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Bicycle policies and programmes in Vancouver, B.C. and Seattle, Washington : a comparison Rye, Tom 1991

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B I C Y C L E P O L I C I E S A N D P R O G R A M M E S I N V A N C O U V E R , B . C . A N D S E A T T L E , W A S H I N G T O N : A C O M P A R I S O N . By TOM RYE B . A . , St. Catherine's College, University of Oxford, 1989 THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES SCHOOL OF COMMUNITY & REGIONAL PLANNING We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1991 © T o m Rye, 1991 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada DE-6 (2/88) - ii -A B S T R A C T This thesis compares the evolution of the policies and programmes for bicycle planning which have developed in Vancouver, B.C., and Seattle, Washington since 1970. The bicycle policies of the two City governments are reviewed, as are the outcomes of these policies in terms of programme activities. The activities of other organisations, both voluntary and governmental, are also considered in the broad review of bicycle-related activities in the two cities. The bicycle policies and programmes of both are compared to models developed from the literature. The reasons for the differing development of bicycle policies and programmes in the two cities are examined from an historical perspective. It is concluded that the development and implementation of a bicycle policy faces similar problems to that of any other policy that is at the margin of political acceptability. It is argued that bicycle policies will be implemented much more readily if there is an active well-organised cyclists' lobby; if there is a bicycle coordinator employed by the municipality; and if cyclists can link their cause to one with broader political support (in this case, open space). - i i i -T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S Page Abstract i i List of tables v List of abbreviations vi Chapter 1: Introduction 1 1.1 Objectives 1 1.2 Scope and definitions 2 1.3 Structure of thesis 3 1.4 Vancouver and Seattle: an introduction 5 Chapter 2: Literature Review 8 Chapter 3: Programmes in Vancouver and Seattle 22 3.1 Vancouver 22 3.2 Seattle 35 3.3 More bikes on streets? 49 Chapter 4: Reasons for the development of the policies and programmes in Vancouver and Seattle 50 4.1 Sources of political impetus for Vancouver's bicycle policy 50 4.2 Sources of political impetus for policy implementation in Vancouver 51 4.3 Sources of political impetus for Seattle's bicycle policy 51 4.4 Bicycling as a politically popular issue 52 4.5 Bicycling organisations in Vancouver and Seattle 53 4.5.1 The Cascades Bicycle Club 53 4.5.2 Organisations in Vancouver 55 - i v -4 . 6 T h e i m p o r t a n c e o f m u n i c i p a l s t a f f i n a b i c y c l i n g p r o g r a m m e 5 7 4 . 7 M u n i c i p a l h i s t o r y a n d i t s i m p a c t o n b i c y c l e a d v o c a c y 5 9 4 . 8 B u r e a u c r a t i c s t r u c t u r e 6 1 4 . 9 D i f f e r e n c e s i n E n g i n e e r i n g D e p a r t m e n t s 6 2 4 . 1 0 U S a n d C a n a d i a n p o l i t i c a l c u l t u r e 6 3 4 . 1 1 D i f f e r e n t p o l i t i c a l h i s t o r i e s o f t h e t w o c i t i e s 6 3 C h a p t e r 5 : C o n c l u s i o n s a n d r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s 6 5 5 . 1 T h e 5 E ' s 6 5 5 . 2 P o l i c y 6 7 5 . 3 T h e r o l e o f t h e p l a n n e r 6 8 5 . 4 V a n c o u v e r a n d S e a t t l e 6 8 B i b l i o g r a p h y 7 0 I n t e r v i e w s 7 9 - V -L I S T O F T A B L E S P a g e T a b l e 1 M o d a l s p l i t i n u r b a n p a s s e n g e r t r a n s p o r t 9 a s % o f a l l t r i p s i n s e v e r a l c o u n t r i e s T a b l e 2 M o d e l b i c y c l e p r o g r a m m e i n m a t r i x f o r m 1 9 - vi -L I S T O F A B B R E V I A T I O N S B A B C B i c y c l i n g A s s o c i a t i o n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a B A B B i c y c l e A d v i s o r y B o a r d ( S e a t t l e ) B A C B i c y c l e A d v i s o r y C o m m i t t e e ( V a n c o u v e r ) B A T S B i c y c l e s a s T r a n s p o r t a t i o n S y s t e m s s u b c o m i t t e e ( o f C B C ) . B P C B i c y c l e P r o g r a m m e C o o r d i n a t o r C I P C a n a d i a n I n s t i t u t e o f P l a n n e r s C B C C a s c a d e s B i c y c l e C l u b G A C G o v e r n m e n t A f f a i r s C o m m i t t e e ( o f C B C ) S E D S e a t t l e E n g i n e e r i n g D e p a r t m e n t V B C V a n c o u v e r B i c y c l e C l u b V C B P V a n c o u v e r C o m p r e h e n s i v e B i c y c l e P l a n -1 -C H A P T E R O N E : I N T R O D U C T I O N . 1.1 O b j e c t i v e s . This thesis is a comparison of the measures which have been adopted to improve conditions for bicycling and to make bicycling a more viable urban transportation option in Vancouver, British Columbia and in Seattle, Washington since 1970. It is the objective of this thesis to demonstrate how political processes, programmes and physical facilities can be combined to make a North American city a significantly easier and safer place in which to bicycle; and to assess how far this combination of processes and programmes can be replicated with similar effects in other North American cities. This will involve an investigation of the degree of legitimacy the policies and programmes have gained in each city and the source of this legitimacy (politicians, public support and so on) (Leung, 1987). This topic was chosen for a number of reasons. Firstly, because there is pressure from cyclists and local governments in the Vancouver area to improve conditions for cyclists (and thus to increase their numbers) as part of a change in transportation strategy for the region to reduce its dependency on the single occupant vehicle (SOV). (See for example Creating Our Future (GVRD 1991).) Secondly, because Seattle is seen as a leader "in bicycle planning across North America. (See for example, Theisen 1976, Bicycling Magazine, Aug. 1990.) Thirdly, because, superficially at least, the two cities appear not dissimilar, and from the general feeling that what is done in one might be transferrable to the other, their different political systems notwithstanding. -2-1.2 S c o p e a n d D e f i n i t i o n s . The scope o f this thesis is limited to the North American context, to Seattle and Vancouver in particular (although examples from other cities will be used), and to examining the role of municipal and regional, and not state/provincial and federal, governments in bicycle planning. The way in which cyclist interest groups interact with these governments and with each other is also considered a factor producing different outcomes in conditions for cyclists. Thus when reference is made to bicycle programs and activities in the two cities this means more than solely the activities of the municipal governments. There are further limitations. For example, many of the individual projects which have been undertaken in the two cities would on their own make excellent case studies of public participation, inter-agency cooperation, or facilities design. But to study one project alone would lose the comparative element which is central to this thesis; and, in addition, it is a contention of this thesis that bicycle planning is more than an assemblage of projects. A number of definitions would be useful at this point to help clarify further discussion. B i k e w a y . Any road, path or way which in some manner i s specifically designated as being open to bicycle travel, regardless of whether such facilities are designated for the exclusive use of bicycles or are to be shared with other transportation modes. (AASHTO, 1981.) I n t e g r a t i o n . Bicycles and other vehicles sharing the same road space. S e g r e g a t i o n . Dedicating some road space solely for cycles or otherwise separating bikes and other vehicles. B i c y c l e l a n e . A designated portion of the existing roadway for use by bicycles only. Defined by striping or other means. (CIP 1990.) - 3 -B i c y c l e p a t h . The term implies a dedicated, off road single use pathway for bicycles. In practice, these have often become multi-use recreational pathways. (Ibid.) B i c y c l e r o u t e . Any route signed as such. (Ibid.) B i c y c l e n e t w o r k . Any system of routes for cyclists which provides safe, continuous and convenient travel. May form part of the existing road network or be a combination of specific pathways and parts of the existing roadways which meet the needs of cyclists. (Ibid.) B i c y c l e p o l i c y . A policy adopted by a (local) government with the stated intent of encouraging bicycle use and/or making bicycle use safer within its territorial jurisdiction. B i c y c l e p r o g r a m m e . Any set of activities by municipalities and/or other organisations (which may be volunteer-based) whose intent is to encourage bicycle use and/or make bicycle use safer. A bicycle programme may be the result of implementing a bicycle policy. B i c y c l e f a c i l i t y . Any physical facility built with the specific intent of making bicycle travel easier, safer and/or more convenient. 1 . 3 S t r u c t u r e o f t h e s i s . After a brief description of the two case-study cities, the history of bicycle planning in North America will be discussed to provide a context for the evaluation of the bicycle policies and their implementation as programmes and facilities in Vancouver and Seattle. From this discussion, a generic city-scale bicycle programme will be developed to facilitate the comparison. The aim will be to assess what each of the two cities has done in comparison to this generic programme and in comparison to each other. The most important part of the thesis is the analysis of how these actions or inactions have been achieved - the processes, actors and conditions which have made the programmes possible. In this sense, then, the thesis is not an evaluation of how far - 4 -the bicycle programmes in Vancouver and Seattle have achieved their goals, as this would have led to problems establishing just what these goals - explicit and implicit -were. The thesis aims instead to be a process evaluation, focusing on "an analysis of the processes whereby a program produces the results it does". (Patton, 1986:139.) This type of evaluation requires a qualitative approach which attempts to get a feel of how those people involved in the programme perceive it to be progressing (or regressing). It involves asking people's subjective opinions or feelings about the programme, be they recipients of its services, or people involved in providing the services. Findings will therefore not state anything definitively but will rather indicate an impression of how the policies have produced particular outcomes. (Robson and Foster, 1989.) Ways to measure process variables include interviews, records of requests for information and archival records to see whether a programme has complied with legislative requirements. (Blatt, 1982.) Thus much of the research for this thesis has been based on open-ended yet structured interviews with municipal officials, politicians, volunteers, and representatives of bicycling organisations in the two cities. Relevant municipal documents were also reviewed, as were the few published works about bicycling in the two cities. With more time and resources it would have been possible to interview more people, particularly in Seattle, and to review a greater number of documents. It would also have been helpful to conduct a survey of non-activist cyclists to try to discover how they feel about the conditions for bicycling in the two cities. In a longer thesis, a case study comparing the process whereby two bike-related projects were undertaken by the two cities would also have been instructive. - 5 -1.4 V a n c o u v e r a n d S e a t t l e : A n i n t r o d u c t i o n . A b r i e f introduction to these two case study cities i s appropriate at this point. More detail will be added later in the text in order to make specific points. Vancouver and Seattle are on the northwest coast of North America, separated from each other by a distance o f 150 miles and the Canada/US border. They have similar populations and are the centres of metropolitan regions of roughly the same size. * They are both port cities and were founded in the latter part of the last century, Seattle in 1864, Vancouver in 1886. (Nelson, 1977.) Both metropolitan regions are experiencing rapid population growth. The physical setting of the two cities is somewhat different. Sprawl in Seattle is less constrained than in Vancouver. Physical constraints in the Vancouver area have been supplemented by Provincial government legislation which since 1973 has protected the agricultural land to the south of the urban area from development. Notably, from the cyclists' point of view, the climate is similar in both cities; both metropolises are built around several bodies of water which form barriers to easy bicycling; and the urban area of Seattle has somewhat more severe topography than in Vancouver. The administrative organisation of the two metropolitan regions is different. The City of Vancouver is unique in British Columbia in having its own charter which gives it considerable extra powers in comparison to all other B.C. municipalities, which are governed by the Provincial Municipal Act. The mayor is a member of the council with the ten other councillors, presides over Council deliberations, and has no power to veto legislation other than his/her casting vote. Both mayor and councillors are elected on an at-large basis. Vancouver parks are built, maintained and administered by a 1. Population of Vancouver in 1986: 431,147. Of the Vancouver Urban Area, 1,228,427. (StatsCan, 1987, 14-5.) In 1986 the population of Seattle was 486,200, and of King County, 1,362,000. Pierce, King and Snohomish Counties which include most of the cities in the Tacoma-Seattle-Everett region had a total population in 1986 of 2,283,600. (US Bureau of the Census, 1988, 562 and 722.) -6-separately-elected Parks Board. The two bodies are administratively separate, but the Parks Board Budget is derived from the City, and subject to approval by City Council. The regional government in the Vancouver area is the Greater Vancouver Regional District (GVRD) which has little power to regulate except in the areas of water, sewerage and waste disposal. It also has responsibility for hospitals, public housing and some parks in the region. It is not an elected body but instead its Board consists of mayors and councillors from member municipalities in the GVRD area. Until 1982 it had zoning powers but these were removed by the provincial government. Seattle is the largest municipality within King County. The County covers the area from Puget Sound east to the crest of the Cascade Mountains, and also includes Vashon Island in the sound. It is not a regional government per se; rather, it provides services to the unincorporated areas of the county (i.e. those that are not in one of the cities), and it is now attempting to take on a more regional transportation planning role (Miller, personal communication in interview (p.c), 1991.) King County has a nine-member elected council and a County Executive who is the equivalent of a mayor. Other regional bodies in the area are Metro, which provides sewage disposal and transit service, and the Puget Sound Council of Governments, which is a consensus-led, voluntary association of municipalities whose acceptance by its members has varied over time, in common with similar bodies across the US. (Miller and Williams, 1990.) The mayor and councillors in Seattle are elected at large. Prior to 1964, the system in Seattle was of the vweak mayor, strong council1 type, but reforms in the late 1960s considerably strengthened the office of mayor, giving it more executive powers over departmental budgets and programmes, and the power to veto legislation presented to the mayor by council. (The veto power is limited.) (Kaplan 1970.) Further, "a variety of special purpose agencies were also restructured and made responsible to [the Mayor]". (MacDonald 1987, 174.) - 7 -Seattle does not have a separately elected parks board, (Parks and Recreation is a City department) although the school board is a separate entity. The importance of the differences in municipal structure and history will be discussed in greater detail in chapter 4. - 8 -CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW. It is the aim of this section of the thesis to discuss the evolution of bicycle policies and programmes across North America in order to provide a context for the discussion of what has been achieved in Vancouver and Seattle. Bicycle planning has a relatively lengthy history on this continent, but can be divided into two discrete periods separated by 50 to 60 years of inaction. Around the turn of the century, bicycle path systems existed in St. Paul (50 miles), the Bay Area (50 miles), Coney Island, NY, and Seattle. (Sommer and Lott, 1974.) Ironically, these bikepath systems paved the way for roads for cars and there followed a fifty year lull in bicycle planning activities. Recent policies only started to be developed from the late 1960s when some cities and states began to reject the goal of universal mobility provided by the single occupant automobile (SOV). Before this time, the bicycle was not seen as a vehicle at all but merely as a toy. The new wave of bicycle planning began in Homestead, Florida (1961) and Davis, Ca. (1966). (ibid, 1974.) Bicycle use was growing due to increased environmental awareness and interest in physical fitness; as it grew, so did bicycle/car conflicts, accidents, and calls for x something to be done'.(Hud son, 1982.) In contrast, the European history of transportation planning for bicycling is a much longer one and there is much greater acceptance of the bicycle as a transportation mode in (northern) European countries. For example, some early regulations regarding the construction of facilities for bicycles were passed in Germany in 1928 (Bracher, 1988.) This acceptance of bicycling is in part a product of and in part produces the much higher levels of utilitarian bicycle use in these countries, which reaches its peak in cities such as Groningen, Netherlands, where the bicycle share of non-education related utilitarian trips reaches 50%, and where bicycles outnumber cars on many suburban -9 -collector roads (Huyink, 1987). (See Table 1.) The bicycle is given priority over the car at many intersections and on areas of traffic-calmed streets (Hass-Klau, 1988). Between 1975 and 1985 federal funding for the construction of new bicycle facilities in the Netherlands totalled 500 million guilders, in addition to which many millions were spent by municipalities. (One guilder = $0.50.) Even in the U.K., which has one of the lowest overall rates of bicycle use in Europe (about 4% of all trips (Pucher, 1988:510)), cyclists are statutorily consulted about all new road projects built by the national Department of Transport. T a b l e 1 : M o d a l s p l i t i n u r b a n p a s s e n g e r t r a n s p o r t a s % o f a l l t r i p s . Country Car Transit MODE Bike Other* US (1978) 82.3 3.4 0.7 13.6 Canada (1980) 74.0 15.0 11.0 Germany (1978) 47.6 11.4 9.6 32.3 Sweden (1978) 36.0 11.0 10.0 43.0 N'lands (1984) 45.2 4.8 29.4 20.7 Italy (1981) 30.6 26.0 43.4 UK (1978) 45.0 19.0 4.0 32.0 Denmark (1981) 42.0 14.0 20.0 24.0 Includes pedestrian trips Source: Pucher, 1988 Many of the issues with which bicycle planners in Europe have to grapple are the same as in North America but, as noted above, the use of bicycles, the institutionalisation of bicycle planning within government agencies, and the funding it gets are all so much greater in Europe as to reduce the validity of any comparisons between Europe and North America. As Lemieux et al (1980, 26) argue: These [European] experiences could not (it was later found) be transferred directly to urban America where bicycle transportation parameters were much different. It is for these reasons that this study is limited in scope to North America. - 10-To a large extent, North American cities were starting from nothing when they started up bicycle programmes around 1970. For a variety of reasons, it was assumed that the ideal solution was to keep bicycles and other vehicles apart by providing separate routes for the former and in some cases legislating that bicycles must use these facilities. As the Bicycle Federation of America (BFA) (1985, 23) points out: Initially, bicycle programmes were simply facilities programmes, with separation, complete or partial, of bicycles from motor vehicle traffic accepted as the ideal pursued with vigour. Bikeways, in particular bike paths, were perceived as the way to do this. Hence the plans which were produced at this time are frequently entitled "Bikevray Plans" - the primary focus of the policy was the provision of bikeways. (Sorton, 1983.) Examples include the Victoria B.C. Bikeways for the Victoria Metropolitan Area (1976), and the Bicycle Path System for the City of Calgary (1972). The emphasis on trying to keep bicycles and cars apart came from a variety of sources: the transportation planners and engineers who produced the plans had not been educated about the needs of cyclists, and did not always make consultation of cyclists one of their priorities in the design process of the new facilities; hence there was no conception of which types of cyclists these routes were being designed for, or what cyclists actually wanted. (Shaw, 1976.) They had no national design standards to work with until 1974 when the Association of American State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) produced its Guide for Bicycle Routes. Some provided separate facilities for cyclists because they believed it was what the public wanted. Certainly, many bicycling advocates now accept that this is what the non-bicycling public does want (Laidlaw, Pollard, p.c. 1991). However, the agenda of some traffic engineers and politicians was to be seen to be doing something for cyclists at minimal expense and/or getting the bikes out of the way of the cars. -11 -The result of this was often grandiose bikeway plans which could not be fully implemented without huge amounts of cash and political will, both of which were lacking. The concrete changes to the road network and bikeway systems were not always positive. In Palo Alto, for example, 43 km of quieter residential streets were signed as bike routes in an attempt to induce cyclists to leave major arterials, but a survey showed that 65% of cyclists never used the signed routes because they offered no advantage over arterial streets. Sidewalk bikeways were also used but frequently proved dangerous because of the new intersections they effectively created (with driveways, for example), lack of width, poor visibility, and due to pedestrian/bicycle conflicts. (Williams, 1987.) As Smith (1976, 6) argues, such measures as bike routes, sidewalk bikeways, short stretches of on-street bicycle lane, and poorly-designed bikepaths which have no transportation function have been used as a temporizing device that creates an illusion of ' positive action by public officials who are unconvinced of bicycle facility needs, uncertain how to implement more advanced treatments, or simply anti-bike. Gradually the realisation dawned that planning for cyclists was more than just providing bike paths. The change came about because accident rates frequently increased after bike paths were put in (due largely to poor design); because it was recognised that cyclists wanted to travel everywhere that other travellers wanted to go and that consequently the majority of bicycle trips would continue to be made on normal roads; and a federally-funded national study of car-bike accidents showed that bicycle paths were not a solution to the majority of these accidents. (BFA, op cit.) In addition, those cities which had continued with their bicycle programmes often set up Bicycle Advisory Committees to their councils to solicit community input, in particular from the bicycling community, and from this they learnt that their cyclists had other concerns besides the provision of bikeways. - 12 -For example, in 1978 the city of Portland, Oregon, appointed a Citizens Bicycle and Pedestrian Advisory Committee, whose mandate was to identify and prioritize improvements to the bicycle and pedestrian network. However, the bike programme over the next few years concentrated on producing a bike map of the city, getting bike lockers and racks installed, and having bike parking added to the city's zoning requirements. (City of Portland Office of Transportation 1989.) At that point in time these were seen to be more important and more politically feasible than expanding the city's network of separate bike paths and lanes. The City of Spokane went through a similar process, moving from a 1976 bikeway plan "which soon appeared to be inadequate" because it "was not based on user needs and desires" (Spokane City Planning Commission 1988, vi) to the 1988 update, whose major recommendations were concerned with education and encouragement, not facilities design. Hence there was a move to more broadly-based bicycle programs. This was based on a recognition that if bicycling was to be treated as a viable mode of transportation then it was necessary to integrate planning for bicycling into the more general transportation planning and engineering process and to facilitate the safer co-existence of bikes and other vehicles on roadways. Engineering new facilities or re-engineering old ones was but one way to facilitate this co-existence. As McHenry (1980, 16) points out, The problem, as it turns out, is more than just how to separate the bicycle from the motor vehicle. It is how to provide for each competing transportation mode, within its own range of needs and abilities in such a way as to minimize conflict while maximising convenience, directness of route and potential for usage in a definite space. The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) in the USA was an important actor in the change in attitudes to planning for bicycling. The energy crisis of the mid to late 1970s spurred research into alternative modes of transportation so that for once this field was well-funded. For example, the 1978 Surface Transportation Act required the - 13 -development of federal guidelines for bicycle facilities for use on federally-funded projects. One result was a FHWA document on bicycle facilities which was taken over by the American Association of State Highway Officials (AASHTO) and published in 1981 as their Guide for the Development of New Bicycle Facilities. Another was a federally-funded education programme for bicycle planners which reached 1500 municipal and state personnel between 1975 and 1981. (Sorton, 1983.) The federal government in Canada did not provide research funding and services on a similar scale: a search of the Transport Canada library revealed no works published by the Federal Government on bicycle planning. In 1983, however, the Roads and Transportation Association of Canada published its Criteria for the Design of Bikeways, which is the "Canadian version of the Guide for the Development of New Bicycle Facilities" (CIP, 1990, bibliography). The move to a more integrated approach to bicycle planning has not been a smooth one and some cities have gone further than others. However, current " state of the art' manuals for bicycle planning such as the Community Cycling Manual (CIP, 1990), are unanimous in their agreement that bicycle planning is much more than the provision of bikeways - although at the same time special facilities for bicycles are not ruled out. (ibid p 4.) The purpose of this discussion of the history of bicycle planning is to provide a context for a v generic bicycle programme' with which to compare what Seattle and Vancouver have done. This brief synopsis (see above) has hopefully shown how thinking has developed over the years and the way that bicycle planning is now conceptualized. The next section will attempt to produce this v generic bicycle programme1 with reference to - 14 -a number of recent publications which indicate what some of the most important parts of a bicycle programme should be. Obviously bicycle policies and programmes do not exist in a political vacuum, but it is not the purpose of this section to discuss the political circumstances which have led to the particular bicycle programmmes in the two cities (this will be dealt with in Chapter 4); rather, this section will compare the outcomes of the programmes in Vancouver and Seattle with a generic or model programme. The first aspect of a model programme is that the municipality should have adopted some kind of a policy to promote bicycling within its jurisdiction. This is often but not always in the form of a bicycle plan. (See discussion on institutionalisation, below, p 17.) A programme which has formed the basis of many subsequent * second generation' bicycle programmes was set out by the Geelong (Australia) Bike Plan Steering Committee in the Geelong Bike Plan. This was the first bicycle plan to coin the term v the 4 E's' to describe the interdependent parts of a bicycle policy: action is required in the fields of Education, Encouragement, Enforcement and Engineering. This recognises that more people are unlikely to use their bikes unless they are encouraged to do so by better engineering of facilities and better education of drivers and cyclists on how to share the road; and that all these are useless unless there is proper enforcement of traffic regulations to ensure that motorists and cyclists do comply with them. Thus there is a good case for making an emphasis on the 4 E's a part of the "generic bicycle policy'. A fifth VE' is suggested here and can be considered as institutionalisation of planning for bicycling within the existing planning and engineering decision-making structure. (See for example Lagerwey, 1988, for a detailed discussion of this.) A bicycle - 15 -programme - even one which is fully staffed - will not get much further than the top of the "dusty shelf unless it is institutionalised to some extent. To measure this accurately to some extent is impossible but by using interview and other data a qualitative analogy can be made. For example, if the ideas in a separate bicycle plan are incorporated into other municipal documents and actions then it is reasonable to assume that the policy has been somewhat institutionalised. CIP (1990, 4-5) lists a number of basic principles for effective bicycle planning. They are: Assume every street is a bicycling street. If there is a bike plan, ensure that the ideas in it are incorporated into every document. Existing barriers to continuous bicycle travel should be overcome (e.g. bridges, freeways). Ensure that the bicycling implications of up coming projects are considered as part of their planning and design. An exhaustive list of the possible planks of a bicycle programme is provided by the BFA (1985), and by Pugh (1990). Koos (1987) also has useful ideas on this subject, stemming from her work as a bicycle coordinator. Combining their % generic1 bicycle programmes and presenting them in both written and matrix form (see Table 2) will permit a useful comparison of the programmes in Vancouver and Seattle. The matrix also suggests a small number of potential negative feedbacks between the elements of the 5 E's. For engineering, the ideal bicycle programme would assume that all streets are bicycle streets and thus ensure that: the street system is inventoried to assess its suitability for bicycle travel; - 16-there is a programme to eliminate bottlenecks, "squeeze points' and other hazards for cyclists (with a mechanism for cyclists to identify these); all new road construction plans are reviewed at an early stage for their impact on cyclists; there is proper maintenance of all on and off-street bikeways, possibly with a higher than usual standard of maintenance on highly-used bicycle corridors than on regular streets, and an ordinance to require pavement cuts (for utilities etc.) to be repaired to a high standard so as not to endanger cyclists; there is continuity of facilities for safe bicycle travel, which may include separate off-road bike paths where appropriate and feasible; there is a programme to install public bicycle parking and to encourage and\or require the installation of bike parking in private buildings and developments; and that existing bicycle facilities are upgraded to meet current minimum standards. The education part of a programme will aim to increase knowledge of cyclists' needs and to improve bicycle riding skills by doing some of the following: teaching bicycling skills in schools, and educating school teachers about bicycling; providing information leaflets on bike handling, riding in traffic and helmet usage; getting editorials and articles in local papers; and producing advertising and public service announcements (PSAs) for local news media to encourage motorists and cyclists to share the road. Enforcement will be facilitated by: local enforcement campaigns of motorist and cyclist infractions, preferably at the locations of highest car-bike conflicts and accident rates; - 17-some education for police officers so that they are aware of the rationale for enforcing traffic laws as they apply to cyclists; and information on how to register and how to lock bikes. The encouragement aspects of a bicycle programme can be furthered in some of the following ways: public endorsements of bicycling by local civic dignitaries e.g. a proclamation by the mayor of a Bicycle Week, and his\her participation in a bicycle ride; special events such as Bicycle Sundays; bicycle guide maps of the area; and a Bike to Work day, preferably one in which local dignitaries and celebrities again take part. The institutionalisation of planning for bicycling into general transportation planning and engineering is a huge task because it will only be fully accomplished when every procedure, regulation, manual and law which has implications for bicycle transportation explicitly recognises those implications and how to take account of them. However, institutionalisation may be speeded up by: training individuals in planning and engineering departments to review site plans and Capital Improvement Programmes (CIPs) for bicycle transportation impacts and implications - this training may require, for example, in-house seminars, or sending staff to conferences; having a citizen Bicycle Advisory Committee (BAC) to Council; having coordinating staff (bicycle coordinators); passing model laws and bylaws for bicycle parking and access; asking the BAC and local bicycle elubs for their input on selecting projects for the annual CIP. - 18 -having a variety of different funding sources for bicycle facilities and related activities to reduce the programme's over-dependence on one source which might be cut off. The model programme has been constructed in order to compare the policy outcomes. Questions concerning the design and engineering of safe facilities, or the logistics of an education programme, are not considered here. The elements shown are possibilities; obviously not every city's bicycle programme w i l l resemble this 'generic' one in every respect. This is particularly the case because the municipal department in which the programme is housed w i l l not have the expertise or the mandate to attempt to perform al l of the above activities. Hence, as the case studies wi l l show, many parts of a bicycle programme are performed by non-municipal and sometimes volunteer-based organisations. - 19 -Table 2: Model Bicycle Programme E L E M E N T S OF P R O G R A M M E IMPACTS Inventory street system Eliminate bottlenecks Review construction plans E N G . Continuity of facilities Bike parking installed Upgrade existing bike facilities -ve i f cyclists learn to ride off-road and so are less used to traffic Education of children and teachers about bicycling E D U C . Information leaflets Advertising, PSAs Editorials, articles in media Public endorsements of bicycling by dignitaries E N C . Special Events e.g. Bike Sundays Bike guide maps Bike to Work Days -ve i f enforcement campaigns lead to undue harassment of motorists or cyclists - 20 -Table 2 cont'd. ELEMENTS OF PROGRAMME IMPACTS Local enforcement campaigns of bike-motorist infractions ENF. Education for police officers Information on how to register and lock bikes Training of staff about bicycle planning Bicycle Advisory Committee/Board Bicycle Coordinator INST. Model ordinances for bike parking and access Cyclist input on projects for CIP Variety of funding sources for programme -ve if trained staff feel they have no need to consult BAC ELEMENTS - 21 -Table 2 cont'd. IMPACTS Bicycling universally accepted and planned for as much as other modes -PART OF THE POLICY PROCESS. Overall effect of model programme elements combined Incorporation of bicycling into technical and professional literature and manuals Funding ENG. = engineering EDUC. = education ENC. = encouragement ENF. = enforcement INST. = institutionalisation. v Impacting ^ Impacted. Sources: BFA (1985), Lagerwey (1988), Pugh (1988), Koos (1987). -22-C H A P T E R 3 : T H E B I C Y C L E P R O G R A M M E S I N V A N C O U V E R A N D S E A T T L E . 3 . 1 V a n c o u v e r . The bicycle programme in Vancouver is based on the policy enshrined in the Vancouver Comprehensive Bicycle Plan (VCBP) which was passed by Council in July 1988. The goals and objectives of the plan are summed up as: The City of Vancouver wishes to encourage and promote the safe use of bicycles for utilitarian and recreational purposes. Integration of the bicycle into the existing transportation network and acceptance of the bicycle as a safe and convenient mode of transportation is a primary goal and is achieved through Engineering, Education, Enforcement and Encouragement goals, (p 15.) Prior to the plan's adoption, the only bicycle-related policy which the City had was an incentive to developers by allowing a Floor to Site Ratio (FSR) bonus if they undertook to provide more bicycle parking in their projects. (This was introduced by the Development Permit Board in 1981.) The VCBP was written by the Bicycle Programme Coordinator (BPC), Marty Pospischil, who was hired specifically to do this job. The motion to create the position of BPC was passed by Council on July 30th 1985 and the post came into being in November 1986. The funding for Pospischil's position as BPC was terminated in February 1987, although he stayed on as BPC in Transportation until there was a position open for him in Electrical Engineering. The plan is based on the 4 E's, and has 45 recommendations, many of which are similar to some of the elements of the generic programme outlined in the previous chapter. However, for a variety of reasons which will be explained in chapter 4, not all the recommendations of the VCBP have been implemented. The purpose of this chapter is to outline what has been done so far. -23 -A part of the VCBP deals with existing recreational routes in the City which were the Habitat bike route, the 7-11 trail and the Stanley Park Seawall. The first was established in 1976 at a cost to the City and Parks board of $68,000. (City of Vancouver Engineering Department 1988, 72.) It linked up the University Endowment Lands with the south of Stanley Park via a mixture of on and off-road routing, and also via the Burrard St. bridge. Similarly during 1989 and 1990 there was a project by the Engineering Department to upgrade and extend the Habitat bicycle route so that it now goes all the way around both shores of False Creek. It has been re-signed, more of it has been taken off-road, and bypass routes for faster cyclists have also been signed. The route includes the City's first push-button cyclist-actuated traffic signal. The project was an attempt to upgrade existing bicycle facilities but due to budget constraints (the Seaside Route cost $250,000) it was impossible to reach even minimum standards for path width and sight lines (as laid down in the Community Cycling Manual (CIP 1990)) on much of the route. A similar situation prevails on the Stanley Park Seawall, where the recommendations of the bicycle plan are being implemented but to reach current minimum standards for shared-use trails would mean widening it along almost all its length which financially and environmentally is not possible at this time. The 7-11 Bicycle Trail follows the Skytrain Rapid Transit route from Main St. station in Vancouver to downtown New Westminster. It was built in 1986 at the same time as the Skytrain, by a now-defunct Crown Corporation called B.C. Parkway. Control of much of it is now in the hands of a subsidiary of B.C. Transit. Currently the 7-11 trail is in the same state that it was when the VCBP was adopted, that is, "a series of linear parks", rather than a bicycle facility. (Vancouver Bicycle Advisory Committee Minutes, 1985.) Vancouver Engineering Department has jurisdiction over the on-road sections of the route within the city, and will undertake a - 2 4 -review of these sections "during 1991" (Vancouver Engineering Department, 1991a.), but other than this there has been no attempt to upgrade this facility. The VCBP uses origin and destination data (from a 1985 survey by the GVRD) and also a survey of 600 local cyclists to prioritize those streets which are most important for bicycling in Vancouver and on which resources could be concentrated. Recommendation 1 of the VCBP (p 40) states: That the street priority system, detailed in this report, be recognised as a system to determine where bicycle requirements should be considered in road design and in future improvement projects. Although this does not preclude engineering to improve bicycling conditions on other streets, it does imply that some streets are more bicycling streets than others. Due to limited time and resources the BPC was not able to inventory every street for its suitability (or otherwise) for bicycling, and this has not been done since his position was terminated. There is no systematic programme in Vancouver to identify and eliminate hazards and bottlenecks for cyclists, with the exception of parallel drain grates and shallow angle railway crossings. In the latter case, the City wishes to install rubber flange fillers but cannot due to lack of cooperation from CP Rail. According to the VCBP (p 67), Vancouver presently has an extensive road maintenance program which has been expanded to include the unique road maintenance requirements of cyclists within the confines of approved budgeting. There is however no money which is directed specifically to spot improvements for cyclists and there is no additional publicity (aside from the Engineering Department listing in the phone book) to make cyclists aware of the possibility of having spot improvements and maintenance dealt with in this way. -25 -Engineering department plans for large scale roadway improvements are brought to the City's BAC on a regular basis to ask for committee input. Examples include plans for the widening of West 16th Ave; possible improvements to traffic flow at the Georgia St entrance/exit of Stanley Park; plans for on and off road bicycle facilities in new developments in Coal Harbour and in the Expolands; and the plans for the Cassiar Connector project at the southern end of the 2nd Narrows Bridge. (In the latter case pressure from the BAC led to City Council passing a motion calling on the Provincial Government to provide better bicycle access to the bridge. (The motion was ignored.)) However, neither the Engineering nor the Planning Department is bound to such consultation by any part of the VCBP; furthermore, consultation, if it takes place, sometimes does so at a fairly late stage in the planning process, when any input from the BAC has a reduced chance of becoming reality simply because it is harder to change plans that are already well-advanced. The continuity of facilities for safe bicycle travel in Vancouver is accounted for by several recommendations in the VCBP but principally by the following: (# 2) That the City of Vancouver Engineering Department road design standards incorporate recommended lane widths, where practical, as outlined in this report, (p 3.) (# 10) That all future roadway projects be designed to include cyclists on the road. In situations where such on-road access is unsafe that an alternative safe, direct, and convenient bicycle facility be provided, if practical, (p 4.) Thus whenever a road is widened or restriped, the curb lane is if possible (i.e. if there is room to stripe a wider curb lane without making the other lanes of substandard width and thus incurring liability) marked at the width recommended in the VCBP, which is 12 feet. This is narrower than in most North American municipalities which have a bicycle program where the average is closer to 14 feet (Williams 1990.) -26-At least two streets in Vancouver (NW and SW Marine Drive) have recently had shoulders added which has made them safer for bicycle travel without increasing the number of lanes available for motor vehicles. The original intention of the Engineering Department was to add curbs and, on SW Marine, two extra driving lanes but, due to pressure from the BAC and from local residents, the shoulder was added instead. (Arnaud, p.c. 1991.) This shows that recommendation 10 of the VCBP is interpreted differently by the Engineering Department and the BAC. With the exception of short sections of the Seaside Bike Route such as the connector under the Burrard and Granville bridges, no new separated bicycle paths have been built in Vancouver since the 7-11 trail in 1986. The VCBP recommends incorporation of bike parking requirements into the City's parking By-Law. The report on this has just been completed (City of Vancouver Engineering Department June 1991) and is due to go into the public hearing process in the fall of 1991. If the report's recommendations are adopted in full, it will be one of the most comprehensive bicycle parking by-laws in North America. (Pinsker at Vancouver BAC Meeting, July 11 1991.) Currently the city is relatively well provided with short-term bicycle parking because many private businesses have installed racks for customers and visitors. The process of applying for permission to site a rack on a sidewalk outside a business has been speeded up by the City and now only takes about a week (McLachlan, p.c. 1990.) The City funded one small ($2,000) bicycle rack programme in the West End in 1989 and in addition it and the Parks Board has bicycle racks at community centres and at other City-owned buildings. The education recommendations of the VCBP have not been completed, with the exception of recommendation # 18 to restructure the committee to include -27-representatives from the School Board. This was approved by Council in April 1988. In September 1989 City Council also gave the BAC $3000 for the production and distribution of a survey of Vancouver cyclists which was done in order to better target education efforts. Vancouver City Police have put on a Bicycle Education Week every year since at least 1987, helped by volunteers. Adult bicycling education classes are offered by the Bicycling Association of British Columbia (BABC) to those members of the public who contact the Association about the courses. Bicycle education in schools is performed by the Vancouver Safety Council (VSC) whose bicycle activities are funded by the Provincial Government. The Safety Council organises talks and off-road bicycle handling courses which reach about 12,000 school children (Grades 2 and 4) each year. (Crowe, p.c. 1991.) In addition the Police visit some schools to give talks on bicycle education. The School Board is unwilling to introduce compulsory bicycle education given the current trend towards a reduction in the time devoted to mandatory parts of the curriculum. (Pollard, p.c. 1991.) The Vancouver Bicycle Helmet Campaign is composed of members from the BABC, ICBC, the VSC and the local hospitals. Funding and publicity material comes from ICBC and the BABC. In addition to promoting helmet use among school children, the Helmet Campaign also mounts periodic general awareness campaigns (e.g. in September 1988 (Vancouver BAC Minutes, June 1988)). Thus it can be seen that the City Council's role in bicycle education is quite minimal, which is understandable given that its direct jurisdiction over education in the city is limited. The Enforcement section of the VCBP has been a success in some respects. Recommendation 31 calls for the licensing of bicycle couriers in order to "control the -28-present downtown bicycle courier problem." (Around 1984-85 Council was receiving many complaints about errant downtown couriers (BAC Minutes, 1985).) A motion to this effect was passed by Council on April 12 1988. Since May 1989 bicycle couriers have had to pay a licensing fee (which also covers third party insurance), display a licence number on their bikes, and take a written and on-road test which is administered by a member of staff at the BABC who is employed for this purpose. Her salary is paid for by the licensing fees and with a grant from Council. The programme was set up with help from volunteers, the Bicycle Coordinator, and staff at the BABC. It has been successful in that it has reduced the numbers of complaints about couriers, and because more errant ones can now more easily be identified. Bicycle Enforcement Weeks have been run by the Vancouver Police Department since 1988. Officers are instructed to look out for motorist-cyclist conflicts and cyclist infractions of road regulations. During the 1991 week, officers were concentrated in the downtown core, on Stanley Park seawall, on major arteries on the east side (Knight, Hastings), and on the access roads to UBC. (Constable Terry Gilmore, at Vancouver BAC meeting, 12\06\91.) The number of cyclists ticketed rises during these weeks but I'm not sure they are accomplishing the goals we envisaged for them. We don't address the no lights at night, wrong-way riding - all the things that cause the accidents. Instead, couriers get cited for not having a bell. Bicycling should be part of the preventive work that the police do. (Laidlaw, p.c. 1991.) There has been consistent pressure from the Vancouver Bicycling Community on the police to introduce "cops on bikes'. It is argued that the sight of police on bikes would lead to a greater acceptance by motorists of the cyclist's right to use the road, that it would be a role model for better bicycling, and that police on bikes are more effective - 2 9 -c r i m e - f i g h t e r s i n c o n g e s t e d d o w n t o w n a r e a s t h a n p o l i c e i n p a t r o l c a r s . R e c o m m e n d a t i o n # 3 6 o f t h e V C B P s t a t e s : T h a t t h e V a n c o u v e r P o l i c e D e p a r t m e n t c o n s i d e r t h e u s e o f t r a i n e d p o l i c e o f f i c e r s o n b i c y c l e s t o e n f o r c e t r a f f i c l a w s a n d r e g u l a t i o n s g o v e r n i n g c y c l i s t s o n t h e S t a n l e y P a r k S e a w a l l a n d t h e E n g l i s h B a y a r e a . I n g e n e r a l , V a n c o u v e r P o l i c e D e p a r t m e n t h a s n o t c o n s i d e r e d i t f e a s i b l e t o p u t a n y o f i t s u n i f o r m e d o f f i c e r s o n b i k e s , a l t h o u g h p l a i n c l o t h e s p o l i c e h a v e b e e n r i d i n g a r o u n d o n b i k e s f o r s o m e t i m e d o i n g s u r v e i l l a n c e w o r k . I n a l e t t e r t o t h e B A C d a t e d O c t o b e r 1 8 t h 1 9 8 8 , A c t i n g C h i e f C o n s t a b l e E . W . L i s t e r c i t e d p r o b l e m s o f w e a t h e r , b i k e s e c u r i t y , o f f i c e r s a f e t y , s l o w e r r e s p o n s e t i m e s , a n d g e n e r a l s h o r t a g e o f s t a f f a s r e a s o n s f o r n o t p u t t i n g p o l i c e o n b i k e s . H o w e v e r , i n a l e t t e r t o t h e B A B C d a t e d J u l y 1 5 , 1 9 9 1 , n e w C h i e f C o n s t a b l e W . T . M a r s h a l l n o t e s t h a t a g r a n t f r o m t h e V a n c o u v e r P o l i c e F o u n d a t i o n t o t h e P o l i c e D e p a r t m e n t w i l l s h o r t l y b e f u n d i n g a p i l o t c o p s o n b i k e s p r o j e c t i n V a n c o u v e r . H e s a y s , " W e h a v e e v e r y r e a s o n t o e x p e c t t h a t t h i s e x p e r i m e n t w i l l b e a s u c c e s s a n d w e w i l l b e e x a m i n i n g t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f e x p a n d i n g i t i n t h e f u t u r e . " V a n c o u v e r f o o t p a t r o l o f f i c e r s a r e g i v e n t r a i n i n g o n i d e n t i f y i n g s t o l e n b i k e s . T h e r e i s a l s o a n o n g o i n g b i c y c l e m a r k i n g p r o g r a m m e - o f f i c e r s a t t e n d v a r i o u s p u b l i c e v e n t s w h e r e t h e y o f f e r t h i s s e r v i c e . ( C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r E n g i n e e r i n g D e p a r t m e n t , F e b r u a r y 1 9 9 1 . ) P u b l i c e n d o r s e m e n t s o f b i c y c l i n g b y c i v i c d i g n i t a r i e s i n V a n c o u v e r h a v e i n c l u d e d p r o c l a m a t i o n s b y t h e m a y o r o f M a y a s B i c y c l e M o n t h o v e r t h e p a s t s e v e r a l y e a r s ( B A C M i n u t e s ) , a n d t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n b y t h e m a y o r i n t h e b i c y c l e r i d e w h i c h m a r k e d t h e o p e n i n g o f t h e S e a s i d e B i k e R o u t e . A l d e r m a n G o r d o n P r i c e r e g u l a r l y a t t e n d s l a r g e b i c y c l i n g e v e n t s . -30-The City of Vancouver does not produce a bicycle map of the city nor any other literature giving information on how to negotiate routes in the city by bicycle. The only exception to this is a guide to the Seaside route which is available at points along its length. Special bicycling events are limited to those which are put on by private or voluntary organisations (e.g. the Manulife Ride for Heart). Bicycle Sundays were put on in the early and mid 1980s by the Parks Board, when a section of Stanley Park was closed off to all traffic except bikes from 8 to 11 a.m. on a Sunday morning. In 1986, for example, there were 5 Bike Sundays in the park, and the one on August 31 attracted 685 cyclists. The practice was abandoned, however, because of low numbers of cyclists attending. Contracts with concessions in the park make it impossible to close the road for any longer or any later. (BAC Minutes, Dec 1986.) Although Bike Sundays no longer occur, in June 1991 the City donated $5,000 worth of policing and coning off of lanes to the Ride for the Environment, an encouragement event which was organised by a new volunteer-based group "The Bicycle People'. Bike to Work days are a way of encouraging people to give up their usual commute mode for a day and try bicycling to work instead. There have been events like this in Vancouver sporadically over the past 10 years. During the period in which the City had a Bicycle Coordinator, there was a "Working Wheels' day (May 25 1987), when city staff were encouraged to try bicycling or walking to work. Since then there has been no Bike to Work Day, although every May since 1989, there has been a " Commuter Challenge1 when a cyclist, driver and bus passenger have raced each other from 41st and Oak to downtown (where they were met by the mayor) in the morning rush hour. (This also occurred in 1985.) In 1991 this was covered on CBC Radio. It was organised by staff and volunteers from the BABC (Delahanty, p.c. July 1991). -31 -The City has gone some way to encouraging its own employees to cycle to work by supplying covered bicycle parking and showers for its employees. The Social Planning Department is currently considering how and where to expand provision of these facilities. The institutionalisation of a bike policy into the normal activities of a bureaucracy is, as explained above (p 14), difficult to measure, but an estimate can be made. There has been no deliberate training (e.g. seminars by outside experts, sending staff to bicycle planning conferences) of City of Vancouver engineers or planners to raise their awareness of bicycle issues, except for the 1987 Institute of Traffic Engineers' conference in Vancouver, when the City Engineer invited the bicycle transportation engineer John Forester to give a presentation. Thus the reviewing of plans for their impact on bicycle issues depends very much on the awareness of individual members of staff. Gord Lovegrove, a traffic engineer who worked on the Seaside Route, believes that "almost weekly" certain engineers who do have an awareness of the needs of cyclists are reminding others not to forget those needs in their plans, and he comments, "with the bike plan in 1988, that went a lot of the way towards institutionalising it [the bike policy] but still, a lot of the engineers in the department would not even consider them [bicycles]", (p.c. 1991.) There is no mechanism whereby the BAC or local bicycling organisations are systematically consulted for their comments on the bicycle implications of projects which are put forward for inclusion in the triennial Capital Expenditure Plan. As explained on page 22, the City of Vancouver is in the process of adopting a parking by-law. The policies adopted in the VCBP are the nearest that the City has to a model by-law governing bicycle access. - 3 2 -T h e r e i s a C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r B i c y c l e A d v i s o r y C o m m i t t e e . T h i s w a s f o r m e d i n M a y 1 9 8 0 a t w h i c h t i m e i t w a s a n A d v i s o r y C o m m i t t e e t o t h e T r a n s p o r t a t i o n C o m m i t t e e o f t h e C i t y C o u n c i l . T h e B A C m e t e v e r y q u a r t e r a n d h a d n o a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s u p p o r t f r o m t h e C i t y C l e r k ' s D e p a r t m e n t . ( A r n a u d , p . c . 1 9 9 1 . ) A f t e r f i v e y e a r s o f l o b b y i n g , t h e B A C f i n a l l y ( o n J u l y 3 0 t h 1 9 8 5 ) b e c a m e a n a d v i s o r y c o m m i t t e e t o C o u n c i l ( w h i c h a l l o w s i t t o r e p o r t a n d s e n d m o t i o n s d i r e c t l y t o C o u n c i l ) w i t h f u l l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s u p p o r t , a n d m o n t h l y m e e t i n g s . I n i t i a l l y , t h e m e m b e r s o f t h e c o m m i t t e e w e r e m a i n l y f r o m t h e V a n c o u v e r b i c y c l e c o m m u n i t y . H o w e v e r , i n A p r i l 1 9 8 8 , t h e B A C w a s r e s t r u c t u r e d t o i n c l u d e a t o t a l o f 9 m e m b e r s , 3 e a c h a p p o i n t e d b y t h e P a r k s B o a r d , S c h o o l B o a r d a n d C o u n c i l . E a c h o f t h e s e b o d i e s s e n d s o n e o f t h e i r e l e c t e d m e m b e r s a s a l i a i s o n t o t h e C o m m i t t e e , a n d t h e r e a r e s t a f f l i a i s o n s f r o m t h e E n g i n e e r i n g a n d P o l i c e D e p a r t m e n t s . T h e o f f i c i a l m a n d a t e o f t h e B i c y c l e A d v i s o r y C o m m i t t e e i s t o p r o v i d e C o u n c i l w i t h a d v i c e a n d i n p u t o n c i v i c i n i t i a t i v e s [ r e l a t e d t o b i c y c l i n g ] a n d t o r e v i e w a n d a d v i s e o n t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p l a n f o r t h e c o m p r e h e n s i v e b i c y c l e p l a n . ( F r o m M i n u t e s , V a n c o u v e r C i t y C o u n c i l , 1 8 t h M a r c h 1 9 9 1 . ) I t t h e r e f o r e h a s a f i n e l i n e t o t r e a d b e t w e e n b e i n g a p u r e l y a d v i s o r y c o m m i t t e e a n d a l o b b y g r o u p t o c o u n c i l . A i d . G o r d o n P r i c e ( l i a i s o n t o t h e B A C ) b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e a d v i s o r y r o l e i s t h e o n e t h e B A C s h o u l d p l a y i f i t i s t o r e t a i n i t s c r e d i b i l i t y w i t h C o u n c i l a n d t h a t o u t s i d e g r o u p s s h o u l d b e t h e l o b b y i s t s ( p . c . 1 9 9 1 ) ; b u t e n g i n e e r G o r d L o v e g r o v e c o m m e n t s : " t h e y [ t h e B A C ] a r e a l o b b y t o C o u n c i l a n d a n A d v i s o r y C o m m i t t e e t o s t a f f . I n t h e s e r e s p e c t s , t h e n , t h e B A C i s a g o o d d e a l m o r e a p a r t o f t h e f o r m a l C i t y b u r e a u c r a c y t h a n i t w a s w h e n i t b e g a n . T h i s d o e s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y m e a n t h a t i t i s l i s t e n e d t o . G o r d L o v e g r o v e b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e B A C i s r e s p e c t e d a n d t h a t i t s v i e w s a r e - 33 -taken seriously. However, Joe Arnaud (chair of the BAC from 1980 to 1988) believes that Council is only receptive to the ideas of the committee if cyclists who are not on the BAC support these ideas also. Alderman Gordon Price believes that the BAC has been effective up to now but only because there has been accompanying political commitment to "harass the politicians" so it is difficult for them to forget the existence of the BAC. The ideal role of a citizens' advisory committee such as the BAC is to provide informed input to Council decisions and to keep Council and relevant departments aware of the issues which affect cyclists in the city. At times, the BAC has performed this role; at other times, it has absorbed much activist energy without much effect. Vancouver no longer has a Bicycle Programme Coordinator. There seems to be a view which is widespread both within and without the bureaucracy that it should have one. Currently the Engineering Department liaison to the BAC, Doug Louie, has previously spent about 15 % of his time as a traffic safety engineer on bicycle issues, but recently he has been spending more than this (p.c, 10\07\91, 12\03\91). Ex-BPC Marty Pospischil comments: "In terms of the need for a coordinator, yes, I think there is a need and I think the need is increasing. I can see one position coming back in the future", (p.c. 1991.) Gord Lovegrove believes that "a bicycle coordinator would be very useful in this department." (p.c. 1991.) In the minutes of the BAC in May 1988, the Executive Director of the BABC, Danelle Laidlaw, who was also a member of the BAC, commented, "When we had a bicycle coordinator I think the BAC was a whole lot more effective because we had someone who could talk the engineers' language". In Feb 1991 the City Engineer made a request to Council for the funds to hire a bicycle coordinator (Manager's Report to Standing Committee of Council on City Services and - 3 4 -Budgets, 28th February 1991). However, the response was that Engineering should find the money from within its existing budget and so the current situation is that the staff resources for each individual bicycle project are found from within the department, but there is no bicycle coordinator per se. The funding sources for bicycle activities in the city are limited to City council, the Parks Board, the BABC, and, for safety-related projects, the Vancouver Safety Council and the Helmet Campaign. The latter three organisations receive much of their funding from the provincial government or its agencies. It is extremely difficult to assess how much money has been spent by the City of Vancouver on bicycle-related activities and facilities. There has up to now been no record of, for example, the cost of additional lane widths for bicycles in new road construction, and in general monies for bicycle things come out of many different pots to spread the load, as it were (Aid. Price, p.c. 1991.) According to Nelson McLachlan, chair of the BAC from April 1988 to February 1991, some $1,695,000 has been allotted to bicycle-related projects in the 1991-3 Capital Plan. In May 1991 Council directed the Engineering Department to create a separate account for bicycle-related expenditures, so from now on the amounts spent on these things will be easier to keep track of. Over the next 10 years an important source of funding will be from the developers of the land around B.C. Place stadium who only have to provide half the usual number of car parking spaces. They must give the money they save ($8 million) for the provision of bicycle and pedestrian facilities in the south and east of the downtown. It is important at this point to attempt to draw some conclusion as to how far bicycle policy in the City of Vancouver has been institutionalised into the bureaucracy. Shortly after the VCBP was adopted, Danelle Laidlaw of the BABC was quoted in Alberta Report (29 August 1988) as saying that the VCBP would "end up gathering dust on - 35 -some back shelf." She is now somewhat less cynical (p.c. June 1991). There is a consensus that acceptance and awareness in the City of the needs of cyclists have come a long way but still have a great deal further to go. The risk of the VCBP being completely put on the shelf has been avoided, partly because it is a programme which was politically possible and which the engineering department could buy into at minimum cost (Price, p.c. 1991). As both Gord Lovegrove and Marty Pospischil argue, the awareness of cyclists' needs in the City now is far greater than it was before the adoption of the VCBP. The stage has now been reached, however, where decisions have to be made about switching resources (of money and roadspace) away from motor vehicles to bicycles, and so the next few years will be a greater test of the degree to which bicycling transportation planning really has been institutionalised in the City. 3.2 Seattle. Seattle produced a Comprehensive Bikeway Plan in 1972, and a Bicycle Plan in 1983 and a Comprehensive Bicycle Policy in 1985. The goals of the 1985 policy are to increase and promote the safe use of bicycles for recreation and transportation, and to incorporate bicycle transportation and recreation into all appropriate City programs and activities, (pp 9 and 15.) However, these do not form the back bone of the bicycle policy (Lagerwey, p.c. 1990, Finnie, p.c. 1991). More important, according to Angel Rodriguez (the chair of the City's Bicycle Advisory Board (BAB) from 1979 to 1985) was the BAB's successful attempt to have bicycling incorporated into the City's overall transportation plan in 1983. This reduces the risk of bicycling being marginalised and increases the chance of it being taken seriously within the Seattle Engineering Department (SED). The process is clearly set out in the 1983 Bicycle Plan (p 1): - 36-The City has a process to identify and set priorities for physical bicycling  improvements. The Seattle Comprehensive Transportation Program (STCP) will identify needed improvements which will be considered for inclusion in the TCIP (Transportation Capital Improvement Program) bicycle element. Comprehensive bicycle planning should be viewed as a two-phase effort, with the Comprehensive Bicycle Plan guiding selection of bicycling improvements included in the TCIP. [Italics added.] The TCIP is a more influential document than any Bicycle Plan would ever be, simply because it is read by more people. Among the Goals and Objectives of the TCIP there are several statements which relate specifically to bicycling: Goal 1: Increase transportation safety. Goal 2: Provide access and mobility for all citizens. Objective 1: Reduce the potential for ...bicycle accidents resulting from the deterioration or obsolescence of the physical plant. Objective 5: Eliminate all barriers to bicycle travel. (Quoted in Avery and Anderson 1985, 9.) The City of Seattle has not spent much time or money upgrading its existing off-road bicycle facilities. Some sidewalk bikeways remain (e.g. on University Ave.) and the Edmonds bike trail remains a substandard facility. Despite heavier than anticipated use^, the older parts of the Burke Gilman Trail remain at their original width. However, the University of Washington does have plans to widen the section of the trail which runs through its campus. Obviously, as new sections of trail are built, the standards used are the most current and therefore most generous in width, curvature and sight lines. Coupled with the inclusion of bicycling into the STCP and TCIP (see above pp 30-31), SED has worked on the assumption that all streets (with a few exceptions) are bicycling streets. In 1983 the City inventoried all its streets and came up with a set of maps which classified them according to their suitability and importance for travel by a A June 1990 count by SED, the Cascades Bicycle Club and the International Bicycle Fund found up to 400 people per hour on the trail in some places. (CBC, July 1990.) -37-variety of modes, including walking and bicycling. They were adopted by City Council Resolution # 26904 in May 1983. The street classifications are supposed to guide the types of improvements each street will receive. There are five classifications related to bicycles: Bike Path, Bike Lane, Bike Route, Shared Roadway, and Bicycles Prohibited. This typology was criticised by the Cascades Bicycle Club (CBC) for being over-simplistic, and for not considering traffic density or the importance of each street in the (bicycle) transportation network. (CBC, February 1984.) However, it is at least a formal recognition of cyclists' use of the street system. Bottlenecks and hazards for cyclists are dealt with by the SED Spot Improvement Programme which has been in existence since 1978. Some funds are set aside specifically for improvements such as making drain grates and expansion joints on bridges safe, installing rubber flange fillers at shallow-angle railroad crossings (to stop bicycle wheels being trapped), and installing curb cuts and ramps to smooth the transition from off-road facilities to on-road bicycling. (Black, 1988.) Larger projects undertaken by the Spot Improvement Programme include striping of bike lanes, adding route and informational signage (for example, on the approach to the Ballard bridge which is hazardous for cyclists), and installing a contraflow bike lane and additional "green time' in a signalised intersection at the north end of the Fremont bridge. (Dornfeld at ProBike NW 91.) The current budget of the Spot Improvement Programme is $110,000 a year, funded from City's share of the Washington State gas tax revenues. There is a limit of $10,000 per individual project - larger projects must be submitted for inclusion in the annual TCIP. An example of such a project is the improved bicycle path on the University Bridge, which was done in the summer of 1974. (CBC, March 1974.) - 38 -T h e r e i s n o s t a t u t o r y r e q u i r e m e n t i n t h e C i t y o f S e a t t l e f o r n e w c o n s t r u c t i o n p r o j e c t s t o b e r e v i e w e d b y t h e B A B o r b y t h e B i c y c l e P r o g r a m C o o r d i n a t o r s , P e t e r L a g e r w e y a n d M i k e D o r n f e l d . H o w e v e r , t h e s e t w o p e o p l e a r e e m p l o y e d f u l l - t i m e b y t h e c i t y a n d s o h a v e t h e t i m e a n d r e s o u r c e s t o l o o k o u t f o r n e w p r o j e c t s w h i c h h a v e i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r c y c l i s t s . ( " T h i s i s p a r t o f m y j o b " . ( L a g e r w e y a t P r o B i k e N W 9 1 . ) ) T h e y c a n t h e n k e e p a n e y e o n p r o j e c t s t h e m s e l v e s , o r ( m o r e o f t e n ) p a s s t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o n t o i n d i v i d u a l m e m b e r s o f t h e B A B . A s D o r n f e l d s a y s ( a t P r o B i k e N W 9 1 ) , " W e l e t t h e B o a r d [ B A B ] k n o w w h a t ' s i n t h e p i p e l i n e " . S o m e m a i n t e n a n c e r e q u e s t s a r e f u n d e d b y t h e S p o t I m p r o v e m e n t p r o g r a m m e , b u t t h e m a j o r i t y a r e f u n d e d f r o m S E D ' s r e g u l a r m a i n t e n a n c e b u d g e t . T h e r e i s h o w e v e r a m e a n s f o r t h e p u b l i c t o m a k e r e q u e s t s t o t h e S p o t I m p r o v e m e n t P r o g r a m m e : a p h o n e l i n e o n w h i c h r e q u e s t s c a n b e m a d e , a n d S E D a l s o d i s t r i b u t e s r e q u e s t c a r d s a t b i k e s h o p s , c o m m u n i t y c e n t r e s a n d l i b r a r i e s w h i c h c a n b e p o s t e d b a c k t o t h e d e p a r t m e n t . T h e C a s c a d e s B i c y c l e C l u b s t a r t e d t h e f o r e - r u n n e r o f t h i s s c h e m e b y c o l l e c t i n g s p o t -i m p r o v e m e n t r e q u e s t s f r o m i t s m e m b e r s h i p a n d f o r w a r d i n g t h e m t o S E D i n A u g u s t 1 9 7 3 . W i t h o u t t h i s m e c h a n i s m , i t i s l i k e l y t h a t f e w e r r e q u e s t s f o r b i c y c l e i m p r o v e m e n t s w o u l d r e a c h t h e d e p a r t m e n t . T h e C i t y o f S e a t t l e i s f a m o u s f o r , a m o n g s t o t h e r t h i n g s , t h e B u r k e - G i l m a n t r a i l , a n o f f -r o a d b i c y c l e a n d p e d e s t r i a n p a t h w h i c h r u n s a l o n g a d i s u s e d r a i l w a y f r o m t h e n o r t h e a s t c o r n e r o f t h e C i t y t h r o u g h t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f W a s h i n g t o n c a m p u s t o t h e n o r t h s h o r e o f L a k e U n i o n a n d w h i c h i s g r a d u a l l y b e i n g e x t e n d e d w e s t w a r d s f r o m t h e r e . O t h e r o f f -r o a d b i c y c l e t r a i l s i n t h e C i t y i n c l u d e t h e D u w a m i s h T r a i l , p a r t o f t h e I n t e r u r b a n T r a i l , a n d t h e A l k i t r a i l . T h e s e t r a i l s d o n o t h o w e v e r f o r m a c o n n e c t e d s y s t e m b u t r a t h e r h a v e b e e n p u t i n p l a c e w h e r e t h e o p p o r t u n i t y ( a v a i l a b l e l a n d ) a n d p o l i t i c a l w i l l h a v e c o i n c i d e d . -39-The majority of bicycle travel in Seattle as in all North American cities still takes place on the street system. The bicycle programme in SED attempts to take every opportunity that presents itself to improve the continuity of safe facilities by, for example, striping wider curb lanes, adding shoulders when roads are resurface or restriped, and adding on street bike lanes. ^  The latest bike lanes in Seattle are on Gilman and Dexter Avenues. (Lagerwey at CBC Govt. Affairs Committee meeting, 28th May 1991.) In addition to lane widening, the continuity of routes across certain bridges which have been barriers to cyclists has been maintained by the provision of a v bikes on bus' service. Since May 1989, during the reconstruction of the West Seattle low-level bridge, SED has provided a van and trailer shuttle service for cyclists which crossed the high level bridge (from which cyclists are barred) every 20 minutes from 6 a.m. to 10 p.m. (NorthWest Cyclist Aug 1989, 25.) The State Route 520 floating bridge across the northern portion of Lake Washington is also closed to cyclists, but, since 1979, the transit agency Metro has provided bike racks on its service across the bridge from Edmonds to the University of Washington. The service (which reportedly is not frequent (CBC BATS Meeting 22nd May 1991)) was provided after lengthy lobbying of Metro by the Cascades Bicycle Club. The City of Seattle has had a bicycle parking by-law since 1983. This stipulates that the number of bicycle parking spaces in a new development must be equal to 10% of the number of car parking spaces in downtown developments, and 5% elsewhere. There is a great controversy in the North American bicycling community regarding the safety of bike lanes. This has been raging since the early 1970s. See for example Lott and Lott (1976) and Forester's reply to them (1976); CIP (1990); Lowe (1990). There is no doubt however that the majority of cyclists want bike lanes (see for example Toronto Cycling Committee July 1990) and that bike lanes are a visible action by municipalities for cyclists. -40-According to local bicycle advocates Durlyn Finnie and Mike Hooning, however, there is still insufficient bike parking in the downtown core. In addition to the parking supplied by by-law, the Spot Improvement Programme installs about 100 bike racks per year in local business districts. Racks can be requested by the public on widely-distributed rack-request cards. SED will install racks on private property as long as a number of conditions regarding accessibility, visibility, liability and maintenance are met. (Dornfeld at ProBike NW 91.) The City of Seattle has not been responsible for the education campaigns which have been conducted in the city. Instead the prime mover has been the Cascades Bicycle Club (CBC). In 1973, the club started its safety committee whose role was to write safety procedures for Cascades tours, [and] coordinate and work on the various safety programmes going on in government and school areas. (CBC Nov 1973.) At that time, the club had already been asked for its input into these programmes and that was one reason for its setting up this committee. In early 1979 the club started its education committee, initially to advise the City of Bellevue Parks department on the content of a proposed bicycle handling skills course. (CBC, March 1979.) In 1987, using funds from the annual Seattle to Portland (STP) ride, the education committee hired a consultant, Jane Abraham, to put together a number of educational programmes. The most well-known of these is the "Sprocketperson' programme in which trained volunteers from the CBC go out to talk to large groups of elementary school children about bicycle safety. In 1988 more than 18,000 children were exposed to Sprocketpeople across King Co. (Abraham, p.c. 1991.) Cascades Club volunteers also conducted bicycle roadeos which give children about 20 minutes of on road training. Although publicity for these programmes was purely by word of mouth, demand grew so much that Abraham and the CBC volunteers were -41 -forced to move from conducting roadeos themselves to training teachers and parents how to do them. To this end the CBC produces and distributes educational material. The club also lends helmets for children to use during the roadeos. Seattle Public schools has a bicycle education option in its Physical Education curriculum which was developed with the help of the CBC but is now run independently from the club (although it supplies resources such as brochures, helmets and even bikes). The City Police department is now also involved in bicycle education, visiting schools and putting on roadeos. c t The Club is also involved in providing expertise as a member of the Washington State Children's Helmet Coalition. The organisation has amongst other things facilitated a helmet bulk-buying programme for the State. The money for this coalition comes from Harborview Hospital in Seattle and the local TV station KOMO-TV. Bicycle coordinators from King County and SED sit on the coalition but aside from staff time and undertaking small related projects the two municipalities do not put in any other resources (Abraham, p.c. 1991.) In adult education, the CBC was also busy staging an annual " Share the Trail' event at which volunteers set up booths on the Burke Gilman Trail and talked to users about responsible trail use. This was initially a completely volunteer-based event, as Abraham explains: All we received [from the City in the first year] was not having to pay the permit fees to do an event. After the first year, both King County Parks and Seattle Parks, after they saw how successful and well-received the programme was, then they said they would co-sponsor it in the following two years that we did it, and actually their help was minimal (e.g. they made sure I had some garbage cans out there). They never provided personnel. We did all the work; they just tried to smooth the way, but they considered themselves co-sponsors. -42-The club has also paid for the production and mounting costs of a number of advertising boards on buses urging motorists to share the road with cyclists. (Bicycle Forum, Summer/ Fall 1989, 13.) This was the latest of a number of Share the Road publicity efforts by the club - for example in 1977 the club began distributing "I share the road with bicycles" bumper stickers. According to Peter Lagerwey (p.c. 1990), encouragement is not a part of the SED bicycle programme (in spite of its inclusion in the 1985 Bicycle Policy (p 7).) However, several departments of the city have in the past and continued to offer encouragement to cyclists. In the early 1970s Mayor Wes Uhlman made frequent public endorsements of bicycling, such as taking part in a ride organised by the Cascades from the University District to downtown to highlight the problems faced by cyclists; endorsing and publicising "Bike to Work Weeks' at yearly and half-yearly intervals during his term of office; and closing off roads (such as Lake Washington Blvd through the Arboretum) at weekends to all vehicles except bicycles. Bicycle Sundays have been occurring in Seattle for the past 24 years. Initially staged by the City Parks' Department, these day-long closures of a part of Lake Washington Blvd in the southeast of the city have, since 1971, been co-sponsored by the CBC. The road is closed to motor vehicles all day and the programme is so popular that in the last two years it has been extended to summer Saturdays also. (Bicycle Paper June 1990.) A similar event, though annual rather than monthly, is the closure by Washington State Department of Transport (WSDoT) of the Interstate 5 freeway express lanes to motor vehicles for a day so that non-motorized modes can use the lanes. There has been a bike to work day or week in some form in Seattle since at least 1973. (CBC June 1973.) During the late 1970s these events attracted major sponsorship from -43 -local TV stations and bicycle shops, but the involvement of the City has always been limited. Today the annual Bike to Work day is organised almost entirely by the CBC (Bicycle Paper March 1991), although this year King Co. Department of Public Works made a contribution by supplying a shuttle bus for cyclists across the Evergreen Point Floating Bridge ( S R 520) (Miller, p.c. May 1991). In the 1985 Comprehensive Bicycle Policy (p 11) the City called on itself to provide more end-of-trip facilities for its own employees as a means of encouraging more of them to bicycle to work: Secure and convenient bicycle parking, and facilities for storing clothes and equipment, should also be provided at all municipally owned and leased buildings. However, it has not pursued this as religiously as it could have (Hooning, p.c. 1991). The City has produced a bicycle map of Seattle since the late 1970s. It is free to cyclists thanks to the advertisements which it carries, and it is updated on a regular basis. King County has produced a similar map with help from the bicycle industry and the CBC. The most well-known encouragement events in the Seattle area which reach perhaps the greatest number of cyclists and which raise non-cyclists' awareness of bicycling are two annual rides organised by the Cascades Bicycling Club: the Chilly Hilly and the Seattle to Portland (STP). The latter attracts some 10,000 people who ride the 185 mile course in either 1 or 2 days. As Abraham (p.c. 1991) comments about the club, "our rides are getting bigger and better, we've gotten more and more involved in safety, we're getting more and more known throughout the city, and so you can't beat it, I think, for bicycling". The local bicycle industry is heavily involved in sponsoring these events, and with this source of income plus the rider entrance fees the CBC nets at least $65,000 each year - 4 4 -f r o m t h e t w o r i d e s . T h e s e t w o e v e n t s b o t h b e g a n i n 1 9 7 9 ( C B C , 1 9 7 9 . ) T h e C B C a l s o o r g a n i s e s a n a n n u a l B i k e E x p o - a t r a d e f a i r - w h i c h h e i g h t e n s a w a r e n e s s o f b i c y c l i n g a n d w h i c h , a g a i n , b u i l d s l i n k s b e t w e e n t h e b i c y c l e i n d u s t r y a n d t h e c l u b . T h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f b i c y c l i n g i n t o t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g a n d e n g i n e e r i n g p r o c e s s i s a k e y a i m f o r S e a t t l e b i k e c o o r d i n a t o r P e t e r L a g e r w e y ( p . c . S e p t 1 9 9 0 ) . A s y e t i n S e a t t l e , t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n a l i s a t i o n i s n o t s o f a r a d v a n c e d t h a t h i s j o b i s s u p e r f l u o u s . O t h e r S E D s t a f f a r e t r a i n e d b y t h e b i c y c l e c o o r d i n a t o r s i n t h e n i c e t i e s o f b i c y c l e p l a n n i n g ( L a g e r w e y a t P r o B i k e N W 1 9 9 1 ) a n d , a c c o r d i n g t o M i k e H o o n i n g ( p . c . J a n u a r y 1 9 9 1 ) , " W e a r e s e e i n g s i g n i f i c a n t c h a n g e s i n a t t i t u d e [ a m o n g s t S E D s t a f f ] " . N o n e t h e l e s s , w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e b i c y c l e i s c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e p l a n n i n g o f a n e w p r o j e c t i s s t i l l l a r g e l y d e p e n d e n t o n t h e v i g i l a n c e o f t h e t w o b i c y c l e c o o r d i n a t o r s a n d t h e v o l u n t e e r s o n t h e B i c y c l e A d v i s o r y B o a r d , a l t h o u g h a s D u r l y n F i n n i e ( p a s t c h a i r o f t h e B A B ) c o m m e n t s , T h e p o l i c y i s f a i r l y i n s t i t u t i o n a l i s e d i n t h a t t h e y ( S E D ) w i l l u s u a l l y c o n s u l t P e t e r o n p r o j e c t s w h i c h c r o s s t h e B u r k e G i l m a n o r o t h e r b i g t r a i l s . B u t w i t h s m a l l e r p r o j e c t s - t h e y f o r g e t , ( p . c . 1 9 9 1 . ) A l s o , c u r r e n t c h a i r o f t h e B A B M i k e H o o n i n g w a s r e c e n t l y j u b i l a n t b e c a u s e t h e S e a t t l e P o r t C o m m i s s i o n h a d " b e e n i n s t r u c t e d " ( b y s o m e o n e o u t s i d e t h e S E D b i c y c l e p r o g r a m m e ) t o c o m e a n d g i v e a p r e s e n t a t i o n t o t h e B A B o n a n e w d e v e l o p m e n t w h i c h a f f e c t e d t r a i l s i n t h e a r e a . ( p . c . 1 9 9 1 . ) S e a t t l e h a s h a d a c i t i z e n s b i c y c l i n g a d v i s o r y b o a r d s i n c e 1 9 7 7 . T h e B A B w a s f o r m e d t o : a d v i s e t h e C i t y C o u n c i l , t h e M a y o r , a n d a l l d e p a r t m e n t s a n d o f f i c e s o f t h e C i t y o n m a t t e r s r e l a t i n g t o b i c y c l i n g , a n d t h e i m p a c t w h i c h a c t i o n s b y t h e C i t y m a y h a v e u p o n b i c y c l i n g ; a n d s h a l l h a v e t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o c o n t r i b u t e t o a l l a s p e c t s o f t h e C i t y ' s p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s a s f a r a s t h e y r e l a t e t o b i c y c l i n g . ( C o u n c i l R e s o l u t i o n # 2 5 5 3 4 , M a y 1 6 t h 1 9 7 7 . ) - 4 5 -I t i s m a d e u p o f 1 0 m e m b e r s s e l e c t e d f r o m t h e c o m m u n i t y p l u s a n o n - v o t i n g m e m b e r f r o m t h e C a s c a d e s B i c y c l e C l u b , a n d t w o s t a f f m e m b e r s f r o m E n g i n e e r i n g a n d o n e f r o m t h e P a r k s D e p a r t m e n t . T h e B A B m e m b e r s h i p i s s e l e c t e d t o g i v e a s w i d e a c r o s s -s e c t i o n o f t h e c o m m u n i t y a s p o s s i b l e ( i . e . t h e v o t i n g m e m b e r s o f t h e B A B a r e n o t a l l C B C m e m b e r s a l s o ) . P o t e n t i a l m e m b e r s s u b m i t t h e i r r e s u m e s a n d a r e t h e n i n t e r v i e w e d b y t h e b i c y c l e c o o r d i n a t o r , t h e M a y o r a n d t h e c u r r e n t c h a i r o f t h e B A B . S i n c e 1 9 8 7 t h e r e h a s b e e n a r e q u i r e m e n t o n t h e S E D t o c o n s u l t t h e B A B a b o u t p r o j e c t s w h i c h a f f e c t c y c l i s t s , b y t h e f o l l o w i n g m e c h a n i s m : T h e B o a r d [ B A B ] i s c h a r g e d t o r e v i e w a n d m a k e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o n c a p i t a l i m p r o v e m e n t p r o j e c t s a n d o t h e r p r o g r a m s i n s o f a r a s t h e y r e l a t e t o b i c y c l i n g ; and A t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f e a c h y e a r ' s b u d g e t c y c l e , t h e b i c y c l e c o o r d i n a t o r s h a l l p r o v i d e t h e B o a r d w i t h a l i s t o f a l l c a p i t a l i m p r o v e m e n t s t h a t a r e b e i n g p r o p o s e d f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r ' s b u d g e t . T h e d e p a r t m e n t w i l l t h e n , u p o n b e i n g c o n t a c t e d b y t h e B o a r d , w o r k w i t h t h e B o a r d t o i d e n t i f y t h o s e p r o j e c t a n d p r o g r a m e l e m e n t s t h a t a r e a p p r o p r i a t e f o r B o a r d r e v i e w ; and A p p r o p r i a t e C i t y o f f i c i a l s s h a l l b e p r e p a r e d t o p r o v i d e t h e B o a r d w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n / p l a n s / m a p s / d r a w i n g s e t c . ' a s a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e p r o j e c t ' s a n d / o r p r o g r a m ' s g i v e n p h a s e , a s a r e n e c e s s a r y t o r e v i e w . ( S e a t t l e B A B , 1 9 8 7 , 3 a n d 4 . ) T h i s i s a s i g n i f i c a n t w a y f o r c y c l i s t s t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e i r n e e d s a r e m e t i n n e w c i t y p r o j e c t s . E a c h m o n t h t h e B A B h e a r s a p r e s e n t a t i o n b y t h e m a n a g e r o f a p l a n n e d o r c u r r e n t p r o j e c t i n t h e C i t y . I n a d d i t i o n , e a c h m e m b e r o f t h e B o a r d h a s t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t r a c k i n g t h e p r o g r e s s o f a f e w p r o j e c t s o r p r o g r a m s a n d b e i n g t h e l i a i s o n b e t w e e n t h e B o a r d a n d t h e m a n a g e r s o f t h o s e p r o j e c t s . ( L a g e r w e y a t P r o b i k e N W 9 1 . ) I n t h e w o r d s o f b i c y c l e c o o r d i n a t o r M i k e D o r n f e l d ( a t P r o B i k e N W 9 1 ) , -46-I've worked with bicycle advisory boards in Minnesota, Washington D.C. and Seattle, and the one in Seattle is by far the most effective one I've worked with. The City of Seattle has had a bicycle programme coordinator (BPC) on staff in the engineering department since 1977. (CBC Newsletter 1977.) Prior to this date an engineer called Bob Theisen spent much time on bicycle issues, although in 1975 he was laid off. The first BPC, Josh Lehman, was hired after a lobbying campaign organised by local cyclists. (Rodriguez, p.c. July 1991.) The funding for his position came from the Federal monies disbursed under the Comprehensive Education and Training Act (CETA), and this lasted for a year. (Lehman, p.c. May 1991.) He was not laid off at the end of this time, however, thanks, again, to lobbying by local cyclists such as Amy Carlson (p.c. January 1991) and political support from then Seattle Councilman Tim Hill. Although based in the engineering department, Lehman was a geographer/planner rather than an engineer. (Initially he was to have taken an exam in traffic engineering as a condition of his being hired, but this stipulation was dropped at the last minute. (Lehman, p.c. May 1991.)) Subsequent BPCs in the department have also not been engineers. This is in contrast to the situation in Vancouver where, when the BPC was hired, the City Engineer was insistent that the chosen candidate should have an engineering background. (Memo from Vancouver Deputy City Engineer to Director of Personnel re Bicycle Coordinator, July 18th 1986.) The City of Seattle had one and a half BPC positions by 1980, two by 1985 and it has just (July 1991) taken on three additional bicycle and pedestrian coordinators. These positions are funded from the regular City budget. The importance of these staff to the success of the bicycle programme will be discussed in the next chapter. - 47 -The Seattle bicycle programme has been notable in its pursuit of many novel funding sources. According to Lagerwey (p.c. Sept 1990), the direct funding by the City for the bicycle programme is about $150,000 per year, but approximately $4 million is spent from various sources on facilities. At ProBike NW 91 Lagerwey gave a number of examples including: Federal monies for bicycle facilities - up to $4.5 million per state per year (although it is up to the state to find opportunities for spending the money); Federal money for building bike trails as part of new freeways. The prime example of this in the Seattle area is the I 90 project from Bellevue to Seattle which features a bike bridge, tunnel and trail which cost $22 million. Seattle's share of the half of one percent of the Washington state gas tax which has been earmarked for bicycle and pedestrian facilities since 1972. The Spot Improvement Programme is the prime beneficiary of this source of funds (Black 1988). Open Space bond issues. These are voted on by city-wide referendum. Examples in Seattle include Forward thrust (1968) and Open Space (1989). The latter raised $117 million in King Co. (Seattle's share is $41 million, of which $5.8 million goes to trails development). (Seattle Department of Parks and Recreation 1990.) Private-public partnerships. In Seattle US Sprint were allowed to run a fibre-optic line along a 7 mile stretch of the Burke-Gilman trail in return for $900,000 which is being used to fund extension of the trail. It is also possible to piggy-back bike trails onto new hydro and pipeline rights of way. Environmental Impact Statements. All new projects in the US must by law have an EIS which includes ways of mitigating the environmental impact of the project. Bike facilities are considered one way of doing this. (Jordan 1988.) Once incorporated into the EIS, the bicycle facility must be provided by law. -48 -Similar to this is the $25 million over the next 5 years which the City of Seattle will receive from Metro for shoreline mitigation after Metro built a new sewage treatment plant at Westpoint. Old franchise agreements between railways and the City have been used to obtain lengths of abandoned railway right-of-way at no cost to the municipality. The City of Seattle has been putting considerable sums into bicycle facilities over the past two decades. In December 1972 it allocated $100,000 of gas tax money to the construction of the Ravenna Blvd/ 17th Ave. N . demonstration bikeway project. (Theisen, 1976.) The 1974 CIP budget included $175,000 for bikeways. (CBC March 1974.) Funding for the Burke Gilman Trail included Federal Community Development Block Grant and Gas Tax cash, and money from the 1968 Seattle Forward Thrust bond issue. (Seattle/King County 1979, quoted in City of Vancouver Engineering Department 1988, Appendix E.) However, it has taken a long time for the bicycle programme to obtain a substantial and legitimate foothold in the bureaucracy. Bob Theisen worked on bicycle project planning in SED from mid 1972 to 1976, when he was laid off. Up to this time, most of the funding for the bicycle projects had come from non-City sources; these funds dried up in 1976, and so the bicycle programme was put on ice for 2 years. (Theisen, p.c. 1991.) Having compared the Seattle bicycle programme to the generic programme, it is clear that the City's direct involvement with bicycling issues is largely limited to engineering which is, as Lagerwey says, "what we do best", (p.c. Sept 1991.) However, the bicycle programme in Seattle is clearly more than what is done by SED. As Finnie (p.c. 1991) comments, "it's a combination of the BAB, SED, Cascades and King County". - 4 9 -The reasons the bicycle programmes in Vancouver and Seattle have developed in the way they have, and the interaction between the various actors on the bicycling stage, wil l be explored in the next chapter. 3 . 2 M o r e b i k e s o n s t r e e t s ? Although there has been a bicycle programme in Seattle for the past 21 years, it may be that there are more cyclists in Vancouver, due to its more compact urban form and large population in the West End, close to downtown. A C B D cordon count conducted as part of the Bicycle Parking Standards Study (City of Vancouver Engineering Department 1991b, 28) recorded the proportion of all morning trips into the downtown as 1.3% (873 bicycle trips). A mail-in survey of 588 Vancouver office workers in the same report concluded that about 12% of these respondents bicycled to work in reasonable weather. The 1985 Origin and Destination Survey (quoted in City of Vancouver Engineering Department 1988, 17) conducted by the G V R D concluded that 2.3% of all vehicle trips in the Vancouver Central Metropolitan Area were made by bicycle, although Jim Chin of the G V R D regards this figure - which was based on a 5% telephone sample of households - as an underestimate. (Chin, p.c. 1991.) There are no definitive figures for the number of cyclists in Seattle (Lagerwey, p.c. Sept 1990); however, he has said to another Vancouver cyclist that he believes there may be more cyclists in Vancouver than Seattle. (Arnaud, p.c. 1991.) In Seattle's bike to work day in May 1991, cyclists who stopped for free coffee and muffins at the "ride stations' set up by Cascades Club volunteers filled out surveys, of which some 800 were received. However, the people who stopped were greatly outnumbered by the people who rode on by, and BTWD organiser Stu Hennessey believes that there are "thousands of [commuting] cyclists out there." (CBC BATS meeting 23rd May 1991.) Since there are no definitive figures for numbers of cyclists in either city, it is not possible to evaluate the success of the respective policies according to this criterion. -50-C H A P T E R 4 : R E A S O N S FOR T H E DEVELOPMENT OF T H E POLICIES A N D P R O G R A M M E S I N V A N C O U V E R A N D SEATTLE. The purpose of this chapter is to discuss some of the factors which may have contributed to the differences in the development and the implementation of bicycle policies and programmes in the case study cities. 4.1 S o u r c e s o f P o l i t i c a l I m p e t u s f o r V a n c o u v e r ' s b i c y c l e p o l i c y . In Vancouver, the Bicycle Advisory Committee was set up after pressure on Council from a number of activists from the Vancouver Bicycle Club (VBC) which began in 1978. (Pollard, p.c. 1991.) However, Council began to take serious notice of the bicycle issue after the 1984 transit strike, which brought great numbers of cyclists onto the streets, and raised awareness of bicycling - albeit, often, negatively defined as a "problem'. (City of Vancouver BAC Minutes, 1984 and 1985.) Danelle Laidlaw of the BABC, who sat on the Bicycle Advisory Committee at the time, noted that some of the people who began to bicycle because of the transit strike also voiced their dissatisfaction with the lack of facilities for cyclists in the city. Specifically, there was perceived to be a difficulty with the great number of cyclists crossing the Burrard Bridge, and the Engineering Department was charged with coming up with a solution (which is now in place - one way sidewalks shared by cyclists and pedestrians). Several aldermen also expressed concern about bicycle-pedestrian and bicycle-motor-vehicle conflicts, and at its meeting on 24th July 1984 Council commented that A more long range concern is the need for cyclist education ... and a program to effect this. (Minutes, 24/07/84.) -51 -Thus it was a combination of lobbying by cyclists, two years of petitioning by the B.C. Green Party, and council concerns generated by the transit strike, that launched the process for the hiring of a BPC and the preparation of the VCBP. 4.2 Sources of political impetus for implementation of the policy in Vancouver. Although the VCBP is City policy, this does not assure its implementation. The fact that it is slowly being implemented is because the awareness of bicycling on Council and in the Engineering Department has been kept high by pressure from cyclists, from the BAC, (especially by the previous chair, Nelson McLachlan (see below, p 62)), because Alderman Gordon Price is a v pro-bicycling' voice on Council, and because Council last year adopted a pollution control policy, Clouds of Change, (City of Vancouver 1990) which has given added impetus to the bicycle programme. Policy # 11(a) of Clouds of Change states that the City should: make bicycling a better transportation alternative by providing parking and related facilities in new developments, proceeding rapidly with implementation of the bicycle plan, and developing measures beyond the Comprehensive Bicycle Plan, in cooperation with the Bicycle Advisory Committee. Laidlaw (p.c. 1991) comments about the City's progress in implementing the VCBP: If I were cynical I might say that we dragged City Hall kicking and screaming into the Bicycle Age but, in fact, with the Mayor and a few councillors on side, it hasn't been that difficult. What I still don't see, though, is departments taking the initiative - they have to be prodded. 4.3 Sources of Political Impetus for Seattle's bicycle policy. In Seattle, the 1969 City elections brought "new blood' into both the council and the Mayor's office. Mayor Wes Uhlman was elected at this time and, as explained above (p 6) was able to take advantage of new powers granted to the Mayor's office in the late 1960s. -52 -I n i t i a t i v e f o r b i c y c l i n g a c t i v i t i e s a t t h i s t i m e c a m e b o t h f r o m t h e c o m m u n i t y a n d f r o m t h e M a y o r ' s O f f i c e . H o w e v e r , i t i s t h e v i e w o f B o b T h e i s e n , w h o w o r k e d f o r S E D a t t h e t i m e o n b i c y c l e - r e l a t e d p r o j e c t s , t h a t t h e m a j o r i m p e t u s f o r t h e s e p r o j e c t s w a s t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f F e d e r a l a n d s t a t e f u n d s . T o o b t a i n t h e l a t t e r , S e a t t l e h a d t o p r o d u c e a n d a p p r o v e a b i k e w a y p l a n . H e n c e t h e d i r e c t i o n f o r t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e 1 9 7 2 Comprehensive Bikeway Plan w a s p a r t l y e x t e r n a l . T h i s d o c u m e n t w a s t h e s u c c e s s o r o f a n e a r l i e r r e p o r t o n c o m m u t e r b i k e w a y s , a n d i t w a s p u t t o g e t h e r b y a j o i n t c o m m i t t e e m a d e u p o f b i c y c l i n g e m p l o y e e s o f t h e M a y o r ' s O f f i c e , D e p a r t m e n t o f C o m m u n i t y D e v e l o p m e n t , S E D , P a r k s a n d R e c r e a t i o n a n d t h e c o m m u n i t y . ( T h e i s e n , 1 9 7 6 ; O f f i c e o f t h e M a y o r , 1 9 7 2 . ) T h e e n t i r e p r o c e s s t o o k l e s s t h a n 9 m o n t h s . T h e n e w l y - f o u n d e d C a s c a d e s B i c y c l e C l u b ( C B C ) p l a y e d a r o l e a n d w a s v e r y e n e r g e t i c b u t , i n i t s e a r l y y e a r s , g a v e t h e i m p r e s s i o n t o T h e i s e n a n d e x - c o u n c i l m a n T i m H i l l o f b e i n g a n o r g a n i s a t i o n u n c e r t a i n o f w h a t i t w a n t e d , ( p . c . 1 9 9 1 . ) 4 . 4 B i c y c l i n g a s a p o l i t i c a l l y p o p u l a r i s s u e . T r a i l s a r e a n i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f b o t h t h e K i n g C o u n t y a n d S e a t t l e b i k e p r o g r a m m e s a n d b i c y c l i n g i n g e n e r a l h a s b e n e f i t t e d f r o m t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n : a s L a g e r w e y ( p . c . S e p t 1 9 9 0 ) s a y s , " t r a i l s w i n v o t e s . " B i c y c l i n g i n S e a t t l e h a s b e e n i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t r a i l c o n s t r u c t i o n s i n c e t h e e a r l y s e v e n t i e s , w h e n s o m e m e m b e r s o f t h e C B C w e r e a l s o a c t i v e i n t h e C o m m i t t e e f o r a C r o s s - t o w n T r a i l , w h i c h w a s i n s t r u m e n t a l i n g e t t i n g f u n d s t o b u y a n d b u i l d t h e B u r k e G i l m a n T r a i l . F u r t h e r m o r e , s e v e r a l o f t h e b i c y c l i n g a d v o c a t e s ( F i n n i e , H o o n i n g ) c o n t a c t e d f o r t h i s r e s e a r c h b e l i e v e t h a t t r a i l s a r e v a l u a b l e b e c a u s e t h e y g e t p e o p l e w h o w o u l d o t h e r w i s e n o t r i d e t h e i r b i k e s ( b e c a u s e o f f e a r o f t r a f f i c ) t o d o s o . T h e s e p e o p l e m a y o r m a y n o t u s e t h e i r b i c y c l e s o n t h e s t r e e t s y s t e m a s w e l l , b u t t h e f a c t t h a t t h e y b i c y c l e a t a l l m a y b u i l d t h e i r a w a r e n e s s o f a n d s y m p a t h y f o r b i c y c l e a d v o c a c y . T h i s o p i n i o n i s s h a r e d b y D a n e l l e L a i d l a w o f t h e B A B C w h o , r e f e r r i n g t o M o n t r e a l ' s . b i k e p a t h n e t w o r k , s a y s , -53 -I f y o u u n d e r t a k e a p r o j e c t l i k e t h a t t h e n y o u g e t t h e p u b l i c s u p p o r t a n d t h e n y o u c a n g o o n a n d d o t h e t h i n g s y o u r e a l l y w a n t t o d o w i t h t h a t s u p p o r t . . . Y o u g e t t h e s u p p o r t , n o t j u s t o f t h e o r g a n i s e d b i c y c l i n g c o m m u n i t y , b u t o f p o l i t i c i a n s , o f p e o p l e l i k e m y m u m , o f c o m m u n i t y a c t i v i s t s . . . ( p . c . 1 9 9 1 . ) a I n c o n t r a s t , b i c y c l i n g i n V a n c o u v e r h a s n o t e n j o y e d t h i s l i n k t o a p o l i t i c a l l y p o p u l a r l o c a l i s s u e . A i d . G o r d o n P r i c e ( p . c . 1 9 9 1 ) b e l i e v e s t h a t b i c y c l i n g i s a n i s s u e w h i c h a t m o s t h a s a m a r g i n a l i m p a c t o n a f e w p e o p l e ' s v o t i n g p a t t e r n . ( C i v i c p o l i t i c s i n V a n c o u v e r a r e i n a n y c a s e f o u g h t a s m u c h o n p a r t i s a n l i n e s a s o n i s s u e s . ( T e n n a n t , 1 9 8 0 . ) ) A m a i l - i n s u r v e y o f 8 0 0 V a n c o u v e r c y c l i s t s i n 1 9 9 0 r e v e a l e d a v e r y l o w a w a r e n e s s o f t h e C i t y ' s b i c y c l e p o l i c y a n d p r o g r a m m e s : o v e r 7 0 % h a d n o t h e a r d o f t h e V C B P , a n d o n l y 2 8 % k n e w t h a t t h e C i t y d i d n o t h a v e a b i c y c l e c o o r d i n a t o r . ( V a n c o u v e r B A C 1 9 9 0 . ) T h i s m a y b e b e c a u s e m o s t o f t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o f t h e p l a n r e s u l t i n r e l a t i v e l y i n v i s i b l e i m p r o v e m e n t s . ^ I f b i c y c l i n g i s n o t a p o l i t i c a l l y p o p u l a r i s s u e t h e n t h e r e i s m u c h l e s s r e a s o n f o r p o l i t i c i a n s t o p a y a t t e n t i o n t o a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l g r o u p o f b i c y c l e a d v o c a t e s . 4 . 5 B i c y c l i n g o r g a n i s a t i o n s i n S e a t t l e a n d V a n c o u v e r . 4 . 5 . 1 T h e C a s c a d e s B i c y c l e C l u b . I n 1 9 7 0 , t h e C a s c a d e s B i c y c l e C l u b ( C B C ) w a s f o u n d e d . I t s g o a l s i n c l u d e d ( C B C A u g u s t 1 9 7 0 ) V a n c o u v e r ' s b i c y c l e p o l i c y a s s t a t e d i n t h e V C B P i s t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e s a f e i n t e g r a t i o n o f b i c y c l e s w i t h o t h e r v e h i c l e s o n t h e s t r e e t s y s t e m . T h e s t r i p i n g o f b i c y c l e l a n e s i s c o n s i d e r e d u n s a f e ; a n d b u i l d i n g b i k e p a t h s f o r u t i l i t a r i a n c y c l i s t s i s n o t a p r i o r i t y . T h u s t h e r e i s l i t t l e v i s i b l e e v i d e n c e a s i d e f r o m w i d e r c u r b l a n e s a n d a d d i t i o n a l s i g n a g e o n b r i d g e s t h a t t h e s t r e e t s y s t e m i s b e i n g a d a p t e d t o a c c o m m o d a t e c y c l i s t s . #6: #4: #5: t o a p p r e c i a t e a n d i m p r o v e o u r e n v i r o n m e n t ; t o e n c o u r a g e b i c y c l i n g f o r r e c r e a t i o n a n d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n [ i t w a s n e v e r a r a c i n g b i c y c l i n g c l u b ] ; t o p r o t e c t b i c y c l i n g i n t e r e s t s . - 5 4 -T h e C a s c a d e s B i c y c l e C l u b n o w h a s o v e r 4 , 0 0 0 m e m b e r s , m o s t l y i n K i n g C o u n t y . T h e y c a n p a c k h e a r i n g s o n l a r g e n e w r o a d p r o j e c t s w i t h u p t o 3 0 0 c y c l i s t s ( F i n n i e , p . c . 1 9 9 1 ) . I n c o m p a r i s o n , V a n c o u v e r B i k e C l u b h a s a b o u t 2 0 0 m e m b e r s a n d t h e B i c y c l i n g A s s o c i a t i o n o f B C a b o u t 2 4 0 0 , p r o v i n c e - w i d e . A s w e l l a s b e i n g l a r g e , t h e C B C a c t i v i s t s a p p e a r t o t h e a u t h o r t o b e e x c e p t i o n a l l y w e l l -o r g a n i s e d a n d a w a r e o f h o w t h e y c a n a f f e c t p o l i c y f o r m u l a t i o n a n d p r o g r a m m e o u t c o m e s . A l m o s t s i n c e t h e c l u b ' s i n c e p t i o n , m e m b e r s h a v e b e e n c o n t a c t i n g p o l i t i c i a n s a n d b u r e a u c r a t s t o k e e p t h e m a w a r e o f t h e v i e w s o f c y c l i s t s i n t h e S e a t t l e a r e a . A n e x a m p l e o f t h i s w a s a P . R . r i d e f r o m G r e e n L a k e t o P i o n e e r S q u a r e w h i c h t h e c l u b o r g a n i s e d i n 1 9 7 1 a n d i n w h i c h l o c a l p o l i t i c i a n s t o o k p a r t . A t e v e r y e l e c t i o n a l s o , t h e c l u b c o n t a c t e d c a n d i d a t e s t o a s k f o r t h e i r v i e w s o n b i c y c l i n g . W i t h c o n s t a n t p r e s s u r e o f t h i s n a t u r e , b i c y c l i n g b e c a m e r e c o g n i s e d a s a p o t e n t i a l v o t e w i n n e r . ( L e h m a n , p . c . 1 9 9 1 . ) E x - S e a t t l e c i t y c o u n c i l m a n T i m H i l l a g r e e s w i t h t h i s a s s e s s m e n t ( p . c . 1 9 9 1 ) . A s L e h m a n c o m m e n t s : " B y t h e e a r l y 7 0 s t h e r e w a s a w e l l - d e f i n e d , v i s i b l e c o m m i t m e n t t o b i c y c l i n g f r o m t h e b u s i n e s s a n d p o l i t i c a l c o m m u n i t y " . (Ibid.) B u r e a u c r a t s i n t h e a r e a n o w k n o w t h a t i f t h e y d o n o t c o n s u l t l o c a l c y c l i s t s a b o u t n e w p r o j e c t s o r p r o g r a m m e s t h e n t h e l o c a l c y c l i s t s w i l l m a k e t h e i r v i e w s k n o w n q u i c k l y a n d v o c i f e r o u s l y ( M i l l e r p . c . 1 9 9 1 . ) A l s o , t h e C B C ' s G o v e r n m e n t A f f a i r s C o m m i t t e e i s n o t a f r a i d o f t h r e a t e n i n g t o s u e l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t d e p a r t m e n t s w h e n t h e y f a i l t o h o n o u r t h e i r s t a t e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s t o c y c l i s t s . ( F i n n i e , p . c . 1 9 9 1 . ) T h e p o l i t i c a l r e s p e c t w h i c h t h e b i c y c l i n g c o m m u n i t y c o m m a n d s i n S e a t t l e g r e w f r o m t h e f o l l o w i n g r o o t s , i n t h e o p i n i o n o f A n g e l R o d r i g u e z , e x - c h a i r o f t h e B A B a n d o w n e r o f a l o c a l b i k e s h o p f o r m a n y y e a r s : I t h a d a g o o d c l u b , a g o o d s e t o f b i k e s h o p o w n e r s w h o c a r e d a n d w h o g o t i n v o l v e d , a n d r i d e o r g a n i s e r s w i t h g u t s . I f t h o s e t h r e e l e g s h a d n ' t b e e n t h e r e , t h e n t h e p o l i t i c i a n s j u s t w o u l d n o t h a v e l i s t e n e d . W e s h o w e d o u r s e l v e s t o b e a w e l l - o r g a n i s e d a n d w e l l - m o t i v a t e d g r o u p ( p . c . 1 9 9 1 ) -55 -w h o a p p r o a c h e d p o l i t i c s a n d p o l i t i c i a n s i n a t o t a l l y a d u l t m a n n e r - w e d i d n ' t c o m e a c r o s s a s r a v i n g l u n a t i c s , a s t a b l e - p o u n d e r s ( B l a c k , p . c . 1 9 9 1 . ) T h u s t h e r e i s a p o s i t i v e f e e d b a c k l o o p : C a s c a d e s k n o w s t h a t i t h a s a f a i r c h a n c e o f b e i n g l i s t e n e d t o , t h i s k n o w l e d g e m o t i v a t e s i t s a c t i v i s t s , s o t h e y a r e m o r e e f f e c t i v e a n d t h u s a r e l i s t e n e d t o s t i l l m o r e . T h i s i s n o t t o s a y t h a t t h e C B C h a s w o n a l l i t s b a t t l e s -t h e m o s t " c e l e b r a t e d ' b e i n g t h e f a i l u r e t o w i n c y c l i s t a c c e s s t o t h e n e w W e s t S e a t t l e b r i d g e i n 1 9 8 4 . ( A l t h o u g h t h e w a y i n w h i c h t h e c l u b f o u g h t a n d r e c o v e r e d f r o m t h i s b a t t l e w o n i t p o l i t i c a l r e s p e c t ( B l a c k p . c . 1 9 9 1 ) . ) B u t i n g e n e r a l , " C a s c a d e s [ i s ] b e c o m i n g m o r e a n d m o r e e f f e c t i v e a n d l i s t e n e d t o . " ( L e h m a n , p . c . M a y 1 9 9 1 . ) M a n y o f t h e a c t i v i s t s i n t e r v i e w e d f o r t h i s r e s e a r c h c i t e d t h e C B C a s i n s t r u m e n t a l i n t h e s u c c e s s f u l a d v o c a c y o f b i c y c l i n g i n S e a t t l e , ( e . g . R o d r i g u e z , P o l l a r d , A r n a u d , M i l l e r , L a i d l a w . ) L a g e r w e y ( p . c . 1 9 9 0 ) b e l i e v e s t h a t a s a b i c y c l e c o o r d i n a t o r , " a g o o d c i t i z e n ' s g r o u p , p r o p e r l y m a n a g e d , w i l l b e y o u r l i f e b l o o d " - i n h i s c a s e t h e B A B a n d t h e G A C o f t h e C B C . S k o n e c k i ( 1 9 8 0 , 2 1 8 ) a g r e e s t h a t a b i c y c l e c o o r d i n a t o r " n e e d s a c o n s t i t u e n c y o f l o c a l p e o p l e w h o k n o w , l i k e a n d w i l l s u p p o r t t h e c o o r d i n a t o r t o a s s u r e t h e p r o g r a m ' s c o n t i n u i t y " . R o d r i g u e z p u t s i t a l i t t l e m o r e b l u n t l y : I f t h e C B C w a s n ' t t h e r e , i f i t d i s a p p e a r e d t o m o r r o w , t h e n P e t e r L a g e r w e y w o u l d l o s e h i s j o b t h e d a y a f t e r t o m o r r o w , ( p . c . 1 9 9 1 . ) 4.5.2 Organisations in Vancouver. V a n c o u v e r h a s n e v e r h a d a b i c y c l i n g o r g a n i s a t i o n w h i c h h a s b r o u g h t t o g e t h e r r e c r e a t i o n a l a n d c o m m u t e r c y c l i s t s , b i c y c l i n g a d v o c a t e s a n d t h e b i c y c l i n g i n d u s t r y . T h e r e h a s n e v e r b e e n a g r o u p w h i c h h a s p r o m o t e d b i c y c l i n g t h r o u g h l a r g e e v e n t s i n t h e s a m e w a y t h a t t h e C a s c a d e s h a s . T h e V a n c o u v e r B i c y c l e C l u b o r i g i n a t e d i n 1 9 7 8 a n d w a s , a c c o r d i n g t o o n e o f i t s f o u n d e r m e m b e r s M a r i l y n P o l l a r d , a p o l i t i c a l l y a c t i v e o r g a n i s a t i o n f r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g . " O n e o f t h e f i r s t t h i n g s I r e m e m b e r d o i n g [ w i t h t h e C l u b ] w a s p r o t e s t i n g a t t h e o p e n i n g - 5 6 -o f the S e a b u s [ b e c a u s e i t d i d n ' t c a r r y b i k e s ] " ( p . c . 1 9 9 1 ) . H o w e v e r , o v e r t h e p a s t 5 y e a r s the c l u b h a s b e e n l e s s a c t i v e i n a d v o c a c y - a l t h o u g h t h i s m a y c h a n g e i n t h e n e a r f u t u r e a s d i f f e r e n t p e o p l e b e c o m e a c t i v e . T h e B i c y c l i n g A s s o c i a t i o n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i s a c t i v e a t t h e P r o v i n c i a l l e v e l a s w e l l a s i n V a n c o u v e r . I t i s a s p o r t i n g b o d y , n o t a c l u b , a n d i s h e a v i l y d o m i n a t e d b y r a c i n g c y c l i s t s w h o t r a d i t i o n a l l y h a v e b e e n l e s s i n t e r e s t e d i n a d v o c a c y i s s u e s t h a n m o r e r e c r e a t i o n a n d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o r i e n t e d c l u b s s u c h a s t h e C a s c a d e s . I t h a s a n i m p o r t a n t r o l e t o p l a y a s t h e P r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i s e r a n d l i c e n s e e o f r a c e s , w h i c h a b s o r b s m u c h s t a f f t i m e . I t s m a i n f u n d i n g s o u r c e s a r e m e m b e r s h i p a n d g r a n t s f r o m t h e P r o v i n c i a l G o v e r n m e n t . E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r o f t h e B A B C , D a n e l l e L a i d l a w , b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e a d v o c a c y r o l e o f t h e o r g a n i s a t i o n i s " a s a r e s o u r c e f o r o u r m e m b e r s w h o w a n t t o d o s o m e t h i n g t h e m s e l v e s " ( p . c . 1 9 9 1 ) . S h e b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h e C B C c o m e s i n p a r t f r o m t h e i r v e r y l a r g e m e m b e r s h i p w h i c h r e s u l t s f r o m t h e r i d e s w h i c h t h e y o r g a n i s e . B u t , s h e s a y s , I ' m a l i t t l e r e l u c t a n t f o r a p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n [ s u c h a s t h e B A B C ] t o g e t i n t o o r g a n i s i n g a r i d e . I ' d l i k e t o s e e o u r c l u b s d o t h a t . I d o n ' t s e e i t a s t h e f u n c t i o n o f t h e A s s o c i a t i o n t o b e w h a t c l u b s s h o u l d b e . (Ibid.) T h e A d v o c a c y C o m m i t t e e o f t h e B A B C h a d a b u d g e t o f $ 2 , 3 0 0 i n 1 9 9 0 , c o m p a r e d t o t h e a p p r o x i m a t e l y $ 8 5 , 0 0 0 o f m e m b e r s h i p a n d g r a n t i n c o m e w h i c h w a s s p e n t b y t h e r a c i n g c o m m i t t e e . (Ibid.) T h e B A B C d o e s p r o v i d e C a n - B i k e b i c y c l i n g s k i l l s c o u r s e s f o r t h o s e a d u l t c y c l i s t s w h o a r e i n t e r e s t e d , b u t t h e y a r e n o t o f f e r e d o n a y e a r - r o u n d b a s i s . T h e g r o w t h o f t h e C B C c o m p a r e d t o i t s c o u n t e r p a r t s i n V a n c o u v e r m a y i n p a r t b e e x p l a i n e d b y t h e p e r s o n a l p o l i t i c s o f t h e o r g a n i s a t i o n s . T h e f a c t t h a t C B C v o l u n t e e r s h a v e t h e c h a n c e t o b e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s o m e l a r g e a n d l o g i s t i c a l l y c h a l l e n g i n g e v e n t s ( e . g t h e t r e a s u r e r o f t h e S T P r i d e h a n d l e s a b o u t $ 5 0 0 , 0 0 0 i n a y e a r ) m a y a b s o r b - 5 7 -v o l u n t e e r e n e r g y m o r e c o n s t r u c t i v e l y t h a n i n a n o r g a n i s a t i o n w h e r e s u c h o p p o r t u n i t i e s a r e f e w e r . 4 . 6 T h e i m p o r t a n c e o f m u n i c i p a l s t a f f i n a b i c y c l e p r o g r a m m e . T h e C B C a n d t h e B A C i n S e a t t l e h a v e b e e n i m m e a s u r a b l y h e l p e d b y t h e p r e s e n c e o n C i t y a n d ( s i n c e 1 9 8 7 ) C o u n t y s t a f f o f t h e b i c y c l e c o o r d i n a t o r s . V a n c o u v e r h a s n o t h a d t h i s s a m e c o m b i n a t i o n o f h i g h l y a c t i v e b i c y c l i n g c o m m u n i t y , a n d b i c y c l e c o o r d i n a t o r s . A c o o r d i n a t o r i s v i r t u a l l y a n e s s e n t i a l t o a b i c y c l e p r o g r a m m e b e c a u s e : W h i l e m u c h c a n b e d o n e b y c i t i z e n s " o u t s i d e 1 t h e s y s t e m , i t i s a l s o v e r y i m p o r t a n t t o h a v e a q u a l i f i e d p e r s o n " i n s i d e " t h e b u r e a u c r a c y t o b e a n a d v o c a t e f o r b i k i n g a n d t o p r o v i d e c i t i z e n s w i t h t i m e l y i n f o r m a t i o n . ( L a g e r w e y 1 9 8 8 , 9 8 , e m p h a s i s a d d e d . ) P h i l M i l l e r , t h e K i n g C o u n t y n o n - m o t o r i z e d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o o r d i n a t o r , a l s o s e e s c o m m u n i c a t i o n a s a v e r y i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f h i s j o b - h e i s a " c o n d u i t " b e t w e e n p r e s s u r e g r o u p s a n d h i s d e p a r t m e n t , w h i c h h i r e d h i m t o b e " a p a i n i n t h e a s s " a n d p r e - e m p t p r e s s u r e f r o m o u t s i d e , ( p . c . 1 9 9 1 . ) A s A b r a h a m ( p . c . 1 9 9 1 ) s a y s o f h e r t h r e e l o c a l c o o r d i n a t o r s , T h e y c a n ' t g e t u p a n d s a y s o m e t h i n g b e c a u s e t h e y ' r e c i t y w o r k e r s b u t t h e y c a n t e l l u s a n d s o w e c a n g e t u p a n d s a y i t . a n d P e t e r a n d M i k e ( a n d C a r l a b e f o r e h i m ) d i d a l o t f o r c y c l i n g i n g e t t i n g p e o p l e o r g a n i s e d b e h i n d t h e s c e n e s . I m e a n , a l o t o f s t u f f , t h e y c a n ' t d o u p f r o n t b e c a u s e t h e y ' r e c i t y e m p l o y e e s , b u t w e ' v e a l w a y s k n o w n w h e n e v e r t h e r e ' s a n y t h i n g h a p p e n i n g w i t h t h e C i t y C o u n c i l . . . t h e y ' r e r e a l i n v o l v e d w i t h t h e G A C a n d t h e y l e t u s k n o w . S o w e ' v e b e e n s o r t o f t h e v o l u n t e e r a r m . T h e c o o r d i n a t o r s i n S e a t t l e a r e l i m i t e d i n w h a t t h e y c a n d o b e c a u s e t h e y a r e i n o n e d e p a r t m e n t , ( E n g i n e e r i n g i n t h e C i t y , T r a n s p o r t a t i o n P l a n n i n g ( a p a r t o f p u b l i c w o r k s ) i n t h e C o u n t y ) . A s W i l k i n s o n ( 1 9 8 0 , 2 1 8 ) e x p l a i n s , a c o o r d i n a t o r ' s f u n c t i o n v a r i e s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e d e p a r t m e n t s / h e i s i n a n d w h e t h e r t h e j o b i s t o b e a c o o r d i n a t o r f o r t h e w h o l e d e p a r t m e n t o r f o r t h e w h o l e m u n i c i p a l i t y . - 5 8 -A r n a u d ( w h o i s f a m i l i a r w i t h S e a t t l e a s w e l l a s V a n c o u v e r ) i s c o n v i n c e d o f t h e b e n e f i t s o f h a v i n g f u l l - t i m e c o o r d i n a t i n g s t a f f , a n d h e c o m m e n t s , C o u n c i l m e m b e r s t e n d t o a c c e p t w h a t s t a f f t e l l t h e m . W h e n y o u h a v e a c o o r d i n a t o r w h o c a n g o t o C o u n c i l a n d s a y , l o o k , c y c l i s t s c o u l d u s e t h i s a n d t h i s i s w h y , t h e n C o u n c i l t a k e n o t i c e . B u t i f t h e B A C g o e s t o C o u n c i l , t h e y ' l l s a y , " Y o u ' r e j u s t t h e C o m m i t t e e , w h a t d o y o u k n o w a b o u t i t ? " [ I n S e a t t l e ] t h e y h a v e t h e t w o p e o p l e o n s t a f f t h a t k e e p a n e y e o n e v e r y t h i n g t h a t e n g i n e e r i n g p l a n n i n g d o e s . S o w h e n e v e r a n y t h i n g c o m e s u p t h a t a f f e c t s b i c y c l i n g , t h e y ' r e t h e r e . A n d t h a t ' s w h a t t h e C o m m i t t e e c a n ' t d o o n i t s o w n . ( p . c . A p r i l 1 9 9 1 , e m p h a s i s a d d e d . ) T h e o n l y p e r s o n i n t e r v i e w e d f o r t h i s r e s e a r c h w h o d i d n o t b e l i e v e t h a t a b i c y c l e c o o r d i n a t o r w o u l d b e o f u s e i n V a n c o u v e r w a s A l d e r m a n G o r d o n P r i c e , l a r g e l y b e c a u s e h e p e r c e i v e s t h e r e t o b e a d a n g e r o f t h e p o s i t i o n b e i n g t o k e n i s t i c . P r i c e i s m o r e i n f a v o u r o f d i f f e r e n t m e m b e r s o f s t a f f b e i n g a s s i g n e d t o e a c h b i c y c l e - r e l a t e d p r o j e c t . H o w e v e r , t h i s v i e w d o e s n o t r e c o g n i s e t h a t a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f a c o o r d i n a t o r ' s t i m e i s s p e n t e n s u r i n g t h a t a l l p r o j e c t s t a k e a c c o u n t o f b i c y c l e s , a n d t h a t t h e r e a r e a n y b i c y c l e r e l a t e d p r o j e c t s t o w o r k o n . A b i c y c l e p r o g r a m m e i s n o t j u s t a s e r i e s o f p r o j e c t s . A r n a u d i s s t r o n g l y o f t h e o p i n i o n t h a t t h e B A C i n V a n c o u v e r w a s m u c h m o r e e f f e c t i v e w h e n i t h a d a c o o r d i n a t o r t o w o r k w i t h . A f t e r t h e p o s i t i o n w a s t e r m i n a t e d , a c c o r d i n g t o A r n a u d , " t h i n g s s t a g n a t e d " . T h e a u t h o r n o t e s f r o m r e a d i n g t h e m i n u t e s o f t h e B A C t h a t , d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d w h e n t h e r e w a s a c o o r d i n a t o r , t h i n g s t h e B A C r e q u e s t e d w e r e g e n e r a l l y d o n e b y t h e d a t e o f t h e n e x t m e e t i n g w h e r e a s , b e f o r e a n d a f t e r , r e q u e s t s f o r a c t i o n o r i n f o r m a t i o n o f t e n d r a g g e d o n f o r s e v e r a l m o n t h s . T h i s w a s c o n f i r m e d i n i n t e r v i e w s w i t h A r n a u d a n d L a i d l a w . ^ A i d . P r i c e b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e s t a g n a t i o n i n 1 9 8 7 w a s b e c a u s e " [ t h e B A C ] l o o k e d a s t h o u g h t h e r e w e r e t o o m a n y l o n g t i m e p e o p l e o n i t a n d i t h a d g o t t e n i n t o a r u t " ( p . c . 1 9 9 1 ) ; a n d a l s o b e c a u s e t h e B A C w a s p e r c e i v e d a s a C O P E - 5 9 -A l t h o u g h t h e r e w a s n o b i c y c l e c o o r d i n a t o r o n s t a f f f r o m 1 9 8 7 o n w a r d s , t h e n e w c h a i r p e r s o n o f t h e B A C , N e l s o n M c L a c h l a n , w o r k e d a l m o s t f u l l - t i m e o n b i c y c l i n g i s s u e s d u r i n g h i s t e n u r e a n d i n s o d o i n g r a i s e d a w a r e n e s s o f b i c y c l i n g b o t h w i t h i n a n d w i t h o u t C i t y H a l l . A s E n g i n e e r G o r d L o v e g r o v e c o m m e n t s , Y e s , I t h i n k t h a t N e l s o n w a s a m a j o r m o v e r . W e o w e a l o t t o N e l s o n f o r w h e r e t h i n g s a r e g o i n g . S o , m a y b e h e d i d a f e w t h i n g s w r o n g a n d p o l i t i c a l l y h e e r r e d h e r e a n d t h e r e . B u t b y a n d l a r g e h e h e l d t h e r e i n s t o g e t h e r a n d l e d t h e c h a r i o t r a c e i n t h e r i g h t d i r e c t i o n . A l d e r m a n G o r d o n P r i c e s a y s t h a t M c L a c h l a n ' s r o l e w a s a s a " p r o v o c a t e u r " n o t a s a b i c y c l e c o o r d i n a t o r . H e w o r k e d v e r y c l o s e l y w i t h G o r d L o v e g r o v e o n t h e p l a n n i n g o f t h e S e a s i d e B i k e R o u t e ; h e a l s o s p e n t m u c h t i m e o r g a n i s i n g v o l u n t e e r s , p e r s u a d i n g t r a f f i c e n g i n e e r s t o g o o u t b i c y c l i n g , a n d r a i s i n g a w a r e n e s s o f b i c y c l i n g i n V a n c o u v e r b y l e t t e r - w r i t i n g a n d " n e t w o r k i n g * . M a n y o f t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s a r e p r e c i s e l y w h a t a p a i d b i c y c l e c o o r d i n a t o r w o u l d s p e n d h i s / h e r t i m e d o i n g L a i d l a w a g r e e s t h a t " w h a t w e h a d [ w i t h N e l s o n ] w a s a v o l u n t e e r b i c y c l e c o o r d i n a t o r - a n d t h e C i t y s h o u l d r e c o g n i s e t h a t " , ( p . c . 1 9 9 1 . ) 4 . 7 M u n i c i p a l h i s t o r y a n d i t s e f f e c t o n b i c y c l e a d v o c a c y . A l l b u r e a u c r a c i e s a r e i n p a r t a p r o d u c t o f t h e i r p a s t a n d t h e d i f f e r e n t h i s t o r i e s o f t h e S e a t t l e a n d V a n c o u v e r C o u n c i l s c a n g o s o m e w a y t o w a r d s e x p l a i n i n g t h e i r d i f f e r e n t r e s p o n s e t o l o b b y i n g f r o m c y c l i s t s . A c c o r d i n g t o M a c D o n a l d ( 1 9 8 7 , 1 6 8 ) , W h e n o n e c o m p a r e s t h e p o l i t i c a l e v o l u t i o n o f t h e t w o c i t i e s , o n e c a n s e e t h a t t h e i r p o s t w a r p o l i t i c s g r e w o u t o f s i m i l a r p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n s , . . . a n d [ h a d ] s i m i l a r l o n g e v i t y . M u n i c i p a l e l e c t i o n s i n V a n c o u v e r a n d S e a t t l e w e r e n o t f o u g h t a l o n g p a r t y l i n e s i n t h e f i r s t 2 0 y e a r s f o l l o w i n g W W 2 : l o c a l p o l i t i c s w a s n o m i n a l l y n o n - p a r t i s a n a n d t h e p a r t i e s w e r e m u c h m o r e l o o s e l y - b a s e d t h a n a t t h e F e d e r a l o r P r o v i n c i a l / S t a t e l e v e l . B o t h w e r e c o m m i t t e e w h i c h h a d l i t t l e c r e d i b i l i t y w i t h t h e i n c o m i n g N P A a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . ( A r n a u d i s a m e m b e r o f C O P E ( C o m m i t t e e o f P r o g r e s s i v e E l e c t o r s ) w h i l s t P r i c e i s a n N P A ( N o n - P a r t i s a n A s s o c i a t i o n ) a l d e r m a n . ) - 6 0 -e m b a r k e d u p o n a p r o g r a m m e o f r e c o n s t r u c t i o n a n d d e v e l o p m e n t d u r i n g t h i s t i m e . H o w e v e r , t h e r e w e r e i m p o r t a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e w a y t h e t w o C i t i e s o p e r a t e d . T h e o r i g i n s o f t h e t w o c i t y c o u n c i l s w e r e d i f f e r e n t . T h e V a n c o u v e r C o u n c i l w a s a l w a y s d o m i n a t e d b y r e a l - e s t a t e a n d b u s i n e s s i n t e r e s t s f r o m i t s i n c e p t i o n i n 1 8 8 6 u p u n t i l t h e e a r l y 1 9 7 0 s . ( M a g n u s s o n , 1 9 8 3 . ) I n t h i s s i t u a t i o n , M o s t i n t e r e s t g r o u p s w e r e s u s p e c t , b u t b u s i n e s s g r o u p s . . . w e r e n o t . (Ibidp 1 9 7 . ) a n d " C i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n " i s n o t a p h r a s e w h i c h w a s u s e d f r e q u e n t l y , i f a t a l l , i n V a n c o u v e r b e f o r e 1 9 6 8 . ( T e n n a n t 1 9 8 0 , 8 . ) I n S e a t t l e , h o w e v e r , f o r t h e f i r s t t w e n t y y e a r s o f t h e c e n t u r y a t l e a s t , C i t y C o u n c i l w a s n o t d o m i n a t e d e n t i r e l y b y c o n s e r v a t i v e s : o r g a n i s e d l a b o r a l w a y s h a d t w o o r t h r e e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . L a t e r i n t h e c e n t u r y , a c c o r d i n g t o M i l l e r ( 1 9 7 0 , 4 1 ) , t h e C o u n c i l i n S e a t t l e w a s n o t s e e n a s " a s t r o n g c e n t r e o f c o m m u n i t y p o w e r . " I t o n l y m a d e i t s d e c i s i o n s a f t e r t h e t o p i c h a d b e e n d e b a t e d f o r s o m e t i m e b y t h e o t h e r c o m m u n i t y g r o u p s . T h i s c o n t r i b u t e d t o w h a t M a c D o n a l d ( o p c i t p 1 6 9 ) c a l l s , " S e a t t l e ' s d o - i t - b y c i t i z e n c o m m i t t e e s t y l e o f g o v e r n m e n t " . T h i s e m p h a s i s o n c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n c r e a s e d a f t e r t h e e l e c t i o n o f M a y o r U h l m a n i n 1 9 6 9 (Ibid 1 9 8 7 ) , a n d m a y h e l p t o a c c o u n t f o r t h e r e l a t i v e l y w a r m w e l c o m e w h i c h t h e b i c y c l i n g c o m m u n i t y r e c e i v e d f r o m t h e C i t y . I n c o n t r a s t , t h e p o s t w a r p e r i o d i n V a n c o u v e r s a w a g r e a t e r c e n t r a l i s a t i o n o f p o w e r a t C i t y H a l l a n d i n p a r t i c u l a r , s t r e n g t h e n i n g o f t h e c i v i c b u r e a u c r a c y . ( T e n n a n t , 1 9 8 0 . ) T h i s r e a c h e d i t s h i a t u s i n 1 9 5 6 i n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f a c i t y m a n a g e r s y s t e m w h e r e a b o a r d m a d e u p o f t h e M a y o r a n d t w o a p p o i n t e d c o m m i s s i o n e r s v i r t u a l l y r a n t h e C i t y . I n t h e l a t e r y e a r s o f t h i s s y s t e m ( t h e m i d t o l a t e 1 9 6 0 s ) , o n e o f t h e c o m m i s s i o n e r s , G e r a l d S u t t o n B r o w n , b e c a m e d o m i n a n t a n d " h i s p o w e r v e r g e d o n t h e a b s o l u t e " ( M a g n u s s o n , o p c i t p 2 0 4 ) . I n p a r t i c u l a r , S u t t o n B r o w n w a s a b l e t o r o u t e c e r t a i n c o u n c i l d e c i s i o n s t o b e i m p l e m e n t e d b y t h e d e p a r t m e n t s h e f a v o u r e d - e s p e c i a l l y t h e E n g i n e e r i n g -61 -D e p a r t m e n t ( t h u s i n c r e a s i n g i t s p o w e r ) . H e n c e , f o r e x a m p l e , t h e 1 9 5 9 f r e e w a y p l a n w h i c h w a s a m a j o r p l a n k o f t h e c i t y ' s t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n w a s n o t o f f i c i a l l y p r e s e n t e d t o C o u n c i l ( a n d t h e r e f o r e t o t h e p u b l i c ) f o r e i g h t y e a r s . S i n c e 1 9 7 2 , w h e n a m o r e p r o g r e s s i v e C o u n c i l w a s e l e c t e d a n d t h e c o m m i s s i o n e r s y s t e m w a s a b a n d o n e d , V a n c o u v e r C i t y h a s b e e n m u c h m o r e o p e n a n d f u n c t i o n a l i n t e r e s t g r o u p s o f a l l v a r i e t i e s ... w o u l d a p p e a r t o b e l i s t e n e d t o m o r e s e r i o u s l y t h a n w a s p r e v i o u s l y t h e c a s e . ( T e n n a n t , op cit p 26.) A m o n g t h e m , o f c o u r s e , w e r e t h e b i c y c l i s t s . 4.8 Bureaucratic structure. T h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e b i c y c l e p o l i c y i n S e a t t l e m a y h a v e b e e n m a d e e a s i e r i n c o m p a r i s o n t o V a n c o u v e r b e c a u s e t h e f o r m e r C i t y c o n t r o l s m o r e m u n i c i p a l f u n c t i o n s m o r e d i r e c t l y . F i r s t l y , p l a n n i n g i n S e a t t l e i s p a r t o f t h e E n g i n e e r i n g D e p a r t m e n t ( e x c e p t f o r l o n g r a n g e p l a n n i n g w h i c h i s a n O f f i c e a t t a c h e d t o t h e M a y o r ' s O f f i c e ) . ( L a g e r w e y , p . c . S e p t 1 9 9 0 . ) N o n e o f t h e V a n c o u v e r C i t y e m p l o y e e s i n t e r v i e w e d f o r t h i s t h e s i s f e l t t h a t t h e b i c y c l e p r o g r a m m e h a d s u f f e r e d i n V a n c o u v e r b e c a u s e P l a n n i n g , S o c i a l P l a n n i n g a n d E n g i n e e r i n g a r e a l l s e p a r a t e d e p a r t m e n t s ; h o w e v e r , t h e r e i s n o d o u b t t h a t t h e V C B P i s a n E n g i n e e r i n g r e p o r t , a n d e x - B A C c h a i r N e l s o n M c L a c h l a n c o m m e n t s t h a t , i f P l a n n i n g a n d E n g i n e e r i n g i n V a n c o u v e r w e r e o n e d e p a r t m e n t , " w e w o u l d b e l i g h t y e a r s a h e a d [ i n t h e b i c y c l e p r o g r a m m e ] " . I n S e a t t l e o n e m i g h t e x p e c t t h a t h a v i n g P a r k s a n d R e c r e a t i o n u n d e r t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n o f t h e C i t y w o u l d h a v e f a c i l i t a t e d t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e b i c y c l e p r o g r a m m e . H o w e v e r , i n f a c t b o t h H o o n i n g . a n d F i n n i e ( p . c . J a n 1 9 9 1 ) s a y t h a t t h e P a r k s D e p a r t m e n t h a s b e e n a n u n w i l l i n g p a r t n e r o f t h e E n g i n e e r i n g D e p a r t m e n t : t h e p a r k - 6 2 -p l a n n e r s h a v e n o t a l w a y s p a s s e d o n i d e a s f r o m t h e B A B a n d S E D t o t h e p a r k s s t a f f r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . I n V a n c o u v e r t h i s h a s b e e n l e s s o f a p r o b l e m . 4 . 9 D i f f e r e n c e s i n E n g i n e e r i n g D e p a r t m e n t s . T h e S e a t t l e E n g i n e e r i n g D e p a r t m e n t a p p e a r s t o h a v e b e e n m u c h m o r e r e c e p t i v e t o b i c y c l i n g t h a n i t s c o u n t e r p a r t i n V a n c o u v e r , a n d i n p a r t i c u l a r t o t h e i m p o s i t i o n o n t h e d e p a r t m e n t o f a b i c y c l e c o o r d i n a t o r . J o s h L e h m a n c o m m e n t s a b o u t h i s a r r i v a l i n S E D , " I w o r k e d w i t h a f a b u l o u s g r o u p w h o w e n t o u t o f t h e i r w a y t o g i v e m e a g o o d w e l c o m e , e v e n t h o u g h I w a s a c o m p l e t e o u t s i d e r " , ( p . c . 1 9 9 1 . ) W h e r e a s , G o r d o n P r i c e c o m m e n t s a b o u t t h e b i c y c l e c o o r d i n a t o r p o s i t i o n i n V a n c o u v e r : " M y r e a d i n g o f i t w a s t h a t h e d i d n ' t h a v e t h e s u p p o r t o f t h e C i t y E n g i n e e r w h i c h i s w h y t h e p o s i t i o n w a s r e c o m m e n d e d t o b e e l i m i n a t e d " , ( p . c . 1 9 9 1 . ) C e r t a i n l y , w h e n C o u n c i l d i r e c t e d t h e E n g i n e e r i n g D e p a r t m e n t t o b e g i n t h e h i r i n g p r o c e s s f o r t h e c o o r d i n a t o r , t h e D e p a r t m e n t w a s a n t i c i p a t i n g t h a t t h e c o o r d i n a t o r w o u l d w o r k o n n o n - b i c y c l e m a t t e r s a f t e r h i s / h e r f i r s t y e a r . ( V a n c o u v e r B A C M i n u t e s , 1 9 8 6 . ) T h e S e a t t l e E n g i n e e r i n g D e p a r t m e n t i n 1 9 7 0 " w a s t o t a l l y o r i e n t e d t o w a r d s m o t o r v e h i c l e s " . ( T h e i s e n , p . c . 1 9 9 1 . ) O b v i o u s l y t h i s i s n o w l e s s t h e c a s e . T h e i s e n b e l i e v e s t h a t t h i s i s b e c a u s e c e r t a i n k e y t r a f f i c e n g i n e e r s , e s p e c i a l l y B i l l v a n G e l d e r ( t h e C i t y T r a f f i c E n g i n e e r ) b e g a n t o f o l l o w a n e x a m p l e s e t b y T h e i s e n h i m s e l f a n d r i d e b i k e s t o w o r k i n t h e e a r l y 1 9 7 0 s . T h u s t h e y s a w t h a t t h e b i c y c l e w a s a v i a b l e m o d e f o r s h o r t t r i p s . T h e S E D w a s a l s o a b l e t o o b t a i n a n d s p e n d F e d e r a l a n d S t a t e m o n i e s f o r b i k e w a y s , w h i c h g a v e t h e D e p a r t m e n t i t s e l f s o m e s t a k e i n b i c y c l e p r o g r a m m e a c t i v i t i e s . T h i s m a y i n p a r t e x p l a i n w h y t h e b i c y c l e p r o g r a m m e w a s r e v i v e d i n 1 9 7 8 r a t h e r t h a n j u s t d y i n g w h e n t h e F e d e r a l a n d S t a t e m o n i e s r a n o u t i n 1 9 7 6 ; a n d i t m a y h e l p t o e x p l a i n t h e d e p a r t m e n t ' s r e l a t i v e r e c e p t i v e n e s s t o b i c y c l e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t o d a y . -63 -4 . 1 0 U S a n d C a n a d i a n p o l i t i c a l c u l t u r e . T h e r e a r e g r e a t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e C a n a d i a n a n d U S p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m s w h i c h g o s o m e w a y t o e x p l a i n i n g t h e d i f f e r e n t e x p e r i e n c e s o f b i c y c l e a d v o c a t e s i n V a n c o u v e r a n d S e a t t l e . T h e c i t i z e n s / s u b j e c t s o f t h e t w o c o u n t r i e s a l s o t e n d t o r e s p o n d d i f f e r e n t l y t o t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m s , r e s u l t i n g i n t w o o b v i o u s l y d i f f e r e n t p o l i t i c a l c u l t u r e s N o r t h a n d S o u t h o f t h e b o r d e r . V o l u n t e e r a c t i v i t y i s m o r e c o m m o n i n t h e U S t h a n i n C a n a d a a c c o r d i n g t o L i p s e t ( 1 9 8 5 , 1 4 1 ) , w h o s a y s : A m e r i c a n s a r e m o r e l i k e l y t o t a k e p a r t i n v o l u n t a r y e f f o r t s t o a c h i e v e p a r t i c u l a r g o a l s , w h i l e C a n a d i a n s a r e m o r e d i s p o s e d t o r e l y o n t h e s t a t e . A u t h o r s w h o h a v e c o m p a r e d t h e t w o c o u n t r i e s ' p o l i t i c a l t r a d i t i o n s n o t e t h e s t r o n g e r e l i t i s t t e n d e n c i e s i n C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y w h i c h m a k e g o v e r n m e n t p o l i c i e s b o t h l e s s l i k e l y t o b e q u e s t i o n e d , a n d m o r e d i f f i c u l t t o i n f l u e n c e e x c e p t a t e l e c t i o n t i m e . ( M o r t o n , 1 9 7 2 . ) A c c o r d i n g t o P r e s t h u s ( 1 9 7 7 , 8 ) , C a n a d a h a s " a q u a s i - p a r t i c i p a t i v e c o n d i t i o n a s f a r a s t h e c i t i z e n ' s r o l e i n p o l i t i c s i s c o n c e r n e d " , w h e r e a s , i n t h e U S A , " p e r h a p s i n n o o t h e r n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m i n t h e w o r l d i s b a r g a i n i n g s o b a s i c a c o m p o n e n t o f t h e p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s " . ( R . A . D a h l , q u o t e d i n S t e d m a n , 1 9 7 5 , 1 2 1 . ) T h i s w o u l d g o s o m e w a y t o w a r d s e x p l a i n i n g t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n m a g n i t u d e o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e b i c y c l i n g i n t e r e s t g r o u p s i n S e a t t l e a n d V a n c o u v e r , a l t h o u g h i t m u s t b e s t r e s s e d t h a t w i t h i n t h e U S A t h e C a s c a d e s C l u b i s e x c e p t i o n a l : i t i s t h e c o u n t r y ' s s e c o n d o r t h i r d l a r g e s t b i c y c l i n g c l u b , a n d t h e o n l y o n e t h a t h a s i t s o w n e d u c a t i o n c o n s u l t a n t . 4 . 1 1 D i f f e r e n t p o l i t i c a l h i s t o r i e s o f t h e t w o c i t i e s . F i n a l l y , S e a t t l e m a y b e r e c e p t i v e t o b i c y c l e a d v o c a c y i s s u e s b e c a u s e i t i s s o m e h o w a " p r o g r e s s i v e ' o r " r a d i c a l ' c i t y . I t c e r t a i n l y h a s a r a d i c a l p o l i t i c a l h e r i t a g e w h i c h V a n c o u v e r ( u n l i k e o t h e r c i t i e s i n B . C . ) d o e s n o t s h a r e ( S c h w a n t e s 1 9 7 0 , N e l s o n 1 9 7 7 . ) - 6 4 -F r i e d h e i m a n d F r i e d h e i m ( 1 9 6 8 , 1 4 7 ) a s s e r t t h a t " t h e S e a t t l e [ l a b o r ] m o v e m e n t w a s m o r e r a d i c a l t h a n m o s t o t h e r A m e r i c a n c i t y - w i d e m o v e m e n t s " . H o w e v e r , t h i s w a s a l o n g t i m e a g o a n d i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o p r o v e a n y l i n k b e t w e e n i t a n d t o d a y ' s f a v o u r a b l e p o l i t i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t f o r b i c y c l i n g i n S e a t t l e . T h e p o l i t i c a l p o p u l a r i t y o f t h e v a r i o u s O p e n S p a c e B o n d i s s u e s o v e r t h e y e a r s d o e s h o w e v e r l e n d s u p p o r t t o A b r a h a m ' s a s s e r t i o n t h a t S e a t t l e i s a " p r o g r e s s i v e " c i t y , e s p e c i a l l y e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y . B r i t i s h t r a v e l w r i t e r J o n a t h a n R a b a n , w h o h a s b e e n l i v i n g i n S e a t t l e f o r t h e p a s t e i g h t e e n m o n t h s , r e c e n t l y s a i d t h a t i t w a s m o r e l i k e S w e d e n u n d e r O l a v P a l m e t h a n a U S c i t y . (Guardian ( M a n c h e s t e r ) 2 2 / 0 5 / 9 1 . ) H o w e v e r , e v e n i f S e a t t l e i s a v p r o g r e s s i v e ' c i t y , t h i s c a n o n l y b e c o n s i d e r e d a m i n o r c o n t r i b u t o r y f a c t o r t o t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f l o c a l b i c y c l e a d v o c a t e s . -65-C H A P T E R 5 : C O N C L U S I O N S A N D R E C O M M E N D A T I O N S . The purpose of this final chapter is to discuss the findings of the research as they relate to, firstly, the 5 E's; secondly, policy studies in general; thirdly, the role of the planner; and lastly, what parts of the bicycle programme in Seattle might be transferrable to Vancouver and other cities. 5 . 1 T h e 5 E ' s . The 5 E's are a very useful guide to anyone concerned with making a city more bicycle-friendly. They represent a progression from early bicycle programmes which were concerned almost entirely with facilities. However, the 5 E's together make up an ideal bicycle programme and it is unlikely that any one organisation or municipality would be able to implement all aspects of them, for the following reasons: Bicycle programmes are usually housed in one municipal department and so are seen by other municipal departments as being of less concern to them. (For example, in Seattle, the Parks Department is not always a fully willing partner with the Engineering Department in the bicycle programme.) Municipal jurisdiction may not extend or may be weaker where other bodies have responsibility for parks, education, driver education, or enforcement, for example. Thus municipal departments with responsibility for a bicycle programme must, whilst recognising the interdependence of the 5 E's, also realise their own limits and use their resources to carry out aspects of the programme in which they have expertise. For this reason, also, there is always a role for non-municipal, volunteer-based organisations to carry out tasks which the municipality cannot at that time undertake. Volunteer based organisations can demonstrate that an activity is worth doing; the municipality may then take it up. -66-I n s t i t u t i o n a l i s a t i o n i s p e r h a p s t h e V E ' w h i c h i s m o s t e s s e n t i a l t o t h e s u c c e s s o f a b i c y c l e p r o g r a m m e , b u t a l s o t h e m o s t d i f f i c u l t t o a c h i e v e . U l t i m a t e l y , i t w o u l d r e n d e r a b i c y c l e p r o g r a m m e u n n e c e s s a r y s i n c e e v e r y t h i n g w h i c h t h a t p r o g r a m m e i s a t t e m p t i n g t o a c h i e v e w o u l d b e c a r r i e d o u t a s p a r t o f t h e n o r m a l p r o c e d u r e a n d w r i t t e n i n t o t h e n o r m a l r e g u l a t i o n s o f a l l o r g a n i s a t i o n s i n v o l v e d i n r o a d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g , e n g i n e e r i n g a n d s a f e t y . H o w e v e r , t h i s i s a g a i n a n i d e a l , s i n c e i t r e q u i r e s m a n y d i f f e r e n t o r g a n i s a t i o n s t o c h a n g e b o t h t h e i r r e g u l a t i o n s a n d t h e i r p r o c e d u r e f o r a p p l y i n g t h e m . T h e p r o c e s s o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l i s i n g b i c y c l e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n m u s t t h e r e f o r e b e g i n a t t h e l e v e l o f t h e o f f i c e o r d e p a r t m e n t a n d w o r k o u t f r o m t h e r e . T h i s r e s e a r c h h a s d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t t h e c h a n g e s r e q u i r e d f o r t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l i s a t i o n o f a b i c y c l e p r o g r a m m e h a v e b e g u n t o o c c u r w i t h i n t h e S e a t t l e a n d V a n c o u v e r E n g i n e e r i n g D e p a r t m e n t s . E x a m p l e s i n c l u d e B o b T h e i s e n b i c y c l i n g t o w o r k a t S E D t h e r e b y s h o w i n g o t h e r e n g i n e e r s t h a t t h e b i c y c l e i s a v i a b l e m o d e f o r s h o r t t r i p s ; a n d G o r d L o v e g r o v e i n V a n c o u v e r r e m i n d i n g o t h e r e n g i n e e r s t o t a k e a c c o u n t o f t h e n e e d s o f b i c y c l i s t s . T h e s e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c h a n g e s c a n b e s e e n a s a p r o c e s s o f s o c i a l l e a r n i n g w h i c h i s A n y l a s t i n g c h a n g e i n p r o c e s s a n d s t r u c t u r e [ w h i c h ] c o m e [ s ] f r o m w i t h i n t h e o r g a n i s a t i o n a n d i n v o l v e [ s ] f a r - r e a c h i n g c h a n g e s i n a w a r e n e s s , a t t i t u d e s , b e h a v i o r , a n d v a l u e s o n t h e p a r t o f i t s c o n s t i t u e n t s . ( L e u n g , 1 9 8 7 , 1 5 . ) T h i s r e s e a r c h h a s s h o w n t h a t t h e p r o c e s s o f s o c i a l l e a r n i n g w i l l o c c u r f a s t e r i f t h e r e i s a m e m b e r o f s t a f f w i t h i n t h e d e p a r t m e n t o r o r g a n i s a t i o n w h o i s a b l e t o e d u c a t e o t h e r s t a f f a b o u t t h e n e e d s o f , i n t h i s c a s e , c y c l i s t s . T h i s i s o n e w a y i n w h i c h a b i c y c l e c o o r d i n a t o r c a n b e e x t r e m e l y u s e f u l . B i c y c l e p l a n s w h i c h u s e t h e 4 E ' s o f e n g i n e e r i n g , e n c o u r a g e m e n t , e d u c a t i o n a n d e n f o r c e m e n t a s t h e i r b a s i s m a y b e u s e f u l b e c a u s e t h e y w i l l c l e a r l y d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t a b i c y c l e p r o g r a m m e i s m o r e t h a n j u s t a f a c i l i t i e s b u i l d i n g o r s a f e t y p r o g r a m m e . - 6 7 -However, separate bicycle plans do little for the fifth V E ' of institutionalisation, since they are easy to leave on the shelf gathering dust. Ampt (1984) showed this to be the case in Victoria, Australia, where some 11 out of 21 local bike plans have been written, adopted and then ignored. As this research has stressed, if the needs of bicycle transportation are really to be addressed then they must be written into the transportation plans, capital improvement plans, and zoning and traffic bylaws of a municipality. 5.2 Policy. This study has shown that the impetus for bicycle policy-formulation in Seattle and Vancouver does not stem solely from a desire on the part of political and bureaucratic decision-makers to solve some perceived problem. While this has played a role, the existence of interest groups and the availability of funds have also been important. Obviously, policies on many things, not just bicycle transportation, are formulated for a similar variety of reasons. One objective of this thesis was to explain why the bicycle policies and programmes in Seattle and Vancouver have evolved differently. In part, this has been shown to be due to different political situations and a history of greater citizen involvement in municipal politics in Seattle than in Vancouver. Policy-making, in this instance, has taken place in two definite "sociohistorical and behavioural contexts" (Leung op ch, 6). This, too, is typical of policy-making in general - it does not take place in a vacuum. The different reactions of the two Engineering Departments studied in this work to the bicycle programme demonstrate the difficulty of imposing a policy on a department which does not have a stake in it. Because impetus for the policy in Seattle has come from within as well as without SED, the department has had an ongoing stake in it. This may have made the department more willing to implement the policy rather then to stand in its way. All policies which are imposed upon an implementing agency by - 68 -a n o t h e r o r g a n i s a t i o n m a y s u f f e r t h i s d i f f i c u l t y . F o r t h i s r e a s o n , i t i s e s s e n t i a l f o r t h e r e t o b e o n g o i n g l i a i s o n b e t w e e n t h e p o l i c y - m a k e r s a n d t h o s e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i m p l e m e n t i n g i t . 5 . 3 T h e r o l e o f t h e p l a n n e r . I n s t u d y i n g t h e w a y i n w h i c h S e a t t l e b i c y c l e c o o r d i n a t o r s M i k e D o r n f e l d a n d P e t e r L a g e r w e y o p e r a t e , t h i s r e s e a r c h h a s h i g h l i g h t e d o n e v e r y i m p o r t a n t r o l e o f t h e p l a n n e r : t h a t o f c o m m u n i c a t o r . T h i s r o l e i s a d v o c a t e d f o r p l a n n e r s b y p l a n n i n g t h e o r i s t J o h n F o r e s t e r ( 1 9 8 9 , 1 5 5 ) w h o w r i t e s s u g g e s t s t h a t p l a n n e r s c a n : E d u c a t e c i t i z e n s a n d c o m m u n i t y o r g a n i s a t i o n s a b o u t t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s a n d b o t h f o r m a l a n d i n f o r m a l " r u l e s o f t h e g a m e " ; S u p p l y t e c h n i c a l a n d p o l i t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n t o c i t i z e n s t o e n a b l e i n f o r m e d , e f f e c t i v e p o l i t i c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n a n d n e g o t i a t i o n ; W o r k t o s e e t h a t c o m m u n i t y . . . n o n p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i s a t i o n s h a v e r e a d y a c c e s s t o p u b l i c p l a n n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n , l o c a l c o d e s , p l a n s , n o t i c e s o f r e l e v a n t m e e t i n g s , a n d c o n s u l t a t i o n s w i t h a g e n c y c o n t a c t s , " s p e c i a l i s t s " s u p p l e m e n t i n g t h e i r o w n " i n - h o u s e " e x p e r t i s e . T h e c a s e s t u d y o f S e a t t l e h a s s h o w n t h a t p l a n n e r s c a n i n f a c t o p e r a t e i n t h i s m a n n e r b u t t h a t i n t h i s c a s e t h e i r d o i n g s o i s c o n d i t i o n a l u p o n t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a m o t i v a t e d a n d r e a s o n a b l y w e l l - o r g a n i s e d " c o m m u n i t y n o n p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i s a t i o n " . 5 . 4 V a n c o u v e r a n d S e a t t l e . F o r a b i c y c l e p r o g r a m m e t o b e e f f e c t i v e , t h e e x p e r i e n c e f r o m S e a t t l e i n d i c a t e s t h a t i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o h a v e t h r e e ( g r o u p s o f ) a c t o r s w o r k i n g t o g e t h e r s o t h a t t h e v o i c e o f c y c l i s t s i s h e a r d . T h i s r e s e a r c h h a s s h o w n t h a t V a n c o u v e r a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e l a c k s t h i s t r i o o f a c t o r s . T h e y a r e : a b i c y c l e c o o r d i n a t o r o n t h e m u n i c i p a l s t a f f ; a w e l l o r g a n i s e d a n d u n i f i e d l o b b y g r o u p o u t s i d e t h e m u n i c i p a l s t r u c t u r e ; a n d a g r o u p o f v o l u n t e e r s o n a n A d v i s o r y C o m m i t t e e w h i c h i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y . - 6 9 -T h e v o l u n t e e r s s h o u l d d e a l w i t h l a r g e s c a l e , l o n g t e r m m a t t e r s r a t h e r t h a n w i t h t h e m i n u t i a e o f , s a y , f a c i l i t i e s d e s i g n w h i c h c a n a b s o r b v o l u n t e e r e n e r g y w i t h o u t m u c h l o n g t e r m e f f e c t o n p o l i c y . ( R o d r i g u e z , p . c . 1 9 9 1 . ) T h e l o n g t e r m a i m o f a l l t h e s e a c t o r s s h o u l d b e t o r a i s e a w a r e n e s s o f b i c y c l e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t o a l e v e l a t w h i c h i t i s a u t o m a t i c a l l y r e c o g n i s e d i n a l l p l a n n i n g a n d r e g u l a t i o n o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g , e n f o r c e m e n t a n d e d u c a t i o n ; t h a t i s , t o a p o i n t w h e r e i t i s i n s t i t u t i o n a l i s e d w i t h i n t h e b u r e a u c r a t i c a n d p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e . I t w a s a n o b j e c t i v e o f t h i s t h e s i s t o a s s e s s t h e t r a n s f e r a b i l i t y o f t h e b i c y c l e p r o g r a m m e i n S e a t t l e t o V a n c o u v e r . M u c h o f w h a t h a s b e e n d o n e i n t e r m s o f l o b b y i n g a n d m u n i c i p a l a c t i v i t i e s w o u l d s e e m t o b e t r a n s f e r a b l e t o V a n c o u v e r a n d t o o t h e r c i t i e s i n b o t h t h e U S a n d C a n a d a . H o w e v e r , o n e i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r w h i c h i s n o t t r a n s f e r a b l e i s t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f a w i d e r r a n g e o f f u n d i n g s o u r c e s i n t h e U S , f r o m s t a t e , f e d e r a l a s w e l l a s l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t s , a n d a l s o f r o m t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r . I f t i m e a n d r e s o u r c e s h a d p e r m i t t e d , t h e n , i t m a y h a v e b e e n m o r e f r u i t f u l t o h a v e c o m p a r e d V a n c o u v e r w i t h a n o t h e r C a n a d i a n c i t y , ( p e r h a p s M o n t r e a l w i t h i t s v e r y d i f f e r e n t b i c y c l e p o l i c y ) , i n s t e a d o f w i t h a U S c i t y . T h i s w o u l d b e a u s e f u l a v e n u e f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h , a s i t w o u l d h e l p t o r e d u c e C a n a d i a n b i c y c l e a d v o c a t e s ' c u r r e n t r e l i a n c e o n r e c o r d s o f A m e r i c a n e x p e r i e n c e . A s d i s c u s s e d a b o v e , S e a t t l e i s n o m e c c a f o r b i c y c l i n g . H o w e v e r , t h e r e i s a r e c o g n i t i o n b y i t s g o v e r n m e n t s a n d c y c l i s t s a l i k e t h a t t h e b i c y c l e , p r o p e r l y i n t e g r a t e d i n t o t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , c a n b e a p a r t o f t h e s o l u t i o n t o c u r r e n t u r b a n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p r o b l e m s . A s a c a s e s t u d y , i t p r o v i d e s a u s e f u l e x a m p l e f o r o t h e r c i t y g o v e r n m e n t s a n d g r o u p s o f b i c y c l e a d v o c a t e s a c r o s s N o r t h A m e r i c a . - 7 0 -BffiLIOGRAPHY A b r a h a m , J a n e . " B i c y c l e P a t h s a n d T r a i l s : P r a c t i c a l A p p r o a c h e s t o R e d u c i n g U s e r C o n f l i c t s . ' i n P r o B i k e 8 8 P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e F i f t h I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e o n  B i c y c l e P r o g r a m s a n d P r o m o t i o n s .  W a s h i n g t o n , D . C . : B F A . 1 9 8 8 . A m e r i c a n A s s o c i a t i o n o f S t a t e H i g h w a y a n d T r a n s p o r t a t i o n O f f i c i a l s ( A A S H T O ) G u i d e f o r B i k e w a v s W a s h i n g t o n D . C . : A A S H T O . 1 9 7 4 . G u i d e l i n e s f o r t h e D e v e l o p m e n t o f N e w B i c y c l e F a c i l i t i e s . W a s h i n g t o n D . C . : A A S H T O . 1 9 8 1 . A m p t , E l i z a b e t h " P l a n n i n g a s a s u b s t i t u t e f o r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n : a b i c y c l e c a s e s t u d y ' i n T r a n s p o r t R e v i e w s  1 9 8 4 4 : 2 , 2 0 1 - 2 1 2 . A v e r y , E u g e n e V . a n d G e o r g e E . F i e s ( C i t y o f S e a t t l e E n g i n e e r i n g D e p a r t m e n t ) 1 9 8 3  S e a t t l e C o m p r e h e n s i v e B i c y c l e P l a n S e a t t l e , W a . : S e a t t l e E n g i n e e r i n g D e p a r t m e n t . A v e r y , E u g e n e V . a n d R i c h a r d J . A n d e r s o n 1 9 8 5 S e a t t l e C o m p r e h e n s i v e B i c y c l i n g  P o l i c y S e a t t l e , W a . : S e a t t l e E n g i n e e r i n g D e p a r t m e n t . 1 9 8 5 . B i c y c l e F e d e r a t i o n o f A m e r i c a ( B F A ) . D e v e l o p m e n t M a n u a l f o r a C o m p r e h e n s i v e  R e g i o n a l B i k e P l a n  W a s h i n g t o n D . C . : B F A . 1 9 8 5 . B i c y c l e F o r u m . V a r i o u s i s s u e s . M i s s o u l a , M t . : B i k e c e n t e n n i a l . B i c y c l i n g M a g a z i n e  " S e a t t l e i s N u m b e r O n e C i t y f o r C y c l i n g . ' A u g u s t 1 9 9 0 . B l a c k , C a r t a . " L o w C o s t I m p r o v e m e n t s f o r B i k e F a c i l i t i e s ' i n P r o B i k e 8 8 P r o c e e d i n g s  o f t h e F i f t h I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e o n B i c y c l e P r o g r a m s a n d P r o m o t i o n s . W a s h i n g t o n , D . C . : B F A . 1 9 8 8 . B l a c k f o r d , M a n s e l G . " C i v i c G r o u p s , P o l i t i c a l A c t i o n a n d C i t y P l a n n i n g ' i n P a c i f i c  H i s t o r i c a l R e v i e w  4 9 . N o v . 1 9 8 0 , 5 5 7 - 8 0 . - 71 -v R e f o r m P o l i t i c s i n S e a t t l e D u r i n g t h e P r o g r e s s i v e E r a ' i n P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t Q u a r t e r l y 5 9 ( O c t 1 9 6 8 ) , 1 7 7 - 1 8 6 . B l a t t , J e s s e . * P r o g r a m E v a l u a t i o n : D a t a C o l l e c t i o n T e c h n i q u e s ; Q u a n t i t a t i v e a n d Q u a l i t a t i v e A n a l y s i s . 1 i n B i c y c l e F e d e r a t i o n o f A m e r i c a ( B F A ) P r o B i k e 8 2 :  P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e S e c o n d I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e f o r B i c y c l e P r o g r a m  S p e c i a l i s t s . W a s h i n g t o n D . C . : B F A . 1 9 8 2 . B r a c h e r , T i l m a n " S u b j e k t i v e u n d o b j e c k t i v e S i c h e r h e i t v o n R a d w e g e n i n P r o c e e d i n g s  o f t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l R o a d a n d t r a f f i c C o n f e r e n c e i n B e r l i n . 1 9 8 8 . B u c k l e y , C A . s B i c y c l e T r a f f i c V o l u m e s ' i n T r a n s p o r t a t i o n R e s e a r c h R e c o r d # 8 4 7 p p 9 3 - 1 0 2 . B u r d e n , D a n . " N o r m a l i z i n g B i c y c l i n g i n G o v e r n m e n t ' i n P r o B i k e 8 2 : P r o c e e d i n g s o f  t h e S e c o n d I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e f o r B i c y c l e P r o g r a m S p e c i a l i s t s . W a s h i n g t o n D . C . : B F A . 1 9 8 2 . C a s c a d e s B i c y c l e C l u b . N e w s l e t t e r ( v a r i o u s e d i t i o n s f r o m 1 9 7 0 t o 1 9 9 1 ) . S e a t t l e , W a . : C a s c a d e s B i c y c l e C l u b . C a p i t a l R e g i o n D i s t r i c t B i k e w a y s f o r t h e V i c t o r i a M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a V i c t o r i a , B . C . : C a p i t a l R e g i o n D i s t r i c t . 1 9 7 6 . C h a o , P e t e r J . - C . e t a l . " C y c l i s t B e h a v i o u r a t S i g n a l i z e d I n t e r s e c t i o n s ' i n T r a n s p o r t a t i o n R e s e a r c h R e c o r d # 6 8 3 , 1 9 7 8 . C i t y o f C a l g a r y E n g i n e e r i n g D e p a r t m e n t A B i c y c l e P a t h S y s t e m f o r t h e C i t y o f  C a l g a r y C a l g a r y , p u b l i s h e r a s a u t h o r . 1 9 7 2 . C i t y P l a n C o m m i s s i o n T h e B i k e w a y s P l a n  S p o k a n e , W a s h i n g t o n : S p o k a n e C i t y C o u n c i l . 1 9 8 8 . C i t y o f P o r t l a n d O f f i c e o f T r a n s p o r t a t i o n T h e A l t e r n a t i v e T r a n s p o r t a t i o n P r o g r a m  G u i d e . P o r t l a n d , O r : p u b l i s h e r a s a u t h o r . 1 9 8 9 . < - 7 2 -C i t y o f S e a t t l e . C o u n c i l R e s o l u t i o n # 2 5 5 3 4 ( i n t e n t t o c r e a t e a B i c y c l e A d v i s o r y  B o a r d ) 1 6 t h M a y 1 9 7 7 . C i t y o f S e a t t l e E n g i n e e r i n g D e p a r t m e n t . C o m p r e h e n s i v e B i c y c l e P l a n  S e a t t l e : p u b l i s h e r a s a u t h o r . 1 9 8 5 . S e a t t l e B i c y c l i n g G u i d e m a p  1 9 9 1 . C i t y o f S e a t t l e E n g i n e e r i n g D e p a r t m e n t , O f f i c e f o r P l a n n i n g S t r e e t C l a s s i f i c a t i o n M a p s P u b l i s h e r a s a u t h o r . J u l y 1 9 8 4 . C i t y o f S e a t t l e D e p a r t m e n t o f P a r k s a n d R e c r e a t i o n S e a t t l e G r e e n - N e w s l e t t e r o f O p e n  S p a c e a n d T r a i l s P r o g r a m s 1 : 1  P u b l i s h e r a s a u t h o r . F a l l 1 9 9 0 . C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r C l o u d s o f C h a n g e : R e p o r t o f t h e T a s k F o r c e o n A t m o s p h e r i c  C h a n g e V a n c o u v e r : p u b l i s h e r a s a u t h o r . 1 9 9 0 . C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r , C i t y C l e r k ' s O f f i c e M i n u t e s o f t h e B i c y c l e A d v i s o r y C o m m i t t e e 1 9 8 3 t o 1 9 9 1 . ( U n p u b l i s h e d . ) C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r E n g i n e e r i n g D e p a r t m e n t C o m p r e h e n s i v e B i c y c l e P l a n  V a n c o u v e r : p u b l i s h e r a s a u t h o r . 1 9 8 8 . B i c y c l e P l a n S t a t u s R e p o r t . T o F e b r u a r y 1 3 . 1 9 9 1 . V a n c o u v e r : u n p u b l i s h e d . 1 9 9 1 a . B i c y c l e P a r k i n g S t a n d a r d s S t u d y V a n c o u v e r : p u b l i s h e r a s a u t h o r . 1 9 9 1 b . E v e r e t t , M . D . a n d J . S p e n c e r " E m p i r i c a l E v i d e n c e o n D e t e r m i n a n t s o f M a s s B i c y c l e C o m m u t i n g i n t h e U S : a C r o s s - C o m m u n i t y A n a l y s i s ' i n T r a n s p o r t a t i o n  R e s e a r c h R e c o r d # 9 1 2 . F r i e d h e i m , R o b e r t L . , a n d F r i e d h e i m , R o b i n " T h e S e a t t l e L a b o r M o v e m e n t 1 9 1 9 - 2 0 ' i n P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t Q u a r t e r l y 5 5 ( O c t . 1 9 6 4 ) 1 4 6 - 1 5 6 . - 7 3 -F o s t e r , A n d r e w a n d S u e R o b s o n . Q u a l i t a t i v e R e s e a r c h i n A c t i o n  L o n d o n : E d w a r d A r n o l d . 1 9 8 9 . F o r e s t e r , J o h n . B i c y c l e T r a n s p o r t a t i o n C a m b r i d g e , M a s s : M I T P r e s s . 1 9 8 3 . F o r e s t e r , J o h n . P l a n n i n g i n t h e F a c e o f P o w e r B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s . 1 9 8 9 . G o l d b e r g , M i c h a e l a n d M e r c e r , J o h n . T h e M y t h o f t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n C i t y V a n c o u v e r : U B C P r e s s . 1 9 8 6 . G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t ( G V R D ) C r e a t i n g O u r F u t u r e B u r n a b y , B . C . : G V R D . 1 9 9 0 . G r o t e n h u i s , D i r k H . t e n " T h e D e l f t C y c l e P l a n ' i n P r o c e e d i n g s . V e l o C i t y 8 7  C o n f e r e n c e " P l a n n i n g f o r t h e U r b a n C y c l i s t " . B A - E d e , N e t h e r l a n d s : C . R . O . W . 1 9 8 7 . H a s k e l l , C a r o l " T h e R o l e o f t h e B i c y c l e C o o r d i n a t o r ' i n B i c y c l e F o r u m # 7 , J u n e 1 9 8 1 . H a s s - K l a u , C a r m e n . N e w L i f e F o r C i t y C e n t r e s L o n d o n : A n g l o - G e r m a n F o u n d a t i o n . 1 9 8 8 . H o p e , D i a n e a n d D w i g h t Y a c h u k . C o m m u n i t y C y c l i n g M a n u a l : a P l a n n i n g a n d  D e s i g n G u i d e . O t t a w a : C a n a d i a n I n s t i t u t e o f P l a n n e r s ( C I P ) . 1 9 9 0 . H u d s o n , M i k e . " T h e U S h a s a l o t t o l e a r n a b o u t b i k e p l a n n i n g ' i n P l a n n i n g J u l y \ A u g u s t 1 9 8 2 p p 2 2 - 3 . H u y i n k , W . G . M . " C y c l i n g P o l i c y i n t h e C i t y o f G r o n i n g e n ' i n P r o c e e d i n g s . V e l o C i t y  8 7 C o n f e r e n c e " P l a n n i n g f o r t h e U r b a n C y c l i s t " . B A - E d e , N e t h e r l a n d s : C . R . O . W . 1 9 8 7 . J a c k s o n , M i c h a e l . " P u b l i c F u n d i n g : P l u g g i n g i n t o L o c a l , S t a t e a n d F e d e r a l D o l l a r s ' i n P r o B i k e 8 8 P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e F i f t h I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e o n B i c y c l e P r o g r a m s a n d P r o m o t i o n s . W a s h i n g t o n , D . C . : B F A . 1 9 8 8 . - 7 4 -J o r d a n , G i h o n . " B i c y c l e S t u d i e s i n t h e T r a n s p o r t a t i o n P r o j e c t E I S P r o c e s s ' i n P r o B i k e  8 0 P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e F i r s t N a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e f o r B i c y c l e P r o g r a m  S p e c i a l i s t s . W a s h i n g t o n P . C : B F A . 1 9 8 0 . K a p l a n , M i c h a e l e t a l T h e M o d e l C i t i e s P r o g r a m N Y : P r a e g e r . 1 9 7 0 . K i n g C o u n t y , W a s h i n g t o n . B i c y c l i n g G u i d e m a p P u b l i s h e r a s a u t h o r . 1 9 9 0 . K i n g C o u n t y N o n m o t o r i z e d T r a n s p o r t a t i o n F u n c t i o n a l P l a n N o t e s -G o a l s . P o l i c i e s a n d O b j e c t i v e s U n p u b l i s h e d u n d a t e d d o c u m e n t . K o o s , M a r y A n n e " H o w t o D e v e l o p a C y c l i n g P o l i c y a n d S t i m u l a t e C y c l e U s e i n A r e a s w i t h f e w C y c l i s t s ' i n P r o c e e d i n g s . V e l o C i t y 8 7 C o n f e r e n c e " P l a n n i n g  f o r t h e U r b a n C y c l i s t " . B A - E d e , N e t h e r l a n d s : C . R . O . W . 1 9 8 7 . L a g e r w e y , P e t e r . " I n s t i t u t i o n a l i s i n g B i c y c l i n g i n t h e T r a n s p o r t a t i o n P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s ' i n P r o B i k e 8 8 P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e F i f t h I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e o n B i c y c l e  P r o g r a m s a n d P r o m o t i o n s . W a s h i n g t o n , D . C . : B F A . 1 9 8 8 . L e m i e u x , R i c h a r d e t a l " T h e N e w F e d e r a l H i g h w a y A d m i n i s t r a t i o n G u i d e l i n e s : W h a t T h e y A r e a n d H o w t o u s e t h e m ' i n P r o B i k e 8 0 P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e F i r s t  N a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e f o r B i c y c l e P r o g r a m S p e c i a l i s t s . W a s h i n g t o n D . C . : B F A . 1 9 8 0 . L e u n g , H . L . T o w a r d s a S u b j e c t i v e A p p r o a c h t o P o l i c y P l a n n i n g a n d E v a l u a t i o n W i n n i p e g : R o n a l d P . F r y e a n d C o . 1 9 8 5 . L i p s e t , S e y m o u r M a r t i n . " C a n a d a a n d t h e U S : t h e C u l t u r a l D i m e n s i o n ' i n C . F . D o r a n ( e d ) C a n a d a a n d t h e U S E a g l e w o o d C l i f f s , N J : P r e n t i c e H a l l . 1 9 8 5 . L i t c h f i e l d , B i l l . " B i c y c l e A d v i s o r y B o a r d s ' i n P r o B i k e 8 8 P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e F i f t h  I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e o n B i c y c l e P r o g r a m s a n d P r o m o t i o n s .  W a s h i n g t o n , D . C . : B F A . 1 9 8 8 . L o o p , S . B . a n d R . D . L a y t o n " E f f e c t o f B i c y c l e l a n e U s a g e o n V e h i c l e s i n t h e A d j a c e n t L a n e ' i n T r a n s p o r t a t i o n R e s e a r c h R e c o r d # 6 2 9 , 1 9 7 7 . - 7 5 -L o t t , D a l e F . , a n d R o b e r t S o m m e r . B e h a v i o u r a l E v a l u a t i o n o f a B i k e w a y S y s t e m . U n p u b l i s h e d P a p e r , U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a a t D a v i s . L o t t , D a l e F . a n d D . Y . L o t t " D i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t s o f b i k e l a n e s o n 1 0 c l a s s e s o f b i c y c l e -a u t o m o b i l e a c c i d e n t s ' i n T r a n s p o r t a t i o n R e s e a r c h R e c o r d # 6 0 5 p p 2 0 - 2 4 , 1 9 7 6 . L o t t , D a l e F . , T i m T a r d i f f a n d D . Y . L o t t " E v a l u a t i o n b y E x p e r i e n c e d R i d e r s o f a N e w B i k e L a n e i n a n E s t a b l i s h e d B i k e w a y S y s t e m ' i n T r a n s p o r t a t i o n R e s e a r c h  R e c o r d f t 6 8 3 , 1 9 7 8 . L o w e , M a r c i a . B i c y c l e - V e h i c l e f o r a S m a l l P l a n e t . W a s h i n g t o n , D . C . : W o r l d w a t c h I n s t i t u t e . 1 9 8 9 . M a c D o n a l d , N o r b e r t . D i s t a n t N e i g h b o u r s - a C o m p a r a t i v e H i s t o r y o f S e a t t l e a n d  V a n c o u v e r L i n c o l n : U n i v e r s i t y o f N e b r a s k a P r e s s . 1 9 8 7 . M c H e n r y , S t e v e R . " T h e R o l e o f F a c i l i t i e s i n B i c y c l e T r a n s p o r t a t i o n ' i n P r o B i k e 8 0  P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e F i r s t N a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e f o r B i c y c l e P r o g r a m S p e c i a l i s t s . W a s h i n g t o n D . C . : B F A . 1 9 8 0 . M c L i n t o c k , H u g h . C y c l e P l a n n i n g : A C o m p r e h e n s i v e B i b l i o g r a p h y . V o l 2 :  I n t e r n a t i o n a l E x p e r i e n c e . N o t t i n g h a m , E n g l a n d : U n i v . o f N o t t i n g h a m , T h e I n s t i t u t e o f P l a n n i n g S t u d i e s , D e p t . o f A r c h i t e c t u r e a n d P l a n n i n g . 1 9 8 9 . M a g n u s s o n , W a r r e n ( e d ) . C i t y P o l i t i c s i n C a n a d a T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s . 1 9 8 3 . M a r i a n o , M i c h a e l R . " B i c y c l e t r a v e l : A n I n t e g r a l E l e m e m t o f t h e U r b a n T r a n s p o r t a t i o n S y s t e m . ' i n I T E 5 3 r d A n n u a l M e e t i n g C o m p e n d i u m o f T e c h n i c a l P a p e r s :  T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , a n I n t e r n a t i o n a l O v e r v i e w . L o n d o n : I T E . 1 9 8 3 . M i l l e r , P h i l a n d W i l l i a m s , J o h n . " C o u n t y a n d R e g i o n a l B i c y c l e P r o g r a m s ' i n P r o c e e d i n g s . P r o B i k e 9 0 . W a s h i n g t o n D . C . : B F A . M o r t o n , W i l l i a m L . T h e C a n a d i a n I d e n t i t y M a d i s o n , W i s e : U n i v o f W i s c o n s i n P r e s s . 1 9 7 2 . - 7 6 -N e l s o n , G e r a l d B . S e a t t l e N e w Y o r k : A l f r e d A . K n o p f . 1 9 7 7 N o r t h W e s t C y c l i s t M a g a z i n e . V a r i o u s i s s u e s . O f f i c e o f t h e M a y o r , C i t y o f S e a t t l e . C o m p r e h e n s i v e B i k e w a y P l a n . S e a t t l e , W a . : p u b l i s h e r a s a u t h o r . P a t t o n , M i c h a e l Q . U t i l i s a t i o n - F o c u s e d E v a l u a t i o n B e v e r l e y H i l l s : S a g e . 1 9 8 6 . P a t t o n , M i c h a e l Q u i n n . " E v a l u a t i o n ' s P o l i t i c a l I n h e r e n c y : P r a c t i c a l I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r D e s i g n a n d U s e ' i n D J . P a l u m b o ( e d ) T h e P o l i t i c s o f P r o g r a m E v a l u a t i o n B e v e r l e y H i l l s : S a g e . 1 9 8 7 . P o r t l a n d B i c y c l e P a t h s T a s k F o r c e . B i c y c l e F a c i l i t i e s f o r P o r t l a n d : a C o m p r e h e n s i v e P J a n P o r t l a n d , O r . : C i t y o f P o r t l a n d . 1 9 7 3 . P r e s t h u s , R o b e r t . C r o s s - n a t i o n a l P e r s p e c t i v e s o n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a n d C a n a d a . L e i d e n : E . J . B r i l l . 1 9 7 7 . P u c h e r , J o h n . " U r b a n t r a v e l B e h a v i o u r a s t h e O u t c o m e o f P u b l i c P o l i c y : t h e E x a m p l e o f M o d a l - S p l i t i n W e s t e r n E u r o p e a n d N o r t h A m e r i c a 1 i n A P A J o u r n a l A u t u m n 1 9 8 8 . P u g h , B e n . E x c e r p t s f r o m t h e 2 0 1 0 S a c r a m e n t o C i t y / C o u n t y B i k e w a y M a s t e r P l a n . S a c r a m e n t o : S a c r a m e n t o D e p t . o f P u b l i c W o r k s , T r a n s p o r t a t i o n D i v i s i o n . 1 9 8 8 . R o g e r s , D i c k . " T h e P r o s a n d C o n s o f B i k e L a n e s ' i n P r o B i k e 8 0 P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e  F i r s t N a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e f o r B i c y c l e P r o g r a m S p e c i a l i s t s .  W a s h i n g t o n D . C . : B F A . 1 9 8 0 . S a c h , J a c k . " T h e G e e l o n g B i k e P l a n 1 i n P r o B i k e 8 0 P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e F i r s t N a t i o n a l  C o n f e r e n c e f o r B i c y c l e P r o g r a m S p e c i a l i s t s . W a s h i n g t o n D . C . : B F A . 1 9 8 0 . - 7 7 -S c h w a n t e s , C a r l o s A . R a d i c a l H e r i t a g e : L a b o r S o c i a l i s m a n d R e f o r m i n W a s h i n g t o n  a n d B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 1 8 8 5 - 1 9 1 7 . S e a t t l e : U n i v e r s i t y o f W a s h i n g t o n P r e s s . 1 9 7 0 . S e a t t l e B i c y c l e A d v i s o r y B o a r d P o l i c i e s a n d P r o c e d u r e s M a n u a l S e a t t l e , W a . N o p u b l i s h e r . M a r c h 1 9 8 7 . S h a w , C h r i s S . " C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n B i c y c l e P l a n n i n g f r o m t h e P u b l i c A g e n c y ' s V i e w p o i n t ' i n T r a n s p o r t a t i o n R e s e a r c h R e c o r d  # 5 7 0 , 1 9 7 6 . S k o n e c k i , P e g g y " T h e L o c a l B i c y c l e C o o r d i n a t o r ' i n P r o B i k e 8 0 P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e  F i r s t N a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e f o r B i c y c l e P r o g r a m S p e c i a l i s t s .  W a s h i n g t o n D . C . : B F A . 1 9 8 0 . S m i t h , D a v i d T . J r . " P l a n n i n g a n d D e s i g n o f B i k e F a c i l i t i e s ' i n T r a n s p o r t a t i o n  R e s e a r c h R e c o r d  # 5 7 0 p p 3 - 8 . 1 9 7 6 . S o r t o n , A l e x . " I n t e g r a t i n g t h e B i c y c l e i n t o t h e T r a f f i c M i x : t h e U S e x p e r i e n c e . ' i n I T E 5 3 r d A n n u a l M e e t i n g C o m p e n d i u m o f T e c h n i c a l P a p e r s : T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , a n  I n t e r n a t i o n a l O v e r v i e w .  L o n d o n : I T E . 1 9 8 3 . S t a t i s t i c s C a n a d a 1 9 8 6 C e n s u s : P o p u l a t i o n a n d D w e l l i n g C o u n t s - P r o v i n c e s a n d  T e r r i t o r i e s - B . C . - P o p u l a t i o n . C a t a l o g u e # 9 2 - 1 1 8 . O t t a w a : S t a t i s t i c s C a n a d a . 1 9 8 7 . S t e d m a n , M u r r a y S . J r . U r b a n P o l i t i c s  C a m b r i d g e , M a . : W i n t h r o p P u b l i s h e r s . 1 9 7 5 . T e n n a n t , P a u l " V a n c o u v e r C i v i c P o l i c i e s , 1 9 2 9 - 8 0 ' i n B . C . S t u d i e s 4 6 ( S u m m e r 1 9 8 0 ) , 3 - 2 7 . T h e i s e n , R o b e r t D . " P l a n n i n g a n d D e s i g n i n g a D e m o n s t r a t i o n B i k e w a y ' i n T r a n s p o r t a t i o n R e s e a r c h R e c o r d # 5 7 0 p p 9 - 1 3 . 1 9 7 6 . T o r o n t o C y c l i n g C o m m i t t e e C y c l o m e t e r - a N e w s l e t t e r f o r C y c l i n g i n T o r o n t o T o r o n t o : p u b l i s h e r a s a u t h o r . J u l y 1 9 9 0 . - 7 8 -U S B u r e a u o f t h e C e n s u s C o u n t y a n d C i t y D a t a B o o k . 1 9 8 8 . W a s h i n g t o n , D . C . : U S G o v t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e . 1 9 8 8 . W a l s h , T o m . " T h e T r a f f i c E n g i n e e r s ' A g e n d a ' i n P r o B i k e 8 8 P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e F i f t h  I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e o n B i c y c l e P r o g r a m s a n d P r o m o t i o n s .  W a s h i n g t o n , D . C . : B F A . 1 9 8 8 . W i l k i n s o n , B i l l . " A B i c y c l e P r o g r a m C o o r d i n a t o r - W h y H a v e O n e a n d H o w t o G e t O n e ' i n P r o B i k e 8 0 P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e F i r s t N a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e f o r B i c y c l e  P r o g r a m S p e c i a l i s t s . W a s h i n g t o n P . C : B F A . 1 9 8 0 W i l l i a m s , J o h n . " I m p r o v i n g L o c a l C o n d i t i o n s f o r B i c y c l i n g 1 i n B i c y c l e F o r u m M a y 1 9 9 0 . W i l m i n k , A . " T h e E f f e c t s o f S t a t e - S u b s i d i s i n g o f B i c y c l e F a c i l i t i e s ' i n P r o c e e d i n g s .  V e l o C i t v 8 7 C o n f e r e n c e " P l a n n i n g f o r t h e U r b a n C y c l i s t " . B A - E d e , N e t h e r l a n d s : C . R . O . W . 1 9 8 7 . O T H E R S O U R C E : N o t e s f r o m l e c t u r e s a t P r o B i k e N W 9 1 c o n f e r e n c e , O l y m p i a , W a . , J u l y 3 - 7 1 9 9 1 . P r o c e e d i n g s n o t y e t p u b l i s h e d . - 79-I N T E R V I E W S . D a t e J a n e A b r a h a m ( C a s c a d e s C l u b E d u c a t o r , S e a t t l e ) 2 2 M a y 1 9 9 1 J o e A r n a u d ( V a n c o u v e r ) 1 0 M a y 1 9 9 1 C a r t a B l a c k a n d A n g e l R o d r i g u e z ( S e a t t l e ) 5 J u l y 1 9 9 1 A m y C a r l s o n ( S e a t t l e ) 2 7 J a n 1 9 9 1 B e t t y C r o w e ( V a n c o u v e r S a f e t y C o u n c i l ) 2 7 M a y 1 9 9 1 D u r l y n F i n n i e ( S e a t t l e ) 2 6 J a n 1 9 9 1 T i n H i l l ( K i n g C o u n t y E x e c u t i v e ) 2 7 J u l y 1 9 9 1 M i k e H o o n i n g ( S e a t t l e ) 2 7 J a n 1 9 9 1 P e t e r L a g e r w e y ( S e a t t l e E n g i n e e r i n g D e p a r t m e n t ) S e p t 1 9 9 1 D a n e l l e L a i d l a w ( B A B C E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r ) 7 J u n e 1 9 9 1 J o s h L e h m a n ( S e a t t l e B i k e C o o r d i n a t o r 1 9 7 7 - 8 4 ) 2 7 M a y 1 9 9 1 D o u g L o u i e ( V a n c o u v e r E n g i n e e r i n g D e p t . ) 2 2 M a r c h 1 9 9 1 G o r d L o v e g r o v e ( V a n c o u v e r E n g i n e e r i n g D e p t . ) 1 2 A p r i l 1 9 9 1 N e l s o n M c L a c h l a n ( V a n c o u v e r ) N o v e m b e r 1 9 9 0 P h i l M i l l e r ( K i n g C o . D e p t o f P u b l i c W o r k s ) M a y 2 8 1 9 9 1 M a r i l y n P o l l a r d ( V a n c o u v e r ) 3 J u n e 1 9 9 1 M a r t y P o s p i s c h i l ( V a n c o u v e r E n g i n e e r i n g D e p t . ) 1 3 M a r c h 1 9 9 1 A i d . G o r d o n P r i c e ( V a n c o u v e r ) 1 2 M a r c h 1 9 9 1 B o b T h e i s e n ( S e a t t l e E n g i n e e r i n g D e p t 1 9 7 0 - 7 6 ) 2 2 J u l y 1 9 9 1 T h a n k s a l s o t o S t e v e K a u t z ( C i t y C l e r k ' s O f f i c e , V a n c o u v e r ) ; R o b D e l a h a n t y ( V a n c o u v e r ) ; t o P e t e r L a g e r w e y a n d M i k e D o r n f e l d f o r a l l o w i n g m e t o r u m m a g e i n t h e i r o f f i c e i n N o v e m b e r 1 9 9 0 ; t o T e r r y R o s e a t t h e C a s c a d e s C l u b O f f i c e ; t o M i c h a e l a t t h e B A B C O f f i c e ; a n d t o N e l s o n f o r h i s h e l p a n d i n s p i r a t i o n . 

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