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Political change in an ancient Mesoamerican community : Kaminaljuyu within the Valley of Guatemala (500.. 1991

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P O L I T I C A L CHANGE I N AN ANCIENT MESOAMERICAN COMMUNITY: KAMINALJUYU WITHIN THE VALLEY OF GUATEMALA (500 B.C.- A.D.1000) By MICHAEL W. RYAN B.A. ( F i n e A r t s ) , The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1970 A THESIS SUBMITTED I N PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES ( D e p a r t m e n t o f A n t h r o p o l o g y a n d S o c i o l o g y ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA J a n u a r y 1991 © M i c h a e l W. Ryan, 1991 '4L O In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of jfynjfAjh^ n ^yilp. ft/>sinf The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date Vn^ ((?<?/ DE-6 (2/88) ABSTRACT Th i s t h e s i s examines the causes and processes of c u l t u r e change i n complex s o c i e t y i n a n c i e n t Mesoamerica. Facets of p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l change are a t t r i b u t e d t o the e f f e c t s of c o m p e t i t i o n f o r s t a t u s , power and p r e s t i g e . The p o s i t i o n i s taken t h a t , although c o m p e t i t i o n i s not d i r e c t l y observable, i t i s v i s i b l e i n i t s p a t t e r n e d e f f e c t s on the m a t e r i a l r e c o r d . Thus, the study examines the uses of m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e i n s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l terms, and then attempts to e x p l a i n s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l i n t e r a c t i o n and change u s i n g the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l remnants of m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e . The a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d f o r Kaminaljuyu and v i c i n i t y w i t h i n the V a l l e y of Guatemala i s used as a t e s t case. E s s e n t i a l l y , s t a t u s competition, u n d e r w r i t t e n by m a t e r i a l and consensual support, leads to e f f o r t s t o promote economic p r o d u c t i o n and p o p u l a t i o n s i z e . Responses to i n c r e a s e s i n p o l i t y s c a l e and complexity l e a d t o p o l i t i c a l adjustment and change. A p r o c e s s u a l model i s proposed which focuses on change w i t h i n and between two dominant economic and s t a t u s support systems, the l o c a l s u b s i s t e n c e system and the r e g i o n a l wealth t r a d e system. Relevant s o c i a l v a r i a b l e s are l i n k e d t o a r c h a e o l o g i c a l m a t e r i a l s t o enable o p e r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of the t h e o r y . Thus p o l i t i c a l support i s r e p r e s e n t e d by aspects of settlement (p o p u l a t i o n s i z e and d i s t r i b u t i o n ) and by economic p r o d u c t i o n (land use, c r a f t p r o d u c t i o n ) . Status demonstration i s r e p r e s e n t e d by c o n s t r u c t i o n a c t i v i t y a n d - p o l i t i c a l maintenance i s r e p r e s e n t e d i i i by the p r o v i s i o n of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e space. The main f i n d i n g s f o r Kaminaljuyu are t h a t : 1) Long-distance wealth t r a d e i n commodities and s t a t u s goods was a s s o c i a t e d with maximization of a l l types of economic p r o d u c t i o n , c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of p o l i t i c a l power, r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e and p o p u l a t i o n d i s p e r s a l . 2) The l o c a l s u b s i s t e n c e system was a s s o c i a t e d with d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of p o l i t i c a l power, l o c a l i z e d economic p r o d u c t i v i t y , c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of p o p u l a t i o n (crowding) and p o s s i b l e s o c i a l c o n f l i c t . The method a l s o l e d to the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of and i n s i g h t s i n t o the r e c o r d f o r Kaminaljuyu. The a n a l y s i s demonstrated a two- p e r i o d c y c l e of s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l change, each c y c l e conforming t o the sequence of change proposed i n the model. T h i s p a t t e r n conforms to well-known c y c l e s of p o l i t i c a l c e n t r a l i z a t i o n and d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n . T h i s approach was u s e f u l f o r i n v e s t i g a t i n g the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d f o r t h i s type of complex p o l i t y . i v CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i CONTENTS i v LIST OF TABLES v i i i LIST OF FIGURES i x ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS x i 1. INTRODUCTION .1 2. THEORY '. 13 CURRENT EXPLANATIONS OF CHANGE FOR KAMINALJUYU 13 ALTERNATIVE EXPLANATIONS AND THEORETICAL APPROACH 17 C o m p e t i t i o n and P o l i t i c a l Change 20 S t a t u s C o m p e t i t i o n and A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Data 27 I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Treatment o f A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Data....30 ANALYTICAL CONCEPTS AND COMPONENTS 36 Economic O r g a n i z a t i o n 38 The S u b s i s t e n c e Economy 4 0 The Wealth Economy 43 P o p u l a t i o n and P o l i t i c a l U n i t s 51 P o l i t i c a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 55 SUMMARY 62 3. A PROCESSUAL MODEL OF CHANGE 67 INTRODUCTION 67 MODEL OF CHANGE 68 E a r l y F o r m a t i o n 69 I n t e r m e d i a t e F o r m a t i o n 70 L a t e F o r m a t i o n . . . . . 72 A l t e r n a t i v e F o r m a t i o n s 74 METHODOLOGY 81 ARCHAEOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS OF THE MODEL OF CHANGE 81 QUANTIFICATION 84 The S t u d y A r e a 87 P o p u l a t i o n 92 S e t t l e m e n t a n d L a n d Use P a t t e r n s 92 C o n s t r u c t i o n A c t i v i t y 93 ARCHAEOLOGICAL TESTING: HYPOTHESES 94 ANALYSIS 100 IDENTIFYING FEATURES OF THE WEALTH BASED ECONOMY 100 POPULATION AND SETTLEMENT PATTERNS 109 R e v i e w o f R e s e a r c h a n d E x i s t i n g P u b l i s h e d D a t a 109 P r e v i o u s P o p u l a t i o n E s t i m a t e s : R u r a l K a m i n a l j u y u . . . . I l l The S t u d y A r e a P o p u l a t i o n E s t i m a t e s 115 RURAL KAMINALJUYU: SITES AND SETTLEMENT 119 P o p u l a t i o n Change 119 P o p u l a t i o n D i s t r i b u t i o n 128 R u r a l S i t e s , C o m p l e x i t y : I n t e n s i v e l y S u r v e y e d A r e a . . . 1 5 2 RURAL KAMINALJUYU: MOUND S I T E SETTLEMENTS 159 Mound S i t e D a t a B a s e 160 Mound S i t e S p a t i a l D i s t r i b u t i o n 172 Mound S i t e s : A d m i n i s t r a t i o n a n d C e n t r a l i z a t i o n 180 LAND USE 193 PRELIMINARY EVALUATION 202 E v a l u a t i o n o f Theory 202 E v a l u a t i o n o f Model 206 C o n c l u s i o n s 210 CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITY 214 O b j e c t i v e s 214 RURAL KAMINALJUYU: MOUND CONSTRUCTION 214 Data Sources 214 The Data Base 215 Pr o c e d u r e s f o r Q u a n t i f y i n g Mound Data 216 C o n s t r u c t i o n Volume: R u r a l K a m i n a l j u y u 219 T r i b u t e R a t i o : New C o n s t r u c t i o n 224 Mound S i t e Volume: R u r a l K a m i n a l j u y u 227 Mound S i t e Volume and Summit A r e a : R u r a l Kaminaljuyu.231 Mound S i t e Summit A r e a and P o l i t i c a l M aintenance.... 236 D i s c u s s i o n : C o n s t r u c t i o n A c t i v i t y i n R u r a l K a m i n a l j u y u 252 CENTRAL KAMINALJUYU: MOUND CONSTRUCTION 259 C o n s t r u c t i o n Volume and S t a t u s D e m o n s t r a t i o n 265 T r i b u t e R a t i o 269 Volume t o Summit A r e a R a t i o (V/A) 271 Summit A r e a and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 277 E v a l u a t i o n o f C o n s t r u c t i o n a t C e n t r a l Kaminaljuyu...287 CONCLUSIONS 293 Summary o f O b j e c t i v e s and P r o c e d u r e s 293 Review o f Theory and Model 294 v i i Review of Methodology and Hypotheses 296 P r o c e s s u a l S y n t h e s i s 298 E v a l u a t i o n of Methodology and Hypotheses 317 E v a l u a t i o n of Theory 327 E v a l u a t i o n of the Model 332 Observations and R e v i s i o n of Model 337 C o n t r i b u t i o n s of t h i s Study 341 P e r s p e c t i v e s on F u r t h e r Research 343 REFERENCES 345 APPENDIX A. Kaminaljuyu C o n s t r u c t i o n A c t i v i t y : R u r a l Mound S i t e s ' 356 v i i i L I S T o f TABLES T a b l e 1. PREHISPANIC CHRONOLOGY FOR KAMINALJUYU 6 T a b l e 2. KAMINALJUYU STUDY AREA. S p e c i f i c a t i o n s f o r C o n c e n t r i c R i n g C o n f i g u r a t i o n 90 T a b l e 3. KAMINALJUYU STUDY AREA. E s t i m a t e d P o p u l a t i o n b y C o n c e n t r i c R i n g , P h a s e 116 T a b l e 4. KAMINALJUYU STUDY AREA: POPULATION SUMMARY 120 T a b l e 5. KAMINALJUYU STUDY AREA. P o p u l a t i o n D e n s i t y b y C o n c e n t r i c R i n g , P h a s e 131 T a b l e 6. KAMINALJUYU SURVEY AREA. S i t e C l a s s i f i c a t i o n : Number o f T y p e s b y P h a s e 154 T a b l e 7. KAMINALJUYU SURVEY AREA. P e r c e n t D i s t r i b u t i o n o f S i t e T y p e s b y P h a s e 156 T a b l e 8. KAMINALJUYU SURVEY AREA. S i m p l e v e r s u s C o m p l e x S i t e T y p e s b y P h a s e 156 T a b l e 9. KAMINALJUYU SURVEY AREA. R u r a l Mound S i t e s O b s e r v e d b y P h a s e , D i s t a n c e 162 T a b l e 10. KAMINALJUYU STUDY AREA. R u r a l Mound S i t e s O b s e r v e d b y P h a s e , D i s t a n c e 162 T a b l e 1 1 . RURAL KAMINALJUYU: CENTRALIZATION INDICES. O b s e r v e d a n d E x p e c t e d Mound S i t e s 163 T a b l e 12. KAMINALJUYU SURVEY AREA. S e t t l e m e n t L o c a t i o n : O p t i m a l v e r s u s M a r g i n a l L a n d Use 195 T a b l e 13. RURAL KAMINALJUYU: CONSTRUCTION SUMMARY. C o n s t u c t i o n V o l u m e a n d Summit A r e a w i t h i n t h e S t u d y A r e a i n c l u d i n g Mounds, P l a t f o r m s a n d B a l l c o u r t E n c l o s u r e s 219 T a b l e 14. RURAL KAMINALJUYU: CONSTRUCTION A C T I V I T Y . T a b l e o f D e r i v a t i v e M e a s u r e s 225 T a b l e 15. SUMMARY OF CONSTUCTION A C T I V I T Y : KAMINALJUYU 260 T a b l e 16. KAMINALJUYU CONSTRUCTION A C T I V I T Y . T a b l e o f D e r i v a t i v e M e a s u r e s 261 TABLE 17. PROTOCLASSIC MOUND GROUPS: KAMINALJUYU. C o n s t r u c t i o n A c t i v i t y 281 i x LIST o f FIGURES F i g u r e 1. SOUTHERN GUATEMALA 2 F i g u r e 2. KAMINALJUYU: VALLEY SURVEY. V a l l e y o f Guatemala and V i c i n i t y 3,4 F i g u r e 3. VALLEY OF GUATEMALA: KAMINALJUYU 5 F i g u r e 4. VALLEY OF GUATEMALA: KAMINALJUYU STUDY AREA 91 F i g u r e 5. KAMINALJUYU STUDY AREA. P o p u l a t i o n E s t i m a t e s by Phase 121 F i g u r e 6. KAMINALJUYU STUDY AREA. P o p u l a t i o n D e n s i t y by R i n g , Phase ....132-135 F i g u r e 7. KAMINALJUYU STUDY AREA. P e r c e n t P o p u l a t i o n D i s t r i b u t i o n by R i n g , Phase 136-141 F i g u r e 8. KAMINALJUYU STUDY AREA. C o m p l e x i t y and P o p u l a t i o n S i z e 158 F i g u r e 9. KAMINALJUYU STUDY AREA. D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Mound S i t e s 164-170 F i g u r e 10. KAMINALJUYU STUDY AREA. T o t a l E s t i m a t e d P o p u l a t i o n and Number o f Mound S i t e s by R i n g , Phase 175-178 F i g u r e 11. KAMINALJUYU: C e n t r a l i z a t i o n I n d i c e s 185 F i g u r e 12. KAMINALJUYU SETTLEMENT: SURVEY AREA. M a r g i n a l ("M") v e r s u s O p t i m a l ("0") Land Use 196 F i g u r e 13. RURAL KAMINALJUYU. T o t a l C o n s t r u c t i o n Volume i n Use by Phase 221 F i g u r e 14. RURAL KAMINALJUYU. New C o n s t r u c t i o n Volume by Phase 222 F i g u r e 15. RURAL KAMINALJUYU. P e r c e n t o f T o t a l Volume C o n t r i b u t e d by New Volume 223 F i g u r e 16. RURAL KAMINALJUYU. T o t a l Summit A r e a i n Use by Phase 238 F i g u r e 17. RURAL KAMINALJUYU. New Summit A r e a by Phase 239 F i g u r e 18. RURAL KAMINALJUYU. Summit A r e a by P o p u l a t i o n 241 X F i g u r e 19 . RURAL KAMINALJUYU. A d m i n i s t r a t i o n R a t i o by Ru r a l P o p u l a t i o n 243 F i g u r e 2 0 . RURAL KAMINALJUYU. Mound S i t e Summit Area w i t h i n the Study Area by Ring, Phase 245-247 F i g u r e 2 1 . KAMINALJUYU STUDY AREA. New C o n s t r u c t i o n Volume by Phase 262 F i g u r e 2 2 . CENTRAL KAMINALJUYU. New C o n s t r u c t i o n Volume by Phase 262 F i g u r e 2 3 . KAMINALJUYU STUDY AREA. T o t a l C o n s t r u c t i o n Volume i n Use by Phase 263 F i g u r e 24 . CENTRAL KAMINALJUYU. T o t a l C o n s t r u c t i o n Volume i n Use by Phase 263 F i g u r e 2 5 . KAMINALJUYU STUDY AREA. T o t a l Summit Area i n Use by Phase 264 F i g u r e 2 6 . CENTRAL KAMINALJUYU. T o t a l Summit Area i n Use by Phase 264 F i g u r e 2 7 . KAMINALJUYU STUDY AREA. A d m i n i s t r a t i o n R a t i o by P o p u l a t i o n 330 x i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT S I would l i k e t o acknowledge the c o n t r i b u t i o n of Dr. Michael Blake whose a r c h a e o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s , i n s i g h t s and p a t i e n t guidance p r o p e l l e d t h i s work forward, and who p r o v i d e d the o p p o r t u n i t y t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n Mesoamerican archaeology. I wish t o acknowledge the e f f o r t s of Dr. R i c h a r d Pearson, whose i n s t r u c t i o n , f o r e s i g h t , support and enthusiasm c a r r i e d t h i s p r o j e c t i n times of d i f f i c u l t y . I would e s p e c i a l l y l i k e t o thank Dr. David Pokotylo, who a r r i v e d under d i f f i c u l t circumstances t o guide t h i s study, and who o f f e r e d v a l u a b l e advice on meth o d o l o g i c a l and s t a t i s t i c a l aspects of t h i s p r o j e c t . I a l s o r e c o g n i z e the c o n t r i b u t i o n of Dr. Marion Hatch of the U n i v e r s i d a d de V a l l e , Guatemala C i t y , whose c o n v e r s a t i o n about Kaminaljuyu c o n t r i b u t e d g r e a t l y t o t h i s study. F i n a l l y , I wish t o thank Dr. R.G. Matson f o r h i s support and a s s i s t a n c e at v a r i o u s times, as w e l l as the f u l l f a c u l t y and s t a f f of the Department of Anthropology and S o c i o l o g y at U.B.C. CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION 1 T h i s s t u d y a d d r e s s e s t h e problem o f c u l t u r a l change i n p r e h i s p a n i c Mesoamerica. I t i s argued t h a t a s p e c t s o f change i n a n c i e n t Mesoamerica may be e x p l a i n e d by t h e e f f e c t s o f c o m p e t i t i o n f o r s t a t u s , power and p r e s t i g e . The main o b j e c t i v e i s t o d e v e l o p a t h e o r y o f p o l i t i c a l and economic i n t e r a c t i o n and change and t o g e n e r a t e and t e s t a model of s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l change. The t h e o r e t i c a l f o c u s on p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y and p r o c e s s i m p l i c a t e s many a s p e c t s o f s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l and economic b e h a v i o r , so an e f f o r t i s made t o d e v e l o p an " i n t e r a c t i v e " approach. Due t o t h e n a t u r e o f t h e problem, t e s t i n g r e q u i r e d a s i t e w i t h a l o n g c h r o n o l o g i c a l sequence which has a c o p i o u s and d i v e r s e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d . F o r t h e s e r e a s o n s , K a m i n a l j u y u , Guatemala and i t s immediate r u r a l a r e a w i t h i n t h e V a l l e y o f Guatemala was chosen as t h e s u b j e c t case ( F i g u r e s 1, 2 and 3 ) . S i n c e much o f t h e a n a l y s i s depends on p o l i t i c a l and c o n s t r u c t i o n a c t i v i t y a t t h e c o r e s i t e o f K a m i n a l j u y u , t h e st u d y f o c u s e s on t h e most a c t i v e p e r i o d s o f mound b u i l d i n g a t t h e s i t e from 500 B.C. t o A.D.1000 (Table 1 ) . Chapter 2 (Theory), proposes a l t e r n a t i v e s t o c u r r e n t e x p l a n a t i o n s o f change f o r K a m i n a l j u y u (Sanders and Murdy 1982; Murdy 1984; M i c h e l s 1979a), which f o c u s p r i m a r i l y on 1) r e l a t i o n s between c u l t u r a l systems and a g r i c u l t u r a l regimes and 2) p r e - d e f i n e d ( s t a t i c ) s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l models o f s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . " PAC IF IC O c g 4 A/ 3 a k« F i g u r e 1. SOUTHERN GUATEMALA. Inset 1: Kaminaljuyu: V a l l e y Survey. V a l l e y of Guatemala and V i c i n i t y (See Fi g u r e 2). Inset 2: V a l l e y of Guatemala: Kaminaljuyu (See Fig u r e s 3,4). 3 F i g u r e 2. KAMINALJUYU: VALLEY SURVEY. V a l l e y o f Guatemala and V i c i n i t y . Key: Aggregate S i t e s , A l l P e r i o d s . 1 = A l l zones (15 t o t a l ) i n t e n s i v e l y s u r v e y e d by t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f P e n n s y l v a n i a K a m i n a l j u y u P r o j e c t 1 (1968-1970) . = A r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e w i t h e x i s t i n g mound a r c h i t e c t u r e W (1970). I = A r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e : mound a r c h i t e c t u r e d e s t r o y e d as -1- o f 1970. O o r = A r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e w i t h o u t mound a r c h i t e c t u r e . Contour l i n e s drawn a t 100 m i n t e r v a l s : t h e c e n t e r o f zone 46 ( c e n t r a l K a m i naljuyu) i s 1500 m above sea l e v e l . C o o l c o l o r s ( b l u e s , greens) and y e l l o w s i n d i c a t e e l e v a t i o n d e s c e n d i n g from 1500 m. Warm c o l o r s , browns and g r e y s i n d i c a t e a s c e n d i n g e l e v a t i o n from 1500 m. Source: Sanders and Murdy (1982:26-27, F i g u r e 2 ) .  F i g u r e 3. VALLEY OF GUATEMALA: KAMINALJUYU The f i g u r e shows r i v e r s ( s o l i d l i n e s ) and streams (broken l i n e s ) i n the V a l l e y . Approximate l i m i t s of modern Guatemala C i t y (shaded area). Approximate l i m i t of c e n t r a l Kaminaljuyu mound c o n s t r u c t i o n (hachured). 6 T a b l e 1. PREHISPANIC CHRONOLOGY FOR KAMINALJUYU 1 Ceramic: C u l t u r a l : C u l t u r a l : W e t h e r i n g t o n M i c h e l s Murdy (1978) (1979a) (1984) C o l o n i a l C o l o n i a l C o l o n i a l i onn C h i n a u l t a L a t e P o s t - C l a s s i c L a t e P o s t - C l a s s i c (LP) i nnn Ayampuc E a r l y P o s t - C l a s s i c E a r l y P o s t - C l a s s i c (EP) 1UUU onn Pamplona L a t e L a t e C l a s s i c T e r m i n a l C l a s s i c (TC) 0 u u cnn Amatle I I E a r l y L a t e C l a s s i c L a t e C l a s s i c (LC) DUU /inn Amatle I E s p e r a n z a M i d d l e C l a s s i c M i d d l e C l a s s i c (MC) *i U U A u r o r a E a r l y C l a s s i c E a r l y C l a s s i c (EC) A r e n a l L. T e r m i n a l F o r m a t i v e P r o t o c l a s s i c (PC) 9 n n Verbena E. T e r m i n a l F o r m a t i v e T e r m i n a l F o r m a t i v e (TF) P r o v i d e n c i a L a t e F o r m a t i v e L a t e F o r m a t i v e (LF) 1000 ( P r o v i d e n c i a ) Majadas Las Charcas M i d d l e F o r m a t i v e M i d d l e F o r m a t i v e (MF) 1500- 7500- A r e v a l o E a r l y F o r m a t i v e A r c h a i c E a r l y F o r m a t i v e (EF) A r c h a i c 1 A f t e r Murdy (1984:33). Acronyms i n b r a c k e t s r e f e r t o d e s i g n a t i o n s i n T a b l e s and F i g u r e s . 7 In t h i s study, an attempt i s made to develop a model of change t h a t a t t r i b u t e s s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l change t o the on-going i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s of p o l i t i c a l , economic, demographic and environmental v a r i a b l e s . I t i s argued t h a t s t a t u s competition, underwritten by access * o t o and c o n t r o l of support ( i . e . , consensual, p r o d u c t i v e wealth, l e g i t i m a c y , c o e r c i o n ) , leads t o e f f o r t s by p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s / u n i t s t o promote economic p r o d u c t i o n and p o p u l a t i o n s i z e . For example, i f p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s f o l l o w a p o l i c y t h a t encourages p o p u l a t i o n growth as a means to i n c r e a s e l a b o r and economic p r o d u c t i o n (to i n c r e a s e p o l i t i c a l s upport), and so enhance t h e i r s t a t u s through access t o g r e a t e r m a t e r i a l and consensual support, they w i l l , as a consequence, c r e a t e a) a d m i n i s t r a t i v e work a s s o c i a t e d with managing l a r g e r p o p u l a t i o n s and g r e a t e r economic p r o d u c t i o n , b) more v a r i e d and complex a d m i n i s t r a t i v e problems, c) c o n d i t i o n s f o r s o c i a l d i v i s i o n due t o e f f e c t s of s c a l e and d) a d d i t i o n a l demands on the envi r o n m e n t a l - s u b s i s t e n c e system. Whatever new c o n d i t i o n s a r i s e w i l l r e q u i r e (or create) a new set of s t r a t e g i e s and p o l i c i e s , which r e q u i r e systemic responses. The a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d should r e t a i n t r a c e s of both the i n i t i a l c o n d i t i o n s and the responses. A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e , s t a t u s c o m p e t i t i o n i m p l i c a t e s m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e and settlement p a t t e r n s , both s u b j e c t t o a r c h a e o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Status c o m p e t i t i o n i s l i n k e d t o a r c h a e o l o g i c a l data through t h r e e a n a l y t i c a l d i v i s i o n s (taken mainly from the l i t e r a t u r e on p o l i t i c a l a nthropology). These are: 8 1. p o l i t i c a l support, 2. s t a t u s demonstration and 3. p o l i t i c a l maintenance. Support, a concept d e r i v e d from p o l i t i c a l anthropology, r e f e r s t o those f a c t o r s which underwrite s t a t u s p o s i t i o n ; f o r example; popular consensus, c o n t r o l of s u b s i s t e n c e and wealth p r o d u c t i o n , p o l i t i c a l l e g i t i m a c y , c o e r c i o n and id e o l o g y . Status demonstration r e f e r s t o a c t i v i t i e s and m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e t h a t i n d i c a t e the c u r r e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n of s t a t u s w i t h i n a community. Status i s ev i d e n t i n the c o n t r o l and d i s t r i b u t i o n of s t a t u s goods, type and s c a l e of c o n s t r u c t i o n a c t i v i t y , mortuary p r a c t i c e and i d e o l o g i c a l programs (such as s c u l p t u r a l r e c o r d s ) . P o l i t i c a l maintenance i s d e f i n e d as r o u t i n e , on-going a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n s , such as d i s p u t e r e s o l u t i o n , t r i b u t e management, o r g a n i z a t i o n of p u b l i c ceremonies, r e g u l a t i o n of e x t e r n a l r e l a t i o n s t h a t the p o l i t i c a l e stablishment i s r e q u i r e d t o c a r r y out, which j u s t i f y the e x i s t e n c e of the p o l i t i c a l u n i t and enable i t t o monitor and c o n t r o l s t a t u s r e l a t i o n s and power. P o l i t i c a l maintenance w i l l be evident i n c o n s t r u c t i o n a c t i v i t y and i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n and o r g a n i z a t i o n of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l (mound) s i t e s . I t i s argued t h a t an i n t e r a c t i v e approach t o e x p l a i n c u l t u r e change i s p o s s i b l e u s i n g these d i v i s i o n s . Though r e p r e s e n t i n g d i f f e r e n t conceptual c a t e g o r i e s , these d i v i s i o n s are i n t e g r a t e d when expressed as m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e . For example, e a r t h mound a r c h i t e c t u r e can repr e s e n t aspects of support (labor t r i b u t e or access t o m a t e r i a l r e s o u r c e s ) , demonstration ( s c a l e and volume of c o n s t r u c t i o n a c t i v i t y ) and maintenance (summit area or the 9 p r o v i s i o n and l o c u s of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e - r i t u a l a c t i v i t y ) . Consequently, one can examine c u l t u r a l changes along these d i v i s i o n s t ogether, s e p a r a t e l y or c o n t i n g e n t l y ; e i t h e r s y n c h r o n i c a l l y or d i a c h r o n i c a l l y . In the f i n a l s e c t i o n of Chapter 2, theory and documentation taken from the a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l l i t e r a t u r e ( p o l i t i c a l and economic anthropology, demographic archaeology, systems theory, i n f o r m a t i o n theory and urban anthropology) are p r e s e n t e d t o support an understanding of a n a l y t i c a l components such as economic o r g a n i z a t i o n , p o p u l a t i o n dynamics, p o l i t i c a l u n i t s and p o l i t i c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . These are e x p l a i n e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y as they r e f e r t o r e l a t i o n s between p o l i t i c a l (status) c o m p e t i t i o n and m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e . In Chapter 3 (Processual Model of Change), a g e n e r a l model f o r the c u l t u r a l e v o l u t i o n of a p o l i t i c a l community i s proposed. T h i s model attempts t o i n t e g r a t e the d i v e r s e c u l t u r a l processes and a r c h a e o l o g i c a l data, p r e s e n t e d i n Chapter 2, w i t h i n a c h r o n o l o g i c a l context. A temporal sequence, based on a predominant l o c a l s u b s i s t e n c e economy (and s t a t u s system) i s d e s c r i b e d . I t i s composed of t h r e e s e q u e n t i a l c u l t u r a l "formations" which are d e f i n e d as c o n f i g u r a t i o n s of s o c i a l - p o l i t i c a l - e c o n o m i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s . A f o u r t h s o c i o - c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n i s proposed as an example of an " a l t e r n a t i v e " formation. I t s p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i s based on a "wealth" goods economy (and s t a t u s system) where t r a d e i n commercial and/or e l i t e goods i s predominant. 10 Chapter 4 (Methodology) pres e n t s a system f o r a n a l y z i n g change. C a t e g o r i e s of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n , d e r i v e d from the data on settlement (population) and l a n d use p a t t e r n s and c o n s t r u c t i o n a c t i v i t y are used t o q u a n t i f y and measure the a n a l y t i c a l d i v i s i o n s (support, demonstration and maintenance). S y n t h e t i c measures, d e r i v e d from these data, p r o v i d e a d d i t i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e s on each temporal phase t o f a c i l i t a t e the a n a l y s i s of change a c c o r d i n g t o t e s t i m p l i c a t i o n s drawn from the theory and model. The main a r c h a e o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s used are e a r t h mound volume and summit area (or s u r f a c e area of the top of mound a r c h i t e c t u r e ) , p o p u l a t i o n s i z e and d i s t r i b u t i o n , settlement p a t t e r n s ( e s p e c i a l l y s i t e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , s i z e and s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n ) , and l a n d use data ( s o i l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ) . A d d i t i o n a l data s e t s , such as b u r i a l s , a r t i f a c t assemblages and iconography are i n t r o d u c e d t o support the main p o i n t s , but are not the main focus of a n a l y s i s . In order t o d i r e c t a t t e n t i o n t o the a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n the l o c a l p o l i t i c a l u n i t , and t o p r o v i d e a b a s i s f o r e s t i m a t i n g p o p u l a t i o n s i z e by d i s t a n c e and d i s t r i b u t i o n w i t h i n the l o c a l area, a c i r c u l a r study area i s d e f i n e d , s u b d i v i d e d i n t o c o n c e n t r i c r i n g s , with the s i t e of Kaminaljuyu at the c e n t e r . A set of e i g h t hypotheses are d e s c r i b e d a c c o r d i n g t o e x p e c t a t i o n s d e r i v e d from the t h e o r e t i c a l model, though the model i t s e l f may be c o n s i d e r e d a h y p o t h e s i s . Chapter 5 p r e s e n t s the a n a l y s i s of the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l data from Kaminaljuyu. A q u a l i t a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n of p e r i o d s l i k e l y a s s o c i a t e d with the wealth-based economy i s p r o v i d e d as a b a s i s f o r e v a l u a t i n g q u a n t i t a t i v e data. The a n a l y s i s proceeds with an examination of settlement (population) and l a n d use p a t t e r n s f o r r u r a l Kaminaljuyu. The focus i s on examining f e a t u r e s of s o c i a l complexity (settlement d a t a ) , c e n t r a l i z a t i o n (power, s t a t u s and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ) and s c a l e ( s i z e and d i s t r i b u t i o n of p o p u l a t i o n and c o n s t r u c t i o n ) . With t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n , the c h r o n o l o g i c a l p e r i o d s are t e s t e d a g a i n s t the model of change, based on temporal e x p e c t a t i o n s . F i n a l l y , a p r e l i m i n a r y e v a l u a t i o n of the theory and model i s given, based s o l e l y on settlement (population) and l a n d use p a t t e r n s . A n a l y s i s of c o n s t r u c t i o n a c t i v i t y f i r s t examines the mounds i n r u r a l Kaminaljuyu, then those i n c e n t r a l Kaminaljuyu. T h i s i n v o l v e s the assembly of mound dimensions and d i s t r i b u t i o n , and c a l c u l a t i o n s of volume and v a r i o u s d e r i v a t i v e v a l u e s . C e n t r a l and r u r a l areas are then compared i n c o n j u n c t i o n with the data o b t a i n e d from the p r e v i o u s a n a l y s i s of settlement and l a n d use. Th i s p r o v i d e s the f i n a l b a s i s on which t o ev a l u a t e the theory and theory and make judgements about the process of p o l i t i c a l change i n a n c i e n t Kaminaljuyu, p a r t i c u l a r l y concerning change i n the a n a l y t i c a l d i v i s i o n s of support, demonstration and maintenance. F i n a l l y , Chapter 6 p r e s e n t s the c o n c l u s i o n s , i n c l u d i n g reviews and p e r s p e c t i v e s on the theory, model, methodology and a n a l y s i s . The e i g h t main hypotheses are e v a l u a t e d . A p r o c e s s u a l s y n t h e s i s of p o l i t i c a l - c u l t u r a l h i s t o r y i s p r o v i d e d f o r Kaminaljuyu based on the i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t a i n e d i n t h i s study, supplemented by data from other areas (mortuary p r a c t i c e , stone s c u l p t u r e , t e s t t r e n c h a n a l y s i s , i n t e r - r e g i o n a l a n a l y s i s ) which demonstrates both the c o n t i n u i t y of p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y and the dynamics of change w i t h i n the study area. Comments on and r e v i s i o n s t o t h i s type of approach are proposed and p e r s p e c t i v e s on f u t u r e r e s e a r c h are g i v e n . CHAPTER 2. THEORY 13 CURRENT EXPLANATIONS OF CHANGE FOR KAMINALJUYU The t h e o r e t i c a l a n d c o n c e p t u a l f o u n d a t i o n s f o r c u r r e n t e x p l a n a t i o n s o f c u l t u r a l e v o l u t i o n i n t h e V a l l e y o f G u a t e m a l a a r e f o u n d p r i m a r i l y i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e P e n n s y l v a n i a S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y K a m i n a l j u y u P r o j e c t ( 1 9 6 7 - 1 9 7 0 ) , a l t h o u g h t h e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d d a t e s t o 1899 f o r s u r f a c e maps ( M a u d s l a y 1899) a n d t o 1925 f o r e x c a v a t i o n s (Gamio 1 9 2 6 , 1 9 2 7 ) . S t e n h o l m (1973:48-59) a n d M i c h e l s (1979a:3-14) r e v i e w p r e v i o u s i n v e s t i g a t i o n s a n d s i t e r e p o r t s . M i c h e l s a r g u e s t h a t t h e K a m i n a l j u y u p o l i t y was a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f a " c o n i c a l c l a n " c h i e f d o m (1979a:261-264) s i m i l a r t o t h o s e i n P o l y n e s i a d e s c r i b e d b y K i r c h o f f (1955) a n d F i r t h ( 1 9 5 7 ) . The e x p l a n a t i o n , t h a t I c h a l l e n g e i n t h i s s t u d y , i s t h a t c u l t u r a l e v o l u t i o n p r o c e e d s w i t h i n t h e s t r u c t u r a l l i m i t s o f t h e s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e c o n i c a l c l a n . M i c h e l s r e f e r s t o t h i s s t r u c t u r e a s an " e q u i l i b r i u m b a s i n " (1979a:261) w h i c h a l l o w s f o r some d i a c h r o n i c v a r i a b i l i t y , b u t w h i c h t h e c o n i c a l c l a n " n e v e r r e a l l y b r e a k s o u t o f " ( 1 9 7 9 a : 2 7 5 ) . T h i s v i e w u s e s a t y p o l o g i c a l d e f i n i t i o n ( i . e . t h e " c o n i c a l c l a n " ) as a b a s i s t o e x a m i n e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l d a t a , s o t h a t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s a b o u t t h e n a t u r e o f t h e s o c i e t y a r e a l r e a d y d e f i n e d b e f o r e any a n a l y s i s b e g i n s . The i d e a o f an e q u i l i b r i u m b a s i n , w h i c h f o c u s e s on s t a t i c f u n c t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n , makes i t d i f f i c u l t t o e x p l a i n s o c i a l v a r i a b i l i t y a n d t h e s o u r c e s o f c u l t u r a l c h a n g e a n d d i s i n t e g r a t i o n . F o r e x a m p l e , M i c h e l s ' a r g u m e n t f o r t h e d i s i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e c h i e f d o m i n t h e L a t e C l a s s i c (c.A.D.800) r e f e r s t o t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f u n c o n t r o l l e d c o m p e t i t i o n b e t w e e n t r a d i t i o n a l a n d i n s u r g e n t l i n e a g e s (1979a:238). T h i s may be t h e c a s e , b u t t h e a p p r o a c h d o e s n o t l e a d t o t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f l o n g - t e r m p r o c e s s e s t h a t may be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s d e v e l o p m e n t ; t h a t i s , o f o n - g o i n g , e v e n n o r m a l , f o r c e s o f " d i s r u p t i o n " a n d i n t e g r a t i o n . C o n s e q u e n t l y , c h a n g e t e n d s t o be d e s c r i b e d r a t h e r t h a n e x p l a i n e d , a n d c u l t u r a l e v o l u t i o n a p p e a r s t o be s t a t i c a l l y r a t h e r t h a n d y n a m i c a l l y p h r a s e d . I n e f f e c t , t h e o r y i s a t t a c h e d t o a t y p o l o g i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n r a t h e r t h a n b e i n g i n t e g r a t e d i n t o an e v o l u t i o n a r y f r a m e w o r k t h a t f o c u s e s on t h e p r o c e s s e s a n d means o f c u l t u r a l c h a n g e . A n o t h e r a p p r o a c h , r e p r e s e n t e d b y S a n d e r s a n d Murdy (1982), a t t r i b u t e s c u l t u r a l c h a n g e t o t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f r e g i o n a l p o p u l a t i o n d y n a m i c s a n d a g r i c u l t u r a l a d a p t a t i o n s . A c c o r d i n g l y , a r c h a e o l o g i c a l p a t t e r n s i n t h e V a l l e y o f G u a t e m a l a " . . . s u g g e s t e d t h a t s o c i a l e v o l u t i o n was t h e p r o d u c t o f a g r a d u a l p e r c a p i t a r e d u c t i o n o f t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d r e s o u r c e a n d, t h e r e f o r e , t h e p r o d u c t o f i n t e n s e c o m p e t i t i o n o v e r a b a s i c r e s o u r c e " (1982:59). The a s s u m p t i o n i s t h a t " p o p u l a t i o n p r e s s u r e " on a g r i c u l t u r a l r e s o u r c e s m o t i v a t e s c u l t u r a l e v o l u t i o n ( c . f . B o s e r u p 1 9 6 5 ) . A b i a s t o r e s o u r c e - b a s e d e x p l a n a t i o n s i s f u r t h e r a p p a r e n t a s t h e a u t h o r s c o n t e m p l a t e what " . . . f a c t o r s a c t e d t o p r o d u c e s o c i a l f i s s i o n i n g when p o l i t i c a l g r o u p i n g s r e a c h e d t h e s i z e o f 20,000 t o 30,000 p e o p l e " ( 1 9 8 2 : 5 9 ) . They s u g g e s t t h a t " . . . i t p r o b a b l y h a s t o do w i t h t h e n a t u r e o f t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l s y s t e m " ( 1 9 8 2 : 6 0 ) , a l t h o u g h t h e y do n o t s p e c i f y t h e p r o c e s s ( e s ) i n v o l v e d . T h i s a p p r o a c h i s f u r t h e r d e v e l o p e d b y Murdy i n a s t u d y o f " m a n - l a n d " r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h r o u g h t i m e i n t h e V a l l e y o f G u a t e m a l a (Murdy 1 9 8 4 ) . A l t h o u g h he a t t e m p t s t o i n t e g r a t e a w i d e v a r i e t y o f d a t a " t o e l u c i d a t e t h e h i s t o r y o f s o c i o p o l i t i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t " (Murdy 1 9 8 4 : 2 1 9 ) , he assumes t h e p r i m a c y a n d d e t e r m i n a t i v e e f f e c t s o f p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h . C o n s e q u e n t l y , " t h e p r e h i s t o r y o f t h e V a l l e y o f G u a t e m a l a - C a n c h o n P l a t e a u c a n be s e e n a s a s e r i e s o f s t a g e s o f c o n t i n u e d b u t i r r e g u l a r p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h " (Murdy 1 9 8 4 : 2 3 6 ) . W i t h t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e , p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h l e a d s f i r s t t o " i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n o f t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l s y s t e m " a n d t h e n t o " i n c r e a s e s i n t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e s o c i o p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m " ( 1 9 8 4 : 2 3 6 - 2 3 7 ) . S o c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t p r o c e e d s w i t h i n t h i s c o n t e x t f r o m e g a l i t a t i a n t o c h i e f d o m s o c i e t y , t h e n f r o m s t r a t i f i e d s o c i e t y a n d t o c e n t r a l i z e d s t a t e , p a r a l l e l e d b y p r o g r e s s i v e p o l i t i c a l d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n , d e g r a d a t i o n o f s o i l a n d a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n a n d s o c i o c u l t u r a l c o l l a p s e ( 1 9 8 4 : 2 3 7 ) . The m a i n p r o b l e m w i t h t h i s p r o c e d u r e seems t o be t h a t p r o c e s s u a l e x p l a n a t i o n r e s t s on t h e a s s u m p t i o n o f " n a t u r a l " p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h . W h i l e p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h i s an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r , I a r g u e t h a t t h i s v i e w l i m i t s i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f a l t e r n a t i v e c a u s e s o f p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h ( s p e c i f i c a l l y , s o c i o p o l i t i c a l c a u s e s ) . The c o n s e q u e n c e o f t h i s v i e w i s t h a t when c e r t a i n p o p u l a t i o n l e v e l s a r e r e a c h e d (Murdy 1 9 8 4 : 2 0 5 - 2 0 7 ) , c h a n g e s j u s t " h a p p e n " . B e c a u s e o f t h i s r e s t r i c t i o n , c o n d i t i o n s w i t h i n a n d t r a n s i t i o n s b e t w e e n 16 h i s d e v e l o p m e n t a l s t a g e s a r e s i m p l y d e s c r i b e d as c o n f i g u r a t i o n s o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l d a t a (Murdy 1984:219-228), and not p r e s e n t e d i n an i n t e r a c t i v e way t h a t i n v o l v e s o t h e r c a u s a t i v e f a c t o r s . T h i s p e r s p e c t i v e r a i s e s i s s u e s about phenomena a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p o p u l a t i o n change and s i z e . F o r example, what f o r c e s cause p o p u l a t i o n growth and d e c l i n e ? I s growth more t h a n j u s t n a t u r a l growth f o l l o w e d by f o r c e d d e c l i n e ? What ar e t h e s p e c i f i c i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s among p o p u l a t i o n l e v e l s , environment, s u b s i s t e n c e p r a c t i c e s , economic o r g a n i z a t i o n , p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and s o c i a l c o m p e t i t i o n ? I n t e r a c t i o n s must be f a r more complex and v a r i a b l e t h a n s i m p l e one-way cause and e f f e c t r e l a t i o n s t h a t are d r i v e n by p o p u l a t i o n growth and t h e " n a t u r e of t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l system. U s e f u l knowledge can be g a i n e d from t h e s t u d y o f changes i n v a r i a b l e s such as " . . . p o p u l a t i o n growth, a g r i c u l t u r a l i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n , e n v i r o n m e n t a l d e t e r i o r a t i o n and s o c i o p o l i t i c a l e v o l u t i o n " (Sanders and Murdy 1982:19), but t o be r e a l l y m e a n i n g f u l , t h e y must be p l a c e d i n r e a s o n a b l e j u x t a p o s i t i o n , not o n l y w i t h each o t h e r , but w i t h o t h e r v a r i a b l e s as w e l l . I n c o n c l u s i o n , an account o f c u l t u r a l e v o l u t i o n f o r t h e V a l l e y o f Guatemala r e q u i r e s a t h e o r e t i c a l l y - b a s e d , p r o c e s s u a l e x p l a n a t i o n . I n t h i s s t u d y I w i l l f o l l o w a p r o c e d u r e t h a t : 1. S t a r t s w i t h t h e o r y , not d a t a . 2. A v o i d s t y p o l o g i c a l , n o r m a t i v e arguments which e x c l u d e v a r i a b i l i t y from a n a l y s i s . 3. I n c o r p o r a t e s m u l t i p l e , r e i n f o r c i n g l i n e s o f e v i d e n c e . 17 4. Demonstrates a c u l t u r a l system e v o l v i n g i n dynamic t e n s i o n i n s t e a d o f i n dynamic e q u i l i b r i u m . ALTERNATIVE EXPLANATIONS AND THEORITICAL APPROACH The p e r s p e c t i v e p r e s e n t e d here m a i n t a i n s t h a t competition f o r s t a t u s , power, p r e s t i g e , honor e t c , i s c e n t r a l t o s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l change. T h i s view o f t h e r o l e o f c o m p e t i t i o n d i f f e r s from t h o s e of M i c h e l s (1979a) and Sanders and Murdy (1982), who i m p l y t h a t c o m p e t i t i o n i s s i g n i f i c a n t o n l y as a f a c t o r i n L a t e C l a s s i c (A.D.600-800) and T e r m i n a l C l a s s i c (A.D.800-1000) i n t h e V a l l e y o f Guatemala, and i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p o p u l a t i o n and l a n d p r e s s u r e . M i c h e l s , f o r example, proposed t h a t t h e appearance of b a l l c o u r t s a f t e r A.D.400 i n d i c a t e s a s h i f t from " c o o p e r a t i v e " t o " c o m p e t i t i v e " r e l a t i o n s between l i n e a g e segments at K a m i n a l j u y u (1979a:231). Sanders and Murdy argue t h a t i n t e n s e c o m p e t i t i o n o v er ( a g r i c u l t u r a l ) r e s o u r c e s brought s o c i a l change and c o l l a p s e i n t h e l a t e s t a g e s (1982:59). I n b o t h c a s e s , c o m p e t i t i o n i s not o n l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d as d e s t r u c t i v e m i l i t a r y c o n f l i c t but a l s o as an anomolous o r i n t r u s i v e event r a t h e r t h a n an i n t e g r a l component o f on-going c o m p e t i t i v e s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s . The f o r m a t i o n o f c o m p e t i t i v e r e l a t i o n s i s not under s t u d y h e r e , but t h e y a r e assumed t o be p r e s e n t as an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e s o c i a l c o n s t i t u t i o n o f t h e emergent chiefdom. C o m p e t i t i o n i s o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c o n t e s t s among e l i g i b l e , r a n ked h e i r s f o r a c c e s s t o t h e h i g h e s t s t a t u s p o s i t i o n s . Goldman (1970:24), a p p l y i n g P o l y n e s i a n e t h n o g r a p h i c c a s e s , argues t h a t s t a t u s 18 r i v a l r y i s "a n e c e s s a r y response t o a m b i g u i t i e s o f r a n k . " F o r example, t h e a b s o l u t e o r d e r o f g e n e a l o g i c a l rank i s compromised when a q u e s t i o n o f r e l a t i v e f i t n e s s f o r l e a d e r s h i p a r i s e s . S t a t u s r i v a l r y t h e r e f o r e , i s c o n c e n t r a t e d i n t h e h i g h e s t ranks o f t h e chiefdom, where c h i e f l y competency and t h e r i g h t t o r u l e ( d e s p i t e a c t u a l g e n e a l o g i c a l rank) a r e always open t o c h a l l e n g e , e s p e c i a l l y from o t h e r h i g h - r a n k i n g c o m p e t i t o r s . I n o t h e r words, Goldman c l a i m s t h a t , a l t h o u g h g e n e a l o g i c a l rank d e t e r m i n e s i n h e r i t a n c e a b s o l u t e l y , a d e s i g n a t e d i n d i v i d u a l may be u n f i t t o h o l d a s p e c i f i c p o s i t i o n , so ( s a n c t i o n e d ) c o m p e t i t i o n f o r t h a t p o s i t i o n f o l l o w s . In t h i s view, c o m p e t i t i o n s e l e c t s f o r competence and t h i s i n v i t e s c o n f r o n t a t i o n and t e s t s o f p o l i t i c a l s u p p o r t . However, B a i l e y (1969), w i t h a w i d e r view of c o m p e t i t i o n , d e f i n e s t h e p o l i t i c a l u n i t (or " p o l i t i c a l community" 1969:23) as t h e " w i d e s t group i n which c o m p e t i t i o n f o r v a l u e d ends i s c o n t r o l l e d " (1969:23). C o m p e t i t i o n i s not r e s t r i c t e d t o i s s u e s o f e l i t e a c c e s s t o p o s i t i o n s o f h i g h s t a t u s , but i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e f o r m a t i o n o f or "teams" whose membership i s v a r i a b l e ; age, gender, c l a s s , k i n s h i p group, t e r r i t o r y , achievement a s s o c i a t i o n , a s c r i p t i o n e t c . Groups compete u s i n g r u l e s o f "non-mathematical, g a m e - p o l i t i c s " : "A p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e , l i k e a game, o p e r a t e s w i t h i n l i m i t s s e t by agreed r u l e s , w hich s p e c i f y p r i z e s , say how teams may be formed and l e d , l a y down l a w f u l and u n l a w f u l t a c t i c s , and sometimes a p p o i n t a r e f e r e e w i t h a u t h o r i t y t o see t h a t t h e r u l e s a r e o b s e r v e d " (1969:24-25). B a i l e y ' s view i s more 19 u s e f u l t h a n Goldman's b e c a u s e i t a l l o w s c o m p e t i t i o n t o be s e e n as a g e n e r a l i z e d phenomenon w h i c h i s o r g a n i z e d w i t h i n a n d b e t w e e n i d e n t i f i a b l e p o l i t i c a l g r o u p s , a n d he s p e c i f i e s t h e means b y w h i c h c o m p e t i t i o n c a n be r e s o l v e d . I n o t h e r w o r d s , Goldman's a r g u m e n t i s a s p e c i a l c a s e o f c o m p e t i t i v e r e l a t i o n s w h i c h c o n c e n t r a t e s on t h e r e s o l u t i o n o f e l i t e a c c e s s a n d s u c c e s s i o n t o p o w e r . T h e s e a u t h o r s ' p e r s p e c t i v e s i n t r o d u c e an i m p o r t a n t p o i n t . C o m p e t i t i o n i s r e p r e s e n t e d as a n o r m a l f e a t u r e o f s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n i n s o c i e t y . I t i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s o c i a l d i s i n t e g r a t i o n o r l a c k o f c o o p e r a t i o n , p r o v i d e d i t i s c a r r i e d o u t w i t h i n r e c o g n i z e d " r u l e s " o f c o m p e t i t i v e b e h a v i o r . I n t h i s r e s p e c t , c o m p e t i t i o n i s s e e n a s a p r o c e s s ( o r d e v i c e ) t h r o u g h w h i c h t h e most " w o r t h y " g r o u p s a n d members i n s o c i e t y a r e i d e n t i f i e d ( w h i c h i s a r e l a t i v e m e a s u r e ) . W i t h t h i s v i e w , c o m p e t i t i o n , e v e n i n t e n s e o r " d e s t r u c t i v e " c o m p e t i t i o n , i s n o t an a n o m o l o u s o r i n t r u s i v e d e v e l o p m e n t i n t h e L a t e C l a s s i c a t K a m i n a l j u y u . T h e r e f o r e , one c a n s e e k e x p l a n a t i o n s o f c h a n g e w h i c h h a v e t h e i r r o o t s i n o n - g o i n g , h i s t o r i c a l a n d c o m p e t i t i v e s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s . However, Goldman, a n d t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t B a i l e y ( s e e a l s o S w a r t z e t a l . 1 9 6 6 ) , h a v e r e p r e s e n t e d c o m p e t i t i o n i n a r e l a t i v e l y s t a t i c p e r s p e c t i v e . T h a t i s , t h o u g h t h e c o m p e t i t i v e p r o c e s s h a s b e e n i n t r o d u c e d , t h e r e i s l i t t l e o r no a c c o u n t o f u n d e r l y i n g g r a d u a l , l o n g - t e r m c h a n g e ; n e i t h e r as a c o n s e q u e n c e o f c o m p e t i t i o n n o r a s a f u n c t i o n o f c o m p e t i t i o n i t s e l f o r o f any 20 o t h e r s o c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t . Due t o t h e n a t u r e o f p o l i t i c a l a n a l y s i s , t h e f o c u s i s on c o n f r o n t a t i o n a n d c r i s i s d u r i n g t h o s e t i m e s when c o m p e t i t i o n i s r e s o l v e d . T h i s t e n d s t o n e g l e c t any c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f a g r a d u a l b u i l d - u p o f n o n - c o n f r o n t a t i o n a l c o m p e t i t i o n o r c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h s h o u l d p r e c e d e i n t e n s e c o n f r o n t a t i o n . We n e e d t o i m p l e m e n t t h e o r y t h a t c a n a c c o u n t f o r b o t h l o n g - t e r m a n d s h o r t - t e r m p r o c e s s e s i n s o c i a l c o m p e t i t i o n , r a t h e r t h a n t h e o r y t h a t j u s t " e x p l a i n s " p e r i o d s o f c r i s i s . On t h e b a s i s o f t h e p r e c e d i n g d i s c u s s i o n , I p r o p o s e t o a d d r e s s t h e f o l l o w i n g t h r e e q u e s t i o n s : 1. How c a n c o m p e t i t i o n f o r s t a t u s , p o w e r a n d p r e s t i g e e x p l a i n p o l i t i c a l a n d c u l t u r a l c h a n g e ? 2. How a r e c o m p e t i t i o n a n d a r c h a e o l o g i c a l d a t a l i n k e d ? 3. What d o e s t h e f o c u s on c o m p e t i t i o n a n d s t a t u s r i v a l r y i m p l y f o r t h e t r e a t m e n t o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l d a t a ? C o m p e t i t i o n a n d P o l i t i c a l Change How c a n c o m p e t i t i o n f o r s t a t u s , p o w e r a n d p r e s t i g e e x p l a i n s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l c h a n g e ? I n t h e t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e p r e s e n t e d h e r e , two p r e - c o n d i t i o n s a r e p r o p o s e d : 1. T h e r e a r e p o l i t i c a l p r e s s u r e s f o r t h e g r o w t h , d e v e l o p m e n t , u s e , a n d c o n t r o l o f i m p o r t a n t p o l i t i c a l s u p p o r t " r e s o u r c e s " . 2. T h e r e w i l l be c h a n g e s i n r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n g r o u p s a n d / o r i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h c h a n g e s i n d i f f e r e n t i a l a c c e s s t o s u p p o r t r e s o u r c e s ( t h a t i s , b e t w e e n " n o r m a t i v e " a n d " p r a c t i c a l " r e l a t i o n s ; B a i l e y 1 9 6 9 ) . 21 F i r s t , m a t e r i a l s u p p o r t i s o f immediate i n t e r e s t t o t h o s e engaged i n c o n t e s t s t o o b t a i n and m a i n t a i n s t a t u s and power s i n c e t h o s e who a r e a b l e t o assemble g r e a t e r s u p p o r t a r e more l i k e l y t o be s u c c e s s f u l i n p o l i t i c a l c o m p e t i t i o n ( B a i l e y 1969:36). I n e f f e c t , c o m p e t i t i o n i s m e d i a t e d t h r o u g h a c c e s s t o l a b o r (goods and s e r v i c e s ) . P o l i t i c a l u n i t s and l e a d e r s a r e e x p e c t e d t o have a s p e c i f i c i n t e r e s t i n a d v a n c i n g s t a t u s by p r o m o t i n g e x p a n s i o n of t h e p r o d u c t i v e economic base and/or c o n t r o l l i n g s t a t u s - m a r k i n g r e s o u r c e s ( S a h l i n s 1972:82; Spencer 1990:10-11). T h e r e f o r e , p a t t e r n s o f p o l i t i c a l and c u l t u r a l change s h o u l d c l e a r l y be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p a t t e r n s o f economic change and development. A l s o , m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e , as found i n t h e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d , s h o u l d i n d i c a t e p r e v a i l i n g ( s y n c h r o n i c ) s t a t u s r e l a t i o n s . The a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d can c l a r i f y economic and s t a t u s r e l a t i o n s by p r o v i d i n g a b a s i s f o r r e c o r d i n g and e v a l u a t i n g changes i n r e l e v a n t m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e . These p r e m i s e s e x p l a i n t h e m o t i v a t i o n f o r growth and development, but what about t h e p r o c e s s o f change i t s e l f and what ar e i t s i m p o r t a n t f e a t u r e s ? B a i l e y has s u g g e s t e d a means t o c o n c e p t u a l i z e t h i s problem. I quote him a t l e n g t h here because he p r e s e n t s an o v e r v i e w of t h e r e l e v a n t components, e x p r e s s e d w i t h i n a c o m p e t i t i v e c o n t e x t . " P o l i t i c a l change seems always t o be a c o n t e s t , a l t h o u g h t h e cause o f s t r u c t u r a l change i s a maladjustment between t h a t s t r u c t u r e and i t s environment, t h e change i s worked out t h r o u g h t h e a c t i o n s o f men and t h e i r f a i l u r e t o a c t . Perhaps one can imagine s i t u a t i o n s o f t o t a l e n l i g h t e n m e n t i n which w h o l l y r a t i o n a l l e a d e r s , i n response t o e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r e s s u r e s o f a non-human k i n d , d i s s o l v e t h e s t r u c t u r e which has g i v e n them power and s u b s t i t u t e a n o t h e r s t r u c t u r e f o r 22 i t . B u t i n l i f e i t seems t h a t t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r e s s u r e s m a k i n g f o r c h a n g e i n c l u d e u s u a l l y o t h e r w o u l d - b e l e a d e r s , whose a m b i t i o n s a n d i d e a l s a r e f r u s t r a t e d b y t h e p r e s e n t s t r u c t u r e . T h e r e f o r e a c o n t e s t a r i s e s : t h e r e f o r e we a r e a b l e , t o some e x t e n t , t o u n d e r s t a n d c h a n g e b y u s i n g t h e c a t e g o r i e s o f c o m p e t i t i o n a n d c o n t e s t . " ( B a i l e y 1 9 6 9 : 2 1 7 ) . T h i s p e r s p e c t i v e i s u s e f u l b e c a u s e B a i l e y ' s p u r p o s e i s t o d e v i s e a m e t h o d o l o g y f o r t h e a n a l y s i s o f c h a n g e . I t i s an " . . . a t t e m p t t o d i s c o v e r some o f t h e g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s i n p o l i t i c a l m a n o e u v r e w h i c h t r a n s c e n d c u l t u r e s a n d w h i c h p r o v i d e q u e s t i o n s w h i c h c o u l d be t h e t o o l s o f r e s e a r c h i n a v a r i e t y o f d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s " ( B a i l e y 1 9 6 9 : x i i ) . S e c o n d , s h o r t - t e r m p o l i t i c a l c r i s e s a r i s e f r o m a n d a r e t h e i n e v i t a b l e c o n s e q u e n c e o f l o n g - t e r m p r o c e s s e s , a theme w h i c h B a i l e y a d d r e s s e s i n t h e c a s e s t u d i e s . I r e v i e w t h e r e l e v a n t a r g u m e n t s h e r e ( f o r a c o m p r e h e n s i v e summary, s e e L e w e l l e n 1 9 8 3 : 1 0 4 - 1 0 8 ) . The p o t e n t i a l f o r p o l i t i c a l c h a n g e i s l i k e l y when t h e r e i s "a m a l a d j u s t m e n t b e t w e e n t h e n o r m a t i v e s t r u c t u r e [ o f s o c i e t y ] a n d i t s e n v i r o n m e n t " ( B a i l e y 1 9 6 9 : 1 8 9 ) . B a i l e y means t h a t " n o r m a t i v e " s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s , e x p l i c i t l y u n d e r s t o o d i n a w r i t t e n o r u n w r i t t e n s o c i a l c o n s t i t u t i o n , a r e r e c o g n i z e d a s l e g i t i m a t e . They a r e s t a k e d o u t by " n o r m a t i v e r u l e s " ; t h a t i s , " R u l e s w h i c h e x p r e s s s u c h u l t i m a t e a n d p u b l i c a l l y a c c e p t e d v a l u e s " ( B a i l e y 1 9 6 9 : 4 ) . Then he d i s t i n g u i s h e s b e t w e e n p o l i t i c s w i t h a " p u b l i c f a c e " ( u s i n g n o r m a t i v e r u l e s ) a n d " p r i v a t e w i s d o m " ( u s i n g p r a g m a t i c r u l e s ) ( B a i l e y 1 9 6 9 : 5 ) . The b a s i s o f ( p o l i t i c a l ) c h a n g e i s f o u n d i n t h e d i f f e r e n t i a l b e t w e e n t h e two s e t s o f r u l e s : " The r a t i o o f n o r m a t i v e t o p r a g m a t i c r u l e s c a n be t a k e n as an i n d i c a t o r o f p o t e n t i a l i n s t a b i l i t y " ( B a i l e y 1 9 6 9 : 1 8 9 ) . W i t h t h i s , we h a v e a b a s i s f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g l o n g - t e r m p r o c e s s e s . F o r e x a m p l e , B a i l e y a s s o c i a t e s t h i s " r a t i o " w i t h an " e n v i r o n m e n t " . T h i s e n v i r o n m e n t " . . . i s d e f i n e d v e r y w i d e l y : i t may mean a new l a w , a new i d e o l o g y , an i n c r e a s e o r d e c r e a s e i n p o p u l a t i o n , a p l a g u e , a new t e c h n i q u e o f c u l t i v a t i o n , a t e n d e r - h e a r t e d o r r i g i d a d m i n i s t r a t o r , o r many o t h e r t h i n g s . . . I n e f f e c t , t h e e n v i r o n m e n t i s d e f i n e d a s e v e r y t h i n g w h i c h i s n o t p a r t o f t h a t p a r t i c u l a r p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e " ( B a i l e y 1 9 6 9 : 1 9 1 ) . B a i l e y a r g u e s , f o r e x a m p l e , t h a t new r e s o u r c e s may become a v a i l a b l e f o r u s e i n p o l i t i c a l c o m p e t i t i o n , a n d t h e n o r m a t i v e r u l e s may n o t g i v e s u f f i c i e n t g u i d e l i n e s f o r t h e i r u s e . T h i s l e a d s t o t h e p o l i t i c a l c r i s i s . So, by means o f two d i f f e r e n t t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s ( g r o w t h a n d c o n t r o l / u s e o f new r e s o u r c e s ) , we h a v e d e f i n e d t h e r o l e o f " r e s o u r c e s " i n p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n , t h o u g h B a i l e y d e f i n e s r e s o u r c e s more w i d e l y . I n any c a s e , t h e o r e t i c a l l i n k s b e t w e e n p o l i t i c a l c o m p e t i t i o n , t h e u s e o f r e s o u r c e s , p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e a n d c r i s i s , a n d l o n g - t e r m a n d s h o r t - t e r m c h a n g e h a v e b e e n d e v e l o p e d . B u t i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o p u t t h e m i n c o n t e x t , t o u n d e r s t a n d how t h e y o p e r a t e a n d v a r y t o g e t h e r i n t i m e . B a i l e y h a s a r g u e d t h a t h i s t h e o r y o f p o l i t i c a l c h a n g e i s v a l i d r e g a r d l e s s o f p o l i t i c a l c o n t e x t , a t l e a s t f o r any r e l a t i v e l y c o m p l e x s o c i e t y , a n d h a s p r e s e n t e d s e v e r a l c a s e s t u d i e s f r o m e t h n o g r a p h y a n d r e c e n t h i s t o r y t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h i s ( s e e a b o v e ) . B u t what a b o u t c a s e s w here t h e r e c o r d i s l e s s i m m e d i a t e , w h i c h a l s o show l o n g - t e r m t e m p o r a l c o n t i n u i t y , s u c h as a n c i e n t h i s t o r i c a l o r a r c h a e o l o g i c a l - p r e h i s t o r i c c a s e s ? Can a n a l y s i s o f s u c h i n d e p e n d e n t c a s e s s u p p o r t B a i l e y ' s t h e o r y ? To a n s w e r t h i s , I r e f e r t o A l f o l d y ' s h i s t o r i o g r a p h y , The Social History of Rome (1988 [ 1 9 7 5 ] ) . I d i s c u s s t h i s w ork i n some d e t a i l b e c a u s e i t i s a d e t a i l e d s t u d y o f l o n g - t e r m c o m p e t i t i v e p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s e s , a n d i t i s a c a s e w h i c h shows how s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l a n d e c o n o m i c i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e " w o r k e d o u t . " The a u t h o r a t t e m p t s t o e x p l a i n t h e c o u r s e o f a n c i e n t Roman s o c i a l e v o l u t i o n b y c h a r t i n g , f r o m h i s t o r i c a l s o u r c e s , t h e c h a n g i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f v a r i o u s s t a t u s c a t e g o r i e s . He a n a l y z e s p o l i t i c a l i n t e r a c t i o n a g a i n s t t h e b a c k g r o u n d o f an ( i n t e n s e l y ) a g r a r i a n economy i n a manner t h a t r e c a l l s B a i l e y ' s g a m e - t h e o r y a p p r o a c h . H i s v i e w i s d i s t i n c t l y s t r u c t u r a l - p r o c e s s u a l : " I n o r d e r t o c o u n t e r t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t Roman s o c i a l h i s t o r y s i m p l y c o n s i s t s o f a s e r i e s o f s n a p s h o t s , s t r e s s h a s b e e n l a i d , a s f a r as p o s s i b l e , on t h e ways i n w h i c h t h e s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s o f one s t a g e grew o u t o f t h o s e o f an e a r l i e r p e r i o d a n d on t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e y a l s o p a v e d t h e way f o r f u r t h e r s o c i a l c h a n g e . " ( A l f o l d y 1 9 8 8 : x i ) . He d o e s , h o w e v e r , f o c u s on p e r i o d s o f p o l i t i c a l c r i s i s ( f o r e x a m p l e : The " S t r u g g l e o f t h e O r d e r s " : l a t e 4 t h C . B . C , t h e L a t e R e p u b l i c C i v i l Wars: a f t e r 201 B.C., t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e E m p i r e : 27 B.C., t h e s o c i a l b r e a k d o w n o f t h e E m p i r e : 3 r d C.A.D.) a s p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e n s e i n s t a n c e s o f r a p i d s o c i a l o r s t r u c t u r a l c h a n g e . T h i s p r o c e d u r e r e c a l l s B a i l e y ' s o u t l i n e o f t h e p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s . The c o n t e s t f o r s t a t u s , power a n d p r e s t i g e , b a s e d on t h e o w n e r s h i p o f p r o d u c t i v e f a r m l a n d a n d a c c e s s t o ( s l a v e ) l a b o r , i s c e n t r a l t o A l f o l d y ' s a c c o u n t . The c o n t e s t i s r e s o l v e d w i t h i n a n d b e t w e e n i d e n t i f i a b l e s o c i a l c a t e g o r i e s a n d he i n d i c a t e s t h e f a c t o r s a n d d y n a m i c s t h a t a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c h a n g e . To t a k e one e x a m p l e , i n a d i s c u s s i o n a b o u t s o c i a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s i n t h e E a r l y R e p u b l i c ( 1 9 8 8 : 1 3 - 1 9 ) , he n o t e s t h a t t h e e a r l y d i v i s i o n o f Roman s o c i e t y i n t o two s o c i a l g r o u p s , p l e b i a n s a n d p a t r i c i a n s , became u n t e n a b l e b e c a u s e : 1. The p l e b i a n c l a s s i t s e l f h a d become s t r a t i f i e d a s i t s m e m b e r s h i p i n c r e a s e d . Some members h a d become w e a l t h y , i n c l u d i n g a segment o f w a r r i o r s , c r a f t s m e n a n d t r a d e r s ( p r o f e s s i o n s s h u n n e d b y p a t r i c i a n l a n d l o r d s ) , who b e g a n t o a c q u i r e ( o r p u r c h a s e ) a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d a n d s u r p a s s l o w - r a n k i n g p a t r i c i a n s i n w e a l t h . M e a n w h i l e , o t h e r p l e b i a n s f e l l i n t o d e b t , l o s t t h e i r l a n d t o p a t r i c i a n ( o r w e a l t h y p l e b i a n ) l a n d h o l d e r s o r b e g a n t o s h a r e s m a l l p l o t s o f l a n d . 2. Many p l e b i a n s were d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h c o n d i t i o n s t h a t a l l o w e d t h e m t o be e x p l o i t e d a n d p o l i t i c a l l y d o m i n a t e d b y t h e w e a l t h y l a n d - h o l d i n g p a t r i c i a n s w h i l e p r e v a i l i n g s t a t u s r e g u l a t i o n s d i d n o t r e c o g n i z e w e a l t h y p l e b i a n s , o r a d m i t t h e m t o t h e n o b l e c l a s s . T h u s , w e a l t h y p l e b i a n s w a n t e d p o l i t i c a l r e c o g n i t i o n a n d t h e p o o r o n e s w a n t e d r e l i e f . I n B a i l e y ' s t e r m s , t h i s s i t u a t i o n r e p r e s e n t s a d i f f e r e n t i a l b e t w e e n n o r m a t i v e a n d p r a g m a t i c r u l e s ( o f s t a t u s ) . The s i t u a t i o n was r e s o l v e d a s f o l l o w s ( B a i l e y ' s k e y w o r d s a p p e a r i n q u o t e s , b r a c k e t e d ) . P l e b i a n s , whose m i l i t a r y i m p o r t a n c e ( i n f a n t r y ) h a d i n c r e a s e d due t o t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f new t a c t i c a l s t r a t e g i e s , w e r e a b l e t o c h a l l e n g e t h e p a t r i c i a n s w i t h demands ( " c o n f r o n t a t i o n " ) , p a r t i c u l a r l y w e a l t h y p l e b i a n s who were a b l e t o make a n d s u p p l y m i l i t a r y e q u i p m e n t . They f o r m e d a s e p a r a t e p o l i t i c a l u n i t ("team") and, i n a c r u c i a l s i t u a t i o n , t h r e a t e n e d a m i l i t a r y s t r i k e u n l e s s p o l i t i c a l c o n c e s s i o n s w e re g i v e n b y t h e p a t r i c i a n e l i t e s ( " e n c o u n t e r " ) . W e a l t h y p l e b i a n s a l s o c o n s t r u c t e d t h e i r own t e m p l e ( d e d i c a t e d i n 4 93 B.C.) i n o r d e r t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h e i r s e p a r a t e s t a t u s ( " s y m b o l i c d i s p l a y " , " c h a l l e n g e " ) . A c c o r d i n g t o A l f o l d y , t h e y h a d c r e a t e d a " s t a t e w i t h i n a s t a t e " ( A l f o l d y 1 9 8 8 : 7 5 ) . F i n a l l y , w i t h t h e c o d i f i c a t i o n o f t h e T w e l v e T a b l e s ( c . 450 B . C . ) , t h e new s t a t u s a n d r i g h t s o f p l e b i a n s w e re r e c o g n i z e d ( " r e l a t i v e c r e d i t v e r i f i e d " ) . However m o d e s t , t h e s e r e f o r m s d i d g i v e some p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t e x c e s s i v e p o w e r s e x e r c i s e d b y t h e p a t r i c i a n a r i s t o c r a t s . T h i s e n t i r e e p i s o d e i s , i n f a c t , a l m o s t an e x a c t p a r a l l e l t o B a i l e y ' s a c c o u n t o f t h e a t t e m p t s o f t h e f a r m l a b o r e r s (Pans) t o g a i n s t a t u s r e c o g n i t i o n i n B i s i p a r a v i l l a g e ( B a i l e y 1 9 6 9 : 1 1 6 - 1 2 1 ) . A l f o l d y c o n t i n u e s , i n s i m i l a r f a s h i o n , t h r o u g h o v e r 1000 y e a r s o f Roman h i s t o r y , s o t h a t we o b t a i n a l o n g - t e r m p r o c e s s u a l a c c o u n t o f Roman s o c i a l a n d p o l i t i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t . I n a n s w e r t o t h e q u e s t i o n p o s e d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h i s s e c t i o n (How c a n c o m p e t i t i o n f o r s t a t u s e x p l a i n p o l i t i c a l c h a n g e a n d d e v e l o p m e n t ? ) , i t was f i r s t n e c e s s a r y t o b u i l d a l i n k b e t w e e n s t a t u s c o m p e t i t i o n a n d s u p p o r t r e s o u r c e s . I t i s e v i d e n t f r o m B a i l e y ' s p e r s p e c t i v e s a n d f r o m A l f o l d y ' s h i s t o r i o g r a p h y t h a t c o m p e t i t i o n f o r s t a t u s , power a n d p r e s t i g e a r e u n d e r w r i t t e n b y s u p p o r t a n d r e s o u r c e s , a n d t h a t t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n i s c e n t r a l t o p o l i t i c a l c h a n g e , b o t h i n s h o r t - t e r m a n d l o n g - t e r m s i t u a t i o n s . S t a t u s c l a i m s a r e b a s e d on d e v e l o p m e n t a n d c o n t r o l o f e c o n o m i c / p o l i t i c a l " w e a l t h " , i n p a r t i c u l a r w e a l t h i n new o r k e y resources such as p r o d u c t i v e land, l i v e s t o c k or t r a d e goods and c r a f t s . In some cases, e s p e c i a l l y i n those where cumulative small changes i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of wealth have occurred, wealth and s t a t u s p o s i t i o n may not c o i n c i d e , and the r e s u l t a n t s t r e s s or p o t e n t i a l f o r p o l i t i c a l c h a l l e n g e t o the e x i s t i n g s t r u c t u r e i n c r e a s e s . T h i s c o n d i t i o n i s r e p r e s e n t e d i n d i f f e r e n c e s between normative and pragmatic r u l e s , where only normative r u l e s are encoded i n a " s o c i a l c o n s t i t u t i o n " , and s t a t u s d i f f e r e n t i a l s are p e r c e i v e d as a r t i f i c i a l l y wide. When such d i f f e r e n c e s are opposed, t h a t i s , when normative s t a t u s i s wide but wealth s t a t u s i s narrow, reform or s t r u c t u r a l change i s more l i k e l y t o occur. I n d i c a t i o n s of these c o n d i t i o n s would be apparent i n the i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n of i d e o l o g i c a l programs t o strengthen l e g i t i m a c y , or c o e r c i v e s a n c t i o n s . A l t e r n a t i v e l y (or c o n c u r r e n t l y ) one might a l s o expect t o encounter a p e r i o d of s o c i a l ( c i v i l ) c o n f l i c t , c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i n t e n s e i n t e r - e l i t e c o n f l i c t . T h i s process seems to be one of punctuated development i n which a p p a r e n t l y s t a b l e ( s t r u c t u r a l ) episodes of long-term gradual change are punctuated by short-term p e r i o d s of i n s t a b i l i t y and r a d i c a l change, when normative r u l e s are r e n e g o t i a t e d t o account f o r long-term changes i n s t a t u s and resource d i s t r i b u t i o n . Status Competition and A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Data How are i n t a n g i b l e s such as s t a t u s c o m p e t i t i o n and p o l i t i c a l development manifested i n m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e ? Given the 28 t h e o r e t i c a l l i n k s b e t w e e n s t a t u s c o m p e t i t i o n , r e s o u r c e s a n d c u l t u r a l c h a n g e p r e s e n t e d a b o v e , t h e n one s h o u l d e x p e c t p a t t e r n s i n a l l o c a t i o n s o f r e s o u r c e s . To a d d r e s s t h i s , I w o u l d l i k e t o i n t r o d u c e t h r e e a n a l y t i c a l d i v i s i o n s t h a t w i l l be u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y : p o l i t i c a l s u p p o r t , s t a t u s d e m o n s t r a t i o n a n d p o l i t i c a l m a i n t e n a n c e . They a r e u s e f u l d i v i s i o n s s i n c e t h e y h a v e an a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l f o u n d a t i o n , r e f e r d i r e c t l y t o p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y , a n d t h e y h a v e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l c o r r e l a t e s . P o l i t i c a l s u p p o r t h a s b e e n d e f i n e d a s " a n y t h i n g t h a t c o n t r i b u t e s t o t h e f o r m u l a t i o n a n d / o r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f p o l i t i c a l e n d s " ( S w a r t z e t a l . 1 9 6 6 : 1 0 ) . I n t h e a b s t r a c t , p o l i t i c a l s u p p o r t v a r i e s on a c o n t i n u u m b e t w e e n two e x t r e m e s ; l e g i t i m a c y a n d c o e r c i o n . L e g i t i m a c y r e f e r s t o t h e s a n c t i o n e d l e g a l p r o c e s s b y w h i c h a g r o u p o r p e r s o n a c q u i r e s a n d / o r m a i n t a i n s p o l i t i c a l o f f i c e . I t i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e i d e a o f c o n s e n s u a l s u p p o r t . C o e r c i o n r e f e r s t o t h e a c q u i s i t i o n a n d m a i n t e n a n c e , b y i n t i m i d a t i o n a n d f o r c e , o f p o l i t i c a l o f f i c e i n t h e a b s e n c e o f s a n c t i o n e d l e g a l p r o c e s s e s . I t i s c o n t r a s t e d w i t h l e g i t i m a c y a n d c o n s e n s u a l s u p p o r t ( f o r s e l e c t e d c a s e s s e e A l f o l d y 1 9 8 8 : 7 , 8 , 1 5 , 1 7 , 4 3 , 5 0 , 8 8 , 9 8 , 1 1 0 ; B a i l e y 1 9 6 9 : 3 6 , 7 4 , 7 6 , 8 8 , 9 4 , 9 5 , 117; L e w e l l e n 1 9 8 3 : 9 5 - 9 7 ; S w a r t z e t a l . 1 9 6 6 : 3 0 ) . M a t e r i a l c u l t u r e i s i m p l i c a t e d i n s u p p o r t b e c a u s e t h e p o l i t i c s o f s t a t u s , w h e t h e r p r e d o m i n a t e l y l e g i t i m a t e o r c o e r c i v e , a r e u n d e r w r i t t e n b y c o n t r o l o f r e s o u r c e s a n d e c o n o m i c p r o d u c t i o n . A s a r g u e d a b o v e , c o m p e t i n g p o l i t i c a l u n i t s w i l l a t t e m p t t o g a i n c o n t r o l o f , o r a c c e s s t o , i n s o f a r a s t h e y a r e a b l e , k e y p r o d u c t i v e r e s o u r c e s . T h e r e f o r e , t h i s v i e w a r g u e s t h a t p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y d o m i n a t e s 29 m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e , a n d t h a t m a t e r i a l r e s o u r c e s a r e u s e d i n t h e s e r v i c e o f p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y a n d s t a t u s d e t e r m i n a t i o n . F o r s i m i l a r v i e w s s e e de M o n t m o l l i n on s e t t l e m e n t ( 1 9 8 9 : 5 0 - 5 2 ) , R o w l a n d s on t h e economy (1982:162-167) a n d Helms on t r a d e ( 1 9 8 8 ) . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e c o n c e p t o f p o l i t i c a l s u p p o r t i n c l u d e s a l l a s p e c t s o f m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e t h a t c o n t r i b u t e t o w a r d s t h e a l l o c a t i o n a n d m a i n t e n a n c e o f s t a t u s p o s i t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n , m a t e r i a l r e s o u r c e s a n d a s s o c i a t e d c r a f t p r o d u c t i o n , a n d a c c e s s t o e x t e r n a l r e s o u r c e s . The r o l e o f m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e i n p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y i s a p p a r e n t s i m p l y by r e f e r e n c e t o e t h n o g r a p h i c c a s e s t u d i e s i n t h e g e n e r a l l i t e r a t u r e . I n e v i t a b l y , a s one m i g h t e x p e c t , r e f e r e n c e i s made t o o b j e c t s o f m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e a s s o m e t h i n g t o be f o u g h t f o r a n d won, c o n t r o l l e d o r u t i l i z e d i n p o l i t i c a l c o m p e t i t i o n s , s u c h a s s t a t u s o b j e c t s , e c o n o m i c r e s o u r c e s o r t r a d e w e a l t h ( B a i l e y 1 9 6 9 : 3 6 - 3 7 ; L e w e l l e n 1 9 8 3 : 9 3 - 9 7 ; S w a r t z e t a l . 1 9 6 6 : 2 0 - 2 7 ) . W i t h o u t r e f e r e n c e t o f u r t h e r c a s e s i n t h e a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l r e c o r d ( w h i c h a r e n u m e r o u s ) , one may a r g u e t h a t p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y a n d s t a t u s a r e c l o s e l y l i n k e d t o m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e a n d e c o n o m i c a c t i v i t y , a n d t h a t t h e c o n c e p t o f p o l i t i c a l s u p p o r t must a d d r e s s t h e i d e a o f a c c e s s t o a n d c o n t r o l o f m a t e r i a l r e s o u r c e s . S t a t u s d e m o n s t r a t i o n r e f e r s t o t h o s e a c t i v i t i e s a n d o b j e c t s t h a t i n d i c a t e t h e c u r r e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s t a t u s . T h i s w i l l be e v i d e n t i n t h e q u a n t i t y a n d q u a l i t y o f p u b l i c ( p o l i t i c a l ) c o n s t r u c t i o n ; t h e c o n t r o l o f g o o d s t h a t mark s t a t u s ; t h e n a t u r e a n d q u a l i t y o f b u r i a l monuments a n d i n v e s t m e n t i n i d e o l o g i c a l 30 programmes. P o l i t i c a l maintenance refers to the administrative functions of the p o l i t i c a l unit that are associated with p o l i t i c a l integration. Any p o l i t i c a l unit i s required to manage the routine, day-to-day a f f a i r s of i t s support group and i n s t i t u t i o n s . Routine functions also enable p o l i t i c a l leaders to monitor and respond to situations that are l i k e l y to enhance or deplete status or threaten p o l i t i c a l integration. Maintenance w i l l be evident i n construction a c t i v i t y since b u i l t spaces are the locus of administrative functions (for further discussion see section below on p o l i t i c a l administration). Implications for Treatment of Archaeological Data. The emphasis on p o l i t i c a l behavior i n society (e.g. support, demonstration, maintenance) leads away from analyses which conceive of society as a s t a t i c , functionally-integrated, "equilibrium" system. In other words, while f u n c t i o n a l i s t approaches can i s o l a t e and examine integrative devices as separate e n t i t i e s , p o l i t i c a l - p r o c e s s u a l approaches must attempt to i d e n t i f y and evaluate dynamic and changing interactions among several c u l t u r a l components simultaneously along a temporal continuum. A n a l y t i c a l techniques must include both those which focus on c u l t u r a l components that are seen to maintain s t r u c t u r a l integration (which implies stasis) and those which focus on situations or conditions that underlie change. Consequently, those who apply a p o l i t i c a l approach to c u l t u r a l evolution tend to advocate an " i n t e r a c t i v e " approach. Goldman, for example, on 31 the b a s i s of h i s a n a l y s i s of Po l y n e s i a n chiefdoms, comments : "We do need t o c o n s i d e r the e n t i r e process of p o l i t i c a l and economic development l e s s m e c h a n i c a l l y and more f u l l y i n the l i g h t of i n t e r a c t i v e p r o c e s s e s . In P o l y n e s i a the process of st a t u s r i v a l r y s e t s p o l i t i c a l e v o l u t i o n i n motion and t h i s , i n t u r n draws h e a v i l y upon economic resources and means f o r i t s c o n t i n u a l development." (Goldman 1970:486). Swartz et a l . i n c o n s i d e r i n g how t o i s o l a t e a temporal " s t i l l p o i n t " t o begin p r o c e s s u a l a n a l y s i s , observed t h a t i n v e s t i g a t o r s are "co n f r o n t e d by a set of c o - e x i s t i n g p a r t s t h a t can be c o n c e p t u a l i z e d as s t r u c t u r e d , or as having p o s i t i o n s r e l a t i v e t o each ot h e r " (1966:28). They go on t o argue t h a t , i n order t o in t r o d u c e a temporal continuum t o a n a l y s i s , one should expect " i n s t a b i l i t y and imbalance i n power r e l a t i o n s " o r i g i n a t i n g i n " e c o l o g i c a l and demographic v a r i a t i o n s t h a t a f f e c t the s i z e and wealth of p o l i t i c a l u n i t s , p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s , such as d i f f e r e n c e s i n the n e e d - d i s p o s i t i o n s regnant i n v a r i o u s groups w i t h i n the p o p u l a t i o n at v a r i o u s times, and the e f f e c t s of pre s s u r e s and i n f l u e n c e s t h a t o r i g i n a t e o u t s i d e the p o l i t i c a l f i e l d " (1966:28). The a n a l y s i s of change along m u l t i p l e dimensions i s supported by Feinman and N e i t z e l i n t h e i r study of v a r i a b i l i t y i n New World chiefdoms (Feinman and N e i t z e l 1984). They show t h a t , s i n c e t h e r e i s c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a b i l i t y i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p of c u l t u r a l components from one chiefdom t o another, t y p o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s , which lumps them together, i n t r o d u c e s d i s t o r t i o n . I t assumes they are a l l the same. Only case by case, d i a c h r o n i c s t u d i e s w i l l "enable the a r c h a e o l o g i s t t o understand the nature of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s among key v a r i a b l e s " (Feinman and N e i t z e l 32 1984:77). They propose t o c o n c e n t r a t e a n a l y s i s i n each case on t h r e e s e t s o f d a t a , which w i l l be o f i n t e r e s t i n t h i s s t u d y : 1. Those between r e g i o n a l p o p u l a t i o n s , 2. Those between s o c i a l segments w i t h i n a p o p u l a t i o n and 3. Those between a p o p u l a t i o n and i t s p h y s i c a l environment (1984:78). We o n l y need t o i n t r o d u c e t h e d i m e n s i o n o f t i m e . The " i n t e r a c t i v e " approach i s a l s o a d v o c a t e d by Shanks and T i l l e y (1987). O f f e r i n g c r i t i q u e s o f t h e o r i e s o f f u n c t i o n a l i s m (1987:117-118), systems a n a l y s i s (pp 118-119) and " e s s e n t i a l i s m " , o r d e t e r m i n i s t i c e f f e c t s o f " p r e - d e f i n e d subsystems" (1987:120), t h e y argue t h a t one s h o u l d s t u d y s o c i e t y as a " t o t a l i t y " , w hich: " . . . i s not some e x t e r n a l s t r u c t u r e o r some essence, r e f e r e n c e t o which e x p l a i n s s u r f a c e phenomena, c o n c r e t e e f f e c t s ; s t r u c t u r e i s n e i t h e r i n t e r n a l l y nor e x t e r n a l l y - s e p a r a t e but i s p r e s e n t i n i t s e f f e c t s . " (Shanks and T i l l e y 1987:121). I u n d e r s t a n d t h e i r view (1987:121-122) t o mean t h a t a r c h a e o l o g i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n s must r e c o g n i z e t h a t t h e interrelationships o f c u l t u r a l components form, and are i d e n t i c a l w i t h , s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e . I would i n c l u d e e s p e c i a l l y , t h e r e l a t i o n s o f s u p p o r t , d e m o n s t r a t i o n and maintenance. T h e r e f o r e , e x p l a n a t i o n s o f c u l t u r a l change s h o u l d examine t h e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s as p a r t o f a " t o t a l i t y " from t h e v e r y s t a r t o f a n a l y s i s . As case s t u d i e s o f t h e i n t e r a c t i v e approach t o c u l t u r e change i n ethnography and h i s t o r i o g r a p h y , I r e f e r t o t h o s e p r e s e n t e d i n B a i l e y (1966) and A l f o l d y (1988). A l t h o u g h n e i t h e r 33 author i s e n t i r e l y e x p l i c i t c oncerning the i n t e r a c t i v e approach p r e s e n t e d here, t h i s view i s i m p l i c i t i n t h e i r commentaries ( B a i l e y 1 9 6 6 : 1 7 , a l s o chapter 1 : 1 - 1 7 ; A l f o l d y 1988:x, a l s o x i note 2 ) . In archaeology, I r e f e r t o de Montmollin's a n a l y s i s of the R o s a r i o V a l l e y , Chiapas, Mexico. A c c o r d i n g t o de Montmollin, a m o n o l i t h i c or " t o t a l l y " t e s t a b l e c u l t u r a l model g l o s s e s over p o t e n t i a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g and i n f o r m a t i v e data i n order t o t e s t g l o b a l t h e o r y (de Montmollin 1 9 8 9 : 3 3 - 3 4 , 3 7 - 3 9 , 2 5 2 - 2 5 3 ) . Consequently, we should not be o v e r l y concerned about incomplete or seemingly i r r e l e v a n t data because they enable u t i l i z a t i o n of the r e q u i s i t e v a r i e t y i n the r e c o r d and u s e f u l l y p o i n t out areas f o r f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The data, as de Montmollin argues, can be examined as an i n t e g r a t e d , e v o l v i n g whole: "The r e s e a r c h process i s broken down i n t o steps or components, and the web-like l i n k a g e s between them are a p p r e c i a t e d and e x p l o r e d " (de Montmollin 1 9 8 9 : 2 5 2 ) . Here, the c u l t u r a l system and the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d are broken down i n t o d i s c r e t e a n a l y t i c a l c a t e g o r i e s so t h a t they can be examined s e p a r a t e l y , or i n c o n j u n c t i o n , i n order t o t e s t whether t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s r e i n f o r c e e x p l a n a t o r y arguments, and whether separate l i n e s of evidence a l l " p o i n t " i n the same d i r e c t i o n . He a p p l i e s a v a r i e t y , of t e s t s from the settlement r e c o r d i n order t o examine the p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e of the C l a s s i c Maya. R e j e c t i n g t y p o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s and other p r e - d e f i n e d formulae, he c a r r i e s out a s e r i e s of t e s t s which are intended t o demonstrate where the p o l i t y f i t s on a s c a l e d p o l i t i c a l continuum, from "segmentary" t o " u n i t a r y " 34 s t r u c t u r e (de Montmollin 1989:17, Table 1). T h i s approach i s i n t e r e s t i n g because i t uses a d e t a i l e d , e x p l o r a t o r y and i n t e r a c t i v e p e r s p e c t i v e on p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n which can only be a m p l i f i e d with the a p p l i c a t i o n of a d d i t i o n a l c l a s s e s of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l data. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the study i s te m p o r a l l y r e s t r i c t e d t o t o a s i n g l e (Late C l a s s i c ) phase, which p r e c l u d e s an i n t e r e s t i n g study of long-term change. P r o c e s s u a l l y , my view i s t h a t the v a r i o u s c u l t u r a l components are never i n completely s t a b l e e q u i l i b r i u m . Therefore, c u l t u r a l change i s pre s e n t e d here as a phenomenon a s s o c i a t e d with the "working out" of dynamic s t r u c t u r a l r e l a t i o n s . T h i s view i s c l o s e t o t h a t h e l d by Swartz et a l . who s t a t e t h a t "The c l o s e r we come t o the p o l i t i c a l grass r o o t s the c l o s e r we have t o c o n s i d e r such 'mo t i v a t i o n s ' as s e l f - i n t e r e s t and ambition, and the more we are o b l i g e d t o show i n terms of d e t a i l e d case h i s t o r i e s , the working out of courses of a c t i o n t h a t are set i n t r a i n by these and l i k e i m p u l s i o n s " (1966:26). B a i l e y might agree: "Although the cause of s t r u c t u r a l change i s a maladjustment between t h a t s t r u c t u r e and i t s environment, the change i s worked out through the a c t i o n s of men and t h e i r f a i l u r e t o a c t " (1969:216). A r c h a e o l o g i c a l cases of an " i n t e r a c t i v e " approach t o c u l t u r e h i s t o r y , which complement A l f o l d y ' s a n a l y s i s , are a v a i l a b l e f o r the Western Roman Empire (27 B.C.- A.D.476) ( T a i n t e r 1988:128-152), although the author takes a more f o r m a l i s t approach, Mesopotamia (Wright and Johnson 1975) and Mesoamerica (Kowalewski et a l . 1989; de Montmollin 1989). 35 U n f o r t u n a t e l y , a s W r i g h t a n d J o h n s o n p o i n t o u t ( 1 9 7 5 : 2 8 3 - 285) most a r c h a e o l o g i c a l d a t a l a c k t h e f u l l b r e a d t h r e q u i r e d f o r t h i s t y p e o f i n t e r a c t i v e a n a l y s i s . N e i t h e r i s i t f e a s i b l e t o d e f i n e a n d a n a l y s e a " t o t a l i t y " , e v e n i n c a s e s where a s u b s t a n t i a l d a t a b a s e i s a v a i l a b l e (de M o n t m o l l i n 1 9 8 9 : 3 7 ) . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f some d i m e n s i o n s o f p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t c a n be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f a h o l i s t i c t h e o r y , i t s h o u l d n o t be n e c e s s a r y t o d e s c r i b e a l l r e l a t i o n s i n t h e s o c i a l " t o t a l i t y " b e c a u s e , i f t h e t h e o r y i s r e a s o n a b l e , t h e n a t u r e o f t h e r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e e x c l u d e d ( a n d i n c l u d e d ) d i m e n s i o n s i s a l r e a d y i m p l i e d , a n d t h e r e f o r e open t o f u r t h e r a r c h a e o l o g i c a l t e s t i n g . I n c o n c l u s i o n , t h e o b j e c t o f t h i s s t u d y i s t o r e d u c e d a t a a n d t h e o r e t i c a l f o r m u l a t i o n t o m a n a g e a b l e p r o p o r t i o n s w h i l e m a i n t a i n i n g a h o l i s t i c p e r s p e c t i v e . The f o l l o w i n g p r o c e d u r e w i l l be u s e d : 1. P r e s e n t an i n t e r a c t i v e , p r o c e s s u a l t h e o r y o f c u l t u r a l c h a n g e . 2. D e f i n e a n a l y t i c a l c o m p o n e n t s f o r s t u d y w h i c h a r e c h o s e n a s s p e c i f i c , i n t e r a c t i n g p a r t s o f t h e w h o l e s y s t e m . 3. D e v e l o p a p r o c e s s u a l m o d e l o f c u l t u r a l e v o l u t i o n i n t h e ( K a m i n a l j u y u ) c o m p l e x c h i e f d o m , e x p r e s s e d p r i m a r i l y a s d y n a m i c r e l a t i o n s o f a n a l y t i c a l d i v i s i o n s . 4. P r o p o s e s p e c i f i c t e s t i m p l i c a t i o n s ( h y p o t h e s e s ) . 5. E v a l u a t e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l d a t a a g a i n s t t h e t e s t i m p l i c a t i o n s a n d m o d e l . 6. R e f i n e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s . 36 In g e n e r a l , I i n t e n d t o examine the p o l i t i c a l u n i t as changing c o n f i g u r a t i o n s of d e f i n e d a n a l y t i c a l d i v i s i o n s (support, s t a t u s demonstration and p o l i t i c a l maintenance) measured i n terms of s p e c i f i c a n a l y t i c a l c l a s s e s ( p o p u l a t i o n and settlement p a t t e r n s , c o n s t r u c t i o n a c t i v i t y and a d d i t i o n a l data as r e q u i r e d ) . ANALYTICAL CONCEPTS AND COMPONENTS For the p o l i t y under c o n s i d e r a t i o n the components of i n t e r e s t are: economic o r g a n i z a t i o n , p o p u l a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and p o l i t i c a l u n i t s , and p o l i t i c a l - a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n . My understanding of these components as a n a l y t i c a l u n i t s and t h e i r r e l e v a n c e t o c u l t u r a l change i s presented below. F i r s t , i t i s neccessary t o d e f i n e some terms. The p o l i t i c a l u n i t i s a s e l f - d e f i n e d p o l i t i c a l e n t i t y t h a t manages the p o l i t i c a l economy (the p r o d u c t i o n , r e c e i p t and d i s p o s i t i o n of community resources and p r o p e r t y ) . I t i s composed of i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d s t a t u s / s o c i a l c a t e g o r i e s i n c l u d i n g l i n e a g e segments, p o l i t i c a l o f f i c e s and t i t l e d p o s i t i o n s , s p e c i a l i s t s , r e t a i n e r s and other dependants att a c h e d t o e l i t e houses, and su p p o r t i n g p o p u l a t i o n s . The p o l i t i c a l u n i t has s p a t i a l , temporal and demographic dimensions which, i f known, make i t a s u i t a b l e u n i t f o r a r c h a e o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s . I t s e x i s t e n c e as an independent or h i e r a r c h i c a l u n i t i n Mesoamerica i s i n d i c a t e d by the presence of p u b l i c - c e r e m o n i a l mound a r c h i t e c t u r e . An i d e n t i f i a b l e p o l i t i c a l u n i t must be an emic u n i t , a s s o c i a t e d with the i d e a of p o l i t i c a l t e r r i t o r y , t r i b u t e 37 o b l i g a t i o n s , p o l i t i c a l s u p p o r t a n d m a i n t e n a n c e . I t a l s o f o r m s t h e c o n t e x t f o r c o m p e t i t i v e s t a t u s r i v a l r y a n d t h e b a s i s o f p o l i t i c a l - e c o n o m i c s u p p o r t . C o m p e t i t i o n w i l l be p r e s e n t w i t h i n t h e u n i t a s s t a t u s a n d s u c c e s s i o n c o n t e s t s a n d a s f e u d s b e t w e e n f a c t i o n a l o r l i n e a g e s u b - d i v i s i o n s ( B a i l e y 1969; Goldman 1 9 7 0 ) . The e x t e r n a l d i m e n s i o n o f c o m p e t i t i o n i n v o l v e s r i v a l r y b e t w e e n autonomous l o c a l u n i t s , a n d f i n a l l y , r i v a l r y b e t w e e n r e g i o n a l p o l i t i c a l u n i t s . C o m p e t i t i o n i s m e d i a t e d t h r o u g h a c c e s s t o s u p p o r t a n d r e s o l v e d t h r o u g h c o n f r o n t a t i o n s w i t h r i v a l s i n t h e f o r m o f f e a s t i n g , c o n t e s t s o f d i s p l a y o r w a r f a r e (as r a i d s o f c o n q u e s t a n d c a p t u r e ) ; a l l w e l l - a t t e s t e d f o r L o w l a n d Maya p o l i t i e s ( s e e C u l b e r t 1988 f o r a s y n t h e s i s o f Maya p o l i t i c a l h i s t o r y ) . F i n a l l y , f o l l o w i n g S a h l i n s ' a r g u m e n t s ( 1 9 7 2 : 1 0 2 - 1 2 3 ) , t h e " d o m e s t i c u n i t " r e f e r s t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l h o u s e h o l d o r l o c a l k i n r e s i d e n c e g r o u p . A l t h o u g h i t r e l i e s on t h e p o l i t i c a l u n i t f o r c o m m u n i t y c o o r d i n a t i o n a n d s e r v i c e s e t c , i t i s o p p o s e d o v e r t h e i s s u e o f t h e c o n t r o l o f k i n members, l a b o r a n d p r o d u c t i o n f o r t r i b u t e ( s e e a l s o Goldman 1 9 7 0 : 5 4 2 - 5 4 9 ) . I t w i l l p a r t i c u l a r l y o p p o s e p o l i t i c a l demands f o r t r i b u t e when t h e s e a r e p e r c e i v e d a s b u r d e n s o m e , w h i c h may be t h e c a s e when t h e p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s a r e e n g a g e d i n i n t e n s e c o m p e t i t i v e r i v a l r y . E s s e n t i a l l y , t h e d o m e s t i c u n i t i s s t r u c t u r a l l y o p p o s e d t o , t h o u g h n o t n e c e s s a r i l y a n t a g o n i s t i c t o , p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n w h i l e t h e p o l i t i c a l u n i t i s i n t e n t on m a i n t a i n i n g a n d e x p a n d i n g p o l i t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n a n d s t a t u s . 38 E c o n o m i c O r g a n i z a t i o n " E c o n o m i c o r g a n i z a t i o n " r e f e r s t o t h e way i n w h i c h a s o c i e t y p a t t e r n s t h e f l o w o f g o o d s a n d s e r v i c e s . I t h a s two c o m p o n e n t s : 1. The m e t h o d o r means o f p r o d u c t i o n , d i s t r i b u t i o n , e x c h a n g e a n d c o n s u m p t i o n ( o f m a t e r i a l g o o d s ) . 2. The a r t i c u l a t i o n s o r r e g u l a t i o n s , b y w h i c h component 1) i s o r g a n i z e d ( i . e . m a r k e t , t r i b u t e , r e d i s t r i b u t i o n s y s t e m s ) . W i t h a f o c u s on m a t e r i a l g o o d s , we h a v e an a n a l o g f o r f o r m a l i s t t h e o r y i n e c o n o m i c a n t h r o p o l o g y , t o w h i c h s t a n d a r d r u l e s o f p r i c e - t h e o r y , m a r k e t e x c h a n g e , m a x i m i z a t i o n a n d s u p p l y - d e m a n d t h e o r y may be a p p l i e d . What i f i n t a n g i b l e s s u c h as s t a t u s , p o w e r , p r e s t i g e a r e i n c l u d e d a s e c o n o m i c " g o o d s " ? S u p p o s e " e c o n o m i c " o r g a n i z i n g p r i n c i p l e s t h a t r e g u l a t e t h e f l o w o f g o o d s a n d s e r v i c e s i n c l u d e t h o s e t h a t a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l a n d i d e o l o g i c a l (as o p p o s e d t o s t r i c t l y m a t e r i a l i s t ) o r g a n i z a t i o n ? I n s h o r t , what i f e c o n o m i c s a n d p o l i t i c s , f o r e x a m p l e , a r e t r e a t e d as f u l l y i n t e g r a t e d s y s t e m s , r a t h e r t h a n a s i n d e p e n d a n t o n e s ? T h i s p e r s p e c t i v e i s t h e b a s i s f o r s u b s t a n t i v e t h e o r y i n e c o n o m i c t h e o r y , w h i c h , s u p p o r t e r s c l a i m , i s b e t t e r a b l e t o a n a l y z e o r d e s c r i b e c o n d i t i o n s i n p r e - m a r k e t s o c i e t i e s ( P o l a n y i 1 9 6 8 ) . The i s s u e c a n be s t a t e d i n r e v e r s e ; s h o u l d i n t a n g i b l e s s u c h a s s t a t u s , power a n d p r e s t i g e be i n c l u d e d i n modern e c o n o m i c a n a l y s i s ? A l t h o u g h t h e f o r m i n w h i c h t h e e c o n o m i c p r o b l e m i s p r e s e n t e d a b o v e b e t r a y s a s u b s t a n t i v e b i a s t o w a r d s a n c i e n t e c o n o m i e s , I v i e w t h e f o r m a l i s t - s u b s t a n t i v i s t d i v i s i o n as a f a l s e d i c h o t o m y (Clammer 1 9 8 5 ) . T h e r e i s n o t h i n g t o be g a i n e d i n a t t e m p t i n g t o v a l i d a t e one p e r s p e c t i v e a t t h e e x p e n s e o f t h e o t h e r . They c a n o p e r a t e t o g e t h e r ( S a h l i n s 1 9 7 2 : 2 7 7 - 3 1 4 ) . S o c i a l c a p i t a l a n d p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a r e c o n g r u e n t w i t h m a t e r i a l i s t e c o n o m i c a n a l y s i s . We know f r o m t h e e t h n o g r a p h i c r e c o r d t h a t p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s , t h o u g h i n t e r e s t e d i n m a t e r i a l p r o d u c t i o n ( i n f a c t " w e a l t h " ) , d i d n o t c l e a r l y s e p a r a t e , a s f o r m a l i s t t h e o r y m i g h t a r g u e , t h e m a t e r i a l a n d s o c i a l w o r l d , a n d i n f a c t v i e w e d t h e m a s i n t e r d e p e n d e n t . T h i s v i e w o f an i n t e g r a t e d economy i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e v i e w s p r e s e n t e d a b o v e , where i t was a r g u e d t h a t t h e p o l i t i c a l u n i t , t h r o u g h i t s l e a d e r s , w i l l a t t e m p t t o c o n t r o l p r o d u c t i o n , d i s t r i b u t i o n ( t r i b u t e ) a n d c o n s u m p t i o n ( s t a t u s m a r k i n g ) . H e l m s , r e f e r r i n g t o t r a d e i n v a l u a b l e g o o d s , h a s s t a t e d t h e p o i n t a s f o l l o w s : " . . . w h i l e t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f s h i e l d s o r s h e l l s o r s t o n e s o r h o l y i n c e n s e may r e q u i r e c a r e f u l h a r d - h e a d e d t r a d e a n d commerce b e t w e e n d i s t i n c t l y s e p a r a t e t r a d i n g a g e n t s a n d p o l i t i e s , t h e u l t i m a t e g o a l o f t h o s e s e e k i n g s u c h g o o d s may w e l l be d i r e c t e d t o w a r d o b t a i n i n g ( m a i n t a i n i n g ) a c c e s s t o m a t e r i a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f t h e power a n d p o t e n c y t h a t i m b u e s t h e c o s m o s . " (Helms 1 9 8 8 : 1 3 0 ) . By i t s n a t u r e , h o w e v e r , a r c h a e o l o g y c o n c e n t r a t e s on t h e r e c o v e r y o f a n d d i s t r i b u t i o n a l / s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e a n d t h u s f a v o r s f o r m a l i s t p e r s p e c t i v e s on a n c i e n t e c o n o m i c a n d s o c i a l b e h a v i o r . Y e t , when t h i s i s done, one must a d d r e s s t h e q u e s t i o n ; What e x p l a i n s o r m o t i v a t e s t h i s d i s t r i b u t i o n ? W i t h o u t an e f f o r t t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e s e phenomena, we w i l l n o t b e a d d r e s s i n g t h e most i n t e r e s t i n g a n d e x p l a n a t o r y 40 p a r t o f t h e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d . T h i s p e r s p e c t i v e c l e a r l y i n v o l v e s s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l (not t o mention economic) p r o c e s s e s and we s h o u l d be p r e p a r e d t o u t i l i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n a l d a t a i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h c o n s t r u c t i v e i d e a s about i n t a n g i b l e goods and v a l u e s (such as s t a t u s , power and p r e s t i g e ) t h a t a f f e c t m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e . J u d i c i o u s use o f t h e a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l r e c o r d i s c a l l e d f o r , s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r t h e purpose of b u i l d i n g b r i d g i n g arguments between t h e a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l r e c o r d and t h e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d . The a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l r e c o r d r e c o g n i z e s two c a t e g o r i e s o f economic a c t i v i t y ; one a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s u b s i s t e n c e goods, t h e o t h e r w i t h v a l u a b l e goods ( B r u m f i e l and E a r l e 1987:1-9; D ^ A l t r o y and E a r l e 1985; Douglas and Isherwood 1966:131-146; Goldman 1970:476-477). S u b s i s t e n c e goods i n c l u d e foods and u t i l i t a r i a n p r o d u c t s which, because o f b u l k and low u n i t - v a l u e , a r e s p a t i a l l y r e s t r i c t e d i n t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n (see a l s o Drennan 1984). The S u b s i s t e n c e Economy The l o c a l economic system i s u n d e r w r i t t e n by t h e t o t a l p r o d u c t i o n o f s u b s i s t e n c e goods (foods and u t i l i t a r i a n p r o d u c t s ) . T o t a l economic w e a l t h must be a f u n c t i o n o f t o t a l f o o d (energy) p r o d u c t i o n . F o r example, i n terms o f d i r e c t consumption, foods may be u t i l i z e d f o r r e i n v e s t m e n t i n f u r t h e r f o o d p r o d u c t i o n , i n v e s t m e n t i n f a m i l y maintenance, payment t o n o n - p r o d u c i n g s p e c i a l i s t s such as h e a l e r s , r i t u a l s a c r i f i c e , a f f i n a l and m a r r i a g e o b l i g a t i o n s and t r i b u t e o b l i g a t i o n s . Food consumption, t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o p r o d u c t i v e a c t i v i t y such as t h a t found i n c r a f t w o r k , p u b l i c l a b o r and s e r v i c e committments s h o u l d be a c c o u n t e d f o r as w e l l . However, an " e c o n o m e t r i c " a n a l y s i s o f t h i s s o r t i s b o t h q u e s t i o n a b l e , because i t does not i n v e s t i g a t e t h e p o l i t i c a l dynamics i n v o l v e d i n t h e use o f s u b s i s t e n c e p r o d u c t i o n , and, u n f e a s i b l e , becuase we l a c k e v i d e n c e o f most p e r i s h a b l e goods. N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e r e a r e some f e a t u r e s o f s u b s i s t e n c e p r o d u c t i o n t h a t would be u s e f u l i n a r c h a e o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s . F o r example: 1. I f p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s emphasize t h e a c c u m u l a t i o n o f w e a l t h (through t r i b u t o r y r e l a t i o n s ) , t h e y can i n c r e a s e w e a l t h by p r o m o t i n g e x p a n s i o n o f t h e s u b s i s t e n c e base ( B l a n t o n 1975; S a h l i n s 1972:82; Spencer 1990:10-11; S t e p o n a i t i s 1978:428-430). I n e f f e c t , w e a l t h i s " c r e a t e d " , p r o v i d e d t h e r e i s p o t e n t i a l f o r i n c r e a s i n g p o p u l a t i o n , l a b o r and p r o d u c t i v e output (Spencer 1982:44-48). Accumulated, i t can l a t e r be u t i l i z e d f o r a c t i v i t i e s d i r e c t e d towards e n h a n c i n g s t a t u s and power. T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e r e s h o u l d be m e a n i n g f u l r e l a t i o n s between p o p u l a t i o n s i z e and s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n s , r a t i o s o f s u b s i s t e n c e p r o d u c e r s t o non-producers and t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f n o n-producers. 2. The e x t e n t t o which a p o l i t i c a l u n i t r e l i e s upon s u b s i s t e n c e goods f o r s u p p o r t w i l l n e c e s s a r i l y d e f i n e t h e s p a t i a l range of i t s o p e r a t i o n s . T h i s i s due t o l o g i s t i c a l problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e h a n d l i n g and t r a n s p o r t o f s u b s i s t e n c e goods, which are u s u a l l y b u l k y , p e r i s h a b l e and have low u n i t - v a l u e . U n l e s s s u b s i s t e n c e goods a r e c o n v e r t e d i n t o more p o r t a b l e goods, p o l i t i c a l and economic f u n c t i o n s may be c o n f i n e d t o the p r a c t i c a l l i m i t of food and u t i l i t a r i a n c r a f t d i s t r i b u t i o n . T h i s c o n d i t i o n suggests t h a t t h e r e i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p between manufactured goods and the s c a l e of p o l i t i c a l o p e r a t i o n s , not only i n r e l a t i o n t o l o n g - d i s t a n c e t r a d e , but a l s o i n r e l a t i o n t o the s i z e and nature of the l o c a l p o l i t i c a l t e r r i t o r y . 3. In the form of t r i b u t e , s u b s i s t e n c e goods, or t h e i r rough e q u i v a l e n t i n s e r v i c e , l a b o r and c r a f t s , are converted i n t o a v a r i e t y of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l f a c i l i t i e s or f e a t u r e s where ( i n f e r r e d ) f u n c t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s occur. For example: a) R e s i d e n t i a l complexes, workshops. Maintenance of l o c a l p o l i t i c a l a u t h o r i t i e s , t h e i r f a m i l i e s , a d v i s o r s , r e t a i n e r s and a r t i s a n s . b) Temples/ancestral mounds, monuments, w a l l s , d i t c h e s , earthworks. Support f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n of p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s or p e r s o n a l monuments f o r l o c a l p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s . c) Temples, p l a z a s , ceremonial p l a t f o r m s . F i n a n c i n g community f e s t i v a l s and ceremonies. d) Dams, can a l s , t e r r a c e s , ponds. Support f o r the development of ( i n t e n s i v e ) s u b s i s t e n c e systems. e) F o r t i f i c a t i o n s , w a l l s , d i t c h e s , ramparts. C o n s t r u c t i o n of d e f e n s i v e works. f) Workshops, storehouses, exchange spaces. P r o d u c t i o n of v a l u a b l e goods f o r t r a d e , s t a t u s and ceremonial purposes. In summary, s u b s i s t e n c e goods c o n t r i b u t e mainly to the support of the l o c a l economy, i n c l u d i n g , through t r i b u t o r y 43 mechanisms, the non-producing p o p u l a t i o n . The p o s i t i o n taken here i s t h a t the l o c a l s u b s i s t e n c e economy, d e f i n e d as a p o l i t i c a l f i n a n c i n g e n t i t y (Brumfiel and E a r l e 1987), i s d i f f e r e n t i a l l y a l l o c a t e d by l e a d e r s of the p o l i t i c a l u n i t to a v a r i e t y of p u b l i c p r o j e c t s . The s p e c i f i c a l l o c a t i o n depends on the s c a l e and p r o d u c t i v i t y of the s u b s i s t e n c e system, the r a t e of t r i b u t e e x t r a c t i o n as w e l l as the d i s t r i b u t i o n of p o l i t i c a l power and p o l i t i c a l p r i o r i t i e s . A r c h a e o l o g i c a l records of these a l l o c a t i o n s , such as d i s t r i b u t i o n of c o n s t r u c t i o n a c t i v i t y , s h ould i n d i c a t e a s s o c i a t e d p o l i t i c a l c o n d i t i o n s . The Wealth Economy The wealth or v a l u a b l e goods economy i s dominated by v a l u a b l e p o r t a b l e goods and u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n (Helms 1979; 1988) which i s a s s o c i a t e d p r i m a r i l y with l o n g - d i s t a n c e , s o c i a l - p o l i t i c a l r e l a t i o n s between h i g h - s t a t u s members of d i f f e r e n t communities. How do we e x p l a i n l o n g - d i s t a n c e t r a d e i n v a l u a b l e goods? P e r s p e c t i v e s on t h i s q u e s t i o n w i l l h e l p us to e v a l u a t e the d i s t r i b u t i o n and context of such o b j e c t s i n the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d and t o understand p o l i t i c a l e v o l u t i o n through changes i n these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Accounts such as resource e q u a l i z a t i o n exchange, i d e o l o g i c a l t r a d e , and i n t e r a c t i o n sphere exchange, are e i t h e r non-explanatory, or unsupported by the ethnographic and h i s t o r i c r e c o r d . However, Helms (1979; 1988) has addressed t h i s q u e s t i o n with s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e t o an e x t e n s i v e b o d y o f e t h n o g r a p h i c a n d h i s t o r i c a l l i t e r a t u r e . She a r g u e s t h a t t h e r e i s l o c a l c o m p e t i t i o n f o r a c c e s s t o e x t e r n a l s o u r c e s o f p o w e r a n d k n o w l e d g e , e s p e c i a l l y t h a t w h i c h e x i s t s i n d i s t a n t p l a c e s ( r e a l o r m y t h i c a l ) i n h a b i t e d b y p o w e r f u l , w e a l t h y o r s u p e r n a t u r a l b e i n g s (Helms 1988:131-137, C h a p t e r 4 ) . T h i s c o n t a c t i s c u l t i v a t e d a n d m o n o p o l i z e d by l o c a l e l i t e s (Helms 1988:148-163) whose p r a c t i c a l " s u c c e s s " i n s u c h r e l a t i o n s , v e r i f i e d b y t h e p o s s e s s i o n o f w e a l t h a s s o c i a t e d s y m b o l i c ( a n d v a l u a b l e ) o b j e c t s , u n d e r w r i t e s t h e i r s t a t u s a n d g i v e s e v i d e n c e f o r k n o w l e d g e o f , o r a c c e s s t o , u s e f u l ( o r h a r m f u l ) p o w e r s a n d s a n c t i o n s . T h e s e e x t e r n a l r e l a t i o n s c a n be r e i n f o r c e d t h r o u g h i n t e r m a r r i a g e , r e g u l a r e x c h a n g e , c e r e m o n i a l v i s i t s a n d c o o p e r a t i o n a n d a l l i a n c e i n w a r f a r e a n d t r a d e . I n e f f e c t , t h e s e r e l a t i o n s , e v i d e n t t h r o u g h t h e d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f s p e c i a l o b j e c t s a n d i n f o r m a t i o n , a r e p r o o f o f e f f i c a c y (Helms 1 9 8 8 : 1 3 2 , 1 5 1 ) , w h i c h i s a c r u c i a l component i n g a i n i n g a n d h o l d i n g p o l i t i c a l l e g i t i m a c y a n d s u p p o r t i n p o l i t i c a l c o m p e t i t i o n . They d e m o n s t r a t e o n - g o i n g p o l i t i c a l c o m p e t i t i o n a n d i n t e r a c t i o n a t t h e e l i t e l e v e l i n s o c i e t y . W i t h t h i s v i e w , w e a l t h v a l u a b l e s m o n i t o r , o r "keep s c o r e " o f c u r r e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n s o f s t a t u s a n d p o w e r on an i n t e r - a n d i n t r a - p o l i t y b a s i s . On t h e b a s i s o f t h e p r e c e d i n g , Helms h a s p r o p o s e d some r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d v a l u a b l e g o o d s t h a t m i g h t be s u i t a b l e f o r a r c h a e o l o g i c a l t e s t i n g . T h e r e a r e t h r e e p o i n t s . 1. Long-distance a s s o c i a t i o n s , measured i n "sumptuary laws and e l a b o r a t e r e g a l i a " (and v a l u a b l e t r a d e goods), w i l l be more evi d e n t as the s o c i e t y becomes more p o l i t i c a l l y c e n t r a l i z e d . That i s , as p o l i t i c a l - r e l i g i o u s s t a t u s becomes "more focused, r e s t r i c t e d , and p u b l i c a l l y enhanced" (Helms 1988:170), they are more c i r c u m s c r i b e d by s t a t u s marking goods. 2. A more complex s o c i e t y d e r i v e s a g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n of i t s l e g i t i m a c y from l o n g - d i s t a n c e a s s o c i a t i o n s (1988:170). 3. P o l i t i e s t h a t are more p o l i t i c a l l y c e n t r a l i z e d p l a c e g r e a t e r emphasis on t a n g i b l e m a t e r i a l goods as an i n d i c a t i o n of e x t e r n a l c o n t a c t and f o r e i g n k n o w l e d g e T h i s i s c o n t r a s t e d with more e g a l i t a r i a n communities which emphasize i n t a n g i b l e forms of knowledge such as "songs, languages, c u r i n g s k i l l s " (1988:170). A r c h a e o l o g i c a l l y , we are immediately f a c e d with the methodological problem of d e f i n i n g and measuring p o l i t i c a l " c e n t r a l i z a t i o n " and "complexity". However, t h i s i s a gen e r a l theme of t h i s study, so i t should be p o s s i b l e t o address some of the e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r v a l u a b l e goods t r a d e and p o l i t i c a l o g r a n i z a t i o n suggested by Helms. To respond t o the q u e s t i o n posed above, (why are v a l u a b l e goods a s s o c i a t e d with s o c i a l - p o l i t i c a l and l o n g - d i s t a n c e r e l a t i o n s h i p s ? ) , I make the f o l l o w i n g o b s e r v a t i o n s . Since v a l u a b l e goods are a s s o c i a t e d with both (high) s t a t u s and achievement, access t o these goods i s a s s o c i a t e d with c o m p e t i t i v e c o n t e s t s (compare B a i l e y ' s i d e a of p o l i t i c a l " p r i z e s " 1969). P o s s e s s i o n of such o b j e c t s demonstrates competency and e f f i c a c y , 46 a n d t h u s t h e r i g h t t o h o l d p o s i t i o n s o f p o wer. C o n c u r r e n t l y , v a l u a b l e s i n v o l v e d w i t h l o n g - d i s t a n c e t r a d e a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a c c e s s t o e x t e r n a l s o u r c e s o f w e a l t h a n d u s e f u l power a n d k n o w l e d g e (Helms 1979; 1 9 8 8 ) , w h i c h a r e o f t e n r e p r e s e n t e d as p o w e r f u l a n d d a n g e r o u s a n d must be m e d i a t e d t h r o u g h s u i t a b l e l o c a l a g e n t s (Helms 1 9 8 8 : 1 3 2 ) . As p o l i t i c a l r e s o u r c e s , t h e s e v a l u a b l e s a l s o b u i l d c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e l e a d e r - m e d i a t o r i n t h e e y e s o f s u b j e c t s a n d f o l l o w e r s a n d g i v e f u r t h e r s u b s t a n c e t o s t a t u s c l a i m s . The two c l a s s e s o f e c o n o m i c g o o d s , s u b s i s t e n c e a n d w e a l t h g o o d s , a r e u s u a l l y o p p o s e d t o one a n o t h e r i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e on p r e - m a r k e t e x c h a n g e . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e r e i s n o r m a l l y no d i r e c t e x c h a n g e b e t w e e n t h e two c l a s s e s e v e n t h o u g h t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f v a l u a b l e s i s u n d e r w r i t t e n b y t h e s u b s i s t e n c e s y s t e m . B r u m f i e l a n d E a r l e h a v e n o t e d , i n f a c t , t h a t when s u b s i s t e n c e a n d v a l u a b l e g o o d s a r e f r e e l y e x c h a n g e d w i t h one a n o t h e r , v a l u a b l e s become " t r u e c u r r e n c y " ( 1 9 8 7 : 4 ) . To f u r t h e r d e f i n e t h i s o p p o s i t i o n , t h e y a r g u e t h a t c e n t r a l i z e d p o l i t i c a l c o n t r o l i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a s h i f t i n p u b l i c f i n a n c i n g ( t o p a y a d m i n i s t r a t o r s a n d c r a f t s p e c i a l i s t s f o r e x a m p l e ) f r o m s u b s i s t e n c e t o v a l u a b l e g o o d s (compare w i t h H elms' p r o p o s i t i o n s a b o v e ) . I t f o l l o w s t h a t i f t h e e c o n o m i c s o f v a l u a b l e s do n o t f u l l y d e p e n d on t h e p r o d u c t i v i t y o f t h e s u b s i s t e n c e b a s e , t h e n i n c r e a s i n g p r o d u c t i o n a n d c i r c u l a t i o n o f v a l u a b l e s s h o u l d n o t n e c e s s a r i l y c o r r e l a t e w i t h t h e g r o w t h o f a g r i c u l t u r a l p o p u l a t i o n s o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f i n t e n s i v e a g r i c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s . I n f a c t , i f l o c a l p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s , o r o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l s o r g r o u p s , a r e a b l e t o o b t a i n s t a t u s a n d p r e s t i g e b y a c c u m u l a t i n g w e a l t h t h r o u g h e x c l u s i v e c o n t a c t w i t h f o r e i g n e l i t e s ( w h i l e c o n t r o l l i n g t h e p r o d u c t i o n a n d d i s t r i b u t i o n o f l o c a l a n d e x t e r n a l v a l u a b l e s ) , t h e n t h e r e may be a n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n ( W i l k 1 9 8 3 : 1 0 8 - 1 1 4 ) . T h a t i s , a t r a d i t i o n a l s u b s i s t e n c e - b a s e d s t a t u s s y s t e m may b e g i n t o weaken as e l i t e s d e p e n d more on e x t e r n a l r e l a t i o n s f o r p u r p o s e s o f d e t e r m i n i n g s t a t u s p o s i t i o n . T h e r e w i l l be l e s s n e e d t o i n c r e a s e s u b s i s t e n c e p r o d u c t i o n o r t o p r o m o t e p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e t o p r o v i d e a d d i t i o n a l a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n . T h i s d o e s n o t mean t h a t a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n becomes u n i m p o r t a n t , o n l y t h a t i f s t a t u s , p o w e r , p r e s t i g e a n d w e a l t h c a n be g a i n e d t h r o u g h c o n t a c t w i t h e x t e r n a l s o u r c e s o f p o wer, t h e n some p o l i t i c a l m a i n t e n a n c e p r o b l e m s a r e r e d u c e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o s e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h m a n a g i n g i n c r e a s i n g a n d p r o d u c t i v e s u b s i s t e n c e s y s t e m s . So, w h i l e t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e w o r k l o a d i s a m e l i o r a t e d , s t a t u s v a l u e s c o n t i n u e t o e s c a l a t e t h r o u g h e x c l u s i v e ( n o n - l o c a l ) c o n t a c t s . T h e s e a r g u m e n t s , d e v e l o p e d f u r t h e r b e l o w , w i l l be u s e d t o g e n e r a t e a s e t o f t e s t a b l e h y p o t h e s e s . The d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e s u b s i s t e n c e - b a s e d economy a n d t h e t r a d e - b a s e d s t a t u s economy i s f u r t h e r d e f i n e d by F o x i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e " M e r c a n t i l e C i t y " (Fox 1 9 7 7 : 9 2 - 1 1 6 ) , one o f h i s f o u r " p r i m a r y " t y p e s o f u r b a n s o c i e t y . The l i n e s o f o p p o s i t i o n a r e d r a w n b e t w e e n a " t r a d i t i o n a l " a r i s t o c r a c y whose s t a t u s a n d p o w e r a r e b a s e d m a i n l y on l o c a l a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n a n d a m e r c h a n t a r i s t o c r a c y whose s t a t u s a n d p o w e r a r e b a s e d p r i m a r i l y 48 on n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n , u t i l i t a r i a n a n d t r a d e g o o d s , a n d l o n g - d i s t a n c e t r a d e c o n t a c t s (Fox 1 9 7 7 : 9 5 ) . He p o i n t s o u t t h a t m e r c a n t i l e c e n t e r s " . . . a r i s e where p o l i t i c a l hegemony o v e r a r e g i o n i s weak o r a b s e n t , a s d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d i c d e c a y o f b u r e a u c r a t i c s t a t e s , o r when o n l y w e a k l y c e n t r a l i z e d s e g m e n t a r y s t a t e s o b t a i n , a n d where a s o u r c e o f u r b a n w e a l t h a n d e c o n o m i c autonomy e x i s t s o t h e r t h a n c o n t r o l o v e r p e a s a n t s u b s i s t e n c e a g r i c u l t u r e " (Fox 1 9 7 7 : 9 5 ) . T h i s o p p o s i t i o n i s c l e a r , n o t o n l y f r o m F o x ' s f i v e c a s e s t u d i e s , b u t a l s o f r o m A l f o l d y ' s s t u d y o f A n c i e n t Rome. I n t h e s u b s i s t e n c e - b a s e d s t a t u s s y s t e m , e l i t e l i n k s w i t h t h e r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n a n d t h e i r p r o d u c t i v e a c t i v i t i e s a r e c r u c i a l . I n a c h a n g e t o t h e t r a d e - b a s e d s t a t u s s y s t e m , t h e t i e s w i t h r u r a l a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s d e c l i n e a n d t h e m e r c h a n t e l i t e s m a i n t a i n s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s w i t h c r a f t p r o d u c e r s a n d t r a d e p a r t n e r s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , F o x e x p e c t s an " u r b a n " f o c u s , o r r e d e f i n i t i o n o f , a l l o r p a r t o f a p r e - e x i s t i n g c e n t e r . I e x p e c t t h i s t o be c o m b i n e d w i t h a d e c l i n i n g i n t e r e s t , b y e l i t e s , i n r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n s , s e t t l e m e n t a n d s u b s i s t e n c e p r o d u c t i o n . S a n d e r s a n d W e b s t e r , i n an e v a l u a t i o n o f F o x ' s u r b a n t y p o l o g i e s , a p p l i e d t o M e s o a m e r i c a n u r b a n c e n t e r s , f i n d h i s t y p e s u s e f u l f o r a n a l y t i c a l p u r p o s e s , b u t i n n e e d o f some m o d i f i c a t i o n ( S a n d e r s a n d W e b s t e r 1 9 8 8 ) . B u t t h e y s p e c i f i c a l l y m e n t i o n K a m i n a l j u y u a s a c a n d i d a t e f o r m i s - i d e n t i f i c a t i o n a s a m e r c a n t i l e - t y p e c e n t e r . They a r g u e t h a t i t s s m a l l s i z e a n d l o w l e v e l o f s o c i a l c o m p l e x i t y p r e c l u d e i t s f u n c t i o n a s a c e n t e r o f c o m m e r c i a l p r o d u c t i o n , a n d t h e y a r e 49 convinced " . . . t h a t the primary determinants of i t s growth were l o c a l , based l a r g e l y upon the t r a d i t i o n a l Mesoamerican p a t t e r n of the domination of an a g r a r i a n farming p o p u l a t i o n by l o c a l l o r d s " (Sanders and Webster 1988:540). A c o n t r a r y view i s taken here. I t i s argued t h a t t h e r e i s p o l i t i c a l o p p o s i t i o n between groups r e p r e s e n t i n g the two systems of p o l i t i c a l support, and t h a t the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d w i l l demonstrate s h i f t s from predominant r e l i a n c e on one system t o r e l i a n c e on the other. T h i s depends, of course, on i n t e r - r e g i o n a l p o t e n t i a l s f o r status-enhancing t r a d e and exchange. F i n a l l y , Hohenberg and Lees, working with p r e i n d u s t r i a l European urban s i t e s , have i d e n t i f i e d two "urban" socioeconomic types, one based on a C e n t r a l P l a c e model, the other on a Network model. C i t i e s i n the C e n t r a l P l a c e model (Hohenberg and Lees 1985:47-59) are e q u i v a l e n t t o those i n the subsistence-based economic system d e s c r i b e d here. The urban c e n t e r " . . . i s r o o t e d i n the s t a b i l i t y of the l a n d and i t s t i l l e r s " (1985:69), but has the p o t e n t i a l o f " . . . d r a i n i n g the la n d of i t s m a t e r i a l and human r i c h e s and imposing the norms of an o f f i c i a l c u l t u r e and a burdensome bureaucracy" (1985:69-70) . C i t i e s i n the Network model are o r g a n i z e d on trade-based economy (1985:59-69) s i m i l a r t o Fox's M e r c a n t i l e c i t y . Network c i t i e s (which are p r e - c a p i t a l i s t ) s p e c i a l i z e i n l o n g - d i s t a n c e t r a d e . A "wealthy o l i g a r c h y e x e r c i s e s q u i e t but tough r u l e over the c i t y - s t a t e , t o l e r a t i n g much t h a t t e r r i t o r i a l s o c i e t i e s r e p r e s s so long as the l o c a l order i s not thre a t e n e d . " (1985:70). They note s p e c i f i c a l l y t h a t these types 50 of economic o r g a n i z i n g p r i n c i p l e s are not mutually e x c l u s i v e at a g i v e n s i t e , but u s u a l l y one type i s dominant, and i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r a s i t e t o s h i f t from one type to another ( 1 9 8 5 : 7 0 - 7 2 ) . Having i n t r o d u c e d t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n , and the p o s s i b i l i t y of changes i n the b a s i s of s t a t u s d e t e r m i n a t i o n systems (subsistence-based versus trade-based systems), I r e f e r again to t y p o l o g i c a l d e f i n i t i o n s of s o c i a l change, such as the c o n i c a l c l a n model. Are they capable of i n c o r p o r a t i n g an e x p l a n a t i o n of t h i s type of change or economic s h i f t ? No, becuase the economic system of the c o n i c a l c l a n model r e l i e s on the s u b s i s t e n c e - b a s e d economic system of the Hawaiian type-case. Yet t h i s s h i f t i s e x a c t l y what one would expect, g i v e n the d i s c u s s i o n above. As an example of t h i s process or economic s h i f t , I r e f e r t o contact p e r i o d Hawaii. Goldman observed t h a t many Hawaiian c h i e f s n e g l e c t e d t r a d i t i o n a l a g r i c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s when the sandalwood t r a d e with Europeans began and when European products and s t y l e s appeared (Goldman 1 9 7 0 : 2 2 2 - 2 2 3 ) . T h i s o b s e r v a t i o n i s supported by the h i s t o r i c a l archaeology p r o j e c t conducted i n the Anahulu V a l l e y , O^ahu (see K i r c h 1 9 8 5 : 3 0 9 - 3 1 4 ) . For f u r t h e r examples see Hohenberg and Lees 1 9 8 5 : 4 8 - 4 9 . The evidence shows t h a t i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r e and settlement precedes and f o l l o w s the episode of sandalwood t r a d e ( c . 1 8 1 0 - 1 8 2 9 ) . I suspect t h a t the c o n t a c t - p e r i o d s h i f t i n the economic b a s i s of Hawaiian s t a t u s would be regarded as an anomoly, as i n the case f o r the proposed o r i g i n of c o m p e t i t i v e r e l a t i o n s i n Late C l a s s i c Kaminaljuyu. In c o n c l u s i o n , such a s h i f t i s expected f o r 51 K a m i n a l j u y u a t t h e h e i g h t o f i t s r e l a t i o n s w i t h T e o t i h u a c a n a n d t h e L o w l a n d Maya t r a d e s p h e r e s . P o p u l a t i o n a n d P o l i t i c a l U n i t s P o l i t i c a l f a c t o r s a r e i m p o r t a n t d e t e r m i n a n t s f o r p o p u l a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . What e v i d e n c e s u p p o r t s t h i s p o s i t i o n ? To a n s w e r t h i s , t h e f o l l o w i n g i s s u e s a r e a d d r e s s e d . What c a u s e s p o p u l a t i o n c h a n g e ? What s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l a n d e c o n o m i c f o r c e s d e t e r m i n e p o p u l a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , s u c h as s i z e , d i s t r i b u t i o n , d i v i s i o n i n t o s o c i a l c a t e g o r i e s a n d e c o n o m i c r o l e s , c o m p l e x i t y , i n e q u a l i t y , e v e n age, g e n d e r a n d m o r t a l i t y ? The i d e a o f p o l i t i c a l l y - i n f l u e n c e d p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e ( o r p o p u l a t i o n r e g u l a t i o n ) i s a t o n c e o p p o s e d t o " p o p u l a t i o n p r e s s u r e " m o d e l s o f c u l t u r a l c h a n g e (Murdy 1984; S a n d e r s 1972; S a n d e r s e t a l . 1979) a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e i d e a s o f B o s e r u p (1965) a n d M a l t h u s ( 1 7 9 8 ) . T h e s e i d e a s a r g u e t h a t p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h , a n d t h u s i t s e f f e c t s , s u c h as p o p u l a t i o n " p r e s s u r e " on t h e s u b s i s t e n c e a n d c u l t u r a l s y s t e m s , i s an i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e i n c u l t u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t . T h i s m o d e l r e q u i r e s no e x p l a n a t i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e , n o r o f r e l a t e d s o c i a l c h a n g e . However, H a s s a n , u s i n g c a s e s t u d i e s , a r g u e s t h a t m e t h o d s o f c o n t r o l l i n g p o p u l a t i o n s i z e a r e w e l l - k n o w n a n d r e g u l a r l y p r a c t i c e d . H u n t i n g a n d g a t h e r i n g c o m m u n i t i e s d e l i b e r a t e l y p r a c t i c e d s u c h m e t h o d s i n o r d e r t o "dampen" n a t u r a l g r o w t h ( H a s s a n 1 9 8 1 ) . T h e r e i s no r e a s o n t o s u p p o s e t h a t s u c h m e t h o d s were unknown o r u n u s e d i n a g r a r i a n c o m m u n i t i e s , s o i t seems u n r e a s o n a b l e t o a r g u e t h a t 52 p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e i s j u s t c a u s e d b y " n a t u r a l " ( o r n o n - c u l t u r a l ) p r o c e s s . I n s t e a d , H a s s a n a t t r i b u t e s p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e i n a g r a r i a n c o m m u n i t i e s t o a number o f p r a c t i c a l e c o n o m i c f a c t o r s , i n c l u d i n g : 1. H i g h l a b o r r e q u i r e m e n t s i n s e d e n t a r y a g r i c u l t u r a l c o m m u n i t i e s . 2. R e l a x a t i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n / f e r t i l i t y c o n t r o l s p r e v a l e n t i n m o b i l e h u n t i n g a n d g a t h e r i n g c o m m u n i t i e s . 3. D e v e l o p m e n t o f l a b o r - i n t e n s i v e a g r i c u l t u r a l s y s t e m s . ( H a s s a n 1 9 8 1 : 1 6 1 - 1 6 3 ) . H a s s a n q u e s t i o n s many o f t h e a s s u m p t i o n s a n d i m p l i c a t i o n s o f p o p u l a t i o n p r e s s u r e m o d e l s a n d c o n c l u d e s t h a t , w i t h r e s p e c t t o v a r i a b l e s t h a t c a u s e p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e , p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h i s a d e p e n d a n t v a r i a b l e ( H a s s a n 1 9 8 1 : 1 6 2 - 1 6 3 ) . A l t h o u g h t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r s o c i a l a n d p o l i t i c a l d e t e r m i n a n t s o f p o p u l a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e s t r o n g l y i m p l i e d i n H a s s a n ' s a r g u m e n t s , he d o e s n o t e x a m i n e t h i s i s s u e c l o s e l y . However, a p o l i t i c a l v i e w i s t a k e n b y C o w g i l l , who a r g u e s t h a t " p o w e r f u l p e r s o n s " i n s o c i e t y w i l l e n c o u r a g e h i g h f e r t i l i t y i n o r d e r t o g a i n a d v a n t a g e s f r o m g r e a t e r l a b o r p o t e n t i a l ( 1 9 7 5 : 1 2 9 ) . F u r t h e r m o r e , i n p o l i t i c a l c o m p e t i t i o n , g r e a t e r p o p u l a t i o n s n o t o n l y p r o v i d e more t r i b u t e a n d p u b l i c l a b o r t o s u p p o r t s t a t u s a n d s e l f - a g g r a n d i z i n g d i s p l a y , b u t a l s o more manpower i n w a r f a r e . I t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t , among o t h e r t h i n g s , one o f t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f a n c i e n t w a r f a r e i s t o r a i s e c h i e f l y a u t h o r i t y a n d p r e s t i g e w h i l e r e d u c i n g t h a t o f o t h e r s ( F r e i d e l 1986; C o w g i l l 1 9 7 5 ) . I n a d d i t i o n t o s t r e s s b e t w e e n p o l i t i c a l u n i t s r e p r e s e n t e d i n C o w g i l l ' s v i e w , t h e r e i s a l s o d y n a m i c t e n s i o n b e t w e e n p o l i t i c a l a n d d o m e s t i c u n i t s . I t i s an i s s u e o v e r t h e c o n t r o l o f l a b o r , p r o d u c t i o n a n d p o p u l a t i o n . S a h l i n s s t a t e s t h a t a g r a r i a n commoners c o n s i s t e n t l y w ork w e l l b e l o w p o t e n t i a l maximum p r o d u c t i v e c a p a c i t y ( S a h l i n s 1 9 7 2 : 1 4 1 - 1 4 8 ) . I n f a c t , l a r g e r f a m i l i e s , w i t h g r e a t e r l a b o r p o t e n t i a l , a r e e s p e c i a l l y " u n d e r p r o d u c t i v e " ( S a h l i n s 1 9 7 2 : 1 0 2 - 1 2 3 ) , w h i c h may be i n t e r p r e t e d a s an i n c e n t i v e t o p r o d u c e l a r g e r f a m i l i e s . I n any c a s e , d i s p e r s e d s e t t l e m e n t , c l o s e l y a d j u s t e d t o s u b s i s t e n c e - e c o n o m i c o p p o r t u n i t i e s , i s s e e n as a n o r m a l f e a t u r e o f t h e c o m m u n i t y o f autonomous d o m e s t i c u n i t s . However, t h e p o l i t i c a l u n i t o p p o s e s t h i s a r r a n g e m e n t ( S a h l i n s 1 9 7 2 : 1 3 0 ) . I t r e s t r i c t s t h e autonomy o f t h e h o u s e h o l d , b u t i t a l s o i n t e g r a t e s a c o m m u n i t y o f d o m e s t i c u n i t s i n t o a p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m . The r e l a t i o n s a r e c o n f i r m e d by t h e i n s t i t u t i o n o f t r i b u t e . P r e s u m a b l y , t h e d o m e s t i c h o u s e h o l d r e s i s t s t h e i m p o s i t i o n o f t r i b u t e s i n c e t h i s r e q u i r e s e i t h e r a d d i t i o n a l p r o d u c t i o n (work o r l a b o r e x p e n d i t u r e ) a n d / o r l o s s o f c u s t o m a r y l i v i n g s t a n d a r d s . I n i t i a l l y , t h e r e may be i m m e d i a t e b e n e f i t s t o t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e p o l i t i c a l u n i t , b u t a s p o p u l a t i o n g r o w s , a s t h e p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m becomes e n t r e n c h e d a n d o s s i f i e d , a n d c o m p e t i n g p o l i t i c a l u n i t s a r i s e , c o m p e t i t i o n f o r power e s c a l a t e s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e i n t e n s i t y o f t r i b u t e demands s h o u l d be p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e i n t e n s i t y o f p o l i t i c a l c o m p e t i t i o n f o r s t a t u s , p o w e r a n d p r e s t i g e . P o p u l a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( s u c h as s i z e , d i s t r i b u t i o n , d i v i s i o n i n t o s o c i a l c a t e g o r i e s a n d e c o n o m i c r o l e s e t c . ) a r e c l e a r l y i m p l i c a t e d i n p o l i t i c a l - d o m e s t i c 54 r e l a t i o n s and we s h o u l d e x p e c t t o f i n d a s s o c i a t e d p a t t e r n s i n t h e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l d a t a (see model). As examples which demonstrate t h a t p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s a r e v e r y much i n v o l v e d i n m a n i p u l a t i n g and c o n t r o l l i n g p o p u l a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n s u b j e c t p o p u l a t i o n s , I r e f e r t o t h r e e e t h n o g r a p h i c s t u d i e s o f complex s o c i e t i e s (Goodenough 1972; T o l a n d 1987; M u l l e r 1988), as w e l l as t o cases n o t e d i n p r e v i o u s r e f e r e n c e s ( A l f o l d y 1988; K i r c h 1985: 309-314). A number o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l t e s t s have been d e v i s e d t o examine t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , p o p u l a t i o n and s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n s (see de M o n t m o l l i n 1989; G o r e n f l o and Gale 1986; McGuire 1983; S t e p o n a i t i s 1981). N i c h o l a s has s p e c i f i c a l l y t e s t e d Boserup's i d e a s u s i n g d a t a o b t a i n e d i n an a r c h a e o l o g y s u r v e y o f t h e V a l l e y o f Oaxaca, Mexico f o r t h e p e r i o d 1500 B.C.to A.D.1500 ( N i c h o l a s 1989). The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t , c o n t r a r y t o t h e p o p u l a t i o n p r e s s u r e model, t h e r e was never any p e r i o d when t h e r e was p o p u l a t i o n p r e s s u r e on p r o d u c t i v e l a n d nor was t h e r e any s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between l o c a t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s and p o p u l a t i o n . W i t h o u t e v i d e n c e o f p o p u l a t i o n p r e s s u r e ( i n s p i t e o f e v i d e n c e f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n ) , nor f o r a p r e f e r e n c e f o r s e t t l e m e n t on o p t i m a l a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d , N i c h o l a s c o n c l u d e s " A l t h o u g h t h e environment cannot be i g n o r e d i n s e t t l e m e n t d e c i s i o n s , i t appears t h a t s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and economic c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o v e r r o d e e x c l u s i v e l y e n v i r o n m e n t a l ones d u r i n g much o f t h e p r e h i s p a n i c e r a i n t h e V a l l e y o f Oaxaca." ( N i c h o l a s 1989:505). 55 U n d e r t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s , i t i s b e s t t o e x a m i n e a r t i c u l a t i o n s b e t w e e n p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , p o p u l a t i o n , e n v i r o n m e n t , e c o n o m i c o r g a n i z a t i o n , among o t h e r f a c t o r s , b u t n o t l o o k f o r p r i m a r y , t o t a l l y i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s . F o r e x a m p l e , p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h c a n be s e e n a s b o t h a d e p e n d e n t a n d i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e i n p o l i t i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t . I t i s a d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e when e f f o r t s a r e made by t h e p o l i t i c a l u n i t t o p r o m o t e o r r e g u l a t e p o p u l a t i o n f o r p o l i t i c a l p u r p o s e s ( d e p e n d i n g on t h e a b i l i t y t o i m p l e m e n t p o l i c i e s ) ; s u c h a s i n c r e a s i n g s u p p o r t o r d e m o n s t r a t i n g s t a t u s . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , i t i s an i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e when i n c r e a s i n g p o p u l a t i o n s i z e a n d s p e c i a l i z a t i o n w i t h i n t h e p o l i t i c a l u n i t r e q u i r e c h a n g e s i n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n i n o r d e r t o m a i n t a i n p o l i t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n , o r l e a d t o p o l i t i c a l f i s s i o n i n g w h e re p o o r l y s e r v i c e d a n d d i s a f f e c t e d g r o u p s a t t e m p t t o s e p a r a t e f r o m t h e u n i t . The b a s i s i s t h a t a l l s e g m e n t s o f t h e e x i s t i n g p o p u l a t i o n seem t o be d e l i b e r a t e l y e n g a g e d i n p o p u l a t i o n management, d e p e n d i n g on d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l o b j e c t i v e s . P o l i t i c a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Any v i a b l e p o l i t i c a l u n i t i s n e c e s s a r i l y a m a n a g e r i a l a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t i t i s i n t e r e s t e d i n m a i n t a i n i n g c o m m u n i t y i n t e g r a t i o n . I n e f f e c t , t h e p o l i t i c a l u n i t i s e q u i v a l e n t t o t h e n a t u r e a n d s c a l e o f i t s c o o r d i n a t i n g f u n c t i o n s . The t y p e s o f f u n c t i o n s a r e e v i d e n t i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e o f i m m e d i a t e i n t e r e s t i n t h i s s t u d y ( B a i l e y 1 9 6 9 : 5 9 - 7 2 ; F e i n m a n a n d N e i t z e l 1984; F o r t e s a n d E v a n s - P r i t c h a r d 1940; Goldman 1 9 7 0 ) . P o l i t i c a l u n i t s and t h e i r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n have a t l e a s t two f u n c t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s : 1. To mainten e x i s t i n g p o l i t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n . 2. To c o n s o l i d a t e and expand p o l i t i c a l power and i t s b a s i s o f s u p p o r t . P o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s , because t h e y a re a t t h e c e n t e r o f p o l i t i c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n (Wright 1977), a r e i n an i d e a l p o s i t i o n t o m o n i t o r , m a n i p u l a t e and e n f o r c e community a c t i v i t i e s . T h i s p o s i t i o n e n a b l e s them t o d i r e c t p r o d u c t i o n towards a c h i e v i n g p o l i t i c a l g o a l s ( i n c r e a s i n g s t a t u s , t h e l a b o r i n g p o p u l a t i o n and t r i b u t e ) (Spencer 1990). What are t h e e f f e c t s o f such i n c r e a s e s , and t h e a s s o c i a t e d s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and c o m p l e x i t y , on p o l i t i c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ? What e f f e c t w i l l t h i s have on t h e p o l i t i c a l u n i t i t s e l f ? Johnson (1978; 1982) has argued t h a t " s c a l a r " ( p o l i t i c a l o r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l ) s t r e s s , d e f i n e d as t h e l i m i t o f t h e a b i l i t y t o r e c e i v e , p r o c e s s and d i s p e n s e i n f o r m a t i o n n e c e s s a r y f o r managing and c o o r d i n a t i n g community a c t i v i t i e s , i s p r i m a r i l y a f f e c t e d by p o p u l a t i o n s i z e . Responses t o s c a l a r s t r e s s , which o c c u r e i t h e r d e l i b e r a t e l y o r s p o n t a n e o u s l y , a re t h e means t o m a i n t a i n p o l i t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n and s u p p o r t p o l i t i c a l growth. Such r e s p o n s e s l e a d t o o r g a n i z a t i o n a l o r s y s t e m i c change. Things change i n o r d e r t o remain t h e same. A dynamic component i s t h u s i n t r o d u c e d . One response, " s i m u l t a n e o u s h i e r a r c h i z a t i o n " i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e spontaneous development o f s t a t u s a s c r i p t i o n and s o c i a l r a n k i n g (Johnson 1982:409-410). As t h e p r o c e s s c o n t i n u e s , o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s c a l e , p o p u l a t i o n and i n f o r m a t i o n f l o w 57 i n c r e a s e , and h i e r a r c h i e s composed of aggregate s o c i a l u n i t s ("basal u n i t s " ) continue t o p r e c i p i t a t e out. Information theory does address a d m i n i s t r a t i v e / p o l i t i c a l problems a s s o c i a t e d with p o p u l a t i o n s i z e and i n c r e a s e , and even suggests l i n k s t o resources such as land, l a b o r and p r o d u c t i o n (Johnson 1 9 8 2 : 4 0 9 , 4 1 5 ) . Since h i e r a r c h i z a t i o n depends on o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s c a l e (or i n f o r m a t i o n flow and p o p u l a t i o n s i z e ) , s t a t u s , which i s i n t e g r a l with h i e r a r c h i z a t i o n , n e c e s s a r i l y depends on s c a l e as w e l l . I n c r e a s i n g c o m p e t i t i o n i s a s s o c i a t e d with l a r g e r s c a l e . T h i s p e r s p e c t i v e , though u s e f u l f o r l i n k i n g p o p u l a t i o n dynamics with p o l i t i c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , does not help t o e x p l a i n the e f f e c t s of competition and the use of resources f o r p o l i t i c a l ends. I t does, however, address a p r o c e s s u a l component t o the a n a l y s i s of p o l i t i c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e and s c a l a r s t r e s s . The explanatory value of i n f o r m a t i o n theory i s c h a l l e n g e d by de Montmollin ( 1 9 8 9 ) . He argues t h a t i t i s not a primary determinant f o r changes i n p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e or the p a r t i c u l a r type of p o l i t i c a l regime ( 1 9 8 9 : 2 3 , 1 5 4 , 1 6 0 ) . His purpose i s to demonstrate t h a t such changes are "more p o l i t i c a l " and " l e s s e f f i c i e n t - m a n a g e r i a l " i n nature ( 1 9 8 9 : 2 3 ) . He p o i n t s out t h a t , s i n c e i n f o r m a t i o n theory d e r i v e s from a n a l o g i e s with modern economic, state-market systems, and i s t h e r e f o r e " f o r m a l i s t " i n i t s treatment of s o c i a l systems, i t i s not a p p r o p r i a t e t o apply e f f i c i e n c y - m a n a g e r i a l systems theory t o p r e - s t a t e p o l i t i c a l systems (de Montmollin 1 9 8 9 : 3 6 , 2 2 1 ) . He a p p l i e s two 58 a r c h a e o l o g i c a l t e s t s t o ev a l u a t e i n f o r m a t i o n theory (1989:153-160). de Montmollin's view i s t h a t the t e s t r e s u l t s , w h i le somewhat i n c o n c l u s i v e , g e n e r a l l y c o n t r a d i c t the view t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n theory i s predominant i n e x p l a i n i n g p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n (de Montmollin 1989:160). Although I do not f u l l y support the c e n t r a l r o l e of i n f o r m a t i o n theory i n p o l i t i c a l change, I t h i n k de Montmollin's views are o v e r s t a t e d . For example, as argued above, the f o r m a l i s t - s u b s t a n t i v i s t debate i s founded on a f a l s e dichotomy (Clammer 1985). E f f i c i e n c y - m o t i v a t e d p r i n c i p l e s operate, i n one form or another, i n a l l s o c i e t i e s . I t i s a ques t i o n , as i n the economics of exchange d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r , of the o b j e c t i v e s of the p a r t i c i p a n t s . A l s o , de Montmollin's t e s t s are compromised because we are not sure t h a t he has examined the Rosario V a l l e y at s u f f i c i e n t s c a l e , both i n terms of p o p u l a t i o n s i z e and t e r r i t o r i a l area. For example, a c c o r d i n g t o Johnson, a d m i n i s t r a t i v e e f f i c i e n c y f a c t o r s are important w i t h i n about 20 km or more of a high - o r d e r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e center, or 4 0 k i l o m e t e r s i n diameter and 1500 square k i l o m e t e r s and 20,000 i n d i v i d u a l s (Johnson 1982:415). Yet the area of the Rosario V a l l e y , i n c l u d i n g the immediate p e r i p h e r a l areas, i s only 100-150 square k i l o m e t e r s (de Montmollin 1989:40) with a maximum p o p u l a t i o n of 20,000. F i n a l l y , the data from the Rosa r i o V a l l e y are synchronic, so we have no temporal c o n d i t i o n s of change with which t o ev a l u a t e the dynamics of the s o c i a l system, nor changes i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e through time. Even so, 59 i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g e f f i c i e n c y i s e v i d e n t i n t h e V a l l e y , though t h e p o i n t i s t h a t i t i s not a " c r i t i c a l l y i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r " i n t h e p o l i t i c a l system (de M o n t m o l l i n 1989:160). F o r f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n and examples i n r e l a t i o n t o "chiefdom" t e r r i t o r i a l s i z e , see Spencer (1990:6-7). I a c c e p t t h e views o f b o t h Johnson and de M o n t m o l l i n because t h e immediate b a s i s o f c a u s a t i o n i s t h e o r e t i c a l l y f o c u s e d on t h e r e l a t i o n s o f c o m p e t i t i o n f o r s t a t u s , power and p r e s t i g e . So, a l t h o u g h i n f o r m a t i o n t h e o r y i s a u s e f u l approach t o t h e s t u d y o f c u l t u r e change (de M o n t m o l l i n has d e v i s e d ways t o t e s t t h i s a r c h a e o l o g i c a l l y ) , i t i s not v iewed as a c o m p l e t e l y independant f a c t o r i n c u l t u r a l change. Once a g a i n , t h e view o f t h e c h a i n o f c a u s a t i o n i s i m p o r t a n t , t h a t i s , t h e r e l a t i o n s o f dependant and independant v a r i a b l e s . F o r example, f o r purposes o f e x a m i n i n g changes i n i n f o r m a t i o n f l o w , p o p u l a t i o n s i z e i s an independant v a r i a b l e ; but f o r p urposes o f p o l i t i c a l / s t a t u s c o m p e t i t i o n , p o p u l a t i o n s i z e i s a dependant v a r i a b l e . So c o m p e t i t i o n a f f e c t s b o t h i n f o r m a t i o n f l o w and p o p u l a t i o n s i z e . Yet t h e i n t e n s i t y o f c o m p e t i t i o n i t s e l f i s s u b j e c t t o c o n d i t i o n s o f p o p u l a t i o n s i z e and t h e amount o f i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e system. G i v e n t h e s e v i e w s , a p o s i t i o n i s d e v e l o p i n g t h a t approaches t h e c o n d i t i o n s sought, a system t h a t o p e r a t e s i n dynamic r a t h e r t h a n s t a t i c e q u i l i b r i u m , i n which t h e a n a l y t i c a l v a r i a b l e s e x i s t i n i n t e r d e p e n d a n t r a t h e r t h a n f i x e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s . H a ving a d d r e s s e d t h e s e i s s u e s , I make t h e f o l l o w i n g 60 assumptions about p o l i t i c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . I f p o p u l a t i o n s i z e i n c r e a s e s under t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e p o l i t i c a l u n i t , a s s o c i a t e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e - m a n a g e r i a l w o r k l o a d s must a l s o i n c r e a s e and become more complex. However, p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s and t h e i r immediate a d v i s o r s may be r e l u c t a n t t o d e l e g a t e or o t h e r w i s e r e l i n q u i s h p o l i t i c a l powers, even i n t h e f a c e o f an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e overwork (Spencer 1990:6-7). A form of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n r e s e m b l i n g a b u r e a u c r a c y , o r g a n i z e d around a c l a s s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , i s not n e c e s s a r i l y an o b v i o u s o r d e s i r e a b l e s o l u t i o n . S i n c e t h e r e must be a p r a c t i c a l l i m i t t o t h e c a p a c i t y o f any a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t o f u n c t i o n e f f i c i e n t l y , t h a t i s , t o p r o c e s s / a n a l y s e / d i s p e n s e i n f o r m a t i o n q u i c k l y enough t o m a i n t a i n p o l i t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n , t h e r e must, be a p o i n t a t which t h e p o l i t i c a l u n i t w i l l e x p e r i e n c e ( " s c a l a r " ) s t r e s s . A t t h i s p o i n t , s t r e s s - r e d u c i n g r e s p o n s e s are e x p e c t e d . F o r example, one might e x p e c t some l o c a l o r p e r i p h e r a l p o l i t i c a l u n i t s t o e x p l o i t "gaps" i n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o n t r o l and attempt t o g a i n s u p p o r t f o r l o c a l p o l i t i c a l autonomy ( B a i l e y 1969:78; Spencer 1990:6-7; Wr i g h t 1977:381). Presumably, i f s u c c e s s f u l , t h e y w i l l form d e m o g r a p h i c a l l y s m a l l e r (but more manageable) p o l i t i c a l u n i t s , though p h y s i c a l l y and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y m o d e l l e d a f t e r t h e o l d e r u n i t s ( B a i l e y 1969:80). I n e f f e c t , t h e r e i s no r e a l s t r u c t u r a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e change, o n l y p o l i t i c a l s e g m e n t a t i o n ; accompanied by t h e c r e a t i o n o f d e m o g r a p h i c a l l y and s t r u c t u r a l l y s i m i l a r p o l i t i c a l u n i t s . As an a l t e r n a t i v e (though perhaps more common) s o l u t i o n , t h e e x i s t i n g u n i t can n e g o t i a t e a 61 p o l i t i c a l s e t t l e m e n t w i t h p e r i p h e r a l u n i t s , g r a n t i n g l i m i t e d p o l i t i c a l autonomy i n exchange f o r c o n t i n u e d a l l e g i a n c e . I n t h i s c a s e , t h e r e w i l l be some degree o f p o l i t i c a l d e l e g a t i o n o r d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n , but u n l i k e t h e p r e v i o u s case, t h e f u l l d u p l i c a t i o n o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s i s not found. F i n a l l y , t h e r e i s complete s t r u c t u r a l change o r t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , such as i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f e f f e c t i v e s t a t e - l i k e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n (Spencer 1990:8-15). These e x p l a n a t i o n s would account f o r Sanders and Murdy's o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t p o l i t i c a l f i s s i o n i n g i n t h e V a l l e y o f Guatemala o c c u r r e d when p o p u l a t i o n segments r e a c h e d 20,000 t o 30,000 i n d i v i d u a l s . C o i n c i d e n t a l l y , t h e f i g u r e o f 20,000 i n d i v i d u a l s i s n o t e d by Johnson t o mark a demographic t h r e s h h o l d f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e change ("simultaneous h i e r a r c h i z a t i o n " ) (Johnson 1982:407-410). However, t h e s e p o p u l a t i o n s i z e s appear t o r e p r e s e n t an upper s i z e - l i m i t f o r a p a r t i c u l a r t y p e o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e system and do not i n f o r m us about a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a d j u s t m e n t s a t lo w e r p o p u l a t i o n s i z e s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e t e n d s t o f o c u s on f i s s i o n dynamics, o r t y p o l o g i c a l b o u n d a r i e s between chiefdoms and s t a t e s , when we want t o examine t h e p r o c e s s e s w i t h i n t h e p o l i t y i t s e l f (perhaps ones l e a d i n g up t o c h i e f d o m - s t a t e p o l i t i c a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s ) . We a r e i n q u i r i n g about t h e t y p e s o f s o l u t i o n s t h a t were implemented i n o r d e r t o m a i n t a i n p o l i t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n i n a s i t u a t i o n o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r e s s . We a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e t y p e s o f remedies t h a t were employed i n o r d e r t o d e a l w i t h s t r e s s . F o r example, some a l t e r n a t i v e remedies would i n c l u d e : i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n of c o e r c i v e or i d e o l o g i c a l measures of support, d e l i b e r a t e p o l i t i c a l d e l e g a t i o n , even t e c h n o l o g i c a l improvements i n i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g ( w r i t i n g , t r a n s p o r t ) . Improbably, one might even expect e f f o r t s t o reduce p o p u l a t i o n s i z e , s i n c e t h i s w i l l reduce a s s o c i a t e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e workloads. T h i s s o l u t i o n i m p l i e s t h a t the economic base be r e o r g a n i z e d i n order t o reduce r e l i a n c e on p o p u l a t i o n - i n t e n s i v e , s t a t u s support systems, while at the same time m a i n t a i n i n g c u r r e n t s t a t u s l e v e l s . As argued above, t h i s i s a r e a l p o s s i b i l i t y i f p o l i t i c a l s t a t u s begins t o r e l y on trade-based r e l a t i o n s , i f the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r such r e l a t i o n s are a v a i l a b l e . The a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d may i n d i c a t e what types of s o l u t i o n s were attempted by c h i e f s t o maintain p o l i t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n . Consequently, one of the o b j e c t i v e s of t h i s study i s t o t e s t f o r expected changes i n p o l i t i c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y i n r e l a t i o n t o other a n a l y t i c a l c a t e g o r i e s such as c o n s t r u c t i o n a c t i v i t y , p o p u l a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , settlement p a t t e r n s and economic o r g a n i z a t i o n . SUMMARY I t i s argued t h a t a c e n t r a l f e a t u r e i n the process of change i s c o m p e t i t i o n f o r s t a t u s , power, p r e s t i g e , honor. Though e m p i r i c a l l y i n v i s i b l e t o d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n and t e s t i n g , i t i s n e v e r t h e l e s s v i s i b l e i n i t s e f f e c t s . I n c o r p o r a t e d w i t h i n a s o c i a l c o n s t i t u t i o n , c o m p e t i t i o n d r i v e s a process i n which v a r i o u s components of the c u l t u r a l system are i m p l i c a t e d . Since c o m p e t i t i o n f o r and c o n t r o l of (high) s t a t u s p o s i t i o n r e q u i r e s a support base, economic p r o d u c t i o n , l a b o r and p o p u l a t i o n are s u b j e c t t o p o l i t i c a l m a n i p u l a t i o n . The main assumption i s t h a t p o l i t i c a l p r e s s u r e i s d i r e c t e d towards i n c r e a s i n g support, i n terms of p r o d u c t i o n l a b o r and p o p u l a t i o n . P o l i t i c a l l e g i t i m a c y i s f u r t h e r supported by i d e o l o g i c a l and c o e r c i v e c o n t r o l s . Since the d i s t r i b u t i o n of c u r r e n t s t a t u s c a t e g o r i e s must be v i s i b l e , demonstration of s t a t u s p o s i t i o n i s an important p a r t of s o c i a l communication. Dress and adornment, r i t u a l s and ceremonies, d i s p l a y of p o l i t i c a l p r i z e s and v a l u a b l e goods, c o n s t r u c t i o n a c t i v i t y are drawn i n t o the s e r v i c e of marking (or "keeping s c o r e " of) s t a t u s . High s t a t u s c a r r i e s f u n c t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s which enable p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s t o maintain p o l i t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n and t o monitor e s s e n t i a l bases of support. T h i s a c t i v i t y i n v o l v e s p o l i t i c a l - e c o n o m i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ( f o r example; d i s p u t e r e s o l u t i o n , t r i b u t e and t r a d e management and other f u n c t i o n s which r e q u i r e i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g and l o g i s t i c s s k i l l s ) . F i n a l l y , t h e r e i s a t e n s i o n between p o l i t i c a l groups a s s o c i a t e d with a s u b s i s t e n c e - b a s e d economy and s t a t u s system, and those a s s o c i a t e d with a trade-based economy and s t a t u s system. Status i n s u b s i s t e n c e - b a s e d systems depends p r i m a r i l y on a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n and l i n k s p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s with farming p o p u l a t i o n s , r u r a l settlement, l o c a l t r i b u t e systems and a s s o c i a t e d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Status i n the trade-based system depends p r i m a r i l y on c r a f t and v a l u a b l e goods p r o d u c t i o n (though 64 not n e c e s s a r i l y through a market system) and l i n k s p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s with manufacturing p o p u l a t i o n s , urban settlement, r e g i o n a l exchange and t r a d e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . However, the two s t a t u s systems are not mutually e x c l u s i v e e n t i t i e s , so we would expect t h e i r r e l a t i v e importance t o be measured along a continuous r a t h e r than a d i s c r e t e s c a l e , and t h i s w i l l change with time. Tension between the two systems i s a s s o c i a t e d with o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t r a d e with e x t e r n a l s o c i e t i e s , e s p e c i a l l y with e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y powerful and wealthy s o c i e t i e s . Given a d i s p o s i t i o n to p o l i t i c a l growth and i t s b a s i s of support, p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s are f a c e d with problems of s c a l e , and how t o manage i n c r e a s i n g workloads and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l complexity while m a i n t a i n i n g ( c e n t r a l i z e d ) p o l i t i c a l power. These problems, c r e a t e d through developmental growth, are a f u r t h e r source of adjustment and change. The concept of dynamic t e n s i o n i s used t o d e p i c t a c u l t u r a l system t h a t i s s u b j e c t t o i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l s t r e s s e s and t e n s i o n s which e x e r t p r e s s u r e s f o r change. T h i s process i s c a r r i e d out i n time, but a l s o c r e a t e s h i s t o r i c a l precedent, so t h a t the c u l t u r e r e a c t s t o i t s own h i s t o r y . C u l t u r a l f e a t u r e s are never i n p e r f e c t e q u i l i b r i u m , but e x i s t i n i n t e r a c t i v e (dynamic) t e n s i o n i n time. Thus, these i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s are the s t r u c t u r e . As they change, so does the s t r u c t u r e , although t h e r e i s r e s i s t a n c e from the systems' own normative s t r u c t u r e . From t h i s p o i n t of view, s t a t i c t y p o l o g i c a l e q u i l i b r i u m models are seen as inadequate d e v i c e s f o r e x p l a i n i n g s o c i a l development. 65 Given the t h e o r e t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n expressed above, I propose the f o l l o w i n g r e s e a r c h o b j e c t i v e s . 1. Research should begin with theory, not data. T h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s , i n c l u d i n g views on economic o r g a n i z a t i o n , p o p u l a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and p o l i t i c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and r e l a t e d t o p i c s , precede a n a l y s i s . 2. Research should a v o i d t y p o l o g i c a l , normative arguments which exclude v a r i a b i l i t y from a n a l y s i s . These c r i t e r i a are intended to minimize the i n t e r p r e t i v e r e s t r i c t i o n s b u i l t i n t o p r e - d e f i n e d s o c i o - c u l t u r a l models (e.g. chiefdom, s t a t e , c o n i c a l c l a n ) , which tend to f a v o r t e m p o r a l l y and s t r u c t u r a l l y s t a t i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . Allowance i s made f o r changing c o n f i g u r a t i o n s of a n a l y t i c a l v a r i a b l e s i n time. A l s o , i t has been suggested t h a t changes i n the type of s t a t u s - s u p p o r t system are p o s s i b l e w i t h i n the context of the model. Consequently, major changes i n s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s are s u b j e c t t o c o n t e x t u a l a n a l y s i s . 3. The study r e c o g n i z e s the n e c e s s i t y f o r a n a l y s i n g m u l t i p l e , r e i n f o r c i n g l i n e s of evidence. One cannnot assume u n i v a r i a n t r e l a t i o n s among a n a l y t i c a l v a r i a b l e s (population, settlement, a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , p r o d u c t i o n , exchange, c o n s t r u c t i o n e t c . ) , nor t h a t s i n g l e v a r i a b l e s are always i n e i t h e r dependant or independant r e l a t i o n s h i p s ( f o r example, p o p u l a t i o n s i z e and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n ) . I t i s necessary to a n t i c i p a t e v a r i a t i o n i n the r e l a t i o n s of a n a l y t i c a l v a r i a b l e s through time so t h a t expected v a r i a t i o n can be used to c o n s t r u c t and t e s t a p r o c e s s u a l model. Thus, expected v a r i a t i o n should a s s i s t i n the f o r m a t i o n o f t e s t a b l e h y p o t h e s e s , e x p r e s s e d i n t h e f o r m o f a p r o c e s s u a l m o d e l o f l o n g - t e r m s o c o - p o l i t i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t . 4. The t h e o r y p r e s e n t s a c u l t u r a l s y s t e m t h a t e v o l v e s i n d y n a m i c t e n s i o n ( r a t h e r t h a n i n d y n a m i c e q u i l i b r i u m ) . T h i s p o s i t i o n a v o i d s t h e u s e o f r e s t r i c t i v e t y p o l o g i c a l m o d e l s a n d deus ex machina e x p l a n a t i o n s o f c h a n g e . A number o f a n a l y t i c a l c a t e g o r i e s r e l e v a n t t o t h e p o l i t i c a l c h a n g e were i n t r o d u c e d ( e c o n o m i c o r g a n i z a t i o n , p o p u l a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , p o l i t i c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ) a n d t h r e e a n a l y t i c a l d i v i s i o n s w e r e d e f i n e d ( s u p p o r t , d e m o n s t r a t i o n a n d m a i n t e n a n c e ) . Some t e m p o r a l l i n k s among them were i d e n t i f i e d s o t h a t a d y n a m i c , e v o l v i n g s o c i a l s y s t e m c o u l d b e o u t l i n e d f r o m w h i c h a f o r m a l i z e d s e q u e n t i a l m o d e l c a n be d e r i v e d . The s y s t e m ( o r s t r u c t u r e ) i s n o t c o n c e i v e d as one t h a t m a i n t a i n s a t y p o l o g i c a l l y s t a b l e c o n d i t i o n , t h o u g h one m i g h t a r g u e , f r o m t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s , t h a t i t c h a n g e s i n o r d e r t o s t a y t h e same. I n s t e a d , i t s c o n d i t i o n i s v i e w e d a s r e l a t i v e l y " o p e n " ; i t i s s u b j e c t t o c h a n g e a n d / o r d e v e l o p m e n t b r o u g h t a b o u t b y i t s own i n t e r a c t i v e momentum. I t r e a c t s t o i t s own h i s t o r y a n d c o n d i t i o n . A d d i t i o n a l l y , i t c a n e x p e r i e n c e m o d i f i c a t i o n b y c o n t a c t w i t h e x t e r n a l p o l i t i e s , t h r o u g h t r a d e , c o n q u e s t , w a r f a r e a n d c o l o n i z a t i o n f o r e x a m p l e ( B l a k e 1 9 8 5 : 6 2 - 1 2 6 ) , w h i c h i n t r o d u c e new p o l i t i c a l r e s o u r c e s ( A l f o l d y 1988; B a i l e y 1969; F o x 1 9 7 7 ) . 6 7 CHAPTER 3. A PROCESSUAL MODEL OF CHANGE INTRODUCTION One should q u e s t i o n the u t i l i t y of c o n s t r u c t i n g c u l t u r a l e v o l u t i o n a r y models. They imply d e t e r m i n i s t i c , u n i l i n e a r schemes where one case stands f o r a l l cases. They r i s k confounding g e n e r a l with s p e c i f i c e v o l u t i o n . They a l s o tend t o c r e a t e grand t y p o l o g i c a l schemes (eg "stages" of e v o l u t i o n ) which e i t h e r exclude v a r i a b i l i t y or use i t t o c r e a t e t y p o l o g i c a l s u b - d i v i s i o n s . F i n a l l y , one may argue t h a t i t i s simply i m p o s s i b l e t o c o n s t r u c t adequate models of o r g a n i z a t i o n s as complex and v a r i a b l e as ( p r e h i s t o r i c ) c u l t u r a l systems. The model pre s e n t e d below i s not meant t o be a u n i v e r s a l model of c u l t u r e change. I t i s a h e u r i s t i c d e v i c e meant t o be used f o r t e s t i n g a r c h a e o l o g i c a l data i n a s p e c i f i c case. Although the model approximates the a r c h a i c " a r i s t o c r a t i c " , " s e l f - a g g r a n d i z i n g " , Mesoamerican-Mayan c u l t u r e system, i t i s not j u s t "imagined", E v o l u t i o n i s t f a s h i o n , s i n c e i t i s based on t h e o r e t i c a l p o s i t i o n s d e r i v e d from the a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l r e c o r d . The model, t h e r e f o r e , i s a temporal sketch which i n c o r p o r a t e s a n a l y t i c a l components and organiz e s them along an i n t e r a c t i v e , c h r o n o l o g i c a l framework. Hypotheses f o r a r c h a e o l o g i c a l t e s t i n g are d e r i v e d from the theory through the model, though the model i t s e l f may be c o n s i d e r e d a h y p o t h e s i s . The t e s t s should i n d i c a t e whether the model i s reasonable, where problems l i e , p r o v i d e i n s i g h t s f o r f u r t h e r t e s t i n g , suggest areas f o r f u r t h e r d i s c o v e r y 68 and e x p l a n a t i o n , or simply i n d i c a t e t h a t the e x e r c i s e be abandoned. MODEL OF CHANGE The model proposes g e n e r a l i z e d c u l t u r a l "formations", understood i n the theory as c o n f i g u r a t i o n s of the a n a l y t i c a l c a t e g o r i e s (population, settlement and l a n d use, and c o n s t r u c t i o n a c t i v i t y ) . These formations do not n e c e s s a r i l y correspond e x a c t l y t o the d e f i n e d c h r o n o l o g i c a l phases, but are d e s c r i b e d i n r e l a t i o n t o one another i n a s e q u e n t i a l f a s h i o n . Consequently, sy n c h r o n i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l phases ( f o r example, p o p u l a t i o n s i z e , c o n s t r u c t i o n volume, l a n d use) can be co n s i d e r e d independently of the formations. Afterwards, they can be compared with e x p e c t a t i o n s these formations. T h i s procedure avoids f o c u s i n g a t t e n t i o n on the e x p l a n a t i o n of short-term p o l i t i c a l c r i s e s , which are u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d with t y p o l o g i c a l l y - d e f i n e d phase boundaries i n a r c h a e o l o g i c a l c h r o n o l o g i e s , and a s s i s t s i n the examinination of long-term pr o c e s s e s . F i n a l l y , a r c h a e o l o g i c a l phases can be used as convenient "check p o i n t s " i n the p r o c e s s u a l continuum. The model d e s c r i b e s c o n d i t i o n s i n e f f e c t f o l l o w i n g the formation of the complex s o c i e t y . The assumption i s t h a t , s i n c e p o s i t i o n s of h i g h s t a t u s , power and p r e s t i g e depend on the a b i l i t y t o assemble p o l i t i c a l support (consensual and p r o d u c t i v e ) , r i v a l r y w i t h i n and between p o l i t i c a l u n i t s c r e a t e s p r e s s u r e t o i n c r e a s e economic p r o d u c t i o n , and by i m p l i c a t i o n , 69 l a b o r , p o p u l a t i o n a n d t r i b u t e . The m a i n s e q u e n c e ( E a r l y , I n t e r m e d i a t e a n d L a t e F o r m a t i o n s ) d e s c r i b e s c o n d i t i o n s e x p e c t e d f o r a p r e d o m i n a n t l y l o c a l s u b s i s t e n c e economy a n d s t a t u s s y s t e m . E a r l y F o r m a t i o n I n t h e E a r l y F o r m a t i o n , a c o m p l e x p o l i t i c a l c o m m u n i t y , s u c h a s K a m i n a l j u y u , t h e t r a n s i t i o n f r o m a r e l a t i v e l y e g a l i t a r i a n c o m m u n i t y t o a r a n k e d o r s t r a t i f i e d one w o u l d r e q u i r e s o c i a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r t h e a p p r o p r i a t i o n o f communal p o w e r s ( r e l i g i o u s , s u p e r n a t u r a l , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , j u d i c i a l , r e g u l a t o r y , e t c . ) b y a s p e c i f i c l i n e a g e , a n d p a r t i c u l a r l y b y t h e l i n e a g e h e a d . W h i l e t h e r e may be some r e s i s t a n c e t o t h i s p r o c e s s o f c e n t r a l i z a t i o n f r o m o t h e r l i n e a g e s o r p o l i t i c a l u n i t s , c o m p e t i n g l i n e a g e s w i l l , among o t h e r t h i n g s , a t t e m p t t o " b u i l d up" t h e i r r e p u t a t i o n b y e x a l t i n g t h e i r own a n c e s t o r s . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e y m i g h t c o n s t r u c t c o n s p i c u o u s b u r i a l monuments w i t h r i c h f u r n i s h i n g s , p l a c e d on o r n e a r s p e c i a l o r s a c r e d g e o g r a p h i c a l l o c a t i o n s ( M c G u i r e 1983; O'Connor 1 9 7 4 ) . M e a n w h i l e , s i n c e t h e o b j e c t i v e i s t o c e n t r a l i z e p o w e r , most, i f n o t a l l , p o l i t i c a l f u n c t i o n s w i l l be c a r r i e d b y t h e e m e r g e n t p a r a m o u n t l i n e a g e c h i e f ( S p e n c e r 1 9 9 0 : 8 - 9 ; W r i g h t 1 9 7 7 : 3 8 3 ) . A w e l l - d e v e l o p e d p a r a m o u n t c e n t e r w i l l b e p r e s e n t a n d s e c o n d a r y c e n t e r s w i l l be a b s e n t o r w e a k l y d e v e l o p e d ( B a i n e s a n d M a l e k 1980; O'Connor 1 9 7 4 ) . S e p a r a t e i n s t i t u t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s w i t h i n t h e p a r a m o u n t c e n t e r , w h i c h i n d i c a t e d e l e g a t i o n a n d s p e c i a l i z a t i o n o f p o l i t i c a l f u n c t i o n s , w i l l be a b s e n t ( o r p r e s e n t o n l y i n r u d i m e n t a r y f o r m ) . 70 Co n s e q u e n t l y , t h e e a r l y ceremonial-paramount p r e c i n c t w i l l be dominated by p e r s o n a l and/or l i n e a g e monuments (McGuire 1983; Wrig h t and Johnson 1975:272-274). E l i t e r e s i d e n c e s , as t h e p h y s i c a l l o c u s o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e government, may be prominent as w e l l . The c o m p e t i t i v e quest f o r t r i b u t e (the a g r i c u l t u r a l b a s i s o f power) p r o v i d e s t h e impetus f o r p r o m o t i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n , ( A l f o l d y 1988:5-13,43-44,52-53; F i n l e y 1985:90-122; Hohenberg and Lees 1985:74-98; T a i n t e r 1988:174-175), so I would e x p e c t t o f i n d e v i d e n c e o f s t r o n g p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e (Hassan 1978). There w i l l be new s e t t l e m e n t on o r near p r e f e r r e d a g r i c u l t u r a l zones ( N i c h o l a s 1989) , p a r t i c u l a r l y where p r e v i o u s s e t t l e m e n t was absent o r v e r y s p a r s e . I n t e r m e d i a t e F o r m a t i o n As p o p u l a t i o n w i t h i n t h e p o l i t i c a l u n i t i n c r e a s e s , t h e f o l l o w i n g c o n d i t i o n s a re e x p e c t e d t o d e v e l o p . 1. A paramount o r s t r o n g l i n e a g e w i l l t e n d t o g e n e r a t e r e l a t i v e l y more members (both consanguines and a f f i n e s ) t h a n weaker l i n e a g e s , so t h e r e i s more l i k e l i h o o d t h a t l e g i t i m a c y c h a l l e n g e s f o r h i g h s t a t u s p o s i t i o n s w i l l be made t h r o u g h e l i t e k i n s h i p r e l a t i o n s (Goldman 1970; Hohenberg and Lees 1985:80). 2. A d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n s , f o r m a l l y a l l o c a t e d t o t h e p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r , may be d e l e g a t e d i n response t o t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e w o r k l o a d g e n e r a t e d by i n c r e a s i n g p o p u l a t i o n s i z e , and t o a l l a y l e g i t i m a c y c h a l l e n g e s (Feinman and N e i t z e l 1984; Johnson 1982; Spencer 1990:9-15; Wr i g h t and Johnson 1975). 3. C h a l l e n g e s t o c e n t r a l a u t h o r i t y w i l l be encouraged by p e r c e i v e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e weaknesses, e s p e c i a l l y i n cases where subject-community a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s p o o r l y s e r v i c e d ( B a i l e y 1969; Johnson 1982). Here i s an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t h e development of a l t e r n a t i v e p o l i t i c a l u n i t s w i t h i n t h e chiefdom. Once e l i t e s t a t u s i s e n t r e n c h e d , and p o p u l a t i o n growth p r o c e e d s , a p r o c e s s o f s e g m e n t a t i o n and d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f t h e p o l i t i c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n system b e g i n s ( A l f o l d y 1988; O'Connor 1974; W r i g h t and Johnson 1975). T h i s p r o c e s s i s e x p e c t e d t o a c c e l e r a t e as t h e system grows d e m o g r a p h i c a l l y and t e r r i t o r i a l l y . However, t h i s s h o u l d a t f i r s t r e s u l t i n t h e p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f secondary a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c e n t e r s r a t h e r t h a n a fundamental change i n t h e methods o f g o v e r n i n g . T h e r e f o r e , I would e x p e c t t o f i n d a c o n t i n u e d c o n s t r u c t i o n f o c u s on monumental c o n s t r u c t i o n (such as a n c e s t r a l mounds) and e l i t e r e s i d e n c e s , but t h e r e w i l l be more such u n i t s , t h e y w i l l be d i s t r i b u t e d nearby w i t h i n t h e r e g i o n , and t h e y w i l l be s m a l l e r i n s c a l e . P o p u l a t i o n w i l l c o n t i n u e t o grow at moderate r a t e s (Hassan 1981; Hohenberg and Lees 1985). New s e t t l e m e n t s i n r u r a l a r e a s s h o u l d c o n t i n u e t o appear u n t i l most a r e a s o f p r e f e r r e d a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d are o c c u p i e d , and p o s s i b l y some m a r g i n a l l a n d s as w e l l ( F i n l e y 1985; N i c h o l a s 1989). Secondary communities l a r g e r t h a n s m a l l v i l l a g e s o r h a m l e t s , p o s s i b l y w i t h e v i d e n c e o f mound a r c h i t e c t u r e , s h o u l d appear w i t h g r e a t e r f r e q u e n c y . These w i l l l i k e l y be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h some d e l e g a t i o n o f p o l i t i c a l power so we would e x p e c t d u p l i c a t i o n o f some p o l i t i c a l f u n c t i o n s and f a c i l i t i e s . 72 L a t e F o r m a t i o n I f p r e f e r r e d a g r i c u l t u r a l z o n e s a r e f u l l y - d e v e l o p e d a t t h i s t i m e ( N i c h o l a s 1 9 8 9 ) , f u r t h e r e x p a n s i o n o f s e t t l e m e n t s may be p r o h i b i t e d b y p o l i t i c a l , g e o g r a p h i c a l , o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e b o u n d a r i e s . I f s o , e v i d e n c e f r o m s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n s may i n d i c a t e a s h i f t i n w h i c h f e w e r new s i t e s a r e f o u n d e d , w h i l e more o l d e r s i t e s a r e r e o c c u p i e d ( B l a n t o n 1 9 8 9 ) . I f n o t , new s i t e s w i l l c o n t i n u e t o be f o u n d e d a n d few o l d e r s i t e s w o u l d be r e o c c u p i e d . S e t t l e m e n t l o c a t i o n s h o u l d i n d i c a t e a d e f i n i t e s h i f t o f s e t t l e m e n t t o m a r g i n a l a g r i c u l t u r a l z o n e s ; N i c h o l a s 1989; W r i g h t a n d J o h n s o n 1 9 7 5 ) . A g r i c u l t u r a l i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n may b e g i n , m a r k e d b y l a n d s c a p e m o d i f i c a t i o n a n d p r o d u c t i o n t o o l s . F i n a l l y , I w o u l d e x p e c t some e v i d e n c e o f i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n o f c o m p e t i t i o n i n t h e f o r m o f t e r r i t o r i a l l y - b a s e d c o n f l i c t M i c h e l s 1 9 7 9 a ; Murdy 1984; S a n d e r s a n d Murdy 1 9 8 2 ) . E v i d e n c e w o u l d be f o u n d i n s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n s ( i s o l a t e d z o n e s , g a p s o r open s p a c e s i n o t h e r w i s e f e r t i l e a g r i c u l t u r a l z o n e s ) , s i t e l o c a t i o n ( g e o g r a p h i c a l l y d e f e n s i b l e s i t e s ) , a r t i f a c t s ( a p p e a r a n c e o r g r e a t e r f r e q u e n c y o f o c c u r r e n c e o f weaponry) a n d f e a t u r e s ( d e f e n s i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n s s u c h as d i t c h e s , w a l l s a n d r a m p a r t s ) . P o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h w i l l be h i g h b e c a u s e a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i v i t y , b a s e d on m a r g i n a l l a n d u s e , i s l o w b u t s u b s i s t e n c e - b a s e d s t a t u s r i v a l r y (and w a r f a r e ) a n d c o n s e q u e n t demands f o r t r i b u t e a r e h i g h ( T a i n t e r 1 9 8 8 : 1 74- 1 7 5 ) . A d m i n i s t r a t i v e w o r k l o a d s w i l l b e e s c a l a t i n g due t o i n c r e a s i n g p o p u l a t i o n s i z e a n d g e n e r a l i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n o f a c t i v i t i e s s u c h a s s t a t u s r i v a l r y , s u b s i s t e n c e p r o d u c t i o n a n d c o n f l i c t - w a r f a r e Johnson 1982; Spencer 1990). At t h i s p o i n t , some c l e a r d e l e g a t i o n o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n s and a u t h o r i t y w i l l be apparent i n o r d e r t o p r e s e r v e t h e i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e p o l i t i c a l u n i t . I would e x p e c t t h e appearance o f more complex a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f a c i l i t i e s w i t h i n t h e main c e r e m o n i a l c e n t e r (McGuire 1983; O'Connor 1974). They w i l l be composed o f s p e c i a l i z e d f u n c t i o n a l spaces t h a t w i l l ' s e r v e as l o c a t i o n s f o r f o r m a l l y r e c o g n i z e d i n s t i t u t i o n s . E l a b o r a t e r e s i d e n c e s , i n c o r p o r a t e d w i t h i n t h e complex, w i l l g i v e i t t h e appearance o f a p a l a c e - c o m p l e x . Monumental a n c e s t r a l mounds, which demonstrate s t a t u s and h i g h l y c e n t r a l i z e d power, w i l l be reduced i n r e l a t i v e s c a l e and s p a t i a l l y s e p a r a t e d from t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e complex. However, l o w e r - r a n k i n g secondary p o l i t i c a l u n i t s , l o c a t e d w i t h i n o r a p a r t from t h e main c e n t e r , a r e e x p e c t e d t o attempt t o r a i s e t h e i r s t a t u s as a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n p r o g r e s s e s . They can be e x p e c t e d t o demonstrate t h e i r r i s i n g s t a t u s by c o n s t r u c t i n g t r a d i t i o n a l , l a r g e - s c a l e l i n e a g e monuments w i t h i n t h e i r d i s t r i c t . P o l i t i c a l r e l a t i o n s have, i n t h i s case, gone beyond d e l e g a t i o n and p r oceeded t o p o l i t i c a l s e g m e n t a t i o n . Under t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s , one would expect t h e complex p o l i t i c a l f a c i l i t i e s a t t h e main c e r e m o n i a l c e n t e r t o be r i v a l e d i n s i z e and c o m p l e x i t y by t h o s e i n t h e p e r i p h e r a l zones. That i s , t h e r e s h o u l d be e v i d e n c e o f d u p l i c a t i o n o f p o l i t i c a l f u n c t i o n s and f a c i l i t i e s i n p e r i p h e r a l zones (Spencer 1990). I n summary, t r a d i t i o n a l p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s h i p w i l l attempt t o m a i n t a i n p o l i t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n i n a c o n t e x t of i n c r e a s i n g p o p u l a t i o n s i z e , r e l a t i v e l y d e c l i n i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n ( p e r u n i t o f p r o d u c t i o n ) , p o l i t i c a l s e g m e n t a t i o n , c i r c u m s c r i b e d t e r r i t o r y , i n t e n s i f i e d l o c a l a n d e x t e r n a l c o m p e t i t i o n f o r r e s o u r c e s a n d s t a t u s , a n d e s c a l a t i n g c o m p e t i t i o n l e a d i n g t o g e n e r a l c o n f l i c t o r w a r f a r e . I f t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s a r e n o t s t a b i l i z e d , t h e r e i s a r e a l p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e s u b s i s t e n c e s y s t e m , t h e f o u n d a t i o n o f p o l i t i c a l s t a t u s a n d p o w e r , a n d t h e m a i n i n t e r e s t a n d r i t u a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s h i p , w i l l f a i l u n d e r t h e i n t e n s e p r e s s u r e t o p r o d u c e s u p p o r t (Murdy 1984; S a n d e r s a n d Murdy 1 9 8 2 ) , a n d t h e e l i t e s y s t e m w i l l c o l l a p s e w i t h i t . A l t e r n a t i v e l y , t h e p o l i t i c a l u n i t w i l l s i m p l y d i s i n t e g r a t e , a s e l i t e s a r e a b a n d o n e d b o t h p h y s i c a l l y a n d m o r a l l y b y an o v e r w o r k e d a n d e x h a u s t e d p r o d u c t i v e p o p u l a t i o n ( A l f o l d y 1988; L e w e l l e n 1983; T a i n t e r 1 9 8 8 : 1 7 2 - 1 7 4 ) . A l t e r n a t i v e F o r m a t i o n s I n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e l o c a l p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m a n d e x t e r n a l p o l i t i e s , b y means o f c o n q u e s t , c o l o n i z a t i o n o r e x c h a n g e r e l a t i o n s , c a n c a u s e i n t e r n a l c h a n g e s ( B l a k e 1 9 8 5 : 6 2 - 1 2 6 ; Helms 1988; W r i g h t a n d J o h n s o n 1 9 7 5 ) . A l s o , c h a n g e s i n e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s a r e c a p a b l e o f c a u s i n g c u l t u r a l c h a n g e , a l t h o u g h I w o u l d n o t a s s i g n p r i m a r y c a u s a t i o n h e r e . F o r e x a m p l e , a s h i f t i n e c o n o m i c a n d p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n may f o l l o w d e t e r i o r a t i o n o r i m p r o v e m e n t o f t h e s u b s i s t e n c e e n v i r o n m e n t ( t h o u g h t h i s w o u l d h a v e t o be e x a m i n e d as p a r t o f i n t e r a c t i v e p r o c e s s e s ) . F i n a l l y , one c a n n o t i g n o r e a l t e r n a t i v e i n t e r n a l s o u r c e s o f c h a n g e 75 d i f f e r e n t from t h a t ( i . e . s t a t u s c o m p e t i t i o n ) p r e s e n t e d h e r e . The argument here however i s t h a t t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s a re t e m p o r a l i n t e r l u d e s , i n c i d e n t a l t o t h e main sequence o u t l i n e d i n t h e model. K a m i n a l j u y u was t h e contemporary o f a t l e a s t t h r e e i n f l u e n t i a l Mesoamerican p o l i t i e s ; T e o t i h u a c a n (A.D.1-750), Monte A l b a n (500 B.C.-A.D.500) and t h e P r e c l a s s i c and C l a s s i c Lowland Maya (A.D.1-800). Fur t h e r m o r e , e v i d e n c e a t K a m i n a l j u y u from t h e L a t e F o r m a t i v e (500-200 B.C.) i n d i c a t e s c o n t a c t w i t h d e v e l o p e d chiefdoms o f t h e P a c i f i c Coast and piedmont (Chiapa de Corzo, I z a p a , A baj T a k a l i k , E l B a u l ) , which e x h i b i t post-Olmec c u l t u r a l f e a t u r e s (Parsons 1986:27-44,91-93). The a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d a t K a m i n a l j u y u demonstrates t h a t t h e ( e l i t e ) i n h a b i t a n t s were i n v o l v e d i n l o n g - d i s t a n c e t r a d e t h r o u g h o u t t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e s i t e , though more i n t e n s e l y i n some p e r i o d s . A s t r o n g committment t o t h i s t r a d e i s e v i d e n t i n two p e r i o d s . The e a r l i e r i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e T e r m i n a l F o r m a t i v e (200-1 B.C.), and t h e development o f e l a b o r a t e mound complexes such as E - I I I - 3 and D-IV-6. The l a t t e r o c c u r s i n t h e M i d d l e C l a s s i c (A.D.200-400), b e g i n n i n g i n t h e l a t t e r p a r t o f t h e E a r l y C l a s s i c ( j u s t p r i o r t o A.D.400), when t h e g r a d u a l i n t r u s i o n o f T e o t i h u a c a n - s t y l e f e a t u r e s and a r t i f a c t s i s e v i d e n t i n some e l i t e c o n t e x t s w i t h i n t h e main c e r e m o n i a l c e n t e r (Mound A, Mound B, The A c r o p o l i s and Palangan a complexes) (Sanders and M i c h e l s 1977). I propose t h a t t h e s e and s i m i l a r developments i n d i c a t e a s h i f t i n t h e s t a t u s s u p p o r t system (and p o l i t i c a l c o m p e t i t i o n ) from a p r i m a r y f o c u s on s u b s i s t e n c e p r o d u c t i o n t o one based p r i m a r i l y on c r a f t p r o d u c t i o n ( c r a f t and v a l u a b l e goods p r o d u c t i o n and l o n g - d i s t a n c e t r a d e ) , and o n l y s e c o n d a r i l y on a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n ( A l f o l d y 1988:36-37,49-57,98; Helms 1988; Hohenberg and Lees 1985). T h i s i s analogous t o t h e s i t u a t i o n t h a t d e v e l o p e d between Hawaiians and Europeans d e s c r i b e d by Goldman (1970:222-223) and r e p o r t e d by K i r c h (1985:309-314). T h i s change r e p r e s e n t s a de-emphasis o r r e v e r s a l o f t r e n d s e v i d e n t i n p r e v i o u s f o r m a t i o n s and p a r a l l e l s t h e development o f t h e " m e r c a n t i l e " t y p e urban complex d e s c r i b e d by Fox (1977) and t h e "Network" t y p e complex d e s c r i b e d by Hohenberg and Lees (1985). The p o l i t i c a l regime c o n t r o l l i n g t r a d e p r o d u c t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n may attempt t o reduce r e l i a n c e on, and development o f , t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l s u p p o r t system r e l a t i v e t o t h e t r a d e system. C o n s e q u e n t l y , p o p u l a t i o n s i z e i n r u r a l a r e a s w i l l remain c o n s t a n t , d e c l i n e o r i n c r e a s e v e r y s l o w l y . P o p u l a t i o n growth r a t e s w i l l a c c o r d i n g l y be v e r y low o r n e g a t i v e r e l a t i v e t o t h o s e i n t h e p r e c e d i n g f o r m a t i o n s . P o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s w i l l t a k e l e s s i n t e r e s t i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f s e t t l e m e n t and t h e c o n t r o l o f d o m e s t i c u n i t s o t h e r t h a n t h a t r e q u i r e d t o s u p p o r t t h e m a t e r i a l p r o d u c t i o n system ( a r t i s a n s ) and l o c a l p o p u l a t i o n . T h e r e f o r e , I would e x p e c t t h e f o l l o w i n g changes. 1. Abandonment of some o r a l l m a r g i n a l a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d s w i t h a r u r a l s e t t l e m e n t f o c u s on o p t i m a l a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d s . 2. Abandonment o r r e d u c t i o n o f r e l i a n c e on a g r i c u l t u r a l i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n systems and t o o l s . 77 3. Greater r a t e of r e o c c u p a t i o n of o l d e r settlements i n d i c a t i n g a re-emphasis on n o n - i n t e n s i v e , swidden-type a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n . The s o c i a l and economic l i n k s which were important i n p r e v i o u s s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s between p o l i t i c a l and domestic u n i t s w i l l be reduced i n importance, while d i f f e r e n c e s w i l l be emphasized. T h i s change w i l l be e v i d e n t i n elite-commoner a r t i f a c t u a l assemblages, s e p a r a t i o n of elite-commoner settlement zones and c l e a r d i f f e r e n c e s i n status-marking goods (Wilk 1983:108-114). Meanwhile, l i n k s with the c r a f t - p r o d u c i n g p o p u l a t i o n w i l l be strengthened. They w i l l be l o c a t e d i n s t r a t e g i c p l a c e s , such as c e n t r a l p r o d u c t i o n areas i n the urban zone, resource s i t e s and along communication r o u t e s . P o l i t i c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n w i l l be r e o r g a n i z e d . I t may become l e s s complex i n r e l a t i o n t o s u b s i s t e n c e a c t i v i t i e s and farming p o p u l a t i o n s . I expect some r e d u c t i o n i n the amount of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e space devoted to t h i s type of management. Furthermore, p o l i t i c a l a u t h o r i t y w i l l become c e n t r a l i z e d as a d m i n i s t r a t i v e workloads i n t h i s area have diminished, so t h e r e w i l l be reduced s t r e s s f o r the c r e a t i o n or maintenance of secondary a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s i t e s i n r u r a l areas. On the other hand, a d m i n i s t r a t i v e work r e l a t e d t o management of t r a d e , the c r a f t - p r o d u c i n g p o p u l a t i o n and resource e x t r a c t i o n w i l l i n c r e a s e . However, a s s o c i a t e d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s w i l l l i k e l y be l o c a t e d i n a c e n t r a l ("urban") zone where manufacture of goods and o r g a n i z a t i o n of t r a d e takes p l a c e . In e f f e c t , p o l i t i c a l 78 a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s l e s s f o c u s e d on l a b o r - i n t e n s i v e s u b s i s t e n c e p r o d u c t i o n a n d more f o c u s e d on v a l u e - i n t e n s i v e c r a f t p r o d u c t i o n . B e c a u s e a c t i v i t i e s a r e l i k e l y t o be more v a r i e d i n t h e c r a f t - p r o d u c t i o n s y s t e m ( t h i s s y s t e m manages t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f v a r i o u s c r a f t a n d a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s ) , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s p a c e s a r e e x p e c t e d t o be more s p e c i a l i z e d a n d s p a t i a l l y c e n t r a l i z e d . F o x ' s d e s c r i p t i o n a n d c a s e s t u d i e s o f t h e " M e r c a n t i l e " c i t y - s t a t e s u g g e s t t h a t i t i s a p o l i t i c a l l y c e n t r a l i z e d , " u r b a n " phenomenon c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y s o c i a l a n d a r c h i t e c t u r a l i n n o v a t i o n , u r b a n autonomy ( i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e r e g i o n a l c o n t e x t ) , e x a g g e r a t e d s o c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n c o m b i n e d w i t h p o l i t i c a l d i s s e n t i o n t e n d i n g t o w a r d s a s o l u t i o n o f d e s p o t i c a u t o c r a c y ( H o h e n b e r g a n d L e e s 1 9 8 5 : 7 0 ) . I f t h i s i s t h e c a s e i n t h i s f o r m a t i o n , t h e n we s h o u l d e x p e c t t o e n c o u n t e r a r c h a e o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s u c h a s a c e n t r a l i z e d " u r b a n " z o n e c o m p l e t e w i t h new a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t y l e s , s p a t i a l l y o r g a n i z e d a n d c l e a r l y m a r k e d s o c i a l s e g r e g a t i o n , c l e a r d i f f e r e n c e s i n s t a t u s - m a r k i n g g o o d s . I n c i d e n t a l l y , t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e a d d r e s s e s t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s r a i s e d by Helms w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f p o l i t i c a l c o m p l e x i t y a n d c e n t r a l i z a t i o n a n d v a l u a b l e g o o d s ( s e e s e c t i o n on v a l u a b l e g o o d s e c o n o m y ) . The most v i s i b l e f e a t u r e o f t h i s f o r m a t i o n , o f c o u r s e , i s t h e p r e s e n c e o f v a l u a b l e / c r a f t / c o m m e r c i a l g o o d s , a l t h o u g h a r c h a e o l o g i c a l l y , we a r e h a n d i c a p p e d b y t h e a b s e n c e o f many p e r i s h a b l e g o o d s . I n any c a s e , we s h o u l d d i s c o v e r c e r t a i n f a c i l i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s p r o d u c t i o n : w o r k s h o p s , r e s o u r c e 79 a n d p r i m a r y m a n u f a c t u r e l o c a t i o n s a n d s p e c i a l i z e d t r a d i n g f a c i l i t i e s s u c h a s s t o r e h o u s e s , p o r t s - o f - t r a d e . As F o x n o t e s , t h e k e y t o t h e em e r g e n c e o f t h e m e r c h a n t o r g a n i z a t i o n i s f o u n d i n a p r e - e x i s t i n g c o n d i t i o n o f p o l i t i c a l s e g m e n t a t i o n (a "weak s t a t e " ) , s u c h a s one m i g h t f i n d i n s i t u a t i o n s d e s c r i b e d f o r e a r l i e r f o r m a t i o n s . However, t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r i t s e m e r g e n c e , i n t e r m s o f t h e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r l o n g - d i s t a n c e t r a d e i n v a l u a b l e s o r c o m m o d i t i e s , must a l s o be p r e s e n t . T h i s c o n d i t i o n i m p l i e s t h e p r e - e x i s t e n c e o f o t h e r c o m p l e x c o m m u n i t i e s i n t h e r e g i o n w h i c h h a v e a s i m i l a r i n t e r e s t i n c o n d u c t i n g a t r a d e - b a s e d s t a t u s s y s t e m . The A l t e r n a t i v e F o r m a t i o n must o c c u r w i t h i n t h i s c o n t e x t . A r e v e r s e , c o n f i r m a t o r y t e s t o f t h i s f o r m a t i o n i s p o s s i b l e . T h a t i s , what h a p p e n s when t h e t r a d e - b a s e d s t a t u s s y s t e m c o l l a p s e s ? P r e s u m a b l y , p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s w o u l d be r e p l a c e d b y t h o s e who f o l l o w t h e s u b s i s t e n c e - b a s e d s t a t u s s y s t e m . However, c o n d i t i o n s a r e l i k e l y t o be much d i f f e r e n t t h a n t h o s e i n t h e e a r l i e r f o r m a t i o n s . P o s s i b l y , e l i t e s o c i e t y i s d i v i d e d b e t w e e n a m e r c h a n t a n d s u b s i s t e n c e e l i t e ( A l f o l d y 1988; F o x 1977; H o h e n b e r g a n d L e e s 1 9 8 5 ) . W i t h t h e c o l l a p s e o f t h e t r a d e w e a l t h s y s t e m , t h e r e must be an e f f o r t t o r e g a i n o r r e a s s e r t c o n t r o l o v e r a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n a n d r e - e s t a b l i s h c l o s e r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e f a r m i n g p o p u l a t i o n . P e r h a p s r e l a t i v e l y i n d e p e n d e n t r u r a l c o m m u n i t i e s h a d d e v e l o p e d i n t h e i n t e r i m a n d r e s i s t e d f t h e new r e g i m e . A l s o , how a r e t h e p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s t o c o m p e n s a t e f o r h i g h l e v e l s o f s t a t u s l o s t w i t h t h e c o l l a p s e o f t h e t r a d e s y s t e m ? 80 Do they attempt t o r e g a i n i t through the s u b s i s t e n c e system? In any case, we should expect the e n t i r e s o c i e t y t o be more co n t e n t i o u s and segmentary than before, and t h i s w i l l i n t e n s i f y s i n c e we expect the s o c i e t y t o c a r r y out i t s mandate under the terms of the Late formation, t h a t i s , i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n , h i g h r a t e s of p o p u l a t i o n growth, e s c a l a t i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i v e workloads and p o l i t i c a l segmentation. T h i s should c o n s t i t u t e an important t e s t f o r the model. CHAPTER 4. METHODOLOGY 81 ARCHAEOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS OF THE MODEL OF CHANGE In t h e t h e o r e t i c a l s e c t i o n , s t a t u s c o m p e t i t i o n i n t h e complex c h i e f d o m was a n a l y s e d i n terms o f t h r e e a n a l y t i c a l d i v i s i o n s ; p o l i t i c a l s u p p o r t , p o l i t i c a l maintenance and s t a t u s d e m o n s t r a t i o n . The t h e o r y argues t h a t , when t h e l o c a l s u b s i s t e n c e economy i s predominant, c u l t u r a l change i s m o t i v a t e d by r e l a t i o n s o f growth, t h e e f f e c t s o f growth on p o l i t i c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and subsequent a d j u s t m e n t s . The key p o i n t i s t h a t , g i v e n c o n d i t i o n s o f s t a t u s c o m p e t i t i o n , l e a d e r s o f p o l i t i c a l u n i t s w i l l attempt t o i n c r e a s e and/or expand t h e i r s u p p o r t base, l e a d i n g t o i n c r e a s e s i n t h e s c a l e and c o m p l e x i t y o f o p e r a t i o n s . I n t h e p r o c e s s , two s p e c i f i c c o n d i t i o n s w i l l be en c o u n t e r e d . 1. C o n d i t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e p r o d u c t i v i t y o f t h e s u b s i s t e n c e s u p p o r t system. The p r o d u c t i v e s u b s i s t e n c e ( p o l i t i c a l s upport) system may be pushed beyond i t s "margin o f s a f e t y " , i n c r e a s i n g t h e r i s k o f a g r i c u l t u r a l f a i l u r e s ( N i c h o l a s 1989). T h i s view i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d from " p o p u l a t i o n p r e s s u r e " models o f change because p o p u l a t i o n growth and p r e s s u r e on r e s o u r c e s i s e x p l a i n e d i n c o m p e t i t i v e and p o l i t i c a l - e c o n o m i c terms. 2. C o n d i t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a s p e c t s o f p o l i t i c a l maintenance. T h i s l i m i t i s a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e e f f e c t s o f " s c a l a r s t r e s s " as d e s c r i b e d above (Johnson 1982; Spencer 1990). A s i m p l e , u n s p e c i a l i z e d ( c e n t r a l i z e d ) a d m i n i s t r a t i v e system i s not equipped t o s e r v i c e more complex management problems t h a t r e s u l t from 82 l a r g e r s c a l e ( p o p u l a t i o n s i z e , e c o n o m i c p r o d u c t i o n ) . T h e s e c o n d i t i o n s w ork a g a i n s t t h e i n i t i a l p o l i t i c a l o b j e c t i v e s ( i n c r e a s i n g s u p p o r t , c e n t r a l i z i n g power) b e c a u s e t h e y i m p l y d e c i s i o n m a k i n g ( d e l e g a t i o n ) ( S p e n c e r 1 9 9 0 ) . P o l i t i c a l r e s p o n s e s a r e r e q u i r e d , i n a c t i o n w i l l o n l y i n v i t e c h a n g e i n i t i a t e d b y c o m p e t i n g p o l i t i c a l u n i t s ( B a i l e y 1 9 7 0 : 7 3 - 8 5 ) , o r f o r c e c o n t e s t s b e t w e e n n o r m a t i v e a n d p r a g m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s ( B a i l e y 1 9 7 0 ) . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e , t h e f o l l o w i n g s p e c i f i c c h a n g e s a r e e x p e c t e d . 1. Changes i n t h e s u p p o r t s y s t e m . T h e r e may be a t t e m p t s t o make t h e s u b s i s t e n c e s y s t e m more p r o d u c t i v e b y o r g a n i z i n g p r o d u c t i o n t o make i t more e f f i c i e n t , o r b y i m p l e m e n t i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n s y s t e m s . T h e s e c h a n g e s a r e l i n k e d t o p o l i t i c a l m o t i v a t i o n s , n o t p o p u l a t i o n p r e s s u r e a l o n e . T h i s w i l l l e a d t o i n c r e a s e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o m p l e x i t y . 2. C h a nges i n t h e s i z e o f t h e p r o d u c t i v e l a n d b a s e ( e x p a n s i o n ) . C o n f l i c t s b e t w e e n e l i t e s a n d commoners o v e r c o n t r o l o f a n d a c c e s s t o s u p p o r t may be s o l v e d b y t e r r i t o r i a l e x p a n s i o n a n d / o r w a r s o f c o n q u e s t , e i t h e r t o i n c r e a s e t h e s u p p o r t b a s e ( l a n d ) o r t o o b t a i n more l a b o r ( A l f o l d y 1 9 8 8 : 2 0 - 2 9 ; S p e n c e r 1 9 9 0 : 1 1 ) . 3. C h a n g e s i n t h e m a i n t e n a n c e s y s t e m . I w o u l d e x p e c t some d e l e g a t i o n o f p o l i t i c a l a u t h o r i t y . T h i s w i l l be e v i d e n t i n m e a s u r e s o f r e g i o n a l h i e r a r c h i z a t i o n , t h a t i s , t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f ' s e c o n d a r y a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s i t e s . O t h e r w i s e , one w o u l d e x p e c t p o l i t i c a l s e g m e n t a t i o n w here i n d e p e n d e n t p o l i t i c a l u n i t s o r 83 t e r r i t o r i e s a r e formed w i t h i n t h e o r i g i n a l p o l i t i c a l t e r r i t o r y . I would a l s o e x p e c t t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l a i d s t o improve i n f o r m a t i o n f l o w and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c a p a b i l i t i e s ; such as r e c o r d i n g - w r i t i n g systems o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s (Johnson 1978, 1982; W r i g h t and Johnson 1975). F i n a l l y , t h e r e c o u l d be a t r a n s i t i o n t o s t a t e - l i k e , b u r e a u c r a t i c p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i n w hich p o l i t i c a l a u t h o r i t y i s d e l e g a l e d t o a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s p e c i a l i s t s , not n e c e s s a r i l y p o l i t i c a l r i v a l s (Spencer 1990). 4. I n t e n s i f i c a t i o n o f i d e o l o g i c a l (or c o e r c i v e ) means o f c o n t r o l . These measures a r e supplement or r e p l a c e c o n s e n s u a l , s u p p o r t , l e g i t i m a c y and d e l e g a t i o n . I would e x p e c t t o f i n d an emphasis on " r e l i g i o u s " o b j e c t s (such as s c u l p t u r a l programs), monumental c o n s t r u c t i o n , " c l o s u r e " o f c e r e m o n i a l p r e c i n c t s . I n t e r a c t i o n w i t h e x t e r n a l p o l i t i c a l u n i t s or t h e i r agents does i n f l u e n c e t h e p r o c e s s . The s t u d y of t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n i n v o l v e s a n a l y s i s a r c h a e o l o g i c a l m a t e r i a l s on a r e g i o n a l s c a l e , beyond t h e range of t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y (see B l a k e 1985:87-115 f o r d i s c u s s i o n s o f t h e e f f e c t s o f conquest and c o l o n i z a t i o n on t h e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d ) . However, I b e l i e v e t h a t f a c e t s o f i n t e r - r e g i o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n a r e v i s i b l e a t K a m i n a l j u y u u s i n g l o c a l d a t a ( a s i d e from t h e p r e s e n c e of t r a d e goods), w i t h o u t u n d e r t a k i n g a f o r m a l i n t e r r e g i o n a l s t u d y . F o r example, e x p e c t a t i o n s o f a model f o r a c u l t u r a l s h i f t t o a w e a l t h economy system a r e i n t r o d u c e d (see Fox 1977; Hohenberg and Lees 1985; Cohen 1978). Two changes a s s o c i a t e d w i t h such a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n are s uggested: 1. R e d u c t i o n o f a predominant r e l i a n c e on t h e s u b s i s t e n c e s u p p o r t 84 s y s t e m a s a b a s i s f o r d e t e r m i n i n g s t a t u s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e r e w i l l be l e s s e f f o r t d i r e c t e d t o w a r d s i n c r e a s i n g s u b s i s t e n c e p r o d u c t i o n ( p o p u l a t i o n a n d l a b o r ) o r t o f o c u s c o m p e t i t i o n a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n on t h e c o n t r o l a n d management o f p r o d u c t i v e f a r m l a n d . T h e r e w i l l be s i m p l i f i c a t i o n o f t h e m a i n t e n a n c e s y s t e m ( o r d e - h i e r a r c h i z a t i o n ) i n r u r a l a r e a s . 2. E c o n o m i c a c t i v i t i e s w i l l c o n c e n t r a t e d i n c e n t r a l l y - l o c a t e d c r a f t p r o d u c t i o n a r e a s ( s e e S t e p o n a i t i s 1978:430-437 f o r m o d e l a n d m e t h o d s o f l o c a t i o n a l a n a l y s i s f o r p o l i t i c a l c e n t e r s i n c o m p l e x c h i e f d o m s ) . I n s p i t e o f a d e c r e a s e i n r u r a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o m p l e x i t y a n d w o r k l o a d , o v e r a l l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o m p l e x i t y may n o t c h a n g e , b u t most a c t i v i t i e s w i l l be e f f i c i e n t l y c o n c e n t r a t e d i n a c e n t r a l " u r b a n " a r e a . Thus, a d m i n i s t r a t i v e w ork w o u l d n o t o n l y a p p l y t o r u r a l management, b u t a l s o management o f c r a f t a n d w e a l t h p r o d u c t i o n , f o r e i g n r e l a t i o n s , s t o r a g e a n d t r a n s p o r t a n d d i s t r i b u t i o n o f g o o d s . A n a l y s i s w i l l f o c u s on t e m p o r a l c h a n g e s a c c o r d i n g t o a r c h a e o l o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e t h e o r y a n d m o d e l , b u t w i l l a l s o i n d i c a t e e x p e c t e d s y n c h r o n i c r e l a t i o n s . I p r o p o s e t o c a r r y o u t a s e r i e s o f t e s t s a n d e x p l o r a t o r y a n a l y s e s u s i n g a r c h a e o l o g i c a l d a t a f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n a c t i v i t y a n d s e t t l e m e n t / p o p u l a t i o n c h a n g e . QUANTIFICATION T h r e e c l a s s e s , o r a n a l y t i c a l c a t e g o r i e s , o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l d a t a a r e u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y , p o p u l a t i o n , s e t t l e m e n t a n d l a n d u s e , 85 a n d c o n s t r u c t i o n a c t i v i t y . 1. P o p u l a t i o n . P o p u l a t i o n r e p r e s e n t s t h e b a s i s a n d amount o f s u p p o r t ( l a b o r a v a i l a b l e f o r e c o n o m i c - p r o d u c t i v e a c t i v i t i e s , s e r v i c e , w ar; c o n s e n s u a l s u p p o r t ) . P o p u l a t i o n d a t a i n c l u d e t h e e s t i m a t e d number a n d d i s t r i b u t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l s b y a r c h a e o l o g i c a l p h a s e . P o p u l a t i o n s i z e w i l l i n d i c a t e t h e p o t e n t i a l amount o f s u p p o r t a v a i l a b l e , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n e l i t e , n o n - e l i t e , a n d c e n t r a l a n d r u r a l a r e a s . P o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h r a t e s w i l l be i m p o r t a n t m e a s u r e s as t h e y i n d i c a t e c h a n g e s i n r u r a l v s c e n t r a l r e l a t i o n s a n d r e l a t i v e e m p h a s i s on p r o d u c t i v e a c t i v i t i e s ( a g r i c u l t u r a l a n d c r a f t p r o d u c t i o n ) . 2. S e t t l e m e n t a n d L a n d Use P a t t e r n s . S e t t l e m e n t r e f e r s t o t h e s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n b y v a r i o u s c a t e g o r i e s ( l a n d - u s e c l a s s e s , s e t t l e m e n t s i z e , s e t t l e m e n t t y p e , r u r a l a n d n o n - r u r a l ) a n d r e p r e s e n t s p o t e n t i a l l e v e l s o f s u p p o r t i n a g i v e n p o l i t i c a l f o r m a t i o n . S e t t l e m e n t d a t a , now s u b s t a n t i a l l y r e p o r t e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e f o r t h e V a l l e y o f G u a t e m a l a (Murdy 1 9 8 4 ) , a r e c r u c i a l f o r e s t i m a t i n g l e v e l s o f r u r a l , a g r i c u l t u r a l s u p p o r t , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r e v a l u a t i n g r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n s u b s i s t e n c e v e r s u s t r a d e w e a l t h e c o n o m i e s . S e t t l e m e n t l o c a t i o n b y l a n d u s e p o t e n t i a l i n d i c a t e s t h e r e l a t i v e e m p h a s i s i n t h e u s e o f o p t i m a l a n d m a r g i n a l a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d a n d t h e t y p e o f s u p p o r t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p o l i t i c a l f o r m a t i o n s . 86 3. C o n s t r u c t i o n A c t i v i t y . C o n s t r u c t i o n a c t i v i t y m a n i f e s t s a s p e c t s o f s t a t u s d e m o n s t r a t i o n ( b u i l d i n g s i z e a n d s t y l e , q u a l i t y o f m a t e r i a l s a n d w o r k m a n s h i p ) , m a i n t e n a n c e ( s c a l e , c o m p l e x i t y a n d d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s e c o n d a r y a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f a c i l i t i e s ) , a n d s u p p o r t ( w h e t h e r f a c i l i t i e s w e r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s u b s i s t e n c e a n d / o r t r a d e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ) . A n a l y t i c a l d i v i s i o n s e v i d e n t i n c o n s t r u c t i o n a c t i v i t y a r e m e a s u r e d w i t h two v a r i a b l e s , v o l u m e a n d summit a r e a o f mounds, p l a t f o r m s a n d b a l l c o u r t e n c l o s u r e s . V o l u m e a n d d e r i v e d m e a s u r e s g e n e r a l l y i n d i c a t e s t a t u s d e m o n s t r a t i o n . Summit a r e a ( u p p e r f l o o r s u r f a c e ) a n d d e r i v e d m e a s u r e s a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h d a y - t o - d a y p o l i t i c a l m a i n t e n a n c e ( M c G u i r e 1983; T o u r t e l l o t 1 9 8 9 ) . F o r e x a m i n i n g f u n c t i o n a l s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i n c o n s t r u c t i o n , M e s o a m e r i c a n a r c h i t e c t u r e d o e s n o t a l w a y s p r o v i d e u n e q u i v o c a l c a t e g o r i e s . R e s e a r c h e r s h a v e b e g u n t o d e f i n e s i t e - d e v e l o p m e n t c r i t e r i a a s an a l t e r n a t i v e f o r f u n c t i o n a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . F o r e x a m p l e , d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n s b a s e d on r e l a t i v e numbers o f a r c h i t e c t u r a l t y p e s ( p l a z a s , b a l l c o u r t s , p y r a m i d s ) (de M o n t m o l l i n 1 9 8 9 : 7 8 - 8 2 ) , o r on s i t e p l a n n i n g a r r a n g e m e n t s ( K o w a l e w s k i 1 9 8 9 : 4 1 0 - 4 1 1 ) . However, a s w i t h a r c h i t e c t u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t i n any e r a , f a c i l i t i e s p r o b a b l y s e r v e d m u l t i p l e f u n c t i o n s , o r were l a t e r a d a p t e d t o new f u n c t i o n s . F o r t h i s r e a s o n , I h a v e p l a c e d summit a r e a u n d e r t h e g e n e r a l h e a d i n g o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s p a c e i n o r d e r t o i n d i c a t e g e n e r a l i z e d f u n c t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , w h e t h e r f o r r i t u a l / c e r e m o n i a l , j u d i c i a l , o r m i s c e l l a n e o u s o t h e r u s e s . 87 The S t u d y A r e a F o r p u r p o s e s o f a n a l y s i s , a " s t u d y a r e a " i s d e f i n e d a s t h e t o t a l a r e a w i t h i n a c i r c l e o f r a d i u s 9.5 km f r o m t h e c e n t e r p o i n t o f z o n e 46, l o c a t e d a b o u t 500 m e t e r s s o u t h w e s t o f t h e A c r o p o l i s c o m p l e x a t c e n t r a l K a m i n a l j u y u . T o t a l a r e a w i t h i n t h i s c i r c l e i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 284 k m 2 . T h i s i s n o t an a t t e m p t t o i d e n t i f y t h e a c t u a l t e r r i t o r i a l b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e p o l i t i c a l u n i t , w h i c h i n any c a s e , was p r o b a b l y v a r i a b l e i n s i z e a n d s h a p e o v e r t i m e . I t i s an e f f o r t t o d e f i n e a t e r r i t o r i a l a r e a l a r g e e n o u g h t o o b t a i n m e a s u r e a b l e c h a n g e s i n i n d i c e s o f c e n t r a l i z a t i o n , c o m p l e x i t y , a n d t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l m a t e r i a l s , b u t s m a l l e n o u g h t o e x c l u d e a n a l y s i s o f r e g i o n a l p r o c e s s e s ( t h o u g h t h i s d o e s n o t mean t h e y w i l l be e x c l u d e d f r o m c o n s i d e r a t i o n ) . S e v e r a l f a c t o r s w e r e c o n s i d e r e d i n c h o o s i n g a r a d i u s o f 9.5 km f o r t h e s t u d y a r e a . S p e n c e r (1990) a r g u e s t h a t a ( n o n - s t a t e ) p o l i t i c a l t e r r i t o r y o f c i r c u l a r s h a p e w o u l d h a v e an e s t i m a t e d r a d i u s o f a b o u t o n e - h a l f d a y ' s w a l k ( o r 10/2 h o u r s a t 5.6 km/hr=2 8 km). T h i s i s d e t e r m i n e d a s t h e maximum r e a s o n a b l e d i s t a n c e f o r t r a v e l i n g f r o m t h e r e g i o n a l c e n t e r t o t h e edge o f t h e t e r r i t o r y a n d b a c k i n one day ( S p e n c e r 1 982:6-7; 1 9 8 7 : 3 7 5 ) . T e r r i t o r i e s o f l a r g e r s i z e b e g i n t o t a x t h e c a p a b i l i t i e s o f t h e ( n o n - s t a t e ) a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s y s t e m . T h i s i s s u p p o r t e d by a number o f c a s e s t a k e n f r o m t h e l i t e r a t u r e ( S p e n c e r 1 9 9 0 : 7 ; 1 9 8 7 : 3 7 5 ) . C u l b e r t (1988:150) a n d H o u s t o n (1989:26) e s t i m a t e t h a t C l a s s i c p e r i o d L o w l a n d Maya p o l i t i c a l t e r r i t o r i e s a v e r a g e d a b o u t 15-25 km i n r a d i u s . However, K o w a l e w s k i a r g u e s t h a t h i g h l a n d c o m m u n i t i e s 88 i n M e s o a m e r i c a were u s u a l l y q u i t e s m a l l i n s i z e due t o t r a v e l - t i m e r e s t r i c t i o n s i n m o u n t a i n o u s t e r r a i n , a n d t o g r e a t e r c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y r e l a t i v e t o s i m i l a r - s i z e d r e g i o n s e l s e w h e r e ( K o w a l e w s k i e t a l . 1 9 8 9 : 8 - 1 2 ) . I n t h e V a l l e y o f G u a t e m a l a , a r a d i u s o f 9.5 km b i s e c t s an e a s t - w e s t c o r r i d o r t o t h e s o u t h o f K a m i n a l j u y u w h i c h , d u r i n g t h e L a t e a n d T e r m i n a l C l a s s i c , was a s p a r s e l y p o p u l a t e d a r e a w i t h o u t a c t i v e mound s i t e s w h i c h i s i n t e r p r e t e d a s a " b u f f e r z o n e " b e t w e e n two s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l t e r r i t o r i e s (Murdy 1 9 8 4 : 1 8 0 - 1 8 1 ) . M i c h e l s (1979a:53-55) a r g u e s t h a t , on t h e b a s i s o f a s t u d y u s i n g l o c a t i o n t h e o r y , a n d on t h e e x c l u s i v e s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s p e c i f i c t y p e s o f o b s i d i a n w i t h i n t h e V a l l e y ( M i c h e l s 1 9 7 9 a : 5 7 - 5 9 ) , t h e s i t e o f S o l a n o , a t 9.5 km f r o m c e n t r a l K a m i n a l j u y u , was l o c a t e d n e a r a l o n g - s t a n d i n g , i n t e r - p o l i t y b o u n d a r y i n t h e V a l l e y . Brown d e s c r i b e s t h e s i t e o f S o l a n o as an " e n c l a v e " f o r f o r e i g n t r a d e r s d u r i n g t h e M i d d l e C l a s s i c p e r i o d i n t h e V a l l e y . S u c h s i t e s a r e g e n e r a l l y l o c a t e d i n i n d e p e n d e n t o r m a r g i n a l t e r r i t o r y n e a r p o l i t i c a l b o u n d a r i e s (Brown 1977:310; Chapman 1957; a l s o M i c h e l s 1 9 7 9 a : 5 1 - 5 3 ) . Brown a l s o i d e n t i f i e s t h e V a l l e y o f G u a t e m a l a a s a " p o r t - o f - t r a d e " a t t h i s t i m e . T h e s e a r e a s a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h g e o g r a p h i c a l , e c o l o g i c a l a n d c u l t u r a l " t r a n s i t i o n a l " z o n e s (Brown 1 9 7 7 : 3 0 5 - 3 0 6 ; Chapman 1 9 5 7 ) . F i n a l l y , t h e r a d i u s o f 9.5 km i n c o r p o r a t e s most o f t h e h e a v i l y p o p u l a t e d , l e v e l t e r r a i n i n t h e n o r t h e r n p a r t o f t h e V a l l e y , b u t e x c l u d e s much o f t h e r u g g e d p i e d m o n t a n d h i g h l a n d s t o t h e w e s t a n d n o r t h , w h i c h w ere g e n e r a l l y s p a r s e l y p o p u l a t e d , m a r g i n a l a r e a s o f t h e 89 V a l l e y . The s tudy a r e a i s s u b d i v i d e d i n t o a core a r e a ( c e n t r a l Kaminal juyu) surrounded by e i g h t c o n c e n t r i c r i n g s ( r u r a l K a m i n a l j u y u ) . S p e c i f i c da ta f o r the c o n c e n t r i c c o n f i g u r a t i o n are p r o v i d e d i n T a b l e 2 (see F i g u r e 4 f o r i l l u s t r a t i o n ) . The core a r e a ( r i n g 1) i s 1.5 km i n d iameter and i s a s s i g n e d t o the s i t e o f K a m i n a l j u y u . T h i s core i s 7.07 km 2 i n a r e a , which approximates the 7.5 km 2 a rea o f c e n t r a l K a m i n a l j u y u d e f i n e d by the K a m i n a l j u y u P r o j e c t (Miche l s 1979a:5) . The s i t e i s a c t u a l l y l o c a t e d s l i g h t l y o f f - c e n t e r w i t h i n r i n g 1. T h i s area i s r e f e r r e d to as the "core" area or " c e n t r a l K a m i n a l j u y u " (or j u s t " K a m i n a l j u y u " ) . A l l areas o u t s i d e c e n t r a l K a m i n a l j u y u are r e f e r r e d t o as " r u r a l " K a m i n a l j u y u . The r e m a i n i n g r i n g s 2 to 9 (2.5 km t o 9.5 km) are a r b i t r a r i l y spaced at 1 km i n t e r v a l s . The s i z e and a r b i t r a r y s p a t i a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n o f t h i s area c o n f e r s the f o l l o w i n g m e t h o d o l o g i c a l b e n e f i t s . 1. When superimposed on the survey g r i d zones (F igure 4 ) , the r i n g s t r u c t u r e p e r m i t s p o p u l a t i o n e s t i m a t e s to be c a l c u l a t e d on the b a s i s o f d i s t a n c e from c e n t r a l K a m i n a l j u y u . The assumption i s t h a t p o p u l a t i o n d i s t r i b u t i o n w i l l v a r y u n i f o r m l y , by d i s t a n c e , i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s from the c e n t e r . 2. Because the i n t e n s i v e l y surveyed zones are c o n c e n t r a t e d i n the s tudy a r e a (zones 33, 45, 46 i n c l u d i n g c e n t r a l K a m i n a l j u y u , 58, 61, 71, and 72) , the e i g h t o u t e r c o n c e n t r i c areas ( r i n g s 2-9) were sampled at r a t e s between 25% and 50% (average=35.5%) o f 90 t h e i r t o t a l a r e a ( s e e T a b l e 2 ) , w h i l e r i n g 1 ( c e n t r a l K a m i n a l j u y u ) was s a m p l e d a t 100%. 3. S i n c e t h e s t u d y a r e a i s r e l a t i v e l y homogeneous i n t e r m s o f t h e t y p e s o f s o i l s , t e r r a i n a n d e n v i r o n m e n t a l z o n e s r e p r e s e n t e d , t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n e s t i m a t e s s h o u l d be q u i t e c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e s p e c i f i c a r e a u n d e r s t u d y . 4. B e c a u s e o f t h e c o r e / p e r i p h e r y , c o n c e n t r i c s p a t i a l p e r s p e c t i v e , m e a s u r e s r e l e v a n t t o c e n t r a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s e s ; s u c h a s d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n , s e t t l e m e n t , mound s i t e s , c o n s t r u c t i o n v o l u m e ( s t a t u s d i s p l a y ) a n d summit a r e a ( a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ) , a r e f a c i l i t a t e d . T a b l e 2. KAMINALJUYU STUDY AREA. S p e c i f i c a t i o n s f o r C o n c e n t r i c R i n g C o n f i g u r a t i o n . RING DISTANCE TOTAL AREA SURVEY MULT. NO. RANGE RING SURVEYED g. "o FACTOR f r o m AREA 100%/ CENTER (km 2) (km 2) S u r v e y % (km) 1 0.0-1.5 7.07 7.07 100 1.00 2 1.5-2.5 12.56 5. 60 44.5 2.24 3 2.5-3.5 18.87 9.40 50.0 2.00 4 3.5-4.5 25.12 11. 90 46.7 2.14 5 4.5-5.5 31.41 13.10 41.7 2.40 6 5.5-6.5 37.70 14.60 38.7 2.58 7 6.5-7.5 43.98 16.10 36.6 2.73 8 7.5-8.5 50.27 13.30 26.4 3.79 9 8.5-9.5 56.55 14.10 25.0 4.00 SURVEY AREA TOTALS ( R i n g s 1-9) 283.53 105.17 37.1 RURAL : KAMINALJUYU TOTALS ( R i n g s 2-9) 276.46 98.10 35.5 F i g u r e 4. VALLEY OF GUATEMALA: KAMINALJUYU STUDY AREA The c i r c u l a r study area i s superimposed on the survey g r i d of numbered "zones". Concentric r i n g s 2 to 9 r e f e r t o " r u r a l " Kaminaljuyu. Area 1 r e f e r s t o " c e n t r a l " Kaminaljuyu. Shading i n d i c a t e s the i n t e n s i v e l y surveyed zones which f a l l w i t h i n the study area, which are used to estimate p o p u l a t i o n s i z e . 92 The f o l l o w i n g summary p r e s e n t s t h e t h r e e c l a s s e s o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l d a t a ( p o p u l a t i o n , s e t t l e m e n t a n d l a n d u s e , a n d c o n s t r u c t i o n a c t i v i t y ) t h a t a r e u s e d t o a n a l y s e t h e r e l e v a n t a n a l y t i c a l d i v i s i o n s ( s t a t u s s u p p o r t , s t a t u s d e m o n s t r a t i o n a n d p o l i t i c a l m a i n t e n a n c e ) . The p a r t i c u l a r a r c h a e o l o g i c a l m a t e r i a l t o be e x a m i n e d i s s p e c i f i e d a ) ; a l o n g w i t h b) t h e d e r i v e d m e a s u r e s a n d / o r t h e r e l e v a n t u n i t s o f m e a s u r e m e n t . 1. P o p u l a t i o n i ) S u p p o r t - P o p u l a t i o n S i z e . a) s i t e a r e a , s u r f a c e a r t i f a c t d e n s i t y b) p o p u l a t i o n s i z e b y s e t t l e m e n t c a t e g o r y , a n d s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n b y r i n g f o r c e n t r a l a n d r u r a l K a m i n a l j u y u . i i ) C e n t r a l i z a t i o n a) p o p u l a t i o n s i z e ( c e n t r a l v e r s u s r u r a l K a m i n a l j u y u ) . b) p e r c e n t o f t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n i n e a c h a r e a . i i i ) D i s t r i b u t i o n a) p o p u l a t i o n i n e a c h c o n c e n t r i c r i n g (1 t o 9) b) d e n s i t y , s i z e , p e r c e n t o f p o p u l a t i o n i n e a c h r i n g . i v ) R a t e o f Change ( I n c r e a s e / D e c r e a s e ) . a) p o p u l a t i o n s i z e ( c e n t r a l a n d r u r a l K a m i n a l j u y u ) . b) p e r c e n t c h a n g e p e r annum by p h a s e . 2. S e t t l e m e n t a n d L a n d Use i ) M a i n t e n a n c e - H i e r a r c h y . a) r u r a l s i t e s w i t h mound a r c h i t e c t u r e ("mound s i t e s " ) . b) number o f d i f f e r e n t s i t e s , s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n b y r i n g . i i ) Maintenance-Complexity. a) r u r a l a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s . b) number of d i f f e r e n t s i t e types, percent of simple versus complex s i t e s . • s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n (number i n each r i n g ) . i i i ) Support-Subsistence P r o d u c t i v i t y . a) s i t e s , land-use c l a s s ( a g r i c u l t u r a l ) p o t e n t i a l . b) r a t i o of settlement on marginal versus optimal l a n d . C o n s t r u c t i o n A c t i v i t y i ) Status Demonstration. a) mounds a r c h i t e c t u r e (mounds, p l a t f o r m s , b a l l c o u r t s ) . b) t o t a l volume (m 3) . i i ) Status-Ranking (V/A) a) mounds a r c h i t e c t u r e . b) volume/summit area. i i i ) M a intenance-Administration. a) mounds a r c h i t e c t u r e . b) summit area (m 2) . iv) Maintenance; A d m i n i s t r a t i o n R a t i o (AR). a) mound a r c h i t e c t u r e , p o p u l a t i o n . b) population/summit area (persons served per u n i t summit a r e a ) . v) Maintenance-Support; T r i b u t e R a t i o . a) mounds and and r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n (labor i n v e s t e d i n c o n s t r u c t i o n by r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n ) . b) c o n s t r u c t i o n volume/rural p o p u l a t i o n (labor i n v e s t e d i n 94 c o n s t r u c t i o n per p e r s o n ) . v i ) M a i n t e n a n c e - P o l i t i c a l A d m i n i s t r a t i v e C e n t r a l i z a t i o n . a) mounds ( c e n t r a l versus r u r a l Kaminaljuyu). b) percent of t o t a l volume and summit area l o c a t e d at c e n t r a l Kaminaljuyu. ARCHAEOLOGICAL TESTING: HYPOTHESES The t h r e e temporal formations ( E a r l y Formation, Intermediate Formation and Late Formation) are not r e q u i r e d to correspond with the standard c h r o n o l o g i c a l sequence f o r Kaminaljuyu because the theory and model do not attempt t o e x p l a i n or j u s t i f y these temporal d i v i s i o n s . However, they cannot be e n t i r e l y i g n o r e d s i n c e the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l data are c a t e g o r i z e d by these d i v i s i o n s . Consequently, these d i v i s i o n s w i l l be used as convenient t e s t u n i t s or "checkpoints" f o r t e s t i n g the model. The key hypotheses f o r e v a l u a t i n g the t h e s i s are as f o l l o w s : 1. I d e n t i f y i n g Features of the Wealth Based Economy. S p e c i f i c q u a n t i t a t i v e hypotheses f o r the wealth based economy are d e s c r i b e d below (hypotheses 2 t o 8 ). However, these q u a n t i t a t i v e f e a t u r e s (settlement, l a n d use, c o n s t r u c t i o n ) , cannot stand alone as evidence f o r the presence of t h i s system. They must occur i n the context of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c ( q u a l i t a t i v e ) f e a t u r e s of wealth based (finance) systems as d e s c r i b e d by B r u m f i e l and E a r l e ( 1 9 8 5 ) , Fox ( 1 9 7 7 ) , Helms ( 1 9 8 8 ) , Hohenberg and Lees ( 1 9 8 5 ). I t i s necessary t o i d e n t i f y , on a q u a l i t a t i v e b a s i s , those p e r i o d s f o r Kaminaljuyu which are candidates f o r the 95 wealth based system ( A l t e r n a t i v e Formation) so t h a t q u a n t i t a t i v e and q u a l i t a t i v e data may be compared. These hypotheses are n e c e s s a r i l y q u a l i t a t i v e and d e s c r i p t i v e as no separate a n a l y s i s i s undertaken i n t h i s study. For Kaminaljuyu, these hypotheses depend on data and a n a l y s i s found i n Brown (1977), M i c h e l s (1979a), M i c h e l s and Wetherington (1979), Murdy (1984) and Parsons (1986). For the wealth based economic system, r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s of l o n g - d i s t a n c e e l i t e t r a d e and commercial goods w i l l be p r e s e n t i n e l i t e c ontexts ( b u r i a l s , caches, residences/mounds, workshops). There w i l l be (Mesoamerican) p o r t a b l e goods of two kinds, s t a t u s marking goods ( f o r example, f i n e ceramics, jade, hematite, s h e l l , quartz, mica), and commercial goods ( f o r example, coarse t r a d e ceramics, o b s i d i a n ) . C r a f t p r o d u c t i o n f a c i l i t i e s (workshops) w i l l be p r e v a l e n t and found i n p r o x i m i t y t o e l i t e h a b i t a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , the core s i t e ( s ) w i l l e x h i b i t i n n o v a t i v e and/or f o r e i g n s t y l e s i n a r c h i t e c t u r e , s i t e p l a n n i n g , ceramics and other a r t i f a c t s . There w i l l be a focus on massive, monumental a r c h i t e c t u r e . The d i s t i n c t i o n between "wealthy" e l i t e s and commoners w i l l be c l e a r l y marked by d i f f e r e n c e s i n a r t i f a c t assemblages and i n a r c h i t e c t u r e . 2. Status Demonstration (V/A=volume per u n i t summit a r e a ) . For the s u b s i s t e n c e economy, t h e r e w i l l be l e s s emphasis on s t a t u s (volume component) with time and more emphasis on a d m i n i s t r a t i o n (summit area component). Thus, the V/A r a t i o w i l l d e c l i n e w i t h time. T h i s i n d i c a t e s a s h i f t from u n s p e c i a l i z e d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ( a s s o c i a t e d with c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of power and status) to complex and s p e c i a l i z e d (bureaucratic) a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . For the wealth based economy, the emphasis w i l l be on s t a t u s (volume component) because a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and power w i l l be c e n t r a l i z e d and s i m p l i f i e d as r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n d e c l i n e s . Thus, the V/A r a t i o w i l l emphasize the volume component. 3. A d m i n i s t r a t i o n R a t i o (AR=population per summit a r e a ) . For the s u b s i s t e n c e economy, t h i s r a t i o (persons served per u n i t summit area) should remain r e l a t i v e l y constant with time (d e s p i t e changes i n p o p u l a t i o n s i z e ) s i n c e p o p u l a t i o n growth/decline w i l l be d i r e c t l y a s s o c i a t e d with the p r o v i s i o n of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n space. However I expect t h r e e main v a r i a t i o n s . F i r s t , e a r l i e r p e r i o d s (with lower p o p u l a t i o n s i z e ) w i l l have r e l a t i v e l y l e s s summit area (higher AR) because a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s c e n t r a l i z e d and u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from other f u n c t i o n s , and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n s are not d u p l i c a t e d i n secondary f a c i l i t i e s . Second, l a t e r p e r i o d s (with g r e a t e r p o p u l a t i o n s i z e ) w i l l have r e l a t i v e l y more summit area (lower AR) because a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s d e c e n t r a l i z e d , s p e c i a l i z e d and complex ( b u r e a u c r a t i c ) , and f u n c t i o n s w i l l be d u p l i c a t e d at secondary s i t e s . T h i r d , i f t h e r e are p e r i o d s when the p o l i t y i s weakly i n t e g r a t e d p o l i t i c a l l y , t h a t i s , when l o c a l p o p u l a t i o n s are independent of c e n t r a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , t h e r e w i l l be r e l a t i v e l y l e s s summit area (higher AR). T h i s should be a s s o c i a t e d with d i m i n i s h e d c o n s t r u c t i o n a c t i v i t y because t h i s i m p l i e s weak c o n t r o l over t r i b u t e l a b o r of the support p o p u l a t i o n s . For a change t o a wealth based economy, both ( r u r a l ) p o p u l a t i o n s i z e and summit area w i l l d e c l i n e . However, c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n should make i t more e f f i c i e n t t o d e a l with management of the t r a d e economy, so summit area should d e c l i n e r e l a t i v e l y more (higher AR). 4. T r i b u t e R a t i o (mound volume per r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n ) . For the s u b s i s t e n c e system, t h i s r a t i o should d e c l i n e with time because t h e r e w i l l be l e s s emphasis on volume (status) as p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e s and t h e r e i s more emphasis on the summit area of c o n s t r u c t i o n . Thus, p e r i o d s i n which p o p u l a t i o n i s low, where power i s c e n t r a l i z e d and s t a t u s i s emphasized, such as E a r l y Formation, the t r i b u t e r a t i o should be g r e a t e s t . In more complex s o c i e t i e s where p o p u l a t i o n s i z e and s p e c i a l i z a t i o n are g r e a t e r (Late Formation), the l a b o r i n g p o p u l a t i o n may be s p e c i a l i z e d c l a s s w i t h i n the g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n , so the t r i b u t e r a t i o should be s m a l l e r than f o r e a r l i e r p e r i o d s . In the change to a wealth economy, the t r i b u t e r a t i o should be h i g h e r than e a r l i e r p e r i o d s because c o n s t r u c t i o n w i l l emphasize s t a t u s (volume) as r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n d e c l i n e s . 5. C e n t r a l i z a t i o n . In the s u b s i s t e n c e economy, the percentage of c o n s t r u c t i o n at the core (volume and summit area) should d e c l i n e with time as secondary s i t e s appear i n the r u r a l areas. I n i t i a l c e n t r a l i z a t i o n 98 should approach 100%. In the change t o a wealth economy, c o n s t r u c t i o n w i l l be more c e n t r a l i z e d than i n the p r e c e d i n g p e r i o d , and more c e n t r a l i z e d i n ge n e r a l as p o p u l a t i o n s i z e and number of secondary mound s i t e s d e c l i n e s . 6. Complexity/Hierarchy. In the s u b s i s t e n c e economy, a g r e a t e r v a r i e t y of s i t e types w i l l appear with time and t h e r e w i l l be a g r e a t e r percentage of complex s i t e s ( s i t e s l a r g e r than hamlets). There w i l l be g r e a t e r v a r i e t y i n s i t e s i z e (volume) and f e a t u r e s ( a r c h i t e c t u r a l forms) with time i n c e n t r a l and r u r a l areas. In the change t o a wealth economy, th e r e w i l l be fewer s i t e types than b e f o r e (and g e n e r a l l y ) , a lower percentage of complex s i t e s and l e s s v a r i e t y i n s i t e s i z e and f e a t u r e s i n the r u r a l area. 7. S p a t i a l D i s t r i b u t i o n of Settlement (population, s i t e s ) . In the s u b s i s t e n c e economy, th e r e w i l l be g r e a t e r s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of s i t e s with time as p o p u l a t i o n growth and demands f o r p r o d u c t i o n b r i n g settlement t o more d i s t a n t p a r t s of the p o l i t i c a l t e r r i t o r y . Consequently, t h e r e w i l l be a more even d i s t r i b u t i o n of p o p u l a t i o n i n the c o n c e n t r i c r i n g s with time (absolute s i z e , d e n s i t y , percentage of t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n i n each r i n g ) . T h i s development a l s o c r e a t e s the p o t e n t i a l f o r the appearance of secondary a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s i t e s . Thus, mound s i t e s should appear i n a more d i s p e r s e d p a t t e r n i n the r i n g s as w e l l , 99 and i n p r o p o r t i o n t o p o p u l a t i o n s i z e . However, the p a t t e r n would be m o d i f i e d by lower d e n s i t i e s towards the edges of the study area due t o l i m i t s imposed by the s u b s i s t e n c e f i n a n c i n g system. In the change t o a wealth economy, s i n c e i n t e r e s t i n s u b s i s t e n c e p r o d u c t i o n w i l l d e c l i n e , t h e r e may be l i t t l e or no r e s t r i c t i o n s on settlement l o c a t i o n . Furthermore, a wealth f i n a n c e system w i l l i n c r e a s e the e f f e c t i v e range of p o l i t i c a l i n f l u e n c e . For both these reasons, r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n s may be very d i s p e r s e d and smal l i n r e l a t i o n t o the core s i t e ( since p o p u l a t i o n w i l l be c e n t r a l i z e d ) and t o the s u b s i s t e n c e formations. 8. Land Use. For the s u b s i s t e n c e economy, optimal lands w i l l be occupied f i r s t ( E a r l y Formation) and w i l l always be p r e f e r r e d over l e s s p r o d u c t i v e lands. However, t h e r e w i l l be a gradual i n c r e a s e i n the use of marginal a g r i c u l t u r a l lands as p o l i t i c a l p r e s s u r e f o r t r i b u t e / p r o d u c t i o n i n c r e a s e s ( i n d i c a t e d by more frequent settlement on marginal l a n d ) . In a change t o a trade-based s t a t u s system, the occupation of l e s s d e s i r e a b l e (marginal) lands w i l l d e c l i n e as r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n s i z e d e c l i n e s , remains s t a b l e or i n c r e a s e s more slowly than b e f o r e . R u r a l p o p u l a t i o n w i l l d e c l i n e s h a r p l y r e l a t i v e t o ce n t e r (urban) p o p u l a t i o n s . 100 CHAPTER 5. ANALYSIS IDENTIFYING FEATURES OF THE WEALTH BASED ECONOMY What a r c h a e o l o g i c a l p e r i o d s ( s e e T a b l e 1) a t K a m i n a l j u y u may be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e A l t e r n a t i v e F o r m a t i o n ? T h i s s e c t i o n d e s c r i b e s t h e q u a l i t a t i v e f e a t u r e s o f t h e w e a l t h b a s e d economy i n o r d e r t o : 1) i d e n t i f y p e r i o d s w h i c h a r e c a n d i d a t e s f o r t h e A l t e r n a t i v e F o r m a t i o n a n d 2) p r o v i d e a b a s i s f o r c o m p a r i s o n w i t h t h e q u a n t i t a t i v e a n a l y s e s c o n t a i n e d i n t h i s s t u d y . A q u a l i t a t i v e , d e s c r i p t i v e e v a l u a t i o n o f e a c h mound b u i l d i n g p h a s e ( L a t e F o r m a t i v e t o T e r m i n a l C l a s s i c ) i s p r o v i d e d a c c o r d i n g t o c r i t e r i a e x p e c t e d f o r t h e A l t e r n a t i v e F o r m a t i o n ( h y p o t h e s e s , p o i n t 1 ) . L a t e F o r m a t i v e (1500 B.C.-200 B.C.) E v i d e n c e f o r l o n g - d i s t a n c e c o n t a c t a n d e x c h a n g e i s p r e s e n t b u t s p a r s e . T h e r e w ere g e n e r a l s i m i l a r i t i e s w i t h d e v e l o p e d c o m m u n i t i e s a l o n g t h e P a c i f i c C o a s t ( t h e " P o s t Olmec" p e r i o d ) a n d G u l f C o a s t (Olmec) i n s t o n e s c u l p t u r e t r a d i t i o n s a n d c o n v e n t i o n s ( P a r s o n s 1 986:27-44, 9 1 - 9 4 ) . The s e v e n known b u r i a l s a t K a m i n a l j u y u w e re e i t h e r u n a c c o m p a n i e d b y g o o d s o r c o n t a i n e d m a i n l y u t i l i t a r i a n g o o d s ( B a l l 1 9 7 3 : 1 8 1 - 1 8 2 ; B e b r i c h a n d Wynn 19 7 3 : 7 9 - 8 2 ; E s p i n o s a 1967; F i t t i n g a n d D i e h l 1 9 7 9 : 3 8 4 ) . However, j a d e b e a d s a n d an Olmec s t y l e j a d e p e n d a n t w ere f o u n d i n a c e r e m o n i a l c a c h e i n Mound C - I I I - 6 (Shook 1 9 5 1 ) . O u t s i d e t h e s t u d y a r e a , a n e c k l a c e o f j a d e b e a d s , p a r t o f t h e c o n t e n t s o f a l o o t e d 101 g r a v e , w e re r e p o r t e d f o r t h e s i t e o f C o n t r e r a s (84-42-177) (Shook 1 9 5 2 : 1 5 , 3 2 ) . A t c e n t r a l K a m i n a l j u y u , e v i d e n c e o f c r a f t p r o d u c t i o n , a n d t y p i c a l w e a l t h g o o d s were a b s e n t f r o m t e s t p i t a s s e m b l a g e s ( M i c h e l s 1 9 7 9 a : 2 6 8 - 2 6 9 ) . The L a t e F o r m a t i v e was an a c t i v e mound b u i l d i n g p e r i o d , b u t t h e r e was l i t t l e e v i d e n c e o f s i t e h i e r a r c h i z a t i o n as t h e mound g r o u p s h a d s i m i l a r s i t e p l a n s a n d w e re o f a b o u t e q u a l s i z e ( s u r f a c e a r e a a n d v o l u m e ) . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e L a t e F o r m a t i v e i s n o t a c a n d i d a t e f o r t h e w e a l t h b a s e d economy ( A l t e r n a t i v e F o r m a t i o n ) , s i n c e i t d i d n o t d i s p l a y t h e a p p r o p r i a t e f e a t u r e s . T e r m i n a l F o r m a t i v e (200 B . C . - 1 B . C . ) C o n t e n t s o f e l a b o r a t e , r i c h l y f u r n i s h e d tombs a t K a m i n a l j u y u r e v e a l t h a t t h e p o l i t i c a l e l i t e s h a d a c c e s s t o a w i d e v a r i e t y o f e x o t i c w e a l t h g o o d s r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e f i n e s t a v a i l a b l e c r a f t p r o d u c t i o n . Mound E - I I I - 3 c o n t a i n e d two o f t h e most e l a b a r a t e tombs known a t t h e s i t e (Shook a n d K i d d e r 1 9 5 2 ) . A s i m i l a r e l i t e tomb was f o u n d n e a r b y i n Mound D-IV-2 ( B o r h e g y i 1 9 5 6 ) . A n o n - mound s i t e , known a s "Tumba M i r a f l o r e s " a l s o c o n t a i n e d an e l a b o r a t e T e r m i n a l F o r m a t i v e b u r i a l ( E s p i n o s a A g u i l a r 1 9 6 0 ) . F i n e l y c r a f t e d a r t i f a c t s f o u n d i n t h e s e tombs were made o f a w i d e v a r i e t y o f l o c a l a n d i m p o r t e d m a t e r i a l s , i n c l u d i n g , j a d e , m a r b l e , f l i n t , m i c a , q u a r t z , b a s a l t , p y r i t e / h e m a t i t e , o b s i d i a n , v a r i o u s f i n e c e r a m i c s , s h e l l , s t i n g r a y s p i n e . The m a j o r i t y o f h a b i t a t i o n c o m p o n e n t s f o u n d i n t h e t e s t p i t e x c a v a t i o n s w e re c l a s s i f i e d a s e l i t e h o u s e h o l d s ( 4 8 - 1 0 0 % i n t h e 102 t e n d i v i s i o n s o f t h e s i t e ) ( M i c h e l s 1979a:151). Fu r t h e r m o r e , a l l known ho u s e h o l d s , r e g a r d l e s s o f s t a t u s , were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h w e a l t h goods and d e b r i s from o r a r t i f a c t s used i n t h e i r manufacture ( M i c h e l s 1979a:99-131, 151-152). A p p a r e n t l y , K a m i n a l j u y u was an " e n c l a v e " f o r w e a l t h y e l i t e , t h e i r s u p p o r t p o p u l a t i o n and c r a f t w o r k e r s . R e g i o n a l c e r a m i c t r a d i t i o n s i n d i c a t e c l o s e l o n g - d i s t a n c e c o n t a c t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h i n t h e " M i r a f l o r e s sphere" o f The C e n t r a l H i g h l a n d s and P a c i f i c Coast o f Guatemala and E l S a l v a d o r (Demarest and S h a r e r 1986). Stone s c u l p t u r e s t y l e s , f e a t u r i n g c a r v e d c a l e n d r i c i n s c r i p t i o n s , i n d i c a t e c o n t a c t w i t h d i s t a n t s i t e s such as I z a p a , Abaj T a k a l i k , C h o c o l a , B i l b a o , E l B a u l , Chalchuapa (Parsons 1986:53-60,63-70, 94-96). P a r s o n s has ob s e r v e d t h a t M i r a f l o r e s s t o n e s c u l p t u r e s o f e l a b o r a t e l y d r e s s e d , s i n g l e f i g u r e s d e p i c t " h i e r a r c h i c a l r e a l personages and even h i s t o r i c a l d y n a s t i e s , perhaps i n c l u d i n g god i m p e r s o n a t o r s w i t h c l a i m s t o d i v i n e d e s c e n t " (Parsons 1986:90). Mound b u i l d i n g was c a r r i e d out i n massive s c a l e a t t h i s t i m e , and t h e l a r g e s t mounds c o n t a i n e d t h e most e l a b o r a t e tombs (Mounds E - I I I - 3 and D-IV-2). The T e r m i n a l F o r m a t i v e was by f a r t h e most a c t i v e mound b u i l d i n g p e r i o d a t t h e s i t e , w i t h t h e most (68) and l a r g e s t mounds and t h e most a m b i t i o u s b u i l d i n g program. C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e T e r m i n a l F o r m a t i v e ( M i r a f l o r e s ) i s i d e n t i f i e d as an e x c e l l e n t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e f o r a w e a l t h based economy ( A l t e r n a t i v e F o r m a t i o n ) . 103 P r o t o c l a s s i c (A.D.I - A.D.200) A l t h o u g h mound b u i l d i n g was a c t i v e d u r i n g t h e P r o t o c l a s s i c , and s i n g l e , l a r g e ( l i n e a g e ) p y r a m i d mounds were p r e s e n t , e l a b o r a t e tombs such as t h o s e f o r t h e T e r m i n a l F o r m a t i v e were not found i n e x c a v a t i o n s . There i s e v i d e n c e of P r o t o c l a s s i c c o n s t r u c t i o n on Mound E - I I I - 3 , but no a s s o c i a t e d tomb. Only s i x b u r i a l s a r e known from K a m i n a l j u y u , two i n t h e Palangana (Cheek 1977:179-183), and f o u r i n Mound A-VI - 6 ( K i r s c h 1973). S m a l l q u a n t i t i e s o f g r a v e goods were found and some n o n - l o c a l m a t e r i a l s were p r e s e n t . M a t e r i a l s i n c l u d e d , r e d beads, j a d e , h e m a t i t e , mica, a n t l e r t i n e , human t e e t h . Ceramics i n c l u d e d a f i g u r i n e head, i n c e n s a r i o f ragments, u t i l i t a r i a n and f i n e wares. U s u l u t a n wares i n d i c a t e c o n t a c t w i t h S a l v a d o r and remnants o f t h e M i r a f l o r e s p e r i o d . The a n a l y s i s o f t e s t p i t assemblages r e v e a l s t h a t , a l t h o u g h n o n - l o c a l w e a l t h m a t e r i a l s were p r e s e n t , t h e workshop manufacture was no l o n g e r a s s o c i a t e d e x c l u s i v e l y w i t h e l i t e h o useholds ( M i c h e l s 1979a:160-167). E v i d e n c e of commoner s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i n c r a f t p r o d u c t i o n was found a t two n o n - e l i t e c l u s t e r s a t t h e s i t e ( M i c h e l s 1979a:165-166). Thus, i t appears t h a t 1. The f l o w o f w e a l t h goods had d i m i n i s h e d from t h e T e r m i n a l F o r m a t i v e 2. The e l i t e s had l o s t t h e i r monopoly on w e a l t h goods and 3. E l i t e s were not a b l e t o d e p o s i t w e a l t h goods i n e l a b o r a t e tombs. The P r o t o c l a s s i c p o l i t y was a c t i v e i n p r o d u c i n g stone s c u l p t u r e , w h i c h seems t o r e f e r t o " h i s t o r i c a l " e v e n t s (Parsons 1986:60-63,71-73,95) and d e p i c t s c a p t o r s and c a p t i v e s and 104 d i s p l a y s o f m i l i t a r y i m p l e m e n t s ( P a r s o n s 1 9 8 6 : 1 0 4 ) . The P r o t o c l a s s i c i s a p r o b l e m a t i c p e r i o d f o r , a l t h o u g h i t was c l e a r l y u n l i k e t h e m o n o l i t h i c T e r m i n a l F o r m a t i v e , t h e r e a r e i n d i c a t i o n s o f a c t i v e e x t e r n a l t r a d e a n d c o n t a c t , b u t n o t e x c l u s i v e l y t h r o u g h t h e h i g h e l i t e s . The s a m p l e o f s i x b u r i a l s a t o n l y two s i t e s d o e s n o t e x c l u d e t h e e x i s t e n c e o f e l a b o r a t e i n t e r m e n t s w e r e . E v i d e n c e o f m i l i t a r y t hemes i n s t o n e s c u l p t u r e i m p l i e s d i m i n i s h e d t r a d i n g a c t i v i t y . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e P r o t o c l a s s i c i s a p o s s i b l e , b u t weak, c a n d i d a t e f o r t h e w e a l t h b a s e d economy ( A l t e r n a t i v e F o r m a t i o n ) . E a r l y C l a s s i c (A.D.200 - A.D.400) M i c h e l s h a s a r g u e d t h a t w e a l t h g o o d s p r o d u c t i o n was e v e n more d e c e n t r a l i z e d t h a n i n t h e P r o t o c l a s s i c . E c o n o m i c s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i n o b s i d i a n t o o l p r o d u c t i o n ( m o s t l y b l a d e s ) was c o n f i n e d t o a " b a r r i o " i n t h e s o u t h w e s t p a r t o f t h e s i t e . L o w e r e l i t e s a n d commoners a t t h e s i t e were d e f i n i t e l y more i n v o l v e d i n p r o d u c t i o n . I n f a c t , t h e m a j o r i t y o f h o u s e h o l d c o m p o n e n t s i n t h e t e s t t r e n c h e s w e re n o n - e l i t e ( M i c h e l s 1 9 7 9 a : 2 1 9 ) . O n l y f i v e b u r i a l s a r e known f r o m K a m i n a l j u y u i n t h e E a r l y C l a s s i c . The most f o r m a l was f o u n d i n Mound D - I I I - 1 3 , an i n t e r e s t i n g mound a f f i x e d w i t h an adobe "mask" on i t s f a c a d e s i m i l a r t o o n e s f o u n d a t C e r r o s , U a x a c t u n a n d T i k a l a b o u t t h i s t i m e ( a n d Mound D - I I I - 1 n e a r b y ) . The b u r i a l c o n t a i n e d o n l y a few a r t i f a c t s i n c l u d i n g m o s t l y c e r a m i c v e s s e l s , a n d some g r e e n s t o n e b e a d s . The mound i t s e l f was t h e s e c o n d l a r g e s t E a r l y C l a s s i c 105 c o n s t r u c t i o n a t t h e s i t e ( a f t e r mound C - I I I - 1 ) , t h o u g h v e r y s m a l l b y P r o t o c l a s s i c a n d T e r m i n a l F o r m a t i v e s t a n d a r d s . S t o n e s c u l p t u r e i s r e p r e s e n t e d b y o n l y one s t e l a , a n d P a r s o n s c o n c l u d e s t h i s r e p r e s e n t s a h i a t u s i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f monuments ( P a r s o n s 1 9 8 6 : 7 9 - 8 1 ) . Though t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e o f w e a l t h t r a d e a n d e x t e r n a l c o n t a c t i n t h e e a r l y C l a s s i c , i t was n o t e x t e n s i v e n o r v e r y a c t i v e . T h i s p e r i o d s t a n d s i n d i r e c t c o n t r a s t t o t h e T e r m i n a l F o r m a t i v e a n d i s n o t a c a n d i d a t e f o r t h e w e a l t h b a s e d economy ( A l t e r n a t i v e F o r m a t i o n ) . M i d d l e C l a s s i c (A.D.200 - A.D.400) K a m i n a l j u y u ' s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a M e s o a m e r i c a n c o m m e r c i a l n e t w o r k d o m i n a t e d by T e o t i h u a c a n i s w e l l d o c u m e n t e d (Brown 1 9 7 7 : 3 0 4 - 3 6 5 ; Cheek 1 9 7 7 : 1 2 7 - 1 4 0 ; M i c h e l s 1 9 7 9 a ) . K a m i n a l j u y u a p p e a r e d t o o c c u p y a s t r a t e g i c p o s i t i o n i n t h i s n e t w o r k . Brown a r g u e s t h a t i t f u n c t i o n e d a s a p o r t - o f - t r a d e , a n d t h a t a c t u a l t r a d i n g t o o k p l a c e a t t h e s i t e o f S o l a n o , 9.5 km s o u t h e a s t o f K a m i n a l j u y u , w here w e a l t h g o o d s were p r e s e n t i n d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e q u a n t i t y . He a r g u e s t h a t t h e l o c a l e l i t e s were n o t d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d i n t h i s t r a d e (as t h e y were i n t h e T e r m i n a l F o r m a t i v e ) , b u t a c c e p t e d f e e s f r o m s p e c i a l i z e d t r a d e r s . Some o f t h e s e t r a d e r s r e s i d e d a t Mounds F - V I - 1 (Mound A) a n d F - V I - 2 (Mound B ) , w here w e a l t h g o o d s , o f t e n w i t h T e o t i h u a c a n m o t i f s , were a b u n d a n t i n a s e r i e s o f e l a b o r a t e tombs ( K i d d e r , J e n n i n g s a n d Shook 1 9 4 6 ) . Many a d d i t i o n a l b u r i a l s h a v e b e e n r e c o r d e d , u s u a l l y c o n t a i n i n g a 106 v a r i e t y of e x o t i c wealth goods ( f o r summary see Murdy 1 8 8 4 : 1 4 8 - 156) . Monumental c o n s t r u c t i o n appeared at the Palangana and A c r o p o l i s complexes, Mounds A and B, and at Solano, and c a r r i e d the d i s t i n c t i v e Teotihuacan a r c h i t e c t u r a l f e a t u r e s ( f o r example, talud-tablero c o n s t r u c t i o n and stone f a c i n g ) . Formal b a l l c o u r t s appeared at t h i s time, and b a l l c o u r t markers d i s p l a y e d C o a s t a l Cotzumalhuapan "Mexican" s t y l e s and themes (Parsons 1 9 8 6 : 8 3 - 8 6 ) . As i n the Terminal Formative and P r o t o c l a s s i c , Kaminaljuyu was again predominantly i n h a b i t e d by e l i t e c l a s s households (Michels 1 9 7 9 a : 2 1 9 ) . T h i s marked a c l e a r change from the E a r l y C l a s s i c , as the s i t e appeared to become an e l i t e enclave. Therefore, the Middle C l a s s i c does represent c o n d i t i o n s expected f o r the wealth based economy ( A l t e r n a t i v e Formation). Late C l a s s i c (A.D .600 - A.D . 800 ) Brown has proposed t h a t the Middle C l a s s i c t r a d e route through the V a l l e y of Guatemala s h i f t e d west to the Antigua V a l l e y as a consequence of c o m p e t i t i o n from P a c i f i c piedmont groups a s s o c i a t e d with the Cotzumalhuapan p o l i t y (Brown 1 9 7 7 : 1 5 9 - 1 6 0 ). Parsons has noted t h a t the Cotzumalhuapan t r a d i t i o n i n s c u l p t u r e was a l r e a d y present i n Antigua and other "convenient" access routes t o the h i g h l a n d s from the P a c i f i c Coast (Parsons 1 9 8 6 : 8 2 ) . At Kaminaljuyu the s t y l e was a l r e a d y manifest i n b a l l c o u r t markers ("tenoned heads") which appeared i n Middle C l a s s i c components. This change was a l s o a s s o c i a t e d with the 107 w i t h d r a w a l o f T e o t i h u a c a n from t h e V a l l e y and t h e d i s a p p e a r a n c e o f Mexican m o t i f s i n a r c h i t e c t u r e and a r t i f a c t s . Some L a t e C l a s s i c remains a t K a m i n a l j u y u , such as i s o l a t e d s k u l l s a t b a l l c o u r t s i t e s ( B - I I I - 5 ) were i n some cases s a c r i f i c i a l o r d e d i c a t o r y . The most e l a b o r a t e o f seven b u r i a l s known i s a group o f f i v e a d u l t s found near (not w i t h i n ) Mound B - V - l l . T h i s c o n t a i n e d o n l y a few c e r a m i c v e s s e l s , t h r e e o b s i d i a n b l a d e s and a f r o g e f f i g y . Meanwhile, t h e e l i t e d o m i n a t i o n o f K a m i n a l j u y u d e c l i n e d s h a r p l y , as d i d t h e number of households engaged i n w e a l t h goods p r o d u c t i o n ( M i c h e l s 1979a:219-220). C o n s t r u c t i o n was not u n d e r t a k e n on a massive s c a l e ( r e l a t i v e t o p o p u l a t i o n s i z e ) , but was c o n f i n e d t o r e n o v a t i n g and e n l a r g i n g and e n c l o s i n g e x i s t i n g mounds and b a l l c o u r t c e n t e r s a t t h e c o r e and c o n s t r u c t i n g minor b a l l c o u r t s i t e s a t t h e s i t e p e r i p h e r y (Mound groups B-IV-2, F - V - l , E-V-2). M i c h e l s has argued t h a t t h e i n c r e a s e o f s p e c i a l i z e d s t o n e t o o l s i n t h e t e s t p i t s i n d i c a t e s t h a t a g r i c u l t u r a l i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n was p r a c t i c e d i n t h e L a t e C l a s s i c ( M i c h e l s 1979a:210, F i g u