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Ballet building Font Palma, Guadalupe Maria 2007

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BALLET BUILDING by Guadalupe Maria Font Palma  ATHESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF  MASTER OF ADVANCED STUDIES IN ARCHITECTURE in The Faculty of Graduate Studies (Architecture)  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October 2007  © Guadalupe Maria Font Palma, 2007  ii  ABSTRACT  Dance and architecture have much in common; both involve the experiential movement of the human body through space, and both convey meaning through form. In ballet there are two kinds of meanings, the metaphorical and the literal, but the meanings are important as forms. In architecture, the forms are important when they respond to a use. In a ballet building, where the main use is the dance itself, how can the design of such a building be expressive of its function? How can ballet be analyzed and interpreted to give meaning to a building? Can architecture help to give new meanings to dance? Through the study and interpretation of the elements of ballet, this thesis explores the development of a language that links ballet and architecture and its application in the design methodology of a ballet building.  iii  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Abstract Table of Contents  » 111  List of Illustrations  iv  Acknowledgements  vi  Dedication  vii  Introduction  1  Background Ballet The Building Position Precedents  2  Methodology Interpretation The Evolution of Ballet Design Site Program Design Strategy Plans Perspectives The Window The Door The Barre The Stair The Room Building Sequence Model Pictures  3 4  5 6 8  9 20 3 1 3 2 3 3 3 4 3 5 3 8  42 43 44 45 46 47 52  Summary  5 3  Notes  5 4  Bibliography Articles and Books Illustrations  5 5  55  Appendix Ballet Terminology  59 59  5 7  LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS  1. Dancers in La Bayadere  3  2. The Mariinsky theatre in St. Petersburg  4  3. Dancer's module  5  4. Atrium of the Mariinsky Theatre  6  5. Laban Centre  6  6. Scotiabank Dance Centre  6  7. The Mariinsky theatre ground floor plan  7  8. Laban Centre ground floor plan  7  9. Scotiabank Dance Centre ground floor plan  7  10. Methodology diagram  8  11-21. Interpretation  9  22. The evolution of ballet  .20  23. Interpretation of dance notation  31  24. Site plan and elevation  32  25. Students in the Vaganova school in Leningrad. . . .33 26. Ground floor schematic plan  35  27. Second level schematic plan  36  28. Third level schematic plan  37  29. Section through stage  37  30. Entrance  38  31. The stage.  39  32. The stair.  40  33. The mirror  41  34. Movement and visual sequence  42  V  35. Model of window.  42  36. Door sequence  43  37. Model of door  43  38. The barre  4 4  39. Model of the barre  44  40. The rhythm  45  41. Model of stair  45  42. Pas de bourrte  46  43. Model of a ballet room  46  44. Building sequence  47  45. Model sequence  5 2  vi  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  This thesis could not have been completed without the considerate guidance of my supervisor, Mari Fujita and cosupervisor Sherry McKay.  vii  DEDICATION  To my parents for their guidance, support, encouragement, and love. To my sister, who first introduced me to ballet. And to Wayne, my inspiration.  1  INTRODUCTION  "Dance happens, and is gone, nothing more than a trace in the air, as evanescent as a dream. What we treasure about it, as much as the moment of dance itself, is the memory of that moment. It is an art form that marries celebration to regret: an art form that, entirely through the language of the body, speaks about the whole human conundrum." •  MaxWyman  When people think of ballet, they usually think of stylized and sophisticated movements, costumes, scenery, and classical music. But what is ballet really? Different theories about its nature have been current at different times. Today, like most arts, it is hard to define what should be considered ballet. And this, of course, just makes it even harder to define the qualities of the building in which this dance form should take place. In ballet, the movements are carefully stylized and unnatural in the sense of how we move in everyday life. They are based on very specific principles that some consider a language. It is mostly the idea of ballet as a language that directed this study; the initial interest in designing a building for ballet gradually shifted to an interest in somehow applying the qualities found in the principles of ballet into the design of the elements that may constitute a ballet building. 1  As Wyman describes, all live theatrical performance is defined by its transience, but dance is the most physical of all the arts. An attempt to preserve something so ephemeral as dance through architectural means would take away part of what makes it so fascinating. Therefore, the purpose of this research is not to create an architecture that simulates dancing, but rather to enhance the dance and provide spaces that are appropriate for the creation and development of dance. 2  Ballet Building is an idea in itself, and a creative process in which an architectural language is initiated from the interpretation of ballet technique.  2  BACKGROUND  "Dancing can reveal all the mystery that music conceals." .  Baudelaire  No one knows for certain when dance started, but it is not improbable that it preceded speech. Some theorists trace the origins of dance to the movements and gestures of man which functioned as symbols of communication long before the development of language. What we know for certain is that dancing consists of rhythmical movement, either to express a feeling or emotion, or simply to express excess energy. 3  4  But dance is not just any kind of movement. Typically, the movement has to be recognizably right, and aesthetically pleasing. It has to look right, and what looks right is culturally determined. Unlike ordinary movements which have a purpose, dance movements convey a multitude of meanings, and perhaps most importantly, serve no other purpose but the dance itself. In both its theatre and ritual form, dance has always been an important human statement. In its ritual form, dancing has been a constant reminder of life and death. Social dance, intimately related to human experience, has always reflected the spirit of the age in any particular society. Meanwhile, theatre dance has used the body as an instrument for artistic expression. 5  Ballet is defined in most dictionaries as a theatrical art. Some have even said that as soon as ballets are performed in art galleries, or college halls, or in the open air, they lose something of their essential theatrical appeal. Nonetheless, this thesis is not an argument about what is, and what is not, a ballet. The point of departure for this work is the fact that ballet is based on specific codified movements and the hypothesis that these movements can be interpreted into an architectural language. 6  3 Ballet  (n.) A classical dance form characterized by grace and precision of movement and by elaborate formal gestures, steps, and poses.  7  The American Heritage Dictionary  Image removed for copyright reasons. (See bibliography)  1. Dancers  in first arabesque  penchee in American Ballet Theatre's production of La Bayadere.  Ballet is today a standard form of dance, known and loved by audiences all over the world. It is also an art form that has been the subject of varied discourse over the past few centuries. It is a performing art, a discipline, and a form of entertainment with a cultural background that has been evolving over the last couple of centuries. Although the story of ballet as we know it today really began when dancingmasters and professional dancers codified and perfected the classical style, its origins are found in Italy in the courtly entertainments presented to the kings in the early years of the Renaissance. Ballet was then brought to France, and it was here that the first ballet instruction was ever offered and the steps of the dance were codified. Soon after the dance form was brought to Russia and later to America. In France the early ballets, known as romantic ballets, often had stereotypical plots in which the ballerinas were usually spirits or angelic beings who rose on their feet for an ethereal effect. Romantic, classical, neoclassical, and contemporary styles are ballet classifications currently in use, but Alonzo King believes that the language of ballet stands apart for the limitless ways it can be investigated, and that nothing as profoundly universal as ballet could be rooted in the customs of a particular culture or limited to one specific look or way of moving. "You can't fault a language because of its poor use." 8  9  Ballet as a language and the idea that ballet methodology itself needs to incorporate new approaches were important in defining the strategy for this design research. In the following pages, the buildings where ballet has been practiced will be examined in general. However, the main objectives are to suggest a new design methodology and to initiate an architectural language based on meaningful connections found between ballet and the building. 10  4 The Building  "We should be trying to promote accessibility -things that would bring people in to make their minds up for themselves- through promotion or cheaper ticket prices or performing in different venues that would give people the sense that they are seeing something they can  relate to." E. Stiefel  Image removed for copyright reasons. (See bibliography)  2. The vast auditorium of the Mariinsky Theatre in St. Petersburg.  Typically, ballet takes place in two different and separate buildings, one is the dance school and the other is the theatre. The studio and the stage comprise the main spaces in these buildings. In contrast to sports and other disciplines that are learned, rehearsed, and performed in the same place, ballet uses two separate buildings, each with its own characteristics and purposes. In the theatre, the stage and auditorium are usually designed for plays and opera, not for ballet. Margaret Cogswell claims that dance has not had a home of its own in the Western World since the great poetic-dance theatre of the Greeks. Based on this oversight, this thesis proposes a design strategy through which ballet is studied in terms of its inherent qualities and further applied in the creation of architectural elements. Ultimately, such elements may be composed into a ballet building that is unique, not only because it incorporates ballet into the design process, but also because it begins to explore a more intimate spatial, visual, and experiential connection between dancers and 11  viewers.  5 Position  "Ballet is not a completed project.' D. Caspersen  Image removed for copyright reasons. (See bibliography)  3. Dancer's Module.  From a philosophical position, the idea of dance in the creation of space has been suggested in the past. In his essay The Architectural Paradox, Bernard Tschumi suggested that the emphasis given to movement found in dance the elemental means for the realization of space-creative impulses, could articulate and order space. 12  Within the field of dance, choreographers have also been interested in space-making through dance. Choreographer Carol Brown believes that dance and architecture are similar, both being concerned with practices of space. For a dancer the act of choreography as a writing of place happens through the unfolding of spatial dimensions through gesture and embodied movement while for the architect, space is the medium through which form emerges and habitation is constructed. For both, the first space experienced is the space of the body. Such an approach is concerned about improvisation and experimentation with the body and how it unfolds, penetrates and challenges space from an abstract point of view rather than from an architectural point of view. 13  In this thesis, both abstract and pragmatic positions were taken with the goal of proposing the elements for a building that is both expressive and functional. Examples of buildings for ballet and other performing arts were researched and included as references in terms of the functions and the scale at which the results of this thesis may be applied. As with most art forms, ballet has undergone many changes, and it no longer needs to be a perfect blend of story, dance, music and scenery. This fact presented an opportunity to detach the concept of a ballet building from any pre-conceived ideas. Instead, an experimental approach was explored through a design process based on the one thing that has remained since its origins: the technique.  6 Precedents  Characteristics  Project  New Mariinsky Theatre 40,000 m  Image removed  2  - The public space is brought into  St. Petersburg  the interior of the building as a  (under construction)  succession of foyers.  Dominique Perrault  - Shimmering, golden material gives city-scale presence.  for copyright reasons.  - Past and future: the new  (See bibliography)  structure 'protects' the heritage building. - First major work of modern architecture in St. Petersburg.  4. Atrium of the Mariinsky Theatre.  Laban Centre 7,800 m Image removed for copyright reasons.  2  London, 2003 Herzog & de Meuron  - By day, regular activities are semivisible through the walls from outside. - By night it becomes a colored  (See bibliography)  lantern.  5. Laban Centre.  Scotiabank Dance Centre 3,000 m Image removed for copyright reasons. (See bibliography)  2  Vancouver, 2001  - Diversity of functions and activities: dance related programs  Arthur Erickson &  and projects, rehearsals, classes,  Architectura  workshops, performances, photo shoots, filming, etc. - Symbolic home for BC's diverse dance community.  6. Scotiabank Dance Centre.  7  Program  Stage  Auditorium  Analysis and Comparison  New Mariinsky Theatre - 2,000-seat auditorium  - Site and Context: contrasting  - covered gallery  form and function between the  - restaurants  new structure and those of the  - cafes  original building.  - boutiques - services  - A series of commercial and . public activities take place under  - atrium  the same roof that wraps around  - rehearsal rooms  the main theatre.  - machinery rooms  - Different architectural qualities  Original  New  - stage  emphasize the building's front  Building  Building  -set spaces  and back.  - offices 7.  - dressing rooms -ballet hall Main Theatre  Laban Centre  Entrance  - foyer  - Site: the building becomes a  - main theatre  "colored lantern" that completely  - outdoor theatre  modifies the landscape.  - gardens  - The curved main facade  - studios  accentuates the entrance and  - studio theatre  makes reference to the front of a  - lecture theatre  stage.  - meeting room  - Main theatre: metaphorical heart  - conference rooms  of the building.  - services ,_  Bank Entrance  3 Heritage Facade  Scotiabank Dance Centre - 5 conventional studios  - One building, two totally  -1 black box studio/  different functions in one form:  performancespace with  Bank and Dance Centre.  Dance  seating for 154  Centre  - changing rooms  -All three buildings make use of  Entrance  - dancers' lounge  translucent materials, and color.  - office - video library  8  METHODOLOGY  "A dancer's ultimate goal [...] is to be able to use the body as an expressive instrument of communication.  To do so, the dancer must master a  movement vocabulary as precise as that of any verbal language." G. Warren  In order to introduce the elements of ballet into the design methodology, it was pertinent to establish a way of linking the language of ballet and the language of architecture. The following diagram shows the various concepts that were considered throughout the research process, and which later informed the design methodology proposed for the ballet building and how they relate to each other.  space  origins  movement  evolution  sequence meaning  theory  technique meaning  time  positions  purpose  steps  transition  dance notation dancer's module  architecture  Ballet Building  precedents  body  site  technique  context scale function  10. Methodology diagram.  dance  forms practice  expressiveness dancer-viewer  meaning  music  program  spatial  spatial sequence  temporal  walls  visual  voids  choreography composition  Interpretation  head  —  head  head  <hmil(iAr 5 uioor  frvit  nana  foot  —  rep  flexed  foot  head  , , toot L j hand hjp n  hand  e  a  a  hand . . nana  head  L ,., , shoulder _ hip  „  hand  —  h  . , root ...  —  fcnuc  head  e  a  d  shoulder  shoulder —  hip  head———  . . hand  hip  — — rvn*~»»  knaa  knee  11. Wall module The first in a series of studies of interpretation,  the wall  module suggests that beyond its primary function of dividing or enclosing a space, a wall can serve as the link between architecture and the proportions found in ballet.  foot ,  o  m  knee —-  knee  12. Forms and module The careful structure of ballet forms may be interpreted into a dynamic module which can be applied to the design of architectural elements.  13. Movement and time The dance is created by the movement and pause of the body in time. Framing certain parts of such movement helps to identify the forms in relation to space and time.  14. Turns Dance movements viewed from top can be useful in understanding and interpreting the use of space and its potential application in architectural planes such as floors, ceilings or walls.  ro  15. Balance and geometry The composition of the bodies in dance can inform the composition.  16. Movement and visual sequence A horizontal line gives physical support and visual reference in a ballet movement. Similarly, a horizontal line may give a visual reference to the experience of space in a ballet building.  17. Unfolding movement / wall In the previous study, the barre used in ballet is used as a concept to inform the design of a window. In this case, the interpretation of the movement is less conceptual and more formal. Each part of the body is used to inform a particular architectural element: a door, a raised floor, a curved wall, and vertical openings.  18. Transfer of weight The door is seen as an opportunity to explore the physical contact between people and the building. After the initial visual contact, the person steps on and presses down the raised platform. By swinging the door open, a trace is left on the flloor. The open door becomes part of the wall, which represents the continuation to the next movement.  19. Rhythm This diagram illustrates a pattern of foot prints created by a common ballet movement. This type of rhythm may be applicable in the design of floor or stairs.  1  20. The barre A supporting element found in every ballet room, the barre represents an architectural feature that can be potentially be integrated to the design of the overall building. It is also an element of direct contact between the dancers and the building.  21. Positive / negative Not only the forms of the body dancing, but also the forms created from it, may inform the design.  CD  20 The Evolution of Ballet  Nature  Open space  21  (  Basic positions  Initiation of a language  <  Codification  22  Spatial use Music  Dancers  Scenery Open stage  Stage  Frame  Notation Codified movements  25  Music  Dance notation Movement sequence  26  Transition  27  Evolution Transitions  28  Staging  Lighting  Proportion  Movement  Sequence  30  The body  22. The evolution of ballet  31  DESIGN  "Movement always tells the truth." Martha G r a h a m  /  kvN< C  UA«  -, rs.  The design began by exploring the application of the interpretative diagrams in an architectural proposition. First, a site and program were suggested in order to situate a building scheme in which to test such interpretations. Then, by concentrating on more specific building elements, such interpretations were carried further into the design process. While the most important part of the design are the elements that individually relate ballet and architecture, the building scheme and general program proposed in the following pages allow for a better understanding of their application. The form of the building is therefore not regarded as a main design objective. The building is seen as a "frame" or even, as a backdrop. The main focus remains in the dance itself and in the connections between dancers and the building elements.  23. Interpretation of dance notation in building facade.  32  Site  Located in Vancouver, British Columbia in a commercialresidential area, the 40mx40m proposed site gives context to the design exercise of this thesis. The site is currently empty, and it slopes down about two meters diagonally from south to north. The height restrictions allow for the building design to concentrate on the horizontal, and most importantly, on the scale of the body. What significance does a particular site play in this thesis study? The corner of Robson Street and Broughton Street represents an ideal setting for public events, but quiet enough for a ballet company to work on new choreographies. It is also an ideal setting for a living facility for students and visitors. The assumption is made that the building is set under ideal circumstances, and that the design of the building elements can be entirely based on the studies made from the interpretation of ballet technique.  24. Site plan and elevation.  33 Program  "A dancer's ultimate goal, [...] is to be able to use the body as an expressive instrument of communication. To do so, the dancer must master a movement vocabulary as precise as that of any verbal language." G Warren  Image removed for copyright reasons. (See bibliography)  25. Students in the Vaganova school in Leningrad.  The performance area and dance studios are the main spaces where the actual ballet takes place. However, the transitional spaces are also important because they provide, like the linking steps in ballet, an opportunity for the dancers to prepare for what is coming next. The transitional spaces such as the lobby, the warm-up area for dancers, and the hallways and stairs represent an opportunity to play with the visual connections that can be created among dancers, and between dancers and viewers. Other supporting areas such as the living suites and commercial units are proposed in order to provide a more diverse program of functions. These ancillary spaces also present an opportunity to investigate how the balletarchitectural language can be applied not only in dance rooms and stages, but also in spaces for other types of activities.  34 Design Strategy  The site was considered in determining the distribution of the program parts. The aim of the project as a whole was to propose a sequence of moments found throughout the building that, as opposed to being a literal translation of a choreography, are an interpretation of certain elements that have distinguished ballet from other dance forms. Most importantly, the interpretative studies done at an earlier stage in the research were incorporated in the design of specific building elements: the window, the door, the stair, the barre, the room for ballet. These elements suggest the beginning of an architectural vocabulary that directly relates ballet concepts to building elements.  35  Plans  A choreographic sequence is overlayed on the building floor plan to suggest the relationship between dance movements and the building. The elements of the building and the arrangement of the spaces can suggest movement as well as pause and contemplation. More specific examples of connection between dance movements and the building are found in the elements later analyzed, however the diagram below gives an overall view of such connections and how they may in fact be part of a movement sequence found throughout the building.  1. Entrance (See p. 38) 2.  Lobby  3. Stage (See p. 39) 4. Stair (See p. 40) 5.  Courtyard  6. Commercial units 7. Parking 8. Backstage and storage  26. Ground floor  36  1. Warm-up area 2. Dressing rooms 3. Dance room 4. Dance room 5. Open to stage below 6. Dance room 7.  Courtyard below  8. Living units  27. Second level  37  1. Warm-up area 2. Dressing rooms 3. The mirror (See p. 41) 4. Dance room 5. Open to stage below 6. Outdoor dance room 7. The room (See p. 46) 8. Living units  28. Third level  i I  29. Section through stage  i i  38  Perspectives  30. Entrance  31. The stage  32. The stair  41  The mirror  42  The Window  In addition to the basic roles of allowing for the ingress of natural light and ventilation, windows provide a visual connection to the surrounding environment. In the dance studio, however, the framing of views and a visual connection to the exterior play secondary roles in the daily routine of its users. The discipline of ballet demands concentration, introspection, and self-awareness. How can observers gain visual access to the dancers without disturbing them, and conversely, how can dancers concentrate on their studies and not be denied the essentials of daylight and ventilation? A low horizontal opening in a wall is the architectural element which provides a possible solution which meets the needs of both performer and observer. Footwork is essential in ballet, and it progressively advances in difficulty and speed over the duration of the class. This low slotted dance studio window allows observers (situated at a lower elevation) to witness this progression by focusing their attention on the dancers' footwork with minimal distraction to the dancers. The dancers create a dynamic facade, and their dance movements are literally framed for others to see.  34. Movement and visual sequence. 35. Model of window.  43  The Door  Adifferent approach was taken in the design of the door. While the window is based on the idea of a continuous visual connection, the door is based on the interpretation of a movement sequence. In the pas de basque the weight of the body is shifted from one foot to the other; the foot slides on the floor leaving an imaginary mark; the arms and legs open for a moment and then close, taking a new position, similar to the initial, but in a different place. Each fragment of this movement informs the design by using transfer of weight, change of position, and open-close as the elements through which the door functions. A raised platform needs to be pressed down by the body in order to open the door. In this case, the user is the creator of the movement in the building, but the door is the element that acknowledges such movement.  44  The Barre  The barre is a fundamental feature in any ballet classroom, and it is typically attached to a wall. The proposed barre is not only attached, but it is also an integral part of the wall. A double barre provides two different heights for support, creating a clear gap between them. Materiality also plays an important role by emphasizing the contrast between the glass barre and the solid wall.  4  )r I  38. The barre. 39. Model of the barre.  45  The Stair  In ballet the linking steps are movements used primarily to create smooth transitions between individual steps. One common linking step is the pas de bourree, which has many variations but consists of two basic positions (shown in the illustrations). The stair is an architectural element and a transitional space that connects two spaces. The rhythm of the linking step created by the movement of landing and raising the foot repeatedly, was interpreted and translated into a material differentiation between landings and steps.  46  The Room  The room was inspired by a single movement which incorporates all that is ballet. Verticality of line, balance, and a soft arm that 'frames' the face are elements found in this movement. These dance elements were interpreted and translated into architectural room elements. The high ceiling gives the feeling of verticality; the five skylights were inspired by the hand over the top of the dancer's head, and the shadows created on the floor represent the movement of the legs as the dancer goes across the room; the end curved wall represents the arm that frames and defines the dancer's space; and the raised floor was inspired by the lightness of the dancer's foot en pointe. In the room the translation is purely formal, whereas in the case of the stair, it is the actual function that relates the ballet movement to the architectural element.  42. Pas de bourree. 43. Model of a ballet room.  Building Sequence  47  The body in ballet and architecture  48  Entering the building  49  Visual connections  Nature  Building elements  50  J i  JJL. 7"  \  1  \  _  _  z  Sequence  Linking elements  Open stage  -  51  The surroundings.  44. Building sequence.  45. Model sequence.  53 SUMMARY  "Dancing is a manner of being." Balzac  This thesis began as a dual interest in ballet and architecture. The initial question: 'how can the design of a ballet building be expressive of its function without literally replicating its forms?' helped to define a goal that would bring both disciplines together. At the same time it clarified that the project would not take a formal approach, but would somehow find a different means. As the research developed, the design of a building became a secondary task. It seemed that in order to design a ballet building it was necessary to first have an architectural language that could truly speak the language of ballet. The approach of designing selected elements such as a window, a door, a stair, and a room, was speculative rather than problem solving at the beginning, but it started to suggest a language based on analysis and interpretations. Each analysis represented an opportunity to explore a different quality -visual, physical, positive or negative. The door is most successful in incorporating different levels of connection both visually and physically. The final product is the method of designing, rather than the design itself. The most valuable part of the research relies on the drawings and diagrams. These thoughtful interpretations and representations of ballet will be helpful for those who have the task of designing a building of ballet and who might not be familiar with the art form. They might be able to easily find the relationship between ballet and the building, and from analyzing these drawings, they might be able to initiate their own design approach. This thesis provides also an opportunity for dancers to look at ballet from a different perspective and to experience dance with a stronger awareness not only of space, but also of the architectural elements that define it.  54  NOTES  1. LaPointe-Crump, Janice D. In Balance. The Fundamentals of Ballet. (Dubuque: Wm. C. Brown, 1985. p. xi.) 2. Wyman, Max. Revealing Dance. (Toronto: Dance collection Danse Press, 2001.) 3. Rust, Frances. Dance in Society. (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1969. p. 10.) 4. Ibid. 5. LaPointe-Crump, Janice D. In Balance. The Fundamentals of Ballet. (Dubuque: Wm. C. Brown, 1985. p. 129.) 6. Kerensky, Oleg. Ballet Scene. (London: Hamish Hamilton, 1970. p.95.) 7. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. 8. The Origins of Ballet. <http.7/idid.essortment.comoriginsballetd_rkmn.htm> 9. Alonzo King, Artistic Director and choreographer, LINES Ballet. Dance Magazine. "Beyond Ballet Bashing. Making Ballet a More Vital Art Form." Dance Magazine. January 2007. Vol. 81 No. 1. p. 127. 10. Staines, Mavis. Education: Going Beyond Classical Tradition -Fitness and Ballet EducationDance Magazine. June 1997. <http://www.findarticles.eom/p/articles/mi_m1083/is_n6_v71/ ai_19476179> 11. Cogswell, Margaret. The Ideal Theater: Eight Concepts. (New York: The American Federation of Arts, 1962.) 12. Tschumi, Bernard. Architecture and Disjunction. (Cambridge Mass: The MIT Press, 2001.) 13. Brown, Carol. Dance-Architecture Workshop. 2003. <http://www.carolbrowndances.com/docs/ dancearchitectureworkshop.doc>  55 BIBLIOGRAPHY  Articles Aalten, Anna. "We Dance, We Don't Live. Biographical Research in Dance Studies." Discourses in Dance. Vol. 3 No. 1. 2005. Brown, Carol. "Dance-Architecture Workshop." 2003. <http://www.carolbrowndances.com/docs/ dancearchitectureworkshop.doc> Dance Magazine. "Beyond Ballet Bashing. Making Ballet a More Vital Art Form." Dance Magazine. January 2007. Vol. 81 No. 1. Hanlon, Khara. "If You Build It They Will Dance." Dance Magazine. April 2005. Vol. 79 No.4. Hardy, Adam and Alessandra Lopez y Royo. "Dance and Architecture: Form and Transformation." Dance and the Temple^ November 2002. <http://www.arch.nus.edu.sg/ dandeweb/Dance/dancearchi.html> Pearman, Hugh. "The Plastic Lantern: Herzog and de Meuron's Laban Centre in London." February 2003. <http://www.hughpearman.com/articles4/laban.html> Staines, Mavis. "Education: Going Beyond Classical Tradition." Dance Magazine. June 1997. <http:/ /www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1083/is_n6_v71/ai_19476179> Sulcas, Roslyn. "Just for the Love of It." Dance International. January 2001. Vol. XXVIII. No.4. Szporer, Philip. "Dancing the Architecture." The Dance Current. March 2007.<http:// www.thedancecurrent.com/reviews.cfm?review_id=127&view=> Books Austin, Richard. The Ballerina. (London: Vision Press Limited, 1974.) Bussell, Darcey. The Young Dancer. (London: Dorling Kindersley Limited, 1994.) Chilvers, Ian. Dictionary of Twentieth Century Art. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.) Clark, Mary and Clement Crisp. How to Enjoy Ballet. (Loughton: Piatkus, 1983.) 133-164. Cogswell, Margaret. The Ideal Theater: Eight Concepts. (New York: The American Federation of Arts, 1962.) Cohen, Selma J. Dance as a Theatre Art. (New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1974.)  56 Crabb, Michael. Visions. Ballet and its Future. (Toronto: Simon & Pierre, 1978.) Denby, Edwin. Dancers Buildings and People in the Streets. (New York: Horizon Press, 1965.) Fay, Maria. Mind over Body. (London: A&C Black, 1997.) Franklin, Eric. Dance Imagery for Technique and Performance. (Champaign II: Human Kinetics, 1996.) Humphrey, Doris. The An of Making Dances. (New York: Grove Press, 1959.) 1  Izenour, George C. Theater Design. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1977.) Kerensky, Oleg. Ba//ef Scene. (London: Hamish Hamilton, 1970.) Kristy, Davida. George Balanchine: American Ballet Master. (Twenty-First Century Books, 1996.) LaPointe-Crump, Janice D. In Balance. The Fundamentals of Ballet. (Dubuque: Wm. C. Brown, 1985.) Reyna, Ferdinando. A Concise History of Ballet. (Paris: Grosset & Dunlap, 1965.) Rust, Frances. Dance in Society. (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1969.) Stuart, Muriel. The Classic Ballet. Basic Technique and Terminology. (New York: Knopf, 1952.) Tatchell, Judy. The World of Ballet. (London: Usborne Publishing, 1994.) Thomas, Helen. The Body, Dance and Cultural Theory. (New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2003.) Tschumi, Bernard. Architecture and Disjunction. (Cambridge Mass: The MIT Press, 2001)27-51. Twombly, Robert. Louis Kahn. Essential Texts. (New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2003.) Warren, Gretchen. Classical Ballet Technique. (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1989.) Wyman, Max. Revealing Dance. (Toronto: Dance collection Danse Press, 2001.)  57 Illustrations 1. Dancers in La Bayadere. Photo: Mira. (Warren, G. Classical Ballet Technique. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1989, p. 50.) 2. The Mariinsky theatre in St. Petersburg. Photo: Corbis. <http://www.guardian.co.uk> 3. Dancer's module. (Stuart, Muriel. The Classic Ballet. Basic Technique and Terminology. New York: Knopf, 1952.) 4. Atrium of the Mariinsky Theatre designed by Dominique Perrault. Model photo: George Fessy. <http://www.arcspace.com/architects/perrault/mariinskij_index.htm> 5. Laban Centre, <http://www.laban.org/building/architecture.phtml> 6. Scotiabank Dance Centre. Photo: Derek Lepper. <http://canada.archiseek.com/british_columbiavancouverscotiadance> 7. The Mariinsky theatre ground floor plan. Diagram by the author. 8. Laban Centre ground floor plan. Diagram by the author. 9. Scotiabank Dance Centre ground floor plan. Diagram by the author. 10. Methodology diagram. By the author. 11-21. Interpretation. By the author. 22. The evolution of ballet. By the author. 23. Interpretation of dance notation in building facade. By the author. 24. Site plan and elevation. By the author. 25. Students in the Vaganova school in Leningrad. Photo: Paul B. Goode. (Warren, G. Classical Ballet Technique. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1989, p. 322.) 26. Ground floor schematic plan. By the author. 27. Second level schematic plan. By the author. 28. Third level schematic plan. By the author.  58 29. Section through stage. By the author. 30. Entrance. By the author. 31. The stage. By the author. 32. The stair. By the author. 33. The mirror. By the author. 34. Movement and visual sequence. Window interpretation from a ballet movement: cambr§ en avant. By the author. 35. Model of window. By the author. 36. Door sequence. By the author. 37. Model of door. By the author. 38. The barre. By the author. 39. Model of the barre. By the author. 40. The rhythm in a pas de bourree; first landing on one foot, then on re/eve, is interpreted in the design of the stair. By the author. 41. Model of stair. By the author. 42. Pas de bourree. By the author. 43. Model of a ballet room. By the author. 44. Building sequence. By the author. 45. Model sequence. By the author.  59  APPENDIX  Ballet Terminology Adagio  Slow, sustained movement.  Alignment  The arrangement of the parts of the body in relation to each other according to the rules of classical ballet.  Arabesque  The position of the body when supported on one leg with the other extended to the back with the knee straight.  Attitude  The position of the body when supported on one leg with the other lifted to the front, the side, or the back, with the knee bent.  Avant, en  Traveling forward.  Backbend  An arch of the body in which the dancer bends the upper body backward from the waist.  Barre  The long, pipe-shaped bar (usually fastened horizontally to the wall of a ballet studio) that dancers hold onto for support when warming up. The word is also used to refer to the set of exercises performed at the barre at the beginning of every class.  Cambr6  A bend of the body from the waist, forward, sideward, or backward.  Centre barre  The exercises that are performed in the middle of the room without the support of the barre and that are directly related in form to the ten standard barre exercises.  Centre work  All exercises in a ballet class that are performed in the middle of the room without the support of the barre.  Demi-pointe  The position of the foot when the heel is raised from the floor and the dancer is poised on the ball of the foot. The term is often used synonymously with the term "releve."  Line  The sculptural shape formed in space by a dancer's limbs and body.  Pas  A step. Used to refer to any single movement in the ballet vocabulary.  60 Penche  (fern., penchee) Inclined. Usually refers to arabesque penchee, a position in which the dancer tilts forward from the hip, directing the torso and head toward the floor, and lifting the foot of the extended back leg up toward the ceiling.  Piqu6  Literally, "pricked." 1: A movement in which the strongly pointed toe of the lifted and extended leg sharply lowers momentarily to hit the floor, then immediately rebounds upward. Used synonymously in some ballet syllabi with the term "pointe." 2: Adjective describing a movement in which the dancer trans fers the body weight from one leg (in plie) to the other by step ping out directly onto pointe or demi-pointe with a straight leg; for example, pique arabesque.  Pirouette  A turn on one leg on demi-pointe or pointe in any pose.  Placement  The alignment of the parts of the body and the distribution of body weight over the feet. Correct placement is essential to the successful execution of all movements in classical ballet.  Pointe, en  The position of the foot in a pointe (or toe) shoe, in which the heel is raised with the foot pointed vertically, and the dancer stands balanced on top of her toe(s).  Pointe work  Movements or exercises performed in pointe shoes en pointe.  Port de bras  Movements or positions of the arms.  Pulled-up  A term used by dancers to indicate that the muscles of the torso and/or legs have been correctly engaged, or contracted, with the result that the weight of the body seems to be lifted away from the floor. It is impossible for a dancer to maintain correct stance or to be technically accurate without being pulled-up.  Stance  The posture of the body when standing upright. Correct stance is essential for the development of a strong ballet technique.  Transfer of weight  To step from one foot onto the other.  Warm-up  The practice (common to all forms of athletics) of beginning a session by gradually exercising and stretching out the muscles of the body until they are able to function at optimum levels.  

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