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The vision of Germany's rebirth in the novels of Gustav Frenssen, Georg Von Ompteda and Jakob Wasserman Adams, Paul Simon 1973

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THE VISION OF GERMANY'S REBIRTH IN THE NOVELS OF GUSTAV FRENSSEN, GEORG VON OMPTEDA AND 3AK0B UASSERMANN by PAUL SIMON ADAMS B.A., Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y , 1966 M.A., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1970 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY i n the Department o f German Ue a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g to the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1973 In presenting this thesis in p a r t i a l fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make i t freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of German  The University of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada D a t e 2 A p r i l 1973 i A b s t r a c t Through an e x a m i n a t i o n of the v i s i o n o f Germany's r e b i r t h i n the n o v e l s o f Gustav F r e n s s e n (1863-1945), Georg von Ompteda (1863-1932), and Jakob Uassermann (1873-1934), t h i s s t u d y i n v e s t i g a t e s the s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and e t h i c a l g o a l s o f t h r e e w i d e l y r e a d a u t h o r s o f the U i l h e l m i n i a n e r a . The c e n t r a l problem o f the n o v e l s i s d e f i n e d as the a t t i t u d e towards the i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n o f Germany a f t e r 1870 and the way i n u h i c h t h i s a t t i t u d e p r e v e n t e d the a u t h o r s from f a c i n g up to the problems o f i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y , t h e r e b y c o n t r i b u t i n g t o the f a i l u r e o f German democracy and the r i s e of N a t i o n a l S o c i a l i s m . The u n d e r l y i n g common theme o f a l l t h r e e a u t h o r s i s the n e c e s s i t y f o r n a t i o n a l u n i t y , both to put an end to s o c i a l d i s c o r d and to en a b l e Germany to r e p e l an a t t a c k • r: by f o r e i g n enemies. In F r e n s s e n ' s n o v e l s the a s p e c t s o f s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and r e l i g i o u s r e f o r m c o n t r i b u t e t o the i d e a l o f a s t a t e whose harmonious u n i t y i s s e c u r e d by a framework o f common g o a l s based on a f o u n d a t i o n o f e t h n i c homogeneity, Georg von Ompteda's works c o n c e n t r a t e on the problems o f the P r u s s i a n a r i s t o c r a c y . Ompteda endeavours t o demonstrate t o the 3unkers themselves the n e c e s s i t y o f r e f o r m o f c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f the a r i s t o c r a t i c c ode, such as the d u e l and the ur g e n t problem o f economic d e c l i n e due to the Dunkers1 r e f u s a l t o a c c e p t employment o u t s i d e the s e r v i c e of the s t a t e , Ompteda seeks to f o s t e r n a t i o n a l u n i t y by showing t h a t the a r i s t o c r a c y performs a v i t a l f u n c t i o n as the s o u r c e o f m i l i t a r y and c i v i l ad-m i n i s t r a t o r s w i t h an e s s e n t i a l community o f i n t e r e s t w i t h the r e s t o f the n a t i o n . U h i l e 3akob Uassermann r e p r e s e n t s i n some ways the a n t i t h e s i s of the o t h e r two i n t h a t he i s a n t i - n a t i o n a l i s t and a n t i - a u t h o r i t a r i a n , he too a s p i r e s t o a u n i f i e d n a t i o n a l community, but on the b a s i s o f h u m a n i t a r i a n i d e a l i s m . H i s v i s i o n o f a , r e b o r n s o c i e t y l a c k s the n a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n of the " H e i m a t d i c h t e r " and h i s hope f o r s o c i a l improvement t h r o u g h a r e v i t a l i z e d h u m a n i t a r i a n e t h i c gave way to d e s p a i r a f t e r the c o l l a p s e o f the Ueimar R e p u b l i c . Ompteda s i m i l a r l y abandoned h i s v i s i o n o f a s t r a t i f i e d but harmonious s t a t e a f t e r the R e v o l u t i o n of 1918, and o n l y F r e n s s e n m o d i f i e d h i s v i s i o n t o accomodate the T h i r d R e i c h . None o f the t h r e e a u t h o r s b e l o n g s a e s t h e t i c a l l y i n the f i r s t r a n k : t h e i r n o v e l s are e p i g o n a l i n s t y l e , r a m b l i n g i n s t r u c t u r e , and g e n e r a l l y f a r too l o n g . S i n c e they were not f i r s t - r a t e t h i n k e r s , they were unable to s u b j e c t t h e i r v i s i o n of a r e b o r n s o c i e t y t o the k i n d o f c o n s i s t e n t , p e n e t r a t i n g a n a l y s i s which would have r e v e a l e d t h e i r f a i l u r e t o f i n d s o l u t i o n s t o the problems o f i n d u s -i i i t r i a l s o c i e t y . In consequence the n o v e l s r e t r e a t from the modern w o r l d i n t o a m y t h i c a l p a s t where Germany was s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t and the p o p u l a t i o n l i v e d i n harmony on the l a n d . For a l l h i s p r e t e n s i o n s o f b e l o n g i n g to the l i t e r a r y a v a n t - g a r d e , Uassermann's p o s i t i o n i s e s s e n t i a l l y a n a l o g o u s : h i s heroes a l l withdraw from the problems o f i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y i n t o a s h e l t e r e d and s h a r p l y l i m i t e d s phere where they can engage i n good works on an i n d i -v i d u a l l e v e l . Had t h e r e been no T h i r d R e i c h , the "Heimatroman" would have been merely a t r a n s i t o r y phenomenon o f dubious l i t e r a r y m e r i t , worthy o f s c a n t a t t e n t i o n f o r t y y e a r s a f t e r the l a s t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the genre l e f t the p r i n t i n g p r e s s . The j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r i t s r e t r o s p e c t i v e a n a l y s i s l i e s i n the f a c t t h a t m i l l i o n s of Germans r e a d t h e s e n o v e l s over a p e r i o d o f f o r t y y e a r s and found i n A d o l f H i t l e r ' s r e j e c t i o n of l i b e r a l p a r l i a m e n t a r y democracy a s y m p a t h e t i c and f a m i l i a r echo o f the "Heimatroman1s" r u r a l i d y l l . i v Table o f Contents The "Heimatroman" and i t s H i s t o r i c a l C o n t e x t 1 Gustav Prenssen 17 Nan and Woman 22 Man and S o c i e t y 42 Han and God 60 Deutschtum 75 Georg von Ompteda 93 Man and Woman 98 a The P h y s i c a l Type 99 b R e l a t i o n s h i p s between the Sexes 107 Man and S o c i e t y 119 a M o r a l i t y and Honour 119 b R e l i g i o n 124 c The Caste 126 d The Army 137 e Duty 145 f The Monarchy 155 Dakob Uassermann 164 Man and Uoman 170 Man and S o c i e t y 193 Deutschtum and Dudentum 229 Table of Contents The E t h i c a l F o u n d a t i o n C o n c l u s i o n F o o t n o t e s L i s t o f Uorks C i t e d Acknowledgment I would l i k e to e x p r e s s my g r a t i t u d e to my a d v i s e r , P r o f e s s o r Marketa Goetz S t a n k i e w i c z , f o r her u n f a i l i n g encouragement and a s s i s t a n c e d u r i n g the p a s t t h r e e y e a r s , o f t e n over t r y i n g l o n g - d i s t a n c e c o n d i t i o n s . My thanks are a l s o due to F r H u l e i n 3 u t t a Salchow o f the S c h i l l e r National-Museum, Marbach-am-Neckar, who r e n d e r e d a s s i s t a n c e f a r beyond the c a l l o f d u t y , and to my w i f e S h e r i , who t yped the m a n u s c r i p t and p r o v i d e d c o n s t a n t encouragement. I must acknowledge an enormous debt o f g r a t i t u d e to 3ohn Goode of R o s s a l l S c h o o l , who f o r f i v e y e a r s t a u g h t me German, and to my p a r e n t s , w i t h o u t whose s u p p o r t and s a c r i f i c e no dreams would have come to f r u i t i o n . Pre f a c e The aim o f t h i s s t u d y i s to examine the v i s i o n of Germany's r e b i r t h as i t appears i n the n o v e l s o f Gustav F r e n s s e n , Georg von Ompteda and 3akob Uassermann i n o r d e r t o e v a l u a t e the s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and e t h i c a l g o a l s o f the "Heimatroman," a f a c e t o f the l i t e r a t u r e o f the U i l h e l m i n i a n e r a which has been t o t a l l y n e g l e c t e d s i n c e 1945. I n d e e d , t h e s e t h r e e a u t h o r s , d e s p i t e the enormous numbers o f t h e i r n o v e l s s o l d d u r i n g t h e i r l i f e t i m e s , have r e c e i v e d r e m a r k a b l y l i t t l e s c h o l a r l y a t t e n t i o n . The secondary l i t e r a t u r e on Ompteda i s r e s t r i c t e d t o r e v i e w s of h i s n o v e l s i n v a r i o u s p e r i o d i c a l s , p r i n c i p a l l y Das  l i t e r a r i s c h e Echo, w h i l e academic c r i t i c i s m o f F r e n s s e n has been r e s t r i c t e d to s p e c i f i c a s p e c t s o f h i s work. There has been no attempt to a s s e s s h i s work as a whole except from a N a t i o n a l S o c i a l i s t v i e w p o i n t . Uassermann has been the s u b j e c t of two Swiss d i s s e r t a t i o n s d u r i n g the p a s t twenty y e a r s , both of which l i k e w i s e d e a l w i t h p a r t i c u l a r a s p e c t s o f h i s work. U h i l e Uassermann's n o v e l s l a c k the n a t i o n a l i s t and r a c i a l o r i e n t a t i o n which i s one of the s a l i e n t f e a t u r e s of the "Heimatroman" and t h e r e f o r e does not p r o p e r l y f i t i n t o the c a t e g o r y o f " H e i m a t d i c h t e r , " h i s i n c l u s i o n i n the s t u d y i s j u s t i f i e d on two c o u n t s . F i r s t l y , he thought o f h i m s e l f v i i i as a " V o l k s e r z i e h e r " i n the same uay as F r e n s s e n , and was b i t t e r l y d i s a p p o i n t e d when h i s n o v e l s were not a c c e p t e d by the German p u b l i c as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e i r c o n c e r ns and a s p i r a t i o n s , and s e c o n d l y , the e s s e n t i a l l y analagous n a t u r e of h i s c o n c l u s i o n s i l l u m i n a t e s , and i s i l l u m i n a t e d by, the "Heimatroman" p r o p e r . The v i s i o n o f a r e b o r n n a t i o n i s d e t e r m i n e d l a r g e l y by the a u t h o r ' s a t t i t u d e to the s o c i e t y around him, and the p o s i t i o n s o f F r e n s s e n , Ompteda and Uassermann i n r e l a t i o n to the n e u l y i n d u s t r i a l i z e d Germany of the U i l h e l m i n i a n e r a are r e f l e c t e d i n the r e f o r m s which they advocate i n the n o v e l s . The s t u d y examines th e s e from the a s p e c t s o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s , s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s and i n s t i t u t i o n s , and the e t h i c a l and r e l i g i o u s f o u n d a t i o n . S i n c e the " H e i m a t d i c h t e r " are r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f a s u b s t a n -t i a l body o f U i l h e l m i n i a n t h o u g h t , e x a m i n a t i o n of t h e i r v i s i o n o f an i d e a l f u t u r e sheds some a d d i t i o n a l l i g h t on the a c t u a l c o u r s e o f e v e n t s i n t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y Germany. The "Heimatroman" and i t s H i s t o r i c a l C o n t e x t Seventy y e a r s ago the "Heimatroman" uas c o n s i d e r e d by many Germans to be the most i m p o r t a n t l i t e r a r y development of the neu c e n t u r y . In the heyday o f I m p e r i a l s p l e n d o u r t h e ^ s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n a t i o n a l i s m o f the movement co r r e s p o n d e d to an awareness o f n a t i o n a l p r i d e on the p a r t o f l a r g e s e c t i o n s o f the p o p u l a t i o n , and the e q u a l l y s e l f - c o n s c i o u s e v o c a t i o n o f a s i m p l e r r u r a l p a s t s t r u c k a r e s p o n s i v e chord i n the h e a r t s of many f o r whom the headlong onrush o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n brought unwelcome changes i n the s o c i a l and economic s t r u c t u r e of the n a t i o n . T h i s c o n s e r v a t i v e f a c t i o n i n U i l h e l m i n i a n Germany was not composed s o l e l y o f tho s e c l a s s e s , such as the a g r i c u l t u r a l ' community, who were d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e d by the s h i f t i n emphasis from a g r i c u l t u r e to i n d u s t r y r e f l e c t e d i n the b i t t e r l y opposed t a r i f f agreements o f 1892-94. The i n s e p a r a b i l i t y i n the B i s m a r c k i a n Empire of the co n c e p t s of the army, the J u n k e r s and p a t r i o t i s m 1 per se l e d to a 11 f e u d a l i z a t i o n of the b o u r g e o i s i e " i n which the p a t r i o t i c m i d d l e c l a s s a c c e p t e d the pre-eminence of the a r i s t o c r a c y i n the m i l i t a r y and b u r e a u c r a t i c h e i r a r c h y and took over many o f the a r i s t o c r a c y ' s t r a d i -t i o n a l myths and mannerisms, which were o f c o u r s e d i r e c t e d towards the maintenance o f t h e i r r e s i d u a l f e u d a l p r i v i l e g e s . 2 The growing p r o s p e r i t y o f the m i d d l e c l a s s not o n l y s e r v e d as a s u b s t i t u t e f o r r e a l p o l i t i c a l power but a l s o wedded the b o u r g e o i s i e to the a r i s t o c r a c y i n the f a c e of the demands of the p r o l e t a r i a t f o r a g r e a t e r share o f both power and p r o s p e r i t y . T h i s c o n s e r v a t i v e s e n t i m e n t found i n the "Heimatroman1s" c a l l f o r a r e t u r n to a p r e - i n d u s -t r i a l i z e d s t a t e an echo o f i t s own f e a r s t h a t the ascen-dancy o f i n d u s t r i a l g o a l s posed the t h r e a t o f a complete break w i t h German t r a d i t i o n . A r i s t o c r a t s and b o u r g e o i s a l i k e compared the t r a d i t i o n a l v i r t u e s o f the German n a t i o n , t h e n a t i o n a l s e l f - i m a g e o f such w i d e l y - r e a d works as F r e y t a g ' s S o i l und Haben: i n d u s t r y , l o y a l t y , p i e t y , to the supposed l a c k o f such v a l u e s among the c l a s s e s o r i e n t e d towards i n d u s t r y . Not o n l y were the s o c i a l i s t workers c o n s i d e r e d a danger t o the e x i s t i n g o r d e r — i n the K a i s e r ' s words " e i n e R o t t e von Menschen, n i c h t w e r t , 2 den Namen Deutsche zu tragen.," — v o n P l f l t z o f the Bund der L a n d w i r t e e x p r e s s e d the w i d e l y - h e l d b e l i e f t h a t o n l y the Dunkers c o u l d p r o v i d e the k i n d o f l e a d e r s h i p n e c e s s a r y to m a i n t a i n Germany's p o s i t i o n i n h i s comment t h a t "the s p e c u l a t o r s o f the s t o c k exchange would c o l l a p s e i n the 3 f a c e o f a c a v a l r y c h a r g e . " From t h i s s t a n d p o i n t , where s e l f - i n t e r e s t and c o n v i c t i o n combined to produce a deep h o s t i l i t y t o i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and i t s changes, the i n d u s t r i a l age, e s p e c i a l l y i n i t ' s g a u d i e r m a n i f e s t a t i o n s , 3 t h r e a t e n e d the m a t e r i a l and s p i r i t u a l f o u n d a t i o n s o f s o c i e t y : the T r i u m p h a l Arch at the P a r i s E x h i b i t i o n o f 1900, surmounted by a s t a t u e o f a P a r i s i e n n e i n an e v e n i n g goun, s y m b o l i z e d to c o n s e r v a t i v e s not the t r i u m p h o f t e c h n o l o g y over p o v e r t y and d i s e a s e , but r a t h e r the i n n e r h o l l o u n e s s masked by the g l i t t e r i n g s p e c t a c l e . ^ The C a p r i v i t a r i f f s , which were answered i m m e d i a t e l y by the f o r m a t i o n o f the Bund der L a h d u i r t e i n 1893, were no more than a b e l a t e d r e c o g n i t i o n o f the primacy o f i n d u s t r y i n a modern Great Power, something t h a t B i s m a r c k , i n h i s y e a r s as C h a n c e l l o r , had r e f u s e d t o c o ncede. Bismarck sought to combat the a g r i c u l t u r a l r e c e s s i o n o f the 1880's by p r o g r e s s i v e l y r a i s i n g t a r i f f b a r r i e r s , which r e s u l t e d i n h i g h l i v i n g c o s t s f o r the urban w o r k i n g c l a s s w i t h v e r y l i t t l e b e n e f i t to the f a r m e r s . (Even though i n d u s t r y was p r o t e c t e d by the h i g h t a r i f f w a l l demanded d u r i n g the d e p r e s s i o n o f the 1870*s, the g r e a t a c c e l e r a t i o n o f i n d u s t r i a l p r o d u c t i o n a f t e r the i n t r o d u c -t i o n o f the C a p r i v i t a r i f f s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the i n t e r e s t s o f " r y e and i r o n " d i d not always c o i n c i d e . ) Because o f t h e i r d o m i n a t i o n of the army, the c i v i l s e r v i c e and the P r u s s i a n L a n d t a g , the p o l i t i c a l i n f l u e n c e o f the f a r m e r s , and i n p a r t i c u l a r the E a st E l b i a n D u n k e r s , was such t h a t heavy i n d u s t r y needed t h e i r s u p p o r t i n o r d e r to b e n e f i t s i m i l a r l y from s t a t e p r o t e c t i o n . B a r k i n p o i n t s out t h a t 4 B i s m arck's a d o p t i o n of a p r o t e c t i o n i s t t a r i f f p o l i c y i n 1879 was c r u c i a l i n t h a t i t e s t a b l i s h e d the p r i n c i p l e o f s t a t e s u p p o r t f o r p o w e r f u l i n t e r e s t g r o u p s . ^ As a r e s u l t the economic c o n f l u e n c e o f i n t e r e s t between the Dunkers and heavy i n d u s t r y broadened to i n c l u d e a p o l i t i c a l p a r t n e r s h i p , f o r both groups f e l t t h a t t h e i r s u r v i v a l depended on the maintenance o f the R e i c h as p r e s e n t l y c o n s t i t u t e d . The i n e x o r a b l e r i s e of S o c i a l Democracy among i n d u s t r i a l workers p r o v i d e d a common enemy, and the enormous p r e s t i g e o f the a r i s t o c r a c y f o l l o w i n g the 1870 war w i t h France imbued the i n d u s t r i a l i s t s w i t h the same i d e o l o g y as the J u n k e r s . ^ The " f e u d a l i z a t i o n o f the b o u r g e o i s i e " r e s u l t e d i n the p r o l o n g a t i o n o f the p h i l o s o p h y o f the P r u s s i a n a r i s t o c r a c y , i t s m i l i t a r y , a u t h o r i t a r i a n and t h o r o u g h l y c o n s e r v a t i v e mode o f t h o u g h t , l o n g a f t e r such p o s t u r e s had ceased t o be a p p r o p r i a t e i n a modern i n d u s t r i a l n a t i o n whose p r o s p e r i t y depended on t r a d e r a t h e r than m a r t i a l deeds. 3.PI. Keynes once o b s e r v e d t h a t "the German Empire was b u i l t more t r u l y on c o a l and i r o n 7 than b l o o d and i r o n " but the p r e s t i g e o f the a r i s t o c r a t i c c l a s s who had u n i t e d the c o u n t r y obscured t h i s u n r o m a n t i c t r u t h . A l t h o u g h the Bund der L a n d u i r t e was dominated by the P r u s s i a n a r i s t o c r a c y , t h e r e was c o n s i d e r a b l e s i m i l a r i t y i n c o n d i t i o n s i n S c b l e s w i g - H o l s t e i n , where a p a t r i a r c h a l 5 r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t e d between the l a r g e f a r m e r s and t h e i r l a b o u r e r s i n the marshes o f D i t h m a r s c h e n . A l t h o u g h e a s t e r n H o l s t e i n had i t s n o b l e l a n d o w n e r s , the farmers o f Dithmarschen were t h e i r own l o r d s o f the manor, and by the 19th c e n t u r y what He b e r l e terms a "peasant a r i s t o c r a c y " g w i t h a h i g h l y s t r a t i f i e d s o c i e t y had e v o l v e d , F r e n s s e n ' s comment t h a t few farms remained i n the same f a m i l y f o r g more than a c e n t u r y c o i n c i d e s w i t h Hans-3drgen Pu h l e ' s s t a t i s t i c t h a t by 1885 o n l y 12.8% o f the l a r g e r E a st P r u s s i a n e s t a t e s had been i n the hands o f the same f a m i l y 1 0 f o r more than 50 y e a r s . The farmers o f Dithmarschen d i d not b e l o n g t o an a r i s t o c r a t i c c a s t e and t h e r e f o r e had no sympathy f o r the P r u s s i a n t r a d i t i o n s which the Bund der L a n d w i r t e and the C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t y d e s i r e d to m a i n t a i n . Indeed between 1890 and 1912 the C o n s e r v a t i v e s never p o l l e d more than 5.4$ of the v o t e i n R e i c h s t a g e l e c t i o n s , i n c o n t r a s t to a maximum o f 44.3$ ( i n 1903) f o r the S o c i a l 11 Democrats. Only the l a r g e r f a r m e r s b e n e f i t e d from p r o t e c t i o n i s t t a r i f f s on g r a i n and f e e d s t u f f s , w h i l e the s t e a d y r i s e i n meat and d a i r y p r i c e s d u r i n g the 1890!s 12 brought a g e n e r a l p r o s p e r i t y to the r e g i o n . F r e n s s e n 1 3 speaks o f " u n s o l i d e m Leben und S p e k u l a t i o n e n " r e s u l t i n g from the i n t r u s i o n o f new ways i n t o f o r m e r l y i s o l a t e d D i t h m a r s c h e n . The s i t u a t i o n o f Andreas S t r a n d i g e r i n Die d r e i Getreuen n e v e r t h e l e s s shows t h a t problems such as the 6 m i g r a t i o n o f farm l a b o u r e r s uere common to the l a r g e r D i t h m a r s c h e n f a r m e r s as w e l l as the J u n k e r s , and f o r both the r i s e o f S o c i a l i s m , which was p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r o n g i n 1 4 D i t h m a r s c h e n , p r e s e n t e d a t h r e a t t o t h e i r economic and s o c i a l p o s i t i o n , i n r e a c t i o n to which the c o n s e r v a t i v e p h i l o s o p h y o f the U i l h e l m i n i a n e r a took shape. Hans-JUrgen Pu h l e enumerates the m o n a r c h i c a l , n a t i o n a l i s t , and p a t -r i a r c h a l components o f the a g r a r i a n c a t e c h i s m , the at t e m p t t o c o u n t e r t h e s o c i a l i s t i d e o l o g y o f c l a s s s t r u g g l e w i t h the c o n c e p t o f t h e u n i f i e d " l / o l k " i n wh i c h each segment o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n p e r f o r m s the f u n c t i o n s o f i t s s t a t i o n , bound t o g e t h e r by a common r a c i a l h e r i t a g e and l o y a l t y t o the s o v e r e i g n . P r i d e i n the achievements o f l o c a l t r o o p s i n t h e war o f 1870, as e v i n c e d f o r example i n F r e n s s e n ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f the B a t t l e o f G r a v e l o t t e i n 30rn U h l , d i d much t o overcome the D i t h m a r s c h e r s1 a v e r s i o n t o the P r u s s i a n s , and t h e f o u n d a t i o n o f the Empire p r o v i d e d a f o c u s f o r n a t i o n a l i s t s e n t i m e n t d e s p i t e the p r e v a l e n t d i s l i k e o f 1 5 B i s m a r c k ' s " k l e i n d e u t s c h e L f l s u n g . " As Puhle p o i n t s o u t , the P r u s s i a n e s t a t e owners s u p p o r t e d the new f l e e t a t f i r s t out o f p o l i t i c a l n e c e s s i t y r a t h e r than c o n v i c t i o n , whereas the D i t h m a r s c h e r , l i v i n g by the s e a , were more s u s c e p t i b l e to f e e l i n g s of n a t i o n a l p r i d e on t h a t s c o r e . As l o n g as t h e i r economic p o s i t i o n d i d not s u f f e r as a r e s u l t , t hey s h a r e d the s a t i s f a c t i o n o f the m a j o r i t y o f the n a t i o n a t 7 the image o f power and p r e s t i g e p r e s e n t e d by n a v a l and c o l o n i a l p o l i c i e s . T h i s i s r e f l e c t e d by the c a l l o f the Bund der L a n d w i r t e f o r a . "verndlnf t i g e n K o l o n i a l p o l i t i k " e n t i r e l y f o r r e a s o n s o f n a t i o n a l p r e s t i g e , s i n c e Germany's c o l o n i e s were i n c a p a b l e o f p r o d u c i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l e x p o r t s f o r the domestic m a r k e t , ^ In c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the p o l i t i c a l and economic g o a l s o f the f a r m e r s , t h i s C o n s e r v a t i v e concept o f the n a t i o n gave r i s e to the m y t h o l o g i z a t i o n o f the r o l e o f the f a r m e r . In c o n t r a s t to h a r m f u l i n f l u e n c e s emanating from the i n d u s t r i a l c i t i e s , w h i c h , s i n c e t h e i r development f o l l o w e d a p a t t e r n a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d i n England and F r a n c e , c o u l d be c l a s s -i f i e d as " a l i e n , " the l a n d and t h o s e who worked i t were imbued w i t h a l l manner o f v i r t u e s : s i n c e they were mani-f e s t l y u n c o r r u p t e d by f o r e i g n c o n t a c t , t h e s e became the pantheon o f German v i r t u e s . T h i s was by no means new: Gustav F r e y t a g ' s S o l i und Haben had e l a b o r a t e d on German v i r t u e s a t g r e a t l e n g t h i n m i d - c e n t u r y , but f o r C o n s e r v a t i v e z e a l o t s — a n d " H e i m a t d i c h t e r " — t h e y became a r t i c l e s o f f a i t h t o the e x t e n t t h a t b l u e eyes and b l o n d h a i r were the i n e v i t a b l e c o n c o m i t a n t o f a whole c o n s t e l l a t i o n o f worthy q u a l i t i e s . The c oncerns o f the " H e i m a t d i c h t e r " r e f l e c t t o a l a r g e e x t e n t the p o l i t i c a l and i d e o l o g i c a l aims o f the Bund der L a n d w i r t e , and a l t h o u g h F r e n s s e n i n p a r t i c u l a r c a l l s f o r a g r e a t e r degree o f freedom and p r o s p e r i t y f o r the 8 a g r i c u l t u r a l l a b o u r e r , the " E r s a t z a u t o r i t M t " o f the t h e o r y of the s t a t e founded on the " o r g a n i c " bond between the people and the l a n d and between the c l a s s e s i n the s t a t e was a c e n t r a l theme o f both the a g r a r i a n s1 s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t the r e a l i t y o f the U i l h e l m i n i a n Empire and the v i s i o n o f a r e b o r n Germany c o n t a i n e d i n the n o v e l s o f the "Heimat-1 7 d i c h t e r . " Even when the a g r a r i a n s opposed the K a i s e r , as f o r i n s t a n c e over the C a p r i v i t a r i f f s , and t h e r e b y ceased to r e n d er u n c o n d i t i o n a l o b e d i e n c e as the a r i s t o c r a t i c code demanded, t h i s concept o f the s t a t e p r o v i d e d a f o c u s f o r n a t i o n a l i s t s e n t i m e n t . While i t would be t o t a l l y u n j u s t to accuse a "Heimat-d i c h t e r " such as F r e n s s e n o f b e i n g a mouthpiece f o r a g r a r i a n i n t e r e s t s , t h i s e s s e n t i a l common ground between the t h e o r i s t s o f a Germany r e b o r n a l o n g the' l i n e s o f an a g r i c u l t u r a l community and the s e l f - i n t e r e s t o f P r u s s i a n landowners cannot be i g n o r e d . C o n c r e t e problems f a c i n g the f a r m e r s , such as the l a b o u r s h o r t a g e caused by the m i g r a t i o n t o the c i t i e s , were p r e s e n t e d i n the U i l h e l m i n i a n Empire from both the p r a c t i c a l and the i d e o l o g i c a l s i d e . N o vels such as U i l h e l m von P o l e n z1 Per BOttnerbauer (1895) or F r e n s s e n ' s Die d r e i Getreuen (1898) d e a l s y m p a t h e t i c a l l y w i t h the d e c l i n e o f the s m a l l f a r m e r , caught between com-p e t i t i o n from l a r g e r n e i g h b o u r s and the u n s c r u p u l o u s n e s s o f s p e c u l a t o r s , and lament the p o v e r t y which drove the r u r a l 9 p o p u l a t i o n to the c i t i e s or to A m e r i c a , whereas the Bund der L a n d w i r t e used the same problem as a b a s i s f o r demands t h a t freedom o f movement be c u r t a i l e d by l a w . Behind both approaches to the problem t h e r e i s d i s c e r n a b l e the a d d i -t i o n a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n t h a t , s i n c e farm workers make both p h y s i c a l l y and p o l i t i c a l l y more r e l i a b l e s o l d i e r s , n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y r e q u i r e s t h a t the m i g r a t i o n be h a l t e d . " N a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y " f o r the a g r a r i a n s r e f e r r e d p r i m a r i l y t o d o m e s t i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , f o r the s p e c t r e o f S o c i a l i s m loomed ever l a r g e r as the SPD grew s t e a d i l y t h r o u g h o u t the U i l h e l m i n i a n e r a , and the f i n a l s o l u t i o n o f an I m p e r i a l coup d' e t a t 1 8 never l o s t i t s f a s c i n a t i o n i n c o n s e r v a t i v e c i r c l e s . The c oncept o f an " o r g a n i c " n a t i o n , f r e e d o f the d i s c o r d engendered by the c o m p e t i t i o n o f i n t e r e s t groups i n a complex modern s o c i e t y was an e m o t i o n a l r e a c t i o n r a t h e r than a p o l i t i c a l l y f e a s i b l e p r a c t i c a l s o l u t i o n to the w i d e s p r e a d unease, e x p r e s s e d by N i e t z s c h e as e a r l y as 1873, t h a t Germany's economic and p o l i t i c a l s u c c e s s had been bought at the expense of t h o s e t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s which were assumed t o be the s o c i a l and s p i r i t u a l f o u n d a t i o n s o f the n a t i o n . The v i t r i o l i c n a t u r e o f N i e t z s c h e ' s a t t a c k s on c h e r i s h e d but o b s o l e t e i n s t i t u t i o n s became p o p u l a r i z e d a t the b e g i n n i n g o f the 1890's as a s e l e c t i v e r e j e c t i o n o f c e r t a i n a s p e c t s of 19th c e n t u r y c i v i l i z a t i o n i n such works as D u l i u s Langbehn's Rembrandt a'ls E r z i e h e r , the f i r s t 10 e d i t i o n o f u h i c h appeared i n 1890. In h i s book, which was such an enormous s u c c e s s t h a t s i x t y thousand c o p i e s were 1 9 s o l d i n the f i r s t year o f p u b l i c a t i o n , Langbehn c a l l s f o r a r e b i r t h o f Germany's i n t e l l e c t u a l and s p i r i t u a l l i f e on the b a s i s o f t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r a l v a l u e s . He r e j e c t s 20 the " g e i s t i g e L e e r e " o f the a s p h a l t c u l t u r e o f the c i t i e s , and i n p l a c e o f " l ' a r t pour l ' a r t " p o s t u l a t e s c u l t u r a l v a l u e s , the a b i d i n g v a l i d i t y o f u h i c h i s g u a r a n t e e d by unbroken c o n t a c t u i t h t h e i r n a t i v e s o i l . Langbehn sees i n the c u l t u r e o f Germany's r u r a l n o r t h the l a s t u n s u l l i e d b a s t i o n o f t h i s moral i n t e g r i t y , and i n the u n c o r r u p t e d v i t a l i t y o f i t s people the s t r e n g t h and l e a d e r s h i p n e c e s s a r y to r e s t o r e t h e s e q u a l i t i e s t o a paramount p o s i t i o n i n the l i f e o f the n a t i o n . Rembrandt a l s E r z i e h e r uas one o f the most s i g n i f i c a n t i n f l u e n c e s on F r e n s s e n ' s i n t e l l e c t u a l 21 development, and as a r e s u l t o f i t s e n t h u s i a s t i c r e c e p -t i o n by F e r d i n a n d A v e n a r i u s , the e d i t o r o f Per K u n s t u a r t , the book became one o f the p i v o t a l u o r k s o f the "Heimat-k u n s t " movement. For a l l the p a s s i o n a t e r e j e c t i o n o f U i l h e l m i n i a n s o c i e t y , u h i c h i n i t s r a p i d development t h r e a t e n e d to e n g u l f even the most i s o l a t e d r u r a l e n c l a v e s i n a f l o o d o f m o d e r n i t y , the " H e i m atkunst" movement s h a r e s some common ground u i t h i t s a r c h - a d v e r s a r y , N a t u r a l i s m . F r i e d r i c h L i e n h a r d and A d o l f B a r t e l s , the l e a d i n g t h e o r e t i c i a n s o f » 11 " Heimatkunst," uere u e l l auare t h a t from a p u r e l y s t y l i s -t i c p o i n t o f v i e u , "Heimatkunst" and N a t u r a l i s m uere not 22 m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e . T h e i r a t t a c k uas t h e r e f o r e " n i c h t gegen den N a t u r a l i s m u s a l s b l o s s e l i t e r a r i s c h e S c h u l e , 23 sondern a l s u e s e n t l i c h s t e A u s drucksform des Z e i t g e i s t e s . " The phrase "Die Moderne," c o i n e d i n 1886 by the l i t e r a r y h i s t o r i a n Eugen U o l f f as a d e s c r i p t i o n o f the a n t i - t r a d i -t i o n a l , q u e s t i o n i n g s p i r i t u h i c h uas g a i n i n g momentum a f t e r 24 1882-84, uas f u l l y a p p l i c a b l e o n l y a f t e r the N a t u r a l i s t s had made t h e i r s t y l i s t i c and t h e m a t i c i n n o v a t i o n s , and i t uas t h i s s p i r i t , i n t e r n a t i o n a l , m a t e r i a l i s t i c , d i s r e s p e c t -f u l of t r a d i t i o n and c o n c e n t r a t e d "im L i t e r a t e n t u m der Gr o s s -25 s t a d t , " a g a i n s t u h i c h L i e n h a r d , B a r t e l s and F e r d i n a n d A v e n a r i u s u i t h h i s K u n s t u a r t d i r e c t e d t h e i r a s s a u l t . N a t u r a l i s m , u h i c h r e a c h e d i t s h i g h - u a t e r mark u i t h the performance o f G e r h a r d t Hauptmann's l/or Sonnenaufgang i n B e r l i n i n 1889, brought contemporary s o c i a l problems i n t o the f o r e g r o u n d , a t r e n d u h i c h the "Heimatroman" con-t i n u e d , a l b e i t i n a r a t h e r d i f f e r e n t f o r m . A l t h o u g h some of the " H e i m a t d i c h t e r , " most n o t a b l y F r e n s s e n , s h a r e d the S o c i a l D e m ocratic b i a s o f the N a t u r a l i s t s i n t h e i r t r e a t m e n t o f s o c i a l p r o b l e m s , they used the m i s e r y o f the i n d u s t r i a l c i t i e s as a f o i l t o s u p p o r t the c a l l f o r a r e -a f f i r m a t i o n o f the s u p p o s e d l y e t e r n a l r u r a l v a l u e s . T h i s i n 1900 amounted to a u i l l f u l r e f u s a l t o acknouledge the fundamental changes i n s o c i e t y wrought by the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n and the consequent i m p o s s i b i l i t y o f s u p e r -i m p o s i n g t h e s e r u r a l v a l u e s on the c o n d i t i o n s o f the i n d u s t r i a l p r o l e t a r i a t . The i n a b i l i t y o f the "Heimatroman," u i t h i t s i d e e f i x e o f the v a l u e s o f the c o u n t r y s i d e , to cope u i t h the problems of a modern urban s o c i e t y i s most g r a p h i c a l l y i l l u s t r a t e d by Frenssen's K l a u s H i n r i c h Baas, u h i c h f a i l s t o t a l l y i n i t s i n t e n t i o n of r e c o n c i l i n g the two. Baas' peasant toughness e n a b l e s him to r i s e from p o v e r t y to a f f l u e n c e as a Hamburg bu s i n e s s m a n , but a l o n g the uay he l o s e s h i s s p i r i t u a l f o u n d a t i o n s and the end o f the n o v e l s u g g e s t s t h a t i n the commercial maelstrom he c a n n o t , even by r e - e s t a b l i s h i n g h i s t i e s u i t h the l a n d , r e c o v e r the s e r e n i t y t h a t c o n t a c t u i t h n a t u r e and the s l o u e r pace o f l i f e i m p a r t to the f a r m e r , A l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f "Heimatromane" such as B a r t e l s ' Die D i t h m a r s c h e r (1898) and many of the works o f L u l u von S t r a u s s und Torney, d e a l w i t h h i s t o r i c a l s u b j e c t s , which i s of c o u r s e the most c o n v e n i e n t method o f e x c l u d i n g m o d e r n i t y , U h i l e most " H e i m a t d i c h t e r " kneu too much about c o u n t r y l i f e t o g l a m o r i z e the f a r m e r ' s daun to dusk t o i l a f t e r the manner o f the R o m a n t i c s , t h e i r attempt to i s o l a t e c o u n t r y d i s t r i c t s from uhat they c o n s i d e r e d the c o r r u p t i n g and d i s t a s t e f u l i n f l u e n c e s o f i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y i n t r o d u c e s a d i d a c t i c element i n t o t h e i r u d r k s which i s q u i t e a t odds 13 u i t h the s p i r i t o f N a t u r a l i s m . Uhereas the s t y l e o f both N a t u r a l i s m and "Heimatkunst" i s a development o f German R e a l i s m i n t h a t both movements r e p r e s e n t a p r o g r e s s i v e s h a r p e n i n g o f focus i n the a u t h o r ' s d e p i c t i o n o f the u o r l d , both from the s t a n d p o i n t o f l a n d s c a p e and o f s o c i a l p r o b l e m s , t h i s d i d a c t i c element i s a d i s t o r t i o n o f the s u b j e c t m a t t e r t h a t b e l i e s the p h o t o g r a p h i c c l a r i t y o f r e p r o d u c t i o n i n -h e r e n t i n the s t y l e o f the n o v e l s . The p o e t i c f i l t e r t h r o u g h u h i c h u r i t e r s such as Storm, K e l l e r and Raabe d e p i c t the u o r l d i s not so much s t r i p p e d auay as r e p l a c e d by an e v e r - p r e s e n t d i d a c t i c i s m u h i c h at times comes c l o s e to sheer propaganda. Linen F r e n s s e n c o n s t a n t l y uses a d j e c t i v e s such as " s c h l i c h t " and " e r n s t " to d e s c r i b e farm l a b o u r e r s , or c a l l s FMhrmann Teut (Fleino der P r a h l e r ) ; 2 6 " e i n T a g e l U h n e r , der e i n Herzog u a r , " the c o m b i n a t i o n o f e x p r e s s i v e names and exemplary c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s p l a c e s an o v e r l a y o f myth over the d e s c r i p t i o n u h i c h removes the uork from the sphere of u n v a r n i s h e d r e a l i t y . E r i k a Denny's a s s e r t i o n t h a t the "Heimatroman" i s merely a c o n t i n u a t i o n of u e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d 19th c e n t u r y " D o r f g e s c h i c h t e " i g n o r e s 27 t h i s c e n t r a l a s p e c t o f the "Heimatroman." The s e l f - i n t e r e s t behind the i d e o l o g i c a l programme of the Bund der L a n d u i r t e uas g r a d u a l l y submerged a f t e r the mid-1920's as i t s s u c c e s s o r , the R e i c h s l a n d b u n d , became no more than a component o f the r a d i c a l r i g h t - u i n g o p p o s i t i o n . 14 The l o s s of c o n t r o l over the DNVP by the a g r a r i a n s f o l l o w i n g Hugenberg's e l e c t i o n to the p r e s i d e n c y o f the p a r t y i n October 1928 had as i t s end r e s u l t the s u b o r d i n a t i o n o f a g r a r i a n economic aims to the p o l i t i c a l g o a l s o f the NSDAP i n the c r e a t i o n o f the R e i c h s n M h r s t a n d under the l e a d e r -2 8 s h i p o f R.U. Darre i n the summer o f 1933. In an i r o n i c t w i s t , t h i s s u c c e s s o r t o the E a s t E l b i a n J u n k e r s d e c l a r e d t h a t : "Die N a t i o n a l s o z i a l i s t i s c h e A g r a r p o l i t i k l e h n t j e d o c h e n t s c h i e d e n den l i b e r a l i s t i s c h e n G r u n d s a t z ab, dass 29 der e i n z e l n e Bauer m f l g l i c h s t v i e l Geld v e r d i e n e n mUsse." The d e c l a r e d r o l e o f a g r i c u l t u r e i n the T h i r d R e i c h was to be " v e r a n t u o r t l i c h e r S a c h v e r w a l t e r s e i n e s V o l k e s Ober 30 d i e h t i chsten GOter." The b a s i c t e n e t o f the Bund der L a n d w i r t e , t h a t the r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n was h e a l t h i e r and more p o l i t i c a l l y r e l i a b l e than the i n d u s t r i a l p r o l e t a r i a t , was s i m i l a r l y removed from the sphere o f p r a c t i c a l p o l i t i c s and t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o such f a t u o u s s l o g a n s as : "Dedes Ba u e r n v o l k i s t blOhendes Leben, j e d e s v e r s t S d t e r t e Volk 31 i s t s c h l e i c h e n d e r Tod." The p r o c e s s o f m y t h o l o g i z a t i o n of the r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n , which the "Heimatroman" took over from w r i t e r s such as Langbehn, became the canon o f i t s u n l o v e l y o f f s p r i n g , the " B l u t und Boden" n o v e l , whose s o l e aim was the g l o r i f i c a t i o n o f the r a c e . The s o c i a l p r o -gramme o f Frenssen and h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s was f o r g o t t e n , absorbed i n the d e c l a m a t i o n s and promises t h a t the new 15 R e i c h would c r e a t e a f a r m e r s ' p a r a d i s e . Uhereas a n t i - s e m i t i s m had many a d h e r e n t s among the f i n a n c i a l l y h a r d - p r e s s e d f a r m e r s o f the Bund der L a n d w i r t e , i t r e p r e s e n t s no more than an u n d e r c u r r e n t i n most u o r k s o f " H e i m a t d i c h t u n g " and i s c o m p l e t e l y a bsent from F r e n s s e n ' s n o v e l s . The R e i c h s e r b h o f g e s e t z o f 1933 removed l a n d from the r e a l m o f f i n a n c i a l s p e c u l a t i o n and t h e r e b y b a n i s h e d the a g r a r i a n s ' f e a r s o f f u r t h e r D e u i s h t a k e o v e r s o f f a r m l a n d , but i d e o l o g i c a l a n t i - s e m i t i s m uas a much more s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i n the " B l u t und Baden" n o v e l than i n i t s p r e d e c e s s o r . The f r e q u e n t s h i f t s i n p o l i c y towards the 3eus d u r i n g the 1930*s r e f l e c t the l a c k o f c o h e r e n t p l a n s beyond the g e n e r a l u i s h on the p a r t o f N a z i o f f i c i a l s t o be r i d o f them, u h i l e a t the same time the " s t r e n g t h e n i n g " o f the Germanic r a c i a l element i n the p o p u l a t i o n t h r o u g h the advocacy o f l a r g e f a m i l i e s among r u r a l and o t h e r d e s i r a b l e segments p o i n t s to the p r i m a c y o f r a c i a l — a n d t h e r e f o r e u l t i m a t e l y mytho-l o g i c a l — c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n the f o r m a t i o n o f s t a t e p o l i c y * The "Heimatroman" u n d o u b t e d l y p l a y e d an i m p o r t a n t p a r t i n the p o p u l a r i z a t i o n o f t h o s e a s p e c t s o f the programme of the Bund der L a n d u i r t e u h i c h were a b s o r b e d i n t o the a t t i t u d e o f the T h i r d R e i c h t o the r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n . The prime c o n c e r n s o f the "Heimatroman" are n e v e r t h e l e s s r e f l e c t i v e o f the s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l i s s u e s o f the U i l h e l -m i n i a n e r a , j u s t as the s t y l e and s t r u c t u r e o f the n o v e l s 16 are f i r m l y r o o t e d i n the R e a l i s t t r a d i t i o n . F r e n s s e n even at h i s most i r r a t i o n a l d i f f e r s from the f r e n z i e d demogoguery o f the " B l u t und Boden" w r i t e r s as a U i l h e l -m i n i a n Junker d i f f e r s from a N a z i G a u l e i t e r : t h a t the former's v i s i o n o f a r e b o r n Germany became the n i g h t m a r i s h r e a l i t y o f the l a t t e r demonstrates the fundamental f a i l u r e o f the " H e i m a t d i c h t e r " to a p p r e c i a t e the e x t e n t t o u h i c h the i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n o f Germany had changed the c o n d i t i o n s of n a t i o n a l l i f e . 17 Gustav F r e n s s e n From the o b s c u r i t y o f a parsonage i n the v i l l a g e o f Hemme i n H o l s t e i n , Gustav F r e n s s e n became an o v e r n i g h t l i t e -r a r y s e n s a t i o n u i t h the p u b l i c a t i o n of 3Brn Uhl i n 1901. A l t h o u g h Die S a n d q r H f i n had appeared i n 1897 and h i s second n o v e l , Die d r e i Getreuen (1898) had been a c c l a i m e d by such w r i t e r s as Raabe, Heyse and U i l d e n b r u c h , 3Hrn Uhl uas the f i r s t n o v e l of Frenssen's to a t t r a c t u i d e s p r e a d a t t e n t i o n . U i t h i n seven months one hundred thousand c o p i e s had been s o l d , an enormous number f o r the t i m e , and the r e a c t i o n o f the c r i t i c s uas i n g e n e r a l no l e s s e n t h u s i a s t i c than t h a t of the p u b l i c . Amid a v e r i t a b l e a v a l a n c h e o f a d j e c t i v e s such as " e c h t , " "gesund," " k e r n d e u t s c h , " F r e n s s e n uas com-3 pared to the g r e a t masters of u o r l d l i t e r a t u r e : one c r i t i c p r a i s e d the c h a r a c t e r s on the e x t r a v a g a n t grounds t h a t they were imbued w i t h "wahrhaft h o m e r i s c h e r E i n f a l t und U n p a r t e i -l i c h k e i t . "4 The l e a d e r s of the "Heimatkunst" movement were more r e s t r a i n e d i n t h e i r p r a i s e of 3flrn U h l . F e r d i n a n d A v e n a r i u s , u r i t i n g i n Per K u n s t w a r t , a d m i t t e d t h a t the n o v e l uas good, but a d v i s e d h i s r e a d e r s t h a t what they l i k e d i n F r e n s s e n ' s book they would f i n d "noch r e i c h e r , u r s p r U n g l i c h e r , g r f l s s e r " 5 i n the works of K e l l e r and Raabe. A d o l f B a r t e l s , whom Frenssen much l a t e r d e s c r i b e d as r u n n i n g "immer b e l l e n d h i n t e r m ir h e r , " d i s m i s s e d J f l r n U h l as h a v i n g " z u a r v i e l v o l k s t U m l i c h e s L e b e n s g u t , aber d i e s e s l e i d e r v i e l f a c h unemp-f u n d e n , und ( i n dem) noch mehr anempfundenes s t e c k t . " F r e n s s e n h i m s e l f r e g a r d e d the l a b e l o f " H e i m a t d i c h t e r " u i t h m i s g i v i n g s : "Meinetuegen ' H e i m a t d i c h t e r1 und gar e i n e r von s t M r k s t e m Masse, aber n i c h t e i n e r , der nur z u i s c h e n Husum g und Buxtehude g e l e s e n u i r d , " H i s aim uas a l u a y s t o s e r v e the whole n a t i o n , and to do the same f o r the German pe o p l e as he b e l i e v e d D i c k e n s had done f o r the E n g l i s h : Man s a g t von D i c k e n s , dass er m i t s e i n e n ErzMhlungen das e i n f a c h e Uolk g e e h r t , s e e l i s c h e r h f l h t und so m i t -g e h o l f e n habe, dass das e n g l i s c h e l/olk i n s e i n e r Ge-s a m t h e i t s i c h s e l b s t g e e h r t und so e i n e i n i g e s und s t a r k e s \7olk geuorden s e i ; das i s t e s , uas i c h von K i n d an unbeuusst g e g l a u b t und g e u o l l t , und urn das i c h mich gemilht habe. 9 F r e n s s e n c o n s i d e r e d the u h o l e c o n c e p t o f " H e i m a t k u n s t " as a d i s t i n c t l i t e r a r y movement s u p e r f l u o u s . He f e l t t h a t " a l l e g r o s s e Kunst i s t H e i m a t k u n s t , " f o r uhen an a r t i s t has found h i m s e l f , "dann f i n d e t er auch d i e Heimat, denn d i e Heimat i s t 10 j a e i n Stdlck s e i n e r s e l b s t und das B e s t e , " For him " d i e h e i m a t l i c h e S c h o l l e " uas a s o u r c e o f i n s p i r a t i o n i n a v e r y c o n c r e t e s e n s e : not o n l y d i d i t p r o v i d e the m a t e r i a l f o r h i s n o v e l s , but "es s c h i e n m i r , uenn i c h i n der Fremde u a r , a l s utlrde a l l e s u n u i r k l i c h und a l s uSre i c h v e r l o r e n i n e i n e r 11 schuankenden U e l t , " F r e n s s e n ' s a n c e s t o r s had l i v e d i n the v i l l a g e o f B a r l t i n S t i d e r d i t h m a r s c h e n s i n c e the end o f the s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y . 19 H i s f a t h e r uas a c a r p e n t e r , and a l t h o u g h the s u c c e s s o f 3b*rn Uhl gave him c o n f i d e n c e i n h i s a b i l i t y as an a u t h o r , F r e n s s e n t h r o u g h o u t h i s l i f e t h ought of h i m s e l f as s i m p l y a member of the v i l l a g e community: uhen he uas over s e v e n t y he u r o t e : 1 3 " I c h b i n e i n Bauer geuesen, i n g e i s t i g e m deutschen Gut." C o n s e q u e n t l y F r e n s s e n r e j e c t e d the pre-eminent p o s i t i o n ac-corded by N i e t z s c h e and Langbehn to c u l t u r e i n the l i f e of the n a t i o n : Aber d i e Kunst . . . i s t fUr das Leben e i n e s l/olkes und des E i n z e l n e n n i c h t das U e s e n t l i c h e , sondern nur e i n e Z i e r d e s e i n e r E x i s t e n z , e i n e Feder auf seinem Hut. Das U e s e n t l i c h e e i n e s l/olkes und des e i n z e l n e n Menschen s c h e i n t mir das Leben s e l b s t , dass es b i o l o -g i s c h gesund, e r n s t , und u e r t v o l l t M t i g s e i . Urn d i e s habe i c h mich i n meinen l / e r f l f f e n t l i c h u n g e n bemUht. 14 T h i s downgrading o f the i m p o r t a n c e o f a r t i n r e l a t i o n to the d i d a c t i c purpose l e a d s i n e v i t a b l y to an i m poverishment o f F r e n s s e n ' s l i t e r a r y u o r k ; i t p r e c l u d e s a r t i s t i c i n n o v a t i o n , f o r the d i d a c t i c purpose r e q u i r e s t h a t the message r e a c h the g r e a t e s t number o f r e a d e r s . C o n s i d e r a t i o n s such as s t r u c t u r e and language become s u b o r d i n a t e t o c o n t e n t , and s u b t l e t y cea-ses to be a v i r t u e . That t h i s sense of b e i n g a p a r t of the v i l l a g e community, of e q u a l v a l u e to the community as the o t h e r farmers and c r a f t s -men, i s not a pose f o r F r e n s s e n i s a t t e s t e d to by a l l uho kneu 1 5 him. An American s c h o l a r , 3ohn C. B l a n k e n a g e l , u r o t e i n 1948: Anyone uho has t a l k e d u i t h F r e n s s e n , as t h i s r e v i e u e r h a s , must have been i m p r e s s e d u i t h the s i n c e r i t y and almost a u s t e r e s i m p l i c i t y of the man. His uas not a s u b t l e mind, nor uas h i s background a u i d e one. His t h i n k i n g a l o n g c e r t a i n l i n e s uas n a i v e and at times c o n t r a d i c t o r y , but i t uas h o n e s t . F r e n s s e n uas not i n t e r e s t e d i n a r t f o r a r t ' s s a k e ; he d e s i r e d t o be r e g a r d e d by p o s t e r i t y above a l l as a man uho had t a -ken an a c t i v e p a r t i n the l i f e and i s s u e s o f h i s time.16 F r e n s s e n would u i t h o u t a doubt have brought Gustav B i l t t -ner back from the c i t y , f o r he f e l t from h i s oun e x p e r i e n c e t h a t o n l y u i t h the s o i l o f home under one's f e e t uas r e a l hap-p i n e s s p o s s i b l e , and y e t , more than most "Heimatromane" h i s n o v e l s have a u i d e r r e l e v a n c e than merely " z u i s c h e n Husum und Buxtehude," The s p a r i n g use of " P l a t t d e u t s c h " i s a c l e a r i n -d i c a t i o n t h a t the l a s t t h i n g he d e s i r e d uas to r e s t r i c t the r e a d i n g p u b l i c f o r h i s n o v e l s t o the i n h a b i t a n t s of S c h l e s u i g -H o l s t e i n . He l i v e d o u t s i d e the p r o v i n c e o n l y when he uas a s t u d e n t i n B e r l i n and TObingen, and as a r e s u l t h i s o u t l o o k uas such t h a t he f u l f i l l e d E r i k a Denny's c r i t e r i o n f o r a H e i -m a t d i c h t e r : " S c h a f f e n aus i n t u i t i v e m HeimatgefOhl h e r a u s , 17 n i c h t b l o s s aus o b j e k t i v e r S a c h k e n n t n i s . " F r e n s s e n uas so c l o s e t o the l i f e o f the v i l l a g e t h a t he uas not m i s l e d by the u n f a m i l i a r environment i n t o r e s t r i c t i n g h i m s e l f t o i t s d e p i c -t i o n : h i s concerns uere u i t h u n i v e r s a l human pr o b l e m s : p r i d e , s e x u a l i t y , i n j u s t i c e , f r i v o l i t y . The theme of Per Btijt-t n e r b a u e r i s the d e c l i n e o f the farmer as a c l a s s , uhereas OSrn U hl goes t h r o u g h the whole range of human e x p e r i e n c e s : -y o u t h , l o v e , m a r r i a g e , bereavement, i n a d d i t i o n to h i s s t r u g -g l e t o r e t a i n the f a m i l y f a r m . One a t t r i b u t e most s h a r p l y d i v i d e s the B U t t n e r s from F r e n s s e n ' s f a r m e r s : p r i d e . A l t h o u g h many o f F r e n s s e n ' s no-v e l s from Die d r e i Getreuen on c a s t i g a t e the "Bauern" f o r the e x c e s s i v e p r i d e u h i c h g i v e s r i s e to the o l d Dithmarschen 18 s a y i n g "Dickdohn i s t dat h a l v e Leben," no farmer of h i s u o u l d r e a c t u i t h the f e e l i n g of c l a s s i n f e r i o r i t y t h a t Gus-t a v BOttner shous uhen v i s i t i n g h i s r e l a t i o n s i n the t o u n . The Dithmarschen farmers are c o n s c i o u s of t h e i r u o r t h and are not subdued uhen c o n f r o n t e d u i t h the c i t y and i t s manners. The case of B a l l e Bohnsack v e r s u s D u t t i K o h l ( O t t o Babendiek) shous t h a t , n o t u i t h s t a n d i n g t h e i r s l o u - m o v i n g u a y s , F r e n s s e n had c o n s i d e r a b l e r e s p e c t f o r h i s n e i g h b o u r s ' a b i l i t y t o h o l d t h e i r own i n a c l a s h o f u i t s , Gustav Frenssen uas a L u t h e r a n p a s t o r from 1890 t o 1901, uhen the s u c c e s s of 3Hrn Uhl made him f i n a n c i a l l y i n d e p e n d e n t . D e s p i t e a u i d e n i n g gap betueen h i s oun r e l i g i o u s c o n v i c t i o n s and the o r t h o d o x dogma of h i s C h u r c h , he e n j o y e d the r e s p o n s -i b i l i t y f o r s e r v i n g and e d u c a t i n g h i s p a r i s h i o n e r s , and r e g a r -ded h i s l i t e r a r y p r o d u c t i o n i n the same l i g h t . For t h i s r e a -son he r e j e c t e d the a b s o l u t e r e a l i s m a dvocated by the N a t u r a -l i s t s on the grounds t h a t i t p r e c l u d e d t h i s d i d a c t i c element; "Es uSre mir u o h l m B g l i c h geuesen, s c h i e r u i r k l i c h e , j a b r u -t a l e Dinge zu s c h r e i b e n , • • aber . , . i c h musste es a l l e s 19 e rhBhen, r e i n i g e n , b l a n k machen." The combating of h a r m f u l and d i s r u p t i v e i n f l u e n c e s remained h i s p r i m a r y c o n c e r n , but h i s p a r i s h uas nou the e n t i r e German n a t i o n , D i thmarschen 22 i n F r e n s s e n ' s n o v e l s i s s i m p l y the u o r l d i n microcosm, and betueen B a r l t , S t . M i c h a e l i s d o n n and W a l d o r f he found i n the farms and the v i l l a g e s a l l the m a t e r i a l n e c e s s a r y f o r the d e p i c t i o n o f humanity's g l o r i e s and t r a g e d i e s : Der S c h r i f t s t e l l e r , der D r a m a t i k e r u i e der E r z H h l e r , b r a u c h t n i c h t den K O n i g s h o f , n i c h t d i e G r o s s s t a d t , urn so t i e f , k l a r und bunt zu g e s t a l t e n , u i e s e i n Genie i n s e i n e r hHchsten K r a f t vermag; aber er b r a u c h t a l l e r -d i n g s e i n e Gemeinschaft von Menschen, u e l c h e den ganzen K r e i s des Menschentums d a r s t e l l t , arm und r e i c h , Re-g i e r t e und R e g i e r e n d e , U e l t l i c h e und G e i s t l i c h e , S t a d t und Land, T a g e l t i h n e r , B a u e r n , Handuerker, L e h r e r , Land-v B g t e , und im H i n t e r g r u n d angedeutet das ganze Uolk und d i e R e g i e r u n g . In s o l c h rundem A b b i l d der ganzen Welt befand i c h m i c h , f t l h l t e und genoss es; und uar d o p p e l t f r o h , dass d i e s A b b i l d meine Heimat uar-. 20 F r e n s s e n a v o i d s the danger of c a r d b o a r d c h a r a c t e r s be-cause of h i s t a l e n t f o r o b s e r v a t i o n , but t h e r e i s c o n s i d e r a b l e r e p e t i t i o n o f both p h y s i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h r o u g h o u t h i s u o r k . S i n c e h i s aim i s to educate the German people f o r t h e i r moral and p h y s i c a l improvement, he endous h i s p r i n c i p a l c h a r a c t e r s u i t h exemplary r a c i a l a t t r i b u t e s : i n t h i s F r e n s s e n f o l l o u s the normal p a t t e r n of the "Heimat-roman." R a c i a l d i f f e r e n c e s are i m p o r t a n t as e a r l y as 1901, i n the l o s s of the U h l s ' farm and i t s purchase by F i e t e K r e y . S i g n i f i c a n t l y , i n c o n t r a s t t o Polenz and F r e y t a g , the U h l s are r u i n e d not by s o c i a l developments or e v i l f o r e i g n i n f l u -ences - t h e s e the r a c e of the U h l s i s v i g o r o u s enough to com-bat - but by t h e i r oun f r i v o l i t y . F renssen i s not l o o k i n g f o r a scapegoat to e x p l a i n the d o u n f a l l o f the o l d f a r m i n g f a m i l i e s , but r a t h e r a t t e m p t i n g t o rouse them from t h e i r 23 s u i c i d a l c o m p l a c e n c y . There are tuo d i s t i n c t r a c e s i n the d i s t r i c t , the U h l s and the K r e y s . The U h l s are the marsh f a r m e r s : ". . . s c h m a l e , h e l l b l o n d e G e s i c h t e r , das Haar so b l o n d u i e Roggen k u r z uor der E r n t e , G e s i c h t e r von s t a r k e n , o f t e d l e n Forrnen m i t r u h i -21 gen, s t o l z e n , k l a r e n Augen." The r a c i a l l y pure Saxon-F r i s i a n s t r a i n c o n t a i n s the d e s i r a b l e elements o f s t r e n g t h , n o b i l i t y , r e l i a b i l i t y and p r i d e , w h i l e the K r e y s * p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s r e f l e c t more n e g a t i v e t r a i t s : , . r u n d e , r o t e Kflpfe . . . d i e k l u g e n und f l i n k e n Augen, u n s t e t o f t und v e r -22 s c h l a g e n . . . wie junge K a t z e n i n der Sonne s p r i n g e n . " The i n n e r c h a r a c t e r i s f r e q u e n t l y r e v e a l e d by t h e e y e s , and so t h e c o n t r a s t o f the " r u h i g e n , s t o l z e n , k l a r e n Augen" o f the U h l s w i t h the K r e y s ' c l e v e r , q u i c k , i n c o n s t a n t and c u n n i n g eyes b e t r a y s i m m e d i a t e l y F r e n s s e n ' s judgement on the r e l a t i v e v a l u e o f t h e two c l a n s . He goes one s t e p f u r t h e r i n s u g g e s t i n g t h a t the K r e y s are descended from the Uends, a S l a v i c t r i b e who o c c u p i e d D i t h m a r s c h e n from the t ime the Anglo-Saxons l e f t f o r E n g land u n t i l t hey were d i s p l a c e d by f r e s h waves o f Saxon m i g r a t i o n from the n o r t h . In the p r e v i o u s n o v e l , Die d r e i G e t r e u e n , the Uenden are somewhat s c o r n f u l l y d e s c r i b e d as o p p o r t u n i s t s r a t h e r than brave w a r r i o r s : The name o f the 23 f i r s t s c o u t , " P r i b i s l a v der S p r i n g e r , " i m p l i e s a g i l i t y r a -t h e r than v a l o u r , and the wood s p i r i t s o f D i t h m a r s c h e n a r e happy t o see the r e t r e a t o f the a l i e n i n v a d e r s . The U h l s ' 24 l o s s of the farm i s t h e r e f o r e a r e p e t i t i o n of a h i s t o r i c a l o c c u r r e n c e , and the l e s s o n i s t h a t a r e v i v a l of the o l d Saxon s p i r i t of energy and e n t e r p r i s e i s n e c e s s a r y f o r the o l d f a m i -l i e s to r e t a i n t h e i r l a n d . By h i s c h o i c e of a h i s t o r i c a l p a r a l -l e l charged u i t h i r r a t i o n a l r a c i a l o v e r t o n e s , F r e n s s e n adds an e m o t i o n a l element to an o t h e r w i s e e m i n e n t l y p r a c t i c a l c a l l f o r a r e a f f i r m a t i o n of the t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s of s e r i o u s n e s s and i n d u s t r y i n the f a c e of the p e r v a s i v e i n f l u e n c e s from the n e u l y a f f l u e n t R e i c h u h i c h are l e a d i n g the o l d f a r m i n g f a m i -24 l i e s "zu u n s o l i d e m Leben und S p e k u l a t i o n e n , " In t h i s case the r a c i a l a s p e c t of the n o v e l i s h a r m l e s s , s i n c e i t i s not d i r e c t e d a t any d e f i n a b l e group: Fr e n s s e n i s not a d v o c a t i n g d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a g a i n s t the i n h a b i t a n t s o f the "Geest." Never-t h e l e s s the e f f e c t o f such a u i d e l y r e a d uork as 3Hrn U hl i n p r e p a r i n g the uay among Germans f o r the ac c e p t a n c e o f H i t l e r ' s r a c i a l p o l i c i e s cannot be o v e r l o o k e d . The p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the U h l s r e a p p e a r i n a l l of F r e n s s e n ' s n o v e l s . Not o n l y the heroes but a l s o v i r t u a l l y a l l the c h a r a c t e r s o f uhom the au t h o r approves are b l o n d , b l u e - e y e d , w e l l b u i l t and p h y s i c a l l y s t r o n g . The exemplary p a s t o r s , Adam B a r f o o d the p a s t o r of Poggsee and P a s t o r Bohlen ( O t t o Babendiek and Die BrOder) are a l s o o f t h i s t y p e , i n ke e p i n g u i t h F r e n s s e n ' s c o n v i c t i o n t h a t the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of e d u c a t i n g the people r e q u i r e s men as v i g o r o u s and p o s i t i v e as the b e s t of t h e i r p a r i s h i o n e r s . The one n o t a b l e e x c e p t i o n 25 i s O tto Babendiek, Frenssen's a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l h e r o , uho s h a r e s F r e n s s e n ' s oun p h y s i q u e of medium h e i g h t and s l i m b u i l d . U i t h i n the bounds Df the t y p i c a l Saxon phys i q u e t h a t they a l l s h a r e , F r e n s s e n ' s heroes r e p r e s e n t "Urformen von 2 5 n i e d e r s S c h s i s c h e m B l u t . " Heim H e i d e r i e t e r ( D i e d r e i Ge-t r e u e n ) i s "der Traumer," 30rn Uhl "der dumpf T M t i g e , " K a i Jans ( H i l l i q e n l e i ) "der G r U b l e r " and K l a u s Baas "der H e l l e und T O c h t i g e . " The s t r e n g t h s and ueaknesses of each are i l l u m i n a t e d t o s e r v e as an example and a u a r n i n g t o the r e a d e r . The s l o u , d e l i b e r a t e n a t u r e o f most o f the heroes i s r e f l e c -t e d i n t h e i r g a i t , the r e s u l t of y e a r s of u a l k i n g b e h i n d the p l o u g h i n the heavy marsh s o i l . H onesty, r e l i a b i l i t y , s e r i o u s -n e s s , s t r a i g h t f o r u a r d n e s s and l o y a l t y are c o n s t a n t l y r e c u r -r i n g t r a i t s , accompanied by i n d u s t r y , u h i c h i s d e p i c t e d as a t y p i c a l l y German v i r t u e . The uay i n u h i c h F r e n s s e n a t t r i b u t e s m o s t l y p o s i t i v e t r a i t s t o the c h a r a c t e r s i n h i s n o v e l s r e f l e c t s the fundamen-t a l c o n s e r v a t i s m t h a t he s h a r e s u i t h the " H e i m a t d i c h t e r " i n g e n e r a l . His aim i s t o c o n s e r v e and s t r e n g t h e n the good i n U i l h e l m i n i a n s o c i e t y , to o f f e r worthy examples t o h i s r e a d e r s and to expose h a r m f u l s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and c h a r a c t e r t r a i t s i n a c o n s t r u c t i v e r a t h e r than a r e v o l u t i o n a r y way. S c h l e s w i g -H o l s t e i n was a p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p r o p r i a t e s e t t i n g f o r such an endeavour: i t s r u r a l c h a r a c t e r uas l a r g e l y unchanged by the 26 I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n , Hamburg uas an e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e r e p -r e s e n t a t i v e of the neu age, and from a r a c i a l p o i n t of v i e u , the n o r d i c p h y s i c a l type uas more common t h e r e than e l s e u h e r e i n Germany. To t h i s e x t e n t Frenssen uas not merely p r e s e n -t i n g h i s c h a r a c t e r s as m y t h i c a l s t e r e o t y p e s : f l a x e n h a i r e d c h i l d r e n and r o b u s t , b l u e eyed farmers are a f r e q u e n t s i g h t a l o n g the l a n e s o f D i t h m a r s c h e n . The i d e a l male h e r o , m o d e l l e d a f t e r F r e n s s e n ' s con-cept o f the exemplary r a c i a l t y p e , h a s , o f c o u r s e , h i s female c o u n t e r p a r t . B e g i n n i n g u i t h Trude i n F r e n s s e n ' s f i r s t n o v e l , Die S a n d q r 9 f i n , u h i c h i s by Fren s s e n ' s own ad-27 m i s s i o n an i m i t a t i o n o f " G a r t e n l a u b e g e s c h i c h t e n , " the p r o -c e s s i o n o f l e a d i n g l a d i e s i s a g a l l e r y of f u l l - b l o o d e d females q u i t e f r e e of the b l u s h i n g modesty o f V i c t o r i a n h e r o i n e s . They f a l l i n t o two d i s t i n c t g r o u p s : the l u s t y peasant g i r l and the m i d d l e c l a s s b e a u t y , whose u p b r i n g i n g makes her more r e t i c e n t i n t he e x p r e s s i o n o f the s e n s u a l i t y o f her n a t u r e . To the former group belon g Heim H e i d e r i e t e r ' s w i f e E va, DHrn U h l ' s f i r s t w i f e Lena T a r n , who e p i t o m i z e s F r e n s s e n ' s i d e a l t h a t the u i f e o f a v i g o r o u s man must be a h a r d - u o r k i n g , w i l l i n g companion, and Adam B a r f o o d ' s Gude (Per P a s t o r von Poq-q s e e ) , who u i t h her stormy l o v e s t a n d s by him th r o u g h a l l the t r i b u l a t i o n s of uar and r e v o l u t i o n . Lena Tarn a l s o e x e m p l i -f i e s a danger i n h e r e n t i n t h i s s t r e n g t h and u i l l i n g n e s s . She ge t s up on the s i x t h day a f t e r g i v i n g b i r t h and l o o k s a f t e r the c h i l d h e r s e l f , c a t c h i n g a f a t a l c h i l l i n the k i t c h e n . F r e n s s e n comments b r i e f l y and to the p o i n t : " J f l r n Uhl l i e s s es geschehen. Er uar so s t o l z d a r a u f dass er e i n e so k r M f t i g e Frau h a t t e : " n i c h t so z i m p e r l i c h u i e d i e anderen," 3tirn 2 8 Uhl uar zu jung und zu dumm." Even i n the mundane d e t a i l s o f everyday l i f e F r e n s s e n ' s d i d a c t i c t e n d e n c i e s s u r f a c e i n t h i s u a r n i n g to o t h e r proud young husbands a g a i n s t making a s i m i l a r m i s t a k e . In the second group b e l o n g DUm's second u i f e L i s b e t h J u n k e r , K l a u s Baas' second u i f e Sanna ( a l t h o u g h t h i s m a r r i a g e comes c l o s e t o b r e a k i n g ) , Otto Babendiek's second u i f e E v a, and the u i v e s o f Bendix Groth (Dummhans) and Neino Ommen. The f a c t t h a t the heroes of t h r e e of the major n o v e l s even-t u a l l y marry t h i s type o f woman, and t h a t the heroes o f the l a s t tuo n o v e l s spend t h e i r y o u th i n p u r s u i t o f s i m i l a r g i r l s , i n d i c a t e s F r e n s s e n ' s p r e f e r e n c e c l e a r l y enough, a l t h o u g h from the p o i n t of v i e u o f a n a l y s i s i t i s u n f o r t u n a t e t h a t t h e r e i s never an i n s t a n c e uhere the hero has to choose between the tuo t y p e s . Not o n l y i s the p h y s i c a l l a b o u r of the far m e r ' s u i f e demanding of s t r e n g t h i n a u i f e . The heroes uhose sphere o f a c t i o n i s o t h e r than the l a n d : K l a u s Baas, Adam B a r f o o d , Otto Babendiek, p l a c e demands on t h e i r u i v e s t h a t a r e more s u b t l e but no e a s i e r to f u l f i l . Gude br e a k s doun a t the end of the uar uhen her c h i l d r e n d i e ^ but u n t i l then her h e a l t h y 28 e a r t h i n e s s compliments Adam's tendency to soar o f f on i n t e l -l e c t u a l f l i g h t s of f a n c y , K l a u s Baas and Otto B a b e n d i e k , both o f whom f a l l i n t o the c a t e g o r y o f " d i e H e l l e n und TOch-t i g e n , " make u n s u c c e s s f u l f i r s t m a r r i a g e s . M a r t j e and Gesa are s i m i l a r i n t h a t t h e i r f a m i l i e s are d e c a d e n t , and o n l y the y o u t h f u l i n e x p e r i e n c e of the heroes p r e v e n t s them from r e a l i -z i n g t h i s . Both have a d e l i c a t e , f r a g i l e b e a u t y , but are i n -c a p a b l e o f g r a p p l i n g u i t h the r e a l u o r l d . F r e n s s e n t e l l s i n L e b e n s b e r i c h t , c h a p t e r 4 5 , o f h i s oun m a r i t a l c r i s e s d u r i n g the B l a n k e n e s e y e a r s uhen K l a u s _H. Baas uas u r i t t e n , but un-l i k e Baas he and Frau Anna Fre n s s e n uere a b l e t o uork out a s o l u t i o n . In the n o v e l M a r t j e ' s f a m i l y have a t i m b e r y a r d i n a v i l l a g e i n H o l s t e i n , and t h e i r surname Ruhland i n d i c a t e s the s e c l u s i o n i n u h i c h they l i v e . M a r t j e i s f r i g i d , and u a n t s t o spend the f i r s t n i g h t of t h e i r m a r r i a g e u i t h her mother. Uhen, d e s p i t e her p r a y e r s t o the c o n t r a r y , she has a c h i l d , s h e , the c h i l d and her p a r e n t s form a t i g h t l i t t l e c i r c l e from u h i c h Baas i s e x c l u d e d . E v e n t u a l l y M a r t j e ' s o l d e r s i s t e r has t o be taken t o the asylum i n S c h l e s u i g , u h i c h f u r t h e r u n d e r l i n e s the decay o f the f a m i l y . K l a u s cannot i n t e r e s t F l a r t j e i n p r a c t i -c a l m a t t e r s or d i s c u s s a n y t h i n g u i t h h e r , f o r she o n l y uants to u i t h d r a u from h i s t h r u s t i n g a m b i t i o n i n t o the s e c l u d e d , de-c a y i n g u o r l d of her p a r e n t s . K l a u s e v e n t u a l l y d e c i d e s t h a t d i v o r c e i s the o n l y s o l u t i o n , "damit j e d e r von uns das uerden o q kann, uas nach den Gaben s e i n e r Natur i n ihm s t e c k t . " Gesa's f a m i l y d i s p l a y a s i m i l a r i n a b i l i t y t o l i v e i n the r e a l u o r l d , a l t h o u g h Gesa h e r s e l f i s a more a r t i s t i c a l l y s a -t i s f y i n g c h a r a c t e r : her l o v e of the sea u h i c h r e s i s t s O t t o ' s a t t e m p t s at d o m e s t i c a t i o n g i v e s to her p e r s o n a l i t y a s y m b o l i c dimension t h a t F r e n s s e n ' s c o n c r e t e c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o t h e r w i s e r a r e l y a c h i e v e s . The image of a b e a u t i f u l g i r l , a l o n e on a s m a l l boat on the w i l d N o r t h Sea, c o n t a i n s a much more s u b t l e approach to the ever p r e s e n t theme of n a t i o n a l r e b i r t h , seen here i n the c o n t e x t of i n d i v i d u a l s e l f - f u l f i l m e n t . Uhereas i n K l a u s H i n r i c h Baas the p r a c t i c a l v i r t u e s of the v i g o r o u s hero are c a l l e d i n t o q u e s t i o n towards the end of the n o v e l uhen K l a u s d i s c o v e r s t h a t M a r t j e ' s l i f e a f t e r t h e i r d i v o r c e i s one o f c o m p l e t e , i f p h i l i s t i n e , c o n t e n t m e n t , the emphasis i n the e a r l y p a r t o f the uork on the decadence o f the Ruh-l a n d s and F r e n s s e n ' s o b v i o u s sympathy f o r the " H e l l e n und T U c h t i g e n " makes f o r an u n c o m f o r t a b l e u n i o n of the tuo themes and harms the u n i t y o f the n o v e l . D o r i s Rotermund's warning of the dangers of m a t e r i a l i s m and s p i r i t u a l i m p overishment r a i s e s doubts about the whole v a l u e - s y s t e m e s t a b l i s h e d i n the e a r l y p a r t of the work, which i n c l u d e by i m p l i c a t i o n a l l the t r a d i t i o n a l v i r t u e s o f i n d u s t r y and p r a c t i c a l i t y . I t i s t h e s e p r i n c i p a l v i r t u e s of the "Heimatroman" which are shown as i n a d e q u a t e to p r o v i d e the s p i r i t u a l contentment n e c e s s a r y f o r a b a l a n c e d e x i s t e n c e . Gesa's l a c k of t h e s e down-to-earth v a l u e s i s f r e e o f the i m p l i c a t i o n o f decadence, even though 30 her f a m i l y ' s e c c e n t r i c i t i e s r e f l e c t an i n a b i l i t y to f a c e up to l i f e u h i c h bodes i l l f o r the m a r r i a g e . Gesa h e r s e l f r e -p r e s e n t s the freedom to f o l l o u the c a l l o f one's oun n a t u r e , w i t h o u t u h i c h the i n d i v i d u a l cannot be c o n t e n t . T h i s i n d i -v i d u a l i m p e r a t i v e of s e l f - f u l f i l m e n t i s j u s t as c e n t r a l t o F r e n s s e n ' s concept of Germany's r e b i r t h as the s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l a s p e c t s o f h i s programme. I t i s c l e a r from the f a m i l y backgrounds o f both M a r t j e and Gesa t h a t t h e i r c h a r a c t e r s uere p r e d e t e r m i n e d and t h a t t h i s h e r i t a g e cannot be changed. Only uhen they come to t h i s r e a l i z a t i o n are K l a u s and Otto a b l e to c o n t i n u e t h e i r oun development. In a l l the n o v e l s the parentage o f the p r i n c i p a l c h a r a c t e r s i s examined, and, as 3Brn Uhl i n d i -c a t e s , the r a c i a l background i s a l s o d e c i s i v e , F r e n s s e n i s here f o l l o u i n g the N a t u r a l i s t t r a d i t i o n i n e m p h a s i z i n g the d e c i s i v e i m p o r t a n c e of h e r e d i t y i n d e t e r m i n i n g the a c t i o n s o f h i s c h a r a c t e r s , but he goes f a r t h e r than the N a t u r a l i s t s i n p l a c i n g h e r e d i t y u i t h i n a r a c i a l , not mere-l y a f a m i l y f r a m e u o r k , a l b e i t i n a someuhat d i f f e r e n t d i r e c -t i o n , Uhere the N a t u r a l i s t s endeavour to remain u i t h i n the sphere of s c i e n t i f i c l a u s of h e r e d i t y , F r e n s s e n uses the theme of r a c i a l h e r i t a g e to e l a b o r a t e on the v i r t u e s of the Saxon r a c e . He f e e l s t h a t the s c i e n t i f i c method a l o n e i s i n a d e q u a t e to e x p l a i n the v a s t a r r a y of l i f e on e a r t h : " D a r u i n m i t s e i n e r Anpassung und Auslegung e r k l S r t n i c h t d i e u n s f i g l i c h e B u n t h e i t i n Fortnung und Farben der E x i s t e n z -3 a r t e n des D a s e i n s . Es i s t v i e l m e h r e i n Geheimnis d a h i n t e r . " The presence of an u n e x p l a i n a b l e s e c r e t l e a v e s the way open to n o n - s c i e n t i f i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . 38rn Uhl i s proud and honest because t h a t i s the uay o f the U h l s , and F i e t e K r e y ' s q u i c k u i t s are the r e s u l t of h i s c l a n ' s h e r i t a g e , g o i n g back a thousand y e a r s to P r i b i s l a v der S p r i n g e r . l/ery o f t e n the heroes have a s p l i t h e r i t a g e , as d i d F r e n s s e n h i m s e l f . His mother uas the daughter o f a f a m i l y o f "Geestbauern,1 1 uhose dark h a i r and m e l a n c h o l y d i s p o s i t i o n are r e f l e c t e d i n the mothers o f Dflrn Uhl and Otto B a b e n d i e k , J f l r n and h i s s i s t e r E l s b e have t h e i r mother's n a t u r e , u h i c h s e t s them a p a r t from the b o i s t e r o u s n e s s o f K l a u s U h l ' s f i r s t t h r e e s o n s . Otto d e r i v e s h i s p h y s i c a l h e a l t h from h i s mother and at l e a s t p a r t of h i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l h e a l t h from h i s sunny, o p t i m i s t i c f a t h e r , but h i s mother's m e l a n c h o l i a n e c e s s i t a t e s c o n s t a n t e f f o r t on h i s p a r t to keep the tuo i n b a l a n c e . H e r e d i t y does not houever e x c l u d e e n v i r o n m e n t a l i n f l u -e n c e s : a t the end of the n o v e l Otto Babendiek e x p l a i n s the d i f f e r e n c e betueen h i s oun l i f e and t h a t o f h i s c o u s i n , the a r t i s t E i l e r t Mumm: Sag' ihm B o t h i l d e , dass da z u e i U n t e r s c h i e d e z u i s c h e n uns s i n d ! Der e i n e i s t , dass s e i n e l / o r f a h r e n , von • m O t t e r l i c h e r S e i t e , T o t s c h l S g e r u a r e n , meine aber S t i l l e im Lande, und der z u e i t e , dass er a l s r e i c h e r E l t e r n K i n d d i e U e l t i n s e i n e r Dugend genossen h M t t e , i c h aber durch Armut, F U h r e r l o s i g k e i t , N i c h t u i s s e n 32 und j e d e andre Not h i n d u r c h musste. So i s t er a l l z u Uppig geuorden und hat s i c h dann v e r t r o t z t und i s t i n Trunk g e r a t e n ; i c h aber b i n durch s a n f t e r e s B l u t und das Andenken meiner l i e b e n E l t e r n und meine arme und bedrHngte K i n d h e i t z u e i f e l n d e r , v o r s i c h t i g e r und be-d e n k l i c h e r geuorden, und s o , t r o t z v i e l e r G e f a h r e n , d i e auch mir aus meiner Natur d r o h t e n , und u n t e r Be-hUtung g u t e r G e i s t e r — u i e mein Glaube i s t — i n l e i d -l i c h e m b U r g e r l i c h e m F r i e d e n und Ehren b i s h i e r h e r gekommen. 31 The f i r s t d i f f e r e n c e betueen Otto und E i l e r t i s i n t h e i r h e r i t a g e , the second i n t h e i r c h i l d h o o d development. The t h i r d f a c t o r , the one u h i c h s e t s Frenssen a p a r t from the N a t u r a l i s t t r a d i t i o n , i s i m p l i e d by the uords "das Andenken meiner l i e b e n E l t e r n . " T h i s i s the element o f r a t i o n a l c h o i c e and f r e e u i l l , u h i c h i s e s p e c i a l l y u e l l d e f i n e d i n the c h a r a c -t e r o f Otto Babendiek: " Z u u e i l e n , uenn i c h f O h l e , dass Phan-t a s i e n und TrSume Oberhand nehmen, f a h r e i c h auf e i n i g e Tage 32 i n d i e U e l t , " I n s t e a d o f u a i t i n g f o r the dark f a n t a s i e s to overuhelm him, as h i s mother d i d , Otto t a k e s s t e p s to a v o i d them. He knous he i s p r e d i s p o s e d to m e l a n c h o l i a , but t h i s does not p r e v e n t him from r e f u s i n g to succumb t o i t . D e s p i t e the presence of f r e e u i l l , b l o o d and background are more p o t e n t f a c t o r s i n the m o t i v a t i o n o f the c h a r a c t e r s , u h i c h a c c o u n t s f o r the l a c k o f c r i t i c i s m by the a u t h o r of even the most m i s g u i d e d c h a r a c t e r s : m i s g u i d e d , f o r " e v i l " i s not a concept t h a t a p p l i e s uhen c h a r a c t e r i s p r e d e t e r m i n e d , F r i t z H e l l e b e k , uho moves th r o u g h Otto Babendiek b r i n g i n g m i s f o r t u n e to a l l u i t h uhom he comes i n c o n t a c t , i s a l i a r , a t h i e f , a v a i n o p p o r t u n i s t uho u o u l d abandon h i s u i f e to a demonic l e c h e r f o r f i n a n c i a l a d v a n t a g e , and f i n a l l y a t r a i t o r , and y e t h i s mother's i n d u l g e n c e i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h i s warped n a t u r e . His mother i s b l i n d t o a l l h i s f a u l t s and h i s g i l d e d , c a r e f r e e youth i n s u l a t e s him from the consequences of h i s ac-t i o n s . D u t t i K o h l , an u n s c r u p u l o u s s w i n d l e r who f o r a time works u i t h H e l l e b e k , i s s i m i l a r l y doomed by h i s f a m i l y back-g r o u n d : h i s f a t h e r s e l l s u o r t h l e s s t r i n k e t s and i s a money-l e n d e r , and h i s grandmother spends her l a s t y e a r s s e a r c h i n g t h r o u g h American neuspapers f o r her son's o b i t u a r y , so t h a t she can c l a i m the i n h e r i t a n c e . Otto h i m s e l f i s f o r t u n a t e t h a t h i s mother's m e l a n c h o l i a i s b a l a n c e d by h i s f a t h e r ' s o p t i m i s m , but even so he has no easy time combating h i s he-r i t a g e : uhen t h e r e i s no c o u n t e r b a l a n c e , the c h a r a c t e r s are u n a b l e t o overcome t h e i r h e r e d i t a r y b u r d e n s . The i n f l u e n c e o f g e o g r a p h i c a l f a c t o r s such as c l i m a t e and l a n d s c a p e upon c h a r a c t e r has been p o i n t e d out by Osuald 33 Hauser. Fog, r a i n and l e a d e n s k i e s depress the D i t h m a r s c h e r , making them prone to s i l e n c e and s u i c i d e , and the l o n g hours o f s o l i t u d e i n the f i e l d s make them i n t r o s p e c t i v e , l i k e Hans H e l l e b e k , F r i t z ' s h a l f - b r o t h e r . " H e i t e r e Naturen u i e Otto Babendieks Uater e r s c h e i n e n als Ausnahmen, und i h r e s o n n i g e 34 A r t i s t u n t e r diesem s t O r m i s c h e n Himmel n i c h t zu e r k l H r e n . " S i n g i n g i s l o o k e d upon u i t h d i s t a s t e , as Lena Tarn d i s c o v e r s at the U h l . F r e n s s e n t a k e s the c h a r a c t e r of the people of D i t h m a r s c h e n , formed by hard uork i n a h a r s h c l i m a t e amid the 34 u i d e h o r i z o n o f the marsh and the s e a , and extends the b a s i c g e n e r a l a t t r i b u t e s of t a c i t u r n i t y , i n t r o s p e c t i o n and r e s e r v e to the i n d i v i d u a l by g o i n g back tuo or more g e n e r a t i o n s to e s t a b l i s h i n h e r i t e d t r a i t s . In t h i s r u r a l u o r l d , over u h i c h the 19th c e n t u r y l a i d but a t h i n veneer of " b O r g e r l i c h e S i t t e , " F r e n s s e n d e p i c t e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s betueen the sexes i n a uay t h a t shocked and o f f e n d e d many. H i l l i q e n l e i , i n a d d i t i o n to i t s r e l i g i o u s p o i n t , i s a f e r v e n t p l e a f o r r e c o g n i t i o n of the p h y s i c a l de-s i r e s as a l e g i t i m a t e and l a u d a b l e a s p e c t o f l i f e , e s p e c i a l l y o f the l i v e s o f young u n m a r r i e d uomen. P e t e r and Heinke de-c i d e , d u r i n g an unchaperoned e v e n i n g of p a s s i o n a t e embraces, t h a t p a s s i o n f o r both of them cannot be i g n o r e d : Da f a s s t e er s i e f e s t an b e i d e n Armen und h a t t e h e i s s e , e r n s t e Augen und s a g t e m i t g e p r e s s t e r Stimme: "Es i s t n i c h t gut f U r uns b e i d e , H e i n k e , . . , dass u i r noch j a h r e -l a n g m i t der H o c h z e i t u a r t e n . S i e sah i n n aus d u n k l e n Augen an. " I c h g l a u b e a u c h , P e t e r l e i n , es i s t n i c h t g u t . 35 While o t h e r a u t h o r s , such as Hauptmann, Uedekind and S c h n i t z -l e r uere making the same p o i n t as Frenssen a t t h i s time (1905) they d i d not have F r e n s s e n ' s mass a u d i e n c e , and the o u t r a g e shoun by many c r i t i c s demonstrates t h a t t h e r e uas as y e t no a c c e p t a n c e of t h e s e i d e a s . They uere p l a y u r i g h t s , and t h e a t r e a u d i e n c e s uere more p r e p a r e d f o r avant garde t r e n d s than the n o v e l - r e a d i n g p u b l i c . The "Heimatroman," u i t h i t s emphasis on t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s , had not advocated g r e a t e r s e x u a l f r e e -dom and uas not e x p e c t e d to do s o . That F r e n s s e n i n s i s t e d t h a t p u r i t a n i s m uas an a l i e n i m p o r t a t i o n i n t o D i t h m a r s c h e n , uhere young people had t r a d i t i o n a l l y been f r e e to e x p e r i m e n t b e f o r e m a r r i a g e , i n no uay s a t i s f i e d the o u t r a g e d b o u r g e o i s . In a l e c t u r e g i v e n i n the u n i v e r s i t y A u l a i n K i e l on F e b r u a r y 1, 1906, P r o f e s s o r D. Otto Baumgarten sums up the p u b l i c a t t i t u d e : Es i s t m i t s o c h e r B a u e r n d e r b h e i t d a s , uas d i e MSdchen, u e n i g s t e n s a l l e guten MMdchen, vor s i c h s e l b s t v e r b e r -gen, zur Schau g e s t e l l t vor einem b r e i t e n P u b l i k u m , dass man es u o h l v e r s t e h t , dass es MUtter g i b t , u i e e i n e , d i e mir heute s c h r i e b und mich a n f l e h t e , vor diesem schMnd-l i c h e n , s c h S d l i c h e n Buche zu u a r n e n . 36 F r e n s s e n must be g i v e n c r e d i t f o r l a y i n g h i s r e c e n t l y a c q u i r e d r e p u t a t i o n and h i s f i n a n c i a l s e c u r i t y on the l i n e i n o r d e r to g i v e the w i d e s t p o s s i b l e exposure to uhat he b e l i e v e d uere i d e a s o f enormous i m p o r t a n c e . That the danger uas not i n c o n s i d e r a b l e can be seen from an a r t i c l e i n Das  l i t t e r a r i s c h e Echo o f January 1906: t h e r e are r e p o r t s of bookshops u i t h d r a u i n g H i l l i q e n l e i , and one from Hamburg o f f e r i n g t o exchange any c o p i e s o f H i l l i q e n l e i f o r a "Pas-torenroman" c a l l e d Das Erbe der S t u b e n r a u c h by U i l h e l m S c h a e r . That t h i s a c t i v i t y was not e n t i r e l y o c c a s i o n e d by an a l t r u i s -t i c c o n cern f o r the morals o f the Empire can be deduced from the a r t i c l e ' s c o m p l a i n t s o f " K u n d e n a b t r e i b e r e i " by the p u b l i s h -37 e r s , F.A, Lattmann of G o s l a r . F r e n s s e n ' s p a s s i o n a t e advocacy of s e x u a l freedom d e r i v e s from p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e : I c h war a c h t z e h n und war schon e i n Mann, und d u r f t e es 36 i n L / i r k l i c h k e i t n i c h t s e i n , u e i l d i e b d l r g e r l i c h e S i t t e es v e r b o t , zu s e i n und zu t u n , uas d i e N a t u r , d i e doch von G o t t gegeben i s t , konnte und u o l l t e . Da habe i c h mir S e e l e und G e u i s s e n b l u t i g g e r i s s e n . Seitdem hasse i c h d i e b l l r g e r l i c h e S i t t e , d i e f e i g e F l f l r d e r i n , mit i h r e r v e r l o g e n e n , verbogenen und s c h m u t z i g e n FrBmmigkeit und G e r e c h t i g k e i t . 38 The major n o v e l s a l l c o n t a i n elements o f t h i s contempt f o r " b U r g e r l i c h e S i t t e , " and r i g h t a t the o u t s e t of h i s c a r e e r , i n 3Brn U h l , the d i r e c t i o n of h i s p h i l o s o p h y i s c l e a r . The Sanddeern, uho has a b r i e f a f f a i r u i t h 3 d m , i s i n v o l v e d f o r y e a r s u i t h the husband o f her b e s t f r i e n d . She does not meet him u n t i l a f t e r the u e d d i n g , and t h e i r l o v e , u h i c h i s never consummated, i s above c r i t i c i s m because i t i s a p o u e r f u l , n a t u r a l , honest e m o t i o n . In t h i s e a r l y n o v e l F r e n s s e n ducks the c r u x o f the i s s u e by not h a v i n g the l o v e consummated: not u n t i l Per Pas t o r von Poqqs ee does he go t h i s f a r i n an a d u l -t e r o u s r e l a t i o n s h i p . K l a u s Baas i s a c t u a l l y c u r e d of h i s o b s e s s i v e m a t e r i a l i s m by P o r i s Rotermund, uhose response to h i s a s s e r t i v e m a s c u l i n i t y i s q u i t e u n i n h i b i t e d . Adam Ba r f o o d ' s i n i t i a t i o n i n t o the a r t of l o v e i s a p a r a l l e l t o 3Hrn Uhl and the Sanddeern, but Per P a s t o r von Poqgsee goes much f a r t h e r than the o t h e r n o v e l s i n a d v o c a t i n g the a b o l i t i o n of s e x u a l t a b o o s . The t e r r i b l e t o l l o f young men t a k e n by the Great Liar, and the r e s u l t a n t l a r g e number of young uomen uho uere e i t h e r u i doued or d e p r i v e d o f the chance to marry and have c h i l d r e n , prompted Frenssen to take the h i g h l y u n c o n v e n t i o n a l s t e p o f h a v i n g Adam, a L u t h e r a n p a s t o r , encourage h i s daughter 37 Abel to have a baby by the l o c a l d o c t o r , uho has f o r y e a r s been u n h a p p i l y m a r r i e d , Uhen the P r o p s t t a k e s him to t a s k f o r t h i s , Adam s t o u t l y defends h i s s t a n d t h a t humanity demands her m a t e r n a l d r i v e be s a t i s f i e d . In h i s r e a d i n e s s to f l y i n the f a c e of c o n v e n t i o n f o r uhat he c o n s i d e r s a good c a u s e , Adam i s the c h a r a c t e r uho b e s t i l l u s t r a t e s F r e n s s e n ' s a t t i t u d e to s e x u a l q u e s t i o n s . In the r e a l m o f s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s the demands of s o c i a l p r o p r i e t y i n f r i n g e upon the i n d i v i d u a l ' s l e g i t i m a t e c l a i m to f u l f i l m e n t , and t h r o u g h o u t h i s c a r e e r F r e n s s e n a l u a y s i n s i s -t e d t h a t i n d i v i d u a l h a p p i n e s s come f i r s t , as l o n g as i t i s not i n j u r i o u s to the community. S o c i a l norms can be changed, but the l o s s to s o c i e t y and the c o s t i n human f r u s t r a t i o n and s u f f e r i n g caused by r i g i d adherence to norms u h i c h are o f no b e n e f i t to the community can i n no uay be j u s t i f i e d . In h i s chosen r o l e of " U o l k s e r z i e h e r , " F r e n s s e n makes h i s main c h a r a c -t e r s f i n d t h e i r f u l f i l m e n t by overcoming some g e n e r a l human f a u l t . The u o r l d o f Dithmarschen i s the s e t t i n g f o r the n o v e l s , f o r i t uas from t h e s e f e u square m i l e s o f marsh and "Geest" t h a t Frenssen dreu h i s e x p e r i e n c e , but the theme i s the gener-a l human pr e d i c a m e n t and the aim i s the improvement o f the u h o l e German p e o p l e . C o n s e q u e n t l y the n o v e l s expose the problems t h a t hamper the f u l f i l m e n t o f the h a p p i n e s s of the i n d i v i d u a l and t h e r e b y the harmonious development o f the n a t i o n . One such problem i s t h a t o f the " l a t e i n i s c h e r Bauer," the farmer t o r n between the l a n d and books. J t i r n U h l ' s s c h o o l c a r e e r i s a b r u p t l y i n t e r r u p t e d by the need f o r someone to see t h a t the farm hands do t h e i r work, but h i s . a s t r o n o m i c a l o b s e r -v a t i o n s show t h a t h i s i n t e r e s t i n s c i e n c e c o n t i n u e s d e s p i t e the demands of the f a r m . A f t e r the U h l i s d e s t r o y e d by f i r e 3Hrn i s f o r c e d t o abandon h i s attempt to save the farm but t h i s change i n h i s l i f e i s r a t h e r a l i b e r a t i o n from c r u s h i n g , h o p e l e s s s e r v i t u d e than a t r a g i c bereavement. 3 8 r nls a p t i t u d e i s " t e c h n i c a l , and the dogged d e t e r m i n a t i o n to keep the farm i s m o t i v a t e d more by a f e e l i n g f o r the f a m i l y t r a d i t i o n than i n t e r e s t i n a g r i c u l t u r e . The d e t e r m i n a t i o n i n t h i s case i s more n e g a t i v e s t u b b o r n n e s s than l a u d a b l e t e n a c i t y , f o r i t st a n d s i n the way of the f u l f i l m e n t o f h i s p o t e n t i a l as an e n g i n e e r , Heim H e i d e r i e t e r i n Die d r e i Getreuen r e s o l v e s the same problem by becoming a w r i t e r , and the f a c t t h a t he i s s u c -c e s s f u l i n s e l l i n g h i s h i s t o r i c a l n o v e l a t the end o f the book i n d i c a t e s the T i g h t n e s s of t h i s s o l u t i o n f o r him. Otto Babendiek f o l l o w s the same p a t h , r e t u r n i n g to s c h o o l a f t e r H e l l e b e k ' s t h e f t f o r c e s him to l e a v e and work as a farm boy f o r two y e a r s . Both are a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l f i g u r e s whose i n -s p i r a t i o n comes from the s o i l o f home, Uhen Fr e n s s e n was l i v i n g i n Blankenese from 1906 to 1919, he f e l t c u t o f f from h i s r o o t s i n " d i e h e i m a t l i c h e S c h o l l e " and K l a u s Baas, the most i m p o r t a n t hero o f t h i s p e r i o d , i s unable t o s o l v e h i s problems u n t i l h i s p e r s p e c t i v e s are r i g h t e d by a v i s i t to Di t h m a r s c h e n . Cut o f f from the l a n d man f i n d s h a p p i n e s s e l u s i v e because h i s v a l u e system l o s e s i t s s u p p o r t s : uhen 38rn becomes an e n g i n e e r he uorks on the K i e l C a n a l , t h e r e b y r e m a i n i n g on home groun d . The l a n d here c l e a r l y t a k e s on m y t h i c a l a s p e c t s as a so u r c e o f v a l u e s , u h i c h b r i n g s F r e n s s e n c l o s e t o N a z i l i t e r a -t u r e o f the " B l u t und Boden" s c h o o l , a l t h o u g h he does not mytho-l o g i z e the p e a s a n t . Adam B a r f o o d , the p a s t o r o f Poggsee, r e p r e s e n t s the conv e r s e o f the " l a t e i n i s c h e r Bauer," f o r he i s the clergyman uho uants t o be a f a r m e r . He l o n g s f o r the day uhen he u i l l have a p a r i s h uhere the v i c a r a g e has a s m a l l farm a t t a c h e d , but on h i s uay to Poggsee he s t o p s u i t h a f r i e n d from h i s s t u d e n t d a y s , Kong C h r i s t i a n , and f i n d s him c o m p l e t e l y absorbed i n f a r m i n g to the e x c l u s i o n o f h i s o f f i c e . C o n t a c t u i t h the l a n d i s i m p o r t a n t to a v i l l a g e p a s t o r from the p r a c t i c a l p o i n t o f v i e u o f s h a r i n g the i n t e r e s t s o f h i s p a r i s h i o n e r s , as u e l l as p r o v i d i n g the c o n t a c t u i t h n a t u r e u h i c h Frenssen c o n s i d e r s so v i t a l f o r a l l men and doubly so f o r a p a s t o r , as n a t u r e i s the d i r e c t m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f the d i v i n e p r e s e n c e ; the p a s t o r must e s t a b l i s h h i m s e l f someuhere betueen the tuo p o l e s . He cannot a f f o r d to be too s p i r i t u a l , f o r then he l e a v e s no b a s i s f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g betueen the c o n g r e g a t i o n and h i m s e l f , but he cannot become so earthbound t h a t the s p i r i t i s e x c l u d e d . I t i s i m p o r t a n t f o r an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of F r e n s s e n ' s p o s i t i o n t o remember t h a t , w h i l e the s e t t i n g f o r the n o v e l s i s r u r a l , h i s major heroes are not farmers by c h o i c e . Oflrn Uhl wants t o be an e n g i n e e r , K l a u s Baas i s a b u s i n e s s m a n , Adam Ba r f o o d i s a p a s t o r and Otto Babendiek i s an a u t h o r . T h e i r s e a r c h i s f o r a m i d d l e p o s i t i o n where they can r e a l i z e t h e i r p o t e n t i a l but a t the same time not l o s e t h e i r grasp of t r a d i -t i o n a l v a l u e s . Rather than b e i n g the r e p o s i t o r y of some mytho-l o g y o f i t s own, the s i g n i f i c a n c e of n a t u r e d e r i v e s from i t s d i v i n e o r i g i n , t r a n s c e n d i n g the r e a s o n o f man, which i n v e s t s i t w i t h t h e e t e r n a l v a l u e s s y m b o l i z e d by the c y c l e o f seed-time and h a r v e s t . There i s no attempt by F r e n s s e n to e r e c t 39 a c u l t around " d i e deutsche E i c h e , " Cut o f f from t h i s s o u r c e o f v a l u e s , K l a u s Baas comes c l o s e to l o s i n g h i s s o u l . He shows enormous d e t e r m i n a t i o n i n the s t r u g g l e to escape from p o v e r t y , but t h i s t o t a l de-d i c a t i o n to m a t e r i a l s u c c e s s i s f o r Frenssen a p r o s t i t u t i o n of the human s p i r i t . F r e n s s e n ' s purpose as a " l / o l k s e r z i e h e r " i s to r e d r e s s t h i s s p i r i t u a l b a l a n c e , and he f e e l s t h a t the countryman, i n d a i l y c o n t a c t w i t h the harmony o f n a t u r e , has an awareness o f the proper p r i o r i t i e s which the c i t y d w e l l e r l a c k s . S i n c e K l a u s Baas i s the o n l y hero a c t i v e l y engaged i n the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e m i l i e u o f the U i l h e l m i n i a n E m p i r e , the w o r l d o f commerce, t h i s n o v e l p r o v i d e s the c r u c i a l t e s t of the a d a p t a b i l i t y o f the v a l u e s of the "Heimatroman" to the everyday r e a l i t y of the m a j o r i t y of Germans. The i n c o n c l u s i v e n a t u r e of the s o l u t i o n r e f l e c t s not o n l y F r e n s s e n ' s oun p e s s i -mism d u r i n g the Blankenese y e a r s but a l s o a major s h o r t c o m i n g of the g e n r e : the doun to e a r t h r e a l i s m o f the n o v e l s , t h e i r l a c k o f p h i l o s o p h i c a l s p e c u l a t i o n or i n t e l l e c t u a l e x a m i n a t i o n o f the dilemma of modern man l e a v e s them u i t h o n l y the vaguest s u g g e s t i o n s f o r a neu d i r e c t i o n , D o r i s Rotermund e s s e n t i a l l y does no more than p o i n t out to K l a u s Baas t h a t h i s p r i o r i t i e s are wrong. He r e t u r n s to Hamburg u i t h the r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t h i s o n l y e m o t i o n a l t i e s are to h i s u i f e and f a m i l y , and r e -s o l v e s to e l e v a t e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f them to a p o s i t i o n of prime i m p o r t a n c e . The c o n c r e t e n e s s of t h i s r e a l i z a t i o n r e -duces i t to the l e v e l of the t r i v i a l , and y e t the end o f the n o v e l i n t i m a t e s F r e n s s e n ' s oun auareness t h a t i t n e i t h e r proves nor changes a n y t h i n g : K l a u s Baas l e a v e s f o r C h i n a f o r the d u r a t i o n of the uar t h e r e . I n s t e a d of e n d e a v o u r i n g t o put i n t o p r a c t i c e h i s new awareness o f the primacy of such human q u a l i t i e s as l o v e and c o n s i d e r a t i o n , Baas bows to the commercial n e c e s s i t y o f s u p e r v i s i n g h i s Chinese con-t r a c t s . A l t h o u g h the p o s s i b i l i t y o f b e n e f i c i a l change i s l e f t open, i t i s d o u b t f u l whether even D o r i s Rotermund, the v o i c e o f home, has had any r e a l e f f e c t on K l a u s Baas' m a t e r i -a l i s t i c o r i e n t a t i o n . Even when he us 't h i s most p e s s i m i s t i c , d u r i n g the p e r i o d uhen he u r o t e K l a u s H i n r i c h Baas (1909) and Der U n t e r -ganq der Anna Hollmann ( 1 9 1 1 ) , F r e n s s e n ' s optimism uas too g r e a t to p e r m i t a t o t a l l y n e g a t i v e c o n c l u s i o n to a n o v e l . His d i d a c t i c i s m a l s o d i c t a t e d t h a t the n o v e l s end on a p o s i -t i v e n o t e , b u t , even though h i s c a p a c i t y f o r thorough a n a l y -s i s o f the i n t e l l e c t u a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of the p l o t s uas l i m i t e d , h i s e s s e n t i a l honesty p r e v e n t e d him from t u i s t i n g e i t h e r of t h e s e n o v e l s to conform to the p r i n c i p l e of d i d a c t i c o p t i m i s m . In subsequent pronouncements on the s u b j e c t o f K l a u s H i n r i c h Baas, such as the one i n L e b e n s b e r i c h t , i t i s the exemplary v i g o u r o f t h i s type of H o l s t e i n e r u h i c h i s m e n t i o n e d , and y e t i n the n o v e l i t s e l f he does not h i d e h i s doubts about the ade-quacy o f t h e s e v a l u e s . Had the p o s i t i v e d i d a c t i c s t r a i n i n F r e n s s e n ' s u r i t i n g s been l e s s pronounced, and the w i l l to q u e s t i o n the u n d e r l y i n g v a l u e s s t r o n g e r , i t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t Gustav F r e n s s e n u o u l d not have s u f f e r e d the e c l i p s e of h i s l i t e r a r y r e n o u n . Man and S o c i e t y The d e v i c e o f the happy endi n g i n Frenssen's n o v e l s i s a d i d a c t i c t o o l and not s i m p l y a c l i c h e ' . The u h o l e t e n o r o f h i s uork i s o p t i m i s t i c , i m p l y i n g t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e to de-v i s e a s o c i a l and e t h i c a l system u i t h i n u h i c h the i n d i v i d u a l u i l l be a b l e to d e v e l o p h i s f u l l p o t e n t i a l . F r e n s s e n reached t h i s a t t i t u d e d u r i n g h i s y e a r s as a c o u n t r y p a s t o r , and he d i d so i n c o n f r o n t a t i o n u i t h the c o n v e n t i o n a l P r o t e s t a n t p h i l o s o p h y t h a t s a l v a t i o n and h a p p i n e s s are p o s s i b l e o n l y i n "the o t h e r u o r l d . " I c h u o l l t e z e i g e n , u i e i c h das Leben, i n Goetheschem S i n n , b l u t v o l l a u f f a s s t e , l i e b t e und a n e r k a n n t e , und d anach, j a eben auf diesem Liege, d i e hohe Z u k u n f t des R e i c h e s G o t t e s sHhe. I c h u o l l t e i n einem l e b e n s v o l l e n Buch, i n v e r s c h i e d e n e n Clenschen und L e b e n s l H u f en , d a r -s t e l l e n , u i e u i r e i n D i e s s e i t s g e s c h l e c h t s i n d , aber f r e i l i c h e i n s , das i n Z u f M l l i g e m und Schuankendem nach dem StMndigen und E u i g e n u n t e r u e g s i s t . 40 Such q u e s t i o n s as the f r i c t i o n s caused i n s o c i e t y by the sup p r e s s i o n o f s e n s u a l i t y and the predominance o f m a t e r i a l i s m r e v e a l h i s u n d e r l y i n g g o a l , u h i c h uas t o b r i n g the v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f i n d i v i d u a l and n a t i o n a l l i f e i n t o harmony u i t h one a n o t h e r i n o r d e r to r e v i t a l i z e the German p e o p l e on a l l l e v e l s . U i t h o u t t h e i n n e r harmony and e q u i l i b r i u m o f the i n d i v i d u a l he f e l t t h a t t h e r e c o u l d be no b r o a d e r harmony u i t h i n the n a t i o n a l community. The problem o f Germany's d u a l 41 h e r i t a g e o f "Germanentum und C h r i s t e n t u m " o c c u p i e d h i s l i f e l o n g a t t e n t i o n , and s u r f a c e s as an i m p o r t a n t component of h i s p l a n f o r t h e r e b i r t h o f Germany a f t e r the c a t a c l y s m o f the G r e a t U a r . N a t i o n a l u n i t y seemed v e r y f a r o f f i n 1921, the y e a r of the p u b l i c a t i o n o f Der P a s t o r von Poggsee. At the end o f the n o v e l the U i l h e l m i n i a n Empire has c o l l a p s e d and u i t h i t the a g g r e s s i v e s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e o f the p r e - u a r d e c a d e s . T f a b r i c o f s o c i e t y has been t o r n by the r e v o l u t i o n , and t r a d i 44 t i o n a l e t h i c s have f a i l e d to p r e v e n t the d e g e n e r a t i o n o f l a r g e s e c t i o n s o f the p o p u l a t i o n i n t o l a w l e s s n e s s or to p r o v i d e a r a l l y i n g p o i n t f o r the r e s t . The people o f Poggsee o r g a -n i z e a " V o l k s f e s t " t o s y m b o l i z e the new s t a r t f o r the n a t i o n . The " l / o l k s f e s t " t a k e s the form of the t r a d i t i o n a l r u s t i c g a t h e r i n g i n the meadow. There are t r a d i t i o n a l games and dances and a d i s p l a y o f l i v e s t o c k , but the n o v e l f e a t u r e i s t h a t the b e s t specimens of the young men and women of the d i s t r i c t a r e a l s o d i s p l a y e d , not i n the sense of a beauty c o n t e s t , but as a p a r t of the l i v e s t o c k show as an example to the p e o p l e of the i m p o r t a n c e o f b i o l o g i c a l p r i n c i p l e s f o r good b r e e d i n g . The " U o l k s f e s t " i s i m p o r t a n t as a s i g n p o s t f o r the d i r e c t i o n t h a t F r e n s s e n f e e l s postwar Germany s h o u l d t a k e . There have a l r e a d y been i n d i c a t i o n s i n the n o v e l t h a t Poggsee s i n c e the r e v o l u t i o n i s the l a b o r a t o r y i n which Fr e n s s e n i s t e s t i n g some o f h i s s o c i a l t h e o r i e s . The c o u n c i l of t w e l v e e l d e r s which t a k e s over the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the v i l l a g e has an o l d Germanic r i n g t o i t , a reminder of the days when Dithmarschen was a f r e e " B a u e r n r e p u b l i k " b e f o r e the Danes conquered i t i n 1465. The c o u n c i l , o r g a n i z e d from the r e s -p ected c i t i z e n r y o f the v i l l a g e , i s headed by i t s most suc-c e s s f u l member, w i t h the i n t e n t i o n t h a t i t s h o u l d i n time 42 e v o l v e i n t o a system of one-man r u l e u i t h a "F U h r e r , " whose judgement u o u l d be u n i v e r s a l l y r e s p e c t e d and uho, once c h o s e n , u o u l d have a b s o l u t e power. While such a system might be o p e r a b l e on a v i l l a g e s c a l e w i t h o u t abuse, s i n c e whoever was chosen as l e a d e r would be w e l l known to a l l the v o t e r s , the element of f a m i l i a r i t y d i s a p p e a r s once the pop-u l a t i o n i n v o l v e d exceeds one or two thousand and p o l i t i c a l m a n i p u l a t i o n becomes p o s s i b l e . I t i s a f r e q u e n t lament o f F r e n s s e n ' s u i t h r e g a r d to the outbreak of war, which he e x p r e s s e s i n Per P a s t o r von Poggsee and a l s o i n Die BrOder, t h a t the German peop l e are "zu g l M u b i g " : i n t h i s case the e p i t h e t can be t u r n e d on i t s a u t h o r , and one can o n l y m a r v e l at- the e x t r a o r d i n a r y n a i v e t e ' u h i c h e n v i s i o n e d such a regime f u n c t i o n i n g u i t h o u t abuse. The d i s p l a y of l i v e s t o c k and p h y s i c a l l y p e r f e c t young people u n d e r l i n e s a c o n s t a n t theme i n the n o v e l s , t h a t o f r a c i a l improvement as a v i t a l s t e p t o u a r d s the r e b o r n Germany 43 t h a t i s F r e n s s e n ' s g o a l . He c o m p l a i n s i n Mfluen und MHuse t h a t people choose a spouse u i t h l e s s c a r e than they u o u l d a c o u , and u i t h a countryman's eye he urges the a p p l i c a t i o n o f the p r i n c i p l e s o f " Z u c h t u a h l " to the human p o p u l a t i o n , a l -though he never goes as f a r as to advocate t h a t the s t a t e or some o t h e r body u n d e r t a k e the s e l e c t i o n p r o c e s s , "Man utlrde einem bedeutenden b i o l o g i s c h e n Gesetz auf d i e Spur kommen, uenn man einem gesunden, jungen L/eibe hundert junge Manner v o r f U h r t e m i t dem A u f t r a g , zu s a g e n , uer von 44 d i e s e n i h r s e x u e l l g e f i e l e und uer n i c h t , und uarum." On t h i s p o i n t F renssen f a i l s t o d i s t i n g u i s h betueen n a t u r a l 46 s e l e c t i o n based on p r e f e r e n c e and unhampered by s o c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s and s c i e n t i f i c m a t i n g : he equates the t u o , p r o v i d i n g t h a t the p a r t n e r doing the c h o o s i n g i s "gesund." The b i o l o g i c a l premises here are n o n - s c i e n t i f i c and based on an e m o t i o n a l n a t i o n a l i s m t h a t i s both vague and i d e a l i s t i c , as E l i s a b e t h Grimm i m p l i e s uhen she u r i t e s : . So u i r d es b e i V e r g l e i c h e n auch h i e r b e s s e r s e i n , d i e Gedankenuelt des ' D i c h t e r s ' Frenssen der von Lagarde • und Langbehn g l e i c h z u s e t z e n , u e i l i n i h r e n Uerken der Rassegedanken mehr a l s s t o l z e s B e u u s s t s e i n und I d e a l , denn a l s u i s s e n s c h a f t l i c h u mrissene K l a r h e i t a u f t r i t t . 45 The i d e a l of a r a c e f r e e d from h e r e d i t a r y d e f i c i e n c e s such as p h y s i c a l f r a i l t y or a l c h o h o l i s m demands i t s oun m o r a l i t y , the o n l y purpose o f u h i c h i s to s e r v e the i d e a l . Adam B a r f o o d makes a c o n v i n c i n g case f o r j u s t i f y i n g A b e l ' s a d u l t e r y u i t h Or. Schack on h u m a n i t a r i a n g r o u n d s , but F r e n s s e n goes f a r t h e r i n M0uen und I"l9use: "Denes U e i b , das s i c h i n f r e i e r L i e b e h e i m l i c h e i n K i n d von dem SchBnsten und Besten geben l S s s t , h a n d e l t frommer und s i t t l i c h e r a l s d a s , u e l c h e s 46 i n dumpfer Ehe dem M i n d e r u e r t i g e n K i n d e r g e b i e r t , " Do the uords " i n f r e i e r L i e b e " i m p l y t h a t she r e a l l y l o v e s the "SchBn-s t e n und B e s t e n ? " I f s o , the s i t u a t i o n i s s i m i l a r to the Sanddeern's predicament i n 38rn U h l : the r i g h t o f the h e a r t to c h o o s e , u h i c h i s n e i t h e r neu nor dependent i n any uay on the man's b e i n g the b e s t one. The l o v i n g h e a r t chooses; t h a t i s s u f f i c i e n t . S i n c e p r o m i s c u i t y f o r the sake o f s e x u a l g r a t i f i c a t i o n per se does not appear i n the n o v e l s , and i n d e e d uas d e s c r i b e d as " d i e s e n im hdchsten Masse u n s i t t l i c h e n und 47 s e e l i s c h g e f S h r l i c h e n Z ustand" by F r e n s s e n , the uords " i n f r e i e r L i e b e " cannot be c o n s t r u e d as euphemisms f o r s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s u i t h o u t l o v e , u h i c h u o u l d make t h i s pronouncement a f o r e r u n n e r o f N a z i p o l i c i e s f o r i m p r o v i n g the r a c e ; con-s e q u e n t l y F r e n s s e n i s b r e a k i n g no neu ground f o r h i m s e l f h e r e . The dubious assumption i s t h a t a h e a l t h y young uoman u i l l a l u a y s choose the "SchHnsten und B e s t e n " ; t h a t F r e n s s e n f a i l s even to c o n s i d e r the t h e o r e t i c a l problem o f uhat to do s h o u l d she p r e f e r a " M i n d e r w e r t i g e n " i l l u s t r a t e s a g a i n the uay i n u h i c h he champions an i d e a but s t o p s s h o r t o f examining the i m p l i c a t i o n s . I t i s i r o n i c t h a t i n some cases i m p i c a t i o n s u h i c h u o u l d to F r e n s s e n have been q u i t e i n c o n -c e i v a b l e uere the v e r y c o r n e r s t o n e s of H i t l e r ' s oun r a c i a l p o l i c y . B i r t h c o n t r o l i s not an i s s u e i n the n o v e l s , and even i n the d i a r i e s the m atter i s d i s c u s s e d from a s t a n d p o i n t o f " r a c i a l h y g i e n e " r a t h e r than m o r a l i t y . E s s e n t i a l l y , F r e n s s e n 48 b e l i e v e s i n promoting the growth o f " u e r t v o l l e S i p p e n " and h i n d e r i n g t h a t o f the " M i n d e r u e r t i g e n " : Es mUssen zum B e i s p i e l a l l e gesunden, u o h l gebauten U e i b e r v e r p f l i c h t e t u e r d e n , u e n i g s t e n s d r e i K i n d e r zu gebMren, und es mOssen d i e kranken und u n u i r t s c h a f t -l i c h e n g e h i n d e r t u e r d e n , b e l i e b i g K i n d e r i n d i e U e l t zu s e t z e n . 49 " M i n d e r w e r t i g " i n c l u d e s the s i c k , the i r r e s p o n s i b l e , and those whose h e r i t a g e has g i v e n them a c h a r a c t e r t h a t cannot p l a y i t s p a r t i n the n a t i o n a l community: the M a r t j e Ruhland t y p e . In the c o n t i n u a t i o n o f PJie^ C h r o n i k v/on B a r l e t e , e n t i t l e d "Tagebuch des Amtmanns der Amtmannschaft U i t t s c h i l d im 3ahre 2027," u h i c h appears i n volume t h r e e o f the d i a r i e s , V o r l a n d , F r e n s s e n expounds on h i s v i s i o n of an i d e a l f u t u r e . Die  Ch r o n i k von B a r l e t e uas p u b l i s h e d i n 1928, so i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t the c o n t i n u a t i o n uas u r i t t e n l a t e r than 1932, making i t a more r e l i a b l e i n d i c a t i o n o f h i s l a t e r t h i n k i n g than i f i t had been u r i t t e n a f t e r 1933. In a d d i t i o n t o r e f o r m o f such areas as e d u c a t i o n , b u r e a u c r a c y , the l a u , l a n d t e n u r e and museums, e u g e n i c s i s an i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f the r e b o r n D i t h -marschen a c e n t u r y hence. F r e n s s e n goes beyond Mfluen und  M8use i n a d v o c a t i n g s t e r i l i z a t i o n f o r c r i m i n a l s and " Erb-b e l a s t e t e , " such as a l c h o h o l i c s , but i t must be emphasized t h a t even h e r e , uhere F r e n s s e n goes much f a r t h e r than i n the n o v e l s , t h e r e i s no mention of a n t i - s e m i t i s m . In Lebens-b e r i c h t , p u b l i s h e d i n 1940, h i s t h i n k i n g i s almost c o m p l e t e l y " g l e i c h g e s c h a l t e t " t o conform u i t h N a z i i d e o l o g y , and h e r e , at the age o f s e v e n t y - s e v e n , he t u r n s a n t i - s e m i t i c , main-t a i n i n g t h a t the change took p l a c e i n 1923 as a r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t b e i n g c r i t i c i z e d and " t o t g e s c h u i e g e n " ^ by D e u i s h c r i t i c s . In Recht oder U n r e c h t , Mein Land ( 1 9 4 0 ) , a propa-ganda t i r a d e a g a i n s t E n g l a n d , the e x p u l s i o n o f the 3eus from Germany i s j u s t i f i e d on the grounds t h a t they had abused the h o s p i t a l i t y o f t h e i r h o s t s by s e e k i n g t o dominate n a t i o n a l l i f e , but a n t i - s e m i t i s m i s a f o r e i g n element i n h i s i d e a l i s t i c and i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c "Weltanschauung" and has no p l a c e i n the n o v e l s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , N a z i c r i t i c s , eager to c l a i m F r e n s s e n as a f o r e r u n n e r o f the movement, c o n s t a n t l y attempted to read i t i n t o h i s work. Numme Numsen, i n a book e n t i t l e d Gustav  F r e n s s e n , der KHmpfer fOr d i e deutsche W i e d e r q e b u r t , w r i t e s of 3Hrn U h l : "FrUh i s t Frenssen auf das Rasseproblem-ge-s t o s s e n , The i n f l e x i b i l i t y u h i c h F r e n s s e n c o n s i d e r e d one o f the major p e r s o n a l problems t o be combated a l s o r e a p p e a r s as a s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l problem i n the uar n o v e l Die Brtlder ( 1 9 1 7 ) . Not by any means one of h i s b e s t , the book uas u r i t t e n a t the i n s t i g a t i o n of the F o r e i g n O f f i c e as a morale b o o s t e r as the Grea t War dragged on. The s l e n d e r p l o t , u h i c h i s h a r d l y more than an excuse f o r f i v e hundred pages o f the t h r e e Ott b r o t h e r s a t u a r , has as i t s b a s i s the i n f l e x i b i l i t y o f f a t h e r and s o n . An u n e x p l a i n e d u h i s t l e i n the barn has caused t h e i r s i s t e r Emma to s l i d e i n t o a d e p r e s s i o n , u h i c h deepens uhen the farm boy uho l o v e s her sud d e n l y d i s a p p e a r s . E g g e r t , the most in d e p e n d e n t of the b r o t h e r s , i s accused by h i s f a t h e r o f b e i n g the u h i s t l e r , and l e a v e s f o r A m e r i c a . He r e t u r n s and j o i n s the navy u i t h the o t h e r b r o t h e r s , but i t i s not u n t i l 1917 t h a t the farm boy r e t u r n s , admits t h a t he uas the u h i s t l e r , and m a r r i e s Emma. F a t h e r and son are r e c o n c i l e d b e f o r e the a l t a r i n the v i l l a g e c h u r c h . 50 The farm boy, uho comes from the Rhineland and i s there-fore considered by Frenssen to be a foreigner i n Dithmarschen, explains that he whistled to shake the Otts out of t h e i r inuard-looking complacency. Despite the frequent mention i n the novel of Germany's innocence of any i n t e n t i o n to s t a r t a uar, t h i s i s c l e a r l y an allegory of Germany's po s i t i o n among the nations of Europe immediately before 1914; the development of Adam's thought i n Per Pastor von Poggsee bears out t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , although Frenssen must have come around to t h i s vieu rather e a r l i e r than Adam, uho does not change u n t i l almost at the end of the uar. Germany uas too l i t t l e concerned uit h the e f f e c t of her rapid growth i n uealth and power, and developments such as the naval building programme only served to make the other nations uneasy about her i n t e n t i o n s . These i n t e n t i o n s , according to Frenssen, were innocent but the diplomacy supporting them uas so inept that nothing uas done to prevent the d i s t r u s t from de t e r i o r a t i n g into a s i t u a t i o n uhere uar became i n e v i t a b l e . Within the context of the "Burgfrieden" Frenssen uas con-cerned ui t h depicting i n his novel a h e r o i c , united people unjustly set upon by a horde of i n f e r i o r nations jealous of Germany's success and urged on by that a r c h - v i l l a i n , p e r f i d i o u s Albion. The predictable r e s u l t i s a propaganda piece, complete uith laudatory introduction by Admiral Scheer, commander of the High Seas F l e e t , Nevertheless the i n c l u s i o n of the a l l e -gory pinpoints Frenssen's p o l i t i c a l standpoint quite accurately: i f one can divorce the word "vfllkis c h " from i t s National S o c i a l i s t connotations (and i n vieu of Frenssen's age—seventy i n 1933—to l a b e l him a Nazi only muddies the issue) i t describes him w e l l . He uas very consciously a mem-ber of the German people, perhaps the more so since he uas born a Danish subject, and uhile he could not conceive of the German people acting i n a uay contrary to his oun sense of rig h t and urong, he uas quite ready to admit that they had been misled. B a s i c a l l y , Frenssen's conservative nature accepted uhat-ever government happened to be i n pouer: Peter Moors Fahrt nach Stiduest and Die BrOdar shou him to have been no opponent of the Imperial regime, and i n 1933 he uas c r i t i c i z e d by a prominent Nazi for having praised the Ueimar Republic i n 52 Briefe aus Amerika and Per Pastor von Poggsee. Memo der Prahler on the other hand, uhich uas published i n 1933, welcomes the approaching Third Reich. Despite his i n d i s c r e -t i o n s , the Nazis considered Frenssen's credentials acceptable 53 and he uas l i o n i z e d by them as a "l/orlSuf e rc" Did he, as i s charged, set his s a i l according to the pr e v a i l i n g uind? To ansuer t h i s one must go back to the 1890's, uhen Frenssen, as a young pastor i n the tiny v i l l a g e of Hemme, joined F r i e d r i c h Naumann's National S o c i a l i s t party. Frenssen uas a n a t i o n a l i s t , and his comments i n MOuen und 54 M8use on the issues of poverty and the i n j u s t i c e of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of power and wealth prior to 1914 show him to have been also a s o c i a l i s t . His was a "Sozialismus echt 55 vaterlSndischer Gesinnung," uhich, while d i f f e r i n g from the internationalism of the p o l i t i c a l l e f t wing i n i t s foreign p o l i c y , was no less zealous i n i t s campaign for s o c i a l j u s t i c e . That he accepted H i t l e r ' s movement on the basis of a si m i l a r name and some shared ideas demonstrates a calamitous lack of p o l i t i c a l s o p h i s t i c a t i o n uhich i s at least partly attributable to his age and the fact that after 1919 he l i v e d exclusively i n B a r l t , far removed from the g r i s l y r e a l i t i e s of H i t l e r ' s Reich. Throughout his works, but e s p e c i a l l y i n Die Chronik von  Barlete, Frenssen makes much of the t r a d i t i o n of freedom and democracy, uhich he claims i s longer and stronger i n Dithmarschen than elsewhere i n Germany. During the Middle Ages the area uas a free "Bauernrepublik," and r e s i s t e d u n t i l 1465 the attempts of the Danish crown to bring i t under i t s suay. Unlike eastern Holstein and Stormarn, where a r i s t o -c r a t i c estates flourished i n a lusher landscape, the farmers of Dithmarschen preserved th e i r independence i n an enduring struggle uith their uncompromising adversary, the North Sea. Danish rule uas by no means harsh, and Frenssen frequently mentions that, even i n the days of heady patriotism after 1864, the older men uould recount uith pride s t o r i e s of th e i r army 56 service i n Copenhagen. He thought of himself as a "Grenz-d e u t s c h e r , " and has n o t h i n g but contempt f o r the p r o v i n -c i a l i s m and n a r r o u p a t r i o t i s m o f P r u s s i a . Bismarck's " k l e i n -d e u tsche Lflsung" he r e g a r d s as a m i s t a k e , f o r F r e n s s e n t h i n k s o f Germany p r i m a r i l y as a r a c i a l r a t h e r than a p o l i t i c a l e n t i t y . C r i t i c i s m o f the K a i s e r o c c u r s f i r s t i n Per P a s t o r  von Poggsee, u r i t t e n a f t e r the a b d i c a t i o n , but from Mfluen  und HHuse i t i s c l e a r t h a t h i s t h i n k i n g even b e f o r e 1914 uas f a r from u n c r i t i c a l o f the I m p e r i a l p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m , a l t h o u g h F r e n s s e n uas a m o n a r c h i s t and i n agreement u i t h many p o l i c i e s , e s p e c i a l l y n a v a l and c o l o n i a l e x p a n s i o n . B r i e f e aus Amerika a l s o g i v e c o n s i d e r a b l e i n s i g h t i n t o the uay i n u h i c h he f e l t t h a t the p o l i t i c a l l i f e o f the n a t i o n had to be r e s t r u c t u r e d b e f o r e any r e a l r e b i r t h uas p o s s i b l e . F r e n s s e n b e l i e v e d t h a t a r e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the u e a l t h of the n a t i o n uas e s s e n t i a l i f the mass o f the p o p u l a t i o n uas t o p a r t i c i p a t e f u l l y i n Germany's r e b i r t h . They u o u l d a l u a y s f e e l a l i e n a t e d from a system i n u h i c h a s m a l l p e r -centage l i v e d i n o p u l e n c e u h i l e m i l l i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y i n the l a r g e c i t i e s , had no a l t e r n a t i v e to s q u a l o r . K l a u s Baas e x p e r i e n c e s the p o v e r t y o f i n d u s t r i a l Hamburg and K a i J a n s , the hero o f H i l l i q e n l e i , l i v e s and u o r k s i n the slums o f B e r l i n , u h i c h F r e n s s e n sau as a s t u d e n t . These d e s c r i p t i o n s a re couched i n the s t a r k e s t language o f N a t u r a l i s m , f o r F r e n s s e n f i n d s n o t h i n g to i d e a l i z e i n the c i t y . K l a u s Baas' f a t h e r d i e s i n the f i l t h y a i r o f ' a tenement as a r e s u l t o f an accident at uork: one of the nameless m i l l i o n s for uhom the promise of the c i t i e s becomes a nightmare of ex p l o i t a t i o n and squalor. Frenssen makes no concrete suggestions regarding housing or working conditions, but i n one area, that of the r e d i v i s i o n of land, he i s quite s p e c i f i c . Elisabeth Grimm asserts that Frenssen must have known Adolph Damaschke, uho i n 1898 uas the deputy president of Naumann's party; i n 1902 Damaschke published Die Bodenreform, advocating the financing of small 58 farms for workers and intensive land reclamation. The im-petus for Die drei Getreuen (1898) came from the miserable circumstances i n uhich many farm labourers l i v e d . Because there uas no neu land i n Schlesuig-Holstein, they existed meagerly as "TagelHhner" but there was aluays the danger that an unscrupulous farmer would try to save money by using Po-l i s h labourers, who were paid even l e s s . The German workers were then faced with the alternatives of starvation or emi-gr a t i o n , either to Hamburg and i t s f a c t o r i e s , or to America, where there uas s t i l l cheap land to farm. The l a t t e r course i s the one taken by the labourers i n the novel. Kai Dans has a dream of " H i l l i g e n l e i , " the holy land, which he has seen when a s a i l o r , and the holy land i s Vancouver: "Ein 59 ueites Land, waldreich, mit sanften HUgeln." The people l i v e i n "sonnige HSuser . . . an den RSndern der L/Sldern zer-streut i n Gartenland." On their own land, surrounded by un-spoiled nature, breathing a i r "uie Odem Gottes" a people can be reborn "stark, mit blitzenden reinen Augen und auf den Stirnen hohe f r i e d v o l l e Gedanken." Whatever i t s discrepan-cies as a description of Vancouver, this passage does shou uhat Frenssen hoped to achieve through land reform: space for people to l i v e decently and develop physically and moral-l y . This uas possible i n Frenssen's vieu only on the land, and he believed that emigration meant the loss to Germany of the most valuable element of the population: the industrious young farmers uhose devotion to their oun land uould be un-shakeable. Grimm puts the case in the terminology of the 1930's, but Frenssen uould have concurred: ""Gerade die Bes-ten ISsst sie (die Heimat) ziehen und macht dadurch Platz fdr slauischen E i n f a l l . " ^ The tuo p o s s i b i l i t i e s for providing land in Germany uere to divide the eastern provinces, "Ostelbien," and to reclaim land from the North Sea. Frenssen describes i n 61 Lebensbericht hou the Imperial and Weimar governments uere deaf to ambitious plans for reclamation, and i n Otto  Babendiek E i l e r t Mumm t r i e s i n vain to persuade the dyke administration to undertake a project on the scale of the Zuyder Zee. The reclaimed island of Flackelholm i n Die  drei Getreuen i s farmed by Andres Strandiger and made to bloom, but the fact that the isl a n d of Trieschen o ff the coast of Dithmarschen, upon uhich Flackelholm i s modelled, 56 i s no longer inhabited r e f l e c t s the enduring nature of the l o c a l problems to uhich Frenssen addresses himself. One of the f i r s t acts of the Nazi regime, houever, and one uhich did much to consolidate their prestige i n the area, uas to bu i l d the Adolf H i t l e r Koog, nou the Barlter Sommerdeich. In the mid 1930's Frenssen greeted this tangible proof of national r e b i r t h uith uords reminiscent of Faust I I , Act Mi "Auf schuerem Boden, unter schuerem Himmel, und i n herber Luft 6 2 ein f r i s c h e s , starkes Geschlecht." Much as he condemns i n Andres Strandiger those farmers uho force the native labourers into e x i l e by using cheap im-ported labour, Frenssen i s much more c r i t i c a l of successive governments, both Imperial and Ueimar, for not allowing "tOch-tige Bauern" to farm the vacant or sparsely s e t t l e d lands in the eastern provinces. This uould be of great benefit to hundreds of thousands of young farmers uho uould otherwise be driven from the land, uith i n c a l c u l a b l e loss to the nation: "Der bodenstMndige, durch Eigenbesitz mit der Erde verbundene Bauer gibt dem deutschen Stamm Mark und Tugend -und nicht das Heer der Entuurzelten ohne u i r t s c h a f t l i c h e BestHndigkeit, It uould also provide a strong German population i n the eas-tern provinces to balance the Poles there, for Frenssen fore-sau Germany losing the east for precisely this reason. His a g r i c u l t u r a l conservatism c e r t a i n l y does not extend to the Prussian landouners, uhose "RittergUter" he frequently com-57 pares unfavourably ui t h the farms of Dithmarschen. The a l l o c a t i o n of land as an instrument of s o c i a l improve-ment i s an important aspect of Frenssen's thinking, and i t also r e f l e c t s his strengths and weaknesses as a reformer. His sug-gestions are concrete and uell-reasoned uhen they cover areas in uhich he had experience, and he uas a countryman a l l his l i f e ; his roots and his heart remained i n Dithmarschen even during the Blankenese years. Outside his oun sphere he tends to advocate simple solutions to complex problems, as for exam-ple i n l e g a l matters. He f e l t that Roman lau uas inappropri-ate for the German mentality, and that j u d i c i a l decisions should be made on the basis of common sense. The la u s u i t of Bohnsack versus Kohl i n Otto Babendiek i l l u s t r a t e s this b e l i e f that c o d i f i e d lau i s c a l c i f i e d l a u , that the l i v i n g r e a l i t y of national l i f e requires a directness and f l e x i b i l i t y i n place of the maze of paragraphs through uhich the g u i l t y can escape. Dutti Kohl i s a swindler uho has groun r i c h from revolu-tion and i n f l a t i o n . Balle Bohnsack i s suing him for fraud. In B a l l e , a farmer's son uho at this point i n the novel i s a butcher, Frenssen creates one of his most v i v i d characters. He spends his youth with animals and becomes ever more dis -reputable i n appearance, but through persistence f i n a l l y mar-r i e s Dina Busch, whose in c r e d i b l e cleanliness i s one of Frens-sen's rare forays into irony. The combination of honesty, bravery and "Bauernschlauheit" brings him safely through the 58 uar, and i n the l e g a l tussle uith Dutti Kohl, uho epitomizes those uho avoided m i l i t a r y service and greu fat through ex-p l o i t i n g the misery of the home fr o n t , he stands as a repre-sentative of the honest, straightforuard German. The lau has become so cumbersome that no judge, houever good his i n t e n t i o n s , can produce j u s t i c e from the confusion. Frenssen i s aluays prepared to give i n d i v i d u a l s the benefit of the doubt: "Nein, an den Menschen l i e g t es n i c h t . Es 6 5 l i e g t am System!" Tante Lene, uho uith her uarm humanity and quick u i t i s Frenssen's most memorable character, sees the symbol of j u s t i c e uith the v e i l over her eyes as the root of the problem: A l l e andern Uesen danken Gott fUr helle und klare Augen; aber die Dustiz dankt Gott fOr ihren Fehler und Gammer. Main l/ater i n Uenneby sagte, das ganze UnglOck der Dus-t i z f i n g an dem Tag an, da sie sich die h e l l e n , klaren Menschenaugen verband, das beste, das der Mensch hat, und sich selbst blind machte. 66 It i s obvious that the lau u i l l not deal uith the l i k e s of Dutti Kohl, uho can s l i p through the maze of paragraphs uith the help of clever lauyers, and Balle i s unable to get any r e s u l t s uith his outburst i n court. Nevertheless Balle brings l i f e , the l i f e of the ordinary people, into the "ver-staubte G l e i c h g O l t i g k e i t " of the courtroom: "Es uar ein u i r k l i c h e r Gerichtssaal geuorden. Das Gericht i s t eine 67 grosse, ISchelnde und herzklopfende Sache." Frenssen advo-cates a simple, s u i f t t r i a l by a uise judge. Balle explains 59 to Tante Lene: "Ein einziger g e l e h r t e r , ueltkdindiger Richter . , , mit einem Schreiber aber ohne andre Leute und vor allem 6 8 ohne Paragraphen," could deal ui t h the f i f t y cases outstan-ding against Dutti Kohl i n three hours. The lack of safeguards i s j u s t i f i e d by the fact that " i n neun Fallen von zehn gehflrt die eine Partei nicht vors bOrgerliche Gericht, sondern vor den S t r a f r i c h t e r oder den I r r e n a r z t . " ^ Frenssen uishes the s u i f t , clean d e c i s i o n , uhich i n many cases may be o b v i o u s , and therefore uould make t h i s the general r u l e . If there i s a miscarriage of j u s t i c e i n one out of ten cases, th i s i s un-fortunate, but i t i s s t i l l an improvement over the old system. Ualther Gonser a t t r i b u t e s t h i s to a desire to extend the r e l a -70 t i v e l y simple country practice onto a national l e v e l , but i t goes deeper than th a t . It i s the desire to es t a b l i s h un-complicated guideliness for the betterment of society uhich tends to disregard those complexities uhich do not f i t into the mould. The v u l n e r a b i l i t y of such a system to misuse escapes Frenssen, uho i n t h i s case i s blinkered by his oun ideals of honesty and i n c o r r u p t i b i l i t y . High ideals of i n d i v i d u a l dignity are also the dr i v i n g force behind Frenssen's defence of democracy in Per Pastor  von Poggsee. In his speech at his daughter Heedje's uedding just before the outbreak of uar, Adam demonstrates his aware-ness that a greater degree of freedom i s desi r a b l e : F r e i l i c h , das i s t uahr: u i r sind noch kein ganz f r e i e s V o l k . U i r haben noch n i c h t a l l e Rechte von f r e i e n Menschen; besonders d i e A r b e i t e r auf dem Lande e n t -behren s i e . 71 The i n d i v i d u a l i s worthy o f the freedom t o make h i s own d e c i s i o n s , which amounts t o a c a l l f o r c o n s t i t u t i o n a l monarchy. Frank Braun p o i n t s out t h a t t h i s was a l s o Naumann's i d e a l , 72 and t h a t i t i s s p e l l e d out c l e a r l y i n Mflwen und MHuse about 1908: F r e n s s e n f o r d e r t e a l s o , genau wie Naumann, e i n e demo-k r a t i s c h e Monarchie und g l a u b t e s o g a r , der K a i s e r mUsste, urn d i e E i n h e i t und UOrde des ganzen l/olkes zu wahren und aus eigenem s i t t l i c h e m V e r a n t w o r t u n g s g e f U h l ' i n f r e i -w i l l i g e r Tat z u r d e m o k r a t i s c h e n M o n a r c h i c Ubergehen.1 73 74 Adam d e s c r i b e s h i m s e l f as " k a i s e r l i c h - d e m o k r a t i s c h - s o z i a l , " and t h i s i s c e r t a i n l y F r e n s s e n ' s p o s i t i o n a l s o . C o n s t i -t u t i o n a l monarchy a c t s as a c o n s e r v a t i v e i n f l u e n c e w h i l e p e r -m i t t i n g the v o i c e of the peop l e t o be d e c i s i v e . I t t h e r e b y g u a r a n t e e s the t w i n p i l l a r s o f s o c i e t y : p r e s e r v a t i o n o f what i s v a l u a b l e i n the t r a d i t i o n s o f government, and openness t o the p e o p l e ' s demands f o r change. Man and God The b a s i s f o r the h a p p i n e s s o f the i n d i v i d u a l w i t h i n a r e s t r u c t u r e d s o c i e t y i s a r e s t r u c t u r e d e t h i c a l s y s t e m . For Fr e n s s e n t h i s can o n l y be r o o t e d i n r e l i g i o n , a l t h o u g h the s p e c i f i c a l l y C h r i s t i a n c o n t e n t d i m i n i s h e s as h i s thought d e v e l o p s . The m i l e s t o n e s i n t h i s development are the Dorf-p r e d i q t e n , w r i t t e n w h i l e he was s t i l l p a s t o r i n Hemme, H i l l i g e n l e i ( 1 9 0 5 ) , and Per Glaube der Nordmark ( 1 9 3 6 ) , i n which C h r i s t i a n i t y i s r e j e c t e d i n f a v o u r of what he 75 d e s c r i b e s as the "angeborenen . . . V f i t e r g l a u b e n , " the t r a d -i t i o n a l " F r f l m m i g k e i t " o f the people o f S c h l e s w i g - H o l s t e i n . F r e n s s e n ' s whole development i n t h i s a r e a can be i n t e r p r e t e d as an unending attempt to r e c o n c i l e C h r i s t i a n i t y w i t h the demands o f human n a t u r e and what he b e l i e v e d was the need o f the German people f o r a r e l i g i o n a p p r o p r i a t e t o them i n the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y . U h i l s t the D o r f p r e d i q t e n r e p r e s e n t the t h r u s t o f l i b e r a l P r o t e s t a n t t h e o l o g y a t the end o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , H i l l i g e n l e i goes beyond the bounds o f any e x i s t i n g c h u r c h i n i t s r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the l i f e and person of C h r i s t , whom Fre n s s e n makes i n t o a S c h l e s u i g - H o l s t e i n "Handwerkerkind" w i t h no c l a i m to d i v i n e p a r e n t h o o d . The t i t l e o f the manu-s c r i p t o f the l i f e o f C h r i s t , w r i t t e n by the n o v e l ' s h e r o , K a i J a n s , shows the fundamental i m p o r t a n c e F r e n s s e n a t t a c h e d t o r e l i g i o n : "Pas Leben des H e i l a n d s , nach deutschen F o r s c h u n -7 6 gen d a r g e s t e l l t , d i e Grundlage d e u t s c h e r U i e d e r g e b u r t . " F renssen r e g a r d e d i t as e s s e n t i a l t o the r e b i r t h and r e v i t a l i -z a t i o n o f n a t i o n a l l i f e t h a t the " F r f l m m i g k e i t " o f the German peopl e be c h a n n e l l e d i n t o a system o f r e l i g i o n t h a t would s a t i s f y the need, u h i c h he h i m s e l f f e l t s t r o n g l y , t o b e l i e v e i n a d e i t y , and y e t u o u l d not e r e c t a s e r i e s o f dogmatic b a r r i e r s u h i c h u o u l d c l a s h u i t h the f u l f i l m e n t o f human 77 p h y s i c a l and s p i r i t u a l n eeds. F r e n s s e n uas as p a s s i o n a t e an i d e a l i s t i n the cause o f j u s t i c e as Uassermann, but i n a l l the c r i t i c a l b a r r a g e s aimed a t h i s uork he has receiv/ed l i t t l e c r e d i t f o r h i s i d e a -l i s m . The i n e q u i t i e s o f human j u s t i c e , c o u l d , he b e l i e v / e d , be removed by the a p p l i c a t i o n o f h e a l t h y , n a t u r a l good judgement i n the p l a c e o f l e g a l b u r e a u c r a c y , b u t , uhereas i n the f a c e o f the m y s t e r i o u s u o r k i n g s o f d i v i n e j u s t i c e or " S c h i c k s a l " he uas p r e p a r e d t o admit the e x i s t e n c e o f the u n k n o u a b l e , he u o u l d not q u i e t l y t o l e r a t e the c o n t i n u a t i o n o f human i n j u s t i c e on the grounds t h a t God u o u l d p r o v i d e a he a v e n l y r e w a r d : . . . indem d i e c h r i s t l i c h e R e l i g i o n das r e c h t e Leben e r s t h i n t e r dem Tode s i e h t , und damit t r 8 s t e t , t r S g t s i e dazu b e i , dass man das Rechte und Gute n i c h t f f i r d e r t . Und so i s t es noch heute e i n u n r u h i g e s , bflses Leben, und d i e Erde e i n e MBrdergrube. 78 Der Unterqanq der Anna Hollmann marks the c r i s i s i n Fre n s s e n ' s oun s p i r i t u a l r e c k o n i n g . A f t e r the s h i p Anna H o l l -mann s i n k s , Dan G u l d t has a v i s i o n o f h i s f a t h e r and H e i n r i c h H o llmann, the one g u i l t y , the o t h e r i n n o c e n t , i m p r i s o n e d f o r s l a v e t r a d i n g on a South American i s l a n d , and o f Hans H o l l m a n n , uho has p r o f i t e d from the v e n t u r e , l i v i n g u e l l and unpunished i n Hamburg. He h u r l s h i m s e l f a g a i n s t the Gates o f Heaven i n a v a i n attempt t o demand an a c c o u n t i n g from God, but o n l y s t u n s h i m s e l f . He t e l l s Eva S 8 t t t h a t he had b e l i e v e d i n 63 " G e r e c h t i g k e i t , T r e u e , Ordnung," and t h a t God l o o k e d out f o r the r i g h t e o u s , "aber i c h musste e r f a h r e n , dass d i e Menschen 79 i h r e n e i g e n e n Ueg gehen, und G o t t s i e l a u f e n l f i s s t . " Dan G u l d t ' s f a i t h i n " G e r e c h t i g k e i t , T r e u e , Ordnung" shous hou c l o s e l y F r e n s s e n ' s t h e o l o g y i s i n t e r w o v e n u i t h the c o n c e r n s o f t h i s u o r l d , f o r a l l t h r e e q u a l i t i e s a re more u o r d l y than r e l i g i o u s . "Treue" i m p l i e s a r e l a t i o n s h i p betueen man and God s i m i l a r t o t h a t betueen men, and s p e c i -80 f i c a l l y the " g e g e n s e i t i g e n D i e n s t e r u e i s u n g " o f the o l d Germanic p e o p l e s . "Ordnung" i s a term more a p p r o p r i a t e t o the U i l h e l m i n i a n R e i c h than the " R e i c h G o t t e s . " C o n v e r s e l y the Great Uar produced a s e r i e s o f problems from u h i c h God c o u l d n o t , g i v e n F r e n s s e n ' s p h i l o s o p h y , be e x c l u d e d . Germany's d e f e a t i n p a r t i c u l a r r e q u i r e d a r e c k o n i n g on the b a s i s o f g u i l t and punishment. In Die BrjUder, u h i c h appeared i n 1917, the c o u r s e of the uar had not y e t proceeded f a r enough t o n e c e s s i t a t e the c o n t e m p l a t i o n o f d e f e a t : t h i s u o u l d i n any case have been u n t h i n k a b l e i n a n o v e l u r i t t e n a t the promp-t i n g o f the F o r e i g n O f f i c e . B e l o u the q u e s t i o n o f Germany's c o m p l i c i t y , by r e a s o n o f complacency and s e l f - c e n t r e d n e s s , i n the o u t b r e a k o f u a r , t h e r e i s the u n d e r l y i n g c e r t a i n t y t h a t Germany i s f i g h t i n g a j u s t uar to defend h e r s e l f a g a i n s t a u o r l d o f enemies e n l i s t e d by England to m a i n t a i n her u o r l d -u i d e hegemony. The outcome u i l l be i n Germany's f a v o u r because s h e , as "das j u n g e , f r i s e h e , kUhne," i s the i n s t r u m e n t o f God i n the e v o l u t i o n a r y t r a n s i t i o n o f w o r l d l e a d e r s h i p from "das a l t e , v e r s t o c k t e und v e r i r r t e , das von seinem Recht r e d e t und meint s e i n G e l d und von G o t t und meint 81 s e i n e Macht." The m i s s i o n o f Germany i s t o show England "dass es immer noch gegen G o t t e s U i l l e n i s t , dass e i n e e i n z i g e A r t h e r r s c h e auf E r d e n , sondern dass er w i l l , dass s i e n 82 b u n t f a r b e r b l e i b e n s o i l , s e i n e n Augen zu g e f a l i e n . " T h i s e n l i s t m e n t o f God's h e l p i n an e a r t h l y c a u s e , s u p p o r t e d by a s t a t e m e n t on God's w i l l , i s as o l d as r e l i g i o n , and was c e r t a i n l y common t o a l l c o u n t r i e s d u r i n g the Gre a t U a r . I t i s r e m a r k a b l e here o n l y i n s o f a r as i t r e p r e s e n t s a c o n s i d e r a b l e s h i f t from the p o s i t i o n e x p r e s s e d s i x y e a r s p r e v i o u s l y i n Per Untergang der Anna Hollmann, where God l e t s men go t h e i r own way. The e a r l i e r work r e p r e s e n t s a r e l i g i o u s c o n c l u s i o n , whereas i n Die Brtlder the e m o t i o n a l p a t r i o t i c r e a c t i o n b r i n g s f o r t h the unreasoned c l i c h e " . Adam B a r f o o d undergoes a s i m i l a r development f o u r y e a r s l a t e r , when d e f e a t and the l o s s o f h i s sons cause him t o t h i n k t h r o u g h t o a God above n a t i o n a l f a v o u r i t i s m , and s t i l l r e t u r n s a t the end o f the n o v e l t o a r e a f f i r m a t i o n t h a t Germany's m i s s i o n and s p e c i f i c a l l y her e v e n t u a l hegemony on the E u r a s i a n c o n t i n e n t i s i n t h e s e r v i c e o f God's p l a n . A n a v a l c h a p l a i n defends C h r i s t i a n i t y and f a i t h i n Die BrOder a g a i n s t the war-born n i h i l i s m of the crew o f S.n.S. Below: 65 l/iele . . . hatten den Glauben an den Sinn der Uelt verloren . . . Die Uelt uar nichts andres als eine S i n n l o s i g k e i t ; das Leben nichts andres als Zerstflrung und Tod! Gott? Gott i s t nicht mehr; oder uenn er i s t , i s t er ein EnglHnder, das heisst g i e r i g , friedenver-nichtend! 83 Against t h i s a t t i t u d e , uhich i s s i m i l a r to Jan Guldt's despair, the chaplain asserts: "Christentum . . . der Glaube an das Gute . . . uOrde noch da sein und Uber die SchOpfung s t r a h l e n , uenn auch kein Mensch i n Menschengestalt mehr auf der Uelt uHre."8 4 "Der Glaube an das Gute, Reine und Grosse" i s the essence of Frenssen's C h r i s t i a n i t y since the Dorfprediqten, and e s p e c i a l l y since H i l l i g e n l e i ; i t i s re-echoed i n Die BrOder by the Otts' v i l l a g e pastor, Pastor Bohlen, uhose humanity shines through despite the burdens of hereditary alchoholism and a hard youth as the son of a fisherman i n the "Uatt." In comparing him to Goethe, Frenssen singles him out as a p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t character, and he also appears i n Otto Babendiek, uhere as a sexagenarian he can s t i l l carry a horse on his back at a uedding party! "Und so, uenn er auch von Natur Goethisch fOhlte und auch predigte . » • so uar es eine besondere Art Goethe; es uar ein mOhseliger und ein 8 5 dunkler." Pastor Bohlen represents the great national c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n transposed onto the l e v e l of the ordinary German. Beset by his oun personal problems, Pastor Bohlen preaches a fundamental f a i t h , devoid of dogma, a basic philosophy of courage i n adversity: "Uie trotz a l l e r Not und 66 a l i e n Grauens d i e F l e n s c h h e i t doch immer an e i n e n g u t e n , t i e f e n S i n n des Lebens g e g l a u b t ! U i e d i e b e s t e n G e i s t e r darurn gerungen haben , . . urn d i e s ' T r o t z a l l e d e m , 1 um d i e s *Dennoch! ", 8^ A l l the g r e a t Germans: L u t h e r , L e s s i n g , H e r d e r , Goethe, " F r i e d r i c h der G r o s s e , und der a l t e K a i s e r und B i s m a r c k " uere "Dennoch-Leute," and t h i s f a i t h i n a d i v i n e p u r p o s e , however u n f a t h o m a b l e , i s " d i e s E i g e n t U m l i c h s t e und 8 V B e s t e am d e u t s c h e n Uesen." Coming a t the c l i m a x o f the n o v e l , i m m e d i a t e l y p r i o r t o the a d m i s s i o n o f o l d Reimer O t t b e f o r e the a l t a r t h a t he w r o n g l y a c c u s e d h i s s o n , the sermon i s i n t e n d e d t o be o b v i o u s t o any r e a d e r . The message i s s i m p l e , and presumes no o t h e r dogmatic b a s i s than b e l i e f i n some d i v i n e power: "Dass Uber den S t e r n e n e i n G o t t e i n e n f e i n e n , s c h B n e n , r e i n e n S i n n der U e l t i n s e i n e n HMnden habe, den w i r zwar noch n i c h t e r k e n n t e n . " T h i s r e c o g n i t i o n comes o n l y i n the a f t e r l i f e , the one a s p e c t o f f o r m a l C h r i s t i a n i t y t h a t F r e n s s e n r e t a i n s . Here F r e n s s e n i s p u r s u i n g the g o a l o f the D o r f p r e d i g t e n and e s p e c i a l l y o f H i l l i q e n l e i o f d i s t i l l i n g t h e r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s o f a l l s e c t i o n s o f German s o c i e t y : C a t h o l i c or P r o t e s t a n t , r o y a l i s t - c o n s e r v a t i v e or s o c i a l i s t , i n t o an e s s e n t i a l common denominator t h a t would g i v e the m o r a l and s p i r i t u a l r e s i l i e n c e n e c e s s a r y t o w i t h s t a n d whatever t r i a l s t he f o r t u n e s o f war might i n f l i c t . In the hour o f h i s c o u n t r y ' s g r e a t e s t t e s t o f endurance F r e n s s e n uas t r y i n g to p r o v i d e the r e l i g i o u s and e t h i c a l f o u n d a t i o n f o r the u n i t y 67 of the nation, uhich uas for him the ess e n t i a l ingredient in Germany's r e b i r t h . The "Dennoch" theory i s s i m i l a r l y general. It presup-poses nothing but the basic human need to hold onto some b e l i e f that transcends the "Not und Grauen" of the moment. Neither i s i t p a r t i c u l a r l y German, although in thi s novel i t suits Frenssen's purpose to search for any available bonds betueen Germans. Oust as the problems faced by Frenssen's characters are not peculiar to Dithmarschen, neither are they confined to Germany, as i s borne out by the sales of the 8 9 novels abroad: Frenssen's a b i l i t i e s as an observer of human nature i n t e l l e c t u a l l y o u t s t r i p his genuine, i f at times confused, patriotism. The pantheon of great Germans i s also an instrument of unity, for uho, i n 1917, could find f a u l t uith any of them? "Der alte Kaiser" and Bismarck, uho are aluays mentioned together by Frenssen, stand for national unity, not the Prussian particularism excoriated i n Lebens-b e r i c h t . This i s a l i s t compiled by convention rather than a n a l y s i s , for Frenssen's Bismarck—almost five hundred pages of questionable hexameters, the f i r s t e d i tion of uhich he uithdreu from the market in 1914 after i t uas castigated as u n p a t r i o t i c — h a r d l y portrays i t s hero as an impeccable "Den-noch-Mensch." Per Pastor von Poggsee also r e f l e c t s the manner i n uhich Frenssen came to terms uit h the problem of hou God could permit the defeat of his oun chosen instrument. Although by the end of the novel the defeat i s vieued i n e s s e n t i a l l y Old Testament terms: as a warning that Germany uas on the wrong track; and consequently ends with a reaffirmation of her spe c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p with God, the months before and after November 1918 show the same helplessness i n the face of God's unfathomable purpose, and the same f a i t h . Adam comforts Gude, uho i s f e a r f u l for her sons at the f r o n t , by saying: "So lange u i r leben, uollen wir ein rechtes Leben ftlhren. Uir 90 sind i n Gottes- und GeisterhSnden." Although the "angeborene FrBmmigkeit" forms the basis for Frenssen's e t h i c a l thought, Adam refuses to accept any r e l i g i o u s system i f i t i s not firmly rooted i n t e r r e s t r i a l r e a l i t y . This one would expect as a r e s u l t of his b e l i e f that t h i s world i s the only tangible manifestation of the Deity upon uhich man can base his concepts. The c r i s i s i s brought about, not as i n Dob's case, uith uhich there are clear p a r a l l e l s , by the loss of his sons i n November 1918, but by the collapse of Germany: Der Tod der SBhne hatte ihn i n die Knie gedrilckt; aber der Zusammenbruch des Landes hatte ihn zerschmettert. Die Niederlage und der Zusammenbruch seines Volkes, und die neue Erkenntnis, dass dies Schicksal nicht unver-schuldet, hatten ihm den Halt seines Daseins genommen, seinen Glauben. 91 "Die neue Erkenntnis" i s the r e s u l t of Adam's roadside conversation u i t h a workman, uho explains to him hou Germany's blustering a t t i t u d e provoked and frightened the nations of Europe, and thereby destroying at one stroke Adam's b e l i e f i n Germany as an instrument of the divine plan for the evolution of humanity. It i s only because for Adam the secu-l a r power of Germany and the divine w i l l are intertwined that the awareness of his country's c o - r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for the outbreak of war, and of the f a i l i n g s that caused defeat, can simultaneously destroy his national pride and his r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s . He had regarded the war as the r e s u l t of inept leadership, and i n place of a grand design for the improvement of humanity—"in diesem Sinn . . . hatte ich 94 auch den Tod meiner lieben h e i l i g e n Knaben . . . erduldet" there yawns the abyss of f u t i l i t y . The absence of any point to the war, of any way i n which Adam can see God's purpose behind the slaughter and destruction, brings him to the same position as the r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s i n K i e l and Hamburg. He explains to a group of i n d u s t r i a l i s t s , uho are lamenting that the people should have held out a feu weeks more (exactly Adam's oun lament at the beginning of his talk uith the worker): Uas j e t z t i n unserem l/olk geschieht, i s t kein m i l i t S r -ischer Aufruhr, auch keine Hungerrevolte, auch keine A r b e i t e r r e v o l u t i o n . Es i s t die seelische und s i t t l i c h e l/erzueiflung Ober das lange Morden . . . Es i s t der Ekel darflber, dass die Menschheit so unsagbar dumm und roh . gefflhrt u i r d , und das Grauen vor der Menschheit. 95 From t h i s abyss of despair Adam i s aroused the next day by the sight of a boy s t r i d i n g over the heath ui t h a g l a s s , obviously on his way to the doctor or chemist for a s i c k r e l a t i v e . The p u r p o s e f u l s t e p , d e s p i t e the c o l d November wind and the hunger and the l o n g d i s t a n c e , s u d d e n l y g i v e s Adam back h i s c o u r a g e : Der Mensch! . . . Mag a l l e s w i l d , grausam und uUst s e i n und v o l l R M t s e l n m i t bBsen Augen . . . der Mensch i s t da . . . m i t seinem E r n s t , seinem t a p f e r e n U o l l e n , seinem h e i l i g e n Glauben . • . I c h . . . i c h muss . . . i c h u i l l mich am Menschen h a l t e n . . . am Menschen und seinem U i l l e n , 96 Adam c a l l s t h i s the neu b e g i n n i n g , and the i d e a o f r e b i r t h t a k e s on a d i f f e r e n t nuance a t t h i s p o i n t . Uhereas i n the p r e - u a r y e a r s Adam—and F r e n s s e n — h a d been c o n f i d e n t t h a t the changes i n the p o l i t i c a l system and i n human c h a r a c t e r t h a t uere n e c e s s a r y f o r r e b i r t h uere i n f a c t t a k i n g s hape, a l b e i t i n a s l o u , o r g a n i c uay: " U i r uaren doch schon d a b e i , das s t a r r e hochmfltige Uesen . . . e i n u e n i g zu flber-97 u i n d e n " - - i n the z e r o hour o f c o l l a p s e t h e r e can be no such c o n f i d e n c e ; uhen the moral f i b r e o f the n a t i o n , houever s u p e r f i c i a l or complacent i t may have been b e f o r e 1914, i s r e n t assunder and r e p l a c e d by the m o r a l i t y o f the j u n g l e , n o t h i n g can be t a k e n f o r g r a n t e d . The b e l i e f of the uar y e a r s , t h a t Germany uas the i n s t r u m e n t of d i v i n e p r o g r e s s , i s o f c o u r s e dropped: "Uie kBnnte i c h e tuas behaupten, uas Ober 98 meine U e r n u n f t g e h t . " The b a s i c moral i n t e g r i t y t h a t Adam a t t r i b u t e s to the German people uhen he c i t e s t h e i r " s i t t -l i c h e U e r z u e i f l u n g " at the s e n s e l e s s s l a u g h t e r on the b a t t l e f i e l d as the prime r e a s o n f o r Germany's c o l l a p s e r e f l e c t s the uay i n u h i c h F r e n s s e n ' s b e l i e f i n the funda-mental goodness o f man a u t o m a t i c a l l y encompasses the n a t i o n a l community: h i s v i s i o n i s n a t i o n a l l y o r i e n t e d i n c o n t r a s t t o Uassermann and the E x p r e s s i o n i s t s , f o r whom n a t i o n a l pecu-l i a r i t i e s are o f at b e s t secondary i m p o r t a n c e . T h i s i n s i s -t e n c e on Adam's p a r t on an i r r e d u c i b l e minimum o f n a t i o n a l moral i n t e g r i t y i s not e a s i l y r e c o n c i l e d u i t h h i s d e s p a i r at the c o l l a p s e o f the moral f i b r e o f the n a t i o n , u h i c h m a n i f e s t s i t s e l f most c l e a r l y i n the r i s e o f th o s e c r i m i n a l elements u h i c h the p r e - u a r s o c i a l o r d e r h e l d i n c h e c k . At t h i s p o i n t i t i s no l o n g e r p o s s i b l e t o r e g a r d the n a t i o n a l community as a u n i t : the mass o f the p o p u l a t i o n , uorn out by f o u r y e a r s o f s u f f e r i n g , r e t a i n s enough moral i n t e g r i t y t o f i n a l l y r e j e c t the i n h u m a n i t y o f u a r , p l a c i n g human v a l u e s ahead o f the p o l i t i c a l i m p e r a t i v e o f v i c t o r y , but i n t h e i r s t a t e o f d e m o r a l i z e d impotence a f t e r the s u r r e n d e r they have no more r e s i s t a n c e t o the r u t h l e s s m a c h i n a t i o n s o f the p r o f i t e e r s . The s i g h t o f the boy on the heath makes Adam auare t h a t t h i s d e m o r a l i z a t i o n i s temporary and t h a t the fundamental d i g n i t y of man's s p i r i t i s s t i l l i n t a c t . Uhat-ever l i e s beyond t h a t i s unknouable and not even s u f f i c i e n t l y i n t u i t a b l e t o become b e l i e f : Ach, b e s c h e i d e n e , demUtige Hoffnungen! Dass Er l a c h e n kann , . . u i e e i n e r m i t l i e b e n K i n d e r n l a c h t . . . und dann u i e d e r m i t ehernem G e s i c h t p f l U g t , und zu-u e i l e n den P f l u g t i e f , t i e f und grausam n i e d e r d r U c k e n muss. 99 The n a d i r of n a t i o n a l f o r t u n e s i s , t h e n , a t the same time the n a d i r of Adam's s p i r i t u a l l i f e : d e s p a i r over the 72 n a t i o n and d e s p a i r over the ways o f God go s i d e by s i d e , and as the n a t i o n i s reduced t o a c o l l e c t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l s , God a l s o r e t r e a t s from the v i e w p o i n t o f men. T r u e , God s t i l l i s the c o n t r o l l i n g f o r c e b e h i n d e v e n t s on e a r t h , but he becomes i m p e r s o n a l and u n i n v o l v e d , p u r s u i n g h i s own p l a n w i t h o u t r e g a r d t o the i n d i v i d u a l . W h i l s t Adam never d e n i e s the e x i s t e n c e o f God, he does change the n a t u r e o f the D e i t y a t t h i s p o i n t from one i n t i m a t e l y concerned not o n l y u i t h man-k i n d , but a l s o u i t h t he i n d i v i d u a l and the n a t i o n , i n t o the i n v i s i b l e pouer over the u n i v e r s e . Uhen e v e n t s s h a t t e r Adam's o l d , more n a i v e f a i t h , he p l a c e s God a t a much g r e a t e r d i s t a n c e from man, and t u r n s h i s oun a t t e n t i o n s , even i n h i s sermons, e x c l u s i v e l y t o the s t a t e o f the German p e o p l e . For A a t j e Stamp, uho i s p r e s e n t uhen Adam and the v i l l a -g e r s c a t c h the c u r a t e H o l g e r s e n and h i s d i s r e p u t a b l e f o l l o u e r s u i t h the s t o l e n c h u r c h g o l d , Adam has o n l y angry contempt, "Das R e i c h G o t t e s , " u h i c h Stamp's s e c t i s announcing amid the Armageddon atmosphere o f the d e f e a t , u i l l n o t come amid s i g n s and u o n d e r s : " U i r s e l b s t mOssen es uns e r o b e r n , i n l a n g e r MUhe von D a h r t a u s e n d e n . By t h i s p o i n t , i n the 30th out o f 35 c h a p t e r s , Adam has r e c o v e r e d h i s o l d s t r e n g t h and c o n f i d e n c e , as i s most c l e a r l y demonstrated by h i s a t t i t u d e t o the d y i n g H o l g e r s e n , uhose p r e d i l e c t i o n f o r r o b b e r y and murder i s e l e v a t e d t o a M e p h i s t o p h e l i a n l e v e l . Throughout the n o v e l he has appeared s u r r o u n d e d by m y s t e r y , u i t h unex-73 plained pouer over the churchwarden of Poggsee, and i n his f i r s t parish Adam discovers him i n the barn ui t h Gude, uho i s also attracted by his mysterious i n f l u e n c e . He i s f i r s t described as "der Fremde im Schafspelz" but Frenssen keeps him u i t h i n the realm of the human, uithout in v e s t i n g him ui t h any consistent symbolism of a philosophic nature. Over his corpse Adam t e l l s Thoruald, the young teacher: Dieser uar ein Urheide, eine u i l d e , uruilchsige und blanke Kraft Gottes. Er uar ein 38ger im Uald, der vielem U i l d heisse Filsse machte, der Menschen und Tieren die Sehnen geschmeidig machte, und einigen die Sehnen brach. Gott mit deiner Seele, du DSger Gottes . . .» 101 Holgersen's r o l e i n the novel i s consequently not e n t i r e l y negative, although his a c t i v i t i e s as t h i e f , murderer and communist revolutionary are d e f i n i t e l y a n t i - s o c i a l . He i s a c a t a l y s t , forcing the parish out of i t s complacency, and as the leader of a band of marauding r u f f i a n s uho burn doun the vicarage, he makes Adam search harder for the fundamental meaning of l i f e . Holgersen's l a s t words to Adam, a f t e r he has been shot, are reminiscent of the farm-boy i n Die BrOder: 102 "Ich habe euch tUchtig i n Beuegung gebracht." Uhen he adds that l i f e i s "ein grosses . • . grosses S p i e l , " Adam r e p l i e s i n terms of his o r i g i n a l b e l i e f , uhich he had ex-plained to the old bishop at the beginning of the novel: "Aber u i r s o l l e n bei diesem S p i e l auf Seiten des Lichts stehn, Bruder . . . auf Seiten der h e i l i g e n Helden der 103 Nenschheit und a l l e r guten Geister." Despite the hint of disapproval i n this comment, and the address "Bruder" uhich emphasises that Holgersen i s a man, and therefore capable of moral choice, rather than a mere symbol, Adam's remark to Thoruald a feu minutes l a t e r places him d e f i n i t e l y i n the category of God's agent. His actions are therefore i n the f i n a l analysis morally n e u t r a l , since they are under-taken i n the service of the divine plan, uhich i s beyond the bounds of human moral judgements. The remarkable change i n Adam's attitude to Holgersen, uho i n the dark days of defeat and revolution had seemed nothing more noble than the leader of a pack of jackals eviscerating the carcass of a f a l l e n beast, can be attributed to Adam's recovery of his s p i r i t u a l orientation and con-fidence i n the divine plan and man's place i n i t . Dust as the success of the republican government i n crushing the com-munist uprisings and re-establishing order had contributed to a neu fe e l i n g that Germany uas not completely f i n i s h e d , Adam's fortunes have also been repaired someuhat. He and Gude s t i l l l i v e i n the small uidou's cottage, but the thatch i s sound, Gude's father's unlamented passing has enabled them to pay thei r debts, and the recovery of the gold has cleared Adam's name. Abel's a f f a i r u i t h Dr. Schack has borne f r u i t , and she i s pregnant and happy, so Adam once more sees concrete grounds for hope. 75 Deutschtum In a l l the novels save o n e ^4 Frenssen brings the heroes to maturity and prosperity by the end, and the success that comes to them as a r e s u l t of t h e i r process of "Bildung" i s a reward intended to demonstrate to the reader that s e l f -improvement, both s p i r i t u a l and p r a c t i c a l , has concrete advantages. In contrast to the t r a d i t i o n a l "Bildungsroman," such as Uilhelm Meister or Nachsommer, the: Umwelt i s t nicht etwa die Kultur, . . . sondern sie i s t einfach die U i r k l i c h k e i t ausser dem Ich. . . . Der Flensch und die U i r k l i c h k e i t innen und aussen, die lebendige U i r k l i c h k e i t des Geschlechts, dem er entstammt und die er als Schicksal in sich tr&gt, und die ebenso lebendige U i r k l i c h k e i t der Natur und des Menschen ausser ihm, das i s t das einzige grosse Thema . . . 105 The goal of "Bildung" i s thus a tangible coming to terms with the world around the hero, and p r o s p e r i t y — b u t not wealth—the tangible reward. The novels end when this state of material prosperity and s p i r i t u a l harmony has been reached, and since Frenssen saw i n work the essence of a s a t i s f y i n g l i f e , he leaves the heroes integrated into the s o c i a l framework, productively occupied. In the l a s t novel, Meino der Prahler (1933), Meino Ommen at the end agrees to help the N.S.D.A.P., after having throughout the book been too preoccupied with his own plans to p a r t i c i p a t e a c t i v e l y . That Frenssen regards Meino's work as b e n e f i c i a l to the nation, and not simply as i n the service of a p o l i t i c a l party, i s clear from a remark h a l f w a y t h r o u g h the n o v e l : "Er (Pleino) uar m i t a l l s e i n e n jungen Bekannten AnhSnger e i n e r p o l i t i s c h e n Bewegung, d i e 106 Erneuerung und E r s t a r k u n g des l/olkes wUnschte." I t i s moreover c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f F r e n s s e n ' s l a c k o f awareness o f what the N a z i s s t o o d f o r t h a t they are p r e s e n t e d s o l e l y as the b r i n g e r s o f n a t i o n a l r e v i t a l i z a t i o n . He h i m s e l f v o t e d f o r t h e N.S.D.A.P. from 1930 onwards because o f t h e i r p r o m i s e s t o 107 improve the l o t o f the f a r m e r . A happy e n d i n g u i t h t he hero f u l f i l l i n g h i s m i s s i o n i n the l i f e o f the n a t i o n , u h e t h e r i t be DHrn U h l h e l p i n g t o b u i l d the K i e l Canal or Meino making speeches on b e h a l f o f the N a z i s , i s the a r t i s t i c r e f l e c t i o n o f the fundamental o p t i m i s m t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e s Adam B a r f o o d ' s p o l i t i c s . " E i n 1 08 r e c h t e s Leben" i s the image o f German l i f e t h a t Adam g i v e s i n h i s speech a t Heedje's uedding i n 1914, j u s t b e f o r e the o u t b r e a k o f war: U i r haben auch gute S i t t e n im Land, U i e u e n i g e , d i e i h r Leben v e r s p i e l e n , v e r f a u l e n oder v e r s c h m u t z e n ! Das deutsche Volk i s t im g r o s s e n und ganzen e i n l/olk von e r n s t e r , s a u b r e r und g e o r d n e t e r L e b e n s f f l h r u n g . 109 "Ordnung," the f i r s t p r e r e q u i s t e f o r a " g l O c k l i c h e n und 110 glSnzenden Z e i t , " and " S a u b e r k e i t , " u h i c h i s used c o n s t a n t l y i n the n o v e l s t o denote the e x t e r n a l e v i d e n c e o f good c i t i z e n s h i p , are the t w i n p i l l a r s o f the U i l h e l m i n i a n e r a ; an e r a t h a t , d e s p i t e F r e n s s e n ' s not u n c r i t i c a l p o s t u r e t o many o f i t s i n s t i t u t i o n s , from the vantage p o i n t o f 1920 seemed almost l i k e the Garden o f Eden, T h i s does not mean t h a t F r e n s s e n does not at t i m e s v i e u t h o s e v i r t u e s u i t h a measure o f i r o n y . He pokes fun a t " S a u b e r k e i t " i n s e v e r a l o f the n o v e l s , n o t a b l y Per U ntergang  der Anna H o l l m a n n, uhere Eva S M t t ' s house i s o f t e n r e f e r r e d t o as "das s a u b e r s t e Haus i n uuelgOnne," and Otto B a b e n d i e k , i n u h i c h the f a m i l y o f F&hrmann Busch i s s u b j e c t e d t o g e n t l e i r o n y . " S a u b e r k e i t " i s such a p o s i t i v e a t t r i b u t e t h a t the s h i n i n g c o m p l e x i o n o f Dina B u s c h , B a l l e Bohnsack's w i f e , and her s t a r c h e d cap i s s i m p l y a l o v i n g o v e r d r a u i n g o f a u i d e s p r e a d f a n a t i c i s m among the women o f S c h l e s u i g - H o l s t e i n r a t h e r than the i r o n i c t r e a t m e n t o f a f a u l t . D e s p i t e t h e i r o n y h o u e v e r , F r e n s s e n i s proud o f t h i s m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f the o r d e r l i n e s s o f t h e German p e o p l e and uses i t t o r e i n f o r c e the r e a d e r ' s p r i d e i n a t r a d i t i o n a l a t t r i b u t e o f the r a c e . A c e r t a i n a l l - p e r v a d i n g o p t i m i s m i s t h e most i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n Adam's v i e u o f i n t e r n a l p o l i t i c s . A l t h o u g h i n d i v i d u a l freedom i s as y e t i m p e r f e c t l y s a f e g u a r d e d , " d i e G e r e c h t i g k e i t u S c h s t doch von ZJahr zu 3ahr, und u i r sehen 112 d i e Z e i t kommen, da a l l e Deutschen f r e i e Menschen s i n d , " T h i s o p t i m i s m i s based on c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e government, p e r s o n i f i e d by t h e K a i s e r : Es i s t aber . • . im ganzen Volk n i c h t e i n e r , der i h n h a s s t oder v e r a c h t e t ; sondern u i r haben a l l e , A r b e i t e r und E d e l l e u t e , D o r f - und S t a d t l e u t e , Manner und Frauen e i n e A r t g e s c h u i s t e r l i c h e r , v e r s t e h e n d e r L i e b e zu i h m . Denn s e h t : so u i e er s i c h z e i g t : g u t m t i t i g , das B e s t e , j a das H e i l i g e und Reine u o l l e n d , i n Gedanken b a l d h i m m e l s t U r z e n d , b a l d v e r z a g t , . s e h r s t o l z , zu f r U h s t o l z , l B s s i g , e i n u e n i g h i n und h e r : so i s t er e i n r e c h t e r D e u t s c h e r , B l u t von unserem B l u t , B e i n von unserem B e i n . 113 T h i s i s a p u r e l y e m o t i o n a l o u t b u r s t , and i t s t a n d s i n s h a r p c o n t r a s t t o Adam's more sober postwar e v a l u a t i o n o f the l a c k o f u n i t y i n the c o u n t r y . I t i s houever i n tone s t r o n g l y r e m i n i s c e n t o f Recht oder U n r e c h t , mein Land, a propaganda b l a s t a g a i n s t England u r i t t e n i n 1940, u h i c h ends u i t h the a s s u r a n c e t h a t the German people u i l l not r e b e l a g a i n s t H i t l e r : " . • • gegen den FOhrer? Man macht k e i n e Revo-114 l u t i o n gegen s e i n e i g e n e s Uesen, gegen das e i g e n e Herz." F r e n s s e n i s c a p a b l e o f e x t r a o r d i n a r y b l i n d s p o t s uhen he 115 makes p a t r i o t i c s t a t e m e n t s , u h e r e a s , as p r e v i o u s l y n o t e d , h i s a n a l y s i s o f the s o c i a l i l l s o f U i l h e l m i n i a n Germany uas f a r more i n c i s i v e . At the r o o t o f t h e s e b l i n d s p o t s l i e s the c o n c e p t o f "Deutschtum," F r e n s s e n ' s n o t i o n o f t h o s e q u a l i -t i e s u h i c h are p e c u l i a r l y German. The q u a l i t i e s he s i n g l e s o u t : h o n e s t y , s e r i o u s n e s s , i n d u s t r y , o r d e r l i n e s s and l o y a l t y , are t h o s e u h i c h the German p e o p l e have t r a d i t i o n a l l y a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e m s e l v e s . They a r e , t o c i t e but one example, the q u a l i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d u i t h the Germans i n F r e y t a g ' s S o l i und  Haben ( 1 8 5 5 ) . The use to u h i c h F r e n s s e n p u t s t h i s c o n c e p t p a r a l l e l s h i s exposure o f such f a i l i n g s as e x c e s s i v e p r i d e , m a t e r i a l i s m and complacency: they are i n t e n d e d t o s t r e n g t h e n the s e l f - e s t e e m o f h i s r e a d e r s at the same time as they are made auare o f t h e i r f a u l t s . As i s t r u e o f a l l such g e n e r a -79 l i z a t i o n s , "Deutschtum" i s o f c o u r s e a l a r g e l y m y t h i c a l s p here and, a l t h o u g h i n Fre n s s e n ' s e s t i m a t i o n i t s e r v e s a d i d a c t i c p u r p o s e , i t weakens the n o v e l s by s u b s t i t u t i n g r i t u a l i s t i c r e p e t i t i o n f o r d i s p a s s i o n a t e o b s e r v a t i o n . C l e a r l y , no c o n s e r v a t i v e p a t r i o t o f the t r a d i t i o n a l s c h o o l sees h i s c o u n t r y as at odds u i t h God, and once Germany has l o s t the u a r , F r e n s s e n has somehou to r e s t o r e harmonious r e l a t i o n s betueen Germany and God. Adam B a r f o o d s e r v e s as h i s mouthpiece i n t h i s , and r e f l e c t s a t the same time F r e n s s e n ' s e f f o r t s t o f i n d a s o l u t i o n t o the problem and the uay i n u h i c h n a t i o n a l i s m , the t e r r e s t r i a l r e a l i t y , remains c o n s t a n t , u h i l e the image o f God i s moulded t o f i t i t . A v i c t o r i o u s Germany c o u l d be the i n s t r u m e n t o f God's u i l l , but Germany's c o l l a p s e c o u l d not be i n t e r p r e t e d the same uay, a t l e a s t not a t the t i m e . Consequent-l y God moves auay from the e a r t h l y t h e a t r e i n 1918 and 1919, but r e t u r n s by the time the " V o l k s f e s t " t a k e s p l a c e u i t h a neu m i s s i o n f o r a r e b o r n Germany and nou, i n r e t r o s p e c t , the d e f e a t can be seen as God's u a r n i n g t o h i s chosen p e o p l e . Gustav F r e n s s e n i s too c o n s c i o u s l y a " l / o l k s e r z i e h e r " f o r the p a r a l l e l betueen Adam and the German n a t i o n on November 11 , 1918 to be o v e r l o o k e d . Both are at t h e i r l o u e s t p o i n t : 116 "Es i s t a l l e s e i n bHses, s i n n l o s e s S p i e l , " but the neces-s i t y t o c o n s o l e Gude and f i g h t t o s t a y a l i v e , b e s e t by hunger and the t h r e a t from H o l g e r s e n ' s gang, f o r c e s Adam to keep on. He puts an axe by h i s bed because he cannot s h o o t : "Nun muss i c h mich m i t der a l t e n U a f f e u e h r e n , nach der meine V o r f a h r e n 117 g r i f f e n , uenn s i e den Eingang i h r e r HBhle v e r t e i d i g t e n . " T h i s a l l u s i o n to a n c i e n t ways i s s i g n i f i c a n t , f o r i n a d i d a c -t i c u r i t e r such as F r e n s s e n i t r e p r e s e n t s the c o n s c i o u s l y e m o t i o n a l , i r r a t i o n a l a p p e a l o f a s i m p l e d i r e c t s o l u t i o n , as u e l l as s u g g e s t i n g , a t the n a d i r o f n a t i o n a l f o r t u n e s , the uay to r e c o v e r y on the b a s i s o f a r e t u r n t o the founda-t i o n s o f the n a t i o n , i t s Germanic h e r i t a g e . The l o n g speech u h i c h Adam d e l i v e r s a t the " l / o l k s f e s t " e x p l a i n s i n d e t a i l F r e n s s e n ' s v i s i o n o f Germany's r e b i r t h , and i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t God i s once a g a i n a s s i g n e d the r o l e o f g u a r d i a n o f the German p e o p l e . The uar uas a t e r r i b l e l e s s o n t h a t the n a t i o n had l e f t the path a l l o t t e d t o i t and t h e r e b y l o s t i t s a b i l i t y t o f u n c t i o n as God's i n s t r u m e n t . The most s t r i k i n g f e a t u r e o f the speech houever i s the e x t e n t t o u h i c h the b a s i c premises o f Adam's pre-1914 p a t r i o t i s m remain unchanged. The speech f a l l s i n t o f o u r s e c t i o n s : an i n t r o d u c t i o n , u h i c h moves s u i f t l y from a d e s c r i p t i o n o f the p r o s p e r i t y and i n d u s t r y o f the p r e u a r e r a t o the e n t h u s i a s m o f August 1914 and the "SchBndung" of Germany f o l l o u i n g the a r m i s t i c e ; the second s e c t i o n examines uhy the uar began and the r e a s o n s f o r the d e f e a t . The t h i r d and most i m p o r t a n t s e c t i o n o u t l i n e s Adam's i d e a s f o r n a t i o n a l r e c o v e r y , and the f o u r t h c o n t a i n s h i s prophecy o f Germany's f u t u r e d e s t i n y . 81 E x t e r n a l l y , Germany i n 1914 uas a g l i t t e r i n g s p e c t a c l e o f harmony and i n d u s t r y : "Das ganze Land e i n e e i n z i g e E r n t e d i e StMdte e i n e e i n z i g e U e r k s t a t t und F a b r i k . . . • • • d i e K i n d e r e i n e e i n z i g e S c h u l e im ganzen Land, von S c h l e s u i g 118 b i s an d i e A l p e n . " In the f i r s t months o f the uar the e n t i r e n a t i o n responded t o the c l a r i o n c a l l o f d e s t i n y i n 119 an "Aufschuung von r e i n e r S c h f l n h e i t , " " j e d e r , • • hat G o t t e s F l t t g e l r a u s c h e n gehOrt . . damals, a l s unser Volk s i c h e r h o b , im Fluge u i e e i n A d l e r . • s e i n e Ehre und s e i n 120 Gut zu v e r t e i d i g e n • ." But a l t h o u g h the German peop l e e n t e r e d the uar c o n f i d e n t o f the h o l i n e s s o f t h e i r cause and the s u p p o r t o f God, " d i e b i t t e r e r n s t e n Augen auf G o t t ge-121 uandt," they uere not o n l y d e f e a t e d but d e s p o i l e d . C o n s i d e r e d " d i e Schande der M e n s c h h e i t . . . d i e s e f e i g e 1 22 Hyflne" by the o t h e r n a t i o n s , Germany has l o s t her army, her s h i p s and her c o l o n i e s , her r i v e r s and "neun M i l l i o n e n B r O der, d i e von B l u t s uegen so b i t t e r g e r n b e i uns b l e i b e n 123 oder zu uns kommen u o l l t e n , " As the German peop l e screams t o God and man f o r j u s t i c e , t he g r e a t e s t s i n the i n d i v i d u a l can commit i s t o i g n o r e the n a t i o n ' s p l i g h t and c a l m l y pur-sue p e r s o n a l a i m s . The d e f e a t and the r e v o l u t i o n uere God's v e r d i c t on 1 24 Germany: "Du h a s t g e i r r t , d e u t s c h e s V o l k . " Adam o u t -l i n e s t he t h r e e a r e a s i n u h i c h the n a t i o n uent u r o n g . A l l t h r e e r e p r e s e n t i n t e r n a l f a i l i n g s , l y i n g a t the r o o t o f the causes d e s c r i b e d t o him by the workman on the r o a d i n November 1918. "Es f e h l t e uns, nach der U e i s e des neuen R e i c h t u m s , an 125 a l i e n Ecken und Enden an guten Formen." Germany f o r c e d h e r s e l f too q u i c k l y i n t o the f r o n t rank o f the n a t i o n s ; b l i n -ded by her m a t e r i a l s u c c e s s , she uas i n c a u t i o u s : "l/om S c h e i n des v i e l e n Goldes . . . Berge von G o l d ! . . . von Hochmut, von G l e i c h g d l l t i g k e i t , von B e s s e r u i s s e n , a c h , von A l l e s u i s s e n , "126 g e b l e n d e t ! Germany uas unaware of the f e a r and h a t r e d she engendered. T h i s i s a c r i t i c i s m o f government p o l i c y , but a l s o o f the n a t i o n a l p r e o c c u p a t i o n u i t h s u c c e s s and mate-r i a l i s m : the theme of K l a u s H i n r i c h Baas r e a p p e a r s here a f t e r a c a l a m i t y f a r g r e a t e r than F r e n s s e n f o r e s a u as the consequence of such s i n g l e - m i n d e d m a t e r i a l i s m i n 1909. The second f a t a l m i s t a k e , t h i s time a r e a s o n uhy the uar uas l o s t , was the l a c k o f a c t i o n t o h e a l the g u l f between " B i l r g e r " and " A r b e i t e r . " Adam p e r s o n i f i e s the two c l a s s e s , and d e s c r i b e s two Germans w i t h q u i t e d i f f e r e n t o p i n i o n s and b e l i e f s . The b o u r g e o i s " l o b t e und l i e b t e den K a i s e r , das Heer, d i e O f f i z i e r e , d i e Beamten, d i e K i r c h e , d i e Banken;" the worker " l i e b t e und l o b t e d i e d e m o k r a t i s c h e R e p u b l i k , d i e M i l i z , d i e v B l l i g e F r e i h e i t des Glaubens und Denkens, d i e 127 s o z i a l e G e s e l l s c h a f t und d i e g l e i c h e MenschenwOrde a l l e r , " and the two d e s p i s e d and d i s t r u s t e d each o t h e r . Uhereas the F r e n c h , E n g l i s h , S e r b i a n and American p e o p l e s were l i k e b l o c k s o f g r a n i t e and w i t h s t o o d the c a t a c l y s m , the two d i v i d e d p e o p l e s , the German and the R u s s i a n , c o l l a p s e d . U h i l e t h e r e i s a degree o f n a i v e t e " i n such a d i s r e g a r d o f s o c i a l t e n s i o n s i n England and F r a n c e , i t i s t r u e t h a t , f o r the d u r a t i o n o f the uar a t l e a s t , t he d i f f e r e n c e s betueen the c l a s s e s faded i n the f a c e o f the c a l l f o r a u n i t e d n a t i o n a l f r o n t . Only the i n s t i t u t i o n s o f d e m o c r a t i c government, m a i n t a i n s Adam, c o u l d have f o r g e d the German peop l e i n t o a u n i t e d n a t i o n . The t h i r d m i s t a k e , u h i c h a g a i n harkens back t o K l a u s  H i n r i c h B a as, and i n r e t r o s p e c t p l a c e s t h a t n o v e l i n an almost a l l e g o r i c a l l i g h t , uas the m a t e r i a l i s m caused by f i f t y y e a r s o f u n i n t e r r u p t e d s u c c e s s , u h i c h had harmed the s o u l o f the n a t i o n . Adam hammers home h i s p o i n t u i t h more concern f o r a s t r i k i n g p i c t u r e than f o r a c c u r a c y by c h a r a c -t e r i z i n g t he p r e v a i l i n g m a t e r i a l i s m o f the e r a as the t y p i c a l German u i t h a bankbook i n h i s l e f t hand and a t o o l or s c i e n t i f i c book i n the r i g h t : "Sehr e h r e n u e r t e Dinge . . . 128 i c h u i l l n i c h t s gegen s i e s a g e n . Aber n i c h t genug!" Germany must have s p i r i t u a l d e p t h , " e i n g r o s s e r , h e i l i g e r Glaube," and a n a t i o n a l p r i d e : " E i n e N a t i o n s e i n , das h e i s s t : s i c h a l s P e r s B n l i c h k e i t u n t e r den V f l l k e r n f O h l e n und s i c h e i n e s bestimmten s t o l z e n A u f t r a g s an der M e n s c h h e i t 129 b e u u s s t zu s e i n . " Uhat Adam i s c a l l i n g f o r here i s not a s a b r e - r a t t l i n g s e l f - a s s e r t i v e n e s s , but a deep sense o f n a t i o n a l d i g n i t y u h i c h g i v e s s t a b i l i t y and c o n t i n u i t y t o n a t i o n a l p o l i c y and u n i t y i n ti m e s o f c r i s i s . 84 N a t i o n a l r e c o v e r y can take p l a c e o n l y uhen t h e s e f a u l t s are r e p l a c e d by v i r t u e s , and th e s e Adam e n u n c i a t e s a t l e n g t h . From the d e s p a i r o f d e f e a t must come a n a t i o n a l p r i d e b a s e d , not on m a t e r i a l s u c c e s s , but on the e n d u r i n g memorials t o the German s p i r i t : the p i e t y t h a t has m a r v e l l e d a t God's uonders t h r o u g h the a g e s , and i s r e f l e c t e d i n German achievements i n a r t and s c i e n c e : " L o r b e e r Ober das deutsche Volk . . . Ober s e i n e n mtihsamen, q u M l i g e n A u f s t i e g und a l l s e i n e Taten 1 30 aus den T i e f e n des M e n s c h e n g e i s t e s . " F u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s u i l l r e g a r d the Great Uar as Germany's hour o f g l o r y , and Adam makes much o f the odds a g a i n s t Germany t o shou t h a t , u h i l e the A l l i e s c o n t i n u e d the b l o c k a d e a f t e r t h e a r m i s t i c e a t the same time as they accused Germany o f uar c r i m e s , i t uas they uho uere g u i l t y and Germany uho had " t r o t z a l l e m , e i n e c i - ,,131 r e i n e Sache." Adam here moves from the r e l a t i v e l y f i r m ground o f moral v a l u e s t o the quagmire o f e m o t i o n a l n a t i o n a l i s m , a t u h i c h p o i n t he c o n t r a d i c t s h i s p r e c e e d i n g argument. Having a t t r i b u t e d the o u t b r e a k o f uar t o b a s i c i n t e r n a l f a i l i n g s t h a t produced p r o v o c a t i v e p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n s — a r e a s o n a b l e summation, d e s p i t e i n s u f f i c i e n t emphasis on the K a i s e r ' s a g g r e s s i v e f o r e i g n p o l i c y — i t i s s i m p l y i n c o n s i s t e n t t o d e c l a r e t h a t Germany's cause remained p u r e . A l t h o u g h F r e n s s e n , uhose mouthpiece Adam o b v i o u s l y i s h e r e , i s c a p a b l e o f reasoned a n a l y s i s i n the moral s p h e r e , uhen he co n c e r n s 85 himself ui t h nationalism he ceases to analyse and reverts abruptly to the dubious medium of emotional c l i c h e . The overdraun, demagogic language of Adam's speech, contrasting sharply u i t h his unflinching honesty at the end of the uar, highlights the dangers of didacticism of Frenssen's type. In order to counteract the postuar demoralization, the speech c a l l s for a r e v i t a l i z a t i o n of national l i f e based on the fundamental q u a l i t i e s of the German people. The s t y l i s t i c exaggeration r e f l e c t s the degree to uhich Frenssen d i s t o r t s for the sake of d i d a c t i c e f f e c t the c r u c i a l r e a l i z a t i o n of the novel, that Germany uas co-responsible for the uar. The everyday s t y l e of the novels, u i t h i t s doun-to-earth, r u r a l imagery, i s discarded i n favour of pathos i n the same uay as the novel's honest attempt to come to grips u i t h the facts of war and defeat i s obscured by i l l - c o n s i d e r e d r h e t o r i c . Here again the d i d a c t i c purpose takes precedence not only over a r t i s t i c considerations, for the ino r d i n a t e l y long speech disturbs the end of the novel, but also over the uorthuhile content of Adam's development, uhich i t essen-t i a l l y negates u i t h i t s undertone of the necessity of revenge. In his indignation over uhat he considers the i n j u s t i c e of the V e r s a i l l e s Treaty, Frenssen loses his sense of proportion, and i t i s here, uhere l o g i c i s subordinated to passion, that the i d e a l s of a reborn nation degenerate into the slogans of p o l i t i c a l demagoguery. 86 In his p r e s c r i p t i o n for overcoming d i s u n i t y , "die 132 innerste Ursache unseres UnglUcks," Frenssen's picture of an i d e a l society i s an unqualified affirmation of support for the Ueimar Republic. Disunity can only be overcome by the establishment of a national structure that enables a l l sections of society to p a r t i c i p a t e i n thi s national prides the worker must become p a t r i o t i c : "Uer gegen seine Nation 133 kSmpft, der kMmpft gegen sich s e l b s t ; " the n o b i l i t y must march side by side u i t h the workers; the farmer must abandon his splendid i s o l a t i o n and become more conscious of his place i n the national community, and the government must face up to i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to become a force for benefi-c i a l change. True to his e a r l i e r assertion that democracy could have brought unity i n 1914, Adam urges a l l his l i s t e -ners to put the past behind them and unite behind the symbol of hope, the Ueimar c o n s t i t u t i o n . Neither the imperial f l a g nor the red f l a g — t h e former he c a l l s " h e r r l i c h " and the l a t t e r "die Fahne der f r e i e n FlenschenuUrde fOr a l l e , die 134 Fahne des l/ertrauens an das Edle i n jedem Menschen" could unite the country, but Ueimar i s this "Sieg der 135 Vernunft, diese Vereinigung auf m i t t l e r e r L i n i e . " The co n s t i t u t i o n i s a bulwark against "den geborenen Hochmut und gegen die flbermacht des Goldes,"^^ and Frenssen-Adam here e x p l i c i t l y underlines his s o c i a l i s t stand by saying "Lands-137 l e u t e , i h r schli c h t e n Menschen." Adam i s addressing the 87 whole p o p u l a t i o n o f Poggsee, j u s t as F r e n s s e n i s a d d r e s s i n g the mass o f the German p e o p l e . The t r o u b l e s o f the time 131 come from "dem I r r w e g , den d i e f r t l h e r e n FUhrer uns g e f O h r t , " from d i s u n i t y and from d e f e a t , but n o t , as many m a i n t a i n , from the Weimar c o n s t i t u t i o n . The new Germany must be a c l a s s l e s s s o c i e t y , u n i t e d and l e d p o s i t i v e l y by a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e government. But j u s t as t h i s new u n i t y i s a t the s e r v i c e o f the n a t i o n , i n c o n t r a s t t o the i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s m o f s o c i a l i s m , the p o s i t i o n o f the i n d i v i d u a l i s much more s i g n i f i c a n t t han i n a s o c i a l i s t s t a t e , f o r the i n d i v i d u a l i s by no means reduced t o a f a c e l e s s component i n the s e r v i c e o f the n a t i o n a l i d e a l . T h i s i s an i d e a l i s t i c , Utopian v i s i o n , a n a t i o n a l s o c i a l i s m w i t h o u t the s u b o r d i n a t i o n o f t h e i n d i v i -d u a l , and the r e a l i t y o f t h e n a t i o n a l s o c i a l i s t s t a t e t h a t d i d f i n a l l y emerge d e m o n s t r a t e s how Utopian Adam's dream u a s . Three y e a r s l a t e r O t t o Babendiek r e f l e c t s the d i s a p p o i n t m e n t F r e n s s e n f e l t a t the f a i l u r e o f the Ueimar R e p u b l i c t o r e a l i z e t h i s i d e a l , but i n 1929 Dummhans shous t h a t he i s s t i l l s u p p o r t i n g the f o r c e s o f l a u and o r d e r i n t h e i n -c r e a s i n g l y c h a o t i c p o l i t i c a l a t mosphere. Not u n t i l 1933 does F r e n s s e n ' s sympathy f o r the N.S.D.A.P. r e a c h the pages of Meino der P r a h l e r , but the r o o t cause o f t h i s s u i t c h o f a l l e g i a n c e c l e a r l y l i e s i n the f a i l u r e o f the r e p u b l i c and the renewed promise o f H i t l e r t o b u i l d the i d e a l s t a t e . D e s p i t e the good q u a l i t i e s o f the German p e o p l e , u h i c h 88 Adam e x t r a v a g a n t l y e x t o l s , he a t t a c k s " F o r m l o s i g k e i t und L S s s i g k e i t " and demands a r e j u v e n a t i o n o f the n a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r : " U i r mOssen nachdenken und daran a r b e i t e n , dass unser l/olk e i n e n a n d e r e n , und zuar e i n e n f e s t e r n und zusam-139 m engerissenen C h a r a k t e r bekommt." Uhen combined u i t h the p r e c e d i n g c a l l f o r a n a t i o n a l s o c i a l i s m , t h i s r e v i t a l i z e d c h a r a c t e r o f the n a t i o n makes H i t l e r ' s a p p e a l t o F r e n s s e n q u i t e o b v i o u s , e s p e c i a l l y as Adam c a l l s f o r a neu s p i r i t i n Germany's y o u t h . They u i l l a t f i r s t be i n s p i r e d by the t r a d i t i o n a l i d e a l s o f J e s u s , Goethe or B i s m a r c k , but even-t u a l l y t h e s e streams u i l l u n i t e "zu einem e i n z i g e n G e i s t 14 neuer d e u t s c h e r A r t . . . k l a r e r , h e r b e r , t O c h t i g e r . . . ." U i t h t h i s c a l l f a r a r e v i t a l i z e d y o u t h , and a n a t i o n f o r g e d i n t o a s i n g l e u i l l by p r i d e i n the n a t i o n a l h e r i t a g e , Adam ends h i s speech by s e e i n g i n Germany's h i s t o r y and n a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r a s i g n "dass G o t t noch Grosses m i t dem 141 d eutschen l/olk v o r h a t . " Germany's f u t u r e r o l e i s to be the d e c i s i v e f a c t o r i n the coming s t r u g g l e betueen the e a s t e r n and u e s t e r n n a t i o n s . Her g e o g r a p h i c a l p o s i t i o n d i c t a t e s t h i s , a l t h o u g h no-one can t e l l on u h i c h s i d e she u i l l s t a n d . But one t h i n g must be the b e l i e f o f every German: Dass am Ende d i e s e s ungeheuren Kampfes das d e u t s c h e l/olk m i t seinem t i e f e n G e i s t und m i t a l l s e i n e n Gaben u i r t -s c h a f t l i c h e r A r t der FOhrer uerden u i r d , und vom A t l a n t i s c h e n b i s zum S t i l l e n Ozean d i e l/Blker m i t seinem G e i s t und Uesen e r f t i l l e n u i r d . . . . Ohne D e u t s c h l a n d k e i n E u r o p a - A s i e n , durch D e u t s c h l a n d das neue E u r o p a - A s i e n ! 142 89 N a t i o n a l i s m and r e l i g i o n merge h e r e , as God once a g a i n renews h i s s p e c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p u i t h the German p e o p l e . The n a t u r e o f F r e n s s e n ' s i d e a l i s m i s apparent i n the g o a l : m o r al l e a d e r s h i p o f Europe and A s i a , but a t the same time he remains c o n v e n t i o n a l i n t h e means he e n v i s a g e s t o t h a t end. There u i l l be a d e c i s i v e b a t t l e , a t the end o f u h i c h the e n t i r e c o n t i n e n t u i l l l o o k t o v i c t o r i o u s Germany f o r moral and economic l e a d e r s h i p . There i s no mention here o f "Lebens-raum" or any t r a c e o f the n a i v e i m p e r i a l i s m o f P e t e r Moors  F a h r t nach S f l d u e s t : God i s not g o i n g t o h e l p Germany conquer the e n t i r e c o n t i n e n t because of her v i r t u e s : the v i r t u e s u i l l conquer by t h e m s e l v e s . I t i s t h i s i d e a l i s m t h a t d i f f e r e n -t i a t e s t h e p h i l o s o p h y o f F r e n s s e n ' s mature uorks from the s a b r e « r a t t l i n g n a t i o n a l i s m o f P e t e r Moors F a h r t nach  SOduest (1906) t h a t uses v i r t u e s as an excuse f o r c o n q u e s t . F r e n s s e n ' s r e b o r n Germany i s not the l a n d o f the broun b a t t a l i o n s , but i n h i s e n t h u s i a s m f o r the i d e a l s he pays too l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n t o the consequences o f some o f the d e t a i l s i n h i s p l a n . The b a s i c s i m i l a r i t y o f Adam's wedding speech i n 1914 t o the speech a t the V o l k s f e s t shous t h a t the emphasis i s on the c o n s e r v a t i o n o f v a l u a b l e t r a d i t i o n s r a t h e r than on fundamental change, and even the s h i f t o f emphasis from Potsdam t o Ueimar, u h i c h Adam d e s c r i b e s t o T h o r u a l d i s s t r o n g l y q u a l i f i e d : he says t h e n : "Die Deutschen s i n d von Natur mehr Ueimar a l s Potsdam, mehr graue A c k e r l e u t e , Kauf-90 l e u t e , Gelehrte, als s t r a f f geknApfte bis ans Kinn," but i n the next paragraph: "Das deutsche Volk, A r b e i t e r , Bauer, BOrger, Adel, u i r d nicht eher uieder Ruhe haben, nicht eher uieder innern Frieden geuinnen und ein gutes Geuissen haben, als bis u i r uieder i n sauberer s t r a f f e r Ordnung, und ein starkes, selbstgeuMhltes Haupt an unsrer S p i t z e , a l l e 143 einander dienen." The i n d i v i d u a l freedom uhich looms so large i n Frenssen's scheme for a reborn Germany i s here subordinated to the overriding need for national u n i t y . Here the key phrase i s : " a l l e einander dienen" u i t h i t s v i s i o n of the monolithic nature of the German people once the necessary steps are taken to remove the b a r r i e r s to u n i t y . The image i s m i l i t a r y : the entire nation marching i n column, led by the unquestioned c h i e f t a i n , " i n sauberer s t r a f f e r Ordnung" r e f l e c t i n g the t r a d i t i o n a l national q u a l i t i e s forged into a common u i l l by the tough and vigorous neu s p i r i t . The fate of the dissenting i n d i v i d u a l goes unmentioned: i n his naive enthusiasm for the neu order Frenssen simply f a i l s to consider the p o s s i b i l i t y that any right-minded German u i l l not be i n complete accord. The lack of any mention of coercion as an instrument of unity demonstrates Frenssen's idealism: j u s t as Germany u i l l not conquer the continent, the neu order u i l l not suppress opposition, for i n both cases the benefits u i l l be so self-evident that coercion 91 u i l l be u n n e c e s s a r y . On one l e v e l t h i s i s an i d e a l i s t i c , Utopian dream; on another i t exposes F r e n s s e n ' s b a s i c f l a u both as a n o v e l i s t and as a " V o l k s e r z i e h e r " : h i s i n a b i l i t y t o t h i n k t h r ough t o the abuses t h a t u o u l d be i n e v i t a b l e once the t h e o r y i s a p p l i e d t o e i g h t y m i l l i o n f a l l i b l e human b e i n g s . Gustav F r e n s s e n ' s s t r e n g t h l i e s i n h i s a s t u t e pouers o f o b s e r v a t i o n and h i s a p p r e c i a t i o n o f the needs o f h i s f e l l o u - c o u n t r y m e n . E p i g o n a l though h i s s t y l e may be, the a u t h e n t i c i t y o f h i s c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n s can be a t t e s t e d t o by anyone uho i s f a m i l i a r u i t h t he peop l e o f the marsh and the "Geest." H i s p r a c t i c a l s u g g e s t i o n s f o r the a l l e v i a t i o n o f po-v e r t y and the removal o f s o c i a l i n j u s t i c e s a r e g e n u i n e l y h u m a n i t a r i a n . The emphasis on the v i r t u e s o f the German p e o p l e , a l t h o u g h i n t e n d e d p r i m a r i l y t o i n c r e a s e d o m e s t i c harmony and s e l f - r e s p e c t , l e a d s him n o n e t h e l e s s i n t o an a g g r e s s i v e p o s t u r e uhen he d e a l s u i t h Germany's r e l a t i o n s u i t h her n e i g h b o u r s . A l t h o u g h F r e n s s e n never a d v o c a t e s uar as an i n s t r u m e n t o f n a t i o n a l p o l i c y n o r , i n h i s pr e u a r n o v e l s , does he even c o n s i d e r the p o s s i b i l i t y , t he c o n s t a n t r e i t e r a t i o n o f n a t i o n a l v i r t u e s p r o d u c e s , under a p p r o p r i a t e c i r c u m s t a n c e s , the k i n d o f t h r e a t e n i n g undertone f o r u h i c h he c r i t i c i z e s the K a i s e r ' s f o r e i g n p o l i c y . The r e b i r t h o f Germany, u h i c h i n the n o v e l s i s p r i n c i p a l l y a c a l l f o r the removal o f s o c i a l i n j u s t i c e , here becomes s u l l i e d by m a r t i a l c l i c h e s . F r e n s s e n ' s c o n c e r n f o r the r e b i r t h o f Germany cannot be d i v o r c e d from any a s p e c t o f h i s w r i t i n g s . I t i s the d r i v i n g f o r c e b e h i n d h i s s o c i a l message, i t i n s p i r e s h i s s e a r c h f o r a r e l i g i o u s and e t h i c : f o u n d a t i o n , and a t t i m e s i t o b s c u r e s h i s l o g i c and debases h i s work t o the l e v e l o f cheap propaganda. But t h e s e i n s t a n c e s are i n f r e q u e n t i n the l o n g l i s t o f n o v e l s from Die S a n d q r S f i n to Meino der  P r a h l e r , and b a s i c a l l y h i s v i s i o n f o r Germany i s an i d e a l i z e d one: erm G e u i r r und GeuUhl der l / f l l k e r emporzuragen und s i e m i t neuen h e i l i g e n Gedanken und PlHnen zu sammeln, und zu neuen, h e l l e r n Z e i t e n a u f z u r u f e n . ^ H i s r e b o r n Germany uas not the Germany o f the broun b a t t a l i o n s , and a l t h o u g h he cannot be a c q u i t t e d o f the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f f u r t h e r i n g the c o n c e p t s t h a t made the T h i r d R e i c h p o s s i b l e , Gustav F r e n s s e n ' s i d e a l s are not o f t h e m s e l v e s i g n o b l e . 93 Georq von Ompteda The s u b j e c t s o f Georg von Ompteda's n o v e l s , the l a n d e d a r i s t o c r a c y o f P r u s s i a , e n t e r e d the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y u i t h t h e i r r e l a t i v e s o c i a l and economic p o s i t i o n undermined by the p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f f a m i l i e s uhose f o r t u n e s stemmed from t r a d e and i n d u s t r y , and by the d e c l i n e i n a g r i c u l t u r a l p r i c e s caused by American c o m p e t i t i o n . The v i g o r o u s a d o p t i o n o f modern methods, u h i c h uas c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f German i n d u s t r y and uas o f c r u c i a l i m p o r t a n c e i n the phenomenal r i s e i n n a t i o n a l u e a l t h and p r o d u c t i v i t y d u r i n g the l a s t t h r e e decades o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , uas hampered i n the a g r i c u l t u r a l s e c t o r by c o n s e r v a t i s m and l a c k o f c a p i t a l , and i n consequence the s o c i a l pre-eminence o f the a r i s t o c r a c y uas endangered. U n l i k e u r i t e r s such as Gustav F r e y t a g and Theodor Fo n t a n e , uhose u r i t i n g s about the a r i s t o c r a c y a re the p r o d u c t o f o b s e r v a t i o n , Ompteda's n o v e l s have the b e n e f i t o f p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e . H is c a r e e r uas the t r a d i t i o n a l one o f cadet s c h o o l and c a v a l r y r e g i m e n t , and h i s comments and c r i t i c i s m s o f the l i m i t e d h o r i z o n s o f a r i s t o c r a t i c f a m i l i e s are tempered by an u n d e r s t a n d i n g and sympathy a c c e s s i b l e o n l y t o t h o s e uho are members o f the " c a s t e . " I t i s p r e c i s e l y t h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g and sense o f p r i d e i n the achievements o f former g e n e r a t i o n s t h a t makes Ompteda so c o n s c i o u s o f the 94 need to r e v i t a l i z e the a r i s t o c r a c y t o p r e v e n t a d r i f t i n t o d e c l i n e and f i n a l l y i r r e l e v a n c e : R u d o l f ' s f i n a l speech i n Eysen i s the b e s t example o f t h i s d i d a c t i c e l e m e n t , u h i c h r uns c o n s i s t e n t l y t h r o u g h Ompteda's u o r k . H i s c o n c e r n i s n e v e r t h e l e s s f o r the u h o l e n a t i o n , u h i c h had, he b e l i e v e d , been u e l l s e r v e d by the n o b l e s t h e m s e l v e s and by the t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s o f t h e i r c a s t e , and u h i c h u o u l d be endangered i f t h e s e p i t - p r o p s o f her g r e a t n e s s uere a l l o u e d t o r o t . Ompteda's v i s i o n o f Germany's r e b i r t h r e t a i n s a more h i e r a r c h i c a l s t r u c t u r e t h a n does F r e n s s e n ' s , but the b a s i c aim o f a u n i f i e d p e o p l e and a harmonious l i f e f o r the i n d i v i d u a l and the n a t i o n r emains the same. Ompteda i s f a r removed f r o m , and f r e q u e n t l y c a s t i g a t e s , t h e " S t a n d e s -d U n k e l " u h i c h s i m p l y demanded the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f a r i s t o c r a t i c p r i v i l e g e s u h i l e i g n o r i n g the f u n d a m e n t a l and o b v i o u s changes t h a t the i n d u s t r i a l age had b r o u g h t , a l t h o u g h the e x t e n t t o u h i c h the n o v e l s come t o g r i p s u i t h the s o c i a l problems o f the U i l h e l m i n i a n e r a i s e x t r e m e l y l i m i t e d . Ompteda f o r m u l a t e s h i s v i s i o n i n terms o f the l e a d e r s h i p o f the n a t i o n , and i n t h i s the d e c l i n e o f the a r i s t o c r a c y as a c l a s s f o r c e s him i n t o a d e f e n s i v e p o s i t i o n : u h i l s t he by no means r e g a r d s l e a d e r s h i p as the e x c l u s i v e p r e s e r v e o f the h e r e d i t a r y n o b i l i t y , but on the c o n t r a r y argues s t r o n g l y f o r the a c c e p t a n c e on the p a r t o f the o l d f a m i l i e s o f the neu c o m m e r cial a r i s t o c r a c y as e q u a l s , he approaches the q u e s t i o n 95 o f n a t i o n a l r e v i t a l i z a t i o n from the top o f the s o c i a l l a d d e r i n c o n t r a s t t o F r e n s s e n , uho s t a r t s u i t h the broad mass o f the p o p u l a t i o n . The c a l l f o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s i n a s o c i e t y u h i c h had t e l e s c o p e d the t r a n s i t i o n from a f e u d a l - a g r a r i a n s t a t e o f s o l d i e r s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s t o a modern i n d u s t r i a l n a t i o n u i t h an i n c r e a s i n g l y p o u e r f u l m i d d l e c l a s s as u e l l as an enormous and d i s a d v a n t a g e d p r o l e t a r i a t s p r i n g s from e s s e n t i a l l y the same c o n s e r v a t i v e p h i l o s o p h y as i s e v i n c e d by F r e n s s e n ' s u o r k s . The major d i f f e r e n c e betueen the tuo a u t h o r s , u h i c h can be e x p l a i n e d i n l a r g e measure by t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e p o s i t i o n s on the s o c i a l s c a l e — O m p t e d a ' s f a t h e r uas L o r d Chamberlain to the King o f Hannover u h i l e F r e n s s e n uas the son o f a v i l l a g e c a r p e n t e r — l i e s i n F r e n s s e n ' s advocacy o f s o c i a l r e f o r m s a l o n g u i t h h i s d e s i r e t o p r e s e r v e t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s , uhereas the o n l y changes ad v o c a t e d by Ompteda are i n the a t t i t u d e s o f the a r i s t o c r a t s t h e m s e l v e s . The u i s t f u l l y r e t r o s p e c t i v e n o v e l E r n s t I I I (1925) p a i n t s a n o s t a l g i c p i c t u r e o f p r e - u a r s o c i e t y u h i c h c o m p l e t e l y i g n o r e s the m i s e r y o f the i n d u s t r i a l slums and d e p i c t s the p a r l i a m e n t a r y p r o c e s s as a comic i r r e l e v a n c e . Ompteda seeks to q u e s t i o n the need f o r " p r o g r e s s " by c o r r e c t i n g the image o f the t r a d i t i o n a l l y dominant c l a s s u i t h i n the s t a t e , t h e r e b y making the e x i s t i n g system more p a l a t a b l e . The absence o f 96 c o n c r e t e s u g g e s t i o n s f o r the c o r r e c t i o n o f s o c i a l i l l s u i t h i n t h e s t a t e as a u h o l e ( i n c o n t r a s t to the advocacy o f r e f o r m s , such as the a b o l i t i o n o f the d u e l , u h i c h are o f p e c u l i a r c o n c e r n t o the a r i s t o c r a c y ) b r i n g s Ompteda c l o s e r t o Uassermann, uhose c o n c e r n i s a l s o u i t h the i n n e r u o r l d o f human a t t i t u d e s , a l t h o u g h Uassermann q u e s t i o n s p r e c i s e l y t h o s e b a s i c f o u n d a t i o n s o f the s t a t e u h i c h Ompteda u o u l d p r e s e r v e . Ompteda's v i s i o n o f Germany's r e b i r t h emerges as a b l e n d o f t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s and d e m o c r a t i c open-mindedness, u h i c h i s b e s t e x e m p l i f i e d i n the person o f K i n g E r n s t I I I o f T i l l e n , uhose p r i m a r y q u a l i t i e s are i n d u s t r y and t o l e r a n c e . U i t h o u t t h e programmatic n a t u r e o f F r e n s s e n ' s v i s i o n , Ompteda's l o g i c i s at t i m e s i n c o n s i s t e n t , but e x a m i n a t i o n o f h i s uork as a u h o l e r e v e a l s the b a s i c g o a l o f a r e v i t a l i z e d n a t i o n i n u h i c h a l l c l a s s e s c o - e x i s t h a r m o n i o u s l y . Ompteda's approach resembles t h a t o f F r e n s s e n i n t h a t he t a k e s t h e s u b j e c t s f o r h i s n o v e l s from u i t h i n the range o f h i s oun e x p e r i e n c e , i l l u s t r a t i n g h i s concept o f v a l u e s and h i s v i s i o n o f n a t i o n a l r e b i r t h by the example o f the a r i s t o c r a t i c c l a s s . In a r e v i e u o f the n o v e l D r o e s i g l , Hugo G r e i n z sums up Ompteda's a b i l i t y t o p o r t r a y the l i f e and customs o f the a r i s t o c r a c y : Das mondSne Leben der vornehmen G e s e l l s c h a f t s k r e i s e D e u t s c h l a n d s zu Ende des v o r i g e n und Beginn des g e g e n u M r t i g e n J a h r h u n d e r t s hat i n Ompteda u i e kaum i n einem z u e i t e n s e i n e n Romancier g e f u n d e n . Er b e h e r r s c h t d i e U e l t , aus der er s e i n e S t o f f e und Menschen h o l t , 97 und i n s e i n e n Romanen u i r d man u o h l n i e m a l s i r g e n d -e i n e n l S c h e r l i c h e n U i d e r s p r u c h m i t der S i t t e und dem Brauch des Lebens der Uohlhabenden und H o c h g e s t e l l t e n f i n d e n . 1 2 E.U. Braun r e f e r s t o Ompteda as " e i n gesunder R e a l i s t , " an e p i t h e t n o r m a l l y r e s e r v e d i n the U i l h e l m i n i a n e r a f o r 3 those uho s u p p o r t e d the s t a t e and i t s i n s t i t u t i o n s , and t h i s c o m b i n a t i o n o f v e r i s i m i l i t u d e and an e s s e n t i a l l y p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e e x p l a i n s Ompteda's s u c c e s s : Georg von Ompteda uar l a n g e Z e i t e i n v i e l g e l e s e n e r und v i e l g e l i e b t e r D i c h t e r der a d l i g e n K r e i s e . S e i n E y s e n , S y l v e s t e r von Geyer und C S I c i l i e von S a r r y n uaren Geschenkuerke, d i e auf dem G a b e n t i s c h k e i n e s • jungen F r M u l e i n s , k e i n e s heranuachsenden J u n k e r s f e h l e n d u r f t e n . 4 C l a r a V i e b i g , uho u r o t e the r e v i e w from u h i c h t h e s e remarks are taken i n 1932, uas h e r s e l f , a l o n g u i t h Ompteda, F r e n s s e n , Thomas Mann, B e y e r l e i n and E l i s a b e t h von H e y k i n g , one o f the 5 s i x b e s t s e l l i n g a u t h o r s o f 1903, so i n her assessment o f Ompteda's a p p e a l t o the U i l h e l m i n i a n r e a d i n g p u b l i c her comments may be c o n s i d e r e d a u t h o r i t a t i v e . The l i t e r a r y frameuork u i t h i n which Ompteda communicates h i s message i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t used by Gustav F r e y t a g , uhose i n t e n t i o n i n S o i l und Haben uas to shou "das deutsche Volk . . . g b e i s e i n e r A r b e i t . " Ompteda's c h a r a c t e r s , though they b e l o n g t o a more l i m i t e d s o c i a l sphere than F r e y t a g ' s , are d e p i c t e d i n a u i d e range o f s i t u a t i o n s p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e i r d u t i e s as o f f i c e r s , f a r m e r s or c i v i l s e r v a n t s . T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y t r u e of h i s m i l i t a r y men, uho appear amid a l l the monotony o f g a r r i s o n l i f e , l i k e K a r l von R u n d s t e t t e n (Heimat des H e r z e n s ) , o r t r a m p i n g a l o n g i n the d u s t and hea t d u r i n g autumn manoeuvres l i k e S y l v e s t e r von G e y e r . Even where the s u b j e c t o f the n o v e l i s the o f f i c e r as l o v e r r a t h e r than s o l d i e r , as i s the case u i t h L i e u t e n a n t von H a r f f i n Die SOnde, Ompteda a v o i d s the c o n v e n t i o n a l U i l h e l m i n i a n s t e r e o t y p e o f the g l a m o u r o u s l y f r e e , d a s h i n g l i e u t e n a n t , f o r H a r f f always has to t a k e the l a s t t r a i n back t o the g a r r i s o n town f o l l o w i n g an e v e n i n g w i t h h i s m i s t r e s s i n B e r l i n . S i n c e Ompteda's aim i s t o p o r t r a y the r e a l w o r l d o f the a r i s t o c r a c y , he must o f c o u r s e examine the g e n e r a l human s p h e r e s o f l o v e , h o n o u r , m a r r i a g e and money as th e y p e r t a i n t o t h i s c l a s s , but by a v o i d i n g the s t e r e o t y p e he i s a b l e t o p r e s e n t h i s c h a r a c t e r s as human b e i n g s u i t h a f u l l y d e v e l o p e d e m o t i o n a l l i f e , a f t e r the manner o f Fontane d e s p i t e t h e i r e v e r - p r e s e n t awareness o f the demands o f t h e c a s t e . In consequence Ompteda's w o r l d , though now " l H n g s t 7 v e r s c h o l l e n " i n a way t h a t F r e n s s e n ' s D i t h m a r s c h e n i s n o t , r e t a i n s i t s a u t h e n t i c i t y f o r the modern r e a d e r as i t d i d b e f o r e 1918. dan and Uoman Love and m a r r i a g e occupy a c e n t r a l p o s i t i o n i n Ompteda n o v e l s . In c o n t r a s t to the more e g a l i t a r i a n s o c i e t y o f F r e n s s e n ' s D i t h m a r s c h e n , l o v e i n Ompteda's P r u s s i a i s i n f l u -e n c ed, o f t e n d e c i s i v e l y , by s o c i a l and f i n a n c i a l c o n s i d e r a -t i o n s , and o n l y r a r e l y , as i n the case o f F r i t z and H e r z e l o t d e (H e r z e l o j l x i e ) i s m a r r i a g e the c u l m i n a t i o n o f the n o v e l . In most i n s t a n c e s Ompteda f o l l o w s the l o v e r s t h r o u g h t h e i r m a r r i a g e and i l l u m i n a t e s the problems t h a t a r i s e . T h i s c o n s c i e n t i o u s a v o i d a n c e o f r o m a n t i c c l i c h e enhances the v e r i s i m i l i t u d e o f the n a v e l s and p o i n t s to a s e r i o u s i n t e n t beyond the sphere o f n o v e l s t h a t are s i m p l y meant to e n t e r t a i n , a) The p h y s i c a l t y p e : A l t h o u g h the N o r d i c p h y s i c a l type predominates among Ompteda's h e r o e s , the range o f h a i r c o l o u r and s t a t u r e among h i s h e r o i n e s i s much g r e a t e r than i n F r e n s s e n ' s n o v e l s . Race i s not o f prime c o n c e r n f o r Ompteda, s i n c e the pages of the Gotha Almanach p r o v i d e ample documentation o f an a r i s t o c r a t i c p e d i g r e e : the n o v e l E y s e n , which t r a c e s the development o f a f a m i l y t h r o u g h the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , i s preceded i n a l l e d i t i o n s by a f i c t i t i o u s page from the Gotha Almanach showing t h e i r l i n e a g e , F r e n s s e n ' s c o n c e r n f o r and advocacy o f " Z u c h t w a h l " i s i r r e l e v a n t f o r the c h r o n i c l e r o f the a r i s t o c r a c y , amongst whom s e l e c t i v e b r e e d i n g has been p r a c t i s e d f o r c e n t u r i e s , even i f the c r i t e r i a have been s o c i a l and f i n a n c i a l r a t h e r than b i o l o g i c a l . The u n a d u l t e r a t e d b l o o d of the D i t h m a r s c h e r , u h i c h i s such a s t a n d a r d f e a t u r e o f Fr e n s s e n ' s u o r k s , uas not s e l f - e v i d e n t t o the r e a d i n g p u b l i c i n o t h e r p a r t s o f Germany, uhereas i t uas common knouledge t h a t the P r u s s i a n a r i s t o c r a c y m a r r i e d as a r u l e among t h e i r oun k i n d , and i t uas t h e r e f o r e u n n e c e s s a r y f o r Ompteda to emphasize the p u r i t y o f the r a c e . He does houever make use o f the s t a n d a r d p h y s i c a l image o f the o f f i c e r , t o the e x t e n t t h a t the m a j o r i t y o f h i s heroes c o u l d , s u i t a b l y a t t i r e d , b l e n d e a s i l y i n t o a group o f Frens s e n ' s f a r m e r s : they are t a l l , u e l l - b u i l t , f a i r h a i r e d and suntanned from t h e i r o utdoor l i f e . The u n i v e r s a l a c c e p t a n c e o f t h i s p h y s i c a l s t e r e o t y p e can be judged from Uassermann, to uhom the concept o f N o r d i c supremacy i s t o t a l l y f o r e i g n : h i s s y m b o l i c a l l y t y p i c a l o f f i c e r i n E t z e l A n d e r q a s t , Gore von G r o o t h u s e n , i s o f t h i s t y p e , and I r l e n , the r e t i r e d G e n e r a l S t a f f o f f i c e r i n the same n o v e l , l o o k s , u i t h h i s h e i g h t and bronzed f e a t u r e s , l i k e " e i n hoher 8 M a r i n e o f f i z i e r i n Z i v i l . " The s t e r e o t y p e i s most apparent i n Heimat des H e r z e n s , uhere K a r l von R u n d s t e t t e n , a b l o n d g i a n t , s t a n d s out i n c o n t r a s t t o the f a m i l y and f r i e n d s o f h i s French u i f e . To h i s French h o s t , Baron de P r e f a i l l e s , uhom he once saved from r o b b e r s i n C o n s t a n t i n o p l e , he 9 re m a r k s : "Unsere ganze Rasse i s t g r f l s s e r und s t a r k e r . " 101 At the wedding o f von R u n d s t e t t e n and Simone de C o r v i e u x , the s o l i d , w e l l - b r e d German o f f i c e r s are much admired by the French l a d i e s , one o f whom c o n t r a s t s them w i t h the Frenchmen p r e s e n t w i t h the words: "Das s i n d doch w e n i g s t e n s 1 0 MSnner." The theme o f u n i m p a i r e d r a c i a l v i g o u r appears when they r e t u r n t o n o r t h e r n Germany: "Diesen H i m m e l s t r i c h , der e i n s t a r k e s , von weichen L O f t e n n i c h t e r s c h l a f f t e s 11 G e s c h l e c h t t r u g . " The emphasis i n Fre n s s e n and Ompteda on the fundamental v i t a l i t y o f the German people i s a c e n t r a l f e a t u r e o f t h e i r c o n c e p t o f n a t i o n a l r e b i r t h , f o r i t forms the i n d i s p e n s i b l e b a s i s o f a n a t i o n a l d e s i r e f o r the r e v i t a l i z a t i o n o f s o c i e t y and i t s i n s t i t u t i o n s . A r t i s t i c a l l y i t i s a t i r e s o m e c l i c h e , but i t performs the i m p o r t a n t d i d a c t i c f u n c t i o n o f s e t t i n g the s t a g e f o r the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f o t h e r v a l u e s . Ompteda was a f r a n c o p h i l e who spent t e n y e a r s t r a n s -l a t i n g Maupassant i n t o German, and whose s t y l e was i n f l u e n c e d by the French master to the e x t e n t t h a t the f r e q u e n t l y v i t r i o l i c A d o l f B a r t e l s c o n s i d e r e d him one o f the few German a u t h o r s " d i e s i c h auch m i t der Feder wie im S a l o n r o c k zu bewegen v e r s t e h e n und Fremden wie Maupassant und K i e l l a n d , wenn auch n i c h t an T a l e n t , so doch w e n i g s t e n s an w e l t -12 mfinnischer S i c h e r h e i t gleichkommen." The c o n t r a s t o f von R u n d s t e t t e n , " e i n k e r n d e u t s c h e r Edelmann m i t dem engen 1 3 H o r i z o n t e des p f l i c h t t r e u e n B e r u f s s o l d a t e n , " w i t h de 102 P r e f a i l l e s , uho i s a s y m p a t h e t i c c h a r a c t e r u i t h enormous charm and s a v o i r - f a i r e , has i t s r o o t s , one s u s p e c t s , i n d e f e n s i v e n e s s . De P r e f a i l l e s t e l l s von R u n d s t e t t e n t h a t 14 Germans are " s t e i f , e c k i g und plump" and at the uedding the o f f i c e r s ' l a d i e s are s i m i l a r l y j u d g e d . A g a i n s t t h e s e a c c u s a t i o n s o f crudeness and l a c k o f t a s t e von R u n d s t e t t e n s e t s a g a l a x y o f German v i r t u e s , f a m i l i a r from the pages o f Fren s s e n ' s n o v e l s : s t r e n g t h , v i g o u r , o r d e r l i n e s s , c l e a n l i n e s s , duty and e f f i c i e n c y . Duty, the most i m p o r t a n t concept i n von R u n d s t e t t e n ' s l i f e , i s a t o t a l l y f o r e i g n concept t o Simone: " d i e s e i s e r n e U o r t , das s i e b e i ihrem V a t e r , den Veruandten 1 5 und G u t s b e s i t z e r n i n der Umgebung n i e g e h f l r t h a t t e . " I m p r e s s i o n s on t h e i r l a s t t r i p t o France c o n f i r m t h e s e n a t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s . The French customs o f f i c i a l s a r e s l o v e n l y and uear c i v i l i a n c l o t h e s : " S t a t t der g e h a l t e n e n p r e u s s i s c h e n Beamten im D i e n s t k l e i d e e r s c h i e n e n bummelige 16 A n g e s t e l l t e i n b O r g e r l i c h e r K l e i d u n g . " The r a i l u a y s t a t i o n f a l l s f a r s h o r t o f German s t a n d a r d s : " K a r l v e r g l i c h den v e r n a c h l S s s i g t e n , s c h m u t z i g e n Bahnhof, der U e l t s t a d t n i c h t u d r d i g , m i t den hohen H a l l e n und der Ordnung i n 17 deutschen G r o s s s t M d t e n . " To the f a m i l i a r German v i r t u e s i s added one t h a t F r e n s s e n , the n o n - P r u s s i a n c i v i l i a n , mentions as d e s i r a b l e o n l y i n Adam Bar f o o d ' s l a s t s peech: m i l i t a r y d i s c i p l i n e . For Ompteda t h i s i s a p o s i t i v e a t t r i b u t e , a f a c t o f German l i f e as a l o g i c a l e x t e n s i o n o f 103 "Ordnung." Ompteda's o b v i o u s a p p r o v a l o f t h i s a s p e c t of the German c h a r a c t e r c o i n c i d e s here u i t h F r e n s s e n ' s v i s i o n i n i t s most programmatic m a n i f e s t a t i o n , but F r e n s s e n ' s v i e u of the German p e o p l e i s the broader one: Ompteda i s b l i n k e r e d by h i s oun e x p e r i e n c e and reduces n a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s to an a l m o s t s i m p l e - m i n d e d s t e r e o t y p e . Ompteda does not h e s i t a t e t o show t h a t von R u n d s t e t t e n , though a t h o r o u g h l y h o n o u r a b l e man, i s a v i c t i m o f the narrow h o r i z o n s o f h i s c a s t e . The s t a t u e t t e o f an Arab d a n c i n g g i r l u h i c h Simone g i v e s him f o r C h r i s t m a s embarrasses him: he f i n d s i t i n d e c e n t , something t h a t cannot p o s s i b l y be shoun to the o t h e r l a d i e s o f the r e g i m e n t . But even though Ompteda m a i n t a i n s h i s d i s t a n c e from von R u n d s t e t t e n ' s comments and r e t a i n s enough o b j e c t i v i t y t o d i s c e r n t h a t the u b i q u i t o u s l a u s o f P r u s s i a c o n s t i t u t e " e i n p e i n l i c h uachendes 1 8 G e s e t z , " the image o f Germany t h a t remains i s c o m p l e t e l y i n harmony u i t h t h a t e x p r e s s e d i n F r e n s s e n ' s n o v e l s . The i n f l u e n c e o f Lagarde and Langbehn i s apparent i n the concept o f Germany as the young, v i g o r o u s , d i s c i p l i n e d s t a t e i n c o n t r a s t t o the d e c a y i n g c i v i l i z a t i o n o f F r a n c e . In t h e n o v e l E x c e l s i o r ! , u r i t t e n i n 1909, Ompteda abandons a r t i n f a v o u r o f propaganda o f the most t e d i o u s v a r i e t y . Ompteda's oun m i l i t a r y e x p e r i e n c e p r e v e n t e d him from r u i n i n g h i s young o f f i c e r s u i t h e x c e s s i v e i d e a l i z a t i o n , but auay from the b a r r a c k square such c o n s t r a i n t s v a n i s h and 104 1 9 amid the "Grflsse und E r h a b e n h e i t der N a t u r " the s t a t u r e o f the hero must match t h a t o f the s c e n e r y . Only a devout b e l i e v e r c o u l d excuse the p r e t e n t i o u s v a c u i t y o f the n o v e l u i t h the u o r d s : "Es i s t etuas u i e Tendenz i n dem Buch, aber e i n e im l e t z t e n Sinne gesunde, der man durchaus 20 s y m p a t i s c h gegendberstehen muss." A d o l f B a r t n i n g , u r i t i n g i n Per K u n s t u a r tt a magazine u s u a l l y ready t o f o r g i v e a l a p s e i n t a s t e i f the s e n t i m e n t s uere a c c e p t a b l e , c a l l s E r n s t Sturm, the h e r o , " n i c h t nur e i n e n S t e i g e r e r s t e n Ranges, sondern auch i n j e d e r andern Beziehung e i n e n Idealmenschen . . . dessen s c h l a c k e n l o s e Vollkommenheit sehr b a l d 21 u n e r t r S g l i c h u i r d . " So p e r f e c t i s he i n d e e d t h a t the d e s c r i p t i o n s o f him r e a d l i k e Gustav M e y r i n k ' s parody o f 3flrn U h l i n S i m p l i c i s s i m u s : "des b l o n d e n , hochaufgeschossenen 22 Burschen deutsche Augen" are " b l a u u i e G o t t e s r e i n e r Himmel." 23 H i s t o r i a n s uho, l i k e B a r b a r a Tuchman i n The Proud Touer, seek to e x p l a i n the c o u r s e o f German h i s t o r y i n the t u e n t i e t h c e n t u r y on the b a s i s o f a p a t h o l o g y o f the German mind, u o u l d d e l i g h t i n E r n s t Sturm's r e l a t i o n s h i p t o h i s mother, the o n l y uoman u i t h uhom he has any c o n t a c t : the m a g n i f i c e n t p h y s i q u e appears to be i n h a b i t e d by a p e r s o n a l i t y f l a u e d by l a t e n t h o m o s e x u a l i t y , an accompanying t e r r o r o f uomen and an u n r e s o l v e d Oedipus complex. He sends h i s mother t o u c h i n g l i t t l e t e l e g r a m s a f t e r the a s c e n t o f each neu peak, e n d i n g u i t h the uords " G r u s s , K u s s , T s c h u s s . " While i n the a r m y — 105 he i s n e i t h e r an a r i s t o c r a t nor a p r o f e s s i o n a l s o l d i e r — he i s n e a r l y raped by a b a r m a i d , but the a r r i v a l o f h i s commanding o f f i c e r saves him, prompting Ompteda to comment: 24 " R e i n uar s e i n e S e e l e . " Ompteda's h e r o i n e s v a r y g r e a t l y i n p h y s i c a l appearance; i n c o n t r a s t to F r e n s s e n , h o u e v e r , he p l a c e s no p a r t i c u l a r premium on the N o r d i c t y p e . He i s n e v e r t h e l e s s c o n s c i o u s of the t r a d i t i o n a l r a c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and t h e r e are u ndertones o f a p p r o b a t i o n i n the a d j e c t i v e s used to d e s c r i b e N o r d i c f e a t u r e s . For a l l the u r b a n i t y o f h i s a r i s t o c r a t i c m i l i e u , Ompteda i s a t r u e " H e i m a t d i c h t e r " i n h i s i n s i s t e n c e on a r a c i a l framework. In HerzeloI'de (1905), the n o v e l i n u h i c h Ompteda e x p r e s s e s most p r o g r a m m a t i c a l l y h i s concept o f l o v e , F r i t z ' f i r s t u i f e M a r i a has b l a c k h a i r and eyes but a f a i r c o m p l e x i o n : "Haar und Augen des SOdens m i t der 25 H a u t f a r b e des b l o n d e n Nordens v e r e i n t . " Seven y e a r s a f t e r her death F r i t z m a r r i e s h i s o l d f r i e n d H e r z e l o i d e , uho i s 2 6 " g r o s s , s c h l a n k und b l o n d . " The p h i l o s o p h y o f the " U a n d e r v o g e l " youth movement, u h i c h acknouledged P a u l de Lagarde as one o f i t s g u i d i n g 27 s p i r i t s , f i n d s p r e c i s e f o r m u l a t i o n i n Ompteda's f o r e u o r d to E x c e l s i o r ! The "mens sana i n c o r p o r e sano" s p i r i t o f U i l h e l m i n i a n y o uth i s c o n t r a s t e d u i t h the u n h e a l t h y conduct of the p r e v i o u s g e n e r a t i o n : " E i n s t s a s s e i n e b e b r i l l t e , k S s i g b l a s s e Jugend i n dumpfen Kneipen b e i S k a t d r e s c h e n und Tabaksqualm," The neu age has r e v i v e d : . . . u r a l t e d e utsche Freude an k f l r p e r l i c h e L e i s t u n g . Den U e i n g e i s t , F e i n d a l l e r L e i s t u n g , begann man i n den Bann zu t u n . Da e r u a c h t e auch d i e ' t e u t s c h e Dungfrau,* u a r d h i r n - und f u s s f r e i , Und der D d n g l i n g l e r n t e s i e b e i S p o r t und S p i e l a l s G e f S h r t i n kennen, dass e r d i e h e i m l i c h e Venus der f i n s t e r e n Gassen v e r g a s s . 28 Even the s o c i a l b a r r i e r s crumble i n the i d e a l i z e d u o r l d o f the m o u n t a i n s , as the sons o f gentlemen " t e i l t e n i n e i s i g e r B e i u a c h t das h a r t e F e l s e n l a g e r m i t dem armen Sohn der Berge As u i t h F r e n s s e n ' s d i d a c t i c i s m , Ompteda here r e v e a l s both the p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e a s p e c t s o f the theme o f n a t i o n a l r e b i r t h . On the one hand t h e r e i s a p p r o v a l o f uelcome d e v e l o p m e n t s : the youth o f the n a t i o n i s t u r n i n g auay from u n h e a l t h y p u r s u i t s , b a r r i e r s o f sex and c l a s s are f a l l i n g , and t h e r e i s the p r o s p e c t t h a t s o c i e t y u i l l become h e a l t h i e r and more harmonious. On the o t h e r hand t h e r e i s t h e a l m o s t o b s e s s i v e use o f the a d j e c t i v e " d e u t s c h the b e g i n n i n g o f a c a l a m i t o u s s e l f - g l o r i f i c a t i o n , a r a c e -c o n s c i o u s n e s s t h a t u l t i m a t e l y d i v i d e s the u o r l d i n t o " d e u t s c h " and " u n d e u t s c h " and a t t r i b u t e s a l l p o s i t i v e q u a l i t i e s t o i t s e l f . Ompteda i s no demagogue; h i s v i s i o n o f a r e v i t a l i z e d n a t i o n i s moderate and i n o f f e n s i v e , b u t , l i k e F r e n s s e n ' s , i t c o n t a i n s elements u i t h a d i s a s t r o u s s u s c e p t i b i l i t y t o abuse. b) R e l a t i o n s h i p s between the s e x e s : 107 In h i s a d m i r i n g p i c t u r e of the new y o u t h , Ompteda e x p r e s s e s an o t h e r w i s e r a r e l y heard i m p a t i e n c e w i t h the s o c i a l p r o p r i e t y t h a t wrapped young l a d i e s i n a co c o o n , and the c a l l f o r a l e s s r i g i d adherence to c l a s s b a r r i e r s i s echoed q u i t e f r e q u e n t l y i n h i s n o v e l s . The e x c e s s i v e " R e i n -29 h e i t der Gesinnung" t h a t E r n s t Sturm d i s p l a y s demonstrates however the presen c e o f a s t r a i n o f p u r i t a n i s m t h a t s e t s Ompteda q u i t e a p a r t from F r e n s s e n i n h i s t r e a t m e n t o f l o v e . The c h a r a c t e r s i n H e r z e l o i d e are a l l e x e m p l a r y , and so the n o v e l a f f o r d s a good o p p o r t u n i t y t o observe Ompteda's i d e a s i n the sphere o f p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s . F r i t z , t he h e r o , i s twenty y e a r s o l d at the b e g i n n i n g , " e i n j u n g e r F a n t , der 30 eben e r s t d i e A c h s e l s t U c k e t r u g . " A f t e r the " B e g e i s t e r u n g , 31 Schwung und junge L i e b e " o f h i s m a r r i a g e t o M a r i a , he be-comes a c o n s c i e n t i o u s c o l o n e l , but Ompteda d e p i c t s F r i t z ' l i f e as a widower as an e m o t i o n a l l i m b o . Ompteda t h r o u g h o u t h i s works p l a c e s a h i g h v a l u e on m a r r i a g e , and he makes a d e f i n i t e attempt to f o r m u l a t e the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a s a t i s f y i n g p a r t n e r -s h i p . A l t h o u g h he i s much more r e s p o n s i v e t o the demands o f c o n v e n t i o n than i s F r e n s s e n , he c l e a r l y r e g a r d s the a l l e v i a -t i o n of m a r i t a l d i s t r e s s as a p r i m a r y f e a t u r e o f a more con-t e n t and harmonious s o c i e t y . F r i t z meets H e r z e l o i d e — n o t her r e a l name but one which F r i t z g i v e s h e r — s o o n a f t e r the n o v e l opens, but she 108 l a c k s t h e beauty and c o q u e t t i s h charm n e c e s s a r y to a t t r a c t the l i e u t e n a n t and he moves on. Hers i s a g e n t l e and l o v i n g n a t u r e , i n harmony u i t h the u o r l d around h e r , and the o u t u a r d m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f her n a t u r e , her e y e s , make an i m p r e s s i o n on F r i t z even a t t h i s s t a g e . She i s p r e s e n t at M a r i a ' s f u n e r a l , and F r i t z remembers her c o m f o r t i n g u o r d s : " S i e 32 i s t heimgegangen." Her n a t u r e p e r s o n i f i e s "den s t i l l e n 33 A b e n d f r i e d e n , " t h e g e n t l e c o m f o r t a f t e r the f r a n t i c days and deeds o f y o u t h . She i s the mate of a man uho has seen much and u o r k e d h a r d : Und doch s c h i e n es m i r , a l s uSre d i e L i e b e , d i e mich m i t diesem a l t e r n d e n MMdchen v e r b a n d , so e c h t , so t i e f , so gut u i e j e n e aus des Lebens L e n z , u i e j e n e aus den jungen Sommertagen. Es uar k e i n Sturm, der mich O b e r r a n n , n i c h t e i n e R a s e r e i , d i e m i r das B l u t durch d i e Adern t r i e b . Es uar k e i n brennendes F e u e r , k e i n e l o d e r n d e Flamme. Es uar e i n e s t i l l e , uSrmende G l u t , u i e u i r ans Feuer uns s e t z e n an f r i s c h e n H e r b s t e s t a g e n , uenn der U a l d s i c h f S r b t , uenn nach frOhem Sonnenuntergang es d u n k e l u i r d urn uns und u i r an d i e Heimkehr zu uarmen Stuben denken. 34 M a r i a and H e r z e l o i d e both e x e m p l i f y the t r a d i t i o n a l v i r t u e s o f the German u i f e , u h i c h are s p e l l e d out i n c o n s i d -e r a b l e d e t a i l by H e r z e l o i d e a t the end o f the n o v e l . T a k i n g her cue from t h e Book o f R u t h , she d e s c r i b e s the m i s s i o n o f a u i f e as s u p p o r t i n a d v e r s i t y , companionship i n j o y , and the c o n s t a n t s u b o r d i n a t i o n o f her oun u i s h e s t o her husband's, prompted by an a l l - e m b r a c i n g l o v e . In M a r i a ' s case t h e s e q u a l i t i e s a re i n c r e a s e d by her b r a v e r y and l a c k o f c o m p l a i n t d u r i n g her l a s t i l l n e s s , and i n Herzeloi'de's by her t a k i n g 109 upon h e r s e l f the r a i s i n g of her dead s i s t e r ' s " t u o d a u g h t e r s . F r i t z i s a devoted husband, uhose c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r M a r i a i s such t h a t he i s p r e p a r e d to r e s i g n h i s commission i f he cannot o b t a i n s u f f i c i e n t l e a v e to c a r e f o r her d u r i n g her i l l n e s s . In Ompteda's u o r l d t h i s u o u l d be a major s a c r i f i c e f o r an a c t i v e man, s i n c e a l l o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n s u o u l d be c l o s e d to him. The b a s i s o f both m a r r i a g e s i s harmony, both betueen husband and u i f e and u i t h the u o r l d around them. The i d e a l s i t u a t i o n can be d e s c r i b e d as one u i t h the l e a s t p o s s i b l e degree of f r i c t i o n . P h i l i s t e r Ober d i r l ( l 8 9 9 ) i s s u b t i t l e d "das L e i d e n e i n e s K U n s t l e r s " and i l l u s t r a t e s the p i t f a l l s o f an a r t i s t ' s m a r r i a g e . N i k o l a u s Sandtner i s a s u c c e s s f u l a r t i s t i n B e r l i n , 35 " e i n s p S t e n t u i c k e l t e r , s c h u e r e r K U n s t l e r , " uho m a r r i e s the daughter o f a g e n e r a l . As a r e t i r e d o f f i c e r u i t h a c o n s i d e r a b l e income from h i s p a i n t i n g , Sandtner i s " s a l o n -f S h i g , " d e s p i t e the m i s g i v i n g s of h i s u i f e ' s f a m i l y about h i s o c c u p a t i o n . G e n e r a l von O e v e l h o r s t uarns him uhen he asks f o r Vera's hand t h a t she i s a " L u s t i k u s " uho u i l l not e a s i l y adapt to S a n d t n e r ' s q u i e t , u i t h d r a u n l i f e , but Sandtner f e e l s t h a t she must l o v e him s u f f i c i e n t l y to f o r s a k e the s o c i a l u h i r l . A f t e r one year the m a r r i a g e has proved i t s e l f to be a t o t a l d i s a s t e r , and Sandtner asks f o r , and r e c e i v e s , the G e n e r a l ' s p e r m i s s i o n f o r a d i v o r c e . A l t h o u g h d i v o r c e uas 110 not r e g a r d e d l i g h t l y i n U i l h e l m i n i a n Germany, the G e n e r a l can see no p r o s p e c t of improvement i n the m a r r i a g e , and h i s c o n s ent p l a c e s him among a group o f i m p o r t a n t o l d e r c h a r a c t e r s uho i n s e v e r a l n o v e l s e x p r e s s the i m p o r t a n t message f o r the r e v i t a l i z a t i o n o f s o c i e t y ' s i n s t i t u t i o n s . These f i g u r e s are a l l s u c c e s s f u l , h i g h l y r e s p e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f the r u l i n g c l a s s , and i n t h e i r moderate, u n p r e j u d i c e d s t a n d s on major i s s u e s they are c l e a r l y Ompteda's m o u t h p i e c e s . They are houever not i d e a l i z e d , and Ompteda endous most of them u i t h e x t r e m e l y c o n s e r v a t i v e v i e u s on minor i s s u e s . Von O e v e l h o r s t admits t h a t he has no sympathy f o r a r t , and h i s o p i n i o n on a woman's r o l e i n m a r r i a g e : " E i n e v e r n O n f t i g e Frau s o l l t e den Uunsch i h r e s G a t ten e r f O l l e n — d e n Uunsch ganz 37 a l l e i n , " i s f a r more r e a c t i o n a r y than Ompteda's oun con-c e p t o f companionship and mutual a c c o m o d a t i o n , Major von Uerck i n Per z u e i t e S c h u s s , d e s p i t e a degree o f a r i s t o c r a t i c p r e j u d i c e so extreme t h a t he b a n i s h e s von Lflhne from h i s house f o r m a r r y i n g h i s h o u s e k e e p e r , v o i c e s Ompteda's v i e u s on the c e n t r a l i s s u e i n the n o v e l , the d u e l . Von H a r f f ' s commanding o f f i c e r ( P i e SOnde) g i v e s him a l e c t u r e on the n e c e s s i t y f o r a m a r r i a g e to be i n harmony u i t h the s o c i e t y i n u h i c h one must l i v e , u h i c h i s the f o r m u l a t i o n o f the n o v e l ' s i m p o r t , and P r o f e s s o r P i e t h o f f , uho d e l i n e a t e s f o r H a r f f the e x t e n t o f h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r h i s m i s t r e s s ' s u i c i d e , e x p r e s s e s uhat i s c l e a r l y Ompteda's oun summation 111 o f t he p r o b l e m , s i n c e a c c e p t a n c e o f D i e t h o f f ' s a d v i c e b r i n g s H a r f f peace o f mind. The essence o f Ompteda's message i n Eysen i s l i k e u i s e p l a c e d i n the mouth o f G e n e r a l R u d o l f von E y s e n , the most s u c c e s s f u l member o f h i s g e n e r a t i o n o f the f a m i l y . There are v e r y f e u "gentlemen o f l e i s u r e " among Ompteda's a r i s t o c r a t s : most are e i t h e r employed by the s t a t e i n the army or the c i v i l s e r v i c e , or e l s e they are f a r m e r s , and c o n s e q u e n t l y i n the m a j o r i t y o f cases the c h a r a c t e r s i n the n o v e l s do have d u t i e s , t o the demands o f u h i c h t h e y and t h e i r u i v e s must c o n f o r m . S i n c e the husband i s the one d i r e c t l y o b l i g a t e d t o p e r f o r m a duty and t h e r e b y s u p p o r t h i s f a m i l y , the u i f e i s the p a r t n e r uho must adapt t o the c o n d i t i o n s o f l i f e imposed by h i s c a r e e r . Simone i n Heimat  des Herzens has to adapt t o the l i f e o f an o f f i c e r ' s u i f e i n a p r o v i n c i a l g a r r i s o n , t o t h e f o r e i g n code o f duty and a l l the u n f a m i l i a r a s p e c t s o f d a i l y l i v i n g . Ompteda shous hou h i g h l y he v a l u e s such a d a p t a b i l i t y , and t h e s e l f l e s s l o v e t h a t prompts i t , by the uay i n u h i c h the l a d i e s o f the r e g i m e n t , i n i t i a l l y h o s t i l e t o , and j e a l o u s o f , the b e a u t i f u l F rench g i r l , a r e uon over by her genuine a t t e m p t to l o v e the u n l o v e l y toun and the s p a r t a n l i f e , so d i f f e r e n t from t h e l u s h n e s s o f s o u t h e r n F r a n c e . In h i s t r e a t m e n t o f the r o l e o f uomen, Ompteda r e v e a l s hou l i m i t e d a r e h i s a t t e m p t s to break out o f the c o n v e n t i o n a l s t e r e o t y p e s . He may p r o c l a i m i n t h e o r y t h a t the " t e u t s c h e D ungfrau" o f the U i l h e l m i n i a n e r a i s f r e e to c l i m b mountains and m i n g l e u i t h her male peers i n an u n f e t t e r e d atmosphere, but i n f a c t E r n s t Sturm has no more c o n t a c t u i t h t h e s e l i b e r a t e d young l a d i e s than u i t h the dubious Venus of the dark a l l e y s . S i n c e Ompteda's h e r o i n e s are r e s t r i c t e d i n t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s t o the d o m e s t i c s p h e r e , i t must be i n f e r r e d t h a t he c o n s i d e r e d t h i s to be the a p p r o p r i a t e r o l e f o r the German uoman. T h i s a t t i t u d e i s a r e f l e x i o n o f the c l a s s d i f f e r e n c e s i n U i l h e l m i a n Germany: F r e n s s e n ' s countryuomen uork a l o n g -s i d e t h e i r m e n f o l k , uhereas t h i s type o f a c t i v i t y i s almost unheard o f i n a r i s t o c r a t i c c i r c l e s . Only i n one i n s t a n c e , t h a t o f the younger F a b i a n i n E y s e n , does a young nobleman ta k e the k i n d o f u i f e — n o n - n o b l e , s t r o n g , and h e a l t h y — u h o has the c a p a c i t y and the u i l l i n g n e s s t o uork on the f a r m . F a b i a n i s a prime example o f Ompteda's v i s i o n o f n a t i o n a l r e b i r t h , f o r he i s the l a s t son o f a bankrupt f a m i l y uho must r e - e a r n a p o s i t i o n o f r e s p e c t i n s o c i e t y by pure hard u o r k . As such he i s Ompteda's answer to the c h a l l e n g e f l u n g doun f i f t y y e a r s b e f o r e by Gustav F r e y t a g i n S o i l  und Haben: ". . . d i e F a m i l i e , u e l c h e im Genusse e r s c h l a f f t , s o i l u i e d e r h e r u n t e r s i n k e n auf den Grund des V o l k s l e b e n s , 38 urn f r i s c h a u f s t e i g e n d e r K r a f t Raum zu machen." Ompteda c l e a r l y u i s h e s to remove the b a r r i e r s p r e v e n t i n g f u l l 113 p a r t i c i p a t i o n by women i n the l i f e o f the n a t i o n , but here as i n o t h e r a s p e c t s o f h i s concept o f r e b i r t h he i s hamstrung by h i s r e s p e c t f o r e x i s t i n g c o n v e n t i o n s . 3 u s t as P h i l i s t e r Ober d i r ! shows the d e s t r u c t i o n o f a m a r r i a g e as a r e s u l t o f the w i f e ' s i n a b i l i t y t o u n d e r s t a n d her husband's needs, Beniqna e x p l o r e s the husband's l a c k o f c o n s i d e r a t i o n as the r e a s o n f o r the breakdown. The n o v e l has s t r o n g p a r a l l e l s w i t h Fontane's E f f i B r i e s t , e x c e p t t h a t von D o b r i t z , i n c o n t r a s t t o I n s t e t t e n , l a c k s the mature s e r i o u s n e s s and c a p a c i t y f o r s o u l - s e a r c h i n g t h a t p r e v e n t s I n s t e t t e n from becoming a n e g a t i v e c h a r a c t e r . D o b r i t z ' a m b i t i o n i s s i m p l y an e x t e n s i o n o f the f r i v o l o u s v a n i t y t h a t , on t h e i r honeymoon, a l l o w s him w i t h o u t c o m p l a i n t to be f l e e c e d by a Viennese cab d r i v e r j u s t because he i s a d d r e s s e d as "Herr Baron." Benigna i s the i n d u l g e d c h i l d o f a former d i p l o m a t , uho g i v e s i n to her p l e a s t o marry D o b r i t z , d e s p i t e h i s r e s e r v a t i o n s about the e n t i r e f a m i l y . F a t h e r and son have the same " P u p p e n g e s i c h t , " s u p e r f i c i a l good l o o k s u h i c h mask s h a l l o u n e s s o f c h a r a c t e r . As i n F r e n s s e n ' s n o v e l s , h e r e d i t y i s o f prime i m p o r t a n c e i n the s h a p i n g o f c h a r a c t e r , a l t h o u g h Ompteda does not s t r e s s the r a c i a l h e r i t a g e to the same d e g r e e . Of the f o r t y c h a p t e r s i n the n o v e l , t u e n t y d e a l u i t h t h e i r m a r r i e d l i f e , u h i c h i s an i n d i c a t i o n o f the honesty o f Ompteda's i n t e n t to p a i n t a r e a l i s t i c p i c t u r e o f h i s oun segment o f s o c i e t y beyond the r o m a n t i c c l i c h e ' s of f a i r l a d i e s , d a s h i n g o f f i c e r s and e t e r n a l l o v e . The many i n c i d e n t s i n u h i c h D o b r i t z ' i n s u f f e r a b l e v a n i t y g r a d u a l l y erodes th e f o u n d a t i o n s of t h e i r m a r r i a g e r e p r e s e n t an a t t e m p t on Ompteda's p a r t t o i l l u s t r a t e the i m p o r t a n c e o f mutual c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n a r e l a t i o n s h i p . A sound m a r r i a g e i s f o r h i m , as f o r F r e n s s e n , an e s s e n t i a l i n g r e d i e n t i n a harmonious s o c i e t y : he v i e u s r e l a t i o n s betueen the d i f f e r e n t c l a s s e s i n the same l i g h t . B e n i g n a ' s a f f a i r u i t h von Thumen i s even more p e r f u n c t o r y than t h a t o f E f f i B r i e s t u i t h Crampas: d u r i n g a s l e i g h r i d e , i n u h i c h the echoes o f Fontane's n o v e l , u r i t t e n s i x t e e n y e a r s e a r l i e r , are u n m i s t a k e a b l e , Benigna asks von Thumen 39 t o be her f r i e n d , "dass i c h n i c h t ganz a l l e i n b i n . " There i s n o t even the i n t i m a t i o n o f p a s s i o n : l o n e l i n e s s i s the s o l e m o t i v e f o r the a f f a i r on Benigna's p a r t . The a f f a i r i t s e l f amounts to no more than a k i s s i n a c a r r i a g e , and ends a b r u p t l y uhen D o b r i t z ' mother asks von Thumen to l e a v e D r e s d e n . N e i t h e r here nor anyuhere e l s e i n h i s n o v e l s does Ompteda e x p l o r e the s e n s u a l i t y o f h i s h e r o i n e s . T h i s a s p e c t o f l i f e , u h i c h i s such a c e n t r a l f e a t u r e of F r e n s s e n ' s v i s i o n o f a r e b o r n n a t i o n , i s absent from Ompteda's because i t c o n f l i c t s too s h a r p l y u i t h the a c c e p t e d s t a n d a r d s o f h i s c l a s s . The end o f the n o v e l i s s i m i l a r l y i n f l u e n c e d by s o c i a l 115 c o n v e n t i o n . Benigna's f a t h e r t e l l s her o f h i s oun unhappy m a r r i a g e , u i t h u h i c h he has come to t e r m s , and r u l e s out d i v o r c e . Benigna i s to l i v e u i t h her p a r e n t s and b oth she and D o b r i t z are to l i v e t h e i r oun l i v e s . D e s p i t e the s y m b o l i c touch t h a t the s l a t e t a b l e t , on u h i c h Benigna had 40 u r i t t e n i n A r a b i c s c r i p t " I c h habe i h n so l i e b , " i s u i p e d c l e a n by the maid a t the end, the n o v e l does not have a p o e t i c e n d i n g . She i s o n l y t u e n t y uhen she u i t h d r a u s from the u o r l d by g o i n g back to her p a r e n t s ' c o u n t r y house. S i n c e Ompteda d e p i c t s her as a l i v e l y g i r l , i t i s h a r d l y c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t such r e n u n c i a t i o n u i l l be permanent, and y e t the s o c i a l p r o p r i e t i e s o f f e r her no o u t l e t f o r her e n e r g i e s u i t h i n her oun c i r c l e . A g a i n , d o m e s t i c l i f e , u h i c h amounts i n Benigna's case v i r t u a l l y t o i n c a r c e r a t i o n , appears as the o n l y p o s s i b l e a c c e p t a b l e c o u r s e once a g i r l has j o i n e d the r a nks o f German u i v e s and m o t h e r s . D o m e s t i c i t y , h o u e v e r , i s by no means a p u r e l y female d r i v e , and m a r r i a g e i n the n o v e l s i s f r e q u e n t l y m o t i v a t e d to a l a r g e e x t e n t by a d e s i r e t o found a home. U h i l e as a m o t i f t h i s i s n e i t h e r neu nor p e c u l i a r to the "Heimatroman" i t i l l u s t r a t e s the n a t u r e o f the n a t i o n a l r e b i r t h t h a t the genre demanded: c o n s e r v a t i v e i n i t s championship o f t r a d i t i o n a l elements i n the s t a t e , such as the f a m i l y , and r e v o l u t i o n a r y o n l y i n i t s advocacy o f the removal o - t i f i c i a l s o c i a l and economic b a r r i e r s to p e r s o n a l happine: Ompteda does not 116 s t r e s s the b e n e f i t s o f such m a r r i a g e s t o the s t a t e to the same degree as F r e n s s e n , but the n a t u r e o f the c h a r a c t e r s i n v o l v e d i s such t h a t the t r a n s m i s s i o n o f t h e i r q u a l i t i e s t o the next g e n e r a t i o n can o n l y be c o n s t r u c t i v e . Among many o f the most p o s i t i v e c h a r a c t e r s , S y l v e s t e r von Geyer, C S c i l i e von S a r r y n , F r i t z ( H e r z e l o i d e ) and S a n d t n e r , t h i s d e s i r e f o r h e a r t h and home precedes the i n i t i a l e n c o u n t e r u i t h the f u t u r e mate, S y l v e s t e r von Geyer's l o v e f o r L i n e von E l d e n f l e t h does l i t t l e more than add poignancy t o h i s d e a t h , u h i c h o c c u r s o n l y days a f t e r h i s engagement. For y e a r s he has endured the p o v e r t y and l o n e l i n e s s o f b e i n g a l i e u t e n a n t i n an obscure p r o v i n c i a l i n f a n t r y r e g i m e n t , dreaming o f a home o f h i s oun, but f i n a n c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s make t h i s v i r t u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e . He f a l l s i n l o v e u i t h L i n e and q u i c k l y p r o p o s e s , d e s p i t e the p r o s p e c t o f s e v e r a l y e a r s1 u a i t . Engagement i n the n o v e l s r a r e l y f o l l o u s an extended c o u r t s h i p , and Sandtner i s an example o f hou the s o c i a l p r o p r i e t i e s o f the u o r l d b e f o r e the Gre a t Uar v i r t u a l l y p r e c l u d e d t h a t young l o v e r s u o u l d get to knou each o t h e r on a l e v e l deeper than the c o n v e r s a t i o n o f the b a l l r o o m or the d r a u i n g room, q u i t e a p a r t from any p h y s i c a l c o n t a c t . S e x u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , i n sharp c o n t r a s t t o the m u c h - c r i t i c i z e d freedom o f F r e n s s e n ' s f a r m e r s , are r e s t r i c t e d e n t i r e l y t o those a f f a i r s u h i c h t a k e p l a c e beyond the s o c i a l frameuork , 117 such as betueen H a r f f and Dagmar i n Die Stlnde. In t h i s i n s t a n c e the C o l o n e l t e l l s H a r f f t h a t the main r e a s o n t h a t g i r l s from another c l a s s make u n s u i t a b l e mates i s t h e i r l a c k o f proper s u p e r v i s i o n , u h i c h a f f o r d s them the o p p o r t u n i t y , d e n i e d t o the daug h t e r s o f the a r i s t o c r a c y , o f b e i n g l e d a s t r a y . A l t h o u g h Ompteda speaks o f the d e s i r a b i l i t y o f n a t u r a l companionship betueen the sexes i n the f o r e u o r d to E x c e l s i o r I he f a i l s to drau the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t s e x u a l c o n t a c t i s the e q u a l l y n a t u r a l and i n e v i t a b l e c o n c o m i t a n t o f the removal o f a r t i f i c i a l b a r r i e r s . The absence o f any mention o f the f r u s t r a t i o n s s u f f e r e d by young peo p l e as a r e s u l t o f t h i s code i n d i c a t e s t h a t Ompteda r e g a r d e d t h i s m o r a l i t y as a s e l f -e v i d e n t and immutable f a c e t o f u p p e r - c l a s s l i f e , and t h a t he t h e r e f o r e r e g a r d e d change here as both u n t h i n k a b l e and u n n e c e s s a r y . On the s u b j e c t o f d i v o r c e , h o u e v e r , he i s p r e p a r e d t o advocate a l i m i t e d degree o f freedom. In P h i l i s t e r Ober  d i r ! d i v o r c e i s p e r m i t t e d because no one i s i n j u r e d as a r e -s u l t , Sandtner agrees to the G e n e r a l ' s r e q u e s t t h a t he d e c l a r e h i m s e l f the g u i l t y p a r t y , s i n c e the i n e v i t a b l e g o s s i p i s o f no consequence to him, "uHhrend, uenn d i e Frau S c h u l d bekame, l e i c h t e i n Hakel auf ihrem Ruf s i t z e n b l e i b e n kHnnte, 41 den s i e n i c h t v e r d i e n t habe." The degree of i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y i s j u s t as g r e a t betueen D o b r i t z and B e n i g n a , and y e t d i v o r c e 118 i s out o f the q u e s t i o n . The r e a s o n , though u n e x p l a i n e d i n t h a t n o v e l , uhere Benigna's f a t h e r t a l k s o n l y o f renun-c i a t i o n , i s not to be found i n a change of h e a r t on Ompteda's p a r t betueen 1899 and 1910, but r a t h e r i s s u g g e s t e d by P r o f e s s o r D i e t h o f f a t the end o f Die SOnde. He e x p l a i n s to H a r f f t h a t t h e r e i s no m o r a l i t y i n s t a y i n g u i t h an u n l o v e d p a r t n e r , f o r the torment o f one u o u l d be a c o n s t a n t i n s u l t t o the o t h e r . Only uhen the u n i o n has produced c h i l d r e n , as i s the case i n B e n i q n a , must the j o i n t r e s p o n -s i b i l i t y be borne t o g e t h e r : "das d a r f d i e m e n s c h l i c h e 42 G e s e l l s c h a f t v e r l a n g e n . " That t h i s i s a m o r a l i t y o f appearance r a t h e r than c o n v i c t i o n i s o b v i o u s i n t h a t , uhen s e p a r a t e d , Benigna and D o b r i t z are not s h a r i n g i n the up-b r i n g i n g o f the c h i l d . The p e r m i s s i b i l i t y o f s e p a r a t i o n d e s t r o y s even the argument t h a t d i v o r c e i s i m p o s s i b l e uhere t h e r e i s a s o c i a l l y u s e f u l p u r p o s e , such as c h i l d -r e a r i n g , to be s e r v e d by s t a y i n g t o g e t h e r . One must c o n c l u d e t h a t Ompteda's v i e u s on sex and d i v o r c e uere so d e t e r m i n e d by uhat uas a c c e p t a b l e t o h i s oun c l a s s a t t h a t time t h a t he f e l t i t u n n e c e s s a r y to advocate a g r e a t e r degree o f freedom. A l t h o u g h Benigna's f a t e uas s h a r e d by thousands o f her c l a s s , he p l a c e d the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f the f a b r i c of s o c i e t y ahead o f i n d i v i d u a l h a p p i n e s s . 119 Man and S o c i e t y a) M o r a l i t y and Honour: The i n c i d e n t i n Per z u e i t e Schuss i n u h i c h Major von Uerck argues v i o l e n t l y u i t h Herr von LOhne about the l a t t e r ' s m a r r i a g e to h i s h o u s e k e e p e r , has a p a r a l l e l i n a s h o r t s t o r y e n t i t l e d "Pas M o r a l i s c h e . " In t h i s s t o r y Ompteda emerges from the u i n g s and t a k e s a s t a n d a g a i n s t the p r e v a i l i n g m o r a l i t y . The n a r r a t o r meets an o l d army f r i e n d , C a p t a i n von L ang, uho has j u s t r e c e i v e d h i s d i s c h a r g e . For f i f t e e n y e a r s he has been l i v i n g u i t h h i s h o u s e k e e p e r , the l o v e o f h i s y o u t h , but 43 nou he c o n s i d e r s t h a t i t u o u l d be "gegen s e i n e A n s i c h t e n " to marry h e r . The n a r r a t o r r e a l i z e s t h a t von Lang needs to m a r r y , or e l s e the boredom of r e t i r e m e n t u i l l r u i n the r e s t o f h i s l i f e , as u e l l as the f a c t t h a t the uoman has s a c r i f i c e d her youth to him, and nou r i s k s l o s i n g e v e r y t h i n g . At the end o f the s t o r y , a f t e r von Lang has been p e r -suaded t o marry h e r , the uoman remarks to the n a r r a t o r : "Aber 44 nun u i r d a l l e s r e i n . " The n a r r a t o r , uho presumably r e p r e -s e n t s Ompteda's oun v i e u , r e p l i e s t o t h i s i m p l i c a t i o n t h a t the u n s a n c t i o n e d l i a s o n uas u n c l e a n u i t h the u o r d s : "Es kommt nur d a r a u f an, u i e man s i c h s e l b s t f U h l t . Das M o r a l -i s c h e v e r s t e h t s i c h immer von s e l b s t . " ^ Ompteda's concept o f m o r a l i t y i s t h e r e f o r e e n t i r e l y s u b j e c t i v e : i t e x i s t s o n l y i n the c o n s c i e n c e o f the i n d i v i d u a l . 120 I t i s a s i t u a t i o n a l e t h i c , s i n c e any a c t i o n can be termed good or bad, depending on i t s consequences, u h i c h d e t e r m i n e , the i n d i v i d u a l ' s a t t i t u d e t o the a c t i o n . Ompteda's purpose i s t o remove m o r a l i t y from the i m p e r s o n a l sphere o f taboo and c o n v e n t i o n and make i t dependent on human c r i t e r i a . The removal o f the c a s t - i r o n p r e j u d i c e s , such as the one t h a t o n l y a v i r g i n uas a f i t u i f e f o r an o f f i c e r , u h i c h e x c l u d e d even those uomen f o r the l o s s o f uhose v i r g i n i t y he uas p e r s o n a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e , u o u l d c l e a r l y have a bene-f i c i a l e f f e c t on the r e v i t a l i z a t i o n o f the a r i s t o c r a c y , but Ompteda never goes so f a r as t o i s s u e an o u t r i g h t c h a l l e n g e to the p r e v a i l i n g code, as F r e n s s e n does i n h i s f r o n t a l a t t a c k on C h r i s t i a n i t y and s e x u a l r e s t r a i n t s i n H i l l i g e n l e i . In o r d e r t o have any hope o f r e a c h i n g h i s a u d i e n c e , composed i n l a r g e p a r t o f those f o r uhom the code uas a uay o f l i f e , Ompteda's a t t e m p t s a t r e f o r m i n g the e t h i c o f h i s c l a s s had to t a k e the form o f subdued exposure o f i n j u s t i c e . *n u e r z u e i t e Schuss Ompteda approaches the s u b j e c t o f the d u e l i n the same manner. The d u e l betueen C h r i s t o p h von U e r c k , the M a j o r ' s s o n , and T r a u g o t t von B r e i t s a m t e r u h i c h forms the p l o t o f the n o v e l , f a i l s t o s a t i s f y h onour, f o r T r a u g o t t ' s f i r s t s h o t m i s s e s and C h r i s t o p h c o l l a p s e s and d i e s o f a h e a r t a t t a c k . A l t h o u g h he i s unaware t h a t T r a u g o t t i s h i s r e a l f a t h e r , C h r i s t o p h Renatus i s a prime example of the b e n e f i t s t o be d e r i v e d from the i n t r o d u c t i o n of neu 121 b l o o d i n t o the o l d f a m i l i e s . He p o s s e s s e s the a b i l i t y o f the B r e i t s a m t e r s and the t r a d i t i o n a l a r i s t o c r a t i c v a l u e s . D e s p i t e t h a t f a c t t h a t Ompteda c l e a r l y r e g a r d s the o l d n o b i l -i t y as "das ROckenmark i n P r e u s s e n , " ^ i t i s i m p o r t a n t f o r the message of t h i s n o v e l t h a t i t i s p r e c i s e l y the e x a g g e r a t e d adherence t o the o u t d a t e d a r i s t o c r a t i c code o f honour t h a t d e s t r o y s h i s p r o m i s i n g c a r e e r by p l a c i n g him i n a p o s i t i o n uhere s u i c i d e seems the o n l y h o n o u r a b l e s o l u t i o n . The heated debate among the B r e i t s a m t e r f a m i l y , uhose n o b i l i t y i s o n l y tuo g e n e r a t i o n s o l d , over the i n s u l t to T r a u g o t t by C h r i s t o p h Renatus a t the " P o l t e r a b e n d " i l l u s -t r a t e s the e x t e n t to u h i c h the neu a r i s t o c r a c y absorbed the v a l u e s o f the o l d . T r a u g o t t ' s b r o t h e r - i n - l a u , a l i e u t e n a n t -c o l o n e l , a c c e p t s the system i n i t s e n t i r e t y : U i r haben ueder d i e Macht, noch den B e r u f , an unseren g e s e l l s c h a f t l i c h e n ZustMnden e t u a s zu Mndern. Uenn du i n e i n e r K a s t e b i s t und b l e i b e n u i l l s t , musst du d i c h dem f i l g e n , u i e d i e K a s t e d e n k t . U o l l t e n u i r das System e i n f U h r e n des r u h i g e n E i n s t e c k e n s , dann uUrden u i r a u f h S r e n zu s e i n , uas u i r s i n d . 47 D e s p i t e the a g g r e s s i v e c l a i m o f the t h i r d s e n t e n c e t o b e l o n g to the c a s t e , the second s e n t e n c e b e t r a y s the newly-a c q u i r e d p o s i t i o n . The p o s i t i o n o f the B r e i t s a m t e r s i s s t i l l t oo neu and too i n s e c u r e — b e c a u s e t h e r e are s t i l l p e o p l e uho remember the f a m i l y ' s b e g i n n i n g s — t o p e r m i t them to advocate any r e v i s i o n o f the code. The v e r y newness of t h e i r t i t l e r o b s them of any power to change the code, and i m p l i c i t i n the speech i s the parvenu's s e l f - s a t i s f a c t i o n a t h i s neu 122 s t a t u s . T r a u g o t t r e f u s e s to c h a l l e n g e C h r i s t o p h Renatus s i m p l y because the demands of humanity, t h a t a man cannot f i r e on h i s s o n , have precedence over any c l a i m s t h a t the code may make, T r a u g o t t , uho, l i k e Gideon i n Ey s e n , p o s s e s s e s the p o l i s h and s a v o i r - f a i r e o f the born a r i s t o c r a t , d e s p i t e t h e r e l a t i v e newness o f the f a m i l y u e a l t h , i s s u f f i c i e n t l y s e c u r e i n h i s p o s i t i o n i n the c a s t e to a c t u i t h a g r e a t e r degree o f freedom, and does not f e e l con-s t r a i n e d t o obey the code a t any p r i c e . The a t t i t u d e o f Major von Uerck i l l u s t r a t e s a g a i n Ompteda's approach to h i s g o a l , the r e v i t a l i z a t i o n o f the a r i s t o c r a c y . A s p e c t s o f the code are c l e a r l y i n need of m o d i f i c a t i o n , but here too a f r o n t a l a t t a c k u o u l d s e r v e o n l y to brand the aut h o r as a d e c l a s s e ' l i b e r a l and t h e r e b y d e s t r o y h i s c r e d i b i l i t y . Man Uerck b e g i n s by p l a c i n g h i m s e l f f i r m l y u i t h i n the a r i s t o c r a t i c t r a d i t i o n uhen he j u s t i f i e s h i s r e f u s a l t o f i r e on T r a u g o t t i n the f i n a l d u e l : C h r i s t o p h R e n a t u s , a f t e r h e a r i n g from Eva t h a t T r a u g o t t i s h i s f a t h e r , a c c e p t s the second s e n t by him i n a g e s t u r e o f r e c o n c i l i a t i o n and then s h o o t s h i m s e l f . But then the Major moves beyond the code to a p o s i t i o n t h a t r e c o g n i s e s the g e n e r a l demands o f humanity: I c h musste das Recht haben, das deutsche R e c h t , das M a n n e s r e c h t , dem S c h u f t gegendJberzustehen! Aber a l s i c h d astand . . . . Mein Herr und G o t t , i c h danke d i r , dass du mir d i e K r a f t gegeben h a s t und k e i n e S c h u l d Ober mich kommen l i e s s e s t . Amen, 48 123 The n o v e l exposes as doubly f a l s e the j u s t i f i c a t i o n of the d u e l as an i n s t i t u t i o n advanced i n the Uerck house-h o l d a t the b e g i n n i n g : t h a t i t ensures p r i v a c y by p r e v e n t i n g the p u b l i c s p e c t a c l e o f a c i v i l s u i t f o r i n s u l t , and t h a t i t p r o v i d e s s a t i s f a c t i o n i n m a t t e r s uhere "das Gesetz n i c h t so ahndet, dass von e i n e r u i r k l i c h e n SUhne d i e Rede s e i n 49 k f l n n t e . " Uhen the n o v e l opens E v a , uho i s p r e g n a n t , i s not t o l d o f the d u e l , but r e a d s about i t i n a l i b e r a l B e r l i n n e u s p a p e r . The p r i v a t e n a t u r e o f the d u e l i s t h e r e b y negated even b e f o r e i t i s advanced as a j u s t i f i c a t i o n . The i d e a t h a t the death o f one o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s amounts to an a p p r o p r i a t e p r o p i t i a t i o n f o r an i n s u l t r e c e i v e d i s shoun as b e i n g e q u a l l y u n t r u e . The v i c t o r a c q u i r e s a moral g u i l t t h a t overshadous the " s a t i s f a c t i o n " o b t a i n e d . In Eysen the d u e l betueen the c h a m b e r l a i n F a b i a n and h i s enemy a t c o u r t , Z u c k e r o d e , has a t r a g i - c o m i c a i r about i t . The l i t t l e p r i n c e l y c o u r t i s a comic-opera background to Fa b i a n ' s p o i n t l e s s death and the r e s u l t a n t p l i g h t o f h i s f a m i l y . Ompteda's p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the d u e l as both i n e f f e c t i v e and m o r a l l y urong u o u l d be more p e r s u a s i v e t o an a r i s t o c r a t i c a udience s i n c e i t does not a t t a c k i t on i n t e l l e c t u a l grounds as an a t a v i s t i c remnant o f the m i d d l e a g e s , u h i c h u o u l d cause such r e a d e r s merely to v a l u e i t more h i g h l y as an element o f a proud t r a d i t i o n , but on p r a g m a t i c and moral g r o u n d s . 124 b) R e l i g i o n : Major von Uerck's o u t c r y , "Mein Herr und G o t t , " as u e l l as the u h o l e q u e s t i o n o f the m o r a l i t y o f t a k i n g l i f e i n r e v e n g e , r a i s e s the q u e s t i o n of Ompteda's a t t i t u d e to r e l i g i o n . One might e x p e c t t h a t , i n the c o n t e x t o f a r e v i v a l o f a r i s t o c r a t i c v a l u e s , he u o u l d a t t a c h c o n s i d e r a b l e i m p o r t a n c e to a r e l i g i o u s f o u n d a t i o n , not o n l y f o r the code o f the c a s t e , but f o r the v e r y j u s t i f i c a t i o n o f a r i s -t o c r a t i c p r i v i l e g e ; not even the p r i n c i p l e of. "von G o t t e s Gnaden," h o u e v e r , f i n d s an e x p l i c i t defence i n the n o v e l s . I m p l i c i t l y , the emphasis on a n o b i l i t y uon by the e f f o r t s o f former g e n e r a t i o n s negates the i d e a t h a t the Grace o f God uas s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n v o l v e d i n the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a r i s t o c r a t i c p r i v i l e g e s , and the c a l l t o the p r e s e n t g e n e r a t i o n i s f o r g r e a t e r e f f o r t r a t h e r than i n c r e a s e d p i e t y . Throughout the n o v e l s one i s reminded o f the E n g l i s h o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t the Church o f England i s the s p i r i t u a l arm o f the C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t y , f o r the i m p o r t a n t c h a r a c t e r s , the ones uho are the mouthpieces f o r Ompteda's message, mention r e l i g i o n o n l y u i t h i n the c o n t e x t o f the c l i c h e s o f t h r o n e and a l t a r . The o l d m i n i s t e r i n Eysen g i v e s the e x h o r t a t i o n o f "Habet d i e Brtider l i e b , f i l r c h t e t G o t t , 50 e h r e t den KHnig." The b i b l i c a l f o r m u l a empties the 125 a d m o n i t i o n o f any f o r c e by the a r c h a i c language t h a t r e n d e r s i t remote from a t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y a p p l i c a t i o n . Major von Uerck f u r t h e r reduces the i m p o r t a n c e o f r e l i g i o n by h i s comment t o C h r i s t o p h Renatus: "Es g i b t a d e l i g e S c h u e i n i g e l und b O r g e r l i c h e S c h u f t e ! Am Ende kommt es nur d a r a u f a n , dass e i n e r e i n a n s t M n d i g e r Mensch i s t und 51 den r e c h t e n Glauben h a t ! " "Glauben" here i s c l e a r l y synonymous u i t h "Gesinnung:" i t r e p r e s e n t s the p r o p e r s e t of v a l u e s , u i t h o u t u h i c h one cannot be " e i n a n s t M n d i g e r Mensch." Membership i n the P r o t e s t a n t Church i s as much a p a r t o f the h e r i t a g e o f Ompteda's J u n k e r s as the "von" i n t h e i r names, but the e x e r c i s e o f r e l i g i o n i s p e r i p h e r a l t o t h e l i v e s o f even the exemplary c h a r a c t e r s . Major von Uerck's r e f u s a l t o f i r e on B r e i t s a m t e r , a l t h o u g h phrased i n r e l i g i o u s t e r m s , i s based on C h r i s t i a n d o c t r i n e o n l y i n s o f a r as h i s awareness o f the urong he u o u l d t h e r e b y commit c o i n c i d e s u i t h C h r i s t i a n t e a c h i n g . He c e r t a i n l y c o n s i d e r s h i m s e l f a C h r i s t i a n gentleman t h r o u g h o u t the n o v e l , and y e t i t i s o n l y u i t h the d u e l i n g p i s t o l i n h i s hand t h a t he r e j e c t s the time-honoured t r a d i t i o n . U h i l e the r e l i g i o u s p h r a s i n g o f von Uerck's r e j e c t i o n o f the d u e l adds an a d d i t i o n a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n t o the moral o b j e c t i o n s , i t cannot be s a i d t h a t he r e c e i v e s a r e l i g i o u s i n s i g h t . H i s r e l i g i o u s f a i t h undergoes no r e v i t a l i z a t i o n , i n d e e d t h e r e i s no i n d i c a t i o n u h a t e v e r t h a t he, or Ompteda, 126 f e e l any need f o r such a change: Ompteda h e r e , as e l s e w h e r e , i s s i m p l y o p p o s i n g one t r a d i t i o n u i t h a n o t h e r , both n o b l e r and o l d e r . For him, r e l i g i o n i s one a s p e c t o f the t r a d i t i o n a l a r i s t o c r a t i c v a l u e s , but not one from u h i c h a r e v i v a l o f the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the c l a s s may be g e n e r a t e d . c) The C a s t e : The p i c t u r e o f German s o c i e t y p r e s e n t e d by Ompteda i n the n o v e l s r a r e l y goes beyond the u o r l d o f the a r i s t o c r a c y and the upper m i d d l e c l a s s . The d e s c r i p t i o n o f the p e r f e c t u i f e f o r the s c i o n o f an o l d P r u s s i a n f a m i l y i n Per z u e i t e Schuss d e l i n e a t e s the b o u n d a r i e s o f t h i s u o r l d : Aus e i n e r j e n e r a l t e n p r e u s s i s c h e n F a m i l i e n s o l l t e s i e s e i n , uo der Onkel am Hof u a r , der V a t e r im Herrenhause oder im R e i c h s t a g e s a s s , d i e BrOder i n der G a r d e k a v e l l e r i e d i e n t e n , l / e t t e r n i n den F l i n i s t e r i e n P r e u s s e n , und i n f e r n e n LSndern das R e i c h d i e n t e n . 52 By the t i m e U i l h e l m I I ascended the t h r o n e i n 1889 h o u e v e r , the p re-eminent p o s i t i o n o f such f a m i l i e s uas s e v e r e l y e r o d e d , l a r g e l y because t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l d i s d a i n o f employ-ment o u t s i d e the s e r v i c e o f the s t a t e e x c l u d e d them from the s o u r c e s o f neu u e a l t h , the r e s u l t o f i n d u s t r i a l development, u h i c h uas c r e a t i n g i t s oun a r i s t o c r a c y . In t u o n o v e l s i n p a r t i c u l a r , Per z u e i t e Schuss and E y s e n , Ompteda comes to terms u i t h t h i s problem by i s s u i n g a c a l l t o the o l d a r i s t o c r a c y t o r e - e a r n t h e i r p r i v i l e g e d p o s i t i o n 127 by f a c i n g up to the c h a l l e n g e s o f a neu age. Ompteda's co n c e r n f o r the n a t i o n as a u h o l e i s r e f l e c t e d i n h i s v i e u t h a t many o f the p r e s e n t g e n e r a t i o n , by c o n t i n u i n g t o s l e e p upon the l a u r e l s g a r n e r e d by t h e i r f o r e b e a r s , a r e condemning t h e i r s u c c e s s o r s to penury and i m p o t e n c e , and a t the same time d e p r i v i n g t h e n a t i o n o f t r a d i t i o n s and e x p e r i e n c e a c q u i r e d t h r o u g h the c e n t u r i e s . In Per z u e i t e Schuss the Uerck f a m i l y r e p r e s e n t s the d e c l i n i n g a r i s t o c r a c y , and the neuly-ennobled B r e i t s a m t e r s the r i s i n g c l a s s uhose c l a i m t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the l e a d e r s h i p o f the n a t i o n r e s t s upon t h e i r c a p i t a l . Old Major von Uerck i s a p r o t o t y p i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f h i s c l a s s : Er s a s s i n a l i e n Ausschdlssen, l e i t e t e a l l e L a n d u i r t -s c h a f t s t a g e , h a t t e d i e fUhrende Stimme im F o h l e n a u f -z u c h t s v e r e i n , s t a n d an der S p i t z e j e g l i c h e r Armen-p f l e g e und F U r s o r g e , aus der ub erzeugung h e r a u s , dass den B e s i t z e n d e n d o p p e l t e P f l i c h t e n a u f e r l e g t s e i e n . • • . E i n Mann, der nur e i n e s g e l t e n l i e s s : A r b e i t . . . . So uar e r , s e l b s t von e i s e r n e r G e s u n d h e i t , e m p f l r t , a l s C h r i s t o p h den A b s c h i e d nahm, u e i l er den A n s t r e n g -ungen des P i e n s t e s s i c h n i c h t geuachsen f t i h l t e . 53 The emphasis here i s c l e a r l y on the d u t i e s , r a t h e r than the p r i v i l e g e s o f n o b l e b i r t h . P e s p i t e t h e i r a p p a r e n t l y u n a s s a i l a b l e p o s i t i o n h o u e v e r , the U e r c k s are no l o n g e r f u l l y i n command o f t h e i r oun d e s t i n y . The mortgages t o B H r u a l d e , t h e i r o l d e s t a t e , have been a c q u i r e d by the B r e i t -s a m t e r s , uho nou l i v e i n the baroque " S c h l o s s " u h i l e t h e U e r c k s l i v e on the s m a l l a d j a c e n t f a r m . Ompteda uses s m a l l d e t a i l s t o b r i n g out the d i f f e r e n c e s betueen th e tuo 1 28 f a m i l i e s : the B r e i t s a m t e r1s c a r r i a g e i s " t e u e r , aber s c h l e c h t 54 angespannt," a s t a t e of a f f a i r s u n t h i n k a b l e i n an o l d m i l i t a r y and f a r m i n g f a m i l y ; E h r e n r e i c h von B r e i t s a m t e r , 55 the f a m i l y p a t r i a r c h , i s " e i n u e n i g zu h H f l i c h , " i n c o n t r a s t t o Major von Uerck's b l u n t n e s s . The second g e n e r a t i o n of each f a m i l y i l l u s t r a t e s the d i f f e r e n c e more f u l l y . T r a u g o t t von B r e i t s a m t e r p e r s o n i f i e s the b r o ader o u t l o o k and i n t e r n a t i o n a l t a s t e o f the neu a r i s t o c r a c y u i t h h i s E n g l i s h u i f e and h i s r e f u s a l t o f o l l o u the code i f i t means f i r i n g on h i s oun s o n . A l t h o u g h he has the a r i s t o c r a t ' s p o l i s h e d manners u h i c h h i s f a t h e r l a c k s , T r a u g o t t i s c l e a r l y a c a p a b l e businessman as u e l l . I f T r a u g o t t r e p r e s e n t s an advance f o r the B r e i t s a m t e r s i n p o l i s h u i t h o u t the l o s s o f the t r a d i t i o n a l f a m i l y f i n a n -c i a l a b i l i t y , h i s r i v a l C h r i s t o p h von Uerck i l l u s t r a t e s t he d e c l i n e o f the o l d a r i s t o c r a c y . Even the p h y s i c a l toughness of h i s m a r t i a l a n c e s t o r s i s l a c k i n g , and a l t h o u g h the Major uanted him to marry a c o n v e n t i o n a l P r u s s i a n g i r l t o c o u n t e r -a c t h i s q u i e t n a t u r e and r e s t o r e the o l d Uerck energy i n s u c c e e d i n g g e n e r a t i o n s , C h r i s t o p h , l i k e Thomas Buddenbrook, m a r r i e s a Dutch g i r l . Eva van der G e l l e n i s q u i e t and u i t h d r a u n , and makes no attempt to oppose the M a j o r ' s d e s i r e to have C h r i s t o p h Renatus r a i s e d i n the P r u s s i a n manner as h e i r t o the e s t a t e . The u l t i m a t e i r o n y i s t h a t C h r i s t o p h R e n a t u s , as the son o f Eva and T r a u g o t t , i s q u i t e a t home i n 129 h i s r o l e o f "heranuachsender Dunker," to the e x t e n t o f s a c r i f i c i n g h i s l i f e f o r the i d e a l s o f the c a s t e , d e s p i t e h i s B r e i t s a m t e r h e r i t a g e o f t h r i f t and m a t h e m a t i c a l a b i l i t y . The p o i n t t h a t the i n t e r e s t s o f the o l d f a m i l i e s and the neu a r i s t o c r a c y c o i n c i d e , and t h a t the neucomers are u o r t h y o f r e s p e c t as e q u a l s , i s one o f the main themes of E y s e n , a huge canvas on u h i c h Ompteda p a i n t s an i m p r e s s i v e panorama o f the German upper c l a s s b e f o r e the Great Uar and makes most s t r o n g l y h i s p l e a f o r i t s r e j u v e n a t i o n . The d e c l i n e o f a f a m i l y t h a t has s e r v e d P r u s s i a from i t s b e g i n n i n g s , and t r a c e s i t s n o b i l i t y back e i g h t hundred y e a r s i s d e p i c t e d over the c r i t i c a l decade and a h a l f from 18B0 t o 1895, as the i n d u s t r i a l age e r a s e d the l a s t v e s t i g e s o f the f e u d a l P r u s s i a i n u h i c h such f a m i l i e s f l o u r i s h e d . Three g e n e r a t i o n s are shoun: the M i n i s t e r , h i s nepheus, and t h e i r s o n s , the c o n t e m p o r a r i e s o f 38rn U h l , K l a u s Baas and Uassermann's c h a r a c t e r s born around 1880. The M i n i s t e r d i e s a t t h e same time as K a i s e r U i l h e l m I , s i g n i f y i n g the end o f an e r a : " M i t b e i d e n sank e i n e ganze Z e i t i n s Grab."^ S i n c e he i s a l m o s t e i g h t y uhen the n o v e l opens, h i s impor-t a n c e i s l a r g e l y s y m b o l i c o f the p o s i t i o n a c h i e v e d by the f a m i l y . As a former c o l l e a g u e o f B i s m a r c k , he r e p r e s e n t s the a l l i a n c e o f t h r o n e and n o b i l i t y u h i c h g u i d e d P r u s s i a to European p r e - e m i n e n c e , and a l s o the l e a d i n g , but endangered p o s i t i o n o f the a r i s t o c r a c y i n the s t a t e . The M i n i s t e r i s the o n l y one o f h i s b r o t h e r s s t i l l l i v i n g i n 1880, and o f h i s f i v e nepheus, o n l y tuo demonstrate the t r a d i t i o n a l f a m i l y v i g o u r : R u d o l f and L u d u i g . A l t h o u g h t r a d e uas not c o n s i d e r e d a s u i t a b l e c a r e e r f o r a member o f such a f a m i l y , L u d u i g i s an exemplary c h a r a c t e r because o f h i s s u c c e s s , u h i c h Ompteda f e e l s s h o u l d be emulated by more o f h i s c l a s s , u h i l e CMsar, the a c t o r , appears i n a much l e s s f a v o u r a b l e l i g h t because o f h i s u n s u i t a b l e c a r e e r , even though he a c q u i r e s the t i t l e o f " H o f r a t " at the end o f the n o v e l . E r n s t l e a v e s the e s t a t e a t P o i z e i n the P r i g n i t z so burdened u i t h debts th'at i t must be s o l d , and F a b i a n spends a f u t i l e e x i s t e n c e at the c o u r t o f a p e t t y p r i n c e u n t i l he i s k i l l e d i n an e q u a l l y f u t i l e d u e l . The p e r i l o u s p o s i t i o n o f the a r i s t o c r a c y at the t u r n o f the c e n t u r y i s most c l e a r l y seen i n the c h i l d r e n o f the M i n i s t e r ' s nepheus. E r n s t ' s sons f o l l o u the t r a d i t i o n a l o f f i c e r ' s c a r e e r , u n t i l the e l d e r , C h r i s t i , amasses such a mountain o f debts t h a t he i s f o r c e d t o f l e e to A m e r i c a . Both boys j o i n a c a v a l r y r e g i m e n t , a l t h o u g h the income from the e s t a t e cannot b e g i n to s u p p o r t such l u x u r y , and C h r i s t i soon f a l l s i n t o d i s a s t r o u s l y bad company. In America he m a r r i e s a f o r t y - f o u r year o l d p a r t n e g r e s s , uhose " F e h l e r 57 im P e d i g r e e " i s houever b a l a n c e d by a c o n s i d e r a b l e f o r t u n e . For a l l h i s neu u e a l t h , C h r i s t i remains f o r e v e r l o s t to the f a m i l y . F a b i a n , E r n s t ' s second s o n , r e s i g n s h i s commission 131 a f t e r h i s f a t h e r ' s d e a t h , and d e v e l o p s i n t o a competent, h a r d w o r k i n g farmer i n the b e s t t r a d i t i o n of F r e n s s e n ' s h e r o e s . F a b i a n m a i n t a i n s the t r a d i t i o n a l t i e s w i t h the l a n d , but w i t h modern methods and Gideon's c a p i t a l he makes P o l t z e pay. He i s an exemplary c h a r a c t e r i n the n o v e l i n t h a t he adapts to the changed and p o t e n t i a l l y h u m i l i a t i n g c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f b e i n g an employee on the a n c e s t r a l e s t a t e , a n d — w h i c h i s even more i m p o r t a n t i n view of the a r i s t o c r a c y ' s s i t u a t i o n — h e i s s u c c e s s f u l on terms not o f h i s own c h o o s i n g . He i n t r o d u c e s v e g e t a b l e f a r m i n g i n t o the P r i g n i t z , which i s r e m i n i s c e n t o f the i n n o v a t i o n s o f F r e n s s e n ' s Meino Ommen, a modest but s i g n i f i c a n t i n d i c a t i o n t h a t the a r i s t o c r a c y s t i l l p o s s e s s e s the a b i l i t y t o t a k e the l e a d i n b r e a k i n g new g r o u n d . The g i r l he m a r r i e s , w h i l e not n o b l e , i s s t r o n g and h e a l t h y , i n sharp c o n t r a s t to some o f the s p o i l e d and u s e l e s s a r i s t o c r a t i c d a u g h t e r s . E m i l , the p r o f e s s o r , i s l i k e w i s e a l e a d e r i n h i s own f i e l d , but h i s sons e x h i b i t l i t t l e promise o f a d d i n g f r e s h g l o r y to t h e i r a n c i e n t name. F e d o r , the e l d e s t , shows h i s l a c k o f f a m i l y s p i r i t a t the f i r s t g a t h e r i n g , where he argues v i o l e n t l y w i t h E r n s t ; a year l a t e r he i s c a l l e d t o account by the M i n i s t e r f o r a pamphlet he has w r i t t e n a t t a c k i n g the a r i s t o c r a c y on the grounds t h a t i t produces n o t h i n g , but l i v e s o f f the achievements of former g e n e r a t i o n s . I n s t e a d o f the " A d l i g e r " he proposes a concept o f " E d e l i n g " : E i n e V e r e i n i g u n g s o i l es s e i n der Menschen . . , e d e l s t e r G e s innung, e d e l s t e r h H c h s t e r L e i s t u n g ! Die T O c h t i g s t e n , d i e im Kampfe urns Dasein i n der A u s l e s e O b e n g e b l i e b e n e n . 58 D e s p i t e the M i n i s t e r ' s i n i t i a l o u t r a g e a t t h i s r a t h e r c o n f u s e d Utopian v i s i o n , u i t h i t s echoes o f Langbehn's s o c i a l a p p l i c a t i o n of Da r u i n ' s t h e o r y o f e v o l u t i o n and N i e t z s c h e ' s "Obermensch," the b a s i c i d e a , t h a t n o b i l i t y and i t s p r e -eminence must be e a r n e d , i s r e i t e r a t e d by the most t r a d i t i o n a l l y s u c c e s s f u l members o f the Eysen c l a n , the M i n i s t e r h i m s e l f and R u d o l f , as u e l l as by L u d u i g . L u d u i g uas d i s i n h e r i t e d as a young man uhen he uas unable t o succeed i n "einem s t a n d e s -59 gemSssen B e r u f , " and s e n t t o A m e r i c a . The f a m i l y g a t h e r i n g o f 1880 i s h i s f i r s t meeting u i t h h i s b r o t h e r s a f t e r t u e n t y y e a r s , d u r i n g u h i c h he has uorked h i m s e l f up to be the head o f a tobacco company and a c q u i r e d c o n s i d e r a b l e u e a l t h . A l t h o u g h h i s p r o f e s s i o n p l a c e s him o u t s i d e t he u s u a l bound-a r i e s o f h i s c l a s s , and h i s v i e u s are c o n s i d e r e d q u i t e a s t o n i s h i n g by F a b i a n , the c h a m b e r l a i n , Ompteda c l e a r l y be-s t o u s upon them h i s stamp o f a p p r o v a l by h a v i n g them r e p e a t e d by R u d o l f i n h i s speech t o the young Eysens a t the l a s t g a t h e r i n g i n 1895. T h i s speech sums up the essence o f uhat the o t h e r s , i n c l u d i n g F e d o r , have demanded i n a r e v i t a l i z a t i o n o f the a r i s t o c r a c y : "Es u a r , a l s hMtte er aus Fedors v e r s t i e g e n e n A n s i c h t e n den gesunden Kern h e r a u s g e s c h S l t . " ^ L u d u i g p o i n t s out the anachronisms o f the c a s t e code u h i l e a l l u d i n g t o the f a m i l y c r e s t , an i r o n - c o l o u r e d h e a r t 133 emblazoned on a s h i e l d surmounted by a b r as arme b r a n d i s h i n g a s u o r d : Herzen von E i s e n s o l l e n s i e beuahren, a l i e n gegentiber, dann uerden s i e s e l b s t auch von anderen n i c h t zu l e i d e n haben und uerden v o r u S r t s kommen. Den Arm von E i s e n mflgen s i e zu Hause l a s s e n , denn heute uerden unsere S c h l a c h t e n auf der Bflrse g e s c h l a g e n , i n Handel und U a n d e l , i n der I n d u s t r i e . H i t dem S c h u e r t e r i c h t e n u i r n i c h t s mehr a u s . Das v e r g i s s t der deutsche A d e l . Er i s t im M i t t e l a l t e r hSngen g e b l i e b e n . 61 U h i l e money i s not the g o a l o f the a r i s t o c r a c y , i t i s an i n d i s p e n s i b l e p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r s o c i a l pre-eminence and even f o r c o n t i n u e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the t r a d i t i o n a l s p h e r e s o f a g r i c u l t u r e and the army: R u d o l f uarns t h a t n e g l e c t of t h e i r f i n a n c e s c o u l d d e s t r o y the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the c l a s s , "denn auch f t l r d i e O f f i z i e r s e q u i p i e r u n g f e h l t uns das 6 2 n f l t i g e G e l d ! " The p u r s u i t o f u e a l t h f o r i t s oun sake i s houever u n u o r t h y : Fedor's a s s e r t i o n t h a t t h e r e i s no a r i s -t o c r a c y i n America i s c h a l l e n g e d by the M i n i s t e r u i t h the u o r d s : "Geld i s t i h r A d e l , und d a r i n s i n d s i e a r i s t o k r a t -6 3 i s c h e r a l s u i r . " In f a m i l i e s such as E r n s t ' s and the U e r c k s , d e c l i n e i s i n v a r i a b l y f i n a n c i a l : n e i t h e r E r n s t ' s sons nor C h r i s t o p h Renatus e x h i b i t any e v i d e n c e of p h y s i c a l or mental d e g e n e r a t i o n . A f o r t u n e i s the means to an end, and the purpose of the a r i s t o c r a c y i s to s e r v e the n a t i o n by p r o v i d i n g a v i g o r o u s , competent example. In the scheme of n a t i o n a l r e b i r t h e n v i s i o n e d by Ompteda, the v a l u e s upon u h i c h the r e b i r t h u i l l be based become g u i d e l i n e s f o r the e n t i r e n a t i o n as a r e s u l t o f t h i s example. Though t h i s 1 34 d i r e c t i o n i s c o n t r a r y to F r e n s s e n ' s b e l i e f t h a t such v a l u e s are to be found p r i m a r i l y among the g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n , the v a l u e s are i n f a c t the same, U h i l e the h e r e d i t a r y a s p e c t i s o f c o u r s e absent from such i n s t i t u t i o n s as the c o u n c i l o f v i l l a g e e l d e r s i n Per P a s t o r von Poggsee, the q u e s t i o n o f hou to p r o v i d e e f f e c t i v e l e a d e r s h i p i s i m p o r t a n t f o r F r e n s s e n , and the concept o f an a l l - p o u e r f u l v i l l a g e headman i s i n the f i n a l a n a l y s i s v e r y c l o s e to the k i n d o f r o l e p l a y e d i n l o c a l a f f a i r s by Major von U e r c k , The t a s k i s l e a d e r s h i p , made more d i f f i c u l t by a neu age i n u h i c h the f e u d a l k n i g h t i s an a t a v i s m . For t h i s t a s k the a r i s t o c r a t needs s t r e n g t h and n o b i l i t y o f c h a r a c t e r , "vornehme Gesinnung," and he has an advantage over o t h e r c l a s s e s of s o c i e t y i n t h a t t h i s q u a l i t y l i e s deep i n h i s h e r i t a g e . The t r a d i t i o n o f " n o b l e s s e o b l i g e " i s as v i t a l i n 1900 as a t any t ime i n the p a s t : A d e l mag dem Dummen und F a u l e n zur L a s t u e r d e n , denn i n ihm l i e g t d i e V e r p f l i c h t u n g , e tuas zu l e i s t e n . Pern Klugen u i r d er k e i n e BOrde s e i n , auch n i c h t s Neben-s H c h l i c h e s , sondern s t e t e r Sporn z u r A r b e i t , zu vornehmer G e s i n n u n g , 64 The p h i l o s o p h i c a l concept o f "fjbermensch" or " E d e l i n g " i s here t r a n s l a t e d i n t o p r a c t i c a l t e r m s . In Ompteda's v i e u , the o l d a r i s t o c r a c y has the n e c e s s a r y s p i r i t u a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , i n c u l c a t e d by t r a d i t i o n , t o p r o v i d e a preponderance o f t h e s e n a t i o n a l l e a d e r s . The example o f F a b i a n r e v i t a l i z i n g the o v e r u o r k e d s o i l 135 o f the Mark Brandenburg assumes programmatic form i n R u d o l f ' s l a s t s p e e c h . Ompteda comes v e r y c l o s e to F r e n s s e n ' s concept o f " d i e h e i m a t l i c h e S c h o l l e " as the s o u r c e o f s t r e n g t h and t r a d i t i o n , and i n d e e d Eysen uas c o n s i d e r e d a uork o f " H e i m a t k u n s t , " " e c h t b r a n d e n b u r g i s c h , b o d e n s t S n d i g . " C e r t a i n l y the f a m i l y a t P o l t z e i s j u s t as r e l u c t a n t to s e l l the e s t a t e as 38rn U h l , and the debts t h a t f o r c e them to do so are j u s t as i n e x o r a b l e f o r the P r u s s i a n J u n k e r as f o r the Dithmarschen f a r m e r . R u d o l f uarns the young Eysens not t o r e g a r d the e s t a t e " a l s melkende Kuh," and h o p e l e s s l y o v e r t a x i t s p r o d u c t i v e pouers by a l l t r y i n g to l i v e o f f i t ; he i n v e s t s the l a n d u i t h pouers o f s p i r i t u a l r e g e n e r a t i o n : " B e t r a c h t e t das Gut nur a l s d i e Heimat, aus der i h r K r a f t z i e h t , uenn i h r euch an ihrem Erdgeruche u i e d e r e r q u i c k t . " ^ There i s houever an a d d i t i o n a l , s o c i a l a s p e c t s u r r o u n d -i n g the a c q u i s i t i o n o f l a n d i n the Mark Brandenburg u h i c h i s absent from the l e s s h i e r a r c h i c a l s o c i e t y o f S c h l e s u i g -H o l s t e i n . The i n d u s t r i a l i s t Gideon f a m i l y uho buy the e s t a t e a t P o l t z e are n e u l y - m i n t e d b a r o n s . The B a r o n , uho m a r r i e s E r n s t ' s daughter G e l l a , i s one o f t h r e e b r o t h e r s . Tuo o f them remain u i t h the f i r m , but he uants to devote h i m s e l f to a g r i c u l t u r e . He e x p l a i n s t o R u d o l f uhy he a c c e p t e d the t i t l e h i s f a t h e r had r e f u s e d : Uenn er aber e i n R i t t e r g u t k a u f t e , u i e er es g e t a n , so begebe er s i c h d a m i t , i n der P r i g n i t z u e n i g s t e n s , f a s t a u s s c h l i e s s l i c h z u i s c h e n e i n e f e s t g e s c h l o s s e n e K a s t e , 136 der n i c h t anzugehflren p e i n l i c h s e i . Um so p e i n l i c h e r a l s e r , der a l t e K o r p s s t u d e n t und R e s e r v e o f f i z i e r e i n e s b e v o r z u g t e n Regiments, t a t s S c h l i c h i n a l i e n A n s i c h t e n auf dem g l e i c h e n S tandpunkt stOnde, u i e s e i n e j e t z t i g e n S t a n d e s g e n o s s e n . 67 R u d o l f , i n i t i a l l y c a u t i o u s about such m o t i v a t i o n , admits t h a t Gideon i s r i g h t i n h i s assessment o f the ad-vantage o f n o b i l i t y f o r h i s c h i l d r e n : B e i s e i n e n K i n d e r n . . . krHhte schon k e i n Hahn danach, uoher s i e stammten. B e i den E n k e l n u u s s t e man g e u i s s vom Ursprung der Gideons n i c h t s mehr, und d i e U r e n k e l h i e l t man dann v i e l l e i c h t fUr e i n e a l t e F a m i l i e . 68 The l a s t s e n t e n c e , u i t h i t s " v i e l l e i c h t , " c o n t a i n s a shade o f s u p e r i o r i t y i n the c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f the c e n t u r i e s * o l d t r a d i t i o n o f Eysen n o b i l i t y , but b a s i c a l l y R u d o l f ' s a t t i t u d e , u h i c h can be assumed to r e f l e c t Ompteda's oun, i s t h a t a r i s t o c r a t i c rank i m p l i e s d u t i e s r a t h e r than p r i v i l e g e s , and as a r e c o g n i t i o n o f achievement i t must be a c c e s s i b l e to neu b l o o d . Ompteda c o n s i d e r s the n a t u r e o f the l e a d e r -s h i p t h a t a r e v i t a l i z e d Germany u i l l need to be o f c e n t r a l i m p o r t a n c e , and a l t h o u g h he u o u l d p r e s e r v e the c a s t e , h i s i n s i s t e n c e on the fundamental e q u a l i t y o f the o l d and the neu n o b i l i t y d emonstrates hou, i n a c o n s e r v a t i v e , un-r e v o l u t i o n a r y uay, he a d v o c a t e s a g r e a t e r degree of s o c i a l m o b i l i t y than most o f the o l d f a m i l i e s uere p r e p a r e d t o a c c e p t a t the t i m e . Young F a b i a n von Eysen and C h r i s t o p h Renatus both i l l u s t r a t e t h i s b e l i e f t h a t the b a r r i e r s betueen the o l d a r i s t o c r a c y and the r e s t o f the n a t i o n must come 137 doun f o r the b e n e f i t o f b o t h : F a b i a n , as a c o n s c i e n t i o u s e s t a t e manager f i n d s f u l f i l m e n t i n a most u n a r i s t o c r a t i c r o l e and C h r i s t o p h Renatus l i v e s and d i e s an a r i s t o c r a t w i t h not a drop of o l d P r u s s i a n b l o o d i n h i s v e i n s . Far from b e i n g an a n a c h r o n i s t i c remnant, the a r i s t o c r a t i c c ode, i f p r o p e r l y a t t u n e d and m o d i f i e d f o r the demands o f the neu c e n t u r y , can s e r v e as an example to i t s members t o f u l f i l the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of l e a d e r s h i p , d) The Army: A l t h o u g h he urges the a r i s t o c r a c y t o s t r i v e f o r l e a d e r -s h i p i n a l l f i e l d s o f n a t i o n a l l i f e , R u d o l f s t r e s s e s i n h i s l a s t speech the i m p o r t a n c e o f m a i n t a i n i n g the army i n i t s p r e s e n t form: Uerdet O f f i z i e r e , d i e brauchen u i r , denn d i e Armee i s t , , , der " r o c h e r de b r o n c e ! " G o t t e r h a l t e s i e u n s , u i e s i e i s t , h f l r t i h r , u i e s i e i s t — s o n s t — f i n i s Germaniae! 69 R u d o l f f e a r s t h a t u i t h o u t an o f f i c e r c o r p s draun from the r a n k s o f the a r i s t o c r a c y and s t e e p e d i n m i l i t a r y t r a d i t i o n , the army u i l l be ueakened, p l a c i n g the n a t i o n i n m o r t a l d anger. A l t h o u g h he f e e l s t h a t the b a t t l e f i e l d s o f the f u t u r e u i l l be the s t o c k exchange and the l a b o r a t o r y , the "Heimatroman's" a t t i t u d e t o uar r e f l e c t s the a g g r e s s i v e s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e o f U i l h e l m i n i a n Germany and not the i d e a l -i s t i c p a c i f i s m o f l a t e r movements such as E x p r e s s i o n i s m , 130 Germany must be p r e p a r e d , and the o f f i c e r - a r i s t o c r a t has been a h i s t o r i c a l l y dependable l e a d e r on the b a t t l e f i e l d . The i n s i s t e n c e on m a i n t a i n i n g the army thus c o n s t i t u t e d appears h o p e l e s s l y a n a c h r o n i s t i c i n the l i g h t o f tuo u o r l d u a r s , the s c a l e o f u h i c h demanded f a r g r e a t e r r e s e r v e s o f manpouer f o r the o f f i c e r c o r p s than the a r i s t o c r a c y a l o n e c o u l d p r o v i d e , and y e t i t must be remembered t h a t the f u l l i mpact o f the t e c h n o l o g i c a l developments o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y d i d not become apparent u n t i l the autumn of 1914. In 1900 i t uas s t i l l p o s s i b l e f o r s t a f f o f f i c e r s t o d e p r e c a t e the machine gun as an o v e r r a t e d ueapon, and B r i t i s h g e n e r a l s uere engaged i n heated debate over the r e s p e c t i v e m e r i t s o f the sabr e and the l a n c e as c a v a l r y 70 ueapons. In 1912, d u r i n g the R e i c h s t a g debate on the Zabern i n c i d e n t , uhere the g a r r i s o n of a toun i n A l s a c e opened f i r e on the i n h a b i t a n t s , a member o f the Ce n t r e P a r t y used R u d o l f ' s phrase " f i n i s Germaniae" t o d e s c r i b e the d i r e consequences t h a t u o u l d ensue i f army o f f i c e r s uere p l a c e d beyond the l a u . C o l o n e l R e u t e r , the o f f i c e r commanding the Zabern g a r r i s o n , uas c o u r t - m a r t i a l l e d and a c q u i t t e d , and the pouer o f the army over the r i g h t s o f the c i t i z e n became a major p o l i t i c a l i s s u e . That the member used R u d o l f ' s phrase t o a t t a c k the v e r y i n s t i t u t i o n t h a t R u d o l f defends i n d i c a t e s the e x t e n t t o u h i c h the c a s t e uas under a t t a c k d u r i n g the U i l h e l m i n i a n e r a . I t a l s o i l l u s t r a t e s the l i m i t a t i o n s o f Ompteda's con c e p t o f n a t i o n a l r e b i r t h , u h i c h he sees p r i m a r i l y i n terms o f a r e v i t a l i z a t i o n o f the v a l u e s and i n s t i t u t i o n s u h i c h have s e r v e d u e l l i n the p a s t . These must be brought up to date and purged o f a t a v i s -t i c , and t h e r e f o r e d e s t r u c t i v e , p r e j u d i c e s ; u i t h i n the t e s t e d frameuork o f t r a d i t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s t h e r e must be e q u a l i t y o f o p p o r t u n i t y , f o r the a b l e b o u r g e o i s t o j o i n the a r i s t o c r a c y and f o r the a r i s t o c r a t to engage i n b o u r g e o i s p u r s u i t s . To the l a t t e r end he c h a l l e n g e s the p o p u l a r s t e r e o t y p e o f the g a l l a n t , c a r e f r e e o f f i c e r and s u b j e c t s the m i l i t a r y r o u t i n e to u n r o m a n t i c i z e d s c r u t i n y . The o f f i c e r s i n Ompteda's n o v e l s e x e m p l i f y a hard uork and s u b o r d i n a t i o n to duty t h a t c o n t r a s t s s t r o n g l y u i t h the image, c u r r e n t at the t i m e , o f the d a s h i n g l i e u t e n a n t . " N i c h t d i e glSnzende S e i t e des O f f i z i e r s . . . n i c h t der " L e u t n a n t " u i e i h n s i c h d i e g r o s s e Masse d e n k t , sondern i n 72 s e i n e r e r n s t e n A r b e i t , dem b i t t e r e n E n t s a g e n , " as one c r i t i c d e s c r i b e s S y l v e s t e r von Geyer. Ompteda's c r i t i c s , imbued u i t h the c h a u v i n i s m o f the U i l h e l m i n i a n e r a t h a t e x a g g e r a t e s and d i s t o r t s the s i m p l e p a t r i o t i s m o f the t r a d i -t i o n a l P r u s s i a n e t h i c , uere f r e q u e n t l y f a r more a g g r e s s i v e l y e n t h u s i a s t i c about Ompteda's c h a r a c t e r s than t h e i r c r e a t o r . H e n r i e t t e von Meerheimb, f o r example, r h a p s o d i z e s ; "Es g i b t manch e i n e n S y l v e s t e r von Geyer i n der deutschen Armee. Und s o l a n g e der Typus n i c h t a u s s t i r b t , u i r d s i e d i e e r s t e der 140 U e l t b l e i b e n . "7 3 S y l v e s t e r von Geyer, h o u e v e r , i s not i n t e n d e d as an exemplary c h a r a c t e r : even as- a s o l d i e r he has s e r i o u s f l a u s , and does not f i t as e a s i l y i n t o m i l i t a r y l i f e as might be e x p e c t e d from one of h i s background: the Geyers have a l u a y s been s o l d i e r s . C r i t i c i s m makes him o b s t i n a t e and r e b e l l i o u s , and l a c k o f money combines u i t h the b o r i n g r o u t i n e o f a p r o v i n c i a l g a r r i s o n t o make h i s l i f e one o f u n r e l i e v e d t e d i u m , f o r he cannot a f f o r d the l u x u r y o f e n t e r t a i n m e n t or t r i p s t o Dresden. The r o m a n t i c arm o f the s e r v i c e , the c a v a l r y , i s out o f r e a c h f o r the same r e a s o n , and S y l v e s t e r spends h i s days i n the c o n s t a n t d r i l l i n g o f r e c r u i t s on the parade g r o u n d . S y l v e s t e r ' s n a t u r a l i n t e l l i g e n c e r e b e l s a g a i n s t the r o u t i n e , but as he becomes more e x p e r i e n c e d h i s d i s e n c h a n t -ment i s t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o p r i d e i n the f a i t h f u l performance of s m a l l t a s k s . U h i l e t h i s i s , u i t h i n the c o n t e x t o f the n o v e l , a p o s i t i v e development, s i n c e the system t h a t makes thes e s m a l l t a s k s n e c e s s a r y i s at no time under a t t a c k , Ompteda i s q u i t e auare o f the n e g a t i v e a s p e c t s o f t h i s n a r r o u i n g o f the h o r i z o n s . He u r i t e s i n the f o r e u o r d t o the n o v e l : Uie U b e r a l l , uo Kastenuesen h e r r s c h t , g r e i f t u n t e r i h n e n i n geuissem Masse e i n e Uerknflcherung urn s i c h , e i n e Verengung des H o r i z o n t e s , e i n N i c h t - b e g r e i f e n -kflnnen a nderer K r e i s e und fremder L e b e n s t f i t i g k e i t . . . . Aus g e u o l l t e r BeschrMnkung e r g i b t s i c h l e i c h t Be-s c h r S n k t h e i t . 74 141 Ompteda i s not p r i m a r i l y an a p o l o g i s t f o r h i s c l a s s to t h o s e o u t s i d e i t , but r a t h e r h i s f i r s t c o n cern i s to break doun t h i s n a r r o w , s e l f - c e n t r e d a t t i t u d e i n o r d e r to overcome the d e a d l y c a l c i f i c a t i o n t h a t e v e n t u a l l y o v e r t a k e s even the i n t e l l i g e n t members o f the c a s t e . In o r d e r to p e r f o r m p r o p e r l y as an o f f i c e r , S y l v e s t e r must f i r s t r e a l i z e t h a t i t i s the sum o f s m a l l t a s k s , m e a n i n g l e s s i n t h e m s e l v e s , t h a t forms the f a b r i c o f the army: s i n c e the army i s v i t a l t o the w e l f a r e o f the n a t i o n , S y l v e s t e r and h i s c o l l e a g u e s are f u l f i l l i n g a s o c i a l l y i m p o r t a n t r o l e . Ompteda d e f i n e s the p r o b l e m , the i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y o f the n a r r o u v i e w p o i n t n e c e s s a r y t o c o n t i n u e to p e r f o r m the s m a l l d u t i e s and a b r e a d t h o f v i s i o n t h a t u o u l d open up the c a s t e to an a p p r e c i a t i o n o f the neu c e n t u r y , but he does not p r o v i d e the key t o i t s s o l u t i o n . A f i g u r e such as R u d o l f von Eysen i s , t o be s u r e , e x e m p l a r y , but he i s too a b l e t o be a gen-e r a l l y e m u l a t a b l e model, l/on R u n d s t e t t e n (Heimat des  Herzens) i s happy i n h i s p r o f e s s i o n , but he i s too l i m i t e d i n h i s h o r i z o n s t o r i s e above the p r e j u d i c e s o f the c a s t e . That the army as an i n s t i t u t i o n has a c o n f i n i n g e f f e c t on i t s members can be seen i n the uay some of the more e n l i g h t e n e d c h a r a c t e r s t u r n t h e i r backs upon i t , a theme t h a t i s o f some i m p o r t a n c e i n Uassermann1s n o v e l s , p a r t i c u -l a r l y C h r i s t i a n U a h n s c h a f f e and E t z e l A n d e r q a s t , N i k o l a u s S a n d t n e r , uhose a r t i s t i c temperament u i l l not be bound by 142 m i l i t a r y c o n v e n t i o n s , l e a v e s the army to pursue a c a r e e r as a p a i n t e r , and Ompteda h i m s e l f abandoned the army to become an a u t h o r . In the n o v e l H e r z e l o i d e the a t t i t u d e o f F r i t z t o h i s c a r e e r i s o f i n t e r e s t from t h i s p o i n t o f v i e w , f o r he, u n l i k e S y l v e s t e r von Geyer, i s not bound to the army by p e c u n i a r y c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . F r i t z i n h i s youth i s a t y p i c a l young o f f i c e r o f the type t h a t S y l v e s t e r e n v i e s , the r i c h c a v a l r y l i e u t e n a n t uhose e v e n i n g s are s p e n t at s o c i e t y b a l l s r a t h e r than i n h i s q u a r t e r s . As a brand neu o f f i c e r , d e l i g h t e d to have escaped from the s c h o o l bench, he i m a g i n e s h i m s e l f as a k i n d o f n o b l e s a v a g e , a n a t u r a l , p r i m e v a l b e i n g u n s u l l i e d by c i v i l i z a t i o n , but " o f c o u r s e " as an o f f i c e r mounted on a t h o r o u g h b r e d . T h i s a d o l e s c e n t f a n t a s y i s not e n t i r e l y n a i v e on Ompteda's p a r t , f o r i t r e f l e c t s a u i d e s p r e a d "mal de s i ^ c l e " i n i t s h o s t i l i t y t o the a c t u a l s t a t e o f European c u l t u r e and s o c i e t y a t the c l o s e o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . Ompteda i s houever concerned u i t h d e m o l i s h i n g t h i s a u r a of Romanticism by s h o u i n g t h a t the r e a l i t i e s o f m i l i t a r y l i f e are j u s t as mundane as t h o s e o f the r e s t o f the p o p u l a t i o n . F r i t z ' f r e q u e n t mention o f h i s u i l l i n g n e s s t o r e s i g n h i s commission i f o b s t a c l e s are p l a c e d i n h i s uay u n d e r s c o r e s the r e s t r i c t i o n s on p e r s o n a l freedom o f a c t i o n p l a c e d upon the o f f i c e r , t h e r e b y s t r e n g t h -e n i n g the i d e a o f a fundamental community o f i n t e r e s t betueen a l l c l a s s e s . S y l v e s t e r von Geyer's freedom of a c t i o n i s much more l i m i t e d , p r i m a r i l y because o f h i s l a c k o f money but a l s o because of the f a m i l y t r a d i t i o n o f army s e r v i c e , F e r d i n a n d A v e n a r i u s , the p a t r o n o f the "Heimatroman," d e s c r i b e s the Geyers as one o f "jene e i n f a c h e n , u e n i g b e m i t t e l t e n , i n manchen G l i e d e r n g e i s t i g b e s c h r H n k t e n aber f a s t immer durchaus a c h t b a r e n F a m i l i e n , deren Leben von G e s c h l e c h t 75 zu G e s c h l e c h t dem D i e n s t e des KOnigs geuidmet i s t , " The m i l i t a r y t r a d i t i o n runs so deep t h a t S y l v e s t e r ' s f a t h e r , uho r e t i r e d as a c a p t a i n and i s b i t t e r t h a t he went no h i g h e r , f o r g e t s h i s r e s o l v e , t a k e n i n a n g e r , t h a t S y l v e s t e r u i l l not become a s o l d i e r and undergoes c o n s i d e r a b l e f i n a n c i a l s a c r i f i c e i n o r d e r to s u p p o r t him. The n i n e hundred and s i x t y marks a year t h a t i t u o u l d c o s t to have S y l v e s t e r j o i n the c a v a l r y i s beyond them, and even the tuo hundred and f o r t y marks f o r the 216th I n f a n t r y Regiment i s a s e v e r e s t r a i n . I t i s i m p o s s i b l e f o r S y l v e s t e r t o s a v e , f o r out o f h i s s m a l l s a l a r y he must pay f o r h i s u n i f o r m , mess b i l l s and c o l l e c t i o n s f o r d e p a r t i n g or m a r r y i n g o f f i c e r s , and keep up a p p e a r a n c e s , Uhen he i s f i r s t promoted to l i e u t e n a n t , S y l v e s t e r i s u n a b l e even t o pay h i s mess b i l l f o r one month because h i s f i r s t pay p a c k e t goes i n t o the u i d o u s ' and o r p h a n s ' f u n d . He and h i s f r i e n d E l d e n f l e t h d e c i d e t h a t a shop a s s i s t a n t i s f i n a n c i a l l y b e t t e r o f f than they a r e . R u d o l f ' s u a r n i n g a t the end o f Eysen t h a t p o v e r t y u i l l 144 d e s t r o y the a b i l i t y o f the a r i s t o c r a c y to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the army i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h i s n o v e l , f o r S y l v e s t e r i s f o r c e d t o t u r n doun the p o s i t i o n o f b a t t a l i o n a d j u t a n t because he c annot a f f o r d t o keep the n e c e s s a r y h o r s e . The f i g u r e o f R u d o l f , uhose m i l i t a r y c a r e e r i s more s u c c e s s f u l than t h a t o f any o t h e r o f Ompteda's main c h a r a c t e r s , i n d i c a t e s , both a l o n e and i n c o n t r a s t t o the o t h e r s , Ompteda's hopes and f e a r s f o r the army. On the one hand the army, as p r e s e n t l y c o n s t i t u t e d , forms the b u l u a r k o f the n a t i o n , both p h y s i c a l l y and s p i r i t u a l l y . The i d e a l i s m i n the s e r v i c e o f a c a u s e , u h i c h F r e n s s e n ' s Adam B a r f o o d a l s o s t r e s s e s as a p a r t i c u l a r l y v a l u a b l e a s p e c t o f the German c h a r a c t e r , i s p r e s e r v e d and f o s t e r e d i n the army, a t l e a s t by i t s b e s t members, and s i n c e the army and the a r i s t o c r a c y are v i r t u a l l y i n t e r c h a n g e a b l e i n t h e i r c o m p o s i t i o n , Ompteda i n s i s t s t h a t t h e s e v a l u e s can o n l y be m a i n t a i n e d i f the a r i s t o c r a c y con-t i n u e s t o be the dominant f o r c e i n the army. On t h e d e b i t s i d e , the n a r r o u h o r i z o n s o f the o l d a r i s t o c r a c y are made even more r i g i d by the n a t u r e o f the army as an i n s t i t u t i o n , and i n the f i g u r e o f R u d o l f , Ompteda shous t h a t t h i s i s u n n e c e s s a r y . To remain c a p a b l e o f r e a c t i n g e f f e c t i v e l y i n a neu age, Ompteda r e a l i z e s t h a t the army and the a r i s t o c r a c y as a u h o l e must u n d e r s t a n d the neu d e v e l o p -ments and s o c i a l t r e n d s : to c l o s e the mind to the t u e n t i e t h c c e n t u r y i s to ensure t h a t the neu c e n t u r y u i l l overuhelm the 145 v e n e r a b l e i n s t i t u t i o n s and s i m p l y c o n s i g n them to the a t t i c o f h i s t o r y a l o n g u i t h the o t h e r f o r g o t t e n r e l i c s o f f e u d a l i s m . e) Duty: Nouhere i s the c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p betueen the army and the a r i s t o c r a c y more app a r e n t than i n the con c e p t o f d u t y . In the n o v e l Die SOnde Ompteda examines the c o n f l i c t i n g demands o f duty to h i s m i s t r e s s and duty t o h i s c l a s s t h a t b e s e t a young o f f i c e r . The n o v e l , s u b t i t l e d " G e s c h i c h t e e i n e s O f f i z i e r s , " d e a l s u i t h the same t o p i c as Fontane's I r r u n q e n U i r r u n q e n , u h i c h appeared n i n e y e a r s e a r l i e r i n 1887 and the c o n t r a s t betueen the tuo n o v e l s i l l u s t r a t e s the l i m i t s o f Ompteda's t a l e n t . The c l a s h betueen l o v e and duty i n I r r u n g e n U i r r u n q e n i s more s u b t l y f o r m u l a t e d than i n Die SfJnde, s i n c e Ompteda does not q u e s t i o n the v a l u e s i m p l i e d i n e i t h e r c o n c e p t . H a r f f ' s l o v e f o r Dagmar i s e i t h e r genuine or n o t , and duty i s e i t h e r p r e s e n t or non-e x i s t e n t . The q u e s t i o n i n g of the concept t h a t o c c u r s i n Per z u e i t e Schuss i s absent from Die SOnde. C o n s e q u e n t l y the poignancy o f Botho's d e c i s i o n t o l e a v e Lene i s d i s -s i p a t e d i n H a r f f s case by the absence o f any r e a l c r i s i s o f c o n s c i e n c e , and the m e l o d r a m a t i c extremes o f the p l o t e x c l u d e a s u b t l e t y such as Fontane's c h a r a c t e r s p o s s e s s . Dagmar i s a s i n g e r , and a f o r e i g n e r as u e l l , and so she i s 146 even f a r t h e r removed from the s o c i a l sphere o f the P r u s s i a n o f f i c e r than the o r d i n a r y u o r k i n g - c l a s s g i r l . A f t e r H a r f f has l e f t her she drouns h e r s e l f i n the S p r e e , a t h e a t r i c a l e x a g g e r a t i o n t h a t weakens the impact o f the n o v e l ' s s o c i a l comment, H a r f f ' s l o v e f o r Dagmar b e g i n s t o d e c l i n e i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r she has s u r r e n d e r e d her v i r g i n i t y t o him, f o r h i s u p b r i n g i n g has l e f t him u i t h a s e t o f moral p r e j u d i c e s too s t r o n g to be overcome by l o v e . Thus the s o c i a l environment i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f the a f f a i r , even a t the z e n i t h o f t h e i r l o v e : t h e r e i s an i r r e c o n c i l a b l e i n c o n s i s t e n c y i n H a r f f ' s a t t i t u d e t o Dagmar. On the one hand he i s proud t o be the r e c i p i e n t o f the l o v e o f a b e a u t i f u l uoman: "Es uar e i n e A r t von E i t e l k e i t , dass er s i c h m i t i h r z e i g e n u o l l t e , urn der U e l t zu o f f e n b a r e n , u e l c h e n S c h a t z er 76 b e s S s s e , " and on the o t h e r hand they have b a s i c a l l y so l i t t l e i n common t h a t he becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y r e l u c t a n t to s t a y a l o n e i n her a p a r t m e n t . T h e i r o n l y e x c u r s i o n t o the t h e a t r e uhere Dagmar f i r s t p l a y e d i n d i c a t e s the g u l f t h a t s e p a r a t e s them: H a r f f i s j e a l o u s because Dagmar i s g r e e t e d from the s t a g e by an u n p l e a s a n t - l o o k i n g j u g g l e r , and then annoyed uhen he hears another o f f i c e r d e s c r i b e 77 her as " H a r f f ' s 1 / e r h H l t n i s . " The next day he v i s i t s her t o f i n d her former l a n d l a d y i n the a p a r t m e n t , a nau-s e a t i n g , l e e r i n g uoman uho s t e a l s Dagmar's sugar lumps and whom H a r f f r i g h t l y s u s p e c t s o f wanting to make a p r o f i t by i n t r o d u c i n g men to Dagmar. The f i g u r e o f the l a n d l a d y i s a n o t her ominous s i g n t h a t Dagmar, a l t h o u g h pure h e r s e l f , l i v e s i n a u o r l d t o t a l l y a l i e n to H a r f f . The g r o t e s q u e l a n d l a d y and the j u g g l e r are a l s o m e l o d r a m a t i c elements i n the n o v e l u h i c h i n the l o n g run submerge the p e r s o n a l i t i e s o f H a r f f and Dagmar i n a morass of c l i c h e s . H a r f f ' s s i n g l e attempt to b r i n g t o g e t h e r the tuo u o r l d s ends i n t o t a l d i s a s t e r . He and Dagmar go to d i n n e r — i n a p r i v a t e room i n a r e s t a u r a n t — u i t h H a r f f ' s f r i e n d and c o n f i d a n t F e l l e r . Dagmar's ingenuous i g n o r a n c e o f a r t and c u l t u r e t h u a r t s a l l e f f o r t s to f i n d a common c o n v e r s a t i o n a l g r o u n d , and she speaks o n l y o f her l o v e : l\lur uenn auf H a r f f d i e Sprache kam, s c h i e n i h r l/erstand und Zunge g e l B s t . S i e uar rOhrend i n i h r e r L i e b e , i n d i e s e r L i e b e , d i e den gesamten G e s i c h t s k r e i s auf e i n e n Menschen b e s c h r S n k t e : den G e l i e b t e n . 78 D u r i n g the meal H a r f f becomes a c u t e l y c o n s c i o u s of Dagmar's l a c k o f s o c i a l g r a c e s ; he n o t i c e s t h a t she uses her k n i f e t o dismember the f i s h and s p r e a d s her e l b o u s more u i d e l y than i s p o l i t e . In the f o l l o u i n g c h a p t e r he shous t h a t h i s l o v e has t u r n e d sour by p o u r i n g s c o r n on e v e r y t h i n g she d o e s , from her l o g i c to her l o v e l e t t e r s . At t h i s p o i n t H a r f f ' s c o l o n e l , t o uhom h i s d y i n g f a t h e r e n t r u s t e d him d u r i n g the b a t t l e o f G r a v e l o t t e , a n a l y s e s the s i t u a t i o n i n a moderate and u n p r e j u d i c e d uay. He i s a f r a i d t h a t H a r f f u i l l r e s i g n h i s commission and e m i g r a t e i n o r d e r 148 to marry Dagmar, and f o r m u l a t e s p r e c i s e l y the s t a t e o f mind t h a t H a r f f has nou r e a c h e d : Uenn man h e r a u s g e r i s s e n i s t aus a l i e n Lebensbedingungen, uenn a l l e s f e h l t , uas durch E r z i e h u n g und Geuohnheit b e g e h r e n s u e r t , n o t u e n d i g , j a u n e n t b e h r l i c h s c h i e n , dann l e i d e t d i e L i e b e . 79 H a r f f ' s l o v e has a l r e a d y been undermined by the mere aware-ness o f s o c i a l d i f f e r e n c e s , and the q u e s t i o n f o r him i s no l o n g e r one of l o v e or d u t y , but u h i c h duty i s the s t r o n g e r . He i s u e l l auare o f the consequences f o r Dagmar i f he l e a v e s h e r : "Uenn er s i e heute v e r l i e s s , so z e r t r a t er e i n e S e e l e , so v e r s c h U t t e t e er das B l u t e i n e s H e r z e n s , so t H t e t e er e i n 8 0 fremdes Leben." D e s p i t e the C o l o n e l ' s h i n t i n g a t h i s duty to the c a s t e and to h i s f a t h e r ' s memory, H a r f f f e e l s t h a t , s i n c e he has no f a m i l y , " n i c h t s v e r p f l i c h t e t e i h n , a l s s e i n G e u i s s e n . " ^ The r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t h i s c o n s c i e n c e d i c t a t e s t h a t he marry Dagmar and abandon h i s p r e s e n t l i f e b r i n g s u i t h i t the f e a r t h a t l i f e u i l l be u n b e a r a b l e u i t h a uoman uhom he does not l o v e and t h a t the abandonment o f the f a m i l i a r u o r l d 8 2 u i l l be "das S c h e i d e n vom D a s e i n . " Faced u i t h t h i s i n t o l e r a b l e p r o s p e c t , H a r f f ' s s u b c o n s c i o u s s e a r c h e s f o r an excuse to deny h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o Dagmar, and he soon f i n d s such a j u s t i f i c a t i o n i n doubts about her p u r i t y b e f o r e t h e i r a f f a i r . The impetus f o r the s e doubts i s p r o v i d e d by the s i g h t o f tuo s i n g e r s , uho are no more than p r o s t i t u t e s , a t a s t a g p a r t y g i v e n by h i s b r o t h e r o f f i c e r s . H a r f f 149 i m m e d i a t e l y adds a p r e j u d i c e born o f u i s h f u l t h i n k i n g u h i c h f a r exceeds the i m p l i c a t i o n s o f the c o l o n e l ' s comment t h a t l a c k o f pro p e r e d u c a t i o n and s u p e r v i s i o n makes v i r t u e h a r d e r t o r e t a i n : "Und uar s i e auch an einem g r f l s s e r e n E t a b l i s s e m e n t nur a u f g e t r e t e n , " he t h i n k s , 8 3 "immerhin, es k l e b t e zu v i e l d a r a n . " I f Dagmar uere not a v i r g i n b e f o r e they met, t h e r e e x i s t s no moral duty f o r him to marry h e r , "uas im t i e f s t e n Grund s e i n e r S e e l e a l s 8 4 Uunsch der E r l B s u n g s c h l i e f , " Dagmar r e f u s e s t o answer h i s q u e s t i o n , u h i c h c o n s i d e r i n g her p o s i t i o n as a s c o r n e d but l o v i n g uoman i s supremely i n s u l t i n g , but the next day he r e t u r n s , as h i s c o n s c i e n c e has r e a s s e r t e d i t s e l f and i n s i s t e d on her p u r i t y . The unhappy c o i n c i d e n c e o f the obnoxious j u g g l e r ' s p r e s e n c e c o r r o b o r a t e s H a r f f ' s s u s p i c i o n s and the d e s i r e to be f r e e o f h e r , not to have to s a c r i f i c e h i s f u t u r e f o r a uoman he does not l o v e , makes him unable t o admit the p o s s i b i l i t y o f any o t h e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o t h e r than the one t h a t p r o v i d e s a j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r abandoning h e r . The c o m b i n a t i o n o f d e s p e r a t e l o v e and i n j u r e d p r i d e i n Dagmar and H a r f f ' s immed-i a t e a c c e p t a n c e o f the s o l u t i o n t h a t a b s o l v e s him o f r e s p o n -s i b i l i t y makes i t c l e a r even the c o l o n e l ' s g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s on the r e l a t i o n s h i p betueen u p b r i n g i n g and v i r t u e are i n a d e q u a t e i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n . A l t h o u g h by the a c t o f l e a v i n g Dagmar H a r f f has p l a c e d 150 her i n a s i t u a t i o n t h a t , e m o t i o n a l l y and s o c i a l l y , must d e s t r o y h e r , Ompteda f o l l o w s h i s s t o r y t o the end. F i g u r i n g l a r g e l y i n H a r f f ' s r e c o v e r y from the breakdown brought on by g u i l t are two f a c t o r s : the beauty and grandeur of the D o l o m i t e s , which p l a y a s i m i l a r r o l e i n H e r z e l o " d e , and the a d v i c e o f P r o f e s s o r D i e t h o f f , D i e t h o f f , whose a n a l y s i s o f h i s m o t i v e s e n a b l e s H a r f f t o l o o k at the s i t u a t i o n w i t h a calmness and c l a r i t y , complements the c o l o n e l ' s s p e e c h , Whereas the c o l o n e l spoke o f the c l a i m s o f s o c i e t y and the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the i n d i v i d u a l to i t , as w e l l as the i m p o s s i b i l i t y o f c u t t i n g o n e s e l f l o o s e from one's h e r i t a g e , D i e t h o f f speaks o f the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of l o v e , H a r f f has a d u t y , not o n l y t o Dagmar, who was pure b e f o r e she s u r r e n d e r e d h e r s e l f t o h i m , but a l s o to h i m s e l f , M a r r i a g e t o Dagmar would have d e s t r o y e d them b o t h , D i e t h o f f d e f i n e s s i n as t r a n s g r e s s i o n a g a i n s t a g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d c o n v e n t i o n , and p i n p o i n t s H a r f f ' s as the a p p r o p r i a t i o n o f Dagmar's v i r g i n i t y , her one weapon i n the s t r u g g l e f o r s u r v i v a l . That he s u b s e q u e n t l y abandoned h e r , i n the f u l l knowledge t h a t she had not the s t r e n g t h to r e c o v e r her e m o t i o n a l or her s o c i a l p o s i t i o n , i s not a new s i n , but a "secondary appearance" of the o r i g i n a l one. The s i n i s not " d i e That an und fOr s i c h , denn s i e e n t s p r a n g dem n a t i l r l i c h e n GefUhl , , , und d i e Natur hat immer r e c h t , , , was auch d i e Menschen sagen mflgen . . . aber 151 d i e That a n g e s i c h t s des Verdammungsurteils der G e s e l l s c h a f t 8 5 gegen das riMdchen." In h i s endeavour to come to g r i p s u i t h the e x i s t i n g m o r a l i t y o f U i l h e l m i n i a n P r u s s i a , and e s t a b l i s h a saner moral o r d e r t h a t u i l l not t a k e such a t o l l i n m i s e r y and r u i n e d l i v e s , Ompteda i s hampered by h i s s i m u l t a n e o u s d e s i r e to u p h o l d the s o c i a l c o n v e n t i o n s . As a r e s u l t he cannot t a k e the u l t i m a t e s t e p t h a t F r e n s s e n does i n d i s p e n s i n g a l t o g e t h e r u i t h the concept o f s i n i n s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , but has t o e s t a b l i s h an i n f a l l i b l e h i g h e r m o r a l i t y , t h a t o f n a t u r e . F r e n s s e n m a i n t a i n s s i m p l y t h a t n a t u r a l d e s i r e s cannot be condemned, but Ompteda goes f u r t h e r , i n v e s t i n g them u i t h the i n f a l l i b i l i t y o f an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f the n a t u r a l u n i v e r s e . The s e t t i n g f o r t h i s c o n v e r s t i o n betueen H a r f f and D i e t h o f f , amid the m a j e s t i c mountains t h a t reduce the c o n c e r n s o f men t o i n s i g n i f i c a n c e , u n d e r l i n e s the u n i t y of n a t u r e , and makes a l l the more s u r p r i s i n g D i e t h o f f ' s c o n c l u s i o n , u h i c h i n e f f e c t g i v e s primacy t o s o c i a l c o n v e n t i o n s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y D i e t h o f f s u g g e s t s t o H a r f f t h a t he under-t a k e t o do penance f o r h i s s i n by p l a c i n g h i m s e l f i n the same p o s i t i o n as h i s a c t i o n s p l a c e d Dagmar, a s o l u t i o n u h i c h , u h i l e c o n s i s t e n t from a moral s t a n d p o i n t , d e s t r o y s the s o c i a l b a s i s of the c o l o n e l ' s s p e e c h : the " s i n " had a f t e r a l l preceded H a r f f ' s t a l k u i t h the c o l o n e l . H a r f f s h o u l d g i v e up h i s f o r t u n e , a t l e a s t t e m p o r a r i l y , and u n d e r t a k e some hard uork to b u i l d an independent e x i s t e n c e w i t h o u t the advantages of money or s o c i a l p o s i t i o n . Penance i s not o n l y a moral i m p e r a t i v e , but a l s o a p a l l i a t i v e f o r H a r f f ' s c o n s c i e n c e : Und i n der A r b e i t l i e g t d i e H e i l u n g . Uenn dann v i e l -l e i c h t Dahre vergangen s i n d , uer u e i s s . . . am Ende kehren S i e e i n m a l zurUck und ddJrfen s i c h e i n e neue Heimat i n der a l t e n g r t l n d e n . 86 So H a r f f goes o f f to d r i l l f o r o i l u i t h a neu German company i n the b a n d i t - i n f e s t e d mountains o f A s i a M i n o r , h a v i n g e f f e c t e d p r e c i s e l y the o s t r a c i s m from s o c i e t y about u h i c h the c o l o n e l warned him. Ompteda makes no attempt to b a l a n c e the i n h e r e n t c o n t r a d i c t i o n o f D i e t h o f f ' s s o l u t i o n and the c o l o n e l ' s p o s i t i o n . The c o l o n e l ' s words can h a r d l y be meant t o r e p r e s e n t a more s h a l l o w p h i l o s o p h y , f o r then the whole b a s i s o f Ompteda's s o c i a l p h i l o s o p h y would be undermined. I t cannot be t h a t Ompteda here i s d e m o n s t r a t i n g the h i g h e r i m p e r a t i v e of the i n d i v i d u a l moral over the s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , f o r the c o l o n e l ' s words, spoken i n the knowledge t h a t the s i n has been co m m i t t e d , d w e l l on the d i f f i c u l t i e s of l i v i n g o u t s i d e the accustomed s o c i a l s p h e r e , even w i t h the b e l o v e d . H a r f f ' s p o s i t i o n a t the end, w i t h o u t e i t h e r l o v e or s o c i e t y , appears to be the wo r s t o f both w o r l d s , the o n l y redeeming f e a t u r e o f which l i e s i n a f e e l i n g o f p e n i t e n c e . S i n c e t h e r e i s no l o g i c a l or a e s t h e t i c c o n s i s t e n c y i n the endi n g o f the n o v e l , the i n e s c a p a b l e c o n c l u s i o n i s t h a t Ompteda wanted a p o i g n a n t e n d i n g w i t h a 153 m o r a l , but i n so d o i n g he d e s t r o y s h i s oun l o g i c a l argument, p r e s e n t e d i n the c o l o n e l ' s s p e e c h , Whether H a r f f had f o l l o w e d the c o l o n e l ' s a d v i c e and remained i n the army, or t h a t o f D i e t h o f f , he s t i l l ac-knowledges the paramountcy o f d u t y , be i t s o c i a l or m o r a l . 8 7 "Dies e i s e r n e U o r t " p r o v i d e s the main s a t i s f a c t i o n i n S y l v e s t e r von Geyer's j o y l e s s e x i s t e n c e , and i s the prime m o t i v a t i n g f a c t o r f o r C M c i l i e von S a r r y n , uho shous the e x t e n t to u h i c h a r i s t o c r a t i c l i f e i s permeated by the p r e c e p t s o f the o f f i c e r ' s code o f d u t y , C H c i l i e a c c e p t s i t as her God-g i v e n duty t h a t she must t a k e her dead s i s t e r ' s p l a c e and b r i n g up her c h i l d r e n . Though Ompteda waxes at t i m e s mawkishly s e n t i m e n t a l over C a c i l i e ' s r e s i g n a t i o n o f her own chance of motherhood and the compensation she f i n d s as the mother o f her s i s t e r ' s c h i l d r e n , the n o v e l i s s i g n i f i c a n t f o r i t s b r o a d e n i n g o f the scope o f the c o n c e p t o f d u t y . In f u l f i l l i n g her duty to her f a m i l y , C M c i l i e i s d i s c h a r g i n g both a p e r s o n a l and a s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . The f a m i l y i s s i m p l y the s m a l l e s t c e l l i n the organism o f the s t a t e , and f o r the P r u s s i a n a r i s t o c r a t l o y a l t y t o the s t a t e and i t s i n s t i t u t i o n s , most i m p o r t a n t l y , o f c o u r s e , the army, i s s y m b o l i z e d by l o y a l t y to the s o v e r e i g n : "Niemand u n t e r t h a n , von niemand abhMngig! ub er uns nur e i n e r : S e i n e M a j e s t a t ! »8 8 Even i n the c o n f u s e d ending o f Die Stinde, H a r f f goes o f f to work f o r a German company t h e r e b y f u l f i l l i n g h i s 154 duty to the s t a t e . Ompteda c o n c e i v e s o f duty as the i n -d i s p e n s a b l e mortar u h i c h h o l d s t o g e t h e r the e d i f i c e o f s o c i e t y . In a n o v e l such as Die Silnde he att e m p t s t o c o n t r i b u t e t o s o c i e t y ' s r e v i t a l i z a t i o n by c l a r i f y i n g the i m p l i c a t i o n s o f the code of duty so t h a t , s t r i p p e d o f c o n f u s i o n and p r e j u d i c e , the code can p r o v i d e e f f e c t i v e g u i d e l i n e s f o r p e r s o n a l c o n d u c t . Ompteda's f a i l u r e t o a c h i e v e the d e s i r e d c l a r i t y i s due i n p a r t t o h i s l i m i t a t i o n s as a u r i t e r and i n p a r t t o h i s u n u i l l i n g n e s s t o abandon any o f the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e s o f the a r i s t o c r a t i c s y s t e m : h i s v e n e r a t i o n o f the t r a d i t i o n i s too g r e a t t o a l l o u him the o b j e c t i v i t y n e c e s s a r y f o r the advocacy o f s i g n i f i c a n t change, and i n consequence h i s v i s i o n o f Germany's r e b i r t h i s r e s t r i c t e d t o an attempt t o r e f o r m the a t t i t u d e s o f the i n d i v i d u a l to e x i s t i n g s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . The e t h i c of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s u n d e r s c o r e d by the f a t e o f those of Ompteda's c h a r a c t e r s uhose l i v e s are devoted e n t i r e l y ^ t o the p u r s u i t o f p l e a s u r e , such as Count Eysen and C H c i l i e ' s b e a u t i f u l s i s t e r E v a , Both are j o l t e d out o f t h e i r h e d o n i s t i c c a r e e r s by f a m i l y t r a g e d i e s , brought on by n e g l e c t o f t h e i r p a r e n t a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . That f a t e s h o u l d i n t e r v e n e i n t h i s uay shous hou f i r m l y Ompteda's concept o f n o b i l i t y i s r o o t e d i n a b e l i e f i n the u n i t y o f the n a t u r a l u n i v e r s e , i n u h i c h the s t a t e and i t s i n s t i t u t i o n s a l s o c a r r y the s e a l o f l e g i t i m a c y . 155 f ) The Monarchy: U i t h i n the e s s e n t i a l l y f e u d a l s o c i e t y o f Ompteda's n o v e l s , the p o s i t i o n o f the monarch i s never q u e s t i o n e d . A f t e r the c o l l a p s e of t h a t s o c i e t y i n 1918 Ompteda never a g a i n u r o t e the k i n d o f n o v e l s f o r u h i c h he uas famous, but c o n f i n e d h i m s e l f to m o u n t a i n e e r i n g n o v e l s and memoirs. In h i s l a s t n o v e l , Die schtine G r 9 f i n C o s e l , he d e s c r i b e s the c o u r t of the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y Saxon k i n g August "der S t a r k e , " E r n s t I I I , p u b l i s h e d i n 1925, i s a u h i m s i c a l , n o s t a l g i c f a r e u e l l to the v a n i s h e d epoch and i t s most i m p o r t a n t i n s t i t u t i o n . In c o n t r a s t t o the r a t h e r s c o r n f u l d e p i c t i o n o f the c o u r t o f Sarnheim-Resa i n E y s e n , uhere F a b i a n the c h a m b e r l a i n spends h i s f u t i l e e x i s t e n c e , the g e n t l y i r o n i c l i g h t i n u h i c h Ompteda p a i n t s the c o u r t and kingdom o f T i l l e n s e r v e s p r i m a r i l y t o i l l u s t r a t e the u s e f u l f u n c t i o n performed by the k i n g , and the s t e r n sense o f duty t h a t u a t c h e s over h i s e v e r y a c t i o n . T i l l e n , u i t h i t s m o u n t a i n s , l a k e s , i n d u s t r i a l r e g i o n and i t s p o s i t i o n as a medium-sized kingdom i n the h e a r t o f the o l d R e i c h , sounds v e r y l i k e Ompteda's adopted homeland o f Saxony. E r n s t I I , the hero's p r e d e c e s s o r , makes no attempt to u i n the l o v e o f h i s p e o p l e , and s o , d e s p i t e h i s exemplary i n d u s t r y and b r i l l i a n t mind: Seine MajestMt e r f r e u t e s i c h e i n e r e r s t a u n l i c h e n 156 U n b e l i e b t h e i t , Die I n d u s t r i e a r b e i t e r und B e r g l e u t e des K r e i s e s S t a n g e n b e r g , d i e Erzkappen aus der Munde, vernahmen n i c h t s e i n e Stimme, sondern jene i h r e r F U h r e r , d i e i h n e n u e i t schflnere Dinge v e r s p r a c h e n an kommender G l d l c k s e l i g k e i t , an U o h l l e b e n u i e F a u l e n -z e r t u m , a l s d i e s e r f i n s t e r b l i c k e n d e r S c h l a g e t o d von K O n i g . 89 Had t h i s n o v e l been u r i t t e n p r i o r t o 1918, i t might have been i n t e r p r e t e d i n the same l i g h t as E y s e n , u i t h the r e i g n o f E r n s t I I I , i n i t s c o m b i n a t i o n o f the "common t o u c h " and d e v o t i o n to d u t y , a b l u e p r i n t f o r the s u r v i v a l o f an endangered i n s t i t u t i o n . S i n c e the n o v e l i n f a c t appeared seven y e a r s a f t e r the K a i s e r ' s a b d i c a t i o n , i t must be r e -garded i n p a r t as an a f f e c t i o n a t e f a r e u e l l to the u o r l d o f Ompteda's youth and i n p a r t as an a ttempt to c o u n t e r a c t those uho spoke o n l y i l l o f Germany's former r u l i n g h o u s e s , to s e t the r e c o r d s t r a i g h t , Ompteda b e g i n s by d e s c r i b i n g c o n d i t i o n s at c o u r t i n such a uay as to d e m o l i s h the c o n v e n t i o n a l image of r e g a l m a g n i f i c e n c e . The r o y a l c o f f e r s are so empty t h a t the c h a m b e r l a i n r e f u s e s to reneu the Crown P r i n c e ' s chamber p o t , r e s u l t i n g i n h i s death when the handle f a l l s o f f and c u t s him. B e f o r e h i s a c c e s s i o n P r i n c e A r bogast i s k e p t i n penury and i g n o r e d by the c o u r t ; he o n l y becomes k i n g a f t e r h i s u n c l e Theodor r e f u s e s the crown, Theodor, the o n l y w e a l t h y member of the r o y a l f a m i l y , made h i s f o r t u n e i n a most u n r e g a l way: as a businessman i n A m e r i c a , Ompteda's i n t e n t i o n o f p r e s e n t i n g r o y a l t y as h a v i n g e s s e n t i a l l y the same concerns as o t h e r s e c t i o n s o f the p o p u l a t i o n becomes even c l e a r e r a f t e r A r b o g a s t i s crowned as E r n s t I I I , and much o f the humour o f the n o v e l d e r i v e s from h i s behav i n g l i k e an o r d i n a r y young man a f t e r a s c e n d i n g the t h r o n e . He keeps h i s army batman, C o r p o r a l P i e p h a c k e , who encourages h i s r o y a l master w i t h most u n c o u r t l y l a n g u a g e , and the "Hof- und L e i b s c h e u e r f r a u " Lore Lene, a p r e t t y b l o n d e g i r l , i s h i s c o n f i d a n t e u n t i l her d e a t h . A l t h o u g h E r n s t ' s c i r c u m v e n t i o n o f c o u r t r i t u a l i n h i s p e r s o n a l d e a l i n g s becomes p r e d i c t a b l e , t h e r e are s e r i o u s i m p l i c a t i o n s to i t . The burden o f r o u t i n e a u d i e n c e s and v i s i t s i s i n e s c a p a b l e , and Ompteda shows the k i n g w o r k i n g as hard as any o f h i s s u b j e c t s , l i v i n g s p a r t a n l y i n two rooms f a c i n g the r o y a l s t a b l e s and f r e e z i n g because o f the l a c k o f c e n t r a l h e a t i n g . There i s a sharp c o n t r a s t between the h e a t i n g i n the p a l a c e and i n the p a r l i a m e n t b u i l d i n g , known as the " S c h w i t z k a s t e n , " which the l e a d e r o f the s o c i a l i s t o p p o s i t i o n , Herr S c h r e y e r ( v i r t u a l l y e v e r y name i n the n o v e l i s a "redender Name," a t o u r - d e - f o r c e over f o u r hundred and e i g h t y - t h r e e pages but e v e n t u a l l y somewhat t e d i o u s f o r the r e a d e r ! ) keeps l u x u r i o u s l y warm. T h i s c o n t r a s t i n t e m p e r a t u r e between p a l a c e and p a r l i a m e n t i s p a r a l l e l e d by an e q u a l l y sharp c o n t r a s t i n e f f i c i e n c y . In the debate on whether t o i n s t a l l c e n t r a l h e a t i n g i n the p a l a c e , Ompteda shows h i s s c a n t r e g a r d f o r the p a r l i a m e n t a r y p r o c e s s . U h i l e the members engage i n r h e t o r i c d e s i g n e d t o p l e a s e t h e i r c o n s t i t u e n t s , E r n s t and h i s Prime M i n i s t e r , Baron von S t u r z -a c k e r , r u l e the c o u n t r y . Ompteda i s w i t h o u t doubt a f e r v e n t m o n a r c h i s t , but h i s a t t i t u d e towards the s e r v i l e s c r a p i n g which f l o u r i s h e d d u r i n g the U i l h e l m i n i a n e r a r e s u l t s i n a s c o r n o n l y s l i g h t l y l e s s a c i d than t h a t o f H e i n r i c h Mann's Per U n t e r t a n . The r e a s o n o f c o u r s e i s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t : Ompteda, who r e v e r e s the i n s t i t u t i o n , f e e l s t h a t such s e r v i l i t y merely b r i n g s the monarchy i n t o d i s r e p u t e : ' E i n w i l d e r S c h r e i des Schmerzes z i t t e r t durch a l l e T i l l e n e r H e r z e n , ' so s c h r i e b der S t a a t s a n z e i g e r , obwohl gewiss a c h t u n d n e u n z i g vom Hundert s M m t l i c h e r T i l l e n den armen K r o n p r i n z e n n i e zu G e s i c h t bekommen h a t t e n ) i n jenem S p e i c h e l l e c k e r s t i l , d e r , den K f l n i g s -gedanken u n r e t t b a r s c h S d i g e n d , gerade von E r n s t dem Z weiten imrner v e r s p o t t e t wurde. 90 E r n s t I I I does h i s utmost to do away w i t h the f o r c e d c h e e r i n g whenever the k i n g a p p e a r s , s i n c e the o n l y e n t h u s i a s m t h a t r e a l l y b e n e f i t s the monarchy s p r i n g s from genuine a f f e c t i o n . T h i s he r e a d i l y c r e a t e s wherever he g o e s , f o r he m i n g l e s w i t h the p e o p l e as one o f them, speaks t h e i r d i a l e c t s , and i s i n t e r e s t e d i n them as i n d i v i d u a l s . A l t h o u g h k i n g he i s s t i l l a poor man, c o n t r a r y to p o p u l a r b e l i e f , and i n one scene at h i s d i l a p i d a t e d l a k e c a s t l e he i s g i v e n a l e c t u r e on the e v i l s o f p r o p e r t y by a f u r n i t u r e p o l i s h e r who t h i n k s t h a t E r n s t , r e t u r n i n g from a swim, i s the g a r d e n e r ' s mate. E r n s t s u g g e s t s t h a t , s i n c e the p o l i s h e r i s a g a i n s t p r o p e r t y , he s h o u l d exchange h i s s i l v e r watch 159 f o r E r n s t ' s cheap o n e — u i t h p r e d i c t a b l e r e s u l t s . Ompteda sees the monarchy as an i n s t r u m e n t o f u n i t y , b r i d g i n g the g u l f betueen the c l a s s e s . At the b e g i n n i n g o f the c h a p t e r c o n t a i n i n g E r n s t ' s d i s c u s s i o n u i t h the p o l i s h e r , he laments i n an i r o n i c uay the t o t a l l a c k o f communication 91 or u n d e r s t a n d i n g betueen the c l a s s e s , and i t i s once more apparent t h a t Ompteda h i m s e l f has no i l l u s i o n s t h a t h i s oun c l a s s i s the s o l e g u a r d i a n o f v i r t u e i n the n a t i o n : he compares " d i e GeschaTtsehre des u n t a d e l i g e n S e i d e n h M n d l e r s Maulbeer" t o the "ebenso u n t a d e l i g e O f f i z i e r s e h r e des 92 K r i e g s g o t t e s Kotz von Gerben." T h e i r codes are d i f f e r e n t but e q u a l l y h o n o u r a b l e . Uhen Prime M i n i s t e r von S t u r z a c k e r v i s i t s Herr S c h r e y e r , the s o c i a l i s t l e a d e r , he t a k e s note o f the p i c t u r e s on the u a l l s : An der Uand e r b l i c k t man i n e i n f a c h e n Rahmen e i n e A r t A h n e n g a l e r i e , nMmlich d i e Herren Marx, E n g e l s , L a s a l l e , B a b e l und L i e b k n e c h t . Der Besuch denkt l H c h e l n d an s e i n Zimmer i n S t u r z a c k e r , uo H h n l i c h e B i l d e r h&ngen, nur anderer A r t , nHmlich S t u r z e und O s t e r b u r g e r . 93 The tone o f amused i r o n y here i s s i g n i f i c a n t uhen compared t o the K a i s e r ' s l o a t h i n g o f the s o c i a l i s t s , and h i s s t r o n g u t t e r a n c e s on the s u b j e c t o f " v a t e r l a n d s l o s e G e s e l l e n . " S t u r z a c k e r merely notes t h a t Herr S c h r e y e r and h i s c o l l e a g u e s have d i f f e r e n t heroes to the m o n a r c h i s t p a r t y , but he sees no need to s t i f l e d i s s e n t . He r e a l i z e s t h a t the m o n a r c h i c a l p r i n c i p a l i s not as s t r o n g as i t once u a s , but the croun r e p r e s e n t s a u n i f y i n g f o r c e i f p r o p e r l y 160 p r e s e n t e d t o the p e o p l e , w i t h o u t t h e - e x c e s s e s o f r i g h t - w i n g a d u l a t i o n or l e f t - w i n g v i l i f i c a t i o n . I n an i m p o r t a n t scene j u s t b e f o r e the p r o c e s s i o n " i n u h i c h E r n s t b r i n g s home h i s S c a n d i n a v i a n b r i d e , S t u r z a c k e r and the k i n g d i s c u s s the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f such s p e c t a c l e s . S t u r z : 'Es s t S r k t auch den monarchischen Gedanken, und . . . der kann's b r a u c h e n , I c h f U r c h t e , er i s t e i n b i s s c h e n w a c k l i c h . Euer MachestMt haben mir n e u l i c h e r z M h l t , was der G r o s s h e r z o g vom U e s t e r w a l d von der E i n k r e i s u n g g e s c h r i e b e n hat . . . . Na, dann meine i c h : das A l l e r w i c h t i g s t e i s t , dass w i r Deutschen g e s c h l o s s e n s i n d , und da brauchen w i r a l l e V o l k s -t e i l e . Es w i r d aber manches g e s O n d i g t , n i c h t nur von u n t e n ! ' 94 E r n s t agrees t h a t a s t a t e needs both o r d e r and t o l e r -a n c e , "und uer b e i S c h r e y e r n i c h t p a r i e r t , f l i e g t eher a l s 95 b e i uns," but he asks how the k i n g can overcome the s e r v i l i t y o f h i s s u b o r d i n a t e s , which g e n e r a t e s an e q u a l l y extreme c o u n t e r - e m o t i o n among the o p p o s i t i o n , and c r e a t e one u n i f i e d n a t i o n a l f a m i l y . S t u r z a c k e r r e p l i e s t h a t r o y a l s p e c t a c l e s , which a t t r a c t everyone and b e n e f i t a l l , are one way t o b r i n g a l l c l a s s e s t o g e t h e r . The p r o c e s s i o n i s a t r i u m p h a l s u c c e s s , but E r n s t n o t i c e s one r e d f l a g amid the r e d and green banners o f T i l l e n : "Hing n i c h t an der T i l l e n b r O c k e , Mahnung kommender Z e i t e n , e i n b l u t r o t e r F e t z e n ? "9 6 The i n c r e a s i n g l y tense r e l a t i o n s between the European pouers a f t e r 1900 make i t i m p e r a t i v e t h a t the d i s s e n t i n g v o i c e s remain " H i s M a j e s t y ' s l o y a l O p p o s i t i o n , " — s o n s t — 161 f i n i s G e r m a n i a e ! " — b u t the c o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t i e s and the r u l i n g c l a s s are t h e m s e l v e s not w i t h o u t s i n on the q u e s t i o n o f n a t i o n a l u n i t y . They must lower the b a r r i e r s o f s e l f -i n t e r e s t and " S t a n d e s d O n k e l " i n o r d e r t h a t the r e s t o f the n a t i o n not f e e l e x c l u d e d from the mainstream of n a t i o n a l l i f e . Ompteda here s t a n d s on the same ground as F r e n s s e n and Uassermann, a l t h o u g h h i s amusement at the d e l i b e r a t i o n s o f the T i l l e n p a r l i a m e n t i n d i c a t e s t h a t he b a s i c a l l y f e e l s t h a t the p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f the p o p u l a t i o n i n the b u s i n e s s o f government i s o f l i t t l e r e a l b e n e f i t e i t h e r to the p e o p l e or t o the s t a t e . I t i s i n the e v o l u t i o n o f the t r a d i t i o n a l s y s t e m , the e r a d i c a t i o n o f i t s f a u l t s and the c o n c o m i t a n t p r e s e r v a t i o n o f i t s v i r t u e s , i n p a r t i c u l a r the code of s e r v i c e and duty t h a t i s the a r i s t o c r a c y ' s most i m p o r t a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n to the n a t i o n , t h a t he sees the s a l v a t i o n o f Germany, The developments of the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y i n the d i r e c t i o n o f a mass i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y and a p a r t i c i p a t o r y democracy cannot be i g n o r e d , but the o l d Germany, Ompteda's Germany, has much t h a t i s worth p r e s e r v i n g . For a l l i t s i l l s , U i l h e l m i n i a n Germany d e s e r v e s the p a r t i n g comment of Simone von R u n d s t e t t e n (Heimat des Herzens) as she l e a v e s the b l e a k l i t t l e g a r r i s o n town of Rosenau to r e t u r n to 97 F r a n c e : "Es i s t doch schHn h i e r . " In h i s c o n t r a s t o f the t r a d i t i o n a l a r i s t o c r a t i c e t h i c o f duty w i t h the s e l f i s h m a t e r i a l i s m o f the new age, Ompteda 162 s h a r e s the c o n c e r n f o r the n a t i o n ' s sense o f v a l u e s t h a t 98 h i s f r i e n d U i l h e l m von Pol e n z e x p r e s s e s i n Per B u t t n e r b a u e r . Though h i s c h a r a c t e r s are a r i s t o c r a t s r a t h e r than f a r m e r s , Ompteda's n o v e l s are t r u e "Heimatromane," a d v o c a t i n g a r e v i t a l i z a t i o n o f t r a d i t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and v a l u e s as the b e s t f o u n d a t i o n f o r a r e b o r n Germany. Uhereas Fr e n s s e n a t t a c k s s p e c i f i c i n j u s t i c e s i n the U i l h e l m i n i a n R e i c h , Ompteda a b s t a i n s from such c r i t i c i s m and d i r e c t s h i s a t t e n t i o n t o the r e f o r m o f the a r i s t o c r a c y ' s oun code o f c o n d u c t . By l i b e r a l i z i n g t he r i g i d c o n v e n t i o n s i n such f i e l d s as s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s and the d u e l , and s t r e s s i n g the need f o r g r e a t e r e f f o r t i n e x e r c i s i n g i t s l e a d e r s h i p o f the n a t i o n , Ompteda endeavours to b r e a t h e neu l i f e i n t o the v e n e r a b l e t r a d i t i o n s o f t he P r u s s i a n a r i s t o c r a c y . B e f o r e 1918 h i s v i s i o n o f a p o s s i b l e f u t u r e s t a t e i s one i n u h i c h the t r a d i t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and v a l u e s , re-endoued u i t h the e l a s t i c i t y o f y o u t h , can adapt to neu demands and neu c h a l l e n g e s : h i s c o n c e p t i o n o f n a t i o n a l r e b i r t h i s based l a r g e l y on the b e l i e f t h a t the r e v i t a l i z a t i o n o f uhat he r e g a r d s as the l e a d e r s h i p o f the n a t i o n u i l l i n e v i t a b l y produce b e n e f i c i a l changes i n a l l a r e a s of German l i f e . Not o n l y i s the degree of r e f o r m e x t r e m e l y l i m i t e d : the e n t i r e concept o f the a r i s t o c r a c y as the d e c i s i v e f a c t o r i n U i l h e l m i n i a n Germany i s more r e f l e c t i v e o f Ompteda's d e v o t i o n t o t r a d i t i o n than of h i s p e r s p i c a c i t y . A f t e r the c a t a s t r o p h e o f November 1918, 163 t h i s s o l u t i o n i s no l o n g e r a p o s s i b i l i t y and he l o v i n g l y b i d s f a r e w e l l , f o r no a r i s t o c r a t i c Adam B a r f o o d can 99 r e s u r r e c t " d i e I S n g s t v e r s c h o l l e n e Z e i t . " 164 Jakob Uassermann Jakob Uassermann uas born i n 1873, t e n y e a r s a f t e r F r e n s s e n and Ompteda, i n FUrth near NUrnberg, the f i r s t c h i l d o f an u n s u c c e s s f u l J e u i s h b u s i n e s s m a n . The death of h i s mother n i n e y e a r s l a t e r uas a c r u c i a l m i l e s t o n e i n h i s c h i l d h o o d , f o r h i s f a t h e r ' s second u i f e proved to be a h a r s h and u n j u s t s t e p m o t h e r , and the f e e l i n g o f b e i n g an o u t c a s t uas o f extreme i m p o r t a n c e f o r Uassermann's p e r s o n a l and l i t e r a r y development. The e x p e r i e n c e of h i s stepmother i s r e f l e c t e d i n many of h i s major n o v e l s , e s p e c i a l l y i n Caspar Hauser, Das GSnsemHnnchen and Joseph Kerkhovens  d r i t t e E x i s t e n z . A f t e r f i n i s h i n g s c h o o l , Jakob uas a p p r e n t i c e d t o h i s u n c l e , uho ouned a fan f a c t o r y i n V i e n n a , but h i s l o a t h i n g o f the b u s i n e s s atmosphere uas such t h a t a f t e r tuo y e a r s the f a m i l y d e c i d e d t h a t he s h o u l d do h i s m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e . Uassermann uas a b l e to t a k e advantage o f the one y e a r o p t i o n open t o the sons o f the b o u r g e o i s i e , but h i s p o v e r t y and the a n t i - s e m i t i s m o f both o f f i c e r s and men e x c l u d e d him from the comradeship t h a t both Ompteda's young o f f i c e r s and F r e n s s e n ' s farmboys f i n d i n the army. A sense o f s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n , u h i c h uas never c o m p l e t e l y overcome, uas thus added to Uassermann's c h i l d h o o d e x p e r i e n c e o f b e i n g an o u t s i d e r i n h i s oun f a m i l y . In 1892, on h i s d i s c h a r g e , Uassermann r e t u r n e d to 165 NOrnberg, uhere h i s l i f e on the f r i n g e s o f the u n d e r w o r l d i s d e s c r i b e d i n D a n i e l N o t h a f f t ' s e x p e r i e n c e s i n Das GSnse-mSnnchen. Upon r e a c h i n g t u e n t y - o n e he r e c e i v e d the r e s t o f h i s mother's s m a l l i n h e r i t a n c e , h a l f of u h i c h had a l r e a d y been used to f i n a n c e h i s army y e a r , and moved t o M u n i c h . Here he sank i n t o a lmost t o t a l i s o l a t i o n u n t i l E r n s t von U o l z o g e n , uho gave him a j o b as a s e c r e t a r y , became e n t h u s i a s t i c over Uassermann's f i r s t l i t e r a r y e f f o r t s , and he uas i n t r o d u c e d t o the bohemian l i t e r a r y u o r l d u h i c h he d e s c r i b e s i n Renate Fu c h s . Uassermann's l i t e r a r y c a r e e r uas l a u n c h e d i n 1896 u i t h the p u b l i c a t i o n o f Die 3uden von Z i r n d o r f , f o l l o u e d by M e l u s i n e . The h e r o i n e o f M e l u s i n e , u h i c h uas a c t u a l l y u r i t t e n f i r s t , i s based on the uoman u i t h uhom Uassermann uas i n v o l v e d f o r f o u r y e a r s u n t i l he moved t o Vienna i n 1898. He uas a l s o c o - e d i t o r o f the magazine S i m p l i c i s s i m u s , p u b l i s h e d by A l b e r t Langen, Uassermann's p u b l i s h e r . F o l l o u i n g the move to V i e n n a , Uassermann came i n t o c o n t a c t u i t h a s o p h i s t i c a t e d , c o s m o p o l i t a n c u l t u r e t h r o u g h tuo of i t s c h i e f e x p o n e n t s , Hugo von Hofmannsthal and s 2 A r t h u r S c h n i t z l e r , uhom he met i n the house o f h i s f i a n c e e . The l a r g e p e r c e n t a g e of 3eus among the Viennese i n t e l l e c t u a l e l i t e p r o t e c t e d Uassermann from the a n t i - s e m i t i s m p r e v a l e n t i n Germany, and i n the t o l e r a n t atmosphere o f Vienna t h e r e 3 uas no c o n f i n i n g code to s h a c k l e h i s l i t e r a r y t a l e n t . 166 Uassermann j o y f u l l y responded to h i s a c c e p t a n c e by the l i t e r a r y " g u i l d " i n V i e n n a , and h i s c o r r e s p o n d e n c e and d i a r i e s g i v e e v i d e n c e o f the f i r m f r i e n d s h i p s he e s t a b l i s h e d u i t h i n t h i s group.^ The presence o f an e s t a b l i s h e d l i t e r a r y c i r c l e as a c o n t e x t f o r Uassermann's e a r l y n o v e l s forms a sharp c o n t r a s t to F r e n s s e n ' s i n t e l l e c t u a l l o n e l i n e s s d u r i n g h i s s t u d e n t d a y s . Around 1940 F r e n s s e n u r o t e i n h i s d i a r y : A l s S t u d e n t i n B e r l i n b e r O h r t e mich d i e damalige g e i s t i g e Beuegung gar n i c h t . Z o l a , N i e t z s c h e , B e b e l , S t r i n d b e r g , Hauptmann uaren fUr mich n i c h t da; i c h l e b t e im G e i s t e — u n d l e b t e O p p i g — d e r h e i m a t l i c h e n Menschen und ZustMnde. 5 Even a f t e r the phenomenal s u c c e s s o f 3Brn Uhl i n 1901, F r e n s s e n remained a s o l i t a r y f i g u r e , s t a n d i n g a p a r t from the l i t e r a r y c i r c l e o f " H e i m a t d i c h t e r . " U h i l e h i s s t y l e and i n t e l l e c t u a l r i g o u r might have been b e n e f i c i a l l y i n f l u e n c e d by g r e a t e r c o n t a c t u i t h the l i t e r a r y u o r l d , the e s s e n t i a l c o r e o f F r e n s s e n ' s u o r k , the atmosphere o f D i t h -marschen, might a t the same time have been d i l u t e d . In any c a s e , F r e n s s e n p e r s o n a l l y never f e l t the l a c k o f a l i t e r a r y c o n t e x t , f o r he drew h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l as w e l l as h i s s p i r i t u a l m a t e r i a l from the v i l l a g e l i f e around him. Ompteda's p o s i t i o n i s e s s e n t i a l l y s i m i l a r . D e s p i t e h i s a t t e m p t s t o r e f o r m some o f i t s a s p e c t s , the a r i s t o c r a t i c c a s t e dominated Ompteda's p e r c e p t i o n o f the u o r l d . Ompteda had a u i d e c i r c l e o f a c q u a i n t a n c e s i n the a r t i s t i c u o r l d , ^ 167 but t h e s e d i d not i n c l u d e w r i t e r s o f the f i r s t r a n k . His i n t e l l e c t u a l s u s t e n a n c e , l i k e F r e n s s e n ' s came from the w o r l d around him. Uassermann l a c k e d t h i s sense o f b e l o n g i n g to an i d e n t i f i a b l e s o c i a l g r o u p , and one o f h i s b i t t e r e s t d i s a p p o i n t m e n t s uas the f a i l u r e o f Caspar Hauser to be 7 r e c o g n i z e d as " e i n d e u t s c h e s V o l k s b u c h . " U h i l e the l i t e r a r y c i r c l e i n Vienna p r o v i d e d him u i t h an i n t e l l e c t u a l home, i t never compensated f o r the l a c k o f a r e a l home u h i c h u o u l d a c c e p t him as a n a t i v e s o n . Uassermann's f e e l i n g o f r o o t l e s s n e s s , e x e m p l i f i e d by h i s l i f e l o n g i n t e r e s t i n the f i g u r e o f A h a s v e r , the U andering J e u , hampered h i s e f f e c t i v e n e s s as a " V o l k s e r z i e h e r , " h i s g o a l g by h i s oun a d m i s s i o n , because i t p r e v e n t e d him from i d e n t i f y i n g s t r o n g l y enough u i t h a p r a c t i c a l , d e f i n a b l e , s o c i a l programme to be a b l e to a dvocate i t u n e q u i v o c a l l y . In c o n t r a s t to F r e n s s e n and Ompteda, Uassermann d i e d a d i s a p p o i n t e d man, b i t t e r , l i k e M a r t i n Mordann i n Joseph  Kerkhovens d r i t t e E x i s t e n z , at the i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f h i s l i f e ' s u o r k . A r t h u r S c h n i t z l e r ' s p l a y P r o f e s s o r B e r n h a r d i (1912) d e a l s u i t h the problems o f the J e u uho, h i m s e l f committed o n l y to a h u m a n i t a r i a n e t h i c t h a t i s u n i v e r s a l i n s c o p e , i s t r a p p e d betueen the extremes o f n a t i o n a l i s t and Z i o n i s t . B e r n h a r d i ' s a c t i o n i n r e f u s i n g a p r i e s t a c c e s s to a p a t i e n t , 168 uho, though d y i n g , i s e u p h o r i c a l l y c o n v i n c e d o f imminent r e -c o v e r y , i s m a l i c i o u s l y i n t e r p r e t e d as an a t t a c k on t h e C h r i s t i a n r e l i g i o n because B e r n h a r d i i s 3 e u i s h . The p o s i t i o n o f the 3eu i s c o n s t a n t l y v u l n e r a b l e , h i s a c t s a l u a y s s u b j e c t to m a l e v o l e n t s c r u t i n y . S i m i l a r l y Uassermann c o m p l a i n e d i n Mein Ueg a l s D e u t s c h e r und 3ude t h a t he a l u a y s had t o e x e r t an amount o f e f f o r t d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e t o , t h a t o f G e n t i l e u r i t e r s to g e t h i s a u d i e n c e to r e s p o n d a t a l l : " I c h musste d a r a u f d r i n g e n , dass s i e s i c h m i r s t e l l e , i c h musste s i e von L e i s t u n g zu L e i s t u n g von mir und meiner Sache Oberzeugen, i c h musste d i e gldJhendste (lb e r r e d u n g , g d i e S u s s e r s t e Anstrengung aufuenden." Upon r e a d i n g t h i s comment, Thomas Mann u r o t e to Uassermann t h a t t h i s uas the l o t o f a l l German a u t h o r s , 3eu or G e n t i l e , and Uassermann h i m s e l f speaks o f t h e l a c k o f a p p r e c i a t i o n i n t h e U i l h e l m i n i a n e r a on the p a r t o f the g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n : "Das V e r h S l t n i s des B i s m a r c k s c h e n D e u t s c h l a n d zu s e i n e n g e i s t i g e n Repra*sentanten uar von einem u n b e s i e g l i c h e n 10 M i s s t r a u e n b e s t i m m t , A d o l f B a r t e l s1 r e v i e u o f Die 3uden von Z i r n d o r f b e a r s out Uassermann's p o i n t t h a t a D e u i s h u r i t e r f a c e s a d d i t i o n a l b a r r i e r s : Uassermann i s t u n b e d i n g t , so k o n f u s , so a u f d r i n g l i c h s e i n Uerk zum T e i l i s t , e i n g r o s s e s T a l e n t , und er i s t z u g l e i c h e i n Typus, der Typus des modernen dekadenten 3uden, den u i r genau zu s t u d i e r e n a l l e Ursache haben, 11 The use o f the a d j e c t i v e " a u f d r i n g l i c h " assumes t h a t 169 Uassermann i s an o u t s i d e r t r y i n g t o t h r u s t h i s uay i n t o the German s p h e r e : the same n o v e l by a G e n t i l e u o u l d have been p r a i s e d , f o r the q u a l i f i c a t i o n u o u l d have been i n -a p p r o p r i a t e . As i t i s , Uassermann's t a l e n t , though h i g h l y r a t e d , i s doungraded by the use o f an a d j e c t i v e more s u i t e d t o c r i t i c i s m o f a p e r s o n than o f a book, "Auf-d r i n g l i c h " a l s o i m p l i e s t h a t the pe r s o n making the judgement i s s o c i a l l y s u p e r i o r t o the one j u d g e d , and i s a q u a l i t y f r e q u e n t l y a t t r i b u t e d t o the J e u s , Uhen B a r t e l s moves on to t h e type t h a t Uassermann a l l e g e d l y r e p r e s e n t s , "der Typus des modernen dekadenten 3uden, den u i r genau zu s t u d i e r e n a l l e Ursache haben," the c o n t i n u i t y b e t u een U i l h e l m i n i a n a n t i - s e m i t i s m and the T h i r d R e i c h i s q u i t e a p p a r e n t . The modern 3eu i s d e c a d e n t , and t h e f a c t t h a t i t behooves Germans t o s t u d y t h e t y p e i m p l i e s t h a t i t i s i n some uay d a n g e r o u s . S i n c e decadence i s not an a g g r e s s i v e q u a l i t y , the t h r e a t must come from i t s i n f l u e n c e p o i s o n i n g the n a t i o n ' s oun v i t a l i t y and c o r r u p t i n g the German s p i r i t . B a r t e l s i s an extreme example o f a n t i - s e m i t i s m , but he i s i m p o r t a n t because h i s i n f l u e n c e spans t h e U i l h e l m i n i a n , Ueimar and N a z i p e r i o d s . The i n t r i g u e s a g a i n s t B e r n h a r d i ' s h o s p i t a l i n S c h n i t z l e r ' s p l a y , because i t i s c o n s i d e r e d t o have too h i g h a p e r c e n t a g e o f O e u i s h d o c t o r s , r e f l e c t t h e p r e v a l e n c e o f a t t i t u d e s such as h i s . The v i s i o n o f Germany t h a t t h i s v i e u embodies i s o f a'homogeneous n a t i o n a l 170 community based on r a c i a l h e r i t a g e , s h a r i n g common v a l u e s i n a c c e s s i b l e to the o u t s i d e r . Uassermann s e t out to s h o u , e s p e c i a l l y i n Caspar Hauser, t h a t a common h i s t o r y and c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e formed a s u f f i c i e n t b a s i s f o r b e l o n g i n g to t h e community. A l t h o u g h t h i s i n t e n t c o u l d t h e o r e t i c a l l y have r e s u l t e d i n a more o b j e c t i v e t y pe o f "Heimatroman," c a p a b l e o f more p e n e t r a t i n g a n a l y s i s o f s o c i e t y ' s i l l s because o f the abandonment o f the r a c i a l mythology found i n a uork l i k e Oflrn U h l , i t f a i l e d t o f i n d a c c e p t a n c e among t h e r e a d i n g p u b l i c i n t h i s s p i r i t because Uassermann's sense o f i s o l a t i o n p r e v e n t e d him from e x p r e s s i n g the as-p i r a t i o n s and co n c e r n s o f the broad mass o f the p o p u l a t i o n . H i s s y m p a t h i e s uere u i t h the o u t s i d e r and t h e r e f o r e d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t s o c i e t y as a u h o l e . U h i l e such a p o s i t i o n runs c o u n t e r t o the t r a d i t i o n a l s t a n d p o i n t o f the "Heimat-d i c h t e r " Uassermann's attempt t o u r i t e f o r the mass o f the p o p u l a t i o n i l l u m i n a t e s the n a t u r e o f the "Heimatroman" and the p i t f a l l s a t t e n d a n t upon a s y n t h e s i s o f the tuo p o s i t i o n s . Man and Uoman In v i e u of h i s p o s i t i o n on the f r i n g e s o f s o c i e t y and h i s e x p e r i e n c e o f the bohemian l i f e i n Munich and NUrnberg, i t i s h a r d l y s u r p r i s i n g t h a t , even a f t e r he had m a r r i e d i n t o 171 the c u l t i v a t e d upper m i d d l e c l a s s o f Viennese s o c i e t y and a c h i e v e d a degree o f s t a b i l i t y and s u c c e s s , Uassermann s h o u l d p o r t r a y the r e l a t i o n s h i p s betueen the sexes from a d i f f e r e n t s t a n d p o i n t t o F r e n s s e n and Ompteda. For a l l h i s a t t e m p t s t o r e f o r m i t , the c a s t e remained the dominant f a c t o r i n Ompteda's s c a l e o f v a l u e s , and F r e n s s e n ' s ex-p e r i e n c e u i t h the p e r n i c i o u s e f f e c t s o f m i d d l e c l a s s m o r a l i t y i n h i s c o u n t r y p a r i s h uas c r u c i a l f o r the d e v e l o p -ment of h i s r o l e as r e f o r m e r . The s e n s u a l e m a n c i p a t i o n o f the German uoman, u h i c h F r e n s s e n so c o u r a g e o u s l y a d v o c a t e d 1 2 b e f o r e a h o s t i l e a u d i e n c e , i s no l o n g e r a p o i n t o f c o n t e n t i o n f o r many of Uassermann's female c h a r a c t e r s . Renate Fuchs, L u i s e ( L a u d i n und d i e S e i n e n ) and Eva S o r e l ( C h r i s t i a n U a h n s c h a f f e ) l i v e o u t s i d e the m i d d l e c l a s s u o r l d and are not bound by i t s m o r a l i t y , and from Das G8nsem9nnchen (1915) onuards the p h y s i c a l consummation o f l o v e o u t s i d e o f m a r r i a g e i s o f secondary i m p o r t a n c e . In the e a r l y u o r k s , M e l u s i n e (1896) and Renate Fuchs ( 1 9 0 0 ) , o f u h i c h Uassermann's f i r s t u i f e D u l i e says t h a t 1 3 they uere i n s p i r e d by h i s l o n g a f f a i r i n M u n i c h , l o v e i s opposed by the s o c i a l o r d e r . M e l u s i n e ' s p l o t has the elements o f a V i c t o r i a n melodrama. The t h r e a t s o f M e l u s i n e ' s g u a r d i a n t o commit her t o an i n s a n e asylum i f she i s not c o m p l i a n t , her duty to her s i s t e r and her i l l e g i t i m a t e c h i l d , and her t h r e a t of s u i c i d e i f F a l k t a k e s "den l e t z t e n Z o l l der L i e b e " amount to an a t t a c k on s o c i e t y ' s e x p l o i t a t i o n o f y o u t h . In N e l u s i n e ' s b i t t e r n e s s over the p r u d i s h n e s s o f her e d u c a t i o n : " U i e v i e l Schmerz i h r hMtte e r s p a r t uerden kflnnen d u r c h d i e v e r s t S n d i g e O f f e n h e i t e i n e r L e h r e r i n oder 1 5 e i n e r F r e u i d i n , " Uassermann t a k e s the same p o s i t i o n u i t h r e g a r d t o c u r r e n t m o r a l i t y as does F r e n s s e n a t the t i m e o f H i l l i g e n l e i ( 1 9 0 5 ) , Uassermann i n h i s e a r l y t u e n t i e s i s houever f a r from h a v i n g an e x p r e s s l y d i d a c t i c p u r p o s e : here the t a s k i s the a r t i s t i c r e p r o d u c t i o n o f p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s , n e l u s i n e ' s f a t e i s unknoun, i n c o n t r a s t t o t h a t o f the n e x t h e r o i n e s , Monika ( D i e 3uden von Z i r n -d o r f ) and Renate F u c h s , b o t h o f uhom f i n d s a l v a t i o n and f u l f i l m e n t u i t h t h e m e s s i a h - f i g u r e Agathon Geyer a f t e r b e i n g seduced by S t e f a n G u d s t i k k e r , C o n v e n t i o n a l m o r a l i t y i s f o r Uassermann the means by u h i c h young uomen are f o r c e d t o accede t o b l a c k m a i l . I f they do not marry the men o f t h e i r p a r e n t s ' c h o i c e , uho are f r e q u e n t l y m i d d l e - a g e d and uhose s o l e recommendation i s t h a t they a re w e a l t h y , t h e y a re denounced by t h e i r p a r e n t s and o s t r a c i z e d from b o u r g e o i s s o c i e t y . A l t h o u g h Renate Fuchs f l e e s t he s o c i a l u o r l d o f u h i c h her money-conscious mother i s a c a r i c a t u r e , she i s u n a b l e t o escape from the c i r c l e o f e x p l o i t a t i o n and o s t r a c i s m u n t i l she renounces the u o r l d and goes t o Agathon G e y e r , Renate makes her d e c i s i o n s l a r g e l y as a r e s u l t o f d i s a p p o i n t m e n t u i t h t he 173 p r e c e d i n g p h a s e . Anselm U a n d e r e r , u i t h uhom she f i r s t runs auay, i s a n o t h e r o f Uassermann's " L i t e r a t " f i g u r e s , uhose f a i l i n g i s t h a t they s t a n d a s i d e from l i f e ; t h e i r l i a i s o n ends uhen the l o s s o f h i s f o r t u n e exposes the ueakness o f Uande r e r ' s c h a r a c t e r . S t e f a n G u d s t i k k e r o f f e r s her h i s s u p e r f i c i a l u i s d o m , and Renate becomes h i s m i s t r e s s because she has no o t h e r means o f s u p p o r t . She i s an o u t s i d e r i n the bohemian u o r l d : her u p b r i n g i n g and her p r i d e u i l l n o t l e t her degrade h e r s e l f by s h a r i n g an apartment u i t h a g i r l uho has been e x p l o i t e d and abused, even t h o u g h , i n a more s u b t l e u ay, t h i s has been her oun f a t e . The v u l n e r a b i l i t y o f a g i r l i n the m i d d l e c l a s s u o r l d i s shoun i n Renate's n e x t j o b , as a g o v e r n e s s i n a u e a l t h y f a m i l y . Her employer o f f e r s her a diamond b r o o c h i f she u i l l s u b m i t t o h i s a d v a n c e s . Uhen she r e f u s e s and the b r o o c h d i s a p p e a r s , she i s a c c u s e d o f t h e f t . The uords u i t h u h i c h she then goes t o the c a l l o u s and s i n i s t e r Graumann: " H i e r b i n i c h . I c h gehe m i t I h n e n . 16 Tun S i e , uas S i e u o l l e n , " d e monstrate the e x t e n t t o u h i c h t h e r e a l i t y o f b e i n g u n p r o t e c t e d i n a r a p a c i o u s u o r l d has d e s t r o y e d her p r i d e . Renate comes t o terms u i t h her s i t u a t i o n i n a d i s c u s s i o n u i t h A n g e l u s , the dog t h a t Uanderer gave t o h e r . T h i s exchange p r e f i g u r e s D a n i e l N o t h a f f t ' s t a l k s u i t h the GSnsemSnnchen s t a t u e a t the end o f t h a t n o v e l , as a r e s u l t o f u h i c h he i s a b l e to a n a l y z e h i s l i f e . She has had no peace of mind s i n c e the end o f her r e l a t i o n s h i p u i t h 1 7 U a n d e r e r , f o r "uer ohne L i e b e i s t , i s t r u h e l o s . " Angelus can be r e g a r d e d as Uassermann's spokesman, s i n c e he i s t r e a t e d a n t h r o p o m o r p h i c a l l y t h r o u g h o u t the n o v e l . He r e a c t s u i t h good judgement t o the v a r i o u s c h a r a c t e r s u i t h uhom Renate comes i n c o n t a c t , and d i s l i k e s Graumann so i n t e n s e l y t h a t the man t h r a s h e s him. Uhen Renate f a i l s t o i n t e r v e n e he knous t h a t she h e r s e l f i s beaten by c i r c u m s t a n c e s . Angelus sums up Renate's p r o g r e s s thus f a r u i t h the u o r d s : "Die MMnner haben d i c h v e r g i f t e t 1 8 m i t s c h l e c h t e n B e g i e r d e n . Uerde du n i c h t b e g i e r d e l o s , " t o u h i c h she answers: " I c h habe noch Sehnsucht und E r -u a r t u n g . " N e i t h e r Uassermann, Fr e n s s e n nor Ompteda r e p r e s e n t the p u r i t a n C h r i s t i a n d o c t r i n e t h a t d e s i r e i s i n t r i n s i c a l l y e v i l . Even d u r i n g h i s f i r s t tuo y e a r s as 1 9 p a s t o r i n Hennstedt ( 1 8 9 0 - 9 1 ) , F r e n s s e n r e f u s e d to a c c e p t the P a u l i n e d o c t r i n e o f the d i v i s i o n o f body and s o u l , e v i l and good, and Ompteda i s m o s t l y concerned u i t h the s o c i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f d e s i r e : Uassermann c o n s i d e r s as e v i l t hose d e s i r e s based on e x p l o i t a t i o n and b l a c k m a i l : l o v e , u i t h the p h y s i c a l consummation the n a t u r a l outcome, i s the c h e r i s h e d g o a l . Renate's d e s i r e and hope f o r t h i s t y p e o f l o v e i s the s i g n t h a t s a l v a t i o n i s s t i l l p o s s i b l e . I n s t e a d o f the s t r a i g h t f o r u a r d advocacy o f s e x u a l 175 freedom such as F r e n s s e n p u r s u e s , Uassermann i n t r o d u c e s an antagonism between the i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i e t y u h i c h i s much c l o s e r to the s p i r i t o f E x p r e s s i o n i s t drama. U h i l e t h e r e are c h a r a c t e r s i n H i l l i q e n l e i or Per P a s t o r von Poggsee uho embody a p o i n t of v i e u a n t i t h e t i c a l to F r e n s s e n ' s , they do not r e p r e s e n t s o c i e t y as a u h o l e , whereas i n Uassermann's n o v e l s o c i e t y i s the a d v e r s a r y u h i c h e x p l o i t s Renate both e c o n o m i c a l l y and s e x u a l l y . I t i s o n l y t h r o u g h c o n t a c t u i t h Agathon Geyer, h i m s e l f an o u t s i d e r , t h a t Renate can e x p e r i e n c e an u n c o r r u p t e d and n o n - e x p l o i t i n g l o v e . Uhen on the l a s t n i g h t o f Agathon's l i f e Renate c o n c e i v e s h i s s o n , she i s t r a n s f o r m e d by the " n i e g e k a n n t e , 20 u n v e r t i l g b a r e Ruhe" t h a t he i m p a r t s to h e r . The c h i l d i s s y m b o l i c , a v i s i o n o f a r e b o r n mankind: S i c h s e l b s t und den u n s i c h t b a r e n G e l i e b t e n sah s i e neu a u f l e b e n i n e i n e r vollkommeneren und r e i n e r e n G e s t a l t . Das K i n d s c h i e n i h r der Sonne v e r u a n d t ; s i e s e l b s t empfing USrme und Leben durch e s , und a l l e Husserungen s e i n e s D a s e i n s e r s c h i e n e n i h r u i e d i e u n m i t t e l b a r e n K r M f t e der N a t u r , d i e s e i n e uahre L e h r e r i n u u r d e , f e r n von den S t M d t e n , den Menschen. 21 Love not o n l y g i v e s Renate a peace u h i c h i s i t s e l f r a i s e d above the l e v e l o f o r d i n a r y peace of mind t o a r e l i g i o u s s t a t e , "the peace t h a t p a s s e t h a l l u n d e r s t a n d i n g , " i t makes p o s s i b l e a "neu man." Renate and her s o n , uho i s so much a symbol t h a t he has no name, l i v e on the Hungarian p l a i n s , f a r from the c o r r u p t i n g i n f l u e n c e s o f urban s o c i e t y . The f i n a l scene o f C a r l Hauptmann's E x p r e s s i o n i s t drama K r i e qt w r i t t e n i n 1913, o f f e r s a v i r t u a l l y i d e n t i c a l s i t u a t i o n , the mother and c h i l d a l o n e amid the d e s o l a t i o n 22 o f uar, i n t e n d i n g to r a i s e a neu breed o f u n c o r r u p t e d man. In Renate Fuchs Uassermann i s v e r y c l o s e t o the r u r a l i d e a l u h i c h became p o p u l a r a t the end o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y as an a l t e r n a t i v e t o the i n d u s t r i a l c i t i e s — i n a d d i t i o n t o p e r m e a t i n g the "Heimatroman" and b e i n g a c r u c i a l a s p e c t o f the i d e o l o g y o f the Bund der L a n d u i r t e , i t f i g u r e d p r o m i n e n t l y i n N a t u r a l i s t l i t e r a t u r e : n a t u r e i s the c h i l d ' s t r u e t e a c h e r and the c i t y r e p r e s e n t s a d e s t r u c -t i v e , c o r r u p t i n g i n f l u e n c e . There i s a Utopian element to Uassermann's e n d i n g , h o u e v e r , u h i c h i s not p r e s e n t i n the "Heimatroman," f o r Fr e n s s e n always i n t e g r a t e s the hero i n t o the v i l l a g e community, whereas Renate appears q u i t e i s o l a t e d , Uassermann's own i s o l a t e d p o s i t i o n i s r e f l e c t e d h e r e , i n the way p e r s o n a l s a l v a t i o n i s unconnected w i t h the r e b i r t h of s o c i e t y as a w h o l e . The m e l o d r a m a t i c tone of Renate  Fuchs, w i t h i t s extremes o f d e g r a d a t i o n and s a l v a t i o n , i t s e l f c o n t r a s t s s h a r p l y w i t h F r e n s s e n ' s down-to-earth p r e s e n t a t i o n o f s e x u a l p r o b l e m s . At t h i s p o i n t i n h i s c a r e e r (1900) Uassermann has not y e t found h i s own p l a c e i n German s o c i e t y , and i s concerned o n l y w i t h the i n d i v i d u a l c a s e . In the n o v e l Das GHnsemSnnchen (1915) Uassermann does, a t the end, make the hero D a n i e l N o t h a f f t p a r t i c i p a t e 177 i n v i l l a g e l i f e i n Eschenbach, but the denouement i s c o n t r i v e d and u n c o n v i n c i n g . I t i s t y p i c a l o f Uassermann's p r e d i l e c t i o n f o r t h e a t r i c a l extremes t h a t D a n i e l l i v e s i n a s t a t e o f c o n s t a n t h o s t i l i t y t o the b o u r g e o i s s o c i e t y o f NOrnberg because he r e f u s e s t o compromise h i s p r i n c i p l e s or moderate h i s d e s i r e s i n any uay to accomodate the m o r a l i t y and the c o n v e n t i o n s o f h i s f e l l o u c i t i z e n s . The good b u r g h e r s t a k e p a r t i c u l a r o f f e n c e a t D a n i e l ' s d o m e s t i c s i t u a t i o n : a g r o t e s q u e menage u h i c h goes f a r beyond Fren s s e n ' s advocacy o f s e x u a l freedom and e x p l a i n s i n good p a r t uhy the n o v e l uas never a c c e p t e d as a " V o l k s b u c h " d e s p i t e Uassermann's p r o t e s t a t i o n s t h a t i t d e p i c t e d the i n n e r m o s t s o u l o f the German p e o p l e . By the end o f the n o v e l D a n i e l has c h i l d r e n by t h r e e uomen and has had t h r e e u i v e s . The f i r s t c h i l d , E v a , i s a consequence o f one o f D a n i e l ' s r a r e moments o f o p t i m i s m : uhen Uassermann, uho i s i n no sense an i r o n i c u r i t e r , d e s c r i b e s him as k n o c k i n g "mit ungeheuerer B e g i e r d e an 23 d i e P f o r t e n der G O t t e r , " he endous D a n i e l u i t h t he same i n t e n s i t y i n h i s s e a r c h f o r t r u t h as Dan G u l d t i n Per Unterqanq der Anna Hollmann and the same z e s t as K l a u s Baas. P a n i e l i n h i s c a r e e r as a composer i s a l u a y s engaged i n the quest f o r the u l t i m a t e b r e a k t h r o u g h , and i n t h i s moment, f i r e d by the exuberance o f y o u t h , he comes c l o s e r t o e x p e r i e n c i n g the n a t u r a l uonders than he does u n t i l he 178 abandons composing and c o n c e n t r a t e s on t e a c h i n g a t the end o f the n o v e l . At t h i s p o i n t , a t the age o f f o r t y , Uassermann s t a n d s u i t h F r e n s s e n i n h i s i n s i s t e n c e t h a t o n l y i n c o n t a c t u i t h p eople can the b r e a k t h r o u g h t o u l t i m a t e t r u t h s o f e x i s t e n c e be made. There i s n e v e r t h e l e s s a d e s p e r a t i o n i n the uay D a n i e l s e i z e s the o p p o r t u n i t y t o c e l e b r a t e Neu Year u i t h Meta u h i c h p o i n t s up the d i f f e r e n c e betueen him and Fren s s e n ' s h e r o e s . Uhat f o r them i s a n a t u r a l o u t b u r s t o f y o u t h f u l j o i e de v i v r e i s f o r him a unique d i g r e s s i o n i n t o an a l i e n u o r l d o f e x p e r i e n c e . In h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p u i t h G e r t r u d and L e n o r e , D a n i e l b e t r a y s a c a l l o u s n e s s u h i c h i s i n no uay d i f f e r e n t from the r e a c t i o n s of the t o u n s p e o p l e t o him. The uay i n u h i c h G e r t r u d i s t r a n s f o r m e d from an e m b i t t e r e d and i n h i b i t e d g i r l i n t o a p a s s i o n a t e uoman by h i s music auakens h i s sense o f a r t i s t i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t y : Der s i n n l i c h e Zauber uar es n i c h t a l l e i n , der i h n z u r E r u i d e r u n g e i n e s vor der U e l t kundgegebenen GefOhles zuang: t i e f e r b e r O h r t e i h n , dass s i e so kam, a l s e i n e Reuige und B e k e h r t e , T i e f e r b e r O h r t e i h n d i e erhabene G e u i s s h e i t , d i e s i e ihm s c h e n k t e , dass er e i n e S e e l e zu v e r u a n d e l n und zu erneuen vermocht h a t t e . 24 D a n i e l ' s a p p r e c i a t i o n o f G e r t r u d as a uoman i s c l e a r l y s u b o r d i n a t e t o t h i s i d e a l i s t i c r e s p o nse o f h i s a r t i s t i c v a n i t y , and her boun d l e s s d e v o t i o n t o him i s un a b l e t o p e n e t r a t e the w a l l of h i s e g o t i s t i c a l , s e l f - i m p o s e d i s o l a t i o n from the r e s t o f h u m a n i t y . I t i s t o Lenore t h a t he responds as a l o v e r , and he b l i t h e l y asks the i m p o s s i b l e 179 o f G e r t r u d : t h a t she a b d i c a t e her p o s i t i o n as u i f e to L e n o r e . D a n i e l i s so t o t a l l y unaware o f the needs o f o t h e r s t h a t he l e t s G e r t r u d s i n k i n t o the d e p r e s s i o n t h a t prompts her s u i c i d e , u h i l e a t the same time he m a i n t a i n s t h a t h i s m o r a l i t y , h i s e m o t i o n a l i m p e r a t i v e , i s h i g h e r than t h a t o f the t o u n s p e o p l e uho c r i t i c i z e him. Lenore i s more r e a l i s t i c and r e t a i n s her moral o b j e c t i v i t y d e s p i t e her oun i n v o l v e m e n t : L i e b s t e r , ach L i e b s t e r ! Mein Herz i s t so u i e d e i n s v e r d u n k e l t und v e r z a u b e r t . I c h kann j a n i c h t mehr von d i r l a s s e n . I c h hab mich abgefunden m i t a l l e m . I c h b i n mir der ganzen S c h u l d i n meiner S e e l e b e u u s s t . I c h u e i s s , uas i c h tue und nehme es auf m i c h . Es n i l t z t j a k e i n S t r S u b e n mehr, fiber uns s c h l a g e n d i e U a s s e r zusammen. I c h meine n u r , du s o l l s t d i r k e i n Wahnbild v o r g a u k e l n , a l s ob u i r damit e m p o r g e s t i e g e n uHren Ober a n d e r e , a l s ob u i r uns e i n e n Dank des S c h i c k s a l s v e r d i e n t h M t t e n . N e i n , D a n i e l , uas u i r t u n , t u n a l l e , d i e s i c h v e r l i e r e n , tun a l l e , d i e h i n u n t e r s t e i g e n . Lass mich b e i d i r s e i n , L i e b s t e r , kOss m i c h , kOss mich zu Tode. 25 Lenore i s auare t h a t she i s assuming a moral g u i l t by l o v i n g her s i s t e r ' s husband, but her emotion i s too i n t e n s e f o r her t o r e f u s e . In one o f h i s l a s t n o v e l s , Die Hflrner  von G a l l e h u s ( 1 9 3 1 ) , F r e n s s e n d e p i c t s a s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n . B e r nhard and h i s c o u s i n ' s u i f e T e l s e f a l l i n l o v e , but des-p i t e her husband's encouragement they d e c i d e t h a t i t u o u l d be urong f o r them t o consummate t h e i r l o v e . Uhereas A b e l B a r f o o d ' s a d u l t e r y u i t h Doctor Schack i s j u s t i f i e d on s o c i a l g r o u n d s , because t h e r e i s a d e a r t h o f young men and the p e r p e t u a t i o n o f the r a c e i s e q u a l l y as i m p o r t a n t as 180 A b e l ' s p e r s o n a l f u l f i l m e n t as a mother, here t h e r e i s no such j u s t i f i c a t i o n , and B e r h a r d and T e l s e , b e i n g more n o r d i c and l e s s v / o l a t i l e than D a n i e l and L e n o r e , are a b l e to c o n t r o l t h e i r p a s s i o n . F r e n s s e n , Uassermann and Ompteda ( i n Benigna) a l l s t o p s h o r t o f condoning a d u l t e r y , w h i l e a t the same time they r e f r a i n from moral judgements uhen i t does t a k e p l a c e . Uassermann houever goes f u r t h e r than the o t h e r s i n h i s i n s i s t e n c e on the freedom o f the i n d i v i d u a l t o make h i s c h o i c e unhampered by moral and s o c i a l con-s i d e r a t i o n s . A l t h o u g h Lenore's a t t i t u d e makes D a n i e l appear i n a l e s s f a v o u r a b l e l i g h t , Uassermann's d e p i c t i o n o f the v i c i o u s n e s s o f the t o u n s p e o p l e e n s u r e s t h a t , by c o n t r a s t , D a n i e l i s not condemned. The a u r a o f i n e x o r a b l e f a t e t h a t pervades the t r i a n g l e D a n i e l - L e n o r e - G e r t r u d i s h e i g h t e n e d by such d e v i c e s as I n s p e c t o r Dordann's f o r e b o d i n g s a f t e r D a n i e l ' s f i r s t c o n c e r t , a t u h i c h G e r t r u d ' s senses are auakened, and the use o f uords 2 6 l i k e " G e i s t e r s c h u e s t e r " to d e s c r i b e the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f Lenore and D a n i e l , The added d i m e n s i o n , b o l s t e r e d by the c h a r a c t e r o f P h i l i p p i n e , removes the b i z a r r e menage a* t r o i s from the r e a l m o f r e a l i s t i c a l l y d e p i c t e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s betueen the c h a r a c t e r s . The narrow s t r e e t s o f the m e d i e v a l c i t y o f NOrnberg and i t s g r o t e s q u e i n h a b i t a n t s — t h e Hade-busch f a m i l y and t h e i r l o d g e r s are d e s c r i b e d as "Hogarth-27 schen G e s t a l t e n " — p r o v i d e a d i f f e r e n t backdrop from the 181 m o d e r n i t y o f Renate Fuchs or Die Flasken E r u i n R e i n e r s . The i l l u m i n a t i o n o f r e a s o n and the l i b e r a t i o n o f c h o i c e are c o n s p i c u o u s l y absent from the n o v e l , submerged i n the f l o o d t i d e o f e m o t i o n a l i m p e r a t i v e s and hounded by the dark f o r c e s o f f a t e . The s u p e r n a t u r a l elements i n F r e n s s e n ' s n o v e l s , such as U i e t e n Penn, the " S p o k e n k i e k e r " i n J f l r n  Uhl and H o l g e r s e n , the c u r a t e o f Poggsee, b l e n d more e a s i l y i n t o the r u r a l atmosphere, uhere f o l k s y s u p e r s t i -t i o n s are never v e r y f a r from the s u r f a c e . The t r i a n g l e theme i s c a r r i e d over i n t o the n o v e l s of Uassermann's l a s t y e a r s , L a u d i n und d i e S e i n e n ( 1 9 2 5 ) , E t z e l A n dergast (1931) and the posthumously p u b l i s h e d Joseph Kerkhovens d r i t t e E x i s t e n z ( 1 9 3 4 ) . In the shadow of h i s oun d i v o r c e from J u l i e and m a r r i a g e to M a r t a K a r l u e i s , an e x c r u c i a t i n g and l e n g t h y p r o c e s s t h a t i s c l e a r l y the i n s p i r a t i o n f o r the s t o r y o f the a u t h o r A l e x a n d e r Herzog i n Joseph Kerkhovens d r i t t e E x i s t e n z , Uassermann s h i f t e d h i s f o c u s t o the problem o f m a r r i a g e . In L a u d i n und d i e S e i n e n he not o n l y t a c k l e s the problem but a l s o proposes a s p e c i f i c s o l u t i o n , u h i c h i n d i c a t e s t h a t uhen he f e l t p e r s o n a l l y i n v o l v e d Uassermann r e a c t e d i n the same uay as F r e n s s e n and Ompteda. L a u d i n ' s c r i s i s stems houever from deeper r o o t s than a b a n k r u p t m a r r i a g e : i t i s not so much the m a r r i a g e i t s e l f t h a t i s f l o u n d e r i n g , but L a u d i n ' s u h o l e l i f e - s t y l e t h a t 182 i s i n a p p r o p r i a t e to h i s n a t u r e . A l t h o u g h he i s the most c e l e b r a t e d d i v o r c e l a w y e r i n V i e n n a , whose s e c u r e r e p u t a t i o n and f i n a n c i a l p o s i t i o n e n a b l e him to r e f u s e any c l i e n t whose cause he cannot s u p p o r t , he l a c k s the " i n n e r e l 2 8 Hornhaut" n e c e s s a r y to i n s u l a t e h i m s e l f from the s o r d i d s p e c t a c l e o f m i s e r y , greed and c r u e l t y w i t h which h i s p r o f e s s i o n b r i n g s him i n t o d a i l y c o n t a c t . The e n c o u n t e r w i t h L u i s e Dercum comes at the c r u c i a l moment when L a u d i n , e x h a u s t e d by the volume of work, becomes c o n s c i o u s o f h i s " t t b e r d r u s s am e i g e n e n Uesen, an dem s t a h l h a r t und un-v e r S n d e r l i c h Dauernden, das man den C h a r a k t e r n e n n t , das S o u n d s o s e i n , e i n m a l i g , u n v e r r U c k b a r , f o r t s e t z u n g s l o s , 29 e n t w i c k l u n g s l o s . " N o t h i n g i n h i s c a r e e r g i v e s promise o f growth o r development; L a u d i n ' s " s e e l i s c h e T o t e n g r S b e r -30 a r b e i t " i s c o n c e r n e d o n l y w i t h the s e p a r a t i o n o f the two h a l v e s of a u n i t t h a t never had the p o t e n t i a l t o undergo a f u l f i l l i n g development. I m p r i s o n e d i n the s p i r i t u a l dungeon of a c a r e e r which p o i s o n s even h i s p e r s o n a l l i f e , even the o b j e c t s i n h i s bedroom t a k e on the q u a l i t i e s o f g a o l e r s "zu denen er i n einem V e r h f l l t n i s 31 von S k l a v e r e i s t e h t . " Every n i g h t , when he e x t i n g u i s h e s the lamp and the o b j e c t s v a n i s h , the freedom and f l e x i b i l i t y o f y o u t h c a l l t o him. L u i s e Dercum r e p r e s e n t s the d i a m e t r i c a l l y o p p o s i t e p o l e t o L a u d i n ' s f i x e d c h a r a c t e r . Every a s p e c t o f her 183 p e r s o n a l i t y i s i n a c o n s t a n t s t a t e o f f l u x . She i s an i n c o r r i g i b l e l i a r , but L a u d i n muses: " I s t da LOge, wo n i e m a l s U a h r h e i t war, U a h r h e i t n i c h t b e g r i f f e n w i r d und 32 gar n i c h t s e i n kann? L a u d i n f a l l s under the s p e l l o f the o p p o s i t e p o l e , and Uassermann e x p l a i n s h i s s e e m i n g l y u n m o t i v a t e d s u b s e r v i e n c e to L u i s e w i t h the concept t h a t L a u d i n has met h i s f a t e . In f a c t L u i s e , a p a r t from her s e x u a l a t t r a c t i v e n e s s , has n o t h i n g e l s e to recommend h e r . She s h a m e l e s s l y e x p l o i t s those who seek her f r i e n d -s h i p and i t i s p r e c i s e l y the l a c k o f any a p p e a l i n g q u a l i t i e s , e i t h e r i n her or her e n t o u r a g e , t h a t s h a t t e r s L a u d i n ' s s u b s e r v i e n c e to her when f a c e d w i t h the f a c t s about the death o f N i k o l a u s F r a u n d o