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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Gender discrimination and the recruitment process : matching people and jobs in Nanaimo and Richmond Maybin, Fiona Leslie 1991

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GENDER DISCRIMINATION AND THE RECRUITMENT PROCESS MATCHING PEOPLE AND JOBS I N NANAIMO AND RICHMOND By FIONA L E S L I E MAYBIN B.A., Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , 1989 A THESIS SUBMITTED I N PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES ( D e p a r t m e n t o f A n t h r o p o l o g y a n d S o c i o l o g y ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA S e p t e m b e r 1991 ( c ) F i o n a L e s l i e M a y b i n , 1991 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. 1 further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of S o C i o L o f e H A.J?> A iO 1 W P- 0 P 0 I P k 1 The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date A W ^ L ^1 \<YM DE-6 (2/88) i i ABSTRACT The purpose o f t h e t h e s i s i s t o examine t h e n a t u r e o f r e c r u i t m e n t p r a c t i c e s i n Nanaimo and Richmond, p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e ways i n wh i c h r e c r u i t e r s d e f i n e j o b r e q u i r e m e n t s , a t t r a c t a p p l i c a n t s , and s e l e c t a c a n d i d a t e , i n o r d e r t o i n v e s t i g a t e whether and how r e c r u i t e r s p r a c t i c e d i r e c t o r i n d i r e c t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n based on gender. To a c c o m p l i s h t h i s , 74 r e c r u i t e r s were i n t e r v i e w e d i n August 1990 and F e b r u a r y 1991, r e s u l t i n g i n 84 j o b v a c a n c i e s and 151 p e o p l e h i r e d . Data were o b t a i n e d from u n s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w s w i t h r e c r u i t e r s , who were asked t o g i v e an a c c o u n t o f t h e p r o c e d u r e t h a t t h e y f o l l o w e d t o f i l l a r e c e n t j o b vacancy i n t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n . F i v e s t a g e s o f t h e r e c r u i t m e n t p r o c e s s were examined: j o b d e s c r i p t i o n s and a d v e r t i s e m e n t s ; i d e a l c a n d i d a t e c o n s t r u c t i o n ; a p p l i c a n t s e a r c h methods; n a r r o w i n g t h e a p p l i c a n t p o o l ; and t h e j o b i n t e r v i e w and f i n a l c a n d i d a t e s e l e c t i o n . I t was found t h a t , t h r o u g h o u t t h e r e c r u i t m e n t p r o c e s s , r e c r u i t e r s r a r e l y p r a c t i c e d d i r e c t forms o f d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a g a i n s t a p p l i c a n t s based on t h e i r s ex. However, e m p l o y e r s 7 s e a r c h methods and t h e ways t h a t j o b d e s c r i p t i o n s were worded u s u a l l y l e d t o o n l y one sex a p p l y i n g f o r t h e v a c a n t p o s i t i o n s , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f g e n d e r - n e u t r a l j o b v a c a n c i e s . I t was a l s o found t h a t female a p p l i c a n t s f o r female-gendered j o b s were e v a l u a t e d much more t h a n males on t h e b a s i s o f p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . I d e a l c a n d i d a t e c o n s t r u c t i o n and t h e e l i m i n a t i o n o f s h o r t - l i s t e d a p p l i c a n t s were s t a g e s where t h e most f r e q u e n t use o f c o v e r t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n on t h e b a s i s o f gender was l o c a t e d . Few p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were d e v o i d o f gendered c o n n o t a t i o n s ; y e t , most r e c r u i t e r s were unaware o f t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f a t t a c h i n g t h e need f o r p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t o t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a j o b . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS A b s t r a c t i i L i s t o f T a b l e s v i A c k n o w l e d g e m e n t s v i i C h a p t e r 1: INTRODUCTION 1 The R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n 1 S e x S e g r e g a t i o n i n t h e C a n a d i a n L a b o u r F o r c e 3 D e f i n i t i o n s 5 T h e s i s O v e r v i e w 12 C h a p t e r 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 13 I n t r o d u c t i o n 13 G e n d e r D i s c r i m i n a t i o n 14 S e x S e g r e g a t i o n 17 R e c r u i t m e n t 21 E m p l o y m e n t E q u i t y P r o g r a m s 29 C h a p t e r 3: RESEARCH AND METHOD 35 R e s e a r c h A g e n d a 35 M a i n C o n c e r n s 3 5 O r g a n i z a t i o n s a n d A c c e s s 36 R e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s o f Sample 4 2 M e t h o d 4 3 I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f D a t a 46 G a i n i n g A c c e s s t o R e c r u i t e r s 48 R a p p o r t 50 I n t e r v i e w e r E f f e c t s 52 D a t a C o l l e c t i o n M e t h o d s 52 Summary 53 C h a p t e r 4: DATA AND FINDINGS 55 I n t r o d u c t i o n 55 J o b D e s c r i p t i o n s a n d A d v e r t i s e m e n t s 55 I d e a l C a n d i d a t e C o n s t r u c t i o n 60 G e n e r a l R e l a t e d E x p e r i e n c e 62 S p e c i f i c R e l e v a n t E x p e r i e n c e 63 G e n d e r - S p e c i f i c P e r s o n a l Q u a l i t i e s 63 E m p l o y e r s ' S e a r c h M e t h o d s 66 N a r r o w i n g t h e A p p l i c a n t P o o l 68 G e n d e r 70 F u r t h e r E v i d e n c e o f G e n d e r B i a s 71 S e p a r a t i n g G e n d e r f r o m O t h e r A t t r i b u t e s 73 O b s e r v e d G e n d e r e d D i v i s i o n s o f L a b o u r 74 C o n t r a d i c t o r y D e c l a r a t i o n s o f G e n d e r P r e f e r e n c e 75 The J o b I n t e r v i e w a n d F i n a l C a n d i d a t e S e l e c t i o n 75 P h y s i c a l C ues 76 C o m p a r i s o n w i t h P r e d e c e s s o r 77 C o m p a r i s o n w i t h O t h e r E m p l o y e e s 78 V G u t F e e l i n g 79 G e n d e r e d J o b s 81 C o n c l u s i o n 83 C h a p t e r 5: CONCLUSION 86 P u r p o s e o f t h e R e s e a r c h 86 F i n d i n g s 86 S u g g e s t i o n s f o r I m p r o v e m e n t s 87 F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h 88 C o n c l u s i o n 92 B i b l i o g r a p h y 94 A p p e n d i x A 98 v i L I S T OF TABLES 1 T y p e s a n d S i z e s o f R e c r u i t e r s ' O r g a n i z a t i o n s 40 2 R e c r u i t e r s ' R e s p o n s e s t o "What t y p e o f p e r s o n 60 w e r e y o u l o o k i n g f o r ? " 3 E m p l o y e r s ' S e a r c h M e t h o d s 66 4 R e a s o n s why J o b C a n d i d a t e s w e r e R e t a i n e d o r E x c l u d e d 69 5 G e n d e r S t a t u s o f J o b s 83 v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I w i s h t o a c k n o w l e d g e t h e t h o u g h t f u l , p a t i e n t a n d s c h o l a r l y a s s i s t a n c e o f my s u p e r v i s o r , D r . N e i l Guppy, a s w e l l a s t h e a d v i c e a n d g u i d a n c e o f t h e o t h e r members o f my c o m m i t t e e , D r . M a r t i n M e i s s n e r a n d D r . K e n n e t h S t o d d a r t , i n c o n d u c t i n g t h e r e s e a r c h . I w o u l d a l s o l i k e t o e x p r e s s my g r a t i t u d e t o t h e r e c r u i t e r s i n Nanaimo a n d R i c h m o n d , w i t h o u t whose c o - o p e r a t i o n t h i s r e s e a r c h w o u l d n o t h a v e b e e n p o s s i b l e . 1 C h a p t e r 1: The Re s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n  I n t r o d u c t i o n The purpose o f t h i s t h e s i s i s t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e ways i n which r e c r u i t e r s may be c o n t r i b u t i n g t o a s e x - s e g r e g a t e d work f o r c e by p r a c t i c i n g d i s c r i m i n a t i o n d u r i n g t h e r e c r u i t m e n t p r o c e s s , e i t h e r d e l i b e r a t e l y o r u n c o n s c i o u s l y . The c e n t r a l q u e s t i o n s o f t h i s t h e s i s a r e whether and how r e c r u i t e r s make r e c r u i t m e n t d e c i s i o n s t h a t h e l p t o p e r p e t u a t e a s e x - s e g r e g a t e d l a b o u r f o r c e . I f r e c r u i t e r s do make d e c i s i o n s based on b e l i e f s about gender, does such d i s c r i m i n a t i o n t a k e t h e form o f d i r e c t o r o v e r t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , o r i s i t i n d i r e c t and, perhaps , u n i n t e n t i o n a l ? To a c c o m p l i s h t h i s , I i n t e r v i e w e d 74 r e c r u i t e r s i n Nanaimo and Richmond i n August 1990 and F e b r u a r y 1991 t o a c q u i r e i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e c r i t e r i a t h a t t h e y used t o f i l l r e c e n t j o b v a c a n c i e s i n t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n s . D e s p i t e an i n c r e a s e i n women's p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p a i d employment, sex s e g r e g a t i o n i n t h e l a b o u r market remains w o r l d w i d e . P e o p l e i n most s o c i e t i e s assume t h a t t h e b i o l o g i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s between men and women p r e d i s p o s e them t o p e r f o r m d i f f e r e n t t a s k s , t o be e v a l u a t e d d i f f e r e n t l y , and t o have t h e p r o d u c t s o f t h e i r l a b o u r g i v e n d i f f e r e n t i a l t r e a t m e n t (McLaren, 1988: 17; S y d i e , 1988: 7 ) . U n t i l r e c e n t l y , most s o c i o l o g i s t s have a l s o s h a r e d t h i s a s s u m p t i o n , p e r c e i v i n g women's s u b o r d i n a t e s t a t u s as n a t u r a l and i n e v i t a b l e , c o n s e q u e n t l y i g n o r i n g t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o s o c i e t y . F e m i n i s t s o c i o l o g y , however, has f o c u s e d on, and c h a l l e n g e d , t h e b i o l o g i c a l a ssumptions s u r r o u n d i n g t h e p l a c e o f women i n s o c i e t y , r e s u l t i n g i n a more 2 w e l l - r o u n d e d d i s c i p l i n e t h a t examines t h e r o l e s o f b o t h men and women. Key c o n c e p t s examined by f e m i n i s t s o c i o l o g i s t s have been, and c o n t i n u e t o be, t h e d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r by sex, p a t r i a r c h y and s o c i a l i n e q u a l i t i e s . A l t h o u g h t h e d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r by sex has been u n i v e r s a l t h r o u g h human h i s t o r y , i t s form has changed i n p a r a l l e l w i t h economic e v o l u t i o n (Fuchs, 1988: 3 2 ) . W i t h t h e i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n and t h e development o f c a p i t a l i s t economies, t h e c e n t r a l d i f f e r e n c e between male and female work was t h a t male work ( p a i d and, t h e r e f o r e , v a l u e d ) was performed i n th e m a r k e t p l a c e , w h i l e female work ( u n p a i d and not v a l u e d ) t o o k p l a c e i n t h e home. S o c i o l o g i s t s f r e q u e n t l y use e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r t h e d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r t h a t f e a t u r e t h e co n c e p t o f p a t r i a r c h y . Many f e m i n i s t s o c i o l o g i s t s c l a i m t h a t r e l a t i o n s w i t h i n t h e d o m e s t i c sphere whereby women a r e , t r a d i t i o n a l l y , dependent upon men e c o n o m i c a l l y , p h y s i c a l l y and s o c i a l l y , have been extended t o o t h e r a r e a s , most n o t a b l y , t h e l a b o u r f o r c e ( U r s e l i n McLaren, 1988: 109). J u s t as men have c o n t r o l l e d women and t h e i r r e p r o d u c t i v e c a p a c i t i e s i n t h e d o m e s t i c s p h e r e , men c o n t i n u e t o c o n t r o l women i n t h e i r a c c e s s t o t h e p o l i t i c a l and economic s p h e r e s , r e s u l t i n g i n a male-dominated and m a l e - c o n t r o l l e d l a b o u r f o r c e . The consequence o f such male c o n t r o l i s a l a b o u r f o r c e i n which women a r e d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y employed i n l o w - s t a t u s , low-income o c c u p a t i o n s , w h i l e men dominate i n t h e high-income, h i g h -s t a t u s o c c u p a t i o n s ( W i l s o n , 1986: 103). 3 There i s no d i s p u t e t h a t a s e x - s e g r e g a t e d work f o r c e c o n t i n u e s . However, u n t i l r e c e n t l y , l i t t l e r e s e a r c h has been conducted i n t o t h e v a r i o u s s t a g e s o f t h e r e c r u i t m e n t p r o c e s s t h a t may be c e n t r a l t o t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f a s e x - s e g r e g a t e d l a b o u r f o r c e . No Canadian s t u d y e x p l o r e s t h e d i s c r i m i n a t o r y p r a c t i c e s o f r e c r u i t e r s . I n an attempt t o u n d e r s t a n d how r e c r u i t e r s c o n t r i b u t e t o a s e x - s e g r e g a t e d l a b o u r f o r c e i n Canada, t h i s t h e s i s i n v e s t i g a t e s c e r t a i n ways i n which r e c r u i t e r s use gender i n f o r m i n g a p p l i c a n t p o o l s and, u l t i m a t e l y , s e l e c t i n g s u c c e s s f u l j o b a p p l i c a n t s . S e x - S e g r e g a t i o n i n t h e Canadian Labour F o r c e A l t h o u g h s o c i o l o g i c a l debate c o n t i n u e s as t o t h e causes o f a s e x - s e g r e g a t e d l a b o u r f o r c e , t h e f a c t remains t h a t t h e s e g r e g a t i o n o f j o b s by gender c o n t i n u e s (Fox and Fox, 1986). I n Canada, female p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e p a i d l a b o u r f o r c e grew from 38% t o 57% between 1970 and 1988 ( S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1990: 7 3 ) . However, women c o n t i n u e t o e n t e r i n t o o c c u p a t i o n s t h a t a r e low p a i d and o f a c l e r i c a l n a t u r e . I n r e s p o n s e t o c o n t i n u e d sex s e g r e g a t i o n i n l a b o u r , governments i n Canada have e n a c t e d f e d e r a l e q u a l employment l e g i s l a t i o n f o c u s e d d i r e c t l y on d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n r e c r u i t m e n t and work c o n d i t i o n s ( C a l z a v a r a , 1988: 298). A 1951 f e d e r a l law r e q u i r e d employers t o g i v e p e o p l e o f b o t h sexes e q u a l pay f o r e q u a l work i n t h e same o r g a n i z a t i o n . The weakness o f such l e g i s l a t i o n i s t h a t i t a p p l i e s o n l y t o men and women who do s i m i l a r work i n t h e same e s t a b l i s h m e n t , t h e r e b y i g n o r i n g two-4 thi r d s of women i n paid employment who are engaged i n female-dominated occupations (Calzavara, 1988: 298). In 1964, further equal employment l e g i s l a t i o n was enacted f e d e r a l l y to proh i b i t discrimination i n h i r i n g , promotion and work conditions (Calzavara, 1988: 298). However, unfair discrimination can be practiced e a s i l y by r e c r u i t e r s , often masked by ostensibly legitimate reasons for not h i r i n g a pa r t i c u l a r person, and the 1964 law did l i t t l e to i n h i b i t r e c r u i t e r s from p r a c t i c i n g unfair discrimination. In 1984, the federal Royal Commission on Equality i n Employment recommended that l e g i s l a t i o n was needed to break down labour market d i v i s i o n s that prevented equal employment opportunities for women and to provide "equal pay for work of equal value" (Abella, 1984: 255). Although the effectiveness of such l e g i s l a t i o n cannot be evaluated yet, i t may be that, given the heavily gendered nature of most occupations, with women and men r a r e l y working i n the same types of jobs, l i t t l e has altered i n the way of a less segregated labour force. Both the le g a l system and the formal p o l i t i c a l process use a r a t i o n a l - l e g a l or l i b e r a l framework i n confronting issues of employment (Webb and L i f f , 1988: 533). The framework assumes a meritocratic basis for a l l h i r i n g — that decisions are based on an evaluation of in d i v i d u a l job applicants' a b i l i t i e s compared to the functional requirements of the job (Jenkins, 1986: 1) Part of the t y p i c a l process that employers follow to f i l l a job vacancy i s the construction of an ide a l job applicant 5 (Curran, 1988: 336; Windolf and Wood, 1988: 2). Recruiters prepare a l i s t of the tasks and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the job i t s e l f and, from t h i s , develop a p r o f i l e of the s k i l l s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the i d e a l candidate. Indeed, t h i s i s the practice recommended i n recruitment manuals and i n h i r i n g seminars. I t i s within the construction of both the i d e a l candidate and the job requirements that broad scope i s given for exclusionary practices. As w i l l be demonstrated l a t e r , s p e c i f i c s o c i a l l y - a s c r i b e d gender attributes are incorporated not only into the i d e a l job candidate p r o f i l e but, even more s i g n i f i c a n t l y , into the job i t s e l f , revealing the presence of systemic, or s t r u c t u r a l segregation, which c l e a r l y l i m i t s the pool of q u a l i f i e d applicants before any active recruitment ever takes place. Definitions Before continuing, i t i s important that c e r t a i n terms used frequently throughout t h i s thesis be c l a r i f i e d . Standard dictionary d e f i n i t i o n s w i l l f i r s t be given to demonstrate the meanings of the words i n general usage, followed by the meanings attached to them when used within the realm of sociology. Recruitment: The word 'recruitment', i n general usage and according to the Oxford English Dictionary, refers to "... enlist(ment) for army, regiment, crew, society, party..." (Oxford English Dictionary, 1973). However, s o c i o l o g i c a l d e f i n i t i o n s r e s t r i c t the concept of 'recruitment' to what Jewson and Mason describe as 6 ... t h e e n t i r e p r o c e s s o f a l l o c a t i n g p e r s o n s t o o c c u p a t i o n a l t a s k s and f u n c t i o n s w i t h i n an i n s t i t u t i o n o r o r g a n i s a t i o n (Jewson and Mason, 1986: 4 4 ) . Jewson and Mason i n c l u d e w i t h i n t h i s d e f i n i t i o n a l l "... h i r i n g , r e dundancy[,] ... d i s m i s s a l [ , ] ... p r o m o t i o n and g r a d i n g " (Jewson and Mason, 1986: 4 4 ) . Many s o c i o l o g i s t s d i f f e r from Jewson and Mason by c o n f i n i n g t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n o f ' r e c r u i t m e n t ' even more s h a r p l y t o r e f e r t o t h e h i r i n g s t a g e . A l t h o u g h t h e y do n o t d i r e c t l y d e f i n e t h e i r use o f t h e word ' r e c r u i t m e n t ' , W i n d o l f and Wood, f o r example, see o n l y t h r e e s t a g e s i n t h e r e c r u i t m e n t p r o c e s s : (1) d e f i n i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s , (2) a t t r a c t i n g c a n d i d a t e s , and (3) s e l e c t i n g c a n d i d a t e s ( W i n d o l f and Wood, 1988: 1 4 ) . I t i s c l e a r t h a t redundancy, d i s m i s s a l and g r a d i n g a r e n o t i n c l u d e d w i t h i n t h e s e p a r a m e t e r s . R i c h a r d J e n k i n s , s i m i l a r l y , does n o t s p e c i f y p r e c i s e l y how he chooses t o use ' r e c r u i t m e n t ' ; i n s t e a d he r e f e r s t o t h r e e a s p e c t s o f t h e r e c r u i t m e n t p r o c e s s t h a t s e r v e t o i l l u m i n a t e how he p e r c e i v e s r e c r u i t m e n t : ... one, t h e means by w h i c h o r g a n i s a t i o n s a t t r a c t a p p l i c a n t s ; two, t h e manner i n w h i c h t h e p r o c e s s o f s e l e c t i o n i s o r g a n i s e d , from t h e r e c e i p t o f t h e a p p l i c a t i o n s t o t h e f i n a l c h o i c e o f employee; and t h r e e , t h e o r g a n i s a t i o n and c onduct o f p a r t o f t h i s p r o c e s s , t h e s e l e c t i o n i n t e r v i e w i t s e l f ( J e n k i n s , 1986: 117). I t i s c l e a r t h a t t h e r e a r e some d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e meaning of ' r e c r u i t m e n t ' . Most s o c i o l o g i s t s do n o t f o l l o w Jewson and Mason by i n c l u d i n g redundancy and d i s m i s s a l under t h e c a t e g o r y o f ' r e c r u i t m e n t ' ; t h i s i s not t o say t h a t t h e s e a r e a s a r e u n i m p o r t a n t , as j o b v a c a n c i e s o f t e n 7 a r i s e as a r e s u l t o f d i s m i s s a l o r p r o m o t i o n . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i n t h i s t h e s i s , r e c r u i t m e n t i n c l u d e s o n l y t h e p r o c e s s e s o f h i r i n g , and n o t d i s m i s s a l o r redundancy. D i s c r i m i n a t i o n : I n g e n e r a l usage, t h e term, ' d i s c r i m i n a t i o n ' , i s d e f i n e d by t h e O x f o r d E n g l i s h D i c t i o n a r y a s : [The s e t t i n g up o r observance o f ] a d i f f e r e n c e between, ... d i s t i n g u i s h [ i n g ] from a n o t h e r , ... mak[ing] a d i s t i n c t i o n ; ... o b s e r v a t i o n o f ] d i s t i n c t i o n s c a r e f u l l y ( O x f o r d E n g l i s h D i c t i o n a r y , 1973). However, t h e phrase ' d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a g a i n s t ' has a much l e s s n e u t r a l d e f i n i t i o n : " ... d i s t i n g u i s h [ i n g ] u n f a v o u r a b l y " ( O x f o r d E n g l i s h D i c t i o n a r y , 1973). C l e a r l y , t h e r e i s a d i f f e r e n c e between ' d i s c r i m i n a t i o n ' , w h i c h r e f e r s t o d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between o r among s e v e r a l e n t i t i e s , and ' d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a g a i n s t ' , i n which one o r more e n t i t i e s a r e b e i n g e x c l u d e d i n f a v o u r o f a n o t h e r deemed more a c c e p t a b l e . However, i n t h i s paper, ' d i s c r i m i n a t i o n ' w i l l , i n f a c t , r e f e r t o ' d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a g a i n s t ' a p e r s o n o r p e r s o n s . I n t h e h i r i n g p r o c e s s , d i s c r i m i n a t i o n ( i n t h e n e u t r a l sense) i s a n e c e s s a r y f e a t u r e o f a l l r e c r u i t m e n t d e c i s i o n s (Hughes, 1985: 224). The q u e s t i o n t h e n a r i s e s : What i s deemed t o be f a i r o r u n f a i r d i s c r i m i n a t i o n ? The answer i s found i n t h e i d e a l r e c r u i t m e n t p r o c e s s : 8 [ F a i r d i s c r i m i n a t i o n ] i s based upon an assessment o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e a b i l i t i e s w hich a r e deemed t o be r e q u i s i t e f o r t h e f u n c t i o n a l performance o f t h e j o b conc e r n e d , and t h e a b i l i t i e s ... o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l s c o n c e r n e d ( J e n k i n s , 1986: 1 ) . U n f a i r d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , o r ' d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a g a i n s t ' , on t h e o t h e r hand, i s seen t o t a k e two g e n e r a l forms: o v e r t and s y s t e m i c (Gunderson, 1985: 8; Hughes, 1985: 225). Ov e r t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n r e f e r s t o : ... [ u n d i s g u i s e d ] d i s t i n c t i o n s i n f a v o u r o f o r a g a i n s t t h e p e r s o n ... on t h e b a s i s o f group, c l a s s o r c a t e g o r y t o wh i c h t h e pe r s o n b e l o n g s (Hughes, 1985: 225). Hughes (1985: 225) c l a i m s t h a t i t i s i n d i r e c t , o r s y s t e m i c , d i s c r i m i n a t i o n t h a t p e r s i s t s i n t h e r e c r u i t m e n t p r o c e s s and h e l p s t o p e r p e t u a t e j o b s e g r e g a t i o n . S y s t e m i c d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i s o f t e n m a n i f e s t i n o s t e n s i b l y n e u t r a l t e s t i n g o r c r i t e r i a , such as j o b d e s c r i p t i o n s o r e d u c a t i o n a l r e q u i r e m e n t s , t h a t i n r e a l i t y have a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e impact on c e r t a i n groups (Hughes, 1985: 232). An o f t e n u n i n t e n d e d b y - p r o d u c t o f an o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s h i r i n g p o l i c y , s y s t e m i c d i s c r i m i n a t i o n can o c c u r even i f r e c r u i t e r s do not i n t e n t i o n a l l y engage i n o v e r t , u n f a i r d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . A common example i s t h e attachment o f s t e r e o t y p i c a l group c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t o an i n d i v i d u a l as a l a b o u r - s a v i n g s e l e c t i o n d e v i c e (Gunderson, 1985: 4 ) . Most s y s t e m i c and o v e r t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n can be found a t two l o c a t i o n s i n t h e r e c r u i t m e n t p r o c e s s : i n f o r m a l c a n d i d a t e s e a r c h methods and t h e i n t e r v i e w s t a g e ( J e n k i n s , 1986: 136; W i n d o l f and Wood: 1988; 4 ) . The f i r s t r e f e r s t o t h e method used by employers 9 t o f i l l most low s k i l l o r u n s k i l l e d (manual) j o b s , e s p e c i a l l y d u r i n g t i m e s when unemployment i s h i g h . Employers have no need t o t u r n t o employment a g e n c i e s o r p u b l i c a d v e r t i s e m e n t s o f j o b v a c a n c i e s . Word-of-mouth s e a r c h p r o c e s s e s a r e i n e x p e n s i v e and h i g h l y s u c c e s s f u l ways o f a c q u i r i n g new employees ( J e n k i n s , 1986). Such methods i m p l y a t y p e o f p r e - s c r e e n i n g o f employees; r e c r u i t e r s f e e l t h a t p o t e n t i a l employees recommended by incumbents a r e m o t i v a t e d and i n p o s s e s s i o n o f s u i t a b l e s k i l l s . However, t h e danger o f i n f o r m a l s e a r c h methods i s t h a t word o f t h e j o b o n l y r e a c h e s c e r t a i n p e o p l e — u s u a l l y p e o p l e o f t h e same s o c i a l group as incumbents — t h e r e b y e x c l u d i n g members o f a l l o t h e r groups. The q u e s t i o n t h e n a r i s e s : How much c o v e r t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n can be a t t r i b u t e d d i r e c t l y t o r e c r u i t e r s ? And i f r e c r u i t e r s do p r a c t i c e c o v e r t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , i n what forms does i t appear? I t may be t h a t t h e d i s c r i m i n a t i o n p r a c t i c e d by r e c r u i t e r s i s u n r e f l e x i v e , and t h a t r e c r u i t e r s a r e c o m p l e t e l y unaware o f t h e s t e r e o t y p e s t h a t t h e y p o s s e s s about men and women. Sex and Gender: The noun, ' s e x 7 , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e O x f o r d E n g l i s h D i c t i o n a r y (1973), i s " b e i n g male o r female o r h e r m a p h r o d i t e " , w h i l e 'gender', w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o human b e i n g s , i s t h e " a p p r o p r i a t e form f o r accompanying [ t h e two sexes o r s e x l e s s n e s s ] " ( O x f o r d E n g l i s h D i c t i o n a r y , 1973). I n s o c i o l o g y , t h e meaning o f 'sex' i s e s s e n t i a l l y t h e same as t h a t i n common usage; 'gender' i s t y p i c a l l y used t o r e p r e s e n t t h e s o c i a l l y -c o n s t r u c t e d a t t r i b u t e s a t t a c h e d t o e i t h e r s e x . 10 I n g e n e r a l usage, t h e two terms a r e o f t e n used i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y ; however, s o c i o l o g i s t s u s u a l l y use them t o r e f e r t o two p a r t i c u l a r , a l b e i t c o n n e c t e d , c o n c e p t s . 'Sex' r e f e r s t o th e " b i o l o g y o f maleness and f e m a l e n e s s " , and 'gender' i s "what i s s o c i a l l y r e c o g n i z e d as f e m i n i n i t y o r m a s c u l i n i t y " ( M a c k i e , 1991: 2 ) . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o acknowledge, however, t h a t i t i s o f t e n d i f f i c u l t t o c o m p l e t e l y s e p a r a t e sex and gender, as p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s (sex) and c u l t u r e (gender) a r e f r e q u e n t l y i n t e r w o v e n . Mackie (1987 and 1991) r e f e r s t o pregnancy, f o r example, t h a t , a l t h o u g h a b i o l o g i c a l f a c t , p r o v i d e s d i f f e r e n t e x p e r i e n c e s f o r women depending on where and when t h e pregnancy o c c u r s : ... b e i n g pregnant i n m e d i e v a l England was a d i f f e r e n t e x p e r i e n c e from b e i n g pregnant i n t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y Canada (M a c k i e , 1987: 3 ) . E x p e r i e n c e s t h a t a r e based on p h y s i c a l a t t r i b u t e s a r e f r e q u e n t l y m o d i f i e d by p r e v a i l i n g a t t i t u d e s and v a l u e s . A l t h o u g h t h e c o n n e c t i o n s between sex and gender cannot be i g n o r e d o r d e n i e d , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o note t h a t s e x , d e t e r m i n e d a t c o n c e p t i o n , s t a y s t h e same f o r most p e o p l e t h r o u g h o u t l i f e . 1 Gender, on t h e o t h e r hand, i s a c o n s t a n t l y c h a n g i n g "continuum o f norms and b e h a v i o u r s " ( M a c k i e , 1991: 2 ) , s o c i a l l y formed, r e p r o d u c e d and a l t e r e d . A f u r t h e r d i s t i n c t i o n between sex and gender i s t h a t sex i s an i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , w h i l e gender r e p r e s e n t s a system E x c e p t i o n s a r e h e r m a p h r o d i t e s and t r a n s s e x u a l s , f o r whom sex i s not an unchangeable f a c t t h r o u g h o u t t h e i r l i v e s ( M a c k i e , 1991: 2 ) . 11 used t o u n d e r s t a n d human b e h a v i o u r , and e v a l u a t e and c o n t r o l i n d i v i d u a l s ( M a c k i e , 1991: 2 ) . C o n s e q u e n t l y , i t i s not sex t h a t d e t e r m i n e s t h e i d e n t i t y o f s e l f and o t h e r s , but gender and t h e s u r r o u n d i n g norms whi c h a r e used t o d i r e c t and o r g a n i z e human b e h a v i o u r . Sex and gender can be a n a l y t i c a l l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d b u t , i n p r a c t i c e , a s p e c t s o f b o t h a r e o f t e n i n t e r t w i n e d . F o r example, i n jo b s e g r e g a t i o n , men and women work i n d i f f e r e n t j o b s , b u t t h e s o c i a l d e f i n i t i o n s o f t h o s e j o b s a r e gendered. The a n a l y t i c a l d i s t i n c t i o n i s p a r t i c u l a r l y c r i t i c a l t o an e x a m i n a t i o n o f why a s e x - s e g r e g a t e d l a b o u r f o r c e c o n t i n u e s t o e x i s t , d e s p i t e l e g i s l a t i o n t h a t i s d e s i g n e d t o i n h i b i t i t and, even more i m p o r t a n t l y , r e c r u i t e r s ' r h e t o r i c and p r o c e d u r e s t h a t appear, on t h e s u r f a c e , d e v o i d o f d e l i b e r a t e g e n d e r - t y p i n g . T h i s t h e s i s w i l l show t h a t i t i s t h e s o c i a l l y - a s c r i b e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (gender) o f each sex t h a t g u i d e r e c r u i t e r s ' d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s e s . G e n d e r i n g : The n o t i o n o f g e n d e r i n g a l s o r e q u i r e s e x p l a n a t i o n and c l a r i f i c a t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e O x f o r d E n g l i s h D i c t i o n a r y , t h e v e r b , "gender", means t h e same as t h e v e r b , "engender", w h i c h has t h e meaning o f " b r i n g i n g about" ( O x f o r d E n g l i s h D i c t i o n a r y , 1973). 2 G e n d e r i n g , i n t h e s o c i o l o g i c a l s e n s e , r e f e r s t o t h e a s c r i p t i o n o f one sex o r t h e o t h e r t o an i n t e r e s t i n g l y , t h e language r o o t s o f t h e noun, "gender", and t h e v e r b , "engender" o r "gender", a r e d i f f e r e n t . The noun, "gender", i s d e r i v e d from t h e L a t i n genus, w h i l e t h e v e r b , "gender", has i t s r o o t s i n t h e L a t i n q e n e r a r e ( g e n e r a t e ) . a c t i o n o r a q u a l i t y , such as a j o b , a s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m , o r a p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c ( B r a d l e y , 1989: 1 1 ) . I n t h i s t h e s i s , j o b s a r e f r e q u e n t l y r e f e r r e d t o as "male-gendered" o r " f e m a l e -gendered" , meaning t h a t t h e y a r e dominated by one sex and p o s s e s s a t t r i b u t e s w hich a r e t h o u g h t t o be s u i t a b l e f o r one o r t h e o t h e r sex. T h e s i s Overview I n subsequent c h a p t e r s , t h i s t h e s i s w i l l examine t h e n a t u r e of r e c r u i t m e n t p r a c t i c e s i n two l o c a t i o n s , Nanaimo and Richmond, p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e ways i n w h i c h r e c r u i t e r s d e f i n e j o b r e q u i r e m e n t s , a t t r a c t a p p l i c a n t s , and s e l e c t a c a n d i d a t e , i n o r d e r t o i n v e s t i g a t e whether and how r e c r u i t e r s p r a c t i c e d i r e c t o r i n d i r e c t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n based on gender. C h a p t e r 2 p r e s e n t s a d i s c u s s i o n o f l i t e r a t u r e on t h e s o c i o l o g y o f employment, w i t h an emphasis on themes t h a t emerge i n s u ch l i t e r a t u r e t h a t p e r t a i n s p e c i f i c a l l y t o gender s e g r e g a t i o n and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n t h e r e c r u i t m e n t p r o c e s s . I n C h a p t e r 3, t h e r e s e a r c h agenda and method used f o r t h e Nanaimo and Richmond s t u d i e s w i l l be o u t l i n e d , f o l l o w e d , i n C h a p t e r 4, by f i n d i n g s o f t h e r e s e a r c h . F i n a l l y , C h a p t e r 5 w i l l p r e s e n t a d i s c u s s i o n and c o n c l u s i o n based on t h e f i n d i n g s . 13 C h apter 2: L i t e r a t u r e Review  I n t r o d u c t i o n S o c i o l o g i s t s have s t u d i e d r e c r u i t m e n t under many g u i s e s , i n c l u d i n g unequal pay, j o b s e g r e g a t i o n , u n f a i r d i s c r i m i n a t o r y p r a c t i c e s and j o b i n t e r v i e w s . A l a r g e body o f l i t e r a t u r e e x i s t s on how t h e mat c h i n g o f p e o p l e t o j o b s i s a c c o m p l i s h e d . I n c l u d e d i n t h i s l i t e r a t u r e i s a gr o w i n g number o f s t u d i e s on t h e ways i n whic h r e c r u i t e r s f i l l j o b v a c a n c i e s , t h e r e b y p e r p e t u a t i n g t h e s e g r e g a t i o n o f j o b s ( B i l l s , 1988; C u r r a n , 1988). S e v e r a l such s t u d i e s f o c u s on t h e s c r e e n i n g c r i t e r i a used by r e c r u i t e r s t o s h o r t - l i s t a p p l i c a n t s ( J e n k i n s , 1986; W i n d o l f and Wood, 1988). Embedded w i t h i n t h e s c r e e n i n g p r o c e s s i n r e c r u i t m e n t i s t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r c o v e r t d i s c r i m i n a t o r y p r a c t i c e s , which can s u b t l y and e f f e c t i v e l y produce a gendered d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r and an u n d e r v a l u a t i o n o f women's work. An e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e r e c r u i t m e n t p r o c e s s may uncover t h e ways i n which h i r i n g p r a c t i c e s c o n t r i b u t e t o a l a b o u r f o r c e s e g r e g a t e d by sex i n d i f f e r e n t j o b s . T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l p r o v i d e a broad o v e r v i e w o f t h e dominant themes t h a t emerge i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e on sex d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n employment, e s p e c i a l l y s t u d i e s o f how employers f i l l j o b v a c a n c i e s , w i t h a f o c u s on gender as a f i l t e r t o s c r e e n a p p l i c a n t s . P a r t i c u l a r b o d i e s o f l i t e r a t u r e w i l l be examined i n o r d e r t o i l l u s t r a t e some o f t h e more s i g n i f i c a n t e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r sex d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and one o f i t s consequences, sex s e g r e g a t i o n i n employment. Four r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s o f d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n 14 employment w i l l be examined. As w e l l , a d i s c u s s i o n on employment e q u i t y programs, w h i c h a r e d e s i g n e d t o reduce gender s e g r e g a t i o n i n t h e work p l a c e , w i l l be i n c l u d e d . Gender D i s c r i m i n a t i o n A c c o r d i n g t o an i d e a l model o f r e c r u i t m e n t , employers make a l l h i r i n g d e c i s i o n s on t h e o b j e c t i v e b a s i s o f a p p l i c a n t s ' q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and p o t e n t i a l p r o d u c t i v i t y . Indeed, under t h e r u b r i c o f employment e q u i t y programs, t h i s i d e a l o f e q u a l i t y i n r e c r u i t m e n t p r a c t i c e s i s i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d . An i n d i v i d u a l ' s gender ( o r o t h e r p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ) i s , t h e r e f o r e , i r r e l e v a n t ( B l a u and F e r b e r , 1986: 229). However, an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e l a b o u r f o r c e s u g g e s t s t h i s may n o t be t h e c a s e . E v i d e n c e of c o n t i n u e d s e g r e g a t i o n i n employment i n d i c a t e s c l e a r l y t h a t many f o r c e s a r e a t work t h a t i n h i b i t e q u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a c r o s s t h e f u l l range o f t h e d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r . Economic s o c i o l o g i s t s a t t empt t o e x p l a i n t h e r e a s o n s f o r gender d i f f e r e n c e s i n h i r i n g , as w e l l as why such i n e q u a l i t y has p e r s i s t e d o v e r t i m e . S e v e r a l themes emerge i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e . (a) T a s t e f o r D i s c r i m i n a t i o n B ecker (1957) s u g g e s t s t h a t employers d e v e l o p a t a s t e f o r d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , and t h a t t h e y p r e f e r n o t t o h i r e members o f a p a r t i c u l a r group. The t a s t e f o r d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i s u s u a l l y a c q u i r e d by employers t h r o u g h s o c i a l i z a t i o n ( B l a u and F e r b e r , 1986: 244; C a l z a v a r a , 1988: 293; En g l a n d , 1984: 36; England and F a r k a s , 1986: 159; Gunderson and R e i d , 1983: 3 ) . Employers do not g a i n any f i n a n c i a l s a t i s f a c t i o n by such d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , and t h e y a r e w i l l i n g t o l o s e e c o n o m i c a l l y i n o r d e r t o i n d u l g e t h e i r " t a s t e s " . Because employers p r e f e r t o h i r e men f o r male-gendered j o b s , t h e y must, a c c o r d i n g l y , pay t h e h i g h e r wages demanded by males. When women a r e r e f u s e d such j o b s , t h e y a r e f o r c e d t o seek work e l s e w h e r e i n j o b s t h a t a r e , f o r t h e most p a r t , f e m a l e -gendered and p a i d l e s s ( E n g l a n d and F a r k a s , 1986: 159). (b) S t a t i s t i c a l and E r r o r D i s c r i m i n a t i o n S t a t i s t i c a l and e r r o r d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a r e p r a c t i c e d by employers who base t h e i r h i r i n g d e c i s i o n s on " u n d e s i r a b l e b u t u n o b s e r v a b l e " (Gunderson and R e i d , 1983: 15) assumptions about t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between men and women as i n d i c a t o r s o f work performance and p r o d u c t i v i t y ( B l a u and F e r b e r , 1986: 251; England and F a r k a s , 1986: 160; Gunderson and R e i d , 1983: 16; Jewson and Mason, 1986: 4 6 ) . S t a t i s t i c a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n o c c u r s when employers a t t a c h c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s based on group averages t o a l l i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h a t group. An example o f s t a t i s t i c a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i s found i n emp l o y e r s ' common assum p t i o n t h a t women p o s s e s s l e s s m e c h a n i c a l a b i l i t y t h a n men. Such employers a r e l e s s l i k e l y t o h i r e any woman i n a p o s i t i o n t h a t r e q u i r e s m e c h a n i c a l knowledge, r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e a p p l i c a n t ' s q u a l i f i c a t i o n s o r e x p e r i e n c e ( E n g l a n d and F a r k a s , 1986: 160). An even more common assumption i s t h a t women have a h i g h p r o b a b i l i t y o f t u r n o v e r i n employment, w h i c h l e a d s t o employers h e s i t a t i n g t o h i r e any women (Gunderson and R e i d , 1983: 16 ) . Not o n l y does such a p r a c t i c e deny women f a i r a c c e s s t o a v a i l a b l e j o b s ; i t l o w e r s wages f o r t h o s e women who a r e a l l o w e d e n t r y a s : 16 To i n d u c e employers t o h i r e f e m a l e s , a wage d i f f e r e n t i a l i s n e c e s s a r y t o compensate f o r t h e e x p e c t e d e x t r a c o s t s (Gunderson and R e i d , 1983: 1 6 ) . S t a t i s t i c a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i s e a s i l y p r a c t i c e d by employers as t h e y a r e a b l e t o camouflage t h e i r b i a s e s w i t h o t h e r , more l e g a l , s c r e e n i n g mechanisms, such as hours o f work t h a t a r e i n h i b i t i n g t o many women w i t h c h i l d c a r e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . E r r o r d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i s v e r y s i m i l a r t o s t a t i s t i c a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n t h a t employers have assumptions about group averages ( E n g l a n d , 1984: 3 7 ) . What d i f f e r e n t i a t e s i t from s t a t i s t i c a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i s t h a t e m p l oyers' p e r c e p t i o n s a r e based on err o n e o u s a s s u m p t i o n s , which l e a d t o an i n c o r r e c t u n d e r v a l u a t i o n o f t h e economic p o t e n t i a l o f women i n men's j o b s ( E n g l a n d , 1984: 37; England and F a r k a s , 1986: 159). Women c o l l e c t i v e l y a r e p e r c e i v e d t o be unable t o produce as much as men i n male-gendered o c c u p a t i o n s . (c) Group Monopoly Based on t h e b e l i e f t h a t m a j o r i t y groups can i n c r e a s e t h e i r power by t a k i n g advantage o f a l e s s - p o w e r f u l group, group monopoly i s a way f o r male employers and employees, c o l l e c t i v e l y , t o keep women out o f c e r t a i n j o b s ( C a l z a v a r a , 1988: 293; England and F a r k a s , 1986: 160). Male-dominated t r a d e u n i o n s and b u s i n e s s a s s o c i a t i o n s have been accused o f m o n o p o l i s t i c p r a c t i c e s i n t h e i r a t t e m p t s t o c r e a t e l a b o u r c o n d i t i o n s t h a t d i s c o u r a g e female p a r t i c i p a t i o n , such as t h e use o f i n f o r m a l h i r i n g methods and l i c e n c e s t h a t a r e d i f f i c u l t t o o b t a i n u n l e s s one i s a member o f t h e u n i o n ( C a l z a v a r a , 1988: 293). I t i s c l e a r from t h e f o r e g o i n g t h a t numerous ways e x i s t f o r employers t o p r a c t i c e u n f a i r d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , much o f wh i c h goes u n n o t i c e d t h r o u g h t h e m a n i p u l a t i o n o f j o b d e s c r i p t i o n s and r e q u i r e m e n t s (Lowe, 1988: 119) t h a t appear, on t h e s u r f a c e , t o be r e a s o n a b l e and e g a l i t a r i a n , b u t which do c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e s e g r e g a t i o n o f t h e work f o r c e by gender. I t u r n now t o a r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e t h a t d i s c u s s e s v a r i o u s e x p l a n a t i o n s o f sex s e g r e g a t i o n i n t h e l a b o u r f o r c e . Sex S e g r e g a t i o n Women a r e s e g r e g a t e d by o c c u p a t i o n i n t h e work f o r c e , a s i t u a t i o n t h a t has n o t a l t e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y s i n c e a t l e a s t 1900, d e s p i t e r a d i c a l changes i n t h e economic s t r u c t u r e ( R e s k i n and Hartmann, 1986: 1; S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1990; 7 3 ) . Some o c c u p a t i o n s have become o b s o l e t e , w h i l e o t h e r s have been c r e a t e d w i t h t e c h n o l o g i c a l advancements. As w e l l , some j o b s have changed from b e i n g "men's work" t o "women's work", such as bank t e l l e r and o t h e r c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s (Lowe, 1988: 120). D e s p i t e t h e c r e a t i o n o f new j o b s , men and women s t i l l occupy p a r t i c u l a r j o b s . A l t h o u g h some s o c i o l o g i s t s c o n s i d e r sex s e g r e g a t i o n i n t h e work p l a c e t o be t h e consequence o f b o t h l i m i t a t i o n s and c h o i c e , t h e former i s c o n s i d e r e d a much s t r o n g e r f o r c e ( R e s k i n and Hartmann, 1986: 5 ) . An e x a m i n a t i o n o f some e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r j o b s e g r e g a t i o n r e v e a l s t h e r e a s o n s b e h i n d i t s c o n t i n u a t i o n . Many s o c i o l o g i s t s c l a i m t h a t t h e d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r by sex i s a l m o s t u n i v e r s a l (Bergmann, 1986: 93; Fuchs, 1988: 32; R e s k i n and Hartmann, 1986: 7; W i l s o n , 1986: 118). I n n e a r l y a l l 18 s o c i e t i e s , t h e t a s k s t h a t women do a r e c o m p a t i b l e , i n some r e s p e c t , t o d o m e s t i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , and have t h r e e c e n t r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : (1) Tasks a r e n o t dangerous. (2) Tasks do n o t t a k e women f a r from home. (3) Tasks a r e r e a d i l y i n t e r r u p t e d ( R e s k i n and Hartmann, 1986: 7 ) . A f u r t h e r q u a l i t y o f women's j o b s i s t h a t t h e y a r e l e s s d e s i r a b l e t h a n t h o s e h e l d by men, pay low e r wages, and i n v o l v e l e s s o n - t h e -j o b t r a i n i n g and fewer o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r advancement ( R e s k i n and Hartmann, 1986: 9 ) . Men l e a v e f o r m e r l y male-gendered o c c u p a t i o n s when a l a r g e number o f women a r e h i r e d because o f t h e l o s s o f p r e s t i g e and d e c l i n e i n wages ( R e s k i n and Hartmann, 1986: 3 1 ) . (a) B e l i e f s A predominant e x p l a n a t i o n o f t e n o f f e r e d t o ac c o u n t f o r sex s e g r e g a t i o n i n t h e work p l a c e i n v o l v e s b e l i e f s about gender and work. Such b e l i e f s a r e i n v i s i b l e , r a r e l y q u e s t i o n e d and, c o n s e q u e n t l y , p e r c e i v e d as n a t u r a l (Bergmann, 1986: 88; England and F a r k a s , 1986: 153; R e s k i n and Hartmann, 1986: 3 8 ) . One b e l i e f t h a t r e s t r i c t s women's a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e l a b o u r f o r c e i s t h a t t h e p r o p e r , and n a t u r a l , p l a c e f o r women t o be i s t h e home. As women and men have d i f f e r e n t b o d i e s , i t i s somehow n a t u r a l t h a t s o c i a l d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t . As a consequence and e x t e n s i o n o f t h e i r " n a t u r a l " r e p r o d u c t i v e c a p a c i t i e s , women a r e s u i t e d t o do m e s t i c and m a t e r n a l a c t i v i t i e s , a l l o f which make use o f women's n a t u r a l n u r t u r i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( S y d i e , 1988: 7 ) . A second b e l i e f c o n c e r n s male-female r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Women l a c k r e a s o n and a r e governed by t h e i r emotions ( R e s k i n and Hartmann, 1986: 3 8 ) . A consequence o f t h i s b e l i e f i s t h a t male dominance i s n a t u r a l ; t h e r e f o r e , men s h o u l d n o t be p l a c e d i n p o s i t i o n s t h a t a r e e q u a l o r s u b o r d i n a t e t o women (Bergmann, 1986: 98 ) . I n t h e l a b o u r market, women t e n d t o work o n l y a t o c c u p a t i o n s t h a t a r e s u b o r d i n a t e t o t h o s e o f men. Anot h e r e f f e c t o f t h i s b e l i e f i s t h a t women's l a c k o f r e a s o n and t h e i r s e x u a l i t y l e a d t o a f e a r o f s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s i n t h e work p l a c e ( R e s k i n and Hartmann, 1986: 4 1 ) . By k e e p i n g t h e sexes s e g r e g a t e d i n t o p a r t i c u l a r o c c u p a t i o n s , employers can r e t a i n harmony i n t h e work environment and, c o n s e q u e n t l y , keep p r o d u c t i v i t y h i g h . Such u n c h a l l e n g e d b e l i e f s r e s t r i c t t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s a v a i l a b l e t o women. The t h i r d b e l i e f i s c l o s e l y a l i g n e d w i t h t h e o t h e r s : t h e r e a r e i n n a t e d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e sexes (Fuchs, 1988: 3 8 ) . As women a r e l e s s r a t i o n a l and more e m o t i o n a l t h a n men, t h e y a r e f r e q u e n t l y d e n i e d o c c u p a t i o n a l p o s i t i o n s o f a u t h o r i t y ( R e s k i n and Hartmann, 1986: 4 1 ) . Other p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s a t t r i b u t e d t o women t h a t e x c l u d e them from such p o s i t i o n s a r e t h e i r l a c k o f a g g r e s s i v e n e s s , s t r e n g t h , endurance and c a p a c i t y f o r a b s t r a c t t h o u g h t ; c o n v e r s e l y , women po s s e s s g r e a t e r d e x t e r i t y and t o l e r a n c e f o r t e d i u m , and have more m o r a l i t y t h a n men ( R e s k i n and Hartmann, 1986: 4 1 ) . Women a r e n a t u r a l l y s u i t e d f o r r e p e t i t i v e c l e r i c a l and assembly l i n e f a c t o r y t a s k s . (b) Sex-Role S o c i a l i z a t i o n C l o s e l y l i n k e d w i t h b e l i e f s as agents o f sex s e g r e g a t i o n i s s e x - r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n ( B e t z and O ' C o n n e l l , 1989: 319; Eng l a n d , 1984: 41; England and F a r k a s , 1986: 153; Fuchs, 1988: 40; R e s k i n and Hartmann, 1986: 56; W i l s o n , 1986: 115). P e o p l e t e n d t o choose o c c u p a t i o n s t h a t a r e s u i t e d t o t h e i r gender. Such p e r c e p t i o n s d e v e l o p as a r e s u l t o f v a r i o u s forms o f s o c i a l i z a t i o n , b e g i n n i n g i n e a r l y c h i l d h o o d . As c h i l d r e n see t h e i r p a r e n t s a c t i n g i n p a r t i c u l a r ways, b o t h i n and o u t o f t h e home, t h e y l e a r n v e r y e a r l y i n l i f e t h a t men and women work a t d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , many pe o p l e e n t e r t h e work f o r c e w i t h e x p e c t a t i o n s t h a t a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h p r e v a i l i n g gender s e g r e g a t i o n i n c e r t a i n j o b s . E d u c a t i o n i s a n o t h e r s o u r c e o f s o c i a l i z a t i o n ( W i l s o n , 1986: 116). Much o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m i s h e a v i l y s e x - b i a s e d , w i t h t e x t b o o k s t h a t s t e r e o t y p e o c c u p a t i o n s as male o r female ( R e s k i n and Hartmann, 1986: 6 3 ) . Teachers and c o u n s e l l o r s a l s o promote sex s t e r e o t y p i n g and d i f f e r e n t i a l t r e a t m e n t o f t h e s e x e s , which r e i n f o r c e s sex s t e r e o t y p i n g ( R e s k i n and Hartmann, 1986: 63 ) . The s c h o o l system i t s e l f i s h i g h l y s e g r e g a t e d : e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l t e a c h e r s a r e p r e d o m i n a n t l y f e m a l e , and h i g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r s a r e u s u a l l y male, as a r e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ( R e s k i n and Hartmann, 1986: 64) . (c) Domestic R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s A n o t h e r e x p l a n a t i o n f r e q u e n t l y o f f e r e d t o acco u n t f o r sex s e g r e g a t i o n i s women's d o m e s t i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ( E n g l a n d , 1984: 31; Fuchs, 1988: 38; Kemp and Beck, i n Be r g , 1981: 262; R e s k i n and Hartmann, 1986: 68; W i l s o n , 1986: 117). As women c o n t i n u e t o be p r i m a r i l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c h i l d c a r e , t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n a l 21 c h o i c e s a r e l i m i t e d . U s u a l l y male p a r t n e r s ' c a r e e r s a r e more i m p o r t a n t ; t h e r e f o r e , p r o m o t i o n based on r e l o c a t i o n i s e x t r e m e l y u n l i k e l y f o r women w i t h male p a r t n e r s . Domestic r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a l s o r e s t r i c t t h e t i m e women can devote t o p a i d work, as w e l l as t o e d u c a t i o n t h a t c o u l d l e a d t o b e t t e r j o b p r o s p e c t s . Added t o t h i s i s t h e l a c k o f adequate and a f f o r d a b l e c h i l d c a r e , w h i c h l i m i t s many women t o j o b s t h a t can accommodate such r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , f r e q u e n t l y t r a n s l a t i n g i n t o p a r t - t i m e employment ( R e s k i n and Hartmann, 1986: 7 3 ) . R e c r u i t m e n t L i t e r a t u r e on r e c r u i t m e n t v a r i e s from economic a n a l y s e s o f th e l a b o u r market which u s u a l l y c o n c e n t r a t e on s u p p l y ( a v a i l a b l e l a b o u r p o o l ) , t o more s o c i o l o g i c a l a c c o u n t s o f t h e p r o c e s s e s t h a t r e c r u i t e r s use t o match p e o p l e t o e x i s t i n g j o b v a c a n c i e s . Much of t h i s l a t t e r r e s e a r c h has been b l i n d t o t h e r o l e t h a t gender p l a y s i n t h e h i r i n g p r o c e s s . The d i s c u s s i o n t h a t f o l l o w s w i l l r e f e r t o o n l y t h o s e s t u d i e s t h a t c o n s i d e r gender i n t h e r e c r u i t m e n t p r o c e s s . S e v e r a l s i g n i f i c a n t c l a i m s emerge i n most r e c e n t s o c i o l o g i c a l a c c o u n t s o f t h e r e c r u i t m e n t p r o c e s s , a l l o f which s e r v e i n some way t o e x p l a i n gender s e g r e g a t i o n i n t h e work p l a c e . One dominant c l a i m , mentioned i n t h e f i r s t c h a p t e r , i s t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e i d e a l c a n d i d a t e , a c h i e v e d by h y p o t h e s i z i n g t h e p e r f e c t p e r s o n t o f i t a p a r t i c u l a r j o b d e s c r i p t i o n . Known as t h e r a t i o n a l - p r o f e s s i o n a l model o f s e l e c t i o n ( C u r r a n , 1988: 336), o r r a t i o n a l - l e g a l (Jewson and Mason, 1986: 4 7 ) , t h i s v i e w o f r e c r u i t m e n t i s embraced by most w e s t e r n d e m o c r a t i c l e g a l systems and i s , i n c o n c e p t , d e c i d e d l y f a i r and r a t i o n a l (Jewson and Mason, 1986: 4 7 ) . F o l l o w i n g t h i s method, r e c r u i t e r s judge a l l a p p l i c a n t s a g a i n s t t h e i d e a l model and, o s t e n s i b l y , seek t h e a p p l i c a n t who most c l o s e l y matches t h e i d e a o f t h e p e r f e c t c a n d i d a t e . I n t h e o r y , t h i s p o p u l a r image o f t h e r e c r u i t m e n t p r o c e s s i s l o g i c a l and e t h i c a l — t h e way t h a t a l l r e c r u i t m e n t s h o u l d o p e r a t e . I n p r a c t i c e , though, t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l model o f r e c r u i t m e n t i g n o r e s t h e r o l e o f p e r s o n a l a t t r i b u t e s i n c a n d i d a t e s e l e c t i o n ( W i n d o l f and Wood, 1988: 1 6 ) . An e m p i r i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n o f a c t u a l r e c r u i t m e n t p r o c e s s e s r e v e a l s t h a t t h e r e a r e many h i r i n g t e c h n i q u e s , d i c t a t e d n o t o n l y by t h e j o b , b u t a l s o t h e g o a l s o f employers and employees (Jewson and Mason, 1986: 4 3 ) . As J e n k i n s s t a t e s : The r e a l i s m o f c h a r a c t e r i s i n g r e c r u i t m e n t as a p r o c e s s s o l e l y ... concerned w i t h m atching a b i l i t i e s t o j o b s i s ... h i g h l y q u e s t i o n a b l e ( J e n k i n s , 1986: 3 ) . H i r i n g d e c i s i o n s a r e made on t h e b a s i s n o t o n l y o f s p e c i f i c j o b s k i l l s b u t a l s o p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s . I n manual o r l o w - s k i l l e d j o b s , where paper q u a l i f i c a t i o n s a r e f r e q u e n t l y u n n e c e s s a r y , p e r s o n a l a t t r i b u t e s a r e t h e p r i m a r y c r i t e r i o n f o r s e l e c t i o n ( J e n k i n s , 1986: 5 2 ) . J e n k i n s ' n o t i o n s o f s u i t a b i l i t y and a c c e p t a b i l i t y a r e t h e most w i d e l y used terms i n t h e r e c r u i t m e n t l i t e r a t u r e and d e s e r v e e x t e n s i v e e l a b o r a t i o n . S u i t a b i l i t y r e f e r s t o t h o s e s k i l l s t h a t a r e f u n c t i o n a l l y s p e c i f i c t o t h e j o b , such as e d u c a t i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , t r a i n i n g o r , i n some c a s e s , p h y s i c a l 23 r e q u i r e m e n t s ; a c c e p t a b i l i t y c r i t e r i a a r e f u n c t i o n a l l y non-s p e c i f i c , and a r e more s a l i e n t t o t h e a b i l i t y t o " f i t i n " w i t h incumbent employees, o r p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s p e r c e i v e d by r e c r u i t e r s t o be a t t r a c t i v e t o p o t e n t i a l customers ( J e n k i n s , 1986: 4 6 ) . I t i s a c c e p t a b i l i t y s k i l l s t h a t a r e p o w e r f u l d e t e r m i n a n t s o f j o b s e g r e g a t i o n and most " l a b o u r market outcomes" ( J e n k i n s , 1986: 5 0 ) . As most r e c r u i t e r s e n c o u n t e r more t h a n one a p p l i c a n t who has th e r e q u i r e d q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , s h o r t l i s t i n g and f i n a l d e c i s i o n -making a r e based on appearance, manner and a t t i t u d e , speech s t y l e , age, s e x , m a r i t a l s t a t u s , p e r s o n a l i t y and, as p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, t h e a b i l i t y t o " f i t i n " w i t h t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n ( C u r r a n , 1988: 337; J e n k i n s , 1986: 54 - 69; W i n d o l f and Wood, 1988: 3 ) . Anot h e r p o w e r f u l component o f a c c e p t a b i l i t y i s r e c r u i t e r s 7 "gut f e e l i n g , ... o r G e s t a l t p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e c a n d i d a t e " w h i c h i s o f t e n based on f i r s t i m p r e s s i o n s o f c a n d i d a t e s i n j o b i n t e r v i e w s ( J e n k i n s , 1986: 6 2 ) . R e c r u i t e r s a r e u s u a l l y a b l e t o o f f e r r e a s o n s f o r i n c l u d i n g , o r e x c l u d i n g , a p p l i c a n t s on such p e r s o n a l c r i t e r i a , b u t such n o t i o n s t e n d t o d i s c r i m i n a t e a g a i n s t c e r t a i n groups ( J e n k i n s , 1986: 7 9 ) . Anot h e r s i g n i f i c a n t f e a t u r e o f t h e r e c r u i t m e n t p r o c e s s c o n c e r n s t h e method o f employee s e a r c h used by many p e r s o n n e l s p e c i a l i s t s : word-of-mouth o r i n f o r m a l s o c i a l c o n t a c t s . When a j o b vacancy a r i s e s , many employers 'spread t h e word' t o c o l l e a g u e s , employees, p e o p l e who work i n s i m i l a r o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and f r i e n d s and a c q u a i n t a n c e s . P e r c e i v e d by r e c r u i t e r s as a v e r y u s e f u l way o f a c c e s s i n g t h e a v a i l a b l e l a b o u r market, t h e word-of-mouth method i s used as a r e c r u i t m e n t c h a n n e l as w e l l as a s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i o n — a p p l i c a n t s a r e p r e - s c r e e n e d ( J e n k i n s , 1986: 135; R e s k i n and Hartmann, 1986: 51; W i n d o l f and Wood, 1988: 2 ) . The j o b need n o t be a d v e r t i s e d t o t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c t h r o u g h newspapers o r employment a g e n c i e s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , not o n l y does i t reduce t h e number of a p p l i c a n t s w i t h w h i c h a r e c r u i t e r has t o d e a l ; i t i s an i n e x p e n s i v e o r even c o s t l e s s method of r e c r u i t m e n t . I n J e n k i n s ' (1986) s t u d y , 78% o f p e r s o n n e l s p e c i a l i s t s and 86% o f managers p r e f e r r e d word-of-mouth s e a r c h methods. R e c r u i t e r s f e e l t h a t t h e r e p u t a t i o n o f t h e p e r s o n recommending an a p p l i c a n t s e r v e s t o p r e d i c t t h e q u a l i t i e s o f t h e a p p l i c a n t ( J e n k i n s , 1986: 136; W i n d o l f and Wood, 1988: 4 ) . However, t h e danger t o i n f o r m a l s e a r c h methods i s t h a t word of t h e j o b o n l y r e a c h e s c e r t a i n p e o p l e — u s u a l l y p e o p l e o f t h e same s o c i a l group as incumbents — t h e r e b y e x c l u d i n g members of a l l o t h e r g r o u p s , a c l e a r c a s e of s y s t e m i c d i s c r i m i n a t i o n (Gunderson and R e i d , 1985: 3 2 ) . A f i n a l , b u t c r i t i c a l , element o f s t u d i e s o f t h e r e c r u i t m e n t p r o c e s s i s t h e u n i t o f o b s e r v a t i o n . Of t h e f o u r s t u d i e s t h a t most p r o f o u n d l y s e r v e as s t a r t i n g - p o i n t s f o r t h i s s t u d y , two f o c u s on a c t u a l j o b v a c a n c i e s , r a t h e r t h a n r e l y i n g s o l e l y on r e c r u i t e r s ' a c c o u n t s o f t h e i r more g e n e r a l p r o c e s s e s o f r e c r u i t m e n t . I n Racism and R e c r u i t m e n t (1986), R i c h a r d J e n k i n s a n a l y z e s r a c i s m i n employment by documenting t h e models h e l d by r e c r u i t e r s o f d e s i r a b l e employees. J e n k i n s conducted s t u d i e s i n t h r e e c i t i e s n ear Birmingham, E n g l a n d . As he wis h e d t o c o n t r o l f o r t h e i n f l u e n c e o f sex c o m p o s i t i o n , he chose t h r e e i n d u s t r i a l s e c t o r s : m a n u f a c t u r i n g , l a r g e - s c a l e r e t a i l i n g and p u b l i c s e r v i c e s and u t i l i t i e s . The f i r s t two s e c t o r s he f e l t would r e p r e s e n t m a i n l y men and women, r e s p e c t i v e l y , w h i l e he e x p e c t e d t h e l a s t s e c t o r t o employ an even mix o f men and women. Between 1980 and 1983, J e n k i n s i n t e r v i e w e d 172 managers (69 p e r s o n n e l s p e c i a l i s t s and 103 l i n e managers) and q u e s t i o n e d them about t h e i r g e n e r a l methods o f r e c r u i t m e n t ( J e n k i n s , 1986: 3 0 ) . He found t h a t t h e r e c r u i t m e n t p r o c e s s was h i g h l y i n f o r m a l , and " p o t e n t i a l l y and a c t u a l l y d i s c r i m i n a t o r y " ( J e n k i n s , 1986: 150). He c l a i m s t h a t t h e i n f o r m a l i t y o f t h e r e c r u i t m e n t p r o c e s s c r e a t e s p r e c o n d i t i o n s f o r r a c i s t and s e x i s t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , and t h a t such d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i s d i f f i c u l t t o i n v e s t i g a t e o r p r e v e n t ( J e n k i n s , 1986: 151). I n "Gender and R e c r u i t m e n t : P e o p l e and P l a c e s i n t h e Labour Market," M a r g a r e t C u r r a n (1988) conducted a s t u d y o f j o b v a c a n c i e s i n n o r t h - e a s t England i n o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e ways t h a t employers use gender as a s c r e e n i n g c r i t e r i o n , as w e l l as t h e r e a s o n s why gender was c o n s i d e r e d by r e c r u i t e r s t o be r e l e v a n t t o t h e mat c h i n g o f j o b s and p e o p l e . To a c c o m p l i s h t h i s , C u r r a n used j o b v a c a n c i e s as u n i t s o f a n a l y s i s , d r a w i n g h e r sample from j o b s t h a t were a d v e r t i s e d i n l o c a l newspapers and J o b c e n t r e s 3 . She chose o n l y r e t a i l s a l e s and n o n - s e c r e t a r i a l c l e r i c a l j o b s i n o r d e r t o i n v e s t i g a t e j o b v a c a n c i e s w h i c h she thou g h t would a t t r a c t b o t h male and female a p p l i c a n t s . C u r r a n c o n ducted 101 i n t e r v i e w s w i t h r e c r u i t e r s , who h i r e d a t o t a l o f 138 p e o p l e ( C u r r a n , 1988: 340). Cu r r a n found t h a t r e c r u i t e r s use b o t h gender and a v a r i e t y o f p e r s o n a l a t t r i b u t e s and s k i l l s i n which gender i s embedded as f u n c t i o n a l r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e j o b s . She a l s o c l a i m s t h a t women's p o s i t i o n i n t h e l a b o u r market i s t h e consequence o f j o b s w hich a r e gendered as women's j o b s ( C u r r a n , 1988: 348 - 349). P a u l W i n d o l f and Stephen Wood (1988) a l s o f o c u s e d on a c t u a l j o b v a c a n c i e s i n t h e i r c o m p a r a t i v e s t u d y o f r e c r u i t m e n t and s e l e c t i o n i n B r i t a i n and West Germany: R e c r u i t m e n t and S e l e c t i o n  i n t h e Labour Market. The emphasis o f t h e i r r e s e a r c h was t h e n a t u r e o f r e c r u i t m e n t p r a c t i c e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n f o r m a l r e c r u i t m e n t c h a n n e l s and c r i t e r i a used by r e c r u i t e r s t o s c r e e n a p p l i c a n t s . I n 1980 and e a r l y 1981, W i n d o l f and Wood s e l e c t e d t h r e e r e g i o n s from each c o u n t r y on t h e b a s i s o f i n d u s t r i a l s e c t o r and l e v e l s o f unemployment. They chose 25 l a r g e m a n u f a c t u r i n g , r e t a i l i n g and f i n a n c e o r g a n i z a t i o n s from each r e g i o n , and were s u c c e s s f u l i n a c c e s s i n g 90 p er c e n t o f t h e companies ( W i n d o l f and Wood, 1988: 4 ) . Members o f p e r s o n n e l departments were i n t e r v i e w e d , w i t h a f o c u s on r e c e n t l y f i l l e d j o b v a c a n c i e s . 3 B r i t i s h e q u i v a l e n t o f Canada Employment and I m m i g r a t i o n (Manpower). They found t h a t , d e s p i t e f o r m a l methods o f r e c r u i t m e n t , r e c r u i t e r s r a r e l y f o l l o w t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n s ' i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d p r o c e d u r e s f o r h i r i n g , and t h a t r e c r u i t e r s s t r o n g l y p r e f e r i n f o r m a l r e c r u i t m e n t c h a n n e l s ( W i n d o l f and Wood, 1988: 2 ) . Anot h e r c l a i m made by W i n d o l f and Wood i s t h a t most o r g a n i z a t i o n s use a l l a v a i l a b l e f i l t e r s f o r r e c r u i t i n g ( i n t e r v i e w s , a p p l i c a t i o n forms, r e f e r e n c e s and t e s t s ) , and t h a t t h e s e f i l t e r s can be m a n i p u l a t e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e j o b a p p l i c a n t and h i s o r h e r d e s i r a b i l i t y t o t h e r e c r u i t e r ( W i n d o l f and Wood, 1988: 3 ) . W i n d o l f and Wood a l s o i n v e s t i g a t e d r e c r u i t e r s ' g e n e r a l i d e a s about r e c r u i t m e n t which f r e q u e n t l y shed l i g h t on d i s c r i m i n a t o r y p r a c t i c e s . I a l s o r e f e r t o a f o u r t h s t u d y , by D a v i d B i l l s ( 1988), e n t i t l e d " E d u c a t i o n a l C r e d e n t i a l s and H i r i n g D e c i s i o n s : What Employers Look F o r i n New Employees". B i l l s i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e ways t h a t employers i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s e v a l u a t e e d u c a t i o n a l c r e d e n t i a l s and o t h e r f a c t o r s as h i r i n g c r i t e r i a ( B i l l s , 1988: 71) . B i l l s ' u n i t s o f a n a l y s i s were 55 o c c u p a t i o n a l p o s i t i o n s g a t h e r e d from 6 o r g a n i z a t i o n s ( B i l l s , 1988: 7 4 ) . The p o s i t i o n s were r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f a l l o c c u p a t i o n s found i n each b u s i n e s s . B i l l s i n t e r v i e w e d n o t o n l y t h e p e r s o n most r e c e n t l y h i r e d f o r t h e p o s i t i o n , b u t a l s o t h e r e c r u i t e r r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e h i r i n g d e c i s i o n . B i l l s f ound t h a t h i r i n g s t a n d a r d s a r e v e r y f l e x i b l e , due i n p a r t t o employers' d i s c r e t i o n i n a d j u s t i n g s t a n d a r d s . He a l s o found t h a t t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f p e r s o n a l i t y i s used as a h i r i n g 28 c r i t e r i o n , a l t h o u g h t h e e v a l u a t i o n d i f f e r s f o r male and female c a n d i d a t e s ( B i l l s , 1988: 7 1 ) . A l t h o u g h I have used t h e s e f o u r s t u d i e s as s t a r t i n g p o i n t s f o r my r e s e a r c h , I have a l s o m o d i f i e d them, i n o r d e r t o accommodate t h e l i m i t e d t i m e a v a i l a b l e t o me t o conduct t h e r e s e a r c h , as w e l l as t h e f l a w s i n each s t u d y . The weakness t o J e n k i n s ' (1986) s t u d y i s t h a t he asks r e c r u i t e r s f o r o n l y t h e i r g e n e r a l methods o f r e c r u i t m e n t w h i c h he admits r e v e a l s l i t t l e e v i d e n c e o f e i t h e r d i r e c t o r i n d i r e c t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . A f o c u s on a c t u a l j o b v a c a n c i e s , as C u r r a n and W i n d o l f and Wood chose, i s much more e f f e c t i v e i n c o u n t e r a c t i n g ... t h e element o f s u b j e c t i v i t y and w i n d o w - d r e s s i n g i n t h e r e p l i e s g i v e n t o our q u e s t i o n s . We at t e m p t e d t o overcome t h i s problem by t a l k i n g about s p e c i f i c s e l e c t i o n s , t o go t h r o u g h a p p l i c a t i o n forms, and i n v e s t i g a t e which p a r t i c u l a r d e c i s i o n had been made (W i n d o l f and Wood, 1988: 6 ) . Cu r r a n ' s s t u d y , a l t h o u g h v a l u a b l e , i s a l s o weakened by h e r emphasis on r e t a i l s a l e s and n o n - s e c r e t a r i a l c l e r i c a l p o s i t i o n s . She c l a i m s t h a t b o t h o f t h e s e o c c u p a t i o n s a r e "non-gendered" ( C u r r a n , 1988: 339). However, i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f h e r f i n d i n g s , she c o n t r a d i c t s t h a t premise by s t a t i n g t h a t women were h i r e d f o r a l l o f t h e female-gendered j o b s , and males were h i r e d f o r a l l b u t t h r e e o f t h e male-gendered j o b s ( C u r r a n , 1988: 348). I s u g g e s t t h a t most o f t h e j o b v a c a n c i e s t h a t she s t u d i e d were gendered even b e f o r e any j o b a p p l i c a n t s were c o n s i d e r e d , depending upon t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n s , j o b d e s c r i p t i o n s o r p r o d u c t s s o l d . A l t h o u g h W i n d o l f and Wood's (1988) s t u d y c o n t r i b u t e s immensely t o a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f r e c r u i t m e n t p r o c e s s e s , t h e r e s e a r c h e r s ' a c c o u n t i n g o f t h e i r methods i s i n c o m p l e t e . Absent i s i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e a c t u a l number of o r g a n i z a t i o n s a c c e s s e d , r e c r u i t e r s i n t e r v i e w e d , and j o b v a c a n c i e s s t u d i e d , a l t h o u g h , p e r c e n t a g e s of each a r e r e f e r r e d t o t h r o u g h o u t t h e a r t i c l e . E x a c t r e p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s s t u d y would, c o n s e q u e n t l y , be d i f f i c u l t . My r e s e a r c h on r e c r u i t m e n t p r a c t i c e s and gender d i s c r i m i n a t i o n borrows h e a v i l y from t h e a f o r e m e n t i o n e d s t u d i e s , w i t h m o d i f i c a t i o n s based on t h e f l a w s o f each s t u d y as w e l l as l i m i t a t i o n s imposed by t i m e . Employment E q u i t y Programs Employment e q u i t y programs have e x i s t e d i n Canada s i n c e 1964, b u t t h e l a b o u r f o r c e has c o n t i n u e d t o be s e g r e g a t e d d e s p i t e l e g i s l a t i o n . L i t t l e has a l t e r e d i n t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l s e g r e g a t i o n between men and women*. The d i s c r e p a n c y between government p o l i c y d e s i g n e d t o reduce women's unequal r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n Canada's l a b o u r f o r c e and t h e minor changes t h a t have o c c u r r e d i s e x p l a i n e d by e x a m i n i n g t h e u n d e r l y i n g premise of such l e g i s l a t i o n . C e n t r a l t o most employment e q u i t y programs i s t h e i r tendency t o f o r m a l i s e t h e r e c r u i t m e n t p r o c e s s , as i n f o r m a l ways o f f i l l i n g j o b v a c a n c i e s a l l o w t o o much scope f o r gender d i s c r i m i n a t i o n (Jewson and Mason, 1986: 4 3 ) . Much e q u a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s l e g i s l a t i o n i s based on a model o f e q u a l o p p o r t u n i t y i n which " S t a t i s t i c s Canada (1990: 81) shows o n l y a modest d e c l i n e i n t h e gender d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r between 1978 and 1988. 30 employers must judge j o b a p p l i c a n t s o b j e c t i v e l y on t h e i r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , i n t h e o r y i g n o r i n g a c c e p t a b i l i t y s k i l l s (Jewson and Mason, 1986: 43; Webb and L i f f , 1988: 534). A l t h o u g h t h i s model o f r e c r u i t m e n t appears t o be t h e f a i r e s t framework w i t h i n which h i r i n g s h o u l d o p e r a t e , i t does n ot t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t t h e v a r i e t y o f ways i n which e x c l u s i o n o f a p p l i c a n t s can o c c u r . Nor does i t p r o t e c t j o b a p p l i c a n t s from t h e economic and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n t e x t s w i t h i n which r e c r u i t m e n t e x i s t s (Webb and L i f f , 1988: 545). Even f o r employers who a d v e r t i s e t h e i r a c c e p t a n c e o f e q u a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s p o l i c i e s , t h e degree o f s u b j e c t i v e d e t e r m i n a t i o n and d i s c r e t i o n i n h e r e n t i n a p p l y i n g t h e pr o c e d u r e s o f t h i s model r e s u l t i n v e r y few changes (Jewson and Mason, 1986: 43; Webb and L i f f , 1988: 545). The e q u a l o p p o r t u n i t y model o f r e c r u i t m e n t does v e r y l i t t l e t o p r o t e c t a p p l i c a n t s from c o v e r t o r s y s t e m i c gender d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , as i t s f o r m a l n a t u r e i s based on t h e i d e a l image o f t h e h i r i n g p r o c e s s (Jewson and Mason, 1986: 4 3 ) . As t h e employment e q u i t y model i s c o n s i d e r e d by employers t o be b o t h moral ( i n terms o f f a i r l y d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g amongst j o b a p p l i c a n t s on t h e b a s i s o f q u a l i f i c a t i o n s a l o n e ) and e c o n o m i c a l l y e f f i c i e n t , i t s f o r m a l i t y s h o u l d r e s u l t a u t o m a t i c a l l y i n a work f o r c e o f men and women e v e n l y d i s t r i b u t e d i n a l l j o b s (Jewson and Mason, 1986: 5 3 ) . However, Jewson and Mason (1986: 53) argue t h a t such f o r m a l i s a t i o n does n o t r e s u l t i n such a l a b o u r f o r c e . They c l a i m t h a t f o r m a l i t y i s q u i c k l y d i s c a r d e d when c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f e f f i c i e n c y t a k e precedence. 31 Not o n l y does i n c r e a s e d f o r m a l i t y i n employment e q u i t y l e g i s l a t i o n have l i t t l e o r no e f f e c t on r e d u c i n g j o b s e g r e g a t i o n , employment e q u i t y programs a r e a l s o e a s i l y c i r c u m v e n t e d t h r o u g h m a n i p u l a t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . D i s c r i m i n a t o r y p r a c t i c e s c o n t i n u e c o v e r t l y , a l t h o u g h t h e " r h e t o r i c and r i t u a l s o f f o r m a l , r a t i o n a l - l e g a l p r o c e d u r e s may be s o l e m n l y and o s t e n t a t i o u s l y f o l l o w e d " (Jewson and Mason, 1986: 5 4 ) . The debate c o n t i n u e s as t o whether e q u a l o p p o r t u n i t y p o l i c i e s i n t h e i r p r e s e n t form a r e t h e most v i a b l e means o f p r o m o t i n g employment e q u i t y i n t h e l a b o u r f o r c e . Any changes brou g h t about by e x i s t i n g l e g i s l a t i o n have been s l o w , w h i c h l e a d s t o t h e q u e s t i o n o f whether p o l i c i e s s h o u l d remain as t h e y a r e , o r s h o u l d be a l t e r e d t o r e f l e c t more a c c u r a t e l y t h e f o r c e s t h a t i n h i b i t women's f u l l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Most l e g i s l a t i o n i s based on t h e assumption t h a t sex s e g r e g a t i o n i s t h e r e s u l t o f d e l i b e r a t e p r e j u d i c e and e x p l o i t a t i o n by employers (Fuchs, 1988: 120). The meagre b e n e f i t s t o women t h a t have r e s u l t e d from such l e g i s l a t i o n s u g g e s t i t s inadequacy. More and more, s o c i o l o g i s t s a r e i n v e s t i g a t i n g o t h e r a s p e c t s o f employment t h a t can be a l t e r e d i n an e f f o r t t o reduce gender s e g r e g a t i o n . By e x a m i n i n g women's r o l e , r e s e a r c h e r s p o i n t t o women's do m e s t i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s as s e v e r e impediments t o e q u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n (Fuchs, 1988: 120). C o n s t r a i n e d by c h i l d - c a r e and o t h e r f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , women need t o be a b l e t o work much more f l e x i b l y t h a n men; c h i l d - c a r e s u b s i d i e s and a s h o r t e r work 32 week w i t h v a r y i n g hours would f a c i l i t a t e women's p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n th e l a b o u r f o r c e more r e a d i l y ( C a l z a v a r a , 1988: 297; Fuchs, 1988: 129; Webb and L i f f , 1988: 547; W i l s o n , 1986: 125). F u r t h e r s u g g e s t i o n s t o a l t e r women's s t a t u s i n c l u d e more a c t i v e u n i o n i n v o l v e m e n t by women ( W i l s o n , 1986: 124), changes i n t h e e d u c a t i o n system t h a t would d e c r e a s e s e x - t y p i n g t h a t b e g i n s i n t h e s c h o o l system ( C a l z a v a r a , 1988: 297; W i l s o n , 1986: 125), and a c o n c e r t e d e f f o r t by governments t o change employers' a t t i t u d e s towards women, t h r o u g h programs d e s i g n e d t o r a i s e awareness o f gender i s s u e s ( C a l z a v a r a , 1988: 299; W i l s o n , 1986: 125) . Bergmann (1986: 161) says t h a t a f f i r m a t i v e a c t i o n p o l i c i e s a r e e f f e c t i v e i n r e d u c i n g gender i n e q u a l i t i e s i n t h e l a b o u r f o r c e . Fuchs (1988: 122) s t a t e s t h a t t h e y r e s u l t i n n o t h i n g more t h a n t o k e n i s m . Both l o o k t o women's d o m e s t i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s as e v i d e n c e i n t h e i r arguments. Those who f a v o u r a f f i r m a t i v e a c t i o n p o s i t t h a t because o f s o c i a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d i d e a s about women and do m e s t i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , ... n u m e r i c a l g o a l s and t i m e t a b l e s ... a r e n e c e s s a r y ... o t h e r w i s e women w i l l be e x c l u d e d from many o f t h e b e t t e r j o b s f o r y e a r s t o come (Bergmann, 1986: 161). Those a g a i n s t a f f i r m a t i v e a c t i o n a l s o c l a i m t h a t d e l i b e r a t e d i s c r i m i n a t o r y p r a c t i c e s a g a i n s t women by employers a r e o n l y one cause o f sex s e g r e g a t i o n . R a t h e r t h a n a d v o c a t i n g government p o l i c i e s t h a t f o r c e employers t o f i l l q u o t a s , opponents t o a f f i r m a t i v e a c t i o n s t a t e t h a t such p r o c e d u r e s would o n l y h e l p a few women, and do l i t t l e t o a l t e r b e l i e f s about women t h a t a r e 33 much more t o blame f o r sex s e g r e g a t i o n i n t h e l a b o u r f o r c e (Fuchs, 1988: 122). S o c i o l o g i s t s a r e i n c r e a s i n g l y f o c u s i n g on t h e b e l i e f s and s y s t e m i c b a r r i e r s t h a t i n h i b i t women's f u l l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e l a b o u r f o r c e . A r e d e f i n i t i o n o f f a m i l y r o l e s t h a t i n c l u d e s more i n v o l v e m e n t i n d o m e s t i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s by men i s c r u c i a l ( C a l z a v a r a , 1988: 296). I f women were f r e e r t o pursue e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g , t h e n t h e ' l e v e l p l a y i n g f i e l d ' assumed by t h e l i b e r a l model o f r e c r u i t m e n t might a l l o w women a c c e s s t o more and b e t t e r o c c u p a t i o n s . As l o n g as s p e c i f i c j o b s k i l l s a r e n o t d i s t r i b u t e d e q u a l l y between men and women, men w i l l c o n t i n u e t o be more s u i t a b l e f o r such j o b s . As Webb and L i f f s t a t e : To s u g g e s t t o women t h a t i f t h e y g a i n t h e c o r r e c t q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and e x p e r i e n c e t h e y w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d on t h e i r m e r i t s i s d i s h o n e s t , s i n c e i t i s t h e i r b i o l o g y on which t h e y a r e b e i n g judged (Webb and L i f f , 1988: 5 46). Al o n g w i t h changes i n t h e r o l e s o f f a m i l y members, o c c u p a t i o n s t h e m s e l v e s need t o be c r i t i c a l l y examined. S o c i o l o g i s t s a r e i n c r e a s i n g l y f o c u s i n g on t h e gendered n a t u r e o f j o b s t h e m s e l v e s . As a s p e c t s o f gender a r e o f t e n e s t a b l i s h e d as i n d i c a t o r s o f s u i t a b i l i t y , s e e m i n g l y o b j e c t i v e j o b d e s c r i p t i o n s a r e , upon c l o s e r e x a m i n a t i o n , f i l l e d w i t h r e q u i r e m e n t s deemed a p p r o p r i a t e f o r o n l y one sex ( C u r r a n , 1988: 349; Webb and L i f f , 1988: 546). I f r e c r u i t m e n t p r o c e s s e s f u n c t i o n as t h e c r i t i c s m a i n t a i n , t h e n e q u a l o p p o r t u n i t y p o l i c i e s need t o be a l t e r e d ; t h e i r f o c u s needs t o be s h i f t e d away from h e l p i n g women t o become i n t e g r a t e d w i t h i n a male s t r u c t u r e o f l a b o u r . I n s t e a d , d o m e s t i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and employment i t s e l f need t o be r e d i s t r i b u t e d i n o r d e r t o a v o i d p e r p e t u a t i n g a system d e s i g n e d i n accordance w i t h t h e needs o f male employers and employees t h a t l i m i t a c c e s s t o competent women (Webb and L i f f , 1988: 548). B e f o r e employment can be a l t e r e d t o a form more c o n d u c i v e t o women's e q u a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n , i t i s i m p e r a t i v e t o examine t h e v a r i o u s s t a g e s o f t h e j o b ma t c h i n g p r o c e s s t h a t appear e s p e c i a l l y v u l n e r a b l e t o d i s c r i m i n a t o r y p r a c t i c e s . J e n k i n s (1986) and C u r r a n (1988) have s t u d i e d how r e c r u i t e r s c o n t r i b u t e t o j o b s e g r e g a t i o n by t h e i r p e r s o n a l b i a s e s towards c e r t a i n m i n o r i t y groups i n G r e a t B r i t a i n . W i n d o l f and Wood (1988) have i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e s e l e c t i o n p r o c e s s i n G r e a t B r i t a i n and Germany. No r e s e a r c h has been conducted i n Canada t o examine t h e s c r e e n i n g d e v i c e s used by r e c r u i t e r s t o match a p p l i c a n t s t o j o b v a c a n c i e s . B e f o r e any changes i n employment i n Canada can b e g i n , t h e r e f o r e , i t i s c r i t i c a l t o i n v e s t i g a t e i f gender d i s c r i m i n a t i o n o c c u r s i n the same manner i n Canada t h a t i t does i n o t h e r c o u n t r i e s . 35 C h a p t e r 3: R e s e a r c h a n d M e t h o d  R e s e a r c h A g e n d a ( a ) M a i n C o n c e r n s The c o n c e r n o f t h i s r e s e a r c h i s t o e x a m i n e r e c r u i t e r s ' s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i a a n d t h e way i n w h i c h t h e s e i n t e r a c t w i t h t h e i r c o n c e p t s o f m a l e a n d f e m a l e e m p l o y e e s . The f o c u s o f t h i s r e s e a r c h i s t h e demand s i d e o f t h e l a b o u r m a r k e t a n d t h e c r i t e r i a u s e d b y e m p l o y e r s t o f i l l t h e i r e m p l o y m e n t r e q u i r e m e n t s . My i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s l i m i t e d t o j o b v a c a n c i e s a n d t h e m e c h a n i s m s u s e d t o f i l l t h em. T h e r e i s a v a r i e t y o f m e t h o d s t h a t one c o u l d u s e t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h i s s t a g e o f t h e r e c r u i t m e n t p r o c e s s . The f o c u s c o u l d be on t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f j o b a p p l i c a n t s , o r on m e t h o d s t a u g h t t o u n e m p l o y e d p e o p l e on how t o s u r v i v e a j o b i n t e r v i e w . A n o t h e r m e t h o d i s t o a s k r e c r u i t e r s a b o u t t h e i r g e n e r a l e x p e r i e n c e s i n r e c r u i t i n g f o r j o b s . The g o a l o f t h i s r e s e a r c h was t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e ways i n w h i c h r e c r u i t e r s u s e g e n d e r a s a s c r e e n i n g c r i t e r i o n , a n d w h e t h e r s u c h d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , i f i t o c c u r s , i s d i r e c t o r i n d i r e c t . I f o c u s e d on a j o b v a c a n c y t h a t was f i l l e d r e c e n t l y 5 , i n t h e hope t h a t t h e p r o c e s s was s t i l l f r e s h i n t h e r e c r u i t e r ' s memory. Had I r e q u e s t e d o n l y d a t a on r e c r u i t e r s ' g e n e r a l r e c r u i t m e n t p r o c e d u r e s , I f e l t t h a t t h e i n f o r m a t i o n I w o u l d o b t a i n w o u l d r e f l e c t o n l y t h e i r " g l o s s " o f a c t u a l p r a c t i c e s . By a s k i n g 5 V a c a n c i e s r a n g e d f r o m t h o s e f i l l e d one y e a r b e f o r e t h e i n t e r v i e w t o some f i l l e d a s r e c e n t l y a s one week e a r l i e r . 36 r e c r u i t e r s t o r e c o u n t t h e p r o c e d u r e f o l l o w e d t o f i l l an a c t u a l v a c a n c y , e v i d e n c e o f d i s c r i m i n a t i o n was more l i k e l y t o s u r f a c e . An e x a m p l e o f a c o m m o n l y - h e a r d r e s p o n s e by r e c r u i t e r s when t o l d o f my i n t e n t i o n s was " w e l l , we d o n ' t do a n y t h i n g u n u s u a l when h i r i n g . We j u s t a d v e r t i s e t h e j o b a n d h i r e t h e m o s t q u a l i f i e d p e r s o n . " B u t when I a s k e d them t o t a l k a b o u t a s p e c i f i c j o b v a c a n c y , r e c r u i t e r s o f t e n p r e f a c e d t h e p r o c e s s w i t h t h e c a v e a t t h a t " t h i s i s n ' t t h e way we n o r m a l l y do i t . " The many t i m e s t h a t t h i s comment was u t t e r e d by r e c r u i t e r s r e v e a l s t h e r a r e o c c a s i o n s t h a t t h e y f o l l o w e d t h e i d e a l m o d e l o f r e c r u i t m e n t . The f o c u s on j o b v a c a n c i e s r e v e a l s t h e v a r i e t y o f ways a t w h i c h d e c i s i o n s a r e a r r i v e d . I t d e m o n s t r a t e s t h e d i v e r s i t y o f s e a r c h m e t h o d s u s e d by r e c r u i t e r s t o a c c e s s a p p l i c a n t s ; most j o b s a r e f i l l e d b y i n f o r m a l s e a r c h e s . I n o r d e r t o a c q u i r e a s much i n f o r m a t i o n a s p o s s i b l e , I h a v e e x a m i n e d a l i m i t e d number o f j o b v a c a n c i e s i n a s much d e p t h a s t i m e and r e c r u i t e r s ' c o -o p e r a t i o n p e r m i t t e d , (b) O r g a n i z a t i o n s a n d A c c e s s T h r e e m a i n c o n s i d e r a t i o n s h a d t o be t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t i n d e c i d i n g on t h e l o c a t i o n s o f t h e r e s e a r c h : g e o g r a p h i c a l a r e a s f o r t h e r e s e a r c h , w h i c h t y p e s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s a n d w h i c h p a r t i c u l a r o r g a n i z a t i o n s . ( i ) G e o g r a p h i c a l A r e a s A l t h o u g h t h e g e o g r a p h i c a l a r e a was n o t , i n i t s e l f , c r i t i c a l t o t h e r e s e a r c h , I f e l t t h a t , f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d p o s s i b l y r e p l i c a t i o n , a c l e a r l y d e f i n e d a r e a w i t h c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s would be h e l p f u l . The g e o g r a p h i c a l a r e a needed t o be f a i r l y heterogeneous i n d u s t r i a l l y , i n o r d e r t o a l l o w f o r t h e s a m p l i n g o f as many d i f f e r e n t j o b v a c a n c i e s as p o s s i b l e . The a r e a a l s o needed t o be u r b a n , w i t h most r e s i d e n t s w o r k i n g w i t h i n i t s b o u n d a r i e s , and a s u f f i c i e n t l y d e v e l o p e d and a c c e s s i b l e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n network t o a l l o w r e a d y m o b i l i t y o f l a b o u r w i t h i n t h e a r e a . Nanaimo was chosen as t h e s i t e o f t h e f i r s t sample as i t met a l l t h e above r e q u i r e m e n t s , i n a d d i t i o n t o b e i n g f a i r l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f a m i d - s i z e B r i t i s h Columbia c i t y . W i t h a p o p u l a t i o n o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 50,000, i t i s t h e second l a r g e s t c i t y on Vancouver I s l a n d a f t e r V i c t o r i a , w hich i s about 70 m i l e s s o u t h . Between Nanaimo and V i c t o r i a , and n o r t h o f Nanaimo, t h e a r e a i s , f o r t h e most p a r t , r u r a l . Nanaimo has a l a r g e v a r i e t y o f b u s i n e s s e s , w i t h employees drawn m o s t l y from w i t h i n i t s urban b o u n d a r i e s . Nanaimo has a bus s e r v i c e which meets t h e r e q u i r e m e n t f o r a c c e s s i b l e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . A f u r t h e r r e a s o n f o r Nanaimo b e i n g chosen was t h a t I was a b l e t o r e - l o c a t e t o t h e s i t e f o r one month w i t h r e l a t i v e ease, as I have f r i e n d s and f a m i l y on Vancouver I s l a n d . Richmond was s e l e c t e d more f o r p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n s . Having r e t u r n e d t o t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o lumbia, I needed t o choose a r e l a t i v e l y a c c e s s i b l e s i t e . A l t h o u g h Richmond i s n o t an a r e a s u r r o u n d e d by r u r a l communities as Nanaimo i s , i t i s a c l e a r l y d e l i n e a t e d g e o g r a p h i c a l a r e a , w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n o f 121,300 c o v e r i n g an a r e a of 48 square m i l e s (124 square 38 k i l o m e t e r s ) 6 . I t m e e t s t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f h a v i n g r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s y s t e m s ( p u b l i c t r a n s i t ) , a n d a l a r g e a n d v a r i e d i n d u s t r i a l s e c t o r . ( i i ) S e l e c t i o n o f T y p e s o f O r g a n i z a t i o n s O r g a n i z a t i o n s w e r e c h o s e n u s i n g a p u r p o s i v e s a m p l e method t o e n s u r e a r e l a t i v e l y e v e n m i x o f l a r g e , medium a n d s m a l l b u s i n e s s e s , a s w e l l a s a w i d e r a n g e o f o c c u p a t i o n s . S e l e c t i o n was c o n d u c t e d by p e r u s i n g t h e Y e l l o w P a g e s o f t h e t e l e p h o n e b o o k . F o r t h e Nanaimo s t u d y , t h e c h o i c e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s was s i m p l i f i e d somewhat s i n c e I am a f o r m e r r e s i d e n t o f t h e c i t y . B e t w e e n 1975 a n d 1987, I l i v e d i n Nanaimo a n d w o r k e d i n a v a r i e t y o f j o b s . As a t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s o p e r a t o r f o r t h e R.C.M.P. a n d , l a t e r , t h e Nanaimo F i r e D e p a r t m e n t , I became a c q u a i n t e d w i t h a w i d e v a r i e t y o f p e o p l e who w e r e e m p l o y e d by l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t s , r a d i o a n d t e l e v i s i o n s t a t i o n s , a n d o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h r o u g h o u t Nanaimo. C o n s e q u e n t l y , my f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h t h e l o c a l l a b o u r m a r k e t a l l o w e d me t o d i s t i n g u i s h among many Nanaimo b u s i n e s s e s o n s i z e a s w e l l a s t h e v a r i e t y o f j o b s w i t h i n o r g a n i z a t i o n s . I was a b l e t o a c q u i r e a s a m p l e o f b u s i n e s s e s t h a t I f e l t was r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e r a n g e o f i n d u s t r i e s a n d l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t s i n Nanaimo. The p r o c e s s o f s e l e c t i o n i n R i c h m o n d was l e s s g u i d e d b y p r e v i o u s k n o w l e d g e o f t h e l o c a l l a b o u r m a r k e t . I was f a m i l i a r w i t h v e r y f e w b u s i n e s s o r g a n i z a t i o n s a t t h a t l o c a t i o n . H owever, a s I d e s i r e d a s a m p l e t h a t c l o s e l y r e s e m b l e d t h a t f r o m Nanaimo, I 6 D a t a o b t a i n e d f r o m M u n i c i p a l i t y o f R i c h m o n d , a n d r e f e r s t o J u n e 1990. 39 a t t e m p t e d t o s e l e c t s i m i l a r t y p e s of o r g a n i z a t i o n s . F o r example, as t h e Nanaimo sample i n c l u d e d a r a d i a t o r shop and a l o c a l government, I s e l e c t e d t h e same o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n Richmond. Not a l l o r g a n i z a t i o n s c o u l d be r e p l i c a t e d . B.C. Hydro, f o r example, was one o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t I s e l e c t e d i n Nanaimo. I n Richmond, however, t h e r e i s no B.C. Hydro o f f i c e . I d i d n o t have t h e b e n e f i t o f p r e v i o u s knowledge o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n Richmond. T h e r e f o r e , I c o u l d o n l y s p e c u l a t e on b u s i n e s s s i z e , a l t h o u g h t h e t y p e and l o c a t i o n o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s f r e q u e n t l y p r o v i d e d h i n t s as t o t h e i r a pproximate s i z e . 7 A f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n when s e l e c t i n g t h e sample from b o t h l o c a t i o n s was t h e t y p e s o f j o b v a c a n c i e s l i k e l y t o be found. I was i n t e r e s t e d i n a c c e s s i n g a wide v a r i e t y o f j o b v a c a n c i e s , as w e l l as o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h a t would employ not j u s t one gender. As i t was n o t always p o s s i b l e t o s e l e c t t y p e s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h a t I f e l t would employ b o t h men and women i n e q u a l numbers, I a t t e m p t e d t o match male-dominated o r g a n i z a t i o n s (such as r a d i a t o r r e p a i r shops o r c a r d e a l e r s h i p s ) w i t h female-dominated b u s i n e s s e s (such as beauty s a l o n s o r b a n k s ) . The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e shows t h e t y p e s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s chosen, a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r s i z e . I n h e r (1988) s t u d y , C u r r a n c a t e g o r i z e d h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s ' s i z e s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e number o f employees, a l t h o u g h i n a somewhat ambiguous way: 7 F o r example, I was s u f f i c i e n t l y f a m i l i a r w i t h No. 3 Road i n Richmond t o know t h a t most o r g a n i z a t i o n s a t t h e n o r t h end were s m a l l a u t o m o t i v e o r i n d u s t r i a l r e p a i r shops. As w e l l , I knew t h a t most b u s i n e s s e s , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f department s t o r e s , were s m a l l when l o c a t e d i n m a l l s . 40 ... a q u a r t e r o f t h e v a c a n c i e s ... were i n s m a l l f i r m s (more t h a n 25 employees) and 60% were i n s m a l l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s (fewer t h a n 25 employees) ( C u r r a n , 1988: 340). C u r r a n does n o t acc o u n t f o r t h e r e m a i n i n g 15 p e r c e n t o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s . F o r t h i s r e s e a r c h , I d e c i d e d t o m o d i f y C u r r a n ' s c r i t e r i a f o r s i z e i n t o t h e f o l l o w i n g : S m a l l b u s i n e s s e s employed 10 o r fewer p e o p l e ; medium o r g a n i z a t i o n s employed between 11 and 24 p e o p l e ; and l a r g e b u s i n e s s e s employed 25 o r more p e o p l e . T a b l e 1 Types and S i z e s o f R e c r u i t e r s ' O r g a n i z a t i o n s :  S m a l l I n t e r c o m I n s t a l l a t i o n s Photography S t o r e s (2) A i r C o n d i t i o n i n g I n s t a l l a t i o n s S p o r t s Equipment S t o r e s (2) Autobody Shops (2) B o o k s t o r e Pub Bakery Towing Company Moving Company Gas S t a t i o n s (2) B r i d a l F a s h i o n s S t o r e G l a s s Company R a d i a t o r Shops (3 ) S m a l l A p p l i a n c e s R e p a i r Shop F l o r i s t S c i e n t i f i c I n s t r u m e n t Shop R e t a i l E l e c t r o n i c s Shop Medium M o d e l l i n g and A c t i n g S c h o o l Newspapers (2) C a r p e t S t o r e E n g i n e e r i n g F i r m s (2) D i e s e l T ruck S e r v i c e C e n t r e T a x i Company I n d u s t r i a l Laundry I n d u s t r i a l S u p p l y Shop Beauty S a l o n R e a l E s t a t e F i r m 41 T i r e Shops (2) G o l f C l u b S t a t i o n e r y S t o r e R a d i o S t a t i o n s (2) L i q u o r S t o r e Car D e a l e r s h i p s (2) C a b l e T e l e v i s i o n S t a t i o n L a r g e W h o l e s a l e G r o c e r y S t o r e s (2) Department S t o r e s (4) Government T r a n s i t P u l p M i l l M u n i c i p a l Governments (3) H o t e l s (3) Banks (2) H o s p i t a l s (2) Saw M i l l C o l l e g e s (2) W e l d i n g F o u n d r i e s (2) G r o c e r y S t o r e F u r n i t u r e S t o r e s (2) Government U t i l i t y I n t h e sample o f 74 o r g a n i z a t i o n s , 24 were s m a l l , 23 were medium and 27 were l a r g e , d e m o n s t r a t i n g a r e l a t i v e l y even mix of a l l t h r e e s i z e s . ( i i i ) I n d i v i d u a l C h o i c e o f O r g a n i z a t i o n G i v e n t h a t t h e r e were s e v e r a l b u s i n e s s e s l i s t e d under t h e v a r i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s i n t h e Y e l l o w Pages, i n d i v i d u a l c h o i c e s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s were made somewhat randomly 8 i n Richmond and, i n c a s e s where a l l l i s t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s were u n f a m i l i a r t o me, e q u a l l y randomly i n Nanaimo. A g a i n , p r e v i o u s knowledge o f t h e Nanaimo a r e a a l l o w e d me t o make some s e l e c t i o n s based on my a c q u a i n t a n c e s h i p w i t h p e o p l e i n t h o s e o r g a n i z a t i o n s . " O c c a s i o n a l l y , c h o i c e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n was g u i d e d by i t s p r o x i m i t y t o a n o t h e r s e l e c t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n . F o r p r a g m a t i c r e a s o n s , I chose s e v e r a l s m a l l b u s i n e s s e s from two s h o p p i n g m a l l s i n Richmond. 42 For example, i f I knew someone who worked at a p a r t i c u l a r organization, I selected that business as my friendship would allow me easier access to the appropriate r e c r u i t e r . However, on no occasion was a business selected because I knew the r e c r u i t e r — friendships were used only as access to some organizations. One such example i s of a personal f r i e n d who knew the name of the personnel o f f i c e r i n the organization where she was employed. By asking d i r e c t l y f or that i n d i v i d u a l when telephoning the organization, I was able to circumvent a large portion of the bureaucratic structure. When attempting to contact personnel o f f i c e r s i n large firms, I often had to explain to two or three persons the reason for my telephone c a l l . By d i r e c t l y telephoning the appropriate i n d i v i d u a l , I reduced the p o s s i b i l i t y of access being denied, (c) Representativeness of Sample An important factor i n any research i s how f a r I can generalize the findings — i n t h i s case, how representative of the wider Canadian labour market i s my sample? Although t h i s question cannot be answered with any precision, I can claim that, i n the absence of indications to the contrary, there i s no reason to suspect that the organizations and r e c r u i t e r s are i n any major senses exceptional or unrepresentative. The research design also allows for a check on consistency between the two s i t e s . As such consistency holds, t h i s enhances the g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of the r e s u l t s . 43 Method The r e s e a r c h method used f o r b o t h t h e Nanaimo and Richmond r e s e a r c h was t h e same, and began w i t h t h e s e l e c t i o n o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s from t h e Y e l l o w Pages o f t h e t e l e p h o n e book. I n t h e Nanaimo s t u d y , 90 b u s i n e s s e s were s e l e c t e d and each was s e n t a l e t t e r o f i n t r o d u c t i o n i n J u l y 1990 (Appendix A ) . The en v e l o p e was a d d r e s s e d t o t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n , f o r t h e a t t e n t i o n o f " P e r s o n n e l " . From t h e 90 l e t t e r s s e n t , I was s u c c e s s f u l i n i n t e r v i e w i n g 51 r e c r u i t e r s (56.6% o f o r i g i n a l s a m p l e ) . The 40 r e j e c t i o n s o c c u r r e d as f o l l o w s : 13: r e f u s a l s based on t h e r e c r u i t e r b e i n g "too busy" 9: b u s i n e s s e s n ot c o n t a c t e d as I r a n o u t o f t i m e 9 6: no r e p l y t o my t e l e p h o n e c a l l s 5: b u s i n e s s e s no l o n g e r e x i s t e d 4: a m u t u a l l y c o n v e n i e n t t i m e c o u l d n o t be found f o r t h e i n t e r v i e w 3: o r g a n i z a t i o n s where a l l h i r i n g was done from head o f f i c e s o u t s i d e Nanaimo S i n c e e i g h t b u s i n e s s e s were " i n e l i g i b l e " f o r t h e s t u d y ( e . g . , o ut of b u s i n e s s o r n o t r e c r u i t i n g ) , t h i s l e f t an e f f e c t i v e r e s ponse r a t e o f 62.2% (51/ 8 2 ) . The same p r o c e s s was f o l l o w e d f o r t h e Richmond sample i n F e b r u a r y 1991: 50 o r g a n i z a t i o n s were s e l e c t e d and a s i m i l a r l e t t e r s e n t , r e s u l t i n g i n 23 i n t e r v i e w s (46% o f o r i g i n a l s a m p l e ) . R e j e c t i o n s (27) i n t h e Richmond sample r e s u l t e d f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n s : 9 I c o u l d o n l y s t a y i n Nanaimo f o r one month — August 1990 — due t o c h i l d c a r e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and t h e r e s u m p t i o n o f s c h o o l and u n i v e r s i t y s t u d i e s . 10: r e c r u i t e r s d i d n o t r e t u r n my c a l l s , w h i c h were p l a c e d a t l e a s t t h r e e t i m e s 5: o r g a n i z a t i o n s where a l l h i r i n g was done from head o f f i c e s o u t s i d e Richmond 5: r e f u s a l s w i t h no e x p l a n a t i o n 3: r e f u s a l s based on t h e r e c r u i t e r b e i n g "too busy" 2: r e c r u i t e r s were r e c e n t l y h i r e d t h e m s e l v e s and had not y e t h i r e d anyone 1: o r g a n i z a t i o n no l o n g e r e x i s t e d 1: a one-person b u s i n e s s (no employees) Nine b u s i n e s s e s were " i n e l i g i b l e " f o r t h e s t u d y ( e . g . , h i r i n g c o n d ucted o u t s i d e Richmond o r o r g a n i z a t i o n no l o n g e r i n e x i s t e n c e ) , i n Richmond t h e e f f e c t i v e r e s ponse r a t e was 56.1% (23/41). I n t o t a l , I i n t e r v i e w e d 74 r e c r u i t e r s i n Nanaimo and Richmond, w h i c h r e s u l t e d i n 84 j o b v a c a n c i e s b e i n g examined, w i t h a t o t a l o f 151 p e o p l e h i r e d . 1 0 A p p r o x i m a t e l y t h r e e weeks a f t e r t h e l e t t e r s o f i n t r o d u c t i o n ' were s e n t , I t e l e p h o n e d each o r g a n i z a t i o n , and asked t o speak t o t h e p e r s o n i n charge o f h i r i n g . I f s u c c e s s f u l i n r e a c h i n g t h e a p p r o p r i a t e p e r s o n , I r e f e r r e d t o t h e l e t t e r I had m a i l e d p r e v i o u s l y , and t h e n r e q u e s t e d t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o speak w i t h them a t t h e i r c o n v e n i e n c e . The i n t e r v i e w s were conducted i n a s e m i - s t r u c t u r e d f o r m a t . A f t e r e x p l a i n i n g t o t h e r e c r u i t e r t h e n a t u r e o f t h e r e s e a r c h ( t h a t I was i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e ways t h a t r e c r u i t e r s a r r i v e d a t f i n a l h i r i n g d e c i s i o n s ) , I asked each r e c r u i t e r t o s e l e c t a j o b 1 0The number o f j o b v a c a n c i e s i s h i g h e r t h a n t h e number o f r e c r u i t e r s as a few r e c r u i t e r s o f f e r e d t o g i v e i n f o r m a t i o n on more t h a n one r e c e n t h i r i n g . The number o f p e o p l e h i r e d from t h e 84 v a c a n c i e s i s h i g h (151) as s e v e r a l j o b v a c a n c i e s were f o r b l o c k h i r i n g s , r a n g i n g from 2 t o 40 p e o p l e . 45 vacancy t h a t had been r e c e n t l y f i l l e d i n t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n . F o l l o w i n g t h i s , c e r t a i n d a t a were o b t a i n e d about each o r g a n i z a t i o n : number o f employees, whether t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n was u n i o n i z e d and j o b t i t l e o f t h e r e c r u i t e r . Data were t h e n o b t a i n e d about t h e j o b vacancy i t s e l f : how i t a r o s e , hours o f work, and wage. A f t e r t h i s i n i t i a l d a t a - g a t h e r i n g , t h e i n t e r v i e w became much more i n f o r m a l , w i t h g e n e r a l l y open-ended q u e s t i o n s . I asked r e c r u i t e r s t o g i v e a j o b d e s c r i p t i o n . The n e x t q u e s t i o n was "What t y p e o f p e r s o n were you l o o k i n g f o r ? " . F o l l o w i n g t h i s , I asked each r e c r u i t e r t o g i v e an a c c o u n t o f t h e p r o c e s s t h a t t h e y f o l l o w e d t o f i l l t h e va c a n c y , b e g i n n i n g w i t h t h e way t h e vacancy was a d v e r t i s e d . Next, I asked f o r t h e number and sex o f a p p l i c a n t s . By t r a c k i n g t h e r e c r u i t m e n t p r o c e s s i n t h i s way, I was g i v e n numerous o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o l e a r n r e c r u i t e r s ' o p i n i o n s on c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e j o b as w e l l as j o b a p p l i c a n t s t h a t i n v a r i a b l y i n c l u d e d g e n d e r - r e l a t e d a t t r i b u t e s . As w e l l as i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e way p a r t i c u l a r j o b v a c a n c i e s were f i l l e d , I a l s o asked r e c r u i t e r s t h e i r more g e n e r a l v i e w s on r e c r u i t m e n t . W i th t h e d a t a o b t a i n e d , I was a b l e t o c o n s t r u c t s t a t i s t i c a l a c c o u n t s o f t h o s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s deemed t o be most s a l i e n t t o r e c r u i t e r s i n t h e i r h i r i n g d e c i s i o n s , as w e l l as q u a n t i t a t i v e d a t a on employers' s e a r c h methods. I a l s o use a c t u a l v e r b a l a c c o u n t s g i v e n by r e c r u i t e r s on t h e i r r e a s o n s f o r r e t a i n i n g o r r e j e c t i n g j o b a p p l i c a n t s , as w e l l as o t h e r s a l i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n . 46 Interpretation of Data C r i t i c a l to a l l research i s the element of data being s o c i a l l y constructed and interpreted. The strength of a loosely structured interview s t y l e based on open-ended and f l e x i b l e questions i s that i t allowed me to a l t e r my methods of interviewing i n accordance with the personality of the r e c r u i t e r . Due to the s e n s i t i v i t y of the phenomenon under investigation, i t was c r i t i c a l that I remained a l e r t to any signs of the established rapport breaking down. The weakness of unstructured interviewing i s the s e l e c t i v e attention of the interviewer. The interviewer must r e s i s t the temptation to ignore c e r t a i n utterances and only record those statements that appear p a r t i c u l a r l y s a l i e n t to the research. To avoid t h i s , I wrote everything that r e c r u i t e r s said verbatim. 1 1 A further weakness of the informal interview i s that the interviewer must be aware that the types of questions asked impose constraints on the kinds of responses. In some cases, a single question from me e l i c i t e d lengthy and informative responses. In others, r e c r u i t e r s responded with either a "yes" or a "no", necessitating further questions designed to access more f r u i t f u l responses. I attempted to e l i c i t as much information as possible by asking about many d i f f e r e n t issues, and confirmed my understanding of t h e i r responses by repeating t h e i r comments back to them. This was p a r t i c u l a r l y necessary for " I was able to do t h i s e a s i l y as, fortunately, I have developed a unique version of abbreviated words combined with residual knowledge of Pitman Shorthand. 47 those r e c r u i t e r s who had a tendency to lapse into business-s p e c i f i c jargon which I occasionally had d i f f i c u l t y i n comprehending. 1 2 I s h a l l now r e l a t e four broad categories into which a l l r e c r u i t e r s f e l l , i n terms of t h e i r attitudes towards me and possible constraints on data gathering. (i ) Some r e c r u i t e r s seemed content i n t h e i r b e l i e f that t h e i r h i r i n g procedures were f a i r and normal. These r e c r u i t e r s were extremely co-operative and complacent, and frequently revealed much ignorance (or lack of awareness) about the kinds of situations which some more informed r e c r u i t e r s might interpret as discriminatory on the basis of gender. ( i i ) A few r e c r u i t e r s were quite h o s t i l e , which led me to wonder why they had agreed to be interviewed at a l l . These were often the most d i f f i c u l t interviews, and had to begin with a strong e f f o r t on my part to es t a b l i s h c r e d i b i l i t y , s i n c e r i t y and, eventually, rapport. However, a very few r e c r u i t e r s never did completely relax, and gave monosyllabic responses to most questions. ( i i i ) Some r e c r u i t e r s were aware of sex segregation i n employment and were vocal i n t h e i r concern about i t . They often expressed helplessness i n t h e i r e f f o r t s to avoid perpetuating i t , and asked me for advice on what they could do to help eliminate i t . In 1 2 I also found that t h i s practice often had the e f f e c t of removing the cloak of bureaucratic jargon, loosening up the subjects' s t y l e of speaking, and e l i c i t i n g even more informal comments that r e f l e c t e d r e c r u i t e r s ' personal views, rather than company p o l i c i e s . 48 many c a s e s , t h e y gave me two v e r s i o n s o f t h e r e c r u i t m e n t p r o c e s s : how t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n p e r c e i v e s i t , and how t h e y , as r e c r u i t e r s , a c t u a l l y i n t e r p r e t i t , d e m o n s t r a t i n g t h e c o n f l i c t between i d e a l and a c t u a l methods o f r e c r u i t m e n t . ( i v ) Many r e c r u i t e r s were a l m o s t t o o c o - o p e r a t i v e : t h e y seemed t o welcome t h e chance t o have an i n t e r e s t i n g c h a t and f i l l up an hour o f t h e i r day. I t was o f t e n v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o keep t h e s e r e c r u i t e r s on t h e p o i n t . G a i n i n g A c c e s s t o R e c r u i t e r s G a i n i n g a c c e s s t o t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n s and t h e a p p r o p r i a t e r e c r u i t e r s f r e q u e n t l y r e q u i r e d me t o e x e r c i s e much p a t i e n c e and p e r s i s t e n c e . Some r e c r u i t e r s t o l d me t h a t t h e y had been a n t i c i p a t i n g my t e l e p h o n e c a l l t o s e t up an i n t e r v i e w and were eager t o c o - o p e r a t e . These r e c r u i t e r s were c u r i o u s about t h e r e s e a r c h , and t o l d me t h e y l o o k e d f o r w a r d t o s p e a k i n g w i t h me. I t was v e r y easy t o s e t up a m u t u a l l y c o n v e n i e n t t i m e f o r i n t e r v i e w s w i t h r e c r u i t e r s who d i s p l a y e d t h i s a t t i t u d e . Many o t h e r s , however, were r e l u c t a n t t o c o - o p e r a t e d u r i n g t h e i n i t i a l t e l e p h o n e c o n v e r s a t i o n s which I had w i t h them. They were s u s p i c i o u s about t h e n a t u r e o f t h e r e s e a r c h and s t a t e d t h a t t h e y were t o o busy, o r t h a t t h e y r e a l l y had n o t h i n g t o c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e r e s e a r c h . However, I p e r s i s t e d , p o l i t e l y and f i r m l y , and i n s i s t e d t h a t I was s u r e t h e y would be a b l e t o p r o v i d e v a l u a b l e d a t a . I n many c a s e s , t h e o n l y way t h a t I c o u l d a c q u i r e an i n t e r v i e w w i t h t h e s e r e c r u i t e r s was t o promise t h a t t h e i n t e r v i e w would t a k e no more t h a n h a l f an hour o f t h e i r t i m e . The i n t e r v i e w s w i t h r e l u c t a n t r e c r u i t e r s o f t e n began w i t h me a s s u r i n g them o f t h e n a t u r e o f t h e r e s e a r c h and, as a way o f making them f e e l more c o m f o r t a b l e , I asked them why t h e y were s u s p i c i o u s o f me. Many r e s e a r c h e r s s t a t e d t h a t t h e y f e a r e d I was a s a l e s p e r s o n , o r a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e from a r i v a l company who was a t t e m p t i n g t o a c c e s s i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n . One r e c r u i t e r was i n i t i a l l y c o - o p e r a t i v e on t h e t e l e p h o n e , a l t h o u g h f o r an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t r e a s o n . He c o n t a c t e d me b e f o r e I was a b l e t o t e l e p h o n e him and e a g e r l y r e q u e s t e d t h a t we s e t up an i n t e r v i e w . Upon my a r r i v a l a t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n , he demanded p r o o f o f my i d e n t i t y and my a f f i l i a t i o n w i t h t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C olumbia. I showed him my s t u d e n t c a r d and, as he was s t i l l n o t s a t i s f i e d , I s u g g e s t e d he c o n t a c t my s u p e r v i s o r a t t h e u n i v e r s i t y . I t o l d him he was under no o b l i g a t i o n t o c o - o p e r a t e w i t h me i f he was not s a t i s f i e d o r c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h t h e s i t u a t i o n . F i n a l l y , he c o n f i d e d t h a t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n was c u r r e n t l y i n v o l v e d i n a Human R i g h t s c a s e i n whic h a former employee was c l a i m i n g t h a t she was f i r e d because she was a woman. The r e c r u i t e r s u s p e c t e d t h a t I was a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e from t h e Human R i g h t s C o a l i t i o n , under t h e g u i s e o f a u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t , and t h a t I was t r y i n g t o a c q u i r e i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e company and i t s h i r i n g p o l i c i e s . A f t e r I a s s u r e d him t h a t I was n o t , he f i n a l l y r e l a x e d and agreed t o be i n t e r v i e w e d . A l t h o u g h t h e case mentioned above was u n u s u a l , i t does demonstrate t h e need f o r f l e x i b i l i t y and u n d e r s t a n d i n g i n 50 c o n d u c t i n g r e s e a r c h on what i s , t o many r e c r u i t e r s , a h i g h l y s e n s i t i v e t o p i c . I n a l l i n s t a n c e s , i t was i m p e r a t i v e t h a t I a d j u s t my s p e a k i n g s t y l e and manner i n accordance w i t h t h e a t t i t u d e o f t h e r e c r u i t e r , i n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e a l e v e l o f mutual c o m f o r t t h a t was c o n d u c i v e t o w i l l i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n on t h e p a r t o f t h e r e c r u i t e r . D u r i n g my academic work and a l s o , on o c c a s i o n , my work i n t h e s e c r e t a r i a l f i e l d 1 3 , I a c q u i r e d e x t e n s i v e e x p e r i e n c e i n i n t e r v i e w i n g . As w e l l , my s e c r e t a r i a l work t o o k p l a c e i n a wide v a r i e t y o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and I de v e l o p e d t h e a b i l i t y t o a d j u s t e a s i l y t o a d i v e r s i t y o f i n d i v i d u a l s , a l l o f which was advantageous f o r t h e k i n d o f i n t e r v i e w i n g s k i l l s n e c e s s a r y f o r t h i s t h e s i s . R a pport One o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t elements o f r e s e a r c h t h a t r e s t s on p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s i s t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f "co-membership" ( J e n k i n s , 1988: 35) w i t h t h e i n d i v i d u a l c oncerned. B i l l s a l s o s u g g e s t s t h a t c o n d u c t i n g r e s e a r c h w i t h r e c r u i t e r s e n t a i l s many o b s t a c l e s as "employers c o n c e i v a b l y have r e a s o n t o be guarded o r e v a s i v e about p e r s o n n e l m a t t e r s " ( B i l l s , 1988: 9 3 ) . As I was a b l e t o e s t a b l i s h i n advance some i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e t y p e o f i n d i v i d u a l w i t h whom I would be s p e a k i n g , I was a b l e t o p r e p a r e a c c o r d i n g l y i n v a r i o u s ways. R e c r u i t e r s t h e m s e l v e s ranged from b u r e a u c r a t i c Human Resources Managers, t o department managers, t o owners-managers of 1 3My j o b i n a f i r e department ( s e c r e t a r y and r a d i o / a l a r m -o p e r a t o r ) i n c l u d e d h o s t i n g a weekly t e l e v i s i o n program f o r which I i n t e r v i e w e d v a r i o u s f i r e f i g h t e r s and f i r e s a f e t y p e r s o n n e l . 51 s m a l l b u s i n e s s e s who e f f e c t i v e l y c o n t r o l l e d t h e e n t i r e o r g a n i z a t i o n . I a t t e m p t e d t o d r e s s i n accordance w i t h t h e e x p e c t e d a t t i r e o f t h e r e c r u i t e r . F o r example, when I i n t e r v i e w e d owners o r managers o f a u t o m o t i v e shops, I d r e s s e d c a s u a l l y i n j e a n s , and used a knapsack: owners o f s m a l l b u s i n e s s e s o f t e n appeared i n i t i a l l y i n t i m i d a t e d by someone from t h e academic w o r l d e x p r e s s i n g i n t e r e s t i n them. 1 4 On t h e o t h e r hand, my a t t i r e f o r i n t e r v i e w s w i t h t o p l e v e l e x e c u t i v e s was much more p r o f e s s i o n a l — a s u i t o r d r e s s and a b r i e f c a s e — which appeared c o n g r u e n t w i t h such r e c r u i t e r s ' e x p e c t a t i o n s . O c c a s i o n a l l y , I had s c h e d u l e d i n t e r v i e w s w i t h b o t h t y p e s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s c o n s e c u t i v e l y ; I found t h a t e x c h a n g i n g a j e a n j a c k e t f o r a s u i t j a c k e t s e r v e d t h e same purpose. I a l t e r e d my a t t i t u d e towards r e c r u i t e r s depending on t h e i r p o s i t i o n i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n , as w e l l as t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l t y p e . I n s m a l l b u s i n e s s e s , I was a b l e t o be q u i t e i n f o r m a l , and began t h e i n t e r v i e w by g e n e r a l l y c h a t t i n g about g e t t i n g l o s t on t h e freeway o r c o m m i s e r a t i n g about t h e weather. W i t h upper l e v e l management r e c r u i t e r s , I m a i n t a i n e d a more p r o f e s s i o n a l -b u r e a u c r a t i c approach, and proceeded i n a more b u s i n e s s - l i k e manner. I n a l l c a s e s , t h e o b j e c t was t o e s t a b l i s h r a p p o r t , an e s s e n t i a l element o f t h i s t y p e o f r e s e a r c h . A p l o y t h a t I o f t e n " A n o t h e r r e a s o n f o r such c a s u a l a t t i r e was t h a t , i n e a r l y i n t e r v i e w s w i t h r e c r u i t e r s a t s m a l l a u t o m o t i v e o r w e l d i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s , I was m i s t a k e n f o r a s a l e s p e r s o n when I wore a d r e s s and c a r r i e d a b r i e f c a s e , and was t r e a t e d w i t h d i s d a i n . Upon r e a l i z i n g t h e i r e r r o r , such r e c r u i t e r s were embarrassed, and t h e i n t e r v i e w s began w i t h many a p o l o g i e s . 52 used t o f i n d common ground was t o comment on photographs of f a m i l y members t h a t many r e c r u i t e r s had on t h e i r d e s k s , compliment them on t h e i r o f f i c e d e c o r , o r e x p r e s s i n t e r e s t i n t h e p r o d u c t s s o l d i n t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n . I n t e r v i e w e r E f f e c t s As I was t h e o n l y p e r s o n c o n d u c t i n g t h e r e s e a r c h f o r t h i s t h e s i s , i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o know i f t h e r e s u l t s would have been d i f f e r e n t had someone e l s e had a l s o been c o n d u c t i n g i n t e r v i e w s . As w e l l , t h e i n t e r v i e w s were, f o r t h e most p a r t , u n s t r u c t u r e d : as mentioned above, I v a r i e d my s t y l e o f i n t e r v i e w i n g a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l . T h e r e f o r e , a l t h o u g h t h e r e i s no way t o e v a l u a t e t h e e f f e c t s t h a t I may have had on s u b j e c t s , I can c l a i m t h a t , i f t h e r e i s c o n s i s t e n c y i n t h e d a t a , and i f t h e d a t a c o n c u r s w i t h t h e f i n d i n g s o f o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s , no i n t e r v i e w e r e f f e c t s have d i s t o r t e d t h e d a t a . Data C o l l e c t i o n Methods I used a notebook, r a t h e r t h a n a tape r e c o r d e r , t o r e c o r d t h e d a t a . D u r i n g t h e f i r s t i n t e r v i e w , I used b o t h methods, but found t h a t I was t o o w o r r i e d t h a t t h e t a p e r e c o r d e r might not be f u n c t i o n i n g p r o p e r l y . F o r t u n a t e l y , I a l s o used a notebook, and found i t t o be much more e f f e c t i v e . F or t h e most p a r t , I wrote r e c r u i t e r s ' comments v e r b a t i m , w h i c h p r o v i d e d c o l o u r f u l and i n t e r e s t i n g d a t a . By a s k i n g a q u e s t i o n and t h e n b e n d i n g i n t e n t l y t owards my notebook, r e c r u i t e r s tended t o speak f r e e l y . The need t o m a i n t a i n a n e u t r a l countenance was a l s o e s s e n t i a l i n t h i s t y p e of r e s e a r c h . O c c a s i o n a l l y , some r e c r u i t e r s made b l a t a n t l y o f f e n s i v e comments about t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s o f women i n t h e l a b o u r f o r c e . A l t h o u g h I was p e r s o n a l l y o f f e n d e d t o h e a r my sex m a l i g n e d , I was c a r e f u l n o t t o show my d i s t a s t e . I h a s t e n t o add t h a t my j o y was o f t e n d i f f i c u l t t o c o n c e a l whenever r e c r u i t e r s v o i c e d s t r o n g o p i n i o n s c o n c e r n i n g g e n d e r - n e u t r a l i t y , o r t h e need t o p l a c e more women i n male-gendered j o b s . The l e n g t h o f i n t e r v i e w s v a r i e d w i d e l y from twenty minutes t o n e a r l y two h o u r s , a l t h o u g h most i n t e r v i e w s l a s t e d about f o r t y -f i v e m i n u t e s . The s h o r t e r i n t e r v i e w s o f t e n r e s u l t e d from j o b v a c a n c i e s t h a t were f i l l e d by t h e f i r s t p e r s o n who walked i n t o t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o r r e c r u i t e r s ' r e l u c t a n c e t o speak a t any g r e a t l e n g t h about t h e i r o p i n i o n s on t h e r e c r u i t m e n t p r o c e s s . Longer i n t e r v i e w s o c c u r r e d when t h e h i r i n g p r o c e s s i n c l u d e d many d i f f e r e n t s t a g e s o r l e v e l s . I n some c a s e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n l a r g e o r g a n i z a t i o n s , t h e r e c r u i t m e n t p r o c e s s was complex and i n v o l v e d a p a n e l o f r e c r u i t e r s . I n o t h e r s , a v a r i e t y o f s e a r c h methods was used, r e s u l t i n g i n a s e r i e s o f a p p l i c a n t p o o l s , w h i c h p r o l o n g e d t h e r e c r u i t m e n t p r o c e s s . Summary The g o a l o f t h e r e s e a r c h was t o e x p l o r e , and a t t empt t o u n d e r s t a n d , more about r e c r u i t m e n t , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h r e g a r d t o gender as a s c r e e n i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g — whether and how r e c r u i t e r s used gender t o d i s c r i m i n a t e , e i t h e r d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y , a g a i n s t j o b a p p l i c a n t s . To t h i s end, i n t e r v i e w s were conducted i n Nanaimo and Richmond, r e s u l t i n g i n a t o t a l of 74 interviews with r e c r u i t e r s . The focus of each interview was a job vacancy, chosen by the r e c r u i t e r , that was recently f i l l e d i n each organization. After c e r t a i n data were obtained on the organization and job description, the process followed by each r e c r u i t e r was tracked, from the time the vacancy arose, through to the vacancy being f i l l e d . Throughout the interview, questions were asked for information on why ce r t a i n applicants were eliminated or retained at various stages i n the recruitment process, e l i c i t i n g the r e c r u i t e r s ' reasons. The following chapter provides an account of the study. 55 C h a p t e r 4: Data and F i n d i n g s  I n t r o d u c t i o n The purpose o f t h i s r e s e a r c h i s t o i n v e s t i g a t e whether o r not r e c r u i t e r s p r a c t i c e d i s c r i m i n a t i o n on t h e b a s i s o f gender, e i t h e r d i r e c t l y and i n d i r e c t l y , when mat c h i n g c a n d i d a t e s t o j o b v a c a n c i e s . S i n c e by law r e c r u i t e r s a r e i n h i b i t e d from d i r e c t l y d i s c r i m i n a t i n g a g a i n s t a p p l i c a n t s on t h e b a s i s o f gender, i t may be t h a t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n t a k e s p l a c e i n more s u b t l e , i n d i r e c t forms. C o n s e q u e n t l y , I examined t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a g e s o f t h e j o b matching p r o c e s s f o r e v i d e n c e o f gender b e i n g used as a s c r e e n i n g c r i t e r i o n by r e c r u i t e r s , b o t h d i r e c t l y and i n d i r e c t l y : J o b d e s c r i p t i o n s and a d v e r t i s e m e n t s I d e a l c a n d i d a t e c o n s t r u c t i o n A p p l i c a n t s e a r c h methods Narro w i n g t h e a p p l i c a n t p o o l The j o b i n t e r v i e w and f i n a l c a n d i d a t e s e l e c t i o n Throughout t h i s c h a p t e r , I p r o v i d e t a b l e s o f s t a t i s t i c a l d a t a , as w e l l as examples of s t a t e m e n t s made by r e c r u i t e r s t h a t a r e i l l u s t r a t i v e o f t h e f i n d i n g s . I . Job D e s c r i p t i o n s and A d v e r t i s e m e n t s R e c r u i t e r s were f i r s t a sked t o s e l e c t a r e c e n t l y - f i l l e d j o b vacancy and p r o v i d e a j o b d e s c r i p t i o n — a l i s t o f t h e d u t i e s t h a t t h e incumbent would be r e q u i r e d t o p e r f o r m . For most j o b a p p l i c a n t s ( o t h e r t h a n t h o s e r e a c h e d t h r o u g h word-of-mouth), t h e j o b d e s c r i p t i o n was t h e f i r s t i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t t h e y r e c e i v e d about t h e vacancy, c u l l e d from j o b a d v e r t i s e m e n t s i n newspapers, Canada Employment C e n t r e s o r p r i v a t e employment a g e n c i e s . Employment e q u i t y l e g i s l a t i o n does n o t p e r m i t employers t o word a d v e r t i s e m e n t s i n s u c h a way t h a t a p a r t i c u l a r g e n d e r (among o t h e r c r i t e r i a ) i s t a r g e t e d d i r e c t l y . H owever, a l t h o u g h r e c r u i t e r s a r e w e l l a w a r e o f t h e s e g u i d e l i n e s , a d v e r t i s e m e n t s may s t i l l be w o r d e d b y r e c r u i t e r s o r a g e n c i e s i n s u c h a way a s t o a t t r a c t p e o p l e f r o m t h e a p p r o p r i a t e g e n d e r . I n 7 o u t o f t h e 84 j o b v a c a n c i e s ( 8 . 3 % ) , r e c r u i t e r s u s e d a w r i t t e n j o b d e s c r i p t i o n t o a n s w e r my q u e s t i o n . R e c r u i t e r s f o r t h e o t h e r 77 j o b v a c a n c i e s r e l i e d on t h e i r m e m o r i e s . A l l r e c r u i t e r s w e r e a b l e t o g i v e a d e t a i l e d v e r b a l a c c o u n t o f t h e f u n c t i o n a l r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r t h e j o b s . I d i d n o t a n a l y z e j o b a d v e r t i s e m e n t s i n t h i s t h e s i s a s many o f t h e j o b s w e r e n o t a d v e r t i s e d a n d , f o r t h o s e t h a t w e r e , many r e c r u i t e r s c o u l d n o t r e c a l l t h e e x a c t w o r d s u s e d i n t h e a d v e r t i s e m e n t , n o r c o u l d t h e y p r o v i d e w r i t t e n c o p y . J o b d e s c r i p t i o n s f o r o n l y 5 o f t h e 84 v a c a n c i e s ( 5 . 9 % ) i n c l u d e d r e f e r e n c e s t o a p p e a r a n c e a n d t h e a b i l i t y t o w o r k w i t h o t h e r e m p l o y e e s . T h i s d e m o n s t r a t e s t h a t t h e u s e o f p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a s j o b r e q u i r e m e n t s was r a r e l y u s e d by r e c r u i t e r s i n j o b d e s c r i p t i o n s . One r e c r u i t e r d i d , h o w e v e r , e x p l i c i t l y i n c l u d e g e n d e r i n t h e f u n c t i o n a l r e q u i r e m e n t s : " J u s t a number c r u n c h e r , w h i c h e l i m i n a t e s m a l e s . I t ' s i d e a l f o r f e m a l e s ... g e t s t h e i r b r a i n s t i c k i n g a g a i n " ( R . 1 0 ) . 1 5 T h r o u g h company p o l i c y o r a c k n o w l e d g e m e n t o f emp l o y m e n t e q u i t y l e g i s l a t i o n , e m p l o y e r s r a r e l y i n c l u d e d a n y e x p l i c i t " Q u o t a t i o n s f r o m r e c r u i t e r s a r e r e f e r r e d t o by a l e t t e r / n u m b e r c o d e . R = R i c h m o n d a n d N = Nanaimo, a n d t h e numbers r e f e r t o t h e number g i v e n t o t h e i n t e r v i e w . 57 r e f e r e n c e s t o gender i n j o b d e s c r i p t i o n s . The o s t e n s i b l y o b j e c t i v e n a t u r e o f most j o b d e s c r i p t i o n s r e v e a l s t h e s t r e n g t h b e h i n d t h e r a t i o n a l - l e g a l t h e o r y o f h i r i n g — t h a t a l l d e c i s i o n s a r e based on t h e f u n c t i o n a l performance o f t h e j o b and t h e a b i l i t i e s o f i n d i v i d u a l s ( B l a u and F e r b e r , 1986; J e n k i n s , 1986). As J e n k i n s (1986) and W i n d o l f and Wood (1988) p o i n t o u t , t h e r o l e o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l ( r a t i o n a l - l e g a l ) model of r e c r u i t m e n t i s o n l y p e r i p h e r a l i n t h e r e c r u i t m e n t p r o c e s s , w h i c h i s l a r g e l y i n f o r m a l , d e s p i t e o f t e n h i g h l y s p e c i a l i z e d p e r s o n n e l a c q u i s i t i o n p r o c e d u r e s . Indeed, d e s p i t e t h e e l a b o r a t e t r a p p i n g s o f " P e r s o n n e l Departments" and " P o l i c y Manuals", even i n l a r g e companies r e c r u i t m e n t d e c i s i o n s were o f t e n d e s c r i b e d i n terms of i n f o r m a l c r i t e r i a b e i n g c e n t r a l . However, I l o c a t e d few o v e r t b a r r i e r s t o one gender o r t h e o t h e r i n r e c r u i t e r s ' j o b d e s c r i p t i o n s . A l t h o u g h r e c r u i t e r s r a r e l y mentioned gender i n t h e i r r e c o u n t i n g o f j o b d e s c r i p t i o n s , i t was i m p l i c a t e d i n a more s u b t l e form: The l i s t s o f f u n c t i o n a l r e g u i r e m e n t s i n c l u d e d a c t i v i t i e s t h a t a r e t y p i c a l l y r e g a r d e d as t h e s o l e domain o f one o r t h e o t h e r gender, a d d i n g v a l i d i t y t o Hughes' c l a i m t h a t j o b d e s c r i p t i o n s a r e worded i n a way t h a t d i s c o u r a g e s c e r t a i n groups from a p p l y i n g f o r them (Hughes, 1985: 233). An example of t h i s was found i n t h e case of a r e c r u i t e r who w i s h e d t o h i r e an o f f i c e a s s i s t a n t . He p r o v i d e d me w i t h a j o b d e s c r i p t i o n t h a t i n c l u d e d a m i x t u r e o f d u t i e s — t h e y ranged from t y p i n g t o warehouse work. He knew e x a c t l y what t y p e o f p e r s o n he 58 w a n t e d t o h i r e : "a woman w i t h k i d s i n s c h o o l " ( R . 0 9 ) . The Can a d a Employment C e n t r e r e f u s e d t o s p e c i f y t h i s s t i p u l a t i o n , b u t h e l p e d t h e r e c r u i t e r w o r d a n a d v e r t i s e m e n t t h a t w o u l d a t t r a c t j u s t t h a t k i n d o f p e r s o n : " ... c o m p u t e r s k i l l s , t y p i n g , o f f i c e r o u t i n e s , s c h o o l h o u r s 9 - 3 , $ 7 . 0 0 / h o u r " . By w o r d i n g t h e a d v e r t i s e m e n t t h i s way, t h e r e c r u i t e r h o p e d t o a t t r a c t women i n t h e i r m i d - t h i r t i e s t o e a r l y - f o r t i e s who o n l y w a n t e d p a r t - t i m e w o r k 1 6 — t h e C a n a d a Employment C e n t r e a d v e r t i s e m e n t p r o v i d i n g an e x a m p l e o f w h a t Lowe r e f e r s t o a s " m a n i p u l a t e d j o b r e q u i r e m e n t s " (Lowe, 1988: 1 1 9 ) . The ways t h a t j o b d e s c r i p t i o n s a n d a d v e r t i s e m e n t s w e re w o r d e d o f t e n a t t r a c t e d p r e d o m i n a n t l y members o f a p a r t i c u l a r g e n d e r , l i m i t i n g t h e c h o i c e a r e c r u i t e r c o u l d make e v e n i f h e / s h e a c t i v e l y a d v o c a t e d g e n d e r - f r e e s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i a . C u r r a n ( 1 9 8 8 : 345) a n d Webb a n d L i f f ( 1 9 8 8 : 542) a l s o n o t e t h a t j o b d e s c r i p t i o n s c o n t a i n r e q u i r e m e n t s t h a t a r e deemed b y r e c r u i t e r s a n d j o b a p p l i c a n t s t o be a p p r o p r i a t e f o r one g e n d e r o n l y . My s t u d y shows t h a t a l l c l e r i c a l j o b d e s c r i p t i o n s i n c l u d e d t y p i n g , f i l i n g , a n s w e r i n g o f f i c e t e l e p h o n e s a n d d e a l i n g w i t h t h e p u b l i c — a l l f e m a l e - g e n d e r e d a c t i v i t i e s ( C a l z a v a r a , 1 9 8 8 : 296; Lowe, 1988: 1 1 9 ) . F r e q u e n t a l l u s i o n s t o wh a t women and men c o u l d n o t do i l l u s t r a t e t h i s : "Men d o n ' t t y p e " ( N . 3 5 ) ; " I n e e d e d a " I r o n i c a l l y , t h e r e c r u i t e r f i n a l l y h i r e d a y o u n g , u n m a r r i e d , c h i l d l e s s woman who w o r k e d i n a n e a r b y o f f i c e a n d h a d h e a r d o f t h e v a c a n c y t h r o u g h w o r d - o f - m o u t h . None o f t h e a p p l i c a n t s t h a t he r e c e i v e d t h r o u g h t h e Ca n a d a Employment C e n t r e h a d c o m p u t e r s k i l l s , a s t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s i n t h e l a b o u r f o r c e , p r i o r t o t h e b i r t h o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n , t o o k p l a c e i n o f f i c e s t h a t d i d n o t h a v e c o m p u t e r s . 59 p a r t - t i m e o f f i c e g i r l " ( R . 0 9 ) ; a n d "Not much v a l u e i n c l e r i c a l w o r k f o r men" ( R . 1 6 ) . An e x a m p l e o f a t y p i c a l j o b d e s c r i p t i o n c o n s i d e r e d b y r e c r u i t e r s t o be f e m a l e - g e n d e r e d i s : P a r t - t i m e b o o k k e e p i n g Need c o m p u t e r l i t e r a c y M u s t be w e l c o m i n g t o c u s t o m e r s a n d make them f e e l a t home M u s t be a b l e t o g e t a l o n g w i t h o t h e r e m p l o y e e s M u s t be p a t i e n t a n d f l e x i b l e ( N . 1 5 ) . The o n l y f u n c t i o n a l r e q u i r e m e n t s i n t h e a b o v e j o b d e s c r i p t i o n r e f e r t o b o o k k e e p i n g a n d c o m p u t e r k n o w l e d g e . A l l t h e o t h e r j o b d e s c r i p t i o n " d u t i e s " r e f e r t o f e m a l e - g e n d e r e d p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s . M o s t m a l e - g e n d e r e d j o b s c o n t a i n e d f u n c t i o n a l r e q u i r e m e n t s t h a t a l s o s e r v e d t o d i s c o u r a g e f e m a l e s f r o m a p p l y i n g , due t o t h e n a t u r e o f t h e d u t i e s t h a t f r e g u e n t l y r e q u i r e d s k i l l s n o t t r a d i t i o n a l l y l e a r n e d b y women, s u c h a s m e c h a n i c a l k n o w l e d g e o r s a l e s i n p r o d u c t s u s u a l l y u s e d o n l y b y men. R a r e l y , h o w e v e r , w e r e p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n c l u d e d i n j o b d e s c r i p t i o n s . An e x a m p l e o f a j o b d e s c r i p t i o n w o r d e d i n a way t h a t d i s c o u r a g e s f e m a l e a p p l i c a n t s was "Change t i r e s . Be p h y s i c a l l y s t r o n g " ( R . 1 9 ) . The v a c a n c y was f o r a t i r e c h a n g e r i n a t i r e s h o p , a n d t h e r e c r u i t e r a d v e r t i s e d a t t h e Canada Employment C e n t r e . He r e c e i v e d 20 a p p l i c a n t s , a l l o f whom w e r e m a l e , d e s p i t e t h e a d v e r t i s e m e n t b e i n g p l a c e d i n a l o c a t i o n a c c e s s i b l e t o b o t h s e x e s . J o b d e s c r i p t i o n s , t h e r e f o r e , c o n t a i n e d v e r y l i t t l e i n t h e way o f d i r e c t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a g a i n s t one o r t h e o t h e r g e n d e r ; t h e j o b r e q u i r e m e n t s , h o w e v e r , d i d c o n t a i n c o v e r t , o r i n d i r e c t , d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n t h e f o r m o f g e n d e r e d d u t i e s a n d , o c c a s i o n a l l y , r e f e r e n c e s t o g e n d e r e d p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e c a s e o f f e m a l e - g e n d e r e d j o b s . I I . I d e a l C a n d i d a t e C o n s t r u c t i o n A f t e r r e c r u i t e r s g a v e j o b d e s c r i p t i o n s , I a s k e d them t h e q u e s t i o n : "What t y p e o f p e r s o n w e r e y o u l o o k i n g f o r ? " , d e s i g n e d t o a c c e s s r e c r u i t e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e i d e a l c a n d i d a t e f o r t h e j o b a n d t h e i r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . A l l r e c r u i t e r s w e r e a b l e t o o f f e r a l i s t o f s p e c i f i c a t i o n s o f t h e i d e a l c a n d i d a t e , c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e f i n d i n g s o f C u r r a n ( 1 9 8 8 ) a n d W i n d o l f a n d Wood ( 1 9 8 8 ) . The v a r i e t y o f q u a l i t i e s g i v e n b y r e c r u i t e r s i n r e s p o n s e t o t h e o p e n - e n d e d q u e s t i o n i s shown i n T a b l e 2: T a b l e 2 R e c r u i t e r s ' r e s p o n s e s t o "What t y p e o f p e r s o n w e r e y o u l o o k i n g  f o r ? " "Type o f P e r s o n " Number o f P e r c e n t a g e J o b V a c a n c i e s 1 7 o f R e c r u i t e r s 1 8 G e n e r a l R e l a t e d E x p e r i e n c e 54 64 P e r s o n a l Q u a l i t i e s 50 59 S p e c i f i c R e l e v a n t E x p e r i e n c e 37 44 G r a d e 12 18 21 C o m p a t i b i l i t y w i t h O t h e r E m p l o y e e s 14 16 P e r s o n a l A p p e a r a n c e 14 16 G e n d e r 10 12 Minimum Age 10 12 A b i l i t y t o D e a l w i t h t h e P u b l i c 9 10 P h y s i c a l R e q u i r e m e n t s 9 10 1 7 T h e s e f i g u r e s r e p r e s e n t t h e numbers o f j o b v a c a n c i e s f o r w h i c h r e c r u i t e r s u s e d s p e c i f i c a t t r i b u t e s i n d e s c r i b i n g t h e i d e a l c a n d i d a t e . 1 8 T h i s f i g u r e r e p r e s e n t s t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f r e c r u i t e r s who m e n t i o n e d e a c h a t t r i b u t e . A l l r e c r u i t e r s m e n t i o n e d more t h a n one a t t r i b u t e . 61 Telephone Manner Maximum Age D r i v e r ' s L i c e n c e L i v e n e a r W o r k s i t e F a m i l y o r Domestic R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s Numeracy Job H i s t o r y E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g A b i l i t y M e t h o d i c a l Approach Known t o R e c r u i t e r 8 7 5 4 3 2 2 1 0 0 9 8 6 5 3 2 2 1 0 0 As t h e t a b l e d e m o n s t r a t e s , t h e t h r e e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s most s a l i e n t t o r e c r u i t e r s i n t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e i d e a l c a n d i d a t e were g e n e r a l r e l a t e d e x p e r i e n c e , p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s and s p e c i f i c r e l e v a n t e x p e r i e n c e - G e n e r a l r e l a t e d e x p e r i e n c e r e f e r s t o r e c r u i t e r s ' p r e f e r e n c e f o r c a n d i d a t e s w i t h some e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e w i d e r f i e l d o f t h e j o b . F o r example, a r e c r u i t e r f o r a v a c a n t s a l e s p o s i t i o n i n a department s t o r e r e q u i r e d a c a n d i d a t e w i t h "some s a l e s e x p e r i e n c e " , a l t h o u g h n ot n e c e s s a r i l y i n t h e s p e c i f i c department o r p r o d u c t . P e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s i n c l u d e d such t r a i t s as "good-natured", " c o n f i d e n t " , "upbeat", " a g g r e s s i v e " o r " p l e a s a n t " , as w e l l as numerous o t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Those r e c r u i t e r s who r e g u i r e d s p e c i f i c r e l e v a n t e x p e r i e n c e were l o o k i n g f o r c a n d i d a t e s w i t h e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e a c t u a l p r o d u c t o r t y p e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n . An example o f t h i s i s found i n a s a l e s p o s i t i o n v acancy i n a r e t a i l e l e c t r o n i c s s t o r e . The r e c r u i t e r r e q u i r e d t h e incumbent t o have n o t j u s t s a l e s e x p e r i e n c e , b u t e x p e r i e n c e s e l l i n g e l e c t r o n i c p r o d u c t s . I n h i s s t u d y on r e c r u i t e r s ' h i r i n g d e c i s i o n s , B i l l s asked employers t o g i v e t h e t h r e e most i m p o r t a n t c r i t e r i a r e q u i r e d f o r jo b c a n d i d a t e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . E x p e r i e n c e was found t o be t h e 62 mos t i m p o r t a n t c r i t e r i o n i n h i s s t u d y a l s o , f o l l o w e d b y j o b h i s t o r y 1 9 a n d p e r s o n a l i t y . To e x p l a i n t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n B i l l s ' f i n d i n g s a n d mine c o n c e r n i n g j o b h i s t o r y , I s u g g e s t t h a t j o b h i s t o r y i s c l o s e l y c o n n e c t e d w i t h e x p e r i e n c e , a n d t h e d a t a o b t a i n e d b y B i l l s a n d me m i g h t h a v e b e e n s u b j e c t t o d i f f e r e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . A l t h o u g h a p p l i c a n t s ' g e n d e r was r a r e l y m e n t i o n e d (12 p e r c e n t ) b y r e c r u i t e r s a s a s i g n i f i c a n t e l e m e n t i n t h e i r c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a n i d e a l c a n d i d a t e , t h e t h r e e c r i t e r i a m e n t i o n e d m o s t f r e q u e n t l y b y r e c r u i t e r s ( p a r t i c u l a r l y p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s ) do c o n t a i n p o t e n t i a l g e n d e r - r e l a t e d t r a i t s . ( 1 ) G e n e r a l R e l a t e d E x p e r i e n c e : G e n e r a l r e l a t e d e x p e r i e n c e r e f e r s t o p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e i n a s i m i l a r o c c u p a t i o n , s u c h a s p r i o r o f f i c e o r s a l e s e x p e r i e n c e . I f a j o b a p p l i c a n t h a s l i t t l e o r no e x p e r i e n c e i n a f i e l d , he o r s h e i s i m m e d i a t e l y r e m o v e d f r o m t h e c a n d i d a t e p o o l . I n t h e c a s e o f a f e m a l e a p p l y i n g f o r a m a l e - g e n d e r e d j o b , o r v i c e v e r s a , a c a n d i d a t e c o u l d be i m m e d i a t e l y r e j e c t e d o n t h e b a s i s o f l a c k o f e x p e r i e n c e , d e s p i t e a h i g h l e v e l o f p a p e r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . The u s e o f p r i o r e x p e r i e n c e a s a s c r e e n i n g m e c h a n i s m , t h e r e f o r e , may a c t , i n d i r e c t l y , t o r e p r o d u c e t h e e x i s t i n g s e x - s e g r e g a t e d l a b o u r f o r c e , a l t h o u g h i t may be a l e g i t i m a t e means o f e l i m i n a t i n g a c a n d i d a t e . 1 9 B i l l s d e f i n e s j o b h i s t o r y a s " d i s p a r a g i n g comments a b o u t a p r e v i o u s e m p l o y e r o r a h i s t o r y o f j o b - h o p p i n g " ( B i l l s , 1988: 8 2 ) . ( 2 ) S p e c i f i c R e l e v a n t E x p e r i e n c e : The same p o t e n t i a l f o r a n a p p l i c a n t ' s g e n d e r t o be u s e d a g a i n s t h i m o r h e r e x i s t s e v e n more s t r o n g l y f o r t h o s e r e c r u i t e r s who r e q u i r e c a n d i d a t e s t o h a v e s p e c i f i c r e l e v a n t e x p e r i e n c e . I n t h e e x a m p l e g i v e n a b o v e , a r e c r u i t e r w a n t e d someone who h a d e x p e r i e n c e i n e l e c t r o n i c s s a l e s , a s he p e r c e i v e d i t t o be a h i g h l y s p e c i a l i z e d a r e a . The e l i m i n a t i o n o f c a n d i d a t e s on t h e b a s i s o f l a c k o f s p e c i f i c e x p e r i e n c e may be l e g i t i m a t e . H o w e v e r , t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f e l i m i n a t i o n e x i s t s more s t r o n g l y f o r a c a n d i d a t e o f t h e n o n -t r a d i t i o n a l g e n d e r i f h e / s h e h a s l i t t l e o r no p r e v i o u s s p e c i f i c r e l a t e d e x p e r i e n c e , s u c h h i r i n g c r i t e r i a t h u s p e r p e t u a t i n g t h e c y c l e o f s e x - s e g r e g a t e d o c c u p a t i o n s . E v e n t h o s e c a n d i d a t e s who h a v e e x p e r t i s e i n e l e c t r o n i c s , a n d e x p e r i e n c e i n s a l e s , may be e l i m i n a t e d b y t h e n e e d f o r e x p e r i e n c e o f w o r k i n g i n a r e t a i l e l e c t r o n i c s s t o r e . ( 3 ) G e n d e r - S p e c i f i c P e r s o n a l Q u a l i t i e s : I t i s w i t h i n t h e c a t e g o r y o f p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s , h o w e v e r , t h a t t h e g r e a t e s t p o t e n t i a l e x i s t s f o r c a n d i d a t e s t o be e x c l u d e d o n t h e b a s i s o f g e n d e r . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o s e p a r a t e p e r s o n a l i t y p r e f e r e n c e s f r o m g e n d e r p r e f e r e n c e s . As B i l l s s t a t e s : ... u n t a n g l i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n a p p l i c a n t g e n d e r , o c c u p a t i o n a l s e x - t y p i n g a n d e m p l o y e r p r e f e r e n c e s f o r p e r s o n a l i t y w o u l d be d i f f i c u l t ( B i l l s , 1 988: 8 4 ) . C u r r a n a l s o n o t e s t h e a m b i g u i t y i m p l i c i t i n p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s : ... p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s ... a r e n o t a m e n a b l e t o p r e c i s e m e a s u r e m e n t , a n d i n d e e d a r e e n t i r e l y d e p e n d e n t on t h e s u b j e c t i v e j u d g m e n t o f t h e i n t e r v i e w e r ( C u r r a n , 342: 1 9 8 8 ) . M o s t r e c r u i t e r s a r e u n a w a r e o f l a n g u a g e t h a t i m p l i e s t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f g e n d e r a n d t h e y r a r e l y r e f l e c t on t h e i r c h o i c e s o f w o r d s a n d t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f a s o c i a l l y - c o n s t r u c t e d w o r l d . Many w o r d s a n d p h r a s e s g i v e i n f o r m a t i o n on n o t j u s t p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s , b u t a l s o on g e n d e r . F o r e x a m p l e , many r e c r u i t e r s , when d e s c r i b i n g t h e t y p e o f p e r s o n p r e f e r r e d f o r a c l e r i c a l p o s i t i o n , u s e d w o r d s l i k e " b u b b l y " o r " c h i r p y " , b o t h c l e a r l y f e m a l e - g e n d e r e d a d j e c t i v e s . A l t h o u g h p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s w e r e u s e d b y r e c r u i t e r s l e s s f r e q u e n t l y when d e s c r i b i n g i d e a l c a n d i d a t e s f o r m a l e - g e n d e r e d j o b s ( w h i c h w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r ) , c e r t a i n w o r d s a n d p h r a s e s d i d emerge: " a g g r e s s i v e " o r " a b l e t o g e t a l o n g w i t h t h e o t h e r g u y s " — b o t h m a l e - g e n d e r e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . R e q u i r e d p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s i n c l u d e d a w i d e v a r i e t y o f p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s a n d m a n n e r i s m s . W h e t h e r t h e s e t r a i t s w e r e p e r c e i v e d b y r e c r u i t e r s a s p o s i t i v e o r n e g a t i v e f r e q u e n t l y d e p e n d e d on t h e g e n d e r o f t h e a p p l i c a n t . B i l l s n o t e s i n h i s s t u d y on r e c r u i t m e n t t h a t r e c r u i t e r s l o o k f o r d i f f e r e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n m a l e s a n d f e m a l e s . I n h i s s t u d y , he f o u n d t h a t t w o - t h i r d s o f t h e r e s p o n s e s f o r women r e f l e c t e d t r a i t s o r i e n t e d t o g e t t i n g a l o n g w i t h o t h e r p e o p l e ; t w o - t h i r d s o f r e s p o n s e s f o r men r e f l e c t e d g e t t i n g a h e a d ( B i l l s , 1 988: 8 4 ) . I n my s t u d y , r e c r u i t e r s p e r c e i v e d a g g r e s s i o n , f o r e x a m p l e , a s a p o s i t i v e a t t r i b u t e f o r m a l e s (N.28; R . 1 9 ) , b u t n e g a t i v e f o r f e m a l e s ( N . 3 3 ; N . 3 9 ) : one r e c r u i t e r r e f e r r e d t o a n a g g r e s s i v e f e m a l e a s h a v i n g "a b r a made o f s t e e l " ( N . 1 3 ) . R e c r u i t e r s c o n s i d e r e d a m i l d o r s h y p e r s o n a l i t y a s p r e f e r a b l e f o r f e m a l e s , b u t i n a d e q u a t e f o r m a l e a p p l i c a n t s . P o s i t i v e p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s t h a t w e r e c o n s i s t e n t f o r b o t h g e n d e r s w e r e e n t h u s i a s m ( N . 3 7 ; R . 0 5 ) , a b i l i t y t o s m i l e r e a d i l y ( N . 3 8 ) , a n d m o t i v a t i o n ( R . 0 5 ; N . 1 9 ) . A c r i t i c a l f i n d i n g o f t h e r e s e a r c h was t h a t t h e r e c r u i t m e n t p r o c e s s e s u s e d t o f i l l f e m a l e - g e n d e r e d j o b s i n v o l v e d a much g r e a t e r u s e o f p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s b y r e c r u i t e r s i n t h e i r c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f a p p l i c a n t s . Many o f t h e m a l e - g e n d e r e d j o b s d i d n o t i n c l u d e c o n t a c t w i t h t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c , e s p e c i a l l y c o n t a c t t h a t a l s o i n v o l v e d s e l l i n g p r o d u c t s o r r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n . However, m o s t o f t h e f e m a l e - g e n d e r e d j o b s d i d i n c l u d e f r e q u e n t c o n t a c t w i t h t h e p u b l i c , a s w e l l a s w o r k i n g w i t h l a r g e numbers o f o t h e r e m p l o y e e s , w h i c h i s no d o u b t why p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s w e r e c o n s i d e r e d more o f t e n . Words l i k e " b u b b l y " ( N . 2 2 ) , " g i g g l y " ( N . 3 1 ) , " c h a t t y " ( N . 3 1 ) , " p l e a s a n t p e r s o n a l i t y " (N.38) and " o u t g o i n g " (R.01) w e r e u s e d by r e c r u i t e r s i n t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n s o f a p p l i c a n t s f o r f e m a l e - g e n d e r e d j o b s . M a l e a p p l i c a n t s f o r m a l e - g e n d e r e d j o b s w e r e s c r u t i n i z e d more by r e c r u i t e r s on t h e i r p a p e r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s a n d e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e y w e r e c a p a b l e o f p e r f o r m i n g t h e f u n c t i o n a l r e q u i r e m e n t s , r a t h e r t h a n t h e i r p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s . T h i s f i n d i n g i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h B i l l s who a l s o n o t e d i n h i s s t u d y t h a t "women ... a r e e v a l u a t e d more on t h e b a s i s o n t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t i e s t h a n on t h e i r y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g " ( B i l l s , 1988: 8 4 ) . 66 I I I . Employers' S e a r c h Methods A f t e r r e c r u i t e r s were asked what t y p e o f p e r s o n t h e y were l o o k i n g f o r , t h e p r o c e s s f o l l o w e d by each r e c r u i t e r t o f i l l t h e j o b vacancy was documented, i n c l u d i n g t h e way t h a t t h e j o b v a r i e d w i d e l y . Some r e c r u i t e r s , u n c o n s t r a i n e d by company p o l i c i e s o r u n i o n demands, s i m p l y h i r e d t h e f i r s t p e r s o n t o walk i n t h e door, e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e case o f low- o r n o - s k i l l j o b s . The owner o f a t a x i company s a i d he would h i r e anyone "not c a r r y i n g a w h i t e cane" (N.50). O t h e r s a d v e r t i s e d w i d e l y and f o l l o w e d an e l a b o r a t e , h i g h l y complex and time-consuming s e l e c t i o n p r o c e s s , complete w i t h c h a r t s t h a t r a t e d a p p l i c a n t s n u m e r i c a l l y on v a r i o u s c r i t e r i a , a p t i t u d e t e s t s , p a n e l i n t e r v i e w s and l e n g t h y r e f e r e n c e c h e c k s . The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e shows t h e v a r i e t y o f s e a r c h methods used by r e c r u i t e r s , as w e l l as t h e pe r c e n t a g e o f r e c r u i t e r s who used each method. Most r e c r u i t e r s used m u l t i p l e s e a r c h methods, e i t h e r c o n c u r r e n t l y o r c o n s e c u t i v e l y . T a b l e 3 Employers' S e a r c h Methods vacancy was made known t o j o b s e e k e r s . Methods o f r e c r u i t m e n t Number o f V a c a n c i e s P e r c e n t a g e o f R e c r u i t e r s Newspaper Word o f Mouth A p p l i c a t i o n s on F i l e I n t e r n a l P o s t i n g CEIC (Canada Manpower) 34 29 19 18 11 40 34 22 21 13 2°This r e f e r s t o t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f r e c r u i t e r s who. used each method t o a c c e s s j o b a p p l i c a n t s . 67 College/University 3 3 Sign i n Window 2 2 Agency 2 2 As the table demonstrates, many re c r u i t e r s used newspaper advertising and word of mouth to search for applicants. Richmond re c r u i t e r s who used newspapers advertised i n the Vancouver Sun and Vancouver Province; Nanaimo r e c r u i t e r s used the l o c a l Nanaimo paper, the Daily Free Press. Some Nanaimo r e c r u i t e r s also advertised i n the Vancouver Sun, Vancouver Province and, occasionally, the Globe and Mail, when the job vacancies were for extremely s p e c i a l i z e d positions (such as golf course manager) for which r e c r u i t e r s f e l t no one suitable would be found l o c a l l y . Many r e c r u i t e r s considered word-of-mouth to be the best method of screening and acquiring new employees, which adds v a l i d i t y to s i m i l a r claims by Jenkins (1986), Reskin and Hartmann (1986), and Windolf and Wood (1988). Several r e c r u i t e r s claimed that t h i s informal search method produced a smaller candidate pool, which reduced t h e i r workload tremendously. Others preferred to hire someone who was known to themselves or t h e i r associates, s o c i a l l y or professionally, as they f e l t such candidates would possess personal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s i m i l a r to themselves or to incumbents, which i s i n keeping with Gunderson's (1985: 8) claim that the word of mouth search method reaches people of the same s o c i a l group as incumbents. However, when t h i s method alone i s used to acquire a candidate pool, i t serves to l i m i t knowledge of the job vacancy to few people, as word-of-mouth applicants are perceived as an 68 e x t e n s i o n o f t h e i n t e r n a l l a b o u r market ( J e n k i n s , 1986: 120). Such p e o p l e a r e not o n l y known t o t h e r e c r u i t e r o r incumbents, but a r e u s u a l l y ,of t h e same gender as incumbents, as p a r t i c u l a r s k i l l s and o c c u p a t i o n s a r e u s u a l l y dominated by one gender ( C a l z a v a r a , 1988: 296). C o n s e q u e n t l y , b a r r i e r s a r e e r e c t e d t o t h o s e o f t h e n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l gender who may be w e l l q u a l i f i e d t o a p p l y f o r t h e v a cancy, but who never l e a r n o f i t s e x i s t e n c e (Gunderson, 1985: 8 ) . IV. N a r r o w i n g t h e A p p l i c a n t P o o l A p p l i c a n t p o o l s ranged i n s i z e from two o r t h r e e p e o p l e t o o v e r 100. A f t e r a s k i n g how an a p p l i c a n t p o o l was formed, I q u e s t i o n e d r e c r u i t e r s as t o how and why c e r t a i n a p p l i c a n t s were e l i m i n a t e d . R e c r u i t e r s gave r e a s o n s f o r r e j e c t i n g p e o p l e , w h i c h r e v e a l e d a p a t t e r n o f r e c r u i t m e n t t h a t was c o n s i s t e n t i n n e a r l y a l l e m p l o y ers' s e a r c h e s : r e c r u i t m e n t was m o s t l y a p r o c e s s o f e l i m i n a t i o n o f c a n d i d a t e s , r a t h e r t h a n s e l e c t i o n o f t h e most q u a l i f i e d i n d i v i d u a l s . I n f a c t , t h e o n l y e v i d e n c e o f t h e most q u a l i f i e d a p p l i c a n t s b e i n g d e l i b e r a t e l y s e l e c t e d was i n t h e i n i t i a l s c r e e n i n g o f c a n d i d a t e s t o form a s h o r t - l i s t e d c a n d i d a t e p o o l , as o u t l i n e d i n T a b l e 2. A f t e r t h e i n i t i a l s c r e e n i n g , t h e r e m a i n i n g a p p l i c a n t s were e l i m i n a t e d by r e c r u i t e r s on t h e b a s i s o f much more p e r s o n a l c r i t e r i a , d u r i n g j o b i n t e r v i e w s . The s u c c e s s f u l a p p l i c a n t was u s u a l l y t h e one who s u r v i v e d t h i s e l i m i n a t i o n p r o c e s s . I n a few c a s e s , r e c r u i t e r s s t a t e d t h a t a p a r t i c u l a r a p p l i c a n t s i m p l y s t o o d o u t , b u t r e c r u i t e r s c o u l d n ever g i v e an immediate r e a s o n f o r t h i s p r o m i n e n c e . The t a b l e w h i c h f o l l o w s shows t h e c r i t e r i a b y w h i c h c a n d i d a t e s w e r e j u d g e d i n t e r m s o f t h e i r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r t h e v a c a n t j o b s . T h e s e d a t a w e r e o b t a i n e d by a s k i n g r e c r u i t e r s t h e r e a s o n s f o r e l i m i n a t i n g s h o r t - l i s t e d a p p l i c a n t s a n d why t h e s u c c e s s f u l c a n d i d a t e was s e l e c t e d . R e c r u i t e r s o f t e n h a d d i f f i c u l t y p r o v i d i n g t h e i n f o r m a t i o n on why c e r t a i n c a n d i d a t e s w e r e r e t a i n e d o r r e j e c t e d . A f t e r g i v i n g me t h e number o f c a n d i d a t e s i n t h e s h o r t - l i s t e d a p p l i c a n t p o o l , r e c r u i t e r s f r e q u e n t l y s t a t e d "We h i r e d s o - a n d - s o b e c a u s e t h e y seemed t h e b e s t p e r s o n . " I t h e n a s k e d them t o g i v e r e a s o n s why t h a t p a r t i c u l a r c a n d i d a t e was c h o s e n , a n d why t h e o t h e r s w e r e e l i m i n a t e d . A l t h o u g h r e c r u i t e r s w e r e a b l e t o g i v e i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e s u c c e s s f u l c a n d i d a t e ' s q u a l i t i e s , t h e y o f t e n h a d t o s e a r c h t h e i r m e m o r i e s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n o n t h e r e m a i n i n g c a n d i d a t e s , when a s k e d t o p r o v i d e more i n f o r m a t i o n , o t h e r t h a n s i m p l y " w e l l , t h e y j u s t w e r e n ' t r i g h t f o r t h e j o b . " The r e a s o n s g i v e n by r e c r u i t e r s f o r r e t e n t i o n o r e l i m i n a t i o n f o l l o w . T a b l e 4 R e a s o n s why J o b C a n d i d a t e s w e r e R e t a i n e d o r E x c l u d e d : Number o f V a c a n c i e s P e r c e n t a g e o f R e c r u i t e r s P e r s o n a l Q u a l i t i e s G e n d e r G e n e r a l R e l a t e d E x p e r i e n c e P e r s o n a l A p p e a r a n c e S p e c i f i c R e l e v a n t E x p e r i e n c e C o m p a t i b i l i t y w i t h E m p l o y e e s A b i l i t y t o D e a l w i t h t h e P u b l i c F a m i l y & D o m e s t i c R e s p . G r a d e 12 J o b H i s t o r y 69 51 47 43 41 39 36 31 30 28 93 69 63 58 55 53 49 42 40 38 70 Minimum Age M e t h o d i c a l A p p r o a c h Maximum Age Known t o R e c r u i t e r P h y s i c a l A b i l i t i e s L i v e C l o s e t o W o r k s i t e Numeracy E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g S k i l l s T e l e p h o n e Manner D r i v e r ' s L i c e n c e 19 18 16 16 14 14 11 9 8 7 26 24 22 22 19 19 15 12 11 9 As t h e t a b l e d e m o n s t r a t e s , 93 p e r c e n t o f r e c r u i t e r s m e n t i o n e d p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s a s t h e b a s i s f o r e l i m i n a t i n g o r r e t a i n i n g j o b a p p l i c a n t s , w h i c h c o n f i r m s a comment made by a r e c r u i t e r w i t h many y e a r s ' e x p e r i e n c e t h a t "90 p e r c e n t o f t h e t i m e , p e o p l e f a i l b e c a u s e o f a t t i t u d e , n o t q u a l i f i c a t i o n s " ( N . 0 7 ) . A s w e l l , t h i s s t a t i s t i c a d d s v a l i d i t y t o C u r r a n ' s f i n d i n g t h a t 78 p e r c e n t o f t h e r e c r u i t e r s i n h e r s t u d y c i t e d p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s a s a s k i l l s o u g h t i n a c a n d i d a t e ( C u r r a n , 1988: 3 4 1 ) , a n d J e n k i n s ' c l a i m t h a t r e c r u i t e r s p e r c e i v e p e r s o n a l a t t r i b u t e s a s t h e p r i m a r y c r i t e r i o n ( J e n k i n s , 1986: 5 2 ) . B i l l s a l s o s t a t e s t h a t 86 p e r c e n t o f t h e r e c r u i t e r s i n h i s s t u d y m e n t i o n e d p e r s o n a l i t y a s s a l i e n t t o t h e i r f i n a l h i r i n g d e c i s i o n s ( B i l l s , 1988: 8 3 ) . G e n d e r : W h i l e o n l y 12% o f r e c r u i t e r s m e n t i o n e d g e n d e r i n t h e i r c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e i d e a l c a n d i d a t e ( T a b l e 2 ) , 69% c o n s i d e r e d g e n d e r i n t h e e l i m i n a t i o n o f c a n d i d a t e s f r o m t h e l a r g e r a p p l i c a n t p o o l ( T a b l e 4 ) , r e v e a l e d i n comments s u c h a s : " I n e e d e d a p a r t - t i m e o f f i c e g i r l " ( R.09) o r "we w a n t e d a g i r l f o r t h e f r o n t d e s k " (N.08) — c l e a r e v i d e n c e o f t h e j o b b e i n g g e n d e r e d d e s p i t e j o b d e s c r i p t i o n s a n d i d e a l c a n d i d a t e 71 c o n s t r u c t i o n s t h a t d i d n o t i n c l u d e g e n d e r - s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e s . The d i s t i n c t i o n a l s o r e v e a l s r e c r u i t e r s 7 u n c o n s c i o u s b e l i e f s a b o u t g e n d e r t h a t a p p e a r more r e a d i l y i n d i s c u s s i o n s a b o u t a c t u a l j o b a p p l i c a n t s , r a t h e r t h a n i n t h e i r c o n s t r u c t i o n s o f t h e i d e a l c a n d i d a t e . F u r t h e r E v i d e n c e o f G e n d e r B i a s : T h o s e r e c r u i t e r s who d i d n o t m e n t i o n g e n d e r e x p l i c i t l y i n r e c o u n t i n g t h e i r r e c r u i t m e n t p r o c e s s e s w e r e a s k e d i f t h e y w o u l d c o n s i d e r a member o f t h e n o n -t r a d i t i o n a l g e n d e r f o r t h e j o b , e s p e c i a l l y i n c a s e s w h e r e o n l y one g e n d e r was r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e a p p l i c a n t p o o l . A f e w e m p h a t i c a l l y s t a t e d t h a t a n a p p l i c a n t ' s g e n d e r was i r r e l e v a n t i n t h e i r c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f c a n d i d a t e s . O t h e r s , h o w e v e r , r e v e a l e d t h e i r g e n d e r b i a s e s i n a v a r i e t y o f f o r m s . R e c r u i t e r s f r e q u e n t l y m e n t i o n e d p h y s i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s a s r a t i o n a l e s f o r n o t h i r i n g women f o r some j o b s : " F e m a l e s h a v e t o h a v e t h e r i g h t b u i l d " (R.07) s t a t e d one r e c r u i t e r . A n o t h e r r e c r u i t e r s a i d t h a t t h e j o b v a c a n c y i n h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n was "no g o o d f o r f e m a l e s . . . t o o p h y s i c a l l y d e m a n d i n g " N . 1 7 ) . Some r e c r u i t e r s o f f e r e d t h e i r o p i n i o n s on why o n l y one g e n d e r a p p l i e s f o r a p a r t i c u l a r o c c u p a t i o n . "Women d o n ' t w a n t t o f i x t h e t r u c k a n d l o a d f u r n i t u r e " ( N . 2 7 ) , d e c l a r e d one r e c r u i t e r . A n o t h e r r e c r u i t e r s a i d t h a t "men d o n ' t t y p e " (N.35) i n r e s p o n s e t o my q u e r y a b o u t w h e t h e r men e v e r a p p l i e d f o r c l e r i c a l j o b s , b o t h e x a m p l e s o f s t a t i s t i c a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n ( E n g l a n d a n d F a r k a s , 1986: 1 6 0 ) . O t h e r s t e r e o t y p e s a b o u t women a n d men emerged a s r e s p o n s e s 72 to whether the non-traditional gender would be considered, revealing the strength of b e l i e f s about gender which are rar e l y questioned and are perceived as natural (Bergmann, 1986: 88; England and Farkas, 1986: 153; Reskin and Hartmann, 1986: 38). One r e c r u i t e r said that women were "chattering, gossiping ... bitchy ... backstabbing" (R.17). Another considered men more appropriate because: Males can handle the job ... g i r l s aren't responsible, c a l l i n sick easier ... a man i s more dependable ... better at handling arguments ... men are more interested i n the merchandise (R.23). Bergmann claims that a b e l i e f concerning gender i s that men should not be i n positions subordinate or equal to women i n the workplace (Bergmann, 1986: 98), evidence of which i s found i n t h i s quotation from a r e c r u i t e r concerning male sup e r i o r i t y : Male t e l l e r s aren't happy being l i t t l e ... don't l i k e to take supervision from a lady ... gotta give them male work ... gotta keep them happy (R.21). Another r e c r u i t e r had mixed feelings about male and female workers that resounded with b e l i e f s about gender: Women don't stay ... follow t h e i r husbands. Males have d i f f i c u l t y separating hormones from work ... sex dominates t h e i r thinking, e s p e c i a l l y the lesser i n t e l l i g e n t males. Women need to learn the drive that men have. Not much value i n c l e r i c a l work for men ... doesn't pay enough. ... I always ask females i f they have adequate domestic arrangements because the o f f i c e w i l l s u f f e r . Women's b i o l o g i c a l needs take precedence over t h e i r work needs (R.16). A s i m i l a r d i a t r i b e against women was offered by a r e c r u i t e r when asked i f women ever applied at his organization, and whether 73 he w o u l d c o n s i d e r a woman f o r t h e m a l e - g e n d e r e d j o b s a t h i s company: Too many women i n t h e w o r k p l a c e ' c a u s e i t ' s g o o d f o r t h e i r p s y c h e ... y e s , women f i n d w o r k i n g a g o o d t h e r a p y ... women a r e t a k i n g j o b s away f r o m y o u n g e r p e o p l e ... women s h o u l d be g r o w i n g f l o w e r s a t home ... i t ' s g e t t i n g w o r s e . T h e r e ' s a woman h e r e [ s e c r e t a r y ] b u t t h a t ' s OK b e c a u s e w e ' r e s m a l l , b u t i n t h e b i g g e r p l a c e s , t h e y d o n ' t b e l o n g . Women a r e n e e d e d t o l o o k a f t e r t h e k i d s ... t h e r e ' s l o t s o f h e a v y w o r k h e r e ... n o t women's w o r k . Any woman who w a n t s t o wor k i n t h e m e c h a n i c a l t r a d e i s d o i n g i t f o r t h e b u c k s , n o t b e c a u s e t h e y w a n t t o ... women's wo r k i s i n t h e o f f i c e , l i g h t w o r k ( N . 1 8 ) . Comments s u c h a s t h e s e d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t , a l t h o u g h r e c r u i t e r s d i d n o t s p e c i f y g e n d e r a s c r i t i c a l t o t h e i r h i r i n g d e c i s i o n s , i n t h e i r c o n s t r u c t i o n s o f t h e i d e a l c a n d i d a t e a n d r e a s o n s f o r a p p l i c a n t s t o be r e t a i n e d o r e l i m i n a t e d , e v i d e n c e o f t h e i r b e l i e f s a b o u t g e n d e r emerged when I q u e s t i o n e d them a b o u t h i r i n g t h e n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l g e n d e r . S e p a r a t i n g G e n d e r f r o m O t h e r A t t r i b u t e s : R e c r u i t e r s ' r e f e r e n c e s t o g e n d e r when c o n s i d e r i n g j o b a p p l i c a n t s w e r e r e v e a l e d i n a v a r i e t y o f w a y s , f r e q u e n t l y embedded w i t h i n p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s a n d d o m e s t i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . I n many c a s e s , I d o c u m e n t e d a s i n g l e comment made b y a r e c r u i t e r i n two c a t e g o r i e s . F o r e x a m p l e , a r e c r u i t e r s t a t e d he r e q u i r e d "someone who's r e - e n t e r i n g t h e wo r k f o r c e a f t e r t h e k i d s a r e i n s c h o o l " ( R . 0 9 ) . T h i s was i n t e r p r e t e d a s r e f e r r i n g t o b o t h g e n d e r a n d f a m i l y / d o m e s t i c c i r c u m s t a n c e s i n h i s c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f j o b a p p l i c a n t s . No r e c r u i t e r m e n t i o n e d t h e n e e d f o r a d e q u a t e c h i l d c a r e , o r made a n y r e f e r e n c e t o c h i l d r e n b e i n g o f s c h o o l - a g e , when d i s c u s s i n g m a l e a p p l i c a n t s f o r m a l e - g e n d e r e d j o b s . A s i m i l a r e x a m p l e i s a comment made by a r e c r u i t e r t h a t he w a n t e d an " a g g r e s s i v e g u y " (R.15) f o r h i s v a c a n t s a l e s p e r s o n p o s i t i o n . B o t h s e x a n d p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s w e r e n o t e d i n t h i s c a s e . O b s e r v e d G e n d e r e d D i v i s i o n s o f L a b o u r : F u r t h e r e v i d e n c e o f g e n d e r b e i n g a s i g n i f i c a n t s c r e e n i n g m e c h a n i s m , d e s p i t e c e r t a i n r e c r u i t e r s ' d e c l a r a t i o n s t o t h e c o n t r a r y , was f o u n d i n my own o b s e r v a t i o n s . The r e c r u i t e r o f a l a r g e h o t e l a d m i t t e d t h a t a " n i c e hunk o f b o y o r g i r l i n a b a r a t t r a c t s p e o p l e ... s e x a p p e a l i s i m p o r t a n t " ( N . 3 0 ) . I f b o t h s e x e s w e r e h i r e d i n e q u a l numbers a n d p l a c e d i n a l l j o b s , p e r h a p s t h i s r e c r u i t e r c o u l d n o t be a c c u s e d o f d i s c r i m i n a t i n g on t h e b a s i s o f g e n d e r . H owever, I o b s e r v e d t h a t one b a r , u p s t a i r s i n t h e h o t e l , h a d o n l y y o u n g , a t t r a c t i v e , f e m a l e w a i t r e s s e s . T h i s b a r c a t e r s m a i n l y t o h o t e l p a t r o n s : m i d d l e - a g e d b u s i n e s s m e n . D o w n s t a i r s i n t h e h o t e l , a n d a c c e s s i b l e f r o m t h e s i d e w a l k , i s a n e i g h b o u r h o o d p u b - s t y l e b a r w h i c h e m p l o y s o n l y y o u n g , a t t r a c t i v e m a l e s , d e s i g n e d t o a p p e a l t o b o t h m a l e a n d f e m a l e c u s t o m e r s . A s i m i l a r c o n t r a d i c t i o n b e t w e e n a r e c r u i t e r ' s c l a i m s a n d my o b s e r v a t i o n s was l o c a t e d i n a n o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n . When a s k e d w hat t y p e o f p e r s o n was s o u g h t f o r t h e j o b v a c a n c y , t h e r e c r u i t e r s a i d t h a t " g e n d e r a n d r a c e w e r e i r r e l e v a n t " ( R . 2 2 ) . H owever, I o b s e r v e d a g e n d e r e d d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r a t t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t : a l l t h e c a s h i e r s a r e y o u n g w h i t e f e m a l e s , a n d a l l t h e c a l l e r s 2 1 a r e 2 1 T h e o r g a n i z a t i o n was a w h o l e s a l e g r o c e r y s t o r e . C a l l e r s w o r k a l o n g s i d e t h e c a s h i e r s , c a l l i n g o u t i t e m numbers t o t h e c a s h i e r s , a n d p a c k i n g c u s t o m e r s ' p u r c h a s e s i n t o b o x e s . 75 y o u n g w h i t e m a l e s . A l t h o u g h t h e r e c r u i t e r d i d n o t a d m i t t o h i s g e n d e r p r e f e r e n c e s , he d i d s t a t e t h a t he l i k e d t o h i r e c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s a n d t h a t "a t h i r t y - f i v e y e a r o l d l a d y c a n ' t l i f t b a g s o f s u g a r d a y i n d a y o u t " , w h i c h i s e v i d e n c e o f b o t h g e n d e r a n d age d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . C o n t r a d i c t o r y D e c l a r a t i o n s o f G e n d e r P r e f e r e n c e : R e c r u i t e r s f r e q u e n t l y c o n t r a d i c t e d t h e m s e l v e s r e g a r d i n g g e n d e r n e u t r a l i t y , r e v e a l i n g t h e i r b e l i e f s a b o u t g e n d e r . One r e c r u i t e r s t a t e d " I n e v e r t h i n k on g e n d e r t e r m s " ( R . 0 2 ) , when a s k e d a b o u t t h e g e n d e r c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e i n i t i a l r e s p o n s e t o a n a d v e r t i s e m e n t . L a t e r i n t h e i n t e r v i e w , d u r i n g a d i s c u s s i o n a b o u t t h e s e l e c t i o n o f t h e s u c c e s s f u l c a n d i d a t e , s h e s t a t e d " I h i r e d V a l ... I w o u l d p r e f e r t o h i r e a woman". A n o t h e r r e c r u i t e r s a i d t h a t he w o u l d c o n s i d e r h i r i n g a woman i f one e v e r a p p l i e d a t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n . H owever, d u r i n g a n i n f o r m a l c h a t w i t h h i m a f t e r t h e i n t e r v i e w , he s t a t e d t h a t "women c a n ' t w o r k i n a l a b o u r -i n t e n s i v e j o b , b u t t h e r e ' s l o t s o f t h i n g s t h e y c a n do t h a t men c a n ' t " ( R . 1 9 ) . A r e c r u i t e r f o r a t i r e s h o p r e s p o n d e d t o my q u e s t i o n a b o u t p o s s i b l e f e m a l e a p p l i c a n t s b y e n s u r i n g me he w o u l d c o n s i d e r a woman, p a u s i n g , a n d t h e n s t a t i n g " b u t , t h i s i s no p l a c e f o r a f e m a l e , i s i t ? " ( N . 0 9 ) . A n o t h e r r e c r u i t e r s a i d t h a t a woman h a d a p p l i e d f o r a w e l d i n g j o b r e c e n t l y , b u t s h e was n o t e v e n i n t e r v i e w e d a s he c o u l d t e l l " s h e w o u l d n ' t f i t i n w i t h a l l t h e g u y s " ( N . 2 9 ) . V. The J o b I n t e r v i e w a n d F i n a l C a n d i d a t e S e l e c t i o n Many r e c r u i t e r s o f f e r e d , v o l u n t a r i l y , t h e i r o p i n i o n s on i n t e r v i e w i n g j o b c a n d i d a t e s : m o s t c o n s i d e r e d i t a h i g h l y u n p l e a s a n t a n d s t r e s s f u l e x p e r i e n c e , f r a u g h t w i t h " t h e f e a r o f t h e unknown" ( R . 0 4 ) . One r e c r u i t e r s t a t e d t h a t f i l l i n g a j o b v a c a n c y i s " l i k e b u y i n g p a i n t - i t ' s o f t e n n o t t h e same c o l o u r a t home a s i t was i n t h e s t o r e " ( N . 1 3 ) . A n o t h e r r e c r u i t e r d i s l i k e d h i r i n g a s s h e " h a t e [ s ] t o h u r t p e o p l e ' s f e e l i n g s when y o u c a n ' t o f f e r them a j o b " ( N . 4 7 ) . R e c r u i t e r s p r a c t i c e d a v a r i e t y o f method s o f g a i n i n g i n s i g h t i n t o a p p l i c a n t s ' p e r s o n a l i t i e s a n d a t t i t u d e s d u r i n g j o b i n t e r v i e w s , i n t h e i r q u e s t f o r i n d i c a t i o n s o f a p p l i c a n t s ' p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , a f i n d i n g c o n s i s t e n t w i t h J e n k i n s who n o t e d t h a t : M a n a g e r s r e l y on c e r t a i n c o m m o n - s e n s i c a l s t e r e o t y p i c a l m o d e l s o f a c c e p t a b i l i t y , o r on h i g h l y i d i o s y n c r a t i c c o n c e p t i o n s o f t h e same a t t r i b u t e ( J e n k i n s , 1986: 2 3 5 ) . P h y s i c a l C u e s : Eye c o n t a c t was m e n t i o n e d b y most r e c r u i t e r s a s c r i t i c a l . One r e c r u i t e r s t a t e d t h a t no e y e c o n t a c t means t h a t a p p l i c a n t s " l i v e i n a n o t h e r w o r l d , w a n t no c o n t a c t w i t h t h i s w o r l d " ( N . 1 0 ) . A n o t h e r s t a t e d t h a t " i f t h e y d o n ' t l o o k a t y o u , g a z e i n t o s p a c e , t h e y ' r e n o t i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e j o b " ( R . 2 0 ) . A l t h o u g h g e n d e r was n o t i m p l i c a t e d d i r e c t l y i n r e c r u i t e r s ' comments o n e y e c o n t a c t , t h i s m e t hod o f a c q u i r i n g i n s i g h t i n t o a p p l i c a n t s ' p e r s o n a l i t i e s was p a r t i c u l a r l y common among r e c r u i t e r s i n t e r v i e w i n g women f o r f e m a l e - g e n d e r e d j o b s w h i c h , a g a i n , i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h B i l l s ' c l a i m t h a t women a r e e v a l u a t e d more o n t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t i e s t h a n t h e i r e d u c a t i o n ( B i l l s , 1 988: 8 4 ) . R e c r u i t e r s w e r e c l e a r l y d i v i d e d i n t h e i r o p i n i o n s on h a n d s h a k e s . Some c o n s i d e r e d h a n d s h a k e s i r r e l e v a n t ; one r e c r u i t e r s a i d t h a t "some o f o u r b e s t p e o p l e h a v e a l i m p h a n d s h a k e " ( N . 1 0 ) . O t h e r s saw t h e t y p e o f h a n d s h a k e a s h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t : " a g o o d , s t r o n g h a n d s h a k e means t h e p e r s o n h a s c o n f i d e n c e " ( R . 2 3 ) . The l i n k a g e b e t w e e n h a n d s h a k e s a n d g e n d e r i s l o c a t e d i n t h e s e x o f a p p l i c a n t s f o r whom r e c r u i t e r s u s e d t h i s s i g n a l : N e a r l y a l l m a l e r e c r u i t e r s who h a d i n t e r v i e w e d m a l e a p p l i c a n t s f o r m a l e - g e n d e r e d j o b s m e n t i o n e d h a n d s h a k e s a s s a l i e n t t o t h e i r r e c r u i t m e n t d e c i s i o n s , a l b e i t i n a m i n o r way. A f e w r e c r u i t e r s l i k e d t o w a t c h t h e way a n a p p l i c a n t w a l k s t o g a i n c l u e s a b o u t h i s / h e r j o b s u i t a b i l i t y . One r e c r u i t e r s t a t e d : I l i k e t o w a l k w i t h p e o p l e . I f t h e y ' r e f o u r m i l e s b e h i n d me, o r e x u d e no e n e r g y , I'm u s u a l l y r i g h t . I t ' s b a d f o r a s a l e s p e r s o n ... t h e y n e e d t o move q u i c k l y ( N . 3 6 ) . A n o t h e r r e c r u i t e r s a i d t h a t a n o l d e r p e r s o n n e l o f f i c e r o n c e t o l d h e r t o " w a t c h t h e way t h e y w a l k ... i f s l o w , t h e y ' r e a p l o d d e r ... i f b r i s k , t h e y move more q u i c k l y i n t h e j o b " ( N . 0 5 ) . T h i s was y e t a n o t h e r s e x - s p e c i f i c s i g n a l t o r e c r u i t e r s ; o n l y f e m a l e r e c r u i t e r s m e n t i o n e d t h i s m e t hod o f a c q u i r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t f e m a l e c a n d i d a t e s . C o m p a r i s o n w i t h P r e d e c e s s o r : A n o t h e r m e thod u s e d b y r e c r u i t e r s i s t o co m p a r e a p p l i c a n t s t o t h e l a s t p e r s o n who h e l d t h e j o b . I f t h e p r e v i o u s i n c u m b e n t was a g o o d e m p l o y e e , " y o u h a v e a t e n d e n c y t o l o o k f o r t h e i r c l o n e " ( N . 2 1 ) . C o n v e r s e l y , i f t h e p r e v i o u s e m p l o y e e h a d some b a d q u a l i t i e s , e v i d e n c e o f t h e s e 78 q u a l i t i e s i s s o u g h t i n j o b a p p l i c a n t s . F o r e x a m p l e , one r e c r u i t e r was p a r t i c u l a r l y s e n s i t i v e t o a p p l i c a n t s 7 p e r s o n a l i t i e s a s t h e p r e v i o u s i n c u m b e n t , a l t h o u g h s t r o n g on e x p e r i e n c e , " d i d l o u s y i n p . r . " ( R . 0 7 ) . I t was u s u a l l y p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e p r e v i o u s i n c u m b e n t s t h a t w e r e t h e f o c u s o f s u c h a c o m p a r i s o n — n o t e m p l o y e e p e r f o r m a n c e o r s k i l l s . I f t h e p r e v i o u s e m p l o y e e h a d a c h a r a c t e r t r a i t deemed b y t h e r e c r u i t e r t o be i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h i n c u m b e n t s , o r d i s t a s t e f u l t o t h e r e c r u i t e r , e v i d e n c e o f s u c h a n a t t r i b u t e w o u l d be s o u g h t i n j o b a p p l i c a n t s . A l t h o u g h a n a p p l i c a n t ' s s e x may n o t , i n i t s e l f , h a v e b e e n u s e d a s a s c r e e n i n g m e c h a n i s m t o t h i s e n d , g e n d e r e d p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a s s i g n e d t o men a n d women by t h e r e c r u i t e r may i n a d v e r t e n t l y h a v e l e d t o an e r r o n e o u s d e c i s i o n b a s e d on p r e c o n c e p t i o n s a b o u t t h e g e n d e r e d n a t u r e o f t h o s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . C o m p a r i s o n w i t h O t h e r E m p l o y e e s ; Many r e c r u i t e r s a l s o k e e p i n m i n d t h e p e r s o n a l i t i e s o f e m p l o y e e s w i t h whom t h e s u c c e s s f u l a p p l i c a n t m ust w o r k , a n d s e e k a c o m p a t i b l e p e r s o n . One r e c r u i t e r s t a t e d t h a t : ... y o u w a n t a g e n e r a l m i x i n t h e o f f i c e ... someone c h a t t y a n d u p b e a t , a n d someone q u i e t a n d s h y ... i t ' s l i k e a h o c k e y c l u b ... y o u l o o k a t wh a t y o u ' v e g o t and w h a t y o u n e e d ( R . 2 1 ) . I f a j o b a p p l i c a n t i s o f t h e n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l g e n d e r , r e c r u i t e r s may e a s i l y e l i m i n a t e t h e a p p l i c a n t on t h e b a s i s o f l a c k o f q u a l i t i e s t h a t a r e c o n d u c i v e t o w o r k p l a c e harmony. A r e c r u i t e r f o r a v a c a n t p u r c h a s i n g c l e r k p o s i t i o n s t a t e d t h a t s h e h a d d i f f i c u l t y d e c i d i n g on t h e s u c c e s s f u l a p p l i c a n t , b e c a u s e t h e j o b i n v o l v e d b o t h c l e r i c a l d u t i e s a s w e l l a s t h e a b i l i t y t o l i f t h e a v y b o x e s , t h e l a t t e r r e q u i r i n g an e m p l o y e e i n g o o d p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n . A l t h o u g h m o s t o f t h e a p p l i c a n t s w e r e f e m a l e , one m a l e r e c e i v e d t h e h i g h e s t s c o r e o n t h e r e c r u i t e r ' s r a t i n g s y s t e m . The d e c i d i n g f a c t o r t o t h e r e c r u i t e r was t h e a p p l i c a n t ' s p e r s o n a l i t y a s he h a d t o w o r k i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y t o 14 women. She h i r e d t h e man b e c a u s e he h a d t h e " r i g h t p e r s o n a l i t y ... n o t o v e r l y a g g r e s s i v e " ; s h e s t a t e d s h e w o u l d h a v e e l i m i n a t e d h i m , d e s p i t e h i s g o o d q u a l i f i c a t i o n s a n d h i g h r a t i n g s , h a d he n o t p o s s e s s e d t h e s u i t a b l e p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s c o n d u c i v e t o harmony i n t h e o f f i c e ( N . 1 0 ) . G u t F e e l i n g : M o s t s u c c e s s f u l c a n d i d a t e s e l e c t i o n s w e r e b a s e d on one c r i t e r i o n : r e c r u i t e r s ' " g u t f e e l i n g s " a b o u t a p p l i c a n t s , u s u a l l y t i e d i n w i t h a p p l i c a n t s ' a b i l i t i e s t o " f i t i n " t o t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n , w h i c h c o n f i r m s J e n k i n s ' ( 1 9 8 6 ) f i n d i n g s t h a t r e c r u i t e r s u l t i m a t e l y r e l y on t h e i r i n s t i n c t s i n f o r m i n g a " G e s t a l t " i m p r e s s i o n o f a p p l i c a n t s . W i n d o l f a n d Wood a l s o c l a i m e d t h a t , i n t h e i r s t u d y , "many p e r s o n n e l m a n a g e r s t r u s t e d t h e i r f e e l i n g s " ( W i n d o l f a n d Wood, 1988: 2 0 0 ) . A s one r e c r u i t e r s t a t e d , " t h e l o n g e r y o u d e a l w i t h p e o p l e , t h e more y o u r e a l i z e i t ' s a j u d g m e n t c a l l a n d y o u h a v e t o r e l y on y o u r e x p e r i e n c e a n d j u d g m e n t " ( N . 0 8 ) . A n o t h e r r e c r u i t e r d e c l a r e d t h a t h i r i n g i s : ... a s t r u g g l e . You s e a r c h f o r t h e i d e a l c a n d i d a t e a n d s e t t l e f o r t h e b e s t f i t y o u c a n f i n d ... i t h a s t o be done ... y o u go w i t h y o u r i n s t i n c t a n d c h o o s e t h e c a n d i d a t e y o u ' r e h a p p y w i t h ( R . 2 0 ) . R e c r u i t e r s w e r e d i v i d e d i n t h e i r r e s p o n s e s t o f i r s t i m p r e s s i o n s o f c a n d i d a t e s — " g u t f e e l i n g s " a b o u t a p p l i c a n t s ' 80 p e r s o n a l i t i e s a n d a b i l i t y t o " f i t i n " t o t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n — t h a t d e v e l o p e d w i t h i n t h e f i r s t f e w m i n u t e s o f i n t e r v i e w i n g a p p l i c a n t s . Many p e r c e i v e i t a s a c o n f l i c t b e t w e e n e m o t i o n a n d • common s e n s e . Some r e c r u i t e r s r e l y v e r y s t r o n g l y o n t h e i r f i r s t i m p r e s s i o n s o f c a n d i d a t e s , w h e t h e r p o s i t i v e o r n e g a t i v e : " I make my d e c i s i o n w i t h i n t h e f i r s t f i f t e e n m i n u t e s o f t h e i n t e r v i e w " ( N . 4 0 ) . O t h e r s t r y t o i g n o r e t h e i r e m o t i o n a l r e s p o n s e s t o c a n d i d a t e s a n d a t t e m p t t o r e s e r v e j u d g m e n t u n t i l t h e i n t e r v i e w i s c o m p l e t e d . One r e c r u i t e r r e t a i n e d h e r f i r s t i m p r e s s i o n s a n d " s p e n t t h e r e s t o f t h e i n t e r v i e w t r y i n g t o l o o k f o r e v i d e n c e a g a i n s t t h a t i m p r e s s i o n " ( N . 1 0 ) . Many r e c r u i t e r s w e r e c y n i c a l a b o u t t h e r e c r u i t m e n t p r o c e s s i n g e n e r a l . As one r e c r u i t e r s t a t e d , " y o u m i g h t a s w e l l j u s t f l i p a c o i n " ( N . 2 4 ) . R e c r u i t e r s v i e w e d r e s u m e s a n d a p p l i c a t i o n f o r m s f r e q u e n t l y w i t h s u s p i c i o n : "A resume c a n be m a n i p u l a t e d t o a p p l y t o w h a t e v e r j o b i s b e i n g a p p l i e d f o r " ( N . 0 3 ) . S u c h r e c r u i t e r s a c k n o w l e d g e d t h a t t h e y h a d h a d s e v e r a l e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h h i r i n g someone i n t h e p a s t who t u r n e d o u t t o be t h e w r o n g p e r s o n f o r t h e j o b . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e y v i e w a l l c a n d i d a t e s w i t h s u s p i c i o n a n d t r e a t them a s " g u i l t y u n t i l p r o v e n i n n o c e n t " (N.10) b e c a u s e "what y o u s e e on p a p e r d o e s n o t a l w a y s a r r i v e i n p e r s o n " ( N . 0 8 ) . I m p l i c i t i n t h i s r e l i a n c e on " g u t f e e l i n g " i s t h e most h i d d e n a n d , t h e r e f o r e , p o w e r f u l o p p o r t u n i t y f o r r e c r u i t e r s t o u s e g e n d e r a s a s c r e e n i n g m e c h a n i s m . U n l e s s r e c r u i t e r s a r e c o n s c i o u s l y a n d a c t i v e l y c o m m i t t e d t o g e n d e r - f r e e s e l e c t i o n 81 p r o c e s s e s , a n y j o b c a n d i d a t e who i s n o t o f t h e s o c i a l l y - e x p e c t e d g e n d e r w i l l be s u b j e c t e d t o m o s t r e c r u i t e r s ' " g u t f e e l i n g " t h a t t h i s c a n d i d a t e may n o t be t h e r i g h t one f o r t h e j o b . A l t h o u g h a few r e c r u i t e r s r e a d i l y a d m i t t e d t h e i r g e n d e r p r e f e r e n c e s t o me, t h e m a j o r i t y c a m o u f l a g e d t h e e l i m i n a t i o n o f c e r t a i n j o b a p p l i c a n t s b y r e f e r r i n g t o t h i s " g u t f e e l i n g " , o r r e f e r e n c e t o p a r t i c u l a r p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s n o r m a l l y a s c r i b e d t o t h e n o n -t r a d i t i o n a l g e n d e r t h a t w e r e i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e c a n d i d a t e t h e y w e r e s e e k i n g , r e v e a l i n g t h e " m a n a g e r i a l d i s c r e t i o n " ( B i l l s , 1988: 87) i n h e r e n t i n m o s t r e c r u i t m e n t p r o c e s s e s . G e n d e r e d J o b s The f o r m a t o f t h i s c h a p t e r was a n e l a b o r a t i o n on t h e p r o c e s s f o l l o w e d by r e c r u i t e r s t o f i l l a r e c e n t j o b v a c a n c y . P a r t o f t h e e n t i r e p r o c e s s was t h e g e n d e r e d n a t u r e o f t h e j o b v a c a n c i e s . A s t h e j o b s t h e m s e l v e s a r e c l e a r l y g e n d e r e d e v e n b e f o r e a n y a p p l i c a n t s a r e e v e r c o n s i d e r e d , due t o a v a r i e t y o f s y s t e m i c , e c o n o m i c a n d s o c i a l l y - c o n s t r u c t e d f o r c e s m e n t i o n e d i n C h a p t e r 2 o f t h i s t h e s i s , t h e d i s c u s s i o n on j o b g e n d e r i n g t h a t now f o l l o w s i s d e l i b e r a t e l y p l a c e d a s a f o r m o f e p i l o g u e t o t h e r e c r u i t m e n t p r o c e s s e s d i s c u s s e d . A s m e n t i o n e d a b o v e , o n l y 5.9% o f t h e j o b d e s c r i p t i o n s g i v e n by r e c r u i t e r s c o n t a i n e d r e f e r e n c e s t o g e n d e r - s p e c i f i c p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . B u t m o s t r e c r u i t e r s ' s c r e e n i n g p r o c e s s e s , a t t h e l e v e l s o f b o t h i n i t i a l c a n d i d a t e p o o l f o r m a t i o n a n d s u b s e q u e n t e l i m i n a t i o n o f a p p l i c a n t s , d i d i n c l u d e t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s a n d g e n d e r , r e v e a l i n g t h e 82 l i m i t a t i o n s i m p o s e d on b o t h m a l e a nd f e m a l e a p p l i c a n t s w h i c h r e s u l t i n s e x s e g r e g a t i o n i n l a b o u r ( R e s k i n a n d H a r t m a n n , 1986: 5 3 ) . I t i s w i t h i n t h e s e p r o c e s s e s , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t h e g e n d e r -s p e c i f i c i t y o f o c c u p a t i o n s i s r e v e a l e d . The g e n d e r i n g o f j o b s i n t h i s s t u d y a p p e a r e d t o be b a s e d on one o f two f a c t o r s ( a n d o c c a s i o n a l l y b o t h ) : p e r c e i v e d e m o t i o n a l a n d p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f one g e n d e r b e i n g a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e j o b ; a n d / o r t h e p r o d u c t s i n v o l v e d i n t h e j o b ( s u c h a s s a l e s ) t h a t w e r e f e l t t o be t h e e x c l u s i v e d o m a i n o f one g e n d e r . T h i s f i n d i n g i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h a t o f numerous s o c i o l o g i s t s t h a t e m p l o y e r s b e l i e v e t h a t m o s t j o b s r e q u i r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f e l t t o be p o s s e s s e d b y one s e x ( C u r r a n , 1 988: 349; F u c h s , 1988: 39; Lowe, 1988: 119; R e s k i n a n d H a r t m a n n , 1986: 3 ) . I c a t e g o r i z e d t h e j o b s s t u d i e d i n t h i s r e s e a r c h a c c o r d i n g t o L e v i n s o n ' s d e f i n i t i o n t h a t : ... o c c u p a t i o n s c a n be d e s c r i b e d a s ' s e x -t y p e d ' when a v e r y l a r g e m a j o r i t y o f t h o s e i n them a r e o f one s e x a n d when t h e r e i s an a s s o c i a t e d n o r m a t i v e e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t t h i s i s a s i t s h o u l d be ( L e v i n s o n , 1 975: 5 3 4 ) . B a s e d o n my own o b s e r v a t i o n s a n d q u e s t i o n i n g o f r e c r u i t e r s , I f o u n d t h a t o f t h e 151 j o b v a c a n c i e s e x a m i n e d , 62 p e r c e n t o f t h e j o b s w e r e m a l e - g e n d e r e d : 96 p e r c e n t o f t h e s e j o b s w e r e f i l l e d b y m a l e a p p l i c a n t s . F e m a l e - g e n d e r e d j o b s a c c o u n t e d f o r 28 p e r c e n t o f a l l j o b v a c a n c i e s ; t h e s e v a c a n c i e s w e re f i l l e d 100 p e r c e n t b y f e m a l e s 2 2 . A v e r y f e w g e n d e r - n e u t r a l ( a n d r o g y n o u s ) 2 2 I n C u r r a n ' s s t u d y , women w e r e a l s o a p p o i n t e d t o a l l o f t h e j o b s w h i c h h a d b e e n g e n d e r e d f e m a l e , a n d t h r e e o f t h e m a l e j o b s w e r e f i l l e d b y women ( C u r r a n , 1 9 8 8 : 3 4 8 ) . 83 j o b s w e r e e x a m i n e d : 10 p e r c e n t o f a l l v a c a n c i e s . G e n d e r -n e u t r a l j o b s w e r e f i l l e d e v e n l y b y m a l e s a n d f e m a l e s . T a b l e 5 shows t h e j o b v a c a n c i e s a n d t h e i r g e n d e r s t a t u s . T a b l e 5 G e n d e r S t a t u s o f J o b s :  M a l e - G e n d e r e d E n g i n e e r A u t o m o t i v e M e c h a n i c W a r e h o u s e W o r k e r E l e c t r o n i c S a l e s S p o r t s S t o r e S a l e s Gas S t a t i o n A t t e n d a n t U p p e r Management S c i e n t i f i c I n s t r u m e n t S a l e s W e l d e r T r u c k D r i v e r G o l f C l u b M a n a g e r T a x i D r i v e r L a b o u r e r R a d i o S t a t i o n S a l e s G a r a g e C l e a n u p P e r s o n Tow T r u c k D r i v e r Bus D r i v e r E l e c t r o n i c T e c h n i c i a n The t a b l e d e m o n s t r a t e s r e c r u i t e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e g e n d e r e d s t a t u s o f m o s t o f t h e j o b v a c a n c i e s a n a l y z e d w h i c h , i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h r e c r u i t e r s ' b e l i e f s a b o u t a p p l i c a n t s ' g e n d e r , h e l p s t o g u i d e them i n t h e i r d e c i s i o n s a b o u t i d e a l a n d a c t u a l j o b a p p l i c a n t s , t h e r e b y c o n t r i b u t i n g t o a s e x - s e g r e g a t e d l a b o u r f o r c e . C o n c l u s i o n T h i s c h a p t e r h a s e x a m i n e d a v a r i e t y o f s t e p s i n w h i c h g e n d e r i s a s i g n i f i c a n t f i l t e r i n t h e r e c r u i t m e n t p r o c e s s , u s e d by r e c r u i t e r s i n a l a r g e l y u n c o n s c i o u s way. I n j o b d e s c r i p t i o n s a n d F e m a l e - G e n d e r e d S e c r e t a r i e s Bank T e l l e r O f f i c e C l e r k s A c c o u n t i n g C l e r k M o d e l l i n g S c h o o l S a l e s C a s h i e r s H a i r d r e s s e r B o o k k e e p e r s F l o r i s t L i n e n S a l e s N u r s e G e n d e r - N e u t r a l R e h a b i 1 i t a t i o n S p e c i a l i s t R e p o r t e r P h o t o g r a p h y S a l e s L i q u o r S t o r e C l e r k Tax P r e p . S t a f f P h o t o . L a b P e r s o n L i n e Cook 84 a d v e r t i s e m e n t s , r e c r u i t e r s r a r e l y s p e c i f i e d a p a r t i c u l a r g e n d e r , b u t w e r e a b l e t o a c c e s s t h e a p p r o p r i a t e g e n d e r t h r o u g h a l i s t o f g e n d e r e d f u n c t i o n a l j o b r e q u i r e m e n t s . O n l y i n a v e r y few c a s e s was t h i s m a n i p u l a t i o n d e l i b e r a t e . A l t h o u g h a p p l i c a n t s ' g e n d e r was s p e c i f i e d b y o n l y 12 % o f r e c r u i t e r s i n t h e i r i d e a l c a n d i d a t e c o n s t r u c t i o n , 5 9 % o f r e c r u i t e r s m e n t i o n e d p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s i n w h i c h g e n d e r i s f r e q u e n t l y i m p l i e d . C u r r a n a l s o n o t e d t h a t , i n h e r s t u d y , ... g e n d e r a n d a v a r i e t y o f p e r s o n a l a t t r i b u t e s ... i n w h i c h g e n d e r i s embedded, a r e r e g a r d e d by many e m p l o y e r s a s s p e c i f i c a n d f u n c t i o n a l a t t r i b u t e s a n d a s r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r t h e e f f e c t i v e p e r f o r m a n c e o f p a r t i c u l a r j o b s ( C u r r a n , 1988: 3 4 8 ) . E m p l o y e r s ' a p p l i c a n t s e a r c h m e t h o d s a l s o r e v e a l e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r g e n d e r t o be u s e d a s a s c r e e n i n g c r i t e r i o n . The w o r d - o f - m o u t h m e t h o d , u s e d by 3 4% o f t h e r e c r u i t e r s , s e r v e s t o l i m i t k n o w l e d g e o f t h e j o b v a c a n c y t o v e r y f e w p e o p l e , u s u a l l y t h o s e o f t h e same g e n d e r a s i n c u m b e n t s . I t was w i t h i n t h e s t a g e o f n a r r o w i n g t h e a p p l i c a n t p o o l t h a t g e n d e r h a d s i g n i f i c a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r r e c r u i t e r s ' c h o i c e o f r e t a i n e d a p p l i c a n t s . 9 3 % o f r e c r u i t e r s c i t e d p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a s s a l i e n t t o t h e i r d e c i s i o n t o e l i m i n a t e c a n d i d a t e s , a n d 69% e x p l i c i t l y p o i n t e d t o a n a p p l i c a n t ' s g e n d e r a s r e l e v a n t t o t h e i r d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . I n t h e s t a g e o f t h e j o b i n t e r v i e w a n d f i n a l c a n d i d a t e s e l e c t i o n , t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f a p p l i c a n t s ' g e n d e r was c l e a r l y d e m o n s t r a t e d . T h r o u g h t h e d i s c u s s i o n s o f p h y s i c a l c u e s , c o m p a r i s o n w i t h o t h e r e m p l o y e e s a n d r e c r u i t e r s ' g u t f e e l i n g s , 85 s t e r e o t y p e s a b o u t men a n d women emerged s t r o n g l y , a s r e c r u i t e r s a t t e m p t e d t o g a i n i n s i g h t i n t o a p p l i c a n t s ' a b i l i t y t o f i t i n t o t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n s . R e c r u i t e r s ' " g u t f e e l i n g s " w e r e p a r t i c u l a r l y r i f e w i t h r e f e r e n c e s t o a p p l i c a n t s ' g e n d e r . E v e n t h o s e r e c r u i t e r s who w e r e h i g h l y - t r a i n e d human r e s o u r c e s s p e c i a l i s t s commented t h a t t h e i m p r e s s i o n a c a n d i d a t e made upon f i r s t e n t e r i n g t h e i r o f f i c e was n e v e r i g n o r e d . No p r o t e c t i o n i s i n p l a c e t o i n h i b i t r e c r u i t e r s f r o m u s i n g g e n d e r a s a s c r e e n i n g m e c h a n i s m . I n f a c t , I f o u n d t h a t r e c r u i t e r s a r e e s s e n t i a l l y d o i n g n o t h i n g t o a l t e r t h e p r o c e s s i n s u c h a way a s t o make a p p l i c a n t s ' g e n d e r i r r e l e v a n t , due t o t h e c o v e r t , a n d u n c o n s c i o u s , way t h a t s u c h d i s c r i m i n a t i o n t a k e s p l a c e b y r e c r u i t e r s . I n o n l y a f e w i n s t a n c e s d i d I f i n d e v i d e n c e o f d i r e c t , o r b r u t a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a g a i n s t j o b a p p l i c a n t s b a s e d on t h e i r g e n d e r . However, t h r o u g h o u t t h e r e c r u i t m e n t p r o c e s s , I l o c a t e d a v a r i e t y o f ways i n w h i c h r e c r u i t e r s p r a c t i c e i n d i r e c t , o r c o v e r t , d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , m o s t o f w h i c h was c o n t a i n e d i n t h e l a n g u a g e t h a t r e c r u i t e r s u s e t o d e s c r i b e c a n d i d a t e s a n d j o b s . 86 C h a p t e r 5: C o n c l u s i o n  P u r p o s e o f t h e R e s e a r c h : T h e , p u r p o s e o f t h i s r e s e a r c h i s t o i n v e s t i g a t e i f a n d , i f s o , how r e c r u i t e r s c o n t r i b u t e t o a s e x - s e g r e g a t e d l a b o u r f o r c e b y p r a c t i c i n g d i r e c t o r i n d i r e c t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a g a i n s t j o b a p p l i c a n t s b a s e d on a p p l i c a n t s ' g e n d e r . To a c c o m p l i s h t h i s , I i n t e r v i e w e d 74 r e c r u i t e r s i n Nanaimo a n d R i c h m o n d i n 1990 a n d 1 9 9 1 , r e s u l t i n g i n i n t e r v i e w m a t e r i a l c o v e r i n g a t o t a l o f 84 j o b v a c a n c i e s w h i c h w e r e f i l l e d b y 151 p e o p l e . I a s k e d r e c r u i t e r s t o r e c o u n t t h e p r o c e s s t h a t t h e y u s e d t o f i l l e a c h j o b v a c a n c y , b e g i n n i n g w i t h t h e ways t h a t t h e y s e a r c h e d f o r j o b a p p l i c a n t s , a n d e n d i n g w i t h t h e i r f i n a l c a n d i d a t e s e l e c t i o n . F i n d i n g s : I f o u n d t h a t , t h r o u g h o u t t h e r e c r u i t m e n t p r o c e s s , r e c r u i t e r s r a r e l y p r a c t i c e d d i r e c t , o r d e l i b e r a t e , f o r m s o f d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a g a i n s t a p p l i c a n t s b a s e d o n t h e i r s e x . I n many c a s e s , r e c r u i t e r s h a d no c h o i c e b u t t o h i r e an a p p l i c a n t o f t h e s e x s u i t a b l e f o r t h e p o s i t i o n , a s t h e a p p l i c a n t p o o l was composed o f o n l y one s e x . However, t h i s i s n o t t o s a y t h a t r e c r u i t e r s h a d no c o n t r o l o v e r t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h a t a p p l i c a n t p o o l . E m p l o y e r s ' s e a r c h m e t h o d s an d t h e ways t h a t j o b d e s c r i p t i o n s w e r e w o r d e d u s u a l l y l e d t o o n l y one s e x a p p l y i n g f o r t h e v a c a n t p o s i t i o n , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f g e n d e r - n e u t r a l j o b v a c a n c i e s w h i c h a t t r a c t e d b o t h m a l e a n d f e m a l e a p p l i c a n t s i n e q u a l n u m b ers. I a l s o f o u n d t h a t f e m a l e a p p l i c a n t s f o r f e m a l e - g e n d e r e d j o b s w e r e e v a l u a t e d much more t h a n m a l e s o n t h e b a s i s o f p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . 87 I n m o s t c a s e s , r e c r u i t e r s w e r e u n a w a r e o f t h e l i m i t a t i o n s i m p o s e d on t h e a v a i l a b l e l a b o u r f o r c e b y t h e u s e o f i n f o r m a l s e a r c h m e t h o d s a n d j o b d e s c r i p t i o n s t h a t i n c l u d e d r e f e r e n c e s , n o t o n l y t o g e n d e r e d w o r k a c t i v i t i e s b u t a l s o , o n o c c a s i o n , t o s p e c i f i c p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s r e q u i r e d f o r t h e j o b t h a t h a d g e n d e r e d i m p l i c a t i o n s . I d e a l c a n d i d a t e c o n s t r u c t i o n a n d t h e e l i m i n a t i o n o f s h o r t -l i s t e d a p p l i c a n t s w e r e s t a g e s i n w h i c h I f o u n d t h e m o s t f r e q u e n t u s e o f c o v e r t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n o n t h e b a s i s o f g e n d e r . A p p l i c a n t s w e r e e l i m i n a t e d o r r e t a i n e d on t h e b a s i s o f p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s b y 9 3 % o f r e c r u i t e r s , a n d i t i s w i t h i n t h e c a t e g o r y o f p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s t h a t g e n d e r i s i m p l i c a t e d m o s t s t r o n g l y . Few p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e d e v o i d o f g e n d e r e d c o n n o t a t i o n s ; y e t , m o s t r e c r u i t e r s w e r e u n a w a r e o f t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f a t t a c h i n g t h e n e e d f o r p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t o t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a j o b . A l t h o u g h e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s o f r e c r u i t m e n t a r e r e l a t i v e l y r a r e i n t h e s o c i o l o g i c a l l i t e r a t u r e , my r e s u l t s a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e f i n d i n g s o f B i l l s ( 1 9 8 8 ) , C u r r a n ( 1 9 8 8 ) , W i n d o l f a n d Wood ( 1 9 8 8 ) , a n d J e n k i n s ( 1 9 8 6 ) . Sex s e g r e g a t i o n i n t h e l a b o u r f o r c e i s p e r p e t u a t e d , i n p a r t , b y r e c r u i t e r s who a r e n o t s e n s i t i v e t o a v a r i e t y o f g e n d e r - r e l a t e d d i s t i n c t i o n s t h a t t h e y r o u t i n e l y e m p l o y t o s c r e e n j o b a p p l i c a n t s a n d a r r i v e a t f i n a l h i r i n g d e c i s i o n s . S u g g e s t i o n s f o r I m p r o v e m e n t s : The s t u d y c o u l d h a v e b e e n i m p r o v e d w i t h a l a r g e r s a m p l e , i n o r d e r t o i n c r e a s e t h e g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y o f t h e f i n d i n g s . As w e l l , 88 I c o u l d h a v e e n h a n c e d t h e r e s e a r c h b y a more t h o r o u g h e x a m i n a t i o n o f j o b a d v e r t i s e m e n t s , w h i c h w o u l d h a v e n e c e s s i t a t e d g i v i n g r e c r u i t e r s e n o u g h t i m e t o l o o k b a c k i n t o t h e i r f i l e s a n d l o c a t e t h e a c t u a l w o r d i n g u s e d . W i t h a l a r g e r s a m p l e , t h e e f f e c t o f u n i o n s c o u l d a l s o h a v e b e e n e x a m i n e d . O t h e r t h a n e n t r y - l e v e l j o b s , m o s t u n i o n s h i r e f r o m w i t h i n t h e r a n k s a n d , o f t e n , s t r i c t l y on t h e b a s i s o f s e n i o r i t y . A s s o f e w o f t h e j o b v a c a n c i e s i n t h i s r e s e a r c h w e r e u n i o n p o s i t i o n s , I d i d n o t i n c l u d e a d i s c u s s i o n o f u n i o n h i r i n g p r a c t i c e s . I n f a c t , m o s t o f t h e u n i o n j o b v a c a n c i e s w e r e f o r e n t r y - l e v e l j o b s a n d s o t h e y w e r e a d v e r t i s e d e x t e r n a l l y . F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h ; S i m i l a r r e s e a r c h c o u l d be c o n d u c t e d w i t h a c o m p a r a t i v e d i m e n s i o n : r u r a l a r e a s c o m p a r e d w i t h u r b a n a r e a s . I t may be t h e c a s e t h a t e m p l o y e r s i n u r b a n a r e a s h a v e a c c e s s t o a l a r g e r p o o l o f a v a i l a b l e l a b o u r , w h i c h may i n t u r n a i d i n p e r p e t u a t i n g c o v e r t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n on t h e b a s i s o f g e n d e r . R e c r u i t e r s who must c h o o s e one s u c c e s s f u l a p p l i c a n t o u t o f a l a r g e number o f a p p l i c a n t s e m p l o y a v a r i e t y o f ways t o e l i m i n a t e c a n d i d a t e s a n d a r r i v e a t a f i n a l h i r i n g d e c i s i o n s . I n r u r a l a r e a s , h o w e v e r , t h e a p p l i c a n t p o o l s may n o t be a s l a r g e , a s t h e p o p u l a t i o n w o u l d be s m a l l e r and more g e o g r a p h i c a l l y d i v e r s e , r e s u l t i n g i n s m a l l e r a p p l i c a n t p o o l s . A n o t h e r d i r e c t i o n t h a t c o u l d be t a k e n t o e n h a n c e r e s e a r c h i n t o r e c r u i t m e n t p r a c t i c e s i s a c o m p a r a t i v e s t u d y o f a r e a s b a s e d on t h e i r economy. B o t h Nanaimo a n d R i c h m o n d a r e c u r r e n t l y 89 e n j o y i n g an e c o n o m i c boom, w i t h b o t h j o b s a n d a p p l i c a n t s i n p l e n t i f u l s u p p l y . However, some o f t h e s m a l l e r r e s o u r c e t o w n s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o s e r e l i a n t u p o n s i n g l e i n d u s t r i e s , a r e s t i l l i n a r e c e s s i o n , w i t h few j o b s a n d a g r e a t many u n e m p l o y e d p e o p l e . R e c r u i t m e n t p r a c t i c e s i n s u c h l o c a t i o n s may r e l y e v e n l e s s on f o r m a l p r o c e d u r e s , a s w o r d o f a v a c a n t j o b w o u l d , no d o u b t , s p r e a d r a p i d l y i n t h e a f f e c t e d c o m m u n i t i e s , a n d r e c r u i t e r s w o u l d h a v e a l a r g e a p p l i c a n t p o o l f r o m w h i c h t o s e l e c t . I a l s o s u g g e s t t h a t t h e r e may be more e v i d e n c e o f d i r e c t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n s u c h c o m m u n i t i e s a s r e c r u i t e r s i n s i n g l e -i n d u s t r y t o w n s may n o t be a s e n l i g h t e n e d i n t e r m s o f g e n d e r i n e q u a l i t y a s some o f t h e i r u r b a n c o u n t e r p a r t s . R e s e a r c h i n t o r e c r u i t e r s ' g e n d e r a n d i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r g e n d e r d i s c r i m i n a t i o n m i g h t a l s o h e l p i l l u m i n a t e t h e r e c r u i t m e n t p r o c e s s . I n t h e Nanaimo a n d R i c h m o n d r e s e a r c h f o r t h i s t h e s i s , I f o u n d t h a t m a l e r e c r u i t e r s w e r e f a r more l i k e l y t o p r a c t i c e c o v e r t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a g a i n s t f e m a l e a p p l i c a n t s f o r m a l e - g e n d e r e d j o b s . F e m a l e r e c r u i t e r s w e r e more a w a r e o f e m p l o y m e n t e q u i t y l e g i s l a t i o n a s w e l l a s t h e p r e s e n c e o f i n d i r e c t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . F r e q u e n t l y h a v i n g b e e n t h e r e c i p i e n t s o f i t t h e m s e l v e s , t h e y w e r e o f t e n q u i t e v o c a l a b o u t c o n c e r n s a b o u t e m p l o y m e n t e q u i t y . A n o t h e r d i s t i n c t i o n t h a t I n o t i c e d i n t h e Nanaimo a n d R i c h m o n d r e s e a r c h was t h a t m o s t f e m a l e r e c r u i t e r s , a l t h o u g h f e w e r i n number t h a n m a l e r e c r u i t e r s , h e l d t o p p e r s o n n e l p o s i t i o n s — Human R e s o u r c e s o r P e r s o n n e l M a n a g e r s — a n d h a d t a k e n many c o u r s e s a n d a t t e n d e d s e m i n a r s on h i r i n g . M o s t m a l e r e c r u i t e r s w e r e o w n e r s - m a n a g e r s o f s m a l l - o r m e d i u m - s i z e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s , who h a d n o t t a k e n a n y c o u r s e s o r r e a d a n y b o o k s a b o u t h i r i n g . A l t h o u g h most c o u r s e s a n d s e m i n a r s a r e b a s e d on t h e i d e a l m o d e l o f r e c r u i t m e n t 2 3 , many o f t h e f e m a l e r e c r u i t e r s t o l d me t h a t t h e y knew t h a t t h e r e c r u i t m e n t p r o c e s s was much more d i s c r e t i o n a r y t h a n t h e " e x p e r t s " c l a i m e d . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , some f e m a l e r e c r u i t e r s who h e l d management p o s i t i o n s t o l d me t h a t t h e y h a v e l i t t l e s y m p a t h y f o r f e m a l e j o b - s e e k e r s a s t h e y f e e l t h a t women t h e m s e l v e s a r e t h e e n g i n e e r s o f t h e i r own i n f e r i o r p o s i t i o n . T h e s e r e c r u i t e r s f e l t t h a t a s t h e y h a d s u c c e e d e d i n t h e b u s i n e s s w o r l d b y t h e i r own d e t e r m i n a t i o n , s o c o u l d a n y o t h e r woman. When I m e n t i o n e d t h e l i m i t a t i o n s i m p o s e d upon many women by c h i l d c a r e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , t h e s e f e m a l e r e c r u i t e r s r e s p o n d e d by s t a t i n g t h a t t h e y h a d managed a n d , t h e r e f o r e , s o c o u l d a n y woman. The a t t i t u d e t h a t s u c h r e c r u i t e r s showed was much more h a r s h a n d o p e n l y d i s c r i m i n a t o r y a g a i n s t women t h a n most m a l e r e c r u i t e r s , whose d i s c r i m i n a t i o n was r e v e a l e d i n more c o v e r t , a n d u n c o n s c i o u s , f o r m s . S i m i l a r t o t h e g e n d e r d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n r e c r u i t e r s , I w o u l d a l s o s u g g e s t an i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o a c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n age o f r e c r u i t e r a n d t h e i r b e l i e f s a b o u t g e n d e r d i f f e r e n c e s . I n t h e Nanaimo a n d R i c h m o n d r e s e a r c h , I o b s e r v e d t h a t t h e o l d e r t h e 2 3 I r e a d numerous b o o k s w r i t t e n f o r r e c r u i t e r s a b o u t h i r i n g t e c h n i q u e s , a n d a l s o a t t e n d e d two s e m i n a r s : one w h i c h t a u g h t r e c r u i t e r s how t o h i r e t h e " b e s t p e r s o n " , a n d one e n t i t l e d "How t o s u r v i v e a j o b i n t e r v i e w " . r e c r u i t e r ( e s p e c i a l l y m a l e r e c r u i t e r s ) , t h e more e n t r e n c h e d a n d e a s i l y - d e t e c t a b l e t h e d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . T h i s was mos t e v i d e n t i n some i n t e r v i e w s i n Nanaimo i n w h i c h t h e j o b v a c a n c y b e i n g e x a m i n e d was f i l l e d b y a n a p p l i c a n t who was i n t e r v i e w e d b y a p a n e l i n l a r g e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s . P a n e l s u s u a l l y c o n s i s t e d o f a P e r s o n n e l M a n a g e r (whom I i n t e r v i e w e d ) , one o r two d e p a r t m e n t m a n a g e r s a n d , o c c a s i o n a l l y , a u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . W i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e P e r s o n n e l M a n a g e r , a l l p a n e l members w e r e u s u a l l y o l d e r a n d m a l e . R e c r u i t e r s i n v a r i a b l y t o l d me t h a t t h e p r o c e s s o f d e c i d i n g w h i c h a p p l i c a n t s t o r e t a i n a n d w h i c h t o e l i m i n a t e was o f t e n v e r y d i f f i c u l t a s t h e o l d e r p a n e l members r e l i e d s t r o n g l y o n t h e i r s t e r e o t y p e s o f m a l e s a n d f e m a l e s , a n d r e s i s t e d s t r o n g l y a t t e m p t s on t h e p a r t o f t h e P e r s o n n e l M a n a g e r t o make them s e e b e y o n d a p p l i c a n t s ' p e r s o n a l a t t r i b u t e s . R e s e a r c h t h a t f o c u s e s o n e n t r y - l e v e l j o b s m i g h t a l s o r e v e a l ways t h a t a s e x - s e g r e g a t e d l a b o u r f o r c e i s p e r p e t u a t e d . M o s t u n i o n i z e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s h a v e v e r y f ew e n t r y - l e v e l p o s i t i o n s , o r p o r t s o f e n t r y . From t h e f e w e n t r y - l e v e l j o b s e x a m i n e d i n t h i s t h e s i s , I f o u n d t h a t r e c r u i t e r s p r e f e r r e d y o u n g a p p l i c a n t s , w i t h l i t t l e o r no e x p e r i e n c e . A p p l i c a n t p o o l s f o r e n t r y - l e v e l p o s i t i o n s w e r e u s u a l l y v e r y l a r g e , a n d r e c r u i t e r s t e n d e d t o f o c u s s t r o n g l y on a p p l i c a n t s ' p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a n d t h e i r p o t e n t i a l f o r " f i t t i n g i n " t o t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n . T h i s t h e s i s d e m o n s t r a t e s t h a t r e c r u i t e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f a p p l i c a n t s ' g e n d e r , c o m b i n e d w i t h t h e g e n d e r e d n a t u r e o f mos t j o b s , h e l p s t o p e r p e t u a t e a s e x - s e g r e g a t e d l a b o u r f o r c e . I t may be t h e c a s e 92 t h a t e n t r y - l e v e l j o b v a c a n c i e s a r e e v e n more v u l n e r a b l e t o r e c r u i t e r s 7 s t e r e o t y p e s o f m a l e a n d f e m a l e j o b s , a s t h e c r i t e r i a o f p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e i s r a r e l y c o n s i d e r e d by r e c r u i t e r s . C o n c l u s i o n : T h i s t h e s i s h a s shown t h a t r e c r u i t e r s p r a c t i c e i n d i r e c t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n on t h e b a s i s o f g e n d e r a t s e v e r a l s t a g e s o f t h e r e c r u i t m e n t p r o c e s s e s . I n a f e w c a s e s , I a l s o f o u n d t h a t r e c r u i t e r s d i s p l a y e d more b r u t a l f o r m s o f d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y a g a i n s t women. The f i n d i n g s o f t h i s r e s e a r c h d e m o n s t r a t e why c u r r e n t f e d e r a l e m p l o y m e n t e q u i t y l e g i s l a t i o n , i n i t s p r e s e n t f o r m , may be p o w e r l e s s i n i t s a t t e m p t t o i n h i b i t t h e p e r p e t u a t i o n o f a g e n d e r - s e g r e g a t e d l a b o u r f o r c e , a s r e c r u i t e r s a r e a b l e t o p r a c t i c e d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , u n c o n s c i o u s l y a n d i n d i r e c t l y , b a s e d on t h e i r b e l i e f s a b o u t t h e g e n d e r o f b o t h a p p l i c a n t s a n d j o b s . C a n a d i a n e m p l o y m e n t e q u i t y l e g i s l a t i o n , w h i c h h a s a q u o t a f o c u s t h a t r e q u i r e s e m p l o y e r s t o e s t a b l i s h h i r i n g t a r g e t s f o r s e l e c t e d g r o u p s ( e . g . , women a n d v i s i b l e m i n o r i t i e s ) , i s a more p l a u s i b l e s t r a t e g y f o r a c h i e v i n g g e n d e r p a r i t y i n t h e l a b o u r f o r c e . H o wever, s u c h l e g i s l a t i o n i s c r i t i c i s e d b e c a u s e i t f a v o u r s a s c r i p t i v e c r i t e r i a ( e . g . , s e x ) and n o t p r i n c i p l e s o f m e r i t ( e . g . , e d u c a t i o n ) i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g ( F u c h s , 1 988: 1 2 2 ) . As w e l l , s u c h a f f i r m a t i v e a c t i o n p r o g r a m s may h e l p o n l y a f e w members o f t h e s e l e c t e d g r o u p s . U n t i l r e c r u i t e r s ' ( a n d o t h e r s ' ) b e l i e f s a b o u t men a n d women i n em p l o y m e n t a l t e r , t h e q u o t a s y s t e m w i l l b e , f o r t h e p a r t , t o k e n i s m ( F u c h s , 1988: 1 2 2 ) . T h i s t h e s i s h a s a l s o shown t h a t e v e n d i r e c t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n c a n e a s i l y be p r a c t i c e d b y r e c r u i t e r s i n t h e d e l i b e r a t e m a n i p u l a t i o n o f j o b r e q u i r e m e n t s a n d t h e w o r d i n g o f j o b a d v e r t i s e m e n t s , w h i c h c a n e a s i l y t a r g e t one o r t h e o t h e r g e n d e r . B e f o r e d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , e i t h e r d i r e c t o r i n d i r e c t , c a n be r e d u c e d , r e c r u i t e r s n e e d t o be i n f o r m e d a b o u t t h e power o f l a n g u a g e a n d t h e b e l i e f s t h a t t h e y h o l d , o f t e n u n c o n s c i o u s l y , a b o u t g e n d e r . A s w e l l , more r e s e a r c h i n t o t h e v a r i o u s s t a g e s o f t h e r e c r u i t m e n t p r o c e s s a s w e l l a s r e c r u i t e r s t h e m s e l v e s n e e d s t o be c o n d u c t e d i n o r d e r t o a r r i v e a t some p r a c t i c a l s u g g e s t i o n s f o r i m p r o v e m e n t w h i c h w i l l , e v e n t u a l l y , l e a d t o r e c r u i t m e n t d e c i s i o n s t h a t a r e b a s e d l e s s on a n e v a l u a t i o n o f a p p l i c a n t s ' g e n d e r -r e l a t e d p e r s o n a l a t t r i b u t e s , a n d more on t h e f u n c t i o n a l r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e j o b . 94 B i b l i o g r a p h y A b e l l a , R o s a l i e S. 1984 E q u a l i t y i n Employment: A R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n R e p o r t . O t t a w a : C a n a d i a n G o v e r n m e n t P u b l i s h i n g C e n t r e . A b e l l a , R o s a l i e S. 1985 R e s e a r c h S t u d i e s o f t h e C o m m i s s i o n on E q u a l i t y i n Employment. O t t a w a : C a n a d i a n G o v e r n m e n t P u b l i s h i n g C e n t r e . A r v e y , R i c h a r d D. a n d R o b e r t H. F a l e y 1988 F a i r n e s s i n S e l e c t i n g E m p l o y e e s . M a s s a c h u s e t t s : A d d i s o n - W e s l e y P u b l i s h i n g . B e c k e r , G a r y 1964 Human C a p i t a l . New Y o r k : C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . B e c k e r , G a r y 1971 The E c o n o m i c s o f D i s c r i m i n a t i o n . C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o . B e r g , I v a r 1981 S o c i o l o g i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e s on L a b o r M a r k e t s . New Y o r k : A c a d e m i c P r e s s . B ergmann, B a r b a r a 1986 The E c o n o m i c E mergence o f Women. New Y o r k : B a s i c B o o k s . B e t z , M i c h a e l a n d L e n a h a n O ' C o n n e l l 1989 "Work O r i e n t a t i o n s o f M a l e s a n d F e m a l e s : E x p l o r i n g t h e G e n d e r S o c i a l i z a t i o n A p p r o a c h " . S o c i o l o g i c a l I n q u i r y . V o lume 5 9, No. 3, A u g u s t , pp. 318-329. B i l l s , D a v i d B. 1988 " E d u c a t i o n a l C r e d e n t i a l s a n d H i r i n g D e c i s i o n s : What E m p l o y e r s l o o k f o r i n New E m p l o y e e s " . R e s e a r c h i n S o c i a l  S t r a t i f i c a t i o n a n d M o b i l i t y . Volume 7, pp. 71-97. B l a u , F r a n c i n e a n d M a r i a n n e F e r b e r 1986 " D i f f e r e n c e s i n O c c u p a t i o n s a n d E a r n i n g s : The R o l e o f L a b o r M a r k e t D i s c r i m i n a t i o n " . The E c o n o m i c s o f Women. Men  an d Work. New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , pp. 228 - 2 7 9 . B r a d l e y , H a r r i e t 1989 Men's Work. Women's Work: A S o c i o l o g i c a l H i s t o r y o f t h e  S e x u a l D i v i s i o n o f L a b o u r i n Employment. M i n n e a p o l i s : U n i v e r s i t y o f M i n n e s o t a P r e s s . C a l z a v a r a , L i v i a n a 1988 " T r e n d s a n d P o l i c y i n Employment O p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r Women". S o c i a l I n e q u a l i t y i n C a n a d a . James C u r t i s , E d w a r d G r a b b , N e i l Guppy a n d S i d G i l b e r t , E d s . S c a r b o r o u g h : , P r e n t i c e - H a l l , pp. 28 7 - 3 0 0 . C a n a d a , S t a t i s t i c s C a n a d a 1990 "Women i n t h e L a b o u r F o r c e " . Women i n C a n a d a : A  S t a t i s t i c a l R e p o r t . 2nd E d i t i o n , p p . 7 3 - 1 0 3 . C u r r a n , M a r g a r e t 1988 " G e n d e r a n d R e c r u i t m e n t : P e o p l e a n d P l a c e s i n t h e L a b o u r M a r k e t " . Work. Employment a n d S o c i e t y . Volume 2, No. 3, S e p t e m b e r , p p . 3 3 5 - 3 5 1 . E i c h l e r , M a r g r i t 1985 " A p p l y i n g E q u a l i t y t o Employment". Work. Employment  and S o c i e t y . Volume 2, No. 3, S e p t e m b e r , pp. 3 3 5 - 3 5 1 . E n g l a n d , P a u l a 1981 " A s s e s s i n g T r e n d s i n O c c u p a t i o n a l S e x S e g r e g a t i o n , 1 9 0 0 - 1 9 7 6 " . S o c i o l o g i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e s on L a b o u r M a r k e t s . I v a r B e r g , E d . New Y o r k : A c a d e m i c P r e s s , pp. 273-288. E n g l a n d , P a u l a 1984 " S o c i o e c o n o m i c E x p l a n a t i o n s o f J o b D i s c r i m i n a t i o n " . C o m p a r a b l e W o r t h a n d Wage D i s c r i m i n a t i o n . H e l e n R e m i c k , E d . P h i l a d e l p h i a : T e m p l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , pp. 2 8 - 4 5 . E n g l a n d , P a u l a a n d G e o r g e F a r k a s 1986 H o u s e h o l d s . E m p l o y m e n t , a n d G e n d e r : A S o c i a l ,  E c o n o m i c , a n d D e m o g r a p h i c V i e w . 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" J o u r n a l o f P e r s o n a l i t y a n d S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y f V o l u m e 5 5 , No. 2, pp. 178-1 8 6 . 96 G u n d e r s o n , M o r l e y a n d F r a n k R e i d 1983 E q u a l i t y i n t h e W o r k p l a c e : Se x D i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n t h e  C a n a d i a n L a b o u r M a r k e t : T h e o r i e s , D a t a a n d E v i d e n c e . P r e p a r e d f o r t h e Women's B u r e a u , L a b o u r C a n a d a . U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o : C e n t r e f o r I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s . G u n d e r s o n , M o r l e y 1985 " L a b o u r M a r k e t A s p e c t s o f I n e q u a l i t y i n Employment a n d t h e i r A p p l i c a t i o n s t o Crown C o r p o r a t i o n s " . R o s a l i e S. A b e l l a , R e s e a r c h S t u d i e s o f t h e C o m m i s s i o n on E q u a l i t y i n  E m ployment. O t t a w a : C a n a d i a n G o v e r n m e n t P u b l i s h i n g C e n t r e , pp. 1-48. 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