Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

The effect of a multicultural art program on students' art appreciation and attitudes towards other cultures Paul, Diane Elizabeth 1991

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1991_A8 P39.pdf [ 19.51MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0100625.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0100625-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0100625-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0100625-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0100625-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0100625-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0100625-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0100625-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0100625.ris

Full Text

THE EFFECT OF A MULTICULTURAL ART PROGRAM ON STUDENTS' ART APPRECIATION AND ATTITUDES TOWARDS OTHER CULTURES by DIANE ELIZABETH PAUL  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTERS OF ARTS  in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES V i s u a l and Performing A r t s i n E d u c a t i o n  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA January  1991  ° Diane E l i z a b e t h Paul  In  presenting  degree  this  thesis  in  at the University of  partial  fulfilment  British Columbia,  freely available for reference and study. copying  of  department  this or  thesis by  for scholarly  his  publication of this thesis  or  her  of  the  I agree  requirements  for  an  advanced  that the Library shall make it  I further agree that permission for extensive  purposes  may  representatives.  It  be is  granted  by the head  understood  that  for financial gain shall not be allowed without  of  my  copying  or  my written  permission.  Department of  V/tSuot qnc) Perfo r m i  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  Date  DE-6 (2/88)  ^YYlCU-LCJns & ^ / ? 9 /  q A rt 5  i n £ d U ccv+ i o n  i Acknowledgements I would l i k e t o express my a p p r e c i a t i o n t o my a d v i s o r , Graeme Chalmers f o r h i s c o n t i n u a l and  s u p p o r t which has made t h e r e s e a r c h  t h i s t h e s i s a unique and e n j o y a b l e  assistance  and w r i t i n g o f  learning experience.  My thanks t o J a c k Kehoe f o r h i s guidance w i t h t h e s t a t i s t i c a l p o r t i o n o f t h i s study and f o r h i s generosity  with h i s m u l t i c u l t u r a l l i b r a r y .  t o be commended f o r h i s p e r s p e c t i v e  J i m Gray i s  and overview on t h e  paper as a whole. I am a l s o g r a t e f u l t o Odie Kaplan who h e l p e d make a path v i s i b l e  i n t h e b e g i n n i n g , and t o my f e l l o w  graduate s t u d e n t s and c o l l e a g u e s  who p r o v i d e d t h e  s u p p o r t and encouragement t o f o l l o w i t . Finally,  deep a p p r e c i a t i o n i s e x p r e s s e d t o my  f a m i l y f o r p r o v i d i n g t h e sunshine.  Abstract The purpose o f t h i s r e s e a r c h study was to  determine  threefold:  i f a m u l t i c u l t u r a l a r t program would have  a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t on s t u d e n t s ' a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e i r own  a r t work, a r t from o t h e r c u l t u r e s and  towards o t h e r c u l t u r e s .  attitudes  The program supported  m u l t i c u l t u r a l view of a r t which emphasized t h e  a cultural  s i m i l a r i t i e s and v a l u e s which were common t o a l l students. A n o n e q u i v a l e n t c o n t r o l - g r o u p d e s i g n was w i t h i n a q u a s i - e x p e r i m e n t a l framework.  One  used  grade e i g h t  c l a s s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the M u l t i c u l t u r a l Program w h i l e the o t h e r s e r v e d as the c o n t r o l group.  Both c l a s s e s  were p r e - and p o s t t e s t e d w i t h t h e Borgardus S o c i a l D i s t a n c e S c a l e and a C u l t u r a l A p p r e c i a t i o n Measure t o determine  i f t h e r e was  an a t t i t u d e o r a p p r e c i a t i o n  change as a r e s u l t o f the treatment.  Student j o u r n a l s  and a J o u r n a l P o s t t e s t a l s o p r o v i d e d d a t a f o r a n a l y s i s and  reflection. No s i g n i f i c a n t s t a t i s t i c a l  d i f f e r e n c e s were found  between e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l groups on t h e p r e posttest.  However, student j o u r n a l s and t h e J o u r n a l  P o s t t e s t provided data t o i n d i c a t e a s i g n i f i c a n t  and  p o s i t i v e change i n s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s towards t h e i r own  a r t and t h e a r t o f o t h e r c u l t u r e s .  complemented described the  teaching  by t h e r e s e a r c h e r ' s j o u r n a l  the classroom proceedings.  journals  This  and t h e J o u r n a l  Posttest  was  which  The r e s u l t s from indicate  that  a r t through a m u l t i c u l t u r a l perspective,  which  emphasizes t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s a c r o s s c u l t u r e s , can change a t t i t u d e s about a r t .  iv T a b l e o f Contents Acknowledgements Abstract I. A.  II. III.  IV.  V.  i i i  The Study 1 Introduction 1 B. Statement o f t h e Problem 2 C. Purpose o f t h e Study 3 D. Research Q u e s t i o n s 4 E. D e f i n i t i o n o f the M u l t i c u l t u r a l C u r r i c u l u m 5 F. Design o f t h e Study 7 1. Sample 7 2. Procedure 9 3. Instruments 10 4. L i m i t a t i o n s 10 Review o f t h e L i t e r a t u r e  12  Conduct o f t h e Study 27 A. Research Methodology 27 B. Research Q u e s t i o n s 28 C. S e l e c t i o n o f S u b j e c t s 28 D. D e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e School 29 E. Procedure 30 F. I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n 31 1. The S o c i a l D i s t a n c e S c a l e 31 2. The C u l t u r a l A p p r e c i a t i o n Measure .. 3 3 3. The J o u r n a l P o s t t e s t 34 G. Data A n a l y s i s 35 H. The Treatment 36 I. L i m i t a t i o n s 39 D e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e Implementation P r o c e s s .... A. I n t r o d u c t i o n B. The S c h o o l 1. The S e t t i n g 2. U n i t One: C o l o r Theory and F o l k l o r e . 3. U n i t Two: S t i l l L i f e w i t h Mask 4. U n i t Three: Year o f t h e Horse  42 42 45 45 45 56 59  Findings A. S o c i a l D i s t a n c e Measure B. C u l t u r a l A p p r e c i a t i o n Measure C. J o u r n a l P o s t t e s t  65 65 67 69  V D. VI.  Discussion  71  Summary a n d C o n c l u s i o n s  74  VII.  References  79  VIII.  Appendix A  85  IX.  Appendix B  87  X.  Appendix C  118  XI.  Appendix D  121  XII.  Appendix E  129  vi List  of Tables  T a b l e 1:  E t h n i c Groups  ( P i l o t Study)  7  T a b l e 2:  Color Preference  55  T a b l e 3:  Social Distance Scale t - t e s t  66  T a b l e 4:  C u l t u r a l A p p r e c i a t i o n Measure t - t e s t  68  T a b l e 5:  J o u r n a l P o s t t e s t C h i Square  70  1 I.  The  Study  A. I n t r o d u c t i o n Sam  Fillipoff,  the former Vancouver S c h o o l  C o n s u l t a n t on Race R e l a t i o n s and  Board's  Multicultural  E d u c a t i o n s a i d t h a t t e a c h e r s and o t h e r  people  u n c o n s c i o u s l y p r a c t i c e " s u b t l e e v i l s " and g i v e s an example o f t h e American hamburger as the c h o i c e o f food s e r v e d i n the s c h o o l c a f e t e r i a 1984) .  (quoted  Chalmers extends t h i s n o t i o n i n t o a r t programs  which can be l i k e t h e m o n o c u l t u r a l How  i n Chalmers,  American hamburger.  many f a s t food s o l u t i o n s a r e used by  educators  i n s t e a d o f a d d r e s s i n g the r e a l i s s u e s o f a m u l t i c u l t u r a l curriculum?  An  "awareness and  r e c o g n i t i o n of the c u l t u r a l l y p l u r a l i s t i c nature of the n a t i o n can be r e f l e c t e d i n most c l a s s r o o m ( G o l l n i c k & Chinn, t h i s i n our I j a z and  1986,  p.260).  How  experiences"  can we  accomplish  classrooms? Ijaz  (1981) s t a t e t h a t t r a d i t i o n a l  approaches t o the study o f o t h e r c u l t u r e s t h a t f o c u s mainly on t h e t e a c h i n g o f knowledge about c u l t u r e s have f a i l e d .  They developed  those  and a n a l y z e d  a  program which combined an e x p e r i e n t i a l approach w i t h emphasis on c u l t u r a l s i m i l a r i t i e s .  I t was  conveyed  an  through music, f o l k - d a n c e and c r a f t s .  A key element i n  a c h i e v i n g p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s was "not i n t h e mere knowledge about c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s b u t i n an awareness o f i n t e r c u l t u r a l s i m i l a r i t i e s and t h e r o o t s of c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y "  (p.20).  C u r r i c u l u m i s b e i n g developed  on t h e assumption  t h a t n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s a r e a r e s u l t o f i g n o r a n c e and that a multicultural  focus i s simply a m a t t e r o f  p r o v i d i n g more i n f o r m a t i o n about o t h e r c u l t u r a l I t i s important  groups.  t h a t more r e s e a r c h i s done on t e a c h i n g  and e v a l u a t i n g m u l t i c u l t u r a l programs. f o c u s emphasizing  An i n depth  t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s among  cultural  groups (Kehoe, 1984a) i s a way o f e d u c a t i n g s t u d e n t s t o h o l d more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s towards o t h e r  B.  cultures.  Statement o f t h e Problem On r e l o c a t i n g from A b b o t s f o r d t o Burnaby i n  September, 1989, a f t e r e l e v e n y e a r s o f t e a c h i n g i n t h e F r a s e r V a l l e y , I was immediately  aware o f t h e  d i f f e r e n c e s i n an i n n e r - c i t y s c h o o l . a f a s t t u r n as I encountered  took  l a r g e numbers o f e t h n i c  m i n o r i t y s t u d e n t s , over 22 languages, art classes.  My t e a c h i n g  i n my grade 8-12  My p r e v i o u s t e a c h i n g s t y l e was no l o n g e r  3 effective.  The s t u d e n t s , and e s p e c i a l l y myself,  l i t t l e about each o t h e r ' s c u l t u r e s .  Policy  knew  statements  produced by t h e School Board O f f i c e and by community r e l a t i o n s groups were f u l l o f r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e need for multicultural  and r a c e r e l a t i o n s e d u c a t i o n . I n an  attempt t o c l a r i f y t h e p o l i c i e s and t o a s s e s s t h e implications  f o r my own c l a s s r o o m p r a c t i c e ,  1990 I i n i t i a t e d t h e b e g i n n i n g s focussing  on a m u l t i c u l t u r a l  study  curriculum project  t o be t h e f o c u s o f t h i s paper. cultures  of a p i l o t  i n January,  I integrated  that i s  many  i n t o t h e a r t program and e v a l u a t e d t h e  s t u d e n t s ' responses self-evaluation,  through  and group  The problem t h a t multicultural  journal  writing,  surveys,  discussions.  evolved i s t h r e e f o l d :  a r t program f u l f i l l  w i l l the  s t u d e n t s ' needs by  h a v i n g a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t on (1) t h e i r a p p r e c i a t i o n t h e i r own work, attitudes  C.  (2) a r t from o t h e r c u l t u r e s  towards o t h e r  of  and (3)  /  cultures?  Purpose o f t h e Study The purpose o f t h i s study i s t o d i s c o v e r what t h e  positive benefits multicultural  are i n teaching a r t t o students v i a a  curriculum.  More s p e c i f i c a l l y , what i s  4 the  students* u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e v a l u e o f t h e i r own  a r t and t h e a r t o f o t h e r c u l t u r e s ?  The p i l o t  study  u t i l i z e d t h e c u l t u r a l backgrounds o f t h e a r t s t u d e n t s i n d e v e l o p i n g a m u l t i c u l t u r a l a r t program which emphasis on t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s among c u l t u r e s .  placed  It is  p o s i t e d t h a t t h i s study w i l l h e l p p r o v i d e some u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e r o l e a r t can p l a y  i n multicultural  e d u c a t i o n , by c o n t r i b u t i n g d e s c r i p t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n i n the  form o f s t u d e n t a t t i t u d e , a p p r e c i a t i o n  and j o u r n a l  responses t o t h r e e m u l t i c u l t u r a l a r t p r o j e c t s .  D.  Research Q u e s t i o n s T h i s study was d e s i g n e d t o examine whether  teaching  ^/  a r t through c u l t u r e i s a means by which  students could  increase  t h e i r appreciation  of art.  A  c u l t u r a l program i n t h e v i s u a l a r t s was o f f e r e d t o e x p l o r e t h e a t t i t u d e s o f grade e i g h t s t u d e n t s towards c u l t u r e s o t h e r than t h e i r own.  I t was i n t e n d e d t h a t a  m u l t i c u l t u r a l view o f a r t would emphasize t h e similarities, are  "point  out t o s t u d e n t s t h a t a l l humans  i n s p i r e d i n s i m i l a r ways and t h a t  t h e i r a r t f o r r i t u a l and d e c o r a t i v e  i n d i v i d u a l s use  purposes i n t h e  same manner as t h e i r c u l t u r a l l y d i f f e r e n t n e i g h b o u r s "  (Congdon, 1985, p.16).  I t was  f u r t h e r p o s i t e d t h a t the  study c o u l d be viewed as a form o f communication r e f l e c t i n g the students values  i n t h e i r own a r t work  and t h e i r a t t i t u d e s and a p p r e c i a t i o n towards a r t from other  cultures. The f o l l o w i n g r e s e a r c h  investigated:  questions  were  Will participation i n a visual arts  c u l t u r a l program which emphasizes t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s o f a r t across grade 8  c u l t u r e s r e s u l t i n a p o s i t i v e change i n  students : 1  (i)  a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e i r own  (ii)  a p p r e c i a t i o n of the a r t of other  (iii)  a t t i t u d e s towards o t h e r Appreciation  art?  cultures?  of the students'  as p r i d e i n t h e s t u d e n t s '  cultures?  own work.  own work i s d e f i n e d Appreciation  of  the a r t o f o t h e r c u l t u r e s means a growing knowledge respect  E.  f o r the a r t of other  and  cultures.  D e f i n i t i o n of the M u l t i c u l t u r a l Curriculum T h i s concept r e f e r s t o an approach t o t h e v i s u a l  arts that: 1.  Bases t h e program's t h e o r e t i c a l framework  " c u l t u r a l s i m i l a r i t i e s and human v a l u e s  on  common t o a l l  peoples" 2.  (Ijaz  & Ijaz,  1981,  " U n d e r s t a n d s and  p.20).  utilizes  students'  cultural  v  backgrounds i n developing e d u c a t i o n a l programs" (Gollnick 3.  & Chinn, Helps  understanding culture"  1986,  p.255).  " s t u d e n t s a c h i e v e more o p e n n e s s of a r t different  from t h a t o f t h e i r  (McFee & Degge, 1977,  4.  rational,  students'  emotional, affective  p h y s i c a l by d e v e l o p i n g an e x p e r i e n c e a p p r o a c h t h a n one  that just  own  p.308).  Involves a l l aspects of  personalities:  and  imparts knowledge  (Ijaz  &  and rather Ijaz,  1981). 5.  Draws o u t a u t h e n t i c c u l t u r a l  perspectives for  t h e c u r r i c u l u m by u t i l i z i n g t h e c u l t u r a l s t u d e n t s and p a r e n t s . 6.  experience  (Mayes & Commenou,  n.d.).  Draws upon t h e Home-School C o o r d i n a t o r s  Programme t o l e a d g r o u p d i s c u s s i o n s f o r s t a f f s t u d e n t s on t h e " c u l t u r a l  orientation  and  of major e t h n i c  g r o u p s r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n " 1 9 8 4 b , p. 7.  (Kehoe,  57). U s e s a r t as a" p r i n c i p a l  c o m m u n i c a t i n g i d e a s and person  of  to another"  means o f  e m o t i o n a l meanings from  (McFee & Degge, 1977,  one  p.280).  7 F.  Design o f t h e Study 1. Sample The sample c o n s i s t s o f two i n t a c t grade 8 c l a s s e s  i n a large i n n e r - c i t y school d i s t r i c t . students are s p e c i f i c a l l y  Grade 8  chosen as t h e y w i l l have a  l o n g e r time p e r i o d t o b e n e f i t from a m u l t i c u l t u r a l program w i t h i n t h e h i g h s c h o o l . s t u d e n t s as s u b j e c t s . coordinator v e r i f i e d  44  The d i s t r i c t m u l t i c u l t u r a l t h a t t h e r e a r e over  languages spoken i n t h e s c h o o l . information  The study i n c l u d e s  twenty-two  In g a t h e r i n g  from t h e January, 1990 p i l o t  study, 54  grade e i g h t s t u d e n t s c a t e g o r i z e d themselves i n t o t h e f o l l o w i n g e t h n i c groups: Banks,  1984,  (Immigrants by c o u n t r y ,  p.77-78.)  Table 1 Ethnic  Groups  Students  Country  America  25  Canada  23  The f o l l o w i n g a r e sub-groups o f Canada:  Native  Indian  4  Canadian/Chinese  6  Canadian/Dutch  2  Canadian/Ukrainian  1  French  5  Canadian  Canadian  5  Columbia  1  Mexico  1  Europe  16  Czechoslovakia  1  Denmark  1  Great  Britain  10  Greece  1  Italy  1  Spain  1  Yugoslavia  1  Asia  11  China  3  India  3  Japan  2  Korea  1  Philippines  2  Africa  1  9 Kenyan  1  Many i n d i v i d u a l s w e r e d i f f i c u l t ethnically  to characterize  b e c a u s e o f how t h e y v i e w e d t h e m s e l v e s  how o t h e r s v i e w e d them.  Five students  saw  themselves  as Canadian and d i d n o t c o n s c i o u s l y i d e n t i f y another  group.  Some i n d i v i d u a l s w e r e  years. 1300  level  o f t h e school p o p u l a t i o n i s lower  t o upper middle  counsellor,  but retaining  e t h n i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The  socio-economic middle  with  bicultural,  a c q u i r i n g mainstream Canadian c u l t u r e , many o f t h e i r  and  class,  determined  by a s c h o o l  t e a c h i n g i n t h e s c h o o l f o r twenty-one  T h e p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e s c h o o l was j u s t  under  students.  2.  Procedure  A nonequivalent within  a quasi-experimental  received control  c o n t r o l - g r o u p d e s i g n was  t h e treatment group.  posttested  framework.  One  class  while the other served  as a  B o t h c l a s s e s were p r e t e s t e d a n d  on measures i n d i c a t i n g  their  attitudes  toward and a p p r e c i a t i o n o f o t h e r c u l t u r e s . experimental  used  group p a r t i c i p a t e d  The  i n a c u r r i c u l u m which  emphasized the s i m i l a r i t i e s  ( i n l i f e experiences  the emotions they engender), responded  across cultures,  and  and  t o s p e c i f i c j o u r n a l q u e s t i o n s throughout  time o f t h e study, r e f l e c t i n g a t t i t u d e s and towards t h e m u l t i c u l t u r a l c u r r i c u l u m .  The  the  emotions control  group f o l l o w e d t h e M i n i s t r y Grade 8 a r t c u r r i c u l u m but w i t h o u t a m u l t i c u l t u r a l emphasis. i n l a t e September and was  The treatment began  implemented over a t e n week  p e r i o d : 28, one hour c l a s s e s .  The  l e n g t h o f t h e study  removed t h e n o v e l t y o f a o n e - u n i t study.  3. All  Instruments s t u d e n t s were p r e - and p o s t t e s t e d w i t h a  Borgardus  S o c i a l D i s t a n c e S c a l e and a C u l t u r a l  A p p r e c i a t i o n Measure.  Students j o u r n a l s and a J o u r n a l  P o s t t e s t a l s o p r o v i d e d data f o r a n a l y s i s  and  reflection.  4.  Limitations  The  study was  sample was  l i m i t e d by t h r e e f a c t o r s .  c o l l e c t e d from one s c h o o l .  The  Second, i t was  not p o s s i b l e t o randomly s e l e c t s t u d e n t s f o r program. Two  grade 8 c l a s s e s were a s s i g n e d t o the study i n  September.  T h i r d , I used my  own  I wanted t o conduct the r e s e a r c h s e t t i n g where t h e r e was  i n an a c t u a l  and  school  a place to generalize  G e n e r a l i z a t i o n i s l i m i t e d t o the  grade, s u b j e c t and  study.  a need f o r a m u l t i c u l t u r a l  f o c u s w i t h i n the c l a s s r o o m findings.  c l a s s e s f o r the  school  studied.  specific  my  12 II.  Review o f t h e L i t e r a t u r e  A degree o f r a c i a l p r e j u d i c e " r a i s e s  serious  doubts about t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f c u r r e n t  educational  and t e a c h i n g approaches i n promoting p o s i t i v e i n t e r e t h n i c a t t i t u d e s i n our s t u d e n t s " 1981, p.20).  (Ijaz & Ijaz,  The i n c r e a s e o f c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y i n our  Canadian s o c i e t y has l e d many t e a c h e r s and e d u c a t o r s t o develop m u l t i c u l t u r a l approaches, e s p e c i a l l y i n a r t . These approaches do n o t n e c e s s a r i l y work by m a s t e r i n g t r a d i t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e s w i t h s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n as t h e main goal  (Feldman,  1980).  We need t o a v o i d t u r n i n g  c l a s s r o o m s i n t o workshops where c o p i e s o f e t h n i c a r t a r e manufactured.  How many o f us a r e somewhat g u i l t y  o f c r e a t i n g e t h n i c Mexican j e w e l r y , I n d i a n bead A f r i c a n masks, S c a n d i n a v i a n Christmas t r e e Eskimo  i g l o o s and Chinese dragons?  belts,  ornaments,  We need t o become  more aware o f p r e s e n t i n g f e s t i v e a r t i n t h e form o f v i s u a l c l i c h e s and s t e r e o t y p e s .  More s t u d i e s a r e  needed t o address t h i s and o t h e r r e l a t e d  problems.  The purpose o f t h i s review o f l i t e r a t u r e i s t o e x p l o r e a r e l a t i o n s h i p between a r t , c u l t u r e and c u r r i c u l u m and t o j u s t i f y a r e s e a r c h study i n a v i s u a l a r t s program which emphasizes t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s o f a r t  across  cultures.  By  f o c u s s i n g on the s i m i l a r i t i e s  forms o f communication a r t can p r o v i d e , values,  a t t i t u d e s and  the s t u d e n t s '  own  and  a reflection  of  b e l i e f s w i l l become apparent i n  art.  As a r e s u l t ,  i t i s posited  that  t h e r e w i l l be a p o s i t i v e change i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e s  and  a p p r e c i a t i o n towards a r t from o t h e r c u l t u r e s .  fact  t h a t most o f the l i t e r a t u r e reviewed was conceptual  i n n a t u r e and  The  mainly  not e m p i r i c a l suggested  the  need f o r a q u a s i - e x p e r i m e n t a l study. We  must r e a l i z e t h a t every i n d i v i d u a l has  the  p o t e n t i a l t o be m u l t i c u l t u r a l (McFee & Degge, 1977). "Their dress, others,  appearance, language, r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h  s t a t u s and  r o l e s change whether t h e y are  work, a t home, a t p l a y o r i n c h u r c h "  (p.280).  at Each  r o l e i n v o l v e s d i f f e r e n t speech p a t t e r n s ,  dress  of r e l a t i n g to others.  cultural  On u n d e r s t a n d i n g  i n f l u e n c e s on a r t w i t h i n i t s s i m i l a r i t i e s d i f f e r e n c e s , the key  i s t o be open and  way  and  more  u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f a r t from o u t s i d e one's own McFee and  and  culture.  Degge g i v e an example o f a f a m i l y which  p r e f e r s landscape r e a l i s m as a form of a r t . u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the work o f a s u b j e c t i v e  Their  expressionist  would be comparable t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g the work o f  an  14 artist  from a d i s t a n t p a r t of the world w i t h a very-  d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l background.  We  need t o  address  t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s and become more open. I f we  a r e t o address t h e needs o f a p l u r a l i s t i c  s o c i e t y i n a r t , Hamblen (1987) recommends t h a t t h e study o f a r t encompass museum and nonmuseum a r t . p l e a d s f o r a democratic  She  p l u r a l i s m w i t h i n our s o c i e t y  and a e s t h e t i c s which a l l o w " e l i t i s m and populism,  for  t h e good and not so good, f o r paradox and f o r nonsolutions"  (p.23).  In d e v e l o p i n g a m u l t i c u l t u r a l  c u r r i c u l u m , s e l e c t i o n needs t o be made more and t o be ongoing i n p r o c e s s . continuous  A r t and c u l t u r e a r e i n a  complex s t a t e o f change.  r e c o g n i z e and respond  meaningful  We  need t o  t o t h i s as t e a c h e r s and  and ask q u e s t i o n s about "who s o c i e t y we  l i v e i n , and how  cultures"  ( H i c k s , 1989,  we we  p.55).  educators  a r e , what k i n d of r e l a t e to other Our p a s t f o c u s  has  been t o o narrow i n d e v e l o p i n g a r t c u l t u r a l programs. Through r e s e a r c h , we  need t o e x p l o r e i d e a s which a r e  more f i r m l y r o o t e d i n the d i r e c t e x p e r i e n c e o f s t u d e n t s and t h e i r Why  culture.  i s communication so important  curriculum?  our  i n an a r t  Communication a c t s as a b r i d g e between a r t  15 and c u l t u r e .  A r t without a communicative r o l e  support o r change c u l t u r e s .  (Chalmers,  1987).  cannot We  need  t o move away from the Western monuments and broaden our d e f i n i t i o n o f a r t t o i n c l u d e the d e m o c r a t i c a l l y p o p u l a r , f o l k and v e r n a c u l a r a r t s . t o see themselves  To a l l o w s t u d e n t s  as p a r t o f a l a r g e r t r a d i t i o n , we  b e g i n w i t h t h e s t u d e n t s own  culture.  can  Banks (1984)  emphasizes "a c u r r i c u l u m t h a t teaches o n l y mainstream views and p e r s p e c t i v e s g i v i n g s t u d e n t s a d i s t o r t e d incomplete view o f t h e i r n a t i o n and t h e w o r l d " xvi).  and  (p.  Kehoe (1984c) t a l k s about the hidden c u r r i c u l u m  and says t h a t most contemporary s c h o o l t e x t s are w r i t t e n from a m o n o c u l t u r a l p e r s p e c t i v e .  I f schools  a r e t r u l y i n t e n t on becoming m u l t i c u l t u r a l they "must assume t h e e q u a l i t y o f a l l c u l t u r e s and not enhance and d i l u t e t h e o t h e r s " ( p . 8 ) .  He suggests  l e a r n i n g teams and the j i g s a w c l a s s r o o m as  cooperative two  approaches f o r i n c r e a s i n g s t u d e n t s i n t e g r a t i o n  and  participation: 1.  C h i l d r e n a r e p l a c e d i n groups so t h e y  mixed r a c i a l l y and 2. effort  are  ethnically.  Team members are i n t e r d e p e n d e n t ; each o n e s 1  i s r e q u i r e d f o r the success of  all.  one  16 3.  Groups a r e s m a l l t y p i c a l l y between 4 t o 6  people, t o maximize i n t e r p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t . Student  (p.14)  i n t e g r a t i o n and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s important  i n developing a m u l t i c u l t u r a l curriculum. involve a l l aspects of  I t should  students' p e r s o n a l i t i e s :  r a t i o n a l , e m o t i o n a l , a f f e c t i v e and p h y s i c a l , r a t h e r than j u s t impart knowledge. In an attempt  t o c l a r i f y the c o n f u s i n g i s s u e s o f a  m u l t i c u l t u r a l o r m u l t i r a c i a l c u r r i c u l u m p r a c t i c e , Mason (1988) conducted experiments  r e s e a r c h through c u r r i c u l u m  i n two  inner-city schools.  of L e i c e s t e r ' s  (England)  multiracial  She e x p l o r e d a m u l t i c u l t u r a l  approach which h e l p e d s t u d e n t s t o a c h i e v e more understanding  o f a r t d i f f e r e n t from t h e i r own  culture.  Mason's d e s c r i p t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n emphasizes Smith's s t a n c e on a d i a l e c t i c a l approach.  T h i s approach  s t u d e n t s t o f o c u s on a p a r t i c u l a r event,  asks  examine i t  c l o s e l y and c o n s i d e r the r e l a t i o n between i t and c u l t u r e . D i a l e c t i c a l m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s t s "do not presume t h a t t h e u l t i m a t e wisdom about m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m l i e s i n themselves,  o r , i n any g i v e n c u l t u r a l phenomena"  (Mason, p . 2 ) .  They s h o u l d be w i l l i n g t o l e a r n  a l i e n c u l t u r e s and undergo c u l t u r a l shocks w i t h  from an  17 o v e r a l l view t o "improving t h e i r knowledge o f s e l f  and  o f the r i g h t r e l a t i o n s of s e l f t o c u l t u r e " ( I b i d . ) . Mason sees the g o a l o f a m u l t i c u l t u r a l r e s e a r c h e r one  as  t h a t approaches d i a l e c t i c a l encounters between  c u l t u r e s r a t h e r than analyzing, separating  isolating  cultural differences.  c i r c u l a r curriculum,  one  She  and  advocates a  t h a t adds t o both c u l t u r e s  c r e a t i n g a s y n e r g e t i c e f f e c t , r a t h e r than one l i n e a r and  subtracts  from each c u l t u r e . She  Feldman t h a t s t u d e n t s "need a c u r r i c u l u m that provides recognize,  that i s  agrees w i t h  plan of a c t i o n  them w i t h t o o l s t h a t w i l l h e l p them t o  appreciate  c u l t u r a l expressions w i t h i n t h e i r own  and and  cope w i t h the p l e t h o r a forms t h a t e x i s t , not  complex c i v i l i z a t i o n , but  of  only  i n those  l a b e l l e d non-European" (p.160). In B r i t a i n , Mason b e l i e v e s t h a t the be met  by r e s p o n d i n g t o the e d u c a t i o n a l  a n t h r o p o l o g y and locked  i s s u e o f c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y can  s o c i a l theory  and  methods o f  not by  i n t o t r a d i t i o n a l models of the  only  remaining  artist,  a e s t h e t i c i a n , a r t c r i t i c and h i s t o r i a n . In d e v e l o p i n g teacher  a m u l t i c u l t u r a l program i n a r t ,  needs t o understand and  c u l t u r a l backgrounds.  u t i l i z e the  Boyer (1989) asks how  the  students' the  field  18 of  American a r t e d u c a t i o n i s d e a l i n g w i t h t h e  m u l t i c u l t u r a l student, those e x p e r i e n c i n g a l i e n a t i o n and c o n f l i c t i n t h e classroom? l i t e r a c y a r t education  She proposes  a cultural  (CLAE) c u r r i c u l u m , where c u l t u r e  i s seen from t h e i n s i d e out, p r o g r e s s i n g from t h e s t u d e n t s ' i n d i v i d u a l world view and c u l t u r e t o l a r g e r views o f a r t i n c u l t u r e and f i n a l l y t o i m a g i n a t i o n and speculative s k i l l s .  Johnson  (1989) s u p p o r t s Boyer i n  i n t e g r a t i n g CLAE w i t h c r o s s - c u l t u r a l p e r s p e c t i v e s by l o o k i n g a t how o t h e r people i n o t h e r s o c i e t i e s examine p a r t i c u l a r events o r themes. R e c e n t l y , t h e r e have been l o c a l  inquiries  into  s p e c i f i c learning styles of multicultural a r t curriculums.  Berger  (1983) simply s t a t e s t h a t w i t h o u t  c u l t u r e , our programs a r e merely  surface s k i l l s .  In  h e r t h e s i s she examines a case study d e s i g n e d t o develop c u l t u r a l awareness among urban N a t i v e I n d i a n s t u d e n t s i n Vancouver.  She echoes McFee i n s a y i n g " a r t  as a c a r r i e r o f c u l t u r e has been addressed by few a r t educators"  (Berger, p.49).  Highwater (1981),  S t a r t i n g w i t h a quote by  she e x p l a i n s why a r t i s f l o u r i s h i n g  i n many m i n o r i t y c u l t u r e s . t o u c h w i t h themselves  People a r e a b l e t o g e t i n  and o t h e r s through a r t .  19 Highwater "Who  s h a r e s w i t h us a N a t i v e I n d i a n p e r s p e c t i v e :  speaks t o me w i t h my  own  voice?  From h i m s e l f  comes a m a r v e l l o u s s t r a n g e r c a l l e d a r t "  (p.56).  The  r e s u l t s o f Berger's study r e v e a l an improvement i n l e v e l s o f achievement one's own  culture.  and s e l f - e s t e e m by l e a r n i n g  Could t h e r e s u l t s be  about  successful  w i t h a d i v e r s e m u l t i c u l t u r a l a r t c l a s s o f not j u s t culture? art  T h i s i s t o be my p u r s u i t i n my  one  multicultural  classrooms. Andrews (1983) p r e s e n t s an a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l  approach  s u g g e s t i n g t h a t a r t i n classrooms opens up  perspectives, offering a " l i m i t l e s s f i e l d  f o r both  o b j e c t i v e and h u m a n i s t i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h o s e q u a l i t i e s o f mankind, w i t h a l l i t s c u l t u r a l  variations,  which a r e u n i q u e l y expressed through the a r t s " (p.218).  From September, 1980  t o June,  began h e r r e s e a r c h i n a t y p i c a l B r i t i s h elementary s c h o o l implementing approach t o t e a c h i n g a r t .  an e t h n i c  1982,  Andrews  Columbia alternative  A p o s i t i v e response  was  g e n e r a t e d through a theme-oriented a r t program which became a key element  for learning i n a l l subjects.  i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t t e a c h e r s had  first  d e s c r i b e d t h e s c h o o l as m o n o c u l t u r a l and l a t e r  found  It  almost 20 d i f f e r e n t n a t i o n a l i t i e s r e p r e s e n t e d the  s t u d e n t body.  Andrews' c o n c l u s i o n  M u l t i c u l t u r a l F e s t i v a l to increase recognition and  was  within  t o use  a  r e f l e c t i o n and  o f the m u l t i c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y w i t h i n  art  culture. Cipywnyk p r a c t i c e s a growing i n t e r e s t i n  implementing m u l t i c u l t u r a l approaches i n a r t but problems w i t h c u r r i c u l a r i n n o v a t i o n s . f o c u s o n l y on p r e s e n t a t i o n other c u l t u r e s .  o f the  sees  Many t e a c h e r s  information  I f teachers believe that  about  negative  a t t i t u d e s have r e s u l t e d from i g n o r a n c e , they c o u n t e r a c t t h e s e a t t i t u d e s by  simply f i l l i n g  i n with f a c t s .  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h i s does n o t h i n g t o promote i n t e r c u l t u r a l understanding. focusing  In c o n t r a s t ,  programs  on c u l t u r a l s i m i l a r i t i e s have been  successful  i n promoting p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s towards o t h e r Salyachivin's  (1972, 1973)  research  cultures.  recognizes  the  importance o f s i m i l a r i t i e s a c r o s s c u l t u r e s and  states  that  positive  i t i s the most e f f e c t i v e way  attitudes  (from Cipywynk).  of achieving  I j a z and  Ijaz  (1981)  emphasize c r e a t i n g an awareness o f s i m i l a r i t i e s d i f f e r e n c e s between c u l t u r e s .  and  They combine a c t i v i t y  w i t h an e x p e r i e n t i a l approach which i n c l u d e s  role  p l a y i n g , dance, c r a f t s ,  i n s t r u c t i o n on a c o g n i t i v e  and  e m o t i o n a l l e v e l , r e l a t i n g the e n t i r e c o n t e n t t o t h e s t u d e n t s ' own  culture.  T a y l o r , McFee, Degge and Chalmers s t a t e t h a t a r t needs t o be viewed  as a form o f communication,  that  people express t h e i r c u l t u r a l v a l u e s through a r t and i  a r e a b l e t o express what they n o r m a l l y would not be a b l e t o express w i t h words. People  symbolize  e x p e r i e n c e s and a r e a b l e t o o b t a i n new these experiences.  ;  insights  about  A r t needs a communicative r o l e t o  m a i n t a i n and change c u l t u r e s .  "To be s u r e , a r t can  be  used f o r d e c o r a t i o n and enhancement; but t o f u l f i l l i t s total  f u n c t i o n , a r t has t o a c h i e v e communication w i t h  i t s audience"  (Chalmers,  1987,  p.4).  A r t and a r t  e d u c a t i o n can be used i n u n i f y i n g our growing d i v e r s e c u l t u r e s by t r a n s m i t t i n g , s u s t a i n i n g and changing culture  ( I b i d . , 1984).  the  Our g o a l as a r t t e a c h e r s and  e d u c a t o r s i s t o develop i n t e r c u l t u r a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g i n t h e c l a s s r o o m , study the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a r t and c u l t u r e and f o c u s on commonalities ethnic  among d i f f e r e n t  groups.  Wasson, S t u h r and Petovich-Mwaniki a c u l t u r a l l y responsive a r t c u r r i c u l a .  (1990)  advocate  They c h a l l e n g e  22 t e a c h e r s t o l o o k p o s i t i v e l y upon promoting a r t i n t h e m u l t i c u l t u r a l classroom c o m p l i c a t e d problem.  as an o p p o r t u n i t y r a t h e r than a  In s t u d y i n g a e s t h e t i c s they  ask  not t o s e p a r a t e t h e f u n c t i o n , v a l u e s and b e l i e f s t h a t surround  t h e a r t i s t i c p r o c e s s but t o expand our  own  c u l t u r a l knowledge by b e i n g open t o a r t forms and v a l u e s t h a t are d i f f e r e n t from our own.  They  support  a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l l y based methods i n t e a c h i n g s t u d e n t s  to  study a r t , a s k i n g us t o l o o k a t the " t o t a l a r t experience of a c u l t u r e " Mwaniki, 1990, Teachers  and  (Wasson, Stuhr & P e t o v i c h -  p.239) r a t h e r than i s o l a t e i t i n p a r t s .  s t u d e n t s a r e asked t o c o n f r o n t and  each o t h e r ' s c u l t u r a l and s o c i a l b i a s e s .  respect  When p l a n n i n g  a r t c u r r i c u l a t h e s t u d e n t s ' v a l u e s and b e l i e f s  from  t h e i r e t h n i c , r e l i g i o u s and dominant c u l t u r e must be included.  An a u t h e n t i c m u l t i c u l t u r a l e x p e r i e n c e means  g o i n g beyond t h e c o n t e n t o f Egypt o r A f r i c a and l o o k i n g i n t o t h e " s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l dimensions o f t h e s o c i e t y i n which t h e a r t o b j e c t s were produced" A r t t e a c h e r s must a l s o c o n s i d e r the  ( I b i d . , p.240).  culturally  p r e f e r r e d l e a r n i n g s t y l e s of t h e i r students r e a d j u s t t e a c h i n g p r a c t i c e s t o meet t h e i r  and  students*  needs. F i n a l l y , t e a c h e r s need t o be s e n s i t i v e t o t h e  23 p r e j u d i c e and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n t h a t i s brought about by t h e dominant i d e o l o g y and everyone t o be l i k e us"  "grow beyond  ( t h e i r ) need f o r  ( I b i d . , p.243).  A m u l t i c u l t u r a l c u r r i c u l u m r e q u i r e s an  effective  framework, a commitment t o a s t r u c t u r e and t h e  ability  t o e x p l o r e and t a k e r i s k s w i t h i n t h a t s t r u c t u r e . Students  can b e n e f i t from our e f f o r t s t o  m u l t i c u l t u r a l l e a r n i n g experiences r e a l - l i f e problems. change?  How  do we  But how  present  i n preparation for  does one measure e f f e c t i v e  evaluate the l e a r n i n g process?  Ongoing e v a l u a t i o n assessments need t o be conducted t o f i n d out what s t u d e n t s a r e l e a r n i n g , t h i n k i n g and appreciating.  Looking  a r t e d u c a t i o n Davis concerns? take p l a c e ?  a t r e s e a r c h t r e n d s i n a r t and  (1977) asks, what a r e our  present  In r e f e r e n c e t o e v a l u a t i o n , does l e a r n i n g We  need new  data gathering devices.  e v a l u a t i o n approaches and Irwin's  new  (1989) s o l u t i o n i s t o  use s t u d e n t s ' journals-"tb d i s c o v e r what t h e i r growth i s i n a p p r e c i a t i o n a n d ^ a t t i t u d e s Vtowards o t h e r c u l t u r e s . A " v i s u a l j o u r n a l may 'be'freated as a p e r c e p t u a l  tool  t o develop  a r t or  a c r i t i c a l understanding  a r t i s t i c awareness" (p.21).  o f one * s own  By p r o v i d i n g a means f o r  s t u d e n t s t o e x p l o r e t h e i r thoughts and  experiences  24  about drawing and a r t a p p r e c i a t i o n an ongoing  learning  process i s recorded. Stockrocki  (1988) suggests  informal evaluation  s t r a t e g i e s which enable s t u d e n t s t o improve t h e i r work thus b e n e f i t i n g from t h e c r i t i c i s m . s u p p o r t s an ongoing  Grauer  (1988)  e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e s s and uses peer  e d i t i n g as t h e f i r s t stage o f e v a l u a t i o n .  Students  comment on p o s i t i v e q u a l i t i e s as w e l l as p o s s i b l e changes.  By d r a f t i n g , e d i t i n g and r e f i n i n g t h e a r t  work, s t u d e n t s have a chance t o share and  manipulate  t h e i r i d e a s , have a p e r s o n a l peer e d i t o r and most i m p o r t a n t l y are g i v e n a second ideas.  She  their  recommends t h i s p r o c e s s i n combination  w r i t i n g thoughts ideas.  chance t o r e f i n e  about the t o p i c t o h e l p  with  generate  More q u a l i t a t i v e and q u a n t i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h i s  needed i n t h e a r e a o f e v a l u a t i o n t o h e l p t e a c h e r s meet the d i v e r s e needs o f a l l s t u d e n t s . Why addresses  m u l t i c u l t u r a l a r t education?  Because i t  c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y and p r o v i d e s e q u a l  o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n the a r t c l a s s .  I t attempts  t o meet  t h e i n d i v i d u a l l e a r n i n g needs o f each s t u d e n t by all  giving  s t u d e n t s an o p p o r t u n i t y t o p r o g r e s s t o t h e i r  f u l l e s t capacity.  In the p a s t t h i s g o a l has not been  f u l f i l l e d as t e a c h e r s have n o t e f f e c t i v e l y u t i l i z e d t h e s t u d e n t s ' c u l t u r a l background when p r o v i d i n g c l a s s r o o m instruction  ( G o l l n i c k & Chinn,  1986).  Acceptance o f  t h e c h a l l e n g e t o develop p l u r a l i s m w i t h i n o u r s c h o o l s i s no l o n g e r a l u x u r y .  We cannot  continue t o ignore  t h e c u l t u r a l systems o f a l l those s t u d e n t s who o u t s i d e o f our mainstream c u l t u r e .  Blandy  fall  and Congdon  remind us t h a t as t e a c h e r s we know our s t u d e n t s b e s t . We need t o develop c u r r i c u l u m around t h e "needs, r e a d i n e s s and c u l t u r a l and i n d i v i d u a l e x p e r i e n c e s o f our s t u d e n t s "  ( G o l l n i c k & Chinn, p . 9 ) .  The i m p l i c a t i o n  i s t h a t e d u c a t o r s have s t a r t e d , and we must c o n t i n u e t h i s process i n earnest. By e x p l o r i n g a combination  o f i d e a s w e l l grounded  i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e , one can move beyond t h e l i t e r a t u r e , d i s c o v e r i n g new ways o f implementing a m u l t i c u l t u r a l a r t curriculum. i t s framework on an u n d e r s t a n d i n g backgrounds through all  students.  t h e s e concepts i n  T h i s p r o p o s a l bases of students'  cultural  s i m i l a r i t i e s and v a l u e s common t o  I t w i l l draw o u t t h e a u t h e n t i c  p e r s p e c t i v e s f o r a m u l t i c u l t u r a l c u r r i c u l u m through t h e c u l t u r a l e x p e r i e n c e s o f s t u d e n t s , p a r e n t s and t h e Home-School C o o r d i n a t o r s program.  I t proposes  t o use  art  as a means o f communicating about c u l t u r e s  p e r s o n t o another. personalities:  from one  A l l aspects of students'  r a t i o n a l , e m o t i o n a l , a f f e c t i v e and  p h y s i c a l w i l l be i n v o l v e d  i n the l e a r n i n g process.  All  i d e a s w i l l work towards c r e a t i n g a p o s i t i v e change i n the  students' appreciation  art  of other c u l t u r e s .  towards t h e i r own a r t and  F i n a l l y , i t i s posited  t h e r e w i l l be a r e f l e c t i o n o f p o s i t i v e towards o t h e r  cultures.  that  attitudes  I I I . Conduct o f the Study A.  Research  Methodology  A n o n e q u i v a l e n t c o n t r o l - g r o u p d e s i g n was w i t h i n a q u a s i - e x p e r i m e n t a l framework.  Two  c l a s s e s were i n v o l v e d , one s e r v e d as t h e group, t h e o t h e r t h e c o n t r o l group. given.  One  Two  used intact  treatment p r e t e s t s were  measured s t u d e n t v a t t i t u d e s X t o w a r d s  d i f f e r e n t groups o f s t u d e n t s who  the  l i v e i n Canada, t h e  o t h e r measured s t u d e n t a p p r e c i a t i o n o f a r t a c r o s s many cultures.  The  second  s t e p was  e x p e r i m e n t a l treatment  the a p p l i c a t i o n of the  i n the form of a t h r e e u n i t  m u l t i c u l t u r a l a r t program.  F i n a l l y , two  p o s t t e s t s were  a d m i n i s t e r e d a g a i n measuring the a t t i t u d e  and  appreciation variables. The use o f t h i s q u a s i - e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n  was  complemented by s t u d e n t j o u r n a l w r i t i n g t o p r o v i d e an ongoing  e v a l u a t i o n of the t h r e e a r t u n i t s .  understand was  In o r d e r t o  the classroom c o n d i t i o n s , a d a i l y  used t o r e c o r d t h e implementation  journal  o f the a r t u n i t s  and t h e more g e n e r a l environmental c o n d i t i o n s . Finally,  a J o u r n a l P o s t t e s t was  a d m i n i s t e r e d t o measure  s t u d e n t s a p p r e c i a t i o n (or p r i d e ) i n t h e i r own appreciation  work and  (or a growing knowledge and r e s p e c t ) f o r  28 the a r t o f o t h e r  cultures.  A t t e n t i o n was  focused  on  the r e a c t i o n o f the s t u d e n t s t o the program as w e l l  as  p r a c t i c a l problems which c o u l d be u s e f u l i n m o d i f y i n g the u n i t i n the  B.  future.  Research Q u e s t i o n s The  research  sought t o determine whether  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a v i s u a l a r t s c u l t u r a l program which emphasizes the s i m i l a r i t i e s o f a r t a c r o s s would r e s u l t i n a p o s i t i v e change i n the  C.  cultures students : 1  (i)  a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e i r own  (ii)  a p p r e c i a t i o n o f the a r t o f o t h e r  (iii)  a t t i t u d e s towards o t h e r  S e l e c t i o n of I was  cultures?  cultures?  Subjects  assigned  i n September.  art?  two  i n t a c t grade e i g h t a r t c l a s s e s  Grade e i g h t s t u d e n t s were s p e c i f i c a l l y  chosen as they would have the l o n g e s t time p e r i o d i n the s c h o o l The  t o b e n e f i t from a m u l t i c u l t u r a l a r t program.  group which was  block,  assigned  alphabetically f i r s t  a c t e d as the e x p e r i m e n t a l group, the o t h e r  c o n t r o l group.  by the  L e t t e r s were sent home t o a l l p a r e n t s .  Responses were almost a l l p o s i t i v e .  The  r e f u s a l s were  i n the e x p e r i m e n t a l group, from two Language (E.S.L.) s t u d e n t s .  E n g l i s h as a Second  These p a r e n t s would  have been a b l e t o read the consent l e t t e r and  not  perhaps  were i n t i m i d a t e d by s i g n i n g a document which they not u n d e r s t a n d .  could  These s t u d e n t s were exempt from  w r i t i n g t h e p r e - and  p o s t t e s t s but were not g i v e n  a l t e r n a t i v e assignment. A l l a r t c l a s s e s i n the  an  school  were expected t o r e c e i v e a m u l t i c u l t u r a l immersion p a r t o f the A s i a P a c i f i c I n i t i a t i v e Grant which s c h o o l was proposal  awarded t h i s y e a r .  was  D.  to  teach  an a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r  other  school  School  i n which the study was  conducted i s  l o c a t e d i n the south p a r t o f Burnaby, B r i t i s h  Columbia.  I t i s unique i n t h a t i t i s c u l t u r a l l y the most d i v e r s e school  i n Burnaby.  Over 22  languages are spoken w i t h  no s i n g l e dominant e t h n i c group but many i n d i v i d u a l ones. The  /  groups.  D e s c r i p t i o n o f the The  the  main focus o f the  on a r t as an e f f e c t i v e way  a s p e c t s o f c u l t u r e and cultural  The  as  m u l t i c u l t u r a l c l u b i s sponsored by a  core of dedicated  E.S.L. t e a c h e r s .  small  E f f o r t s have been  made towards enhancing i n t e r e t h n i c a p p r e c i a t i o n byh o s t i n g a " M u l t i c u l t u r a l Day" o r " L a t i n - A m e r i c a n F i e s t a " i n v o l v i n g t h e e n t i r e s c h o o l a t l u n c h hour. general,  In  i t has been d i f f i c u l t t o b r i n g a sense o f  communication and s h a r i n g between e t h n i c groups because o f t h e sheer numbers o f t h e s c h o o l  population,  p r e s e n t l y a t 1300. Research was conducted i n my own s c h o o l  as t h e r e  i s a need f o r a m u l t i c u l t u r a l focus w i t h i n t h e r e g u l a r classroom.  E.  Procedure A p p r o v a l was g a i n e d from t h e S c h o o l Board O f f i c e ,  the p r i n c i p a l o f t h e r e s e a r c h e r ' s  s c h o o l and t h e  p a r e n t s and s t u d e n t s o f t h e c o n t r o l and e x p e r i m e n t a l group.  Both c l a s s e s were p r e t e s t e d t h e p e r i o d  the b e g i n n i n g o f t h e implementation.  Students who were  absent wrote t h e p r e t e s t t h e next day d u r i n g break o r a f t e r s c h o o l . i n order  before  the recess  I n s t r u c t i o n s were g i v e n  orally  t o i n s u r e t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s understood what  was r e q u i r e d o f them. questionnaires  Students were t o l d t h a t t h e  were anonymous and a code would be used  i n s t e a d o f t h e i r name.  The  second p a r t of the study i n v o l v e d t h e  a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e treatment units.  The u n i t s were implemented over a ten-week  p e r i o d , 28 one-hour p e r i o d s . respond  o f the m u l t i c u l t u r a l a r t  Students were asked  to  i n a j o u r n a l a t a p p r o p r i a t e times as a way  e v a l u a t i n g t h e i r own  of  work and w r i t i n g about t h e i r  e x p e r i e n c e s and t h e i r a t t i t u d e s towards o t h e r c u l t u r e s w i t h i n the m u l t i c u l t u r a l c u r r i c u l u m . The S o c i a l D i s t a n c e S c a l e and  Cultural  A p p r e c i a t i o n Measure were r e - a d m i n i s t e r e d a f t e r the completion of the u n i t s .  immediately  The f o l l o w i n g  p e r i o d s t u d e n t s were asked t o w r i t e a J o u r n a l P o s t t e s t which i n d i c a t e d the o p i n i o n s o f the s t u d e n t s t o t h e m u l t i c u l t u r a l u n i t s , whether p o s i t i v e o r n e g a t i v e .  F.  Instrumentation The measures used  i n t h e study attempted  t o take  i n t o account t h e v a r i o u s a t t i t u d e s of t h e s t u d e n t s .  I  d e c i d e d t h a t t h e f o l l o w i n g measures would be a p p r o p r i a t e i n a s s e s s i n g the m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l n a t u r e o f the  study. 1.  The S o c i a l D i s t a n c e S c a l e  The S o c i a l D i s t a n c e S c a l e was  developed  i n 1925  by  32 E.S.  Borgardus t o measure t h e a t t i t u d e s o f respondents  towards v a r i o u s e t h n i c groups.  He r e f e r s  to social  d i s t a n c e as t h e "degrees and grades o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g and  f e e l i n g t h a t persons e x p e r i e n c e  other"  r e g a r d i n g each  (p. 299). Nine " s t e p s " a r e p r o v i d e d ,  beginning  w i t h a c o n s e r v a t i v e s t e p o f " I would l e t them v i s i t our country",  t o an extreme s t e p o f " I  would be w i l l i n g t o  marry one o f them when I grow up". "Them" can r e f e r t o a s p e c i f i c e t h n i c group o r encompass many groups. t h i s study,  In  "them" encompasses t h e s t u d e n t s who a r e  i n v o l v e d i n t h e study. The  s c a l e , simple  i n d e s i g n , has been used  c o n s i d e r a b l y i n s o c i a l r e s e a r c h as i t i s easy t o a d m i n i s t e r and i s r e l i a b l e i n measure. describes the Social single  Campbell  (1953)  D i s t a n c e S c a l e as "the most used  t e s t of s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s with a p o p u l a r i t y that  shows no s i g n s o f waning a f t e r  27 y e a r s "  (p. 8 8 ) .  F u r t h e r , Campbell c i t e s t h a t i t has a r e p u t a t i o n f o r "scientific respectability measurement f r a t e r n i t y "  w i t h i n t h e t e s t and  (p. 8 8 ) . Trubowitz  reports a s p l i t - h a l f r e l i a b i l i t y  coefficient  (1969) a t .90 o r  above. Each o f t h e n i n e statements c o u l d be answered by  33 either of  a " y e s " f o r a s c o r e o f " 1 " o r a "no" f o r a  "0".  The d i g i t  1 a positive accumulated  a negative  answer. The s t u d e n t s score  gave a p o s i t i v e given.  0 indicated  f o r those  The t o t a l  provided  2.  t o which  a negative  The C u l t u r a l  the Cultural  c u l t u r e s other than  A copy o f t h e s c a l e  A p p r e c i a t i o n Measure as a  a p p r e c i a t i o n o f " a r t " from  their  own.  Appreciation i n this  c o n t e x t means a g r o w i n g k n o w l e d g e a n d r e s p e c t of other  cultures.  as uncomplicated  intentionally  chosen  f o r the  European a r t and a r t from  c o u n t r i e s was i n c l u d e d .  variables  The  A p p r e c i a t i o n Measure  way t o m e a s u r e s t u d e n t s '  other  was  i n A p p e n d i x A.  I developed  art  the  they  response  s c o r e was t h e a c c u m u l a t i o n .  r a n g e o f s c o r e s was f r o m 0 t o +9. is  response,  r e c e i v e d an  statements  answer u n t i l  score  many  I n o r d e r t o keep t h e  as p o s s i b l e , examples  were  from prominent magazines and  books. The  measure i s a s p l i t - t e s t ,  photocopied pretest  p i c t u r e s (24 p i e c e s )  a n d 12 s e p a r a t e ,  posttest.  twelve  sets of  t o be g i v e n a s a  but similar  sets as a  P i e c e s o f a r t from d i f f e r e n t  c u l t u r e s were  i n t e n t i o n a l l y put s i d e by s i d e t o show a s i m i l a r i t y i n theme.  The themes p r o g r e s s a c r o s s c u l t u r e s .  An  example i s a mother and c h i l d theme p o r t r a y e d i n two different cultural styles.  Students  p i e c e o f a r t work on whether i t was o r poor a r t .  an example o f good  During the p i l o t study,  i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e s c o r i n g sheet was was  e v a l u a t e d each  m o d i f i e d and r e t e s t e d .  students confusing.  This  The measure appeared t o be  s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d r e q u i r i n g approximately  three to ten  minutes t o complete. V a l u e s o f "1" through  11  5" were a s s i g n e d t o each o f  the p i c t u r e s i n the p a i r e d s e t s .  Digit 1 indicated  l e a s t f a v o u r a b l e p o s i t i o n and d i g i t 5 i n d i c a t e d most f a v o u r a b l e . +24  t o +120,  and  120  24  The  the  range o f p o s s i b l e s c o r e s was  t h e most f a v o u r a b l e . A mean s c o r e and  standard  then computed.  A copy  o f t h e C u l t u r a l A p p r e c i a t i o n Measure i n p r o v i d e d i n  3.  from  i n d i c a t i n g the l e a s t f a v o u r a b l e s c o r e  d e v i a t i o n f o r each s t u d e n t was  Appendix  the  B.  The J o u r n a l P o s t t e s t The purpose o f the J o u r n a l P o s t t e s t was  d i s c o v e r i f t h e r e was  to  a p o s i t i v e change i n the  35 s t u d e n t s ' a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e i r own  a r t and  a p p r e c i a t i o n of the a r t of other c u l t u r e s . i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d through  The  the p o s t t e s t i n d i c a t e d  opinions of the students to the m u l t i c u l t u r a l whether p o s i t i v e o r n e g a t i v e . respond  units,  They were asked  t o s i x q u e s t i o n s i n sentence  form.  the  to  The  last  f i v e q u e s t i o n s were r e c o r d e d as a number o f n e g a t i v e and p o s i t i v e comments. was  from 0 t o +5  The  range o f p o s s i b l e s c o r e s  f o r a p o s s i b l e t o t a l of +5  n e g a t i v e i n response  or p o s i t i v e .  p o s t t e s t i s p r o v i d e d i n Appendix  G.  either  A copy o f t h e C.  Data A n a l y s i s The d a t a were a n a l y z e d by means o f t - t e s t and c h i -  square  t e s t s of  significance.  A t - t e s t was  used t o determine whether t h e means  between p o s t t e s t s c o r e s on the S o c i a l D i s t a n c e S c a l e and t h e C u l t u r a l A p p r e c i a t i o n Measure were statistically The  significant.  answers from the J o u r n a l P o s t t e s t were  a n a l y z e d u s i n g a c h i - s q u a r e t e s t t o determine whether t h e r e were any responses  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n the w r i t t e n  of the students.  (See Borg and G a l l ,  1989  36 f o r r e f e r e n c e t o t h e s e two t e s t s . )  H.  The Treatment The treatment  c o n s i s t e d o f t h r e e u n i t s o f study  i n t h e v i s u a l a r t s , a l l f o c u s s i n g on t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s o f i d e a s and emotions a c r o s s c u l t u r e s . based  The u n i t s were  on an approach t o t h e v i s u a l a r t s t h a t : 1.  Based t h e program's framework on t h e " c u l t u r a l  s i m i l a r i t i e s and human v a l u e s common t o a l l peoples"  ( I j a z & I j a z , 1981, p.20).  2.  U t i l i z e d t h e s t u d e n t s ' c u l t u r a l backgrounds.  3.  Developed an e x p e r i e n c e approach r a t h e r than a  s t e r e o t y p e d one which o n l y imparted 4.  knowledge.  Used a r t as a means o f communicating i d e a s and  emotions from one person t o another. The m u l t i c u l t u r a l u n i t s were b u i l t  sequentially  upon t h e B r i t i s h Columbia C u r r i c u l u m f o r two reasons: ( i ) t o p r o v i d e t h e c o n t r o l group w i t h a s t a n d a r d a r t c u r r i c u l u m and ( i i ) a good framework was needed t o b u i l d a c u l t u r a l focus. importance  The u n i t s i l l u s t r a t e t h e  o f t h e b a s i c c u r r i c u l u m as a f o u n d a t i o n on  which t o b u i l d a c u l t u r a l f o c u s . P r i o r t o t h e treatment,  both groups p a r t i c i p a t e d  37 in  drawing techniques.  The f i r s t  multicultural  was b a s e d o n " C o l o r T h e o r y a n d F o l k l o r e " . involved  t h e i r p a r e n t s and g r a n d p a r e n t s  significant  c o l o r m e a n i n g i n t h e i r own  importance o f c o l o r addressed.  was t r a n s f e r r e d  blending  and attempted  similar unit  culture. The Mask".  was This  a shoe.  experimented  The c o n t r o l  one  The  group  idea Each  with  t o combine c u l t u r e  and  completed  b u t w i t h o u t t h e f o c u s o f f o l k l o r e and  C o l o r a n d e m o t i o n were second p r o j e c t  t a u g h t how  v i e w f i n d e r t o be s e l e c t i v e , t h e n g i v e n t o draw a s t i l l  emphasized.  was c a l l e d " S t i l l  S t u d e n t s were f i r s t  viewpoints:  culture.  i n t o an e v e r y day o b j e c t ,  emotion i n t h e i r p a i n t i n g . a  i n finding  were d i s c u s s e d .  student used t h e i r drawing s k i l l s , color  Students  c u l t u r a l l y and e m o t i o n a l l y  The s i m i l a r i t i e s  unit  life  Life  t o use a  instructions  using three  s t u d e n t , b i r d a n d worm.  with  were  different  Slides  of  ethnic  masks w e r e shown a n d s t u d e n t s drew f r o m t h e s l i d e s discussing other  the s i m i l a r i t i e s  features.  books, designs  o f t h e eyes,  designs could  and  From t h e s l i d e s a n d t h e r e s e a r c h  s t u d e n t s were a s k e d t o i n t e g r a t e into  noses,  one o f t h e i r s t i l l  life  cultural  sketches.  The  be woven i n t o t h e mask o r i n t e g r a t e d  as a  38  background.  The p a i n t i n g s d e v e l o p e d  and  students  designs,  cultures.  Students  into rich  c o m b i n i n g many i d e a s  patterns  across  were asked t o r e f l e c t on t h e i r  p r e v i o u s knowledge o f c o l o r and f o l k l o r e t o enhance their paintings.  T h e c o n t r o l g r o u p l e a r n e d how t o u s e  a v i e w f i n d e r , draw t h r e e v i e w p o i n t s and  p a i n t what t h e y  a c t u a l l y saw.  of the s t i l l  life,  No r e f e r e n c e b o o k s  o r s l i d e s were used. In the f i n a l unit, "horse"  students  were asked t o b r i n g  o b j e c t s f r o m home a n d r e s p o n d t o t h e q u e s t i o n  "What was t h e p u r p o s e f o r u s i n g t h e h o r s e object?"  Students  a v a r i e t y o f horse similarities  image on t h i s  t h e n v i e w e d , d i s c u s s e d and drew slides.  from  T h e f o c u s was o n t h e  and d i f f e r e n c e s i n d e s i g n , s t r u c t u r e ,  p r o p o r t i o n s and e x p r e s s i o n s  of the horses.  Z o d i a c was i n t r o d u c e d , f o l l o w e d b y t h r e e  The C h i n e s e  ancient  C h i n e s e s t o r i e s on t h e o r d e r o f t h e z o d i a c . f o l k l o r e was d i s c u s s e d a n d a u n i t e v o l v e d of t h e Horse".  Chinese  o n "The Y e a r  An e m o t i o n had t o be e x p r e s s e d  by t h e  symbols, p a t t e r n and design w i t h i n t h e horse. Viewpoint  was i m p o r t a n t .  T h e p r o j e c t was e x t e n d e d i n  c o l o r w i t h o i l p a s t e l and an I n d i a i n k wash.  The  c o n t r o l group c r e a t e d a s i m i l a r p r o j e c t b u t without t h e  horse o b j e c t d i s c u s s i o n , s l i d e s and symbolism. Emotion, p a t t e r n and d e s i g n were encouraged. The  implementation  i n v o l v e d a sequence o f u n i t s  r a t h e r than one p r o j e c t . Students were a b l e t o b u i l d on t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s from one u n i t t o t h e next. The l e n g t h o f t h e study, a p r o g r e s s i o n o f t h r e e u n i t s , removed t h e novelty of a one-unit p r o j e c t .  Cultural stereotyping  was a v o i d e d by d e v e l o p i n g an e x p e r i e n c e approach where t h e s t u d e n t s became i n v o l v e d e m o t i o n a l l y and r a t i o n a l l y by communicating t h e i r f e e l i n g s and p o r t r a y i n g t h e i r knowledge o f c u l t u r e i n t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e a r t work. A copy o f t h e l e s s o n p l a n s f o r t h e m u l t i c u l t u r a l u n i t s a r e p r o v i d e d i n Appendix D.  Examples o f some o f  t h e s l i d e s a r e p r o v i d e d i n Appendix E.  I.  Limitations The  study was l i m i t e d by t h r e e f a c t o r s :  sample was c o l l e c t e d from o n l y one s c h o o l ,  (i) the (ii)  s t u d e n t s were n o t randomly s e l e c t e d and ( i i i ) t h e r e s e a r c h e r conducted Research  t h e study w i t h h e r own  was conducted  a t t h i s s p e c i f i c s c h o o l because  o f t h e need f o r a m u l t i c u l t u r a l classroom.  Although  students.  focus w i t h i n t h e  l i m i t e d i n g e n e r a l i z a t i o n t o grade  40  e i g h t a r t s t u d e n t s i n south Burnaby, the valuable.  There are p r e s e n t l y  c l a s s e s and of the  new  an  f i v e grade e i g h t  expansion i s expected with the  school  c l e a r l y the  information  i n 1991.  future of the  art  opening  Grade e i g h t s t u d e n t s school,  with the  is  are  longest  frame, c o n s e q u e n t l y t h e most p r a c t i c a l group t o  time  focus  on. S t u d e n t s were not as  intact classes.  been threatened  by  randomly s e l e c t e d but  The  internal validity  group d i f f e r e n c e s but  the p r e t e s t s confirmed the groups. the  population  could in  representative  that the  of the  have  actuality,  s i m i l a r i t i e s between  I t i s p r o b a b l e t o say  study are  assigned  the  c l a s s e s used  accessible  of grade e i g h t students i n t h i s  school.  There e x i s t s the p o t e n t i a l f o r treatment b i a s the handling  of the  curriculum.  It i s possible  enhance the m u l t i c u l t u r a l u n i t s w h i l e enthusiasm with the i n t e r e s t i n the A final  is  i n the  in  to  diminishing  c o n t r o l group because of  an  my  project.  l i m i t a t i o n of the  study a r i s e s from  j o u r n a l techniques used i n r e c o r d i n g e m o t i o n s and  in  responses to the  p o s s i b i l i t y of the  units.  the The  the  students disadvantage  journals being  unreliable.  Students may have attempted  t o modify  their  responses  i n o r d e r t o p l e a s e me, go w i t h t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e i r p e e r s o r s i m p l y be a f f e c t e d by a mood.  This i s  compounded by t h e f a c t t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s ' names were on t h e j o u r n a l responses. t h i s problem.  Steps were taken t o a l l e v i a t e  The nature o f t h e j o u r n a l  questions  tended t o c r o s s many a s p e c t s o f t h e e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e s s . A l s o , v a r i o u s types o f q u e s t i o n s were asked o f t h e s t u d e n t s r a n g i n g from emotion, c u l t u r e ,  interest,  enjoyment, d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n and s u g g e s t i o n s f o r f u t u r e changes i n t h e u n i t s .  Students were p r e s e n t e d w i t h a  range o f q u e s t i o n s and i d e a s t o respond provided  t o which  written outlet f o r frustration or s i l l i n e s s .  There were always q u e s t i o n s such as "What d i d you enjoy t h e l e a s t about t h i s p r o j e c t ? " and " How would you change i t ? " t h a t they c o u l d respond t o h o n e s t l y i n a n e g a t i v e way.  My d a i l y j o u r n a l a l s o accounts  nature o f the students'  interaction.  f o r the  IV. A.  D e s c r i p t i o n o f the Implementation  Process  Introduction The m u l t i c u l t u r a l program c o n s i s t e d o f t h r e e  units.  A copy o f t h e complete u n i t p l a n s a r e found  Appendix D.  in  A summary o f key p o i n t s are g i v e n as a  p r e l u d e t o t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f the  implementation  process. U n i t One:  C o l o r Theory and  F o l k l o r e (Twelve  Periods) The  first  l e s s o n was  intended t o h e l p  students  r e c o g n i z e t h a t c o l o r has meaning both c u l t u r a l l y emotionally. students. First,  The  I t was  concept  o f "webbing" was  d e s c r i b e d as a two  explained to process.  s t u d e n t s were asked t o b r a i n s t o r m t h e i r i d e a s  paper, a c c e p t i n g e v e r y t h i n g . connections was  step  and  Second, they webbed t h e  between the i s o l a t e d words.  a network o f i d e a s which formed a  .  .  on  .  Visually, i t  web-like  .  s t r u c t u r e w i t h the main i d e a w r i t t e n i n the c e n t e r o f t h e paper and the c o n n e c t i n g center.  i d e a s r a d i a t i n g from the  A f t e r webbing the word " r e d " , s t u d e n t s  what r e d meant t o them e m o t i o n a l l y . experience  The  shared  cultural  o f p a r e n t s and grandparents were drawn upon  to help students  f i n d a c o l o r which had  significant  V  meaning i n t h e i r and  own c u l t u r e .  t h e i n f o r m a t i o n was  wheel and a c o l o r discussed object  C o l o r c h a r t s w e r e s e t up  shared.  folklore  The w e s t e r n  chart  ( s e e A p p e n d i x D) w e r e  and s t u d e n t s were a s k e d  and one c o l o r .  color  t o choose a p e r s o n a l  They e x p r e s s e d  an emotion  with  the c o l o r  and p l a c e d i t i n a s e t t i n g which e x p r e s s e d  culture.  The c u l t u r a l  experience,  personality  a  and  e m o t i o n s o f t h e s t u d e n t were c o m m u n i c a t e d t h r o u g h  their  work. U n i t Two: The students  Still  L i f e w i t h Mask  purpose o f t h e second  (Six Periods)  u n i t was t o h e l p  r e c o g n i z e what t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s  across cultures.  As s l i d e s  s t u d e n t s were asked similarities  w e r e o f masks  o f masks w e r e  presented,  t o draw a n d d i s c u s s t h e  between c u l t u r e s .  t h e d r a w i n g o f an a c t u a l  T h i s was  still  i n c l u d e d masks a n d t a p e s t r i e s  life from  f o l l o w e d by  set-up  which  the following  cultures:  Japanese, Hawaiian, A f r i c a n ,  West C o a s t  Native  viewpoints  were d i s c u s s e d b e f o r e d r a w i n g t h e s t i l l  using  I n d i a n , and J a m a i c a n .  a viewfinder.  One s k e t c h was  e n r i c h e d w i t h mask d e s i g n s r e s e a r c h books.  Students  from  Inuit,  Mexican,  Three  enlarged  the slides  life  then  or the  were e n c o u r a g e d t o c o m b i n e  and t r y t o f i t more than one c u l t u r e t o g e t h e r .  The  drawing was p a i n t e d i n b o l d c o l o r s , s t u d e n t s a t t e m p t i n g t o r e f l e c t t h e symbolism and t e c h n i q u e s from t h e C o l o r Theory and F o l k l o r e u n i t . U n i t Three;  Year o f t h e Horse  (Ten P e r i o d s )  In t h e f i n a l u n i t s t u d e n t s were asked t o b r i n g a "horse o b j e c t " t o share w i t h t h e c l a s s . t h e o b j e c t was d i s c u s s e d .  The purpose o f  S l i d e s were shown which  i l l u s t r a t e t h e h o r s e from h i s t o r y t o modern day.  The  s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s o f t h e h o r s e were drawn and d i s c u s s e d from t h e s l i d e s .  The u n i t e x p l o r e d t h e  Chinese c u l t u r a l theme, "Year o f t h e Horse" and t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e of the horse across c u l t u r e s .  \/  Movement,  c l o s e - u p s and d e s i g n s showing t e x t u r e , p a t t e r n and symbols were drawn from t h e r e s e a r c h m a t e r i a l .  Slides  were shown o f t h e u n i c o r n t a p e s t r i e s a t t h e Musee de Cluny, P a r i s .  The f i v e senses which t h e t a p e s t r i e s  i l l u s t r a t e d were d i s c u s s e d , adding i n t o t h e assignment an emotion which had t o be e x p r e s s e d by t h e p a t t e r n and d e s i g n on t h e h o r s e .  The assignment was completed i n  o i l p a s t e l w i t h an I n d i a i n k wash.  Color theory,  f o l k l o r e , c u l t u r e and emotions were t o be communicated through t h e Year o f t h e Horse  picture.  B.  The School 1.  The S e t t i n g  A l l o f t h e l e s s o n s took p l a c e i n t h e r e s e a r c h e r ' s art  c l a s s r o o m which i s s c a r c e l y l a r g e enough t o  accommodate t h e s t u d e n t s on p r o j e c t s w i t h 20"x24" paper.  The room was w e l l - l i t w i t h n o r t h e r n exposure  windows r u n n i n g t h e l e n g t h o f t h e a r t room. t h e r e was l i t t l e  Since  s t o r a g e a r e a , most o f t h e w a l l s were  covered w i t h a r t h i s t o r y p o s t e r s , e t h n i c v i s u a l s and s t u d e n t work. were arranged  The s t u d e n t s s a t a t l a r g e t a b l e s , which i n p a i r s forming two l o n g rows.  The  s e a t i n g p l a n changed on a r e g u l a r b a s i s t o accommodate t h e group work, p r o j e c t s and t h e moods o f t h e s t u d e n t s and t e a c h e r .  The r e s e a r c h e r ' s desk was a t t h e f r o n t o f  t h e room b e s i d e t h e p a p e r c u t t e r and s l i d e p r o j e c t o r . The  e n t i r e room was t i g h t l y  organized i n order t o  u t i l i z e t h e space i n t h e most u s e f u l way. 2.  U n i t One:  C o l o r Theory and F o l k l o r e  Day One For c l a r i f i c a t i o n , experimental  Group A i s r e f e r r e d t o t h e  c l a s s and Group B t h e c o n t r o l .  c l a s s e s received the p r e t e s t s , the S o c i a l  Both  Distance  S c a l e and t h e C u l t u r a l A p p r e c i a t i o n Measure.  The  first  p r e t e s t took two t o t h r e e minutes t o complete, l a t t e r t h r e e t o t e n minutes. f i n i s h a drawing assignment P a t r y c k who the t e s t s ,  Students were asked t o on c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e t e s t s .  had p r e v i o u s l y d e c i d e d not t o consent t o l o o k e d c u r i o u s l y over a t h i s neighbour's  paper and asked i f i t was pretests.  the  still  p o s s i b l e t o w r i t e the  The feedback g i v e n on the C u l t u r a l  A p p r e c i a t i o n Measure was:  " C o l o r would be a p p r e c i a t e d " .  "Dates o f the a r t work s h o u l d be p r i n t e d by  each  p i c t u r e a l o n g w i t h the type o f medium used by t h e artist". My  "Why  response was  d i d Mrs. Paul p i c k some u g l y p i c t u r e s ? " . t h a t c o l o r would h e l p make t h e p i c t u r e  c l e a r e r , but c o l o r was  not the s o l e i s s u e i n j u d g i n g  the a r t p i e c e as poor o r good.  Many s t u d e n t s s a i d  that  they were aware o f a theme t o each p i c t u r e s e t and  that  it  i n c l u d e d two d i s t i n c t Day  cultures.  Two  Both c l a s s e s :  Students c l o s e d t h e i r eyes  and  thought o f t h e c o l o r " r e d " i n terms o f what they e a t , what moves, e t c . board.  The c o l o r r e d was webbed on t h e  I r e a d o u t l o u d from t h e c o l o r book H a i l s t o n e s  and H a l i b u t Bones by Mary O ' N e i l l . more i d e a s on how  t o web  T h i s gave s t u d e n t s  t h e i r next c o l o r .  A  few  minutes were g i v e n t o add " f e e l i n g s " t o t h e i r own web. Both groups enjoyed e x p r e s s i n g t h e i r The  homework assignment:  feelings.  Group A was asked t o  r e s e a r c h and w r i t e about one c o l o r which has s i g n i f i c a n t meaning i n t h e i r c u l t u r e by c o n s u l t i n g parents,  grandparents o r an e n c y c l o p e d i a ;  Group B was  asked t o w r i t e about t h e i r f e e l i n g s towards a c o l o r o f their  choice. Primary, secondary and complementary c o l o r s were  discussed.  The c l a s s l i s t e n e d as I read about t h e  s p e c i a l e f f e c t s o f c o l o r by L e a t r i c e Eiseman i n h e r book, A l i v e w i t h C o l o r .  They p a r t i c u l a r l y enjoyed t h e  i n f o r m a t i o n on p e o p l e ' s r e a c t i o n s t o o f f - c o l o r dyed food.  The q u e s t i o n was asked:  mashed  "Would you e a t b l u e  potatoes?"  Day  Three  Group A:  Only f o u r s t u d e n t s  completed  their  homework and wrote t h e i r c o l o r r e s e a r c h on t h e c h a r t s provided.  They were encouraged t o f i n i s h  homework f o r next p e r i o d . d i s c u s s e d i n groups.  their  The F o l k l o r e C o l o r c h a r t was  Students appeared i n t e r e s t e d .  C o l o r t h e o r y was reviewed, and i n t e r m e d i a t e and monochromatic c o l o r s i n t r o d u c e d .  Students had a chance  48 t o b e g i n p a i n t i n g t h e i r monochromatic Group B:  We  scale.  reviewed c o l o r t h e o r y and c o n t i n u e d  w i t h t h e same l e s s o n as t h e C u l t u r a l Group.  Students  d i d not have time t o p a i n t as t h e y needed more time t o d i g e s t the c o l o r theory. p o i n t was  shorter  T h e i r a t t e n t i o n span a t t h i s  than Group  A.  Day Four Students were asked t o copy t h e i r major assignment i n t o t h e i r sketchbooks. Group A:  The assignment was t o choose a p e r s o n a l  object  and one c o l o r .  Exaggerate o r a l t e r t h e p e r s o n a l  object  t o help express the f e e l i n g of the c o l o r .  i n a s e t t i n g which e x p r e s s e s t h e c u l t u r e .  An  Place  example  would be t o p a i n t y o u r f a v o u r i t e r u n n i n g shoe i n shades o f green (green thumb) w i t h i v y and green thumbs wrapped around t h e shoe.  The background would be drawn  i n b l a c k pen as an E n g l i s h garden, emphasizing t h e c u l t u r e o f t h e c o l o r green. Group B:  The same assignment but w i t h o u t t h e  c u l t u r a l background.  Students emphasized t h e i d e a o f  " f e e l i n g " i n t h e i r background. Both groups c o n t i n u e d w i t h t h e p a i n t i n g o f t h e color exercises  c o m p l e t i n g t i n t s and shades and  49  complementary c o l o r s . Day  Five  We a l l d e c i d e d t h a t t h e p e r s o n a l o b j e c t s h o u l d be a shoe, p r e f e r a b l y a r u n n i n g shoe.  The reason was t h a t  i t would be e a s i e r t o r e c o g n i z e t h e shoe a f t e r i t was a l t e r e d than an o b j e c t l i k e a purse o r p e n c i l J a s o n t u r n e d h i s shoe i n t o a b l a c k k n i g h t . illustration  i s p r o v i d e d i n Appendix E.  case.  His  A l l students  were now working on t h e i r f i r s t drawing f o r t h e i r major assignment. Day S i x Group A:  Our m u l t i c u l t u r a l c o o r d i n a t o r , l e d t h e  c l a s s i n webbing t h e word " c u l t u r e " .  Students  were  asked t o work i n groups o f two t o t h r e e webbing c u l t u r e on one l a r g e sheet o f paper.  Each group o f f e r e d i d e a s  as Odie and I r e c o r d e d them on t h e board.  Many i d e a s  came from " o u t s i d e " r a t h e r than " i n s i d e " t h e c l a s s r o o m . Examples o f what makes up a c u l t u r e were:  costumes,  money systems, ceremonies, food, a r c h i t e c t u r e , famous people, music, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , h o l i d a y s , l i t e r a t u r e , languages,  r e c r e a t i o n , country's r i g h t s ,  animals,  s o c i a l s t a t u s , museums, books, t e l e v i s i o n and governments.  Personal ideas included:  feelings,  b e l i e f s , ways t o l i v e , students  1  clothes, haircuts,  face c o l o r s ,  names, games, p e t s , t h e way we a c t towards  o t h e r s , t h e way they t h i n k and junk food. The p e r s o n a l i d e a s took a w h i l e t o come out as s t u d e n t s were h e s i t a n t t o d i s c u s s them. Students were asked a g a i n t o work i n groups, webbing t h e q u e s t i o n : culture?"  "How  do we l e a r n about our  T h e i r answers were a g a i n q u i t e g e n e r a l .  concluded by s h a r i n g something  of c u l t u r a l  We  interest  w i t h i n t h e groups. Group B:  Students c o n t i n u e d t h e drawing and  animation o f t h e i r running  shoes.  Day Seven Group A:  Students a t t e n d e d a two hour  p r e s e n t a t i o n c a l l e d " T r a n s i t i o n s " put on by Mosaic and t h e F i r e h a l l A r t s Center.  This i s a multicultural play  about r e f u g e e s and t h e i r t r a n s i t i o n i n t o Canada. Students p a r t i c i p a t e d w i t h t h e a c t o r s i n t h e f o l l o w - u p sessions.  The grade e i g h t c l a s s was mixed i n w i t h t h e  grade twelve I n t e r n a t i o n a l B a c c a l a u r e a t e c l a s s .  There  seemed t o be an acceptance o f age d i f f e r e n c e s as t h e grade e i g h t ' s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a l l f o l l o w - u p which c o u l d be songs,  s k i t s and a r t work.  activities In t h e f i n a l  "sharing c i r c l e " addressed skin  f r o m h e r own.  uncomfortable  with the relationship.  skin  the acceptance  o f peers  the cultural  eight  today's  from  their  exposed  twelves  the reflection  ethnic  j o u r n a l s t o t h e workshop.  experienced.  "The  actor's ability  " L e a r n i n g about the topic  groups.  hard  responding  They were a s k e d t o  a n d two n e g a t i v e f e e l i n g s  t o s p e a k more t h a n  other cultures".  of racism".  be made f u n o f " .  students  Some o f t h e p o s i t i v e  a stop t o racism".  "It's  t h e grade  The c l a s s began w i t h  they  put  as f r i e n d s .  w o r k s h o p seemed t o o p e n t h e l i n e s o f  comment o n two p o s i t i v e  on  someone o f  Eight  G r o u p A: in  twelve  s t u d e n t s have n o t been  webbing s t a r t e d  were  a r e changing i n  a l l cultures  communication between d i f f e r e n t Day  different  A grade  i t was t o d a t e  experiences that  Yesterday's  process,  student,  c o l o r and t h a t times  Perhaps t h e grade  have.  eight  Her p a r e n t s and f r i e n d s  commented o n how " c o o l "  a different  to  a grade  the issue o f dating a person with a  color  girl  Angie,  "We  responses one  "Everyone  that were:  language". opening  up  c a n make a d i f f e r e n c e a n d  "The p l a y showed how i t f e l t t o  The n e g a t i v e f e e l i n g s  t o get along with the other  expressed country's  were:  52 culture".  " I t ' s d i f f i c u l t t o l e a r n another language".  "What about t h e p r e j u d i c e d p e o p l e t h a t we reach?".  cannot  There appears t o be an enthusiasm and  c u r i o s i t y towards l e a r n i n g and communicating  with  s t u d e n t s from many d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s e s p e c i a l l y t h e grade t w e l v e p e e r s . Group B:  Students c o n t i n u e d communicating  in a  grade e i g h t manner and worked on a n i m a t i n g t h e i r Day  shoe.  Nine  Both groups c o n t i n u e d on t h e drawing and began p a i n t i n g t h e i r shoe.  S l i d e s were shown o f grade e l e v e n  monochromatic  Cynara  shoes.  (Group A) needed an o u t l e t  t o communicate what had happened i n c l a s s t h e l a s t periods.  She redrew h e r shoe t o i l l u s t r a t e h e r  f e e l i n g s about r a c i s m . was  two  The monochromatic  t h e c o l o r f o r r a c i s m , hope was  grey s c a l e  expressed with  yellow. Day  Ten  Both groups d i s c u s s e d t h e c l a s s i c a l background  f o r t h e shoe.  line  An example o f a grade s i x  s t u d e n t ' s a r c h i t e c t u r a l drawing was  shown.  Students  were impressed w i t h t h e age l e v e l , and were h o p e f u l l y i n s p i r e d f o r t h e i r own  backgrounds.  53  Day E l e v e n A h y p e r a c t i v e s t u d e n t was t r a n s f e r r e d out o f Group B.  With time, both groups have become more e q u a l i n  work h a b i t s . Day  Twelve  Both groups wrote i n t h e i r j o u r n a l s .  One o f t h e  q u e s t i o n s asked was "What i n f l u e n c e s your a r t ? " . of  t h e i r comments were:  Some  " A r t l e s s o n s , t e l e v i s i o n , Mrs.  P a u l , a r t books, c a r t o o n s , f e e l i n g s , t h i n g s p e o p l e say and my r e l i g i o n " . to  I was i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e i r comments  "Are you proud o f your artwork?".  were:  "No, I'm n o t a good a r t i s t " .  self-confidence".  Their  replies  "No, I have low  "Yes, because i t i s unique".  "Yes I  t h i n k everyone s h o u l d be proud o f t h e i r artwork  because  it  r e f l e c t s a p a r t o f themselves".  "sometimes".  And a l o t o f  I n summary, Group A had more t h o u g h t f u l  answers than Group B.  Many s t u d e n t s i n both groups  seemed a l i t t l e u n c e r t a i n about t h e i r " t e c h n i q u e s " i n art.  Perhaps i t i s t o o e a r l y i n t h e program  developed a c o n f i d e n t l e v e l o f t e c h n i c a l  t o have  ability.  Comments on t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e C o l o r Theory and Folklore Unit: 1.  Students were asked t o e x p l a i n t h e i r c h o i c e o f  54 c o l o r and t h e i r f e e l i n g s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e a n i m a t i o n o f t h e shoe. color".  Some responses were:  "Yellow i s a j o y f u l  "Green r e p r e s e n t s t h e environment and  recycling".  "Blue because i t i s my f a v o u r i t e  ( t h i s was t h e most common c h o i c e ) .  Cynara's  color"  c h o i c e was  " y e l l o w t o r e p r e s e n t hope a f t e r a l l t h e e v i l s o f t h e w o r l d were l e t out".  She animated  h e r shoe t o  r e p r e s e n t "Pandora's Box". A photograph  i s included i n  Appendix E. 2.  When asked  i t they expressed f e e l i n g w i t h  c o l o r they r e p l i e d w i t h many "no's".  They answered  "yes" t o :  "The Eskimo c u l t u r e expressed c o l d " .  was  "Gloomy scenes were g r e y " .  sad".  expressed w i t h 3.  "Blue  "Weird was  green".  C o l o r had meaning t o them e m o t i o n a l l y when  they thought o f i t i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e c l o t h i n g gangs wore, o r what they wore b e i n g e f f e c t e d by t h e i r emotions.  One g i r l wrote, "When I f e e l bad I wear dark  colors". 4.  C u l t u r a l l y , some s t u d e n t s d i d n ' t t h i n k about  c o l o r , b u t o t h e r responses were: my c u l t u r e " . dolls,  "Freedom and peace i n  " I n Romania p i n k r e p r e s e n t s l i t t l e  j o y , happiness and i c e cream".  girls,  "Yellow has been  55 the is  favourite color a Filipino  o f t h e p r e s i d e n t , so whenever  h o l i d a y , many p e o p l e  though i t i s n ' t  the national  By i n t e g r a t i n g thought  work a n d t h e s t u d e n t obvious  Group A chose a w i d e r  seemed  responses  d i f f e r e n c e was  aspect with  more e v i d e n t from  the  G r o u p A.  the range i n c o l o r s  An  chosen.  range o f c o l o r s w i t h  blue  and p i n k  turquoise,  and p u r p l e a t  r e d a n d y e l l o w a t 9%;  frequently;  green  (43%) a n d b l a c k and p i n k  at  14%;  10%; a n d p u r p l e a t 5%.  2  C o l o r P r e f e r e n c e by  Colors  Student  Group A  5%.  (29%) m o s t  Table 2).  Table  shoes,  i n the a r t  p r e d o m i n a t e a t 32%; b l a c k , g r e e n  Group B chose b l u e  even  color".  the c u l t u r a l  and r e f l e c t i o n  wear y e l l o w  there  Group  Blue  7  9  Black  3  6  Green  3  2  Pink  2  2  B  (See  56 Turquoise  2  0  Red  2  0  Yellow  2  1  Purple  1  1  3.  U n i t Two:  S t i l l L i f e w i t h Mask  Day T h i r t e e n Group A: of  The p r o j e c t was  masks from v a r i o u s c u l t u r e s .  introduced with  slides  Students d i s c u s s e d the  s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s of t h e masks and drew eyes, noses and d e s i g n s from each c u l t u r e shown on the slides.  They became s e l e c t i v e by employing  a  v i e w f i n d e r as a camera l e n s and c o m p l e t i n g t h r e e drawings o f t h e s t i l l  l i f e set-up:  and worm's v i e w p o i n t .  To complete  assignment,  student's, b i r d ' s the  drawing  s t u d e n t s touched t h r e e s i d e s o f t h e page  and i n c l u d e d a t l e a s t one mask i n each drawing.  An  example o f the sketches a r e g i v e n i n Appendix E. Group B was  g i v e n t h e same assignment  without  the  slides. Day  Fourteen  Group A: From the r e s e a r c h books, s t u d e n t s combined c u l t u r a l d e s i g n s w i t h one o f the s t i l l  life  sketches.  The d e s i g n s were woven i n t o the mask o r  i n t e g r a t e d as background. 9"xl4  H  c a r t r i d g e paper.  T h i s s k e t c h was  enlarged to  A c r y l i c p a i n t was  w i t h i n s t r u c t i o n s t o use t i n t s ,  provided  shades and  complementary c o l o r s , not j u s t pure c o l o r s from  the  tubes. Group B:  Students  e n l a r g e d t h e i r most  interesting  s k e t c h w i t h i n s t r u c t i o n s t o make a d d i t i o n s o r exaggerations. Days F i f t e e n t o E i g h t e e n Most s t u d e n t s i n i t i a t e d t h e p a i n t i n g p r o c e s s t h e i r e l a b o r a t e drawings. browsing  on  Group A spent many hours  through r e s e a r c h books l o o k i n g f o r more than  one c u l t u r e t o i n t e g r a t e i n t o t h e i r drawings.  Group B  s e l e c t e d d e s i g n s from the t a p e s t r i e s o f t h e s t i l l and r e a r r a n g e d them i n t h e i r own Students Mask p r o j e c t .  life  way.  from Group A e v a l u a t e d t h e S t i l l  Life  They gave the f o l l o w i n g p o s i t i v e  replies: 1.  When asked t o d e s c r i b e the c u l t u r e and  the  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e d e s i g n which they have used enhance t h e i r s t i l l were:  l i f e drawing a few d e s c r i p t i o n s  " I n d i a n a r t w i t h a simple f a c e and  snakes".  to  58 "Cowboy a r t " . Egyptian  "Mexican a r t c l o s e - u p  design".  "Designs from a l l c u l t u r e s so t h a t my  p i c t u r e was a m u l t i c u l t u r a l p i c t u r e " . f o r two examples o f c r o s s - c u l t u r e 2.  designs".  See Appendix E  designs.  S t u d y i n g masks from o t h e r c u l t u r e s  influenced  t h e i r a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r masks i n t h e f o l l o w i n g way: "Every c u l t u r e has a d i f f e r e n t way o f d e s c r i b i n g things".  " A l l c u l t u r e s have r e a l l y b e a u t i f u l a r t i n  t h e i r own way".  "No two masks a r e t h e same".  me u n d e r s t a n d what t h e masks symbolize".  " I t made  "And i t  hasn't". 3.  They were q u e s t i o n e d i f s t u d y i n g  masks  i n f l u e n c e d t h e i r a p p r e c i a t i o n of other c u l t u r e s .  Most  s t u d e n t s admitted a p o s i t i v e change i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e towards a r t . general  The f o l l o w i n g statements summed up t h e  f e e l i n g of the c l a s s :  i n t e r e s t i n g way o f e x p r e s s i n g  "Other c u l t u r e s have an their feelings".  c u l t u r e s i n a r t a r e as good i f not b e t t e r than "The  f e e l i n g that i s being  "Other ours".  expressed by a mask i s l i k e  the trademark o f t h a t c u l t u r e " . 4.  The l a s t q u e s t i o n  asked "What would you  change?"  They r e p l i e d :  "Nothing".  represent  o n l y one c u l t u r e " .  "I'd t r y to  "The p a i n t i n g p a r t I  59 would do more c a r e f u l l y " .  "To draw a n y t h i n g you want".  "I would change n o t h i n g because  i t was t a u g h t v e r y  well". 4.  U n i t Three;  Year o f t h e Horse  Day N i n e t e e n Group A:  Viewed, d i s c u s s e d and drew from a s l i d e  presentation of horses.  The s l i d e s were t a k e n from t h e  Smithsonian I n s t i t u t e i n Washington, D.C. and emphasized  many c u l t u r e s through horse  Appendix E i n c l u d e s two examples.  sculptures.  Students f o c u s e d on  t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s o f t h e d e s i g n , s t r u c t u r e , p r o p o r t i o n , e x p r e s s i o n and s i z e o f t h e horses.  Humour was shared i n t h e e x p r e s s i o n s o f t h e  horses.  Following t h i s ,  s t u d e n t s were asked t o draw i n  c l a s s i c a l l i n e two drawings  o f movement, two c l o s e - u p s  and two drawings which emphasized They were encouraged  p a t t e r n and d e s i g n .  t o study a c u l t u r e o r e r a which  i n t e r e s t e d them and p o r t r a y t h e h o r s e i n t h e s t y l e o f that culture.  Horse books were p r o v i d e d . Some s t u d e n t s  were a p p r e h e n s i v e about drawing a h o r s e .  Suggestions  were made t o s t a r t by drawing t h e n e g a t i v e spaces around t h e l e g s then adding i n t h e l e g s and body.  This  seemed t o be a good e x e r c i s e as s t u d e n t s thought o n l y  about t h e shapes.  The s l i d e s h e l p e d g i v e some s t u d e n t s  c o n f i d e n c e as many r e p r e s e n t e d an a b s t r a c t e d and s i m p l i f i e d v e r s i o n o f the horse. Group B:  These s t u d e n t s were g i v e n t h e same  l e s s o n as t h e f i r s t group w i t h o u t t h e h o r s e Day  Twenty  Group A: home.  slides.  Students brought  The q u e s t i o n asked was:  "horse" o b j e c t s from "What was t h e purpose  f o r u s i n g t h e horse image on t h i s o b j e c t ? " o b j e c t s were:  Some o f t h e  a horse p u z z l e , a u n i c o r n head  s c u l p t u r e , u n i c o r n n e c k l a c e and b r a c e l e t and a poem about a h o r s e t a l k i n g t o i t s master Hungarian).  (written i n  T h e i r responses were f o r m a i n l y " p l e a s u r e  and d e c o r a t i o n " .  Only t h e g i r l s brought o b j e c t s .  A  Chinese Z o d i a c I l l u s t r a t i o n was passed around and s t u d e n t s l o o k e d up t h e s i g n they were born under.  This  was f o l l o w e d by t h r e e a n c i e n t Chinese s t o r i e s on how the o r d e r o f t h e twelve animals o f t h e z o d i a c originated. Group B:  The same l e s s o n was taught w i t h o u t t h e  horse d i s c u s s i o n . Day  Twenty-One  Both groups worked on t h e i r p r e l i m i n a r y  drawings.  The assignment was  t o e n l a r g e t h e most i n t e r e s t i n g  onto 18"x24" grey c o n s t r u c t i o n paper.  one  White c h a l k i n  v a r y i n g t h i c k n e s s would be used t o o u t l i n e t h e p e n c i l drawing. Day Twenty-Two Group A:  S l i d e s were p r e s e n t e d o f t h e s i x u n i c o r n  t a p e s t r i e s from t h e Musee de Cluny i n P a r i s . Appendix E f o r an example). merchant was  told.  (See  The s t o r y o f t h e wealthy  He d e s p e r a t e l y wanted t o h o l d a  p r o p e r t i t l e and commissioned  the t a p e s t r i e s i n the  e a r l y 1400s t o g i v e h i s f a m i l y name p r e s t i g e .  We  t a l k e d about t h e f i v e senses which t h e t a p e s t r i e s i l l u s t r a t e d and added t o t h e assignment an  "emotion"  which had t o be expressed by t h e p a t t e r n and d e s i g n on the horse.  S t u d e n t s drew t h e a n t i q u e p a t t e r n s and  d e s i g n s from t h e s l i d e s d i s c u s s i n g what t h e y thought was  t h e i n t e n t i o n o f t h e d e s i g n s and symbols on t h e  tapestries. Group B:  Students c o n t i n u e d on drawings o f t h e  horses. Day  Twenty-Three  The two groups worked hard e n l a r g i n g t h e i r h o r s e drawing onto c o n s t r u c t i o n paper.  We d i s c u s s e d words t o  be expressed  i n t h e horse p i c t u r e :  g e n t l e , power, war, medium was  "happiness,  s p r i n g and j o y " .  sad,  The o i l p a s t e l  introduced with i n s t r u c t i o n s to blend  o f c o l o r s w i t h i n t h e p a t t e r n spaces. up t o t h e c h a l k l i n e s but not  tones  Students worked  over.  Days Twenty-Four t o Twenty-Six Students worked w i t h o i l p a s t e l .  Instructions  were g i v e n on i n k i n g the p i c t u r e , l i g h t l y sponging o f f t h e i n k and  f i n i s h i n g the s u r f a c e w i t h a t h i n c o a t o f  rhoplex. Day  Twenty-Seven  All  s t u d e n t s were f a r enough i n t o the p r o j e c t t o  w r i t e t h e two p o s t t e s t s , t h e S o c i a l D i s t a n c e S c a l e and the C u l t u r a l A p p r e c i a t i o n Measure. Day  Twenty-Eight  Both Groups wrote t h e J o u r n a l P o s t t e s t and completed  an e v a l u a t i o n response  Horse p r o j e c t .  t o the Year o f the  O v e r a l l , most s t u d e n t s enjoyed  p r o j e c t t h e most.  They had a c q u i r e d the drawing,  c o m p o s i t i o n and c o l o r s k i l l s  i n the p r e v i o u s u n i t s  were f a m i l i a r w i t h e x p r e s s i n g c o n t e n t and t h e i r work.  this  and  feeling in  They a l s o enjoyed the c o n t r o l they  w i t h the p a s t e l medium as opposed t o the l a c k o f  had  63 c o n t r o l w i t h t h e p a i n t . Some o f t h e i r responses were: 1.  F e e l i n g o r meaning was expressed by t h e c h o i c e  o f symbols and d e s i g n s i n t h e s t u d e n t s ' h o r s e p i c t u r e s . V a r i o u s s t u d e n t e x p r e s s i o n s were:  "love, laughter,  h a t r e d , w e i r d , freedom, happiness, g r i e f ,  f e a r , Y i n and  Yang, speed and war". 2.  Some o f t h e c u l t u r e s o r e r a s i n h i s t o r y  that  were i n t e g r a t e d i n t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l horse p i c t u r e s by t h e c l a s s were:  "World War I I , Chinese c u l t u r e ,  i n I r a n , A l b e r t a , Mexican, and A f r i c a t o g e t h e r " .  1990's  f a n t a s y c u l t u r e and Egypt  I l l u s t r a t i o n s o f "Joy", "The  R i s e o f t h e Horse" and "Anger" a r e p r o v i d e d i n Appendix E. 3.  The most i n t e r e s t i n g t h i n g s l e a r n e d by l o o k i n g  a t o t h e r c u l t u r e s through h o r s e s were: tell  about t h e h o r s e s ' f e e l i n g s " .  of the horses".  "What p e o p l e t h i n k  "The d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l d e s i g n s and  c o l o r s i n each h o r s e " .  "That h o r s e s l o o k p r e t t y  w i t h o u t c o l o r i n g them brown". horse  "The p i c t u r e s  "The s i m p l i c i t y o f t h e  drawings". 4.  What they enjoyed t h e most was:  p i c t u r e i n b l a c k then sponging i t " . pastels".  "Painting the  "Coloring with o i l  " P u t t i n g my f e e l i n g s i n t o t h e c o l o r s " .  "Not  64 a s many i n s t r u c t i o n s " . 5.  The  "Drawing  students d i s l i k e d :  picture".  "Inking because  picture".  "The way  nothing".  the  color".  "The  enlarging  of the  i t wrecked  the color  of the  the pastels  got everywhere".  "And  V. A.  Findings  S o c i a l D i s t a n c e Measure The p r e t e s t mean s c o r e s f o r t h e measure o f s o c i a l  d i s t a n c e f o r the experimental  and c o n t r o l groups were  8.25 and 8.25 r e s p e c t i v e l y .  The p o s t t e s t means were  8.46 and 8.25 r e s p e c t i v e l y .  There was a s m a l l i n c r e a s e  i n s c o r e by t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l  group over t h e c o n t r o l  group.  To determine i f t h i s change was s t a t i s t i c a l l y  s i g n i f i c a n t a t - t e s t was completed.  The t - t e s t was  a p p r o p r i a t e i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n because t h e sample s i z e o f each group was r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l .  For the p o s t t e s t ,  a t - v a l u e o f 1.68 o r g r e a t e r was r e q u i r e d f o r t h e i n c r e a s e t o be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e 95% confidence  level.  (Refer t o T a b l e 3 ) .  The means a r e  not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from each o t h e r . measure o f s o c i a l d i s t a n c e produced a c l e a r effect.  The ceiling  A l l but three of the p r e t e s t students  scored  e i g h t o r n i n e , t h e maximum p o s s i b l e s c o r e was n i n e .  66 Table 3 Social  Distance Scale t-test  Pretest  ( P r e t e s t and P o s t t e s t )  score  E-group C-group  Mean  SD  8.25 8.25  1.13 0.83  D i f f e r e n c e i n means Standard d e v i a t i o n  t  Sample Size 24 20  0.00 1.65 0.00  F o r t h i s t e s t t o be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t t must be g r e a t e r t h a n 1.68 w i t h 9 5 % c o n f i d e n c e l e v e l  Posttest  E-group C-group  score  Mean  SD  8.46 8.25  1.04 0.77  D i f f e r e n c e i n means Standard d e v i a t i o n  t  Sample Size 24 20  0.21 1.52 0.14  F o r t h i s t e s t t o be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t g r e a t e r t h a n 1.68 w i t h 9 5 % c o n f i d e n c e l e v e l  t must be  67 B.  C u l t u r a l A p p r e c i a t i o n Measure The  p r e t e s t mean s c o r e s f o r t h e measure o f  C u l t u r a l A p p r e c i a t i o n f o r the experimental groups were 84 and 79 r e s p e c t i v e l y . were 85 and 75 r e s p e c t i v e l y .  and c o n t r o l  The p o s t t e s t means  A t - t e s t method was used  t o determine t h e s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e mean s c o r e s o f t h e two groups. A t - t e s t was completed u s i n g both t h e p r e - and p o s t t e s t scores.  The t - v a l u e was c a l c u l a t e d as .26 and .48  respectively.  I n both cases a t - v a l u e o f 1.68 o r  g r e a t e r was r e q u i r e d i n o r d e r f o r t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n the means t o be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t w i t h a 95% confidence  level.  T h i s t e s t i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t t h e means  were n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from each o t h e r .  68 Table Cultural  Pretest  Appreciation  Measure  4 t-test  score  E-group C-group  Mean  SD  84.08 79.45  11.94 11.50  D i f f e r e n c e i n means Standard deviation t  Sample Size 24 20  4.63 17.50 0.26  For t h i s t e s t t o be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t g r e a t e r t h a n 1.68 w i t h 9 5 % c o n f i d e n c e level.  Posttest  E-group C-group  t must  be  t must  be  score Mean  SD  84.83 74.95  14.00 16.44  D i f f e r e n c e i n means Standard deviation t  Sample Size 24 20  9.88 20.61 0.48  For t h i s t e s t t o be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t g r e a t e r t h a n 1.68 w i t h 9 5 % c o n f i d e n c e level  69 C.  Journal Posttest A p o s t hoc examination o f j o u r n a l responses  conducted.  A count was  was  made o f j o u r n a l e n t r i e s f o r  frequency o f p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e statements about t h e program i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l groups. square a n a l y s i s was  A chi-  done t o determine i f t h e r e were  s i g n i f i c a n t l y more p o s i t i v e statements i n t h e experimental c l a s s journals. response  T a b l e 5 shows t h e  rates.  To determine i f t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n response was  statistically  used. for  s i g n i f i c a n t the chi-square t e s t  C h i - s q u a r e i s a nonparametric s t a t i s t i c a l  was test  s i t u a t i o n s such as t h i s where the d a t a i s i n t h e  form o f a frequency count. the  rates  The t e s t was  j o u r n a l d a t a and c h i - s q u a r e was  20.07.  To be s t a t i s t i c a l l y  completed f o r  determined t o be  s i g n i f i c a n t at the  95%  c o n f i d e n c e l e v e l c h i - s q u a r e need o n l y have been g r e a t e r than 3.84.  T h e r e f o r e t h e number o f p o s i t i v e responses  i n the j o u r n a l s  o f the e x p e r i m e n t a l group  was  s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r than t h a t o f t h e c o n t r o l  group.  Table Journal  Observed  5  P o s t t e s t Measure ( C h i - s q u a r e  Test)  values  Yes No  Control 54 24 78  Chi-square  =  Treatment 84 27 111  138 51 189  20.07  To b e s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t c h i - s q u a r e m u s t g r e a t e r t h a n 3.84 w i t h 9 5 % c o n f i d e n c e l e v e l  be  71 E.  Discussion P r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h has i n d i c a t e d t h a t a  m u l t i c u l t u r a l approach which emphasizes c r o s s - c u l t u r a l s i m i l a r i t i e s w i t h i n t h e c l a s s r o o m may p r o v i d e p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e changes towards d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l groups. I j a z and I j a z  (1981) have based t h e i r program's  t h e o r e t i c a l framework on " c u l t u r a l s i m i l a r i t i e s and human v a l u e s common t o a l l p e o p l e s "  (p. 20).  Their  study employs an e x p e r i e n t i a l approach i n v o l v i n g a l l aspects of students p e r s o n a l i t i e s :  rational,  e m o t i o n a l , a f f e c t i v e and p h y s i c a l . A d d i t i o n a l s t u d i e s suggest t h a t a v i s u a l a r t s program may p r o v i d e a good b a s i s f o r d e v e l o p i n g c u l t u r a l l y r e s p o n s i v e programs which f o c u s on a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e change (Cipywnyk, 1987; Andrews,  1983, 1984).  Mason (1988) a l s o e x p l o r e s  a m u l t i c u l t u r a l approach which h e l p s s t u d e n t s t o a c h i e v e more u n d e r s t a n d i n g different  from t h e i r own  and a p p r e c i a t i o n o f a r t  culture.  The r e s u l t s o f t h e p r e s e n t study support t h e previous research.  Through s l i d e s and r e s e a r c h books  t h e treatment p r e s e n t e d p a r a l l e l s a c r o s s many c u l t u r e s . D i s c u s s i o n and j o u r n a l w r i t i n g f o l l o w e d .  I t appeared  t h a t a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e change i n s t u d e n t s '  72  attitudes  i n t h e i r appreciation  and  the a r t of other c u l t u r e s  the  treatment.  o f t h e i r own a r t work  took p l a c e as a r e s u l t o f  The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t t e a c h i n g a r t  through a m u l t i c u l t u r a l p e r s p e c t i v e which e x p l o r e s cross-cultural  s i m i l a r i t i e s i s a p r o m i s i n g means t o  f o s t e r both i n d i v i d u a l and c o l l e c t i v e a p p r e c i a t i o n  of  art. T h i s statement r e q u i r e s  further  interpretation.  F i r s t , t h e change i n s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s  on t h e S o c i a l  D i s t a n c e S c a l e was not l a r g e enough t o be s i g n i f i c a n t . T h i s c o u l d be a t t r i b u t e d  to three factors.  F i r s t , the  measurement may have been d i l u t e d by a s k i n g s t u d e n t s t o t h i n k o f "many d i f f e r e n t groups" i n Canada r a t h e r one dominant one.  than  I t would be e a s i e r t o be b i a s e d  toward one p a r t i c u l a r group than a mixed one. Second, t h e C u l t u r a l A p p r e c i a t i o n Measure may not have been a p p r o p r i a t e t o measure "appreciation", cross-cultural  rather  i t may have measured s t u d e n t s '  "knowledge" o f a r t .  may have been more o f an a e s t h e t i c taking  into consideration  d e s i g n s and forms r a t h e r the  cross-cultural  content across  In r e t r o s p e c t  t e s t , with students  the pleasing than g i v i n g  cultures.  this  shapes o f t h e  a value opinion of  The i n my  Journal Posttest  study.  I t was  i s the most important measure  g i v e n as the  f i n a l measure and  s i g n i f i c a n t i n measuring s t u d e n t s ' a p p r e c i a t i o n t h e i r own  a r t and  the  a r t of o t h e r c u l t u r e s .  was  of Students  responded i n w r i t i n g numerous times t o warrant t h i s a r e l i a b l e measure. advantage on the often.  The  treatment group may  posttest  They were a l s o  time a f t e r s e e i n g and  have had  because they wrote more  i n s p i r e d t o w r i t e f o r the participating in The  multicultural  students i n a  c o o r d i n a t o r , l e d the where they had  o t h e r s t u d e n t s and group d i d not later.  web  day  before,  to i n t e r a c t with  the word " c u l t u r e " .  p a r t i c i p a t e and  first  the  multicultural play "Transitions".  webbing e x e r c i s e  an  their writing  The  our  two control  began  74 VI.  Summary and C o n c l u s i o n s  T h i s study was conducted  i n o r d e r t o determine  whether a c u l t u r a l program i n t h e v i s u a l a r t s , which emphasized t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s o f a r t a c r o s s  cultures,  would r e s u l t i n a p o s i t i v e change i n t h e grade e i g h t s t u d e n t s ' a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e i r own a r t , a r t o f o t h e r c u l t u r e s and a t t i t u d e s towards o t h e r c u l t u r e s . and  I j a z advocate  Ijaz  a c u l t u r a l program f o r improving  ethnic attitudes, t h e i r research supporting a t h e o r e t i c a l framework which emphasized  "cultural  s i m i l a r i t i e s and human v a l u e s common t o a l l p e o p l e s " (1981, p.20).  The c u r r i c u l a r framework o f t h i s  m u l t i c u l t u r a l program was well-grounded  i n I j a z and  I j a z ' s p h i l o s o p h y . Developed i n t o a sequence o f u n i t s emphasizing  cultural similarities,  i t allowed  students  t o b u i l d upon t h e i r " e x p e r i e n c e s " from one u n i t t o t h e next.  C o l o r F o l k l o r e , C u l t u r a l Masks and t h e Year o f  the Horse were t h e t h r e e areas o f i n t e r e s t . An e q u i v a l e n t c o n t r o l - g r o u p d e s i g n was used.  Two  i n t a c t c l a s s e s i n a Burnaby s c h o o l p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e study.  One c l a s s r e c e i v e d t h e treatment,  the other  c o n t i n u e d w i t h t h e r e g u l a r a r t c u r r i c u l u m a c t i n g as t h e c o n t r o l group.  The program was taught t h r e e times a  week as one-hour c l a s s e s f o r a t o t a l o f t w e n t y - e i g h t classes.  Both c l a s s e s were p r e - and p o s t t e s t e d on a  S o c i a l D i s t a n c e S c a l e and a C u l t u r a l A p p r e c i a t i o n Measure i n o r d e r t o determine i f t h e r e was an a t t i t u d e o r a p p r e c i a t i o n change as a r e s u l t o f t h e treatment. Although  no s t a t i s t i c a l  experimental  d i f f e r e n c e s were found  between  and c o n t r o l groups on t h e p r e - and  p o s t t e s t s , students' j o u r n a l s provided data f o r r e f l e c t i o n and a n a l y s i s c o n c l u d i n g w i t h a J o u r n a l Posttest.  T h i s was complemented by t h e r e s e a r c h e r ' s  j o u r n a l which d e s c r i b e d t h e c l a s s r o o m p r o c e e d i n g s .  The  j o u r n a l a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e program was e f f e c t i v e i n b r i n g i n g about a p o s i t i v e change i n t h e s t u d e n t s ' a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e i r own a r t and t h e a r t o f other c u l t u r e s .  Students were asked  "Are you proud o f your artwork?",  q u e s t i o n s such as  responding  with  p r i d e , c o n f i d e n c e and an a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r t h e i r own work.  Farzana wrote t h a t h e r a r t work had changed  because she used " t h i n g s t h a t symbolized  something  r a t h e r than j u s t drawing something w i t h o u t l i k e I d i d before". another  When asked  i f t h e r e was an a r t o f  c u l t u r e t h a t they admired, s t u d e n t s  w i t h a mixture  feeling,  responded  o f c o u n t r i e s a c r o s s c u l t u r e s , many  76  g a i n i n g an a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r t h e i r own  culture.  P r o v i d e d t h a t c e r t a i n c r i t e r i a are met, apparent  the  s u c c e s s o f t h e study c o u l d be d u p l i c a t e d by  o t h e r a r t t e a c h e r s working i n s i m i l a r  situations.  G e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y o f t h e f i n d i n g s would be determined key  f a c t o r s used i n t h i s study.  First,  the  by  teacher  i n v o l v e d must have a genuine i n t e r e s t i n m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m and be m o t i v a t e d  t o c a r r y out  study f o r more than one u n i t .  i n depth f o c u s i s  important  An  the  i n removing t h e meaningless s t e r e o t y p i n g o f  a d v o c a t i n g m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m w i t h o u t much a t t e n t i o n t o b u i l d i n g on what i s advocated. w r i t i n g and e v a l u a t i o n responses b u i l d i n g the curriculum.  Second, t h e j o u r n a l are i n v a l u a b l e i n  S i n c e each c l a s s i s unique,  t h e t e a c h e r w i l l need the a p p r o p r i a t e feedback t o a c c e s s and u t i l i z e the s t u d e n t s ' c u l t u r a l v a l u e s b e l i e f s when p l a n n i n g the a r t u n i t s . must be aware o f t h e i r own and go beyond t h e i r own  and  Third, teachers  c u l t u r a l and s o c i a l  biases  e x p e r i e n c e s t o b e i n g open  nonjudgemental about c r o s s - c u l t u r a l e x p e r i e n c e s .  and It is  o n l y then t h a t they can p a r t i c i p a t e i n r e a l communication and use a r t t o "communicate i d e a s emotional  meanings from one person t o another"  and (McFee &  77 Degge, 1977,  p.280).  The s u c c e s s o f t h e u n i t s may t o t h e f a c t t h a t I was  be a t t r i b u t e d i n p a r t  h i g h l y m o t i v a t e d and used my  s t u d e n t s f o r t h e study.  own  I t would be o f b e n e f i t t o  conduct a study w i t h o t h e r a r t c l a s s e s and a r t t e a c h e r s w i t h i n t h e d i s t r i c t who  a r e e n t h u s i a s t i c about  m u l t i c u l t u r a l a r t program.  a  A broader study i s  n e c e s s a r y i n o r d e r t o develop a g r e a t e r g e n e r a l i z ab i 1 i t y . I t appears t h a t the u n i t s were e f f e c t i v e l y implemented.  T h i s suggests t h a t the  cross-cultural  s i m i l a r i t i e s as r e f l e c t e d i n the study can h e l p i n t h e development o f t h e s t u d e n t s a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e i r a r t work and t h e a r t work o f o t h e r c u l t u r e s . be o f v a l u e t o c o n t i n u e w i t h subsequent t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s study.  own  I t would  work based  on  For t e a c h e r s w i l l i n g t o  implement a m u l t i c u l t u r a l c u r r i c u l u m I would l i k e t o g i v e the f o l l o w i n g a d v i c e .  The s t u d e n t  journal  responses p r o v i d e d the most important feedback program.  There  i s a need t o e x p l o r e s t u d e n t  f o r my  journal  responses both c o n c e p t u a l l y and e m p i r i c a l l y i n t h e of c l a s s r o o m experiments. p r e s e n t study was  form  While the f o c u s o f the  on drawing  and p a i n t i n g , the l e n g t h  78 o f t h e study s h o u l d be extended t o i n c l u d e t h e four v i s u a l expression areas; graphics, s c u l p t u r e and c e r a m i c s .  other  textiles,  I t would a l s o be b e n e f i c i a l  determine i f t h i s approach c o u l d be implemented a t a l l grade l e v e l s .  to  successfully  A multicultural  approach s h o u l d be extended i n t o o t h e r d i s c i p l i n e s  such  as drama, music, s o c i a l s t u d i e s and E n g l i s h . Although  the p r e s e n t study i s l i m i t e d i n scope,  t h e r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t e a c h i n g a r t through  a  m u l t i c u l t u r a l p e r s p e c t i v e , which emphasizes t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s across cultures,  i s a worthwhile p u r s u i t .  F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h s h o u l d be d i r e c t e d and  towards_designing  implementing c u l t u r a l l y r e s p o n s i v e c u r r i c u l u m  models.  As Chalmers (1990) s t a t e s , we  still  "must  t e a c h t h e next c l a s s , d e c i d e on the c o n t e n t o f our l e s s o n , e v a l u a t e our s t u d e n t s ' learning...we our p r a c t i s e s w h i l e we (p.3).  next  continue  q u e s t i o n and r e d e f i n e them"  I w i l l c o n t i n u e t o q u e s t i o n and r e d e f i n e my  c u r r i c u l u m i n p u r s u i t o f a m u l t i c u l t u r a l one t h a t w i l l p r o v i d e the most p o s i t i v e l e a r n i n g environment f o r my students.  79 VII. Andrews, E. M.  References  (1984).  A multicultural art  implementation p r o j e c t .  A r t E d u c a t i o n . 36(5),  23-24. Andrews, E. M.  (1983).  The  innovation process of  c u l t u r a l l y - b a s e d a r t education, unpublished d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r a d f o r d , England. Banks, J . A.  (1984).  studies.  Teaching s t r a t e g i e s f o r e t h n i c  (3rd e d i t i o n ) .  Berger, B. A.  (1983).  Boston: A l l y n & Bacon.  The implementation o f an a r t  programme d e s i g n e d t o develop c u l t u r a l awareness among s t u d e n t s i n an urban N a t i v e I n d i a n a l t e r n a t e class:  A case study, u n p u b l i s h e d t h e s i s ,  U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Blandy,  D.,  & Congdon, K.  (1988).  Vancouver.  A multi-cultural  symposium on a p p r e c i a t i n g and u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e arts.  A r t E d u c a t i o n . November, 20-24.  Bogardus, E.S.  (1925).  Measuring  social  distances.  J o u r n a l o f A p p l i e d S o c i o l o g y . 9. 299-308. Borg, W.  R.,  Research  & G a l l , M. (5th e d . ) .  D.  (1989).  Educational  Longman Inc., New  York.  Boyer, B.  (1989).  DBAE and CLAE:  relevance f o r  m i n o r i t y and m u l t i c u l t u r a l s t u d e n t s .  The J o u r n a l  o f S o c i a l Theory i n A r t E d u c a t i o n . 9. 58-63. Campbell, D.T.  (1953).  Social distance scale.  In  C.K. Buros (Ed.) The f o u r t h mental measurements yearbook.  New J e r s e y :  Chalmers, F. G.  (1987).  The Gryphon P r e s s .  C u l t u r a l l y based  u n i v e r s a l l y based u n d e r s t a n d i n g democracy. Ed. by Blandy, Teachers  of a r t .  Art in a  D., & Congdon, K.  C o l l e g e P r e s s , New York, 4-12.  Chalmers, F. G.  (1984).  C u l t u r a l p l u r a l i s m and a r t  e d u c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia. 36(5),  versus  A r t Education.  22-23.  Chalmers, F. G.  (1980) .  A r t e d u c a t i o n as e t h n o l o g y .  S t u d i e s i n A r t E d u c a t i o n . 22(3). 6-14. Chalmers, F. G., & M u l l e n , C.  (1990).  s o c i e t y and a r t E d u c a t i o n . Education. C a l v e r t , A. E.  Culture,  Studies i n A r t  31 ( 4 ) , 1-3. (1988).  N a t i v e a r t h i s t o r y and DBAE:  an a n a l y s i s o f key c o n c e p t s .  The J o u r n a l o f  S o c i a l Theory i n A r t E d u c a t i o n . 9. 112-122. Cipywnyk, R. S.  (1987).  The e f f e c t o f a c u l t u r a l  program i n t h e v i s u a l a r t s i n s t u d e n t s  'ethnic  attitudes.  unpublished t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of  B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver. Congdon, K.  (1985) .  multicultural  A f o l k group f o c u s f o r  education.  A r t Education.  January,  13-16. D a v i s , D. J .  (1977) .  education:  1883-1972.  aesthetics: 109-119).  Research  t r e n d s i n a r t and a r t  T.S Madeja,  (Ed.),  Arts &  An agenda f o r t h e f u t u r e (pp. S t . L o u i s , MO: CEMREL.  Feldman, E. B.  (1980).  A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l and h i s t o r i c a l  conceptions of a r t c u r r i c u l a .  A r t Education.  33(6), 6-9. Grant, C. A., & S l e e t e r , learning, teaching. Gollnick,  C. E.  (1989). T u r n i n g on  f i v e approaches t o m u l t i c u l t u r a l M e r r i l l P u b l i s h i n g , Columbus.  D. M., & Chinn, P. C.  (1986).  M u l t i c u l t u r a l education i n a p l u r a l i s t i c Bell Grauer,  K.  & Howell (1988).  friends. Hamblen, K. A.  society.  Company, Columbus. A r t and w r i t i n g ,  Prime Areas. (1989).  the best of  30(3).  The r e a l i t y c o n s t r u c t i o n o f  technocratic-rationality S o c i a l Theory. 9. 49-52.  through  DBAE.  Journal of  Hamblen, K. A.  (1987).  Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and  c o n t r a d i c t i o n s o f a r t museum e d u c a t i o n i n a p l u r a l i s t i c democracy. (Eds.),  A r t i n a democracy.  P r e s s , New York. H i c k s , L.  I n D. Blandy & K. Congdon  (1989).  empowerment.  Teachers C o l l e g e  4-12.  C u l t u r a l l i t e r a c y as s o c i a l J o u r n a l o f S o c i a l Theory. 9. 53-57.  I j a z , M. A., & I j a z , I . H.  (1981).  A c u l t u r a l program  f o r changing r a c i a l a t t i t u d e s .  H i s t o r y and S o c i a l  S c i e n c e Teacher. 17(1). I r w i n , R. L.  (1989) .  17-20.  V i s u a l j o u r n a l s as an  i n t e g r a t i o n among drawing, a r t a p p r e c i a t i o n and the w r i t i n g process.  Canadian S o c i e t y f o r  E d u c a t i o n Through A r t . 20(1). 20-22. Johnson,  N. R.  (1989).  Discipline-based a r t education  (DBAE) and c u l t u r a l l i t e r a c y a r t e d u c a t i o n (CLAE). The J o u r n a l o f S o c i a l Theory i n A r t E d u c a t i o n . 9. 45-48. Kehoe, J .  (1984a).  Achieving c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y i n  Canadian s c h o o l s . V e s t a P u b l i c a t i o n s , O n t a r i o . Kehoe, J .  (1984b).  A handbook f o r enhancing t h e  m u l t i c u l t u r a l climate of the school. Vancouver.  Wedge,  83 Kehoe, J .  (1984c).  M u l t i c u l t u r a l Canada:  C o n s i d e r a t i o n s f o r s c h o o l s , t e a c h e r s and curriculum. Y/Mason, R.  OISE P r e s s , T o r o n t o .  (1988).  A r t e d u c a t i o n and m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m .  Croom Helm L i m i t e d , New Netto, J . T. C.  (1988).  different culture.  York.  Cultural action f o r a Canadian Review o f A r t  E d u c a t i o n . 15 (1). 11-13. McFee, J . K.,  & Degge, R. M.  environment:  A r t , c u l t u r e and  A catalyst f o r teaching.  Kendall-Hunt P u b l i s h i n g , S t o c k r o c k i , M.  (1977).  (1988).  minority cultures.  Iowa.  Teaching a r t t o students of J o u r n a l o f M u l t i - c u l t u r a l and  C r o s s - c u l t u r a l Research i n A r t E d u c a t i o n . 6 ( 1 ) , 99-111. T a y l o r , A.  (1975).  education:  The c u l t u r a l r o o t s o f a r t  A r e p o r t and some models. A r t  E d u c a t i o n . 28(5), 8-13. T i e d t , P. L. & T i e d t , I . M. teaching:  of  Multicultural  A handbook o f a c t i v i t i e s , i n f o r m a t i o n .  and r e s o u r c e s . Trubowitz, J .  (1979).  A l l y n & Bacon, Boston.  (1969).  children.  Changing t h e r a c i a l  New York:  F.A. Praeger,  attitudes Publishers.  Wasson, R. F., Stuhr, P. L. & P e t r o v i c h - M w a n i k i , (1990).  L.  Teaching a r t i n t h e m u l t i c u l t u r a l  classroom:  s i x p o s i t i o n statements.  A r t E d u c a t i o n . 31(4). 234-246.  Studies  V I I I . Appendix A S o c i a l Distance  Scale  86  Social Distance Scale  Directions: Think of ail the different groups of students who live in Canada. Many are different from your own culture. Answer the nine sentences about these students, thinking of them as a whole, not individually. Circle one 1.  I would let them visit our country.  Yes  No  2.  I would let them live in our country.  Yes  No  3.  I would let them go to my school.  Yes  No  4.  I would let them live in my neighbourhood.  Yes  No  5.  I would let them live next door to me.  Yes  No  6.  I would let them play at my house.  Yes  No  7.  I would let them come to a party at my house.  Yes  No  8.  I would let them be my best friends.  Yes  No  9.  I would be willing to marry one of them when I grow up.  Yes  No  87 IX. Appendix B Cultural Appreciation S p l i t - T e s t The A r t a p p r e c i a t i o n Measure was developed as a way t o measure grade 8 s t u d e n t s '  appreciation of " a r t "  from c u l t u r e s o t h e r than t h e i r own. a r t from many o t h e r  European a r t and  c o u n t r i e s has been i n c l u d e d .  In  o r d e r t o keep t h e v a r i a b l e s as uncomplicated as p o s s i b l e , examples have been i n t e n t i o n a l l y chosen from magazines, books and g a l l e r i e s . The measure i s a s p l i t - t e s t , (24 p i e c e s ) but  12 s e t s o f p i c t u r e s  t o be g i v e n as a p r e t e s t and 12 d i f f e r e n t ,  r e l a t e d s e t s as a p o s t t e s t .  Pieces  o f a r t from  d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s have been i n t e n t i o n a l l y p u t s i d e by s i d e t o show a s i m i l a r i t y i n theme.  Students  evaluated  each p i e c e on t h e i r o p i n i o n o f whether i t i s an example o f good o r poor a r t .  I t was p o s i t e d t h a t t h e r e w i l l be  a p o s i t i v e change i n t h e o p i n i o n o f s t u d e n t s ' a p p r e c i a t i o n towards t h e a r t o f c u l t u r e s , o t h e r t h e i r own a f t e r t h e t e n week treatment.  than  88  Opinion Questionnaire Directions: Circle the number on the answer sheet that best describes your opinion of whether or not each picture is an example of poor art or good art.  poor Picture set  1  A B  Picture  set  2  A B  Picture  set  3  A B  Picture  set  4  A B  Picture  set  5  A B  Picture  set  6  A B  Picture  set  7  A B  Picture  set  8  A B  Picture  set  9  A B  Picture  set  10  A B  Picture  set  11  A B  Picture  set  12  A B  good art  art  5 5  3 3  4 4 4 4  2 2  3 3  4 4  5 5  2 2  3 3  5 5  2 2  3 3  2 2  3 3  2 2  3 3  2 2  3 3  2 2  3 3  4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4  2 2  3 3  5 5  2 2  3 3  4 4 4 4  5 5  2 2  3 3  4 4  5 5  2 2  3 3  2 2  5 5  5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5  89  Cultural Appreciation Measure:  Similarities in Theme  Pre-test  Posttest  1.  Japanese musician/Russian  musician  2.  West Coast Indian mother and child/Canadian  1.  American Liberty  symbol/Mythology  2.  Tahitian landscape/Yukon landscape  realism mother and child 3.  Mali royalty/Egyptian  royalty  4.  Persian 3D ceramic animal/Canadian  3. West Coast totem pole/lnuit print 4.  2D animal painting  American Gothic 2D painting/American Gothic 3D folk art  5.  French still life/American pop still life  5.  American waterfall/Japanese waterfall  6.  Singapore house/American folk art house  6.  Contemporary Spanish face/Tlingit Indian blanket design  7.  French surreal hunt/Persian hunt  7.  Classic French nude/Surreal French nude  8.  West Coast Indian image/Baffin Island  8.  Inunnit image 9.  Italian portrait/Spanish  Chilkat Indian Blanket/Modern European painting  surreal portrait  10. American realistic reflection/Spanish cubist reflection 11. Mediterranean seated woman/  9.  American Beauty Queen/Egyptian Queen  10. Russian self-portrait/French selfportrait 11. French face/Ivory Coast mask  French seated woman 12. Japanese birds/Povungnituk, Quebec birds  12. Chinese bear/Cape Dorset bear  90 Pretest  P i c t u r e set 1  Picture set 2  A Picture set 3  P i c t u r e set 4  P i c t u r e set 5  Picture set 7  P i c t u r e set 9  Picture set !0  P i c t u r e set 11  103  Posttest  Picture  set  1  Picture set 2  B  Picture set 3  A  107  P i c t u r e set 5  B  B  P i c t u r e set 6  P i c t u r e set 7  B  Picture set 8  H  Picture set 10  114  A P i c t u r e s e t 12  References Abbate,  F.  (Ed.).  Octopus China  (1972).  Trade.  B.  Discovery  J . T.  of Asia  Orientations. M.  image.  Press,  Vancouver.  Humberg,  (Ed.).  W.  H.  New  M.  W.  York:  L a r m o u r , W.  T.  eskimo. Price,  C.  York:  New  the  of  York:  (1975).  Shadbolt  (1980).  of  and  N.  A  Harry  Abrams,  Inc.  Dutton  The  a r t of the  Information story  105  (rev.  (7).  ed.).  Canadian  Canada.  o f moslem a r t .  & Company,  New  The  Decorative Arts. of a r t  The  Columbia  Inc.  Decor.  History  Ottawa:  coastal  Annual.  (1962). N.  the  British  Graphis  (1985).  F i n e and  (1967).  E.P.  Harry  Pacific.  University  (Ed.).  (1964).  paintings. visual  H a s t i n g s House P u b l i s h e r s ,  Magazine of Janson,  and  International  Chinese  (Ed.).  Jack  Indian  York:  York:  6(12).  (1986).  H e r d e g , W.  of  Varieties  (rev, ed.).  Gatbonton,  Halpin,  (1983).  (n.d.).  experience Abrams.  Promotion  (Eds.).  E.  New  Books.  Council f o r the  Feldman,  Egyptian a r t .  Inc.  New  Roukes, N.  (1988).  Design s y n e c t i c s .  Massachusetts: Davis P u b l i c a t i o n s ,  Worcester, Inc.  118 Appendix C Pre- and  Posttest Journal  119  Journal  Pretest  1. Do you t h i n k your a r t i s i n f l u e n c e d by your c u l t u r e ? speci f i c .  2.  Have you l o o k e d  3.  Is t h e r e an a r t of a n o t h e r c u l t u r e t h a t you admire?  4.  Is t h e r e a r t from a n o t h e r c u l t u r e i n your home?  a t a r t from o t h e r  cultures?  5. Do you have a r t t h a t you have saved? what year d i d you c r e a t e them?  6.  A r e you proud of your  Describe.  How many p i e c e s  artwork?  7. Do you g i v e your a r t work away? p i c t u r e s , s c u l p t u r e , etc.?  Be  In what form?  Cards,  and i n  120  Journal 1.  Posttest  What i n f l u e n c e s  2. Do you t h i n k yes, which one?  3.  Is t h e r e  your  art?  your own a r t i s i n f l u e n c e d by a c u l t u r e ?  an a r t of a n o t h e r c u l t u r e t h a t  4. A r e you proud of your a r t w o r k ? t e n weeks?  Has t h i s  If  you admire?  changed i n t h e past  5. Out of t h e t h r e e p r o j e c t s , what d i d you e n j o y t h e most? ( C o l o r u n i t w i t h t h e shoe, s t i l l l i f e w i t h a mask, year of t h e horse). Be s p e c i f i c .  6.  What d i d you not e n j o y about  these  projects?  XI. The  Appendix  Multicultural  D Units  122  Topic:  C o l o r Theory and F o l k l o r e  Level:  Grade 8  Media:  Poster  Length: Twelve  Paint/ink periods  Objectives: In t e a c h i n g the c o l o r wheel s t u d e n t s w i l l t h a t c o l o r has meaning c u l t u r a l l y and e m o t i o n a l l y . Materials: C o l o r f o l k l o r e c h a r t , primary i n k , pens, sketchbook, b r u s h e s .  poster  recognize  colors,  black  Introduction: (a) Ask s t u d e n t s to c l o s e t h e i r eyes and t h i n k of " r e d " i n terms of f o o d , t h i n g s t h a t move, e t c . Web " r e d " on the board w i t h the class. Read the poem on r e d from the book, H a i l s t o n e s and H a l i b u t Bones. Have s t u d e n t s u t i l i z e the i d e a s from the poem by webbing a new c o l o r . (b) HW: Hand out a c o l o r l i s t . Students a r e asked to f i n d one c o l o r which has s i g n i f i c a n t meaning i n t h e i r own c u l t u r e . Ask p a r e n t s , g r a n d p a r e n t s or look i n an e n c y c l o p e d i a . Complete by w r i t i n g t h r e e s e n t e n c e s i n t h e i r sketchbook i n t h e i r own words. In a d d i t i o n , they a r e to web the " c o l o r " f o c u s i n g on t h e i r emotions towards the c o l o r . Share i n c l a s s next day. (c) In c l a s s , s e t up c h a r t s of c o l o r s . S t u d e n t s a r e to f i l l i n the c h a r t s d e s c r i b i n g the c u l t u r a l meanings of each c o l o r . Hand out the f o l k l o r e c o l o r c h a r t . D i s c u s s and add to the class charts. Development: Teach p r i m a r y , s e c o n d a r y , complementary and monochromatic c o l o r t h e o r y . Choose a p e r s o n a l o b j e c t and one color. E x a g g e r a t e or a l t e r the p e r s o n a l o b j e c t t o h e l p e x p r e s s the e m o t i o n a l meaning of the c o l o r . P l a c e i n a s e t t i n g which e x p r e s s e s the c u l t u r e . Draw i n the background u s i n g pen and b l a c k i n k . An example would be to p a i n t your f a v o r i t e r u n n i n g shoe i n shades of green (green t h u m b / s u c c e s s f u l gardener), with i v y , p l a n t s and green thumbs wrapped around the shoe. The background would t r a n s p o r t the shoe i n t o an E n g l i s h garde  123  Colour: Folklore ' Origin  Colour  What it Means  Red  anger, danger passion bridal gown joy. festivity divine love life  Pink  female child  Orange  endurance, strength passion, tempered by wisdom, ambition  Ukrainian  Yellow  wisdom, happiness.  Ukrainian/Russian  harvest spirituality joy/sunny fear (descriptive* friendship, homecoming female aspect of God Cold  magical kingship, wealth  Green  holy colour victory/freedom boumifulness/rtope grain green light' - go pastures green - richness and tranquility naive/envious green thumb (successful gardener)  European Indian/Pakistani Chinese. Ukrainian Christian/Slavic Ancient people British/North American primarily. ' Some European-also.  Buddhist Priests European North American Hinduism (Indian* Medieval European universal Islamic Christmas Byzantine/Islamic Ukrainian Peru European'North American ;-English English I English  status, kingship greenish/light blue good health pure spirituality male god - Krishna sad (descriptive) dark blue, formal any time (light) blue for a boy  African Turkish/Egyptian Talismanic Jtalian Madonnas wear it* Hinduism (Indian* -North American .North American  white  purity, innocence sacred, protective religious purity birth mourning colour (widows wear)  Xhosa (South African* .Europe. Amcr. Indian .European priests Slavic India  Black  absolute constancy eternity mourning death chic  Slavic  Brown  symbol of mother earth  Slavic-  Purple  fasting, faith, patience royalty, priest/power  Slav ic Ukrainian European  Pink Violet  colour of the rainy season  North Indian  Blue  British North American  European. North American Peruvian. North American Indian high fashion (Western*  >  124  Evaluation  s h e e t and r e s p o n s e s f o r t h e c u l t u r a l  color unit:  1. and  Use t h r e e t o f i v e s e n t e n c e s t o e x p l a i n your c h o i c e of c o l o r your f e e l i n g s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the a n i m a t i o n of t h e shoe.  2.  D i d you e x p r e s s f e e l i n g w i t h c o l o r ?  3.  Does c o l o r have meaning  t o you e m o t i o n a l l y ?  4.  Does c o l o r have meaning  t o you c u l t u r a l l y ?  5. What would you change i n t h i s p r o j e c t better?  Explain.  Explain.  Explain.  to understand  color  125  Topic:  Still  L i f e w i t h Mask  Level:  Grade 8  Media:  Poster Paint  Length:  Six periods  Objectives: To e x p l o r e d i f f e r e n t v i e w p o i n t s i n a s t i l l l i f e to r e s e a r c h the s i m i l a r i t i e s between masks of many c u l t u r e s .  and  Materials: S l i d e s and books of masks from around the w o r l d , sketchbook, v i e w f i n d e r , p o s t e r p a i n t , brushes, 11x14" w h i t e c a r t r i d g e paper. Introduction: (a) Set up a S t i l l L i f e w i t h c u l t u r a l o b j e c t s : masks, t a p e s t r i e s , b a s k e t s , e t c . U s i n g a v i e w f i n d e r , draw t h r e e thumbnail s k e t c h e s each from a d i f f e r e n t v i e w p o i n t of the s t i l l life. (b) Show s l i d e s of masks. Look f o r s i m i l a r i t i e s and unique f e a t u r e s i n the masks, r e c o r d i n g t h e s e i d e a s as q u i c k s k e t c h e s . (c) R e s e a r c h and draw s k e t c h e s of masks from l i b r a r y books. Development: From your own r e s e a r c h , d e v e l o p your own c u l t u r a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t mask. I n t e g r a t e i n t o one of the s t i l l l i f e s k e t c h e s . Discuss composition with another student. E n l a r g e the chosen s k e t c h t o 11x14" c a r t r i d g e paper. P a i n t i n b o l d c o l o r s u s i n g the symbolism and t e c h n i q u e s from the C o l o r Theory and F o l k l o r e lesson. Evaluate with a peer. Comment on the p o s i t i v e q u a l i t i e s and w e l l as p o s s i b l e changes. Make f i n a l changes. G i v e the s t i l l l i f e an a p p r o p r i a t e t i t l e .  126  Evaluation: 1. D e s c r i b e t h e c u l t u r e and the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e d e s i g n which you have used t o enhance your s t i l l l i f e drawing.  2. How has s t u d y i n g masks from o t h e r c u l t u r e s i n f l u e n c e d a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r masks?  your  3. How has s t u d y i n g masks from o t h e r c u l t u r e s i n f l u e n c e d a p p r e c i a t i o n of o t h e r c u l t u r e s ?  your  4. How has s t u d y i n g masks from o t h e r c u l t u r e s i n f l u e n c e d a p p r e c i a t i o n of your own mask d e s i g n ?  your  5.  In t h i s u n i t  6.  What a s p e c t s d i d you f i n d  7.  What would you change?  what d i d you e n j o y d o i n g the most?  difficult?  How?  127  Topic:  Year  Level:  Grade 8  Media:  Pastel  Length:  of t h e  Horse  Resist  Ten p e r i o d s  Objective: Horse.  To e x p l o r e a C h i n e s e c u l t u r a l  theme. Y e a r  of t h e  Materials: S l i d e s , books and p o s t e r s on h o r s e s from h i s t o r y t o modern day. I n c l u d e as many c u l t u r e s as p o s s i b l e . P r o v i d e 20x24" w h i t e c o n s t r u c t i o n p a p e r , wax c r a y o n s , o i l p a s t e l s , tempera p a i n t , r h o p l e x and 2" b r u s h e s . Introduction: (a) Ask s t u d e n t s t o b r i n g h o r s e o b j e c t s t o c l a s s s u c h as t o y s , ornaments, p i c t u r e s , j e w e l r y , e t c . Share w i t h t h e c l a s s . What was t h e p u r p o s e f o r u s i n g t h e h o r s e image on t h i s o b j e c t ? (b) P r e s e n t s l i d e s of h o r s e s i n a r t . Have s t u d e n t s draw i n c o n t i n u o u s l i n e t o t h e s l i d e s f o c u s i n g on p a r t s of t h e h o r s e or i t s d e c o r a t i o n . In groups o f t h r e e , d i s c u s s some of the s i m i l a r i t i e s of the a r t i s t s f e e l i n g s about t h e h o r s e s i n a r t . Respond i n your j o u r n a l . (c) D i s c u s s t h e C h i n e s e Z o d i a k  and  significance  of the h o r s e .  Development: (a) Choose a c u l t u r e t h a t i n t e r e s t s you. Study how the h o r s e i s used i n t h e s t y l e of t h a t c u l t u r e . (b) U s i n g your s k e t c h b o o k , c r e a t e t h e f o l l o w i n g d r a w i n g s : 1. 2 l i n e drawings showing movement. 2. 2 l i n e drawings of c l o s e - u p s . 3. R e s e a r c h of the c u l t u r a l a s p e c t e.g. d e s i g n s showing t e x t u r e and p a t t e r n and c o l o r . How do t h e s e d e s i g n s r e f l e c t the c u l t u r e s and b e l i e f s r e l a t e d t o the h o r s e ? 4. F i n a l p r o j e c t must i n c l u d e movement, an unusual v i e w p o i n t of the h o r s e and a c u l t u r a l d e s i g n i n the form of a b o r d e r , background o r the a c t u a l i n t e r i o r of the h o r s e . E n l a r g e t o a 20"x24" p i e c e of c o n s t r u c t i o n p a p e r . 6. C r e a t e t h e drawing and d e s i g n s i n o i l p a s t e l . Complete w i t h a b l a c k tempera wash. Use a t h i n l a y e r of r o p l e x t o b r i n g out the c o l o r of t h e p a s t e l and t o p r o t e c t the p a p e r .  128  E v a l u a t i o n f o r Year  of t h e Horse  D i s p l a y a l l s t u d e n t ' s work. Have s t u d e n t s respond following questions:  to the  1. What f e e l i n g or meaning was e x p r e s s e d w i t h t h e symbols and d e s i g n s i n your h o r s e p i c t u r e ?  2. Has your c h o i c e of v i e w p o i n t ( c l o s e - u p or e n t i r e h o r s e ) to t h e meaning or f e e l i n g i n your p i c t u r e ?  3. What c u l t u r e or e r a i n h i s t o r y was e x p r e s s e d ? the c o u n t r y and/or c e n t u r y of t h e horse drawing.  e.g.:  added  name  4. What was t h e most i n t e r e s t i n g t h i n g t h a t you l e a r n e d by looking at other c u l t u r e s through horses? ( S l i d e s of h o r s e s from the S m i t h s o n i a n I n s t i t u t e and t h e U n i c o r n T a p e s t r i e s from P a r i s ) .  5. What was t h e most i n t e r e s t i n g the h o r s e books?  t h i n g you l e a r n e d i n l o o k i n g a t  6.  What d i d you enjoy t h e most about  7.  What d i d you enjoy t h e l e a s t  about  this  this  project?  project?  129 X I I . Appendix E Visuals  130  2. Cynara's "Racism" shoe shows s i c k n e s s , p o v e r t y , v i c e , hate and racism by t h e d i r t y c o l o r s she chose. Hope i s a c l e a n , b r i g h t y e l l o w .  3.  Sketches from S t i l l  L i f e w i t h Mask  132  4. Farzana's " S t i l l L i f e w i t h Mask". She used t h e mask from t h e s t i l l l i f e and N a t i v e I n d i a n books because they symbolize t h e a r t i s t s f e e l i n g s and i d e a s .  133  5. Cynara's " S t i l l L i f e w i t h Mask". She used t h e f l a t p a t t e r n s from the Jamaican c l o t h and animated t h e yellow f i g u r e . She p r e s e n t s t h r e e d i f f e r e n t f a c e s o f a mask.  Horse, Smithsonian  Institute  135  7.  Horse, Smithsonian  Institute  136  8.  U n i c o r n T a p e s t r y , Musee de Cluny,  Paris  137  9. Jenny's "Joy" expresses the j o y o f people and l i f e through the Mexican p a t t e r n s . Jenny was p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t e d i n the how the people hand-made t h e i r rugs and shawls.  138  10. Farzana's "The R i s e of the Horse". The p a t t e r n s symbolize the new l i f e of the horse and are s p i r i t u a l i n design.  139  11. Yoonhee's "Anger". She i s angry about war and uses h i s t o r i c a l d e s i g n s and a r c h i t e c t u r e from France. T h i s p i c t u r e r e f l e c t s a f e e l i n g of the times i n France about war.  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0100625/manifest

Comment

Related Items