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Dietary factors that influence amino acid, protein and nucleic acid metabolism in the chicken Akinwande, Amos Ifeolu 1973

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DIETARY  FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE AMINO ACID, PROTEIN AND NUCLEIC ACID METABOLISM IN THE CHICKEN BY  AMOS IFEOLU B.Sc.  AGRIC.  (HONS),  M.Sc.,  A THESIS  UNIVERSITY  UNIVERSITY  SUBMITTED  AKINWANDE  OF  IN  OF  MANITOBA, 1970  MANITOBA,  PARTIAL  FULFILMENT OF  THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY  IN  THE  DEPARTMENT OF.  POULTRY  WE  ACCEPT  REQUIRED  THIS  THESIS  SCIENCE  AS  CONFORMING  TO  STANDARD  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA APRIL,  1973  THE  1969  In presenting this thesis in p a r t i a l fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t freely available for reference and  study.  I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may by his representatives.  be granted by the Head of my Department or  It i s understood that copying or publication  of this thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission.  Department The University of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada  Date  M,Oaj  I  .  H73  ABSTRACT  THE  STUDIED DNA  METABOLISM  IN CHICKS  A N D RNA  MEASURED  BY MEANS  TO S T U D Y  OF  AND  28  LIVER  DAYS  AT  28  CONSTANT  CORRELATED  WHEAT  DIETARY  LIVER  AND  W/A"S:E  NUTRITIVE  AND L I V E R TECHNIQUE  ISOTOPE  ON  VALUE.  WERE AND  PROTEINS  TECHNIQUE  WAS  THE DEGRADATION  AND  AND THE METABOLIC  WITH  RNA/DNA  SOYBEAN  LYSINE  AND  A N D WAS  FATE  RATIO  OF L Y S I N E  OR  AT  A N D 28  DAYS  UNAFFECTED  INCREASED  WITH  T O 20$,  14  AND  WAS D E P R E S S E D  I  AT  THE  PROGRESSIVELY  RATIOS  14  WITH  OF AGE AND  INCREASED  A N D 28  WAS  INDICATING  MORE  28  BY  DAYS  THAT  RNA  I S  BIOSYNTHESIS.  ACCUMULATION  OF  0.86$.  DAYS  AT BOTH  AT  LYSINE.  THAN  14  INTAKE  15  FROM  DECREASED  AND L Y S I N E  CONTENT  LYSINE.  HIGHER  RNA/DNA  PROTEIN/RNA  PROTEIN  DAYS  PROTEIN  LEVELS  TISSUE)  A T 14  RATIOS  MEAL  FRESH  LYSINE  A T 14  DIETARY  PROTEIN  (MG./G.  DNA  OF DIETARY  AND  INDEPENDENT  WITH  PROTEIN  AN  LYSINE  OF D I E T A R Y  LEVEL  PROTEIN/DNA  DAYS.  MUSCLE  SYNTHESIS  INCREASED  INCREASING  AT DIETARY  LIVER  INCREASED  CONTENT  PROTEIN/DNA  SUPPLEMENTING  RNA  MUSCLE  BY THE LEVEL  OF AGE BY  DECREASED  THAT  INCREASED  MUSCLE  DAYS  PROTEINS,  SHOWED  DNA  WITH  OF D I F F E R E N T  ABSORPTION  OF DIETARY  ACIDS  THREONINE.  UNAFFECTED  AGE.  AND AMINO  AND BY SPECTROPHOTOMETRY.  OF T I S S U E  WAS  PROTEINS  OF THE GASTROCNEMIUS  THE EFFECTS  RESULTS  PROTEIN  OF AN U L T R A V I O L E T  SYNTHESIS LYSINE  RNA,  FED DIETARY  CONTENT  GRAVIMETRI CALLY USED  O F DNA,  SEVERELY  I N BOTH  TISSUES  THAN  LYSINE  DNA  BY  DEPRESSED  RNA/DNA  FEED  I N BOTH  SUPPLEMENTARY  7.5  DAYS  DEGRADATION DIETARY 20.0,  BOTH THE  WERE  MUSCLE  THESE  4.9  TIME,  OBSERVED  52.9  DEFICIENCY.  GROWTH  AND  DEPRESSIONS  AND  5.2  AND  9.6,  FOR  MG./DAY  AND  I N BODY  DEFICIENCY  CHICK  EXCESS  DIETARY  PROTEIN/DNA  WERE  LIVER  WEIGHT  DEPRESSED  AND  ALLEVIATED  BY  14.0  LIVER  RATE  THE  SYNTHESIS  10.4,  DAILY  NET  OF  IN THE  0.86  PROTEIN THE  OF  0.36,  AT  INCREASED  LEVELS  13.3$  AND  PROTEINS  PROTEINS  TO  CORRESPONDING  RESPECTIVELY.  WITH  RNA  DAYS  LIVER  RESPECTIVELY.  MUSCLE  GAIN  7.2,  OF  TURNOVER  AND  THE  LYSINE  ARGININE.  LYSINE  49.2  AND  INTAKE,  TISSUES.  •HALF-LIFE AND  PROTEIN  LIVER  WAS  RATES  MANNER  DIETARY  1.24$  AND  SYNTHESIS  TURNOVER  IN A  7.1  OF  SIMILAR  LYSINE.  MARKEDLY  TO  LYSINE  AND  IN THE  SLIGHTLY.  14 LYSINE-U-  MUSCLE U-^C  C  PROTEINS  DECLINED  OXIDATION  DEFICIENCY THE  AND  OXIDATION  WAS  INCREASED  WITH  INCREASED  WHILE  INCREASING  AND  RETENTION  DIETARY  RETENTION  IN LIVER  LYSINE.  DECREASED  AND  THREONINE-  IN  LYSINE  TOXICITY.  FOLLOWING  CONCLUSIONS  ARE  EVIDENT  FROM  RESULTS  OF  THIS  STUDY: (1)  MUSCLE  IN THE  GROWTH  AND  NOT  THE  LIVER  UNDERGOES  RAPID  AND  LIVER  GROWTH  28  (2)  NUMBER  AT  PROTEIN  CAUSES  A  REDUCTION  RESULT  EXPLAINS  WHY  OF  IN THE  CELLS  CHICKS  I S BY  HATCH  AN  TO  MULTIPLICATION  IS MOSTLY  DEFICIENCY  IN CELL  FROM  CELL  DAYS  CHICK  BY  INHIBITS  SIZE  UNDER  WITH  NO  SEVERE  CELL  CHICK  INCREASE  28  DAYS  DURING  OF  IN CELL  AGE  THE  SIZE  WHEREAS  FIRST  14  DAYS  HYPERTOPHY.  GROWTH  DEGENERATION  PROTEIN  SEVERELY  OF  AND  CELLS.  DEFICIENCY  THE  ACHIEVE  A  NORMAL  SIZE  (3) LYSINE  PRESENT  (4)  A  TO  LIMITATION  OF  LARGE  PRESENT  PROTEIN  WITH  RATE  D E F I C I E N C Y ARE  SKELETON FOR  BECOMES  IN THE  TURNOVER  (5) WHEN  REHABILITATED  ARGININE  IS  LYSINE  WHEN  IN DIETARY LYSINE,  LYSINE  AND  THE  PROTEIN  AND  LOWER  THAN  (6)  CELLULAR  DNA,  LYSINE  DIETS.  GROWTH  WHEN  SUPPLY  PROTEIN  RESULTS  SYNTHESIS  EXCESS  SYNTHESIS THEREBY  FOR  LOSS  RNA  PROTEIN  OXIDATION EXCEEDS  SYNTHESIS  IN A  OF  IN  NORMAL.  IS USED  INCREASED  DIETARY  THREONINE,  FOR  DIETARY  AS  TISSUE  PROTEIN  AMOUNTS.  LYSINE  AVAILABLE  EVALUATING  OF  LIMITED  THREONINE  FOR  LIVER  PROPORTION  SYNTHESIS.  ADEQUATE  DIETARY  OF  FOR  PROTEIN  DIET.  CONSIDERABLY  OCCURS  ADEQUATE  LIMITING  CHICK  IN SUBOPTIMAL CO^,  ON  UTILIZES REDUCING  THE  CAUSED  OF  OF  BY  LARGE THE  THE  CARBON  ANIMAL  THREONINE A  SYNTHESIS  NEEDS  A WHEREAS  PROPORTION  AMOUNTS  OF  OXIDATION. RNA  AND  PROTEINS  PROTEIN AND  AN I M A L .  I I I  THE  CONTENT  ARE  NUTRITIONAL  USEFUL STATUS  PARAMETERS OF  THE  TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE  i  ABSTRACT  vIi  L I S T OF TABLES L I S T OF FIGURES  ix  LIST OF APPENDIX TABLES  xi xv i  L I S T OF APPENDIX FIGURES  xv i I  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS INTRODUCTION  1  LITERATURE REVIEW  4  CELLULAR IMPACT  BASIS  OF  NUCLEIC  FOR  DIETARY  CHANGES  I N BODY C O M P O S I T I O N  PROTEINS  ON  TISSUE  PROTEIN  4  . . . AND  7  ACIDS  NUTRITIONAL  REGULATION  OF  TISSUE  PROTEIN  AND  RNA 12  METABOLISM TISSUE TO  PROTEIN  DIETARY  TISSUE  RNA  DIETARY METABOLISM DIETARY CONTROL AMINO  AND  DEGRADATION  IN  RELATION 17  PROTEIN  SYNTHESIS  AND  DEGRADATION  IN RELATION  TO  INFLUENCED  BY  22  PROTEIN OF  SPECIFIC  AMINO  ACID  MECHANISM  ACID  EXPERIMENTAL  SYNTHESIS  AMINO  ACIDS  AS  27  CONTENT  OF  FEED  30  INTAKE  36  INTERACTION  39  PROCEDURE  39  GENERAL TECHNIQUES: TION  OF  QUANTITATIVE  DNA,  RNA  AND  SEPARATION  FOR  SEQUENTIAL  SEPARATION  LIPID  AND  PROTEIN  TISSUE  PROTEIN  OF  DETERMINA39  METHODS  DETERMINATION  AND  PROTEIN  RNA,  MEASUREMENT  i v  OF  DNA WITH  AND  OF  RNA,  HOMOGENATES PROTEIN  FOLIN-PHENOL  DNA, .  .  39  . . . .  40  REAGENT  42  PAGE TRIAL  1.  DNA,  RNA  AND  PROTEIN  CONCENTRATION  IN 43  TISSUE TRIAL  2.  DNA,  RNA  AND P R O T E I N  CONCENTRATION  IN 43  TISSUE TRIAL  3.  DNA,  RNA  AND P R O T E I N  CONCENTRATION  IN 45  TISSUE TRIAL  4.  TURNOVER  MEASUREMENTS TRIAL  5.  OF  SYNTHESIS  MEASUREMENTS  RATE  OF T I S S U E  RADIOACTIVITY OF T I S S U E  RNA  OF R A D I O A C T I V I T Y  46  PROTEIN IN TISSUE  PROTEIN  . . .  48  . I N JTMSSUE  48  49  RNA  TRIAL  6.  METABOLIC  FATE  OF AMINO  ACIDS  50  TRIAL  7.  METABOLIC  FATE  OF AMINO  ACIDS  51  MEASUREMENTS TRIAL  8.  OF R A D I O A C T I V I T Y  METABOLIC  FATE  OF AMINO  1  SUMMARY TRIAL  TRIAL  TRIAL  . . .  52  78  91  AND C O N C L U S I O N  93 109  AND C O N C L U S I O N  111 131  AND C O N C L U S I O N  5  SUMMARY  52  80  4  SUMMARY TRIAL  AND C O N C L U S I O N  3  SUMMARY  . . .  55  2  SUMMARY  ACIDS  PROTEINS  55  RESULTS AND DISCUSSION TRIAL  IN TISSUE  132 137  AND C O N C L U S I O N  , v  PAGE TRIAL  6  SUMMARY TRIAL  142  AND C O N C L U S I O N  7  SUMMARY TRIAL  139  143 148  AND C O N C L U S I O N  8  SUMMARY  149 157  AND C O N C L U S I O N  GENERAL SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION  . . . . . . . .  159  BIBLIOGRAPHY  162  APPENDIX  181  LIST OF TABLES TABLE  PAGE  1.  COMPOSITION  OF  WHEAT  2.  COMPOSITION  OF  EXPERIMENTAL  3.  GASTROCNEMIUS CONTENT LYSINE  4.  LIVER  FOR  LIVER  OF  6.  OF  LYSINE LIVER  FOR  9.  LIVER  OF  TWO 11.  FOUR  TO  LIVER AND  DNA,  MENTED  TO  TWO  CONTENT FOR  FEED  CHICKS WEEKS  FROM TWO  FED  GRADED 57  .  CHICKS  FED  GRAOED 58  WEEKS  INTAKE  OF  CHICKS  FED  GRADED 60  WEIGHT, FED  AND  DNA  DNA,  GRADED  RNA.AND  LEVELS  OF  PROTEIN DIETARY 71  CONTENT  LYSINE  PROTEIN  FOR  MUSCLE  FOR  DNA,  AND  FROM  CHICKS  FOUR  WEEKS  CONTENT  LYSINE  SUPPLEMENTED  FROM FOUR  RNA  FED  72  CHICKS  FED  GRADED 73  WEEKS  AND  PROTEIN  EXCESS  LYSINE  FOR  TO  EXCESS  LYSINE  THE  GRADED  CONTENT  TWO  WEEKS DIET  OF AND  FROM 81  WEEKS RNA  EXCESS  PROTEIN DIETARY  WEEKS  NORMAL  FOUR  AND OF  LYSINE  DIETARY  FED  ARGININE  AND  MUSCLE  GASTROCNEMIUS CHICKS  RNA  LEVELS  FROM  FOR  LYSINE  CHICKS  AND  OF  CONTENT  LYSINE  DIETARY  RNA  LEVELS 10.  GAIN  WEIGHT  LEVELS  DNA  DIETARY  FROM  DNA,  GRADED  47  56  PROTEIN  GASTROCNEMIUS CONTENT  8.  AND  DIETARY  BODY W E I G H T  ( T R I A L 3)  DIETS  WEIGHT, FED  44  DIET  WEEKS  AND  OF  LEVELS 7.  TWO  DIETARY  RNA  LEVELS  MUSCLE CHICKS  WEIGHT  LEVELS 5.  FROM  BASAL  AND  LYSINE THE  PROTEIN FOR  EXCESS  TWO  CONTENT WEEKS  LYSINE  DIET  AND  OF  CHICKS  ARGININE  FROM  TWO  TO  FED  NORMAL  SUPPLEFOUR 82  WEEKS 12.  DNA,  RNA  MUSCLE DIETARY 13.  DNA,  AND  OF  PROTEIN  RNA  MUSCLE DIETARY  PROTEIN  CHICKS  AND  OF  FED FOR  PROTEIN  CHICKS  PROTEIN  FED FOR  CONTENT  I N THE  GASTROCNEMIUS  DIFFERENT LEVELS TWO  AND  QUALITY  OF 94  WEEKS  CONTENT  I N THE  GASTROCNEMIUS  DIFFERENT LEVELS FOUR v I  WEEKS  I  AND  QUALITY  OF 95  TABLE 14.  15.  16.  PAGE BODY W E I G H T  GAIN,  PROTEIN  CONTENT  QUALITY  OF  FEED  DIETARY  BODY W E I G H T  INTAKE, LIVER  IN CHICKS  GAIN,  PROTEIN FEED  IN CHICKS  DIETARY  PROTEIN  FOR  FOUR  I N BODY  AND  LIVER  LEVELS  OF  FED  DIETARY  DNA,  RNA  AND  D I F F E R E N T . L E V E L S AND  FOR  TWO  WEEKS  INTAKE, LIVER  PROTEIN  CHANGES  FED  96  DNA,  RNA  D I F F E R E N T L E V E L S AND  AND  QUALITY  OF  WEEKS  LYSINE  97  WEIGHTS AND  OF  CHICKS  INJECTED  WITH  FED  GRADED  LYSINE-U-  14C 17.  112  CHANGES TIBIA  18. 19.  IN PROTEINS  MUSCLES  LYSINE  AND  EFFECT  OF  EFFECT  OF  AND  AND  RNA  LIVER  INJECTED  OF  WITH  LYSINE  ON  DIETARY  LYSINE  LEVEL  INTO THE  4  EFFECTS  21.  EFFECT  OF  DIETARY  LYSINE  22.  EFFECT  OF  DIETARY  LYSINE  23.  OF  AMOUNTS  PERCENTAGE AFTER INTAKE  OF  PERCENTAGE MUSCLE  25.  26.  1 4  27.  C  (TRIAL  AND  PERCENTAGE  OF  FED  AFTER  AFTER  RECOVERY MUSCLE  113  PROTEIN  DEGRADATION  INCORPORATION  .  OF  CHICKS  130 133  ON  MUSCLE  RNA  SYNTHESIS  . . . .  134  ON  BODY W E I G H T , LIVER  AND  LIVER  WEIGHT  MUSCLE  136 CO2  RADIOACTIVITY IN RESPIRATORY BODY W E I G H T  LEVELS  OF  LYSINE  AND  FEED  AND  WITH  "  .  R A D I O A C T I V I T Y IN CHICK OF  LYSINE-U-  1 4  OF  LIVER  144 LIVER  THREONINE-U-^C  AND .  .  INJECTION  OF  .  2  LYSINE-U-  8)  150  RECOVERY  U- C  (TRIAL  MUSCLE  EFFECT  OF  BY  CHICK  145  C0 ,  RADIOACTIVITY IN RESPIRATORY AFTER  140  AND  C  RADIOACTIVITY IN CHICK  PROTEIN  118  . . . .  INJECTION OF  OF  SYNTHESIS  INJECTION OF  MIXED  LEVELS  RNA  GRADED  OF  I N THE  GRADED  LIVER  ARGININE  RECOVERY  AND  THE  ON  LYSINE-U-^C,  RECOVERY  LIVER 14  28.  AND  OF  CHICKS  ON  IN CHICK  RECOVERY  PROTEIN  PERCENTAGE LIVER  LYSINE  RNA  PROTEIN  PERCENTAGE MUSCLE  OF  INJECTION  THREONINE 24.  DIETARY  TISSUE  T I S S U E S OF  20.  FED  LYSINE-U-^C  DIETARY  LYSINE-U-^ C  AND  CONCENTRATION CHICKS  OF  RADIOACTIVITY IN RESPIRATORY  PROTEIN  AFTER  INJECTION  OF  CO2,  THREONINE-  8)  DIETARY  153 LYSINE  LEVEL  ON  THREONINE  UTILIZATION 154  VIII  LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE 1.  2.  PAGE FEED  AVERAGE  DAILY  GRADED  CHICKS  TWO  5.  GAINS  MUSCLE  FED GRADED  L E V E L S OF .  WEEKS  A N D FE'ED  FED GRADED  EFFICIENCIES F O R TWO  PROTEIN/DNA LEVELS  OF  63  RNA/DNA  AND  OF D I E T A R Y  LIVER  RATIOS  LYSINE  FOR 65  PROTEIN/DNA,  CHICKS  FED G R A D E D  WEEKS  '  LIVER  MUSCLE  RATIOS  LYSINE  AND PROTEIN/RNA  OF D I E T A R Y  RATIOS  LYSINE  FED GRADED  RNA/DNA  PROTEIN/DNA,  FROM  CHICKS  F O R FOUR  PROTEIN/DNA,  CHICKS  RNA/DNA LEVELS  FOR  FROM  TWO 69  GASTROCNEMIUS DIETARY  AND  FED GRADED  L E V E L S OF 75  WEEKS  RNA/DNA LEVELS  AND PROTEIN/RNA  OF D I E T A R Y  RATIOS  LYSINE  FROM  F O R FOUR 77  WEEKS  7.  GASTROCNEMIUS AFFECTED  8.  LIVER  10.  AND  LYSINE  IMPROVEMENT  I N MUSCLE FED E X C E S S  CHICKS  CHANGES  IN LIVER  RNA/DNA  RNA/DNA  RATIOS  BY 85  PROTEIN/DNA LYSINE  AND  RNA/DNA  AND  WITH  RATIOS 87  ARGININE  RNA/DNA  ARGININE  EFFECTS  OF S U P P L E M E N T I N G  HIGH  LYSINE  ARGININE  ON A C C U M U L A T I O N  RATIOS  FROM 88  DIETS  OF G A S T R O C N E M I U S  WITH MUSCLE  DNA, 89  AND P R O T E I N  EFFECTS  OF S U P P L E M E N T I N G  ARGININE  ON A C C U M U L A T I O N  BODY W E I G H T  AS 83  AS A F F E C T E D  WITH  AND  RATIOS  I N THE CHICK  I N THE CHICK  PROTEIN/DNA  FED E X C E S S  AND  LYSINE  LYSINE  RNA 12.  DIETARY  PROTEIN/DNA  DIETARY  FROM  CHICKS 11.  MUSCLE  BY EXCESS  PROTEIN/DNA  EXCESS  9.  61  CHICKS  WEEKS  WEEKS  PROTEIN/RNA  6.  OF C H I C K S  F O R TWO  L E V E L S OF L Y S I N E  GASTROCNEMIUS IN  4.  PATTERN  LYSINE  FED  3.  INTAKE  DIETARY  HIGH  GAIN/CHICK  V  LYSINE  OF L I V E R  i  XIX  DIETS  DNA,  RNA,  WITH PROTEIN 90  FIGURE 13.  14.  15.  16.  17.  PAGE EFFECTS  OF  IN  THE  CHICK  EFFECTS  OF  TWO  IN  THE  CHICK  EFFECTS  OF  ON  LIVER  AT  Two  OF  ON  LIVER  AT  FOUR  OF  THE  OF  DIETARY  PROTEIN  RNA/DNA  RATIOS 100  AGE  QUANTITY OF  AND  OF  DIETARY  PROTEIN  RNA/DNA  AND  RATIOS 101  AGE  QUANTITY  RNA/DNA  AND  OF  DIETARY  RATIOS  PROTEIN  I N THE  CHICK 103  AGE QUALITY  PROTEIN/DNA WEEKS  EFFECTS  QUALITY  OF AND  PROTEIN/DNA  WEEKS  PROTEIN/DNA  WEEKS  EFFECTS  OF  AND  QUANTITY  RNA/DNA  AND  OF  DIETARY  RATIOS  PROTEIN  IN THE  CHICK 104  AGE  DIETARY  PROTEIN  ACCUMULATION  GASTROCNEMIUS  OF  LEVEL  DNA,  MUSCLE  AND  RNA  QUALITY  AND 14  BETWEEN  ON  PROTEIN 28  AND  I N THE DAYS  OF  106  .'  EFFECTS  OF  RELATIVE CHICK 28  THE  FOUR  OF  AND  MUSCLE  AT  QUANTITY  PROTEIN/DNA  WEEKS  QUALITY  GASTROCNEMIUS  AGE  DIETARY  LIVER  DAYS  MUSCLE  OF  LIVER  AND  LEVEL  DNA,  AND  RNA  QUALITY  AND  ON  PROTEIN  GAIN/CHICK  IN 14  BETWEEN  AND 107  AGE RNA  LEVELS 1 4  OF  BODY W E I G H T  PROTEIN,  LYSINE-C  PROTEIN  ACCUMULATION  DIFFERNT  20.  THE  AND  MUSCLE  AT  ON  CHICK  19.  QUALITY  GASTROCNEMIUS  RELATIVE  18.  THE  ON  OF  AND  PROTEIN/RNA  DIETARY  LYSINE  OF  AND  CHICKS  FED  INJECTED  WITH  (U)  116  PROTEIN,  DIFFERENT  RNA  LEVELS .  LYSINE-U- ^C  .  RATE  OF  1  AND  OF  PROTEIN/RNA  DIETARY  .*.  LYSINE  RATIO AND  IN CHICKS  INJECTED  FED  WITH  .  117  14 21.  OF  LOSS  RECEIVING  C-PROITEIN  DIFFERENT LEVELS  FROM OF  L I V E R S OF  DIETARY  CHICKS 121  LYSINE  14 22.  RATE  OF  CHICKS 23.  LOSS FED  CHANGES  I N THE  PROTEINS  OF  OF  BODY W E I G H T LEVELS  OF  C-PROTEIN  DIFFERENT LEVELS  ACTIVITIES  24.  OF  PERCENTAGE THE  LIVER  CHICKS GAIN  DIETARY  FED  PER  FROM OF  MIXED  GRADED  CHICK  '. x  PER  TIBIA  DIETARY  DECREASE  AND  LYSINE  THE  OF  DAY  LYSINE  OF  OF 124  . . . . .  SPECIFIC  TIBIA  LEVELS  MUSCLE  OF  MUSCLE  TISSUE  DIETARY  FEEDING  LYSINE  .  125  GRADED 128  LIST OF APPENDIX TABLES TABLE  PAGE I.  A N A L Y S I S OF V A R I A N C E FEED  II.  WEIGHT  AND  CHICKS  FED G R A D E D  (TRIAL  1)  LIVER  GRADED  LEVELS  OF  T O T A L DNA,  RNA  I N THE GASTROCNEMIUS  LEVELS  OF L Y S I N E  FOR  TWO  RNA  I N ONE  L E V E L S OF  LYSINE  A N A L Y S I S OF V A R I A N C E  OF  OF  FOR  TWO  AND  AND  LYSINE  FOR  OF  WEEKS TOTAL  C O N T E N T P E R 100G. L E V E L S OF  LYSINE  A N A L Y S I S OF' V A R I A N C E  FOR  RNA  WEIGHT  AND  CHICKS  FED G R A D E D  LIVER  (TRIAL  1)  WEIGHT  OF  .  .  T85  PROTEIN 186  RNA  AND  OF C H I C K S 1)  (TRIAL WEIGHT  BODY  LYSINE  .  GRADED  MUSCLE WEIGHT,  P E R 100G.  LEVELS  DNA,  BODY  184  1)  W.EEKS  OF A V E R A G E  INTAKE, GASTROCNEMIUS  AND FED  WEIGHT  TWO  .  FED  ( T R I A L 1)  WEEKS  LIVER  1)  PROTEIN  (TRIAL  BODY  CHICKS  (TRIAL  OF C H I C K S  T O T A L DNA,  TWO  PROTEIN OF  WEEKS  I N THE L I V E R S OF C H I C K S  A N A L Y S I S OF V A R I A N C E  FED .  .  .  DNA, RNA  A N A L Y S I S OF V A R I A N C E  OF  GRAM  I N ONE  FED G R A D E D  GAIN,  WEIGHT  F O R FOUR  OF  WEEKS 188  AND  PROTEIN  OF G A S T R O C N E M I U S  L E V E L S OF L Y S I N E  MUSCLE  F O R FOUR  OF  WEEKS  '('iTs.i AL 11 ) IX.  189  A N A L Y S I S OF VARIANCE CONCENTRATION FED  GRADED  187  LIVER  ,  CONCENTRATION CHICKS  Two  MUSCLE  LIVER  FEED  MUSCLE  FOR  1 83  O F DNA,  OF  PROTEIN  OF L Y S I N E  GRAM  GRADED  VIII.  AND  CONCENTRATION  PROTEIN  VII.  RNA  OF G A S T R O C N E M I U S  A N A L Y S I S OF V A R I A N C E  LEVELS  OF  WEEKS  1)  A N A L Y S I S OF V A R I A N C E  CONCENTRATION  VI.  I N ONE  FED G R A D E D  (TRI A L  GRADED  WEIGHT  F O R Two  182 O F DNA,  FED  BODY  GAIN,  LIVER  .  CONCENTRATION  V.  P E R 100G.  GRAM  CHICKS  WEIGHT  WEIGHT,  L E V E L S , OF L Y S I N E  CONCENTRATION WEEKS  IV.  WEIGHT  BODY  MUSCLE  A N A L Y S I S OF V A R I A N C E OF  III.  OF AVERAGE  INTAKE, GASTROCNEMIUS  OF  T O T A L DNA,  I N THE GASTROCNEMIUS  LEVELS  OF  LYSINE  x I  RNA  AND  MUSCLE  F O R F O U R WEEKS  PROTEIN OF  CHICKS  (TRIAL  1).  190  PAGE  TABLE X.  XI.  A N A L Y S I S OF  VARIANCE  CONCENTRATION  I N ONE  GRADED  OF  LEVELS  A N A L Y S I S OF  XII.  OF  PROTEIN GRADED  XIII.  LEVELS  A N A L Y S I S OF AND  TOTAL  CHICKS TO XIV.  14  FED  AND  CHICKS  XVII.  FED  XIX.  14  FROM  14  DAYS  28  28  AND  CHICKS  FED  ( T R I A L 1)  FROM  WEIGHT  AND  IN CHICKS TO  14  . ,  AND  OF  IN DAY  TOTAL  LIVER  ADEQUATE OF  AGE  AGE  QUANTITY  CHICKS  AND  OF  2)  196  TOTAL  IN CHICKS WITH  FED  ARGININE  FROM 197  BODY W E I G H T  DIETARY  FOR  AND  IN WITH  2)  AVERAGE  FED  QUALITY  WEIGHT  LYSINE  LYSINE  (TRIAL  CONTENT  (TRIAL  VARIANCE  AGE  WEIGHT,  CONTENT  EXCESS  OF  LIVER  MUSCLE  PROTEIN  AND  EXCESS  OF  INTAKE  AND  DAYS  OF  FEED  TWO  PROTEINS  AND  FOUR  GAIN  AND  DIFFERENT  WEEKS  3)  198  A N A L Y S I S OF TOTAL  VARIANCE  MUSCLE  DIETARY  PROTEINS  FOR  WEEKS  TWO  1 93  WEIGHT  ONE  FED  DAYS  GASTROCNEMIUS  PROTEIN  A N A L Y S I S OF  A N A L Y S I S OF RNA  DIFFERENT (TRIAL  192  CONTENT  LYSINE  DAY  LYSINE  TO  AND  LYSINE  DNA,  PROTEIN  MUSCLE  PROTEIN  LIVER  RNA  VARIANCE RNA  ADEQUATE  AND  WEEKS  191  GRADED  RNA  OF  •  194  ONE  OF  DNA,  ADEQUATE  DNA,  (TRIAL  XVIII.  FROM  .  2)  CONTENT  VARIANCE  MUSCLE  A N A L Y S I S OF  IN  FOUR  EXCESS  (TRIAL  LYSINE  DNA,  GASTROCNEMIUS  AND  OF  AND FED  .  ( T R I A L 1)  LIVER  AND  1)  1 95  ARGININE  TO  FOR  RNA  PROTEIN  RNA  CHICKS  FED  (TRIAL  2)  TOTAL  LIVER  AGE  CHICKS  WEEKS  BODY W E I G H T  OF  DNA,  VARIANCE  AND  A N A L Y S I S OF AND  XVI.  OF  TOTAL  LYSINE  ADEQUATE  EXCESS  (TRIAL XV.  OF  PROTEIN  OF  DNA,  WEEKS  100G.  VARIANCE  A N A L Y S I S OF RNA  OF  FOUR  TOTAL  FOUR  PER  MUSCLE  DAYS  DNA,  FOR  AND  LIVER  L I V E R S OF  VARIANCE  CONTENT  RNA  OF  FOR  OF  I N THE  LYSINE  A N A L Y S I S OF  DNA,  LYSINE  VARIANCE  CONCENTRATION LEVELS  OF  GRAM  AND  DNA,  OF  GASTROCNEMIUS  RNA  DIFFERENT  (TRIAL  VARIANCE PROTEIN  IN QUANTITY  AND  MUSCLE  PROTEIN  WEIGHT  IN CHICKS  IN QUANTTTY  AND  FED  QUALITY  3) OF  199 LIVER  IN CHICKS AND  3)  WEIGHT FED  QUALITY  AND  TOTAL  DIETARY FOR  TWO  LIVER  PROTEINS WEEKS 200  x I I  TABLE  PAGE XX.t.  ANALYSIS  TOTAL  CHICKS  FED  DIETARY  QUALITY  ANALYSIS LIVER FOUR  AND  (TRIAL  OF  (DPM/G.  OF  AND  MUSCLE PROTEIN  DIFFERENT  IN  QUANTITY  3)  201  L I V E R WEIGHT  AND  TOTAL  FED  DIETARY  QUALITY  FOR  IN CHICKS  IN QUANTITY  IN  AND  3)  202 PROTEIN  I N ONE  R A D I O A C T I V I T Y OF  MUSCLE  TISSUE)  PROTEINS  RNA (TRIAL  PROTEIN  VARIANCE  MUSCLES,  DNA,  WEEKS  VARIANCE  WEEKS  TIBIA  FOUR  RNA  GASTROCNEMIUS  PROTEINS  DIFFERENT  ANALYSIS  OF  MUSCLE  FOR  OF  DNA,  PROTEINS  XXII.  VARIANCE  AND  AND XXI.  OF  WEIGHT  AND  (DPM/MG.  OF  SPECIFIC  PROTEIN)  GRAM  A C T I V I T Y OF  FROM  OF  MIXED  PROTEINS  CHICKS  MUSCLE  FED  GRADED  14  XXIII.  LEVELS  OF  (TRIAL  4)  ANALYSIS TIBIA  LYSINE OF  VARIANCE  MUSCLES,  THE  LYSINE  XXIV.  AND  SPECIFIC  XXV.  OF  XXVI.  CHICKS  LYS I N E - U -  FED  OF  OF  LIVER  C  CHICKS  FED  WITH  LYSINE-UOF  C  VARIANCE  RAD i O A C T i v i T Y / M G . GRADED  LEVELS 1 4  C  OF  HOMOGENATE  (TRIAL  (DPM/G.  RNA  OF  LYSINE  (TRIAL  AND  GRAM  4) OF  .  (DPM/MG.  LYSINE  AND  RNA  LIVER OF  AND  INJECTED  PROTEIN  LYSINE  AND  AND  RNA  INJECTED 206  I N ONE  (DPM/G. OF  GRAM  OF  LIVER,  PROTEIN/PERCENT-DOSE)  THE  LIVERS  OF  INJECTED  CHI:CKS  WITH 207  OF  RADIOACTIVITY  TISSUE),  RNA  EXPRESSED  IN MUSCLE RNA)  204  PROTEIN)  4)  RNA  INJECTED  .  LIVER,  TISSUE)  4)  EXTRACT  (DPM/MG.  I N ONE  L Y S I N E AND  VARIANCE  RADIOACTIVITY ACTIVITY  OF  RNA OF  205  TOTAL  OF  MIXED  (TRIAL  (DPM/G.  OF  LEVELS  RECOVERY  OF  4)  (TRIAL  FED  TISSUE),  C  (DPM/G.  LEVELS  PROTEINS  LEVELS  OF  AND  LYSINE-U-  PROTEIN  (TRIAL  GRADED 1 4  GRADED  PROTEINS  GRADED 1 4  GRAM  RECOVERY  LYSINE-U-^C  LIVER  VARIANCE  FROM  ANALYSIS  LYSINE-U-  I N ONE  FED  WITH  A C T I V I T Y OF  RADIOACTIVITY  XXVII.  OF  FROM  ANALYSIS  WITH  RADIOACTIvITY/MG.  AND  CHICKS  VARIANCE  WITH  ANALYSIS  DOSE) OF  INJECTED  RADIOACTIVITY  RNA  OF  RADIOACTIVITY  MUSCLES  ANALYSIS  INJECTED  203  PROTEIN/PERCENT OF  AND  EXTRACT AS  A  HOMOGENATE, OF  CHICKS  WITH  5)  I N MUSCLE (DPM/G.  PERCENTAGE AND  FED  URACIL-U-  OF  SPECIFIC  GRADED  LEVELS  C 208  XIII  TABLE  XXVIII.  PAGE ANALYSIS  OF  VARIANCE  HOMOGENATE TISSUE), OF  OF  FROM  CHICKS  ANALYSIS  LEVELS  OF  (TRIAL  7)  ANALYSIS AND  ACID  AND  ACID  LEVELS  OF  (TRIAL  7)  ANALYSIS ACID AND  ACID  XXXIV.  FED  AND  SPECIFIC  GRADED  URACIL-U-  LEVELS  LEVELS  C  BODY W E I G H T L Y S I N E AND  WITH 210  R A D I O A C T I V I T Y RECOVERY ACID  PROTEINS  TIBIA  OF  GAIN, CO2  IN  ( T R I A L 6)  OF  L Y S I N E AND  SOLUBLE  RELATIVE  MUSCLES  OF  TO  CHICKS  I N J E C T E D WITH  IN  PROTEINS, ACID FED  SOLUBLE GRADED  LYSINE-U-  C 211  OF  VARIANCE  OF  R A D I O A C T I V I T Y RECOVERY  PROTEINS,  INSOLUBLE I N THE  ACID  PROTEINS  LIVERS  OF  SOLUBLE  RELATIVE  CHICKS  I N J E C T E D WITH  FED  IN  PROTEINS, TO  ACID  GRADED  SOLUBLE LEVELS  LYSINE-U-^ C 4  212 OF  VARIANCE  OF  R A D I O A C T I V I T Y RECOVERY  PROTEINS,  INSOLUBLE I N THE  ACID  PROTEINS  TIBIA  L Y S I N E AND  SOLUBLE  RELATIVE  MUSCLES  OF  TO  CHICKS  I N J E C T E D WITH  IN  PROTEINS, ACID FED  SOLUBLE GRADED  THREONINE-U-^ C 4  213 OF  VARIANCE  I N THE  PROTEINS,  LYSINE-U-  C  RELATIVE  CHICKS  FED  IN  PROTEINS, TO  ACID  GRADED  SOLUBLE LEVELS  THREONINE-U-^ C 4  214 OF  ACID  ACID  R A D I O A C T I V I T Y RECOVERY  INSOLUBLE  INSOLUBLE  PROTEINS  LEVELS 1 4  OF  SOLUBLE  •  VARIANCE  SOLUBLE GRADED  ACID  I N J E C T E D WITH  CO2,  AND  R A D I O A C T I V I T Y RECOVERY  PROTEINS  LIVERS  . . . . . OF  OF  PROTEINS,  INSOLUBLE  RESPIRATORY  FED  CHICKS  AVERAGE  PROTEINS,  INSOLUBLE  7)  ANALYSIS  ACID  GRADED  I N THE  L Y S I N E AND  (TRIAL  OF  VARIANCE  INSOLUBLE  PROTEINS OF  OF  INSOLUBLE  PROTEINS  XXXIII.  PERCENTAGE  7)  ANALYSIS ACID  A  (DPM/G.  R A D I O A C T I V I T Y RECOVERY  ARGININE  L Y S I N E AND  (TRIAL  XXXII.  FED  AND  INSOLUBLE  PROTEINS OF  AND  INSOLUBLE ACID  ACID  OF  AS  HOMOGENATE,  I N J E C T E D WITH  VARIANCE  INTAKE,  PROTEINS  XXXI.  EXPRESSED  RNA)  IN LIVER  EXTRACT  209  FEED  AND  RNA  5)  ANALYSIS  ACID  RADIOACTIVITY  IN LIVER  (DPM/MG.  THREONINE XXX.  OF  TISSUE),  EXTRACT  L Y S I N E AND  (TRIAL  XXIX.  RNA  RADIOACTIVITY  ACTIVITY OF  (DPM/G.  OF  (TRIAL  M  I N THE  PROTEINS TIBIA  L Y S I N E AND 8)  irv,  PROTEINS,  ACID  RELATIVE  MUSCLES  INJECTED  OF  IN SOLUBLE TO CHICKS  WITH 215  PAGE  TABLE  XXXV.  A N A L Y S I S OF ACID AND  ACID  (TRIAL  XXXVI.  I N THE  LYSINE  AND  ANALYSIS SOLUBLE MUSCLES  OF  TO OF  VARIANCE  TO  ACID  GRADED 14  SOLUBLE LEVELS  C  ACID  FED  INSOLUBLE OF  THREON1NE-U- C 1 4  ANALYSIS  OF  AND  INTAKE  WITH  ACID  OF  INSOLUBLE  C  ACID  LYSINE  AND  OF  TO  CHICKS  INJECTED  AND  8)  217 IN  PROTEINS, ACID FED  WITH  218  8)  OF  AVERAGE  CHICKS  THREONINE  TIBIA  LYSINE  SOLUBLE  RELATIVE  LIVER  OF  OF  R A D I O A C T I V I T Y RECOVERY AND  PROTEINS  VARIANCE  (TRIAL  IN  ACID  PROTEINS  IN THE  LEVELS  I N THE (TRIAL  PROTEINS,  PROTEINS  GRADED  PROTEINS  PROTEINS  FEED  AND  VARIANCE  LEVELS  R A D I O A C T I V I T Y RECOVERY  THREONINE-U-  INSOLUBLE  LYSINE  IN  PROTEINS,  L Y S I N E - •U-  INSOLUBLE  SOLUBLE  CHICKS  OF  OF  ACID  ACID  ANALYSIS  SOLUBLE  XXXVIII.  RELATIVE  CHICKS.FED  I N J E C T E D WITH  COJJ,  WITH  GRADED  PROTEINS  SOLUBLE  216  INJECTED  AND  ACID  L I V E R S OF  PROTEINS,  RELATIVE  ACID  R A D I O A C T I V I T Y RECOVERY  8)  RESPIRATORY  XXXVII.  OF  PROTEINS,  INSOLUBLE  PROTEINS OF  VARIANCE  INSOLUBLE  FED  (TRIAL  X^V V  BODY W E I G H T  GRADED 8)  LEVELS  GAIN OF  219  LIST OF APPENDIX FIGURES FIGURE I. I |. III. IV.  PAGE CALF  THYMUS  DNA  STANDARD  YEAST  RNA  STANDARD  CURVE  YEAST  RNA  STANDARD  CURVE  220  CURVE  221 CORRECTED  PEPTIDES  . . .  . . . . . . . . .  222 223  B O V I N E SERUM  A L B U M I N STANDARD  V.  C^  4  CHANNELS  R A T I O QUENCH  C O R R E C T I O N CURVE.  224  VI.  C^  4  CHANNELS  R A T I O QUENCH  C O R R E C T I O N CURVE  225  XV I  CURVE  FOR  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  THE OF  AUTHOR  WISHES  A G R I C U L T U R E AND  COMMITTEE  FOR  THE  B Y DR.  SCIENCE,  IS GRATEFULLY  OF  POULTRY  MENT  THIS  DR.  BY R.  SCIENCE  THE  WITH  WERE  MEMBERS  OF  ARE  SCIENCE MEL  M.  VITAL  HUDSON  DR.  COLUMBIA  RESEARCH.  OF  THE  DEPARTMENT  RESEARCH  THE  ACCOMODATION  DEPARTMENT  AUTHOR IN THE  DR.  W.  THEIR THE  D.  B.  BRAGG,  SUPERVISION,  GRADUATE  BEAMES  AND  THIS  THE  E X T E N D E D TO FOR  BRITISH  CANADA  OF  POULTRY  D. OF THE  INTEREST  DEEPLY  AND  APPRECIATES  PREPARATION  OF  OF  THE  THIS  OF  TECHNICAL STAFF  ANIMAL OF  THE  ASSISTANCE.  THE  MANAGEMENT  P E R S O N N E L OF  THE  P O U L T R Y FARM  ENCOURAGEUSEFUL  DISSERTATION,  DEPARTMENT  DEPARTMENT  PROFESSOR  THE  COMMITTEE, PROFESSOR  KITTS THE  ASSOCIATE  B.  E.  MARCH,  OF  POULTRY  SCIENCE. DEPARTMENT  ASSISTANCE IS  OF  GIVEN  ACKNOWLEDGED  A P P R E C I AT I ON. THE  PATIENCE TYPING THIS  WHICH  R.  OF  TO  MADE.  THANKS  B Y MR.  DUE  S T U D Y WAS  DR.  OF  TO  ACKNOWLEDGED.  ARE  FITZSIMMONS,  HIS GRATITUDE  CHAIRMAN  WHOSE  AND  POULTRY  THANKS  KI.TTS,  UNDER  THE C.  D.  SUPPORT  SCIENCE,  SUGGESTIONS, MADE  W.  EXPRESS  UNIVERSITY  FINANCIAL  PROVIDED  SPECIAL  TO  AUTHOR AND  THE  IS INDEBTED  UNFAILING  DRAFT  DISSERTATION  OF TO  TO  H I S WIFE  ENCOURAGEMENT  THIS  DURING  DISSERTATION.  H I S DAUGHTER  OLUBUKOLA  THE  OLUTOKUNKO  XV I I  THE  HER  ENDURANCE,  INVESTIGATION  AUTHOR FOR  FOR  WISHES  HER  TO  AND  FOR  DEDICATE  COOPERATION.  INTRODUCTION  ACIDS  THE  PRIMARY  FUNCTION  FOR  GROWTH,  REPRODUCTION  PROTEIN  SYNTHESIS  PROPORTIONS. IN  THE  CANNOT MEET CAN BY  DIET BE  THE BE  A  MONOGASTRIC  SYNTHESIZED OF  SYNTHESIZED  BY  COMBINED  AND  THE  THE ONE  ADEQUATE  FROM  A  ANIMAL  FROM  A  AMINO  ACIDS,  ANIMAL  THE  RATE  FOR  (BIRD)  OF  ACIDS  SOURCE  BE  EXAMPLE,  SINCE  THE  I S TO  SUPPLY  EFFICIENT  SYNTHESIS  HOWEVER,  DIETARY  DIET  MAINTENANCE.  DIETARY  AMINO  ANIMAL.  BASED  OF  ON  OR  POPULAR.  PROTEIN  RETENTION BASED,  MORE  NATURAL  RESPONSE, METHODS, THE  IN  THESE  IS  AMINO  BODY PROPER  MUST  BE  AMINO  SUPPLIED ACIDS  INSUFFICIENT  NON-ESSENTIAL  OF  ORGANIC  OR  TO  AMINO  NITROGEN  THE  ACIDS  SUPPLIED  ON  EVALUATION BALANCE  BIOLOGICAL  VALUE  MEASURES  INTAKE  DIFFERENCES  1  OR  OF  THE  AND  DIET  TO  COST  OBTAIN MADE  AND  OF  THAN  QUALITY  ACID  PROTEIN  IN CARCASS  BE  IS OFTEN  PROTEIN  THAT  RATIO,  NITROGEN.  VALUE,  MEASURES  ABSORBED.  NITROGEN  ARE  CONCENTRATIONS,  EFFICIENCY  ABSORBED  BIOLOGICAL  RATHER  MAY  SELECTED.  AMINO  RETENTION  A MODIFICATION  TO  QUALITY,  OF  PROTEIN  PROTEINS  COMBINATIONS  PROTEINS  NITROGEN  ON  MORE  DEPENDING  FROM  ADEQUATE  SUPPLEMENTED  PROTEIN  IN THE  BASED  UPON  OF  CONTAIN  TWO  ACIDS  PROTEINS  FORMER  NITROGEN  HOWEVER,  AMINO  USED  TO  ANIMAL.  RESULTING  UTILIZATION,  OF  FORMULATED  SELECTION  TECHNIQUES  GROWTH  ARE  MONOGASTRIC  PRODUCTIVITY  TRADITIONAL  REMAIN  DIETS  LEVEL.  NUMBER  MOST  ARE  AND  I N THE  PROTEIN.  REQUIRED  NET  THE  OR  PROTEINS  THAT  ESSENTIAL  PRACTICAL  TWO  REQUIRES  THE OF  NEED  OF  BETWEEN  BOTH THE  TEST  GROUP  (WEIGHT ONLY  AND  GAIN  GROWTH  A  GROUP  PER  FED  WEIGHT  NEED  BE  NO  OF  PROTEIN.  PROTEIN  MEASURED,  BUT  THE  EATEN) A  PROTEIN  IS LESS  LINEAR  EFFICIENCY  LABORIOUS,  FUNCTION  OFTEN  RATIO  SINCE  IS  NOT  OBTAINED. MEASUREMENTS REPRESENT  ONLY  CELLS  TISSUES.  AND  KNOWLEDGE ACID  OF  (DNA)  (YOUNG  AN  THE  AND  AND  NITROGEN  ALGEBRAIC A  NEW  (1960)  WHO  1968).  VARIED  WITH  OF  PROTEIN.  THE  THAT  THE BY  INGESTED  OF  I S AN  RESERVES THE  IN VARIOUS  DIETARY |N  E.G.  POLYRIBOSOMES  THAT ACID,  OF  NORMAL  PROTEIN  BUT  METHIONINE  CHANGES  A  WAS  AND BY  DNA  THE  OF  AND  CELLS  AMINO  CLARK  OF  ACID  AND  RATS PROFILE  CO-WORKERS  CONTENT  NOT  THE  THESE  MUNRO  RNA  RECENT  BIOSYNTHESIS  OF  ALLISON  FUNCTION  ALSO  PROTEIN  OF  ON  DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC  LIVER  AND  ACIDS AND  SYSTEM  IN T I S S U E  (1968);  MUNRO  OBSERVED  DEGRADATION  RIBOSOMES.  AMINO  INCORPORATING  THESE  TRYPTOPHAN,  CAUSING  FREE  EXCESS  TO  (1970),  P R O N C Z U K _ET _A_L.  LATION  OF  INTIMATE  TISSUES  TO  VARIOUS  ONLY  OF  OF  NUTRITIVE  RAT  PROTEIN  VALUE  OF  PROTEINS.  ADDITION  DEFICIENCY,  BODY  TISSUE  OBTAINED  THE  BASED  INFLUENCE  INVESTIGATIONS  LIVER  TISSUES  OF  VALUES  WITHIN  INDICATED,  CONTENT  THAT  BUT  LOSSES  INVESTIGATIONS  INDICATED  MUSCLE  AND  I S NOW  CONTENT  AMOUNT  SUBSEQUENT  USEFUL  NUTRITIONAL  (1961, 1962, 1963, 1964) AND  GAINS  (RNA)  THE  RNA  THE  ARE  RELATIONSHIPS  ACID  REVEALED  FOUND  OF  APPROACH  RIBONUCLEIC  WAS  BALANCE  SUM  BIOCHEMICAL  ALEXIS,  RELATIONSHIPS  THE  OF  LAMAR,  SUCH  AS  OF  JR.  FROM  THREONINE  RETARD  AND  ADDED  I MM  PROTEIN  (1971  ISOLEUCINE, TO  WEANLING  AN RAT  AMINO  AND  POLYRIBOSOMES  VALINE,  PHENYLALANINE DERIVED  TO  COMPOSITION,  ISOLEUCINE,  SYNTHESIS  AND  AN  ) ALSO  I N V I TRO  ON  ACCUMU-  DEMONSTRATED  HISTIDINE,  BRAIN,  ACID  AMINO  ASPARTIC ACID  INHIBITED  THE  INCORPORATION AT  OF  THE P O I N T THE  OR  ORGAN  FOR  OF  AMINO AMINO  FOREGOING CONTENT  EVALUATING  OF  POINT  COMPOUNDS  V I A THE  RNA  FOR  FACT  THAT  CHICKEN STUDY  WAS  LYSINE  AND  PROTEIN  MIGHT  A  RNA  FROM  MUSCLE  WAS  EFFECTS  OF  PROTEIN  AND  ON  FATE  OF  LYSINE  THAT  ELIMINATE  NITROGENOUS  THE SAME  MAY  IN THE ALREADY  NUCLEIC  ACID  PRESENT  ACIDS,  PROTEIN  ON  DIETARY  DIETARY  THE S Y N T H E S I S  AND  OF  WERE  WITH  DESCRIBED  TISSUE  DIFFERENT  RNA  INTAKES  AND T H E  I N THE  PROTEIN  AND  AMINO  ACIDS  IN CHICK  LIVER  AND  CONCENTRATION  DIFFERENT  ACIDS  INVESTIGATION. "THE  NUCLEIC  UNDER  AMINO  METABOLISM  OF  PROTEIN  OF  INTO  PATHWAYS.  REPORTS  THE  PATHWAYS  BE C H A N N E L E D  PRODUCTS  ACIDS  CRITERION SECOND  IMPACT  THE S Y N T H E S I S OF  METABOLISM,  AS  CELLULAR  1964). A  THE  AND  LYSINE  ON  PROMPTED  OF  BIRDS  METABOLIC  PREVIOUS  ELUCIDATE  RNA  THAT  NUCLEIC  STUDIES  DETERMINED  DIETARY  PURINE  I S THAT  SERVE  I S ON _ET _AL .  NUCLEOTIDES  THE  FEW  DNA,  (A L L  THE FACT  OF  OF  THE METABOLISM  CHICKS.  METABOLIC  OF  TO  AND  PROTEINS  REPORTED  DESIGNED  ON  GROWING  DNA,  METABOLISM  BEEN  OCCURRED  THAT  RELATIVELY  HAVE  INHIBITION  THE SUGGESTION  POINT  CONSIDERATION  THE  SUPPORT  THE METABOLISM  INFLUENCE  PROTEIN.  ACTIVATION.  PATHWAYS  THE  INTO  OBSERVATIONS  EMERGES  SYNTHESIS.  COULD  ACID  DIETARY  IMPORTANT  USED  ACIDS  REGIMES.  IN  THE  DEGRADATION  OF  TISSUE  MEASURED.  THE  OF  LYSINE  DIETARY  WAS  14„ ELUCIDATED.  14 U-  DIETS  BE  AND  INCORPORATION  C FROM  OF  THREONINE-  14 C TO  WERE  THE O X I D A T I O N  CCV,  AND  CONTAINING ALSO  INTO  PROTEINS  A D E F I C I E N T , ADEQUATE  INVESTIGATED.  THE SECOND  TISSUE  LIMITING  THREONINE AMINO  ACID  WAS  RESPECTIVELY AND  EXCESS  SELECTED  LEVEL  SINCE  I N A WHEAT-BASED  IN CHICKS OF  LYSINE  I T WAS  DIET.  FED  NOTED  TO  LITERATURE  CELLULAR  BASIS  FOR  CHANGES  DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC INTERPHASE  HAS  OF  ANIMAL  A  GIVEN  BEEN  ( T H O M S O N _ET _ A L . 1956, OF  A  1960;  CHANGES BY  THE  THE  1953;  THE  WERE  FED  AVERAGE  ANY  CAMPBELL  AND  AVERAGE  DNA  DE S M U L ,  CONTENT A  RLS,  THIS  AS  A  1951;  OF  OF  NUTRITION,  OTHER  ORGANS  OF  HAS  CONTENT  AND  OF  INCREASE  DAVIDSON,  STUDIES  CONTENT  OF  SOME THE  THE  FUKUDA  REVEALED NUCLEUS  TO  A  THE  1953  CELLS  AND  PROPOSED  CO-WORKERS  DNA  CONCENTRATION  DEMONSTRATE  CONSTITUENTS  OF  DNA  ANY  INDUCED  CONCENTRATION  IN THE  ISOLATED  NOT  CONTENT  AND  SIBATANI,  ON  THE  SIGNIFICANT ROSE,  RATS  STUDIED  CELL  BEEN  (THOMSON  ABLE ET  HAND  INCREASE  IN  THE  LECOMTE  AND  1952).  INCONSISTENT  OBSERVATIONS  HAVE  4  BEEN  REPORTED  ON  TOTAL  TO  AL.  1953;  OTHER  1951;  OF  WHO  LIVER  DNA  ( E L Y AND  CASE  INVESTIGATORS  D E F I C I E N C Y , HAVE  1947, 1948, 1952).  HAVE  THE  QUESTIONED  IN NUCLEAR  1952;  ALL  BEEN AND  IN  ANIMAL.  CONSTANCY  BEEN  PROTEIN  THAT  CELLULAR  ( U U G / N U C L E U S ) OF  CONDITIONS  I T HAS  REFERENCE  THE  THE  FOR  WATERLOW  1950)  OTHER  NUCLEI  T H O M S O N _E_T _ A L .  1950;  POINT  DIPLOID  QUANTITY  OBSERVATION,  MANIPULATION OF  OF  CONSTANT  KOSTERLITZ,  USED  KOSTERLITZ,  HISTOCHEMICAL  BE  AND  ON  AND  SIGNIFICANT  MCINDOE  TO  COMPOSITION  PROTEIN-DEFICIENT DIETS.  DNA  UNDER  (DNA)  CONCENTRATION  AND  BODY  D O U N C E _ET _ A L .  BE  FIELD  LIVER  NUCLEUS SHOW  1953;  EXPERIMENTAL  THE  THAT  BASED  TISSUE  IN THE  IN IN  SHOWN  CAMPBELL  GIVEN  ACID  (MLRSKY  1955).  VENDRELY,  IN  REVIEW  LIVER  HOMOG E N A T E  DNA.  FOUND  THE  THAT  PROTEIN.  1950 THE OF  DNA  LIVER  CONTENT  OF  IN  THE  ALSO  GROWING  MUSCLE  FIBRES.  S A R T O R I US  AREA  INCREASED  AT  SMITH  ON  AND  THE  (1963)  WEIGHT)  IN MUSCLE  POST-HATCHING  THE  THE  WEIGHT  SAME  AND  NOT  FOR  (14  TISSUE CELL  THE  THAT OF  THIS  THE  THE  CONTENT  RED  I N THE  COCKERELS  MUSCLE  WEEKS  CONTROLS. MUSCLES  OF  WEIGHT:  26  FOR  EDIBLE  AL.  THE  MAKE MEAT  UP YIELD  A,B). VIEW  INCREASE  THAT  MUSCLE  GROWTH  I N THE  NUMBER  OF  E X A M P L E , NOTED  THAT  THE M U S C U L A R I S  S A R T O R I US  ARIA  FROM  15  INCREASE  CHICK  CELL  F O L D ) FROM  O B S E R V A T I O N AND  THE  SIZE  TO  AN  SKELETAL  AL. IN  (MONTGOMERY E T  WELL-FED  MAJORITY  ET  (1968)  SQUIBB  ISLAND  WEIGHTS  1959,  DNA  FLUCTUATION  RHODE  THAT  THE  MEAN  DIETS.  OF  SUPPORT  MUSCULAR IS  OF  AS  DIETARY  INCREASES  I N THE  UNDERNOURISHED  SPICKNALL,  AND  RATE  OF  BY  MUNTWYLER  O B S E R V A T I O N THAT  REPORT  (1963),  THE  PERIOD.  THEIR  AND  CAUSED  IN MUSCLE  STRONGLY  CONCLUDED  INCREASE  ON  WAS  DOES  BASIS  MUSCLE  LYSINE  COCKERELS, FIRST  SAME  SKELETAL  NUCLEUS  I N BODY  BASED  SMITH  THE  DIETARY  UNAFFECTED 1953;  (1969)  TARVER  SIGNIFICANT  PROTEIN-DEFICIENT  CONFIRMS  CHICK  LIVER  INCREASES  REPORTS  WAS  REPORTED  MUSCLE.  BODY  H A I D E R AND  COOPER,  AND  (McNALLY  CHICKEN  AGE.  OF  TOTAL  OF  THE  OF  WAS  RATIO  PREVIOUS IN  BY  THE  LIVER  REHABILITATED,  OBSERVATION 50$  FED  (INCREASE FOR  OF  AND  LIVER  1965;  HOWEVER,  EXCESS  CHICK  THE V I E W  THEN  ABOUT  RATS  THAT  ACCOUNTED  BODY-WEIGHT AND  1952),  (1963)  THE  (UMANA,  CONTENT  OF  OBSERVED  1964).  WORKERS  DNA  GROWTH WAS  C O N T E N T . OF  VILLELA,  AVERAGE  ALSO  DNA  OTHER  AND  THE  ALL I S 0 N _ET _AL .  (DIAMETER)  FROM  IN CELL  OCCURRED  HATCHING  CONCLUSION CONFIRMS  10  TO  WEEKS  HISTOLOGICAL NUMBER  BEFORE  OCCURRED  CHICKS  (FIBRES)  HATCHING  PRIMARILY PREVIOUS  STUDIES, IN  AND  DURING  RESULTS  THE  OBTAINED  FROM  SKELETAL  MUSCLE  POST-NATAL SIZE  SEVERAL  1943;  NUMBER  CHIAKULAS A MUSCLE  POSTPARTUM. OF  FIBRES  OF  TWO  CELLS NOT OF  RESULTS  THAT  EMBRYONIC  THAT  NUCLEAR  THE GROWING  ANIMAL  MUSCLE  FIBRE  NUMBER  OF N U C L E I  MASS  GROWTH  CHICK  THAT  T H E NUMBER  INCREASED  (1970)  LEBLOND  13  TO 20  HAVE  ALSO  RESULTED  FROM  DAUGHTER  NUCLEI  OBSERVED  TO P R O G R E S S  THE  RAT MUSCLE  _ET _ A L .  1 966,  DIVISION INTO  WAS AND  I S AN  DOES  AS WELL  A T 28  INDICATED  MUSCLE  THAT  WITHIN  THREE  THAT  WEEKS  TOTAL  INCREASED  INCREASE  BIRTH  NUMBER  BY A FACTOR  CELL  IN PROTEIN  1 968).  (1964)  AND F U S I O N  DIVISION  CONTENT  ALSO  OF T H E  HATCHING.  OF A G E A F T E R  I N THE  IN CYTOPLASMIC  THE P R O L I F E R A T I O N NUCLEI  MUSCLE  ARE M U L T I - N U C L E A T E D .  MOSS_ET_AL.  AFTER  NUCLEAR  DOES  IN THE S K E L E T A L  BY INCREMENTS  1962).  DAYS  OF M U S C L E  OR H A T C H I N G  FIBRES  TOOCCUR  TO 9 W E E K S  _ET _AL .  UNTIL  I N T H E NUMBER  NOT O C C U R  THAT  THE MYOFIBRES.  CHEEK  1940-41;  OR H A T C H I N G .  I N THE BREAST MUSCLES  OF S A T E L L I T E  BY AN  I N THE  OF F I B R E S  AS BY I N C R E M E N T S  OF N U C L E I  8  THE CHICK  THAT  ARE REPORTS  BIRTH  REPORTED  A N D NOT A F T E R  AND L.EBLOND,  UNTIL  THERE  GROWTH  INCREASE  STRIATED  FOLD  ALSO  INCREASE  MCMEEKAN,  T H E NUMBER  AND  OF A G E .  WAS D E M O N S T R A T E D  (ENESCO  AFTER  EMBRYONIC  (1964)  DIVISION SINCE  1898;  OF  I N MAMMALS  TO AN  HOWEVER,  THAT  MUSCLESIOF  GROWTH  TO B I R T H  INCREASE  OBSERVED  THERE  PER FIBRE  PER NUCLEUS  OBSERVED  DOES  WEEKS  DIFFERENTIATION  BE A T T R I B U T E D  DURING  O N E D A Y TO 28  PRIOR  1947).  M O N T G O M E R Y _ET _ A L .  DURING  IMPLY  INCREASED  IN THE SARTORIUS  FROM THE  FIBRES  THAT  (MACCALLUM,  AT B I R T H  (1965)  AND P A U L Y BUNDLE  MUST  AND MEARA,  OF M U S C L E  SPECIES  IS COMPLETED  OF MUSCLE  EXISTING  EL I OT J_T _AL . THE  TISSUE  GROWTH  OF C E L L S  MAMMALIAN  MOSS AND OF  NUCLEI  OF T H E  I N T H E R A T WAS WHICH ONLY  GROWTH I N (GORDON  INCREASE REFLECTION AND  OF AN  NUCLEAR  DOES DNA  SUPPLY  SYNTHESIS PROTEIN DNA  COURSE, FIXED  ACIDS  INDEED WHEN  DOES  THE  PROTEIN  VITAL  NOT P R E C L U D E  LIVER  FALL  IN QUANTITY  LIVER  FROM  CELLS  BUT ALSO  SEVERELY  DEPRESSED  THESE  ANIMALS  GIVEN  A DIET  LIVER  PROTEIN  TO E X P R E S S  AN  OF P R O T E I N IN SIZE  ON  TISSUE  IMMATURE WERE  (ENESCO  HAD F A R L E S S  PER CELL  LOSS  OF  AND HENCE  TISSUE SUCH  AS  CAUSE  A 1964)  AND THE  CYTOPLASMIC INCREASE  OF T I S S U E . CELLULAR  CELLULAR  THIS,  COMPONENT  OF T I S S U E  OF AS A  ANALYSIS.  AND N U C L E I C  ACIDS  IN LABILE  CYTOPLASMIC  PROTEINS.  OF ENZYME  SYSTEMS  INCREASES  OR  TO  PROTEIN AMOUNT  F E D ON A LOW  WHICH  RISE  CONTAINING  INCREASE  NOT O N L Y I N  1962).  THE P R O C E S S  DIET, THAN  AND  DECREASES  R A T F E D ON A D I E T  A LOW-PROTEIN  I N RATS  GROWTH  ( M O N T G O M E R Y _ET _AL .  FOR ENERGY  AND LEBLOND,  AN A D E Q U A T E  ADULT  LIVER  PROTEIN  OBSERVED  CELLULAR  CONDITION,  CONDITIONS  THE RESULTS  NITROGEN  BY G I V I N G  CONTAINING  SUCH  THE USE OF T H I S  AS D I E T A R Y  1960).  POOL  WEIGHT  ARE COMPONENTS  ( W A T E R L O W _ET _ A L .  NUMBER  PER UNIT  IS A  MAY, HOWEVER,  RESERVES  WEIGHT  I S R E L A T I V E L Y HIGH  OF T H E P R O T E I N S  AMOUNT  PROTEIN  CELL  PROTEINS  MOST  ADEQUATE  MALNUTRITION  TO L I F E .  DECREASE  OF R E F E R E N C E  NORMAL  AND C O N S E Q U E N T L Y  TO T H E M E T A B O L I C  EXPRESSED  OF D I E T A R Y  UNDER  ANIMAL  ANIMAL  ( H Y P E R P L A S I A ) IN THE  R E L A T I V E L Y CONSTANT.  LABILE  OF P R O T E I N S  POINT  IMPACT  OR  I N A GROWING  NUMBER  I N THE MUSCLE.  OF T I S S U E  AMINO  CONTENT  IN CELL  REMAINS  STARVATION  MAY  CONTENT  I N THE MATURED  CONCENTRATION  DEGRADATION  DNA  INCREASE  DIVISION  NOT O C C U R  PROLONGED  TO  IN TISSUE  AND L I V E R THOSE  FROM  OF P R O T E I N . PROTEIN  CELLS  DIET  THE WAS  AN  WAS FROM  CONTROLS DECREASED RELATED  TO  A  LOW  RATE  THE  BODY  DAYS  RAPIDLY  OF  THAN  THOSE  (HORIE  PROTEIN  THAN  TO  IN CONTROL  THAT  BY  TO  PHASES AM I NO  DEFICIENCY  DIET  AND  ASHIDA,  1971).  AN  INCREASE  OF  JR.  ONE  AC Y L  AND  ADJUSTMENT  IN SOME  WAY  TO  THAT  ORGAN  ASTRIDE  REPORTS  SYNTHESIS,  WERE  FED  A 25$  INCREASE  THE  THE  DESCRIBED ACID  CHANGE  WAS  ALSO  ACTIVITY.  EACH  THAT  ACID  MEAL IT  ONE  ACTIVATION,  INDICATES  AMINO  SYSTEM.  ABOVE  RATE  WAS  DIETARY  IMMEDIATE  PORTAL  THE  COMPOSITION  AFTER  DIET  WEIGHT  SLICES  SYNTHESIS  LIVER  WIDELY  THE  AMINO  AFTER  MORE  IN L I V E R  LIVER  FOR  CASEIN  NITROGEN.  SYNTHETASE OF  DIET  INCREASED  PROTEIN  RNA  CASEIN  DAY  USING  DAY  5$  ONE  THE  INCREASED  AMINO  THE  A  IN TCA-INSOLUBLE  FLUCTUATES  PREVIOUS  FOR  M E A S U R E D _I_N V I T R O  THIS  FED  WHICH  WHICH  PROTEIN  LIKE  THE  LIVER  ( B A N K S _E_T _AL . 1964;  NON-PROTEIN  KOSTERLITZ  CASEIN  RATS  RATS  RELATED  (1960)  DLCKERSON  LIVER  RATS  (WANNEMACHER,  IS  BECAUSE  IS  OF  ALSO  THE  THREE  RESPONSIVE  TO  S U P P L Y.  MUSCLE  (ALL I SON  OF  CONTROL  RATS.  PROTEIN  ACID  1972).  WEIGHTS  LIVER  OF  FROM OF  25$  ENHANCED  BE  THE  LOCATION  EVIDENT  SYNTHESIS  OF  RAPIDITY  I T MUST  SUPPLY  PROTEIN  S I G N I F I C A N T L Y HIGHER  ACCOMPANIED  AND  TO  A  SYNTHESIS,  BE  THE  LIVER  THEN  ATTRIBUTED  FOUND  OF  AND  AND  THROUGHOUT WAS  IN VIVO  1968).  ALLISON,  SEVEN  OF  NITROGEN  PROTEIN  (1947)  AND  HOWARTH REPORTED  INCREASED  CONTENT  _ET _AL . 1964)  CORRELATED  ALSO  HAS  ALLISON THAT  IS ALSO  BEEN  P O S I T I V E L Y WITH  RNA THE  AND THAT  IN CHICK  E T _AL.  THE  AFFECTED  PROTEIN  B A L D WLL! N, 1 971 ;  HOWARTH,  TO,TAL  NITROGEN  PROTEIN  MUSCLE  CORRELATED  (1964).  CONTENT  BY  OF  NUTRITIVE  WITH  WITH  I T WAS THE VALUE  RNA  AGE. CONTENT  BY  OBSERVED  LIVER  FROM  OF  DIETARY  WEANLING PROTEIN,  INCREASING PROTEIN TISSUE  WITH  P E R GRAM INCREASEO  A RISE  IN THE NITROGEN  OF TISSUE WITH  NITROGEN  EGG  PROTEIN  RNA  R A ? T I O WAS C O N S T A N T ,  RNA  I N THE L I V E R  LIKE  AND M I N I M U M  PROTEIN  AND L I V E R  CONSTITUENTS  BEING  F E D WHEAT  SUGGESTING  INDEX.  R N A - P H O S P H O R US  INTAKE  I N THOSE  AND P R O T E I N  GROWTH  MAXIMUM  OF THE L I V E R ,  THIS  THE P R O T E I N / BETWEEN  MEANS  RESPONDS  OF  I N RATS FED  CORRELATION  BIOSYNTHESIS.  LIVER  P E R GRAM  GLUTEN.  A CLOSE  TOTAL  THAT  TO A M I N O  TOTAL  RNA,  ACID  SUPPLY.  THE INCREASE  PROTEIN/DNA I N THE RATIOS  UPON  CONTAINING WORKERS LIVER  TISSUE  AND M U S C L E VALUE  PARAMETERS QUALITY  PROTEINS  EGG, C A S E I N ,  OBSERVED  NUTRITIVE  INDICATES  A L L I S O N _ET _AL .  (HYPERTROPHY). INTAKE  THAT  OF T Y P E  EXPERIMENTAL  PERIOD  VARIOUS  WITH  NITROGEN  PROTEIN.  IS  IN QUALITY  WHILE  AMINO  OF F E E D I N G  ACIDS  INTAKE  OF  NITROGEN  FED D I E T S  RATIOS  THESE  INCREASED  NITROGEN  I N THE  INTAKE  THE KIDNEY,  B U T WERE  CELLS.  CELLS  PROTEINS.  IN  BOTH.  OF P R O T E I N  AVAILABLE  (ESSENTIAL  EFFECTS  OR  OF  OR  THESE  UNAFFECTED  HOWEVER,  BOTH  CONSUMED  OVER T H E  BY THE  RATIOS  WERE  USED.  PROTEINS  IN LYSINE  INCREASED  OF  THE EFFECTS  I N RATS  RNA/DNA  |N T H E B R A I N ,  AND Q U A L I T Y  IN QUALITY  DEFICIENT  STUDIED  AND G L U T E N  WITH  THE S I Z E  IN THE S I Z E  TO DNA  AND  PROTEIN  GREATLY HIGH  (1962)  RELATIVE  RATS  INDICATE  INCREASE  PROTEIN/DNA  OF D I E T A R Y  OF D I E T A R Y  RATIOS  COTTONSEED,  OF YOUNG  INCREASED  INDEPENDENT  RNA/DNA  AND  POOR  SUPPLEMENTED  AMINO  WHEAT  (GRAU  FOR HUMAN  GLUTEN  AND K A M E I ,  QUALITY DIETS  ACID  AND ANIMAL  COMPOSITION).  IN NATURALLY  1950).  PROTEIN, ARE USED.  CONSUMPTION EGG  VARY  PROTEIN  UNBALANCED,  TO A V E R T  THE  A COMBINATION THE IMPACT  DELETERIOUS  OF P R O T E I N S  OF SUCH  OR  DIETARY  PROTEINS  ON GROWTH  (1964)  B A N K _ET _ A L . CONTAINING WHEAT  WHEAT  GLUTEN  OBSERVED  IMPROVED  MUSCLE  PROTEIN/DNA  LYSINE  SUPPLEMENTATION. ONLY  BY E I T H E R AND  WITH  MAXIMAL  INCREASE  INCREASING CHANGE  (1964)  I N LIVE.R  DIET AT  WAS  LEVELS  AND M U S C L E  WEIGHT  THAN  LINEARLY  THOSE  LYSINE  MAIZE LIVER) THE  RATS  P  STARCH  AS COMPARED RATS  LYSINE  INCREASED  F E D WHEAT  WITH  RNA/DNA  AND  OR  WORKERS  FOR RATS  16.7. CASEIN  OR  RATIOS  TO Y O U N G  AS THE Q U A N T I T Y  WEIGHT  GIVEN  ONLY  LITTLE  G.,  TO  I N THE RAT  PROTEIN  I N 28  AND M U S C L E  THIS  RNA/DNA  AND  GLUTEN  T H E TWO  50  THE  RATIO.  |N C O N T R A S T  OF WHEAT  LIVER  DIET  PRODUCED  PROTEIN/DNA  GAIN,  HAD M O R E  CAUSED  RATIO.  RATS  RATS  PROTEIN/DNA  AND M U S C L E  TO 38$.  A CASEIN  DAYS  SOURCES WERE  PROTEIN  AND  GLUTEN.  (1966)  BY R E P L A C I N G LIVER  TO 17.5$  RECEIVING  AND T H R E O N I N E  LIVER  FEEDING  OF T H E D I E T  I RE T _ET _A_L.  HAD L O W E R  DAYS  PROTEIN/DNA  CASEIN  F E D WHEAT -  0  THAT  AND M U S C L E  TO 30$  THE SAME  AND T H R E O N I N E  CONTROL  LYSINE  FROM  GIVEN  VANDERMEERS OF  GAIN,  TO P R O D U C E  COMPARED. RNA  PROTEIN  INCREASED  ALSO  OBSERVED  I N THE L I V E R  INCREASED  THESE  DIETS  O F S U P P L E M E N T A T I O N TO  PROTEIN/DNA  O F 28  A PERIOD  DIETARY  OBSERVATION, RATIOS  OVER  RATS.  O F 8.6  INDEX  RATIOS  LlVER  OF F E E D I N G  S U P P L E M E N T E D WITH  WEANLING  METHOD  RNA/DNA  STUDIED.  CASEIN SUPPLEMENTATION.  A L L I S O N _ET _AL . PROTEIN)  TO M A L E  BEEN  THE EFFECT  GLUTEN  T H E N I T R O G E N GROWTH  WAS  (15$  DETERMINED  CASEIN  GLUTEN  INCREASED  HAS A L S O  G L U T E N , WHEAT  PLUS  THAT  AND T I S S U E S  PROTEIN PROTEIN  18$  DEPRIVED  THAT  DIETARY  PROTEIN  (11.8$)  AND  A N D 81.6  CASEIN. RATS  REPORTED  RATS  WITH  DEPRIVED  G L U T E N AND  RNA (71.8  UG./LOO  UG.RNA/L00 G. L I V E R  LLVER  WAS S I M I L A R  DNA  G.  IN  CONCENTRATION IN  TO T H A T  I N THE CONTROLS  11  (24.4  AND  21.9  UG./100  THE  SAME  IMPACT  PROTEIN  I S FED  TERAOKA  (1969),  IN  PROTEIN  KIDNEY, AN  AS  AND  ACID  AND  FEEDING  SINGLE  REDUCING RATS;  13, 12  17$,  NO  AMINO  LIBITUM ACID. AND  TO  A  WELL  DURAND  OF  SLIGHT FED  A 20$  GROWTH  CASEIN  CHEEK  AND  INCREASE  CONTROL.  OF  PROTEIN  I N THE  MUSCLE  WORKERS  PRIMARILY  ON  MUSCLE  PROTEIN  DEFICIENCY  ACTS  PRIMARILY  BY  REDUCING  REPORTED  ENERGY  (1970),  ACTS  FED  DNA  RESULT  DEFICIENT  HLLL  DEFICIENCY  RATS  OFTEN  (1969)  DNA,  CALORIE  OR  MUSCLE,  CASEIN.  COMPLETELY  THESE  MIXTURE,  DIFFERENCES  DIET  DECREASED  LIVER  ACID  GASTROCNEMIUS  PERIOT  TOTAL  DIETARY  AMINO  RETARDATION  DIETS AND  A  SIGNIFICANT  PATTERN  WITH  OF  IN L I V E R ,  FED  THE  WHETHER  FORM NO  CARBOHYDRATES  DECREASE  OR  I N THE  I N T A K E AND  RESPECTIVELY.  CHANGE  COMPARED  RATS  SIMULATING  A N I M A L S _AD  A  OR  TISSUES  CONTENTS  FROM  I N FOOD  CAUSED  AND  OBSERVED RATIO  HEART  ON  DEMONSTRATED  ACIDS  DIETARY LIPIDS  AND  RESPECTIVELY).  PROTEIN  EXAMPLE,  MIXTURE  ESSENTIAL  LIVER  INFLICTED  INTACT  FOR  DEPRESSION FROM  IS  NUCLEIC  TESTIS  AMINO  G.  IN A THAT  INTAKE  AND  RNA  BY  BY  HOWEVER, PROTEIN/DNA  SUGGESTED  SYNTHESIS  THAT  WHILE  MUSCLE  PROTEIN  A MORE  SEVERE  SYNTHESIS. FOOD  RESTRICTION  MUSCLE  DNA  CHEEK,  1968).  6$  ACCUMULATION  PROTEIN  PERMITTED  FED SOME  ACCUMULATED INHIBITED  HAS  AT  HOWARTH TO  RATES  OF  ON  (1972)  LESS OF  PROTEIN,  ALSO  RNA  HAVE  ACCUMULATION  OBSERVED  INHIBITED  THAT  DNA  ACCUMULATION.  THAN DNA  TO  PROTEIN  RATS  PROTEIN  ACCUMULATION  ACCUMULATION  THAN  WEANLING  MUSCLE  B E E N SHOWN  NORMAL MORE  AND  WITH  SOME 12$  I N THE  (ELLIOTT  DIET  DNA  AND  PROTEIN, THAT  MUSCLE  OF  ON  AND  CONTAINING  ACCUMULATION  S E V E R E L Y THAN  DNA  A  EFFECT  BUT PROTEIN  BUT  THE  DIET  PROTEIN.  PROGRESSIVELY  DECREASED  AS  DEFICIENCY  THE  (18$  DIETARY PROTEIN  IT A P P E A R S  (1972)  THAT  MUSCLE  DNA  TISSUE  PROTEIN  ENERGY  INTAKE  BY  BOTH  1700  CARBOHYDRATE  OR  FAT  TO  BALANCE  AND  LIVER  1953).  METABOLISM,  TO  METABOLIC  WEIGHT  SUCH  AS  DEGRADATION  COMPETING  USES  CHANGES  HYDRAZINE  TO  TRANSAMINATION FREE I T HAS  TO  OF  ROUTE  OF  BEEN  ACID  AND  THE  AMINO  ACT  SUGGESTING  THAT  M.  OF  CONTENT  RISE  AND  A  RNA  OF  20  AFFECTING ACIDS  USED  FOR  NON-ESSENTIAL  30$  OF  DEGRADATION THIS  LEVELS  I N THE  TISSUES  AND  BODY  ACIDS;  ACID SO  THE BY  CATABOLISM. THAT  AN  BY  ADMINISTRATION INHIBITING  PRODUCES I N THE  SYNTHESIS  THE  LOW  COMPENSATED  EXAMPLE,  1961).  PROTEIN  AMINO  AMINO  IS FREQUENTLY  PROTEIN  TO  PROTEIN  IN EQUILIBRIUM,  FOR  AN  WITHIN  COMPOUNDS  OF  PROTEIN,  METABOLISM  AMINO (1)  AREA  RATS  CAUSED  SNELL,  THAT  IN  IN PROTEIN,  VARIOUS  ACID  INCREASING  ADEQUATE  FREE  ARE  OF  BOTH  SURFACE  ADEQUATE  AND  DEMONSTRATED  BODY  DIET).  ON  RESTRICTION.  DIET  PATHWAYS  ACIDS  DEFICIENCY  RESPONSES  PATHWAYS.  IMPEDES  (MCCORMICK  AMINO  THAT  DISPOSAL  IN OTHER  RATS  WAS  SYNTHESIZE  AMINO  HOWARTH  SQ.  PATHWAY:  THROUGH  AND  PROTEIN  PROTEIN  CREATINE  (1970)  STANDARD  REGULATORY  OF  EMPLOYED  PER  PROTEIN PROTEIN  ENERGY  KCAL.  TISSUE  TYPES  RECIPROCAL  LIVER  OF  1000  CONSIDERED  I N ONE  THE  OF  A  DIET  BE  (2)  UNDERGO  THE  CLASSIFY  ALTERATION  IN  INTAKE  BY  MILD  (6$  EVIDENCE  KCAL.  IT CAN  THREE  SYNTHESIS;  OF  WHEN  REGULATION  ORDER  AFFECTED  A  DEFICIENCY  PROTEIN  :|:S A L S O  TO  NUTRITIONAL  MOLECULAR  THERE  AND  850  RNA/LIVER.  THESE  C H E E K _ET _ A L .  FROM  IN  (3)  BY  ARE  IN ENERGY  FOLLOW  STUDIES  (CALORIE)  SEVERE  RNA  INCREASE  IN  A  ENERGY  NITROGEN  FROM  TO  AND  (MUNRO _ET _ A L .  TOTAL  INCREASED  DIET)  SYNTHESIS.  ADDING  IMPROVED  FROM  STRESS  IS  AN  CASE  INCREASE OF  THE  AUGMENTED  13  (AMENTA  AND |N  (1)  THE  WHETHER  WAYS  ADAPT  THERE  ACIDS)  PERIOD A  WITH  OF  AMOUNT  INCREASE OF  OF  THE  MEAL  LEVEL  OF  IT SHOULD  OF  ACID  PARTS  THE  THE  SUPPLY  ARE  AMINO  WHEN ARE  DEVELOP  PROTEIN THAT  AMINO  ACIDS  ARE  LIKELY  TO  1962). EVOKE  OR  OF  PROTEIN  (2)  WHETHER  MAINLY  DURING  MORE  SLOWLY  IN  |N  ACIDS  RELATION  TO  THE  WHICH  SUCH  OCCURS  PATHWAYS  CONSEQUENTLY, DIFFERENT  THE  CONSIDERING  SYNTHESIS  CERTAIN  PATHWHETHER  OCCUR  RESTRICTED  C H A I N E D - A M I NO  OBVIOUS:  METABOLIC  INTAKES  PROTEIN  WHEREAS  ARE  CONSUMED,  INTAKE.  BODY,  (MLLLER,  THESE  REACHED;  SUPPLY  OR  QUESTIONS  ACIDS  THE  BRANCHED  MUSCLE  ACIDS  REMEMBERED OF  ESSENTIAL  BEING IN  BE  OF  TWO  PROTEIN,  REQUIREMENTS  ABSORPTION  IN GENERAL  OF  IN CATABOLISM  AMINO  CATABOLISM  AMINO  THE  IN EXCESS  I N MANY  DEGRADED  TO  NEEDS,  INTAKES  TO  QUESTIONS,  EXCEPTION  PROTEIN  REACTIONS  CHANGE  ACTIVELY  OF  INCREASING  SUDDEN  ADAPTATIVE  TO  ASSESSMENT  LINEARLY  IS A  (AMINO  1963).  JOHNSTON,  IN  THE  LIVER,  ARE  AN  MAINLY  VARIATIONS  RESPONSES  IN  IN  DIFFERENT  T1SSUES . THE IN  LIVER,  AMINO  ACID  CONTAINING SEVERAL  OVER  THE  THE  PORTAL  GOING  INTO  DURING THE  THOSE  (1969)  SIGNIFICANT  ENTER  EXAMPLE,  IS SUBJECTED  THE  FREE  ABSORPTIVE  AMINO  I N THE  ACIDS  SYSTEMIC  TO  AN  EXTENSIVE  PERIOD IN THE  AFTER  EACH  PORTAL  C I RC ID IL A T I ON  INCREASE MEAL  BLOOD  (DENTON  ROSE AND  1954).  ELWYN A  SUPPLY  PROTEIN.  FOLD  ELVEHJEM,  FOR  SELECTIVE  GENERAL VEIN, THE  CARRIED  OUT  ACTION  CIRCULATION. THE  LIVER,  SPLENIC AND  THE  STUDIES ON  THE  USING  ARTERY, HEPATIC  TO  DETERMINE  AMOUNTS DOGS  OF  WITH  AMINO  AS  PLAYS  THAT  IMPLANTED  ARTERIAL  IT LEAVES  LIVER  ACIDS  CANNULAS  REPRESENTING VEIN  I F THE  THE  IN  BLOOD LIVER,  HE  WAS  ABLE  THE  LIVER  MEAT  TO  AMINO LEFT  TO  MONITOR  DURING  CONTINUOUSLY 24  A  HOUR  PERIOD.  E X P E R I M E N T A L DOGS,  N  WAS  THE  CONVERTED  LIVER  AS  TO  AS  RETAINED  HE P A T I C " P R O T E I N .  BRANCHED-CHAIN THESE THAT  WERE  DEGRADED  OF  MIXTURES  OF  ISOLATED  FROM  WITH  AMINO THE  LARGE  LIVER  THE THE  PROPORTION THE  MEAL  OF  6$  LIVER, THE  WAS  OF  ACROSS  ABSORBED  ENTERED  R E M A I N I N G 14$  THE  ACIDS  LARGE  OF  23$  ONLY  PERIPHERAL  IN THE  A  THROUGH  I N THE  GENERAL  PRESUMABLY  THE  INTAKE  OF  SYSTEMIC CIRCULATION  P L A Y AN  SINCE  TISSUES.  THIS  SUGGESTS  IMPORTANT  ROLE  IN  PROTEIN.  THE  STOMACH-TUBE  IT PASSED  MAINLY  LIVER  BY  A  AMINO  57$  THAT  INTO  (1965)  DURING  AS  ACIDS.  F L E C K _ET _ A L . THE  SHOWN  OF  FEEDING  PASSED  DIETARY  IN  AFTER  ACIDS  ADAPTIVE REACTIONS  UTILIZATION  1 4  AMINO  AMINO  EXCHANGE  P R O T E I N S , AND  CIRCULATION AS  FREE  I T WAS  UREA  PLASMA  THE  EXAMINED  INFLUX  OF  THE  RESPONSE  AMINO  ACIDS.  N U T R I T I O N A L L Y COMPLETE  ACIDS  AN  LIVERS  HOUR  OF  BEFORE  THE  OF  FASTING  OR  AND  WERE  FED  DEFICIENT  MICROSOMES  WERE  SYNTHESIS  RATS  TRYPTOPHAN  KILLING.  ANIMALS  PROTEIN  INCUBATED  WERE WITH  „ C-LEUCINE  AND  THE  THE  MICROSOMES  PREPARED  MIXTURE  LACKING  TRYPTOPHAN  WERE  20$  LEUCINE  INTO  WERE  MICROSOMES  SYNTHESIS.  THE  CO-FACTORS  PEPTIDES  THAN  N U T R I T I O N A L L Y COMPLETE  ACID  MIXTURE  FEWER  HEAVY  GIVEN  THE A  DECREASE  DEFICIENT POLYSOMES  NECESSARY  AMINO  AND  MORE  REDUCTION IN  RNA/DNA  RATS  LESS  EFFICIENT  AN  AMINO  AND  ACID  |T  IS ALSO  PROTEIN  WITH  THE  AMINO  ACID  IN INCORPORATING  PREPARED  HOUR  IN CYTOPLASMIC PROTEINS RATIO.  FED  MIXTURE.  MONOSOMES  N U T R I T I O N A L L Y COMPLETE  CELL-FREE  FROM  ACID  IN TRYPTOPHAN  FOR  FROM  ANIMALS  BEFORE  RATS FED  KILLING  DISOMES  THAN  GIVEN  THE  AMINO  ALSO  HAD  HAD  RATS  MIXTURE. HAS  KNOWN  SEEN  THAT  CORRELATED  THE  RNA/DNA  WITH RATIO  A  IS  INFLUENCED  PATTERN  LESS  1962).  E_T _A_L . THE  THE  BY  ACTIVITY  OF  RNA  IN THE  RNA  CORRELATION  THAT  THERE  MUST  CELLULAR  PATTERN  IN BE  SUMMARIZED INFLUX  OF  THE SOME  EXPERIMENTAL  AMINO  OF  INTO  POLYSOMES,  SO  FEWER  BREAKDOWN CONTROL  THE  BOTH  CONCENTRATION PROTEIN  (1968) ACIDS AND  INTAKE THAT  BY  BY  OF  AND  AFFECTING  THE  THE  RAT  BASIS  DIET  OF  THIS  SYNTHESIS CAUSING  AN  ON  CAUSED EFFECT THE  (1 966)  DISAGGREGATION ON  LIVER  POLYSOMES  ACCUMULATION  OF  FREE  AND  RNA  PICTURE A  IN  CELL.  AT  OF  BY  TO  BY  RIBOSOMES  LEVELS  OF ET  DIETARY  AL. AMINO PROTEIN  RIBOSOMES. OF  TRYPTOPHAN  POLYSOMES. SUGGESTED  TRYPTOPHAN AWAITING  PROTEIN  IN  SYNTHESIZE  DEFICIENCY  I T WAS  INTO  AMINO  -  WANNEMACHER  CYTOPLASMIC  CELLULAR  OF  RNA  CHANGES  REGULATED  PROTEIN  ACCELERATED  THIS  VARIOUS  THE  RIBOSOMES  ABSORPTION  PARALLEL  IS  RETARDED  MORE  WERE  THAT  STIMULATES  RESULTING  THAT OF  SUGGESTS  MEAL  WHEN  FINDINGS  OF  METABOLISM  ENTRAINS  THE  POLYSOMES  WAS  EMPHASIZES  RNA  THE  POLYRIBOSOMES  OBSERVED  AND  ELUCIDATE  I N THE  SYNTHESIS  CONCENTRATION  SYNTHESIS.  TO  COMPONENTS  OF  PROTEIN  DESIGNED  AND  WITH  ABILITY  AND  RESPONSE  AFTER  RNA  THE  AMOUNT  METABOLIC  DEGRADED.  OF  BY  PROTEIN  THE  ALLISON  THE  REVERSED,  CELLULAR  PROTEIN  W U N N E R _ET _ A L . THE  AND  BOTH  AND  THE  IN  OVERALL  LIVER  ARE  THAT  DEFICIENT  1960  CLARK,  MUSCLE  PROTEIN  BREAKDOWN  SUPPORTED  HEPATIC  AFFECTING  THE  MORE  SUPPLY.  STUDIES  IS COMPATIBLE THESE  ACID  BECOME  PROTEIN  MECHANISM  OF  THE  PROCESSES  OF  OF  TISSUE  CELLULAR  PROTEIN  CEASES,  OF  AMINO  REDUCES  ACID  RATE  INTEGRATION  SYNTHESIS;  THAT  REPORTED  THE  THE  AND  FORM  (1968).  ACIDS  (MUNRO  IN  FINDINGS  MUNRO  ACIDS;  CHANGES  TO  REGULATION BY  AMINO  CELLS  DETERMINES  COMPONENTS  NUTRITIONAL  OF  (1971 ) A L S O  HOWARTH  THIS  OF  THE  UN THAT  THE PROTEIN  DEFICIENCY  ATTACHMENT  IN  TO  MESSENGER  RNA.  RECENT DEFICIENCY  (1970). LEVELS  WERE IN  OF  TO FED  THE  THAT  THE  POLYSOMES  AMINO  ACID  THE  IT. TO  SAME  LLVER  RATS  POLYSOME  FOR  AND  ONE  SECOND  FROM  RATS  POLYSOME  INFLUENCED THAT  FOUR  FED  THAT BY  MIXTURE  HOURS  THE  IN EITHER  POLYSOME  DIETARY AMINO  A SUFFICIENTLY  10  AND OF  ACIDS AMINO  ACID  LOW  ISOLEUCINE THE  DIETS  14  TO  STUDIES  DAYS  REVEALED  SUPPLEMENTED  TWO  THAN  AMINO  I N THE  OTHER  OR  AFTER  DISOMES  THE  AL.  OR  HOURS  BOTH  ET  LIBITUM  THREONINE  FROM  PROFILES  SEVERE  AD  ISOLEUCINE  MONOSOMES  PRONCZUK  EXAMINED  AND  OR  ISOLEUCINE  ISOLEUCINE  WITH  WERE  BY  FED  IN  RESPECTIVELY.  FEWER  LIMITING  WERE  LIMITING  THREONINE  AND  REPORTED  RATS  PROFILES  TRIAL  AND  DIETS  INDICATE  OR  THREONINE  WERE  INVESTIGATION,  OR  RECEIVING  PROVIDED  LIVER  I M P A C T OF  ACIDS  MORE  BE  THE  AMINO  LIVERS  FINDINGS CAN  RAT  ON  CRYSTALLINE  FIRST  SHOWED RATS  ON  DURING  THREONINE ADDED  STUDIES  THAN  DIET  LIVERS  FROM  ACIDS.  LIVER  OF  THESE  THE  RAT  TRYPTOPHAN,  DEFICIENCY  CAN  BE  CREATED. ANOTHER  IMPORTANT  (WUNNER  _ET _ A L .  RATE  WHICH  AT  1 966 AMINO  POINT  AND ACID  IMPLIES  THAT  PROTEIN  BIOSYNTHESIS  HOWARTH  (1972),  HOWEVER,  RNA  A MAJOR  FACTOR  WAS  PROTEIN  BOTH  FROM  OF  I N THE  SHORT  SUGGESTED  ONLY  AFFECTS  RI B O S O M A L  IN THE  EARLIER  1970).  P R O N C Z UK _ET _AL . DEFICIENCY  THESE  THAT  LIVER  IS A MAJOR  AND  LONG  THE  LONG  TERM  I S , THE  POLYSOME  RNA  THAT  STUDIES  TERM  RAPID  PROFILES  FACTOR  IN  LIVER  REGULATION,  AVAILABILITY  OF  R E G U L A T I O N OF  RIBOSOMAL MUSCLE  BIOSYNTHESIS.  SHORT THE  AVAILABILITY  EMERGES  TERM  SYNTHESIS  OF  CONTROL LIVER  OF  LIVER  ENZYMES.  PROTEIN FOR  BIOSYNTHESIS  EXAMPLE, SCHIMKE  MAY  REFER  (1968)  TO  REPORTED  THAT  MANY  ENZYME ACIDS  PROTEIN  AFTER  ENZYMES  A  INVOLVED  BOTH  THESE  DIETARY  MUSCLE,  THIS  OF  AMINO  MECHANISM  STUDIES  OF  THROUGH  OF OF  GAN  CONTRIBUTION  AND  TO  POOL  SCHIMKE  A  AND  LYSINE PERIOD  LIVER  OF  A  STIMULATE  OF  FLIHAN  IN  (MUNRO,  FASTING  OF  BY  1964). THE  THE  RELEASED  FOOD  RECYCLING  THE  CONSIDERABLY  MEASUREO ACIDS  THE  PROTEIN  ILLUSTRATED  CONSUMING  OF  AMINO  CONCENTRATIONS  TISSUES  WAS  FROM  ALSO  RESPONSE  SHOWS  AMINO  ANIMALS  DEGRADATION  AFFECTS  OTHERS  DEPLETION  SHORT  OF  AND  IN LIVER  THE  OTHER  THEY  THE  BREAKDOWN  THE  HIGH  LIVER  THAT  SHOWED  OF  A  PROTEINS  RAISED  THIS  TO  SUPPLY.  SYNTHESIS PROTEIN  OF  IN  THE  THE  POOL  BREAKDOWN.  THE  F I N A L L Y THE  FlTZPATRICK,  TO  IN WHICH  INTRACELLULAR  ACID  MUSCLE  (1967)  JEFFAY  AMINO  TO  ACCESS  DIET  THE  RESISTANT  INTENSE  WITH  90$  THAN  MORE  TO  INCREASE  TURNOVER  WHEREAS  EXTENSIVELY  RAPID  PROTEIN  CELL,  DIETARY  A  THE  DEGRADATION  CONTRIBUTE  SO  CONSEQUENTLY,  REDUCE  DO  PROTEIN  PROTEIN  ACID  RATE.  THAN  THE  TISSUE  WILL  CONSEQUENTLY,  WITHIN OF  SLOWER  PROTEINS  THE  CONTRIBUTION  SUBSTRATES  LABILE  AND  TO  LIVER  DIRECT  ACIDS.  CONTENT  WOULD  I S MUCH  ITS  THEIR  MEAL  CAUSING  PROCESS  A  IN AMINO  FACTORS  PROTEIN  BECAUSE  ABSORBED HIGHER  OF  BY  AT  PROTEIN  SYNTHESIS.  CONTENT.  50$  STABILIZED  PROTEIN  FEEDING  THE  ARE  I S C A T A B O L I ZED  ABSORBED  NUMEROUS LIVER  ENZYMES  SOME  TISSUES  ( W A T E R L O W _ET IN  PROTEINS,  LIVER  (W A  IN  AJ_.  RELATION MORE  RAPIDLY  1960).  FOLLOWED  I N I 0 _ET _AL .  BY  TO  THE  DIETARY  PROTEIN  AND  BRAIN  IS  MOST  THE  KIDNEY,  THE  1 959J  ALLISON  AND  1960). (1964),  USING  TRACER  TECHNIQUES,  SHOWED  THAT  50$  OF  THE  LIVER  PROTEIN  76$  AND INTO  I N 20  TWO  1936,  ORGAN  NAMELY,  PROTEIN  PROTEINS  IF  LABILE  AT A GREATER  GIVEN  TISSUE,  THE ANIMAL.  BE  EXPECTED  TWO  SYSTEMS  INCREASES  OR  TO A L A R G E  EXTENT  AMINO  I N ORDER  ACIDS  TO D E T E R M I N E  HAVE  BEEN  S T E I N B E R G _ET _AL .  (1956)  TO J U S T I F Y  FIRST  I S THAT  AN A M I N O  WITHIN  A  PROTEIN  PROTEIN  MOLECULE  I S R E S Y N T H E S I ZED FROM  "TEMPLATE  MECHANISM"  GENERALLY  BEEN  SINGLY  LABELED  IMPLICATION WITHIN ACID  ASSUMED PROTEINS  I S THAT  A PROTEIN  SPECIES  OF  AMINO  PROTEIN  AND MOST  A SINGLE  ON  SUCH  LABELED  THE PROTEIN  TO T H A T  AND HENCE  ALSO  OF  (1954)  AND  STUDIES. OR  TO  RATES  THE  POSTULATED HAS  STUDIES  PROTEINS. ACID  OF  THE SPECIES  OF A L L THE OTHER  OF T H E P R O T E I N  FROM  THE  A MECHANISM  AMINO  BODY  THE  EXCHANGED  OF T U R N O V E R  ISOTOPICALLY LABELED EQUAL  STATE  WILL  DEGRADATION.  BASED  BROKEN  IN ANY  ADMINISTERED  BY TARVER  PROTEIN  MULTIPLE  FALL  REGIME.  THE TURNOVER  I N THE I N T E R P R E T A T I O N  HAS A H A L F - L I F E  WITHIN  BEEN  SYNTHESIS.  AND  UP AND  SYNTHESIS  IS RELEASED  ACIDS  RISE  ON T H E D I E T A R Y  THE RADIOISOTOPE  BY COMPLETE  BECAUSE  OF T H E CYTO-  BUILT  PROTEIN  PROPOSED  ACID  ET AL .  THE  OF T H E P R O T E I N  OF P R O T E I N  HAVE  FALL  (ADDIS  WHICH  CONTINUALLY  DIETARY  DAYS  DECREASES.  DEPEND  DIFFERENT  PROTEINS  1947).  MOST  O F ENZYME  THE RATE  TO 5  IN THE L I V E R  PROTEINS.  RATE  HYPOTHESES  HYPOTHESIS  MARKED  THE TURNOVER  LABELED  TISSUE  PROTEINS  THAN  UNDER  ANIMALS  THAT  4  WITHIN  AND K O S T E R L I T Z ,  IS BEING  I N ADDITION,  ISOTOPICALLY  PROTEINS.  NITROGEN  RATE  TO V A R Y  EXPERIMENTAL  1945  SOURCE  AND L A B I L E  CYTOPLASMIC  PROTEIN  I T WILL  OF  STABLE  ARE COMPONENTS  AS D I E T A R Y  REPORTED  IS PARTICULARLY  LABILE  QUANTITY  DOWN  THE DIETARY  ALSO  AND C A M P B E L L ,  HAS H I G H  THIS  FROM  I T WAS  CATEGORIES,  OF D I E T A R Y  PLASMIC IN  REPLACED  DAYS.  KOSTERLITZ  IMPACT THE  WAS  ITSELF.  AMINO  THE THE IS  SECOND  PROTEIN BASED  IS HYDROLYZED  ON  BOTH  HYPOTHESIS  THE  LITERATURE.  INTO  POSTULATED  HYPOTHESES  AND  OF  PARTIAL  DEGRADATION,  RESYNTHESIZED  FROM  MECHANISM"  OF  RECEIVED  TREMENDOUS  SUPPORT  HYPOTHESIS  IS SUPPORTED  PROTEIN  BY  WHEREIN  PEPTIDES.  "PEPTIDE  HAVE  THE F I R S T  I S THAT  THE  THIS  SYNTHESIS.  THROUGHOUT THE FOLLOWING  14 STUDIES:  T H E WORK  OF A S K O N A S  (1955)  _EJ_ _ A L .  SHOWED  C  VALINE-4-  THAT  14 LYSINE-1-  AND IN  CASEIN  FROM  AND  PARTIAL  (1954) THE  AND  RABBIT  HAD  THE SAME  RESPECTIVE  B - L A C T O G L 0 B U L I N OR HYDROLYSA'/TES  HEIMBERG  SPECIFIC  ALANINE-3IN  C  C  AND  '  „ 14„  LYSINE-2ALDOLASE  MUSCLE  C  AND  SHOWED WAS  THE  TURNOVER  OF  THAT  CONSTANT  AND  VEL I C K  AND  14  EITHER  ISOLATED  THE  ALANINE-1-  C,  PHOSPH0RYLASE.  14,  PEPTIDES  (1 954) O B S E R V E D 14  REMAINED  ACTIVITIES  SlMPSON  PROTEINS.  GLYCINE-1-  OF  O F 27  IN EACH  THESE  VELICK(  AND  ACTIVITIES  14,  OF  SPECIFIC  RATIOS  C,  WERE  THE  SAME  (1956)  McFARLANE  OF  PHENYL-  ALSO  131,  C  AND  |  IN DOUBLY  LABELED  PLASMA  PROTEINS  EQUAL. THE  ANFINSEN  SECOND AND  THE  AMINO  AND  TARVER  HYPOTHESIS  RESIDUES  (1957)  BY  (1951, 1952, 1954)  CO-WORKERS  ACID  IS SUPPORTED  IN OVALBUMIN,  OBSERVED  THAT  THE  FOLLOWING  FOUND  UNEQUAL  INSULIN  THE H A L F - L I F E  AND  OBSERVATIONS: LABELING  RIBONUCLEASE.  OF  AND  ^  |  C  AND  OF MARGEN  |N  14 DOUBLY  LABELED  METHIONINE-  35  PLASMA  S  OR  DOUBLY-LABELED (WLGGANS THE INTO  PROTEINS  VALINE-1-  RAT A L B U M I N  _ET _AL .  1 956  AND  DISTRIBUTION  THE P R O T E I N  ESTABLISHED.  AND  TARVER  13  C  ALSO  AND  AMINO MORSE  UNEQUAL. LEUCINE-1-  AND HAD  RUMSFELD  PATTERN  FREE  WERE  OF  DIFFERENT _E_T _AL .  VALINE-1-  14  C,  TURNOVER  (1948)  IN  RATES  1957).  RADIOACTIVELY  ACID  RESPECTIVELY,  FRACTION  OF  LABELED TISSUES  DEMONSTRATED  THAT  AMINO  ACIDS  I S WELL WHEN  METHIONINE  LABELED  CONCENTRATION THE  RADIOACTIVE  OF R A D I O A C T I V E  PROTEINS  SULFUR  SULFUR  AFTER  OF T H E I N T E S T I N A L MUCOSA  KIDNEY,  PLASMA,  RESIDUE  HAD A V E R Y  INTRAVENOUS  WITH  LIVER,  SPLEEN  ADMINISTRATION,  24  HOURS  WAS G R E A T E S T  AND D E C R E A S E D  AND B R A I N .  LOW C O N C E N T R A T I O N  WAS F E D TO R A T S , T H E  I N THE ORDER  T H E SKLIN,  OF R A D I O A C T I V E  HOWEVER,  GAVE  IN  HAIR  OF  AND MUSCLE  SULFUR.  THE FOLLOWING  PATTERN  OF  35e INCORPORATION INTESTINAL HEART,  LABEL  45  OR 50$  LESS  FROM  PROTEIN  SERUM  JEFFAY  OF T I S S U E  OF D E C R E A S I N G KIDNEY,  PROTEIN  (1952)  I N PLASMA,  AND MUCH  LESS  ACTIVITY:  PLASMA,  LIVER,  THE REPLACEMENT PROTEIN  (25  MAINTAINED  (30  OF RATS  TURNOVER  WAS  INCREASE  REPLACEMENT  LABELLED  SERUM  TURNOVER  RATE  TO 40$)  I N BOTH  RATE.  GLOBULIN OF L I V E R ,  WAS  TESTIS,  ALSO  (0  OR 5$)  (12$). DIETS  ON A D E Q U A T E A DECREASE  NOT D E P E N D E N T PLASMA  THAT  THAN  OVER  PROTEIN.  WITH  A  WAS  SMALL TIMES  THOSE I N OF  RATS  MORE  THIS  OF T H E  PROTEIN.  ALBUMIN  RAPIDLY  FASTER  HALF-LIFE  RATE  ON D I E T A R Y  AND SERUM  OR  DIETS  ALBUMIN  OF A L B U M I N  ON A  OBSERVATIONS:  PROTEIN  TURNED  THE TURNOVER  LOSS  TWO OR M O R E  RATES  SERUM  OF  30$  PROTEINS  SIMILAR  REPLACEMENT  PROTEIN  FOUND  I T WAS  DIETARY  WAS H I G H  CONTAINING  OF P L A S M A  DIET  BY  THE RATE  AND K I D N E Y  REPORTED  HOWEVER,  TOTAL  THAT  IN A DIET  RATE  PROTEIN  MAINTAINED  REFLECTED  LIVER  ON LOW  AND SLOWER  ON A D E Q U A T E  OBSERVED  OR 65$)  (1958)  IS INFLUENCED  (1954)  AND TARVER  AND W L N Z L E R  ON H I G H  ALBUMIN  DIET  HALF-LIFE  MAINTAINED  ORDER SPLEEN,  AND TARVER  OF RATS  LONGER  MAINTAINED THAN  DIET,  ALBUMIN  SHOWED  RATE  STEINBOCK  ON A H I G H  HIGHER.  PANCREAS,  THE P R O T E I N  PROTEIN.  WHEREAS  IN THEIR  MUSCLE.  SOLOMON  PROTEIN-FREE  RATS  AND  TURNOVER  PROTEIN. OF  S  MUCOSA,  BRAIN THE  OF  AND AN S THE  PROTEIN IN  21  RATS  WAS A L S O  DIETARY  OBSERVED  PROTEIN  TO I N C R E A S E  BY MURAMATSU  WITH  I N C R E A S I N G THE L E V E L S O F  (1962).  AND A S H I D A  15  THE  HALF-LIFE  (1948)  _ET _A_L .  (1944)  AND RlTTENBERG  SHEMIN  SHOWED  OF L I V E R  NITROGEN  WAS A B O U T  OBSERVED  THE H A L F - L I F E  N  BY F E E D I N G G L Y C I N E SEVEN  IN L I V E R  THAT  pRIEDBERG  DAYS.  PROTEINS  3.7  TO B E  DAYS  35„ BY  INJECTING  METHIONINE-  S.  HOWEVER, L I V E R  PROTEINS  HAD A  HALF-LIFE  35 2.8 D A Y S  OF THE  AVERAGE  CASEIN  DIET  INTESTINAL 4.4  DAYS,  WITH BEING  LOWEST  CALCULATED AND 9.55,  26.2 6.79  PROTEIN, THE MEASURED  4.1  DAYS,  THAT  (1961).  AND TARVER,  FOR L I V E R  A N D 3.73  FROM  PROTEIN  WEIGHT;  DEGRADATION YEARS.  RATES  3.3  RATS  TO  WAS F O U N D  BY SIDRANSKY  AND FARBER  FOUND  TO  AND VARY  THE HIGHEST  SPECIFIC  AND TARVER  TO B E 17.1,  AND OF P L A S M A  DIETS,  23.2,  ALBUMIN  AS  F O R N O R M A L , LOW RESPECTIVELY.  I N S K E L E T A L MUSCLE  F R I T Z _ET _AL .  TO  A C T I V I T Y OF  HAIDER  WEIGHT  DAYS.  FOR RATS F E D  FED A PROTEIN-FREE  DIET.  BODY  25$  5.0  AND L I V E R  M U R A M A T S U _E_T _AL . 1963)  AND P R O T E I N - F R E E  I N RECENT  GROUP  PROTEIN SYNTHESIS  BODY  PLASMA  RESPECTIVELY  OF T H E D I E T ,  MG./HOUR/200G.  PROTEIN  PROTEIN  DIET  FED  (1963).  PROTEINS  WAS R E S P E C T I V E L Y  PROTEINS  OF L I V E R  DAYS  AND SERUM  1952,  1969)  FED HIGH  OF RATS  DAYS,  THE S P E C I F I C  THE P R O T E I N CONTENT  RATES  T O 4.9  OF L I V E R  AND TARVER,  MG./HOUR/200G.  ONLY  4.1  1948).  AND MORSE,  TISSUES  T O 2.9  FOR THE SUPPLEMENTED  FOR THOSE  HIGH  OF 2  DEFICIENT  AND BAVETTA  (TARVER  B Y M U R A M A T S U _ET _ A L .  KIDNEY  ACTIVITY  S  I N SOME  HAD A H A L F - L I F E  (SOLOMON  (HAIDER  ACTIVITY  ALSO  OR T R Y P T O P H A N  NIMNI  INVERSELY  AND  REPORTED  THAN  METHIONINE LYSINE  WERE  SPECIFIC  HIGHER  (1958),  OF P R O T E I N S  MUCOSA  THREONINE  BE  FEEDING METHIONINE-  HALF-LIFE  SPLEEN  THE A  AFTER  (1969)  HAS BEEN  FOLLOWING  DIET  (1969) 15.6 7.52,  22 14  CONTINUOUS  DIETARY  HYDROLYSATE  TO A D U L T  RATS  DEHYDROGENASE-5  LACTATE SKELETAL  „  OF A  OBTAINED  C-  LABELED O F 31  A HALF-LIFE  AND TOTAL  SOLUBLE  YEAST  PROTEIN,  PROTEIN  A N D 22  DAYS FOR  RESPECTIVELY, IN  MUSCLE.  THE AND  ADMINISTRATION  EFFECT  CATABOLISM  OF S T A R V A T I O N  OF S K E L E T A L  AND A P R O T E I N - F R E E  MUSCLE  PROTEINS  DIET  ON T H E S Y N T H E S I S  WAS M E A S U R E D  BY MLLLWARD  14 (1970).  RATS  CARBONATE  PROTEINS,  RESPECTIVELY,  THE  OF  FOUND 13.1  THAT DAYS  TISSUE  A ON  FOR WELL  SYNTHESIS IMPACT  ALREADY  BEEN  RAT I S STARVED A PROTEIN  THERE  I S AN  ABOUT  2  DESCRIBED  IMMEDIATE AFTER  MALE  RATS  DAYS  PROTEIN  DIET  1947  MUSCLE  FOR T H E  BY THE DECAY  FOR P R O T E I N AND M Y O F I B R I L L A R  PROTEIN OF M I X E D  FOR D E P L E T E D  THESE  MUSCLE  PROTEINS  TO 106G.  O F RNA  TO N U T R I T I O N A L  A NEW A N D L O W E R  AND  O F RNA  WORKERS WAS  AS  TO D E I T A R Y  ON T H E A M O U N T  LOSS  MUSCLE  RATS.  IN RELATION  1947  WERE  DIET.  75  WEIGHING  (KOSTERLITZ,  PROTEINS  I N THE S K E L E T A L  A N D T H O M S O N _ET _ A L .  AND E X T E N S I V E  WHICH  ESTIMATED  OF M I X E D  (1971)  O F A LOW  AS S U B J E C T  (DAVIDSON,  LABELED  RATS.  AND D E G R A D A T I O N  OF D I E T A R Y  WAS  FOR THE S A R C O P L A S M I C  FOR D E G R A D A T I O N  O F 10.2  DEFICIENT  DAYS,  THE H A L F - L I F E  C-  WITH  OF S K E L E T A L  AND D E G R A D A T I O N  FEEDING  NOURISHED  A VALUE  INJECTED  B Y Y O U N G _ET _ A L .  THE H A L F - L I F E  RNA THE  I N YOUNG  AD L I B I T U M  WITH  FRACTION  DAYS  OF S Y N T H E S I S  RECENTLY  AFTER  COMPARED  HAS  RATES  MEASURED  RATS  A N D 15.6  WERE  OF C A T A B O L I S M  AND G L U T A M A T E .  WAS 3.6  DEGRADATION  RATE  AND M Y O F I B R I L L A R  OF A S P A R T A T E  ALSO  100G.  TO  AND T H E F R A C T I O N A L  SARCOPLASMIC RATE  90  WEIGHING  PLATEAU  IN THE  CONTROL. 1953)  M UNRO  FROM  PROTEIN  OR  LIVER WHEN  IS FED  _ET _AL .  THE L I V E R  IS ATTAINED.  1953),. FOR  INCORPORATION ACID  INTO  (1957)  AMINO  TRYPTOPHAN REDUCTION  WAS  ACID  THE THAT  DIET  AMINO  TUBE  DISOMES  AND OTHER  ACID  CAUSED  MIXTURES  A REDUCTION  THE  OF  LOSS  RATE  RECEIVING  TIME  O F RNA  HALF-LIFE  OF  THE  LACKING THE RAPID  HOUR  ON A  BREAKDOWN  OF L I V E R  O F WUNNER  AGGREGATES  ET A L . TO R A T S  AND AN  AND A D E C R E A S E  RNA  (1966) BY  INCREASE IN  I N THE S P E C I F I C  O F RNA  BOTH  5  DAYS.  HLRSCH  AND H I ATT,  1 968 OF  40  OF R A T S  DAYS;  THIS  FIGURE  1966,  OF L I V E R  (HADJIOLOV,  STARVATION  RNA  FROM  TURNOVER  I S E Q U I V A L E N T TO A  FOR TOTAL  WLLSON  THE RATE  OF L I V E R  T H A T FLIHE M E A N  CONCLUDE  HAS B E E N  EXAMINED  AND T H E B A S E S  A N D ENWONWU _ET _ A L .  HOURS  E F F E C T OF TOTAL  IN THE LIVERS  (1960)  TO  I N RATE  SUPPLY.  AND C O N C L U D E D  THIS  BY C H A N G E S  ACID  THE RIBOSE  WAS 7.2  IN RAT L I V E R  I N AMINO  G E R B E R _ET _AL .  DIET  (1968)  L E D MUNRO  IS DETERMINED  BY V A R I A T I O N  AUTHORS.  A NORMAL  O N E LOW F I G U R E  24-28  WHEN A  THAT  I N TRYPTOPHAN  FRACTIONS  OF T H E L I V E R  FROM  AND POTTER,  A MIXTURE  AL.  O F RNA S Y N T H E S I S .  E S T I M A T E S OF THE H A L F - L I F E  _E_T _AL . 1965,  C-OROTIC  B Y C L A R K _ET  CONCLUDED  THE F I R S T  I N HEAVY  S RNA  AND  CAUSED  OF ABOUT  LATER  BLOBEL  S  BY S E V E R A L  RATS  WITH  WHEN  ALSO  LIMITING  PARTICLES  OF D E G R A D A T I O N  OF L A B E L  FOUND  AND  19  CONTENT  BREAKDOWN  MEASURED  DURING  I N THE RATE  SMALLER  OF THE  T H E RNA  RNA  THAN  WAS D U E TO A C C E L E R A T E D  30  OF  WAS  BASES  TO BE C O N S I D E R A B L Y G R E A T E R  RESEARCHERS  CONTENT  RNA  P R E V I O U S S T U D I E S AND THE O B S E R V A T I O N  STOMACH  THAT  (1959)  THESE  RNA  THE PURINE  OF L I V E R  WAS G I V E N  TO R E D U C T I O N  FEEDING  ACTIVITY  INTO  MIXTURE  FED.  IN LIVER  THAN  BASES  AND C L A R K  PROTEIN-DEFICIENT RATHER  C-GLYCINE  THE P Y R I M I D I N E  AND MUNRO  COMPLETE  OF  LIVER  RNA  RIBOSOMAL  RNA  AND H O A G L A N D ,  1971),  WITH  AGREES (LOEB  1967,  THE EXCEPTION  1966).  ON T H E T U R N O V E R  I N RAT L I V E R  RNA  WAS  EXAMINED  LOSS  OF  RNA  RIBOSOMAL  THAT  RNA  SNYTHESIS.  A  BETWEEN INTAKE  -3$  OF  PER  6  DAY  HALF-LIFE  CASEIN  OF  DIET,  DEGRADATION  FRACTIONAL  RATE  ANIMALS  ON  THE  RNA  96  HOURS,  WAS  FRACTIONAL PER  ADEQUATE  AT  STUDY  OF  RATE  I N THE  RNA  PROTEIN  ON  RNA  LIVERS  WHEREAS DAILY  1$  BY  THE  OF  PER  ANIMALS  FRACTIONAL  IN  OF  I N THE ROSE  THE  RATE  CONTAINED DIET  THAT  INCREASE  OF  A  RNA  OF  E Q U I V A L E N T TO RATE  LIVER  PER THE  TIME  RNA  DAY.  RATS  DAY  ON  RNA  AND  A  TO OF  PER |N  HALF-LIFE  TURNOVER  17$  OF  CALCULATED  TURNOVER  OF  27$  A  WAS  A  26$  OF  SYNTHESIS  TURNOVER PROTEIN  AND  INTAKE  18$  PROTEIN  PROTEIN DURING  FRACTIONAL  TO':5$  PER A  DAY.  A  TRANSITION  TIME  A  SIMILAR  LOSS  OF  94  DAY  THE  65  BE  HOURS  HOURS, AND  CASE  OF  LIVER  OF  139  ON  A  A  OF  THE  RIBOSOMAL  HOURS,  A  F R A C T I O N A L S Y N T H E T I C RATE  OF  THE  TOTAL  DIET  FIRST 10$ RATS  PERIOD  PROTEIN-FREE DIET  RESULTED  THE  RATE  THE  TO  (1970).  OF  SHOWED  DURING  MUNRO  PHASES.  SLOWED  SHOWED  REDUCTION  AN  INTAKE  FEEDING  PROTEIN-FREE DIET,  RECEIVING  A  OF  TO  STUDIED  CASEIN  RIBOSOMAL  DEGRADATION  WITHDRAWAL TWO  18$  TO  DUE  CONCLUDED  OF  DAY.  RNA  RATS  RNA  E Q U I V A L E N T TO  FRACTIONAL  ENWONWU  AS  (1970)  OF  (15G.) OF  I T WAS  S T A R V A T I O N WAS WELL  MUNRO  AMOUNT  13TH  AND  AS  AND  DAY,  18$  14$  DURING  PROTEIN-FREE DIET  THE THE  TOTAL  AMOUNT  THE  AND  (1966)  HI A T T  DEGRADATION,  THE  FIXED  AND  OCCURS  ENWONWU  TURNOVER. FED  HlRSCH  BY  IN A TWO  PER ON  ROSE  RNA  LOSS  DAYS,  DAY. THE  PROGRESSIVE DECREASE  WAS  CONTENT +1$  BY  FROM  OF  PER  THERE  DAY  WAS  THEREAFTER,  18$  CASEIN  IN TOTAL  DIET  AD  LIBITUM  EXAMINED  OF  LIVER  AN  THE  A  LIVERS  DURING  RNA,  OF  THE  STUDY.  OCCURING  SHARP  THE  BY  RATE  REDUCTION OF  THROUGHOUT  RADIOACTIVITY  IN  IN  LOSS THE THE  LIVER OF  RNA  21$  WITH  AND A S Y N T H E T I C  PROTEIN-FREE THE  2  FIRST  DIET DAYS  LIFE  O F 38  FAST  AS T H E RATE  RATE  O F 33$  HOURS,  STARVATION  ON T H E R A T E  (E NWONWU _E_T _AL . 1971) THE F R A C T I O N A L  WAS  AT F I R S T  ACCELERATED  OF D E G R A D A T I O N  WAS  ANIMALS  CONCOMITANT  ACCOMPANIED SHOWED  WITH  DIET)  A HALF-  ( T W I C E AS  AND A S Y N T H E T I C  _ET _ A L .  DEPRESSED  (1971)  BY F A S T I N G  HAVE  OCCUREDj  WITH  THE DURATION  MEMBRANE-FREE  OF E X T E N S I V E  UNTIL  REGULATED  THAT:  T O 10$ FALL  TO  AND  RATES  48  HOURS  PER DAY.  OF  OF L I V E R  O F RNA  THIS  LOSSES  DROP I N  RNA  RATS  STUDIES,  AND  ON D E G R A D A T I V E R A T E RIBOSOMAL  THAT  MARKED  OF THESE  O F RNA  RNA I S POLYSOMES  VARIES  TURNOVER  I N T H E P O P U L A T I O N OF  THE ABUNDANCE  WHICH  RNA.  IN FASTED AND A  IN  FASTING  I N S Y N T H E S I S SO  POLYSOMES  CHANGES  WERE  O F RNA  ( A ) S Y N T H E S I S OF L I V E R  (c)  AND S U B U N I T S ,  THOSE  PER DAY DURING  LOSS  LOSS  SIGNIFICANT  THROUGH  B Y FOOD D E P R I V A T I O N .  S Y N T H E S I S AND  DEGRADATION  ON T H E B A S I S  OF F A S T I N G  OF S T A R V A T I O N  RIBOSOMES  OF L I V E R  RIBOSOMES.  ( B ) THE E F F E C T  I S I N PART  FELL  BUT CONTINUOUS  CONCLUDED  RNA  SIMILAR  50$  TO A B O U T  BY A GREATER  DISAGGREGATION  IN MEMBRANE-FREE  RESULTS  INCREASED, BUT AFTER  A SLOW  THE PHASE  THE COMPLETE  AFFECTED  CASEIN  DURING  WITH  O F 43$  BREAKDOWN  IN FED BIRDS.  RATE  LIVER  THE DIET  RATE  THE  DEGRADATION  C A T A B O L I C AND S Y N T H E T I C  FRACTIONAL  E NWONWU  FROM  DEGRADATION  RECEIVED  OF RAT L I V E R  GAVE  WAS A L S O  INCREASE  O F RNA  ON T H E 18$  RATE  FASTED  NOT  RATE  SYNTHETIC  DEGRADATION  WAS  A FRACTIONAL  THAT  ACCELERATED  D E L E T I O N OF P R O T E I N  PER DAY R E S P E C T I V E L Y  STARVATION  THE  THE RATS  CONSIDERABLY  OF D E G R A D A T I O N  ABOVE.  A N D 16$  TIME  A FRACTIONAL  PER DAY.  DEGRADATION  14  SHOWED  HOURS,  O F 22$.  RATE  AFTER  PROLONGED  DESCRIBED  O F 81  A HALF-LIFE  OF WHICH I S  I N RAT  (1969)  RODRIGUEZ  RIBONUCLEOPROTEIN A  HIGHER  TRATION FOUND  RATE THAN  THAT  OF L A B E L L I N G FROM  WHICH  WAS  CASEIN-FED  INCUBATING  DEAE-CELLULOSE  FROM  THAT  (RNP) P A R T I C L E S F R O M  THOSE  ON  DEMONSTRATED  PH 5 E N Z Y M E S A N D  PURIFIED  RATS  F E D WHEAT  INDEPENDENT  ANIMALS.  OF E N Z Y M E  THESE  PHENOL-EXTRACTED  SHOWED  CONCEN-  RESEARCHERS  T H E A C T I V A T I N G AND T R A N S F E R  COLUMNS,  GLUTEN  ENZYMES  ALSO ELUTED  RNA (SRNA)  SOLUBLE  AND  14 RNP  P A R T I C L E S WITH  GLUTEN-FED AND  ANIMALS  ALANINE  ALSO  AFFECT  RNA  CONCERNING MAINLY AMINO  SIMILAR  AND P R O T E I N S  SYNTHESIS  ACTIVITY  LABELLED  IN DIETS  APPEAR  INFORMATION  ON RNA  RAT S T U D I E S .  RECENTLY,  A SHORT  STUDY  OF V A R I O U S  AMINO  SYNTHESIS  TWO-WEEK-OLD  _ET _ A L . 1 9 7 2 ) .  ACIDS  KINDS  ON RNA  LYSINE  TO B E TWO F A C T O R S  THE  AND D E G R A D A T I O N .  RNA  FROM  INCREMENTS.  PROTEIN  ON L I V E R  OF T H E S Y S T E M  P H E N Y L - A L A N I NE ,  OF D I E T A R Y  ACIDS  THESE  SPECIFIC  THE INFLUENCE  FROM  MIXTURES  C,  WAS 4 2 $ G R E A T E R .  GAVE  STARVATION TO  LEUCINE-  I N THE CHICK  CHICKS  WERE  AND AMOUNTS SYNTHESIS  CAME  OF THE E F F E C T OF  WAS R E P O R T E D ORALLY  ACIDS.  WAS M E A S U R E D  AVAILABLE  SYNTHESIS  ADMINISTERED  OF A M I N O  SHOWN  BY THE  THE  (HEBERT WITH  E F F E C T OF  INCORPORATION  3  OF  TRITIUM  FROM  URIDINE-5-  DOSING.  HIGH  RESULTED  I N A DECREASE  PURINE  RING  L E V E L S OF AMINO  TESTED  ONLY  ASPARTIC  RATE  O F RNA  H  ACID  I N RNA  (FOLIC  INTO  ACIDS  LIVER  (300  RNA  OF  THE PRECURSORS  GLYCINE, GLUTAMINE  TO A F F E C T  F O R TWO H O U R S  MG.) A D M I N I S T E R E D  SYNTHESIS.  ACID,  WAS F O U N D  CHICK  RNA  TO C H I C K S OF T H E  AND A S P A R T I C  SYNTHESIS.  AFTER  AC I D )  |T I N C R E A S E D T H E  SYNTHESIS.  EFFECT  OF V A R I O U S  AMINO  ACID  IMBALANCES  ON T H E I N C O R P O R A T I O N  OF  14 GLYCINE-1-  (1972).  C  INTO  RNA  AND P R O T E I N  I T WAS O B S E R V E D  THAT  WAS A L S O  IMBALANCES  DETERMINED  BY HEBERT  OF (1) E S S E N T I A L AMINO  ETA L . ACIDS  PLUS (3)  50  MG.  OF  ESSENTIAL  GLYCINE, AMINO  (2)  ACIDS  ESSENTIAL  MINUS  AMINO  METHIONINE  ACIDS  MINUS  RESULTED  TRYPTOPHAN  AND  IN  SIGNIFICANTLY  THE  INCORPORATION  14 LOWER  INCORPORATION  OBTAINED ACID  WITH  A  OF  COMPLETE  IMBALANCES  C  GLYCINE-1-  TESTED,  BALANCE A  OF  INTO  RNA  AMINO  DEFICIENCY  OF  THAN  OF  ACIDS.  TRYPTOPHAN  ALL  HAD  THE  THE  AMINO  GREATEST  EFFECT. METABOLISM ACID  A  SPECIFIC  LARGE  AMOUNTS THE  OF  PROPORTION  I S USED  ANIMAL  FOR  NEEDS  ACIDS  AS  INFLUENCED  BY  FOR  GENESIS,  EXCRETION  DIOXIDE  MAY  EVALUATED THE  OF  PROTEIN  ALTERNATIVE  BE  AN  RAT.  I N THE  OXIDATION  RAD I O A C T I V E L Y  DIETARY  AMINO  PRESENT  AS  SYNTHESIS,  PROCESSES URINE  EXPECTED.  RATS  A  PROTEIN SYNTHESIS.  FOR  SKELETON  OF  AMINO  DIETARY  AMINO  CONTENT  BROOKES  TECHNIQUE  THE  AS  _E_T _AL .  FED  GRADED  LEVELS  LABELED  LYSINE  VIA  USE  LYSINE  HEART  WERE  PUNCTURE.  SUBOPTIMAL  THE  TO  CARBON  CARBON AND  LYSINE  REQUIREMENTS  INJECTED THE  EXCEEDS  GLUCONEO-  DEVELOPED  E S T I M A T I N G THE OF  OF  OXIDATION  (1972)  IN  SUPPLY  LIPOGENESIS,  INCREASED  FOR  DIETARY  INCREASED  SUCH  OR  ACID  WITH  PRODUCTION  OF  14 COg  WAS  USED  AS  AN  INDEX  OBTAINED  I N D I C A T E D THAT  MARKEDLY  UNTIL  THE  LEVEL  WHICH  AVERAGE  AT THE  GRADED  OXIDATION  LEVELS  OF  ( B R O O K E S _ET A_L.  LYSINE  1972).  OBSERVED  THAT  RATS  FROM  DIET  IN URINE,  THE  THE  DIETARY  OF  OF  LYSINE GAIN  SECOND WAS  SHOWN  THE  OF  AND  TO AND  LYSINE  AMOUNT  OF  INTAKE  AMINO  YAMASHITA  DEPRIVED  AMOUNT  OXIDATION  DAILY A  THE  OF  OF  LYSINE  LYSINE WAS  BE  DID  NOT  INCREASED  GAIN/FEED ACID,  OXIDIZED.  WERE  INCREASE ABOVE  SAKURAI  OF  (1 966)  EXCRETED THREONINE  THAT  MAXIMUM.  METHIONINE,  INDEPENDENT  RESULTS  ALMOST  BY  RATS  LYSINE  ON  THE  ALL  EXCRETED  FED  INTAKE  OTHER  THE  HAND,  THREONINE  DEPENDING  ON  28  LYSINE  CONTENT  MECHANISM  TO  ACCUMULATE LYSINE  I N THE  RID  IN THE  OR THE  PLASMA  (1966),  THAT  WAS  NOT  INTO  TISSUE  RATS AS  FED  (LOW THE  I N THE  METABOLIC  ENHANCEMENT  OF  ACTIVITY  M E T H I ON I N E - D E F I C I E N T RATS  FORCE-FED  RADIOACTIVE  AMINO  INJECTED  SHOWED  MUSCLE.  THE  A  RATE,  AND  (1969)  A  P R O T E I N S Y N T H E S I S DUE  AD  LIBITUM  ALTHOUGH  EXHIBITED  THE  DEMONSTRATED  A  E F F E C T WAS THAT  THE  1965). WAS  THESE  STUDIED  BY  WORKERS  LABELED  LIMITING THREONINE  PROTEIN) DIET.  OXIDATION  OF  THE  ACID  RATS OF  IMBALANCED  RECEIVING  THE  TO  (1966)  KEAN  METHIONINE  DIET  WELL  LIMITING  OBSERVED  DEVOID  OF  AT  A  DIET.  IN RATS  (WLLSON  OBSERVED  ACTIVATING  LIMITING  ALSO  ACIDS  DECREASE ALSO  WAS  BALANCED  AMINO  OF  APPEARED  1958, STUDY,  TO  ET  FED AL .  AN  ENZYME  TO  OF  PATTERN  INCORPORATION  WHICH  AND  IN  RATS  INCREASE  1965,  WERE  I N THE  SKELETAL  THAT  LIVER  YAMASHITA  CHANGES  I N THE  AND RATE  THRE0NINE-DEFICIENT DIETS I N BOTH  I N THE OF  IN THE  1967).  VARIOUS  VALINE  PROTEIN SYNTHESIS  OBSERVED  MARKED  TO  ISOLEUCINE,  1964,  FEEDING  SIMILAR MORE  THREONINE,  LEUCINE, RATE  HOWEVER,  OF  WITH  DIET.  DECREASED  SIMILAR  PROTEIN  TO  BY  THE  E.G.  CO-WORKERS, IN A  RATS  WERE  DIET  ACIDS  OF  1966).  OF  (1967).  FOUND  A  STIMULATED  CONTROL  Y O S H I D A _ET _AL .  INTO  ACIDS  ISOTOPICALLY  PROBABLY  I T WAS  SCOTT,  OF  AMINO  DIETS  WAS  WAS  BREAKDOWN  AND  (SlDRANSKY  CHANNELLED  K I NG  AND  PROTEIN  IMBALANCED  BY  RATE  HARTMAN  INCORPORATION  1962,  ASHIDA  AND  SINCE  AMINO  AC I D - I M B A L A N C E D  A  ACID  E F F E C T OF  AMINO  FED  AMINO  IMBALANCED  ACID  THE  THE  METABOLIC  ACIDS  SIMILAR  OF  BODY  THREONINE  AND  HISTIDINE  AMINO  OF  (ZIMMERMAN  DEMONSTRATED  OR  EXCRETION  ARGININE DEFICIENCY  Y O S H I D A _ET _AL_.  AMINO  THE  DIET.  LIVER  MUSCLE.  LEUCINE-  C  AND  MUSCLE,  I T WAS INTO  ALSO  PROTEIN  29  DECREASED  I N BOTH  LIVER  AND  MUSCLE  OF  RATS  THRE0NINE-DEFICIENT  FED  14, DIETS SAME  WHEREAS DIETS.  OBTAINED  INCORPORATION A  FROM  FED  THE  WAS  ACCOUNTED  GREATER RATS  BASAL  THE  FOR  A  MOLECULE.  THE  METABOLIC  SPECIFIC  C  HIGHER  GREATER  RELATIVE TURNOVER  INCREASED  ACTIVITY  THRE 0 N 1 N E - D E F I C I E N T  DIET.  THREONINE  THREONINE-  RELATIVE  FED  BY  OF  DIETS  OF  AND  FEEDING  PROTEIN  THAN  SPECIFIC  BY  FROM  RE U T I L I Z A T I ON  WAS  THE  ACTIVITY  THE  OF  GROUP PROTEIN  RATE  OF  THE  14 TRANSFORMATIONS  OF  LYSINE-U-  C  AND  THREONINE-U-  14, C  IN RATS  WERE  CONSUMING  MEASURED  BY  YAMASHITA  14 OF  LYSINE-  AND  AND  THREONINE-DEFICIENT DIETS  (1969).  ASHIDA  THE  RESPECTIVELY  PERCENTAGE  RECOVERY  14 C  FROM  GLYCOGEN,  LYSINE-U-  LIVER  C  LIPIDS  IN RESPIRATORY  AND  CARCASS  CC^,  LIPIDS  BLOOD  IN RATS  SUGAR, FED  LIVER  L YS I N E - F R E E  14„ D I E T D E C R E A S E D C O N S I D E R A B L Y , W H E R E A S T H A T OF T H R E O N I N E - U F R A C T I O N S O F R A T S F E D T H E T H R E 0 N I N E - F R E E G R O U P WAS S I M I L A R  C IN THESE TO CONTROLS.  14  PERCENTAGE IN  THE  GROUPS THE  BODY  C  I N THE  THAN  THRE0NINE-FREE DIET  I N THE  OF  FED  THESE  EFFECT OF  WITH  OF  DIET OF  EXCESSIVE  THESE  AND  LIVER  MUSCLE  OF  THAT  THAT TO  HIGHER  SOME  FRACTION  IN THE  THREONINE  L YSI N E - F R E E I T WAS  GROUPS.  HOMTJS T A T I C  M A I N T A I N THE IN THE  RELATIVE  OF  ANIMAL  THAT  DIET-FED  SUGGESTED  MECHANISM  LEVEL  TO  OPERATES  LYSINE  BODY  ON  ON  IN  IN  THE  THE  DIET.  YAMASHITA AND  ALSO  RESULTS  LYSINE-FREE  THREONINE-FREE  METABOLISM  WAS  PROTEIN  C0^  COMPARED  FEEDING  OF  RESPIRATORY  BASIS  ANIMALS  RECOVERY  ASHIDA  EXCESS  OF  AMINO  LEVELS ACIDS  (1971). RATS  WERE  THREONINE  OF  LYSINE  IN THE  FREE  THREONINE  WAS  ALSO  THREONINE  OBSERVED  WHEREAS  RAT  AND  TO  TISSUE  ON  INVESTIGATED  CONCENTRATION  INCREASE MARKEDLY LYSINE  THE  CONTENT  IN  BY  PLASMA,  DUE  TO  REMAINED  THE  30  RELATIVELY  CONSTANT  WHEN  THE E X C E S S  LYSINE  DIET  WAS  THE  FED.  CATABOLIC  14 BREAKDOWN  OF  THREONINE-U—  C  TO  RESPIRATORY  C0^  I N RATS  FED THE E X C E S S  14. THREONINE RATS  DIET  FED THE E X C E S S  RESPECTIVE THE  D I D NOT  AMINO  PROTEIN  MORE  LYSINE  ACID  FRACTION  ACID-SOLUBLE MARKED  INCREASE  RADIOACTIVITY  THE  DIET.  RESULTED  THAT  AS THAT  EXCESSIVE  I N A LOWERED  IN CONTRAST  FRACTION, THAN  AS MUCH  TO T H E E L E V A T E D  THE E X C E S S  MEASUREMENT  F E E D I N G OF  LYSINE  OF T H E M E T A B O L I C  ADMINISTERED  SUGAR,  GLYCOGEN  LIVER  LYSINE-U-  AND' L I P I D S  C  EACH  RECOVERY  DIET.  IN  I N THE  THREONINE  DIET  RESULTS  BEING  OF THE  TRANSFORMATION  14PER I T O N E A L L Y  C IN  R A D I O A C T I V I T Y RECOVERY  THE E F F E C T OF THE E X C E S S OF  OF L Y S I N E - U -  OF  INTRA-  14AND  THREONINE-U-  AND C A R C A S S  LIPIDS  C  SHOWED  TO  BLOOD  THAT THE  14„ CONVERSION RATS  FED THE E X C E S S  VIEW  CONCERNING  A  THREONINE  HOMEOSTATIC  MAINTAINS  A CONSTANT  MECHANISM  TO M A I N T A I N  THE  C  OF THREONINE-U-  FEEDING  BODY  /TO C A R B O H Y D R A T E DIET.  THE  MECHANISM  LEVEL  THREONINE  RESULTS  GROWING  DEFICIENT BEEN  SANAHUJA MARCH EAT  I N RATS  WHICH  FLUCTUATE  THE  WHICH OF SUCH  DEPENDING  A UPON  CONDITIONS.  ANIMALS I N OR  SHOWN  SUPPORT  AND T H E A B S E N C E  CONTROL M E C H A N I S M OF FEED INTAKE DEPRESSION I N FOOD I N T A K E AND C O N S E Q U E N T L Y OF  INCREASED IN  ALSO  OPERATIVE  OF L Y S I N E LEVELS  GREATLY  BY  F E D AD  CONTAINING  SAUBERL  _ET _ A L .  AND WALKER  LIBITUM  I CH  (1962), (1970)  A PROTEIN-FREE  OR  A  EXCESS E_T AJL .  WITH  (1955),  PROTEIN  RETARDATION  DIET  AMINO  H A R P E R _ET AJL .  1964,  B R A G G _ET _ A L .  BALANCED  IMBALANCED  OF ONE E S S E N T I A L  LE U N G _ET _AL . AND  AN  GROWTH  OR ACID  DIET  GROWING  RATHER  HAVE  (1955),  A N D E R S O N _E_T _ A L .  (1971).  DIETS  THAN  1969, RATS AN  WOULD  IMBALANC E D  DIET  1963  HARPER,  WHEN  DEPRESSION  SUGGESTED TION  NO  HAVE  I N FOOD  THAT  AMINO  OF THE L I M I T I N G  HOWEVER,  INDICATED  INFORMATION  ABOUT  DIET.  AMINO  IMBALANCE  EQUIVALENT INTAKE  BECAUSE  IMBALANCED  AND  HARPER  RATS  DIET  REPORTED  PENG  IMBALANCED LIMITING  D|D  NOT  BALANCE  ON T H E I R  RETENTION  OUT AS T H E C A U S E  I N FOOD  EMPTING  EVIDENCE  NO M O R E  OF  INTERFERE  AMINO  WITH  ACIDS  FOOD  DIET. I N FOOD  RATE  AS AN  ADDED  THE ABSORPTION  GIVEN  1959).  KUNTA  I T NOT  DIGESTION  CONSUMPTION  PRESENTED  THAT  THAN D I D  AND FOUND  PROTEIN  OF FEED  AN  OF T H E G R O U P  AND KUNTA,  IMPARED  WAS A L S O  THAT  INTAKE  GIVE  OBSERVATION  AT THE SAME  PERIOD  DEPRESSION  (1958),  OF D E P R E S S I O N  (HARPER  IMBALANCE.  (1969)  DIET  UTILIZA-  OF C O N S U M I N G  AND THE D E P R E S S I O N  A BALANCED  OF  COULD  I N G E S T I O N OF THE I M B A L A N C E D  STOMACH  ACID  (1953).  AND HARPER  DIET  WAS  BY  BY YOSHIDA TO C R E A T E  ET A L . AN  OF T H E  AM I N O A C 1 D .  SALMON MIXTURE  INTAKE  U N L I K E L Y TO C A U S E  H E N D E R S O N _ET _AL.  (1966),  NITROGEN  OF  (1958)  KU N T A _ET _A_L .  EFFECTS  BASED  BE D E T E C T E D  MEASURED  BY AMINO  WAS  THE CAUSE  SALMON  OF N I T R O G E N  FOR A D V E R S E  A DEPRESSION  COULD  ( S A N A H U J A AND  THE E F F I C I E N C Y  AND N I T R O G E N .  SUGGESTION  RULED  DESCRIBED.  REDUCED  MEASUREMENTS  INGESTED  BEFORE  (1961)  BE D E L A Y E D  ALSO  ACID  RAPIDLY AFTER  DIET  THE  TO  IMBALANCE  DEPRESSED  WAS  THEM  O U T TO E L U C I D A T E  ALREADY  THE BASIS  THIS  PALATABILITY  IMBALANCED  CARRIED  INTAKE  AMINO  BETWEEN  1968).  R E S T R I C T I O N O F FOOD  OCCURRED  INTAKE  BEEN  ACID  THAT  1MBALANCED ACID  A CHOICE  A N D L E U N G _ET _ A L .  MANY S T U D I E S THE  OFFERED  (1954, 1958)  OF A M I N O  CATABOLISM  ACIDS  OF A L L A M I N O  POSTULATED  TO A LOW ACIDS  THAT  PROTEIN  AND HENCE  THE A D D I T I O N  DIET MIGHT RESULT  OF AN  INCOMPLETE  INCREASE THE  IN INCREASED  DESTRUCTION  OF  T H E MOST  LITTLE  LIMITING  SUPPORT  TRYPTOPHAN  AMINO  FROM  I N RATS  AND SALMON  RATS  GIVEN  AN  VERY  SLIGHTLY.  DIET  OF  1961).  (1955)  IMBALANCED  THAT  DIET  MOREOVER,  URINARY  WAS  EITHER  W I L S O N _ET _AL .  Y O S H I D A _ET _A_L .  (1966)  HYPOTHESIS  ISOTOPICALLY  HOWEVER,  BLOOD  BY  E X C R E T I O N OF A M I N O NOT  I N C R E A S E D OR  (1 962)  FOUND  THE L I M I T I N G FOLLOWED  RECEIVED  LABELLED  AND S T U D I E S OF  I T WAS O B S E R V E D ,  C A T A B O L I S M OF T R Y P T O P H A N ,  USED.  THIS  ( F L O R E N T I NO _ET _AL . 1962)  SAUBERLICH  INCREASED  I N THE D I E T .  THE METABOLISM  (KUNTA A N D H A R P E R ,  UREA  ACID  NO  AMINO  ACIDS  BY  ENHANCED  INDICATION ACID  THE METABOLISM  OF  I N THE OF T H E  14, LIMITING  AMINO  ACID,  TRACER  QUANTITIES  OF T H R E O N I N E - U -  C OR  J4, HISTIDINE-U-  C  I N RATS  FED THREONINE  OR H I S T I D I N E  IMBALANCED  DIET  14 LOW  IN PROTEIN.  CARBON  THEY  DIOXIDE,  DIETS  URINE  INDICATING  FEEDING  AN  THAT  AMINO  DIET  AMINO  IMBALANCED  ANIMALS  C FROM  ACID  ON  DIET.  THE BASIS  THE DEPRESSION  OCCURING  AMINO  OR  CONTROL  ACID  FROM  OF T H E S E  E X C R E T I O N AND C A T A B O L I S M  CONCENTRATION  INTAKE  THREONINE IN  FED IMBALANCED  I S NOT E N H A N C E D .  TO E X P L A I N  ACID  I N FOOD  AMOUNT  T H E C A T A B O L I S M OF T H E L I M I T I N G  BE USED  DEPRESSION ACID  FROM  THE INCREASED AMINO  CANNOT  PLASMA  THE SAME  AND F E C E S  IMBALANCED  OBSERVATIONS CONCEPT  OBSERVED  I N FOOD  IS IMPLICATED  AS A R E S U L T  SANAHUJA  OF  AND H A R P E R  INTAKE.  FOR SOME  INGESTION  (1963)  OF THE OF AN  OBSERVED  THAT  1  FEEDING  TO R A T S  FOOD  INTAKE  TION  AND A R I S E  ESPECIALLY |T SIGNAL  A HISTIDINE  PRECEDED  IMBALANCED  BY A MARKED  FALL  IN THE CONCENTRATION  DIET  CAUSED  IN PLASMA OF OTHER  A DEPRESSION IN  HISTIDINE  ESSENTIAL  CONCENTRA-  AMINO  ACIDS  THREONINE.  I S NOT C L E A R  TO R E D U C E  FEED  HOW  THE PLASMA  INTAKE.  THERE  AMINO  ACID  PATTERN  RESULTS  IN A  I S A S P E C U L A T I O N , HOWEVER,  THAT  33  PLASMA  AMINO  ACID  PATTERN  OCCURS  AT THE S I T E  ORGAN)  AND THAT  MAY BE A R E F L E C T I O N  OF P R O T E I N  A SIGNAL  SYNTHESIS  OF T H E C H A N G E  ( I N THE MUSCLE  IS TRANSMITTED  BY SOME  OR  NERVOUS  THAT  OTHER  OR  HORMONAL  MECHAN I SM. BENEVENGA LIVER  WAS S T I M U L A T E D  IMBALANCED THAT  WITH  AS MUCH  INCORPORATED IMBALANCED  OR MORE INTO  DIET  ACID  1966).  OBSERVED  TISSUE  THE SEQUENCE  AMINO  PATTERN  ACID  ESSENTIAL  TO THE  ACIDS  OF AMINO  THIS  DIET  ISOTOPIC STUDIES  ALSO  REVEALED  ACID  (THREONINE) OF RATS  BE E X P E C T E D ACCOUNT  WAS  FED  FED THE BALANCED  AMINO  IMBALANCED,  DEVELOPED  THREONINE  DIET  OF T H E L I M I T I N G  TO R E D U C E  F O R LOW  THE AMOUNT  CONCENTRATION  MORE  RESULTS  STIMULATES  IMBALANCED  THAN  THOSE  ACIDS  IN SURPLUS BLOOD  RATE,  FROM  PRODUCED  PLASMA  THE MEAL ARE  OF A L L B U T ONE OF T H E TO T H E L I V E R .  ACID  PROTEIN RESULT  AND M U S C L E  BY I N G E S T I O N  OF A  THE  BREAKDOWN  IS RETAINED  MUSCLE  SO THE EVENTUAL  OF BOTH  DIETARY  OR S U P P R E S S E S  AMINO  I N THE CONTROL.  PLASMA  DIET.  FLOWING  SYNTHESIS  OF THE L I M I T I N G  PATTERNS  RESEMBLING  AN  HYPOTHESIS  TO T H E A L T E R E D  AND THE AMINO  AT A NORMAL  ACID  THE FOLLOWING  LEADING  IN THE PORTAL  ACIDS  SO THAT  BE S Y N T H E S I Z E D  (1965)  NORMALLY  IN THE IMBALANCED  FREE  AND COULD  OF E V E N T S  ABSORBED.  AMINO  PROTEIN  LIVER  OF A  INCORPORATION  WOULD  OF RAT I N G E S T I N G  IS DIGESTED  EFFICIENTLY  OF  PROTEINS  AND ROGERS  CONCERNING  SURPLUS  THE ENHANCED  IN THE  INGESTION  PROTEINS  CONTROLS  SYNTHESIS  I N BLOOD.  HARPER  PROTEIN  WITH  PROTEIN  AFTER  AMINO  AND T I S S U E  FLUIDS  THAT  A FEW HOURS  OF A L I M I T I N G  CARCASS  I N BODY  INDICATED  TO H I S T I D I N E .  COMPARED  INTO  CIRCULATING  WITHIN  RESPECT  ( Y O S H I D A _ET _AL . AMINO  (1968)  _ET _ A L .  IN THE CONTINUES  I S THAT  BECOME  SEVERELY  SEVERELY  34  DEFICIENT  DIET.  SOME  REGULATING  CENTRE  LOWER  INTAKE,  AND  FEED  GROWTH A  IS  OF  AND  THESE  FOOD  THE  CHANGES  INTAKE  S U P P L Y OF  OF  STUDY  ACIDS FAST  DIETS  AN  DEVOID  OF  CHANGES. COULD  NOT  ENOUGH,  AND  HENCE  AMINO  IMBALANCED  ENERGY  ACID DIET  BE  BY  AND  BY  AS  AMINO  WERE  CHANNELLED ADVERSE  IN PLASMA COULD  BE  AND  A  THAT  ESSENTIAL  ANIMALS  THE  SLNDRASKY  SHOWED  SINGLE  THE  WHICH  LIMITING  IS DEPRESSED.  CONDUCTED  (1958, 1960, 1961, 1962, 1964)  PATHOLOGICAL  MONITORED A  AN  APPETITE-  CONSEQUENCE  ACIDS  IS  OF  REDUCED  RETARDED.  SERIES  PURIFIED  ARE  YOUNG AMINO  FORCEFED  ACIDS,  DEVELOPED  LOADED  PROTEIN  EFFECTS.  CO-WORKERS  RATS  PROBABLY  INTO  FEED  AND  WITH  SYNTHESIS  OR  D E P R E S S I O N OF  INTAKE  RESULTING  PROTECTIVE DEVICE  AMINO DEGRADED  THE  FROM PART  FEEDING  ON  THE  OF  AN  IMBALANCED  THE  AN I M A L . THERE STIMULATED INJECTION BY  ARE BY  INSULIN  OF  1961),  GROWTH  E Q U I V A L E N T TO IT  COLD  THAN  NEEDS THAN IS  FOR A  HARPER  1964).  WARM  UNKNOWN.  AND  THAT  UP".  DIET  IN A  (KUNTA  OF  ROGERS,  1962),  HARPER,  INJECTION  ANIMALS  TO  1966)  DIET A  COLD  AND  BY  TECHNIQUES  CONTROL  (BEATON, (FLSHER  IS  1 967),  AND  ENVIRONMENT FORCE  RESULTED  IN  FEEDING IMPROVED  ANIMALS.  ANIMAL  EATS  MORE  OF  A  THE  ANIMAL  EATS  MORE  TO  MEET  SUCH  DIET  CORTISOL  AN  WHY  COLD  OF  RATIO OF:THE  THE  THAT  BUT  AND  L-THYROXINE  THESE  ENVIRONMENT.  "WARMING  BALANCED  OF  A L L OF  IS UNDERSTANDABLE A  CONSUMPTION  CALORIE  EXPOSURE  ( K L A I N _ET _AL . 1 962,  (LEUNG _ET_AL.  1964),  PROTEIN: BY  THAT  INJECTION  ( L E U N G _ET _AL .  ADJUSTMENT  SHAPIRO,  INDICATIONS  ANIMAL  ENVIRONMENT  EATS  MORE  (SANAHUJA  OF  AND  DIET  AN  IN A  ITS  ENERGY  IMBALANCED  HARPER,  1962)  A RISE  I N BODY  L YS I N E - D E F I C I E N T  DIET  ACTIVITY  IN RESPONSE  WAS  REPORTED  ALSO  CHANGE  I N BODY  BASIS  TEMPERATURE  TO  SIMILAR RECEPTOR  CONTROL  IS ALSO  THOUGHT  THE RESPONSE  OF P R O T E I N  CAPACITY  OR A M I N O  A LOW T O A H I G H E R  AMINO  ACIDS  PATTERN FOOD  AMINO  TISSUES  OF THE C H I C K S  THE HORMONAL  RESPONSE AND  BY THE RESEARCHERS  CONSUMPTION  IN THYROID  AS A  I N GROWING  ACIDS  VALUE  MAY O P E R A T E  PRODUCTION  CONSUMED A SUPPLY  I N A COLD  ACIDS  THAT  A  IN TEMPERATURE EATING  WAS  AND THE S T O P P I N G  A RELATIONSHIP  FOR AMINO  TO E A T M O R E  AMINO  (1957)  BY BROBECK  OF  PRODUCTION.  REPORTED  OF AN A N I M A L  PROTEIN  ACTIVITIES  ACIDS  CHANGES BECOME  BETWEEN THE  BY AN A N I M A L OF AMINO ACID  AND I T S I T COULD  AC I D S .  DEGRADATION  ENVIRONMENT  OF A D I E T  ARE I N E X C E S S  CAN BE REDUCED  INCORPORATION LOW  DECLINE  AND  BE  INCREASES  CONSEQUENTLY  C O N T A I N I N G A S U R P L U S OF  I N THE C O N C E N T R A T I O N AND  SUFFICIENTLY  ABNORMAL  TO  INHIBIT  INTAKE. IF  THE  I N HEAT  OR P R O T E I N S B E F O R E  OF P L A S M A  WHICH  I N HEAT  AND DEGRADE  FROM  IS ABLE  1969B).  A  I N R E G U L A T I O N OF F E E D I N G .  (1969)  THE C A P A C I T Y  ANIMAL  TEMPERATURE  PROPOSED  TO A F A L L  THAT  THE  I N BODY  SUGGESTED  TO T H A T  TO A R I S E  TO U T I L I Z E  (1969A).  FED A  DIETS.  EFFECTIVE  A N D E R S O N _ET _ A L .  IN CHICKS  _ET _AL .  D E P R E S S I O N OF F E E D  SIMILAR  A RESPONSE  AMOUNT  WERE  H Y P O T H E S I S WAS  THERMAL  EATING  _ET _AL .  TEMPERATURE  FED IMBALANCED  A  P AS T R 0  INCREASE  (P AS T R O  FOR E X P L A I N I N G  ANIMALS  BY  WAS O B S E R V E D  INTO  DIET,  PROTEIN GROWTH  OF ENZYMES  ONLY  IN THE DIET,  BY I N C R E A S E D C A T A B O L I S M , I N C R E A S E D  OR D E C R E A S E D  RATE  OF A M I N O  THE CONCENTRATIONS I N  INTAKE.  I S LOW, P R O T E I N ACID  I N THE ANIMAL  SYNTHESIS  C A T A B O L I S M A R E LOW  FED A  I S LOW A N D  (HARPER  1965, 1968),  READILY  OR  AMINO  RAPIDLY  ACIDS  PROTEIN  WOULD  SYNTHESIS  CONCENTRATIONS  HENCE  ANY  CLEARED  FROM  ACCUMULATE HAVE  COULD  SURPLUS  BEEN  SERVE  THE  IN  OF  BODY.  BLOOD  A  ACIDS  AFTER  LEADING  A  THE  ELEVATED  SIGNAL  CANNOT  ORDINARILY  ONLY  SATISFIED. AS  AMINO  SURPLUS  NEEDS  PLASMA  TO  THE  BE OF  FOR  AM I N O • A C I D  CURTAILMENT  OF  EAT ING.  AMINO  ACID  INTERACTION  EXCESS AMINO  ACID  LEWIS  (1970)  ACTION  DIETARY  IS  AMINO  REQUIRED HAVE  BETWEEN  TO  SHOWN  AMINO  BY  EXCESS  LYSINE  LEUCINE  BY  VALINE  OR  CHICK  DIETARY  MARKEDLY.  (JONES,  1964;  SPECIFIC  (1966),  ANTAGONISM HOWEVER,  NON-SPECIFIC  THREE  TYPES  AND  BETWEEN  INDICATED  MANIFESTATION  THAT  INCREASES  LEWIS,  ONLY  ARGININE  THE  BY  AND  THAT  THE  OF  GENERAL  SPECIFIC  D'MELLO OF  THREONINE  INTER-  THAT  BY  AND  BEEN  1966)  BOORMAN  LYSINE-ARGININE PHENOMENON  OF  THE  INTERPRETED  SAVAGE,  LYSINE.  OF  TRYPTOPHAN.  REQUIREMENT  HAS  AND  ADVERSE-EFFECTS  ARGININE,  ARGININE  0'DELL  A  SPECIFICITY  REQUIREMENT  1966;  A  OF  AND  EFFECT.  NUTRITION.  AND  ARGININE  ANIMALS  TOXIC  SUCH  IS A L L E V I A T E D  LYSINE  TO  THE OF  IN CHICK  ISOLEUCINE  HIGHER  SMITH  IS TOXIC  COUNTERACT  ACIDS  INDUCED  EXCESS  ACID  AS  AND  FLSHER  INTERACTION OF  AMINO  A  IS  A  ACID  D E T O X I C A T I ON. THE THE OF  CHICK. ARGININE  ACIDS OF  LYSINE-ARGINLNE  BRING  ARGININE  THREE  POSSIBLE  IN S I T U A T I O N S ABOUT FOR  A  ANTAGONISM MECHANISMS OF  REDUCTION  PROTEIN  AMINO IN  BEEN  ARE  ACID  FEED  SYNTHESIS;  HAS  STUDIED  OFFERED  IMBALANCE:  INTAKE  TO  EXTENSIVELY EXPLAIN  (A)  RESULTING  (B) ARGININE  ACTS  AT  THE  EXCESS IN A THE  IN ROLE  AMINO  DEFICIENCY METABOLIC  LEVEL  BY I N C R E A S I N G  THE E F F I C I E N C Y  CYCLE  INTERMEDIATES  (SNETSINGER  COMPETES (GASTRO  WITH  EXCESS  COMPETITIVE  L-ORNITHINE  THE  FEED  THREE  INHIBITION  INTAKE,  INHIBITION  ARGININE  AT A B S O R P T I O N  ABSORBED  R E A B S O R P T I ON O F T H E  (1962)  L-ARGININE,  WOULD  HYPOTHESIS  WHICH  IS  INDICATE A  L-L Y S I N E A N D  THERE  I S NO KNOWN  STIMULATORY  EFFECT  THE  HAVE  BEEN AL.  KIDNEY  REQUIREMENT.  TO R E L I E V E  UNSUCCESSFUL  (1967)  ARGINASE  OCCURRED AUSTIC  IN ARGINASE  INCREASES  I N THE A R G I N I N E  CYCLE  D U E TO A  CYCLE. UREA  (TAMIR  ALTHOUGH  TO A C C O U N T  (1970)  A C T I V I T Y AND UREA  ON U R I C WITH  REQUIREMENT.  HE F E L T  BIO-  ARGININE IN  969).  CAUSED  THAT  OBSERVED WERE  TlME-COURSE  1963).  ACID  EXCESSES  EXCRETION  IN CHICKS  AND R A T N E R ,  FOR THE E L E V A T E D ALSO  TO  FURTHERMORE,  SYNTHESIS  TOXICITY  LYSINE  REDUCED  NOR D I D I T A P P E A R  OF A R G I N I N E  THAT  SHOWED  COMPETITIVE  ( B L O O M F I E L D _ET _AL . 1  ACTIVITY,  AND N E S H E I M  INCREASES  UREA  AMMONIA  REPORTED  TOO L A T E  ACID  SITES  WHO  D I D NOT E X E R T I T S  THROUGH  TO F A C I L I T A T E UREA  AND ATTEMPTS  ARGINASE  IN A LATENT  A FUNCTIONING  SYNTHESIS  AMINO  OR R E A B S O R P T I O N  (1968)  BY SMITH  DIETS  ITS INFLUENCE  NOT B E E X P E C T E D  LACK  JONES n  REPUDIATED  IN IMBALANCED  INTERMEDIATE  BIRDS  IN  SITE  A R E NOT  THE LATTER  E T _AL.  OF A D E F I C I E N C Y OF T H I S  SINCE  INCREASED  BETWEEN  WERE  D I D NOT M E D I A T E  AS A C Y C L E  CHICK  QUANTITIES  NOT O C C U R .  OF ROSENBERG  MECHANISMS  BECAUSE  ARGININE  EXCESS  ACID  AND ( C ) A R G I N I N E  AT THE A B S O R P T I O N  ( K I D N E Y ) SO THAT  DOES  THE URIC  I N THE RAT K I D N E Y .  SUPPLEMENTAL  BENEFIT  SITE  ACIDS  ON T H E O B S E R V A T I O N S  MUTUAL  ACT  AMINO  IN EXCESS  OR B O T H  1961);  AND S C O T T ,  SO THAT  AT THE R E A B S O R P T I O N  EXCRETED  THAT  ACID  INTESTINAL TRACT)  AND/OR  BASED  THE AMINO  OF E I T H E R  THAT  THE  INCREASE  ARGININE MARKED  ASSOCIATED  STUDIES,  WITH  HOWEVER,  REVEALED  THAT  THE  INITIAL  INCREASES  UREA  EXCRETION  CORRESPONDED  RATE  OF GROWTH  AND  DIETS. AS  THE A L T E R A T I O N  A MAJOR  FACTOR  POTASSIUM STIMULATED CREATED  CHICK  MORE  OF C H I C K S  A  POSITIVE  OF  ARGININE  INTAKE OF  WHEN  CATION GROWTH  MARKEDLY, FREE  AMINO  CATABOLISM.  BALANCE  OF  ARGINASE INITIAL  WERE THIS  ENZYME  ACID  PATTERNS  POSTULATED  ON TO  WAS  BASED  THE A R G I N I N E  BASED  DECREASES  IN  LIMITING  OF C H I C K S .  DIET  REQUIREMENT  I N THE PLASMA THESE  AND  PROPOSED  REQUIREMENT  OF A C A S E I N  SPARED  ACTIVITY  FED A R G I N I N E  THE A R G I N I N E  1971). WAS  THE  CHICKS  SUPPLEMENTATION  ( S T U T Z _ET _AL . CATION  WITH  THE A C T I V I T Y  I N V A R I A T I O N S OF  FAVOURABLE  MUSCLE MORE  FOOD  IN TIME  IN KIDNEY  AND  AND  OBSERVATIONS,  DECREASE  THE  RATE  EXPERIMENTAL  PROCEDURE  GENERAL EIGHT OF  DIETARY  AMINO  CHICK LYSINE  ACID.  BROODERS  FEEDING TRIALS ON  BROILER  WERE  USED  DIETARY  TREATMENTS  TRIAL.  FEED  AND  TECHNIQUES. AND  METABOLISM  CHICKS  AS  WATER  ARRANGED WERE  QUANTITATIVE  CONDUCTED  OF  NUCLEIC  MAINTAINED  EXPERIMENTAL  WERE  SUPPLIED  ACIDS,  BLOCK  LIBITUM  AND  THE  PROTEIN  THE  DESIGN  IN EACH  DETERMINATION  IMPACT AND  HEATED  THROUGHOUT  RANDOM AD  SEPARATION  EXAMINE  IN ELECTRICALLY  SUBJECTS  IN A  TO  BATTERY  STUDY. IN  EACH  FEEDING  OF  TRIAL,  DNA,  RNA  PROTEIN METHODS  FOR  LIPID SAMPLES INDIVIDUALLY  (1967)  WARING  OF FOR  PROTEIN MUSCLE  DNA,  RNA  AND  1  3.  SAMPLES  TO  BLENDER/OSTERIZER.  PERCHLORIC FIVE  SOLUTION  TO  ACID ML.  WAS  PRECIPITATE  REMOVE  (PCA)  0.25  M  ALLOWED FORMED  C E N T R I F U G A T I ON  I N AN  LIVER  PROTEIN OF  NAOH  THE  STAND  STORED  BY  THE  THE TO  TO  SOLUTION FOR  SEPARATED  15 FROM  INTERNATIONAL  10$  A  39  FIVE IN A  WAS  THE  DNA,  ML.  -20°C  AT  METHOD  OF  WERE  (w/v)  ALIQUOT  CENTRIFUGE  ET  AL.  THROUGH  OF OF  A  LAYERS  ICE-COLD  70$  HOMOGENATE THE  TUBE.  FLUID  CENTRIFUGE  IN  USING  THE  ICE-BATH.  SUPERNATANT  SPEED  ANALYZED  HOMOGENIZED  SOLUTION,  ML.  I N AN  WERE S HI BKO  STRAINED ONE  MINUTES  HIGH  RNA,  TISSUES  TISSUE. A  OF  HOMOGENATES  HOMOGENATE  ADDED  SUCROSE  WAS  TISSUE  CONNECTIVE  WAS  TO  SEPARATION  OF  AND  0.25 M/0.006N  SUCROSE  CHEESECLOTH  PLUS  SEQUENTIAL  AND  CHICK  IN TRIALS  ICE-COLD  OF  THE  WERE  BY  MODEL  HR1  AT  4000  RPM  WAS  WASHED  THE  LAST  PAPER  TWICE  WASH  TOWEL. AND  NAOH  4 C.  AND  THE WITH  10  ML.  DRAINED  THE  PRECIPITATE  TWO  FOR  OFF  ONE  ML.  OF  AND  COOLED  WERE  CENTRIFUGED  AND  THE  THE  WAS  SUPERNATANTS THE  INCUBATED  WERE  AND  THEN  WAS  SUPERNATANTS  REMOVE  PERFORMED ETHER, 5  ETHER. OVEN.  RNA  SUSPENDED  WERE  I N AN  WITH  10  COMBINED  SOME  OF  THE  LIPID.  WITH  10  ML.  OF  OF  THE  RESULTING TISSUE  PELLET  SAMPLES  AND  DNA  DNA  WAS  THEN WAS  AND  OF  CONCENTRATION  OVER  OF  A  0.3N  THE  RESULTING ALL  SAMPLES  THE  REMOVED.  AGAIN.  OF  1.5$  70$ PCA  FOR  10  PCA  WAS  PCA  AND  ADDED  MINUTES.  ALL  THE  SAMPLES THE  REMOVED.  AND  TO  THEN  CENTRIFUGED  AGAIN,  DETERMINATION.  WITH  20  ML.  LIPID  HEATED  DRIED  RNA,  ML.  CENTRIFUGED  ML.  OF  1.5$  ADDED,  RUN  FROM  TUBE  MINUTES.  EXTRACTION  FOR  AND  FOR  4  ETHANOL/0.35$  OF  ETHANOL:CHL0ROFORM  WERE  DETERMINATION RNA  FOR  10  TO  CAREFULLY  ADDITIONAL  3:1  ETHER  WAS  OF  ACID  DETERMINATION.  ML.  ML.  PRECIPITATE  PETROLEUM  PCA  ICE-BATH  EXTRACTED  A  ADDED  IN EIGHT  SUPERNATANT  I N 18  CAREFULLY  5$  90°C; 0.5  WAS  THE ALL  FOR  PRECIPITATE  IN WHICH ML.  COMBINED  EXCESS  CONSTANT-TEMPERATURE  WAS  WAS  PRECIPITATE  CENTRIFUGE  I C E - B A T H FOR  OF  AT  PCA.  IN A  PCA  ML.  THE  WASHED  70$  d0  WAS  5$  SUSPENDED  37°C  AT  SUPERNATANT  COOLED  AND  OF  THEN  I N AN  WITH  MINUTES  CENTRIFUGED  THE  AND  20  FOR  PRECIPITATE  TO  WERE  PRECIPITATE  SUSPENSION  THE  WASHED  WAS  THE  DISCARDED.  I N V E R T I N G THE  ICE-COLD  HYDROLYSATE  PRECIPITATE  BY  HOUR  NAOH  WAS  PORTIONS  WAS  INCUBATED  WATER-BATH.  SUPERNATANT  15  20  MIXTURE, MINUTES  ML.  HOURS  WAS ETHANOL: AT  ANHYDROUS AT  90°C  PCA  IN  37°C ETHYL AN  IN D U P L I C A T E .  DNA  IN TISSUE  AND  PROTEIN  EXTRACTS  (SUPERNATANTS)  WERE  41  DETERMINED  BY U L T R A V I O L E T  RESPECTIVELY PRODUCTS  I N A UNICAM  CONTAMINATING  CONTAMINATING  (260  M U ) O F RNA  1800  SP  RNA  EXTRACTS  MEASURED  DESCRIBED  SOLUTIONS  MEASUREMENTS  WERE  CORRECTED  (1959).  CORRECTED  268.5  AND  PROTEIN  BY T H E M O D I F I E D  BY M I L L E R  WERE  260  AT  SPECTROPHOTOMETER.  A N D DNA  P E P T I D E S WERE  (1951)  L O W R Y _ET _ A L .  ABSORPTION  OPTICAL  FOR A B S O R B E N C Y  HYDROLYSIS  AS  METHOD  MU  FOLLOWS:  OF  DENSITIES D U E TO  PROTEIN  _3  BY  1x10  SUBSTRACTING  MILLILITER  J OPTICAL  OF S O L U T I O N  DENSITY  AS SUGGESTED  UNIT  PER MICROGRAM  BY MUNRO  PROTEIN PER  (1966).  AND F L E C K  LIKE-  _ 3  WISE, PER BY  A CORRECTION  MICROGRAM HOWARTH  PROTEIN  PROTEIN  KOH  HYDROLYSATE  SOLUTION  WAS  TO T H E M E T H O D  PROCEDURE  WAS F O U N D  STANDARD  BOVINE WERE  DENSITY SERUM  MUSCLE  ALBUMIN FROM  EXTRACTS  HOMOGENATES  CONTAINED ITS  WERE  DETERMINED RNA  METHOD  CURVES  !  THE 2 ,  ABSORBANCE  TO 50 THEN  PREPARED  RNA  AS  MU)  INDICATED  CALF  WAS M E A S U R E D  TOTAL  WERE  B Y SHI BKO  A T 232  WATER.  PROTEIN  ONE M L .  CONTENT  THE G R A V I M E T R I C  WITH  VALUES  DETERMINED  CONCENTRATIONS  THYMUS TISSUE  DNA,  YEAST  DNA,  RNA  AGAINST RNA A N D  AND P R O T E I N  CURVES.  AND 5  3'-RI B O N U C L E O T I D E  OF T H E  (1959).  AND P R O T E I N  THE STANDARD  ONE I'ML.  (1959).  IN AGREEMENT  RESPECTIVELY.  AND W E I G H E D .  DISTILLED  BY M I L L E R  USING  INDICATED  KOH.  TO D E T E R M I N E  OF M I L L E R  O F DNA,  1N  WITH  USED  VALUES  IN TRIALS 4 AS  (268.5  UNIT  T O DNA  WAS D R I E D  ML. WITH  DESCRIBED  TO G I V E  THE B I URET-PHENOL  OPTICAL  BY HEATING  WAS D I L U T E D  ACCORDING  BY  DENSITY  WAS A P P L I E D  FROM, T H E H O M O G E N A T E  WAS D I S S O L V E D  THE DILUTE  OPTICAL  (1971).  ISOLATED  THE  0.8X10  OF  PER M I L L I L I T E R  AND BALDWIN  PROTEIN  OF  FACTOR  PREPARED _ET _AL .  PRODUCTS A N D 260  MU  FROM  LIVER  (1967).  O F RNA  THE  HYDROLYSIS  I N A U-NICAN  SP  AND EXTRACT AND 1800  42  SPECTROPHOTOMETER. WAVELENGTH  RNA  CONCENTRATION  C-„. = 3.40A„ „  FORMULA  R A T L I V E R RNA B Y LIGHT ABSORBANCE SIMILAR  ONE  ML.  WATER. IN  TO  PROTEIN  MEASUREMENT  OF ONE  A  DIFFERENT  TISSUE  THE  KOH  ML.  PROTEIN ROOM  WITH  OF  ALKALINE  PLUNGER  THE  REAGENTS  ANALYZED, NEED  NOT  EACH BE  SAMPLES.  WERE  CONTENT  AT  WAS  WAS  HENCE  TEST  UNTIL  THEN  FOR  TO  COPPER  REAGENT  CONTAINING  TARTRATE WAS  WAS  ALLOWED  TO  FOLIN-PHENOL  ADDED  TO  THE  A  LARGE  THE  HEATED THEN OF  BECKMAN  CALCULATED  FROM  THE  NUMBER  CONTAINING AFTER  MIXTURE OF  THE  FOR  10  ALLOWED THE  1N  10:1  NA2CO2  10$  ONE  ML.  STAND  FOR  10  A  EXPERIMENTAL  (1956).  DATA  THE  WERE  HAND  TREATMENT  OF  SAMPLES  SOLUTION  HAVE  COOL  ARE  1:11  PLUNGER.  BEEN  TO  AND  ADDED  50°C  AT  BEING  ROOM  COMPLEX  SERUM  BOVINE  TO  ANALYSIS WERE  OF  CONSTANT  BY  FORMED  PROTEIN ALBUMIN  VARIANCE,  TESTED  ALL  TEMPERATURE.  THE  STANDARD  REAGENTS  IN A  TISSUE  DIFFERENCES  MINUTES  P R O T E I N ? S O L U T I O N WITH  PROTEIN-CU-PHENOL  BY  OF  (DILUTED  SPECTROPHOTOMETER.  ANALYZED  KOH.  DISTILLED  TO  USING  MINUTES  TO  WITH  REAGENT  PROTEIN  REAGENTS  ML.  ADDED  OF  AND  IN A  50  WITH  CURVE.  SNEDECOR  THE  1-3.  HEATING  DILUTED  MEASUREMENTS MU  BY  ML.  WERE  WATER-BATH  750  TWO-  REAGENT  WAS  MIXTURE  WHEN  TUBE  SAMPLES  ABSORPTION MADE  THE  IN TRIALS  FOLIN-PHENOL  PRELIMINARY MIXING  SHAKEN  THE  TEMPERATURE LIGHT  ALLOWS AND  DESCRIBED  0 0 0  USED  HYDROLYSED  SODIUM  THREE  WATER)  THE  WAS  HYDROLYSA'TE  TEMPERATURE.  THE  A  232MU  PROCEDURE  WITH  PROTEIN  SOLUTION.  DISTILLED  USING  F L E C K AND B E G G (1954). T H I S FORMULA CORRECTED FOR B Y AC I D - S O L U B L E P E P T I D E S I N T H E E X T R A C T S A N D G A V E  0.5N' NA0H:O.5$ CUS0^-1$  THE AT  260MU  RESULTS  ISOLATED  CALCULATED  - 1.44A  R  RNA  WAS  THE  MULTIPLE  RANGE  TRIAL 1.  TEST  DNA, RNA  ONE  HUNDRED  AND P R O T E I N CONCENTRATION  IN TISSUE.  AND E I G H T Y  ( O N E D A Y OF A G E ) WERE  RANDOMLY  DISTRIBUTED  PROVIDED  I N THIS  0.36$  LYSINE  0.25,  0.50,  WAS  WEEKLY  BODY  WEIGHT  Six  FROM  EACH  AND T H E I R  AND  MUSCLES  ANALYZED  THE  AND  WEIGHED  LAST  LYSINE  THE LIVERS  RNA A N D P R O T E I N  DNA, RNA  A SECOND EXCESS PROTEIN  LYSINE  OF E X C E S S  CONSTITUENTS ONE  BASAL  AND M U S C L E S  LYSINE  WERE  TOTAL  EACH  FEED  DIET  INTAKE AND  O N T H E 14TH  SACRIFICED  THE  REMOVED. BAGS  AT  LIVERS  -20°C  UNTIL  DIET,  AND THE BASAL  ON T H E D I E T S FROM  WERE  EACH  WEIGHED  FOR  28  DIETARY  ON  DAYS.  GROUP  AND STORED  0.25,  PLUS  WERE  UNTIL THE  DETERMINED.  LIVER  IN TISSUE.  EXAMINE THE HYPOTHESIS AND MUSCLE  OF A R G I N I N E  DNA,  THAT  RNA A N D  A L L E V I A T I N G THE  ON T H E A C C U M U L A T I O N O F T I S S U E  ON C H I C K  AND E I G H T  BY ADDING  RNA A N D P R O T E I N .  THE P O S S I B I L I T Y  AS I T DOES  HUNDRED  WERE  IN PLASTIC  S I X CHICKS  DEPRESS  DIETS  CONTAINING  DIET.  DAILY  MUSCLE  WAS R U N TO F U R T H E R  ACCUMULATION.  ILL-EFFECTS  CONTROL  AND P R O T E I N CONCENTRATION  TRIAL  WOULD  GROUP  CONTINUED  CONTENT  FORMULATED  FIVE  RECORDED.  DIETARY  T H E WHEAT  WERE  THE  EACH.  WHEAT-BASAL  OF C H I C K S .  AND STORED  DAY OF T H E T R I A L ,  TRIAL 2.  TO T H I S  WERE  F O R DNA,  CONSUMING  0.75$  CHICKS  DIETS  AND G A S T R O C N E M I U S  INDIVIDUALLY  SACRIFICED. DNA,  LIVERS  WERE  CHICKS  0.50  GROUPS  INDIVIDUAL  DAY  OTHER  L-LYSINE  REPLICATE  CHICKS  CHICKS  O F 12  GROUPS  AND FOUR  A N D 1.0$  F E D TO T H R E E  BROILER  C O N S I S T E D OF A CONTROL  1),  (TABLE  15  INTO  TRIAL  0.75  (1955).  OF DUNCAN  BODY.GROWTH  CHICKS  WAS A L S O E X A M I N E D .  ( o N E D A Y OF A G E ) WERE  RANDOMLY  TABLE 1  .--COMPOSiTiON  OF  WHEAT  BASAL  DIET  INGREOIENT  WHEAT  (16$  PERCENTAGE  PHOSPHATE  L1MESTONE 1  VITAMIN MINERAL  PREMIX PREMIX  PROTEIN  (CALCULATED  METABOL1ZABLE  DIET:  VALUE,  PREMIX E,  15. 2  $)  THE  FOLLOWING  A, 11000 I.U.;  18.2  2930  KCAL/KG.)  SUPPLIED  VITAMIN  VITAMIN  VALUE,  ENERGY  (CALCULATED  VITAMIN  I.U.;  VITAMIN  AMOUNT  0^,  VITAMIN K,  1.1  MG.;  35.2  MG.;  R I B O F L A V I N , 5.0  MG.;  PANTOTHENIC  24.2  MG.;  PYRIDOXINE  2.86  MG.;  2.6  G.;  FOLIC  DIET  95. 0 1. 0 2. 0 1. 0 0. 5 0. 5  PROTEIN)  VEGETABLE O I L TRICALCIUM  OF  BIOTIN,  ACID,  HC1,  90.0  550.0  MCG.;  VITAMIN  NIACIN, ACID,  CHOLINE B.^,  P E R K G . OF  825 I.C.U.;  CHLORIDE,  13.2  MCG.;  MCG.  I  MINERAL DIET: 7.7  2.75  PREMIX  SUPPLIED  MANGANESE,  MG.;  IRON,  86.0  34.0  MG.  THE MG.; AND  FOLLOWING ZINC,  49.0  SODIUM  AMOUNT MG.;  CHLORIDE  P E R KG. OF COPPER, (IODIZED),  G.  'HUBBELL,  C.  INGREDIENTS.  MINNEAPOLis.  H.,  1969.  ANALYSIS  FEEDSTUFFS,  MILLER  TABLE  FOR  FEED  PUBLISHING  CO.,  45  DISTRIBUTED  INTO  CHICKS  WERE  FED EACH  (TABLE  1 ) , AND  1.5$  AND Six  14.  BODY  BROILER  1.5$  UNTIL  L-LYSINE  INTAKE  WAS  THE  TISSUE  EACH.  DIETS:  TRIPLICATE  FEED  INTAKE  LOTS  THE WHEAT-BASAL  SUPPLEMENTED  WITH  WERE  T H E TWO  WAS  0.5,  OF  DIET  1.0  RESPECTIVELY  AND RECORDED  BASAL  WEIGHED  1.0$  AND  DAY  FROZEN  L-LYSINE  THE WHEAT  0.293$  DAYS.  S A C R I F I C E D ON  CONTENT.  PLUS  WHILE  WITH  14  REMOVED,  PROTEIN  L-ARGININE  SUPPLEMENTED  WERE  BASAL  L-ARGININE.  BODY  WEIGHT  DIET PLUS  THE  AND  FEED  WEEKLY. TREATMENT  F O R DNA,  AND  CONDUCTED  O F DNA,  TO S T U D Y  RNA  MUSCLES AND  THE  SYNTHESIS  DIETARY AND  WERE  S A C R I F I C E D AT  T H E END OF  WERE  WEIGHED  AND  IMPACT AND  IN TISSUE. OF  PROTEIN  DIETARY  ACCUMULATION  THE R E L A T I V E  PROTEIN  REMOVED,  PROTEIN.  CONCENTRATION  TRIALS,  PROTEIN  OF  RNA  PROTEIN  PREVIOUS  AND Q U A L I T Y  ACCUMULATION  AND  AND G A S T R O C N E M I U S  AND  WERE  T H E WHEAT  FOR ANOTHER  ANALYZED  RNA  14,  TREATMENT  MUSCLE  DNA, RNA  PER DIETARY  1  TRIAL  DIET  AND  0.013$  WAS  DNA,,, RNA  DNA,  QUANTITY  DIET  LlVER  UNTIL  IN  CHICKS  PER DIETARY  FOR  DAY  WITH  CHICKS  TRIAL 3.  THIS  FROM  RECORDED  TRIAL.  FROZEN  CHICKS  CONTINUED  WERE Six  WEIGHT  ANALYZED  SUPPLEMENTED  FEEDING  12  THE FOLLOWING  AND G A S T R O C N E M I U S  STARTING WAS  OF  OF  DAILY.  LIVERS  (-20°C)  GROUPS  THE WHEAT-BASAL  L-LYSINE.  WEEKLY  NINE  ON  EFFECTS  LYSINE WAS  AND  MEASURED.  OF T H E  THE S Y N T H E S I S  I N THE L I V E R  ON  AND  GASTROCNEMIUS  MUSCLE. SEVENTY-TWO WERE  RANDOMLY  BROILER  DIVIDED  INTO  CHICKS  ( O N E DAY OF A G E ) , HUBBARD  S I X GROUPS  OF  12  CHICKS  EACH.  STRAIN, THREE  GROUPS  WERE  FED THE WHEAT SOYBEAN  (15$  -  GROUPS  RECEIVED  PRESENTED  PROTEIN)  DIET  THE WHEAT-S0YBEAN-FISHMEAL  IN TABLE  2.  BOD Y W E I G H T  AND  AND  (20$  FEED  THE OTHER  PROTEIN)  INTAKE  WERE  THREE  DIET RECORDED  WEEKLY. SIX ON  D A Y 28  REMOVED,  CHICKS  THE  RESPECTIVELY. WEIGHED  THE  RESULTING  THE  WHEAT-BASAL  TRIAL  PER DIETARY  1.  AND  DATA  THE  LIVERS  FROZEN  WERE  DIET  TREATMENT  UNTIL  COMPARED  AND  WERE  AND G A S T R O C N E M I U S  ANALYZED WITH  IS VALID  F O R DNA,  THOSE  THE WHEAT-BASAL  COMPARISON  S A C R I F I C E D ON  SINCE  MUSCLES RNA  OBTAINED  PLUS BOTH  0.5$  DAY  AND  FROM  WERE  AND  WERE  PROTEIN,  FEEDING  L-LYSINE  TRIALS  14  DIET IN  RUN  SIMULTANEOUSLY.  TRIAL 4.  TURNOVER  THE  INFLUENCE  ACCUMULATION MUSCLES  WAS  AND  STUDIED  DIVIDED  INTO  (TABLE  1) WAS  0.5$  L-LYSINE  THREE  GROUPS  DAYS.  ON  THREE  1.0  UC I O F L - L Y S I N E - U - ^ C 0.9$  SALINE THREE  1,  2,  4  AND  CHICKS OF  12  THE THIRD  THE  OF  DIETARY  LYSINE  DETAIL  ONE G R O U P ;  AND  PROTEIN.  DEGRADATION  I N MORE  F E D TO  15  TISSUE  OF D I E T A R Y  BROILER  L-LYSINE  FOR  OF  PROTEIN  THIRTY-SIX  PLUS  RATE  WAS  THE RATE  I N THE L I V E R IN THIS  OF  PROTEIN  AND  TIBIA  CHICKS  EACH.  A SECOND GROUP  THE  GROUP  MIXED  RANDOMLY  WHEAT  RECEIVED  RECEIVED  BASAL  EACH  (342MC|/M  PLUS  CHICK  INTRAPERI TONEALLY  MONOH YD ROC H L O R I D E  DIET  WHEAT-BASAL  WHEAT-BASAL  D A Y OF GROWTH,  INJECTED  SYNTHESIS,  TRIAL.  ( O N E D A Y OF A G E ) WERE  THE SEVENTH  TREATMENTS  ON  MOLE)  0.875$ FROM  WITH I N 1.0  ML.  SOLUTION.  CHICKS  FROM  8 FOLLOWING  EACH  DIETARY  TREATMENT  THE A D M I N I S T R A T I O N  OF  WERE  S A C R I F I C E D ON  RADIOISOTOPE.  LIVERS  DAY  TABLE 2 . - - C O M P O S i T i O N  OF E X P E R I M E N T A L  DIETS  DIET INGREDIENTS  WHEAT  (13$  SOYBEAN FISH  PROTEIN)  MEAL  MEAL  (48.5$)  PHOSPHATE .  LI M E S T O N E VITAMIN  PREMIX^  MINERAL  PREMIX^  1  SUPPLIED  AND 2  4  $  fo  72.5 17.5 3.0 3.0 2.0 1 .0 0.5 0.5  85.5 9.0  (70$)  VEGETABLE O I L TRICALCIUM  3  I N THE SAME  1 .5 2.0 1 .0 0.5 0.5  AMOUNT  AS  IN TABLE  1.  48  AND  TIBIA  ANALYZED  MIXED  FOR  RNA,  MEASUREMENTS  OF  PROTEIN  HOMOGENATE  LEFT  WITH  WARM  PRECIPITATE HYDROXIDE EACH  WAS  OF  HYAMINE  ADDED,  RNA  IN  THE  DISSOLVED 10-X  10.0  QUENCHING,  EXTRACTION  AND  SOLUTION,  SPECTROMETER  AT  AND  ML.  SAMPLE  WAS  4°C. THE  1OG.  OF  M  _ET _ A L .  WAS  OF  WITH  TO  ONE  DISTILLED  DETERMINE  TRIAL 5. THE MUSCLE  WAS  WATER.  ONE  OF  ONE  30  WITH  THE  MINUTES  IN  THE KOH.  WAS  KOH OF  TWICE  AND  WERE  CLEAR.  (MlLLER,  1959).  TWICE  ONE  TO  THIS  OF ML.  LIQUID  TO  OF  CLEAR  WAS  SCINTILLATION  EVALUATE  EXPRESSED  G.  AS MEDIUM  OF  1, 4  AND  100  (WANNEMACHER,  WAS  PELLET  AN  ML.  TO  POPOP),  P-DIOXANE  DILUTE  1  SCINTILLATION  (DIMETHYL  THE  WITH  MEOIUM  (PPO), 0.250  HYDROLYSATE  THE  RESULTANT  ADDED  USED  MUSCLE  WASHED  THEN  ISOCAP/300  OR  1967).  TREATED  P-DIOXANE  OF  PROTEIN.  SCINTILLATION  STANDARDS  LITER  UNTIL  LIVER  _ET JA_L .  UNTIL  AN  BENZENE  ML.  DILUTED  SOLUTION  WAS  TO  G.  JR.  50  THEN  ML.  USED  RNA.  OF  TISSUE  INFLUENCE  OF  DIETARY  BROILER  TISSUE  1969).  SHAKEN  THE  THE  CONTENT  FROZEN  RADIOACTIVITY VALUES  SYNTHESIS  STUDIED.  FOR  2,5-DIPHENYLOXAZOLE  ML.  PROTEIN  WAS  P-DIOXANE  (DPM).  IN  I BKO  RNA  IN  IN  FROM  METHANOL)  COUNTED  CORRECTED  DISSOLVED  1965).  IN  AND  PROTEIN.  (SH  ASHIDA,  (1  BIS(4-METHYL-5-PHENYLOXAZOLYL)  NAPHTHALENE  55°C  HEATING  INTERNAL  OF  OF  BY  SAMPLE  DISINTEGRATIONS/MINUTE  CONSISTED  TISSUE  DETERMINATION  (YAMASHITA  THE  THE  IN  AT  AND  AND  RADIOACTIVITY  (3:1)  HYAM I N E  SOLUTION  AND  WEIGHED  QUANTITATIVELY SEPARATED  MIXTURE  ETHER  REMOVED,  RADIOACTIVITY  AFTER  ETHANOL-ETHER  WERE  PROTEIN  WAS  USED  BEHIND  MUSCLES  LYSINE  CHICKS  ON  (ONE  RNA  SYNTHESIS  DAY  OF  AGE)  IN  WERE  THE  LIVER  DIVIDED  AND  49  INTO  THREE  0.36$  GROUPS.  A  LYSINE).  L-LYSINE  DIETS  AND  WERE  THE  FED  THREE  ONE  GROUP  SECOND  THIRD  TO  WAS  GROUP  GROUP  FROM  WAS  EACH  THE  RECEIVED  EXPERIMENTAL  CHICKS  FED  FED  WHEAT-BASAL  THE  WHEAT-BASAL  WHEAT-BASAL  CHICKS  DIETARY  DIET  DURING  A  TREATMENT  0.5$  PLUS  0.875$  PLUS  PERIOD  WERE  (CONTAINING  OF  L-LYSINE.  EIGHT  EACH  DAYS.  INJECTED  14 INTRAPERI TONEALLY ML.  OF  CHICKS  0.9$  SALINE  WERE  SACRIFICED  ISOTOPE. FROZEN  LIVERS  UNTIL  THE  BY  OF  SAMPLE  10.0  1965)  ML.  MUSCLES  FOR  OF  WAS  OF  RNA  WERE  HYAMINE  SHAKEN  UNTIL  P-DIOXANE  R A D I O A C T I V I T Y WAS  THE  SCINTILLATION  6N  KOH,  FOR  THE  10.0  ML.  OF  ONE  TEST.  OF  RADIOAND  ANALYSIS  ACCORDING  TO  PRODUCTS  CONCENTRATION  OF  THE  SOLUTION  USED  TO  OF  DETERMINE  RNA  OF  AND  RADIO-  THE  THE  THE  RNA  CONCENTRATION  MEASUREMENTS.  1  ML.  WAS  TO  OF  WAS  ESTIMATED  THE  NAOH  THIS  MEDIUM  COUNTED  ESTIMATED  GLASS  IN  WEIGHED  RNA  CLEAR.  SAMPLE  MOLE )  GROWTH  REMOVED,  RESULTING  HOMOGENATE TO  THE  FOR  SCINTILLATION  RNA  WITH  AND  10-X  WERE  PREPARED  WERE  OF  I/M  ADMINISTRATION  RNA.  USED  TISSUE  THE  TISSUE  ABSORPTION  IN  DAY  MC  (60  RADIOACTIVITY.  ALIQUOTS  NAOH  IN  IN  (1967).  ADDED,  IN  AND  WERE  WAS  EXTRACT  LIZED  MIXED  ULTRAVIOLET  HYDROXIDE  THE  TIBIA  NAOH  RADIOACTIVITY  SEVENTH  AFTER  MUSCLE  PRODUCTS  THE  HOURS  DETERMINATIONS.  HYDROLYSIS RNA  AND  0.3N  IN  ON  C  URACIL-2-  24  S H I B K 0 _ E T _AL .  OF  ACTIVITY  AND  OF  RADIOACTIVITY  LIVER  HYDROLYSIS  OF  OF  UCI  1.0  SOLUTION  ANALYZED  MEASUREMENTS  METHOD  WITH  VIALS.  BY  AS  IN  RNA  ADDING  HYDROLYSATE  HYAMINE  (WANNEMACHER,  PUTTING  THE  P-DIOXANE  CLEAR  BY  TRIAL  1.0  SCINTILLATION  ML.  AND  SOLUTION,  JR.  ET  AL.  THE  RNA  4.  ML.  EXTRACTS  1  OF  WERE  MEDIUM  NEUTRA-  WAS  ADDED  AND THE SAMPLE  TRIAL  6.  METABOLIC  THE  INFLUENCE  WAS  COUNTED.  FATE  OF AMINO  OF DIETARY  LYSINE,  14 OXIDATION WAS  FROM  INVESTIGATED.  BASAL TWO  PLUS  THREONINE  C  L-LYSINE-U-  BROILER  CHICKS  TO R A D I O A C T I V E  L-L Y S I N E D I E T  FOR SEVEN  WERE  THEN  DIVIDED  RANDOMLY  CARBON  ( O N ED A Y O F A G E ) W E R E  0.5$  CHICKS  AND ARGININE  ON T H E  14 C  OF  ACIDS.  DAYS.  TWO  21  INTO  DIOXIDE  F E D T H E WHEAT  HUNDRED  AND  O F 12  GROUPS  FIFTY-  CHICKS  EACH . THREE  GROUPS  L-L Y S 1 N E  0.5$  (THREE  BASAL 0.5$  DIET  GROUPS  FOLLOWING  TABLE  A N D 0.16$  PLUS  CONSUMPTION  DURING  EACH  0.375$  DIETARY  THE LAST  PLUS  0.4$  AND  RECORDED  FIVE  TREATMENT  0.4$  GROUPS  WEEKS T H E  (2)  L-LYSINE;  PLUS  WHEAT-  (3) W H E A T - B A S A L (15$  WH E A T- S 0 Y B E A N L-LYSINE  AND  L-ARGININE.  (6)  BODY  PLUS  PROTEIN,  WHEAT-  WEIGHT AND  WEEKLY.  DAYS  WERE  FED FOR FIVE  0.875$  (4)  18  THE REMAINING  WERE  0.375$  PLUS  ON T H E W H E A T - B A S A L  L-ARGININE;  L~ T H R E O N I N E  L-LYSINE  WERE  WEEKS.  OF CHICKS  AND  2); (5) W H E A T - S O Y B E A N  SOYBEAN  FEED  L-LYSINE  CONTINUED  FIVE  (1) W H E A T - B A S A L  0.875$  L-LYSINE  WERE  FOR ANOTHER  PER TREATMENT)  DIETS:  PLUS  OF CHICKS  OF T H E GROWTH  USED  TO S T U D Y  STUDY,  LYSINE  THREE  CHICKS  OXIDATION.  FROM  EACH  14 CHICK  WAS  INJECTED  IN T R A P E R I T O N E A L L Y  (342MCI/M  M O N O H Y D R O C H L O R I DE  IMMEDIATELY  FOLLOWING  RESPIRATION  CHAMBER  GASES  20  WERE  ML. OF A  PULLED  1:7  INJECTION,  DURING  THROUGH  MIXTURE  MOLE)  A  IN  EACH  ONE HOUR  TWO C A R B O N  WITH  2.0  1.0  uCI  ML. OF  CHICK  WAS  COLLECTION  DIOXIDE  OF L-LYSINE-U-  0.9$  PLACED  SOLUTION.  IN A  PERIOD.  TRAPS,  OF ETHANOLAM INE-ETHYLENE  SALINE  EXPIRED  CONSISTING  GLYCOL  C  OF  MONOMETHYL  ETHER OF  (jEFFAY  ETHYLENE  CIPITATION  AND  GLYCOL OF  FLUID  THE SOLUTION  TRIAL  AND  METABOLIC  THE  INFLUENCE  BROILER  DIET  DIET  (TABLE  WAS WERE  GROUPS  L-LYSINE  OF  AND  TREATMENT  WERE  METABOLISM.  OF 0.9$  OF  OF  USED  IN EACH EACH  TO  TO  PREVENT  FOLLOWED  BY  10  ON  THE  ML.  GROUP  DAY  ONE  CHICKS  ML.  PRE-  OF PER  LITER  WAS  TWO  METABOLISM;  WERE  USED  TO  (342MC|/M  FROM  EACH  THE  EXAMINE  USED  TO  MOLE)  EXAMINE  0.5$  0.875$  PLUS  AND  INTO  WHEAT-BASAL PLUS  DIETARY  REMAINING  THREONINE  INTRAPERI TONEALLY  MONOHYDROCHLOR I DE  LYSINE  DIVIDED  FED THE  CHICKS  OF  COMMERCIAL  RANDOMLY  WHEAT-BASAL  LYSINE  INJECTED  FED A  FATE  THE WHEAT-BASAL  FEEDING,  I N THE GROUP  WERE  GROUP  RECEIVED  GROUP  WAS  OLD  RECEIVED  OF  THE METABOLIC  CHICKS  EACH.  DIETARY  SOLUTION  ADDED  LYSINE  EIGHTEEN  EXAMINE  CHICK  2  SOLUTION,  ACIDS.  TWO-WEEK  GROUP  THE SIXTH  TRAPPING  2,5-DIPHENYLOXAZOLE  G.  AMINO  STUDIED. USED.  5.0  OF  COUNTED.  DIETARY  ANOTHER  L-LYS I NE-U-^C SALINE  FATE  THE THIRD  ON  CHICKS  THEN  ML.  WERE  CARBONATE,  S I X CHICKS  1);  L-LYSINE.  FOUR  WAS  8  TO  ETHER  CONTAINING  7.  THREONINE  THREE  MONOMETHYL  ETHANOLAMINE  SCINTILLATION AND  1961).  ALVAREZ,  WITH  0.5  1.0  ML.  IN  LYSINE  UCI  OF  METABOLISM;  14 AND  0.9$  WITH  1.0 UC  SALINE  METABOLISM.  RESPECTIVE  TWO  FROZEN  OF  I N THE GROUP  FOLLOWING  HOURS  THE  UNTIL  C (208MCI/M  L-THRE ON I N E - U -  SOLUTION  DIETS  SACRIFICED.  AND  I  THE  INJECTION,  FOR ANOTHER  AFTER  THE  LIVERS  TWO  TIBIA  FOR  TO  EXAMINE  CHICKS  WERE  IN  2.0  ML. OF  THREONINE  RETURNED  TO T H E  HOURS.  INJECTION  AND  ANALYZED  USED  MOLE)  OF  RADIOISOTOPE,  MIXED  PROTEIN  MUSCLES  WERE  THE CHICKS  REMOVED,  AND R A D I O A C T I V I T Y .  WERE  WEIGHED  MEASUREMENTS  OF  RADIOACTIVITY  MEASUREMENTS  AND  OF  PROTEIN  IN  YAMASHITA  HOMOGENIZED  THE  AND  IN  A  TRICHLOROACETIC AND  PROTEIN.  WAS  DETERMINED  COUNTING 10  ML.  THE  PRECIPITABLE  WASHED  WARM  KOH.  OF  EACH  CLEAR  MEDIUM  AGAIN.  THEN  THE  ML.  IN  MIXED  METABOLIC  INFLUENCE  THREONINE  AND  THIRTY  OF  WAS  CHICKS  11  0.3  ML.  THE  9  OF  AT  90°C  WAS  30  FOR  EACH.  OF  A  _ET _ A L .  FATE  OF  OF  STUDIED  (ONE  DAY  THREE  0.3  ML.  TWICE  AND  OF  FINALLY  WAS  HYAMINE  VIAL.  WITH  THIS  SOLUTION  1965)  AND  COUNTED.  AMINO  AND  TOLUENE).  WASHED  SAME  SOLUTION,  ETHANOL-ETHER  BY  TWICE  WITH  HEATING  ADDED  WAS  TO  WITH  1  SHAKEN  ML.  UNTIL  SCINTILLATION  ACIDS.  LYSINE  FURTHER  P-DIOXANE  A  0.1G.  WAS  WASHED  WAS  IN  1 OX  AND  THE  AN  DISSOLVED  10-X  FRACTION  ML.  IN  MINUTES  OF  PENS  1000  15  FOR  FRACTION  HYAMINE (PPO)  WAS  5.6$  FRACTION  TISSUES  ML.  OF  IN  PROCEDURE  MUSCLE  ICE-COLD  SUPERNATANT  OF  OR  ACID-SOLUBLE  10.0  DIETARY  LIVER  OF  FRACTION  MODIFIED  TCA-EXTRACTED  MINUTES,  COUNTING  A  ACID-SOLUBLE  (POPOP)  PRECIPITATE  A  THE  THE  TREATED  HYDROXIDE  WITH  THE  2,5-DIPHENYLOXAZOLE  THE  IT  OF  THE  IN  PROTEIN  WITH  VOLUMES  ADDITION  OF  RESULTANT  1  THEN  AND  GROUPS  55°C  AT  (WANNEMACHER  THE  USING  FRACTIONATE  (4G.  FRACTION  SOLUTION  TRIAL 8.  BY  HEATED  THEN  AND  DRYING  MADE  PORTION  RADIOACTIVITY  5$ TCA,  ETHER.  1N  TOTAL  TO  ACID-SOLUBLE  WERE  PHENYLOXAZOLYL))-BENZENE  (3:1)  MIXTURE  (TCA)  SOLUTION  BLS(2-(5  AND  BLENDER  FOLLOWED  PHOSPHOR  WITH  WARING  A  PROTEINS.  IN  MUSCLE  (1969).  AFTER  VIAL,  AND  ASHIDA  ill H E  TISSUE  RADIOACTIVITY  LIVER  ACID  1,4  TWICE  OF  IN  IN  AGE)  WERE  UPON  A  WERE  FED  THE  GREATER  METABOLISM  DETAIL.  LYSINE  THREE  RANDOMLY  DIVIDED  FOR  WEEKS  FOUR  OF  INTO  EACH  OF  HUNDRED  30  THE  FOLLOWING  0.084$  PLUS (4)  (1)  DIETS:  0.084$  AND  0.5$  PLUS  AND  0.168$  (8)  WHEAT-BASAL  0.875$  WHEAT-BASAL  PLUS  0.875$  WHEAT-BASAL  PLUS  0.5$  DURING FROM  EACH  THREE  THE LAST 1  OF DIETS  CHICKS  THREONINE  FROM  L-LYSINE  BODY  TO 9  EACH  METABOLISM.  DAYS  WERE  USED 1  OF DIETS EACH  CHICK  0.5$  (9)  L-THREONINE;  L-THREONINE  AND  INTAKE  TO E X A M I N E  L-LYSINE  L-LYSINE;  L-THREONINE  OF T H E GROWTH  0.5$  PLUS  0.875$  AND FEED  WHEAT-BASAL  L-THREONINE;  PLUS  0.084$  0.168$  AND  WEIGHT  SEVEN  AND  0.168$  L-LYSINE,  WEEKLY  WHEAT-BASAL  PLUS  (2)  0.168$  (6) W H E A T - B A S A L  L-LYSINE  1);  (TABLE  PLUS  (7) W H E A T - B A S A L  L-THREONINE;  DL-METHI ONI NE.  (5)  L-LYSINE;  [.-THREONINE;  PLUS  DIET  (3) W H E A T - B A S A L  L-THREONINE;  WHEAT-BASAL  L-LYSINE  THE WHEAT-BASAL  AND  (10)  0.15$  WERE  RECORDED.  STUDY,  THREE  LYSINE  METABOLISM.  TO 9  WERE  USED  TO E X A M I N E  ALSO  USED  TO  CHICKS  EXAMINE  LYSINE  METABOLISM  14 WAS  INJECTED  INTRAPERI TONEALLY (342  MONOHYDROCHLORIDE  CHICKS  USED  TO E X A M I N E  PE RI T O N E A L L Y 0.5  CHICK  PULLED  THE  THE  WAS  THROUGH  CHICK  REMOVED,  1.0  PLACED  AND  IN A  WERE  DIOXIDE  WERE  LIVER  INJECTED  OUT FOLLOWING  HOURS,  AND T I B I A  PROTEIN  AND  THE METHOD  MOLE)  IN  INJECTION,  GASES  AFTER  MUSCLES  OF  SOLUTION.  INTRA-  MCI/M  EXPIRED  F O R TWO  THE MEASUREMENTS  AND MUSCLE  SALINE  FOLLOWING  CHAMBER.  TRAPS  AND THE L I V E R  AND FROZEN.  CARRIED  M L . O F 0.9$  IMMEDIATELY  RESPIRATION  C  OF L-LYSINE-U-  OF L-THREON INE-U-^(208  TWO C A R B O N  WEIGHED  uCI  METABOLISM  SOLUTION.  WAS S A C R I F I C E D  1.0  I N 0.5  MOLE)  THREONINE uCI  SALINE  R E S P I R A T O R Y CC^,  FRACTION  6  WITH  M L . O F 0.9$  EACH  MC|/M  WITH  WERE  WHICH  WERE  RADIOACTIVITY  I N  ACID-SOLUBLE  DESCRIBED  IN TRIALS  7. ANALYSIS  OF VARIANCE  OF DATA  COLLECTED  IN THE PRESENT  TRIAL  I S  ILLUSTRATED PROTEIN DNA,  THE  THE  APPENDIX  CONCENTRATIONS  YEAST  STANDARD  IN  RNA  GRAPHS  RADIOACTIVE  AND  AGAINST  BOVINE  USED  TO  TABLES.  SERUM  CORRECT  EXPERIMENTS  ARE  STANDARD  OPTICAL  DENSITY  ALBUMIN FOR ALSO  LOSS  ARE OF  CURVES USING  PRESENTED COUNTING  PRESENTED  IN  THE  OF  DNA,  CALF IN  RNA  AND  THYMUS THE  APPENDIX.  EFFICIENCY APPENDIX.  IN  RESULTS AND DISCUSSION  TRIAL ITHE  WEIGHT ARE  OF  .THE  DNA,  OF  IN  TABLE  RNA,  AND  GASTROCNEMIUS DIETARY  LYSINE  (WHEAT-BASAL <  0.05)  MUSCLE  AND  TO  (1.36$) WEIGHT THE TO  MUSCLE THE  PROTEIN  ON  DNA,  FROM  EFFECT  RNA,  CHICKS  OF  PROTEIN  AT  DIETARY  COMPOSITION  THE  WEIGHT  TO  DIET. LIVER AND  WEIGHT  BY  SIGNIFICANT  WITH  ARE  OF  BOTH BUT  RESULTED  BY  1.11$.  HOWEVER,  A  MUSCLE  WEIGHT  DIETARY DIET.  AS  A  TWO  CONTENT  WEEKS  TREATMENT  ILLUSTRATED  WITH  WAS  WEIGHT  0.86  AND  PERCENTAGE  IMPROVEMENT  DIETARY OCCURRED  RESPONDED  DIETARY  LYSINE  CAUSED  ORGANS  OF  A  OVER  OF ON  AND  AGE LIVER  IN  TABLES  INCREASING HIGHER  AT  1.36$  1.11$ BODY  LYSINE  THOSE  OF  IN  0.36  AT  LEVELS  OF  IN GASTROCNEMIUS  MUSCLE  AND  TO  DIETARY  FROM  MUSCLE  OBTAINED WAS  WITH  COMPARABLE LLVER  IMPROVED  0.61$. LYSINE  MARKEDLY  NO BEYOND  0.61$. THE  INCREASE  55  LIVER  BOTH  LYSINE  LYSINE.  ALSO  IN  LYSINE  DIETARY  LYSINE  WEIGHT  THE  INCREASE  THAT  DIETARY  FROM  0.36$  (P < 0.05). TO  TO  SIGNIFICANT  DIETARY  LEVEL  SIMILAR  MARKEDLY  FROM  N0N-SIGNIFICANT  SIGNIFICANTLY  LYSINE  LLVER  INCREASING  WEIGHTS  L-LYSINE  PROGRESSIVE  OBSERVED  EXPRESSED  (P < 0 . 0 1 )  0.61$  WEIGHTS  1.36$  LYSINE  LIVER  INCREASING  IN WEIGHT A  DEPRESSED WITH  AND  TREATMENT.  DIET)  0.86  0.36$  MUSCLE  INCREASE  WHEAT-BASAL  0.61  3.  LYSINE  5.  AND  (P  DIETARY  GASTROCNEMIUS  PRESENTED  WEIGHT,  4  EFFECTS  WEIGHTS  WITH  TABLE  3.—GASTROCNEMIUS  MUSCLE  WEIGHT,  DNA, RNA  DIETARY  LYSiNE  TREATMENT  SUPP .  MUSCLE^  *VALUES  FOLLOWED  BY A  MG .  681 1162.4 1271 1373.0 632  0.36 0.61 0.86 1.11 1 .36  0.25 0.50 0.75 1 .00  DIFFERENT  F O R TWO  CONTENT  0.52 0.5o' 0.54' 0.55' 0.55'  SUPERSCRIPT  FROM  CHICKS  F E D GRADED  LEVELS  ,RNA MG .  MG.  0.36. B 0.58 E 0.68E 0.74 0.34'  1 1 1 1 1  PROTEIN MG ,  .38 .57' .79' .67' .68'  ARE S I G N I F I C A N T L Y D I F F E R E N T  MG  0.94 E 1 .82 B 2.30 E 2.30 1 .06*  (P  7^  103.7 129.3' 143.9' 1 34.0' 133.6'  <0.05).  1 DATA R E P R E S E N T SAMPLED.  THE TOTAL  DATA  MG./G.  REPRESENT  WET  OBTAINED  TISSUE,  FROM  THE RIGHT  AND L E F T  OF  WEEKS*  ,DNA  WT.  MG .  LEVEL  AND PROTEIN  LYSINE  WET G A S T R O C N E M I U S  MUSCLE  PER CHICK  MG.  70.32. B 148.50 E 180.41E 185.12 84.00'  TABLE 4 . - - L I V E R  LYS1NE  WEIGHT  TREATMENT  SUPP .  AND  0.36 0.61 0.86 1.11 1 .36  *VALUES **VALUES  CONTENT  LIVER  [%) G*  LEVEL  0.25 0.50 0.75 1 .00  DNA  FOLLOWED  BY A  FOLLOWED  BY A  1.4 3.3 4.1° 4.2 2.5  B C  C  B  DIFFERENT  REPRESENT  MG./G.  WET  SUPERSCRIPT SUPERSCRIPT  TISSUE.  FED GRADED  LEVELS  OF DIETARY  LIVER BODY  2.2 3.3 3.5 3.4 3.4  A  DIFFERENT  CHICKS  WT. ^  G./100G.  1 DATA  FROM  A B B B B  WT.**  MG,/G.'  MG./LIVER  1 .9 2.3 2.6 2.8° 2.9  2.7 7.6 10.7 11 . 6 7.2  ARE S I G N I F I C A N T L Y ARE S I G N I F I C A N T L Y  A  B  LYSINE  MG./100G.  A  DIFFERENT DIFFERENT  BODY  4.2 7.4 9.2° 9.3° 9.9 A  B  C  C  B  C  WEEKS  DNA*  B  B C  F O R TWO  (P < 0 . 0 5 ) . (P «=0.01).  C  WT.  TABLE 5 . - - L I V E R RNA  AND  PROTEIN  CONTENT  FROM  CHICKS  FED  GRADED  LEVELS  OF  DIETARY  RNA* LYSINE  TREATMENT  SUPP.  0.36 0.61 0.86 1.11 1 .36  *VALUES  **V/ALUES  FOLLOWED  BY  FOLLOWED  REPRESENT  BY  MG./LIVER  MG ./G .  7 5  A  '  A  10.8* 26.3 39.0 32.4 18.4* C  A  A  DIFFERENT  A  MG./G.  SUPERSCRIPT  D I F FE RE N T S U P E R S C R 1 P T  WET  TISSUE  WT.  B  C  B  BODY  16.5* 25.5 33.6 26.2 24.9  8  7.9* 9.5 7.7 7.3*  FOR  TWO  WEEKS  PROTEIN* MG./100G.  / 1  LEVEL  0.25 0.50 0.75 1.00  ^DATA  {%)  LYSINE  B  8  B  ARE  ARE  MG./100G.  / 1  MG./L1VER  MG./G.  210.0* 496.1 677.9 659.8 393.4  146.2* 148.9* 166.1* 158.7* 156.4*  S IG N I F 1 C A N T L Y D 1 F F E R E N T  S1GN1 F 1 CANTLY DIFFERENT  8  C  C  B  (P < 0.05). (P  < 0.01).  BODY  WT.**  321.2* 485.9 587.2 536.0 533.3 B  B  B  B  LYSINE WHEAT  SUPPLEMENTATION PROTEIN  WHEN  WEIGHT  REFLECTED  (TABLE  6).  THE  THE  CHICK  WEIGHT DIETARY GROWTH WAS  (HARPER  1970;  FEED THE  FEED  THE  ILIHE  BY  IN  DEMONSTRATES  WHEREAS  THE  DELAYED  INDICATES  SECOND  LIMITING  TO  CHICKS  THE  GAIN/FEED  MENTARY  AS  A  BY  S I X  MARCH  LYSINE  RATIO  LYSINE  UNIT  AN  OF  IN  TO  DAYS  INTAKE  ACID.  PER  THAT  1 964).  AN  (0.36$)  DIET  IN  AND  EXCESS  OF CHICK  (1.36$)  TOXICITY 6)  SMITH,  AS  OF  BODY  DEPRESSED  (TABLE  1965;  MUSCLE  UNDERNUTRITION  INCREASE  6).  QUALITY  LYSINE  THE  WHEAT-BASAL  RECEIVING  IN  EIGHT  FED  PREVIOUSLY  1968;  FOLLOWED  NORMAL  WITH  MARCH  FEED  ON  INTAKE  MECHANISM  A  FED  OF  HOURS  FEEDING  AND  LYSINE  THE  THROUGH-  CONSUMED  DECLINE  IN  FED  (0.86$).  LYSINE  DIET  SYSTEM  EXCESS  PROBABLY  CONSUMPTION  MORE  FEED  DEFICIENT  CHICKS  A  LOW  METABOLIC  AUGMENTED  FEED  OF  BY  THE  WAS  LYSINE  DIETARY  CHICKS  IMPACT  DIET  EXCESS  HOWEVER,  BY  WAS  A  OBSERVED  DEFICIENT  TO  DIET  (1970).  WALKER  FOR  0.86$  WHEAT-BASAL).  WEIGHT  0.36$  THE  INTAKE  CHICKS  IMMEDIATE  WITH  CHICKS.  (TABLE  1955,  THE  EIGHT  REQUIREMENT  WAS  TO  PROTEIN  RETARDED  FEED  FED  INHIBITING  AND  OF  REPORT  DEFICIENCY  RESPONSE  TO  POOR  1971).  FEED  AMINO  WITHIN  TO  AN  OF  FED  THE  GROWTH  WHEREAS  CHICKS  DECREASE  LYSINE  CHICK  CHICKS  S I X  TO  WITH  GROSSLY  LYSINE  1)  FIRST  CHICKS  LIMITATION  ( M O N T G O M E R Y _ET _ A L .  _ET _ A L .  (0.36$)  DECREASE  AGE  THE  SOURCE  CO-WORKERS,  (FlG.  COMPARED  RAPID  AND  INTAKE  OF  DECREASE  BRAGG  STUDY  FOR  INTAKE  FROM A  SOLE  AGREES  DEPRESSED  TO  A  GROWTH  WEIGHT  RESULTING  WALKER,  AS  EARLY  MUSCLE  ATTRIBUTED  OUT  POOR  AN  LYSINE  REPORTED  FED  RESULT  FROM  AND  DEMONSTRATED  ANIMAL  OPTIMUM  IN  THE  15$  CHICK  PROTEIN  EXPRESSION  PER  DAY  IS  WEIGHT  OF  MORE  GAIN  DIET  AMINO  (0.5$  ACID  PRECISE  AND  SUPPLE-  REQUIREMENTS  THAN  AS  A  TABLE 6 . - - B O D Y  WEIGHT  GAIN  AND  FEED  INTAKE  OF  CHICKS  FED GRADED  LEVELS  OF  DIETARY  LYSINE  AGE 2 LYSINE  {%)  TREATMENT  SUPP.  **VALUES  GAIN/CHICK  LEVEL  G*  26 67 97 81 54  0.36 0.61 0.86 1.11 1 .36  0.25 0.50 0.75 1 .00  *VALUES  WT.  FOLLOWED  FOLLOWED  BY A  BY A  WEEKS  DIFFERENT  DIFFERENT  E C C E  SUPERSCRIPT  SUPERSCRIPT  FEED  4 INTAKE/CHICK  WT.  G A I N / C H I C K F E E D  G*  92 BC 174 211' CD 191 156  WEEKS  G**  56' 216 276 210  217 B 583 704 547  E  C  E  E  ARE S I G N I F I C A N T L Y  ARE S I G N I F I C A N T L Y  INTAKE/CHICK  G**  DIFFERENT  DIFFERENT  (P "=0.05). (P <=0.01).  C E  61  AGE FIG.  1  FEED  INTAKE  LYSINE  FOR  PATTERN TWO  OP  WEEKS.  (DAY)  CHICKS  FED  GRADED  LEVELS  OF  DIETARY  PERCENTAGE  CHANGES  THE  TO  OF  OBSERVED  ACCEPTED  EXPRESS  FOR  ( F I G . 2).  THE  RAT  IS  DIETARY  IN  METHOD  DAY  AS  LYSINE  CONTENT  (MG./G.  WET  0.36  FROM  MUSCLE  CONSTITUENTS  PROTEIN  AND  THE  NUCLEIC  CHICK  IN  OF  TERM  GROWTH  A  TO  AND  FEED  CONFIRM  DIETARY  AND  0.86$  OF  DNA,  RNA  AND  TISSUE  DID  AN  0.61  0.86$.  AND  RESULTED  A  PATTERN  (P < 0 . 0 5 )  WITH  MODERATE  AND  DIRECTLY  ALMOST  PROTEIN  BY  HIGH  LEVEL  AS  IDENTICAL  CONTENTS  EXPRESSING  OF  DNA,  IN MUSCLE  IN  WEIGHT,  BODY  PROTEIN  AS  DIETARY  THE  WEIGHT  LEVELS  GASTROCNEMIUS  AND  PROTEIN  DNA, RNA  ORGAN  (1.36$).  1971).  3)  INCREASING  LYSINE.  INITIAL  AJ_.  AND  THE  LYSINE  A  WITH  RNA  PATTERN  ADEQUATE  LYSINE  (TABLE  MUSCLE  THE  RNA  BY  IN  WITH  ( B R A G G _ET  TOTAL  IN  A  CHICK  PER  AND  OF  GROWTH  SIGNIFICANTLY  DIETARY  ESSENTIAL  MG/CHICK/  AND  CONTENT  DECLINING  EXPRESSED  129.3  16$  THE  IT  AND  LYSINE  MAXIMAL  EVIDENT  0.86$  BEYOND  WHEN  WAS  SAME  WITH  CHANGE  TREND  WAS  LYSINE  (AGE)  MAKE  THE  OF  IN  PROTEIN  INCREASING  HOWEVER,  THAT  HOWEVER,  GROWTH  GROUPS  LEVEL AND  NOT  OF  EFFICIENCY  PROTEIN  MERTZ,  POINT.  CONTENT.  REPORTS  TISSUE),  WERE  RESULT  1958)  AND  PROTEIN  WET  DIETARY  THE  STUDY  INCREASING  OF  DIETARY  SINCE  CHICKS  WEIGHTS,  MUSCLE  TOTAL  THE  WERE  PER  MUSCLE.  ABSOLUTE  LYSINE  IN  LARGE  OF  DECLINING  ACIDS  COMPARED  IN  WITH  ESSENTIALLY  IN  CHICKS  CONCENTRATION  SIGNIFICANTLY  USED  FEEDING  CONTENT.  LYSINE  LYSINE  A  MUSCLE  MG./G.  DIETARY  FOLLOWED  AS  RESULTS  15$  OF  PHYSIOLOGICAL VIEW  INTAKE  (BRESSANI  GASTROCNEMIUS  AND  OF  THE  FEED  OPTIMUM  OBTAINED  LEVEL  EXPRESSED  FROM  DAILY  THESE  0.84$  OF  DIET  REQUIREMENT  REQUIREMENT  LEVEL  THE  BODY  LEVELS  WEIGHT  MUSCLE  DNA,  REFLECTED  (TABLES  RNA  AND  MUSCLE  3  AND  PROTEIN  GROWTH  6).  |T  IN  WAS  CONTENT  AT  PROPORTION  RECENTLY  TO  DIFFERENT  THE  REPORTED  DIETARY  INCREASE  FIG.  2.  AVERAGE GRADED  DAILY LEVELS  GAINS OF  AND  LYSINE  FEED FOR  E F F I C I E N C I E S TWO  WEEKS.  OF  CHICKS  FED  (HOWARTH,  CONTENT  THAT  INCREASED  MEASURED  IMPACT  1972)  WITH  DIETARY  BY  INCREASING  FOLLOWED  BY  A  DECLINE  (1964)  OBTAINED  GLUTEN  WITH  GLUTEN  WAS  LYSINE  IN MUSCLE  LEVEL  DIETARY  IN  PROPORTION  THAT  THERE  SIZE  AT  HIGHLY  IS A  SIGNIFICANT  AND  THE  HIND  (LACHANCE  AND  PROTEIN/DNA DEMONSTRATES  THAT  OF  RNA  LIMB  A  IS THE  HYPERPLASIA  LIVER  BODY  WEIGHT  (TABLE  4).  IN CHICKENS  WEIGHT  DNA  AND  THAT  OF  BIOCHEMICAL  1938),  AND  THE  AND  WHOLE  THE  OF  CARCASS  COUNTERPART  OF  THE  SIZE  CELLS  SIZE  REPORTS  AND  BODY  THERE  AND  ARE  CELL  CATTLE  NITROGEN  CONTENT  RAT  INCREASE  LEVEL  CELL  MUSCLE  IN THE  INCREASING  MUSCLE  MEAN  WHEAT  NEAR  THE  THAT  SHEEP  BETWEEN  CURVELINEAR  WITH  STATE  SWINE,  THE  INCREASING  WITH  (MEHNER,  BETWEEN  TO  IN MUSCLE  FIBRE  ET A L .  WHEAT  CURVELI  MUSCLE  RABBIT,  BANKS  WITH  AGREES  THE  IN  OF  DIETARY  SINCE  HYPERTROPHY  MUSCLE  IT  AND  IS  LYSINE  BELIEVED  DNA  THAT  1961).  CONTENT  VALUES  ALSO  SIZE,  0.86$,  AND  ADDED  BETWEEN  1956),  RATIOS  HYPERTROPHIC  (ALHO,  THE  RATIOS  INCREASE  CORRELATIONS  1973).  RNA/DNA  INCREASED  THE  OF  JOUBERT,  MILLER,  AND  WEIGHT  ASSOCIATION  POSITIVE  1940-41;  (MCMEEKAN, OF  BODY  I N BODY  CELL  SUPPLEMENTING  THE  PROTEIN  RATIOS  LYSINE.  GROWTH.  AN  THE  0.61  TO  LYSINE  RNA/DNA  AND  AND  REFLECTED  6).  OF  BY  RNA  MUSCLE  3)  0.36  FREE  DEMONSTRATING  CHANGES  AGES  RATS  MUSCLE  RAT.  (TABLE  INCREMENT  THAT  DNA,  (FlG.  FROM  WITH  INCREASE  IN THE  GROWTH  FURTHER  PROTEIN/DNA  CLOSE  VARIOUS  DHAMETER  TO  WEIGHT,  RATIOS  LYSINE  SUGGESTED  LYSINE  TO  CHICK  RESULTS  AND  UTILIZED  PROTEIN  DIETARY  SIMILAR  INCREASE  OF  ON  WITH  MUSCLE  RNA/DNA  AND  LYSINE  IMPROVED  WEIGHT,  DIETARY  PROTEIN/DNA  BY  OF  BODY  EXPRESSED  AS  PROGRESSIVELY  OBTAINED  WITH  MG./G.  WITH  0.86,  WET  DIETARY  1.11  TISSUE  OR  LYSINE  AND  1.36$  MG./100G.  CONTENT  DIETARY  65  250  225 O or  z Q < Z  FIG.  3.  GASTROCNEMIUS CHICKS  FED  MUSCLE  GRADED  PROTEIN/DNA  LEVELS  OF  AND  DIETARY  RNA/DNA LYSINE  RATIOS  FOR  TWO  IN WEEKS.  LYSINE,  WHEN  HOWEVER,  EXPRESSED  WEIGHT  WITH  CAMPBELL IN  IN  INCREASED  INDICATES,  AN  P E R GRAM  CELL  OF DATA  OF WET T I S S U E ,  DEVELOP  FROM  OCTAPLOID  STATE  BY REPLICATION  1967).  HOWEVER,  HAS NOT BEEN  (1971)  OBSERVED  THAT  SLIGHTLY  WET  HIGHER  TISSUE  I N DNA  AND LOWER  LIVER  RNA  I N A SIMILAR  LYSINE  INCREASED  HIGHER  LEVELS  CONCENTRATION  OBTAINED  TOTAL  FROM  RNA  DIET  THAN  HIGHER  LEVELS  REPORTED.  DNA  0.36$ A  OF LYSINE.  OF  TO  0.61  OF CHICKS  OF DIETARY  F E D 0.86  TOTAL  A N D 1.11$  LIVER  LYSINE  AS  RNA  A L .  AS  MG./G.  TO  DIETARY  DIETARY  WITH  HIGHER  MG./lOOG.  RECEIVING  ET  LIVERS  AND DECLINING  (P -=0.05)  AND  FOWL'S  WEIGHT.  F E D F O R TWO W E E K S  OF CHICKS  LYSINE.  HAD  OR  OFTHE  MURAMATSU  RESPONDED  0.86$  THE LIVER  I N .THE  WAS E X P R E S S E D  5)  DIETARY  OFTHE THAT  PROGRESSIVELY  (MG./G. W E T T I S S U E  WITH  CELLS  ABSOLUTE  SIGNIFICANTLY  INCREASED  DIVISION  OF LYSINE  (TABLE  AND  THE  TO T H E T E T R A P L O I D  MOREOVER,  INCREASING  CONTENT  I N THE ORGAN.  I N TERMS  OF SUCH  PER LIVER  DNA  WEIGHT)  WITHOUT  LEVELS  CONTENT  IN THE LIVERS  IN CHICKS  O F T H E DNA  THE PARAMETER  MANNER;  IN THE LIVER  LYSINE  HOWEVER,  WHEN  THAT  (GROWTH)  STAGE  I N ORGAN  IN THE MUSCLE.  IT IS RECOGNIZED  THE DIPLOID  FED HIGH  AND PROTEIN  LYSINE  WAS  RATS  BODY  DNA,  THE O C C U R R E N C E  LIVER,  AS  INCREASED.  NUMBER  FOR LIVER  WHICH  (EPSTEIN,  WEIGHT  CONCENTRATION  CHANGES  DEMONSTRATED  O R MG./1OOG.  CELLS  NUCLEUS  HAVE  DNA  REFLECTED  IN THE DIET  A S T H E BODY  INCREASED  THE INTERPRETATION  WEIGHT  (1950)  (MG./G. W E T T I S S U E  COMPOSITION HAS  LIVER  SIGNIFICANTLY.  OF LYSINE  AND KOSTERLITZ  DNA  LYSINE  PER TOTAL  T H E AMOUNT  RAT LIVER  LIVER  D I D NOT D I F F E R  BODY  THE  EITHER  WEIGHT)  0.86$ LOWER  ( M G . / L I V E R), ,  D I D NOT  DIFFER  OR  SIGNIFICANTLY  RNA  (MG./G.  THE  LIVER  BUT  WET  OF  IN  THE  OF  DIETARY  OF  NEAR BY  PATTERN  THAT  EXPRESSING  INCREASED  FROM  PARAMETER  OCCURRED  ARE  RESULTS  PROTEIN WITH  ON  TO  WAS  HOWEVER,  APPEAR  (0.36$)  TO  CONCENTRATION  WEIGHT)  0.86$  THE  LOWER  WAS  OBTAINED  LYSINE OR  DIET  HIGHER  OF  IN  THAN  LEVELS  MG./G.  BEYOND IN  PROTEIN  FED  HIGHER  BUT  LIVER  PROTEIN  ON  BODY LIVER  DID  LIVER BY  0.86  NOT  OF  RELATIVE  OF  PRESENT  WEIGHT  4)  BODY  4)  WHICH  CHICKS  TO  BODY  LIVER  WEIGHT  IN  WAS  THE  0.36,  0.61  SIGNIFICANTLY.  AND  MG./LIVER)  INDICATE  LYSINE  THE  LIVER  OTHER  INCREASED  FED  AND  AND  DIETARY  WAS  RECEIVING EACH  A  LYSINE  IN  LYSINE  FROM  (TABLE  SIZE  DIETARY  ABSOLUTE  CHICKS  IN  WEIGHT,  INCREASE  1.11$  (MG./100G.  ^TABLE  CHANGE  IN  BODY  WHEN  LYSINE. AND  INCREASED INCREASING  MG./LOOG.  DIFFER  WEIGHT  WEIGHT  WITH  SIGNIFICANT  THAN  LIVER  SIZE  AS  DIETARY  CHICKS  TISSUE  (P < 0 . 0 1 )  NO  0.61$  DIETS  WET  THAT  LIVER  PROPORTIONATELY  SUPPLEMENTED  PROTEIN THE  (TABLE  LYSINE  WHEAT 5)  DID  DEFICIENT  GROUP.  RESULTS  THE  VANDERMEERS-P I RET  _ET _AL .  AND  LOWER  THREONINE  CONTROL  BODY  SIGNIFICANT  0.61$.  TO  DATA  IN  AS NOT  LIVER  INFLUENCED  INCREASES  DIETS. NOT  0.36  LYSINE  SIMILAR  WAS  (P -=0.05)  SIGNIFICANTLY  THESE  HIGHER  EITHER  SIGNIFICANTLY  (MG./LIVER)  1.36$  0.05)  WEEKS  RECEIVING  EXPRESSED  INCREASED  AND  TWO  PROTEIN  PARAMETER  PROTEIN  FOR  CHICKS  «=  MG./lOOG.  AND  FED  (P  LYSINE.  LIVER  LYSINE.  TISSUE  CHICKS  LIVERS  CURVELI  SIGNIFICANTLY  RATS  HAD  RECEIVING  (1966)  LIVER  18$  STUDY  AGREE  OBSERVED  PROTEIN  CASEIN  WITH  THAT  AND  ADEQUATE  RNA  IN  PREVIOUS  RATS  REPORTS,  DEPRIVED  COMPARED  LYSINE  WITH  AND  OF  LYSINE  THOSE  IN  THREONINE.  THE  LIVER  LYSINE  PROTEIN  IN A  1971)  NOT  WHEN  THE  TO  LIVER  LOWER  THAN  WIDE  PROTEIN  THE  OFTEN  DIET  AND  THE  OF  FROM  THOSE  THE  WERE  EXPRESSED  AND  RNA  THE  CONTROL  OF  OF  REDUCTION  IN CONCENTRATION  RNA  IS  ARE  EXPRESSED  BOTH DECREASED  WITH  THE  INCREASE  PER  LIVER  IN  A  MORE  LIVER  CELL  PROTEIN/DNA  SIZE  SINCE  SIZE  (M-UNRO A N D  FLECK,  OF  WHEN TISSUES  OF  AS  BODY  AL •  GROUP  HOWEVER,  GROUP  WERE  SOME  WEIGHT  AND  NOT  BE  CAN  ALBUMIN,  ARE  THE  BOTH  IN  THE  FOLLOWS:  WEIGHT;  AN  BUT  MADE  SAME  ON  TISSUE  IN  THE  CAUSES  EXAMPLE  OF  WITHIN  FAT  DIET  NOT  IN  VARY  NEUTRAL  LOW-PROTEIN  PROTEIN.  DIFFICULTIES  IS  A  THE  PLASMA  ANIMALS  AND  IN  LITERATURE  ARE  USED  (1)  LIVER  AND  (2)  IN  CHICK  PROTEIN  LIVER  MAN  TO  OR  CONSTITUENTS  DNA.  RNA/DNA  DIETARY  RATIOS  LYSINE  AT  14  DAYS  LIVER  OF  (FIG.  AGE.  4)  RESULTS  CONDITIONS:  IN  CHICKS  AT  14  (HYPERPLASIA).  AND  A  DEFICIENCY  LIVER  TWO  LIVER  MAY  SINCE  PLASMA  RNA,  MEASUREMENTS  ARE  AND  TISSUE.  GLYCOGEN  AND  OF  AND  THE  APPROACHES  OF  GROWTH  NUMBER  PROTEIN  TWO  INCREASING  SUGGEST  SUPPLEMENTED  TYPES  OF  ET  OF  GROUPS.  THE  UNIT  UNIT  LYSINE  LOSS  PROTEIN  PROTEIN/DNA  WITH  (1)  OR  DIFFICULTY  AS  HIGH  COMPARED,  1960).  EXPRESSED  WET  1945).  ONE  THIS  OR  LEVEL  CONTROL  MG./G.  EXAMPLE,  GAIN  BY  A  OF  AS  LIVER  FOR  LOSS  OVERCOME  OF  OF  SELECTIVE  _ET _ A L .  HIGH  SIGNIFICANTLY  BEING  (WATERLOW  A  (MURAMATSU  COMPOSITION  PRODUCED  FED  OBSERVED  ANIMALS  GLOBULINS,  RATS  ALSO  CAMPBELL,  OF  IN  WERE  EXPRESSION  BECAUSE  (KOSTERLITZ  GROUPS  OF  CONCENTRATION  ENCOUNTERED.  LIMITS  PROTEINS  DIFFER  THOSE  IN  RNA  PROTEIN  PARAMETERS  TOTAL  ARE  LOW  AND  RNA/DNA  1966).  DAYS  LITTLE  RATIOS  THE.VIEW  ARE  OF  AGE  CHANGE  IS MAINLY  OCCURS  MEASUREMENTS  IS SUPPORTED  BY  A  OF  BY  IN  AN  CELL  CELL  SIGNIFICANT  69  DIETARY LYSINE FIG. 4.  {%)  LIVER PROTEIN/DNA, RNA/DNA AND PROTEIN/RNA RATIOS FROM CHICKS FED GRADED LEVELS OF DIETARY LYSINE FOR TWO WEEKS .  (P  <  0.05)  WITH  INCREASE  INCREASING  (2)  I N LIVER  DIETARY  CELLULAR  REPRESENTED  RESIDUAL  DEVELOPMENT  AND EARLY  TRIAL  4  RATES  I N CHICKS  IN  THAT  CHICKS  HAS  LIVER  ANIMALS WAS  INCREASE  AGE (TRIAL  ARE  RATE  LIVER  RNA  PROTEIN  DIETARY  LYSINE.  A N D 1.iH$  I N TABLE  CONCENTRATION  WEIGHT  FROM  DNA  (1947)  MUSCLE  THAN  PROTEIN  POOL  SPECIFIC AT 8  MARKEDLY  WAS C O N S T A N T  WHICH  ACTIVITY  A N D 15  MUSCLE  WERE  DAYS  0.36$  TO  WEIGHT  A N D RNA  AND  EXPRESSED  (1964)  WITH  RATS  ILLUSTRATED  0.86$  0.36,  RECEIVING  W E E K S W.E'R:E A N A L Y Z E D  A N D T H E DNA  PROGRESSIVELY  0.61  THE  AND THE BIOCHEMICAL  ARE RESPECTIVELY  INCREASED  CONFIRM  OF CHICKS  FOR FOUR  WEIGHT  LlVER  TRIAL  IRRESPECTIVELY  CORRELATED.  AND LIVER  LYSINE  MUSCLE 7.  OF T H I S  ( F I G . 4)  A N D A L L I S O N _ E T _AL .  CONTENT  DIETARY  AND PROTEIN.  MUSCLE  THAT  PROTEIN  LYSINE  A R E LOW I N  THE METABOLIC  MUSCLE  RESULTS  A N D RNA  GASTROCNEMIUS  LYSINE  SINCE  RATIO  CONTENT.  PROTEIN  MUSCLE  SYNTHESIS  INTO  SLOWER  (1965, 1968)  HARPER  I T IS UNLIKELY  IN  AT  0.36$  CONTAINING  D I D NOT D I F F E R  PROTEIN/RNA  OF KOSTERLITZ  PRESENTED  I T WAS O B S E R V E D  (0.86$).  ACIDS  EMBRYONIC  AND SYNTHESIZED  AND PROTEIN  PROTEINS CHICKS  DIET  PROBABLY  F I G . 22).  LYSINE  OBSERVATION  0.86  4,  LIVER  DIETARY  THE  LIVER  DEFICIENT  THE  DNA,  GROWTH  CHICKS  BY THE EGG DURING  DEGRADED  LYSINE  AMINO  OF  0.61,  ADEQUATE  DEFICIENT  MOREOVER,  WERE  CATA BOLI Z E D TO S U P P L Y  LYSINE  THAT  POST-HATCH.  DIET.  IN  OF  SUPPLIED  LOW P R O T E I N  COULD  I N LYSINE  FED THE WHEAT-BASAL  THAT  FED A  PROTEINS  CONCENTRATION  4).  (TABLE  PROTEINS  PROTEINS  RECEIVING  REPORTED  LYSINE  LIVER  (MG./G. W E T T I S S U E )  DNA  IN TABLES  BY  AND DECLINED  AS MG./G.  COMPOSITION  CONTENT,  (P -=0.05)  FOR  8  AND  9.  INCREASING  WITH  WET T I S S U E  RNA A N D  1.11$  WERE  NOT  TABLE  7.  —  GASTROCNEMIUS  MUSCLE  DNA, RNA  WEIGHT,  DIETARY  AND P R O T E I N  LYSINE  CONTENT  FOR FOUR  FROM  CHICKS  FED GRADED  LEVELS  OF  WEEKS  MUSCLE TREATMENT (%) •— LEVEL  LYSINE SUPP.  0.36 0.61 0.86 1.11  0.25 0.50 0.75  *VALUES  **VALUES  FOLLOWED  BY A  FOLLOWED  BY A  DNA  WT. 1*MG.  !  7—2* MG./G.  1018.2 3922.7 4547.5° 3498.2  0.67 0.63 0.53 0.71  A  0.69 2.47 2.40 2.20  A  A  B  DIFFERENT  MG.  A  B  SUPERSCRIPT  DIFFERENT  SUPERSCRIPT  RNA* 1**  A  A  B B B  7—2 MG./G.  1.17 1.50 1.12 1.28  ARE S I G N I F I C A N T L Y ARE S I G N I F I C A N T L Y  PROTEIN 7—2* MG./G.  1 MG. A  A A A  1.20 5.88 5.12 4.02°  DIFFERENT DIFFERENT  A  B  147.3 200.7 178.3° 192.2 A  B  B  B C  149.92 787.32 812.68 673.92  A  B B B  (P < 0 . 0 5 ) . (P < 0.01).  1 DATA  REPRESENT  THE TOTAL  "DATA  REPRESENT  MG./G.  2  R  WET  OBTAINED TISSUE  FROM  THE RIGHT  AND L E F T  WET G A S T R O C N E M I U S  MUSCLE  PER CHICK  SAMPLED.  TABLE  8.--LIVER  WEIGHT  AND  DNA  CONTENT  FROM  CHICKS  FED  GRADED  LEVELS  OF  DIETARY  TREATMENT  SUPP.  G./100G  [%)  LEVEL  0.36  2.9  0.25  0.61  9.8  0.50  0.86  0.75  1.11  ^VALUES  **VALUES  DATA  FOLLOWED  BY  FOLLOWED  REPRESENT  BY  BODY  G.**  12.1  9.7  A  DIFFERENT  A  MG./G.  DIFFERENT  WET  WT . *  2.7  A  A  3.1  B  B  B  A  3.3  A  3.0  A  SUPERSCRIPT  SUPERSCRIPT  TISSUE.  FOR  FOUR  WEEKS  DNA  LII V E R W T . LYS1NE  LYSINE  ARE  ARE  MG./100G.  1 * MG./G.  MG./LIVER**  2.5  7.2  A A  2.2  A  2.2  A  2.3  SIGNIFICANTLY  SIGNIFICANTLY  .5 26.7 21 . 9 21  A  DIFFERENT  DIFFERENT  (P  (P  B B B  «c0.05).  "^O.Ol).  BODY  WT. A*  6.7 6.8 7.3 6.9  A A A  TABLE 9.--LIVER RNA AND PROTEIN CONTENT FROM CHICKS FED GRADED LEVELS OF DIETARY LYSINE FOR FOUR WEEKS  PROTEIN  RNA LYSINE TREATMENT {%) SUPP. LEVEL  0.25 0.50 0.75  *VALUES FOLLOWED  0.36 0.61 0.86 1.11  / 6.3  1*  A  A  7.0 7.0 6.2  A  A  MG./100G.  MG ./L1VER**  BODY WT.*  18.5 69.4 85.2 60.4  17.0 22.2 23.2 1 8.8  A  B  B  B  A  A  A  A  MG , //G  *  1  .  137.4 139.7 144.7 140.4  A  A  A  A  MG./100G.  MG  ,/lIVER** 398.5 1377.6 1749.6 1352.3  BY A DIFFERENT SUPERSCRIPT ARE S 1 GNI F1CANTLY D I FFERENT (P < 0.05).  **VALUES FOLLOWED BY A DIFFERENT SUPERSCRIPT ARE S 1 GN1F1CANTLY DIFFERENT (P < 0 . 0 1 ) . 1 . WET TISSUE DATA REPRESENT MG./G  A  8  B  8  BODY  WT.*  368.9 440.4 475.4 423.3  A  A  A  74  AFFECTED  SIGNIFICANTLY  CONCENTRATION  LYSINE.  DNA  MG./MUSCLE  INCREASED  RESULT TOTAL  WITH  (MG./G.),  FROM  RNA  WEIGHT,  0.36  TO  CONTENT  DNA,  AND PROTEIN  AGREE  WITH  CHICKS  WHICH  REFLECTED  AND CONFIRM  DIETARY  INCREASED  LYSINE  DAYS  OF  TO  PROTEIN  WITH A G E .  MUSCLE  RNA/DNA LEVEL  BECAUSE  OF ACTIVE  THE V I E W  DIETARY  LYSINE  INCREASED  IS SUPPORTED  LEVEL  THE  HIGHER  MUSCLE  14  MUSCLE  DAY-OLD  DAY-OLD  I N RESPONSE  TO  LYSINE  AND DECLINED  AT  A T 28  LYSINE  WITH  RESULT  PROTEIN  BY AN  THAN  FOLLOWED 5).  (i960)  NITROGEN  0.61$  SUGGESTS  SYNTHESIS  INCREASE 0.61$  DAYS  TREATMENT  DlCKERSON  AGE.  MUSCLE  AND  OF AGE (FlG.  AND NON-PROTEIN  OF LYSINE.  0.05)  I N 28  CONTENT  OF THE CHICK  WAS H I G H E R  OF D I E T A R Y  RATIO,  (p <  DAYS  A T 14  DIETARY  WITH  CONTENT.  0.86$)  FROM  NOT  6).  THE RATIO  NITROGEN  MUSCLE  HIGHER  RNA  PROTEIN  D I D  IN GASTROCNEMIUS  COLLECTED  PATTERN  WAS  OF LYSINE  AND  LYSINE  THE GASTROCNEMIUS  0.86$  HOWEVER,  MUSCLE  TOTAL  LEVEL.  AT  0.36  GROWTH  OBSERVED  OF AGE IRRESPECTIVELY  CHICK  WITH  WITH  DIETARY  DIETARY  LYSINE  INCREASED  (0.61  CHANGES  T H E DATA  (TABLE IN  RATIO  THE PATTERN  LEVEL.  INCREASED  BOTH  BODY  LYSINE  PROTEIN/DNA  ESSENTIALLY  WITH  WITH  AND PROTEIN  MUSCLE  LYSINE  (1.11$).  DIETARY  DNA  PROTEIN  EXPRESSED AS  ADDITION  I N MUSCLE  DIETARY  LYSINE  CHICKS  AVAILABLE  FURTHER  MUSCLE  (P <0.05)  ) WHEN  OF THE GASTROCNEMIUS  HIGHER  RNA  (P «= 0.01  CHANGE  CONTENT.  OF THE MUSCLE  0.61$. A  AND ADEQUATE  WITH  LYSINE  INCREASED  CONTENT  INCREASED  SIGNIFICANT  MODERATE  DECLINED  HOWEVER,  AND PROTEIN  SAMPLE  IN A  BY DIETARY  1.11$  THAN  AT  THAT  INCREASED  I N  THE  AND DECLINED  RAPID  DEGRADATION  AT HIGHER  LYSINE  I N T H E PROTEIN/RNA  ( F I G . 5).  14  INDICATING  OBSERVED  LYSINE  A  IT  THE L O W  RATIO  FIG.  5.  GASTROCNEMIUS MUSCLE PROTEIN/DNA, RNA/DNA AND PROTEIN/RNA RATIOS FROM CHICKS FED GRADED LEVELS OF DIETARY LYSINE FOR FOUR WEEKS.  PROTEIN/RNA  0.36$  I N THE MUSCLE  LYSINE)  AS A  SOLE  COMPENSATING  MECHAN'ISM  SUPPLY  ACIDS  AMINO  CORRECT  THE AMINO  LIVER  BY  OCCURRED WEIGHT BY  DIETARY  DNA  LYSINE.  A  SIMILAR  MANNER  LIVER  RNA/DNA  AT  IN  SUPPLIED  0.36  BODY  REFLECTED  WAS C A T A B O L  PROCESSES  CHICKS  0.61$. No  TO  DIETARY  WEIGHT  (CONTAINING A IZED  WHICH  TO  COULD  B Y WHEAT.  WEEK-OLD  0.61$  WAS  REMAINED  TWO W E E K S  WITH  (p <  INCREASED  FURTHER  LYSINE.  0.01  INCREASE  HOWEVER,  UNAFFECTED  LIVER  SIGNIFICANTLY  ACCELERATED  CHICK  LIFE.  CHICK  REACHED  9)  WAS  DIETARY  WITH  DIETARY  HOWEVER,  DIETARY  OF A G E UNDER  BY AN  (FIG.  LYSINE  OF  LYSINE  IN  WEIGHT.  WEEKS  BY THE CURVELINEAR  IN LIVER  A T TWO W E E K S  RATE  AT FOUR  WITH  AS  THE CONTENT  AS MG./LIVER,  INCREASE  OF ORGAN  EXPRESSED  INCREASE  NATURE  6).  LYSINE  THE  IN CELL  PRESENT  SIZE.  OF PROTEIN/DNA AND  PROTEIN/RNA  RATIO  A S WAS P R E V I O U S L Y  IN  THE  OBSERVED  STUDY.  INCREASE  THE CHICK  THE PARAMETERS  (TABLE  9)  (TABLE  S I G N I F I C A N T L Y WITH  (P ??0.01)  OF CHICKS  CONSTANT  OF  AND PROTEIN  TO T H E P A T T E R N  CONDITIONS  RATIOS  RNA  UNAFFECTED  SIGNIFICANT  I S SUPPORTED  THE  8),  WERE  GROWTH  EXPERIMENTAL  VIEW  G./100G.  PROTEIN  PHYSIOLOGICAL  FROM  BEYOND  EXPRESSING  I N A  LIVER  AS  (TABLE  RESULTED  THE  WEIGHT  WET T I S S U E  DIETARY  LYSINE  PROBABLY  THE MUSCLE  OF FOUR  BASAL  LYSINE.  LIVER  MG./G.  8)  F E D T H E WHEAT  OF PROTEIN,  IMBALANCE  (TABLE  DIETARY  EXPRESSED  WHEREBY  ACID  IN LIVER  SOURCE  FOR ESSENTIAL  WEIGHT  INCREASING  OF CHICKS  OF L I V E R  LIVER  FOUR  GROWTH  WEEKS  DNA  (MG./G.  TISSUE)  OF A G E AND NOT AT FOUR  CELL  MULTIPLICATION  RATE  WAS  OF AGE.  PROBABLY  MENDES  WITH  DIETARY  WEEKS  SUGGESTS  OR GROWTH  DECLINING  A N D WATERLOW  LYSINE  EARLY  AN  I N  THE  BY THE TIME THE  (1958)  STUDIED  PROTEIN/RNA  RNA/DNA  PROTEIN/DNA  o CT>  s: m m 7; CO  •  0 1— X — — < 0 Fl 7\ 33 co "0 "n 33 n O 0  _ Z —— > 0 O 0  FI  0  O  r~ m ID  Fl  < m  r co 0 -q  33  —Fl  O  H  "D  33  >  33 O H Fl  CO  — z Fl  co  >  Z  -<  |— •<  0  r" -c  -<  O  — Z  z Fl  ^ ^  ^  S»  "H 33 O > 33 H -n 0 c 33  O  CO  "H 33 O 2  -J -J  THE  EFFECT  MUSCLE AND  A  AT  THAT  FIRST,  FORMATION  SLOWER  THE-RE  WAS  A  DURING  TISSUES  OF  TRIVIAL  CHANGES  DUE  OF  GROWTH  IN  CELL  TO  PROTEINS  TO  THE  THAT  PROTEINS  CELL  48  FROM  17  INITIAL  DAYS  SIZE.  SECOND  DAYS  LYSINE  MUSCLE  WAS  AT  TWO  OF  BOTH  THE  BODY  AND  SOURCE  OF  IMPACT  TISSUE  OF  DIETARY  GROWTH  PROTEIN  AND  WAS  DAY  DNA,  AGE.  OF  AGE DURING  RNA  AND  OPTIMUM  L-LYSINE  A  FOUR  PROTEIN  CHICK  TO  WAS  WHEAT  ENESCO  34  SOME  AND  PHASES.  48  OR  MUSCLE  DAYS,  INCREASE  AND  STORED  PROTEINS.  IN  PERIOD  GROWTH LIVER  ACCOUNTED  PROTEIN  AND  ONLY  THE THIRD  STORED  AND  (16$  WHEAT  WITH  BROILER  PERIOD.  WERE  HAPPENED  BY EXTENSIVE  A G E WAS  DEFICIENCY  F E D TO  WEEK  GROWTH,  AND WITH  APPEAR.  OF  DNA  FOR BY  WHILE  LIVER  CONCLUSION  SUPPLEMENTED  CONTENT  SUPPLEMENTED  AND  MEASURED.  WERE  GROWTH  OF  AND  AND  FURTHER  OF  A L L THE ORGANS  ABOUT  DOWN  TO  OF  THREE  NUMBER TO  RESPONSE  WEEKS  LYSINE  WHEAT  (0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0$)  MARKED  REPRESENT  SUMMARY  17  FROM  INTO  AND  RATES  MUSCLE.  LIFE  IN CELL  BEGAN  LABILE  NEW  SLOWED  I N THE  PROTEINS  ARE MIXTURE  SIZE  OF  POSTNATAL  INCREASE  THAT  THE OPPOSITE  I N THE RAT  OF  THE LIVER  THE PATTERN  THE MUSCLE  BY AN  THE DIFFERENCE  DIETARY  |N  ON  OBSERVED  FOLLOWED  GROWTH  IN CELL  160  TO  RAT AND  MULTIPLICATION  INCREASE  SIZE.  FACT  TISSUE  IN CELL  OF  REFEED1NG  OF  IN THE FORMATION  T H E RAT GREW  INTENSITY  WEIGHT  LATER.  LAG  DIVIDED THE  AND  I N THE LIVER  AND  (1962)  DIET  I N THE WEANLING  FIRST  LEBLOND  THE  LOW-PROTEIN  COMPOSITION  PROTEIN  FAST SO  OF  EXCESSES  P R O T E I N ) AS  GRADED  CHICKS  OBTAINED  PROTEIN).  AT  WITH  TWO  TOTAL  A  SOLE  LEVELS  STARTING  AT ONE  AND  0.85$  CHICK  LYSINE  GASTROCNEMIUS  MEASURED  ON  MUSCLE  AND  FOUR  WEEKS  LYSINE  ORGAN  DNA,  LIVER  OF  (0.5$ RNA  AND  PROTEIN  CONTENT  DIETARY  LYSINE  INCREASED  AND DECLINED  GASTROCNEMIUS TWO  AND  DNA  (MG./G.)  BOTH  FOUR  PROTEIN/RNA SUGGESTS  AND  OF  RATIO  LIVER  IN CELL  AGE.  THIS  VIEW  FOUR  WEEKS.  SAME  WAS  TWO  VIEW.  CONSTANT  CLOSELY  TO  LIVER  AT  TWO  BY AN  TWO  SIZE  WITH  LYSINE.  BOTH  AT  I N MUSCLE RATIOS  AT  INCREASING  WITH  BY  PROTEIN  OF  LYSINE  IN CELL  AGE AND  BY  FROM  INCREASE  LEVEL  AT  LYSINE  RNA/DNA  AND  AT  BOTH  FOUR  TWO  INTAKE  BIOSYNTHESIS.  NUMBER INCREASES  TWO  IN LIVER  AND THE R E L A T I V E  INCREASES  RATIO  OF  INCREASE  (HYPERTROPHY)  WEEKS  AND R E L A T I V E  INDEPENDENT  CHANGE  RNA/DNA  AND  WEEKS  WEEKS  PROTEIN/DNA  PROTEIN/RNA  CORRELATED  FOUR  IS DEMONSTRATED  LYSINE  WEEKS  AT  GROW  AND C E L L  DIETARY  OF  SIZE  AND A C C U M U L A T I O N .  THE FIRST  THE DECLINING  AND  WITH  LYSINE.  IN CELL  BY LACK  I N PROTEIN/DNA  BIOSYNTHESIS  NUMBER  INCREASING  AT  INDICATED  INCREASE  APPEARED  INCREASE  (0.86$)  AND ADEQUATE  (1.11, 1.36$)  EXCESS  BY AN  I N THE MUSCLE  DURING  WITH  LIVER  GREW  AGE AS  (0.61$)  MODERATE  WITH  OF MEASUREMENTS  (HYPERPLASIA) BOTH  OF  THE  PROTEIN  THE  MUSCLE  WEEKS  PERIODS  WITH  TO DNA  WEEKS  (MG./G.)  S T A B I L I T Y AT  RATIOS  WEEKS  AND  FOUR  FOUR  INDICATING  I N THE  SUPPORT  WEEKS  THAT  THE  OF AGE  RNA  IS  TRIAL 2. EXCESS  DNA,  RNA  AND  OBSERVATION  THE  CHICK  CHICK  MUSCLE  WITH  14  THE  CASEIN LIVER  DNA.  OBSERVED  SINCE  RATIO  10  TRIAL  THE  AND  RESPECTIVELY  AND  11  TO  TOTAL  WAS  TO  MUSCLE  CONFIRM  INFLUENCE  ADVERSE  OF  THE  DIETARY  AND  LIVER  THE  ARGININE  EFFECT  ILLUSTRATE  EXCESS  ON  THE  AND  RNA  GROWTH  EFFECT  PROTEIN/DNA  REPRESENT  PREVIOUS  CHANGES  THAT  OF  ON  EXCESS  RESPONSE  LYSINE  OF  AND  WITH  DAY  OF  CONSTITUENTS  (0.36$  DIET  PERIOD  TRIAL  LYSINE) (ONE DAY  1  AND  AGREE  FEEDING  THE  RAT  A  THREE  WEEKS  WERE  EXPRESSED  MUSCLE  DATA  THE  ON  PROTEIN  OF  10$  DEPRESSED  PROTEIN.  SHOW  IN CELL  SIZE  EXCESS  IN THE  I N THE  OCCURING  ORGAN  AT  THE  UNIT  ADVERSE  MUSCLE  LYSINE  RNA/DNA  PROTEIN,  PER  OF  PROTEIN/DNA  SAME  DIETARY  MUSCLE  RESERVED  CHANGES  WERE  FOR  AND  DEPRESSED  OF  THAN  14  THAT  (5$)  AND  7).  WHEAT  DATA  1971)  RNA  RNA  THE  CONFIRM  LYSINE  (FIG.  DNA, THE  LYSINE  DNA,  DIETARY  1.  THE  DURING  E T _AL.  PROTEIN  LYSINE  INDICATES  THE  1.5$)  RESULTS  LIVER  PROTEINS  REFLECTS  AND  EXCESS  LIVER  AND  SUPPLEMENTING  MARKEDLY  MUSCLE  LIVER  BY  (MURAMATSU  DIETARY  FROM  WEIGHTS  A G E ) .  EXCESS  MUSCLE  REMOVAL  OF  IN TRIAL  ON  PROBABLY  TABLES  (1.0  TOTAL  RATIOS  EXCESS  SEVERE  TO  THIS  IN A L L E V I A T I N G THE  CONTAINING  WEIGHT,  RNA/DNA  DETERMINE  AND  LIVER  LYSINE  REPORT  MUSCLE  OF  AND  DAYS  DIET  TISSUE  1  LIVER  (P «=0.05)  EXCESS TO  1.  DEPRESS  SUPPLEMENTATION.  DECREASED  AGE  TO  I N TRIAL  GROWTH.  AND  MUSCLE  WITH  TRIAL  DEMONSTRATED  CONSTITUENTS  ON  ARGININE  WAS  PROTEIN  OF  TISSUE  LYSINE  LYSINE  RATIO  WAS  AND  EFFECT  AS  MORE  7).  (FlG.  PROTEIN/DNA  RATIO  WHEREAS  RNA/DNA  TIME  MUSCLE  OF  WAS  CHICK.  PROTEIN/DNA  AND  RNA/DNA  RATIOS  WERE  MARKEDLY  DEPRESSED  BY  TABLE 10. — FOR  GASTROCNEMIUS  TWO  WEEKS  DNA,  MUSCLE  AND ARGININE  RNA  0-2 DIETARY  MUSCLE  1  WT.  OF CHICKS LYSINE  F E D NORMAL  DIET  FROM  TWO  ^  PROTEIN  MUSCLE  WT.  1. Ofo L- L Y S I N E  A  2.30B 1 .06  A  180.4B 84.0  NE  B  562 .3  0.32  2.40  FOLLOWED  B  0.83  C  3630 .2  2.24  WHEAT  BASAL  CONTAINED  WHEAT  BASAL  PLUS  TO  THE EXCESS  DATA  REPRESENT  0.36$  LYSINE  LYSINE  WAS  DIET  THE TOTAL  SUPERSCRIPT  812. 7  A  A  722. 9  A  437. 7  5.08  -  B  DIFFERENT  PROTEIN  - -A  45.1  o  BY A  RNA  5.12  A  2726 .3  1 .95  ARE S I G N I F I C A N T L Y DIFFERENT  ( P < 0.05).  L-ARG1N1NE  *VALUES  .  ^  A  A  4547 .5  B  B  LYSINE  WEEKS  MG.  2  0.OK ifo L - A R G 1 N 1 N E 1.5$ L- L Y S 1 NELL- L Y S 1 0.29^ 1%  A  0.68B 0.34  FOUR  WK.*  DNA  A  .8 1271 B .3 632  0.5$ L- L Y S 1 N E £ 1.0$ L- L Y S 1 N E  0  AND EXCESS TO  2-4 RNA  MG.  2  1. 5f  CONTENT  TO T H E E X C E S S  WK.*  DNA  TREATMENT  + + + + + + +  AND PROTEIN  SUPPLEMENTED  A  —  3.88  A  LYSINE.  F E D FROM  FROM  TWO  OBTAINED  D A Y O F A G E T O TWO  TO  FROM  FOUR  WEEKS  THE RIGHT  WEEKS  OF A G E ; A R G I N I N E  WAS  THEN  SUPPLEMENTED  OFA G E .  AND LEFT  WET G A S T R O C N E M I U S  MUSCLE  PER CHICK  SAMPLED.  TABLE 1 1 . - - L I V E R AND  DNA, RNA  AND PROTEIN  ARGININE  SUPPLEMENTED  CONTENT  0-2 DIETARY  LIVER  TREATMENT  + + + + + + +  3$  WHEAT  AND EXCESS  FROM  A  PROTEIN  A  LIVER  WT.  A  39.08 18.4  677.9B 393.4  B  B  B  B  A  BY A  BASAL  CONTAINED  BASAL  PLUS  ~5~~0  17.2  368.1  —  DIFFERENT  SUPERSCRIPT  WK.* RNA  A  26.7  B  20.8  PROTE I N  B  B  ARE SIGNIFICANTLY DIFFERENT  15.7  (P  A  85.2  A  AB  -  7.9  -•--  0.36$  9.o  WEEKS  MG./LIVER  12.1  2  F O R TWO  WEEKS  DNA  G.  10.7B 7.2  2~2  LYSINE  TWO T O F O U R  2-4 RNA  4 .1B 2 .5  L-ARGININE  FOLLOWED  DIET  MG./LIVER A  1 .5$ L- L Y S 1 N E 1 .5$ L - L Y S I N E 0.29:3$ L - A R G I N I N E  *VALUES  F E D NORMAL  LYSINE  WK.*  DNA  G.  p 0.5$ L - L Y S 1 N E 1 .0$ p 1 .0$ L L- LL YY SS I1 NN EE ^ 0.01:  WT.  OF CHICKS  TO T H E E X C E S S  71 .3 A  63.5  1749.6 1355.6 1317.4  <=0.05).  LYSINE.  2 WHEAT TO  THE EXCESS  LYSINE  LYSINE  WAS F E D F R O M  DIET  FROM  D A Y O F A G E T O TWO W E E K S  TWO T O F O U R  WEEKS  OF  AGE.  OF A G E , A R G I N I N E  WAS T H E N  SUPPLEMENTED  A  A  A  250L  IG. 7.  GASTROCNEMIUS MUSCLE PROTEIN/DNA AND RNA/DNA RATIOS AS AFFECTED BY EXCESS DIETARY LYSINE IN THE CHICK.  EXCESS DIETARY LYSINE  (FlG.  8) AS OBSERVED  IN  TOXICITY OCCURRED WITH 1.86$ DIETARY LYSINE  TRIAL 1.  SEVERE  LYSINE  (1.5$ SUPPLEMENT)  RETARDING BODY A N D LIVER GROWTH I N T H E CHICK.  CHICKS RECEIVING T H E  DIET ADEQUATE (0.86$) I N LYSINE ( 0 . 5 $ SUPPLEMENT) GAINED 97G. A N D H A D A LIVER WEIGHT O F 4.1 G . I N 14 DAYS WHEREAS CHICKS F E D T H E EXCESS LYSINE (1.86$) DIET (1.5$ SUPPLEMENT) GAINED ONLY 40G. I N BODY WEIGHT AND HAD A LIVER WEIGHT O F 2.2G .  THE DEPRESSED LIVER GROWTH (CELL  MULTIPLICATION) WITH SEVERE LYSINE (1.86$ OF THE DIET) TOXICITY RESULTED  I N HIGHER LIVER P R O T E I N / D N A AND RNA/DNA RATIOS THAN NORMAL  (FIG. 8 ) .  RESULTS WERE SIMILAR TO HIGH PROTEIN/DNA  RATIOS OBSERVED  AND RNA/DNA  IN THE LIVER OF CHICKS FED DEFICIENT LYSINE DIET IN  TRIAL 1 ( F I G . 4 ) .  RESULTS INDICATED THAT CHICK GROWTH RETARDED BY  FEED RESTRICTION DUE TO EITHER LOW OR EXCESS LYSINE IN THE DIET WAS ACCOMPANIED  BY HIGH LIVER CELLULAR PROTEINS.  HIGH P R O T E I N / D N A  AND  RNA/DNA RATIOS IN LYSINE DEFICIENT (0.36$) CHICKS ARE BELIEVED AS IN TRIAL 1 TO BE DUE TO ( 1 ) LACK OF INCREASE IN CELL NUMBER (GROWTH) AND  (2) RESIDUAL PROTEINS SUPPLIED BY THE EGG DURING  DEVELOPMENT AND EARLY POST HATCH.  EMBRYONIC  THE TURNOVER OF LIVER PROTEIN IN  CHICKS FED ADEQUATE (0.86$) DIETARY LYSINE APPEARS TO OCCUR AT A GREATER Low  RATE THAN IN CHICKS WITH A SLOW GROWTH RATE  PROTEIN/DNA  (TRIAL 4, FLG. 2 1 ) .  AND RNA/DNA RATIOS IN THE MUSCLE OF CHICKS CONSUMING  EXCESS (1.86$) DIETARY LYSINE  INDICATE THAT MUSCLE PROTEIN SYNTHESIS  (MUSCLE GROWTH IN CELL S I Z E ) IS IMPAIRED BY FEEDING EXCESS LYSINE TO CHICKS.  THIS VIEW  IS CONSISTENT WITH THE DEPRESSION IN FEED INTAKE  OF CHICKS RECEIVING EXCESS (1.86$) DIETARY LYSINE COMPARED TO THE GROUP FED ADEQUATE (0.86$) DIETARY LYSINE.  MOREOVER, UNDER THE CONDITION OF  IG. 8.  LIVER PROTEIN/DNA AND RNA/DNA RATIOS AS AFFECTED BY EXCESS DIETARY LYSINE IN THE CHICK.  LOW  FEED  AMINO  INTAKE,  ACIDS  THE CHICK  FOR THE SYNTHESIS  GASTROCNEMIUS  RESPONSE  LYSINE  INCREASED  ARGININE  THOSE  UPON  AND  ALSO  TWO  TO FOUR  TREND.  AND LIVER  WEEKS  RNA  CONSUMING  ADDING  ARGININE  IN THE LIVER  REFLECTED  UPON  ADDING  LEVEL.  RNA/DNA  I N PROTEIN/DNA  ARGININE  SUPPLEMENTATION RELATIVE  ADDITION  TO T H E ADEQUATE  THE  ARGININE  ABSOLUTE  LYSINE  VALUES  A T 14  CONSTITUENTS  DAYS  A N D 28  DAYS  AND BODY  ILLUSTRATED  ARGININE I N FlG.  ACCUMULATION  11  INCREASED  LYSINE  COMPARED  DIETS  DIET  RNA  WERE  OF AGE.  WEIGHT  GAIN  BETWEEN  OF T H E AMOUNTS  SUPPLEMENTATION).  WITH  WAS  BY AN  DURING  ARGININE  MUSCLE  A N D 28  DURING  CONTAINING  AND  DAYS  BETWEEN  LIVER  O F A G E WERE  PRESENT  I N THE ORGANS  THESE  COMPARISONS ARE  AT  14  12.  AND  WITH  LYSINE  ACCUMULATED  BY DIFFERENCES  14  FROM  DIET  WITHOUT  TO D I E T S  ACCUMULATED  WITH  I N THE MUSCLE  ORGANS  AND PROTEIN  ESTIMATED  AN  10).  AND  WEEKS)  SHOWED  DIFFERENT  OBTAINED 9  EXCESS  IS INDICATED  I N BOTH  (FlG.  SIGNIFICANT  INCREASED  LYSINE  VIEW  RATIOS  (TWO TO FOUR  OF MUSCLE  CONSTITUENTS  RATIOS  TO  O F DNA,  (1.36, 1.86$)  AS PERCENTAGES  (BEFORE  LYSINE  AMOUNTS  SUPPLEMENTATION  EXCESS  EXPRESSED  AND  THIS  A  (1.36, 1.86$)  EXCESS  PROVIDE  10).  (TABLE  T O T H E 1.36$  ARGININE  INCREASE  DNA  CONTENT  CONCENTRATION  CONTAINING  AT THE CELLULAR  LIVER  NOT S I G N I F I C A N T L Y  LYSINE  TO  LIFE.  CONTAINING  ABSOLUTE  A N D RNA  TO D I E T S  TO  PROTEIN  D I D N O T SHOW  AND PROTEIN  ADEQUATE  IN PROTEIN  VITAL  TO D I E T S  OF AGE.  DNA,  MUSCLE  WEIGHTS  OF ARGININE  MUSCLE  INCREASE  DEGRADED  OF PROTEINS  S U P P L E M E N T A T I O N TO V A L U E S  OF CHICKS  THE  MUSCLE  TO T H E A D D I T I O N  FROM  PROBABLY  AND L I V E R  ARGININE  THE LYSINE  DNA,  RNA  AND  PROTEIN  S U P P L E M E N T A T I O N TO T H E H I G H  ADEQUATE  DIET  (0.86$).  RATE  87  DIETARY  160  TREATMENT  0.86$  LYSINE  1 .36$  L Y S I NE  1  LYSINE  + 0.013$ + 0.293$  L-ARG.  L-ARG .  _  150  -=t z  -  u H O o: Q_  140  130  - 80  < _J  z  Q  u  <t z  an  120  - 70  LU  >  < UJ  on  110  - 60  50  100 FIG.  9  IMPROVEMENT CHICKS  I N MUSCLE  FED EXCESS  PROTEIN/DNA  LYSINE  WITH  ADDED  TO D I E T S  WEEKS  OF FEEDING.  WEEKS  OF AGE ARE EXPRESSED  AT  TWO  WEEKS.  CONTAINING  AND  RNA/DNA  ARGININE.  1.36,  PROTEIN/DNA,  1.86$  LYSINE  RNA/DNA  RATIOS  ARGININE AFTER  RATIOS  AS PERCENTAGES  AT  FROM  WAS TWO FOUR  OF THE RATIOS  88  DIETARY  TREATMENT  b  1.  '0  LYSINE LYSINE  >o  +  LYSINE  0.013$ L - A R G . 0.293$  +  L^ARG .  130-  130  120-  - 120  < <  <t - 110  110-  <  Q <£ Z  H O sr  <  u  >  100-  <  h-  < _i  • 90  90"  80 _ FIG.  ><  100  10.  80 CHANGES CHICKS ADDED TWO AT THE  IN LIVER FED EXCESS  TO D I E T S  WEEKS FOUR  LYSINE  CONTAINING  OF FEEDING.  WEEKS  RATIOS  PROTEIN/DNA  AND  WITH 1.36,  RNA/DNA  ARGININE. 1.86$  PROTEIN/DNA,  OF AGE ARE EXPRESSED  A T TWO  WEEKS.  RATIOS  FROM  ARGININE  LYSINE  RNA/DNA  WAS  AFTER RATIOS  AS PERCENTAGES  OF  89  A B C LYSINE  (fo)  ARGININE {%)  0.86  A B C  A B C  1.36  1.86  0.013  0.293  FIG. 11. EFFECTS OF SUPPLEMENTING HIGH LYSINE DIETS WITH ARGININE ON ACCUMULATION OF GASTROCNEMIUS MUSCLE DNA ( A ) , RNA (B) AND PROTEIN (c). THE AMOUNTS OF MUSCLE CONSTITUENTS ACCUMULATED FROM 14-TH TO 2 8 T H DAY OF FEEDING ARE EXPRESSED AS PERCENTAGES OF THE AMOUNTS AT 14TH DAY OF FEED I NG .  300 -  A B C D (^LYSINE {%) ARGININE {%) F I G . 12.  0.86  A B C D  A B C D  1.36 0.013  1.86 0.293  EFFECTS OF SUPPLEMENTING HIGH LYSINE DIETS WITH ARGININE ON ACCUMULATION OF LIVER DNA ( A ) , RNA ( B ) , PROTEIN ( c ) AND BODY WEIGHT G A I N / C H I C K ( D ) . T H E AMOUNTS OF LIVER CONSTITUENTS ACCUMULATED AND BODY WEIGHT GAIN FROM 14 TO 28TH DAY OF FEEDING ARE EXPRESSED AS PERCENTAGES OF THE AMOUNT AT 14TH DAY OF FEEDING.  OF  (FlG.  GROWTH  12)  (0.293$)  MENTATION  IMPROVED  TO  EXCESS  ACCUMULATION  WAS  ACCUMULATION  WHEN  OR  RECEIVING  IN CHICKS  RESULTS RNA  AND  CHICKS  PROTEIN WHEN  ELIMINATED LIMITING AMOUNTS (TRIAL  1)  DIETARY  THE  THE  CELLULAR  LYSINE THAT  BODY THE  POOR  AUSTIC  AND  NESHEIM,  REDUCED DIETARY  HIGH  I T  1970)  INTAKE  LYSINE  WERE  AND  EFFECTS  SUPPLEMENTATION  GASTROCNEMIUS  1.36  1.0  DAYS  AND  AND  AND  TO  RNA  EXCESS  DNA,  MUSCLE  1.86$  1.5$  ON  OF  LYSINE  RNA  AND  AND  LIVER  DIETS  IN THE  CONTAINING  MUSCLE  AND  1.36  LIVER  AND  ARGININE  HYPERTOPHY)  THAT  DNA,  LIVER  OF  THAT  BECOMES WHEN  I T WAS  TO  DEPRESSED (SMITH, THE  AVAILABLE FEED  1968J  ADVERSE  RESULTING  SUPPLEMENTARY  EXCESS  DEMONSTRATED  I N PROPORTION  CAUSING  BY  LYSINE  FOLLOWED  EFFECTS FROM  ARGININE.  DAYS  WERE  THEN  ADDED  LYSINE.  DEPRESSED  ARGININE  IN  CHICKS  (SUPPLEMENTAL  WAS  1.86$  BY  ACCUMULATION  DETERMINED.  ARGININE  AND  DIETS  SUPPLEMENTATION  DEPRESSION  PROTEIN  14  LYSINE  DNA  CONCLUSION  WERE  FOR  PROTEIN  THAN  MUSCLE  DEMONSTRATED  GROWTH  AND  OF  DEMONSTRATED  DIET.  NUTRITION  DIETARY  RESPECTIVELY).  DIETS  ALSO  ALLEVIATED  SUMMARY  THE  WERE  LYSINE  IN CHICK  FEED  SUPPLE-  RATE  LIVER  EXCESS  THAT  AND  CHICK  GROWTH  WAS  THE  IN THE  INDICATE  IN THE  OF  TO  ARGININE  THE  ARGININE  (HYPERPLASIA  LEVEL  GROWTH.  AND  CLEARLY  IMPAIRED  RESULTS  TISSUE  OF  L Y S I N E .D H>E T .  F E D , AND  PRESENT  AND  MUSCLE  SUPPLEMENTED  WERE  WAS  LEVEL  (1.86$).  DIET  EXPERIMENT  GROWTH  ARE  AND  EXCESS  PRESENT  LYSINE  HIGHER  THE  ADEQUATE  IMPAIRMENT.  LYSINE,  AS  WAS  ACCUMULATION  INTAKE  SUCH  AN  A  LYSINE  I N BOTH  ARGININE  EXCESS  FOR OF  GREATER  OF  WITH  CHICK  WERE  LYSINE  FROM  CELLULAR  BY  EXCESS  14  FED  OF  TO  0.86,  0.5,  28  PROTEINS  LYSINE  AND  IMPROVED  MARKEDLY  LYSINE.  CHICK  PROTEIN  DIETS  WITH  DEMONSTRATED  ARGININE  GROWTH  INCREASED  THAN  WHEN  THE  THAT  BECOMES  AT  ARGININE  AND  A  FASTER  EXCESS  LIMITING  ADDED  ACCUMULATED  ADEQUATE  WHEN  WAS  FOR  RATE  TO  DIETS  CONTAINING  MUSCLE  AND  LIVER  IN CHICKS  FED  ARGININE  DIET.  THE  LYSINE  (0.86$)  LYSINE  IS PRESENT  MUSCLE  AND  LIVER  IN THE  CELLULAR  DNA,  EXCESS  RNA  AND  SUPPLEMENTED  RESULTS  CHICK  DIET  GROWTH.  93  TRIAL 3. THIS DIETARY  STUDY  PROTEIN  GASTROCNEMIUS  WAS  DESIGNED  QUALITY  MUSCLE  AND  AND  GAIN  AND  FEED  FOR  DAYS  ARE  PRESENTED  CHICKS AND  GAINED  LOWER THAT  PERIOD. UP  TO  FOR  WEIGHT  DIETARY 20$  PROTEIN  AGREE  WEEKS  REPLACEMENT WEIGHT  (15$  PROTEIN)  OF  SOURCE  AGE  IN  DID OF  CHICKS THE  AT  FED  MUSCLE  14  WEIGHT  AND  CHICKS  DIFFER  AT  AND  MINIMUM  FED  28  23$  FOR  ARE  IN  THE  DIETARY  PROTEIN  COMPARED  AND  WHEAT  LIVER  WERE  THOSE  DNA,  THAN  RESULTS  AT  AND  OF  SHOWED  RATS  RECEIVING  AND  OF  24$  IN  GROWTH  THE  DIET  HOWEVER, GROUPS WHEAT  CONTENT 12  AND  GREATEST  IN  CHICKS  THE  AS  PROTEIN)  THAT  DNA,  6,  DIETARY  12  IN 13.  AMOUNT  FED  20$  PARAMETERS  (15$  FED  PROTEIN  FED  RATE.  HOWEVER,  L-LYSINE  IN  20$  LYSINE  AGE  0.01  THIS  CHICK  TABLES  (P <=0.01)  -=  INDICATE  FOR  PROTEIN  IN  15.  (P  DURING  GROWTH  WERE  LESS  FEED  SIGNIFICANTLY.  RNA,  (1972)  TABLE  CHICKS  GROWTH  COMPONENTS  RNA  MORE  WHEAT-0.5$  GROUP.  IN  BODY PROTEINS  (NRC, 1 9 7 1 ) .  LOWEST  DNA,  DIETARY  REQUIREMENT  OTHER  THE  FED  HOWARTH  TO  AND  WHEAT-0.5$  MUSCLE  CHICK  ILLUSTRATED  DAYS  AND  AGE.  CONTENT  WEIGHT  28  THE  PROTEIN  LIVER  WEIGHT,  ATE  OF  OF  AVERAGE  DAYS  ESTABLISHED  EACH  SUPPORTED  AND  IN  OF  FROM  28  THESE  BROILERS  WHEAT-SOYA  BIOCHEMICAL  WHEAT-SOYA  DAYS  OPTIMUM  BEEN  PROTEINS  (P < 0 . 0 5 )  DAYS  PROTEIN  IN  DIFFERENT  STUDY.  HAS  MUSCLE  PROTEIN.  (P "=0.01)  THAT  DIFFER  AND  PROTEIN  PROTEIN  AND  ACCUMULATION  FOR  THE  PROTEIN  GASTROCNEMIUS  FOR  EFFECTS  THE  AND  RATE THE  RELATIVE  DIFFERENT  WITH  THE  NOT  14  THE  FED  DIETARY  RAPID  REQUIRED  PULLETS  GAINS  TABLE  THROUGHOUT  RESULTS  RNA  CHICKS  20$  MORE  ON  DNA,  OF  IN  THE  A  IS  S I X  SOLE  AT  PROTEIN  BODY  A  INTAKE  CONSUMING  DETERMINE  QUANTITY  LIVER  WEIGHT 14  TO  DID  NOT  RNA, AND  18$  PROTEIN.  CONTENT  FROM  CHICKS  )  TABLE 12.--DNA, RNA  AND PROTEIN  CONTENT  IN THE GASTROCNEMIUS  AND  QUALITY  OF D I E T A R Y  D1ETARY  MUSCLE  TREATMENT  PROTEIN  MUSCLE  F O R TWO  OF CHICKS  RNA  DNA  WT.  MG.  1 WHEAT  BASAL  WHEAT  BASAL  WHEAT-SOYA  (15$ +  PROTEIN)  0.5$  (15$  LYSINE  PROTEIN)  FED DIFFERENT  MG .  682.9  A  0.36  1271.8  B  0.68  955.1  C  1727.6  D  LEVELS  WEEKS  0.94  A  BC  2.30  B  0.41  B  1 .52  0.86  C  3.23°  A  PROTEIN  2"*  70.3 A  A**  180.4  B  149.0  B  WHEAT-SOYA-FISHMEAL (20$  PROTEIN)  *VALUES  FOLLOWED  **VALUES  WHEAT  DATA  BY A  FOLLOWED  BASAL  BY A  CONTAINED  REPRESENT  DIFFERENT  DIFFERENT  0.36$  THE TOTAL  SUPERSCRIPT  SUPERSCRIPT  ARE S I G N I F I C A N T L Y DIFFERENT  ARE S I G N I F I C A N T L Y DIFFERENT  263.2°  (P < 0.05). (P "=0.01).  LYSINE.  OBTAINED  FROM  THE RIGHT  AND L E F T  WET  GASTROCNEMIUS  MUSCLE  PER CHICK  SAMPLED.  TABLE 13.--DNA, RNA AND PROTEIN CONTENT IN THE GASTROCNEMIUS MUSCLE OF CHICKS FED DIFFERENT LEVELS AND QUALITY OF DIETARY PROTEIN FOR FOUR WEEKS  DIETARY TREATMENT  MUSCLE WT. MG .  WHEAT BASAL (15$ PROTEIN)  101 8 . 2  WHEAT BASAL + 0.5$ LYSINE  4547.5  B  WHEAT-SOYA (15$ PROTEIN)  4546.2  B  WHEAT-SOYA-FISHMEAL (20$ PROTEIN)  7582.63  A  C  DNA  PROTEIN  RNA MG .  A* 0.69 2.40 B  5.12  2.20  B  3.30°  1 .20  149.9  A  8  812.7  8  5.78  B  796.8  B  11.36  C  1685.7  C  A  *VALUES FOLLOWED BY A DIFFERENT SUPERSCR1PT ARE SIGNIFICANTLY DIFFERENT (P -= 0.05). **VALUES FOLLOWED BY A DIFFERENT SUPERSCR1PT ARE SIGNIFICANTLY DIFFERENT (P < 0.01). WHEAT BASAL CONTAINED  0.36$ LYSINE.  DATA REPRESENT THE TOTAL OBTAINED SAMPLED .  FROM THE RIGHT AND LEFT WET GASTROCNEMIUS MUSCLE PER CHICK  TABLE 1 4 . - - B O D Y  WEIGHT  GAIN,  FEED  LEVELS  DIETARY  INTAKE,  LIVER  AND QUALITY  WT. G A I N / C H I C K  FEED  TREATMENT  WHEAT  BASAL  (15$  WHEAT  BASAL  +  WHEAT-SOYA  0.5$  (15$  26  PROTEIN)  96  L-LYSINE  A  1 NTAKE/CH1CK  CONTENT  F O R TWO  I N CHICKS  FED  LIVER  DNA  WT.  RNA  G.*  92  1.4  A  4.1  B  3.1  C  8.0  B  29.1  4.9°  12.3  C  38.0  A  B  B  DIFFERENT  WEEKS  G .**  193  B  AND PROTEIN  PROTEIN  21 1  B  83  PROTEIN)  DNA, RNA  OF D I E T A R Y  PROTEIN  MG . / L I V E R *  2.7  10. 8  A  10.7  B C  39.0  B  A  210.0  A  677.9  B C  581 .1  C  B  WHEAT-SOYA-FISHMEAL (20$  *VALUES  FOLLOWED  **VALUES  WHEAT  150°  PROTEIN)  FOLLOWED  BASAL  BY A  BY A  CONTAINED  DIFFERENT  DIFFERENT  0.36$  SUPERSCR1PT SUPERSCR1PT  LYSINE.  252°  ARE ARE  SIGNIFICANTLY SIGNIFlCANTLY  D1FFERENT  DIFFERENT  (P '«= (P  0.05).  < 0.01).  B  764.8°  TABLE 15.--BODY  WEIGHT  GAIN,  FEED  AND  DIETARY  INTAKE,  QUALITY  WT.  LIVER  DNA, RNA  OF D I E T A R Y  GAiN/CHICK  FEED  G.* A  WHEAT  BASAL  WHEAT  BASAL  (15$  21 7  B  0.5$  +  B  276  L-LYSINE  B  WHEAT-SOYA  (15$  249  PROTEIN)  IN CHICKS  LIVER  WT.  *VALUES  FOLLOWED  **VALUES  WHEAT  FOLLOWED  BASAL  .  487°  PROTEIN)  BY A  BY A  CONTAINED  DIFFERENT  DIFFERENT  0.36$  SUPERSCR1PT SUPERSCR1PT  ARE  ARE  RNA  DNA  A  A  2.9  PROTEIN  A  7.2  18.5  B  B  BC  26.7  704  12.1  647°  10.o  24.1  896°  15.4°  32.3  B  SIGNIFICANTLY DIFFERENT  SIGNIFICANTLY  LEVELS  MG . / L I V E R *  DIFFERENT  85.2  8  WHEAT-SOYA-FISHMEAL (20$  FED DIFFERENT  WEEKS  G.*  ::  A  56  PROTEIN)  FOR FOUR  INTAKE/CHICK  G.**  TREATMENT  AND PROTEIN  PROTEIN  B  69.7 B  (P *=  (P  101 .5°  A  398.5  8  1749.6  B  1437.5  2345.3°  0.05). *=0.01 ).  LYSINE.  to  FED  DIFFERENT  I N TABLES.14  SHOWN  SOLE  DIETARY  SOURCE  OF  RNA  AND  (15$  DIETARY  PROTEIN  BIOCHEMICAL  WHEAT-SOYA  AND  15).  SLIGHTLY  DIET  OF  FED  DID  THE  PROTEIN  GROUPS  NOT  20$  RNA  AND  NUTRITIVE  PROTEIN  THOSE  DAYS  WHEAT  PROTEIN  RATS.  AND  THE (P  PROTEIN  0.05)  IN BIRDS  WHEAT  DIET.  LOWER  THROUGHOUT  THE  A  WERE  LLVER  IN THE 20$  THE  DIETS.  IN THE  AS  DIETS  RECEIVING  LYSINE  PROTEIN)  FED  WHEAT-SOYA  20$ «=  RESPECTIVELY  WHEAT  PROTEIN,  LIVER  WHEAT-0.5$ STUDY 20$  LYSINE  (TABLES  14  PROTEIN  WAS  FED  THE  CHICKS  CONSUMING  THE  WHEAT-0.5$  LYSINE  PROTEIN  14  THESE  GROUPS  SIGNIFICANTLY  WHEAT-0.5$  INCREASED  WITH  PROTEIN.  I N RATS  FED  BANKS  OF  GLUTEN  EGG  _ET_AL.  WITH  LLVER  OF  CHICKS  (P  «= 0. 05)  LYSINE 1963)  ( A L L I S O N _ET _AL .  GLUTEN.  WITH  PROTEIN  TOTAL  PROPORTION  CHICKS  DETERMINATION.  THE  WHEAT  OF  ARE  IN CHICKS  HAD  DIETARY  DAYS  CONTENT  OF  OF  28  FED  HAVE  INCREASING THE  AND  (1 964)  CASEIN  THE  MORE  CHICKS  LIVER  INDICATED  LIVER  THAT  INTAKE  RNA  MINIMUM  ALSO  DAYS  GROUP.  NITROGEN  GREATEST  PROTEIN  BUT  AT  OR  AND  VALUES  DEMONSTRATED  INCREASED  RAT  IN  THAT  CELLULAR  RNA  CONTENT.  RESULTS  DIETARY  OF  OBSERVED  SUPPLEMENTATION  AND  THAN  PROTEIN  THAN  DIFFER  BETWEEN  REPORTS  VALUE  WAS  FED  THAT  1  28  FOR  WHEAT-0.5$  NOT  RNA  P R O T E I N -D I E T  AT  CHICKS  DID  DIFFER  THAN  LYSINE  SIGNIFICANTLY  AND  PERIODS  AND  WEIGHTS  (DNA, RNA,  AND  THAN  BOTH  PREVIOUS  LIVER  DNA  HIGHER  DURING  AGE  PROTEIN)  LIVER  LESS  FED  CONSTITUENTS  AND  LIVER  WERE  PROTEIN)  14  FOR  WHEAT-0.5$  (P -=0.05)  (15$  WHEAT-SOYA  15.  AND  PROTEIN,  SIGNIFICANTLY  DNA,  PROTEINS  TO  CHICKS  I N THE  LIVER  BODY  DNA  FED  DIFFERENT  PRESENT  TRIAL  CONTENT  REFLECTED  GROWTH  ALSO  NOTED  QUANTITY  AGREE  WITH  CHANGES  IN TRIAL  1.  AND  QUALITY  RESULTS  OF  REPORTED  IN LIVER  CAMPBELL  WEIGHT  AND  IN  IN  (1950)  KOSTERLITZ  REPORTED  THAT  LIVER  DNA  CELL  SIZE,  MEASURED  INCREASED  AS  BODY  WEIGHT  I NC RE AS ED .  GASTROCNEMIUS  RNA/DNA DAYS  INCREASED 14)  (FIG.  AGREES LEVEL  WITH OF  LYSINE  RESULTS  INDICATE  THIS NATAL CELL  A  TISSUE  OF  AND  MUSCLES  PROTEIN  GREATER  MEARA,  A  VARIOUS  RABBIT,  THE  CLOSE  AGES  SWINE,  14  CORRECT  ALSO  (CYTOPLASM/NUCLEUS) 28  LIVER  DAYS  AND  OF  TO  GROWTH  0.36  THAN  AT  DAYS THAT  MAMMALS  (CELL  THAN  FOR  THE  BETWEEN  OF  SIMILAR  CATTLE  OBSERVED  INCREASED  THREE  AN OF  THE TO  AGE.  ELIOT  (1964)  FIBER  1940-41; OF IN  AL.  AND  DIETARY  REPORTED  (1938)  SIZE  1963)  ET  PROTEIN/DNA TO  IN  SKELETAL  1940-41;  MEHNER  FOLD  POST-  (SMITH,  CHICK  WEIGHT  FOUR  OF  CHICKS  AND  O B S E R V A T I O N S WERE  (MCMEEKAN,  THAT  DAYS  TO  IN  THE  BODY.  MUSCLE  AGE.  INCREASE  DUE  M O N T G O M E R Y _ET _ A L .  WEIGHT  OF  WAS  INCREASE  IN  AND  OR  MCMEEKAN,  RESPONSE  THE  POST-HATCHING  HATCHING  THE  AS  ACCUMULATED  14  AT  1  DAYS  AND  28  AND  0.61  TO  14  AND  RESULT  TRIAL  SPECIALIZATION)  1898j  MOREOVER,  CHICKENS.  SHEEP  OR  FROM  13)  THE  IN  SYNTHESIZED  28  AT  PRIOR  ASSOCIATION  IN  BEING  BIRDS  15).  AND  DAYS  REPORTS  (MACCALLUM,  1947).  _E_T _AL, (1 964)  AND  IN  REFLECTED  (TABLES  WERE  WAS  WITH  28  AT  AMOUNT  COMPLETED  MAMMALS  RATIOS  OBSERVED  ONE  GREATER  DIFFERENTIATION  WAS  PROTEIN.  INCREASED  MUSCLES  SINCE  DIETARY  (FIG.  DAYS  DIET  OF  SIZE  14  CHICK  GROWTH  PROTEINS  MOSS  IN  AT  O B S E R V A T I O N MADE  WAS  THAT  CHICK  PROTEIN/DNA  SAME  AGREEMENT  RNA/DNA  AT  THE  THE  BY  THE  IN  BIRTH  1943;  WITH  IS  MUSCLE  OR  INCREASED  INCREASE  MUSCLE  VIEW  AGE  IN  THE  THE  IN  CONFIRMS  0.86$.  IN  MARKEDLY  OF  AND  MUSCLE  ALSO  BODY  MADE  JOUBERT,  THAT  IN  SIZE  THE  1956).  M U S C L E / N UC L E US THE  CHICK  BETWEEN  AGE.  PROTEIN/DNA  AND  RNA/DNA  RATIOS  AT  14  DAYS  OF  AGE  SHOWED  AN  100  A B C D . F I G . 13.  A B C D  EFFECTS OF THE QUALITY AND QUANTITY OF DIETARY PROTEIN ON GASTROCNEMIUS MUSCLE P R O T E I N / D N A AND RNA/DNA RATIOS IN THE CHICK AT TWO WEEKS OF AGE. A, B, C, D RESPECTIVELY REPRESENTS WHEAT-BASAL, WHEAT-BASAL PLUS 0.5$ L-LYSINE, WHEAT-SOYA (15$ PROTEIN) AND 20$ PROTEIN DIET.  101  700 •  600 •  A B C D F I G . 14.  A B C D  EFFECTS OF THE QUALITY AND QUANTITY OF DIETARY PROTEIN ON GASTROCNEMIUS MUSCLE PROTEIN/DNA AND RNA/DNA RATIOS IN THE CHICK AT FOUR WEEKS OF AGE. A, B, C, D RESPECTIVELY REPRESENTS WHEAT-BASAL, WHEAT-BASAL PLUS 0.5$ L-LYSINE, WHEAT-SOYA (15$ PROTEIN) AND 20$ PROTEIN DIET.  OPPOSITE  RATIOS  PATTERN  DECREASED  INCREASED  LIVER  GROWTH  PROTEIN/DNA  WAS  CHICKS  OR  14  AT  DNA  NO  OF  OR  AND  AND  WHICH  ACCOUNTED  LIVER I N THE  DAYS  OF  AND  RNA  FOR  CELL  AGE  ( F I G . 14  SYNTHESIS  DIETARY  PROTEIN  RNA/DNA  RATIOS  AT  28  OF  WITH  WITH  ADDED  CELL  SIZE  AGE  AND  DIETARY  14  OF  WAS  RATIOS  DIETARY  FOLLOWED  HIGHER  LEVELS  IN TRIAL  BY  OF  1.  RNA/DNA)AT 14  LIVER  WAS  AN  OF  INCREASE  THE  IN  NUMBER  PROTEINS  TO  MUSCLE  FOR  AND  CAUSE  AS  IMPROVED.  USED  CELLS)  GROWTH  ENOUGH  IN THE  LIVER  BY  CONTENT,  WAS  NUMBER  THE  THE  MOREOVER,  MUSCLE  GROWTH  WEIGHT.  INCREASE  RATIO  OF  IN CELLULAR  IN THE  WAS  QUANTITY  IN LIVER  AN  INCREASE  DIETARY  AND  28  AN  OF  DAYS  INCREASED  IN THE  LIVER  LIVER  QUALITY  PROTEIN/DNA  I N THE  WAS  28  AT  ACTIVE  AND  PROTEIN  RESULTS  CHICK  GREATER  INDICATING  THE  RNA/DNA,  AND  PROTEIN  DECREASE  DAYS  DNA  PROTEINS  INTAKE  AS  BY  IN  FOR  MUSCLE  PROTEIN/DNA  BY  THE  DECREASE  RNA.  NUMBER  PROTEIN.  IN CELL  ACCOUNTED  HAND,  I N BODY  ACCUMULATION  (PROTEiN/DNA,  AND  THE  WITH  DIETARY  MULTIPLICATION  DIETARY  RNA/DNA  THE  THE  INCREASE  PROTEIN  16).  LYSINE  AGE.  OF  RNA/DNA  INCREASED  IMPROVED.  INCREASE  CELL  INCREASE  IN  AN  BY  IN CELLULAR  OF  INDICATED  THAN  PROTEIN  THAT  AND  BE  THEREFORE  THE  MUSCLE  THE  OTHER  NOT  1).  VALUE  SIZE,  RATIO  THE  IN THE  OF  OF  STATE  F L G . 13).  WITH  VALUE  IN PROTEIN  AND  THE  TO  WAS  CONSTANCY  WITH  1  DAYS  AND  (TRIAL  SUGGESTED  MUSCLE  PROTEIN/DNA  DAYS  RAPID  NUTRITIVE  RESULTS  14  COMPARED  INCREASED  NUTRITIVE  A G E , ON  RELATIVE  THESE  AS  OF  AND  RATIOS  I N PROTEIN/DNA  INCREASES  QUANTITY  AT  15  (F I G .  I N TRIAL  (A  FIBRES  THE  OR  INCREASE  DAYS  PROTEINS  RNA  LEVEL  SHOWN  CELLULAR  CELLS  LIVER  RNA/DNA  OF  LITTLE  MUSCLE  IN CHICKS  AND  ACCUMULATION  THE  IN THE  PROTEIN  (HYPERPLASIA)  WITH  TO  OF  AND  RATIOS  ALSO  AT  OBSERVED  TRIALS  1  OF  STRONGLY  AGE  AND  3  ON  A B C D G. 15.  A B C D  EFFECTS OF THE QUALITY AND QUANTITY OF DIETARY PROTEIN ON LIVER PROTEIN/DNA AND RNA/DNA RATIOS IN THE CHICK AT TWO WEEKS OF AGE. A, B, C, D RESPECTIVELY REPRESENTS WHEAT-BASAL, WHEAT-BASAL PLUS 0.5$ L-LYSINE, WHEAT-SOYA (15$ PROTEIN) AND 20$ PROTEIN DIET.  104  F I G . 16.  EFFECTS OF THE QUALITY AND QUANTITY OF DIETARY PROTEIN ON LIVER PROTEIN/DNA AND RNA/DNA RATIOS IN THE CHICK AT FOUR WEEKS OF AGE. A, B, C, D RESPECTIVELY REPRESENTS WHEAT-BASAL, WHEAT-BASAL PLUS 0.5$ L-LYSINE, WHEAT-SOYA (15$ PROTEIN) AND 20$ PROTEIN DIET.  105  INDICATE  THAT  LIVER  (HYPERPLASIA) IN  CELL  AGE. DAYS  OF  CELL  NUMBER  34  DOWN TO  AND  AND  AND  DAYS,  AND  SOME  THE  IN  CELL  BY  SIZE  THE  ONLY  AN  14  (1962)  LIFE,  WITH  IS  FIRST  LEBLOND  POST-NATAL  48  OR  DURING  NUMBER  ENESCO  GROWTH  DAYS  THE  INCREASES  IN  OF  IN  AGE  CELL  AND  REPORTED  DURING  LIVER  OF  THE  RAT  CHANGES  INTENSITY WEIGHT  DUE  IN  GREW CELL  OF  CELL  TO  INCREASE  INCREASES  14  FROM  THAT  NUMBER  BY  (HYPERTROPHY)  TRIVIAL  HOWEVER,  INCREASE  28  TO THE  BY  AN  DAYS  OF  INITIAL  17  INCREASE  SIZE.  17  FROM  MULTIPLICATION IN  BOTH  CELL  IN TO  SLOWED  SIZE  BEGAN  APPEAR.  THE  GAIN  ABSOLUTE  ACCUMULATED  DIFFERENCES  LIVER 0.5$  AND  WAS  MUSCLE  DIET  EFFECTS  OF  GAIN  FROM  A  LOW  TO  POOR  DEPRESSED  PROTEIN  TO  ( F L G . 17  IN  THE  QUALITY  MOST  SEVERELY  DEPRESSED  MORE  IN  PROTEIN  IN  SEVERELY  THAN  THREE  WERE  THE  A  28  AND  DAYS.  ON  THE  BODY  ESTIMATED  COMMON  QUANTITY  BY  WHEAT-BASAL,  (WHEAT-S0YBEAN  AMOUNTS  WEIGHT  THE  ACCUMULATION  ON  FISH  THESE  FOR  COMPARING  DNA,  RNA  AND  MEAL) 20$  THE  BASIS  ON  OF  WHEAT-  PLUS  ACCUMULATED  AND  LIVER  AS  THE  DIETARY  (WHEAT-SOYA  AND  WHEAT-0.5$  WHEAT  IN  MUSCLE  DIET).  EACH  THE  OF  MUSCLE  THAN  DNA  AGE  AND  THE  PROTEIN  18).  QUALITY  (THE  PROTEIN  CHICKS  PROGRESSIVELY DECREASED  PROTEIN  AND  PROTEIN  TO  AND  OF  14  AT  PROVIDE  AND  OF  RNA  DAYS  20$  AND  QUALITY  ACCUMULATION  TISSUE  28  TO  RELATIVE  ORDER  ACCUMULATION  WEIGHT  DNA,  VALUES  WHEAT-SOYA  IN  OF  CONSTITUENTS  PROTEIN  ACCUMULATION  A  THE  EXPRESSED  PROTEIN  14  FROM  BETWEEN  LYSINE,  DIETS  AMOUNTS  DNA  BODY  THE  WEIGHT  LOW  (FIG.  17)  AND  IS  STRESS  GAIN  QUALITY  ACCUMULATION.  ACCUMULATION  CONSTITUENTS  DIETS)  ( F L G . 18)  LIVER  WAS  DIETS.  (FIG.  GREATER  BODY  INCREASED  LYSINE  PROTEIN  CONSISTENT  AND  18)  WAS  DEPRESSION  WITH  INCREASING  106  2 O I-  < _l O U  «4  <  B C & PROTEIN F I G . 17.  WHEAT-SOYA  WHEAT-BASAL + 0.5$ LYSINE  WHEAT-BASAL  EFFECTS OF DIETARY PROTEIN LEVEL AND QUALITY ON RELATIVE ACCUMULATION OF DNA ( A ) , RNA (B) AND PROTEIN (C) IN THE CHICK GASTROCNEMIUS MUSCLE BETWEEN 14 AND 28 DAYS OF AGE.  107  100 ** IX  z o 3  80  XX XX  D o o  XK  <I  UJ > — f  60  /  <  *X X*  )<|c XX  40  xx  R / / / /  / /  / / /  20.  / /  0L A B C  D  i PROTE I N FIG. 1  / /  XX XX B C  WHEAT-SOYA  /:• / /  +Y.  IKK  tx XX  PI /"  1 c  D  WHEAT-BASAL WHEAT-BASAL + 0.5$ L-LYS I NE  EFFECTS OF DIETARY PROTEIN LEVEL AND QUALITY ON RELATIVE ACCUMULATION OF DNA ( A ) , RNA ( B ) , PROTEIN (C) IN CHICK LIVER AND BODY WEIGHT G A I N / C H I C K (D) BETWEEN 14 AND 28 DAYS OF AGE.  PROTEIN/DNA 28  RATIO  WITH  DAYS  OF  AGE.  BETWEEN  DNA  AND  QUALITY  OR  QUANTITY.  RESULTS  RNA  THAT  MORE  LIVER  CHICK  GREATLY  THE  REDUCED  DEGENERATION  (1962A)  THAT  THE  OF  DIAMETER  RELATIVE  MONTGOMERY  SARTORIUS  THE  PRESENT  AGREEMENT  UNDER  SEVERE  NORMAL  SIZE  OR  FIBRES  INFANTS  FIBRES  IN  REMAINDER  WAS  WERE  OF  THAT  DYING  THE  GREATLY  TO  LYSINE  AND  THAN  AND/OR  CALORIES  REHABILITATED  ON  MUSCLE  AND  MAY  BE  AGE,  OCCUR.  SEVERE  PROTEIN  PROTEIN  SIZE  EARLY  MONTGOMERY  PROTEIN  MUSCLES  AND  DISAPPEARED,  THERE  TISSUE.  WAS  BIRDS.  OBSERVATION  THE  DEFICIENCY  AND  MAY  IN  THE  CAN  IN  CHANGES  CHICK  WHY  GROW  PROTEIN  IN  IN  DEPRESSED  EXPLAIN  ADEQUATE  A  HOWEVER,  SUCH  MALNUTRITION  DIETS  THE  CELL  ACCUMULATION  (1964)  OIETARY  DEMONSTRATE  PROTEIN  DNA  OF  REDUCED  AT  INTERMEDIATE  IN  NOT  OF  PROTEIN  DEPRESSED  AN  SARTORIUS  UNABLE  M O N T G O M E R Y _E_T _ A L .  WHEN  DOES  UNDERNOURISHED  SEVERELY  PROTEIN  FROM  INTERSTITIAL CONNECTIVE  MUSCLES  WITH  CELLS  (1964)  MORE  TISSUE  DIETARY  WAS  ACCUMULATION  UNDERNOURISHED  JAMAICAN  IN  TRIAL  ACCUMULATION  ALTHOUGH  THE  _ET _ A L .  THE  THAT  OF  ORGANS  DEFICIENCY  SUGGEST  SOME  INCREASE  PROTEIN  DNA  CHICKS  OF  IRRESPECTIVE  THAN  IN  MALNUTRITION  AND  VALUE  BOTH  SEVERELY  LOSS  OBSERVED  IN  ACCUMULATION  LYSINE  IN  OR  NUTRITIVE  ACCUMULATION  PROTEIN  ACCUMULATION  OF  IMPROVED  PROTEIN  IS  IN  CHICKS  TO  A  AND  CALORIES .  A  PREVIOUS  REDUCTION  RATS  FED  IN  A  REPORT  BODY  PROTEIN  PROTEIN  DEFICIENT  WHILE  CALORIE  A  (MENDES  WEIGHT,  PROTEIN  DEFICIENT  DIET  WATERLOW,  AND  DIET.  PRIMARILY  DEFICIENCY  AND  DNA  IT  WAS  REDUCED  INTERRUPTED  IN  1958)  THE  ALSO  MUSCLE  MUSCLE  INDICATED  MUSCLE  AND  OBSERVED  PROTEIN  CELL  A  GROSS  LIVER  THAT  A  SYNTHESIS  GROWTH  OF  1970;  (CHEEK  AND  SHOWED  THAT  MUSCLE  GROWTH  RATS.  LIVER  ADDING  CARBOHYDRATE  INCREASE WITH 13$  PROTEIN WAS  ENERGY  PROTEIN LIVER  MUSCLE  DIET  67  WHILE  AS  QUALITY  SHOWN  BY  FOLLOWING  RATHER  INCREASED  THE  AND  AS  AND  WERE  PROTEIN  OF  AND  HOWEVER,  BY  13,  12  AND  17$  RESULT  OF  THE  ENERGY  CALORIE  M.E.:PROTEIN  A  IN  IN THE  WAS  CONSIDERED  THE  AND  (TABLES  0.5$  L-LYSINE  AND  (ONE DAY  WHEAT-0.5$  28  PROTEIN/DNA  AND  RNA/DNA  OF  GROUPS  THE  IN  WHEAT  THE  TISSUE  WAS  PROTEIN  85.  DIETARY  PRIMARY  BASAL  14  FACTOR AND  15)  DIET.  CONCLUSION  PROTEIN  IN CHICK  TO  IN A  ATTEMPTING  20$  ENERGY  OF  DEMONSTRATED  DEFICIENCY.  D E F I C I E N C I E S ON  GROWTH  TO  REDUCTION  THAN  CONSUMPTION  BY  RESPECTIVELY.  DIFFICULTY  RATIO  TO  CARBOHYDRATES  CAUSED  THE  DIET  IN PROTEIN  PROTEIN  FOR  DIETARY  ADEQUATE  (1969),  WHEN  IMPROVED  LOW  DIETS  INCREASING  DIET  WERE  IN THE  DIETARY  CHICKS  PROTEIN,  PROTEIN  OF  RATS  VALUE  ACCUMULATION  MEASURED.  SOURCE  20$  EFFECTS  DEFICIENT  INTAKE  AND  TRIAL  SYNTHESIS  DNA  ENERGY  PROTEIN  SUMMARY  THE  A  OVER  LIPIDS  INCREASE  FEED  ADDITION  RNA  HOWARTH  OF  PERIOT  FURTHER  PRESENT THE  AND  (1972)  HOWEVER,  PROTEIN  STANDARD  DECREASING  EFFECT  BETWEEN  THE  A  A  BALANCE  DECREASED  COMPLEXITIES  IN  TO  THAT  PROTEIN  PRIORITY  FEEDING  DURAND  DNA,  LITTLE  BY  FAT  RATS  HAD  NITROGEN  INTAKE.  GROWTH.  PROTEIN  OR  WHICH  DISTINGUISH  WAS  AND  DIET  SHOWED  THE  SYNTHESIS  PROTEIN  1970).  H I L L ^ T _ A L .  IMPAIRED  ONE-YEAR-OLD  TOTAL  TO  HILL,  QUALITY  AND  GASTROCNEMIUS  A G E ) WERE  LYSINE,  FED  WHEAT-SOYA  QUANTITY  MUSCLE  WHEAT  (15$  ON  AND  AS  DNA,  RNA  LIVER  THE  SOLE  PROTEIN)  AND  DAYS.  PROTEINS  RATIOS  IN THE  I N THE  CHICK  MUSCLE  FROM  HATCH  INCREASED  TO  28  WITH  DAYS  OF  AGE.  THE  OF  RATIOS  AGE  AS  IN  THE  CONFIRMING  CELL  A  1.  TRIAL  NUMBER  DAYS  AND  QUANTITY  SIMILAR  NOT  (HYPERPLASIA)  IN  CELL  IN  THE  NUMBER  OF  ESTIMATEO  CONSTITUENTS  LIVER  WAS  LESS  IN  DNA,  THAN  IN  WAS  DIET  PERMITTED  CELL  GROWTH  CELLS  OR  MUSCLE  LOW  FED  MORE  IN  SEVERELY  LESS  THROUGHOUT  THE  CHICK  MUSCLE  PROTEIN  (ESPECIALLY  NOURISHED  GROWTH  IS  AND  LIVER  FROM  OCCURS  MUSCLE)  AN  AND  EARLY  MAY  MALNUTRITION  ADEQUATE  IN  DNA  THIS  MAY  BE  AGE  BUT  EXPLAIN  CAN  PROTEIN  GROW  AND  THE  WHY  TO  CALORIES.  THAN  SIZE  DAYS  OF  DAYS  AND  OF  MUSCLE  PROTEIN  DIETS  PROTEIN  ACCUMULA  DNA.  PROTEIN  THE  WHEAT  ACCUMULATION  PROTEIN)  AND  RESULTS  INDICATE  THAT,  BY  LYSINE  CONTINUES  THAT  REDUCED  UNDER  SIZE  IN  OR  WHEN  AND  AT  20$  PROTEIN  A  FASTER  TISSUE  CELL  CHICKS  UNDER-  LOSS  SEVERE  AGE  LIVER  ACCUMULATED  LOW  TO  CELL  28  TO  DIET.  DEGENERATION  NORMAL  14  (15$  INDICATE  CHICKS  BY  PROTEIN  MUSCLE  THE  AND  SYNTHESIS  NO  AND  IN  ORGANS  28  TO  14  IN  IN  IN  AND  FROM  INCREASE  FROM  FED  RNA  GREATLY  AGE  DIET.  INHIBITED  WOULD  OF  RNA  WHEAT-SOYA  STUDY.  DAYS  DNA,  PROTEIN  BOTH  INCREASE  HATCH  DAYS  LYSINE  AN  FROM  CHANGE  DNA,  SEVERELY  SYNTHESIS.  THE  20$  DIETARY  BY  AN  DIETS  CHICKS  IN  DIETS  BY  28  AT  INCREASED  (HYPERTROPHY)  PROTEIN  RECEIVING  SIGNIFICANTLY  WAS  THE  20$  THE  PROTEIN  CHICKS  SIZE  IS  14  FIRST  LIVER  TO  INCREASED  PROTEIN  GROWTH  PROTEIN  COMPARED  AND  INCREASING  FIBRES  AND  LYSINE,  DEFICIENCY,  DIETS  IN  WHEAT-0.5$  ALTHOUGH  CALORIE  THE  WITH  COMPARED  FIBRES  AND  AND  AFFECTED  DURING  DAYS  DIETARY  WITH  LIVER  FED  CHICKS  RNA  TION  THAN  CHICKS  OF  THAT  MUSCLE  IN  14  AT  QUALITY  AND  OF  INCREMENTS  ACCUMULATION  PROTEIN  NUMBER  WHEREAS  AND  AND  INDICATE  AGE  WERE  DECREASED  OBSERVATION  OF  THE  AGE  LIVER  RESULTS  INCREASES 28  THE  OF  SIZE  CELLS  PROTEIN  RATE  OR  AND/OR  REHABILITATED  ON  TRIAL 4. THE  INFLUENCE  ACCUMULATION LIVER  AND PROTEIN  WAS E X A M I N E D  WEIGHT, OF  FED THREE  SUMMARIZED  PROGRESSIVELY  TO  OF  DURING  INCREASE  THE PATTERN  DAYS  0.86$  DIETARY  THE  OF BODY  AS MG./G.  (P <0.01)  BY  INCREASING  LIVER  INCREASED  0.86$  AND NO F U R T H E R  0.86$  BEYOND  EIGHT  DAYS)  LYSINE  THE  WHEN  CONTENT  TISSUE  AMOUNTS  THE  I N A MANNER  CONSTITUENTS  RESPONSE  WEIGHT  PROTEIN  RNA  CONTENT  OCCURRED  CONTRARY  WET T I S S U E  IN CHICKS  THE MUSCLE  WHEREAS WEIGHT.  DAYS)  AS  IMPROVED  DIETARY  AVERAGE  LYSINE  FOR  FROM  EIGHT  0.36  TO  CONSTITUENTS  (AVERAGE  RESPONDED  TO  FOR  DIETARY  OF ABSOLUTE  I N HIGHER  F E D 0.86  AND LIVER  TWO  0.86$. NO  LYSINE  TO T H E R E S P O N S E  WERE  ALSO  0.86$  RNA C O N T E N T  WET T I S S U E )  THAN  TO  BEYOND  AFTER  PROGRESSIVELY  IN THE LIVER  AND  AS MG./G.  0.36  CONTRAST  I N LIVER  (MG./G.)  DIETARY  |N  FOR EIGHT  (MG./LIVER),  INCREASING  INCREASED  TREATMENTS  (AVERAGE  FROM  ARE  HOWEVER,  DECLINED  INCREASE  CONTENT  LYSINE  LIVER  AND L I V E R S  GROUP.  LYSINE  AND  AND  WEIGHTS  (P <0.05)  IMPROVED  (MG./G.  OF BOTH  LIVER  PROGRESSIVE  PROTEIN  DEFICIENCY  DEFICIENT  RNA O C C U R R E D  BY  LlVER  EXPRESSED  IN LYSINE  A  A N D RNA  INCREASE  LYSINE.  LYSINE  A N D 1.24$  DIETARY  (p <0.01)  DAYS,  TREATMENT.  MUSCLE  I N MUSCLE  PROTEIN  I N THE MUSCLES  I N EACH  OF MUSCLE  INCREASED.  WEIGHT  BODY  0.36  SUPPORTED  I N BODY  MUSCLES  RESPECTIVELY.  GAIN,  WET T I S S U E  IMPROVEMENT  ABSOLUTE  WEIGHT  MIXED  SYNTHESIS  (0.36, 0.86, 1.24$)  LEVELS  IN THE LYSINE  RECEIVING  LYSINE  LYSINE  FURTHER  THE STUDY  OF PROTEIN  IN THE TIBIA  A N D RNA  LYSINE  A N D 17  CONCENTRATION  EXPRESSED  DIETARY  16  ON T H E RATE  CHANGES  OF PROTEIN  WAS L E S S  I N THE GROUPS  DETAIL.  DIETARY  I N TABLES  LYSINE  DEGRADATION  I N MORE  AND T H E AMOUNTS  CHICKS  RATE  OF DIETARY  (P <  A N D 1.24$  PROTEIN  AND  VALUES  0.05)  LYSINE.  RNA  TABLE 1 6 . - - C H A N G E S  I N BODY  AND  LIVER  WEIGHTS  OF  CHICKS  FED  GRADED  14 LEVELS  OF  DIETARY  LYSINE  AND  AVERAGE DAYS  OF  8 9 11 15  1 .24$  WEIGHT LIVER  VALUE  REPRESENTS  %  CHANGE  WT.  G .  60 62 68 69  1 .7 5.1 11 .5 25.4  1 .5 2.2 2.0 1 .8  84 82 110 136  10.5 22.4 46.7 81 .3  5.2 4.5 5.0 6.0  88 96 108 148  1 1 .4 20.0 44.0 102.7  4.6 6.3 5.9 5.8  L Y S I NE  79 80 75 73  8 9 11 15  C  LYSINE  76 67 75 75  8 9 11 15  LYSINE-U-  LYSINE  59 59 61 55 0.8cyfo  WITH  NAL  G .  0.36 '•>%  ^EACH  BODY  F1  INITIAL  AGE  INJECTED  AVERAGE  WEIGHT  OF  THREE  CHICKS.  TABLE 1 7 . - - C H A N G E S  IN PROTEINS FED  LYS1NE  %  IN THE MIXED  OF  INJECTED  LYSINE  AND  TIBIA  WITH  133.4A 135.5B 145.2B 147.2 ° 140.3  AVE .  0.86  B  8 9 11 15  145.2 CD 150.0CD 150.0 151 .9° 149.3  8 9 11 15  149.3 ° 152.4° 152.2° E 157.6 1 52. 9^  AVE .  1 .24  FOLLOWED  BY D I F F E R E N T  DIFFERENT  FOLLOWED  REPRESENT  110.o 127.3° E 137.0 161.5° 133.9  - A 7  1 .8  B  114.7 BC 116.2 126.5° 141 Al 124.7  F  C  C  2.6B ° 2.1 AB 1.9  124.0 A° 101 .2BC 117.7 147.1 J 122.5  B  2.3  LETTERS  MG  AND AVERAGES  WET  CAPITAL  TISSUE.  LETTERS  MG./G.'  A  8.6°° B 8.2 ° 8.9°  167.2A 288.9A 275.6A 290.6A 255.6  9.0 B  B  7.6 8.8°° E 9.2°E 9 . 0 °B 8.7  593.5B 521.9B 637.5 853.2° 651 .5  D  B  ? 8 % °A 6.5B 7.9 9.6B 8.2  567.8B 635.3 BC 691.2 862.0° 689.1  ARE S I G N I F I C A N T L Y  CHICKS  RNA*  ./L1VER**  FOLLOWED  OF  LIVER  BY D I F F E R E N T  CAPITAL  (P "^O.OS).  BY DIFFERENT  MG./G.  SMALL  J B  1.9AB 1.9 A 1.8  2.8° AB 1.9B 2.1 A B 1 9B 2.2  C  AVE .  SIGNIFICANTLY  MG./G  1  AND L I V E R  4  -  AB  A  MUSCLES  LYSINE-U-^ C  PROTEIN*  MG . / G .  8 9 11 15  0.36  ''DATA  CONCENTRATION  RNA**  PROTEIN  DAYS  **VALUES  RNA  LEVELS  MUSCLE*  AGE  TREATMENT  *VALUES  AND  GRADED  DIFFERENT  (P •<  0.01).  MG./L1VER** A  13.2A 1 8.2A 1 8.0A 18.2 16.9 B  39.3B 38.9B 46.2 B ° 54.3 B ° 44.7 B  39.38 40.7B 46.3 B ° 56.2 B ° 45.7  LETTERS  ARE  CONSTITUENTS  MUSCLE  14  SIZE  DAYS  (TABLE  OF  AS  PROTEIN  0.36  RECEIVING  RNA  TO  OBSERVED  SIMILAR  DIETARY  LYSINE  0.86$  1.11$  IN THE  LYSINE  DIETARY  LYSINE  SUPPORTS  OF  CARRY  OVER  1^24$  TO  FROM  152  0.86  THE  EGG  EXPECTED  1.11$  LYSINE  1.  LYSINE  0.86  AND  G./CHICK.  AND  1.11$  (1.24$) 1.24$  IN  G./CHICK  RESPECTIVELY.  DUE  DIFFERENCE  EACH  PER  TO  A  TRIAL  AND  TREATMENT  TREATMENT  WERE  WERE  FOR  TO  USED  BE  AND  FEED  14  RNA  DAYS  FEED  DAYS  IN TRIAL  1.  1  WERE  PER  PROTEIN  PRESENT  MORE  CHICKS  ORDER  92,  211  INTAKE  WAS  TREATMENT  TRIAL  73,  AND  36  WAS  USED  CHICKS  RUN  GROWTH.  FED  0.86$ AND  TOLERANT  132  AND  0.36,  191  PROBABLY  TWELVE  WHEREAS  A  RECEIVING  RECEIVING  TEMPERATURE.  TRIAL  CHICK  WERE  THE  SLOW  CONSUMING  OF  CHICKS  CHICKS  PRESENT  THE  OF  TO  1.24$  I N THE  REPRESENT  IN THE  TRIAL  IN FEED  IN ENVIRONMENTAL  IN THE  OF  IN TRIAL  OF  DUE  WET OR  PROTEINS  MUSCLE  INTAKES  WERE  INTAKES  F E D 0.86  IN CHICKS  AND  AT  CHICKS  (MG./G.  IN LYSINE  IN THIS  DECREPANCY  NUMBER  THAT  CONTENT  THAN  USED  15  3)  OF  THAT  BETWEEN  PROiTEIN  METABOLIZED  GROWTH  DIET.  FOR  1,  AT  INCREASED  RNA  1  IN  SIGNIFICANTLY  IN CHICKS  DEFICIENT  LESS  CHICKS  THE  IN THE  USED  (TRIALS  AND  IN TRIAL  DIFFERENCE  THAN  CHICK  PROTEIN  PROTEIN  INCREASED  LIVER  GROWTH  IRRESPECTIVE  RESULTS  NO  IS SLOWLY  IN THE  CHANGES  CHICK  16)  THAT  IN THE  MUSCLE  LIVER  LIVER  WITH  PROTEIN  CONTRAST,  LYSINE  WITH  SEVERELY  LYSINE  OF  OCCUR  3.  (TABLE  DEPRESSED  HOWEVER,  AND  HIGHER  VIEW  THAT  MUSCLE  1  CHICK  LYSINE  DIET  WERE  HIGH  0.36,  A  LYSINE  I N TRIAL  THE  THE  RATE,  SINCE  AGREE  DEMONSTRATES  CELLS  AMOUNTS  DEFICIENT  FED  LIVER  LYSINE.  GROWTH  LYSINE  RNA  CHICKS  OF  DIETARY  AND  OF  AGAIN  PROGRESSED  LEVEL.  TISSUE)  LIVER  ONCE  IN TRIALS  GROWTH  CONTENT  0.86  LYSINE  MULTIPLICATION  CHICK  1.24$  AND  DIETARY  AS  LYSINE  AND  FROM  AND  AGE  17)  DIETARY  0.86  TO  IN  CHICKS  PER  I N SUMMER  (AUGUST,  1972)  JANUARY,  1972).  LYSINE-U-  C  WHEREAS  RNA  IN  THE  HOWEVER,  INTO  FIGURES  TRIAL  19  THE  AND  MUSCLE  1  IT  IS  CHICKS  20  AND  WAS  RUN  NOT  DID  WINTER  (DECEMBER,  IF  ADMINISTRATION  KNOWN  INFLUENCE  ILLUSTRATE  LIVERS  IN  THE  THE  FEED  OF  OF  INTAKE.  ACCUMULATION  RESPECTIVELY  1971/  OF  CHICKS  PROTEIN  FED  THE  AND  THREE  14 LEVELS  OF  TION.  MUSCLE  TREATMENTS. IRREGULAR  OF  PROTEIN AND  RECEIVING  0.86  OF  FED  LINEAR  MANNER  DAILY  THE  DIFFERENCE  ON  STUDY).  ON  THE  EIGHTH  PERCENTAGE  MANNER  OF  TO  LYSINE  LIVER  THE  MUSCLE  OF  LYSINE  LIVER  BETWEEN  DAY  DAY  OF  DUE  ADMINISTRA-  TO  LYSINE  RESULTING  AFTER  4.3  4.9$  LINEAR PER  IN  AN  17.6  AS  LLVER  PROTEIN/RNA  ONCE  MG.  WAS  A  IN  OR  ON  RNA  BY  A  CURVE-  PER  DAY.  BY  DIVIDING  AND  (PERIOD  OF  ACCUMULATED  THE  THE  LIVER  EIGHTH  7  PERCENTAGE  WAS  THE  6$  THE  AT  CHICKS  IN  ADMINISTRATION  RATIO  AGAIN  IN  ESTIMATED  INJECTION  RADIOISOTOPE  ACCUMULATION.  DAY  PROTEIN  COMPOSITION  EXPRESSED  MANNER  INCREASED  ACCUMULATION  RADIOISOTOPE  DEMONSTRATING  A  (0.36$)  DIET  PROTEIN  VALUE  PROTEIN.  AND  IN  RESPECTIVELY.  PROTEIN  FOLLOWING  OF  IRREGULAR  APPROXIMATELY  LIVER  RESULTING  LEVEL  PROTEIN  1.24$  OR  RATE  RATE  THE  MG./DAY  AT  OF  WAS  C  LYSINE-U-  GRADUALLY  ACCUMULATED  DEFICIENT  FIRST  THE  20)  LYSINE  RATE  THE  INCREASED  (MG./G.)  (FIG.  THE  DURING  RATIO.  42.0  AND  THE  THAT  RNA  PROTEIN/RNA  37.1  CHICKS  P R O T E I N (MG./G.) MUSCLE  LIVER RATE  (0.36, 0.86, 1.24$)  LYSINE  CONSTANT  THE  OF  VALUE  GAVE  THE  IN  SIMILAR  A  IRRESPECTIVE  CORRELATION  OF  RNA  TO  SYNTHESIS.  INCORPORATION  CHICKS  FED  OF  THE  LYSINE-U-  THREE  LEVELS  C  ACTIVITY  INTO  THE  (0.36, 0.86, 1.24$)  LIVER  OF  AND  LYSINE  14 IS  SUMMARIZED  IN  TABLE  18.  ACTIVITY  OF  LYSINE-U-  C  EXPRESSED  AS  X —'  1  1  1  2  3  DAY  1  PROTEIN,  LEVELS  OF  1 4  5  FOLLOWING  MUSCLE  u- c.  1  4  7  I  ADMINISTRATION  RNA  DIETARY  1  6  AND  LYSINE  I  8 9  OF  PROTEIN/RNA AND  *  I  10  LYSINE-U-  OF  INJECTED  CHICKS WITH  4  C  FED  LYSINE  GRADED -  117  FIG.  20.  LIVER GRADED  PROTEIN, LEVELS  LYSINE-U-  1 4  C.  RNA OF  AND  PROTEIN/RNA  DIETARY  LYSINE  AND  RATIO  IN CHICKS  INJECTED  WITH  FED  TABLE 1 8 . - - E F F E C T  OF D I E T A R Y  LYSINE  DAYS 14c  ON  TISSUE  PROTEIN  DEGRADATION  LIVER*  AFTER  RADIPACTIVITY  INJECTICN  DPM/G.  MUSCLE*  SPECIFIC  TISSUE  DPM/MG.  ACTIVITY  RADIPACTIVITY  PRPTEIN  DPM/G.  0.36$ A  1 2 4 8 TOTAL**  15,416.6B 13,880.2 12,429.3° 13,099.5° 54,815.6 0.86$  1 2 4 8 TOTAL**  A  189.1B 164.4 87.5° 59.3° 500.3  1 2 4 8 TOTAL**  *VALUES **VALUES  FOLLOWED FOLLOWED  BY A BY A  DIFFERENT DIFFERENT  LETTER  CAPITAL  ARE SIGNIFICANTLY  LETTER  101.6s 112.6 77.3° 70.9° 362.4  A  154.4B 130.0 94.3° 42.2° 420.9° SMALL  A  115.6B 102.4 85.7° 90.5° 394.2  LYSINE  A  19,128.28 13,172.8 11,338.9° 6,212.2° 49,852.1°  PRDTEIN  A  14,729.0S 16,887.3 11,586.1° 10,293.5° 53,962.8 1.24$  A  ACTIVITY  LYSINE  A  21,586.2B 19,088.7 11,044.9° 8,376.3° 60,096.1  DPM/MG.  A  212.28 157.7 128.2° 104.3° 602.4  A  SPECIFIC  LYSINE  A  23,312.1B 20,045.6 17,534.5° 16,833.4° A 77,725.6  TISSUE  A  14,751.5S 12,125.0S 11,795.8 10,293.5° 48,965.8° DIFFERENT  ARE SIGNIFICANTLY  (P  DIFFERENT  98.9s 79.6B 77.5 65.3° 321.3° <0.01). (P *=0.01). CO  RADIOACTIVITY PROTEIN)  BOTH  TO  DECREASED  IN THE  THE  (DPM/G.  INCORPORATED  AND  DAY  OF  INTO  I N THE  PREVIOUS  SPECIFIC AT  A  MUSCLE  THE  LIVER  STUDIES  AND  WITH  FROM  (SIDRANSKY  THE  TOTAL  MUSCLE  HIGHER  ACTIVITY  SIGNIFICANT  ADMINISTRATION.  (:P < 0 . 0 1 )  SIGNIFICANTLY  OR  PROGRESSIVELY  LIVER  EIGHTH  TISSUE)  TISSUE  (P *=0.01)  RATE  OF  ADMINISTRATION  RADIOACTIVE  DURING  LEVELS  AND  DAY  (DPM/MG.  THE  OF  FARBER,  LYSINE  STUDY  DIETARY 1958;  DECREASED LYSINE.  NIMNI  AND  BEVETTA,  14 1961)  HAVE  DEMONSTRATED  TRYPTOPHAN-DEFICIENT  PROTEINS  BEEN  THAN  THE  REPORTED  ISOLATED  DIET  GROUP  RATS  FED  1  DIET  INDICATING  A  RESULTS  PROTEIN  KIDNEY  DIETS  4  AND  TARVER,  AGREE  THAT  WHEAT  C  LABELLED  SPECIFIC  THE  LIVER  THREONINE-  ACTIVITY  SUPPLEMENTED  GLUTEN  CELL  OF  DIET.  SAP  AND  INCORPORATED  THAT  1952;  FIRST  FOR  WITH  HAD  DAY  ALLISON  1961  AND  FROM C A S E I N - F E D R E S P O N S I B L E FOR  SPECIFIC  ADMINISTRATION  INTESTINAL  THE  WANNEMACHER,  C  (0.36$)  NEED  DIETS  ON  WITH  A  OR  LIVER  |T  HAS  ALSO  MICROSOMES  158$  MORE  ANIMALS. THE THE INCREASE.  ACTIVITIES  WERE  HIGHER  MICROSOMES  ON  THE  FIRST  „  LYSINE-U-  DEFICIENT  THE  HIGHER  1969)  PREPARATIONS BE P R I M A R I L Y  RADIOACTIVITIES  OF  HAD  FED  „  4  LEUCINEC THAN WERE B E L I E V E D TO  DAY  RATS  CONSUMING  (RODRIGUEZ,  FROM 1  THAT  AND  THAN  IN CHICKS  IN THOSE  LYSINE  FOR  PREVIOUS  LOWER  MUSCOSA  FED  GROWTH  THAT  0.86 OF  CHICKS  OBSERVATIONS  SPECIFIC  PROTEINS  AND  WITH  ACTIVITIES  THAN  RATS  WERE  FED  0.36$  RATS  FED  IN THE  ADMINISTRATION  AND  WANNEMACHER,  1958;  WATERLOW,  LYSINE  DIETS  LYSINE.  HIGH  LIVER,  RECEIVING  RADIOISOTOPE  _ET _ A L .  THE  1.24$ L Y S I N E  OF  MURAMATSU  FED  LOW  (SOLOMON  PLASMA,  PROTEIN  AND  1959;  1963). 14  WAS'E  BIOLOGICAL HALF-LIFE ( T ^ ) OF L Y S I N E C I N THE L I V E R PROTEINS. ESTIMATED IN THE PRESENT STUDY BY P L O T T I N G THE LOGARITHM OF  SPECIFIC  21).  (FIGURE  RATE  (OR  OF  ACTIVITY THE  PROTEIN  SLOPE  AND THE FORMULA  T^/O.693)  DAILY  GAVE  FRACTIONAL  WAS  DERIVED  WAS  CALCULATED  THE  RATE  OF  TOTAL  2  TG/II.N  l l N 2/T^.  100  AS  RATE  DESCRIBED OF  CONSTANT  PROTEIN)  AS  RADIOACTIVITY  WHICH  THE TURNOVER  CATABOLIC  FROM  (DPM/G.  CONSTANT  AS  PERCENTAGE  A  THE  TURNOVER  RNA  DEGRADATION  FUNCTION  GAVE  IS EQUIVALENT  TIME  FOR  A  THE  TIME  DEGRADATION  TG/2.3  TO  2  LOG  THE  FOR DEGRADATION.  OF  RATE  THE TOTAL  CONSTANT  OF  TOTAL  PROTEIN  OF  SYNTHESIS  (1971)  B Y E N W O N W U _ET _ A L .  AND AMOUNT  OF  PROTEIN  FROM  PRESENT  14 DURING  THE EXPERIMENT.  INJECTION  WAS  TAKEN  AS  AT  TO  TOTAL  LIVER  AT  T1  T1  OF  PROTEIN =  TOTAL R1  =  =  LIVER  Y =  CEASE  BETWEEN  2  (1  PROTEIN  THE  TIME  HALF-LIFE  AND  Ro  AND  RATE  AND  PLOT.  CHANGE  PROTEIN  I N TOTAL  MOLECULE  PROTEIN.  DOES  NOT  T1,  D1  EQUATION  OF  T1.  2  NEWLY  SYNTHESIZED  BY SUBSTITUTING  3  PROTEIN  EQUATIONS  1  3,  S1 = Ro - xRo  HALF  xRo.  +  ACTIVITY  THE  CURVES  INITIAL  F E D 0.36,  CORRESPOND  DEGRADATION  IN THE LIVER  NEW  AND  -  YRO  FOR CHICKS  VALUES  CATABOLIC  FRACTIONAL  TO  SPECIFIC  REACHING  NET DAILY  SYNTHESIZED  =  T1  AND  R1  =  OF  I N E Q U A T I ON  SI  TO  1  EQUATION  AMOUNT  Y ) RO -  +  THUS  RESPECTIVELY  = TO  BETWEEN AND  FRACTIONAL  DAILY  =  S1  BETWEEN  RO  SYNTHESIS S1  DEGRADED  PROTEIN  Y)  SINCE -  EQUATION  RADIOACTIVITY  WHERE  R1  EXPONENTIALLY  DAILY  +  T1 .  DAY AS  Ro  =  C  LYSINE-U-  RX  FROM  (1  WHERE  LIVER  AND THE SEVENTH  D1 X  DAY FOLLOWING  PROTEIN  AMOUNT  DERIVED  AT  To  TIME  CALLED WHERE  DAYS  THE FIRST  DURING  TO  OF  ( F I G . 21)  VALUES 0.86  10.4,  9.6, 14.0  THE STUDY  I N 7.2,  AND  7.1  (7  AND  AND  DECREASED  4.9  1.24$  7.5  DIETARY  DAYS  13.3$.  DAYS)  WAS  5.2  AND  LYSINE.  TURNOVER  TOTAL  PROTEIN  ESTIMATED  AT  5.4  4.41  l  1  1  2 DAY  1  3  1  I  4  5  FOLLOWING  i  6 7  8 9  ADMINISTRATION  OF  L YS I  10 NE-U-'' C 4  14 FIG.  21.  RATE  OF  LOSS  RECEIVING  IN  GRADED  C-PROTEIN LEVELS  OF  FROM  LIVERS  DIETARY  OF  LYSINE.  CHICKS  139.8, 344.2 0.86  A N D 1.24$  THE  PROTEINS  LYSINE  THAN  LYSINE  SLOWER  NORMAL  (1971)  GAVE  HIGHER  RADIOISOTOPE  SYNTHESIZED  GAVE  DAILY  ESTIMATED  LITERATURE FR 1 E D B E R G  THOMPSON  CHICKS  A  T H E RANGE  ADEQUATE  VALID  FROM  AND  52.9  MG./DAY)  1956;  VALUES  IN CHICKS  RECEIVING  THAT  0.36,  FOR  THE FORMULA  PROTEIN  (SHEMIN  A N D MORSE,  PROTEIN  RESULTS  AND DEGRADATION  LESS  INDICATING  THAN  AGAIN  A  ETA L .  DAY  OF  ENWONWU  DEGRADED  AND  I N THE FORMULA.  REPORTED  NEUBERGER  1963;  HIRSCH  I N THE PRESENT  DEMONSTRATE  THAT  LIVER  AFTER  I N  THE 1944;  AND RLTTENBERG,  1 948;  M U R A M A T S U _ET _ A L .  HIGHER  BETWEEN  THE FIRST  PROTEINS  ADEQUATE  RESIDUAL  B Y ENWONWU  ON  LIVER  SYNTHESIZED  ARE CONSIDERED  OF LIVER  OF LIVER  REPRESENT  THE DIFFERENCE  EARLIER.  SINCE  OF  PROTEINS  PROTEINS  AND THAT  DAYS  LIVER  REPORTED  THE STUDY  TARVER  RATE  OF LIVER  ESTIMATE  TO 7  SYNTHETIC  PROBABLY  BY TAKING  VALUES  2.8  CONSIDERABLY  LYSINE  LYSINE  DESCRIBED  REPORTED.  SYNTHESIS  WAS  THAN  THROUGHOUT  AND BALLOU,  HALF-LIFE  A N D 3)  ON T H E E I G H T H  1948,  _E_T _ A L .  0.36$  THAN  THE FORMULA  HALF-LIFE  VARIED  1  ESTIMATION  VALUES  INJECTION  (1971)  PROTEIN  AND LOWER  (TRIALS  BY USING  COMPOSITION  1966).  TIME  FED  THE EGG.  THE STUDY  WITHIN  TURNOVER  THE VIEW  DURING  _ET _ A L .  20, 49.2  ( I . E .  GROUPS.  I N CHICKS  FROM  PROTEIN  MG.  I N LYSINE-DEFICIENT CHICKS  CONFIRM  PROTEIN  370.7  AND  1951;  _ET _ A L .  AND  HIATT,  STUDY  T H E RATE  FALL  OF  IN THE LIVER  OF L Y S I N E  DEFICIENT  I N THE LIVER  OF CHICKS  CONSUMING  REQUIREMENT  OF L Y S I N E  FOR  PROTEIN  SYNTHESIS.  THE  PROTEIN)  FROM  LOGARITHM  WAS  THE PLOT  PLOTTED  OF S P E C I F I C  AS A  FOR CHICKS  ACTIVITY  FUNCTION  OF MUSCLE  OF TIME.  FED DIETARY  LEVELS  PROTEIN  THE R E S U L T I N G O F 0.36,  0.86  (DPM/G.  CURVES AND 1  LYSINE  ARE  I N FlG.  ILLUSTRATED  IRRESPECTIVE  OF  THE LEVEL  OF  22.  MUSCLE  DIETARY  PROTEIN  LYSINE  SPECIFIC  DECREASED  ACTIVITY  IN A  CURVELI  NEAR  14, MANNER THE  FROM  THE FIRST  CURVELINEAR  TIME  MADE  LYSINE  PATTERN  HOWEVER,  LYSINE  AVAILABLE  OF  MUSCLE  (1963)  MUSCLE  PROTEINS  NEUBERGER  THE  OF  100  DAYS.  PROTEINS TURNED RAT  67  DAYS,  27  DAYS  AND  AND LIGHT  MUELLER  MEROMYOSIN  ON  AND A  OF  LOSS  OF  MUSCLE  IN THE SPECIFIC DAYS  RATS  HALF-LIFE ISOTOPE TO  HAD  SKELETAL  A  TISSUE  WAS  NOT  MURAMATSU  THAT  INDICATED  HALF-LIFE  OF THE  SIGNIFICANT,  O F 24  HALF-LIFE  TO THAT  MIXED 30  DAYS.  60$  OF  INTO  ISOLATED  MUSCLE  CONCLUDE  INDIVIDUAL  PHOSPHORYLASE  THAT  THAT  RATES.  AND  WAS  DAYS  BY  ACTIVITY  OBSERVED  ALSO  THE  INCORPORATION  HEAVY  THE  PROTEIN  HAD  HE  MEROMYOSIN  20  COMPUTED  MUSCLE THAT  ABOUT  PROTEINS  FOR THE  GLYCERALDEHYDE-3-PHOSPHATE  MUSCLE  SKELETAL  RECEIVING  THE REST  DAYS,  FOR RABBIT  1.24$  AND  WHILE  100  MEROMYOSIN  STUDY  HAND,  16  OF  DIFFERENT  OBSERVED  OF  (1956)  BALLOU  (1956)  OF  (1966)  OF  THE OTHER  I N YOUNG  AT MARKEDLY  ALDOLASE  THE RATE  THE SEVEN  OF  PROTEINS  IN CHICKS  BE C A L C U L A T E D  HAD  WAS  THAN  FUNCTION  23).  AND  THE CHANGE  A  F E D 0.86  IN CHICKS  NOT  LED VELICK  DEHYDROGENASE  OF MUSCLE  I N THE RAT COULD  THOMPSON  THE HALF-LIFE  AS  INCONSISTENT.  STUDIES  OVER  ACTIVITY  VALUES  RAPIDLY  C ADMINISTRATION.  ARE  (1951),  OF MUSCLE  SPECIFIC  PROTEINS MORE  LYSINE-U-  I N THE LITERATURE  DURING  _ET _ A L .  PROTEINS  ON  DAY OF  HALF-LIFE  ( F L G . 22  BECAUSE  PROTEINS  MUSCLE  OF  OVER  REPORTS  PROTEINS  E_T _ A L .  PROTEIN  MUSCLE  DIET  ACTIVITY  DATA  OF  D I D TURN  DEFICIENT  SPECIFIC  THE EIGHTH  THE ESTIMATION  DIFFICULT. DIETARY  TO  WERE  BOTH  DAYS.  ON  THE TURNOVER  MUSCLE  WERE  80  GAVE 50  DAYS,  DAYS,  BOTH  29  OF  WAS  TROPOMYOSIN  THE OTHER TIMES  ACTIN  HAND, LIGHT  DAYS.  WAS  MCMANUS AND  HEAVY  124  5.2  5.0  o o_ o co  0.36$  LYSINE  CL Q C5  0.86$  O  ^•Al .24$  4.8  4.61  2 3 DAY  FIG.  22.  RATE  -1_  FOLLOWING  OF LOSS  CHICKS  -U 4  OF  5  _1_  6  LEVELS  LYS I NE  8 9  ADMINISTRATION  14, ' C-PROTEIN  F E D GRADED  7  LYSINE  FROM  OF  10  LYSINE  THE TIBIA  OF D I E T A R Y  LYSINE.  u- c 1 4  MUSCLE  OF  125  FIG.  23.  CHANGES OF  THE  CHICKS  IN  THE  LIVER FED  PERCENTAGE  AND  GRADED  MIXED  DECREASE  TIBIA  LEVELS  OF  MUSCLE DIETARY  OF  SPECIFIC  TISSUE LYSINE.  ACTIVITIES  PROTEINS  OF  126  (1969)  FRITZ _ET_AL.  DEHYDROGENASE-5  LACTATE  SKELETAL  MUSCLE  OBTAINED  AND  TOTAL  BY FOLLOWING  A  A  HALF-LIFE  SOLUBLE  CONTINUOUS  31  OF  21  AND  DAYS  FOR  PROTEIN  RESPECTIVELY  IN  DIETARY  A D M I N I S T R A T I O N OF  A  14 C-LABELLED  OF C A T A B O L I S M  SKELETAL  MUSCLE  GLUTAMATE 3.6  OF  AND  15.6  MIXED DAYS  4-  MUSCLE  AS  FROM  FROM  ADULT  RATS  AND  THE DECAY  THE PROTEIN  JET_ _AL_. 13.1  WAS  RATS  (1971  WITH  )  ESTIMATED  RATE HE  FRACTIONS.  AS  THE  THAT  ASPARTATE  OBSERVED  WITH  INJECTION  OF  A  OF  AND  A  HALF-LIFE  PROTEINS  THE HALF-LIFE  COMPARED  INTRAVENOUS  FRACTIONAL  FRACTION  AND M Y O F I B R I L L A R  SHOWED  DAYS  OF  (1970)  MlLLWARD  RATS.  AND M Y O F I B R I L L A R  FOR THE S A R C O P L A S M I C  PROTEINS  PROBLEM  MUSCLE  OF  ACIDS  AMINO  90$  (GAN  30$  RESULT,  1967;  INTO  FOR THE  VALUE  10.2  OF  ASPARTIC  MAY  ARISE,  THAN  HOWEVER,  MORE  ERRORS  SINCE  THE TRUE  il'967;  AND THIS  AC I D -  AND A  OF  THAT  OF  AMOUNT  WAS  50  IS  RATES  TO  NUTRITION  ABOUT  1968). As FOR  A  TISSUE  IN PROTEIN IS  THE RESULTS  PROTEINS  CELL.  TOTAL  TO  MUSCLE  DEGRADATION  MUSCLE  THE  ACCORDING  THE RADIOACTIVITY  MIXED  THE  I S FROM  OF  AND STEPHEN,  TURNOVER.  GREATER  WITHIN  1968)  IN SKELETAL  OF  IN THE  B Y R E U T I L I Z A T I ON  I N THE LIVER  VARIES  WATERLOW  THE LOSS  PROTEIN  AND STEPHEN,  IN ESTIMATES  RATE  OF  ACID  REUTILIZATION  DEMONSTRATE  RAPIDLY  AMINO  RATES  IS COMPLICATED  DEGRADATION  PROTEIN  ACID  DEGRADATION  TISSUES  WATERLOW  (GAN A N D J E F F A Y ,  RAPID  OVER  FROM  ENDOGENOUS  AMINO  SIGNIFICANT  PROTEINS  STUDY,  OF  INCORPORATED  PROTEIN  I N THE OTHER  AND J E F F A Y ,  CIRCUMSTANCES.  TO  MEASURING  LIBERATED  REUTILIZATION  AMOUNT  OF  AND  THE  TURN  DETERMINED  YOUNG  SKELETAL  LESS  INTO  TO  C. THE  10  CARBONATE  DAYS  FOR DEPLETED  HYDROLYSATE  FOR THE S A R C O P L A S M I C  ISOLATED  RESPECTIVELY.  14  PROTEIN  C-LABELLED  INJECTED RATE  YEAST  OF  OF  DEGRADED  THE  PRESENT  CHICKS DID  DAILY  AS THE  127  LEVEL  OF DIETARY  TURNOVER  WITH  HIGH  F E D T H E 0.86  CHICKS PROTEIN  SYNTHESIS  23  FIGURE THE  SPECIFIC  THE  PERIOD  DIETARY LABEL  A  LYSINE  AND  THE FIRST THIS  FROM  THE TISSUE  PROTEINS  THOSE  OF T H E BODY  AGREEMENT PROTEIN PROTEINS PROTEIN  TO  WEIGHT  WITH  PREVIOUS  I N DOGS  (YULLE  I N RATS WERE  FROM  MUSCLE  REPORTS  RAPID  THAN  AND MUSCLE  TISSUES  THE LOSS  RATE  0.36  0.86$  THAT  1959)  THAN  THE TURNOVER AND OF LIVER  1963)  I N THOSE  OF  I T WAS  CHANGES RESULTS  RATES  OF  RESEMBLED AREI N PLASMA  AND INTESTINAL  RECEIVING  RECEIVING  INCREASED  OF THE LABEL  WHEN  THESE  OF OF T H E  THE LEVEL  OF THESE 24.  IN FLG.  WHEN  A  OF  DURING  THE LEVEL OF LOSS  GREATER TO  DECREASE  THE RATE  THE PATTERN  AS SHOWN  EJ_AL.  THAT  IN THE DIET.  (M U R A M A T S U _ET _AL .  MORE  IN  AND THE MUSCLE  DAY AGAINST  THE LIVER  WAS A T A  1.24$.  THE PERCENTAGE  OF T H E L I V E R  OF L Y S I N E  INCREASED  0.86  FROM  AN ACTIVE  INDICATE  PROTEIN  17)  DIET  INDICATES  I N BOTH  LEVELS  WAS  RAPID  (TABLE  TO T H E E I G H T H  FIGURE  THE PROTEINS  LYSINE  A  CONCENTRATION  BY PLOTTING  IN PROTEINS  INCREASING  INCREASED  LYSINE  A N D 23).  DEGRADATION.  WITH  DIETARY  PROTEIN  1.24$  OR  ACTIVITY  LYSINE.  FROM  MUSCLE  WAS O B T A I N E D  FROM  ( F I G . 22  INCREASED  MUCOSA  ADEQUATE  DIETARY  DEFICIENT  PROTEIN  35, DIET.  SUCH  THE R A T E S  AS  OBSERVED  THE  OF LOSS  INTESTINAL  MUCOSA,  BY MURAMATSU  CHANGES  OF  I N BODY  S  PLASMA,  _ET _ A L .  WEIGHT  FROM  KIDNEY,  (1963)  WITH  THE PROTEINS  SPLEEN  TO OCCUR  INCREASING  IN A  LEVELS  I N SEVERAL  AND LIVER  SIMILAR  TISSUES  WERE  ALSO  MANNER  OF C A S E I N  IN  AS  THE  DIET.  RESULTS  BETWEEN  THE  ILLUSTRATED  THE PATTERN  TURNOVER  RATE  I N FIG.  OF T H E GROWTH  OF BOTH  23  A N D 24  RESPONSE  THE LIVER  SUGGEST  A  CORRELATION  AND THE RESPONSE  AND MUSCLE  TISSUE  CURVE  PROTEINS.  OF  THE  128  FIG.  24.  BODY  WEIGHT  LEVELS  OF  GAIN  DIETARY  PER  CHICK  LYSINE.  PER  DAY  OF  FEEDING  GRADED  INCREASED DIETARY  LYSINE  RESULTED WE  TURNOVER  IN  TISSUE  ACTIVE  PROTEIN  PROTEIN  PROTEIN  ACCUMULATION  WITH  INCREASING  LEVEL  OF  SYNTHESIS  AND  DEGRADATION  THAT  AND  THE  INCREASE  BODY  HENCE  IN  IGHT.  PRESENTED  INCORPORATION FED  DIETS  VALUES  IN  RELATIVE  OF  THE AS TO  TABLE A  TISSUE  LIVER  INCREASING  DECREASED  <  POOL  IN  THAN  SIZE  AMINO  IN  OF  INTO  WAS  THOSE  OF  TISSUE  MOREOVER,  WITH  0.86  LYSINE  0.86  RECOVERY  DIETARY  MUSCLE  DOSE,  PROTEINS  FOR  14  IN  AND  SPECIFIC  THE  IN  CHICKS THE  DAYS.  TISSUE  PROTEINS  ACTIVITY  LYSINE.  EXPRESSED  NOT  REFLECT  THE  OF  AND  1.24$  LYSINE.  AND  SPECIFIC  DIETARY  THE  LYSINE  |N  ACTIVITY,  LEVEL  INDICATE  OF  RECOVERY  OF  LYSINE  THAN  SYNTHESIS  OF  FACT,  AN  ACTIVITY  1.24$  THE  RADIOACTIVE  PROTEIN  (0.36$)  CHICKS  PATTERN  RNA  INCREASED  LYSINE  AND  SINCE  LOWER  DPM/MG.  OF  0.86  DECLINING  DIETARY  WITH  MUSCLE  WITH  DEFICIENT THE  ALSO  RECOVERY  RNA  LOWER  WITH  RNA,  THE  INCORPORATION  LIVER  AS  A  EFFECT).  AGAIN,  AND  PERCENTAGE  ACTI V ITY/TISSUE  FRACTION  ^ O . O L )  DPM/MG.  :  LOWER  PROTEIN  (P  ( P "=0.01)  THE  ONCE  THE  ACTTVITY,  LIVER  AND  IN  SIGNIFICANTLY  (DILUTION  PERCENTAGE  1.24$  RADIOACTIVITY  RECOVERED  INITIAL  INFLUENCE  LYSINE,  TURNOVER  LOWER  AND  ACID  IN  THE  LYSINE  RADIOACTIVITY  DOES  PROTEIN  FED  PROTEIN  IN  PROTEINS  FOUND  AND  1.24$  ACTIVITY  DECREASED  LYSINE.  AMINO  WITH  LIVER  AND  THE  OF  INCREASING  0.36$  RADIOACTIVITY  LEVEL  MUSCLE  TISSUE  ACIDS  SYNTHESIS  THAN  WITH  DEAL  CONCENTRATION.  SIGNIFICANTLY  ACTIVITY  LYSINE  THE OF  19  INTO  DENOTE  RECOVERY  AND  C 0.86  RNA  DIETARY  0.05)  TABLE  0.36,  PERCENTAGE  PERCENTAGE THE  IN  LYSINE-U-  CONTAINING  EXPRESSED  (P  OF  INDICATED  TISSUE  RESULTS  IN  RATE  WITH  RATE  OF  THE  OF  INCREASED.  IN  TISSUE  0.36$  LYSINE  PROTEINS  AGREES  WITH  TABLE  1 9 . - - E F F E C T OF  DIETARY  LYSINE  LEVEL  ON  INCORPORATION  OF  LYSINE-U-  14 C  INTO  L iVER** LYSINE  TREATMENT  SUPP .  DPM/G.  {%)  LEVEL  2.22  PROTEIN x  0.50  0.86  5.58  0.88  1 .24  4.69  **VALUES  FOLLOWED  FOLLOWED  BY  BY  0  10°  TOTAL  A  DIFFERENT  A  DIFFERENT  P R O- T E— I N RNA  DPM/G . 2.22  3' 288.82 x 10 B  SUPERSCRIPT  SUPERSCRIPT  215.19 x  ARE  SIGNIFICANTLY  x  X  OF  CHICKS  7~T2  U  10°  4.03  10"  SIGNIFICANTLY  PROTE I» N  DIFFERENT  RNA  7,475.0 B  3.57'  DIFFERENT  R  DPM/MG.  4.39  3^ 186.14 x 10  ARE  TISSUES  MUSCLE** D P M / L-• IVER -  6.73  0.36  *VALUES  1  - „2 ^  THE  (P *= 0.05). (P "=0.01).  6,217.5 5,434.1  E  131  THE  OBSERVATION  OF YAMASHITA  FREE  DIET  INCORPORATED  THAN  RATS  FED ADEQUATE  MORE  INJECTED  EFFECTS  MUSCLE  PROTEIN  CHICKS  WERE  OF DIETARY  SYNTHESIS  F E D THREE  THAT C  LYSINE-U-  RATS  INTO  FED A  LYSINE  LI VER •PROTE INS  LYSINE.  SUMMARY THE  (1969)  AND ASHIDA  AND CONCLUSION LYSINE  LEVEL  AND DEGRADATION  OF LIVER  IN THE CHICK  (0.36, 0.86  LEVELS  ON T H E RATE  AND  1.24$)  WERE  OF A  AND  STUDIED.  DIETARY  14. LYSINE  AND INJECTED  TURNOVER  OF LIVER  RATE  OF LOSS  7.2,  4.9  WITH  AND MUSCLE  DAYS  OVER  TIME,  A N D 9.6,  14.0  LIVER  PROTEINS  IN CHICKS  CONSUMING  THE  OF LIVER  RESPECTIVELY. 52.9  AND  MG./DAY  A N D 13.3$  RATES  DAYS.  T O 10.4,  DAILY  7.1,  BY OBSERVING  HALF-LIFE 7.5  NET DEGRADATION 0.36,  0.86  PROTEIN  F E D 0.36,  IN CHICKS  WAS E X A M I N E D  SEVERAL  CORRESPONDING  THE  IN T R A P E R I T O N E A L L Y .  PROTEINS  OF RADIOACTIVITY  A N D 5.2  C  LYSINE-U-  WERE  A N D 1.24$  SYNTHESIS  0.86  DAYS  VALUES  OF  TURNOVER  OBSERVED  FOR  LYSINE  WERE  A N D 1.24$  THE  20.0,  49.2  LYSINE  R E S P E C T I V E L Y.  THE  TURNOVER  WERE  INCREASED  0.86  AND  OF  THAT  WEIGHT  RESULTS  DEGRADATION  SYNTHESIS  CHICKS  GAIN  DEMONSTRATE  I S CORRELATED  PLOTTED  THE LYSINE  TISSUE  INCREASED  OF THE CHANGES  LEVEL  FROM  PROTEINS 0.36  I N TURNOVER  WERE  TO  RATES  SIMILAR  TO  I N A S I M I L A R WAY.  T H E RATE  WITH  THE CHICK  IN THE LIVER  LESS  AND MUSCLE  LYSINE  THAT  CONSIDERABLY  LYSINE.  CURVES  AGAINST  AND DEGRADATION  I S ALSO  ADEQUATE  PLOTTED  THE LIVER  OF DIETARY  THE R E S P O N S E  PROTEINS  OF BODY  OF BOTH  AS THE LEVEL  1.24$.  TISSUE  RATES  OF PROTEIN  GROWTH.  AND MUSCLE  THAN.IN  SYNTHESIS AND  T H E RATE  OF LYSINE  THE TISSUE  OF  PROTEIN  DEFICIENT  OF CHICKS FED  TRIAL 5. EFFECTS  OF  CHICKS  AMOUNT  AT EIGHT  BY DIETARY  •<  WITH  I N LIVER  WERE,  THOSE  CONSUMING  DIFFERENCE  (p < 0.05)  BY  OBSERVED  LOWER  GROUPS.  CHICKS  FED  INCREASING  PERCENTAGE  AND S P E C I F I C F E D 1.24$  OF L Y S I N E .  OF THE  ACTIVITY  LYSINE  COMPARED  NO S I G N I F I C A N T  HOMOGENATE  INCREASED  DIETARY  I N DIETARY  VALUE  AND  1.24$  I N RNA  HOMOGENATE  SIGNIFICANT  AS A  BETWEEN  LYSINE  I N RNA  LYSINE  EXPRESSED  0.36  THE  AND  0.86$  AND THE S P E C I F I C  DEGREE  BY THE LYSINE  BETWEEN  TO  THOSE  WERE  I N CHICKS  PERCENTAGE  ACTIVITY  SIGNIFICANTLY  0.86$  RESULTED  EXTRACT  THAN  AS A  0.36  FROM  T O 1.24$  LYSINE  INTERMEDIATE  RADIOACTIVITY  0.86  RADIOACTIVITY  THE  RADIOACTIVITY IN  WAS O B S E R V E D  I N MUSCLE  ACTIVITY  LYSINE  EXPRESSED  IN CHICKS  LEVELS  20.  I N TABLE  WAS N O T S I G N I F I C A N T L Y  (P «=0.05)  HOMOGENATE  I N THE LIVER  GROUPS.  INCREASE  HOMOGENATE  MUSCLE  HOMOGENATE  O F RNA  S I G N I F I C A N T L Y HIGHER  I N THE PARAMETERS  LYSINE  FURTHER  IN LIVER  HOWEVER,  RADIOACTIVITY  A  ON T H E S Y N T H E S I S  OF A G E ARE SUMMARIZED  LYSINE.  0.01)  DIETARY  LYSINE  (P -<0.01), RNA E X T R A C T  EXTRACT  RADIOACTIVITY (P  DAYS  OF RADIOACTIVITY  AFFECTED  RNA  OF DIETARY  IN A  SLIGHTLY  FED  MUSCLE  0.36  OF  0.36$  21).  (TABLE  AND  0.86$  HIGHER  IN  LYSINE.  OF THE A C T I V I T Y I N  WERE  NOT A F F E C T E D  TO A N Y  TREATMENTS.  14 LIVER  DATA  SUGGEST  THAT  THE INCORPORATION  OF  C  FROM  URACIL-2-  14 U-  C  INTO  LYSINE  0.36  I S INCREASED  (1.24$).  AND  WHEN  LOWER  BY GIVING  AMOUNTS  0.86$, RNA S Y N T H E S I S  DESCRIBED  TOLERATE  RNA  WAS L O W E R E D .  A  LEVEL  O F 1.24$  CHICKS  THE CHICK  OF LYSINE  AS MEASURED  USED  DIETARY  DIETARY  ARE FED, I N THIS  BY THE CRITERIA  IN THIS  LYSINE  ADEQUATE  TRIAL  ALREADY  UNDOUBTEDLY  AS OBSERVED  CASE  I N TRIAL  COULD  4.  TABLE 2 0 . - - E F F E C T S  OF  DIETARY  LYSINE  ON  LIVER  RNA  SYNTHESIS  RADIPACT IvITY LIVER LYSINE  {%)  TREATMENT  SUPP.  RNA  HOMOGENATE  LEVEL  DPM/G. A*  RNA  EXTRACT TISSUE  LIVER  EXTRACT  .„2  HOMOGENATE  SPEC IF I C  % A**  0.50  0.86  2492.3  A  515.6  A  20.7  A  62.1  0.88  1 .24  2479.1  A  635.0  B  25.7  B  81 . 9  **VALUES  FOLLOWED  BY BY  A  DIFFERENT A  DIFFERENT  SUPERSCRIPT SUPERSCRIPT  ARE ARE  SIGNIFICANTLY DIFFERENT SIGNIFICANTLY DIFFERENT  62.9  (P  "ZQ.Qfc).  (P < 0 . 0 1 ) .  RNA  A**  2293.0  FOLLOWED  22.2  A*  0.36  *VALUES  507.6  ACTI V I TY  DPM/MG.  A  B  TABLE 2 1 . - - E F F E C T  OF  DIETARY  LYSINE  ON  MUSCLE  RNA  SYNTHESIS*  RAD I O A C T I V I T Y  LYSINE SUPP.  TREATMENT  (%)  MUSCLE  RNA  HOMOGENATE  EXTRACT  LEVEL  DPM/G.  RNA LIVER  TISSUE  EXTRACT  A  326.2  A  22.3  0.50  0.86  1646.3  B  347.0  A  21.1  0.88  1.24  1580.4  347.4  A  22.0  FOLLOWED  BY  A  DIFFERENT  SUPERSCRIPT  ARE  SIGNIFICANTLY  SPEC IF IC  ACTIVITY  DPM/MG.  1462.0  *VALUES  „2  x 10  %  0.36  A B  1  —  HOMOGENATE  A  A  A  DIFFERENT  (P < 0 . 0 5 ) .  RNA  181.2  A  168.4  A  168.3  A  0.86$  DIETARY  LYSINE  CHICKS  AT  14  (TRIAL  1,  FIG.  MORE  FEED  FEED  INTAKE  LYSINE. TRIAL  1  0.86$  CHICKS THE  (TABLE  FIRST  COMPARED  TO  1)  SUGGEST  WITH HIGH  (1.11  TO  1.36$)  LEVEL  OF  0.36  FED  AND  WEIGHT,  22).  TRIALS UNDER  LIVER  THE  THE  DATA  IN  LITERATURE.  0.86$  AND  5  SAME  THIS  AT  WERE  DAY  INCORPORATION  TO IS  EIGHT  AND RUN  AND  OF  AGE  CONFIRMED  TOTAL  ET  OF  AL.  AGE  WITH RNA  AND  THE  IN  THE  COMPARED  BY  LIVER  IN  LYSINE  CHUNG  INTO  THE  RNA  IN  DIETARY  INTAKE  CONSISTENT  OF  CONSUMED  DECLINE  DAYS  SIMULTANEOUSLY  AGREE  A  OF  NOTED  DIET  FOR  EIGHT  DAYS  AND  EXPERIMENTAL  TRIAL  FEED  GAIN  WAS  (0.86$)  INCORPORATED  LYSINE  WEIGHT  (1972)  VIEW  URACIL  LYSINE  LIVER 4  THIS  ON  BY  REQUIREMENT  FLSHER ONE  FOLLOWED  AND  IT  LYSINE  ADEQUATE  TRIAL CHICK  BY  THEREAFTER.  DIETARY  AGE  WEIGHT  HOWEVER,  (1.11$)  HIGH OF  MAXIMUM  1.  RECEIVING  FROM  RADIOACTIVE  1.24$  A  THIS  THAT  REPORTED  DIET  BODY  IN  SUPPORT  TRIAL  DAYS  CHICKS  AS  IN  FED  EIGHT  LIVER  TO  AGE  AGE,  THE  MAINTAINED  THE  THE  OF  CHICKS  (FIG.  FED  IN  THAT  THE  CHICKS  GAIN  1)  OBSERVED  DAYS  ON  OF  HIGHEST  FOR  28  DATA  DECLINES  (1973),  AND  WAS  WITH  HIGHEST  CONCENTRATION AND  CHICKS  CONDITIONS.  WITH  PREVIOUS  C-GLYCINE  INTO  OBSERVATIONS  IN  PURINE  BASES  AND  WAS  NOTED  14 C-OROTIC  (MUNRO  AMINO  ACID  AND  INTO  CLARK,  ACID  THE  1959)  MIXTURE  PYRIMIDINE  TO  WITHOUT  BE  BASES  OF  CONSIDERABLY  TRYPTOPHAN  WAS  RAT  LIVER  GREATER  GIVEN  TO  RNA  WHEN  A  COMPLETE  RATS  WITH  3  5- H  OROTIC  ACID  ADMINISTERING  ACIDS  ABOVE  THE  TISSUE  BY  STOMACH  URIDINE-5-  THE  CHICK  INCREASED  PROTEIN  A  WITH  H  TUBE.  ORALLY  REQUIREMENT  SYNTHESIS  INCREASING  AND  HEBERT  WITH  _ET _A_L .  MIXTURES  DECREASED  DEGRADATION  LEVEL  OF  RNA  OF  (1972) VARIOUS  BY  AMINO  BIOSYNTHESIS.  (TURNOVER  DIETARY  LYSINE  RATE )  OBSERVED  OF  IN  TABLE 2 2 . - - E F F E C T  OF  DIETARY  LYSINE  ON  BODY AND  AVE. LYSINE  TREATMENT  SUPP.  {%)  LEVEL  BODY  LIVER  WEIGHT  AND  AMOUNTS  RNA  RNA BODY  FINAL  OF  IN CHICK  LIVER  MUSCLE  WT.  (G.) INITIAL  WEIGHT,  WT.  CHANGE  {%)  LIVER WT.  (G.)  CONTENT  LIVER  MUSCLE  MG./G J  MG./LIVER  MG,/G.  0.36  60  61  1.7  1.8  8.1  14.6  1.8  0.50  0.86  63  69  9.5  2.9  8.3  24.1  2.1  0.88  1.24  77  87  13.0  4.9  7.8  38.2  2.1  DATA  REPRESENT  MG./G.  WET  TISSUE.  TRIAL  4  MIGHT  INCREASED WITH OF  THE  OXIDASE AND OF  INCREASED LYSINE  A AND  THAT  IRRESPECTIVE  4  OF  OF  SUPPORTS  THE  THE  XANTHINE  LEVEL  SAME  WERE  OF  MEASURED.  DIETARY  THREE  DIETARY  IS  CHICKS  OF  PROTEIN  INCREASED  THE  LEVEL  REPORTS XANTHINE  (MURAMATSU IN THE  TURNOVER  BY  CONSTANCY  LYSINE  AS  LIVER  PARTICIPATES  AN  CONSISTENT  PREVIOUS  CURVE  ACCOMPANIED  THE  BY  CATABOLISM  RATE  OF  AN. I N C R E A S E D  PROTEIN/RNA  OF  OBSERVED  IN TRIALS  RATIO 1,  3  VIEW,  SUMMARY  EFFECTS  BE  OF  TISSUE  AN  VIEW  TRIAL.  OXIDASE  (RNA).  OF  OF  ACID.  THEREFORE,  LIVER  RESPONSE  RATE  ACCOMPANIED  THIS  PRESENT  THE  TURNOVER  ACID  (RNA).  IN THE  IN THE  NUCLEIC  NUCLEIC  OCCURRENCE  ACID  BETWEEN  THE  MIGHT,  OF  AN  SYNTHESIS  INCREASED  BASES  PROTEIN  DEGRADATION  AND  RNA  OF  AS  NUCLEIC  1962, 1 9 6 3 ) .  PURINE  TISSUE  OF  CORRELATION  ASHIDA, THE  CONSIDERED  SYNTHESIS  DIETARY  INDICATE  BE  AND  LYSINE  DIETARY  CONCLUSION  ON  LIVER  LYSINE  AND  MUSCLE  RNA  SYNTHESIS  (0.36, 0.86, 1.24$)  LEVELS  WERE  14, FED  TO  CHICKS  (60 M-Cl/M CHICKS  INTO  MOLE)  WERE  LIVER  FOR  EIGHT  WAS  INJECTED  SACRIFICED  AND  MUSCLE  14  DAYS.  AFTER  RNA  ON  DAY  SEVEN,  I N T R A P E R I T O N E A L L Y TO  24  HOURS  AND  DETERMINED.  ALL CHICKS.  RADIOACTIVITY  THE  HIGHEST  THE  RNA.  AND  FROM  LIVER.  LOWER  SYNTHESIS  1.24$  RESULTS  LYSINE  INTO  AMOUNTS  OF  RNA  OF  IN THE  SHOWED  DEMONSTRATE  INCORPORATION  OF  «t  C  URACIL-2-U-  THE  INCORPORATION  14 C  C  URACIL-2-U-  THAT  A  RNA  LYSINE  MIXED  HIGHER  THE  WAS  OBTAINED  DECREASED  TIBIA  TREND  METABOLISM  THE  MUSCLE  THAN  OF  WITH  1.24$  SYNTHESIS  OF  CHICKS  IN CHICKS  RNA  LYSINE  CAN  BE  FED  OF  IN  LIVER  FED  0.36$  INFLUENCED  0.86  LYSINE.  BY  DIETARY  DIETARY  LYSINE;  LYSINE.  IN  THIS  CASE  RNA  SYNTHESIS  IS  DECREASED  BY  INADEQUATE  TRIAL 6.  AMINO  DATA  I N TABLE  ACID  TREATMENT  LYSINE  WAS  LYSINE  (1.24$)  EXCESS  LYSINE  THIS  1  DIET  GROUP  LYSINE  2  OF  AND  PARTLY  OXIDATION  OF  INCREASED  CHICK  GROWTH  EXCESS  ACCOUNTED FEED  THE  I N THE  CONSUMING  BY  WERE  EXCESS  SUMMARY  THOSE  HIGHER  GROWTH  CONTAINING  WITH  GROWTH  CHICKS.  A  (P<0.05)  DEPRESSED  CHICK  CHICK  THE  ON  COMPARED ALSO  OF  AND  IMPROVED  REPRESENT  SIGNIFICANTLY  DEPRESSION TRIALS  23  OBTAINED  WHEN  (15$  PROTEIN)  OXIDATION  OF  C  FROM  DIET  WAS  IN  FED  WHEAT  0.5$  L-LYSINE  GROWTH  PLUS  WHEAT-SOYBEAN  INCREASED  LYSINE  SIGNIFICANTLY  SOYBEAN  DIET.  WHEAT-SOYBEAN  SIGNIFICANT  COMPARED  A  CHANGE  WITH  RESULTS  THE  DIET  0.05)  AND  OF  WITH  IN  INTAKE  IN  (P <  ADDED  TO  IN LYSINE  0.4$  PLUS  CHICKS  WITH  FEED  0.375$ A  C0^  (P *=  0.05)  0.86$  OF  FEED  0.05)  THE  L-LYSINE  INTAKE  L-LYSINE  LYSINE  FOR  IN  LYSINE  AND  CHICK  WHEAT-  THE  RESULTED  AND  THAN  LYSINE).  INTAKE  TO  CHICKS  LESS  UNSUPPLEMENTED  L-ARGININE  0.375$  FED  TO  SUPPLEMENTAL  IMPROVED  OXIDATION,  WHEAT-S0YBEAN  THAT  0.375$  WITH  ADDITION  IN LYSINE  (A TOTAL  COMPARED  SUPPLEMENTED  INDICATE  THE  14  C  SIGNIFICANTLY  OXIDATION  (P «=  FURTHER  DIET  WAS  LIMITING  LYSINE-U-  WHEAT-SOYA  SLIGHTLY  (0.86$).  OBSERVED  FEED  14  THE  SUPPLEMENTING  EXCESS  SIGNIFICANTLY  ARGININE  WAS  CONSUMING CHICKS  WAS  OF  LYSINE.  WHEAT-SOYBEAN  GROWTH.  FED  LYSINE  DEPRESSED  14 CHICK  DIETARY  (P < 0.05).  LYSINE  AND  OF  OXIDATION  IN CHICKS  MARKEDLY  BY  INTAKE  CHICK.  ADEQUATE  DIETARY FOR  EFFECT  CHICK  IN  NO  GROWTH  DIET.  DEFICIENT  DIET  14, RETAINED  MORE  AND  1NTRAPERITONEALLY  RESULTS  ARE  OXIDIZED  THAN  CONSISTENT  LESS  CHICKS  WITH  OF  THE  RECEIVING  THE  LYSINE-U-  ADEQUATE  SIGNIFICANT  C  AND  DECREASE  INJECTED  HIGH  IN  LYSINE.  PERCENTAGE  TABLE BODY  23.— P E R C E N T A G E WEIGHT  GAIN  RECOVERY  AND FEED  OF RADIOACTIVITY  INTAKE  OF CHICKS  IN RESPIRATORY  F E D GRADED  LEVELS 1 ARGININE'  COV,  AFTER  OF L Y S I N E  INJECTION  AND WITH  C,  OF L Y S I N E - U -  THREONINE  AND  2 DIETARY  RESPIRATORY C0  TREATMENT  2  GAIN/CHICK  ( $ )  ( G . )  8  WHEAT-BASAL  +  0.5$  L-LYSINE  WHEAT-BASAL  +  WHEAT-BASAL  +  0.875$ 0.875$  +  0.4$  +  0.5$  +  0.16$  WHEAT-BASAL  L-LYSINE  L-ARGININE  (15$  WHEAT-SOYBEAN  +  0.375$ 0.375$  +  0.4$  PROTEIN)  BY A  L-LYSINE L-LYSINE  DIFFERENT  CALCULATED  AS FOLLOWS:  556.6°  ARE SIGNIFICANTLY DIFFERENT  DPM/TOTAL ^ ^ —  14  C0  CD  1239.2A 793.3 963.9  E  B  SUPERSCRIPT  D  o  x  2  10  AB E  612.3 BC 414.3 563.9  0.35  L-ARGININE  INTAKE/CHICK ( G . )  B  AB  /  WERE  355.8  0.27A 0.1 o AB 0.29  L-THREON I NE  +  2., VALUES  0.91°  L-LYSINE  WHEAT-SOYBEAN  FOLLOWED  4 6 9 . 7 °A 254.1  L-LYSINE  WHEAT-SOYBEAN  VALUES  0.35C 0.59  FEED  1593.4 BC 1117.6 DE 14,04.0  E  1318.1  (P "^O.OS)  CD  RECOVERY  MUSCLE  (0.36  OF R A D I O A C T I V I T Y  AND LIVER  1.24$)  TO  CHICKS DIET  CONVERTED  THREONINE  0.86$.  AND  OBSERVED  WAS A D E Q U A T E  FED. TO  PROTEINS  REDUCED ADEQUATE  RESULTS COMPARED  INDICATE  IPO O T H E R WHEN  SUPPORTED  B Y LOWER  (0.86$) CHICK  LYSINE  REDUCED  CHICK  UNDER  PROTECTIVE  AND  OXIDATION  LYSINE  AGREE  WAS  AND GAIN/FEED  TO  DIETARY  2.  THE  LYSINE  WHEN T H E  LYSINE  LYSINE  OXIDATION  FOR TISSUE  DIET  WAS  WAS  INCREASED  FEED  WAS  INTAKE  SLIGHTLY  DEPOSITION  WITH  THREONINE. POOL  OF L Y S I N E  NOT BE CHANNELED  AND  THESE  RNA/DNA  I N THOSE  THEREFORE,  FEED  INTAKE  LYSINE  ACID  MORE  WAS  RATIOS  THAT  ADEQUATE  IN  THE  DRASTICALLY  SUGGESTS  INCREASED  LYSINE  ARE  LYSINE  I N AN ATTEMPT  POOL  PROTEIN  I N CHICKS  RECEIVING  WAS  EXCESSIVE  INTO  RESULTS  EXCESS  SUPPLEMENTATION  INCORPORATE  GROWTH)  EXCESS  WAS F E D .  THAN  AMINO  ARGININE  I N  INTO  BYT H E  A  THE  BODY  PROTEINS  LYSINE.  OF LYSINE  INTAKE  LYSINE  OF EXCESS  THE METABOLIC  EXCESS  AND COULD  PROTEIN/DNA  THE CONDITION  OF THE CHICK  OXIDIZE  WAS U S E D  IN TRIAL  RNA)  TO T H E D I E T ,  AND LYSINE  LYSINE  (BODY  THE DIETARY  OF THREONINE  BY OXIDATION.  MECHANISM.  RESULTS  GAIN  OBSERVED  TO A D J U S T  CAPACITY  DIETARY  MUSCLE  WAS E L I M I N A T E D  WHEN  THE METABOLIC  ACIDS  (1.36 A N D 1.86$)  EXCESS  THAN  WHEN  LYSINE  THAT  INCREASING  TISSUE  AND SUPPLEMENTAL  AMINO  EXCESS  INTO  (0.86$)  IMPROVED  MORE  LYSINE  SYNTHESIS  FED  LYSINE  LIMITING  (DPM/MG.  4.  IN TRIAL  MARKEDLY  DIETARY  WITH  THE ADDITION  23).  (TABLE  OF T H E CHICK  MORE  BECAME  WERE  ACTIVITY  IN LYSINE  THROUGH  GROWTH  AND S P E C I F I C  WITH  THE REPORT  D I D NOT INCREASE  INCREASED WERE  ABOVE  MAXIMAL.  O F B R O O K E S _ET _ A L .  MARKEDLY  THE LEVEL IT  UNTIL  AT WHICH  WAS A L S O  (1972)  THE  THAT  DIETARY  AVERAGE  DEMONSTRATED  DAILY  (YAMASHITA  AND  ASHIDA,  1969)  THAT  THE  PERCENTAGE  RECOVERY  OF  C  FROM  DIET  WAS  LESS  14, LYSINE-UTHAN  IN RESPIRATORY  IN RATS IT  THE  C  CONSUMING  HAS  CHICK  BEEN  AND  O'DELL  AND  ADDITION  0.25$ RAT  (TRIAL  0.2$  1966;  GROWTH  THAT  SMITH,  0.5$  AND  OXIDATION ADEQUATE  WAS  DIETARY  STUDIED.  LYSINE  WITH  RADIOACTIVE  INDEX  OF  OXIDATION  AMOUNT  OF  WITH  SLIGHTLY  LYSINE  OF  AND  EXCESS  LYSINE  AUSTIC  AND  NESHEIM,  AND  WHEAT WAS  DIET  ALSO  1966;  1970).  SUPPLEMENTED  SHOWN  TO  WITH  IMPROVE  THE  CONCLUSION  ACID  AND  EXCESS  IN DIETARY  CHICK  OX ID I Z E  A  INCREASED  CHICK  LYSINE  CHICK  PERCENTAGE  WITH  LYSINE  OF  WITH  DIET  ON  LYSINE  LYSINE, ARGININE  ALLEVIATED  ARGININE  ALSO  AND  FEED  BY  PRODUCTION  DOSE)  RESULTS  ADEQUATE  AND  THE  OF  DIETARY  GROWTH  GROWTH  LYSI NE.  LEVELS  INTRAPERI TONEALLY.  OXIDIZED.  THE  CHICK  WERE  R  C  LYSINE  WERE  I N THE  THREONINE  OF  TO  LEVEL  DIFFERENT  AS  INCREASE  TO  1968; WHOLE  TO  ARGININE  LEWIS,  FED  IMPROVED  DEPRESSED  BY  IS TOXIC  AND  (RECOVERY  LYSINE  SUPPLEMENTATION  ALLEVIATED  CHICKS  LYSINE-U-  CC^  LYSINE  SMITH  DL-VALINE  AMINO  14 INJECTED  BE  DIETARY  1964]  TO  SUMMARY OF  L Y S I N E - F RE E  1952).  (SURE,  EFFECTS  EXCESS  CAN  JONES,  DL-THREONINE  HCIL  L-LYSINE  2;  FED  LYSINE.  ADVERSE-EFFECT  SAVAGE,  OF  IN RATS  2  ADEQUATE  ESTABLISHED  THE  SUPPLEMENTATION  C0  WAS  USED  AS  INDICATED  THAT  THE  LYSINE  LEVEL.  DIET  REDUCED  FEED  INTAKE  INTAKE  ARGININE  INCREASED  OF  AND  THREONINE  LYSINE  OXIDATION  MARKEDLY.  THE  AN  EXCESS  ADVERSE-EFFECTS  SUPPLEMENTATION.  THE  CAPACITY  OF  AN  THE  143  TRIAL 7. RESULTS CHICK WAS  OF  INCREASED  CONDUCTED  TISSUE  TRIAL AS  TO  PROTEINS  6  THE  LEVEL  DETERMINE UNDER  SUPPLEMENTATION  OXIDATION  SLIGHTLY  TRIAL  6.  THE  AND  METABOLIC  A  THEREFORE,  INVESTIGATED  LYSINE-U-  PROTEINS  C  ARE  THE  TO  DEFICIENT,  OF  THE  AND  OF  ADEQUATE IN THIS  LYSINE  AND  AND  IN THE  THIS  REGIMES. DIET CHICK  LEVEL  OF  TRIAL INTO  MOREOVER,  REDUCED GROWTH  IN CHICKS  EXCESS  LYSINE  INCORPORATION  ADEQUATE  THREONINE  OF  INCREASED.  LYSINE  INTAKE  FED  LYSINE MARKEDLY  DIETS  LYSINE  WAS,  TRIAL.  DIETARY  THREONINE-U-  ILLUSTRATED  OF  LYSINE FEED  OXIDATION  LYSINE  DIETARY  THE  OF  THE  PATTERN  FATE  LEVEL  THAT  DIETARY  IMPROVED  CONTAINING  EFFECTS  OF  INCREASING  THREONINE  IN  INDICATE  C  LYSINE  INTO  IN TABLES  CHICK  24  AND  ON  INCORPORATION  LIVER  25  AND  OF  MUSCLE  RESPECTIVELY.  THE  14 SPECIFIC  ACTIVITY  PROTEINS  I N THE  INCREASING  LEVEL  IN  RADIOACTIVITY  DOES  CHANGE  NOT  DIET  SINCE  SPECIFIC  THE  OF  TO  MUSCLE  LYSINE  I N BOTH  RECOVERY  REFLECT  POOL  24).  OF  LIVER  AND  OF  AMINO  AMINO  SPECIFIC  EXTENT  WITH  LYSINE  THE  OF  1.24$  INFLUENCE  PROTEIN.  PROTEIN  SPECIFIC  ACIDS  LYSINE.  FRACTIONS  INTO  AMINO  IN  PROTEIN  READILY  WAS,  RECOVERED  INCREASE  IN PROTEIN  MAY  ACTIVITY)  THAT  WITH  SYNTHESIS  ACIDS  INSOLUBLE  RADIOACTIVITY  HIGHER  ACID  -  TREND  MUSCLE,  RADIOACTIVITY  ENHANCED  I N TCA  INCREASING  ELEVATED  (TCA-INSOLUBLE  PROTEIN  THE  I N AN  C  DECLINING  (P -=0.01)  RADIOACTIVE  DETERMINE  A  (TABLE  THE  AN  SIZE  LYSINE-U-  SHOWED  RESULTED  ACTIVITY  ACT IV ITY/TCA-SOLUBLE  CALCULATED  INJECTED  SIGNIFICANTLY  IN THE  INCORPORATION  RELATIVE  AND  PROTEINS  WAS  OF  DIETARY  NECESSARILY  MOLECULES,  THE  OF  CHICK  TCA-SOLUBLE  A  LIVER  LEVEL  IN THE  VALUES  THE  THEREFORE,  WERE  RETAINED  IN  TABLE 2 4 . - - P E R C E N T A G E  RECOVERY  OF R A D I O A C T I V I T Y  IN CHICK  LIVER  AND MUSCLE  PROTEIN  AFTER  INJECTION  OF  LYS I NE-U- C 1 4  LIVER LYSINE  TREATMENT  SUPP.  LEVEL A  B  4.1 6  8  0.25 0.32  A  2.92  0.1S55  A  A  2.61  16.64  B  3.84  A  21.64  A  A  1 .24  A  0.23  A  0.243 A  11.99°  8  2.52  0.433  2  =  TISSUE  TCA  1NSOLUBLE  D B =  T TISSUE  TO A TCA  SOLUBLE  . C  o RELATIVE  A  =  *VALUES **VALUES  SPECIFIC  FOLLOWED FOLLOWED  BY A BY A  PROTEIN  PROTEIN  ACTIVITY  SPECIFIC  SPECIFIC  (A/B) ' '  X  DIFFERENT DIFFERENT  DPM/G.  A C T 1V1 T Y  ACTIVITY  DPM/G. h -DPM/G.  SUPERSCRIPT SUPERSCRIPT  :  C  i A  4.99  0.86  0.88  A  C*  fo  0.36 0.50  MUSCLE*  B**  A*  (%)  PROTEIN  x 10  •  1.11 x 10°  DPM/G. -—r\—  TISSUE .n u  1.11 x 10°  PROTEIN TISSUE  x  .. -2 10 .  .  ARE SIGNIFICANTLY ARE S I G N I F I C A N T L Y  DIFFERENT DIFFERENT  (P <0.05). (P "=0.01).  A  19. 12 A 10. 75 A  5.85  TABLE  25.--PERCENTAGE  RECOVERY  OF  RADIOACTIVITY  IN CHICK  LIVER  AND  MUSCLE  PROTEIN  AFTER  INJECTION  OF  THREONINE-U-  L1VER** LYSINE  TREATMENT  SUPP.  A  (%)  MUSCLE  c  B %  LEVEL  A  0.36  2.53  A  0.25  A  10.39  A  0.50  0.86  3/05  B  0.12  B  25.92  B  0.88  1.24  2.75°  0.11  B  25.76  B  A,  B  AND  *VALUES  **VALUES  C  REPRESENT  FOLLOWED  FOLLOWED  ACTIVITY  BY A  BY  CALCULATED  DIFFERENT  A  DIFFERENT  AS  SUPERSCRIPT  SUPERSCRIPT  IN  ARE  TABLE  A**  1 .43 1 .59  0.139  ARE S I G N I F I C A N T L Y  A**  10. 36  A*  B  0.082  8  19. 8 9  B  1 .92°  0.073  6  26. 5 8  B  2%.  S1GN1F1CANTLY  C  B %  D 1 F F E RE N T D 1 FFERENT  (P «= 0.05). ( P < 0.01).  THE  TISSUE  RATIO  POOL  DECREASED  (.36  LYSINE  MUSCLE.  1.24$)  (TRIAL  6),  METABOLIC  THE  THE  OF  LYSINE  OF  IN OF  AND  WITH  SHOWED  THAT  INCREASING  DIETARY  NON-SIGNIFICANTLY  THIS  TRIAL  LYSINE  IN  AND  THE  TRIAL  CHICK  4  THE  IN  THE  STRONGLY  DECREASED  WITH  INTAKE.  DIETARY  INCREASED  WAS  LYSINE.  IN  RATE  THAT  WITH  CONDUCTED  DIETARY  OXIDATION  RESULTS  (P < 0 . 0 5 ) LIVER  TRIAL  DECREASE  IN  EXCRETED.  LYSINE  INCREASING  THE  INCREASE  THE  RESULTS  PRESENT  WITH  24.  IN  OXIDATION  FATE  DECLINED  OR  RETENTION  DIETARY  SINCE  BODY  SIGNIFICANTLY  TO  THAT  INCREASING  TABLE  THE  ACCUMULATED  INDICATE  AN  IN  LYSINE LYSINE  OF  TO  RETENTION  CONTENT  FROM  LYSINE  INVESTIGATE  DEPOSITION  RESULTED  DIETARY  AS  WAS  IN  THE  THE  SHOWN  CHICK  IN  CONCURRENT  FEEDING  EXCESS  WITH  LYSINE  14 (TRIAL  6).  THE  RELATED  TO  CHICKS,  (.36$  DECREASED  THE  LYSINE)  229  61, AND  RETENTION  194  WAS  (YAMASHITA  RATS  WAS  OF  AND  RATS  RECEIVING  ALSO  PROTEIN  AND G.  LYSINE  HAD  THE  AND  84 FEED  THE  A  REPORTED  FRACTION  TO  IN  PROTEIN  GAIN  THAT  BY  DEMAND  1969,  THE  RESULT  CONTRAST  IN  TRIAL,  ARE  1971)  THAT  LYSINE.  IN  TO  THE  A  THE  1.24$,  S I X  DAYS,  THAT  PROTEIN  IN  AGREEMENT  RETENTION  MUCH  FEEDING  RESPECTIVELY IN  INDICATE  FOR  WAS  LOWER  BE  DEFICIENT  ACTIVITY  AND  FURTHER  DIET  TO  (1.24$).  0.36, 0.86  INTAKE  APPEARED  SYNTHESIS.  SPECIFIC  LYSINE  L YSINE-FREE  ADEQUATE  FOR  WEIGHT  PRESENT  ASHIDA,  FED  EXCESS  G.  DEPOSITION  HIGHEST  LEVELS,  INFLUENCED  OF  C  LYSINE-U-  FOR  LYSINE  94  RESULTS  LIVERS  0.86$  THREE  SUPPORTED  OF  DEMAND  WITH  THE  183,  RATE  OF  THAT  TO  LYSINE  SYNTHESIS.  WITH  OF  IN  THAN  THAT  EXCESS  RECOVERY  REPORTS  LYSINE  HIGHER  RADIOACTIVITY  ELEVATED  PROPORTION  LYSINE  RECOVERY  IN  THE  THE  IN  TO  RATS  IN  THE  ACID-SOLUBLE  FRACTION.  14, RETENTION DIETARY  LYSINE  TCA-INSOLUBLE FED  DIETS  OF  THREONINE-U-  CONTENT  (TABLE  C  IN  25).  THE  CHICK  WAS  RADIOACTIVITY  RECOVERY  PROTEINS  WAS  SIGNIFICANTLY  (P  LIMITED  AND  EXCESS  COMPARED  WITH  LYSINE  <  INFLUENCED  0.01)  IN  REDUCED WITH  BY LIVER  IN  THE  CHICKS  GROUP  14 RECEIVING PROTEINS  WAS  GREATER  OF  CHICKS  FED  DIETARY  IN  THE  FIRST  RETENTION  GROWTH  RATES  AND  THE  DIET  THREONINE  ADEQUATE  WAS  TO  RETENTION  THE  DIET  DIET  OF WAS  IN  THAT  A  FOR  OF  GROUP  RESULT  WAS  IMPROVED  RECEIVING RELATIVE  THAN  THE  DIFFERENCE  IN  IN  CHICKS  1,  1  4)  FIRST  THE  LIVER.  DIETARY  C  IN  LYSINE  3).  WERE  THE  BECAUSE  AT  LOWER  TO  LIMITING  WHEN  OF  MARKEDLY  WAS  THREONINE  COMPARED  IMPACT  GROWTH  IN  14  NECESSARY  3,  THE  RECEIVING  SINCE  AND  TO  C)  THAT  NORMAL  IN  PROTEINS  THREONINE  NOT  BECAME  CHICK  OF  OF  THREONINE  BY  TCA-SOLUBLE  LOWER  THREONINE-U-  (TRIALS  SHOWN  0.01)  CHICKS  TISSUE  (TRIALS  DIETARY  <  GROUPS  RESEMBLED  FROM  GROWTH  THREONINE  LYSINE  C  (P  (THRE0N INE-U-  PROBABLY  SYNTHESIS  LEVEL  AS  OBSERVED  14  OF  TCA-INSOLUBLE  LIVER  (P < 0 . 0 1 )  RETENTION  WAS  DEFICIENT  LYSINE.  ADEQUATE  THAN  ACID  THOSE  ACID-SOLUBLE  THE  IN  IN  DEFICIENT  ESSENTIALLY  LOW  LOWER  IN  RADIOACTIVITY  LESS  AMINO  RECOVERED  THAN  LYSINE  RECOVERY  SIGNIFICANTLY  LYSINE  AND  THAT  PROTEIN  A  IN  WAS  LYSINE  TISSUE  OF  MUSCLE  DEFICIENT  LIMITING  REQUIRING  RECEIVING  CHICK  LYSINE  IN  LEVEL  THE  SIGNIFICANTLY  EXCESSIVE  DEMONSTRATE  LYSINE.  FED  OR  CHICK  DEFICIENCY  ADEQUATE  A  C  NE-U-^C)  OBSERVED  THE  THE  RESULTS  CHICK  WAS  WITH  CHICKS  AC I D - IN S O L U B L E  LYSINE.  RECOVERED  (THRE0NI  DEFICIENT  ADEQUATE OF  THREONINE-U-  CONTRAST  TREATMENTS.  ACTIVITY  RESPONSE  LYSINE  DIRECT  LYSINE  LYSINE  SPECIFIC  IN  IN  LYSINE.  RADIOACTIVITY  PROTEINS HIGHER  ADEQUATE  CHICKS  THE  SUPPLEMENTAL  AND  DECREASED  LYSINE  UNDOUBTEDLY  IMPROVED  PRESENT  THAT  GROWTH  TRIAL.  SEVERE  TRATION  THAT THE  RATS  LEVEL  MOREOVER,  DEPRIVED  YAMASHITA  AND  TO  OF  LYSINE  AND  190  INFLUENCE  RETENTION  CHICKS  WITH  IN THE  FED  AND  LEVELS  14, C  OR  AND  INDICATE  THAT  CELLULAR  THE  LEVEL  PROTEINS  OF  DECLINED  DRASTICALLY  MUSCLE.  IN  THE  DIETARY  EXCESS  MUSCLE  BUT  NOT  LEVEL  14, C  OF  LYSINE  INCREASING  THREONINE  LYSINE  IN THE  THE  RESULT  (1965)  HAVE  ON  I N THE  REPORTED  THE  CONCEN-  ALSO  IN THE  THE  THE  DEMONSTRATED  I T WAS  THREONINE  FOR  OF  THREONINE  CHICK.  RESULTS  CONTENT  PROTEINS  PROTEINS  LYSINE.  DIETARY  ACCOUNT  URINE.  DIETARY  LYSINE  PRESENT  (ZIMMERMAN  SHOWN  STUDY  AND  SCOTT,  CONCLUSION  LYSINE  MUSCLE  MUSCLE  WITH  DECREASED  AND  THREONI NE-U-  IN LIVER  TO  PLASMA  OF  (0.36, 0.86, 1.24$)  RECOVERY  THE  MORE  THREONINE  1966).  DIETARY  LIVER  THREE  LYSINE-U-  OF  SCOTT  DEPENDENT  1966).  SUMMARY THE  WAS  PREVIOUSLY  SAKURAI,  WITH  I N THE  EXCRETED  MORE  PROTEINS  INCREASED  THREONINE  DATA  AND  UG./ML.  SAKURAI,  WITH  TISSUE  IN AGREEMENT  LYSINE  40  AND  IN AGREEMENT  INTO  6).  (TRIAL  ZIMMERMAN  OF  EXCRETED  (YAMASHITA  1965J  6  IN TRIAL  ABOUT  OF  SLIGHTLY  INCORPORATED  DEFICIENCY  FROM  AMOUNT  ARE  WAS  OXIDATION  OF  ON THE  AND  THREONINE  CHICK  WAS  STUDIED.  LYSINE  WERE  IN T R A P E R I T O N E A L L Y .  WERE  THE  AMINO  ACIDS  RETENTION  RETENTION  I N BOTH  SLIGHTLY  IMPROVED  RESULTS  IS  IN LIVER  LYSINE.  INFLUENCED  AND  LYSINE  THE  INJECTED  RADIOACTIVITY  DETERMINED.  DIETARY  LIVER.  LYSINE  MUSCLE  DEFICIENCY  LIVER  THREONINE  BY  AND  RETENTION  TRIAL 8. RESULTS  RETENTION  OF  OF  LYSINE  BY  DIETARY  SHOWN  TO  BE  DRASTICALLY  TRIAL  WAS  CtV,,  (B) L I V E R  PROTEIN  LYSINE  CONDUCTED  OF  AND  7  AND  IN TISSUE  AFFECTED  RESULTS  6  TRIALS  TO  THE  INDICATE  PROTEIN  CONTENT.  IMPAIRED  CONFIRM  PROTEIN,  OF  THE  LYSINE  THESE  OXIDATION  CHICK  WERE  AND  MARKEDLY  RETENTION  DEFICIENCY.  WAS  ALSO  THE  PRESENT  OBSERVATIONS.  MEASUREMENTS  (C) ACID-SOLUBLE  (D) ACID-SOLUBLE  THE  THREONINE  BY  RADIOACTIVITY  THAT  FRACTION  IN  FRACTION  IN MUSCLE  (A)  RESPIRATORY  IN LIVER  AND  CONTAINING  MUSCLE  INCORPORATED  14. C  LYSINE-UTABLE  26.  IN CHICKS  RADIOACTIVITY  SIGNIFICANTLY ACTIVITY  WITH  WITH  IN  PROTEIN  MUSCLE  CONSUMING  WITH  THE  RECOVERED  DECREASED  FRACTION  FED  ADEQUATE (AMINO  DIETARY  AMOUNT  DIETARY  LYSINE HIGHER  A  AND  MUSCLE  PROTEINS  THE  LYSINE  LEVEL  I N THE  AGREE  WITH  DATA  OF  I N CO^  FROM  WITH  IN CHICKS  I N BOTH  RELATIVE  TO  CHICK  FED  DIET  OF  ARE  BOTH  CHLORIDE  WITH  A  HIGH  IN CHICKS  CONCLUSIONS:  (1)  RETENTION  RECEIVING  THE  CHICK  THAT  MUSCLE RECOVERY  THAN  IN THE  ACID  INCREASED  WAS  OBSERVED  ACID-SOLUBLE  IN  THOSE  SOLUBLE MARKEDLY IN  LIVER  FRACTIONS  AS  INCREASED. RESULTS  OF  6  TRIALS  14, OXIDATION  RADIO-  AND  LYSINE  MUSCLE  INCREASED  THE  EXCEPTION  AND  C  LIVER  RECOVERY  IN  14  DIET.  EXCESS  THE  PRESENTED  LYSINE-U-  RADIOACTIVITY  THAT  CONFIRM  OF  THE  LIVER  OF  LYSINE  IN CHICK  FRACTION  LEVEL  DECLINE  AND  LYSINE  RADIOACTIVITY  POOL)  LYSINE.  OF  PROTEIN  LYSINE.  ACID  LEVELS  RECOVERY  IN THE  WAS  GRADED  0.36$  Low  14,  C  OF  7.  AND  FROM  LYSINE  INCORPORATED  SUGGESTS  A  C  LYSINE-U-  GREAT  THE  AMOUNT  MONOHYDRO-  FOLLOWING  OF  THE  14LYSINE-U-  OBSERVED  C  INTO  IN TRIAL  TISSUE  4.  PROTEIN  GREATER  THAT  WERE  RETENTION  SLOWLY  PROBABLY  METABOLIZED  WAS  NECESSARY  AS  SINCE  TABLE 26.- - P E R C E N T A G E  RECOVERY  OF  RADIOACTIVITY INJECTION  IN OF  LYSINE  TREATMENT  COo  (%)  A  ft  0.36  0.22  0.50  0.86  0.80  A B  3.85  0.88  1.24  1 .97  B  3.35°  RESP1RATORY *VALUES  **VALUES  CO^,  FOLLOWED  FOLLOWED  B  k, BY  BY  A  AND  C  A  DIFFERENT  o  LIVER  2  AND  MUSCLE  A*  6.81  ACT  SUPERSCRIPT  SUPERSCRIPT  A** B  1V1TY  ARE  ARE  0.37  PROTEIN  AFTER  MUSCLE^ c  A  C  B  %  fo  REPRESENT  DIFFERENT  C0 ,  C  LIVER B  LEVEL  1  14  1  RES P I R A T O R Y  SUPP.  RESPIRATORY LYSINE-U-  A*  0.50  A*  1 8.40 7.75  B  4.51°  0.74°  CALCULATED  B  AS  IN  TABLES  S I GNIFICANTLY D1FFERENT  S1GNIF1CANTLY  D 1 FFERENT  2.23  A*  1 .59  0.19  0.55  B  1 .81°  23  AND  A** B  0.90°  24.  (P < 0.05) • (P < 0.01  11 .57  A*  2 .92  B  2 .01°  THE  LOW  LEVEL  EFFICIENT  OF  LYSINE  GROWTH  AS  IN  THE  DIET  DEMONSTRATED  BY  WAS  INADEQUATE  THE  PERFORMANCE  14  RETENTION  OF  FED  ADEQUATE  WAS  GREATER IN  DIET.  (TRIAL  OR  PARTIAL  THE  LYSINE  OTHER  WAS 4)  PROTEIN  WITHIN  AMINO  LOW  SINCE IN  STUDIES, FROM  THAT  A  THE  IT  A  IN  TURNOVER  BELIEVED PROTEIN  A  PROTEIN  HAS  A  ACID  SPECIES  WITHIN  RATE  HALF-LIFE  THE  FOR  (TABLE  LYSINE AN  28).  AND  BY  PROTEINS  A  ACID  1956).  _ET _AL •  OF OF  IS  COMPLETE  AMINO  THAT  HENCE  CHICKS  DEFICIENT  AMINO  LABELLED TO  OF  TISSUE  STEINBERG  EQUAL  PROTEIN  OF  MOLECULE  ISOTOPICALLY  THE  DATA  NEEDS  PROTEINS  THAT  1954;  (TARVER,  SINGLE  TISSUE  RECEIVING  IS  WITHIN  DEGRADATION  IS  C  CHICKS  MEET  o  LYSINE-U-  THAN  EXCHANGED  IMPLICATION  SPECIES  FROM  RADIOACTIVE  RELEASED OR  ACTIVITY  TO  ACID  ALL  THE  THE  PROTEIN  14„ ITSELF.  THE  DIETARY  LYSINE.  INCORPORATED  A  GREATER  GREATER  THAN  INJECTED  A  THE  MARKEDLY  EXCESS  LYSINE  BECAUSE  NOT  OF  IS  (MEISTER,  1957).  IN  THE  WAS  A  IN  IN  THE  FROM  THE  ACID  THESE  PATHWAY  MARKED  CHICKS  GENERAL  METABOLIC  REVERSIBLE  AMINO  METABOLIC  DEMONSTRATED  EXCRETION  0.86  SUPPORTS  UNDER  THEREFORE,  INJECTED  (AMINO  OXIDATION  RELATIVE  COULD,  RADIOACTIVE  28).  UNIQUE  PARTICIPATE  OF  LYSINE  LYSINE  THE  C  RECEIVING  PROTEIN  0.36$  HAVE  UREA  ITS  THE  (TABLE  VIA  (1970)  LYSINE  OF  FED  GROWTH  AND  AMOUNT  SOLUBLE  DIETARY  ACTIVITY  CHICKS  SMALL  GROUP  EXCESSIVE  NESHEIM  (2)  DILUTION  ACID  LYSINE-U-  THE  OF  1.24$  ACID  BY  IN  THESE  THAT  INCREASES  IN  AMINO  VANSLYKE  SINEX  CHICK  OF  AND  LYSINE.  METABOLISM  APPARENTLY  IN  CHICKS  ARGINASE  DIETARY  ACID  REACTIONS  AND  OF  (3)  AUSTIC  KIDNEY  SCHEME  LYSINE  GROUPS  ELIMINATION  EXCESS  INERTNESS.  OF  LYSINE.  DEPRESSED  RECEIVING  OF  BECAUSE  THEORY.  AUGMENTED.  FOR  LYSINE  INJECTED  CONDITIONS,  WAS  C  DILUTION  BURDEN  EXCHANGED  DIETARY  LYSINE-U-  POOL)  TRANSAMINATION  WORK  AND  BE  THE  (1958),  DOES  BODY  IT  WAS  APPARENT  FOUND  ONLY  LYSINE  AND  THAT  LYSINE  IN COLLAGEN.  WAS  AND  OBSERVED  ENTER  BY  SUCH  OF  NITROGEN  AMINO  ACID  THAT  THE GLUTARIC  THEN  TO  MAY  BE  I N PART  ONE MOLECULE  ONE MOLECULE  OF  OF  TO  (TCA)  ACID  WANG  THAT  ACID  AN  TO  GLUTARIC  OF  T H E BODY  LOST POOL  NON-ESSENTIAL  IS USUALLY ON  ACID  THE NITROGEN  CAN ENTER  ACID  (1972)  ALTERNATIVE  ALPHA-KETOGLUTARIC  DIOXIDE  ALPHA-KETOGLUTARIC  REPORTED  IS PROBABLY  FOR THE SYNTHESIS  CARBON  ACID  AND NESHEIM  CYCLE.  PRESUMABLY  AMINO  V I A PIPICOLIC  I N THE CHICK  OXIDIZED  DEAMINATION  USED  PATHWAY  IN VIVO  THE TRICARBOXYLIC  AND  ACID.  AN  (1959)  ROTHSTEIN  GLUTARIC  BE  HYDROXYLYSINE,  I N T H E BODY  THE SACROPINE  ACID  IRREVERSIBLE  ACIDS.  FROM  ADIPIC  TO  AND  F O R L - L Y S I NE•DEGRAD AT ION  PATHWAY ACID.  GREENBERG  I R R E V E R S I B L Y TRANSFORMED  ALPHA-AMINO  RECENTLY  C A N BE CONVERTED  LIBERATED  CONVERSION  TO  SUCCINYL  14 CoA  I N T H E TCA  CHICKS  I N THE PRESENT  DESCRIBED.  TO  CYCLE.  THERE  ACETYL-COA  DEGRADATION  STUDY  WAS  IS EVIDENCE,  ( BE ND  OF  PROBABLY  HOWEVER,  I T T _ E T _AL .  C  LYSINE-U-  THROUGH  THAT  INJECTED  THE  LYSINE  INTO  MECHANISM  CAN BE  DEGRADED  1950). 14,  RESULTS RESPIRATORY  LIVER  OF  CO^,  AND MUSCLE  CHICKS  FED GRADED  SHOWED  THAT  MORE  OF  READILY  THREONINE  THE TRANSFORMATION  OF  ( B ) LIVER  (c)  PROTEIN  LEVELS  CHICKS  THAN  AND  OF  CHICKS  BY CHICKS  LYSINE  CONFIRM  THE OBSERVATION  OXIDATION  OF  RECEIVING  CHICKS  FED  0.36  THAN  AND  THAT  IN  I N MUSCLE  THE  27.  OF  DATA  THREONINE  OXIDATION  INTERMEDIATE  LYSINE.  IN LYSINE  NORMAL.  WAS  ( A )  FRACTION  OXIDIZED  LYSINE.  0.86$  ,. INTO  IN TABLE  (l.24$)  LYSINE  I N TRIAL.7  IS HIGHER  IN LYSINE,  ADEQUATE  C  FRACTION  ARE PRESENTED  LIMITED  FED EXCESS  THE GROUPS  ACID-SOLUBLE  (D) ACID-SOLUBLE  FED DIETS  BETWEEN  THREONINE  PROTEIN,  THREONINE-U-  RESULTS  DEFICIENCY,  TABLE  27.--PERCENTAGE  RECOVERY  OF  RADIOACTIVITY INJECTION  IN OF  RESPIRATORY THREONINE-U-  1 RESP1RATORY LYSINE  TREATMENT  SUPP .  {%)  A*  0.99  0.50  0.86  0.24  0.88  1 .24  0.38  *VALUES  *"*VALUES  CO^,  FOLLOWED  FOLLOWED  A,  BY  BY  B  A  AND  C  A  4.08 9.78  8  DIFFERENT  A**  0.56 0.26  B  4.78°  A B  REPRESENT  DIFFERENT  A  LIVER  AND  MUSCLE  SUPERSCRIPT  SUPERSCRIPT  ARE  ARE  AFTER  A  C  B  % A* B  0.29°  A C T 1V1 T Y  PROTEIN  MUSCLE^  c  %  0.36  ^RESPIRATORY  o  C  1 L IVER B  r  LEVEL  C0 ,  1A 2  CALCULATED  7 .32  37 . 8 6  B  16 .36  C  AS  SIGNIFICANTLY  SIGNIFICANTLY  IN  A**  A**  TABLES  DIFFERENT  DIFFERENT  0.50 0.20  1 .73 3.31 8  1 .78  22  0.34  A  AND  23.  (P < 0.05). (P «=0.01).  A*  3.44  A**  8  16.93  S  C  5.35  A  TABLE 2 8 . - - E F F E C T  AMINO TO  ACID  OF DIETARY  LYSINE  LEVEL  ON T H R E O N I N E  GAIN/CHICK  SUPPLEMENT  WHEAT-BASAL  UTILIZATION  DIET  BY THE CHICK  FEED  INTAKE/CHICK  G.**  G.** A  A  NONE  + + + + +  0.084$ L - T H R E O N 1 N E 0.1 68$ L - T H R E O N 1 N E O.E)$ L- L Y S 1 N E O.E)$ L- L Y S I N E + 0.084$ L- T H R E O N 1 N E O.E3$ L-L Y S I N E + 0.168$ L- T H R E O N 1 N E + OA375$ L - L Y S 1 N E + OA575$ L - L Y S 1 N E + 0.084$ L - T H R E O N 1 N E + O.c575$ L - L Y S I N E + 0.168$ L - T H R E O N 1 N E + 0.1)$ L- L Y S I N E + 0.168$ L- T H R E O N 1 N E + 0.15$ DL- M E T H 1 O N 1 N E  **VALUES  FOLLOWED  BY A  DIFFERENT  SUPERSCRIPT  293A 295A 3058 862 8 9208 954C 621 C 652C 612B 988  69.3A 76.3A 68.3B 331.3B 338.3B 364.3C 211.3C 246.0C 226.0B 374.0  ARE SIGNIFICANTLY  DIFFERENT  (P  *=0.01).  RADIOACTIVITY  THE  A C I D- I N S O L U B L E  OF  THREONINE  PROTEIN  FRACTION  ACID-SOLUBLE  FRACTIONS  OF  OF  LYSINE  THE  DIET  OF  DIETARY  THE  LIVER  IN  LYSINE AND  THE  THE  LYSINE  IT  FROM  BETWEEN  VALUES  MUSCLE  IN  THE  THE  LIVER  SIGNIFICANTLY  .0.86$  OBTAINED  AND  THE  (P<  AND  INCREASING FURTHER  TO  MUSCLE 0.01)  TO  A  0.86$  AMOUNTS  INCREASE  OF  THE  IN  LYSINE  IN THE  THREONINE  RECOVERY THE  IN  SAME  INCREASING  VALUE  IN  THE  RECOVERED  SHOWED  BY  0.01)  IN  RADIOACTIVITY  RELATIVE AND  <=  0.05)  RADIOACTIVITY  DECREASED  0.36  WITH  A  <  RADIOACTIVITY  POOL).  EXPRESSED  WITH  0.86$.  TO  INCREASED  ACID  PROTEIN  AND  AND  (P  (P  DIETARY  INTERMEDIATE  1.24$  WHEN  LYSINE  FED.  RESULTS PROTEINS  THAN THE DIET  OF  WAS  A  AMINO  INCREASED  RESULTS  PROTEIN  IS  AND  OF  SYNTHESIS  THEREBY  REDUCING  THREONINE  IS  INDICATE  THAT  THE TO  THE A  AMOUNT SHARE  DEFICIENCY,  LYSINE AND  FEEDING  MUSCLE  THE  IN  PROTEIN  EXCRETION  RATE  AMINO OF  LIMITATION  THREONINE A  IN  THAT  INDIVIDUAL  BY  RETENTION  LIVER  SHOWED BY  THREONINE  OF  ANIMAL  A  TISSUE THE  IS  LESS  THREONINE  FROM  LYSINE-FREE  1966).  WITH  UTILIZES  ON  THAT  THE  MARKEDLY  CAUSED  KNOWN  IN  SAKURAI,  ABSORBED  DATA  STUDIES  ASSOCIATED  PROTEIN  THE  ACID  INDICATE  SYNTHESIS  LOSS  WHICH  PREVIOUS  (YAMASHITA  OXIDATION  CONFIRM  7)  THE  NORMAL. RAT  ALSO  (TRIAL  RETENTION  IN  (AMINO  INCREASED  DECREASED  0.36  AND  SIGNIFICANTLY  AND  DECREASED  FRACTION  0.36  LIVER  FROM  PROTEIN  A C I D- I N S O L U B L E  PATTERN.  THE  1.24$  FRACTION  ACID-SOLUBLE  WAS  TO  MUSCLE  ACID-SOLUBLE IN  CHICK  INCREASED  WHEREAS  LARGE OF THE  PROTEIN IN WITH  PROPORTION  THREONINE RELATIVE  ACID  RETENTION SYNTHESIS.  DIETARY  LYSINE  ADEQUATE OF  OR LIMITED RESULTS  DIETARY  DIETARY  LYSINE,  LYSINE,  AVAILABLE  FOR  OXIDATION.  METABOLIC  INERTNESS  BEHAVIOUR  OF  LYSINE  BEING  THE FORMATION  ALTHOUGH  VARIOUS  MARKEDLY  LIVER  OF SUCCINATE  THE ADDITION  AMOUNTS  I N THIS  OF THREONINE  A  CHANGE  I N ONE ORGAN  ORGANS  OF T H E BODY.  WAS  CHANGE  THE  MEASURED  OVER  PERIOD  BEFORE  RESPONSE  L-THREONINE  IMPROVE  SLIGHTLY  IN  LIVER  GROUPS  DID  DIETARY  OF  THREONINE  ACID  RECEIVING  THAT  DURATION  LYSINE THE  0.36  FROM  AND  RECEIVING  DIFFERENCES  OF FEEDING  SHOWED  OTHER  STATUS  WEEKS  DIETARY  THE EXPERIMENTAL  OFTHE  OF  0.168$  WAS SHOWN  TO  THREONINE  RETENTION  LYSINE  THREONINE  EXCESS  PATTERN  AND D E F I C I E N T  IN EXPERIMENTAL  WAS  INFLUENCED  IN THEIR  RETENTION  BETWEEN THE  LYSINE.  AS  THREONINE  IN THE LIVER  LYSINE  CAPACITY  CONDITIONING  DIETS  ON C  THREONINE-U-  WITH  MARKEDLY  WEIGHT  6.  T H E SAME  EXCESSIVE  OFTHE  WAS F O R A  I N BODY  (INTERMEDIATE  LYSINE)  THE  I N DIFFERENT  STUDY  TO A F F E C T  OF EXCESS  I N  DIETARY  SUPPLEMENTATION  IN TRIAL  TRIAL.  OF  PROBABLY  FOR FIVE  NORMAL  0.86$  PROTEINS  EACH  DIET  GROWTH  REFLECTION  NUTRITIONAL  SINCE  DIET  I N THIS  THAN  I S NOT A  T H E CHANGE THE  LYSINE  OF THREONINE  AND RETENTION  WAS O B S E R V E D  IMPACT  WAS L E S S  GROUPS  NOT D I F F E R  THREONINE  ADEQUATE  AND CHICK  SUM OF CHANGES  P U T ON T H E T E S T  DRASTIC  I N MUSCLE  DAYS.  CONTAINING  BY THE LEVELS  WEIGHT  WHEREAS  SIGNIFICANTLY  7.  PROTEINS  THREONINE.  THE  GROWTH  WAS MORE  RETENTION  EXCEPT  LYSINE  I N TRIAL  RETENTION  WERE  TO D I E T A R Y  TO A  CHICK  EXCESS  THEY  O F 28  INTAKE  INFLUENCED  OXIDATION  O F TWO H O U R S  TO D I E T S  FEED  BUT AN ALGEBRAIC  PERIOD  THEIR  PATHWAY  THE RETENTION  I N BODY  SPECIFIC  A  28),  (TABLE  TISSUES  HOWEVER,  ANIMALS  CATABOLIC  V I AA L P H A - K E T O G L U T A R I C  D I D NOT IMPROVE  TRIAL  AND MUSCLE  LYSINE.  THE MAJOR  1965).  (MEISTER,  IN  1957),  (MEISTER,  DIETS  TO  RETAIN  OF CHICKS  IN TRIALS  7  AND  AND 8  157  PROBABLY  ACCOUNT  WERE  THE  THE  FED  7  DAYS  ON  ANOTHER WERE  AND  THE  BEFORE  THE  DISCREPANCY.  EXPERIMENTAL  OXIDATION  TRIAL  FOR  RETENTION  OTHER  THEY  MEASURED.  HAND  WERE  S I X DAYS  DIETS  FROM  STUDY  AFTER  WHICH  CHICKS  A  TO  IN THE 26  THE  AND  TRIAL  OF  BROILER  DIET  DIETS  NOT  BEFORE  USED  RETENTION  DID  TRIAL  AGE  CHICKS  EXPERIMENTAL  OXIDATION  PRESENT  PRESENT  DAYS  PERFORMED. COMMERCIAL  TO  THE  I N THE  HATCH  WAS  RECEIVED  TRANSFERED  CHICKS  IN 14  FOR  FOR  OF  THREONINE  RECEIVE  ANY  FEED  14 DURING  CC^  COLLECTION  WHEREAS  CHICKS  IN TRIAL  7  WERE  RETURNED  TO  14, THEIR TWO  FEED  HOURS  IMMEDIATELY  AFTER  INJECTING  THREONINE-U-  C  AND  SACRIFICED  LATER.  RESULTS  AGREE  WITH  AND  CONFIRM  THE  OBSERVATIONS  IN TRIALS  6  AND  14 7 THAT THE O X I D A T I O N OF THE LABELLED AMINO ACID  C-LYSINE I N C R E A S E D AND THE R E T E N T I O N OF IN TISSUE PROTEIN DECREASED AS THE L E V E L OF  14, DIETARY CHICK AND  LYSINE  INCREASED.  IS MARKEDLY  SLIGHTLY  BY  THE  IMPAIRED  LYSINE  BY  LYSINE  EFFECTS  TRANSFORMATION 0.36,  0.86,  THE  LIVER  OF  LYSINE  INCREASING  AND  MUSCLE  DIETARY  DEFICIENCY  LYSINE  LYSINE  6  WERE  WERE  ON  AS  NOTED  7  AND  THE  I N THE 7  IN TRIAL  INTRAPERITONEALLY  RECOVERY  DETERMINED.  THAT  RESULTS  OXIDATION  MUSCLE  THREONINE  METABOLIC  DETERMINED.  RADIOACTIVITY  WERE  AND  IN LIVER  LYSINE.  CONTENT  THREONINE  PROTEINS  IN TRIALS  RETENTION  C-THREONINE  CONCLUSION  THREON INE-U-^C .  OBSERVATIONS  WHILE  AND  DIETARY  OR  AND  DIETARY  LYSINE  1.24$  LYSINE-U-^C  CO^,,  OF  OF  TOXICITY.  SUMMARY  THE  RETENTION  OF  PROTEINS  OXIDATION  WAS  CHICKS  FED  INJECTED  IN  WITH  RESPIRATORY  CONFIRMED  LYSINE  DECLINED  INCREASED  INCREASED  WITH  AND  158  RETENTION  MORE  DECREASED  PRONOUNCED  IN  BY  LYSINE  LYSINE  DEFICIENCY  DEFICIENCY.  AND  TOXICITY,  THE  IMPACT  WAS  GENERAL SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION  THE ACID  METABOLISM  (RNA),  PROTEINS OF  WHEAT  PROTEIN  OF  TRIALS  AND  DIFFERENT  WERE  FED  SUPPLEMENTED  WITH  WHEAT-SOYBEAN  BY  PLUS  MEANS  DETERMINED  EXTRACTION  OF  METABOLIC  AND FATE  (CELL  SIZE)  LEVEL  (0.86$  ALSO  VALUE.  BROILER  WHEAT  LEVELS  OF  (15$  (20$  IN CHICKS CHICKS  (15$  DIETARY  DIETARY AS  DIETARY  SERIES  PROTEIN),  EXCESS  PROTEIN)  FED  IN A  DIETARY  LYSINE,  W H E A T - S 0 Y B E AN  MEAL  MUSCLE  OF  RNA  SUPPLEMENTING  L.IPIDS  SYNTHESIS  OF  TISSUE  LYSINE  THAT  THE  LYSINE  DIET  PROTEIN) SOURCES  AND  OF  BY  AT  MUSCLE  WHEAT  WITH  DRY  TISSUE  WERE TISSUE  WEIGHT  AFTER  SAMPLES.  OF  DIETARY  PROTEINS,  WITH  WHICH  14  AND  INCREASING  BY  EFFECTS  CONTENT  TECHNIQUE.  PROTEIN/DNA  AT  HIGHER  RNA  RNA  PROTEINS THE  ISOTOPE LYSINE  SYNTHESIS  ON  THE  AND  THE  THREONINE.  MARKEDLY  DIET)  LEVELS  AND  AND  AND  FROM  STUDY  IN CHICKS  INCREASED  AND  TO  SHOWED  LYSINE  DNA  ABSORPTION  USED  INCREASED  MAXIMAL  LIVER  ULTRAVIOLET  WAS  OF  OF  AND  SPECTROPHOTOMETRY,  DNA,  RESULTS  DIETARY  WERE  CONTAINING GRADED  FISH  BY  TECHNIQUE  DEGRADATION  WERE  STUDIED  ACIDS  RIBONUCLEIC  PROTEIN.  MEASURED  TRACER  AMINO  ARGININE,  GASTROCNEMIUS  WERE  ACID  NUTRITIVE  WITH  (DNA),  DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC  DIETS  SUPPLEMENTED  DIETARY  OF  DIETARY  BODY  28  0.86$.  THAN  DIETARY  SOYBEAN  DAYS  159  AND  RATIOS  FROM  RATIOS  INTAKE  GAIN  AGE  THE  PROTEIN  MEAL.  LYSINE  WEIGHT  OF  RNA/DNA  AND  15  AND  UNTIL  THAT  GAIN/FEED  DECREASED  AT  IN THE  MUSCLE  TO  OR  20$  BY  PROTEIN/DNA  LIVER WITH  THE  INCREASED  RATIOS  LIVER  AND  DIETARY  INCREASED  PROTEIN/RNA  INDEPENDENT  CORRELATED  WITH  RESULTS  CONDITIONS (1)  THE  RNA  INTAKE  AS  AND  AND  THE  QUALITY  ON  I N THE  CONSTITUENTS  NUTRITIONAL  GROWTH  I N THE  AND  FROM  NOT  (HYPERPLASIA) GROWTH  INCREASE  DURING 28  AT  IN CELL  SIZE  ORGANS  THAN  THIS  PROTEIN  CONTINUES  REDUCED  IN CHICKS NO  OCCURS  AND  UNDER  DEFICIENCY  AGE  DAYS  OF  THAT  AGE  RNA  THIS  WAS  IS  CONSTANT  CLOSELY  CAN  WAS  NOT  ONLY  THE  AN  HAVE  OF  AS  BUT  A ALSO  ANIMAL.  INCREASE CELLS  AGE  DNA,  THESE  PROTEINS  OF  14  AGE  IN  OR  WHEREAS  DAYS  OF  IS MOSTLY  LYSINE  A  BY  AND  THE  AGE  AND  BY  OR  TO  DIETS  LOSS  PROBABLY  PROTEIN A  ALTHOUGH  LIVER  SIZE  RATE MAY FROM OF  NORMAL  CHICK  AND DNA  THAN BE  PROTEIN GREATLY  ONE  CELLS  EXPLAINS  AND/OR  ADEQUATE  SEVERELY  PROTEIN  LYSINE  FASTER  CELL  MORE AND  THAT,  UNDERNOURISHED  GROW  PROTEINS CONTENT  HENCE  DEPRESSED BY  MUSCLE  RESULT  ON  EXPERIMENTAL  CONCLUSIONS:  OF  OF  THE  MULTIPLICATION  FIRST OF  DNA  AT  SEVERE  REHABILITATED  UNDER  SERVE  DAYS  DEGENERATION  CHICKS  OF  (HYPERTROPHY).  I . E .T I S S U E  AGE  BUT  DAYS  AND  INHIBITED  DEFICIENCY,  SYNTHESIS;  28  I S BY  INDICATES  IS SEVERELY  SYNTHESIS  AT  NUMBER  THE  ACCUMULATION  GROWTH  MUSCLE  STATUS  CELL  DAYS  IN  DEFICIENCY.  28  TO  RAPID  PROTEIN BOTH  AGE  DIETARY  CHICK  IN THE  HATCH  UNDERGOES  LIVER  OF  ORGAN  CAN  THE  LIVER  DAYS  DIETARY  OR  CHICK  TO  FIBERS  14  LIVER  OF  EVALUATING  SIZE  AT  FOLLOWING  CELLULAR  FOR  CELL  28  PROGRESSIVELY  CONTENT  INDICATING  MUSCLE  PROTEIN  REVEAL  DECREASED  THE  AND  CRITERION  MUSCLE  (3)  14  SUGGEST  IMPACT  BIOCHEMICAL  PROTEIN  MANNER  BOTH  CHICK  STUDY  AND  AND  RATIOS  BIOSYNTHESIS.  QUANTITY  MARKED  (2)  AT  LYSINE  THIS  THE  IN LIKE  PROTEIN  ON  OF  LYSINE  RATIO  OF  RNA/DNA  AND  DAY OR  OF  FIBRES  WHY  CALORIE  SIZE  WHEN  IN PROTEIN  AND  CALORIE.  EXCESS  MUSCLE  ADVERSE  AND  DIETARY  LIVER  EFFECTS  LYSINE  PROTEIN/DNA OF  EXCESS  DEPRESSED  AND  LYSINE  CHICK  RNA/DNA WERE  GROWTH,  RATIOS  ALLEVIATED  FEED  MARKEDLY.  BY  INTAKE,  THE  SUPPLEMENTARY  ARGININE.  RESULTS  DEMONSTRATE  PRESENT  IN  LIMITING  FOR  DEPRESSED ACCOUNT  HALF-LIFE 10.4,  7.1  NET 15  LIVER  OF  WERE  AGE)  RATE  RESPECTIVELY.  THE  PROTEINS  INCREASED  WITH  LEVEL  OF  IN  ALSO  IN  OF  DEFICIENCY  THE  OF  THE  THE  RNA  1.24$  TO  IN  (8  THE  MUSCLE  THE  GAIN  TO  RESPECTIVELY.  52.9  AND  DAILY  CHICKS  LYSINE  49.2  13.3$  AND  MG./DAY AND  IN  LIVER  BODY  WEIGHT  RATE  OF  PROTEIN  TISSUE  OF  LYSINE  DEFICIENT  IN  LIVER  LOWER  THAN  LYSINE. SYNTHESIS  SLIGHTLY  AND  WAS  RESULTS  TION  OF  IN  THIS  SYNTHESIS, SKELETON SUPPLY  THE  SUGGEST  DIET  THE  SYNTHESIS OF  LYSINE  DEFICIENCY  IN  LIVER  IN  THE  CHICKS  AT  THAT  AMINO  MARKEDLY  EIGHT  DAYS  THREONINE  WAS  WHEN  THE  IN  DIETARY  LYSINE,  A  ANIMAL  WHEREAS  SYNTHESIS  IS  USED  OXIDATION  NEEDS  WITH  THEREBY  AVAILABLE  FOR  DEFICIENCY.  A  FOR  REDUCING  THE  DIETARY  PROTEIN CAUSED IN  DIETARY  BY  A  LOSS LYSINE,  PROPORTION  THE  OXIDATION.  IN  PROPOR-  CARBON THE  RESULTS  LARGE  LYSINE  PROTEIN  THE  ADEQUATE  UTILIZES  IN  SYNTHESIS  LYSINE  LYSINE.  PRESENT  AS  LIVER  BY  LARGE  FOR OF  OCCURS  PROTEIN  DIETARY  PROTEIN  LYSINE  IN  DECREASED  GREATER  AMOUNTS, IS  RETENTION  DIETARY  RETENTION  DIOXIDE  LIMITED  LIMITATION  AND  ACID  CARBON  LYSINE  INCREASING  SUBOPTIMAL  EXCEEDS  SYNTHESIS.  WHILE  IMPACT  INCREASED  TO  THREONINE  WITH  INCREASED  TOXICITY,  CHICK  INCREASED  DECLINED  OXIDATION  OF  IN  MUSCLE  LYSINE  PROTEINS  A  14.0  TO  AGE.  OXIDATION  THREONINE  THAT  ADEQUATE  DEPRESSED  AND  CORRESPONDING  PROTEINS  BOTH  SIMILAR  CONSIDERABLY  FED  TO  LYSINE.  SUGGEST  IS  GROWTH.  ENOUGH  9.6,  AND  20.0,  OF  IS  DAYS  AND  WAS  RATES  MANNER  DIETARY  CHICKS  MUSCLE  A  5.2  LIVER  0.86  SYNTHESIS  DEGRADATION  CHICK  AND  0.36,  TURNOVER  RESULTS AND  TIME,  IS  GROWTH.  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AND IN  NUTR.  YOSHIDA,  A.,  P.  EFFECT AMINO  YUILE,  C.  M.  B.  OF AMINO ACID.  L.,  PLASMA  F.  J . NUTR.  V.  LUCAS,  PROTEIN  DIETARY  LEUNG, ACID  PROTEIN  Q.  R.  ROGERS  IMBALANCE  ON  A N D A.  E.  HARPER,  THE FATE  OF  THE  1966.  LIMITING  89:80-90. J . P.  TURNOVER  OLSON  A N D A.  AND T I S S U E  AND PROTEIN  B.  DEPLETION.  1959.  SHAPIRO,  EXCHANGE.  INFLUENCE  J . E X P .  OF  MED.  109:173-186. ZIMMERMAN,  R.  AMINO BY  A.  A N D H.  M.  ACID  LEVELS  AND WEIGHT  SUB-OPTIMAL  SINGLE  AMINO  SCOTT,  1965. GAIN  AND SUPER-OPT IMAL ACIDS.  J . NUTR.  INTERRELATIONSHIP IN THE CHICK DIETARY  87:13-18.  AS  OF  PLASMA  INFLUENCED  CONCENTRATION  OF  APPENDIX  APPENDIX TABLE  I.--ANALYSIS  OF V A R I A N C E  MUSCLE  LIVER  AND LIVER  WEIGHT  P E R 100  OF  LYSINE  F O R TWO W E E K S  WEIGHT,  SOURCE  VAR1 A T  WEIGHT  OF AVERAGE  ON  DF  BODY  WT.  GAIN  FEED  INTAKE  TREATMENT  4  2106.76**  6087.70**  REPL1 C A T 1 O N  2  63.65  364.63  ERROR  8  52.87  151.34  14  TOTAL  *STAT  i  ST  WEIGHT  G.  BODY  i  CALLY  **STATI ST I CALLY  SIGNIFICANT SIGNIFICANT  AT AT  P -=0.05. P "=0.01.  MUSCLE  GAIN,  WEIGHT  WT.  FEED  INTAKE,  OF CHICKS  GASTROCNEMIUS  F E D GRADED  LEVELS  l)  (TRIAL  MEAN  OF  1  BODY  SQUARE LIVER  WT.  LIVER  WT./100G.  4.10**  0.93**  89095.45  0.56  0.07  51401.94  0.28  0.05  354630.84  BODY  WT.  APPENDIX TABLE I I . - - A N A L Y S I S CONCENTRATION  I N ONE GRAM  GRADED  SOURCE  LEVELS  OF V A R I A N C E  OF GASTROCNEMIUS  OF LYSINE  F O R TWO  DNA, RNA  MUSCLE WEEKS  DF  RNA  0.07  4  0.0015  REPL1 C A T 1 ON  2  0.0008  ERROR  8  0.0047  TOTAL  14  PROTEIN  l)  SQUARE  DNA  TREATMENT  AND  OF C H I C K S F E D  (TRIAL  MEAN  OF  VARIATION  OF  PROTEIN  683.25 110.19  0.02  300.96  184  APPENDIX TABLE I I I . - - A N A L Y S I S CONCENTRATION  OF  SOURCE  OF V A R I A N C E  I N THE GASTROCNEMIUS LYSINE  MUSCLE  F O R TWO  WEEKS  OF  VARIATION  OF TOTAL OF CHICKS (TRIAL  MEAN DF  DNA  DNA, RNA A N D F E D GRADED  PROTEIN  LEVELS  l)  SQUARE  RNA  PROTE1N  TREATMENT  4  0.1035**  1 .2731**  8649.24**  REPLI C A T I ON  2  0.0368  0.3049  1348.30  ERROR  8  0.0135  0.1469  877.70  TOTAL  14  **STAT I ST I CALLY  SIGNIFICANT  AT  P<=0.01.  APPENDIX TABLE I CONCENTRATION  V.--ANALYSIS  I N ONE GRAM LYSINE  SOURCE  OF VARIANCE  OF L I V E R  F O R TWO  WEEKS  (TRIAL  OF  VARIATION  OF  OF CHICKS  DNA, RNA  DNA  PROTEIN  LEVELS  OF  l)  MEAN DF  AND  FED GRADED  SQUARE  RNA  PROTE1N  TREATMENT  4  0.49**  2.22**  189.42  REPL1 C A T 1 O N  2  0.03  0.08  1 02.85  ERROR  8  0.03  0.27  168.28  TOTAL  14  **STATISTICALLY  S I GN1 F1 C A N T  A T P -=0.01 .  APPENDIX TABLE V . — A N A L Y S I S  OF VARIANCE  CONCENTRATION  OF  I N THE LIVERS TWO  SOURCE  CHICKS  WEEKS  (TRIAL  MEAN  TREATMENT  4  REPL1 C A T 1 O N  2  ERROR  8  TOTAL  14  **STATI ST I CALLY  DNA  DF  SIGNIFICANT  LEVELS  OF  AND  PROTEIN  LYSINE  FOR  I)  OF  V A R I A T 1ON  DNA, RNA  OF TOTAL  FED GRADED  36.94**  SQUARE  RNA  PROTEIN  372.01**  113924.41**  5.26  50.17  11672.15  1 .76  16.49  4230.50  AT  P <0.01.  APPENDIX TABLE V I . - - A N A L Y S I S PROTEIN  CONTENT  P E R 100 OF  SOURCE  G.  LYSINE  OF VARIANCE  BODY  WEIGHT  F O R TWO  WEEKS  OF TOTAL  OF CHICKS (TRIAL  OF  VARI A T I ON  DNA  AND  LEVELS  SQUARE  RNA  PROTE1N  TREATME NT  4  REPL1 C A T 1 O N  2  0.26  5.93  62.03  ERROR  8  0.63  7.78  3250.95  TOTAL  14  **STATI  ST I CALLY  SIGNIFICANT  16.41**  DNA, RNA  l)  MEAN DF  LIVER  FED GRADED  AT:P  <0.01.  110.42**  31421.17**  APPENDIX TABLE VI I . - - A N A L Y S I S MUSCLE  SOURCE  WEIGHT,  OF  LIVER  TREATMENT  3(3)  REPL1 C A T 1 O N  2(2)  AGE  3  BODY 1  1  1  ERROR  39(6)  TOTAL  47(11 )  * * S T A T I S TI C A L L Y  OF VARIANCE  AND LIVER  OF AVERAGE  WEIGHT  OF  LYSINE  GAIN  FEED  P E R 100  BODY G.  WEIGHT  BODY  FOR FOUR  WEEKS  WT.  INTAKE  MUSCLE  GAIN,  WEIGHT  (TRIAL  MEAN  r !-DF  VARI A T I ON  WEIGHT  FEED  INTAKE,  OF CHICKS  GASTROCNEMIUS  F E D GRADED  LEVELS  l)  SQUARE WT.  LIVER  WT.  LIVER  WT./100G.  6598.31**  32567.44**  7178347.68**  47.53**  0.23  130.00  931.46  94843.25  1 .34  --  3551.35  40039.45  80223.03  2.33  0.08  128.23  925.47  BODY  —  1  SIGNIFICANT  AT P <  0.01.  1 DEGREE  OF  FREEDOM  PARENTHESES .  FOR MUSCLE  WEIGHT,  LIVER  WEIGHT  AND L I V E R  WEIGHT  P E R 100  G.  BODY  WEIGHT  ISI N  WT.  APPENDIX TABLE V I I I . — ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF DNA, RNA AND PROTEIN CONCENTRATION IN ONE GRAM OF GASTROCNEMIUS MUSCLE OF CHICKS FED GRADED LEVELS OF LYSINE FOR FOUR WEEKS (TRIAL l )  SOURCE OF VAR1 ATI ON  DF  DNA  MEAN SQUARE RNA  PROTEIN  TREATMENT  3  0.0187  0.866  1652.42**  REPLlCAT 1 ON  2  0.0161  0.020  151.90  ERROR  6  0.0131  0.028  96.35  TOTAL  11  STATISTICALLY SIGNIFICANT AT :P •*= 0.01. ;  190  APPENDIX TABLE I X . - - A N A L Y S I S CONCENTRATION  OF  SOURCE  OF VARIANCE  IN THE GASTROCNEMIUS LYSINE  FOR FOUR  OF  MUSCLE WEEKS  (TRIAL  OF  VARIATlON  TOTAL  AND P R O T E I N  FED GRADED  LEVELS  l)  MEAN DF  DNA, RNA  OF CHICKS  SQUARE  DNA  RNA  PROTEIN  12.68**  288233.89**  TREATMENT  3  2.12**  R E P L I C A T 1 ON  2  0.19  0.37  10872.77  ERROR  6  0.15  0.19  4933.18  TOTAL  11  **STATISTICALLY  SIGNIFICANT  AT  P "=0.01.  APPENDIX TABLE CONCENTRATION  X.--ANALYSIS I N ONE GRAM LYSINE  SOURCE  OF V A R I A N C E  OF L I V E R  FOR FOUR  DNA, RNA  OF CHICKS  WEEKS  OF  VAR1 A T I O N  OF  (TRIAL  FED GRADED  PROTEIN LEVELS  OF  l)  MEAN DF  AND  SQUARE  DNA  RNA  PROTEIN  TREATMENT  3  0.066  0.56  28.16  REPLICATION  2  0.010  0.25  62.85  ERROR  6  0.130  0.71  393.70  TOTAL  11  APPENDIX TABLE CONCENTRATION  XI.--ANALYSIS IN THE LIVERS FOUR  SOURCE VAR1 A T  OF V A R I A N C E OF CHICKS  (TRIAL  WEEKS  OF  MEAN  DNA  DF  ON  LEVELS  AND  PROTEIN  OF L Y S I N E  FOR  I)  OF  1  DNA, RNA  TOTAL  FED GRADED  SQUARE  RNA  PROTEIN  TREATMENT  3  211.50**  2436.72**  997634.26**  REPL1 C A T 1 O N  2  13.88  121.83  63414.29  ERROR  6  15.73  178.01  72352.69  TOTAL  11  **STATI ST  I  CALLY  SIGNIFICANT  AT  P <0.01.  APPENDIX TABLE XI PROTEIN  CONTENT  I.--ANALYSIs  P E R TOO G . LYSINE  SOURCE VAR1 A T  OF V A R I A N C E  BODY  FOR FOUR  WEIGHT WEEKS  OF  1  ON  OF TOTAL  OF CHICKS (TRIAL  DNA, RNA LEVELS  AND OF  l)  MEAN DF  LIVER  FED GRADED  SQUARE  DNA  RNA  PROTEIN  TREATMENT  3  0.17  24.59  5908.46  REPL1 C A T 1O N  2  0.15  3.22  1124.7-0  ERROR  6  1.19  11 .24  4350.29  TOTAL  11  APPENDIX TABLE XI I WEIGHT  AND TOTAL  ADEQUATE  I.--ANALYSIS  MUSCLE  AND EXCESS  DNA,  LYSINE  OF VARIANCE  RNA  FROM  ONE DAY TO  OF  VAR1 A T 1 O N  14  MEAN DF  MUSCLE  CONTENT DAYS  MUSCLE  IN CHICKS FED  OF AGE  2)  (TRIAL  SOURCE  OF GASTROCNEMIUS  AND PROTEIN  DNA  WT.  SQUARE  RNA  PROTE1N  TREATMENT  2  378990.49*  0.125  1.845*  REPL1 C A T 1 O N  2  16106.07  0.005  0.065  142.40  ERROR  4  28579.56  0.020  0.135  203.18  TOTAL  8  * S T A T 1 S T 1 C A L L Y S 1 GN1F1 C A N T  **STATISTICALLY  S 1 G N 1 F1 C A N T  AT P  <  A T ?  0.05. 0. < 01 .  14565.80**  APPENDIX TABLE X I V . - - A N A L Y S I S LIVER  DNA,  RNA  LYSINE  SOURCE  VAR1 A T  AND PROTEIN FROM  OF VARIANCE  CONTENT 14  O N E D A Y TO  OF  1  ON  OF  IN CHICKS DAYS  LIVER  WT.  TREATMENT  2  3.32*  REPL1CATION  2  ERROR  4  TOTAL  8  WEIGHT  AND  TOTAL  FED ADEQUATE  AND  EXCESS  OF AGE  MEAN OF  LIVER  DNA  (TRIAL  2)  SQUARE  RNA  PROTEIN  25.28**  449.75**  88809.17**  0.12  2.99  23.77  7833.99  0.44  2.18  26.19  5074.06  *STATISTICALLY  SIGNIFICANT  AT  P <  0.05.  * * S T A T I S TIC A L L Y  SIGNIFICANT  AT  P <  0.01.  APPENDIX TABLE X V . - - A N A L Y S I S  OF V A R I A N C E  WEIGHT  RNA  AND TOTAL  ADEQUATE  LYSINE  MUSCLE  DNA,  AND EXCESS OF  SOURCE  LYSINE  WITH  AGE (TRIAL  DF  MUSCLE  CONTENT  ARGININE  FROM  MUSCLE  IN CHICKS FED 14  T O 28  DAYS  2)  MEAN  OF  VARIATION  OF GASTROCNEMIUS  AND PROTEIN  SQUARE  WT.  DNA  RNA  PROTEIN  TREATMENT  2  2487440.30  0.16  1 .47  115001 .15  REPL1 C A T 1 O N  2  103484.57  0.14  0.04  2055.75  ERROR  4  470623.62  0.25  1 .28  44035.27  TOTAL  8  APPENDIX LIVER AND  TABLE X V I . - - A N A L Y S I S  DNA,  RNA  EXCESS  SOURCE  OF  AND  LYSINE  PROTEIN WITH  OF  VARIANCE  CONTENT  ARGININE  FROM  14  TO  DF  TREATMENT  2  R E P L I C A T 1 ON  2  E RROR  4  TOTAL  8  *STAT1 ST 1 CALLY  **STATI ST I CALLY  28  MEAN  .  VAR1 A T I ON  OF  IN CHICKS  S1GN1  LIVER  DNA  WT.  14.16**  LIVER FED  WEIGHT  ADEQUATE  DAYS  OF  AGE  AND  TOTAL  L YS I NE (TRIAL  2)  SQUARE  RNA  PROTEIN  89.84*  361.08  171690.96  0.27  15.06  1 62.07  164825.78  1.15  12.45  140.22  36934.66  F1 C A N T  SIGNIFICANT  <  0.05.  AT  P  AT  P «=0.01.  APPENDIX TABLE XV I GAIN  AND FEED  I.--ANALYSIS  INTAKE  QUANTITY  OF CHICKS  AND Q U A L I T Y  OF V A R I A N C E FED DIETARY  F O R TWO  AND FOUR  MEAN  2 SOURCE  OF  VAR1 A T 1 O N  BODY  GA  DF  PROTEINS WEEKS  N  BODY  IN  3)  SQUARE  4 FEED  WEIGHT  DIFFERENT  (TRIAL  WK.  WT.  1  OF AVERAGE  BODY  WT.  WK. FEED  1NTAKE  GA I N  INTAKE  TREATMENT  3  7736.43**  13794.39**  93281.22**  246161.97**  REPL1CATION  2  208.08  460.85  142.89  3314.71  ERROR  6  48.93  131.37  405.05  791.35  TOTAL  11  STATISTICALLY  S I G N I F I C A N T AT  P <  0.01  .  APPENDIX TABLE XV I I I . - - A N A L Y S I s  OF VARIANCE  OF GASTROCNEMIUS  WEIGHT  AND PROTEIN  IN CHICKS  AND TOTAL  PROTEINS  SOURCE  MUSCLE  DIFFERENT  DNA,  RNA  IN QUANTITY  AND Q U A L I T Y  MEAN  OF  VAR1 A T 1 O N  DF  MUSCLE  DNA  WT.  (TRIAL  3).  SQUARE  RNA  PROTEIN  2.96**  38423.58  0.015  0.05  600.80  9910.99  0.012  0.13  269.91  605191.48**  REPL1 C A T 1 O N  2  ERROR  6  TOTAL  11  **STATI ST I CALLY  WEEKS  0.16**  .3  TREATMENT  F O R TWO  MUSCLE  FED DIETARY  SIGNIFICANT  AT  P <0.01.  19097.26**  APPENDIX TABLE X I X . - - A N A L Y S I S LIVER  DNA,  RNA IN  SOURCE  AND P R O T E I N  QUANTITY  OF V A R I A N C E  IN CHICKS  AND Q U A L I T Y  F O R TWO  OF  VARIATION  WEEKS  MEAN DF  LIVER  DNA  WT.  TREATMENT  3  6.72**  REPLICATION  2  0.52  ERROR  6  0.12  TOTAL  11  STATISTICALLY  OF L I V E R  FEO DIETARY  S I G N I F I C A N T AT  53.01**  P <  WEIGHT  PROTEINS  (TRIAL  AND  TOTAL  DIFFERENT  3)  SQUARE  RNA  PROTEIN  511.39**  178897.19**  6.01  64.10  8454.61  2.03  16.21  3256.12  0.01.  APPENDIX WEIGHT  TABLE X X . - - A N A L Y S I S  AND  PROTEINS  TOTAL  MUSCLE  DIFFERENT  DNA,  OF  VARIANCE  RNA  IN QUANTITY  AND AND  (TRIAL  SOURCE VAR1  QUALITY  MEAN DF  MUSCLE  DNA'  WT.  TREATMENT  3  21606395.61**  R E P L 1C A T 1 ON  2  305528.06  ERROR  6  65053.69  TOTAL  AT  P <  **STATISTICAL'LY  SIGNIFICANT  AT  P  <  FOR  FOUR  MUSCLE  FED  DIETARY  WEEKS  SQUARE  RNA  PROTEIN  1192220.79**  0.10  0.155  11644.02  0.15  0.575  3319.98  11  SIGNIFICANT  IN CHICKS  52.73*  3.54**  *STATISTICALLY  GASTROCNEMIUS  3)  OF  A T I ON  OF  PROTEIN  0.05. 0.01  .  APPENDIX TABLE X X I . — LIVER  DNA,  RNA IN  SOURCE  VAR1 A T  ANALYSIS  AND P R O T E I N  QUANTITY  OF VARIANCE  IN CHICKS  AND QUALITY  FOR FOUR  OF  1  ON  MEAN DF  LIVER  DNA  WT.  OF  LIVER  FED DIETARY  (TRIAL  AND  TOTAL  DIFFERENT  3)  SQUARE  RNA  PROTE1N  3871.31**  1992883.75**  TREATMENT  3  REPL1 C A T 1 O N  2  3.42  51 .86  199.09  191146.40  ERROR  6  2.06  24.91  117.32  69800.05  TOTAL  11  **STATISTICALLY  83.58**  SIGNIFICANT  348.26**  WEEKS  WEIGHT  PROTEINS  AT P <  0.01.  203  APPENDIX TABLE XXI I . - - A N A L Y S I S MIXED  TIBIA  MUSCLES,  AND  SPECIFIC  FED  GRADED  OF MUSCLE  OF L Y S I N E  AND  (DPM/G.  INJECTED  WITH  PROTEIN  LYSINE-U-  TISSUE)  FROM  CHICKS  C  SQUARE  RADIOACTivITY  SPECIFIC  ACTIviTY  TREATMENT  2  498.53**  7489765.01**  1000.57**  PERIOD  3  152.50**  27568720.98**  1 824.48**  5905350.23**  239. 78**  96073.92  12. 75  TRT.  X  (6)  PERIOD  1  1  ERROR  30(24)  TOTAL  35  **STATISTICALLY DEGREE  SIGNIFICANT  OF FREEDOM  SPEC IFIC  12.11  ACT IV I T Y .  LOCATED  AT  OF  4)  MEAN OF  PROTEINS  I N ONE GRAM  (DPM/MG.. P R O T E I N )  OF  VAR1 A T 1 O N  PROTEIN  PROTEINS  (TRIAL  SOURCE  OF  R A D I O A C T I V I T Y OF MUSCLE  ACTIVITY  LEVELS  OF VARIANCE  P <=0.01.  IN PARENTHESES  I S FOR R A D I O A C T I V I T Y AND  APPENDIX TABLE XXI I  I.--ANALYSIS  MIXED  TIBIA  DOSE)  AND RADI O A C T I V1TY/MG.  LEVELS  MUSCLES,  OF VARIANCE  R A D I O A C T I V I T Y RECOVERY  OF L Y S I N E  AND  RNA  OF  OF THE MUSCLES  INJECTED  WITH  I N ONE GRAM  4  OF  PROTE I N/PERCENT  OF CHICKS  LYSINE-U-^ C  MEAN SOURCE  RNA  (DPM/G.  FED GRADED  (TRIAL  4)  SQUARE  RAD 1 OACT1V1TY  OF  VARIATION  RNA  DF  TREATMENT  2  PERIOD  3  0.61*  1  0.03 1  ERROR  30(28)  TOTAL  35  *STATI S TIC A L L Y  **STATI STI CALLY  0.51**  RADIOACTIVITY/MG.  RNA  3180125.32**  0.53* (2)  REPL1 C A T 1 O N  RECOVERY  0.12  SIGNIFICANT  SIGNIFICANT  0.005  AT P <  AT  221746.43 93301 .13  0.05.  P <0.01.  1 DEGREE AND  OF FREEDOM  LOCATED  RADIOACTI V I TY/MG.  RNA.  IN PARENTHESES  IS FOR R A D I O A C T I V I T Y  RECOVERY  APPENDIX TABLE XXIV . - - A N A L Y S i s LIVER,  RADIOACTIVITY  ACTIVITY  OF L I V E R  LEVELS  SOURCE  OF  OF L I V E R  PROTEINS  LYSINE  AND  OF V A R I A N C E PROTEINS  (DPM/MG.  INJECTED  OF  PROTEIN)  WITH  MEAN PROTE1N  DF  TISSUE)  FROM  I N ONE GRAM AND  CHICKS  LYSINE-U-^C  OF  VARI A T 1 ON  PROTEIN  (DPM/G.  OF  SPECIFIC  FED GRADED  (TRIAL  4)  SQUARE  RAD1OACTI V1TY  SPECiFic  ACTIVITY  TREATMENT  2  443.36**  149082662.27**  6208.12**  PERIOD  3  2372.20**  203622391 .26**  23772.94**  13517987.40**  612.30**  TRT.  X  (6)  PERIOD  1  1  ERROR  30(24)  TOTAL  35  **STAT1 S T 1C A L L Y DEGREE  OF  SPEC IF I C  68.58  SIGNIFICANT  FREEDOM ACT IV I T Y .  LOCATED  AT  P  496827.13  <  90.91  0.01 .  IN PARENTHESES  IS FOR RADIOACTIVITY  AND  APPENDIX TABLE PROTEIN  A N D RNA AND  SOURCE  XXV.—ANALYSIS FROM  INJECTED  CHICKS WITH  OF  FED GRADED  LYSINE-U-^ C 4  OF  OF  TOTAL  LEVELS (TRIAL  MEAN  OF  VARIATION  VARIANCE  OF  LIVER LYSINE  4)  SQUARE  PROTEIN  RNA  TREATMENT  2  692254.82**  3199.32**  PERIOD  3  87374.42  265.70  ERROR  30  33195.29  133.71  TOTAL  35  **STATISTICALLY  SIGNIFICANT  AT  P <0.01.  APPENDIX TABLE X X V I . - - A N A L Y S i s  OF VARIANCE  RADIOACTIVITY  PROTE IN / P E R C E N T  ACTIVITY/MG.  RECOVERY RNA  AND  (DPM/G.  OF T H E L I V E R S INJECTED  WITH  OF CHICKS  VAR1  AT  C  (TRIAL  ON  RNA  DF  RECOVERY  TREATME NT  2  1 .88*  PERIOD  3  5.08** (2)  REPL1 C A T 1 O N  1  30(28)  TOTAL  35  *STATI STlCALLY  **STATISTICALLY  LEVELS  OF  OF  LYSINE  4)  RADiOACTiviTY/MG.  8404073967.77**  0.38  0.13  1126748.74  0.04  43645500.25  SIGNIFICANT  AT P <  0.05.  SIGNIFICANT  AT  P <  0.01.  1_ RECOVERY  LIVER,  SQUARE  3.15**  1  ERROR  DEGREE  OF  A N D R A D I O-  RADIOACTIviTY  OF  1  I N ONE GRAM  DOSE)  FED GRADED  LYSINE-U-  MEAN SOURCE  RNA  OF  FREEDOM  LOCATED  IN PARENTHESES  AND RAD IOACTI V I T Y / M G .  RNA.  I S FOR  RADIOACTIVITY  RNA  APPENDIX TABLE XXVI RNA  EXTRACT  HOMOGENATE,  (DPM/G.  I.--ANALYSIS TISSUE),  AND S P E C I F I C  OF V A R I A N C E  RNA  ACTIVITY  EXTRACT  (DPM/MG. WITH  SOURCE  OF R A D I O A C T I V I T Y I N MUSCLE  EXPRESSED RNA)  PERCENTAGE  OF CHICKS  URACIL-U-^ C 4  OF  VARIATION  AS A  FED GRADED  (TRIAL  MEAN OF  HOMOGENATE  RNA  EXTRACT  RNA  HOMOGENATE  (DPM/G.  TISSUE),  OF R A D I O A C T I V I T Y IN MUSCLE LEVELS  OF L Y S I N E  AND  INJECTED  5)  SQUARE EXTRACT/HOMOGENATE  S PEC 1  F I CA C T i v i T Y  TREATMENT  2  26172.27*  443.92  1.17  165 .12  1 ND1V1  2  3105.02  2502.61*  5.60  743 .67  ERROR  4  3384.92  352.74  2.53  145 .29  TOTAL  8  DUAL  *STATI ST I C A L L Y  SIGNIFICANT  AT  P -=0.05.  no o  00  APPENDIX TABLE XXV I I RNA  EXTRACT  HOMOGENATE,  (DPM/G.  I.--ANALYSIS  TISSUE),  AND S P E C I F I C  RNA  ACTIVITY  OF VARIANCE EXTRACT  EXPRESSED  (DPM/MG. WITH  SOURCE  OF R A D I O A C T I V I T Y  RNA)  URACIL-U-^C  HOMOGENATE  2  37276.81  INDIVIDUAL  2  ERROR  4  TOTAL  8  **STATI ST ICALLY  (TRIAL  RNA  EXTRACT  RNA  HOMOGENATE  OF R A D I O A C T I V I T Y  FED GRADED  MEAN DF  TREATMENT  *STATI ST I CALLY  PERCENTAGE  OF CHICKS  OF  VARIATION  AS A  IN LIVER  LEVELS  (DPM/G.  TISSUE),  IN LIVER  OF L Y S I N E  AND  INJECTED  5)  SQUARE EXTRACT/HOMOGENATE  SPECIFIC  ACTIVITY  15283.78**  19.66*  376.92**  2365.82  749.68  1.31  5.00  11350.65  325.40  2.25  11.06  SIGNIFICANT  AT  SIGNIFICANT  AT  P <0.05. P <0.01.  APPENDIX TABLE X X I X . - - A N A L Y S I S GAIN, FED  FEED  GRADED  INTAKE, LEVELS  OF V A R I A N C E  AND R A D I O A C T I V I T Y OF L Y S I N E  AND WITH  OF AVERAGE  RECOVERY THREONINE  MEAN SOURCE  OF  VARIATION  BODY DF  I N CO2  WT.  INTAKE  6  49370.24**  21 9826.60**  R E P L I C A T 1 ON  2  2295.70  5458.71  ERROR  12  2777.02  17874.71  TOTAL  20 AT P<0.01. :  (TRIAL  6)  SQUARE  TREATMENT  **STATI S T I C A L L Y S I G N I F I C A N T  WEIGHT CHICKS  AND ARGININE  FEED  GAIN  BODY FROM  RAD  IOACTI V I TY  RECOVERY  0.2071**  0.0165  APPENDIX TABLE IN  XXX.--ANALYSIS  OF  VARIANCE  OF  RADIOACTIVITY  RECOVERY  AC ID  PROTEINS  RELATIVE  CHICKS  FED GRADED  SOURCE  OF  TO  ACID  LEVELS  SOLUBLE OF  LYSINE LYSINE (TRIAL  PROTEINS AN( AND 7)  IN THE TIBIA  INJECTED  MEAN VARI A T 1 ON  Ac I OF  Ac 1  D  INS OL U B L E  SOLUBLE  2  0.0888  0.0402*  REPL1 C A T 1 O N  1  0.0004  0.0001  ERROR  2  0.0368  0.00145  TOTAL  5  S I G N I F I C A N T AT  P <  0.05.  LYSINE-U-  C  SQUARE D  TREATMENT  * S T A T I S T IC A L L Y  WITH  MUSCLES.OF 1 4.  ACID  AC I D  INSOLUBLE  SOLUBLE  89.63 0.74 10.09  APPENDIX IN  ACID  TABLE X X X I . — A N A L Y S I S INSOLUBLE  PROTEINS FED  PROTEINS,  RELATIVE  GRADED  TO A C I D  LEVELS  OF VARIANCE  ACID  SOLUBLE  OF L Y S I N E  SOLUBLE  OF RADIOACTIVITY PROTEINS,  PROTEINS  AND INJECTED  IN THE LIVERS 4  MEAN SOURCE  Ac 1  OF  VAR1 A T 1 O N  DF  Ac 1  D  1NSOLUBLE  INSOLUBLE  OF  LYSINE-L)-^ C  WITH  RECOVERY  AND ACID  CHICKS (TRIAL  SQUARE D  SOLUBLE  ACID INSOLUBLE  AC I D SOLUBLE  TREATMENT  2  0.6997  0.00465*  46.58*  REPL1 C A T 1 ON  1  0.2481  0.00020  0.69  ERROR  2  0.0797  0.00005  0.99  TOTAL  5  *STATI ST IC A L L Y  SIGNIFICANT  AT P <  0.05.  7)  APPENDIX TABLE XXXI I . - - A N A L Y S i s IN  ACID  INSOLUBLE  PROTEINS CHICKS  PROTEINS,  RELATIVE  FED  TO  GRADED  ACID  LEVELS  OF  ACID  SOLUBLE OF  VARIANCE  SOLUBLE  PROTEINS  LYSINE  AND  .(TRIAL  7)  OF  IN THE  INJECTED  MEAN SOURCE  Ac 1  OF  VAR1 A T I O N  DF  1  Ac 1  D  NS OL U B L E  RADIOACTIVITY  PROTEINS,  SOLUBLE  2  0.245*  0.00515**  REPL1 C A T 1 O N  3  0.0075  0.00013  ERROR  6  0.028  0.00013  *STATI ST I CALLY  **STATI STI CALLY  11  SIGNIFICANT  A T P -=0.05.  S I G N I F I C A N T AT  :  P ""=0.01.  TIBIA  WITH  ACID  RECOVERY INSOLUBLE  MUSCLES  THREONINE-U  OF —  ^ C 4  SQUARE D  TREATMENT  TOTAL  AND  ACID  ACID  INSOLUBLE  SOLUBLE  265.79** 8.43 15.36  APPENDIX TABLE X X X I I I . — IN  ACID  INSOLUBLE  PROTEINS  PROTEINS,  RELATIVE  GRADED. L E V E L S  ANALYSIS  TO A C I D  OF L Y S I N E  ACID  OF VARIANCE SOLUBLE  SOLUBLE  AND  PROTEINS,  PROTEINS  INJECTED  WITH  OF R A D I O A C T I V I T Y  T H R E ON INE-U-  MEAN SOURCE  V A R I.AT  Ac I  OF  1  ON  DF  Ac 1  D  INSOLUBLE  AND ACID  I N THE LIVERS  INSOLUBLE  OF CHICKS C  (TRIAL  FED 7)  SQUARE D  SOLUBLE  ACID INSOLUBLE  ACID SOLUBLE  322.07**  TREATMENT  2  0.2650**  0.0253**  REPL1 C A T 1 O N  3  0.013  0.0008  3.66  ERROR  6  0.008  0.00035  2.01  TOTAL  11  * * S T A T I S TIC A L L Y  S I G N I F I C A N T AT P <  0.01.  RECOVERY  APPENDIX TABLE X X X I V . - - A N A L Y S I S IN AND  RESPIRATORY ACID  TIBIA  CO;?., A C I D  INSOLUBLE  MUSCLES  PROTEINS  OF CHICKS  OF VARIANCE  INSOLUBLE  RELATIVE  F E D GRADED  LYSINE-U- C U  TO A C I D  LEVELS  OF  VARIATION  COg  2  2.40*  0.315**  REPLICATION  2  0.51  0.0025  ERROR  4  0.26  0.0037  TOTAL  8  *STATI ST ICALLY  S I G N I F I C A N T AT  **STATI ST I CALLY  RECOVERY  PROTEINS,  PROTEINS  I N  AND INJECTED  THE WITH  SQUARE  SOLUBLE  0.3745**  ACID INSOLUBLE  0.0003  P <0.01.  ACID SOLUBLE  83.57** 0.05  P <0.05.  S I G N I F I C A N T AT  SOLUBLE  ACID  INSOLUBLE  TREATMENT  SOLUBLE  8)  (TRIAL  ACID DF  ACID  OF LYSINE  MEAN SOURCE  OF R A D I O A C T I V I T Y  PROTEINS,  0.09  APPENDIX IN  ACID  TABLE X X X V . - - A N A L Y S I S INSOLUBLE  PROTEINS FED  RELATIVE  GRADED  SOURCE  PROTEINS, TO A C I D  LEVELS  SOLUBLE  SOLUBLE  OF L Y S I N E  AND  DF  OF R A D I O A C T I V I T Y PROTEINS  PROTEINS INJECTED  Ac I D  OF  VARIATION  OF VARIANCE  ACID  INSOLUBLE  AND ACID  IN THE LIVERS  4  OF  WITH  LYSINE-U-^ C  MEAN  SQUARE  ACID SOLUBLE  RECOVERY INSOLUBLE CHICKS (TRIAL  ACID  ACID  INSOLUBLE  SOLUBLE  158.46**  TREATMENT  2  10.545**  REPLICATION  2  0.005  0.0003  1 .06  ERROR  4  0.015  0.0015  2.00  TOTAL  8  **STAT1 S TI C A L L Y  SIGNIFICANT  AT; P <  0.1065**  0.01.  8)  APPENDIX TABLE XXXV I . - - A N A L Y S I S IN AND  COg,  RESPIRATORY ACID  TIBIA  INSOLUBLE  MUSCLES  ACID  INSOLUBLE  PROTEINS  OF CHICKS  OF VARIANCE  THREONI  PROTEINS,  RELATIVE  FED GRADED  TO A C I D  LEVELS  NE-U-^C  OF  (TRIAL  VARIATION  ACID DF  CO2  ACID  RECOVERY  PROTEINS,  PROTEINS  IN  AND INJECTED  SQUARE  SOLUBLE  ACID  ACID  INSOLUBLE  SOLUBLE  TREATMENT  2  0.4832  2.4150**  0.06905**  REPLICATION  2  0.0734  0.00035  0.00135  4.02  ERROR  4  0.0849  0.0007  0.002775  3.86  TOTAL  8  **S T A T I S T I C A L L Y  S I G N I F I C A N T A T P <S 0.01  .  THE WITH  8)  ACID  INSOLUBLE  SOLUBLE  SOLUBLE  OF LYSINE  MEAN SOURCE  OF R A D I O A C T I V I T Y  159.86**  APPENDIX TABLE XXXVI IN  ACID  INSOLUBLE  INSOLUBLE CHICKS  PROTEINS  FED  I.--ANALYSIS  PROTEINS  GRADED  RELATIVE LEVELS  OF  OF  AND  ACID  TO  ACID  VARIANCE  OF  PROTEINS,  SOLUBLE  PROTEINS  LYSINE  AND  (TRIAL  8)  INJECTED  MEAN SOURCE  OF  VARIATION  ACID DF  ACID  INSOLUBLE  RADIOACTIVITY  SOLUBLE  SOLUBLE  RECOVERY  ACID  IN THE  LIVER  4  SQUARE ACID INSOLUBLE  ACID SOLUBLE  2  28.9614**  REPLICATION  2  0.0027.  0.0009  8.9224  ERROR  4  0.0116  0.00015  3.2340  TOTAL  8  S I G N I F I C A N T AT  P <  0.01.  OF  THREONINE-U"^ C  TREATMENT  **STATI ST IC A L L Y  0.0792**  WITH  AND  738.3316**  APPENDIX TABLE XXXV I I GAIN  AND FEED  INTAKE  I.--ANALYSIS  OF CHICKS  THREONINE  SOURCE  OF VARIANCE  FED GRADED  OF L Y S I N E  MEAN DF  BODY  BODY  WEIGHT  WITH  8)  (TRIAL  OF  VARI A T ION  OF AVERAGE  LEVELS  WT.  GAIN  SQUARE FEED  INTAKE  TREATMENT  9  45687.55**  232933.95**  REPL1 C A T 1 O N  2  173.63  4198.90  ERROR  18  914.22  5752.38  TOTAL  29  * * S T A T I S TIC A L L Y  SIGNIFICANT  AT  P <  0.01.  220  0.16k  0.14  0.12U  0.10h  0.08H  0.06  0.04  0.02 k  3  4 DNA  APPENDIX  FIG.  |.  CALF  THYMUS  5  6  7  CONCENTRATION  DNA  STANDARD  8  9  (UG./ML.)  CURVE.  10  221  RNA  APPENDIX  FIG.  II.  YEAST  CONCENTRATION  RNA  STANDARD  (UG./ML.)  CURVE.  0.25  r-  PROTEIN  APPENDIX  FIG.  IV.  BOVINE  CONCENTRATION  SERUM  ALBUMIN  (UG./ML.)  STANDARD  CURVE.  100  90 h  80 h  B  70  h  60  J-  50  k  40 H  30  f-  201  1  1  0.2  0.4  I  I  I  u_  0.6  0.8  1.0  1.2  RATIo  A/B  14 APPENDIX  FIG.  VI.  C  CHANNELS  RATIO  QUENCH  CORRECTION  CURVE.  

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