UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Tension in 18th century Chinese painting Maraun, Timothy Fritz 1990

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TENSION  IN 18TH CENTURY  CHINESE PAINTING by TIMOTHY FRITZ MARAUN B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h  Columbia,  1987  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER  OF ARTS  in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE (Department  We a c c e p t to  this  of F i n e  STUDIES Arts)  t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g  the required  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September copyright  1990  Timothy F r i t z  Maraun, 1990  In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the  requirements for an advanced  degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department  or by  his  or  her  representatives.  It  is  understood  that  copying or  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of  Finp Arts  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date  DE-6 (2/88)  J u l y 20 1990  i i  ABSTRACT In Western s c h o l a r s h i p ,  eighteenth century  Chinese  paintings  have c o n s i s t e n t l y been s e e n a s p l a y f u l ,  and  This characterization  odd.  qualities  h a s been b a s e d on t h e f o r m a l  o f some o f t h e p a i n t i n g s .  Chinese scholars  have w r i t t e n  ambitions of the p a i n t e r s contradiction consistent  A t t h e same t i m e ,  o f t h e s c h o l a r l y v i r t u e s and  p r o d u c i n g the works.  The  b e t w e e n t h e s e two i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s  with  eccentric,  t h e W e s t e r n and C h i n e s e  i s i n part  approaches  generally.  B u t i t a l s o s t e m s f r o m t h e m i x e d s i g n a l s and  information  generated  of  i n the eighteenth century.  p a i n t i n g , not j u s t formally,  explained  i n a way w h i c h t a k e s  historical  contradictions  In order t o e x p l a i n combine a b i o g r a p h i c a l approach  b u t s o c i a l l y h a s y e t t o be i n t o a c c o u n t some  of t h e eighteenth these h i s t o r i c a l  tensions,  (Chinese) approach with  Zheng X i e and L i S h a n .  sources with  I juxtapose  a r t w o r k s , and l e s s o f f i c i a l  culture  i n painting  of  I  contextual  scholar biographical relating  the tensions  within  t h e merchant  of Yangzhou.  These t e n s i o n s status  f o r the l i t e r a t u s  a  writings  Zheng X i e and L i S h a n , i n o r d e r t o d e s c r i b e involved  actual  century.  ( W e s t e r n ) i n a s t u d y o f two d i f f e r e n t  painters,  The n a t u r e  and t h a t  painting  existed  between t h e l i t e r a t u s '  g r a n t e d him, between h i s i d e a l  i n the scholar's  life  expected  of the r o l e  and t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f  c o m m e r c i a l p a i n t i n g , and b e t w e e n h i s e m p h a s i s upon p o e t r y  and h i s p o p u l a r i t y in  as a p a i n t e r .  eighteenth century l i t e r a t i  difficult  of c o n t r o l  arise  amongst  from the  and p a t r o n , and  and t h e i d e a s o f a b r o a d e r p u b l i c .  of a c l e a r d e f i n i t i o n  painting"  painting  r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e p a i n t e r  between t h e p a i n t e r lack  In a l l cases, the tensions  literati  of " s c h o l a r " illustrates  over the d e f i n i t i o n  of h i s  and  The  "scholar  the l i t e r a t u s ' lifestyle.  loss  IV  TABLE OF  CONTENTS  Abstract List  i i  of F i g u r e s  v  Acknowledgement  v i i  Chapter  1. I n t r o d u c t i o n  1  Chapter  2  12  Chapter  3  21  Chapter  4  48  Chapter  5  81  Chapter  6. C o n c l u s i o n  113  Bibliography  117  A p p e n d i x 1. B i o g r a p h i c a l  Information  on Zheng X i e 132  A p p e n d i x 2. B i o g r a p h i c a l  Information  on L i Shan  143  A p p e n d i x 3. Poems b y Zheng X i e  150  A p p e n d i x 4. Poems by L i Shan and J i n Nong  152  A p p e n d i x 5. R e c e n t C h i n e s e S c h o l a r s h i p  154  A p p e n d i x 6. Zheng X i e ' s  159  P a i n t i n g Theory  A p p e n d i x 7. C h i n e s e t e x t s  167  List  179  of Figures  Biographical  Form.  L I S T OF FIGURES 1. L i Shan. F i s h , album l e a f . Undated. P a l a c e Museum, B e i j i n g . 28.2x36.4 cm. I n k and l i g h t c o l o u r on p a p e r ( P a i n t i n g s by Y a n g z h o u A r t i s t s . 1 9 8 5 , e n t r y 5 0 ) , 179 2. L i Shan. F i s h album l e a f . Dated 1728. (Yang X i n , Y a n g z h o u b a g u a i . 1 9 8 1 , s e c t i o n on L i S h a n , 4, l e a f 3 ) , 179  entry  3. Xu W e i . F i s h , c r a b s , m e l o n s , v e g e t a b l e s , bamboo s h o o t s , and p e a s , a s e c t i o n o f a h a n d s c r o l l . U n d a t e d . ( J u d i t h Whitbeck, " C a l l i g r a p h e r - P a i n t e r - B u r e a u c r a t s i n the L a t e M i n g , " The R e s t l e s s L a n d s c a p e 1 9 7 1 , e n t r y 5 1 ) , 180. r  4. B a d a s h a n r e n . F i s h , a l b u m l e a f ? Undated. (Comprehensive Index of Chinese P a i n t i n g s , Tokyo, 1982), 180. 5. Huang Shen. Bamboo s h o o t s , a l b u m l e a f . Undated. ( P a i n t i n g s by Y a n g z h o u A r t i s t s , 1 9 8 5 , e n t r y 6 8 ) , 1 8 1 . 6. L u o P i n g . Bamboo and s h o o t s , a l b u m l e a f . Undated. (Yang X i n , Y a n g z h o u b a g u a i , 1 9 8 1 , i n t h e s e c t i o n on Luo P i n g , p l a t e 17, l e a f 2 ) , 1 8 1 . 7. J i n Nong. Bamboo and s h o o t s , a l b u m l e a f . Undated. ( C h u - t s i n g L i , "The Bamboo P a i n t i n g s o f C h i n Nung," 1973-74, 5 3 - 7 1 ) , 182. 8. S h i t a o . P u r p l e m e l o n , a l b u m l e a f . Ink and c o l o u r ( M a r i l y n F u and Wen F o n g , W i l d e r n e s s o f T a o - c h i . 1 9 7 3 , l e a f 8 ) , 182.  Colours  9. L i Shan. Bamboo, h a n g i n g s c r o l l . Undated. (Yang X i n , Y a n g z h o u b a g u a i . 1 9 8 1 , i n s e c t i o n on L i S h a n , p l a t e 1 5 ) , 183. 10. L i S h a n . Bamboo, h a n g i n g s c r o l l . Dated 1749. M e t r o p o l i t a n Museum o f A r t . 132.4x74.1 cm. I n k on p a p e r (The E l e g a n t B r u s h . 1 9 8 5 , e n t r y 5 3 ) , 184. 11. Zheng X i e . Bamboo and s h o o t s , h a n g i n g s c r o l l . Undated. The P a l a c e Museum, B e i j i n g . 120.2x59.6 cm. I n k on p a p e r ( P a i n t i n g s by Yangzhou A r t i s t s . 1985, e n t r y 7 6 ) , 185. 12. Zheng X i e . Bamboo and r o c k , h a n g i n g s c r o l l . Dated 1762. The P a l a c e Museum, B e i j i n g . 208.1x107 cm. I n k on p a p e r ( P a i n t i n g s b y Y a n g z h o u A r t i s t s , 1 9 8 5 , e n t r y 7 4 ) , 186. 13. L i Shan. Five Pines, hanging s c r o l l . Undated. Tokyo N a t i o n a l Museum. -160x88.9 cm. I n k and l i g h t c o l o r on  v i  silk  (The E l e g a n t B r u s h , 1 9 8 5 , e n t r y 52, 1 6 4 ) ,  187.  14. Zheng X i e . C y m b i d i u m s , Bamboo, and F u n g i , h a n g i n g scroll. Dated 1761. A s i a n A r t Museum o f San F r a n c i s c o , w i t h i n t h e A v e r y B r u n d a g e Collection. 188.6x93.3 cm. I n k on p a p e r (The E l e g a n t B r u s h , 1985, e n t r y 5 5 , 1 7 2 ) , 188. 15. L i Shan. Earthen w a l l with b u t t e r f l y o r c h i d s , hanging scroll. D a t e d 1727. N a n j i n g Museum. 115x59.9 cm. I n k and c o l o u r on p a p e r (Edmond Capon and Mae Anna P a n g , C h i n e s e P a i n t i n g s o f t h e M i n g and Q i n g D y n a s t i e s , 1 9 8 1 , e n t r y 7 5 , 1 5 6 ) , 189. 16. S h i t a o . Landscape w i t h f i g u r e s , album l e a f . Dated 1691. P r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n , Tokyo. I n k and c o l o u r s on p a p e r (James C a h i l l , The C o m p e l l i n g Image, 1 9 8 2 , f i g u r e 6 . 2 3 ) , 190. 17. L i Shan. Chicken, hanging s c r o l l . Dated 1741. (Yang X i n , Y a n g z h o u b a g u a i , 1 9 8 1 , i n t h e s e c t i o n on L i S h a n , p l a t e 1 2 ) , 191. 18. L Dated (Yang plate  i Shan. F l o w e r w i t h i n a bamboo f e n c e , h a n g i n g s c r o l l . 1728. X i n , Y a n g z h o u b a g u a i , 1 9 8 1 , i n t h e s e c t i o n on L i S h a n , 4, l e a f 4 ) , 1 9 2 .  19. L i Shan. I n s e c t s e a t i n g m u l b e r r y l e a v e s , album l e a f . D a t e d 1740. The P a l a c e Museum, B e i j i n g ( L i Shan h u a h u i c e y e , 1 9 6 1 , l e a f 5 ) , 193. 20. L i Shan. A n i m a l on a p i n e b r a n c h , a l b u m l e a f . Dated 1740. B e i j i n g , Zhongguo l i s h i bowuguan c a n g . I n k and c o l o u r ( Q i n g L i Shan h u a n i a o c e , 1964, l e a f 4 ) , 194.  v i :i.  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT T h i s t h e s i s w o u l d n o t have been w r i t t e n had i t n o t b e e n f o r James C a s w e l l . H i s i n s p i r i n g l e c t u r e s b r o u g h t me i n t o t h e f i e l d t o s t a y , and h i s c o n s t a n t e n c o u r a g e m e n t and c r i t i c i s m h a v e h e l p e d me t o d e v e l o p my own a p p r o a c h t o t h e study of Chinese p a i n t i n g . I have a l s o b e n e f i t t e d g r e a t l y f r o m c o u r s e s a n d d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h M o r i t a k a M a t s u m o t o , who r e a d p a r t s o f t h e t h e s i s and made h e l p f u l comments. Marvin Cohodas h a s s u p p o r t e d me t h r o u g h o u t my s t u d y a t UBC. He l e d me i n t o t h e f i e l d o f a r t h i s t o r y , and c o n t i n u e s t o p r o v i d e me w i t h s c h o l a r l y a d v i c e and f r i e n d s h i p . Dr. J e r r y Schmidt h e l p e d me w i t h numerous t r a n s l a t i o n s a n d made my s t u d y o f Chinese thoroughly enjoyable. I also recognize the i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e F i n e A r t s f a c u l t y and g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s who c r e a t e d s u c h a s t i m u l a t i n g e n v i r o n m e n t a t UBC. I owe thanks a l s o t o t h e s t a f f of t h e F i n e A r t s L i b r a r y , t h e A s i a n S t u d i e s L i b r a r y , and I n t e r - l i b r a r y L o a n s who made r e s e a r c h f o r t h i s t h e s i s p o s s i b l e . Most o f a l l , I would l i k e t o t h a n k my f a m i l y f o r y e a r s o f s u p p o r t , a n d J a n n y f o r h e r h e l p and s u p p o r t .  1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION  During class  the  altered  profited  seventeenth important  from  fabric  increasing By  i n numbers and the  only wealth  the seventeenth  official  associated  status.  rank.  with  art  closely  the of  a thriving  most  Yangzhou, The  culture.  s t a t u s was  not  synonymous  literati  painting  expanding  a s c h o l a r l y community w h i l e  define  literati  the  and  of t h a t s t a t u s .  tradition their  underwent  methods of  t h e r a n g e o f what c o u l d  called  painting.  being  the s c h o l a r - o f f i c i a l  r e c o g n i z a b l e as a s i g n  arts  Literati  c u r r e n c y o f t h e day,  associated with  sale,  the  the c i t y  Scholar-painters diversified  p r o d u c t i o n and  since  of l e a r n e d o f f i c i a l s .  became t h e c u l t u r a l  changes.  had  Thus, the merchants p a t r o n i z e d the  painting  Meanwhile, the  wealth  and  c e n t u r y , merchants sought  In C h i n a ,  the c l a s s  immediately  Merchants  t h e Chang r i v e r .  r e s i d e d there supported  but  of a m e r c h a n t  eighteenth century,  c e n t e r o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n was  During  most  of C h i n a .  between t h e g r e a t c a n a l and  both  the r i s e  the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n of s a l t ,  century.  m e r c h a n t s who  with  the s o c i a l  mostly  been s t e a d i l y  nestled  eighteenth century,  retaining  the  be  ability  to  T h u s , t h e y were t h e p u r v e y o r s  of  status. . In dominate realm  the  eighteenth century,  literati  of a r t , but  culture. also  however, m e r c h a n t s began  T h i s d i d not  socially  through  occur  solely  to  i n the  the a c q u i s i t i o n  of  official  p o s i t i o n s and  e c o m o n i c and  social  in their  influence  upon l i t e r a t i  merchants  increased  own  title  the  merchant.  scholars office of  "scholar"  not  or  and  This  the the  the  could  retirement  their  scholar's  and  painting. at t h i s  tastes  of  p a r t l y supported  traditional was  lost  by  number o f s c h o l a r s .  The  traditional  merchant  "inferiority"  the  populace,  merchants.  cultural  sought  were  for  trade  not individual  commonness o f  the  large  merchant dominance e l i m i n a t e d  had  which, along  previously  given  the  of  either  s a l e or  the  of  power  of c o n f l i c t  Instead,  amidst the  to  commonness  the  of  a  grew up  these  These s c h o l a r s  status.  number  t i m e ; and  result in a l i f e  the  became  The  1  t i m e were t h e  in  strongest  scholars  e c o n o m i c and  calligraphy.  status  general  the  f r o m a m e r c h a n t b a c k g r o u n d who  p a i n t i n g and  accorded  suit  phenomena o f  the  exerted  self-proclaimed  needs and  Central  t a s t e and life  dominance  merchants a l s o  dramatically  b u r g e o n i n g number of the  With t h e i r  spheres, the  confident  satisfy  wealth.  the  with that scholar  automatic c u l t u r a l s u p e r i o r i t y . In t h i s existed  thesis  I will  focus  upon t h e  between s c h o l a r - p a i n t e r s  between t h e realities,  scholar's and  and  that  the  existence  between t h e  which the  eighteenth challenging  goals  of  and  and the  status  tensions  p a t r o n s of  which the  s i t u a t i o n allowed.  f o r the  w h i c h made t h i s scholar.  Yangzhou,  prevailing social scholar  I want t o  a number o f m e r c h a n t p a t r o n a g e s  century  which  sought  emphasize in  s i t u a t i o n complex  the and  of  I have f o c u s s e d (1686-1760?) and lives  and  existed of  the  Zheng X i e  paintings  Shan p a i n t e d at court,  financial  need.  serving  as  an  goals  and  of  their  tensions  the  which  possibilities  b e c a u s e of h i s b a c k g r o u n d  his personal  However, he  appear  in his  the  had  and  inclination,  a l s o had  living  the  opportunity  as  to  He  however, had  too,  well  s u c c e s s as as  the  he  t o cope w i t h  had  accepting  h i s anger a t  opinions.  Zheng X i e  "painter"  his  i d e a l s which life the  of  a  act  applied  included  scholar. of  painting  an  official.  personal  He  the  the  realities  t o him  by  the  of  p r a c t i c e s of  p r e v a i l i n g a t t i t u d e s and a l s o responded  also  inclination  l o c a t e p a r t i c u l a r a u d i e n c e s more t o h i s  difficulty  shown by  and  as  paintings.  greater  attempt  against  to  liking. the  the  time.  day  is  popular  the  i d e n t i t y of  prevailing culture  without  consent. The  paintings  and  writings  produced d i s c l o s e t h e i r their and  or  kinds  frequently  official  Zheng X i e  his  ideas  L i Shan  A s t u d y of  the  f r u s t r a t i o n w i t h h i s s i t u a t i o n and  itself  The  (1693-1765).  scholars,  time.  a painter  had  contrasting  illustrates  between t h e i r  Li  His  upon two  s i t u a t i o n s , or  the  realities  of  m e d i a t i n g between t h e i r the  their  close  the and  tensions lifelong  Zheng  p a r t i c u l a r methods o f d e a l i n g  time.  upon L i Shan i n poems, p r o s e , illustrate  w h i c h L i Shan and  i n the  As and  well,  Zheng X i e  letters,  life  of  goals  which  e a c h man.  f r i e n d s h i p w h i c h was  the  or  Xie  with ideas  commented  clearly It is background  4  for  their  communication. T h e i r  information  i tprovides  f r i e n d s h i p and t h e  i s a primary motive  f o r my  focussing  upon them. The  tension  which  I detect  within  s o c i e t y and t h e i d e a s  and p a i n t i n g s  is  historical  t o me an i m p o r t a n t  illustrates  painting  i n the l i f e  in this  In the  i t took  commercial  address  fact.  and m e r c h a n t c u l t u r e s  T h e r e was a c o n f l i c t  meaning w h i c h the  o f L i Shan and Zheng X i e This  the i m p o s s i b i l i t y of a complete  of t h e l i t e r a t i century.  eighteenth-century  tension reconciliation  i n the eighteenth  between t h e f u n c t i o n o f  of the l i t e r a t u s  and t h e f u n c t i o n and  on when t h e l i t e r a t u s  participated in  s p h e r e . These a r e t h e t o p i c s which I w i l l thesis.  f o c u s s i n g my a t t e n t i o n upon t h e s o c i a l  eighteenth  century,  t e n s i o n s of  my i n t e r e s t s , my h a n d l i n g o f  materials,  and my method o f argument  historians  o f p a i n t i n g and l i t e r a t u r e  particular  group of a r t h i s t o r i a n s i n t h e U n i t e d  The article as  work o f C h i n e s e s c h o l a r s concerning  Appendix  aspirations forced  8.  embittered  Wang p r e s e n t s  c a n be r e p r e s e n t e d  by an  i s translated  L i Shan a s a s c h o l a r  with  This  c a u s e d L i Shan t o be  towards h i s s i t u a t i o n .  does n o t s e e a t e n s i o n  activity  States.  p o s i t i o n who by c i r c u m s t a n c e was  fora living.  Wang L u y u ' s t r e a t m e n t he  f r o m C h i n a and one  L i Shan by Wang L u y u , w h i c h  f o r an o f f i c i a l  to paint  l i e between t h o s e o f  and h i s o f f i c i a l  i s idealized  t o an e x t e n t  between L i Shan's  since  painting  p o s i t i o n , but rather  a  decided  embitterment  towards t h e former.  role  of brave martyr,  with  the p r i n c i p a l  biographies, historical  confirm  places  or h e l p l e s s v i c t i m .  traditional  This  t y p e s w h i c h were u s e d  disquiet  of the scholar  i n the empire,  on w h i c h t h e e m p i r e  I n my t h e s i s I w i l l  official.  purposes.  tensions Instead  Even  i n the biographies  illustrate  the moral  functioned.  present  m o d i f y Wang L u y u ' s p r e s e n t a t i o n manifests  histories to  h i s maintenance of a moral  and e n d u r a n c e o f m o r a l h a r d s h i p  principles  i s i n accord  i s one o f many  in official  t h o u g h L i Shan's s i t u a t i o n a s r e p r e s e n t e d  ethic  i n the  f u n c t i o n of Chinese  The v i c t i m i z e d s c h o l a r  the righteousness  Implies  L i Shan  w h i c h was t o s e t up m o r a l s t a n d a r d s and  models.  biographical  This  material  and p a i n t i n g s  o f L i Shan.  w h i c h were n o t u s e f u l  This  that  material  for official  i t e x p r e s s e s L i Shan's dilemma  over h i s  sometimes happy a c c e p t a n c e o f p a i n t i n g c o m m e r c i a l l y and h i s regret  over h i s d i s o l v i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s  officialdom, The  most m e t h o d o l o g i c a l l y  west, w r i t t e n chi  s c h o l a r l y e a s e , and s e c u r e  b y James C a h i l l  motivated  and i t s i m p o r t a n t  characterize  painting  figures.^  commercialization  studies  i n the  Ginger  Cheng-  of the eighteenth-  Cahill  i n the eighteenth  e c o n o m i c a c t . They a r e r e s p o n s i b l e eighteenth-century  status.  and h i s s t u d e n t  Hsu, oppose t h e C h i n e s e p r e s e n t a t i o n  century  f o r a l i f e of  and Hsu  century  f o r the idea  as an that  p a i n t i n g was t h e poin.t o f of the l i t e r a t i  tradition  p a t r o n s began t o d e t e r m i n e t h e c h a r a c t e r  of  a t which t h e literati  6  painting.  T h i s p e r i o d , as C a h i l l  scholar-dictated century the  and  the  nineteenth  century  commercial  i t , fell  as  one  between  t r a n s a c t i o n s of the  p a t r o n - d i c t a t e d commercial century.  i s read  sees  In t h i s  towards the c o m m e r c i a l i z a t i o n  seventeenth  t r a n s a c t i o n s of  scheme, t h e  more s t a g e  eighteenth  in a constant  of the  the  literati  movement  tradition  of  painting. Cahill's contributed is  rooted  work more t h a n  t o an  of  formal  some p r o b l e m s w i t h which r e f l e c t certain  understanding  in historical  appreciation  the  centers  any  fact,  other  scholar's  of C h i n e s e  as  p a i n t i n g s which  opposed t o E u r o c e n t r i c  characteristics.  h i s approach to the  However, t h e r e eighteenth  of s c h o l a r s h i p a c t i v e  at present.  i m p l i e s t h a t t h e meaning o f h i s t o r y  unavoidable  ecomonic r e a l i t y .  illuminates  much a b o u t  My Chinese  specificity goal  the  same as has  i n China,  i n Europe. called  eighteenth-century century  the  to the and  particular rise  what  is i t s  response  i t meant, c a n  not  a "good  interpretation  painting, linking L i Shan and  not  i t to the  of p a i n t e r s as  of class. have been life,"  as  of  seventeenth  Zheng X i e , were  They were members of a s c h o l a r c l a s s  the  occurrences.  of a merchant  Thus t h e r e was  members of a p r o f e s s i o n a l c l a s s  This  i t sometimes m i s s e s  i t in his recent  i n Holland."*  by  perspective  or meaning o f e c o n o m i c  scholar-artists  situation  Cahill  history,  i s to present  The  While t h i s  are  century  i n f l u e n c e of a m e t h o d o l o g y s h a r e d  methodology  cultural  has  not  i n Europe.  i n whose l i v e s p a i n t i n g  7  held  o n l y one p a r t o f t h e i r  merchant c l a s s , with  tensions  literati  the l i v e s  of these  on m e e t i n g a r i s i n g  problem with  eighteenth-century  connected  eighteenth  merchant c l a s s  to C a h i l l ' s  and c o n t i n u e s  I will  unfortunately  o f images,  taking  of the p l a y f u l  g i v e some c r e d e n c e t o t h e  m a t e r i a l s which q u a l i f y  production  real  of a r t .  result  g r o u p and a r i s i n g particular  i n the  a l s o take  of t h e l i t e r a t i  into  the tensions  ideas  account  tradition in  v e r s i o n of  t h e C h i n e s e a p p r o a c h would  merchant c l a s s ,  Chinese  complaint  i n a more t r u t h f u l  Shan" and "Zheng X i e " t h a n to present  the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of  I will  commercialization  a way t h a t w i l l  the  life" in  t o b r i n g t h e C h i n e s e a p p r o a c h and t h e  p a i n t e r s a s men engaged w i t h o u t  I am s e e k i n g  This i s  h i s e a r l y view of  I t a l s o agrees  western approach together. biographical  eccentric.  s t a t e of the a r t i s t .  My p a p e r a t t e m p t s  very  was  p a i n t i n g w h i c h has n o t c h a n g e d d u r i n g h i s  of the f i e l d . ^  psychological  the  could  i t dictates  n o t i o n o f t h e "good  f o r m a l i s t / p s y c h o l o g i c a l readings  commercial  occurrence  as a p l a y f u l  o d d n e s s o f p a i n t i n g s as a m a n i f e s t a t i o n  the  of the  p a i n t i n g i s t h e way i n w h i c h  century,  eighteenth-century  with  filled  t h e w e s t e r n p e r s p e c t i v e on  a d e s c r i p t i o n of the a r t i s t  reformation  were  of the  Chinese.  A second  the  officials  The meaning o f t h e h i s t o r i c a l  particularly  clearly  With t h e r i s e  w h i c h o n l y t h e i d e a s and h i s t o r y  tradition  produce.  attention.  "Li allow.  between an e s t a b l i s h e d  but with  c o n s i d e r a t i o n of  w h i c h members o f e a c h  group  8  held,  and  Chinese  with  c o n s i d e r a t i o n of  literati  In t h i s  t h e s i s I have u s e d  i n order  paintings  and  the  of t h i s  to  a thematic  illustrate  contexts  the  been t h e  p a i n t e r ' s methods o f d e a l i n g w i t h eighteenth  century.  the  significance  and  to give c o n s i d e r a t i o n to t h e i r  images.  include  i s the  paintings  most  contains will  indicate that different,  both  the This  Zheng  of L i Shan and friendship.  some of t h e  In t h i s  the  the  i n the  2  presents  tensions  a l s o q u o t e some  also  Chapter  hidden  i n c l u d i n g Zheng X i e ' s w r i t i n g s , i n o r d e r  to suggest  Xie's  Zheng X i e , and  sources,  increase  I will  Chapter  sources.  the  ways of  consciously  official  out  of  stylistic  of  f o u r main C h a p t e r s .  of t h e i r  suggest  tensions  statement.  study  The  the  t o r e m a i n open t o o t h e r  i n the  the  4.  biographies  evidence  briefly  overall  a unified  important  of  was  I have made m y s e l f  p a i n t i n g as  i n Chapter  official  to  C h i n e s e approach of r e a d i n g  T h i s t h e s i s has the  which  between  historical  of p a i n t i n g f o r each a r t i s t  One  the  were p a i n t e d .  I have a l s o t r i e d  I have t r i e d  c a l l i g r a p h y and a p p r o a c h was  approach to  uncovering  the  the  reading  f u n c t i o n of  connections  i n which they  a p p r o a c h has  developements.  particular  paintings.  paintings  result  the  in  I  the  eighteenth-century to  point  number of s c h o l a r s a t t h a t t i m e ,  t e n s i o n s which t h i s  most p a r t , however, t h i s  phenomenon c r e a t e d .  Chapter  biographies  i n order  to e s t a b l i s h  a  oppose l e s s  official  i n f o r m a t i o n and  presents foil my  the  and For  official  a g a i n s t which  I  can  own i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s .  9  Chapter  3 p r e s e n t s an a n a l y s i s  meanings o f images o f f o o d Zheng X i e . critiques didactic  I t concludes of t h e i r  moral  function  of these  situation  and a u d i e n c e . however,  relationship, As  well,  literti In and  images.  i s the p o l a r i z a t i o n  The d i f f e r e n t  combined  of the p a i n t e r / p a t r o n  of the p a i n t e r painting  tradition  and p a t r o n .  ideas from the of p a i n t i n g  i n order t o achieve t h i s  produced  of p a i n t i n g s  by Zheng X i e w h i l e he was i n  T h e s e e x e m p l i f y many o f t h e c e n t r a l  i s s u e s of  f o r b o t h L i Shan and Zheng X i e ,  w h i c h o n l y Zheng X i e had t h e o p p o r t u n i t y and  reason t o develop  a coherent  t h e o r y and p a i n t i n g  theoretical  approach.  Zheng X i e a t t e m p t e d  from t h e m a j o r i t y of t h e l i t e r a t i  modes o f e x p r e s s i o n and t h o u g h t ideas within  active  and  to locate  literati  5 i s a comparison  literati  of t h e day,  agreeable patrons with both  and more i n n o v a t i v e n o n - l i t e r a t i  Chapter  literati  of t h i s s e p a r a t i o n  t h e many s c h o l a r - p a i n t e r s  particular  at the  i n order t o express  a new framework. The p u r p o s e  to c r i t i c i z e  Through  to separate  t i m e . He d i d s o by moving o u t s i d e o f t r a d i t i o n a l  was a l s o  with  polarization.  4, I c o n c e n t r a t e upon a s e r i e s  inscriptions  himself  to retain a  Common t o t h e works o f b o t h  eighteenth-century painting  his  images a c t e d as  for literati  or n o n - l i t e r a t i  Chapter  but about  these  or t h e o p p o s i t i o n  painting  Yangzhou.  that  o f L i Shan and  images depended upon t h e a r t i s t ' s  both a r t i s t s  "unorthodox"  i n the painting  p a t r o n s or as attempts  functions  artists,  o f t h e f u n c t i o n s and  elite  inclinations.  of the a r t i s t s  and t h e i r  10  works.  The  comparison  painter/patron this  relationship.  relationship  understanding n a t u r e . He nature  was  of and  stylistic  histories  fact  that  their  b a c k g r o u n d s , and and  but  not  as an  of L i Shan and styles  that  their  ensuing  during their f o r both  unofficial  will  and  s h a p e s of  the  to  the  nature  his  of  their  of t h e i r  i n Yangzhou. through  how  re-emphasize  backgrounds, t h e i r  summarized  written sources.  visual  Zheng X i e  were r e l a t e d  l a t e r years be  The  the  of  i n the workings  o n l y as a f i n a l  activity.  e x p e c t a t i o n s determined  activity  i n the workings  his participation  of  I p o i n t out  q u a l i f i e d by t h e p a i n t e r t h r o u g h  i n the p a i n t i n g , form,  In p a r t i c u l a r  participation  expressed  inscribed  the  f o c u s s e s upon t h e p o l a r i z a t i o n  attitudes, artistic The  a study  tensions of  11  1. James C a h i l l . T h r e e A l t e r n a t i v e H i s t o r i e s , 1988. Also s e e The R e s t l e s s L a n d s c a p e , 1981, e d i t e d by C a h i l l . T h i s v i e w i s s u p p o r t e d by h i s s t u d e n t G i n g e r C h e n g - c h i Hsu, i n h e r a r t i c l e " M e r c h a n t P a t r o n a g e , " 1987, and a l s o i n h e r Ph.D., " P a t r o n a g e , " 1987. 2.  Ibid.  3.  Ibid.  4. James C a h i l l , "A R e j e c t e d P o r t r a i t by Lo P ' i n g : F o o t n o t e t o W a l e y ' s 'Yuan M e i , ' " 1959.  Pictorial  12  CHAPTER 2 In t h i s culture  of  in d e t a i l  brief  Yangzhou was that  the  Yangzhou a p l a c e risen in  Chapter  eighteenth  pushed  writings.  complex p i c t u r e of as  a place The  of  I want t o  was  a time  the  show  and  by  a  newly  have been s t a t e d  I want t o p r e s e n t  p a t r o n a g e and  clearly  a more  b r i e f l y describe  the  Yangzhou w i t h  a p p e a r m a i n l y t h r o u g h my  chapters.  pointed  Here,  out  i n the  a working n o t i o n  of  evidence  burgeoning  f o r the  I  Yangzhou  some e v i d e n c e  situation  by  quoting  of  literature  Finally,  Xie  context  I  analyses  literati the  i n order  plural.  am in  I want t o  the  patronages  to e s t a b l i s h  I a l s o want t o  population  tensions  Zheng X i e ' s  of s c h o l a r s .  which  want t o m e n t i o n t h e  patronages,  introduce  into this  do  how  tension.  concerned w i l l  already  Nor  bustling limits  These p o i n t s  p a t r o n a g e s and  following  want t o d e s c r i b e  century  to the  Instead  1  not  flourishing.  merchant c l a s s .  other  I do  and  inherent  give  to  in  this  criticism  of t h e  multitude  introduce  L i Shan and  t h r o u g h a d i s c u s s i o n of t h e i r  Zheng  official  biographies. The in  different  p a t r o n a g e s w h i c h have been n o t e d  western s c h o l a r s h i p  s c h o l a r l y w r i t i n g s and entertainments.^  i n the  those  perceived  patrons  interested in  i n t e r e s t e d i n lewd  T h e r e were t h o s e  s c h o l a r l y gatherings role  i n c l u d e those  already  who  o f Yangzhou, but  were c e n t r a l i n who  played  large-scale acquisition  of  a  the  smaller  paintings,  as  well  as t h e l a r g e  paintings.  who  of the artworks without  the patronages.  more p r o f e s s i o n a l  pointed  o u t f o r Zheng X i e , w h i c h may  It  As w e l l , a s p e c i f i c  i s n o t my  compatible  goal  conclusions  under t h e h e a d i n g  i n the scholarship  identification  throughout  thesis  suggest  within  i n the eighteenth scholars  considered and e l i t e  of  of p a t r o n s . summarized  paintings,"  Of t h e  above, o n l y  the  f o r Zheng  Xie's  My  support these  judging  for L i  analyses  conclusions.  which I w i l l  century.  opportunities  changed t h e n a t u r e  I  the l a r g e r group of  o f "consumers  increase  be a d d r e s s i n g  T h e s e were l a r g e l y  by t h e s o u r c e s ,  of the time.  a scholar,  expectations.  in  i n t h e number o f  They  interested radically  of the s i t u a t i o n f o r the s c h o l a r himself  these  they are a l l quite  simultaneously.  possibility.  fact  i s the dramatic  the patronage  ambitions  this  historical  self-proclaimed  with  o f more or l e s s s c h o l a r l y works  the t h e s i s w i l l  A second  actually  i n d i c a t e an  of a p a r t i c u l a r i n h e r i t a n c e  and t h e i d e a  Shan s t r o n g l y  in  out t h a t  were many d i f f e r e n t t y p e s  scholars  well  I can say t h a t  and p r o b a b l y a l l e x i s t e d  individuals  the  been  i n h e r i t e d s t y l e has been  h e r e t o a g r e e or d i s a g r e e  although  m e r e l y want t o p o i n t  works  have  patronage.^  interpretations,  there  suggested  specifically  " s i d e s " o f L i Shan's p a i n t i n g s  out.  4  been  those  F o r example, t h e more s c h o l a r l y and  pointed  inherited  bought up  D i f f e r e n t p a t r o n a g e s have a l s o  by c l a s s i f i c a t i o n naming  "middle-class"  or who  L i Dou,  an  who  had more important  lofty  14  writer  and  h i s t o r i a n of  the  "Yangzhou*s c a l l i g r a p h e r s Furthermore,  no-one...  situation  cause  painters  and  uniqueness  C h i n a can and  turn  not  be  called  make Zhou L i a n g ' s  high-minded  4,  scholars  caused  for  important  painting,  has  Recently,  he  catalogues.  has  received  and  his  able  to  treating  has  number  upon  of  following, the of  self-righteous  Shan. recognized  nineteenth-century in dissertations.  attention  received  prose which  7  exhibition  more a t t e n t i o n  is lively,  discussed  in  topics  critical, previously  than L i and taboo  texts.  I have f o u n d  t h e s e two  least  sage)  cold?"  upon  have a l w a y s been  greater  b e c a u s e he  In t r e a t i n g t h e  of  at  countyman L i  influence  Zheng X i e  8  in scholarly  century,  i n the  or  famous  chapters  increase  n o n e t h e l e s s been i g n o r e d  Shan, b e c a u s e of sarcastic,  the  of  'famous  history  elaborate  "true"  fellow  In  the  is f u l l  one's t e e t h  I will  Shan, whose p a i n t i n g s  their  (a  but  found  are  problems which the  Li  himself  c a l l i g r a p h y who  underestimated.  his  guests,  city  specific  and  Zheng X i e  t h i s s i t u a t i o n i n the  f o r the  numerous.  the  e s p e c i a l l y i n Chapter  Zheng X i e  very  "Now  the of  are  t h e y p l e a s e as  well,  Would t h i s not  c h e e k s b u r n and The  as  for consternation: of  t h i s phenomenon:  painters  go  As  writers  scholars.'  and  t h e y come and  belong to  time noted  men  and  i n s e r t the  problem of i t useful their  element  their friendship  painting to  i n the  eighteenth  f o c u s upon a  comparison  friendship.  By  of  in a controlled  as  biography  doing t h i s I  a real historical  am  connection  way,  15  which t e l l s  much o f t h e n a t u r e  Evidence  i s ample  of p a i n t i n g i n the century.  f o r the l i f e l o n g  f r i e n d s h i p between  Zheng X i e and L i Shan and i t s c o n v e r g e n c e on For  the business  i n some  o f p a i n t i n g and t h e p a i n t i n g  instances  business.  example, t h e two men were f r o m t h e same c o u n t y and  tested  i n t h e same y e a r  t o become j u r e n .  There are  9  numerous poems and l e t t e r s  f r o m Zheng X i e t o L i S h a n . ^  They a l s o p a i n t e d  together  s e v e r a l t i m e s when L i Shan was  out  A f t e r L i Shan's d e a t h ,  of o f f i c e . I  remembered longer  1  h i m i n a poem w h i c h s t a t e s t h a t he would no  have anyone w i t h  painting.  are  of l i m i t e d  historical  they  into the h i s t o r i c a l biographical  are analyzed  c a n be r e c o v e r e d  and d i s c r e p e n c i e s w i t h i n  (Biographies  as b e i n g The p a r t i c u l a r  biography  i s i n Qinq  i n part  from the  them. s h i liezhuan  of the Annals of the Qing Dynasty),  as A p p e n d i x  the Xinghua  lishi  Xinghua), otherwise Biographies),  1, number 1.  zhuanlue  Biographies  known as L i s h i j i a z h u a n  stock  the s c h o l a r - a r t i s t .  volume 72,  L i Shan's b i o g r a p h y i s  (Historical  t r a n s l a t e d i n Appendix  present  sources  of the time a r e not w r i t t e n of i n the  But t h e y  Zheng X i e ' s  biographies  men  the o f f i c i a l  use, unless  tensions  implications  translated  these  f o r m o r a l and i m p e r i a l p u r p o s e s .  biographies.  of  to place  one f i n d s t h a t  constructed  in  whom t o d i s c u s s m a t t e r s o f  1 2  I n an a t t e m p t context,  Zheng X i e  of  ( L i Family  2, number 4.  Both  c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n s or i d e a l i z a t i o n s  After reading  t h e two  biographies,  16  Li  Shan and Zheng X i e seem t o t h e r e a d e r  similar  men.  secondary  B o t h were a b l e  interest  Shan was good a t p o e t r y , at  painting.  scholar's, attribute  This  since  i n w r i t i n g poetry  and a b i l i t y  p a i n t i n g method d e v e l o p e d  in painting.  and a l s o , t h a t  the a b i l i t y  Zheng  Xie's  i s s e c o n d a r i l y , good  was t h e most  important  of the s c h o l a r . instance  of i d e a l i z a t i o n  i s the painters' records  "cherished"  officials,  capability.  their  p e o p l e under  p e r f e c t m o r a l i t y and  B o t h were a l s o d i s c h a r g e d with  a senior  or l e f t  appears  care.  characterization  There  This  The h o n o u r a b l e e x p u l s i o n  b e c a u s e o f t h e need t o e x p l a i n t h e i r  offices  i d e a l s or the  i n most o f t h e s c h o l a r - a r t i s t  of o f f i c e .  their  official.  unbending d e d i c a t i o n t o higher their  i n the  as " p u r e " and  which s i g n i f y  because of disagreement  outside  and had a  t h e men's s t a t u s as  to write  biographies  office  been  out of h i s c a l l i g r a p h y ; while L i  emphasis c o n f i r m s  A more b l a t a n t  implies  t o have  from  biographies,  activities  i n the a r t s  i s also the i d e a l i s t i c  o f Zheng X i e a s a l i t e r a t u s  cum S a n t a  Claus. The  d e s c r i p t i o n o f Yuan M e i ' s r e a c t i o n when he h e a r d o f  Zheng X i e ' s met  is utterly  Yuan Mei s e v e r a l t i m e s d u r i n g  biographical Xie's of  d e a t h , moreover,  account  only serves  writing ability,  the greatest  poets  false.  his life.  The  to accentuate  since, at that  Zheng X i e  again  Zheng  t i m e , Yuan M e i was one  i n China. -*  In t h e b i o g r a p h i e s ,  1  L i Shan and Zheng X i e seem q u i t e  17  similar  in their  ability, lives,  i n the  and  we  Xie  as  The  popularity  of  their  painting  their a  writing  less  pleasant  of  rendered  the  popular  and  at  b a c k g r o u n d as There  the  of  his  their  biographies,  be  are  of  their  a constant  court  and  historical  the  r e a l i t i e s are  Hence,  poetic  retirement. Shan and  Zheng  backgrounds,  as  Shan's  The  background  Xie's  scholar-official.  b a c k g r o u n d s and of  the  level.  Zheng  i s a d i s c r e p a n c y between t h e s e  characterizations  and  enormously d i f f e r e n t .  made i s between L i  imperial  and  Zheng X i e ' s  years  their  writing  s i m i l a r i t i e s between L i  biographies, to  that  more e l i t e  description  i n the  i n the  a painter  "factual"  implies  i n Yangzhou d u r i n g  basic distinction as  in  paintings  spite  presented  painting  their  have t h e  In  of  writing  of  on  activities  secondary p o s i t i o n  in their  popularity  of  functioned  in o f f i c e ,  i n the  calligraphy. priority  interest  the  similar  men.  different  "idealized"  I would a r g u e t h a t  h i d d e n somewhere w i t h i n  the this  discrepancy. In the  the  characterization  Zheng X i e . their  For  factual  and  their  retirement  find  find of  some c o n n e c t i o n s  background Shan and  d i f f e r i n g degrees  in a state  years.  do  were c h e r i s h e d  b a c k g r o u n d s , we  Zheng X i e  the  example, L i  p o s t i o n s and  b e c a u s e of  and  b i o g r a p h i e s , we  Li  of  b o t h L i Shan  Zheng X i e  officials, of  Shan  success  both  the  ideal,  of  their  psychological  and  valued  in o f f i c e ,  in a state  happiness during  However, t h e s e a r e  between  but the  sadness  IS  connections they  based  historical  T h u s , as  writing,  speak  the  connections  historical  realities  t o us when we  biographies,  and  contradictory  through  For  argument n e a r  argument a t t e m p t s  by  the  between p o p u l a r  kinds  presence  information  Similar  and  after  one  beginning the  has  q u e s t i o n s can been e x p o s e d  of t h i s  Chapter:  e x p o n e n t i a l growth  biography.  and  i m p l i e d by  to the  the t e n s i o n  with  art  the emphasis  painting Of  conviction  f a c t s mentioned  rise  i n the  asked  are  tension  were r e c o n c i l e d .  o n l y be  The  belief.  Zheng X i e ' s  p o p u l a r i t y of h i s  these  the  is  t e n s i o n s which  ideals,  i n Zheng X i e ' s b i o g r a p h y .  these  painting  the s c h o l a r ' s i d e a l  tensions are  t h e q u e s t i o n o f how  of t h e  the  fact  argument; t h e  private  upon p o e t r y combined w i t h t h e  course,  end  of  i s the  a commonly h e l d  of t h i s  o p i n i o n and  within  are  potentially  i n p o e t r y than  of h i s t o r i c a l  between t h e a c t of p a i n t i n g form, p o e t r y .  implications  are presented  the  they  Zheng X i e  example, t h e r e  to c o n t r a d i c t  T h e r e a r e two  raises  the  plight.  t h e c o - e x i s t e n c e of  information.  as an  or  c o n s i d e r the  L i Shan's g r e a t e r a b i l i t y  suggested  individual  They e x p l i c a t e  f o r L i Shan and  ideals  and  b i o g r a p h i c a l or  between t h e  circumstance  t h e ways i n w h i c h c e r t a i n  presented  furthermore,  i d e a of o f f i c i a l d o m  ahistorical.  individual's  more a v a i l a b l e  that  and,  t r u t h s of s o c i e t y under t h e Emperor more t h a n  of t h e The  the  i n most C h i n e s e  s o c i e t y are b a s i c a l l y  universal  and  effect,  f u n c t i o n only to aggrandize  the s c h o l a r .  and  on c a u s e and  at  of t h e m e r c h a n t  the class  number of s c h o l a r s .  19  The  tension  between p u b l i c  and p r i v a t e  painting  and s c h o l a r l y  painting  o f L i Shan and Zheng X i e ,  i d e a l s a r e keys t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e  eighteenth-century painting  f o r m , a s an e l i t e  still  important  painting  I will  of the o f f i c i a l  could  as a n o n - p o p u l a r  biographies;  attempt  was  t o b r e a k down t h e  biographies.  and l e s s  a way w h i c h u n c o v e r s t h e t e n s i o n s official  appears  t o L i Shan and Zheng X i e .  through a study of p a i n t i n g s  the  The t e n s i o n  form of s c h o l a r l y s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n ,  Throughout t h e t h e s i s , generalizations  a n d , I would s a y ,  i n general.  more a c u t e when we r e a l i z e t h a t art  i d e a s and  official  I will  do t h i s  documents i n  which a r e o n l y  implied i n  i n moments when t h e b i o g r a p h e r  not s u c c e s s f u l l y hide  them.  1. Examples a r e : G i n g e r C h e n g - c h i Hsu, "Merchant P a t r o n a g e , " 1980, and her Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n Patronage,, 1987; William Henry S c o t t , "Yangchow and i t s E i g h t E c c e n t r i c s , " 1964; and Yangzhou b a g u a i Q u a n l i , 1979. 2. W e i n s t e i n , W e i n s t e i n does  " E c c e n t r i c i t y , " 1972, 33 and 62. However, n o t p i n p o i n t who t h e p a t r o n s o f p a i n t i n g a r e .  3. G i n g e r C h e n g - c h i 4. The  Elegant  Hsu.  Brush,  5. L i C h u - t s i n g . "The 73, 67.  Patronage,  1985,  Bamboo P a i n t i n g s 59.  7. W e i n s t e i n , " E c c e n t r i c i t y , "  125.  The  Elegant  Brush,  9. See Zheng X i e ' s n i a n b i a o under B a n q i a o j i , 1962, a p p e n d i x ) . 10.  See  Appendix  2.  167.  6. W e i n s t e i n , " E c c e n t r i c i t y , "  8. F o r example,  1987,  o f C h i n Nung,"  1973-  1985. t h e y e a r 1711  (Zheng  2.  11. F o r example i n 1734 ( R e p r o d u c e d i n Howard R o g e r s and Sherman E. L e e , M a s t e r w o r k s , 1988, c a t a l o g u e number 63) and 1755, as l i s t e d i n Zheng X i e ' s n i a n b i a o (Zheng B a n q i a o I i , 1962, a p p e n d i x ) . 12. See Banqiao  Zheng X i e ' s n i a n b i a o under j i , 1962, a p p e n d i x ) .  t h e y e a r 1762  (Zheng  13. See Zheng X i e ' s n i a n b i a o under t h e y e a r 1763, where i t i s r e c o r d e d t h a t Zheng X i e d i d i n f a c t meet Yuan Mei a t a b a n q u e t h e l d by Lu J i a n z e n g , Zheng X i e ' s f r i e n d and an i m p o r t a n t s a l t t r a n s p o r t o f f i c e r (Zheng B a n q i a o j i , 1962, appendix). Yuan Mei a l s o t e l l s a s t o r y t h a t Zheng X i e h e a r d a b o u t t h e d e a t h o f a c e r t a i n s c h o l a r who he had n o t met, when he b u r s t i n t o t e a r s , i l l u s t r a t i n g h i s h i g h e s t i m a t i o n of t h a t s c h o l a r ' s a b i l i t i e s . In Yuan M e i ' s s t o r y , i t t u r n s out t h a t t h e s c h o l a r was s t i l l i n f a c t a l i v e , and he and Zheng X i e met t w e n t y y e a r s l a t e r (Yangzhou B a g u a i Q u a n i i . 1979, 2 6 8 ) .  21  CHAPTER 3 Why d o e s L i Shan p a i n t Why d o e s Zheng X i e i n c l u d e and to  as food?  i n h i s images o f bamboo  elements  in relation  food? innovation  handling of t r a d i t i o n a l  t h e food imagery.  and t h e l i t e r a t i tradition  i n s u b j e c t m a t t e r and  s u b j e c t matter, which  through the s u b j e c t of food. of  fish,  i n s c r i p t i o n s which t r e a t t h e s u b j e c t matter  B o t h men i l l u s t r a t e the  images o f dead  There a r e s e v e r a l  implications  I t i s a combination of the unorthodox  traditions  of p a i n t i n g .  The u n o r t h o d o x  was, i n t h e s i m p l e s t t e r m s , p r o f e s s i o n a l  which included u n t r a d i t i o n a l  scholar painting. developed because  painting  or i n n o v a t i v e p a i n t i n g  and s u b j e c t m a t t e r a s d i s t i n c t  styles  from t h e main s t r e a m o f  T h i s c o m b i n a t i o n o f two t r a d i t i o n s was of t h e presence of t h e dominant  p a t r o n a g e and t h e o v e r w h e l m i n g  merchant  p o p u l a t i o n of s c h o l a r s .  With a combination of t r a d i t i o n a l painting,  i s linked  and u n o r t h o d o x  Zheng X i e and L i Shan c o u l d s e p a r a t e t h e m s e l v e s  f r o m and c o u l d compete w i t h t h e l a r g e numbers o f s c h o l a r s by p r o d u c i n g i n t e r e s t i n g works t h a t grabbed well,  traditionaal  literati  ideals  imagery.  They c o u l d  a t t i t u d e and  m a t e r i a l i s t i c a t t i t u d e towards t h e p a i n t i n g i n  particular.  Used f o r t h e l a t t e r  new  i n s a l a b l e p a i n t i n g s , or  c r i t i q u e the patron's generally m a t e r i a l i s t i c his  As  t h i s combination allowed the painters to e s t a b l i s h  m e a n i n g s f o r new o r p a r t l y t r a d i t i o n a l retain  the buyer.  p u r p o s e , images o f f o o d  linked  up w i t h  critiqued  a l i t e r a r y discourse  the materialism  therefore,  illustrates  on f o o d  of the wealthy.  a combination  which Food  also  imagery,  of t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l or  u n o r t h o d o x and t h e s c h o l a r l y t r a d i t i o n s o f p a i n t i n g and a tension value  between t h e s c h o l a r ' s  p r i v a t e value  s y s t e m and t h e  s y s t e m s o f a b r o a d e r m e r c h a n t p a t r o n a g e and  literati  population. An  a n a l y s i s o f L i Shan's  paintings  of f i s h ,  suggests a tension his less  not a l l a v a i l a b l e i n reproduction, between L i Shan's c o m m e r c i a l  hope f o r an o f f i c i a l official  written  or a r e t i r e d  biographical materials  by Zheng X i e ,  later  aaa  friend  related  on f o o d  of the wealthy confirms  two  bamboo p a i n t i n g s o f Zheng X i e ' s ,  L i Shan's f i s h  on L i Shan, some o f i t f o r L i Shan's  criticising  this  painted  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , a s do  Yet,  (1687-1764),  bamboo s h o o t s w h i c h a r e  paintings.  but the d i f f e r e n t  in this  discourse  on f o o d and  tone of h i s p r e s e n t a t i o n  depends  attitude,  perhaps, s e l e c t patronage. Li  any  fish  the eating  upon a more s c h o l a r l y b a c k g r o u n d , c o n s e r v a t i v e and,  a c t i v i t y and  A s t u d y o f some  by L i Shan. J i n Nong  Zheng X i e a l s o t a k e s p a r t morality,  life.  possible prototypes  images, and t h e d i s c o u r s e habits  i n s c r i p t i o n s on some o f h i s  Shan's  fish  paintings  are usually published  m e n t i o n as t o t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e s u b j e c t they are s t r i k i n g  against  the backdrop of  Chinese p a i n t i n g , which g e n e r a l l y or dead  subject  matter.  lacked  without  matter.  previous  images o f d e c a y e d  Judging central  by some of L i Shan's  t o some p a i n t i n g s he d i d on  Inscriptions  from  reproduction  suggest  p a i n t i n g s which  and  festival  the patron's  Compare f o r example two  both  were  occasions.  lifestyle  in of  t h e a c t of s e l l i n g p a i n t i n g s  attitudes such  fish  I have n o t y e t s e e n  a t e n s i o n between t h e  w h i c h L i Shan dreamed and itself  inscriptions,  towards the  paintings.^  inscriptions:  S t r a n g e t h i s c h a n g e , lament t h e wounded peony, The work of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n ( i n p a i n t i n g ) c l e v e r l y matches t h e i n t e n t i o n , The e s s e n c e i s d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e many. F i s h f o r e t e l l of a t h o u s a n d y e a r s . . . T h i s i s a p a i n t i n g t h a t w i l l b r i n g r i c h e s and honour y e a r a f t e r y e a r . 2  Month by month t h e s p r i n g i s s u i t a b l e f o r f l o w e r s i n an a n c i e n t v e s s e l . Abundance i s p o r t e n d e d - - b r i n g out t h e f i s h i n g r o d . W r i t i n g t h e s e two l i n e s I o b t a i n t h e i d e a , The Heaven and t h e E a r t h a r e p e a c e f u l t h r o u g h o u t the four s e a s o n s . 3  In  the  first  inscription,  the  auspiciousness g e n e r a l l y , while associated  with  the  abundance w i l l  first,  while  i n the second  cycle,  of  earthly  and,  symbolizes  i n the second  t h e r e f o r e , the  persist  i t is really  f l o w e r s , and  difference  and  fishing  fish  then,  connected  i n that  or w o r l d l y , w i t h c o n n o t a t i o n s of  viewing  ambiguity  flowers.  Another  between t h e s e  two  fish  itself.  f o r "a t h o u s a n d  of the h a r v e s t of  between t h e two  abundance i s  inscription  to the  fish. the  In  years," seasonal  There  latter  is a  i s more  rusticity--fishing illustrates  the  inscriptions:  In t h e s m a l l g a r d e n , t h e c o l o u r s o f f l o w e r s c a n p r a i s e d to the g r e a t e s t extent; T h i s y e a r on t h e Duanyang f e s t i v a l I s t a y e d a t home.  be  But l a u g h a t an o l d f e l l o w p l a c e t o h i d e away--  like  E v e r y o n e s e e k s me o u t t o p a i n t The  fish  painter's seeking it  inscription.  enjoyment  of flowers  of f i s h  was t h e b u y e r ' s  Shan's p a i n t i n g s not  flowers,  could  In b o t h poems, v i e w i n g  flowers  combining painter,  involvement obviously  This of  life  i s followed the painter's  dedication  that i n  i n quiet  function  and a u s p i c i o u s  he, t h e  the p a i n t e r ' s  i s interrupted  by  own  others  s e c l u s i o n , but i n the  of f i s h  and s h r i m p .  or s i g n i f i c a n c e of f i s h  to the p a i n t e r ;  and f i s h ,  by some  involvement i n  by h i s s t a t e m e n t  of h i s p a i n t i n g s  d u a l i t y explains  flowers  like  himself.  In the second,  flowers  not i n t e r e s t e d  made them u s e f u l rustic  the idea.  i s the dual  him, and  o r " w r i t i n g t h e s e two l i n e s , "  i n viewing  auspiciousness It  i s denoted  that  of L i  which t h e f i s h ,  flowers  In the f i r s t ,  t h e s e two, obtains  I would s u g g e s t  between t h e s e a s o n a l  and f i s h i n g  poem t h e  by b u y e r s  them t o seek a f t e r  have f o r t h e p a i n t e r  to the connection  i n seeming  i s interrupted  of r u s t i c i t y ,  mention of f i s h i n g .  which  i n the auspiciousness  which caused  4  rustic  In the present  and s h r i m p .  interest  the associations  of a  poem) a r e p l a c e d  in this  paintings  and s h r i m p ! of flowers  (and b o t h a r e s y m b o l i c  i n the previous  opposition  fish  i m a g e r y and t h e enjoyment  seemed c o m p a t i b l e lifestyle  me n o t h a v i n g a  which  t h e y were s y m b o l i c o f  and, t h u s ,  s a l a b l e to the  t h e c o m p a t i b i l i t y and t h e n  patron.  opposition  d e p e n d i n g upon w h i c h meaning t h e f i s h  assumed, o r t o w h i c h g r o u p o f p e o p l e t h e f i s h  images had t o  appeal  i n a g i v e n c i r c u m s t a n c e . L i Shan's s e l e c t i o n  subject sets  was no d o u b t  governed  by i t s c a p a c i t y  of t h i s  t o e x p r e s s two  of ideas. A poem by Zheng X i e a b o u t  particular life.  association  between  L i Shan i l l u s t r a t e s t h e fishing,  The b e g i n n i n g o f t h e p a s s a g e  Shan t o c o n t i n u e t o p a i n t  during  fish,  and r e t i r e d  was meant t o r e m i n d L i  his retired  life:  When l e a d i n g t h e ox o u t t o p l o u g h t h e f i e l d s , do a p a i n t i n g as b e f o r e - - p l a y w i t h t h e b r u s h . Your t a t t e r e d s t r a w c a p e , hang o u t s i d e upon t h e c l o u d s . The h a l f p i e c e o f p a p e r , once y o u have wine i n s i d e you, you c u t . G r e e n s p r i n g i s i n y o u r e y e s , and your c h i l d l i k e h e a r t i s e n t h u s i a s t i c . Your w h i t e h a i r o v e r f l o w s your s h o u l d e r s - - t h e l o f t y i d e a l (for o f f i c i a l d o m ) i s but ashes. O n l y water s h i e l d and p e r c h c a n be u n r e s t r a i n e d l y e a t e n . The r e t i r e d o f f i c i a l also returns to eat f i s h . ^ The clearly  leisurely  being disturbed  painting of  life  utilizes  flowers  fish  were a s s o c i a t e d  by L i Shan's c u s t o m e r s  b u s i n e s s , as h i s i n s c r i p t i o n s  L i Shan's d e s i r e  life,  w i t h which  f o r escape,  this  testify.  time  from  and by t h e An example official  t h e same v o c a b u l a r y as h i s poem a b o u t  and n o t b e i n g a b l e  was  viewing  t o h i d e away:  The sweet and f r a g r a n t i s o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e t a s t e l e s s remainder, With t h e jade c a u l d r o n i n t h e o f f i c i a l ' s k i t c h e n the t a s t e i s n o t as g o o d . On a n o t h e r d a y i n my l i f e I w i l l s i n g w i t h i n my t e n mu ( o f l a n d ) , Shut Li scholars in  (the door)  and r e a d o l d a g r i c u l t u r a l  Shan's dream, t h e same r o m a n t i c dream o f a l l throughout  Chinese h i s t o r y ,  n a t u r e . The s i m p l i c i t y  produces  books.^  natural  and p u r i t y  i s for rustic  seclusion  of the l i f e s t y l e  f o o d s t h r o u g h one's own  involvement i n  agriculture passages to  and f i s h i n g .  i n L i Shan's  reconcile this  patrons' result, ideals  inscriptions  ideal  with  he s e t t l e d  This  subject  fish  paintings.  on a s u b j e c t  a l s o occurs  An i d e n t i c a l  one o f w h i c h  i s dated  of t h e Yongzheng emperor  w h i c h would c o n v e y h i s of h i s p a t r o n s . presentations  i n album l e a v e s  inscription to the s i x t h  (1725)  (Figures  T h e r e had been r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s but here the food,  fish,  i s depicted  onto a t a b l e which  a p p e a r s on two o f year  of the r e i g n  1 and 2 ) :  simplicity natural  them, when he o f f e r s explains  still-life There Sharing and  of the food,  identifies  them.  This  of d o m e s t i c i t y ,  this  of the  poured out  of t h e items symbolize  t o share  the suggestion  preparation  element  i n i t s arrangement.  o f t h e p a i n t e r , who  7  preceding  as i f i t i s d o m e s t i c s p o i l s  and f r e s h n e s s  world  of f r u i t  i n c l u d i n g the novel  i s implied  of the  o f L i Shan's  L e e k , t e n d e r g i n g e r s p r o u t , huge mouth and s l e n d e r s c a l e s t o be e a t e n when f r e s h . Who w i l l s h a r e t h i s w i t h t h e p a i n t e r L i S h a n ?  time,  or h i s  and h i s p a i n t i n g s . As a  between t h e v a r i o u s  matter  his inability  h i s painting business,  c o n t r a d i c t o r y t o those  tension  fish  between c e r t a i n  illustrate  a t t i t u d e s towards h i m s e l f  as b e i n g  these,  The t e n s i o n  The  the r u s t i c ,  himself  offering  with  perhaps .  not i n the  but i n the placement  of i t i n a  arrangement. i s an a m b i g u i t y h e r e between s h a r i n g  i n the simple  thoughtful  painting--the  food  lifestyle true  depicted  and t h u s  associated with  and  buying.  i n the gentle  i t , and b u y i n g t h e  f u n c t i o n of the i n s c r i p t i o n  being  a  clever the  means t o i n v i t e  patron's  purchase.  identification  with  The i n v i t a t i o n  suggests  the painter, while i t s  a c c e p t a n c e would r e v e a l t h e t r u e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e two. The also  only  occurs  relationship  prototype  f o r the f i s h  within the context (Figure 3).  imagery of which  of a p a i n t e r / p a t r o n  Xu Wei ( 1 5 2 1 - 9 3 ) , an u n o r t h o d o x  Ming d y n a s t y p a i n t e r whom L i Shan e m u l a t e d an  image o f f o o d  I know  on o c c a s i o n , d i d  i n c l u d i n g a p a i r of f i s h :  F i s h , c r a b s , m e l o n s , v e g e t a b l e s , bamboo s h o o t s , peas, a l l s m e l l so good.... B u t , a f t e r a l l , t h e y s u i t a poor man's t a s t e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , one c a n o n l y g e t f o o d l i k e t h i s i n Jiangnan.^ The  inscription  vegetables,  mentions the d e l i c i o u s n e s s of t h e f i s h ,  e t c . , of the Jiangnan r e g i o n ,  suit  a poor man's t a s t e . "  that  only  these so  good  t o him.  reference painters  The p a r t i c u l a r  t h e poor man c a n t r u l y  n a t u r a l foods,  meant t o s y m b o l i z e but  the sharing  the  part  of food  for their  the equal  has n o t e d ,  patrons  paintings.  ideas  of the patron  t e n s i o n between s h a r i n g stylistic  This  9  of patron  prototype  isa  trade  was  and p a i n t e r ,  an a s s u m p t i o n on  t o be t o l e r a t e d u t t e r l y t o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g  and s e l l i n g  this  smell  sometimes gave t o  h e r e was p e r h a p s t o o g r e a t  Thus t h e image i s i m p o r t a n t  The  t h e q u a l i t i e s of  and so Xu Wei e x p l a i n s why t h e y  to the g i f t s  they  meaning may be  appreciate  As J u d i t h Whitbeck  i n exchange  "But t h e n  by Xu Wei. of the  i n L i Shan's p a i n t i n g s .  f o r L i Shan's f i s h  paintings  are  the f i s h  lived also few  paintings  up u n t i l be f o u n d  by B a d a s h a n r e n  L i Shan's t i m e .  of pine  fish  the  of the f i s h  posturing  basic that  style  suggests that  (Figure  Badashanren's  traditional  fish  1  Badashanren's  hilsa  1  the conscious  imagery t o s u i t  borrowed  s o u r c e as w e l l  as t h e  The d i f f e r e n c e between t h e two i s  of the carp,  herring.  images u s i n g  and t h e  An example o f  i s a swimming c a r p ,  associations  f r e s h l y caught  think,  4).  trees  L i Shan may have  from t h i s  who  i n f l u e n c e can  1  l a n d s c a p e s w h i c h he a t t e m p t e d . ^ 1  with the  and L i Shan's f i s h i s  The a l t e r a t i o n o f  Xu Wei's  idea  illustrates,  I  e x p a n s i o n and a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e f i s h  L i Shan's p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n .  Biographical by  Badashanren s  i n L i Shan's p a i n t i n g s  Badashanren s  a  (1626-c. 1705/6),  material  Zheng X i e and o f f i c i a l  on L i Shan, c o n t a i n e d sources,  suggest  i n writings  that  L i Shan was  c o n c e r n e d w i t h h a v i n g money, wine, and women, t o p u t i t bluntly,  but w i t h i n  t h e framework o f an o f f i c i a l  or r e t i r e d  lifestyle. Li  Shan c o m p l a i n e d  when he was w i t h o u t  position,  and a l s o  positions  he was g r a n t e d .  onto the r e m a i n i n g difficulties, a  living.  the in  also  family  He f a i l e d land  1  a t times,  official  official  to r e t i r e  peacefully  because of economic to painting  e n e r g e t i c a l l y , no d o u b t  he e n j o y e d ,  and poem. ^  intense  t h e lower  and c o n s e q u e n t l y he t u r n e d  He p a i n t e d  lifestyle letter  when o c c u p y i n g  an  f o r which  t o make  to support  Zheng X i e c h a s t i s e d h i m  His f r u s t r a t i o n with painting and i l l u s t r a t e s  was  most c l e a r l y t h e  tension  between t h e  survival  or  profit  lifestyle  he  s o u g h t and  t h a t were a t h i s d i s p o s a l .  for  these s t a t e s  put  f o r t h i n a b i o g r a p h i c a l account  Zheng X i e In  i n the  (Appendix  2,  Zheng X i e ' s virtuous  court  1715,  continued Painting court  number  or  of  presentation later  post.  Thus he  calls  (not  being  suggests that  high  sought.  i s mild Other  position notions  had  water."*  of honour and  by  Xue  illustrate  Yongnian.  his  by  Zheng for  ambitions  at  Xie's  holding  to bear  poverty), for  an  a l t h o u g h L i Shan  Instead,  he  spent  Li  years  "the  interest in attaining a  f a m i l y p r e s t i g e and appear  in a  Zheng X i e  personal  partially  which b e g i n s w i t h  i n L i Shan's p e r s o n a l  Zheng X i e ' s  some of t h e  in his o f f i c i a l  years.  4  status  jueju written  the  a p o s i t i o n which granted  f o r L i Shan's  sake of  not  pleasures  i n a lower p o s i t i o n , f o r which  b i o g r a p h y of L i Shan and  analyzed jueju  evidence  f o r the  flattering brief  like  able  true  Shan t h e  taste  is  by  is  leaving  sexual  of L i Shan's m o t i v e  not  capital  i n verse  In s p i t e of  a p o s i t i o n , i t was  the  painter  of L i Shan's s u c c e s s  received  outside  After  "twenty  office.  rank w h i c h he  of  evidence  a L i Shan who  respectable.  years  The  the  rendered  find  a l s o s u g g e s t s t h a t L i Shan had  important  of  methods  5).  f o r a good d e a l  s u r v i v a l out  in his  thought  L i Shan's e n j o y m e n t o f  accounted  unflattering  he  and  f o r what Zheng X i e  and  office  life  a c c o u n t we  particularly around  the  short  difficulties  p o s i t i o n s , and  the  a  seals,  biography  L i Shan must  and have  ensuing f r u s t r a t i o n s  of  being  unable to regain  his early  fame a t c o u r t :  C a l l e d F u t a n g , a X i n g h u a man, he i s f i l i a l and honest. He w o r s h i p p e d a t t h e i n n e r c o u r t and l a t e r was t h e m a g i s t r a t e o f Teng c o u n t y . H i s b r u s h i s s k i l l e d and m a t c h l e s s . Twice e x p e l l e d from a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and a once demoted o f f i c i a l , His d r e a r y h a i r i s f r o s t y (grey) i n the reflection. He remembers and b e w a i l s Ren Huangdi ( t h e K a n g x i emperor), And l o n g t a k e s h i s s o u l t o be l i k e t h e c o l o u r s o f the willow. 1 5  In  the jueju,  back w i t h in  longing  the reign  one  to h i s years  of t h e Kangxi  demotion of which  Shan's l e a v i n g his  Zheng X i e m e n t i o n s t h a t  leaving  years,  office  office  in office  emperor.  L i Shan  a t the inner  after  and h i s t r a n s f e r  The two e x p u l s i o n s and  his early  serving  service  a r o u n d 1715,  i n Teng c o u n t y f o r t h r e e  from L i n z h i  c o u n t y t o Teng c o u n t y a t  the  end o f 1 7 3 8 .  and  Wang Y u l u have d e d u c e d , L i Shan's c o n s t a n t  office, in  office  rendering  and even a f t e r  b y Wang Y u l u ,  of L i ' s person  represents  there  w i t h some d e g r e e o f  Gazeteer.  o f L i Shan's  refined.  i s a phrase w r i t t e n  h i s mental s t a t e  from  on a poem by L i Shan and  can s a y l i t t l e i t was  of o f f i c i a l d o m  o f o f f i c e and  i n the Linzhi  Zheng X i e had s a i d  well,  based  interest in  h i s retirement  The i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y  i n the gazeteer  save that As  1 7  as Xue Y o n g n i a n  r o l e and s i g n i f i c a n c e  f o r L i Shan has been s u g g e s t e d  persuasiveness  account  until  in Teng.  painting  a  These o f f i c e s i n d i c a t e ,  and t h e c e n t r a l  h i s outlook  court  Zheng X i e s p e a k s a r e p r o b a b l y L i  after  1 6  thought  painting  1 8  by L i Shan  at the beginning  The  which  of the r e i g n of  the Q i a n l o n g emperor. seeking  This  i s t h e moment o f L i Shan's  o f f i c e w h i c h Zheng X i e d i s c r i b e d i n n e g a t i v e  H e r e we c a n l e t L i Shan s p e a k f o r h i m s e l f , my m o r a l e w i l l Li  rise  Shan, l i k e  like  fire."*  " a f t e r t h i s day  9  Zheng X i e , a l s o t o o k h i s o f f i c e s e r i o u s l y  and  was m e m o r a b l y h o n o u r e d i n v a r i o u s  his  inclusion i n the l i s t  gazeteer,  terms.  ways.  o f famous o f f i c i a l s  Examples a r e i n the Linzhi  and h i s b u i l d i n g o f t h e C o n f u c i a n t e m p l e i n t h a t  county. ^ 2  Li  Shan's f r u s t r a t i o n w i t h  noticeably  i n Zheng X i e ' s  p a i n t i n g a p p e a r s most  biographical verse  ( A p p e n d i x 2,  number 5) w h i c h s u g g e s t s t h a t L i Shan may h a v e had t o r e s p o n d t o t h e whims o f s e r v a n t s examples of t h e c o n f l i c t goals  a r e found  analyzes. shi  Further  o f p a i n t i n g and L i Shan's  i n h i spersonal  In p a r t i c u l a r there  or "the o f f i c i a l  and m e r c h a n t s .  official  s e a l s w h i c h Xue Y o n g n i a n  i s t h e s e a l chen f e i l a o hua  i s n o t an o l d p a i n t i n g m a s t e r . "  Xue  Y o n g n i a n s t a t e s t h a t t h i s s e a l was done p r i o r t o L i Shan's entering  the inner  court,  i n order  o f h i s f a m i l y name a s o f f i c i a l s . " ^ 2  to "restore the prestige More i n t e r e s t i n g i s  t h a t Xue n o t e s t h a t a f t e r L i Shan l e f t first  time,  he a c k n o w l e d g e d t h a t  already  This  brings  to l i f e  l i v e l y d e s c r i p t i o n b y Zheng X i e o f L i Shan's  painting activities:  "The s e r v a n t s  w h e t h e r t h e y were good o r b a d . of p i n e s  f o r the  " a f t e r d r i n k i n g he was  often c a l l e d t h e o l d p a i n t i n g master." the  the capital  and m e r c h a n t s  discussed  Y e s t e r d a y he p a i n t e d  a pair  w h i c h were n o t y e t h a l f c o m p l e t e d ; On b e c o m i n g  drunk  he  got  Denqxin" Li  a n g r y and  (Appendix  2,  Shan's f i s h near  The  tension  i n these  for  o f f i c i a l d o m or a i m s , and  number  the  ( s p e c i a l ) paper  the  completion works  retired  from  5).  p a i n t i n g s range  between and  these  t o r e up  f r o m 1725  of h i s o f f i c i a l  i s probably life,  his resulting  until  his  use  1740,  positions.  r e l a t e d to h i s d e s i r e  inability  to  achieve  of p a i n t i n g t o make a  living. In h i s a r t i c l e (1977), Jonathan  i n the  Spence p o i n t s  discourse  on  discourse  surrounded  preparation  food  and  i n the the  fresh products,  untampered  the  i n Chinese  existence  century.^2  immorality  and  f o o d s as  bad  a  This  taste  consumed by  e a t i n g depended  of  Culture  in  the  the  wealthy,  upon s m a l l  portions  the  natural qualities  of w h i c h were  was  a famous w r i t e r and  with.  Yuan M e i ,  who  Hangzhou, comments on its  out  Food  eighteenth  amounts of  u s u a l l y merchants. Moral of  anthology  the  r e l a t i o n s h i p to noble  importance living  official  of t a s t e f u l  i n h i s cookery  from  eating book:  A good cook c a n n o t w i t h t h e u t m o s t a p p l i c a t i o n p r o d u c e more t h a n f o u r s u c c e s s f u l d i s h e s i n one day and even t h e n i t i s h a r d f o r him t o g i v e p r o p e r a t t e n t i o n t o e v e r y d e t a i l ; and he c e r t a i n l y won't g e t t h r o u g h u n l e s s e v e r y t h i n g i s i n i t s r i g h t p l a c e and he i s on h i s f e e t t h e whole t i m e . I t i s no use t o g i v e him a l o t of a s s i s t a n t s ; e a c h o f them w i l l have h i s own i d e a s and t h e r e w i l l be no p r o p e r d i s c i p l i n e . The more h e l p he g e t s , t h e worse t h e r e s u l t s w i l l be. I once d i n e d w i t h a merchant. T h e r e were t h r e e s u c c e s s i v e s e t s of d i s h e s and s i x t e e n d i f f e r e n t s w e e t s . Altogether, more t h a n f o r t y k i n d s of f o o d were s e r v e d . My h o s t r e g a r d e d t h e d i n n e r as an enormous s u c c e s s . But when I g o t home I was so h u n g r y t h a t I o r d e r e d  and  a bowl o f p l a i n r i c e - g r u e l . From t h i s i t may be i m a g i n e d how l i t t l e t h e r e was, d e s p i t e t h i s p r o f u s i o n of d i s h e s , t h a t was a t a l l f i t t o e a t . . . O n c e I was once a s k e d t o a p a r t y g i v e n by a c e r t a i n g o v e r n o r . . . I f our h o s t ' s o b j e c t was simply t o i m p r e s s i t would have been b e t t e r t o put a hundred p e a r l s i n t o each b o w l . 2 3  The the  over-handling  general  auspiciousness  Shan's f r e s h lead, The  are  and  fish,  i n keeping  with  dual  natural/domestic as  food,  w e l l as  for  others  substitute  the  life  life  or r u r a l  and  he  Li  wished for  opposition, being  to  cooking.  was  not  urban,  this  of r u s t i c  society. a  which  of p a i n t i n g  illustrate  symbolic  a domestic  of u n l i k e s e n t i m e n t s  and  his l i f e  meaning of h i s f i s h  h i s d e a l i n g s with  living  Painting  satisfactory  for rustic seclusion.  Yuan Mei fish  parallel  i n g e n e r a l , depends upon a  domestic,  Shan's p r e f e r r e d r u s t i c The  the  Yuan M e i ' s c r i t e r i a  discourse surrounding  parallel.  food  o f L i Shan's p a i n t i n g s .  associated with  d i c h o t o m y of n a t u r a l and Li  l a r g e amounts o f  gives evidence  of the people  f o r an  of N a n j i n g ,  u n l i k e l i h o o d of t h e  overzealous  appetite for  when w r i t i n g t o J i n Nong of  s u c c e s s f u l s a l e of J i n ' s  painted  lanterns: The p e o p l e of J i n l i n g ( N a n j i n g ) know o n l y t h e t a s t e of duck and s a l t f i s h and t h a t ' s a l l . I f even i n b r o a d d a y l i g h t t h e y d o n ' t know what a work of a r t i s , how much l e s s w i l l t h e y u n d e r s t a n d i n t h e d a r k of t h e n i g h t ! 2 4  Here, the  attitude  towards  food  attitude  t o w a r d s a r t . L i Shan's f i s h  well  use  the  a more d i r e c t  of  food  to express  relationship  with  is related  to  an  paintings i l l u s t r a t e  as  i d e a s a b o u t p a i n t i n g , but  in  p a i n t i n g . The  " s h a r i n g " of  fresh  fish  of t h e  with  painting  overcome t h e selling  has  may  This  connection  the  fish, Li  life,  and  the  not  but  difficulty  arrangement of  fresh  upon a fish  painter  deny the  w h i c h he  feature or  of  to  in  of  the  food  i n t o the  "shares"  freshness rather  the  in  counter. realm  i t with  the  fish  painter's  finds unattainable,  the  organic  the  or i t s  state  and  in  a  life  works w h i c h s u g g e s t s t h i s  idea  still  painted  (Figure  5).  So  too  was  i n the  in  the  bamboo s h o o t s  done  Huang  i n Yangzhou.  These  album l e a f c o n t e x t  in  fish. of  both  Zheng X i e  J i n Nong; w h i l e Luo  In two  album l e a v e s  s i m i l a r l e a f by  which  paintings  active  the  mouth i n some of  binding of  to c a r r y  ( 1 7 3 3 - 1 7 9 9 ) , and  acquaintance  another  string  this  Ping  i s used  fish's  paintings  L i Shan p a i n t e d  J i n Nong and bound by  find  shoots alone  Nong's s t u d e n t . ^ 5  Shan's f i s h  We  were a l s o  an  which  i n the  ( 1 6 8 7 - 1 7 6 4 ) , Luo  ( 1 6 8 7 - 1 7 7 2 ) , who  same way  Shan  binding  l a r g e number of  Huang Shen was  are  L i Shan's a t t e m p t  i t s placement  life,  is depicted  J i n Nong  painters  by  that  bringing  Shan's a l b u m l e a v e s .  Shen  Jin  was  encountered.  where t h e  does not  string,  relatively by  This  purchase  "society." Another  is  suggest  to r u s t i c  between t h a t  out  suggests  domestic world  patron.  in  h i s terms.  been p o i n t e d  device  the  a c t u a l l y r e s u l t s i n the  same a t t i t u d e s , a l t h o u g h  album l e a v e s  This of  on  painter  p e r h a p s , w h i c h J i n Nong  It the  the  is identical  (Figures  6 and  of bamboo  Luo to  7).  Ping  Ping,  that The  same  Li  was shoots  the  used  and  shoots  in L i  inscription in  appears  the r e n d i t i o n  on e a c h o f t h e s e ,  with  slight  variation  o f t h e same c h a r a c t e r s :  With t h e f i r s t sounding o f t h e thunder of s p r i n g , New bamboo s h o o t s f i l l t h e m o u n t a i n - - r i d g e after ridge of jade. When y o u b u y a p o r t i o n t o cook w i t h f r a g r a n t p i g meat, Do n o t ask t h e k i t c h e n h e l p , ask t h e o l d monk. Old M o n k . . . ( J i n Nong), a f t e r painting inscribed this. The of  fish,  patron. world  painting  is clearly  and i t c o n t i n u e s  related  the p a i n t e r ' s d i s c u s s i o n with the  Here, t h e p a i n t e r , J i n Nong, a c t s f r o m  in offering  patron.  to provide  L i k e L i Shan's f i s h ,  fresh  clear  shoots  from  f o r the  rustic  life  and f o o d .  have This  tothe  i n the painting.  bamboo,  J i n Nong w r o t e a p h r a s e  indicating  was n o t , l i k e and  bamboo s h o o t s  t h e g a r n i s h o f grown bamboo a t t a c h e d  Furthermore, and  the n a t u r a l  J i n Nong's bamboo s h o o t s  a dual a s s o c i a t i o n s of s c h o l a r l y is  t o L i Shan's p a i n t i n g s  that the offering  L i Shan's f i s h  subtle c r i t i c i s m  about  Confucius  i n t h e album  p a i n t i n g s , without  leaf  i t s tension  of the patron:  To l i v e w i t h o u t h a v i n g bamboo, t o e a t w i t h o u t h a v i n g meat. To l i v e w i t h o u t h a v i n g bamboo i s s u p e r f l u o u s . To e a t w i t h o u t h a v i n g meat i s a l w a y s l e a n . 2 6  T h i s poem i l l u s t r a t e s accompany t h e p a t r o n ' s criticizing  that  in offering  meat, J i n Nong was  the patron.  We s h o u l d  words t o J i n Nong a b o u t  the people  interested art.  only i n s a l t - f i s h  also  bamboo s h o o t s t o  probably  recall  o f Hangzhou  Yuan M e i ' s being  and duck and n o t i n works o f  What L i Shan and satirically rustic lack  offer  purity,  the p a i n t i n g s the p a i n t e r , own  the buyer  but  of adherence  to that  their  Earlier,  for  interruption  S h i t a o had  of the w i l d the source  artists  That  and  of the  is similar also  their  setting,  of  patron's  i s , i n purchasing s e p a r a t i o n from  indicated  and  by t h e  between  In t h e  to those  functioning  way  the  of d o m e s t i c a t i o n , which  idea.  their  food.  made a d i s t i n c t i o n  those  the  of h i s l i f e s t y l e ,  presented the  to  foods symbolic  illustrated  purity.  i n the domestic  the f r u i t s  later  fresh  i n a form which  i n which the p a i n t e r  perhaps  the  the p a t r o n m a n i f e s t e d  placement  fruits  J i n Nong e s s e n t i a l l y d i d was  image, t h e b i n d i n g  i n t h e works o f  around  was  Yangzhou  those  (Figure  8):  P u r p l e melon, p u r p l e m e l o n - - t h e y have an exceptionally fine flavour. You t e l l me how much s a l t and p i c k l e s a u c e t h e y n e e d - - b u t I made a m i s t a k e . I p i c k e d them up and s w a l l o w e d them raw as i f t h e y were w i l d p l a n t s . I hope t h e y w i l l n o t s p r o u t and t a k e r o o t i n s i d e me! ' 2  Two  paintings  o f bamboo by L i Shan, one  f o u r t e e n t h year  of the Q i a n l o n g r e i g n ,  passages  i n the  inscriptions  food  fish  and  (Figures  9 and  which d e v e l o p 10).  Both  complex t h a n t h e e a r l i e r  images o f f i s h  virtue  allusive  of t h e i r  suggests type  than  that  l o n g and  or  In t h e u n d a t e d  scroll  to  the  include  h i s ideas  within  of a  about  a r e more  albums  inscriptions.  bought h i s e a r l i e r hanging  1749,  paintings  t h e s e works were f o r p a t r o n s  t h o s e who  dated  by  This different  albums. ® 2  L i Shan m e n t i o n s  Confucius'  l o v e o f bamboo as opposed  interesting  phrase  development  of the genre  use  to c a l l  o f i t . L i Shan a l s o  hanging  t o meat.  This  y  i s an  upon c o n s i d e r i n g L i Shan's  of food  in painting,  expands t h e p h r a s e  and J i n Nong's  i n the dated  scroll:  One The One The  j o i n t , two j o i n t s , and y e t a n o t h e r j o i n t . v i r t u e o f Qu Yuan, Su Wu, B o y i , and S u q i . l e a f , two l e a v e s , and y e t a n o t h e r l e a f . r a i n god, t h e wind god and t h e g r o t t o o f Chang'e. The p h r a s e " w i t h o u t bamboo [ l i f e ] i s v u l g a r " has been r e c e i v e d r e s p e c t f u l l y f r o m C o n f u c i u s down through t h e ages. The o l d f i s h i n g p o l e i s l o s t a t t h e s h o r e o f t h e Wei R i v e r . The bamboo w i t h t h e b l o o d and t e a r s o f N u y i n g and Ewang had a l r e a d y w i t h e r e d When, i n h i s a n g e r , t h e d r a g o n f o u n d e r ( Q i n Shihuang d i ) turned the green h i l l s i d e i n t o bare red soil.™ The  models o f v i r t u e  symbolically significant to  constitute  who were s e l e c t e d  the j o i n t s  unfilial ferns  next  son.  Instead, they  and l a t e r The  o f t h e bamboo a r e  i n the context of food.  eat the food of the dynasty  full  died  two l i n e s  B o y i and S u q i  established,  "lived  o f t h e same p h r a s e  o f C o n f u c i a n c o n t e n t which  expresses Confucius' f e e l i n g s  "This  about  the f i s h i n g  refers  to the s t o r y fished  about  pole r e f e r s  by an  i s found  i n the  expand upon t h e The f i r s t  line  bamboo, w h i l e t h e n e x t t o another  of Taigong  at the shore  felt,  1 , 3 1  r e f e r e n c e t o these Confucian exemplars.  line  they  refused  i n the mountains, a t e  of s t a r v a t i o n .  explication  b y L i Shan t o  seventies,  who  t h r e e days  and t h r e e n i g h t s b u t c o u l d  exemplar.  Wang, an o l d man  in his  o f t h e Wei R i v e r f o r not c a t c h a s i n g l e  fish.  Later  he a s s i s t e d Wenwang o f t h e s t a t e  overthrow the corrupt  last  emperor  Here L i Shan c o n n e c t s C o n f u c i u s ' T a i g o n g Wang's  inability  moral d i s t i n c t i o n . Confucius interest and  i n meat i s compared  i s said  paintings not  t h e same m o r a l  d o m e s t i c good, l i k e  An his  undated  matter less  I n L i Shan's  b o t h became mere  of the s c h o l a r - p a i n t e r .  (Figure  Y e t he a l s o  o r t h o d o x v i s u a l and w r i t t e n  I n t h e bamboo  of the e a r t h  i s t h e g r o u p o f bamboo s h o o t s of e a r t h  subject the  painting,  The most c o n s p i c u o u s e l e m e n t  depiction  In  language developed i n  the  The  11).  appropriated  a brief depiction  painting  objects.  painting  Zheng X i e i n c l u d e s bamboo grows.  The  by Zheng X i e d e m o n s t r a t e s  the t r a d i t i o n a l  by S h i t a o .  s i m p l y became a  which they bought.  depicted  bamboo p a i n t i n g  fish  The p a t r o n d i d  and s o t h e f i s h  the painting  Yangzhou p r e v i o u s l y  and h i s e v e n t u a l  ideal i s present.  Zheng X i e r e t a i n e d  with  Of c o u r s e , t h e  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e same d i s c o u r s e  general,  f o r bamboo  32  i s o f no i n t e r e s t t o  fish.  it.  idea,  and t h e s u b j e c t  Dynasty."  t o t h e i n t e r e s t i n t h e bamboo,  t o i n f r i n g e upon  observe t h i s moral  painting  fish  The meat w h i c h  i s , i n t h i s instance,  o f t h e Shang  feelings  to catch  o f Zhou t o  from which  i n the  f l a n k i n g a bent  and bamboo s h o o t s d e p a r t s  rock.  from the  sparseness of the t r a d i t i o n a l  bamboo p a i n t i n g .  portion  a r e two s t a l k s o f bamboo, one  darker lighter  of the p a i n t i n g i n tone echoing stalk rising  there  t h e shape of t h e rock  up beyond  I n t h e upper  and a s e c o n d  t h e edge o f t h e p a p e r .  The  bamboo s h o o t s m o d i f y t h e meaning o f t h e s e s t a l k s o f bamboo  by  introducing the v i s u a l  Xie's  inscription  subject  at the r i g h t  matter  qualifies  of food.  Zheng  the p a i n t i n g :  Yangzhou's f r e s h bamboo s h o o t s and r i c h i n h i l s a herr ing, Mashed and c o o k e d a t t h e s t a r t o f t h e e a s t w i n d ' s t h i r d month, M a k i n g i t ask t h e k i t c h e n h e l p t o s t o p f r o m c h o p p i n g i t up t o t h e u t m o s t , C l e a r and b r i g h t l e a v e t h i s ( p a i n t i n g / b a m b o o ) t o l i g h t t h e o u t s p r e a d book. Huan o l d s c h o l a r e l d e r b r o t h e r , t h i s . B a n q i a o Zheng X i e .  please  correct  3 3  The  traditional  literati  more e r u d i t e s y m b o l i s m moral  o f t h e bamboo,  i d e a l s of the l i t e r a t u s .  described  as an a d m o n i t i o n  delicious  foods  i n the cooking  a modicum o f r e s t r a i n t  with  the n a t u r a l l y r i c h  fact,  thereby bamboo  this  i s symbolic,  ideals  ideals.  of food  preserves  even  lack t h i s  the symbolic  the thought  he e x p r e s s e s  of which t h e I n Zheng  traditional  Xie's  literati  incorporates the  by Zheng X i e c o n c e r n s s i m i l a r exemplifies  moral  the moral a t t i t u d e i n  meanings o f t h e bamboo, u n l i k e  the h i l l s  o f bamboo s h o o t s and  a t t i t u d e when t h e y  for eating.  prefecture.  and e a t i n g .  inscription  who h a r v e s t  when d e a l i n g  t h e bamboo p l a n t , and  and t h e bamboo p a i n t i n g .  Zheng X i e h i m s e l f  keeping with  plant  i s i n order,  f o o d s t u f f s o f Yangzhou  and i n s c r i p t i o n  Another  and  Zheng X i e s u g g e s t s  w i t h i n an u n t r a d i t i o n a l image w h i c h  subjects  poem c a n be  t h e abuse o f n a t u r a l l y  process.  the s c h o l a r l y a c t i v i t i e s ,  painting  those  restraint  the  which concerns the  Zheng X i e ' s  against  that  In  bamboo p a i n t i n g e x p r e s s e s  attain  There a r e three  vegetables,  and p r e p a r e t h e  different  recorded  40  v e r s i o n s o f t h e same i n s c r i p t i o n w h i c h r e i t e r a t e  the  n e c e s s i t y o f r e t a i n i n g t h e m o r a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e bamboo. I will  q u o t e two  of t h e s e :  Bamboo s h o o t s a l o n g t h e r i v e r i n t h e s e c o n d month a r e new. F a m i l y a f t e r f a m i l y ' s k i t c h e n s cook and p e a l t h e s p r i n g bamboo. I am h o p i n g t o c u t one t h o u s a n d t h r e a d s o f t h i n bamboo s t r i p s , To weave i n t o a c u r t a i n t o p r o t e c t b e a u t i f u l women 1 3 4  Cook meat and b o i l f i s h , c u t up bamboo s h o o t s fresh. I n t h e k i t c h e n on t h e p o t s h e l f t h e y l o s e H e a v e n ' s genuineness... Banqiao The  Zheng X i e p l a y s w i t h t h e b r u s h .  5  p r i m a r y s u b j e c t matter of t h e t h r e e i n s c r i p t i o n s i s  the abuse of n a t u r a l l y f i n e  foods, e s p e c i a l l y the  freshly  p i c k e d bamboo, by t h e k i t c h e n s o f w e l l t o do h o u s e h o l d s . the f i r s t  version cited,  specifically.  But  the abuse of food i s not  i n the second  inscription  mentioned  i t i s t h e abuse  o f t h e raw m a t e r i a l s w i t h i n a f a n c y c o o k i n g p r o c e s s causes the genuineness genuineness  i s referred  t h a t of the p a i n t e r ( i n the t h i r d  and  o f t h e s e f o o d s t o be l o s t .  l i k e - m i n d e d ones,  v e r s i o n not quoted; Appendix  of e n j o y i n g t h e s e q u a l i t i e s ,  genuineness. m o r a l i t y , and  that This  t o as b e i n g t h a t o f "Heaven," o r "our 3).  i n both cases r e f e r s to the n a t u r a l q u a l i t i e s t h e way  In  "Genuineness" the f a m i l i e s '  genuineness" "Genuineness" of t h i n g s ,  i f i t i s the  or  painter's  t h u s i m p l i e s c o r r e c t n e s s and l a c k of t a s t e  i s also a lack  of  m o r a l a s p e c t o f t h e i n s c r i p t i o n becomes c l e a r e r  in  morality. The  41  the second p a r t , thoughtful  and m o r a l a t t i t u d e  Xie's gesture protect  i n w h i c h Zheng  of using  women r e l a t e d  and  left  t o t h e famous s t o r y  the p a r t i c u l a r  t h e most  delicious  bamboo o f Hunan, w h i c h was  of a l l bamboos.  pay t r i b u t e  meaning one's  issue of that  eating  adverse  f o r Zheng which  habits.  attitude  Xie's  of these  his point,  pleasure,  of charge.  (Appendix  into  but rather  painting.  existence  In f a c t ,  i n a comical simply,  and f o r whom he p a i n t s (Only t o r e a l i z e  painting  1, number 4 ) .  he was n o t  the very  t h e meat, p r e p a r e d  is a rustic,  simplicity in  by n a t u r e ,  influences  is illustrated  whom he t h i n k s  had been duped  Zheng  f o o d s and t h e m a t e r i a l i s t i c  t h o u g h t and s c h o l a r l y  free  Thus,  X i e was t h e need t o a p p r e c i a t e t h e  W h i l e making  which has him e n j o y i n g  that  o f t h e bamboo.  i s e a t e n , and t o r e t a i n  l o v e o f dog meat  t o be  t o t h e w i v e s o f Shun and a r e i n  t o w a r d s them, w h i c h  of s c h o l a r l y  identified  with a type of  moral s i g n i f i c a n c e .  t o foods which a r e d e l i c i o u s  the o v e r - p r e p a r a t i o n  The  So i t happened  36  keeping with the moral s i g n i f i c a n c e The  husband  were s a i d  s h o o t s were a s s o c i a t e d  bamboo w h i c h had p a r t i c u l a r actions  a t the death of t h e i r  bamboos o f t h e s t o r y ,  naturally delicious  Xie's  o f N u y i n g and  on t h e bamboo i n w h i c h t h e y s t o o d .  shoots of the spotted with  Zheng  T h e s e two women became s y m b o l s o f  when t h e y c r i e d  spots  t o w a r d s t h e bamboo.  t h e bamboo t o make a c u r t a i n t o  Ewang, t h e w i v e s o f Shun. moral v i r t u e  X i e d e m o n s t r a t e s a more  later  Zheng  anecdote w i t h a man with t h a t he  f o r a wealthy merchant)  Food Xie's  imagery  illustrates  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a new  mode o f s o c i a l  also  in literature,  lack  of s c h o l a r l y i d e a l s of the wealthy.  illustrates acts the of  painting  medium t h a t  and  functions  change was  scholarly  complexity  situation a  basic  t r a d i t i o n and  the i n f l u x of such As we  have  of the unorthodox  historical  them or c o n f r o n t e d  historical  L i Shan and  in their paintings s i t u a t i o n s and  seen,  and  the  seems t o be  reputation  and  what may  a more s e l e c t  each  them f r o m h i s  own  s u g g e s t t o us  the  f a c t o r s , or t h e i r human  J i n Nong's more s a r c a s t i c d o u b l e illustrates  t h e i r need  p r o f e s s i o n a l l y as p a i n t e r s . moralizing  f a c t o r s , but  different positions  of the b a s i c  implications.  locating  two  structure;  illustrates  in t h i s context.  were t h e b a s i c  unique p o s i t i o n . These  living  These  the subsequent  allow  the commbination  approached  meaning  would  and  painting traditions.  These artist  paintings.  imagery a l s o  seen  It also  i n the s o c i a l  c l a s s and  food  criticism,  i n the n a t u r e of the s c h o l a r l y p a i n t i n g  discourse this  The  Zheng  on t h e m a t e r i a l i s m  t o t h e change  of t h e merchant  the s c h o l a r .  change  focussed  t h e i r attempts at s e l l i n g  were a r e a c t i o n rise  the  which  L i Shan, J i n Nong, and  their  t o be q u i t e  Zheng X i e ' s  i n accord have been patronage.  with h i s  difficult active  more  overt  official  his greater  success i n  1. Zhuang Shen, " L i Shan s h i c h a o , " 1972, 53-60 ( A p p e n d i x 4 ) . The m a j o r i t y o f t h e s e c o l l e c t e d poems a r e i n f a c t inscriptions. The d a n g e r o f u s i n g t h e s e i n s c r i p t i o n s w i t h o u t h a v i n g t h e images a t my d i s p o s a l i s e v i d e n t . However, much o f t h e i r c o n t e n t i s a b r i e f s u g g e s t i o n o f t h e v i s u a l c o n t e n t and a more l i t e r a l e x p a n s i o n upon i t . Thus, I use t h e i n f o r m a t i o n i n o n l y a g e n e r a l way t o s u g g e s t some of t h e meanings o f f i s h i n L i Shan's t h o u g h t and p a i n t i n g . As w e l l , some o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e i n s c r i p t i o n s i s a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l and e n t a i l s more commentary a b o u t t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e images t h a n t h e images t h e m s e l v e s . Whether the p a i n t i n g s a r e i n f a c t a u t h e n t i c i s a n o t h e r p r o b l e m . A t p r e s e n t , I can p o i n t out the e x i s t e n c e of a u t h e n t i c f i s h p a i n t i n g s by t h e p a i n t e r i n a l b u m l e a f f o r m , as w e l l as t h e s i m i l a r i t y i n p o e t r y s t y l e t o i n s c r i p t i o n s on a u t h e n t i c works. 2. Zhuang Shen, " L i Shan s h i c h a o , "  55  (Appendix 4 ) .  3. Zhuang  Shen,  " L i Shan s h i c h a o , "  59  (Appendix 4 ) .  4. Zhuang  Shen,  " L i Shan s h i c h a o , "  55  (Appendix 4 ) .  5. A p p e n d i x 2, number 2, t h e f i r s t o f two s e c t i o n s . The d a t e o f 1745 l i s t e d above i s o b t a i n e d f r o m Zheng X i e ' s n i a n b i a o (Zheng B a n q i a o i i 1962, a p p e n d i x ) . f  6.  Zhuang Shen,  " L i Shan s h i c h a o , "  58  (Appendix 4 ) .  7. A p p e n d i x 4. 8. J u d i t h W h i t b e c k , " C a l l i g r a p h e r - P a i n t e r - B u r e a u c r a t s i n t h e L a t e M i n g , " The R e s t l e s s L a n d s c a p e , 1971, 115-132, e n t r y 51. 9. W h i t b e c k , 1971,  116.  10. An example o f a l a n d s c a p e by L i Shan t h a t f o l l o w s B a s a s h a n r e n i s r e p r o d u c e d i n C o m p r e h e n s i v e Index o f C h i n e s e P a i n t i n g s , 1982, JP14-029. There are a l s o s i m i l a r i t i e s between one t y p e o f p i n e by L i and t h o s e by B a d a s h a n r e n . For example, we c a n compare t h e p i n e a l b u m l e a f i n L i Shan huaniao c e 1964, l e a f 4 t o B a d a s h a n r e n ' s p i n e album l e a f r e p r o d u c e d i n Mr. F r e d F a n g - y u Wang's a r t i c l e "The Album o f F l o w e r S t u d i e s S i g n i e d "Ch'una-ch'e" i n t h e N a t i o n a l P a l a c e Museum and t h e E a r l y Works o f C h u - t a , " 1970. (This l a t t e r work i s b e l i e v e d t o be a u t h e n t i c by Wen F o n g , as he s t a t e s i n t h e same p r o c e e d i n g s . ) On B a d a s h a n r e n ' s p i n e s s e e Oswald S i r e n , C h i n e s e P a i n t i n g , 1973, volume 5, 152. S i r e n quotes Zhang Geng: " I t has been s a i d t h a t h i s b e s t p i c t u r e s r e p r e s e n t p i n e - t r e e s , l o t u s and s t o n e s , a s t a t e m e n t w h i c h , however, d o e s n o t i n c l u d e a l l h i s works." f  11.  It i s possible  t h a t L i Shan's use o f t h i s  style  had t o  do w i t h t h e p e r c e i v e d o v e r p o p u l a r i t y and s u p e r f i c i a l i t y of B a d a s h a n r e n ' s p a i n t i n g s , as d e s c r i b e d by Zheng X i e . (Chut s i n g L i , "The Bamboo P a i n t i n g s of C h i n Nung," 1973-73, 6 7 ) . W h i l e L i Shan does n o t i n t i m a t e i n w r i t i n g t h e m o t i v a t i o n b e h i n d h i s c h o i c e of s t y l e , t h e h a r k i n g back t o B a d a s h a n r e n i n h i s c a p a c i t y as a p a i n t e r of g r e a t p o p u l a r i t y would f i t i n t o L i Shan's more a p p a r e n t i n t e r e s t i n a s l i g h t l y c r i t i c a l or s a r c a s t i c h a n d l i n g o f i m a g e r y . 12. A l e t t e r t o L i Shan i n w h i c h Zheng X i e s c o l d s h i s o v e r i n d u l g e n c e i n t h e p a i n t i n g b u s i n e s s i s i n Quanj i 1985, B a n q i a o j i wai s h i w e n (Poems and P r o s e o u t s i d e t h e C o l l e c t e d Works of B a n q i a o ) , Shu ( L e t t e r s ) s e c t i o n , 269. The l e t t e r i s l i s t e d as b e i n g a f a c s i m i l e i n t h e B e i j i n g x i d a n wenwu s h a n g d i a n c a n g ( B e i j i n g West L i s t C u l t u r a l A r t i f a c t s S t o r e C o l l e c t i o n ) . I t i s q u o t e d i n C h a p t e r 4 ( A p p e n d i x 2, number 6) . f  13. U n d e r s t a n d a b l y enough, t h e l i c e n t i o u s b e h a v i o u r o f L i Shan i s not r e c o r d e d i n t h e r e c o r d s of t h e L i f a m i l y of X i n g h u a d i s c o v e r e d by Xue Y o n g n i a n and r e p r o d u c e d i n h i s i m p o r t a n t a r t i c l e , " L i Shan de j i a s h i yu z a o q i z u o p i n , " 1986, 80-85 ( A p p e n d i x 2, number 4 ) . In t h e two official b i o g r a p h i e s t h e p e r i o d of l i c e n t i o u s n e s s and t r o u b l e s i s n e a t l y skipped over. 14. Howard R o g e r s has found poems by L i Shan d a t e d t o t h i s p e r i o d w h i c h e x p r e s s L i Shan's d i s p l e a s u r e w i t h h i s p o s i t i o n . See Howard R o g e r s and Sherman E . L e e , M a s t e r w o r k s of Ming and Q i n q P a i n t i n g , 1988, e n t r y 63. 15.  Appendix  2,  number  6.  16. T h e r e i s some p r o b l e m a s c e r t a i n i n g t h e i n c i d e n t s of and t h e r e a s o n s f o r L i Shan's l e a v i n g o f f i c e . His e a r l y o f f i c e i s c l e a r l y r e c o r d e d i n b o t h b i o g r a p h i e s and Zheng X i e ' s account. However, t h e b i o g r a p h y m e n t i o n s n o t h i n g of h i s l e a v i n g o f f i c e the f i r s t time, but o n l y mentions h i s begging to r e t u r n t o o f f i c e b e f o r e b e i n g a s s i g n e d t h e p o s t of m a g i s t r a t e of L i n z h i c o u n t y , and h i s l a t e r e x p u l s i o n f r o m o f f i c e i n Teng. In L i Shan's n i a n b i a o Wang Luyu s t a t e s t h a t L i a s k e d t o r e t u r n , or t o l e a v e t h e c o u r t , and was g i v e n l e a v e t o r e t u r n home i n 1719 (Wang L u y u , " L i Shan huan j i b u y i , " 1986, 75-78 and 5 7 ) . However, t h i s i s p r o b a b l y a m i s r e a d i n g of t h e b i o g r a p h y r e p r o d u c e d i n Xue Y o n g n i a n ' s a r t i c l e w h i c h does n o t s a y why L i Shan l e f t , but r a t h e r t h a t he a s k e d t o r e t u r n t o o f f i c e , and was t h u s g i v e n o f f i c e i n L i n z h i c o u n t y (Xue Y o n g n i a n , " L i Shan de j i a s h i yu z a o q i z u o p i n , " 1986). T h i s c a n be p r o v e n by t h e s e n t e n c e q i q u i hou or " a f t e r b e g g i n g t o r e t u r n , " t h e f o l l o w i n g p h r a s e b e i n g "was s e l e c t e d t o be t h e m a g i s t r a t e o f L i n z h i c o u n t y . " The y e a r 1719 i s a r r i v e d a t by Wang Luyu p r o b a b l y t h r o u g h c o u n t i n g h i s "few y e a r s " i n c o u r t , r e c o r d e d i n h i s  b i o g r a p h y , as an e x a c t t h r e e . In p o s s i b l e disagreement w i t h t h e n i a n b i a o i s Zheng X i e ' s v e r s i o n o f L i ' s e a r l y s t a y a t t h e c o u r t , w h i c h s u g g e s t s t h a t he may have been removed. Zheng X i e ' s b i o g r a p h i c a l poem s t a t e s t h a t L i , " w i t h h i s bag and b r u s h s e r v e d d i r e c t l y b e f o r e t h e emperor. His talent and g r a n d i o s i t y were q u i t e e n v i e d by t h e w o r l d . But a l t h o u g h t h e mouths p r a i s e d and s i g h e d , t h e h e a r t s were n o t l i k e that. Rumbling horses l e f t t h e c a p i t a l ( L i l e f t ) . . . " ( A p p e n d i x 2, number 5 ) . Thus Zheng X i e s u g g e s t s t h a t L i was s l a n d e r e d , as Howard R o g e r s has n o t i c e d (Howard R o g e r s and Sherman E . L e e , M a s t e r w o r k s , 1988, e n t r y 6 3 ) . Rogers a l s o s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e r e a s o n f o r t h i s may have been L i Shan's i m p r o p r i e t y as n a r r a t e d i n t h e s u b s e q u e n t l i n e s o f Zheng X i e ' s poem f r o m w h i c h t h e i n f o r m a t i o n o f h i s d i s c h a r g e i s taken. However, L i ' s i m p r o p r i e t y c a n o n l y be a s c e r t a i n e d f o r t h e p e r i o d f o l l o w i n g h i s d i s c h a r g e , f o r Zheng s p e c i f i e s i t o c c u r e d a f t e r t h i s on t h e r i v e r , p r o b a b l y i n t h e s o u t h . R o g e r ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s h o u l d be s e e n a s o n l y an u n s t a t e d possibility. An e x p u l s i o n may a l s o be s u g g e s t e d by Zheng X i e i n h i s j u e j u on L i where he s t a t e s t h a t L i was t w i c e e x p e l l e d , o n l y one o f w h i c h c a n be a c c o u n t e d f o r by t h e b e t t e r - k n o w n e x p u l s i o n f r o m h i s p o s t i n Teng i n 1740 (Quani i B a n q i a o j i ( C o l l e c t e d Works o f B a n q i a o ) S h i c h a o ( C o l l e c t e d P o e t r y ) s e c t i o n , 99 ( A p p e n d i x 2, number 6 ] ) . The d i f f e r e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s p r o b a b l y stem from t h e s u b t l e t y o f t h e two l i n e s i n Zheng's poem q u o t e d h e r e c o n c e r n i n g t h e p o s s i b l e s l a n d e r and t h e n h o r s e s l e a v i n g t h e c a p i t a l . I t c o u l d be t h a t L i was d i s l i k e d b u t c h o s e t o l e a v e on h i s own. However, i t i s c l e a r f r o m Zheng X i e ' s j u e j u t h a t Zheng t h o u g h t t h a t L i was e x p e l l e d t w i c e and t h a t L i ' s l e a v i n g t h e c o u r t i s a l i k e l y c a n d i d a t e f o r one o f t h e s e e x p u l s i o n s . f  The y e a r s o f h i s l a t e r o f f i c e i n L i n z h i and Teng counties clearer. Wang L u y u has d i s c o v e r e d a p a s s a g e i n the L i n z h i x i a n z h i - - M i n q chuan z h i ( L i n z h i C o u n t y G a z e t e e r - R e c o r d o f Famous O f f i c i a l s ) w h i c h s t a t e s : In t h e s e c o n d y e a r o f t h e r e i g n o f t h e Q i a n l o n g emperor (1737) he became t h e m a g i s t r a t e a t L i n z h i county. He was p r a i s e d i n t h e p u b l i c r e a l m , and was g r a c e f u l b u t showy. Banqiao s a i d that h i s p a i n t i n g b r u s h was e x t r e m e l y s k i l l e d . In t h e t e n t h Teng, a s r e c o r d e d Gazeteer):  month o f 1738 L i Shan was t r a n s f e r e d t o i n t h e Teng x i a n z h i (Teng C o u n t y  I n t h e t e n t h month o f t h e t h i r d y e a r ( o f t h e r e i g n o f t h e Q i a n l o n g emperor, o r 1738-1740) he t o o k o f f i c e , and s e r v e d f o r f o u r y e a r s ( f o u r y e a r s f r o m the b e g i n n i n g of h i s s e r v i c e i n Teng). 17. Xue Y o n g n i a n , " L i Shan de j i a s h i y u z a o q i z u o p i n , " 1986, 80-85 and Wang L u y u , " L i Shan huan j i b u y i , " 1986, 75-78 and  46  57  (Appendix 5 ) .  18. Wang L u y u q u o t e s t h e L i n z h i x i a n z h i - - M i n g chuan z h i ( L i n z h i C o u n t y G a z e t e e r - - R e c o r d o f Famous O f f i c i a l s ) t o i l l u s t r a t e t h a t L i Shan s e l d o m p a i n t e d i n L i n z h i : " B a n q i a o s a i d t h a t h i s p a i n t i n g b r u s h was e x t r e m e l y s k i l l e d . " This i d e a i s s u p p o r t e d b y t h e l i s t o f p a i n t i n g s as r e c o r d e d by Wang Luyu i n h i s n i a n b i a o o f L i Shan (Wang L u y u , " L i Shan huan j i b u y i , " 1986, 75-78 and 57 [ A p p e n d i x 5 ] ) As w e l l , Wang L u y u p r e s e n t s a poem w h i c h i l l u s t r a t e s L i ' s i n t e n t t o s t o p p a i n t i n g d u r i n g h i s o f f i c e i n L i n z h i , and w h i c h a l s o e n a b l e d Wang t o a s c e r t a i n t h a t i t was a f t e r t h e t h i r d month of t h e y e a r t h a t L i took o f f i c e : S u b m e r g i n g t h e empty rooms, t h e f l o o d w a t e r s o f t h e excessive r a i n s remain... I c h e c k my b a g , f o r t h e e a r n i n g s o f t h e a b u n d a n t times i n the past. P a i n t i n g has ended f o r me, t h e s w a l l o w s on t h e b r a n c h . . . I l e a v e t o be an o f f i c i a l , I w i l l n o t b r i n g t h e c o l o u r s when I go t o Qingzhou. 19. Xue Y o n g n i a n , 80-85. 20. Wang L u y u , (Appendix 5 ) .  " L i Shan de j i a s h i  yu z a o q i  " L i Shan huan j i b u y i , "  21. Xue Y o n g n i a n , 80-85.  " L i Shan de j i a s h i  z u o p i n , " 1986,  1986, 75-78 and 57  yu z a o q i  z u o p i n , " 1986,  22. Food i n C h i n e s e C u l t u r e : A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l and H i s t o r i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e s 1977. The s e c t i o n on Q i n g D y n a s t y f o o d i s w r i t t e n by J o n a t h a n S p e n c e . f  23. A r t h u r Waley, Yuan M e i . 1956, 195-197. T h i s i s p a r t o f Yuan M e i ' s c o o k e r y book, w h i c h he c o m p l e t e d i n 1796. 24. W i l l i a m H e n r y S c o t t , "Yangchow and I t s E i g h t E c c e n t r i c s , " 1964, 9-10. The a u t h o r r e f e r s t o Yuan x i a o cang s h a n f a n g z h i d u , juan I .  zicai,  25. E v i d e n c e o f J i n Nong's f r i e n d s h i p w i t h Zheng X i e comes i n t h e f o r m o f t h r e e l e t t e r s w r i t t e n by Zheng X i e t o J i n Nong c o l l e c t e d i n Quanj i . 1985, B a n q i a o j i wai s h i w e n (Poems and P r o s e o u t s i d e t h e C o l l e c t e d Works o f B a n q i a o ) Shu ( L e t t e r s ) s e c t i o n , 271-2. 26.  Vicki  Frances Weinstein.  "Eccentricity,"  1972, 253.  27. S h i t a o a l s o p a i n t e d i n t e r e s t i n g c o m b i n a t i o n s o f t r a d i t i o n a l s u b j e c t m a t t e r and f o o d . F o r example i n M a r i l y n  and Shen Fu's S t u d i e s i n C o n n o i s s e u r s h i p , number X X X I , 2 8 0 - 2 8 3 .  1973,  catalogue  28. T h i s has b e e n c a l l e d t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n " t h e more s c h o l a r l y and p o e t i c s i d e o f L i S h a n , as d i s t i n c t f r o m h i s p o p u l a r or " p r o f e s s i o n a l " works, which are u s u a l l y a c c o m p a n i e d by s h o r t e r and l e s s a l l u s i v e poems." See t h e s e c t i o n on L i Shan w r i t t e n by W a i - f o n g A n i t a S i u , The E l e g a n t B r u s h , 1985, e n t r y 53, t e x t . The d i f f e r e n c e i s a l s o f o u n d i n t h e method i n w h i c h L i Shan s i g n s h i s w o r k s , " F u t a n g A o d a o r e n L i S h a n , " h i s p r o p e r name, on t h e bamboos, v e r s u s , " t h e p a i n t e r L i S h a n , " on t h e a l b u m s . 29. R e f e r e n c e t o t h i s p o r t i o n o f t h e i n s c r i p t i o n on t h e same image i s i n The E l e g a n t B r u s h , 1985, e n t r y 53, f o o t n o t e 4. 30. The t r a n s l a t i o n o f t h e i n s c r i p t i o n B r u s h , 1985, 167.  i s i n The  Elegant  31. A c c o r d i n g t o t h e w r i t e r s o f The E l e g a n t B r u s h c a t a l o g u e , 1985, i n w h i c h t h e image a p p e a r s , " B o y i and S u g i were b r o t h e r s who c r i t i c i z e d t h e m i l i t a r y a c t i o n o f Zhou Wenwang a g a i n s t t h e Shang D y n a s t y r i g h t a f t e r t h e d e a t h o f h i s f a t h e r , v i e w i n g i t as an a c t o f d i s l o y a l t y r e f l e c t i n g a l a c k of f i l i a l p i e t y . " 32. The E l e g a n t B r u s h , 1985, e n t r y 53, f o o t n o t e 5, r e f e r s t o Sima Q i a n , S h i j i : Q i s h i j i a ( E r s h i w u s h i e d i t i o n ) , c h . 3 2 . , p . l as t h e s o u r c e o f t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n . I n f o o t n o t e 4 t h e a u t h o r s e x p l a i n t h e o r i g i n o f t h e p h r a s e : "The p h r a s e ' w i t h o u t bamboo [ l i f e ] i s v u l g a r ' was w r o n g l y a t t r i b u t e d o t C o n f u c i u s , and a c t u a l l y i s by Su S h i . " 33. A p p e n d i x 3. Two o t h e r p a i n t i n g s w i t h s i m i l a r i n s c r i p t i o n s a r e r e c o r d e d i n Q u a n j i , 1985, Banqiaoj i ( C o l l e c t e d Works of B a n q i a o ) T i h u a ( I n s c r i p t i o n s ) s e c t i o n , 205. 34. A l l t h r e e v a r i a n t s c i t e d a r e f o u n d i n Q u a n l i , 1985, B a n q i a o j i ( C o l l e c t e d Works o f B a n q i a o ) T i h u a ( I n s c r i p t i o n s ) s e c t i o n , 205-6 ( A p p e n d i x 3 ) . 35. T h i s v a r i a n t i s f r o m a B e i j i n g X i d a n Wenwu S h a n g d i a n Cang p a i n t i n g o f i n k bamboo. 36. J o n a t h a n 1977, 91.  Spence's a r t i c l e  i n Food i n C h i n e s e  Culture,  CHAPTER 4 In Chapter paintings.  3, I c o n c e n t r a t e d  In t h i s chapter,  As i n d i c a t e d  m o s t l y upon L i Shan's  I will  b y h i s bamboo s h o o t  f o c u s upon Zheng X i e .  hanging  scroll,  was a more t r a d i t i o n a l l i t e r a t u s t h a n L i Shan. b a c k g r o u n d a s an o f f i c i a l reputation  to s o l i d i f y ,  Zheng X i e Zheng  Xie's  of renown a l l o w e d h i s s c h o l a r l y  and g r a n t e d  o p t i o n s n o t open t o L i S h a n .  him o p p o r t u n i t i e s  He d e s e r v e s  detailed  or.  study  because of t h i s . Zheng X i e had b o t h t h e o p p o r t u n i t y and r e a s o n a t h e o r e t i c a l framework f o r h i s p a i n t i n g  to create  w h i l e i n Yangzhou.  A t h e o r e t i c a l p o s i t i o n appears c l e a r l y i n a s e r i e s of recorded Xie  i n s c r i p t i o n s and t h e i r v a r i a n t s  went t o Y a n g z h o u , b e t w e e n t h e y e a r s  d a t e , t h e r e h a s b e e n no a n a l y s i s s p i t e of t h e i r temporal  written  after  1756 and 1 7 6 2 .  Zheng To  1  o f t h i s body o f t e x t s i n  and s p a c i a l s p e c i f i c i t y and common  focus. A study of these detail  the nature  texts  a l l o w s us t o u n d e r s t a n d  of the combination  s c h o l a r l y t r a d i t i o n s of p a i n t i n g a detailed  textual analysis.  the p r o p o s i t i o n his theory: traditions the  that  o f u n o r t h o d o x and  i n Chapter  3.  T h i s demands  The r e s u l t o f t h i s a n a l y s i s i s  Zheng X i e had t h r e e g o a l s  in writing  1. To c o m b i n e t h e s c h o l a r l y and u n o r t h o d o x of p a i n t i n g .  I n p a r t i c u l a r , Zheng X i e c o m b i n e d  ideas of the f i r s t scholar  Dynasty  in  painters  of t h e N o r t h e r n  (1127-1279) w i t h t h e t h e o r e t i c a l framework  Song  developed  by  the unorthodox p a i n t e r  Shitao  ( 1 6 4 1 - 1 7 1 1 ) , who had w o r k e d  i n Yangzhou i n t h e e a r l y e i g h t e e n t h t h i s t r a n s f o r m e d mode o f s c h o l a r himself  f r o m and c r i t i c i z e  this separation kinds: elite  century.  painting to separate  h i s contemporaries.  3. To u s e  f r o m t h e c r o w d t o l o c a t e new p a t r o n s o f two  e i t h e r t h o s e who, l i k e  the a r t i s t ,  s c h o l a r l y i d e n t i t y , who I w i l l  patrons,  2. To u s e  2  call  s o u g h t a more "refined"  o r t h o s e who had p r e v i o u s l y p a t r o n i z e d  T h u s , a s t u d y o f Zheng X i e ' s intellectual a social  goals  scholar  Shitao.  l e a d us f r o m t h e  c o n s t r u c t i o n of the t e x t t o h i s c o n s t r u c t i o n of  position.  These g o a l s  will  be i l l u s t r a t e d  as w e l l  t h r o u g h a v i s u a l a n a l y s i s o f a bamboo p a i n t i n g b e a r i n g of  Zheng X i e ' s  theoretical inscriptions.  Zheng X i e ' s  combination of the p a i n t i n g t h e o r i e s of the  N o r t h e r n Song l i t e r a t i Zheng X i e h i m s e l f .  and S h i t a o  i s n o t made e x p l i c i t b y  He r e f e r s t o s p e c i f i c N o r t h e r n  p a i n t e r s , and t h u s e s t a b l i s h e s a c o n n e c t i o n theory  o f p a i n t i n g and t h e i r s .  name S h i t a o  one  i n h i stexts.  Song  b e t w e e n h i s own  B u t , he d o e s n o t e x p l i c i t l y  Nonetheless, h i spainting  theory  i s a c o m b i n a t i o n of t h e two. The p u r p o s e o f t h e t h e o r i e s literati, pointed the  Shitao,  of the Northern  and Zheng X i e was t h e same.  Song  They a l l  o u t t h e c e n t r a l p r i n c i p l e of p a i n t i n g and d e s c r i b e d  a c t of p a i n t i n g .  For a l l three,  the c e n t r a l p r i n c i p l e  of p a i n t i n g was t h e dao o r " t h e w o r k i n g s o f n a t u r e . " N o r t h e r n Song p a i n t e r s and S h i t a o Zheng X i e c o n t i n u e d  shared t h i s  The  i d e a , and  i t . Where t h e N o r t h e r n Song  literati  and  Shitao differed  i s their  p a r t i c u l a r d e s c r i p t i o n s of the  act of p a i n t i n g . In t h e i r  painting theory,  the Northern  Song men  emphasize the p a i n t e r ; h i s developement of t h e a b i l i t y t o p a i n t a c c o r d i n g t o t h e dap_, and t h e e x p r e s s i o n in h i s painting.  S h i t a o e m p h a s i z e s t h e p a i n t i n g ; t h e way i n  w h i c h t h e dao i s m a n i f e s t e d the paper or s i l k . Northern  of h i s ideas  i n the very brushstrokes  In keeping  with their  upon  emphasis, the  Song men d e s c r i b e t h e a c t o f p a i n t i n g a s a s u d d e n  a p p l i c a t i o n of ink i n response t o t h e p a i n t e r ' s unpredictable  inspiration.  p a i n t i n g as a d i r e c t  link  Shitao d e s c r i b e s the a c t of between t h e u n i v e r s a l p r i n c i p l e of  t h e dao and t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f i n k . I n S h i t a o ' s d e s c r i p t i o n , p a i n t i n g i s not enacted painting  i s a constant  suddenly.  Instead,  movement f r o m t h e d a o , t o t h e  p a i n t e r ' s m i n d , t o t h e movement o f h i s w r i s t ,  to the  a p p l i c a t i o n of i n k , which are d e s c r i b e d w i t h equal The  Northern  matter,  Song men a l s o m e n t i o n p a r t i c u l a r  which symbolizes  the s c h o l a r ' s thought,  S h i t a o does n o t m e n t i o n s u b j e c t m a t t e r ,  emphasis.  subject i . e . bamboo.  but focusses  upon  brushstrokes. Zheng X i e c o m b i n e d t h e N o r t h e r n emphases i n h i s p a i n t i n g t h e o r y . p a i n t e r and t h e p a i n t i n g e q u a l l y . upon t h e p a i n t e r ' s c o n s t a n t  i s important,  I n i t , he e m p h a s i z e s t h e He d o e s s o b y f o c u s s i n g  i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h t h e dao  throughout a s e r i e s of stages painting  Song and S h i t a o i a n  i n the p a i n t i n g process.  as i n S h i t a o ' s t h e o r y , because o f  The  51  Zheng just  Xie's  d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f i n k , and n o t  the painter's  characterized alone,  inspiration.  as a sudden  but, rather,  inception  theory,  o f Zheng X i e ' s  scholarly subject  each  of the p a i n t i n g  constantly painting  with  t h e dao.  process  does not appear in and  which  painter  the connection  important,  The  designed  coming court  between  Shitao,  to elevate  aggrandize  the source  nor i n  Shitao's  emphasis  means t h a t  the painter's  It  of i n s p i r a t i o n  The e q u a l  framework  and Zheng X i e ,  on  both are  constant  the importance  r e s u l t from the were  of t h e mind  painters  of the  artisan.  This  the s u p e r i o r i t y of the scholar system t o the a r i s t o c r a t at  inherited his position. painting  of the  Song d y n a s t y ,  of the p r o f e s s i o n a l  to suggesting  theories  the theories  In the Northern  out of the examination who  interacts  own t h e o r y .  Song t h e o r y  factors which  the s k i l l  was t a n t a m o u n t  as t h e p a i n t e r  between t h e p a i n t i n g  contextual  over  Song  t h e bamboo, c h a n g e s a t  t o Zheng X i e ' s  i n this  to address.  struggled  as i n N o r t h e r n  t h e dao.  S o n g men,  particular  painter  with  from the  change throughout t h e  i s more d i r e c t .  differences  Northern  This  as t h e y m a n i f e s t  interaction  matter,  process,  i s unique  and p a i n t i n g  the painter  d e s c r i p t i o n o f how a  i n the Northern  the painting  movement  i s important,  particular stage  emphasizes  i s not  to the a p p l i c a t i o n of i n k , equally  The p a i n t e r  because  which  as a constant  of the idea  emphasized.  rush  The a c t o f p a i n t i n g  and p a i n t i n g s  3  Shitao  sought t o  f o r t h e sake  of h i s  professional himself  those  of h i s time,  and s t a t u s , ideals  The  and  agreement  Zheng X i e t h a t  the  painting  this  descriptions complex,  painting  to  and  paintings  which  elevate  literati  t o r e t a i n the past  i s evident  through  not prove  this  The d i f f e r e n c e s  literati  expressed  literati,  a cursory  point  Shitao,  principle  of  reading  three  a r e , however, s u b t l e  some d i s c u s s i o n .  t o 1756 e x e m p l i f i e s  One o f Z h e n g  h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of  A t t h e g u e s t h o u s e i n new c l e a r ( w e a t h e r ) , I r i s e i n t h e e a r l y m o r n i n g t o v i e w bamboo. Dew f l o a t s o n t h e l e a v e s , L i g h t on t h e b r a n c h t i p s . I n my m i n d I am e x h u b e r a n t . . . S u b s e q u e n t l y I have a p a i n t i n g i d e a . I n r e a l i t y , t h e b a m b o o i n my m i n d I s a l t o g e t h e r d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e b a m b o o w i t h i n my sight. T h u s I g r i n d i n k a n d u n f o l d some p a p e r move t h e brushAgain i t i s another s t y l e . I n r e a l i t y , t h e b a m b o o i n my h a n d I s n o t t h e b a m b o o i n my m i n d . Step by s t e p metamorphosis... No o n e c a n h a v e a n i n k l i n g . I t s d e s t i n y shows u n i n t e n t i o n a l l y , T h e r e i s n o o n e who k n o w s i t s how o r w h y . Alone paint the clouds! 5  inspiration  he f i n d s  from t h e scene with  theory  of p a i n t i n g  i n the natural bamboo.  world,  In describing  and  Xie's  process:  A k e y t o Zheng X i e ' s  of  i n t h e body of  between t h e  of the a c t of p a i n t i n g  dated  Song  t h e dao i s t h e u n d e r l y i n g  and r e q u i r e  inscriptions the  4  i n order  of the Northern  I will  chapter.  above t h e l i t e r a t i  and t o s e l l  method  texts.  however, sought  status.  and  their  Zheng X i e ,  and h i s p a i n t i n g s  paintings ideals  success.  i sthe  in particular the creative  process stages the  which within  specific  bamboo, and  ensues,  the painting subject matter  process.  interaction  of p a i n t i n g  i n nature  of applying i n k .  is,  i n fact,  manifests  meaning  h i s theory,  i n h i s mind, and i n t h e w i t h t h e dao  of the p a i n t i n g ,  Zheng X i e b o r r o w e d  Northern  S o n g men  combined  the Northern  inspiration  Shitao.  and S h i t a o i l l u s t r a t e Song  interest  and  and a c o n s t a n t  of Northern  b y Wen  Tong  elements Texts how  from  both  by t h e  Zheng X i e  i n bamboo a n d  with Shitao's idea of equal  of p a i n t i n g  example  passage  bamboos  his ability.  Song p a i n t e r s and from  An  stages  a r e c r e a t e d by t h e p a i n t e r ' s  Northern  process  of  and o f t h e p a i n t i n g ,  The p a i n t e r ' s i n t e r a c t i o n  the important  these  The d i f f e r e n t  w i t h t h e dao; i n nature,  act  description  Throughout  i s constantly transformed.  the stages  In  Zheng X i e g i v e s a f u l l  stages  movement  Song p a i n t i n g  theory  i n the  between  these.  i s provided  in a  (71019-1079):  I n t h e m o r n i n g t h e b a m b o o w e r e my f r i e n d s , i n t h e e v e n i n g , my c o m p a n i o n s ; I d r a n k a n d a t e a m o n g s t them and s t o p p e d and r e s t e d i n t h e i r shade. If one l o o k s a t t h e d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s o f bamboo, t h e r e a r e many..." (He d e s c r i b e s t h e m a n d c o n t i n u e s ) . . . " T h e s e a r e t h e ways i n w h i c h bamboo i s bamboo. A t f i r s t I l o o k e d and enjoyed i t , then I e n j o y e d i t a n d was n o t c o n s c i o u s o f d o i n g s o . S u d d e n l y f o r g e t t i n g t h e b r u s h i n my h a n d a n d t h e p a p e r i n f r o n t o f me, I r o s e u p i n s t a n t l y a n d made quantites. How i s t h e i m p e r s o n a l i t y o f t h e Creator any d i f f e r e n t than t h i s ? 6  As  i n Zheng X i e ' s  painter's natural  inspiration  form  inscription, i n nature  o f bamboo,  Wen  Tong e m p h a s i z e s t h e  and h i s f a m i l i a r i t y  or the s u b j e c t matter,  with the  which i s  54  selected  because of i t ss c h o l a r l y a s s o c i a t i o n s .  borrowed  these  However,  ideas. i n Zheng X i e ' s  upon c o n s t a n t  Zheng X i e  mental  text there  preparation  an  e m p h a s i s on t h e s c h o l a r ' s  in  Zheng X i e ' s  for inspiration,  thought  text a similar  i s n o t an e m p h a s i s  alone.  that i s ,  N o r d o we  p a s s a g e t o Wen  Tong's  description  of t h e a c t of p a i n t i n g as a sudden r u s h .  Zheng X i e ' s  text,  physical The  Wen  Tong does n o t m e n t i o n  equal  stages  Tong  emphasizes l e s s w e l l - d e f i n e d  less  Tong's tells  absent  important less  u s , we  Tong  the other  stages  initiates  notion  description. a s Wen  of i t . do  in  Xie's  Wen of  stage  handling  Tong's, which  which i s  I n Zheng X i e ' s  i s the  Zheng  It is  constant  i n Zheng  does not l i n k  text  bamboos,  description.  Xie's  of i n s p i r a t i o n  a c t of p a i n t i n g .  Neither  inspiration  of d i f f e r e n t  i n Zheng X i e ' s  Zheng X i e ' s  of  Tong  text,  of p a i n t i n g .  natural context  bamboos w h i c h  Wen  F r o m w h a t Wen Zheng X i e ' s  stages  of the p a i n t i n g process  the subsequent  Instead,  moments b e c a u s e o f  the generation  of changing  i n Zheng  of the process  characterize the nature  to the palpable  i s the f i r s t  jarring  text.  of n a t u r a l c r e a t i o n i t s e l f ) .  characteristic  with  than  between the v a r i o u s  inspiration  this  i n k , or  p h y s i c a l a c t o f p a i n t i n g seems t o  d o n o t k n o w , a s we  referring  suggestive  The  Tong's  i n t e n s i v e treatment  Z h e n g n o r Wen  which  f r o m Wen  unequally.  what o c c u r s  (save  grinding  of the p a i n t i n g process  are also  be  Unlike  preparation.  text  painting  find  up  i s not as  descriptively  Xie's  description handling because as  of the a c t of p a i n t i n g provides  of t h e e n t i r e a c t of p a i n t i n g . o f Zheng X i e ' s  i tmanifests  concern  a more  This  i s largely  f o r the process  t h e dao, and n o t j u s t  even  of p a i n t i n g  the ideas  of the  painter. The relative  framework to that  entire  process  within  this  o f Wen  Shitao,  Tong,  i n Zheng X i e ' s  i s h i s equal  of p a i n t i n g through  process,  Zheng X i e borrowed of  and emphasis  developed  features  just  before  attention to the  the d e s c r i p t i o n of  a n d t h e movement  these  theory,  through  these  stages.  from the p a i n t i n g Zheng X i e ' s  stages  treatise  lifetime:  P a i n t i n g i s t r a n s m i t t e d by ink, i n k i s t r a n s m i t t e d by t h e b r u s h , b r u s h i s t r a n s m i t t e d by t h e w r i s t , and t h e w r i s t i s t r a n s m i t t e d b y t h e m i n d , j u s t a s heaven c r e a t e s l i f e and e a r t h c o m p l e t e s i t . T h i s is creative intuition."^ The constant text  clear demarcation movement b e t w e e n  derives  description, eruption  gives  with  upon  we  Xie's  here  importance  The  As i n Zheng  upon a  Xie's  sudden  of t h e p a i n t e r ' s  of stages  around the  the d e s c r i p t i o n of the  t h e p a i n t i n g and n o t t h e p a i n t e r .  gives  i n the Northern combination  i n Zheng  t o the p h y s i c a l a c t of  the stage  of "the hand"  r e t a i n i n g as w e l l t h e importance  expressed  find  i n the course  o f i n k , and by b e g i n n i n g  process  and t h e emphasis  i n Shitao.  a concentration  Zheng X i e s i m i l a r l y while  passage  i s no e m p h a s i s  Shitao  through  application painting  there  them w h i c h  of p a i n t i n g a c t i v i t y  inspiration. painting  from t h i s  of stages  Song  text.  of the theories  importance  of the p a i n t e r  as  8  of the Northern  Song  56  and  Shitao  allowed  the  painter There  i s also This  most  of Zheng X i e ' s  description. each stage,  i s the constant the stages  seem  i t both  using  which  of the p a i n t i n g transformation  bamboo  this  i s the  less direct  Shitao  than  constantly  of  the r a p i d a c t i o n of a p p l y i n g  the verb  t h e movement f r o m  "transmit."  emphasizes  Wen  ink also  emphasizes  the directness  of the connection  of the  i s from  inspiration Northern A  different  Tong  between t h e mind  Song and one w r i t t e n by  Zheng X i e ' s  t h e more d i r e c t  constantly  connection  Shitao,  changing  between  and t h e a p p l i c a t i o n of i n k i n t h e t e x t s  Song and  of the  Shitao.  l e s s e r known l i t e r a t i  description  Wen  and t h e p a i n t i n g .  A t e x t of the Northern  bamboo  stage  Tong's d e s c r i p t i o n  the directness  how  acts  bamboos a t  emphasizes  illustrate  and  changing  between t h e p a i n t i n g and t h e dao, w h i l e  the painter  Song and  connection  of  feature  i n Shitao's  "different"  describes  stage  Shitao  stages  of the  d e s c r i p t i o n makes t h e movement  Zheng X i e d e s c r i b e s while  Xie's  change  determines  However,  to  directness.  emphasis to  Zheng X i e t o combine t h e N o r t h e r n  theories since  between stages  i n Zheng  The c h a n g i n g  a s c h o l a r l y symbol.  element  element  by t h e c o n s t a n t  matter.  allowed  Shitaoian as  element  as m a n i f e s t e d  bamboo s u b j e c t that  a unique  between and d u r i n g  process,  a balanced  and t h e p a i n t i n g .  description. occurs  Zheng X i e t o g i v e  named T o n g  of the p a i n t i n g process  Yu p r e s e n t s  which  a  illustrates  that  57  the  c h a n g e and  restricted  to  growth the  of  the  conception  of  the  bamboo  is  mind:  In g e n e r a l , the process of p a i n t i n g i s s u e s from a s e n s e o f l i f e ( s h e n g y i ) and comes t h r o u g h n a t u r a l n e s s ( z i r a n ) , and one has t o w a i t f o r t h e forms t o appear i n one's mind: i t is like the unfolding and blooming of leaves and flowers. O n l y a f t e r t h i s i s i t e x t e r n a l i z e d by m a k i n g use o f t h e hand and c o l o r s . 9  In  the  already is  i n h i s mind  simplified  emphasizes the  dao,  to  the  while  emphasis as  passage,  artist  onto  the  the  verb  seems s i m p l y  paper.  the  the  f u n c t i o n of mind  of  The  act  "externalize."  s i n g l e moment o f  upon t h e  i n a l l of  the  the  mental the  c o p y what  of  applying  is ink  text  preparation  or  having  d e s c r i p t i o n i s , thus,  painter  twelfth century  The  to  alone.  The  the  painting,  t e x t s here c i t e d ,  seems  to 10  be  dependent In  other  on  but  not  Zheng X i e ' s  than  that  of  demanded  d e s c r i p t i o n , the the  mind  brush) d i s a l l o w s focussing  the  mind. we  apply  description that  this  of  subsequent description  is  not  the  Xie's or  idea,  stages the  idea  of  of  only  the  upon the  the  extends  painting.  Hence,  changing  in  (his)  bamboos  stages  hand,  wrist,  i n Tong  would  into  i n Zheng  bamboo c o n s t a n t l y c h a n g e s .  bamboo  of  beyond  preparation,  bamboo i n  stage.  achievement  found  d e s c r i p t i o n , we  changing or  previous  importance  blossoming  Song d e s c r i p t i o n , "the  the  The  Zheng  blossoming  inception  Northern  to  the  this  ( f o r example  and  If  by  Yu's  have to  say  the the Xie's  Unlike  the  (Zheng X i e ' s )  mind." i n Zheng X i e ' s  of  description  are  hand  connected which  produces  compare with  through  idea  of the changing  Shitao's  there  i s a beginning  The e m p h a s i s ,  description,  of course,  each stage  of the painter's  Shitao's  i n k forms d i r e c t l y  would  In a sense,  This  moments  i s because  each  nature.  T h u s , we d o n o t l o o k  only  i t expresses  with the  which  the dao. importance  important  only  with  the dao.  the dao, while interaction  p a i n t i n g would with  t h e dao a c t i o n  t o t h e bamboo  how t h e p a i n t e d  I n Zheng  stage;  i n t h e mind,  with  only  fully  t h e dao i f one  i n the p a i n t i n g process  relative  stages  express  interaction  change a t and between  how  i s upon t h e end.  interaction  Zheng X i e ' s  a l l other  In  and an end, "heaven and  refer to the painter's  considered well.  bamboo.  i s t h e same a s t h e n e x t i n  expression  the painter's  or  we  Zheng X i e ' s  illustrate  but  b e c o m e s c l e a r when  stages  dao.  the  t h e dao  of t r a n s m i t t i n g between t h e  Zheng X i e ' s the  This  with  idea  earth."  its  t h e bamboos.  interaction  Shitao's  description,  Xie's  h i s constant  as  i s manifested  through  or the painted  relative  bamboo  to that i n  a t t h e p a i n t i n g and  consider  t h e dao, as i n Shitao's d e s c r i p t i o n ,  bamboo  together  i s one o f t h e d i f f e r e n t  manifest  the painter's  The c o n s t a n t l y c h a n g i n g of the painter i n t h e way t h e y  interact  interaction  bamboo t h u s  and t h e p a i n t i n g .  bamboos  unifies  Both are  or i l l u s t r a t e  the  dao. Zheng X i e e n c a p s u l a t e d and  Shitaoian  painting,  ideas,  h i s combination  h i s emphasis  and h i s unique  emphasis  on b o t h  of Northern  Song  t h e p a i n t e r and  u p o n t h e way t h e bamboo  changes often  throughout  the process  i n a phrase  to express h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p  which  he  t o N o r t h e r n Song  used painters  Wen Y u k e (Wen T o n g ) p a i n t s b a m b o o — In h i s m i n d he h a s a c o m p l e t e d bamboo. Zheng B a n q i a o p a i n t s bamboo-I n h i s m i n d he d o e s n o t h a v e a c o m p l e t e d bamboo. H a v i n g a c o m p l e t e d bamboo a n d n o t h a v i n g a c o m p l e t e d bamboo, Is i n r e a l i t y o n l y a s i n g l e p r i n c i p l e . 1 1  We  can p r o b a b l y guess  after  t h e above a n a l y s i s ,  1101)  makes t h e m e a n i n g  abundantly  a t t h e meaning but a passage  of t h i s  phrase,  b y Su S h i ( 1 0 3 7 -  of "having the completed  bamboo"  clear:  When b a m b o o f i r s t c o m e s i n t o b e i n g i t i s o n l y a n i n c h - l o n g s h o o t , b u t t h e j o i n t s and l e a v e s a r e a l l in i t . I t d e v e l o p s from c i c a d a c h r y s a l i s e s and s n a k e s c a l e s t o s w o r d s d r a w n o u t e i g h t y f e e t , when p a i n t e r s do i t j o i n t by j o i n t and add t o i t l e a f by l e a f , w i l l t h i s be bamboo? Thus, i n p a i n t i n g bamboo o n e m u s t f i r s t h a v e t h e p e r f e c t e d bamboo i n mind. When o n e t a k e s u p t h e b r u s h a n d gazes i n t e n t l y , one s e e s what one w a n t s t o p a i n t . Then one rises hurriedly and wields the brush to c a p t u r e what one s e e s . . "Having  the completed to paint  bamboo  i n one's mind"  the  ability  the  d a o a t t h e moment b e f o r e p a i n t i n g .  understanding "blossoming" painter itself end  formed  which  grown s t a t e .  can paint  Su S h i s t a t e s , i n one's  I t stands  f o r an  t o the idea of  the shoot Knowing  towards  i n t h e same manner i n w h i c h  Thus,  t h e dao o r h a v i n g  This understanding gives the  "forsight"  has o f i t s f u l l  with  i n nature, similar  i n t h e mind.  t h e same  completion  been  of growth  up, t h e p a i n t e r  grow.  i n accordance  indicates  mind."  o f t h e bamboo w h e r e he  the state bamboo's  of inevitably  " I f one h a s d a o , t h i n g s 1 3  will  have  Given its  link  Xie's  the  with  "not  meaning the  having  bamboo c h a n g e s process  painting  of  Zheng X i e ' s the  m e t h o d , and  the  upon the of  Wen  to  and  not  having  a  the  "having the  dao  i s the  the  time  goal  of  which  to  brings  painting  Shitao,  and  the  "having  dao  into  process.  depended  I mentioned. Northern the  is their  painting  particular functions  as  of  the  bamboo" both  4  on  painting,  Zheng X i e interest  the the  painting  Ming  focus  more  i n the  act  as  Yuan  the  interest  importance  of  in the  1 5  of  the  emphases upon  upon the  contextual  Huang T i n g j i a n  Song t h e o r y  completed  1  Bush sees  and  focus  the  p r i n c i p l e of  Ming dynasty t e x t s  literati,  of  bamboo"  "single p r i n c i p l e . "  s t y l e of  the  creation  completed  completed  what Susan  to  the  the  opposed  according  the  dao  as  The  how  the  painting,  i n the  indicates  Zheng  i n t e r a c t i o n with  It  dao  that  painting  painting.  history,  see  and  the  process  Y u a n and  Song  bamboo,"  of  of  art  can  description  Tong's  that  thus  i n the  we  bamboo"  act  interest  of  his  completed  alone).  "not  are  Northern  completed  the  their different descriptions  idea  Compared  blossoming,  painting  process,  indicate  of  constant  mind  spite  "having  throughout  the  in his  In  and  the  (i.e. his  throughout bamboo  idea  of  by  factors  illustrates  utilizing  bamboo w i t h i n  painting  one's  the  the  metaphor  mind":  The r e t i r e d scholar Dongpo played with Master B r u s h and M a s t e r P a p e r , m a k i n g a d r i e d o u t stump, an o l d t r e e , a c l u m p of d w a r f bamboo, and b i t s o f hills. The f o r c e of h i s b r u s h i s u n r e s t r a i n e d in l o n e l y s i t e s w i t h w i n d b l o w n m i s t . P e r h a p s what i s  of  easy f o r an e n l i g h t e n e d man and hard f o r an artisan i s like impressions made i n s e a l paste: frosty branches and windblown t r e e s had first formed i n h i s b r e a s t . 1 6  Shitao's were  outside  literati the  theory what  u n i v e r s a l dao. which  Zheng  Xie's  combination Northern  as  which  as t h e  s i g n i f i c a n c e of  This  them above p r o f e s s i o n a l  elevated  greater  and t h e N o r t h e r n  ideas.  Zheng  1 8  than  of the  Song  expressing  representation.  1 7  connection  l i t e r a t i and h i s  of transforming  Xie's  the earlier  some i n t e r e s t  the  use of t h e l a t e r  Northern  i n appealing  Song  theory  theory  to his later  context,  h i s models had done. Zheng  need and  hispaintings,  been d e f i n e d  seeming perception  t o update  indicates  time  o f them has t h e r e s u l t  Song  Shitao  that  had t h e g r e a t  h a d no c o n c e r n  between S h i t a o  of  had a t t h a t  tradition,  painting  emphasized  Xie's  to live place  Shitao's utilize  w r i t i n g s which  and w r i t e  supports idea  transform Northern  this  that  the ideas  view.  i n order  1 9  with  their  Zheng  particular  Xie also  to meaningfully  Thus,  2  ideas  i t seems t h a t  continued  one must  h i s goal  functional within his  time  l e a r n from and  or a r t of one's p r e d e c e s s o r s  them. " Song  i n accord  emphasize the i n d i v i d u a l ' s  w a s t o make  eighteenth-century  context. This Xie's to  leads  particular  separate Zheng  would  us t o t h e second  o b j e c t i v e behind  transformation  of t w e l f t h century  himself Xie's  in itself  from and c r i t i c i z e  his  other  ideas:  contemporaries.  f r e s h e x p o s i t i o n of Northern d i s t i n g u i s h him from  Zheng  Song  ideas  scholar-painters.  Scholars  o f Zheng X i e ' s  known a s x i e y i advertise be u s e d  (idea  inclinations.  utilized  t h e method  w r i t i n g / p a i n t i n g ) , which  the painter's  to entice  time  scholarly status.  or s a t i s f y  The x i e y i  patrons  mode  could  This  with  of  painting clearly  could  then  scholarly  of painting  had i t s r o o t s i n 21  the  Northern  basic of  Song  which  Zheng X i e t r a n s f o r m e d .  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of x i e y i  the painter,  that  ideas  h i s ideas  h i s rapid  were t h e sudden i n s p i r a t i o n  applicaation  were d i r e c t l y  expressed  o f i n k , and h i s c l a i m i n the painting.  Zheng X i e ' s  transformation  of the Northern  these  would  separate  ideas  mimics,  but would  Northern  Song  Evidence xieyi the  appears  that  Song s o u r c e o f  him from t h e crowd of  undermine t h e i r s i m p l i s t i c  a p p l i c a t i o n of  ideas. o f Zheng X i e ' s  displeasure  with  t h e use of  i n one o f h i s t h e o r e t i c a l i n s c r i p t i o n s .  inscription,  scholars  not only  The  Zheng X i e o p e n l y  f o r t h e i r misuse  h i s contemporaries'  criticizes  of the x i e y i inability  contemporary  mode, a n d s u g g e s t s  to paint  and t h e i r  misunderstanding  of the p r i n c i p l e s of scholar  disguised  this  within  spontaneous  In  painting  mode:  P e o p l e o f t o d a y p a i n t t h i c k b r a n c h e s and l a r g e leaves, T h e r e i s a l m o s t no p l a c e w h e r e t h e r e i s a b r e a k . Then t h e y add t o i t by a p p l y i n g colours. T h e r e f o r e , t h e snow a n d bamboo do n o t interpenetrate. T h i s r e s u l t s i n what p a i n t i n g method? It also lacks craftsmanship. If they are not w i l l i n g t o t r y hard, How c a n t h e y h o p e t o e x a u s t t h e m a r v e l s ! I f one a s k s them t h e r e a s o n f o r t h i s , They s a y : "My k i n d ( o f p a i n t e r ) d o e s x i e y i .  were  We d o n o t w i s h t o b e r e s t r i c t e d i n t h i s . " They do n o t know t h e s e two words ( x i e and y i ) , And t h i s c a u s e s t h e m t o e r r i n s o many t h i n g s . They d e c e i v e o t h e r people and h i d e t h e t r u t h from themselves. M o r e o v e r , t h e y do n o t seek t o p r o g r e s s . . . Because o f t h i s a l l o f them a r e s i c k . One m u s t n e c e s s a r l y r e a c h a l e v e l o f s k i l l a n d a f t e r w a r d s one w i l l be a b l e t o w r i t e i d e a s . One c a n n o t b e u n s k i l l e d a n d s u b s e q u e n t l y b e a b l e to  write  ideas.  Zheng X i e i m p l i e s was  the reason  skill  within  individual this  t h a t t h e s p o n t a n e i t y o f t h e method  f o r i t s common a b u s e .  goes u n n o t i c e d  disguised  2  by t h e audience,  the spontaneous  expression.  yield  paper  without  I t i s the lack  actually  process  of painting,  principle explicit  resulting  which  description  manifests  of the Northern  criticizes dao  spontaneous  throughout  the process  process  behind  literati.  painting  i s an of scholar  features of  process.  the painting  Song  practice  upon t h e i n o l v e m e n t  t h e g r e a t e r meaning  of the  u p o n t h e same  literati,  i n the particular  of the painting  image.  and undermine t h e  was b a s e d  Song  i t  surface of the  H i s new d e s c r i p t i o n  he s t a t e d  i s manifest  t h e dao throughout  that  criticize  challenge t o the contemporary This  of  i n an e x p r e s s i v e  of x i e y i .  Zheng X i e ' s emphasis in  of understanding  as t h a t of t h e Northern  painting. his  practice  i t i s  of q u a l i f i c a t i o n of  ink paintings covering the entire  Zheng X i e does n o t j u s t contemporary  because  mode a n d t h e p r e t e n s e o f  mode a n d t h e p a i n t e r ' s l a c k  which  The p a i n t e r ' s l a c k o f  of the painter  persistently  h i s own p a i n t i n g a n d I t implicitly  which  of painting  does n o t express t h e and i n t h e f i n a l  64  painted  form.  The Xie's  g e n e r a l emphasis  description  alone.  upon t h e a c t o f p a i n t i n g  downplays  the importance  of the  A c c o r d i n g t o Zheng X i e , t h e o v e r - e m p h a s i s  painter's  i d e a s was  application  painter upon t h e  t h e meaning and q u a l i t y  of the  of i n k .  Perhaps criticism  debasing  i n Zheng  related  t o Zheng X i e ' s c r i t i c i s m  i s Shitao's  of h i s contemporaries:  A l t h o u g h men s e i z e t h e m e t h o d s o f f o r m e r a n d l a t e r heaven, s t i l l they f a i l t o grasp the r e a l meaning of method. T h e r e f o r e , even though t h e r e i s m e t h o d , men c a n n o t be f r e e f r o m i t ; t o t h e c o n t r a r y , method o b s t r u c t s t h e m . 2 3  Both general  Zheng X i e and S h i t a o a t t e m p t e d  f a i l i n g of the m a j o r i t y of the a r t i s t s  by  illustrating their  In  their  painters  view,  this  themselves,  them t o n o t seek  criticisms  lack  lack  of t h e i r  instance, painting  a lack  of past  of understanding deceived  and e i t h e r  contemporaries t o methods  of concern  Zheng  i s that  were  caused  Shitao c r i t i c i z e d  w h i l e Zheng X i e  f o r method.  In  instructional  guides  another  these  painters  criticized  so d i f f e r e n t l y ,  draw t h e i r  painting  whom S h i t a o a n d  and  approaches?  from  use of  to p a i n t i n g .  w i t h h i s c r i t i c i s m of over-adherence  Who  the  Xie's  Shitao c r i t i c i z e d h i s contemporaries' manuals,  time  methods.  o b s t r u c t e d them or  between S h i t a o and  a t h o u g h t l e s s adherence criticized  of understanding  of t h e i r  to progress.  The d i f f e r e n c e  agrees  to illustrate a  2 4  t o methods. Zheng X i e  what s o u r c e  d i d they  This  65  Fan  Yunlin, a friend  indicates  the existence  o f Dong Q i c h a n g ' s  i n the s i x t e e n t h century  types  o f p a i n t e r s whom S h i t a o  These  painters, according  ink  painting, xieyi,  fang..  Both types  literati  developed were,  had  and  Zheng  to Fan,  or r e l i e d  Xie  either  abused  d e c l i n e d by Fan's  a school  more d e b a s e d  i n opposition to these, and  comercial  forms  school,  Dong  2  5  models,  dynasty,  time.  two  spontaneous  t o o h e a v i l y upon  of the Ming  of the  criticized.  w e r e d e s c e n d a n t s o f t h e Wu  painting tradition  apparently  (1555-1636),  the  which  Qichang  w h a t he  agreed  of the e a r l i e r  Wu  school. By form, been two of  Shitao's  had  types  of and  satisfying literati Wu  according In  literati fang,  criticize  They  situation,  and  continued  altered  and  had  style.  The  the debased  outside  modes  of the  class for  were t h e d e s c e n d a n t s of t h e sold their  court,  works  debased  i n marketplaces  Yunlin.  operating  positioning  imperial court  of the merchant  whose members had  this  painters  demand  i n an  tradition,  painters practicing  must have  the great  t o Fan  literati  as t h e o f f i c i a l  painting.  school  Dong Q i c h a n g ' s s c h o o l ,  become t h e d o m i n a n t  instituted  xieyi  time,  there  outside  w e r e new  the court.  purification  the p r a c t i t i o n e r s  challenges New  were needed  for  methods  t o compete  of the debased  modes o f  of  self-  with  and  literati  painting. Shitao towards  and  painters  Zheng  Xie's  f r o m one  criticisms  of these  two  were d i r e c t e d distinct  traditions,  who  e i t h e r abused  painting At  the  use  of  same t i m e of  at  has  with  t o do  at  synthetic  Li  own  one  of  these  their  the  individual  own  the  greater  skill  Shitao's  hypothetical  attempt  as  of  place  to  him,  of  of  championed  style.  the  literati  to  other  or  as  the  2  of  at  to  selective  the  and  creation  It is likely  6  of that  p a i n t i n g , which  court.  This  sought  act  of  a response  artist  style,  h o w e v e r , as  ignores  the  to  reintroduce  i s of  to  outside  but  yet  the that  comments h a v e t o do  operational  2 7  his  rudimentaries  painting with  a  painters  painting.  himself,  he  necessary  his  Zheng X i e ,  the  tradition,  both,  establish his  5.  of  e s t a b l i s h a mode o f  strands  directing  backgrounds.  unskilled,  Shitao's  significance,  the  his contemporaries  dao  criticized  a m o n g s t many l i t e r a t i  meaning  the  not  i n d i s c u s s i o n on  painter  particular of  or  the  for their  importantly,  a painter  criticism to  he  i n Chapter  and  technique. to  most  I t i s phrased  according  painting  use  painting according  mere s k i l l s  criticism  kind.  that  of  the  discuss  were, a c c o r d i n g  and  intended  takes  who  reason  was  trained literati  method  the  mode, L i S h a n  The  "school,"  above  also  I will  another  and  criticized  p o s i t i o n s and  and,  have mastered  realignment  less  xieyi  groups,  same t i m e  emulation  individuality  which  emulation  Zheng X i e  a debased  Shan's c r i t i c i s m  would  that  S h a n made h i s c r i t i c i s m  manuals,  his  fang,  p a i n t i n g manuals.  criticism  Li  or  manuals.  practitioners the  xieyi  its of  distinct  grand of  with  his  own  the from  various skilled  67  professional  painting.  Zheng X i e ' s  method  of  traditions  purified  emphasized  individuality,  cling  to  the  Qichang's combined  with  out  the  the  of  greater  the  impurity  outside  the  general  and  prevalent  Firstly, patrons  by  Secondly,  he  of  the  I groups of  of  could  Dong  of  way  was  painting.  recalling  in a  the  that  pointed  may  during  groups  of  literati of  the  painting time.  more r e f i n e d of  scholar  those  who  2  8  This  second  m e r c h a n t s who the  scholar painting.  previously  most of  his  group,  remained  continual rise  In  patrons  h a v e b e e n a t t r a c t e d by  style.  likely  of  also  locate patrons.  debased  standard  who and  to  attract  and  class,  act  activities  Shitao,  tradition  by  l o c a t e two  favour  of  outside  the  whose members a s p i r e d  to  status.  would of  to  the  were  upon  not  individuality  the  his theory:  sponsorship  ideas  did  his contemporaries  win  merchant  scholarly  of  a t t i t u d e s and  patrons,  of  tradition  could  scholar  broader  of  Zheng X i e  based  who  still  contemporaries.  attempted  Shitao's  Shitao's  court,  literati  Zheng X i e  a l l artists  Zheng X i e ' s  e s t a b l i s h i n g a new  patronized use  his  goal  he  the  at  literati  particular,  did  debased  painting.  meaning  criticism  a third  of  the  his purification  of  Zheng X i e ' s suggests  as  However,  empowered  originators  method  main t r a d i t i o n  school.  Zheng X i e  the  opposing  like  patrons  a painting with  to  suggest  Zheng X i e ' s  i n a m o r e t a n g i b l e way. one  of  Zheng X i e ' s  search  for  A visual  theoretical  these analysis  68  inscriptions attractive previous I  will  to  both  patrons  will  illustrate  more r e f i n e d  (Figure  quote  why  the  entire  memory o f  present  the  image w i t h a l l of important  would  scholar patrons  the  inscription  our  been  painting  be  and  Shitao's  12).  refresh  hyave  the  contents  to the  the  of  here  the  i n order  theory,  and  i n f o r m a t i o n which  to to  would  viewer:  O n e - h a l f g r e e n m o u n t a i n o n e - h a l f bamboo, One-half green shade one-half jade. P l e a s e s i r when y o u awake f r o m d e e p s l e e p , F a c e t h i s and t r e a t i t as i f amongst c l i f f s gorges.  and  I receive elder brother's corrections. B a n q i a o t h e D a o i s t Zheng X i e . In t h e ren-wu y e a r of t h e r e i g n of t h e Q i a n l o n g emperor ( 1 7 6 2 ) , i n t h e f i f t h month o f summer i n t h e a f t e r n o o n I w r o t e t h i s . Wen Y u k e (Wen T o n g ) p a i n t s b a m b o o - I n h i s m i n d he h a s a c o m p l e t e d bamboo. Zheng B a n q i a o p a i n t s b a m b o o — I n h i s m i n d he d o e s n o t h a v e a c o m p l e t e d bamboo. Y u k e ' s h a v i n g a c o m p l e t e d a bamboo I s w h a t i s c a l l e d " o n e - t h o u s a n d mu o f t h e w e i r i v e r i n one's mind." Banqiao's not having the completed (bamboo) Is l i k e a t h u n d e r c l a p . . . G r a s s and t r e e s r a g i n g grow. T h e r e i s no o n e who k n o w s i t s how a n d why. I t i s p r o b a b l y t h e f l u x of t h e dao T h a t i t s way i s l i k e t h i s . Yuke's h a v i n g , And B a n q i a o ' s n o t h a v i n g . . . Is one, i s two. T h o s e who u n d e r s t a n d w i l l k n o w i t . Xie again records. Receives elder brother's corrections. B a n q i a o Daoren Zheng X i e . 2 9  The Shitao. which,  style We  like  of  should  Zheng X i e ' s p a i n t i n g see  the  style  as  Zheng X i e ' s t h e o r e t i c a l  the  i s indebted visual  to  framework  framework, depends  upon  Shitao.  Previous  recognized theory,  tells  literati Xie's  this  patrons  connection  and h i s development  innovator,  of scholar  and  within  elite  and  these  idea  Thus  this  patrons  Song  Zheng a s an  shared  with  He  visually  making  t h e image  something  new a n d  patrons.  by t h e Northern  Song  literati,  t h e dao i s t h e u n d e r l y i n g emphasized  t h e dao t h r o u g h o u t  interaction  Song  to Shitao.  ideas  thus  seeking  Zheng X i e , moreover,  interaction  or  are evident  of Northern  Song  of Shitao,  previous  Zheng X i e i s t h a t  painting.  Shitao  indebted  same N o r t h e r n  to literati  and S h i t a o ' s The  Thus,  painting, his identity  framework  the painting style  attractive  to Northern  ideas.  a new v e r s i o n  i n the theoretical expresses  have  simultaneously.  Zheng X i e e x p r e s s e s  also  of t h e i r  would  The i n s c r i p t i o n ,  connection  and h i s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h  immediately  and o t h e r s ,  immediately.  us o f Zheng X i e ' s  continuation  ideas  of Shitao,  should  principle  of  the painter's  the painting  be e v i d e n t  Shitao,  process.  i n the painting  itself. The  painter's  interaction  first  i n the handling  young  bamboo a n d f u l l g r o w n  for  Zheng  painting  X i e there process.  participating  of subject  T h e same  as  marks  We  idea  that  of the brush  should  remember  that  bamboo d u r i n g t h e  the painter  visual  of ink which  expressed  the presence of  any completed  i n t h e dao i s g i v e n  of i n k . Patches  t h e dao i s  matter,  bamboo.  i s never  handling vivid  with  form  i s always  through the  r e s t upon t h e paper  are juxtaposed  with  70  representational  stalks  o f bamboo.  visual  form  arises  out of the earth represented  of  to the idea that  This  the i n k which  according dao.  Zheng X i e c l e a r l y  inscribed  the "refined"  ideas  as guided  matter  changing  by t h e i n the  form. of the painting  literati Song  impulse  gives  and out  manifests the ideas expressed  aspects  of Northern  i n the painting  manouevres, c o n s t a n t l y  next  theory i n visual  These v i s u a l to  the represented subject  the painter  to the painter's  juxtaposition  p a t r o n , who  literati  would  appeal  could witness  brought  to l i f e ,  both  original  and t o  Shitao's  p a t r o n s , who w o u l d  r e c o g n i z e t h e use of S h i t a o ' s  painting  i d e a s and t h e k i n d  of fresh  ideas  which As  he h i m s e l f w o u l d  so o f t e n  visual,  which  produced  happens  survive  have  in history,  by t h o s e  (Perhaps  they  Chinese  examples  scholar  sources  are s t i l l  stand  paintings  paintings which  not very  i n terms  "hacks."  may  than  provide  he  some  accessible.  of the time  that  next  of evenly handled  t o Zheng X i e , w h i c h  t o most  "hack"  Zheng X i e ' s p a i n t i n g s  innovation i n painting  Contemporary p a i n t i n g s  of  i n western  of greater q u a l i t y  i n the future  we c a n s u p p o s e  out f o r t h e i r  according  victorious.  whom Z h e n g X i e c o n s i d e r e d t o b e  produced  Nonetheless,  of note  or  t o us a r e t h o s e  h i s contemporaries  renown, and t h e r e a r e few p a i n t i n g s  did?)  the records, written  or a r e most a v a i l a b l e  over  of h i s  commended.  by t h e e c o n o m i c a l l y and p o l i t i c a l l y  Zheng X i e d i d t r i u m p h  sources  application  and  would  idea.  and jumbled  completely covered  bamboo,  the entire  71  paper  without  seem f l a t ,  automatic,  Other Xie. in  skillful  Northern  These  integration and  Song  illustrate  of t h e most  important  which  Zheng  tradition  Xie continued  interconnectedness  o f p o e t r y and  painting the  were  Song  ability  i n both  arts  arising  Su Che,  of the Northern  painting. ^ 3  Song  Song t o  and t h e  1  calligraphy  and  because of the use of  and because of t h e  from had  Song.  theory are the  connected  to create both,  Zheng  of h i s i n t e r e s t  and p a i n t i n g  literati,  intrinsically  same b r u s h  would  to  of the Northern  i n h i s own  of c a l l i g r a p h y  the Northern  important  ideas of the Northern  interconnectedness  For  also  perhaps the primacy  painting  forms,  impotent. i d e a s were  the scholarly  Two  of painted  literatus'  h i s p o s s e s s i o n of the dao. said:  I f o n e ' s h e a r t i s i n harmony w i t h d a o , one c a n k n o w how t o d o i t . T h e r e i s s u r e l y o n e p r i n c i p l e i n l i t e r a t u r e , c a l l i g r a p h y , and p a i n t i n g . 1  This painting painted  i d e a had been e x p r e s s e d the c a l l i g r a p h y  of  of the a r t i s t  painting Zheng  Song or  may  T h i s was  due  and  attention  less  and t h e a p p l i c a t i o n Xie's painting  i d e a i n a way  we  remained v i s u a l l y  subject matter.  importance  that  separate  manifests than  assume e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y , s c h o l a r  and  h i s own  idea of constant  Xie's painting,  from  paid  to the act  the  Song.  Northern  any p r e v i o u s , painting.  of S h i t a o ' s i d e a s and  This style,  i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h the dao.  the calligraphy  the  to the greater  i s much c l e a r e r  because of h i s a p p l i c a t i o n  but i n  of i n k i n the Northern  visually  was  Zheng  in writing,  and p a i n t i n g  are  In  72  thoroughly suggests the  that  painter  phrase the  integrated  This  visual  are directly linked  interacts.  which  visual  both  visually.  ^  Shitao  t o t h e dao w i t h  summarized  p a r a l l e l s Su Che's s t a t e m e n t ,  implications  integration  of the Northern  this  idea  but which  Song  which in a treats  idea:  Oneness o f b r u s h s t r o k e s i s t h e p r e r e q u i s i t e and f o u n d a t i o n f o r c a l l i g r a p h y and p a i n t i n g . C a l l i g r a p h y and p a i n t i n g a r e t h e s u b t l e m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of oneness of brush s t r o k e s which has b e e n a c q u i r e d . T h o s e who k n o w t h e s u b t l e manifestations, but forget the o r i g i n of the fundamental p r i n c i p l e of oneness of brush strokes, a r e l i k e c h i l d r e n who f o r g e t t h e i r a n c e s t o r s . . . a n c i e n t and modern works o f c a l l i g r a p h y and p a i n t i n g o r i g i n a t e d from heaven and w e r e c o m p l e t e d b y m a n . 3 3  This of  Zheng X i e ' s  directly those so and,  idea  i s expressed other  connects  theoretical  the visual  of'bamboo, and thus  doing,  s t i l l  both  painting  inscriptions.  i n some  Zheng X i e  q u a l i t i e s of c a l l i g r a p h y  to the principles  Zheng X i e i l l u s t r a t e s  thus,  more d y n a m i c a l l y  of nature.  the connection  and c a l l i g r a p h y  to In  of i n k forms  t o the dao:  If c a l l i g r a p h y i s p r o f u s e and t h i n , Bamboo m o r e s o w i l l be p r o f u s e a n d t h i n . If c a l l i g r a p h y i s dense and s p a r s e , Bamboo m o r e s o w i l l be d e n s e a n d s p a r s e . This painting I present with respect to... master Youbei. Youbei i s good a t p a i n t i n g , b u t does n o t p a i n t . However, he u s e s p a i n t i n g ' s connection To p e n e t r a t e i n t o c a l l i g r a p h y . Xie moreover uses c a l l i g r a p h y ' s connection To p e n e t r a t e i n t o painting. 3 4  The  integration  expressed scholar  i n Zheng X i e ' s  patrons.  Zheng X i e ,  of painting  since  This  and c a l l i g r a p h y  painting  integration  the text,  that  would  as  be a t t r a c t i v e t o  i s doubly  important to  i s , the theory,  more  directly  qualifies  presented  as p a r t  our reading  o f t h e i m a g e when  of the painted  subject  matter  i t  is  and  brushwork. The greater of  i n t e r c o n n e c t i o n between p o e t r y importance  to the Northern  c a l l i g r a p h y and p a i n t i n g .  their  paintings  expressive  as being  Song  literati  For i t enabled  unconcerned  with  of the painter's thought.  traditionally  a n d p a i n t i n g was o f  and  i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to painting could  the  status  of painting.  Thus,  that  them t o q u a l i f y  external  Poetry  an a r t o f s c h o l a r l y s t a t u s  than  forms and  was  like calligraphy,  similarly  buttress  Su S h i s a i d :  Yuke's l i t e r a r y work i s t h e l e a s t o f h i s a c c o m p l i s h m e n t , and h i s p o e t r y , t h e minor p a r t o f his writing. What i s n o t u s e d up i n p o e t r y o v e r f l o w s t o become c a l l i g r a p h y and i s t r a n s f o r m e d t o become p a i n t i n g , b o t h a r e what i s l e f t o v e r f r o m p o e t r y . T h o s e who a p p r e c i a t e h i s p o e t r y a n d l i t e r a r y work a r e i n c r e a s i n g l y f e w . As f o r t h o s e who l o v e h i s a c c o m p l i s h m e n t a s t h e y l o v e h i s painting--alas! 3 5  The passage the  heirarchy which  growing  of the scholar's  places  painting last  importance  i s clear  among t h e m ,  of p a i n t i n g which  inclusion.  Su S h i ' s  theoretical  inscriptions  the  arts  i n this  i n s p i t e of  warranted i t s  c o m m e n t r e l a t e s t o some o f Z h e n g which  imply  p a i n t i n g was s o m e w h a t b e l o w t h a t  that of  Xie's  the importance of  poetry:  Wen Y u k e ' s (Wen T o n g ' s ) i n k b a m b o o p o e m s a y s : "I p l a n t o p l a y with a s e c t i o n of E x i t h i n s i l k , S w e e p i n g w i t h t h e b r u s h o b t a i n 10,000 c h i o f l o n g c h i l l y branches." M e i D a o r e n (Wu Z h e n ) s a i d : " I a l s o have a p a v i l i o n d e e p i n t h e bamboo, A l s o l o n g t o r e t u r n t o t h e sounds o f autumn." Both poetry ideas are extremely pure, Not o n l y u s e p a i n t i n g t o p a s s i t o n .  74 Not o n l y u s e p a i n t i n g t o p a s s i t on But t h e p a i n t i n g a l l t h e more p a s s e s i t on. X i e b o t h c a n n o t do p o e t r y , And c a n n o t p a i n t , But a l s o s t r i v e s t o i n s c r i b e a few w o r d s . . . The w o r d s a r e e x h a u s t e d t h e i d e a i s p o o r , I have shamed p r e v i o u s sages. 3 6  The of  idea  poetry  that  suggests  painting.  Zheng  words and  idea  frequency  of t h i s  other  p a i n t i n g a l l t h e more p a s s e s that  poetry  Xie felt  that  would  that  s t i l l i t was  upset  particular  previous  may  utilization  of the p o e t r y / p a i n t i n g  importance  o f p a i n t i n g a s an a r t on  the context  his  status  the  scholar  painting  lifestyle  in this  and  scholarly lifestyle  scholarly pursuit  commercial  activity.  scholarly develop this  This  background, which  a coherent  statements  also  which He  were  the  as a  a part  as  to  of  include  a  successful  i n keeping  with h i s  gave him t h e o p p o r t u n i t y  Northern  t o h i s own  Xie's  wished  Song  Zheng ideas,  t h e o r e t i c a l framework of S h i t a o ,  relevant  to the  X i e wanted t o r e t a i n  theoretical position.  p o s i t i o n by d e v e l o p i n g  contemporary  was  of h i s  to restrict  not only  but also  goal  over  i t s own.  he s o u g h t .  meaningful  idea  The  relative  heirarchy  the ideas  which  sages.  i n d i c a t e Zheng  o f Yangzhou, Zheng  as a s c h o l a r  precedence  t h e weakness  inscription  theoretical inscriptions  In  takes  on t h e  situation.  X i e formed using  into  the  to  75  1.  See A p p e n d i x  6.  2. I t w a s a s l a t e a s 1 7 1 0 t h a t S h i t a o ' s l a t e s t t e x t t h e H u a p u was p r i n t e d ( E a r l e J e r o m e C o l e m a n , Philosophy of P a i n t i n g by S h i h - t ' a o . 1978, I n t r o d u c t i o n , 28-29). 3.  James C a h i l l ,  Three  Alternative  Histories.  4. I n f o r m a t i o n o n t h e common u s e o f t h e d a o a s t h e p r i n c i p l e of p a i n t i n g method i s p l e n t i f u l . F o r t h e N o r t h e r n Song p a i n t e r s and S h i t a o s e e Susan Bush, The C h i n e s e L i t e r a t i on P a i n t i n g , 1971 and E a r l e Jerome Coleman, Philosophy of P a i n t i n g by S h i h - t ' a o , 1978, r e s p e c t i v e l y . F o r Zheng X i e , t h e r e i s t h e i n s c r i p t i o n by Zheng X i e c i t e d below. The n o t i o n of metamorphosis i s d i r e c t l y connected t o the dao, which i s t h e f o r c e behind a l l t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s and changes i n t h e u n i v e r s e . More t e l l i n g i s t h e u n p r e d i c t a b i l i t y o f t h e impulses or changes which i s emphasized i n t h r e e of t h e l i n e s . This quality i s d i s t i n c t l y c o n n e c t e d t o t h e i m p e r s o n a l i t y o f t h e d a o . The p a i n t e r taps into t h i s u n p r e d i c t a b l e force which enables him to p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e p r i m a r y a c t of c r e a t i o n suggested by the p h r a s e , " p a i n t t h e c l o u d s . " In another i n s c r i p t i o n , the i m p e r s o n a l i t y o f t h e dao i s suggested through phrases such as, " h a v i n g d e l i g h t beyond method i s t h e d e c r e e o f Heaven" ( A p p e n d i x 6, n u m b e r 1 ) . 5.  Appendix  6, n u m b e r l a .  6. S u s a n B u s h , T h e C h i n e s e L i t e r a t i o n P a i n t i n g , 1 9 7 1 , 3 8 39. The p a r e n t h e t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n i s Susan B u s h ' s . Bush's t r a n s l a t i o n o f t i a n z a o a s " t h e C r e a t o r " i s p r o b l e m a t i c . The l i t e r a l t r a n s l a t i o n i s "heaven-made," and p r o b a b l y r e f e r s t o t h a t which i s generated by t h e dao. 7. E a r l e J e r o m e C o l e m a n , Philosophy of Painting t'ao. 1 9 7 8 , "The V a l u e o f I n b o r n N a t u r e , " 5 3 .  by S h i h -  8. I n Z h e n g X i e ' s i n t e r e s t i n e l a b o r a t i n g t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e s t a g e o f a p p l y i n g i n k , h e b o r r o w e d some p h r a s e s f r o m Shitao. Zheng X i e d e s c r i b e d t h e movement o f t h e b r u s h a s " s e p a r a t i n g o r c o m b i n i n g " ( A p p e n d i x 6, n u m b e r 3 ) . T h i s a c t i o n was meant t o p r o d u c e f o r m s a s n a t u r e p r o d u c e s life. T h i s i s s i m i l a r t o S h i t a o ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e movement o f t h e b r u s h , w i t h i t s D a o i s t p r o c r e a t i v e c o n n o t a t i o n s : "When t h e b r u s h m o v e s o u t w a r d i t i s l i k e c u t t i n g s o m e t h i n g ; when the b r u s h moves i n w a r d i t i s l i k e l i f t i n g s o m e t h i n g " (Earle Jerome Coleman, P h i l o s o p h y of P a i n t i n g by S h i h - t ' a o , 1978, "Oneness o f Brush S t r o k e s , " 1 1 5 ) . 9. S u s a n B u s h , 10.  Susan Bush,  The C h i n e s e The C h i n e s e  Literati Literati  on P a i n t i n g , on P a i n t i n g ,  1 9 7 1 , 56. 1971, 37.  76  11.  Appendix  6,  number  2.  1 2 . Su S h i , " R e c o r d o f Wen Y u k e ' s P a i n t i n g t h e B e n t B a m b o o s o f Y u n d a n g V a l l e y " ( S u s a n B u s h , The C h i n e s e L i t e r a t i on P a i n t i n g , 1971, 37). 1 3 . S u s a n B u s h , The C h i n e s e L i t e r a t i on P a i n t i n g , 1 9 7 1 , 37. The t e x t i s r e a l l y a b o u t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n d a o and s k i l l , o r y_i_. H o w e v e r , t h e p a s s a g e m a k e s i t c l e a r t h a t d a o i s e q u i v a l e n t to the f o r m a t i o n of t h i n g s w i t h i n the mind. Zheng X i e does not f o c u s upon t h e i s s u e of t e c h n i c a l s k i l l v e r s u s dao i n h i s t e x t s . B u t he d o e s s t a t e t h a t s k i l l i s r e q u i r e d i n o r d e r t o p a i n t a c c o r d i n g t o t h e dao. and so a g r e e s w i t h Su S h i . 1 4 . The e q u a l i t y o f " h a v i n g " a n d " n o t h a v i n g t h e c o m p l e t e d b a m b o o " i s c o n s p i c u o u s i n t h e way i n w h i c h t h e m e t a p h o r s t r a n s c e n d t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r o f bamboo. The m e t a p h o r "not h a v i n g " i l l u s t r a t e s f o c u s s i n g on e v e r y a s p e c t o f t h e b a m b o o i n a p r o c e s s of c r e a t i o n . This process transcends the bamboo s i n c e t h e p r o c e s s i s t h e f o c u s , t h e o n l y c o m p l e t e e l e m e n t , b u t i t assumes t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h e bamboo, w h i c h is something to create. Conversely, the Northern Song t r a n s c e n d e n c e h a s t o do w i t h e x c e e d i n g t h e c o m p l e t e bamboo in order to put i n t o c r e a t i v e a c t i o n the p o t e n t i a l growth, d a o o r s e r i e s o f s t a g e s i n h e r e n t i n i t . Wen T o n g expresses t h i s i d e a c l e a r l y a s r e c o r d e d i n Su C h e ' s " I n k B a m b o o F u " f r o m w h i c h I h a v e a l r e a d y q u o t e d : "Why, what I l o v e i s dao: I h a v e gone b e y o n d bamboo." Su S h i a g r e e s w i t h Wen Tong's r e c o r d e d s e l f - a p p r a i s a l w h e n he c o m m e n t s u p o n Wen's m a s t e r y o f t h e d a o b y s a y i n g , "Now, w h e n y o u make u s e o f these b a m b o o s a n d I t a k e y o u t o be aman o f d a o , i s t h i s w r o n g ? " ( S u s a n B u s h , The C h i n e s e L i t e r a t i on P a i n t i n g , 1 9 7 1 , 37, a g a i n f r o m S u S h i ' s " R e c o r d o f Wen Yuke's P a i n t i n g the Bent Bammboos o f Y u n d a n g V a l l e y " ) . 15.  S u s a n B u s h , The  Chinese  Literati  on  P a i n t i n g , 1971,  184.  16. H u a n g T i n g j i a n ' s p o e m "A Fu. on t h e R e t i r e d S c h o l a r D o n g p o ' s M o x i ( I n k p l a y ) " ( S u s a n B u s h , The C h i n e s e L i t e r a t i on P a i n t i n g , 1971, 71). 17. F o r t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f S h i t a o ' s p a i n t i n g t h e o r y s e e C h o u J u - h s i , "The H u a - y u - l u a n d Taoc h i ' s T h e o r y of P a i n t i n g , " 1977. 18. S u s a n B u s h d e a l s w i t h t h e r e a c t i o n o f t h e Gong'an and J i n l i n g p o e t r y s c h o o l s a g a i n s t t h a t o f t h e two g r o u p s o f s e v e n t a l e n t s , t h e f o r m e r , i n l i n e w i t h Wang S h o u r e n ' s ideas, i n t e r e s t e d i n i n d i v i d u a l expression, while the l a t t e r were i n v o l v e d i n t h e c o d i f i c a t i o n and e m u l a t i o n of m o d e l s . I n s p i t e o f D o n g Q i c h a n g ' s f r i e n d s h i p w i t h a G o n g ' a n man, a  77  B u d d h i s t , and h i s i n t e r e s t i n Chan, h i s p r i n c i p l e c o n c e r n s agree w i t h t h e two groups o f seven t a l e n t s . Shitao's i n t e r e s t , however, agrees w i t h those of t h e l a t t e r group ( S u s a n Bush, The C h i n e s e L i t e r a t i on P a i n t i n g , 1 9 7 1 , 1 6 1 ) . N o r t h e r n Song l i t e r a t i c a n be s e e n a s t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h i s second t r a d i t i o n . Dong Q i c h a n g c a n be s e e n a s e m p h a s i z i n g t h e Yuan, i n which p e r i o d s t y l e , as Susan Bush has o u t l i n e d became c h a r a c t e r i z i n g f o r l i t e r a t i painting. B e f o r e Y u a n , w h i c h Dong Q i c h a n g d i s c u s s e s a s f i r s t e x h i b i t i n g Su S h i ' s d i c t u m f o r N o r t h e r n Song, t o e x p r e s s t h e i d e a a n d n o t t h e f o r m o f t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r , s t y l e was n o t key, b u t t h e i d e a o r a c t o f c r e a t i o n was. A n o t h e r way o f l o o k i n g a t t h i s h i s t o r i c a l l y , i s t o n o t e t h a t S h i t a o i s r e l a t e d t o S u S h i , Wen T o n g , a n d H u a n g T i n g j i a n , w h i l e Dong Q i c h a n g i s r e l a t e d t o M i F u a n d M i Y u r e n , who f o r e s h a d o w e d a t t i t u d e s i n t h e Y u a n . "Su S h i h , Huang T i n g j i a n , a n d Dong Yu f o c u s e d o n t h e p a i n t e r ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of nature and put t h e process of c r e a t i o n above a l l e l s e . Mi Fu and Mi Yuren d e s c r i b e d t h e p l a y f u l n e s s and e x p r e s s i v e n e s s o f t h e i r p a i n t i n g and f o r m u l a t e d a new s c h o l a r l y t a s t e i n a r t . A n d t h e c o m p i l e r s of t h e Xuanhe Huapu u n d e r l i n e d t h e d i l e t t a n t i s m o f t h e g e n t l e m a n - p a i n t e r who l o o k e d o n a r t a s a n a v o c a t i o n " ( S u s a n B u s h , The C h i n e s e L i t e r a t i on P a i n t i n g , 1 9 7 1 , 8 2 ) . Zheng X i e seems t o have s e e n t h e r o l e o f s t y l e a s i t s m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f t h e d a o , i n t h e l i n e o f S u S h i , Wen T o n g , Huang T i n g j i a n , and S h i t a o , and n o t a s a s i g n o f s c h o l a r l y t a s t e , a s i n Dong Q i c h a n g . 19.  See Zheng  Xie's  autobiography  (Appendix  1, n u m b e r 2 ) .  20. T h e i m p o r t a n c e o f o r i g i n a l i t y i s a common t h e m e i n t h e w r i t i n g s o f t h e N o r t h e r n Song l i t e r a t i , S h i t a o , and Zheng Xie. The i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h t h e d a o b y no means d i c t a t e s o v e r the painter. On t h e c o n t r a r y , i t i s t h e mode t h r o u g h w h i c h the p a i n t e r ' s own p a r t i c u l a r i d e a s c a n b e e x p r e s s e d . Shitao s t a t e s t h i s p l a i n l y i n h i s c h a p t e r "Oneness o f B r u s h Strokes": A s i n g l e stroke which i d e n t i f i e s with u n i v e r s a l i t y c a n c l e a r l y r e v e a l t h e i d e a o f man a n d f u l l y p e n e t r a t e a l l t h i n g s ( E a r l e Jerome Coleman, P h i l o s o p h y o f P a i n t i n g b y S h i h - t ' a o , 19 7 8 , 1 1 5 ) . In t h e N o r t h e r n Song l i t e r a t i t e x t s , t h e mind o f t h e a r t i s t i s t h e s o u r c e of dao c r e a t i o n , so t h e i n d i v i d u a l i t y of t h e a r t i s t a n d t h e d a o must be r e l a t e d . The i m p o r t a n c e of t h e a r t i s t ' s p a r t i c u l a r g e n i u s i s c l e a r i n many p a s s a g e s . The f o l l o w i n g p a s s a g e b y Su S h i i s t h e m o s t f a m o u s o f t h e s e : If  anyone d i s c u s s e s p a i n t i n g i n terms o f f o r m a l likeness, His understanding i s nearly that of a c h i l d .  78  T h e r e i s one b a s i c r u l e i n p o e t r y and p a i n t i n g ; N a t u r a l g e n i u s and o r i g i n a l i t y ( S u s a n B u s h , The C h i n e s e L i t e r a t i o n P a i n t i n g , 19 7 1 , 2 6 ) . A passage i n Zheng X i e ' s i n s c r i p t i o n s i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t n o t o n l y i s t h e p a i n t e d bamboo d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h a t o f t h e mind, i l l u s t r a t i n g t h e a c t i o n o f t h e dao between t h o s e s t a g e s and a t t h e s t a g e o f p a i n t i n g , b u t , because o f t h e dao a c t i o n d u r i n g t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f i n k , a new b r u s h s t y l e evolves: Thus  I g r i n d i n k , u n f o l d some p a p e r , the b r u s h Again i t i s another s t y l e . I n r e a l i t y , t h e b a m b o o i n my h a n d I s n o t t h e b a m b o o i n my m i n d ( A p p e n d i x 6, n u m b e r l c ) .  a n d move  21. Susan B u s h , The C h i n e s e L i t e r a t i on P a i n t i n g , 1 9 7 1 , 6972 a n d c o n c l u s i o n o n 8 2 . I n c i p i e n t f o r m s o f t h e t e r m s x i e y i were d e v e l o p e d i n t h e N o r t h e r n Song. They were e s p e c i a l l y c o n s p i c u o u s w i t h i n t h e t e x t s o f M i F u a n d M i Y u r e n , who brought about t h e s t y l i s t i c a l l y a n t i - n a t u r a l i s t i c t e n d e n c i e s t o s c h o l a r p a i n t i n g , which c u l m i n a t e d i n Yuan D y n a s t y t h e o r y and p a i n t i n g . These i n c l u d e x i e q i zhen au. " w r i t i n g t h e i r t r u e f l a v o u r , " i n w h i c h gu. c o u l d s o m e t i m e s a p p r o x i m a t e t h e m e a n i n g o f y i , d e y i . " g r a s p i n g t h e i d e a , " a n d mo x i , " i n k p l a y , " w h i c h was a r e l a t e d i d e a d e v e l o p e d b y T e n g C h u n , a n d p e r h a p s Wen T o n g a n d H u a n g T i n g j i a n e a r l i e r . 22.  Appendix  6, n u m b e r  5.  23. E a r l e Jerome Coleman, Philosophy of P a i n t i n g t ' a o , 1978, " T r a n s f o r m a t i o n and Freedom," 117.  by  24. E a r l e J e r o m e C o l e m a n , Philosophy of P a i n t i n g - t ' a o . 1978, "Motions o f t h e W r i s t , " 122.  by S h i h  25. Susan 175:  1971, 174-  Bush,  The C h i n e s e L i t e r a t i  on P a i n t i n g ,  Shih-  N o w a d a y s , t h e Wu men, who a r e t o t a l l y illiterate and have n e v e r s e e n even one g e n u i n e o l d m a s t e r , a l w a y s m a k e a p o i n t o f r e l y i n g o n t h e i r own "genius." T h e y m e r e l y s m e a r o u t some m o u n t a i n s a n d w a t e r a n d some g r a s s a n d t r e e s , a n d h a n g u p ( t h e i r work) i n t h e m a r k e t p l a c e t o exchange i t f o r a bushel of r i c e . Can t h e i r p a i n t i n g s have a n y beauty? O c c a s i o n a l l y t h e r e a r e t h o s e who m o d e l t h e m s e l v e s a f t e r a famous m a s t e r , b u t t h e y o n l y k n o w o f H e n g s h a n (Wen Z h e n g m i n g ) , a n d t h e i r w o r k s s e e m t o be h i s t o some e x t e n t ; b u t b y c o p y i n g h i m t h e y b a r e l y a c h i e v e h i s o u t e r form and never h i s  79  inner essence. And t h e y c l a i m : " L o o k , we h a v e s t u d i e d Hengshan." T h e y h a v e no i d e a o f t h e f a c t t h a t H e n g s h a n m o d e l e d h i m s e l f e n t i r e l y on t h e S u n g and Yuan m a s t e r s . He s t r o v e t o a t t a i n t h e i r q u i n t e s s e n c e , h e n c e he s u c c e e d e d i n b e c o m i n g supreme i n h i s age, and h i s w o r k s h a v e become i m m o r t a l . T h i s b e i n g s o , why d o n ' t t h e Wu men go back t o H e n g s h a n ' s o r i g i n a l m a s t e r s and f o l l o w t h e m ? T h e n e v e n i f t h e y d o n o t come up t o t h e a n c i e n t s , a t l e a s t t h e y c o a n n o t f a i l t o become Hengshans. O n l y t h e m a s t e r s of Y u n j i a n ( S u n g j i a n g ) know this truth. T h u s ( Z h a o Zou) Wendu, (Dong Q i c h a n g ) X u a n z a i , a n d (Gu S h a n y u ) Y u a n q i n g a l l e n d e d i n c o m i n g up t o t h e a n c i e n t s a n d i n f o u n d i n g t r a d i t i o n s o f t h e i r own. Y e t w h e n t h e Wu men see ( t h e s e men's w o r k s ) , t h e y a r e p u z z l e d a n d say: " T h i s i s j u s t t h e S o n g j i a n g s c h o o l . " I s i t ? Can t h e r e be a S o n g j i a n g s c h o o l ? O n l y t h e Wu men are concerned with schools. 26. See Elegant  the i n s c r i p t i o n from L i Shan's B r u s h , 1985, 167.  ink  bamboo  in  The  27. T s a n g Ka-bo s e e s Zheng X i e ' s comments as a d e f e n s e a g a i n s t s i m i l a r c r i t i c i s m d i r e c t e d a t Zheng X i e h i m s e l f ( T s a n g K a B o , "Hua Y a n ( 1 6 8 2 - 1 7 5 6 ) : H i s L i f e a n d A r t , " 1983, 123) . 2 8 . C h u - t s i n g L i , "The 73, 53-71. L i p r e s e n t s Shitao's patronage.  Bamboo P a i n t i n g s o f C h i n N u n g , " 1972t h e i d e a t h a t Zheng X i e i n h e r i t e d  2 9 . The i m a g e i s i n t h e P a l a c e M u s e u m , B e i j i n g , a n d i s reproduced i n P a i n t i n g by Y a n g z h o u A r t i s t s , 1984, 74 ( A p p e n d i x 6, n u m b e r 6 ) . 30. Zheng X i e a l s o a p p l i e s t h e N o r t h e r n Song i d e a o f t h e i n t e r c o n n e c t e d n e s s o f p a i n t i n g and c a l l i g r a p h y w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t of the Qing d y n a s t y i n t e r e s t i n a r t i s t i c models of the past. Zheng X i e ' s method i s r e l a t e d t o S h i t a o ' s method of u t i l i z i n g p a s t models. Shitao emphasizes i n d i v i d u a l i t y i n t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of m o d e l s and t h e u n i t y o f p a i n t i n g and c a l l i g r a p h y as i n k f o r m s m a n i f e s t i n g t h e dao. I n Zheng X i e ' s t h e o r y the c o m b i n a t i o n of models of c a l l i g r a p h y , p r o v i d e t h e c r e a t i v e p o t e n t i a l of t h e dao by u n i t i n g o p p o s i t e elements of s t y l e which t o g e t h e r y i e l d the n a t u r a l f o r m o f bamboo i n a l l i t s m y r i a d m a n i f e s t a t i o n s ( S e e t h e i n s c r i p t i o n , A p p e n d i x 6, n u m b e r 4 b ) . 31.  S u s a n B u s h , The  32.  One  could  say  Chinese  that  Literati  Zheng X i e  on  P a i n t i n g , 1971,  essentially naturalizes  28.  N o r t h e r n Song i d e a s . He p r e s e n t s t h e m i n t e r m s o f n a t u r a l growth and p r o c e s s . This i s related to Shitao's n a t u r a l i z a t i o n of Mi F u , an i m p o r t a n t N o r t h e r n Song l i t e r a t u s , t h e o r e t i c i a n , and p a i n t e r , i n S h i t a o ' s painting 10,000 U g l y Ink D o t s . Mi Fu's t e c h n i q u e o f p a i n t i n g with dabs or dots of p a i n t appears i n p u r e l y a b s t r a c t form a t t h e beginning of t h i s long s c r o l l . S h i t a o g i v e s Mi Fu's t e c h n i q u e p r o c r e a t i v e c a p a c i t i e s , f o r v i s i b l e l a n d s c a p e and f i n a l l y t h e w r i t t e n t e x t e v o l v e o u t o f i t t o w a r d s t h e end o f the s c r o l l . S h i t a o s e i z e d Mi Fu's i d e a t h a t t h e p a i n t i n g was l e s s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l t h a n e x p r e s s i v e i n order to i l l u s t r a t e how t h i s e x p r e s s i v e n e s s i s i n t u n e w i t h t h e d a o , or a c t u a l l y p r o d u c e s t h i n g s as i n n a t u r e . Shitao's transformation o f M i F u i s one w h i c h c a u s e s M i F u ' s p r i n c i p l e s o f p a i n t i n g and t h e p a i n t e d forms t o grow, so t o speak. Zheng X i e makes t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f N o r t h e r n Song l i t e r a t i p a i n t i n g g r o w w i t h i n t h e p a i n t i n g i n a s i m i l a r way, producing a v i s u a l record which speaks of the a r t i s t ' s transformation of these p r i n c i p l e s . However, f o r Zheng X i e the c r e a t i v e f o r c e s of t h e dao a r e n o t a c t i v e o n l y i n t h e brushwork. Instead, they are active throughout a l l stages of t h e p a i n t i n g p r o c e s s i n c l u d i n g t h e w r i t i n g of t h e inscription. Thus w r i t i n g and p a i n t i n g a r e more f u l l y i n t e g r a t e d v i s u a l l y as c r e a t i v e a c t s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e dao. 33. E a r l e J e r o m e C o l e m a n , P h i l o s o p h y of P a i n t i n g by S h i h - t ' a o , 1 9 7 8 , 1 3 9 . " O r i g i n o f H e a v e n a n d C o m p l e t i o n b y Man." 34.  Appendix  6,  4a.  35. S u s a n B u s h , The C h i n e s e L i t e r a t i S u S h i o n Wen T o n g . 36.  Appendix  6,  number  3a.  on P a i n t i n g ,  1971, 12.  CHAPTER  The which  p o l a r i z a t i o n i n the painter/patron  the l i t e r a t i  combined  was  criticism  of groups  implicitly  3.  of painters illustrates  on a n o t h e r  In Chapter  this  Xie's  for specific  the p o l a r i z a t i o n of the F o r Zheng X i e , identified  the  of the p o l a r i z e d  patron  t h a n L i Shan's  theoretical inscriptions  level  were  4,  Zheng  and s e a r c h  more s p e c i f i c a l l y  Zheng X i e ' s  relationship in  traditions  explicitly.  relationship.  became a t a r g e t patrons.  i n Chapter  was n o t t r e a t e d  painter/patron  worked  and i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c  treated  polarization  patrons  5  and  paintings  painter/patron  relationship. This  p o l a r i z a t i o n , which  images, dual  s i g n i f i c a n c e of images,  positioning  of the painter  illustrates  the departure  notions will  understand  painter/patron maintain  that  how t h e y  did  critical important,  from the scholar's broad.  ideas,  utilized  and p a t r o n  standard  In this  and m o d i f i e d  over  Chapter,  I  with  the unorthodox  L i Shan, however, h e l d  the I  will  t h e b o u n d a r y s e t up  i n order  which were s h a r e d denied  as i t  o f L i Shan and Zheng X i e t o  Zheng X i e c r o s s e d  s o , he a l s o  painting.  and  r e l a t i o n s h i p i n d i f f e r e n t ways.  between t h e p a i n t e r literati  f o r the s a l e of  is historically  of a community, however  compare t h e p a i n t i n g s  better  allowed  to e x p l i c i t l y the patron.  aspects  state  When h e  of h i s  t o the unorthodox  aspects  of  his  work  literati In range  and  the  a second  part  tensions  they d i f f e r e d for begin  a  painter/patron the  examples  For  L i Shan and  fresh  patron.  It  Zheng X i e  this  and  and  of  Li  the  J i n Nong t h e natural  The  one  denied  most  which  the  and  could  of  like  to  of  the  and  how  in painting inhabits  i n the  between the  the  poles  for  the  this  with  food  exchange,  of  2.  foodstuffs  painting  qualification  recall  i n Chapter  provides  the  the  briefly  presented  painter  implicit  occur  painting,  p o l a r i z a t i o n of  realm represented that  illustrate  Shan.  painter  connection  kind  I will  literati  r e l a t i o n s h i p as  in writings  paintings  Chapter,  i n s o c i e t y and  is implied  illustrating  this  r e l a t i o n s h i p I would  world.  explicit  of  treatment  of  from the  natural  polarity,  communication.  of  To  painter/patron  act of  is  thus of  selling  painter  and  patron. Also  common t o  the  examples  t h e y grow out  the  images  way  i n which  the  s o - c a l l e d unorthodox  traditions.  for  Zheng X i e ' s  bamboo s h o o t s  image of  of  of  union  of  food  is  of  the  literati  This  can  also  and  the  be  and said  his theoretical  works. Two  examples  non-literati Zheng X i e . of and  most of that  of  aspects Both  polarization  the of  may  be  paintings  L i Shan's  of  what are  few  majority the  literati  seen are  subject  i n the  hanging  works  Zheng X i e ' s .  painter/patron  of  scrolls,  straightforward of  matters  L i Shan the  literati Both  with and  format paintings  establish  r e l a t i o n s h i p through  a a  83  placement brings  of the painter  t o the audience  relationship  qualifies  the  either  painting  i n the natural  forms  realm,  of nature.  the l i t e r a t i  a domestic  from which  In both  subject  function  cases  matter,  this  giving  or a d i d a c t i c  function,  and q u a l i f y i n g t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h e n a t u r e of  painting  itself.  An Pines  inscription  he  on L i Shan's u n d a t e d  scroll  of Five  (Figure 13): S o m e o n e a s k e d me t o p a i n t t h e f i v e p i n e s . Each o f them i s indeed q u i t e s i n g u l a r . . . T w i s t i n g t h e b r u s h n i n e t i m e s I p a i n t w i t h my limited skills. I i n v i t e t h e g e n t l e m e n t o come w i t h a c u p o f i n k . The f i v e p i n e s a n d t h e f i v e e l d e r s a r e c a l l e d t h e l o f t y ones. Hung i n t h e e a s t s i d e o f t h e C a s s i a H a l l i n y o u r home, They o v e r s e e t h e hundred f l o w e r s which c l u s t e r around l i k e t h e i r c h i l d r e n . 1  Through  h i s painting, the painter  relationship  with  the  realm.  domestic  insofar states  nature, There  as t h e s e c t i o n that  the pines  auspicious  creatures  mountain.  These  guardians There and  is  able  to call  represent associated  forms  a  the pines  i s a central ambiguity  of the i n s c r i p t i o n  are then  with  here,  not quoted  the various  into  here  sages and  t h e freedom of t h e  brought  i n s i d e t o become  of t h e house. i s a p o l a r i z a t i o n evident  i n s i d e , and p a i n t e r  painting.  being  achieves  and p a t r o n ,  here between which  a r e l i n k e d by  The r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e p a i n t e r  s i m i l a r to that  established  i n t h e food  outside  and  paintings.  patron I  would  suggest  inscription the  who  i s holed  dwelling.  i s at least  o f L i Shan's  as t h e p a i n t e r  patron  there  and t h e p o l a r i z a t i o n s  tensions  read  that  supplying  t h e symbols  up i n some o f f i c i a l  Otherwise,  i t c a n be r e a d  and i n s i d e  distinction.  outside  and i n s i d e  then  the patron  scroll, in  Xie's  completed The  take  who r e m a i n s ,  on t h e i n s i d e .  Zheng  of  ideas  scrolls,  like  Cymbidiums.  i s closest  Pines.  remarkably s i m i l a r to that  act of  of p a i n t i n g bamboo s h o o t s  theory, his  Zheng  initial  and t h e s c r o l l s  mention  period  theory.  of the tensions  half-  Xie's  L i Shan's hanging  and p a t r o n  with  which i s  i s mediated  by t h e v e r y scroll  ideas  after  i t sconnotations of creation  through the  t o 1761, during  i n Y a n g z h o u , when he a l s o  I n t h e i n s c r i p t i o n , Zheng  scroll  his painting  literati  of natural i s dated  of  a  by L i Shan's  carrying  hanging  scroll  as i n h i s hanging  standard  of fungi,  The work  a  Xie creates  established  Xie reasserts  of p a i n t i n g .  Xie's  Zheng  However,  Daoism, and h i s s u g g e s t i o n act  In a large  the relationship  itself.  the  and Zheng  w h e n we c o n s i d e r  between t h e p a i n t e r  14). Again,  the stature  purchase  tearing  of  2  Bamboo, a n d F u n g i ,  relationship  implications  I t i s worth mentioning  pines.  the Five  literal  and l e s s e n  o f L i Shan  f o rt h e  o r some  as a more  the very  of  c a n be  of v i r t u e  post  r e l a t i o n s h i p between L i Shan's  painting  (Figure  effect  for this  implications  The m o r a l  through  description  image  to carry  s i t u a t i o n . The p a i n t i n g  outside  of  the potential  created  Xie writes:  Zheng  h i s painting  85  The a n c i e n t s s a i d : " S h o u l d one t a r r y t o o long a f t e r h a v i n g entered a room w i t h f u n g i and c y m b i d i u m [ o r c h i d ] , one may b e c o m e o b l i v i o u s o f t h e i r f r a g r a n t scent." [Moreover], i f the fungi a n d c y m b i d i u m s h o u l d be p l a c e d i n s i d e t h e r o o m , t h e r o o m may g a i n i n b e a u t y b u t t h e p l a n t s t h e m s e l v e s w o u l d n o t be h a p p y . I d e s i r e t o l i v e a m i d s t t h e m o u n t a i n r a n g e s and d e e p r a v i n e s , and would not t o u c h the f u n g i or c y m b i d i u m even i f t h e y were t h e r e . [In t h i s way], e a c h o f us c o u l d r e t a i n o u r own i d e n t i t y a n d be a t p e a c e w i t h ourselves... Replete with cymbidium, the h i l l yet lacks fungus. W h e r e c a n we f i n d i t - j u s t a s k t h e p a i n t e r ! I n t r u t h y o u m u s t s e e k i t i n y o u r own heart, Y o u , who s o c u l t i v a t e d i t , c a n f a t h o m w h a t y o u ' v e done. 3  Ginger particular doctoral  Cheng-chi symbolic  reference  f r o m an  narrate is and  the  an  audience,  finds  This  and  which  the  by  the  i s both  key  i n nature  the  function  kind  of  include  the  the  scholar  of matter  between  focus the  her  can  i s i n t e r e s t i n g here  painter  the  in  as  subject  What  the  orchid  these  i s one  for which  up  potted  that  orchid  some o f  of  act  himself  this particular of  painting,  at  initially. In  the  dichotomy  about  the  individual's feelings.  inscription least  the  post.  r e l a t i o n s h i p set  the  written  She  4  to  official  inside/outside  has  c a p a c i t i e s of  dissertation.  traditional free  Hsu  the  p o s t s c r i p t on  painting  i n a way  which  painting  i s a testimony  painting  does  painter's painter viewer.  not  inked  to  suggests the  guarantee  plants  i n f a c t have Only the  Zheng X i e ' s  the  viewer  virtue. the  capacity can  that,  to  create  job,  It nor  grant the  qualifies  although  recipient's virtue,  that  w h i c h do  p a i n t i n g , he  the the  i s thus does  the  the  to  the  the  fungus  pictured  not  plants  in  truth,  and  this  through  his  actual  v i r t u e and  c a p a b i l i t y of  interesting  qualification  mind. Zheng X i e ' s which act  limits  of  the  certain  a  definition  This  of  the  inscriptions. painting  with  high  some o f  century. ideas  the  of  meaning those  this  too  problems  w e l l , the  his  to  qualifications,  stand  reminder  i s an the  and  the  the  differences  Zheng X i e ' s  and  also  certain  the  deals  literati  reasserts the  the  painting  v i r t u e works.  audience's  Xie's  eighteenth  relegates  between the  hanging  scrolls,  final  Li  v i r t u e without painter  their  most s c h o l a r l y w o r k s ,  different  types  of  engaged.  L i Shan by  painted  incapability  of  i n the  painting  any  remain  to  being dual  accomodate  fully  readings  and the  reconciled possible  be  in Li  again  i n which  probably  with  they  in part  patron. with  Shan's  considered  illustrate  transactions  circumstance  fully  messages  which can  represent  appears  a  artistic  here  painter  of  of  Zheng  great  i n the  that  abilities  is  throughout.  The  choice  present  represents  how  the  limitation  inscription  The  painter  for status  image of  painting  of  the  and  in his theoretical  images which  of  painting  Zheng X i e ' s  f r i e n d ' s v i r t u e , and a  the  painting  artist  Shan, however, r e c o g n i z e s  and  of  of  suggest,  u n o r t h o d o x means.  r o l e of  primary  power  q u a l i t y , and  the  through  primacy to  As  I would  parallels  Like  theory,  and  Here,  painting's  kind.  i s an  e f f e c t i v e powers  painting.  questioning  power  postscript  this  His  to the were by  own  situation  many o f  his  87  works.  Zheng X i e ' s  relationship issues  allows  of l i t e r a t i  use of t h e p o l a r i z e d  h i m t o i n t e r j e c t h i s own thought  Probably h i s reputation and  untouchabi1ity.  and on p a i n t i n g  enabled  Zheng  attempt is  h i s attempt  to give  his ability  painter what the  fresh  Xie's  the painter image, t h a t  more  use of l e s s  to locate  over  i n the dichotomy,  indicates  dichotomy and h i s  concepts.  the line  revealing  t o be a p r i m a r y how  stature  orthodox  significance to literati  considers  on t h e  directly.  certain patrons,  t o sometimes cross  and p a t r o n  ideas  h i m t o r e t a i n some  imagery and h i s use o f t h e p a i n t e r / p a t r o n illustrate  painter/audience  It  between to the patron  s i g n i f i c a n c e of  f a r he s h o u l d  be s e t a p a r t  from L i Shan. Thus, t h e s u g g e s t i o n and  the natural  ideas  and l i t e r a t i  distinction that  world  painting  t o which  unorthodox  elements  popularize  their  literati  manifests  the painters  imagery.  Ginger  trend  a r t i n the eighteenth  Zheng X i e and L i Shan a g r e e s  degrees  subjects.  of  "unorthodox"  I n making I am  adhere  painting  a proposing  to the  i s an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e i r a t t e m p t t o  the general  interpretation,  between  the mixture  between L i Shan and Zheng X i e ,  the degree  established  of the connection  while  Cheng-chi  towards  a more  century. with  Hsu has  5  popular  My a n a l y s i s  of  her economic  i t makes d i s t i n c t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e  of p o p u l a r i z a t i o n  f o r each  of  the popularization,  which  of  a p o l a r i t y between t h e p a i n t e r  painter,  and t h e  function  I see as e n t a i l i n g t h e c r e a t i o n and  patron.  88  Thus, w h i l e  Zheng X i e ' s  range  of f u n c t i o n s  ideas  on m a t t e r s , L i Shan's p a i n t i n g s  painter's focus with  ways  I  for this  would  or a t l e a s t  to attract  like  about  than  t h e dao  do  He  another  or workings  more  concerned  a demand  for his  of h i s f i s h  is different  through a comparison  of nature  in their  was  images.  paintings.  e x a m p l e o f how  traditions  Zheng X i e ' s ,  was  i t , i n order to  t h e p a t r o n , and L i Shan  creating  to give  own  ignore the  submerge  i s the popularity  of the "unorthodox"  complete of  i n which  has a wide  do n o t i g n o r e t h e p a i n t e r ' s  the patron desires.  very clever  Evidence  use  perspective,  upon what  clearly  which  t h e o r y of p a i n t i n g  L i Shan's and  more  of t h e i r  paintings  use  and  styles. A key t o the success of the f i s h ability  t o imbue them w i t h  only d i d they function guaranteed painter's Other  talismanic  a s New  apparent  Year's  principle  participation  i s L i Shan's  capabilities. pictures  t h e a u s p i c i o u s n e s s o f t h e New  inscriptions  similar  paintings  Year  but  by L i Shan  they  through the  i n the workings  from p a i n t i n g s  Not  6  of nature.  illustrate  a  a t work:  C l e a r summer d u r i n g t h e f a m i n e I Mankind's heat I can b r i n g t o an P l e a s e l o o k on t h i s i n k a n d b r u s h clouds r i s i n g , I t i s l i k e t h e c o l d r a i n and c o o l bamboo a n d t r e e s i n t h e a u t u m n .  fast... end. as i f t h e y wind  were  amongst  the  7  This  type  of magic,  Shan's c o n n e c t i o n w i t h connection  with  one c o u l d  Shitao,  the workings  who  call  i t , illustrates  also  utilized  of nature t o b o l s t e r  his the  L i  overall  reception  importance function feature  as of  utilizing or  of  the  his  to  the  as  a  painting to  professional.  in giving  the  techniques  These m a g i c a l  forms of  of  meaning  "unorthodox"  painted  painting  method  opposed  here.  functions  of  artwork  which  be  linked with  act  of  painting  the  by  Li  S h a n w h i c h may  for  central  is a  L i Shan  implications  can  a  of  The  critical  is  strongly  the  brushwork  entertainment  such  painters  as  Xu  Wei . One  painting  very  brushwork  that  of  1727,  an  the  Shitao  his  involvement  earthen wall period  (Figure  with  i n which  15).  which  been p a r t l y washed  the  the  paper  thus  i m a g e was  away t o g e t h e r . "  present  actual  approximates  intention within  i n the  his  approximates (f igure Li  the  of  act  the  of  formation  of  the  t r a n s l a t i o n by  of  of  in  the  nature  dated  Edmund  away by  floods  but  away.  The  clouds  be  to  1691,  in his  wall  appeared  to  to  capture  on  brush  found  to  only  Evidence  can  of  a  seems not  phenomenon. Shitao  and  also  to  Capon  w h e n L i S h a n saw  objects  is  paintings  painted  landscapes dated  action for  in a  this leaf  i n which  he  brushwork  16). Shan's p a i n t i n g  in accord  i n many w a y s .  of  of  Shitao,  have seen  washing  natural  Zheng X i e ' s the  the  paintings  album of  workings  L i Shan's brushwork  9  appearance  the  may  rough  that  "fly  i n the  butterfly orchids,  he  indicates had  the  The  illustrate  idea  We  3.  In  nature  have a n a l y z e d  interacting with  in Chapter  with  the  dao,  differs  Zheng  also  L i Shan's p a i n t i n g ,  Xie's  based the  from  upon  chief  use  significance ability  i s the painter's  to provide  Zheng X i e ' s  involvement  efficacious  images  painting the interaction  was  taken  and  the a c t i o n of l i n k i n g oneself  meaning  back  past  Shitao  of the brushwork  brushwork  dimensions.  versions  of l i t e r a t i  significance  the  painter's  interaction  the  painting  itself.  In I  but t o express  saying  have argued  certain  this that  types  brushwork  each is  patronage  contain  these  more o p e n l y  and a u d i e n c e ,  which  literati,  take  on  simpler  The p u r p o s e a n d  i s not just  to  please  interpretation gets  beyond  Zheng X i e , f o r to attract  want t o p o i n t because  of  o u t how  of t h e i r  a n d how t h e p a i n t i n g s o f  strands  allow  The  nature  the dao, which  I simply  itself  changes the  h i s p a i n t i n g s were d e s i g n e d  more o r l e s s  strands  with  a more c o m p l e x with  In  considerably.  or x i e y i .  Zheng X i e and L i Shan a r e d i f f e r e n t different  Song  I do n o t want t o i d e a l i z e  of patrons.  in  competes d i r e c t l y w i t h  o f Zheng X i e ' s  patron,  nature  t o the past  interaction  painting,  the  with  and t h e i d e a  This  and h i s  f o r the patron.  to the Northern  and t h e p a i n t e r ' s  literati  i n nature  of l i t e r a t i  the painter  a n d i n c l u d e m o r e o f h i s own  thought.  t o express thought  It  ideas  i n the  images. One w o u l d  expect  characteristics along  with  subject any  a combination  of the l i t e r a t i  the combination  matter  stylistic  and i d e a s .  of the basic  and u n o r t h o d o x  of l i t e r a t i  and  The q u e s t i o n  characteristics  particular  stylistic  traditions  unorthodox  arises, to the  are there literati  91  tradition seem t o  have  literati Anhui the  i n the left  or  four  Wangs.  negative  terms:  "unorthodox"  and  states  this  of  The  question  purpose of  may  be  a basic to  of  those  phrased  the  do  of  by  in  to  qualities  works  the  done  perhaps  characteristic  i t i n the  painters  paintings  of  what e x t e n t  beside  time,  styles  i n the  persistence  I would  like  of  sense  of  to  use  James  of  Li  Shan  Cahill's  p r o f e s s i o n a l p a i n t i n g , which overlaps  professional artists the  "unorthodox  often  naturalistic  combined  with  is a  painting." in  He  their  decorative  elements  surfaces.^-" regard  t o L i Shan and  characterisation Shitao's  basic  master's  use  renderings  of  of  the  i s e s p e c i a l l y meaningful.  In  Zheng X i e  tactile  natural  nature  only  did.  As  not  decorative  s i n g l e focus,  or  as  The  proposing  should  artist  in part  taking to  d e s c r i p t i v e e f f e c t s and  theory  well,  adheres  features.  Zheng X i e  Shitao as  this  in a  However, probably  Zheng X i e  style,  of  rendering  workings  a  dabbing  painting that  that  With  of  that  crumbly-line  the  p a i n t i n g and  At  Xie?  works the and  the  i s there  characterization category  century?  recently evident  painting exist  Zheng For  behind  tradition  school,  literati  eighteenth  be  did  importance  interaction  up  that  convincing of  this  with  type  the  clear. not  use  colour  i n Y a n g z h o u who  Zheng X i e ' s Shitao's  or  a composition  in his  did  surfaces  not,  are  in  works, while themselves  L i Shan's, u s u a l l y l a c k i n g which  entertains  for i t s  92  own s a k e .  The  lack  characteristic qualities, content  of a l i t e r a t i  painting.  intellectual  to certain  t o express  calligraphy Li his  qualities  content  makes t h e image more  brushwork it  of these  other  literati  and  linking i t s  painters,  and  utilizing  as t h e interdependence  Shan, however, d i d use c o l o u r and a s i n g l e  compositions  less  such  This  true,  of  painting.  i n order  works a r e a l s o l i f e - l i k e is  these  included.  interesting,  such  positive  Lacking  i s then  literati  ideas  i s a  however,  as h i s p i n e  t o make  focus i n  them more a t t r a c t i v e .  i n t h e same w a y a s S h i t a o ' s .  f o r h i s more s c h o l a r l y  tree scrolls,  His This  productions,  o r t h e odd l a t e  bamboo  paint ing. Again, what, The  this  i s n o t a q u e s t i o n o f who  i fquality  was t h e i s s u e ,  monochromatic  different Shan.  type  works  would  each  of patron  than  Within t h a t patronage  Zheng X i e c o u l d  commentary.  On t h e q u e s t i o n o f q u a l i t y ,  some  kind  of  One c o u l d  greater  a l s o argue  importance  images.  Zheng  scribble  out something  grabbing  and e a s i l y  the l i t e r a t i  that this  of the v i s u a l  monochromatic,  identifiable and s e l l  afford  by L i t o , and  scholarly  of a  argue  higher  was d u e i n p a r t t o  e f f e c t i v e n e s s of h i s  X i e , however, c o u l d p r o b a b l y  vein,  to a  one c o u l d  L i Shan's w o r k s a r e more c o n s i s t e n t l y  quality.  in  t o , make  but  be b e t t e r a t .  t h e m a j o r i t y of works  expected  the  man  o f Zheng X i e communicated  was p r o b a b l y  that  i s better,  not  as b e i n g  well  afford  to  immediately a subject  i t . However,  i nh i s  matter  theoretical strove  f o r more t h a n  The  between L i Shan and  h a s much t o do w i t h  r e s u l t i n g expectations  us a t t h i s  point  i s how  become r e c o n c i l e d interacting Zheng  with  with  the ideas  of Shitao  literati  on t h e p a r t  the Shitaoian  at court,  Zheng suggests upon the  idea  became  painted  characteristic the  apogee  and  complexity  reality,  and  also  image a  however,  had  there  to  realignment. evolution  s t y l e i n an  idea  i s now  in  i n the  t h e manner from  and  inscription  by L i Shan, w h i c h The  depict  of  life,  in his painting  painting L i Shan  style.  Zheng  e c c e n t r i c i t y t o be a p o s i t i v e  of L i Shan's  of L i Shan's  there  a  or p a i n t i n g  increasingly eccentric this  1 1  He,  for  conscious  ideas  stylistic  after acquiring  c a l l e d as x i e s h e n g  considers  this  move t o t h i s  Sichuan P r o v i n c i a l Museum. i s that  question  of  h i s b a c k g r o u n d as  acquired  L i Shan's  an a l b u m o f f l o w e r s  usually  with  can c a l l  Xie describes  h i s gradual  inscription  Xie  One  the notion  i t was  of L i Shan.  and t h e s k i l l s  naturalistically.  and  and S h i t a o i a n  decision  for  b e t w e e n t h e two  f i n d i n g i t t o have been a  conscious  painter  question  I have answered t h i s  Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , i t seems t h a t  reconcile  he  backgrounds  The  systems.  to  them  Xie's  respective  d i d the differences  4,  to reconcile  their  Zheng  and a b i l i t i e s .  t h e dao.  Xie i n Chapter  decision  t h e images c o n t a i n i n g  this.  differences  paintings and  i n s c r i p t i o n s and  within  painting.  painting  The  d e s c r i p t i o n of  makes t h e c l a i m  for clarity  a mode o f s p o n t a n e o u s p a i n t i n g .  i s usually  little  spontaneous or  loose  In  brushwork Xie's with Xie  i n L i Shan's p a i n t i n g s .  inscription, Shitao  sought  and  was  probably  literati  to link  according  to the workings recall  Zheng  f r o m t h e many x i e y i paint  according  legitimizing Shan The  this  realignment  Xie's  Northern in  Song  h i s own  literati,  paintings.  between t h e ways painting. given  proof  i n h i s biography,  eccentricity  and  was  painting he  to  t h e method  of  of L i  background.  t o o was  f o r him the  not e x p l i c i t l y  as Zheng  i n which  Further  while  the a b i l i t y  In the case  h i s court  were  This  f o r independence  of nature  f o r L i Shan meant t h a t  of nature  or p a i n t i n g  claims  scholar-painting.  legitimizes  the workings  Zheng  of L i Shan's  of the time,  above t h e crowds of l i t e r a t i , with  own  to the workings  ability  painting  nature.  painters  h i s own  L i Shan's  of n a t u r a l genius, of  Zheng  More s p e c i f i c a l l y ,  the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  to the idea  we  f u n c t i o n of  to align  painting.  paintings  If  The  elevated interaction  tied  X i e had a s s e r t e d  to the  they  were  i s the e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e  t h e two p a i n t e r s of L i Shan's  which  interaction  approached  method  of p a i n t i n g i s  makes c l e a r t h e l i n k with  the workings  of  between nature:  By s p e c i a l d e c r e e he o f t e n l e a r n e d with the e x p e r i e n c e d J i a n g X i a n g g u o , and a l t o g e t h e r s e r v e d in the inner court f o r a few y e a r s . . . Shan p a i n t e d f l o w e r s and b i r d s . He d i d n o t h o l d o n s t u b b o r n l y t o t h e r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s of those of t h e p a s t . C r e a t i o n was i n h i s w r i s t a n d t h e c o n d i t i o n was l i k e g r o w t h . 1 2  To c o n c l u d e Zheng accord  this  s e c t i o n on s t y l e  X i e and L i Shan b o t h with  the workings  utilized  of nature,  I would  the idea  note  that  of p a i n t i n g i n  and t h e e c c e n t r i c i t y  or  individualism  with  utilized  Shitao's  differed  was t h e i r  Xie's  greater  which ideas  i t i s associated. and s t y l e  artistic  success  and h i s more  in calligraphy  and w r i t i n g  contrasted  with  less  h i s greater As  ability  What  and s o c i a l b a c k g r o u n d s .  interests,  and  also  i n the process.  as an o f f i c i a l  L i Shan's  Both  as a  as w e l l  well-known  as  Zheng  scholarly painting,  official  position  painter.  a r e s u l t , L i S h a n was m o r e a b l e  and i n more need t o  utilize  his painting  F o r L i Shan t h e r e i s  a  of painting  range  of  less  types  o r more s c h o l a r l y  painting  a fetching  sentiments  balance  literati  Zheng X i e i n s t e a d  nature the  individualism with  motive  the  of others  of l i t e r a t i  morality,  which  painting. lifestyle,  including  some s t a t u s  w h i c h L i Shan o n l y  the background  auspicious related  works.  H o w e v e r , he  added  painting  more t r a d i t i o n a l included  reference  a concern f o r  t o past  of the scholar's  i n Zheng X i e ' s and i d e a s  sublimated.  and e x p e c t a t i o n s  He t o o  the workings of  of l i t e r a t i  These  f o r more  had  with  and p a i n t i n g .  T h e r e was a c o n c e r n  tradition,  and  more s c h o l a r l y  Song, and t h e i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e  salvaging  market,  tradition.  and r e t a i n i n g  the l i t e r a t i  of the  are tangentially  of r a i s i n g the standards  above t h o s e concerns  of a r t i s t r y  painted  ideas  In terms  f o r a broad  and an i n t e r a c t i o n  literati  and h a n g i n g s c r o l l s  inclination).  i n h i s paintings,  t h e main s t r e a m  mixed  (album leaves  m a r k e t , L i Shan p a i n t e d  utilizing  to  t o make a l i v i n g .  sages of arts.  paintings,  of the  literati  Zheng X i e s i m p l y  as w e l l  as a  better  position could  to strive  also serve  contradiction situation tensions  towards  these  ends  i n paintings  as s a l a b l e commodities.  s t i l l  between  and r e s u l t s  these  of s e l l i n g  i n Zheng X i e ' s  I t was t h e  attempts  as w e l l  p a i n t i n g s which  attitude  towards  which  as t h e  caused the  p a i n t i n g and i n h i s  life. The the  d i f f e r e n c e s between L i Shan and Zheng X i e q u a l i f i e d  dichotomous  audiences.  relationship  This  relationship  cases  of the types  which  they Other  chicken fence,  subject matter  beside  a fence,  lying  tree  (Figures 17-20).  beside,  Ming dynasty  like  Wen  leaf,  Zhengming  associations which  pole  bamboo  i n a basket  works  animates  with of a  a pine  i nthe  some may b e r e l a t e d  by l i t e r a t i  to  p a i n t e r s of the  or p r o f e s s i o n a l or a n d Xu  Wei.  the domestic and basket fence).  with  with  the natural  insects, the  In the other  o f an a n i m a l  the composition.  1 3  subjects (the  t r e e seems d i v e s t e d o f i t s  by t h e presence  b y a bamboo  upon t h e b r a n c h  Lan Ying  combine  leaf  and t h e broken  the pine  branch,  i n many  a n d t h e way i n  framed  p a i n t i n g s are domestic  others  (themulberry  flowers  leaves  painted  painters like  while  flowers  These a r e o r i g i n a l  pets  Some o f t h e s e  world  domestic  p a i n t i n g s , though  and d o m e s t i c  chicken),  employed  their  i n L i Shan's p a i n t i n g s i n c l u d e s a  and an a n i m a l  of Chinese  unorthodox  and  functioned.  insects eating mulberry  history  themselves  was a l s o a t t h e r o o t  of subject matter  pole  birds  between  album  literati scrambling  In these  up a  works  there  i s , i n a d d i t i o n t o an i n t e r m i n g l i n g of d o m e s t i c and  natural, subject yet  a naturalization matter  (the pine  aware o f t h e f u l l  or domestication  and t h e bamboo), a l t h o u g h  i m p l i c a t i o n s of  In  Zheng X i e ' s  paintings there  placing  the subject  matter  his  theoretical  scrolls range  of t r a d i t i o n a l  naturalized handling It between the  through  and s c h o l a r l y s u b j e c t  i s important  t o note  how t h i s which  as t h e n a t u r a l w o r l d .  Shan's work, t h e p a i n t e r and p a t r o n outside  of the domestic  provides of  the space.  We  how Z h e n g X i e c o u l d  qualify order  t h e meaning  place. have  seen  moralize  Chapter  (See Chapter  specifies  This  ideas. relationship  the site for  i n contrast toL i  share  a space which i s the painter examples  a n d how h e  he c r e a t e s  could  i n paint i n  from the patron  2, t h e b a m b o o s h o o t  the painter's a b i l i t y  i s  i n two p a i n t i n g s  f o r the p a i n t i n g of Orchid,  illustrates  up a  i n h i s work  of the space  small  on s e t t i n g .  Of c o u r s e ,  t o d e m a n d some p a r t i c i p a t i o n  audience  matter  sets  Thus,  whether i n  This  h i s use of S h i t a o ' s  t h e p a i n t e r and p a t r o n  meeting  emphasis  upon  of h i s hanging  r o c k - p l u s - p l a n t genre.  h a s much t o d o w i t h  I am n o t  i s an emphasis  or the bulk  Zheng X i e ' s  literati  these.  i n the n a t u r a l realm,  inscriptions  i n the l i t e r a t i  o f some  or  p a i n t i n g and  Bamboo, a n d R o c k ) .  t o a c t as an a r b i t e r  this This of  morality. There tension  i s a possibility,  however,  between t h e n a t u r a l s e t t i n g  connotations  o f Zheng X i e ' s  work.  that  there  and t h e  was a  literati  The l i t e r a t i  statement  which  i s Zheng X i e ' s  natural  focus  o r Dao a s p e c t  painting  time  of t h e work.  of Cymbidium.  A categorization  entails a qualification  Bamboo  For example, h i s  and F u n g i  tensions  i n their  some o f t h e s u g g e s t i o n s order  t o do s o I w i l l  made  rely  o f L i Shan and Zheng X i e .  formulaic  than  veneer  of the time  of o f f i c i a l  contradictions  the personal  the o f f i c i a l  to present  tensions  sources  the dynamics which  of the  to ascertain the  this  thesis.  upon b i o g r a p h i c a l  attitudes  above.  and a c t t o summarize  throughout  which  realities  suggest  help  paintings  materials  They s e r v e  discussed  o f some o f t h e m a j o r  f o r L i Shan and Zheng X i e w i l l  possible  of the  and  In  other  s i t u a t i o n s and These  sources  quoted  are less  i n Chapter  1.  of the h i s t o r i c a l  are neatly  h i s t o r y , and which  concealed  beneath the  c a n be r e a d  between d i f f e r e n t artworks  i n the  and a r t w o r k s and  texts. There between gained  the status  and  found  that  and t h a t  I t could  or the rules  between p a i n t i n g instrument painting,  with  possible  1. T h e  tension  during  preconceptions  he h a d l i t t l e  on b y o t h e r s .  criteria  of tensions:  w h i c h L i Shan and Zheng X i e would  The l i t e r a t u s  reception.  heaped  types  traditionally  century. status  are four  control  n o t be c h o s e n ,  The l i t e r a t u s  of the l i t e r a t i  life.  h i s reputation  b u t was  no l o n g e r  activity  eighteenth  or hopes f o r  over  for attaining status.  as a commercial  the  have  rather  defined 2. T h e  the tension  and as an  3. T h e t e n s i o n  c a l l i g r a p h y , and w r i t i n g i n t h e case  between  o f Zheng X i e .  4.  The  tension  situations one's  between  and  friends With  the of  to  success the  status,  we  already  Chapter  1,  concerning  eighteenth  established  of  We  i n the  number  literati  artist  was  was  a  of  indicates  competitors.  It  his  significance My  belief  i s that  Europe.  Zheng X i e ' s  patrons. Xie  as  a  1 4  the  eighteenth  price  pretense  of  works  outright  about  them.  manner, which  the  not  i n the  of  two  patrons  regard  rapid the  fact  painting  comment of  attitudes as  the  equal  of  decline  to  of  refuting  i t did  in  toady  towards  have e i t h e r  painter  painter  sells  Zheng  readings  a t t a i n works or  the  in  painting  what the  have,  status  s a m e way  alternate  might to  i f the may  the  quoted  to  without  Zbeng X i e  in  the  of  the  number  common a t t i t u d e  scholars  way,  and  well  did  example  being  Either  as  century  According list,  artists  in China  large at  in  scholar.  frequently  i s p a r t l y an  painter.  Zheng X i e ' s  a  but  in  the  qualms about  the  patrons,  or  of  active  Zheng X i e ' s  popularity  I t suggests  Europe,  artist,  at  loss  underestimate  In  an  oneself  tension,  scholars  a disgust  being  i n the  of  lifestyle.  their  Yangzhou  advertisement  just  these  comment q u o t e d  h a v e had  a disgust  of  of  not  from  convince  competitors,  includes  t h o s e many t o w a r d s the  of  escape  method.  kind  number  may  not  more t h a n  the  should  reputations  part  of  comments.  increase  only  truly  Zheng X i e ' s  the  these  of  to  first  have  century.  implications  methods  inability  the  regard  the  taken  on  bought thinks  works  sarcastic  of  tone  in of  this the  100  price  list  attitudes  expresses towards  could  are  argue  that his  f o r what  Zheng X i e  with  whom he  Xie's  the  his  labeled large  l o s s of "the  painting salable tension, could  face  commitment  l o s s of  to  to  h i s peace  to  argument smaller  others,  save,  would  be  groups  for  which  Zheng argues  p a i n t i n g , appears  in  of  i n popular  scholar, There  1 5  as  mind, while  he  was  i s evidence  Zheng X i e ' s  crowds  opinion  works,  of  a  which  which  both  interrupting his  Zheng X i e  had  to  resort  advertisement. type  a part  of  commodities. elite  of  One  face  certain identities of  "my  etc.  Evidence  i s evident  on  a  theory.  identity  L i Shan w r o t e  My  commercial  i n L i Shan and take  is still  to d e a l .  status  than  the  through  i n f r o n t of  painting  h i s chosen  album"  face  over  with  state that  looking?  f o r some g r o u p s  interest  second as  was  more p l e a s e d  a pressure  or  i s saving  old painting master."  a painting The  a  Shan's  for the  Then t h e r e  saving  Zheng X i e ' s  resented.  leisure, to  was  was  full  scale  applied men  a  f o r m of Li  and  patrons.  preference  against  Zheng X i e  is different  which might  taels  purpose—who  that  This  price list  f o r s a l e , 20  criticizing but  painter's displeasure  himself.  straight-forward scrolls  the  of  tension  i s that  literati This  life  and  i s related to  s t a t u s , which  was  have p r e v i o u s l y p r o v i d e d  an  lost  between  viewing  viewing the  paintings  first  to a great  arena  i n which  hobby or  a c o n t r o l l e d exchange c o u l d  take  example of  t h i s t e n s i o n i s Zheng X i e ' s  attempt  kind  to  of  extent,  and  painting  place.  as  as  An raise  the  101  level  of p a i n t i n g  practice a  and l e s s  d i r e c t address The  in his painting inspired  tension  between  c a n be f o u n d  painting  theory  and  were  works.  efforts  contradiction. contradiction  An e x a m p l e c a n be f o u n d  suggests  which  certain  comments w h i c h  order  fame o f Zhuke L i a n g the t i t l e  implies Shi,  an a f f i n i t y  in spite  these  to h i s brother  Mo  functions  on t h e  four  commercial  he h a d a  while  i t i s vulgar  as a s c h o l a r  and  sale  to  painting  He a l s o  i t is  constant to paint which  in  he  comments on t h e t h e commonness  A t t h e same  himself  that  others,"  and c u r s e s  i n h i s day.  between  states  since  or " t o e n t e r t a i n  o f h i s own  brother  two p o s s i b i l i t i e s ,  outright  i n h i s o l d age.  "scholar"  written  this  ideas.  f o r the people,  he i s d o i n g  h i s "better"  considered  a comment  castigate  t o make a l i v i n g ,  states  of  supports  f o r Su S h i t o p a i n t ,  consideration  be  that  i n t h e two p o s s i b l e  i n China  harmless  suggests  to his  classes  letter  are  and c a l l i g r a p h y and t h e  a letter  and c o m m e r c i a l ,  Zheng X i e ' s  paintings  of  his belief  of l i t e r a t i  not present  of h i s awareness  literati  detriment  Xie's  Z h e n g X i e was a w a r e o f t h e  art,  the  Zheng  of p a i n t i n g  should  i n which  without  commercial  The c o m m e r c i a l  This  works  and  i n which  aspects  general  1 6  literati  upon p o e t r y  "simple"  contradictory  of  often  of the a r t i s t .  h i s more  Mo w h i c h  images, which  ideal  emphasizes  of the emphasis  involvement  its  i n t h e way  h i s more c o m m e r c i a l  void  above  to the r e c i p i e n t .  painting  in  theory  time,  and Zhuke L i a n g  activities.  1  7  he  a n d Su  This  affinity Shi to  which  and  Zhuke L i a n g  paint  This  Zheng X i e  for a  inherent  in his  because  of  the  continuation  to  strong  of  Su  the  life  Shi  to  the  fame of  example,  treated  as  ancestral saved  a  Yangzhou  As  Wen  room  T o n g , and  illustrate his  by  letter  below the for with  the the  should, good  likely to  farmer  his on  the  proviso  Northern  for  doubt  to  four  lowest  of  at  Su  or  had a  Dou's  Su  Shi,  events  must  while  they  expressed  Zheng  Xie  four p o s i t i o n s ,  produce m a t e r i a l 2  a moral  an  the  i n China,  intellectual  setting  in Li  society. ^*  good  he  during  Zheng X i e  the  m e r c h a n t who  a l l members o f  f o r him  c e r t a i n ideas  classes  w e l l as  own and  no  Song m a s t e r s ,  the  including practicing as  important  because  These a c t i o n s  9  i f an  tensions  him  built  activity  Mo.  that  time.  link  granaries  brother  the  the  this  was  suggestion  r e t e n t i o n of  i n the  and  b e n e f i t of  office  up  i s the  1  "having"  paintings,  largely  a certain identity  scholar  this  people  Zheng X i e ' s  Ouyang X i u .  his  the  of  his  the  which  Zheng X i e  The  opening  for three  In a passage places  county  there  Su  Liang.  his departure,  well,  have a d v e r t i s e d  in  on  Huafanqlu  sacrificial  Zhuke  had  and  makes f o r h i s  i n his best he  of  I find  Zheng X i e  ideas  famous s c h o l a r .  shrine  1 8  r e c o g n i t i o n of  experiences  i n Wei  many p e o p l e  famine.  common s c h o l a r s  argument  Shi's  himself  i n s p i t e of  painting activities.  of  For  the  Zheng X i e ' s  because and  between  opposes h i m s e l f  living  illustrates  constructs  He  does  does what  in  so  he  family affairs example  goods  and  retirement, Xie of  sees  shoot  on a m o r a l  example.  but probably  aversion  images. •  commercial  This argue,  images  that  to painting  In  order  to again  a tension  of  tension  suggested  Zheng X i e ' s of  of scholars  t h e more  and complex o f t h e image  He c h a r a c t e r i z e s  and r e f i n e d , he f o u n d  while  unacceptable.  of the f i r s t  loss of s t a t u s , I should c l a s s e s : t h e poor  kind  mention behaviour  g a v e a b a d name t o t h e f e w g o o d  i n c l u d i n g Zheng X i e h i m s e l f . A final  scholarly his  here,  o f Zheng  between  framing  out the existence  comment on t h e f o u r  t h e masses  ones,  as r a r e  i n a way t h a t  point  and  upon t h e o u t r i g h t s a l e o f  or bad, depending.  admitting  i n h i s bamboo  true, accounts  of  p a i n t i n g and behaviour  much  as  i n the anecdotal  i n Zheng X i e ' s  his  exception  as f a l l i n g  and t h e more p e r s o n a l i z e d  as good  the  sees himself  i m a g e s c a n be d e t e c t e d the scholar  B u t Zheng  we h a v e s e e n  partially  suggest  with  few o t h e r s ,  to a concentration  I would  6i  the farmer.  Thus he p r o b a b l y  p a i n t i n g and I would  idealized, Xie's  goal.  than  of s c h o l a r s , again  and an u n s p e c i f i e d  of this  passing  he i s h i g h e r  the majority  himself  short  then  argument  for the tension  a n d c o m m e r c i a l modes o f p a i n t i n g f o r Zheng X i e i s  o u t r i g h t c a s t i g a t i o n i n some  activities instances.  b e t w e e n t h e more  instances  i n p a i n t i n g , and a d m i t t a n c e F o r example  there  of commercial  of i t i n other  i s his letter  t o L i Shan:  I n t e n d a y s we h a v e n o t s e e n o n e a n o t h e r . . . C a n y o u come o v e r f o r a v i s i t w i t h m e ? . . . The p a i n t i n g b u s i n e s s , no d o u b t , i s p r e s s i n g , b u t t a l k i n g o f m a t t e r s a l s o c a n n o t be g i v e n u p . 2 2  104  This  letter  some k i n d  of l i t e r a t i  interference  literatus  sale  example o f Zheng  community  of commercial  sophisticated  There  i s a good  in art.  must  The  painting with  e x c h a n g e s and w i t h have o c c u r r e d  and t h e l i f e s t y l e s letter  description  connected  Xie's  with  stylistic  1745  when he came t o Y a n g z h o u , c o n t r a s t w i t h  i t seems,  Yangzhou,  painted  actively  after  and  h e was  concerning  records  L i Shan's  s t a t e what  sixty,  or  L i Shan's own.  L i  had r e g r e t s .  i s probably  regrets after  states  h i s return to  e v e n t h o u g h he t o o , a p p a r e n t l y ,  Biographical  of  Xie's  Zheng X i e ' s  after  well.  methods  e v o l u t i o n which  L i Shan's  of p r o f e s s i o n a l goals  as  a  them.  that  statement  p a i n t i n g s weakened  more  of being  life  and t h e comment w i t h i n Zheng  of L i Shan's  direct  L i Shan's  the pleasures  i n Zheng  need f o r  very  i s a c o n t r a d i c t i o n between the d i f f e r e n t  This  Shan,  Xie's  a partial  truth  retiring:  He was d i s o b e d i e n t t o a g r e a t m i n i s t e r , a n d s o was d i s c h a r g e d a n d r e t u r n e d ( h o m e ) . He t h e n b u i l t t h e F u o u g u a n i n t h e s o u t h e r n par>t o f t h e c i t y . He h o w l e d and i n t o n e d u n t i l t h e e n d . 2 3  However, professionally Hangzhou  just  L i Shan's i s clear prior  acceptance  of h i s need t o p a i n t  in his letter  t o h i s nephew i n  t o L i S h a n ' s move t o Y a n g z h o u ,  i n 1745:  I hope y o u a r e most w e l l nephew. I n Teng c o u n t y we d i d n o t t a l k . When I r e t u r n e d home we h u r r i e d l y s p o k e a n d t h e n w e n t o u r own w a y s f o r y e a r s — e n d u r i n g t h e c o r n e r s of t h e e a r t h . . . I have a l r e a d y d e c i d e d t o l i v e a t home. Recently I again h a d t h o u g h t s of. l e a v i n g t h e m o u n t a i n s t o come t o the p r e f e c t u r a l c i t y h o l d i n g the begging bowl, making a plan to enter the c a p i t a l . A t t h e end o f t h e t e n t h m o n t h I l e f t home...What I n e e d b a d l y i s t o b u y p a i n t i n g b r u s h e s . A t my p l a c e , t h e  105  brushes o v e r f i l l the case, but a l l are u n f i t t o use because t h e y a r e a l l m a k e s h i f t goods, and n o t retail sales. I n Hangzhou t h e p a i n t i n g b r u s h stores are numerous... 2 4  Zheng Yangzhou  Xie's statement  to paint,  Li  Shan's d e a t h  to  talk  over  painting  correct  as w e l l  matters  literati  his  letter  his  comment  Yangzhou.  attitudes  simultaneous.  same moment  after  an a c c e p t a n c e  commercial  Thus he  wrote  activities after  h i s move t o these  Instead  time,  I believe  are the central  fact  since they are that the contradictions of the time.  example of c o n t r a s t i n g c a n be g a t h e r e d  views  expressed  at the  by comparing  L i Shan's  letter  the aquisition  of p a i n t i n g  o f t h e same  brushes  Thus, a t L i Shan's  Zheng  time  with h i s purchase  of Yangzhou as r e c o r d e d X i e foresaw  some k i n d  to and  year:  When l e a d i n g t h e o x o u t t o p l o u g h t h e f i e l d s , Do a p a i n t i n g a s b e f o r e - - p l a y w i t h t h e b r u s h . . . Your w h i t e h a i r o v e r f l o w s your s h o u l d e r s - - t h e l o f t y ideal ( f o r officialdom) i s but a s h e s .  part  and  be e x p l a i n e d w i t h t h e n o t i o n o f  X i e ' s poem t o L i S h a n  equivalent  of  B u t Zheng X i e  t h a t one c a n r e c o n c i l e  through  nephew c o n c e r n i n g  Zheng  of l i f e .  on L i Shan's w e a k e n i n g a b i l i t y  changing  A good  indicates  w i t h more v i g o u r .  L i Shan's  I do n o t t h i n k  themselves  i n o l d age  what he p e r c e i v e d t o be a more  castigating  nor can they  his  as a f a c t  lifestyle  sources,  L i Shan i n  n o l o n g e r h a v e a n y o n e w i t h whom  of p a i n t i n g ,  t o hold onto  to join  a s h i s comment  t h a t he w i l l  commercially  attempted  of going  2 5  of r e t i r e m e n t , which i s of t h e Fuouguan i n the biography  i n the southern quoted  above,  of retirement i n the t r a d i t i o n a l  106  sense.  He a l s o h o p e d  retirement.  There  to continue  o f L i Shan's  approximately  t h e same t i m e .  the  his office hopes  perceived In  letter  reaching  Ten y e a r s  and had i d e a s  expressed  reasserted  within  i s some c o n t r a d i c t i o n b e t w e e n t h i s  w h e n we t h i n k  left  the friendship  later,  Zheng X i e t o o  of p a i n t i n g i n Yangzhou.  t o an e x t e n t  i n the face  of l o s i n g h i s  status.  order  t o ensure  that  I do n o t i d e a l i z e  Zheng X i e I  an example  of a p a i n t i n g t r a n s a c t i o n .  example, though  anecdotal,  joins  advertisment  the  to give  i n Zheng X i e ' s range  This  situations  of the time, This  the  which  problems  with  the sarcastic  painting  towards  to h i s patrons,  commercial  painting.  and t h e c o m p l e x i t y  c a n be u s e d  along  with  Zheng X i e had w i t h  of  the story  these  the i n f o r m a t i o n of  commercial  painting in  he f a c e d .  here:  In h i s l a t e r years i n Yangzhou, Banqiao's r e p u t a t i o n grew d a i l y . One m e r c h a n t w i s h e d t o o b t a i n a c a l l i g r a p h y by Banqiao. He s e n t s o m e o n e t o t a c t f u l l y r e q u e s t B a n q i a o ' s c a l l i g r a p h y , and m o r e o v e r r e q u e s t t h a t he compose a l i n e . Banqiao a s k e d 1,000 t a e l s . The ( m e s s e n g e r ) c o n s e n t e d t o 500 t a e l s . Banqiao completed the f i r s t l i n e . The messenger requested him t o w r i t e t h e second l i n e . B a n q i a o l a u g h i n g , s a i d : " I c l e a r l y s a i d 1,000 taels. You o n l y p a i d 500. I t h e r e f o r e have written only one-half." 2 6  The  second  kind  and  o r a c t i o n shows t h e r a n g e o f  to get a better p i c t u r e of the tensions paraphrased  This  p i c t u r e of t h e range of  language w i t h regard  of a t t i t u d e  situations.  have  us a f u l l e r  of h i s a t t i t u d e s  range  order  But  doubt  want t o p r e s e n t  tone  poem  Hangzhou a t  i n h i s poem t o L i S h a n no  themselves  this  of tension  involves quality: the  I  107  quality of and  of  the  a r t , and the  work,  the  work.  tension  the  q u a l i t y of  q u a l i t y of The  basic  argument  between p r o d u c i n g  scholarly  environment  thought  and  better  I have suggested  recognized  p r a c t i c a l option,  A issue  tensions third of  conflict  for For  his  identifies  Li  the  w r i t i n g and example,  writer  c a l l i g r a p h y over  of  the  the  for  an  to  the  related  of  has  painter  of  the  type face.  do  to  with  written  L i Shan,  time,  the the  especially  recognition  painting.  a  a  directly  autobiography  his  was  to  recognition,  and  was  more  former  to  work  anonymous  latter  c a l l i g r a p h y and  in his  there  works the  the  exchange  in a  instead  compares h i m s e l f  Shan as  is that  s o m e t i m e s had  i s not  tension  i n the  art  ties  scholar  tension  This  Zheng X i e  emphasizes  as  of  the  the  of  of  while  between d i f f e r e n t types  painting. which  type  quality.  recognition  in  which  then, works  that  exchange  involved  producing  patronage.  caused  the  He and  in  for 1749  he also himself  time:  Z h e n g X i e was g o o d a t c a l l i g r a p h y , a n d c a l l e d himself " L i u f e n Banshu." A l s o , he u s e d h i s f r e e t i m e t o p a i n t o r c h i d and bamboo. If princes, d u k e s and m i n i s t e r s , h i g h m i n i s t e r s , l i t e r a t i , o l d monks of t h e m o u n t a i n s . . . o b t a i n e d one p i e c e of p a p e r w i t h some c a l l i g r a p h y u p o n i t , t h e y t r e a s u r e d i t and s t o r e d i t away. But B a n q i a o n e v e r t o o k t h e s e p e o p l e as a p r e t e n s e t o b e c o m i n g famous. O n l y h i s f e l l o w countyman L i Shan F u t a n g was a m u t u a l f r i e n d . . . F u t a n g used h i s p a i n t i n g to worship i n the inner court. D u r i n g the t i m e of t h e K a n g x i e m p e r o r ' s c o u r t L i S h a n ' s name was g r e a t i n t h e c a p i t a l and e l s e w h e r e . . . T w e n t y y e a r s l a t e r , b e c a u s e of h i s p o e t r y , c i . p o e t r y , and w r i t i n g , Z h e n g X i e was a s f a m o u s a s L i S h a n . T h o s e who sought p a i n t i n g c a l l e d Futang; those who s o u g h t p o e t r y and l i t e r a t u r e c a l l e d B a n q i a o . Li r e t i r e d f r o m h i s p o s t as t h e m a g i s t r a t e of Teng county. B a n q i a o was a x i u c a i i n t h e r e i g n o f t h e  108 K a n g x i e m p e r o r , was a j u r e n i n t h e r e n z i y e a r o f t h e r e i g n o f t h e Y o n g z h e n g e m p e r o r ( 1 7 3 2 ) , a n d was a ji n s h i i n the bingchen year of the r e i g n of the Q i a n l o n g emperor (1736). F i r s t h e was t h e m a g i s t r a t e i n F a n c o u n t y ; he t h e n c o n t i n u e d a f t e r h e was t r a n s f e r e d t o W e i c o u n t y . 2 7  In for  this  Zheng  rather  Banqiao  activity.  He  flattering  s e l f - a p p r a i s a l we  considered painting  emphasizes h i s o f f i c e  in this  passage;  painting  has a s i m i l a r r o l e  to that  Shi,  as Zheng  Xie described  His overriding  however,  i s that  calligraphy artworks primary those upon  of  true,  which  importance  However,  and  Zheng  Xie utilizes  pairings.  He  To  the important  the  those  artist  founded  method  at this  time.  also  extremely  most q u i c k l y  personal  This  i s the  interested  in painting  a certain reputation  is largely  at the  the sale  Worst o f a l l f o r Zheng  of  X i e was  like  time.  paintings the  and c a l l i g r a p h y  without  way  one's  be p u r c h a s e d ,  popular  through  of  this  and c a l l i g r a p h y become t h e k e y t o  calligraphies. which  than  a pairing  consideration  were  in  the  some e x t e n t  antiquities  and  t o be  constructs  and c a l l i g r a p h i e s c o u l d  garnered  his  the Chinese  because p a i n t i n g s  Fame was  that  he w a n t s  by t h e i r b a c k g r o u n d s and  reputation  which  concern,  w r i t i n g , t o be v a l u e d more  and L i t h e p a i n t e r .  However,  painting  Su  talent.  through  judging  of  more t h a n h i s  T h u s , he w a n t s h i s r e p u t a t i o n  the w r i t e r  and  i n the l i f e  Xie states  very popular.  h i s argument  argument  be v a l u e d  Zheng  a r t of the s c h o l a r ,  histories. in  been  his literary  Zheng was  and p a i n t i n g .  had  arts.  In  his writings  that  t o be a l e i s u r e  thus  i t .  see  h i s consent.  way gave Thus  Zheng  Xie states,  pretense  t o becoming  This went  concern  painting  and  calligraphy We  a scholar  to  He  these  people  Xie's best painting  d i d not abandon into  as  a  a s Su S h i had that  b e i n g based  frame h i m s e l f and  he  but t r i e d  to  solely  the importance  Thus  of p o e t r y  done.  this  b i o g r a p h y on L i S h a n ,  painting,  after  a more a c c e p t a b l e one.  theory reemphasizes  should note  took  famous."  i t ssignificance  his  never  i n f o r m s Zheng  t o Yangzhou.  reform  the  "but Banqiao  concern upon  painting  in spite  his friend  f o r the reputation appears  of Zheng  Xie's  also  of in  attempts  historically:  ( L i S h a n ) was l e a r n e d a n d c o u l d w r i t e ; h i s p o e m s were u n c o n v e n t i o n a l l y g r a c e f u l and n a t u r a l , and h i s c a l l i g r a p h y had t h e c o l o u r o f w i l l o w , bones and m u s c l e s . The w o r l d h a s m e r e l y p a s s e d on statements of h i s s k i l l i n p a i n t i n g . 2 8  There everything whatever tension There  i s a fourth t o do  with  involvement  tension  of the time  the painter's i n painting  between the s c h o l a r ' s  attempts  he h a d .  claim  that  and  to  This  i t s reception.  a continual  tension  different  individuals  staked out f o r themselves  which  at the time  t h o s e whose o p i n i o n s m a t t e r e d  t h e y wanted t o c i r c u l a t e ,  eighteenth  century individuals  defined  tradition  status  as l i t e r a t i  The  were  between  t o them accept  cut free  and y e t wanted t o s u r v i v e  what  and  what  or groups of  in  i t . In the  from  a  well-  or a s s e r t  their  to various degrees.  various levels  investigated  would  justify i s the  was  others,  has  of " m o r a l i t y "  i n more d e p t h ,  b u t two  at the time  n e e d t o be  e x a m p l e s a r e Zheng  Xie's  l i o  castigation about  how  scholar.  2 9  o f L i Shan and Yuan M e i ' s  the s e l l i n g  of lanterns  w a r n i n g t o J i n Nong  i s unbefitting  a  1.  The  Elegant Brush,  2.  Appendix  3.  The  4.  Cheng-chi  Hsu,  Patronage,  5.  Cheng-chi  Hsu,  Patronage,  2,  number  Elegant Brush,  19 8 5,  164.  5. 19 8 5 ,  172. 1987,  249.  1987.  6. T h e f a c t t h a t t h i s i s i n i t s e l f a t o p i c o f i n t e r e s t came o u t i n t h e r e s p o n s e t o my t h e s i s p r o p o s a l a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 7.  I n Zhuang  Shen,  " L i Shan s h i c h a o , " 1972,  58.  8. J a m e s C a h i l l , T h r e e A l t e r n a t i v e H i s t o r i e s , 1988, 65. C a h i l l d i s c u s s e s the e a r l y appearance of the t a l i s m a n i c a s p e c t o f p a i n t i n g s and m e n t i o n s i t s l a t e r p r e s e n c e i n S h i t a o and o t h e r s i n a c c o r d w i t h t h e c l a i m t h a t t h e y participated in natural creation. 9. E d m o n d C a p o n a n d Mae A n n a P a n g , C h i n e s e Ming and Q i n g D y n a s t i e s , 1981, 156. 10.  James C a h i l l ,  The  C o m p e l l i n g Image,  11.  Appendix  2,  number  3.  12.  Appendix  2,  number  4.  Paintings  of  the  1982.  13. R e p r o d u c e d i n C o m p r e h e n s i v e Illustrated JM11-032, A31-063, JM3-172, r e s p e c t i v e l y .  Catalog,  1982,  1 4 . " S i x t a e l s f o r a l a r g e p a i n t i n g . . . B e t t e r g i v e me silver (money) r a t h e r t h a n any g i f t s or f o o d s t u f f s , f o r t h e l a t t e r may n o t d o v e t a i l t o my n e e d s . However, i f you s h o u l d b r i n g c a s h , mmy h e a r t w i l l r e j o i c e a n ( c o n s e q u e n t l y ) my c a l l i g r a p h y and p a i n t i n g w i l l be o f b e t t e r q u a l i t y . Gifts are t r o u b l e s o m e , and p u r c h a s e s on c r e d i t e v e n l e s s w e l c o m e . I am o l d a n d e a s i l y f a t i g u e d , a n d u n a b l e t o s p e n d t i m e a r g u i n g w i t h you gentlemen... L e t o t h e r s wrangle or argue o v e r p r i c e , i t i s b u t a u t u m n w i n d p a s s i n g b y my e a r s " ( T h e E l e g a n t B r u s h . 1985, 1 6 9 ) . 15.  Chapter  2.  1 6 . T h e a n e c d o t e w h i c h a p p e a r s a s A p p e n d i x 1, n u m b e r 4 i l l u s t r a t e s how a n i n s c r i p t i o n t o t h e o w n e r r a d i c a l l y changed the meaning of the work, s i n c e the p a r t i c u l a r m e r c h a n t i n v o l v e d h a d some p a i n t i n g s b y Z h e n g X i e , b u t s o u g h t f o r one w i t h s u c h an i n s c r i p t i o n .  17. T h i s p a s s a g e i s t r a n s l a t e d by V i c k i " E c c e n t r i c i t y , " 1972, 124-125. 18. See h i s n i a n b i a o 1962, a p p e n d i x ) . 19.  Appendix  20.  Vicki  21.  F o r example  22.  Appendix  under  1, n u m b e r  the year  3, v o l u m e  Frances Weinstein, the anecdote  2, n u m b e r  1752  Frances (Zheng  Weinstein, Banqiao  i i .  12.  "Eccentricity," i n Appendix  1972, 30.  1, n u m b e r  4.  7.  23. J i n Nong i s a l s o l i k e l y t o have w a i l e d somewhat b u t p a i n t e d a c t i v e l y . We h a v e s e e n e v i d e n c e f o r L i S h a n ' s h o w l i n g i n Yangzhou i n Zheng X i e ' s l u e i u q u o t e d i n c h a p t e r two. This a d d i t i o n a l evidence i s i n h i s biography i n the Xinghua L i s h i zhuanlue (Biographies of the L i F a m i l y of X i n g h u a ) ( A p p e n d i x 2, n u m b e r 4 ) . 2 4 . R e p r o d u c e d i n Wang Z i e h e n ' s a r t i c l e 1 9 8 2 , 94 ( A p p e n d i x 2, n u m b e r 1 ) .  " L i Shan  2 5 . A p p e n d i x 2, n u m b e r 2. T h e d a t e o f 1 7 4 5 l i s t e d o b t a i n e d f r o m Zheng X i e ' s n i a n b i a o (Zheng B a n q i a o appendix). 26.  Appendix  1, n u m b e r  4.  27.  Appendix  1, n u m b e r  2.  28.  Appendix  2, n u m b e r  4.  29.  Chapter  2.  Shouzha," above i s j i , 1962,  113  CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSION Painting s t i l l  for the literatus  meant s o m e t h i n g  commercial  functions.  eighteenth  century  was  the place  activities their  as an a r t f o r m o u t s i d e Many s c h o l a r s  b e c a u s e i t was  where  they could  of the s c h o l a r ,  f r i e n d s were.  home p r e f e c t u r e ,  and  It  a place  Each a r t i s t commercial of  sale  Finding  were  reacted  involved  As w e l l , officials  n o r was  painters  for survival.  to  paint  their  the  of t h e i r  of  images.  outright  qualification  Shan n o t o n l y  reputations,  method  them.  liked  as w e l l  p r o f e s s i o n a l l y i t seems t h a n  scholars  Their  fame of  as p r o v i d i n g  He  was  The  i t or not.  had a d i f f e r e n t b a c k g r o u n d  a d i f f e r e n t temperament.  the  of the  and t h e  shaped the r e c e p t i o n  different  but also  i t presented  the idea  this  preceded  expectations,  Xie,  where  Z h e n g X i e i t was  market whether they  works and t h e i r  Li  the place  a happy medium o f s a l e , a  reputations  or court  It  cultural  under the c o n t r o l of the p a i n t e r .  in this  tools  also  from the s a l e  t o and c r e a t e d  their  i t was  center.  s c h o l a r l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s informed  not easy;  of p a i n t i n g s  market  i n the  i n the  of c o n t r a d i c t i o n s .  exchange i n which  e x c h a n g e , was  t o Yangzhou  engage  had p r o b l e m s w i t h  sale.  century  of i t s  the c u l t u r a l  and f o r them as w e l l  t o make a l i v i n g  also  went  F o r L i Shan and  opportunity was  i n the eighteenth  as  their them  from  more  with  Zheng  willing  Zheng X i e , y e t h i s  114  ideals  were  very  much t h e same.  His ability  i n p a i n t i n g and  his  r e p u t a t i o n made i t p o s s i b l e a n d , i t s e e m s ,  him  to live  warped Xie's  from h i s p a i n t i n g .  His ideals  necessary f o r  thus  took  form w i t h i n h i s p a i n t i n g s ; a form of sarcasm. ideals  a l s o appeared  advertisement official greater  and e l s e w h e r e .  he was a b l e leverage  patronage.  i n the sarcasm However,  t o formulate  Thus,  Zheng  X i e had t h e time  theory  of p a i n t i n g which  ideals  which  L i Shan  with  with  illustrated  shared  h i s fame a s a n which  a more  gave h i m  select  t o formulate  the ideals  but could  Zheng  of h i sp a i n t i n g  a position  i n h i srelationship  a  a  he h e l d ,  not express  i n such  a  form. In of  this  thesis  two a s p i r i n g  with are  s c h o l a r s , Zheng  the circumstances  i n which  to point  they  i n t h e more t r a d i t i o n a l  nineteenth-century upon  the lines The  century  character  determined painter. which  literati formed  patron,  mode a n d  followed to a great and s u b j e c t  and i n t h e n i n e t e e n t h  I n between,  Scholars  seventeenth  a n d who l a c k e d  works t o  was  from an eager  century,  who i s d e f i n i n g t h e n a t u r e who w e r e  extent  matter.  who s o l d  century  who b o u g h t w o r k s  i n the eighteenth  i ti s unclear  community  seventeenth-century  by a s c h o l a r c l a s s  by t h e patron  art.  style  clashed  The t e n s i o n s  of scholar p a i n t i n g i n the  was d e t e r m i n e d  an e a g e r  lived.  literati  p a i n t i n g which  o f L i Shan's  o u t how t h e i d e a s  X i e and L i Shan,  l o c a t e d c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y between  painting  at  I have t r i e d  i s a  stage  of  not a part  of a  clearly  the support  of a  tradition  struck  out  what t h e y this the  on  their  own  considered  r e t e n s i o n of suitability  particular  to  the  of  the  be  trying  the  artist's  acceptable  f o r the  Instead  The  course  proper  between  the  extent  explicit  of  to  of  which  depended  to  upon  their  scholars, individuals Yuan M e i ,  s c h o l a r , and  there of  The  aspects  activities.  population  agreement.  retain  sentiment  Zheng X i e , L i S h a n , J i n Nong and was  to  scholarly.  s c h o l a r l y was  commercial  Within  while  was  statement,  a c t i o n was  s c h o l a r s as  there  i t was  as  argued was  about  no  what  certain  request,  unclear  like  and  i n the  rebuke.  discourse  between  them and  their  p e r s p e c t i v e , the  literati  tradition  patrons. In  an  historical  could  more e a s i l y  court  i n the  Northern  force  of  rise  the  economics. in  the  The  time  painting  of  under  governmental paintings by  had  of  the  the  Su  Shi  the  merchant  was  clearly  Emperor  accession  and  century.  purification  of  c l a s s which  the  of  to  to  used the  driving  rooted into  the  the  in  play  court  system which  Thus t h e  of those  utilized  i n opposition to  time.  the  the  tradition  itself.  filled  While  brought  opposed and  was  bloodlines with  i t was  i n upon was  was  of  and  When i n d i v i d u a l i s m was  tradition  turned  restrictions  restrictions  Huizong,  through  L i Shan  Individualism eighteenth  the  i n d i v i d u a l i s m which  literati  already  political  Song t h a n  were a s s o c i a t e d .  Zheng X i e  standard  escape  with  contradictions in  i n d i v i d u a l i s m can  literati  tradition,  be  i t was  seen also a  the as  a  bid  116  for  professional success;  fact  based  upon  individualism  the largely  at that  time  was i n  p r o f e s s i o n a l unorthodox p a i n t i n g  tradition. Individualism literati  tradition  paintings. to  escape  literati  i n new indicate  ways?  and a method  paintings  which  problematic;  extent  L i S h a n who  n o t Zheng X i e .  influence, the  we  were s u b l i m a t e d  to the l i t e r a t u s  the fact  as  a painter.  century  commercial  was  the later  produced  the  less  i n the paintings.  of  and t h e d i s a p p e a r a n c e  see Zheng X i e ' s  that  the  asked  retaining  much  pre-eighteenth-  I n t h e p o p u l a r i t y of L i Shan's p a i n t i n g i n  economics of the time.  by  must be  L i Shan's works were  meaningful  nineteenth  i n the  nineteenth-  of  the  framing  progress.  h o w e v e r , i t was  a l l tensions  times.  by  These q u e s t i o n s  p a i n t i n g s were more p r o b l e m a t i c ,  century  allow painters  does  Zheng X i e ' s w h a t was  selling  the painter's p a r t i c i p a t i o n  i n f l u e n c e d more c o m m e r c i a l  painting,  of  of the time  To w h a t  i n the f i e l d  Historically,  the dominant  did individualism  c u l t u r e of the time?  as s t u d i e s  century  extent  of escaping  the economic pressures ideas  merchant  a method  of the time  To w h a t  individualism  again  was  successs  This  of Zheng  i n being  success  inimical  i s also  price  of h i s incomplete  c u l t u r e of the eighteenth "disappearance"  absorption  century,  of h i s p a i n t i n g .  to  indicated  Zheng X i e i s b e t t e r known as a w r i t e r  The  Xie's  than into  however,  117  BIBLIOGRAPHY In t h i s b i b l i o g r a p h y , C h i n e s e s o u r c e s appear i n b o t h C h i n e s e and E n g l i s h . A r t i c l e and mongraph t i t l e s and t h e names o f p e r i o d i c a l s a p p e a r f i r s t i n C h i n e s e , t h e C h i n e s e versions being referred to frequently, while the publisher appears f i r s t i n E n g l i s h , p u b l i s h i n g firms being l e s s w e l l known. I n a l l c a s e s , t h e s e a r e f o l l o w e d by b r a c k e t e d translations. Abbreviation: Quanj i= Zheng B a n q i a o g u a n i i (The Complete Works o f Zheng B a n q i a o ) . E d i t e d by B i a n X i a o x u a n . Nanjing: Nanjing U n i v e r s i t y Research Center f o r C l a s s i c a l Records (Nanjing daxue gudian wenxian y a n j i u s u o ) , 1985.  A r t i s t s and T r a d i t i o n s . Uses of t h e P a s t i n C h i n e s e E d i t e d b y C h r i s t i a n F. M u r c k . Princeton: Princeton U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1976.  Culture.  Banqiao s h i c i x i e y i n g ( S e l e c t e d W r i t i n g s and P o e t r y of Banqiao). 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P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l Symposium on C h i n e s e P a i n t i n g . 1 9 7 2 , 1-52. (1957),  "The Toleration 27-29 a n d 52-54.  of Eccentrics."  A r t News. 3  130 . "Tung C h ' i - c h ' a n g ( 1 5 5 5 - 1 6 3 6 ) : A p a t h y i n Government and F e r v o r i n A r t . " C o n f u c i a n P e r s o n a l i t i e s . 1962, 260-293. Wu W i l l i a m . "Kung H s i e n ' s S t y l e A r t . N.S. X V I , 1 ( S p r i n g 1 9 7 0 ) ,  and S k e t c h b o o k s . " 72-80.  Oriental  Xu X i u n o n g . Y a n g z h o u b a i i a h u a j i ( R e c o r d s o f P a i n t i n g s b y the E i g h t P a i n t e r s of Yangzhou). From t h e Nanjing Natural H i s t o r y Museum C o l l e c t i o n . B e i j i n g : B e i j i n g C u l t u r a l R e l i c s P u b l i s h i n g S o c i e t y ( B e i j i n g wenwu c h u b a n s h e ) , 1 9 5 9 . Xue Y o n g n i a n . " L i Shan de j i a s h i y u z a o q i z u o p i n " ( L i Shan's F a m i l y H i s t o r y and t h e Works o f h i s E a r l y P e r i o d ) . Meishu y a n i i u ( A r t R e s e a r c h ) , 1986, no.2, 80-85. Yang L i e n - s h e n g . "The O r g a n i z a t i o n o f C h i n e s e O f f i c i a l H i s t o r i o g r a p h y : P r i n c i p l e s and Methods o f t h e S t a n d a r d H i s t o r i e s f r o m t h e T'ang Through t h e M i n g . " H i s t o r i a n s o f C h i n a and J a p a n , 1961, 44-59. Yang X i a n y i and G l a d y s Yang t r a n s l . Scholars. Transl. B e i j i n g : Foreign F i r s t e d i t i o n 1957.  Wu J i n g z i . The Languages P r e s s , 1964.  Yang X i n . Yangzhou b a q u a i (The E i g h t E c c e n t r i c s o f Yangzhou). Beijing: Cultural Artifacts Publishing (Wenwu c h u b a n s h e ) , 1 9 8 1 .  Society  Yangzhou b a g u a i q u a n i i (The Complete Works o f t h e E i g h t E c c e n t r i c s of Yangzhou). E d i t e d by L i u Shengbai. T a i b e i : A r t Book Company ( Y i s h u t u s h u g o n g s i ) , 1 9 7 9 . Yangzhou b a j i a hua j i ( C o l l e c t i o n of P a i n t i n g s by t h e E i g h t P a i n t e r s of Yangzhou). E d i t e d b y Xu S h e n n o n g . Nanjing: C u l t u r a l A r t i f a c t s P u b l i s h i n g S o c i e t y (Wenwu c h u b a n s h e ) , 1959 . Y a n g z h o u b a j i a h u a x u a n (A S e l e c t i o n o f P a i n t i n g s b y t h e E i g h t P a i n t e r s o f Y a n g z h o u ) . T i a n j i n A r t Museum. T i a n j i n : The P e o p l e ' s A r t P u b l i s h i n g S o c i e t y ( R e n m i n meishu chubanshe), 1982. Y o u n g , M a r t i e W. T h e E c c e n t r i c New Y o r k : A n d r e w D i c k s o n W h i t e U n i v e r s i t y , 1965.  Painters of China. Ithaca, A r t Museum, C o r n e l l  Zhang Geng. Guochao huazheng l u . x u l u ( R e c o r d o f P a i n t e r s o f the Qing Dynasty, w i t h Sequel). P r e f a c e d a t e d 1 7 3 9 . Hua s h i c o n g s h u ( C o l l e c t i o n o f R e p r i n t e d Works on t h e H i s t o r y o f P a i n t i n g ) . E d i t e d b y Yu A n l a n . S h a n g h a i : The P e o p l e ' s A r t P u b l i s h i n g S o c i e t y (Renmin meishu c h u b a n s h e ) , 1962. Zhang Y u a n x i a n g .  "Zheng B a n q i a o  zaoqi  shoushu"  (A  Birthday  131 L e t t e r W r i t t e n by Zheng B a n q i a o i n h i s E a r l y ( C u l t u r a l A r t i f a c t s ) , 1985, no.4, 48.  Period).  Wenwu  Zheng B a n q i a o i i (The C o l l e c t e d Works o f Zheng B a n q i a o ) . S h a n g h a i : C h i n e s e Book S t o r e , S h a n g h a i P u b l i s h i n g House (Zhonghua s h u j u , S h a n g h a i b i a n d u o s u o ) , 1962. Zheng B a n q i a o g u a n j i (The C o m p l e t e Works o f Zheng B a n q i a o ) . E d i t e d by B i a n Xiaoxuan. Nanjing: Nanjing University Research Center f o r C l a s s i c a l Records (Nanjing daxue gudian wenxian y a n j i u s u o ) , 1985. Zheng B a n q i a o shuhua ( C a l l i g r a p h y and P a i n t i n g o f Zheng Banqiao) E d i t e d by Shandong P r o v i n c e C u l t u r a l A r t i f a c t s s B u i l d i n g and W e i f a n g P r e f e c t u r e P u b l i s h i n g O f f i c e (Shandong s h e n g wenwu j u a n d W e i f a n g d i q u c h u b a n b a n g o n g s h i ) . Shandong: Shandong A r t P u b l i s h i n g S o c i e t y (Shandong meishu c h u b a n s h e ) , 1984. Zheng B a n q i a o shuhuaxuan ( S e l e c t i o n o f C a l l i g r a p h y and P a i n t i n g b y Z h e n g B a n q i a o ) . E d i t e d b y He G o n g s h a n g . T a i b e i : A r t Book Company ( Y i s h u t u s h u g o n g s i ) , 1978. Zhou J i y i n . Zheng B a n q i a o s h u h u a y i s h u (The C a l l i g r a p h i c P a i n t i n g A r t o f Zheng B a n q i a o ) . T i a n j i n : T i a n j i n A r t P u b l i s h i n g S o c i e t y ( T i a n j i n meishu chubanshe), 1981. Zhuang Shan).  Shen. Dalu  " L i Shan s h i c h a o " (The C o l l e c t e d P o e t r y z a z h i ( C h i n a M a g a z i n e ) , XLV, 1 ( 1 9 7 2 ) ,  and  of L i 53-60.  APPENDIX  1. B i o g r a p h i c a l  I n f o r m a t i o n on Zheng X i e .  A l l appendices are t r a n s l a t e d from the o r i g i n a l by t h e a u t h o r u n l e s s o t h e r w i s e s p e c i f i e d .  Chinese  1. Zheng X i e ' s b i o g r a p h y i n Q i n g s h i l i e z h u a n ( B i o g r a p h i e s o f t h e A n n a l s o f t h e Q i n g D y n a s t y ) , v o l u m e 72, Wenvuan z h u a n ( B i o g r a p h i e s o f t h e L i t e r a r y C a t e g o r y ) , number 3 (Quanj i , 1985, B a n q i a o y a n j i u z i l i a o [ R e s e a r c h M a t e r i a l s on B a n q i a o ] , s e c t i o n 1, Z h u a n j i [ B i o g r a p h i e s ] , 5 4 5 ) . Z h e n g X i e , c a l l e d K e r o u , i s a man o f X i n g h u a i n J i a n g s u province. He b e c a m e a j i n s h i i n t h e f i r s t y e a r o f t h e r e i g n of t h e Q i a n l o n g emperor (1736). As a n o f f i c i a l he a c t e d a s t h e c o u n t y m a g i s t r a t e o f F a n c o u n t y i n S h a n d o n g , a n d was t r a n s f e r r e d t o Wei c o u n t y . B e c a u s e he r e q u e s t e d a i d a n d o f f e n d e d a g r e a t o f f i c i a l , he b e g g e d t o r e t u r n h o m e . When h e was y o u n g h e was c l e v e r . . . . H i s f a m i l y was p o o r . His c h a r a c t e r was u n c o n v e n t i o n a l a n d u n i n h i b i t e d , a n d h e l i k e d t o t a k e l e i s u r e w i t h w o r t h i e s o f t h e Chan s e c t and members of banner f a m i l i e s . He o f t e n s p o k e o u t f r e e l y a n d d i s c u s s e d m a t t e r s i n a h i g h manner; p o i n t e d l y r e m a r k i n g on prominent f i g u r e s o f t h e day, and n o t a b s t a i n i n g from t a l k i n g on a n y m a t t e r s . B e c a u s e o f t h i s he g a i n e d a reputation of being wild. 1  2  When Z h e n g X i e o c c u p i e d a n o f f i c i a l p o s t . . . h e satisfied p o p u l a r e x p e c t a t i o n s . When h e was a g o v e r n m e n t o f f i c i a l i n W e i c o u n t y , t h e r e was a y e a r o f c r o p f a i l u r e a n d t h e p e o p l e a t e each o t h e r . X i e c o n s t r u c t e d many b u i l d i n g s , and c a l l e d s t a r v i n g p e o p l e f r o m f a r a n d n e a r t o go t o w o r k s o t h a t t h e y c o u l d e a t . The i n f l u e n t i a l f a m i l i e s o f t h e d i s t r i c t w e r e o r d e r e d t o open t h e m i l l s ; t h e y cooked p o r r i d g e , and t o o k t u r n s f e e d i n g t h o s e who w e r e s t a r v i n g . I t was d e m a n d e d t h a t g r a i n w h i c h h a d b e e n s t o r e d u p b e s o l d a t no p r o f i t . C o u n t l e s s numbers o f p e o p l e were s a v e d . A t t h a t t i m e Zheng X i e had a c t e d i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e o f f i c i a l ' s o r d e r . He was g o o d a t p o e t r y a n d s k i l l e d i n c a l l i g r a p h y a n d painting. P e o p l e c a l l e d h i m " Z h e n g who i s g o o d a t t h e t h r e e p e r f e c t i o n s " ( o r c h i d , bamboo, and r o c k ) . The f e e l i n g s w h i c h he e x p r e s s e d t h r o u g h h i s poems a n d t h e m a t t e r s w h i c h t h e y r e l a t e a r e s o r r o w f u l and t o u c h i n g . They a r e u n r e s t r i c t e d i n f o r m and s t y l e ; when e x c i t e m e n t came, Zheng X i e c o m p l e t e d t h e m w i t h i n a moment. He was v e r y n e a r X i a n g s h a n and Fangweng. H i s c a l l i g r a p h y and p a i n t i n g a r e delightful. When h e was y o u n g h e was s k i l l e d i n r e g u l a r s c r i p t , a n d i n l a t e r y e a r s he c o m b i n e d t h e s e a l and o f f i c i a l scripts. F r o m w i t h i n t h i s ( f o r m o f c a l l i g r a p h y ) he t o o k h i s p a i n t i n g method. The o r c h i d , bamboo, a n d s t o n e s w h i c h he p a i n t e d were o u t s t a n d i n g — p e o p l e a l l s t r u g g l e d t o c o l l e c t them. I n h i s cJL. p o e m s h e d w e l t u p o n t h e p a s t , a n d h e was 4  5  6  e s p e c i a l l y good a t w r i t i n g about v i c t o r i o u s b a t t l e s . I n t h i s h e c a n p e r h a p s be c o m p a r e d t o J i a n g S h i . His c o n d u c t was p u r e a n d s o l e m n . In h i s youth, having l o s t h i s f a t h e r , he r e l i e d u p o n h i s w e t n u r s e t o r a i s e a n d t e a c h him. U n t i l t h e end o f h i s l i f e he d i d n o t d a r e f o r g e t (her). T h e f a m i l y l e t t e r s w h i c h he w r o t e a r e s i n c e r e , w a r m , and e a r n e s t . T h e r e i s t h e a u s p i c i o u s " i m p e r i a l mandate t o the c o u r t " and t h e "Yan f a m i l y l e s s o n " w h i c h w e r e l e f t behind after h i s death. I n l a t e r y e a r s h e r e t u r n e d home a n d i n o l d a g e he t i l l e d h i s own f i e l d s . He f r e q u e n t l y w e n t t o t h e p r e f e c t u r a l c i t y ( Y a n g z h o u ) , w h e r e he w r o t e p o e t r y , d r a n k w i n e , and p a r t i c i p a t e d i n p o e t i c d u e t s . He o f t e n b o u g h t a b a g and s t o r e d up s i l v e r a n d f r u i t s . When he met t h e c h i l d r e n o f o l d f r i e n d s o r p o o r p e o p l e o f h i s c o u n t y he g a v e t h e m w h a t he h a d b r o u g h t . He h a d n o t y e t met w i t h Y u a n M e i when someone p a s s e d on t h e w o r d o f h i s ( Z h e n g X i e ' s ) d e a t h . Yuan Mei l o w e r e d h i s head and wept b i t t e r l y . Of w r i t i n g s t h e r e i s t h e B a n q i a o S h i c h a o (The C o l l e c t e d P o e t r y o f Banqiao). 7  8  9  2. ji of  Zheng X i e ' s Z i s h u ( A u t o b i o g r a p h y ) (Quanj i , 1985, B a n q i a o w a i s h i w e n [Poems and P r o s e o u t s i d e t h e C o l l e c t e d Works B a n q i a o ] , Wen [Prose], 240-242).  The l a y B u d d h i s t B a n q i a o ( Z h e n g X i e ) , o f t h e Z h e n g f a m i l y , named X i e , i s a man f r o m Y a n g z h o u i n X i n g h u a . In X i n g h u a t h e r e a r e t h r e e Zheng f a m i l i e s . One i s " T i e Z h e n g , " one i s "Tang Z h e n g , " and one i s " B a n q i a o Z h e n g . " The l a y B u d d h i s t ( Z h e n g X i e ) l i k e d h i s f a m i l y name, and t h e r e f o r e e v e r y o n e c a l l e d him Zheng B a n q i a o . B a n q i a o ' s g r a n d f a t h e r on his m o t h e r ' s s i d e , o f t h e Wang f a m i l y , named Y i w e n , h a d r a r e s k i l l a n d was e r u d i t e . He r e t i r e d i n t o s e c l u s i o n a n d d i d n o t take o f f i c e . He h a d a d a u g h t e r . . . s h e was B a n q i a o ' s mother. T h e l i t e r a r y a s p e c t o f B a n q i a o ' s c h a r a c t e r was attained m o s t l y from h i s mother's s i d e of the f a m i l y . H i s f a t h e r Mr. L i ' a n t h o u g h t t h a t t h e a b i l i t y t o w r i t e and a good c h a r a c t e r were of p r i m a r y i m p o r t a n c e t o t h e s c h o l a r . The s t u d e n t s he t a u g h t numbered one-hundred and a l l were s u c c e s s f u l . As a c h i l d B a n q i a o f o l l o w e d h i s f a t h e r i n h i s s t u d i e s and d i d n o t have any o t h e r t e a c h e r s . When he was a c h i l d he d i f f e r e d l i t t l e from others. I n h i s y o u t h , a l t h o u g h he was g r o w n u p , he was s t i l l u g l y . . . He l i k e d t o b r a g a n d t h o u g h t t o o h i g h l y o f h i m s e l f ; and f r e e l y c u r s e d p e o p l e a t random. V a r i o u s men o f t h e e l d e r g e n e r a t i o n l o o k e d a s k a n c e a t h i m and s t o p p e d d e a l i n g w i t h him. 1 0  H o w e v e r , i n s t u d y i n g , he c o u l d make h i m s e l f a s s i d u o u s , r o u s e h i m s e l f , a n d make h i m s e l f r i s e t o t h e t a s k s a t h a n d . He d i d n ' t c a r e a b o u t f o l l o w i n g t h e u s u a l p a t h . In studying, h e p r o s t r a t e d h i m s e l f ; f r o m t h e s h a l l o w he e n t e r e d t h e d e e p , f r o m t h e l o w he r e a c h e d t h e h i g h , f r o m t h e n e a r h e a p p r o a c h e d t h e d i s t a n t , i n o r d e r t o go t o t h e p r o f o u n d r e a l m  o f t h e a n c i e n t s , a n d t o make a c c e s s i b l e t h e p l a c e s w h i c h h i s d i s p o s i t i o n and s k i l l a l o n e w o u l d n o t a l l o w him t o reach.^ P e o p l e a l l s a i d t h a t i n s t u d y i n g B a n q i a o was g o o d a t memorizing. T h e y d i d n o t k n o w t h a t B a n q i a o was n o t g o o d a t m e m o r i z i n g , b u t was s i m p l y g o o d a t r e c i t i n g . E a c h book w h i c h B a n q i a o r e a d , he r e a d o n e - t h o u s a n d o n e - h u n d r e d t i m e s . When i n b o a t s , u p o n h o r s e s , l y i n g i n b e d b e n e a t h t h e q u i l t s , when h a v i n g f o r g o t t e n t h e s p o o n o r c h o p s t i c k s when e a t i n g , or when n o t h a v i n g l i s t e n e d t o what a g u e s t had s a i d , or h a v i n g f o r g e t t e n w h a t he h i m s e l f h a d s a i d . . . d u r i n g a l l t h e s e t i m e s B a n q i a o was m e m o r i z i n g b o o k s a n d s i l e n t l y r e c i t i n g them t o h i m s e l f . G i v e n t h i s m e t h o d , c o u l d t h e r e be any b o o k s w h i c h he d i d n o t m e m o r i z e ? A l l h i s l i f e Zheng B a n q i a o d i d not p u r s u e the s t u d y of the c l a s s i c s . He l o v e d r e a d i n g h i s t o r y b o o k s a n d c o l l e c t i o n s o f p o e t r y , e s s a y s , a n d cjL. p o e t r y . He a l s o l o o k e d a t b o o k s i n t h e c l a s s of c o m m e n t a r i e s and odd sayings. S o m e t i m e s , w h i l e w o r k i n g o n t h e c l a s s i c s , he a l s o a p p r e c i a t e d t h e i r p e c u l a r i t i e s and s t r a n g e n e s s - - t h e parts which d a z z l e d the s e n s e s . He u s e d t h e l i t e r a r y m e t h o d i n d i s c u s s i n g t h e c l a s s i c s . T h i s was n o t t h e o r i g i n a l b a s i s f o r the L i u i i n g ( S i x C l a s s i c s ) . 1 2  He e s p e c i a l l y l i k e d l a n d s c a p e s . He a l s o l i k e d sex... B u t he k n e w t h a t he was o l d a n d u g l y ; a t t h a t s t a g e i n l i f e o n l y money p r o f i t t e d him. He o n c e made a c o m m e n t u p o n f o r e i g n p o l i c y , a n d was c o n s e q u e n t l y s c o l d e d a n d s o left (his p o s i t i o n ) . He was n e v e r u n d e r t h e s p e l l o f (politics). He l o v e d l a n d s c a p e s , b u t h a d n o t b e e n a b l e t o t r a v e l any d i s t a n c e , a n d t h o s e p l a c e s t h r o u g h w h i c h he h a d p a s s e d w e r e not of s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t t o the t r a v e l e r . In the t h i r t e e n t h year of the r e i g n of the Q i a n l o n g emperor (1748) the Great One ( t h e e m p e r o r h i m s e l f ) went on an e a s t e r n t o u r . Xie became t h e c a l l i g r a p h y and p a i n t i n g h i s t o r i a n , and was o r d e r e d to the p l a c e of p a u s i n g (upon the r o u t e of the emperor's t o u r ) . He l a y u p o n t h e u p p e r m o s t p e a k o f m o u n t Tai f o r over f o r t y days. T h i s was e n o u g h r e a s o n t o be proud. The p r i n t i n g o f h i s " C o l l e c t e d P o e t r y , " " C o l l e c t e d C i . Poems," " F o l k s o n g s , " and " S i x t e e n L e t t e r s t o Y o u n g e r B r o t h e r " was c a r r i e d o u t i n h i s l i f e t i m e . He was g o o d a t c a l l i g r a p h y , and c a l l e d h i m s e l f " L i u f e n B a n s h u . " A l s o , he u s e d h i s f r e e t i m e t o p a i n t o r c h i d and bamboo. If princes, d u k e s and m i n i s t e r s , h i g h m i n i s t e r s , l i t e r a t i , o l d monks o f t h e m o u n t a i n s . . . o b t a i n e d one p i e c e o f p a p e r w i t h some c a l l i g r a p h y upon i t , t h e y t r e a s u r e d i t and s t o r e d i t away. But B a n q i a o n e v e r t o o k t h e s e p e o p l e as a p r e t e n s e to becoming famous. O n l y h i s f e l l o w countyman L i Shan F u t a n g was a m u t u a l f r i e n d . F u t a n g was r a i s e d i n a f a m i l y t o be f i l i a l , c l e a n , and h o n e s t . He u s e d h i s p a i n t i n g t o w o r s h i p in the inner court. During the time of the K a n g x i emperor's c o u r t L i S h a n ' s name was g r e a t i n t h e c a p i t a l a n d elsewhere. T h e r e w e r e n o n e who d i d n o t l o o k u p o n h i m a n d s i g h i n admiration. A t t h i s t i m e B a n q i a o was j u s t t r y i n g f o r t h e e x a m f o r c h i l d r e n ; he d i d n o t h a v e t h a t w h i c h c o u l d make h i m  famous. T w e n t y y e a r s l a t e r , b e c a u s e o f h i s p o e t r y , cJL p o e t r y , a n d w r i t i n g , he was a s f a m o u s a s L i S h a n . T h o s e who s o u g h t p a i n t i n g c a l l e d F u t a n g ; t h o s e who s o u g h t p o e t r y a n d l i t e r a t u r e c a l l e d Banqiao. They were s h a m e f u l and f o r t u n a t e , and became e q u a l w i t h s a g e s of t h e p a s t . L i r e t i r e d f r o m h i s p o s t as t h e m a g i s t r a t e of Teng c o u n t y . B a n q i a o was a x i u c a i i n t h e r e i g n o f t h e K a n g x i e m p e r o r , was a i u r e n -in the r e n z i year of the r e i g n of the Yongzheng e m p e r o r ( 1 7 3 2 ) , a n d was a j i n s h i i n t h e b i n q c h e n y e a r o f t h e r e i g n of the Q i a n l o n g emperor (1736). F i r s t he was the m a g i s t r a t e i n F a n c o u n t y ; he t h e n c o n t i n u e d a f t e r he was t r a n s f e r e d t o Wei county. W r i t t e n i n the j i s i year of the r e i g n of the Q i a n l o n g e m p e r o r ( 1 7 4 9 ) , a t t h e age o f f i f t y - s e v e n . I n B a n q i a o ' s p o e t r y and l i t e r a t u r e , he e x p r e s s e d h i s own i d e a s . H i s method r e t u r n e d t o t h o s e of the s a i n t s a n d s a g e s ; b u t h i s t e x t was d e r i v e d c o m p l e t e l y f r o m d a i l y language. Some h a d s a i d t h a t t h e y t h e m s e l v e s w e r e h i g h a n c i e n t s a n d s e v e r a l t h a t t h e y w e r e men o f T a n g a n d Song! B a n q i a o d e s p i s e d a n d s c o l d e d t h e m : " I f my prose i s p a s s e d o n , t h e n i t w i l l be Q i n g p o e t r y and Q i n g prose. I f i t i s n o t p a s s e d o n , t h e n n o n e c a n be c a l l e d Q i n g p o e t r y and Q i n g p r o s e . What n e e d i s t h e r e t o p r a t t l e on a b o u t t h e a n c i e n t s ! " D u r i n g t h e M i n g and Q i n g , t h e z h i v i ( e x a m i n a t i o n ) s y s t e m was u s e d t o g e t scholars. A l t h o u g h t h e r e w e r e t h o s e who had e x t r a o r d i n a r y t a l e n t a n d a b i l i t y , t h e y h a d t o come o u t o f t h i s s y s t e m , and o n l y t h e n w e r e s e e n a s b e i n g on t h e correct path. T h e i r t h e o r y became more and more r e f i n e d ; t h e i r method became more and more m e t i c u l o u s . H o w e v e r , i f one w h i p s o n e ' s h e a r t t o a c h i e v e r e f i n e m e n t , o n e ' s a b i l i t y a n d k n o w l e d g e c a n n o t be t r u s t e d . . . On t h e other hand, those a l o o f from the e x a m i n a t i o n system who w e r e u n r e s t r i c t e d a n d n o t c a r e f u l w o u l d s a y : " I am a s c h o l a r of the p a s t . " Of a l l t h e p e o p l e u n d e r H e a v e n , n o n e w o u l d n e c e s s a r i l y p r a i s e t h e s e men. T h e s e men's p o s i t i o n s were o n l y s u i t a b l e f o r p r a i s i n g t h e m s e l v e s . When o l d , t h e y d i d n o t a c h i e v e t h e i r own g o a l s . They l o o k e d t o and b o r r o w e d f r o m o t h e r p e o p l e , s o , w h a t do t h e y h a v e t o o b t a i n t h e i r own ideas? 1 4  J i a , Dong, K u a n g , and L i u ' s w r i t i n g s , used r u l e s and regulations to s u i t their s i t u a t i o n s . C o m p a r e d t o Han X i n ' s c o u p l e t " a s c e n d i n g t o t h e t e m p l e " and K o n g m i n g ' s ( Z h u G e l i a n g s ) p r o f o u n d w r i t i n g , t h e i r s was e v e n m o r e s u i t a b l e t o t h e i r s i t u a t i o n s and t o t h e i r p e r s o n s . The i n s i s t e n c e upon p r i n c i p l e s of m e t h o d o l o g y i s o n l y s u i t a b l e f o r l e i s u r e time, i t i s not s u i t a b l e f o r u s i n g in busy times. Banqiao's "Sixteen Family L e t t e r s " c e r t a i n l y d i d n o t d i s c u s s Heaven and E a r t h . Rather, t h e y were of d a i l y use f o r f a m i l y a f f a i r s , w h i l e t h e y a l s o had t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of b e i n g words near a t hand p o i n t i n g f a r away ( t o g r a n d e r principles). Banqiao  d i d not  study  by  closing  the door  to  the  outside world. In l o n g wanderings i n aged p i n e s , secluded temples, l e v e l sands, d i s t a n t waters, cliffs, a n d r u i n s a n d t o m b s , t h e r e w a s n ' t a n y t i m e a t w h i c h he d i d not study. I n s e e k i n g t h e r e f i n e d and s e e k i n g t h e s u i t a b l e ; i f s u i t a b l e then the coarse are a l l r e f i n e d ; i f n o t s u i t a b l e t h e n t h e r e f i n e d a r e a l l c o a r s e . I f one t h i n k s a b o u t t h i s and t h i n k s a b o u t t h i s , one c a n r e a c h lofty heights. B a n q i a o a g a i n i n s c r i b e s t h i s , when a l r e a d y f i f t y e i g h t years o l d (1750).  3. S e l e c t i o n s f r o m L i D o u ' s Y a n g z h o u h u a f a n q l u ( R e c o r d s o f t h e P a i n t e d B o a t s of Yangzhou) ( Q u a n i i , 1985, B a n q i a o y a n i i u z i l i a o [ R e s e a r c h M a t e r i a l s on B a n q i a o ] , s e c t i o n s i x t e e n , B i i i [Written r e c o r d s ] , 799-801). Volume 799) :  12,  Caohe  lu  (Records  of  Caohe) l a t t e r  part  (Quanii,  Z h e n g X i e , a l s o c a l l e d K e r o u a n d B a n q i a o i s a man of X i n g h u a . He i s a i i n s h i . He c a l l e d o r c h i d , b a m b o o , a n d r o c k t h e t h r e e p e r f e c t i o n s . He was g o o d a t c a l l i g r a p h y i n t h e o f f i c i a l s c r i p t . A f t e r w a r d s , he t o o k t h e o f f i c i a l a n d grass s c r i p t s a n d c o m b i n e d t h e m , c r e a t i n g h i s own s c h o o l . T h e D a o i s t p r i e s t Wu Y u t i a n f r o m t h e G u a n d i t e m p l e s t u d i e d h i s c a l l i g r a p h y a n d c o u l d make f a k e s t h a t l o o k e d genuine. The p a r a s o l - t r e e r o o m i s i n f r o n t o f t h e f l y i n g r o s y c l o u d p a v i l i o n ; t h e p l a c e h a s many p a r a s o l t r e e s . . . . T h i s room i s f o r o f f e r i n g s a c r i f i c e t o the s p i r i t s of t h r e e sages. These t h r e e s a g e s a r e Song Ouyang wenzhonggong ( O u y a n g X i u ) , Su w e n z h o n g g o n g ( S u S h i ) , a n d Wang W e n j i a n CLQng.. ... T h e r e a r e l i n e s w i t h i n a p a i r e d c o u p l e t b y Z h e n g X i e w h i c h r e a d : "The m u s i c a l s o u n d s t h e y l e f t b e h i n d f i l l the r i v e r s , a n d t h e s e t h r e e men h a d o n e p r i n c i p l e i n t h i s ; t o l o v e a b i l i t y l i k e l i f e , t h e y had d i f f e r e n t l i v e s b u t were of t h e same h e a r t . " V o l u m e 4, X i n C h e n g b e i p a r t ( Q u a n i i , 799):  lu  (Records  of  New  Chengbei)  middle  The l i g h t p u r p l e b u i l d i n g , on t h e w e s t o f t h e s t r e e t , i s L i u ' a n , t h e m o u n t a i n monk's, t e a - l e a f house. T h e monk has t e a f i e l d s . I n t h e s p r i n g a n d summer he e n t e r s t h e m o u n t a i n s ; i n t h e a u t u m n a n d w i n t e r he s t a y s a t t h e s h o p . A l l of t h e t r a v e l e r s i n t h e e a s t e r n c i t y , buy t e a a t t h i s p l a c e f o r one d a y ' s u s e . T h e r e a r e two l i n e s by Z h e n g Banqiao which r e a d : "Lay B u d d h i s t s have always been a b l e at a p p r a i s i n g t h e t a s t e o f w a t e r s , and f r o m a n c i e n t t i m e s w o r t h y monks h a v e l o v e d t o a r g u e a b o u t t e a s . " Volume  6,  Chengbei  lu  (Records  of  Chengbei)  (Quani i ,  800):  137  T h e o n e who p l a n t e d t h e f l o w e r s a t t h e Yun g a r d e n i s o f t h e Wang f a m i l y h o u s e h o l d ; t h e f o u r t h o f t h e Wang f a m i l y , c a l l e d X i w e n . He i s a man o f Wu. He was g o o d a t s o n g s . In t h e b i n g c h e n y e a r o f t h e r e i g n o f t h e Q i a n l o n g e m p e r o r he came t o Y a n g z h o u . T h e r e f o r e he s o l d t h e h a m l e t w h e r e t h e r e was t e a g r o w i n g . He was f r i e n d l y w i t h L i F u t a n g ( L i S h a n ) , Z h e n g B a n q i a o , a n d monk Y o n g t a n g . L a t e r he p u r c h a s e d t h i s land to plant flowers. F u t a n g made a n i n s c r i p t i o n on t h e h o r i z o n t a l t a b l e t i n t h e Y u n g a r d e n , w h i c h was c a r v e d i n s t o n e a n d i m b e d d e d on t h e S h u i g a t e . W i t h i n i t there i s the p a i r e d c o u p l e t by Zheng B a n q i a o . . . . ...On t h e o v e r l a n d r o u t e t o X i y u a n t h e r e i s an a u s p i c i o u s temple f o r the v i l l a g e god... In the temple t h e r e is a couplet which says: "Everywhere there are cloudy m o u n t a i n s and e v e r y w h e r e t h e r e a r e B u d d h i s t s ( w r i t t e n by J i n Nong). T h i s p i e c e of e a r t h , t h i s p i e c e i s a u s p i c i o u s ( w r i t t e n by Zheng X i e ) . " I n J i n Taomen's ( J i n N o n g ' s ) D o n g x i n x i a n s h e n g j i (The C o l l e c t e d Works o f M r . D o n g x i n ) t h e r e i s a poem c a l l e d " V a r i o u s n a r r a t i o n s on a s c e n d i n g the l o f t y ( m o u n t a i n s ) " w h i c h s a y s : " I am a t l e i s u r e a n d lazily c o n c e n t r a t e upon t h e i n s e c t s and f i s h . This i s l o f t y living. E v e r y w h e r e t h e r e a r e c l o u d y m o u n t a i n s and everywhere there are Buddhists..." T h e r e i s a l i n e by Zheng B a n q i a o w h i c h s a y s , "The d r u m s i n t h e v i l l a g e , i n t h e v i l l a g e h i t them; t h i s p i e c e of e a r t h , t h i s p i e c e i s auspicious." Now t h e y a r e g a t h e r e d i n t o a p a i r e d c o u p l e t . . . Volume 10, H o n g q i a o l u ( R e c o r d o f l a t t e r p a r t (Quanj i . 800-801):  the  Hongqiao  Garden)  Z h e n g X i e , c a l l e d K e r o u a n d B a n q i a o i s a man of X i n g h u a . He i s a j i n s h i . He was a c o u n t y m a g i s t r a t e . When he was t h e m a g i s t r a t e i n F a n c o u n t y a w e a l t h y f a m i l y w h i c h w a n t e d t o g e t r i d o f a p r o s p e c t i v e s o n - i n - l a w who was poor u s e d one t h o u s a n d t a e l s t o g i v e t h e m a g i s t r a t e ( Z h e n g X i e ) a birthday party. X i e a c c e p t e d t h e i r d a u g h t e r as h i s own a d o p t e d d a u g h t e r , w h i l e he s e c r e t l y h a r b o u r e d t h e i r s o n - i n l a w i n an o f f i c i a l p o s t . A f t e r the g i r l p a i d Zheng X i e a f o r m a l v i s i t , he b r o u g h t o u t m o n e y f o r t h e g i r l a n d t h e s o n i n - l a w t o be wed. He o r d e r e d h i s c a r t f o r t h e c o u p l e t o return together. B e c a u s e o f t h i s p e o p l e s a i d he was " e x t r e m e l y v i r t u o u s . " A f t e r w a r d s , b e c a u s e he r e p o r t e d a c a l a m i t y a n d was d i s o b e d i e n t t o a g r e a t o f f i c i a l , he was d i s m i s s e d a n d r e t u r n e d t o h i s home c o u n t y . He o f t e n made a l a r g e c l o t h b a g , i n t o w h i c h he p u t m o n e y , s i l k , and foodstuffs. I f he met t h e c h i l d r e n o f o l d f r i e n d s o r p o o r a n d f r i e n d l y f a m i l i e s o f h i s home c o u n t y he w o u l d p o u r o u t t h e c o n t e n t s o f t h e bag t o g i v e t o them. O f t e n he c a m e t o Y a n g z h o u , and t h e r e i s t h e s e a l "Twenty y e a r s ago, Banqiao." He o f t e n e n g a g e d i n p o e t i c d u e t s w i t h t h e d u k e ( L u Jianzeng). Of w r i t i n g s , t h e r e a r e B a n q i a o ' s p o e m s , c o l l e c t e d c_L p o e m s , " f a m i l y l e t t e r s , " a n d " f o l k s o n g s . " He  138 was g o o d a t p a i n t i n g b a m b o o . He t o o k " b a f e n " s c r i p t ( a t y p e of s q u a r e p l a i n s t y l e s c r i p t ) , and r e g u l a r s c r i p t and c o m b i n e d t h e m , e s t a b l i s h i n g h i s own s c h o o l . T h e p e o p l e o f Wei c o u n t y i n S h a n d o n g w e r e f u l l y d e v o t e d t o h i m . E d i t o r ' s n o t e i n Q u a n i i : The Q i n g c h a o y e s h i d a g u a n (Comprehensive C o l l e c t i o n of F i c t i o n of the Qing D y n a s t y ) , volume 11, Q i n g d a i shu y i — Z h e n g Banqiao panan ( S t r a n g e s t o r i e s of the Qing D y n a s t y — C a s e s d e c i d e d by Zheng Banqiao) says: When B a n q i a o was t h e m a g i s t r a t e i n Wei c o u n t y , t h e r e was a p o o r s c h o l a r who f i l e d a c o m p l a i n t t h a t a w e a l t h y f a m i l y had gone b a c k on a m a r r i a g e a g r e e m e n t . Banqiao had t h e poor s c h o l a r r e m a i n i n o f f i c e , and f u r t h e r m o r e c a l l e d t h e w e a l t h y f a m i l y i n t o t h e c a s e . He c a l m l y s a i d t o t h e m : " I f y o u r d a u g h t e r t r u l y c a n n o t be t h e w i f e i n a p o o r f a m i l y . . . y o u m u s t u s e one t h o u s a n d t a e l s t o a l t e r t h e w e d d i n g a g r e e m e n t . I w i l l be h e r e . . . " The w e a l t h y f a m i l y p a i d and s e t t l e d . Banqiao c a l m l y s a i d : " I f your daughter d o e s n o t have a s e r v a n t t o h e l p h e r manage, I c a n a l s o f i n d a s o n - i n - l a w f o r you. T h i s t h o u s a n d t a e l s c o u l d t h e n be used as a dowry." B e f o r e t h e w e a l t h y f a m i l y had expressed their thanks, B a n q i a o had a l r e a d y o r d e r e d someone t o ask t h e p o o r s c h o l a r t o come f o r t h . Then i n t h e h a l l t h e y were wed, a n d ( t h e p o o r s c h o l a r ) l e f t w i t h t h e d a u g h t e r and t h e money. T h i s m a t t e r was t o t h e i m m e n s e p l e a s u r e o f t h e people. Volume  15,  Gangxi  l u (Records  of  Gangxi)  (Quanj i  801):  ... When t h e t r a n s p o r t o f f i c e r L u ( L u J i a n z e n g ) b u i l t p a v i l i o n d u r i n g h i s o f f i c e , Zheng B a n q i a o wrote a twoc h a r a c t e r h o r i z o n t a l p l a q u e , " p a v i l i o n of Su."  a  4. A n e c d o t e s a b o u t Z h e n g X i e ( Y a n g z h o u b a g u a i q u a n i i [The Complete C o l l e c t i o n of the E i g h t E c c e n t r i c s of Yangzhou], 1979, 267). In the f o u r t e e n t h year of the r e i g n of the Q i a n l o n g e m p e r o r ( 1 7 4 9 ) , Zheng B a n q i a o f i n a l l y l e f t h i s p o s i t i o n and r e t u r n e d home. T h i s amounts t o h i s b e i n g i n Shandong f o r t w e l v e y e a r s a c t i n g as c o u n t y m a g i s t r a t e . H i s two s l e e v e s i n t h e p u r e b r e e z e , he a g a i n r e t u r n e d t o Y a n g z h o u and s o l d c a l l i g r a p h y a n d p a i n t i n g s t o make a l i v i n g . From the time h e l e f t t o go t o J i a o s h a n t o s t u d y , l e a v i n g Y a n g z h o u , i t was already twenty years. T h e s i t u a t i o n o f t h i s r e t u r n was v e r y d i f f e r e n t from twenty years b e f o r e , because of h i s r e p u t a t i o n , p o s i t i o n , and s o c i a l s t a t u s . T h e r e w e r e many p e o p l e who s o u g h t h i m o u t t o d o w r i t i n g s a n d p a i n t i n g s . But w h e n m e e t i n g t h o s e p e o p l e he d e p i s e d he d i d n ' t g i v e t h e m a n y w r i t i n g s or p a i n t i n g s , a l t h o u g h t h e y o f f e r e d l a r g e sums. It  139 i s s a i d t h a t i n Y a n g z h o u t h e r e w a s a s a l t m e r c h a n t who s e v e r a l t i m e s o f f e r e d l a r g e sums t o g e t Z h e n g B a n q i a o ' s c a l l i g r a p h y and p a i n t i n g . B u t because Zheng B a n q i a o d e s p i s e d t h i s m a n ' s m a n n e r , h e was r e s o l u t e a g a i n s t t h i s man's r e q u e s t . A l t h o u g h t h a t s a l t m e r c h a n t h a d p a s s e d t h r o u g h many p l a c e s a n d b o u g h t s e v e r a l ( o f Z h e n g ' s ) p a i n t i n g s , h e was r e g r e t f u l b e c a u s e t h e y d i d n o t h a v e inscriptions (dedicated to him). Later, that salt merchant h e a r d t h a t Zheng B a n q i a o l o v e d t o e a t dog meat, and a l s o l i k e d t o t r a v e l i n t h e c o u n t r y . When h e m e t h e r d s m e n a n d wood g a t h e r e r s , a n d t h o s e o f t h e l o w e r s t r a t a a l l t h e y h a d t o do was t o g i v e h i m d o g m e a t , a n d he was a l w a y s w i l l i n g t o do p a i n t i n g s f o r t h e m . K n o w i n g t h i s , t h e s a l t m e r c h a n t came up w i t h a p l a n . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e Qing chao v e s h i daquan (Comprehensive C o l l e c t i o n of F i c t i o n of t h e Qing Dynasty), the s t o r y goes: One d a y B a n q i a o v i s i t e d S h a o y u a n , a n d h e a r d e x t r e m e l y l o v e l y s o u n d s f r o m a g i n . He f o l l o w e d t h e s o u n d s t o f i n d t h e o n e who was p l a y i n g i t . T h e n he came u p o n a t h a t c h e d h u t i n a bamboo g r o v e ... He e n t e r e d t h e d o o r a n d s a w a man who was e x t r e m e l y o l d , s i t t i n g up p r o p e r l y a n d drumming t h e g i n . A c h i l d was c o o k i n g d o g m e a t w h i c h was j u s t done. B a n q i a o was d e l i g h t e d . S u d d e n l y h e s p o k e t o t h e o l d man: "Do y o u a l s o l i k e t o e a t d o g meat?" T h e o l d man r e s p o n d e d : "Of a l l t a s t e s t h a t of dog meat i s t h e f i n e s t . Y o u a r e o n e who a l s o knows t h i s t a s t e . . . p l e a s e t r y a s l i c e . " The two men h a d n o t y e t e x c h a n g e d n a m e s a n d t h e y s a t together chewing. Banqiao looked a t the white w a l l s a n d r e q u e s t e d t o k n o w why t h e man o w n e d n o c a l l i g r a p h y or p a i n t i n g . T h e o l d man s a i d : "There a r e n o n e who a r e f i n e i n t h e a r t s o f c a l l i g r a p h y and p a i n t i n g . I n t h e s e p a r t s , a l t h o u g h Zheng B a n q i a o i s r a t h e r famous, I have n o t y e t seen h i s c a l l i g r a p h y and p a i n t i n g . Do y o u k n o w i f h i s w o r k is fine?" B a n q i a o s a i d : " I m y s e l f am B a n q i a o , may I d o some c a l l i g r a p h y a n d p a i n t i n g f o r y o u ? " "My!" s a i d t h e o l d man, who s u b s e q u e n t l y t o o k o u t some p a p e r . B a n q i a o w i e l d e d h i s w r i t i n g b r u s h and finished. T h e o l d man s a i d : "My name i s s o - a n d s o , y o u c o u l d make a n i n s c r i p t i o n . " Banqiao s a i d : " T h i s name i s t h e name o f a s a l t m e r c h a n t . How come y o u a r e a l s o named t h i s ? " T h e o l d man s a i d : "When I t o o k t h i s name t h i s m e r c h a n t s t i l l h a d n o t been b o r n . W h a t h a r m i s t h e r e i n h a v i n g t h e same name? The p u r e o n e s a r e p u r e a n d t h e muddy a r e muddy, a n d t h a t i s a l l ! " Banqiao t h e n wrote an i n s c r i p t i o n and l e f t . The n e x t d a y t h e s a l t m e r c h a n t h a d a b a n q u e t . . . a n d a s k e d B a n q i a o t o be present. He w e n t t h e r e a n d a l l f o u r w a l l s w e r e hung w i t h c a l l i g r a p h y and p a i n t i n g . He l o o k e d a t t h e m . . . t h e y w e r e t h o s e he h a d d o n e t h e p r e v i o u s  .1.40  n i g h t f o r t h e o l d man. He r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e o l d man h a d b e e n s e n t b y t h e s a l t m e r c h a n t , a n d h e h i m s e l f h a d b e e n t h e t a r g e t o f t h e o l d man's deception. B u t , t h e r e was n o t h i n g t h a t c o u l d be done.  the  I n Y e v u q i u d e n g l u ( R e c o r d s u n d e r t h e A u t u m n Lamp i n E v e n i n g R a i n ) t h e r e i s a l s o an a n e c d o t e :  In h i s l a t e r y e a r s i n Yangzhou, B a n q i a o ' s r e p u t a t i o n grew d a i l y . O n c e a g r e a t s a g e f r o m J i a n g x i was e n t e r i n g t h e c a p i t a l t o go b e f o r e t h e e m p e r o r . R e t u r n i n g on t h e r o a d through Yangzhou, t h e merchants a l l s t r u g g l e d w i t h each other t o associate (with him). One m e r c h a n t a m o n g t h e m wished t o o b t a i n a c a l l i g r a p h y by Banqiao i n order t o present t o t h e sage. He h a d w r i t i n g p a p e r s p e c i a l l y made from J i a n g x i . I t w a s m o r e t h a n o n e z h a n g l o n g ( 3 1/3 m ) , a n d was s i x c h i w i d e ( 2 m ) . I t was a u n i q u e p a p e r . He s e n t someone t o t a c t f u l l y r e q u e s t B a n q i a o ' s c a l l i g r a p h y , and m o r e o v e r r e q u e s t t h a t he compose a l i n e . The g o - b e t w e e n a s k e d t h e amount w h i c h Zheng X i e r e q u i r e d . Banqiao asked 1,000 t a e l s . The m e s s e n g e r c o n s e n t e d t o 500 t a e l s . Banqiao w i t h p l e a s u r e l i f t e d h i s b r u s h and wrote i n a f l u r r y . He completed t h e f i r s t l i n e : " I n t h e Longhu mountains, t h e great prime m i n i s t e r . " The messenger r e q u e s t e d t h a t he w r i t e the second l i n e . Banqiao laughed: " I c l e a r l y said 1,000 t a e l s . You o n l y p a i d 500. I t h e r e f o r e have w r i t t e n only one-half." The g o - b e t w e e n had no a l t e r n a t i v e b u t t o pay Zheng X i e t h e f u l l amount. Banqiao began t o w r i t e t h e second l i n e : " I n t h e Q i l i n (Chinese unicorn) p a v i l i o n , lives the immortal." I t was s k i l l e d a n d r e f i n e d . O f t h o s e who saw i t none c o u l d n o t p r a i s e a n d s i g h .  141  1. S e e L i D o u ' s Y a n g z h o u H u a f a n q l u ( R e c o r d s o f t h e P a i n t e d B o a t s o f Y a n g z h o u ) , Volume 10, H o n g q i a o l u ( R e c o r d s o f t h e Hongqiao Garden), l a t t e r p a r t , t r a n s l a t e d below. The p h r a s i n g of t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t , but i n b o t h c a s e s i n d i c a t e s t h a t Z h e n g X i e r e q u e s t e d some a i d w h i c h u p s e t some i m p o r t a n t o f f i c i a l . 2. B a n n e r f a m i l i e s , a s D r . J e r r y S c h m i d t o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a has t e n t a t i v e l y t r a n s l a t e d q i m e n h e r e , c o u l d be M a n c h u s o r C h i n e s e who h a d s e r v e d t h e M a n c h u s when they f i r s t entered China. 3. Z h e n g X i e ' s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e s e p e o p l e i s a l s o c i t e d i n h i s n i a n b i a o u n d e r t h e y e a r 1735 (Zheng B a n q i a o i i , 1962, appendix). 4. T h i s i n c i d e n t o f Z h e n g X i e ' s r e s c u e o f t h e p e o p l e o f Shandong i s a l s o c i t e d w i t h s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t p h r a s i n g i n h i s n i a n b i a o u n d e r t h e y e a r 1746 ( Z h e n g B a n q i a o j i . 1 9 6 2 , appendix). 5. F o r s u p p o r t f o r t h e t r a n s l a t i o n o f " t h r e e p e r f e c t i o n s " a s " o r c h i d , bamboo, and r o c k " i n t h i s c o n t e x t s e e H o n g q i a o l u (Records of the Hongqiao Garden), i n s e l e c t i o n s from L i Dou's Y a n g z h o u H u a f a n g l u ( R e c o r d s o f t h e P a i n t e d B o a t s of Y a n g z h o u ) , volume 12, t r a n s l a t e d below. 6.  Perhaps  two  men  o r two  methods?  7. T h e " Y a n F a m i l y L e s s o n " i s a c o l l e c t i o n o f w r i t i n g s b y Y a n Z h i t u i ( 5 3 1 - a f t e r 5 8 9 ) , who l i v e d t h r o u g h t h e L i a n g , N o r t h e r n Q i , N o t h e r n Zhou, and S u i d y n a s t i e s . From h i s e x p e r i e n c e i n t i m e s o f p o l i t i c a l u p h e a v a l he w r o t e t h e l e s s o n s t o enable h i s a n c e s t o r s to cope w i t h s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n s , and t o b e n e f i t f r o m h i s e x p e r i e n c e g e n e r a l l y (Xie M i n g l a n g , "Du ' Y a n s h i j i a x u n - - z h o n g z h i ' z h a j i " [ R e a d i n g N o t e s f o r t h e 'Yan F a m i l y L e s s o n - - R u l e s f o r F u n e r a r y R i t e s ] , T h e N a t i o n a l P a l a c e M u s e u m R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , v o l u m e 7, number 2 ( W i n t e r 1 9 8 9 ] , 1 0 7 - 1 2 2 ) . P e r h a p s Zheng X i e i s r e f e r r i n g t o a c o p y of t h i s m a n u s c r i p t g i v e n t o h i m by imperial decree. 8. S e e L i Dou Y a n g z h o u H u a f a n g l u ( R e c o r d s o f t h e P a i n t e d B o a t s o f Y a n g z h o u ) , volume 10, H o n g q i a o l u ( R e c o r d s o f t h e Hongqiao Garden), l a t t e r p a r t , t r a n s l a t e d below. I have t r a n s l a t e d changhe h e r e as " p o e t i c d u e t s . " The d e f i n i t i o n g i v e n i n Matthews C h i n e s e / E n g l i s h D i c t i o n a r y (Shanghai, 1 9 3 1 ) i s a s f o l l o w s : "One p e r s o n w r i t i n g a p o e m t o w h i c h o t h e r p e o p l e r e s p o n d u s i n g t h e same rhyme s c h e m e . " 9. S e e L i Dou Y a n g z h o u H u a f a n g B o a t s of Y a n g z h o u ) , volume 10, Hongqiao Garden), l a t t e r p a r t ,  l u (Records of the P a i n t e d Hongqiao l u (Records of the translated below.  1 0 . Mao g i n l o u . T h e s e c o n d c h a r a c t e r c a n b e t r a n s l a t e d a s "sleep" or "stop." This p o r t i o n of the t e x t i s s t i l l u n c l e a r , due t o t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f t r a n s l a t i n g t h e f i n a l c l a u s e r e n x i a n y i z h i . T h e p h r a s e mao g i n l o u c o u l d i n d i c a t e t h a t B a n q i a o was no l o n g e r u g l y o r t h a t h e h a d a s l e e p y and u g l y l o o k . The l a t t e r i s more p r o b a b l e i f i t a n s w e r s t h e c l a u s e " a l t h o u g h he h a d g r o w n u p , " w h i c h i s a p o s i t i v e a t t r i b u t e t o h i s p e r s o n , and i n d i c a t e s t h a t a negative attribute w i l l follow. However, i f r e n x i a n y i z h i i s a n e g a t i v e s t a t e m e n t t o h i s p e r s o n , mao g i n l o u c o u l d s t i l l mean t h a t h e was no l o n g e r u g l y . 11. Z i ququ w e i y i crooked, but with bending over.  i s t o lower or bend h i m s e l f . W e i y i means ququ seems t o r e e n f o r c e t h e n o t i o n o f  12. Banbo l u l i . o r " m o t t l e d / p e c u l i a r common s a y i n g g u a n g g u a i luli.  and s t r a n g e . "  See t h e  1 3 . S e e T h e E l e g a n t B r u s h , 1 9 8 5 , 1 6 8 . Z h e n g X i e was summoned t o mount T a i , and t h e r e g i v e n t h e t i t l e b y t h e e m p e r o r . 14. The t r a n s l a t i o n o f z h i y i a s an exam s y s t e m i s p e r h a p s s u p p o r t e d by Zheng X i e ' s r e f e r e n c e t o a n o t h e r g r o u p o f s c h o l a r s who r e m a i n " a l o o f f r o m t h e e x a m s y s t e m . "  APPENDIX  2.  Biographical Information  1. L i Shan's l e t t e r s h o u z h a , " 1982, 9 4 ) ,  t o h i s nephew dated 1745:  on  Li  (Wang Z i e h e n ' s  Shan.  " L i Shan  I hope you a r e most w e l l nephew. In Teng c o u n t y we d i d n o t t a l k . When I r e t u r n e d home we h u r r i e d l y s p o k e a n d t h e n w e n t o u r own w a y s f o r y e a r s - - e n d u r i n g the c o r n e r s of the e a r t h . One can laugh! I h a v e a l r e a d y d e c i d e d t o l i v e a t home. R e c e n t l y I a g a i n had t h o u g h t s o f l e a v i n g t h e m o u n t a i n s t o come t o t h e p r e f e c t u r a l c i t y h o l d i n g the begging bowl, making a plan to enter the capital. A t t h e end o f t h e t e n t h month I l e f t home. My t h r e e e l d e r b r o t h e r s a n d t h r e e e l d e r s i s t e r s as w e l l as t h e e n t i r e h o u s e h o l d a r e w e l l ; do n o t w o r r y . What I n e e d b a d l y i s t o b u y p a i n t i n g brushes. S i n c e y o u , my w o r t h y n e p h e w , a r e i n H a n g z h o u , i t w o u l d be l e t t i n g a g o o d o p p o r t u n i t y s l i p by i f I d i d not w r i t e you a l e t t e r t o b u y some p a i n t i n g b r u s h e s . Painting b r u s h e s have f i v e good q u a l i t i e s : 1. S e l e c t m a t e r i a l i n w h i c h t h e h a r d n e s s and s o f t n e s s a r e b a l a n c e d . 2. T h e b r u s h t i p s h o u l d n o t d i s p e r s e w h e n p u t i n t o w a t e r . 3. When o n e u s e s i t f o r a l o n g w h i l e , t h e h a i r s d o n o t f a l l o u t . 4. The b r u s h t u b e i s f i n e , l o n g a n d s t r a i g h t . 5. The brush t i p i s d e e p l y hidden w i t h i n the body of the brush. I f i t has t h e s e f i v e q u a l i t i e s , t h e b r u s h c a n be u s e d . A t my p l a c e , t h e b r u s h e s o v e r f i l l the c a s e , but a l l a r e u n f i t t o use because t h e y a r e a l l m a k e s h i f t g o o d s , and n o t r e t a i l s a l e s . In Hangzhou the p a i n t i n g brush s t o r e s are numerous...  2. Z h e n g X i e ' s poem " H u a i L i s a n S h a n " ( T h i n k i n g o f t h e Member o f t h e T h i r d G e n e r a t i o n o f t h e L i F a m i l y , S h a n ) ( Q u a n j i 1985, B a n q i a o j i (The C o l l e c t e d Works o f B a n q i a o ] , Shichao ( C o l l e c t e d P o e t r y ] s e c t i o n , 106-7. A date of 1745 i s o b t a i n e d f r o m Zheng X i e ' s n i a n b i a o [Zheng B a n q i a o i i 1962, appendix]): r  f  When l e a d i n g t h e o x o u t t o p l o u g h t h e f i e l d s , Do a p a i n t i n g a s b e f o r e - - p l a y w i t h t h e b r u s h . Your t a t t e r e d s t r a w cape, hang o u t s i d e upon t h e clouds, The h a l f p i e c e o f o l d p a p e r , o n c e y o u h a v e w i n e i n s i d e you, you c u t . G r e e n s p r i n g i s i n y o u r e y e s , and y o u r childlike heart i s enthusiastic.  144  Your  white h a i r o v e r f l o w s your s h o u l d e r s - - t h e l o f t y i d e a l ( f o r o f f i c i a l d o m ) i s but ashes. O n l y w a t e r s h i e l d a n d p e r c h c a n be u n r e s t r a i n e d l y eaten... The r e t i r e d o f f i c i a l a l s o r e t u r n s t o e a t t h e f i s h . Wait  t o b u y some f a r m l a n d a n d a m a n o r , a n d t h e n return, T h i s l i f e h a s no p a r t , g o t o t h e b r a m b l e c o t t a g e door. L e n d t h i s g e n t l e m a n t e n mu, he c a n p l a n t g r a i n . R e n t me t h r e e r o o m s , t o h a n g d o w n a c u r t a i n . W i l l o w f l u f f p u l l s a t t h e waves s o f t l y , The r i c e s h o o t s a r e g r e e n and a r o u s e s p a r r o w s who f l y about. In dreams I o f t e n meet w i t h y o u - At t h e f o r d s o u t h of t h e g r a s s p a v i l i o n , upon t h e old fishing rock.  3. Zheng X i e ' s i n s c r i p t i o n on L i S h a n ' s a l b u m F l o w e r s , V e g e t a b l e s , and F r u i t , i n t h e S i c h u a n P r o v i n c i a l Museum Collection. (The E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n u s e d h e r e i s b o r r o w e d f r o m t h e p r e f a c e t o Q i n g L i Shan h u a n i a o c e , 1964. Three l i n e s of the i n s c r i p t i o n are not t r a n s l a t e d i n the p u b l i c a t i o n ) , d a t e d 1760: F u t a n g ' s p a i n t i n g s t y l e has undergone t h r e e c h a n g e s . A t f i r s t he l e a r n e d t o p a i n t l a n d s c a p e f r o m W e i L i n g c a n g , a p a i n t e r i n h i s v i l l a g e , he m a s t e r e d t h e a r t and h i s s k i l l e x c e l l e d t h a t o f h i s t e a c h e r . T h e n he w e n t t o t h e C a p i t a l a n d became a p u p i l o f J i a n g T i n g x i o f N a n s h a , and h i s p a i n t i n g o f f l o w e r s w i t h c o l o u r s became e x t r e m e l y l i f e l i k e . The p r e s e n t c o l l e c t i o n c o n s i s t s o f h i s w o r k s d o n e w h e n he was o v e r t h i r t y . H a v i n g p a s s e d t h r o u g h many t w i s t s and t u r n s and h a r d s h i p s i n l i f e , he c a m e t o t h e C a p i t a l a g a i n t o w a i t o n t h e m i n i s t e r o f j u s t i c e Gao Q i p e i . L a t e r i n Y a n g z h o u he s t u d i e d how t h e monk S h i t a o p a i n t e d . He l i k e w i s e adopted S h i ' s t e c h n i q u e of u s i n g a b a l d b r u s h and s p l a s h - i n k , and h i s p a i n t i n g became e v e n m o r e e c c e n t r i c . H i s p a i n t i n g s t y l e c h a n g e d w h e n he f i r s t c a m e t o t h e C a p i t a l , w h e n he c a m e t o t h e C a p i t a l f o r the second time h i s s t y l e changed a g a i n , and each t i m e h i s l e v e l went h i g h e r . One c a n f i n d t h e f o r m s , c o l o u r s and d e p t h o f t h e o b j e c t s he d e p i c t e d n o t i n t h e s l i g h t e s t m e s s i n e s s i n a p p e a r a n c e ; however, t h e y were done i n a c a r e f r e e a n d o f f h a n d m a n n e r . B u t when l o o k i n g c l o s e l y , one n o t i c e s t h i s i s w h e r e t h e i n g e n u i t y a n d s u b t l e t y l i e . T h e w o r k s d o n e a f t e r he was s i x t y took another t u r n . They became l o o s e and  d i s p i r i t e d , and one f i n d s t h e i n n e r s p i r i t i n h i s e a r l i e r p a i n t i n g s gone. T h i s i s t h e t r a g e d y o f h i s old age.  4. Xue Y o n g n i a n ' s a n a l y s i s o f L i S h a n ' s s e a l s a n d two b i o g r a p h i e s o f L i Shan (Xue Y o n g n i a n , " L i Shan de j i a s h i z a o q i z u o p i n , " 1986, 80-85):  yu  1. C h e n f e i l a o h u a s h i ( t h e o f f i c i a l i s n o t a n o l d painting teacher). 2. S h e n x i a n z a i x i a n g z h i i i a ( i m m o r t a l p r i m e m i n i s t e r i a l family). 3. L i H o n g d i n g . W e n d i n g z i s u n ( t h e a n c e s t o r o f L i Hongding and L i Wending). 4. L i W e n d i n g g o n g l i u s h i s u n ( t h e s i x t h g e n e r a t i o n descendant of duke L i Wending). 5. W e n c a i f e n g l i u ( a d m i r a b l e l i t e r a r y g r a c e ) . One c a n s e e f r o m t h i s : 1. L i S h a n w a s b o r n i n t o a prime m i n i s t e r i a l f a m i l y . 2. He s a w t h i s " e a r t h l y p r i m e m i n i s t e r i a l f a m i l y , " c a l l e d "a h e a v e n l y i m m o r t a l h o u s e h o l d , " as h o n o u r a b l e . 3. He r e c o g n i z e d h i m s e l f t o b e j u s t l i k e t h e Han p r i m e - m i n i s t e r C a o C a o ' s d e s c e n d a n t C a o B a , whom Du F u had p r a i s e d . A l t h o u g h " T o d a y t h e r e a r e n u m e r o u s who make the pure g a t e s , " but " d i s t i n g u i s h e d l i t e r a r y grace today i s s t i l l preserved." 4. T h e r e w e r e t w o men a m o n g t h e e a r l i e r g e n e r a t i o n s o f o f f i c i a l s who h a d made i t t o t h e p o s i t i o n o f prime m i n i s t e r . A f t e r d e a t h o n e was c a l l e d H o n g d i n g a n d o n e was c a l l e d W e n d i n g . 1  There a r e two p i e c e s o f b i o g r a p h i c a l d a t a c o n c e r n i n g L i S h a n w i t h i n t h e S h i p u ( L i s t o f G e n e r a t i o n s ) . One r e f e r s t o the f i r s t volume of Xinghua L i s h i zhuanlue ( B i o g r a p h i e s of the L i f a m i l y of Xinghua), otherwise called L i s h i iiazhuan ( L i F a m i l y B i o g r a p h i e s ) , and one r e f e r s t o L a o s i f a n g ( O l d F o u r t h House), volume t h r e e . The f o r m e r i s q u o t e d f r o m X i a n Feng's Chongxiu Xinghua x i a n z h i ( C o m p i l a t i o n of t h e Xinghua County G a z e t e e r ) . Aside from that which people g e n e r a l l y know o f , t h a t w h i c h c o n c e r n s h i s l i f e t o u c h e s upon two matters: 1. B e f o r e b e i n g a n o f f i c i a l i n T e n g , h e was " s e l e c t e d as t h e c o u n t y m a g i s t r a t e o f Shandong p r o v i n c e i n Linzhi." 2. A f t e r b e i n g d i s m i s s e d f r o m o f f i c e h e " b u i l t t h e Fuouguan" [ F r o t h , or t h e F l o a t i n g garden] i n Xinghua i n t h e southern part of the c i t y . The a u t h o r w i l l d i s c u s s t h e separate texts. A t t h i s p o i n t I w i l l n o t g i v e many unnecessary d e t a i l s . The o r i g i n a l t e x t i s a s b e l o w : L i Shan, a l s o c a l l e d F u t a n g . I n the f i f t i e t h year of t h e r e i g n o f t h e K a n g x i emperor (1711) a j u r e n . I n t h e f i f t y - s e c o n d y e a r ( 1 7 1 3 ) he p r e s e n t e d a poem a n d was c a p a b l e i n i t . By t h e e m p e r o r he obtained entrance i n t o t h e Nanshufang. At a young  a g e h i s t a l e n t was g r e a t , a n d a t t h e same t i m e h e was g o o d i n m a t t e r s o f p a i n t i n g . By s p e c i a l d e c r e e he o f t e n l e a r n e d with the experienced J i a n g Xiangguo, and a l t o g e t h e r s e r v e d i n t h e i n n e r court f o r a few y e a r s . The f a v o u r b e s t o w e d upon h i m was t h i c k a n d p i l e d u p . A f t e r he b e g g e d t o r e t u r n , h e was c h o s e n a s t h e m a g i s t r a t e o f L i n z h i c o u n t y i n Shandong p r o v i n c e . T h e n he was t r a n s f e r r e d t o Teng c o u n t y . Because of h i s pure and s i m p l e g o v e r n m e n t , t h o s e o f t h e g e n t r y c l a s s c h e r i s h e d h i m . He was d i s o b e d i e n t t o a g r e a t m i n i s t e r , a n d s o was d i s c h a r g e d a n d r e t u r n e d (home). He t h e n b u i l t t h e F u o u q u a n ( F l o a t i n g H a l l ) i n the southern p a r t of the c i t y . He h o w l e d and i n t o n e d u n t i l t h e e n d . Shan p a i n t e d f l o w e r s and b i r d s . He d i d n o t h o l d o n s t u b b o r n l y t o t h e r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s of those of t h e p a s t . C r e a t i o n was i n h i s w r i s t a n d t h e c o n d i t i o n was l i k e growth. A f t e r h i s d e a t h , a l t h o u g h he o r i g i n a l l y r e c e i v e d much ( a t t e n t i o n ) , a c t u a l l y , none c o u l d pass o f f a f a k e as a g e n u i n e work. He was l e a r n e d a n d c o u l d w r i t e ; h i s p o e m s w e r e u n c o n v e n t i o n a l l y g r a c e f u l and n a t u r a l , and h i s c a l l i g r a p h y had t h e c o l o u r o f w i l l o w , bones and muscles. The w o r l d h a s m e r e l y p a s s e d on statements of h i s s k i l l i n painting. 1  The l a t t e r , a l t h o u g h a r e l a t i v e l y s i m p l e b i o g r a p h y , s i m i l a r l y r a i s e s t h e f a c t of L i ' s appointment as t h e magistrate of L i n z h i county. Aside from t h i s , i t a l s o r e c o r d s h i s f a t h e r , h i s spouse, and h i s c h i l d r e n . T h i s , m o r e o v e r , i s f r e s h l y known m a t t e r c o n c e r n i n g h i s l i f e . We c a n now l i s t t h e o r i g i n a l t e x t b e l o w : Shan, a l s o c a l l e d Zongyang and F u t a n g , Z h u y i ' s f o u r t h s o n . I n t h e xinmao year of t h e Kangxi e m p e r o r ( 1 7 1 1 ) he became a j u r e n . In the qui j i y e a r ( 1 7 1 3 ) h e p r e s e n t e d a p o e m a n d was c a p a b l e i n it. By t h e emperor he o b t a i n e d e n t r a n c e i n t o t h e Nanshufanq. He was a p p o i n t e d t o S h a n d o n g p r o v i n c e , L i n z h i county as t h e county m a g i s t r a t e . He was l e a r n e d a n d c o u l d w r i t e ; he was g o o d a t p o e t r y and c a l l i g r a p h y , and p a r t i c u l a r l y r e f i n e d in matters of p a i n t i n g . F a r and near (people) a d m i r e d h i s name, a n d d i d n o t s p a r e l a r g e a m o u n t s of c a s h t o p u r c h a s e t h e m . Soon t h e r e were p a r t i c u l a r s i n t h e p r e f e c t u r a l and c o u n t y gazeteers. He j o i n e d i n m a r r i a g e w i t h t h e S h u f a m i l y a n d h a d o n e s o n , who d i e d a t a y o u n g a g e , and one g i r l . T h e n he s t a y e d i n t h e Han f a m i l y , and had t h r e e s o n s and one d a u g h t e r .  5. Z h e n g X i e ' s poem " Y i n L i F u t a n g z h a i f u z e n g " ( T h i n k i n g of L i F u t a n g ' s H o u s e h o l d , t o P r e s e n t as a G i f t ) (Quani i . 1985, B a n q i a o j i [The C o l l e c t e d Works o f B a n q i a o ] , S h i c h a o [ C o l l e c t e d poetry] s e c t i o n , 59): On  t h e f i f t e e n t h d a y o f t h e f o u r t h m o n t h t h e moon is i n the t r e e s , A l i g h t wind and pure shadow s h a k e t h e window. I r a i s e t h e w i n e w a n t i n g t o d r i n k when b u r d e n s o m e m a t t e r s o f t h e h e a r t come t o me... The h o s t and g u e s t h a v e n o t y e t s p o k e n and t h e g u e s t g e t s up a n d l e a v e s . T h e h o s t made h i s f o r t u n e a t a m o s t y o u n g a g e . . . He f i r s t t r i e d t h e c o r a l w h i p o n h i s h u a l i n steed; With the e s c o r t he w e n t i n and o u t o f G u b e i kou. W i t h h i s b a g and b r u s h he s e r v e d d i r e c t l y b e f o r e the (Kangxi) emperor, H i s t a l e n t and g r a n d i o s i t y were q u i t e e n v i e d by the w o r l d — But a l t h o u g h t h e mouths p r a i s e d and s i g h e d , t h e h e a r t s were not l i k e t h a t . Rumbling horses l e f t the c i t y ; I n b r o c a d e d c l o t h e s he s o u g h t o u t s i n g i n g g i r l s o n the r i v e r - F o r t w e n t y y e a r s t h e s o u n d s and c o l o u r s o f h i s l i f e were l i c e n t i o u s , His painting t o t a l l e d three-thousand i i i n breadth and l e n g t h . Two b a b i e s w e r e t h e n e t w o r k o f t h e w o r l d , But t h e n h i s h o u s e h o l d and w e a l t h were p a r t i t i o n e d and squandered... The a n g r y o f f i c i a l f r e q u e n t l y t a p p e d a t t h e d o o r to urge the r e n t , The o n e t h o u s a n d mu o f p a d d y f i e l d s a r e o n t h e c o n t r a r y a burden. T h e n t h e r o a d came t o a n e n d , and he s o l d p a i n t i n g s - - t h e p a i n t i n g s were i n c r e a s i n g l y cheap, And t h e s e r v a n t s and m e r c h a n t s d i s c u s s e d w h e t h e r t h e y were good or bad. Y e s t e r d a y he p a i n t e d a p a i r o f p i n e s w h i c h w e r e not yet h a l f completed; On b e c o m i n g d r u n k he g o t a n g r y a n d t o r e up t h e ( s p e c i a l ) paper from Dengxin. When he g r e w o l d , h e o n t h e c o n t r a r y t h o u g h t o f w a l k i n g on t h e s o f t d u s t , So he b e c a m e a n o f f i c i a l t e m p o r a r i l y i n o r d e r t o alleviate his hardship. How m a n y t i m e s d i d t h e f l o w e r s o p e n o n t h e t r e e s of S h a n g l i n , F o r t e n y e a r s he d i d n o t s e e t h e f l o u r i s h i n g spring i n the c a p i t a l . In t h i s , the t a s t e i s m i l d l i k e water-2  But  he c o u l d n o t y e t b e a r b e i n g o f f i c i a l and t h e n becoming  an e n l i g h t e n e d l o w l y and poor.  6. One o f " T w e n t y - t h r e e j u e j u " b y Z h e n g X i e ( Q u a n j i , B a n q i a o j i [The C o l l e c t e d Works o f B a n q i a o ] , Shichao [Collected poetry] section, 99):  1985,  C a l l e d F u t a n g , a X i n g h u a man, h e i s f i l i a l a n d honest. He w o r s h i p p e d a t t h e i n n e r c o u r t a n d l a t e r was t h e m a g i s t r a t e o f T e n g c o u n t y . H i s brush i s s k i l l e d and m a t c h l e s s . Twice e x p e l l e d from a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and a once demoted official, His dreary h a i r i s f r o s t y (grey) i nt h e reflection. He r e m e m b e r s a n d b e w a i l s R e n H u a n g d i ( t h e K a n g x i emperor), And l o n g t a k e s h i s s o u l t o be l i k e t h e c o l o u r s o f the willow.  7. Zheng X i e ' s l e t t e r t o L i Shan (Quanj i , 1985, B a n q i a o j i wai s h i w e n ( P o e t r y and P r o s e o u t s i d e t h e C o l l e c t e d Works o f B a n q i a o ) , Shu ( L e t t e r s ) s e c t i o n , 269. The l e t t e r i s l i s t e d as b e i n g a f a c s i m i l e o f t h a t i n B e i j i n g x i d a n wenwu s h a n g d i a n c a n g ( B e i j i n g West L i s t C u l t u r a l R e l i c s S t o r e Collection): I n t e n d a y s we h a v e n o t s e e n o n e a n o t h e r . I t i s a s i f a p e r i o d o f t h i r t y y e a r s h a s p a s s e d . The g r o u n d i n t h e m o r n i n g i s s o f t mud. C a n y o u come o v e r f o r a v i s i t w i t h me? O l d s i r Wang, D u s a n , a n d e l d e r b r o t h e r Y e , want t o i n v i t e t h e r e v e r e d one t o meet over a p o t o f wine and a s m a l l d i s h o f food. I do n o t k n o w , a r e y o u w i l l i n g t o come o v e r ? The p a i n t i n g b u s i n e s s , no d o u b t , i s p r e s s i n g , b u t t a l k i n g o f m a t t e r s a l s o c a n n o t b e g i v e n u p . I am e a g e r l y l o o k i n g forward t o your coming over. For o l d man F u t a n g , f r o m h i s l a t e y o u n g e r b r o t h e r Zheng X i e .  149  1. X u e Y o n g n i a n l a t e r c o n c l u d e s t h a t H o n g d i n g i s n o t r e l a t e d t o L i S h a n , a n d t h a t t h e s e a l was made j u s t a f t e r L i S h a n ' s time i n order t o v a l i d a t e f o r g e r i e s of the p a i n t e r ' s works. 2.  Indicating  an  official  position.  APPENDIX  3. P o e m s b y Z h e n g X i e  1. T h e i n s c r i p t i o n u p o n t h e p a i n t i n g Bamboo a n d R o c k . T h e P a l a c e Museum C o l l e c t i o n ( R e p r o d u c e d i n P a i n t i n g b y Y a n g z h o u A r t i s t s o f t h e Q i n g D y n a s t y . 1 9 8 4 , e n t r y 7 6 . Two o t h e r p a i n t i n g s w i t h s i m i l a r i n s c r i p t i o n s a r e recorded i n Quani i . B a n q i a o i i [The C o l l e c t e d Works o f B a n q i a o ] , T i h u a [Inscriptions] section, 205): Y a n g z h o u ' s f r e s h bamboo s h o o t s herr ing, Mashed and cooked a t t h e s t a r t t h i r d month, Making i t ask t h e kitchen help c h o p p i n g i t up t o t h e u t m o s t , C l e a r and b r i g h t l e a v e t h i s t o book. Huan o l d s c h o l a r Zheng X i e .  elder  brother  and r i c h  in hilsa  of the east t o stop  wind's  from  l i g h t the outspread correct.  Banqiao  2. T h r e e i n s c r i p t i o n s on bamboo p a i n t i n g s . (Quanj i . 1985, Banqiao i i [The c o l l e c t e d works o f B a n q i a o ] , T i h u a [ I n s c r i p t i o n s ] s e c t i o n , 205-6. The s e c o n d p a i n t i n g i s i n t h e B e i j i n g x i d a n wenwu s h a n g d i a n c a n g [ B e i j i n g W e s t L i s t Cultural Relics Store C o l l e c t i o n ] . The t h i r d p a i n t i n g i s i n t h e T a i z h o u bowuguan [ T a i z h o u N a t u r a l H i s t o r y Museum]): Bamboo s h o o t s a l o n g t h e r i v e r i n t h e s e c o n d m o n t h a r e new. F a m i l y a f t e r f a m i l i e s ' k i t c h e n s cook and p e a l t h e s p r i n g bamboo. I am h o p i n g t o c u t o n e t h o u s a n d t h r e a d s o f t h i n bamboo s t r i p s , To w e a v e i n t o a c u r t a i n t o p r o t e c t beautiful women! Cook m e a t a n d b o i l f i s h , c u t up bamboo s h o o t s fresh. I n t h e k i t c h e n on t h e p o t s h e l f t h e y l o s e Heaven's genuineness... B a n q i a o Zheng X i e p l a y s w i t h t h e b r u s h . ...Cook p i g a n d c u t bamboo s h o o t s f r e s h . Family a f t e r family's kitchens lose our genuineness. I ( f o u r c h a r a c t e r s m i s s i n g ) o f t h i n bamboo s t r i p s t o weave i n t o a c u r t a i n t o p r o t e c t beautiful women. The o l d c o d g e r o f s e v e n t y w r o t e t h e s e b e a u t i f u l words, i s n ' t i t l a u g h a b l e ! 1  2  1. " O u r g e n u i n e n e s s " c o u l d a l s o b e t r a n s l a t e d g e n u i n e n e s s , " t h e w o r d b e i n g wu.  as  "my  2. The e x p r e s s i o n i s zuoci q i y u . q i meaning " b e a u t i f u l " or " f i g u r e d woven s i l k m a t e r i a l " o r "damask." This i s a play u p o n t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e p o e m a s i t r e g a r d s b e a u t i f u l women, and t h e woven c u r t a i n t o p r o t e c t them.  APPENDIX  4. P o e m s b y L i S h a n a n d J i n N o n g  1. Poems s e l e c t e d f r o m Zhuang S h e n , " L i Shan s h i c h a o " ( T h e C o l l e c t e d Poems o f L i S h a n ) , 1 9 7 2 , 5 3 - 6 0 . The page number w i t h i n Z h u a n g S h e n ' s a r t i c l e f o l l o w s t h e poem: S t r a n g e t h i s c h a n g e , l a m e n t t h e wounded p e o n y , The work o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n ( i n painting) cleverly matches t h e i n t e n t i o n , The e s s e n c e i s d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e many. F i s h f o r e t e l l of a thousand years... T h i s i s a p a i n t i n g t h a t w i l l b r i n g r i c h e s and honour year a f t e r y e a r . ( 5 5 ) C l e a r summer d u r i n g t h e f a m i n e I f a s t . . . Mankind's heat I c a n b r i n g t o an end. P l e a s e l o o k on t h i s i n k and b r u s h as i f t h e y were clouds r i s i n g , I t i s l i k e t h e c o l d r a i n and c o o l wind amongst t h e bamboo a n d t r e e s i n t h e a u t u m n . ( 5 5 ) I n t h e s m a l l g a r d e n , t h e c o l o u r s o f f l o w e r s c a n be praised to the greatest extent; T h i s y e a r on t h e Duanyang f e s t i v a l I s t a y e d a t home. B u t l a u g h a t a n o l d f e l l o w l i k e me n o t h a v i n g a p l a c e t o h i d e away-E v e r y o n e s e e k s me o u t t o p a i n t f i s h a n d s h r i m p ! (55) The s w e e t a n d f r a g r a n t i s o b t a i n e d from t h e t a s t e l e s s remainder: With the jade cauldron i n t h e o f f i c i a l ' s kitchen the t a s t e i s n o t as good. On a n o t h e r d a y i n my l i f e I w i l l s i n g w i t h i n my t e n mu ( o f l a n d ) , Shut ( t h e d o o r ) and r e a d o l d a g r i c u l t u r a l books. (58) Month b y month t h e s p r i n g i s s u i t a b l e f o r f l o w e r s i n an a n c i e n t vessel. Abundance i s p o r t e n d e d — b r i n g out t h e f i s h i n g r o d . W r i t i n g t h e s e two l i n e s I o b t a i n t h e i d e a , The H e a v e n a n d t h e E a r t h a r e p e a c e f u l throughout the four seasons.(59)  2. I n s c r i p t i o n f r o m a n a l b u m l e a f o f f i s h b y L i S h a n . P a l a c e Museum C o l l e c t i o n ( R e p r o d u c e d i n P a i n t i n g s b y Y a n g z h o u Artists 1985, e n t r y 5 0 ) : r  L e e k , t e n d e r g i n g e r s p r o u t , huge mouth and s l e n d e r s c a l e s t o be e a t e n when f r e s h . Who w i l l s h a r e t h i s w i t h t h e p a i n t e r L i S h a n ?  3. J i n Nong's i n s c r i p t i o n o n h i s i m a g e o f bamboo a n d bamboo s h o o t s ( R e p r o d u c e d i n C h u - t s i n g L i , " T h e Bamboo P a i n t i n g s o f C h i n Nung," 1973-74, 53-71): With t h e f i r s t sounding of the thunder of s p r i n g , New b a m b o o s h o o t s f i l l t h e m o u n t a i n — r i d g e a f t e r ridge of jade. When y o u b u y a p o r t i o n t o c o o k w i t h f r a g r a n t p i g meat, Do n o t a s k t h e k i t c h e n h e l p , a s k t h e o l d monk. Old Monk...(Jin Nong), a f t e r painting inscribed this.  154  A P P E N D I X 5. An E x a m p l e o f R e c e n t C h i n e s e S c h o l a r s h i p Representing the T r a d i t i o n a l Chinese Approach t o Yangzhou P a i n t e r s . Wang L u y u , " L i S h a n h u a n j i b u y i . F u L i S h a n n i a n b i a o " ( A n Addendum t o t h e R e c o r d s o f t h e O f f i c i a l L i Shan. L i Shan N i a n b i a o A p p e n d e d ) , 1986, 75-78 (Not i n c l u d i n g t h e nianbiao). L i S h a n i s one o f t h e p r i n c i p l e f i g u r e s among t h e Yangzhou s c h o o l of p a i n t i n g . The o c c u r r e n c e s o f h i s o f f i c i a l career, h i s success i n the examination, worship w i t h i n t h e c o u r t , and o f f i c e as Teng c o u t y m a g i s t r a t e a r e a l l known o f . But t h e p a r t i c u l a r s of h i s h a v i n g a c t e d as the c o u n t y m a g i s t r a t e i n L i n z h i , i n Shandong p r o v i n c e , have b e e n l e f t out o f v a r i o u s p a i n t i n g h i s t o r i e s and monographs a l l along. S i n c e t h e y a r e n o t k n o w n t h e y c a n n o t be u s e d i n r e s e a r c h i n g L i Shan's l i f e and a r t i s t i c developement. I.  Addendum.  L i S h a n was f r o m X i n g h u a , i n J i a n g s u p r o v i n c e . T h e Chonqxiu Xinghua x i a n z h i ( R e - e d i t i o n of the Xinghua County G a z e t e e r ) s a y s , "he w o r s h i p p e d i n t h e c o u r t f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s , a n d was t h i c k l y b e s t o w e d u p o n . He b e g g e d t o r e t u r n . L a t e r he was s e l e c t e d a s t h e c o u n t y m a g i s t r a t e o f L i n z h i , i n S h a n d o n g , a n d was t h e n t r a n s f e r r e d t o T e n g c o u n t y . " F o l l o w i n g t h i s c l u e , I c o n s u l t e d the Shandong t o n g z h i (Shandong Comprehensive G a z e t e e r ) , Qingzhou f u z h i (Qingzhou P r e f e c t u r e G a z e t e e r ) , and t h e L i n z h i x i a n z h i - - z h i quan z h i ( L i n z h i County G a z e t e e r — R e c o r d s of O f f i c i a l s ) . Without e x c e p t i o n , t h e s e d o n o t m e n t i o n t h a t he h a d b e e n t h e m a g i s t r a t e of L i n z h i county. However, i n the L i n z h i x i a n z h i - - M i n g chuan z h i ( L i n z h i County G a z e t e e r — R e c o r d s of Famous O f f i c i a l s ) , I saw a r e c o r d w h i c h s t a t e s t h e following: L i S h a n , z_i Z o n g y a n g , was a l s o c a l l e d F u t a n g . He was a j u r e n f r o m Y a n g z h o u i n X i n g h u a . During the r e i g n o f t h e K a n g x i e m p e r o r he w o r s h i p p e d i n t h e inner court. In the second year of the r e i g n of t h e Q i a n l o n g e m p e r o r ( 1 7 3 7 ) he became t h e magistrate at L i n z h i county. He was p r a i s e d i n t h e p u b l i c r e a l m , a n d was g r a c e f u l b u t s h o w y . B a n q i a o s a i d t h a t h i s p a i n t i n g b r u s h was e x t r e m e l y skilled. The g a z e t e e r s e l e c t s e i g h t e e n f r o m t h e n e a r l y e i g h t y Q i n g d y n a s t y m a g i s t r a t e s and e n t e r s t h e i r names i n t h e M i n g c h u a n s h i ( R e c o r d o f Famous O f f i c i a l s ) . L i Shan i s l i s t e d among t h e m . I t h i n k i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t h a t t h i s i s an e r r o r .  155 The L i n z h i x i a n z h i - - j i a n z h i z h i ( L i n z h i C o u n t y E s t a b l i s h e d Records) a l s o mentions t h a t at the b e g i n n i n g of the r e i g n of t h e Q i a n l o n g emperor L i Shan r e b u i l t the C o n f u c i a n temple. An o l d t r a d i t i o n h a s i t t h a t a t t h e p l a c e i n q u e s t i o n t h e "lingxingmen" ( l i t e r a l l y the " l a t t i c e star door") which L i Shan i n s c r i b e d s t i l l e x i s t e d a t the time of the R e p u b l i c of China. The l e n g t h o f t h e p e r i o d d u r i n g w h i c h L i S h a n h e l d a n o f f i c i a l p o s t has not been t r e a t e d i n t h i s . Taking into a c c o u n t t h a t , " a f t e r b e i n g s e l e c t e d as t h e m a g i s t r a t e of L i n z h i , i n S h a n d o n g , he was t r a n s f e r r e d t o T e n g c o u n t y , " we c a n s e t a l i m i t o n t h e d a t e a t w h i c h he was t r a n s f e r r e d t o Teng c o u n t y . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e Teng x i a n z h i (Teng C o u n t y Gazeteer) ( P u b l i s h e d by Daoguang): . . . L i Shan, a l u r e n of Xinghua i n J i a n g s u province. In the t e n t h month of the t h i r d year (of t h e r e i g n o f t h e emperor Q i a n l o n g , or 17381 7 4 0 ) he t o o k o f f i c e , a n d s e r v e d f o r f o u r y e a r s (four years from the b e g i n n i n g of h i s s e r v i c e i n Teng). There i s a biography. f i v e y e a r s and two months s e r v e d . The b i o g r a p h y s a y s : " L i S h a n . . . a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e r e i g n o f t h e Q i a n l o n g e m p e r o r he a g a i n was t h e m a g i s t r a t e o f T e n g ( c o u n t y ) . He made c o r r e c t t h e o u t e r c i r c u m s t a n c e . B e c a u s e he d i d n o t a g r e e w i t h a h i g h e r o f f i c i a l he was discharged. He r e m a i n e d i n T e n g ( c o u n t y ) f o r t h r e e y e a r s ( u n t i l 1 7 4 3 ) , and t h e p e o p l e o f Teng who o b t a i n e d h i s w o r k s a l l t r e a s u r e d t h e m . So, i n what month d i d t h e p a i n t e r b e g i n t o s e r v e as t h e m a g i s t r a t e of L i n z h i county? M o l i n i i n h u a (Book of t h e Words of C o n t e m p o r a r i e s ) r e c o r d s an i n s c r i p t i o n by L i Shan on a p a i n t i n g o f t r e e p e o n y w h i c h s a y s : Submerging  the empty rooms, the f l o o d w a t e r s of the excessive rains remain... I c h e c k my b a g , f o r t h e e a r n i n g s o f t h e a b u n d a n t times i n the past. P a i n t i n g h a s e n d e d f o r me, t h e s w a l l o w s o n t h e b r a n c h [ ? ] . . . I l e a v e t o be a n o f f i c i a l , I w i l l n o t b r i n g t h e c o l o u r s w h e n I go t o Qingzhou. N o o n e h a s y e t u n d e r s t o o d t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s poem. A f t e r p u t t i n g i t together w i t h the i n f o r m a t i o n i n the L i n z h i x i a n z h i ( L i n z h i C o u n t y G a z e t e e r ) we c a n u n d e r s t a n d i t after a brief look. "Qingzhou" r e f e r s to Qingzhou p r e f e c t u r e , w h i c h had j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r L i n z h i c o u n t y . Because of t h i s we k n o w t h a t t h e p o e m was w r i t t e n j u s t p r i o r t o g o i n g t o t a k e o f f i c e as the c o u n t y m a g i s t r a t e of L i n z h i . This again p r o v e s t h a t L i Shan went t o Q i n g z h o u t o become an o f f i c i a l .  156  F r o m an a n a l y s i s o f was p r o b a b l y i n t h e  the term v i n v u . we c a n t e l l t h i r d month of t h e y e a r .  that  this  W i t h t h e f e w p i e c e s o f e v i d e n c e i t c a n be s e e n t h a t : some t i m e a f t e r t h e t h i r d m o n t h o f t h e s e c o n d y e a r o f t h e r e i g n of t h e Q i a n l o n g emperor (1737) u n t i l t h e t e n t h month of t h e t h i r d y e a r o f t h e r e i g n ( 1 7 3 8 ) L i Shan h e l d t h e o f f i c e of c o u n t y m a g i s t r a t e of L i n z h i i n Shandong. Moreover, they i l l u s t r a t e the achievements of h i s o f f i c i a l career. The r e a s o n s f o r w h i c h t h i s h i s t o r i c a l f a c t h a s b e e n l e f t o u t of p a i n t i n g h i s t o r i e s and monographs i n c l u d e t h a t of t h e s h a r e d h a b i t o f p a s s i n g on and l i f t i n g passages. Moreover, a s i d e from the L i n z h i x i a n z h i - - M i n q chuan z h i ( L i n z h i C o u n t y G a z e t e e r - - R e c o r d o f Famous O f f i c i a l s ) , o n l y the Chongxiu Xinghua x i a n z h i ( R e - e d i t i o n of the Xinghua C o u n t y G a z e t e e r ) has a s m a l l c l u e . But even the c h a r a c t e r " d i a o " [ t r a n s f e r ] has a l s o t a k e n t h e f o c u s of t h e r e s e a r c h e r s and t r a n s f e r e d i t t o Teng c o u n t y . II.  That  obtained  from  the  Addendum.  In t h e f i r s t p l a c e , when s p e a k i n g on t h e " Y a n g z h o u B a g u a i , " many c o n s i d e r t h a t t h e y d e t e s t e d t h e w o r l d and i t s w a y s , t h a t t h e y h a d no i n t e n t i o n s o f t a k i n g t h e p a t h o f o f f i c i a l d o m , a n d t h a t t h e i r b r u s h w o r k was e m o t i o n a l , e x p r e s s i n g t h e i r f e e l i n g s . In r e a l i t y the s i t u a t i o n i s not simply like this. We c a n s e e f r o m t h e i n s c r i p t i o n o n t h e p a i n t i n g o f t r e e p e o n y c i t e d a b o v e t h a t t h e r e a s o n t h a t L i S h a n was an o f f i c i a l t w i c e i s t h a t h e was d e t e r m i n e d t o b e c o m e a g o o d official. F r o m t h e l a t e r t w o l i n e s we c a n s e e t h a t a f t e r he f i n i s h e d p a i n t i n g t h e f u g u i h u a p i c t u r e , he t h e n w a n t e d t o p u t a s i d e t h e r o u g e a n d c o l o u r s , a n d w h o l e h e a r t e d l y "be a n o f f i c i a l " i n the f l o u r i s h i n g r e i g n of the Q i a n l o n g emperor. I n f a c t , a f t e r g o v e r n i n g he a l s o r e c e i v e d t h e s u p p o r t o f t h e p o p u l a c e , and a f t e r b e i n g an o f f i c i a l f o r one and a h a l f years then gained the a p p r a i s a l of " p r a i s e i n the p u b l i c r e a l m , g r a c e f u l b u t s h o w y , " a n d was l i s t e d u n d e r t h e a b o v e m e n t i o n e d c o u n t y as one o f t h e e i g h t e e n famous o f f i c i a l s o f the Qing dynasty. A f t e r b e i n g t r a n s f e r r e d t o Teng f o r over a y e a r he was a l s o " c h e r i s h e d b y t h e g e n t r y a n d t h e commoners f o r h i s p u r e and h o n e s t g o v e r n a n c e . " In s p i t e of " b e i n g u n c o n g e n i a l t o a g r e a t m i n i s t e r , b e i n g d i s c h a r g e d and r e t u r n i n g , " h i s a s p i r a t i o n s and c o n d u c t a r e v e r y c l e a r . Up u n t i l t h e t i m e he l e f t o f f i c e a n d l i v e d a t home i t was a s i f h i s d e v o t i o n t o b e c o m i n g an o f f i c i a l had s t i l l n o t y e t d i e d out. When he was s i x t y y e a r s o l d , i n a l e t t e r t o h i s c o u s i n he s a i d : " I r e c e n t l y a g a i n h a d t h o u g h t s o f l e a v i n g t h e m o u n t a i n t o come t o t h e p r e f e c t u r a l c i t y h o l d i n g t h e b e g g i n g bowl, making plans t o enter the c a p i t a l . "  A f t e r t h e p a i n t e r was " t w i c e r e m o v e d o f h i s t i t l e kerning and o n c e d e m o t e d , " f r o m b e i n g s t r u c k w i t h t h e government's f e r v e n t a t t a c k s , the path of the o f f i c i a l c o u l d no l o n g e r be h o p e d f o r . W i t h t h i s h i s o u t l o o k on life underwent a change. This a l s o appeared i n h i s a r t i n h i s s t y l e , j u s t as B a n q i a o c r i t i c i z e d F u t a n g ' s works s a y i n g , " A f t e r he was s i x t y i t ( h i s s t y l e ) c h a n g e d a g a i n , b e c o m i n g c a r e l e s s and s l o p p y and d i s p i r i t e d . I t d i d not r e t a i n bones and m u s c l e s . This i s the sorrow of h i s o l d age." 1  T h e h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l r e l a t e d a b o v e no d o u b t h a s g r e a t s i g n i f i c a n c e r e g a r d i n g our r e s e a r c h of L i Shan's t h o u g h t and life. Secondly, the c l e a r r e c o r d c o n c e r n i n g the l i m i t of y e a r s w h e n L i S h a n was a n o f f i c i a l w i t h i n t h e L i n z h i x i a n z h i ( L i n z h i C o u n t y G a z e t e e r ) and Teng x i a n z h i (Teng C o u n t y G a z e t e e r ) , h i s s e c o n d t i m e as an o f f i c i a l i s b e t w e e n t h e p e r i o d f r o m sometime a f t e r t h e second year of the r e i g n of the Q i a n l o n g emperor (1737) u n t i l the second month of the f i f t h year of the r e i g n of the Q i a n l o n g emperor (1740). From b e g i n n i n g t o end i t i s n o t more t h a n t h r e e y e a r s . The time he t o o k o f f i c e i s a r o u n d t h e a g e o f f i f t y - t w o ; t h e o t h e r s a y i n g s about t h i s are wrong. T h i r d l y , we c a n s e e f r o m t h e i n s c r i p t i o n o f t h e p a i n t i n g o f t r e e p e o n y t h a t L i S h a n was d e t e r m i n e d n o t t o a g a i n p l a c e h i s f e e l i n g s i n h i s c a l l i g r a p h y and p a i n t i n g , a n d w o u n d up s e l l i n g p a i n t i n g s t o make a l i v i n g . In t h a t way, d u r i n g t h e t h r e e y e a r s i n w h i c h L i S h a n a s s u m e d an o f f i c i a l p o s t , he was p r o b a b l y n o t p l a n n i n g on m a k i n g paintings. The L i n z h i X i a n z h i ( L i n z h i C o u n t y G a z e t e e r ) o n l y says "Banqiao says h i s p a i n t i n g brush i s extremely skilled." I t s e e m s t h a t a t t h a t p l a c e among t h e g e n t r y and c o m m o n e r s t h e r e w e r e n o n e who k n e w o f h i s a b i l i t y a t p a i n t i n g . It a l s o s h o w s t h a t d u r i n g t h e t i m e he a s s u m e d o f f i c e L i S h a n ' s p a i n t i n g a r t had n o t y e t become v i s i b l e . T h e s e c o n d t i m e he p i c k e d up t h e b r u s h t o make p a i n t i n g s t o a g r e a t e x t e n t , i t was a f t e r he h a d b e e n d i s c h a r g e d a n d r e m a i n e d i n T e n g c o u n t y f o r t h r e e y e a r s . L i Shan's p a i n t i n g a c t i v i t y d u r i n g h i s t h r e e y e a r s as c o u n t y m a g i s t r a t e p r o b a b l y b e l o n g t o t h e " p e r i o d o f h i b e r n a t i o n , " w h e n e v e n t h o u g h he made p a i n t i n g s , t h e y were were c o n s i d e r a b l y few. This point i s a valuable r e f e r e n c e i n a p p r a i s i n g and a n a l y s i n g t h e p a i n t e r ' s w o r k s . 2  158  1. Wang L u y u d o e s n o t l i n k t h i s q u o t e t o p a r t i c u l a r events i n L i Shan's l i f e t i m e through h i s o f f i c i a l c a r e e r . Evidence i s c l e a r t o me f o r o n l y o n e m i s f o r t u n e i n L i S h a n ' s c a r e e r as o f f i c i a l , t h a t of b e i n g d i s c h a r g e d a f t e r f o u r y e a r s of s e r v i c e as t h e m a g i s t r a t e of Teng c o u n t y . The o t h e r two e v e n t s , h a v i n g h i s k e r n i n g t i t l e r e m o v e d t w i c e , do n o t a p p e a r i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e e x p l i c i t l y , a s I h a v e i t , a n d c a n n o t be l i n k e d t o two e v e n t s w i t h a n y certainty. 2. T h e r e a r e t w o f o o t n o t e s i n t h e a r t i c l e w h i c h h a v e n o t been t r a n s l a t e d here. The f i r s t l i s t s t h e i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d c o n c e r n i n g L i Shan i n v a r i o u s s o u r c e s , w h i l e the second quotes the d e f i n i t i o n of y i n y u from the C i h a i .  159  APPENDIX  6.  Zheng X i e ' s  Painting  Theory.  In t h i s a p p e n d i x , e a c h number i n d i c a t e s an i n s c r i p t i o n , w h i l e l e t t e r s f o l l o w i n g a number i n d i c a t e t h e b a s i c and v a r i a n t v e r s i o n s of the i n s c r i p t i o n . As w e l l , b r a c k e t e d l e t t e r s ( f o r example ( a ) . . . ( b ) ) e n c l o s e p a r t s of the i n s c r i p t i o n repeated i n variants. Subsequent appearances of a p a s s a g e w i l l n o t i n c l u d e t h e t e x t b u t w i l l be i n d i c a t e d by the b r a c k e t e d l e t t e r s which were s u r r o u n d i n g i t . The p u r p o s e f o r t h i s i s t o a v o i d r e p e t i t i o n , and t o p e r m i t c o n t i n u e d s t u d y o f t h e m e a n i n g o f t h e i n s c r i p t i o n s and t h e p a i n t i n g s on w h i c h t h e y w e r e w r i t t e n .  l a . Bamboo ( Q u a n i i . 1 9 8 5 , B a n q i a o i i [The C o l l e c t e d Banqiao], Tihua [ I n s c r i p t i o n s ] s e c t i o n , 199):  Works  of  At the r i v e r hut i n c l e a r autumn, I r i s e i n t h e e a r l y m o r n i n g t o v i e w bamboo. I n t h e m i s t , l i g h t a n d s h a d o w , dew a n d b r e e z e , A l l f l o a t a n d move w i t h i n t h e s p a r s e b r a n c h e s a n d dense leaves, (a) I n my m i n d I am e x h u b e r a n t . . . S u b s e q u e n t l y I have a p a i n t i n g i d e a . I n r e a l i t y , t h e b a m b o o i n my m i n d I s a l t o g e t h e r d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e b a m b o o w i t h i n my sight. T h u s ( b ) I g r i n d i n k a n d u n f o l d some p a p e r , ( c ) L o w e r i n g t h e b r u s h I s w i f t l y make metamorphoses... T h e b a m b o o i n my h a n d , A g a i n , i s n o t t h e b a m b o o i n my mind. In a word, Having the idea f i r s t i n the brush Is f i x e d r u l e s ; H a v i n g d e l i g h t beyond method Is t h e d e c r e e of H e a v e n . Alone paint the c l o u d s ! ( d ) 1  2  l b . I n k Bamboo. E n c o u n t e r e d by L i u J i u ' a n ( Q u a n i i , 1985, 200. L i t t l e d i f f e r e n t f r o m l a . I t i s i n s c r i b e d a s , " B a n q i a o d a o r e n Zheng X i e p a i n t e d and i n s c r i b e d f o r S u x i n g , younger b r o t h e r of the o l d e r g e n e r a t i o n . When t h e s n o w i s c l e a r i n g i n t h e second month of t h e t w e n t y - f o u r t h y e a r of t h e r e i g n of t h e e m p e r o r Q i a n l o n g " ) , d a t e d 1759. I c . Dew B a m b o o , New a n d F r e s h . I n Z h o n q q u o h u a i i a c o n g s h u , Zheng B a n q i a o (The C o l l e c t i o n o f R e p r i n t e d Works by C h i n e s e P a i n t e r s , Zheng B a n q i a o ) (Quani i 1985, 2 0 0 ) , d a t e d 1756: f  A t t h e g u e s t h o u s e i n new c l e a r ( w e a t h e r ) , I r i s e i n t h e e a r l y m o r n i n g t o v i e w bamboo. Dew f l o a t s o n t h e l e a v e s , L i g h t on t h e b r a n c h t i p s . ( a ) ( c ) move t h e b r u s h Again i t i s another s t y l e , ( e ) I n r e a l i t y , t h e b a m b o o i n my h a n d I s n o t t h e b a m b o o i n my m i n d . ( f ) Step by s t e p metamorphosis... No o n e c a n h a v e a n i n k l i n g . I t s d e s t i n y shows u n i n t e n t i o n a l l y , T h e r e i s n o o n e who k n o w s i t s how o r w h y . Alone paint the clouds! Q i a n l o n g b i n g - z i y e a r ( 1 7 5 6 ) , B a n q i a o Zheng X i e p a i n t e d and i n s c r i b e d . I d . I n k B a m b o o . Hu J i t a n g B i x i a o x u a n s h u h u a l u ( B r u s h a n d F l u t e P a v i l i o n R e c o r d o f C a l l i g r a p h y and P a i n t i n g ) (Quanj i , 1985, 2 0 0 ) : In pure autumn I r i s e e a r l y I n t h e s m a l l g a r d e n I v i e w bamboo. When l i g h t f i r s t r i s e s , The c o o l dew i s n o t y e t d r i e d u p . (a)(b) Thus I wash t h e i n k s t o n e , g r i n d i n k , C h e w t h e b r u s h , a n d u n f o l d some p a p e r . A r b i t r a r i l y I w i e l d and w r i t e , Either separating or combining, (e)(f) Dongpo s a y s : I n my m i n d t h e r e i s a c o m p l e t e d bamboo. B a n q i a o s a y s : I n my m i n d t h e r e i s n o t a c o m p l e t e d bamboo. Only h i s having i t , T h i s i s t h a t b y w h i c h he d o e s n o t h a v e i t . Only h i s not havingi t , T h i s i s t h a t b y w h i c h he h a s i t . From a n c i e n t t i m e s t o t h e p r e s e n t t h e r e have n o t been two ways. B a n q i a o Daoren Zheng X i e .  2. Bamboo. ( Q u a n j i . 1 9 8 5 , 2 0 0 . The e d i t o r , B i a n X i a o x u a n , notes t h e s i m i l a r i t y between t h i s i n s c r i p t i o n and t h a t l i s t e d h e r e a s 6, w h i c h i s d a t e d 1 7 6 2 ) : Wen Y u k e (Wen T o n g ) p a i n t s b a m b o o — I n h i s m i n d he h a s a c o m p l e t e d bamboo. Zheng B a n q i a o p a i n t s b a m b o o — I n h i s m i n d he d o e s n o t h a v e a c o m p l e t e d T h i c k and t h i n , dense and s p a r s e , S h o r t and l o n g , f a t and t h i n . . .  bamboo.  161 The h a n d w r i t e s i t o u t freely. N a t u r a l l y i t f o r m s i t s own arrangement-The p r i n c i p l e o f i t s s p i r i t i s c o m p l e t e a n d sufficient. I d i s p a r a g e t h i s l a t t e r day s t u d y of mine. How d a r e t o r e c k l e s s l y i m i t a t e p r e v i o u s s a g e s ? B u t h a v i n g a c o m p l e t e d bamboo and n o t h a v i n g a c o m p l e t e d bamboo, Is i n r e a l i t y o n l y a s i n g l e p r i n c i p l e .  3a.  Bamboo.  (Quanj i ,  1985,  201):  ( a ) W e n Y u k e ' s (Wen T o n g ' s ) i n k b a m b o o p o e m s a y s : "I p l a n t o p l a y w i t h a s e c t i o n of E x i t h i n s i l k , Sweeping w i t h t h e b r u s h o b t a i n 10,000 c h i of l o n g c h i l l y branches." M e i D a o r e n (Wu Z h e n ) s a i d : ( b ) " I a l s o have a p a v i l i o n d e e p i n t h e bamboo, A l s o l o n g t o r e t u r n t o the sounds of autumn." (c)Both poetry ideas are extremely pure, Not o n l y use p a i n t i n g t o p a s s i t on. N o t o n l y u s e p a i n t i n g t o p a s s i t on But t h e p a i n t i n g a l l t h e more p a s s e s i t o n . ( d ) X i e b o t h c a n n o t do poetry, And c a n n o t p a i n t , But a l s o s t r i v e s t o i n s c r i b e a few w o r d s : ( e ) (f)"The thunder ceases, the r a i n stops oblique sun comes o u t . One p i e c e o f new b a m b o o a t t h e l a s t moment i s c u t out... The s h a d o w f a l l s on t h e g r e e n g a u z e w i n d o w . T h e n I p i c k up t h e w r i t i n g b r u s h a n d write out f r e e l y on t h e s i l k . " ( g ) The w o r d s a r e e x h a u s t e d t h e i d e a i s p o o r , I have shamed p r e v i o u s s a g e s . 3b. I n Z h e n g X i e Zhu s h i hua (Bamboo and Rock P a i n t i n g ) . C o n s i s t s of ( b ) ( c ) . Signed "Banqiao." S e a l : " Q i p i n Guan'er" (Quanii 1985, 201). r  3 c . L a r g e i n k bamboo s c r o l l . X i e C h e n g j u n G u i g u i z h a i s h u h u a j i ( ( R e c o r d o f C a l l i g r a p h y and P a i n t i n g f r o m t h e S t u d y o f Ever-dimmer S i g h t ) , v o l . 2 . C o n s i s t s of ( b ) ( c ) (Quani i . 1985, 201) . 3d. L a r g e i n k 1985, 201):  bamboo s c r o l l .  (a)(c) T h e s e two r e v e r e d wonderful, Not o n l y a r e t h e y  Zhou S i d a  men's p o e t r y  Collection (Quanii,  ideas  famous b e c a u s e  of  are their  paintings. My p o e t r y a n d p a i n t i n g a r e b o t h n o t f i n e , But I a l s o l i k e p l a y i n g w i t h t h e b r u s h and i n k . T h e r e f o r e I s t r i v e t o i n s c r i b e a few words between the bamboos, (f) (g) ( h ) A v u l g a r man's w o r d s . . . I am a s h a m e d i n r e l a t i o n t o p r e v i o u s sages.(i) T h o s e who a r e g o o d a t p o e t r y a n d g o o d a t painting N e c e s s a r i l y w i l l have t h a t by which t o teach me. F o r e l d e r b r o t h e r Dong Yang t o c o r r e c t . B a n q i a o Zheng X i e . 3e. I n k bamboo. J a p a n D i s c u s s i o n S o c i e t y ( R i b e n jiangtan s h e ) , B a d a s h a n r e n — Y a n g z h o u Baguai (Quanj i . 1985, 2 0 1 ) , d a t e d 1757: ( a ) ( d ) ( e ) b u t "Xu" i n s t e a d o f " X i e . " " O n l y s a y f r o s t y bamboo s k i n s d r y a n d a l r e a d y withered, Who w o u l d h a v e k n o w n j a d e l e a v e s w o u l d s t i l l b e luxuriously spreading, R a i n and t h u n d e r l a s t n i g h t on t h e p u r e r i v e r F o r c e d o u t one and 10,000 t r u n k s o f j u m b l e d bamboo. (h)(1) . Let elder brother Shilan correct t h i s . In t h e d i n g - c h o u year of t h e r e i g n of the Q i a n l o n g emperor (1757). B a n q i a o Zheng X i e p a i n t e d and i n s c r i b e d . 3f. Large p a i n t i n g of rock (Zhongqing Natural H i s t o r y ( Q u a n j i . 1985, 2 0 1 ) .  a n d bamboo. Z h o n g q i n q bowuguan Museum). C o n s i s t s o f ( f ) ( g )  3g. Bamboo a n d r o c k . S h a n g h a i b o w u g u a n c a n g ( S h a n g h a i N a t u r a l H i s t o r y Museum C o l l e c t i o n ) . C o n s i s t s o f ( f ) ( g ) ( Q u a n i i 1 9 8 5 , 2 0 1 . T h e i n s c r i p t i o n c o n c l u d e s , " i n t h e wuy i n year of t h e r e i g n of t h e Q i a n l o n g emperor (1758). B a n q i a o o l d man Z h e n g X i e p a i n t e d i n W e i c o u n t y w h i l e i n h i s o f f i c i a l p o s i t i o n . " The e d i t o r p o i n t s o u t t h a t Zheng X i e was n o t i n h i s p o s i t i o n a t t h i s t i m e , a n d t h u s t h e i n s c r i p t i o n a w a i t s v e r i f i c a t i o n ) , d a t e d 1758. r  4a.  Bamboo.  (Quanj i .  1985, 202)  Y u k e (Wen T o n g ) p a i n t s b a m b o o , L u z h i d o e s n o t p a i n t bamboo. But o b s e r v e h i s c a l l i g r a p h y , I t i s n o t n o t bamboo... T h i n b u t plump; e l e g a n t but f o r c e f u l ;  L e a n i n g t h i s way a n d t h a t b u t i t h a s a s t a n d a r d ; I t t u r n s back and f o r t h b u t has l o t s o f b r e a k s and continuities. My t e a c h e r ! My t e a c h e r ! O h , how t h i n , f i n e a n d u n i q u e i s h i s b a m b o o ! . . . I f c a l l i g r a p h y i s p r o f u s e and t h i n , Bamboo m o r e s o w i l l b e p r o f u s e a n d t h i n . I f c a l l i g r a p h y i s dense and s p a r s e , Bamboo m o r e s o w i l l b e d e n s e a n d s p a r s e . T h i s p a i n t i n g I p r e s e n t w i t h r e s p e c t t o Chang master Youbei. Youbei i s good a t p a i n t i n g , b u t does n o t p a i n t . H o w e v e r , he u s e s p a i n t i n g ' s connection To p e n e t r a t e i n t o c a l l i g r a p h y . Xie moreover uses c a l l i g r a p h y ' s connection To p e n e t r a t e i n t o p a i n t i n g . We t w o men m u t u a l l y o b s e r v e a n d l a u g h . Yuke, Shangu a l s o nod a p p r o v i n g l y . 4b. I n k bamboo h a n d s c r o l l . B e i j i n g b a o g u z h a i wenwu d i a n cang ( C u l t u r a l R e l i c s Store of t h e B e i j i n g Study of the Rare a n d A n c i e n t ) ( Q u a n j i , 19 8 5 , 2 0 2 ) : (a)  Wen Y u k e , Wu Z h o n g g u i a r e g o o d a t p a i n t i n g bamboo, T h e y a r e t h o s e whom I h a v e n ' t t r i e d t o t a k e a s m o d e l s f o r bamboo. Dongpo, L u z h i (Huang T i n g j i a n ) do c a l l i g r a p h y and i t i s n o t bamboo, And I p a i n t bamboo, And o f t e n s t u d y t h e m . Huang's c a l l i g r a p h y i s u n r e s t r a i n e d and t h i n . ( b ) Po's c a l l i g r a p h y i s s h o r t , s t u r d y , and f a t . My b a m b o o ' s f a t n e s s a n d t h i n n e s s , s p a r s e n e s s a n d denseness, I s b e c a u s e i t comes o u t o f t h i s . Take t h e method o f c a l l i g r a p h y as t h e method o f paint ing.. . A l s o t a k e t h e method o f p a i n t i n g as t h e method o f calligraphy. How c a n t h a t w h i c h ( ? ) b e r e s t r i c t e d t o o n e s t y l e . B a n q i a o Zheng X i e . 4 c . I n k b a m b o o . N a n j i n g wenwu s h n g d i a n c a n g ( N a n j i n g C u l t u r a l R e l i c s S t o r e C o l l e c t i o n ) (Quanj i . 1985, 2 0 2 ) : (a)(b) I f t h e b a m b o o I am i n h a s t h i n l e a v e s I s t u d y h i m . Dongpo's c a l l i g r a p h y i s s h o r t , s t u r d y and f a t , I f t h e b a m b o o I am i n h a s f a t l e a v e s I s t u d y h i m . I n t h i s w a y t h e m e t h o d t a k e n f o r my p a i n t i n g i s from c a l l i g r a p h y . When I d o c a l l i g r a p h y , Moreover I o f t e n t a k e Shen S h i t i a n (Shen Z h o u ) ,  164 Y u W e n c h a n g ( X u W e i ) , a n d Gao Q i p e i ' s p a i n t i n g s and u s e t h e m as a method f o r c a l l i g r a p h y . I w i l l r e c o g n i z e t h a t c a l i g r a p h y and p a i n t i n g a r e one p r i n c i p l e . And u s e t h i s i n o r d e r t o r e s p e c t f u l l y p r e s e n t t o e l d e r b r o t h e r X i a n g Gao f o r a l a u g h . B a n q i a o Zheng X i e .  5a.  (Quani i .  1985, 202):  Mr. Xu Wenzhang p a i n t s snowy bamboo. He s k i l l f u l l y u s e s a t h i n b r u s h , a n d b r o k e n b r u s h , a d r y b r u s h , and a s p l i t b r u s h t o do i t . I t i s o u t s t a n d i n g b e y o n d t h e c l a s s e s o f bamboo. A f t e r w a r d s he u s e s t h i r i i n k a n d wash and p u t s t h e m out. Between t h e b r a n c h e s and upon t h e l e a v e s T h e r e i s no p l a c e i n w h i c h snow i s n o t p i l e d u p . . . P e o p l e o f t o d a y p a i n t t h i c k b r a n c h e s and l a r g e leaves, T h e r e i s a l m o s t no p l a c e w h e r e t h e r e i s a b r e a k . Then t h e y add t o i t by a p p l y i n g c o l o u r s . T h e r e f o r e , t h e snow a n d bamboo do n o t interpenetrate. T h i s r e s u l t s i n what p a i n t i n g method? It also lacks craftsmanship. If they are not w i l l i n g t o t r y hard, How c a n t h e y h o p e t o e x a u s t t h e m a r v e l s ! I f one a s k s them t h e r e a s o n f o r t h i s , They s a y : "My k i n d ( o f p a i n t e r ) d o e s x i e y i • We d o n o t w i s h t o b e r e s t r i c t e d i n t h i s . " T h e y do n o t know t h e s e two w o r d s ( x i e a n d y i ) . And t h i s c a u s e s t h e m t o e r r i n s o many t h i n g s . They d e c e i v e o t h e r p e o p l e and h i d e t h e t r u t h f r o m themselves. M o r e o v e r , t h e y do n o t s e e k t o p r o g r e s s . . . Because of t h i s a l l of them a r e s i c k . One m u s t n e c e s s a r l y r e a c h a l e v e l o f s k i l l a n d a f t e r w a r d s one w i l l be a b l e t o w r i t e i d e a s . One c a n n o t b e u n s k i l l e d a n d s u b s e q u e n t l y b e a b l e to w r i t e i d e a s . 5b. ( a ) ( b ) i s C h u - t s i n g L i ' s t r a n s l a t i o n ( L i C h u - t s i n g , "The Bamboo P a i n t i n g s o f C h i n N u n g , " 1 9 7 3 - 7 3 , 5 3 - 7 1 ) ( Q u a n i i , 1985, 2 0 3 ) : (a)In p a i n t i n g bamboos, S h i t a o l i k e s t o do them i n t h e manner o f a f i e l d battle. T h o u g h he seems t o f o l l o w no r u l e s a n d l a w s , They a r e a l r e a d y t h e r e .  I,  X i e , i n p a i n t i n g t h i s l a r g e p i e c e f o r Mr. J i a n g Yingchang, T r i e d my b e s t t o i m i t a t e h i m . M o v i n g my b r u s h h o r i z o n t a l l y a n d v e r t i c a l l y , I h a d t o g e t a l l my s t r o k e s w i t h i n t h e r u l e s , And d i d n o t p e r m i t a n y one o f t h e m t o go b e y o n d them. How d i f f i c u l t i t was t o t r y t o m a t c h M a s t e r Shi!(b) I n s k i l l I do n o t y e t have t h i s situation, O v e r s t e p p i n g my a b i l i t y i t i s s h o r t o f t h e m a r k and d o e s n o t o b t a i n i t . Lu N a n z i s a y s : "Only L i u X i a h u i i s a l r i g h t , I am n o t a l r i g h t . I s h o u l d t a k e my n o t a l r i g h t , a n d s t u d y L i u Xiahui's alright." I a l s o say t h i s w i t h regard t o Master S h i .  6. Bamboo a n d R o c k . The P a l a c e Museum C o l l e c t i o n (Reproduced i n P a i n t i n g by Yangzhou A r t i s t s , 1984, 7 4 ) , d a t e d 1762: O n e - h a l f g r e e n m o u n t a i n o n e - h a l f bamboo, One-half green shade o n e - h a l f jade. P l e a s e s i r when y o u awake f r o m d e e p s l e e p , Face t h i s and t r e a t i t as i f amongst c l i f f s gorges.  and  I receive elder brother's corrections. B a n q i a o t h e D a o i s t Zheng X i e . In t h e ren-wu year of t h e r e i g n of t h e Q i a n l o n g emperor ( 1 7 6 2 ) , i n t h e f i f t h month o f summer i n t h e a f t e r n o o n I w r o t e t h i s . Wen Y u k e (Wen T o n g ) p a i n t s b a m b o o - I n h i s m i n d he h a s a c o m p l e t e d bamboo. Zheng B a n q i a o p a i n t s bamboo-I n h i s m i n d he d o e s n o t h a v e a c o m p l e t e d bamboo. Y u k e ' s h a v i n g a c o m p l e t e d a bamboo I s w h a t i s c a l l e d " o n e - t h o u s a n d mu o f t h e w e i r i v e r i n one's mind." Banqiao's not having the completed (bamboo) Is l i k e a t h u n d e r c l a p . . . G r a s s and t r e e s r a g i n g grow. T h e r e i s n o o n e who k n o w s i t s how a n d why. I t i s p r o b a b l y t h e f l u x of t h e dao T h a t i t s way i s l i k e t h i s . Yuke's h a v i n g , And B a n q i a o ' s n o t h a v i n g . . . Is one, i s two. T h o s e who u n d e r s t a n d w i l l k n o w i t .  166  Xie again records. Receives elder brother's corrections. B a n q i a o Daoren Zheng X i e . 1. " T h e d e c r e e o f H e a v e n " i s n o t p e r h a p s t h e b e s t translation. H u a j i c a n b e t r a n s l a t e d i n many w a y s , b u t n o n e i s l e s s n e b u l o u s o r more c l e a r l y d e s c r i p t i v e t h a n t h e others. A n o t h e r p o s s i b i l i t y i s " t h e way o f H e a v e n " o r t h e "way o f n a t u r e . " A l l s h o u l d s u g g e s t a n e v e r e n d i n g c y c l e o r p r o c e s s which i s l i k e t h a t o f n a t u r e and which i s always " r i g h t " o r t h a t w h i c h does n o t have a wrong p a t h . 2. " A l o n e " c a n suggest t h a t o n l y t h r o u g h t h i s method, o r only t h i s painter can paint the clouds. B o t h make s i m i l a r sense i n terms of t h e o v e r a l l meaning of t h e i n s c r i p t i o n .  Appendix  « ia ft  % *UT  *  K  t  *  •  « #  M  IS) *  ft  Jffi  A  Z  *  0  ft # £  0  ft  &  5  *" 0  '  'ft  e &$  »  f$-  '  B f i l t t A 45 — ' £ 4# 55 st 45 E A te. ^ T ^ > iit A » ' J« ft •til El sit £ ~S BP I}; W I1 a £ m &t % s 45 W 0 E ' #f w M x t 2.'« ft ft » $ # «f ' •  0  »  A s PJ  11'.  0  fa'  m m 45 Ii -a H& s m  iii] fli  B  X  LU  %  E  0  22 nu|  » •  o  ? o  A ft  •*  -sV  O  Ml O  S  ^ 0  ,  Z «i « ^ ± m IS A m it ^ 3E m a » 14 X a A m ' # ' to « Mi ig §? ft 3£ ft % ft ft ^ £ ffl ft «  *  a  & (Hi  i^F 4*  A  0  H>  t  &  m ia  0  A iM -> i  »  »  lir  >  45  0 it tii 0  m  A t» • w  # A 5fe ° ^ 3f  45 ® iHl »  A A  •  PJ  m M  m o 15  IE  ft  A  X  it  to  ± »  r  * ?£  0  z  0  ft P J  j  i |Q] W  o  •  •s  o »  2.  0  »  0  g?  »  o  is  0  &K ft  IP  0  i& ± m >  »  0  /N ii' X  »  0  #  t  0  n VE.45  >  IK m  »  &  i# It R -it  I  •  m j&  m  0  »  0  in  iffi  Z  0  »  —'  5  A  O  »  s  ft  ft JS * I - ± i i£ ft A g ' 45 A ± ' « « fig ' 5t *a £ *H £ i% r £ ^ 0  in  *  # 3fc IS'-, ± ' a ft i  o  ia  m % % ' %M !> X  1  t  «  A £ Jg ffi ' ft ' *tif&  # Ti  w  B* % n K # a: ^ -  8  i£ ia ft m  1.1-1.2.  it  m m  m  m ii # Bt n • •  r  »  » A  •  ft  o IM  A  f  to #  0 ffl Pi §6  A  j>i  «  it SI  A •  >  m  16S  Appendix  1.2  continued.  JL  ®  tii «• 0  X  ia »  P # MI m >  E  *0  45  MS  +  WJ'  Sk  * »  ft  K A. is  •  ft  P* A3  o  o  z *  m m % m # z m t  f  o  *  i  •"•  m z, # m ® z ft $  t  ft  W  n z  nu  # 0  —^  351  a  tii  it  »  *  *  M  m s  45  A t  + /\  »  T ft  •  ft !#  Z JI  M Jlfc »  j  it  4*  Z m m X  *  !W fit m  R  E A  «  0  0  K •A % PI IE  a  o  Bo T J  — i<  ft  m m  9  i  fnj 0  ft  n m  o  0  o  * ft  g  m  41 >  s  ffl  «  #o  Iff  m  s  0  BP  »X  r 45  f  ft  til  fc:  >  •=3  Jill  « »  TV & o  Eh  fx Hi ut 0  m m t 0  p IS» i a  o  m  i  g  *  IS  m  lib  o PI  s •  o  In  JL  # »  iai  45 IK  R  0  mo  TP o  It  *  M # JL ^1  is # 45 &  /N  o  #  JE  t  iS5  TK  •  m  45 IS A +  #  ± o  f ft  II  R  ft  i?n  »  ® rfa  0  ->  m IE A  tu-  ? rn  r  ± A  m a in HE $  m m  —  A  IE  imp  M  0  r  Ji  & -A A>  »  B  ft  »  0  0  ± >  »  EE  n  Br m  it  •  *f  ft  'FT  0  Jff 0  B  7  &  •  m E JK <0 & A it m S # m ± Jk =f 4p E ffi * W +* 7J ® X. m mil m i 4t m. IK  ? 0  •  «  0  f  it  m  •  z  &  u  &•  ' m%  •  0  »  a  »  '6  r  0  It  ft A  ft ft  At  M-  IS  a  —  o  t  o  »  $ ft M  »  8?  A  5f  >  45  o  Hi 0  163  Appendix  is  %  ilk  as  W H5c S5  a -r  l'f  #  3'6  fi- x A Ik % '  m  4  ft  -  °±  A S ft * 'eT SI A *n 0  ' ft #  JI Jfl. ' /n ?£ 0  ft  SL  ii!  Itt  &  W  &  '  '  &  &  &  Bf -15 |5i IK  n til'. . Ac-is *  :  it  ft £ &  iK * o  ° ft. A fl= '(•« ilt  ft  'u? :  -I-  f  &  t:i  fi'f  iK ilk ' 45  ± & # ft  ts  & ± V It! '  r|,  m m  » ft ffi  -  i  ±  i  Mi /iii W iii IK it  0  fx  ^  '  illi ° 8  ^  5 6 *  A ° X  ^ «:  Fifi 34: JR.PI ft? Fit JQ £1  jn  '  E£ i£T IS -ASt ^ A °  111 ft IL  in  e  ss: •± ilk  0  '  0  Bff  iLl7\" I  $  il'f >!A iii jjfc ° ^ {?! ± 'ti  m s> # m IT K  A ill  j%  -  -T- • Sfc rt.  4  ft nA' ^ 1? iii  IK  in  A  Jili  %  ft  m °  ML as  n m 'A u  W n m  - JiJ  0  m *?} ft  as  m iii ' 4-  ' % m  1.3  m % \ii ' n  ^  ± «  ° ±  ^  fa  IK  JFs'm V  —i  Td  fS  ° :  £H  :  A  *  ' ft  «r A -si at  ±  g< H - M fit  ft ft  H  o  xJin  ^  # ra lit X  § X 3l£ 45 t  ft?  F  m m  M  ^  • is|t l—  4  as  *  4  '  5> A' X  T  Appendix  1.3  continued.  mm ? n  4  ± ft  is fa  ISI  #F  45  It  m  °  i  * +  4- £  j»n *r & JI  r? si -k S » s a £A «J S & in} *  W  ill  5ft  m % IJI ° m m & % mm  is  Hfc  i  eg  J31  1  »  Wl + A  4  • 15"  ±  m *n Si n & jit? •« % + a  -T  RP * A  A  If a * £ iff  £  «  # £  if  &  IJO pl'J  ft t£ M 0  s. ^ 45 ft  ' ft  e & Ik *£ w " * # • s  * a  '  % n k m m •  5  I  111 0  W 45  ft -(Sir A  IP  « *"  i  B  +  If 45 IS  S  ±  * 0  »  Y  at »  Jfi  ±  ?  ft  \^•  A p p e n d i x 2.1.  If, ttJfcg*, fMh^ffi,-  * T £ - ^ o  ft, fr^Us, Wr£f&«, B?E*#2 3 . i £ H 3 | ^ , ftfflas. *fiiR*ffi  UStf&^A,  /hH*#r+tt»  &Mm®£1io  (raw—a*>, 2 c H A S * * , &A?F  ^Tf. M^fiYfi, fflc « ^ 3 f f ! K ,  #«ig#  f  *tfc*S!rft  TfiWLe i&&%ftttmmm%&, jam— »iatt*ij»!*iinfc.  Appendix  fctF  *  *».  2.2,  2.4,  f- J * * t * r * # * .  and  2.5.  4£ ^  £  ft *  3§  E5  JT +  ft  Jit  fi'. If  m * M & m  ' IK fi5 '  in t  $L fill tn BP ± ;.a  m  m #  A  to 1lS iK 311 St ft ill] ' P jj$ 0  £- ' P '  su - in ft  m  ft &  -T  ft  ifr • * -h 4p .  SB 0  .31 J3  m  >  H •A* -T 1!t ' Ul Fr {ID " S JL TO ' o 35f ffl P E lit IB. i& W 5$ A  ' x&  ' +  JI •'  # *  ill ft ° if JAL 5R £ >Tr ' ft ft m M IP  4^  * ifii ' lit ft ft  'Al M iii tfi ik ft t& f& 3i u n m ifc m m • m  It  O  $ M a: file £ ft M i&  fli  ;s ^  isr  Jfli iBi  #  Ik  »  ' 7JXT  :  X a m it?. IB JiJ 3llb B-  %  JT' W :*  JL ifi ffi 31 ±  ® & $  9Sf  —  ff ;  3&  113  o  -  ^  -i- i-i m Tu i!& «E £ L 5 m 0- m  IS  mi wT  o  »4  JIS fill  m m  t  0  Hf  llli fii i5  173  Appendix  2.7.  yt aii T m m EI # m * *w Z £ 0  #  If  *  ill  Jb  —  -+ ilk  j  la &  •» ' ' Rj  ft m & pf  ?  ' *s  e #  M  ft  m tt o  —-  a  ~  ft 4  51  at m  $  Appendix  3.1 a n d  3.2.  it  ?  tt  iffl S ft « 2 rii ® *U i «f « 8t ' ii « ml n A * i£ » *  *  •t ft  +  A  «f @  *  is  *»  it is  '  .  s  & *  ri  *? ft as  & # g * w IS 1? m 85  H  « K 31 Wj B % m IS *j$ M IE  ft  •  $  & $ 2r  f S i © tr  3  t  t  j  %  IS  i  ft ft  as  ft  z  ?  i  1  IS iS  •  T  S  H  ®  ®,  4.  a tir g J!  * H #  5 ¥ * S ft  f  *  A  • a fiff  ft  » ' § + & m* 3B. a  & jit  En •*"  m =. •  i Iff li »  w  ft  * I A  s  ft ±  * I  • «s • & • • •  ^  * ft  f; * IB iii is m  ® -  ft  ft  *  Appendix  4.  A  i  £  .!  a  a*  6  ft  •a  .ft JL  » o  -IT  JL' #  ft ft ft i  A * IP  A *  & A  o o  (D o o  * +»  T eg  *  %  t  it *  »  JL -  * 3. M «•  •f $  ft  =8. a ft.  o  «& o (D o  Appendix  6.  4" tt;  it & 2: as #  * *r - ft '  ft  #  •  i « ' ft ii w IB $ IE in =f MR H »  ill A  a  &  111 fir  '  a  & m * ' ML #  ° $  m ft &  ft  *4-• ft*ft  ° *  & «? J$ ft  • <g • 3t « « ft $ ft ffi 21 4J *i$ 4" M  21 ft<P  ft  Hi  •(nj 111  2.  #  m  a& ft  it ' 21 zt A n ft ' 21 5 Hi 21 a & ' ft ' ft ' ffi B ft It J| & ' M •¥• % ft & «L ' $ & W /h *" ft ft m S3 H ' S $ ' A 5 Bfl ft * ft s ft A 0 2: ffi ftft" ' & * • & m ' to iff B  » «•  1  *  £  21  ft & # ft 1 n  2  ft  tf ± it  •  S N  JI VS  $  a  21  •  ffi H it 3t A fi I W §5 a * 21 * 1 w  8j 21 ii ffi e N w  ft ®  s ' ft ft  MS  »  S - PJ tii  »  « ^ ffi ft  0# /j ra ^  | ft  ta ^ p-\-m<-  21 % %  tfl ft if til  *  If IS  i iff 1? if  IS SI  K JS  ffi  «  ft  I  t  isi —  * ' ! $  ft PI-  ±  ' ft Hi  * t&  &  f  flfig ion  ft »  i  *  p  ^  X i  *  1 ft  « m ffi  t  B5  *S  0  H. *  ' - * ^ +  JJ1  ;  ML *  ft  *  %  ft 0  ^  * W ft B-t M ^ I 3S + « K — ffl ft 3* « 21 R ft — lil Be * « ' rr + 5 5 *  ^  ft  41  m  * $  ' *  ^ w:  1  as * * m » * a  • # ft ft ^ lH| » JB tl ' K ^ WL ' ' £  # ffi ft &  ffi ft  - ffi  * t R 5i • ® Ii iS £ PS ft * ft * A  51 ^ & S3 ft 21 # f l  til ^  =f  Appendix  6, 3 a .  ^  tf t tf IE i f B• 5i 0 # tf £ iii @ A. n ± HI ^ R iJt » »  «  XP  $« %  g K * K S ft  &£  ii  *  A  * ft B  ft A ft jt tt iff iii if A n A 2. & •  en  A —.  i  +! f?  ffl  T  ffl & Jh tf m » m  x  ± * ffl  * ff 5? # ft « $  z m ft  Wl ft  ft A If « *  « a ft »• ft a a B I ±. a •  &  « ft m • 151  £1  *  ft K X  -*  X W  i m  if  # ffl iii jh  5  15 ft S  a  M-  M  Jh  4^  tf * ft  fi ^ ft tK A ft  nj? l i ±  til  ft m  ft -* At  ft  *  0  •ft  2. fig W Ii  ft »  X ft t  * M  5 »  a  g  "5  *l i  if.  »s  til  f  % m.m. til & A *  ft  2.  •  a  til is  s  at m  ft  °  ' m  % -  fA  ttf lie g f J i§  IIUI  * a ft ft"  * i ^  lilt ^5  ft % » Hi « «  ft & til « 'i •  ' & it  J  3  «Tr ii PS  ft »  ft  •  IS til  A § a  *. ^  m  ft ft  '  is  '  •  IS  P0  ill  34  iii  ft ft  til  tS  it  m v. 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