UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Troubling modernity : spatial politics, technologies of seeing and the crisis of the city and the World's… Barenscott, Dorothy 2007

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T R O U B L I N G M O D E R N I T Y : S P A T I A L POLITICS, T E C H N O L O G I E S OF SEEING, A N D T H E CRISIS OF T H E C I T Y A N D T H E W O R L D ' S E X H I B I T I O N IN FIN D E SIECLE B U D A P E S T  by DOROTHY L Y L Y JULIANNA BARENSCOTT B . A . , Okanagan University College, 1999 Diploma in Art History, University of British Columbia, 2000 M . A . , University of British Columbia, 2002 y  A THESIS S U B M I T T E D IN P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T OF T H E R E Q U I R E M E N T S F O R T H E D E G R E E OF D O C T O R OF P H I L O S O P H Y  in T H E F A C U L T Y OF G R A D U A T E STUDIES  (Fine Arts)  T H E U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A October 2007  © Dorothy L y l y Julianna Barenscott  11  ABSTRACT Conflicts and concerns around representing ethnic, class, and national identities within the context o f modern national ideologies have come to the fore i n recent years. Yet these same problems were current and actively being negotiated in the nineteenth century in Central and Eastern Europe's Austro-Hungarian Empire. This dissertation takes as its focus the role o f visuality, new technologies, and social space in the articulation o f competing identities in fin de siecle Budapest, Hungary. In 1896 the city hosted a Millennial Exhibition designed to simultaneously celebrate the history of the Hungarian people and the entry o f Hungary into the larger European world economy. But, preparations within  the city o f Budapest itself—urban  modernization, a state o f the art transportation system, new architectural projects, and the design of mass entertainments—argued in different ways for Hungary's legitimacy as a progressive and modern state within the broader jurisdiction represented by the ruling Austrian Hapsburgs, and the imperial capital o f Vienna. M y thesis explores how different forms o f mobility and circulation within both the shifting urban fabric o f the city o f Budapest, and the officially sanctioned spaces o f its World's Fair, played a key role in re-defining Hungary's status under imperial rule. The four chapters o f the dissertation which focus at their broadest level on the reordering o f the spaces o f the city, panorama spectacles, photography, and early cinema, thus consider the ways in which new modes of subjectivity, embodied vision and media forms, in dialogue with nationhood, gave form to a complex set o f social and political tensions and debates at the time o f the international exhibition.  Ill  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Abstract  ii  Table of Contents  iii  List of Illustrations  vi  List o f Maps  xxiii  Acknowledgements  xxiv  Dedication  xxv  INTRODUCTION The Modern City as Catalyst for National Reconfiguration and Resistance  1 8  The Urban Mediascape: Preparing To See and Preparing To Be Seen  13  Critical Geography, Contested Subjectivity, and the Policy o f Magyarization  14  Re-Envisioning Frameworks o f Modernity, Tradition, and Visual Culture  22  CHAPTER ONE: Built Space, Style, and the Dis/ordering of Fin de Siecle Budapest  29  Budapest's Nineteenth Century Urban Fabric: L i n k i n g Technology and Culture  35  Andrassy Avenue and the Sightlines o f Budapest  45  The "Paradigmatic Urban Ensemble" and the Constraints o f Dualism  55  Architectural Compromise and the Hungarian Parliament Building  57  iv  Budapest's Underground Subway and the " M o v i n g Street"  68  The Language of Nation and Hungary's Museum of Applied Arts  72  Conclusion: The Problem of Reception—A Troubling Modernity  80  CHAPTER TWO: Topographies of Contested Power, Technologies of Embodied Perception—The Painted Panorama Made Modern. The Panorama's Appeal: Tracing a History to Budapest  The Reception of the Feszty Panorama: Locating a "Magyar" Discourse  85 94  100  Contested Space and Embodied Visuality: Activating a N e w K i n d of "Seeing"  109  Negotiating Arpad: Imperial Catholic Ruler or Indigenous Liberal Nomad?  116  The Question of Space, Perspective, and Virtuality: Nomadology as Politics  124  Technological Mastery, the Modern Moment, and Future Faith  135  Conclusion: Whose Medium, What Function?  143  CHAPTER THREE: Trafficking in Photographs—Representational Power and the Latent Hydra of Revolution  146  Lajos Kossuth and the Legacy of Radical Liberalism  152  "Kossuth Fever" i n America, Kosssuth i n the International Eye  160  Conflicted Representation of a Revolutionary  166  The Photographer as Patriot—The Photograph as Revolutionary  171  Private Mourning, Public Ritual, and the Cult of Kossuth  179  The Power o f Proliferation: Reordered Power and the 1896 Millennial Exhibition  187  Mobility, Capital Expansion, and the Economy o f the F i n de Siecle Photograph  192  Conclusion: Reconfiguring Understandings o f Truth, Solidarity and Identity  200  C H A P T E R F O U R : " L i f e : C a u g h t i n the A c t ! " M o b i l i z i n g B u d a p e s t ' s C i n e m a t i c G a z e . . . 2 0 3  The Cinematograph as Emerging National Eye: Expanding N e w Spaces o f Publicity...208  Reappraising Early Cinema Historiography and Spectatorship  222  The Radical Potential o f Budapest's Early Cinema  230  Tracing the Story o f Hungarian F i l m Exhibitor Arnold Sziklai  237  Conclusion: Contingency and the Deterritorialized Structures o f Modern Life  247  C O N C L U S I O N : U r b a n Modernity's Janus Face  251  Bibliography  261  Appendix  294  Maps  302  Illustrations  307  vi  LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS INTRODUCTION 1.1 Detailed M a p o f the Budapest Millennial Exhibition o f 1896 (1896). Illustrated Fold-out M a p . Jozsef Vasarhelyi. A z Ezredevi Kiallitas (The Millennial Exhibition). Debrecen: Gonczy-egyelet, 1896  307  1.2 Arthur Heyer, The Millennial Exhibition Grounds (1896). Illustration. Reprinted in Gyula Laurencic. A z ezereves Magyarorszag es a milleniumikiallitas (The Millennium o f Hungary and the National Exhibition). Budapest: Kunosy V i l m o s 1896  308  1.3 Unknown Illustrator, Scenes from Hungary's 1896 Millennial Exhibition Grounds (1896). Colour Illustration in Morice Gelleri. The Millennial Realm o f Hungary; Its Past and Present. Budapest: Kosmos, 1896  309  1.4 Unknown Illustrator, Section from map o f Budapest (1896). Illustrated Antiquarian M a p . Owned by author  310  1.5-6 Unknown Illustrator, Book Cover, Lenkei, Henrik. A Mulato Budapest (Budapest's Amusements). In Hungarian and French Editions. Budapest: Singer-Wolfner, 1896  311  1.7 Lipot Kellner, Constantinople in Budapest (1896). Lithographic Print. Budapest Collection, Metropolitan E r v i n Szabo Library  312  1.8 "Constantinople in Budapest" (1896). Newspaper Advertisement. Reprinted in Vasdrnapi Ujsdg (IllustratedSunday  News) 43.29 1896  312  1.9 Unknown Illustrator, Orient Express Advertisement (c.l890's). Poster. Accessed from Wikimedia Commons Free Domain Images http://commons.wikimedia.Org/wiki/Image:Aff_ciwl orient express4 jw.jpg  313  vn 1.10 Unknown Illustrator, "Complaints Against Wires" (1896). Newspaper Illustration. Fovdrosi Lapok, 28 June 1896  314  1.11 Unknown Photographer, The Gypsy Camp at the Exhibition (1896). Photograph. Reprinted in G y u l a Laurencic. A z ezereves Magyarorszag es a milleniumikiallitas (The Millennium of Hungary and the National Exhibition). Budapest: Kunosy V i l m o s 1896  315  CHAPTER ONE  1.1 David Karoly, Roof-Raising Ceremony of Parliament on M a y 5, 1894 (1894). Photograph. K i s c e l l Collection, Budapest History Museum  316  1.2 Gyorgy Klosz,, Parliament Building (c.l900's). Photograph. Budapest Collection, Metropolitan E r v i n Szabo Library  317  1.3 Gyorgy K l o s z , Construction for N e w Metro Station (1896). Photograph. Reprinted in Vasdrnapi Ujsdg (Illustrated Sunday News) 43.17 1896  318  1.4 Unknown Photographer, Parliament Building with Buda H i l l s and R o y a l Castle in Background (1930). Photograph. Budapest Collection, Metropolitan E r v i n Szabo Library  319  1.5 Unknown Producer, Lajos Kossuth (c.l850-60's). Photograph o f lithograph by Prinzhofer. Library o f Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D . C  320  1.6 Unknown Artist, Jellasics Crosses the Chain Bridge (1849). Lithographic Print. Budapest Collection, Metropolitan Ervin Szabo Library  321  1.7 Unknown Artist, V i e w of Buda and Pest (c. 1859-70). Lithographic Print. Budapest Collection, Metropolitan Ervin Szabo Library  321  1.8 Weinwurm Brothers, Chain Bridge (c. 1870). Daguerreotype. Budapest Collection, Metropolitan Ervin Szabo Library  322  1.9 Gyorgy K l o s z , Andrassy Avenue, V i e w from Opera House towards City Grove (c.1890). Photograph. Budapest Collection, Metropolitan E r v i n Szabo Library  323  1.10 Gyorgy K l o s z , V i e w o f City Grove (c.1890). Photograph. Budapest Collection, Metropolitan Ervin Szabo Library  324  1.11 Budapest Municipal Planners, Plan for Sugar (later Andrassy) Avenue (1870). Drawing. Budapest Collection, Metropolitan Ervin Szabo Library  325  1.12 Hungarian National Railway, Railway Lines In and Out o f Budapest (1896). Diagram. Reprinted in Aladar, E d v i Illes. Budapest Muszaki Utmutatoja (Technical Guide to Budapest). Budapest: Patria Irodalmi es N y o m d a i Reszvenytarsasag, 1896  326  1.13 M o r Erdelyi. The Danube Promenade (c.1900). Photograph. Budapest Collection, Metropolitan E r v i n Szabo Library  327  1.14 Karoly Divald. V i e w from B u d a (c.1900). Photograph. Budapest Collection, Metropolitan E r v i n Szabo Library  328  1.15 Gyorgy K l o s z , Cafe Reitter on Andrassy Avenue Opposite the Opera House (1896). Photograph. K i s c e l l Collection, Budapest History Museum  329  1.16 Unknown Producer, Vienna Parliament (c.1890-1900). Photochrome Print. Accessed from Wikimedia Commons Free Domain Images http://commons.wikimedia.Org/wiki/lmage:Wien Parlament urn 1900.jpg  330  1.17 Unknown Photographer, Berlin Reichstag (c.1900). Photograph. Accessed from Wikimedia Commons Free Domain Images http://commons.wikimedia.Org/wiki/Image:Berlin Reichstag mit Bismarck.jpg  331  ix 1.18 Unknown Photographer, Palace o f Westminster in London (c. 1880-1900). Photograph. Accessed from Wikimedia Commons Free Domain Images http://commons.wikimedia.Org/wiki/Image:Westminster.ipg  332  1.19 Unknown Photographer Original Canadian Parliament (before 1916 fire) (c. 1870). Photograph. Accessed from Wikimedia Commons Free Domain Images http://commons.wikimedia.Org/wiki/Image:Original Canadian_parliament.jpg  333  1.20 Steindl, Imre. Plan for Hungarian Parliament (1884). Drawing. Reprinted in Gabor Eszter ed. A z Orszag Haza. House o f the Nation: Parliament Plans for Buda-Pest 1784-1884 (Budapest: Budapest Museum of Fine Arts, 2000), 247  334  1.21 Steindl, Imre. Plan for Hungarian Parliament (1884). Drawing. Reprinted in Jozsef Sisa. Steindl Imre (Budapest: Holnap Kiado, 2005), 128  335  1.22 Tisza Lajos, "What Should the N e w Parliament B e L i k e ? " (1884). Newspaper Illustration. Bolond Istok (Crazed Stephen) 11 M a y 1884  336  1.23 Gyorgy K l o s z , Construction o f Underground Subway on Andrassy Avenue (1894). Photograph. Hungarian National Museum Photography Archives  337  1.24 Unknown Photographer, Budapest Subway (1899). Photograph. Reprinted i n George C . Crocker "The Passenger Traffic o f Boston and the Subway." The N e w England Magazine 14. no. 5 (1899): 536  338  1.25 " M a p o f Budapest Subway L i n e " (1896). Drawing. Budapest Metro Museum  339  1.26 Albert Schickedanz and Fulop Herzog, Station o f the M i l l e n n i a l Underground (1896). Illustration. Reprinted in A Golden Age: Art and Society i n Hungary 1896-1914, edited by Gyongyi E r i and Zsuzsa Jobbagyi. (London: Barbican A r t Gallery, 1990), 11  340  1.27 Unknown Photographer, Millennial Underground at Heroes' Square (c.1930). Photograph. Accessed from Wikimedia Commons Free Domain Images http://commons. wikimedia. org/wiki/Image: Mfav ground. i p g  341  1.28 Siemens and Halske, Franz Joseph Underground Subway (c.1894). Illustration. Budapest Metro Museum  342  1.29 Gyorgy K l o s z , N e w A r t Gallery/Exhibition Hall (c.1896). Photograph. Budapest Collection, Metropolitan Ervin Szabo Library  343  1.30-1.31 Odon Lechner, Plans for Museum o f Applied Arts (c.1894). Drawings. Reprinted i n Janos Gerle. Lechner Odon. (Budapest: Holnap Kiado, 2003), 136-137  344  1.32 Gyorgy K l o s z , Street V i e w o f Budapest's Museum o f A p p l i e d Arts (c.1896). Photograph. Budapest Collection, Metropolitan Ervin Szabo Library  345  1.33 Antal Weinwurm, Building Budapest's Museum o f Applied Arts (1894). Photograph. Reprinted i n Janos Gerle. Lechner Odon. (Budapest: Holnap Kiado, 2003), 138  346  1.34-1.36 Exterior V i e w s o f Budapest's Museum o f Applied Arts (2005). Photographs by author  347  1.37-1.39 Interior V i e w s o f Budapest's Museum o f Applied Arts (2005). Photographs by author  348  1.40 V i l m o s Zsolnay, "Furniture Mount in the Millennial Style from Office o f Prime Minister i n Hungarian Parliament Building" (1896). Ceramic-Reprinted i n E v a Csenkey, Agota Steinert, and Bard Graduate Center for Studies in the Decorative Arts Design and Culture. Hungarian Ceramics from the Zsolnay Manufactory, 1853-2001. (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2002), 189  349  xi CHAPTER TWO  2.1 Gyorgy Zala and Albert Schickedanz, Millennial Monument Design Plans (1894). Aquarelle on carton. Reproduced in A Golden Age: Art and Society in Hungary 1896-1914, edited by Gyongyi E r i and Zsuzsa Jobbagyi. (London: Barbican A r t Gallery, 1990), 11  350  2.2 Miliary Munkacsy, Conquest (1896). O i l painting on canvas (459 x 1855 cm). Hungarian Parliament Building  351  2.3 Anonymous, Arpad Feszty posing in front of the panorama (c.1894). Photograph. Budapest Collection, Metropolitan Ervin Szabo Library  352  2.4 Gyorgy K l o s z , Feszty Panorama Rotunda in City Grove (1895). Photograph. Budapest Collection, Metropolitan Ervin Szabo Library  2.5  Arpad Feszty, Arrival  353  o f the Conquering Hungarians (1894). Panorama,  oil painting on canvas (15 x 120 meters). Hungarian National Historical Memorial Park. Panorama reproduced as a colour postcard series photographed by Enyedi Zoltan, Hungarian National Historical Memorial Park (2001), postcard 1  2.6  Arpad Feszty, A r r i v a l  354  of the Conquering Hungarians (1894). Panorama,  oil painting on canvas. Hungarian National Historical Memorial Park. Panorama reproduced as a colour postcard series photographed by Enyedi Zoltan, Hungarian National Historical Memorial Park (2001), postcard 2  2.7  Arpad Feszty, Arrival  355  o f the Conquering Hungarians (1894). Panorama,  oil painting on canvas. Hungarian National Historical Memorial Park. Panorama reproduced as a colour postcard series photographed by Enyedi Zoltan, Hungarian National Historical Memorial Park (2001), postcard 3  356  xii 2.8  Arpad Feszty, Arrival  o f the Conquering Hungarians (1894). Panorama,  oil painting on canvas. Hungarian National Historical Memorial Park. Panorama reproduced as a colour postcard series photographed by Enyedi Zoltan, Hungarian National Historical Memorial Park (2001), postcard 4  2.9  Arpad Feszty. Arrival  357  of the Conquering Hungarians (1894). Panorama,  oil painting on canvas. Hungarian National Historical Memorial Park. Panorama reproduced as a colour postcard series photographed by Enyedi Zoltan, Hungarian National Historical Memorial Park (2001), postcard 5  2.10  Arpad Feszty, Arrival  358  of the Conquering Hungarians (1894). Panorama,  oil painting on canvas. Hungarian National Historical Memorial Park. Panorama reproduced as a colour postcard series photographed by Enyedi Zoltan, Hungarian National Historical Memorial Park (2001), postcard 6  2.11  Arpad Feszty, Arrival  359  o f the Conquering Hungarians (1894). Panorama,  oil painting on canvas. Hungarian National Historical Memorial Park. Panorama reproduced as a colour postcard series photographed by Enyedi Zoltan, Hungarian National Historical Memorial Park (2001), postcard 7  2.12  Arpad Feszty, Arrival  360  of the Conquering Hungarians (1894). Panorama,  oil painting on canvas. Hungarian National Historical Memorial Park. Panorama reproduced as a colour postcard series photographed by Enyedi Zoltan, Hungarian National Historical Memorial Park (2001), postcard 8  2.13  Arpad Feszty, Arrival  361  of the Conquering Hungarians (1894). Panorama,  oil painting on canvas. Hungarian National Historical Memorial Park. Panorama reproduced as a colour postcard series photographed by Enyedi Zoltan, Hungarian National Historical Memorial Park (2001), postcard 9  362  xiii 2.14  Arpad Feszty, Arrival  of the Conquering Hungarians (1894). Panorama,  oil painting on canvas. Hungarian National Historical Memorial Park. Panorama reproduced as a colour postcard series photographed by Enyedi Zoltan, Hungarian National Historical Memorial Park (2001), postcard 10  2.15 Generic Diagram o f Panorama Platform.  363  Arpad Szucs and Malgorzata Wojtowicz.  A Feszty Korkep (The Feszty Panorama). (Budapest: Helokon, 1996), 3  364  2.16 Edouard Detaille and Alphonse de Neuville, Battle o f Champigny (1879). Detail o f Panorama, o i l painting on canvas (121 x 215 cm). N e w Y o r k Metropolitan Museum o f Art.  365  2.17 Photographer Unknown, Mihary Munkacsy's Conquest in the Upper House o f Parliament (c.1900). Photograph. Budapest Museum o f History  366  2.18 Unknown Producer, A Thousand Years o f Statehood (1896). Colour Poster. National Szechenyi Library, Budapest  367  2.19 Lajos Deak-Ebner, Hungaria (1896). Colour Poster. Reproduced i n A Golden Age: A r t and Society in Hungary 1896-1914, edited by Gyongyi E r i and Zsuzsa Jobbagyi. (London: Barbican Art Gallery, 1990), 46  368  2.20 Unknown Illustrator, A nemzetkozi parlamenti ertekezlet (The International Parliament Meeting) (1896). Newspaper Illustration.Budapest: Illustrated Political News 25 September 1896, Front Cover  369  2.21 Janos Thorma, Martyrs o f Arad (1893-96). O i l painting on canvas (350 x 633 cm). Hungarian National Gallery  370  2.22 Bela Grunwald, Comeback After the Tatar Invasion (1896). O i l painting on canvas (dimensions unknown). Hungarian National Gallery  371  xiv 2.23 Unknown Illustrator, The Arrival o f the Hungarians (1896). Newspaper Illustration. Herko Pater 26 July 1896  372  2.24 Unknown Illustrator, Molnar and Trill's Panorama o f Dante's H e l l (1896). Illustration. Reprinted in Gyula Laurencic. A z ezereves Magyarorszag es a milleniumikiallitas (The Millennium o f Hungary and the National Exhibition). Budapest: Kunosy V i l m o s 1896  373  2.25 Jan Styka, Panorama o f the Battle o f Raclawice (1893-94). Panorama, o i l painting on canvas (15 x 120 meters). Raclawice Rotunda, Wroclaw Poland. Reproduced in Beata Stragierowicz. Panorama i panoramy (The Panorama and Panoramas). Translated by Jan Rudzki. (Wroclaw: National Museum, Wroclaw, 2005), 23  374  2.26 Unknown Photographer, Pusztaszer Memorial Monument (1896). Photograph. Budapest Museum o f Trade and Catering  375  2.27 Jan Styka and Pal Vago, The Battle of Sibiu or Bern and Petofi in Transylvania (1897). Panorama, o i l painting on canvas (original dimensions unknown). Sections in museum and private collections throughout Europe. Images reproduced on Jasz-Nagykun-Szolnok County Museum, Hungary website: http://www.djm.hu/archiv/erdely.html  376  2.28-2.29 Jan Styka and Pal Vago, The Battle of Sibiu or Bern and Petofi in Transylvania (1897). Panorama, o i l painting on canvas. Sections in private collections throughout Europe. Image reproduced on Museum o f Tarnow, Poland website: http://www.muzeum.tarnow.pl/panorama/panorama.html  377  2.30 Philipp Fleischer, The Franz Joseph Jubilee Panorama (c. 1898). Panorama, oil painting on canvas (original dimensions unknown). Painting lost or destroyed. Photographic image o f original from 1898 Leipzig newspaper reprinted in Stephan Oettermann. The Panorama: A History o f a Mass Medium (New York: Zone Books, 1997), 308  378  XV  CHAPTER THREE  3.1 Unknown Photographer, Kossuth L y i n g in State in Torino Italy (1894). Photograph. Reprinted in Vasarnapi Ujsag (Illustrated Sunday News) 41.14 1894  379  3.2 Unknown Artist, Defeating the Hydra of Revolution (1851). Lithographic Print. Unknown Vienna Archive. Reprinted in Robert Herman. "Lajos Kossuth." In  Fact Sheets  on Hungary. Budapest: Ministry o f Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Hungary, 2002  380  3.3 Unknown Illustrator, " Y o u Can't Pass Here!" (1851). Newspaper Illustration. Punch, or The London Charivari vol. 21, 1851  381  3.4 Unknown Artist, Grand Reception of Kossuth in N e w York, "The Champion of Hungarian Independence" at the City H a l l , N e w York, December 6th 1851 (1851). Lithographic Print. Library o f Congress Prints and Photographs D i v i s i o n Washington, D . C  382  3.5 Unknown Artist, Arrival o f Kossuth at the Southampton Docks, England (1851). Lithographic Print after wood engraving. Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D . C  383  3.6 Unknown Artist, Kossuth Enters the Park in N e w Y o r k in 1851 (1851). Lithographic Print. Library o f Congress Prints and Photographs D i v i s i o n Washington, D . C  383  3.7 Unknown Producer, Lajos Kossuth (c.l850-60's). Photograph o f lithograph by Prinzhofer. Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D . C  384  3.8 Unknown Photographer, Lajos Kossuth (c.l860's). Photograph. Reprinted in Merenyi Hajnalka. "The Pulszky Salon" Budapest Negyed 46.4 (2004)  3.9 F . L . Claudet, The Exiled Kossuth (1851). Daguerreotype. Reprinted in Beatrix Basics.  Kossuth Laios (1802-1894). Budapest: Kossuth Kiado, 2002  385  XVI  3.10 N . Currier, Kossuth and His Family (1851). Colour Lithographic Print after Daguerreotype by Claudet o f London. Reprinted in Robert Herman. "Lajos Kossuth." In Fact Sheets on Hungary. Budapest: Ministry o f Foreign Affairs o f the Republic of Hungary, 2002  386  3.11-3.12 Gustave Courbet, The Painter's Studio, A Real Allegory Summarizing M y Seven Years o f Life as an Artist. (1854-1855). O i l painting on canvas (361 x 598 cm). Musee d'Orsay, Paris  387  3.13 V i l m a Parlaghy, Kossuth Lajos (1885). O i l painting on canvas (175 x 126 cm). Private Collection. Reprinted in Syekfu, Gyula. " A z 6reg Kossuth, 1867-1894 (The Elder Kossuth)." In Emlekkonyv Kossuth Lajos sziiletesenek 150. evfordulojara (Essays in Memory o f Lajos Kossuth's 150th Anniversary) edited by Magyar Tortenelmi Tarsulat, 341-433. Budapest: Akademiai Kiado, 1952  388  3.14 Schemboche, Kossuth's Office in Turin (1894). Photograph. Reprinted as a steel print engraving in "Louis Kossuth" L'Illustration 31 March 1894  389  3.15 M o r Erdelyi, Kossuth L y i n g in State at Hungarian National Museum (1894). Photograph. Budapest Collection, Metropolitan Ervin Szabo Library  3.16 Gyorgy K l o s z , Kossuth's Funeral on A p r i l 1  st  390  (1894). Photograph.  Budapest Collection, Metropolitan E r v i n Szabo Library  391  3.17 Gyorgy K l o s z , Kossuth Funeral Procession on Grand Boulevard (1894). Photograph. Budapest Collection, Metropolitan Ervin Szabo Library  391  3.18 M o r Erdelyi, Kossuth's Grave (1894). Photograph. Budapest Collection, Metropolitan Ervin Szabo Library  392  3.19-22 M o r Erdelyi, Kossuth Funeral Procession (Series) (1894). Photograph. Budapest Collection, Metropolitan Ervin Szabo Library  393  xvii  3.23 M o r Erdelyi, Waiting for Kossuth's B o d y ' s Return to Budapest at Western Railway Station (1894). Photograph. Budapest Collection, Metropolitan Ervin Szabo Library  394  3.24 M o r Erdelyi, Paying Respects to Kossuth at Hungarian National Museum (1894). Photograph. Budapest Collection, Metropolitan Ervin Szabo Library  395  3.25 M o r Erdelyi, Watching Over Kossuth's Casket (1894). Photograph. Budapest Collection, Metropolitan Ervin Szabo Library  395  3.26-3.27 M o r Erdelyi, Paying Respects to Kossuth at Hungarian National Museum and Watching Over Kossuth's Casket (1894). Photographs. Reprinted as steel plate engravings in L e Monde Illustre 14 A p r i l 1894  3.28 Karoly Divald, Gathering Crowd on March 15  396  th  for Anniversary o f 1848 Revolution  (1894). Photograph. Reprinted as a steel plate engraving i n "Louis Kossuth" LTllustration31 March 1894  397  3.29 M o r Erdelyi, Kossuth's Funeral in Budapest (1894). Photograph. Reprinted as a steel plate engraving in "Louis Kossuth" L'Illustration 14 A p r i l 1894  397  3.30-3.31 "Louis Kossuth" L'Illustration 31 March 1894  398  3.32 A . W . , One o f the People's Saints for the Calendar o f Liberty 1852 (1852). Lithographic Print. Library o f Congress Prints and Photographs D i v i s i o n Washington, D . C  399  3.33 Front Page, Vasarnapi Ujsag (Illustrated Sunday News) 41.14 1894  400  3.34 Gyorgy K l o s z , The O l d Stock Exchange Building (c.1873). Photograph. Budapest Collection, Metropolitan Ervin Szabo Library  401  xviii 3.35 Gyorgy K l o s z , Budapest Street Scene (1894-95). Photograph. Budapest Collection, Metropolitan E r v i n Szabo Library  402  3.36 Gyorgy K l o s z , Electric Tram Y a r d (c.1890) Photograph. Budapest Collection, Metropolitan Ervin Szabo Library  403  3.37 Gyorgy K l o s z , Blasting for the First Shaft of the Iron Gate (1890). Photograph. Hungarian National Museum  403  3.38.-3.39 Cover and Sample Inside Pages. Gyula Laurencic. A z ezereves Magyarorszag es a milleniumikiallitas (The Millennium o f Hungary and the National Exhibition). Budapest: Kunosy V i l m o s 1896  404  3.40-3.41 Examples of the Kossuth Dollar in English and Hungarian Printings. Reprinted in Istvan Sinkovics, "Onallo Magyar Bankjegy (The Independant Hungarian Banknote)." In Emlekkonyv Kossuth Lajos sztiletesenek 150. evfordulojara (Essays in Memory of Lajos Kossuth's 150th Anniversary), edited by Magyar Tortenelmi Tarsulat, 114-73. Budapest: Akademiai Kiado, 1952  405  3.42 Cover, Kepes Kossuth naptar (Illustrated Kossuth Calander) (1896). Day Calendar. Budapest Collection, Metropolitan Ervin Szabo Library  406  3.43 Unknown Producer, Kossuth Souvenir Postcard (c.1909). Postcard. Reprinted in Robert Herman. "Lajos Kossuth." In Fact Sheets on Hungary. Budapest: Ministry o f Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Hungary, 2002  407  3.44 Gyorgy K l o s z , M i l l e n n i u m Exhibition Opening (1896). Photograph. Budapest Collection, Metropolitan Ervin Szabo Library  408  xix CHAPTER FOUR  4.1 F i l m Stills from the First Ten Lumiere Films Debuted at the Salon Indien du Grand Cafe in Paris on December 28, 1895 with Accompanying Program. Reproduced on the Institut Lumiere website: http ://www. institut-lumiere .org/english/frames .html  409  4.2 Unknown Photographer, O l d B u d a Castle Cabaret (1896). Photograph. Budapest Collection, Metropolitan E r v i n Szabo Library  410  4.3 Detailed M a p o f the Budapest Millennial Exhibition o f 1896 (Close up o f O l d Buda Castle Cabaret Location) (1896). Illustrated Fold-out M a p . Jozsef Vasarhelyi. A z Ezredevi Kiallitas (The Millennial Exhibition). Debrecen: Gonczy-egyelet, 1896  410  4.4 Gyorgy K l o s z , O l d Buda Castle Cabaret (1896). Photograph. Budapest Collection, Metropolitan Ervin Szabo Library  411  4.5 Unknown Illustrator, Begreiflich (Understandable) (1896). Newspaper Illustration. Kikeriki 48, 14 June 1896)  412  4.6 Unknown Illustrator, Szep esmenyek a millennium kiiszoben (Nice Episodes on the Threshold o f the Millennium) (1896). Illustrated Cartoon, Herko Pater, 19 A p r i l 1896  413  4.7 Unknown Illustrator, N e m ugy van ma, mint volt regen, mas csillagzat jar az egen [Today is not like it was long ago, another prophecy lies in the stars (1896). Illustrated Cartoon, Herko Pater, February 23 1896  414  4.8 Advertisement Page from Pesti Naplo (Pest Daily) 24 M a y 1896  415  4.9 Lumiere Brothers, "Gardener Waters Garden" in The Gardener (1895). F i l m Still. Institut Lumiere  XX  4.10 Lumiere Brothers, " Y o u n g M a n Sneaks U p " in The Gardener (1895). F i l m Still. Institut Lumiere  416  4.11 Lumiere Brothers, " Y o u n g M a n Stops F l o w o f Water" i n The Gardener (1895). Film Still. Institut Lumiere  417  4.12 Lumiere Brothers, "Gardener Examines Hose" in The Gardener (1895). F i l m Still. Institut Lumiere  417  4.13 Lumiere Brothers, "Gardener Blasted in Face with Water" i n The Gardener (1895). F i l m Still. Institut Lumiere  418  4.14 Lumiere Brothers, "Gardener Grabs Y o u n g M a n " i n The Gardener (1895). F i l m Still. Institut Lumiere  418  4.15 Lumiere Brothers, "Gardener Makes Young M a n Look at Hose" i n The Gardener (1895). F i l m Still. Institut Lumiere  419  4.16 Lumiere Brothers, "Gardener Spanks Young M a n " i n The Gardener (1895). F i l m Still. Institut Lumiere  419  4.17 Lumiere Brothers, "Gardener Returns to W o r k " in The Gardener (1895). F i l m Still. Institut Lumiere  420  4.18 Lumiere Brothers, " Y o u n g M a n Looks Directly at Audience" i n The Gardener (1895). F i l m Still. Institut Lumiere  420  4.19 Unknown Illustrator, A kiraly az uj mucsarnokban (The K i n g Visits the N e w Art Museum) (18961. Newspaper Illustration. Budapest: Illustrated Political News 6 M a y 1896, Front Cover  421  xxi 4.20 Unknown Illustrator, A fovaros titkaibol (From the City's secrets] (1896). Newspaper Illustration. Budapest: Illustrated Political News 8 August 1896, Front Cover  422  4.21 Unknown Illustrator, Remes vasuti akadaly (Horrible Railway Accident) (1896). Newspaper Illustration. Budapest: Illustrated Political News 25 July 1896, Front Cover  422  4.22 Unknown Illustrator, A lezuhant siklo (The Collapsed Furnicular) (1896). Newspaper Illustration. Budapest: Illustrated Political News 20 June 1896, Front Cover  423  4.23 Unknown Illustrator, A kerekpar halottja (The Bicycle's V i c t i m ) (1896). Newspaper Illustration. Budapest: Illustrated Political News 31 October 1896, Front Cover  423  4.24 Unknown Illustrator, A moszkvai veres koronazas (The Bloody M o s c o w Coronation) (1896). Newspaper Illustration. Budapest: Illustrated Political News 21 June 1896, Inside Cover  424  4.25 Unknown Illustrator, Kubai folkelok harca (Cuban Uprising) (1896). Newspaper Illustration. Budapest: Illustrated Political News 23 M a y 1896, Front Cover  424  4.26 Unknown Illustrator, Veres valasztas (Bloody Elections) (1896). Newspaper Illustration. Budapest: Illustrated Political News 24 October 1896, Front Cover  425  4.27 Unknown Illustrator, Hare valastok es huszarok kozt (Among the Election Rioters and Police) (1896). Newspaper Illustration. Budapest: Illustrated Political News 30 October 1896, Front Cover  425  CONCLUSION  C . l Richard Harding Davis, "Yankee City o f the O l d W o r l d " (1897). Newspaper Article. The Washington Post 28 February 1897  426  xxn  C.2 Nineteenth Century Photographs B l o w n U p A s Posters i n Budapest Street Walkways (2005). Photograph by author  427  C.3 Unknown Photographer (for Reuters), Thousands Peacefully Protest i n Budapest Against Hungarian P M (2006) Digital Photograph. A B C N e w s 24 September 2006. Accessed Online: http://www.abc.net.au/news/newsitems/200609/sl747334.htm  428  C.4 Leonhard Foeger (for Reuters), Protestors March in Budapest Against L y i n g Gyurcsany ( P M ) (2006) Digitial Photograph. Time Magazine 24 September 2006. Accessed Online: http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0.9171.1538604,00.html  428  xxiii LIST OF M A P S Map 1: Architectural and Urban Planning Features o f Nineteenth Century Budapest  302  Map 2: Panorama and Painting Exhibition in Budapest (1894-1896)  303  Map 3: Procession o f Lajos Kossuth's Funeral and Areas Photographed (1894)  304  Map 4: Cinema Screenings and Theatres in Budapest During 1896 Fair  305  Map 5: Overlay o f Maps 1-4  306  xxiv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  For her constant support, encouragement, and insightful observations, I would like to thank my main advisor, teacher, and mentor Dr. Maureen Ryan—an individual from whom I have truly learned to read visual images and ask questions that provoke and push boundaries beyond the expected and predictable. I also credit her for instilling i n me a true love o f nineteenth century art, and the ability to both share and teach about the passion for new ideas to others. I would also like to thank my thesis committee, most notably Dr. John O ' B r i a n , to whom I owe a great debt o f gratitude for first encouraging me to pursue studies in the Department o f Art History, Visual A r t , and Theory at U B C , and for providing the very best advice and guidance in every phase o f my graduate program. Thanks are also extended to Dr. Sherry M c K a y for her patience and key critical questions that pushed me to think about the spaces o f Budapest and the shifting contours o f its urban fabric in new ways. Outside o f my committee, I was also fortunate to have the input o f Dr. Serge Guilbaut in the early phases o f my research—many thanks to him for provocative discussions about film, humour, and the notion o f "failure" that shaped aspects o f the final chapter and conclusion o f this dissertation. This thesis was researched and written with the support o f a doctoral fellowship from Canada's Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council, and with the invaluable aid of a U B C A r t History Travel Research Scholarship. I am also indebted to the kindness and assistance of a number o f Budapest librarians, archivists, and technical support people who helped me to locate, gather and document much of the visual material that I have amassed for this project. Thanks as well to N i c k Neisingh for his amazing map making skills. Within my department, I would also like to acknowledge the graduate students and faculty who contributed to the debates and exchange o f ideas that informed aspects o f my research. In particular, I want to thank Lara Tomaszewska for her constant friendship, valuable support, and critical feedback, especially in the final phases and months o f this project, and also thank Martha Sesin for her ability to bring calm, perspective, and hope at some very difficult junctures o f my doctoral program. Last but not least, I want to thank my family and closest friends (a special thanks to my parents Maria and Levente Kovacs, and Cobi Falconer)—for supporting and providing me with the space and unconditional understanding to see this project through to completion. But most o f all, I want to thank my husband and life partner, Brian Barenscott, for believing in me and this project (and for many cups o f coffee, engaging discussions, and walks along our beloved Kitsilano Beach), and especially for supporting me in those fragile moments when I did not.  For Nagypapa with love— The first and most passionate historian o f Budapest that I ever had the pleasure of knowing.  1 Introduction: Budapest 1896—Re-Envisioning Frameworks of Modernity and Tradition Tradition, as a word we tend to take for granted as expressing a cultural value to be endorsed or rejected, is complicated by tradition as a concept, thus serving as a searchlight to illuminate the process, performance, and performativity whose subjects are seduced into realizing that they are doing the acting. - Mieke Bai, Cultural Theorist (2004)' Can we consider the modern as something existing—as something relatively expressive and important? We can say a decisive yes or no only when we answer the question whether our culture is really culture. — Gyorgy Lukacs, Hungarian Philosopher (1909) 2  The Budapest Millennial Exhibition opened to an international audience on M a y 2, 1896, and at first glance, all o f the expected attractions and features o f a nineteenth century World's Fair were present. Located in the second imperial city o f the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the six-month long exposition, while holding fast to the perceived expectations o f tourists new to the city, encompassed the full range o f predictable monuments to nation. Thus, readable statues o f ancient heroes, historical architecture and paintings, as well as markers o f the host nation's civilization, such as Hungary's newly completed neo-classical Palace o f A r t (modeled on the German Kunsthalle) and situated at the entrance to the fairgrounds, were offered up to visitors. Turning to an illustrated layout and map o f the official Fair (figs.1.1-1.2), the 3  visible traces o f exhibition organizers' attempts to exhibit Hungary's more public and readable "Western" face indeed manifested itself in a typical, i f not all together ordinary, nineteenth century exhibition. Here, visitors navigated officially sanctioned 4  spaces and beautifully manicured green space with a carefully detailed map that led them on foot or via the small park train through a series of clearly delineated ' Mieke Bai, "Zwarte Piet's Bai Masque," in Questions of Tradition, ed. Mark Phillips and Gordon J. Schochet (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2004), 145. 2  Originally quoted from Gyorgy Lukacs, A modern drama fejlodesenek tortenete (The History and  Development of Modern Drama) (Budapest: Magveto, 1911), 143, with the English translation taken from Margit Koves, "Anthropology in the Aesthetics of the Young Lukacs," Social Scientist 29, no. 7. 8 (2001): 72. Also known as the New Art Gallery (Mucsarnok), the building was completed in 1895 by architects Albert Schickedanz and Fiilbp Herzog and situated at the entrance of the Millennial Exhibition fairgrounds.  3  This was also reflected in foreign press accounts that praised Budapest officials for putting on a Fair up to Western standards. See for example: "Hungary's Great Celebration," New York Times, June 9 1896.  4  2 pavilions and points o f interest (fig.1.3). Temporarily staged in a large city park 5  located on the farthest edge o f Budapest's industrial district, the exhibition was also strategically located at the end o f the city's widest and most luxurious new boulevard and between the cities two largest train stations (fig.1.4). Modeling elements o f other similar W o r l d ' s Fairs and Universal Exposition venues dating back to London's Great Exhibition o f 1851, the Budapest Fair simultaneously displayed an assortment o f technological and industrial advancements along with a cross-section o f the Empire's cultural offerings. These, together with the requisite sprinkling o f amusements and a 6  spectacle or two thrown in for good measure, complied with the standard recipe for successful events of this type. Created with city visitors and tourists in mind, the International Exhibition's primary function was to familiarize and educate spectators with the broader themes of progress and modernity endorsed at the exposition, while normalizing the very same ideas within the context o f national advancement. In this sense as well, the Budapest Fair did not deviate very much from what was anticipated. But by the summer o f 1896, the focus o f popular and international interest increasingly coalesced around the city o f Budapest itself, and what could be described as more unofficial spaces of exhibition. One reason for this development was that the promotion and advertisements interesting fairgrounds.  attractions One  such  and  o f the city's most visually and technologically  entertainments  attraction  was  the  drew  public attention  much  anticipated  beyond  the  inauguration o f  Continental Europe's first electrically powered underground subway, an engineering marvel bisecting the newest part of an expanding metropolis and punctuating Budapest's distinction as the fastest growing city in Europe. In turn, the phenomena 7  When researching 1896 tourist guidebooks on Budapest, I continued to find the same map shown in fig. 1.2 reprinted largely unchanged both in Hungarian and English editions, suggesting to me a kind of continuity and control over how the Fair was officially pictured and charted out for visitors. 5  Budapest's Millennial Exhibition is referred to throughout this thesis interchangeably as a World's Fair, and/or International Exposition/Exhibition. This reflects the way the exhibition was described in the international press (as all of these), and understood by the public of the time as something more than a localized National Exhibition. Indeed, I have found conflicting accounts of whether the official sanctioning body of World's Fairs, the Bureau International des Expositions (or BIE), has recognized the Budapest Exhibition of 1896 as a registered "Universal Exhibition." Much of this confusion, in turn, relates to Hungary's status as a dual partner in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, a point that will be explored extensively in this study. 6  This is a fact that is largely undisputed in the contemporary literature on European urban history, although Berlin follows closely on Budapest's heels. For statistics on Budapest's growth, see Thomas  7  3 of emphasizing off-site venues of the Fair was perhaps best recorded in a whole host of international guides and books about Budapest that sprung up in the mid-1890's. For example, the guide titled Budapest's Amusements (A Mulato Budapest), published in English, French and Hungarian, described the various attractions and nightlife o f the city, emphasizing all o f the bohemian adventures available to its readers (figs.1.51.6). This included exhaustive lists o f cafes, concert halls, cabaret restaurants where 9  gypsy bands played, private exhibitions o f panoramas, paintings, and cinema, along with detailed descriptions of local haunts, such as the sumptuous Turkish baths and mineral spas dotting the city, all of which made Budapest a desirable tourist destination by the turn o f the century.  10  One locus o f such urban attractions was undoubtedly found in the grand reconstruction o f a virtual Constantinople (Konstantinapoly Budapesten) on a large island on the lower right bank'of the Danube (figs.1.7-1.8). Advertised as a place o f unparalleled amusement where visitors could experience a semblance o f the Turkish and significantly  Islamic capital, "with all o f its peculiar characteristics and  romance," the venue blurred aspects o f Hungary's imagined and real connections to its eastern nomadic ancestry and life under Turkish occupation (from 1541-1699).  11  Still, what was successfully promoted at this site was the ability o f tourists to "visit" Constantinople while still safely within Hungary—this, a nod to the  nation's  attempted distinction from more negative associations with its eastern past. With an  Hall, Planning Europe's Capital Cities: Aspects of Nineteenth-century Urban Development (London: E & F N S p o n , 1997), 264. 8  See for example the following guides published in English: Joseph Kahn, F.A. Klein, Practical  English Guide to the City of Budapest (Budapest: Joseph Kahn, 1896); Hungary, Budapest with Fourteen Maps and Plans: Singer and Wolfner's Handbooks for Travellers, (Budapest: Singer and Wolfher, 1896); Morice Gelleri, The Millennial Realm of Hungary; Its Past and Present (Budapest: Kosmos, 1896). 9  Henrik Lenkei, A Mulato Budapest (Budapest's Amusements) (Budapest: Singer-Wolfner, 1896).  1 charted a perceptible increase in books and feature articles published in foreign languages about Hungary and Budapest after the 1896 Fair. See especially the widely circulated F. Berkeley Smith, Budapest: The City of the Magyars (New York: James Pott and Company, 1903). 10  The reconstruction of a Constantinople inspired theme park and place of amusement was the brain child of Karoly Somossy, a circus promoter and eventual owner of a well known Budapest cabaret in the 1890's called the Somossy Club (Somossy Mulato). Somossy leased the large tract of land on the edge of the city's lower west bank to put up the temporary venue. What little is known about the place can be made out in local press accounts and through detailed advertisements taken out by Somossy to bring attention the daily events at the venue. See "Konstantinapoly Budapesten (Constantinople in 11  Budapest)," Vasarnapi Ujsdg (Sunday Illustrated News) 36, no. 43 (1896).  4 emphasis on night-time theatricality, costume, and illusionism, together with the display o f new visual technologies and spectacles, the site operated in stark contrast to the more traditional pavilions and tidy daytime promenades o f the Millennial Exhibition. Moreover, the evocative setting o f a place at once associated with the former Byzantine, East Roman, and present day Ottoman Empires, managed to successfully promote a sense o f the risque and unexpected; feelings that were necessary to impart the belief that visitors had seen and experienced something they would otherwise not have at the official fairgrounds at the other end o f the city. The final encounter of visitors to Budapest in 1896 could therefore  be  described, both spatially and metaphorically, as oscillating between varieties o f perception, viewpoints that could be understood to be more "Western" or "Eastern" in flavour. To be sure, wherever the emphasis on Hungary's oriental connections emerged, they most often translated with popular fin de siecle audiences into associations with a form o f unexpected, clandestine and hybrid exoticism. These ideas, relating to how visitors experienced Budapest, were already promulgated for example with the new high speed Orient Express traveling between Paris and the real Constantinople, located at the farthest outpost of Europe's eastern border. In business since 1883, the long-distance passenger train operating out o f France became the fashionable way to travel in the period, adding Budapest onto its route i n 1889 as a featured stop between the two distant locales—a literal manifestation of being situated between east and west (fig.1.9). Budapest entrepreneurs, understanding the 12  financial gain to be made from the potential tourists to their city, were savvy enough to recognize and highlight what would be understood by discerning fin de siecle tourists as the more fashionable bohemian and exotic flavours o f Budapest. A l l o f these mounting discourses, in turn, shaped people's pre-existing and often jumbled together fantasies and projections about the "exotic east" as it pertained to the new metropolis, whether it related to Bohemia and bohemian culture, nomadic peoples (such as the wandering Gypsies made famous by their musical concerts around Europe and America), the sexual availability o f local women, or the frightening amalgam many associated with what was constructed as the largely indistinguishable  For studies on the history of the Orient Express, see Garry Hogg, Orient Express: The Birth, Life and Death of a Great Train (London,: Hutchinson, 1968); and on the changing perceptions of space and time brought about by the new high-speed trains, see Wolfgang Schivelbusch, "Railroad Space and Railroad Time," New German Critique, no. 14 (1978). 12  5 cultures  o f Eastern nations.  1 3  Consequently, not  unlike in Paris, where  the  exploitation o f the city's bohemian element for profit had driven a new category o f bourgeois tourist to the cabarets o f Montmartre, there was a way in which the forbidden and exotic had become simultaneously normalized, popularized, and profitable in Budapest by the end o f the nineteenth century.  14  A t its broadest level, my argument in this thesis concerns the discourses o f "otherness" attached to the Budapest Millennial Exhibition by the time o f its opening in 1896, which encouraged visitors and tourists to seek out and experience the "real" Hungary through a close association with the newest and most technologically advanced facets and attractions o f the city—a nexus that existed on the edges o f the most deregulated and unofficial realms o f W o r l d ' s Expositions by the fin de siecle period. A s my dissertation chapters with their inter-related focus on architecture and urban planning, panorama spectacles, photography and early cinema suggest, the accompanying and new regimes of seeing promoted through the modernizing city naturally pushed the locus o f attention away from more traditional associations and perceptions o f nation into entirely new directions. But what is particularly intriguing in the case o f Budapest, and makes this study o f wider interest to scholars o f modernity in its many guises, is how ideas associated with an eastern exoticism were promoted from within Hungarian history and celebrated at the Fair through a connection to a class o f mythic ancestor heroes that ennobled seemingly modern ideas in the  form  o f nomadic traditions. These traditions, instead o f emphasizing  associations with a continuing pattern o f cultural beliefs and practices emanating from a historical past to influence the present, ceremonialized an ethnic heritage o f Magyar origins founded on present-day concepts and values that were cast back and closely associated with the founding myth o f the Hungarian nation. This coincided, not insignificantly, with the very same core values and concepts associated with the burgeoning metropolis o f Budapest: increased mobility, accelerated transport o f For examples of these stereotypes, see Victor Tissot, Unknown Hungary (London: Richard Bentley and Son, 1881); Elizabeth Robins Pennell, "To Gipsyland," The Century 45, no. 2 (1892) and "The Mystery of the Magyars," New York Times, March 22 1896. 13  14  For a discussion of developments in late nineteenth century Paris, see Vanessa R. Schwartz,  Spectacular Realities: Early Mass Culture in Fin-de-siecle Paris (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998); also Mary Gluck, Popular Bohemia: Modernism and Urban Culture in NineteenthCentury Paris (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2005).  peoples, technological prowess, new networks o f power, and the supporting strength o f a liberal government founded upon ideals o f democracy and freedom.  15  Therefore, what I describe i n this thesis, not unlike my opening allusion to the popularity o f the Orient Express Railway,  is that the promotion o f Budapest's  transportation and communication innovations was firmly rooted i n a forward-looking technological modernity, one which not only moved publics across boundaries, but which also engaged them with notions o f fantastical illusionism and the techniques and instruments associating boundlessness with entirely new dimensions o f power. Consequently, what I also suggest is that the focus on the emerging spaces o f leisure, spectacle, and mobility o f an urbanizing Budapest gave primacy to a far less public and more overtly private engagement with the new regimes o f visuality proffered through a wide range o f technologies celebrated at Budapest's Millennial Exhibition. I explore i n my thesis to what ends this visuality—which I argue imparted a sense that the city must be experienced through a kind o f flaneury  o f the second imperial  capital—privileged the more ephemeral, subterranean, eclectic, and modern urban fabric o f the city as it gave shape and dimension to an emerging Hungarian consciousness.  16  In this sense, the kind of orientalism taken up in Hungary was very distinct from those notions taken up in nations such as France, Germany or Britain. With no colonial holdings or distant colonial subjects to control and manage, Austria-Hungary possessed a far different set of stakes related to the political and social implications of the constructed "Other" in the national imaginary. As architectural historian Akos Moravanszky argues in Competing Visions: Aesthetic Invention and Social Imagination in Central European Architecture, 1867-1918 (Cambridge, Mass.: M I T Press, 1998), using the example of the orient taken up in Austrian intellectual and cultural circles by the nineteenth century, orientalism was "invented" "not as a way to establish a relation of hegemony but to dissolve the limits of particularity, to find the universal principles of harmony by observing other cultures" (4-6). This was especially important for Austrians as a means through which to manage a multiethnic Empire. But for Hungarians, notions of the orient held out more radical potential. More than just facilitating the appreciation of other cultures, the idea of true cultural difference took political shape and was used strategically in Hungary. This was not only for Hungarians to directly trace their Magyar nomadic heritage to Eastern roots, but also to bind their past to liberal principles with which many politicians approached the folding in of "the people" to the nation. It was a powerful set of ideas that also strongly undermined important tenets of Habsburg imperial power. One aspect of this perceived difference was extended to the modern urban subject and their sense of home, a topic I explore in Chapter One. 15  The figure of the flaneur (or the idle-man-about-town) was famously described by the French poet Charles Baudelaire in many of his writings and has been a topic of interest for the philosopher Walter Benjamin in his meditations on Parisian culture. The term comes from the French verb fldner, which means "to stroll," and thus characterizes a person who walks the city in order to experience it. For critical discussions on the role of the flaneur in the context of urban modernity, see: Susan Buck-Morss, "The Flaneur, the Sandwichman and the Whore: The Politics of Loitering," New German Critique, no. 39, Second Special Issue on Walter Benjamin (1986); Keith Tester, The Flaneur (London: Routledge, 1994); David Scobey, "Commercial Culture, Urban Modernism, and the Intellectual Flaneur," American Quarterly 47, no. 2 (1995). 16  7 The phenomena o f coexisting and often competing official and unofficial exhibition venues dovetailed with how World's Fairs had become promoted by the end o f the nineteenth century.  17  A n d this observation underpins other important  aspects o f my thesis. Whereas the first generation o f W o r l d ' s Fairs beginning in the mid-nineteenth century championed a public education angle for their attractions and sites o f interest, the fin de siecle exhibitions came to increasingly focus on spectacle and fantasy as a way to continue attracting audiences to the stock World Exhibition format.  A t the same time, the commercialization and financing o f Fairs, away from  strictly national interests and into the hands o f private investors, meant that many o f the more novel attractions o f the later exhibitions occurred outside the traditional venue o f the exhibition fairground. For Budapest, following closely on the heels o f Chicago's successful World's Columbian Exposition o f 1893, I contend that there was a prevailing sense of wanting to outdo what had been shown in earlier expositions. Indeed, in Chicago in 1893, the display o f new technologies and spectacles had helped catapult the mid-Western city to international stature and attention as a modern metropolis—a fact that did not go unnoticed by Budapest Fair organizers. A s political historian Freifeld notes, a "[Hungarian] delegation scouted 19  the Chicago World's Fair for ideas, returning with a bag full o f tricks for sedate entertainment, improved security, and profit."  A s I w i l l argue in the course o f this  study, however, the less sedate entertainments would emerge precisely outside the  17  For broader studies on World's Fair and Universal Exposition history, see: Paul Greenhalgh,  Ephemeral Vistas: The Expositions Universelles, Great Exhibitions and World's Fairs, 1851-1939 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1988); John E. Findling and Kimberly D. Pelle, Historical  Dictionary of World's Fairs and Expositions, 1851-1988 (New York: Greenwood Press, 1990); Robert W. Rydell, World of Fairs: The Century-of-Progress Expositions (Chicago, 111.: University of Chicago Press, 1993); Robert W. Rydell, Nancy E. Gwinn, and James Burkhart Gilbert, Fair Representations: World's Fairs and the Modern World (Amsterdam: V U University Press, 1994); Penelope Harvey,  Hybrids of Modernity: Anthropology, the Nation State and the Universal Exhibition (London: Routledge, 1996); Erik Mattie, World's Fairs (New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1998); Robert  W. Rydell, John E. Findling, and Kimberly D. Pelle, Fair America: World's Fairs in the United States (Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 2000). 18  1 first encountered this idea in Alice Freifeld's short account of the Millennial Exhibition in  Nationalism and the Crowd in Liberal Hungary: 1848-1914. (Washington, D . C : Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 2000), 268-278. Freifeld discusses, among other valuable details, the Budapest publics' interest in the attractions of the Chicago World's Fair of 1893. Ibid., 270.This awareness of the 1893 Exhibiton in Chicago is not surprising since details about the Fair (from Hungarian visitors and correspondents) spread through local newspaper accounts of the event through the 1890's. 19  Freifeld, 270.  8 control o f Budapest Fair planners and arise as private ventures off-site o f the official exhibition grounds. What I develop in my thesis then is that there existed a desire within elements o f the Budapest public to extend the perceived boundaries o f the Hungarian nation through the mechanisms o f publicity and attention generated by the city as it prepared for its worldwide debut. In turn, these elements, together with Budapest  Fair organizers, recognized both the  desire and need to meet the  expectations o f the Budapest public and Fair visitors, many o f whom anticipated the entertainments  and off-site attractions o f the Fair as much, i f not more, as the  traditional displays. In raising the imagined geography o f fin de siecle Budapest at the outset o f my thesis, I also want to situate and draw attention to how the "Orient" functioned in fin de siecle European culture as a kind o f mirror to itself, providing a way o f expressing its hidden or illicit aspects. A s M a r y G l u c k has persuasively argued in her recent study, Popular Century  France,  Bohemia:  Modernism  and  Urban  Culture  in  Nineteenth  the stereotypes associated with " B o h e m i a " and the "Bohemian  lifestyle" were created out of conflicting elements that were "profoundly in tune with [a] middle class public who longed for realism and lighthearted wit after the failed idealism o f revolution and social upheaval."  21  Consequently, Gluck explores how a  specifically modern aesthetic culture in nineteenth century Paris came about, not in opposition to commercial popular culture, but in close alliance to it. I contend that something o f the same was at play in Budapest by 1896. But in the case o f AustroHungarian Empire, a place that was arguably on the very periphery or liminal border between European and North Americans' mental map o f the East and West, the stark contrasts and spatial dichotomies between perceptual worlds held out a particularly loaded set o f stakes.  T h e M o d e r n C i t y as C a t a l y s t f o r N a t i o n a l R e c o n f i g u r a t i o n a n d R e s i s t a n c e  To be sure, this "newness", this promoted "modernity" in such an unlikely city was located at the heart o f an even more unlikely place. The Austro-Hungarian Empire under the Habsburg monarch Franz Joseph I was by the close o f the nineteenth century a weakening and fractured body that was a fusion o f no less than a dozen different ethnic groups speaking as many different languages, brought together 2 1  Gluck, 16.  reluctantly and by force to create what was the anomaly and negation o f national development in Europe.  22  Adding to the Empire's problems and attempts to keep  nationalism i n check was the lack o f traditional colonial relationships and distant exotic others outside its European boundaries, a situation that tended to forge far less of a homogeneous national identity than in Western nations such as France, Britain and Germany. A s a result, a perplexing quasi-colonial situation emerged in AustriaHungary that manifested in forms of discrimination within the Empire whereby a hierarchy o f ethnic groupings cast orientalist stereotypes o f alterity and backwardness onto particular minorities who were most often geographically furthest South and East in the E m p i r e . This not only strangely replicated the geography o f a wider 23  global colonialism, it also created a climate whereby national mobilization o f previously subordinate peoples paralleled the mobilization o f workers, artisans and peasants  in other  "modernizing" European  societies.  Hungary,  as  Austria's  disgruntled yet functionally sovereign partner in the dual monarchy, took  full  advantage o f the situation and forged its national identity through a carefully orchestrated role o f mediator or "modern alternative" predicated on its historical origins as neither Slavic nor Germanic.  24  O n the one hand, what I argue was made most visible by the time o f the 1896 Fair was Budapest's 2 2  contestation over its spatial make-up, a factor that was  For a discussion, see Nancy M . Wingfield, Creating the Other: Ethnic Conflict and Nationalism in  Habsburg Central Europe (New York: Berghahn Books, 2003). 1 want to acknowledge Dr. Merje Kuus, Professor of Geography at the University of British Columbia for discussions I had with her on Central and Eastern European political geography in 2005 to help me arrive at this understanding of the political makeup of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The broader contours of these ideas are explored in: Merje Kuus, "Europe's Eastern Expansion and the Reinscription of Otherness in East-Central Europe," Progress in Human Geography 28, no. 4 (2004). 23  The Hungarian (Magyar) language is one of only a small number of European languages part of the Finno-Ugric family (along with Finnish and Estonian), which is not related in any way to other languages spoken in Europe as part of the Indo-European language family (such as French, German, English, and all the Slavic languages spoken in Central and Eastern Europe). As such, it has remained one of the most valued and protected aspects of the Hungarian identity. At the same time, historians have traditionally disputed the material origins of the Magyar people and to what degree the linguistic and ethnographic arguments about the Magyar peoples (many of which emerged in the nineteenth century) can be relied upon to make a conclusive argument. One uniting factor among historians, however, is that the ancient Magyars came to Europe in one large migratory tide from territories of the Far East at around end of the tenth century, hence the Millennial Exhibition of 1896 celebrating one thousand years of Hungarian history. To this day, the prehistory of Hungary remains a contentious topic in the public sphere and has become even more highly politicized in the post-communist era with the rising tide of ethnic nationalism throughout Central and Eastern Europe. For