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The effect of a multicultural art program on students' art appreciation and attitudes towards other cultures Paul, Diane Elizabeth 1991

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THE EFFECT OF A MULTICULTURAL ART PROGRAM ON STUDENTS' ART APPRECIATION AND ATTITUDES TOWARDS OTHER CULTURES by DIANE ELIZABETH PAUL A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTERS OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES V i s u a l and Performing Arts i n Education We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA January 1991 ° Diane Elizabeth Paul In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of V/tSuot qnc) Perfo r mi q A r t 5 i n £ d U ccv+ i o n The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date ^YYlCU-LCJns & ^ / ? 9 / DE-6 (2/88) i Acknowledgements I would l i k e to express my appreciation to my advisor, Graeme Chalmers fo r h i s continual assistance and support which has made the research and w r i t i n g of t h i s t h e s i s a unique and enjoyable learning experience. My thanks to Jack Kehoe fo r h i s guidance with the s t a t i s t i c a l portion of t h i s study and for h i s generosity with h i s m u l t i c u l t u r a l l i b r a r y . Jim Gray i s to be commended for h i s perspective and overview on the paper as a whole. I am also g r a t e f u l to Odie Kaplan who helped make a path v i s i b l e i n the beginning, and to my fellow graduate students and colleagues who provided the support and encouragement to follow i t . F i n a l l y , deep appreciation i s expressed to my family f o r providing the sunshine. Abstract The purpose of t h i s research study was t h r e e f o l d : to determine i f a m u l t i c u l t u r a l a r t program would have a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t on students' appreciation of t h e i r own a r t work, a r t from other cultures and a t t i t u d e s towards other cult u r e s . The program supported a m u l t i c u l t u r a l view of a r t which emphasized the c u l t u r a l s i m i l a r i t i e s and values which were common to a l l students. A nonequivalent control-group design was used within a quasi-experimental framework. One grade eight c l a s s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the M u l t i c u l t u r a l Program while the other served as the control group. Both classes were pre- and posttested with the Borgardus S o c i a l Distance Scale and a C u l t u r a l Appreciation Measure to determine i f there was an a t t i t u d e or appreciation change as a r e s u l t of the treatment. Student journals and a Journal Posttest also provided data f o r analysis and r e f l e c t i o n . No s i g n i f i c a n t s t a t i s t i c a l d i f f erences were found between experimental and control groups on the pre- and posttest. However, student journals and the Journal Posttest provided data to indicate a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e change i n students' at t i t u d e s towards t h e i r own a r t and the a r t of other cult u r e s . This was complemented by the researcher's journal which described the classroom proceedings. The r e s u l t s from the journals and the Journal Posttest i n d i c a t e that teaching a r t through a m u l t i c u l t u r a l perspective, which emphasizes the s i m i l a r i t i e s across cultures, can change at t i t u d e s about a r t . i v Table of Contents Acknowledgements i Abstract i i I. The Study 1 A. Introduction 1 B. Statement of the Problem 2 C. Purpose of the Study 3 D. Research Questions 4 E. D e f i n i t i o n of the M u l t i c u l t u r a l Curriculum 5 F. Design of the Study 7 1. Sample 7 2. Procedure 9 3. Instruments 10 4. Limitations 10 I I . Review of the L i t e r a t u r e 12 I I I . Conduct of the Study 27 A. Research Methodology 27 B. Research Questions 28 C. Se l e c t i o n of Subjects 28 D. Description of the School 29 E. Procedure 3 0 F. Instrumentation 31 1. The S o c i a l Distance Scale 31 2. The C u l t u r a l Appreciation Measure .. 3 3 3. The Journal Posttest 34 G. Data Analysis 35 H. The Treatment 36 I. Limitations 39 IV. Description of the Implementation Process .... 42 A. Introduction 42 B. The School 45 1. The Setting 45 2. Unit One: Color Theory and F o l k l o r e . 4 5 3. Unit Two: S t i l l L i f e with Mask 56 4. Unit Three: Year of the Horse 59 V. Findings 65 A. S o c i a l Distance Measure 65 B. C u l t u r a l Appreciation Measure 67 C. Journal Posttest 69 V D. D i s c u s s i o n 71 V I . Summary a n d C o n c l u s i o n s 74 V I I . R e f e r e n c e s 79 V I I I . A p p e n d i x A 85 I X . A p p e n d i x B 87 X. A p p e n d i x C 118 X I . A p p e n d i x D 121 X I I . A p p e n d i x E 129 v i L i s t o f T a b l e s T a b l e 1: E t h n i c Groups ( P i l o t Study) 7 T a b l e 2: C o l o r P r e f e r e n c e 55 T a b l e 3: S o c i a l D i s t a n c e S c a l e t - t e s t 66 T a b l e 4: C u l t u r a l A p p r e c i a t i o n Measure t - t e s t 68 T a b l e 5: J o u r n a l P o s t t e s t C h i Square 70 1 I. The Study A. Introduction Sam F i l l i p o f f , the former Vancouver School Board's Consultant on Race Relations and M u l t i c u l t u r a l Education s a i d that teachers and other people unconsciously p r a c t i c e "subtle e v i l s " and gives an example of the American hamburger as the choice of food served i n the school c a f e t e r i a (quoted i n Chalmers, 1984) . Chalmers extends t h i s notion into a r t programs which can be l i k e the monocultural American hamburger. How many f a s t food solutions are used by educators instead of addressing the r e a l issues of a m u l t i c u l t u r a l curriculum? An "awareness and recognition of the c u l t u r a l l y p l u r a l i s t i c nature of the nation can be r e f l e c t e d i n most classroom experiences" (Gollnick & Chinn, 1986, p.260). How can we accomplish t h i s i n our classrooms? Ijaz and Ijaz (1981) state that t r a d i t i o n a l approaches to the study of other cultures that focus mainly on the teaching of knowledge about those cultures have f a i l e d . They developed and analyzed a program which combined an e x p e r i e n t i a l approach with an emphasis on c u l t u r a l s i m i l a r i t i e s . I t was conveyed through music, folk-dance and c r a f t s . A key element i n achieving p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s was "not i n the mere knowledge about c u l t u r a l differences but i n an awareness of i n t e r c u l t u r a l s i m i l a r i t i e s and the roots of c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y " (p.20). Curriculum i s being developed on the assumption that negative a t t i t u d e s are a r e s u l t of ignorance and that a m u l t i c u l t u r a l focus i s simply a matter of providing more information about other c u l t u r a l groups. I t i s important that more research i s done on teaching and evaluating m u l t i c u l t u r a l programs. An i n depth focus emphasizing the s i m i l a r i t i e s among c u l t u r a l groups (Kehoe, 1984a) i s a way of educating students to hold more p o s i t i v e a ttitudes towards other c u l t u r e s . B. Statement of the Problem On r e l o c a t i n g from Abbotsford to Burnaby i n September, 1989, a f t e r eleven years of teaching i n the Fraser V a l l e y , I was immediately aware of the diff e r e n c e s i n an i n n e r - c i t y school. My teaching took a f a s t turn as I encountered large numbers of ethnic minority students, over 22 languages, i n my grade 8-12 a r t classes. My previous teaching s t y l e was no longer 3 e f f e c t i v e . The students, and e s p e c i a l l y myself, knew l i t t l e about each other's cultu r e s . P o l i c y statements produced by the School Board O f f i c e and by community r e l a t i o n s groups were f u l l of references to the need f o r m u l t i c u l t u r a l and race r e l a t i o n s education. In an attempt to c l a r i f y the p o l i c i e s and to assess the implications f o r my own classroom p r a c t i c e , i n January, 1990 I i n i t i a t e d the beginnings of a p i l o t study focussing on a m u l t i c u l t u r a l curriculum project that i s to be the focus of t h i s paper. I integrated many cultures into the a r t program and evaluated the students' responses through journal writing, surveys, s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n , and group discussions. The problem that evolved i s th r e e f o l d : w i l l the m u l t i c u l t u r a l a r t program f u l f i l l students' needs by having a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t on (1) t h e i r appreciation of t h e i r own work, (2) a r t from other cultures and (3) / att i t u d e s towards other cultures? C. Purpose of the Study The purpose of t h i s study i s to discover what the p o s i t i v e benefits are i n teaching a r t to students v i a a m u l t i c u l t u r a l curriculum. More s p e c i f i c a l l y , what i s 4 the students* understanding of the value of t h e i r own ar t and the a r t of other cultures? The p i l o t study u t i l i z e d the c u l t u r a l backgrounds of the a r t students i n developing a m u l t i c u l t u r a l a r t program which placed emphasis on the s i m i l a r i t i e s among cul t u r e s . I t i s posited that t h i s study w i l l help provide some understanding of the r o l e a r t can play i n m u l t i c u l t u r a l education, by contributing d e s c r i p t i v e information i n the form of student a t t i t u d e , appreciation and journal responses to three m u l t i c u l t u r a l a r t proj e c t s . D. Research Questions This study was designed to examine whether ^ / teaching a r t through culture i s a means by which students could increase t h e i r appreciation of a r t . A c u l t u r a l program i n the v i s u a l a r t s was offered to explore the at t i t u d e s of grade eight students towards cultures other than t h e i r own. I t was intended that a m u l t i c u l t u r a l view of a r t would emphasize the s i m i l a r i t i e s , "point out to students that a l l humans are i n s p i r e d i n s i m i l a r ways and that i n d i v i d u a l s use t h e i r a r t f o r r i t u a l and decorative purposes i n the same manner as t h e i r c u l t u r a l l y d i f f e r e n t neighbours" (Congdon, 1985, p.16). I t was further posited that the study could be viewed as a form of communication r e f l e c t i n g the students values i n t h e i r own a r t work and t h e i r a t t i t u d e s and appreciation towards a r t from other c u l t u r e s . The following research questions were investigated: W i l l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a v i s u a l a r t s c u l t u r a l program which emphasizes the s i m i l a r i t i e s of ar t across cultures r e s u l t i n a p o s i t i v e change i n grade 8 students 1: (i) appreciation of t h e i r own art? ( i i ) appreciation of the a r t of other cultures? ( i i i ) a t t i t u d e s towards other cultures? Appreciation of the students' own work i s defined as pride i n the students' own work. Appreciation of the a r t of other cultures means a growing knowledge and respect f o r the a r t of other cultures. E. D e f i n i t i o n of the M u l t i c u l t u r a l Curriculum This concept r e f e r s to an approach to the v i s u a l ar t s that: 1. Bases the program's t h e o r e t i c a l framework on " c u l t u r a l s i m i l a r i t i e s and human values common to a l l p e o p l e s " ( I j a z & I j a z , 1981, p . 2 0 ) . 2. " U n d e r s t a n d s and u t i l i z e s s t u d e n t s ' c u l t u r a l v backgrounds i n d e v e l o p i n g e d u c a t i o n a l programs" ( G o l l n i c k & C h i n n , 1986, p . 255). 3. H e l p s " s t u d e n t s a c h i e v e more openness and u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f a r t d i f f e r e n t from t h a t o f t h e i r own c u l t u r e " (McFee & Degge, 1977, p . 308). 4. I n v o l v e s a l l a s p e c t s o f s t u d e n t s ' p e r s o n a l i t i e s : r a t i o n a l , e m o t i o n a l , a f f e c t i v e and p h y s i c a l by d e v e l o p i n g an e x p e r i e n c e a p p r o a c h r a t h e r t h a n one t h a t j u s t i m p a r t s knowledge ( I j a z & I j a z , 1981). 5. Draws o u t a u t h e n t i c c u l t u r a l p e r s p e c t i v e s f o r t h e c u r r i c u l u m by u t i l i z i n g t h e c u l t u r a l e x p e r i e n c e o f s t u d e n t s and p a r e n t s . (Mayes & Commenou, n . d . ) . 6. Draws upon t h e Home-School C o o r d i n a t o r s Programme t o l e a d group d i s c u s s i o n s f o r s t a f f and s t u d e n t s on t h e " c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n o f m a j o r e t h n i c g r o u p s r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n " (Kehoe, 1984b, p. 5 7 ) . 7. Uses a r t as a" p r i n c i p a l means o f c o m m u n i c a t i n g i d e a s and e m o t i o n a l meanings from one p e r s o n t o a n o t h e r " (McFee & Degge, 1977, p . 280). 7 F. Design of the Study  1. Sample The sample consists of two i n t a c t grade 8 classes i n a large i n n e r - c i t y school d i s t r i c t . Grade 8 students are s p e c i f i c a l l y chosen as they w i l l have a longer time period to benefit from a m u l t i c u l t u r a l program within the highschool. The study includes 44 students as subjects. The d i s t r i c t m u l t i c u l t u r a l coordinator v e r i f i e d that there are over twenty-two languages spoken i n the school. In gathering information from the January, 1990 p i l o t study, 54 grade eight students categorized themselves into the following ethnic groups: (Immigrants by country, Banks, 1984, p.77-78.) Table 1 Ethnic Groups Students Country America 25 Canada The following are sub-groups of Canada: 23 N a t i v e I n d i a n 4 C a n a d i a n / C h i n e s e 6 C a n a d i a n / D u t c h 2 C a n a d i a n / U k r a i n i a n 1 F r e n c h C a n a d i a n 5 C a n a d i a n 5 C o l u m b i a 1 M e x i c o 1 Europe 16 C z e c h o s l o v a k i a 1 Denmark 1 G r e a t B r i t a i n 10 Greece 1 I t a l y 1 S p a i n 1 Y u g o s l a v i a 1 A s i a 11 C h i n a 3 I n d i a 3 J a p a n 2 K o r e a 1 P h i l i p p i n e s 2 A f r i c a 1 9 Kenyan 1 Many i n d i v i d u a l s were d i f f i c u l t t o c h a r a c t e r i z e e t h n i c a l l y because o f how they viewed themselves and how o t h e r s viewed them. F i v e s t u d e n t s saw themselves as Canadian and d i d not c o n s c i o u s l y i d e n t i f y w i t h another group. Some i n d i v i d u a l s were b i c u l t u r a l , a c q u i r i n g mainstream Canadian c u l t u r e , but r e t a i n i n g many o f t h e i r e t h n i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The socio-economic l e v e l o f t h e s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n i s lower middle t o upper middle c l a s s , determined by a s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r , t e a c h i n g i n t h e s c h o o l f o r twenty-one y e a r s . The p o p u l a t i o n o f the s c h o o l was j u s t under 1300 s t u d e n t s . 2. Procedure A n o n e q u i v a l e n t c o n t r o l - g r o u p d e s i g n was used w i t h i n a q u a s i - e x p e r i m e n t a l framework. One c l a s s r e c e i v e d t h e treatment w h i l e the o t h e r s e r v e d as a c o n t r o l group. Both c l a s s e s were p r e t e s t e d and p o s t t e s t e d on measures i n d i c a t i n g t h e i r a t t i t u d e s toward and a p p r e c i a t i o n o f o t h e r c u l t u r e s . The ex p e r i m e n t a l group p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a c u r r i c u l u m which emphasized the s i m i l a r i t i e s (in l i f e experiences and the emotions they engender), across cultures, and responded to s p e c i f i c journal questions throughout the time of the study, r e f l e c t i n g a t t i t u d e s and emotions towards the m u l t i c u l t u r a l curriculum. The co n t r o l group followed the M i n i s t r y Grade 8 a r t curriculum but without a m u l t i c u l t u r a l emphasis. The treatment began i n l a t e September and was implemented over a ten week period: 28, one hour classes. The length of the study removed the novelty of a one-unit study. 3. Instruments A l l students were pre- and posttested with a Borgardus S o c i a l Distance Scale and a C u l t u r a l Appreciation Measure. Students journals and a Journal Posttest also provided data f o r analysis and r e f l e c t i o n . 4. Limitations The study was l i m i t e d by three f a c t o r s . The sample was c o l l e c t e d from one school. Second, i t was not possible to randomly s e l e c t students f o r program. Two grade 8 classes were assigned to the study i n September. Third, I used my own classes f o r the study. I wanted to conduct the research i n an actual school s e t t i n g where there was a need fo r a m u l t i c u l t u r a l focus within the classroom and a place to generalize my findings. Generalization i s l i m i t e d to the s p e c i f i c grade, subject and school studied. 12 I I . Review of the L i t e r a t u r e A degree of r a c i a l prejudice "rais e s serious doubts about the effectiveness of current educational and teaching approaches i n promoting p o s i t i v e i n t e r e t h n i c a t t i t u d e s i n our students" (Ijaz & Ijaz, 1981, p.20). The increase of c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y i n our Canadian society has led many teachers and educators to develop m u l t i c u l t u r a l approaches, e s p e c i a l l y i n a r t . These approaches do not necessarily work by mastering t r a d i t i o n a l techniques with self-expression as the main goal (Feldman, 1980). We need to avoid turning classrooms into workshops where copies of ethnic a r t are manufactured. How many of us are somewhat g u i l t y of creating ethnic Mexican jewelry, Indian bead b e l t s , A f r i c a n masks, Scandinavian Christmas tree ornaments, Eskimo igloos and Chinese dragons? We need to become more aware of presenting f e s t i v e a r t i n the form of v i s u a l c l i c h e s and stereotypes. More studies are needed to address t h i s and other r e l a t e d problems. The purpose of t h i s review of l i t e r a t u r e i s to explore a r e l a t i o n s h i p between ar t , culture and curriculum and to j u s t i f y a research study i n a v i s u a l a r t s program which emphasizes the s i m i l a r i t i e s of a r t across c u l t u r e s . By focussing on the s i m i l a r i t i e s and forms of communication a r t can provide, a r e f l e c t i o n of values, a t t i t u d e s and b e l i e f s w i l l become apparent i n the students' own a r t . As a r e s u l t , i t i s posited that there w i l l be a p o s i t i v e change i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e s and appreciation towards a r t from other c u l t u r e s . The f a c t that most of the l i t e r a t u r e reviewed was mainly conceptual i n nature and not empirical suggested the need f o r a quasi-experimental study. We must r e a l i z e that every i n d i v i d u a l has the p o t e n t i a l to be m u l t i c u l t u r a l (McFee & Degge, 1977). "Their dress, appearance, language, r e l a t i o n s h i p s with others, status and r o l e s change whether they are at work, at home, at play or i n church" (p.280). Each r o l e involves d i f f e r e n t speech patterns, dress and way of r e l a t i n g to others. On understanding c u l t u r a l influences on a r t within i t s s i m i l a r i t i e s and differences, the key i s to be open and more understanding of a r t from outside one's own c u l t u r e . McFee and Degge give an example of a family which prefers landscape realism as a form of a r t . Their understanding of the work of a subjective expressionist would be comparable to understanding the work of an 14 a r t i s t from a d i s t a n t part of the world with a very-d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l background. We need to address these d i f f e r e n c e s and become more open. I f we are to address the needs of a p l u r a l i s t i c s o ciety i n a r t , Hamblen (1987) recommends that the study of a r t encompass museum and nonmuseum a r t . She pleads f o r a democratic pluralism within our society and aesthetics which allow " e l i t i s m and populism, f o r the good and not so good, fo r paradox and f o r nonsolutions" (p.23). In developing a m u l t i c u l t u r a l curriculum, s e l e c t i o n needs to be made more meaningful and to be ongoing i n process. Art and c u l t u r e are i n a continuous complex state of change. We need to recognize and respond to t h i s as teachers and educators and ask questions about "who we are, what kind of society we l i v e i n , and how we r e l a t e to other c u l t u r e s " (Hicks, 1989, p.55). Our past focus has been too narrow i n developing a r t c u l t u r a l programs. Through research, we need to explore ideas which are more f i r m l y rooted i n the d i r e c t experience of our students and t h e i r c u l t u r e . Why i s communication so important i n an a r t curriculum? Communication acts as a bridge between a r t 15 and cul t u r e . Art without a communicative r o l e cannot support or change cultures. (Chalmers, 1987). We need to move away from the Western monuments and broaden our d e f i n i t i o n of a r t to include the democratically popular, f o l k and vernacular a r t s . To allow students to see themselves as part of a la r g e r t r a d i t i o n , we can begin with the students own cul t u r e . Banks (1984) emphasizes "a curriculum that teaches only mainstream views and perspectives g i v i n g students a d i s t o r t e d and incomplete view of t h e i r nation and the world" (p. x v i ) . Kehoe (1984c) t a l k s about the hidden curriculum and says that most contemporary school texts are written from a monocultural perspective. I f schools are t r u l y intent on becoming m u l t i c u l t u r a l they "must assume the equality of a l l cultures and not enhance one and d i l u t e the others" ( p.8). He suggests cooperative learning teams and the jigsaw classroom as two approaches f o r increasing students i n t e g r a t i o n and p a r t i c i p a t i o n : 1. Children are placed i n groups so they are mixed r a c i a l l y and e t h n i c a l l y . 2. Team members are interdependent; each one 1s e f f o r t i s required f o r the success of a l l . 16 3. Groups are small t y p i c a l l y between 4 to 6 people, to maximize interpersonal contact. (p.14) Student int e g r a t i o n and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s important i n developing a m u l t i c u l t u r a l curriculum. I t should involve a l l aspects of students' p e r s o n a l i t i e s : r a t i o n a l , emotional, a f f e c t i v e and p h y s i c a l , rather than j u s t impart knowledge. In an attempt to c l a r i f y the confusing issues of a m u l t i c u l t u r a l or m u l t i r a c i a l curriculum p r a c t i c e , Mason (1988) conducted research through curriculum experiments i n two of Leicester's (England) m u l t i r a c i a l i n n e r - c i t y schools. She explored a m u l t i c u l t u r a l approach which helped students to achieve more understanding of a r t d i f f e r e n t from t h e i r own cul t u r e . Mason's d e s c r i p t i v e information emphasizes Smith's stance on a d i a l e c t i c a l approach. This approach asks students to focus on a p a r t i c u l a r event, examine i t c l o s e l y and consider the r e l a t i o n between i t and c u l t u r e . D i a l e c t i c a l m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s t s "do not presume that the ultimate wisdom about m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m l i e s i n themselves, or, i n any given c u l t u r a l phenomena" (Mason, p.2). They should be w i l l i n g to learn from a l i e n cultures and undergo c u l t u r a l shocks with an 17 o v e r a l l view to "improving t h e i r knowledge of s e l f and of the r i g h t r e l a t i o n s of s e l f to c u l t u r e " ( I b i d . ) . Mason sees the goal of a m u l t i c u l t u r a l researcher as one that approaches d i a l e c t i c a l encounters between cultures rather than analyzing, i s o l a t i n g and separating c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s . She advocates a c i r c u l a r curriculum, one that adds to both cultures creating a synergetic e f f e c t , rather than one that i s l i n e a r and subtracts from each culture. She agrees with Feldman that students "need a curriculum plan of action that provides them with t o o l s that w i l l help them to recognize, appreciate and cope with the plethora of c u l t u r a l expressions and forms that e x i s t , not only within t h e i r own complex c i v i l i z a t i o n , but i n those l a b e l l e d non-European" (p.160). In B r i t a i n , Mason believes that the issue of c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y can only be met by responding to the educational methods of anthropology and s o c i a l theory and not by remaining locked i n t o t r a d i t i o n a l models of the a r t i s t , a e s t h e t i c i a n , a r t c r i t i c and h i s t o r i a n . In developing a m u l t i c u l t u r a l program i n a r t , the teacher needs to understand and u t i l i z e the students' c u l t u r a l backgrounds. Boyer (1989) asks how the f i e l d 18 of American a r t education i s dealing with the m u l t i c u l t u r a l student, those experiencing a l i e n a t i o n and c o n f l i c t i n the classroom? She proposes a c u l t u r a l l i t e r a c y a r t education (CLAE) curriculum, where cultur e i s seen from the inside out, progressing from the students' i n d i v i d u a l world view and culture to lar g e r views of a r t i n culture and f i n a l l y to imagination and speculative s k i l l s . Johnson (1989) supports Boyer i n int e g r a t i n g CLAE with c r o s s - c u l t u r a l perspectives by looking at how other people i n other s o c i e t i e s examine p a r t i c u l a r events or themes. Recently, there have been l o c a l i n q u i r i e s into s p e c i f i c learning s t y l e s of m u l t i c u l t u r a l a r t curriculums. Berger (1983) simply states that without culture, our programs are merely surface s k i l l s . In her t h e s i s she examines a case study designed to develop c u l t u r a l awareness among urban Native Indian students i n Vancouver. She echoes McFee i n saying " a r t as a c a r r i e r of culture has been addressed by few a r t educators" (Berger, p.49). S t a r t i n g with a quote by Highwater (1981), she explains why a r t i s f l o u r i s h i n g i n many minority cultures. People are able to get i n touch with themselves and others through a r t . 19 Highwater shares with us a Native Indian perspective: "Who speaks to me with my own voice? From himself comes a marvellous stranger c a l l e d a r t " (p.56). The r e s u l t s of Berger's study reveal an improvement i n l e v e l s of achievement and self-esteem by learning about one's own c u l t u r e . Could the r e s u l t s be successful with a diverse m u l t i c u l t u r a l a r t c l a s s of not j u s t one culture? This i s to be my pursuit i n my m u l t i c u l t u r a l a r t classrooms. Andrews (1983) presents an anthropological approach suggesting that a r t i n classrooms opens up perspectives, o f f e r i n g a " l i m i t l e s s f i e l d f o r both objective and humanistic i n v e s t i g a t i o n of those q u a l i t i e s of mankind, with a l l i t s c u l t u r a l v a r i a t i o n s , which are uniquely expressed through the a r t s " (p.218). From September, 1980 to June, 1982, Andrews began her research i n a t y p i c a l B r i t i s h Columbia elementary school implementing an ethnic a l t e r n a t i v e approach to teaching a r t . A p o s i t i v e response was generated through a theme-oriented a r t program which became a key element f o r learning i n a l l subjects. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that teachers had f i r s t described the school as monocultural and l a t e r found almost 20 d i f f e r e n t n a t i o n a l i t i e s represented within the student body. Andrews' conclusion was to use a M u l t i c u l t u r a l F e s t i v a l to increase r e f l e c t i o n and recognition of the m u l t i c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y within a r t and c u l t u r e . Cipywnyk pr a c t i c e s a growing i n t e r e s t i n implementing m u l t i c u l t u r a l approaches i n a r t but sees problems with c u r r i c u l a r innovations. Many teachers focus only on presentation of the information about other cult u r e s . I f teachers believe that negative a t t i t u d e s have resulted from ignorance, they counteract these a t t i t u d e s by simply f i l l i n g i n with f a c t s . Unfortunately, t h i s does nothing to promote i n t e r c u l t u r a l understanding. In contrast, programs focusing on c u l t u r a l s i m i l a r i t i e s have been successful i n promoting p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s towards other cult u r e s . Salyachivin's (1972, 1973) research recognizes the importance of s i m i l a r i t i e s across cultures and states that i t i s the most e f f e c t i v e way of achieving p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s (from Cipywynk). Ijaz and Ijaz (1981) emphasize creating an awareness of s i m i l a r i t i e s and differences between cultures. They combine a c t i v i t y with an e x p e r i e n t i a l approach which includes r o l e playing, dance, c r a f t s , i n s t r u c t i o n on a cognitive and emotional l e v e l , r e l a t i n g the e n t i r e content to the students' own cul t u r e . Taylor, McFee, Degge and Chalmers state that a r t needs to be viewed as a form of communication, that people express t h e i r c u l t u r a l values through a r t and i are able to express what they normally would not be ; able to express with words. People symbolize experiences and are able to obtain new i n s i g h t s about these experiences. Art needs a communicative r o l e to maintain and change cultures. "To be sure, a r t can be used f o r decoration and enhancement; but to f u l f i l l i t s t o t a l function, a r t has to achieve communication with i t s audience" (Chalmers, 1987, p.4). Art and a r t education can be used i n u n i f y i n g our growing diverse cultures by transmitting, sustaining and changing the cultur e (Ibid., 1984). Our goal as a r t teachers and educators i s to develop i n t e r c u l t u r a l understanding i n the classroom, study the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a r t and cultur e and focus on commonalities among d i f f e r e n t ethnic groups. Wasson, Stuhr and Petovich-Mwaniki (1990) advocate a c u l t u r a l l y responsive a r t c u r r i c u l a . They challenge 22 teachers to look p o s i t i v e l y upon promoting a r t i n the m u l t i c u l t u r a l classroom as an opportunity rather than a complicated problem. In studying aesthetics they ask not to separate the function, values and b e l i e f s that surround the a r t i s t i c process but to expand our own c u l t u r a l knowledge by being open to a r t forms and values that are d i f f e r e n t from our own. They support anthropologically based methods i n teaching students to study a r t , asking us to look at the " t o t a l a r t experience of a c u l t u r e " (Wasson, Stuhr & Petovich-Mwaniki, 1990, p.239) rather than i s o l a t e i t i n parts. Teachers and students are asked to confront and respect each other's c u l t u r a l and s o c i a l biases. When planning a r t c u r r i c u l a the students' values and b e l i e f s from t h e i r ethnic, r e l i g i o u s and dominant culture must be included. An authentic m u l t i c u l t u r a l experience means going beyond the content of Egypt or A f r i c a and looking into the " s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l dimensions of the society i n which the a r t objects were produced" (Ibid., p.240). Art teachers must also consider the c u l t u r a l l y preferred learning s t y l e s of t h e i r students and readjust teaching p r a c t i c e s to meet t h e i r students* needs. F i n a l l y , teachers need to be s e n s i t i v e to the 23 prejudice and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n that i s brought about by the dominant ideology and "grow beyond (their) need f o r everyone to be l i k e us" (Ibid., p.243). A m u l t i c u l t u r a l curriculum requires an e f f e c t i v e framework, a commitment to a structure and the a b i l i t y to explore and take r i s k s within that structure. Students can benefit from our e f f o r t s to present m u l t i c u l t u r a l learning experiences i n preparation f o r r e a l - l i f e problems. But how does one measure e f f e c t i v e change? How do we evaluate the learning process? Ongoing evaluation assessments need to be conducted to f i n d out what students are learning, thinking and appreciating. Looking at research trends i n a r t and a r t education Davis (1977) asks, what are our present concerns? In reference to evaluation, does learning take place? We need new evaluation approaches and new data gathering devices. Irwin's (1989) s o l u t i o n i s to use students' journals-"tb discover what t h e i r growth i s i n appreciation and^attitudes Vtowards other c u l t u r e s . A " v i s u a l journal may 'be'freated as a perceptual t o o l to develop a c r i t i c a l understanding of one * s own a r t or a r t i s t i c awareness" (p.21). By providing a means for students to explore t h e i r thoughts and experiences 24 about drawing and a r t appreciation an ongoing learning process i s recorded. Stockrocki (1988) suggests informal evaluation s t r a t e g i e s which enable students to improve t h e i r work thus b e n e f i t i n g from the c r i t i c i s m . Grauer (1988) supports an ongoing evaluation process and uses peer e d i t i n g as the f i r s t stage of evaluation. Students comment on p o s i t i v e q u a l i t i e s as well as possible changes. By d r a f t i n g , e d i t i n g and r e f i n i n g the a r t work, students have a chance to share and manipulate t h e i r ideas, have a personal peer e d i t o r and most importantly are given a second chance to r e f i n e t h e i r ideas. She recommends t h i s process i n combination with w r i t i n g thoughts about the t o p i c to help generate ideas. More q u a l i t a t i v e and quantitative research i s needed i n the area of evaluation to help teachers meet the diverse needs of a l l students. Why m u l t i c u l t u r a l a r t education? Because i t addresses c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y and provides equal opportunities i n the a r t c l a s s . I t attempts to meet the i n d i v i d u a l learning needs of each student by g i v i n g a l l students an opportunity to progress to t h e i r f u l l e s t capacity. In the past t h i s goal has not been f u l f i l l e d as teachers have not e f f e c t i v e l y u t i l i z e d the students' c u l t u r a l background when providing classroom i n s t r u c t i o n (Gollnick & Chinn, 1986). Acceptance of the challenge to develop pluralism within our schools i s no longer a luxury. We cannot continue to ignore the c u l t u r a l systems of a l l those students who f a l l outside of our mainstream cult u r e . Blandy and Congdon remind us that as teachers we know our students best. We need to develop curriculum around the "needs, readiness and c u l t u r a l and i n d i v i d u a l experiences of our students" (Gollnick & Chinn, p.9). The implication i s that educators have started, and we must continue t h i s process i n earnest. By exploring a combination of ideas well grounded i n the l i t e r a t u r e , one can move beyond the l i t e r a t u r e , discovering new ways of implementing these concepts i n a m u l t i c u l t u r a l a r t curriculum. This proposal bases i t s framework on an understanding of students' c u l t u r a l backgrounds through s i m i l a r i t i e s and values common to a l l students. I t w i l l draw out the authentic perspectives f o r a m u l t i c u l t u r a l curriculum through the c u l t u r a l experiences of students, parents and the Home-School Coordinators program. I t proposes to use a r t as a means of communicating about cultures from one person to another. A l l aspects of students' p e r s o n a l i t i e s : r a t i o n a l , emotional, a f f e c t i v e and phys i c a l w i l l be involved i n the learning process. A l l ideas w i l l work towards creating a p o s i t i v e change i n the students' appreciation towards t h e i r own a r t and a r t of other cultures. F i n a l l y , i t i s posited that there w i l l be a r e f l e c t i o n of p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s towards other cultures. I I I . Conduct of the Study A. Research Methodology A nonequivalent control-group design was used within a quasi-experimental framework. Two i n t a c t classes were involved, one served as the treatment group, the other the control group. Two pretests were given. One measured studentvattitudesXtowards the d i f f e r e n t groups of students who l i v e i n Canada, the cu l t u r e s . The second step was the a p p l i c a t i o n of the experimental treatment i n the form of a three u n i t m u l t i c u l t u r a l a r t program. F i n a l l y , two posttests were administered again measuring the a t t i t u d e and appreciation v a r i a b l e s . The use of t h i s quasi-experimental design was complemented by student journal w r i t i n g to provide an ongoing evaluation of the three a r t u n i t s . In order to understand the classroom conditions, a d a i l y journal was used to record the implementation of the a r t u n i t s and the more general environmental conditions. F i n a l l y , a Journal Posttest was administered to measure students appreciation (or pride) i n t h e i r own work and appreciation (or a growing knowledge and respect) f o r other measured student appreciation of a r t across many 28 the a r t of other cultures. Attention was focused on the reaction of the students to the program as well as p r a c t i c a l problems which could be useful i n modifying the u n i t i n the future. B. Research Questions The research sought to determine whether p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a v i s u a l a r t s c u l t u r a l program which emphasizes the s i m i l a r i t i e s of a r t across cultures would r e s u l t i n a p o s i t i v e change i n the students 1: (i) appreciation of t h e i r own art? ( i i ) appreciation of the a r t of other cultures? ( i i i ) a t t i t u d e s towards other cultures? C. S e l e c t i o n of Subjects I was assigned two i n t a c t grade eight a r t classes i n September. Grade eight students were s p e c i f i c a l l y chosen as they would have the longest time period i n the school to benefit from a m u l t i c u l t u r a l a r t program. The group which was assigned a l p h a b e t i c a l l y f i r s t by block, acted as the experimental group, the other the c o n t r o l group. Letters were sent home to a l l parents. Responses were almost a l l p o s i t i v e . The r e f u s a l s were i n the experimental group, from two English as a Second Language (E.S.L.) students. These parents would not have been able to read the consent l e t t e r and perhaps were intimidated by signing a document which they could not understand. These students were exempt from wr i t i n g the pre- and posttests but were not given an a l t e r n a t i v e assignment. A l l a r t classes i n the school were expected to receive a m u l t i c u l t u r a l immersion as part of the Asia P a c i f i c I n i t i a t i v e Grant which the school was awarded t h i s year. The main focus of the / proposal was on a r t as an e f f e c t i v e way to teach aspects of culture and an appreciation f o r other c u l t u r a l groups. D. Description of the School The school i n which the study was conducted i s located i n the south part of Burnaby, B r i t i s h Columbia. I t i s unique i n that i t i s c u l t u r a l l y the most diverse school i n Burnaby. Over 22 languages are spoken with no s i n g l e dominant ethnic group but many i n d i v i d u a l ones. The m u l t i c u l t u r a l club i s sponsored by a small core of dedicated E.S.L. teachers. E f f o r t s have been made towards enhancing i n t e r e t h n i c appreciation by-hosting a " M u l t i c u l t u r a l Day" or "Latin-American F i e s t a " i n v o l v i n g the e n t i r e school at lunch hour. In general, i t has been d i f f i c u l t to bring a sense of communication and sharing between ethnic groups because of the sheer numbers of the school population, presently at 1300. Research was conducted i n my own school as there i s a need f o r a m u l t i c u l t u r a l focus within the regular classroom. E. Procedure Approval was gained from the School Board O f f i c e , the p r i n c i p a l of the researcher's school and the parents and students of the control and experimental group. Both classes were pretested the period before the beginning of the implementation. Students who were absent wrote the pretest the next day during the recess break or a f t e r school. Instructions were given o r a l l y i n order to insure that the students understood what was required of them. Students were t o l d that the questionnaires were anonymous and a code would be used instead of t h e i r name. The second part of the study involved the a p p l i c a t i o n of the treatment of the m u l t i c u l t u r a l a r t u n i t s . The u n i t s were implemented over a ten-week period, 28 one-hour periods. Students were asked to respond i n a journal at appropriate times as a way of evaluating t h e i r own work and w r i t i n g about t h e i r experiences and t h e i r a t t i t u d e s towards other cultures within the m u l t i c u l t u r a l curriculum. The S o c i a l Distance Scale and C u l t u r a l Appreciation Measure were re-administered immediately a f t e r the completion of the u n i t s . The following period students were asked to write a Journal Posttest which indicated the opinions of the students to the m u l t i c u l t u r a l u n i t s , whether p o s i t i v e or negative. F. Instrumentation The measures used i n the study attempted to take into account the various attitudes of the students. I decided that the following measures would be appropriate i n assessing the multidimensional nature of the study. 1. The S o c i a l Distance Scale The S o c i a l Distance Scale was developed i n 1925 by 32 E.S. Borgardus to measure the atti t u d e s of respondents towards various ethnic groups. He r e f e r s to s o c i a l distance as the "degrees and grades of understanding and f e e l i n g that persons experience regarding each other" (p. 299). Nine "steps" are provided, beginning with a conservative step of "I would l e t them v i s i t our country", to an extreme step of "I would be w i l l i n g to marry one of them when I grow up". "Them" can r e f e r to a s p e c i f i c ethnic group or encompass many groups. In t h i s study, "them" encompasses the students who are involved i n the study. The scale, simple i n design, has been used considerably i n s o c i a l research as i t i s easy to administer and i s r e l i a b l e i n measure. Campbell (1953) describes the S o c i a l Distance Scale as "the most used si n g l e t e s t of s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s with a popularity that shows no signs of waning a f t e r 27 years" (p. 88). Further, Campbell c i t e s that i t has a reputation f o r " s c i e n t i f i c r e s p e c t a b i l i t y within the t e s t and measurement f r a t e r n i t y " (p. 88). Trubowitz (1969) reports a s p l i t - h a l f r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t at .90 or above. Each of the nine statements could be answered by 33 e i t h e r a "yes" f o r a s c o r e o f "1" o r a "no" f o r a s c o r e o f "0". The d i g i t 0 i n d i c a t e d a n e g a t i v e response, the 1 a p o s i t i v e answer. The st u d e n t s r e c e i v e d an accumulated s c o r e f o r those statements t o which they gave a p o s i t i v e answer u n t i l a n e g a t i v e response was g i v e n . The t o t a l s c o r e was t h e accu m u l a t i o n . The range o f s c o r e s was from 0 t o +9. A copy o f t h e s c a l e i s p r o v i d e d i n Appendix A. 2. The C u l t u r a l A p p r e c i a t i o n Measure I developed the C u l t u r a l A p p r e c i a t i o n Measure as a way t o measure s t u d e n t s ' a p p r e c i a t i o n o f " a r t " from c u l t u r e s o t h e r than t h e i r own. A p p r e c i a t i o n i n t h i s c o n t e x t means a growing knowledge and r e s p e c t f o r the a r t o f o t h e r c u l t u r e s . European a r t and a r t from many o t h e r c o u n t r i e s was i n c l u d e d . In o r d e r t o keep t h e v a r i a b l e s as uncomplicated as p o s s i b l e , examples were i n t e n t i o n a l l y chosen from prominent magazines and books. The measure i s a s p l i t - t e s t , twelve s e t s o f pho t o c o p i e d p i c t u r e s (24 p i e c e s ) t o be g i v e n as a p r e t e s t and 12 se p a r a t e , but s i m i l a r s e t s as a p o s t t e s t . P i e c e s o f a r t from d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s were i n t e n t i o n a l l y put side by side to show a s i m i l a r i t y i n theme. The themes progress across cult u r e s . An example i s a mother and c h i l d theme portrayed i n two d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l s t y l e s . Students evaluated each piece of a r t work on whether i t was an example of good or poor a r t . During the p i l o t study, students indicated that the scoring sheet was confusing. This was modified and retested. The measure appeared to be straightforward r e q u i r i n g approximately three to ten minutes to complete. Values of "1" through 1 15" were assigned to each of the p i c t u r e s i n the paired sets. D i g i t 1 indicated the l e a s t favourable p o s i t i o n and d i g i t 5 indicated the most favourable. The range of possible scores was from +24 to +120, 24 i n d i c a t i n g the l e a s t favourable score and 120 the most favourable. A mean score and standard deviation f o r each student was then computed. A copy of the C u l t u r a l Appreciation Measure i n provided i n Appendix B. 3. The Journal Posttest The purpose of the Journal Posttest was to discover i f there was a p o s i t i v e change i n the 35 students' appreciation of t h e i r own a r t and appreciation of the a r t of other cultures. The information obtained through the posttest indicated the opinions of the students to the m u l t i c u l t u r a l u n i t s , whether p o s i t i v e or negative. They were asked to respond to s i x questions i n sentence form. The l a s t f i v e questions were recorded as a number of negative and p o s i t i v e comments. The range of possible scores was from 0 to +5 f o r a possible t o t a l of +5 e i t h e r negative i n response or p o s i t i v e . A copy of the posttest i s provided i n Appendix C. G. Data Analysis The data were analyzed by means of t - t e s t and c h i -square t e s t s of s i g n i f i c a n c e . A t - t e s t was used to determine whether the means between posttest scores on the S o c i a l Distance Scale and the C u l t u r a l Appreciation Measure were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . The answers from the Journal Posttest were analyzed using a chi-square t e s t to determine whether there were any s i g n i f i c a n t differences i n the written responses of the students. (See Borg and G a l l , 1989 36 for reference to these two tests.) H. The Treatment The treatment consisted of three u n i t s of study i n the v i s u a l a r t s , a l l focussing on the s i m i l a r i t i e s of ideas and emotions across cultures. The un i t s were based on an approach to the v i s u a l a r t s that: 1. Based the program's framework on the " c u l t u r a l s i m i l a r i t i e s and human values common to a l l peoples" (Ijaz & Ijaz, 1981, p.20). 2. U t i l i z e d the students' c u l t u r a l backgrounds. 3. Developed an experience approach rather than a stereotyped one which only imparted knowledge. 4. Used a r t as a means of communicating ideas and emotions from one person to another. The m u l t i c u l t u r a l units were b u i l t s e q u e n t i a l l y upon the B r i t i s h Columbia Curriculum f o r two reasons: (i) to provide the control group with a standard a r t curriculum and ( i i ) a good framework was needed to b u i l d a c u l t u r a l focus. The units i l l u s t r a t e the importance of the basic curriculum as a foundation on which to b u i l d a c u l t u r a l focus. P r i o r to the treatment, both groups p a r t i c i p a t e d 37 i n drawing t e c h n i q u e s . The f i r s t m u l t i c u l t u r a l u n i t was based on " C o l o r Theory and F o l k l o r e " . Students i n v o l v e d t h e i r p a r e n t s and grandparents i n f i n d i n g one s i g n i f i c a n t c o l o r meaning i n t h e i r own c u l t u r e . The importance o f c o l o r c u l t u r a l l y and e m o t i o n a l l y was addressed. The s i m i l a r i t i e s were d i s c u s s e d . T h i s i d e a was t r a n s f e r r e d i n t o an every day o b j e c t , a shoe. Each s t u d e n t used t h e i r drawing s k i l l s , experimented w i t h c o l o r b l e n d i n g and attempted t o combine c u l t u r e and emotion i n t h e i r p a i n t i n g . The c o n t r o l group completed a s i m i l a r u n i t but without the focus o f f o l k l o r e and c u l t u r e . C o l o r and emotion were emphasized. The second p r o j e c t was c a l l e d " S t i l l L i f e w i t h Mask". Students were f i r s t t aught how t o use a v i e w f i n d e r t o be s e l e c t i v e , then i n s t r u c t i o n s were g i v e n t o draw a s t i l l l i f e u s i n g t h r e e d i f f e r e n t v i e w p o i n t s : s t u d e n t , b i r d and worm. S l i d e s o f e t h n i c masks were shown and s t u d e n t s drew from the s l i d e s d i s c u s s i n g the s i m i l a r i t i e s o f the eyes, noses, and o t h e r f e a t u r e s . From the s l i d e s and the r e s e a r c h books, s t u d e n t s were asked t o i n t e g r a t e c u l t u r a l d e s i g n s i n t o one o f t h e i r s t i l l l i f e s k e t c h e s . The d e s i g n s c o u l d be woven i n t o the mask o r i n t e g r a t e d as a 38 b a c k g r o u n d . The p a i n t i n g s d e v e l o p e d i n t o r i c h p a t t e r n s and d e s i g n s , s t u d e n t s c o m b i n i n g many i d e a s a c r o s s c u l t u r e s . S t u d e n t s were a s k e d t o r e f l e c t on t h e i r p r e v i o u s knowledge o f c o l o r and f o l k l o r e t o enhance t h e i r p a i n t i n g s . The c o n t r o l group l e a r n e d how t o use a v i e w f i n d e r , draw t h r e e v i e w p o i n t s o f t h e s t i l l l i f e , and p a i n t what t h e y a c t u a l l y saw. No r e f e r e n c e books o r s l i d e s were used. I n t h e f i n a l u n i t , s t u d e n t s were a s k e d t o b r i n g " h o r s e " o b j e c t s from home and r e s p o n d t o t h e q u e s t i o n "What was t h e p u r p o s e f o r u s i n g t h e h o r s e image on t h i s o b j e c t ? " S t u d e n t s t h e n v i e w e d , d i s c u s s e d and drew from a v a r i e t y o f h o r s e s l i d e s . The f o c u s was on t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s i n d e s i g n , s t r u c t u r e , p r o p o r t i o n s and e x p r e s s i o n s o f t h e h o r s e s . The C h i n e s e Z o d i a c was i n t r o d u c e d , f o l l o w e d by t h r e e a n c i e n t C h i n e s e s t o r i e s on t h e o r d e r o f t h e z o d i a c . C h i n e s e f o l k l o r e was d i s c u s s e d and a u n i t e v o l v e d on "The Y e a r o f t h e H o r s e " . An emot i o n had t o be e x p r e s s e d by t h e sym b o l s , p a t t e r n and d e s i g n w i t h i n t h e h o r s e . V i e w p o i n t was i m p o r t a n t . The p r o j e c t was e x t e n d e d i n c o l o r w i t h o i l p a s t e l and an I n d i a i n k wash. The c o n t r o l group c r e a t e d a s i m i l a r p r o j e c t b u t w i t h o u t t h e horse object discussion, s l i d e s and symbolism. Emotion, pattern and design were encouraged. The implementation involved a sequence of uni t s rather than one project. Students were able to b u i l d on t h e i r experiences from one u n i t to the next. The length of the study, a progression of three u n i t s , removed the novelty of a one-unit project. C u l t u r a l stereotyping was avoided by developing an experience approach where the students became involved emotionally and r a t i o n a l l y by communicating t h e i r f e e l i n g s and portraying t h e i r knowledge of culture i n the content of the a r t work. A copy of the lesson plans f o r the m u l t i c u l t u r a l units are provided i n Appendix D. Examples of some of the s l i d e s are provided i n Appendix E. I. Limitations The study was l i m i t e d by three f a c t o r s : (i) the sample was c o l l e c t e d from only one school, ( i i ) students were not randomly selected and ( i i i ) the researcher conducted the study with her own students. Research was conducted at t h i s s p e c i f i c school because of the need f o r a m u l t i c u l t u r a l focus within the classroom. Although l i m i t e d i n ge n e r a l i z a t i o n to grade 40 e i g h t a r t s t u d e n t s i n s o u t h Burnaby, t h e i n f o r m a t i o n i s v a l u a b l e . T here a r e p r e s e n t l y f i v e g r a d e e i g h t a r t c l a s s e s and an e x p a n s i o n i s e x p e c t e d w i t h t h e o p e n i n g o f t h e new s c h o o l i n 1991. Grade e i g h t s t u d e n t s a r e c l e a r l y t h e f u t u r e o f t h e s c h o o l , w i t h t h e l o n g e s t t i m e frame, c o n s e q u e n t l y t h e most p r a c t i c a l group t o f o c u s on. S t u d e n t s were n o t randomly s e l e c t e d b u t a s s i g n e d as i n t a c t c l a s s e s . The i n t e r n a l v a l i d i t y c o u l d have been t h r e a t e n e d by group d i f f e r e n c e s b u t i n a c t u a l i t y , t h e p r e t e s t s c o n f i r m e d t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s between t h e g r o u p s . I t i s p r o b a b l e t o s a y t h a t t h e c l a s s e s u s e d i n t h e s t u d y a r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e a c c e s s i b l e p o p u l a t i o n o f g r a d e e i g h t s t u d e n t s i n t h i s s c h o o l . T h ere e x i s t s t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r t r e a t m e n t b i a s i n t h e h a n d l i n g o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m . I t i s p o s s i b l e t o enhance t h e m u l t i c u l t u r a l u n i t s w h i l e d i m i n i s h i n g an e n t h u s i a s m w i t h t h e c o n t r o l group because o f my i n t e r e s t i n t h e p r o j e c t . A f i n a l l i m i t a t i o n o f t h e s t u d y a r i s e s from t h e j o u r n a l t e c h n i q u e s used i n r e c o r d i n g t h e s t u d e n t s e m o t i o n s and r e s p o n s e s t o t h e u n i t s . The d i s a d v a n t a g e i s i n t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f t h e j o u r n a l s b e i n g u n r e l i a b l e . Students may have attempted to modify t h e i r responses i n order to please me, go with the majority of t h e i r peers or simply be affected by a mood. This i s compounded by the fac t that the students' names were on the journal responses. Steps were taken to a l l e v i a t e t h i s problem. The nature of the journal questions tended to cross many aspects of the evaluation process. Also, various types of questions were asked of the students ranging from emotion, culture, i n t e r e s t , enjoyment, d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n and suggestions f o r future changes i n the u n i t s . Students were presented with a range of questions and ideas to respond to which provided written o u t l e t f o r f r u s t r a t i o n or s i l l i n e s s . There were always questions such as "What d i d you enjoy the l e a s t about t h i s project?" and " How would you change i t ? " that they could respond to honestly i n a negative way. My d a i l y journal also accounts f o r the nature of the students' i n t e r a c t i o n . IV. Description of the Implementation Process A. Introduction The m u l t i c u l t u r a l program consisted of three u n i t s . A copy of the complete u n i t plans are found i n Appendix D. A summary of key points are given as a prelude to the d e s c r i p t i o n of the implementation process. Unit One: Color Theory and Folklore (Twelve  Periods) The f i r s t lesson was intended to help students recognize that c o l o r has meaning both c u l t u r a l l y and emotionally. The concept of "webbing" was explained to students. I t was described as a two step process. F i r s t , students were asked to brainstorm t h e i r ideas on paper, accepting everything. Second, they webbed the connections between the i s o l a t e d words. V i s u a l l y , i t was a network of ideas which formed a web-like . . . . V structure with the main idea written i n the center of the paper and the connecting ideas r a d i a t i n g from the center. A f t e r webbing the word "red", students shared what red meant to them emotionally. The c u l t u r a l experience of parents and grandparents were drawn upon to help students f i n d a c o l o r which had s i g n i f i c a n t meaning i n t h e i r own c u l t u r e . C o l o r c h a r t s were s e t up and t h e i n f o r m a t i o n was shared. The western c o l o r wheel and a c o l o r f o l k l o r e c h a r t (see Appendix D) were d i s c u s s e d and s t u d e n t s were asked t o choose a p e r s o n a l o b j e c t and one c o l o r . They expressed an emotion w i t h t h e c o l o r and p l a c e d i t i n a s e t t i n g which e x p r e s s e d a c u l t u r e . The c u l t u r a l e x p e r i e n c e , p e r s o n a l i t y and emotions o f t h e student were communicated through t h e i r work. U n i t Two: S t i l l L i f e w i t h Mask ( S i x P e r i o d s ) The purpose o f the second u n i t was t o h e l p s t u d e n t s r e c o g n i z e what the s i m i l a r i t i e s were o f masks a c r o s s c u l t u r e s . As s l i d e s o f masks were p r e s e n t e d , s t u d e n t s were asked t o draw and d i s c u s s t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s between c u l t u r e s . T h i s was f o l l o w e d by the drawing of an a c t u a l s t i l l l i f e set-up which i n c l u d e d masks and t a p e s t r i e s from the f o l l o w i n g c u l t u r e s : Japanese, Hawaiian, A f r i c a n , I n u i t , Mexican, West Coast N a t i v e I n d i a n , and Jamaican. Three v i e w p o i n t s were d i s c u s s e d b e f o r e drawing the s t i l l l i f e u s i n g a v i e w f i n d e r . One s k e t c h was e n l a r g e d then e n r i c h e d w i t h mask d e s i g n s from t h e s l i d e s o r t h e r e s e a r c h books. Students were encouraged t o combine and t r y to f i t more than one culture together. The drawing was painted i n bold colors, students attempting to r e f l e c t the symbolism and techniques from the Color Theory and Folklore u n i t . Unit Three; Year of the Horse (Ten Periods) In the f i n a l u n i t students were asked to bring a "horse object" to share with the c l a s s . The purpose of the object was discussed. S l i d e s were shown which i l l u s t r a t e the horse from h i s t o r y to modern day. The s i m i l a r i t i e s and differences of the horse were drawn and discussed from the s l i d e s . The u n i t explored the Chinese c u l t u r a l theme, "Year of the Horse" and the \ / s i g n i f i c a n c e of the horse across cult u r e s . Movement, close-ups and designs showing texture, pattern and symbols were drawn from the research material. S l i d e s were shown of the unicorn t a p e s t r i e s at the Musee de Cluny, P a r i s . The f i v e senses which the t a p e s t r i e s i l l u s t r a t e d were discussed, adding into the assignment an emotion which had to be expressed by the pattern and design on the horse. The assignment was completed i n o i l p a s t e l with an India ink wash. Color theory, f o l k l o r e , culture and emotions were to be communicated through the Year of the Horse p i c t u r e . B. The School 1. The Setting A l l of the lessons took place i n the researcher's a r t classroom which i s scarcely large enough to accommodate the students on projects with 20"x24" paper. The room was w e l l - l i t with northern exposure windows running the length of the a r t room. Since there was l i t t l e storage area, most of the walls were covered with a r t h i s t o r y posters, ethnic v i s u a l s and student work. The students sat at large tables, which were arranged i n p a i r s forming two long rows. The seating plan changed on a regular basis to accommodate the group work, projects and the moods of the students and teacher. The researcher's desk was at the front of the room beside the papercutter and s l i d e projector. The e n t i r e room was t i g h t l y organized i n order to u t i l i z e the space i n the most useful way. 2. Unit One: Color Theory and Folklore Day One For c l a r i f i c a t i o n , Group A i s r e f e r r e d to the experimental c l a s s and Group B the c o n t r o l . Both classes received the pretests, the S o c i a l Distance Scale and the C u l t u r a l Appreciation Measure. The f i r s t pretest took two to three minutes to complete, the l a t t e r three to ten minutes. Students were asked to f i n i s h a drawing assignment on completion of the t e s t s . Patryck who had previously decided not to consent to the t e s t s , looked curiously over at h i s neighbour's paper and asked i f i t was s t i l l p ossible to write the pretests. The feedback given on the C u l t u r a l Appreciation Measure was: "Color would be appreciated". "Dates of the a r t work should be printed by each pi c t u r e along with the type of medium used by the a r t i s t " . "Why d i d Mrs. Paul pick some ugly pi c t u r e s ? " . My response was that c o l o r would help make the p i c t u r e c l e a r e r , but c o l o r was not the sole issue i n judging the a r t piece as poor or good. Many students sai d that they were aware of a theme to each p i c t u r e set and that i t included two d i s t i n c t cultures. Day Two Both classes: Students closed t h e i r eyes and thought of the color "red" i n terms of what they eat, what moves, etc. The color red was webbed on the board. I read outloud from the c o l o r book Hailstones  and Halibut Bones by Mary O ' N e i l l . This gave students more ideas on how to web t h e i r next c o l o r . A few minutes were given to add " f e e l i n g s " to t h e i r own web. Both groups enjoyed expressing t h e i r f e e l i n g s . The homework assignment: Group A was asked to research and write about one co l o r which has s i g n i f i c a n t meaning i n t h e i r culture by consulting parents, grandparents or an encyclopedia; Group B was asked to write about t h e i r f e e l i n g s towards a co l o r of t h e i r choice. Primary, secondary and complementary colors were discussed. The c l a s s l i s t e n e d as I read about the s p e c i a l e f f e c t s of co l o r by Leatr i c e Eiseman i n her book, A l i v e with Color. They p a r t i c u l a r l y enjoyed the information on people's reactions to o f f - c o l o r dyed food. The question was asked: "Would you eat blue mashed potatoes?" Day Three Group A: Only four students completed t h e i r homework and wrote t h e i r c o lor research on the charts provided. They were encouraged to f i n i s h t h e i r homework f o r next period. The Folklore Color chart was discussed i n groups. Students appeared interested. Color theory was reviewed, and intermediate and monochromatic colors introduced. Students had a chance 48 to begin painting t h e i r monochromatic scale. Group B: We reviewed c o l o r theory and continued with the same lesson as the C u l t u r a l Group. Students d i d not have time to paint as they needed more time to digest the c o l o r theory. Their attention span at t h i s point was shorter than Group A. Day Four Students were asked to copy t h e i r major assignment into t h e i r sketchbooks. Group A: The assignment was to choose a personal object and one color. Exaggerate or a l t e r the personal object to help express the f e e l i n g of the c o l o r . Place i n a s e t t i n g which expresses the cult u r e . An example would be to paint your favourite running shoe i n shades of green (green thumb) with ivy and green thumbs wrapped around the shoe. The background would be drawn i n black pen as an English garden, emphasizing the culture of the c o l o r green. Group B: The same assignment but without the c u l t u r a l background. Students emphasized the idea of " f e e l i n g " i n t h e i r background. Both groups continued with the paint i n g of the co l o r exercises completing t i n t s and shades and 49 complementary c o l o r s . Day Five We a l l decided that the personal object should be a shoe, preferably a running shoe. The reason was that i t would be easier to recognize the shoe a f t e r i t was al t e r e d than an object l i k e a purse or p e n c i l case. Jason turned h i s shoe into a black knight. His i l l u s t r a t i o n i s provided i n Appendix E. A l l students were now working on t h e i r f i r s t drawing f o r t h e i r major assignment. Day Six Group A: Our m u l t i c u l t u r a l coordinator, l e d the cl a s s i n webbing the word "culture". Students were asked to work i n groups of two to three webbing culture on one large sheet of paper. Each group offered ideas as Odie and I recorded them on the board. Many ideas came from "outside" rather than " i n s i d e " the classroom. Examples of what makes up a culture were: costumes, money systems, ceremonies, food, architecture, famous people, music, transportation, holidays, l i t e r a t u r e , languages, recreation, country's r i g h t s , animals, s o c i a l status, museums, books, t e l e v i s i o n and governments. Personal ideas included: f e e l i n g s , b e l i e f s , ways to l i v e , clothes, haircuts, face c o l o r s , students 1 names, games, pets, the way we act towards others, the way they think and junk food. The personal ideas took a while to come out as students were hesitant to discuss them. Students were asked again to work i n groups, webbing the question: "How do we learn about our culture?" Their answers were again quite general. We concluded by sharing something of c u l t u r a l i n t e r e s t within the groups. Group B: Students continued the drawing and animation of t h e i r running shoes. Day Seven Group A: Students attended a two hour presentation c a l l e d "Transitions" put on by Mosaic and the F i r e h a l l Arts Center. This i s a m u l t i c u l t u r a l play about refugees and t h e i r t r a n s i t i o n into Canada. Students p a r t i c i p a t e d with the actors i n the follow-up sessions. The grade eight c l a s s was mixed i n with the grade twelve International Baccalaureate c l a s s . There seemed to be an acceptance of age differences as the grade eight's p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a l l follow-up a c t i v i t i e s which could be songs, s k i t s and a r t work. In the f i n a l " s h a r i n g c i r c l e " Angie, a grade e i g h t s t u d e n t , addressed t h e i s s u e o f d a t i n g a person w i t h a d i f f e r e n t s k i n c o l o r from h e r own. Her p a r e n t s and f r i e n d s were uncomfortable w i t h t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p . A grade twelve g i r l commented on how " c o o l " i t was t o date someone o f a d i f f e r e n t s k i n c o l o r and t h a t times a r e changing i n the acceptance o f peers from a l l c u l t u r e s as f r i e n d s . Perhaps t h e grade e i g h t s t u d e n t s have not been exposed t o t h e c u l t u r a l e x p e r i e n c e s t h a t the grade twelves have. Y e s t e r d a y ' s webbing s t a r t e d t h e r e f l e c t i o n p r o c e s s , today's workshop seemed t o open t h e l i n e s o f communication between d i f f e r e n t e t h n i c groups. Day E i g h t Group A: The c l a s s began w i t h s t u d e n t s r e s p o n d i n g i n t h e i r j o u r n a l s t o the workshop. They were asked t o comment on two p o s i t i v e and two n e g a t i v e f e e l i n g s t h a t they e x p e r i e n c e d . Some of the p o s i t i v e responses were: "The a c t o r ' s a b i l i t y t o speak more than one language". " L e a r n i n g about o t h e r c u l t u r e s " . "Everyone opening up on t h e t o p i c o f r a c i s m " . "We can make a d i f f e r e n c e and put a stop t o r a c i s m " . "The p l a y showed how i t f e l t t o be made fun o f " . The n e g a t i v e f e e l i n g s e x p r e s s e d were: " I t ' s h a r d t o get a l o n g w i t h the o t h e r c o u n t r y ' s 52 c u l t u r e " . " I t ' s d i f f i c u l t to learn another language". "What about the prejudiced people that we cannot reach?". There appears to be an enthusiasm and c u r i o s i t y towards learning and communicating with students from many d i f f e r e n t cultures e s p e c i a l l y the grade twelve peers. Group B: Students continued communicating i n a grade eight manner and worked on animating t h e i r shoe. Day Nine Both groups continued on the drawing and began painti n g t h e i r shoe. S l i d e s were shown of grade eleven monochromatic shoes. Cynara (Group A) needed an o u t l e t to communicate what had happened i n c l a s s the l a s t two periods. She redrew her shoe to i l l u s t r a t e her f e e l i n g s about racism. The monochromatic grey scale was the c o l o r f o r racism, hope was expressed with yellow. Day Ten Both groups discussed the c l a s s i c a l l i n e background f o r the shoe. An example of a grade s i x student's a r c h i t e c t u r a l drawing was shown. Students were impressed with the age l e v e l , and were hopefully i n s p i r e d f o r t h e i r own backgrounds. 53 Day Eleven A hyperactive student was tra n s f e r r e d out of Group B. With time, both groups have become more equal i n work habits. Day Twelve Both groups wrote i n t h e i r journals. One of the questions asked was "What influences your a r t ? " . Some of t h e i r comments were: "Art l e s s o n s , t e l e v i s i o n , Mrs. Paul, a r t books, cartoons, f e e l i n g s , things people say and my r e l i g i o n " . I was interested i n t h e i r comments to "Are you proud of your artwork?". Their r e p l i e s were: "No, I'm not a good a r t i s t " . "No, I have low self-confidence". "Yes, because i t i s unique". "Yes I think everyone should be proud of t h e i r artwork because i t r e f l e c t s a part of themselves". And a l o t of "sometimes". In summary, Group A had more thoughtful answers than Group B. Many students i n both groups seemed a l i t t l e uncertain about t h e i r "techniques" i n a r t . Perhaps i t i s too early i n the program to have developed a confident l e v e l of te c h n i c a l a b i l i t y . Comments on the evaluation of the Color Theory and Folkl o r e Unit: 1. Students were asked to explain t h e i r choice of 54 c o l o r and t h e i r f e e l i n g s associated with the animation of the shoe. Some responses were: "Yellow i s a j o y f u l c o l o r " . "Green represents the environment and re c y c l i n g " . "Blue because i t i s my favourite c o l o r " ( t h i s was the most common choice). Cynara's choice was "yellow to represent hope a f t e r a l l the e v i l s of the world were l e t out". She animated her shoe to represent "Pandora's Box". A photograph i s included i n Appendix E. 2. When asked i t they expressed f e e l i n g with c o l o r they r e p l i e d with many "no's". They answered "yes" to: "The Eskimo culture expressed c o l d " . "Blue was sad". "Gloomy scenes were grey". "Weird was expressed with green". 3. Color had meaning to them emotionally when they thought of i t i n the context of the c l o t h i n g gangs wore, or what they wore being effected by t h e i r emotions. One g i r l wrote, "When I f e e l bad I wear dark c o l o r s " . 4. C u l t u r a l l y , some students didn't think about color, but other responses were: "Freedom and peace i n my cu l t u r e " . "In Romania pink represents l i t t l e g i r l s , d o l l s , joy, happiness and ice cream". "Yellow has been 55 the f a v o u r i t e c o l o r o f t h e p r e s i d e n t , so whenever t h e r e i s a F i l i p i n o h o l i d a y , many people wear y e l l o w even though i t i s n ' t t h e n a t i o n a l c o l o r " . By i n t e g r a t i n g the c u l t u r a l a s p e c t w i t h the shoes, thought and r e f l e c t i o n seemed more e v i d e n t i n t h e a r t work and t h e st u d e n t responses from Group A. An obvious d i f f e r e n c e was the range i n c o l o r s chosen. Group A chose a wider range of c o l o r s w i t h b l u e predominate a t 32%; b l a c k , green and p i n k a t 14%; t u r q u o i s e , r e d and y e l l o w a t 9%; and p u r p l e a t 5%. Group B chose b l u e (43%) and b l a c k (29%) most f r e q u e n t l y ; green and p i n k 10%; and p u r p l e a t 5%. (See T a b l e 2 ) . T a b l e 2 C o l o r P r e f e r e n c e by Student C o l o r s Group A Group B Blue 7 9 B l a c k 3 6 Green 3 2 Pink 2 2 56 Turquoise 2 0 Red 2 0 Yellow 2 1 Purple 1 1 3. Unit Two: S t i l l L i f e with Mask Day Thirteen Group A: The project was introduced with s l i d e s of masks from various cultures. Students discussed the s i m i l a r i t i e s and differences of the masks and drew eyes, noses and designs from each culture shown on the s l i d e s . They became s e l e c t i v e by employing a viewfinder as a camera lens and completing three drawings of the s t i l l l i f e set-up: student's, b i r d ' s and worm's viewpoint. To complete the drawing assignment, students touched three sides of the page and included at l e a s t one mask i n each drawing. An example of the sketches are given i n Appendix E. Group B was given the same assignment without the s l i d e s . Day Fourteen Group A: From the research books, students combined c u l t u r a l designs with one of the s t i l l l i f e sketches. The designs were woven into the mask or integrated as background. This sketch was enlarged to 9"xl4 H c a r t r i d g e paper. A c r y l i c paint was provided with i n s t r u c t i o n s to use t i n t s , shades and complementary colors, not j u s t pure colors from the tubes. Group B: Students enlarged t h e i r most i n t e r e s t i n g sketch with i n s t r u c t i o n s to make additions or exaggerations. Days F i f t e e n to Eighteen Most students i n i t i a t e d the painting process on t h e i r elaborate drawings. Group A spent many hours browsing through research books looking f o r more than one cultu r e to integrate into t h e i r drawings. Group B selected designs from the t a p e s t r i e s of the s t i l l l i f e and rearranged them i n t h e i r own way. Students from Group A evaluated the S t i l l L i f e Mask project. They gave the following p o s i t i v e r e p l i e s : 1. When asked to describe the culture and the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the design which they have used to enhance t h e i r s t i l l l i f e drawing a few descriptions were: "Indian a r t with a simple face and snakes". 58 "Cowboy a r t " . "Mexican a r t close-up designs". Egyptian design". "Designs from a l l cultures so that my pi c t u r e was a m u l t i c u l t u r a l p i c t u r e " . See Appendix E fo r two examples of cross-culture designs. 2. Studying masks from other cultures influenced t h e i r appreciation f o r masks i n the following way: "Every cultu r e has a d i f f e r e n t way of describing things". " A l l cultures have r e a l l y b e a u t i f u l a r t i n t h e i r own way". "No two masks are the same". " I t made me understand what the masks symbolize". "And i t hasn't". 3. They were questioned i f studying masks influenced t h e i r appreciation of other c u l t u r e s . Most students admitted a p o s i t i v e change i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e towards a r t . The following statements summed up the general f e e l i n g of the c l a s s : "Other cultures have an i n t e r e s t i n g way of expressing t h e i r f e e l i n g s " . "Other cultures i n a r t are as good i f not better than ours". "The f e e l i n g that i s being expressed by a mask i s l i k e the trademark of that c u l t u r e " . 4. The l a s t question asked "What would you change?" They r e p l i e d : "Nothing". "I'd t r y to represent only one cultu r e " . "The painting part I 59 would do more c a r e f u l l y " . "To draw anything you want". "I would change nothing because i t was taught very we l l " . 4. Unit Three; Year of the Horse Day Nineteen Group A: Viewed, discussed and drew from a s l i d e presentation of horses. The s l i d e s were taken from the Smithsonian I n s t i t u t e i n Washington, D.C. and emphasized many cultures through horse sculptures. Appendix E includes two examples. Students focused on the s i m i l a r i t i e s and differences of the design, structure, proportion, expression and s i z e of the horses. Humour was shared i n the expressions of the horses. Following t h i s , students were asked to draw i n c l a s s i c a l l i n e two drawings of movement, two close-ups and two drawings which emphasized pattern and design. They were encouraged to study a culture or era which interested them and portray the horse i n the s t y l e of that c u l t u r e . Horse books were provided. Some students were apprehensive about drawing a horse. Suggestions were made to s t a r t by drawing the negative spaces around the legs then adding i n the legs and body. This seemed to be a good exercise as students thought only about the shapes. The s l i d e s helped give some students confidence as many represented an abstracted and s i m p l i f i e d version of the horse. Group B: These students were given the same lesson as the f i r s t group without the horse s l i d e s . Day Twenty Group A: Students brought "horse" objects from home. The question asked was: "What was the purpose for using the horse image on t h i s object?" Some of the objects were: a horse puzzle, a unicorn head sculpture, unicorn necklace and bracelet and a poem about a horse t a l k i n g to i t s master (written i n Hungarian). Their responses were for mainly "pleasure and decoration". Only the g i r l s brought objects. A Chinese Zodiac I l l u s t r a t i o n was passed around and students looked up the sign they were born under. This was followed by three ancient Chinese s t o r i e s on how the order of the twelve animals of the zodiac originated. Group B: The same lesson was taught without the horse discussion. Day Twenty-One Both groups worked on t h e i r preliminary drawings. The assignment was to enlarge the most i n t e r e s t i n g one onto 18"x24" grey construction paper. White chalk i n varying thickness would be used to o u t l i n e the p e n c i l drawing. Day Twenty-Two Group A: S l i d e s were presented of the s i x unicorn t a p e s t r i e s from the Musee de Cluny i n Pa r i s . (See Appendix E f o r an example). The story of the wealthy merchant was t o l d . He desperately wanted to hold a proper t i t l e and commissioned the t a p e s t r i e s i n the ea r l y 1400s to give h i s family name prestige. We talked about the f i v e senses which the t a p e s t r i e s i l l u s t r a t e d and added to the assignment an "emotion" which had to be expressed by the pattern and design on the horse. Students drew the antique patterns and designs from the s l i d e s discussing what they thought was the i n t e n t i o n of the designs and symbols on the t a p e s t r i e s . Group B: Students continued on drawings of the horses. Day Twenty-Three The two groups worked hard enlarging t h e i r horse drawing onto construction paper. We discussed words to be expressed i n the horse p i c t u r e : "happiness, sad, gentle, power, war, spring and joy". The o i l pas t e l medium was introduced with i n s t r u c t i o n s to blend tones of colors within the pattern spaces. Students worked up to the chalk l i n e s but not over. Days Twenty-Four to Twenty-Six Students worked with o i l p a s t e l . Instructions were given on inking the picture, l i g h t l y sponging o f f the ink and f i n i s h i n g the surface with a t h i n coat of rhoplex. Day Twenty-Seven A l l students were f a r enough into the project to write the two posttests, the S o c i a l Distance Scale and the C u l t u r a l Appreciation Measure. Day Twenty-Eight Both Groups wrote the Journal Posttest and completed an evaluation response to the Year of the Horse project. Overall, most students enjoyed t h i s p r o ject the most. They had acquired the drawing, composition and c o l o r s k i l l s i n the previous u n i t s and were f a m i l i a r with expressing content and f e e l i n g i n t h e i r work. They also enjoyed the control they had with the pas t e l medium as opposed to the lack of 63 control with the paint. Some of t h e i r responses were: 1. Feeling or meaning was expressed by the choice of symbols and designs i n the students' horse p i c t u r e s . Various student expressions were: "love, laughter, hatred, weird, freedom, happiness, g r i e f , fear, Yin and Yang, speed and war". 2. Some of the cultures or eras i n h i s t o r y that were integrated into the i n d i v i d u a l horse p i c t u r e s by the c l a s s were: "World War I I , Chinese culture, 1990's i n Iran, Alberta, Mexican, fantasy cultu r e and Egypt and A f r i c a together". I l l u s t r a t i o n s of "Joy", "The Rise of the Horse" and "Anger" are provided i n Appendix E. 3. The most i n t e r e s t i n g things learned by looking at other cultures through horses were: "The pi c t u r e s t e l l about the horses' f e e l i n g s " . "What people think of the horses". "The d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l designs and colors i n each horse". "That horses look pretty without c o l o r i n g them brown". "The s i m p l i c i t y of the horse drawings". 4. What they enjoyed the most was: "Painting the pi c t u r e i n black then sponging i t " . "Coloring with o i l pa s t e l s " . "Putting my fe e l i n g s into the c o l o r s " . "Not 64 as many i n s t r u c t i o n s " . "Drawing the c o l o r " . 5. The s t u d e n t s d i s l i k e d : "The e n l a r g i n g o f the p i c t u r e " . " I n k i n g because i t wrecked t h e c o l o r o f t h e p i c t u r e " . "The way the p a s t e l s got everywhere". "And n o t h i n g " . V. Findings A. S o c i a l Distance Measure The pretest mean scores f o r the measure of s o c i a l distance f o r the experimental and con t r o l groups were 8.25 and 8.25 re s p e c t i v e l y . The posttest means were 8.46 and 8.25 res p e c t i v e l y . There was a small increase i n score by the experimental group over the con t r o l group. To determine i f t h i s change was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t a t - t e s t was completed. The t - t e s t was appropriate i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n because the sample s i z e of each group was r e l a t i v e l y small. For the posttest, a t-value of 1.68 or greater was required f o r the increase to be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the 95% confidence l e v e l . (Refer to Table 3). The means are not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from each other. The measure of s o c i a l distance produced a c l e a r c e i l i n g e f f e c t . A l l but three of the pretest students scored eight or nine, the maximum possible score was nine. 66 T a b l e 3 S o c i a l D i s t a n c e S c a l e t - t e s t ( P r e t e s t and P o s t t e s t ) P r e t e s t s c o r e Mean SD Sample S i z e E-group 8.25 1.13 24 C-group 8.25 0.83 20 D i f f e r e n c e i n means 0.00 S t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n 1.65 t 0.00 For t h i s t e s t t o be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t t must be g r e a t e r t h a n 1.68 w i t h 95% c o n f i d e n c e l e v e l P o s t t e s t s c o r e Mean SD Sample S i z e E-group 8.46 1.04 24 C-group 8.25 0.77 20 D i f f e r e n c e i n means 0.21 S t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n 1.52 t 0.14 For t h i s t e s t t o be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t t must be g r e a t e r t h a n 1.68 w i t h 95% c o n f i d e n c e l e v e l 67 B. C u l t u r a l Appreciation Measure The pretest mean scores f o r the measure of Cu l t u r a l Appreciation f o r the experimental and control groups were 84 and 79 res p e c t i v e l y . The posttest means were 85 and 75 res p e c t i v e l y . A t - t e s t method was used to determine the s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of the differences between the mean scores of the two groups. A t - t e s t was completed using both the pre- and posttest scores. The t-value was calcul a t e d as .26 and .48 res p e c t i v e l y . In both cases a t-value of 1.68 or greater was required i n order f o r the dif f e r e n c e s i n the means to be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t with a 95% confidence l e v e l . This t e s t i l l u s t r a t e s that the means were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from each other. 68 T a b l e 4 C u l t u r a l A p p r e c i a t i o n M e a s u r e t - t e s t P r e t e s t s c o r e Mean SD S a m p l e S i z e E - g r o u p 8 4 . 0 8 11.94 24 C - g r o u p 7 9 . 4 5 11.50 20 D i f f e r e n c e i n means 4 . 6 3 S t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n 17.50 t 0 . 2 6 F o r t h i s t e s t t o be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t t must be g r e a t e r t h a n 1.68 w i t h 9 5 % c o n f i d e n c e l e v e l . P o s t t e s t s c o r e Mean SD S a m p l e S i z e E - g r o u p 8 4 . 8 3 14.00 24 C - g r o u p 7 4 . 9 5 16.44 20 D i f f e r e n c e i n means 9.88 S t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n 2 0 . 6 1 t 0.48 F o r t h i s t e s t t o be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t t must be g r e a t e r t h a n 1.68 w i t h 9 5 % c o n f i d e n c e l e v e l 69 C. Journal Posttest A post hoc examination of journal responses was conducted. A count was made of journal e n t r i e s f o r frequency of p o s i t i v e and negative statements about the program i n the experimental and control groups. A c h i -square analysis was done to determine i f there were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more p o s i t i v e statements i n the experimental c l a s s journals. Table 5 shows the response rates. To determine i f the d i f f e r e n c e i n response rates was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t the chi-square t e s t was used. Chi-square i s a nonparametric s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t for s i t u a t i o n s such as t h i s where the data i s i n the form of a frequency count. The t e s t was completed f o r the journal data and chi-square was determined to be 20.07. To be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the 95% confidence l e v e l chi-square need only have been greater than 3.84. Therefore the number of p o s i t i v e responses i n the journals of the experimental group was s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than that of the co n t r o l group. T a b l e 5 J o u r n a l P o s t t e s t M e a s u r e ( C h i - s q u a r e T e s t ) O b s e r v e d v a l u e s C o n t r o l T r e a t m e n t Y e s 54 84 No 24 27 78 111 C h i - s q u a r e = 2 0 . 0 7 To be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t c h i - s q u a r e must be g r e a t e r t h a n 3.84 w i t h 9 5 % c o n f i d e n c e l e v e l 138 51 189 71 E. Discussion Previous research has indicated that a m u l t i c u l t u r a l approach which emphasizes c r o s s - c u l t u r a l s i m i l a r i t i e s within the classroom may provide p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e changes towards d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l groups. Ijaz and Ijaz (1981) have based t h e i r program's t h e o r e t i c a l framework on " c u l t u r a l s i m i l a r i t i e s and human values common to a l l peoples" (p. 20). Their study employs an e x p e r i e n t i a l approach invo l v i n g a l l aspects of students p e r s o n a l i t i e s : r a t i o n a l , emotional, a f f e c t i v e and p h y s i c a l . A d d i t i o n a l studies suggest that a v i s u a l a r t s program may provide a good basis f o r developing c u l t u r a l l y responsive programs which focus on a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e change (Cipywnyk, 1987; Andrews, 1983, 1984). Mason (1988) also explores a m u l t i c u l t u r a l approach which helps students to achieve more understanding and appreciation of a r t d i f f e r e n t from t h e i r own culture. The r e s u l t s of the present study support the previous research. Through s l i d e s and research books the treatment presented p a r a l l e l s across many cultur e s . Discussion and journal w r i t i n g followed. I t appeared that a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e change i n students' 72 a t t i t u d e s i n t h e i r appreciation of t h e i r own a r t work and the a r t of other cultures took place as a r e s u l t of the treatment. The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e that teaching a r t through a m u l t i c u l t u r a l perspective which explores c r o s s - c u l t u r a l s i m i l a r i t i e s i s a promising means to fo s t e r both i n d i v i d u a l and c o l l e c t i v e appreciation of a r t . This statement requires further i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . F i r s t , the change i n students' att i t u d e s on the S o c i a l Distance Scale was not large enough to be s i g n i f i c a n t . This could be a t t r i b u t e d to three f a c t o r s . F i r s t , the measurement may have been d i l u t e d by asking students to think of "many d i f f e r e n t groups" i n Canada rather than one dominant one. I t would be easier to be biased toward one p a r t i c u l a r group than a mixed one. Second, the C u l t u r a l Appreciation Measure may not have been appropriate to measure c r o s s - c u l t u r a l "appreciation", rather i t may have measured students' c r o s s - c u l t u r a l "knowledge" of a r t . In retrospect t h i s may have been more of an aesthetic t e s t , with students taking into consideration the pleasing shapes of the designs and forms rather than g i v i n g a value opinion of the content across cultures. The Journal Posttest i s the most important measure i n my study. I t was given as the f i n a l measure and was s i g n i f i c a n t i n measuring students' appreciation of t h e i r own a r t and the a r t of other c u l t u r e s . Students responded i n w r i t i n g numerous times to warrant t h i s a r e l i a b l e measure. The treatment group may have had an advantage on the posttest because they wrote more often. They were also i n s p i r e d to write f o r the f i r s t time a f t e r seeing and p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the m u l t i c u l t u r a l play "Transitions". The day before, our m u l t i c u l t u r a l coordinator, le d the students i n a webbing exercise where they had to i n t e r a c t with two other students and web the word "culture". The control group did not p a r t i c i p a t e and t h e i r w r i t i n g began l a t e r . 74 VI. Summary and Conclusions This study was conducted i n order to determine whether a c u l t u r a l program i n the v i s u a l a r t s , which emphasized the s i m i l a r i t i e s of a r t across cultures, would r e s u l t i n a p o s i t i v e change i n the grade eight students' appreciation of t h e i r own a r t , a r t of other cultures and atti t u d e s towards other cult u r e s . Ijaz and Ijaz advocate a c u l t u r a l program f o r improving ethnic a t t i t u d e s , t h e i r research supporting a t h e o r e t i c a l framework which emphasized " c u l t u r a l s i m i l a r i t i e s and human values common to a l l peoples" (1981, p.20). The c u r r i c u l a r framework of t h i s m u l t i c u l t u r a l program was well-grounded i n Ijaz and Ijaz's philosophy. Developed into a sequence of uni t s emphasizing c u l t u r a l s i m i l a r i t i e s , i t allowed students to b u i l d upon t h e i r "experiences" from one un i t to the next. Color Folklore, C u l t u r a l Masks and the Year of the Horse were the three areas of i n t e r e s t . An equivalent control-group design was used. Two i n t a c t classes i n a Burnaby school p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the study. One c l a s s received the treatment, the other continued with the regular a r t curriculum acting as the control group. The program was taught three times a week as one-hour classes f o r a t o t a l of twenty-eight classes. Both classes were pre- and posttested on a So c i a l Distance Scale and a C u l t u r a l Appreciation Measure i n order to determine i f there was an a t t i t u d e or appreciation change as a r e s u l t of the treatment. Although no s t a t i s t i c a l d ifferences were found between experimental and control groups on the pre- and posttests, students' journals provided data f o r r e f l e c t i o n and analysis concluding with a Journal Posttest. This was complemented by the researcher's journal which described the classroom proceedings. The journal analysis indicated that the program was e f f e c t i v e i n bringing about a p o s i t i v e change i n the students' appreciation of t h e i r own a r t and the a r t of other cult u r e s . Students were asked questions such as "Are you proud of your artwork?", responding with pride, confidence and an appreciation f o r t h e i r own work. Farzana wrote that her a r t work had changed because she used "things that symbolized something rather than j u s t drawing something without f e e l i n g , l i k e I d i d before". When asked i f there was an a r t of another culture that they admired, students responded with a mixture of countries across cultures, many 76 gaining an appreciation f o r t h e i r own cu l t u r e . Provided that c e r t a i n c r i t e r i a are met, the apparent success of the study could be duplicated by other a r t teachers working i n s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n s . G e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of the findings would be determined by key fac t o r s used i n t h i s study. F i r s t , the teacher involved must have a genuine i n t e r e s t i n m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m and be motivated to carry out the study f o r more than one u n i t . An i n depth focus i s important i n removing the meaningless stereotyping of advocating m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m without much att e n t i o n to b u i l d i n g on what i s advocated. Second, the journal w r i t i n g and evaluation responses are invaluable i n b u i l d i n g the curriculum. Since each c l a s s i s unique, the teacher w i l l need the appropriate feedback to access and u t i l i z e the students' c u l t u r a l values and b e l i e f s when planning the a r t u n i t s . Third, teachers must be aware of t h e i r own c u l t u r a l and s o c i a l biases and go beyond t h e i r own experiences to being open and nonjudgemental about c r o s s - c u l t u r a l experiences. I t i s only then that they can p a r t i c i p a t e i n r e a l communication and use a r t to "communicate ideas and emotional meanings from one person to another" (McFee & 77 Degge, 1977, p.280). The success of the units may be a t t r i b u t e d i n part to the f a c t that I was highly motivated and used my own students f o r the study. I t would be of b e n e f i t to conduct a study with other a r t classes and a r t teachers within the d i s t r i c t who are enthusiastic about a m u l t i c u l t u r a l a r t program. A broader study i s necessary i n order to develop a greater generali z ab i 1 i t y . I t appears that the units were e f f e c t i v e l y implemented. This suggests that the c r o s s - c u l t u r a l s i m i l a r i t i e s as r e f l e c t e d i n the study can help i n the development of the students appreciation of t h e i r own a r t work and the a r t work of other cult u r e s . I t would be of value to continue with subsequent work based on the r e s u l t s of t h i s study. For teachers w i l l i n g to implement a m u l t i c u l t u r a l curriculum I would l i k e to give the following advice. The student journal responses provided the most important feedback f o r my program. There i s a need to explore student journal responses both conceptually and e m p i r i c a l l y i n the form of classroom experiments. While the focus of the present study was on drawing and painting, the length 78 of the study should be extended to include the other four v i s u a l expression areas; graphics, t e x t i l e s , sculpture and ceramics. I t would also be b e n e f i c i a l to determine i f t h i s approach could be s u c c e s s f u l l y implemented at a l l grade l e v e l s . A m u l t i c u l t u r a l approach should be extended into other d i s c i p l i n e s such as drama, music, s o c i a l studies and English. Although the present study i s l i m i t e d i n scope, the r e s u l t s i ndicate teaching a r t through a m u l t i c u l t u r a l perspective, which emphasizes the s i m i l a r i t i e s across cultures, i s a worthwhile pursuit. Further research should be directed towards_designing and implementing c u l t u r a l l y responsive curriculum models. As Chalmers (1990) states, we s t i l l "must teach the next c l a s s , decide on the content of our next lesson, evaluate our students' learning...we continue our p r a c t i s e s while we question and redefine them" (p.3). I w i l l continue to question and redefine my curriculum i n pursuit of a m u l t i c u l t u r a l one that w i l l provide the most p o s i t i v e learning environment f o r my students. 79 VII. References Andrews, E. M. (1984). A m u l t i c u l t u r a l a r t implementation project. Art Education. 36(5), 23-24. Andrews, E. M. (1983). The innovation process of  cu l t u r a l l y - b a s e d a r t education, unpublished d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Bradford, England. Banks, J . A. (1984). Teaching s t r a t e g i e s f o r ethnic  studies. (3rd e d i t i o n ) . Boston: A l l y n & Bacon. Berger, B. A. (1983). The implementation of an a r t  programme designed to develop c u l t u r a l awareness  among students i n an urban Native Indian alternate  c l a s s : A case study, unpublished t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver. Blandy, D., & Congdon, K. (1988). A m u l t i - c u l t u r a l symposium on appreciating and understanding the a r t s . Art Education. November, 20-24. Bogardus, E.S. (1925). Measuring s o c i a l distances. Journal of Applied Sociology. 9. 299-308. Borg, W. R., & G a l l , M. D. (1989). Educational  Research (5th ed.). Longman Inc., New York. Boyer, B. (1989). DBAE and CLAE: relevance f o r minority and m u l t i c u l t u r a l students. The Journal  of S o c i a l Theory i n Art Education. 9. 58-63. Campbell, D.T. (1953). S o c i a l distance scale. In C.K. Buros (Ed.) The fourth mental measurements  yearbook. New Jersey: The Gryphon Press. Chalmers, F. G. (1987). C u l t u r a l l y based versus u n i v e r s a l l y based understanding of a r t . A rt i n a  democracy. Ed. by Blandy, D., & Congdon, K. Teachers College Press, New York, 4-12. Chalmers, F. G. (1984). C u l t u r a l p l u r a l i s m and a r t education i n B r i t i s h Columbia. A rt Education. 36(5), 22-23. Chalmers, F. G. (1980) . Art education as ethnology. Studies i n Art Education. 22(3). 6-14. Chalmers, F. G., & Mullen, C. (1990). Culture, society and a r t Education. Studies i n Art Education. 31 (4), 1-3. Calvert, A. E. (1988). Native a r t h i s t o r y and DBAE: an analysis of key concepts. The Journal of S o c i a l Theory i n Art Education. 9. 112-122. Cipywnyk, R. S. (1987). The e f f e c t of a c u l t u r a l program i n the v i s u a l a r t s i n students 'ethnic a t t i t u d e s . unpublished t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver. Congdon, K. (1985) . A f o l k group focus f o r m u l t i c u l t u r a l education. Art Education. January, 13-16. Davis, D. J . (1977) . Research trends i n a r t and a r t education: 1883-1972. T.S Madeja, (Ed.), Arts &  aesthetics: An agenda f o r the future (pp. 109-119). St. Louis, MO: CEMREL. Feldman, E. B. (1980). Anthropological and h i s t o r i c a l conceptions of a r t c u r r i c u l a . Art Education. 33(6), 6-9. Grant, C. A., & Sleeter, C. E. (1989). Turning on learning, f i v e approaches to m u l t i c u l t u r a l teaching. M e r r i l l Publishing, Columbus. Gollnick, D. M., & Chinn, P. C. (1986). M u l t i c u l t u r a l education i n a p l u r a l i s t i c society. B e l l & Howell Company, Columbus. Grauer, K. (1988). Art and writing, the best of fri e n d s . Prime Areas. 30(3). Hamblen, K. A. (1989). The r e a l i t y construction of t e c h n o c r a t i c - r a t i o n a l i t y through DBAE. Journal of So c i a l Theory. 9. 49-52. Hamblen, K. A. (1987). Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and contradictions of a r t museum education i n a p l u r a l i s t i c democracy. In D. Blandy & K. Congdon (Eds.), A rt i n a democracy. Teachers College Press, New York. 4-12. Hicks, L. (1989). C u l t u r a l l i t e r a c y as s o c i a l empowerment. Journal of So c i a l Theory. 9. 53-57. Ija z , M. A., & Ijaz, I. H. (1981). A c u l t u r a l program for changing r a c i a l a t t i t u d e s . History and S o c i a l Science Teacher. 17(1). 17-20. Irwin, R. L. (1989) . V i s u a l journals as an inte g r a t i o n among drawing, a r t appreciation and the w r i t i n g process. Canadian Society f o r Education Through Art. 20(1). 20-22. Johnson, N. R. (1989). Discipline-based a r t education (DBAE) and c u l t u r a l l i t e r a c y a r t education (CLAE). The Journal of S o c i a l Theory i n Art Education. 9. 45-48. Kehoe, J . (1984a). Achieving c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y i n  Canadian schools. Vesta Publications, Ontario. Kehoe, J . (1984b). A handbook f o r enhancing the  m u l t i c u l t u r a l climate of the school. Wedge, Vancouver. 83 Kehoe, J . (1984c). M u l t i c u l t u r a l Canada: Considerations f o r schools, teachers and curriculum. OISE Press, Toronto. Y/Mason, R. (1988). Art education and mu l t i c u l t u r a l i s m . Croom Helm Limited, New York. Netto, J . T. C. (1988). C u l t u r a l action f o r a d i f f e r e n t culture. Canadian Review of Art Education. 15 (1). 11-13. McFee, J . K., & Degge, R. M. (1977). Art, cultur e and environment: A c a t a l y s t f o r teaching. Kendall-Hunt Publishing, Iowa. Stockrocki, M. (1988). Teaching a r t to students of minority cul t u r e s . Journal of M u l t i - c u l t u r a l and Cro s s - c u l t u r a l Research i n Art Education. 6(1), 99-111. Taylor, A. (1975). The c u l t u r a l roots of a r t education: A report and some models. Art Education. 28(5), 8-13. Tiedt, P. L. & Tiedt, I. M. (1979). M u l t i c u l t u r a l teaching: A handbook of a c t i v i t i e s , information. and resources. A l l y n & Bacon, Boston. Trubowitz, J . (1969). Changing the r a c i a l a t t i t u d e s of c h i l d r e n . New York: F.A. Praeger, Publishers. Wasson, R. F., Stuhr, P. L. & Petrovich-Mwaniki, L. (1990). Teaching a r t i n the m u l t i c u l t u r a l classroom: s i x p o s i t i o n statements. Studies  Art Education. 31(4). 234-246. VIII. Appendix A S o c i a l Distance Scale 86 Social Distance Scale Directions: Think of ail the different groups of students who live in Canada. Many are different from your own culture. Answer the nine sentences about these students, thinking of them as a whole, not individually. Circle one 1. I would let them visit our country. Yes No 2. I would let them live in our country. Yes No 3. I would let them go to my school. Yes No 4. I would let them live in my neighbourhood. Yes No 5. I would let them live next door to me. Yes No 6. I would let them play at my house. Yes No 7. I would let them come to a party at my house. Yes No 8. I would let them be my best friends. Yes No 9. I would be willing to marry one of them when I grow up. Yes No 87 IX. Appendix B Cu l t u r a l Appreciation S p l i t - T e s t The Art appreciation Measure was developed as a way to measure grade 8 students' appreciation of " a r t " from cultures other than t h e i r own. European a r t and ar t from many other countries has been included. In order to keep the va r i a b l e s as uncomplicated as possible, examples have been i n t e n t i o n a l l y chosen from magazines, books and g a l l e r i e s . The measure i s a s p l i t - t e s t , 12 sets of pict u r e s (24 pieces) to be given as a pretest and 12 d i f f e r e n t , but r e l a t e d sets as a posttest. Pieces of a r t from d i f f e r e n t cultures have been i n t e n t i o n a l l y put side by side to show a s i m i l a r i t y i n theme. Students evaluated each piece on t h e i r opinion of whether i t i s an example of good or poor a r t . I t was posited that there w i l l be a p o s i t i v e change i n the opinion of students' appreciation towards the a r t of cultures, other than t h e i r own a f t e r the ten week treatment. 88 Opinion Questionnaire Directions: Circle the number on the answer sheet that best describes your opinion of whether or not each picture is an example of poor art or good art. poor art Picture Picture Picture Picture Picture Picture Picture Picture Picture Picture Picture Picture set 1 A B set 2 A B set 3 A B set 4 A B set 5 A B set 6 A B set 7 A B set 8 A B set 9 A B set 10 A B set 11 A B set 12 A B 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 good art 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 89 Cultural Appreciation Measure: Similarities in Theme Pre-test 1. Japanese musician/Russian musician 2. West Coast Indian mother and child/Canadian realism mother and child 3. Mali royalty/Egyptian royalty 4. Persian 3D ceramic animal/Canadian 2D animal painting 5. French still life/American pop still life 6. Singapore house/American folk art house 7. French surreal hunt/Persian hunt 8. West Coast Indian image/Baffin Island Inunnit image 9. Italian portrait/Spanish surreal portrait 10. American realistic reflection/Spanish cubist reflection 11. Mediterranean seated woman/ French seated woman 12. Japanese birds/Povungnituk, Quebec birds Posttest 1. American Liberty symbol/Mythology 2. Tahitian landscape/Yukon landscape 3. West Coast totem pole/lnuit print 4. American Gothic 2D painting/American Gothic 3D folk art 5. American waterfall/Japanese waterfall 6. Contemporary Spanish face/Tlingit Indian blanket design 7. Classic French nude/Surreal French nude 8. Chilkat Indian Blanket/Modern European painting 9. American Beauty Queen/Egyptian Queen 10. Russian self-portrait/French self-portrait 11. French face/Ivory Coast mask 12. Chinese bear/Cape Dorset bear 90 Pretest P i c t u r e set 1 Picture set 2 A Picture set 3 P i c t u r e set 4 P ic tu re set 5 Picture set 7 P i c t u r e set 9 Picture set !0 P i c t u r e set 11 103 Posttest P i c t u r e s e t 1 Picture set 2 Picture set 3 A B 107 P i c t u r e set 5 B P i c t u r e set 6 B P i c t u r e set 7 Picture set 8 B H Picture set 10 114 P i c t u r e s e t 12 A R e f e r e n c e s A b b a t e , F. ( E d . ) . ( 1 9 7 2 ) . E g y p t i a n a r t . New Y o r k : O c t o p u s B o o k s . C h i n a C o u n c i l f o r t h e P r o m o t i o n o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l T r a d e . ( E d s . ) . ( 1 9 8 3 ) . C h i n e s e p a i n t i n g s . F e l d m a n , E. B. ( n . d . ) . V a r i e t i e s o f v i s u a l e x p e r i e n c e ( r e v , e d . ) . New Y o r k : H a r r y N. A b r a m s . G a t b o n t o n , J . T. ( E d . ) . ( 1 9 7 5 ) . A D i s c o v e r y o f A s i a a n d t h e P a c i f i c . O r i e n t a t i o n s . 6 ( 1 2 ) . H a l p i n , M. ( 1 9 8 6 ) . J a c k S h a d b o l t a n d t h e c o a s t a l I n d i a n i m a g e . U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P r e s s , V a n c o u v e r . H e r d e g , W. ( E d . ) . ( 1 9 8 0 ) . G r a p h i s A n n u a l . New Y o r k : H a s t i n g s H o u s e P u b l i s h e r s , I n c . Humberg, W. M. ( E d . ) . ( 1 9 8 5 ) . D e c o r . The M a g a z i n e o f F i n e a n d D e c o r a t i v e A r t s . 105 ( 7 ) . J a n s o n , H. W. ( 1 9 6 2 ) . H i s t o r y o f a r t ( r e v . e d . ) . New Y o r k : H a r r y N. A b r a m s , I n c . L a r m o u r , W. T. ( 1 9 6 7 ) . The a r t o f t h e Canadian e s k i m o . O t t a w a : I n f o r m a t i o n C a n a d a . P r i c e , C. ( 1 9 6 4 ) . The s t o r y o f m o s l e m a r t . New Y o r k : E.P. D u t t o n & Company, I n c . Roukes, N. (1988). Design synectics. Worcester, Massachusetts: Davis Publications, Inc. 118 Appendix C Pre- and Posttest Journal 119 Journal Pretest 1. Do you think your art i s i n f l u e n c e d by your culture? Be speci f i c . 2. Have you looked at a r t from other cultures? 3. Is there an art of another c u l t u r e that you admire? 4. Is there art from another c u l t u r e i n your home? Describe. 5. Do you have art that you have saved? How many pieces and i n what year d i d you create them? 6. Are you proud of your artwork? 7. Do you give your art work away? In what form? Cards, p i c t u r e s , sculpture, etc.? 120 Journal Posttest 1. What i n f l u e n c e s your art? 2. Do you think your own art i s infl u e n c e d by a culture? If yes, which one? 3. Is there an art of another c u l t u r e that you admire? 4. Are you proud of your artwork? Has t h i s changed i n the past ten weeks? 5. Out of the three p r o j e c t s , what d i d you enjoy the most? (Color u n i t with the shoe, s t i l l l i f e with a mask, year of the horse). Be s p e c i f i c . 6. What d i d you not enjoy about these projects? X I . A p p e n d i x D The M u l t i c u l t u r a l U n i t s 122 Topic: Color Theory and F o l k l o r e L e v e l : Grade 8 Media: Poster Paint/ink Length: Twelve periods Objectives: In teaching the color wheel students w i l l recognize that color has meaning c u l t u r a l l y and emotionally. M a t e r i a l s : Color f o l k l o r e chart, primary poster c o l o r s , black ink, pens, sketchbook, brushes. Introduction: (a) Ask students to close t h e i r eyes and think of "red" i n terms of food, things that move, etc. Web "red" on the board with the c l a s s . Read the poem on red from the book, Hailstones and  Halibut Bones. Have students u t i l i z e the ideas from the poem by webbing a new c o l o r . (b) HW: Hand out a color l i s t . Students are asked to f i n d one color which has s i g n i f i c a n t meaning i n t h e i r own c u l t u r e . Ask parents, grandparents or look i n an encyclopedia. Complete by w r i t i n g three sentences i n t h e i r sketchbook i n t h e i r own words. In a d d i t i o n , they are to web the " c o l o r " focusing on t h e i r emotions towards the c o l o r . Share i n c l a s s next day. (c) In c l a s s , set up charts of c o l o r s . Students are to f i l l i n the charts d e s c r i b i n g the c u l t u r a l meanings of each c o l o r . Hand out the f o l k l o r e color chart. Discuss and add to the c l a s s charts. Development: Teach primary, secondary, complementary and monochromatic c o l o r theory. Choose a personal object and one c o l o r . Exaggerate or a l t e r the personal object to help express the emotional meaning of the c o l o r . Place i n a s e t t i n g which expresses the c u l t u r e . Draw i n the background using pen and black ink. An example would be to paint your f a v o r i t e running shoe i n shades of green (green thumb/successful gardener), with iv y , plants and green thumbs wrapped around the shoe. The background would transport the shoe in t o an E n g l i s h garde 123 Colour: Folklore Colour What it Means ' Origin Red anger, danger passion bridal gown joy. festivity divine love life European Indian/Pakistani Chinese. Ukrainian Christian/Slavic Ancient people Pink female child British/North American primarily. ' Some European-also. Orange endurance, strength passion, tempered by wisdom, ambition Ukrainian Yellow wisdom, happiness. harvest spirituality joy/sunny fear (descriptive* friendship, homecoming female aspect of God Ukrainian/Russian Buddhist Priests European North American Hinduism (Indian* Cold magical kingship, wealth Medieval European universal Green holy colour victory/freedom boumifulness/rtope grain green light' - go pastures green - richness and tranquility naive/envious green thumb (successful gardener) Islamic Christmas Byzantine/Islamic Ukrainian Peru European'North American ;-English English I English Blue status, kingship greenish/light blue good health pure spirituality male god - Krishna sad (descriptive) dark blue, formal any time (light) blue for a boy African Turkish/Egyptian Talismanic Jtalian Madonnas wear it* Hinduism (Indian* -North American .North American British North American white purity, innocence sacred, protective religious purity birth mourning colour (widows wear) Xhosa (South African* .Europe. Amcr. Indian .European priests Slavic India Black absolute constancy eternity mourning death chic Slavic European. North American Peruvian. North American Indian high fashion (Western* Brown symbol of mother earth Slavic-Purple fasting, faith, patience royalty, priest/power Slav ic Ukrainian European Pink Violet colour of the rainy season North Indian > 124 Evaluation sheet and responses f o r the c u l t u r a l c o l o r u n i t : 1. Use three to f i v e sentences to explain your choice of c o l o r and your f e e l i n g s associated with the animation of the shoe. 2. Did you express f e e l i n g with color? Explain. 3. Does c o l o r have meaning to you emotionally? E x p l a i n . 4. Does c o l o r have meaning to you c u l t u r a l l y ? E x p l a i n . 5. What would you change i n t h i s project to understand c o l o r better? 125 Topic: S t i l l L i f e with Mask Level: Grade 8 Media: Poster Paint Length: Six periods Objectives: To explore d i f f e r e n t viewpoints i n a s t i l l l i f e and to research the s i m i l a r i t i e s between masks of many c u l t u r e s . M a t e r i a l s : S l i d e s and books of masks from around the world, sketchbook, viewfinder, poster paint, brushes, 11x14" white c a r t r i d g e paper. Introduction: (a) Set up a S t i l l L i f e with c u l t u r a l objects: masks, t a p e s t r i e s , baskets, etc. Using a viewfinder, draw three thumbnail sketches each from a d i f f e r e n t viewpoint of the s t i l l l i f e . (b) Show s l i d e s of masks. Look f o r s i m i l a r i t i e s and unique features i n the masks, recording these ideas as quick sketches. (c) Research and draw sketches of masks from l i b r a r y books. Development: From your own research, develop your own c u l t u r a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t mask. Integrate i n t o one of the s t i l l l i f e sketches. Discuss composition with another student. Enlarge the chosen sketch to 11x14" c a r t r i d g e paper. Paint i n bold c o l o r s using the symbolism and techniques from the Color Theory and F o l k l o r e lesson. Evaluate with a peer. Comment on the p o s i t i v e q u a l i t i e s and well as p o s s i b l e changes. Make f i n a l changes. Give the s t i l l l i f e an appropriate t i t l e . 126 Evaluation: 1. Describe the c u l t u r e and the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the design which you have used to enhance your s t i l l l i f e drawing. 2. How has studying masks from other cultures i n f l u e n c e d your a p p r e c i a t i o n f or masks? 3. How has studying masks from other cultures i n f l u e n c e d your a p p r e c i a t i o n of other c u l t u r e s ? 4. How has studying masks from other cultures i n f l u e n c e d your a p p r e c i a t i o n of your own mask design? 5. In t h i s u n i t what d i d you enjoy doing the most? 6. What aspects d i d you f i n d d i f f i c u l t ? 7. What would you change? How? 127 Topic: Year of the Horse L e v e l : Grade 8 Media: P a s t e l R e s i s t Length: Ten periods O b j e c t i v e : To explore a Chinese c u l t u r a l theme. Year of the Horse. M a t e r i a l s : S l i d e s , books and posters on horses from h i s t o r y to modern day. Include as many c u l t u r e s as p o s s i b l e . Provide 20x24" white c o n s t r u c t i o n paper, wax crayons, o i l p a s t e l s , tempera p a i n t , rhoplex and 2" brushes. I n t r o d u c t i o n : (a) Ask students to b r i n g horse objects to c l a s s such as toys, ornaments, p i c t u r e s , jewelry, e t c . Share with the c l a s s . What was the purpose f o r using the horse image on t h i s object? (b) Present s l i d e s of horses i n a r t . Have students draw i n continuous l i n e to the s l i d e s focusing on parts of the horse or i t s d e c o r a t i o n . In groups of three, d i s c u s s some of the s i m i l a r i t i e s of the a r t i s t s f e e l i n g s about the horses i n a r t . Respond i n your j o u r n a l . (c) Discuss the Chinese Zodiak and s i g n i f i c a n c e of the horse. Development: (a) Choose a c u l t u r e that i n t e r e s t s you. Study how the horse i s used i n the s t y l e of that c u l t u r e . (b) Using your sketchbook, create the f o l l o w i n g drawings: 1. 2 l i n e drawings showing movement. 2. 2 l i n e drawings of close-ups. 3. Research of the c u l t u r a l aspect e.g. designs showing texture and p a t t e r n and c o l o r . How do these designs r e f l e c t the c u l t u r e s and b e l i e f s r e l a t e d to the horse? 4. F i n a l p r o j e c t must i n c l u d e movement, an unusual viewpoint of the horse and a c u l t u r a l design i n the form of a border, background or the actual i n t e r i o r of the horse. Enlarge to a 20"x24" piece of c o n s t r u c t i o n paper. 6. Create the drawing and designs i n o i l p a s t e l . Complete with a black tempera wash. Use a t h i n layer of roplex to bring out the c o l o r of the p a s t e l and to protect the paper. 128 Evaluation f o r Year of the Horse Display a l l student's work. Have students respond to the following questions: 1. What f e e l i n g or meaning was expressed with the symbols and designs i n your horse p i c t u r e ? 2. Has your choice of viewpoint (close-up or e n t i r e horse) added to the meaning or f e e l i n g i n your picture? 3. What c u l t u r e or era i n h i s t o r y was expressed? e.g.: name the country and/or century of the horse drawing. 4. What was the most i n t e r e s t i n g thing that you learned by looking at other c u l t u r e s through horses? ( S l i d e s of horses from the Smithsonian I n s t i t u t e and the Unicorn Tapestries from P a r i s ) . 5. What was the most i n t e r e s t i n g thing you learned i n looking at the horse books? 6. What d i d you enjoy the most about t h i s project? 7. What d i d you enjoy the l e a s t about t h i s project? 129 XII. Appendix E Visuals 130 2. Cynara's "Racism" shoe shows sickness, poverty, vi c e , hate and racism by the d i r t y colors she chose. Hope i s a clean, bright yellow. 3. Sketches from S t i l l L i f e with Mask 132 4. Farzana's " S t i l l L i f e with Mask". She used the mask from the s t i l l l i f e and Native Indian books because they symbolize the a r t i s t s feelings and ideas. 133 5. Cynara's " S t i l l L i f e with Mask". She used the f l a t patterns from the Jamaican c l o t h and animated the yellow figure. She presents three d i f f e r e n t faces of a mask. Horse, Smithsonian I n s t i t u t e 135 7 . Horse, Smithsonian I n s t i t u t e 136 8. Unicorn Tapestry, Musee de Cluny, Paris 137 9. Jenny's "Joy" expresses the joy of people and l i f e through the Mexican patterns. Jenny was p a r t i c u l a r l y interested i n the how the people hand-made t h e i r rugs and shawls. 138 10. Farzana's "The Rise of the Horse". The patterns symbolize the new l i f e of the horse and are s p i r i t u a l i n design. 139 11. Yoonhee's "Anger". She i s angry about war and uses h i s t o r i c a l designs and architecture from France. This picture r e f l e c t s a f e e l i n g of the times i n France about war. 

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