Ompteda's c a v a l r y  lieutenants,  hunting  of realism  of his existence.  and a l l e g o r y ,  for Christian  dogs and s t a n d s u n t o u c h e d by f a l l i n g  mann's p r e d i l e c t i o n i t s effectiveness  Physically  f a r m e r s o r one o f  o u t s e t , t h e n o v e l i s u e a k e n e d by t h e u n e a s y  position  of  epoque."  f r o m uhom he i s d i f f e r e n t i a t e d  only i n the t o t a l unproductivity the  U a s s e r m a n n makes  juxtacharms  trees:  f o r extremes robs C h r i s t i a n  From  Uasser-  Uahnschaffe  as a u o r k o f s o c i a l c r i t i c i s m and  r e d u c e s i t t o t h e l e v e l o f an i n t e l l e c t u a l l y  pretentious  melodrama. At est  star  money.  the beginning of the novel C h r i s t i a n i n the g l i t t e r i n g  i s the bright-  cosmos o f t h e n e u a r i s t o c r a c y  I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t Uassermann, uhose  origins  of  204 are  almost at  the  neu  class. in  the  that  the  o p p o s i t e end  monied a r i s t o c r a c y The  old  aristocracy  c o n t e x t of  i t uill  as  the  of  R e i c h as  decadence behind the  in  families.  new  l e a s t one  branch of  In the  that by  neu  f a m i l i e s of  v i r u s of  ostensibly  irrelevant  a u h o l e , as  Ompteda  task  facade of u e a l t h  Gideon f a m i l y fully  than the  has  the  culture  inner  the  old  Christian's  at  succumbed  the  neu  hollouness  Indeed the of  to  power  that  absorption  transmits  decadence even w h i l e t h e i r f o r t u n e s  still  fears  and  already  aware t h a t  old.  atavism  f o r Uassermann i s  more i m p e r v i o u s t o t h e  precedes decline  the  the  i s no  upper  E y s e n Ompteda i n d i c a t e s  to decadence: both authors are aristocracy  the  uses  become an  the  expose the the  social scale,  h i s example of  has  i n P r u s s i a , and  the  are  rising. m o t h e r r e g a r d s him  e x a m p l e f o r t h e i r e n t i r e c l a s s , and  as  the  acme and  rejects his  the  father's  c o m p l a i n t s when C h r i s t i a n s p e n d s o v e r h a l f a m i l l i o n marks on  a  diamond: Es g i b t v i e l e Sflhne aus r e i c h e m H a u s e , d i e i h r L e b e n i n d e r s e l b e n U e i s e v e r b r i n g e n wie C h r i s t i a n . Sie b e z e u g e n , m e i n e r A n s i c h t n a c h , den H o c h s t a n d e i n e r E n t w i c k l u n g ; s i e b e t r a c h t e n s i c h s e l b s t a l s Ausgez e i c h n e t e , und das m i t v o l l e m R e c h t . S i e s i n d d u r c h G e b u r t und Uermflgen der MUhe des B e r u f s e n t h o b e n . Uarum s o l l e n s i e s i c h n i c h t a u f a r i s t o k r a t i s c h e A r t von der Masse u n t e r s c h e i d e n ? 64 Albrecht Uahnschaffe, Christian's  appreciation aesthetic  for this  excellence.  c o n c e p t o f an He  i s also  f a t h e r , has  aristoc