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Opportunities along Vancouver's waterfront : a gateway to False Creek at Hadden Park Whittaker, Anne-Marie 2006

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OPPORTUNITIES A L O N G V A N C O U V E R ' S WATERFRONT A GATEWAY TO FALSE CREEK AT H A D D E N PARK by . ANNE-MARIE JANE WHITTAKER B.Sc, Dalhousie University, 1999 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER IN LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE in • The Faculty of Graduate Studies (Landscape Architecture) UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA November 2006 © Anne-Marie Jane Whittaker, 2006 " ( • \ ABSTRACT Local and regional patterns and qualities of form and topos are central to p lacemak-ing and imageability of a city. These qualities c a n support, enrich and dictate the functions, events and experience of p lace that are expressive and appropriate to that region. This idea is from both critical regionalism and the general notion that in great places, form and activities share a logical symbiosis with the landscape. The current planning approach for future development and design at Vancouver's waterfront does not fully capitalize on the qualities of landscape and its tremendous inherent opportunities for programming and design. As an alternate approach to locating future development, this project examines the regional landscape patterns and qualities of form and topos along the waterfront as a framework for locating new development opportunities along the waterfront. The landscape framework identifies six key landforms along the waterfront: the prom-ontory, peninsula, escarpment, bay, narrows andjnlet . Each landform is described through the use of the preposition and its 'role' in the City determined from this de-scription. For example, a promontory and peninsula are prominent, locative features, described as out, above , and in front of. Located along a p a s s a g e , its role is a land-mark for navigation, a transportation node, lookout, historic marker, p lace for public art, etc. A concep t design for a gateway to False Creek in Hadden Park is generated to dem-onstrate how the landscape framework is appl ied. Positioned at the entrance to False Creek and on a promontory, the park's strong association with the water and role as a 'gateway ' within the City is a great p lace for a Boater Community and Welcome Centre. The concep t design builds on the promontory as a main axis, extends public activities outward onto, the water, marks the gateway and creates a major public water transportation node. The landform and its landscape appropriate design be-comes an imageable reference point within the City, hosts new public activities and generates additional meaning along the waterfront. Landscape based framework as a planning approach to future waterfront devel-opment ensures that key places within the City (for instance, viewpoints, landmarks, gateways, etc.) are marked and recognized. It provides a stronger link to Vancouver's regional identity, imageability within the urban fabric, and sense of p lace with excit-ing and meaningful opportunities. , J . • TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT ii TABLE OF CONTENTS iii LIST OF TABLES....: ' v LIST OF FIGURES .' vi FOREWORD. --viii CHAPTER 1: Introduction a n d Background 1 1.0 Project Summary 1 1.2 Overv iew of Vancouver 's Waterfront --1 1.3 Overv iew of Waterfront Policy .....9 1.4 The N e e d for a N e w A p p r o a c h 12 1.5 Project Goals 14 1.6 Project Object ives 14 1.7 Me thodo logy a n d Process 16 CHAPTER 2: Design Theory 18 2.1 Introduction 18 2.2 L a n d s c a p e Order a n d Program Structure 18 2.3 A C o n c e p t of P l a c e for Vancouver '. 20 2.4 Describing L a n d s c a p e Order at the Waterfront 21 2.5 A Design A p p r o a c h 22 CHAPTER 3: Waterfront L a n d s c a p e Exploration a n d Framework 23 3.1 Introduction 23 3.2 • Regional a n d Loca l Sca le L a n d s c a p e Analysis 23 C H A P T E R 4: Hadden Park Site and Landscape Analysis and Design C o n c e p t 27 ! " 4 . 1 Site Introduction • • -27 4.2 Existing Site Circulation ..27 4.3 Existing Uses / • • 27 4.4 Landscape Analysis and Opportunities 36 4.5 • Site Design - Overview and Concep t Statement 38 4.6 Site Plan and Design Discussion 38 4.7 Design Program 38 4.8 Site Circulation 46 4.9 Escarpment Viewpoints .47 4.10 Boater Community Centre, Exhibit Hall and Boater Workshop .48 4.11 The Gateway Pier (Elsje Point) -.. 50 4.12 Side Beaches and Water Gardens ...51 Bibliography 52 Appendix A Waterfront Policy : c. 54 Appendix B The Preposition 60 iv LIST OF TABLES Table 1. Special events at Vancouver's waterfront ,...3 Table 2. Public open space at Vancouver's waterfront. 3 Table 3. Publicly accessible waterfront lands 4 Table 4. Waterfront shoreline treatments 5 Table 5. Waterfront policy approach 13 Table 6. Landforms, policy and programming opportunities 24 Table 7. Hadden Park landforms and programming opportunities .37 Table 8. Hadden Park design program .^..43 Table 9. Hadden Park design summary of program elements .45 j LIST OF FIGURES Figured. Vancouver waterfront development 2 Figure 2. . Tourist images of Vancouver 2 Figure 3. The Festival of Lights • -.-3 Figure 4. M a p of open space at Vancouver's waterfront: 4 Figure 5. Activities at the waterfront . 6 Figure 6. Former waterfront industrial areas 7 Figure 7. - Commerc ia l activity at the waterfront 7 Figure 8. Aquabus and False Creek Ferries 8 Figure 9. Aging infrastructure at the waterfront. 8 Figure 1 0 . Private marinas at the waterfront • 8 Figure 11. Waterfront shoreline treatment 8 Figure 12. Historic markers on the waterfront ; 1 0 Figure 13. Industry at the waterfront -13 Figure 14. Diagram of project process 15 Figure 15. Edinburgh castle 19 Figure 16. Istanbul waterfront : ; '• • 1 9 Figure 17. Stonehenge ' 1 9 Figure 18. Regional and landform analysis of Vancouver and the region 25 Figure 19. Vancouver's physical and cultural expression of p lace 26 * Figure 20. Landform analysis of False Creek and English Bay. 26 Figure 21. Hadden Park site location map 28 Figure 22. Hadden Park site map- 29 Figure 23. Hadden Park facilities map -30 Figure 24. Panoramic photographs of Hadden Park site 31 Figure 25. Existing Hadden Park site circulation 32 Figure 26. Pathway materials and accessibility at Hadden Park 32 Figure 27. Hadden Park existing site uses ..33 Figure 28. Hadden Park existing site markers 35 Figure 29. Landform analysis of Hadden Park 37 , Figure 30. Axonometric site design overview. ;39 Figure 31.. Hadden Park conceptua l site plan 41 Figure 32. . Hadden Park section overview -42 Figure 33. Proposed site circulation 46 Proposed escarpment viewpoints - perspective drawing Boater repair and work shop - section drawing 1:200 Boater repair and work shop - perspective drawing Gateway pier - section drawing 1:200 Water gardens and picnic area - section drawing 1:100 FOREWORD This project e m e r g e d from a strong interest in Vancouver ' s 'sense of p l a c e ' a n d for its existing but more-so, future publ ic rea lm. With this, was a curiosity for the various a p -p r o a c h e s to planning a n d design within the City a n d whether or not the planning a n d design ou tcomes c h a n g e , b a s e d on the initial perspect ive of the process. My intent was to explore alternative ways of looking at Vancouver ' s waterfront a n d locat ing the facilities a n d in tended programming object ives out l ined in the current waterfront p lanning a n d policy documents . While working for the Vancouve r Board of Parks a n d Recreat ion, I c o n d u c t e d the V a n c o u v e r Waterfront Inventory. The inventory work consisted of making observations on physical qualities a n d facilities to inform the Park Board on the existing waterfront condi t ions (and therefore n e e d for future improvements) . The a p p r o a c h was very ca tego r i ca l , funct ional a n d thorough (for examp le , there are 12 g a r b a g e cans, 4 bike racks, a food concess ion a n d a washroom at English Bay). M u c h of this infor-mat ion a n d process prov ided b a c k g r o u n d information for this project. It was a very useful evaluat ion tool from m a n y standpoints (establishing priorities, etc.) . However, I w o n d e r e d how it served to make sense of the experient ial aspects a n d the waterfront system within the context of the City. At a b o u t the same time, I b e g a n to realize how hugely important the waterfront was to the City a n d its pecul iar role as Vancouver ' s surrogate for a tradit ional city cent re . Staring at ortho photos a n d walk ing the shoreline many times over, I thought abou t how Vancouver 's geog raph i ca l position was the main ordering e lement that resulted in the waterfronts key role (not to ment ion, inf luence on the who le City's urban form, sense of p l a c e , a n d even cultural urban myths). I was curious whether, as a next step, working with this l andscape order (seeing that it was such a strong force within the City) a n d using the notion of l a n d s c a p e order, as a basis or a p p r o a c h to p lanning a n d design wou ld be a useful tool to build upon Vancouver 's waterfront exper ience a n d its p l a c e within the City (identity, sense of p l a c e , imageabi l i ty) . These ideas were the starting point for my project. The l a n d s c a p e is the lens from wh ich to v iew the waterfront a n d identify opportunit ies, new p laces a n d mark spec ia l sites a long the waterfront. CHAPTER O N E v. Introduction and Background J 1. 1 Project Summary This project examines the regional landscape patterns and qualities of form and to-pos along Vancouver's waterfront as a framework to locate a new design and pro-gramming opportunity for a Boater Community and Welcome Centre in Hadden Park along False Creek on Vancouver's waterfront. Chapter one briefly outlines issues along the waterfront and identifies the need to locate-new design and programming there which better reflects the City and it's w a -terfront landscape. Chapter two explores a concep t of p lace for the waterfront, its imageability in the City and the ways of describing landscape along the waterfront. Chapter four explores regional patterns and qualities of form and topos along "the waterfront and builds the framework which locates places for. new design concepts and programming. Chapter five further develops one of these places a long the w a -terfront cal led Hadden Park. 1.2 Overview of Vancouver's Waterfront Vancouver has b e c o m e a model of 'contemporary urbanism'. Under accelerat ing globalization of markets and cultures, the City core has been reinventing itself, and fast. In the last 30 years it has undergone huge transformations and is still experienc-ing a significant p a c e of development, much of it, concentrated at the waterfront (Figure 1). Vancouver's waterfront has a special relationship to the City a n d therefore, what ' happens there is particularly important to Vancouver's sense of p lace, identity and imageability (Figure 2). In Vancouver, the cultural, social and political functions typi-cally fulfilled by the more traditional public spaces of the Western city are primarily performed by the spaces associated with the shoreline, waterfront park and seawall p romenade (Berelowitz, 2005). Even the City's largest and most popular City-wide special events, such as, the Festival of Lights, Children's Festival, Folk Music Festival, Polar Bear Swim and the Dragon Boat Races occur at sites along the waterfront and not in central locations, as they typically would in other cities (Table 1 and Figure 3). Figure 2. Typical tourist images of Vancouver, there is a strong association with the water and waterfront related activities (; [searchword: Vancouver, British Columbia]) Figure 3. Crowds gather at English Bay for the Festival of Lights in July, held at the waterfront, the fire-works display over the water; in a sense, the water is similar to that of a public square (left picture,; right photo by Leysa Fesiak). Table 1. Summary of the City-wide special events held along Vancouver's waterfront in comparison with those held in other parts of the City. The waterfront is an important place for City-wide special events (modified from Vancouver Board of Parks and Recreation, 2005). TYPE OF SPECIAL EVENT Walk / Run Community Major City-Wide Festivals Total number of events held along the waterfront 46% 40% 58% Total number of events held in other areas of the City 54% 60% 42% Estimated max. number of people in atten-dance (waterfront)* 9,0750 14,100 400,000 Estimated max. number of people in atten-dance (City)* 4,500 15,500 26,000 * The amount recorded is of the event with the highest number of peop le in a t t e n d a n c e . There is 68.7km of shoreline from the Second Narrows Bridge west to the peninsula at UBC and along the Fraser River to Boundary Road (Figure 4). At present, more than half (58%) of the foreshore is publicly accessible, where the rest (42%) of the water-front remains primarily a working port (Table 2). Table 2. Much of Vancouver's public open space system is located along the waterfront (Vancouver Board of Parks and Recreation, 2005). Category Length (km) Percentage (%) Working Port Lands and Private Industrial Land 28.8 42 Public Open Space 39.9 58 Total 68.7 100% 3 Table 3. Percentage of waterfront lands that are publicly accessible (note: does not include industrial land with no access or GVRD Pacific Spirit Park), shown on the map below. Category Length (km) Percentage (%) City (incl. waterfront street ends) 6.9 10 Parks 26.4 38 Federal Government 2 3 Temporary (easement) 3.3 5 Figure 4. Map of Vancouver's open space system at the waterfront (modified from, Vancouver Board of Parks and Recreation, 2005). Much of the waterfront open space is concentrated primarily in the central core. Red dots indicate four successful waterfront nodes along the waterfront (not in any order). 1. Second Beach, Stanley Park; 2. English Bay Beach; 3. Granville Island; 4. Kitsilano Beach, (note: partial access refers to accessible street ends in industrial areas) 4 v • • The waterfront is primarily about leisure, recreation and looking outward. The domi-nant waterfront feature is the seawall, regularly punctuated with standard viewing platforms, now a required feature in all new development along the waterfront. Al-though a popular destination, the seawall everywhere results in a somewhat homog-enous feel and viewing platforms render it passive and denote a somewhat seasonal feel and use to the waterfront open space system (Figure 5). Since the 1980s, former waterfront industrial areas have been deve loped into com-mercial and residential precincts (Figure 6). Adjacent shorelines were deve loped at the same time and in the same aesthetic style of the upland development. In the early 1990s, this caused much public concern for the loss of shoreline diversity, an issue that is still relevant today (Figure 7). As the residential areas replace former industrial areas, heavy use of the seawall generates increasing user conflict and this has b e c o m e one of the central issues in future planning and policy. Additionally, development has in-troduced more commercia l activity which is often met with public opposition. Despite being surrounded by water (and aside from the North Vancouver seabus), there are only small ferry services concentrated i^False Creek. This service is primarily focused on seasonal tourism rather than commuter traffic (Figure 8). Public waterfront structures, such as docks and piers along the waterfront are limited and aging (Figure 9). There are many marinas, primarily in C o a l Harbour and False Creek, but most are private and public access onto most floating docks is prohibited (Figure 10). At pres-ent, moorage space is at a premium for both visitors, Vancouverites and recreation groups. In response, both the City and the Park Board have set an a g e n d a to locate new public marina and moorage facilities, but have yet to do so. c Variations in shoreline treatments along the waterfront are minimal, especially in re-cently deve loped urban areas (Table 4). C o m m o n shoreline treatments maintain vi-sual access to the water but most do not facilitate physical public access (Figure 11), as a result, there is minimal informal and formal opportunities to get onto and off the water. In addition, much of the urban shoreline treatment does hot a c c o m m o d a t e opportunities for naturalized areas or eco log ica l provision; an aspect recognized by the Park Board as a growing public value and interest along the waterfront. Figure 5. Vancouver's waterfront seawall, somewhat ho-mogenous, punctuated by places to look out-ward and away from the city and more activities in the summer months. a) South west False Creek seawall. b) Downtown south seawall. c) Kitsilano Point bench. d) Stanley Park seawall viewing spot. e) Kitsilano Beach in mid-summer. d. e. Figure 6. Former and existing indus-trial areas at the water-front (Berelowitz, 2005). Figure 7. A 1991 Policy statement shows planning dis-tricts in the central area. The waterfront is not considered as a planning - design seg-ment of its own, but apart of other City dis-tricts (City of Vancouver, in Punter, 2003). Central Business District Uptown Office District Heritage Area Heritage Character Area "Choice of U s e V M i x e d Use' [ : : : | Residential Neighbourhood ^ Light Industry Q Skytrain line and station Figure 8 Aside from the North Shore seabus, the small aquabus is Vancouver's only ferry service. Figure 9. Jericho pier; many of the public waterfront struc-tures are aging. Figure 10. Many of the marinas along the waterfront are privately operated and therefore, not accessible to the public. Figure 11. An example of a vertical shoreline treatment along the waterfront, access to the water is vi-sual only. JU Table 4. Summary of shoreline treatments at the waterfront (modified from; Vancouver Board of Parks and Recreation, 2005). Shoreline treatment* Water access (intended) Eco-shoreline provision Most common on the'waterfront Most easily redeveloped vertical visual x structured visual . . . armour visual X / X b e a c h visual and physical X rocky intertidal visual and physical • X vegetated visual and physical X x boardwalk (water-front structures) visual and semi-' physical (over water) * Refer to Append ix B for a deta i led description of shoreline treatments. Perhaps more than any other part of Vancouver, the waterfront is the City's birth-p lace; it.records pieces of the city's evolution. Despite some efforts to express historic aspects of the waterfront, much of the shoreline's history is not readily evident or pre-sented in a creative or engaging manner (Figure 12). Industrial areas, are not publicly accessible (for reasons of security and liability) but are special places at the waterfront. Not only do many of these areas contain his-toric aspects but they are interesting and educat ional to the public. There are few opportunities for distant viewing or other ded ica ted spaces to publicly 'watch ' port activities (Figure 13). The Park Board has made some attempt to provide viewing ar-eas along Burrard Inlet and has begun to look for opportunities at street ends along the Fraser River. 1.3 Overview of Waterfront Policy The waterfront and adjacent uplands and water lots consist of several jurisdictional zones that include; The Provincial and Federal Government, The Vancouver Port Au-thority, The City of Vancouver, The Vancouver Board of Parks and Recreation, First Na-tions and private ownership. Each jurisdiction has their own policy for their respective sections of the waterfront and collaborates where required. Park spaces are planned, designed and managed by the Vancouver Board of Parks and Recreation, the sea-wall by the City and industrial or port areas by the Vancouver Port Authority or private holdings. City of Vancouver The City of Vancouver (the City) efforts have primarily focused on increasing public Figure 12. The waterfront is the City's birthplace. There my be more opportunities to mark this his-tory. a) A settlement at Brockton Point, 1837. b) A lone historic marker at the waterfront "Here Vancouver Began" . Figure 13. Industry is interesting at the waterfront. accessibility at the waterfront. In the mid 1990s it was recognized that while public a c -cess has increased, new developments at the waterfront had resulted in a loss of di-versity along the water's edge (Blueways Draft Report, 1997). Findings from the Water Opportunities Advisory Committee indicated that an emphasis on tidier, more urban shorelines had altered the character of the waterfront; there was less natural shore-line treatments, the size and number of small scale marine industrial and commercia l activities had been reduced and increased competit ion for waterfront property had meant a priority for higher value uses, such as large scale residential developments (City of Vancouver, Blueways Draft Report, 1997). In response, the City conduc ted a public process led by a volunteer advisory group, that resulted in the adopt ion of the Blueways Policy and Guidelines. The intent of the Blueways initiative was to provide a framework for future decisions and development at the waterfront with respect to City owned or m a n a g e d water-front lands (City of Vancouver, 1998). The policies include a vision statement, princi-pals, goals, and objectives for the overall waterfront, and then separate policies and guidelines for e a c h water body, Burrard Inlet, English Bay, False Creek and Fraser River (see Appendix A). The policies and guidelines outlined a mixture of both general intentions ("protect and improve environmental health") and specific activities ("En-courage. . .paddle sports"). Aside from the general water body, there were no specific locations listed for these activities or intended programs. Vancouver Board of Porks and Recreation Alongside the City's interests, the Vancouver Board of Parks and Recreation (Park Board) have waterfront interests that include the many parks and green spaces on or near the shoreline and their related recreational opportunities. The Park Board rec-ognizes the. Blueways Policies and Guidelines, but has also undertaken its own initia-tives of policy and planning. The Park Board deve loped a Park Master Plan in 1982 which laid out extensive recommendations for land acquisition and park develop-ment along the City's waterfront, most of which, such as the False Creek walkway and bikeway, have been ach ieved. Under the 1992 Park Management Plan the Park Board reinforced policies to acquire park land or work with other jurisdictions in order to provide visual and continuous direct public access to the water. It also sought to in-crease universal access and maintain da ta on health and safety aspects. In addit ion, the Park Board deve loped an urban landscape program whereby waterfront views and natural elements were introduced as considerations in waterfront park design. More recently, the Park Board has begun preparations to update park planning poli-cies that affect waterfront open spaces. The primary intent of the policy is to deal with common issues at the waterfront. This is primarily due to increased" demand of waterfront open space. Draft planning documents are outlined as act ion items and new management strategies. Key issues and concerns include; Manag ing Natural As-sets, Managing Compet ing Uses, Pathway/Seawal l Improvements, Commerc ia l Uses; Festivals and Celebrations, and Increase Access on and off the Water. In general and at this time, there are few specific locations identified for programming or design inter-ventions. The first step in the planning process was to conduct a waterfront inventory' \ to identify required work at the waterfront. This inventory included a review of acces -sibility, jurisdiction, shoreline treatments, potential for natural areas, .areas of interest for park acquisition, and physical waterfront structures and pathways. The Vancouver Port Authority Another major waterfront property owner is the Vancouver Port Authority (formerly, the Vancouver Port Corporation). The Vancouver Port Authority (VPA) is a corporate entity that moves cargo and passengers through the Port of Vancouver and is di-rected by a local board of industry and government members (VPA, 2005). As a land .use, the VPA occupies 21% of the waterfront. The VPA has a policy to ensure that port operations meet expec ted and consistently more demanding national and interna^ tional standards for security. Under such a policy, public access to the Port's water-front area is strictly prohibited and patrolled. This is becoming a significant issue to the City and Park Board with respect to public access and their long/term objectives. The Port 2010 Land Use Plan (introduced by VPC in 1995 following public consultation) is currently being updated with comments from the City and Park Board. Federal and Provincial Interests Jurisdiction over the marine environment is divided between the federal and provin-cial governments. The federal government retains constitutional jurisdiction over con-servation and management of all organisms in the water as well as iss.ues transcend-ing international boundaries, navigation, marine pollution and migratory birds. The provincial government owns all the coastal property above the low water mark and the seabed within inland waters, except in federal harbors and has the responsibility for the conservation and management of these areas. The province regulates coastal land use and has authority for foreshore leases. In the case of Vancouver, these leases exist to the City and Park Board for most of the foreshore, except at C a n a d a Place, Granville Island, Deadman's Island, Fisherman's Wharf in False Creek and the Coast Guard in Vanier Park. In the effort to col laborate at the provincial and federal level for environmental issues, the Burrard Inlet Environmental Act ion Program (BIEAP) and Fraser River Estuary Man-agement Program (FREMP) have been formed. These intergovernmental partnerships were established to coordinate the environmental management of the Burrard Inlet and the Fraser River estuary and to address balancing environmental aspects with the human and economic aspects at the waterfront (BIEAP, 2005; FREMP, 2005) 1.4 A Need for a New Approach A framework to locate design and programming opportunities along the waterfront is needed . Table 5 provides a summary of existing waterfront policies, their app roach to Table 5. Summary of Waterfront Policy Approach J u r i s d i c t i o n a l B o d y C u r r e n t R e l e v a n t P o l i c y G e n e r a l P o l i c y A p p r o a c h M a j o r A r e a of C o n c e r n L o c a t e d S p a t i a l l y ? Ident i f ied Future N e e d s a l o n g the Waterfront City of Vancouver Blueways, 1998 • vision, principals, goals and objectives (and policies • and guidelines under e a c h objective) seawall defined by water bodies, no specific locations for activities and uses water based transportation and access points, marine related commerc ia l and retail activ-ity, marine related industry recognit ion and historic contribution, moorage facilities, new recreation and cultural water related activi-ties, we lcome centre, improved navigation, better water quality and shoreline Vancouver Board of Parks and Recre-ation . Park Master Plan, 1982; Park M a n a g e -ment Plan, 1992; Draft Waterfront Parks Policy Plan Issues based; managemen t Strategies user conflict and park use & facilities defined primarily by waterfront park areas identify natural areas and related program-ming, explore user needs a n d adap tab le design, identify barriers and facility upgrades, review and identity appropriate commerc ia l activities, develop framework for addit ional recreational and cultural opportunities, pro-vide for more access onto and off the water Vancouver Port Authority (including Fraser River) Port 2010 Land Use Plan land uses and their appropri-ate activities and uses security port areas update land uses within the Port, liason with other jurisdictions, a c c o m m o d a t e future Port economic growth, efficiency of land use, maintain security Federal and Provin-cial Environmental, Navigat ion, Migra-tory birds; BIEAP and FREMP goals and objectives environmen-tal issues defined by water body (Burrard N e t and Fraser River only) water quality and waste management , contaminated lands and. sediments, healthy ecosysytems and biodiversity locate new opportunities at the waterfront. Overall, current policies dictate much of the uses'and activities, but do not have a mechanism to locate uses and activities in appropriate places. Generally, the primary focus of policy at the waterfront has been on specific jurisdictional interests, such as public access and aesthetics and more re-cently, dealing with user conflicts. While collaboration exists for key issues such as-the environment, jurisdictions in general, create a complex situation which makes it dif-ficult to coordinate public activities, access (seawall), landscape and aesthetics. In a linear open space system, this is problematic because development potential of sites along the waterfront cannot be considered in isolation. An approach is required that considers the waterfront system as a whole and that provides direction in locating ap -propriate places for identified needs along the waterfront to build on the. meaning, roles and identity of the waterfront within the City. 1.5 Project Goals There are two primary goals of this project. The first is to explore Vancouver's local and regional patterns and qualities of form and topos as a framework for locating program and design opportunities that are regionally appropriate and enhance the City's sense of p lace and identity, and ; to demonstrate opportunities that emerge from this exploration and how that c a n be appl ied in a site design. 1.6 Project Objectives i 1. Provide an overview of the existing physical and experiential conditions of the waterfront and the current policy and planning that affects its development. This includes: -• reviewing the Vancouver Board of Parks and Recreation 2005 waterfront inventory; and, • reviewing current waterfront jurisdictions, planning documents and policies. 2. Review relevant design theory; including: • the waterfront's role and relationship with the City, and the nature of p lace identity, landscape order, and programming. 3. Understand Vancouver's waterfront, its relationship with the City and surrounding landscape and determine its use as a tool in planning and design, including: • study and visually represent the landscape structure of Vancouver and the waterfront • generate a conceptua l design for a waterfront site using the findings from the large scale exploration Figure 14. Diagram of the project proccess. P A R T O N E : BACKGROUND REVIEW WATERFRONT REVIEW • physical and experiential conditions of the existing waterfront • identified need for additional programming and design POLICY REVIEW • list of approaches • identified need for locating programming opportunities. . ] How to appropriately locate programming op-portunities on the waterfront? WATERFRONT MAPPING - regional and local patterns LANDSCAPE DESCRIPTION • describe landforms (position, character) • identify and (describe important waterfront locations (i.e. gateway, access, landmarks) LITERATURE REVIEW - landscape and re gional identity - order - describing landscape - Vancouver's urban form and place P A R T T W O : FRAMEWORK DEVELOPMENT WATERFRONT OPPORTUNITIES • match landforms to future objectives and programming as outlined in existing policy • create waterfront landscape zoning W A T E R F R O N T L A N D S C A P E F R A M E W O R K P A R T THREE: SITE DESIGN SITE DESIGN design a waterfront site using the landscape framework 1.7 Methodology and Process The City of Vancouver was chosen for several reasons; its cultural and physical ex-pression is hugely influenced by its surrounding topos and therefore use of a planning framework based on the landscape seems fitting; its a relatively young city that (has exper ienced a great dea l of change in both urban form and imagery in the last 30 years and as a result, is increasingly subject to a 'fluid' as opposed to a 'grounded' sense of p lace, identity and imageability. Additionally, the waterfront contains a large proportion of the City's open space and is the locus of public life, an important c o m -ponent of the City's sense of p lace and identity. It is a p lace where there should be exciting architecture, art and landscape design that reflects the landscape, water, and therefore City and its people. The project process includes background research and exploration, framework devel-opment and site design y(Figure 14). Background research reviews existing waterfront policy to identify planning approaches and objectives for the waterfront; explores concepts of order, grounded p lace theory (such as regional identity) and ways to describe and look at landscape. Framework development maps regional and local landforms on the waterfront and develops a landscape based framework by match-ing policy objectives with landforms creating a type of 'waterfront landscape zoning'. The framework is used a basis for site selection and site design at the waterfront. 'i , Policy Review An in-depth policy analysis is beyond the scope of this project. However, it was useful to briefly review waterfront policy to provide amoverview of past issues and identify the current approach to planning as a context for further exploration of planning ap-proaches at the waterfront. Future planning objectives and programming activities-used in the waterfront landscape framework were directly taken from the Vancouver Board of Parks and Recreation, Draft Waterfront Policy Plan and the City of Vancou-ver, Blueways Policy. Design Theory Relevant theoretical design concepts were reviewed to support the idea of ground-ed p lace, regional identity and describing the landscape. Waterfront Landscape Framework i The patterns and qualities of form and topos used in the waterfront based landscape framework were defined in two ways; as a landform and by its relationship, or contex-tual position within the landscape and water. In turn, these two qualities generate a 'role' or pattern within the City. 'Role' meaning for example, entrance / exit - gate-way, axis - ceremonial corridor, lookout - defense post, etc. Program opportunities were generated as a good 'fit' to the interaction of landform and role. Language s . • . The language used to define landform is the geomorphological unit (which are cat-egorized by characteristics such^as elevation, slope, orientation, stratification, rock exposure, and soil type). Oceans and continents exemplify highest-order landforms and its elements such as hill-top, shoulder, backslope etc, are considered the next or-der of landscape. Elementary landforms (segments, facets, relief units) are the small-est homogeneous divisions of the land surface, at the local scale/resolution. The use of preposition describes the location of such landforms and related experience as assessed locally (actually at the waterfront). Scale . • A plateau or a hill c a n be observed at various scales ranging from few hundred me-ters to hundreds of kilometers. Hence, order and spatial distribution of landforms is often fuzzy and scale-dependent and so is the process of examining and identifying the landforms within the landscape. For the purpose of examination, a regional scale is considered anything greater than 1:10,000, local is anything < 1:10000. Existing landforms that are a result of built forms (such as C a n a d a Place, groins on Sunset Beach, altered shoreline, etc.) are recognized and are not excluded in this examination. Site Design - Hadden Park The waterfront landscape based framework was used to select a site along the w a -terfront for design that included as many landforms and significant points as possible in order to demonstrate the use of the framework. A landscape analysis was conduct-ed in the same manner as the regional and local waterfront landscape analysis was < done. The 'cultural' aspects of the site were considered a layer upon the landscape layer and considered as they-would be' in a standard design process. Design devel-opment and the final design were checked back to the landscape framework. CHAPTER 2 Design Theory 2. / Introduction In the past, dwelling in>and on the land was well understood. Built forms spoke to the order of the landscape because people and societies had much less power to pursue major changes and forced to be more keenly aware of the limitations and opportu-nities the landscape presented. Places of settlements were chosen purposefully and then built form ordered functionally and aesthetically different, accord ing to the site on which it was built. Natural processes were the source of function, events,' beliefs, and celebrations. Prominent landscape features served as key defense locations, the home of local spirits or myths or marked with landmark structures appropriate in scale to the landscape (Figure 15 and 16). Other places were chosen to bury d e a d , to en-ter and exit, provide refuge, grow food, hide, for leisure or as ceremonial sites (Figure 17). Landscape features were marked, avo ided, built around, or in. In short, structures, events and life sustaining activities were closely tied to specific forms, places and or-der in the landscape. Development connec ted to the inherent order and structure of the landscape is not of-ten ach ieved in modern times. As our power to change the landscape has increased, we have lost the ability, connect ion, or maybe need, to understand the landscape and natural processes that occur there. We no longer unconsciously conce ive places in harmony with their setting, nor are built structures expressive of their specific locali-ties or reflect the daily life activities of people who live there. Global trade, technol-ogy and the scale and speed of new development has distanced the act of building p lace from the know ledgeand concep t of dwelling in and on the landscape. In this, an inherent sense of p lace and p lacemaking is at risk of being lost. . 2.2 Landscape Order and Program Structure Order, by definition, is the arrangement of elements or events. The fundamental idea of order in the world is a common notion, not only referred to in design theory, but also expressed in some form or another across many, if not all, disciplines (arts, mathe-matics, ecology, biology, chemistry, etc.). In the context of this project, order is under-stood as an arrangement of parts (both in the natural and man made landscape); and that there are many different types and hierarchies of order that co-exist. As humans, there is an inherent need for order to identify and structure the surrounding environment. In his book, "The Image of the City", Lynch (1960) states that the need to recognize and pattern our surroundings is actually crucial to our emotional security and survival. Structuring a clear image of our environment does several key things; it enables us to move about easily and quickly; it serves as a broad frame of reference; and it organizes activity, belief or knowledge. Such a '...vivid and integrated structural setting furnishes the raw material for the symbols and collective memories of group Figure 15. Edinburgh Castle - a fusion of topography and architecture and dramatic focal point in the landscape. Figure 16. Istanbul waterfront - a scale appropriate to its position in the landscape. Figure 17. Stonehenge - symbolic representation in the landscape. communicat ion, and throughout history, has served as the skeleton upon which many primitive races erect their socially important myths' (Lynch, 1960). Similarly, Alexander (1979; 1977) discusses "the essential attribute of order" as the 'life' or 'degree of life' in a p lace. He furthers the idea of the importance of order and goes on to explain how these various scales and hierarchies or order fit together. Order is the patterns but its those relationships between elements in towns and buildings and its connect ion to experiences and events that happen there that is important to un-derstanding structure. He states that design at the edge is one of the most important aspects in urban design because life in places gravitate naturally to the edge . It is a p lace where, 'if the edge fails, then the space never becomes becomes a p lace to walk through'. He proposes that designs at the.edge should not be treated as a 'line', it should be conce ived of as a ' p lace ' itself, with 'thickness' and 'volume'. This project is based on the idea that order is unique to e a c h particular landscape and site. It is a cognitive map, essential to peoples' mental imaging and understanding of p lace. G o o d places and good design are those that p lace the program structure (the order of activities, services and functions) appropriately within and in response to the landscape order (topos, landform) and creates a system of wholes supporting wholes. , ' . I 2.3 A Concept of Place for Vancouver . ( The general notion that landscape structure and program structure share a logical symbiosis and result in great places is based on the idea that cities are settlements and in this sense, are places where forms and identities are grounded within the land-scape . These concepts of p lace emphasize the idea as centres of meaning construct-ed out of lived experience focused primarily on an 'existential insideness', identifiable in three basic elements; the physical setting, activities and meaning (Relph, 1976). This idea of concep t is important in to this project; it asserts that all three (activity, mean-ing, and physical setting) must share a connect ion in order to make a great p lace . Lynch (1960) defined the 'identity of p lace ' more simply as, that which provides 'indi-viduality or distinction from other places...the basis for its recognition as a separable entity". Further to that idea, Jacobs (1961) suggests development of good p lace and cultivation of p lacemaking is strongly rooted in the engagement of people and feel-ing safe. All of these concepts of p lace are connec ted in some way to the physical setting and the activities that happen. One of the key changes in this era, is a modern concept ion of p lace which is 'un-grounded' , about flows of ideas, capital , technology, etc.' (Bauman, 2000; A p p a d u -rai, 1996; in Dovey, 2005). This concep t considers the experience of p lace in today's society as disconnected frpm stable ground "subject to flows of ideas, people, infor-mation and money", and that, "the experience of p lace is produced by such flows" (Dovey, 2005). A fluid notion of p lace is particularly interesting in the context of Van-couver's waterfront, where symbolically, it is the face of the City, p lace of port,-exit, entry, etc. Particularly, in the context of Vancouver's new economy and 'creative class' (Hutton, 1990) and especially, in a world of consumerism, global capi ta l and rapid urban transformation. However, Sennet (1990), Relph (1975), Postman (1984) and others, make the argu-ment that 'ungrounding' is precisely at the root of suchi societal 'ills' in culture, city and community. As a result of this detachment, a sense of placelessness emerges andwi th it, a sense of loss, fragmentation and identity confusion: 2.4 Describing Landscape Order at the Waterfront This project relies on the ability to describe the landscape physically and experientially and connect it to activities and meaning. The experience of the physical landscape is local, however, that local experience is largely due to the landscape structure or its physical form and position at a many scales. It affects almost every aspect of our physical experience of the landscape (exceptions being ephemeral , such as snow, wind, rain, etc.). The speed at which we move through the landscape is influenced by grade, inhibit oral low views, determines access or affects sounds. Spatially, the waterfront c a n be described in several ways, one is through the use of the preposition (refer to Appendix B). The preposition is useful to describe the relation-ships that lend themselves to certain activities, ways of movement, access, views, habitat, wayfinding, nodes, scale of structure, etc. Lynch's (1960) book, "The Image of the City".implicitly uses preposition to understand perceptual structuring elements of the city. He classifies such physical forms into five types of elements; paths, edges, nodes, landmarks and districts. Paths act as major links within a network. Nodes act as ' . . .conceptual anchor points' and key places that give'the city ' imageability' or a strong identity. Landmarks are points or places of significance. Edges are the linear elements and districts are sections recognizable as having some common, identifiable character. Such elements and their prepositional qualities'' are an important aspect of experiencing the landscape and understand-ing the urban realm. While this work is focused on the city, the fundamental roles pf these structuring elements are transferable to an examination of the waterfront. For example, nodes are the focal points, destinations and c a n articulate the features of the shoreline. The highest navigation point at the waters edge would be a ' landmark' and therefore, give emphasis to aspects of the City's urban fabric, geographical po-sitioning or evoke a historical p lace or memory. Identifiable landforms along the central core of Vancouver's waterfront include,-es-carpments, inlets, bays, promontory / peninsula, and islands (or near islands) (Figure 21). The order and arrangement of these features at a local level create experiences of a long, inbetween, inside or within and out. . A promontory is a landmark and imageqble within the City. Escarpments are also prominent features, but ac t as linear boundaries with stronger edge qualities. Both promontories and escarpments are locative features and are appropriate locations on the waterfront for navigational points, markers and larger built structures. Inlets are both locative and directional waterfront features. The primary quality of an inlet is proximity or being across. Bays are locative and conduc ive to settlement, districts or nodes of activity and similar to a promontory are locative landmarks along the water-front. Narrows are locative and directional, and in Vancouver's case, are associated with promontories and therefore, are also landmark marks, most strongly imageable along'the waterfront. 2.5 A Design Approach This project uses,a design approach to, consider ways of approaching planning and design, at the waterfront. Design as a process is iterative, beginning with an under-standing of the context, moving through an exploration of many ideas of both physi-ca l and experiential form and moving through to testing of such solutions (Lynch and Hack, 1984), over and over aga in . ' Several aspects of the design process set it apart from other city planning tools and activities described in this project. Design seeks to resolve, connect and foster relation-ships in patterns of human activity and circulation. Additionally, a design approach significantly considers the human experience; what we see, hear, smell, feel and what it all means to the people who live in the landscape. Lastly, but most, importantly, de-sign is a tool that allows for speculation and imagination. It is appropriate to use a design approach because the waterfront is a linear system of connec ted and nested smaller spaces that are difficult, if not d o o m e d to failure if addressed in isolation. A design approach always extends beyond its boundaries, since a site depends on its context (Lynch and Hack, 1984). Imagining possible new approaches at the waterfront is inspiring; it is about "understanding the nature of the p lace as a precursor to making purposeful change , which is a far more significant ac t of creativity than imposing pre-packaged solutions on the land (Hough, 1990)". CHAPTER THREE Waterfront Landscape Exploration and Framework 3. J Introduction The following section describes the regional and local patterns and qualities of form and topos at the waterfront and identifies its programming opportunities. 3.2 Regional and Local Scale Landscape Analysis Regional The City of Vancouver is at the edge of the continent, between and in front of the Coastal Mountain Range (Figure 18). As a peninsula, the City is surrounded by water and occupies a prominent, locative and superior position within the landscape. At a regional scale, Vancouver's most clearly understood physical expression of p lace and identity as a City is mountains and water (Figure"19). Local The core of Vancouver is a peninsula, also surrounded by water. In the centre and at the heart, is Stanley Park (Figure 20). There are three major 'gateways' within the core waterfront, these are, the first and second narrows in Burrard Inlet and the en-trance to False Creek. Minor gateways occur at 'second narrows' and within False Creek. There are a many landmark locations along the waterfront. These are primarily promontories, such as, Brockton Point, Prospect Point, Siwash Rock, and on both sides of False Creek where the land opens up into English Bay. Defining edges include the escarpments along the waterfront at Point Grey, Kitsilano Point, Stanley Park, and intermittently along Burrard Inlet central 'and east. C o a l Harbour is the largest bay, en-closed and inward, within the central waterfront core. There are many other smaller bays, both natural and man-made along the waterfront and concentrated primarily within False Creek or built shorelines of Burrard Inlet. There are no true islands along the waterfront, but both Deadman's Island within Coa l Harbour and Granville Island, along south west False Creek are named as such. Each take their character from the landforms of which they are located in (or along). There are two major connect ion/ access points into the City, one is located at the end of False Creek and the other at the end of Coa l Harbour. For the central waterfront areas', 'a long ' is a key quality felt in Burrard Inlet, 'proximity' or 'across' in False Creek and 'outward' in English Bay. There are six primary landforms identifiable^along the waterfront, the promontory or peninsula, escarpment, inlet, bay, narrows and island (Table 6). Their p lacement and type ideate key places to mark along the Vancouver waterfront. Described through the use of the preposition, these landforms have unique experiential characteristics that physically or experientially facilitate some activities more than others. Table 6. • , Summary of waterfront landforms, position, role and associated programming opportunities and locating objectives of current waterfront policy. Landform Position Experience Role Suitable Facilities Identified by Exisitng Waterfront Policies promontory or peninsula out, in front of (locative) superior, prominent landmark, node, imageability, access point; departure/arrival, gathering, navigational, lookout access and transportation nodes (ferry services, transit links), industrial nodes, piers and docks, ap-propriately related historic markers, tourist spots, Coast Guard, boating visitor and educational centres, public art, viewpoints, escarpment above, over, on (locative) superior, prominent boundary / edge, inaccessible, ending, lookout viewpoints, piers and docks, inlets in, along, across, through (locative and directional) passive, pathway, directional moving through, reflective, travel routes fishing, boating,water quality testing centres, parks and walkways, bays within, inside, behind, (loca-tive) posterior, interior imageability, district or node, access point, arrival/departure, protective habitat, moorage facilities, commercial/retail activities, water-based festivals, swimming, water sports, tourist spots, parks, launching ramps, narrows beside, inbe-tween, via (locative) prominent, direc- . tional gateways, entrance/exit, wel-come , mark gateway, islands out, beside, away from, (locative) prominent, goal landmark, imageability, settle-ment, inaccessible, protective, secure, mark habitat, sacred spaces, marine parks, water festi-vals, natural shorelines, Figure 18. Describing the regional position and landform of Vancouver. VANCOUVER IS HERE BETWEEN North Shore - Coastal Mountains Howe Sound and Georgia Straight a) Vancouver is 'inbetween' the coastal mountains (Fraser Valley) and at the 'edge' of the continent. b) The core of Vancouver is a peninsula, surrounded by water (GSC Vancouver, 2005). Figure 19. As a result of landscape order, Vancouver's most prominent physical and cultural expression is water and mountains. Prospect Point outward Siwash Rock ENGLISH BAY LEGEND promontory'/ peninsula escarpment bays narrows views / relationships Not to scale MAP LOCATION Figure 20. Landscape analysis of Vancouver's core waterfront areas. 26 CHAPTER FOUR Site Analysis and Design The following chapter applies the landscape framework to a small scale site level on Vancouver's waterfront. 4. / Site Introduction , < Hadden Park is a small park (3.86 acres) named after Harvey Hadden, an English busi-nessman who dona ted the park to the City'in 1928. It is located at the end of Map le St., Cypress St. and Chestnut Rd., along O g d e n Ave, on Kitsilano point, on the south side of False Creek (Figure 21 and 22). Along the waterfront, the park is between two existing major nodes of activity, Granville Island to the epst and Kitsilano Beach to the west. The Burrard Civic Marina is located at the Burrard Street Bridge in Vanier Park. The park currently houses the Maritime Museum which includes two buildings, d park-ing lot, several outdoor exhibits and Heritage Harbour at Elsje Point (Figure 23 and 24). The museum hasn't been successful in this location and is planning to leave for a more favourable location in North Vancouver, thereby opening up the site for review and possible redevelopment. The buildings are aging and poorly sited^at the base of the escarpment lacking a connect ion to Heritage Harbour and Elsje Point. 4.2 Existing Site Circulation ' Pedestrian circulation on the site is most commonly along the southside escarpment pathway that bypasses the park (Figure 25 and 26). A less used, inaccessible pathway down-corner stairs at the end of Map le St. leads to Map le Beach and continues up and around the Elsje Point along the shoreline into Vanier Park. The entry at Cypress St., a City greenway lined with trees, is not the main museum entry, although it provides an accessible ramp. The main entry to the Maritime Museum is on the.west side of the building at the parking lot. Vehicle access is also on the west side at Chestnut Rd. 4.3 Existing Uses General Activities (Figure 27) The Maritime Museum provides educat ional programming, events and exhibits. The park is generally known as a good p lace to bring dogs (in particular, Map le Beach). Elsje Point is a. turn around point for walkers and runners from nearby Kitsilano neigh-bourhood. At night, the b e a c h is used for small fires and informal gatherings. There are also several local wooden boater societies and groups that have space in the Heritage Harbour and use the Maritime Museum for meeting space . r ' " - 27 { Figure 21. Site location along Vancouver's waterfront. Figure 22. Hadden Park Site a) Hadden Park is located on the waterfront between Kitsilano Beach and Vanier Park at the mouth of False Creek and on Kitsilano Point. Granville Island is the nearest public 'node' east, Kitsilano Beach is the nearest 'node' west. b) The neighbourhood nearby is primarily single family residential. The original shoreline (blue line) runs along the 6m (at max. height) escarpment. 29 Figure 23. Hadden Park existing site map a) Ortho photo of Hadden Park (not to scale). b) The Maritime Museum (above left) and the entrance to Heritage Harbour (above right). The Maritime Museum houses the St.Roch an RCMP vessel. Heritage Harbour is home to historic boats and several wooden boat societies. It is also a stop on the False Creek Ferry/Aquabus. Figure 24. Panoramic photos of Hadden Park, a) Hadden Park site, view to the south. Figure 25. Hadden Park existing site circulation. (vehicle and Cypress City Greenway (vehicle and pedestrian) (vehicle and pedstrian/ bicycle) pedestrian) Figure 26. Pathways in Hadden Park. All gravel mulch except for asphalt at Elsje Point. Stairs to Maple Beach. One accessible ramp at Cypress St. is inconvenient for those going to the Maritime Museum main entrance or to Elsje Point. 32 Figure 27. Hadden Park uses. a) Maple Beach is frequented by dog walkers. b) Many people come to Maple beach to sit alone or watch ships in English Bay. c) The most common actvitiy at Had-den Park is walking along the seawall pathway to Elsje Point for views west and into the City. 33 d) At night people gather in the sum-mertime to have bonfires on Maple beach. e) Vancouver's maritime history in-cludes wooden boat building. There are several wooden boat societies and clubs that lease space in the Hertage Harbour. These groups hold events and presentations through-out the year and rent space in the Maritime Museum for workshops and meetings. f) The wooden boat clubs and soci-eties also have a small workshop in Heritage Harbour where they build and repair boats. Often these activi-ties draw crowds on beautiful days. Many of these wooden boats are used afterwards in regattas, races and for leisure. g) Views from Hadden Park from El-sje Point to Stanley Park, English Bay and into the City. Figure 28. Markers in Hadden Park. a) The Kwakiutl nation totem was carved from a 600 yr old tree by Chief Mungo Martin; currently loca ted at the end of Cypress St. greenway b) Eljse Point memorial rock com-menorating volunteering and a small lighthouse (no light). Nearby Kitsilano Beach is a popular p lace in the summer for swimming and events. Vanier Park to the east is host to several major City-wide festivals including Bard on the Beach and the Children'sTestival and houses the MacMi l lan Space and Science Centre. It is considered a good p lace to fly kites but otherwise most people pass through both parks along the seawall route. Memorials and Markers (Figure 28) There are several significant markers in Hadden Park. At Elsje Point there is a rock memorial to a volunteer community member and a commemorat ive centennial to-tem located at the end of Cypress St. which tells the. legend of the Kwakiutl nation, carved from a 600 yr old tree by Chief Mungo Martin. Views Hadden Park has views both into the City and westward. The views into the City are unique" because there are only a few places where this occurs (most of the views along the waterfront are outward). 4.4 Landscape Analysis and Opportunities Within the landscape, Hadden Park is located along narrows, at the south side entrance to False Creek. Elsje Point is a promontory, the historic shoreline forms dn escarpment at the e d g e of Kitsilano Point and there are two bays, one on the east side of the site, the other, on the west (Figure 29). >, The promontory acts as a key landmark feature along the waterfront. Its close prox-imity to the entrance and narrows creates g relationship with Vancouver's core, (the other side of the entrance, is located there). It is an ideal location to mark a 'gate-way ' to False Creek. The escarpment is a part of the nearby landmark promontory to the west (Kits Point); identifiable at a larger scale. It acts as a boundary, effectively separating the upper portion of the land (south) and lower portion of the land (north). Additionally, the lower landforms disappear below, making it difficult to cognitively map from the landward side (south) and much easier to cognitively map from the water (north) side in the City. As such; the lower area is more connec ted to the water and therefore, suitable to water related activities and concepts for design. The upper portion would be better associated with the land, City and western promontory. The west bay is exposed and opens outward to views, its an extension of the larger, English Bay; the east bay is quiet and sheltered. The bays create two different experiences on the site. west bay promontory east bay upper escarpment (along the historic shoreline) Figure 29. Landforms at Hadden Park include, bays, promontory and escarpment. The escarpment belongs to the larger landform of Kitsilano promontory. Table 7. Hadden Park site landforms and their associated experiential and program opportunities. Local Landform Position Experience Role Opportunities promontory out, on, in front of superior, prominent, active landmark, naviga-tional access and transportation node, arrival and departure, larger built structures, markers, narrows beside, inbe-tween inbetween, proximity entrance, passage gateway escarpment above, over, on superior, prominent, active, edge, boundary lookout across access points, markers, larger built structures, views, bay (west) outward, in front of active, open welcom-ing arrival and departure, node, cul-tural and recreational activities, bay (east) within, behind passive, se-cure, settled, calm node node, marina and moorage facilities, 4.5 Site Design - Overview and Concept Statement (Figure 30) Hadden Park'is designed as a new public waterfront node anchored by a Boater Community Centre and Welcome Centre. Situated at the 'gateway ' to False Creek, the Vancouver Boater Welcome Centre is a primary transportation hub and c o n n e c - ' tion point to other locations a long the waterfront (by ferry service). In addit ion, the Boater Community Centre, provides new civic marina services in conjunction with existing Burrard Civic Marina. This new waterfront node offers water related City-wide community programming such as boating/kayaking clubs, courses, sales, regattas and festivals. Activities of small boating clubs and societies such as the Oarlock and Sail Wooden Boat Club and Vancouver Wooden Boat Society share space and facili-ties for workshops, training, events and other club activities. The Hadden Park b e a c h house offers office and meeting space for seasonal or local event based .program-ming by individuals, small community groups, City functions or nearby institutions seek-ing to host a new range of public outdoor b e a c h based theatre, arts and music events. 4.6 Site Plan and Design Discussion (Figure 31) The site design builds strongly on the point as a main axis of the site and as a p lace that marks the concep t as the ga teway to False Creek. The use of a large, built struc-ture (called the 'gateway pier') provides an opportunity to extend and expand the possibilities for more public activity out onto the water, further enhances the proxim-ity of the site to the central core of Vancouver and other side of the ga teway and serves as a arrival and departure point for the boating community. The ga teway pier is recognizable from all directions, therefore reinforcing the landmark feature as an imageable.reference point within the City, especially from a boating'perspective, as a primary arrival and departure point for'ferry service and temporary mooring at the Boater Welcome Centre. The street ends are pushed out to the edge of the shoreline along the escarpment. Each street end is an access point or view corridor into and out of the site. The main pedestrian.and bicycle access point is situated at the end of Cypress St. directly in the middle pf the site. The central siting of core buildings is surrounded by vegetat ion that retains the remote quality of the side bays and b e a c h areas, but c a n be seen from above on the upper escarpment of the park. A variety of shoreline treatments a d d diverse physical and visual access to the water. < , t 4.7 Design Program The active clubs and societies provide a diversity of programming, some of which are year-round and a d d public interest to the site. Table 8 is a program summary and Table 9 is a summary of program elements required. * HADDEN PARK DESIGN CONCEPT SITE PLAN (to be read with the Hadden Park Site Plan) 1. the gateway pier and walkway visitor landing, seasonal ca fe ; commuter ferry buses, night boat cruise, walking, seating, views j o the city, festival of lights seating 2. boater welcome centre and seasonal cafe tourist information, referral and boater services, commercia l services, meeting and storage spaces, small events 3 . Hadden hill arts and theatre performances, seating, views west, atar/sky watching 4. small boating community centre offices space for societies, clubs and a home base for festival planning in nearby parks, meetings, lectures, presentations, workshops, training, events, boat rentals, boating lessons 5. beach deck society socials, summer solstice parties, sunset watching, theatre under the stars, public bbqs, music shows 6. exhibit pavillion public boater shows and sales, small boater conventions, auctions, 'model mania ' events, boat storage, boating lesson classrooms, local summer markets, fairs and small events 7. boater workshop and repair small boat building, public demonstrations, annual family boat building event, First Nations c a n o e building workshops 8. welcome marina walkway and ferry dock temporary moorage, public floating walkway, ferry services, dinghy floats 9. tide channel tide demonstration, childrens model sailing and display, boat testing 10. escarpment viewpoints views to the site, west and across to the city 11. rain water gardens and picnic area picnics, play, walking, seating, eco-zone connect ion to nearby Vanier Park ponds 12. maple beach grass land walking, dogs 1. gateway pier and walkway Figure 31. Conceptual site plan for Hadden Park. DESIGN CONCEPT - HADDEN PARK SITE PLAN - HADDEN PARK PUBLIC BOATER COMMUNITY CENTRE AND WELCOME CENTRE \ \ Figure 32. Site sections from west to east and north to south showing the spatial character of the whole site. west to east I boater welcome D E S I G N C O N C E P T - H A D D E N P A R K OVERALL SITE SECTIONS Scale 1:1000 Table 8. Program Summary for site design at Hadden Park. Site Occupants Users Program Elements Main Activities Vancouver Boater We lcome Centre (anchor) • short term visitors to Vancouver arriving by boat (regional, na-tional or international) • l oca l s in small boats (eg. dingys, wooden boats, kayaks) • moorage boat slips • tourist information kiosk • sewage pump-out station • full service washrooms • temporary storage area • laundry services • seasonal commercia l operations (eg. ca fe , small supply store) • ferry service to other destinations • meeting point/ pick-up and drop-off l oca -tion • temporary parking (employees) • City information and moorage referral services • short term living for visitors Primary Occupan ts : Oarlock and Sail Wooden Boat C lub The Vancouver Wooden Boat Society (Vancouver Chapter) [other small boater clubs or societies] • members of small •boating clubs and societies • participating gen-eral public • dingy docks • temporary moorage space (members) • service entry and loading area • temporary parking • boat building and repair workshop • boat storage area • indoor meeting and office space . • outdoor exhibit space • bulletin board (sales and events) • indoor event space / kitchen and washroom facilities • monthly meetings • boat ing related (public or member) lectures and/or presen-tations • boat building and repair (mem-bers) • workshops, seminars, training • seasonal c lub socials • public or c lub special events and festivals (wooden boat fest, family boat building, boat build-ing demonstrations, First Nations c a n o e building demonstrations) • public exhibits and sales Secondary Occupan ts : The Norwegian House Soc ie t y -The Viking Ship (Munin) Bard on the Beach (office space) Childrens Festival (office space) MacMi l lan Space a n d Science Centre (use of s p a c e for childrens or night based programming) BC Kite Flying Association (Pacific Rim Kite Flying Festi-val) -BCSPA (Paws for Cause and d o g agility performance) Underwater Counci l of BC (diving club) Underwater Archeao log ica l Society of BC • members and employees of clubs, societies or non-profit orgainziations and groups that hold events in Hadden park or nearby waterfront parks • members or employ-ees of the MacMi l lan S p a c e and Science Centre or the A c a d -emy of Music • ferry service to downtown and other l oca -tions '• •pick-up/drop-off area. • temporary parking • service entry / delivery - loading bay • large docking space (Viking ship) • office space • indoor event space / kitchen and washroom facilities • outdoor per formance/event space • outdoor exhibit space • b e a c h and stream spaces • meetings • daily work for events planning • performances, exhibits, shows, and special events • seasonal socials and parties • children's camps, day events and special events • lectures, seminars, workshops, training (table 8) Program Summary for site design at Hadden Park continued. • . ( Site Occupants Users Program Elements Main Activities Adjacent Users: i Nearby residents and Vancouverites visiting the area and local wildlife • local neighbour-hood residents (Kitsi-lano area) • wider Vancouverites • indoor event space / kitchen and washroom facilities • accessible pathways and circulation through and around the site, connectivity to surrounding areas • diversity of daily use spaces (eg. act ive and passive recreation) • viewpoints and view corridors, • buffer from events • alternative transportation on-off the site emphasized to lessen the area traffic and potential conflicts • 'natural' areas and healthy eco-communi -ties and foreshore • heritage and reference to past occupants and history of the site - ' • dog zones (off-leash and on-leash) • circulation - walking, running, biking, rollerblading, skateboard: ing, e t c • act ive recreational uses - hacky sack, b o c e e , children's play (informal), badminton, kite flying • passive recreational uses - sit-ting, viewing surrounding scenery • picnics, night fires on the b e a c h _^ • d o g walking, d o g culture (beach discussions, morning cof-fees, etc.) Table?. . ' S u m m a r y of p r o g r a m e l e m e n t s for H a d d e n Park site d e s i g n . v. Program Element Number Size Notes temporary moorage slips 10-15 9mx3m-avg.30ftx l i f t ; dinghy docks 1-3 3m width (varible in length) fit 3-6 wooden boats boater w e l c o m e centre (floating or partially floating) 1 10m x 8m (estimate) includes tourist kiosk, washrooms, laundry, stor-age , small seasonal commerc ia l operation ) small boater centre 1 15m x 30m (estimate) includes, shared office, indoor event room, exhibit hajl, kitchen, washroom, storage s p a c e Boat building workshop and repair 1 10m x 15m adjacent to boating centre delivery and loading bay 1 6m x 6m large vehicle accessible outdoor land boat storage a n d work a rea 1 10m x 10m wooden boats only outdoor per formance or event a rea 1 30m x 30m central to centre outdoor exhibit a rea 1.-- 20m x 20m adjacent to workshop and exhibit a rea (model-mainia) pick up a n d drop off 1 6m x 6m ad jacent to community centre for accessibility parking 16 stalls (min), 2 access (min) 30m x 20m ad jacent to community centre and service a c -cess ' main circulation 4m, shared, hard surface seawall bypass 3m, shared, hard surface minor pathways (beach access) variable width and surface, location depen-dent viewpoints. variable, at least 3m x 3m seating areas as appropriate ' b e a c h / fire zones 2 as appropriate eco-areas as appropriate act ive a n d passive open spaces 40m x 15m (min) 4.8 Site Circulation The following illustrates the site circulation and access for Hadden Park design concept . Figure 33. Site circulation. a) Pedestrian and Wheeled Three types of pedestrian routes run through the site. The first is the bypass route which improves on the exist-ing path and is primarily for bicycles and wheeled con-necting from Kitsilano Beach through to Vanier Park sea-wall and the Cypress gre-enway. The second is the a pier walkway that meanders through the site buildings terminating at the gateway pier. The third pathway sys-tem connects the beaches and marina. All pathways are accessible except at the beach. b) Vehicle Vehicle access is at Chest-nut St. A service only road provides access to the boat-er workshop. The parking lot has 21 parking stalls, 2 are accessible. Primary access onto the site isby foot, bike and boat. c) Boat Commuter and weekend ferry service departs from the gateway pier. Visitors to Hadden Park, Kitsilano and surrounding areas arrive and can attain temporary moor-age at the marina on the east side of the pier. Wood-en boats constructed at the small boater workshop can be launched along the tide canal at Chestnut Beach. 4.9 Escarpment Viewpoints are located at three places along the upper escarpment. The view-points mark the street ends at platforms with seating and creative colourful varia-tions of a standard street sign post. Light-ing between these points is strung along the escarpment. This marks the park, a c -tivity and provides a sense of arrival by land to the boater node. Figure 34. Escarpment Viewpoints a) Location of escarpment viewpoints b) A precedent viewpoint from Portland. c) Perspective drawing of the escarpment viewpoints. 4 7 4.10 Boater Community Centre, Exhibit Hall and Workshop The buildings in the central core are clustered together tightly and slightly set back from the point and water. This creates a heart in the node and , similar to the form of a fishing village along the waterfront, it provides shelter from climatic elements and draws the attention inwards. Figure 35. Boater Community Centre a) Location of section and community centre area SCALE 1:200 b) Boater community Centre Section 00 Figure 36. Perspective looking out towards the gateway pier alongside the exhibit hall. 49 4.7 / The Gateway Pier (Point) The gateway pier is the key feature of the site. As a large, colourful structure, it marks the entrance to False Creek and is the point of ar-rival and departure and extends the foreshore public space out to the water. It provides a more dramatic exper ience at the water and increases that sense of proximity to the other (City) side. Figure 37. Gateway pier. a) Location of gateway section. 4.12 Side Beaches and Water Gardens The side beaches and water gar-dens are located in the low points of the site, surrounding the central community centre and pier creat-ing an experience similar to that of being on an island. For those approaching by boat, the veg-etation provides a backdrop. This area is informal and rough, with picnic sites, places to explore and wander and fire pits. ^4 <n_f—i Figure 38. Side Beaches and Water Gardens a) Location of side beaches and water garden section and area. SCALE 1:100 b) Section of water gardens and picnic area near the tide channels. 51 BIBLIOGRAPHY Alexander, C . et al. 1977. A Pattern Language. Oxford University Press, Oxford. Alexander, C . et al. 1987. A New Theory of Urban Design. Oxford University Press, Oxford.' Berelowitz, L. 2005. Dream City: Vancouver and the Global Imagination. Douglas and Mclntyre, Vancouver. ' ' • Carmona , M., Heath, T., O c , T., Tiesdell, S. 2003. Public Places. Urban Spaces - The Dimensions of Urban Design. Architectural Press. Carr, S . , Francis, M., Rivlin, L. and Stone, A. 1992. Public Spaces. New York: C a m -bridge University Press. Cfesswell, Tim. 2004. Place: a short introduction. Blackwell Publishing Ltd. City of Vancouver. 2005. Project for Public Spaces: Placemaking Workshop, Decem-ber 15th, 2005. Vancouver's 10 Great Spaces, not published. City of Vancouver. 1997. ^ Blueways Draft Report. Water Opportunities Advisory C o m -mittee. • > • City of Vancouver. 1997. Blueways Policy and Guidelines. Dovey, K. 2005. Fluid City - Transforming Melbourne's Urban Waterfront. University of New South Wales Press, Sydney. Francis, Mark. 2003. Urban Open Space : Designing for User Needs. Island Press. Land-scape Architecture Foundation. -Gindroz, R. et al. (Urban Design Associates). 2003. The Urban Design Handbook -Techniques and Working Methods. W.W. Norton and Company Inc., New York. Jacobs, J . 1961. The Death and Life of Great Amer ican Cities. Random House. New York Jinnai, H. 1995. Tokyo: A Spatial Anthropology. University of California Press, Berkeley, p. 93-95. Loukaitou-Sideris, A. and Banerjee, T. 1998. Urban Design Downtown: Poetics and Politics of Form. University of California Press, Berkeley. In: Ca rmona , M., Heath, T., O c , T., Tiesdell, S. 2003. Public Places Urban 'Spaces - The Dimensions of Urban De-sign. Architectural Press. ' ^ Lynch, K. 1960. The Image of the City. MIT Press, Cambr idge, Mass. Lynch, K. and Hack, G . 1984. Site Design. In Swaffield, Simon. 2002. Theory in Land-scape Architecture: A Reader. University of Pennsylvania Press. Moughtin, C . 1992. Urban Design - Street and Square. Third Edition. Architectural r Press. Paterson, Douglas. 1992. Dualities and Dialectics in the Experience of Landscape. CELA: Design + Values, p.2 Punter, John. 2003. The Vancouver Achievement Urban Planning and Design. UBC Press, Vancouver. Relph, E. 1976. Place and Placelessness. Pion: London Relph, Edward. 1993. Place Reclamation. In Swaffield, Simon. 2002. Theory in Land-scape Architecture: A Reader r Sennet, R. 1973. The Uses of Disorder. Penguin, Hamnondsworth.^ Toronto Central Waterfront Planning Committee. 1976. Waterfront Precedents. Vancouver Board of Parks and Recreation. 2003. Waterfront Policy Process: Summer 2003 Survey Summary Results. Vancouver Board of Parks and Recreation. 1992. Waterfront Planning Policy. Vancouver Board of Parks and Recreation. 2005. Waterfront Planning Policy Draft of Current Issues, Responsibilities and Tasks. >. . . Vancouver Board of Parks and Recreation. 2005. Waterfront Inventory - 2005. Vancouver Board of Parks and Recreation. Hadden Park Information and maps. Websites: Toronto Waterfront.Revitalization website Vancouver Port Authority website. http:/ / BIEMP and FREMP website. http:/ / Other: LARC Course Notes. Theory (520) (Systems and Alexander) and , LARC Design Studio Reader: Programming y APPENDIX A V \ \ 54 City of Vancouver , Blueways-Policies y O n December 1, 1998, Vancouver City Counci l adop ted the following Blueways policies and guidelines: Blueways Policies and Guidelines • 1.0 APPLICATION AND INTENT The Blueways policies and guidelines are-intended to direct future decisions and develop-ment affecting Vancouver's waterfront environments, namely Burrard Inlet, English Bay, False Creek and Fraser River. These policies and guidelines were deve loped through a public consultation process which culminated in the publication of a draft Blueways document in October 1997. Please refer to the Blueways document if you require additional information on the items. 1.1 Vision A waterfront city where land and water combine to meet the environmental, cultural and economic needs of the City and its people in a sustainable, equitable, high quality manner. 1.2 Principles . ' \ Ensure public input guides waterfront planning and decis ionmaking processes. Ensure water'considerations are included in the planning of adjacent lands. \ r 1.3 Goals Encourage and support a diversity of waterfront uses, activities and structures that recognize a variety of users. Assess, protect and enhance waterfront habitat. ^ Protect water-based industry. Increase public access to and a long the water. [top] 2.0 OBJECTIVES ' . The following are the objectives of the Blueways Policies and Guidelines. 2.1 Access and Transportation Increase public access to the water, including barrier-free access, greenways and transit links. ' ' Increase the use of waterways for commuter and tourist transportation services while recog-nizing the needs of industry and commercia l traffic. Plan access points and water based transportation routes to minimize negative impacts on natural habitat. 2.2 Marine Related Commercial /Retail Activity Encourage marine-related commercial/retail activity along the waterfront in appropriate nodes of development where it is supported by community interests and market demand . 2.3 Marine-Related Industry Support the future viability of'water-related industry within the City of Vancouver. Recognize the historic significance of water-related industry to the development of the City and region. ' • ' 4 2.4 Moorage s Increase moorage in suitable locations around the City by identifying opportunities for new marinas or increasing capac i ty of existing marinas. 2.5 Recreation, Tourism and Culture Encourage recreational and cultural activities such as fishing, swimming,boating, paddle sports, and water-based festivals. Create a more welcoming city for boaters in order to capture the economic benefits of increased tourism. Provide and encourage appropriate levels of public amenity along the waterfront. 2.6 Safety and Marine Regulations , Improve navigational and water safety, and better coordinate enforcement of marine regu-lations throughout Vancouver water bodies. ^ 2.7 Water Quality and Shoreline Environment Protect and improve the environmental health of shorelines and water bodies. Work towards reducing contaminant discharges into the waterways, particularly in areas where public health/safety and environmental issues are primary concerns. 3.0 GENERAL POLICIES AND GUIDELINES The following policies and guidelines generally apply to all water bodies.Additional policies and guidelines which apply to specific water bodies are listed in subsequent sections. 3.1 Access and Transportation ' Recognize the importance/ utility of the waterways when planning for current and future goods movement around the city and region. Ensure appropriate public transportation links to nodes of activity along the water. 3.2 Marine Related Commerc ia l / Retail Activity Look at other communities/cities for examples of waterfront development processes and policies that create vibrant waterfront nodes of development with marine-based commer-cial and retail activity coexisting with residential uses. 3.3 MPorage , . ' Enforce regulations regarding illegal moorage. Pursue retention or replacement of existing moorage in any redevelopment. Make use of permanent boat slips during periods of temporary v a c a n c y for visitors moorage and coordinate information and bookings through a central registration system. 3.4 Recreation, Tourism and Culture Develop a visitors greeting centre for boaters with information regarding visitors moorage, Coast Guard, customs, marine facilities, provisioning, safety and pollution issues, and tourist activities. Expand swimming opportunities, docks, and fishing piers where marine conditions permit and public access is available. -Recognize ana celebrate Vancouver's:marine history. Provide appropriate landscaping, outdoor furniture and public art in waterfront parks and access points to attract people and enhance a wide range of public usage. Use public space along the water for educat ional displays and information about the water and shoreline. , . Improve linkages (i.e., bus, streetcar, ferry, or water taxi) between tourist nodes within the 56 City. 3.5 Safety and Marine Regulations Confirm and coordinate jurisdictional responsibilities for navigation, safety and enforcement of marine regulations. 3.6 Water Quality and Shoreline Environment Promote and encourage "clean wake boating" with signage, educat ion, boating standards, and appropriate marine facilities. ' < Develop pump-out stations for emptying holding tanks. Aaaress the rat problem in rip-rap above the high tide mark through proper planning, design and maintenance of shorelines. Encourage the continued advancement of the City of Vancouver Sewer Separation Pro-gram. Encourage the enhancement of natural habitats along the water. 4.0 BURRARD INLET POLICIES AND GUIDELINES 4.1 Access and Transportation , -Work with industry representatives to identify potential sites for public viewing areas and a c -cess routes which do not conflict with industrial activity. Consider having a small ferry service in C o a l Harbour, possibly between Stanley Park, C a n a -d a Place, and points in between. Support Hastings Park plans to include connections to New Brighton Park and its newly devel-o p e d beach . > 4.2 Moorage Work towards increasing permanent moorage capac i ty in current and future developments in C o a l Harbour, ensuring that any initiatives are consistent with the C o a l Harbour Official Development Plan and other relevant policies. , • • 4.3 Recreation, Tourism and Culture ' , Investigate potential locations for public launching of hand-powered craft in C o a l Harbour. 4.4 Water Quality and Shoreline Environment / Encourage and support stewardship initiatives which help to remove garbage and debris from the shoreline, and improve its overall health and appearance . .5.0 ENGLISH BAY POLICIES AND GUIDELINES 5.1 Access and Transportation Modify the existing Jericho Pier to make it accessible for people with disabilities. 5.2 Moorage Consider increasing moorage capac i ty at Heritage Harbour for public viewing-of visiting heri-tage boats ana exemplary w o o a e n vessels subject to community a c c e p t a n c e . ^ 5.3 Recreation, Tourism and Culture Consider removing the marginal wharf at the Jericho Sailing Centre and dedicat ing a "hand-powered launch zone" in the area. Investigate the potential for developing a marine park which links the recreational water areas of Jericho and Kits Beach and limits the speed of power craft to reduce noise and conflicts with non power craft, and with birds and waterfowl. 5.4 Safety and Marine Regulations • Address conflicts between water users by increased enforcement of speed zone regulations. 5.5 Water Quality and Shoreline Environment Continue a program to maintain the physical quality and safety of swimming beaches. Preserve Chestnut Beach. 6.0 FALSE CREEK POLICIES A N D GUIDELINES-J 6.1 Access and Transportation Make docks at strategic transportation nodes around the Creek accessible for people with disabilities to'improve access to ferry transportation and recreational water craft. Consider expanding ferry service in False Creek where appropriate. 6.2 Marine Related Commercial /Retail Activity Design and plan for unique waterfront environments with entertainment and retail amenities where appropriate. 6.3 Marine Related Industry Look at opportunities to retain some marine-related industrial uses (such as small boat build-ing or repair) as part of any new development in False Creek, and in particular, a long the Southeast Shore of FalseCreek, ensuring that initiatives are consistent with southeast False Creek Policies. 6.4 Moorage Increase permanent moorage capac i ty in False Creek, ensuring that any initiatives are consistent with the False Creek Official and Area Development Plan, the False Creek North Official Development Plan and other relevant policies. Provide short term daytime moorage and overnight moorage in False Creekfhourly, daily, weekly). 6.5 Recreation, Tourism and Culture Encourage non-power craft use at the east end of False Creek. Explore ideas for educat ional and recreational programming which focus on the history and ecology of False Creek. 6.6 Safety and Marine Regulations Identify and empower one agency to carry out enforcement of navigational, water safety and other marine regulations in False Creek. 6.7 Water Quality and Shoreline Environment Develop pump-out facilities in marinas and at the proposed greeting dock. Continue to improve the water quality in the Creek for fish, bird and wildlife habitat, and for human contact . ; Reclaim and renew habitat areas through sensitive redevelopment atthe water's edge . 7.0 FRASER RIVER POLICIES AND'GUIDELINES 7.1 Access and Transportation Identify potential'sites for boat launching ramps at street ends and encourage flexible designs for multiple uses. Develop street ends as lookout parks with access down to the water's edge . 7.2 Moorage Investigate opportunities for recreational or commercia l boat moorage along the River. 7.3 Recreation; Tourism and Culture Continue to pursue the development of riverside walkways and bicycle paths where it does not conflict with water-dependant industry or natural habitat. Encourage educat ion programs which focus on natural habitat, heritage, and current users of the river. 7.4 Safety and Marine Regulations • Recognize.the river as a highway for commercia l uses, industrial interests and fishing boats. 7.5 Water Quality and Shoreline Environment Continue to reduce industrial discharge. Support ongoing community based clean-up initiatives. , Support initiatives which address the accumulat ion of w o o d debris in the North Arm. APPENDIX B \ 60 • A WORKING STUDIO FORMULA: PROGRAM STRUCTURE + SITE STRUCTURE = PLACE STRUCTURE The studio also focuses on the idea that the ordering that makes any great place great comes from the inextricable link that is achieved between the way the place's program is conceived and ordered (its activities, services, functions, etc,) and how, in turn that program order is placed upon the order inherit in the place's landscape (the hil l, the ridge, the promontory, etc.). The effective joining of these two ordering elements (program and site) creates an eternal partnership, an everlasting marriage. That it is rarely achieved in modem times is an indication of just how far we have become separated from the ideas of making place and dwelling in and on the land. . j o y M t t « » I Francis Violich's study of various Dalmatian towns examines the various ways in which different kinds ofseaside towns were orderedfunctionally and aesthetically differently, according to the site on which they were built and the nature of their cultural history. 61 TABLE 3: T H E PREPOSITION IN WORKS AND THEORIES ABOUT LANDSCAPE AND PLACE: THE EXPLICIT USE OF THE PREPOSITION: Cullen, Gordon (1961) Urban design criteria and townscapes Litton, R.B. (1968) Visual inventory and analysis methods for forest landscape Holl, Steven (1987) Future urban space and place-making possibilities THE IMPLICIT USE OF THE PREPOSITION: Lynch, Kevin (1959) Alexander, Christopher (1977) Krier, Rob (1979) Kaplan, Stephen, Rachael (1982) This-Evensne, Thomas (1987) Condon, Patrick (1989, 1991) Legibility and imagability in urban planning and design Good patterns for design and planning Urban street-square typologies in city building Significant factors in people's landscape preferences Archetypes in Architecture Fundamental landscape archtypes THE HOLISTIC USE OF THE PREPOSITION Boulding, Kenneth (1956) Eliade, Mircea (1959) Bachelard, (1969) Appleton, Jay (1975) Relph, E. (1976) Norberg-Schulz, Christian (1979) Arnheim, Rudolf (1988) / Alexander, Christopher (1988) The role of the image in knowledge Dwelling in the sacred; the axis mundi of religious "being" The poetics of dwelling in place and imagination Landscape preference; prospect and refuge Dwelling in place and placelessness; insideness and outsideness Inside-outside and the Genius Loci The role of centre in visual composition The holistic notion of centres and wholes in good design TABLE 1: ^ S P A T I A L - T E M P O R A L USES OF: THE PREPOSITION IN THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE: (As derived and modified from Bennett (1975) and, secondarily, Herskovits (1986) LOCATIVE: DIRECTIONAL: Superior above (locative higher) over (locative superior) : Inferior below (locative inferior) under (locative inferior) Anterior be/ore (locative anterior) in front of (locative anterior place) Posterior behind (locative posterior) in back of (locative posterior place) Interior within (locative interior) inside (locative interior of side) Surface on . (locative surface) Proximity beside (locative proximity) by (locative proximity) Surround around (locative surround) Connected on (connected location) onto (connected surface) Source from (directional source) Path - via (directional path) along (path locative length) through (path locative interior) Goal to (directional goal) away from (goal locative some place) by. (goal locative time) until (goal time) EXTENT: during for (locative path extent time) (extent) TABLE 2: PREPOSITIONS, ADVERBIAL PARTICLES, PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES, AND ABSTRACT AND CONCRETE PLACE WORDS: DEFINING THE POSITIONS OF SPACE AND PLACE: 1 INSIDE • HERE • ABOVE • ON THE OUTSIDE AND THERE AND BELOW "> SURFACE in, inside in front of , up on within , before down upon out, outside in back of below inside out behind under rested on near to oyer rode upon left outside far from overhead stuck in beyond above surface lost in after down under top tossed out past beneath . trace remain inside ahead of underneath veneer move within shell roof over here above it all finish hollow out there over and above coat distant down to earth facade outdoors ' immediate under the thumb skin indoors away from crust enclosed opposite to struggle under cover enfold ~~ buried beneath layer shelter spot mantle confinement foreground bowls drape cell footing apex cloak haven horizon zenith, high point film room background. bluffs face focal point heights envelope meadow outskirts, upstairs inlay field frontier downstairs overlay range .hinterland ceiling floor pasture reach bowls green hereafter depths orchard yonder ., heaven grove borderland . hell courtyard range court v cellar quadrangle grotto square underpass cloister \ tunnel, burrow atrium , hummock peristyle ' garret den crow's nest : , maze * attic labyrinth ~ J dormer. , arcade loft barn platform, podium pen tower dugout belvedere basin roost TABLE 2. C O N T D . • ATTACHED AND D E T A C H E D to on onto with °ff apart ajar attached to apart from hooked on hang on fall off • come apart hold onto coupled with joint elbow knee link hinge anti-room porch verandah side-yard parvis wings apron • BESIDE AND ADJACENT along alongside beside against adjacent to by with astride abreast on the verge of near to edge margin border periphery rim I'P border skirt verge brim brow brink cliff precipice shoreline riverbank •BETWIXT AND BETWEEN between betwixt to the left and right in front and back of sandwiched between in between interval threshold entrance exit doorway vestibule gateway property line wall fence hedge allee valley gorge canyon •AROUND AND ABOUT round •around about amid among throughout everywhere surrounded by in the midst of on all sides here and there all over far and wide peripherally .getting around moving about located throughout hill and dale town neighbourhood countryside grove orchard woods campus , market fields TO TABLE 2. CONTD. . IN THE • LN MOTION • IN THE • ON THE MIDDLE OF AND AT REST CORNER POINT in the middle of through in on midway out of within out on halfway to and from inside out to at the centre back and forth outside dead-centre up, down out on a limb off-centre into in the bend of on pins and needles across back into a corner in the eye of around bring to bay point focus forwards prospect core backwards angle projection heart inwards bend spit axis past curve .. groin pivot towards crook headland shaft to,on to turn peninsula hub . by, via twist promontory soul ' crotch cape nucleus at ease nook isthmus backbone speeding through tongue navel emerge from crevice axis mundi rush towards cranny pier moderate stop recess ^ private spot je"y epicentre intersection prow mean landing circuit alcove nave loop niche • EXTENT: DURAT hearth ring stall- AND DISTANCE halfway house cove during kiva street bay for camp fire avenue inlet about arena boulevard box canyon till, until sink mall cul-de-sac up to parkway Iogia since lane per alley - from here to there track past colonnade ahead arcade further mall farther path promenadev-esplanade • township section stairway four minute mile trail fathom . place piazza -; -circus tour de ville corridor • midway - . canal - 66 


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