UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Tension in 18th century Chinese painting 1990

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TENSION IN 18TH CENTURY CHINESE PAINTING by TIMOTHY FRITZ MARAUN B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1987 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of F i n e A r t s ) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1990 c o p y r i g h t Timothy F r i t z Maraun, 1990 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Finp Arts The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date J u l y 20 1990 DE-6 (2/88) i i ABSTRACT In Western s c h o l a r s h i p , e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y Chinese p a i n t i n g s have c o n s i s t e n t l y been seen as p l a y f u l , e c c e n t r i c , and odd. T h i s c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n has been based on the f o r m a l q u a l i t i e s of some of the p a i n t i n g s . At the same t i m e , Chinese s c h o l a r s have w r i t t e n of the s c h o l a r l y v i r t u e s and a m b i t i o n s of the p a i n t e r s p r o d u c i n g the works. The c o n t r a d i c t i o n between t h e s e two i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s i s i n p a r t c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the Western and Chinese approaches g e n e r a l l y . But i t a l s o stems from the mixed s i g n a l s and i n f o r m a t i o n g e n e r a t e d i n the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . The n a t u r e of p a i n t i n g , not j u s t f o r m a l l y , but s o c i a l l y has y e t t o be e x p l a i n e d i n a way which t a k e s i n t o account some a c t u a l h i s t o r i c a l c o n t r a d i c t i o n s of t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . In o r d e r t o e x p l a i n t h e s e h i s t o r i c a l t e n s i o n s , I combine a b i o g r a p h i c a l (Chinese) approach w i t h a c o n t e x t u a l approach (Western) i n a s t u d y of two d i f f e r e n t s c h o l a r p a i n t e r s , Zheng X i e and L i Shan. I j u x t a p o s e b i o g r a p h i c a l s o u r c e s w i t h a r t w o r k s , and l e s s o f f i c i a l w r i t i n g s r e l a t i n g Zheng X i e and L i Shan, i n o r d e r t o d e s c r i b e the t e n s i o n s i n v o l v e d i n p a i n t i n g f o r the l i t e r a t u s w i t h i n the merchant c u l t u r e of Yangzhou. These t e n s i o n s e x i s t e d between the l i t e r a t u s ' e xpected s t a t u s and t h a t g r a n t e d him, between h i s i d e a l of the r o l e of p a i n t i n g i n t h e s c h o l a r ' s l i f e and the i m p l i c a t i o n s of commercial p a i n t i n g , and between h i s emphasis upon p o e t r y and h i s p o p u l a r i t y as a p a i n t e r . In a l l c a s e s , the t e n s i o n s i n e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y l i t e r a t i p a i n t i n g a r i s e from the d i f f i c u l t r e l a t i o n s h i p between the p a i n t e r and p a t r o n , and between the p a i n t e r and the i d e a s of a broader p u b l i c . The l a c k of a c l e a r d e f i n i t i o n of " s c h o l a r " and " s c h o l a r p a i n t i n g " amongst l i t e r a t i i l l u s t r a t e s the l i t e r a t u s ' l o s s of c o n t r o l over the d e f i n i t i o n of h i s l i f e s t y l e . I V TABLE OF CONTENTS A b s t r a c t i i L i s t of F i g u r e s v Acknowledgement v i i Chapter 1. I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 Chapter 2 12 Chapter 3 21 Chapter 4 48 Chapter 5 81 Chapter 6. C o n c l u s i o n 113 B i b l i o g r a p h y 117 Appendix 1. B i o g r a p h i c a l I n f o r m a t i o n on Zheng X i e 132 Appendix 2. B i o g r a p h i c a l I n f o r m a t i o n on L i Shan 143 Appendix 3. Poems by Zheng X i e 150 Appendix 4. Poems by L i Shan and J i n Nong 152 Appendix 5. Recent Chinese S c h o l a r s h i p 154 Appendix 6. Zheng X i e ' s P a i n t i n g Theory 159 Appendix 7. Chinese t e x t s 167 L i s t of F i g u r e s 179 B i o g r a p h i c a l Form. LIST OF FIGURES 1. L i Shan. F i s h , album l e a f . Undated. P a l a c e Museum, B e i j i n g . 28.2x36.4 cm. Ink and l i g h t c o l o u r on paper ( P a i n t i n g s by Yangzhou A r t i s t s . 1985, e n t r y 5 0 ) , 179 2. L i Shan. F i s h album l e a f . Dated 1728. (Yang X i n , Yangzhou b a g u a i . 1981, s e c t i o n on L i Shan, e n t r y 4, l e a f 3 ) , 179 3. Xu Wei. F i s h , c r a b s , melons, v e g e t a b l e s , bamboo s h o o t s , and peas, a s e c t i o n of a h a n d s c r o l l . Undated. ( J u d i t h Whitbeck, " C a l l i g r a p h e r - P a i n t e r - B u r e a u c r a t s i n the L a t e Ming," The R e s t l e s s Landscape r 1971, e n t r y 5 1 ) , 180. 4. Badashanren. F i s h , album l e a f ? Undated. (Comprehensive Index of Chinese P a i n t i n g s , Tokyo, 1982), 180. 5. Huang Shen. Bamboo s h o o t s , album l e a f . Undated. ( P a i n t i n g s by Yangzhou A r t i s t s , 1985, e n t r y 6 8 ) , 181. 6. Luo P i n g . Bamboo and s h o o t s , album l e a f . Undated. (Yang X i n , Yangzhou b a g u a i , 1981, i n the s e c t i o n on Luo P i n g , p l a t e 17, l e a f 2 ) , 181. 7. J i n Nong. Bamboo and s h o o t s , album l e a f . Undated. ( C h u - t s i n g L i , "The Bamboo P a i n t i n g s of C h i n Nung," 1973-74, 53-71), 182. 8. S h i t a o . P u r p l e melon, album l e a f . Ink and c o l o u r ( M a r i l y n Fu and Wen Fong, W i l d e r n e s s C o l o u r s of T a o - c h i . 1973, l e a f 8 ) , 182. 9. L i Shan. Bamboo, hanging s c r o l l . Undated. (Yang X i n , Yangzhou b a g u a i . 1981, i n s e c t i o n on L i Shan, p l a t e 1 5 ) , 183. 10. L i Shan. Bamboo, hanging s c r o l l . Dated 1749. M e t r o p o l i t a n Museum of A r t . 132.4x74.1 cm. Ink on paper (The E l e g a n t B r u s h . 1985, e n t r y 5 3 ) , 184. 11. Zheng X i e . Bamboo and s h o o t s , hanging s c r o l l . Undated. The P a l a c e Museum, B e i j i n g . 120.2x59.6 cm. Ink on paper ( P a i n t i n g s by Yangzhou A r t i s t s . 1985, e n t r y 7 6 ) , 185. 12. Zheng X i e . Bamboo and r o c k , hanging s c r o l l . Dated 1762. The P a l a c e Museum, B e i j i n g . 208.1x107 cm. Ink on paper ( P a i n t i n g s by Yangzhou A r t i s t s , 1985, e n t r y 7 4 ) , 186. 13. L i Shan. F i v e P i n e s , hanging s c r o l l . Undated. Tokyo N a t i o n a l Museum. -160x88.9 cm. Ink and l i g h t c o l o r on v i s i l k (The E l e g a n t B r u s h , 1985, e n t r y 52, 164), 187. 14. Zheng X i e . Cymbidiums, Bamboo, and F u n g i , hanging s c r o l l . Dated 1761. A s i a n A r t Museum of San F r a n c i s c o , w i t h i n t h e A v e r y Brundage C o l l e c t i o n . 188.6x93.3 cm. Ink on paper (The E l e g a n t B r u s h , 1985, e n t r y 55, 172), 188. 15. L i Shan. E a r t h e n w a l l w i t h b u t t e r f l y o r c h i d s , hanging s c r o l l . Dated 1727. N a n j i n g Museum. 115x59.9 cm. Ink and c o l o u r on paper (Edmond Capon and Mae Anna Pang, Chinese P a i n t i n g s of the Ming and Qing D y n a s t i e s , 1981, e n t r y 75, 156), 189. 16. S h i t a o . Landscape w i t h f i g u r e s , album l e a f . Dated 1691. P r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n , Tokyo. Ink and c o l o u r s on paper (James C a h i l l , The C o m p e l l i n g Image, 1982, f i g u r e 6.23), 190. 17. L i Shan. C h i c k e n , hanging s c r o l l . Dated 1741. (Yang X i n , Yangzhou b a g u a i , 1981, i n the s e c t i o n on L i Shan, p l a t e 1 2 ) , 191. 18. L i Shan. Flower w i t h i n a bamboo f e n c e , hanging s c r o l l . Dated 1728. (Yang X i n , Yangzhou b a g u a i , 1981, i n the s e c t i o n on L i Shan, p l a t e 4, l e a f 4 ) , 192. 19. L i Shan. I n s e c t s e a t i n g m u l b e r r y l e a v e s , album l e a f . Dated 1740. The P a l a c e Museum, B e i j i n g ( L i Shan hua h u i ceye, 1961, l e a f 5 ) , 193. 20. L i Shan. Animal on a p i n e b r a n c h , album l e a f . Dated 1740. B e i j i n g , Zhongguo l i s h i bowuguan cang. Ink and c o l o u r (Qing L i Shan huaniao c e , 1964, l e a f 4 ) , 194. v i :i. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT T h i s t h e s i s would not have been w r i t t e n had i t not been f o r James C a s w e l l . H i s i n s p i r i n g l e c t u r e s brought me i n t o the f i e l d t o s t a y , and h i s c o n s t a n t encouragement and c r i t i c i s m have h e l p e d me t o d e v e l o p my own approach t o the s t u d y of Chinese p a i n t i n g . I have a l s o b e n e f i t t e d g r e a t l y from c o u r s e s and d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h M o r i t a k a Matsumoto, who rea d p a r t s of t h e t h e s i s and made h e l p f u l comments. M a r v i n Cohodas has s u p p o r t e d me thro u g h o u t my s t u d y a t UBC. He l e d me i n t o the f i e l d of a r t h i s t o r y , and c o n t i n u e s t o p r o v i d e me w i t h s c h o l a r l y a d v i c e and f r i e n d s h i p . Dr. J e r r y Schmidt h e l p e d me w i t h numerous t r a n s l a t i o n s and made my s t u d y of Chinese t h o r o u g h l y e n j o y a b l e . I a l s o r e c o g n i z e the importance of t h e F i n e A r t s f a c u l t y and graduate s t u d e n t s who c r e a t e d such a s t i m u l a t i n g environment a t UBC. I owe thanks a l s o t o t h e s t a f f of t h e F i n e A r t s L i b r a r y , t h e A s i a n S t u d i e s L i b r a r y , and I n t e r - l i b r a r y Loans who made r e s e a r c h f o r t h i s t h e s i s p o s s i b l e . Most of a l l , I would l i k e t o thank my f a m i l y f o r y e a r s of s u p p o r t , and Janny f o r her h e l p and s u p p o r t . 1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION During the e i g h t e e n t h century, the r i s e of a merchant c l a s s a l t e r e d the s o c i a l f a b r i c of China. Merchants p r o f i t e d mostly from the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n of s a l t , and had been s t e a d i l y i n c r e a s i n g i n numbers and wealth s i n c e the seventeenth century. By the e i g h t e e n t h century, the most important c e n t e r of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n was the c i t y of Yangzhou, n e s t l e d between the great c a n a l and the Chang r i v e r . The merchants who r e s i d e d there supported a t h r i v i n g c u l t u r e . During the seventeenth century, merchants sought not o n l y wealth but s t a t u s . In China, s t a t u s was synonymous with o f f i c i a l rank. Thus, the merchants p a t r o n i z e d the a r t s a s s o c i a t e d with the c l a s s of l e a r n e d o f f i c i a l s . L i t e r a t i p a i n t i n g became the c u l t u r a l c u r r e n c y of the day, being the a r t both c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d with the s c h o l a r - o f f i c i a l and most immediately r e c o g n i z a b l e as a s i g n of t h a t s t a t u s . Meanwhile, the l i t e r a t i p a i n t i n g t r a d i t i o n underwent changes. S c h o l a r - p a i n t e r s d i v e r s i f i e d t h e i r methods of p r o d u c t i o n and s a l e , expanding the range of what c o u l d be c a l l e d a s c h o l a r l y community while r e t a i n i n g the a b i l i t y to d e f i n e l i t e r a t i p a i n t i n g . Thus, they were the purveyors of s t a t u s . . In the e i g h t e e n t h century, however, merchants began to dominate l i t e r a t i c u l t u r e . T h i s d i d not occur s o l e l y i n the realm of a r t , but a l s o s o c i a l l y through the a c q u i s i t i o n of o f f i c i a l p o s i t i o n s and wealth. With t h e i r dominance i n the ecomonic and s o c i a l spheres, the merchants a l s o became c o n f i d e n t i n t h e i r own t a s t e and exerted the s t r o n g e s t i n f l u e n c e upon l i t e r a t i l i f e and p a i n t i n g . 1 The number of merchants i n c r e a s e d d r a m a t i c a l l y at t h i s time; and a burgeoning number of s e l f - p r o c l a i m e d s c h o l a r s grew up to s a t i s f y the needs and s u i t the t a s t e s of these merchants. C e n t r a l phenomena of the time were the commonness of the t i t l e " s c h o l a r " and the economic and c u l t u r a l power of the merchant. T h i s c o u l d r e s u l t i n a l i f e of c o n f l i c t f o r s c h o l a r s not from a merchant background who sought e i t h e r o f f i c e or r e t i r e m e n t p a r t l y supported by the s a l e or trade of p a i n t i n g and c a l l i g r a p h y . These s c h o l a r s were not accorded t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l s t a t u s . Instead, the i n d i v i d u a l s c h o l a r ' s s t a t u s was l o s t amidst the commonness of the l a r g e number of s c h o l a r s . The merchant dominance e l i m i n a t e d the t r a d i t i o n a l merchant " i n f e r i o r i t y " which, along with t h a t of the g e n e r a l populace, had p r e v i o u s l y g i v e n the s c h o l a r automatic c u l t u r a l s u p e r i o r i t y . In t h i s t h e s i s I w i l l focus upon the t e n s i o n s which e x i s t e d between s c h o l a r - p a i n t e r s and patrons of Yangzhou, between the s c h o l a r ' s goals and the p r e v a i l i n g s o c i a l r e a l i t i e s , and between the s t a t u s which the s c h o l a r sought and t h a t which the s i t u a t i o n allowed. I want to emphasize the e x i s t e n c e of a number of merchant patronages i n the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y which made t h i s s i t u a t i o n complex and c h a l l e n g i n g f o r the s c h o l a r . I have focussed upon two c o n t r a s t i n g s c h o l a r s , L i Shan (1686-1760?) and Zheng Xie (1693-1765). A study of t h e i r l i v e s and p a i n t i n g s i l l u s t r a t e s the kinds of t e n s i o n s which e x i s t e d between t h e i r ideas or goals and the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of the time. L i Shan p a i n t e d f r e q u e n t l y because of h i s background as a p a i n t e r at c o u r t , h i s p e r s o n a l i n c l i n a t i o n , and h i s f i n a n c i a l need. However, he a l s o had i d e a l s which i n c l u d e d s e r v i n g as an o f f i c i a l and l i v i n g the l i f e of a s c h o l a r . His f r u s t r a t i o n with h i s s i t u a t i o n and the act of p a i n t i n g i t s e l f appear i n h i s p a i n t i n g s . Zheng Xie had g r e a t e r success as an o f f i c i a l . He a l s o had the o p p o r t u n i t y as w e l l as the p e r s o n a l i n c l i n a t i o n to attempt to l o c a t e p a r t i c u l a r audiences more to h i s l i k i n g . He too, however, had to cope with the r e a l i t i e s of the time. The d i f f i c u l t y he had a c c e p t i n g the p r a c t i c e s of the day i s shown by h i s anger at p r e v a i l i n g a t t i t u d e s and popular o p i n i o n s . Zheng Xie a l s o responded a g a i n s t the i d e n t i t y of " p a i n t e r " a p p l i e d to him by the p r e v a i l i n g c u l t u r e without h i s consent. The p a i n t i n g s and w r i t i n g s which L i Shan and Zheng Xie produced d i s c l o s e t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r methods of d e a l i n g with t h e i r s i t u a t i o n s , or mediating between t h e i r goals or ideas and the r e a l i t i e s of the time. As w e l l , Zheng Xie commented upon L i Shan i n poems, prose, and l e t t e r s , which c l e a r l y i l l u s t r a t e the t e n s i o n s i n the l i f e of each man. I t i s t h e i r c l o s e and l i f e l o n g f r i e n d s h i p which was the background 4 f o r t h e i r communication. T h e i r f r i e n d s h i p and the in f o r m a t i o n i t provi d e s i s a primary motive f o r my f o c u s s i n g upon them. The t e n s i o n which I d e t e c t w i t h i n e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y s o c i e t y and the ideas and p a i n t i n g s of L i Shan and Zheng Xie i s t o me an important h i s t o r i c a l f a c t . T h i s t e n s i o n i l l u s t r a t e s the i m p o s s i b i l i t y of a complete r e c o n c i l i a t i o n of the l i t e r a t i and merchant c u l t u r e s i n the ei g h t e e n t h century. There was a c o n f l i c t between the f u n c t i o n of p a i n t i n g i n the l i f e of the l i t e r a t u s and the f u n c t i o n and meaning which i t took on when the l i t e r a t u s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the commercial sphere. These are the t o p i c s which I w i l l address i n t h i s t h e s i s . In f o c u s s i n g my a t t e n t i o n upon the s o c i a l t e n s i o n s of the e i g h t e e n t h century, my i n t e r e s t s , my ha n d l i n g of m a t e r i a l s , and my method of argument l i e between those of h i s t o r i a n s of p a i n t i n g and l i t e r a t u r e from China and one p a r t i c u l a r group of a r t h i s t o r i a n s i n the United S t a t e s . The work of Chinese s c h o l a r s can be represented by an a r t i c l e concerning L i Shan by Wang Luyu, which i s t r a n s l a t e d as Appendix 8. Wang presents L i Shan as a s c h o l a r with a s p i r a t i o n s f o r an o f f i c i a l p o s i t i o n who by circumstance was fo r c e d to p a i n t f o r a l i v i n g . T h i s caused L i Shan to be embittered towards h i s s i t u a t i o n . Wang Luyu's treatment i s i d e a l i z e d to an extent s i n c e he does not see a t e n s i o n between L i Shan's p a i n t i n g a c t i v i t y and h i s o f f i c i a l p o s i t i o n , but r a t h e r a decided embitterment towards the former. T h i s p l a c e s L i Shan i n the r o l e of brave martyr, or h e l p l e s s v i c t i m . T h i s i s i n accord with the p r i n c i p a l t r a d i t i o n a l f u n c t i o n of Chinese b i o g r a p h i e s , which was to s e t up moral standards and h i s t o r i c a l models. The v i c t i m i z e d s c h o l a r i s one of many b i o g r a p h i c a l types which were used i n o f f i c i a l h i s t o r i e s to c o n f i r m the rig h t e o u s n e s s of the s c h o l a r o f f i c i a l . Even though L i Shan's s i t u a t i o n as represented i n the b i o g r a p h i e s Implies d i s q u i e t i n the empire, h i s maintenance of a moral e t h i c and endurance of moral hardship i l l u s t r a t e the moral p r i n c i p l e s on which the empire f u n c t i o n e d . In my t h e s i s I w i l l present m a t e r i a l and p a i n t i n g s t h a t modify Wang Luyu's p r e s e n t a t i o n of L i Shan. T h i s m a t e r i a l manifests t e n s i o n s which were not u s e f u l f o r o f f i c i a l purposes. Instead i t expresses L i Shan's dilemma over h i s sometimes happy acceptance of p a i n t i n g commercially and h i s r e g r e t over h i s d i s o l v i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r a l i f e of o f f i c i a l d o m , s c h o l a r l y ease, and secure s t a t u s . The most m e t h o d o l o g i c a l l y motivated s t u d i e s i n the west, w r i t t e n by James C a h i l l and h i s student Ginger Cheng- c h i Hsu, oppose the Chinese p r e s e n t a t i o n of the e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y and i t s important f i g u r e s . ^ C a h i l l and Hsu c h a r a c t e r i z e p a i n t i n g i n the ei g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y as an economic a c t . They are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the idea t h a t e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y p a i n t i n g was the poin.t of c o m m e r c i a l i z a t i o n of the l i t e r a t i t r a d i t i o n at which the patrons began to determine the c h a r a c t e r of l i t e r a t i 6 p a i n t i n g . T h i s p e r i o d , as C a h i l l sees i t , f e l l between the s c h o l a r - d i c t a t e d commercial t r a n s a c t i o n s of the seventeenth century and the p a t r o n - d i c t a t e d commercial t r a n s a c t i o n s of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . In t h i s scheme, the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y i s read as one more stage i n a constant movement towards the c o m m e r c i a l i z a t i o n of the l i t e r a t i t r a d i t i o n of p a i n t i n g . C a h i l l ' s work more than any other s c h o l a r ' s has c o n t r i b u t e d to an understanding of Chinese p a i n t i n g s which i s rooted i n h i s t o r i c a l f a c t , as opposed to E u r o c e n t r i c a p p r e c i a t i o n of formal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . However, there are some problems with h i s approach to the e i g h t e e n t h century which r e f l e c t the i n f l u e n c e of a methodology shared by c e r t a i n c e n t e r s of s c h o l a r s h i p a c t i v e at p r e s e n t . T h i s methodology i m p l i e s t h a t the meaning of h i s t o r y i s i t s unavoidable ecomonic r e a l i t y . While t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e i l l u m i n a t e s much about h i s t o r y , i t sometimes misses the c u l t u r a l s p e c i f i c i t y or meaning of economic occurrences. My goal i s to present the p a r t i c u l a r response of Chinese s c h o l a r - a r t i s t s to the r i s e of a merchant c l a s s . The s i t u a t i o n i n China, and what i t meant, can not have been the same as i n Europe. Thus there was not a "good l i f e , " as C a h i l l has c a l l e d i t i n h i s r e c e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y p a i n t i n g , l i n k i n g i t to the seventeenth c e n t u r y i n Holland."* L i Shan and Zheng X i e , were not members of a p r o f e s s i o n a l c l a s s of p a i n t e r s as i n Europe. They were members of a s c h o l a r c l a s s i n whose l i v e s p a i n t i n g 7 held o n l y one pa r t of t h e i r a t t e n t i o n . With the r i s e of the merchant c l a s s , the l i v e s of these o f f i c i a l s were f i l l e d with t e n s i o n s which o n l y the ideas and h i s t o r y of the l i t e r a t i t r a d i t i o n on meeting a r i s i n g merchant c l a s s c o u l d produce. The meaning of the h i s t o r i c a l occurrence was p a r t i c u l a r l y Chinese. A second problem with the western p e r s p e c t i v e on ei g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y p a i n t i n g i s the way i n which i t d i c t a t e s a d e s c r i p t i o n of the a r t i s t as a p l a y f u l e c c e n t r i c . T h i s i s c l e a r l y connected to C a h i l l ' s n o t i o n of the "good l i f e " i n the e i g h t e e n t h century, and continues h i s e a r l y view of ei g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y p a i n t i n g which has not changed d u r i n g h i s re f o r m a t i o n of the f i e l d . ^ I t a l s o agrees u n f o r t u n a t e l y with f o r m a l i s t / p s y c h o l o g i c a l readings of images, t a k i n g oddness of p a i n t i n g s as a m a n i f e s t a t i o n of the p l a y f u l p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t a t e of the a r t i s t . My paper attempts to b r i n g the Chinese approach and the western approach t o g e t h e r . I w i l l g i v e some credence to the b i o g r a p h i c a l m a t e r i a l s which q u a l i f y the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the p a i n t e r s as men engaged without complaint i n the commercial p r o d u c t i o n of a r t . I w i l l a l s o take i n t o account the v e r y r e a l c o m m e r c i a l i z a t i o n of the l i t e r a t i t r a d i t i o n i n a way t h a t w i l l r e s u l t i n a more t r u t h f u l v e r s i o n of " L i Shan" and "Zheng X i e " than the Chinese approach would allow. I am seeking to present the t e n s i o n s between an e s t a b l i s h e d group and a r i s i n g merchant c l a s s , but with c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the p a r t i c u l a r Chinese ideas which members of each group 8 h e l d , and with c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the p a r t i c u l a r f u n c t i o n of Chinese l i t e r a t i p a i n t i n g s . In t h i s t h e s i s I have used a thematic approach to the p a i n t i n g s i n order to i l l u s t r a t e the connections between the p a i n t i n g s and the contexts i n which they were p a i n t e d . The r e s u l t of t h i s approach has been the uncovering of the p a i n t e r ' s methods of d e a l i n g with the h i s t o r i c a l t e n s i o n s of the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . I have a l s o t r i e d to i n d i c a t e t h a t the s i g n i f i c a n c e of p a i n t i n g f o r each a r t i s t was d i f f e r e n t , and to g i v e c o n s i d e r a t i o n to t h e i r o v e r a l l s t y l i s t i c developements. I have t r i e d to remain open to other ways of r e a d i n g images. One which I have made myself c o n s c i o u s l y i n c l u d e i s the Chinese approach of r e a d i n g both the c a l l i g r a p h y and p a i n t i n g as a u n i f i e d statement. T h i s approach was most important i n the study of Zheng Xie's p a i n t i n g s i n Chapter 4. T h i s t h e s i s has four main Chapters. Chapter 2 presents the o f f i c i a l b i o g r a p h i e s of L i Shan and Zheng X i e , and a l s o c o n t a i n s evidence of t h e i r f r i e n d s h i p . In t h i s Chapter I w i l l b r i e f l y suggest some of the t e n s i o n s hidden i n the o f f i c i a l s o u rces. I w i l l a l s o quote some ei g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y sources, i n c l u d i n g Zheng Xie's w r i t i n g s , i n order to p o i n t out the i n c r e a s e i n the number of s c h o l a r s at t h a t time, and to suggest the t e n s i o n s which t h i s phenomenon c r e a t e d . For the most p a r t , however, t h i s Chapter presents the o f f i c i a l b i o g r a p h i e s i n order to e s t a b l i s h a f o i l a g a i n s t which I can oppose l e s s o f f i c i a l i n f o r m a t i o n and my own i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . 9 Chapter 3 presents an a n a l y s i s of the f u n c t i o n s and meanings of images of food i n the p a i n t i n g of L i Shan and Zheng X i e . I t concludes t h a t these images acted as c r i t i q u e s of t h e i r patrons or as attempts to r e t a i n a d i d a c t i c moral f u n c t i o n f o r l i t e r a t i images. The d i f f e r e n t f u n c t i o n s of these images depended upon the a r t i s t ' s s i t u a t i o n and audience. Common to the works of both a r t i s t s , however, i s the p o l a r i z a t i o n of the p a i n t e r / p a t r o n r e l a t i o n s h i p , or the o p p o s i t i o n of the p a i n t e r and patron. As w e l l , both a r t i s t s combined p a i n t i n g ideas from the "unorthodox" or n o n - l i t e r a t i t r a d i t i o n of p a i n t i n g with l i t e r t i p a i n t i n g i n order to achieve t h i s p o l a r i z a t i o n . In Chapter 4, I conc e n t r a t e upon a s e r i e s of p a i n t i n g s and i n s c r i p t i o n s produced by Zheng Xie while he was i n Yangzhou. These exemplify many of the c e n t r a l i s s u e s of ei g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y p a i n t i n g f o r both L i Shan and Zheng X i e , but about which o n l y Zheng Xie had the o p p o r t u n i t y and reason to develop a coherent t h e o r e t i c a l approach. Through h i s t heory and p a i n t i n g Zheng Xie attempted to separate h i m s e l f from the m a j o r i t y of the l i t e r a t i a c t i v e at the time. He d i d so by moving o u t s i d e of t r a d i t i o n a l l i t e r a t i modes of e x p r e s s i o n and thought i n order to express l i t e r a t i ideas w i t h i n a new framework. The purpose of t h i s s e p a r a t i o n was a l s o to c r i t i c i z e the many s c h o l a r - p a i n t e r s of the day, and to l o c a t e p a r t i c u l a r agreeable patrons with both e l i t e l i t e r a t i and more i n n o v a t i v e n o n - l i t e r a t i i n c l i n a t i o n s . Chapter 5 i s a comparison of the a r t i s t s and t h e i r 10 works. The comparison focusses upon the p o l a r i z a t i o n of the p a i n t e r / p a t r o n r e l a t i o n s h i p . In p a r t i c u l a r I p o i n t out how t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p was q u a l i f i e d by the p a i n t e r through h i s understanding of and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the workings of nature. He expressed h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the workings of nature i n the p a i n t i n g , not only as a f i n a l v i s u a l and i n s c r i b e d form, but as an a c t i v i t y . The shapes of the s t y l i s t i c h i s t o r i e s of L i Shan and Zheng Xie re-emphasize the f a c t t h a t t h e i r s t y l e s were r e l a t e d to t h e i r backgrounds, and t h a t t h e i r backgrounds, t h e i r a t t i t u d e s , and e x p e c t a t i o n s determined the nature of t h e i r a r t i s t i c a c t i v i t y d u r i n g t h e i r l a t e r years i n Yangzhou. The t e n s i o n s ensuing f o r both w i l l be summarized through a study of u n o f f i c i a l w r i t t e n sources. 11 1. James C a h i l l . Three A l t e r n a t i v e H i s t o r i e s , 1988. A l s o see The R e s t l e s s Landscape, 1981, e d i t e d by C a h i l l . T h i s view i s s u p p o r t e d by h i s s t u d e n t G i n g e r Cheng-chi Hsu, i n her a r t i c l e "Merchant P a t r o n a g e , " 1987, and a l s o i n her Ph.D., "Patronage," 1987. 2. I b i d . 3. I b i d . 4. James C a h i l l , "A R e j e c t e d P o r t r a i t by Lo P ' i n g : P i c t o r i a l F o o t n o t e t o Waley's 'Yuan M e i , ' " 1959. 12 CHAPTER 2 In t h i s b r i e f Chapter I do not want to d e s c r i b e how the c u l t u r e of Yangzhou was f l o u r i s h i n g . Nor do I want to show i n d e t a i l t h a t the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y was a time and Yangzhou a p l a c e pushed to the b u s t l i n g l i m i t s by a newly r i s e n merchant c l a s s . These p o i n t s have been s t a t e d c l e a r l y i n other w r i t i n g s . 1 Instead I want to present a more complex p i c t u r e of patronage and b r i e f l y d e s c r i b e Yangzhou as a p l a c e of t e n s i o n . The patronages and the Yangzhou with which I am concerned w i l l appear mainly through my analyses i n the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r s . Here, I want to mention the patronages a l r e a d y p o i n t e d out i n the l i t e r a t u r e i n order to e s t a b l i s h a working n o t i o n of patronages, p l u r a l . I a l s o want to g i v e evidence f o r the burgeoning l i t e r a t i p o p u l a t i o n and to i n t r o d u c e some evidence of the t e n s i o n s inherent i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n by quoting Zheng Xi e ' s c r i t i c i s m of the multitude of s c h o l a r s . F i n a l l y , I want to i n t r o d u c e L i Shan and Zheng Xie i n t o t h i s context through a d i s c u s s i o n of t h e i r o f f i c i a l b i o g r a p h i e s . The d i f f e r e n t patronages which have been noted a l r e a d y i n western s c h o l a r s h i p i n c l u d e those patrons i n t e r e s t e d i n s c h o l a r l y w r i t i n g s and those i n t e r e s t e d i n lewd entertainments.^ There were those who were c e n t r a l i n the s c h o l a r l y g a t h e r i n g s of Yangzhou, but who played a s m a l l e r r o l e i n the p e r c e i v e d l a r g e - s c a l e a c q u i s i t i o n of p a i n t i n g s , as w e l l as the l a r g e " m i d d l e - c l a s s " who bought up those p a i n t i n g s . D i f f e r e n t patronages have a l s o been suggested by c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the artworks without s p e c i f i c a l l y naming the patronages. For example, the more s c h o l a r l y and more p r o f e s s i o n a l " s i d e s " of L i Shan's p a i n t i n g s have been poin t e d o u t . 4 As w e l l , a s p e c i f i c i n h e r i t e d s t y l e has been pointed out f o r Zheng X i e , which may w e l l i n d i c a t e an i n h e r i t e d patronage.^ I t i s not my goal here to agree or d i s a g r e e with these i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , although I can say t h a t they are a l l q u i t e compatible and probably a l l e x i s t e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . I merely want to p o i n t out that w i t h i n the l a r g e r group of i n d i v i d u a l s under the heading of "consumers of p a i n t i n g s , " there were many d i f f e r e n t types of patrons. Of the c o n c l u s i o n s i n the s c h o l a r s h i p summarized above, onl y the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of a p a r t i c u l a r i n h e r i t a n c e f o r Zheng Xie's works and the idea of more or l e s s s c h o l a r l y works f o r L i Shan s t r o n g l y suggest t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y . My analyses throughout the t h e s i s w i l l support these c o n c l u s i o n s . A second h i s t o r i c a l f a c t which I w i l l be a d d r e s s i n g i n the t h e s i s i s the dramatic i n c r e a s e i n the number of s c h o l a r s i n the ei g h t e e n t h century. These were l a r g e l y s e l f - p r o c l a i m e d s c h o l a r s judging by the sources, i n t e r e s t e d i n the patronage o p p o r t u n i t i e s of the time. They r a d i c a l l y changed the nature of the s i t u a t i o n f o r the s c h o l a r who a c t u a l l y c o n s i d e r e d h i m s e l f a s c h o l a r , or who had more l o f t y ambitions and e l i t e e x p e c t a t i o n s . L i Dou, an important 14 w r i t e r and h i s t o r i a n of the time noted t h i s phenomenon: "Yangzhou*s c a l l i g r a p h e r s and p a i n t e r s are very numerous. Furthermore, they come and go as they please as guests, but belong to no-one... As w e l l , Zheng Xie h i m s e l f found the s i t u a t i o n cause f o r c o n s t e r n a t i o n : "Now the c i t y i s f u l l of p a i n t e r s and w r i t e r s of c a l l i g r a p h y who are c a l l e d 'famous s c h o l a r s . ' Would t h i s not make Zhou Liang's (a famous sage) cheeks burn and t u r n the high-minded one's t e e t h c o l d ? " 7 The uniqueness of t h i s s i t u a t i o n i n the h i s t o r y of China can not be underestimated. In the chapters f o l l o w i n g , and e s p e c i a l l y i n Chapter 4, I w i l l e l a b o r a t e upon the s p e c i f i c problems which the i n c r e a s e i n the number of s c h o l a r s caused f o r the " t r u e " or at l e a s t s e l f - r i g h t e o u s Zheng Xie and h i s f e l l o w countyman L i Shan. L i Shan, whose p a i n t i n g s have always been reco g n i z e d f o r t h e i r important i n f l u e n c e upon n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y p a i n t i n g , has nonetheless been ignored i n d i s s e r t a t i o n s . R e cently, he has r e c e i v e d g r e a t e r a t t e n t i o n i n e x h i b i t i o n c a t a l o g u e s . 8 Zheng Xie has r e c e i v e d more a t t e n t i o n than L i Shan, because of h i s prose which i s l i v e l y , c r i t i c a l , and s a r c a s t i c , and because he d i s c u s s e d t o p i c s p r e v i o u s l y taboo i n s c h o l a r l y t e x t s . In t r e a t i n g the problem of p a i n t i n g i n the e i g h t e e n t h century, I have found i t u s e f u l to focus upon a comparison of these two men and t h e i r f r i e n d s h i p . By doing t h i s I am able to i n s e r t the element of biography i n a c o n t r o l l e d way, t r e a t i n g t h e i r f r i e n d s h i p as a r e a l h i s t o r i c a l c onnection 15 which t e l l s much of the nature of p a i n t i n g i n the century. Evidence i s ample f o r the l i f e l o n g f r i e n d s h i p between Zheng Xie and L i Shan and i t s convergence i n some ins t a n c e s on the business of p a i n t i n g and the p a i n t i n g b u s i n e s s . For example, the two men were from the same county and t e s t e d i n the same year to become j u r e n . 9 There are numerous poems and l e t t e r s from Zheng Xie to L i S h a n . ^ They a l s o p a i n t e d together s e v e r a l times when L i Shan was out of o f f i c e . I 1 A f t e r L i Shan's death, Zheng Xie remembered him i n a poem which s t a t e s t h a t he would no longer have anyone with whom to d i s c u s s matters of p a i n t i n g . 1 2 In an attempt to p l a c e these men i n t o the h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t , one f i n d s t h a t the o f f i c i a l b i o g r a p h i c a l sources are of l i m i t e d use, unless they are analyzed as being c o n s t r u c t e d f o r moral and i m p e r i a l purposes. The p a r t i c u l a r h i s t o r i c a l t e n s i o n s of the time are not w r i t t e n of i n the b i o g r a p h i e s . But they can be recovered i n p a r t from the i m p l i c a t i o n s and d i s c r e p e n c i e s w i t h i n them. Zheng X i e ' s biography i s i n Qinq s h i l i e z h u a n (Biographies of the Annals of the Qing Dynasty), volume 72, t r a n s l a t e d as Appendix 1, number 1. L i Shan's biography i s in the Xinghua l i s h i zhuanlue ( H i s t o r i c a l B i o g r a p h i e s of Xinghua), otherwise known as L i s h i jia z h u a n ( L i Family B i o g r a p h i e s ) , t r a n s l a t e d i n Appendix 2, number 4. Both b i o g r a p h i e s present stock c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n s or i d e a l i z a t i o n s of the s c h o l a r - a r t i s t . A f t e r r e a d i n g the two b i o g r a p h i e s , 16 L i Shan and Zheng Xie seem to the reader to have been s i m i l a r men. Both were able i n w r i t i n g p o e t r y and had a secondary i n t e r e s t and a b i l i t y i n p a i n t i n g . Zheng Xie's p a i n t i n g method developed out of h i s c a l l i g r a p h y ; while L i Shan was good at poetry, and a l s o , t h a t i s s e c o n d a r i l y , good at p a i n t i n g . T h i s emphasis confirms the men's s t a t u s as s c h o l a r ' s , s i n c e the a b i l i t y to w r i t e was the most important a t t r i b u t e of the s c h o l a r . A more b l a t a n t i n s t a n c e of i d e a l i z a t i o n i n the bi o g r a p h i e s i s the p a i n t e r s ' records as "pure" and "c h e r i s h e d " o f f i c i a l s , which s i g n i f y p e r f e c t m o r a l i t y and c a p a b i l i t y . Both were a l s o d i s c h a r g e d or l e f t t h e i r o f f i c e s because of disagreement with a s e n i o r o f f i c i a l . T h i s i m p l i e s t h e i r unbending d e d i c a t i o n to higher i d e a l s or the people under t h e i r c a r e . The honourable e x p u l s i o n from o f f i c e appears i n most of the s c h o l a r - a r t i s t b i o g r a p h i e s , because of the need to e x p l a i n t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s i n the a r t s o u t s i d e of o f f i c e . There i s a l s o the i d e a l i s t i c c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of Zheng Xie as a l i t e r a t u s cum Santa Claus. The d e s c r i p t i o n of Yuan Mei's r e a c t i o n when he heard of Zheng Xie's death, moreover, i s u t t e r l y f a l s e . Zheng Xie met Yuan Mei s e v e r a l times d u r i n g h i s l i f e . The b i o g r a p h i c a l account o n l y serves to accentuate again Zheng Xie ' s w r i t i n g a b i l i t y , s i n c e , at t h a t time, Yuan Mei was one of the g r e a t e s t poets i n China. 1-* In the b i o g r a p h i e s , L i Shan and Zheng Xie seem q u i t e 17 s i m i l a r i n t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n o f f i c e , i n t h e i r w r i t i n g a b i l i t y , i n the secondary p o s i t i o n of p a i n t i n g i n t h e i r l i v e s , and i n the p o p u l a r i t y of t h e i r p a i n t i n g s and c a l l i g r a p h y . The p o p u l a r i t y of t h e i r p a i n t i n g and the p r i o r i t y of t h e i r w r i t i n g i m p l i e s t h a t t h e i r w r i t i n g f u n c t i o n e d on a l e s s popular and more e l i t e l e v e l . Hence, we have the p l e a s a n t d e s c r i p t i o n of Zheng Xie's p o e t i c a c t i v i t i e s i n Yangzhou d u r i n g h i s years of r e t i r e m e n t . In s p i t e of the s i m i l a r i t i e s between L i Shan and Zheng Xie as rendered i n the b i o g r a p h i e s , t h e i r backgrounds, as presented i n the b i o g r a p h i e s , are enormously d i f f e r e n t . The b a s i c d i s t i n c t i o n to be made i s between L i Shan's background as a p a i n t e r at the i m p e r i a l c o u r t and Zheng Xie's background as a constant s c h o l a r - o f f i c i a l . There i s a d i s c r e p a n c y between these d i f f e r e n t " f a c t u a l " backgrounds and the s i m i l a r " i d e a l i z e d " c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n s of the men. I would argue t h a t the h i s t o r i c a l r e a l i t i e s are hidden somewhere w i t h i n t h i s d i s c r e p a n c y . In the b i o g r a p h i e s , we do f i n d some connections between the c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n and the background of both L i Shan and Zheng X i e . For example, L i Shan and Zheng Xie both valued t h e i r p o s t i o n s and were c h e r i s h e d o f f i c i a l s , the i d e a l , but because of t h e i r d i f f e r i n g degrees of success i n o f f i c e , the f a c t u a l backgrounds, we f i n d L i Shan i n a s t a t e of sadness and Zheng Xie i n a s t a t e of happiness d u r i n g t h e i r r e t i r e m e n t y e a r s . However, these are p s y c h o l o g i c a l IS connections based on cause and e f f e c t , and, furthermore, they f u n c t i o n o n l y to aggrandize the idea of o f f i c i a l d o m and the s c h o l a r . Thus, as i n most Chinese b i o g r a p h i c a l or h i s t o r i c a l w r i t i n g , the connections between the i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i e t y are b a s i c a l l y a h i s t o r i c a l . They e x p l i c a t e the u n i v e r s a l t r u t h s of s o c i e t y under the Emperor more than they speak of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s circumstance or p l i g h t . The h i s t o r i c a l r e a l i t i e s f o r L i Shan and Zheng Xie are more a v a i l a b l e to us when we c o n s i d e r the i m p l i c a t i o n s of the ways i n which c e r t a i n i d e a l s are presented w i t h i n the b i o g r a p h i e s , and through the c o - e x i s t e n c e of p o t e n t i a l l y c o n t r a d i c t o r y i n f o r m a t i o n . For example, there i s the f a c t t h a t L i Shan's g r e a t e r a b i l i t y i n p o e t r y than p a i n t i n g i s presented as an argument near the end of the biography. The argument attempts to c o n t r a d i c t a commonly held b e l i e f . There are two kinds of h i s t o r i c a l t e n s i o n s which are suggested by the presence of t h i s argument; the t e n s i o n between popular o p i n i o n and p r i v a t e i d e a l s , and the t e n s i o n between the a c t of p a i n t i n g and the s c h o l a r ' s i d e a l a r t form, poet r y . S i m i l a r t e n s i o n s are i m p l i e d by the i n f o r m a t i o n i n Zheng Xie's biography. Zheng X i e ' s emphasis upon poetry combined with the p o p u l a r i t y of h i s p a i n t i n g r a i s e s the q u e s t i o n of how these were r e c o n c i l e d . Of course, these q u e s t i o n s can o n l y be asked with c o n v i c t i o n a f t e r one has been exposed to the f a c t s mentioned at the beginning of t h i s Chapter: the r i s e of the merchant c l a s s and the e x p o n e n t i a l growth i n the number of s c h o l a r s . 19 The t e n s i o n between p u b l i c and p r i v a t e ideas and p a i n t i n g and s c h o l a r l y i d e a l s are keys to understanding the p a i n t i n g of L i Shan and Zheng X i e , and, I would say, ei g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y p a i n t i n g i n g e n e r a l . The t e n s i o n appears more acute when we r e a l i z e t h a t p a i n t i n g as a non-popular a r t form, as an e l i t e form of s c h o l a r l y s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n , was s t i l l important to L i Shan and Zheng X i e . Throughout the t h e s i s , I w i l l attempt to break down the g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s of the o f f i c i a l b i o g r a p h i e s . I w i l l do t h i s through a study of p a i n t i n g s and l e s s o f f i c i a l documents i n a way which uncovers the t e n s i o n s which are onl y i m p l i e d i n the o f f i c i a l b i o g r a p h i e s ; i n moments when the biographer co u l d not s u c c e s s f u l l y hide them. 1. Examples a r e : Ginger Cheng-chi Hsu, "Merchant Patronage," 1980, and her Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n Patronage,, 1987; W i l l i a m Henry S c o t t , "Yangchow and i t s E i g h t E c c e n t r i c s , " 1964; and Yangzhou baguai Q u a n l i , 1979. 2. Weinstein, " E c c e n t r i c i t y , " 1972, 33 and 62. However, Weinstein does not p i n p o i n t who the patrons of p a i n t i n g are. 3. Ginger Cheng-chi Hsu. Patronage, 1987, 2. 4. The Elegant Brush, 1985, 167. 5. L i Chu-tsing. "The Bamboo P a i n t i n g s of Chin Nung," 1973- 73, 67. 6. Weinstein, " E c c e n t r i c i t y , " 59. 7. Weinstein, " E c c e n t r i c i t y , " 125. 8. For example, The Elegant Brush, 1985. 9. See Zheng Xi e ' s nianbiao under the year 1711 (Zheng Banqiao j i , 1962, appendix). 10. See Appendix 2. 11. For example i n 1734 (Reproduced i n Howard Rogers and Sherman E. Lee, Masterworks, 1988, catalogue number 63) and 1755, as l i s t e d i n Zheng X i e ' s n i a n b i a o (Zheng Banqiao I i , 1962, appendix). 12. See Zheng Xi e ' s n i a n b i a o under the year 1762 (Zheng Banqiao j i , 1962, appendix). 13. See Zheng Xi e ' s n i a n b i a o under the year 1763, where i t i s recorded t h a t Zheng Xie d i d i n f a c t meet Yuan Mei at a banquet h e l d by Lu Jianzeng, Zheng Xi e ' s f r i e n d and an important s a l t t r a n s p o r t o f f i c e r (Zheng Banqiao j i , 1962, appendix). Yuan Mei a l s o t e l l s a s t o r y that Zheng Xie heard about the death of a c e r t a i n s c h o l a r who he had not met, when he bu r s t i n t o t e a r s , i l l u s t r a t i n g h i s high e s t i m a t i o n of t h a t s c h o l a r ' s a b i l i t i e s . In Yuan Mei's s t o r y , i t turns out that the s c h o l a r was s t i l l i n f a c t a l i v e , and he and Zheng Xie met twenty years l a t e r (Yangzhou Baguai Q u a n i i . 1979, 268). 21 CHAPTER 3 Why does L i Shan p a i n t images of dead f i s h , as food? Why does Zheng X i e i n c l u d e i n h i s images of bamboo elements and i n s c r i p t i o n s which t r e a t t h e s u b j e c t matter i n r e l a t i o n t o food? Both men i l l u s t r a t e i n n o v a t i o n i n s u b j e c t m atter and the h a n d l i n g of t r a d i t i o n a l s u b j e c t m a t t e r , which i s l i n k e d t h r o u g h the s u b j e c t of f o o d . There a r e s e v e r a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h e food imagery. I t i s a c o m b i n a t i o n of the unorthodox and t h e l i t e r a t i t r a d i t i o n s of p a i n t i n g . The unorthodox t r a d i t i o n was, i n the s i m p l e s t terms, p r o f e s s i o n a l p a i n t i n g which i n c l u d e d u n t r a d i t i o n a l or i n n o v a t i v e p a i n t i n g s t y l e s and s u b j e c t matter as d i s t i n c t from the main s t r e a m of s c h o l a r p a i n t i n g . T h i s c o m b i n a t i o n of two t r a d i t i o n s was devel o p e d because of the presence of the dominant merchant patronage and the overwhelming p o p u l a t i o n of s c h o l a r s . With a c o m b i n a t i o n of t r a d i t i o n a l and unorthodox p a i n t i n g , Zheng X i e and L i Shan c o u l d s e p a r a t e themselves from and c o u l d compete w i t h the l a r g e numbers of s c h o l a r s by p r o d u c i n g i n t e r e s t i n g works t h a t grabbed t h e buyer. As w e l l , t h i s c o m b i n a t i o n a l l o w e d the p a i n t e r s t o e s t a b l i s h new meanings f o r new or p a r t l y t r a d i t i o n a l imagery. They c o u l d r e t a i n t r a d i t i o n a a l l i t e r a t i i d e a l s i n s a l a b l e p a i n t i n g s , or c r i t i q u e t h e p a t r o n ' s g e n e r a l l y m a t e r i a l i s t i c a t t i t u d e and h i s m a t e r i a l i s t i c a t t i t u d e towards the p a i n t i n g i n p a r t i c u l a r . Used f o r t h e l a t t e r purpose, images of food l i n k e d up with a l i t e r a r y d i s c o u r s e on food which a l s o c r i t i q u e d the m a t e r i a l i s m of the wealthy. Food imagery, t h e r e f o r e , i l l u s t r a t e s a combination of the p r o f e s s i o n a l or unorthodox and the s c h o l a r l y t r a d i t i o n s of p a i n t i n g and a t e n s i o n between the s c h o l a r ' s p r i v a t e value system and the value systems of a broader merchant patronage and l i t e r a t i p o p u l a t i o n . An a n a l y s i s of L i Shan's i n s c r i p t i o n s on some of h i s p a i n t i n g s of f i s h , not a l l a v a i l a b l e i n r e p r o d u c t i o n , suggests a t e n s i o n between L i Shan's commercial a c t i v i t y and h i s hope f o r an o f f i c i a l or a r e t i r e d l i f e . A study of some l e s s o f f i c i a l b i o g r a p h i c a l m a t e r i a l s on L i Shan, some of i t w r i t t e n by Zheng X i e , p o s s i b l e prototypes f o r L i Shan's f i s h images, and the d i s c o u r s e on food c r i t i c i s i n g the e a t i n g h a b i t s of the wealthy confirms t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , as do two l a t e r bamboo p a i n t i n g s by L i Shan. J i n Nong (1687-1764), aaa f r i e n d of Zheng X i e ' s , p a i n t e d bamboo shoots which are r e l a t e d L i Shan's f i s h p a i n t i n g s . Zheng Xie a l s o takes p a r t i n t h i s d i s c o u r s e on food and m o r a l i t y , but the d i f f e r e n t tone of h i s p r e s e n t a t i o n depends upon a more s c h o l a r l y background, c o n s e r v a t i v e a t t i t u d e , and, perhaps, s e l e c t patronage. L i Shan's f i s h p a i n t i n g s are u s u a l l y p u b l i s h e d without any mention as to the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the s u b j e c t matter. Yet, they are s t r i k i n g a g a i n s t the backdrop of previous Chinese p a i n t i n g , which g e n e r a l l y lacked images of decayed or dead s u b j e c t matter. Judging by some of L i Shan's i n s c r i p t i o n s , f i s h were c e n t r a l to some p a i n t i n g s he d i d on f e s t i v a l o c c a s i o n s . I n s c r i p t i o n s from p a i n t i n g s which I have not yet seen i n r e p r o d u c t i o n suggest a t e n s i o n between the l i f e s t y l e of which L i Shan dreamed and both the a c t of s e l l i n g p a i n t i n g s i t s e l f and the patron's a t t i t u d e s towards the p a i n t i n g s . ^ Compare f o r example two such i n s c r i p t i o n s : Strange t h i s change, lament the wounded peony, The work of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n ( i n p a i n t i n g ) c l e v e r l y matches the i n t e n t i o n , The essence i s d i f f e r e n t from the many. F i s h f o r e t e l l of a thousand y e a r s . . . T h i s i s a p a i n t i n g t h a t w i l l b r i n g r i c h e s and honour year a f t e r y e a r . 2 Month by month the s p r i n g i s s u i t a b l e f o r flowers i n an a n c i e n t v e s s e l . Abundance i s portended--bring out the f i s h i n g rod. W r i t i n g these two l i n e s I o b t a i n the idea, The Heaven and the E a r t h are p e a c e f u l throughout the four s e a s o n s . 3 In the f i r s t i n s c r i p t i o n , the f i s h symbolizes a u s p i c i o u s n e s s g e n e r a l l y , while i n the second abundance i s a s s o c i a t e d with f i s h i n g and, t h e r e f o r e , the f i s h i t s e l f . In the f i r s t , abundance w i l l p e r s i s t f o r "a thousand y e a r s , " while i n the second i t i s r e a l l y connected to the seasonal c y c l e , of f l o w e r s , and of the harvest of f i s h . There i s a d i f f e r e n c e between the two then, i n t h a t the l a t t e r i s more e a r t h l y or w o r l d l y , with connotations of r u s t i c i t y - - f i s h i n g and viewing f l o w e r s . Another i n s c r i p t i o n i l l u s t r a t e s the ambiguity between these two i n s c r i p t i o n s : In the s m a l l garden, the c o l o u r s of flowers can be p r a i s e d to the g r e a t e s t extent; This year on the Duanyang f e s t i v a l I stayed at home. But laugh at an o l d f e l l o w l i k e me not having a place to hide away-- Everyone seeks me out to p a i n t f i s h and shrimp! 4 The f i s h imagery and the enjoyment of flowers which seemed compatible (and both are symbolic of a r u s t i c l i f e s t y l e i n the previous poem) are placed i n seeming o p p o s i t i o n i n t h i s i n s c r i p t i o n . In the present poem the p a i n t e r ' s enjoyment of flowers i s i n t e r r u p t e d by buyers seeking p a i n t i n g s of f i s h and shrimp. I would suggest that i t was the buyer's i n t e r e s t i n the a u s p i c i o u s n e s s of L i Shan's p a i n t i n g s which caused them to seek a f t e r him, and not the a s s o c i a t i o n s of r u s t i c i t y , which the f i s h , l i k e f l o w e r s , c o u l d have f o r the p a i n t e r h i m s e l f . In both poems, viewing flowers i s followed by some mention of f i s h i n g . In the f i r s t , the p a i n t e r ' s d e d i c a t i o n to the connec t i o n between the seasonal involvement i n flowers and f i s h i n g i s denoted by h i s statement t h a t i n combining these two, or " w r i t i n g these two l i n e s , " he, the p a i n t e r , o b t a i n s the i d e a . In the second, the p a i n t e r ' s own involvement i n viewing flowers i s i n t e r r u p t e d by others o b v i o u s l y not i n t e r e s t e d i n q u i e t s e c l u s i o n , but i n the au s p i c i o u s n e s s of h i s p a i n t i n g s of f i s h and shrimp. It i s the dual f u n c t i o n or s i g n i f i c a n c e of f i s h which made them u s e f u l to the p a i n t e r ; they were symbolic of r u s t i c l i f e and a u s p i c i o u s and, thus, s a l a b l e to the patron. T h i s d u a l i t y e x p l a i n s the c o m p a t i b i l i t y and then o p p o s i t i o n of flowers and f i s h , depending upon which meaning the f i s h assumed, or to which group of people the f i s h images had to appeal i n a given circumstance. L i Shan's s e l e c t i o n of t h i s s u b j e c t was no doubt governed by i t s c a p a c i t y to express two se t s of ideas. A poem by Zheng Xie about L i Shan i l l u s t r a t e s the p a r t i c u l a r a s s o c i a t i o n between f i s h i n g , f i s h , and r e t i r e d l i f e . The beginning of the passage was meant to remind L i Shan to continue to p a i n t d u r i n g h i s r e t i r e d l i f e : When l e a d i n g the ox out to plough the f i e l d s , do a p a i n t i n g as b e f o r e - - p l a y with the brush. Your t a t t e r e d straw cape, hang o u t s i d e upon the c l o u d s . The h a l f p i e c e of paper, once you have wine i n s i d e you, you c u t . Green s p r i n g i s i n your eyes, and your c h i l d l i k e heart i s e n t h u s i a s t i c . Your white h a i r overflows your s h o u l d e r s - - t h e l o f t y i d e a l ( f o r o f f i c i a l d o m ) i s but ashes. Only water s h i e l d and perch can be u n r e s t r a i n e d l y eaten. The r e t i r e d o f f i c i a l a l s o r e t u r n s to eat f i s h . ^ The l e i s u r e l y l i f e with which f i s h were a s s o c i a t e d was c l e a r l y being d i s t u r b e d by L i Shan's customers and by the p a i n t i n g b u s i n e s s , as h i s i n s c r i p t i o n s t e s t i f y . An example of L i Shan's d e s i r e f o r escape, t h i s time from o f f i c i a l l i f e , u t i l i z e s the same vocabulary as h i s poem about viewing flowers and not being able to hide away: The sweet and f r a g r a n t i s obtained from the t a s t e l e s s remainder, With the jade c a u l d r o n i n the o f f i c i a l ' s k i t c h e n the t a s t e i s not as good. On another day i n my l i f e I w i l l s i n g w i t h i n my ten mu (of l a n d ) , Shut (the door) and read o l d a g r i c u l t u r a l books.^ L i Shan's dream, the same romantic dream of a l l s c h o l a r s throughout Chinese h i s t o r y , i s f o r r u s t i c s e c l u s i o n i n nature. The s i m p l i c i t y and p u r i t y of the l i f e s t y l e produces n a t u r a l foods through one's own involvement i n a g r i c u l t u r e and f i s h i n g . The t e n s i o n between c e r t a i n passages i n L i Shan's i n s c r i p t i o n s i l l u s t r a t e h i s i n a b i l i t y to r e c o n c i l e t h i s i d e a l with h i s p a i n t i n g b u s i n e s s , or h i s patrons' a t t i t u d e s towards h i m s e l f and h i s p a i n t i n g s . As a r e s u l t , he s e t t l e d on a s u b j e c t which would convey h i s i d e a l s as being c o n t r a d i c t o r y to those of h i s patrons. T h i s t e n s i o n between the v a r i o u s p r e s e n t a t i o n s of the f i s h s u b j e c t matter a l s o occurs i n album leaves of L i Shan's f i s h p a i n t i n g s . An i d e n t i c a l i n s c r i p t i o n appears on two of these, one of which i s dated to the s i x t h year of the r e i g n of the Yongzheng emperor (1725) ( F i g u r e s 1 and 2): Leek, tender ginger sprout, huge mouth and s l e n d e r s c a l e s to be eaten when f r e s h . Who w i l l share t h i s with the p a i n t e r L i Shan? 7 There had been r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of f r u i t p r e ceding t h i s time, but here the food, i n c l u d i n g the novel element of the f i s h , i s d e p i c t e d as i f i t i s domestic s p o i l s poured out onto a t a b l e which i s impli e d i n i t s arrangement. The s i m p l i c i t y and freshness of the items symbolize the r u s t i c , n a t u r a l world of the p a i n t e r , who i d e n t i f i e s h i m s e l f with them, when he o f f e r s to share them. This o f f e r i n g perhaps . e x p l a i n s the sugg e s t i o n of d o m e s t i c i t y , not i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of the food, but i n the placement of i t i n a s t i l l - l i f e arrangement. There i s an ambiguity here between s h a r i n g and buying. Sharing i n the simple food d e p i c t e d and thus i n the g e n t l e and t h o u g h t f u l l i f e s t y l e a s s o c i a t e d with i t , and buying the p a i n t i n g - - t h e t r u e f u n c t i o n of the i n s c r i p t i o n being a c l e v e r means to i n v i t e purchase. The i n v i t a t i o n suggests the patron's i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with the p a i n t e r , while i t s acceptance would r e v e a l the tr u e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two. The only prototype f o r the f i s h imagery of which I know a l s o occurs w i t h i n the context of a p a i n t e r / p a t r o n r e l a t i o n s h i p ( F i g u r e 3). Xu Wei (1521-93), an unorthodox Ming dynasty p a i n t e r whom L i Shan emulated on oc c a s i o n , d i d an image of food i n c l u d i n g a p a i r of f i s h : F i s h , c r a b s , melons, v e g e t a b l e s , bamboo shoots, peas, a l l s m e l l so good.... But, a f t e r a l l , they s u i t a poor man's t a s t e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , one can o n l y get food l i k e t h i s i n Jiangnan.^ The i n s c r i p t i o n mentions the d e l i c i o u s n e s s of the f i s h , v e g e t a b l e s , e t c . , of the Jiangnan r e g i o n , "But then they s u i t a poor man's t a s t e . " The p a r t i c u l a r meaning may be tha t o n l y the poor man can t r u l y a p p r e c i a t e the q u a l i t i e s of these n a t u r a l foods, and so Xu Wei e x p l a i n s why they smell so good to him. As J u d i t h Whitbeck has noted, t h i s i s a r e f e r e n c e to the g i f t s of food patrons sometimes gave to p a i n t e r s i n exchange f o r t h e i r p a i n t i n g s . 9 T h i s trade was meant to symbolize the equal ideas of patron and p a i n t e r , but the s h a r i n g here was perhaps too great an assumption on the p a r t of the patron to be t o l e r a t e d u t t e r l y by Xu Wei. Thus the image i s important to an understanding of the t e n s i o n between s h a r i n g and s e l l i n g i n L i Shan's p a i n t i n g s . The s t y l i s t i c prototype f o r L i Shan's f i s h p a i n t i n g s are the f i s h p a i n t i n g s by Badashanren (1626-c. 1705/6), who l i v e d up u n t i l L i Shan's time. Badashanren 1s i n f l u e n c e can a l s o be found i n L i Shan's p a i n t i n g s of pine t r e e s and the few landscapes which he a t t e m p t e d . ^ An example of Badashanren 1s f i s h suggests t h a t L i Shan may have borrowed the p o s t u r i n g of the f i s h from t h i s source as w e l l as the b a s i c s t y l e ( F i g u r e 4 ) . 1 1 The d i f f e r e n c e between the two i s tha t Badashanren's f i s h i s a swimming carp, with the t r a d i t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s of the carp, and L i Shan's f i s h i s a f r e s h l y caught h i l s a h e r r i n g . The a l t e r a t i o n of Badashanren's images using Xu Wei's idea i l l u s t r a t e s , I t h i n k , the conscious expansion and a p p l i c a t i o n of the f i s h imagery to s u i t L i Shan's p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n . B i o g r a p h i c a l m a t e r i a l on L i Shan, contained i n w r i t i n g s by Zheng Xie and o f f i c i a l sources, suggest t h a t L i Shan was concerned with having money, wine, and women, to put i t b l u n t l y , but w i t h i n the framework of an o f f i c i a l or r e t i r e d l i f e s t y l e . L i Shan complained when he was without an o f f i c i a l p o s i t i o n , and a l s o when occupying the lower o f f i c i a l p o s i t i o n s he was granted. He f a i l e d to r e t i r e p e a c e f u l l y onto the remaining f a m i l y land because of economic d i f f i c u l t i e s , and consequently he turned to p a i n t i n g to make a l i v i n g . He pa i n t e d e n e r g e t i c a l l y , no doubt to support the l i f e s t y l e he enjoyed, f o r which Zheng Xie c h a s t i s e d him i n l e t t e r and poem. 1^ His f r u s t r a t i o n with p a i n t i n g was a l s o intense at times, and i l l u s t r a t e s most c l e a r l y the t e n s i o n between the l i f e s t y l e he sought and the methods of s u r v i v a l or p r o f i t t h a t were at h i s d i s p o s a l . The evidence f o r these s t a t e s i n the l i f e and thought of the p a i n t e r i s put f o r t h i n a b i o g r a p h i c a l account rendered i n verse by Zheng Xie (Appendix 2, number 5). In Zheng X i e ' s account we f i n d a L i Shan who i s not p a r t i c u l a r l y v i r t u o u s or r e s p e c t a b l e . A f t e r l e a v i n g the c o u r t around 1715, L i Shan's enjoyment of sexual p l e a s u r e s continued f o r what Zheng Xie c a l l s "twenty y e a r s . P a i n t i n g accounted f o r a good d e a l of L i Shan's success at c o u r t and s u r v i v a l out of o f f i c e . In s p i t e of Zheng Xie's u n f l a t t e r i n g p r e s e n t a t i o n of L i Shan's motive f o r h o l d i n g o f f i c e i n h i s l a t e r years (not being able to bear p o v e r t y ) , he a l s o suggests t h a t L i Shan had t r u e ambitions f o r an important post. Thus he suggests t h a t although L i Shan r e c e i v e d a p o s i t i o n , i t was not a p o s i t i o n which granted L i Shan the high rank which he sought. Instead, he spent years o u t s i d e the c a p i t a l i n a lower p o s i t i o n , f o r which "the t a s t e i s m i l d l i k e water."* 4 Other evidence f o r L i Shan's i n t e r e s t i n a t t a i n i n g a p o s i t i o n f o r the sake of h i s f a m i l y p r e s t i g e and p e r s o n a l n o t i o n s of honour and s t a t u s appear i n a p a r t i a l l y f l a t t e r i n g j u e j u w r i t t e n by Zheng Xie which begins with a b r i e f biography of L i Shan and i n L i Shan's p e r s o n a l s e a l s , analyzed by Xue Yongnian. Zheng Xie's s h o r t biography and j u e j u i l l u s t r a t e some of the d i f f i c u l t i e s L i Shan must have had i n h i s o f f i c i a l p o s i t i o n s , and the ensuing f r u s t r a t i o n s of being unable to r e g a i n h i s e a r l y fame at c o u r t : C a l l e d Futang, a Xinghua man, he i s f i l i a l and honest. He worshipped at the inner c o u r t and l a t e r was the magistrate of Teng county. His brush i s s k i l l e d and matchless. Twice e x p e l l e d from a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and a once demoted o f f i c i a l , His d r e a r y h a i r i s f r o s t y (grey) i n the r e f l e c t i o n . He remembers and bewails Ren Huangdi (the Kangxi emperor), And long takes h i s s o u l to be l i k e the c o l o u r s of the w i l l o w . 1 5 In the j u e j u , Zheng Xie mentions t h a t L i Shan thought back with l o n g i n g to h i s years i n o f f i c e at the inner c o u r t i n the r e i g n of the Kangxi emperor. The two ex p u l s i o n s and one demotion of which Zheng Xie speaks are probably L i Shan's l e a v i n g o f f i c e a f t e r h i s e a r l y s e r v i c e around 1715, h i s l e a v i n g o f f i c e a f t e r s e r v i n g i n Teng county f o r three years, and h i s t r a n s f e r from L i n z h i county to Teng county at the end of 1738. 1 6 These o f f i c e s i n d i c a t e , as Xue Yongnian and Wang Yulu have deduced, L i Shan's constant i n t e r e s t i n o f f i c e , and the c e n t r a l r o l e and s i g n i f i c a n c e of o f f i c i a l d o m i n h i s outlook u n t i l and even a f t e r h i s re t i r e m e n t from o f f i c e i n T e n g . 1 7 The i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y of o f f i c e and p a i n t i n g f o r L i Shan has been suggested with some degree of persuasiveness by Wang Yulu, based on a poem by L i Shan and a r e n d e r i n g of L i ' s person i n the L i n z h i Gazeteer. The account i n the gazeteer can say l i t t l e of L i Shan's p a i n t i n g save that Zheng Xie had s a i d i t was r e f i n e d . 1 8 As w e l l , there i s a phrase w r i t t e n by L i Shan which r e p r e s e n t s h i s mental s t a t e at the beginning of the r e i g n of the Q i a n l o n g emperor. T h i s i s the moment of L i Shan's s e e k i n g o f f i c e which Zheng X i e d i s c r i b e d i n n e g a t i v e terms. Here we can l e t L i Shan speak f o r h i m s e l f , " a f t e r t h i s day my morale w i l l r i s e l i k e f i r e . " * 9 L i Shan, l i k e Zheng X i e , a l s o took h i s o f f i c e s e r i o u s l y and was memorably honoured i n v a r i o u s ways. Examples are h i s i n c l u s i o n i n the l i s t of famous o f f i c i a l s i n t h e L i n z h i g a z e t e e r , and h i s b u i l d i n g of the C o n f u c i a n temple i n t h a t c o u n t y . 2 ^ L i Shan's f r u s t r a t i o n w i t h p a i n t i n g appears most n o t i c e a b l y i n Zheng X i e ' s b i o g r a p h i c a l v e r s e (Appendix 2, number 5) which s u g g e s t s t h a t L i Shan may have had t o respond t o the whims of s e r v a n t s and merchants. F u r t h e r examples of t h e c o n f l i c t of p a i n t i n g and L i Shan's o f f i c i a l g o a l s a re found i n h i s p e r s o n a l s e a l s which Xue Yongnian a n a l y z e s . I n p a r t i c u l a r t h e r e i s t h e s e a l chen f e i l a o hua s h i or "the o f f i c i a l i s not an o l d p a i n t i n g master." Xue Yongnian s t a t e s t h a t t h i s s e a l was done p r i o r t o L i Shan's e n t e r i n g the i n n e r c o u r t , i n or d e r t o " r e s t o r e the p r e s t i g e of h i s f a m i l y name as o f f i c i a l s . " 2 ^ More i n t e r e s t i n g i s t h a t Xue notes t h a t a f t e r L i Shan l e f t t h e c a p i t a l f o r the f i r s t t i m e , he acknowledged t h a t " a f t e r d r i n k i n g he was o f t e n c a l l e d t h e o l d p a i n t i n g master." T h i s b r i n g s t o l i f e t h e a l r e a d y l i v e l y d e s c r i p t i o n by Zheng X i e of L i Shan's p a i n t i n g a c t i v i t i e s : "The s e r v a n t s and merchants d i s c u s s e d whether t h e y were good or bad. Y e s t e r d a y he p a i n t e d a p a i r of p i n e s which were not y e t h a l f completed; On becoming drunk he got angry and t o r e up the ( s p e c i a l ) paper from Denqxin" (Appendix 2, number 5). L i Shan's f i s h p a i n t i n g s range from 1725 u n t i l 1740, between and near the completion of h i s o f f i c i a l p o s i t i o n s . The t e n s i o n i n these works i s probably r e l a t e d to h i s d e s i r e f o r o f f i c i a l d o m or r e t i r e d l i f e , h i s i n a b i l i t y to achieve these aims, and h i s r e s u l t i n g use of p a i n t i n g to make a l i v i n g . In h i s a r t i c l e i n the anthology Food i n Chinese C u l t u r e (1977), Jonathan Spence p o i n t s out the e x i s t e n c e of a d i s c o u r s e on food i n the e i g h t e e n t h century.^2 This d i s c o u r s e surrounded the immorality and bad t a s t e i n the p r e p a r a t i o n and amounts of foods as consumed by the wealthy, u s u a l l y merchants. Moral e a t i n g depended upon s m a l l p o r t i o n s of f r e s h products, the n a t u r a l q u a l i t i e s of which were untampered with. Yuan Mei, who was a famous w r i t e r and o f f i c i a l from Hangzhou, comments on the importance of t a s t e f u l e a t i n g and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to noble l i v i n g i n h i s cookery book: A good cook cannot with the utmost a p p l i c a t i o n produce more than four s u c c e s s f u l d i s h e s i n one day and even then i t i s hard f o r him to g i v e proper a t t e n t i o n to every d e t a i l ; and he c e r t a i n l y won't get through unless e v e r y t h i n g i s i n i t s r i g h t p l a c e and he i s on h i s f e e t the whole time. I t i s no use to g i v e him a l o t of a s s i s t a n t s ; each of them w i l l have h i s own ideas and there w i l l be no proper d i s c i p l i n e . The more help he g e t s , the worse the r e s u l t s w i l l be. I once dined with a merchant. There were three s u c c e s s i v e s e t s of d i s h e s and s i x t e e n d i f f e r e n t sweets. A l t o g e t h e r , more than f o r t y kinds of food were served. My host regarded the dinner as an enormous succ e s s . But when I got home I was so hungry that I ordered a bowl of p l a i n r i c e - g r u e l . From t h i s i t may be imagined how l i t t l e t h ere was, d e s p i t e t h i s p r o f u s i o n of d i s h e s , t h a t was at a l l f i t to eat...Once I was once asked to a p a r t y given by a c e r t a i n governor... If our host's o b j e c t was simply to impress i t would have been b e t t e r to put a hundred p e a r l s i n t o each b o w l . 2 3 The o v e r - h a n d l i n g and l a r g e amounts of food p a r a l l e l the general a u s p i c i o u s n e s s of L i Shan's p a i n t i n g s . L i Shan's f r e s h f i s h , a s s o c i a t e d with the l i f e he wished to l e a d , are i n keeping with Yuan Mei's c r i t e r i a f o r cooking. The d i s c o u r s e surrounding food, i n g e n e r a l , depends upon a dichotomy of n a t u r a l and domestic, or r u r a l and urban, which L i Shan's p r e f e r r e d r u s t i c l i f e and h i s l i f e of p a i n t i n g p a r a l l e l . The dual meaning of h i s f i s h i l l u s t r a t e t h i s n a t u r a l / d o m e s t i c o p p o s i t i o n , being symbolic of r u s t i c l i v i n g as w e l l as h i s d e a l i n g s with a domestic s o c i e t y . P a i n t i n g f o r others of u n l i k e sentiments was not a s a t i s f a c t o r y s u b s t i t u t e f o r r u s t i c s e c l u s i o n . Yuan Mei g i v e s evidence f o r an overzealous a p p e t i t e f o r f i s h of the people of Nanjing, when w r i t i n g to J i n Nong of the u n l i k e l i h o o d of the s u c c e s s f u l s a l e of J i n ' s p a i n t e d l a n t e r n s : The people of J i n l i n g (Nanjing) know only the t a s t e of duck and s a l t f i s h and t h a t ' s a l l . I f even i n broad d a y l i g h t they don't know what a work of a r t i s , how much l e s s w i l l they understand i n the dark of the n i g h t ! 2 4 Here, the a t t i t u d e towards food i s r e l a t e d t o an a t t i t u d e towards a r t . L i Shan's f i s h p a i n t i n g s i l l u s t r a t e as w e l l the use of food to express ideas about p a i n t i n g , but i n a more d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p with p a i n t i n g . The " s h a r i n g " of f r e s h f i s h with the p a i n t e r a c t u a l l y r e s u l t s i n the purchase of the p a i n t i n g on h i s terms. T h i s was L i Shan's attempt to overcome the same a t t i t u d e s , although not d i f f i c u l t y i n s e l l i n g perhaps, which J i n Nong encountered. I t has been pointed out that arrangement of the food i n the album leaves suggests i t s placement upon a counter. T h i s d e v i c e may suggest b r i n g i n g f r e s h f i s h i n t o the realm of the domestic world where the p a i n t e r "shares" i t with the patron. T h i s does not deny the freshness of the f i s h or i t s connection to r u s t i c l i f e , but r a t h e r the p a i n t e r ' s s t a t e i n between t h a t l i f e , which he f i n d s u n a t t a i n a b l e , and a l i f e i n " s o c i e t y . " Another f e a t u r e of the works which suggests t h i s idea i s the s t r i n g , or o r g a n i c b i n d i n g which i s used to c a r r y the f i s h , and i s d e p i c t e d s t i l l i n the f i s h ' s mouth i n some of L i Shan's album l e a v e s . We f i n d t h i s b i n d i n g i n the r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e number of p a i n t i n g s of bamboo shoots done by J i n Nong (1687-1764), Luo Ping (1733-1799), and Huang Shen (1687-1772), who were a l s o a c t i v e i n Yangzhou. These p a i n t e r s p a i n t e d shoots alone i n the album l e a f context i n the same way L i Shan pai n t e d f i s h . Huang Shen was an acquaintance of both Zheng Xie and L i Shan (F i g u r e 5). So too was J i n Nong; while Luo Ping was J i n Nong's student.^5 In two album leaves of bamboo shoots by J i n Nong and another s i m i l a r l e a f by Luo Ping, the shoots are bound by s t r i n g which i s i d e n t i c a l to t h a t used i n L i Shan's f i s h p a i n t i n g s ( F i g u r e s 6 and 7). The same i n s c r i p t i o n appears on each of these, with s l i g h t v a r i a t i o n i n the r e n d i t i o n of the same c h a r a c t e r s : With the f i r s t sounding of the thunder of s p r i n g , New bamboo shoots f i l l the mountain--ridge a f t e r r i d g e of jade. When you buy a p o r t i o n to cook with f r a g r a n t p i g meat, Do not ask the k i t c h e n h e l p , ask the o l d monk. Old Monk...(Jin Nong), a f t e r p a i n t i n g i n s c r i b e d t h i s . The p a i n t i n g i s c l e a r l y r e l a t e d to L i Shan's p a i n t i n g s of f i s h , and i t continues the p a i n t e r ' s d i s c u s s i o n with the patron. Here, the p a i n t e r , J i n Nong, a c t s from the n a t u r a l world i n o f f e r i n g to provide f r e s h bamboo shoots f o r the patron. L i k e L i Shan's f i s h , J i n Nong's bamboo shoots have a dual a s s o c i a t i o n s of s c h o l a r l y r u s t i c l i f e and food. T h i s i s c l e a r from the g a r n i s h of grown bamboo attached to the shoots i n the p a i n t i n g . Furthermore, J i n Nong wrote a phrase about Confucius and bamboo, i n d i c a t i n g t h a t the o f f e r i n g i n the album l e a f was not, l i k e L i Shan's f i s h p a i n t i n g s , without i t s t e n s i o n and s u b t l e c r i t i c i s m of the patron: To l i v e without having bamboo, to eat without having meat. To l i v e without having bamboo i s s u p e r f l u o u s . To eat without having meat i s always l e a n . 2 6 T h i s poem i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t i n o f f e r i n g bamboo shoots to accompany the patron's meat, J i n Nong was probably c r i t i c i z i n g the patron. We should a l s o r e c a l l Yuan Mei's words to J i n Nong about the people of Hangzhou being i n t e r e s t e d o n l y i n s a l t - f i s h and duck and not i n works of a r t . What L i Shan and J i n Nong e s s e n t i a l l y d i d was to s a t i r i c a l l y o f f e r the buyer the f r e s h foods symbolic of r u s t i c p u r i t y , but i n a form which i l l u s t r a t e d the patron's lack of adherence to t h a t p u r i t y . That i s , i n purchasing the p a i n t i n g s the patron manifested t h e i r s e p a r a t i o n from the p a i n t e r , t h e i r i n t e r r u p t i o n of h i s l i f e s t y l e , and t h e i r own placement i n the domestic s e t t i n g , i n d i c a t e d by the way i n which the p a i n t e r presented the food. E a r l i e r , S h i t a o had made a d i s t i n c t i o n between the f r u i t s of the w i l d and those of d o m e s t i c a t i o n , which was perhaps the source of the i d e a . In the image, the b i n d i n g f o r the f r u i t s i s s i m i l a r to those i n the works of those l a t e r a r t i s t s a l s o f u n c t i o n i n g around Yangzhou (F i g u r e 8): Purple melon, purple melon--they have an e x c e p t i o n a l l y f i n e f l a v o u r . You t e l l me how much s a l t and p i c k l e sauce they need--but I made a mistake. I picked them up and swallowed them raw as i f they were w i l d p l a n t s . I hope they w i l l not sprout and take r o o t i n s i d e me!2 ' Two p a i n t i n g s of bamboo by L i Shan, one dated to the f o u r t e e n t h year of the Qianlong r e i g n , or 1749, i n c l u d e passages i n the i n s c r i p t i o n s which develop h i s ideas about food and f i s h ( F i g u r e s 9 and 10). Both p a i n t i n g s are more complex than the e a r l i e r images of f i s h w i t h i n albums by v i r t u e of t h e i r long and a l l u s i v e i n s c r i p t i o n s . T h i s suggests t h a t these works were f o r patrons of a d i f f e r e n t type than those who bought h i s e a r l i e r albums. 2® In the undated hanging s c r o l l L i Shan mentions C o n f u c i u s ' love of bamboo as opposed to meat. y T h i s i s an i n t e r e s t i n g phrase to c a l l upon c o n s i d e r i n g L i Shan's development of the genre of food i n p a i n t i n g , and J i n Nong's use of i t . L i Shan a l s o expands the phrase i n the dated hanging s c r o l l : One j o i n t , two j o i n t s , and yet another j o i n t . The v i r t u e of Qu Yuan, Su Wu, Boy i , and Suqi. One l e a f , two l e a v e s , and yet another l e a f . The r a i n god, the wind god and the g r o t t o of Chang'e. The phrase "without bamboo [ l i f e ] i s v u l g a r " has been r e c e i v e d r e s p e c t f u l l y from Confucius down through the ages. The o l d f i s h i n g pole i s l o s t at the shore of the Wei R i v e r . The bamboo with the blood and t e a r s of Nuying and Ewang had a l r e a d y withered When, i n h i s anger, the dragon founder (Qin Shihuang d i ) turned the green h i l l s i d e i n t o bare red s o i l . ™ The models of v i r t u e who were s e l e c t e d by L i Shan to s y m b o l i c a l l y c o n s t i t u t e the j o i n t s of the bamboo are s i g n i f i c a n t i n the context of food. Boyi and Suqi r e f u s e d to eat the food of the dynasty e s t a b l i s h e d , they f e l t , by an u n f i l i a l son. Instead, they " l i v e d i n the mountains, ate ferns and l a t e r d i e d of s t a r v a t i o n . 1 , 3 1 The f u l l e x p l i c a t i o n of the same phrase i s found i n the next two l i n e s of Confucian content which expand upon the r e f e r e n c e to these Confucian exemplars. The f i r s t l i n e expresses C o n f u c i u s ' f e e l i n g s about bamboo, while the next l i n e about the f i s h i n g pole r e f e r s to another exemplar. "This r e f e r s to the s t o r y of Taigong Wang, an o l d man i n h i s s e v e n t i e s , who f i s h e d at the shore of the Wei R i v e r f o r three days and three n i g h t s but could not c a t c h a s i n g l e f i s h . L a t e r he a s s i s t e d Wenwang of the s t a t e of Zhou to 32 overthrow the c o r r u p t l a s t emperor of the Shang Dynasty." Here L i Shan connects Con f u c i u s ' f e e l i n g s f o r bamboo with Taigong Wang's i n a b i l i t y to c a t c h f i s h and h i s eventual moral d i s t i n c t i o n . The meat which i s of no i n t e r e s t to Confucius i s , i n t h i s i n s t a n c e , f i s h . Of course, the i n t e r e s t i n meat i s compared to the i n t e r e s t i n the bamboo, and i s s a i d to i n f r i n g e upon i t . In L i Shan's f i s h p a i n t i n g s the same moral i d e a l i s pres e n t . The patron d i d not observe t h i s moral idea, and so the f i s h simply became a domestic good, l i k e the p a i n t i n g which they bought. The p a i n t i n g and the s u b j e c t d e p i c t e d both became mere o b j e c t s . An undated bamboo p a i n t i n g by Zheng Xie demonstrates h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the same d i s c o u r s e ( F i g u r e 11). In g e n e r a l , Zheng Xie r e t a i n e d the t r a d i t i o n a l p a i n t i n g s u b j e c t matter of the s c h o l a r - p a i n t e r . Yet he a l s o a p p r o p r i a t e d the l e s s orthodox v i s u a l and w r i t t e n language developed i n Yangzhou p r e v i o u s l y by S h i t a o . In the bamboo p a i n t i n g , Zheng Xie i n c l u d e s a b r i e f d e p i c t i o n of the e a r t h from which the bamboo grows. The most conspicuous element i n the p a i n t i n g i s the group of bamboo shoots f l a n k i n g a bent rock. The d e p i c t i o n of e a r t h and bamboo shoots departs from the sparseness of the t r a d i t i o n a l bamboo p a i n t i n g . In the upper p o r t i o n of the p a i n t i n g there are two s t a l k s of bamboo, one darker i n tone echoing the shape of the rock and a second l i g h t e r s t a l k r i s i n g up beyond the edge of the paper. The bamboo shoots modify the meaning of these s t a l k s of bamboo by i n t r o d u c i n g the v i s u a l s u b j e c t matter of food. Zheng Xie ' s i n s c r i p t i o n at the r i g h t q u a l i f i e s the p a i n t i n g : Yangzhou's f r e s h bamboo shoots and r i c h i n h i l s a herr i n g , Mashed and cooked at the s t a r t of the east wind's t h i r d month, Making i t ask the k i t c h e n help to stop from chopping i t up to the utmost, C l e a r and b r i g h t leave t h i s (painting/bamboo) to l i g h t the outspread book. Huan o l d s c h o l a r e l d e r b r o t h e r , please c o r r e c t t h i s . Banqiao Zheng X i e . 3 3 The t r a d i t i o n a l l i t e r a t i bamboo p a i n t i n g expresses the more e r u d i t e symbolism of the bamboo, which concerns the moral i d e a l s of the l i t e r a t u s . Zheng Xie's poem can be d e s c r i b e d as an admonition a g a i n s t the abuse of n a t u r a l l y d e l i c i o u s foods i n the cooking process. Zheng Xie suggests that a modicum of r e s t r a i n t i s i n order, even when d e a l i n g with the n a t u r a l l y r i c h f o o d s t u f f s of Yangzhou p r e f e c t u r e . In f a c t , t h i s r e s t r a i n t preserves the bamboo p l a n t , and thereby the s c h o l a r l y a c t i v i t i e s , the thought of which the bamboo i s symbolic, and the bamboo p a i n t i n g . In Zheng Xie's p a i n t i n g and i n s c r i p t i o n he expresses t r a d i t i o n a l l i t e r a t i i d e a l s w i t h i n an u n t r a d i t i o n a l image which i n c o r p o r a t e s the s u b j e c t s of food and e a t i n g . Another i n s c r i p t i o n by Zheng Xie concerns s i m i l a r moral i d e a l s . Zheng Xie hi m s e l f e x e m p l i f i e s the moral a t t i t u d e i n keeping with the symbolic meanings of the bamboo, u n l i k e those who harvest the h i l l s of bamboo shoots and ve g e t a b l e s , and lack t h i s a t t i t u d e when they a t t a i n and prepare the p l a n t f o r e a t i n g . There are three d i f f e r e n t recorded 40 v e r s i o n s of the same i n s c r i p t i o n which r e i t e r a t e the n e c e s s i t y of r e t a i n i n g the moral s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h e bamboo. I w i l l quote two of t h e s e : Bamboo s h o o t s a l o n g t h e r i v e r i n the second month are new. F a m i l y a f t e r f a m i l y ' s k i t c h e n s cook and p e a l t h e s p r i n g bamboo. I am h o p i n g t o c u t one thousand t h r e a d s of t h i n bamboo s t r i p s , To weave i n t o a c u r t a i n t o p r o t e c t b e a u t i f u l women 1 3 4 Cook meat and b o i l f i s h , c u t up bamboo s h o o t s f r e s h . In t h e k i t c h e n on the pot s h e l f t h e y l o s e Heaven's ge n u i n e n e s s . . . Banqiao Zheng X i e p l a y s w i t h the b r u s h . 5 The p r i m a r y s u b j e c t matter of t h e t h r e e i n s c r i p t i o n s i s the abuse of n a t u r a l l y f i n e f o o d s , e s p e c i a l l y the f r e s h l y p i c k e d bamboo, by t h e k i t c h e n s of w e l l t o do h o u s e h o l d s . In the f i r s t v e r s i o n c i t e d , the abuse of food i s not mentioned s p e c i f i c a l l y . But i n the second i n s c r i p t i o n i t i s the abuse of the raw m a t e r i a l s w i t h i n a f a n c y c o o k i n g p r o c e s s t h a t causes t h e genuineness of t h e s e foods t o be l o s t . T h i s genuineness i s r e f e r r e d t o as b e i n g t h a t of "Heaven," or t h a t of the p a i n t e r and l i k e - m i n d e d ones, "our g e n u i n e n e s s " ( i n the t h i r d v e r s i o n not quoted; Appendix 3 ) . "Genuineness" i n b o th cases r e f e r s t o t h e n a t u r a l q u a l i t i e s of t h i n g s , or the way of e n j o y i n g t h e s e q u a l i t i e s , i f i t i s the p a i n t e r ' s g e n u i n e n e s s . "Genuineness" t h u s i m p l i e s c o r r e c t n e s s and m o r a l i t y , and the f a m i l i e s ' l a c k of t a s t e i s a l s o a l a c k of m o r a l i t y . The moral a s p e c t of the i n s c r i p t i o n becomes c l e a r e r i n 41 the second p a r t , i n which Zheng Xie demonstrates a more t h o u g h t f u l and moral a t t i t u d e towards the bamboo. Zheng Xi e ' s gesture of using the bamboo to make a c u r t a i n to p r o t e c t women r e l a t e d to the famous s t o r y of Nuying and Ewang, the wives of Shun. These two women became symbols of moral v i r t u e when they c r i e d at the death of t h e i r husband and l e f t spots on the bamboo i n which they stood. The shoots of the spotted bamboo of Hunan, which was i d e n t i f i e d with the p a r t i c u l a r bamboos of the s t o r y , were s a i d to be the most d e l i c i o u s of a l l bamboos. 3 6 So i t happened that n a t u r a l l y d e l i c i o u s shoots were a s s o c i a t e d with a type of bamboo which had p a r t i c u l a r moral s i g n i f i c a n c e . Thus, Zheng Xi e ' s a c t i o n s pay t r i b u t e to the wives of Shun and are i n keeping with the moral s i g n i f i c a n c e of the bamboo. The i s s u e f o r Zheng Xie was the need to a p p r e c i a t e the meaning of th a t which i s eaten, and to r e t a i n s i m p l i c i t y i n one's e a t i n g h a b i t s . While making h i s p o i n t , he was not adverse to foods which are d e l i c i o u s by nature, but rat h e r the o v e r - p r e p a r a t i o n of these foods and the m a t e r i a l i s t i c a t t i t u d e towards them, which i n f l u e n c e s the very e x i s t e n c e of s c h o l a r l y thought and s c h o l a r l y p a i n t i n g . In f a c t , Zheng Xi e ' s love of dog meat i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n a comical anecdote which has him en j o y i n g the meat, prepared simply, with a man whom he t h i n k s i s a r u s t i c , and f o r whom he p a i n t s with p l e a s u r e , f r e e of charge. (Only to r e a l i z e l a t e r t h a t he had been duped i n t o p a i n t i n g f o r a wealthy merchant) (Appendix 1, number 4). Food imagery i l l u s t r a t e s L i Shan, J i n Nong, and Zheng Xie ' s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a new mode of s o c i a l c r i t i c i s m , seen a l s o i n l i t e r a t u r e , which focussed on the m a t e r i a l i s m and lack of s c h o l a r l y i d e a l s of the wealthy. I t a l s o i l l u s t r a t e s t h e i r attempts at s e l l i n g p a i n t i n g s . These two a c t s were a r e a c t i o n to the change i n the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e ; the r i s e of the merchant c l a s s and the subsequent s i t u a t i o n of the s c h o l a r . The food imagery a l s o i l l u s t r a t e s a b a s i c change i n the nature of the s c h o l a r l y p a i n t i n g t r a d i t i o n and the p a i n t i n g medium th a t would a l l o w the i n f l u x of such d i s c o u r s e and f u n c t i o n s i n t h i s c o n t e x t . As we have seen, t h i s change was the commbination of the unorthodox and the s c h o l a r l y p a i n t i n g t r a d i t i o n s . These were the b a s i c h i s t o r i c a l f a c t o r s , but each a r t i s t approached them or confronted them from h i s own unique p o s i t i o n . These d i f f e r e n t p o s i t i o n s suggest to us the complexity of the b a s i c h i s t o r i c a l f a c t o r s , or t h e i r human i m p l i c a t i o n s . L i Shan and J i n Nong's more s a r c a s t i c double meaning i n t h e i r p a i n t i n g s i l l u s t r a t e s t h e i r d i f f i c u l t l i v i n g s i t u a t i o n s and t h e i r need to be q u i t e a c t i v e p r o f e s s i o n a l l y as p a i n t e r s . Zheng Xie's more overt m o r a l i z i n g seems to be i n accord with h i s o f f i c i a l r e p u t a t i o n and what may have been h i s g r e a t e r success i n l o c a t i n g a more s e l e c t patronage. 1. Zhuang Shen, " L i Shan s h i c h a o , " 1972, 53-60 (Appendix 4). The m a j o r i t y of these c o l l e c t e d poems are i n f a c t i n s c r i p t i o n s . The danger of u s i n g these i n s c r i p t i o n s without having the images at my d i s p o s a l i s e v i d e n t . However, much of t h e i r content i s a b r i e f s u g g e s t i o n of the v i s u a l content and a more l i t e r a l expansion upon i t . Thus, I use the i n f o r m a t i o n i n on l y a ge n e r a l way to suggest some of the meanings of f i s h i n L i Shan's thought and p a i n t i n g . As w e l l , some of the i n f o r m a t i o n i n the i n s c r i p t i o n s i s a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l and e n t a i l s more commentary about the context of the images than the images themselves. Whether the p a i n t i n g s are i n f a c t a u t h e n t i c i s another problem. At present, I can p o i n t out the e x i s t e n c e of a u t h e n t i c f i s h p a i n t i n g s by the p a i n t e r i n album l e a f form, as w e l l as the s i m i l a r i t y i n p o e t r y s t y l e to i n s c r i p t i o n s on a u t h e n t i c works. 2. Zhuang Shen, " L i Shan s h i c h a o , " 55 (Appendix 4). 3. Zhuang Shen, " L i Shan s h i c h a o , " 59 (Appendix 4). 4. Zhuang Shen, " L i Shan s h i c h a o , " 55 (Appendix 4). 5. Appendix 2, number 2, the f i r s t of two s e c t i o n s . The date of 1745 l i s t e d above i s obtained from Zheng Xie's n i a n b i a o (Zheng Banqiao i i f 1962, appendix). 6. Zhuang Shen, " L i Shan s h i c h a o , " 58 (Appendix 4). 7. Appendix 4. 8. J u d i t h Whitbeck, " C a l l i g r a p h e r - P a i n t e r - B u r e a u c r a t s i n the Late Ming," The R e s t l e s s Landscape, 1971, 115-132, e n t r y 51. 9. Whitbeck, 1971, 116. 10. An example of a landscape by L i Shan t h a t f o l l o w s Basashanren i s reproduced i n Comprehensive Index of Chinese P a i n t i n g s , 1982, JP14-029. There are a l s o s i m i l a r i t i e s between one type of pine by L i and those by Badashanren. For example, we can compare the pine album l e a f i n L i Shan huaniao c e f 1964, l e a f 4 to Badashanren's pine album l e a f reproduced i n Mr. Fred Fang-yu Wang's a r t i c l e "The Album of Flower Stud i e s S i g n i e d "Ch'una-ch'e" i n the N a t i o n a l Palace Museum and the E a r l y Works of Chu-ta," 1970. (This l a t t e r work i s b e l i e v e d to be a u t h e n t i c by Wen Fong, as he s t a t e s i n the same proceedings.) On Badashanren's pines see Oswald S i r e n , Chinese P a i n t i n g , 1973, volume 5, 152. S i r e n quotes Zhang Geng: " I t has been s a i d t h at h i s best p i c t u r e s r e p r e s e n t p i n e - t r e e s , l o t u s and stones, a statement which, however, does not i n c l u d e a l l h i s works." 11. I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t L i Shan's use of t h i s s t y l e had to do with the p e r c e i v e d o v e r p o p u l a r i t y and s u p e r f i c i a l i t y of Badashanren's p a i n t i n g s , as d e s c r i b e d by Zheng X i e . (Chu- t s i n g L i , "The Bamboo P a i n t i n g s of Chin Nung," 1973-73, 67). While L i Shan does not i n t i m a t e i n w r i t i n g the m o t i v a t i o n behind h i s c h o i c e of s t y l e , the harking back to Badashanren i n h i s c a p a c i t y as a p a i n t e r of great p o p u l a r i t y would f i t i n t o L i Shan's more apparent i n t e r e s t i n a s l i g h t l y c r i t i c a l or s a r c a s t i c h a n d l i n g of imagery. 12. A l e t t e r to L i Shan i n which Zheng Xie s c o l d s h i s overindulgence i n the p a i n t i n g business i s i n Quanj i f 1985, Banqiao j i wai shiwen (Poems and Prose o u t s i d e the C o l l e c t e d Works of Banqiao), Shu ( L e t t e r s ) s e c t i o n , 269. The l e t t e r i s l i s t e d as being a f a c s i m i l e i n the B e i j i n g xidan wenwu shangdian cang ( B e i j i n g West L i s t C u l t u r a l A r t i f a c t s Store C o l l e c t i o n ) . I t i s quoted i n Chapter 4 (Appendix 2, number 6) . 13. Understandably enough, the l i c e n t i o u s behaviour of L i Shan i s not recorded i n the records of the L i f a m i l y of Xinghua d i s c o v e r e d by Xue Yongnian and reproduced i n h i s important a r t i c l e , " L i Shan de j i a s h i yu zaoqi zuopin," 1986, 80-85 (Appendix 2, number 4). In the two o f f i c i a l b i o g r a p h i e s the p e r i o d of l i c e n t i o u s n e s s and t r o u b l e s i s n e a t l y skipped over. 14. Howard Rogers has found poems by L i Shan dated to t h i s p e r i o d which express L i Shan's d i s p l e a s u r e with h i s p o s i t i o n . See Howard Rogers and Sherman E. Lee, Masterworks of Ming and Qinq P a i n t i n g , 1988, e n t r y 63. 15. Appendix 2, number 6. 16. There i s some problem a s c e r t a i n i n g the i n c i d e n t s of and the reasons f o r L i Shan's l e a v i n g o f f i c e . His e a r l y o f f i c e i s c l e a r l y recorded i n both b i o g r a p h i e s and Zheng Xie's account. However, the biography mentions nothing of h i s l e a v i n g o f f i c e the f i r s t time, but o n l y mentions h i s begging to r e t u r n to o f f i c e before being assigned the post of magistr a t e of L i n z h i county, and h i s l a t e r e x p u l s i o n from o f f i c e i n Teng. In L i Shan's nia n b i a o Wang Luyu s t a t e s that L i asked to r e t u r n , or to leave the c o u r t , and was given leave to r e t u r n home i n 1719 (Wang Luyu, " L i Shan huan j i b u y i , " 1986, 75-78 and 57). However, t h i s i s probably a misreading of the biography reproduced i n Xue Yongnian's a r t i c l e which does not say why L i Shan l e f t , but r a t h e r that he asked to r e t u r n to o f f i c e , and was thus given o f f i c e i n L i n z h i county (Xue Yongnian, " L i Shan de j i a s h i yu zaoqi zuopin," 1986). This can be proven by the sentence q i qui hou or " a f t e r begging to r e t u r n , " the f o l l o w i n g phrase being "was s e l e c t e d to be the m a g i s t r a t e of L i n z h i county." The year 1719 i s a r r i v e d at by Wang Luyu probably through counting h i s "few y e a r s " i n c o u r t , recorded i n h i s biography, as an exact t h r e e . In p o s s i b l e disagreement with the n i a n b i a o i s Zheng Xie's v e r s i o n of L i ' s e a r l y s t a y at the c o u r t , which suggests t h a t he may have been removed. Zheng Xie's b i o g r a p h i c a l poem s t a t e s t h a t L i , "with h i s bag and brush served d i r e c t l y before the emperor. His t a l e n t and g r a n d i o s i t y were q u i t e envied by the world. But although the mouths p r a i s e d and sighed, the hearts were not l i k e t h a t . Rumbling horses l e f t the c a p i t a l ( L i l e f t ) . . . " (Appendix 2, number 5). Thus Zheng Xie suggests t h a t L i was sla n d e r e d , as Howard Rogers has n o t i c e d (Howard Rogers and Sherman E. Lee, Masterworks, 1988, e n t r y 63). Rogers a l s o suggests t h a t the reason f o r t h i s may have been L i Shan's im p r o p r i e t y as n a r r a t e d i n the subsequent l i n e s of Zheng Xie ' s poem from which the i n f o r m a t i o n of h i s d i s c h a r g e i s taken. However, L i ' s i m p r o p r i e t y can only be a s c e r t a i n e d f o r the p e r i o d f o l l o w i n g h i s d i s c h a r g e , f o r Zheng s p e c i f i e s i t occured a f t e r t h i s on the r i v e r , probably i n the south. Roger's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n should be seen as onl y an unstated p o s s i b i l i t y . An e x p u l s i o n may a l s o be suggested by Zheng Xie i n h i s j u e j u on L i where he s t a t e s that L i was twice e x p e l l e d , o n l y one of which can be accounted f o r by the better-known e x p u l s i o n from h i s post i n Teng i n 1740 (Quani i f Banqiao j i ( C o l l e c t e d Works of Banqiao) Shichao ( C o l l e c t e d Poetry) s e c t i o n , 99 (Appendix 2, number 6 ] ) . The d i f f e r e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s probably stem from the s u b t l e t y of the two l i n e s i n Zheng's poem quoted here concerning the p o s s i b l e s l a n d e r and then horses l e a v i n g the c a p i t a l . I t coul d be th a t L i was d i s l i k e d but chose to leave on h i s own. However, i t i s c l e a r from Zheng Xi e ' s j u e j u t h a t Zheng thought that L i was e x p e l l e d twice and that L i ' s l e a v i n g the co u r t i s a l i k e l y candidate f o r one of these e x p u l s i o n s . The years of h i s l a t e r o f f i c e i n L i n z h i and Teng c o u n t i e s c l e a r e r . Wang Luyu has d i s c o v e r e d a passage i n the L i n z h i x i a n z h i - - M i n q chuan z h i ( L i n z h i County Gazeteer-- Record of Famous O f f i c i a l s ) which s t a t e s : In the second year of the r e i g n of the Qianlong emperor (1737) he became the magistrate at L i n z h i county. He was p r a i s e d i n the p u b l i c realm, and was g r a c e f u l but showy. Banqiao s a i d that h i s p a i n t i n g brush was extremely s k i l l e d . In the tenth month of 1738 L i Shan was t r a n s f e r e d to Teng, as recorded i n the Teng x i a n z h i (Teng County Gaze t e e r ) : In the t e n t h month of the t h i r d year (of the r e i g n of the Qianlong emperor, or 1738-1740) he took o f f i c e , and served f o r four years (four years from the beginning of h i s s e r v i c e i n Teng). 17. Xue Yongnian, " L i Shan de j i a s h i yu zaoqi zuopin," 1986, 80-85 and Wang Luyu, " L i Shan huan j i b u y i , " 1986, 75-78 and 46 57 (Appendix 5). 18. Wang Luyu quotes the L i n z h i x i a n z h i - - M i n g chuan z h i ( L i n z h i County Gazeteer--Record of Famous O f f i c i a l s ) to i l l u s t r a t e t h a t L i Shan seldom p a i n t e d i n L i n z h i : "Banqiao s a i d t h at h i s p a i n t i n g brush was extremely s k i l l e d . " T h i s idea i s supported by the l i s t of p a i n t i n g s as recorded by Wang Luyu i n h i s nian b i a o of L i Shan (Wang Luyu, " L i Shan huan j i b u y i , " 1986, 75-78 and 57 [Appendix 5]) As w e l l , Wang Luyu presents a poem which i l l u s t r a t e s L i ' s i n t e n t to stop p a i n t i n g d u r i n g h i s o f f i c e i n L i n z h i , and which a l s o enabled Wang to a s c e r t a i n t h a t i t was a f t e r the t h i r d month of the year that L i took o f f i c e : Submerging the empty rooms, the floodwaters of the exc e s s i v e r a i n s remain... I check my bag, f o r the earnings of the abundant times i n the past. P a i n t i n g has ended f o r me, the swallows on the branch...I leave to be an o f f i c i a l , I w i l l not b r i n g the c o l o u r s when I go to Qingzhou. 19. Xue Yongnian, " L i Shan de j i a s h i yu zaoqi zuopin," 1986, 80-85. 20. Wang Luyu, " L i Shan huan j i b u y i , " 1986, 75-78 and 57 (Appendix 5). 21. Xue Yongnian, " L i Shan de j i a s h i yu zaoqi zuopin," 1986, 80-85. 22. Food i n Chinese C u l t u r e : A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l and H i s t o r i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e s f 1977. The s e c t i o n on Qing Dynasty food i s w r i t t e n by Jonathan Spence. 23. Arthur Waley, Yuan Mei. 1956, 195-197. T h i s i s pa r t of Yuan Mei's cookery book, which he completed i n 1796. 24. W i l l i a m Henry S c o t t , "Yangchow and I t s E i g h t E c c e n t r i c s , " 1964, 9-10. The author r e f e r s to Yuan z i c a i , x iao cang shanfang zhidu, juan I. 25. Evidence of J i n Nong's f r i e n d s h i p with Zheng Xie comes i n the form of three l e t t e r s w r i t t e n by Zheng Xie to J i n Nong c o l l e c t e d i n Quanj i . 1985, Banqiao j i wai shiwen (Poems and Prose o u t s i d e the C o l l e c t e d Works of Banqiao) Shu ( L e t t e r s ) s e c t i o n , 271-2. 26. V i c k i Frances Weinstein. " E c c e n t r i c i t y , " 1972, 253. 27. Shitao a l s o p a i n t e d i n t e r e s t i n g combinations of t r a d i t i o n a l s u b j e c t matter and food. For example i n M a r i l y n and Shen Fu's S t u d i e s i n C o n n o i s s e u r s h i p , 1973, c a t a l o g u e number XXXI, 280-283. 28. T h i s has been c a l l e d t h e d i f f e r e n c e between "the more s c h o l a r l y and p o e t i c s i d e of L i Shan, as d i s t i n c t from h i s p o p u l a r or " p r o f e s s i o n a l " works, which are u s u a l l y accompanied by s h o r t e r and l e s s a l l u s i v e poems." See the s e c t i o n on L i Shan w r i t t e n by Wai-fong A n i t a S i u , The E l e g a n t B r u s h , 1985, e n t r y 53, t e x t . The d i f f e r e n c e i s a l s o found i n the method i n which L i Shan s i g n s h i s works, "Futang Aodaoren L i Shan," h i s proper name, on the bamboos, v e r s u s , "the p a i n t e r L i Shan," on t h e albums. 29. R e f e r e n c e t o t h i s p o r t i o n of the i n s c r i p t i o n on the same image i s i n The E l e g a n t B r u s h , 1985, e n t r y 53, f o o t n o t e 4. 30. The t r a n s l a t i o n of the i n s c r i p t i o n i s i n The E l e g a n t B r u s h , 1985, 167. 31. A c c o r d i n g t o t h e w r i t e r s of The E l e g a n t Brush c a t a l o g u e , 1985, i n which the image a p p e a r s , " B o y i and Sugi were b r o t h e r s who c r i t i c i z e d t h e m i l i t a r y a c t i o n of Zhou Wenwang a g a i n s t the Shang Dynasty r i g h t a f t e r the d e a t h of h i s f a t h e r , v i e w i n g i t as an a c t of d i s l o y a l t y r e f l e c t i n g a l a c k of f i l i a l p i e t y . " 32. The E l e g a n t B r u s h , 1985, e n t r y 53, f o o t n o t e 5, r e f e r s t o Sima Q i a n , S h i j i : Q i s h i j i a ( E r s h i w u s h i e d i t i o n ) , ch.32., p . l as t h e s o u r c e of t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n . In f o o t n o t e 4 t h e a u t h o r s e x p l a i n the o r i g i n of the p h r a s e : "The phrase 'without bamboo [ l i f e ] i s v u l g a r ' was w r o n g l y a t t r i b u t e d ot C o n f u c i u s , and a c t u a l l y i s by Su S h i . " 33. Appendix 3. Two o t h e r p a i n t i n g s w i t h s i m i l a r i n s c r i p t i o n s a r e r e c o r d e d i n Quanj i , 1985, B a n q i a o j i ( C o l l e c t e d Works of Banqiao) T i h u a ( I n s c r i p t i o n s ) s e c t i o n , 205. 34. A l l t h r e e v a r i a n t s c i t e d are found i n Q u a n l i , 1985, B a n q i a o j i ( C o l l e c t e d Works of Banqiao) T i h u a ( I n s c r i p t i o n s ) s e c t i o n , 205-6 (Appendix 3 ) . 35. T h i s v a r i a n t i s from a B e i j i n g X i d a n Wenwu Shangdian Cang p a i n t i n g of ink bamboo. 36. Jonathan Spence's a r t i c l e i n Food i n Chinese C u l t u r e , 1977, 91. CHAPTER 4 In Chapter 3, I c o n c e n t r a t e d m o s t l y upon L i Shan's p a i n t i n g s . I n t h i s c h a p t e r , I w i l l f o c u s upon Zheng X i e . As i n d i c a t e d by h i s bamboo shoot hanging s c r o l l , Zheng X i e was a more t r a d i t i o n a l l i t e r a t u s than L i Shan. Zheng X i e ' s background as an o f f i c i a l of renown a l l o w e d h i s s c h o l a r l y r e p u t a t i o n t o s o l i d i f y , and g r a n t e d him o p p o r t u n i t i e s or. o p t i o n s not open t o L i Shan. He d e s e r v e s d e t a i l e d s t u d y because of t h i s . Zheng X i e had both t h e o p p o r t u n i t y and re a s o n t o c r e a t e a t h e o r e t i c a l framework f o r h i s p a i n t i n g w h i l e i n Yangzhou. A t h e o r e t i c a l p o s i t i o n appears c l e a r l y i n a s e r i e s of r e c o r d e d i n s c r i p t i o n s and t h e i r v a r i a n t s w r i t t e n a f t e r Zheng X i e went t o Yangzhou, between the y e a r s 1756 and 1762. 1 To d a t e , t h e r e has been no a n a l y s i s of t h i s body of t e x t s i n s p i t e of t h e i r t e m p o r a l and s p a c i a l s p e c i f i c i t y and common f o c u s . A s t u d y of t h e s e t e x t s a l l o w s us t o und e r s t a n d i n d e t a i l the n a t u r e of the c o m b i n a t i o n of unorthodox and s c h o l a r l y t r a d i t i o n s of p a i n t i n g i n Chapter 3. T h i s demands a d e t a i l e d t e x t u a l a n a l y s i s . The r e s u l t of t h i s a n a l y s i s i s the p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t Zheng X i e had t h r e e g o a l s i n w r i t i n g h i s t h e o r y : 1. To combine the s c h o l a r l y and unorthodox t r a d i t i o n s of p a i n t i n g . I n p a r t i c u l a r , Zheng X i e combined the i d e a s of the f i r s t s c h o l a r p a i n t e r s of the N o r t h e r n Song Dynasty (1127-1279) w i t h t h e t h e o r e t i c a l framework developed by the unorthodox p a i n t e r S h i t a o (1641-1711), who had worked i n Yangzhou i n the e a r l y e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . 2 2. To use t h i s t r a n s f o r m e d mode of s c h o l a r p a i n t i n g t o s e p a r a t e h i m s e l f from and c r i t i c i z e h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s . 3. To use t h i s s e p a r a t i o n from the crowd t o l o c a t e new p a t r o n s of two k i n d s : e i t h e r t h o s e who, l i k e t he a r t i s t , sought a more e l i t e s c h o l a r l y i d e n t i t y , who I w i l l c a l l " r e f i n e d " s c h o l a r p a t r o n s , or tho s e who had p r e v i o u s l y p a t r o n i z e d S h i t a o . Thus, a s t u d y of Zheng X i e ' s g o a l s l e a d us from the i n t e l l e c t u a l c o n s t r u c t i o n of the t e x t t o h i s c o n s t r u c t i o n of a s o c i a l p o s i t i o n . These g o a l s w i l l be i l l u s t r a t e d as w e l l t h r o u g h a v i s u a l a n a l y s i s of a bamboo p a i n t i n g b e a r i n g one of Zheng X i e ' s t h e o r e t i c a l i n s c r i p t i o n s . Zheng X i e ' s c o m b i n a t i o n of the p a i n t i n g t h e o r i e s of the N o r t h e r n Song l i t e r a t i and S h i t a o i s not made e x p l i c i t by Zheng X i e h i m s e l f . He r e f e r s t o s p e c i f i c N o r t h e r n Song p a i n t e r s , and thus e s t a b l i s h e s a c o n n e c t i o n between h i s own t h e o r y of p a i n t i n g and t h e i r s . But, he does not e x p l i c i t l y name S h i t a o i n h i s t e x t s . N o n e t h e l e s s , h i s p a i n t i n g t h e o r y i s a c o m b i n a t i o n of the two. The purpose of t h e t h e o r i e s of the N o r t h e r n Song l i t e r a t i , S h i t a o , and Zheng X i e was the same. They a l l p o i n t e d out t h e c e n t r a l p r i n c i p l e of p a i n t i n g and d e s c r i b e d the a c t of p a i n t i n g . For a l l t h r e e , the c e n t r a l p r i n c i p l e of p a i n t i n g was the dao or "the workings of n a t u r e . " The N o r t h e r n Song p a i n t e r s and S h i t a o s h a red t h i s i d e a , and Zheng X i e c o n t i n u e d i t . Where the N o r t h e r n Song l i t e r a t i and S h i t a o d i f f e r e d i s t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r d e s c r i p t i o n s of the a c t of p a i n t i n g . In t h e i r p a i n t i n g t h e o r y , the N o r t h e r n Song men emphasize the p a i n t e r ; h i s developement of the a b i l i t y t o p a i n t a c c o r d i n g t o t h e dap_, and the e x p r e s s i o n of h i s i d e a s i n h i s p a i n t i n g . S h i t a o emphasizes the p a i n t i n g ; the way i n which t h e dao i s m a n i f e s t e d i n t h e v e r y b r u s h s t r o k e s upon the paper or s i l k . I n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e i r emphasis, the N o r t h e r n Song men d e s c r i b e the a c t of p a i n t i n g as a sudden a p p l i c a t i o n of ink i n response t o t h e p a i n t e r ' s u n p r e d i c t a b l e i n s p i r a t i o n . S h i t a o d e s c r i b e s the a c t of p a i n t i n g as a d i r e c t l i n k between t h e u n i v e r s a l p r i n c i p l e of the dao and the a p p l i c a t i o n of i n k . In S h i t a o ' s d e s c r i p t i o n , p a i n t i n g i s not enacted s u d d e n l y . I n s t e a d , p a i n t i n g i s a c o n s t a n t movement from the dao, t o the p a i n t e r ' s mind, t o the movement of h i s w r i s t , t o the a p p l i c a t i o n of i n k , which are d e s c r i b e d w i t h e q u a l emphasis. The N o r t h e r n Song men a l s o mention p a r t i c u l a r s u b j e c t m a t t e r , which s y m b o l i z e s the s c h o l a r ' s t h o u g h t , i . e . bamboo. S h i t a o does not mention s u b j e c t m a t t e r , but f o c u s s e s upon b r u s h s t r o k e s . Zheng X i e combined t h e N o r t h e r n Song and S h i t a o i a n emphases i n h i s p a i n t i n g t h e o r y . In i t , he emphasizes the p a i n t e r and t h e p a i n t i n g e q u a l l y . He does so by f o c u s s i n g upon the p a i n t e r ' s c o n s t a n t i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h the dao throughout a s e r i e s of s t a g e s i n the p a i n t i n g p r o c e s s . The p a i n t i n g i s i m p o r t a n t , as i n S h i t a o ' s t h e o r y , because of 51 Zheng X i e ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f i n k , and n o t j u s t t h e p a i n t e r ' s i n s p i r a t i o n . The a c t o f p a i n t i n g i s n o t c h a r a c t e r i z e d as a s u d d e n r u s h w h i c h e m p h a s i z e s t h e p a i n t e r a l o n e , b u t , r a t h e r , as a c o n s t a n t movement f r o m t h e i n c e p t i o n o f t h e i d e a t o t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f i n k , e q u a l l y e m p h a s i z e d . The p a i n t e r i s i m p o r t a n t , as i n N o r t h e r n Song t h e o r y , b e c a u s e o f Zheng X i e ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f how a p a r t i c u l a r s c h o l a r l y s u b j e c t m a t t e r , t h e bamboo, c h a n g e s a t e a c h s t a g e o f t h e p a i n t i n g p r o c e s s , as t h e p a i n t e r i n t e r a c t s c o n s t a n t l y w i t h t h e d a o . T h i s c h a n g e t h r o u g h o u t t h e p a i n t i n g p r o c e s s i s u n i q u e t o Zheng X i e ' s own t h e o r y . I t d o e s n o t a p p e a r i n t h e N o r t h e r n Song t h e o r y n o r i n S h i t a o ' s i n w h i c h t h e c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e s o u r c e o f i n s p i r a t i o n and t h e p a i n t i n g i s more d i r e c t . The e q u a l e m p h a s i s on p a i n t e r and p a i n t i n g i n t h i s f r a m e w o r k means t h a t b o t h a r e i m p o r t a n t , as t h e y m a n i f e s t t h e p a i n t e r ' s c o n s t a n t i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h t h e d a o . The d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e p a i n t i n g t h e o r i e s o f t h e N o r t h e r n Song men, S h i t a o , and Zheng X i e , r e s u l t f r o m t h e p a r t i c u l a r c o n t e x t u a l f a c t o r s w h i c h t h e t h e o r i e s w e r e d e s i g n e d t o a d d r e s s . I n t h e N o r t h e r n Song d y n a s t y , p a i n t e r s s t r u g g l e d t o e l e v a t e t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e mi n d o f t h e p a i n t e r o v e r t h e s k i l l o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l a r t i s a n . T h i s was t a n t a m o u n t t o s u g g e s t i n g t h e s u p e r i o r i t y o f t h e s c h o l a r c o m i n g o u t o f t h e e x a m i n a t i o n s y s t e m t o t h e a r i s t o c r a t a t c o u r t who i n h e r i t e d h i s p o s i t i o n . 3 S h i t a o s o u g h t t o a g g r a n d i z e p a i n t i n g and p a i n t i n g s f o r t h e s a k e o f h i s p r o f e s s i o n a l s u c c e s s . Zheng X i e , h o w e v e r , s o u g h t t o e l e v a t e h i m s e l f and h i s p a i n t i n g s a b o v e t h e l i t e r a t i and l i t e r a t i p a i n t i n g s o f h i s t i m e , i n o r d e r t o r e t a i n t h e p a s t l i t e r a t i i d e a l s and s t a t u s , and t o s e l l p a i n t i n g s w h i c h e x p r e s s e d t h o s e i d e a l s and s t a t u s . The a g r e e m e n t o f t h e N o r t h e r n Song l i t e r a t i , S h i t a o , and Zheng X i e t h a t t h e dao i s t h e u n d e r l y i n g p r i n c i p l e o f t h e p a i n t i n g method i s e v i d e n t t h r o u g h a c u r s o r y r e a d i n g o f t h e i r t e x t s . I w i l l n o t p r o v e t h i s p o i n t i n t h e b o d y o f t h i s c h a p t e r . 4 The d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e t h r e e d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e a c t o f p a i n t i n g a r e , h o w e v e r , s u b t l e and c o m p l e x , and r e q u i r e some d i s c u s s i o n . One o f Zheng X i e ' s i n s c r i p t i o n s d a t e d t o 1756 e x e m p l i f i e s h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e p a i n t i n g p r o c e s s : A t t h e g u e s t h o u s e i n new c l e a r ( w e a t h e r ) , I r i s e i n t h e e a r l y m o r n i n g t o v i e w bamboo. Dew f l o a t s on t h e l e a v e s , L i g h t on t h e b r a n c h t i p s . I n my m i n d I am e x h u b e r a n t . . . S u b s e q u e n t l y I have a p a i n t i n g i d e a . I n r e a l i t y , t h e bamboo i n my mind I s a l t o g e t h e r d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e bamboo w i t h i n my s i g h t . Thus I g r i n d i n k and u n f o l d some p a p e r move t h e b r u s h - A g a i n i t i s a n o t h e r s t y l e . I n r e a l i t y , t h e bamboo i n my hand I s n o t t h e bamboo i n my m i n d . S t e p by s t e p m e t a m o r p h o s i s . . . No one c a n h a v e an i n k l i n g . I t s d e s t i n y shows u n i n t e n t i o n a l l y , T h e r e i s noone who knows i t s how o r why. A l o n e p a i n t t h e c l o u d s ! 5 A k e y t o Zheng X i e ' s t h e o r y o f p a i n t i n g i s t h e i n s p i r a t i o n he f i n d s i n t h e n a t u r a l w o r l d , i n p a r t i c u l a r f r o m t h e s c e n e w i t h bamboo. I n d e s c r i b i n g t h e c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s w h i c h e n s u e s , Zheng X i e g i v e s a f u l l d e s c r i p t i o n o f s t a g e s w i t h i n t h e p a i n t i n g p r o c e s s . T h r o u g h o u t t h e s e s t a g e s t h e s p e c i f i c s u b j e c t m a t t e r i n n a t u r e and o f t h e p a i n t i n g , bamboo, i s c o n s t a n t l y t r a n s f o r m e d . The d i f f e r e n t bamboos and t h e s t a g e s o f p a i n t i n g a r e c r e a t e d by t h e p a i n t e r ' s i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h t h e d a o ; i n n a t u r e , i n h i s m i n d , and i n t h e a c t o f a p p l y i n g i n k . The p a i n t e r ' s i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h t h e dao i s , i n f a c t , t h e i m p o r t a n t m e a n i n g o f t h e p a i n t i n g , and m a n i f e s t s h i s a b i l i t y . I n h i s t h e o r y , Zheng X i e b o r r o w e d e l e m e n t s f r o m b o t h N o r t h e r n Song p a i n t e r s and f r o m S h i t a o . T e x t s by t h e N o r t h e r n Song men and S h i t a o i l l u s t r a t e how Zheng X i e c o m b i n e d t h e N o r t h e r n Song i n t e r e s t i n bamboo and i n s p i r a t i o n w i t h S h i t a o ' s i d e a o f e q u a l s t a g e s i n t h e p r o c e s s o f p a i n t i n g and a c o n s t a n t movement b e t w e e n t h e s e . An e x a m p l e o f N o r t h e r n Song p a i n t i n g t h e o r y i s p r o v i d e d i n a p a s s a g e by Wen Tong ( 7 1 0 1 9 - 1 0 7 9 ) : I n t h e m o r n i n g t h e bamboo were my f r i e n d s , i n t h e e v e n i n g , my c o m p a n i o n s ; I d r a n k and a t e amongst them and s t o p p e d and r e s t e d i n t h e i r s h a d e . I f one l o o k s a t t h e d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s o f bamboo, t h e r e a r e many..." (He d e s c r i b e s them and c o n t i n u e s ) . . . " T h e s e a r e t h e ways i n w h i c h bamboo i s bamboo. A t f i r s t I l o o k e d and e n j o y e d i t , t h e n I e n j o y e d i t and was n o t c o n s c i o u s o f d o i n g s o . S u d d e n l y f o r g e t t i n g t h e b r u s h i n my hand and t h e p a p e r i n f r o n t o f me, I r o s e up i n s t a n t l y and made q u a n t i t e s . How i s t h e i m p e r s o n a l i t y o f t h e C r e a t o r a n y d i f f e r e n t t h a n t h i s ? 6 As i n Zheng X i e ' s i n s c r i p t i o n , Wen Tong e m p h a s i z e s t h e p a i n t e r ' s i n s p i r a t i o n i n n a t u r e and h i s f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h t h e n a t u r a l f o r m o f bamboo, o r t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r , w h i c h i s 54 s e l e c t e d b e c a u s e o f i t s s c h o l a r l y a s s o c i a t i o n s . Zheng X i e b o r r o w e d t h e s e i d e a s . However, i n Zheng X i e ' s t e x t t h e r e i s n o t an e m p h a s i s upon c o n s t a n t m e n t a l p r e p a r a t i o n f o r i n s p i r a t i o n , t h a t i s , an e m p h a s i s on t h e s c h o l a r ' s t h o u g h t a l o n e . Nor do we f i n d i n Zheng X i e ' s t e x t a s i m i l a r p a s s a g e t o Wen Tong's d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e a c t o f p a i n t i n g as a s u d d e n r u s h . U n l i k e Zheng X i e ' s t e x t , Wen Tong d o e s n o t m e n t i o n g r i n d i n g i n k , o r p h y s i c a l p r e p a r a t i o n . The e q u a l s t a g e s o f t h e p a i n t i n g p r o c e s s i n Zheng X i e ' s t e x t a r e a l s o a b s e n t f r o m Wen Tong's t e x t . I n s t e a d , Wen Tong e m p h a s i z e s l e s s w e l l - d e f i n e d s t a g e s o f t h e p r o c e s s o f p a i n t i n g u n e q u a l l y . The p h y s i c a l a c t o f p a i n t i n g seems t o be l e s s i m p o r t a n t t h a n t h e o t h e r moments b e c a u s e o f Wen Tong's l e s s i n t e n s i v e t r e a t m e n t o f i t . F rom what Wen Tong t e l l s u s , we do n o t know, as we do i n Zheng X i e ' s t e x t , what o c c u r s b e t w e e n t h e v a r i o u s s t a g e s o f p a i n t i n g . N e i t h e r Zheng n o r Wen Tong c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e n a t u r e o f i n s p i r a t i o n ( s a v e r e f e r r i n g t o t h e p a l p a b l e n a t u r a l c o n t e x t w h i c h i s s u g g e s t i v e o f n a t u r a l c r e a t i o n i t s e l f ) . I n Zheng X i e ' s t e x t i n s p i r a t i o n i n i t i a t e s t h e g e n e r a t i o n o f d i f f e r e n t bamboos, w h i c h i s t h e f i r s t s t a g e i n Zheng X i e ' s d e s c r i p t i o n . I t i s t h i s n o t i o n o f c h a n g i n g bamboos w h i c h i s t h e c o n s t a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e p a i n t i n g p r o c e s s i n Zheng X i e ' s d e s c r i p t i o n . Zheng X i e ' s h a n d l i n g o f i n s p i r a t i o n i s n o t as j a r r i n g as Wen T o n g ' s , w h i c h d o e s n o t l i n k up d e s c r i p t i v e l y w i t h t h e s u b s e q u e n t a c t o f p a i n t i n g . Zheng X i e ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e a c t o f p a i n t i n g p r o v i d e s a more e v e n h a n d l i n g o f t h e e n t i r e a c t o f p a i n t i n g . T h i s i s l a r g e l y b e c a u s e o f Zheng X i e ' s c o n c e r n f o r t h e p r o c e s s o f p a i n t i n g as i t m a n i f e s t s t h e d a o , and n o t j u s t t h e i d e a s o f t h e p a i n t e r . The f r a m e w o r k and e m p h a s i s i n Zheng X i e ' s t h e o r y , r e l a t i v e t o t h a t o f Wen Tong, i s h i s e q u a l a t t e n t i o n t o t h e e n t i r e p r o c e s s o f p a i n t i n g t h r o u g h t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f s t a g e s w i t h i n t h i s p r o c e s s , and t h e movement t h r o u g h t h e s e s t a g e s . Zheng X i e b o r r o w e d t h e s e f e a t u r e s f r o m t h e p a i n t i n g t r e a t i s e o f S h i t a o , d e v e l o p e d j u s t b e f o r e Zheng X i e ' s l i f e t i m e : P a i n t i n g i s t r a n s m i t t e d b y i n k , i n k i s t r a n s m i t t e d by t h e b r u s h , b r u s h i s t r a n s m i t t e d by t h e w r i s t , and t h e w r i s t i s t r a n s m i t t e d b y t h e m i n d , j u s t as h e a v e n c r e a t e s l i f e and e a r t h c o m p l e t e s i t . T h i s i s c r e a t i v e i n t u i t i o n . " ^ The c l e a r d e m a r c a t i o n o f s t a g e s and t h e e m p h a s i s upon c o n s t a n t movement b e t w e e n them w h i c h we f i n d i n Zheng X i e ' s t e x t d e r i v e s f r o m t h i s p a s s a g e i n S h i t a o . As i n Zheng X i e ' s d e s c r i p t i o n , t h e r e i s no e m p h a s i s h e r e upon a s u d d e n e r u p t i o n o f p a i n t i n g a c t i v i t y i n t h e c o u r s e o f t h e p a i n t e r ' s i n s p i r a t i o n . S h i t a o g i v e s i m p o r t a n c e t o t h e p h y s i c a l a c t o f p a i n t i n g t h r o u g h a c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f s t a g e s a r o u n d t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f i n k , and by b e g i n n i n g t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e p a i n t i n g p r o c e s s w i t h t h e p a i n t i n g and n o t t h e p a i n t e r . Zheng X i e s i m i l a r l y g i v e s t h e s t a g e o f " t h e h a n d " i m p o r t a n c e w h i l e r e t a i n i n g a s w e l l t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e p a i n t e r as e x p r e s s e d i n t h e N o r t h e r n Song t e x t . 8 The c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e t h e o r i e s o f t h e N o r t h e r n Song 56 and S h i t a o a l l o w e d Zheng X i e t o g i v e a b a l a n c e d e m p h a s i s t o t h e p a i n t e r and t h e p a i n t i n g . T h e r e i s a l s o a u n i q u e e l e m e n t i n Zheng X i e ' s d e s c r i p t i o n . T h i s e l e m e n t i s t h e c o n s t a n t c h a n g e w h i c h o c c u r s b e t w e e n and d u r i n g t h e s t a g e s o f t h e p a i n t i n g p r o c e s s , as m a n i f e s t e d by t h e c o n s t a n t t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f t h e bamboo s u b j e c t m a t t e r . The c h a n g i n g bamboo i s t h e f e a t u r e t h a t most a l l o w e d Zheng X i e t o c o m b i n e t h e N o r t h e r n Song and S h i t a o i a n t h e o r i e s s i n c e i t b o t h d e t e r m i n e s s t a g e s and a c t s as a s c h o l a r l y s y m b o l . However, t h i s c o n s t a n t l y c h a n g i n g e l e m e n t o f Zheng X i e ' s d e s c r i p t i o n makes t h e movement b e t w e e n s t a g e s seem l e s s d i r e c t t h a n i n S h i t a o ' s d e s c r i p t i o n . Zheng X i e d e s c r i b e s " d i f f e r e n t " bamboos a t e a c h s t a g e , w h i l e S h i t a o d e s c r i b e s t h e movement f r o m s t a g e t o s t a g e u s i n g t h e v e r b " t r a n s m i t . " Wen Tong's d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e r a p i d a c t i o n o f a p p l y i n g i n k a l s o e m p h a s i z e s d i r e c t n e s s . S h i t a o e m p h a s i z e s t h e d i r e c t n e s s o f t h e c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e p a i n t i n g and t h e d a o , w h i l e Wen Tong e m p h a s i z e s t h e d i r e c t n e s s o f t h e c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e mind o f t h e p a i n t e r and t h e p a i n t i n g . A t e x t o f t h e N o r t h e r n Song and one w r i t t e n by S h i t a o , i l l u s t r a t e how d i f f e r e n t Zheng X i e ' s c o n s t a n t l y c h a n g i n g bamboo i s f r o m t h e more d i r e c t c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n i n s p i r a t i o n and t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f i n k i n t h e t e x t s o f t h e N o r t h e r n Song and S h i t a o . A l e s s e r known l i t e r a t i named Tong Yu p r e s e n t s a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e p a i n t i n g p r o c e s s w h i c h i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t 57 t h e c h a n g e and g r o w t h o f t h e c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e bamboo i s r e s t r i c t e d t o t h e m i n d : I n g e n e r a l , t h e p r o c e s s o f p a i n t i n g i s s u e s f r o m a s e n s e o f l i f e ( s h e n g y i ) and comes t h r o u g h n a t u r a l n e s s ( z i r a n ) , and one has t o w a i t f o r t h e f o r m s t o a p p e a r i n o n e ' s m i n d : i t i s l i k e t h e u n f o l d i n g and b l o o m i n g o f l e a v e s and f l o w e r s . O n l y a f t e r t h i s i s i t e x t e r n a l i z e d by m a k i n g u s e o f t h e hand and c o l o r s . 9 I n t h e p a s s a g e , t h e a r t i s t seems s i m p l y t o c o p y what i s a l r e a d y i n h i s mind o n t o t h e p a p e r . The a c t o f a p p l y i n g i n k i s s i m p l i f i e d t o t h e v e r b " e x t e r n a l i z e . " The t e x t e m p h a s i z e s t h e s i n g l e moment o f m e n t a l p r e p a r a t i o n o r h a v i n g t h e d a o , w h i l e t h e f u n c t i o n o f t h e d e s c r i p t i o n i s , t h u s , t h e e m p h a s i s upon t h e mind o f t h e p a i n t e r a l o n e . The p a i n t i n g , as i n a l l o f t h e t w e l f t h c e n t u r y t e x t s h e r e c i t e d , seems t o 10 be d e p e n d e n t on b u t n o t demanded by t h i s p r e v i o u s s t a g e . I n Zheng X i e ' s d e s c r i p t i o n , t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f s t a g e s o t h e r t h a n t h a t o f t h e mind ( f o r e x a m p l e t h e h a n d , w r i s t , and b r u s h ) d i s a l l o w s f o c u s s i n g o n l y upon t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f t h e m i n d . I f we a p p l y t h e i d e a o f b l o s s o m i n g f o u n d i n Tong Yu's d e s c r i p t i o n t o Zheng X i e ' s d e s c r i p t i o n , we w o u l d have t o s a y t h a t t h i s b l o s s o m i n g o r c h a n g i n g e x t e n d s b e y o n d t h e i n c e p t i o n o f t h e i d e a , o r t h e p r e p a r a t i o n , i n t o t h e s u b s e q u e n t s t a g e s o f p a i n t i n g . H e n c e , i n Zheng X i e ' s d e s c r i p t i o n t h e bamboo c o n s t a n t l y c h a n g e s . U n l i k e t h e N o r t h e r n Song d e s c r i p t i o n , " t h e bamboo i n ( Z h e n g X i e ' s ) hand i s n o t t h e bamboo i n ( h i s ) m i n d . " The c h a n g i n g bamboos i n Zheng X i e ' s d e s c r i p t i o n a r e c o n n e c t e d t h r o u g h h i s c o n s t a n t i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h t h e dao w h i c h p r o d u c e s t h e bamboos. T h i s becomes c l e a r when we compare S h i t a o ' s i d e a o f t r a n s m i t t i n g b e t w e e n t h e s t a g e s w i t h Zheng X i e ' s i d e a o f t h e c h a n g i n g bamboo. I n S h i t a o ' s d e s c r i p t i o n , t h e r e i s a b e g i n n i n g and an e n d , " h e a v e n and e a r t h . " The e m p h a s i s , o f c o u r s e , i s upon t h e e n d . I n Zheng X i e ' s d e s c r i p t i o n , e a c h s t a g e i s t h e same as t h e n e x t i n i t s e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e p a i n t e r ' s i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h t h e d a o . S h i t a o ' s i n k f o r m s d i r e c t l y e x p r e s s t h e d a o , w h i l e Zheng X i e ' s w o u l d r e f e r t o t h e p a i n t e r ' s i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h t h e d a o . I n a s e n s e , Zheng X i e ' s p a i n t i n g w o u l d o n l y f u l l y i l l u s t r a t e t h e p a i n t e r ' s i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h t h e dao i f one c o n s i d e r e d a l l o t h e r moments i n t h e p a i n t i n g p r o c e s s as w e l l . T h i s i s b e c a u s e t h e dao a c t i o n i s m a n i f e s t e d t h r o u g h t h e c h a n g e a t and b e t w e e n e a c h s t a g e ; o r t h e p a i n t e d bamboo r e l a t i v e t o t h e bamboo i n t h e m i n d , r e l a t i v e t o t h a t i n n a t u r e . T h u s , we do n o t l o o k a t t h e p a i n t i n g and c o n s i d e r o n l y how i t e x p r e s s e s t h e d a o , a s i n S h i t a o ' s d e s c r i p t i o n , b u t how t h e p a i n t e d bamboo i s one o f t h e d i f f e r e n t bamboos o r s t a g e s w h i c h t o g e t h e r m a n i f e s t t h e p a i n t e r ' s i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h t h e d a o . The c o n s t a n t l y c h a n g i n g bamboo t h u s u n i f i e s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e p a i n t e r and t h e p a i n t i n g . B o t h a r e i m p o r t a n t o n l y i n t h e way t h e y i n t e r a c t o r i l l u s t r a t e t h e da o . Zheng X i e e n c a p s u l a t e d h i s c o m b i n a t i o n o f N o r t h e r n Song and S h i t a o i a n i d e a s , h i s e m p h a s i s on b o t h t h e p a i n t e r and p a i n t i n g , and h i s u n i q u e e m p h a s i s upon t h e way t h e bamboo c h a n g e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e p r o c e s s i n a p h r a s e w h i c h he u s e d o f t e n t o e x p r e s s h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o N o r t h e r n Song p a i n t e r s Wen Yuke (Wen Tong) p a i n t s b a m b o o — I n h i s mind he has a c o m p l e t e d bamboo. Zheng B a n q i a o p a i n t s bamboo-- I n h i s mind he d o e s n o t h a v e a c o m p l e t e d bamboo. H a v i n g a c o m p l e t e d bamboo and n o t h a v i n g a c o m p l e t e d bamboo, I s i n r e a l i t y o n l y a s i n g l e p r i n c i p l e . 1 1 We c a n p r o b a b l y g u e s s a t t h e m e a n i n g o f t h i s p h r a s e , a f t e r t h e a b o v e a n a l y s i s , b u t a p a s s a g e by Su S h i ( 1 0 3 7 - 1101) makes t h e m e a n i n g o f " h a v i n g t h e c o m p l e t e d bamboo" a b u n d a n t l y c l e a r : When bamboo f i r s t comes i n t o b e i n g i t i s o n l y an i n c h - l o n g s h o o t , b u t t h e j o i n t s and l e a v e s a r e a l l i n i t . I t d e v e l o p s f r o m c i c a d a c h r y s a l i s e s and s n a k e s c a l e s t o s w o r d s d r a w n o u t e i g h t y f e e t , when p a i n t e r s do i t j o i n t by j o i n t and add t o i t l e a f by l e a f , w i l l t h i s be bamboo? T h u s , i n p a i n t i n g bamboo one must f i r s t h a v e t h e p e r f e c t e d bamboo i n m i n d . When one t a k e s up t h e b r u s h and g a z e s i n t e n t l y , one s e e s what one w a n t s t o p a i n t . Then one r i s e s h u r r i e d l y and w i e l d s t h e b r u s h t o c a p t u r e what one s e e s . . " H a v i n g t h e c o m p l e t e d bamboo i n one's m i n d " i n d i c a t e s t h e a b i l i t y t o p a i n t i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e dao o r h a v i n g t h e dao a t t h e moment b e f o r e p a i n t i n g . I t s t a n d s f o r an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f g r o w t h i n n a t u r e , s i m i l a r t o t h e i d e a o f " b l o s s o m i n g " i n t h e m i n d . T h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g g i v e s t h e p a i n t e r t h e same " f o r s i g h t " w h i c h t h e s h o o t o f t h e bamboo i t s e l f h as o f i t s f u l l g rown s t a t e . K n o w i n g where he w i l l end up, t h e p a i n t e r c a n p a i n t t o w a r d s t h e s t a t e o f c o m p l e t i o n i n t h e same manner i n w h i c h bamboo's i n e v i t a b l y grow. T h u s , Su S h i s t a t e s , " I f one h a s d a o , t h i n g s h a v e b e e n f o r m e d i n one's m i n d . " 1 3 G i v e n t h e m e a n i n g o f " h a v i n g t h e c o m p l e t e d bamboo," and i t s l i n k w i t h t h e i d e a o f b l o s s o m i n g , we c a n s e e t h a t Zheng X i e ' s " n o t h a v i n g t h e c o m p l e t e d bamboo" i n d i c a t e s how t h e bamboo c h a n g e s t h r o u g h o u t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e p a i n t i n g p r o c e s s ( i . e . h i s c o n s t a n t i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h t h e dao t h r o u g h o u t t h e p a i n t i n g p r o c e s s and n o t t h e c r e a t i o n o f t h e bamboo i n h i s m i n d a l o n e ) . I n s p i t e o f t h e i r d i f f e r e n t d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e p a i n t i n g p r o c e s s , Wen Tong's " h a v i n g t h e c o m p l e t e d bamboo" and Zheng X i e ' s " n o t h a v i n g t h e c o m p l e t e d bamboo" b o t h i n d i c a t e t h e i d e a t h a t t h e dao i s t h e p r i n c i p l e o f p a i n t i n g m e t h o d , and a r e t h u s a " s i n g l e p r i n c i p l e . " 1 4 Compared t o Yuan and M i n g d y n a s t y t e x t s on p a i n t i n g , t h e N o r t h e r n Song l i t e r a t i , S h i t a o , and Zheng X i e f o c u s more upon t h e a c t o f p a i n t i n g . I t i s t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n t h e a c t o f p a i n t i n g , a s o p p o s e d t o what S u s a n Bush s e e s as t h e Yuan i n t e r e s t i n t h e s t y l e o f p a i n t i n g and t h e M i n g i n t e r e s t i n a r t h i s t o r y , w h i c h b r i n g s i n t o f o c u s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e dao i n t h e p a i n t i n g p r o c e s s . 1 5 The p a r t i c u l a r f u n c t i o n s o f t h e emphases upon p a i n t i n g a c c o r d i n g t o t h e dao d e p e n d e d upon t h e c o n t e x t u a l f a c t o r s o f t h e t i m e as I m e n t i o n e d . Huang T i n g j i a n i l l u s t r a t e s t h e g o a l o f t h e N o r t h e r n Song t h e o r y by u t i l i z i n g t h e m e t a p h o r o f " h a v i n g t h e c o m p l e t e d bamboo w i t h i n o ne's m i n d " : The r e t i r e d s c h o l a r Dongpo p l a y e d w i t h M a s t e r B r u s h and M a s t e r P a p e r , m a k i n g a d r i e d o u t s t u m p , an o l d t r e e , a c l u m p o f d w a r f bamboo, and b i t s o f h i l l s . The f o r c e o f h i s b r u s h i s u n r e s t r a i n e d i n l o n e l y s i t e s w i t h w i n d b l o w n m i s t . P e r h a p s what i s e a s y f o r an e n l i g h t e n e d man and h a r d f o r an a r t i s a n i s l i k e i m p r e s s i o n s made i n s e a l p a s t e : f r o s t y b r a n c h e s and w i n d b l o w n t r e e s had f i r s t f o r m e d i n h i s b r e a s t . 1 6 S h i t a o ' s t h e o r y e m p h a s i z e d t h a t h i s p a i n t i n g s , w h i c h were o u t s i d e what had a t t h a t t i m e b e e n d e f i n e d as t h e l i t e r a t i t r a d i t i o n , had t h e g r e a t s i g n i f i c a n c e o f e x p r e s s i n g t h e u n i v e r s a l d a o . T h i s e l e v a t e d them a b o v e p r o f e s s i o n a l p a i n t i n g w h i c h had no c o n c e r n g r e a t e r t h a n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . 1 7 Zheng X i e ' s s e e m i n g p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n S h i t a o and t h e N o r t h e r n Song l i t e r a t i and h i s c o m b i n a t i o n o f them has t h e r e s u l t o f t r a n s f o r m i n g t h e N o r t h e r n Song i d e a s . 1 8 Zheng X i e ' s u s e o f t h e l a t e r t h e o r y o f S h i t a o t o u p d a t e t h e e a r l i e r N o r t h e r n Song t h e o r y i n d i c a t e s some i n t e r e s t i n a p p e a l i n g t o h i s l a t e r c o n t e x t , a s h i s m o d e l s had d o n e . Zheng X i e ' s w r i t i n g s w h i c h e m p h a s i z e t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s n eed t o l i v e and w r i t e i n a c c o r d w i t h t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r t i m e and p l a c e s u p p o r t s t h i s v i e w . 1 9 Zheng X i e a l s o c o n t i n u e d S h i t a o ' s i d e a t h a t i n o r d e r t o m e a n i n g f u l l y l e a r n f r o m and u t i l i z e t h e i d e a s o r a r t o f o n e ' s p r e d e c e s s o r s one must t r a n s f o r m t h e m . 2 " T h u s , i t seems t h a t h i s g o a l was t o make N o r t h e r n Song i d e a s f u n c t i o n a l w i t h i n h i s e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y c o n t e x t . T h i s l e a d s us t o t h e s e c o n d o b j e c t i v e b e h i n d Zheng X i e ' s p a r t i c u l a r t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f t w e l f t h c e n t u r y i d e a s : t o s e p a r a t e h i m s e l f f r o m and c r i t i c i z e h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s . Zheng X i e ' s f r e s h e x p o s i t i o n o f N o r t h e r n Song i d e a s w o u l d i n i t s e l f d i s t i n g u i s h h i m f r o m o t h e r s c h o l a r - p a i n t e r s . S c h o l a r s o f Zheng X i e ' s t i m e u t i l i z e d t h e method o f p a i n t i n g known as x i e y i ( i d e a w r i t i n g / p a i n t i n g ) , w h i c h c o u l d c l e a r l y a d v e r t i s e t h e p a i n t e r ' s s c h o l a r l y s t a t u s . T h i s c o u l d t h e n be u s e d t o e n t i c e o r s a t i s f y p a t r o n s w i t h s c h o l a r l y i n c l i n a t i o n s . The x i e y i mode o f p a i n t i n g had i t s r o o t s i n 21 t h e N o r t h e r n Song i d e a s w h i c h Zheng X i e t r a n s f o r m e d . The b a s i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f x i e y i were t h e s u d d e n i n s p i r a t i o n o f t h e p a i n t e r , h i s r a p i d a p p l i c a a t i o n o f i n k , and h i s c l a i m t h a t h i s i d e a s were d i r e c t l y e x p r e s s e d i n t h e p a i n t i n g . Zheng X i e ' s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f t h e N o r t h e r n Song s o u r c e o f t h e s e i d e a s w o u l d n o t o n l y s e p a r a t e h i m f r o m t h e c r o w d o f m i m i c s , b u t w o u l d u n d e r m i n e t h e i r s i m p l i s t i c a p p l i c a t i o n o f N o r t h e r n Song i d e a s . E v i d e n c e o f Zheng X i e ' s d i s p l e a s u r e w i t h t h e u s e o f x i e y i a p p e a r s i n one o f h i s t h e o r e t i c a l i n s c r i p t i o n s . I n t h e i n s c r i p t i o n , Zheng X i e o p e n l y c r i t i c i z e s c o n t e m p o r a r y s c h o l a r s f o r t h e i r m i s u s e o f t h e x i e y i mode, and s u g g e s t s t h a t h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s ' i n a b i l i t y t o p a i n t and t h e i r m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f s c h o l a r p a i n t i n g were d i s g u i s e d w i t h i n t h i s s p o n t a n e o u s mode: P e o p l e o f t o d a y p a i n t t h i c k b r a n c h e s and l a r g e l e a v e s , T h e r e i s a l m o s t no p l a c e where t h e r e i s a b r e a k . Then t h e y add t o i t by a p p l y i n g c o l o u r s . T h e r e f o r e , t h e snow and bamboo do n o t i n t e r p e n e t r a t e . T h i s r e s u l t s i n what p a i n t i n g method? I t a l s o l a c k s c r a f t s m a n s h i p . I f t h e y a r e n o t w i l l i n g t o t r y h a r d , How c a n t h e y hope t o e x a u s t t h e m a r v e l s ! I f one a s k s them t h e r e a s o n f o r t h i s , T hey s a y : "My k i n d ( o f p a i n t e r ) d o e s x i e y i . We do n o t w i s h t o be r e s t r i c t e d i n t h i s . " T h e y do n o t know t h e s e two words ( x i e and y i ) , And t h i s c a u s e s them t o e r r i n s o many t h i n g s . T h ey d e c e i v e o t h e r p e o p l e and h i d e t h e t r u t h f r o m t h e m s e l v e s . M o r e o v e r , t h e y do n o t s e e k t o p r o g r e s s . . . B e c a u s e o f t h i s a l l o f them a r e s i c k . One must n e c e s s a r l y r e a c h a l e v e l o f s k i l l and a f t e r w a r d s one w i l l be a b l e t o w r i t e i d e a s . One c a n n o t be u n s k i l l e d and s u b s e q u e n t l y be a b l e t o w r i t e i d e a s . 2 Zheng X i e i m p l i e s t h a t t h e s p o n t a n e i t y o f t h e method was t h e r e a s o n f o r i t s common a b u s e . The p a i n t e r ' s l a c k o f s k i l l g o e s u n n o t i c e d b y t h e a u d i e n c e , b e c a u s e i t i s d i s g u i s e d w i t h i n t h e s p o n t a n e o u s mode and t h e p r e t e n s e o f i n d i v i d u a l e x p r e s s i o n . I t i s t h e l a c k o f q u a l i f i c a t i o n o f t h i s mode and t h e p a i n t e r ' s l a c k o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f i t w h i c h y i e l d i n k p a i n t i n g s c o v e r i n g t h e e n t i r e s u r f a c e o f t h e p a p e r w i t h o u t a c t u a l l y r e s u l t i n g i n an e x p r e s s i v e image. Zheng X i e d o e s n o t j u s t c r i t i c i z e and u n d e r m i n e t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y p r a c t i c e o f x i e y i . H i s new d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e p r o c e s s o f p a i n t i n g , w h i c h he s t a t e d was b a s e d upon t h e same p r i n c i p l e as t h a t o f t h e N o r t h e r n Song l i t e r a t i , i s an e x p l i c i t c h a l l e n g e t o t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y p r a c t i c e o f s c h o l a r p a i n t i n g . T h i s i s m a n i f e s t i n t h e p a r t i c u l a r f e a t u r e s o f h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e p a i n t i n g p r o c e s s . Zheng X i e ' s e m p h a s i s upon t h e i n o l v e m e n t o f t h e p a i n t e r i n t h e dao t h r o u g h o u t t h e p a i n t i n g p r o c e s s p e r s i s t e n t l y m a n i f e s t s t h e g r e a t e r m e a n i n g b e h i n d h i s own p a i n t i n g and t h a t o f t h e N o r t h e r n Song l i t e r a t i . I t i m p l i c i t l y c r i t i c i z e s s p o n t a n e o u s p a i n t i n g w h i c h d o e s n o t e x p r e s s t h e dao t h r o u g h o u t t h e p r o c e s s o f p a i n t i n g and i n t h e f i n a l 64 p a i n t e d f o r m . The g e n e r a l e m p h a s i s upon t h e a c t o f p a i n t i n g i n Zheng X i e ' s d e s c r i p t i o n d o w n p l a y s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e p a i n t e r a l o n e . A c c o r d i n g t o Zheng X i e , t h e o v e r - e m p h a s i s upon t h e p a i n t e r ' s i d e a s was d e b a s i n g t h e m e a n i n g and q u a l i t y o f t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f i n k . P e r h a p s r e l a t e d t o Zheng X i e ' s c r i t i c i s m i s S h i t a o ' s c r i t i c i s m o f h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s : A l t h o u g h men s e i z e t h e methods o f f o r m e r and l a t e r h e a v e n , s t i l l t h e y f a i l t o g r a s p t h e r e a l m e a n i n g o f m e t hod. T h e r e f o r e , e v e n t h o u g h t h e r e i s m e t h o d , men c a n n o t be f r e e f r o m i t ; t o t h e c o n t r a r y , method o b s t r u c t s t h e m . 2 3 B o t h Zheng X i e and S h i t a o a t t e m p t e d t o i l l u s t r a t e a g e n e r a l f a i l i n g o f t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e a r t i s t s o f t h e i r t i m e by i l l u s t r a t i n g t h e i r l a c k o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f p a s t m e t h o d s . I n t h e i r v i e w , t h i s l a c k o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g d e c e i v e d t h e p a i n t e r s t h e m s e l v e s , and e i t h e r o b s t r u c t e d them o r c a u s e d them t o n o t s e e k t o p r o g r e s s . The d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n S h i t a o and Zheng X i e ' s c r i t i c i s m s o f t h e i r c o n t e m p o r a r i e s i s t h a t S h i t a o c r i t i c i z e d a t h o u g h t l e s s a d h e r e n c e t o methods w h i l e Zheng X i e c r i t i c i z e d a l a c k o f c o n c e r n f o r method. I n a n o t h e r i n s t a n c e , S h i t a o c r i t i c i z e d h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s ' u s e o f p a i n t i n g m a n u a l s , i n s t r u c t i o n a l g u i d e s t o p a i n t i n g . 2 4 T h i s a g r e e s w i t h h i s c r i t i c i s m o f o v e r - a d h e r e n c e t o m e t h o d s . Who were t h e s e p a i n t e r s whom S h i t a o and Zheng X i e c r i t i c i z e d s o d i f f e r e n t l y , and f r o m what s o u r c e d i d t h e y d r a w t h e i r p a i n t i n g a p p r o a c h e s ? 65 Fan Y u n l i n , a f r i e n d o f Dong Q i c h a n g ' s ( 1 5 5 5 - 1 6 3 6 ) , i n d i c a t e s t h e e x i s t e n c e i n t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y o f t h e two t y p e s o f p a i n t e r s whom S h i t a o and Zheng X i e c r i t i c i z e d . 2 5 T h e s e p a i n t e r s , a c c o r d i n g t o F a n , e i t h e r a b u s e d s p o n t a n e o u s i n k p a i n t i n g , x i e y i , o r r e l i e d t o o h e a v i l y upon m o d e l s , fang.. B o t h t y p e s were d e s c e n d a n t s o f t h e Wu s c h o o l , t h e l i t e r a t i p a i n t i n g t r a d i t i o n o f t h e M i n g d y n a s t y , w h i c h a p p a r e n t l y had d e c l i n e d by F a n ' s t i m e . Dong Q i c h a n g d e v e l o p e d a s c h o o l i n o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e s e , what he a g r e e d w e r e , more d e b a s e d and c o m e r c i a l f o r m s o f t h e e a r l i e r Wu s c h o o l . By S h i t a o ' s t i m e , Dong Q i c h a n g ' s s c h o o l , i n an a l t e r e d f o r m , had become t h e d o m i n a n t l i t e r a t i t r a d i t i o n , and had b e e n i n s t i t u t e d a s t h e o f f i c i a l i m p e r i a l c o u r t s t y l e . The two t y p e s o f l i t e r a t i p a i n t e r s p r a c t i c i n g t h e d e b a s e d modes o f x i e y i and f a n g , must h a v e c o n t i n u e d o u t s i d e o f t h e c o u r t , s a t i s f y i n g t h e g r e a t demand o f t h e m e r c h a n t c l a s s f o r l i t e r a t i p a i n t i n g . They were t h e d e s c e n d a n t s o f t h e d e b a s e d Wu s c h o o l whose members had s o l d t h e i r w o r k s i n m a r k e t p l a c e s a c c o r d i n g t o F a n Y u n l i n . I n t h i s s i t u a t i o n , t h e r e w e re new c h a l l e n g e s f o r p a i n t e r s o p e r a t i n g o u t s i d e t h e c o u r t . New methods o f s e l f - p o s i t i o n i n g and p u r i f i c a t i o n were n e e d e d t o c o m p e t e w i t h and c r i t i c i z e t h e p r a c t i t i o n e r s o f t h e d e b a s e d modes o f l i t e r a t i p a i n t i n g . S h i t a o and Zheng X i e ' s c r i t i c i s m s were d i r e c t e d t o w a r d s p a i n t e r s f r o m one o f t h e s e two d i s t i n c t t r a d i t i o n s , who e i t h e r a b u s e d x i e y i o r f a n g , e m u l a t i o n and t h e use o f p a i n t i n g m a n u a l s . A t t h e same t i m e t h a t Zheng X i e c r i t i c i z e d t h e p r a c t i t i o n e r s o f a d e b a s e d x i e y i mode, L i Shan c r i t i c i z e d t h e u s e o f p a i n t i n g m a n u a l s . The r e a s o n f o r t h e i r d i r e c t i n g c r i t i c i s m a t one o f t h e s e g r o u p s , and n o t t h e o t h e r o r b o t h , has t o do w i t h t h e i r own p o s i t i o n s and b a c k g r o u n d s . L i Shan made h i s c r i t i c i s m o f p a i n t i n g a c c o r d i n g t o m a n u a l s , a t t h e same t i m e t h a t he c h a m p i o n e d s e l e c t i v e and s y n t h e t i c e m u l a t i o n a n d , most i m p o r t a n t l y , t h e c r e a t i o n o f h i s own i n d i v i d u a l " s c h o o l , " o r s t y l e . 2 6 I t i s l i k e l y t h a t L i S h an's c r i t i c i s m was i n t e n d e d t o e s t a b l i s h h i s i n d i v i d u a l i t y a b o v e t h e mere s k i l l s o f p a i n t i n g , w h i c h he w o u l d have m a s t e r e d as a p a i n t e r a t c o u r t . T h i s n e c e s s a r y r e a l i g n m e n t a l s o t a k e s p l a c e i n d i s c u s s i o n on h i s s t y l e , w h i c h I w i l l d i s c u s s i n C h a p t e r 5. Zheng X i e , h o w e v e r , as a l e s s t r a i n e d l i t e r a t i p a i n t e r amongst many l i t e r a t i p a i n t e r s who w e r e , a c c o r d i n g t o h i m , u n s k i l l e d , s o u g h t t o r e i n t r o d u c e t h e g r e a t e r s k i l l and m e a n i n g o f t h e a c t o f p a i n t i n g . 2 7 S h i t a o ' s c r i t i c i s m o f h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s i s o f y e t a n o t h e r k i n d . I t i s p h r a s e d a s a r e s p o n s e t o t h e h y p o t h e t i c a l c r i t i c i s m o f t h e a r t i s t h i m s e l f , t h a t h i s g r a n d method a c c o r d i n g t o t h e dao i g n o r e s t h e r u d i m e n t a r i e s o f p a i n t i n g t e c h n i q u e . S h i t a o ' s comments have t o do w i t h h i s a t t e m p t t o e s t a b l i s h a mode o f p a i n t i n g w i t h i t s own p a r t i c u l a r s i g n i f i c a n c e , o p e r a t i o n a l o u t s i d e o f t h e v a r i o u s s t r a n d s o f t h e l i t e r a t i t r a d i t i o n , b u t d i s t i n c t f r o m s k i l l e d 67 p r o f e s s i o n a l p a i n t i n g . Zheng X i e ' s method o f o p p o s i n g t h e d e b a s e d l i t e r a t i t r a d i t i o n s p u r i f i e d t h e method o f p a i n t i n g . Zheng X i e s t i l l e m p h a s i z e d i n d i v i d u a l i t y , as d i d a l l a r t i s t s who d i d n o t c l i n g t o t h e m a i n t r a d i t i o n a t c o u r t , b a s e d upon Dong Q i c h a n g ' s s c h o o l . However, Zheng X i e ' s i n d i v i d u a l i t y was c o m b i n e d w i t h t h e g r e a t e r m e a n i n g o f t h e a c t o f p a i n t i n g . Zheng X i e empowered h i s p u r i f i c a t i o n b y r e c a l l i n g t h e o r i g i n a t o r s o f t h e l i t e r a t i t r a d i t i o n i n a way t h a t p o i n t e d o u t t h e i m p u r i t y o f h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s . Zheng X i e ' s c r i t i c i s m o f h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s a l s o s u g g e s t s a t h i r d g o a l o f h i s t h e o r y : t o l o c a t e p a t r o n s . I n p a r t i c u l a r , he a t t e m p t e d t o l o c a t e two g r o u p s o f p a t r o n s o u t s i d e t h e g e n e r a l s p o n s o r s h i p o f d e b a s e d l i t e r a t i p a i n t i n g and t h e p r e v a l e n t a t t i t u d e s and a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e t i m e . F i r s t l y , Zheng X i e c o u l d a t t r a c t more r e f i n e d s c h o l a r p a t r o n s by e s t a b l i s h i n g a new s t a n d a r d o f s c h o l a r p a i n t i n g . S e c o n d l y , he c o u l d w i n t h e f a v o u r o f t h o s e who p r e v i o u s l y p a t r o n i z e d S h i t a o , and who may have been a t t r a c t e d by h i s u s e o f S h i t a o ' s i d e a s and s t y l e . 2 8 T h i s s e c o n d g r o u p , S h i t a o ' s p a t r o n s , were l i k e l y m e r c h a n t s who r e m a i n e d o u t s i d e t h e s c h o l a r t r a d i t i o n d u r i n g t h e c o n t i n u a l r i s e o f t h e b r o a d e r m e r c h a n t c l a s s , most o f whose members a s p i r e d t o s c h o l a r l y s t a t u s . I w o u l d l i k e t o s u g g e s t Zheng X i e ' s s e a r c h f o r t h e s e g r o u p s o f p a t r o n s i n a more t a n g i b l e way. A v i s u a l a n a l y s i s o f a p a i n t i n g w i t h one o f Zheng X i e ' s t h e o r e t i c a l 68 i n s c r i p t i o n s w i l l i l l u s t r a t e why t h e p a i n t i n g w o u l d be a t t r a c t i v e t o b o t h more r e f i n e d s c h o l a r p a t r o n s and S h i t a o ' s p r e v i o u s p a t r o n s ( F i g u r e 1 2 ) . I w i l l q u o t e t h e e n t i r e i n s c r i p t i o n h e r e i n o r d e r t o r e f r e s h o u r memory o f t h e c o n t e n t s o f t h e t h e o r y , and t o p r e s e n t t h e image w i t h a l l o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h w o u l d h y a v e been i m p o r t a n t t o t h e v i e w e r : O n e - h a l f g r e e n m o u n t a i n o n e - h a l f bamboo, O n e - h a l f g r e e n s h a d e o n e - h a l f j a d e . P l e a s e s i r when y o u awake f r o m d e e p s l e e p , F a c e t h i s and t r e a t i t a s i f amongst c l i f f s and g o r g e s . I r e c e i v e e l d e r b r o t h e r ' s c o r r e c t i o n s . B a n q i a o t h e D a o i s t Zheng X i e . I n t h e r e n-wu y e a r o f t h e r e i g n o f t h e Q i a n l o n g e m p e r o r ( 1 7 6 2 ) , i n t h e f i f t h month o f summer i n t h e a f t e r n o o n I w r o t e t h i s . Wen Yuke (Wen Tong) p a i n t s bamboo-- I n h i s mind he has a c o m p l e t e d bamboo. Zheng B a n q i a o p a i n t s b a m b o o — I n h i s mind he d o e s n o t have a c o m p l e t e d bamboo. Y u k e ' s h a v i n g a c o m p l e t e d a bamboo I s what i s c a l l e d " o n e - t h o u s a n d mu o f t h e w e i r i v e r i n o ne's m i n d . " B a n q i a o ' s n o t h a v i n g t h e c o m p l e t e d (bamboo) I s l i k e a t h u n d e r c l a p . . . G r a s s and t r e e s r a g i n g grow. T h e r e i s no one who knows i t s how and why. I t i s p r o b a b l y t h e f l u x o f t h e dao T h a t i t s way i s l i k e t h i s . Y u k e ' s h a v i n g , And B a n q i a o ' s n o t h a v i n g . . . I s o ne, i s t w o . T h o s e who u n d e r s t a n d w i l l know i t . X i e a g a i n r e c o r d s . R e c e i v e s e l d e r b r o t h e r ' s c o r r e c t i o n s . B a n q i a o D a o r e n Zheng X i e . 2 9 The s t y l e o f Zheng X i e ' s p a i n t i n g i s i n d e b t e d t o S h i t a o . We s h o u l d s e e t h e s t y l e a s t h e v i s u a l f r a m e w o r k w h i c h , l i k e Zheng X i e ' s t h e o r e t i c a l f r a m e w o r k , d e p e n d s upon S h i t a o . P r e v i o u s p a t r o n s o f S h i t a o , and o t h e r s , w o u l d have r e c o g n i z e d t h i s c o n n e c t i o n i m m e d i a t e l y . The i n s c r i p t i o n , o r t h e o r y , t e l l s us o f Zheng X i e ' s c o n n e c t i o n t o N o r t h e r n Song l i t e r a t i and h i s d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e i r i d e a s . T h u s , Zheng X i e ' s c o n t i n u a t i o n o f s c h o l a r p a i n t i n g , h i s i d e n t i t y a s an i n n o v a t o r , and h i s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h S h i t a o a r e e v i d e n t i m m e d i a t e l y and s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . Zheng X i e e x p r e s s e s a new v e r s i o n o f N o r t h e r n Song i d e a s i n t h e t h e o r e t i c a l f r a m e w o r k i n d e b t e d t o S h i t a o . He a l s o e x p r e s s e s t h e s e same N o r t h e r n Song i d e a s v i s u a l l y w i t h i n t h e p a i n t i n g s t y l e o f S h i t a o , t h u s m a k i n g t h e image a t t r a c t i v e t o l i t e r a t i p a t r o n s s e e k i n g s o m e t h i n g new and e l i t e and S h i t a o ' s p r e v i o u s p a t r o n s . The i d e a s h a r e d b y t h e N o r t h e r n Song l i t e r a t i , S h i t a o , and Zheng X i e i s t h a t t h e dao i s t h e u n d e r l y i n g p r i n c i p l e o f p a i n t i n g . Zheng X i e , m o r e o v e r , e m p h a s i z e d t h e p a i n t e r ' s i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h t h e dao t h r o u g h o u t t h e p a i n t i n g p r o c e s s . Thus t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n s h o u l d be e v i d e n t i n t h e p a i n t i n g i t s e l f . The p a i n t e r ' s i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h t h e dao i s e x p r e s s e d f i r s t i n t h e h a n d l i n g o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r , t h e p r e s e n c e o f y o u n g bamboo and f u l l g r o w n bamboo. We s h o u l d remember t h a t f o r Zheng X i e t h e r e i s n e v e r a n y c o m p l e t e d bamboo d u r i n g t h e p a i n t i n g p r o c e s s . The same i d e a t h a t t h e p a i n t e r i s a l w a y s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e dao i s g i v e n v i s u a l f o r m t h r o u g h t h e h a n d l i n g o f i n k . P a t c h e s o f i n k w h i c h r e s t upon t h e p a p e r as v i v i d m arks o f t h e b r u s h a r e j u x t a p o s e d w i t h 70 r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l s t a l k s o f bamboo. T h i s j u x t a p o s i t i o n g i v e s v i s u a l f o r m t o t h e i d e a t h a t t h e r e p r e s e n t e d s u b j e c t m a t t e r a r i s e s o u t o f t h e e a r t h r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e p a i n t i n g and o u t o f t h e i n k w h i c h t h e p a i n t e r m a n o u e v r e s , c o n s t a n t l y c h a n g i n g a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p a i n t e r ' s n e x t i m p u l s e as g u i d e d by t h e da o . Zheng X i e c l e a r l y m a n i f e s t s t h e i d e a s e x p r e s s e d i n t h e i n s c r i b e d t h e o r y i n v i s u a l f o r m . T h e s e v i s u a l a s p e c t s o f t h e p a i n t i n g w o u l d a p p e a l b o t h t o t h e " r e f i n e d " l i t e r a t i p a t r o n , who c o u l d w i t n e s s o r i g i n a l i d e a s o f N o r t h e r n Song l i t e r a t i b r o u g h t t o l i f e , and t o S h i t a o ' s p a t r o n s , who w o u l d r e c o g n i z e t h e u s e o f S h i t a o ' s p a i n t i n g i d e a s and t h e k i n d o f f r e s h a p p l i c a t i o n o f h i s i d e a s w h i c h he h i m s e l f w o u l d h a v e commended. As s o o f t e n h a p p e n s i n h i s t o r y , t h e r e c o r d s , w r i t t e n o r v i s u a l , w h i c h s u r v i v e o r a r e most a v a i l a b l e t o us a r e t h o s e p r o d u c e d b y t h e e c o n o m i c a l l y and p o l i t i c a l l y v i c t o r i o u s . Zheng X i e d i d t r i u m p h o v e r h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s i n t e r m s o f r e n o w n , and t h e r e a r e few p a i n t i n g s o f n o t e i n w e s t e r n s o u r c e s by t h o s e whom Zheng X i e c o n s i d e r e d t o be " h a c k s . " ( P e r h a p s t h e y p r o d u c e d p a i n t i n g s o f g r e a t e r q u a l i t y t h a n he d i d ? ) C h i n e s e s o u r c e s w h i c h i n t h e f u t u r e may p r o v i d e some e x a m p l e s a r e s t i l l n o t v e r y a c c e s s i b l e . N o n e t h e l e s s , we c a n s u p p o s e t h a t n e x t t o most " h a c k " s c h o l a r p a i n t i n g s o f t h e t i m e Zheng X i e ' s p a i n t i n g s w o u l d s t a n d o u t f o r t h e i r i n n o v a t i o n i n p a i n t i n g and i d e a . C o n t e m p o r a r y p a i n t i n g s o f e v e n l y h a n d l e d and j u m b l e d bamboo, a c c o r d i n g t o Zheng X i e , w h i c h c o m p l e t e l y c o v e r e d t h e e n t i r e 71 p a p e r w i t h o u t s k i l l f u l i n t e g r a t i o n o f p a i n t e d f o r m s , w o u l d seem f l a t , a u t o m a t i c , and i m p o t e n t . O t h e r N o r t h e r n Song i d e a s were a l s o i m p o r t a n t t o Zheng X i e . T h e s e i l l u s t r a t e p e r h a p s t h e p r i m a c y o f h i s i n t e r e s t i n t h e s c h o l a r l y p a i n t i n g t r a d i t i o n o f t h e N o r t h e r n Song. Two o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t i d e a s o f t h e N o r t h e r n Song t o w h i c h Zheng X i e c o n t i n u e d i n h i s own t h e o r y a r e t h e i n t e r c o n n e c t e d n e s s o f c a l l i g r a p h y and p a i n t i n g and t h e i n t e r c o n n e c t e d n e s s o f p o e t r y and p a i n t i n g . 3 ^ 1 F o r t h e N o r t h e r n Song l i t e r a t i , c a l l i g r a p h y and p a i n t i n g were i n t r i n s i c a l l y c o n n e c t e d b e c a u s e o f t h e u s e o f t h e same b r u s h t o c r e a t e b o t h , and b e c a u s e o f t h e l i t e r a t u s ' a b i l i t y i n b o t h a r t s a r i s i n g f r o m h i s p o s s e s s i o n o f t h e d a o . Su Che, o f t h e N o r t h e r n Song had s a i d : I f o n e's h e a r t i s i n harmony w i t h d a o , one c a n know how t o do i t . T h e r e i s s u r e l y one p r i n c i p l e i n l i t e r a t u r e , c a l l i g r a p h y , and p a i n t i n g . 1 T h i s i d e a had b e e n e x p r e s s e d i n w r i t i n g , b u t i n p a i n t i n g t h e c a l l i g r a p h y r e m a i n e d v i s u a l l y s e p a r a t e f r o m t h e p a i n t e d s u b j e c t m a t t e r . T h i s was due t o t h e g r e a t e r i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e a r t i s t and l e s s a t t e n t i o n p a i d t o t h e a c t o f p a i n t i n g and t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f i n k i n t h e N o r t h e r n Song. Zheng X i e ' s p a i n t i n g v i s u a l l y m a n i f e s t s t h e N o r t h e r n Song i d e a i n a way t h a t i s much c l e a r e r t h a n a n y p r e v i o u s , o r we may assume e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y , s c h o l a r p a i n t i n g . T h i s was b e c a u s e o f h i s a p p l i c a t i o n o f S h i t a o ' s i d e a s a nd s t y l e , and h i s own i d e a o f c o n s t a n t i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h t h e d a o . I n Zheng X i e ' s p a i n t i n g , t h e c a l l i g r a p h y and p a i n t i n g a r e 72 t h o r o u g h l y i n t e g r a t e d v i s u a l l y . T h i s v i s u a l i n t e g r a t i o n s u g g e s t s t h a t b o t h a r e d i r e c t l y l i n k e d t o t h e dao w i t h w h i c h t h e p a i n t e r i n t e r a c t s . ^ S h i t a o s u m m a r i z e d t h i s i d e a i n a p h r a s e w h i c h p a r a l l e l s Su Che's s t a t e m e n t , b u t w h i c h t r e a t s t h e v i s u a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e N o r t h e r n Song i d e a : O neness o f b r u s h s t r o k e s i s t h e p r e r e q u i s i t e and f o u n d a t i o n f o r c a l l i g r a p h y and p a i n t i n g . C a l l i g r a p h y and p a i n t i n g a r e t h e s u b t l e m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f o n e n e s s o f b r u s h s t r o k e s w h i c h has b een a c q u i r e d . T h o s e who know t h e s u b t l e m a n i f e s t a t i o n s , b u t f o r g e t t h e o r i g i n o f t h e f u n d a m e n t a l p r i n c i p l e o f o n e n e s s o f b r u s h s t r o k e s , a r e l i k e c h i l d r e n who f o r g e t t h e i r a n c e s t o r s . . . a n c i e n t and modern w o r k s o f c a l l i g r a p h y and p a i n t i n g o r i g i n a t e d f r o m h e a v e n and were c o m p l e t e d by m a n . 3 3 T h i s i d e a i s e x p r e s s e d s t i l l more d y n a m i c a l l y i n some of Zheng X i e ' s o t h e r t h e o r e t i c a l i n s c r i p t i o n s . Zheng X i e d i r e c t l y c o n n e c t s t h e v i s u a l q u a l i t i e s o f c a l l i g r a p h y t o t h o s e o f'bamboo, and t h u s t o t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f n a t u r e . I n so d o i n g , Zheng X i e i l l u s t r a t e s t h e c o n n e c t i o n o f i n k f o r m s a n d , t h u s , b o t h p a i n t i n g and c a l l i g r a p h y t o t h e d a o : I f c a l l i g r a p h y i s p r o f u s e and t h i n , Bamboo mor e s o w i l l be p r o f u s e and t h i n . I f c a l l i g r a p h y i s d e n s e and s p a r s e , Bamboo mor e s o w i l l be d e n s e and s p a r s e . T h i s p a i n t i n g I p r e s e n t w i t h r e s p e c t t o . . . m a s t e r Y o u b e i . Y o u b e i i s good a t p a i n t i n g , b u t d o e s n o t p a i n t . H owever, he u s e s p a i n t i n g ' s c o n n e c t i o n To p e n e t r a t e i n t o c a l l i g r a p h y . X i e m o r e o v e r u s e s c a l l i g r a p h y ' s c o n n e c t i o n To p e n e t r a t e i n t o p a i n t i n g . 3 4 The i n t e g r a t i o n o f p a i n t i n g and c a l l i g r a p h y as e x p r e s s e d i n Zheng X i e ' s p a i n t i n g w o u l d be a t t r a c t i v e t o s c h o l a r p a t r o n s . T h i s i n t e g r a t i o n i s d o u b l y i m p o r t a n t t o Zheng X i e , s i n c e t h e t e x t , t h a t i s , t h e t h e o r y , more d i r e c t l y q u a l i f i e s o u r r e a d i n g o f t h e image when i t i s p r e s e n t e d as p a r t o f t h e p a i n t e d s u b j e c t m a t t e r and b r u s h w o r k . The i n t e r c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n p o e t r y and p a i n t i n g was o f g r e a t e r i m p o r t a n c e t o t h e N o r t h e r n Song l i t e r a t i t h a n t h a t o f c a l l i g r a p h y and p a i n t i n g . F o r i t e n a b l e d them t o q u a l i f y t h e i r p a i n t i n g s as b e i n g u n c o n c e r n e d w i t h e x t e r n a l f o r m s and e x p r e s s i v e o f t h e p a i n t e r ' s t h o u g h t . P o e t r y was t r a d i t i o n a l l y an a r t o f s c h o l a r l y s t a t u s l i k e c a l l i g r a p h y , and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o p a i n t i n g c o u l d s i m i l a r l y b u t t r e s s t h e s t a t u s o f p a i n t i n g . T h u s , Su S h i s a i d : Y u k e ' s l i t e r a r y work i s t h e l e a s t o f h i s a c c o m p l i s h m e n t , and h i s p o e t r y , t h e m i n o r p a r t o f h i s w r i t i n g . What i s n o t u s e d up i n p o e t r y o v e r f l o w s t o become c a l l i g r a p h y and i s t r a n s f o r m e d t o become p a i n t i n g , b o t h a r e what i s l e f t o v e r f r o m p o e t r y . T h o s e who a p p r e c i a t e h i s p o e t r y and l i t e r a r y work a r e i n c r e a s i n g l y few. As f o r t h o s e who l o v e h i s a c c o m p l i s h m e n t as t h e y l o v e h i s p a i n t i n g - - a l a s ! 3 5 The h e i r a r c h y o f t h e s c h o l a r ' s a r t s i s c l e a r i n t h i s p a s s a g e w h i c h p l a c e s p a i n t i n g l a s t among them, i n s p i t e o f t h e g r o w i n g i m p o r t a n c e o f p a i n t i n g w h i c h w a r r a n t e d i t s i n c l u s i o n . Su S h i ' s comment r e l a t e s t o some o f Zheng X i e ' s t h e o r e t i c a l i n s c r i p t i o n s w h i c h i m p l y t h a t t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e p a i n t i n g was somewhat b e l o w t h a t o f p o e t r y : Wen Y u k e ' s (Wen T o n g ' s ) i n k bamboo poem s a y s : " I p l a n t o p l a y w i t h a s e c t i o n o f E x i t h i n s i l k , S w e e p i n g w i t h t h e b r u s h o b t a i n 10,000 c h i o f l o n g c h i l l y b r a n c h e s . " M e i D a o r e n (Wu Zhen) s a i d : " I a l s o have a p a v i l i o n d e e p i n t h e bamboo, A l s o l o n g t o r e t u r n t o t h e s o u n d s o f autumn." B o t h p o e t r y i d e a s a r e e x t r e m e l y p u r e , Not o n l y u s e p a i n t i n g t o p a s s i t on. 74 Not o n l y u se p a i n t i n g t o p a s s i t on B u t t h e p a i n t i n g a l l t h e more p a s s e s i t on. X i e b o t h c a n n o t do p o e t r y , And c a n n o t p a i n t , B u t a l s o s t r i v e s t o i n s c r i b e a few w o r d s . . . The w o r d s a r e e x h a u s t e d t h e i d e a i s p o o r , I have shamed p r e v i o u s s a g e s . 3 6 The i d e a t h a t p a i n t i n g a l l t h e more p a s s e s on t h e i d e a o f p o e t r y s u g g e s t s t h a t p o e t r y s t i l l t a k e s p r e c e d e n c e o v e r p a i n t i n g . Zheng X i e f e l t t h a t i t was t h e w e a k n e s s o f h i s words and i d e a t h a t w o u l d u p s e t p r e v i o u s s a g e s . The f r e q u e n c y o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r i n s c r i p t i o n r e l a t i v e t o t h e o t h e r t h e o r e t i c a l i n s c r i p t i o n s may i n d i c a t e Zheng X i e ' s u t i l i z a t i o n o f t h e p o e t r y / p a i n t i n g h e i r a r c h y t o r e s t r i c t t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f p a i n t i n g as an a r t on i t s own. I n t h e c o n t e x t o f Y a n g z h o u , Zheng X i e w a n t e d t o r e t a i n h i s s t a t u s a s a s c h o l a r and t h e i d e a s w h i c h were a p a r t o f t h e s c h o l a r l i f e s t y l e w h i c h he s o u g h t . He w i s h e d t o i n c l u d e p a i n t i n g i n t h i s s c h o l a r l y l i f e s t y l e n o t o n l y a s a m e a n i n g f u l s c h o l a r l y p u r s u i t b u t a l s o as a s u c c e s s f u l c o m m e r c i a l a c t i v i t y . T h i s g o a l was i n k e e p i n g w i t h h i s s c h o l a r l y b a c k g r o u n d , w h i c h a l s o g a v e h i m t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o d e v e l o p a c o h e r e n t t h e o r e t i c a l p o s i t i o n . Zheng X i e f o r m e d t h i s p o s i t i o n b y d e v e l o p i n g N o r t h e r n Song i d e a s , u s i n g t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y t h e o r e t i c a l f r a m e w o r k o f S h i t a o , i n t o s t a t e m e n t s r e l e v a n t t o h i s own s i t u a t i o n . 75 1. See A p p e n d i x 6. 2. I t was as l a t e as 1710 t h a t S h i t a o ' s l a t e s t t e x t t h e Huapu was p r i n t e d ( E a r l e J e r o m e C o l e m a n , P h i l o s o p h y o f P a i n t i n g b y S h i h - t ' a o . 1978, I n t r o d u c t i o n , 2 8 - 2 9 ) . 3. James C a h i l l , T h r e e A l t e r n a t i v e H i s t o r i e s . 4. I n f o r m a t i o n on t h e common u s e o f t h e dao as t h e p r i n c i p l e o f p a i n t i n g method i s p l e n t i f u l . F o r t h e N o r t h e r n Song p a i n t e r s and S h i t a o s e e S u s a n B u s h , The C h i n e s e L i t e r a t i on P a i n t i n g , 1971 and E a r l e J e r o m e C o l e m a n , P h i l o s o p h y o f P a i n t i n g by S h i h - t ' a o , 1978, r e s p e c t i v e l y . F o r Zheng X i e , t h e r e i s t h e i n s c r i p t i o n by Zheng X i e c i t e d b e l o w . The n o t i o n o f m e t a m o r p h o s i s i s d i r e c t l y c o n n e c t e d t o t h e d a o , w h i c h i s t h e f o r c e b e h i n d a l l t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s and c h a n g e s i n t h e u n i v e r s e . More t e l l i n g i s t h e u n p r e d i c t a b i l i t y o f t h e i m p u l s e s o r c h a n g e s w h i c h i s e m p h a s i z e d i n t h r e e o f t h e l i n e s . T h i s q u a l i t y i s d i s t i n c t l y c o n n e c t e d t o t h e i m p e r s o n a l i t y o f t h e d a o . The p a i n t e r t a p s i n t o t h i s u n p r e d i c t a b l e f o r c e w h i c h e n a b l e s h i m t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e p r i m a r y a c t o f c r e a t i o n s u g g e s t e d by t h e p h r a s e , " p a i n t t h e c l o u d s . " I n a n o t h e r i n s c r i p t i o n , t h e i m p e r s o n a l i t y o f t h e dao i s s u g g e s t e d t h r o u g h p h r a s e s s u c h a s , " h a v i n g d e l i g h t b e y o n d method i s t h e d e c r e e o f Heaven" ( A p p e n d i x 6, number 1 ) . 5. A p p e n d i x 6, number l a . 6. S u s a n B u s h , The C h i n e s e L i t e r a t i on P a i n t i n g , 1 9 7 1 , 38- 39. The p a r e n t h e t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n i s S u s a n B u s h ' s . B u s h ' s t r a n s l a t i o n o f t i a n z a o as " t h e C r e a t o r " i s p r o b l e m a t i c . The l i t e r a l t r a n s l a t i o n i s "heaven-made," and p r o b a b l y r e f e r s t o t h a t w h i c h i s g e n e r a t e d by t h e d a o . 7. E a r l e J e r o m e C o l e m a n , P h i l o s o p h y o f P a i n t i n g b y S h i h - t ' a o . 1978, "The V a l u e o f I n b o r n N a t u r e , " 53. 8. I n Zheng X i e ' s i n t e r e s t i n e l a b o r a t i n g t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e s t a g e o f a p p l y i n g i n k , he b o r r o w e d some p h r a s e s f r o m S h i t a o . Zheng X i e d e s c r i b e d t h e movement o f t h e b r u s h as " s e p a r a t i n g o r c o m b i n i n g " ( A p p e n d i x 6, number 3 ) . T h i s a c t i o n was meant t o p r o d u c e f o r m s as n a t u r e p r o d u c e s l i f e . T h i s i s s i m i l a r t o S h i t a o ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e movement o f t h e b r u s h , w i t h i t s D a o i s t p r o c r e a t i v e c o n n o t a t i o n s : "When t h e b r u s h moves o u t w a r d i t i s l i k e c u t t i n g s o m e t h i n g ; when t h e b r u s h moves i n w a r d i t i s l i k e l i f t i n g s o m e t h i n g " ( E a r l e J e r o m e C o l e m a n , P h i l o s o p h y o f P a i n t i n g by S h i h - t ' a o , 1978, "Oneness o f B r u s h S t r o k e s , " 1 1 5 ) . 9. S u s a n B u s h , The C h i n e s e L i t e r a t i on P a i n t i n g , 1 9 7 1 , 56. 10. S u s a n B u s h , The C h i n e s e L i t e r a t i on P a i n t i n g , 1 9 7 1 , 37. 76 11. A p p e n d i x 6, number 2. 12. Su S h i , " R e c o r d o f Wen Y u k e ' s P a i n t i n g t h e B e n t Bamboos o f Yundang V a l l e y " ( S u s a n B u s h , The C h i n e s e L i t e r a t i on P a i n t i n g , 1 9 7 1 , 3 7 ) . 13. S u s a n B u s h , The C h i n e s e L i t e r a t i on P a i n t i n g , 1 9 7 1 , 37. The t e x t i s r e a l l y a b o u t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n dao and s k i l l , o r y_i_. However, t h e p a s s a g e makes i t c l e a r t h a t dao i s e q u i v a l e n t t o t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h i n g s w i t h i n t h e m i n d . Zheng X i e d o e s n o t f o c u s upon t h e i s s u e o f t e c h n i c a l s k i l l v e r s u s dao i n h i s t e x t s . B u t he d o e s s t a t e t h a t s k i l l i s r e q u i r e d i n o r d e r t o p a i n t a c c o r d i n g t o t h e d a o . and s o a g r e e s w i t h Su S h i . 14. The e q u a l i t y o f " h a v i n g " and " n o t h a v i n g t h e c o m p l e t e d bamboo" i s c o n s p i c u o u s i n t h e way i n w h i c h t h e m e t a p h o r s t r a n s c e n d t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r o f bamboo. The m e t a p h o r " n o t h a v i n g " i l l u s t r a t e s f o c u s s i n g on e v e r y a s p e c t o f t h e bamboo i n a p r o c e s s o f c r e a t i o n . T h i s p r o c e s s t r a n s c e n d s t h e bamboo s i n c e t h e p r o c e s s i s t h e f o c u s , t h e o n l y c o m p l e t e e l e m e n t , b u t i t assumes t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h e bamboo, w h i c h i s s o m e t h i n g t o c r e a t e . C o n v e r s e l y , t h e N o r t h e r n Song t r a n s c e n d e n c e has t o do w i t h e x c e e d i n g t h e c o m p l e t e bamboo i n o r d e r t o p u t i n t o c r e a t i v e a c t i o n t h e p o t e n t i a l g r o w t h , dao o r s e r i e s o f s t a g e s i n h e r e n t i n i t . Wen Tong e x p r e s s e s t h i s i d e a c l e a r l y a s r e c o r d e d i n Su Che's " I n k Bamboo F u " f r o m w h i c h I h a v e a l r e a d y q u o t e d : "Why, what I l o v e i s d a o : I h ave gone b e y o n d bamboo." Su S h i a g r e e s w i t h Wen Tong's r e c o r d e d s e l f - a p p r a i s a l when he comments upon Wen's m a s t e r y o f t h e dao by s a y i n g , "Now, when you make us e o f t h e s e bamboos and I t a k e y o u t o be aman o f d a o , i s t h i s w r o n g ? " ( S u s a n B u s h , The C h i n e s e L i t e r a t i on P a i n t i n g , 1 9 7 1 , 37, a g a i n f r o m Su S h i ' s " R e c o r d o f Wen Y u k e ' s P a i n t i n g t h e B e n t Bammboos o f Yundang V a l l e y " ) . 15. S u s a n B u s h , The C h i n e s e L i t e r a t i on P a i n t i n g , 1 9 7 1 , 184. 16. Huang T i n g j i a n ' s poem "A Fu. on t h e R e t i r e d S c h o l a r Dongpo's M o x i ( I n k p l a y ) " ( S u s a n B u s h , The C h i n e s e L i t e r a t i on P a i n t i n g , 1 9 7 1 , 7 1 ) . 17. F o r t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f S h i t a o ' s p a i n t i n g t h e o r y s e e Chou J u - h s i , "The H u a - y u - l u and Tao- c h i ' s T h e o r y o f P a i n t i n g , " 1977. 18. S u s a n B u s h d e a l s w i t h t h e r e a c t i o n o f t h e Gong'an and J i n l i n g p o e t r y s c h o o l s a g a i n s t t h a t o f t h e two g r o u p s o f s e v e n t a l e n t s , t h e f o r m e r , i n l i n e w i t h Wang S h o u r e n ' s i d e a s , i n t e r e s t e d i n i n d i v i d u a l e x p r e s s i o n , w h i l e t h e l a t t e r were i n v o l v e d i n t h e c o d i f i c a t i o n and e m u l a t i o n o f m o d e l s . I n s p i t e o f Dong Q i c h a n g ' s f r i e n d s h i p w i t h a Gong'an man, a 77 B u d d h i s t , and h i s i n t e r e s t i n Chan, h i s p r i n c i p l e c o n c e r n s a g r e e w i t h t h e two g r o u p s o f s e v e n t a l e n t s . S h i t a o ' s i n t e r e s t , h o w e v e r , a g r e e s w i t h t h o s e o f t h e l a t t e r g r o u p ( S u s a n B u s h , The C h i n e s e L i t e r a t i on P a i n t i n g , 1 9 7 1 , 1 6 1 ) . N o r t h e r n Song l i t e r a t i c a n be s e e n as t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h i s s e c o n d t r a d i t i o n . Dong Q i c h a n g c a n be s e e n as e m p h a s i z i n g t h e Yu a n , i n w h i c h p e r i o d s t y l e , a s S u s a n Bush has o u t l i n e d became c h a r a c t e r i z i n g f o r l i t e r a t i p a i n t i n g . B e f o r e Y u a n , w h i c h Dong Q i c h a n g d i s c u s s e s as f i r s t e x h i b i t i n g Su S h i ' s d i c t u m f o r N o r t h e r n S o n g , t o e x p r e s s t h e i d e a and n o t t h e f o r m o f t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r , s t y l e was n o t k e y , b u t t h e i d e a o r a c t o f c r e a t i o n was. A n o t h e r way o f l o o k i n g a t t h i s h i s t o r i c a l l y , i s t o n o t e t h a t S h i t a o i s r e l a t e d t o Su S h i , Wen To n g , and Huang T i n g j i a n , w h i l e Dong Q i c h a n g i s r e l a t e d t o Mi Fu and Mi Y u r e n , who f o r e s h a d o w e d a t t i t u d e s i n t h e Yuan. "Su S h i h , Huang T i n g j i a n , and Dong Yu f o c u s e d on t h e p a i n t e r ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f n a t u r e and p u t t h e p r o c e s s o f c r e a t i o n a b o v e a l l e l s e . Mi Fu and M i Y u r e n d e s c r i b e d t h e p l a y f u l n e s s and e x p r e s s i v e n e s s o f t h e i r p a i n t i n g and f o r m u l a t e d a new s c h o l a r l y t a s t e i n a r t . And t h e c o m p i l e r s o f t h e Xuanhe Huapu u n d e r l i n e d t h e d i l e t t a n t i s m o f t h e g e n t l e m a n - p a i n t e r who l o o k e d on a r t as an a v o c a t i o n " ( S u s a n B u s h , The C h i n e s e L i t e r a t i on P a i n t i n g , 1 9 7 1 , 8 2 ) . Zheng X i e seems t o have s e e n t h e r o l e o f s t y l e as i t s m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f t h e d a o , i n t h e l i n e o f Su S h i , Wen Tong, Huang T i n g j i a n , and S h i t a o , and n o t as a s i g n o f s c h o l a r l y t a s t e , as i n Dong Q i c h a n g . 19. See Zheng X i e ' s a u t o b i o g r a p h y ( A p p e n d i x 1, number 2 ) . 20. The i m p o r t a n c e o f o r i g i n a l i t y i s a common theme i n t h e w r i t i n g s o f t h e N o r t h e r n Song l i t e r a t i , S h i t a o , and Zheng X i e . The i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h t h e dao by no means d i c t a t e s o v e r t h e p a i n t e r . On t h e c o n t r a r y , i t i s t h e mode t h r o u g h w h i c h t h e p a i n t e r ' s own p a r t i c u l a r i d e a s c a n be e x p r e s s e d . S h i t a o s t a t e s t h i s p l a i n l y i n h i s c h a p t e r "Oneness o f B r u s h S t r o k e s " : A s i n g l e s t r o k e w h i c h i d e n t i f i e s w i t h u n i v e r s a l i t y c a n c l e a r l y r e v e a l t h e i d e a o f man and f u l l y p e n e t r a t e a l l t h i n g s ( E a r l e J e r o m e C o l e m a n , P h i l o s o p h y o f P a i n t i n g by S h i h - t ' a o , 19 78, 1 1 5 ) . I n t h e N o r t h e r n Song l i t e r a t i t e x t s , t h e mind o f t h e a r t i s t i s t h e s o u r c e o f dao c r e a t i o n , s o t h e i n d i v i d u a l i t y o f t h e a r t i s t and t h e dao must be r e l a t e d . The i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e a r t i s t ' s p a r t i c u l a r g e n i u s i s c l e a r i n many p a s s a g e s . The f o l l o w i n g p a s s a g e by Su S h i i s t h e most famous o f t h e s e : I f a n y o n e d i s c u s s e s p a i n t i n g i n t e r m s o f f o r m a l l i k e n e s s , H i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g i s n e a r l y t h a t o f a c h i l d . 78 T h e r e i s one b a s i c r u l e i n p o e t r y and p a i n t i n g ; N a t u r a l g e n i u s and o r i g i n a l i t y ( S u s a n B u s h , The C h i n e s e L i t e r a t i on P a i n t i n g , 19 7 1 , 2 6 ) . A p a s s a g e i n Zheng X i e ' s i n s c r i p t i o n s i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t n o t o n l y i s t h e p a i n t e d bamboo d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h a t o f t h e m i n d , i l l u s t r a t i n g t h e a c t i o n o f t h e dao b e t w e e n t h o s e s t a g e s and a t t h e s t a g e o f p a i n t i n g , b u t , b e c a u s e o f t h e dao a c t i o n d u r i n g t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f i n k , a new b r u s h s t y l e e v o l v e s : Thus I g r i n d i n k , u n f o l d some p a p e r , and move t h e b r u s h - A g a i n i t i s a n o t h e r s t y l e . I n r e a l i t y , t h e bamboo i n my hand I s n o t t h e bamboo i n my mind ( A p p e n d i x 6, n u m b e r l c ) . 2 1 . S u s a n B u s h , The C h i n e s e L i t e r a t i on P a i n t i n g , 1 9 7 1 , 69- 72 and c o n c l u s i o n on 82. I n c i p i e n t f o r m s o f t h e t e r m s x i e y i were d e v e l o p e d i n t h e N o r t h e r n S o n g . They were e s p e c i a l l y c o n s p i c u o u s w i t h i n t h e t e x t s o f M i F u and M i Y u r e n , who b r o u g h t a b o u t t h e s t y l i s t i c a l l y a n t i - n a t u r a l i s t i c t e n d e n c i e s t o s c h o l a r p a i n t i n g , w h i c h c u l m i n a t e d i n Yuan D y n a s t y t h e o r y and p a i n t i n g . T h e s e i n c l u d e x i e q i z h e n a u . " w r i t i n g t h e i r t r u e f l a v o u r , " i n w h i c h gu. c o u l d s o m e t i m e s a p p r o x i m a t e t h e m e a n i n g o f y i , d e y i . " g r a s p i n g t h e i d e a , " and mo x i , " i n k - p l a y , " w h i c h was a r e l a t e d i d e a d e v e l o p e d by Teng Chun, and p e r h a p s Wen Tong and Huang T i n g j i a n e a r l i e r . 22. A p p e n d i x 6, number 5. 23. E a r l e J e r o m e C o l e m a n , P h i l o s o p h y o f P a i n t i n g b y S h i h - t ' a o , 1978, " T r a n s f o r m a t i o n and F r e e d o m , " 117. 24. E a r l e J e r o m e C o l e m a n , P h i l o s o p h y o f P a i n t i n g b y S h i h - t ' a o . 1978, " M o t i o n s o f t h e W r i s t , " 122. 25. S u s a n B u s h , The C h i n e s e L i t e r a t i on P a i n t i n g , 1 9 7 1 , 174- 175: Nowadays, t h e Wu men, who a r e t o t a l l y i l l i t e r a t e and h a v e n e v e r s e e n e v e n one g e n u i n e o l d m a s t e r , a l w a y s make a p o i n t o f r e l y i n g on t h e i r own " g e n i u s . " They m e r e l y smear o u t some m o u n t a i n s and w a t e r and some g r a s s and t r e e s , and hang up ( t h e i r w o r k ) i n t h e m a r k e t p l a c e t o e x c h a n g e i t f o r a b u s h e l o f r i c e . Can t h e i r p a i n t i n g s h a v e a n y b e a u t y ? O c c a s i o n a l l y t h e r e a r e t h o s e who m o d e l t h e m s e l v e s a f t e r a famous m a s t e r , b u t t h e y o n l y know o f Hengshan (Wen Z h e n g m i n g ) , and t h e i r w o r k s seem t o be h i s t o some e x t e n t ; b u t by c o p y i n g h i m t h e y b a r e l y a c h i e v e h i s o u t e r f o r m and n e v e r h i s 79 i n n e r e s s e n c e . And t h e y c l a i m : " L o o k , we have s t u d i e d H e n g s h a n . " T h e y h a v e no i d e a o f t h e f a c t t h a t H e ngshan m o d e l e d h i m s e l f e n t i r e l y on t h e Sung and Yuan m a s t e r s . He s t r o v e t o a t t a i n t h e i r q u i n t e s s e n c e , h e n c e he s u c c e e d e d i n b e c o m i n g supreme i n h i s a g e , and h i s w o r k s h a v e become i m m o r t a l . T h i s b e i n g s o , why d o n ' t t h e Wu men go b a c k t o H e n g s h a n ' s o r i g i n a l m a s t e r s and f o l l o w them? Then e v e n i f t h e y do n o t come up t o t h e a n c i e n t s , a t l e a s t t h e y c o a n n o t f a i l t o become H e n g s h a n s . O n l y t h e m a s t e r s o f Y u n j i a n ( S u n g j i a n g ) know t h i s t r u t h . Thus (Zhao Zou) Wendu, (Dong Q i c h a n g ) X u a n z a i , and (Gu S h anyu) Y u a n q i n g a l l ended i n c o m i n g up t o t h e a n c i e n t s and i n f o u n d i n g t r a d i t i o n s o f t h e i r own. Y e t when t h e Wu men s e e ( t h e s e men's w o r k s ) , t h e y a r e p u z z l e d and s a y : " T h i s i s j u s t t h e S o n g j i a n g s c h o o l . " I s i t ? Can t h e r e be a S o n g j i a n g s c h o o l ? O n l y t h e Wu men a r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h s c h o o l s . 26. See t h e i n s c r i p t i o n f r o m L i Shan's i n k bamboo i n The E l e g a n t B r u s h , 1985, 167. 27. T s a n g Ka-bo s e e s Zheng X i e ' s comments as a d e f e n s e a g a i n s t s i m i l a r c r i t i c i s m d i r e c t e d a t Zheng X i e h i m s e l f ( T s a n g Ka Bo, "Hua Yan ( 1 6 8 2 - 1 7 5 6 ) : H i s L i f e and A r t , " 1983, 123) . 28. C h u - t s i n g L i , "The Bamboo P a i n t i n g s o f C h i n Nung," 1972- 73, 5 3 - 7 1 . L i p r e s e n t s t h e i d e a t h a t Zheng X i e i n h e r i t e d S h i t a o ' s p a t r o n a g e . 29. The image i s i n t h e P a l a c e Museum, B e i j i n g , and i s r e p r o d u c e d i n P a i n t i n g by Y a n g z h o u A r t i s t s , 1984, 74 ( A p p e n d i x 6, number 6 ) . 30. Zheng X i e a l s o a p p l i e s t h e N o r t h e r n Song i d e a o f t h e i n t e r c o n n e c t e d n e s s o f p a i n t i n g and c a l l i g r a p h y w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e Q i n g d y n a s t y i n t e r e s t i n a r t i s t i c m o d e l s o f t h e p a s t . Zheng X i e ' s method i s r e l a t e d t o S h i t a o ' s method o f u t i l i z i n g p a s t m o d e l s . S h i t a o e m p h a s i z e s i n d i v i d u a l i t y i n t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f m o d e l s and t h e u n i t y o f p a i n t i n g and c a l l i g r a p h y a s i n k f o r m s m a n i f e s t i n g t h e d a o . I n Zheng X i e ' s t h e o r y t h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f m o d e l s o f c a l l i g r a p h y , p r o v i d e t h e c r e a t i v e p o t e n t i a l o f t h e dao by u n i t i n g o p p o s i t e e l e m e n t s o f s t y l e w h i c h t o g e t h e r y i e l d t h e n a t u r a l f o r m o f bamboo i n a l l i t s m y r i a d m a n i f e s t a t i o n s ( S e e t h e i n s c r i p t i o n , A p p e n d i x 6, number 4 b ) . 3 1 . S u s a n B u s h , The C h i n e s e L i t e r a t i on P a i n t i n g , 1 9 7 1 , 28. 32. One c o u l d s a y t h a t Zheng X i e e s s e n t i a l l y n a t u r a l i z e s N o r t h e r n Song i d e a s . He p r e s e n t s them i n t e r m s o f n a t u r a l g r o w t h and p r o c e s s . T h i s i s r e l a t e d t o S h i t a o ' s n a t u r a l i z a t i o n o f Mi F u , an i m p o r t a n t N o r t h e r n Song l i t e r a t u s , t h e o r e t i c i a n , and p a i n t e r , i n S h i t a o ' s p a i n t i n g 10,000 U g l y I n k D o t s . Mi F u ' s t e c h n i q u e o f p a i n t i n g w i t h d a b s o r d o t s o f p a i n t a p p e a r s i n p u r e l y a b s t r a c t f o r m a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h i s l o n g s c r o l l . S h i t a o g i v e s M i F u ' s t e c h n i q u e p r o c r e a t i v e c a p a c i t i e s , f o r v i s i b l e l a n d s c a p e and f i n a l l y t h e w r i t t e n t e x t e v o l v e o u t o f i t t o w a r d s t h e end o f t h e s c r o l l . S h i t a o s e i z e d Mi F u ' s i d e a t h a t t h e p a i n t i n g was l e s s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l t h a n e x p r e s s i v e i n o r d e r t o i l l u s t r a t e how t h i s e x p r e s s i v e n e s s i s i n t u n e w i t h t h e d a o , o r a c t u a l l y p r o d u c e s t h i n g s a s i n n a t u r e . S h i t a o ' s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f M i F u i s one w h i c h c a u s e s M i F u ' s p r i n c i p l e s o f p a i n t i n g and t h e p a i n t e d f o r m s t o grow, s o t o s p e a k . Zheng X i e makes t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f N o r t h e r n Song l i t e r a t i p a i n t i n g g row w i t h i n t h e p a i n t i n g i n a s i m i l a r way, p r o d u c i n g a v i s u a l r e c o r d w h i c h s p e a k s o f t h e a r t i s t ' s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f t h e s e p r i n c i p l e s . However, f o r Zheng X i e t h e c r e a t i v e f o r c e s o f t h e dao a r e n o t a c t i v e o n l y i n t h e b r u s h w o r k . I n s t e a d , t h e y a r e a c t i v e t h r o u g h o u t a l l s t a g e s o f t h e p a i n t i n g p r o c e s s i n c l u d i n g t h e w r i t i n g o f t h e i n s c r i p t i o n . Thus w r i t i n g and p a i n t i n g a r e more f u l l y i n t e g r a t e d v i s u a l l y as c r e a t i v e a c t s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e d a o . 33. E a r l e J e r o m e C o l e m a n , P h i l o s o p h y o f P a i n t i n g by S h i h - t ' a o , 1978, 139. " O r i g i n o f Heaven and C o m p l e t i o n by Man." 34. A p p e n d i x 6, 4a. 35. S u s a n B u s h , The C h i n e s e L i t e r a t i on P a i n t i n g , 1 9 7 1 , 12. Su S h i on Wen Tong. 36. A p p e n d i x 6, number 3a. CHAPTER 5 The p o l a r i z a t i o n i n t h e p a i n t e r / p a t r o n r e l a t i o n s h i p i n w h i c h t h e l i t e r a t i and i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c t r a d i t i o n s were c o m b i n e d was t r e a t e d i n C h a p t e r 3. I n C h a p t e r 4, t h i s p o l a r i z a t i o n was n o t t r e a t e d e x p l i c i t l y . Zheng X i e ' s c r i t i c i s m o f g r o u p s o f p a i n t e r s and s e a r c h f o r s p e c i f i c p a t r o n s i m p l i c i t l y i l l u s t r a t e s t h e p o l a r i z a t i o n o f t h e p a i n t e r / p a t r o n r e l a t i o n s h i p . F o r Zheng X i e , t h e p a t r o n became a t a r g e t more s p e c i f i c a l l y i d e n t i f i e d t h a n L i Shan's p a t r o n s . Zheng X i e ' s t h e o r e t i c a l i n s c r i p t i o n s and p a i n t i n g s w o r k e d on a n o t h e r l e v e l o f t h e p o l a r i z e d p a i n t e r / p a t r o n r e l a t i o n s h i p . T h i s p o l a r i z a t i o n , w h i c h a l l o w e d f o r t h e s a l e o f i m a g e s , d u a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f i m a g e s , and c r i t i c a l p o s i t i o n i n g o f t h e p a i n t e r i s h i s t o r i c a l l y i m p o r t a n t , as i t i l l u s t r a t e s t h e d e p a r t u r e f r o m t h e s c h o l a r ' s s t a n d a r d n o t i o n s o f a c o m m u n i t y , however b r o a d . I n t h i s C h a p t e r , I w i l l compare t h e p a i n t i n g s o f L i Shan and Zheng X i e t o b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d how t h e y u t i l i z e d and m o d i f i e d t h e p a i n t e r / p a t r o n r e l a t i o n s h i p i n d i f f e r e n t ways. I w i l l m a i n t a i n t h a t Zheng X i e c r o s s e d o v e r t h e b o u n d a r y s e t up b e t w e e n t h e p a i n t e r and p a t r o n i n o r d e r t o e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e l i t e r a t i i d e a s , w h i c h were s h a r e d w i t h t h e p a t r o n . When he d i d s o , he a l s o d e n i e d t h e u n o r t h o d o x a s p e c t s o f h i s p a i n t i n g . L i S h a n , h o w e v e r , h e l d t o t h e u n o r t h o d o x a s p e c t s o f h i s work and t h e p a i n t e r / p a t r o n p o l a r i t y , and d e n i e d most l i t e r a t i c o m m u n i c a t i o n . I n a s e c o n d p a r t o f t h i s C h a p t e r , I w i l l i l l u s t r a t e t h e r a n g e o f t e n s i o n s i n s o c i e t y and l i t e r a t i p a i n t i n g , and how t h e y d i f f e r e d f o r Zheng X i e and L i Shan. To b e g i n a t r e a t m e n t o f t h e p o l a r i z a t i o n o f t h e p a i n t e r / p a t r o n r e l a t i o n s h i p I w o u l d l i k e t o b r i e f l y r e c a l l t h e e x a m p l e s o f t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p as p r e s e n t e d i n C h a p t e r 2. F o r L i Shan and J i n Nong t h e p a i n t e r p r o v i d e s f o o d s t u f f s f r e s h f r o m t h e n a t u r a l r e a l m r e p r e s e n t e d i n p a i n t i n g f o r t h e p a t r o n . I t i s i m p l i e d t h a t t h e p a i n t e r i n h a b i t s t h i s n a t u r a l w o r l d . The c o n n e c t i o n o f t h e p a i n t i n g w i t h f o o d i s e x p l i c i t i n w r i t i n g s and i m p l i c i t i n t h e e x c h a n g e , t h u s i l l u s t r a t i n g one k i n d o f q u a l i f i c a t i o n o f t h e a c t o f s e l l i n g p a i n t i n g s w h i c h c o u l d o c c u r b e t w e e n t h e p o l e s o f p a i n t e r and p a t r o n . A l s o common t o t h e e x a m p l e s o f i m a g e s o f f o o d i s t h e way i n w h i c h t h e y g r o w o u t o f t h e u n i o n o f t h e l i t e r a t i and t h e s o - c a l l e d u n o r t h o d o x t r a d i t i o n s . T h i s c a n a l s o be s a i d f o r Zheng X i e ' s image o f bamboo s h o o t s and h i s t h e o r e t i c a l w o r k s . Two e x a m p l e s o f what a r e l i t e r a t i s u b j e c t m a t t e r s w i t h n o n - l i t e r a t i a s p e c t s may be s e e n i n t h e w o r k s o f L i Shan and Zheng X i e . B o t h p a i n t i n g s a r e h a n g i n g s c r o l l s , t h e f o r m a t o f most o f L i Shan's few s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d l i t e r a t i p a i n t i n g s and t h a t o f t h e m a j o r i t y o f Zheng X i e ' s . B o t h e s t a b l i s h a p o l a r i z a t i o n o f t h e p a i n t e r / p a t r o n r e l a t i o n s h i p t h r o u g h a 83 p l a c e m e n t o f t h e p a i n t e r i n t h e n a t u r a l r e a l m , f r o m w h i c h he b r i n g s t o t h e a u d i e n c e f o r m s o f n a t u r e . I n b o t h c a s e s t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p q u a l i f i e s t h e l i t e r a t i s u b j e c t m a t t e r , g i v i n g t h e p a i n t i n g e i t h e r a d o m e s t i c f u n c t i o n o r a d i d a c t i c f u n c t i o n , and q u a l i f y i n g t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e n a t u r e o f p a i n t i n g i t s e l f . An i n s c r i p t i o n on L i Shan's u n d a t e d s c r o l l o f F i v e P i n e s ( F i g u r e 1 3 ) : Someone a s k e d me t o p a i n t t h e f i v e p i n e s . E a c h o f them i s i n d e e d q u i t e s i n g u l a r . . . T w i s t i n g t h e b r u s h n i n e t i m e s I p a i n t w i t h my l i m i t e d s k i l l s . I i n v i t e t h e g e n t l e m e n t o come w i t h a c u p o f i n k . The f i v e p i n e s and t h e f i v e e l d e r s a r e c a l l e d t h e l o f t y o n e s . Hung i n t h e e a s t s i d e o f t h e C a s s i a H a l l i n y o u r home, They o v e r s e e t h e h u n d r e d f l o w e r s w h i c h c l u s t e r a r o u n d l i k e t h e i r c h i l d r e n . 1 T h r o u g h h i s p a i n t i n g , t h e p a i n t e r a c h i e v e s a r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h n a t u r e , b e i n g a b l e t o c a l l t h e p i n e s i n t o t h e d o m e s t i c r e a l m . T h e r e i s a c e n t r a l a m b i g u i t y h e r e , i n s o f a r as t h e s e c t i o n o f t h e i n s c r i p t i o n n o t q u o t e d h e r e s t a t e s t h a t t h e p i n e s r e p r e s e n t t h e v a r i o u s s a g e s and a u s p i c i o u s c r e a t u r e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e f r e e d o m o f t h e m o u n t a i n . T h e s e f o r m s a r e t h e n b r o u g h t i n s i d e t o become g u a r d i a n s o f t h e h o u s e . T h e r e i s a p o l a r i z a t i o n e v i d e n t h e r e b e t w e e n o u t s i d e and i n s i d e , and p a i n t e r and p a t r o n , w h i c h a r e l i n k e d b y p a i n t i n g . The r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e p a i n t e r and p a t r o n i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e f o o d p a i n t i n g s . I w o u l d s u g g e s t t h a t t h e r e i s a t l e a s t t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r t h i s i n s c r i p t i o n and t h e p o l a r i z a t i o n s t o c a r r y i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e t e n s i o n s o f L i Shan's s i t u a t i o n . The p a i n t i n g c a n be r e a d as t h e p a i n t e r s u p p l y i n g t h e s y m b o l s o f v i r t u e f o r t h e p a t r o n who i s h o l e d up i n some o f f i c i a l p o s t o r some d w e l l i n g . O t h e r w i s e , i t c a n be r e a d as a more l i t e r a l o u t s i d e and i n s i d e d i s t i n c t i o n . The m o r a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f o u t s i d e and i n s i d e t h e n t a k e e f f e c t and l e s s e n t h e s t a t u r e o f t h e p a t r o n who r e m a i n s , t h r o u g h t h e v e r y p u r c h a s e o f t h e s c r o l l , on t h e i n s i d e . I t i s w o r t h m e n t i o n i n g t h e t e n s i o n s i n Zheng X i e ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f L i Shan t e a r i n g a h a l f - c o m p l e t e d image o f p i n e s . 2 The r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n L i Shan's and Zheng X i e ' s p a i n t i n g i d e a s i s c l o s e s t when we c o n s i d e r L i Shan's h a n g i n g s c r o l l s , l i k e t h e F i v e P i n e s . I n a l a r g e h a n g i n g s c r o l l o f C y m b i d i u m s . Bamboo, and F u n g i , Zheng X i e c r e a t e s a r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e p a i n t e r and p a t r o n w h i c h i s r e m a r k a b l y s i m i l a r t o t h a t e s t a b l i s h e d by L i Shan's s c r o l l ( F i g u r e 1 4 ) . A g a i n , t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p i s m e d i a t e d b y t h e v e r y a c t o f p a i n t i n g i t s e l f . However, as i n h i s h a n g i n g s c r o l l o f bamboo s h o o t s and t h e s c r o l l s c a r r y i n g h i s p a i n t i n g t h e o r y , Zheng X i e r e a s s e r t s s t a n d a r d l i t e r a t i i d e a s a f t e r h i s i n i t i a l m e n t i o n o f f u n g i , w i t h i t s c o n n o t a t i o n s o f D a o i s m , and h i s s u g g e s t i o n o f n a t u r a l c r e a t i o n t h r o u g h t h e a c t o f p a i n t i n g . The work i s d a t e d t o 1 7 6 1 , d u r i n g Zheng X i e ' s p e r i o d i n Y a n g z h o u , when he a l s o c r e a t e d h i s p a i n t i n g t h e o r y . I n t h e i n s c r i p t i o n , Zheng X i e w r i t e s : 8 5 The a n c i e n t s s a i d : " S h o u l d one t a r r y t o o l o n g a f t e r h a v i n g e n t e r e d a room w i t h f u n g i and c y m b i d i u m [ o r c h i d ] , one may become o b l i v i o u s o f t h e i r f r a g r a n t s c e n t . " [ M o r e o v e r ] , i f t h e f u n g i and c y m b i d i u m s h o u l d be p l a c e d i n s i d e t h e room, t h e room may g a i n i n b e a u t y b u t t h e p l a n t s t h e m s e l v e s w o u l d n o t be h a p p y. I d e s i r e t o l i v e a m i d s t t h e m o u n t a i n r a n g e s and d e e p r a v i n e s , and w o u l d n o t t o u c h t h e f u n g i o r c y m b i d i u m e v e n i f t h e y were t h e r e . [ I n t h i s w a y ] , e a c h o f us c o u l d r e t a i n o u r own i d e n t i t y and be a t p e a c e w i t h o u r s e l v e s . . . R e p l e t e w i t h c y m b i d i u m , t h e h i l l y e t l a c k s f u n g u s . Where c a n we f i n d i t - j u s t a s k t h e p a i n t e r ! I n t r u t h y o u must s e e k i t i n y o u r own h e a r t , You, who s o c u l t i v a t e d i t , c a n f a t h o m what y o u ' v e d o n e . 3 G i n g e r C h e n g - c h i Hsu has w r i t t e n a b o u t some o f t h e p a r t i c u l a r s y m b o l i c c a p a c i t i e s o f t h e p o t t e d o r c h i d i n h e r d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n . 4 She f i n d s t h a t t h e s e i n c l u d e t h e t r a d i t i o n a l r e f e r e n c e t o t h e o r c h i d i n n a t u r e as t h e s c h o l a r f r e e f r o m an o f f i c i a l p o s t . T h i s i s one k i n d o f i n s i d e / o u t s i d e d i c h o t o m y f o r w h i c h t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r c a n n a r r a t e an i n d i v i d u a l ' s f e e l i n g s . What i s i n t e r e s t i n g h e r e i s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s e t up by t h e p a i n t e r b e t w e e n h i m s e l f and t h e a u d i e n c e , w h i c h i s b o t h t h e f o c u s o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r i n s c r i p t i o n and t h e k e y f u n c t i o n o f t h e a c t o f p a i n t i n g , a t l e a s t i n i t i a l l y . I n t h e p o s t s c r i p t on Zheng X i e ' s p a i n t i n g , he q u a l i f i e s t h e p a i n t i n g i n a way w h i c h s u g g e s t s t h a t , a l t h o u g h t h e p a i n t i n g i s a t e s t i m o n y t o t h e r e c i p i e n t ' s v i r t u e , t h e p a i n t i n g d o e s n o t g u a r a n t e e t h a t v i r t u e . I t i s t h u s n o t t h e p a i n t e r ' s i n k e d p l a n t s w h i c h do t h e j o b , n o r d o e s t h e p a i n t e r i n f a c t h ave t h e c a p a c i t y t o g r a n t t h e f u n g u s t o t h e v i e w e r . O n l y t h e v i e w e r c a n c r e a t e t h e p i c t u r e d p l a n t s i n t r u t h , and t h i s t h r o u g h h i s a c t u a l v i r t u e and c a p a b i l i t y o f m i n d . Zheng X i e ' s p o s t s c r i p t i s an i n t e r e s t i n g q u a l i f i c a t i o n w h i c h l i m i t s t h e e f f e c t i v e p o w e r s o f t h e p a i n t i n g and t h e a c t o f p a i n t i n g . H e r e , I w o u l d s u g g e s t , t h e p a i n t e r i s q u e s t i o n i n g a p a i n t i n g ' s power t o s t a n d f o r s t a t u s o f a c e r t a i n k i n d . T h i s p a r a l l e l s Zheng X i e ' s l i m i t a t i o n and d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e m e a n i n g o f p a i n t i n g i n h i s t h e o r e t i c a l i n s c r i p t i o n s . L i k e t h o s e i m a g es w h i c h p r e s e n t Zheng X i e ' s p a i n t i n g t h e o r y , t h i s t o o i s an image o f g r e a t a r t i s t i c power and h i g h q u a l i t y , and t h e i n s c r i p t i o n h e r e a l s o d e a l s w i t h some o f t h e p r o b l e m s o f p a i n t i n g i n t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . As w e l l , t h e a r t i s t r e p r e s e n t s c e r t a i n l i t e r a t i i d e a s t h r o u g h u n o r t h o d o x means. The p a i n t e r r e a s s e r t s t h e p r i m a c y o f h i s f r i e n d ' s v i r t u e , and r e l e g a t e s t h e p a i n t i n g t o t h e r o l e o f a r e m i n d e r o f how t h a t v i r t u e w o r k s . L i S h a n, h o w e v e r , r e c o g n i z e s t h e a u d i e n c e ' s v i r t u e w i t h o u t a n y q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , and t h e a b i l i t i e s o f t h e p a i n t e r r e m a i n p r i m a r y t h r o u g h o u t . The d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e f i n a l m e s s a g e s i n L i Shan's and Zheng X i e ' s h a n g i n g s c r o l l s , w h i c h c a n be c o n s i d e r e d t o r e p r e s e n t t h e i r most s c h o l a r l y w o r k s , i l l u s t r a t e a g a i n t h e d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f p a i n t i n g t r a n s a c t i o n s i n w h i c h t h e y were e n g a g e d . L i Shan by c i r c u m s t a n c e and p r o b a b l y i n p a r t by c h o i c e p a i n t e d f u l l y t o a c c o m o d a t e t h e p a t r o n . H i s own i n c a p a b i l i t y o f b e i n g f u l l y r e c o n c i l e d w i t h t h i s s i t u a t i o n a p p e a r s i n t h e d u a l r e a d i n g s p o s s i b l e w i t h many o f h i s 87 w o r k s . Zheng X i e ' s u s e o f t h e p o l a r i z e d p a i n t e r / a u d i e n c e r e l a t i o n s h i p a l l o w s h i m t o i n t e r j e c t h i s own i d e a s on t h e i s s u e s o f l i t e r a t i t h o u g h t and on p a i n t i n g more d i r e c t l y . P r o b a b l y h i s r e p u t a t i o n e n a b l e d h i m t o r e t a i n some s t a t u r e and u n t o u c h a b i 1 i t y . Zheng X i e ' s u s e o f l e s s o r t h o d o x i m a g e r y and h i s u s e o f t h e p a i n t e r / p a t r o n d i c h o t o m y i l l u s t r a t e h i s a t t e m p t t o l o c a t e c e r t a i n p a t r o n s , and h i s a t t e m p t t o g i v e f r e s h s i g n i f i c a n c e t o l i t e r a t i c o n c e p t s . I t i s h i s a b i l i t y t o s o m e t i m e s c r o s s o v e r t h e l i n e b e t w e e n p a i n t e r and p a t r o n i n t h e d i c h o t o m y , r e v e a l i n g t o t h e p a t r o n what t h e p a i n t e r c o n s i d e r s t o be a p r i m a r y s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e i m a g e , t h a t i n d i c a t e s how f a r he s h o u l d be s e t a p a r t f r o m L i Shan. T h u s , t h e s u g g e s t i o n o f t h e c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n p a i n t i n g and t h e n a t u r a l w o r l d m a n i f e s t s t h e m i x t u r e o f " u n o r t h o d o x " i d e a s and l i t e r a t i p a i n t i n g s u b j e c t s . I n m a k i n g a d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n L i Shan and Zheng X i e , I am p r o p o s i n g t h a t t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h t h e p a i n t e r s a d h e r e t o t h e u n o r t h o d o x e l e m e n t s i s an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e i r a t t e m p t t o p o p u l a r i z e t h e i r i m a g e r y . G i n g e r C h e n g - c h i Hsu h a s e s t a b l i s h e d t h e g e n e r a l t r e n d t o w a r d s a more p o p u l a r l i t e r a t i a r t i n t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . 5 My a n a l y s i s o f Zheng X i e and L i Shan a g r e e s w i t h h e r e c o n o m i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , w h i l e i t makes d i s t i n c t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e d e g r e e s o f p o p u l a r i z a t i o n f o r e a c h p a i n t e r , and t h e f u n c t i o n o f t h e p o p u l a r i z a t i o n , w h i c h I s e e as e n t a i l i n g t h e c r e a t i o n o f a p o l a r i t y b e t w e e n t h e p a i n t e r and p a t r o n . 8 8 T h u s , w h i l e Zheng X i e ' s t h e o r y o f p a i n t i n g has a w i d e r a n g e o f f u n c t i o n s w h i c h do n o t i g n o r e t h e p a i n t e r ' s own i d e a s on m a t t e r s , L i Shan's p a i n t i n g s do i g n o r e t h e p a i n t e r ' s p e r s p e c t i v e , o r a t l e a s t submerge i t , i n o r d e r t o f o c u s upon what t h e p a t r o n d e s i r e s . He was more c o n c e r n e d w i t h ways i n w h i c h t o a t t r a c t t h e p a t r o n , and L i Shan was c l e a r l y v e r y c l e v e r a b o u t c r e a t i n g a demand f o r h i s i m a g e s . E v i d e n c e f o r t h i s i s t h e p o p u l a r i t y o f h i s f i s h p a i n t i n g s . I w o u l d l i k e t o g i v e a n o t h e r e x a m p l e o f how L i Shan's u s e o f t h e " u n o r t h o d o x " t r a d i t i o n s i s d i f f e r e n t and more c o m p l e t e t h a n Zheng X i e ' s , t h r o u g h a c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e i r u s e o f t h e dao o r w o r k i n g s o f n a t u r e i n t h e i r p a i n t i n g s and s t y l e s . A k e y t o t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e f i s h p a i n t i n g s i s L i Shan's a b i l i t y t o imbue them w i t h t a l i s m a n i c c a p a b i l i t i e s . 6 Not o n l y d i d t h e y f u n c t i o n as New Y e a r ' s p i c t u r e s b u t t h e y g u a r a n t e e d t h e a u s p i c i o u s n e s s o f t h e New Y e a r t h r o u g h t h e p a i n t e r ' s a p p a r e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e w o r k i n g s o f n a t u r e . O t h e r i n s c r i p t i o n s f r o m p a i n t i n g s by L i Shan i l l u s t r a t e a s i m i l a r p r i n c i p l e a t w ork: C l e a r summer d u r i n g t h e f a m i n e I f a s t . . . M a n k i n d ' s h e a t I c a n b r i n g t o an end. P l e a s e l o o k on t h i s i n k and b r u s h as i f t h e y were c l o u d s r i s i n g , I t i s l i k e t h e c o l d r a i n and c o o l w i n d amongst t h e bamboo and t r e e s i n t h e a u t u m n . 7 T h i s t y p e o f m a g i c , one c o u l d c a l l i t , i l l u s t r a t e s L i Shan's c o n n e c t i o n w i t h S h i t a o , who a l s o u t i l i z e d h i s c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e w o r k i n g s o f n a t u r e t o b o l s t e r t h e o v e r a l l r e c e p t i o n o f h i s p a i n t i n g as a p r o f e s s i o n a l . The i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e method o f p a i n t i n g i n g i v i n g a c e n t r a l f u n c t i o n as o p p o s e d t o m e a n i n g t o t h e a r t w o r k i s a c r i t i c a l f e a t u r e o f " u n o r t h o d o x " t e c h n i q u e s w h i c h L i Shan i s s t r o n g l y u t i l i z i n g h e r e . T h e s e m a g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e b r u s h w o r k o r p a i n t e d f o r m s c a n be l i n k e d w i t h t h e e n t e r t a i n m e n t f u n c t i o n s o f t h e a c t o f p a i n t i n g f o r s u c h p a i n t e r s as Xu Wei . One p a i n t i n g by L i Shan w h i c h may i l l u s t r a t e i n t h e v e r y b r u s h w o r k h i s i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e w o r k i n g s o f n a t u r e i s t h a t o f an e a r t h e n w a l l w i t h b u t t e r f l y o r c h i d s , d a t e d t o 1727, t h e p e r i o d i n w h i c h he may h ave s e e n t h e p a i n t i n g s o f S h i t a o ( F i g u r e 1 5 ) . The r o u g h t r a n s l a t i o n by Edmund Capon i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e image was p a i n t e d when L i Shan saw a w a l l w h i c h had b e e n p a r t l y washed away by f l o o d s and a p p e a r e d t o " f l y away t o g e t h e r . " 9 L i S han's b r u s h w o r k seems n o t o n l y t o p r e s e n t t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e o b j e c t s b u t a l s o t o c a p t u r e on t h e p a p e r t h e a c t u a l a c t o f w a s h i n g away. The b r u s h a c t i o n t h u s a p p r o x i m a t e s t h e n a t u r a l phenomenon. E v i d e n c e f o r t h i s i n t e n t i o n i n t h e p a i n t i n g s o f S h i t a o c a n be f o u n d i n a l e a f w i t h i n h i s a l b u m o f l a n d s c a p e s d a t e d t o 1 6 9 1 , i n w h i c h he a p p r o x i m a t e s t h e f o r m a t i o n o f c l o u d s i n h i s b r u s h w o r k ( f i g u r e 1 6 ) . L i Shan's p a i n t i n g i n a c c o r d w i t h n a t u r e d i f f e r s f r o m Zheng X i e ' s i n many ways. We have a n a l y z e d Zheng X i e ' s use o f t h e i d e a o f i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h t h e d a o , a l s o b a s e d upon S h i t a o , i n C h a p t e r 3. I n L i S han's p a i n t i n g , t h e c h i e f s i g n i f i c a n c e i s t h e p a i n t e r ' s i n v o l v e m e n t i n n a t u r e and h i s a b i l i t y t o p r o v i d e e f f i c a c i o u s i mages f o r t h e p a t r o n . I n Zheng X i e ' s p a i n t i n g t h e i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h n a t u r e i n i t s e l f was t a k e n b a c k p a s t S h i t a o t o t h e N o r t h e r n Song l i t e r a t i , and t h e a c t i o n o f l i n k i n g o n e s e l f t o t h e p a s t c h a n g e s t h e m e a n i n g o f t h e b r u s h w o r k and t h e i d e a c o n s i d e r a b l y . The b r u s h w o r k and t h e p a i n t e r ' s i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h n a t u r e t a k e on l i t e r a t i d i m e n s i o n s . T h i s c o m p e t e s d i r e c t l y w i t h s i m p l e r v e r s i o n s o f l i t e r a t i p a i n t i n g , o r x i e y i . The p u r p o s e and s i g n i f i c a n c e o f Zheng X i e ' s b r u s h w o r k i s n o t j u s t t o p l e a s e t h e p a t r o n , b u t t o e x p r e s s a more c o m p l e x i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e p a i n t e r ' s i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h t h e d a o , w h i c h g e t s b e y o n d t h e p a i n t i n g i t s e l f . I n s a y i n g t h i s I do n o t want t o i d e a l i z e Zheng X i e , f o r I have a r g u e d t h a t h i s p a i n t i n g s were d e s i g n e d t o a t t r a c t c e r t a i n t y p e s o f p a t r o n s . I s i m p l y want t o p o i n t o u t how Zheng X i e and L i Shan a r e d i f f e r e n t b e c a u s e o f t h e i r d i f f e r e n t p a t r o n a g e and a u d i e n c e , and how t h e p a i n t i n g s o f e a c h c o n t a i n more o r l e s s s t r a n d s o f l i t e r a t i t h o u g h t . I t i s t h e s e s t r a n d s w h i c h a l l o w t h e p a i n t e r t o e x p r e s s i d e a s more o p e n l y and i n c l u d e more o f h i s own t h o u g h t i n t h e i m a g e s . One w o u l d e x p e c t a c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e b a s i c s t y l i s t i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e l i t e r a t i and u n o r t h o d o x t r a d i t i o n s a l o n g w i t h t h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f l i t e r a t i and u n o r t h o d o x s u b j e c t m a t t e r and i d e a s . The q u e s t i o n a r i s e s , a r e t h e r e a n y s t y l i s t i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s p a r t i c u l a r t o t h e l i t e r a t i 91 t r a d i t i o n i n t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y ? A t t h a t t i m e , p a i n t e r s seem t o have l e f t b e h i n d t h e c r u m b l y - l i n e s t y l e s o f t h e l i t e r a t i t r a d i t i o n r e c e n t l y e v i d e n t i n t h e p a i n t i n g s o f t h e A n h u i s c h o o l , o r t h e d a b b i n g p e r s i s t e n c e o f t h o s e done by t h e f o u r Wangs. The q u e s t i o n may be p h r a s e d p e r h a p s i n n e g a t i v e t e r m s : i s t h e r e a b a s i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t o " u n o r t h o d o x " p a i n t i n g and t o what e x t e n t do q u a l i t i e s o f l i t e r a t i p a i n t i n g e x i s t b e s i d e i t i n t h e w o r k s o f L i Shan and Zheng X i e ? F o r t h i s p u r p o s e I w o u l d l i k e t o u s e James C a h i l l ' s c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f p r o f e s s i o n a l p a i n t i n g , w h i c h i s a c a t e g o r y o f p a i n t i n g t h a t o v e r l a p s " u n o r t h o d o x p a i n t i n g . " He s t a t e s t h a t p r o f e s s i o n a l a r t i s t s o f t e n c o m b i n e d i n t h e i r w o r k s t h e s e n s e o f t h e n a t u r a l i s t i c w i t h d e c o r a t i v e e l e m e n t s and s u r f a c e s . ^ - " W i t h r e g a r d t o L i Shan and Zheng X i e t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s a t i o n i s e s p e c i a l l y m e a n i n g f u l . I n t a k i n g up S h i t a o ' s b a s i c s t y l e , Zheng X i e a d h e r e s i n p a r t t o t h a t m a s t e r ' s u s e o f t a c t i l e d e s c r i p t i v e e f f e c t s and c o n v i n c i n g r e n d e r i n g s o f n a t u r a l f e a t u r e s . The i m p o r t a n c e o f t h i s t y p e o f r e n d e r i n g i n a t h e o r y p r o p o s i n g i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h t h e w o r k i n g s o f n a t u r e s h o u l d be c l e a r . However, Zheng X i e d i d n o t u s e c o l o u r i n h i s w o r k s , p r o b a b l y t h e o n l y a r t i s t i n Y a n g z h o u who d i d n o t , w h i l e S h i t a o d i d . As w e l l , Zheng X i e ' s s u r f a c e s a r e i n t h e m s e l v e s n o t as d e c o r a t i v e as S h i t a o ' s o r L i S h a n ' s , u s u a l l y l a c k i n g a s i n g l e f o c u s , o r a c o m p o s i t i o n w h i c h e n t e r t a i n s f o r i t s 92 own s a k e . The l a c k o f t h e s e q u a l i t i e s i s a p o s i t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f a l i t e r a t i p a i n t i n g . L a c k i n g t h e s e q u a l i t i e s , i n t e l l e c t u a l c o n t e n t i s t h e n i n c l u d e d . T h i s c o n t e n t makes t h e image more i n t e r e s t i n g , l i n k i n g i t s b r u s h w o r k t o c e r t a i n o t h e r l i t e r a t i p a i n t e r s , and u t i l i z i n g i t t o e x p r e s s l i t e r a t i i d e a s s u c h as t h e i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e o f c a l l i g r a p h y and p a i n t i n g . L i S h a n , h o w e v e r , d i d u s e c o l o u r and a s i n g l e f o c u s i n h i s c o m p o s i t i o n s i n o r d e r t o make them more a t t r a c t i v e . H i s w o r k s a r e a l s o l i f e - l i k e i n t h e same way as S h i t a o ' s . T h i s i s l e s s t r u e , h o w e v e r , f o r h i s more s c h o l a r l y p r o d u c t i o n s , s u c h as h i s p i n e t r e e s c r o l l s , o r t h e odd l a t e bamboo p a i n t i n g . A g a i n , t h i s i s n o t a q u e s t i o n o f who i s b e t t e r , b u t w h a t , i f q u a l i t y was t h e i s s u e , w o u l d e a c h man be b e t t e r a t . The m o n o c h r o m a t i c w o r k s o f Zheng X i e c o m m u n i c a t e d t o a d i f f e r e n t t y p e o f p a t r o n t h a n t h e m a j o r i t y o f w o r k s by L i Shan. W i t h i n t h a t p a t r o n a g e Zheng X i e c o u l d a f f o r d t o , and was p r o b a b l y e x p e c t e d t o , make some k i n d o f s c h o l a r l y c o m m e n tary. On t h e q u e s t i o n o f q u a l i t y , one c o u l d a r g u e t h a t L i Shan's w o r k s a r e more c o n s i s t e n t l y o f a h i g h e r q u a l i t y . One c o u l d a l s o a r g u e t h a t t h i s was due i n p a r t t o t h e g r e a t e r i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e v i s u a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f h i s i m a g e s . Zheng X i e , h o w e v e r , c o u l d p r o b a b l y w e l l a f f o r d t o s c r i b b l e o u t s o m e t h i n g m o n o c h r o m a t i c , n o t i m m e d i a t e l y g r a b b i n g and e a s i l y i d e n t i f i a b l e as b e i n g a s u b j e c t m a t t e r i n t h e l i t e r a t i v e i n , and s e l l i t . However, i n h i s t h e o r e t i c a l i n s c r i p t i o n s and t h e images c o n t a i n i n g them he s t r o v e f o r more t h a n t h i s . The d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n L i Shan and Zheng X i e ' s p a i n t i n g s has much t o do w i t h t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e b a c k g r o u n d s and r e s u l t i n g e x p e c t a t i o n s and a b i l i t i e s . The q u e s t i o n f o r us a t t h i s p o i n t i s how d i d t h e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e two become r e c o n c i l e d w i t h t h e i d e a s o f S h i t a o and t h e n o t i o n o f i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h t h e d a o . I h a v e a n s w e r e d t h i s q u e s t i o n f o r Zheng X i e i n C h a p t e r 4, f i n d i n g i t t o have been a c o n s c i o u s d e c i s i o n t o r e c o n c i l e l i t e r a t i and S h i t a o i a n i d e a s and image s y s t e m s . N o t s u r p r i s i n g l y , i t seems t h a t i t was a l s o a c o n s c i o u s d e c i s i o n on t h e p a r t o f L i Shan. He, h o w e v e r , had t o r e c o n c i l e t h e S h i t a o i a n i d e a w i t h h i s b a c k g r o u n d as p a i n t e r a t c o u r t , and t h e s k i l l s a c q u i r e d t h e r e t o d e p i c t n a t u r a l i s t i c a l l y . One c a n c a l l t h i s a r e a l i g n m e n t . Zheng X i e d e s c r i b e s L i Shan's s t y l i s t i c e v o l u t i o n and s u g g e s t s h i s g r a d u a l move t o t h i s s t y l e i n an i n s c r i p t i o n upon an a l b u m o f f l o w e r s p a i n t e d b y L i Shan, w h i c h i s now i n t h e S i c h u a n P r o v i n c i a l M u s e u m . 1 1 The i d e a i n t h e i n s c r i p t i o n i s t h a t a f t e r a c q u i r i n g t h e manner o f p a i n t i n g u s u a l l y c a l l e d as x i e s h e n g o r p a i n t i n g f r o m l i f e , L i Shan became i n c r e a s i n g l y e c c e n t r i c i n h i s p a i n t i n g s t y l e . Zheng X i e c o n s i d e r s t h i s e c c e n t r i c i t y t o be a p o s i t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f L i Shan's p a i n t i n g . The d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e apogee o f L i Shan's p a i n t i n g makes t h e c l a i m f o r c l a r i t y and c o m p l e x i t y w i t h i n a mode o f s p o n t a n e o u s p a i n t i n g . I n r e a l i t y , t h e r e i s u s u a l l y l i t t l e s p o n t a n e o u s o r l o o s e b r u s h w o r k i n L i Shan's p a i n t i n g s . The f u n c t i o n o f Zheng X i e ' s i n s c r i p t i o n , was p r o b a b l y t o a l i g n L i Shan's p a i n t i n g w i t h S h i t a o and l i t e r a t i p a i n t i n g . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , Zheng X i e s o u g h t t o l i n k t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f L i Shan's p a i n t i n g s t o t h e i d e a o f n a t u r a l g e n i u s , o r p a i n t i n g a c c o r d i n g t o t h e w o r k i n g s o f n a t u r e . I f we r e c a l l Zheng X i e ' s own c l a i m s f o r i n d e p e n d e n c e f r o m t h e many x i e y i p a i n t e r s o f t h e t i m e , t h e a b i l i t y t o p a i n t a c c o r d i n g t o t h e w o r k i n g s o f n a t u r e was t h e method o f l e g i t i m i z i n g h i s own s c h o l a r - p a i n t i n g . I n t h e c a s e o f L i Shan t h i s a b i l i t y l e g i t i m i z e s h i s c o u r t p a i n t i n g b a c k g r o u n d . The r e a l i g n m e n t f o r L i Shan meant t h a t he t o o was e l e v a t e d a b o v e t h e c r o w d s o f l i t e r a t i , w h i l e f o r h i m t h e i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h t h e w o r k i n g s o f n a t u r e were n o t e x p l i c i t l y t i e d t o t h e N o r t h e r n Song l i t e r a t i , as Zheng X i e had a s s e r t e d t h e y were i n h i s own p a i n t i n g s . T h i s i s t h e e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e ways i n w h i c h t h e two p a i n t e r s a p p r o a c h e d p a i n t i n g . F u r t h e r p r o o f o f L i Shan's method o f p a i n t i n g i s g i v e n i n h i s b i o g r a p h y , w h i c h makes c l e a r t h e l i n k b e t w e e n e c c e n t r i c i t y and i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h t h e w o r k i n g s o f n a t u r e : By s p e c i a l d e c r e e he o f t e n l e a r n e d w i t h t h e e x p e r i e n c e d J i a n g X i a n g g u o , and a l t o g e t h e r s e r v e d i n t h e i n n e r c o u r t f o r a few y e a r s . . . Shan p a i n t e d f l o w e r s and b i r d s . He d i d n o t h o l d on s t u b b o r n l y t o t h e r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s o f t h o s e o f t h e p a s t . C r e a t i o n was i n h i s w r i s t and t h e c o n d i t i o n was l i k e g r o w t h . 1 2 To c o n c l u d e t h i s s e c t i o n on s t y l e I w o u l d n o t e t h a t Zheng X i e and L i Shan b o t h u t i l i z e d t h e i d e a o f p a i n t i n g i n a c c o r d w i t h t h e w o r k i n g s o f n a t u r e , and t h e e c c e n t r i c i t y o r i n d i v i d u a l i s m w i t h w h i c h i t i s a s s o c i a t e d . B o t h a l s o u t i l i z e d S h i t a o ' s i d e a s and s t y l e i n t h e p r o c e s s . What d i f f e r e d was t h e i r a r t i s t i c and s o c i a l b a c k g r o u n d s . Zheng X i e ' s g r e a t e r s u c c e s s as an o f f i c i a l and h i s more s c h o l a r l y i n t e r e s t s , i n c a l l i g r a p h y and w r i t i n g as w e l l as p a i n t i n g , c o n t r a s t e d w i t h L i Shan's l e s s w e l l - k n o w n o f f i c i a l p o s i t i o n and h i s g r e a t e r a b i l i t y as a p a i n t e r . As a r e s u l t , L i Shan was more a b l e and i n more need t o u t i l i z e h i s p a i n t i n g t o make a l i v i n g . F o r L i Shan t h e r e i s a r a n g e o f p a i n t i n g t y p e s ( a l b u m l e a v e s and h a n g i n g s c r o l l s o f l e s s o r more s c h o l a r l y i n c l i n a t i o n ) . I n t e r m s o f t h e p a i n t i n g m a r k e t , L i Shan p a i n t e d f o r a b r o a d m a r k e t , u t i l i z i n g a f e t c h i n g b a l a n c e o f a r t i s t r y and a u s p i c i o u s s e n t i m e n t s i n h i s p a i n t i n g s , w h i c h a r e t a n g e n t i a l l y r e l a t e d t o t h e m a i n s t r e a m l i t e r a t i t r a d i t i o n . Zheng X i e i n s t e a d p a i n t e d more s c h o l a r l y w o r k s . He t o o m i x e d i n d i v i d u a l i s m and an i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h t h e w o r k i n g s o f n a t u r e w i t h l i t e r a t i i d e a s and p a i n t i n g . However, he added t h e m o t i v e o f r a i s i n g t h e s t a n d a r d s o f l i t e r a t i p a i n t i n g a b o v e t h o s e o f o t h e r s and r e t a i n i n g more t r a d i t i o n a l c o n c e r n s o f l i t e r a t i p a i n t i n g . T h e s e i n c l u d e d a c o n c e r n f o r m o r a l i t y , t h e l i t e r a t i l i f e s t y l e , r e f e r e n c e t o p a s t s a g e s o f t h e S o n g , and t h e i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e o f t h e s c h o l a r ' s a r t s . T h e r e was a c o n c e r n f o r more i n Zheng X i e ' s p a i n t i n g s , i n c l u d i n g s a l v a g i n g some s t a t u s and i d e a s o f t h e l i t e r a t i t r a d i t i o n , w h i c h L i Shan o n l y s u b l i m a t e d . Zheng X i e s i m p l y had t h e b a c k g r o u n d and e x p e c t a t i o n s as w e l l as a b e t t e r p o s i t i o n t o s t r i v e t o w a r d s t h e s e ends i n p a i n t i n g s w h i c h c o u l d a l s o s e r v e as s a l a b l e c o m m o d i t i e s . I t was t h e c o n t r a d i c t i o n s t i l l b e t w e e n t h e s e a t t e m p t s as w e l l as t h e s i t u a t i o n and r e s u l t s o f s e l l i n g p a i n t i n g s w h i c h c a u s e d t h e t e n s i o n s i n Zheng X i e ' s a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s p a i n t i n g and i n h i s l i f e . The d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n L i Shan and Zheng X i e q u a l i f i e d t h e d i c h o t o m o u s r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e m s e l v e s and t h e i r a u d i e n c e s . T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p was a l s o a t t h e r o o t i n many c a s e s o f t h e t y p e s o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r e m p l o y e d and t h e way i n w h i c h t h e y f u n c t i o n e d . O t h e r s u b j e c t m a t t e r i n L i Shan's p a i n t i n g s i n c l u d e s a c h i c k e n b e s i d e a f e n c e , d o m e s t i c f l o w e r s f r a m e d b y a bamboo f e n c e , i n s e c t s e a t i n g m u l b e r r y l e a v e s i n a b a s k e t w i t h a p o l e l y i n g b e s i d e , and an a n i m a l upon t h e b r a n c h o f a p i n e t r e e ( F i g u r e s 1 7 - 2 0 ) . T h e s e a r e o r i g i n a l w o r k s i n t h e h i s t o r y o f C h i n e s e p a i n t i n g s , t h o u g h some may be r e l a t e d t o b i r d s and d o m e s t i c p e t s p a i n t e d by l i t e r a t i p a i n t e r s o f t h e M i n g d y n a s t y l i k e Wen Zhengming o r p r o f e s s i o n a l o r u n o r t h o d o x p a i n t e r s l i k e L a n Y i n g and Xu W e i . 1 3 Some o f t h e s e p a i n t i n g s a r e d o m e s t i c s u b j e c t s ( t h e c h i c k e n ) , w h i l e o t h e r s c o m b i n e t h e d o m e s t i c w i t h t h e n a t u r a l w o r l d ( t h e m u l b e r r y l e a f p o l e and b a s k e t w i t h i n s e c t s , t h e f l o w e r s and t h e b r o k e n bamboo f e n c e ) . I n t h e o t h e r a l b u m l e a f , t h e p i n e t r e e seems d i v e s t e d o f i t s l i t e r a t i a s s o c i a t i o n s by t h e p r e s e n c e o f an a n i m a l s c r a m b l i n g up a b r a n c h , w h i c h a n i m a t e s t h e c o m p o s i t i o n . I n t h e s e w o r k s t h e r e i s , i n a d d i t i o n t o an i n t e r m i n g l i n g o f d o m e s t i c and n a t u r a l , a n a t u r a l i z a t i o n o r d o m e s t i c a t i o n o f some l i t e r a t i s u b j e c t m a t t e r ( t h e p i n e and t h e bamboo), a l t h o u g h I am n o t y e t aware o f t h e f u l l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e s e . I n Zheng X i e ' s p a i n t i n g s t h e r e i s an e m p h a s i s upon p l a c i n g t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r i n t h e n a t u r a l r e a l m , w h e t h e r i n h i s t h e o r e t i c a l i n s c r i p t i o n s o r t h e b u l k o f h i s h a n g i n g s c r o l l s i n t h e l i t e r a t i r o c k - p l u s - p l a n t g e n r e . T h i s s m a l l r a n g e o f t r a d i t i o n a l and s c h o l a r l y s u b j e c t m a t t e r i s n a t u r a l i z e d t h r o u g h Zheng X i e ' s e m p h a s i s on s e t t i n g . T h i s h a n d l i n g has much t o do w i t h h i s use o f S h i t a o ' s i d e a s . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e how t h i s s e t s up a r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e p a i n t e r and p a t r o n w h i c h s p e c i f i e s t h e s i t e f o r t h e m e e t i n g as t h e n a t u r a l w o r l d . T h u s , i n c o n t r a s t t o L i Shan's work, t h e p a i n t e r and p a t r o n s h a r e a s p a c e w h i c h i s o u t s i d e o f t h e d o m e s t i c p l a c e . Of c o u r s e , t h e p a i n t e r p r o v i d e s t h e s p a c e . We have s e e n i n two p a i n t i n g s e x a m p l e s o f how Zheng X i e c o u l d m o r a l i z e i n h i s work and how he c o u l d q u a l i f y t h e m e a n i n g o f t h e s p a c e he c r e a t e s i n p a i n t i n o r d e r t o demand some p a r t i c i p a t i o n f r o m t h e p a t r o n o r a u d i e n c e (See C h a p t e r 2, t h e bamboo s h o o t p a i n t i n g and t h i s C h a p t e r f o r t h e p a i n t i n g o f O r c h i d , Bamboo, and R o c k ) . T h i s i l l u s t r a t e s t h e p a i n t e r ' s a b i l i t y t o a c t as an a r b i t e r o f m o r a l i t y . T h e r e i s a p o s s i b i l i t y , h o w e v e r , t h a t t h e r e was a t e n s i o n b e t w e e n t h e n a t u r a l s e t t i n g and t h e l i t e r a t i c o n n o t a t i o n s o f Zheng X i e ' s w o r k . The l i t e r a t i s t a t e m e n t w h i c h i s Zheng X i e ' s f o c u s e n t a i l s a q u a l i f i c a t i o n o f t h e n a t u r a l o r Dao a s p e c t o f t h e work. F o r e x a m p l e , h i s p a i n t i n g o f C y m b i d i u m . Bamboo and F u n g i d i s c u s s e d a b o v e . A c a t e g o r i z a t i o n o f some o f t h e m a j o r t e n s i o n s o f t h e t i m e f o r L i Shan and Zheng X i e w i l l h e l p t o a s c e r t a i n t h e p o s s i b l e t e n s i o n s i n t h e i r p a i n t i n g s and a c t t o s u m m a r i z e some o f t h e s u g g e s t i o n s made t h r o u g h o u t t h i s t h e s i s . I n o r d e r t o do s o I w i l l r e l y upon b i o g r a p h i c a l and o t h e r m a t e r i a l s w h i c h s u g g e s t t h e p e r s o n a l s i t u a t i o n s and a t t i t u d e s o f L i Shan and Zheng X i e . T h e s e s o u r c e s a r e l e s s f o r m u l a i c t h a n t h e o f f i c i a l s o u r c e s q u o t e d i n C h a p t e r 1. T h e y s e r v e t o p r e s e n t t h e d y n a m i c s o f t h e h i s t o r i c a l r e a l i t i e s o f t h e t i m e w h i c h a r e n e a t l y c o n c e a l e d b e n e a t h t h e v e n e e r o f o f f i c i a l h i s t o r y , and w h i c h c a n be r e a d i n t h e c o n t r a d i c t i o n s b e t w e e n d i f f e r e n t a r t w o r k s and a r t w o r k s and t e x t s . T h e r e a r e f o u r t y p e s o f t e n s i o n s : 1. The t e n s i o n b e t w e e n t h e s t a t u s w h i c h L i Shan and Zheng X i e w o u l d have g a i n e d t r a d i t i o n a l l y and t h a t p o s s i b l e d u r i n g t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . The l i t e r a t u s w i t h p r e c o n c e p t i o n s o r hopes f o r s t a t u s f o u n d t h a t he had l i t t l e c o n t r o l o v e r h i s r e p u t a t i o n and r e c e p t i o n . I t c o u l d n o t be c h o s e n , b u t was r a t h e r h e a p e d on by o t h e r s . The l i t e r a t u s no l o n g e r d e f i n e d t h e c r i t e r i a o r t h e r u l e s f o r a t t a i n i n g s t a t u s . 2. The t e n s i o n b e t w e e n p a i n t i n g as a c o m m e r c i a l a c t i v i t y and a s an i n s t r u m e n t o f t h e l i t e r a t i l i f e . 3. The t e n s i o n b e t w e e n p a i n t i n g , c a l l i g r a p h y , and w r i t i n g i n t h e c a s e o f Zheng X i e . 4. The t e n s i o n b e t w e e n t h e methods o f e s c a p e f r o m t h e s e s i t u a t i o n s and t h e i n a b i l i t y t o t r u l y c o n v i n c e o n e s e l f o r o n e's f r i e n d s o f t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e method. W i t h r e g a r d t o t h e f i r s t k i n d o f t e n s i o n , l o s s o f s t a t u s , we a l r e a d y h ave Zheng X i e ' s comment q u o t e d i n C h a p t e r 1, c o n c e r n i n g t h e number o f s c h o l a r s a c t i v e i n t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . We s h o u l d n o t u n d e r e s t i m a t e t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e s e comments. I n E u r o p e , a r t i s t s o f e s t a b l i s h e d r e p u t a t i o n s may h ave had q u a l m s a b o u t t h e r a p i d i n c r e a s e i n t h e number o f c o m p e t i t o r s , b u t i n C h i n a t h e l i t e r a t i a r t i s t was n o t j u s t an a r t i s t , and i n f a c t p a i n t i n g was o n l y a p a r t o f h i s l i f e s t y l e . Zheng X i e ' s comment i n d i c a t e s more t h a n a d i s g u s t a t t h e l a r g e number o f c o m p e t i t o r s . I t i n c l u d e s a d i s g u s t a t t h e a t t i t u d e s o f t h o s e many t o w a r d s t h e i r p a t r o n s , a s w e l l as t h e d e c l i n e o f t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f b e i n g a s c h o l a r . My b e l i e f i s t h a t p o p u l a r i t y d i d n o t e q u a l s t a t u s i n Y a n g z h o u i n t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y i n t h e same way i t d i d i n E u r o p e . Zheng X i e ' s f r e q u e n t l y q u o t e d p a i n t i n g a d v e r t i s e m e n t i s p a r t l y an e x a m p l e o f r e f u t i n g t o a d y p a t r o n s . 1 4 I t s u g g e s t s t h e common a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s Zheng X i e a s a p a i n t e r . A c c o r d i n g t o two a l t e r n a t e r e a d i n g s o f Zheng X i e ' s p r i c e l i s t , p a t r o n s m i g h t have e i t h e r t a k e n on t h e p r e t e n s e o f b e i n g s c h o l a r s t o a t t a i n w o r k s o r b o u g h t w o r k s o u t r i g h t w i t h o u t r e g a r d t o what t h e p a i n t e r t h i n k s a b o u t them. E i t h e r way, i f t h e p a i n t e r s e l l s w o r k s i n t h i s manner, w h i c h Zbeng X i e may h a v e , t h e s a r c a s t i c t o n e o f t h e 100 p r i c e l i s t e x p r e s s e s t h e p a i n t e r ' s d i s p l e a s u r e w i t h t h e a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s h i m s e l f . T h i s i s d i f f e r e n t t h a n a s t r a i g h t - f o r w a r d p r i c e l i s t w h i c h m i g h t s t a t e t h a t "my s c r o l l s a r e f o r s a l e , 20 t a e l s f o r t h e a l b u m " e t c . One c o u l d a r g u e t h a t Zheng X i e i s s a v i n g f a c e t h r o u g h c r i t i c i z i n g h i s p a t r o n s . Then t h e r e i s s t i l l f a c e t o s a v e , b u t f o r what p u r p o s e — w h o was l o o k i n g ? My a r g u m e n t w o u l d be t h a t Zheng X i e was s a v i n g f a c e i n f r o n t o f s m a l l e r g r o u p s w i t h whom he was more p l e a s e d t o d e a l . E v i d e n c e f o r Zheng X i e ' s p r e f e r e n c e f o r some g r o u p s o v e r o t h e r s , w h i c h a r g u e s a g a i n s t a f u l l commitment t o c o m m e r c i a l p a i n t i n g , a p p e a r s i n t h e f o r m o f Zheng X i e ' s p a i n t i n g t h e o r y . L i Shan's l o s s o f s t a t u s i s e v i d e n t i n p o p u l a r o p i n i o n and h i s l o s s o f h i s c h o s e n i d e n t i t y o f s c h o l a r , as he was l a b e l e d " t h e o l d p a i n t i n g m a s t e r . " 1 5 T h e r e i s e v i d e n c e o f a l a r g e s c a l e i n t e r e s t i n L i Shan and Zheng X i e ' s w o r k s , w h i c h a p p l i e d a p r e s s u r e t o t a k e on c e r t a i n i d e n t i t i e s w h i c h b o t h men r e s e n t e d . L i Shan w r o t e o f c r o w d s i n t e r r u p t i n g h i s l e i s u r e , o r h i s p e a c e o f m i n d , w h i l e Zheng X i e had t o r e s o r t t o a p a i n t i n g a d v e r t i s e m e n t . The s e c o n d t y p e o f t e n s i o n i s t h a t b e t w e e n v i e w i n g p a i n t i n g as a p a r t o f l i t e r a t i l i f e and v i e w i n g p a i n t i n g s a s s a l a b l e c o m m o d i t i e s . T h i s i s r e l a t e d t o t h e f i r s t k i n d o f t e n s i o n , e l i t e s t a t u s , w h i c h was l o s t t o a g r e a t e x t e n t , and c o u l d have p r e v i o u s l y p r o v i d e d an a r e n a i n w h i c h p a i n t i n g as a h obby o r a c o n t r o l l e d e x c h a n g e c o u l d t a k e p l a c e . An e x a m p l e o f t h i s t e n s i o n i s Zheng X i e ' s a t t e m p t t o r a i s e t h e 101 l e v e l o f p a i n t i n g i n h i s p a i n t i n g t h e o r y a b o v e i t s g e n e r a l p r a c t i c e and l e s s i n s p i r e d i m a g e s , w h i c h o f t e n were w i t h o u t a d i r e c t a d d r e s s t o t h e r e c i p i e n t . 1 6 The t e n s i o n b e t w e e n i d e a l l i t e r a t i and c o m m e r c i a l p a i n t i n g c a n be f o u n d i n t h e way i n w h i c h Zheng X i e ' s p a i n t i n g t h e o r y e m p h a s i z e s a s p e c t s o f p a i n t i n g n o t p r e s e n t i n h i s more c o m m e r c i a l w o r k s . The c o m m e r c i a l p a i n t i n g s a r e v o i d o f t h e e m p h a s i s upon p o e t r y and c a l l i g r a p h y and t h e i n v o l v e m e n t o f t h e a r t i s t . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t h i s " b e t t e r " and h i s more " s i m p l e " w o r k s s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d c o n t r a d i c t o r y e f f o r t s i n w h i c h Zheng X i e was aware o f t h e c o n t r a d i c t i o n . An e x a m p l e o f h i s a w a r e n e s s o f t h i s c o n t r a d i c t i o n c a n be f o u n d a l e t t e r w r i t t e n t o h i s b r o t h e r Mo w h i c h s u g g e s t s h i s b e l i e f i n t h e two p o s s i b l e f u n c t i o n s o f a r t , l i t e r a t i and c o m m e r c i a l , a comment on t h e f o u r c l a s s e s i n C h i n a w h i c h s u p p o r t s t h e s e two p o s s i b i l i t i e s , and c e r t a i n comments w h i c h c a s t i g a t e o u t r i g h t c o m m e r c i a l s a l e t o t h e d e t r i m e n t o f l i t e r a t i i d e a s . Zheng X i e ' s l e t t e r t o h i s b r o t h e r Mo s t a t e s t h a t i t i s h a r m l e s s f o r Su S h i t o p a i n t , s i n c e he had a c o n s t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r t h e p e o p l e , w h i l e i t i s v u l g a r t o p a i n t i n o r d e r t o make a l i v i n g , o r " t o e n t e r t a i n o t h e r s , " w h i c h he s t a t e s he i s d o i n g i n h i s o l d a g e . He a l s o comments on t h e fame o f Zhuke L i a n g as a s c h o l a r and c u r s e s t h e commonness o f t h e t i t l e " s c h o l a r " i n h i s d a y . A t t h e same t i m e , he i m p l i e s an a f f i n i t y b e t w e e n h i m s e l f and Zhuke L i a n g and Su S h i , i n s p i t e o f h i s own p a i n t i n g a c t i v i t i e s . 1 7 T h i s a f f i n i t y w h i c h Zheng X i e c o n s t r u c t s b e t w e e n h i m s e l f and Su S h i and Zhuke L i a n g o p p o s e s h i m s e l f i n s p i t e o f h i s " h a v i n g " t o p a i n t f o r a l i v i n g t o t h e common s c h o l a r s o f t h e t i m e . T h i s i l l u s t r a t e s Zheng X i e ' s r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e t e n s i o n s i n h e r e n t i n h i s p a i n t i n g a c t i v i t i e s . I f i n d t h i s i m p o r t a n t b e c a u s e o f t h e s t r o n g a r g u m e n t Zheng X i e makes f o r h i s own c o n t i n u a t i o n o f Su S h i ' s i d e a s i n h i s b e s t p a i n t i n g s , and b e c a u s e o f t h e l i f e e x p e r i e n c e s he had w h i c h l i n k h i m t o Su S h i and t o t h e fame o f Zhuke L i a n g . F o r e x a m p l e , i n Wei c o u n t y Zheng X i e was no d o u b t t r e a t e d as a famous s c h o l a r . The p e o p l e b u i l t f o r h i m an a n c e s t r a l s h r i n e on h i s d e p a r t u r e , l a r g e l y b e c a u s e he had s a v e d many p e o p l e by o p e n i n g up t h e g r a n a r i e s d u r i n g a f a m i n e . 1 8 As w e l l , t h e r e i s t h e s u g g e s t i o n i n L i Dou's Y a n g z h o u H u a f a n q l u o f Zheng X i e ' s a c t i v i t y a t t h e s a c r i f i c i a l room f o r t h r e e N o r t h e r n Song m a s t e r s , Su S h i , Wen T ong, and Ouyang X i u . 1 9 T h e s e a c t i o n s o r e v e n t s must have a d v e r t i s e d a c e r t a i n i d e n t i t y f o r Zheng X i e w h i l e t h e y i l l u s t r a t e h i s l i k e l y r e t e n t i o n o f c e r t a i n i d e a s e x p r e s s e d i n h i s l e t t e r t o h i s b r o t h e r Mo. I n a p a s s a g e on t h e f o u r c l a s s e s i n C h i n a , Zheng X i e p l a c e s t h e s c h o l a r i n t h e l o w e s t o f t h e f o u r p o s i t i o n s , b e l o w t h e f a r m e r and t h e m e r c h a n t who p r o d u c e m a t e r i a l goods f o r t h e b e n e f i t o f a l l members o f s o c i e t y . 2 ^ * He d o e s so w i t h t h e p r o v i s o t h a t i f an i n t e l l e c t u a l d o e s what he s h o u l d , t h i s i n c l u d i n g p r a c t i c i n g good f a m i l y a f f a i r s and good o f f i c e as w e l l as s e t t i n g a m o r a l e x a m p l e i n r e t i r e m e n t , t h e n he i s h i g h e r t h a n t h e f a r m e r . B u t Zheng X i e s e e s t h e m a j o r i t y o f s c h o l a r s , a g a i n w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f h i m s e l f and an u n s p e c i f i e d few o t h e r s , as f a l l i n g much s h o r t o f t h i s g o a l . Thus he p r o b a b l y s e e s h i m s e l f as p a s s i n g on a m o r a l e x a m p l e . T h i s we have s e e n i n h i s bamboo s h o o t p a i n t i n g and I w o u l d a r g u e , i n t h e a n e c d o t a l and i d e a l i z e d , b u t p r o b a b l y p a r t i a l l y t r u e , a c c o u n t s o f Zheng X i e ' s a v e r s i o n t o a c o n c e n t r a t i o n upon t h e o u t r i g h t s a l e o f i m a g e s . • 6 i I w o u l d s u g g e s t t h a t a t e n s i o n b e t w e e n t h e more c o m m e r c i a l images and t h e more p e r s o n a l i z e d and c o m p l e x i m ages c a n be d e t e c t e d i n Zheng X i e ' s f r a m i n g o f t h e image o f t h e s c h o l a r as good o r b a d , d e p e n d i n g . He c h a r a c t e r i z e s h i s p a i n t i n g and b e h a v i o u r as r a r e and r e f i n e d , w h i l e a d m i t t i n g t o p a i n t i n g i n a way t h a t he f o u n d u n a c c e p t a b l e . I n o r d e r t o a g a i n p o i n t o u t t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h e f i r s t k i n d o f t e n s i o n s u g g e s t e d h e r e , l o s s o f s t a t u s , I s h o u l d m e n t i o n Zheng X i e ' s comment on t h e f o u r c l a s s e s : t h e p o o r b e h a v i o u r o f t h e masses o f s c h o l a r s g a v e a bad name t o t h e few good o n e s , i n c l u d i n g Zheng X i e h i m s e l f . A f i n a l a r g u m e n t f o r t h e t e n s i o n b e t w e e n t h e more s c h o l a r l y and c o m m e r c i a l modes o f p a i n t i n g f o r Zheng X i e i s h i s o u t r i g h t c a s t i g a t i o n i n some i n s t a n c e s o f c o m m e r c i a l a c t i v i t i e s i n p a i n t i n g , and a d m i t t a n c e o f i t i n o t h e r i n s t a n c e s . F o r e x a m p l e t h e r e i s h i s l e t t e r t o L i Shan: I n t e n d a y s we have n o t s e e n one a n o t h e r . . . Can y o u come o v e r f o r a v i s i t w i t h me?... The p a i n t i n g b u s i n e s s , no d o u b t , i s p r e s s i n g , b u t t a l k i n g o f m a t t e r s a l s o c a n n o t be g i v e n u p . 2 2 104 T h i s l e t t e r i s a good e x a m p l e o f Zheng X i e ' s need f o r some k i n d o f l i t e r a t i c o m m u n i t y i n a r t . The v e r y d i r e c t i n t e r f e r e n c e o f c o m m e r c i a l p a i n t i n g w i t h L i Shan's more s o p h i s t i c a t e d e x c h a n g e s and w i t h t h e p l e a s u r e s o f b e i n g a l i t e r a t u s must have o c c u r r e d i n Zheng X i e ' s l i f e as w e l l . T h e r e i s a c o n t r a d i c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e d i f f e r e n t m ethods o f s a l e and t h e l i f e s t y l e s c o n n e c t e d w i t h them. T h i s l e t t e r and t h e comment w i t h i n Zheng X i e ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f L i Shan's s t y l i s t i c e v o l u t i o n w h i c h s t a t e s t h a t L i Shan's p a i n t i n g s weakened a f t e r he was s i x t y , o r 1745 when he came t o Y a n g z h o u , c o n t r a s t w i t h L i Shan's s t a t e m e n t o f p r o f e s s i o n a l g o a l s and Zheng X i e ' s own. L i S h a n , i t seems, p a i n t e d a c t i v e l y a f t e r h i s r e t u r n t o Y a n g z h o u , e v e n t h o u g h he t o o , a p p a r e n t l y , had r e g r e t s . B i o g r a p h i c a l r e c o r d s s t a t e what i s p r o b a b l y a p a r t i a l t r u t h c o n c e r n i n g L i Shan's r e g r e t s a f t e r r e t i r i n g : He was d i s o b e d i e n t t o a g r e a t m i n i s t e r , and s o was d i s c h a r g e d and r e t u r n e d (home). He t h e n b u i l t t h e F u o u g u a n i n t h e s o u t h e r n par>t o f t h e c i t y . He h o w l e d and i n t o n e d u n t i l t h e e n d . 2 3 However, L i Shan's a c c e p t a n c e o f h i s need t o p a i n t p r o f e s s i o n a l l y i s c l e a r i n h i s l e t t e r t o h i s nephew i n Hangzhou j u s t p r i o r t o L i Shan's move t o Y a n g z h o u , i n 1745: I hope y o u a r e most w e l l nephew. I n Teng c o u n t y we d i d n o t t a l k . When I r e t u r n e d home we h u r r i e d l y s p o k e and t h e n went o u r own ways f o r y e a r s — e n d u r i n g t h e c o r n e r s o f t h e e a r t h . . . I h a v e a l r e a d y d e c i d e d t o l i v e a t home. R e c e n t l y I a g a i n had t h o u g h t s of. l e a v i n g t h e m o u n t a i n s t o come t o t h e p r e f e c t u r a l c i t y h o l d i n g t h e b e g g i n g b o w l , m a k i n g a p l a n t o e n t e r t h e c a p i t a l . A t t h e end o f t h e t e n t h month I l e f t home...What I need b a d l y i s t o buy p a i n t i n g b r u s h e s . A t my p l a c e , t h e 105 b r u s h e s o v e r f i l l t h e c a s e , b u t a l l a r e u n f i t t o u s e b e c a u s e t h e y a r e a l l m a k e s h i f t g o o d s , and n o t r e t a i l s a l e s . I n Hangzhou t h e p a i n t i n g b r u s h s t o r e s a r e n u m e r o u s . . . 2 4 Zheng X i e ' s s t a t e m e n t o f g o i n g t o j o i n L i Shan i n Y a n g z h o u t o p a i n t , a s w e l l as h i s comment i n o l d age a f t e r L i Shan's d e a t h t h a t he w i l l no l o n g e r have anyone w i t h whom t o t a l k o v e r m a t t e r s o f p a i n t i n g , i n d i c a t e s an a c c e p t a n c e o f p a i n t i n g c o m m e r c i a l l y as a f a c t o f l i f e . B u t Zheng X i e a t t e m p t e d t o h o l d o n t o what he p e r c e i v e d t o be a more c o r r e c t l i t e r a t i l i f e s t y l e w i t h more v i g o u r . Thus he w r o t e h i s l e t t e r c a s t i g a t i n g L i Shan's c o m m e r c i a l a c t i v i t i e s and h i s comment on L i Shan's w e a k e n i n g a b i l i t y a f t e r h i s move t o Y a n g z h o u . I do n o t t h i n k t h a t one c a n r e c o n c i l e t h e s e s o u r c e s , n o r c a n t h e y be e x p l a i n e d w i t h t h e n o t i o n o f c h a n g i n g a t t i t u d e s t h r o u g h t i m e , s i n c e t h e y a r e s i m u l t a n e o u s . I n s t e a d I b e l i e v e t h a t t h e c o n t r a d i c t i o n s t h e m s e l v e s a r e t h e c e n t r a l f a c t o f t h e t i m e . A good e x a m p l e o f c o n t r a s t i n g v i e w s e x p r e s s e d a t t h e same moment c a n be g a t h e r e d by c o m p a r i n g L i Shan's l e t t e r t o h i s nephew c o n c e r n i n g t h e a q u i s i t i o n o f p a i n t i n g b r u s h e s and Zheng X i e ' s poem t o L i Shan o f t h e same y e a r : When l e a d i n g t h e ox o u t t o p l o u g h t h e f i e l d s , Do a p a i n t i n g a s b e f o r e - - p l a y w i t h t h e b r u s h . . . Y o u r w h i t e h a i r o v e r f l o w s y o u r s h o u l d e r s - - t h e l o f t y i d e a l ( f o r o f f i c i a l d o m ) i s b u t a s h e s . 2 5 T h u s , a t L i Shan's t i m e o f r e t i r e m e n t , w h i c h i s e q u i v a l e n t w i t h h i s p u r c h a s e o f t h e F u o u g u a n i n t h e s o u t h e r n p a r t o f Y a n g z h o u as r e c o r d e d i n t h e b i o g r a p h y q u o t e d a b o v e , Zheng X i e f o r e s a w some k i n d o f r e t i r e m e n t i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l 106 s e n s e . He a l s o hoped t o c o n t i n u e t h e f r i e n d s h i p w i t h i n t h i s r e t i r e m e n t . T h e r e i s some c o n t r a d i c t i o n b e t w e e n t h i s poem when we t h i n k o f L i Shan's l e t t e r r e a c h i n g Hangzhou a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e same t i m e . Ten y e a r s l a t e r , Zheng X i e t o o l e f t h i s o f f i c e and had i d e a s o f p a i n t i n g i n Y a n g z h o u . B u t t h e h opes e x p r e s s e d i n h i s poem t o L i Shan no d o u b t r e a s s e r t e d t h e m s e l v e s t o an e x t e n t i n t h e f a c e o f l o s i n g h i s p e r c e i v e d s t a t u s . I n o r d e r t o e n s u r e t h a t I do n o t i d e a l i z e Zheng X i e I want t o p r e s e n t an e x a m p l e o f a p a i n t i n g t r a n s a c t i o n . T h i s e x a m p l e , t h o u g h a n e c d o t a l , j o i n s w i t h t h e s a r c a s t i c p a i n t i n g a d v e r t i s m e n t t o g i v e us a f u l l e r p i c t u r e o f t h e r a n g e o f t o n e i n Zheng X i e ' s l a n g u a g e w i t h r e g a r d t o h i s p a t r o n s , and t h e r a n g e o f h i s a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s c o m m e r c i a l p a i n t i n g . T h i s r a n g e o f a t t i t u d e o r a c t i o n shows t h e r a n g e o f s i t u a t i o n s o f t h e t i m e , and t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e s e s i t u a t i o n s . T h i s c a n be u s e d a l o n g w i t h t h e i n f o r m a t i o n o f t h e p r o b l e m s w h i c h Zheng X i e had w i t h c o m m e r c i a l p a i n t i n g i n o r d e r t o g e t a b e t t e r p i c t u r e o f t h e t e n s i o n s he f a c e d . I have p a r a p h r a s e d t h e s t o r y h e r e : I n h i s l a t e r y e a r s i n Y a n g z h o u , B a n q i a o ' s r e p u t a t i o n g r e w d a i l y . One m e r c h a n t w i s h e d t o o b t a i n a c a l l i g r a p h y b y B a n q i a o . He s e n t someone t o t a c t f u l l y r e q u e s t B a n q i a o ' s c a l l i g r a p h y , and m o r e o v e r r e q u e s t t h a t he compose a l i n e . B a n q i a o a s k e d 1,000 t a e l s . The ( m e s s e n g e r ) c o n s e n t e d t o 500 t a e l s . B a n q i a o c o m p l e t e d t h e f i r s t l i n e . The m e s s e n g e r r e q u e s t e d h i m t o w r i t e t h e s e c o n d l i n e . B a n q i a o l a u g h i n g , s a i d : " I c l e a r l y s a i d 1,000 t a e l s . You o n l y p a i d 500. I t h e r e f o r e h a v e w r i t t e n o n l y o n e - h a l f . " 2 6 The s e c o n d k i n d o f t e n s i o n i n v o l v e s q u a l i t y : t h e 107 q u a l i t y o f t h e w o r k, t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e e x c h a n g e o f t h e work o f a r t , and t h e q u a l i t y o f t h o u g h t i n v o l v e d i n t h e e x c h a n g e and t h e work. The b a s i c a r g u m e n t t h e n , i s t h a t t h e r e was a t e n s i o n b e t w e e n p r o d u c i n g b e t t e r w o r k s o f a r t i n a more s c h o l a r l y e n v i r o n m e n t and p r o d u c i n g w o r k s f o r an anonymous p a t r o n a g e . I h a v e s u g g e s t e d t h a t w h i l e t h e l a t t e r was a r e c o g n i z e d p r a c t i c a l o p t i o n , t h e t i e s t o t h e f o r m e r t y p e c a u s e d t e n s i o n s w h i c h t h e s c h o l a r s o m e t i m e s had t o f a c e . A t h i r d t y p e o f t e n s i o n i s n o t r e l a t e d d i r e c t l y t o t h e i s s u e o f q u a l i t y . T h i s t e n s i o n i n s t e a d has t o do w i t h t h e c o n f l i c t b e t w e e n d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f r e c o g n i t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y r e c o g n i t i o n f o r w r i t i n g and c a l l i g r a p h y and r e c o g n i t i o n f o r p a i n t i n g . F o r e x a m p l e , i n h i s a u t o b i o g r a p h y w r i t t e n i n 1749 i n w h i c h Zheng X i e c o m p a r e s h i m s e l f and L i S h a n , he e m p h a s i z e s h i s c a l l i g r a p h y o v e r h i s p a i n t i n g . He a l s o i d e n t i f i e s L i Shan as t h e p a i n t e r o f t h e t i m e , and h i m s e l f as t h e w r i t e r o f t h e t i m e : Zheng X i e was good a t c a l l i g r a p h y , and c a l l e d h i m s e l f " L i u f e n B a n s h u . " A l s o , he u s e d h i s f r e e t i m e t o p a i n t o r c h i d and bamboo. I f p r i n c e s , d u k e s and m i n i s t e r s , h i g h m i n i s t e r s , l i t e r a t i , o l d monks o f t h e m o u n t a i n s . . . o b t a i n e d one p i e c e o f p a p e r w i t h some c a l l i g r a p h y upon i t , t h e y t r e a s u r e d i t and s t o r e d i t away. B u t B a n q i a o n e v e r t o o k t h e s e p e o p l e as a p r e t e n s e t o b e c o m i n g famous. O n l y h i s f e l l o w c o u n t y m a n L i Shan F u t a n g was a m u t u a l f r i e n d . . . F u t a n g u s e d h i s p a i n t i n g t o w o r s h i p i n t h e i n n e r c o u r t . D u r i n g t h e t i m e o f t h e K a n g x i e m p e r o r ' s c o u r t L i Shan's name was g r e a t i n t h e c a p i t a l and e l s e w h e r e . . . T w e n t y y e a r s l a t e r , b e c a u s e o f h i s p o e t r y , c i . p o e t r y , and w r i t i n g , Zheng X i e was as famous as L i S h an. Those who s o u g h t p a i n t i n g c a l l e d F u t a n g ; t h o s e who s o u g h t p o e t r y and l i t e r a t u r e c a l l e d B a n q i a o . L i r e t i r e d f r o m h i s p o s t as t h e m a g i s t r a t e o f Teng c o u n t y . B a n q i a o was a x i u c a i i n t h e r e i g n o f t h e 108 K a n g x i e m p e r o r , was a j u r e n i n t h e r e n z i y e a r o f t h e r e i g n o f t h e Y o n g z h e n g emperor ( 1 7 3 2 ) , and was a j i n s h i i n t h e b i n g c h e n y e a r o f t h e r e i g n o f t h e Q i a n l o n g e m peror ( 1 7 3 6 ) . F i r s t he was t h e m a g i s t r a t e i n F a n c o u n t y ; he t h e n c o n t i n u e d a f t e r he was t r a n s f e r e d t o Wei c o u n t y . 2 7 I n t h i s r a t h e r f l a t t e r i n g s e l f - a p p r a i s a l we s e e t h a t f o r Zheng B a n q i a o c o n s i d e r e d p a i n t i n g t o be a l e i s u r e a c t i v i t y . He e m p h a s i z e s h i s o f f i c e i n t h i s p a s s a g e ; and t h u s p a i n t i n g has a s i m i l a r r o l e t o t h a t i n t h e l i f e o f Su S h i , a s Zheng X i e d e s c r i b e d i t . H i s o v e r r i d i n g c o n c e r n , h o w e v e r , i s t h a t h i s w r i t i n g s be v a l u e d more t h a n h i s c a l l i g r a p h y and p a i n t i n g . Zheng X i e s t a t e s t h a t h i s a r t w o r k s had been v e r y p o p u l a r . However, he w a n t s t h e p r i m a r y a r t o f t h e s c h o l a r , w r i t i n g , t o be v a l u e d more t h a n t h o s e a r t s . T h u s , he w a n t s h i s r e p u t a t i o n t o be f o u n d e d upon h i s l i t e r a r y t a l e n t . I n h i s a r g u m e n t Zheng X i e u t i l i z e s t h e C h i n e s e method o f a r g u m e n t t h r o u g h p a i r i n g s . He c o n s t r u c t s a p a i r i n g o f Zheng t h e w r i t e r and L i t h e p a i n t e r . To some e x t e n t t h i s was t r u e , j u d g i n g b y t h e i r b a c k g r o u n d s and p e r s o n a l h i s t o r i e s . However, t h e i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s t h e way i n w h i c h p a i n t i n g and c a l l i g r a p h y become t h e k e y t o one's i m p o r t a n c e and r e p u t a t i o n a t t h i s t i m e . T h i s i s l a r g e l y b e c a u s e p a i n t i n g s and c a l l i g r a p h i e s c o u l d be p u r c h a s e d , l i k e a n t i q u i t i e s w h i c h were a l s o e x t r e m e l y p o p u l a r a t t h e t i m e . Fame was g a r n e r e d most q u i c k l y t h r o u g h t h e s a l e o f p a i n t i n g s and c a l l i g r a p h i e s . W o r s t o f a l l f o r Zheng X i e was t h e way i n w h i c h t h o s e i n t e r e s t e d i n p a i n t i n g and c a l l i g r a p h y g ave t h e a r t i s t a c e r t a i n r e p u t a t i o n w i t h o u t h i s c o n s e n t . Thus Zheng X i e s t a t e s , " b u t B a n q i a o n e v e r t o o k t h e s e p e o p l e as a p r e t e n s e t o b e c o m i n g f a m o u s . " T h i s c o n c e r n i n f o r m s Zheng X i e ' s b e s t p a i n t i n g a f t e r he went t o Y a n g z h o u . He d i d n o t a b a n d o n p a i n t i n g , b u t t r i e d t o r e f o r m i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e i n t o a more a c c e p t a b l e one. Thus h i s p a i n t i n g t h e o r y r e e m p h a s i z e s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f p o e t r y and c a l l i g r a p h y as Su S h i had d o n e . We s h o u l d n o t e t h a t t h i s c o n c e r n f o r t h e r e p u t a t i o n o f a s c h o l a r b e i n g b a s e d s o l e l y upon p a i n t i n g a p p e a r s a l s o i n t h e b i o g r a p h y on L i Shan, i n s p i t e o f Zheng X i e ' s a t t e m p t s t o f r a m e h i m s e l f and h i s f r i e n d h i s t o r i c a l l y : ( L i Shan) was l e a r n e d and c o u l d w r i t e ; h i s poems were u n c o n v e n t i o n a l l y g r a c e f u l and n a t u r a l , and h i s c a l l i g r a p h y had t h e c o l o u r o f w i l l o w , b o n e s and m u s c l e s . The w o r l d has m e r e l y p a s s e d on s t a t e m e n t s o f h i s s k i l l i n p a i n t i n g . 2 8 T h e r e i s a f o u r t h t e n s i o n o f t h e t i m e t h a t has e v e r y t h i n g t o do w i t h t h e p a i n t e r ' s a t t e m p t s t o j u s t i f y w h a t e v e r i n v o l v e m e n t i n p a i n t i n g he h a d . T h i s i s t h e t e n s i o n b e t w e e n t h e s c h o l a r ' s c l a i m and i t s r e c e p t i o n . T h e r e was a c o n t i n u a l t e n s i o n a t t h e t i m e b e t w e e n what d i f f e r e n t i n d i v i d u a l s s t a k e d o u t f o r t h e m s e l v e s and what o t h e r s , t h o s e whose o p i n i o n s m a t t e r e d t o t hem o r g r o u p s i n w h i c h t h e y w a n t e d t o c i r c u l a t e , w o u l d a c c e p t o f i t . I n t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y i n d i v i d u a l s were c u t f r e e f r o m a w e l l - d e f i n e d t r a d i t i o n and y e t w a n t e d t o s u r v i v e o r a s s e r t t h e i r s t a t u s as l i t e r a t i t o v a r i o u s d e g r e e s . The v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f " m o r a l i t y " a t t h e t i m e need t o be i n v e s t i g a t e d i n more d e p t h , b u t two e x a m p l e s a r e Zheng X i e ' s l i o c a s t i g a t i o n o f L i Shan and Yuan M e i ' s w a r n i n g t o J i n Nong a b o u t how t h e s e l l i n g o f l a n t e r n s i s u n b e f i t t i n g a s c h o l a r . 2 9 1. The E l e g a n t B r u s h , 19 8 5, 164. 2. A p p e n d i x 2, number 5. 3. The E l e g a n t B r u s h , 19 85, 172. 4. C h e n g - c h i Hsu, P a t r o n a g e , 1987, 249. 5. C h e n g - c h i Hsu, P a t r o n a g e , 1987. 6. The f a c t t h a t t h i s i s i n i t s e l f a t o p i c o f i n t e r e s t came o u t i n t h e r e s p o n s e t o my t h e s i s p r o p o s a l a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 7. I n Zhuang S h e n , " L i Shan s h i c h a o , " 1972, 58. 8. James C a h i l l , T h r e e A l t e r n a t i v e H i s t o r i e s , 1988, 65. C a h i l l d i s c u s s e s t h e e a r l y a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e t a l i s m a n i c a s p e c t o f p a i n t i n g s and m e n t i o n s i t s l a t e r p r e s e n c e i n S h i t a o and o t h e r s i n a c c o r d w i t h t h e c l a i m t h a t t h e y p a r t i c i p a t e d i n n a t u r a l c r e a t i o n . 9. Edmond Capon and Mae Anna P a n g , C h i n e s e P a i n t i n g s o f t h e M i n g and Q i n g D y n a s t i e s , 1 9 8 1 , 156. 10. James C a h i l l , The C o m p e l l i n g Image, 1982. 11. A p p e n d i x 2, number 3. 12. A p p e n d i x 2, number 4. 13. R e p r o d u c e d i n C o m p r e h e n s i v e I l l u s t r a t e d C a t a l o g , 1982, JM11-032, A 3 1 - 0 6 3 , JM3-172, r e s p e c t i v e l y . 14. " S i x t a e l s f o r a l a r g e p a i n t i n g . . . B e t t e r g i v e me s i l v e r (money) r a t h e r t h a n a n y g i f t s o r f o o d s t u f f s , f o r t h e l a t t e r may n o t d o v e t a i l t o my n e e d s . However, i f y o u s h o u l d b r i n g c a s h , mmy h e a r t w i l l r e j o i c e an ( c o n s e q u e n t l y ) my c a l l i g r a p h y and p a i n t i n g w i l l be o f b e t t e r q u a l i t y . G i f t s a r e t r o u b l e s o m e , and p u r c h a s e s on c r e d i t e v e n l e s s welcome. I am o l d and e a s i l y f a t i g u e d , and u n a b l e t o s p e n d t i m e a r g u i n g w i t h y o u g e n t l e m e n . . . L e t o t h e r s w r a n g l e o r a r g u e o v e r p r i c e , i t i s b u t autumn w i n d p a s s i n g by my e a r s " (The E l e g a n t B r u s h . 1985, 1 6 9 ) . 15. C h a p t e r 2. 16. The a n e c d o t e w h i c h a p p e a r s as A p p e n d i x 1, number 4 i l l u s t r a t e s how an i n s c r i p t i o n t o t h e owner r a d i c a l l y c h a n g e d t h e m e a n i n g o f t h e w o r k , s i n c e t h e p a r t i c u l a r m e r c h a n t i n v o l v e d had some p a i n t i n g s by Zheng X i e , b u t s o u g h t f o r one w i t h s u c h an i n s c r i p t i o n . 17. T h i s p a s s a g e i s t r a n s l a t e d by V i c k i F r a n c e s W e i n s t e i n , " E c c e n t r i c i t y , " 1972, 12 4 - 1 2 5 . 18. See h i s n i a n b i a o u n d e r t h e y e a r 1752 (Zh e n g B a n q i a o i i . 1 9 62, a p p e n d i x ) . 19. A p p e n d i x 1, number 3, v o l u m e 12. 20. V i c k i F r a n c e s W e i n s t e i n , " E c c e n t r i c i t y , " 1972, 30. 21. F o r e x a m p l e t h e a n e c d o t e i n A p p e n d i x 1, number 4. 22. A p p e n d i x 2, number 7. 23. J i n Nong i s a l s o l i k e l y t o h a v e w a i l e d somewhat b u t p a i n t e d a c t i v e l y . We have s e e n e v i d e n c e f o r L i Shan's h o w l i n g i n Y a n g z h o u i n Zheng X i e ' s l u e i u q u o t e d i n c h a p t e r two. T h i s a d d i t i o n a l e v i d e n c e i s i n h i s b i o g r a p h y i n t h e X i n g h u a L i s h i z h u a n l u e ( B i o g r a p h i e s o f t h e L i F a m i l y o f X i n g h u a ) ( A p p e n d i x 2, number 4 ) . 24. R e p r o d u c e d i n Wang Z i e h e n ' s a r t i c l e " L i Shan S h o u z h a , " 1982, 94 ( A p p e n d i x 2, number 1 ) . 25. A p p e n d i x 2, number 2. The d a t e o f 1745 l i s t e d a b o v e i s o b t a i n e d f r o m Zheng X i e ' s n i a n b i a o ( Z h e n g B a n q i a o j i , 1962, a p p e n d i x ) . 26. A p p e n d i x 1, number 4. 27. A p p e n d i x 1, number 2. 28. A p p e n d i x 2, number 4. 29. C h a p t e r 2. 113 CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSION P a i n t i n g f o r t h e l i t e r a t u s i n t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y s t i l l meant s o m e t h i n g as an a r t f o r m o u t s i d e o f i t s c o m m e r c i a l f u n c t i o n s . Many s c h o l a r s went t o Y a n g z h o u i n t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y b e c a u s e i t was t h e c u l t u r a l c e n t e r . I t was t h e p l a c e where t h e y c o u l d engage i n t h e c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e s c h o l a r , and i t was a l s o t h e p l a c e where t h e i r f r i e n d s w e r e . F o r L i Shan and Zheng X i e i t was t h e i r home p r e f e c t u r e , and f o r them as w e l l i t p r e s e n t e d t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o make a l i v i n g f r o m t h e s a l e o f t h e i r i m a g e s . I t was a l s o a p l a c e o f c o n t r a d i c t i o n s . E a c h a r t i s t had p r o b l e m s w i t h t h e i d e a o f o u t r i g h t c o m m e r c i a l s a l e . F i n d i n g a h a p p y medium o f s a l e , a method o f e x c h a n g e i n w h i c h s c h o l a r l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n f o r m e d t h e e x c h a n g e , was n o t e a s y ; n o r was t h i s q u a l i f i c a t i o n o f t h e s a l e o f p a i n t i n g s u n d e r t h e c o n t r o l o f t h e p a i n t e r . The m a r k e t r e a c t e d t o and c r e a t e d r e p u t a t i o n s , and t h e s c h o l a r s were i n v o l v e d i n t h i s m a r k e t w h e t h e r t h e y l i k e d i t o r n o t . As w e l l , t h e i r r e p u t a t i o n s p r e c e d e d them. T h e i r fame as o f f i c i a l s o r c o u r t p a i n t e r s s h a p e d t h e r e c e p t i o n o f t h e i r w o r k s and t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s , as w e l l as p r o v i d i n g t h e m w i t h d i f f e r e n t t o o l s f o r s u r v i v a l . L i Shan n o t o n l y had a d i f f e r e n t b a c k g r o u n d f r o m Zheng X i e , b u t a l s o a d i f f e r e n t t e m p e r a m e n t . He was more w i l l i n g t o p a i n t p r o f e s s i o n a l l y i t seems t h a n Zheng X i e , y e t h i s 114 i d e a l s were v e r y much t h e same. H i s a b i l i t y i n p a i n t i n g and h i s r e p u t a t i o n made i t p o s s i b l e a n d , i t seems, n e c e s s a r y f o r h i m t o l i v e f r o m h i s p a i n t i n g . H i s i d e a l s t h u s t o o k a wa r p e d f o r m w i t h i n h i s p a i n t i n g s ; a f o r m o f s a r c a s m . Zheng X i e ' s i d e a l s a l s o a p p e a r e d i n t h e s a r c a s m o f h i s p a i n t i n g a d v e r t i s e m e n t and e l s e w h e r e . However, w i t h h i s fame as an o f f i c i a l he was a b l e t o f o r m u l a t e a p o s i t i o n w h i c h gave h i m g r e a t e r l e v e r a g e i n h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h a more s e l e c t p a t r o n a g e . T h u s , Zheng X i e had t h e t i m e t o f o r m u l a t e a t h e o r y o f p a i n t i n g w h i c h i l l u s t r a t e d t h e i d e a l s he h e l d , i d e a l s w h i c h L i Shan s h a r e d b u t c o u l d n o t e x p r e s s i n s u c h a f o r m . I n t h i s t h e s i s I h a v e t r i e d t o p o i n t o u t how t h e i d e a s o f two a s p i r i n g s c h o l a r s , Zheng X i e and L i Sh a n , c l a s h e d w i t h t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s i n w h i c h t h e y l i v e d . The t e n s i o n s a r e l o c a t e d c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y b e t w e e n s e v e n t e e n t h - c e n t u r y p a i n t i n g i n t h e more t r a d i t i o n a l l i t e r a t i mode and n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y p a i n t i n g w h i c h f o l l o w e d t o a g r e a t e x t e n t upon t h e l i n e s o f L i Shan's s t y l e and s u b j e c t m a t t e r . The c h a r a c t e r o f s c h o l a r p a i n t i n g i n t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y was d e t e r m i n e d by a s c h o l a r c l a s s who s o l d w o r k s t o an e a g e r p a t r o n , and i n t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y was d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e p a t r o n who b o u g h t w o r k s f r o m an e a g e r p a i n t e r . I n b e t w e e n , i n t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , i s a s t a g e a t w h i c h i t i s u n c l e a r who i s d e f i n i n g t h e n a t u r e o f l i t e r a t i a r t . S c h o l a r s who were n o t a p a r t o f a c l e a r l y f o r m e d c o m m u n i t y and who l a c k e d t h e s u p p o r t o f a t r a d i t i o n s t r u c k o u t on t h e i r own w h i l e t r y i n g t o r e t a i n a s p e c t s o f what t h e y c o n s i d e r e d t o be s c h o l a r l y . The e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h i s r e t e n s i o n o f t h e s c h o l a r l y was e x p l i c i t d e p e n d e d upon t h e s u i t a b i l i t y o f t h e a r t i s t ' s s e n t i m e n t t o t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r c o m m e r c i a l a c t i v i t i e s . W i t h i n t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f s c h o l a r s , i n d i v i d u a l s l i k e Zheng X i e , L i S h a n , J i n Nong and Yuan M e i , a r g u e d a b o u t what was a c c e p t a b l e f o r t h e s c h o l a r , and t h e r e was no c e r t a i n a g r e e m e n t . I n s t e a d t h e r e was s t a t e m e n t , r e q u e s t , and r e b u k e . The p r o p e r c o u r s e o f a c t i o n was as u n c l e a r i n t h e d i s c o u r s e b e t w e e n t h e s c h o l a r s a s i t was b e t w e e n them and t h e i r p a t r o n s . I n an h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e , t h e l i t e r a t i t r a d i t i o n c o u l d more e a s i l y e s c a p e t h e p o l i t i c a l r e s t r i c t i o n s o f t h e c o u r t i n t h e N o r t h e r n Song t h a n t h e r e s t r i c t i o n s and d r i v i n g f o r c e o f t h e r i s e o f t h e m e r c h a n t c l a s s w h i c h was r o o t e d i n e c o n o m i c s . The i n d i v i d u a l i s m w h i c h was b r o u g h t i n t o p l a y i n t h e t i m e o f Su S h i was c l e a r l y o p p o s e d t o t h e c o u r t p a i n t i n g u n d e r t h e Emperor H u i z o n g , and t o t h e s y s t e m o f g o v e r n m e n t a l a c c e s s i o n t h r o u g h b l o o d l i n e s w i t h w h i c h t h o s e p a i n t i n g s were a s s o c i a t e d . When i n d i v i d u a l i s m was u t i l i z e d by Zheng X i e and L i Shan i t was u s e d i n o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e s t a n d a r d l i t e r a t i t r a d i t i o n o f t h e t i m e . Thus t h e t r a d i t i o n had a l r e a d y t u r n e d i n upon i t s e l f . I n d i v i d u a l i s m was f i l l e d w i t h c o n t r a d i c t i o n s i n t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . W h i l e i n d i v i d u a l i s m c a n be s e e n as a p u r i f i c a t i o n o f t h e l i t e r a t i t r a d i t i o n , i t was a l s o a b i d 116 f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l s u c c e s s ; i n d i v i d u a l i s m a t t h a t t i m e was i n f a c t b a s e d upon t h e l a r g e l y p r o f e s s i o n a l u n o r t h o d o x p a i n t i n g t r a d i t i o n . I n d i v i d u a l i s m was a method o f e s c a p i n g t h e d o m i n a n t l i t e r a t i t r a d i t i o n o f t h e t i m e and a method o f s e l l i n g p a i n t i n g s . To what e x t e n t d i d i n d i v i d u a l i s m a l l o w p a i n t e r s t o e s c a p e t h e e c o n o m i c p r e s s u r e s o f t h e t i m e by f r a m i n g l i t e r a t i i d e a s i n new ways? To what e x t e n t d o e s i n d i v i d u a l i s m i n d i c a t e t h e p a i n t e r ' s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e m e r c h a n t c u l t u r e o f t h e t i m e ? T h e s e q u e s t i o n s must be a s k e d a g a i n as s t u d i e s i n t h e f i e l d p r o g r e s s . H i s t o r i c a l l y , h o w e v e r , i t was L i Shan who p r o d u c e d t h e p a i n t i n g s w h i c h i n f l u e n c e d more c o m m e r c i a l n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y p a i n t i n g , n o t Zheng X i e . L i Shan's w o r k s were l e s s p r o b l e m a t i c ; a l l t e n s i o n s were s u b l i m a t e d i n t h e p a i n t i n g s . Zheng X i e ' s p a i n t i n g s were more p r o b l e m a t i c , r e t a i n i n g much o f what was m e a n i n g f u l t o t h e l i t e r a t u s o f p r e - e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y t i m e s . I n t h e p o p u l a r i t y o f L i Shan's p a i n t i n g i n t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y and t h e d i s a p p e a r a n c e o f Zheng X i e ' s i n f l u e n c e , we s e e Zheng X i e ' s s u c c e s s s i n b e i n g i n i m i c a l t o t h e e c o n o m i c s o f t h e t i m e . T h i s s u c c e s s i s a l s o i n d i c a t e d by t h e f a c t t h a t Zheng X i e i s b e t t e r known as a w r i t e r t h a n as a p a i n t e r . The p r i c e o f h i s i n c o m p l e t e a b s o r p t i o n i n t o t h e c o m m e r c i a l c u l t u r e o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , h o w e v e r , was t h e l a t e r " d i s a p p e a r a n c e " o f h i s p a i n t i n g . 1 1 7 BIBLIOGRAPHY I n t h i s b i b l i o g r a p h y , C h i n e s e s o u r c e s a p p e a r i n b o t h C h i n e s e and E n g l i s h . A r t i c l e and mongraph t i t l e s and t h e names o f p e r i o d i c a l s a p p e a r f i r s t i n C h i n e s e , t h e C h i n e s e v e r s i o n s b e i n g r e f e r r e d t o f r e q u e n t l y , w h i l e t h e p u b l i s h e r a p p e a r s f i r s t i n E n g l i s h , p u b l i s h i n g f i r m s b e i n g l e s s w e l l known. I n a l l c a s e s , t h e s e a r e f o l l o w e d by b r a c k e t e d t r a n s l a t i o n s . A b b r e v i a t i o n : Q u a n j i = Zheng B a n q i a o g u a n i i (The C o m p l e t e Works o f Zheng B a n q i a o ) . E d i t e d by B i a n X i a o x u a n . N a n j i n g : N a n j i n g U n i v e r s i t y R e s e a r c h C e n t e r f o r C l a s s i c a l R e c o r d s ( N a n j i n g d a x u e g u d i a n w e n x i a n y a n j i u s u o ) , 1985. A r t i s t s and T r a d i t i o n s . U ses o f t h e P a s t i n C h i n e s e C u l t u r e . E d i t e d by C h r i s t i a n F. M u r c k . P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1976. B a n q i a o s h i c i x i e y i n g ( S e l e c t e d W r i t i n g s and P o e t r y o f B a n q i a o ) . E d i t e d b y Chen S h u l i a n g . G u a n g x i : The P e o p l e ' s P u b l i s h i n g S o c i e t y o f G u a n g x i ( G u a n g x i r e n m i n c h u b a n s h e ) , 1983. B a r n h a r t , R i c h a r d M. P e a c h B l o s s o m S p r i n g : G a r d e n s and F l o w e r s i n C h i n e s e P a i n t i n g s . New Y o r k : The M e t r o p o l i t a n Museum o f A r t , 1983. 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The M e e t i n g o f E a s t e r n and W e s t e r n A r t . From t h e S i x t e e n t h C e n t u r y t o t h e P r e s e n t Day. L o n d o n : Thames and H u d s o n , 1973. "Some N o t e s on t h e S o c i a l H i s t o r y o f C h i n e s e A r t . " U n p u b l i s h e d p a p e r f o r a c o n f e r e n c e . D a t e ? "Some P o s s i b l e S o u r c e s o f E u r o p e a n I n f l u e n c e i n L a t e M i n g and E a r l y C h ' i n g P a i n t i n g . " P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l Symposium on C h i n e s e P a i n t i n g . 1 9 72, 595-617. S u z u k i K e i and o t h e r s . C o m p r e h e n s i v e I n d e x o f C h i n e s e P a i n t i n g s . T o k y o : 1982. Tam, L a u r e n c e C.S. " P l a n t P a i n t i n g s o f Two Y a n g - c h o u m a s t e r s . " The T r a n s l a t i o n o f A r t , 1976. T h e o r i e s o f t h e A r t s i n C h i n a . E d i t e d by S u s a n Bush and C h r i s t i a n M u r c k . 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"The A l b u m o f F l o w e r S t u d i e s S i g n i e d " C h ' u n a - c h 1 e " i n t h e N a t i o n a l P a l a c e Museum and t h e E a r l y Works o f C h u - t a , " i n P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l Symposium o f C h i n e s e P a i n t i n g . 19 70. Wang Huanzhu. Zheng B a n q i a o p i n g z h u a n ( C r i t i c a l B i o g r a p h y o f Zheng B a n q i a o ) . T a i w a n : T a i w a n C o m m e r c i a l A f f a i r s P u b l i s h i n g House ( T a i w a n shangwu y i n s h u g u a n ) , 1968. Wang L u y u . " L i Shan huan j i b u y i . F u L i Shan n i a n b i a o " (An Addendum t o t h e R e c o r d s o f t h e O f f i c i a l L i S h a n . L i Shan N i a n b i a o A p p e n d e d ) . M e i s h u s h i l u n ( E s s a y s on t h e H i s t o r y o f A r t ) , 1986, No.4, 75-78 and 57. Wang Z i e h e n . " L i Shan s h o u z h a " (A P e r s o n a l L e t t e r o f L i S h a n ) . 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" The N e l s o n G a l l e r y and A t k i n s Museum B u l l e t i n , I V , 9. K a n s a s C i t y , 1969. W r i g h t , A r t h u r F. " V a l u e s , R o l e s , and P e r s o n a l i t i e s . " C o n f u c i a n P e r s o n a l i t i e s , 1962, 3-23. Wu E r l u . " J i n Nong he t a de d a i b i h u a " ( J i n Nong and t h e p a i n t i n g s p a i n t e d u n d e r h i s name). Wenwu ( C u l t u r a l A r t i f a c t s ) , 1988, n o . 1 2 , 69-78 and 22. Wu N e l s o n I . "The E v o l u t i o n o f Tung C h ' i - c h ' a n g ' s L a n d s c a p e S t y l e as R e v e a l e d b y h i s Works i n t h e N a t i o n a l P a l a c e Museum." P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l Symposium on C h i n e s e P a i n t i n g . 1 9 72, 1-52. "The T o l e r a t i o n o f E c c e n t r i c s . " A r t News. 3 ( 1 9 5 7 ) , 27-29 and 52-54. 130 . "Tung C h ' i - c h ' a n g ( 1 5 5 5 - 1 6 3 6 ) : A p a t h y i n Government and F e r v o r i n A r t . " C o n f u c i a n P e r s o n a l i t i e s . 1962, 2 6 0 -293. Wu W i l l i a m . "Kung H s i e n ' s S t y l e and S k e t c h b o o k s . " O r i e n t a l A r t . N.S. X V I , 1 ( S p r i n g 1 9 7 0 ) , 72-80. Xu X i u n o n g . Y a n g z h o u b a i i a hua j i ( R e c o r d s o f P a i n t i n g s b y t h e E i g h t P a i n t e r s o f Y a n g z h o u ) . From t h e N a n j i n g N a t u r a l H i s t o r y Museum C o l l e c t i o n . B e i j i n g : B e i j i n g C u l t u r a l R e l i c s P u b l i s h i n g S o c i e t y ( B e i j i n g wenwu c h u b a n s h e ) , 1959. Xue Y o n g n i a n . " L i Shan de j i a s h i y u z a o q i z u o p i n " ( L i Shan's F a m i l y H i s t o r y and t h e Works o f h i s E a r l y P e r i o d ) . M e i s h u y a n i i u ( A r t R e s e a r c h ) , 1986, n o . 2 , 80-8 5 . Yang L i e n - s h e n g . "The O r g a n i z a t i o n o f C h i n e s e O f f i c i a l H i s t o r i o g r a p h y : P r i n c i p l e s and M e t h o d s o f t h e S t a n d a r d H i s t o r i e s f r o m t h e T'ang T h r o u g h t h e M i n g . " H i s t o r i a n s o f C h i n a and J a p a n , 1 9 6 1 , 44-59. Yang X i a n y i and G l a d y s Yang t r a n s l . Wu J i n g z i . The S c h o l a r s . T r a n s l . B e i j i n g : F o r e i g n L a n g u a g e s P r e s s , 1964. F i r s t e d i t i o n 1957. Yang X i n . Y a n g z h o u b a q u a i (The E i g h t E c c e n t r i c s o f Y a n g z h o u ) . B e i j i n g : C u l t u r a l A r t i f a c t s P u b l i s h i n g S o c i e t y (Wenwu c h u b a n s h e ) , 1 9 8 1 . Y a n g z h o u b a g u a i q u a n i i (The C o m p l e t e Works o f t h e E i g h t E c c e n t r i c s o f Y a n g z h o u ) . E d i t e d by L i u S h e n g b a i . T a i b e i : A r t Book Company ( Y i s h u t u s h u g o n g s i ) , 1979. Y a n g z h o u b a j i a hua j i ( C o l l e c t i o n o f P a i n t i n g s b y t h e E i g h t P a i n t e r s o f Y a n g z h o u ) . E d i t e d b y Xu Shennong. N a n j i n g : C u l t u r a l A r t i f a c t s P u b l i s h i n g S o c i e t y (Wenwu c h u b a n s h e ) , 1959 . Y a n g z h o u b a j i a h u a x u a n (A S e l e c t i o n o f P a i n t i n g s by t h e E i g h t P a i n t e r s o f Y a n g z h o u ) . T i a n j i n A r t Museum. T i a n j i n : The P e o p l e ' s A r t P u b l i s h i n g S o c i e t y (Renmin m e i s h u c h u b a n s h e ) , 1982. Young, M a r t i e W. The E c c e n t r i c P a i n t e r s o f C h i n a . I t h a c a , New Y o r k : Andrew D i c k s o n W h i t e A r t Museum, C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y , 1 965. Zhang Geng. Guochao h u a z h e n g l u . x u l u ( R e c o r d o f P a i n t e r s o f t h e Q i n g D y n a s t y , w i t h S e q u e l ) . P r e f a c e d a t e d 1739. Hua s h i c o n g s h u ( C o l l e c t i o n o f R e p r i n t e d Works on t h e H i s t o r y o f P a i n t i n g ) . E d i t e d b y Yu A n l a n . S h a n g h a i : The P e o p l e ' s A r t P u b l i s h i n g S o c i e t y ( Renmin m e i s h u c h u b a n s h e ) , 1962. Zhang Y u a n x i a n g . "Zheng B a n q i a o z a o q i s h o u s h u " (A B i r t h d a y 131 L e t t e r W r i t t e n by Zheng B a n q i a o i n h i s E a r l y P e r i o d ) . Wenwu ( C u l t u r a l A r t i f a c t s ) , 1985, no.4, 48. Zheng B a n q i a o i i (The C o l l e c t e d Works o f Zheng B a n q i a o ) . S h a n g h a i : C h i n e s e Book S t o r e , S h a n g h a i P u b l i s h i n g House (Zho n g h u a s h u j u , S h a n g h a i b i a n d u o s u o ) , 1962. Zheng B a n q i a o g u a n j i (The C o m p l e t e Works o f Zheng B a n q i a o ) . E d i t e d b y B i a n X i a o x u a n . N a n j i n g : N a n j i n g U n i v e r s i t y R e s e a r c h C e n t e r f o r C l a s s i c a l R e c o r d s ( N a n j i n g d a x u e g u d i a n w e n x i a n y a n j i u s u o ) , 1985. Zheng B a n q i a o s h u h u a ( C a l l i g r a p h y and P a i n t i n g o f Zheng B a n q i a o ) E d i t e d b y Shandong P r o v i n c e C u l t u r a l A r t i f a c t s s B u i l d i n g and W e i f a n g P r e f e c t u r e P u b l i s h i n g O f f i c e ( S h a n d o n g s h e n g wenwu j u and W e i f a n g d i q u c h u b a n b a n g o n g s h i ) . S h a n d o n g : Shandong A r t P u b l i s h i n g S o c i e t y ( S h a n d o n g m e i s h u c h u b a n s h e ) , 1984. Zheng B a n q i a o s h u h u a x u a n ( S e l e c t i o n o f C a l l i g r a p h y and P a i n t i n g b y Zheng B a n q i a o ) . E d i t e d b y He G o n g s h a n g . T a i b e i : A r t Book Company ( Y i s h u t u s h u g o n g s i ) , 1978. Zhou J i y i n . Zheng B a n q i a o s h u h u a y i s h u (The C a l l i g r a p h i c and P a i n t i n g A r t o f Zheng B a n q i a o ) . T i a n j i n : T i a n j i n A r t P u b l i s h i n g S o c i e t y ( T i a n j i n m e i s h u c h u b a n s h e ) , 1 9 8 1 . Zhuang Shen. " L i Shan s h i c h a o " (The C o l l e c t e d P o e t r y o f L i S h a n ) . D a l u z a z h i ( C h i n a M a g a z i n e ) , XLV, 1 ( 1 9 7 2 ) , 53-60. APPENDIX 1. B i o g r a p h i c a l I n f o r m a t i o n on Zheng X i e . A l l a p p e n d i c e s a r e t r a n s l a t e d f r o m t h e o r i g i n a l C h i n e s e by t h e a u t h o r u n l e s s o t h e r w i s e s p e c i f i e d . 1. Zheng X i e ' s b i o g r a p h y i n Q i n g s h i l i e z h u a n ( B i o g r a p h i e s o f t h e A n n a l s o f t h e Q i n g D y n a s t y ) , v o l u m e 72, Wenvuan z h u a n ( B i o g r a p h i e s o f t h e L i t e r a r y C a t e g o r y ) , number 3 ( Q u a n j i , 1 9 8 5 , B a n q i a o y a n j i u z i l i a o [ R e s e a r c h M a t e r i a l s on B a n q i a o ] , s e c t i o n 1, Z h u a n j i [ B i o g r a p h i e s ] , 5 4 5 ) . Zheng X i e , c a l l e d K e r o u , i s a man o f X i n g h u a i n J i a n g s u p r o v i n c e . He became a j i n s h i i n t h e f i r s t y e a r o f t h e r e i g n o f t h e Q i a n l o n g e m peror ( 1 7 3 6 ) . As an o f f i c i a l he a c t e d as t h e c o u n t y m a g i s t r a t e o f F a n c o u n t y i n S h a n d o n g , and was t r a n s f e r r e d t o Wei c o u n t y . B e c a u s e he r e q u e s t e d a i d and o f f e n d e d a g r e a t o f f i c i a l , he begged t o r e t u r n home. 1 When he was y o u n g he was c l e v e r . . . . H i s f a m i l y was p o o r . H i s c h a r a c t e r was u n c o n v e n t i o n a l and u n i n h i b i t e d , and he l i k e d t o t a k e l e i s u r e w i t h w o r t h i e s o f t h e Chan s e c t and members o f b a n n e r f a m i l i e s . 2 He o f t e n s p o k e o u t f r e e l y and d i s c u s s e d m a t t e r s i n a h i g h manner; p o i n t e d l y r e m a r k i n g on p r o m i n e n t f i g u r e s o f t h e d a y , and n o t a b s t a i n i n g f r o m t a l k i n g on a n y m a t t e r s . B e c a u s e o f t h i s he g a i n e d a r e p u t a t i o n o f b e i n g w i l d . When Zheng X i e o c c u p i e d an o f f i c i a l p o s t . . . h e s a t i s f i e d p o p u l a r e x p e c t a t i o n s . When he was a g o v e r n m e n t o f f i c i a l i n Wei c o u n t y , t h e r e was a y e a r o f c r o p f a i l u r e and t h e p e o p l e a t e e a c h o t h e r . X i e c o n s t r u c t e d many b u i l d i n g s , and c a l l e d s t a r v i n g p e o p l e f r o m f a r and n e a r t o go t o work s o t h a t t h e y c o u l d e a t . The i n f l u e n t i a l f a m i l i e s o f t h e d i s t r i c t were o r d e r e d t o open t h e m i l l s ; t h e y c o o k e d p o r r i d g e , and t o o k t u r n s f e e d i n g t h o s e who were s t a r v i n g . I t was demanded t h a t g r a i n w h i c h had b e e n s t o r e d up be s o l d a t no p r o f i t . C o u n t l e s s numbers o f p e o p l e were s a v e d . 4 A t t h a t t i m e Zheng X i e had a c t e d i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e o f f i c i a l ' s o r d e r . He was good a t p o e t r y and s k i l l e d i n c a l l i g r a p h y and p a i n t i n g . P e o p l e c a l l e d h i m "Zheng who i s good a t t h e t h r e e p e r f e c t i o n s " ( o r c h i d , bamboo, and r o c k ) . 5 The f e e l i n g s w h i c h he e x p r e s s e d t h r o u g h h i s poems and t h e m a t t e r s w h i c h t h e y r e l a t e a r e s o r r o w f u l and t o u c h i n g . They a r e u n r e s t r i c t e d i n f o r m and s t y l e ; when e x c i t e m e n t came, Zheng X i e c o m p l e t e d them w i t h i n a moment. He was v e r y n e a r X i a n g s h a n and F a n g w e n g . 6 H i s c a l l i g r a p h y and p a i n t i n g a r e d e l i g h t f u l . When he was y o u n g he was s k i l l e d i n r e g u l a r s c r i p t , and i n l a t e r y e a r s he c o m b i n e d t h e s e a l and o f f i c i a l s c r i p t s . F r o m w i t h i n t h i s ( f o r m o f c a l l i g r a p h y ) he t o o k h i s p a i n t i n g m e t hod. The o r c h i d , bamboo, and s t o n e s w h i c h he p a i n t e d were o u t s t a n d i n g — p e o p l e a l l s t r u g g l e d t o c o l l e c t them. I n h i s cJL. poems he d w e l t upon t h e p a s t , and he was e s p e c i a l l y good a t w r i t i n g a b o u t v i c t o r i o u s b a t t l e s . I n t h i s he c a n p e r h a p s be c o m p a r e d t o J i a n g S h i . H i s c o n d u c t was p u r e and s o l e m n . I n h i s y o u t h , h a v i n g l o s t h i s f a t h e r , he r e l i e d upon h i s wet n u r s e t o r a i s e and t e a c h h i m . U n t i l t h e end o f h i s l i f e he d i d n o t d a r e f o r g e t ( h e r ) . The f a m i l y l e t t e r s w h i c h he w r o t e a r e s i n c e r e , warm, and e a r n e s t . T h e r e i s t h e a u s p i c i o u s " i m p e r i a l mandate t o t h e c o u r t " and t h e "Yan f a m i l y l e s s o n " w h i c h were l e f t b e h i n d a f t e r h i s d e a t h . 7 I n l a t e r y e a r s he r e t u r n e d home and i n o l d age he t i l l e d h i s own f i e l d s . He f r e q u e n t l y went t o t h e p r e f e c t u r a l c i t y ( Y a n g z h o u ) , where he w r o t e p o e t r y , d r a n k w i n e , and p a r t i c i p a t e d i n p o e t i c d u e t s . 8 He o f t e n b o u g h t a bag and s t o r e d up s i l v e r and f r u i t s . When he met t h e c h i l d r e n o f o l d f r i e n d s o r p o o r p e o p l e o f h i s c o u n t y he g a v e them what he had b r o u g h t . 9 He had n o t y e t met w i t h Yuan M e i when someone p a s s e d on t h e word o f h i s ( Z h e n g X i e ' s ) d e a t h . Yuan M e i l o w e r e d h i s head and wept b i t t e r l y . Of w r i t i n g s t h e r e i s t h e B a n q i a o S h i c h a o (The C o l l e c t e d P o e t r y o f B a n q i a o ) . 2. Zheng X i e ' s Z i s h u ( A u t o b i o g r a p h y ) ( Q u a n j i , 1 9 8 5 , B a n q i a o j i w a i s h i w e n [Poems and P r o s e o u t s i d e t h e C o l l e c t e d Works of B a n q i a o ] , Wen [ P r o s e ] , 2 4 0 - 2 4 2 ) . The l a y B u d d h i s t B a n q i a o ( Z h e n g X i e ) , o f t h e Zheng f a m i l y , named X i e , i s a man f r o m Y a n g z h o u i n X i n g h u a . I n X i n g h u a t h e r e a r e t h r e e Zheng f a m i l i e s . One i s " T i e Zheng," one i s "Tang Zh e n g , " and one i s " B a n q i a o Z h e n g . " The l a y B u d d h i s t ( Z h e n g X i e ) l i k e d h i s f a m i l y name, and t h e r e f o r e e v e r y o n e c a l l e d h i m Zheng B a n q i a o . B a n q i a o ' s g r a n d f a t h e r on h i s m o t h e r ' s s i d e , o f t h e Wang f a m i l y , named Y i w e n , had r a r e s k i l l and was e r u d i t e . He r e t i r e d i n t o s e c l u s i o n and d i d n o t t a k e o f f i c e . He had a d a u g h t e r . . . s h e was B a n q i a o ' s m o t h e r . The l i t e r a r y a s p e c t o f B a n q i a o ' s c h a r a c t e r was a t t a i n e d m o s t l y f r o m h i s m o t h e r ' s s i d e o f t h e f a m i l y . H i s f a t h e r Mr. L i ' a n t h o u g h t t h a t t h e a b i l i t y t o w r i t e and a good c h a r a c t e r were o f p r i m a r y i m p o r t a n c e t o t h e s c h o l a r . The s t u d e n t s he t a u g h t numbered o n e - h u n d r e d and a l l were s u c c e s s f u l . As a c h i l d B a n q i a o f o l l o w e d h i s f a t h e r i n h i s s t u d i e s and d i d n o t have a n y o t h e r t e a c h e r s . When he was a c h i l d he d i f f e r e d l i t t l e f r o m o t h e r s . I n h i s y o u t h , a l t h o u g h he was grown up, he was s t i l l u g l y . . . 1 0 He l i k e d t o b r a g and t h o u g h t t o o h i g h l y o f h i m s e l f ; and f r e e l y c u r s e d p e o p l e a t random. V a r i o u s men o f t h e e l d e r g e n e r a t i o n l o o k e d a s k a n c e a t h i m and s t o p p e d d e a l i n g w i t h h i m . However, i n s t u d y i n g , he c o u l d make h i m s e l f a s s i d u o u s , r o u s e h i m s e l f , and make h i m s e l f r i s e t o t h e t a s k s a t h a n d . He d i d n ' t c a r e a b o u t f o l l o w i n g t h e u s u a l p a t h . I n s t u d y i n g , he p r o s t r a t e d h i m s e l f ; f r o m t h e s h a l l o w he e n t e r e d t h e d e e p , f r o m t h e l o w he r e a c h e d t h e h i g h , f r o m t h e n e a r he a p p r o a c h e d t h e d i s t a n t , i n o r d e r t o go t o t h e p r o f o u n d r e a l m o f t h e a n c i e n t s , and t o make a c c e s s i b l e t h e p l a c e s w h i c h h i s d i s p o s i t i o n and s k i l l a l o n e w o u l d n o t a l l o w h i m t o r e a c h . ^ P e o p l e a l l s a i d t h a t i n s t u d y i n g B a n q i a o was good a t m e m o r i z i n g . They d i d n o t know t h a t B a n q i a o was n o t good a t m e m o r i z i n g , b u t was s i m p l y good a t r e c i t i n g . E a c h book w h i c h B a n q i a o r e a d , he r e a d o n e - t h o u s a n d o n e - h u n d r e d t i m e s . When i n b o a t s , upon h o r s e s , l y i n g i n bed b e n e a t h t h e q u i l t s , when h a v i n g f o r g o t t e n t h e s p o o n o r c h o p s t i c k s when e a t i n g , o r when n o t h a v i n g l i s t e n e d t o what a g u e s t had s a i d , o r h a v i n g f o r g e t t e n what he h i m s e l f had s a i d . . . d u r i n g a l l t h e s e t i m e s B a n q i a o was m e m o r i z i n g b o o k s and s i l e n t l y r e c i t i n g t hem t o h i m s e l f . G i v e n t h i s m e t h o d , c o u l d t h e r e be a n y b o o k s w h i c h he d i d n o t m e m o r i z e ? A l l h i s l i f e Zheng B a n q i a o d i d n o t p u r s u e t h e s t u d y o f t h e c l a s s i c s . He l o v e d r e a d i n g h i s t o r y b o o k s and c o l l e c t i o n s o f p o e t r y , e s s a y s , and cjL. p o e t r y . He a l s o l o o k e d a t b o o k s i n t h e c l a s s o f c o m m e n t a r i e s and odd s a y i n g s . S o m e t i m e s , w h i l e w o r k i n g on t h e c l a s s i c s , he a l s o a p p r e c i a t e d t h e i r p e c u l a r i t i e s and s t r a n g e n e s s - - t h e p a r t s w h i c h d a z z l e d t h e s e n s e s . 1 2 He u s e d t h e l i t e r a r y method i n d i s c u s s i n g t h e c l a s s i c s . T h i s was n o t t h e o r i g i n a l b a s i s f o r t h e L i u i i n g ( S i x C l a s s i c s ) . He e s p e c i a l l y l i k e d l a n d s c a p e s . He a l s o l i k e d s e x . . . B u t he knew t h a t he was o l d and u g l y ; a t t h a t s t a g e i n l i f e o n l y money p r o f i t t e d h i m . He once made a comment upon f o r e i g n p o l i c y , and was c o n s e q u e n t l y s c o l d e d and s o l e f t ( h i s p o s i t i o n ) . He was n e v e r u n d e r t h e s p e l l o f ( p o l i t i c s ) . He l o v e d l a n d s c a p e s , b u t had n o t b een a b l e t o t r a v e l a n y d i s t a n c e , and t h o s e p l a c e s t h r o u g h w h i c h he had p a s s e d were n o t o f s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t t o t h e t r a v e l e r . I n t h e t h i r t e e n t h y e a r o f t h e r e i g n o f t h e Q i a n l o n g e m p e r o r ( 1 7 4 8 ) t h e G r e a t One ( t h e e m p e r o r h i m s e l f ) went on an e a s t e r n t o u r . X i e became t h e c a l l i g r a p h y and p a i n t i n g h i s t o r i a n , and was o r d e r e d t o t h e p l a c e o f p a u s i n g ( u p o n t h e r o u t e o f t h e e m p e r o r ' s t o u r ) . He l a y upon t h e u p p e r m o s t peak o f mount T a i f o r o v e r f o r t y d a y s . T h i s was enough r e a s o n t o be p r o u d . The p r i n t i n g o f h i s " C o l l e c t e d P o e t r y , " " C o l l e c t e d C i . Poems," " F o l k s o n g s , " and " S i x t e e n L e t t e r s t o Y o u n g e r B r o t h e r " was c a r r i e d o u t i n h i s l i f e t i m e . He was good a t c a l l i g r a p h y , and c a l l e d h i m s e l f " L i u f e n B a n s h u . " A l s o , he u s e d h i s f r e e t i m e t o p a i n t o r c h i d and bamboo. I f p r i n c e s , d u k e s and m i n i s t e r s , h i g h m i n i s t e r s , l i t e r a t i , o l d monks o f t h e m o u n t a i n s . . . o b t a i n e d one p i e c e o f p a p e r w i t h some c a l l i g r a p h y upon i t , t h e y t r e a s u r e d i t and s t o r e d i t away. B u t B a n q i a o n e v e r t o o k t h e s e p e o p l e as a p r e t e n s e t o b e c o m i n g f a m o u s . O n l y h i s f e l l o w c o u n t y m a n L i Shan F u t a n g was a m u t u a l f r i e n d . F u t a n g was r a i s e d i n a f a m i l y t o be f i l i a l , c l e a n , and h o n e s t . He u s e d h i s p a i n t i n g t o w o r s h i p i n t h e i n n e r c o u r t . D u r i n g t h e t i m e o f t h e K a n g x i e m p e r o r ' s c o u r t L i S han's name was g r e a t i n t h e c a p i t a l and e l s e w h e r e . T h e r e were none who d i d n o t l o o k upon h i m and s i g h i n a d m i r a t i o n . A t t h i s t i m e B a n q i a o was j u s t t r y i n g f o r t h e exam f o r c h i l d r e n ; he d i d n o t have t h a t w h i c h c o u l d make h i m famous. T w e n t y y e a r s l a t e r , b e c a u s e o f h i s p o e t r y , cJL p o e t r y , and w r i t i n g , he was a s famous as L i S h a n . Those who s o u g h t p a i n t i n g c a l l e d F u t a n g ; t h o s e who s o u g h t p o e t r y and l i t e r a t u r e c a l l e d B a n q i a o . They were s h a m e f u l and f o r t u n a t e , and became e q u a l w i t h s a g e s o f t h e p a s t . L i r e t i r e d f r o m h i s p o s t as t h e m a g i s t r a t e o f Teng c o u n t y . B a n q i a o was a x i u c a i i n t h e r e i g n o f t h e K a n g x i e m p e r o r , was a i u r e n - i n t h e r e n z i y e a r o f t h e r e i g n o f t h e Y o n g z h e n g emperor ( 1 7 3 2 ) , and was a j i n s h i i n t h e b i n q c h e n y e a r o f t h e r e i g n o f t h e Q i a n l o n g e m peror ( 1 7 3 6 ) . F i r s t he was t h e m a g i s t r a t e i n F a n c o u n t y ; he t h e n c o n t i n u e d a f t e r he was t r a n s f e r e d t o Wei c o u n t y . W r i t t e n i n t h e j i s i y e a r o f t h e r e i g n o f t h e Q i a n l o n g e m p eror ( 1 7 4 9 ) , a t t h e age o f f i f t y - s e v e n . I n B a n q i a o ' s p o e t r y and l i t e r a t u r e , he e x p r e s s e d h i s own i d e a s . H i s method r e t u r n e d t o t h o s e o f t h e s a i n t s and s a g e s ; b u t h i s t e x t was d e r i v e d c o m p l e t e l y f r o m d a i l y l a n g u a g e . Some had s a i d t h a t t h e y t h e m s e l v e s were h i g h a n c i e n t s and s e v e r a l t h a t t h e y were men o f Tang and S o n g ! B a n q i a o d e s p i s e d and s c o l d e d them: " I f my p r o s e i s p a s s e d o n , t h e n i t w i l l be Q i n g p o e t r y and Q i n g p r o s e . I f i t i s n o t p a s s e d o n , t h e n none c a n be c a l l e d Q i n g p o e t r y and Q i n g p r o s e . What ne e d i s t h e r e t o p r a t t l e on a b o u t t h e a n c i e n t s ! " D u r i n g t h e M i n g and Q i n g , t h e z h i v i ( e x a m i n a t i o n ) s y s t e m was u s e d t o g e t s c h o l a r s . A l t h o u g h t h e r e were t h o s e who had e x t r a o r d i n a r y t a l e n t and a b i l i t y , t h e y had t o come o u t o f t h i s s y s t e m , and o n l y t h e n were s e e n as b e i n g on t h e c o r r e c t p a t h . 1 4 T h e i r t h e o r y became more and more r e f i n e d ; t h e i r method became more and more m e t i c u l o u s . H owever, i f one w h i p s o n e ' s h e a r t t o a c h i e v e r e f i n e m e n t , o n e's a b i l i t y and k n o w l e d g e c a n n o t be t r u s t e d . . . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h o s e a l o o f f r o m t h e e x a m i n a t i o n s y s t e m who were u n r e s t r i c t e d and n o t c a r e f u l w o u l d s a y : " I am a s c h o l a r o f t h e p a s t . " Of a l l t h e p e o p l e u n d e r H e a v e n , none w o u l d n e c e s s a r i l y p r a i s e t h e s e men. T h e s e men's p o s i t i o n s were o n l y s u i t a b l e f o r p r a i s i n g t h e m s e l v e s . When o l d , t h e y d i d n o t a c h i e v e t h e i r own g o a l s . They l o o k e d t o and b o r r o w e d f r o m o t h e r p e o p l e , s o , what do t h e y have t o o b t a i n t h e i r own i d e a s ? J i a , Dong, K u a n g , and L i u ' s w r i t i n g s , u s e d r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s t o s u i t t h e i r s i t u a t i o n s . Compared t o Han X i n ' s c o u p l e t " a s c e n d i n g t o t h e t e m p l e " and K o n g m i n g ' s (Zhu G e l i a n g s ) p r o f o u n d w r i t i n g , t h e i r s was e v e n more s u i t a b l e t o t h e i r s i t u a t i o n s and t o t h e i r p e r s o n s . The i n s i s t e n c e upon p r i n c i p l e s o f m e t h o d o l o g y i s o n l y s u i t a b l e f o r l e i s u r e t i m e , i t i s n o t s u i t a b l e f o r u s i n g i n b u s y t i m e s . B a n q i a o ' s " S i x t e e n F a m i l y L e t t e r s " c e r t a i n l y d i d n o t d i s c u s s Heaven and E a r t h . R a t h e r , t h e y were o f d a i l y u s e f o r f a m i l y a f f a i r s , w h i l e t h e y a l s o had t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f b e i n g w ords n e a r a t hand p o i n t i n g f a r away ( t o g r a n d e r p r i n c i p l e s ) . B a n q i a o d i d n o t s t u d y by c l o s i n g t h e d o o r t o t h e o u t s i d e w o r l d . I n l o n g w a n d e r i n g s i n aged p i n e s , s e c l u d e d t e m p l e s , l e v e l s a n d s , d i s t a n t w a t e r s , c l i f f s , and r u i n s and t o m b s , t h e r e w a s n ' t a n y t i m e a t w h i c h he d i d n o t s t u d y . I n s e e k i n g t h e r e f i n e d and s e e k i n g t h e s u i t a b l e ; i f s u i t a b l e t h e n t h e c o a r s e a r e a l l r e f i n e d ; i f n o t s u i t a b l e t h e n t h e r e f i n e d a r e a l l c o a r s e . I f one t h i n k s a b o u t t h i s and t h i n k s a b o u t t h i s , one c a n r e a c h l o f t y h e i g h t s . B a n q i a o a g a i n i n s c r i b e s t h i s , when a l r e a d y f i f t y - e i g h t y e a r s o l d ( 1 7 5 0 ) . 3. S e l e c t i o n s f r o m L i Dou's Y a n g z h o u h u a f a n q l u ( R e c o r d s o f t h e P a i n t e d B o a t s o f Y a n g z h o u ) ( Q u a n i i , 1985, B a n q i a o y a n i i u z i l i a o [ R e s e a r c h M a t e r i a l s on B a n q i a o ] , s e c t i o n s i x t e e n , B i i i [ W r i t t e n r e c o r d s ] , 7 9 9 - 8 0 1 ) . Volume 12, Caohe l u ( R e c o r d s o f Caohe) l a t t e r p a r t ( Q u a n i i , 799) : Zheng X i e , a l s o c a l l e d K e r o u and B a n q i a o i s a man o f X i n g h u a . He i s a i i n s h i . He c a l l e d o r c h i d , bamboo, and r o c k t h e t h r e e p e r f e c t i o n s . He was good a t c a l l i g r a p h y i n t h e o f f i c i a l s c r i p t . A f t e r w a r d s , he t o o k t h e o f f i c i a l and g r a s s s c r i p t s and c o m b i n e d them, c r e a t i n g h i s own s c h o o l . The D a o i s t p r i e s t Wu Y u t i a n f r o m t h e G u a n d i t e m p l e s t u d i e d h i s c a l l i g r a p h y and c o u l d make f a k e s t h a t l o o k e d g e n u i n e . The p a r a s o l - t r e e room i s i n f r o n t o f t h e f l y i n g r o s y - c l o u d p a v i l i o n ; t h e p l a c e h a s many p a r a s o l t r e e s . . . . T h i s room i s f o r o f f e r i n g s a c r i f i c e t o t h e s p i r i t s o f t h r e e s a g e s . T h e s e t h r e e s a g e s a r e Song Ouyang wenzhonggong (Ouyang X i u ) , Su wenzhonggong (Su S h i ) , and Wang W e n j i a n CLQng.. ... T h e r e a r e l i n e s w i t h i n a p a i r e d c o u p l e t by Zheng X i e w h i c h r e a d : "The m u s i c a l s o u n d s t h e y l e f t b e h i n d f i l l t h e r i v e r s , and t h e s e t h r e e men had one p r i n c i p l e i n t h i s ; t o l o v e a b i l i t y l i k e l i f e , t h e y had d i f f e r e n t l i v e s b u t were o f t h e same h e a r t . " Volume 4, X i n C h e n g b e i l u ( R e c o r d s o f New C h e n g b e i ) m i d d l e p a r t ( Q u a n i i , 7 9 9 ) : The l i g h t p u r p l e b u i l d i n g , on t h e w e s t o f t h e s t r e e t , i s L i u ' a n , t h e m o u n t a i n monk's, t e a - l e a f h o u s e . The monk has t e a f i e l d s . I n t h e s p r i n g and summer he e n t e r s t h e m o u n t a i n s ; i n t h e autumn and w i n t e r he s t a y s a t t h e s h o p . A l l o f t h e t r a v e l e r s i n t h e e a s t e r n c i t y , buy t e a a t t h i s p l a c e f o r one d a y ' s u s e . T h e r e a r e two l i n e s by Zheng B a n q i a o w h i c h r e a d : " L a y B u d d h i s t s h a v e a l w a y s b e e n a b l e a t a p p r a i s i n g t h e t a s t e o f w a t e r s , and f r o m a n c i e n t t i m e s w o r t h y monks h a v e l o v e d t o a r g u e a b o u t t e a s . " Volume 6, C h e n g b e i l u ( R e c o r d s o f C h e n g b e i ) ( Q u a n i i , 8 0 0 ) : 137 The one who p l a n t e d t h e f l o w e r s a t t h e Yun g a r d e n i s o f t h e Wang f a m i l y h o u s e h o l d ; t h e f o u r t h o f t h e Wang f a m i l y , c a l l e d X i w e n . He i s a man o f Wu. He was good a t s o n g s . I n t h e b i n g c h e n y e a r o f t h e r e i g n o f t h e Q i a n l o n g e m peror he came t o Y a n g z h o u . T h e r e f o r e he s o l d t h e h a m l e t where t h e r e was t e a g r o w i n g . He was f r i e n d l y w i t h L i F u t a n g ( L i S h a n ) , Zheng B a n q i a o , and monk Y o n g t a n g . L a t e r he p u r c h a s e d t h i s l a n d t o p l a n t f l o w e r s . F u t a n g made an i n s c r i p t i o n on t h e h o r i z o n t a l t a b l e t i n t h e Yun g a r d e n , w h i c h was c a r v e d i n s t o n e and imbedded on t h e S h u i g a t e . W i t h i n i t t h e r e i s t h e p a i r e d c o u p l e t by Zheng B a n q i a o . . . . ...On t h e o v e r l a n d r o u t e t o X i y u a n t h e r e i s an a u s p i c i o u s t e m p l e f o r t h e v i l l a g e g o d . . . I n t h e t e m p l e t h e r e i s a c o u p l e t w h i c h s a y s : " E v e r y w h e r e t h e r e a r e c l o u d y m o u n t a i n s and e v e r y w h e r e t h e r e a r e B u d d h i s t s ( w r i t t e n by J i n N o n g ) . T h i s p i e c e o f e a r t h , t h i s p i e c e i s a u s p i c i o u s ( w r i t t e n b y Zheng X i e ) . " I n J i n Taomen's ( J i n Nong's) D o n g x i n x i a n s h e n g j i (The C o l l e c t e d Works o f M r . D o n g x i n ) t h e r e i s a poem c a l l e d " V a r i o u s n a r r a t i o n s on a s c e n d i n g t h e l o f t y ( m o u n t a i n s ) " w h i c h s a y s : " I am a t l e i s u r e and l a z i l y c o n c e n t r a t e upon t h e i n s e c t s and f i s h . T h i s i s l o f t y l i v i n g . E v e r y w h e r e t h e r e a r e c l o u d y m o u n t a i n s and e v e r y w h e r e t h e r e a r e B u d d h i s t s . . . " T h e r e i s a l i n e by Zheng B a n q i a o w h i c h s a y s , "The drums i n t h e v i l l a g e , i n t h e v i l l a g e h i t them; t h i s p i e c e o f e a r t h , t h i s p i e c e i s a u s p i c i o u s . " Now t h e y a r e g a t h e r e d i n t o a p a i r e d c o u p l e t . . . Volume 10, H o n g q i a o l u ( R e c o r d o f t h e H o n g q i a o G a r d e n ) l a t t e r p a r t ( Q u a n j i . 8 0 0 - 8 0 1 ) : Zheng X i e , c a l l e d K e r o u and B a n q i a o i s a man o f X i n g h u a . He i s a j i n s h i . He was a c o u n t y m a g i s t r a t e . When he was t h e m a g i s t r a t e i n F a n c o u n t y a w e a l t h y f a m i l y w h i c h w a n t e d t o g e t r i d o f a p r o s p e c t i v e s o n - i n - l a w who was p o o r u s e d one t h o u s a n d t a e l s t o g i v e t h e m a g i s t r a t e ( Z h e n g X i e ) a b i r t h d a y p a r t y . X i e a c c e p t e d t h e i r d a u g h t e r as h i s own a d o p t e d d a u g h t e r , w h i l e he s e c r e t l y h a r b o u r e d t h e i r s o n - i n - l a w i n an o f f i c i a l p o s t . A f t e r t h e g i r l p a i d Zheng X i e a f o r m a l v i s i t , he b r o u g h t o u t money f o r t h e g i r l and t h e s o n - i n - l a w t o be wed. He o r d e r e d h i s c a r t f o r t h e c o u p l e t o r e t u r n t o g e t h e r . B e c a u s e o f t h i s p e o p l e s a i d he was " e x t r e m e l y v i r t u o u s . " A f t e r w a r d s , b e c a u s e he r e p o r t e d a c a l a m i t y and was d i s o b e d i e n t t o a g r e a t o f f i c i a l , he was d i s m i s s e d and r e t u r n e d t o h i s home c o u n t y . He o f t e n made a l a r g e c l o t h b a g , i n t o w h i c h he p u t money, s i l k , and f o o d s t u f f s . I f he met t h e c h i l d r e n o f o l d f r i e n d s o r p o o r and f r i e n d l y f a m i l i e s o f h i s home c o u n t y he w o u l d p o u r o u t t h e c o n t e n t s o f t h e bag t o g i v e t o them. O f t e n he came t o Y a n g z h o u , and t h e r e i s t h e s e a l "Twenty y e a r s a g o , B a n q i a o . " He o f t e n e n g a g e d i n p o e t i c d u e t s w i t h t h e d u k e ( L u J i a n z e n g ) . Of w r i t i n g s , t h e r e a r e B a n q i a o ' s poems, c o l l e c t e d c_L poems, " f a m i l y l e t t e r s , " and " f o l k s o n g s . " He 138 was good a t p a i n t i n g bamboo. He t o o k " b a f e n " s c r i p t ( a t y p e o f s q u a r e p l a i n s t y l e s c r i p t ) , and r e g u l a r s c r i p t and c o m b i n e d them, e s t a b l i s h i n g h i s own s c h o o l . The p e o p l e o f Wei c o u n t y i n Shandong were f u l l y d e v o t e d t o h i m . E d i t o r ' s n o t e i n Q u a n i i : The Q i n g c h a o y e s h i d a g u a n ( C o m p r e h e n s i v e C o l l e c t i o n o f F i c t i o n o f t h e Q i n g D y n a s t y ) , v o l u m e 1 1 , Q i n g d a i s h u y i — Z h e n g B a n q i a o panan ( S t r a n g e s t o r i e s o f t h e Q i n g D y n a s t y — C a s e s d e c i d e d by Zheng B a n q i a o ) s a y s : When B a n q i a o was t h e m a g i s t r a t e i n Wei c o u n t y , t h e r e was a p o o r s c h o l a r who f i l e d a c o m p l a i n t t h a t a w e a l t h y f a m i l y had gone b a c k on a m a r r i a g e a g r e e m e n t . B a n q i a o had t h e p o o r s c h o l a r r e m a i n i n o f f i c e , and f u r t h e r m o r e c a l l e d t h e w e a l t h y f a m i l y i n t o t h e c a s e . He c a l m l y s a i d t o them: " I f y o u r d a u g h t e r t r u l y c a n n o t be t h e w i f e i n a p o o r f a m i l y . . . y o u must u s e one t h o u s a n d t a e l s t o a l t e r t h e w e d d i n g a g r e e m e n t . I w i l l be h e r e . . . " The w e a l t h y f a m i l y p a i d and s e t t l e d . B a n q i a o c a l m l y s a i d : " I f y o u r d a u g h t e r d o e s n o t h a v e a s e r v a n t t o h e l p h e r manage, I c a n a l s o f i n d a s o n - i n - l a w f o r y o u . T h i s t h o u s a n d t a e l s c o u l d t h e n be u s e d a s a d o w r y . " B e f o r e t h e w e a l t h y f a m i l y had e x p r e s s e d t h e i r t h a n k s , B a n q i a o had a l r e a d y o r d e r e d someone t o a s k t h e p o o r s c h o l a r t o come f o r t h . Then i n t h e h a l l t h e y were wed, and ( t h e p o o r s c h o l a r ) l e f t w i t h t h e d a u g h t e r and t h e money. T h i s m a t t e r was t o t h e immense p l e a s u r e o f t h e p e o p l e . Volume 15, G a n g x i l u ( R e c o r d s o f G a n g x i ) ( Q u a n j i 8 0 1 ) : ... When t h e t r a n s p o r t o f f i c e r L u ( L u J i a n z e n g ) b u i l t a p a v i l i o n d u r i n g h i s o f f i c e , Zheng B a n q i a o w r o t e a t w o - c h a r a c t e r h o r i z o n t a l p l a q u e , " p a v i l i o n o f S u . " 4. A n e c d o t e s a b o u t Zheng X i e ( Y a n g z h o u b a g u a i q u a n i i [The C o m p l e t e C o l l e c t i o n o f t h e E i g h t E c c e n t r i c s o f Y a n g z h o u ] , 197 9 , 2 6 7 ) . I n t h e f o u r t e e n t h y e a r o f t h e r e i g n o f t h e Q i a n l o n g e m p eror ( 1 7 4 9 ) , Zheng B a n q i a o f i n a l l y l e f t h i s p o s i t i o n and r e t u r n e d home. T h i s amounts t o h i s b e i n g i n Shandong f o r t w e l v e y e a r s a c t i n g as c o u n t y m a g i s t r a t e . H i s two s l e e v e s i n t h e p u r e b r e e z e , he a g a i n r e t u r n e d t o Y a n g z h o u and s o l d c a l l i g r a p h y and p a i n t i n g s t o make a l i v i n g . F r o m t h e t i m e he l e f t t o go t o J i a o s h a n t o s t u d y , l e a v i n g Y a n g z h o u , i t was a l r e a d y t w e n t y y e a r s . The s i t u a t i o n o f t h i s r e t u r n was v e r y d i f f e r e n t f r o m t w e n t y y e a r s b e f o r e , b e c a u s e o f h i s r e p u t a t i o n , p o s i t i o n , and s o c i a l s t a t u s . T h e r e were many p e o p l e who s o u g h t h i m o u t t o do w r i t i n g s and p a i n t i n g s . B u t when m e e t i n g t h o s e p e o p l e he d e p i s e d he d i d n ' t g i v e them an y w r i t i n g s o r p a i n t i n g s , a l t h o u g h t h e y o f f e r e d l a r g e sums. I t 139 i s s a i d t h a t i n Y a n g z h o u t h e r e was a s a l t m e r c h a n t who s e v e r a l t i m e s o f f e r e d l a r g e sums t o g e t Zheng B a n q i a o ' s c a l l i g r a p h y and p a i n t i n g . B u t b e c a u s e Zheng B a n q i a o d e s p i s e d t h i s man's manner, he was r e s o l u t e a g a i n s t t h i s man's r e q u e s t . A l t h o u g h t h a t s a l t m e r c h a n t had p a s s e d t h r o u g h many p l a c e s and b o u g h t s e v e r a l ( o f Z h e n g ' s ) p a i n t i n g s , he was r e g r e t f u l b e c a u s e t h e y d i d n o t have i n s c r i p t i o n s ( d e d i c a t e d t o h i m ) . L a t e r , t h a t s a l t m e r c h a n t h e a r d t h a t Zheng B a n q i a o l o v e d t o e a t dog meat, and a l s o l i k e d t o t r a v e l i n t h e c o u n t r y . When he met h e r d s m e n and wood g a t h e r e r s , and t h o s e o f t h e l o w e r s t r a t a a l l t h e y had t o do was t o g i v e h i m dog meat, and he was a l w a y s w i l l i n g t o do p a i n t i n g s f o r them. K n o w i n g t h i s , t h e s a l t m e r c h a n t came up w i t h a p l a n . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e Q i n g c h a o v e s h i d a q u a n ( C o m p r e h e n s i v e C o l l e c t i o n o f F i c t i o n o f t h e Q i n g D y n a s t y ) , t h e s t o r y g o e s : One d a y B a n q i a o v i s i t e d S h a o y u a n , and h e a r d e x t r e m e l y l o v e l y s o u n d s f r o m a g i n . He f o l l o w e d t h e s o u n d s t o f i n d t h e one who was p l a y i n g i t . Then he came upon a t h a t c h e d h u t i n a bamboo g r o v e ... He e n t e r e d t h e d o o r and saw a man who was e x t r e m e l y o l d , s i t t i n g up p r o p e r l y and drumming t h e g i n . A c h i l d was c o o k i n g d o g meat w h i c h was j u s t d o n e . B a n q i a o was d e l i g h t e d . S u d d e n l y he s p o k e t o t h e o l d man: "Do y o u a l s o l i k e t o e a t dog m e a t ? " The o l d man r e s p o n d e d : "Of a l l t a s t e s t h a t o f d o g meat i s t h e f i n e s t . You a r e one who a l s o knows t h i s t a s t e . . . p l e a s e t r y a s l i c e . " The two men had n o t y e t e x c h a n g e d names and t h e y s a t t o g e t h e r c h e w i n g . B a n q i a o l o o k e d a t t h e w h i t e w a l l s and r e q u e s t e d t o know why t h e man owned no c a l l i g r a p h y o r p a i n t i n g . The o l d man s a i d : " T h e r e a r e none who a r e f i n e i n t h e a r t s o f c a l l i g r a p h y and p a i n t i n g . I n t h e s e p a r t s , a l t h o u g h Zheng B a n q i a o i s r a t h e r famous, I h a v e n o t y e t s e e n h i s c a l l i g r a p h y and p a i n t i n g . Do y o u know i f h i s work i s f i n e ? " B a n q i a o s a i d : " I m y s e l f am B a n q i a o , may I do some c a l l i g r a p h y and p a i n t i n g f o r y o u ? " "My!" s a i d t h e o l d man, who s u b s e q u e n t l y t o o k o u t some p a p e r . B a n q i a o w i e l d e d h i s w r i t i n g b r u s h and f i n i s h e d . The o l d man s a i d : "My name i s s o - a n d - s o , y o u c o u l d make an i n s c r i p t i o n . " B a n q i a o s a i d : " T h i s name i s t h e name o f a s a l t m e r c h a n t . How come y o u a r e a l s o named t h i s ? " The o l d man s a i d : "When I t o o k t h i s name t h i s m e r c h a n t s t i l l had n o t be e n b o r n . What harm i s t h e r e i n h a v i n g t h e same name? The p u r e ones a r e p u r e and t h e muddy a r e muddy, and t h a t i s a l l ! " B a n q i a o t h e n w r o t e an i n s c r i p t i o n and l e f t . The n e x t d a y t h e s a l t m e r c h a n t had a b a n q u e t . . . and a s k e d B a n q i a o t o be p r e s e n t . He went t h e r e and a l l f o u r w a l l s were hung w i t h c a l l i g r a p h y and p a i n t i n g . He l o o k e d a t t h e m . . . t h e y were t h o s e he had done t h e p r e v i o u s .1.40 n i g h t f o r t h e o l d man. He r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e o l d man had b e e n s e n t by t h e s a l t m e r c h a n t , and he h i m s e l f had been t h e t a r g e t o f t h e o l d man's d e c e p t i o n . B u t , t h e r e was n o t h i n g t h a t c o u l d be do n e . I n Ye vu q i u d e n g l u ( R e c o r d s u n d e r t h e Autumn Lamp i n t h e E v e n i n g R a i n ) t h e r e i s a l s o an a n e c d o t e : I n h i s l a t e r y e a r s i n Y a n g z h o u , B a n q i a o ' s r e p u t a t i o n g r e w d a i l y . Once a g r e a t s a g e f r o m J i a n g x i was e n t e r i n g t h e c a p i t a l t o go b e f o r e t h e e m p e r o r . R e t u r n i n g on t h e r o a d t h r o u g h Y a n g z h o u , t h e m e r c h a n t s a l l s t r u g g l e d w i t h e a c h o t h e r t o a s s o c i a t e ( w i t h h i m ) . One m e r c h a n t among them w i s h e d t o o b t a i n a c a l l i g r a p h y b y B a n q i a o i n o r d e r t o p r e s e n t t o t h e s a g e . He had w r i t i n g p a p e r s p e c i a l l y made f r o m J i a n g x i . I t was more t h a n one z h a n g l o n g (3 1/3 m), and was s i x c h i w i d e ( 2 m ) . I t was a u n i q u e p a p e r . He s e n t someone t o t a c t f u l l y r e q u e s t B a n q i a o ' s c a l l i g r a p h y , and m o r e o v e r r e q u e s t t h a t he compose a l i n e . The g o - b e t w e e n a s k e d t h e amount w h i c h Zheng X i e r e q u i r e d . B a n q i a o a s k e d 1,000 t a e l s . The m e s s e n g e r c o n s e n t e d t o 500 t a e l s . B a n q i a o w i t h p l e a s u r e l i f t e d h i s b r u s h and w r o t e i n a f l u r r y . He c o m p l e t e d t h e f i r s t l i n e : " I n t h e L o n g h u m o u n t a i n s , t h e g r e a t p r i m e m i n i s t e r . " The m e s s e n g e r r e q u e s t e d t h a t he w r i t e t h e s e c o n d l i n e . B a n q i a o l a u g h e d : " I c l e a r l y s a i d 1,000 t a e l s . You o n l y p a i d 500. I t h e r e f o r e have w r i t t e n o n l y o n e - h a l f . " The g o - b e t w e e n had no a l t e r n a t i v e b u t t o p a y Zheng X i e t h e f u l l amount. B a n q i a o began t o w r i t e t h e s e c o n d l i n e : " I n t h e Q i l i n ( C h i n e s e u n i c o r n ) p a v i l i o n , l i v e s t h e i m m o r t a l . " I t was s k i l l e d and r e f i n e d . Of t h o s e who saw i t none c o u l d n o t p r a i s e and s i g h . 141 1. See L i Dou's Y a n g z h o u H u a f a n q l u ( R e c o r d s o f t h e P a i n t e d B o a t s o f Y a n g z h o u ) , Volume 10, H o n g q i a o l u ( R e c o r d s o f t h e H o n g q i a o G a r d e n ) , l a t t e r p a r t , t r a n s l a t e d b e l o w . The p h r a s i n g o f t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t , b u t i n b o t h c a s e s i n d i c a t e s t h a t Zheng X i e r e q u e s t e d some a i d w h i c h u p s e t some i m p o r t a n t o f f i c i a l . 2. B a n n e r f a m i l i e s , as D r . J e r r y S c h m i d t o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a h a s t e n t a t i v e l y t r a n s l a t e d q i m e n h e r e , c o u l d be Manchus o r C h i n e s e who had s e r v e d t h e Manchus when t h e y f i r s t e n t e r e d C h i n a . 3. Zheng X i e ' s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e s e p e o p l e i s a l s o c i t e d i n h i s n i a n b i a o u n d e r t h e y e a r 1735 ( Z h e n g B a n q i a o i i , 1 9 62, a p p e n d i x ) . 4. T h i s i n c i d e n t o f Zheng X i e ' s r e s c u e o f t h e p e o p l e o f Shandong i s a l s o c i t e d w i t h s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t p h r a s i n g i n h i s n i a n b i a o u n d e r t h e y e a r 1746 ( Z h e n g B a n q i a o j i . 1 9 62, a p p e n d i x ) . 5. F o r s u p p o r t f o r t h e t r a n s l a t i o n o f " t h r e e p e r f e c t i o n s " as " o r c h i d , bamboo, and r o c k " i n t h i s c o n t e x t s e e H o n g q i a o l u ( R e c o r d s o f t h e H o n g q i a o G a r d e n ) , i n s e l e c t i o n s f r o m L i Dou's Y a n g z h o u H u a f a n g l u ( R e c o r d s o f t h e P a i n t e d B o a t s o f Y a n g z h o u ) , v o l u m e 12, t r a n s l a t e d b e l o w . 6. P e r h a p s two men o r two m e t h o d s ? 7. The "Yan F a m i l y L e s s o n " i s a c o l l e c t i o n o f w r i t i n g s by Yan Z h i t u i ( 5 3 1 - a f t e r 5 8 9 ) , who l i v e d t h r o u g h t h e L i a n g , N o r t h e r n Q i , N o t h e r n Zhou, and S u i d y n a s t i e s . F r o m h i s e x p e r i e n c e i n t i m e s o f p o l i t i c a l u p h e a v a l he w r o t e t h e l e s s o n s t o e n a b l e h i s a n c e s t o r s t o c o p e w i t h s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n s , and t o b e n e f i t f r o m h i s e x p e r i e n c e g e n e r a l l y ( X i e M i n g l a n g , "Du ' Y a n s h i j i a x u n - - z h o n g z h i ' z h a j i " [ R e a d i n g N o t e s f o r t h e 'Yan F a m i l y L e s s o n - - R u l e s f o r F u n e r a r y R i t e s ] , The N a t i o n a l P a l a c e Museum R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , v o l u m e 7, number 2 ( W i n t e r 1 9 8 9 ] , 1 0 7 - 1 2 2 ) . P e r h a p s Zheng X i e i s r e f e r r i n g t o a c o p y o f t h i s m a n u s c r i p t g i v e n t o h i m by i m p e r i a l d e c r e e . 8. See L i Dou Y a n g z h o u H u a f a n g l u ( R e c o r d s o f t h e P a i n t e d B o a t s o f Y a n g z h o u ) , v o l u m e 10, H o n g q i a o l u ( R e c o r d s o f t h e H o n g q i a o G a r d e n ) , l a t t e r p a r t , t r a n s l a t e d b e l o w . I have t r a n s l a t e d c h a n g h e h e r e as " p o e t i c d u e t s . " The d e f i n i t i o n g i v e n i n M a t t h e w s C h i n e s e / E n g l i s h D i c t i o n a r y ( S h a n g h a i , 1931) i s a s f o l l o w s : "One p e r s o n w r i t i n g a poem t o w h i c h o t h e r p e o p l e r e s p o n d u s i n g t h e same rhyme scheme." 9. See L i Dou Y a n g z h o u H u a f a n g l u ( R e c o r d s o f t h e P a i n t e d B o a t s o f Y a n g z h o u ) , v o l u m e 10, H o n g q i a o l u ( R e c o r d s o f t h e H o n g q i a o G a r d e n ) , l a t t e r p a r t , t r a n s l a t e d b e l o w . 10. Mao g i n l o u . The s e c o n d c h a r a c t e r c a n be t r a n s l a t e d as " s l e e p " o r " s t o p . " T h i s p o r t i o n o f t h e t e x t i s s t i l l u n c l e a r , due t o t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f t r a n s l a t i n g t h e f i n a l c l a u s e r e n x i a n y i z h i . The p h r a s e mao g i n l o u c o u l d i n d i c a t e t h a t B a n q i a o was no l o n g e r u g l y o r t h a t he had a s l e e p y and u g l y l o o k . The l a t t e r i s more p r o b a b l e i f i t a n s w e r s t h e c l a u s e " a l t h o u g h he had grown up," w h i c h i s a p o s i t i v e a t t r i b u t e t o h i s p e r s o n , and i n d i c a t e s t h a t a n e g a t i v e a t t r i b u t e w i l l f o l l o w . However, i f r e n x i a n y i z h i i s a n e g a t i v e s t a t e m e n t t o h i s p e r s o n , mao g i n l o u c o u l d s t i l l mean t h a t he was no l o n g e r u g l y . 1 1 . Z i ququ w e i y i i s t o l o w e r o r bend h i m s e l f . W e i y i means c r o o k e d , b u t w i t h ququ seems t o r e e n f o r c e t h e n o t i o n o f b e n d i n g o v e r . 12. Banbo l u l i . o r " m o t t l e d / p e c u l i a r and s t r a n g e . " See t h e common s a y i n g g u a n g g u a i l u l i . 1 3. See The E l e g a n t B r u s h , 1 9 85, 168. Zheng X i e was summoned t o mount T a i , and t h e r e g i v e n t h e t i t l e b y t h e e m p e r o r . 14. The t r a n s l a t i o n o f z h i y i a s an exam s y s t e m i s p e r h a p s s u p p o r t e d b y Zheng X i e ' s r e f e r e n c e t o a n o t h e r g r o u p o f s c h o l a r s who r e m a i n " a l o o f f r o m t h e exam s y s t e m . " APPENDIX 2. B i o g r a p h i c a l I n f o r m a t i o n on L i Shan. 1. L i Shan's l e t t e r t o h i s nephew (Wang Z i e h e n ' s " L i Shan s h o u z h a , " 1982, 9 4 ) , d a t e d 1745: I hope y o u a r e most w e l l nephew. I n Teng c o u n t y we d i d n o t t a l k . When I r e t u r n e d home we h u r r i e d l y s p o k e and t h e n went o u r own ways f o r y e a r s - - e n d u r i n g t h e c o r n e r s o f t h e e a r t h . One c a n l a u g h ! I h a v e a l r e a d y d e c i d e d t o l i v e a t home. R e c e n t l y I a g a i n had t h o u g h t s o f l e a v i n g t h e m o u n t a i n s t o come t o t h e p r e f e c t u r a l c i t y h o l d i n g t h e b e g g i n g b o w l , m a k i n g a p l a n t o e n t e r t h e c a p i t a l . A t t h e end o f t h e t e n t h month I l e f t home. My t h r e e e l d e r b r o t h e r s and t h r e e e l d e r s i s t e r s a s w e l l as t h e e n t i r e h o u s e h o l d a r e w e l l ; do n o t w o r r y . What I n e e d b a d l y i s t o buy p a i n t i n g b r u s h e s . S i n c e y o u , my w o r t h y nephew, a r e i n H a n g z h o u , i t w o u l d be l e t t i n g a good o p p o r t u n i t y s l i p b y i f I d i d n o t w r i t e y o u a l e t t e r t o buy some p a i n t i n g b r u s h e s . P a i n t i n g b r u s h e s h a v e f i v e good q u a l i t i e s : 1. S e l e c t m a t e r i a l i n w h i c h t h e h a r d n e s s and s o f t n e s s a r e b a l a n c e d . 2. The b r u s h t i p s h o u l d n o t d i s p e r s e when p u t i n t o w a t e r . 3. When one u s e s i t f o r a l o n g w h i l e , t h e h a i r s do n o t f a l l o u t . 4. The b r u s h t u b e i s f i n e , l o n g and s t r a i g h t . 5. The b r u s h t i p i s d e e p l y h i d d e n w i t h i n t h e b o d y o f t h e b r u s h . I f i t h a s t h e s e f i v e q u a l i t i e s , t h e b r u s h c a n be u s e d . A t my p l a c e , t h e b r u s h e s o v e r f i l l t h e c a s e , b u t a l l a r e u n f i t t o u s e b e c a u s e t h e y a r e a l l m a k e s h i f t g o o d s , and n o t r e t a i l s a l e s . I n H angzhou t h e p a i n t i n g b r u s h s t o r e s a r e n u m e r o u s . . . 2. Zheng X i e ' s poem " H u a i L i s a n S h a n " ( T h i n k i n g o f t h e Member o f t h e T h i r d G e n e r a t i o n o f t h e L i F a m i l y , Shan) ( Q u a n j i r 1985, B a n q i a o j i (The C o l l e c t e d Works o f B a n q i a o ] , S h i c h a o ( C o l l e c t e d P o e t r y ] s e c t i o n , 106-7. A d a t e o f 1745 i s o b t a i n e d f r o m Zheng X i e ' s n i a n b i a o [ Z h e n g B a n q i a o i i f 1962, a p p e n d i x ] ) : When l e a d i n g t h e ox o u t t o p l o u g h t h e f i e l d s , Do a p a i n t i n g a s b e f o r e - - p l a y w i t h t h e b r u s h . Y o u r t a t t e r e d s t r a w c a p e , hang o u t s i d e upon t h e c l o u d s , The h a l f p i e c e o f o l d p a p e r , o n c e y o u h a v e w i n e i n s i d e y o u , y o u c u t . G r e e n s p r i n g i s i n y o u r e y e s , and y o u r c h i l d l i k e h e a r t i s e n t h u s i a s t i c . 1 4 4 Y o u r w h i t e h a i r o v e r f l o w s y o u r s h o u l d e r s - - t h e l o f t y i d e a l ( f o r o f f i c i a l d o m ) i s b u t a s h e s . O n l y w a t e r s h i e l d and p e r c h c a n be u n r e s t r a i n e d l y e a t e n . . . The r e t i r e d o f f i c i a l a l s o r e t u r n s t o e a t t h e f i s h . W a i t t o buy some f a r m l a n d and a manor, and t h e n r e t u r n , T h i s l i f e h a s no p a r t , go t o t h e b r a m b l e c o t t a g e d o o r . L e n d t h i s g e n t l e m a n t e n mu, he c a n p l a n t g r a i n . R e n t me t h r e e rooms, t o hang down a c u r t a i n . W i l l o w f l u f f p u l l s a t t h e waves s o f t l y , The r i c e s h o o t s a r e g r e e n and a r o u s e s p a r r o w s who f l y a b o u t . I n dreams I o f t e n meet w i t h y o u - - A t t h e f o r d s o u t h o f t h e g r a s s p a v i l i o n , upon t h e o l d f i s h i n g r o c k . 3. Zheng X i e ' s i n s c r i p t i o n on L i Shan's a l b u m F l o w e r s , V e g e t a b l e s , and F r u i t , i n t h e S i c h u a n P r o v i n c i a l Museum C o l l e c t i o n . (The E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n u s e d h e r e i s b o r r o w e d f r o m t h e p r e f a c e t o Q i n g L i Shan h u a n i a o c e , 1964. T h r e e l i n e s o f t h e i n s c r i p t i o n a r e n o t t r a n s l a t e d i n t h e p u b l i c a t i o n ) , d a t e d 1760: F u t a n g ' s p a i n t i n g s t y l e h a s u n d e r g o n e t h r e e c h a n g e s . A t f i r s t he l e a r n e d t o p a i n t l a n d s c a p e f r o m Wei L i n g c a n g , a p a i n t e r i n h i s v i l l a g e , he m a s t e r e d t h e a r t and h i s s k i l l e x c e l l e d t h a t o f h i s t e a c h e r . Then he went t o t h e C a p i t a l and became a p u p i l o f J i a n g T i n g x i o f N a n s h a , and h i s p a i n t i n g o f f l o w e r s w i t h c o l o u r s became e x t r e m e l y l i f e l i k e . The p r e s e n t c o l l e c t i o n c o n s i s t s o f h i s w o r k s done when he was o v e r t h i r t y . H a v i n g p a s s e d t h r o u g h many t w i s t s and t u r n s and h a r d s h i p s i n l i f e , he came t o t h e C a p i t a l a g a i n t o w a i t on t h e m i n i s t e r o f j u s t i c e Gao Q i p e i . L a t e r i n Y a n g z h o u he s t u d i e d how t h e monk S h i t a o p a i n t e d . He l i k e w i s e a d o p t e d S h i ' s t e c h n i q u e o f u s i n g a b a l d b r u s h and s p l a s h - i n k , and h i s p a i n t i n g became e v e n more e c c e n t r i c . H i s p a i n t i n g s t y l e c h a n g e d when he f i r s t came t o t h e C a p i t a l , when he came t o t h e C a p i t a l f o r t h e s e c o n d t i m e h i s s t y l e c h a n g e d a g a i n , and e a c h t i m e h i s l e v e l went h i g h e r . One c a n f i n d t h e f o r m s , c o l o u r s and d e p t h o f t h e o b j e c t s he d e p i c t e d n o t i n t h e s l i g h t e s t m e s s i n e s s i n a p p e a r a n c e ; h o w e v e r , t h e y were done i n a c a r e f r e e and o f f h a n d manner. B u t when l o o k i n g c l o s e l y , one n o t i c e s t h i s i s where t h e i n g e n u i t y and s u b t l e t y l i e . The w o r k s done a f t e r he was s i x t y t o o k a n o t h e r t u r n . T hey became l o o s e and d i s p i r i t e d , and one f i n d s t h e i n n e r s p i r i t i n h i s e a r l i e r p a i n t i n g s gone. T h i s i s t h e t r a g e d y o f h i s o l d a g e . 4. Xue Y o n g n i a n ' s a n a l y s i s o f L i Shan's s e a l s and two b i o g r a p h i e s o f L i Shan (Xue Y o n g n i a n , " L i Shan de j i a s h i y u z a o q i z u o p i n , " 1986, 8 0 - 8 5 ) : 1. Chen f e i l a o h u a s h i ( t h e o f f i c i a l i s n o t an o l d p a i n t i n g t e a c h e r ) . 2. S h e n x i a n z a i x i a n g z h i i i a ( i m m o r t a l p r i m e m i n i s t e r i a l f a m i l y ) . 3. L i H o n g d i n g . Wending z i s u n ( t h e a n c e s t o r o f L i H o n g d i n g and L i W e n d i n g ) . 4. L i Wendin g gong l i u s h i s u n ( t h e s i x t h g e n e r a t i o n d e s c e n d a n t o f duke L i W e n d i n g ) . 5. W e n c a i f e n g l i u ( a d m i r a b l e l i t e r a r y g r a c e ) . One c a n s e e f r o m t h i s : 1. L i Shan was b o r n i n t o a p r i m e m i n i s t e r i a l f a m i l y . 2. He saw t h i s " e a r t h l y p r i m e m i n i s t e r i a l f a m i l y , " c a l l e d "a h e a v e n l y i m m o r t a l h o u s e h o l d , " as h o n o u r a b l e . 3. He r e c o g n i z e d h i m s e l f t o be j u s t l i k e t h e Han p r i m e - m i n i s t e r Cao Cao's d e s c e n d a n t Cao B a , whom Du F u had p r a i s e d . A l t h o u g h "Today t h e r e a r e numerous who make t h e p u r e g a t e s , " b u t " d i s t i n g u i s h e d l i t e r a r y g r a c e t o d a y i s s t i l l p r e s e r v e d . " 4. T h e r e were two men among t h e e a r l i e r g e n e r a t i o n s o f o f f i c i a l s who had made i t t o t h e p o s i t i o n o f p r i m e m i n i s t e r . A f t e r d e a t h one was c a l l e d H o n g d i n g and one was c a l l e d W e n d i n g . 1 T h e r e a r e two p i e c e s o f b i o g r a p h i c a l d a t a c o n c e r n i n g L i Shan w i t h i n t h e S h i p u ( L i s t o f G e n e r a t i o n s ) . One r e f e r s t o t h e f i r s t v o l u m e o f X i n g h u a L i s h i z h u a n l u e ( B i o g r a p h i e s o f t h e L i f a m i l y o f X i n g h u a ) , o t h e r w i s e c a l l e d L i s h i i i a z h u a n ( L i F a m i l y B i o g r a p h i e s ) , and one r e f e r s t o Lao s i f a n g ( O l d F o u r t h H o u s e ) , v o l u m e t h r e e . The f o r m e r i s q u o t e d f r o m X i a n F e n g ' s C h o n g x i u X i n g h u a x i a n z h i ( C o m p i l a t i o n o f t h e X i n g h u a C o u n t y G a z e t e e r ) . A s i d e f r o m t h a t w h i c h p e o p l e g e n e r a l l y know o f , t h a t w h i c h c o n c e r n s h i s l i f e t o u c h e s upon two m a t t e r s : 1. B e f o r e b e i n g an o f f i c i a l i n T e n g , he was " s e l e c t e d as t h e c o u n t y m a g i s t r a t e o f Shandong p r o v i n c e i n L i n z h i . " 2. A f t e r b e i n g d i s m i s s e d f r o m o f f i c e he " b u i l t t h e F u o u g u a n " [ F r o t h , o r t h e F l o a t i n g g a r d e n ] i n X i n g h u a i n t h e s o u t h e r n p a r t o f t h e c i t y . The a u t h o r w i l l d i s c u s s t h e s e p a r a t e t e x t s . A t t h i s p o i n t I w i l l n o t g i v e many u n n e c e s s a r y d e t a i l s . The o r i g i n a l t e x t i s a s b e l o w : L i S h a n , a l s o c a l l e d F u t a n g . I n t h e f i f t i e t h y e a r o f t h e r e i g n o f t h e K a n g x i e m peror (1711) a j u r e n . I n t h e f i f t y - s e c o n d y e a r ( 1 7 1 3 ) he p r e s e n t e d a poem and was c a p a b l e i n i t . By t h e emperor he o b t a i n e d e n t r a n c e i n t o t h e N a n s h u f a n g . A t a y o u n g age h i s t a l e n t was g r e a t , and a t t h e same t i m e he was good i n m a t t e r s o f p a i n t i n g . By s p e c i a l d e c r e e he o f t e n l e a r n e d w i t h t h e e x p e r i e n c e d J i a n g X i a n g g u o , and a l t o g e t h e r s e r v e d i n t h e i n n e r c o u r t f o r a few y e a r s . The f a v o u r b e s t o w e d upon h i m was t h i c k and p i l e d up. A f t e r he begged t o r e t u r n , he was c h o s e n a s t h e m a g i s t r a t e o f L i n z h i c o u n t y i n Shandong p r o v i n c e . Then he was t r a n s f e r r e d t o Teng c o u n t y . B e c a u s e o f h i s p u r e and s i m p l e g o v e r n m e n t , t h o s e o f t h e g e n t r y c l a s s c h e r i s h e d h i m . He was d i s o b e d i e n t t o a g r e a t m i n i s t e r , and s o was d i s c h a r g e d and r e t u r n e d (home). He t h e n b u i l t t h e F u 1 o u q u a n ( F l o a t i n g H a l l ) i n t h e s o u t h e r n p a r t o f t h e c i t y . He h o w l e d and i n t o n e d u n t i l t h e e n d . Shan p a i n t e d f l o w e r s and b i r d s . He d i d n o t h o l d on s t u b b o r n l y t o t h e r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s o f t h o s e o f t h e p a s t . C r e a t i o n was i n h i s w r i s t and t h e c o n d i t i o n was l i k e g r o w t h . A f t e r h i s d e a t h , a l t h o u g h he o r i g i n a l l y r e c e i v e d much ( a t t e n t i o n ) , a c t u a l l y , none c o u l d p a s s o f f a f a k e as a g e n u i n e w o r k . He was l e a r n e d and c o u l d w r i t e ; h i s poems were u n c o n v e n t i o n a l l y g r a c e f u l and n a t u r a l , and h i s c a l l i g r a p h y had t h e c o l o u r o f w i l l o w , b o n e s and m u s c l e s . The w o r l d has m e r e l y p a s s e d on s t a t e m e n t s o f h i s s k i l l i n p a i n t i n g . The l a t t e r , a l t h o u g h a r e l a t i v e l y s i m p l e b i o g r a p h y , s i m i l a r l y r a i s e s t h e f a c t o f L i ' s a p p o i n t m e n t as t h e m a g i s t r a t e o f L i n z h i c o u n t y . A s i d e f r o m t h i s , i t a l s o r e c o r d s h i s f a t h e r , h i s s p o u s e , and h i s c h i l d r e n . T h i s , m o r e o v e r , i s f r e s h l y known m a t t e r c o n c e r n i n g h i s l i f e . We c a n now l i s t t h e o r i g i n a l t e x t b e l o w : S h a n , a l s o c a l l e d Z o n gyang and F u t a n g , Z h u y i ' s f o u r t h s o n . I n t h e x i n m a o y e a r o f t h e K a n g x i e m p eror ( 1 7 1 1 ) he became a j u r e n . I n t h e q u i j i y e a r ( 1 7 13) he p r e s e n t e d a poem and was c a p a b l e i n i t . By t h e emperor he o b t a i n e d e n t r a n c e i n t o t h e N a n s h u f a n q . He was a p p o i n t e d t o Shandong p r o v i n c e , L i n z h i c o u n t y as t h e c o u n t y m a g i s t r a t e . He was l e a r n e d and c o u l d w r i t e ; he was good a t p o e t r y and c a l l i g r a p h y , and p a r t i c u l a r l y r e f i n e d i n m a t t e r s o f p a i n t i n g . F a r and n e a r ( p e o p l e ) a d m i r e d h i s name, and d i d n o t s p a r e l a r g e amounts of c a s h t o p u r c h a s e them. Soon t h e r e were p a r t i c u l a r s i n t h e p r e f e c t u r a l and c o u n t y g a z e t e e r s . He j o i n e d i n m a r r i a g e w i t h t h e Shu f a m i l y and had one s o n , who d i e d a t a y o u n g a g e , and one g i r l . Then he s t a y e d i n t h e Han f a m i l y , and had t h r e e s o n s and one d a u g h t e r . 5. Zheng X i e ' s poem " Y i n L i F u t a n g z h a i f u z e n g " ( T h i n k i n g o f L i F u t a n g ' s H o u s e h o l d , t o P r e s e n t as a G i f t ) ( Q u a n i i . 1 9 8 5 , B a n q i a o j i [The C o l l e c t e d Works o f B a n q i a o ] , S h i c h a o [ C o l l e c t e d p o e t r y ] s e c t i o n , 5 9 ) : On t h e f i f t e e n t h d a y o f t h e f o u r t h month t h e moon i s i n t h e t r e e s , A l i g h t w i n d and p u r e shadow s h a k e t h e window. I r a i s e t h e w i n e w a n t i n g t o d r i n k when burdensome m a t t e r s o f t h e h e a r t come t o me... The h o s t and g u e s t have n o t y e t s p o k e n and t h e g u e s t g e t s up and l e a v e s . The h o s t made h i s f o r t u n e a t a most y o u n g a g e . . . He f i r s t t r i e d t h e c o r a l w h i p on h i s h u a l i n s t e e d ; 2 W i t h t h e e s c o r t he went i n and o u t o f G u b e i k o u . W i t h h i s bag and b r u s h he s e r v e d d i r e c t l y b e f o r e t h e ( K a n g x i ) e m p e r o r , H i s t a l e n t and g r a n d i o s i t y were q u i t e e n v i e d by t h e w o r l d — B u t a l t h o u g h t h e mouths p r a i s e d and s i g h e d , t h e h e a r t s were n o t l i k e t h a t . R u m b l i n g h o r s e s l e f t t h e c i t y ; I n b r o c a d e d c l o t h e s he s o u g h t o u t s i n g i n g g i r l s on t h e r i v e r - - F o r t w e n t y y e a r s t h e s o u n d s and c o l o u r s o f h i s l i f e were l i c e n t i o u s , H i s p a i n t i n g t o t a l l e d t h r e e - t h o u s a n d i i i n b r e a d t h and l e n g t h . Two b a b i e s were t h e n e t w o r k o f t h e w o r l d , B u t t h e n h i s h o u s e h o l d and w e a l t h were p a r t i t i o n e d and s q u a n d e r e d . . . The a n g r y o f f i c i a l f r e q u e n t l y t a p p e d a t t h e d o o r t o u r g e t h e r e n t , The one t h o u s a n d mu o f p a d d y f i e l d s a r e on t h e c o n t r a r y a b u r d e n . Then t h e r o a d came t o an e n d , and he s o l d p a i n t i n g s - - t h e p a i n t i n g s were i n c r e a s i n g l y c h e a p , And t h e s e r v a n t s and m e r c h a n t s d i s c u s s e d w h e t h e r t h e y were good o r b a d . Y e s t e r d a y he p a i n t e d a p a i r o f p i n e s w h i c h were n o t y e t h a l f c o m p l e t e d ; On b e c o m i n g d r u n k he g o t a n g r y and t o r e up t h e ( s p e c i a l ) p a p e r f r o m D e n g x i n . When he g r e w o l d , he on t h e c o n t r a r y t h o u g h t o f w a l k i n g on t h e s o f t d u s t , So he became an o f f i c i a l t e m p o r a r i l y i n o r d e r t o a l l e v i a t e h i s h a r d s h i p . How many t i m e s d i d t h e f l o w e r s open on t h e t r e e s o f S h a n g l i n , F o r t e n y e a r s he d i d n o t s e e t h e f l o u r i s h i n g s p r i n g i n t h e c a p i t a l . I n t h i s , t h e t a s t e i s m i l d l i k e w a t e r - - B u t he c o u l d n o t y e t b e a r b e i n g an e n l i g h t e n e d o f f i c i a l and t h e n b e c o m i n g l o w l y and p o o r . 6. One o f " T w e n t y - t h r e e j u e j u " b y Zheng X i e (Qua n j i , 1 9 8 5 , B a n q i a o j i [The C o l l e c t e d Works o f B a n q i a o ] , S h i c h a o [ C o l l e c t e d p o e t r y ] s e c t i o n , 9 9 ) : C a l l e d F u t a n g , a X i n g h u a man, he i s f i l i a l a nd h o n e s t . He w o r s h i p p e d a t t h e i n n e r c o u r t and l a t e r was t h e m a g i s t r a t e o f Teng c o u n t y . H i s b r u s h i s s k i l l e d and m a t c h l e s s . T w i c e e x p e l l e d f r o m a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and a o n c e demoted o f f i c i a l , H i s d r e a r y h a i r i s f r o s t y ( g r e y ) i n t h e r e f l e c t i o n . He remembers and b e w a i l s Ren H u a n g d i ( t h e K a n g x i e m p e r o r ) , And l o n g t a k e s h i s s o u l t o be l i k e t h e c o l o u r s o f t h e w i l l o w . 7. Zheng X i e ' s l e t t e r t o L i Shan ( Q u a n j i , 1 9 85, B a n q i a o j i w a i s h i w e n ( P o e t r y and P r o s e o u t s i d e t h e C o l l e c t e d Works o f B a n q i a o ) , Shu ( L e t t e r s ) s e c t i o n , 269. The l e t t e r i s l i s t e d as b e i n g a f a c s i m i l e o f t h a t i n B e i j i n g x i d a n wenwu s h a n g d i a n c a n g ( B e i j i n g West L i s t C u l t u r a l R e l i c s S t o r e C o l l e c t i o n ) : I n t e n d a y s we have n o t s e e n one a n o t h e r . I t i s a s i f a p e r i o d o f t h i r t y y e a r s has p a s s e d . The g r o u n d i n t h e m o r n i n g i s s o f t mud. Can y o u come o v e r f o r a v i s i t w i t h me? O l d s i r Wang, Dusan, and e l d e r b r o t h e r Ye, want t o i n v i t e t h e r e v e r e d one t o meet o v e r a p o t o f w i n e and a s m a l l d i s h o f f o o d . I do n o t know, a r e y o u w i l l i n g t o come o v e r ? The p a i n t i n g b u s i n e s s , no d o u b t , i s p r e s s i n g , b u t t a l k i n g o f m a t t e r s a l s o c a n n o t be g i v e n up. I am e a g e r l y l o o k i n g f o r w a r d t o y o u r c o m i n g o v e r . F o r o l d man F u t a n g , f r o m h i s l a t e y o u n g e r b r o t h e r Zheng X i e . 1 4 9 1. Xue Y o n g n i a n l a t e r c o n c l u d e s t h a t H o n g d i n g i s n o t r e l a t e d t o L i S h a n , and t h a t t h e s e a l was made j u s t a f t e r L i Shan's t i m e i n o r d e r t o v a l i d a t e f o r g e r i e s o f t h e p a i n t e r ' s w o r k s . 2. I n d i c a t i n g an o f f i c i a l p o s i t i o n . APPENDIX 3. Poems by Zheng X i e 1. The i n s c r i p t i o n upon t h e p a i n t i n g Bamboo and R o c k . The P a l a c e Museum C o l l e c t i o n ( R e p r o d u c e d i n P a i n t i n g by Y a n g z h o u A r t i s t s o f t h e Q i n g D y n a s t y . 1984, e n t r y 76. Two o t h e r p a i n t i n g s w i t h s i m i l a r i n s c r i p t i o n s a r e r e c o r d e d i n Q u a n i i . B a n q i a o i i [The C o l l e c t e d Works o f B a n q i a o ] , T i h u a [ I n s c r i p t i o n s ] s e c t i o n , 2 0 5 ) : Y a n g z h o u ' s f r e s h bamboo s h o o t s and r i c h i n h i l s a h e r r i n g , Mashed and c o o k e d a t t h e s t a r t o f t h e e a s t w i n d ' s t h i r d month, M a k i n g i t a s k t h e k i t c h e n h e l p t o s t o p f r o m c h o p p i n g i t up t o t h e u t m o s t , C l e a r and b r i g h t l e a v e t h i s t o l i g h t t h e o u t s p r e a d b ook. Huan o l d s c h o l a r e l d e r b r o t h e r c o r r e c t . B a n q i a o Zheng X i e . 2. T h r e e i n s c r i p t i o n s on bamboo p a i n t i n g s . ( Q u a n j i . 1 9 85, B a n q i a o i i [The c o l l e c t e d w o r k s o f B a n q i a o ] , T i h u a [ I n s c r i p t i o n s ] s e c t i o n , 205-6. The s e c o n d p a i n t i n g i s i n t h e B e i j i n g x i d a n wenwu s h a n g d i a n c a n g [ B e i j i n g West L i s t C u l t u r a l R e l i c s S t o r e C o l l e c t i o n ] . The t h i r d p a i n t i n g i s i n t h e T a i z h o u bowuguan [ T a i z h o u N a t u r a l H i s t o r y M useum]): Bamboo s h o o t s a l o n g t h e r i v e r i n t h e s e c o n d month a r e new. F a m i l y a f t e r f a m i l i e s ' k i t c h e n s c ook and p e a l t h e s p r i n g bamboo. I am h o p i n g t o c u t one t h o u s a n d t h r e a d s o f t h i n bamboo s t r i p s , To weave i n t o a c u r t a i n t o p r o t e c t b e a u t i f u l women! Cook meat and b o i l f i s h , c u t up bamboo s h o o t s f r e s h . I n t h e k i t c h e n on t h e p o t s h e l f t h e y l o s e H e a v e n's g e n u i n e n e s s . . . B a n q i a o Zheng X i e p l a y s w i t h t h e b r u s h . ...Cook p i g and c u t bamboo s h o o t s f r e s h . F a m i l y a f t e r f a m i l y ' s k i t c h e n s l o s e o u r g e n u i n e n e s s . 1 I ( f o u r c h a r a c t e r s m i s s i n g ) o f t h i n bamboo s t r i p s t o weave i n t o a c u r t a i n t o p r o t e c t b e a u t i f u l women. The o l d c o d g e r o f s e v e n t y w r o t e t h e s e b e a u t i f u l w o r d s , i s n ' t i t l a u g h a b l e ! 2 1. "Our g e n u i n e n e s s " c o u l d a l s o be t r a n s l a t e d as "my g e n u i n e n e s s , " t h e word b e i n g wu. 2. The e x p r e s s i o n i s z u o c i q i y u . q i m e a n i n g " b e a u t i f u l " o r " f i g u r e d woven s i l k m a t e r i a l " o r "damask." T h i s i s a p l a y upon t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e poem a s i t r e g a r d s b e a u t i f u l women, and t h e woven c u r t a i n t o p r o t e c t them. APPENDIX 4. Poems by L i Shan and J i n Nong 1. Poems s e l e c t e d f r o m Zhuang S h e n , " L i Shan s h i c h a o " (The C o l l e c t e d Poems o f L i S h a n ) , 1 972, 53-60. The page number w i t h i n Zhuang Shen's a r t i c l e f o l l o w s t h e poem: S t r a n g e t h i s c h a n g e , l a m e n t t h e wounded p e o n y , The work o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n ( i n p a i n t i n g ) c l e v e r l y m a t c h e s t h e i n t e n t i o n , The e s s e n c e i s d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e many. F i s h f o r e t e l l o f a t h o u s a n d y e a r s . . . T h i s i s a p a i n t i n g t h a t w i l l b r i n g r i c h e s and h o n o u r y e a r a f t e r y e a r . ( 5 5 ) C l e a r summer d u r i n g t h e f a m i n e I f a s t . . . M a n k i n d ' s h e a t I c a n b r i n g t o an e n d . P l e a s e l o o k on t h i s i n k and b r u s h as i f t h e y were c l o u d s r i s i n g , I t i s l i k e t h e c o l d r a i n and c o o l w i n d amongst t h e bamboo and t r e e s i n t h e a u t u m n . ( 5 5 ) I n t h e s m a l l g a r d e n , t h e c o l o u r s o f f l o w e r s c a n be p r a i s e d t o t h e g r e a t e s t e x t e n t ; T h i s y e a r on t h e Duanyang f e s t i v a l I s t a y e d a t home. B u t l a u g h a t an o l d f e l l o w l i k e me n o t h a v i n g a p l a c e t o h i d e away-- E v e r y o n e s e e k s me o u t t o p a i n t f i s h and s h r i m p ! (55) The s w e e t and f r a g r a n t i s o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e t a s t e l e s s r e m a i n d e r : W i t h t h e j a d e c a u l d r o n i n t h e o f f i c i a l ' s k i t c h e n t h e t a s t e i s n o t as g o o d . On a n o t h e r d a y i n my l i f e I w i l l s i n g w i t h i n my t e n mu ( o f l a n d ) , S h u t ( t h e d o o r ) and r e a d o l d a g r i c u l t u r a l b o o k s . (58) M onth b y month t h e s p r i n g i s s u i t a b l e f o r f l o w e r s i n an a n c i e n t v e s s e l . A b u n d a n c e i s p o r t e n d e d — b r i n g o u t t h e f i s h i n g r o d . W r i t i n g t h e s e two l i n e s I o b t a i n t h e i d e a , The Heaven and t h e E a r t h a r e p e a c e f u l t h r o u g h o u t t h e f o u r s e a s o n s . ( 5 9 ) 2. I n s c r i p t i o n f r o m an a l b u m l e a f o f f i s h by L i Shan. P a l a c e Museum C o l l e c t i o n ( R e p r o d u c e d i n P a i n t i n g s b y Y a n g z h o u A r t i s t s r 1985, e n t r y 5 0 ) : L e e k , t e n d e r g i n g e r s p r o u t , huge mouth and s l e n d e r s c a l e s t o be e a t e n when f r e s h . Who w i l l s h a r e t h i s w i t h t h e p a i n t e r L i Shan? 3. J i n Nong's i n s c r i p t i o n on h i s image o f bamboo and bamboo s h o o t s ( R e p r o d u c e d i n C h u - t s i n g L i , "The Bamboo P a i n t i n g s o f C h i n Nung," 1 9 7 3 - 7 4 , 5 3 - 7 1 ) : W i t h t h e f i r s t s o u n d i n g o f t h e t h u n d e r o f s p r i n g , New bamboo s h o o t s f i l l t h e m o u n t a i n — r i d g e a f t e r r i d g e o f j a d e . When y o u b u y a p o r t i o n t o c o o k w i t h f r a g r a n t p i g meat, Do n o t a s k t h e k i t c h e n h e l p , a s k t h e o l d monk. O l d M o n k . . . ( J i n N o n g ) , a f t e r p a i n t i n g i n s c r i b e d t h i s . 1 5 4 APPENDIX 5. An E x a m p l e o f R e c e n t C h i n e s e S c h o l a r s h i p R e p r e s e n t i n g t h e T r a d i t i o n a l C h i n e s e A p p r o a c h t o Y a n g z h o u P a i n t e r s . Wang L u y u , " L i Shan huan j i b u y i . Fu L i Shan n i a n b i a o " (An Addendum t o t h e R e c o r d s o f t h e O f f i c i a l L i S han. L i Shan N i a n b i a o A p p e n d e d ) , 1986, 75-78 ( N o t i n c l u d i n g t h e n i a n b i a o ) . L i Shan i s one o f t h e p r i n c i p l e f i g u r e s among t h e Y a n g z h o u s c h o o l o f p a i n t i n g . The o c c u r r e n c e s o f h i s o f f i c i a l c a r e e r , h i s s u c c e s s i n t h e e x a m i n a t i o n , w o r s h i p w i t h i n t h e c o u r t , and o f f i c e as Teng c o u t y m a g i s t r a t e a r e a l l known o f . B u t t h e p a r t i c u l a r s o f h i s h a v i n g a c t e d as t h e c o u n t y m a g i s t r a t e i n L i n z h i , i n Shandong p r o v i n c e , have b e e n l e f t o u t o f v a r i o u s p a i n t i n g h i s t o r i e s and monographs a l l a l o n g . S i n c e t h e y a r e n o t known t h e y c a n n o t be u s e d i n r e s e a r c h i n g L i Shan's l i f e and a r t i s t i c d e v e l o p e m e n t . I . Addendum. L i Shan was f r o m X i n g h u a , i n J i a n g s u p r o v i n c e . The C h o n q x i u X i n g h u a x i a n z h i ( R e - e d i t i o n o f t h e X i n g h u a C o u n t y G a z e t e e r ) s a y s , "he w o r s h i p p e d i n t h e c o u r t f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s , and was t h i c k l y b e s t o w e d u p on. He b e g g e d t o r e t u r n . L a t e r he was s e l e c t e d as t h e c o u n t y m a g i s t r a t e o f L i n z h i , i n S h a n d o n g , and was t h e n t r a n s f e r r e d t o Teng c o u n t y . " F o l l o w i n g t h i s c l u e , I c o n s u l t e d t h e Shandong t o n g z h i ( S h a n d o n g C o m p r e h e n s i v e G a z e t e e r ) , Q i n g z h o u f u z h i ( Q i n g z h o u P r e f e c t u r e G a z e t e e r ) , and t h e L i n z h i x i a n z h i - - z h i quan z h i ( L i n z h i C o u n t y G a z e t e e r — R e c o r d s o f O f f i c i a l s ) . W i t h o u t e x c e p t i o n , t h e s e do n o t m e n t i o n t h a t he had b e e n t h e m a g i s t r a t e o f L i n z h i c o u n t y . However, i n t h e L i n z h i x i a n z h i - - M i n g c h u a n z h i ( L i n z h i C o u n t y G a z e t e e r — R e c o r d s o f Famous O f f i c i a l s ) , I saw a r e c o r d w h i c h s t a t e s t h e f o l l o w i n g : L i S h a n , z_i Z o n g y a n g , was a l s o c a l l e d F u t a n g . He was a j u r e n f r o m Y a n g z h o u i n X i n g h u a . D u r i n g t h e r e i g n o f t h e K a n g x i e m peror he w o r s h i p p e d i n t h e i n n e r c o u r t . I n t h e s e c o n d y e a r o f t h e r e i g n o f t h e Q i a n l o n g e m p e r o r (1737) he became t h e m a g i s t r a t e a t L i n z h i c o u n t y . He was p r a i s e d i n t h e p u b l i c r e a l m , and was g r a c e f u l b u t showy. B a n q i a o s a i d t h a t h i s p a i n t i n g b r u s h was e x t r e m e l y s k i l l e d . The g a z e t e e r s e l e c t s e i g h t e e n f r o m t h e n e a r l y e i g h t y Q i n g d y n a s t y m a g i s t r a t e s and e n t e r s t h e i r names i n t h e M i n g c h u a n s h i ( R e c o r d o f Famous O f f i c i a l s ) . L i Shan i s l i s t e d among them. I t h i n k i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t h a t t h i s i s an e r r o r . 155 The L i n z h i x i a n z h i - - j i a n z h i z h i ( L i n z h i C o u n t y E s t a b l i s h e d R e c o r d s ) a l s o m e n t i o n s t h a t a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e r e i g n o f t h e Q i a n l o n g e m p e r o r L i Shan r e b u i l t t h e C o n f u c i a n t e m p l e . An o l d t r a d i t i o n h a s i t t h a t a t t h e p l a c e i n q u e s t i o n t h e " l i n g x i n g m e n " ( l i t e r a l l y t h e " l a t t i c e s t a r d o o r " ) w h i c h L i Shan i n s c r i b e d s t i l l e x i s t e d a t t h e t i m e o f t h e R e p u b l i c o f C h i n a . The l e n g t h o f t h e p e r i o d d u r i n g w h i c h L i Shan h e l d an o f f i c i a l p o s t h a s n o t b een t r e a t e d i n t h i s . T a k i n g i n t o a c c o u n t t h a t , " a f t e r b e i n g s e l e c t e d as t h e m a g i s t r a t e o f L i n z h i , i n S h a n d o n g , he was t r a n s f e r r e d t o Teng c o u n t y , " we c a n s e t a l i m i t on t h e d a t e a t w h i c h he was t r a n s f e r r e d t o Teng c o u n t y . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e Teng x i a n z h i (Teng C o u n t y G a z e t e e r ) ( P u b l i s h e d by D a o g u a n g ) : . . . L i S h a n , a l u r e n o f X i n g h u a i n J i a n g s u p r o v i n c e . I n t h e t e n t h month o f t h e t h i r d y e a r ( o f t h e r e i g n o f t h e e m peror Q i a n l o n g , o r 1738- 1740) he t o o k o f f i c e , and s e r v e d f o r f o u r y e a r s ( f o u r y e a r s f r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g o f h i s s e r v i c e i n T e n g ) . T h e r e i s a b i o g r a p h y . f i v e y e a r s and two months s e r v e d . The b i o g r a p h y s a y s : " L i S h a n . . . a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e r e i g n o f t h e Q i a n l o n g e m peror he a g a i n was t h e m a g i s t r a t e o f Teng ( c o u n t y ) . He made c o r r e c t t h e o u t e r c i r c u m s t a n c e . B e c a u s e he d i d n o t a g r e e w i t h a h i g h e r o f f i c i a l he was d i s c h a r g e d . He r e m a i n e d i n Teng ( c o u n t y ) f o r t h r e e y e a r s ( u n t i l 1 7 4 3 ) , and t h e p e o p l e o f Teng who o b t a i n e d h i s w o r k s a l l t r e a s u r e d them. So, i n what month d i d t h e p a i n t e r b e g i n t o s e r v e as t h e m a g i s t r a t e o f L i n z h i c o u n t y ? M o l i n i i n h u a (Book o f t h e Words o f C o n t e m p o r a r i e s ) r e c o r d s an i n s c r i p t i o n b y L i Shan on a p a i n t i n g o f t r e e p e o n y w h i c h s a y s : S u b m e r g i n g t h e empty roo m s , t h e f l o o d w a t e r s o f t h e e x c e s s i v e r a i n s r e m a i n . . . I c h e c k my b a g , f o r t h e e a r n i n g s o f t h e a b u n d a n t t i m e s i n t h e p a s t . P a i n t i n g has ended f o r me, t h e s w a l l o w s on t h e b r a n c h [ ? ] . . . I l e a v e t o be an o f f i c i a l , I w i l l n o t b r i n g t h e c o l o u r s when I go t o Q i n g z h o u . Noone has y e t u n d e r s t o o d t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s poem. A f t e r p u t t i n g i t t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e L i n z h i x i a n z h i ( L i n z h i C o u n t y G a z e t e e r ) we c a n u n d e r s t a n d i t a f t e r a b r i e f l o o k . " Q i n g z h o u " r e f e r s t o Q i n g z h o u p r e f e c t u r e , w h i c h had j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r L i n z h i c o u n t y . B e c a u s e o f t h i s we know t h a t t h e poem was w r i t t e n j u s t p r i o r t o g o i n g t o t a k e o f f i c e a s t h e c o u n t y m a g i s t r a t e o f L i n z h i . T h i s a g a i n p r o v e s t h a t L i Shan went t o Q i n g z h o u t o become an o f f i c i a l . 1 5 6 F r o m an a n a l y s i s o f t h e t e r m v i n v u . we c a n t e l l t h a t t h i s was p r o b a b l y i n t h e t h i r d month o f t h e y e a r . W i t h t h e few p i e c e s o f e v i d e n c e i t c a n be s e e n t h a t : some t i m e a f t e r t h e t h i r d month o f t h e s e c o n d y e a r o f t h e r e i g n o f t h e Q i a n l o n g emperor (1737) u n t i l t h e t e n t h month o f t h e t h i r d y e a r o f t h e r e i g n ( 1 7 3 8) L i Shan h e l d t h e o f f i c e o f c o u n t y m a g i s t r a t e o f L i n z h i i n S h a n d o n g . M o r e o v e r , t h e y i l l u s t r a t e t h e a c h i e v e m e n t s o f h i s o f f i c i a l c a r e e r . The r e a s o n s f o r w h i c h t h i s h i s t o r i c a l f a c t has b e e n l e f t o u t o f p a i n t i n g h i s t o r i e s and monographs i n c l u d e t h a t o f t h e s h a r e d h a b i t o f p a s s i n g on and l i f t i n g p a s s a g e s . M o r e o v e r , a s i d e f r o m t h e L i n z h i x i a n z h i - - M i n q c h u a n z h i ( L i n z h i C o u n t y G a z e t e e r - - R e c o r d o f Famous O f f i c i a l s ) , o n l y t h e C h o n g x i u X i n g h u a x i a n z h i ( R e - e d i t i o n o f t h e X i n g h u a C o u n t y G a z e t e e r ) has a s m a l l c l u e . B u t e v e n t h e c h a r a c t e r " d i a o " [ t r a n s f e r ] h a s a l s o t a k e n t h e f o c u s o f t h e r e s e a r c h e r s and t r a n s f e r e d i t t o Teng c o u n t y . I I . T h a t o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e Addendum. I n t h e f i r s t p l a c e , when s p e a k i n g on t h e " Y a n g z h o u B a g u a i , " many c o n s i d e r t h a t t h e y d e t e s t e d t h e w o r l d and i t s ways, t h a t t h e y had no i n t e n t i o n s o f t a k i n g t h e p a t h o f o f f i c i a l d o m , and t h a t t h e i r b r u s h w o r k was e m o t i o n a l , e x p r e s s i n g t h e i r f e e l i n g s . I n r e a l i t y t h e s i t u a t i o n i s n o t s i m p l y l i k e t h i s . We c a n s e e f r o m t h e i n s c r i p t i o n on t h e p a i n t i n g o f t r e e p e o n y c i t e d a b o v e t h a t t h e r e a s o n t h a t L i Shan was an o f f i c i a l t w i c e i s t h a t he was d e t e r m i n e d t o become a good o f f i c i a l . F r om t h e l a t e r two l i n e s we c a n s e e t h a t a f t e r he f i n i s h e d p a i n t i n g t h e f u g u i h u a p i c t u r e , he t h e n w a n t e d t o p u t a s i d e t h e r o u g e and c o l o u r s , and w h o l e h e a r t e d l y "be an o f f i c i a l " i n t h e f l o u r i s h i n g r e i g n o f t h e Q i a n l o n g e m p e r o r . I n f a c t , a f t e r g o v e r n i n g he a l s o r e c e i v e d t h e s u p p o r t o f t h e p o p u l a c e , and a f t e r b e i n g an o f f i c i a l f o r one and a h a l f y e a r s t h e n g a i n e d t h e a p p r a i s a l o f " p r a i s e i n t h e p u b l i c r e a l m , g r a c e f u l b u t showy," and was l i s t e d u n d e r t h e a b o v e - m e n t i o n e d c o u n t y as one o f t h e e i g h t e e n famous o f f i c i a l s o f t h e Q i n g d y n a s t y . A f t e r b e i n g t r a n s f e r r e d t o Teng f o r o v e r a y e a r he was a l s o " c h e r i s h e d by t h e g e n t r y and t h e commoners f o r h i s p u r e and h o n e s t g o v e r n a n c e . " I n s p i t e o f " b e i n g u n c o n g e n i a l t o a g r e a t m i n i s t e r , b e i n g d i s c h a r g e d and r e t u r n i n g , " h i s a s p i r a t i o n s and c o n d u c t a r e v e r y c l e a r . Up u n t i l t h e t i m e he l e f t o f f i c e and l i v e d a t home i t was as i f h i s d e v o t i o n t o b e c o m i n g an o f f i c i a l had s t i l l n o t y e t d i e d o u t . When he was s i x t y y e a r s o l d , i n a l e t t e r t o h i s c o u s i n he s a i d : " I r e c e n t l y a g a i n had t h o u g h t s o f l e a v i n g t h e m o u n t a i n t o come t o t h e p r e f e c t u r a l c i t y h o l d i n g t h e b e g g i n g b o w l , m a k i n g p l a n s t o e n t e r t h e c a p i t a l . " A f t e r t h e p a i n t e r was " t w i c e removed o f h i s t i t l e k e r n i n g and o n c e d e m o t e d , " f r o m b e i n g s t r u c k w i t h t h e g o v e r n m e n t ' s f e r v e n t a t t a c k s , t h e p a t h o f t h e o f f i c i a l c o u l d no l o n g e r be hoped f o r . 1 W i t h t h i s h i s o u t l o o k on l i f e u n d e r w e n t a c h a n g e . T h i s a l s o a p p e a r e d i n h i s a r t i n h i s s t y l e , j u s t a s B a n q i a o c r i t i c i z e d F u t a n g ' s w o r k s s a y i n g , " A f t e r he was s i x t y i t ( h i s s t y l e ) c h a n g e d a g a i n , b e c o m i n g c a r e l e s s and s l o p p y and d i s p i r i t e d . I t d i d n o t r e t a i n b o nes and m u s c l e s . T h i s i s t h e s o r r o w o f h i s o l d a g e . " The h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l r e l a t e d a b o v e no d o u b t has g r e a t s i g n i f i c a n c e r e g a r d i n g o u r r e s e a r c h o f L i Shan's t h o u g h t and l i f e . S e c o n d l y , t h e c l e a r r e c o r d c o n c e r n i n g t h e l i m i t o f y e a r s when L i Shan was an o f f i c i a l w i t h i n t h e L i n z h i x i a n z h i ( L i n z h i C o u n t y G a z e t e e r ) and Teng x i a n z h i ( T e n g C o u n t y G a z e t e e r ) , h i s s e c o n d t i m e as an o f f i c i a l i s b e t w e e n t h e p e r i o d f r o m s o m e t i m e a f t e r t h e s e c o n d y e a r o f t h e r e i g n o f t h e Q i a n l o n g e m peror (1737) u n t i l t h e s e c o n d month o f t h e f i f t h y e a r o f t h e r e i g n o f t h e Q i a n l o n g e m peror ( 1 7 4 0 ) . F r o m b e g i n n i n g t o end i t i s n o t more t h a n t h r e e y e a r s . The t i m e he t o o k o f f i c e i s a r o u n d t h e age o f f i f t y - t w o ; t h e o t h e r s a y i n g s a b o u t t h i s a r e w r o n g . T h i r d l y , we c a n s e e f r o m t h e i n s c r i p t i o n o f t h e p a i n t i n g o f t r e e p e o n y t h a t L i Shan was d e t e r m i n e d n o t t o a g a i n p l a c e h i s f e e l i n g s i n h i s c a l l i g r a p h y and p a i n t i n g , and wound up s e l l i n g p a i n t i n g s t o make a l i v i n g . I n t h a t way, d u r i n g t h e t h r e e y e a r s i n w h i c h L i Shan assumed an o f f i c i a l p o s t , he was p r o b a b l y n o t p l a n n i n g on m a k i n g p a i n t i n g s . The L i n z h i X i a n z h i ( L i n z h i C o u n t y G a z e t e e r ) o n l y s a y s " B a n q i a o s a y s h i s p a i n t i n g b r u s h i s e x t r e m e l y s k i l l e d . " I t seems t h a t a t t h a t p l a c e among t h e g e n t r y and commoners t h e r e were none who knew o f h i s a b i l i t y a t p a i n t i n g . I t a l s o shows t h a t d u r i n g t h e t i m e he assumed o f f i c e L i Shan's p a i n t i n g a r t had n o t y e t become v i s i b l e . The s e c o n d t i m e he p i c k e d up t h e b r u s h t o make p a i n t i n g s t o a g r e a t e x t e n t , i t was a f t e r he had b een d i s c h a r g e d and r e m a i n e d i n Teng c o u n t y f o r t h r e e y e a r s . L i Shan's p a i n t i n g a c t i v i t y d u r i n g h i s t h r e e y e a r s a s c o u n t y m a g i s t r a t e p r o b a b l y b e l o n g t o t h e " p e r i o d o f h i b e r n a t i o n , " when e v e n t h o u g h he made p a i n t i n g s , t h e y were were c o n s i d e r a b l y few. T h i s p o i n t i s a v a l u a b l e r e f e r e n c e i n a p p r a i s i n g and a n a l y s i n g t h e p a i n t e r ' s w o r k s . 2 158 1. Wang L u y u d o e s n o t l i n k t h i s q u o t e t o p a r t i c u l a r e v e n t s i n L i Shan's l i f e t i m e t h r o u g h h i s o f f i c i a l c a r e e r . E v i d e n c e i s c l e a r t o me f o r o n l y one m i s f o r t u n e i n L i Shan's c a r e e r as o f f i c i a l , t h a t o f b e i n g d i s c h a r g e d a f t e r f o u r y e a r s o f s e r v i c e as t h e m a g i s t r a t e o f Teng c o u n t y . The o t h e r two e v e n t s , h a v i n g h i s k e r n i n g t i t l e r emoved t w i c e , do n o t a p p e a r i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e e x p l i c i t l y , as I h a v e i t , and c a n n o t be l i n k e d t o two e v e n t s w i t h a n y c e r t a i n t y . 2. T h e r e a r e two f o o t n o t e s i n t h e a r t i c l e w h i c h have n o t b e e n t r a n s l a t e d h e r e . The f i r s t l i s t s t h e i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d c o n c e r n i n g L i Shan i n v a r i o u s s o u r c e s , w h i l e t h e s e c o n d q u o t e s t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f y i n y u f r o m t h e C i h a i . 159 APPENDIX 6. Zheng X i e ' s P a i n t i n g T h e o r y . I n t h i s a p p e n d i x , e a c h number i n d i c a t e s an i n s c r i p t i o n , w h i l e l e t t e r s f o l l o w i n g a number i n d i c a t e t h e b a s i c and v a r i a n t v e r s i o n s o f t h e i n s c r i p t i o n . As w e l l , b r a c k e t e d l e t t e r s ( f o r e x a m p l e ( a ) . . . ( b ) ) e n c l o s e p a r t s o f t h e i n s c r i p t i o n r e p e a t e d i n v a r i a n t s . S u b s e q u e n t a p p e a r a n c e s o f a p a s s a g e w i l l n o t i n c l u d e t h e t e x t b u t w i l l be i n d i c a t e d by t h e b r a c k e t e d l e t t e r s w h i c h w e re s u r r o u n d i n g i t . The p u r p o s e f o r t h i s i s t o a v o i d r e p e t i t i o n , and t o p e r m i t c o n t i n u e d s t u d y o f t h e m e a n i n g o f t h e i n s c r i p t i o n s and t h e p a i n t i n g s on w h i c h t h e y were w r i t t e n . l a . Bamboo ( Q u a n i i . 1 9 8 5 , B a n q i a o i i [The C o l l e c t e d Works o f B a n q i a o ] , T i h u a [ I n s c r i p t i o n s ] s e c t i o n , 1 9 9 ) : A t t h e r i v e r h u t i n c l e a r autumn, I r i s e i n t h e e a r l y m o r n i n g t o v i e w bamboo. I n t h e m i s t , l i g h t and shadow, dew and b r e e z e , A l l f l o a t and move w i t h i n t h e s p a r s e b r a n c h e s and d e n s e l e a v e s , (a) I n my m i n d I am e x h u b e r a n t . . . S u b s e q u e n t l y I have a p a i n t i n g i d e a . I n r e a l i t y , t h e bamboo i n my m i n d I s a l t o g e t h e r d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e bamboo w i t h i n my s i g h t . Thus (b) I g r i n d i n k and u n f o l d some p a p e r , ( c ) L o w e r i n g t h e b r u s h I s w i f t l y make m e t a m o r p h o s e s . . . The bamboo i n my h a n d , A g a i n , i s n o t t h e bamboo i n my m i n d . I n a w o r d , H a v i n g t h e i d e a f i r s t i n t h e b r u s h I s f i x e d r u l e s ; H a v i n g d e l i g h t b e y o n d method I s t h e d e c r e e o f H e a v e n . 1 A l o n e p a i n t t h e c l o u d s ! ( d ) 2 l b . I n k Bamboo. E n c o u n t e r e d by L i u J i u ' a n ( Q u a n i i , 1 9 8 5 , 200. L i t t l e d i f f e r e n t f r o m l a . I t i s i n s c r i b e d a s , " B a n q i a o d a o r e n Zheng X i e p a i n t e d and i n s c r i b e d f o r S u x i n g , y o u n g e r b r o t h e r o f t h e o l d e r g e n e r a t i o n . When t h e snow i s c l e a r i n g i n t h e s e c o n d month o f t h e t w e n t y - f o u r t h y e a r o f t h e r e i g n o f t h e e m peror Q i a n l o n g " ) , d a t e d 1759. I c . Dew Bamboo, New and F r e s h . I n Zhonqquo h u a i i a c o n g s h u , Zheng B a n q i a o (The C o l l e c t i o n o f R e p r i n t e d Works by C h i n e s e P a i n t e r s , Zheng B a n q i a o ) ( Q u a n i i f 1985, 2 0 0 ) , d a t e d 1756: A t t h e g u e s t h o u s e i n new c l e a r ( w e a t h e r ) , I r i s e i n t h e e a r l y m o r n i n g t o v i e w bamboo. Dew f l o a t s on t h e l e a v e s , L i g h t on t h e b r a n c h t i p s . ( a ) ( c ) move t h e b r u s h - A g a i n i t i s a n o t h e r s t y l e , ( e ) I n r e a l i t y , t h e bamboo i n my hand I s n o t t h e bamboo i n my m i n d . ( f ) S t e p b y s t e p m e t a m o r p h o s i s . . . No one c a n h a v e an i n k l i n g . I t s d e s t i n y shows u n i n t e n t i o n a l l y , T h e r e i s noone who knows i t s how o r why. A l o n e p a i n t t h e c l o u d s ! Q i a n l o n g b i n g - z i y e a r ( 1 7 5 6 ) , B a n q i a o Zheng X i e p a i n t e d and i n s c r i b e d . I d . I n k Bamboo. Hu J i t a n g B i x i a o x u a n s h u h u a l u ( B r u s h and F l u t e P a v i l i o n R e c o r d o f C a l l i g r a p h y and P a i n t i n g ) ( Q u a n j i , 1 9 8 5, 2 0 0 ) : I n p u r e autumn I r i s e e a r l y I n t h e s m a l l g a r d e n I v i e w bamboo. When l i g h t f i r s t r i s e s , The c o o l dew i s n o t y e t d r i e d up. ( a ) ( b ) Thus I wash t h e i n k s t o n e , g r i n d i n k , Chew t h e b r u s h , and u n f o l d some p a p e r . A r b i t r a r i l y I w i e l d and w r i t e , E i t h e r s e p a r a t i n g o r c o m b i n i n g , ( e ) ( f ) Dongpo s a y s : I n my m i n d t h e r e i s a c o m p l e t e d bamboo. B a n q i a o s a y s : I n my mind t h e r e i s n o t a c o m p l e t e d bamboo. O n l y h i s h a v i n g i t , T h i s i s t h a t b y w h i c h he d o e s n o t have i t . O n l y h i s n o t h a v i n g i t , T h i s i s t h a t b y w h i c h he has i t . F r o m a n c i e n t t i m e s t o t h e p r e s e n t t h e r e h a v e n o t b e e n two ways. B a n q i a o D a o r e n Zheng X i e . 2. Bamboo. ( Q u a n j i . 1 9 8 5 , 200. The e d i t o r , B i a n X i a o x u a n , n o t e s t h e s i m i l a r i t y b e t w e e n t h i s i n s c r i p t i o n and t h a t l i s t e d h e r e a s 6, w h i c h i s d a t e d 1 7 6 2 ) : Wen Yuke (Wen Tong) p a i n t s b a m b o o — I n h i s mind he has a c o m p l e t e d bamboo. Zheng B a n q i a o p a i n t s b a m b o o — I n h i s m i n d he d o e s n o t h a v e a c o m p l e t e d bamboo. T h i c k and t h i n , d e n s e and s p a r s e , S h o r t and l o n g , f a t and t h i n . . . 161 The hand w r i t e s i t o u t f r e e l y . N a t u r a l l y i t f o r m s i t s own a r r a n g e m e n t - - The p r i n c i p l e o f i t s s p i r i t i s c o m p l e t e and s u f f i c i e n t . I d i s p a r a g e t h i s l a t t e r d a y s t u d y o f m i n e . How d a r e t o r e c k l e s s l y i m i t a t e p r e v i o u s s a g e s ? B u t h a v i n g a c o m p l e t e d bamboo and n o t h a v i n g a c o m p l e t e d bamboo, I s i n r e a l i t y o n l y a s i n g l e p r i n c i p l e . 3 a . Bamboo. ( Q u a n j i , 1 985, 2 0 1 ) : (a)Wen Y u k e ' s (Wen T o n g ' s ) i n k bamboo poem s a y s : " I p l a n t o p l a y w i t h a s e c t i o n o f E x i t h i n s i l k , S w e e p i n g w i t h t h e b r u s h o b t a i n 10,000 c h i o f l o n g c h i l l y b r a n c h e s . " M e i D a o r e n (Wu Zhen) s a i d : ( b ) " I a l s o have a p a v i l i o n d e e p i n t h e bamboo, A l s o l o n g t o r e t u r n t o t h e s o u n d s o f autumn." ( c ) B o t h p o e t r y i d e a s a r e e x t r e m e l y p u r e , N o t o n l y u s e p a i n t i n g t o p a s s i t on. Not o n l y u s e p a i n t i n g t o p a s s i t on B u t t h e p a i n t i n g a l l t h e more p a s s e s i t o n . ( d ) X i e b o t h c a n n o t do p o e t r y , And c a n n o t p a i n t , B u t a l s o s t r i v e s t o i n s c r i b e a few w o r d s : ( e ) ( f ) " T h e t h u n d e r c e a s e s , t h e r a i n s t o p s o b l i q u e s u n comes o u t . One p i e c e o f new bamboo a t t h e l a s t moment i s c u t o u t . . . The shadow f a l l s on t h e g r e e n g a u z e window. Then I p i c k up t h e w r i t i n g b r u s h and w r i t e o u t f r e e l y on t h e s i l k . " ( g ) The w o rds a r e e x h a u s t e d t h e i d e a i s p o o r , I h ave shamed p r e v i o u s s a g e s . 3b. I n Zheng X i e Zhu s h i hua (Bamboo and Rock P a i n t i n g ) . C o n s i s t s o f ( b ) ( c ) . S i g n e d " B a n q i a o . " S e a l : " Q i p i n G u a n ' e r " ( Q u a n i i r 1 9 8 5 , 2 0 1 ) . 3 c . L a r g e i n k bamboo s c r o l l . X i e C h e n g j u n G u i g u i z h a i s h u h u a j i ( ( R e c o r d o f C a l l i g r a p h y and P a i n t i n g f r o m t h e S t u d y o f E v e r - d i m m e r S i g h t ) , v o l . 2 . C o n s i s t s o f ( b ) ( c ) ( Q u a n i i . 1 9 8 5 , 201) . 3d. L a r g e i n k bamboo s c r o l l . Zhou S i d a C o l l e c t i o n ( Q u a n i i , 1985, 2 0 1 ) : ( a ) ( c ) T h e s e two r e v e r e d men's p o e t r y i d e a s a r e w o n d e r f u l , Not o n l y a r e t h e y famous b e c a u s e o f t h e i r p a i n t i n g s . My p o e t r y and p a i n t i n g a r e b o t h n o t f i n e , B u t I a l s o l i k e p l a y i n g w i t h t h e b r u s h and i n k . T h e r e f o r e I s t r i v e t o i n s c r i b e a f e w words b e t w e e n t h e bamboos, ( f ) (g) (h) A v u l g a r man's w o r d s . . . I am ashamed i n r e l a t i o n t o p r e v i o u s s a g e s . ( i ) T h o s e who a r e good a t p o e t r y and good a t p a i n t i n g N e c e s s a r i l y w i l l h a v e t h a t b y w h i c h t o t e a c h me. F o r e l d e r b r o t h e r Dong Yang t o c o r r e c t . B a n q i a o Zheng X i e . 3e. Ink bamboo. J a p a n D i s c u s s i o n S o c i e t y ( R i b e n j i a n g t a n s h e ) , B a d a s h a n r e n — Y a n g z h o u B a g u a i ( Q u a n j i . 1 9 8 5 , 2 0 1 ) , d a t e d 1757: ( a ) ( d ) ( e ) b u t "Xu" i n s t e a d o f " X i e . " " O n l y s a y f r o s t y bamboo s k i n s d r y and a l r e a d y w i t h e r e d , Who w o u l d h a v e known j a d e l e a v e s w o u l d s t i l l be l u x u r i o u s l y s p r e a d i n g , R a i n and t h u n d e r l a s t n i g h t on t h e p u r e r i v e r F o r c e d o u t one and 10,000 t r u n k s o f j u m b l e d bamboo. ( h ) ( 1 ) . L e t e l d e r b r o t h e r S h i l a n c o r r e c t t h i s . I n t h e d i n g - c h o u y e a r o f t h e r e i g n o f t h e Q i a n l o n g e m peror ( 1 7 5 7 ) . B a n q i a o Zheng X i e p a i n t e d and i n s c r i b e d . 3 f . L a r g e p a i n t i n g o f r o c k and bamboo. Z h o n g q i n q bowuguan ( Z h o n g q i n g N a t u r a l H i s t o r y Museum). C o n s i s t s o f ( f ) ( g ) ( Q u a n j i . 1 9 8 5, 2 0 1 ) . 3g. Bamboo and r o c k . S h a n g h a i bowuguan c a n g ( S h a n g h a i N a t u r a l H i s t o r y Museum C o l l e c t i o n ) . C o n s i s t s o f ( f ) ( g ) ( Q u a n i i r 1985, 2 0 1 . The i n s c r i p t i o n c o n c l u d e s , " i n t h e wu- y i n y e a r o f t h e r e i g n o f t h e Q i a n l o n g e m peror ( 1 7 5 8 ) . B a n q i a o o l d man Zheng X i e p a i n t e d i n Wei c o u n t y w h i l e i n h i s o f f i c i a l p o s i t i o n . " The e d i t o r p o i n t s o u t t h a t Zheng X i e was n o t i n h i s p o s i t i o n a t t h i s t i m e , and t h u s t h e i n s c r i p t i o n a w a i t s v e r i f i c a t i o n ) , d a t e d 1758. 4a. Bamboo. ( Q u a n j i . 1 985, 202) Yuke (Wen Tong) p a i n t s bamboo, L u z h i d o e s n o t p a i n t bamboo. B u t o b s e r v e h i s c a l l i g r a p h y , I t i s n o t n o t bamboo... T h i n b u t plump; e l e g a n t b u t f o r c e f u l ; L e a n i n g t h i s way and t h a t b u t i t has a s t a n d a r d ; I t t u r n s b a c k and f o r t h b u t h a s l o t s o f b r e a k s and c o n t i n u i t i e s . My t e a c h e r ! My t e a c h e r ! Oh, how t h i n , f i n e and u n i q u e i s h i s bamboo!... I f c a l l i g r a p h y i s p r o f u s e and t h i n , Bamboo moreso w i l l be p r o f u s e and t h i n . I f c a l l i g r a p h y i s d e n s e and s p a r s e , Bamboo moreso w i l l be d e n s e and s p a r s e . T h i s p a i n t i n g I p r e s e n t w i t h r e s p e c t t o Chang m a s t e r Y o u b e i . Y o u b e i i s good a t p a i n t i n g , b u t d o e s n o t p a i n t . H owever, he u s e s p a i n t i n g ' s c o n n e c t i o n To p e n e t r a t e i n t o c a l l i g r a p h y . X i e m o r e o v e r u s e s c a l l i g r a p h y ' s c o n n e c t i o n To p e n e t r a t e i n t o p a i n t i n g . We two men m u t u a l l y o b s e r v e and l a u g h . Y u k e , Shangu a l s o nod a p p r o v i n g l y . 4b. Ink bamboo h a n d s c r o l l . B e i j i n g b a o g u z h a i wenwu d i a n c a n g ( C u l t u r a l R e l i c s S t o r e o f t h e B e i j i n g S t u d y o f t h e R a r e and A n c i e n t ) ( Q u a n j i , 19 85, 2 0 2 ) : (a ) Wen Y u k e , Wu Z h o n g g u i a r e good a t p a i n t i n g bamboo, T h e y a r e t h o s e whom I h a v e n ' t t r i e d t o t a k e as m o d e l s f o r bamboo. Dongpo, L u z h i (Huang T i n g j i a n ) do c a l l i g r a p h y and i t i s n o t bamboo, And I p a i n t bamboo, And o f t e n s t u d y them. Huang's c a l l i g r a p h y i s u n r e s t r a i n e d and t h i n . ( b ) P o ' s c a l l i g r a p h y i s s h o r t , s t u r d y , and f a t . My bamboo's f a t n e s s and t h i n n e s s , s p a r s e n e s s and d e n s e n e s s , I s b e c a u s e i t comes o u t o f t h i s . T ake t h e method o f c a l l i g r a p h y as t h e method o f p a i n t i n g . . . A l s o t a k e t h e method o f p a i n t i n g as t h e method o f c a l l i g r a p h y . How c a n t h a t w h i c h ( ? ) be r e s t r i c t e d t o one s t y l e . B a n q i a o Zheng X i e . 4c . I n k bamboo. N a n j i n g wenwu s h n g d i a n c a n g ( N a n j i n g C u l t u r a l R e l i c s S t o r e C o l l e c t i o n ) ( Q u a n j i . 1 9 85, 2 0 2 ) : ( a ) ( b ) I f t h e bamboo I am i n has t h i n l e a v e s I s t u d y h i m . Dongpo's c a l l i g r a p h y i s s h o r t , s t u r d y and f a t , I f t h e bamboo I am i n has f a t l e a v e s I s t u d y h i m . I n t h i s way t h e method t a k e n f o r my p a i n t i n g i s f r o m c a l l i g r a p h y . When I do c a l l i g r a p h y , M o r e o v e r I o f t e n t a k e Shen S h i t i a n ( S h e n Z h o u ) , 164 Yu Wenchang (Xu W e i ) , and Gao Q i p e i ' s p a i n t i n g s and u s e t hem as a method f o r c a l l i g r a p h y . I w i l l r e c o g n i z e t h a t c a l i g r a p h y and p a i n t i n g a r e one p r i n c i p l e . And u s e t h i s i n o r d e r t o r e s p e c t f u l l y p r e s e n t t o e l d e r b r o t h e r X i a n g Gao f o r a l a u g h . B a n q i a o Zheng X i e . 5 a . ( Q u a n i i . 1 9 8 5 , 2 0 2 ) : Mr. Xu Wenzhang p a i n t s snowy bamboo. He s k i l l f u l l y u s e s a t h i n b r u s h , and b r o k e n b r u s h , a d r y b r u s h , and a s p l i t b r u s h t o do i t . I t i s o u t s t a n d i n g b e y o n d t h e c l a s s e s o f bamboo. A f t e r w a r d s he u s e s t h i r i i n k and wash and p u t s them o u t . B e t w e e n t h e b r a n c h e s and upon t h e l e a v e s T h e r e i s no p l a c e i n w h i c h snow i s n o t p i l e d up... P e o p l e o f t o d a y p a i n t t h i c k b r a n c h e s and l a r g e l e a v e s , T h e r e i s a l m o s t no p l a c e w here t h e r e i s a b r e a k . Then t h e y add t o i t by a p p l y i n g c o l o u r s . T h e r e f o r e , t h e snow and bamboo do n o t i n t e r p e n e t r a t e . T h i s r e s u l t s i n what p a i n t i n g method? I t a l s o l a c k s c r a f t s m a n s h i p . I f t h e y a r e n o t w i l l i n g t o t r y h a r d , How c a n t h e y hope t o e x a u s t t h e m a r v e l s ! I f one a s k s them t h e r e a s o n f o r t h i s , T h e y s a y : "My k i n d ( o f p a i n t e r ) d o e s x i e y i • We do n o t w i s h t o be r e s t r i c t e d i n t h i s . " T hey do n o t know t h e s e two w o r d s ( x i e and y i ) . And t h i s c a u s e s them t o e r r i n s o many t h i n g s . T h e y d e c e i v e o t h e r p e o p l e and h i d e t h e t r u t h f r o m t h e m s e l v e s . M o r e o v e r , t h e y do n o t s e e k t o p r o g r e s s . . . B e c a u s e o f t h i s a l l o f them a r e s i c k . One must n e c e s s a r l y r e a c h a l e v e l o f s k i l l and a f t e r w a r d s one w i l l be a b l e t o w r i t e i d e a s . One c a n n o t be u n s k i l l e d and s u b s e q u e n t l y be a b l e t o w r i t e i d e a s . 5b. ( a ) ( b ) i s C h u - t s i n g L i ' s t r a n s l a t i o n ( L i C h u - t s i n g , "The Bamboo P a i n t i n g s o f C h i n Nung," 1 9 7 3 - 7 3 , 53-71) ( Q u a n i i , 1 9 8 5 , 2 0 3 ) : ( a ) I n p a i n t i n g bamboos, S h i t a o l i k e s t o do them i n t h e manner o f a f i e l d b a t t l e . Though he seems t o f o l l o w no r u l e s and l a w s , T h e y a r e a l r e a d y t h e r e . I , X i e , i n p a i n t i n g t h i s l a r g e p i e c e f o r Mr. J i a n g Y i n g c h a n g , T r i e d my b e s t t o i m i t a t e h i m . M o v i n g my b r u s h h o r i z o n t a l l y and v e r t i c a l l y , I had t o g e t a l l my s t r o k e s w i t h i n t h e r u l e s , And d i d n o t p e r m i t a n y one o f them t o go b e y o n d them. How d i f f i c u l t i t was t o t r y t o m a t c h M a s t e r S h i ! ( b ) I n s k i l l I do n o t y e t h a v e t h i s s i t u a t i o n , O v e r s t e p p i n g my a b i l i t y i t i s s h o r t o f t h e mark and d o e s n o t o b t a i n i t . L u N a n z i s a y s : " O n l y L i u X i a h u i i s a l r i g h t , I am n o t a l r i g h t . I s h o u l d t a k e my n o t a l r i g h t , and s t u d y L i u X i a h u i ' s a l r i g h t . " I a l s o s a y t h i s w i t h r e g a r d t o M a s t e r S h i . 6. Bamboo and R o c k . The P a l a c e Museum C o l l e c t i o n ( R e p r o d u c e d i n P a i n t i n g b y Y a n g z h o u A r t i s t s , 1984, 7 4 ) , d a t e d 1762: O n e - h a l f g r e e n m o u n t a i n o n e - h a l f bamboo, O n e - h a l f g r e e n s h a d e o n e - h a l f j a d e . P l e a s e s i r when y o u awake f r o m d e e p s l e e p , F a c e t h i s and t r e a t i t as i f amongst c l i f f s and g o r g e s . I r e c e i v e e l d e r b r o t h e r ' s c o r r e c t i o n s . B a n q i a o t h e D a o i s t Zheng X i e . I n t h e r e n - w u y e a r o f t h e r e i g n o f t h e Q i a n l o n g emperor ( 1 7 6 2 ) , i n t h e f i f t h month o f summer i n t h e a f t e r n o o n I w r o t e t h i s . Wen Yuke (Wen Tong) p a i n t s bamboo-- I n h i s m i n d he has a c o m p l e t e d bamboo. Zheng B a n q i a o p a i n t s bamboo-- I n h i s m i n d he d o e s n o t h a v e a c o m p l e t e d bamboo. Y u k e ' s h a v i n g a c o m p l e t e d a bamboo I s what i s c a l l e d " o n e - t h o u s a n d mu o f t h e w e i r i v e r i n o n e ' s m i n d . " B a n q i a o ' s n o t h a v i n g t h e c o m p l e t e d (bamboo) I s l i k e a t h u n d e r c l a p . . . G r a s s and t r e e s r a g i n g grow. T h e r e i s no one who knows i t s how and why. I t i s p r o b a b l y t h e f l u x o f t h e dao T h a t i t s way i s l i k e t h i s . Y u k e ' s h a v i n g , And B a n q i a o ' s n o t h a v i n g . . . I s o ne, i s t w o . Those who u n d e r s t a n d w i l l know i t . 166 X i e a g a i n r e c o r d s . R e c e i v e s e l d e r b r o t h e r ' s c o r r e c t i o n s . B a n q i a o D a o r e n Zheng X i e . 1. "The d e c r e e o f H e a v e n " i s n o t p e r h a p s t h e b e s t t r a n s l a t i o n . H u a j i c a n be t r a n s l a t e d i n many ways, b u t none i s l e s s n e b u l o u s o r more c l e a r l y d e s c r i p t i v e t h a n t h e o t h e r s . A n o t h e r p o s s i b i l i t y i s " t h e way o f H e a v e n " o r t h e "way o f n a t u r e . " A l l s h o u l d s u g g e s t a n e v e r e n d i n g c y c l e o r p r o c e s s w h i c h i s l i k e t h a t o f n a t u r e and w h i c h i s a l w a y s " r i g h t " o r t h a t w h i c h d o e s n o t h a v e a wrong p a t h . 2. " A l o n e " c a n s u g g e s t t h a t o n l y t h r o u g h t h i s m e t hod, o r o n l y t h i s p a i n t e r c a n p a i n t t h e c l o u d s . B o t h make s i m i l a r s e n s e i n t e r m s o f t h e o v e r a l l m e a n i n g o f t h e i n s c r i p t i o n . A p p e n d i x 1.1-1.2. « ia t 8 % • ft *UT * * K i£ ia # Ti 0 ft m M Jffi « # o 1 i£ 45 w ft fig t £ IS) & A ia Z • * 45 — * f t st 45 » E > iit •til El sit » 0 I1 a » 45 W • M E o ft # •* ? 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